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Full text of "The Eagle and Brooklyn: the record of the progress of the Brooklyn daily eagle"



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PROOF EDITION 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN: 



THE RECORD OF THE PROGRESS OF THE 
BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE 

ISSUED IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS SEMI-CENTENNIAL AND OCCUPANCY OF ITS 
NEW BUILDING; TOGETHER WITH THE 



History of the City of Brooklyn 



FROM ITS SETTLEMENT TO THE PRESENT TIME 



EDITED BY 



HENRY W. B. HOWARD 

ASSISTED BY ARTHUR N. JERVIS 



volunie: two. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE 
1893 



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The Eagle Printing House 



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BY 
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£/s<pa' a/j-o as the Headqiiarlers of the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities. 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 







LL large cities have many social problems to solve, but none requires more 
careful thought and attention than that relating to the care of the poor and 
needy. The city, with public funds, maintains hospitals and asylums, homes 
for paupers, prisons for criminals, and reformatories for wayward youths; but 
there is a very large class of people to be cared for who are not outcasts, 
criminals or paupers, and, even if they had a claim on public charity, are deserv- 
ing of better homes and better treatment than the city or county institutions 
would afford them. No panacea for poverty has ever been discovered, and so 
it has devolved upon one class of people to help provide for the necessities of 
another class — the unfortunates. There is no escaping this duty. The only 
question is how best to perform it. Promiscuous and indiscriminate alms-giving is often productive of more 
harm than good. Not only does it encourage pauperism, but, by helping the undeserving, it tends to lessen 
the sympathies of those who are moved to charitable giving. The idea is now growing into prevalence that 
only by means of responsible organizations, thoroughly equipped and intelligently managed, can this work 
be properly done; and no city in America is to-day doing this kind of charitable work better than Brooklyn. 
Her charitable institutions are numerous and cover almost every case that should be reached. Like New 
York city, Brooklyn has an unusually heavy burden to bear because of the large influ.x of immigrants from 
other countries. When the unfortunate foreigner becomes stranded within the city precincts he must be 
cared for in some way, even if he is not a citizen and has no just claim on any of the city's eleemosynary 
institutions. It is no easy matter to classify or reduce to numbers the organized charities of the city. 
Every church, Catholic and Protestant, and every synagogue is, in a degree, a charitable organization. The 
innumerable circles of King's Daughters, the " relief committees," "helping hand " societies and kindred 
organizations, are all more or less engaged in the work of relieving human suffering. There are also many 
hundred secret and benefit societies, like the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Royal Arcanum, the Legion of 



6^8 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Honor and other such fraternities, reaching into nearly every family in the city, each one of which is, to an 
extent a charitable organization. The Grand Army posts, too, are particularly noted for their chanties. All 
these philanthropic agencies are more or less restricted to the relief of their own members, thus assuming 
burdens that otherwise would fall elsewhere. Apart from all such specialized kinds of charity, there are 
several organizations for relieving and aiding the needy irrespective of class, age or sex. Two of these are 
of a character which render them equal or superior to any similar organization in the country, and their work 
is conducted on a scale which extends their work throughout the entire city and gains for them liberal 
support For the purpose of concise and comprehensive mention of Brooklyn's charitable organizations 
and their respective aims, they are here classified under five general heads. First, societies whose object is 
the general relief of the poor; second, such as give special attention to the care of children; third, those 
that give aid to needy women; fourth, institutions devoted to the care of the aged and indigent; and fifth, 
societies engaged in miscellaneous charitable work. 

FOR THE GENERAL RELIEF OF THE POOR. 

First under this head, by reason of the comprehensive character of its work, is the Brooklyn Bureau 
OF Charities. It was founded in 1879 and incorporated in 1887. The first president was the Hon. Seth 
Low, and associated with him was A. T. White, as secretary. The work of the society at the outset was 
confined, principally, to keeping a register of the names, addresses and description of those who were receiv- 
ing relief from the public treasury, as well as from private sources and churches. Personal visits were made 
to those who claimed they were in need of assistance. It was found that one of the chief causes of distress 
among the lower classes was lack of employment. To offset, in some measure, this difficulty, the society 
started a woodyard in 1884, where such men as applied were set to work, being paid enough to keep them 
from starving or having to wander about the streets. The scope of the work has grown larger and larger, 
and within the twelve months ending in May, 1892, $2,858.58 was paid out in wages. For convenience the 
city has been divided by the bureau into three sections. The central offices are at 69 Schermerhorn street, 
where workrooms and a laundry (for the employment of women), a day nursery, etc., are in successful opera- 
tion. The offices for the eastern section of the city are located in the new Industrial Building, at 1658-60 
Fulton street. In the rear of this building, extending to Herkimer street, is a woodyard for the temporary 
employment of men in need of work. The district office for all that portion of the city north of Flushing 
avenue is at No. 50 South Eighth street. In the rear of this, and at 52 and 54 South Eighth street, is another 
woodyard. Anyone, whether a subscriber to the bureau or not, is invited to send applicants for relief to 
some one of the offices mentioned. They are kept open until 10 P. M., and no distinction is made on 
account of race, religion, sex or age. 

Union for Christian Work. — Several meetings of persons favoring the formation of a liberal Chris- 
tian Union in Brooklyn resulted on Tuesday evening, November 20, 1866, in an organization of which 
Isaac H. Frothingham was elected president, and this organization exists as the Union for Christian Work. 
The presidents, in the order of their service, have been Isaac H. Frothingham, Robert Foster, Chas. P. 
Gerrish, Sylvester Swain, Ripley Ropes, Josiah B. Blossom, who served two years, and Robert Foster, who 
was elected in 1S72 and has served continuously until the present time. The place first selected for 
meetings of the society and for the reading room, which was at once opened, was a large room in the 
Hamilton building on Court street. In June, 1871, the society was incorporated under the title of the 
L'nion for Christian Work. For many years, notably during the presidency of Ripley Ropes, in 1870, news- 
boys, homeless youth and others from humble homes were gathered every evening in the rooms of the 
Union, where, for one hour, they received instruction in some of the more important branches of a common 
school education. These classes were not disbanded until the Board of Education had made generous pro- 
vision for evening schools. The Union maintained for a dozen years or more a large sewing school, which 
was eventually discontinued, because the board of managers, in view of the fact that similar schools were 
numerous in every quarter of the city, did not feel warranted in devoting to the school in the new building 
room which was needed for the extension of the rapidly growing library. For five years previous to 1880 
Mr. Geo. T. Clark filled with fidelity and success the office of superintendent of the Union. During this 
period he rendered creditable service in furnishing employment and in devising various methods to lift 
those in straitened circumstances out of their want and wretchedness. His shoe shop connected with 
the Union was recognized by hundreds as a very helpful agency. In 1877 the proprietors of two wood 
yards in the city were persuaded, at great inconvenience to themselves, to discontinue the use of steam 
power and have the work of preparing kindling wood done by hand. The object of this was to make the 
sawing and splitting of wood a " labor test" for able-bodied persons who applied at the Union rooms, or to 
friends of the Union, for money or work. Messrs. Seth Low and A. T. White, each afterwards president of 
the Bureau of Charities, devised this scheme of benevolence and met the attendant expense. In the year 
iSSo Wm. A. Butler was appointed superintendent of the Union, and the most important function of his 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 649 

office has been the providing of employment for all worthy seekers. Employers in Brooklyn and New York 
soon learned to trust the recommendations of Superintendent Butler, and within the past ten years he has 
been able to respond favorably to nearly twenty-two thousand applications for employment, placing very 
many of those thus aided in permanent situations. The Union has since 1866 continually maintained at 
least one reading room, and for several years it has kept two rooms open to all residents of Brooklyn. In 
December, 1880, the library was opened as a free circulating library. The city government has each year 
for four years appropriated |s,ooo towards the maintenance of the library. This action is in accordance 
with the provisions of the Library Act passed by the state legislature in 1886. The Union building, at 67 
and 69 Schermerhorn street, was erected by the board of managers of the Union. It was paid for as it was 
built and with funds contributed for the purpose by the citizens of Brooklyn. The property of the Union, 
its building with the furnishings, and its large library with its costly appurtenances, is clear of any incum- 
brance whatever. Only one-half of the building is at present occupied by the Union, the other half being 
leased to the Bureau of Charities. The officers of the Union include Robert Foster, president ; William C. 
Gardner, secretary ; Isaac H. Cary, treasurer. 

Little sympathy need be wasted on the individual who is able to work and will not when he has the 
opportunity. But there are very many cases where immediate relief is necessary, either in money or in 
food and fuel, and to such the Brooklyn Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor 
extends the necessary assistance. It was organized in October, 1843, by a number of public spirited citizens 
for the purpose of considering the adoption of measures for the relief of worthy people in temporary dis- 
tress. The first officers were Seth Low, president ; Abraham Halsey, treasurer ; James How, recording 
secretary ; Stephen Crowell, corresponding secretary and general agent. The association was incorporated 
on October 20, 1864 ; the names of the incorporators being R. W. Ropes, Dwight Johnson, Richard P. Buck, 
Samuel Bayliss, Arnold A. Lewis, E. E. Bowen, John Avila, James H. Storrs, D. T. Leverich, A. T. Baldwin, 
Alphonso Wood, A. D. Wheelock and A. D. Matthews. The principles and objects of the association were 
generally defined to be "to elevate the moral and physical condition of the worthy poor, and, as far as 
possible, relieve their necessities." The aim of the association was not to supersede existing charities but 
to supplement them, and to help those who were willing to help themselves. On June 2, 1873, the premises 
on Livingston street, then numbered 108, were purchased. The building was a two-story frame house, and 
there the association had its quarters until May, 1881, when an adjoining lot was bought, the frame house 
removed and a four-story brick building erected, at a cost of about $25,000. In May, 1891, the association 
purchased for $6,000 a plot of land on the west side of Throop avenue, between Gates avenue and Quincy 
street, and erected a large three-story brick building, which is known as the branch headquarters of the 
association. The headquarters of the association on Livingston street consist of a building containing 
three stories besides basement and attic. On the first floor is the reception room for applicants, the general 
waiting room, the general agent's receiving office, and the depot for supplies ; the second floor contains the 
general offices and a large meeting room, and on the third is the clothing department, in which is a com- 
modious waiting room for women and a " cutting out " room. An important part of the work performed by 
the association is under the direction of the ladies' clothing committee. This committee was organized in 
December, 1882, by eight ladies. Goods, consisting of calico, muslin, flannel, batting, etc., were purchased, 
at wholesale prices, cut into patterns and given to women who had applied for work. The women receive 
tickets or vouchers for work performed, and on presenting them to the general agent receive orders for 
provisions or clothing. This system results in making the better class of women feel that they have earned 
the help they receive, and the result is advantageous to the association as well as to the workers. Some 
idea of the work of the association can be derived from the fact that 9,974 families and 44,933 individuals 
were helped in 1890. Grocery orders to the number of 4,393 were given out, also 640 tons of coal, 1,567 
pairs of shoes and rubbers, and 150 garments, besides a great many other articles. The membership 
exceeded 4,000 in 1892. 

St. Phebe's Mission, which is one of the local institutions of the Protestan; Episcopal Church, held 
its first formal meeting February 8, 1882. The first board of managers consisted of Miss Harriette Low, 
president ; Mrs. Augustus Evans, secretary ; Miss Cornelia King, treasurer. Although the mission has had 
a formal existence of only a decade, its real birth occurred nearly a score of years before. In 1S60 Mrs. 
Fellows, wife of a disabled clergyman, began regular visits to the city jail, to hospitals and other institu- 
tions receiving compensation from friends. In January, 1869, Bishop A. N. Littlejohn appointed Mrs. Fel- 
lows a city missionary at a yearly salary of $500. Soon after this Mrs. Fellows was forced to abandon her 
labors on account of age, and she was relieved by Sister Eliza, of the Order of St. John the Evangelist. 
Sister Eliza visited the unfortunate inmates of the county buildings at Flatbush, the penitentiary, city jail 
and in hospitals. The women of the diocese began to take an active interest in the work, and it was 
decided that a mission house was needed — a place to which supplies could be sent for the sick and the 



65° 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




St. Phebe's Mission. 



poor, where a resort for the sick poor could be established, and where discharged inmates of the different 
institutions could remain until suitable occupations could be found for them. On February 8, 1882, the 
house at 10 Lafayette avenue was occupied and consecrated. In 1884, Miss Low, the president of the 

charity, was removed by death. In 
May, 1886, St. Phebe's Mission began 
the occupancy of its memorial building 
at 125 De Kalb avenue. The building 
was presented by Mr. and Mrs. A. A. 
Low as a memorial of their daughter, 
Harriette. The entire expense, not of 
construction alone but of furnishings 
and equipments as well, was borne by 
the donors. The field covered by the 
mission has naturally outgrown its orig- 
inal size. One of the branches is the 
Fresh Air Work. In the summer of 
1891 four hundred and sixty-seven per- 
sons were sent to the country and many 
free excursions to the various beaches 
and up the Hudson river were given. 
Dinners were given at the Mission, and 
families were supplied with wholesome 
meals, sent to their homes. In addition 
to food, potted plants are freely dis- 
tributed. Bibles, prayer books, maga- 
zines and newspapers are distributed; lodgings are provided at places other than the Mission House, owing 
to its crowded condition, and prescriptions are freely compounded for the sick, who are visited by the 
nurse. During the year ending April i, 1892, 4,418 prescriptions were furnished, and the expense of thirty- 
five burials was borne by the Mission. During the year 43,278 persons were helped by the Mission, 18,028 
were visited and assisted, and 5,370 meals were furnished. Physicians, to the number of twenty-three, 
gratuitously gave their professional services when called upon to do so. St. Phebe's Mission is doing its 
extensive and noble work without regard to race, creed or color. 

The German Evangelical Home had its inception at a meeting held September 12, 1877, by the 
ladies of a missionary society of the First German Presbyterian Church. The permanent organization was 
completed on December 9, 1S7S, and the following officers were elected : Mrs. Maria A. Miller, president; 
Miss Eliza Loch, vice-president ; Miss Caroline Nienaber, secretary ; Miss Louisa Moerschal, treasurer. 
The purpose of the German Evangelical Aid Society is to provide the necessaries of life and employment 
for such persons as may need this care and who are members of the German Evangelical churches of 
Brooklyn. The society was incorporated on March 28, 1879, by Mrs. Maria A. Miller, Mrs. Catherine 
Elsasser, Mrs. Augusta Duerholz, Mrs. Catherine Miihlbaur and Mrs. Philipine Achtewath. One of the 
chief promoters of the society was Prof. George C. Seibert, D. D., Ph. D., who delivered lectures and worked 
industriously for the advancement of the cause. In January, 188 r, a large tract of land was purchased on 
the corner of Bushwick avenue and Fairfax street, and the present building was begun, the corner-stone 
being laid on October 15, 1882. The building was occupied in the following February. Meanwhile the 
work had been carried on in a small house at No. 79 Himrod street. The doors of the institution were 
opened on April r, 1881. Mrs. Maria A. Miller was appointed matron, a position she now fills. On July 5, 
1885, the corner-stone of a large addition to the original building was laid, and the work was completed the 
following September. About the same time additional land was purchased and within two years the 
necessity for larger quarters resulted in the erection of another wing. In 1877 ten more lots were pur- 
chased on the corner of Bushwick avenue and Moffat street, and in 1891 yet another building was erected 
at a cost of over $17,500, with a stable and a laundry. The financial condition of the Home is excellent, 
its property being valued at $110,000. 

The Brooklyn Benevolent Society was organized in 1845 for the purpose of carrying out the pro- 
visions of a trust left by Cornelius Heeney, who gave for charitable purposes 151 lots of land lying between 
Hicks, Columbia, Congress and Henry streets. By the provisions of the trust the income of this property 
was to be expended for the relief of the poor, an especial sum being set apart for the benefit of orphan 
children. The headquarters of the society are at No. 84 Amity street. The funds are spent principally 
among the Catholic poor, and the bishop of the diocese is president of the society. 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 651 

For the purpose of assisting the needy through a judiciously regulated system of relief there are two 
Hebrew benevolent societies in this city, one having its headquarters at 272 Dean street, and another at 
93 South Ninth street. Food, clothing and fuel are furnished the worthy poor, the society deriving its 
income from the dues of members and the contributions of the charitable. 

. In all parts of the world where the Roman Catholic Church has a foot-hold the Society of St. Vincent 
DE Paul has its conferences and councils, and their members devote themselves to doing good. They visit 
the poor in their homes, carrying means of relief when it is needed and assisting, when they can, in the 
instruction of poor children. All this work is voluntary. The society was organized in Paris, France, 
nearly sixty years ago and is governed by a council-general which is located in that city. The council of 
Brooklyn includes thirty-one conferences. Each conference is connected with one of the churches in the 
diocese and is under the supervision of a clergyman as spiritual director, all the other officers being lay- 
men. The council of Brooklyn is composed of the presidents and vice-presidents of the several conferences 
within the district it governs. The first of these conferences, that of St. James, was organized on January 
10, 185s, by the late Right Rev. John Loughlin, D. D., and the organization of other conferences soon fol- 
lowed. The council was formed on September 9, 1857. The aggregate membership of the conferences in 
the diocese of Brooklyn is six hundred and fifty-seven, and the present officers of the council are Rev. P. J. 
McNamara, spiritual director; T. W. Hynes, president ; Thomas G. Mulligan, vice-president; Christopher 
J. Dellahunt, secretary ; Alfred J. Hook, assistant secretary ; Patrick O'Connor, treasurer. The aggregate 
income of the conferences amounts to more than twenty thousand dollars, derived from poor bo.xes in the 
churches, donations, collections at meetings and similar sources. In the thirty-seven years of their exist- 
ence the Brooklyn conferences have expended about seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars in benefi- 
cence ; and, although it is distinctively a Roman Catholic organization, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul 
allows no considerations of creed, race or sex to limit the scope of its well-doing. Under the auspices of 
the society there is maintained an institution for boys known as St. Vincent's Home for Boys, which is in a 
prosperous condition. Visitations to inmates of the county jail, the penitentiary and the Home for Truants 
are made regularly by members and there is a thorough and extensive system of visitation of the poor, 
attended by the judicious distribution of food, fuel, clothing and money. The last annual report shows 
that during the year 22,425 visits were made to 1,765 families, with the result of affording needed relief to 
an aggregate of 7,860 persons ; the disbursements included $13,461 for groceries and fuel, $1,233 ^^r cloth- 
ing, $788 for funeral expenses and $2,306 in cash to worthy recipients, besides money contributed to St. Vin- 
cent's Home, St. Mary's Hospital and for other charitable purposes. 

The State Charities Aid Association was formed in May, 1872, with headquarters in New York, 
for the two-fold object of promoting an active public interest in the state charities, with a view to the 
physical, mental and moral improvement of their pauper inmates, and of making more efficient the present 
system of caring for paupers and bringing about such reforms as may be in accordance with the most 
enlightened views of Christianity, science and philanthropy. The system includes the central organization 
and a number of local visiting committees, the latter making regular reports to the central association; these 
reports are regarded by the state commissioners as being of sufficient value to be received and acted upon 
as if they were official. The membership is composed very largely of women and nearly all the offices are 
held by them, although there is an advisory board composed of a number of leading clergymen, physicians 
and other citizens. The Brooklyn branch of the association is known as the Local Visiting Committee for 
Kings County Public Institutions. It was organized October 14, 1873, and Mrs. J. S. T. Stranahan has been 
president from the beginning. The work is laid out systematically and every one of the charitable institu- 
tions in Brooklyn is under the supervision of a standing committee which makes regular visits. Every 
member of the organization is required to serve on one of these committees and there is an executive com- 
mittee, composed of the officers of the association and the chairman of the standing committee. 

SOCIETIES FOR THE CARE OF THE YOUNG. 

No beneficent association in Brooklyn serves a grander purpose than does the Children's Aid Society. 
It shelters and cares for friendless and vagrant boys, furnishing them with food, lodging and clothing, and 
providing instruction and occupation ; it aids girls similarly in special institutions provided for the pur- 
pose ; it gives excursions for mothers and children to the seashore during the hot summer months ; it 
has a seaside home for them at Coney Island ; it has established a Newsboys' Home, industrial schools, 
sewing machine schools and day nurseries. The Brooklyn Children's Aid Society had its inception at a 
meeting held in the residence of the Hon. S. B. Chittenden on the evening of January 13, 1866, and its 
first institution, the Newsboys' Home, was opened on September i of that year. The society's field of 
effort rapidly widened, and to-day no charitable institution in the city exercises a more effective influence 
for good. The Hon. S. B. Chittenden was its first president and William Appleton Lawrence the general 



652 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



superintendent. These offices in 189. are filled, respectively, by Charles K. Wallace and L. C. Hill In 
addition to its other work, the society has devoted itself for some time past to procuring homes in the West 
for friendless boys. This work has grown to considerable proportions and is becoming one of the most 
important of the association's special lines of effort. 

It was in 1880 that the attention of Mr. Henry R. Jones, then president of the Children s Aid Society 
of Brooklyn was first called to the fact that there was no individual or department in this great city in 
whom the proper authority was vested to prevent children from being cruelly and inhumanly treated. On 
investigation, Mr. Jones found that the police could not make arrests in such cases. On the evening of 
December 13', 1880, thirteen gentlemen assembled at the residence of the late Horace B. Claflin, on Pierre- 
pont street, Ind o'rganized what is to-day known as the Brooklyn Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children. The men who signed their names to the article of incorporation were ; The Rev. 
Joseph Fransioli, S. V. White, Alfred T. White, Thomas S. Moore, George L. Pease, W. B. Leonard, William 




Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, 

G. Low, Henry R. Jones, N. Dana Wells, Alexander Munn, Richard D. Douglass, H. B. Claflin and Charles 
A. Denny. At this meeting Henry R. Jones was elected president ; Horace B. Claflin and William B. 
Leonard, vice-presidents ; Alexander Munn, secretary ; George L. Pease, treasurer ; Thomas S. Moore and 
N. Dana Wells, counsel ; Jerome Walker, physician ; and Robert J. Wilkin, superintendent. Within two 
weeks the organization of the society was perfected and offices had been opened in the basement of the 
Brooklyn Library building. Business increased so rapidly that one year later the society was obliged to 
move into more commodious quarters. In 1885, Mr. Horace B. Claflin died. One of his last requests to 
his son John was that he should give $25,000 to the society. A portion of the money was used in the pur- 
chase of the premises 141 Montague street, to which house the society moved in 1886. In 1887 the work of 
the society was enlarged so as to include the whole of Long Island, and agencies were established in the 
counties of Queens and Suffolk. Under the provisions of the Police Matron Law of 1891, it became incum- 
bent on the society to care for all girls under the age of sixteen arrested by the police. In order to supply 
these girls with a temporary home, the society purchased the house and grounds at 105 Schermerhorn street 
and fitted it up in comfortable style. The society has thoroughly investigated the subject of illicit infant 
boarding houses and lying-in asylums, and with the cooperation of the board of aldermen and the health 
department an ordinance was passed requiring such places to have a license. The measure was considered 
so meritorious that at the session of the legislature in 1891 it became a state law. Within the last twelve 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 



6s; 



years the society has investigated 11,692 cases of cruelty, prosecuted 3,053 offenders and secured 2,702 con- 
victions. In 1892 there were 1,269 cases investigated, 279 offenders prosecuted, of whom 237 were con- 
victed, and 1,387 children rescued. 

The Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, the first institution of its kind to be established in Brooklyn, was organ- 
ized May 17, 1833, through the efforts of a number of ladies, among whom were Mrs. Phoebe Butler, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Davison, Mrs. Charles Richards and Mrs. P. W. Radcliffe. The old Jackson house on the Heights 
was the first home of the society, and during the first year fourteen boys and twelve girls were cared for. 
Removal was subsequently made to Cumberland street. Jenny Lind sang and Fanny Kemble read, and 
many others labored in various ways in behalf of the building fund of the society. On December i, 1870, 
the corner-stone of the present structure, at Atlantic and Kingston avenues, was laid, and on June 15, 
1872, the asylum building was formally opened. The institution is supported by bequests, specific dona- 
tions, endowments and by general charitable contributions. Mrs. Anna C. Field was president of the 
society in 1892, and the asylum was under the charge of Mrs. S. A. Hill. 

The Brooklyn Industrial School Association and Home for Destitute Children began its work 

in 1854 and was incorporated in 1857. The Home, on 
Sterling place, between Vanderbilt and Flatbush ave- 
nues, was erected in 1861, and several additions to it 
have since been made. The association has established 
six industrial schools, as follows: No. i, on Concord 
street, opposite Prince street; No. 2, at 10 Fourth 
street; No. 3, at the Home; No. 4, at 206 Twelfth 
street ; No. 5, on Throop avenue, near EUery street ; 
No. 6, at loi Steuben street. Children receive an 
elementary course of instruction and moral and relig- 
ious training in these schools. The children in the 
Home are those whose parents cannot provide for 
them. Orphans and half orphans are not received at 
the Home, but are sent to the Orphan Asylum. Nearly 
every Protestant Church in Brooklyn is represented in 
the board of managers, and the work is supported by 
church collections and voluntary contributions. An 
annual fair also adds to the revenues. Mrs. Joseph 
Merwin is president of the association. 

The Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum Society 
was founded in 1829, with Peter Turner as its presi- 
dent. The society was incorporated on May 6, 1834. The first asylum was at 188 Jay street, in charge of 
the Sisters of Charity, but now there are three institutions — St. John's Home, corner of Albany and St. 
Mark's avenues, for the care of destitute or orphan boys ; St. Joseph's Asylum, corner of Sumner and 
Willoughby avenues, and St. Paul's Industrial School, corner of Congress and Clinton streets, for destitute 
female orphans. Cornelius Heeney gave the society ten lots on Congress street, and after his death, which 
occurred in 1848, the society received as a bequest the greater portion of his large estate for the support 
of orphans. The bishop of the diocese is president of the society. Its offices are at 42 Court street. 

St. Vincent's Home was incorporated in July, 1869, for the care and instruction of friendless boys. It 
occupies two buildings, one at 7 Poplar street and the other at 10 Vine street, the space between being 
utilized for a playground. The institution is under the charge of a board of managers composed of Roman 
Catholic clergymen, with the bishop of the diocese at their head. 

The Brooklyn Nursery and Infants' Hospital, occupying a handsome structure on Herkimer street, 
near Kingston avenue, is the outcome of the Flatbush Avenue Industrial School and Nursery, established 
in 1871 through the efforts of Mrs. E. B. Rollins, Mrs. H. F. Aten, Mrs. Charles Rushmore, Mrs. W. G. 
Lawrence, Mrs. A. G. Houghton, Mrs. L. VV. Seaman and others. The nursery was originally located on 
Adelphi street, and then removed to 188 Prospect place. The present quarters were first occupied in 1884. 
The object of the society is to care for the infants of parents who are unable to support them entirely. 
The institution is under the charge of Mrs. L. K. Moore. 

The Brooklyn Training School and Home for Young Girls originated in the fall and winter of 
i888-'89 in the efforts of some charitable ladies to improve the condition of friendless young girls between 
the ages of twelve and twenty-one, by providing them with employment and instruction. The home was 
chartered on April 9, 1889. The first officers and incorporators were Mrs. M. T. Maine, president ; Mrs. 
T. L. Woodruff, first vice-president; Mrs. Jas. S. Suydam, second vice-president; Mrs. Theo. Conrow, 




Industrial School No. 



Fourth Street. 



6S4 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Home for Destitute Childrek, Sterling Place. 

treasurer; Mrs. Edw. B. Jordan, recording secretary; Mrs. C. P. Manney, corresponding secretary; Abbie 
T. Boody, Catherine D. Ryder, Anna E. Rickerson, Mary F. Purdy, Henrietta Pearsall, Anna L. Hayes, 
Nellie R. Parsons, Sarah B. Finch and Belle I. Herrick. At first the home was located at 360 Schermer- 
horn street, but after a fair held in November, 1889, the house at 80 Livingston street was leased. This in 
time proving too small, the house at 336 Fourteenth street was. leased. This also has been taxed to the 
uttermost to accommodate applicants for admission. 

The Eastern District Industrial School had birth in the philanthropy of Mrs. Harriet Brown, 
who, impressed with the degraded and ignorant condition of the poor children of Williamsburgh, collected 
$600 in small subscriptions and called a meeting of friends on February 20, 1855. The organization was 
perfected with Mrs. Brown as chairman, and it was determined to have an industrial school to be located in 
the old North American Hotel, on North Second street, between Fourth and Fifth streets. It was opened 
on March 7, 1855, with eleven scholars rescued from the highways, with Mrs. Fister as teacher. Mrs. Van 
Naughton was chosen the first matron. In i860 the association was incorporated for the purposes of 
instruction in "elementary English, habits of neatness, domestic duties, and to provide food and clothing 
and secure employment for children arriving at a suitable age." Nine trustees were elected in the persons 
of James Hall, Robert Duncan, George Ricard, John Broach, J. M. Halley, Richard B. Hunt, John A. 
Brady, M. D., Joseph H. Van De Water and George W. Edwards. Mrs. Eliphalet Lyon, the first directress, 
had a bill drawn in 1866 which she personally carried to Albany, where she labored until it was passed and 
signed by the governor. It gave the school $10,000, providing that an equal sum should be raised, and 
Mrs. Lyon soon saw that the condition was fulfilled. Mr. George Ricard afterwards presented four city 
lots on North Second street, on which it was decided to build, but instead, in 1869, the Pease estate was 
bought and occupied at a cost of $25,000. A wing costing $32,000 was added to it in 1877, ''"d in 1885 the 
old building was razed and a new structure erected. The institution also owns and occupies as a branch- 
known as the Gillispie Memorial — a lot and house on Humboldt street, which was presented by one of its 
many friends. The first board of officers was Richard B. Hunt, president; George W. Edwards, secretary, 
and John Broach, treasurer. 

The Brooklyn Truant Home, established in 1855 by the common council of the city, for the refor- 
mation of disorderly, idle and truant children between the ages of six and fourteen years. The refuge was 
first known as the Juvenile House of Industry and existed under that name for thirteen years in the old 
Kings County Penitentiary at Flatbush, under the care of Mr. Van Epps, and his brother as superintendent 
and teacher. The first boy was committed on November 30, 1857, by Alderman Clark. In 1869 the com- 
mon council purchased from John I. Snedicor his hotel at Cypress Hills and about ten acres of land and 
erected a brick building, 80x40 feet and three stories high, suitable for the accommodation of 150 children. 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 



"55 



Martin Kalbfleisch was then mayor and Alderman John McGroarty chairman of the committee on Ijuilding. 
Charles Uemarest was superintendent. In 1890 a brick buildinu; was erected adjoining the school 
structure, for the use of employees, water was introduced and many improvements made. Until 1874 both 
boys and girls were admitted, but since that time boys alone have been taken. 

The kindergarten has become a popular method of primary instruction in Brooklyn, but it remained for 
the Brooklyn Kindergarten Associaton to formulate a plan which it is now carrying out — the opening 
of a complete system of these schools throughout the city. Although the association has been in e.\istence 
only since June, 1891, it already has two free kindergartens in operation and the opening of a third in the 
near future is contemplated. About $1,200 a year is the cost of maintenance of each of these schools, and 
the necessary funds are raised by membership fees instead of solicited subscriptions. Any one may become 
a yearly member of the Brooklyn Kindergarten Association on payment of $3 dues and there the obligation 
ends. The society is not an incorporated body. The initial meeting was held in December, 1890, and the 
following April a public meeting was held at the Pratt Institute, at which the formal organization was com- 
pleted by the election of officers. On June 17 the association established the Woman's Club Kindergarten, 
which holds daily sessions in the Bethel Chapel on Hicks street. The second school was opened under the 
charge of Miss Florence M. Perry on April 6, 1892, in the building of Memorial Industrial School No. i. 
Under the same auspices and through the kindness of Mr. F. B. Pratt a training school for kindergarteners 
has been organized at Pratt Institute and many young women are availing themselves of this interesting 
instruction. The officers of the association are : Frank L. Babbott, president; Mrs. F. P. Bellamy, first 
vice-president ; Henry W. Maxwell, second vice-president ; Henry Sanger Snow, treasurer ; Caroline B. 
Le Row, secretary ; Dr. Palmer Townsend, assistant secretary. 

The Sheltering Arms Nursery, at 157 Dean street, was incorporated in 1871. It had been estab- 
lished the preceding year to provide a place where poor mothers obliged to work could leave their children 
during the day; but subsequently a nursery for permanent inmates was provided in a house on Pacific street. 
Finally, after several removals, the present location was secured in 1877. The original building was 
destroyed by fire in 1880, but was immediately rebuilt. The Nursery is a diocesan charity and has a per- 
manent fund for its support. Mrs. S. H. Wood is the president and Mrs. E. A. Bradley the treasurer. 

The kindergarten refuge maintained by the Holy Innocents Union of St. Peter's parish is located in 
a building owned by the church organization at no Congress street. It was established by the late Rev. 
Father Joseph Fransioli in the latter part of 1884, in the building at 102 Warren street, which was owned by 
the church. In February, 1885, a number of the charitable women of the parish formed the Society of the 
Holy Innocents Union with Mrs. J. W. Prendergast as president ; Mrs. J. Slevin, vice-president ; Miss M. 
H. Loughlin, secretary ; Miss J. Carroll, corresponding secretary ; Miss M. Clevin, treasurer ; and Mrs. 
Bessie Dainty, superintendent. Four years later the union was incorporated by Mary H. Prendergast, Mrs. 
J. Slevin, Mrs. A. Gaffney and Mrs. B. Dainty. 

The Convent of the Sisters of Mercy, on Willoughby avenue, between Classon and Graham avenues, 
was incorporated on March 8, 1865. Its object is to provide for and educate orphans and destitute chil- 
dren. The institution is supported by the school and other labor of its inmates, by donations and by aid 
from the city. 

The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Society was incorporated in August, 1878, and a house at the corner of 
Stuyvesant avenue and McDonough street was opened for the reception of orphans on January 7, 1879. 
Two years later grounds on 
McDonough street, adjoining 
the original building, were pur- 
chased, the corner-stone of the 
building having been laid June 
26, 1883. On May 3, 1892, was 
laid the corner-stone of the new 
asylum on Ralph avenue. Pa- 
cific and Dean streets. This 
building cost $235,000 and 
was dedicated on December 
28,1892. It will accommodate 
about 400. Ernst Nathan was 
the first president of the so- 
ciety and he held that office 
during ten years, Ira Leo Bam- 
burger being elected his suc- 
cessor in 1890. 




The Hi;r.KE\v Orphan Asylum. 



656 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

An association was formed in New York, by the advice of General O. O. Howard and C. H. Howard, in 
1866, to aid freed colored women who came north, and provide a home for their children. On September 
7, 1868, the society was incorporated as the Brooklyn Howard Colored Orphan Asylum, it having 
meanwhile established itself in this city. The institution is located on Dean street, near Troy avenue. 
Mrs. L. A. Cooper, who was its first directress, is president, and the Rev. W. L Johnson is general manager. 

ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE AID OF WOMEN. 

On March 5, 1880, a number of ladies, who had devoted much of their time to visiting the penitentiary 
and jail for the purpose of influencing women confined in those institutions to reform their lives, organized 
a society to improve the condition of homeless women, especially such as had been discharged from prison, 
by providing them with employment and instruction in a temporary home, where they might be surrounded 
by elevating and refining influences, and ultimately to procure for them suitable homes. On May 28, 1880, 
the society was incorporated and the Wayside Home was established on Schenck street, near DeKalb 
avenue. The first officers were Mrs. E. F. Pettengill, president ; Mrs. Anna C. Field, vice-president ; Miss 
C. E. Coffin, secretary ; Mrs. C. W. Shepherd, assistant secretary ; and Mrs. Eliza F. Rawson, treasurer. 
These ladies, together with Phebe W. Titus, Sophia S. Boggs, Helen M. Nelson, Mary C. Johnson, J. R. Pitt, 
M. A. Brown, Elizabeth R. Coffin, Lizzie R. Barstow, Amelia S. Hart and Mary S. Willets, were also the 
incorporators. In the early part of 1892 the legislature of the state passed an act making the Wayside 
Home a reformatory to which girls and young women may be committed, and as a result the present build- 
ing, at 352 Bridge street, which accommodates over forty inmates, is continually well filled. A laundry is 
operated in connection with the Home and the income from this pays about three-fourths of the running 
expenses. Mrs. E. F. Pettengill, the first president of the society, still retained that office in 1892. 

The Ho.me for Friendless Women and Children, now located on Concord street, between Wash- 
ington and Fulton streets, had its origin in the charitable efforts of Mrs. Catharine Duryea Elwell to reform 
some poor women who had been confined in Raymond street jail for crimes growing out of intemperate 
habits. This was in 1868, and, aided by three friends, she furnished several rooms on Canton street, for 
which Mr. James Elwell paid the rent for six months. In these rooms the unfortunate women were given 
shelter, and before long several other women and two children also became inmates. In May, 1869, more 
commodious quarters were secured, and during the year 156 women and 60 children were sheltered. On 
April 28, 1870, the society was incorporated. An appropriation of $10,000 was received from the state, 
$19,000 was collected, and the present home was purchased for $30,000 and occupied in May, 187 1. Since 
then thousands of women and children have been given aid and shelter. Mrs. William S. Packer is presi- 
dent of the society and Mrs. S. M. Conklin is matron of the home. 

The House of the Good Shepherd, located at Dean street and Atlantic avenue, is conducted by the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd, who first established it on Henry street, near Atlantic avenue, on May 8, 1868. 
The object of the order is the reformation of erring women and the inculcation of principles of virtue in 
young girls. The inmates include those who voluntarily go there for reformation and others sent by friends 
or the authorities. 

The Factory Girls' Improvement Club, at 872 Bedford avenue, between Myrtle and Park avenues, was 
organized in 1886 by the Woman's Auxiliary of the Brooklyn City Mission Society, and was successfully 
carried on under its supervision until last May, when it was transferred to the care of the King's Daughters. 
The object is to instruct, refine and bring under Christian influences girls of from twelve to twenty 
years of age who work in factories. They are from the overlooked and neglected class in the community, 
whose opportunities for improvement are exceedingly scant. These girls meet in the rooms five evenings 
in the week, and are taught sewing, mending, dressmaking, cooking and singing. One evening in the week 
is devoted to Bible lessons, and one evening to such general information and training as will help them to 
become useful and self-respecting women. In addition a reading-room is open where they can spend an 
evening socially ; there is also a sewing class on Friday afternoon for little girls. Mrs. C. A. Henry is the 
missionary in charge. The support of these rooms is by voluntary contributions, principally from or through 
the King's Daughters, who have also rendered very efficient help as teachers. 

The Home Association for Working Women and Girls, incorporated in 1879, has for its object the 
furnishing of a comfortable boarding-place for working women and girls at a price proportioned to their 
earnings. The present location is at 352 Pacific street. Mrs. W. A. Huster is president of the association. 

The Female Employ.ment Society, which owns and occupies the building at 93 Court street furnishes 
work to poor women, paying them more for it than they would be likely to obtain elsewhere. Free instruc- 
tion is also given in needlework, and employees are aided when sick or in want. The society was 
incorporated m 1854, with Mrs. A. A. Low as president. Mrs. E. M. Chapman now fills that office. 

The Women's Work Exchange and Decorative Art Society of Brooklyn grew out of the benevo- 
lent action of a gentleman connected with Christ Church who, in 1873, organized a little society with the 



CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 657 

object of obtaining work for the members of his Bible class— particularly for a crippled girl who had no 
means of earning a livelihood. His experiment attracted the favorable attention of many of the women in 
the church, who promoted and sustained it, with the result that the South Brooklyn Employment Society 
was formed. For several years the society occupied the building at 122 Atlantic avenue and, under the 
presidency of Mrs. Nehemiah White, it did a very useful work. In 1879 the Women's Work Exchange was 
established for the sale of articles of use or beauty made by women who were obliged to support themselves 
and to whom no other way of earning their bread was open. This movement was soon followed by a union 
between the new society and the South Brooklyn Employment Society. Four years later the older society 
went out of existence, and in 1886 the present society was incorporated. It has been located since May, 
1892, at 130 Montague street, where it receives and places on sale, for the benefit of the producers, such 
articles as decorated china, needlework, embroidery, pickles, preserves, cake and other products of the 
ingenuity or skill of women. 

SOCIETIES WHICH PROVIDE FOR THE AGED AND INFIRM. 

There is no local charity that has progressed more uniformly or more effectively upon the lines origin- 
ally laid down for it than the Brooklyn Home for Vged Men, which had its inception in the efforts of a 
number of representative women during the year 1877. One of these had discovered six old and infirm 
men in a dilapidated building, without food, fire or furniture. She informed several of her friends ; they 
held a meeting, devised ways and means, and the immediate wants of the aged men were soon supplied. 
Then these charitable women began the work of establishing an unsectarian home, where worthy men, 
disabled by age and reduced to want, could pass their declining years in comfort. A permanent organization 
was effected, with Mrs. Mary G. Brinckerhoff as first directress; Mrs. C. D. Jennings, second directress; 
Mrs. Martha E. Wilburn, secretary ; Mrs. Sarah A. Kibbe, corresponding secretary, and Mrs. Mary E. 
Whiton, treasurer. A temporary home was established in a small house on Grand avenue, where a number 
of aged inmates were maintained until March, 1878, when removal was made to 84 State street ; the premises 
being purchased by means of donations. It was but a short time before this — on February 27, 1878 — 
that the society was incorporated. It was not very long before the new quarters were found inadequate to 
the demands made upon them, and the managers determined to in some way build a home that would 
enable them effectively to carry on the work to which they had devoted themselves. As a result of much 
hard work on their part, on May i, 1887, they entered the handsome structure now known as the Brooklyn 
Home for Aged Men, at the corner of Classon avenue and Park place. The corner-stone had been laid on 
September 13, 1886, and Messrs. Alfred S. Barnes, Hayden W. Wheeler and D. H. Cochran were the building 
committee. Since entering the new home the board of directors have paid off the debt on the building and 
added to the grounds, making the lot 135 feet on Park place and 125 feet on Prospect place. The entire 
cost has been about $85,000. There is a four-story stone front house on Park place side, and this is to be 
attached to the main building and utilized for aged couples. 

The Brooklyn Methodist Episcopal Church Home for the Aged and Infirm was incorporated in 
May, 1883, by Mrs. Mary M. Voorhies, Mrs. William I. Preston, Mrs. Joseph Knapp, Mrs. Mary I. Phillips, 
Mrs. George Copeland^ Mrs. John French, Mrs. Joshua A. Gascoigne, Mrs. Oliver L. Gardner, Mrs. Lewis 
S. Pilcher, Mrs. Noah Loder, Mrs. Griffin B. Halsted, Mrs. John Truslow, Mrs. H. C. M. Ingraham and Mrs. 
Albion P. Strout. On June 4, following, permanent organization was effected by the election of the follow- 
ing officers : President, Mrs. M. M. Voorhies ; vice-presidents, Mrs. W. I. Preston, Mrs. M. V. Phillips, Mrs. 
L. D. Tice, Mrs. C. E. Hemmenway ; treasurer, Mrs. C. E. Taft ; recording secretary, Mrs. H. C. M. Ingra- 
ham ; corresponding secretary. Miss Martha Young. The purposes of the association are to provide for 
aged and infirm men and women, members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, a comfortable residence, 
with board, clothing, religious privileges, medical and other necessary attendance ; also in the event of 
death to give them respectable burial. In the autumn of 1883 the premises at 367 McDonough street were 
leased and the work of the society began. In 1886 a plot of ground 255 by 330 feet on New York avenue, 
extending from Park place to Butler street, was purchased and a building costing about $60,000 was erected, 
being first occupied in May, 1889. It accommodates about fifty inmates. 

The Baptist Home is an institution where infirm and needy members of the Baptist churches of 
Brooklyn are provided with a home, support and employment. It was incorporated on April 9, 1869, and 
the present building, at the corner of Greene and Throop avenues, was dedicated on June 22, 1875. Alex- 
ander McDonald and Francis D. Mason together contributed $25,000 toward the building fund, but both 
died before the corner-stone was laid on October 22, 1873. The expenses of the Home are defrayed by 
contributions from churches and individuals, and it has been the recipient of several liberal bequests. 
Charles H. Dutcher is president of the Home, and it is under the charge of Miss J. L. Kirk. 

Of the many charitable institutions encouraged and fostered by the late Bishop Loughlin none has 
served a more beneficent purpose than the Home for the Aged, at the corner of DeKalb and Bushwick 



6^S 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



avenues, wh.ch ,s conducted by the L.ttle Sisters of the Poor. Th.s .nstitut.on which was establish d in 
September. 1868, includes in its sphere of usefulness the Eastern District and all that part of the ^\ est- 
ern District lying north of Atlantic avenue. Destitute men and women, over si.xty years of age and of good 
moral character, are admitted to the Home without regard to their creed or nationality. There they are 
provided with food and clothing and nursed in sickness by the sisters. The institution has no regular fund and 
receives no pension, but depends entirely upon voluntary contributions and the efforts of the sisters who 
go about soHcitincr amono- the charitable, u'ho give them clothing, food and money with which to mamtam 
their ao-ed charges Since its doors were first opened to the poor the Home has sheltered thousands of aged 
persons, and during the year 1892 over 300 inmates were cared for by the Little Sisters of the Poor. 

The Old L.^dies' Home, also called the Graham Institution, and officially known as The Brooklyn 
Society for the Relief of Respectable Aged Indigent Females, was established for the benefit of 

poor gentlewomen unfitted, by previous 
culture and refinement, to willingly accept 
the public asylum provided by the state. 
In January, 185 1, a building site, on Wash- 
ington, near DeKalb avenue, was donated 
by John B. Graham, a charter was ob- 
tained, and through the cooperation of 
twenty-six church congregations the 
enterprise was established on an unsec- 
tarian basis. The society failing to raise 
sufficient money for the erection of the 
Home, Mr. Graham supplied the neces- 
sary funds, and on October 26, 1852, the 
building was dedicated. Mr. Graham had 
intended to give the society two lots adja- 
cent to the Home grounds, but he died 
suddenly while in the very act of execut- 
ing the deed. Bequests, annual subscrip- 
tions and donations have served to put 
CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY. ^^^ Hoiiic upou a souttd basis, aad it is 

to-day one of the most prosperous of our beneficent institutions. Mrs. Theodore Polhemus is now presi- 
dent of the society, and U. Howard is secretary. 

The Greenpoint Home for the Aged, located at the corner of Oak and Guernsey streets, is especially 
designed for the care of the aged of the seventeenth ward. It was incorporated November 20, 1882. Mrs. 
Edwin Finkel has been the president from the beginning, and the institution is conducted under the auspices 
of the Ladies' Benevolent Association, which also concerns itself with various other forms of charity in that 
section of the city. 

MISCELLANEOUS CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS. 

" Memorial Home of Industry " is the legend inscribed above the doorway of the three-story building 
at 70 Willoughby street. It is a place where a kindly word and a helping hand are offered to the wayfaring 
ex-convict. Michael Dunn, himself a convict who had spent many years within prison walls, was its founder. 
In January, 1892,115 doors were first thrown open at 201 Livingston street. Ex-convict Dunn's Christianity 
was of the practical sort. First the bodily comfort of the stranger was looked to, food, lodging and cloth- 
ing were given if needed ; then he endeavored to win the erring one from the evil of his way. It was the 
sixth institution of the kind which this man had founded since his conversion in 1878. Broom making was 
the industry pursued at the Home. Upon the death of Mr. Dunn in February, 1892, the management of 
the Home was undertaken by Darwin J. Meserole. In the following April the Home was removed to the 
building it now occupies. In connection with the city missionary work of the Home is conducted an indus- 
trial farm, near Smithtown, L. I. About two and half miles east of that place are located 100 acres of 
ground owned by Asa W. Parker, which were placed at the disposal of the Home committee, of which he is 
a member. Here in May last a number of the inmates began, under the supervision of B. M. Bailey, a 
practical farmer, the cultivation of broom corn, and an excellent quality has been produced, and enough farm 
produce also raised to supply the farm table and make frequent shipments to the city headquarters. The 
government of the Home is vested in Mr. Meserole, the manager and treasurer, and a committee consisting 
of Alfred H. Porter, chairman ; Asa W. Parker, Charles W. Ide and G. Le Lacheur, M. D. 

The Bureau of Employment and Emergency Fund of the G. A. R. was established in the 
spring of 1884. It is an offshoot of the memorial committee of the Grand Army of the Republic for 
Kings County, from which it derives its authority. The Bureau of Employment was suggested by Joseph L. 




CHARITABLE SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 659 

Follett, then a member of Devin post, but now of Winchester post. The Emergency Fund was first pro- 
posed by General James McLeer. The bureau was incorporated on April 11, 1885, for the purpose of aiding 
distressed soldiers, sailors or marines, who had served in the civil war, or their widows and orphans, and 
to improve the condition of such persons generally by providing employment. The present bureau is com- 
posed of Andrew J. Lyons, chairman ; Geo. H. Jackson, secretary ; Jos. S. Cavendy, treasurer ; Henry 
Eichorne, Harry Draper, Walter Westlake, Charles McFarland, Louis A. Wiebe, John G. Noonan, William 
Kimball, John W. Chapman, Geo. S. Little, medical examiner; C. Hull Grant, M. J. Cummings. The bureau 
is located in the committee rooms in the basement of the city hall. The memorial committee now consists 
of the post commanders of the various posts of Kings County and one delegate for every fifty comrades in 
each post. Mr. M. J. Cummings is the president and Mr. Geo. H. Jackson the secretary and practical direc- 
tor of the bureau of relief. 

On October 27, 1872, a number of charitably inclined men, all of whom were addicted to smoking, met 
together and pledged themselves to put aside a penny for each cigar they should smoke, the amount thus 
accumulated to be used for benevolent purposes. The association adopted the title The Williamsburgh 
Benevolent Society, the object to be the relief and assistance of the worthy poor of the Eastern District. 
The first annual report, issued January i, 1874, showed the income during the year to have been $271.37, 
and donations to poor families $160.50. A. Meiner was the first president and John L. Mandel the first 
secretary. The society's field of effort rapidly widened. Its resources, too, were increased by donations 
and collections, and it gave aid to many deserving families. It was incorporated on December 3, 1881, by 
Henry E. T. Voigt, William Diehl, Adam Dietrich, Frederick Huene, John L. Mandel, William Klein, 
Robert Sneider and C. Volkman Zinssmann. The Turn-Verein has alloted the use of several rooms in its 
building at 61 Meserole street to the society and these are used for meeting purposes and for the receiving 
of applications and the dispensing of aid to the needy. The officers of the society serve gratuitously and 
as a consequence all funds received go to the poor, there being absolutely no expenses to pay. The 
eighteenth annual report of the treasurer shows receipts amounting to $3,540.70 and disbursements of 

$i,oSO-97- 

The Christian Rescue Temperance Union was organized in the spring of 1880 by Mrs. John Duer, of 

South Brooklyn. Originally the society bore the name of the Rescue Juvenile Temperance Union and was 
organized under that name on June 15, 1880, Mrs. Duer acting as superintendent and Mr. C. G. Johnston 
as treasurer. The Union has usually directed its efforts toward rescuing the young, particularly those of 
depraved parents, and in this line of work has had excellent success. A few months after the Union was 
organized. Templar Hall, 476 Fifth avenue, was rented and a Saturday school and Sunday afternoon prayer- 
meetings were instituted and have been continued from that time until now. In July, 1882, a meeting was 
held at the residence of Mrs. Duer for the purpose of forming an adult department of the work and of 
becoming an incorporated society. This was soon accomplished, the society assuming as its corporate title 
the name it now bears. In August, 1882, Templar Hall was opened as a reading-room for the general 
public, as well as for school and religious services. In January, 1886, a chapel, at the corner of Eighth 
street and Fifth avenue, was secured, and there the work has been carried on since. 

One of the most beautiful beneficences in the city of Brooklyn is the Flower and Fruit Charity, the 
aim of which is to distribute flowers, fruits and other delicacies, reading matter, etc., among the sick poor in 
hospitals, asylums and their own homes. It was organized in May, 1874, and the work has been carried on 
ever since by a number of ladies, who are aided by voluntary contributions of money and supplies. They 
meet regularly at 119 Montague street, arrange the donations and attend to their distribution. Miss J. H. 
Duckwitz is president of the society. 

The Hospital Saturday and Sunday Association of the City of Brooklyn is an organization 
designed to interest the public in the cause of hospital charity; it originated with the appointment of a com- 
mittee by the trustees of the Brooklyn Hospital on the suggestion of William G. Low to enlist all the hospitals 
of the city in such an organization. The first meeting was held December 21, 1881. All the hospitals had 
signified their willingness to join in the movement excepting the Roman Catholic hospitals, which declined 
through Bishop Loughlin. A permanent organization was effected May 16, 1882, and the officers elected 
were William G. Low, president ; William H. Fleeman, vice-president ; Rev. Dr. C. Cuthbert Hall, secre- 
tary ; William M. Richards, treasurer. The association is not incorporated. Its objects are to induce 
benevolent gifts for hospital purposes by bringing the claim of these charities simultaneously before the 
public, to stimulate and foster the giving by personal donations and church collections on appointed days in 
behalf of such institutions as the donor or donors may choose to assist, and to provide for obtaining and 
distributing the gifts of those who sympathize with the general object of hospital charity, without having 
interest in any special institution. To this end the last Saturday and Sunday in each year are devoted to a 
simultaneous presentation of the claims of the following hospitals: Brooklyn Hospital, Long Island College 
Hospital, Eastern District Hospital, Homoeopathic Hospital, Brooklyn Maternity, St. John's Hospital 



66o 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Lutheran Hospital Association, Norwegian Relief Society and St. Martha's Sanitarium. The first annual 
collection in 1S82 realized $4,351.22 ; in 1S92 the amount of the collection was $5,947.70. 

The Brooklyn Guild Associ--\ti(1n was organized in 1S8S. The establishment of a kindergarten was 
at first the principal motive, but when the first Guild House, at 245 Concord street, was opened in October, 
1 888, there were also formed a mother's club, a 5'oung woman's club, a young men's club and a children's 
club. There are about two hundred members of the guild, contributing in annual dues as many dollars. 
The branch clubs now fostered by the general body are the kindergarten day school ; the Girls' Concordia 
Club ; the Young Men's Concordia Club and the Hand-in-Hand Club, whose little girl members are taught 
needlework, doll's dressmaking and physical culture. Every October the guild distributes, to those of the 
members and neighbors who desire, growing plants to be cared for and reared in window decoration during 
the winter for a joint exhibition in the spring. 

The Brooklyn agency of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was 
established October 31, 1881, under the superintendence of Mr. J. R- Pye. The present superintendent of 
the Brooklyn branch is F. O. Clark, and the offices are at 415 Fulton street. 

Among other prominent charitable organizations affording either special or general relief to the poor, 
or to persons temporarily in need, are the following : The Norwegian Relief Society, at the corner of 
Fourth avenue and Forty-si.xth street ; the Red Cross Society, at 195 Montague street, teaches how to 
administer first aid to the injured; the Working Women's Vacation Society, at 172 South Ninth street, 
which sends poor and overworked women to the country ; the King's Daughters Day Nursery, at 958 
Atlantic avenue ; the Dominican Home, at the corner of Montrose and Graham avenues, for the care of 
orphan children ; the orphanage department of the Church Charity Foundation, corner of Albany avenue 
and Herkimer street ; St. Ann's Day Nursery, at 124 Lawrence street ; St. Giles' House, 422 Degraw street, 
for crippled children ; St. Malachy's Home, at the corner of Atlantic and Van Siclen avenues, for destitute 
children ; Brooklyn Home for Aged Colored People, Dean street, between Albany and Troy avenues ; Home 
for the Aged, Church Charity Foundation, Albany avenue, near Herkimer street ; St. Peter's Home for the 
Aged, 110 Congress street; the Wartburg Home for the Aged, Fulton street, near Sheffield avenue; the 
Helping Hand Mission for homeless women ; and the Good Samaritan Association, with two buildings, on 
Jay and Nassau streets, respectively. 




.r::' 



Seaside Home of the Children's Aid Society 
-'U Coney Island, 




The Brooklyn Hospital. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 




N account of the establishment and growth of institutions in Brooklyn for the 
care of the siclv or injured carries the reader no further back than to the 
second quarter of the present century ; for it was not until 1839 that a hospital 
was established here ; but the medical history of the territory now occupied by 
the city begins with the advent of the first medical man in Breuckelen. His 
name was Paulus Van Der Beeck and he arrived here in 1644, or not long after 
— this being the most exact information to be gained from the chronicles of 
that period. There was not much sickness among the hardy Dutch settlers of 
those times that could not be cured by means of housewifely medical lore, and 
so, perforce. Dr. Van Der Beeck became a sort of jack of all trades and, later 
in his history, he is spoken of as " Dr. Paulus, surgeon and farmer." He pros- 
pered and grew rich, according to the chronicle, but it was not by physicing folks. Gerardus W'illenise 
Beekman was the ne,\t doctor to settle in the village, and he, it seems, combined two avocations now 
esteemed as highly profitable, as he is described as having been "a physician and politician," and he 
"remained an office holder until the time of his death." Later in the records there is an account of a Dr. 
Nerbury's presenting a bill of ^6 4s. against the authorities "for taking care of a poor man at Mr. 
Stryker's, of Flatbush." Dr. Hendrick Van Beuren is the ne.xt practitioner mentioned in the accounts of 
the village, and besides putting in a number of bills which show him to have had considerable practice, he 
distinguished himself by publishing in the New York Gazette, or Weekly Postboy, in May, 1754, a letter in 
which he denounced " pretenders in the practice of physic and surgery," or what are now more tersely 
denominated "quacks." It is said there were many such practicing about that time. Among Dr. Van 
Beuren's contemporaries were Drs. John Lodewick and Harry Van De AVater. The fighting on Long 



662 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Island during the revolutionary war brouglit many army physicians and surgeons to Brooi^lyn and vicinity, 
and they were indefatigable in relieving as far as possible the sufferings of those confined in the temporary 
military hospitals established in private houses, chui'ches and other buildings. At the close of the war a 
number of these physicians settled here, among them being Dr. Beck, who established himself in Flatbush, 
and Drs. John ]. Barbarin and John Dufheld, in Brooklyn. From this period until the organization of the 
Kings County Medical Society, on April 2, 1822, the names of George A. Clussraan, Samuel Osborne, 
Charles Ball and Matthew Wendell are among those which appear prominently in the local records of the 
medical profession. The first officers of the Kings County Medical Society were : Cornelius Low, president ; 
Matthew Wendell, vice-president ; Adrian Vanderveer, secretary ; and John Carpenter, treasurer. It was 
left for Dr. Isaac J. Rapelyea, president of the society in 1835, to make the first determined effort towards 
the permanent establishment of a hospital in Brooklyn. He urged the matter upon the attention of the 
society in his inaugural address, delivered on July 13 of that year, and a memorial was presented to the 
city council. It was without result and it was not until five years later that a public place was provided 
where immediate aid could be rendered the injured. Then a few public-spirited citizens engaged physicians 
and surgeons to attend patients in a house owned by Cyrus P. Smith, on Adams street, and on August 5, 
1839, the common council appropriated $200 per annum for the support of this embryo hospital. In 1844 
this appropriation was discontinued, but at a public meeting held on February 7 of the following year, a 
committee was appointed to provide for the incorporation of a hospital, and in the following May an act 
creating the Brooklyn City Hospital was passed by the legislature. This institution, which is elsewhere 
more fully referred to, was the nucleus from which, indirectly at least, has proceeded that large nuiTjber of 
hospitals, dispensaries and other similar establishments whose architectural beauty, completeness of 
appointment and effectiveness of service constitute one of the grandest testimonials to Brooklyn's muni- 
cipal progress and of the public-spirited liberality of her citizens. Of no class of citizens has Brooklyn 
greater reason to be proud than of her medical men. The profession in this city has always been repre- 
sentative of sterling integrity, distinguished ability and humane and charitable effort. Its members have 
made enduring record for skillful service rendered in combating disease and death, for philanthropy 
among the poor and for noble intrepidity in the face of pestilence and epidemic. During the four years 
following April, 1861, the members of the Kings County Medical Society rendered gratuitous professional 
services to the families of volunteers who were fighting for the Union, and a number of local practitioners 
vclunteered to go to the front. The first homoeopathic physician to establish himself in Brooklyn was Dr. 
Robert Rosman. This was in 1840, and he, with the other pioneer practitioners in the new school of medi- 
cine, met with much opposition on the part of the allopaths. The law required that every practicing 
physician should be a member of the county medical society, and this gave the doctors of the old school a 
pronounced advantage over the newcomers. Dr. Rosman had been admitted to the Kings County Medi- 
cal Society without opposition, but when Drs. A. C. Hull and P. P. Wells, the ne.xt two homoeopaths who 
sought to practice in this city, applied for membership they were refused, the society making use of its 
privilege to reject such applicants as they might declare unworthy. Dr. Hull took the matter to the courts 
to establish his qualification for membership. Decision was rendered in his favor, but his opponents by 
means of repeated appeals, until the case reached the highest court, kept the matter in litigation sixteen 
years. Dr. Hull triumphed finally, however, but did not accept membership in the society, for on November 
12, 1857, the Homoeopathic Medical Society of Kings County was incorporated, and he became its first presi- 
dent. Thenceforward the new school of medicine prospered in Brooklyn, and its progress was marked by 
the establishment from time to time of the present system of pharmacies, dispensaries and hospitals. The 
eclectic school of medicine was established here in 1847, Dr. D. E. Smith being its first exponent. On 
October i, 1S56, the Eclectic Medical Society of Kings County was organized, and in the same year 
the Brooklyn Academy of Medicine was established, the avowed objects of its members being to investigate 
all medical methods, without prejudice, and to adopt the best means of curing disease. The later history 
of medicine and surgery in this city has been one of continued advancement, and the attainment of dis- 
tinguished reputation and eminence on the part of local practitioners in the various branches of the healing 
art ; and in this connection is given some account, in detail, of the various local medical and surgical insti- 
tutions. 

The first of these to be established, the Brooklvn Hospital, was incorporated on May 8, 1845, as 
the "Brooklyn City Hospital." Later a change was made in the legal title of the institution by the 
omission of the word "city" in order to remove the prevailing impression that it was a municipal institu- 
tion supported from the city treasury. In 1848 the growth of the city and a generous gift of the late 
Augustus Graham opened the way for more extended efforts. The present hospital at DeKalb avenue and 
Raymond street was opened to the public in May, 1852. The Orthopedic Dispensary was opened in 1869 
to meet the pressing needs of the more dependent class of citizens. The Training School for Nurses has 
developed into a strong and successful institution and is now doing most effective work in connection with 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



663 



the hospital. A home for the nurses has recently been provided on the hospital grounds. This school was 
organized as an independent institution. The initial steps of establishment were taken in November, 18S0, 
by a few ladies who, through their active interest in the Fruit and Flower Charity and the distrdnition of 
its gifts in the hospitals and homes of the city, had been led to appreciate the pressing need for better 
nursing of the sick. The first board of officers consisted of Mrs. A. J. Perry, president ; Mrs. C. L. 
Mitchell, vice-president ; Mrs. Seth Low, corresponding secretary ; Miss Dora B. Robinson, recording 
secretary ; William G. Low, treasurer ; Mrs. C. T. Pierce, assistant treasurer. The following year Mrs. 
Seth Low was elected president and held that office until 1891, when the Brooklyn Training School for 
Nurses passed from the control of its board of officers and managers into that of the trustees of the Brook- 
lyn Hospital, becoming an integral part of that institution. An efficient ambulance service was established 
in connection with the hospital in 1889. The officers of the hospital in 1892 were : William G. Low, presi- 
dent ; Henry P. Morgan, vice-president ; Edward Merritt, treasurer ; Edward H. Kidder, secretary ; 
Charles V. Dudley, superintendent. 

What is now known as the Long Island Collkoe Hospital and Training School for Nurses was 
chartered by the legislature in 1858. It was the successor of an organization which, under the title of St. 




Long Island College Hospital. 

John's Hospital, on November 5, 1857, took charge of what had been the German Dispensary and on Decem- 
ber 23 of the same year opened a hospital at 147 Court street. There the quarters were soon found to be 
inadequate, and shortly after the change of name had been made the Perry mansion and grounds, in the 
block bounded by Pacific, Henry and Amity streets, were purchased. There the Long Island College 
Hospital was established, and in i860 the medical college in connection with it was fully organized. From 
time to time alterations and additions to the structure were made, brick and stone .took the place of wood, 
and finally the present admirably appointed structure was completed, and the hospital became one of the 
best and most conveniently arranged in the country. It was not without a hard struggle, however, that the 
institution reached its present prominent position. During the Civil war the hospital was crowded, a large 
number of the inmates being government beneficiaries, and it received all necessary assistance in carrying on 
its work, but at the close of the conflict there came a reaction which threatened the very e-vistence of the 
hospital. The prospects had become very dark indeed, when Drs. Theodore L. Mason, AVilliam H. Dudley 
and Chauncey L.Mitchell offered to continue the work at their own expense. Their offer was accepted, and 
they succeeded in raising enough money among themselves and their friends to pay off the entire intlebted- 
ness of the institution. Thenceforward the progress of the Long Island College Hospital, if not at all times 
rapid, has been at least continuous. Its accommodations and facilities were increased, the personnel of its 



664 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



staff became of the highest order of experience and ability, and the field of its usefulness constantly widened. 
Its medical college was the first in this country to introduce clinical teaching, by which effective graded 
instruction was greatly facilitated. Connected with the hospital proper are a dispensary, an ambulance 
system and a training school for nurses. The sources of income include an annual appropriation of $4,000 
from the city, a portion of the excise moneys, the amounts received from paying patients and subscriptions 
by the managers and their friends. The government of the institution is vested in a board of regents and 
a medical board, and there is also a faculty of the hospital and a faculty of the college. The last three 
bodies constitute a joint board, which submits to the regents such plans for the improvement of the institu- 
tion as may be agreed upon. Alexander J. C. Skene, M. D., long the dean of the faculty, was elected 
president in March, 1893, and was succeeded as dean by J. S. Wight, M. D. Thomas S. Moore is president 
of the board of officers, succeeding Thomas H. Rodman, who had served from 1875 to the time of his 
death in 1S92. The total number of graduates from the institution from its organization until June, 1892, 
was 1,336. 

The Memorial Hospital for AVomen and Children (formerly the Brooklyn Woman's Homceo- 
pathic Hospital and Dispensary) was founded by a few earnest women, who had consecrated their lives to 
the study and practice of medicine. Impressed with the need for medical treatment required by the large 
number of shop girls, and knowing their reluctance to go to the public hospitals for admission, these 
women opened a dispensary on Myrtle avenue, near Grand avenue, in 1881. Their work grew and incor- 
poration was secured in April, 1883. In the spring of 1887, as the need for hospital accommodations 
became more apparent, the managers hired a building at 1318 Fulton street, where a few patients were 
received and another dispensary was opened. In 1890 a building at 811 Bedford avenue was leased and 
the dispensary work was all consolidated. In 1891 the hospital was removed to 200 South Oxford street 
where a larger building had been secured. This house proved inadequate to its wants, and in 1892 the 
hospital was removed to 808 Prospect place. In 1891 the Memorial Training School for Nurses was incor- 
porated. The staff of physicians in the Memorial Hospital consists exclusively of women. The officers in 
1892 were: Mrs. J. H. Burtis, president ; Mrs. J. L. Marcellus, first vice-president; Mrs. T. W. Lowell 
second vice-president ; Miss A. K. Mirrielees, recording secretary ; Mrs. A. H. Tifft, corresponding secre- 
tary ; Mrs. C. C. Martin, treasurer. 

The German Hospital Association was organized in 1889 for the purpose of founding a general 
hospital particularly, but not exclusively, for Germans. Several years were spent in raising funds and 
acquiring land, and 1892 work was begun toward erecting a hospital building on St. Nicholas avenue, near 
Himrod street. John H. Doscher is president of the association. 

The Lutheran Hospital Association maintains an institution at East New York avenue and Carroll 
street for nursing the sick and wounded. It was established in 1881. There are no restrictions as to the age 
or religious affiliations of those admitted. Edward Hanselt is president of the association, and the hospital 
is in charge of Miss E. E. Roeselhi. The city pays $1,500 a year toward the expenses of the institution. 

St. Mary's Hospital, on St. Mark's avenue, between Rochester and Buffalo avenues, is under the 
charge of the Sisters of Charity. The ground upon which the structure stands occupies an entire block, 

which was purchased by the 
late Bishop Loughlin in 1878. • 
On October 18, 1879, the 
corner-stone of the hospital 
building was laid, and the 
first patients were admitted 
the latter part of November, 
1882. The incorporators, who 
also constituted the first board 
of trustees, were the Right 
Rev. Bishop Loughlin, Rev. 
E.J. O'Reilly, John D. Iveiley, 
Jr., John J. Kiernan, Dr. John 
Byrne, James Clyne and three 
members of the Order of St. 
A^incent de Paul. St. Mary's 
Hospital is non-sectarian, and 
a very large number of non- 
paying patients are annually treated within its walls. These are supported by contributions and money 
received from the city and excise funds. The medical and surgical staff of the hospital includes many men 
who have attained very high professional positions as specialists. 




St. Mary's Hospital. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



66s 



St. Catherine's Hospital, which is conducted under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church of 
the Most Holy Trinity, was established in 1869 in the old Thursby farmhouse on Bushwick avenue. It 
soon outgrew its original quarters and the erection of a suitable building was discussed. A location was 
secured on Montrose avenue and building operations continued during 1874, 1875 and 1S76, the new 
hospital being first occupied on September 8, 1876. The buildings are large, convenient and finely appointed, 
the total cost of land and structures amounting to nearly $250,000. The managers of the hospital are the 
officers of the church under whose auspices it is conducted. 

St. John's Hospital and the Atlantic Avenue Dispensary are part of the Church Charity Founda- 
tion of Long Island, of which Bishop Littlejohn is president, the work being conducted entirely by the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of Long Island. The hospital and dispensary were organized by a special 




St. John's Hospital. 

committee of the board of managers in the summer of 187 1, and located at 1620 Fulton street, the store 
being used as a dispensary and the upper floors for hospital purposes. Under the charge of Sister Julia the 
hospital has been carried on twenty years. In 1872 the hospital was moved to the building on Herkimer 
street now used as a home for the aged, and the dispensary was located at 849 Atlantic avenue. In 1873 
the managers erected a separate building for the hospital. This was succeeded by the brick structure on 
the corner of Atlantic and Albany avenues, which was completed in 1883. The managers of the hospital 
are the Rev. S. M. Haskins, D. D., chairman, the Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster, W. H. Fleeman, Lyman R. 
Green, James S. Connell, Dr. William Wallace and C. H. Phillips. The managers of the dispensary are the 
Rev. H. T. Scudder, J. W. Whiting and Thomas Hegeman. 

The establishment of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital was suggested in an editorial article pub- 
lished on January 27, 1881, in the Christian Advocate, in which the duty of the church in the matter of provid- 
ing charitable foundations for the care of the sick was strongly urged. In its issue of February 27 the Christian 
Advocate published an offer from George I. Seney, of Brooklyn, to give a site in Brooklyn for a Methodist 
hospital and to subscribe $200,000 toward the expense of building such an institution. Following this a 
meeting was held on February 28 to take steps for the acceptance of Mr. Seney's offer and the carrying out 
of the proposition. As a result of that meeting the legislature was asked for a charter and it was granted, 
establishing a body corporate to be known as "The Methodist Episcopal Hospital in the City of Brooklyn." 
Under this charter a permanent organization was effected at a meeting held on April 2, i88r. James M. 
Buckley, D.D., was elected president and James N. Fitzgerald, D. I)., secretary of the board of managers. 
A building committee was appointed, and it was announced that the city block bounded by Seventh and 
and Eighth avenues, between Si.xth and Seventh streets, had been purchased by Mr. Seney, who had secured 



666 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



the title to the hospital. The block has an area of about three and a half acres. The corner-stone of the 
main central building was laid on September 20, 1S82. The plan of the hospital contemplates nine build- 
ings, and of this number two lateral pavilions were begun at the same time with the main central buildmg. 
In May 18S4, the three buildings were roofed in but were not finished ; the cost of land and the expenses 
of construction until that date represented a total outlay of $410,000, all of which had been furnished by 
Mr Seney. The board of managers then undertook the occupation of the buildings, and appealed to the 
Methodist' Episcopal Church for funds with which to put the hospital in operation. The work of raising the 
required money was undertaken first by the Rev. George P. Mains and later by the Rev. John S. Breckin- 
ridge whose energetic and successful labors in this direction continue to assist the great enterprise in its 
progress toward completion. One of the pavilions was the first of the buildings to be completed and on 
December 15, 1887, it was dedicated and formally opened for the reception of the sick. Since then one 
floor of the main central building has been so far completed as to permit the opening of a ward for children 




Methodist Episcopal (Popularly Called the " Seney ") Hospital. 

and a number of rooms for private patients, while in the basement of this building rooms for the adminis- 
trative departments of the institution have been provided. The accommodations of the hospital in 1892 
allowed for the care of about seventy patients, and there had been established an active ambulance service 
which responds to about one thousand calls in a year. When completed the hospital will be one of the 
largest and most admirably equipped institutions of the kind in America, containing nearly three hundred 
beds and prepared to care for more than forty-five hundred patients annually. The board of officers con- 
sists of James M. Buckley, D. D., president ; James McGee, vice-president ; Lewis S. Pilcher, M. D., secre- 
tary; John French, treasurer; Rev. John S. Breckinridge, superintendent. 

At Kingston avenue and Fenimore street, Flatbush, a short distance north of the county buildings, is 
the Brooklyn Hospital for CoNrAGious Diseases, or small-pox hospital. For years the citizens of 
Brooklyn who were afflicted with contagious or infectious diseases were removed to the county hospital, but 
the day came when the facilities for handling such diseases there were inadequate and the department of 
heath, represented by its commissioner, resolved upon the erection of a separate building for the purpose. 
The fight for it was a long and hard one, but a bill passed the legislature which authorized its establishment 
and appropriated the money necessary for construction. The search for a site resulted in the choice of a 
seven-acre lot at the point above named. The people of Flatbush made determined but unsuccessful 
opposition to the enterprise from the first, and after the building was completed obtained an injunction 
restraining the health department from making use of it. This injunction was vacated, and after a whil^ 
local opposition to the establishment died out. The main, or administration building, is a handsome 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



667 



two-story and basement structure with a frontage of eighty feet, a depth of forty-four and a large extension. 
It is faced with Philadelphia brick. Back of this administration building are five pavilions of wood in which 
the patients are kept. There is ground in plenty for the construction of as many of these buildings as 
the necessities of the occasion may require. A little apart from the administration building and the 
pavilions are the boiler-house and the stable. The original cost of the hospital, including site, was about 
$60,000. About $12,000 covers the annual cost of maintenance. People living in the county towns are 
received the same as residents of the city, an act of charity which is really a safeguard against the spread of 
disease. Treatment is free, but a plan is now on foot to furnish the fifth pavilion for patients who are both 
able and willing to pay for their treatment. The hospital was opened in November. 1891, with Henry Bulwinkle, 
M. D., as superinten- 
dent. Although a 
young man the docter's 
success at the head of 
the institution has been 
remarkable. Until the 
first of October, 1892, 
there were one hun- 
dred and forty-seven 
cases in his charge, of 
which he lost only 
seventeen. These 
cases comprised eighty 
of small-pox, with ten 
deaths; thirty of diph- 
theria, with four 
deaths ; scarlet fever, 
twenty-four, with two 
deaths ; measles, nine, 
with one death ; three 
cases of erysipelas and 
one of yellow fever, 
with no deaths. A won- 
derful record. A. P. 
Delette, M. D., is assis- 
tant superintendent. ■^■'- ''"'''''' "-"'tal. 

The late Rev. Joseph Fransioli, assisted by several of the Sisters of the Poor of St, Francis, established 
St. Peter's Hospital in the double house at Hicks and Congress streets in 1864, and besides caring for a 
number of patients during that year they gave a temporary home to over two hundred children of soldiers 
who were serving in the Union array. The hospital was incorporated in 1866, and thenceforward the 
accommodations were repeatedly increased until, finally, the present commodious structure was erected. 
The Sisters of St. Francis, who have charge of the institution, visit the homes of the sick poor and receive 
in the hospital those suffering from injuries or sickness, regardless of creed or color. There are at this 
writing 170 patients being cared for. The income of the hospital is derived from city and excise funds and 
the contributions of the charitable. The field of beneficence is confined to no particular district, as patients 
from all parts of the city and suburbs are received. 

The Brooklyn Hoiie for Consumptives is one of the local charitable institutions of the hospstal 
class which is operated altogether on the broad principles of humanity. It has been in existence about 
eleven years, although the present quarters were not established until 1888, and during that time it has 
offered to consumptive invalids of either sex, and of every race, creed and color, succor and solace, free of 
cost. Half a dozen philanthropic men and women, having learned that the doors of all the city hospitals 
were closed against this class of sufferers, and that the almshouse was their only refuge, issued a call to 
the benevolent people of Brooklyn, with the object of discussing the ways and means to establish an insti- 
tution for consumptives. The meeting was held in Plymouth Church, and in due time a society was formed, 
and later incorporated as the "Garfield Memorial Home." In August, i888, a dwelling house was rented 
on Washington avenue, and placed in charge of a matron, one nurse and a servant. Eight months later, as 
the result of a liberal public response, the trustees were enabled to purchase the building at 219 Raymond 
street, which was occupied for several years, until the institution again needed larger quarters. The first 
year sixty-nine persons were sheltered and nursed. After the work of the institution had expanded and 
become known the name was then changed to the Brooklyn Home for Consumptives. Several lots were 




668 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



purchased soon after on Kingston avenue, between Douglass and Butler streets, on which a new Home was 
erected at a total cost of about $So,ooo, It is a neat three-story brick structure of modern architecture 
and will accommodate, beside the staff of nurses, employees, etc., about seventy-five patients. Fourteen of 
the beds are endowed, and none remain empty long. The building and grounds were purchased with a 
fund made up entirely of gifts from the charitable people of Brooklyn, and were first occupied in September 
iSSS. As all the patients in such an institution are very weak — many on the verge of death — requiring the 
most delicate and nutritious of foods, the cost is necessarily heavy. The annual expense of the Brooklyn 
Home, which is now free of debt, is about $20,000, made up by subscriptions, with the exception of a small 
state appropriation and a sum from the excise moneys. Only those consumptives who are utterly destitute 
are received. Since the beginning of the good work 1,430 patients have been cared for, many of whom 
have been discharged improved, and even cured. During the year 1892 233 patients were admitted. The 
officers are : Mrs. S. V. White, president ; IVIrs. J. S. Plummer, first vice-president ; Mrs. E. L. Molineux 
second vice-president ; Mrs. Thomas Hewitt, recording secretary ; Mrs. H. B. Piatt, corresponding secre- 
tary ; Mrs. Benjamin Edson, treasurer. 

The Eastern District Hospital and Dispensary, at 108 South Third street, had its origin in the 
Williamsburgh Dispensary, which was established on September i, 1851, at South First and Fifth streets 




Eastern District HospiT.-iL. 
largely through the efforts of Captain Samuel Groves. He continued president of the dispensary associa- 
tion until his death. Among the first physicians of the staff were Drs. C. H Schapps, E. M. Colt and B. 
F. Bassett. Li i860 the dispensary was removed to 165 Fourth street, and subsequently hospital accom- 
modations were provided, and the institution was given its present title. Later the South Third street site 
was purchased, and what is now one of the finest hospital buildings in this city was erected. George H. 
Fisher is president of the board of trustees, and the institution is under the charge of Dr. E. P. OrreH. It 
receives a share of city and excise moneys. During the year 1891 the board of trustees purchased land 
adjoining the hospital building, and in 1892 began the erection thereon of an additional wing for dispensary 
uses, intending to reserve the main building exclusively for a hospital. 

The Long Island Throat and Lung Hospital and People's Dispensary, which is located at 
1025 Gates avenue, near Broadway, was incorporated on May 31, 1889, and reincoiporated on March 24, 
1891, to furnish special treatment to those afflicted with diseases of the nose, throat, eyes, ears and lungs, the 
treatment to l>e free to the worthy poor. Its board of directors is composed of representative citizens and 
prominent clergymen. D. M. Woolley, M. D., instructor in diseases of the ear, eye and throat in the New 
York Polyclinic Hospital, is surgeon-in-chief, Much good work has been done for this hospital by the 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



669 



churches and the Ladies' Auxiliary Society. The officers of the hospital association are : Thomas J. Kenna, 
president; Benjamin Lewis, first vice-president; Rev. James S. Chadwick, 1). D., second vice-president; 
George H. Fisher, counsel ; Frank P. Sellers, treasurer ; D. Morris Woolley, M, D., secretary. 

The Brooklyn Throat Hospit.^l, at Bedford avenue and South Third street, one of the most admir- 
able and useful institutions in the state for the treatment of the nose, throat, eye, ear and lungs, was 
founded largely through the efforts of Dr. Reuben Jeffery, and was opened to the public in 1889; B. G. 
Latimer being the first president and Rev. Henry A. Powell, D. D., the first secretary. It is non-sectarian, 
and its affairs are managed by a board of fifty directors, the present officers being : Henry A. Powell, 
president ; Andrew D. Baird and J. Henry Dick, vice-presidents ; Robert P. Lethbridge, treasurer ; and 
Robert L. Wensley, secretary. There is a staff of eighteen physicians. The average number of inmates is 
fifty, and 23,000 patients were treated in the out-door department during 1S92. The hospital is supported 
by voluntary contributions. 




HoMCEOP.-iTHic Hospital. 

The Brooklyn Homieopathic Hospital had its beginning in December, 1S52, as the Brooklyn Homoe- 
pathic Dispensary, which was incorporated for the gratuitous medical relief of the sick and destitute by 
means of homoeopathic remedies. Its incorporators were Edward W. Dunham, John A. Davenport, Theo- 
dore Victor, Samuel G. Arnold, Sheldon P. Church, John N. Taylor, Albert G. Allen, Edward Corning and 
Alfred S. Barnes. The dispensary began its work at 50 Court street, and twelve years later moved to 178 
Atlantic avenue, where it remained until 187 i. In that year an act of the legislature was passed, changing 
the name of the dispensary to the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Hospital. The act increased the number of its 
trustees to thirty-five. In 1882 the number of the trustees was, by another act of the legislature, increased to 
fifty. The dispensary continued its work in Atlantic avenue until 187 1, when Dr. A. E. Sumner secured the 
premises on Cumberland street and Carlton avenue, between Myrtle and Park avenues, which were formerly 
owned by the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, and upon which there was an old but substantial building. The 
work of the institution progressed so rapidly that it was soon found necessary to increase the size of the 
building by adding a wing at the southerly end. Later another wing was added at the north end, running 
from the back of the old building to Carlton avenue. Again the institution outgrew its facilities, and in 
1888 the trustees determined to erect an entirely new building, the two wings being used and incorporated 
in the structure. The premises now consist of eight full city lots, 100 feet on Cumberland street and run- 
ning through to Carlton avenue, a distance of 200 feet. In 1880 a training school for nurses was established. 
The first class was graduated in 1882. Since that time there have been graduated in all seventy-si.x nurses. 
One of the most important organizations connected with the hospital is the Ladies' Aid Association, founded 



670 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



1 



in 1S74, upon whose efforts the hospital largely depends for the means to meet its expenses. It has given 
public social festivities and entertainments, by which the revenues of the hospital have been largely increased 
The establishment of the likooicrA'N Eye and E.ar Hi^spital was primarily due to tlie efforts of Drs 
A. Matthewson and H. Newton. These gentlemen, realizing the need of such an institution, consulted in 
1S68 with I^rs. C R. Agnew, E. G. Loring and Daniel R St. John Roosa, of New York, upon the subject 
The project was favorably considered and the five doctors already mentioned associated themselves with a 
score or more of lirooklyn's influential and charitable citizens and formed the Brooklyn Eye and Ear Hos- 
pital Association. The first meeting was held in the spring of 1868, a permanent organization formed and 
officers elected. The institution was incorporated on May 4, 1868, and a house at Johnson and Wash- 
ington streets was rented. These quarters were soon outgrown and in a short time the building at iqo 
Washington street was bought, where the work of the hospital greatly increased. In 1882 the house at qa 
Livingston street, which is now occupied, was purchased at a cost of $48,500. It was enlarged and reno- 
vated in 1891 at an expense of $6,000. In 1873 ths treatment of the skin and throat was added to that of 
the eye and ear, and in 1878 the treatment of nervous diseases was also included. In 1891 the hospital 
treated 10,567 people. The total number of cases received since April 15, 1S68, when the hospital was 
opened, until December 31, 1891, was 117,168, The present officers are : Cornelius D. Wood, president • 
Thomas E. Stillman, vice-president ; A. D. Wheelock, treasurer ; F. H. Colton, M. D., secretary. 




Kings Cou.vtv Hospital. 

The Kings County Hospital is one of the county institutions at Flatbush, and has been in operation 
since 1837. It is intended for the destitute sick, without restriction as to age, and is under the supervision 
of the board of commissioners of charities and corrections. The cost of its maintenance in 1892, when the 
total number of inmates was 3,080, was $79,75°- J- T. Duryea, M. D., is the medical superintendent. 

The Norwegian Lutheran Deaconesses' Home and Hospital, at Forty-sixth street and Fourth 
avenue, is for the relief of suffering Norwegians without regard to age. It is a denominational institution, 
and was founded in 1886. C. Ullenass is president, and Sister Elizabeth Fedde has charge of the institution. 

The Chinese Hospital Association was incorporated on January 5, 1891. It is a result of the efforts 
of the "King's Daughters for China." The objects of the association are to maintain a hospital for the 
treatment of Chinese afflicted with diseases not contagious. Following are the first and present officers of 
the society : Edward Braislin, D. D., president ; Dr. Nelson B. Sizer, secretary ; Dr. Charles E. Bruce, treas- 
urer ; Mrs. N. B. Sizer, assistant treasurer; Dr. Joseph C. Thomas, superintendent; Drs. William A. Little, 
C. E. Bruce, and N. B. Sizer, medical staff. The hospital is located at 45 Hicks street, where until May 
I, 1892, 76 patients had been admitted. A ladies' auxiliary board, under the presidency of Mrs. N. B. Sizer, 
assists in the work. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 671 

The Brooklyn Maternity, in connection with which is the New York State Training School for 
Nurses, is the outcome of the work of several charitable ladies who, in the fall of 1870, held a meeting to 
discuss the project. The first regular meeting of the organization was held in January, 187 1, when the fol- 
lowing officers were elected : Mrs. B. C. Mitchell, first directress ; Mrs. A. Burtis, second directress ; Mrs. 
C. E. Arbuckle, third directress ; Mrs. W. T. Coale, treasurer ; Mrs. Tobias New, corresponding secretary ; 
Miss Mary A. Downs, recording secretary. The Maternity was incorporated in February of the same year 
under the title of the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Lying-in Asylum. Subsequently a charter was obtained 
for a nursery, a woman's and children's hospital and lastly a branch of the New York State Training School 
for Nurses; this being the first school of the kind established in the United States. The title of the 
Brooklyn Maternity was then adopted. The property now occupied by the institution, at 46 and 48 Con- 
cord street, was purchased in 1873. This has recently been sold and land for new buildings has been pur- 
chased and a building fund instituted. 

Not a few prominent physicians have received material benefit from their early training in the Brooklyn 
City Dispens.^ry, which was opened to the public on August 10, 1846, and incorporated on March 13, 1850. 
It was moved about to various localities from time to time, until in 1864 the trustees raised sufficient 
money to purchase and equip a building on Tillary street, between Fulton and Washington streets. The 
premises were admirably arranged for its purposes and a thoroughly competent medical and surgical staff 
was secured, and the character of xX.'i personnel has ever since been maintained. The extent of the benefi- 
cent work accomplished by the dispensary is shown by the fact that during 1890-1891 there ware 34,592 
patients treated and 34,853 prescriptions given out. The officers of the institution in 1892 were: Samuel 
Rowland, president; R. S. Bussing, vice-president; Leonard C. Bond, treasurer; Henry Warren Beebe, 
secretary. 

The Brooklyn Central Dispensary was established on August i, 1855, at the corner of Fulton street 
and Hanson place, in response to a demand in the upper part of the city for free medical service and 
medicine that the Brooklyn City Dispensary could not supply. The incorporators of the institution were 
the Rev. Josiah West, James Van Dyk, William Swift, Wm. B. Badge, T. L. Majaganos, William H. Hallock, 
Ale.xis H. Crittenden and D. Thompkins Dodge. The dispensary was moved to Flatbush avenue and 
Nevins street in 1858. Drs. Crittenden, Hallett, Swift, Gray, Teller and Black formed the first volunteer 
medical staff. On May i, 1870, the dispensary was located at 104 Flatbush avenue, where it remained 
until the increased number of patients necessitated a removal to larger quarters. The building at 29 Third 
street was purchased by the trustees in March, 1890, and entirely remodeled to suit the needs of the 
dispensary. During August, 1855, there were 114 patients treated ; during February, 1892, the number of 
patients was 1,931. The present officers are: Theophilus Olena, president; Thomas E. Pearsall and 
Michael H. Haggarty, vice-presidents ; N. H. Clement, treasurer ; George V. Brower, secretary. 

The Southern Dispensary and Hospital, at 119 Third place, was located there shortly after its 
incorporation in 1874. It was established at Sackett and Court streets the year previous, with Dr. Nathaniel 
Ford as its first president. Theodore Ritter now holds that office and the institution is under the charge 
of Dr. L. W. Pearson. It receives an annual appropriation from the city and excise funds. 

The Bedford Dispensary was established by Drs. William Waterworth and W. E. Conroy in October, 
1880, and was supported by their voluntary efforts for nearly a year. The great increase in the number of 
patients in that time led to the incorporation of the institution in June, 1881, by William G. Hoople, George 
Stannard, H. L. Judd, Thomas P. Wilkinson, Oliver P. Edgerton and H. Waller Brinckerhoff. The officers 
for the first year were the above-named gentlemen, as trustees, with William G. Hoople, president ; Thomas 
P. Wilkinson, vice-president ; George Stannard, treasurer ; H. Waller Brinckerhoff, secretary. The medi- 
cal staff consists of Drs. William Waterworth, Jared Wilson, and A. M. Curry ; Dr. C. F. Dubois, dentist, 
and a number of consulting physicians. There is also a ladies' visiting committee. The institution during 
its period of early growth moved from one place to another on Fulton street. Later two frame buildings 
on Ralph avenue, near Atlantic, were obtained and converted into a suitable house for the work and in 
May, 1892, the new building was opened. 

The Bush wick and East Brooklyn Dispensary, at Myrtle and Lewis avenues, was opened on March 
I, 1878, under the auspices of members of St. Barnabas' and St. Matthew's P. E. churches, a charter having 
been previously obtained. The. institution soon covered a wide field of usefulness, and numbered among its 
officers and staff a number of representative men. Dr. Edward Braislin is president of the association, and 
Dr. J. C. Thoms is in charge of the dispensary. 

The Brooklyn Medical Mission No. i was established in March, 1887, as the Red Hook Dispensary, 
No. I, by Dr. Le Lacheur as a branch of the International Medical Missionary Society, for the purpose 
of combining Christian instruction with medical charity. The mission is located at 412 Van Brunt street, 
and there is a Brooklyn Medical Mission, No, 2, at 305 Concord street, the latter having been organized in 
1889. Dr. William Stewart has charge of both branches. 



672 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

The Brooklyn Diet Dispensary is unique among the charitable institutions of this city. It was 
established for the purpose of supplying the indigent sick \tith nourishing food, on the certificate of a 
physician that such was requisite to the successful treatment of the case. It is sustained by voluntary sub- 
scriptions, and by the appropriations from the state and e.xcise funds ; its accounts have never yet exhibited 
a balance on the wrong side of the ledger. The institution is possessed of a certain permanent income from 
sources which, including the Julia E. Brick fund of $5,000, aggregate in value $7,559- The main office, where 
the meetings of the directors are held, is situated in the frame building at 21 DeKalb avenue, and there are 
additional dispensaries at 883 Myrtle avenue, 289 Sackett street, 379 South First street, 86 Dikeman street 
and 39 Sumpter street. The institution dates from a meeting held on the evening of December 29, 1875, at 
the residence of Mrs. George Stannard, 381 Franklin avenue. The following officers were appointed to 
manage the organization during the first year of its existence ; Mrs. George Stannard, president ; Mrs. F. B. 
Fisher, vice-president; John W. Hunter, treasurer; Mrs. J. C. Hoagland, assistant treasurer; Mrs. James 
Scrimgeour, secretary. The dispensary was incorporated on March 5, 1877, by Mrs. George Stannard, Mrs. 
F. B. Fisher, Mrs. James Thompson, Mrs. J. C. Hoagland and the Misses Alice Hewitt and A. W. Gleason. 
The first kitchen was opened at 49 High street, and the dispensaiy established its first branch, on Atlantic 
avenue, on June 4, 1877. From the six dispensaries ministering to the needy in various portions of the city, 
more than six thousand patients are annually benefited. The officers of the dispensary are : Mrs. J. S. 
Plummer, president ; Mrs. Peter Bogert, treasurer ; Mrs. R. B. Fithian, recording secretary ; Mrs. George 
A. Allin, corresponding secretary. 

On June 26, 1889, a charter was granted to St. Martha's Sanitarium and Dispensary, which was estab- 
lished for the treatment of chronic and incurable diseases other than consumption. The institution was at 
first located on Washington avenue, but subsequently the grounds and buildings at Dean street and Kings- 
ton avenue were purchased at a cost of about $30,000. The progress of St. Martha's during its existence 
has been marked by the relief of much suffering and a constantly increasing demand upon its resources. 
The work of the institution has met with a wide appreciation and has been from time to time advanced by 
life endowments, donations and church collections. The board of officers consists of Miss Thomasine 
Mary Kearny, president ; the Rev. William G. Webb, vice-president ; Mrs. George W. Dickinson, secretary ; 
James C. Abbott, treasurer ; Mrs. C. E. Hyatt, chairman executive committee. 

The Gates Avenue Homoeopathic Dispensary was established on February 19, 1867. The institution 
was incorporated by Thomas L. Thorp, John Simpkins, John B. Norris, Peter Noltiman, Myron H. Strong, 
Volney Aldridge and Grosvenor Lowrey, on charter bearing the date of March 9, 1867. The first house 
physician was Dr. S. Hopkins Keep, brother of Dr. J. Lester Keep, one of the principal movers in the 
organization. Dr. S. Hopkins succeeded Dr. Keep on January i, 1880, and served until his death in 
October, 1887. During this time the dispensary was located at the junction of Gates and Fulton avenues. 
On October i, 1885, the trustees purchased the brick building at 13 Gates avenue and fitted up the second 
floor for dispensary purposes. This is the present home of the institution. The dispensary work has 
grown largely but has been fully equaled by the outside work of the physicians, which is entirely one of 
private charity. The officers are : Robert D. Benedict, president ; Wm. B. Boorum, treasurer ; V. Aldridge, 
secretary. 

The Eastern District Hom(£Opathic Dispensary, at 194 and 196 South Third street, is an unsec- 
tarian institution which furnishes medical aid to the sick poor. It was incorporated on March 14, 1872, 
through the efforts of the late Dr. William Wright and a number of other prominent citizens, the first offi- 
cers having been Dr. Wright, president ; James A. Faulkner, secretary ; and William E. Horwell, treasurer. 
A portion of its income is derived from city and excise funds. George V. Tompkins was president in 1892, 
the dispensary being under the charge of Dr. J. Albro Eaton. 

The Central Homieopathic Dispensary had its inception in September, 1883, at a meeting held at 
the residence of Mrs. Almeda M. Pond, 14 Spencer street. The institution was incorporated a month later. 
The dispensary is located on the second floor of 39 Sumpter street and is under the medical direction of Dr. 
Edward W. Avery. The present officers are : Mrs. William Hart, president ; Mrs. John F. Cook, vice- 
president ; Mrs. Henry M. Johnson, secretary; Mr. Jerome Allen, treasurer. 

The Lucretia Mott Dispensary affords medical and surgical treatment to women and children by 
women practitioners. It was established on October 31, 1S81, and incorporated soon afterward. It is 
under the charge of Anna F. Rowe, M. D. ; the Rev. S H. Camp is president. 

Dr. Wells' Sanitarium, a private institution designed for the care of that class of female patients 
who suffer from nervous or mental diseases, yet do not require the restraint of a large asylum, is located at 
945 St. Mark's avenue. It is under the personal supervision of the proprietor, Thomas L. Wells, M. D. 

The Faith Home for Incurables was established on December 2, 1878, at 112 Lexington avenue, for 
the purpose of caring for incurable invalids. In 1880 A. S. Barnes, together with other friends of the charity, 
built a commodious edifice at Classon avenue and Park place for the use of the Home. This building will 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



673 



accommodate about fifty patients. The property of the Home is valued at about $40,000 and it has an 
mcome about sufficient for its wants. Following is the board of officers : C. D. Wood, president ; James M 
Ham, treasurer ; Dr. S. B. Childs, secretary ; Miss A. H. Campbell, manager. 

With the object of redeeming those addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors and furnishing an 
asylum where they would be removed from temptation and receive skilled and effective treatment, the 
Inebriates' Home for Kings County was incorporated on May 9, 1867. A temporary home was estab- 




Inebriates' Home, Fort Hamilton. 

lished at Bushwick avenue and Chestnut street on October 10, of the same year. Subsequently the sum of 
$200,000 was provided, to be paid out of excise receipts, for the erection of suitable buildings. This 
money was converted into United States bonds and finally the present home, near Fort Hamilton, was 
built. George Hall, J. S. T. Stranahan and Dr. Theodore L. Mason have been presidents of the institution. 
That office is now occupied by G. G. Herman, Dr. J. A. Blanchard being the superintendent, with 194 
inmates under his charge. 

Other local medical and surgical institutions are the Nose, Throat and Lung Dispensary, at 545 
Fulton street ; the Atlantic Avenue Dispensary, at Atlantic and Waverly avenues ; the Eclectic Dis- 
pensary, 142 Prince street ; the Hahnemann Dispensary, 130 Gold street ; the Hillsiue Homceopathic 
Dispensary, 478 Bergen street ; the Helping Hand Dispensary, 266 Jay street ; the Polyclinic Dis- 
pensary, on Myrtle avenue, near Central avenue ; and St. Mary's Maternity, 155 Dean street. 



physicians and surgeons. 

Dr. Alexander J. C. Skene, president of the Long Island College Hospital, not only has taken a high 
position in the ranks of his profession, but is conceded to be one of the ablest gynecologists in the United 
States. Nor is he distinguished by these considerations alone, for he shines as a lover of the fine arts ; not 
altogether an admirer of the moment, but an ardent and penetrating student, and one who endeavors to put 
into practice the suggestions received from his readings. In addition he has been, in war and in peace, a 
defender of the Union and a lover of the free institutions of the country, a thoroughly upright citizen, a 



674 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Brooklynite in sympathies, and a courteous man at all times. A race of warriors, statesmen and professional 
men, closely identified with a great part of the history of Scotland, is the family to which he claims kinship, 
and which he honors in no less degree than any of the eminent ones who have gone before him. The 
genesis of the history of the Skenes is told in a story to the effect that when Malcolm II., king of Scotland, 
was returning from the defeat of the Danes, at Mortloch in Moray, in loio, he was pursued by a ravenous 
wolf, which was about to attack him, when a young son of Donald of the Isles thrust his arm, which was 
wound in the plaid, into the wolf's mouth and with his dagger slew the beast. The king, appreciating the 
boldness of the action, gave to the young man certain lands which now form the parish of Skene in Aber- 
deenshire. This incident gave rise to the family name Skene, meaning a dagger or dirk ; and a dirk 
occupied, together with three wolves' heads, a very conspicuous place in the family's armorial bearings. 
Colonel Philip Skene, of the British army, one of the doctor's ancestors, was a leading participator on the 
royalist side in the military movements in northern New York during the revolutionary war. Before the 
war he engaged with Lord Howe, in 1756, in the attack on Ticonderoga, and afterwards with Lord Amherst 
at its capture, and that of Crown Point. To strengthen the British hold on Canada, Colonel Skene received 
a large grant of land on Lake Champlain, and founded on Wood Creek the town of Skenesborough, now 
Whitehall, N. Y. He developed the commerce and industries of the country about him, and became 
governor of Crown Point, colonel in the local militia, judge and postmaster. His loyalty to the British 
during the revolution swept away the benefits of all these services. The British burned Skenesborough 
when they evacuated it, and after the war the Americans attainted him and his son, Major Andrew Skene, 
of treason and confiscated their estates. In the parish of Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, in the year 1838, Dr. Skene 
was born. His childhood and youth were spent there, and at the age of nineteen he embarked for this 
country. He had become possessed of a strong desire to study medicine, and was also intensely fond of 
zoological studies. Immediately on his arrival in this country he entered the University of Michigan, and 
from there he proceeded to the Long Island College Hospital, from which institution he was graduated in 
the year 1863. He took his diploma when the Civil war was in its hottest period, and the moment he saw 
an opportunity for his usefulness he proffered the government his services and went to the front. He 
rendered signal service, and in the midst of his exciting duties found time to evolve a plan which is adopted 
to-day in the army corps and among the state militia, namely, an ambulance corps. On joining the army he 
was delegated assistant surgeon at Port Royal and Charleston Harbor, S. C, and afterward at Decamp's 
hospital, David's Island. Before he went to the front he had been appointed an assistant to Dr. Austin 
Flint, professor of the institutes and practice of medicine. When the war was over he returned to his 
alma mater, having received the appomtment of adjunct professor at the Long Island Hospital Medical 
College, with which he has been connected ever since. During his service at the hospital he has been 
brought into consultation on a thousand critical cases. Diagnosing has always been his forte, though it 
must be said in addition that few men are able to control instruments with the same deft hand. He is 
a frequent contributor to the medical journals on the subjects in which he is recognized as an authority. 
He is the author of what is generally conceded to be the best work ever written on the diseases of women. 
It was published by Appleton in 1883, and contains the results of twenty years of experience. The book 
has had a vast circulation, and was lauded by the medical authorities of Europe as liberally as it was 
here. In addition to his presidency of the Long Island Medical College, he also occupies the chair of 
gynecology. He has been professor of gynecology in the New York Post-graduate Medical School, presi- 
dent of the American Gynecological Society of the Kings County Medical Society and the New York 
Obstetrical Society, and is corresponding member of the British, Boston and Detroit gynecological societies, 
and other societies of France, Germany and Belgium. Aside from his profession he is an amateur sculptor 
and practices this art in his leisure hours. Dr. Skene was lieutenant-colonel and surgeon on the Second 
Division staff of the National Guard during the period of General E. L. Molineux's command. 

Lewis Stephen Pilcher, M.D., surgeon, was born in Adrian, Mich., in 1845. His father, the Rev. 
Elijah H. Pilcher, was one of the pioneers of the territory of Michigan, having gone there as a minister of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1829, from Ohio, in which state his father before him, Stephen Pilcher, 
had likewise been a pioneer, having removed from Virginia in 1807. The family came originally from Kent^ 
England. Dr. Pilcher was graduated at the University of Michigan in 1862 ; having taken a post-graduate 
course for a year, he received the degree of Master of Arts from the same institution in 1863. He^immedi- 
ately took up the study of medicine, but after a few months he enlisted in the United States army as 
hospital steward, in which capacity he served in the department of Missouri until August, 1865. Returning 
to the University of Michigan he renewed his attendance upon medical lectures, and received there his 
degree in March, 1866. After a number of months of country practice, in the neighborhood of Flint, Mich., 
he repaired to New York city, and spent the winter in special studies and hospital attendance. In April| 
1867, he was accepted by the naval examining board and commissioned assistant surgeon in the United 
States navy. He served five years, chiefly in Brooklyn and the West Indies, and was promoted to the grade 



676 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



of passed assistant sura;eon. Then he resigned and established himself in private practice in Brooklyn in 
Januarv, 1872. In the autumn of 1872 he was appointed lecturer on anatomy in the Long Island College 
Hospital, adjunct surgeon in 1873, and assistant professor of anatomy in 1879, positions which he resigned 
in 1882. In 1881 he was selected as one of the incorporators of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital in Brook- 
lyn, and gave much time and study to the development of that institution during the succeeding years; 
became the secretary of the board of managers in 1888 ; was appointed one of the visiting surgeons when the 
hospital was opened in 1887, and the president of its medical board. He served as visiting physician to the 
Brooklyn Orphan Asylum from 1876 to 1882, since which year he has been retained as consulting physician. 
He is consulting surgeon to the Bushwick and East Brooklyn Dispensary, the Methodist Home for the Aged, 
the Brooklyn Home for Inebriates and the Guild of St. Giles the Cripple. In 1885 he was elected professor 
of clinical surgery in the Post-graduate Medical School and Hospital of New York, a position which he 
retains. In 1881 he was elected a member of the New York Surgical Society. He is a member of the 
Medical Society of the County of Kings, and of the Medical Society of the State of New York, of which 
he was vice-president in 1890, and president in 1892. In 1889 he relinquished the general practice of 
medicine and devoted himself entirely to surgery. With a number of his professional colleagues he 
formed, in 1878, the Brooklyn Anatomical and Surgical Society, whose chief purpose was to secure for its 
members opportunities for practical anatomical study, and for rehearsing surgical operations. In connection 
with their work was begun the publication of a monthly journal. The Annals of the Anatomical and Surgical 
Society. The society was disbanded in 1881, but the publication of the journal was continued by Drs. 
Pilcher and George R. Fowler as the Annals of Anatomy and Siirgeiy for three years longer, when it was 
suspended. After an interval of a year, at the solicitation of many of the subscribers to the former periodi- 
cal, Dr. Pilcher undertook the editorship of a journal to be devoted exclusively to surgery, and named The 
Annals of Surgery. This journal was successful from the outset, and he remains at its editorial helm. He 
has made many contributions to current surgical literature, and has delivered a number of public addresses. 
Dr. Pilcher's most important contributions are as follows: "The Treatment of Wounds; its Principles and 
Practice, General and Special" [1883] ; "Tracheotomy" — article in Woods' Reference Handbook of Medi- 
cal Science [1889]; "Naevus" — article in Keeting's Cyclopedia of the "Diseases of Children" [1889]; 
"The American System of Surgery" [1892] ; "Chapters on Wounds, Surgical Diseases of Microbic Origin, 
Diseases of the Lymphatics and Surgical Diseases of the Female Generative Organs ;" " The Surgical 
Reports of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital in Brooklyn," annually since 1888. In 1870 he married 
Martha S. Phillips, daughter of Aaron H. Phillips, of Brooklyn. The residence of the family is in Gates 
avenue, Brooklyn, except during the summer, when they remove to their summer home at Lake Hopat- 
cong, N. J. 

George Ryerson Fowler, M.D.,was born in the city of New York on December 25, 1848. His father, 
Thomas W. Fowler, and mother, Sarah Jane Carman, were both born on Long Island. His early life was 
spent in Jamaica, L, I., to which place his father had removed. His medical education was received at Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College, from which institution he was graduated, with the de.gree of Doctor in Medi- 
cine, in February, 1871. He entered at once upon his professional duties in the eighteenth ward, subse 
quently locating in the twenty-first ward. In 1872 he was appointed upon the staff of the Central Dispen- 
sary, a position that he held two years, when he resigned. In 1878 he was commissioned as one of the 
surgeons of the 14th Regiment, N. G., S. N. Y. In the same year the Brooklyn Anatomical and Surgical 
Society was organized. Dr. Fowler being one of the founders. Two years afterwards he was elected its 
president. He was associate editor of the Annals of the Anatomical and Surgical Society. Upon the organi- 
zation of the Bushwick and East Brooklyn Dispensary in 1878 he was nominated its first visiting surgeon; 
upon the complete organization of its medical staff, he was chosen by the latter body as its presiding officer. 
In 1887 he resigned from the active staff and was made consulting surgeon. He was appointed in [883 
surgeon-in-chief to the department of fractures and dislocations, St. Mary's Hospital, Brooklyn; he now has 
entire charge of the general surgery of this hospital. He has been surgeon to the Methodist Episcopal 
Hospital since its opening in 1887. He was elected president of the Medical Society of the County of Kings 
for the year 1886, but positively declined a reelection for the reason that such a course deprived others of 
the honors and prestige which this position afforded. This example has been invariably followed by those 
suice elected to that office. In 1891 he was elected a fellow of the American Surgical Association. He is 
also a permanent member of the American Medical Association. In January, 1892, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the New York Surgical Society. He is also a member of the New York Academy of Medicine ; 
the Brooklyn Surgical Society, of which in 1891 he was president ; and the Society of Medical Jurisprudence. 
In 1889 he was elected a permanent member of the Medical Society of the State of New York. When a 
law was enacted in 1890 separatmg the educating and licensing power in the state, the State Medical Society 
submitted the name of Dr. Fowler to the board of regents of the University of the State of New York at 
Albany, and he was appointed one of the seven members of the examining board representing the state 



678 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

society. At the first meeting of tlie board of examiners he was appointed examiner in surgery. He is con- 
sulting surgeon to the Relief (E. D.) Hospital and to the Norwegian Hospital. During a trip to Europe in 
18S4 he was present at a meeting for the distribution of ambulance certificates at a watering place on the 
Lancashire coast. He there formed the resolution to establish classes for instruction in first aid to the injured 
on his return to America. Arriving home he set about agitating the question of forming such classes. His 
connection with the national guard suggested placing the matter on a sound footing in that organization, 
and at the state camp at Peekskill in the following year he established classes for instructing the men in 
caring for injured persons in emergencies. This was followed by an order, at his instance, from Gen. James 
McLeer, establishing the instruction in the armories as a part of the soldiers' duties during the winter season. 
In the year following the surgeon-general of tlie state ordered similar instruction to be imparted to all of 
the national guard organizations in New York, and in a year thereafter an order was issued from the adju- 
tant-general's office at Washington, ordering similar instruction to be given at all military posts of the LTnited 
States. In the early part of 1890 the Red Cross Society, of Brooklyn, was organized, and Dr. Fowler was 
elected president. A part of the work of this society consisted in delivering a series of short and practical 
lectures to members of the police force, having obtained the permission of the head of the department. He 
has made many important contributions to the literature of surgery, and has taken an active and prominent 
part in the work of the societies of which he is a member. In 1873 he married Louise R. Wells, the youngest 
daughter of the late James Wells, of Norristown, Pa.; of their four children, three are living. Dr. Fowler 
retains his connection with military affairs, being surgeon on the staff of the Second Brigade, with the rank 
of major. He is a member of the Church of the Messiah. Among Dr. Fowler's many contributions to 
current surgical literature the most important are the articles on e.xtirpation of superior maxillary nerve 
and Meckel's ganglion for facial neuralgia; antiseptic excision of knee-joints ; surgical treatment of facial 
neuralgia; fractures of the elbow-joint ; the wire suture in fracture of the patella ; excision of the rectum 
for carcinoma; the listerian treatment of wounds; antiseptic incision in abscess of liver; hcemarthrosis of 
knee; lumbar colotomy ; neurectomy for the relief of facial neuralgia; the importance of the early removal 
of caseous lymphatic glands ; dry wound dressing ; compound comminuted fracture of patella ; explorative 
laparotomy; Alexander's operation for shortening the round ligaments ; surgical infection ; laparotomy for 
extra-uterine pregnancy ; gunshot wound of the brain ; operative treatment of acute intestinal obstruction ; 
transplantation of skin ; resection of knee-joint in children ; drainage of the bladder; gunshot wound of the 
head; location of bullet by means of the telephone probe; hallux valgus; laryngectomy; radical cure of 
hernia ; nephectomy ; sterilization of cazgus. 

John G. Johnson, M. D., is a native of Massachusetts ; his paternal and maternal ancestry was repre- 
sented during the revolutionary days by officers who held commissions in the continental armies. His father 
was Dr. Samuel Johnson, a prominent surgeon of Essex County, Mass. Dr. John G, Johnson was born at And- 
over on October 10, 1833 ; he was graduated from Harvard University and studied medicine under Profes- 
sor James R. Wood, M. D., and also at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, from Avhich 
institution he received his diploma. For eighteen months after completing his studies he was one of the 
resident surgeons at the Bellevue Hospital ; he began practice in Brooklyn in 1857. The same year he 
received an appointment on the surgical staff of the Long Island College Hospital, and when the institution 
was removed to its present location, he performed the first operation within the walls of the new building. 
An association with Dr. George Marvin led him to give up hospital work and apply him.self to private prac- 
tice. He has been and is associated in a professional capacity with a number of large corporations, and was 
surgeon to the East River Bridge Company during the time that the great span was in process of construc- 
tion ; the facts he collected relative to the memorable panic which resulted in the loss of life on the New 
York side proved that the occurrence was unavoidable, and he was instrumental in inducing the court of 
appeals to dismiss the suits for damages brought against the cities of New York and Brooklyn. As an expert 
in legal cases demanding the aid of medical jurisprudence he has had large experience. He has performed 
many original surgical operations; he was the pioneer in this country in the exsection of the ankle-joint, and 
his success m this field was chronicled in the records of the State Medical Society, on the authority and at 
the request of the Kings County Medical Society. He successfully removed a minie ball, weighing an ounce 
and a quarter, which had lodged for six weeks in the brain of Lieutenant Thomas W. Chandler, who recovered 
and died from natural causes a quarter of a century later. He was in charge of the Brick Church and White 
Church Hospitals at Sharpsburg during the battle of Antietam. For several years he was associate editor 
of the New York Medical Journal, and contributed to every issue some twenty pages of interesting medical 
and surgical literature. His paper on vaccination, read before the Medico-Legal Society of New York, 
resulted in putting a stop to the use of the humanized vaccine ; he succeeded, with the assistance of the 
E.AGi.E, in preventing the canning factories of Baltimore from utilizing chloride of zinc instead of rosin as 
a flu.x in sealing their goods for market. His studies in bacteriology have resulted in widely read papers on 
the dangers of contracting consumption from rare meat and from the milk of cows affected with tuberculosis: 





■i-^'T'w:^^>fi^ ^D 



68o 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



he investigated tlie diphtlieritic sjerm, and was the first to advocate the employment of pineapple juice and 
the use of a weak solution of cotrosive sublimate in fighting the disease ; it was also due to him that the 
slaking of quicklime was adopted as a measure of destroying membraneous tissue characterizing diphtheritic 
croup He has demonstrated that scarlet fever is caused by a disease germ, which increases rapidly in the 
blood passes to the smaller capillary vessels of the skin, and there multiplies. By bathing the afflicted per- 
' son with a mercuric chloride solution the germs are 

destroyed and recoveries from the disease are rapid. 
Dr. Johnson is a member of the New York Academy 
of Medicine, the New York Neurological Society, the 
New York State Medical Association, the Kings County 
Medical Society, the Pathological Society and Hamilton 
and Brooklyn clubs. 

It is only within forty years that preventive medi- 
cine has found practical application to the problems 
of public health, and with this sanitary reform move- 
ment no name has been more prominently identified 
from its inception than that of Dr. Agrippa Nelson 
Bkll. He is a type and representative of that body 
of young enthusiasts who, about the middle of the 
century, entered upon the task of organizing sanitary 
administration. Dr. Bell was born in Northamp- 
ton County, Virginia, on August 3, 1820. He is de- 
scended in both parental lines from the earliest Vir- 
ginia colonists. His early life was passed on a farm, 
where he developed an excellent physique. It was 
not until he was eighteen years of age that he began 
a systematic course of study. He attended an aca- 
demic school at Newtown, Conn., and so rapid was his 
progress that he was able two years later to enter the 
Tremont Medical School in Boston, where Drs. Jacob 
Bigelow, Edward Reynolds, D. Humphrey Storer and 
O. W. Holmes were his preceptors. After attending 
medical lectures at Harvard he went to Philadelphia, 
and in 1842 received his degree from the Jefferson Medical College. He established himself in his native 
county and soon acquired a large practice. In November of that year he married Julia Ann, daughter 
of Arcillus and Jerusha Hamlin. Subsequently he practiced three years in Waterbury, Conn. The public, 
importance of his career, however, may be said to date from 1847, when he received a commission in the 
navy and was at once ordered to the sloop of war " Saratoga." From that time until the end of the 
Mexican war he served in the Gulf squadron. He was next assigned to the coast survey in and about 
New York. In 1849 he went on a cruise to the West Indies and along the Spanish Main. His next 
and last cruise was on board the flagship " Germantown," for two years off the west coast of Africa. 
Then, after serving two years more on board the receiving ship, at the Brooklyn navy yard, and mean- 
while gaining his promotion to surgeon, he resigned his commission in 1855, and began his practice in 
this city. The familiarity he had gained with yellow fever in the Gulf and on the coast of Africa enabled 
him to render valuable aid during the prevalence of that disease on Bay Ridge and at Fort Hamilton, 
in 1856. He helped to organize the local hospital which did so much to check the spread of the malady 
to Brooklyn. Though convinced by experience that yellow fever was not contagious, he entered at 
once upon a vigorous campaign for quarantine reform. He denounced the system of merely detaining 
infected vessels and maintaining a quarantine establishment in proximity with a populous neighborhood, as 
inconceivable barbarism ; and finally the citizens became so aroused that on September ist, 1858, an 
excited throng destroyed the New York quarantine structures on Staten Island by fire. Not one of those 
engaged in the removal of the patients sick with yellow fever took the disease. His communications to the 
national quarantine and sanitary convention at Boston, i860, constituted the basis of all subsequent 
quarantine reform. A bill embodying most of his ideas applicable to ports of arrival became the law of 
New York in 1863. It contained, however, some sections against which he protested in vain. Attempts to 
erect quarantine buildings on Staten Island and then on Coney Island were frustrated ; and West Bank, 
the site which Dr. Bell had advocated from the first, was adopted, but he was for the time ignored. One 
provision of this law designated steam as a disinfectant, the efiiciency of which he had himself discovered 
in 1848. During the first year of the Civil war he was superintendent of the floating hospital for yellow 




John G. Johnson, M. D. 




fever patients in the lower bay, and again demonstrated the non-contagiousness of this disease by the person. 
From 1870 until 1S73 he was supervising commissioner of quarantine of the state of New York. When 
the National Board of Health was organized he was made an inspector of quarantine and rendered invalu- 
able service along the southern seaboard. He has written a great number of articles on sanitary matters, 
soil drainage, school hygiene, methods of heating, etc. The proceedings of many societies of which he is a 
member contain papers from his pen. He is author of " Knowledge of Living Things " [i860], which 
contains the germ of the germ theory of disease. He is also the author of "Climatology and Mineral 
Waters in the United States" [1S85]. In 1873 he founded The Sanitarian, a monthly magazine devoted to 
the interests of the public health. He is a member of the New York State Medical Society, New York 
State Medical Association, American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, American 
Climatological Association, Kings County Medical Society, Kings County Medical Association, New York 
Medico-Legal Society, honorary member Connecticut State Medical Society, corresponding member 
Epidemiological Society, London, etc. 

John Byrne, M. D., was born in Ireland, on October 13, 1825. His father, Stephen Byrne, who was a 
well-known merchant, sent him to the diocesan seminary at Belfast, at which institution and subsequently 
from private tutors, he received a thorough classical education. At the age of si.Kteen he matriculated at 
the Royal Belfast Institution and entered the General Hospital as a medical student. During the succeed- 
ing five years his medical education was pursued in the universities of Dublin, Clasgow and Edinburgh, 
from the latter of which he graduated in i8-f6. His course of study all through was based on the curricu- 
lum of the British navy, for which service he was intended and which at that period demanded a longer 
probation and extra branches not required by the colleges. During the Irish famine in 1847 he was 
appointed to full charge of one of the temporary fever hospitals, which he C(}nducted with marked success 
until its close. He came to the United States in 1848, and though soon after leaving his native land his 
appointment to the British navy was received he decided to remain here and settled in Brooklyn, where he has 
since practiced his profession. In 1857-8, in conjunction with the late Dr. Daniel Ayres, Dr. Louis Bauer, 
now of St. Louis, and a few generous lay friends, he obtained a charter for the Long Island College Hospital, 
which he helped to organize. About this period, owing to improved methods of investigation regarding the 
diseases of women, he decided to devote his best energies to the study and practice of this specialty and one 



6S2 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




John Byrne, M. D. 



of his earliest contributions to gynecological litera- 
ture, read before the New York Academy of Medicine 
in i860, was reprinted in various medical journals both 
here and in Europe. Since then his original papers 
and clinical reports on subjects connected with his 
specialty have been numerous and of acknowledged 
merit. In 1868 he was appointed surgeon-in-chief to 
St. Mary's Hospital for Women, a position which he 
still occupies. In 1882, on the completion of the first 
wing of St. Mary's Hospital on St Mark's avenue, he 
was entrusted with the duty of (organizing its medical 
and surgical staff. In 1869 he undertook an exhaust- 
ive series of experiments in electro-physics with the 
hope of being able to devise or construct a more per- 
fect apparatus than it was then possible to procure 
for the generation of heat by the galvanic current, 
and in 1876 he forwarded to the centennial exhibition 
at Philadelphia his well-known electro-thermal battery 
for surgical operations. The remarkable power of this 
little apparatus was then demonstrated before a select 
assemblage of scientists, including the late Emperor 
Dom Pedro, Sir William Thompson and others, all of 
whom were lavish in their expressions of approval. 
Through its agency and by ingeniously devised instru- 
ments he is said to have operated more frequently and 
with greater success in a class of diseases otherwise 
incurable than any other living surgeon. His remarkable statistics of nearly 400 operations for cancer, pub- 
lished ni 18S9, are now of world-wide note. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, a mem- 
ber of the American Medical Association, surgeon-in-chief to St. Mary's Maternity, chief of gynecological 
department and president of the faculty of St. Mary's Hospital, president of the American Gynecological 
Society, ex-president of the New York Obstetrical Society; corresponding member of the Gynecological 
Society of Boston, ex-president of the Brooklyn Gynecological Society and member of the State and Kings 
County Medical societies. 

John T. Conkling, M. D., was born in Suffolk 
County, L.I. , in 1825, but much of his early life was spent 
in the west. He graduated in medicine at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1855, and 
for thirty-seven years has been a busy practitioner on 
Brooklyn Heights. When the metropolitan health 
board, including the counties of New York, Kings and 
Queens, was organized in 1864, he was selected as the 
Brooklyn superintendent, and by untiring vigilance suc- 
ceeded in enforcing the new sanitary regulations now 
recognized as the basis of the good health of the city. 
His success in establishing the first ambulance service, 
his labors during the cholera epidemic of 1866 and his 
exertions in making the first contracts for the removal 
of garbage separate from other refuse, are a part of 
the city's history. When in 1873 the health depart- 
ment was reorganized, he was chosen one of the medi- 
cal members of the board, because of his experience 
and previous record. In 1874 he was again appointed 
a member and president of the health board. From 
1864 to 1870 he was a member of the board of educa- 
tion, and was instrumental in establishing the first 
graded course of study in the i)ublic schools. He is a 
member of the Kings County Medical Society, and was 
at one time its president. He is a member of the coun- ,..:...,..■ 
cil of the Long Island College Hospital and of the John t. conkling, M. D. 





JOHN F. TALMAGE, M. 1). 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



6S3 



Hamilton Club. His only son is Dr. Henry Conkling, who was graduated at tlie Long Island College Hos- 
pital and studied in London, England. After his return he associated himself with his father in the practice 
of medicine, and is now assistant physician and pathologist to St. Peter's Hospital. 

One of the oldest and most widely known practitioners in Brooklyn is Isaac H. B.4rber, M.D., attend- 
ing surgeon at the Kings County Hospital, and for the past twenty-five years connected with the Brooklyn 
Central Dispensary in almost every capacity from president down. He is one of the board of trustees of 
that institution. He was born in Florida, Montgomery County, N. Y., in 1829, and received an academic 
education in the academy of Amsterdam, N. Y. In 1851 he was graduated from the New York College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. He was appointed surgeon to the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, in which 
capacity he served for a term of years, passing through the noted epidemics of cholera and yellow fever, 
which were raging on the Pacific coast during the 
years 1853 and 1854. Retiring from the sea, he set- 
tled in Brooklyn in 1856, becoming a resident of the 
eleventh ward, where he still resides. He has practiced 
in this city constantly for the past thirty-six years as 
a general practitioner. He has served as surgeon to 
the Kings County Hospital a number of years. His 
membership in the Kings County Medical Society, the 
Practitioners' Club and the Physicians' Mutual Aid 
Association dates back for many years. He married in 
1856 Miss J. M. Freemyre. His son, Calvin F. Barber, 
is a physician, and is associated with him in practice. 

John Frelinghuysen Talmage, A. M., M. D., was 
born on March 11, 1833, at Mont Verd, near Somer- 
ville, N. J. In 1849 he entered Rutgers College at 
New Brunswick, passing over the freshman year and 
taking his place in the second term of the sophomore 
class. In 1852 he was graduated and for a term filled 
the chair of Latin and Greek in Orville University. 
About this time he decided to adopt the medical pro- 
fession and after studying a short time at Huntsville, 
Ala., he came north and attended a course of lectures 
in the medical department of the University of the 
City of New York. Deciding in favor of the then new 
school of homoeopathy, he studied with Dr. A. Cooke 
Hull, of Brooklyn, and in 1859 received a diploma 
from the University Medical College. After passing 
further time in Dr. Hull's office he became his pre- 
ceptor's partner and remained in that relation twelve years 
Brooklyn Orphan Asylum. For about a year he served in the department of diseases of women in the 
Brooklyn Homoeopathic Dispensary. When Asiatic cholera visited this country in 1866 he issued a circular 
of hints and suggestions. Though intended for private circulation only, it so admirably met the emergency 
that the leading newspapers of Brooklyn, New York and other cities printed it in their columns with highly 
favorable comment. His treatment of cholera cases at that time was extensive and successful to an extra- 
ordinary degree. After the death of Dr. Hull, Dr. Talmage associated with him in practice his brother, Dr. 
Samuel Talmage, who was also a graduate of the Medical College of the New York University. In 1863 
Dr. Talmage married Miss Maggie Hunt, the youngest daughter of Thomas Hunt. He has served at vari- 
ous times as surgeon of the nth Brigade, N. G., S. N. Y., visiting physician of the Brooklyn Homoeopathic 
Hospital and consulting physician of the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Nursery. He is a member of the Brook- 
lyn, Hamilton and Crescent Athletic clubs and the Zeta Psi Club, of New York. 

William Gilfillan, M. D., has been engaged in the practice of medicine in Brooklyn since i860, and 
has attained a high position in the profession by his knowledge and skill in both medicine and surgery. He 
was born near the historical city of Derry, in the north of Ireland, and comes of very old families on both 
sides. His father was assistant surgeon on the British ship " Dorothea " when that vessel and the " Trent " 
made their famous Arctic voyage ; he died in his young manhood. William Gilfillan went to Edinburgh in 
1850 at the age of seventeen and began to study medicine, prosecuting his studies under many advan- 
tageous circumstances. He received his degree on August i, 1854, having previously taken first senior 
prize in the practice of medicine and second prize in the practice of surgery. For a year he was house 
physician in the Royal Infirmary, and at the end of that time he was selected to accompany the Marchioness 




Isaac H, Barber, M. D. 
For a year he acted as physician of the 



684 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




William Gilfillan, M. D. 



of lUite and her son, the present Marquis, on a tour 
of the Continent, lasting several months, as physician 
to the lad, who then was ten years old ; the boy was 
a ward in chancery and under the English law it was 
necessary for a physician to accompany him. After 
his return he was made house surgeon in the Royal 
Infirmary. Deciding to come to America he was en- 
gaged in 1857 as surgeon on the Cunard line of steam- 
ships, and in May, 1858, he settled in St. Louis, Mo., 
where he soon built up an extensive practice. In 
November, 1859, he married Miss Carrie M. Ladd, of 
Throgg's Neck, N. Y., and as the climate of St. Louis 
did not agree with her he came to Brooklyn in Feb- 
ruary, i860. Here he became surgeon to the Long 
Island College Hospital and lectured on materia medica, 
meanwhile establishing a good practice. In 1869, after 
three years' service at the hospital, he resigned, owing 
to the opposition of the council of the hospital to what 
they regarded as innovations. From that time he de- 
voted himself to private practice, but he holds the hon- 
orary position of consulting surgeon to St. John's Hos- 
pital. He is a member of the Kings County Medical 
Society and the New York Academy of Medicine. 

J(jHN Li.ovn Zabriskie, M. D., has all his life been 
identified with the interests of Flatbush. Born there 
in 1831, of American parentage, of Dutch extraction, 
he received his education preparatory for college at the famous old Erasmus Hall Academy, of Flatbush, 
subsequently matriculating at the New York University, where he was graduated in 1850. In the autumn 
of the same year he entered the Medical College of the University, from which he was graduated in 1853. 
After serving one year as interne in the Kings County Hospital he began the practice of medicine in 1855 
and has since been one of its most respected general practitioners. He acted as health physician in Flat- 
bush from 1880 to 1890. He has long been a member of the local board of improvement. In this capacity 
he has actively assisted in securing better paved and 
lighted streets and great advancement in the sanitary 
condition of the town. He has been prominently iden- 
tified as well with the educational interests of Flatbush, 
having long been a trustee of Erasmus Hall Academy 
and a member of the local school board. He is a mem- 
ber of the Kings County Medical Society, and is con- 
sulting physician of the Kings County Hospital and 
the Long Island College Hospital. He has contributed 
frequently to the various journals of medical literature 
and his position as an able writer has long been assured. 
He married Eliza l!.Carvin,of Flatbush, in 1861. His 
handsome residence in Flatbush is adjacent to the Re- 
formed Church, of which he is a trustee and an active 
member. He is the secontl oldest physician in the 
town of Flatbush, his senior being Dr. Ingraham, who 
was at one time a student in the ofiice of Dr. Zab- 
riskie's father. Dr. John Zabriskie, who settled in Flat- 
bush in the year 1S30. 

One of the most respected homoeopathic physicians 
of Brooklyn is Dr. A\'im.i.a.m S. Se.\rle, an earnest and 
efficient worker in the cause of medical reform, who 
has been instrumental in securing legislation in New 
York of such evident value tliat other states have imi- 
tated it; and who continues to add to the arduous 
duties of a large general practice the burden of further 
labor in this direction. In 1868 he submitted to the John lloyd Zabkiskie, m. d, 




HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



68s 



state legislature a bill establishing a state board of examiners in medicine, and in an annual address 
before the state society he presented arguments in favor of the proposed legislation. His efforts and those 
of his sympathizers resulted in the law of 1872, under which was appointed the first state medical examin- 
ing board in America. That this reform was desirable needs no stronger evidence than the subsequent 
legislation of twenty-five other states, which have followed the example of New York in taking the licens- 
ing power from the medical colleges and placing it in the hands of state boards. Dr. Searle is a strong 
advocate of still wider reforms along the same line. He desires the estabhshnieiit of a national board, 
which shall have power to grant the honorary degree of " State Physician and Surgeon." His plan is to 
make this degree attainable only by candidates who have received the degrees of Pjachelor of Arts and 
Doctor of Medicine and a license to practice issued by some state board. In order to obtain this new 
degree candidates would be required to pass a rigid 
and practical examination from which, of the various 
branches of medical science, therapeutics alone would 
be excluded, this exclusion being made in order that 
"state physicians" might be exempt from those dis- 
tinctions of sect or school which have proved so serious 
hindrance to medical progress. In addition to this great 
work of reform Dr. Searle has busied himself with litera- 
ture, and has long been a welcome contributor to both 
the general and medical fields of the world of letters. 
Among his writings is a valuable work on nervous dis- 
eases. He has continuously been one of the medical 
examiners of New York state under the law of 1872, 
and for ten years he was chairman of the board ; he 
still holds his position as an examiner under the law 
of 1891. He was one of the founders of the Brooklyn 
Homoeopathic Hosijital, and has been a member of the 
hospital staff from the time of the opening of the in- 
stitution in 1874. His residence in ISrooklyn dates 
from 1869. For ten years previous to that he prac- 
ticed in Troy, N. Y. He was born in Bradford, Mass., 
in 1833, and is the son of the Rev. Moses C. Searle, a 
distinguished Presbyterian clergyman. After suitable 
preparatory study he entered Hamilton College, where 
he was graduated with honors in the class of 1855. 
His medical studies were begun at the University of 
New York, but he took his degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1859. 

Homer L. Bartlett, M. D., of Flatbush, is the son of Ellas Bartlett, one of whose paternal ancestors. Dr. 
Josiah Bartlett was heroically conspicuous during the stormy scenes of 1776-S3, and his mother was Eliza, 
daughter of El'eazar Wheelock, one of the first who preached the Gospel to the North American Indians. 
Homer L Bartlett was born at Jericho, Vt., and after acquiring a fair classical education he began to study 
medicine in the office of his father's family physician, Dr. J. Hamilton, of Jericho; and when that practitioner 
moved to Albany his pupil accompanied him, continued his studies and improved his advantages by attend- 
ing a lecture course at the Albany Medical College, having previously attended lectures at the College of 
Woodstock Vt At the end of a year he came to New York for the purpose of continuing his studies in the 
office of the late Professor Willard Parker. He also attended a course of lectures at the New York 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, during the winter of 1854-5S, from which institution he received his 
diploma in the latter year. At the time of his graduation the Kings County Hospital was under the direc- 
tion of Dr Thomas Turner, and Dr. Bartlett was appointed to a position under him as assistant physician 
His service at the institution was marked by an association with Dr. D. B. Simmons, afterwards medical 
missionary to Japan, in conjunction with whom Dr. Bartlett arranged a complete anatomical cabinet^ 
When his duties at the hospital had drawn to a close he narrowly escaped death from a severe a tack of 
erysipelas, which obliged him to spend the summer at his old home for the purpose of recruiting his 
shattered health. Toward the close of x8s6 he returned to New York, and, acting upon the suggestion of 
Dr. Parker, commenced practice in an office on Eighty-sixth street. He remained there exactly one week 
when an urgent demand was made for his services at New Utrecht, where Drs. Crane and Dubois had di d 
while fighting the yellow fever scourge. Without a moment's delay he accepted the call, viewing , a an 
imperatfve d!ty whfch he was not at liberty to decline. In New Utrecht he remained, manfully combating 




William S. Searle, M. D. 





Homer L. Bartlett, M. D. 

disease and alleviating suffering, until the subsidence of the 
fever. In the spring of 1857 he was urged to remove to Flat- 
bush, where he has since resided. He was at once appointed 
consulting physician to the Kings County Hospital, a post which 
he still occupies. He has conferred many benefits upon the 
town of which he is a resident; he was instrumental in organ- 
izing the first health board, and was health officer twelve years. 
He was also one of the originators and the first president of the 
police board. He is physician to the Kings County Peniten- 
tiary, a member of the Kings County Medical Society, a per- 
manent member of the American Medical Association, from 
which he was a delegate to the medical congress held in London 
in August, 1881; and he is a member of the Physicians' Mutual 
Aid Association. As a Mason Dr. Bartlett has become noted, 
RESIDENCE OF DR. BARTLETT, Flateush. ^^^-^^ j^^^,^ ^^^^^^^ ^f j^jg ^^^,„ lo^gg ^5,^66 tcrms and a facile 

and brilliant writer of masonic literature. His contributions to the press have been frequent and, besides 
his professional essays, he has delved into legends and historical records, and produced an attractive volume 
under the title of "Sketches of Long Island." In 1859 he married Margaret Strong Scott, daughter of 
Henry Scott, of Cooperstown, N. Y.; she died in 1876, leaving four children. In 1888 he married Harriette 
Forde Moore, daughter of William Moore, of Belfast, Ireland. Dr. Bartlett was one of the founders and 
the first president of the Midwood Club. 

Jarvis Sherman Wight, M. D., is a descendant of Thomas Wight, an emigrant from the Isle of Wight, 
1635, and was born at Centerville, Allegany County, N, Y., in 1834. After graduation from Tufts College, 
Mass., in 1861, he attended medical lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, and at 
the Long Island College Hospital, where he received his degree in 1864. He served a year as assistant 
surgeon in the volunteer army, and at the close of 1865 settled in Brooklyn, where in the Long Island Col- 
lege Hospital he has been surgeon to the dispensary, adjunct surgeon to the hospital, surgeon to the hos- 
pital, lecturer on diseases of the skin, professor of materia medica and therapeutics, professor of principles 
and practice of surgery, and professor of operative and clinical surgery, a position which he now holds; he 
was for many years registrar of the college. He is consulting surgeon at St. Mary's Hospital, and at the 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



687 




jARVis S. Wight, M. D. 



Eastern District Hospital and a member of the Kings 
County Medical Society, Brooklyn Surgical Society, 
New York State Medical Society, American Medical 
Association, American Academy of Medicine, Ameri- 
can Surgical Association, British Medical Association 
and the Society of Medical Jurisprudence, New York. 
He has performed many major operations, has invented 
various instruments and has written articles of both a 
professional and a literary character; he is the author 
of "The Weight and Size of the Body and its Or- 
gans;" " Myodynamics, or the Dynamics of the Mus- 
cles;" "A Memorial of Frank Hastings Hamilton, M. 
D.;" "A Biographical Memorial of O.W.Wight, M. 
D.;" and "Suggestions to the Medical Witness." He 
stands high as a medical witness, and is respected by 
judges, lawyers and juries. On January 9, 1871, he 
married Mary, daughter of Joseph Center. 

Alf.x.ander Hutchins, a. M., M. D., was born in 
New York city on January 24, 1835. He was gradu- 
ated at Williams College in 1857 with the highest 
honor of his class — that of valedictorian. Entering 
the New York Medical College he was graduated in 
i860, and was immediately appointed surgeon on the 
steamer "Star of the West" of the New York, New 
Orleans and Havana steamship line. This position he 
soon resigned to accept an appointment as house sur- 
geon in the public hospital on Blackwell's Island, where he remained until 1861, when he received a com- 
mission as surgeon in the United States navy. He served at the Brooklyn Naval Hospital and on the 
United States steamers "Wyandotte," "Harriet Lane" and "Massachusetts." In 1863 he resigned from 
the navy and began to practice privately in Brooklyn. From 1876 to 1879 he was president of the Medical 
Society of Kings County ; he is a life member of the Medical Society of the State of New York, of which 
he was president during the year 1882. He is consulting physician of St. John's, St. Mary's and the Long 
Island College Hospitals, and regular physician at the 
Brooklyn Hospital ; he was instrumental in founding 
Proceedings, the official journal of the Medical Society 
of Kings County, and in establishing the society's read- 
ing room and library. He is the author of several 
monographs and essays. The educational institutions 
of the city interest him and he was an organizer and 
is a trustee of Froebel Academy. He is a trustee and 
the secretary of the East Brooklyn Savings Bank, and 
is a prominent member of the Hamilton Club. Since 
1863 he has been connected with St. Matthew's Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church. For twenty-five years he was 
superintendent of the Sunday-school and for several 
terms was manager of the Brooklyn Sunday-school 
Union. 

Harrison Willis, M.D., for fifteen years has been 
one of the censors of the Kings County Homoeopathic 
Society, and two years its president. He is a de- 
scendant of that branch of the Willis family of which 
Nathaniel P. Willis, the author, was a conspicuous mem- 
ber, and traces his American ancestry back to 1640, 
when his forefathers came to this country and joined 
the Plymouth colony. Born in Rehoboth, Mass., in 
1836, he went to school at the Seekonk Classical Acad- 
emy, now in East Providence, R. I. He was gradu- 
ated at the Cleveland, Ohio, Homoeopathic Medical Col- 
lege in 1865, having previously attended lectures at 




Harrison Willis, M. D. 



688 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



the Pittsfield Medical College. He began to practice medicine in Clinton, N. Y., and came tp Brooklyn in 
i86S. For two years he attended obstetrical lectures and clinics at the Bellevue Hospital and the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons and began his surgical career with a series of clever operations that stamped 
him as an original, independent, and. highly capable operator. As a lecturer on gynecology he shows a rare 
faculty of engaging the attention and communicating instruction. He is the visiting surgeon of the Brooklyn 
Homoeopathic Hospital and consulting surgeon of the Brooklyn Memorial Hospital, the Brooklyn Mater- 
nity Hospital and the Brooklyn Nursery. His contributions to medical literature have been chiefly in the 
columns of the North American Journal of Homceopathy and the transactions of the State Homoeopathic 
Society. He is a member of the Lincoln Club. In 1866 he married Ellen White, of Pawtucket, R. L; she 
died in Brooklyn in 1S72, and in 1874 he married Isabella M. Mirrielees. His two oldest sons are now 
both practicing medicine, Harrison Willis, Jr., M. D., being at present resident surgeon at St. Martha's 
Sanitarium. 

Frederick WiLT.TA^r Wunderetch, M. 1)., who has been a successful practising physician in Brooklyn 
since 1869, began his medical education in a very practical wa}- as an apprentice to the druggist's business 

from which he went into the Union army as a hos- 
pital steward in the early days of the war ; and he per- 
fected it by thorough courses of regular study and a 
long service in both the army and the navy. He was 
born in Wittelde, Germany, in 1841. Until he was 
fourteen years old he attended school in his native 
land. Then he came to America and went to St. Louis, 
where in a short time he became apprentice to a drug- 
gist. He was appointed as a hospital steward in the 
army when the war began, and served in a general 
hospital at St. Louis until the fall of 1863. He took 
up the regular study of medicine while at this post of 
duty, and, after taking the course at the St. Louis 
Medical College, was graduated in 1864. After his 
graduation he passed e.xamination for appointment as 
acting assistant surgeon in both the army and navy 
and, receiving an appointment to the army, was as- 
signed to duty in the general hospital at Leavenworth, 
Kansas. Subsequently he was appointed as an acting 
assistant surgeon in the navy, and resigned from the 
army. On May 10, 1865, he was appointed assistant 
surgeon, having passed an e.xamination for that grade 
before a board of naval surgeons at the Naval Asylum 
in Philadelphia. After various tours of duty he was 
sent to the Brooklyn navy yard, and was attached to 
the receiving ship "Vermont" from June 10, 1867, 
until January 18, 1868. He was with Admiral Far- 
ragut on the cruise from Lisbon to the coasts of Hol- 
land and England, and then to Gibraltar and up the Mediterranean from AprH 29 until October 15, 
1868 In 1869 he was promoted to the grade of passed assistant surgeon, and served at the Marine 
Rendezvous at Washington, 1). C, during the summer of 1869, when he resigned to engage in private prac- 
tice establishing himself in Brooklyn in November of that year. For some time he w^as connected with the 
outdoor department of the Long Island College Hospital, and he was a member of the attending staff of St 
Mary s Hospital several years. Since January, 1883, he has been an attending surgeon at St Pete 




Fkkuerick W. Wunderlich, M. D. 



tal. He is 
Pathoh)!;! 



iter's Hospi- 



IS a member of tlie Medical Society of the County of Kings, Brooklyn Surgical Society, Brooklyn 
r u , ^ , ""f >'' 'American Medical Association, New York Academy of Medicine, Ueutschen Medic- 
Gesellschaft der Stadt New York, Brooklyn Germania Club, Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn Art Association, 
Long Island Historical Society and the Brooklyn Chess Club. 

John Lester Keep, M. I)., was born March ,8, 1838, in New Haven, Conn., and received his pre- 
hmin.u-y education at Lhelford Academy, Vt., and in Dr. Russell's Collegiate and Commercial Institute of 

iTn M 7' ?r "n 7 '' '"'■""' """'■'" "' ''^' ^'''^' ^"-^''''''^ ^"ll^y^- he ''^^ gi-aduated at the Hahne- 

Sle.r ?■?."'"''''''" "^ the class of x86o and at the New York Homoeopathic Medical 
,^7 '""'!,"''''' "f "^^^- ^' '"^aan the practice of medicine in Brooklyn in the spring of i860 and in 

Sa ahTo t A '"'" '^ ^"'''7' "' '"' ''■'' " ■'""" '•'"^'^•"' J---" "f ''- ""'-^ Ball line. He married, in 1865, 
Sarah Coit Avery, and they have three children. In 1867 he established the Gates Avenue Homoeopathic 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



689 




Dispensary, of which he is a trustee and medical 
director. He is consulting physician at the Brooklyn 
Homeopathic Dispensary and a member of the medi- 
cal staff of the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Hospital. He 
has been prominently identified with Brooklyn mili- 
tary organizations, being a life member of the 13th 
Regiment Veteran Association ; he was commissioned 
surgeon of the 13th Regiment in 1868 and of the 5th 
Brigade, N. G., S. N. Y., in 1S69. He was surgeon of 
the Second Division in 1880, was brevetted colonel in 
1883, and rendered supernumerary in 1884. His father, 
Lester Keep, M. D., was an old Brooklyn practitioner 
and his grandfather, John Keep, of South Lee, Mass., 
was a soldier in the revolution. Dr. Keep is a member 
of the American Institute of Homixopathy, a life mem- 
ber of the Long Island Historical and New England 
societies and a member of Altair Lodge, 601, F. & A. 
M., the Brooklyn, INIontauk and Crescent clubs and the 
New York and Philadelphia Medical College alumni 
associations ; he was vice-president of the New York 
Medical College Alumni .Association in 1890. He has 
been vice-president and necrologist of the Hahne- 
mannian College Association and for two years was 
secretary of the Kings County Homoeopathic Medical 
Society. It has been his custom for many years to 

spend the summer months at Shelter Island, at which J- Li^ster keep, m. d. 

place he has a pleasant cottage and is regarded as one of the leading men in the summer colony. 

William M. L. Fiske, M. D., is descended not only from one of the earliest and most honorable New 
England families, tracing its pedigree to Symond Fiske, Lord of the Manor of Stradhaugh, parish of Lax- 
field, county of Suffolk, England, who lived in the reigns of Kings Henry IV. and VI., but from a line of 
able, and in some cases celebrated physicians extending through several generations. Phineas Fiske, who with 
his sons, James, John and Thomas, settled at Wenham, Mass., was the pilgrim father of the family of Fiske 

in America. The father of Dr. Fiske was Almond D. 
Fiske, a manufacturer and inventor of note. Dr. Fiske 
was born in New York on May 10, 184 1. At the age 
of ten and after the death of his father the family 
removed to Chazy, Clinton County, N. Y., and later he 
attended the Bakersfield, Vt., and Champlain, N. Y., 
academies, where he prepared for college and the 
study of medicine, and in 1859 became a student at 
the New York Medical College. At the opening of 
the Bellevue Medical College he was one of the first 
to enter as a student there. Not long afterward, after 
passing a competitive examination, he was appointed 
one of the physicians at Blackwell's Island Charity 
Hospital and served eight months. In 1862 he en- 
listed in Co. A. of the 47th Regiment as a private 
soldier. After a month's service in the ranks he was 
appointed by General Morris to act as steward in the 
convalescent hospital, at Fort McHenry, and a few 
weeks later was promoted to be acting assistant post 
surgeon, in charge of the post hospital, and served 
in that capacity until the expiration of the regiment's 
three months' service. Returning to Brooklyn he 
again entered the Bellevue Medical College and was 
graduated in 1863. Immediately after his graduation 
he became a student of h(jnKcopathy with Dr. Albert 
Wright, of Brooklyn, and was graduated from the New 
William m. l. Fiske, m. d. York Homosopathic Medical College in 1864 After a 




6go 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



few months in private practice he was appointed acting assistant surgeon in the United States Army, and 
served until the close of the war. After the war he practiced two years in Aurora, 111., and five years in 
Rochester, N. Y. At the solicitation of Dr. Wright he returned to Brooklyn to become a partner with him, 
a relation which continued until the death of Dr. Wright in 1874. He associated himself with the chair of 
surgery in the Brooklyn Homoeopathic Dispensary and upon the organization of the Cumberland street 
hospital became one of its surgeons ; in 1882 he was unanimously elected medical director and president 
of staff. He was one of the founders of the Brooklyn, E. D., Homoeopathic Dispensary and was its president 
during a long period ; he is still consulting surgeon and trustee. He was one of the organizers and 
lecturers of the Brooklyn Maternity and Training School for Nurses; and is consulting surgeon for the 
Woman's Memorial Hospital, e.x-president of the Kings County Homoeopathic Society, president of the 
New York State Homoeopathic Society [1892], senior member of the American Lrstitute of Homoeopathy 
and member of the American Gynecological Society. He holds the honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the State Board of Regents. He was connected with the Smithsonian Institute, establishing the first 
weather bureau in Florida, previous to the organization of the present weather bureau service. 

Samuel Sherwell, M. D., who holds an honorable rank in the medical profession, came to America 
from his native country, England, under peculiarly interesting auspices. He was a lad of seventeen when 

the first Atlantic cable was laid in 1858 and through 
the courtesy of a family friend. Captain Hudson of the 
United States frigate "Niagara," he was the guest of 
that officer on the memorable cable-laying trip, and 
landed in New York in company with the late Cyrus 
W. Field on August 9 of the year just mentioned. He 
was born in 1841, near Plymouth, England, and is a 
grand-nephew of the late Augustus Graham, founder of 
the^ Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn Hospital and other 
local institutions. After coming to America, he began 
in 1864 to study medicine, and was graduated at Belle- 
vue Hospital in 1868, after which he served as resi- 
dent surgeon at the Brooklyn Hospital until the sum- 
mer of 1869. In the same summer he went to Europe, 
where he remained nearly two years, spending the 
greater portion of the time in study in Vienna. While 
he was abroad the Franco-German war began, in the 
fall of 1870, and he joined the Anglo-American ambu- 
lance corps at Sedan early in September. With this 
corps he served there and in the interior of France till 
the end of the campaign. When the war ended he 
received with his chiefs. Sir William McCormac and 
Marion Sims, the decoration of the cross of the mili- 
tary order of merit conferred by the Bavarian Govern- 
ment. In the summer of 187 1 he returned to Brook- 
lyn, and has been an active practitioner till the present 
time. He was appointed lecturer on dermatology at 
the Long Island College Hospital in 1877, and was made 
chnical professor m 1SS6 ; he retains the latter position. Since 1874 he has been surgeon to the skin and 
throat department of the Brooklyn Eye and Ear Hospital,and he has been visiting physician of the Brook- 
lyn Hospital since 1879. He is a member of most of the local medical societies, and he is a permanent 
member of the State Medical Society and the Academy of Medicine in New York. In 1881 he was elected 
president of the New York Dermatological Society; he was vice-president of the American Dermatological 
Society from 1879 until 1889, and at the present time he is president of the Brooklyn Dermatological Society. 
1 o the literature of his profession Dr. Sherwell has been a constant contributor. He has prepared valuable 
papers for the several learned societies in which he holds membership, and has written articles for several 
well-known medical publications. He has contributed to the Brook/yu Medical Journal from its inception. 
His social club connections are with the Germania and Riding and Driving clubs 

Military and club as well as social and medical circles have long been familiar with the presence of 
£.DwiN A LEWIS, M. D., for ten years surgeon of the 23d Regiment and professor of anatomy in the Long 
Island College Hospital. He was born in Naugatuck, Conn., in 1847 and settled in Brooklyn in 1875 He 
'TJlltTf ^™"!^^'^ ^°"ege i" 1870, and in 1873 was graduated with high honors at Bellevue Hospital 
I he two years intervening between his graduation and his settlement in Brooklyn were 




Samuel Sherwell, II. D. 



Medical College. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



691 




Edwin A. Lewis, M. D. 



spent by him in Bellevue Hospital as resident interne. 

He was made surgeon to the Brooklyn City Dispensary 

in 187s, and the year following, 1876, became surgeon 

to the 23d Regiment. He early identified himself with 

the best elements of Brooklyn life. He became a mem- 
ber of the Kings County Medical Society, the Brook- 
lyn Pathological Society, and the Brooklyn Surgical 

Society, and as well of the Brooklyn Excelsior and 

Germania clubs and the Union League Club, of New 

York. He served two years as police surgeon and two 

as fire surgeon under the administration of Mayor 

Low. He is visiting surgeon in the Brooklyn and the 

Long Island College hospitals and consulting surgeon 

to the Eastern District Hospital. His contributions to 

the medical magazines have given him a place among 

writers on scientific subjects. 

Arnold Welles Catlin, M. A., M. D., was born 

in Hudson, N. Y., on September 25, 1841, and came 

with his parents to Brooklyn when he was four years 

old. He made his preparatory studies for college at 

Dr. Richards' seminary in the old house at Litchfield, 

Conn., where Henry Ward and Harriet Beecher were 

born. Entering Yale College in 1858, he was gradu- 
ated in 1862 and at once began his medical studies, 

spending two years at the College of Physicians and 

Surgeons in New York city and his third year in the 

University of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1865. After serving honorably during the Civil war 

as an assistant surgeon he began practice in Philadelphia ; but later he returned to Yale to obtain the 

degree of Master of Arts and then went abroad to study in France and Germany. In the year 1868 he 

settled in Brooklyn, where he has since engaged in a successful practice. He has been connected with St. 

John's Hospital alm.ost from its inception as one of the attending physicians and was one of the first to 

move in the work of establishing the Home for Consumptives, serving also for a time on its staff. In the 

spring of 1880 he married Miss Cornelia W. Wood- 
' '"":" ward, of Brooklyn, and was left a widower the follow- 

ing year. Subsequently, in the fall of 1885, he married 
Miss Elizabeth L. Woodward. He has one son and 
one daughter. Benefaction attends tlie work of the 
skilled physician, and where there is added to skill the 
quality of heart which gives birth to personal interest 
in his patient, he becomes not only the medical coun- 
sellor, but the valued friend. Dr. Catlin is such a 
physician and his generous meed of success is the 
natural result of an absorbing interest in his art, and 
an unselfish, devoted love for his suffering fellow 
creatures. His belief that the work of healing is not 
confined to the weakened body, but extends to the 
broken spirit, is attested by a grateful and loyal fol- 
lowing. Love of literature is one of his strong charac- 
teristics and his extensive acquaintance with books 
and libraries has naturally called forth a deep interest 
in the cause of education by the free distribution of 
pure reading matter among the masses. He has been 
liberal with his time and means in forwarding this 
work and the Long Island Free Library, of which he 
has been president for many years, practically owes 
its existence to his guiding energy and ever zealous 
devotion. 

Joseph Howard Raymond, M. D., has long been 
ARNOLD Welles Catlin, m. d. identified with all that is most progressive in medical 




692 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

matters in Kings Count^^ He was born in Brool<lyn in 1845 and is a graduate of the Polytechnic Insti- 
tute ; he took his bachelor's degree at Willianrs College in 1866, and his degree in medicine at the Long 
Island College Hospital in 1868. The following year he received also a degree from the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons in New York ; and at about the same time was made a iVIaster of Arts by his alma 
mater. He then went to Europe and studied his profession in Paris and Berlin. Returning to this country 
in the summer of 1S70 he was appointed resident physician at the Nursery and Child's Hospital, and the 
Idiot Asylum on Randall's Island ; these positions he held until 187 1, when he was made resident physician 
and surgeon at the Brooklyn City Hospital. The following year he served for a short time as public vac- 
cinator, and at this time entered into practice. In the same year, 1872, he was appointed assistant to the 
chair of physiology in the Long Island College Hospital, and two years later he was made professor of that 
department, which position he still holds. His chair has, for the past ten years, also included sanitarv 
science, and he is secretary to the faculty. In 1876, he was appointed visiting physician to St. Peter's Hos- 
pital ; previous to this period, however, in 1873, he had become sanitary inspector, an office which he held 
up to the time when he was appointed sanitary superintendent in 1877. In 1882 he was appointed health 
commissioner by Mayor Seth Low, a position which he filled with ability and distinction during the four years 
of Mr. Low's mayoralty. Dr. Raymond's father, Israel Ward Raymond, was an old resident of Brooklyn, and 
with his brothers, John H. and Robert R. Raymond, was one of the founders of the Hamilton Literary 
Association, afterwards the Hamilton Club. I. W. Raymond was one of the earliest of California pioneers 
and was well known as a steamship man throughout the United States, being at one time vice-president of 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Dr. Raymond is a direct descendant of Richard Raymond, of Salem 
Mass., who was made a freeman (or citizen) of Massachusetts in 1634. He was a member of the first jury ever 
impanelled in Salem. His grandfather was Eliakim Raymond, who was prominent in the public, church and 
benevolent affairs of Brooklyn seventy years ago. On his mother's side. Dr. Raymond descends from Joseph 
Howard, of Salem, Mass., and afterwards of Brooklyn. He has made a reputation as editor of the Brooklyn 
Medical Journal ^'mce its first issue in 1888; as vice-president of the American Public Health Association; 
director of the Brooklyn Eye and Ear Hospital ; director, secretary and treasurer of the Hoagland Labora- 
tory; lecturer on physiology and hygiene in the Brooklyn Normal School for Physical Education ; member of 
the Medical Society of the County of Kings ; fellow of the Gynecological Society ; visiting physician of 
the Seaside Home at Coney Island ; medical adviser of the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, and trustee of 
the Polytechnic Institute. For the past eight years he has been a physician in the dispensary of the Long 
Island College Hospital, during the last five of which he has been connected with the department of 
diseases of women. In private practice he is associated with Dr. Alexander T. C. Skene. 

Samuel Flket Spi-;ir, M. D., is one of the most conspicuous characters among the physicians of Brook- 
lyn. He was born in this city, where he has always lived and here has been the field of those labors which 
have gained for him fortune and distinction. Combining the work of a general practitioner with the facili- 
ties of a specialist, he has made it possible for his patients to have under his own eye and amid home-like 
surroundings all the advantages of special treatment and hospital service. He maintains a private labora- 
tory of his own and three chemists to prepare his prescriptions. Four buildings are demanded for the 
wants of his various departments. He was graduated from the Medical Department of the University of 
New York in 1S60, with high honors, when twenty-two years of age. He is the son of a distinguished 
New York merchant, Robert Speir, and of Hannah Fleet Speir, a member of one of the oldest families on 
Long Island. Samuel Fleet, the grandfather of S. Fleet Speir, was a lineal descendant, in the fifth gene- 
ration, from Captain Thomas Fleet, the American ancestor of the Fleet family, who came to this 
country about 1650, and settled at Northport, near Huntington, L. I. The English patronymic was 
Fleetwood, the latter part of the name having been dropped on liis arrival in America by Captain 
Thomas Fleet, son of Sir William Fleetwood, an admiral in the English navy. Captain Thomas Fleet, 
previous to ccnning to this country, was an officer in the British navy and possessed of ample means ; he 
became one of the original patentees of Huntington, L. I. Dr. Speir was educated at the Polytechnic 
Institute and by a private tutor. After his graduation he went abroad, where he spent some eighteen 
months attending the various hospitals and clinics. He caused the introduction of the use of plaster of 
pans splints into the army of the Potomac, and received the thanks of the United States sanitary commis- 
sion. Upon his return from his second European trip in 1864, where his studies were chiefly in the direc- 
tion of ophthalmology and ot.jlogy, he was appointed surgeon of the Brooklyn Eye and Ear Infirmary. 
During this year he wrote a monograph on the " Pathology of Jaundice," for which he was awarded a gold 
medal by the American Medical Association. Among the other papers which have assisted to gain him a 
high reputation m medical literature an essay on a new method of arresting surgical hemorrhage by the 
artery constrictor won the " Merritt H. Cash prize," awarded by the New York State Medical Society. 
His plan of procedure has subsequently been embodied in the works on surgery of Professors Gross and 
Hamilton as well as of Bryant of Guy's Hospital, London. He is a member of the American Medical 




S. Fleet Spier, M. D. 



694 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Association, the New York State Medical Society, the New York Pathological Society, the Kings County 
Medical Society, and the New York Journal Association, a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
and by invitation a member of the " International Medical Congress " which was held in Philadelphia in 
1876. He has served as physician, curator and microscopist to the Brooklyn City Hospital, of which he is 
surgeon ; and he has served as surgeon in the tumor and cancer department of the Brooklyn City Dispen- 
sary and as demonstrator of anatomy to the Long Island College Hospital. He originated the Dispensary 
of the Helping Hand. In addition to his office at 162 Montague street he has one at Bensonhurst-by-the- 
Sea, where he has his summer home. To his foresight and liberality was due the establishment of the 
seaside sanitarium for children at Coney Island, of which he was the visiting physician ; he has long been 
a member of the board of trustees of the Children's Aid Society. He is president of the Robins Island 
Gun Club at Great Peconic Bay, L. I., an organization of which he was the founder. 

A native of Bath, Me., and a graduate of Bowdoin 
College, CH.4RLES Jewett, M. D., brought his habits 
of New England energy to a congenial field when he 
made his home in Brooklyn in 1867. About that time 
he began the study of medicine and was graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1871. 
In 1880 he received the appointment of professor of 
obstetrics and diseases of children in the Long Island 
College Hospital, a position which he still holds. He 
is also a member of the hospital staff and is recognized 
as one of the most eminent gynecological specialists 
in the country. He was for a time editor of the An- 
nals of the Anatomical and Surgical Society. He is the 
author of one or two well-known books in his specialty 
and of numerous papers on obstetrical and other sub- 
jects. Among the learned bodies with which he is 
identified are the Medical Society of Kings County, 
of which he was three times elected president, in the 
years of 1879, 1880, and 1881 ; the Brooklyn Gyneco- 
logical Society, the Brooklyn Pathological Society, the 
New York State Medical Society, the New York Acad- 
emy of Medicine, the New York Obstetrical Society, 
and both the British and American Gynecological soci- 
eties. He is a trustee of the Eye and Ear Infirmary 
and vice-president of the New York Physicians' Mutual 
Aid Society, a member of the New England Society 
and of the Union League Club of Brooklyn. He has 
been appointed honorary chairman of the obstetric 
section of the Pan-American Medical Congress for 1893. 

John D. Rushmore, M. D., is a member of the faculty of the Long Island College Hospital. His birth 
occurred in this city in 1845. In 1864 he was graduated from the Polytechnic and Collegiate Institute; he 
entered Williams College the same year, and was graduated in 1867. He received his degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York city, three years later. During one 
winter he served in the Child's Hospital, on Randall's Island, and the following year he served in the Brook- 
lyn Hospital. In 1872 he began practicing privately in connection with the late Dr. J. C. Hutchison; some 
six years later he associated himself with Dr. C. L. Mitchell, continuing until the death of Dr. Mitchell. He 
is professor of surgery at the Long Island College Hospital, attending surgeon to the Brooklyn Hospital, 
St. Peter's Hospital and the Brooklyn Eye and Ear Hospital. He is a member of the New York State 
Medical Association, New York Ophthalmological and Otological Society, New York Surgical Society, 
American Ophthalmological Society, American Otological Society, American Medical Association, and the 
American Surgical Association. He is also a member and an e.\-president of the King County Medical 
Association, and a member of the Hamilton Club. 

William Maddren, M. D., has been engaged in the practice of medicine in Brooklyn about twenty 
years and is one of those physicians who continually make a study of their profession. He was born in 
London, England, on August 14, 1845, and has lived in Brooklyn since 1857. His primary education was 
acquired at the public schools and under private instruction, and he studied medicine at the Bellevue 
Medical College, New York city, where he was graduated in 1873. For twenty years he has been con- 
nected with the Brooklyn Central Dispensary as attending physician in the department of diseases of 




Charles Jewett, M. D. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



695 




William Maddren, M. D. 



women and children, and surgery. He is a member 
of Kings County Medical Society and a permanent 
member of the Medical Society of the State of New 
York, treasurer of the Brooklyn Gynecological Society, 

and a member of the Brooklyn Pathological Society, 

the Practitioners' Club of Brooklyn and the New York 

Physicians' Mutual Aid Association. His contributions 

to medical literature have been of a practical and 

valuable character, including a paper on " Trichinosis," 

published in the " Proceedings of the Medical Society 

of the County of Kings, August, 1879," an article on 

"The Complications and Sequelse of Typhoid Fever," 

in the Brooklyn Medical Journal of December, 1889; 

and " A Few Remarks upon the Brandt System of 

Treatment of the Diseases of Women," published in 

the same journal in May, 1892. 

John E. Richardson, M. D., was born in Albany, 

N. Y., on February 28, 185 1. He is the son of William 

and Mary Richardson. In April, 1865, he removed with 

his parents to New York city and in November, 1867, 

they made Brooklyn their residence. He entered the 

Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, taking the liberal 

course. From there in 1873 he went to the College 

of Physicians and Surgeons of New York city. From 

this college he was graduated in 1877, being chosen 

president of his class ; he was also one of the honor 

men of his class. After graduation he became an interne in the Brooklyn Hospital, in which institution he 

served in both the medical and surgical wards a year and a half. At the expiration of this period he left 

the hospital and went to Europe, spending considerable time in the hospitals of Vienna, Berlin and London, 

under the personal instruction of such men as Profs. Von Langenbeck, Billroth, Politzer, Hebra, Virchow, 

Tobold, Lister, Jonathan Hutchinson and Morrell Mackenzie. After spending nearly a year and a half in 

Europe he returned to Brooklyn, and in January, 1880, commenced the practice of his profession. Among 

the different professional positions of honor which he 
has held have been those of police surgeon for five 
years, surgeon to the Brooklyn Orthopedic Infirmary, 
physician to the Sheltering Arms Nursery, the Baptist 
Home and surgeon to the Atlantic Avenue Railroad 
Company and the Long Island Railroad Company. He 
is a member of the Kings County Medical Society, 
the Kings County Medical Association, the Brooklyn 
Pathological Society, the Brooklyn Surgical Society, 
the New York Academy of Medicine and the Phy- 
sicians' Mutual Aid Association. He has written many 
articles on subjects of interest to the profession which 
he has read before the different societies of which he 
is a member. He is a member of the Emmanuel 
Baptist Church, and of the Oxford, Germania and 
Riding and Driving clubs. 

William H. B. Pratt, M. D., is one of the leading 
family physicians in Brooklyn and has been established 
a number of years in the twenty-second ward, his home 
being at 94 Sixth avenue. He was born in Brooklyn, 
in 1842, and after attending school in Hartford, Conn., 
entered Yale College in the class of 1864, with which 
he was graduated. Taking the full course of study at 
the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons, he 
was graduated from that institution in 1867 and supple- 
mented his medical education by twelve months' service 
John e. Richardson, m. d. as an interne at Bellevue Hospital, New York. This 




^ 



696 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




he followed up by three years of study in Vienna, 
where he took a general course. He devotes himself 
to family practice, but he was visiting physician at 
the Methodist Episcopal Hospital from its opening 
until April, 1892, and he is now consulting physician 
at that hospital. He is a member of the Kings 
County Medical Society and is a contributor to its 
annals. Otb.er organizations iu which he holds mem- 
bership are the Yale Alumni Association, the Skull and 
Bones Society of Yale, the Psi Upsilon fraternity, the 
Carleton and the Riding and Driving clubs. He is a 
past master of Orion Lodge, 717, F. & A. M. In 1876 
he married Miss Mary H. Houghton, of Brooklyn, and 
they have two sons and one daughter ; the family 
attends Grace M. E. Church, in which Dr. Pratt holds 
the office of trustee. 

One of the oldest and most respected of the long 
established practitioners of the city is Dr. Stephen 
Chandler Grigos. He comes of an old family, dis- 
tinguished through many generations in the annals of 
New England. He was born at Pomfret, Conn., in 
1S19, and received a liberal education at Brown Uni- 
versity. For several years he taught school in Massa- 
chusetts and subsequently in Maryland, but turning 
to the study of medicine, he took his degree at the 

New York University in 1S49 and in the following wiluam h. b. Pratt, m. d. 

year began to practice in Danielsonville, Conn. L: 1858 he married Miss Harriet Backus, of the well- 
known New England family of that name, and in i860 settled in Brooklyn, where he soon acquired an 
extensive practice and became the valued friend as well as medical advisor of many of the leading families 
of the city. Always a generous friend and helper to the younger generation of physicians, he enjoys the 
esteem of all his fellows in the Kings County Medical Association, of which he has been a member for 
more than thirty years. His unfailing modesty prevented him from accepting the presidency of the asso- 
ciation, which was offered to him. At different times 
he has been connected in an official capacity with the 
Orphan Asylum Society, the Home for Destitute Chil- 
dren, and the Central Dispensary ; he is at present 
consulting physician in the Bedford Dispensary. Dr. 
Griggs is not a specialist, but his most extensive 
experience has been in the obstetrical branch of medi- 
cal science, in which he is recognized as one of the. 
most competent authorities. He has an intense and 
genuine love of nature and his close personal obscr- 
vatit)n has given him a minute knowledge of the habits 
of birds and the peculiarities of flowers. His earlyfond- 
ness for hunting and llshing has never deserted him and 
his aim is still as steady and his skill as great as among 
his native hills of New England half a century ago. 

'Phe "president of the Brooklyn Surgical Society 
for 1891-92, Hi'.NRY ^V. Rand, M. D., is a physician 
who has won distinguished consideration from the 
citizens of Brooklyn, as well as from his colleagues in 
the medical profession. He is clinical professor of 
genito-urinary diseases m the Long Island College 
Hospital, a'ld is lecturer on surgery in the reading 
term. Pie was born in Nova Scotia in 185 1, and gradu- 
ated at Acadia University in 1873, receiving subse- 
quently the degree of i\Lister of Arts. After graduation 
he studied in Bellevue Hospital Medical College and 
took his degree as Doctor of Medicine in 1877, obtaining 




Henry W. Rand, M. D. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



697 




Prank E. West, M. D. 



a prize for his final examination in obstetrics. He 
was tlie same year appointed resident physician and 
surgeon in the Brooklyn Hospital, after which he was 
appointed attending surgeon to the Brooklyn Ortho- 
pedic Infirmary, filling the latter position four years. 
For several years he was visiting physician to the Home 
for Destitute Women and Children, on Concord street, 
and had charge of the department of -diseases of 
women at the Atlantic Avenue Dispensary. During 
this period he was also surgeon-in-ordinary at the Long 
Island College Hospital dispensary. In 1884 he was 
appointed attending surgeon to the Long Island Col- 
lege Hospital and in 1890 to St. John's Hospital, and 
he is filling both positions at the present time. He 
has contributed a number of articles to medical jour- 
nals, mostly on surgical topics. He is a member of 
the Kings County Medical Society, Brooklyn Surgical ^ 

Society, Brooklyn Pathological Society and Physicians' 
Mutual Aid Association. 

Frank Eliot West, M. D., professor of materia 
medica, therapeutics, and clinical medicine, in the 
Long Island College Hospital, was an active agent for 
the relief of suffering in Brooklyn's greatest tragedy, 
the burning of the Brooklyn Theatre in December, 
1876. As the surgeon attached to the ambulance from 
the Long Island College Hospital, he was called to 
the scene of the calamity while the. living were yet entombed within the smoking walls. During the awful 
scenes which ensued his efficient service, his energy and devotion won him a reputation and a grateful 
recognition in the memory of the people. He was born in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1851, and obtained the degree 
of Master of Arts from Williams College in 1872. His degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred by the 
Long Island College Hospital in 1876 ; and until 187S, when he finally settled in Brooklyn, he acted as 
interne in that institution. Although making a specialty of diseases of the chest, his general practice has 

embraced every department of his profession, and 
success has attended his efforts. He was made a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the Long Island College Hospital 
in 1886, but he had been teaching since 1881. His 
lectures were principally on physical diagnosis, and 
diseases of the kidneys, heart and lungs. As physician 
to the Brooklyn Throat Hospital and the Long Island 
College Hospital he is constantly e.xtending the scope 
of his usefulness. He was president of the Kings 
County Medical Society in 1891, and is now one of its 
trustees. He is a member of the Physicians' Mutual 
Aid Society, the New York State Medical Society, the 
New York Academy of Medicine, and of the Hamilton 
and Cermania clubs of Brooklyn, and the Alpha Delta 
Phi Club, of New York. 

John C. Sh.\w, M. D., is the professor of mental 
and nervous diseases and the consulting physician on 
the same specialties at the Long Island College Hos- 
pital. He was born in the island of Jamaica, West 
Indies, in 1845. Lie came to the LTnitcd States for the 
purpose of studying medicine, and attended lectures 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New 
York, receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
1862. For a time he continued to combine the study 
and practice of medicine after the manner of young 
physicians, but in 1878 he became superintendent of 
ToHN c. Shaw, M. D. the Kings County Insane Asylum. After resigning 




^ir 



698 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Charlks L. Donnell, M. D. 



that post he was appointed to fill various other import- 
ant positions, until he formed his present connection 
with the Long Island College Hospital. He is the 
consulting physician on nervous diseases at St. Catha- 
rine's Hospital and in several sanitariums which make 
the treatment of these disorders a specialty. He is 
the author of a number of papers on various branches 
of this subject, and of a te.xt-book on the "Essentials 
of Nervous Diseases and Lisanity." 

Among the homceopathists in Brooklyn who have 
commanded success and distinction is Charles L. 
BoNNF.i.i,, A. M., M. D. Born in Brooklyn in 1846, 
he was graduated at the Wesleyan University in 1868 
and received the degree of A. M. from his alma mater 
in 1S71. He was graduated in the spring of that year 
from the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadcliihia, 
after two years' preliminary study in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, and settled to 
practice in Brooklyn in 1872. He has been president 
of the Kings County Homoeopathic Medical Society 
two terms and for five years chief of staff in the Homoa- 
opathic Hospital, to which he is visiting surgeon. He 
is a member of the New York State Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, has been a director eight years of 
the Brooklyn Young Men's Christian Association and 
is a member of the Montauk Club. He is prominently 
connected with the Hanson l^lace Methodist Episcopal Church, and has been secretary of its board of trustees 
eighteen years. He was si.x years on the staff of the ISrooklyn Maternity and has been a lecturer to the training 
school for nurses both in that institution and the Homoeopathic Hospital. He is ecjually well known in social 
and in professional circles. On both sides his family has long been identified with Brooklyn. His father, 
Nathaniel Bonnell, who died in 1873, was an '^^'^ Brooklynite and his mother's father, the distinguished Shepard 
Lewis, dated his connection with Brooklyn back almost to the revolutionary days when it was a village. 

A high rank among general practitioners is held 
by Julio J. La^liurid, M.D ,who has been established ■ ™,^,,.„..,_^.^^,;__„^ 

in Brooklyn a score of years. He was born in Barran- 
quilla. United States of Colombia, on April 14, 184S, 
and is a grandson of the late Bishop Antonio Lama- 
drid. He was educated at the CoUegio de Lavalle y 
Pombo in the town of Carthagena. Coming to New 
York in 1866 he studied at the Manhattanville College 
and later at the New York University. He was gradu- 
ated from the medical college of the LTniversity of 
Pennsylvania in 1871, and established himself in medi- 
cal practice in Middletown, Orange County, N. Y., 
where he remained two years; at the end of that time 
he moved to Brooklyn and opened an office at 412 
Greene avenue. He has remained there ever since, 
and has built up a large practice. Among many valu- 
able papers which he has written in connection with 
his profession are: " Railroad Fractures, Amputation," 
and " On Fistulous Opening over the Sacrum, contain- 
ing Llair," both published in the Philadelphia Alcdical 
Times in 1873; " 'Phe Lifluence on the Lifant of aMedi- 
cmes, Particularly Narcotics, Administered to the 
Mother during Pregnancy and I^abijr," American Jour- 
nal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Children [1877 J; "A 
Supposed Case of Melancholia," read before the Medi- 
cal Society of the County of Kings and published in the 
"Proceedings" of that year; " .V Case of l^ierperal Julio j. Lamadrid, M. D. 




HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 699 

Convulsions in Eighth Month of Utero-gestation before and after Delivery, Successfully Treated by Chloro- 
form and the Induction of Premature Labor, with Remarks on the Treatment," American Journal of 
Obstetrics and Diseases of Children, 1878; "A Case of Opium Poisoning treated by large doses of Atropia 
hypodermically; Recovery," Philadelphia J/<?(?iVa/ Times, 1878; " Pruritus Hiemalis," and " Camphor Poison- 
ing, followed by Symptoms of Acute Gastritis; Recovery," both published in the same journal in 1879; "A 
Case of Labor complicated by a Narrow Pelvis and Prolapse of the Cord," "Craniotomy, with remarks," 
proceedings of the Medical Society of the County of Kings, 1S80; "Treatment of Post-partum Hemor- 
rhage," same journal, 1881. 

A. Wilbur Jackson, M. D., is a native of New York, in which city he was born in 1848. His early 
education was obtained at the Polytechnic Institute of this city, whence he went to Yale College. In 1867 
he received his degree of Doctor of Medicine from the Berkshire Medical College, in Pittsfield, Mass., and 




A. Wilbur Jackson, M. D. 



at once became a special practitioner in Brooklyn. He has made a special study of mental and nervous 
diseases and electro-therapeutics, and has largely treated " morphinomania " and chronic alcoholism, both 
in this country and Europe. In Paris he acted as the colleague of Dr. Oscar Jennings. He is a member of the 
Electro-Therapeutic Society of Paris, and a fellow of the Scientific Society of London. He is the author of 
many medical works and pamphlets, and has invented several medical instruments greatly admired by pro- 
fessional men. He was at one time head of a hospital in this city, devoted to the treatment of diseases 
induced by excessive indulgence in morphine or alcohol. He removed to New York in 1S92, and is at 
present an examiner for the New York state commission in lunacy. 

George McNaughton, M. D., is a Scotchman by ancestry and a New Yorker by birth. His academic 
education was received in Monroe County, N. Y., where he lived from the time of his birth, in 1856, 
until his removal to New York to attend the lectures at Bellevue Hospital, from which institution he was 
graduated in .878. After a hospital course of one year in Jersey City he settled in Brooklyn m 18S.. He 
was the first man appointed under the civil service rule as assistant sanitary inspector to the board of 
health, a capacity in which he served four years. He is a member of the Kings County Medical Soae y^th 
Brooklyn Gynecological Society and the New York Academy of Medicine, and ,s a delegate to the New 



700 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




George McNaughton, M, D. 



York State Society. He is the assistant gynecologist 
at tlie Long Island College Hospital and was formerly 
connected with the Brooklyn Central Dispensary and 
the Long Island College Hospital Dispensary, in the 
latter of which he has charge of the department of dis- 
eases of women. In his practice he makes a specialty 
of gynecology. He has contributed a number of valu- 
able papers to various medical journals, among which 
have been noticeable those on " Extra Peritoneal Hfem- 
atocele," on " Primary Cancer of the Pancreas," and 
"Separation of the Synphyses Pubis during Labor." 
Dr. McNaughton demonstrated for the first time in 
Brooklyn O'Dwyer's method of intubing the larnyx. 
He is a member of the Practitioners, the Brooklyn, 
Oxford, Crescent and Aurora Grata clubs. 

Wii.i-iAM Morris Butlf.r, M. D., specialist on ner- 
vous diseases, has done much to advance the cause of 
homoeopathy in l^rooklyn. As an author of many pam- 
phlets presenting the claims of homoeopathy, and on 
the treatment of nervous diseases and on the care of 
the insane, he has often attracted public attention since 
he settled in Brooklyn in 1883 ; and his brother physi- 
cians recognized his abilities in January, 1892, by elect- 
ing him president of the Is.ings County Homoeopathic 
Society and by sending him as one of the fourteen 
candidates from whom were to be chosen seven to rep- 
resent the homoeopaths on the state board of medicine. He was born in Maine, N. Y., in 1850, and was 
educated at Cortland Academy and Hamilton College, receiving his degree from the New York College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and from the American Institute of Homoeopathy and Hahnemann. He settled 
in Brooklyn in 1883. Prior to that time he had been connected with the State Homoeopathic Hospital 
for the insane at Middletown for nine years ; he received its first patient. During his terra of service 
he was given one year's leave of absence to study abroad. He passed the winter of 1877-8 attending lectures 
in the School of Medicine of Paris and taking a special 

course of lectures under Dr. Charcot and private clini- .v.,-. - : - xi^'st;- ;-. 

cal instruction in La Salle Detoriese, the great nervous 

disease hospital of France in which 4,000 women are . - 

confined. He is the visiting physician having charge 
of nervous diseases in the Brooklyn Homoeopathic 
Hospital, consulting physician in the Brooklyn Me- 
morial Hospital and lecturer in the Training School for 
Nurses. He is a member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy, the International Hahnemannian Asso- 
ciation, and the New York State Homoeopathic So- 
ciety. His treatise on " Home Care of the Insane" is 
considered one of the most valuable of his contro- 
versial papers. 

Glentwokth Reid Butler, M. I)., was born in 
Philadelphia in 1854 and came with his parents to 
Brooklyn when eleven years old. He is the son of the 
Rev. J. Glentworth Butler, D. D. After preliminary 
preparation at Professor I)avids(jn's Academy he en- 
tered Hamilton College, from which he was graduated 
in 1877. Three years later he was made a doctor of 
medicine by the Long Island Cdllege H(jspital and 
served as interne in that institution one year. This 
position he resigned to become a visiting physician at 
St. Mary's Hospital in cliarge of the department of 
diseases of the chest. He discharged the functions of 
this office during the period from 1882 to 1891, acting William m. butler, m. d, 




HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



701 




also through two years of this time as visiting phy- 
sician for the Hospital for Mental and Nervous Dis- 
eases. He was for five years the president of the staff 
of the Atlantic Avenue Dispensary and for two years 
was adjunct physician at St. John's Hospital. He was 
the first assistant at the Methodist Episcopal Hospital, 
with which he has been connected since its inaugur- 
ation and since February, i8gi, has been attending 
physician. He is also the physician to the Training 
School for Nurses, and is one of the lecturers in the 
course of instruction there. He has published a text- 
book entitled " Emergency Notes," besides various 
articles in the New York Medical Journal, the Brooklyn 
Medical Journal and elsewhere. He is a member of 
the Medical Society of the County of Kings, of which 
he is the censor and assistant secretary ; he is also a 
member of the Gynecological Society, the Pathological 
Society, the Climatological Society and a delegate to 
the State Medical Society, 

Born in Ohio, of directly American, but remotely 
Scotch ancestry, John A. McCorkle, M. I)., received 
his degree in medicine from the University of Michigan 
in 1873, taking a second degree at the Long Island Col- 
lege Hospital in the same year and settling in Brook- 
lyn in the year of his graduation. He had obtained 

John A. McCORKLE, M. D. ,. ... ■ ^ n .^ r ^ ■ ■ • TT- /-^ II 

his prehminary mtellectual training in Hiram College, 
at that time under the direction of the late President Garfield. In 1874 he was appointed lecturer on 
chemistry at the Long Island College Hospital, and shortly after acted as chemist to the Brooklyn board, 
of health, establishing the present excellent chemical laboratory in connection with this department of the 
city government. He resigned this position only in deference to the claims of his general practice. In 
1880 he received the appointment of professor of materia medica and therapeutics at the Long Island 
College Hospital, holding this position until 1886, when he was appointed to the chair of theory and practice 
of medicine and clinical medicine, made vacant by the 
death of the late Professor Samuel G. Armour, M. D., - 
LL. D. Since 1881 he has also held the position of 
vis. ting physician to the hospital. He is a member of . 

Kings County Medical Society, of which he was presi- 
dent two terms. He is also a member of the Kings 
County Pathological Society, the New York Academy 
of Medicine, the Hamilton, Crescent and Excelsior 
clubs. He has made a number of contributions to 
medical literature on the subjects of therapeutics and 
general medicine, but has more especially devoted him- 
self to didactic and clinical teaching in the institution 
with which he has been connected during the whole 
of his professional career. 

The name of Elias Hudson Bartley, M. D., has 
been familiar to Brooklynites for half a decade. As 
chief chemist of the health department, he made dur- 
ing his six years' term analyses of Brooklyn's wells 
that were read all over the world ; and his reports on 
food supplies were topics of periodical interest and dis- 
cussion. He is professor of chemistry and toxicology 
and lecturer on diseases of children in the I, ong Island 
College Hospital and attending physician at the Shel- 
tering Arms Nursery. Born in Bartleyville, N. J,, he 
was graduated from Cornell University in 1873 with 

the degree of Bachelor of Science, and was appointed 

instructor in analytical chemistry at his alma mater 




EUAS H. Bartley, M. D. 



702 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




William Browning, M. D. 



in 1S74. His chemical investigations led him to study 
medicine. He resigned a lucrative professorship in 
Strathmore College and began his studies in Philadel- 
phia. After one year there he entered the Long Island 
College Hospital and settled in Brooklyn as a practising 
physician. He is a member of the Medical Society of 
the County of Kings, the Brooklyn Pathological Society, 
the American Chemical Society, the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science, the American 
Public Health Association and the Kings County Board 
of Pharmacy. His work, " Elements of Medical Chem- 
istry," is a standard te.xt book. The annual reports of 
the health department from 18S4 to 1889 furnish other 
evidences of his erudition. 

One of the physicians in Brooklyn to whom the 
profession is indebted for the infusion in current prac- 
tice of some of the best influences of the German School 
is WiLi.iAM Browning, M. D. He was born in Brook- 
lyn and was graduated from the Sheffield Scientific 
School of Yale College in 1876, and in 18S1 from the 
University of Leipsic, from which he received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine. Returning to New York 
in the same year he at once received the appointment 
of house physician at the German Hospital, and estab- 
lished himself in Brooklyn in the following year. Since 
1883 he has been neurologist to the Long Island Hos- 
pital Dispensary, and since 1887 he has acted as lecturer on anatomy and physiology of the nervous system 
at the Long Island College Hospital. He is a member of the editorial staffs of the Annals of Surgery and 
the Brooklyn Medical Journal, and a member of the Brooklyn Society for Neurology, the Association of 
American Anatomists, and the American Neurological Association. His contributions to medical literature 
have been many and have attracted wide attention. 

Henry Bullwinkle, M.D., superintendent of the Hospital for Contagious Diseases, is widely known in 

Brooklyn, and his professional ability and social qual- 
ities have made him popular. His father and mother 
left Hanover, Germany, in 1848, and on coming to 
America settled in Brooklyn, where Dr. Bullwinkle 
was born on September 24, 1865. Having studied at 
public school No. 3 and St. Luke's Academy, he be- 
came a student with Dr. Pennoyer, who prepared him 
for a course of study at the Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College. He was graduated in 1888, and he secured 
practical e.^perience in surgery in the surgical depart- 
ment of the Ninety-ninth street Reception Hospital in 
New York and then in St. Catharine's Hospital, Brook- 
lyn. During this period he was appointed a food 
inspector in the department of health, and held the 
position until he was appointed superintendent of the 
Hospital for Contagious Diseases in iSgi. He is an 
earnest, studious physician, and brmgs to bear upon 
his work a combination of knowledge, skill and keen 
observation that promises to have a marked influence 
in developing that branch of medical science which 
deals with contagious diseases, although it is his ulti- 
mate aim to engage in general practice. He is coura- 
geous and indefatigable, and shrinks from no responsi- 
bility. An adventure which he had on April 10, 1892, 
was an illustration of the man's indomitable will, for 
he took a young small-pox patient from a house in 
lower Sackett street at the peril of his own life. The 




Henry Bullwinkle, M, D. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



703 




Joshua M. Van Cott, Jr., M. D. 



patient was a boy whose father objected to his being 
taken from their home, which was in a crowded tene- 
ment building, and sent two pistol balls whizzing past 
the doctor's ears when the removal was begun. The 
boy's life was saved by skillful treatment, and the 
father thanked the man he had tried to kill. Dr. Bull- 
winkle is a firm believer in the Democratic party, but 
is prevented by his position from taking an active part 
in politics. He married on June 8, 1892, Miss Rost, of 
Brooklyn. 

Joshua Marsden Van Cott, Jr., M D., son of 
the Hon. J. M. Van Cott, was born in the city of New 
York in i86i,and his residence in Brooklyn began one 
year later. His primary education was acquired at the 
Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, and he 
afterward obtained a thorough business education in 
Wall street, with the banking firm of Blake Bros. & Co. 
In 1882 he commenced the study of medicine, which 
had been always a fixed purpose with him, matricu- 
lating at the Long Island College Hospital. In 1885 
he was graduated, and received appointment as interne 
on the house staff of the hospital, serving there si.Kteen 
months. Leaving the hospital in the summer of 1886 -ij 

he was appointed to the department of histology and ;, 

pathological anatomy in the Long Island College Hos- 
pital as adjunct to the chair and also a physician-in- 
ordinary to the out-patient department, holding there the chair of diseases of children. In the fall of 1888 
he went to Berlin, Germany, spending si.x months with Professor Koch in the study of bacteriology, and 
three months in the study of general pathology with Professor Rudolph Virchow, at the Pathological Insti- 
tute of the Berlin University. He visited all the important hospitals and laboratories in Germany, Austria, 
the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and some of the medical institutes in London, returning home ate in the 
summer of 1889. He was then appointed a surgeon-in-ordinary to the out-patient department at the Long 

Island College Hospital, pathologist to the hospital 
■ ■• and adjunct professor of pathology. When tht Broo/i- 

.ii- , ■ . ■ ' fyn Medical Journal was founded he accepted the 

^^Bp charge of the department of pathology under the gen- 

eral head of " Progress in Medicine," a function which 
he still performs. In 1891 Professor Frank Ferguson 
resigned the chair of pathology at the college and Dr. 
Van Cott was appointed his successor. In the same 
year, it being deemed advisable by the regents to send 
to Berlin for the Koch lymph. Professor Van Cott was 
chosen to fulfill this mission, which was accomplished 
between January 19 and February 17, 1891. Dr. Van 
Cott is director of the department of pathology at the 
Hoagland Laboratory ; he is a member of the Kings 
County Medical Society, New York Pathological Soci- 
ety, pathologist to the Brooklyn Ciynecological Society 
and president of the Brooklyn Pathological Society. 
' He is a member of Dr. Storrs' church, and maintains 
his social relations as a member of the Hamilton and 
Crescent y\thletic clubs. 

George Smith, M. D., was born in Milton, Ulster 
County, N. Y., on November 12, 1843, and inherited a 
splendid physique and a perfect constitution. Having 
laitl the foundations of a broad culture by study at the 
academies of his native town, he entered upon the study 
of medicine with a zest and enthusiasm born of keen 
George Smith, m. d. love for his work. Circumstances forced him to earn 




7°4 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




the money to pay for his medical education and he 
cheerfully accepted the conditions. He was graduated 
at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College in 
i86g, with an excellent record, and started immedi- 
ately to build up a practice. He is a typical family 
doctor of the old type. He has never been a specialist, 
written text-books nor attached himself to exacting 
hospital work. He has just visited the sick, year in 
and year out, day after day without easing the strain, 
and night after night. without seeking his bed. He has 
never spared himself. This industry was prodigious 
and his practice grew apace with resultant growth of 
his wealth and reputation. What spare time he found 
he gave to his family and now and then to a day in 
the woods with a gun and a dog. His family and pro- 
fessional necessities demand two houses, his residence 
being in the large brownstone house on the corner of 
Greene and Reid avenues, and his offices occupying 
the adjoining residence. 

Reuben Jefferv, M. E., M. D., is a Brooklyn phy- 
sician whose great-grandfather and grandfather were 
physicians of marked ability and ranked among the 
foremost medical men of their day. His father, the 
late Rev. Reuben Jeffery, D. D., was the first pastor of 
the iVlarcy Avenue Baptist Church and by his elo- 
reube.n jEFFERi, . . qucuce aud persoual quallties was cnablcd to bulld Up 

the largest congregation and Sunday-school of that denomination in Brookl3'n. Dr. Reuben Jeffery is one 

of the younger physicians of the city. He was born in Philadelphia, Pa., on October 14, i860. He had the 

educational advantages of the Adelphi Academy of Brooklyn, Colgate University, Columbia College School 

of Mines, the University of Colorado and the Long Island College Hospital. The University of Colorado 

conferred on him the degree of Mining Engineer in 1881 and the Long Island College Hospital the degree 

of Doctor of Medicine in 1885. After receiving the engineer's degree he traveled extensively through the 

west, covering many thousand miles in the saddle. In 

all his journeyings he has been on the lookout for rare 

medical books and curios, thus laying the foundations 

of a collection that will in a few years be of great 

value to the medical profession. In June, 1889, he 

founded the Brooklyn Throat Hospital, enlisting the 

enthusiastic cooperation of many prominent citizens 

and physicians. He has been secretary and treasurer 

of the alumni association of the Long Island College 

Hospital for several y;ars. Until recently he was a 

member of the faculty of the Ne\i' York Post-Graduate 

Medical School. He is a member of a large number of 

medical and scientific associations and of the Hanover 

Club. He is known as a careful and conscientious 

physician, conservative as a surgeon and original in 

his methods, and his practice includes a large consult- 
ation business; he makes a specialty of the diseases of 

the }iose, throat and ear, and designed a laryngologi- 

cal cabinet that is said to be the most complete in 

the world. On November 23, 1886, he married Miss 

Jeanie C. Newton, daughter of the late Isaac S. New- 
ton, of Norwich, N. Y. He has Dr. G. A. Walther 

associated with him in his professional work. 

In Charles M. Bellows, M. I)., Brooklyn has a 

physician who has had a comprehensive experience in 

all the branches of his profession. He is the eldest 

son of Henry S. Bellows, United States commissioner, Charles M. Bellows, m. d. 



^y,^ '.,;,, 


. 




f ' 




^^ 


■jj^H^v. 


■ 




RESIDENCE OF GEORGE SMITH, M. D., GREENE AND REID AVENUES. 



7o6 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



and a nephew of the late Rev. Henry W. Bellows, D. D., the Unitarian minister. Dr. Bellows was born 
in Brooklyn in 1S62. He was graduated from the public schools and later from the Lockwood Academy. 
The next year he was a student at Columbia College, from which he retired with honors. He entered the 
medical college at Bellevue Hospital and received his diploma in 1883. He afterwards served as ambulance 
surgeon at Bellevue. The succeeding four years he spent in the office of Dr. J. R. Wood and assisted him 
in some of his most difficult operations. He also spent two years as surgeon in the Charity Hospital on 
Blackwell's Island, and one year in the Maternity Hospital in New York. He devoted the same length of 
time to lecturing and practising in the New York Dental College. He began practice in Brooklyn in 1886, 
and shortly afterwards was appointed surgeon to the Kings County Elevated Railroad and the North Second 
Street Railroad, both of which positions he now holds. He was also surgeon to the Nostrand avenue and 
Lorim.er street railways prior to their purchase by the Brooklyn City Railroad. He is a member of the 
Kings County Medical Society. He has had considerable experience in gynecology in the hospitals, and 
in private practice he has treated upwards of two thousand cases. He has also performed successfully several 
operations in hysterotomy. He is a 32° Mason and is a member of the Aurora Grata bodies, the Mystic 
Shrine and the Brooklyn Club. 

DENTAL SURGERY. 

Modern methods are more complete than those of old, even though there be some lost arts. Dentistry 
affords one of the examples. There was a time when the dentist knew no better implements than the little 
mallet and wedges with which he clumsily forced the offending bicuspid or molar out of the troubled jaw, 
frequently to the damage of the latter. The village barber, who also usurped the blood-letting function of 
ancient surgery, and even the village carpenter, were once considered fully competent to act as dentists. 
Even when science came to the rescue of the sufferer who was wont to bear, to the limit of endurance, the 
evil of an aching tooth rather than risk the possible evil of a broken jaw, it was a long time before dentistry 
became, as it is to-day, one of the learned professions. Dental surgery as practiced by recognized pro- 
fessors of the art is a science to which is given the most careful and systematic study. Brooklyn dentists 
include many who hold high rank among their brethren, and have contributed materially to the fame of 
American dentists, who throughout the world are recognized as the most progressive, original and skillful 
members of their profession. 

Among the prominent dental surgeons is Dr. Orville E, Hill. He is a native of Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, but attended school at Olean Academy, Steuben County, N. Y. Entering the profession of den- 
tistry in 1855, he began practising in the town of Owego, N. Y,, where he remained three years. The next 

two years were spent in travel through the southern 
states and visits to Texas and Indian Territory. He 
came to Brooklyn in i860. He early saw the import- 
ance of organization for the development of dentistry 
and personally visited every dentist in the city in 1862, 
inviting them to meet at his office to discuss the 
feasibility of forming an association. The meeting was 
held and a society organized " for the advancement 
of its members in dental science, the encouragement 
and maintenance of a high order of professional excel- 
lence, the establishment of a dental infirmary and the 
instruction of the public in dental hygiene." Since 
1869 this organization has been known as the Brooklyn 
Dental Society. In 1870 the Dental Infirmary was 
established at the junction of Fulton and Washington 
streets, it being the first establishment of its kind in 
the country. Dr. Hill was the first president of the 
new institution, and to his personal efforts at Albany is 
due the appropriation of $1,500 per annum that the 
legislature voted for its support. Another of his pro- 
gressive moves was the establishment of a dental jour- 
nal, in connection with nine of his brother dentists, in 
1883. Previous to that there had been no journal 
published directly in the interests of the profession ; 
the new publication was called The Independent Practi- 
tioner. Dr. Hill aided in perfecting and procuring the 
passage of a law by the legislature, in 1868, for the 




Dr. okville E. Hill. 



HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND PHYSICIANS. 



707 




Dr. James H. Race. 



purpose of incorporating dental societies and regula- 
ting the practice of dentistry, which was the first law 
enacted in this country upon that subject. By this law 
the state is divided into eight districts for the licensing 
of dentists — Brooklyn constituting the second district. 
Dr. Hill has been president of the State Society, and of 
the Second District Society several different times ; he 
is the present incumbent of the latter office. He is a 
member of the Crescent and the Hamilton clubs, and 
the Amaranth Society, Brooklyn, and of the Odonto- 
logical Society and the Twilight Club, in New York. 

Dr. James H. Race was born in the town of 
Greene, Chenango County, N. Y., in 1840. He attended 
the district schools in the neighborhood of his home 
for a time, and then took a course in Oxford Academy, 
from which he was graduated in 1858. After teaching 
school a short period he took a course of study, in 
i860 and 1861, in the Pennsylvania College of Den- 
tistry, of which he is a graduate. After giving si.x 
months to travel he came to Brooklyn and established 
himself in the practice of his profession at 366 Clinton 
street, where he still has his office. He is identified 
with the District, Brooklyn and State Dental associ- 
ations. He is on the list of members of both the 
Crescent and Brooklyn clubs, and is a director of the 
latter. With his family he spends the summer months 
in his camp, in Ontario, Canada. He has a retreat on Stony Lake, with roomy and comfortable buildings 
for the entertainment of his Brooklyn friends. The residence of Dr. Race, on Clinton street, is a commo- 
dious building of brick, three stories and basement in height, trimmed with brown stone, and presents a 
generally pleasing exterior appearance. The entire first floor is devoted to the purposes of his profession. 
The finishings and decorations of the interior are elaborate and beautiful, and the house is luxuriously 
furnished. In the rear of the parlors are twin operating rooms, the walls and ceilings of which are finished 
in lincrusta Walton, with designs displaying elegance of workmanship, intricacy of pattern, and variety of 
tone. The work of fitting up this suite of rooms occupied about six months, and was executed under Dr. 
Race's personal supervision, at the cost of many thousands of dollars. 

Horatio G. Mirick, M. D. S., the veteran dentist of Clinton street, was born in Worcester, Mass., in 
October, 1832. His education was obtained at Worcester Academy, under the tutelage of Dr. William 
Newton, with whom he studied for three years after leaving the academy. 
In 1852 he began to practice the profession of dentistry on Clinton street, 
for one year acting as assistant to Dr. James Miller. In i860 he married, 

and he has a family consisting of a son and daughter. He is treasurer of , 

the Dental Society of the State of New York ; he was one of the incorpora- 
tors and the first president of the Brooklyn Dental Society ; he is a mem- 
ber of the Odontological Society of New York, and of the Second District 
Dental Society, of which he was at one time president, and of the Hamil- 
ton Club. In 1892 he retired from active practice. 

Albert H. Brockway, M. D. S., was born of New England and Quaker 
stock in the town of Bridgewater, N. Y. From early youth he was fond 
of study, and finding, as he grew up, the school privileges of his native 
place insufficient, he left home when a lad of fifteen, walking a distance of 
seventy miles, in mid-winter, to attend an excellent school at Summer 
Hill, N. Y. He subsequently attended public schools in Syracuse and 
Rochester and the Rochester Collegiate Institute, and finally was gradu- 
ated, in 1854, from the Rutgers College Grammar School, in New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. He at once entered upon the study of his profession in the 
office of A. I). Newell, M. D., in New Brunswick, where he remained two years, afterwards continuing his 
studies with Professor Amos Westcott, of Syracuse, and E. L. Swartwout, D. D. S., of Utica. In 1857 he 
became associated in practice with Dr. Rush McGregor, of Rochester, and having remained with him two 
years, he moved to Chittenango, N. Y., where he lived until he became a resident of Brooklyn, in 1862. 




Horatio G. Mirick, M. D. S. 



yoS 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Albert H. Brockway, M. D. S. 



He is a member, and was three terms president of the Brooklyn Dental 
Society ; he is also a member of the Second District Dental Society, the 
New York Odontological Society, of which he is vice-president, the State 
Dental Society, in which he held office several years as treasurer, and the 
American Dental Association. He was a member of the Ninth Inter- 
national Medical Congress. The various social organizations of which he 
is a member are the O.xford and Rembrandt clubs, of Brooklyn, and the 
Portland Club, of New York. He is also a member of the Brooklyn Library 
and the Brooklyn Institute. He believes in croquet as a scientific pastime 
and is an enthusiastic champion of the game ; he was one of the founders 
and is now a member of the Brooklyn Croquet Association. His student 
proclivities have rendered him familiar with a wide range of literature; 
but especially that of a scientific and philosophic character has received 
his attention. He is a member of the Second Unitarian Society. 

WiLLi.Aji Jarvie, M. 1). S., was born 
in the city of Manchester, England, in 
1841, and attended school there until he 

was fourteen years of age, when he came to this country with his parents. 

They at once settled in Brooklyn, and, with the exception of something 

less than four years. Dr. Jarvie has resided here ever since. When fifteen 

years of age he commenced to study dentistry with Dr. A. A. Wheeler and 

afterwards he spent three or four years under the tuition of Dr. W. W. 

Codman, of Boston. In 1864 he returned to Brooklyn and commenced 

the practice of his profession, and he succeeded in establishing a valuable 

practice. In 18S3 he erected the premises which he occupies at Clinton 

and Joralemon streets. He was one of the organizers of the Brooklyn 

Dental Association and was afterwards its president. He was also one of 

the organizers and president of the Second District Dental Association ; 

president of the New York Odontological Society in 18S5-6 ; vice-presi- 
dent of the New York State Dental Society two terms ; a member of the 

board of censors for New York state 

r .. 1 r 4.U Ti 11 William Jarvie, M. D. S. 

Since 1876 ; trustee of the Brooklyn ■' 

Homoeopathic Hospital ; vice-president of the Apollo Club, and a life 
member of the Hamilton Club. In 1874 he received the degree of Master 
of Dental Surgery. 

Fr.ank Thorne Van Woert, M. D, S., vice-president of the New 
York State Dental Society, was born in the town of Half Moon, Saratoga 
County, N. Y., in 1855. He was educated at the Brooklyn public schools, 
spent three years at Wright's Business College and was placed, for some 
time, under the instruction of private tutors. At the age of fourteen he 
was thrown upon his own resources and became an architect and mechani- 
cal tlraughtsman, at Newark, N. J. This profession he abandoned within 
five years for the purpose of studying dentistry with Dr. James Osmun, of 
Newark, in whose office he remained for three years. He began practice 
in Brooklyn in 1878, having previously acquired a general knowledge of 
medicine under private tuition. His first office was in the Eastern Dis- 
trict, to which section of the C'ty his professional labors have since been 
confined. He is treasurer of the Second District Dental Society; for two 
years he was secretary of the State Dental Society; he is a member of the Odontological Society of New 
York, the Masonic fraternity, the Hanover and Aurora Grata clubs, the Amphion Singing Society and several 
organizations connected with the Odd Fellows and Freemasons. He is married and has two children. 





Frank T. Van Woert, M. D. S. 




Board of Education Building, 1850 to 18 
Under hill Mansion. 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 




DUCATION in Brooklyn has received a degree of attention wliolly 
commensurate with the city's size and importance. A pul:)lic school 
system was organized on a broad and comprehensive scale and has 
been steadily expanded in harmony with the advanced educational 
principles of the day. There arc now nearly one hundred public 
schools, affording advantages to about one hundred thousand pupils ; 
they are supported by the city at an annual expense, for salaries, sup- 
plies, building and repairing, of over two and a half million dollars, 
and the wise liberality of the educational authorities in their compen- 
sation to teachers has attracted to the service of the city a corps of instructors unrivaled in excellence and 
efficiency. The private schools of the city have a national reputation ; from the ranks of their teachers 
and pupils, colleges have been furnished with professors and presidents ; they have kept in touch with 
the times and occupy an unchallenged position among the finest collegiate institutions of the land. 

The story of the origin and development of the schools of this city is thoroughly unique. It is per- 
haps not generally known that on each recurrence of the Nation's natal day the school children of Brooklyn 
especially, and, indeed, all citizens interested in public education, have a double anniversary to celebrate, for 
it was on the fourth day of July in 1661 that the first free school ever founded on the American continent 
was established in the locality over which Brooklyn City now extends. It is true, a semi-public school was 
established in Flatbush as early as 1659. But it was a sort of a compromise between a public and a private 
school, for while it provided for the instruction of all the children of the village, the old Dutch settlers would 
not accept education in any form savoring of charity, and the parents paid from three to four guilders each for 
the tuition of their children It is a fact most gratifying to a community so largely descended from the 



7IO THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

New Netherland Dutch, that the American people are indebted to the sturdy sons of Holland for the estab- 
lishment of free schools, a system which their descendants have done so much to extend and develop. The 
first school tax levied in Breuckelen was for the sum of one hundred and fifty guilders, or not quite twenty 
dollars of our money. This proving insufficient for the purpose. Governor Stuy vesant subsequently ordered 
an appropriation of fifty guilders from the public treasury. Under such conditions it was that, one hundred 
and fifteen years to a day before the Declaration of Independence went ringing through the land, the public 
school idea first took shape on the shores of the new world. Ancient records fail to specify the exact 
location of the first school house, but it is believed to have been organized in the " Octagon Church " edifice, 
where, for a time at least, the school was held. This building stood near the present junction of Fulton 
and Bridge streets, not one hundred yards from the present headquarters of the Board of Education. It 
was doubtless in large measure due to the energetic initiative of the first pastor of the church, Henricus 
Selyns, that the services of Carel de Beauvois (Carl Debevoise) were secured. He was a French Huguenot 
but recently arrived from Holland, and a man of much learning and varied attainments. His salary in the 
office of schoolmaster was the whole amount received for school taxes, in addition to a house, rent free. 
This first school retains to this day the numerical designation which historical justice demands, and is 
known as public school No. i of Brooklyn. A second school was established in 1662 in Bushwick, which 
Peter Stuyvesant had recently erected into a burgh or township. This school was organized in the Bush- 
wick Church, near the intersection of North Second street and Bushwick avenue. Boudwyn Manout, from 
Crimpen-op-Lock, Holland, was chosen master of the new school. He was also appointed clerk of the 
bailiwick ; and the union of these two offices was an arrangement which was maintained far down into the 
present century. For the clerkship he received the value of four hundred guilders in Indian wampum, 
while in payment for teaching he was given the munificent reward of " house-rent and fire-wood, free of 
cost." His duties were as varied as those of his brother drudge in Breuckelen, and there was added to them 
perhaps, that of castigating public offenders ; the whipping-post stood in front of the school house, between 
it and the town house opposite. When, in 1855, the Brooklyn Board of Education assumed control of the 
free schools of Bushwick village, this old district school house was still standing, and near by stood six 
other houses whose foundations had been laid during that same period. This primitive village school No. i 
of Bushwick then became No. 23 of the present public school system. 

In 1663 Bedford village joined the educational procession with a third school, located at the junction 
of the old Clove and Cripplebush roads, near what is now the corner of Bedford avenue and Fulton street 
and there it continued to flourish until 1841, when the building was given over to the police for a headquarters. 
The Bedford school was remarkable for the longevity of its teachers. John Vandevoort presided over it 
for sixty years, teaching three generations of pupils ; he occupied one-half of the building as a living apart- 
ment and was allowed to add to his income by selling groceries. Tuition was given exclusively in the 
Dutch language until 1758. When the village schools were united into one common system in 1843, this 
ancient institution became public school No. 3. There was another school founded in those Dutch times 
which is perpetuated still, but the history of its origin is lost in the dim past. This was known as Bushwick 
district school No. 2. In 1830 the building where it had been held for an indefinite period of years bore 
evidence of great antiquity and all was thoroughly Hollandish in character. It continued to occupy this 
venerable structure until 1047 ; and when Bushwick was consolidated with Brooklyn, it became public school 
No. 24. When the English rule succeeded that of the Dutch in the New Netherlands, the old free school 
system was abolished and for a century and a half these schools were supported solely by their patrons. 
Not long before the outbreak of the Revolution another school was established on the north side of the 
Wallabout Creek. There is evidence of its existence during the Revolution, but the exact date of its estab- 
lishment cannot be ascertained. It was removed to Classon avenue in 1838 and subsequently became pub- 
lic school No. 4. Soon after the Revolution another school was opened on a lane of the Bergen farm near 
the present junction of Third avenue and Forty-fourth street. Documents show it to have existed in 1792. 
In 1820 it removed to Martense lane and in 1843 it was made, in violation of chronological sequence, 
public school No. 2. In all the ISrooklyn schools tuition was afforded in both the Dutch and English lan- 
guages between the years of 1758 and 1800. The Dutch studies were not abandoned in the Bushwick and 
Gowanus schools until some years after; the pupils of the Bushwick school pursued them until 1830 
Each one of them was established in a Dutch neighborhood and almost solely under the influence of that 
nationality, although record remains of the establishment of a school in half of a one-story house, occupied 
by a farm laborer, about where the old Gowanus and Port roads met, in the neighborhood of what is now 
Fourth avenue and Macomb street. At the corner of Red Hook and Cornell's lanes there was another 
school established during the first quarter of the present century ; the earliest records show it in that loca- 
tion prior to 1827 ; the site which it now occupies as public school No. 6 was not far distant on Degraw 
street, near Court. In 1827 it had an attendance of sixty scholars. These schools continued to derive 
their support from the tuiticm fees of their patrons for a long period of years, for although the state legis- 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



711 




lature, in 1795, appropriated $50,000 a year for five years, 
and, in 1805, established the common school fund, the 
slow burghers of Brooklyn neglected to take advantage 
of their privileges until 1813, when the trustees of dis- 
trict school No. 1 were elected. The new system did 
not meet with the sympathy or cooperation of the 
thrifty but sluggish-minded Dutchmen, who for three 
years bitterly opposed it and refused to accept even the 
benefits for which they were taxed. The sum of $2,000 
was levied upon district No. i — which in i8i6 included 
the whole village — with which to establish a school, and 
notice was given publicly by the trustees that on May 
6 of that year it would be opened on the lower floor 
of Kirk's printing office in Adams street, near Sands. 
There was a stormy meeting of citizens on Mays, when 
the board of trustees, Andrew Mercein, John Seaman 
and Robert Snow, were unceremoniously deposed, and a 
new board elected. The school was established on the 
day appointed ; and the late Judge John Dikeman, as 
its principal, inaugurated the present system of public 
education. At that time there were 552 children at- 
tending no school. The tuition was conducted on the 
monitorial, or Lancaster plan, and in 1824 the school 
had grown so that 200 children received free educa- 
tion. Among the honored names connected with dis- 
trict school No, I are : ex-Mayor John \V. Hunter, one 
of its trustees years before the existence of a board of 
education, and Ephraim J. VVhitlock. Other school dis- 
tricts already mentioned fell into line in the march of ^°*''° °^ education headquarters, Livingston St. front. 
mental advancement, and took advantage of the state law and its appropriations. 

Seven district schools have been referred to, all of which were established prior to 1842 ; in that year 
an eighth was organized in Bushwick as district school No. 3 of that village. This became subsequently 
district school No. i, of Williamsburgh, and when it passed into the hands of the Brooklyn board it re- 
ceived the number 16 in our present series. Of these eight schools mentioned, it will be seen that three, 
namely; those now enumerated as 16, 23 and 24, were beyond the restricted limits of the city of Brooklyn 
when, in 1843, the new board of education entered upon its labors. There were ten district schools within 
the city limits in 1843 and over these ten the board then assumed control. Five of these, numbers i, 2, 3, 
4 and 6, have been duly noticed. The present public school No. 5 was doubtless in existence prior to 
1827, although we find no official record until 1839. No. 7 dates likewise from 1827. It was then known 
as village school No. 2, for the village limits were very restricted and included besides this one only the 
oldest school of all, dating from 1661. No. 8 was established in 1830 on its present site; and its progress 
and development were due to the wise management of Cyrus P. Smith. Some time between 1830 and 1836, 
No. 9 was organized on the ground which is now included in Prospect Park. It formerly drew a large con- 
tingent from Flatbush, but the municipal orders have since been more strictly enforced. In the old school 
which shared a one-story tenement with a humble farm laborer in Gowanus, we doubtless have the begin- 
ning of what is now known as public school No. 10 ; documents place the date of its inception between 
1825 and 1830. 

These schools had been formed from time to time in accordance with the demands of the villagers and 
the increase of the population ; each was governed by its own trustees; and was independent until the obvious 
necessity of a system of unification was perceived and the present plan was devised and put in operation. 
Accordingly, in 1843, the board of education united under its direction the ten schools which fell within 
the jurisdiction of the city. As has been seen, the numerical designation of the schools accords only in two 
or three instances with the actual chronological sequence of their establishment, and, at the time of organiza- 
tion, three old-established schools were excluded from the system because of their not being within the city 
limits. 

THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

The formation of the board of education was authorized by an act of the legislature in 1843. The 
appointing power was vested in the common council, which was directed to choose annually two or more 
citizens to represent each district, they, together with the Mayor and a county superintendent, to form the 



712 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



"Board of Education of the City of Brooklyn," Three representatives were chosen from most of the 
districts, so that when the first board of education held its initial meeting in the common council chamber 
in that year, it consisted of twenty-eight members. There the meetings were held until it was thought 
advisable to establish a headquarters, which was done in the building which a short time before had been 
erected for public school No. i, at Concord and Adams streets. An amendment to the law creating the 
board was passed in 1S50, changing its composition somewhat by increasing the number of members to 
thirty-three, to be so selected that each should represent but one district. About this time the rapid in- 
crease in population and necessary extension of schooling facilities, so added to the labors of the board, 
that a need for larger and better accommodations became forcibly felt. A suitable place was found in the 
Underbill mansion, a pretentious frame structure, which stood in Red Hook lane, near Fulton street. Into 
this ancient building, which was at first leased and afterwards purchased, the members moved with all due 
pride and pomp in 1S50. After serving as a headquarters for over half a century, this building was torn 
down, in 1888, to make room for the present building occupied by the board. A second and more radical 
change was effected in April, 1854, when the town of Bushwick and the city of Williamsburgh were con- 
solidated with Brooklyn, which was fast encroaching upon their borders. It was another legislative move 
which repealed the act of 1850 and again increased the board to forty-five members, thirteen of whom 
were to be residents of the newly acquired territory. When the plan of consolidation was carried into 
effect there were fourteen schools ni the twelve wards of the city. No limit to the membership of the 
body was fi.xed until 1862, when the legislature again passed an amendment relative to the filling of vacan- 
cies and recognized forty-five as the legal limit. It was in the same year also that the power to name the 
persons whom he desired should make up the board, was given to the Mayor, the nominations to be made 
in the month of February, 'lliis left the common council with only the power to confirm the appoint- 
ments, failure to do so, or the Mayor neglecting to fill the vacancies, to result in the fifteen members whose 
terms would have e.xpired holding over for another year. This alternative unexpectedly occurred that very 
year, the aldermen withholding their approval of the names submitted. With a viev/ to remedying all 
irregularities in the existing law, another bill was passed in 1868, which required the Mayor to designate 
which members should hold terms of one, two and three years, respectively, and on the first of July following 

the decision was made accord- 
ingly. That same date is to-day 
recognized as the period at which 
the terms of the fifteen "short- 
term" members expire. At the 
present time the appointing power 
rests with the Mayor alone, each 
member being chosen for three 
years and one-third of the num- 
ber, unless reappointed, going out 
of office every year. This was 
brought about in 1888, when dur- 
ing "a 'revision and combination 
of all the laws affecting public 
interests in Brooklyn," all the 
school laws were massed and 
amended according to the views 
of the revisers, concerning what 
was and what ought to be the law 
relating to the schools and their 
orderly arrangement.' " Under 
these epitomized laws the public 
school system of the present is 
governed and conducted. 

When the "fall term " of 1892 
opened there were under the con- 
trol of the board of education, 
a training school, where recently 
appointed teachers may study and 
qualify by examination for the 
higher grade certificates ; a high 
school for each sex, whose pupils 




Boys' High School, Marcv and Putnam Avenues. 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



713 




GiKLS' High School, Nostrand Avenuk and Halsev Street. 

have graduated from grammar grades ; thirty-two grammar schools, three of which are colored ; sixteen 
independent intermediate sxhools, supplying pupils for the grammar schools; two independent primary 
schools, eight branch intermediate schools; twenty-four branch primary schools ; and two attendance 
schools, where truants are probated for a term, the incorrigibles being sent to the Truant Home. This 
total of eighty-seven schools is e.xclusive of the fifteen evening schools, which were established about 
1850 for the working class, old and young, of both sexes; eleven industrial and asylum schools, which, 
though in private charitable institutions, are controlled by the city board, and the Eastern District 
library, which contains several hundred volumes of books collected from the libraries of the schools in 
Williamsburgh and Bushwick, when they were consolidated with Brooklyn. All of these now share in the 
general educational funds. During the month of September, 1892, the eighty-seven schools proper were 
attended on an average by 85,860 scholars, who were taught and ruled by 2,186 teachers, heads of depart- 
ments and principals, while 2,640 other little ones were refused admission, principally for lack of room 
in the lower primary grades, despite the fact that new accommodations are being made with all the 
speed that money can command. The same month showed a total registry of nearly 100,000, an increase 
of 4,310 over that of the corresponding month of the preceding year. Following the consolidation of 
Bushwick, Williamsburgh and Brooklyn, and the organization of the enlarged board in 1855, the late J. W. 
Bulkley was called upon to fill the position of city superintendent, to which he was reelected regularly 
for many succeeding years. In 1873 he was succeeded by the late Thomas W. Field, who had been a 
member of the board of education since 1855. Mr. Bulkley, despite his years, remained in the service as 
assistant superintendent until 1885 — four years after the death of his successor — when he resigned. Cyrus 
P. Smith, who was for a quarter of a century a member of the board, was also its first president, continuing 
in that office for twenty-one successive years. He resigned in 1868. Dr. J. S. Thorne, the second 
to take the helm, retired voluntarily in 187 1 and his place was filled by Ephraim J. Whitlock, whose official 
career, after eleven years of service, was terminated by death. His connection with the schools cov- 
ered a period of twenty-three years, during which he accomplished much good and many reforms, and after 
his death, which occurred in 1881, the public school teachers of the city erected a memorial tablet in the board 
rooms bearing a suitable inscription and a bust of the deceased in marble relief. It may now be seen by 
the visitor in the main hall of the new headquarters building. Daniel Maujer was elected to fill the vacancy ; 
but he served less than six months and was succeeded by Tunis G. Bergen, who was chosen in January, 
1882, and occupied the position until July 6, 1886. Robert Payne was the next president, and he gave way 
to Joseph C. Hendrix, the present incumbent, in July, 1887. The position of superintendent, which 
has by law received the euphonious addition "of public instruction," is now held by William H. Maxwell, 



714 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Public School No. 12, Adelphi Street, ne.\r Myrtle Avenue. 



who was elected in 1882 as the asso- 
ciate of Superintendent Calvin Pat- 
terson, now principal of the girls' high 
school, who had defeated him for the 
higher position the year before. With 
the completion of the girls' high school 
and the selection of Mr. Patterson as 
its head, Mr. Maxwell assumed the du- 
ties of his present position. With Mr. 
Patterson he was actively engaged in 
establishing rules governing the grad- 
ing of certificates to teach, which have 
done so much in elevating the standard 
for admission to the teacher's profes- 
sion in the schools of the city and to 
improve their work and usefulness. 
Other reforms and needed changes in 
the methods and course of studies have 
been carried out since his selection as 
superintendent in 1887, and the five 
years that have elapsed have noted a 
steady advancement in the general 
school work. The attendance depart- 
ment and the administration of the 
compulsory education law have during 
all that time been under the care of the 
superintendent. It was formerly under 
separate supervision and the work almost exclusively was that of checking truants. Under the reorganiza- 
tion, all those children who attended no school were sought, as well as truants, and the report of this branch 
of the department shows that 1,103 children were placed in school in 1891. Among the important reforms 
instituted and now in vogue, have been : the teaching to read by the word and phonetic methods ; the teach- 
ing of script writing from the first day of a child's entrance to school, instead of the old method of printing; 
language and composition, which had formerly been confined to two or three grades, made universal ; arith- 
metic drills in simple examples, making individual work more definite ; and a revision of the course of 
study. The prevailing promotion system was altered also ; the studies of the training school extended, the 
regrading of the fifteen classes accomplished, and the setting of the present high standard to be attained by 
would-be tutors. The free book system which had been adopted by the New York board of education 
was adopted in this city and put in operation at the beginning of 1884, after which date text-books, slates, 
etc., the cost of which had before made a heavy drain upon many a poor parent's shallow purse, were 
furnished to every child at the expense of the city. For this purpose about $100,000 are expended annually. 
The president and vice-president of the board of education and all the non office-holding members of the 
body serve without salary. The clerical work of the body is transacted by a secretary and staff of clerks— 
non-members — who are appointed for terms of from one to three years under salary. The supermtend- 
ent is allowed four clerks, who receive a stipulated annual stipend, in addition to two associate super- 
intendents, a director of music, sixteen music teachers, a supervisor of drawing, seven drawing teachers 
and ten attendance agents. For the support of this great institution $1,805,363.28 were allowed in 1891 by 
the board of estimate, to which the state tax added $379,041,07, making the total to be expended for the 
year 1892, $2,184,404,35. 

The board of education in 1S92 comprised the following members : Terms expiring in 1893 — Tunis G. 
Bergen, Robert A. Black, James B. Bouck, James L. Drummond, William Ferris, Franklin W. Hooper, 
William J. Lynch, Peter H. McNulty, Eben Miller, Daniel W. Northup, John K. Powell, Arthur S. Somers, 
George Straub, Charles E. Teale, John W. Weber. Terms expiring in 1894— Alhert C. Aubery, Thomas 
Cacciola, John J. Cashman, John Flynn, Harlan P. Halsey, William Harkness, ]^ Harrigan, Joseph C. 
Hendrix, Arthur R. Jarrett, John McNamee, Edward Rowe, Anton Schimmel, C. Simis, T. McCants Stewart, 
J. Edward Swanstrom. Terms expiring in 1895— John Y. Culyer, William M. Davis, Nelson J. Gates, 
Samuel Goodstein, John Guilfoyle, A. Augustus Healy, Courtes T. Hubbs, Horatio C. King, Henry McLean, 
Thomas F. Moran, Jasper Murphy, John R. Thompson, John D. Walsh, James Weir, Jr., John W. Kimball. 
The officers are— president, Joseph C. Hendrix ; vice-president, John R. Thompson ; secretary, George 
G. Brown ; assistant secretary, James H. TuUy; superintendent of public instruction, William H. Maxwell ; 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



715 



associate superintendents of public instruction, Edward G. Ward and John H. Walsh ; superintendent of 
buildings, James W. Naughton ; assistant superintendent of buildings, Frank A. Regan ; chief engineer, 
William F. Cunningham. The clerks employed in the superintendent's office are : Emerson W. Keyes, 
Charles W. Field, Josiah H. Pitts, Carlotta de Buck. The clerks in the secretary's office are : Parker P. 
Simmons, E. F. Underbill, Ephrami J, Whitlock, Henry O. Dyer, P. J. McGurnn, John Monroe, Anthony 
Wahle, Francis J. O'Malley, S. Ella Terrell, John P. Smith. The clerk to the superintendent of buildings 
is Henry L. Romer. The attendance agents are : DeHart Bergen, Thomas S. Kearney, William Fischer, 
William H. Birck, Charles H. Hart, Edward J. Lyman, Louis Mulhauser, B. F. Daly, James Bellew, Michael 
Falvello. The director of music is Albert S. Caswell ; and Walter S. Goodnough is the supervisor of draw- 
ing. There are twenty-three standing committees, namely : on finance, teachers, law, school house, heat- 
ing and ventilating, libraries, supplies, pruning, evening schools, studies, school books, music, drawing, 
attendance, sites and localities, health, rules and regulations, girls' high school, boys' high school, train- 
ing school, free scholarships, eastern district library, credentials. Besides these there are local commit- 
tees for the library, training school, high schools, evening schools, the industrial and asylum schools and 
one for each of the separate schools. 

Following is an enumeration of the Grammar, Intermediate and Primary schools, with the location and 
the name of the principal of each : Girls' high school, Nostrand avenue, corner Halsey street, Calvin Pat- 
terson. Boys' high school, Putnam, corner Marcy avenue, Alec. G. McAllister. Training school, Ryerson 
street, near Myrtle avenue, J. Gallagher. No. i, Adams, corner Concord street, Charles R. Abbot. No. 2, 
Forty-sixth street, near Third avenue, Jacob Sand. No. 3, Hancock street, near Bedford avenue, Benjamin 
Y. Conklin. No. 4 (branch of No. 9), Berkeley place, near Fifth avenue, C. Agnes Reilly. No. 5, Duffield, 
corner Johnson street, William T. Vlymen. No. 6, Warren, near Smith street, Alfred E. Ives, Jr. No. 7, York, 
near Bridge street, William J. O'Leary. No. 8 (branch of No. i), Middagh, near Henry street, Agnes Y. 
Humphrey. No. 9, Sterling place, corner Vanderbilt avenue, John Mickleborough. No. 10, Seventh avenue, 
near Seventeenth street, John H. Haaren. No. 11, Washington, near Greene avenue, LeRoy F. Lewis. No. 
12, Adelphi street, near Myrtle avenue, James Cruikshank. No. 13 (branch of No. 78), Degraw, near Hicks 
street, Lyman A. Best. No. 14 (branch of No. 5), Navy, corner Concord street, Harriet M. Coffin. No. 15, 
Third avenue, corner State street, Wm. L. Felter. No. 16, Wilson street, near Bedford avenue, Leonard 
Dunkly. No. 17, Driggs avenue, corner North Fifth street, James Cusack. No. 18, Maujer, near Ewen 
street, Edw. Bush. No. 19, South Second, corner Keap street, Walter B. Gunnison. No. 20, Union avenue, 
near North Second street, Sarah S. Hunt. No. 21, McKibbin, near Ewen street, Kate E. McWilliams. No. 
22, Java street, near Manhattan avenue, Lyman B. Hannaford. No. 23, Conselyea, near Humboldt street, 
William L. Fitzgibbons. No. 24 (branch of No. 74), Wall, corner Beaver street, Joseph V. Witherbee. No. 
25, Lafayette, near Throop avenue, 
Charles E. Tuthill. No. 26, Gates, near 
Ralph avenue, Jas. E. Ryan. No. 27, 
Nelson, corner of Hicks street, Elmer 
Poulson. No. 28 (branch of No. 35), 
Herkimer street, near Ralph avenue, 
Ella Folger. No. 29 (branch of No. 
78), Columbia, corner Amity street, 
Mary J. Merritt. No. 30, Wolcott, near 
Van Brunt street, Thomas D. Murphy. 
No. 31, Dupont street, near Manhattan 
avenue. Marc F. Vallette. No. 32, 
Hoyt, corner President street, Samuel 
M. Sprole. No. 33, Heyward street, 
near Broadway, James Priddy. No. 34, 
Norman avenue, near Eckford street, 
Frank R. Moore. No. 35, Decatur street, 
corner Lewis avenue, Joseph S. Burns. 
No. 36, Stagg street, near Bushwick ave- 
nue, Edw. P. Crowell. No. 37, South 
Fourth, near Berry street, George L. 
A. Martin. No. 38, North Seventh, near 
Berry street, Nathan Upham. No. 39, 
Sixth avenue, corner Eighth street, 
Channing Stebbins. No. 40, Fifteenth 
street, near Fourth avenue, Frank L. 




PUBLIC SCHOOL No. 35, LEWIS AVENUE AND DEC.iTOR STREET. 



7,6 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Green. No. 41, Dean street, corner New York avenue, Mary B. Dennis. No. 42, St. Mark's, near Classon ave- 
nue, Mrs. E. M. Warren. No. 43, Boerum, near Ewen street, William B. Ridenour. No. 44, Throop, corner 
Putnam avenue, William A. Campbell. No. 45, Lafayette, near Classon avenue, William M. Jelliffe. No. 46 
(branch of No. 78), Union, near Henry street, Mrs. Caledonia V. Dix. No. 47 (branch of No. 15), Schermer- 
horn street, near Third avenue, Libbie J. Eginton. No. 48 (branch of No. 17), North First street, near Bedford 
avenue, Eveline L. Petty, No. 49 (branch of No. 18), Maujer street, near Graham avenue, Andrew I Sherman. 
No. 5° (branch of No. 19), South Fourth, near Havemeyer street, Elizabeth R. Duyckinck. No. 5 1 (branch of 
No. 23), Meeker avenue, corner Humboldt street, Frances Higbie. No. 52 (branch of No. 74), EUery street, 
near Broadway, Emily J. Black. No. 53 (branch of No, 74), Starr street, near Central avenue, Mrs. Alice E. 
Field. No. 54 (branch of No. 45), Walworth street, near Myrtle avenue, Emily Henderson. No. 55 (branch 
of No, 25), Stockton street, near Marcy avenue, Alice A, Douglas. No. 56 (branch of No 26), Bushwick ave- 
nue, corner Madison street, Minerva H. Ellis, No. 57 (branch of No. 26), Reid avenue, corner Van Bureii 
street, Elenore E. Elliott. No. 58 (branch of No. 32), Degraw, near Smith street, Sara J. Reid. No, 59 (branch 
of No. 34), Leonard street, near Nassau avenue, Sarah A. Staley. No, 60 (branch of No. 10), Fourth avenue, 
corner Twentieth street, Sarah A, Scott. No. 61 (branch of No. 76), Fulton street, corner New Jersey avenue, 
Mrs. Charlotte F, Sheville. No. 62 (branch of No. 76), Bradford street, near Liberty avenue. Honor E. Quinn, 
No. 63 (branch of No, 84), Hinsdale street, near Glenmore avenue; No, 64, Berriman street, near Belmont ave- 
nue, Wm, Ten Broeck S. Imlay. No, 65, Richmond street, near Ridgewood avenue, .^lonzo A. Ashmun. No, 66 
(branch of No. 84), Osborne street, near Sutter avenue, George W. French. No. 67 (colored), N. Elliott place, 
near Park avenue, Charles A, Dorsey. No. 68 (colored) (branch of No, 67), Troy avenue, corner Dean street, 
Georgiana F. Putnam. No. 69 (colored), Union avenue, near Stagg street, Mrs, C. T. Clow. No, 70, Patchen 
avenue, corner Macon street, Geo, W, Edwards. No. 7 1 (branch of No. ^^), Heyward street, near Lee avenue, 
(vacancy). No. 72 (branch of No. 64), New Lots road, near Barbey street, Ida L, Morrison, No, 73, McDougal 
street, corner Rockaway avenue, C. Warren Hamilton. No. 74, Bushwick avenue, corner Kosciusko street, 
Almon G. Merwin. No. 75, Evergreen avenue, corner Ralph street, William S, Mills. No, 76, Wyona, near 
Fulton street, Frank B, Stevens, No. 77 (branch of No. 39), Second street, near Si.xth avenue, Mary E. Sloan. 
No. 78, Pacific, near Court street, Seth T. Stewart. No. 79 (branch of No, 25), Kosciusko street, near 
Throop avenue, Evangeline E, Whitney, No. 82 (branch of No. 2), Fourth avenue, corner Thirty-si.xth street, 
Margaret E. Palmgreen. No, 83, Bergen street, corner Schenectady avenue, Frank K. Perkins. No. 84, 
Glenmore, corner Stone avenue. Marcus A. Weed. Attendance schools. — No. i, 93 Wyckoff street, Denis 
F, Tarpey. No, 2, Driggs avenue, corner South Third street, Richard B, McKenna. Eastern District library, 
Driggs avenue, corner South Third street ; librarian, Arthur D. Stetson. 

Joseph C. Hendrix, president of the board of education, and also president of the Kings County 
Trust Company and congressman from the third district, is a man who has been so prominent in the city 
and whose genius and e.xecutive talents have been manifested in connection with so many institutions, both 
public and private, that it is difficult to classify him. He has served as president of the board of education 
since 1887 and has been the originator and promoter of many improvements. But in view of his election to 
congress, which, though at this writing is an untried field to him, undoubtedly will afford the opportunities 
for his triumphs in the immediate future, his biographical sketch is placed with those of the other congress- 
men in the chapter on " Political Life." 

John R. Thompson, as vice-president of the board, has been a credit- 
able and distinguished member. He was appointed to the board in 1886 
by Mayor Daniel Whitney and reappointed by Mayor Chapin. He is chair- 
man of the committee of public school No. 16 and also of the evening 
school committee. He is a member of the attendance, girls' high school, 
and training school committees. Mr. Thompson has been unremitting in 
his efforts to further the success of the evening school system and has 
devoted much of his time to this particular branch of educational work. 
Mr. Thompson is a member of the firm of McLoughlin Brothers, toy-book 
publishers. He was born in Brooklyn in the year 1847. He attended the 
public schools until he was fifteen years old, when a situation was offered 
him by the firm in which he is now interested. In 1863 he enlisted in the 
13th N. Y. Heavy Artillery and fought until the close of the civil war. He 
took part in a number of well-known engagements, including the famous 
bombardment of Fort Fisher. On his return he reentered the employ of 
McLoughlin Brothers, and advanced rapidly to his present position. In 
John r, Thompson. politics Mr. Thompson is a Republican. He is a member of the Nineteenth 




EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



717 



Ward Association and a delegate to the general committee. He has artistic tastes well cultivated and the 
art work of his firm is under his supervision. His home is at 92 Morton street 

Edward Rowe is the oldest member of the board. He was first appointed by Mayor Wood in 1S64 
and for ten consecutive terms has held the office under every municipal administration. No one connected 
with school affairs in this city has evinced a more devoted interest than Mr. Rowe in all that affects public 
education. He has been chairman of the book committee for seventeen years; he is a member of the 
finance committee and chairman of the committee of public school No. 9. Mr, Rowe was born in New York 
city, on February 17, 1815. After a few years of study at private schools he obtained, when thirteen years 
old, a clerkship in a mercantile establishment. Then he began to learn the trade of a hatter and for a 
number of years kept a hat store in New York. His ne.xt venture was the importation of foreign merchan- 
dise, a business that continued to absorb his attention until a few years ago. He held the presidency of 
the New York Bank for twelve years, resigning in 1872. Mr. Rowe has represented the seventh ward 
both in the board of supervisors and the board of aldermen ; and he was one of the presidential electors 
sent by the third congressional district of New York to the national convention which nominated Samuel 
J. Tilden for president. In 1885 President Cleveland appointed him as assistant appraiser of the port of 
New York, and he held that position for five years. Mr. Rowe was married in 1834 and has seven sons and 
two daughters living. He is a lover of art and has collected a number of valuable pictures in the course of 
forty visits which he has made to Europe. 

Nelson J. Gates is the next oldest member of the ' "1 

board. He was born at Pleasant Mount, Wayne County, ' ' 

Pa., on April 9, 1831, was educated at the district schools 
in his native county, and was graduated from the 
Academy of Northern Pennsylvania at Bethany. At 
the close of his academic course Mr. Gates devoted 
himself to the profession of a teacher and, from 1858 
until 1865, was the principal of the public school at 
Flushing, L. I. He resigned to enter the employ of 
Frederick A. Potts & Co., wholesale coal merchants in 
New York, and was shortly admitted to partnership. 
His business career has been one of unbroken success. 
Mr. Gates came to live in Brooklyn in i866 and has 
resided here uninterruptedly ever since. Although 
never evincing any desire for political honors he has 
been a zealous advocate of Republican principles. He 
was appointed to the board of education by Mayor 
Hunter in 1875 and has been a member of that body 
until the present time, with the exception of four years 
from 1881 until 1885. He served for many years as 
chairman of the evening school committee, and in that 
capacity bore a most conspicuous share in organizing 
evening schools throughout the city. He aided materi- 
allyin consolidating the academic classes in the gram- 
mar school and in establishing the high schools for 
girls and boys. When Mr. Hendrix was appointed 
president of the board Mr. Gates succeeded him as chairman of the committee in charge of the girls' high 
school, a position which he now holds. Mr. Gates has frequently been a delegate to the Republican general 
committee of Kings County and has been sent to many of the state conventions of his party. He was a 
presidential elector on the Harrison and Morton ticket in 1888. He is a trustee of the Kings County Trust 
Company, a director of the Bedford Bank and of the Clinton Bank of New York. His home is at No. 1047 
Dean street. He is a member of the Oxford and Union League clubs and of the Brooklyn Ethical Association. 
Tunis G. Bergen, in point of priority, is the third member of the board. He is a son of Garret G. 
Bergen and was born on May 17, 1847, in the old family homestead on Third avenue, between Thirty- 
third and Thirty-fourth streets. He bears the name of his uncle, the distinguished Teunis G. Bergen, 
now deceased. He received his primary education at public school No. 2, which was then largely main- 
tained by the Bergen family ; he mastered French under the tuition of Principal Peter Rouget of public 
school No. 10, and eventually passed through the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Rutgers College. 
From the latter institution he was graduated in 1867. In 1868 he received his degree from the law school of 
Columbia College. He visited Germany where, for some time, he studied in the universities of Berlin and 
Heidelberg, receiving from the latter, in 187 1, the degree of Doctor in Public Law. From Heidelberg he 




Nelson J. Gates. 



^j8 the eagle and BROOKLYN 

went to Paris and pursued his profession in the law department of the university there. He attended also 
lectures at the Sorbonne and at Oxford. Afterwards he went to Switzerland, and fortunately was induced, 
soon after starting-, to withdraw from an expedition to climb Mont Blanc with a party, all of whom, with 
cruides and porters, perished in the ascent. While in Europe he contributed many interesting articles to 
American newspapers, some of which related to the Franco-Prussian war. In 1879 Mr. Bergen was the 
chosen orator of the Rutgers College Alumni. It is a noticeable fact that some one bearing the name of 
Bero-en has been connected with the Brooklyn board of education ever since the establishment of that 
organization. Tunis G. Bergen was appointed to the board in March, 1876, and afterwards officiated as 
chairman of various committees, and as a member of the studies, central grammar school, law, and 
finance committees. In July, 1881, he unsuccessfully contested for the presidency of the board with Daniel 
Maujer, but the next year he was elected president, and was reelected until July, 1S86. Mr. Bergen 
received the Republican nomination in the fourth assembly district in 1876 ; on this occasion he received 
the support of the independent Democrats, and ran 3,000 votes ahead of his ticket. He has declined 
hitherto to accept other political nominations which have been offered him. Mr. Bergen is an enthusiastic 
sportsman and clubman ; he is a member of the Hamilton and Brooklyn clubs, and of several New York 
organizations, and various hunting and fishing clubs. He is now actively engaged in the practice of his 
profession as counsel for various corporations, estates and transportation companies ; and he is identified 
with the development of South American railways. Ten years ago Mr. Bergen married Miss McPhail, 
daughter of Doctor McPhail, of Pierrepont street, and both he and Mrs. Bergen have been active and 
influential in the city's social life. Their home is on Pierrepont street. 

CoLOXEL John Y, Culver for the last quarter of a century has been 
prominently identified with the interests of Brooklyn, He was born in the 
city of New York fifty-two years ago. He had the advantages of a sub- 
stantial education in some of the best schools of his native city, and early 
developed a talent for the profession of civil engineering, for which he 
received special training. His tastes led him to combine a study of horti- 
culture and the artistic side of engineering. At the beginning of the 
development of Central Park he joined the corps engaged on that work, 
under the supervision of Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of the 
park, where he acquired a familiarity with the details of the work which 
he utilized with advantage in his subsequent career. At the beginning of 
the war he accompanied Mr. Olmsted to Washington to assist in the 
organization and administration of the work of the U, S, Sanitary Com- 
mission. After serving a year in this capacity he entered the service of 
the U. S. Engineer Department as an assistant to the engineer in charge 
-,. ^j- ^j^g |j^_^^ ^j- (jgfgj.,(,g south of the Potomac, under the late General J. G. 

Col. John Y. Culver. Barnard, and remained in that service till the close of the war. In the 

spring of 1S65, Colonel Culyer was present in Ford's Theatre when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and 
he retains a vivid recollection of that startling event. About this time he received an offer from the Hon. 
A. H. Green, then commissioner of the New York parks, to return to that city as an engineer, which he 
did. He left his work there to accept the position of assistant engineer in charge at Prospect Park, on the 
special invitation of Hon. J. S. T. Stranahan. On the retirement of Mr. Olmsted, and of the gentleman who 
had served as chief engineer, he was appointed chief engineer and superintendent, and under his super- 
vision a large part of the unfinished work of the various parks and parkways was completed. He has been 
for many years identified with the national guard, serving as engineer on the staff of Generals Jourdan and 
Molineaux, and is now the ranking engineer in length of service in the military establishment of the state. 
In the management of Prospect Park he was permitted by the commissioners to largely develop its various 
public uses, then almost unique in park management, the approval of Mr. Stranahan and his long and inti- 
mate association with that gentleman serving as inspiration to his labors. Following the radical changes 
which the retirement of Mr. Stranahan caused. Col. Culyer resigned his position and engaged actively in 
his professional work as a civil engineer and landscape architect, in which he has attained both success 
and a reputation of a high order. He is the consulting engineer of the department of parks in this city, and 
has designed the small parks in the seventeenth and eighteenth wards, and is otherwise intimately associ- 
ated with other park work of Brooklyn. Mr. Culyer has been an active and influential member of the board 
of education during the greater part of the time since 1872, and has been identified with its most useful work 
serving as a member of its most important committees. He is a member of the committee on teachers, 
studies, sites and localities, heating and ventilation, and drawing, and is chairman of the committee on 
free scholarships, and of the boys' high school. He was a member of the first rapid transit commission in 
this city, and he was engineer of the committee for the Atlantic avenue route. He is a member of the 




EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



719 



department of pedagogy of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, and chairman of its committee 

on art education, a member of the Oxford and Brooklyn clubs, and of the Union League Club of New York, 

and of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He has a well selected library and art collection. 
J. Edward Swanstrom, who was appointed to 

the board in 1888 and reappointed three years later. 

is the son of the Rev. J. P. Swanstrom, who came to 

the United States in company with John Ericcson, 

the inventor of the " Monitor." Both these youno- 

Swedes at that time, and for some years after, were 

comparatively unknown, yet each attained eminence 

in his adopted country. J. Edward Swanstrom was 

born in Brooklyn on July 26, 1853. He became a 

pupil of the public schools, and afterwards studied 

at the University of the City of New York, from the 

law school of which he was graduated in 1878, having 

three years previously entered the office of the New 

York legal firm of Miller, Feet & Opdyke. He grad- 
uated with the highest honors attainable. He at 

once began a successful private practice in New 

York, and the reports of the state bar attest the ex- 
tent and importance of the cases which have been 

committed to his care. In the board of education 

he has rendered good service, and is chairman of 

the committee on rules and regulations ; also he is 

one of the three members of the law committee. 

Caesar Slmis was appointed a member of the 

board of education by Mayor Whitney and reap- 
pointed by Mayor Chapin ; he is a member of the 

local committee of schools Nos. 41, 73, 67 and 68, and 

a member of the committees on teachers and studies. 

In politics he is a Democrat, and was associated with 

the Jeffersonian movement in this city, both as a member and as an officer. He was born hi the city of 

Hamburg, Germany, on April 13, 1849, and was brought to this country when two years of age. His parents 

located in the sixteenth ward of this city, and were residents of that locality for many years. Mr. Simis 

received the ordinary public and German school education offered in that 
district, and is a graduate of the Law School of the University of the city 
of New York. He was admitted to practice, but having an inclination for 
a mercantile life, he entered into the hat trade, both wholesale and retail, 
he has continued in this business ever since, and has the reputation of 
being one of the largest retail hat merchants in the United States. Mr. 
Simis is a thorough musician, and as a pianist he performed, in his younger 
years, at many concerts in Williamsburgh. 

He is married and resides at the corner — ~ 

of New York and St. Mark's avenues. He 
has a son and a daughter. 

Henry C. McLean, M. D., has been 
engaged in the practice of medicine in 
Brooklyn since he was twenty-three years 
old and was one of the first persons to 
hold an appointment as ambulance sur- 
geon in this city. He was born at New- 
burgh-on-the-Hudson, on June 26, 1850, 

and after studying at private schools entered Manhattan College in New 

York city, where he was graduated on his nineteenth birthday, in 1869. 
Afterwards, in 1873, he was graduated at the University of the City of 

New York. In July, 1873, Dr. McLean was appointed as ambulance sur- 
geon in the Eastern District, but he resigned in the following October to 
accept the position of resident physician in the Kings County Hospital ; 
he remained there until 1875, when he entered upon general practice and 




J. Edward Swanstrom. 




Caesar Simis. 




Hemry C. McLean, M. D, 




720 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

he has since resided in the third and twenty-second wards, his present residence being at loi Sixth avenue. 
He has been visiting physician at St. Mary's General Hospital, and St. Mary's Maternity and Lifants' Hos- 
pital since 1SS7, and was for seventeen years an attending physician at the dispensary on Third avenue, 
near State street. Dr. McLean was appointed as a member of the board of education by Mayor Whitney 
in 1886 and was reappointed by Mayors Chapin and Boody. He is chairman of the committee on drawing, 
and is a member of the committees on music, training school, and health. He is a member of the Columbian 
Club and the Young Men's Democratic Club. 

Major Peter H. McNulty, who holds the reins which control 
the drygoods house of Wechsler & Abraham, is well known and re- 
spected in commercial and financial circles, in private and public life 
and among military men. During his seven years incumbency of a 
responsible business position he has found time for outside affairs and 
has taken an energetic part in the management of one department of 
the city government. As a member of the board of education he has 
worked faithfully and is proportionately valued. Major McNulty was 
the first member of the board to suggest the advisability of the introduc- 
tion of manual training into the schools. The system embodies a course 
by which the hand is educated in sympathy with the eye ; and it pro- 
vides for the teaching of wood carpentry and the trades where measur- 
ing and calculations are required. Major McNulty is chairman of the 
committee which has the matter in hand, and intends to have the system 
introduced. Peter H. McNulty was born in Middagh street, in Brook- 
lyn, on May 4, 1858. He attended public school No. 8, which then was 
located in Middagh street. Afterward he studied at St. Francis' College 
MAJOR PETER H. MCNULTY. ^_^^ compIctcd his cducation at St. John's College. In 1S71 he began 

work as a bundle boy in the employ of Peake, Opdyke & Co., wholesale drygoods dealers, of New York. 
From that position, through various changes of employers, he gradually won his way to the one he now fills. 
He enlisted as a private in the Third Catling Battery, and was promoted to a lieutenancy ; then he was 
appointed a captain on General Ward's staff. He was afterwards appointed and now is major and quarter- 
master on General McLeer's brigade staff. He is a member of the Montauk and Columbian clubs, and of 
the Emerald Association. The great coaching carnival which was held in Prospect Park, in the summer of 
1891, was first proposed by Major McNulty, and at the various meetings held to perfect arrangements for 
that event he always presided. 

Charles E. Teale was appointed as a member of the board of education in the spring of 1878, by 
Mayor Howell, and was reappointed by the same Mayor in 1S80. He was reappointed twice by Mayor 
Seth Low, and received two reappointments from Mayor Chapin. As a member of the library committee 
he was instrumental in the introduction of the free book system. He advocated the present system of pay- 
ing the teachers' salaries by check instead of cash, while a member of the finance committee of the board. 
He has been chairman of school No. 15 for many years, and during that time has looked favorably on the 
establishment of tjie present system of buildings with isolated class rooms. He was active in the work 
of instituting the training school. He is now chairman of the finance committee, member of the committees 
on rules, text-books, boys' high school, and training school. Mr. Teale is the head of the tailoring firm of 
Charles E. Teale & Co., on Fulton street. He has been an active and prominent member of the Hanson 
Place M. E. Church since 1858, and is a director of the Young Men's Christian Association. He is a direc- 
tor in the City Savings Bank and in the Brooklyn Choral Society. He is a member of the social committee 
of the Oxford Club and one of the directors of the Brooklyn Sunday School Union. Mr. Teale was born 
in Nottingham, England, on June i, 1843, and came to America with his parents when he was six years 
old. For four years he attended public school No. 8, and at the age of twelve years he was studying in the 
night at school No. 6, in Warren street. He began his working life as a messenger boy at the offices of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. 

Harlan P. Halsey is an unassuming, yet sturdily built man, of medium stature, conventional in dress 
and business-like in manner. Few, seeing him on the street, would recognize him as the author of the 
"Old Sleuth " series of detective stories ; but the fact is, that in the past twenty years he has written more 
than 170,000 manuscript pages of novels and series. He is about 46 years of age, and gained his early 
education at a private academy in New York city, where he was born. He had an inherent literary bent, 
and when in his teens began to write for different magazines ; in the younger days of Frank Leslie's paper 
he was employed on it. When but sixteen years of age he wrote a novel of 300 pages, which he had pub- 
lished at his own expense. Some of his earliest stories and poetical compositions were published in the 
Eagle nearly forty years ago. He wrote "Old Sleuth" for George Munro ; and after the story became 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



721 




Harlan P. Halsey. 



famous he took the title of the book for a nom de plume. Mr. Halsey is 
not a politician, nor is he an enthusiastic party servant. He was appointed ! 
to the board of education in July, 1885, by Mayor Seth Low, and since 
then has been twice reappointed under Democratic administrations. Politi- 
cally, he is a Republican, and votes with that party. He is fond of all 
athletic amusements, and as soon as his day's work is done he seeks recre- 
ation in that direction. In his work he is as methodical as a carpenter at 
his bench, writing a fixed amount and then stopping. He is a property- 
owner in the city, an organizer of several financial projects, and a director 
in the Hamilton Trust Company. 

William Ferris was born in Ireland on January 21, 1S50, and came 
to this country fifteen years later. His first employment was with D. 
Appleton & Co., but seeing little opportunity for advancement he severed 
his connection with that firm, and engaged with the New York Printing 
Company, where he remained until 1872. In September of that year he 
connected himself with J. J. Little & Co. His progress with this firm was 
so rapid that he soon became superintendent, his present position. For a 
long time Mr. Ferris lived in the thirteenth ward, but about four years ago he moved to the twenty-fifth 
ward. He is a staunch Democrat, and is an active member and a trustee of the Bushwick Democratic 

Club. In the board of education he is chairman of the printing committee, 
and a member of the library, school-book, and supplies committees. Mr. 
Ferris has displayed much ability in dealing with educational matters. He 
is married, and with his wife and their five children occupies a pleasant 
home at 783 Monroe street. 

J.^MES B. BouCK was born in New York city on February 16, 1840. He 
began study at the Utica French Academy, and after spending two years 
there attended the Poughkeepsie Collegiate School for three years. At 
the age of fifteen he was sent to the school presided over by Dr. Haccius 
at Geneva, Switzerland. Returning to America, two years later, he entered 
the junior class of Union College, at Schenectady, N. Y., from which insti- 
tution he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the class 
of 1859. In June of the same year he entered the Merchants' E.xchange 
Bank in New York as a clerk, and in the following May he became con- 
nected with Messrs. David Dows& Company, commission merchants, with 
which firm, at the end of three years' service, he held the position of con- 
fidential clerk. In December, 1864, he engaged in the same line of business 
for himself. In 1869 he moved to Brooklyn, and being a Democrat in poli- 
tics, at once joined the Seventh Ward Democratic Association, of which he is president. He is a member 
of the Andrew Jackson Democratic Club, and has been a member of the Democratic general committee of 
Kings County since 1880. In 1887 Mayor Whitney appointed him as a member of the board of education, 
and three years later he was reappointed by Mayor Chapin. At present he is chairman of school No. 45, 
chairman of the committee on teachers, member of the committee on school houses, and of the committee 
on text-books. He is an active member of the Lincoln Club. 

John Guilfoyle was born in New York city on November 3, 1854, 
and studied in the public schools there. With his parents he settled in 
Brooklyn in 1866, and then entered St. John's College, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated in 1870. During the succeeding four years he 
was apprenticed to the bricklaying trade, and in 1875 went into partnership 
with his father, a builder. The latter died in 1879, and John Guilfoyle 
continued the business. In 1887 he was appointed as superintendent of 
construction of the new federal building by Secretary Daniel Manning, and 
served until August, 1889, when he was succeeded by William Booth. In 
1886 Mayor Whitney appointed him as a member of the board of education. 
He received reappointment from Mayor Chapin, and is now chairman of 
the committee on public school No, 7, and a member of the school house, 
drawing, and manual training committees. Mr. Guilfoyle is a Democrat 
and has been a member of the Democratic general committee for fourteen 
years ; he is the secretary of the Fifth Ward Democratic Association. 
He is the contractor for the mason work on the new 13th Regiment armory 
at Sumner and Putnam avenues. 




William Ferris. 




John Guilfoyle. 



7 2 2 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Daniel W. Northup was born in Troy, N. Y., on April 24, 1845. He received his primary education in 
the puljiic schools of Brooklyn, going from them to the mathematical and classical academy of Prof. 
McLaren at Sandy Hill, Washington County, N. Y. After his graduation in 1864, he returned to Brooklyn, 
and pursued a course of higher studies before entering the Columbia College Law School. In 1867 he was 
graduated as a Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to the bar in the same year. Since that time he has 
devoted himself to the practice of law in the courts of this state, leaving his office, at 26 Court street, only 
to take a citizen's part in the direction of local affairs. Mr. Northup is a Republican in politics, having been 
for some time a member of the executive committee of the Republican general committee. He was 
appointed to the board by Mayor Whitney. He has been a member of many of the active committees of 
the board, including the committee on law, of which he is chairman, and the committees on the girls' high 
school, teachers, libraries, and rules. Mr. Northup traces his descent from Governor Bradford, of Connecticut, 
when that state was a colony under British rule. His home is at No. 38 Halsey street. He is well known 
among the Brooklyn clubs, being a member of the Brooklyn, Hamilton and the Union League. Mr. Northup 
has a special taste for art, and has visited the principal galleries, both at home and abroad. 

Samuel Goodstein was born in New York city on February 25, 1849. 
His education was gained in the public schools there and in the New York 
Free Academy. He then for two years worked as a clerk with the law 
firm of Messrs. Collins & Hughes ; and afterward he was with a mercantile 
house four years. Li 1869 he came to Brooklyn and established himself 
in business as a loan broker, in which he continues. Having made Brook- 
lyn his home, he at once identified himself with religious and charitable 
institutions. When twenty-three years of age he was president of the 
congregation of Temple Israel. He is now vice-president of the congre- 
gation. He was president of the Hebrew Benefit Society of the Western 
District, and for eleven consecutive years was vice-president of the Hebrew 
Orphan Asylum. In 1866 Mayor Whitney appointed him as a member 
of the board of education and three years later he was reappointed by 
Mayor Chapin. He is chairman of schools Nos. 5 and 63, and their 
branches, and a member of the school-house committee. Mr. Goodstein 
is a member of the Constitution and Laurence clubs. He is a staunch 
Democrat in politics, a member of the Twenty-second Ward Association, 
and an e.K-member of the Democratic general committee. 
James L. Drummond, who was appointed as a member of the board 
by Mayor Chapin in 1888, and reappointed during Mr. Chapin's second 
term in 1890, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, on March 5, 1849, and came 
to this country with his parents in 1853. He attended the public schools 
in New York until he was fourteen years old, when he entered the service 
of the late U. D. Ward, then a publisher and bookseller in New York ; on 
February i, 1879, he was admitted to a partnership. The firm name be- 
came Ward & Drummond, and that title has been preserved until the pres- 
ent time. In November, 1875,. Mr. Drummond removed to Brooklyn and 
soon became identified with educational affairs here. In the board of 
education he is chairman of committees on public schools Nos. 22, 34 
and 59, and of evening school No. 22, besides being a member of the music, 
printing, and library committees. Mr. Drummond is an active member of 
the masonic fraternity, a past master of Greenpoint Lodge, No. 403, F. and 
.\. M,, past commander of St. Elmo Commandery, No. 57, Knights Tem- 
plars ; he is a 32° mason, a noble of the Mystic Shrine and is district deputy 
grand master for the second masonic district. 

AViLLLAM J. Lynch, who was appointed as a member of the board of ■'""'^^ ^- °R™mond. 

education in July, 1890, by Mayor Chapin, is an active and useful member and has served on some of the 
most important committees. He was born in 1863 and was educated at the public schools in Brooklyn. 
When seventeen years old he began to study law with the late Edward P, Wilder, and after graduation from 
the Columbia College Law School, in 1884, he was admitted to the bar. He practiced until January i, 1892, 
when John Cottier, who had been elected county clerk of Kings County, tendered him the appointment of 
deputy clerk, which he accepted. 

James Weir, Jr., is chairman of the committees on schools Nos. 10 and 40, chairman of the committee 
on sites and localities and a member of the school-house committee. He was appointed to the board by 
Mayor Whitney in 1886. He was born in England on October 17, 1843, and was brought to this country 




Samuel Goodstein. 




EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 723 

before he was one year old. When a boy he went to public school No. 2, and later concluded his studies at 
the Polytechnic Institute. Having inherited from his father a love for flowers and a predilection for their 
cultivation as a business, he began as a florist in 1866. He is a well-known member of several social organi- 
zations. He has been a mason for a number of years and is a member of Greenwood Lodge, No. 569, F. and 
A. M. He is especially fond of yachting and fills the position of rear commodore of the Atlantic Yacht 
Club. In politics Mr. Weir is a Democrat, and has held various offices both by election and appointment. 
From 1879 until 1883 he was a member of the board of aldermen of Brooklyn ; and during the last year of 
his service was honored with the position of chairman of the board. He has also served on the Democratic 
general committee and has been several times a delegate to state conventions. 

CouRTES T. HuBES was appointed as a member of the board by Mayor Chapin, in 1S91, to serve the 
unexpired term of John Cottier. He is chairman of the committee on public school No. 75, and a member 
of the printing, high school, and Eastern District library committees. Born on August 13, 1843, in New 
York city, he attended the public schools there until 1857, when he removed to Williamsburgh and entered 
public school No. 18, from which he was graduated in 1857. He then entered the Twentieth street public 
school in New York, where he was graduated ; and he followed that up by a one year course in the College 
of the City of New York. He is a member of the Seymour, the Bushwick Democratic, and the Twenty- 
eighth Ward Business Men's Democratic clubs. He is the president of the Homestead Cooperative Build- 
ing and Loan Association. In the masonic fraternity he is a member of the DeWitt Clinton Commandery, 
Knights Templar, honorary member of the Baltic Lodge, No. 284, F. and A. M., Brooklyn, and a past 
master of the Hope Lodge, No. 244, in New York city. 

William M. Davis has been a druggist in the city for the past thirteen years. He was born in Troy, 
N. Y., on June 13, 184S, and began his education at a public school in that city. He came to Brooklyn in 
1876. During 1889 and 1890 he was president of the Kings County Pharmaceutical Society, and he now 
holds a similar position in the Board of Pharmacy of Kings County. He is the first vice-president of the 
College of Pharmacy of Brooklyn. In 1889 Mayor Chapin appointed him as a member of the board of 
education, in which he is a member of the committees on sites and localities, and music, and chairman of 
public school No. 25. Mr. Davis is now taking a course of lectures at the Long Island Medical College 
with the view of obtaining a physician's diploma. 

Eben Miller is a man who has for a number of years taken a prominent and active interest in 
Brooklyn's educational institutions. He was appointed as a member of the board of education by Mayor 
Howell, and was reappointed by Mayors Low, Whitney, and Chapin. He suggested and managed the 
redistricting the city and consolidating of its schools, thereby reducing grades of schools and saving a 
large amount of room and expense. For ten years he was a member of the committee on finance ; he is 
now chairman of the committee of school No. 11, and chairman of the training school committee, besides being 
a member of the studies, attendance, rules and regulations, and drawing committees. He was born in New 
York in 1845, and is the head of the firm of Miller & Flynn, paper dealers, in that city. 

John McNamee was appointed to the board of education in February, 18S0, by Mayor James Howell 
and was continued in office by successive reappointments. For several years he has proved an efficient 
chairman of the committee on heating and ventilation, and he is one of the standing committee on school 
houses and sites. He is a native of Brooklyn, having been born in the second ward, and educated in the 
public schools. His business is that of a contractor. 

John W. Kimball was appointed in December, 1892, vice Henry M. Winter, deceased. Mr. Kimball 
was born in Sandwich, N. H., in April, 1848. He acquired the rudiments of his education in Rochester, 
N. H.; subsequently he studied at educational institutions in West Lebanon, N. H., and Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. He came to Brooklyn and established himself in the drug business in 1868. He is chairman of the 
board of trustees of the Prospect Home Building and Loan Association and, in addition to his drug busi- 
ness, represents several insurance companies. In politics he is a Democrat. 

John K. Powell was born at Manetto Hill, Queens County, L. I., on April 23, 1848, being descended 
from an old Quaker family. He was appointed as a member of the board of education by Mayor Whitney 
and was reappointed by Mayor Chapin. He is chairman of public school No. 76, and a member of the 
committee on heating and ventilating and on free scholarships. He is a dentist by profession and a Demo- 
crat in politics. He is a member of the Glenmore Rod and Gun Club and of the Constitution Club. 

John Flynn has been a member of the board of education since Mayor Schroeder app(jinted him in 
1876. He is chairman of the committee of public school No. 42, and is a member of the committee on 
teachers, evening schools, music, and the training school. He was born in Ireland on February i, 1839. He 
has lived in Brooklyn since 1854. 

Gen. Horatio C. King is another of those men who have gained eminence in several capacities, and 
are not to be placed exclusively in any particular class. He has served on the board, and has done import- 
ant work in committees since July i, 1884. His biography is printed in the chapter on Bench and Bar. 



,24 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Franklin W. Hooper is one of the newer members of the board, having been appointed by Mayor 
Boody in March, 1S92. He is best known as the director of the Broolclyn Listitute of Arts and Sciences, 
and a biography of him is given in connection with the sketch of that institution in this chapter. 

A. Augustus Healy is another member who was appointed by Mayor Boody in 1892. He is prominent 
in poHtical circles, and a sketch of him is given in connection with the Brooklyn Democratic Club. 

William H. Harkness, who is a wail-paper merchant, was appointed to the board in 1879. Robert A. 
Black, M. D., is a practising physician, who was appointed in July, 1890. Arthur S. Somers, who was 
appointed in 1892, is in the color manufacturing business. George Straub has served since 1889. He is 
a builder. A. C. Aubery is a lawyer, whose service dates from 1888. Thomas CACcroLA,the Italian mem- 
ber, was appointed by Mayor Chapin. He is a lawyer. John J. Cashman, appointed in March, 1892, is a 
builder. John Harrigan, M. D., was appointed in 1883. Arthur R. Jarrett, M. D., was appointed in 
1888. Anton Schimmel, appointed in 1891, is an agent. Thomas Moran was appointed in 1892. He is 
a boatman. Jasper Murphy is a shipwright, who received appointment in 1890. John D. Walsh, 
appointed in 1892, is a contractor. John W. \Veber was appointed in 1889, and is a brewer. T. McCants 
Stewart, the only colored member, is a lawyer, and was appointed in April, 1891. 

WiLLL\M H. Maxwell, the active head of our educational system, was elected associate superin- 
tendent in October, 1882. He was chosen superintendent of public instruction in 1887 by the unanimous 
vote of the board of education to fill the une.xpired term for which Calvin Patterson had been elected. In 
July, 1888, he was reelected for the full term of three years, and a similar recognition of his worth occurred 
a second time in 1891. The advantages which accrued to the public through Mr. Ma.xwell's tenure of this 
particular post have been many. He has been the adviser of the board in the important revisions and 
extensions of the course of study in the training school and the girls' and boys' high schools. Under his 
direction object teaching has been introduced in the schools, and he is responsible for the adoption of a 
system of drawing much less mechanical and more attractive than that which it superseded. Toward the 
close of 1891, on Mr. Maxwell's recommendation, a most important step was taken to improve the work of 
teaching by the adoption of a rule which provided that all teachers without satisfactory experience who pass 
the preliminary examination must either render substitute service, satisfactory to the superintendent, for 
one hundred days, or must take the regular course in the training school before receiving the lowest grade 
of certificate. William H. Maxwell was born on March 5, 1852, at Stewartstown, County Tyrone, Ireland. 
His father, who was the Rev. John Maxwell, pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Brigh, prepared him for 
college after he had received his elementary education at the local national school. In 1868 he was matri- 
culated at Queen's College, Galway, one of the three colleges that constituted the Queen's University ; 
immediately upon his entrance he won the prize which Sir Robert Peel had established for English composi- 
tion, and by competitive examination he secured the first of five literary scholarships. His success was 
remunerative enough to pay his entire collegiate expenses. He stood first in Latin and logic in the 
tripartite examination for a Bachelor's degree at Dublin in competition with all the students of the colleges 
at Belfast, Cork and Gahvay. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts with honors in ancient classics in 
1872 and the degree of Master of Arts with similar honors in 1874. Immediately upon receiving the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts he was appointed Professor of English literature and history in the Ladies' Collegiate 
Institute at Belfast and became one of the sub-masters of the Royal Academic Institution; these are the two 
largest schools of high school grade in Ireland. In 1874 he came to America. After spending some time in 
Philadelphia he moved to New York and within a few months made his home in Brooklyn. Failing to obtain 
employment as a teacher he engaged in journalism. He held situations in New York on the reportorial staffs 
of the Evening Afail, Tribune, and Herald. He was assistant editor on a weekly paper known as the Metro- 
politan, and for five years he was managing editor of the Brooklyn Times. While employed in this last capac- 
ity he was asked to teach and deliver lectures in literature and history before the two evening high schools. 
Mr. Maxwell is the author of three school text-books which have a very large circulation, but his most 
important work, perhaps, has been in inciting the teachers under his immediate supervision to study not only 
professional literature, but also general literature, science and art. In September, 1892, Mr. Maxwell was 
elected president of the department of pedagogy of the Brooklyn Institute ; he was appointed a member 
of the committee of ten for the organization of congresses in connection with the World's Fair in 1893 ; and 
he is a member of the advisory board appointed by the state authorities on the exhibit of school work 
from New York state. 

Edward G. Ward, the senior associate superintendent of public instruction, is a native of the Eastern 
District and is a descendant from an old colonial family which was prominent in Connecticut before the 
Revolution; his great-grandfather served in the patriot army and his grandfather was a soldier of 1812. 
During and since the Revolution the family has lived in New York and two of his brothers served in the 
union army; but his father would not allow Edward to follow their example. He was born on June 18, 1843. 
At the early age of five years he became a pupil at a public school in New York and subsequently attended 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



725 




school in Hoboken, N. J. His genius for teaching was made evident when he was ten years old by his 
gathering together the younger children of the neighborhood for instruction. When he was only twelve 
years old he was teacher of the lowest grammar grade in Hoboken, becoming vice-principal at the a-e of 
seventeen. Until he was twenty years old he studied and taught and at the same time took an active 
interest in athletic sports, becoming a noted player of 
base ball. Resigning his position as teacher he took 

a partial course at the New Jersey State Normal r^ . -- - -^ - 

School and then resumed teaching, continuing his 
studies privately; he was the principal of Hoboken's 
first evening school when he was twenty-one years 
old. In the same year he married Miss Sarah McCain, 
of Newburgh, N. Y. Although his salary at this time 
was only $800 a year, he refused to give up teaching 
to accept an offer of $1,500 a year for his services 
as pitcher in the first professional base ball club. 
In 1868 he became principal of grammar school No. 
I, Bergen, N. J., which soon became No. 1 1 of Jersey 
City. P"or several years he was an instructor in the 
Jersey City Normal School, and in 1879 he was elected 
as principal of No. 19, Brooklyn, solely on his record 
as a teacher. He was elected to his present posi- 
tion in 1885. 

John H. Walsh, associate superintendent of 
public instruction, was born in Brooklyn on March 
17, 1853, and was educated in this city at St. James' 
Cathedral school in Jay street and at St. Francis' 
Academy; he took a full course at St. Francis Xavier's 
College in New York and afterwards entered the 
famous college at Georgetown, D. C. From this in- 
stitution he was graduated in 1873 after taking the 
complete arts course. He is a graduate of the Col- 
umbia College Law School and successively occupied 
positions on the faculties of Loyola College at Baltimore, Georgetown College and St. Francis' College in 
this city. In September, 1885, he was elected principal of public school No. 27 ; he was elected associate 
superintendent of public instruction in January, 1889, to fill out the unexpired term of Christopher Cun- 
ningham, who had died a short time previously. He was reelected in July, 1891, for the usual three years term. 

Emerson W. Keyes has been connected with the board of education since 1883 in the capacity of the 
chief clerk in the office of the superintendent; he has lived in the city since 1871. He has held various 
positions under the state government, principally in relation to the educational system. He was appointed 
deputy state superintendent of public instruction in August, 1857, and was acting superintendent from 
April, 1861, until the following February. He resigned in August, 1865, to accept the post of deputy state 
superintendent of the banking department; this office he occupied until April, 1871, having in the meantime 
transacted the duties of acting superintendent during the period between November, 1865, and February, 
1866. He was the state bank examiner in 187 i, 1872, and 1873. Mr. Keyes was born at Jamestown, Chau- 
tauqua County, N. Y., on June 30, 1828. He was graduated from the State Normal School in March, 1848; 
he spent the greater part of the succeeding nine years as a school teacher, and ne.xt engaged for awhile in 
mercantile life. In May, 1862, he was admitted to the bar in Albany County. In 1868 he presented to the 
legislature a " Special Report on Savings Banks," which has since become a standard authority on the 
subject. "Keyes' Court of Appeals Reports" (4 vols.) and his "History of the Savings Banks in the State 
of New York " were both published in 187 1. The latter work was followed in 1876 and 1878 by the " History 
of Savings Banks in the United States" (2 vols.); in 1879 he published in New York the "Code of Public 
Instruction," and in 1892 he produced a work entitled " Principles of Civil Government." 

William F. Cunningham, chief engineer of the board, made a record as an engineer during the 
early days of the Fire Department. He was born in Brooklyn, October 29, 1841, and attended the public 
schools until he was twelve years of age. During the succeeding three years he worked in the rope- 
walk of Messrs. Tucker, Cooper, Carter & Co., in Graham street. He was then apprenticed to the 
machinists in the establishment of James O. Morse & Gillis on John street, New York, where he remained 
until 1859. The year i860 found him in the employ of the New Haven Machine Co., where he worked at 
the manufacture of machinists' tools. In 1861 he entered the Brooklyn volunteer fire department and 



Edward G. Ward. 



726 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



engir 




William F. Cunningham. 



was appointed engineer of engine company No. 7- He was with that company until 1869, when he joined 
the New York metropolitan fire department. One year later he returned to Brooklyn and was made 
ineer of engine No. 6. When the paid fire department was organized he remodeled and fitted up the 

first engine used under the new regime. In 1870 he was appointed as 
inspector of boilers and served for three years. He was appointed as 
chief engineer of the board of education on January 6, 1874, which is his 
present position. Mr. Cunningham is the inventor and patentee of a 
safety column for boilers ; a vacuum and safety valve ; a drinking fountain, 
aiul an outside weather strip, all of which are in use in the various depart- 
ments of the board. He is a Democrat and a staunch upholder of Demo- 
cratic tenets, but is not over active in the political field. 

l.\iiES \V. N.AUG HTON, the superintendent of buildings of the board 
of education, was born in Ireland in the year 1840 and came to this coun- 
try with his parents in 1848, becoming a resident of the fourth ward. He 
was educated at public and private schools, including a small private school 
presided over by Henry McCloskey, subsequently editor of the Eagle. 
At the age of fourteen, on the death of his father, he left school and secured 
a place in the drygoods house of Svveetzer & Bro., on Atlantic street. A 
year later he started west, and shortly after his arrival in Milwaukee, Wis., 
he became an apprentice with J. & A. Douglass, architects and builders 
of that city. Four years later, having completed his apprenticeship, he 
entered the State University in Madison, Wis., where he continued his studies until 1861, when he returned 
to Brooklyn, located again in the sixth ward and engaged in building, con- 
tinuing his architectural studies at Cooper Institute after working hours. 
In 187 1 Mr. Naughton was elected supervisor of the ward, and served in 
the position during 1872-3. In 1874 he was appointed superintendent of 
buildings for the city, in which position he served for two years. When 
the office of superintendent of construction and repairs for the county 
was created in 1877, he was appointed to the position. In 1879 he resigned 
to take his present position, since which time he has made school archi- 
tecture a special study ; more than two-thirds of all the public school 
buildings in the city, numbering more than one hundred, have been con- 
structed after his plans, and under his personal supervision. These have 
been pronounced by competent judges to stand second to none in any city 
in the country in design, appointments and workmanship; in the expendi- 
ture of four million dollars for their construction less than eight thousand 
dollars have been paid fur e.xtra work, caused by changes in plans or any 
cause outside of the original contract prices. Mr. Naughton is married 
and with his wife and three children resides at 334 Clinton street. He is 
a Democrat in politics. 

Albert S. Caswell, the director of music, is a native of New Jersey, 
stands in the front rank of musical instructors and skilled performers in this city. In September, 1876, he 

was appointed upon the musical staff of the board of education, and on 
March 27, 1880, was promoted to the position of director. He at once 
began to systematize the methods of instruction and established a regular 
course of study. Shortly after his appointment, he made a special visit to 
England and Scotland to investigate the systems in use there and received 
special aid from the distinguished composer Dr. John HuUah. He revised 
and improved the course and stimulated the work of the teachers and pupils 
by frequent tests, including semi-annual examinations held under his super- 
vision in all the schools. In November, 1882, a further important reform 
was made by requiring critical public examinations of all applicants for 
appointinent as music teachers, and no appointments have since been made 
by the board save from the list of persons duly licensed by the director of 
music. Mr. Caswell has been director of music and organist at St. Stephen's 
Roman Catholic Church since May, i, 1887 ; and instructor of the vocal 
class of the Young Men's Christian Association since October i, 1880. In 
October, i88i,he organized the Brooklyn Cecilian, and the gratuitous instruc- 
tion given its members has greatly promoted the interest in music and has 
been a prime factor in encouraging its study generally throughout the city. 




James \V. Naughton. 
He is in the prime of life and 




ALBiiKT S. Caswell. 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



727 



Walter S. Goodnough, the supervisor of drawing, is a native of Boston and received his early educa- 
tion in the schools of that city. On completion of his public school course he was engaged for nearly three 
years as a reporter on a trade paper which he left to prepare for general teaching. He was graduated from 
the State Normal School at Bridgewater, Mass., after a two years' course. While he was a student there 
the Massachusetts legislature passed the law requiring drawing as a regular study in all the public schools 
of the state, and reciuiring the establishment of free evening art schools in every city of 10,000 inhabitants. 
He gave to this subject all the attention his other work would permit, determining, near the close of his 
course, to make it a specialty. After his graduation he went to Prof. Walter Smith, who had been ap- 
pointed as state director of art education in Massachusetts and director of drawing in the Boston public 
schools, and studied under his direction. On Prof. Smith's recommendation he w^as appointed as teacher of 
drawing in the State Normal School in Salem, the largest school in Massachusetts. As soon as the State 
Normal Art School was established in Boston he entered it as a student, continuing his work at Salem. 
He obtained his certificate at the end of the first year's work ; and he was the first secretary (jf the Massa- 
chusetts Art Teachers' Association. In September, 1874, he became supervisor of drawing in the public 
schools of Columbus, Ohio, and in 1878 he was elected by the Columbus Art Association to organize 
and act as director of the Columbus Art School, which position he held, in addition to that in the public 
schools, until January, i8gi, when he took his present position in Brooklyn. He was one of the organizers 
of the Art Department of the National Educational Association in 1883, and president of the department 
in 1886. For a number of years he lectured on " Methods of Teaching Drawing " in many county insti- 
tutes in Ohio and Pennsylvania, in the Summer School of Methods at Martha's Vineyard in 1888, and the 
Interstate Summer School of Methods held in four states in 1890. One of his most important services was 
as commissioner of the department of fine arts of the Ohio Centennial E.xposition in 1887-88. 

Calvin Patterson for the past ten years has 
been generally known as a most efficient worker in 
our public school system. His father, Calvin Colton 
Patterson, was one of the pioneer farmers of western 
New York. Born and bred on a farm, but receiving 
a liberal education in the Brockport Collegiate Insti- 
tute and the University of Rochester, Mr. Patterson 
was appointed, at the age of twenty-one, principal of 
a large public grammar school in the city of Roches- 
ter. He held this position one year, resigning to take 
a position as associate principal in the Buffalo Classi- 
cal School. Three years later he was made professor 
of mathematics in the Buffalo State Normal School, 
and assisted in its organization. In 1873 he was 
invited to the principalship of the old Degraw street 
school in this city. Under his management this 
school in nine years more than doubled its numbers. 
During this period he also successfully organized 
the first evening high school. His work in these 
positions so favorably impressed the board of edu- 
cation that in 1882 he was elected as superintendent 
of public instruction. Mr. Patterson's able adminis- 
tration during the five years he held this position is 
well known to the citizens of Brooklyn. In 1887 the 
friends of higher education persuaded him to accept 
the principalship of the Central School, offering as 
one of the inducements the largest salary then paid 
to any high school principal in the United States. 
He at once planned to make an independent school of the boys' department, d.^ng much to persuade the 
board of education to erect the magnificent building the school now occupies on Marcy avenue. Mr. 
Patterson retains the principalship of the girls' high school on Nostrand avenue, which under h,s direction 
has grown to be the largest in America. o u 

Alec. G. McAllister, principal of the boys' high school, was born in Boston, October 17, 1849. He 
prepared for college in the town of Melrose, Mass., and at the age of nineteen entered I uft s College, Med- 
ford, where he was graduated in 1872. He was appointed principal of the high school at Chelmsford 




Calvin Patterson. 



Mass., in which capacity he served for three years 



He then declined to accept an offer of the position of 



principal of the high school at Nashua, N. H. ; and connected himself with the New York Illustrated Press. 



728 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Weakness of the eyes compelled him to return to his former calling, and he accepted an appointment as 
principal in Warwick High School, Orange County, N. Y., where he worked faithfully for eleven years. In 
the winter of 1885 he associated himself with the Brooklyn high school as instructor in English. When 
the girls took possession of the new building on Nostrand avenue, 1886, he was made acting principal of the 
boys'' department, and in February, 1891, when the two schools were separated, he was appointed as princi- 
pal of the bovs' high school. 

Walter's. Gunnison, A. M., Ph. D., principal of school No. 19, E. D., was born in Abington, Mass., in 
1852. When he was about five years old his father, a prominent Universalist minister, became American 
consul at Halifax, N. S., and Mr. Gunnison's boyhood was spent in that old town until the time came for 
sending him away to school. The school chosen was the Westbrook Seminary, Deering, Me., and he was 
graduated with credit in 187 1. Then he entered the St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y., taking the 
classical course, being graduated in 1875. He was immediately elected assistant professor of the Latin 

language and literature, and in the following year 
was elected to the full professorship, which he held 
until his departure for Brooklyn, ten years later. As 
vice-president of the University — he was elected to 
that office in 1883 — he did -yeoman service in the 
work of raising very much needed funds. Mean- 
while, in addition to his other acquirements and occu- 
pations, he read law in the office of .\tt(jrney-General 
Leslie W. Russell, in Canton, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1882. The work of teaching suited him best, 
and in 1885 he was appointed to the principalship of 
public school No. 19 in the Eastern District, left va- 
cant by the advancement of E. G. Ward to the post 
of associate superintendent. Coming to one of the 
oldest grammar schools in the city where the memory 
of a man so able and so well-beloved as the late 
j^ Thomas ^V. Valentine was still fondly cherished, Mr. 

I Gunnison adapted himself to his new surroundings 

^ with such good will and cordial friendliness that in 

a very short time it seemed as if he had always been 
I there. His new associates found him firm but never 

intolerant, and equally free from tiresome pedantry 
and exasperating dogmatism. Never neglecting his 
immediate charge, no educational movement fails to 
attract him. He was chairman of the executive 
committee of New York State Teachers' Association 
in 1889, and to his energy and good management the 
magnificent success of the three days' convention, 
held in Brooklyn in 1890, was largely due. Very properly he was chosen president of the association 
for the ensuing year. He is an active working member of the various organizations of teachers for pro- 
fessional advancement that exist in this city of churches and schools. At present he is much interested 
in the department of pedagogy of the Brooklyn Institute, and is chairman of the committee on the work 
of the kindergarten. In all these various relations Mr. Gunnison's co-laborers have always found him 
"pleasant to serve under " and " pleasant to serve with." When partisan fervor is demanded he is not back- 
ward, but with its warmth he unites the liberal judgment of a sound and generous mind. He is a man of 
fine presence and attractive manner. In all respects he is an admirable representative of the teaching 
body, and one of whom his fellows are justly proud. 

Leonard Dunkly, of public school No. 16, is the recognized Nestor of Brooklyn principals; and if the 
measure of a teacher's success is the number of children he has developed into good citizens, then Mr. 
Dunkly is one of the greatest modern educators. Two generations have felt the impulse of his work, and 
hundreds of men and women in every department of life acknowledge their indebtedness to his personal in- 
fluence, and continue to profit by his stores of learning. To rare insight into the true aims of education he 
adds great organizing and administrative power. He is not dependent on old methods of instruction nor 
forward in adopting new ones; yet his keen judgment, fine sense of practicability, and matchless skill in 
adaptation have made his school famous. It is a well-known fact that, for more than twenty years, teachers 
coming from every state in the Union to investigate the best metropolitan methods, have been directed to 
the Wilson street school. Mr. Dunkly 's ability as a pedagogical leader has found frequent recognition; 




Walter B. Gunnison. 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 729 

but large salaries, high honors, prominent positions in this and other cities have been offered to him in vain. 
His life is devoted to the advancement of the model school which his genius has created. 

William M. Jelliffe, pruicipal of school No. 45, was born in Darien, Conn., in 1835, and came to New 
York about 1840. He was educated at the public schools there and entered the city college (then known as 
the Free Academy) in 1849. In 1852 he began teaching, and after passing through the different grades in 
day and evening schools, was vice-principal for seven years. He was appointed principal of No. 8, Brooklyn, 
in 1863 and was transferred to No. 4, in Ryerson street, in 1870. In 1888, the grammar school wis removed 
to the new school, No. 45, in Lafayette avenue. He received the degree of Doctor of Pedagogy from the 
New York University. Dr. Jelliffe is perhaps most widely known through his elocutionary work on the 
platform, in the evening high schools and in large private classes of teachers and other persons during the 
past twenty-five years. School No. 45 ranks among the first in the city. 

B. Y. CoNKLiN, principal of school No. 3, has been a teacher for forty years, and for thirty-seven years 
he has been identified with the public schools in New York and Brooklyn. His earliest schooling was at a 
private academy at Southold, L. I., where he was born in 1831. P^rom Southold he went to New York city, 
and was graduated from the Saturday Normal School. He began teaching in Southold in 1852, and in 1855 
became an instructor in public school No. 34, in New York city, remaining thirteen years, the last live of 
which he served as vice-principal. In April, 1868, he was appointed principal of public school No. 5, in this 
city. For ten years he served as the head of that school, and in October, 1878, he was appointed to his 
present position. Mr. Conklin is the author of " Conklin's Grammar and Composition," a treatise in popu- 
lar use in the schools. He is a man of scholarship and managerial tact, and is esteemed as a citizen as well 
as in his profession. 

James Cruikshank, LL.B., principal of school No. 12 and of the evening high school, was born at 
Argyle, Washington County, N. Y., in 1831, and removed with his family to St. Lawrence County, when eight 
years old. He was graduated from Union College, in the class of 185 i, and in 1853, in conjunction with 
his brother, established a boarding school on Long Island. From 1855 until 1866 Dr. Cruikshank was chief 
clerk in the department of public instruction, in Brooklyn, and during the same period served as director 
and lecturer in the State Teachers' Institute. For eleven years, from 1856 to 1867, he edited the N'ew York 
Teacher, the official organ of the Teachers' Association and of the department of public instruction. Dur- 
ing the period between 1866 and 1872, when he occupied the position of associate superintendent of the 
Brooklyn public schools. Dr. Cruikshank systematized work in the primary grammar grades, prepared 
courses of study and held weekly meetings for the instruction of teachers. He resigned after his seventh 
reappointment, and in June, 1875, was made principal of public school No. 12. He began his connection 
with the evening high school in the same year, as lecturer on English literature and history. After 
lecturing for two years he was appointed principal. Dr. Cruikshank has been president of the State 
Teachers' Association, and was its corresponding secretary for seventeen years. He was one of the organ- 
izers of the National Educational Association, founded in 1857, and at various times he has been its secre- 
tary, treasurer, vice-president, a member of its board of councilors and president of the elementary 
department. 

"William L. Felter, principal of school No. 15, was born in Brooklyn, on December 5, 1862, and was 
graduated at the head of his class, in school No. 34, in 1877. He was graduated at the College of the City 
of New York, in 1883, being tenth iti a class of forty-five, and taking prizes in history, belles-lettres and 
public debating. He has been teacher in grammar school No. 35, New York, and vice-principal of grammar 
school No. 29. In June, 1887, he was appointed principal of intermediate school No. 63, in Brooklyn, and 
two years later was promoted to his present position. For three years he has also had charge of the 
department of rhetoric and English literature in evening high school No. i. Mr. Felter is vice-president of 
the Brooklyn Principals' Association and financial secretary of the Brooklyn Teachers' Aid Association. 
He also holds the chairmanship of the committee on manual training of the department of pedagogy, 
Brooklyn Institute. 

John MicKLEiiOROUGH, Ph. D., principal of school No. 9, was born in Canada, on November 5, 1840. 
He attended the provincial Normal School, Toronto ; the Ohio Wesleyan University, at Delaware, Ohio, 
where he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts ; and the De Pauw University, at Greencastle, Ind., 
which conferred the degree of Doctor of Philosophy upon him. From October, 1865, until March, 1884, he 
was connected with the public school system of Cincinnati, and was principal of the Cincinnati Normal 
School for si.x years. He was vice-president of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, a member of the 
publishing committee of the society's journal and curator of the Museum of Paleontology. His Brooklyn 
career began with his election, in 1885, as a teacher in the central grammar school. In December of the 
same year he was appointed as principal of public school No. 9, his present office. He is president of the 
zoological department of the Brooklyn Institute. 

Seth Thayer Stewart, principal of school No. 78, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1850, and was 



73° 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



o-raduated at Yale in 1S73 ; he tdok first rank in mathematics and astronomy, and became known as an 
excellent private tutor. After nine years service as an instructor of the higher mathematics elsewhere, he 
succeeded Calvin Patterson as principal of school No. 13, Brooklyn, in May, 1882, and in March, 1889, he 
was transferred to school No. 78. For about si.\ years he was principal of evening school No. 35. He has 
organized much of the work of the Brooklyn Teachers' Association, having been its president and chair- 
man of many of its important committees. In addition to his labors as a teacher he has written a number 
of text-books and he was the first to begin in this country an organized movement for university extension. 
This work he carried to a point at which the state of New York took it up, he having spent about $4,000 
of his own money in the eft"ort. One of the immediate outgrcjwths of his labors was the Schoolmasters' 
Club of New \'i)rk and vicinity. In the Teachers' Provident Association of the United States he holds 
the position of a director. He is a trustee of the New York Avenue M. E. Church and secretary of the 
board of trustees ; and he is a manager of the Brooklyn Church Society of the M. E. Church. He is a 
member of the Union League Club of Pirooklyn. A\'hile teaching in New York he completed the law 
course at Columbia College and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

WiLLi.AM S. Mills, principal of school No. 75, was born in Franklin County, Ohio, in 1850. He 
attended the schools of Joliet, 111., both public and private, during the winter terms, until he was eighteen 
years old, when he began teaching. In 1870 he entered the State Normal University of Illinois, where he 
was graduated in 1875. ^^ ''^"•-^^ superintendent of schools in West Joliet from 1876 until 1880. Then he 
moved to New York city and entered Columbia Collge and was graduated as Bachelor of Laws in 1882. 
The next five years were spent in study, and in 1887 he became principal of school No. 49, Brooklyn. He 
took charge of No. 75 on the completion of the new building in October, 1889. 

ACADEMICAL, SPECIAL AND PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS. 



In addition to the excellent public 
school system, Brooklyn affords excep- 
tional educational advantages through 
her collegiate institutions and private 
schools of the first rank. In the early 
days there was doubtless now and 
then some poor settler who was glad 
to impart the remnants of his scanty 
education to the youth of the place in 
consideration of a meagre fee, but the 
free schools supplied for the most part 
the needs of the settlement during 
the Dutch period, and it is not until 
towards the end of the last century 
that we find any record of a private 
school being established. All trace 
of such early schools has long since 
passed away, and it is mainly through 
the cjuaint advertising columns of the 
old. newspapers that their names have 
been preserved. An advertisement 
appears in 1773 of the Flatbush gram- 
mar school, then kept by one John 
Cojjp, where Latin and Greek were 
taught, and boarders had " the advan- 
tage of being taught geography, in 
the winter evenings, with many other 



BRjOkL-sN Collegiate Instetuie for Young Ladies, 1S28, 
iVow part oj the jMansion f/oiisf. Hicks Street. 

useful particulars that frequently occur to the teacher." In Flatlands and New Lots there were school 
houses as early as 1711, or earlier, but it does not appear whether these were private or free. The news- 
paper slips, which belonged to (ieneral Johnson, and which were probably cut from the Long Island 
Courier, Kiev to the district schools already mentioned in Bedford, Gowanus, and at Brooklyn Ferry; 
the following Item also occurs: "A beautiful eminence to the east of Brooklyn Ferry will afford an 
eligible situation for an academy." This was about the year i8oo,and reveals the fact that the matter 
of an institution for more advanced education had already entered the minds of the good burghers. In 
Ihomas Kirk's Long Island Star, in the year 1809, there is an advertisement of George Hamilton's 




EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



73' 




>/ 



H 



) 







Greexleaf Female In'stitute, Piekrepon't an'd Clinton Streets. 
This Buildiui^ is noiv a pari of I lie House of I he Broolilyn Cltib. 

Select School, where " students are taught to make their own pens." In September of the same year 
John Gibbons announces that he has established an academy for both sexes at the place lately occupied 
by that of Hamilton, whose successor he appears to have been. He proposes to teach various branches "on 
unerring principles; " and "Mrs. Gibbons will instruct little girls in Spelling, Reading, Sewing and Mark- 
ing." It was furthermore the intention to institute an evening school for young men : " N. B,, Good Pronun- 
ciation." Ten years later the number of such private schools had grown materially; John Mabon was pre- 
ceptor in the Brooklyn Select Academy over which Joshua Sands, S. Sackett and S. T. Feltus presided as 
trustees. There was an old stone building opposite the " Corporation House," on the east side of the road, 
known as Benjamin Smith's Inn ; here on Christmas eve, i8io, the scholars of Piatt Kennedy were adver- 
tised to hold an exhibition. It is only in such sporadic and chance references that we read of the predeces- 
sors of the private and semi-private institutions existing to-day, until the year 1786 is reached, when was 
founded Erasmus Hall Academy, which still exists. Although this excellent school, the only relic of the 
earlier representatives of the class, is outside of the city limits, its history belongs appropriately to Brook- 
lyn, for many of the city's most distinguished citizens received their education there, notably the first Mayor 
of the city — the Hon. George Hall. Coming down to the present century, there are several schools which 
flourished for a time and disappeared and whose names are well remembered by older residents. 
Among these is the Brooklyn Collegiate Institute for Young Ladies, which was situated, says its first cata- 
logue, " on Brooklyn Heights, opposite New York." The originators were the Rev. Isaac and Mr. J. Living- 
ston Van Doren, who organized the school in 1828, having moved to this city from Newark, N. J. The 
building at present occupied by the Mansion House on Hicks street was originally erected by these gentle- 
men as the home for their school. In 1834 the school was sold to Mr. Charles W. Bazeley, who conducted 
it for about ten years, after which it expired from natural causes. The Greenleaf Female Institute will be 
readily recalled to memory by the older Brooklynites. It was one of the landmarks on the Heights, at the 
corner of Clinton and Pierrepont streets, where its site is now occupied by the new house of the Brooklyn 
Club. It was established in 1837 at 79 Willow street, from which place it was removed to its better known 
location. During the later years of its history it had two principals— Alfred Greenleaf, its founder, and 
Edward E. Bradbury, whom Mr. Greenleaf associated with himself. The civil war and its consequent dis- 
turbances were the cause of this school being closed. Eames and Putnam's English and Classical School 
was organized in 1831, and for several years was quite prosperous ; and the same is true of Professor N. 
Cleveland's school for girls, which was conducted on Pierrepont street from about 1840 till 1850. The 
Grecian Academy was formerly conducted by Professor Metcalf, on South Eighth street, WiUiamsburgh, 
between the years 1850 and 1855, as a school for young ladies. On the annexation of that district to the 
city of Brooklyn and the introduction of the public school system, the school began to decline and presently 
ceased to exist. Other schools in later years are known of, though often the dates of their existence are 
unascertainable. John Bryon for several years kept a school on Nassau street, near Washington. He was 



732 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



a noted citizen, and a member of several civic societies in his day. He was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel 
Seabury, formerly his assistant, who moved the school to an old meeting-house on the site of the present St. 
Ann's building. Some years after Bryon's time Mr. B. W. Dwight conducted a school on Livingston street, 
near Clinton. He was a well-known figure in Brooklyn streets, and his memory is not yet extinct. Julius 
R. Pomery kept a school for boys at 65 Henry street, when he was succeeded by his brother Daniel, who 
moved to Willow street. A. B. Morehouse had a very popular school for young ladies in Clinton street, near 
Sackett, for many years. The Lawrence Listitute, kept by the Misses Lawrence, is also well remembered, 
as is Prof. J. C. Doremus' school for boys. 

Individual munificence has greatly enriched the city in regard to institutions of a collegiate character, 
and there are flourishing to-day, within the city's limits, three endowed, non-money-making institutions of 
learning where the higher education may be obtained at an expenditure which is not by any means com- 
mensurate with the actual cost ; and in addition to these there are two technical or special course institu- 
tions which are conducted on a similarly public-spirited plan. Added to them are the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Christian Associations and similar organizations which, although primarily aiming at 
religious development, are practically educational powers. It is owing to this admirable condition of edu- 
cational possibilities that private, money-making schools are few in proportion to the population ; and the 
high standard fixed by the philanthropic organizations has its effect on the private schools which do exist, of 
impelling them to seek high levels in order to establish their worthiness and secure attention. 

ERASMUS HALL ACADE5IY, FLATBUSH. 

In 1786, Jacob Lefferts, Joris Martense, Peter Lefferts, Johannes E. Lott, Cornelius Vanderveer, 
John Vanderbilt, William B. Gifford, Peter Cornell, Matthew Clarkson, Aquila Giles, John I. Vanderbilt ana 
Garret Martense, of Flatbush, united to establish an academy. They budded, at a cost of $6,250, an edifice 
one hundred feet by thirty-six, with a basement, two stories and a high attic. It was a great undertaking 
for those times, for the war of the revolution had closed only three and a half years before and the country 
was burdened with debt and was poor. The founders contributed from ten to one hundred pounds each 
the pound of that day being equal to two and a half dollars. Aid was received from New York from such 
notable men as Richard Varick, Brockholst Livingston, Alexander Hamilton, D. C. Verplanck, Waltei 
Rutherford and Aaron Burr, each giving ten pounds ; William Duer, Peter Cornell, George Clinton and 
John Jay, each giving fifteen pounds ; and Comfort Sands, who gave twenty pounds. A wing was added to 
the structure in 1826-7, and the original building is still in use by the academy. It is one of the oldest in 
the county. The Reformed Dutch Church gave a perpetual lease of the site, which included three acres, 
in consideration of twenty-five pounds paid on December 29, 1797. As the building did not accommodate 
all the pupils who came from a distance, the founders, who were the first trustees, received them in their 
homes as boarders. The academy was incorporated by the regents of the University of New York on 




Erasmus Hall Academy. 



Educational institutions. 



733 



November 20, 1787. The first principal was the Rev. John H. Livingston, D. D., a learned man and famous 
preacher, Vifho was teaching a class of theological students in the village, which class was the nucleus of 
the theological seminary of the Reformed Church at New Brunswick, N. J. Among his successors were 
Peter Wilson, professor of languages in Columbia College, 1792-1804 ; Joab G. Cooper, afterwards editor ot 
Cooper's "Virgil," 1804-6, and again in 1817; Jonathan W. Kellogg, 1823-34, and the Rev. William H. 
Campbell, D. U., who was president of Rutgers College, 1834-38. The average attendance of pupils dur- 
ing the century has been about one hundred. At the beginning they came from many of the then e.visting 
States, from the West Indies and Central and South /America. This patronage from rem(jte localities con- 
tinued until about 1840. Many of the graduates became distinguished as professional men and others were 
called to positions of large financial responsibility. At the present time the academy is in charge of R. 
Arrowsmith, Ph. D., as principal ; he is assisted by an able corps of instructors. The trustees have decided 
to erect a new and more commodious school building as soon as practicable. 

THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 

Local opportunity for an education higher than 
that attainable by attendance at the public schools 
was afforded to the girls and young women of Brook- 
lyn several years before it was at the command of 
the boys and young men. The Brooklyn Female 
Academy was opened in May, 1845, and was so suc- 
cessful that the lack of a similar institution for boys 
became conspicuous. The matter of supplying this 
evident need was earnestly discussed among several 
large-minded citizens and action upon it was hastened 
by what seemed to be a calamity. On the morning 
of January i, 1853, the building of the Brooklyn 
Female Academy was burned to the ground ; but by 
that strange evolution of good out of evil, which has 
been so frequently seen in the history of mankind, 
there sprang from the ashes two of the noblest insti- 
tutions that Brooklyn possesses — the Packer Insti- 
tute and the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic 
Institute. Both have acquired national reputation, 
and while the one is brilliantly represented in every 
walk of life where the modern woman emulates the 
sterner sex in intellectual activity, the other has 
made noteworthy contributions to the ranks of men 
who have achieved success in business or profes- 
sional labors. The Brooklyn Collegiate and Poly- 
technic Institute was projected as an academy and 




David H. CocHR.-iN, Ph. D., LL. D. 



tecnnic insruuie was uiuici-i.cu 0.3 d- ^^^^^'^-j 

preparatory school for young men intending to complete the,r educat.on at the un,vers,t,es ; but m much 
E than half a century .t has outgrown those limitations and under its new name of the Polytechn.c 
IniiLteof Brooklyn h,s Uself a college vested with full collegiate privileges and powers and a mem- 
ber of the grand educational system known as the University of the State of New York. 

The prime movers in agitating the project of an academy for boys were James Hou Dr. . S 1 home, 
Edward Tnthony Cyrus P. Sm.th and John H. Prentice, who had frequently conferred w.th oU.er gen- 
IZln u'ZJ ^o ■.. On the morning after the burning of th. Female A-c^-ny Messrs. How and 
Prentice decided to invite Luther B. Wyman and others to attend a meetmg at Mr. entice s house to 
L ide the matt r and there the first board of trustees of the Brooklyn Colleg,at. and Poly echn.c Inst. 
consiuer tne niaiLci a Parker to erect with her own means a new buiidmg for the 

tute was chosen. Ihe generous offer "//^'^^•r;;^';'^;"^^ power of the stockholders in that institution 
Female Academy, n. memory of her husband plaednn the p^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 

l::::::Z T.::::^:t::X^^^ ::::^i:::or to d> rt ..L .. some otl.r s,mdar enterprise, 
builclmgana tne saie 01 luc id 1 u^nnl-lvn Colleeiate and Polytechnic Institute was perma- 

and the result -^ --'-^ f^^^^/tel er o F:male Icademy, tur/ed over to John T. Martin, the 

nently organized, John H. Prentice, as treasure Academv stock The permanent organization 

treasurer of the new institute the par va ue of - ^'.^ffi^^^t h^Jen were Isaac' H. Frothingham, presi- 
of the board was effected on J-^'-y -' 'S54, and ^^jl^'^^ ^^^^^ ,^^,^,^^, ,f ,,e board were : J. 
r^ sSa^r ;rrS;.i H-B^cSm!! K^.an, James How, S. B. Chittenden, D. S. Landon. 



, THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

H. R. Worthington, G. Harrington, R. S. Tucker, C. S. Baylis, J. L. Putnam and G. S. Rowland. On Janu 
ary ■'I, 1854, a plot'of ground, with one hundred and three feet frontage on Livingston street, and extend- 
in o- back one hundred and fifty feet, was purchased for $16,000, and the erection of a building, from de- 
sio^ns by F. Peterson, was begun ; the edifice was completed and opened for inspection on September 6, 
1855, and the institute was opened about the middle of the month with a full corps of professors and 
teachers. John H. Raymond, D. D., LL. D., who had formerly been professor of rhetoric at Rochester 
University, was president of the faculty. During that first decade of the e.xistence of the institution, when 
each formative influence put an indelible stamp upon its character, the genius of Dr. Raymond was most 
strongly felt ; and he it was who laid the firm foundations upon which his successors have erected the fair 
superstructure of to-day. He surrendered his post in 1864 to accept the presidency of Vassar College, 
where again his peculiar skill as an organizer made the cause of education his debtor. Soon after the 
death of Dr. Raymond, which occurred in the summer of 1878, there was spread upon the records of the 
Polytechnic's board of trustees a memorial minute, of which room is here afforded for a brief e.xcerpt only : 
"Methodical, judicious, painstaking, he gave to the early years of the institute, the years of its unfolding 
and growth, the best powers of a gifted mind and the faithfullabors of an earnest life. * * * A genial 
companion, a true and sincere friend, an educated, high minded, pure and patriotic Christian gentleman, a 
trusted educator of the mind and heart in all that was generous and ennobling, he won our warmest love 
and our sincerest esteem ; and his memory and services wUl ever be held by one and all of his associates in 
the work of the institute, and in the wider spheres of his usefulness, in grateful and cherished remem- 
brance." 

When the institute was opened there was a mortgage debt of $20,000, a floating debt of between $7,000 
and !g8,ooo, and large obligations assumed in the appointment of the faculty and corps of instructors. For 
some time after the resignation of Dr. Raymond the presidency was vacant, but the office was eventually 
filled by the selection of David Henry Cochran, A. M., Ph. D., LL. D., who for ten years had been principal 
of the State Normal School at Albany. The institute Was reorganized, and important modifications were 
made in its arrangements and classifications, in its methods of teaching and of making examinations. The 
executive ability of President Cochran and his known scholarship gave to the institute both intellectual 
and material strength, and coincident with the growth of its reputation in the educational world it was in 
receipt of an income more than equal to its current expenses ; the entire indebtedness was paid off by 1866, 
and the permanent property of the institute in buildings, fixtures and apparatus had been increased in 
value more than $100,000 before 1880. In 1869 the high character of the work done by the institute had 
become so apparent to the Regents of the University, that they gave it authority to confer the collegiate 
degrees of Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts. The institute has on several occasions outgrown its 
accommodations, and has been obliged to deny admission to numbers of applicants. In 1880 an east wing 
was added to the building at an expense of $12,000 ; a new laboratory was built in 1882 at a cost of $8,000 ; 
a west wing was added to the main building at a cost of $12,000 in 1885 ; and in 18S7 an observatory was 
built at a cost of $3,500. All these improvements were made without any assistance being asked or re- 
ceived from outside persons, and the institute having been organized as a private stock company was 
thereby precluded from receiving any endowments or bequests. The institute had not been designed to 
make money for its promoters and supporters, and its continual growth led them to consider the matter of 
putting it upon a new basis. Accordingly steps were taken to surrender the charter under which the insti- 
tute existed and to obtain a charter for an institution of more comprehensive scope and with larger powers. 
It was desired moreover to reorganize upon a basis that would allow the corporation to acquire and receive 
property by purchase, gift or bequeathal, and permit it to continue the academic department in connection 
with other departments which it was designed to establish. On August 8, 1889, the regents of the Uni- 
versity of the State of New York granted a provisional charter to the present corporation, the Polytechnic 
Institute of Brooklyn ; and soon afterwards the buildings and equipment of the Brooklyn Collegiate and 
Polytechnic Institute were transferred to the new corporation ; the old corporation had in the meantime 
surrendered its charter and had been dissolved. Having acquired the endowment required by law, the new 
corporation received an absolute charter in January, 1890, conferring upon it "All the rights, powers and 
dignities given by law and the ordinances of the regents to a college, including membership in the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York." The charter is dated January 30, 1890, and bears the signature of the 
late George William Curtis as chancellor. The success of the negotiations which ended in securing this 
charter was in the largest measure due to the well-directed efforts of Henry Sanger Snow, LL. M., an 
alumnus of the Polytechnic Institute and one of its trustees. By drafting and procuring the enactment 
of necessary legislation he provided the method both for the dissolution of the old corporation and for 
the granting of a liberal charter to the new institution. 

With an amplified curriculum and more than eight hundred students enrolled, while hundreds more 
were knocking for admittance, the institute needed more room and steps were taken by the new corporation 



5 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

to obtain it. Land adjoining the site of the original building was purchased and ground was broken 
for a new building in May, 1S90 ; the work of construction was completed by September, 1891, and 
the building was occupied at the opening of the regular term in that month. The new building is 
occupied by the higher departments of the institute, and the academical department occupies the 
orio-inal building. The acquisition of the land which made possible the erection of this new building 
was due to the energetic action of the president of the faculty. After the committee of the corpora- 
tion had reported that the purchase of the lot was impracticable and that the offer to secure it had 
been abandoned, President Cochran, who had continued in close correspondence with the owner since the 
time of its purchase from the corporation of the Dutch Church, seized the opportunity offered by the 
dissensions of the parties who had planned to sell it to the city and purchased it. William Augustus White, 
to whose untiring energy and devotion to the interests of the institute the new buildings are mainly due, 
upon learning the facts promptly furnished the financial backing to fulfill the conditions of purchase and 
at less than one-half the price at which it had been held during the negotiations of the committee to 
secure it. Mr. ^\'hitc's father, A. M. White, was also intimately associated with this movement, and his 
generous donations, amounting to $75,000 or $So,ooo, bore a very important part in bringing the matter to a 
successful issue. The new building, which is from designs by W. B. Tubby, cost $350,000, is Roman- 
esque in style and is constructed of brick with stone trimmings ; it is five stories in height with a fine base- 
ment, and there is a large tower which extends to a considerable height above the roof. The frontage on 
Livingston street is one hundred and seventeen feet, and the depth of the building is one hundred feet. 
The structure is thoroughly fireproof, is lighted by electricity and is furnished with electric elevators. 
The interior arrangements are perfect, including a gymnasium in the basement, which is fitted up with the 
best appliances for physical culture. There are commodious lecture rooms, comfortable study rooms, care- 
fully arranged laboratories, and every adjunct needed to secure the perfection of scientific research and 
experiment. One of the features of the institution is the " Spicer Library " which occupies an apartment 
in the new building thirty-two feet by thirty-four in its dimensions. The library was given by Captain 
Elihu Spicer as a memorial to his son Uriah D. Spicer, a member of the class of 1S73 ; it has been selected 
with great care, and is designed for general reference and study in all departments of the institute work. 
The cost of the library was upwards of $35,000. The removal of the institute to its new quarters and the 
occupancy by the academic department of the entire building previously used by the school made possible 
the reorganization and extension of the courses of study in the preparatory school. The students of the 
different courses are assigned to suits of rooms specially fitted for their work. The commercial course, 
based upon a good elementary English education, gives a thorough knowledge of book-keeping, accounts 
and commercial law, and with its optional studies of French, German, Spanish or stenography offers oppor- 
tunities unequaled probably by those of any other commercial school, while the students from its prepara- 
tory, classical, liberal and scientic courses take the highest rank in the institute or in other colleges which 
they may enter. The large and fully equipped laboratories with which the institute is provided enable it 
to add to its courses of study and research in the departments of chemistry and physics, and civil and 
electrical engineering, so that, with the aid of the Spicer library, the institute now offers advantages unsur- 
passed by those of the best technical schools. The present faculty of the institute numbers sixteen, and the 
total number of persons included in the corps of professors and instructors is fifty-three. The annual tuition 
income amounts to $120,000. As the institute is free to accept endowments and bequests, it is expected 
that offers of endowments and scholarships which were made to the former corporation but could not be 
accepted, will now be renewed. During the academic year of 1890-91 a scholarship was established by gift 
in memory of Henry Ginnel De Witt, which provides perpetually for the tuition of one pupil. The insti- 
tute now belongs in fact, as it has always belonged in the spirit of its management, to the whole commu- 
nity and to the world, and its future cannot fail to be even more progressive than its past has been. 

David Hf.xry Cochran, Ph. D., LL. D., has been active in educational work for nearly half a 
century, and during the greater part of that time has had national reputation as a man in whom are united 
the rarest gifts of the teacher with wide learning and general culture, a union of qualities rendered 
especially effective by his admirable executive ability. His presidency of the Polytechnic began in 1864. 
He was born at Springville, New York, July 5, 1828. His father was of Scotch descent ; on his mother's 
side he came of a Huguenot family that found refuge in this country during the seventeenth century. 
Early in life he devehjped a habit of close observation and manifested a decided love for natural science. 
Pecuniary reverses obliged him at the age of fifteen to resort to teaching and in this way he carried him- 
self through Hamilton College. His proficiency in chemistry enabled him at the same time to fill the 
position of lecturer on that subject at the Clinton Liberal Listitute where, upon his graduation in 1850, he 
became professor. In the following year he was chosen principal of the Fredonia Academy, and in 1854 
became professor of chemistry and natural science at the State Normal School at Albany. Soon afterwards 
although he was the youngest member of the faculty he became principal, and while principal he filled the 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



737 



cha.r o the theory and pract.ce of teaching. In 1863 the Board of Regents conferred upon him the title 
of Doctor of Philosophy and he was one of the first two persons to receive that degree in tl.is country I 
,s a trustee of HamUton Co lege and ,s prominently connected with the Young Men's Christian Association 
and the Home or Aged Men For more than twenty years he has been a member of the Century Club 
m New York and m Brooklyn he >s .dentified with the Ham.lton Club, of which he ,s a charter member 
In 185 1 he married Miss Harriet Striker Rawson and their family consists of four children. 

THE PACKER INSTITUTE. 

When in this country the question of the higher education of women was considered somewhat too 
problematical for conclusive argument, before Vassar was thought of and when other institutions for female 
advancement, which have since become famous, were merely embryoaic in their existence, the Brooklyn 
Female Academy-the precursor of the Packer Collegiate Institute-was incorporated and placed upon a 
working basis. 1 he influences e.xerted upon a great community through the inception and subsequent 
expansion of such an enterprise cannot be esti- 
mated at too high a valuation. For nearly fifty 
years it has afforded a broad mental training to 
those who have been destined to mould the thought 
and shape the character of future generations ; 
and the full realization of what it is accomplish- 
ing in the present can come only to the observation 
of posterity. During a considerable period the 
Packer Institute stood a unique creation among the 
educational institutions of the country. Its curri- 
culum was more catholic and comprehensive than 
that of any other school for the training of girls, and 
although it has since surrendered its original pre- 
eminence it remains in the front rank of those 
secondary institutions whose energies are necessarily 
restricted by local limitations. In such repute is the 
educational system, in vogue at the Packer held by 
other collegiate institutions for women, that they 
admit its graduates to their junior and sophomore 
classes without the requirement of a preliminary 
examination. The Packer never has contributed to 
the aggrandizement of individual or corporate in- 
terests ; its ends and aims are purely philanthropic. 
Its earnings, amounting annually to $80,000, or 
thereabouts, are all expended in the interests of the 
students. The rates of tuition are much lower 
than could be afforded by an unendowed school, and 
large contributions are made each year for the bene- 
fit of individual students who may be unable to meet the regular charges. There are thirty free scholar- 
ships, which are awarded to students in the higher grades of the school, and their assignment is determined 
as much by individual merit as individual necessity. So great has been the assistance rendered by the 
institute to deserving students that the amount of financial aid contributed to worthy recipients by the 
board of trustees since 1875 has aggregated $120,000. The corps of teachers numbers fifty-three, 
forty-six of whom are women, and many of them hold diplomas of colleges. At the opening of the in- 
stitution there were three hundred students on the list. The number in recent years has ranged from 
seven hundred and fifty to eight hundred. 

The origin of the Packer Collegiate Institute is found in the Brooklyn Female Academy, which was 
incorporated in 1844. The presidency of this institution was accepted by Dr. Alonzo Crittenden, who had 
earned some measure of distinction, prior to his advent in Brooklyn, as head of the Albany Female Academy. 
Among those who lent their active countenance to his work in this city was William S. Packer, who had 
deeply interested himself in promoting legislation in New York State favorable to the higher education of 
women and who, in the capacity of trustee, had been prominently associated with Dr. Crittenden at Albany- 
The Brooklyn Female Academy was opened on May 5, 1846, and experienced prosperity until the dawning 
of the year 1853, when its building, which stood on Joralemon street, between Clinton and Court, was burned 
to the ground. Mr. Packer had recently died, leaving a large property in the hands of his wife, who shared 
her husband's interest in educational affairs. Before the embers of the fire had ceased smoking she addressed 




Truman J. Backus, LL. D. 



73S 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



a note to the trustees, sayincj she had reason to believe her husband had entertained the purpose of devot- 
in.-- a sum of money for the establishment of an institution for the education of youth and it was her desire, 
as'his representative to carry out his wishes. The misfortune overtaking the academy afforded her an 
opportunity which she was ready to meet, and she informally offered the sum of $65,000 for the erection of 
a buildincrforthe instruction of her own sex. Her generous proposition was gratefully accepted. The 
corporation of the old academy was dissolved and its stock was applied to the founding of a high school 
for boys, which now exists as the Polytechnic Institute. Through this munificent gift of Mrs. Packer's, 
which at'that time was the largest ever made to advance the higher education of women, a new charter, 
granted on March 19, 1853, was secured for the girls' academy, under the corporate title of The Packer 
Collegiate Institute. The tribute paid to the memory of her husband in giving his name to the new 
institution was suitably acknowledged by Mrs. Packer ; and at the instance of the trustees the charter of 
incorporation embodied a clause which gave her the right to nominate those whom she might desire to 




The P.\cker Institute. 

occupy the vacancies which from time to time occurred in the board of trustees. Her selections, made in 
accordance with this request, were honored until her death in 1892, and the range of her personal acquaint- 
ance rendered it comparatively easy for her to secure the active cooperation of those whose services in 
such a capacity proved invaluable. Among those who were especially active in the reorganization and 
conduct of the institute were : A. A. Low, Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott, A, B. Baylis and Henry P. Morgan. 
The institute was formally opened on the evening of November 9, 1854. The dedicatory address was de- 
livered by the Rev. Francis Vinton, D.I). From that time until the founding of Vassar College, in 1865, 
the Packer Collegiate Institute stood without a peer among those educational institutions which were 
exculsively devoted to women. L'ntil the opening of Vassar, and other institutions of a like nature, large 
numbers of students from all parts of the country came to Brooklyn to secure the instruction given 
at the Packer Institute. But the establishment of well-endowed institutions for women caused a decrease 
in the number of non-resident students at the Packer. The trustees had occasion to consider the policy 
to be pursued in the future, and as early as 1S70 it came to be the accepted view of the board that the in- 
stitution should be conducted as a school designed especially for the young women of Brooklyn. With 
this end in view certain modifications, which still exist, were made in its constitution. 

The buildings of the institute occupy a plot which extends from Joralemon to Livingston street, 
between Clinton and Court streets. The lot is two hundred feet square. The main building, which is 
gothic in style, was one of the last wor'.;s of Minard Lefevre, the well-known architect, and still ranks, 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 739 

architecturally, among the best structures devoted to educational purposes in this country. Land adjoining 
the institute was purchased in 1886, and on the plot of ground a building one hundred feet by twenty-eight 
was erected. It contains the laboratories for the departments of chemistry, physics, biology and natural 
history. The whole of the first floor is furnished as a gymnasium. Both the old and the new buildings are 
heated and ventilated by the best modern methods. In material appointments, as well as in educational 
methods, the institute strives to hold an advanced position. Its property is estimated to be wofth half a 
million dollars. Dr. Alonzo Crittenden, the first president of the institute, remained at its head until his 
death, in 1883. Dr. Darwin G. Eaton had been his colleague during the last thirty-two years of his adminis- 
tration. These two gentlemen were of one mind in the service they rendered the institute, and Dr. Eaton 
shared many of the responsibilities of the principal. At Dr. Crittenden's death Dr. Eaton was elected as 
president, but ill health compelled him to decline the well-deserved and honorable appointment. Dr. 
Truman J. Backus was invited to accept the position ; he had been familiar with recent movements looking 
towards the more systematic and advanced teaching of women, having been the professor of English 
language and literature at Vassar College since the opening of that institution. He promptly accepted the 
call to Brooklyn, and since 1883 has been the director of the institute. Since his administration began 
there has been a steady increase in the equipment and resources of the institute, and a conservative but 
constant strengthening of the course of instruction and an enlargement of the teaching force. The 
alumnae of the institution are organized under the title of the Associated Alumnte of Packer Collegiate 
Institute. They have for years maintained post-graduate classes for study, and have used their organization 
for the promotion of the welfare of their alma mater. They have in several instances contributed to its 
equipment. They furnished the new gymnasium, and have made large appropriations from their funds for 
the furnishing of the lecture room of natural history. The presidents of the corporation have held office in 
the following order : John Skillman, George Wood, Seth Low (grandfather of ex-Mayor Low), G. G. Van 
Wagenen and A. A. Low, who has been president since 1858. 

Dr. Truman Jay Backus, the president of the Packer Institute, was born in Lock, Cayuga County, 
New York, in 1842. His father was for a long time a prominent resident of New York city, and was 
secretary of the Baptist Home Missionary Society. Dr. Backus obtained his education at the public schools 
of New York and at the University of Rochester, being graduated with the class of 1864. He spent the next 
three years in post-graduate studies at Rochester and in New York, taking his master's degree from the 
university in course. In 1867 he was called to occupy the chair of English language and literature at 
Vassar College, where he remained until called to the presidency of the Packer Institute in 1883. In 1882 
he received the degree of LL. D., from Rochester University. He is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society, of the Brooklyn Institute, president of the Brooklyn Library and of the advisory board of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. He is also a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Society, the Century 
Club of New York, and the Hamilton Club of this city. He married a daughter of L. Harris Hitchcock, a 
prominent member of the New York constitutional convention. Mrs. Backus is an alumna of Vassar and 
a trustee of that college ; she is also a member of the Brooklyn Woman's Club. They have four children, 
one of whom is now at Amherst College and another is an auditor of the Standard Oil Co. Dr. Backus is 
the author of many learned papers, of a work entitled " Great English Authors," and is the reviser of Shaw's 
work on English literature. He has been well-known as a lecturer. 

THE ADELPHI ACADEMY. 

This institution grew out of a private school which was incorporated in 1869 by the aid of money con- 
tributed by twenty-one public-spirited citizens. The academy was organized with a board of trustees 
consisting of twenty-four members. During the first two years of its existence no less than fifty thousand 
dollars were contributed by private gift for its maintenance. In 1873 further donations, coming for the 
most part from the trustees themselves, enabled them to add a wing to the west end of the building, and in 
1880, with funds derived from the same source, a second wing was built at the eastern end. But it was not 
until 1886 that the academy trustees began to develop plans for an important extension of its curriculum, 
and the institution began to assume its present dimensions. In that year, Charles Pratt, the president of the 
board of trustees, provided means for the erection of a new building, adequate to the needs of the 
academy's larger purposes, by the gift of $160,000. This gift was made subject to certain wise conditions 
concerning the disposal of future revenues, etc., which were cheerfully acceded to and which, in part, have 
since been carried out. At the beginning of the school year in September, 1888, the new building was 
practically completed and ready for occupancy. This new edifice is situated at the rear of the old build- 
ings and occupies the corner of St. James' place and Clifton place. The entire end of that block on St. 
James' place, extending from Lafayette avenue to Clifton place, is covered by the buildings of the Adelphi 
Academy. 'The plot measures one hundred and fifty by two hundred feet. Between the two main struc- 
tures is the chapel, with a seating capacity of about one thousand. The thirty and more rooms in the old 



740 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




The Adei.phi Academy. 

buildino^s are devoted to the use of the preparatory department and to the first four grades of the academie. 
In the new building, which is known as the collegiate, are the chemical and physical laboratories, the library 
and a spacious study room for the use of the students of the collegiate department ; on the top floor are the 
large and beautifully lighted art rooms. In the basement is a gymnasium, divided into three large rooms 
and fitted with bath and dressing rooms. Adjoining this is the engine room with an engine and dynamo. 
The hygienic and sanitary appointments throughout are excellent, this having been one of the principal 
aims of the founder. With the beauty and dignity of the exterior of this splendid structure every citizen 
of Brooklyn is familiar; it constitutes one of the most prominent architectural ornaments of that part of 
the city. The buildings are valued at $500,000. 

In connection with the work of the academy there is a kindergarten, and pupils may thus receive 
instruction from the earliest rudiments up to the highest branches of the collegiate studies under the 
auspices of the same institution. There are three departments : the preparatory, the academic and the 
collegiate. 'I'he first is open to pupils between the ages of six and ten, and the course is completed in three 
years. In the academic department the ages range from nine to sixteen, and in a five-year course all the 
essential branches of a good English education, Latin, French and German, physiology, English history and 
literature are taught. The collegiate department is divided into three courses, and diplomas are awarded 
to such students as shall complete any one of them. The classical course is intended to meet the require- 
ments for entrance examinations at college, and to this three years are devoted. The literary and scientific 
courses embrace a curriculum of four years each and the latter includes the laboratory practice for which 
superb facilities have been provided. Art education began in the Adelphi Academy almost from its incep- 
tion, it being among the first, if not the first, of the schools of this country to acknowledge the influence 
of art as complementary to youthful culture. Accepting as a basis for this work the higher traditions of 
art, it at once took means to ]nit this fact into practice by making drawing part of the regular school work, 
and adding to the drawing of simple forms (which were executed in the class rooms) special facilities for 
study from the antique and life. The elementary work was at first under the instruction of Louis Grube, 
followed by Prof. F. T. L. Boyle, who introduced drawing from the cast, which was done in a small room in 
the attic of what is now the academic building. He also introduced the idea of special art pupils, carrying 
the work forward until the resignation of Prof. Sprague, when he also resigned. With the appointment of 
Dr. Taylor, art received a strong impetus in the school proper. Under the direction of the present professor 
the work was so arranged that every student from the time of entrance until the fourth academic year was 
compelled to draw ; after which it became optional until the year of graduation. Larger accommodations 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 741 

were furnished for the advanced and special students, who rapidly increased in numbers, and the study of 
portraiture and full length drawing from life were added. In connection with the regular course of 
instruction, lectures and loan exhibitions of pictures were held in the chapel. The regular yearly exhibit of 
students' work inaugurated a system of annual competition, at which prizes were awarded for the best 
drawings from the cast and from life, as well as in painting from life. With this extension of accommo- 
dations came a corresponding growth in the character and quality of the work, until at present the work 
of the department is second to that of no school in the country, and the equal of what might be called 
the legitimate art schools, such as those of the National Academy of Design or the Students' Art League. 
It can claim as its former pupils a number of young men and women who are well known in the art world 
and are constant exhibitors at all the leading exhibitions of the country as well as at the Paris Salon. 
The rooms at present devoted to the study of art in the new, or collegiate building, have possibly no 
superior in the world. They consist of a suite of five, which are specially arranged for drawing from the 
cast, from life, still life and modeling. These rooms are for advanced and special pupils, the more 
elementary school work being accomplished in the class rooms under the direction of a special teacher. 
Special students can enter at any time without adopting the regular special course, which extends through 
a period of four years, including, beside drawing and painting from life, artistic anatomy, perspective, com- 
position and the history of art. These subjects are all taught by special teachers by whom the students 
are examined; and after passing a satisfactory examination they receive a diploma graduating them from 
the department and certifying to the extent and quality of their attainments. 

On December 18, 1889, the academic building was seriously damaged by fire, but the injury was speedily 
remedied. The internal equipment of the academy is excellent ; it has been furnished at an expense of 
$31,500, while its apparatus and library are valued respectively at $9,800 and $4,000. The presidents of 
the board of trustees and their terms of service have been : the Rev. William I. Budington, D.D., 1869- 
74 ; Charles Pratt, 1874-91; and Charles M. Pratt, 1891-93. In the following list appear the names and 
terms of service of those who have held the principalship of the academy from the date of its incor- 
poration in 1869 until the present day: John Lockwood, August, 1869-May, 1870; Homer B. Sprague, 
1870-75 ; Stephen G. Taylor, 1875-1883 ; Albert C. Perkins, 1883-1892 ; John S. Crombie, 1892. 

John S. Crombie was a successful teacher in the west before he came to Brooklyn to take charge of 
the Adelphi ; and in Minneapolis, where he was principal of the high school, and had done a good deal to 
build up the cause of education, his departure caused general regret. Under his administration the high 
school became one of the best in the country. He was born in Pontiac, Mich., in 1854, and is a graduate of 
the University of Michigan. His first position was that of principal of the high school in Coldwater, which 
he resigned in one year to become superintendent of education in the same city. Three years later he 
accepted a similar position in Big Rapids, where he did splendid work for four years. His next call was to 
Minneapolis, and his record there for seven years was such as to secure for him the warm recommendation 
of many prominent educators when it was proposed to place him in his present position. He took charge 
of the academy in September, 1892. He is a married man, and has two children. 

THE BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE. 

This is so distinctively and peculiarly an institution of Brooklyn, managed by representative Brook- 
lynites and for the general people, that it is a subject of great local interest and pride. Its work is some- 
what in the line of the "university extension " movement, now so popular ; the avowed purposes stated in 
its charter being " the establishment and maintenance of museums and libraries of art and science, the 
encouragement of the study of the arts and sciences and their application to the practical wants of man ; 
the advancement of knowledge in science and art, and in general to provide the means for popular instruc- 
tion and enjoyment through its collections, libraries and lectures." Further provisions of the charter are 
that its museums and libraries shall be open and free to the schools of the city, both public and private, 
and to the general public on such terms of admission as shall be approved by the mayor and park commis- 
sioner. The institution is endowed, and its membership privileges, affording opportunities for special 
scientific courses, are fixed at very low, nominal figures. Its trustees are citizens prominent in public and 
social life. Its history is one of slow and sound growth, with a continual widening of the scope. 

The institution had its birth in the summer of 1823, when several gentlemen, chief among whom was 
Augustus Graham, met at Stevenson's tavern for the purpose of establishing, for the apprentices of Brook- 
lyn, a free library. They adopted a constitution and issued a circular in which they solicited donations of 
books and money with which to effect their purpose. On November 20, 1824, they were incorporated 
by the state legislature under the name of The Brooklyn Apprentices' Library Association, and on July 4, 
1825, the corner-stone of the first building owned by the association was laid by General Lafayette, at the 
corner of Henry and Cranberry streets. The first lecture delivered in the completed structure was by 
Professor Dana. By 1835 the association had outgrown its original quarters, and the institution was 



742 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 





^^^^^^^7^^ 



removed to the site on Washington street, then the 
centre of the city's wealth and culture. Li order 
to broaden the scope of the association, an amended 
charter was granted by the legislature in 1843 and 
the name therein was changed to the Brooklyn In- 
stitute. For many years thereafter the institute was 
an important factor in the social, literary, scientific 
and educational life of Brooklyn. From its platform 
were heard such eminent scientific men as Agassiz, 
Dana, Gray, Henry, Morse, Mitchell, Torrey, Guyot 
and Cooke ; such learned divines as Doctors Mc- 
Cosh, Hitchcock, Storrs and Budington ; and such 
famous orators and thinkers as Phillips, Sumner, 
Garrison, Beecher, Emerson, Everett, Curtis, King, 
Bellows and Chapin. Its library had a large circu- 
lation and its hall was used for many social and his- 
toric gatherings. During this period of its history 
the institute received from Mr. Graham two import- 
ant donations. On July 4, 1848, the building, which 
had been heavily mortgaged, he presented to the 
trustees free from all encumbrance, and through his 
will, made known to the board of directors shortly 
after his decease on November 28, 1851, he be- 
queathed the sum of $27,000 as a permanent endow- 
ment fund. The will directed that the interest on 
$10,000 of this fund should be used for the support 
of lectures on scientific subjects and for the pur- 
chase of apparatus and collections of a scientific 
character. The income from $12,000 was to be ap- 
propriated to Sunday evening lectures of a religious character, and that of the remaining $5,000 to be 
used in the support of a school of design and a gallery of fine arts. For several years prior to 1867, 
the institute building began to be regarded as behind the times. The entrance was faulty and its interior 
arrangements were inadequate. The income of the building dwindled to a low figure and the support of 
the free library became insufficient. The directors remodeled the building in 1867, at an expense of about 
$30,000, a part of which was raised by life membership subscriptions of $50 and $100, and the balance by a 
mortgage on the building. For twenty years (1867-87) this indebtedness necessitated the application of a 
large portion of the income from the rent of the building and from the Graham endowment fund to the 
payment of the interest and the principal of the debt. Final payment on the mortgage was made early in 
1887. During this period the most the institute was able to do was to circulate its library, keep up its 
classes in drawing and provide for the annual address on February 22. Freed from debt, the institute was 
able once more to use the whole income from its funds and building for their legitimate purposes, and to 
become an important agent in the work of education in the city. The property of the institute in 1887 
consisted of the institute building and land, a library of 12,000 volumes, and endowment funds of $46,000. 
These last comprise the $27,000 bequeathed by Mr. Graham, the Cary fund of $10,000, for the support of 
the library and an increment of $9,000, realized through premiums on the sale of bonds. 

During the year 1887-88 a new era in the history of the institute was inaugurated. It was determined to 
make the property of the institute the nucleus of a broad and comprehensive institution for the advancement 
of science and art and its membership a large and active association, laboring not only for the advancement 
of knowledge, but also for the education of the people through lectures and collections in art and science. 
In December, 1888, a committee of members of the institute was appointed by the council to organize a 
movement which it was hoped might lead to the formation of museums of art and science in Brooklyn. 
This action of the council was endorsed by the board of directors early in January. The committee 
determined, 'after some deliberation, to call a public meeting of citizens, and to that end drew up a letter of 
invitation to a meeting to be held on February 5, 1S89. This letter, signed by about two hundred residents 
of Brooklyn, was sent to fifteen hundred citizens who were known to be specially interested in art or science. 
At a citizens' meeting, held on February 5, pursuant to the above call, Gen. John B. Woodward, who 
acted as chairman of the meeting, stated its purpose, and spoke of the desire felt by the directors that the 
property of the institute should be made more valuable to Brooklyn and a nucleus of a much larger 
property to be used in the erection of museums of art and science for the education and enjoyment of the 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



743 



people. On the motion of Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott, a committee of twenty-five citizens was appointed 
to act in conjunction with the directors of the Brooklyn Institute in organiziiwj an association which should 
labor to secure a museum of art. The motion having been seconded and adopted, the following persons 
were appointed on the committee: Rev. Dr. Charles H. Hall, Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, Hon. Seth Low, 
Rev. Dr. A. J. F. Behrends, Hon. Stewart L. Woodford, Ale.xander E. Orr, Rev. Dr. L. T. Chamberlain, 
David H. Houghtaling, Hon. Darwin R. James, Charles Pratt, Henry Hentz, John T. Martin, Joseph H. 
Knapp, John Gibb, Hon. Joshua M. Van Cott, Rev. Charles R. Baker, Wm. Hamilton Gibson, Rev. John A\'. 
Chadwick, A. Augustus Healy, Hon. Frederick A. Schroeder, Carll H. De Silver, William H. Male, Col. 
Henry T. Chapman, William Berri, John P. Adams and Frank Squier. To this committee were after- 
wards added the following ladies : Mrs. F. H. Wing, Miss Matilda McLean, Mrs. J. S. T. Stranahan, 
Mrs. S. B. Duryea, Mrs. Alfred C. Barnes, Mrs. S. V. White, Mrs. Harriet Judson, Miss Susan M. 
Barstow, Miss Christina Rounds, Mrs. H. S. Anderson, Miss Caroline B. Le Row and Mrs. F. W. Rockwell. 
A form of organization was adopted which contemplated the formation of a large association of mem- 
bers and a continual increase- of the endowment funds and the collections of the institute. Provision 
was made for a subdivison of the membership into departments, representing various branches of art and 
science, each department forming a society by itself and yet enjoying all the privileges of the general asso- 
ciation. A general invitation was extended to citizens specially interested in science and art to become 
members of the institute ; courses of lectures on science and art were provided ; the directors' room of the 
institute was enlarged to accommodate the meetings of some of the departments contemplated, and a large 
lecture room on the third floor of the institute building was fitted up, at an e.xpense of $2,600, for the occu- 
pancy of some of those departments that would make use of apparatus and collections at their meetings. 

During the first fifteen months after the organiza- 
tion of the institute, a membership of three hundred 
and fifty persons was recorded. The Brooklyn Micros- 
copical Society joined the institute in a body with 
si.Kty-four members, and became the Department of 
Microscopy. The American Astronomical Society, 
whose members resided mostly in New York and 
Brooklyn, became the Department of Astronomy, 
with thirty-two members. The Brooklyn Entomo- 
logical Society united with the institute and became 
the Entomological Department, with forty-one mem- 
bers. The Linden Camera Club of Brooklyn became 
the Department of Photography, with twenty-six 
members. Departments of physics, chemistry, bot- 
any, mineralogy, geology, zoology and archaeology 
were successively formed, and each of the twelve 
departments named began holding monthly meet- 
ings. The permanent funds and property of the in- 
stitute were increased by $3,000 ; additions were 
made to the library and its circulation increased 
from a rate of 12,000 to 46,000 volumes per year; 
the lecture courses were fully attended and the 
classes in drawing were enlarged. At the first joint 
meeting of the committee and the directors, held on 
February 21, Dr. Charles H. Hall was elected chair- 
man, and Prof. F. W. Hooper, secretary. The pro- 
gress of the institute during the year 1889-90 was 
even greater than in the preceding fifteen months. 
The membership of the twelve departments organ- 
ized the previous year was more than doubled ; eight 
new and strong departments, viz.: architecture, elec- 
tricity, geography, mathematics, painting, philology, 
political and economic science, and psychology were 
formed ; the membership was increased from three 
hundred and fifty to more than twelve hundred ; to 
the collections of the institute were made very large 
THE BROOKLYN INSTITUTE, WASHINGTON STREET. ' " additious; the library was reorganized and its cir- 

Hemoved for Bridge Extension..%g.. culation increased from the rate of 46,000 volumes 




^^ THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

to SS.o°° volumes per year; 1,500 new books were added for the benefit of the departments and their 
members ; the number of lectures, exhibits and meetings of departments was increased from about ninety 
in the previous year to two hundred and thirty ; the attendance of the department meetings was more 
than doubled, the number of members taking an active part in the meetings and in the work of the insti- 
tute was quadrupled; the quality of the lectures and addresses excelled that of the previous year; and out 
of the abundance of active and increasing interest in art and science awakened by the old Brooklyn Insti- 
tute the new Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences was born, destined to command the attention, the 
admiration, the love and the support of every resident of Brooklyn ; to become a means for the education, 
the refinement and the uplifting of all its people, and to encourage all other educational institutions in 

the city. 

The o-rowth of the institute received a slight check in the fall of 1890. On September 12 a serious 
fire in the institute building rendered it unfit for immediate use. But owing to the generous hospitality 
of other institutions in the city it was possible to carry on its work elsewhere. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, the Union for Christian Work, the Packer Collegiate Institute, the Brooklyn Heights 
Seminary, the Church of the Saviour, the Adelphi Academy and the Brooklyn Art Association each 
contributed the use of rooms for the lectures and other work. The office of the institute was located 
temporarily in the Y. M. C. A. building. No. 502 Fulton street. Despite adversity, the growth of the 
institute was of a permanent and substantial character — three hundred and twelve new members were 
added ; the membership of each of the twenty departments was increased ; the number of lectures and 
meetings was three hundred and ten as against two hundred and thirty in the previous year. Each of the 
departments did more and better work than in any other pr^.ceding year; the attendance on the lectures 
was considerably greater, reaching a total of about 56,000 ; the Geographical Department brought to- 
gether a collection of geographical appliances consisting of maps, globes, charts, reliefs, models, atlases, 
treatises, text-books and other publications, valued at $6,000; these were exhibited in Brooklyn for four 
weeks and in Boston for three weeks; the Boston exhibition being visited by about 16,000 people and the 
Brooklyn exhibition by upwards of 37,000 people; subscriptions towards the endowment fund of the 
proposed museums were made to the amount of $52,500, and by act of legislation the city was authorized 
to expend $300,000 in the creation of the proposed museum buildings on Prospect Hill. Owing to the 
sale of the institute property in Washington street to the trustees of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge 
for extension purposes, the work of the institute was carried on in 1892 much as during the previous 
year, but with ampler facilities. The provision of permanent quarters for the institute will engage the 
immediate attention of the officers of the institute during the coming months. The work of erecting 
the museum buildings will be begun at once. The first section erected will cost $300,000. The total 
structure will be about 425 feet on each of its four sides, and will be lighted by four large interior courts 
about one hundred feet square. During the month of December, 1891, the Brooklyn Institute transferred 
to the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences its property and estate, as authorized by the laws of 1890. 
The deed of transfer was recorded in the county clerk's office on December 31, being the last deed recorded 
in that year. The subscriptions to the endowment fund of the institute were payable on the first day of 
January, 1892, and amounted to $58,000, making a total endowment of $200,000. During the season of 1891 
603 new members were added, making a total membership of 1,810. The year has been a most prosperous 
one in the history of the institute; about four hundred public lectures have been given, and the average 
attendance has been between 15,000 and 18,000 persons per month. The institute conducts a biological 
laboratory during the summer months at Cold Spring Harbor, L. I., under the direction of Prof. Herbert 
W. Conn, of Wesleyan University, and has established two summer schools of art ; one at the seashore in 
Southampton, L. I., known as the Shinnecock Hills Summer School of Art, under the direction of Mr. 
William M. Chase, and the second at Lake George, known as the Adirondacks Summer School of Art, under 
the direction of Mr. Walter Shirlaw. These schools are designed to give summer instruction in the open 
air at moderate rates to students who desire to continue their work during the summer months. A school 
of political science was established in the autumn of 1892. The present officers of the board of trustees 
are : Gen. John B. Woodward, president ; Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, Hon. James S. T. Stranahan, 
Edwin Beers, vice-presidents ; Prof. Franklin W. Hooper, director ; Hon. Eugene G. Blackford, treasurer; 
Prof. Robert Foster, secretary. The officers of the associate members are : Rev. Dr. Charles H. Hall, 
president ; Rev. William H. Ingersoll, secretary. 

John B. Woodward was born in this city, in 1835; he was, at an early age, placed successively under 
the tuition of Samuel Putnam and Benjamin W. Dwight, who were then the respective heads of the most 
popular academies of this city. In 1850, he began his business career; first as a clerk in the " Swamp," 
the district in which the leather trade in New York is located, and subsequently in the River de la Plate 
export trade. He still retains his connection with the latter business, importing wool and hides from the 
South American countries, and exporting in return a general line of domestic manufactures. In 1854, he 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 745 

became identified with the national guard by enlisting as a private m the Brooklyn City Guard, which was 
then attached to the 13th Regiment. In quick succession he became corporal, first-sergeant, second 
lieutenant, captain of Company E of the 13th Regiment, lieutenant-colonel, and then colonel. He was 
in the United States service with the 13th Regiment in 1861, as second lieutenant; and for three months 
in 1862, as lieutenant-colonel. The rank of colonel was conferred upon him early in 1863, which position 
he held for five years, when he succeeded Gen. H. B. Duryea as major-general of the second division 
of the national guard. Governor Samuel J. Tilden appointed him inspector-general of the state, on the 
first of January, 1875, and during the same year he was made president of the department of city works 
of Brooklyn. In 1879, he was promoted to be adjutant-general of the state, and on January i, 1880, he 
retired from the service, and has since devoted himself to business pursuits and matters affecting the 
general welfare of the city. He was appointed as president of the department of Brooklyn parks in 1888 
and was legislated out of office in 1889, only to be reappointed soon after ; but being absent in Europe, he 
was unable to accept. He is president of the Third National Bank ; a director of the Commercial Mutual 
Insurance Company, Guardian Insurance Company, Franklin Trust Company and Franklin Safe Deposit 
Company ; and vice-president of the Birkbeck Saving and Loan Association, and a director and trustee in 
other industrial corporations. As president of the Brooklyn Institute he was instrumental in changing that 
corporation into the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, which will soon provide our citizens with a 
museum worthy the importance of the city. The benevolent movement, known as the Fresh Air Fund, 
having for its purpose the free conveyance of the children of the poor to the country at regular intervals, 
has received his hearty co-operation since its beginning. He is a member of the Brooklyn and the Riding 
and Driving clubs and is noted as a good equestrian. 

Franklin William Hooper, the director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, was born in 
Walpole, Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on February 11, 1851. His boyhood was spent upon his father's 
farm. At the age of seventeen he became a student of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. While 
there he abandoned his design of becoming a clergyman, and turned his attention to the study of science 
and natural history. He left Antioch in 1870, and in the following year entered Harvard University, 
where he continued the scientific studies which he began at Antioch, devoting a considerable portion of 
his time to language and philosophy. Under Louis Agassiz, Asa Gray, Jeffries Wyman, Benjamin Pierce 
and Josiah P. Cook he took special courses in various branches, and in 1872 he attended Agassiz's summer 
school of natural history at Penikese Island. In 1876, acting as an agent for the Smithsonian Institute at 
Washington, he spent some months on a scientific excursion around the coast of Florida, where peculiar 
opportunities were afforded for the study of algfe and coral formations. From 1877 until 1880 Professor 
Hooper was principal of the high school at Keene, New Hampshire. In June, 1880, he came to Brooklyn 
and became professor of chemistry and geology at the Adelphi Academy, where he remained for nine 
years. In June, 1889, he was elected curator of the Brooklyn Institute, a position which he filled with 
credit to himself and to the advantage of the institution. His opinion had much weight in affecting, in 
December, 1891, the amalgamation of the institute with the new Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 
On the coalescence of the old establishment with the new. Professor Hooper was chosen director. In 
May, 1876, while returning from Florida, Professor Hooper married Miss Martha Summer Holden, of 
Augustin, Ga., whose father was prominent in the abolition movement. They have had three children, two 
of whom are living. Professor Hooper is a member of the board of education, having been appointed by 
Mayor Boody on March 25, 1892. 

THE PRATT INSTITUTE. 

In the Pratt Institute Brooklyn possesses a unique establishment. It resembles in its aims the art 
schools of Keswick and South Kensington and combines therewith the advantages of such technical 
schools as the Whitechapel Guild and the Handicraft School of Birmingham. But it has furthermore cer- 
tain distinctive features of its own, which, taken as a whole, render the Pratt Institute the most important 
enterprise of its kind in the United States, if not in the world. It was founded by the wise munificence 
of Mr. Charles Pratt, and is another example of that high philanthropy in which Peter Cooper illus- 
triously led the way. The land was purchased in 1884, and the work begun in the following year. In 
1887 the institute received its charter with the power to confer degrees. It was the realization of a scheme 
which its founder had cherished for a quarter of a century. The fundamental purpose of the work is to 
afl"ord such instruction as shall enable men and women to support themselves by applied knowledge and 
skilled handicraft in various industries. It is thus intended to supplement the work of the public and high 
schools ; and to those who are employed during the day, opportunity is given in the evening to acquire a 
thorough knowledge of the processes of the industrial arts. Earnestness and industry are the indispen- 
sable conditions to participation in the privileges of the institute. It is to help those who are willing to 
help themselves ; rich and poor are alike welcome. In addition, however, to the purely practical work, the 



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EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 747 

importance of the moral element in education has not been overlooked, and throughout all its branches 
of instruction the institute inculcates self-reliance, self-denial, honesty and thrift as essential increments of 
success. The charges for tuition are nominal, ranging from $2 to $30 per course or term, and are made 
chiefly to insure earnestness in students. 

The buildings of the Pratt Institute are situated on Ryerson street, between Willoughby and DeKalb 
avenues. The neighborhood of the elevated road renders them easy of access from all parts of the city 
Extensive space across Ryerson street and on Grand avenue has been set apart for the recreation of the 
students. These buildings are substantial, fire-proof, and adapted to heavy manufacturing but as in all 
structures where convenience and adaptability have been intelligently aimed at, there is no lack'of archi- 
tectural beauty ; one finds real aesthetic satisfaction in the perfect appliances for lighting, heating, ventila- 
ting, etc., in the solid staircases, the commodious elevators, available both for passenger and freight ser- 
vice, land in the superb equipment of the class-rooms and the work-shops. The main structure is of brick 
and terra cotta ; it is 100 feet wide and 50 feet in depth, and has si.x stories above the basement. On one 
side is a wing 37 by 50 feet. It presents a straightforward appearance of dignified solidity with its Norman 
arched doorway and wide, welcoming steps, quite in harmony with the practical and moral character of the 
institution of which it is the home. The library is on the first floor and has space for some 30,000 volumes. 
Any resident of Brooklyn, over fourteen years of age, may receive upon application the privileges of the 
library, which numbers about 20,000 books, and had a general circulation in 1891 of over 122,000. Across the 
hall IS the reading room, with its daily papers and innumerable magazines covering the whole range of 
human knowledge. Here, too, are the leading encyclopaedias, complete files of the great periodicals and all 
the more important books of reference. On the second floor, a part of which is devoted to the offices of 
the institute, is the lecture room where courses are delivered on subjects having for the most part a direct 
bearing upon the work of the students. Ethics, the problems of social and political life, domestic economy, 
sanitary science and the like here receive elucidation. The department of domestic science occupies the 
third floor. Instruction is given in dressmaking, millinery and art needlework ; competent teachers give 
individual lessons in cutting, fitting and draping. Another branch of this department is on the sixth floor, 
where are the two cooking schools. These are fitted with all the appointments of a well-ordered kitchen : 
superb ranges, gas stoves, refrigerators, etc. In connection with these is a lunch room communicating 
with a similar one in the basement. There are three courses in cookery of twelve lessons each. One of 
the most helpful departments is that of commerce, also on the third floor. Here book-keeping is taught 
and a thorough knowledge of short-hand and type-writing may be obtained. There is an art hall on the 
sixth floor which is used for exhibitions and for the more advanced classes in painting and free-hand draw- 
ing. In addition to this the entire fourth floor is devoted to the department of art. The work is thorough 
and systematic, embracing regular courses in all kinds of drawing, in painting, designing, wood carving 
and clay modeling. There are also lectures on architecture, history of ornamentation, perspective, myth- 
ology, theory of color and art anatomy. Particular attention is given to sculpture and wood carving with 
special reference to high class work in bronze, copper and stone. The fifth floor has hitherto been occupied 
by the technical museum, which is to be removed to the new art building soon to be constructed. This 
building will have a large auditorium and, besides the museum, will accommodate the art department and 
the library. The collection of specimens for the museum was begun in 1887 and has already acquired 
extensive proportions, being especially rich in ceramics. Nor has the pottery from the mounds of the 
Mississippi valley been neglected. Glass work is well represented. There are bronzes of various 
periods and countries and mosaic work from Florence, Venice and Rome. The mineralogical collec- 
tion, arranged according to Rosenbusch, is rapidly approaching scientific completeness. In the rear 
of the main structure are the buildings of the mechanic arts, covering an area of 247 by 95 feet, 
and varying from one to three stories in height. Here are the engines and dynamos which supply 
the whole system with light and heat and furnish the power for the work-shops. The department of 
mechanic arts embraces a three years' course of practical work in connection with the instruction received 
in the technical high school. The forges and anvils in the smith shops are sufficient to employ twenty- 
five pupils at once. In the foundry adjoining is a twenty-inch melting cupola, with brass and white metal 
furnaces and a core oven. Special attention is given to art castings in iron and bronze. There is also a full 
complement of engine-lathes, drilling-machines, planers, etc.; in short, it is a fully equipped machine shop. 
Large space is allotted to workers in wood, and one of the most valuable features is the section devoted to 
the building trades ; brick-laying, frame-building, and especially plumbing. The latter includes a regular 
course in sanitary engineering and there is space for fifty-four pupils to be engaged in practical work. 

It remains to notice a very remarkable and praiseworthy branch of the institute's work. It was 
thought that the young people should not only learn to earn money but should also be taught how to use 
and care for it. This gave rise to the Pratt Institute Thrift Association, which is a modification of the 
well-known system that has met with such success in England. The investment branch provides for 



74S 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



systematic economy by issuing investment shares of $150 each, payable at the rate of $1 per month for ten 
years. This is in effect equivalent to investing that amount at five per cent., in addition to which a percent- 
age on the profits of the business is paid, so that at the end of ten years the investment amounts to about 
$160, for which only $120 has been expended. The loan branch of The Thrift, as it is called, furnishes 
nine-tenths of the purchase money to anyone wishing to buy a dwelling, a shop, or othei'real estate, and to 
cover the expenses of doing business a commission of one per cent, is charged. Through the aid of this 
association any person may thus become the owner of his house by annual payments for a limited period 
very little in excess of what he would have to pay for rent. In 1891 the work of the institute was extended 
at the other end by the purchase of the Froebel Institute, so that kindergarten instruction is now a part of 
the general plan. Music has been taught from the first. A course for the training of practical librarians 
has recently been introduced. As the years go on the work of the institute bids fair to cover all the fields 
of human activity. At the end of its fourth year the Pratt Institute showed a total enrollment of 3,232 
students, whose motto is: "Take care of your work and your work will take care of you." The institute 
is thus accomplishing the design of its founder in emphasizing the dignity of labor, improving the quality 
of the work, and contributing to the comfort and happiness of wage-earners. It has an endowment fund 
of $2,000,000 and further resources amounting to $835,000, which are invested in real estate and income-pro- 
ducing property. The trustees of the institute are Charles M. Pratt, president; Frederick B. Pratt, secre- 
tary and treasurer; George D. Pratt. The faculty consists of Frederick B. Pratt, chairman; Norman P. 
Heffley, secretary; William Mc Andrew, Walter S. Perry, Harriet S. Sackett, Charles R. Richards, Margaret 
Healy, Emma O. Conro and Hannah D. Mowry. 




The Lockwood Academv, Suutu Uxkukd SruiiET. 
The Lockwood Academy was established in 1870 by Professor John Lockwood, in response to a request 
from the parents of those who had been his pupils at the Adelphi Academy, with which he had then recently 
severed his connection. Early in 1863 two teachers from the Polytechnic Institute established a school of 
their own in Adelphi street and called it the Adelphi Academy. After six months they arranged with 
Professor Lockwood to buy their school furniture with a view to his reopening the school in the fall. About 
that time Lee invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, and President Lincoln, alarmed for the safety of Wash- 
n^igton, called for volunteers. 'I'he 23d Regiment of Brooklyn was ordered out in response to the call and 
Professor Lockwood joined the regiment as a volunteer for the campaign. They were gone thirty days, 
and on his return he wrote and published an account of the doings of the regiment during this brief 
service— a book that was much lauded by the local press. He reopened the Adelphi in September. 
The school prospered from the first. The total enrollment for that year was twenty-three ; the next year, 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



749 




LocKwooD Academy, a Grade Room. 



Sixty-one ; the next, one hundred and fifty-six ; the next, three hundred and four ; and the fifth year, four 
hundred and seventy-two. At this stage of the school's history an appeal was made to its patrons for 
funds to erect a suitable school building. This appeal was generously responded to, and the sum of 
$35,000 was quickly raised for a loan. This financial success was largely due to the able generalship 
of Thomas Vernon, who thoroughly canvassed the neighborhood with Mr. Lockwood. The loan was secured 
by a second mortgage, the first being held by a company from whom a previous loan of $25,000 had been 
obtained. In the meantime T. J. Ellinwood 
the efficient head of the department of calis- 
thenics in the school, had purchased a quarter 
interest in the institution, and with the $60,000 
raised on the loans the partners bought a plot 
of ground two hundred feet by one hundred 
and fifty on Lafayette avenue. Hall street (now 
called St. James' place) and Clifton place. On 
this land they erected a building which was the 
nucleus of the present Adelphi Academy. The 
corner-stone was laid by the Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher. When the school was established it 
was intended for boys only, but in 1867 there 
had grown a demand for the admission of girls 
and, yielding to this demand, the system of 
coeducation of the sexes was inaugurated. Fifty 
girls were admitted to the preparatory depart- 
ment and the experiment proved immediately 
successful. Another innovation for which Pro- 
fessors Lockwood and Ellinwood are to be given 
credit is the introduction and popularization in 
schools of the calisthenic drill, which has proved to be admirably adapted to promote the health of school 
children ; and it is interesting to note, in connection with this, that the name " Calistheneum," which they 
invented and applied to the hall in which the exercises were held, is in a fair way of becoming, if it has not 
already become, an accepted word in the language. 

Finding the burden of so great an enterprise too heavy, Messrs. Lockwood and Ellinwood decided to 
incorporate it, the Rev. Dr. Budington and others, in whose friendship and good judgment they confided, 
having advised that step. Accordingly, in the summer of 1869, by the voluntary act of its proprietors, 

Messrs. Lockwood and Ellinwood, it ceased to 
be a private school and began its career as a 
public institution, Mr. Lockwood continuing to 
be its principal. This was a matter of course, 
since it was understood at every step and voiced 
by every one that spoke on the subject that, 
unless he consented to continue at the head of 
the school, the plan of incorporation could not 
be carried out — that indeed the very and sole 
purpose of incorporation was to relieve the prin- 
cipal of all pecuniary responsibility that he 
might be wholly free to administer the school 
in accordance with his high ideal. The initial 
year developed so much antagonism between 
Mr. Lockwood and the board of trustees that 
in May following the connection was violently 
severed and Mr. Lockwood at once opened a 
new school and called it Lockwood Academy. 
This important step was not taken unadvisedly. 
A meeting of the Adelphi patrons was called, 
to which every parent represented in the school 
was invited, to consider the situation. The result of the conference was a resolution, adopted without a 
dissenting voice, that Professor Lockwood be requested to open a new school in the neighborhood. The 
first location of Lockwood Academy was 139-141 South Oxford street. In 1888 it was removed to its pres- 
ent location, 138-140, directly opposite the former building. The school is admirably placed amid healthful 
surroundings, in a shady and quiet street, and the house is well adapted to its purpose. 




Lockwood Academy— The New Scholar. 



75° 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



/ 




Professor John Lockwood has been for 
thirty years one of the foremost educators 
in the city of Brooklyn, and has gained more 
than a local celebrity by his contributions to 
scientific and educational literature. Espe- 
cially as a teacher he will long be remem- 
bered in Brooklyn, because of the excellent 
work he did in establishing the Adelphi 
Academy, and also his name will last by 
reason of the benefit conferred upon the 
community by the creation and successful 
operation of the institution in which he is 
most interested at the present time. He is 
a man peculiarly fitted for the vocation of 
teaching, for added to his varied scholarship 
are a happy faculty of imparting knowledge 
and a nature in sympathy with young people. 
He looks upon his pupils as being in a refined 
sense his children, and their regard for him 
is almost filial. Among the causes that have 
led to Professor Lockwood's unique success 
in the establishment and conduct of schools 
are, first of all, his reverence for his profes- 
sion and enthusiasm in his work. He counts 
no pains too great that are necessary to 
verify an important statement. What are 
the facts of the case? — this is the searching 
question that he places at the very threshold 
of every investigation. His reverence for the 
truth and openness for light inspire the con- 
fidence of those that are looking to him for 
guidance, and begets in them a like spirit. So precious in the work of education does Professor Lockwood 
regard this love of truth that he is perpetually solicitous to banish fear — the active principle of falsehood — 
from the heart. Thus, under his administration, an offender is never punished on his own confession, nor 
on the tattling report of a schoolmate ; he has, therefore, no inducement to prevaricate. Reward, appreci- 
ation, praise, are the instruments of discipline ; rather than punishment, depreciation and reproof. In this 
scheme of education character is the thing placed above everything else. This is the rock upon which 
Professor Lockwood builds, and it is the great secret of his success as a teacher. Professor Lockwood 
was born in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., on July 13, 1827, and is one of a family of six brothers and two sisters. 
He was brought up as a Quaker and has always retained his membership in that religious society. His 
father, for whom he was named, one of Poughkeepsie's most enterprising and prosperous merchants of that 
day, removed the family in 1834 to New York city and there engaged in the drygoods jobbing business in 
Pearl street, in partnership with a brother, the firm name being John and Walter Lockwood. The latter will 
be remembered by Brooklynites of twenty-five years ago as one of the leading drygoods merchants of 
Fulton street. After preparatory study under a private tutor, and in private schools in New York city, the 
future educator entered Columbia College when he was seventeen years old and was graduated on the com- 
pletion of his full course of four years, during which he bore off at every mathematical examination one of 
the two coordinate prizes offered in that department. About the time of his graduation, when the annual 
convention of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity was held in New York under the auspices of the Lambda Chapter, 
he was selected by that chapter to read the annual poem. Later, he was chosen poet to represent the 
alumni association of Columbia College, at their anniversary exercises in i860. For two or three years 
after leaving college Professor Lockwood engaged in study and literary work, including a winter's course in 
the medical department of the University of Michigan, and at the same time began his career as a teacher, 
following the occupation for several years interruptedly, in private and public schools in the neighborhood 
of New York. About the year 1854, he succeeded the late James Parton in the position of assistant 
editor of Morris & Willis' Home Jour/ial ; but not finding the work quite congenial he gave it up the fol- 
lowing year and spent the winter of 1855-6 in the West Lulies. Astronomy is one of Professor Lockwood's 
favorite studies, and at an early period in his career his proficiency in that science attracted the attention of 
his former preceptor at Columbia, Prof. Hackley, who introduced him to Mr. Charles A. Dana, then managing 



Professor John Lockwood. 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



751 



editor of the New York Tribune under Horace Greeley, and recommended the pubUcation of an article by 
Mr. Lockwood on the comet that had then just appeared. This was about the year 1858. The article was 
published in the next day's Tribune and proved the first of a long series of astronomical articles which 
graced the columns of that paper from week to week. At this time the " American Cyclopedia " was in 
course of publication, and Dr. Thomas Hill, president of Harvard College, had been contributing the astro- 
nomical articles, but was about to retire from the work. So satisfactory to the Tribune had Prof. Lock- 
wood's articles been that Mr. Dana paid him the great compliment of invitmg him to succeed President 
Hill. This was a serious undertaking, but it was accepted, and so well was the work done for the remain- 
ing volumes of the cyclopedia, that when the new edition of this great work was projected several years 
later, Mr. Dana, still its coeditor, invited Mr. Lockwood to take charge of the department of astronomy. 
But the professor was then so much absorbed in the management of a very large school that he felt obliged 
to decline the honor — an honor that afterward fell to that famous astronomical writer, the late Professor 
Richard A. Proctor. Professor Lockwood has completed a short treatise on astronomy for use in schools. 
He has varied his arduous academic duties by literary labor performed at frequent intervals and inspired 
mostly by his love of letters and of the science of astronomy. He seldom publishes over his own signature, 
preferring the modest privacy of a nom de plume. He has all his life been blessed with a happy home ; and 
this is no small factor in the sum total of the influences that have contributed to his successful career. An 
unmarried sister, who has always been his shield and buckler and whose virtues he has sung in many a 
tender line, is now the head of his household. He continues to devote his life actively to his noble profes- 
sion, finding in the intellectual and moral unfolding of the youth placed under his care a charm far greater 
than any he could derive from mere pecuniary success. 

BEDFORD ACADEMY. 

Bedford Academy, which occupies the grounds and buildings at 57-67 New York avenue, was organized 
in 1886 by Mr. James W. Morey as the Bedford Heights Institute, under which name it was conducted until 
the fall of 1890, when it was purchased by Dr. George Rodeman, who has since introduced some of the 
thorough methods of the German gymnasiums. A complete system of physical training, consisting of 
military drill and gymnastic exercises, has been established, and an out-door gymnasium has been fitted up 
for the use of the pupils ; it is the only gymnasium of its kind in the United States. Dr. Rodeman finds the 







Bedford Academy. 



75^ 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




George Rodeman, M. A., Ph. D. 



climate favorable enough for out-door work during at least 
six of the nine months of the school year, the remainder of 
the season being spent in the covered gymnasium hall. 

Dr. George Rodeman, the principal of the Academy, 
was born in Usch, in the province of Posen, Germany, on 
May 13, 1861. He received his educational the Royal Gym- 
nasium and at the University of Berlin, from which he was 
graduated in 1885. In the summer of that year he came to 
.America to visit his brother and to finish his education by 
travel. AVhile here he became interested in the work of 
Harvard LIniversity. He became a student, and later a 
teacher in that institution ; taking the degree of Master of 
Arts in 1887, and that of Doctor of Philosophy in 1889. His 
specialty is classical philology. For a year he taught in the 
private schools of New York, and in 1890 purchased the 
present Bedford Academy, which he reorganized and made 
a successful school. Dr. Rodeman is an active member of 
the Union League and Germania clubs of this city, the Har- 
vard Club of New York, the Brooklyn Institute, the Ameri- 
can Philological Association, the Arion, the German Hospital 
Society, and the New York Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 



THE BROOKLYN LATIN SCHOOL. 

The Brooklyn Latin School was conceived and founded by its present proprietor and principal. Dr. 
Caskie Harrison, M. A., Ph. D., in 1S83. The school is designed for the general training and special prep- 
aration of a limited number of boys, and is noted as taking every measure that will warrant a distinctive 
recognition among the best preparatory schools. Dr. Harrison, the founder and principal, was head of his 
house at Rugby School, England, a prize man of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a professor of languages 
in the University of the South, and is by education and experience eminently fitted to conduct an institu- 
tion of this kind. The course of the school has been uniformly successful until at the present time the 
number of pupils equals the capacity of the school and only a limited number of scholars are accepted 
annually. The equipment of the school is unsurpassed and the system of utilizing all modern appliances 
with a limited number of individuals is carried out in every particular. The number of boys entering college 
from the Brooklyn Latin School is extremely large in proportion to the number of its pupils, and their success 
in various universities speaks of the high character of their preparation. The list of studies includes 
every subject that is pertinent to the work of a complete preparatory school, and the staff is composed of 
men well fitted for the positions they fill. The school house at 145 Montague street is well situated, its 
five floors having been refitted for the special needs of a school. A judicious system of prizes and rewards 
has been adopted ; a gymnasium has been added and physical instruction is a part of the curriculum. 

THE COLLEGE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

The College Grammar School, long established in the Hamilton building, at Court and Joralemon 
streets, has been successfully conducted during nearly all its forty-three years of existence by Professor 
Levi Wells Hart, A. M. It was organized in 1849 by the Rev. Edmund B. Tuttle, under the patronage of 
many distinguished clergymen and bishops of the Episcopal Church, Ogden Hoffman, George P. Morris, 
N. P. Willis, and others equally prominent in that day, together with well-known citizens of Brooklyn. Its 
first principal, C. A. Silliman, A. M., was succeeded after three years by Professor Hart, to whom many 
Brooklyn students have been indebted for a most thorough preparation for college, for the scientific schools, 
and the United States Naval and Military Academies. Professor Hart was graduated from Yale in 1846, 
and had the satisfaction of learning from the venerable President Woolsey that he was one of the best 
Greek scholars ever under his instruction. The equipment of the school is complete, its methods are 
thorough, and its discipline is such as conduces to a high-minded manhood. 

CATHOLIC COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 

St. John's College is the foremost educational institution in Brooklyn directly ruled by the Roman 
Catholic Church, and one of the best known training schools for the priesthood in the country ; it occupies 
the entire side of Lewis avenue, between Willoughby avenue and Hart street. The college is comparatively 
young, its inception having been in the Council of the late Bishop Loughlin, who deemed that a suitable 
educational institution had become a necessity in his diocese. In accordance with this conviction the 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 753 

college of St. John the Baptist was founded, and the corner-stone of the building, on the corner of Willough- 
by and Lewis avenues, was laid in the summer of 1868. On September 5, 187 1, the building was opened for 
pupils under the presidency of the Rev. J. T. Landry, C. M., who served until January, 1876, when he was 
relieved by the Rev. A. J. Myer, C. M. In January, 1882, he was in turn succeeded by the Rev. J. A. Hart- 
well, also of the Congregation of the Mission, the college having always been under the direction of that 
order. This being the only Catholic institution in the diocese having the privilege of a university, no pains 
have been spared to ensure thoroughness of instruction and a high standard of training. It is noted for 
careful work in the higher education, particularly in those branches which are useful in preparing young 
men for entering upon ecclesiastical studies. It is on a par with the best institutions of the country, no 
effort being spared by the present bishop to advance its grade. In 1890 large additions were made to the 
old building until now St. John's College occupies one of the finest edifices in Brooklyn. 

St. Francis' College was founded in 1859, when the Franciscan Brothers of Brooklyn purchased a build- 
ing on Baltic street, near Court, for a combined school and residence of the order. This building had 
already been used as a public school, and was eminently fitted for the use to which it has since been applied. 
This school became known as the St. Francis' Academy, and formed the nucleus of the college and monas- 
tery which now occupies its place. Brother Jerome, the superior, made great additions to the old building 
in 1871, and altered the title of the school to that which it bears at present, at the same time enlarging the 
curriculum and advancing the school to a high grade in the ranks of educational institutions. It includes 
collegiate, scientific and commercial departments attended by two hundred and fifty students, one-third of 
whom board in the institution. The college has an excellent library both for research and recreation, and 
is supplied with physical and chemical instruments of the latest and most approved pattern and in sufficient 
numbers to perform all necessary practical experiments. The college stands deservedly high both as a 
school and as a place where the most kindly influences are brought to bear for the direction of the young. 

The Academy of the Visitation, on the corner of Clinton and Willoughby avenues, was established in 
185s by the Sisters of the Visitation B. V. M. The order of the Visitation was founded by St. Francis de 
Sales and St. Jane de Chantal, at Annecy, France, in 1610. The first American house was established at 
Georgetown, D. C, in 1799. The institution in this city was founded from Baltimore, September 24, 1855, 
by the Rt. Rev. John Loughlin, D.D., first Bishop of Brooklyn, and in 1863 was incorporated by the legis- 
lature of New York, under the title of the " Female Institute of the Visitation." For twenty-five years the 
institute was on the corner of Johnson and Pearl streets, but in 1880 the present large property on Clinton 
avenue, extending along Willoughby to Waverly, was purchased and the present academy erected. The new 
building is of Jersey free-stone, with a frontage of 220 feet ; the chapel is in the centre, with the convent 
and academy on either side. The school is very complete, and has an excellent supply of philosophical 
instruments and a fine library. 

Connected with all or nearly all of the Catholic parishes in Brooklyn there are parochial schools and 
other educational institutions individual mention of which will be found in the sketches of such churches 
in the chapter on Churches and Religious Organizations. 

ST. JOSEPH'S INSTITtJTE. 

The Brooklyn branch of St. Joseph's Institute, an institution for the improved instruction of deaf mutes, 
was established in 1874 ; the house, 510 Henry street, being purchased with the funds contributed by a few 
charitable citizens. The parent institution sprang from a private academy which was opened in Fordhani 
in 1869, but which was afterwards merged into a school for deaf mutes only. The quarters became crowded 
and necessitated the Brooklyn branch, which in 1876 received power from the legislature to receive county 
pupils, and two years later, state pupils. Since it was first opened the Brooklyn branch has been filled with 
pupils whose board, tuition, and clothing bills are paid by the county from which they come. Both sexes 
were first admitted between the ages of six and twelve. At present girls only are received at the Brooklyn 
branch, which is located at 113 Buffalo avenue, a boy's department of the parent institution having been 
established at West Chester, New York. The girls are taught dressmaking, together with various kinds of 
hand and machine sewing, and in their leisure hours they apply themselves to fancy work. The branches 
of instruction taught in the class rooms are the same as those pursued in the common schools. The 
method of instruction is what is known as the oral method. Signs are discarded entirely as being obstacles 
to the speech, and watching the movements of the lips is employed instead. There are at present seventy 
pupils in the Brooklyn branch. The managers of St. Joseph's Institute are Ernestine Nardin, president ; 
Mary B. Morgan, vice-president : Annie M. Larkin, secretary and treasurer. Margaret Cosgrove is deputy 
superintendent of the Brooklyn branch ; R. M. Mead, M. D., is the attending physician, and A. Ross Mathe- 
son, M. D., the consulting physician. 

' ' b t- J SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS. 

The Brooklyn Heights Seminary for Girls was established by Professor Alonzo Grey in 185 1. At his 
death, nine years later, it became the property of Dr. Charles E. West, who, assisted by the late Miss Mary 



y-4 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

A. Brigham, carried it on most successfully until 18S9, when at the retirement of Dr. West and Miss Brighara 
the school passed into the hands of the present principals, Miss Clara R. Colton, Miss Katherine S. Wood- 
ward, and Miss Isabel D. Hubbard. The two houses occupied by the school, 138 and 140 Montague street, 
were originally erected for this purpose by Professor Grey, and are eminently adapted for educational work. 
The course of instruction embraces all the studies included in a thorough English education, individual 
teaching being a marked feature in the method of instruction, and each department being under the care of 
a specialist. A special feature of the school is a number of lectures delivered throughout the year by Pro- 
fessor Tohn Fiske, Miss Jane Meade Welch, W. H. Goodyear, A. T. Van Laer, Richard E. .Burton and others. 
Both resident and day pupils are received. 

Miss Rounds' School for Girls was founded in 1876 by its present principal, Miss Christiana Rounds, 
as a select school for girls and as a preparatory school for Smith, Vassar and Wellesley colleges, where its 
graduates are admitted on certificate. The school has been conducted since its foundation in its present 
quarters at 525 Clinton avenue. Pu|)ils are admitted at the age of eight to the preparatory course and to 
the regular course about four years later. Special attention is paid to English composition throughout the 
course, instruction being given in carefully graded classes and by individual criticism. A Latin course of 
four years is a feature of the school. At present the staff of instructors numbers ten and the number of 
students is about ninety. 

Mrs. Goodwin's School for Girls is pleasantly situated at 154 Montague street in a handsomely fur- 
nished and decorated house, where the system of individual instruction is fully carried out. This is 
emphatically a "parlor school," and is conducted by its founder, Mrs. R. Goodwin and her partner Miss 
Agnes Goodwin. Mrs. Goodwin is a native of Germany, and makes the language of that country a specialty 
in her school with great success. Miss Goodwin is a native of Boston, Mass., where she won a high repu- 
tation as a teacher, and had high social connections. She became a partner of Mrs. Goodwin in the fall 
of 1891. 

The Berkeley Institute for Young Ladies, which occupies the double villa, 183 and 185 Lincoln 
place, was incorporated in 1886 and placed under the charge of twenty-two trustees, of which board Mayor 
Boody is the president. The institute is under the direction of Miss Charlotte E. Hayner, assisted by an 
able corps of teachers. The intention is to provide the residents of the Park slope with thorough education 
for their daughters in a private and homelike school, where healthy environment and good physical training 
can be added to mental work. 

Professor Dughee's School for Young Ladies and Children is at 139 Clinton street, and has 
long had an excellent reputation as a preparatory school for children and as an academic school for girls. 
Professor Joseph Dughee has had great e.xperience in education in this city, and has been the founder of 
several schools. 

Miss Hall's School for Young Ladies, at 50 Monroe place, has been established for several years under 
the direction of its present principal, who has recently associated with herself Miss Anna Mitchell, and has 
adapted her house to receive resident pupils. The school is well known as one of the most fashionable in 
the city. 

smaller private schools. 

The Prospect Park Institute, a scientific English classical and commercial school for boys, was 
opened at 1 10 Prospect place, near Flatbush avenue, in September, 1883, by R. E. Dodge, formerly instructor 
in the Annapolis Naval Academy. The principal has had much experience as a practical engineer and the 
tread of the school is naturally scientific. 

The St. Luke's Acade.my of the German Evangelical Lutheran St. Luke's Church, located at 163 
Carlton avenue, was erected in 1878, under the direction of Pastor Baden. The present director is the 
pastor, the Rev. H. Ludwig. 

The Bedford Institute was established in 1878 by Miss Purdy at 195 McDonough street. The 
school is located at 221 McDonough street. A kindergarten department has recently been added which is 
conducted on the German system now so thoroughly accepted. The work is carried through the academic 
grades. The art department is large and well equipped. 

The New York Avenue Institute was established by Misses Parsons and Dennen, on Bergen street, 
where they conducted it for seven years. Mrs. E. H. Sanborn purchased the school in 1892. The school 
had previously been conducted for about four years at its present location on the corner of New York 
avenue and Pacific street. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ferris for several years conducted a boarding school for children on Bushwick avenue, 
near Steuben street. Recently they moved to 494 Greene avenue, where the school is continued on the 
same lines as before. 

De ViLLEROv's School of Languages, at 126 Joralemon street, was founded in 1882 as a branch of the 
Berlitz school of New York. Three years ago Prof. De Villeroy purchased the school from Dr. Berlitz and 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



755 



is its present director. Prof. De Villeroy is a graduate of the University of Paris and stands deservedly 
high as an educator. 

The Stearn's School of Languages was established in 1880 by Prof. Sigmen M. Stearn as a branch 
of his school in New York city. It has always occupied quarters on Montague street and is at present 
located on that thoroughfare. 

The Friends' School has been conducted for thirty years in the Friends' meeting house on Schermer- 
horn street. 

KINDERGARTENS. 

The Froebel Kindergarten was founded in 1876 by the Misses Sharpe, its present proprietors, on the 
lines laid down by Friedrich Froebel, the great German educator. The school was first located on Fulton 
street, opposite Johnson, but a year later moved to 76 Montague street, where it remained for two years ; 
for eleven years Clinton street and Atlantic avenue was the location but, in 1890, the school returned to 
Montague street and occupied the house at No. no. The school is the longest established in one city of 
the kindergartens in the United States. The system of the school is individual instruction for very 
young children. 

The Froebel Academy was incorporated in June, 1883, and opened for instruction the following 
September. It was the outgrowth of the efforts of a few earnest people who felt the need up-town of a 
school which should carry the principles of the kindergarten through the early years of education. The 
founders and first board of trustees were : Dr. Ale.x. Hutchins, Geo. W. Hebard, James Richmond, Charles 
H. Chadwick, Mrs. C. W. Chadwick, Mrs. A. W. Tenney, W. E. Uptegrove and Geo. G. Brooks. The first 
principal was Miss M. E. Laing. In 1886 Miss Laing was succeeded by Miss Gertrude A. Adams. In 1889 
the direction of the school was taken by Miss Caroline W. Hotchkiss, with Miss E. D. Hotchkiss in charge 
of the kindergarten and primary department. Much of the success of the school is due to the Froebel 
Society, an association of mothers, whose children attend the school. In 1890 the school was purchased by 
the late Chas. Pratt, and has since been a part of the magnificent institution that bears his name. Al- 
though the school still occupies its small quarters at 686-690 Lafayette avenue, its work has proved very 
beneficial in the neighborhood. The distinguishing aim of the school is to carry the kindergarten princi- 
ples and atmosphere through all the departments, to bring the world without to bear naturally upon the 
thought of the pupil, and in this scheme of education the school has proved eminently successful. 



CLAGHGRN'S "BRYANT & STRATTON " BUSINESS COLLEGE. 

Charles Claghorn, the proprietor and head of the Brooklyn "Bryant & Stratton " Business College, 

is a practical educator and has had a full share in 
building up the Bryant & Stratton plan of interna- 
tional cooperative business education. This system 
embraces a chain of colleges established by Messrs. 
Bryant & Stratton in the principal cities of the 
United States and Canada. While each of the allied 
institutions is independent of all the rest, there is a 
comity of intercourse existing between them whereby 
uniformity of method is secured and certain rela- 
tions are maintained, which give a practical turn to 
the course of study. Mercantile transactions are 
carried on between the students of the several col- 
leges, by aid of the mails, and thus the young men 
are made familiar with all the details of the trans- 
portation office, the importing and jobbing house, 
the commission house, the bank, the agency bureau 
and all the other features of cosmopolitan trade. 
Mr. Claghorn laid the foundation for his success in 
this line of education when he was a young man by 
getting together a number of his companions for the 
purpose of mutual aid in various branches of study, 
and more particularly in the line of penmanship and 
book-keeping. This course he supplemented by a 
course of study at the Bryant & Stratton Business 
College, in Albany, and when he had finished there 
he went to Illinois. A clerkship in a frontier store 
CHARLES CLAGHORN. was his first positiou and he obtained it without 




75^ 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



difficulty or delay, but he was too ambitious to remain in a subordinate position for any extended period, and 
s^ion he went into business on his own account. Very early in his western experience he had established a 
reputation as an expert accountant, and he was frequently called upon by others to assist them in that capac- 
ity. After a valuable experience in the west, Mr. Claghorn returned to the east in 1865, and in that year 
took up the profession of a business educator ; he formed a partnership with S. S. Packard, who then was 
managina,- the Commercial College in New York city. Ten years later, in February, 1875, he purchased the 
Brooklyn^branch, which he has conducted ever since. Mr. Claghorn is a New Englander by birth, and his 
immediate ancestors were natives of Scotland, who included in their number several men who won reputa- 
tion as ship-builders and mariners. He was born in Williamsburgh, Mass., on November 13, 1836. As a 
resident of Brooklyn he has proven himself a valuable member of the community in other directions than 
in his special vocation. He is an official in the department of political and economic science of the 
Brooklvn Institute, and he is one of the executive committee of the Civil Service Reform Association of 
Brooklyn. The various charitable and philanthropic institutions of the city enlist his hearty sympathy, and 
he is a ready worker in any cause that is promotive of the general welfare. Mr. Claghorn has lately been 
elected vice-president of the Mercantile Cooperative Bank of New York city. 




One of the most thoroughly practical educational institutions in Brooklyn is Kissick's Business College, 
of which W. A. Kissick, A. M., is the principal. The college is located at 45, 47 and 49 Ashland place, and 
is designed especially for the training of young men and women for business occupations, but it affords 
opportunity for classical and other studies connected with preparation for admission to university courses, 
and it includes a preparatory department for those pupils whose ordinary education is not sufficiently 
advanced to enable them to enter the commercial classes. An excellent feature in the institution is the 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



757 



provision made for individual instruction and study, by which a student who desires it may have a separate 
room m which to pursue the studies in hand under the personal direction of the instructor The college 
occupies a large detached building, convenient of access, in the business centre of the city but sufficiently 
retired to afford that degree of quiet which is necessary to effective study ; the building is 'three stories in 
height above a high basement, and is well lighted by large windows on each of its four sides. The courses of 
instruction include every depart- 
ment of an ordinary English edu- 
cation, and especially the art of ' ,., — -,—„.,_„ .„,„.,,,,,,, 

writing correctly, together with 
every branch of knowledge re- 
quired in the perfect equipment 
of clerks, book-keepers and cash- 
iers, such as stenography, type- 
writing, manifolding, and all the 
arts that contribute to the rapid 
transaction of business in these 
times. For the benefit of those 
whose days are occupied and who 
wish to add to their education, 
short evening sessions are held. 
Professor Kissick established his 
college in 1872, and for five years 
conducted it as a private school ; 
in 1877 he opened it publicly, and 
since then it has been uniformly 
prosperous. 

W. A. Kissick, A. M., was born 
in the northern part of Ireland 
on August 2, 1844. Until he was 
fifteen years old he was obliged 
to do considerable work on his 
father's farm, and then he went to 
Scotland, where subsequently he 
was graduated at the Glasgow 
Academy. In 1866 he came to 
America with his sister, and in the 
same year he became a teacher of 
book-keeping, penmanship and 
other studies at Payne's Business 
College in New York. Within a 
few weeks he was transferred to 
Brooklyn to take charge of the 




KissicK's Business College. 



branch of the college, which was located opposite the city hall. In 1871 this institution changed hands and 
he returned to his original position in New York. He left it to take charge of the Thompson Business 
College, and at the same time taught book-keeping and penmanship in the Rev. Henry B. Chapin's College, 
New York, and after school hours, holidays and nights till a late hour he gave private instruction. Ill 
health compelled him to abandon his work at the expiration of four years and to return to his native land, 
where he remained for nineteen months. After his return he inaugurated his present enterprise in Brooklyn. 

BROWNE'S BROOKLYN BUSINESS COLLEGE. 

Browne's Brooklyn Business College is a training school for youth of both sexes in accounts, business 
affairs, counting-house details, shorthand, typewriting, telegraphy, etc., and office duties generally. The 
space occupied by the various departments is nearly 10,000 superficial feet, and each section is fitted up in 
the manner most appropriate for the different specialties pursued. The commercial students each have a 
spacious desk, with conveniences, for the filing of papers, etc. There are also separate offices for banking 
and other leading branches of business, fitted with suitable appliances. The erroneous idea that a business 
college is a place where students " play at doing business " is dispelled by the actual work done here. A 
system of individual responsibility is established ; each student's work is carefully scrutinized and criticized, 
the relations being more like those of employer and clerk than of scholar and teacher. The business men 



758 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Thomas R. Huou-.xk. 



of our own and the adjoining cities have long since learned to appreciate 
the merits of students trained under Mr. Browne's system and are eager to 
employ them. This school is the immediate successor of " Paine's Writing 
Academy," an institute that many of our townspeople who sought to im- 
prove their handwriting in the " forties " will remember. 

Thomas R. Browne, the proprietor of the school, was born in Stam- 
ford, Conn., in 1834. He early came to New York and followed the 
business of accountant, but a natural bias for teaching induced him to take 
charge of the commercial department of Paine's New York Commercial 
School for several years. In 1863 he became the proprietor, by purchase, 
of the old writing academy, and at once set about e.xtending its sphere of 
action. Up to that time the commercial school in general had nothing 
better than copy books, and little more than an idea of the theory of 
accounts was even expected from them. Mr. Browne at once originated 
systems of actual business practice, and demonstrated that lads and others 
could go direct from his training to the counting-house and take charge of 
books and attend to details, often excelling in skill men of long experience. 
The perfection of the writing machine marked a new era in the use of shorthand writing by merchants and 
professional men, and gave to the women the long-looked for "chance in business." The necessity for 
amanuenses, expert in both arts, was soon perceived and special departments were organized for their 
benefit. The women have most largely responded to this new demand, and these departments are but little 
less in numbers than the commercial department. More than half a hundred machines are almost constantly 
clicking under the deft fingers of the fair writers, transcribing into plain type their phonographic hiero- 
glyphics, previously taken down from dictation, given by the shorthand 

' "~™~ ' teacher in her special room. Mr. Browne's eldest son, Edmond C. Browne, 

the practical business man of the establishment, drills these students in the 
exact kind of work that will be required of them from future employers. 
He spent several years in New York business houses to prepare for his 
future profession and is an accomplished penman, an authority in accounts, 
author of business college text-books and a most acceptable teacher. The 
continuous sessions and evening instruction of this school are some of the 
features which distinguish it from other educational institutions and show 
that the faculty are indefatigable in the cause of practical education. Mr. 
Browne has never allowed the mere management of his business to engross 
all his time, but has always taken the leading part in teaching, never being 
wiUing to depend upon assistants entirely — though they are carefully 
selected. The register of this school for the thirty-third year shows a 
■ I larger enrollment than for any year of its past history. The many students 
I in attendance whose fathers were educated here for mercantile life con- 
clusively proves that Mr Browne retains the confidence of his patrons. 
The college was first located in the Whitehouse buildings on Fulton street. 
It now occupies the whole upper portion of the fine double building built by the late Dr. George Cochran, 
at 306 Fulton street. 

LONG ISLAND BUSINESS COLLEGE. 

The Long Island Business College was organized in 1873 with twelve students, and it has grown 
yearly since then until it has an attendance of nearly seven hundred students annually. Henry C. Wright, 
the proprietor and principal, was born in Canada on the St. Lawrence in 1843. He inherited from his father 
a gift for teaching, and added to it a practical talent for business. He studied accounts and correspondence 
m his father's business, and after obtaining a practical school education, was graduated at the Friends' 
College, Picton, Ont., now Pickering College, Toronto, and later attended the Toronto Normal School. He 
taught in the public schools in Canada, and in 1869 came to the United States and engaged in the accounting 
busmess in the city of Philadelphia with an experienced French accountant. He spent one year at this 
employment, and then came to Brooklyn, where he engaged in business college work. In 1890 Mr. Wright 
purchased the property 143, 145, 147 and 149 South Eighth street, and a year later commenced demolishing 
the old buildings thereon to make room for his present college building, which cost him nearly one hundred 
thousand dollars, and has accommodations for eight hundred students, with every modern appliance for the 
work of commercial instruction. 




Edmond C. Browne. 




The Buooklyn Library. 




LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



ROOKLYN never has been a literary centre. It is not in accordance witii 
modern conditions that it should be. If we measure the intellectual force of a 
community by the highest standard, there is no longer any city that can, in a 
strict sense, be called a literary centre. In this cosmopolitan age when the 
facilities for travel and quick communication have made every city in some sort 
the suburb of every other, a universally acknowledged home of letters is an 
impossibility. We cannot now, as in the days when from Florence, Paris, Edin- 
burgh, or Weimar went forth the epoch-making creations which left their stamp 
upon the century, look to any one source for our edification and instruction. 
The roving genius of our time is against it. Henceforward a city must gratify its pride of intellect by 
claiming for itself some part of the glory of all the distinguished men who have called it their home, either 
by birthright or adoption, in whatever quarter of the wide earth their laurels have been won. Thus, 
though Brooklyn has never been a literary centre nor exercised in that broad sense a dominant intellectual 
influence upon the country, we can yet boast of poets, authors, orators and scholars who have been born 
within our boundaries and of a host who have made this city their life-long home. 

The clergymen of Brooklyn have been worthily prominent in American literature. Henry Ward 
Beecher, whose profound wisdom, moving eloquence, and steadfast efforts to humanize Christianity as well 
as to christianize humanity, had made him the idol of the nation as well as the object of sincere respect 
abroad, has done more than any other man to shed glory upon the city of his adoption and to entitle it to 
a place in the intellectual annals of the land. Beecher's contributions to literature are numerous and 
varied. The most notable of his early books was the famous " Lectures to Young Men," published during 
his western pastorate. "Pleasant Talk About Fruits, Flowers and Farming" [1859], consisted of his con- 
tributions as editor to the Fanner and Gardener. His Independent articles, signed with the well-known star, 
attained wide celebrity; in 1855 these articles appeared in book form as the " Star Papers;" they deal 



760 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Edward Eggleston. 



with the manifold problems and aspects of art and 
nature in that large human spirit which is charac- 
teristic of all Beecher's utterances. A second 
series of " Star Papers " appeared three years 
afterward, which treated more specifically of re- 
ligious experiences ; in England the latter volume 
was republished as "Summer in the Soul." The 
appearance of the " Plymouth Collection of Hymns 
and Tunes," in 1855, under his editorship, marked 
an era in Congregational church music. This 
collection became the model for all subsequent 
hymn books. In 1870, when The Christian Union 
was established, Beecher became its editor-in- 
chief. Prior to this a series of papers had been 
printed in The New York Ledger and attracted 
universal attention by the keen but kindly obser- 
vation they evinced, as well as by the lofty thought 
and gentle humor which are always to be found 
side by side in Beecher's deliverances. These 
were the celebrated "Thoughts as They Occur, 
by One Who Keeps His Eyes and Ears Open." 
They were collected under the title of " Eyes 
and Ears." We have one novel from his pen, 
" Norwood," which he published in 1867. It con- 
tains a fine and delicate delineation of village life 
in New England thirty years ago. It is filled with 
the atmosphere which he had breathed in his 
cradle, and represents that wonderful mixture 
of energy and asceticism in the New England 
character which thus far throughout the history of our country has proved powerful enough to leaven 
the whole lump. 

Beecher's books for the most part were accidental, were formed that is, by the gradual accretion of 
brief essays or oral utterances. One extensive work, however, he did attempt, but left it unfortunately a 
fragment to be completed by other hands. This was the early heralded, long expected " Life of Christ." 
The old story is told with dramatic fervor and impressive solemnity, but it breaks off at the Sea of Galilee, 
when " the voice ceased." No other work of a large scope was ever attempted by him. During forty 
years of uninterrupted pulpit labor he preached to one of the largest congregations in America, and to 
an audience of many tens of thousands besides, not present in the body, to whom his sermons were 
reported week for week. Something more than fifteen volumes of these sermons have been published. The 
Lectures on Preaching, which were delivered before the divinity students of Yale College in the early part 
of the seventies, have been collected into three volumes, which are among the most valuable of all Beecher's 
writings. His sermons delivered in the White Mountains appeared under the title of "A Summer Parish." 

[1874.] 

To every cause that proposed the advancement of the human race, to every political movement that 
promised to subserve the higher interests of his country, Beecher lent the power of his oratory. Some of his 
addresses and separate lectures were printed in the volume entitled " Freedom and War." The oration 
which he delivered on the occasion of the Burns' centennial celebration in 1859 is generally considered his 
finest effort. But to the mind of tlie patriotic American, when the name of Beecher is mentioned, there 
occurs first of all the memory of his soul-stirring career in England when our land was sunk in the depths 
of civil war. It is one of the grand scenes in the history of that war, that before a hostile audience by the 
simple indomitable will of manhood he should at Mst obtain a hearing and then speak with such over- 
whelming eloquence that what he began amid angry hisses he ended amid enthusiastic cheers. These 
" Speeches on the American Rebellion " were published in London in 1864, and contributed more than any 
other agency towards changing the popular sentiment in Great Britain in those trying days. These and 
other addresses, some of which were included in earlier volumes, have been reprinted" lately, under the 
title " Patriotic Addresses." Of his various sayings and fugitive writings several collections have been 
made; one such was culled in England and has since appeared in America as" Royal Truths." Edna Dean 
Proctor issued a collection of his utterances under the title of " Life Thoughts." Similar compilations 
have been made by others ; among them Dr. Lyman Abbott, who has also written a life of his great 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



761 



predecessor, in connection witii whicli mention should be made of Mr. John R. Howard's " Henry Ward 
Beecher, a Study," which is, perhaps, the most careful analysis of Mr. Beecher's character and mental 
processes yet published. Mr. Howard's personal and literary relations with Mr. Beecher for many years 
abundantly qualified him for this work. 

Beecher's successor and biographer, Rev. Lyman Abbott, D. D., was for some time his associate on the 
Christian Union, and upon Beecher's retirement he became its editor-in-chief. He has always devoted a 
large portion of his time to literary pursuits. For a time he had charge of the " Literary Record " of 
Harper s Magazine, and edited the Illustrated Christian Weekly. He is the author of several important 
pamphlets ; especially instructive in his discussion of the " Results of Emancipation in the United States," 
which appeared in 1867. Dr. Abbott prepared also a " Dictionary of Bible Knowledge," and an 
"Illustrated Commentary on the New Testament," in four volumes; in these works the author has 
rendered invaluable assistance to clerical as well as to lay students of the scriptures. We have also 
from Dr. Abbott's pen " Jesus of Nazareth," 1869 ; " Old Testament Shadows of New Testament Truths," 
1870, and "A Layman's Story," 1872. His latest work, given to the public in 1892, contains an exposition 
of religious truths from the broad view point of modern progressive thought and in the catholic spirit 
which we are accustomed to expect from the occupant of Plymouth pulpit. . The book is entitled " The 
Evolution of Christianity." 

In reviewing the literary life of Brooklyn, as represented by the clergy of the city, the name of John 
White Chadwick deserves special emphasis, for although holding an important pastoral charge, he is 
essentially the man of letters. He represents the most advanced thought of the Unitarian community. 
His discourses were for a time issued serially, but it is through his books that he has exerted the widest 
influence. It was during the latter part of the seventies that he began to draw attention to himself by his 
broad vigorous treatment of the highest problems of religious life and human conduct ; " The Bible of 
To-day," "The Faith of Reason," and " Some Aspects of Religion " were among his earlier writings, but 
the work which attained the greatest celebrity and roused the fiercest discussion was " The Man Jesus," 
which appeared in 1881. It is his steadfast endeavor, both in his preaching and in his writing, to present 
the ethical aspects of religion, disregarding theology and dogma. To him conduct is more than "three- 
fourths of human life," and the relations of faith to conduct he has discussed in a book which came out 
in the same year as " The Man Jesus," entitled " Belief and Life." One of his earliest publications was 
a volume of poems ; among the more recent are " A Christmas Fantasy," and in 1885, " A Daring Faith." 
Books are written to-day unconsciously. 

Whoever devotes himself to intellectual pursuits 

will find that his bo(jks have written themselves ; 

while he lives and labors there will be an uninter- 
rupted production of them. The annals of the 

Brooklyn pulpit are replete with distinguished 

names ; there is scarcely a clergyman but he is 

in this sense an author too. Some listener is ever 

ready to catch up his utterances as they fall and 

gather them into a book ; sketches, magazine 

articles, and the like gradually accumulate, divide 

naturally into categories, and so crystallize into 

books. In most works which arose in this way 

the permanence of the literary form was not 

originally contemplated. Upon productions of 

this sort rests the claim of nearly every pastor 

in Brooklyn to a place in the literary history of 

our city, and the claim is a legitimate one ; their 

works cover a vast and varied range of intellectual 

activity. We are obliged, however, to select from 

the embarrassing wealth three names, represent- 
ing a literary range from the most scholarly to 

the most popular. These are Dr. Storrs, Dr. 

Cuyler, and Dr. Talmage. 

The scholarly polish and profound thought 

which characterize the orations and writings of 

Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs have become sym- 
bolized in his name. No great public and com- 
memorative function was ever considered complete 




Ephraim George Squier. 



^62 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

unless graced by the dignity of his eloquence. No collection of his orations and addresses has yet been 
made but several series of his lectures have appeared in book form. Ten lectures which he delivered 
before the Union Theological Seminary and the Lowell Listitute on " The Divine Origin of Christianity " 
were published in Boston, in 1880, and to this work belongs, perhaps, the highest place among all his 
writings, both in pdint of erudition and literary finish. Dr. Storrs is himself a New Englander, and 
considerable imjiortance was attached to his address before the New England Society in New York, in 
1857, on the "Puritan Scheme of National Growth." His two superb orations in commemoration of 
Lincoln, belong to the finest specimens of contemporary literature at that great crisis. The calm judicial 
breadth of his mind was evinced in an address which caused much comment at the time on " The Attractions 
of Romanism for Educated Protestants." The generous fairness of his tone called forth a graceful 
acknowledgment from the greatest English defender of the Roman faith. Cardinal Newman. It is a matter 
of regret that his numerous and invaluable contributions to literature have not yet received a permanent 
and accessible form, but remain hidden away in pamphlets and newspapers. Such a wealth of wisdom as 
is contained in his " iNLanliness in the Scholar" [1883J, and "Broader Range and Outlook of the Modern 
College Training" [1887], ought to be made easily accessible to every thoughtful man that he might 
re-read and ponder them. 

Not less closely associated with the intellectual life of this city is the name of Rev. Dr. Theodore L. 
Cuyler. His sermons and temperance tracts have penetrated to every quarter of this country, and even to 
remote lands. The attractive titles of his very numerous books have become like the familiar names of 
friends in thousands of homes throughout the land. " Stray Arrows," " The Empty Crib," " Heart Life," 
" Thought Hives," " Wayside Springs," " Pointed Papers," and in 1884 appeared a work of much pithy 
wisdom, called " Right to the Point." Three years before Dr. Cuyler had published an account of his 
travels, entitled " From the Nile to Norway." He has been an indefatigable contributor to the religious 
press, and a large volume of his writings on miscellaneous religious topics has been compiled and translated 
both into the Dutch and Swedish languages. His latest book, which appeared in 1S92, bears the title, 
" Stirring the Eagle's Nest." 

But the most prolific writer among the clergymen of Brooklyn, and, since the death of Spurgeon, prob- 
ably the most widely known pulpit orator in the world, is Rev. Dr. T. DeVVitt Talmage. His distinction is that 
of a popular lecturer, and his Sunday addresses, which he delivers to phenomenally large audiences, are 
conceived in that spirit, enforcing practical and moral truth by homely and pregnant illustration. These 
discourses are published weekly in nearly six hundred journals, both religious and secular, and are translated 
into various languages ; and yet this constitutes but a small part of this man's wonderful activity. He is 
the author of innumerable sketches, editorials, essays, and, we had almost said, innumerable books ; it 
would certainly be inconvenient to give a complete catalogue of his writings here. Besides the many 
volumes of his sermons, which are doubtless the best known productions of his pen, there should be 
mentioned among the more successful works, " Crumbs Swept Up," " Around the Tea Table," " Every Day 
Religion," and, more recently, " The Marriage Ring," 1886. Dr. Talmage is a constant writer for periodical 
literature, and is himself the editor of The Christian Herald. His much discussed visit to the criminal 
haunts of New York received literary expression in "Night Sides of City Life," 1878. It is within the 
bounds of moderate statement to say that no living writer addresses both by voice and pen so vast an 
audience weekly as does Dr. Talmage. 

We have referred to another class of book producers whose volumes form themselves by a gradual and 
natural process out of their contributions to magazines and other periodicals : articles which often were 
written under stress of circumstances or to fit the exigency of some special occasion, but which neverthe- 
less were infused with sufficieiit vital force to give them permanent value and render them worthy of pres- 
ervation in the form of a book. To this vast army of magazine writers and journalists, workers in a field 
for which this country is especially distinguished and in which she was the pioneer among the nations of 
the earth, Brooklyn has contributed a large contingent. Early in this century one of Brooklyn's citizens 
contributed an article to a New York daily paper, which was destined to become one of the historic jokes of 
journalism. This was the account by Richard Adams Locke of the observations supposed to have been 
made by Sir John Herschel, the younger, at the Cape of Good Hope, and contained, among other startling 
revelations, an announcement of the discovery of the lunar inhabitants. The style was so plausible and 
the account so circumstantial that not only the public, but many scientific men were deceived into a serious 
discussion of it. 'I'his was the famous "Moon Hoax." It was reprinted in 1871. In the same year the 
author died. He had written another but less successful hoax, called "The Lost Manuscript of Mungo 
Park," 

John Flavel Mines was another prominent journalist of those early days. His poem, " The Heroes 
of Lack Lustre," achieved considerable popularity in the ante-bellum times, and to lovers of literary loung- 
ing he is still well known through his pleasing reminiscences, " A Tour around New York, by Felix Oldboy," 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



7^3 



now republished in book form [1892]. David M. Stone, the editor of the Journal of Commerce, is an old-time 
resident of this city, although he is identified in his public interests with New York. One of the most 
widely known newspaper men in this country is a native of Brooklyn, and was long connected with the 
Brooklyn press, Joseph Howard, Jr., but he, too, has all his interests centred in the Metropolis. He has 
published a graphic, readable and trustworthy life of Henry Ward Beecher. But it is not of these that we 
can speak here, but only of those who are primarily makers of books. 

For many years this city has been the home of the pioneer in the international copyright agitation, 
and his repeated appeals to Congress in behalf of this important measure bore the stamp of high approval 
in the names of Irving, Byrant and Bancroft. This was Frederick Saunders, a native of London, who came to 
this country in his thirtieth year and remained here, engaged in literary work. He was at one time city editor 
of The Evening Post, and subsequently assistant librarian and librarian of the Aster Library. He wrote a des- 
criptive hand-book of London, which he called " Memoirs of the Great Metropolis." This and a similar book, 



" New York in a Nut- 
interest as records of the 
half a century ago. From 
known companion books, 
and "Salad for the 
passed through many 
and in New York. He 
same time, 1853, with 
" The Homes of Ameri- 
years that followed Mr. 
number of books : " Mo- 
Song," " About Women, 
more recently, in 1887, 
Famous Books," com- 
much valuable informa- 
play in a greater or less 
of literary leisure which 
books; all, too, have been 
well as New York, and 
passed through several 
The international 
augurated by Mr. Saun- 
up and reinforced by the 
leteer and economist, 
In addition to his oner- 
Bowker has made contri- 
political economy, which 
value ; of these are his 
and Wealth," " Copy- 




JOHN G. SAXK. 



shell," are still of much 
two great cities nearly 
his pen too came the well- 
" Salad for the Solitary" 
Social." These books 
editions, both in London 
was engaged about the 
Tuckerman in publishing 
can Authors." In the 
Saunders wrote a large 
saics," " Festival of 
Love, and Marriage," and 
" The Story of some 
bined with entertainment 
tion. His works all dis- 
degree that graceful style 
characterize his " salad " 
published in London as 
many of them " have 
editions. 

copyright agitation, in- 
ders, has been ably taken 
accomplished pamph- 
Richard Rogers Bowker. 
ous editorial work, Mr. 
butions to the science of 
possess a permanent 
treatises, " On Work 
ritrht, its Law and Liter- 



ature," and in 1886 " Economics for the People." His labors in this fruitful field continue unremitting. 

On the roll of Brooklyn journalists the name of Mrs. Laura Carter Holloway-Langford occupies a 
prominent place. She has devoted her whole life to literary pursuits, and the list of her works is a 
long one. For twelve years she was on the editorial staff of the Eagle. Some of her books consist 
of a collected series of articles, as " The Ladies of the White House " [1870] and " I'he Mothers of Great 
Men and Women" [1884] ; others are general compilations, as "The Home in Poetry." In 1885 Mrs. 
Langford published three works, of a biographical character, "Chinese Gordon," "Howard, the Christian 
Hero," and "Adelaide Neilson." One of lier latest publications was 'entitled " The Buddhist Diet Book." 
Some ten years ago she gave the public an interesting glimpse of the author of " Jane Eyre " in " An Hour 
with Charlotte Bronte." 

Foremost among the female poets and writers of verse occurs the name of Edna Dean Proctor, who 
won her first laurels with a volume of poems which was published in Boston in 1866. In 1872 a series of 
her descriptive poems appeared entitled " A Russian Journey." There is a strong and virile touch in 
these, and a wealth of brilliant local color which give such scenes as the approach to Moscow a permanent 
place in the memory. In a recent poem, " El Mahdi," she treats with vividness and sympathy of that most 
dramatic incident of modern Egyptian history. Her war lyrics are abkize with the fire at which ardor and 
enthusiasm are enkindled. The best known of her poems are probably " Heroes " and " By the Shenan- 
doah." There is also in most of her verse a depth of religious fervor which reveals the source of much of 



764 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



her best inspiration. In connection with the celebrations of 1892 she has written a commemorative ode 
entitled " Columbus' Banner." 

For many years past it has been our privilege to number among the residents of this city the poetess 
and traveler, Mrs. Alice Wellington Rollins. Of her recent journeyings to Alaska and to Japan Mrs. 
Rollins has given the public a charming account, but it is by her poems and other imaginative writings that 
she is o-enerally known. "A Ring of Amethyst" appeared in 1878, and during the past decade we have 
received from the work-shop of her fancy " The Story of a Ranch," " All Sorts of Children," and " The 
Three Tetons." 

In a humbler but not less attractive form of poetic expression Margaret Elizabeth Sangster, the editor 
of Harper's " Young People," has distinguished herself. She is the author of several Sunday School books; 
her " Poems of the Household " gained an extensive circulation, as did also a similar work which she pub- 
lished four years later under the title, "Home Fairies and Heart Flowers." The most popular of all her 
poems are the verses on " The Sin of Omission," " Are the Children at Home ?" and " Our Own." 

The women of Brooklyn are also well represented in novelistic literature. It is unnecessary to do more 
than mention the names of May Agnes Fleming and Laura Jean Libbey, whose extraordinary popularity is 
a fact to which the booksellers will testify. Among those who deserve their success by the literary 
quality of their work is Virginia Wales Johnson, who was born in this city in 1849. To Brooklyn, therefore, 
as much as to any American city belongs the credit of her fame, for during a period of more than twenty 
years she has made her home in Europe ; she resides at present in Florence. At the age of twenty-one she 
achieved an instant success with her " Kettle Club " series. She has written since then during her pro- 
longed sojourn abroad something more than fifteen novels. One of the most charming of these, attractive 
too by reason of its local theme and playful fancy, is " The Catskill Fairies." The travesty of the American 
girl with which Henry James has imposed upon Europe gave rise to a clever work by Virginia Johnson, 

entitled "The English Daisy Miller." [1882.] 
The most widely read of her writings are probably 
"Joseph, the Jew " [1873], "The Neptune Vase" 
[1881] and " The House of the Musician," but 
beyond them all " The Calderwood Secret " [1875], 
is most closely associated with her name. Others 
of her novels are : " The Treasure Tower, a Tale 
of Malta," " The Image of San Donato," The Terra 
Cotta Bust " and " Two Old Cats." 

With the element of secrets and mystery the 
name of another Brooklyn woman is still more 
prominently connected. Anna Katherine Green 
was born here in 1846. Her novels are exclu- 
sively detective stories and enjoy a wide popu- 
larity. The first and most famous, " The Leaven- 
worth Case," appeared in 1878 and won for the 
young authoress universal applause. " A Strange 
Disappearance," " The Sword of Damocles," 
"XYZ," " The Hand and Ring," "The Mill Mys- 
tery," and " Seven to Twelve" followed in quick 
succession almost year for year. In 1882 she 
published a volume of poems, and in 1886 there 
appeared a powerful dramatic poem from her pen, 
bearing the title, " Risifi's Daughter." These have 
been followed by : "Shall He Marry Her?" "The 
Old Stone House," "A Matter of Millions," "The 
Forsaken Inn," "Cynthia Wakeham's Money" 
and " Behind Closed Doors." 
„ . Of the younger generation Annie Sheldon 

Coombs, who has lived m Brooklyn since she was a child, has won her way to prominence. Her first story 

'«r "ru '". '^^^' "'^' ^'O'^nion Mortals." In the following year appeared "A Game of Chance," and in 
18&9 1 he Garden of Armida." 

1 wo familiar names must find a place here among the writers of fiction, although they wielded the pen 
not in the interests of literary art solely but with an ulterior practical purpose. These are Marion Harland 
and Helen Campbell. I he former, Mrs. Mary Terhune, began her literarv career in 1844, when only four- 
teen years of age. At sixteen she wrote the sketch " Marrying through Prudential Motives," which had so 




William Hamilton Gi 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



765 




singular a history. It was reprinted in England and translated into French for a French journal ; it was 
then translated back into English for an English magazine, and in this altered form it reappeared in this 
coun ry. She was also editor for a time of " Babyland." In 1853 she wrote a novel which became very 
popular; It was entitled "Alone" and portrayed the life and manners at the South. Several others of 
her novels have had a marked success. They deal for the most part with domestic themes ; her love of the 
home has led her to prepare a series of manuals on domestic economy, and in dealing with these problems 
of housekeeping she has received important assistance from her daughter, Mrs. Herrick, the author of 
" Housekeeping Made Easy." Mrs. Terhune has 
had an extensive experience as editor of depart- 
ments in " Wide Awake " and " St. Nicholas." ' -■ 

Helen Campbell also entered upon the field 
of letters at an early age, and like Marion Har- 
land has always been eager to inculcate the prin- 
ciples of common sense in matters of domestic 
management. But the energy with which she 
attacked the problem of the poor in our great 
cities deserves special recognition. In 1886 she 
began a series of papers in the JVew York Tribune 
on the working women of New York. Four years 
before she had made public her valuable experi- 
ence in a book called " The Problem of the Poor." 
During the brilliant but short-lived career of the 
" Continent " Helen Campbell was its literary edi- 
tor. Her popularity was established by the "Ains- 
lee Series," followed by " Six Sinners " [1878], 
" Unto the Third and Fourth Generation" [1880J, 
" The What-to-do Club " [1884], and many others 
whose titles afford an evidence of the serious pur- 
pose that underlies them all and to which the 
purely artistic element is subordinated But they 
are full of interest and not without traces of the 
wit and pathos which dwell side by side with 
misery, crime and suffering in those conditions of 
modern society of which she treats. 

Not the least gifted and certainly among the 
most attractive of our writers of fiction are those 
who have devoted themselves to the rational amusement of the young. Foremost among these, though it 
is perhaps hardly warrantable to classify her as a writer of fiction solely, is Olive Thorne Miller. This lady 
came to Brooklyn in 1877, bringing her fame with her as the author of juvenile works and natural history 
books for the young. The best evidence of her excellent qualifications for imparting instruction in the 
most delightful manner is found in the collection of her scattered papers to which she gave the name 
of " Little Folks in Feather and Fur " [1S74]. Her second book too has spread joy broadcast among the 
children and was reprinted from the serials which had appeared in "St. Nicholas" in 1880, entitled 
" Nimpo's Troubles." To these have since been added in a similar strain of playful didactics " Queer Pets 
at Marcy's " and ' Little People of Asia." Hers is an inimitable delicacy and childlike grace of touch. 

If we introduce the name of Edward Eggleston at this point, it is partly because some of his most 
charming books have been designed to combine entertainment with instruction in writing for the young ; 
in this he has received invaluable assistance from his gifted daughters. Mrs. Lillie Eggleston Seelye pub- 
lished in collaboration with her father that delightful series of biographies for young readers which have 
for their theme the lives of celebrated Indian chiefs : " Tecumseh and the Shawnee Prophet," " Brant and 
Red Jacket," " Pocahontas and Powhatan," " Montezuma and the Conquest of Mexico " have already fired 
the imagination of many an American lad. This year [1893], a similar series has been inaugurated under 
the general title " Delights of History." Illustrations by Miss Allegra Eggleston will add to the beauty of 
this series which begins appropriately to this season of celebration with " The Story of Columbus." 

Early in life Edward Eggleston became the friend of the rising generation through his " Round Table 
Stories " which he contributed to the " Little Corporal." His papers in the Independent were eagerly looked 
for a quarter of a century ago, where they were published over the signature of the " Pen Holder," For 
five years he was pastor of the " Church of Christian Endeavor " in Brooklyn and succeeded in establishing 
the organization of that name which has now grown to such colossal proportions. But failing health sent 



John W. Chadwick. 



766 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




James Carson Brevoort. 



him back to the quieter pursuits of literature. Of 
the many novels depicting local conditions in the 
various sections of this broad land, his are among 
the most popular. They are wonderfully vivid 
pictures of life in his native State of Indiana. The 
best known of his books in this vein are " The 
Hoosier Schoolmaster," which he published in 
1871. Twelve years after came "The Hoosier 
School Boy." To the same unique category be- 
long " The End of the World," " The Mystery 
of Indianapolisville," and " The Circuit Rider," 
though these do not complete the list of his con- 
tributions to fiction. Nearly all of these books 
have been reprinted in England and several have 
been translated into other languages. His " His- 
tory of Life in the United States" began to appear 
chapterwise in " The Century." 

George Cary Eggleston, a brother of Edward, 
is likewise the author of a number of popular 
works. Engaged in Brooklyn and New York jour- 
nalism since 1870, in the intervals of his special 
duties he found time not only to make regular 
contributions to the magazines, but also to write 
a series of entertaining stories of American life, 
such as " Captain Sam," " The Big Brother," " The 
Signal Boys," and many others. Something in the 
manner of his brother's American Indian series 
is " Red Eagle and the War with the Creek In- 
dians," history touched with imagination ; his 
" Strange Stories from History " is conceived in a like spirit. Mr. Eggleston had served in the Con- 
federate Army and his experiences are recorded in a kindly and entertaining vein in "A Rebel's Recollec- 
tions." Two works of a practical turn, though among the earliest of his writings, are )'et the outcome of a 
varied personal e.xperience : "How to Educate Yourself," and " How to Make a Living." He has further- 
more performed a real service to American scholars by editing for this country Haydn's " Dictionary of 
Dates." 

Another Brooklyn family has, like the Egglestons, attained literary distinction through both sons and 
daughters, the Conants. Thomas Jefferson Conant, who after several years of study in Germany, settled in 
this city in 1857, was the greatest Hebraist of his time. Besides rendering scholarship an important 
service in editing with philological and critical apparatus the Hebrew te.xts of a number of Old Testament 
books, he prepared a Hebrew Grammar wiiich is accepted both in England and America as the standard 
text-book. He was also connected with the revision of the authorized version. In line with this work his 
wife wrote a "Popular History of English Bible Translation." Translations of Neander's Commentaries and 
of a number of the writings of Strauss are also from the pen of Mrs. Conant. Their son Samuel Stillman 
Conant was engaged in newspaper work, and from 1869 until his mysterious disappearance in 1885 was the 
managing editor of Harper s Weekly. We have by him an excellent translation of Lermontoff's " Circassian 
Boy." His wife, Helen Conant, is a frequent contributor to magazines and has written a clever little book 
called " Butterfly Hunters," She has also prepared two primers of German and of Spanish literature, which 
are models of their kintl. 

In the department of the historical novel Brooklyn may claim as her own son one of the most eminent 
representatives. Edwin Lasetter Bynner was born in this city in 1842. After practising law for many 
years, in 1886 he abandoned the bar f(jr literature. His historical novels are among the most admirable we 
possess from the pen of an American. When he wrote the books which gained him his first successes, 
"Nimport" and "Penelope's Suitors," he was still engaged in his profession ; the first fruit of his literary 
leisure was " Agnes Surriage ; " most admirable of all his efforts is " The Begum's Daughter." A new his- 
torical ncn-el, just announced [1892], bears the title " Zachary Phips," and gives the pleasing promise that 
much is yet to be expected from tiie same inspired source. 

It is ni)t quite warrantable perhaps to count among Brooklyn's literati the famous author of " Don't," 
but the name of Oliver Bell ISiince is nevertheless in many ways associated with this city, which was for a 
time his place of residence. The phenomenal sale of " Don't," amounting to more than 85,000 copies in the 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



767 



United States besides the English editions, has given Mr. Bunce's name its widest renown, but his real 
claim to literary distinction rests upon quite other foundations. His social and literary essays, " A 
Bachelor's Story," " Bachelor Bluff," his romantic drama of " Marco Bozzaris," which was successfully 
produced in New York in 1849 and a novel entitled " Timias Terrystone," are among his more important 
labors in the world of letters. Most interesting of all, however, are the two works on subjects furnished by 
the American Revolution ; "The Romance of the Revolution" is based upon actual incidents of the war for 
independence; it was written in 1852 ; the other work is the unique play, " Love in '76," which enjoys the 
distinction of being the only parlor comedy of the Revolution in our literature. Mr. Bunce died in New 
York city in 1890. 

The incongruity of placing the name of the leading mining authority in this country on the list of our 
novel writers has irresistible attractions for us. As well here, indeed, as anywhere, for the versatility of 
Dr. Rossiter W. Raymond defies classification. Although Dr. Raymond's birthplace was Cincinnati, his 
renown belongs to Brooklyn, with whose history he and his family have long been identified. He is one of 
the most distinguished alumni of the Polytechnic Institute, where his father was formerly professor of 
English. It is not the place here to follow the 
steps by which he mounted to his present acknowl- 
edged position of supreme authority in mining 
engineering. Nor do his numerous and standard 
works on this and cognate subjects require enu- 
meration here, but they make it all the more re- 
markable that we have to record as his earliest 
publication a translation into the German of Mrs. 
John C. Fremont's " Story of the Guard," which 
came out in 1863 under the name of "Die Leib- 
garde." Ten years later appeared a novel from 
the intervals of what seemed unremitting scientific 
labors; it bore the title, " Brave Hearts." About 
the same time he published a collection of stories 
called "The Man in the Moon and Other People." 
On the list of his works we find also " The Chil- 
dren's Week " and " The Merry Go-Round." He 
has written a treatise on " The Book of Job," and 
in "Camp and Cabin ' [1880] he has drawn upon 
his rich fund of experience gathered during his 
many professional tours in the western country. 
Several standard collections of American poetry 
contain specimens of his work in that line, but 
he has never collected into a volume his fugitive 
verses. 

Quite as interesting and scarcely less versatile 
has been the life of another of Brooklyn's citizens 
to whom the city owes a large and unpaid debt of 
gratitude — Gabriel Harrison. He was born in 
Philadelphia in 1825, but his father, a man of classical education and broad culture, brought him to New York 
at an early age, where their home was the resort of artists and literary men for many years. It was Edwin 
Forrest's acting that first inspired young Harrison with a passion for dramatic art. He went on the stage, 
and during the Shakespearian revival about half a century ago he was the favorite support of Charles Kean. 
In 185 1 he organized the Brooklyn Dramatic Academy, and to him we owe the Park Theatre, which he 
established here in 1863. It was he, too, who brought the first English Opera troupe to this city. But his 
ideals were too high to admit of financial success ; he retired from the profession and devoted himself to 
art He rendered the Brooklyn Academy of Design invaluable service, and brought the free art schools to 
a point of great prosperity. To him as organizer of the Faust Club we owe the bust of John Howard 
Payne in Prospect Park. And from his studio we have several portraits of his friend and idol, Edwin 
Forrest, and many a pleasing landscape. 

But his title to literary honors may be read in the authorship of various plays, such as the tragedy of 
" Melanthia " and the very successful dramatization of Hawthorne's " Scarlet Letter." Others of his plays 
are "The Author " " Dartmore," "The Thirteenth Chime" and " Magna." He also adapted for the Eng- 
lish stage Schiller's " Fiesko " and "Don Carlos." A critical essay from his pen on forrest's acting is 
contained in Alger's life of that actor. Mr. Harrison's contributions lo current literature, both in prose 




Alden J. Spooner. 



768 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



and verse, have been very numerous. The most valuable of his works, however, are the exhaustive 
"Life of [ohn Howard Payne" [1873J. Mr. Harrison is still among us, broken in health, but yet active 
in teaching-, loved and honored by all who can be touched by the spectacle of persistent adherence to lofty 
aims and high ideals, even through illness and misfortune. 

An artist who became an author because some of the secrets of nature which his pencil illustrated 
were known to him alone, and could not be written of by others, is William Hamilton Gibson, a native and 
life-long resident of Brooklyn. Having begun to write, he found that the poet of the pen was in him as 
well as the art of sympathetic interpretation with the brush, and he has produced a series of delightful 
books in which the vari(.)us moods of nature are depicted with unquestionable skill and rare fidelity, both 
text and illustrations from his own hand. The first of these was " Pastoral Days : or Memories of a New 
England Year " [iSSi]. It was followed by " Highways and By-ways " [1883], " Happy Hunting Grounds: 
A Tribute to the Woods and Fields" [1SS7], and "Strolls by Starlight and Sunshine" [1891J. His latest 
book, "Sharp Eyes," which was a holiday favorite in 1S91-2, attained a phenomenal popularity. In 1887 
he edited, contributing a considerable portion of the te.xt and all the illustrations, "The Master of the 
Gunnery," a pupil's tribute to the late Frederick W. Gunn of the famous Gunnery school in Washington, 
Conn., which furnished also many of the subjects for his "Pastoral Days." 

Early in this century the citizens of Brooklyn began to interest themselves in matters of local history 
and antiquarian research. Gabriel Furman, the ill-starred young lawyer, who was born here in 1800, and died 
before his culture and refined taste had reached fruition, was the pioneer. The fascinations of literature 
and antiquarian studies drew him away from law and politics in which he was on the road to distinction, and 
his historical researches have been of inestimable service to later historians. His MSS. " Notes " are dated 
1824 ; this fragmentary record of our beginnings is an evidence of his prophetic sagacity, but his work was 
brought to a premature and clouded end by his death in the Brooklyn City Hospital. Many years later, in 
1865, Mr. Alden J. Spooner published Furman's book under the title : " Notes, Geographical and Historical, 
relating to the Town of Brooklyn." In the same year Mr. Spooner edited Silas Wood's " Sketch of the 
First Settlement of the Several Towns on Long Island." Mr. Spooner was himself the author of a number 
of historical monographs on kindred topics; among them are "The Dominie's Ride to the Devil" and 
"The Last of the Leather Breeches," which contain faithful descriptions of early local conditions on this 
island. The cultivation of this kind of work caused him to recognize the utility of an organization to fur- 
ther such investigations, and he thus became the originator of the Long Island Historical Society, to 
which he gave as the nucleus for a library a collec- 
tion of about one thousand books and pamphlets, 
which his father, the founder of the " Long Island 
Star," had brought together. Mr. Spooner was 
engaged upon a " History of Long Island," when 
he died in 1881. 

General Jeremiah Johnson, in his day " Brook- 
lyn's first and foremost citizen," likewise preserved 
many valuable reminiscences of early Brooklyn in 
a fragmentary form similar to Furman's " Notes." 
These comprise historical items concerning the 
settlement of Williamsburgh, Bushwick and Long 
Island generally, together with accounts of some 
of the oldest families. 'I'he General made no 
literary pretensions, but among his papers were 
found numerous interesting essays on varied 
topics, even poems, and translations from Eras- 
mus and others. His accurate knowledge of the 
language of his fathers is evinced in his excellent 
translation of Von der Donk's " History of New 
Netherland," to which Mr. Thompson, in his 
" History of Long Island," accords the highest 
praise. 

It has been no unusual thing for our promi- 
nent citizens to interest themselves in local history 
and to contribute to the advancement of these 
studies. Of this group of distinguished Brooklyn- 
ites was Henry C. Murphy, who edited for the 
Long Island Historical Society the Labadist Henrv r. stiles. 



^ ^ ^ 




LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



769 




JJANiEL M, TREDWELL. 



travelers' " Journal of a Voyage to New York.' 
He published also " Henry Hudson in Holland" 
[1859] and the" Voyage of Verrazano" [1875]. Mr. 
Murphy was active in furthering every great educa- 
tional enterprise in this city ; in the early days of 
the Hamilton Literary Association, it was he who 
inaugurated the lecture courses out of which grew 
the Brooklyn Lyceum. He also assisted in found- 
ing the Brooklyn Library. He was a frequent 
contributor to the North American Review, the 
Atlantic Monthly, The Historical Magazine, and 
edited the Eagle in the beginning. He was one 
of the vital forces in the intellectual as well as 
the public life of the city. 

The late Thomas W. Field contributed to 
Brooklyn chronicles a " History of the Battle of 
Long Island," published under the auspices of the 
Long Island Historical Society, and " Historic and 
Antiquarian Scenes in Brooklyn and Vicinity." 
His most important work was "An Essay Towards 
an Indian Bibliography," which in its day was the 
only work on its subject and still holds high rank. 
To this class of men belongs also Mr. Teunis 
G. Bergen, who furnished the historical articles 
on Long Island for the Encyclopaedia Brittanica. 
He was author of a genealogy of the Lefferts 
family, also of the Bergen family. But of all the 
books that have been written in this field of 

authorship "The Social History of Flatbush," by Gertrude Lefferts Vanderbilt, is the most delightful; it 
has a literary charm beyond its mere personal and local interest, which e.xplains why several editions have 
already been demanded. 

Easily foremost, however, among local historians is the indefatigable investigator and painstaking com- 
piler Henry R. Stiles, whose crowning work for which the citizens of Brooklyn owe him a lasting debt of 
gratitude, is his exhaustive and monumental History of this city. The first volume of this work came out 
in 1867, the second in 1869, and in the following year a third volume completed his task. He has done his 
work so thoroughly that to future historians is left only the labor of continuing it up to date. He was 
also one of the founders of the Long Island Historical Society, and the author of several genealogical 
and antiquarian publications. Ur. Stiles wrote also an " Account of the Interment of the Remains of 
American Patriots who Perished on Prison Ships, etc.; also Letters from Prison Ships" [2 vols., 1865]; a 
biographical sketch of Gabriel Furman ; " Bundling : its Origin " [1869] ; " Genealogy of the Stiles Family " 
[1863] ; and "History of Kings County" [1885]. 

The most valuable copy of Stiles' " History of the City of Brooklyn " is in the possession of Mr. 
Daniel M. Tredwell, the well-known bibliophile and author of "A Plea for Bibliomania," "Literature of 
the Civil War," " Life of ApoUonius of Tyana," " Lace as a Fine Art " and other works ; but the most con- 
siderable of his works is " Nomads of the Sea," yet unpublished but now ready for the press. Mr. Tredwell 
has illustrated Stiles' " History of Brooklyn" and extended his copy to nine volumes, so that it includes a 
vast quantity of unique and invaluable matter in the shape of original drawings, portraits, and rare prints 
of old historic landmarks. It is to the courtesy of Mr. Tredwell, who has generously placed at our dis- 
posal all this material, most of it inaccessible elsewhere, that we owe our ability to include in this volume 
many of its most interesting illustrations. These are credited to Mr. Tredwell's collection in the proper 
place. They are the result of thirty years' gathering from the print shops and publishers' early proofs. 

To historical investigations of a wider scope another prominent citizen of Brooklyn, Mr. James Carson 
Brevoort, brought all the resources of a finely trained mind, broadened by extensive travels. Mr. Brevoort 
was private secretary of Washington Irving when the latter was United States Minister to Spain. For ten 
years he was president of the Long Island Historical Society and the honored member of many other 
literary and scientific societies. He was an enthusiastic collector of books, especially of Americana, of 
which he inherited some 6,000 volumes from his father. His library eventually increased to 100,000 rare and 
costly books ; since his death the library has been sold and dispersed. He is the author of numerous his- 
torical monographs : two are of special importance, an article in the Historical Magazine on the "Discovery 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

of Columbus' Remains " and a work which Mr. Brevoort published in 1874, entitled " Notes on Giovanni de 
Verrazano and on a Planisphere of 1529, illustrating his Voyage of 1524." In the revival of interest in 
these subjects incidental to the four hundredth anniversary of Columbus' discovery Mr. Brevoort's labors 
are receiving renewed recognition. 

In the annals of historical authorship in Brooklyn appears also the name of Linus Pierpont Brockett, 
well known in newspaper circles in this city. Mr. Brockett is the author of nearly f^fty volumes on 
geographical, biographical, historical, religious, social, and literary subjects. Among these is a " History 
of Education ;" his history of the Franco-German war appeared under the title of "The Year of Battle." 
Conjointly with Smucker he wrote a " History of the Civil War," with Mrs. Vaughan a book on " Woman's 
Work in the Civil War," and collaborated with Dr. Stiles on his " History of Kings County." 

But the historian in whom Brooklyn takes the greatest pride is John Bach MacMaster, who was born in 
this city in 1852. Since he attained his majority he has steadfastly devoted himself to one supreme purpose: 
his " History of the People of the United States," for which he had begun to gather materials in his eigh- 
teenth year. In 1883 he was called to fill the chair of American History at the University of Pennsylvania^ 
and in the same year he published the first volume of his great work, covering the period from the Revolution 
down to the Civil War. This achieved instantaneous success and sufficed to place Prof. MacMaster in the 
front rank of American historians. Besides laboring industriously towards the completion of this monu- 
mental work, he has written the " Life of Benjamin Franklin " for the Men of Letter Series [1887]. 

Ephraim George Squier has made invaluable contributions to history and ethnology in a remote and 
less worked field. His Peruvian investigations especially, and his historical treatises on other South 
American lands are indispensable to the student. Mr. Squier was born at Bethlehem, N. Y., on June 17, 
1821, and in Brooklyn, where he resided during the later years of his life, he died on April 17, 1888. He 
began as a journalist, and his first important historical work was a treatise, in the first volume of the 
" Smithsonian Contributions," on the ancient monuments of the Mississippi Valley ; he conducted similar 
investigations in New York State. In 1849 he was appointed Special Charge d'Affaires to all the Central 
American States ; this gave his talents and training their proper channel ; he visited South America several 
times, and in 1S68 was appointed consul-general of Honduras. Five years before he held the post of United 
States Commissioner to Peru ; his investigations took form in what is probably his most valuable work, 
"Peru: Incidents and E.xplorations in the Land of the Incas " [1877]. His strength to pursue original 
research became seriously impaired in 1874 and he devoted the rest of his life to organizing his knowledge 
and publishing results. He was a contributor to many magazines and to the " Encyclopaedia Brittanica." 
Among his numerous works are to be noted : " Nicaragua : its People, Scenery, and Monuments ;" " Notes 
on Central America," " Serpent Symbols," and " Waikua : or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore." 

Scholars are deriving further assistance towards a better knowledge of the early history of our govern- 
ment through the work which is being done within the lifnits of the city by the Ford brothers. The late 
Gordon L. Ford, for years one of our leading citizens, and his wife, Emily Ellsworth Ford, the author of 
many stories and essays and of a volume of poems, entitled " My Recreations," created the literary atmos- 
phere at home, in which their two sons, Worthington Chauncey and Paul Leicester Ford, are now prosecuting 
their labors. Their work is referred to in detail elsewhere. 

We have had occasion in the course of this sketch to mention several poetesses and writers of verse, 
but we have reserved till now the names of the three poets, who among all the bards whom this city has at 
one time or another harbored, are the best known to fame ; these are the ballad singer, Will Carleton ; the 
satirist, John G. Sa.xe, and the poet of democracy, Walt. Whitman, To the high title of poet, each of these 
men in a different degree possesses an indisputable claim. 

More widely read than either of the others is, doubtless. Will Carleton, though his popularity is necessarily 
of a different quality. He was born in Michigan in 1845, and has spent several years of his life in lecturing 
in Great Britain and Canada as well as in the LTnited States, but long ago he chose Brooklyn for his home. 
His first effort in verse was published in 1S71, but it was not until his " Farm Ballads" appeared that his 
name became, as it is to-day, familiar to every American ear. That volume was succeeded by one in a 
similar vein, " Farm Legends," which met with an equally gratifying reception. Appropriate to the season 
came " The Young Folks' Centennial Rhymes," in 1876. "City Ballads " and " City Legends " have since 
been added to the list. y\s the ballad singer of domestic life Will Carleton is almost without a rival in the 
hearts of the people. 

John G. Sa.xe, in his old-fashioned house gown and slippers, which upon occasion he did not hesitate to 
wear on the street, was long a familiar figure to Brooklynites. He was born in Vermont in i8i6,and practised 
law there ; he became y\ttorney-General of the State, and was once defeated as candidate for the governor- 
ship. At different times throughout his life he was engaged in an editorial capacity on a number of journals. 
His first poetical attempts were in the shape of some humorous verses published in the Knickerbocker Maga- 
zine. Subsequently he contributed poems, in a similar vein, to Harper s and \.\i& Atlantic. In 1846 appeared 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



771 



his first volume of collected poems, to which he gave the title, " Progress." These, too, were humorous and 
satirical, and were favorably received. "The Money King and Other Poems" came out in ,866 when the 
poet s fame was already firmly established. His verse found its way everywhere, and m the years that 
followed there appeared one collection after another until 1875, when " Leisure Day Rhymes" closed the 
rich catalogue of his poetry. Sa.xe died in Albany in 1887. He was primarily a satirist, but his homely 
good sense and uniform kindliness tempered his wit, and his was a satire that sympathized with that which 
It scourged. What a note of genuine sympathy is mingled with the fun of " The Briefless Barrister ' 
side by side with his hu- 



many a serious and pa- 
a deeper chord; who is 
The Miller," " Treasures 
Church Bell," and the 
" I'm Growing Old ?" The 
ous poems are, probably, 
and " The Proud Miss 
never abandons him even 
moments. And indeed 
themselves one often 
note of sweet seriousness 
combined with his unfail- 
gives to his verse a pecu- 

And now Walt Whit- 
seem strange to find the 
poet," so long associated 
Delaware, placed here 
roundings in Brooklyn, 
were once as familiar to 
of ample hills was mine," 
death will have recalled 
ces of his life, and remind 
early years of struggle 

Walt Whitman was 
Island, in 1819, and ob- 
tion at the public schools 
He early began to indulge 
even in those days of 




Walt Whitman. 



And 

morous verse there is 
thetic poem that strikes 
not familiar with " Jerry, 
in Heaven," "The Old 
touching tenderness of 
best known of his humor- 
" The Rhyme of the Rail" 
McBride." His good taste 
in his most rollicking 
in these humorous poems 
detects an underlying 
and sad reflection which, 
ing felicity of phrase, 
liar charm. 

man. To some it will 
name of the " good, gray 
with the banks of the 
among our familiar sur- 
But these surroundings 
him as to us. "Brooklyn 
he sings, and his recent 
to many the circumstan- 
them that some of those 
were passed in our midst, 
born at West Hills, Long 
tained his scanty educa- 
of this city and New York, 
his passion for literature 
penury and want, and 



wrote diligently for the Brooklyn newspapers. His connection with the Eagle has already been men- 
tioned. At Huntington, L. I., he gained his first experience as editor and subsequently took charge of 
a paper in New Orleans. In 1S55 appeared the famous "Leaves of Grass." During the war he served 
with splendid devotion as an army nurse. The thoughts and feelings engendered by those stirring experi- 
ences bore fruit in his " Drum Taps." Appended to these are his fervid tributes to Lincoln, and the lines, 
where for once he falls into rhyme, " O ! Captain, my Captain I" have found an echo in many a patriotic 
heart. He never fully recovered from the nervous strain which brought him low in 1864 ; but he never 
ceased to commune with his fancy. In 1870 he published "Democratic Vistas." In 1874 he removed to 
Camden, where he lived until the end, in March, 1892. His magnificent physique had long been crippled, 
but his intellectual power remained unimpaired to the last. The exquisite lines with which he said 
" Good-Bye, my Fancy " are equal in pathos and depth of pure strong feeling to any words with which 
ever poet took leave of life. In the "Leaves of Grass" is a poem with the superscription, " Crossing 
the Brooklyn Ferry." It is a stately assertion of kinship with all the future, with the unborn generations 
which shall in the progress of the ages be touched as he is touched with deeper thoughts as they pass 
between " mast-hemm'd Manhattan " and " the beautiful hills of Brooklyn." Just as you feel, when you 
look on the river and sky, so I felt. " I loved well those cities, loved well the stately and rapid river." 

Walt Whitman's place in literature is a disputed point in criticism. In him we have the singular para- 
dox of a poet who is everywhere known as the poet of democracy, yet quite without a popular following. 
It is from the eminence and not from the multitude of his admirers that we must draw the balance in his 
favor. Emerson, Burroughs, and Stedman in America and, in England, the late Lord Tennyson, to name 
one for all, have paid tribute to his high excellence. And so while there is much to be regretted in his 
earlier writing, Walt Whitman has nevertheless left behind him such a body of fine poetry and so much 
of enduring beauty, that our city should be proud that "Brooklyn of Ample Hills " was his. 



772 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Herewith ends this cursory sketch of the literati of this city. If we should include, as strict justice 
demands the learned and the cultured who in the quiet of their daily life spread a refining, stimulating 
influence about them— if we should include, as justice likewise demands, the liberal and public spirited who 
devote their enertjies and their fortunes to the furtherance of intellectual endeavor, this chapter would be 
di-nified by many another worthy and distinguished name. We have restricted ourselves to the most 
prominent among'those who worked through the written word. And even thus, though Brooklyn has never 
been the centre'^of any distinctive literary movement, the great and well-known names that grace her 
intellectual historv assure her an honorable place among the cities of the modern world. 

PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

A library is one of the most important factors in the intellectual life of a city. The completeness of 
the facilities it affords for study and research is the measure, in at least one of its dimensions, of the city's 
culture It is a true saying that erudition consists less in the actual possession of memorized facts than in 
the knowledi^e where to find them. The library contains the golden ore and the scholar holds the divining 




The Long Island Historical Society. 

rod. In its highest function, therefore, a library is a literary workshop where the materials for new books 
are shapen anew and the learning of yesterday is made to-day's. Its aim is not merely to diffuse knowledge 
actiuired of old, but also by the inspiration of its rich contents to augment the stock of the world's wisdom. 
It is in this sense that a library forms so essential a part of the intellectual equipment of a community. 

In this aspect of its literary life, Brooklyn likewise presents a proud record. The high excellence 
attained by the Bkooklvn Library has made that institution familiar to all American scholars. It was 
founded a generation ago by a band of enthusiastic and earnest young men who now are counted among 
the elders of the city. The idea of establishing a new library originated with Lewis Roberts and 
James P. Wallace as early as 1857 ; and in November of that year the first steps were taken. The principal 
library of Brooklyn at that time consisted of only 4,000 volumes and belonged to the Atheneeum. This was 
to form the nucleus, and with such energy was the enterprise inaugurated that in the short space of ten 
days no less than si.K hundred signatures had been secured in support of the plan. A week later eight 
hundred and twenty-six subscribers had created a fund amounting to $8,865. Mr. Roberts was elected 
president and the Mercantile Library Association, its name being taken from the New York institution after 
which it was modeled, became an accomplished fact. The reading-rooms in the Athenaeum were opened to 
the public on May 7, 1S58. The president's report at the close of the first year records a membership of 
1,511 and cash receipts amounting to over $14,000, of which $9,000 had been expended on books; the 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



773 




Stephen B. Noyes. 



number of volumes had been increased to 11,400. The association continued to make some progress even 
during the war, when all the energies of the people were turned another way ; it obtained a cluirter and 
was the recipient of a permanent book fund, known as the Gary fund. But it was during the administration 
of President Woodruff that the greatest advance was made. The land on Montague street was bought 

by individual members in the spring of 1S64, and the work of obtaining 
subscriptions to pay for the site and erect a suitable building was begun 
in earnest and with most creditable results. The services of Peter B. 
Wight were secured as architect and in June, 1S67, ground was broken. 
A year and a half later the building which is now become a landmark of, 
the city stood completed. It has a frontage of seventy-five feet and is 
three stories in height ; with the exception of a few offices on the ground 
floor the entire edifice is devoted to the purposes of the library. The 
rather sombre and earnest features of its gothic fafade are in harmony 
with the serious character of the silent work that is carried on within its 
walls. It was erected at a cost of $227,000 and when, (jn January 18, T869, 
the building was opened to the public with appropriate ceremonies, the 
committee was able to announce that 
all but $20,000 had been paid ; before 
the evening was over more than $12,000 
of the deficit had been pledged. Inde- 
pendently of the building fund, the sum 
of $50,000 had been subscribed for the 
purchase of books. Thus auspiciously the library began in its new home 
a career of unexampled prosperity and usefulness which has made it one 
of the most prominent institutions of the land. It is significant of its 
growth and the widening of its scope that its name was changed by act 
of legislature to the " Brooklyn Library." An excellent catalogue, com- 
piled by the able librarian, the late S. B. Noyes, attracted attention the 
world over among those who make a study of scientific library methods. 
For several years after Mr. Noyes' death the assistant librarian acted in 
his place, until in 1S88 he became in name as well as in fact the chief 
librarian. This is W. A. Bardwell, to whose efficiency and ready affability 
the students who use the library are constantly indebted for innumerable 
favors. According to the annual report of the librarian for the year Willis a. Bardwell. 

1892, Mr. Bardwell has in charge 113,251 volumes. The privileges of the institution are now enjoyed 
by 2,856 members ; of these 561 are life members in addition to 282 permanent memberships. 

Beside the Brooklyn Library there is one other focal point for scholars and investigators in this city, 
and that is the reading room of the Lf)NG Island Historical Society. Its library consists at present of 
about 45,000 volumes, many of which are extremely rare and valuable. It is a library for reference only; 
the original plan was to make its resources as complete as possible in all that relates to the history of this 
country, but its sphere has been so extended as to comprise the best books in every department of knowl- 
edge. When the society was organized in 1863 eight hundred volumes and about one thousand pamphlets 
formed the nucleus of the library ; this number was increased by 1,100 volumes from the defunct City 
Library; at present, if pamphlets be included, there is a total of 100,000 numbers. Among its rare treasures 
are the precious collection of works on Dutch history which were secured by Henry C^. Murphy when he 
was United States minister at The Hague ; an original copy of Aububon's " Birds of America ;" the invalu- 
able "Universal Palaeography" of Silvestre ; the "Cabinet du Roi," in forty-nine volumes ; the splendid 
work of Baron Taylor in twenty-seven folios, containing illustrations of scenery, architecture, and anti- 
quities in France ; and the works of Lepsius and ChampoUion. Tliere is, besides, an excellent collec- 
tion of American family genealogies and what is of especial local interest, one may here consult, in the 
original, neat and lady-like handwriting, Gabriel Furman's " Notes on Brooklyn." The publications of the 
Hakluyt Society are likewise to be found and many valuable unpublished manuscripts. The Long Island 
Historical Society has issued four volumes which are of inestimable value to the student of American history. 
Two of these relate to the Battle of Long Island, with a circumstantial account of that disastrous day ; the 
first publication contained Mr. Murphy's translation of the " Labadists' Journal " from the Dutch manuscript, 
and the fourth volume of the series contains the hitherto unpublished letters of George Washington on 
agricultural and personal matters, edited by Moncure D. Conway in 18S9. The first librarian was the accom- 
plished historian of Brooklyn, Dr. Henry R. Stiles. In 1865 he was succeeded by George Hannah, who 
in 1889 resigned and gave place to the lady who at present occupies that position. Miss Emma Toedteberg. 




774 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



On the the upper floor of the society building is the museum, which occupies the entire space. It is a 
most interesting collection and attracts many visitors. The museum was begun early in the history of the 
society and the objects collected formed for many years a part of what was to be seen in the main rooms 
of the building formerly occupied by the society. The collection originated when at a meeting of the exe- 
cutive committee of the society on June ii, 1864, a " committee on the natural history of Long Island was 
appointed." The |nirpose of this committee was to gather from all parts of the island interesting historical 
relics and specimens of the flora and fauna, minerals and antiquities. The sub-committee consisted of 




Long Island Historical Society Museum. 

J. Carson Brevoort, Henry E. Pierrepont, Professor Charles K. AVest and Charles Congdon, with Elias 
Lewis, Jr., who was prime mover in the enterprise, as chairman. They devoted themselves assiduously to 
the work of securing contributions from many sources, and the result of their work is the fine collection 
now permanently on exhibition. It contains a fairly complete collection of the animals and plants of the 
island, of specimens representing its geological formation, of Indian anticjuities and a great variety of other 
objects of historical and scientific interest. The latter are arranged as far as possible apart from the local 
collections, so that one may at will pursue scientific study or gratify his interest in what is old and per- 
sonal. The various collections are attractively displayed in cases. The committee as a permanent part of 
the organization was discontinued some years ago, but the work of extending the collection has been carried 
on by Elias Lewis, Jr., at whose suggestion the work was undertaken and who for some years has been 
the curator of the museum. Mr. Lewis was from the beginning mcjst active in perfecting this collection 
and has given liberally of his time to the museum, to which he has added by personal gift many of its most 
interesting features. 

The Brooklyn Institute possessed, in connection with its various departments, a scientific collection 
which was very badly damaged by the fire which broke out in the building in 1S90. A committee appointed 
in 1880 organized a movement looking to the establishment of museums of art and science. The legislative 
act of 189 1, authorizing the city to erect buildings for the use of the new Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, provides for museum accommodations at a cost not to exceed $300,000. But it is still too early 
to credit the city with any important museum other than that of the Long Island Historical Society. 

The Brooklyn Library and that of the Historical Society are the only ones which properly may be classed 
as "literary workshops," but there are also several other libraries which are to be counted as essential 
factors of the city's literary life because of the culturing work they do among the people. Of these, the 
Pratt Institute Library, the 30,000 volumes of which are free to all, ranks first. Its reading-room is utilized 
as a study to some extent by the students of the institute, but in no such general fashion as are the two 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 775 

libraries first named. Miss M. W. Plummer is its librarian. Tlie free circulating library of the Union for 
Christian Work, at 67 and 69 Schermerhorn street, receives an appropriation from the city under the state 
law providing for an allowance of $5,000 a year to libraries having 10,000 volumes and an annual circula- 
tion of 75,000. This library has now 20,000 volumes and is doing excellent work. The Brooklyn Institute, 
or "Youth's Free Library," as it was known, donated the greater part of its ij,ooo volumes to the Union 
for Christian Work in the early part of 1892. This was in accordance with a decision of the trustees to 
establish a purely scientific library in connection with the new Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 
The librarian of the Union for Christian Work is Miss Fanny Hull. The Eastern District Public School 
Library, at South Third street, corner of Driggs avenue, contains 18,000 books for the use of residents as 
well as for pupils of public school districts Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 31, 23, 34 and 37; it is open to 
the general public on Tuesdays and Fridays, from 4 to 6, and from 7 till 9 P. M. The librarian is A. D. 
Stetson. The Long Island Free Library, of 568 Atlantic avenue, is the largest of the free libraries which 
are independent of any institution. It receives its support from the directors and voluntary contributions, 
and has thrived for a little over twelve years on the same site. It has about 8,000 volumes for circulation 
and a commodious reading-room. Its work is of an unpretentious but essential ciiaracter among the masses. 
The librarian is Charles L. Davis. There are, besides these, a number of smaller free libraries and reading- 
rooms, most of them conducted as missions of some church, or other religious body, or by some charitable 
society. There are also several excellent libraries which are not entirely free to the public, but the terms of 
admission to which are such that any earnest student or visitor can gain access. Among these are those 
of the Young Men's Christian Association, at 502 Fulton street, which has 11,000 volumes; the Law 
Library, in the court house, for the use of the judges and members of the bar of the second judicial district; 
and the library of the Medical Society of the County of Kings, at 356 Bridge street, which is for the use 
of the medical profession generally. 

PRIVATE LIBRARIES. 

Of book-lovers and collectors of books Brooklyn has its full share. In some directions the bibliophiles 
of this city are recognized as the leading authorities in the country. A few of the notable collections must 
suffice for the purposes of the present work, and will illustrate the quality of the treasures of this kind that 
are housed in Brooklyn. 

The library of Norton Q. Pope is one of those ideally designed repositories for the priceless treasures 
of literature, which are unfortunately none too common on our side of the Atlantic. Here, housed in a 
spacious structure attached to the western wing of Mr. Pope's residence at 241 Park place, are more than 
three thousand volumes, which have been collected by Mr. and Mrs. Pope with admirable judgment and at 
great expense. They illustrate every period of English literature and printing from the days of block 
letter down to the highest typographical perfection of the Victorian era. The collection is rich in priceless 
examples of binding, rare and unique. Many of the books form thin volumes of perhaps twenty or twenty- 
five pages each, and include only a single play or poem. Some of them, and particularly those bound by 
Kaufmannand Michel, are ornate with the most exquisite of hand tooling and marquetry extant. Kaufmann, 
who is a German engaged in business in London, has always been especially proficient in this style of 
marquetry work, and Mr. Pope's library contains many of his best examples. So delicate and nicely adjusted 
are the minute wooden fragments with which he forms the inside panels of his covers that his efforts bear all 
the finish and artistic effect of the most minute and perfect mosaic. The bindings produced by such French- 
men as Michel, David and Chambolle-Duru are possibly still more exquisite. An edition of Burns' poetical 
and prose writings, published originally in six volumes at Edinburgh in 1877-78, has been extended by Mr. 
Pope to thirteen volumes. The additions consist of manuscript letters and the rhyming epistles for which 
Burns was famous, some correspondence of the poet's son, Gilbert ; the communications which passed 
between Dr. Currie and Burns' family, relative to his last illness, and a multitude of etchings, engravings, 
water color sketches and portraits, illustrative of Burns' literary productions. Inside the cover of the first 
volume is a medallion-like excision, covered with glass and containing a lock from the dark brown tresses 
of Deborah Davis, a Caledonian Amaryllis, who at one time reigned supreme in the affections of the poet. 
These volumes also include some verses on the Galway election, the original manuscript of "It was a' for 
our Rightfu' King" ; two autograph letters of Scott, and one of John Gibson Lockhart. Probably no other 
example of grangerizing in the United States, and perhaps few in Europe, have produced such valuable 
results Among Mr. Pope's treasures are the " Morte D'Arthur," printed by Caxton in 1485, and the only per- 
fect copy extant ; " Gower Confessio," printed by Caxton in 1493, and one of the only five existnig copies : 
"Contemplacyon and Meditacyon," printed by Wynkynde Worde; the four folios of Shakespeare, published 
in 1623 1632 1664 and 1685 , Watson's " Passionate Centurie of Love ;" Thomas Middleton's " Honourable 
Entertainment "printed in 1621, and the only known copy ; Spenser's " Fairie Queene," published 1590-96; 
"James I's Poetical Exercises," 1591 ; Bacon's "Apology," .605; Bacon's "Advancement of Learmng," 



776 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



1605, and "Essa}'S," 1625; Walton's "Compleat Angler," first edition, 1653; Filson's "History of Ken- 
tucke," with one of the only two known maps; " Purchas and his Pilgrimages," which has been perfected 
by the introduction of a rare map of China ; and the original manuscript of the Dickens-Collins " Household 
Words," first published in 1S92 in Harper s Weekly. Besides these and other treasures of almost equal 
value, the library contains a missal, originally made for Charles VL of France, and more than four hundred 
and seventy years old, and "The Field of the Cloth of Gold," a magnificently illustrated memorial of the 
famous meeting between the kings of England and France. The bindings include an original Grolier, and 
examples by Lortic, Cuzin, Hayday, Riviere, Charles Lew'is, and the famous Bedford binding on Rogers' 
"Poems" and "Italy." Mr. Pope's library and other portions of his house are hung with a number of 
superb paintings by Aieissonier, Vernet, Detaille, Bellecoeur, George Inness, Bastien Le Page, Rous- 
seau, a peculiarly fine Roybet, Schreyer, ViUegas and other modern masters. Several of Benjamin Con- 
stant's more important works are also in Mr. Pope's possession, including a portrait of Mrs. Pope. 

From the law and from medicine, for both of which professions he was regularly qualified, Professor 
Charles E. West turned his attention years ago to the higher education of women, wherein he achieved 
marked success in mathematics and experimental physics and chemistry. When he came to Brooklyn, in i860, 
he substituted the fine arts as the particular branch of instruction to which he devoted himself. His method 
was to give lectures illustrated by pictures, and in his search for illustrative examples he gathered together 
one of the most remarkable private collections of etchings, engravings, photographs and curios in existence. 
In the collection are some of the rarest examples known, and in addition he has an extremely valuable 
collection of rare books. Among these is the first mathematical treatise ever published. It is dated 1494 
and i.s a work entitled " Sumnia de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportion et Propt)rtionalite," by Lucia Pacioli 
di Borgo. There is in the same case a rare work on optics — " Oculus Artificiates," 1685, by R. P. F. Joanne 
Zahn, a contemporary of Newton. I'he " Eras Osvvalda " or new theories of planetary physics, by Georgius 
Purbachius, is a superb Leslie copy. He also has the Leipsic Aches (118 vols.) published in 1683, and in 
one of these volumes he found the first article ever written on the differential calculus. There is an example 
of fine printing in a Virgil turned out by the Baskerville printing office of Birmingham, England, in 1756, 
with the Vatican codex and illustrations placed opposite the text. It belonged to John Wells, a noted 
lawyer of New York some seventy or eighty years ago. The Sclavic Scriptures is another of his books, 
also rare. It is a fac-simile copy of the original parchment (even the holes in the skin being skillfully 
imitated) and is beautifully illuminated. It was printed by order of the Emperor of Russia, to be used at the 
coronation of French Kings. There were only a hundred printed, eighty of which he kept for his own use 
and the remainder he permitted to be sold. In the realm of art perhaps one of the leading treasures of the 
Professor's library is Gilchrist's " Life of William Blake." It was in two octavo volumes, but the professor 
has made it over into three large quarto volumes, the original pages being inlaid and 245 extra illustrations 
being added. Forty original drawings of Blake Professor West loaned to the exhibition of the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts in 1891, and to an exhibition of the drawings and sketches of Turner, Gainsborough 
and Blake given by Keppel & Co. in New York in 1892. His collection illustrative of Japanese art is 
very large and inclusive, the objects ranging from sacred shrines and images down to the hats of priests 
and articles used in worship. The collection includes enough material, all imported directly from Japan 
places of worship, to furnish one temple complete, and give a separate shrine to all the seven leading gods 
and several of the lesser ones. Ijronzes and carved wooden articles abound and there are many paintings. 
He has also an immense number of studies for the microscope and a variety of stereopticon slides which it 
would be impossible to duplicate. All these things make of his home at 76 Pierrepont street a veritable 
museum illustrative of every age and phase of art. 

The library collected by the late Gordon Leicester Ford is of such excellence and completeness as 
to rise almost to the level of the great public libraries which, indeed, it surpasses in its special features. 
Gordon L. Ford was long a familiar figure in Brooklyn. He was iwrn on December 16, 1823, in the town 
of Lebanon, Conn., of sturdy New England stock. At the age of eleven years he came to New 
York and entered the store of his uncle, Gordon Burnham. For nearly six years he served an appren- 
ticeship under his uncle, attending for some months in 1836 an English and classical school kept by S. 
Johnston at 554 Broadway, then well out of town; and in 1837, the Collegiate School, held by Forest & 
Milligan at 115 Franklin street. In 1840 he was engaged to keep the books of the firm of Cook & Cutter, 
the original house of H. B. Claflin & Company, at a salary of $300 a year. He next accepted a position in 
the United States marshal's office, and m 1845 determined to study law and became a clerk in the office of 
Alexander Gardiner, then an attorney of the New York Supreme Court. He was admitted to the New York 
bar in 1850 and for more than twenty years was in active practice. He was one of the original members of 
the Lawyers' Club of New York. His energy and business talent were soon recognized in his election to 
the presidency of the New London, \\'illimantic and Palmer Railroad, to succeed the Hon. Thomas W. 
Williams. This necessitated his removal to New London, where he remained until the road passed under a 



778 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



new control, after which he came to Brooklyn, where he resided till his death. He was one of the founders 
of the Brooklyn Art Association, and was its treasurer for many years, unselfishly giving time and means, 
and carrying it through a period when its success was problematical. He was a director in the Academy 
of Music from the beginning, and in the last years of his life, as chairman of the executive committee, he 
was influential in framing the policy of that institution. In the Philharmonic and Long Island Historical 
societies, in the Brooklyn Library, and in a number of similar ventures and in charitable undertakings, he 
proved his sympathy and interest by advancing their welfare. What aid he gave was given without osten- 
tation and often indirectly, and only his books show how extensive it was. Mr. Ford was a man of strong 
political convictions. His early connection with the Quakers had turned him to abolitionism, and he was 
a Republican from the foundation of that party. With Simeon B. Chittenden and others he established 
the Union. In April, 1869, President Grant nominated him for the post of collector of internal revenue for 
the third district. The president's choice was confirmed by the senate, and he held the office till 187 1, 
when he was set aside because of his refusing to subscribe to the political fund, under dictation from the 
party leaders. His affiliations still remained with the Republican party. He desired a reform of the 
revenue system, and was opposed to the renomination of Grant, believing him to be responsible for the 
drift of party mismanagement, though not directly participating in the profits accruing to the various 
"rings" that had grown up under his protection. Mr. Ford thus became identified with the liberal Repub- 
lican movement of 1872, attended the conference in April that led to the convention at Cincinnati in May, 
went to that convention as a delegate, cast his vote and influence in favor of Charles Francis Adams, hoping 
to reform the party from within, saw the defeat of his candidate and the nomination of Horace Greeley; 
but not being able to endorse the action of the convention, retired from active participation in politics and 
maintained an independent attitude. In 1873 he became the business manager of the New York Tribune, 
and ably filled the responsible position for nearly nine years, after which, with the exception of a short 
term as president of a local railroad, he held no other position of public importance. In 1854 Mr. Ford 
married Emily Ellsworth Fowler, a granddaughter of Noah Webster, who survived him. He died on 
November 14, 1891. Deeply interested as Mr. Ford was in Brooklyn's welfare, his claims for remembrance 
must lie in another direction. He was one of the earliest of American autograph collectors, and was among 
the first of a small number who realized the value and interest of a library of American historical writings. 
For more than fifty years he was an ardent and patient collector, and was well known as such in Europe as 
well as America. As a result, his collection of books and manuscripts is one of the largest and most valu- 
able in the country, and few private collectors can show so extensive or specialized a library of Americana. 
He opened this collection to students, and with a view to making the historical manuscripts public 
property, established a Printing Club, in which his sons were associated. More than seventy volumes on 
American history issued from this club before his death. He was one of the founders of the Hamilton Club 
and of the New England Society, and was a member of the Lotus, Lawyers' and Reform clubs of New 
York. The literary collections of Gordon Leicester Ford were left by will to his two sons, Worthington 
Chauncey Ford and Paul Leicester Ford. 

Worthington C. Ford was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., on February 16, 1858, was educated in Brooklyn 
schools, and for some years was an attendant at the Polytechnic Institute. Entering Columbia College in 
1875 he did not complete his course but entered into business in an insurance office. Under the influence 
of David A. Wells, he studied finance and wrote for the Evening Post. He was secretary of the Brooklyn 
Revenue Reform Club, of which Mr. Beecher was the president, and also he was secretary of the Society for 
Political Education. In 18S0 he was called to the editorial staff of the New York Herald. A revenue 
reformer, he was active in furthering the tariff reduction policy of the day, opposing the repeal of the 
internal revenue ta.xes and favoring honest money. After the election of Mr. Cleveland he left the Herald 
and was appointed chief of the bureau of statistics in the department of state under Secretary Bayard. His 
taste for historical writing continued, and he gave assistance to many wishing to use the historical manu- 
scripts owned and then kept under lock and key by the government ; he laid before the president a plan 
for making these manuscripts public, which was warmly endorsed by President Cleveland, Secretary Bayard 
and many leading writers on history. Resigning his office on the election of Mr. Harrison, Mr. Ford 
remained in Washington for two years to complete his collection of the Washington writings, and returning 
to Brooklyn joined with his father and brother in their schemes. He has published many works on eco- 
nomic and social science. Among his issues are : " The Writings of George Washington," 14 vols. ; "Letters 
of William Lee," 3 vols. ; " Spurious Letters Attributed to Washington," " Correspondence and Journals of 
Samuel B. Webb," 3 vols.; "Letters of Joseph Jones," "Washington Wills," "The United States and Spain 
in 1790," "Washington as an Employer and Importer of Labor," and many others. He was long a member 
of the Hamilton Club, and is now a member of the Century and Reform clubs of New York and the Metro- 
politan of Washington. In 1881 he was elected an honorary member of the Cobden Club, London, and in 
1887 a corresponding member of the New York and Maryland Historical societies. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 779 

Paul Leicester Ford was born in Brooklyn on March 23, 1865. Owing to early ill health his educa- 
tion was almost wholly obtained from the books of his father's library, with the natural result of directing 
his attention to the study of American history and bibliography, on which subjects he early began to write, 
first for the newspapers and later in more permanent form. His earliest books were works on genealogy, 
mostly relating to his own family or bibliographical lists. In 1886 he compiled " Bibliotheca Hamiltoniana," 
a list of editions of the Federalist, and a list of the treasury reports and circulars issued 1789-95. " List of 
the Members of the Federal Convention of 1787," "Some Materials for a Bibliography of the Official 
Publications of the Continental Congress," " Bibliography and Reference List of the History and Litera- 
ture Relating to the Adoption of the Constitution," and " Pamphlets on the Constitution," were issued 
in 1888, and the latter was supplemented in 1892 by a companion volume entitled : " Essays on the Consti- 
tution." His most ambitious publications in 1889 were his " Franklin Bibliography " and his "Check List 
of Bibliographies, Catalogues, Reference Lists and Lists of Authorities of American Books and Subjects ;" 
but he also wrote pamphlet essays entitled, " Who was the Mother of Franklin's Son?" "Check List of 
American Magazines Printed in the Eighteenth Century," and " List of Some Briefs in Appeal Causes," and 
edited "Ideals of the Republic," a second edition of which was quickly issued as "Great Words of Great 
Americans." In 1890 he edited " The Sayings of Poor Richard," " Partial Bibliography of the Writings of 
the Members of the American Historical Association," a series of tractates entitled "Winnowings in Ameri- 
can History," and wrote "The Origin, Purpose and Results of the Harrisburg Convention of 1788." Last 
year he edited " Orderly Book of the Maryland Loyalists," and in the present year he contributed a chapter 
to the " Memorial Volume of the Washington Centennial," and has edited " The Writings of Columbus." 
After this he engaged in preparing editions of the writings of Thomas Jefferson, to be in ten volumes, and 
of John Dickinson, to be in three volumes, as well as a number of minor volumes. In the last eight years 
he has contributed to the Eagle and many reviews, magazines and other periodicals. Of the Library Journal 
he has been editor since 1889. He is a member of the Long Island, New York, Pennsylvania and American 
Historical societies, and of the Century, Grolier and Reform clubs of New York and the Metropolitan Club 
of Washington, and holds or has held official positions in the New England Society, Hamilton Club, Tree 
Planting and Fountain Society and New York Library Club. 

LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

Among existent organizations in the United States which are devoted solely to purposes of literary 
culture but one can claim priority in point of age to the Franklin Literary Society, of this city. Early in 
the autumn of 1864, at a gathering of young men in this city, a suggestion was made that an organization be 
formed for the purpose of conducting debates on literary subjects. A subsequent meeting was held on 
October 19, 1864, at the house of Mr. W. H. Spencer, at 151 Montague street. There were present James 
H. Lightbody, Daniel Webster Talmadge, William H. Spencer, George J. Laighton, Rufus W. Powell, Ardon 
K. Powell, Charles E. Talmadge, John E. Ketcham and Richard D. Jacques, the majority of whom are still 
connected with the organization. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Franklin Club. James H. 
Lightbody was the first president. In the following year the name was changed and the organization became 
known as the Franklin Literary Society. Meetings were held during the first years of its existence in the 
Rev. L. W. Hart's private school-room on the Heights, and at a later period in the chapel of the old Poly- 
technic Institute on Livingston street, where the members debated various questions during the ne.xt eleven 
years. In May, 1869, a charter of incorporation was obtained. From the Polytechnic Institute the society 
transferred its home to a building on the corner of Clinton and Montague streets, and from there, on 
October i, 1883, to the room which it now tenants on the second floor of the Hamilton building, at 44 Court 
street, which was formerly used by the Hamilton Literary Association. The Franklin has increased slowly 
but steadily in membership. It includes upon its rolls the names of many who are eminent in the social 
and political life of the city. The Birthday of Benjamin Franklin is annually commemorated by a dinner, 
which ranks among the most important events of the season, and its various reunions which have occurred 
during the last few years have been notable by reason of their marked success. 

The Bryant Literary Society was organized fifteen years ago by a few residents of Prospect 
Heights. With the advent of a new board of officers about seven years ago, under the presidency of D. B. 
Templeton, the character of the society was materially changed ; its distinctively literary activities were in 
some measure discontinued and it became a factor in the musical and literary education of the public. The 
membership rapidly increased to the limit of one thousand, and public entertainments were inaugurated at 
which the best professional talent appeared. These have been continued until the present time. Under the 
presidency of Charles L. Rickerson the Bryant first held its meetings in the large auditorium of the Young 
Men's Christian Association. The society contains many representative Brooklynites. Artists, literary and 
musical who have appeared at the public entertainments of the Bryant, unite in commendation of the 
character of the audiences whom they have been called upon to face. The presidency of the society during 



ySo THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

the List few years has been held in succession by A. S. Higgins, George A. Price, William J. Tate, Charles 
P. Manney, James Matthews and C. A. Blauvelt. The membership fee is nominal and the lists are usually 
filled to the limit. 

There are between forty and forty-five other clubs and associations, some purely literary in their aims, 
and others, including dramatic or musical work, often of a high character. The good effect of many of 
these associations upon the intellectual life of the city is unquestionably very great. 

The Cercle Parisien was organized exclusively for the study of the French language and literature. 
It was established in the winter of i89i-'92 by a few jDeople with literary inclinations, most of the original 
members being residents of WiUiamsburgh. It has now about twenty members, but it is largely informal in 
its methods, and requires no official staff to conduct its affairs. Any business which directly affects its inter- 
ests is submitted to an executive committee of five, of which Alexander Black, a prime factor in creating 
the organization, is chairman. Meetings are held, on every alternate Saturday evening, at the homes of the 
members. 

AVith a limited number of members linked together by the most informal ties. The Tabard can scarcely 
be termed an organization. It has no constitution, no by-laws and no officers. It is composed of a dozen 
men, who have literary, artistic and musical tastes, and its list of members is made up both of Brooklynites 
and residents of New York. Duffield Osborne, Howard Seely and Harry Rowe Shelley, all Brooklyn men, 
were the prominent elements in its establishment. It began to exist about 1887, and since that time has 
never sought to obtrude itself or its work upon public notice. The meetings of The Tabard, usually held on, 
the first Wednesday in each month at the houses of the members, are devoted to the purposes of informal 
discussion and criticism on literary, artistic or musical subjects. 

For the last ten years JMrs. Mary J. Field, formerly a resident of Brooklyn, but now living in New 
York, has lectured on literary subjects in this city before a class composed of women mpre or less prom- 
inent in society. The class, which eventually assumed the title of Mrs. Field's Literary Club, now com- 
prises about seventy-five members, and its meetings are held once a fortnight at private houses. At the 
opening meeting in the autumn of every year some distinguished author or authoress is invited to address 
the club on some literary subject or else to read selections from their own writings. One of the most 
notable of these events was that which took place in the autumn of 1892, at the home of Sidney V. Lowell 
on Columbia Heights, when Marion Crawford, the novelist, made his first public appearance in America. 
The president of the club is Mrs. Mary J. Field. 

ART EDUCATION, ART CLUBS AND ARTISTS. 

In the fine arts, as in literature, the catholic spirit of the nineteenth century has almost obliterated the 
old provincial lines, and the cosmopolitan character of modern life finds full expression in modern art. 
When Brooklyn first became active in art matters the days of national and local schools were fast passing 
away; and although the art production in this city is extensive and of a high order of excellence, there 
never has been a Brooklyn art. On a later page is given a partial list of the distinguished and famous 
names of artists who have lived and labored here, and who still live and labor, but this does not seem the 
chief standpoint from which to judge the city's activity in the realm of art. These artists have worked 
apart, and the credit they reflect upon their place of residence is individual. The city's enduring title to 
rank among art producing centres should be sought primarily in the work which has been done here in the 
department of art education. In the art schools of Brooklyn many hundreds of artists have received 
instruction who have subsequently attained eminence elsewhere, though often their fame has ceased to be 
associated with the city where the foundations of their success were laid. It is through these schools that 
Brooklyn artists, as a body, have exercised their widest influence. 

The first organization for imparting adequate instruction in art was founded something more than half 
a century ago by the Brooklyn Institute, to which Augustus Graham bequeathed a sum of money for 
that purpose. It accordingly bore the name of its benefactor, and the Graham Art School did noble 
work in giving an earnestness of endeavor to the pursuit of art as a profession, and the free tuition there 
afforded gave the first impulse to many a budding talent. It was one of the teachers in this school, Mr. 
Hoskins, who in cooperation with the marine painter, Mr. Thompson, formed the short-lived Brooklyn Art 
Union in 185 i. Only one exhibition was held ; the pictures were disposed of by lottery and Walt Whitman 
delivered the address, but the legislature construed this method of fostering art as a form of gambling, and 
suppressed the Art Union by special enactment. 

The formation of the Ski:ich Club in 1857 marks the second important advance in the development 
of a local interest in art. Even at that time Brooklyn was the home of many artists. Among the active 
members of this club were F. A. Chapman, George Inness, Alonzo Chapped, John Williamson, Regis 
Gignoux, James Dick, F. 1!. Carpenter and Rufus Wright ; besides J. B. Whittaker, J. G. Brown, J. M. 
Falconer, Samuel Coleman, S. J. Guy and John A. Parker, who are still of Brooklyn. These artists formed 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 781 

the Sketch Club, which soon reached a membership of about forty ; subjects were given out and sketches 
prepared, which were displayed and criticised at the semi-monthly meetings. Original composition as well 
as social intercourse was among the purposes of the club, and the benefits of mutual criticism and encour- 
agement are surely obvious in the eminence reached in their profession by the members just named. Through 
the exhibitions of this club the general public was first made aware of the existence of a large and active 
art circle in this city. Such recognition is always the first great step toward success. 

The importance of the last-named organization in the art annals of the city lies in the fact that it was 
the origin of the Brooklyn Art Association. After an unusually successful exhibition in January, 1861, 
the club held a meeting at which it decided to admit lay members ; the club adjourned as the Brooklyn Art 
Association. The membership increased rapidly and the enterprise flourished ; it soon stood so high in 
public favor that its receptions were arranged on a scale of considerable magnificence and became the most 
brilliant events of the social season. The efforts of this association contributed largely to the phenomenal 
success of the sanitary fair, in connection with which Mr. John M. Falconer gave an exhibition of engrav- 
ings, which was the first of the kind ever held in the United States. In 1872 the association was in a posi- 
tion to erect a building of its own, which has now become one of the permanent landmarks of the city. 
But in the eagerness to secure this building the interests of the artists were subordinated ; the predominance 
of the lay element and the unpopularity of certain of the officers wrought evil and a split occurred. 

Some seceding members from the Sketch Club comprising, as is usual in such cases, the younger and 
more progressive artists, established a rival institution in December, 1S66. This was the celebrated 
Academy of Design. It was started on an educational basis, and by this means the important considera- 
tion of art education was forced upon the Art Association itself. The leaders of this new enterprise were 
H. Carmienke, Alonzo Chappell, J. B. Whittaker, Rufus Wright and William Hart ; Gabriel Harrison, too, 
was one of its active supporters. This institution was controlled, as all such organizations should be, 
exclusively by artists, and free instruction was offered to the young art students of Brooklyn. The history of 
the academy is the most brilliant episode in the progress of art in this city. The classes were held at first 
in the Halsey building, now known as the Arbuckle ; but accommodations were offered them in the Brooklyn 
Institute, and the Ciraham Art School was consolidated with the academy, which undertook the free instruc- 
tion of the other institute classes in lieu of rental. Some difficulty arose later with the trustees of the Insti- 
tute, and the Academy of Design removed to the corner of Court and Joralemon streets. It was here that 
it attained the height of its prosperity and fame; the life classes, an important desideratum in those days, 
were among its most valuable features. The classes were taught by Rufus Wright, J. B. Whittaker, O. J. 
Lay and L. Wilmarth. The department of architecture was under the direction of Rhue and Techritz, the 
latter of whom was the designer of the court house. Among the artists of note who received instruction 
in the academy may be mentioned Thomas Shields, Rae Smith, Delisser and Creyfields. This school 
attracted attention far and wide ; committees came from Boston, St. Louis, Philadelphia and New York to 
study its methods of teaching, and many of its distinctive features were adopted in the different cities. All 
the expenses of the academy were defrayed by the artists themselves, and the wonderful success of this 
noble enterprise is a gratifying instance of generous devotion greatly rewarded. But the reward did not 
take a pecuniary shape. It was a constant drain upon the private resources of the artists as well as a strain 
upon their energies ; they were paying seventy-five dollars apiece annually for the privilege of teaching two 
hundred pupils six evenings in the week. An application was accordingly made to the city for an appro- 
priation, and the sum of one thousand dollars was promised them ; but the Art Association, hearing of this, 
made a counter claim, and through superior political influence secured the grant. The Academy of Design 
was thus forced into a compromise with the hostile institution, and accepted the use of the basement in the 
association building for its classes, but at the end of the term dissatisfaction arose over the management 
of the funds, and the members again withdrew to their old home, where they adjourned sine die. So ended 
in 1872 this sincere endeavor, and with it passed away one of the best-conducted art schools ever organized 
in this country. The fine collection of casts which had passed from the Graham Art School into the hands 
of the Academy of Design, was sold to the Adelphi Academy. 

It is in the Adelphi Academy that the traditions of that time are still observed ; there Prof. Whit- 
taker continues to make the old salutary influence felt which obtained in the days of the Academy of Design. 
The art department is splendidly equipped under his direction, and an average of about one hundred and 
twenty-five students receive special instruction there. It is one of the few schools where drawing is obliga- 
tory as a part of a general education, and it is probably the only art school of its kind, except that of Yale, 
where instruction is given in drawing from the living model. A large number of students from the school 
have attained distinction in their profession, among whom should be named Eleanor Bannister, Shirley 
Turner, W. E. Plympton, Harry Roseland, Hugh Eaton, Frank Boggs and Wilson Demeza. 

The Polytechnic has also an excellent art department, which was organized and is still conducted 
by Prof. Constantine Herzberg. The accommodations in the new building afford the amplest facilities for 
the art classes and the drawing from casts, but the main excellence of the department lies in the thorough 
course of instruction in perspective and mechanical drawing. 



782 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

The youngest of the organizations for the teaching of art is also one of the largest and most completely 
equipped in the city; this is the art school of the Pratt Institute. While all forms of artistic expression 
here receive due attention, special prominence is given to industrial art and decoration. The primary aim 
of the institution is to place the young student in a position to support himself in his profession. The 
courses of instruction are accordingly more widely varied and at the same time more directly practical 
than in the other schools. 

The Brooklyn Art Association, in accordance with certain stipulations relating to exemption from 
taxes, continues to maintain a free art school. This was for a time in a languishing condition, but it has 
recently been reorganized. The Art Guild, which had its rooms in the association building, and where 
Sartain and Whittaker once taught, has been merged into what is now called the BROOKLyN School of 
Fine Arts of the Brooklyn Art Association. It occupies studios in the old Ovington Building, and 
numbers about 1 20 students; the life classes are conducted by Shirlaw, Fitz and Rhind ; the antique by W. H. 
Snyder and Joseph A. Boston. The Art Association itself enjoys great prosperity, and has a membership at 
present of 410. Under its auspices lectures on the fine arts are given and the semi-annual receptions con- 
tinue to be held. Whatever may have been its mistakes in the treatment of the artist members it has been 
a powerful factor for good in disseminating a knowledge and appreciation of art in the city at large. One 
of the historic events in our art annals was the great reception on March, 1872, when there was brought 
together in its rooms the finest collection of American works of art, chronologically arranged, that has 
ever been exhibited in this country. 

The Rembrandt Club includes the most important art collectors and connoisseurs in the city in its 
membership, and is first among the non-professional art clubs of Brooklyn. Its first informal meeting was 
held at the house of Daniel M. Tredwell, at 22 Hanson place, on the i8th of March, 1880, when Messrs. 
Henry T. Cox, W. W. Thomas, Mr. Northcote, Lewis D. Mason, Whitman W. Kenyon, D. M. Tredwell and 
Frederick Tredwell discussed art subjects and the organization of an art club. At that meeting D. M. 
Tredwell was chairman. Other meetings were subsequently held at Frederick Tredwell's book store 
and the plans, constitution and by-laws considered, Under the name of " The Social Art Club " the society 
organized in May of the same year at the residence of Mr. J. W. Stearns, 64 First place. The following 
permanent officers were then elected : Henry T. Cox, president ; James M. Burt, vice-president ; L. D. 
Mason, secretary ; and J. W. Stearns, treasurer. Mr. Tredwell's name has always been honored by the 
club as the first of its founders, though he did not accept official responsibility after the preliminary meet- 
ing. Upon his motion, at the meeting held in Hugh Boyd's house on the 24th of May, 1880, the name 
was changed to that which the society now holds. Owing to the club's custom of meeting at the private 
residences of its members the membership has of necessity been limited, its number not exceeding one 
hundred. The membership, which includes nearly every Brooklyn collector of pictures, is full and at least 
twenty-five applicants are generally awaiting a vacancy. In 1883 the club gave an exhibition of a loan 
collection of paintings and etchings at the Art Association building. The collection comprised the finest 
paintings ever exhibited in this country. Other exhibitions were given in 1886, 1888, and 1889. From 
May 10, 1880, to May i, 1889, there were fifty-nine papers read before the club. Among the artists who 
appeared as lecturers before the club were Smillie, Tracy, Inness, Van Ingen, Champney, Ritchie, Volkmer, 
Millet, Gibson, Blashfield, Hopkinson Smith, Paul Rajon, Clarence Cook and others. Among the members 
who have read essays before the club we find the names of Chadwick, Tredwell, Ritchie, West, Mathewson, 
Healy, Hull, Ford and others. The Rembrandt drawing class instituted by the club for the promotion and 
encouragement of art, in the drawing classes of our public schools, is worthy of high commendation. A 
drawing class has also been organized in connection with the art department of the Brooklyn Institute. 
In both of these departments the Rembrandt Club distributed prizes and medals to the most proficient 
pupils. As a promoter of a love for art the club, in its public and private exhibitions of paintings, etchings 
and other works of art and virtu, in the literature of the fifty-nine essays read before the club and its 
guests and in the establishment and encouragement of art schools, has been of incalculable value to the 
art-loving population of Brooklyn. Besides these the Rembrandt Club has given awards for the best finished 
etched plates, and by public exhibitions, of which there have been four, at the Art Association rooms, has 
aided in educating public taste and knowledge in art. The present officers of the club are : president, 
John S. James ; vice-president, A. Augustus Healy ; secretary, Walter K. Paye ; treasurer, Joel W. Stearns ; 
John B. Ladd, chairman executive committee. 

The Brooklyn Art Club was established for the purpose of encouraging social intercourse among 
local artists and of extending in every possible manner the interests of art and its devotees. Its organi- 
zation was begun at a meeting held on December 10, 1879, at the house of W. H. Philip, 179 Madison street; 
there were present on this occasion : F. A. Chapman, Alonzo Chappell, John A. Parker, Strafford Newmarch, 
W, H. Philip, Carleton Wiggins, R. Bruce Crane, J. H. Cocks, W. H. Snyder, C. D. Hunt, J. B. Stearns, N. 
A., and Calvin Rae Smith. Public art exhibitions were held semi-annually at first ; now they are events 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 783 

of annual recurrence. The meetings of the Art Club took place for a long time at the residences of its 
members, but of late years they have taken place in the directors' room of the Art Association building on 
Montague street, where the exhibitions also are held. The club's first president was Junius B. Stearns, 
N. A. It has more than eighty members at the present time, and its officers are : Fred J. Boston, presi- 
dent ; Leonard Ochtman, vice-president ; Wedworth Wadsworth, secretary ; Frank Squier, treasurer. 

As already stated, it is mainly through the work done in the cause of art education in Brooklyn that 
one can obtain a just idea of the art life of the city as a whole. Yet the number and eminence of the 
artists who have lived and worked here is so considerable as in some measure to account for the high 
standard in art prevailing in this community. Even limiting the enumeration to those who have labored 
among us in comparatively recent years, the names are many and notable. Of the artists no longer living 
those familiar with the art history of the city will recall F. A. Chapman, Alonzo Chappell, John Williamson, 
Regis Gignoux, J. H. Frothingham (a pupil of Gilbert Stuart), James L. Dick, H. Carmienke, O. J. Lay, R. 
W. Hubbard, Strafford Newmarch, W. H. Philip, Junius B. Stearns, Walter Libhey, Robert Haskins, J. C. 
Piatt, Henry Northcote, Matthew Wilson, J. C. Cass, Jesse Talbot, the Smiths — father and son — famous 
painters of "marine portraits," and Charles Burt, the well-known engraver. Still living, though no longer 
to be classed as Brooklynites, are George Inness, Samuel Coleman, J. G. Brown, William Hart, M. F. H. 
DeHaas, F. B. Carpenter, R. Bruce Crane, Frank Boggs, Percy and Leon Moran, Leonard Ochtman, Calvin 
Rae Smith, Stanley Middleton, Johannes Oertel, L. Wilmarth, Rufus Wright, Lionel Delissier, Richard 
Creyfields, W. E. Plympton, Wilson Demeza, J. H. Cocks, Henry F. Darby. Brooklyn is yet the home of 
John M. Falconer, J. M. Hart, J. B. AVhittaker, Carleton Wiggins, F. T. Lee Boyle, A. H. Ritchie, Wed- 
worth Wadsworth, W. Hamilton Gibson, Warren Sheppard, James Northcote, W. H. Snyder, J. Carter 
Beard, Prof. Constantine Hertzberg, Harry Roseland, Clinton Loveridge, S. S. Carr, Miss S. M. Barstow, Miss 
M. A. Wood, Miss Cornelia Conant, Gabriel Harrison, Thomas Shields, Eleanor Bannister, Shirley Turner, 
Hugh Eaton, Thomas M. Jensen, Albert D. Blashfield, J. Meredith Nugent, John A. Parker, August Laux, 
Clark Crum, C. D. Hunt, Frederick J. Boston, Joseph Boston, Benjamin Lander, the etcher; the engravers, 
Beckwith, E. J. Whitney and Thomas Johnson. The work of the sculptor H. K. Brown, who made the 
statues of DeWitt Clinton in Green-Wood Cemetery, of Lincoln at the entrance to Prospect Park, and the 
Washington in Union Square, New York, is significantly identified with Brooklyn. 

James McDougal Hart studied painting under the direction of his brother William Hart, and enjoys 
prominence as a landscape artist. He was born in Kilmarnock, Scotland, on May 10, 1828, and was brought 
to this country when three years old. After studying under his brother, he visited Europe in 1851 and 
became a pupil of Schirmer in Dusseldorf. He became an A. N. A. in 1857, and an N. A. in 1859. His 
works include many canvases of extraordinary merit. Among them are : " Morning in the Adirondacks," 
" Summer on the Bouquet River," " Summer Memory of Berkshire," " Autumn Woods," " Drove at the 
Ford," "Through Dust Clouds," " At the Brookside," " In our Village " and " At the Watering Trough." 

Wedworth Wadsworth, who easily stands in the front rank of American water color artists, was 
born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1846. His parents were of New England descent. He completed his education 
at Yale College, where he was graduated in 1867. His artistic tastes developed early in life and were 
assiduously cultivated, but it was not until 1884 that he turned his genius into professional channels. 
He has devoted himself entirely to water color work, recognizing the fact, not hitherto a popular one, that 
such a medium was capable of transmitting poetic expression with greater facility and truthfulness than 
any other. His studies are made direct from nature, and he is as much of an idealist as circumstances will 
permit. He has also won fame as an illustrator, and has used his pencil with effect in connection with the 
works of Tennyson, Shakespeare, Cooper and others. For the past six years he has been secretary of the 
Brooklyn Art Club. He belongs to the Salmagundi and the New York Water Color clubs, and is chairman 
of the Brooklyn Institute's loan exhibitions. In 1890 Yale College gave him the honorary degree of Ph. B. 

Carleton Wiggins, the cattle painter, was born at Monroe, Orange County, N. Y., in 1848. In 1859 
his parents moved to Brooklyn, where Carleton was educated. During his thirteenth year he became a 
clerk in the law office of Dukes & Sullivan, of New York. Remaining in that employ for two years, he next 
found employment with the agent of the London & Liverpool Insurance Company. At the end of eighteen 
months he became an art student at the New York Academy of Design and continued his studies under 
the late Mr. Carmiencke and George Inness. At the age of twenty he opened a studio in New York, and 
soon attained success as a landscape painter. In 1880 he went to Europe and studied in Paris and elsewhere 
under the best masters, devoting himself almost exclusively to painting cattle and sheep. Some of his 
more notable canvases are : "Edge of Forest, Barbizon," "Cattle in Landscape," "Evening at Grez," "On 
the Road, " September Day," " Hillside near Fontainebleau," " October Morning," " Gathering Sea-Weed " 
and " Summer Morning." Mr. Wiggins is an associate of the National Academy of Design and a member 
of the Society of American Artists, the American Water Color Society, the Artists' Fund Society, the 
Salmagundi Club, the Brooklyn Art Club and the Oxford and Union League clubs. 



784 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



The reputation enjoyed by Edwin Howland Blashfield as a painter of rare imaginative power and 
a thorough master of technique easily entitles him to recognition among the foremost artists of the day. 
His "Roman Lady's Fencing Lesson " and " Lispiration," the former a Salon and the latter a Royal 
Academy picture, have met with appreciation and laudatory criticism. Not alone as an artist in color 
mediums has Mr. Blashfield distinguished himself. He is famous as an illustrator, and the quality of work 
produced by men of his caliber is responsible in a great measure for the continued expansion of the black 
and white field. He has profusely illustrated a number of magazine articles, written in collaboration with 
his wife and published in leading American periodicals; among these have been " Romola in Florence," 
"The Man at Arms," and "A Plea for Stage Pictures." He has also illustrated Frank R. Stockton's 
"Clocks of Rondanie " and Whittier's " Legend of Rugen," Mr. Blashfield was born in New York in 1848. 
His early youth was passed in Brooklyn, where his family has had a home for years. At the age of eighteen 
he went to Paris and studied under Leon Bonnat and Oerome When the Franco-German war began he 
left Paris and traveled through Belgium and (lermany, closing his tour in Italy, where he spent eight 
months as a resident of Florence. After recrossing the Atlantic and passing two years in America, he 
returned to Paris and exhibited in the Salon from 1S75 ""t'^ 1880. In the latter year he came back to New 
York and opened a studio there. After that he traveled in P>gypt, and spent the summer of 1886 in Eng- 
land. In 1889 he received a Salon medal at Paris. In 1890 Mr. Blashfield revisited Egypt and made a sec- 
ond journey up the Nile. He was one of the artists selected to decorate the World's Fair Building at Chi- 
cago, and was recalled from Paris for that purpose. His latest works include two of his most important pro- 
ductions; they are oil paintings, " The Angel with the Flaming Sword " and " Ringing the Christmas Bells." 

In the person of Mauritz Frederick Hendrick De Haas, Brooklyn possesses one of the most suc- 
cessful marine painters of this or any other era in the history of art. He was born in Rotterdam, on 
December 12, 1832, and studied painting under Spoel, Bosboom and Louis Meyer. He sketched for a time 
along the coasts of his native Holland and in England, and in 1851 took up the study of water color paint- 
ing in London. He settled in 1858 in New York. He was elected an A. N. A. in 1863, and an N. A. in 
1867. His chief works embrace a variety of marine and coast views, including "Admiral Farragut's Fleet 

passing New Orleans," " Sunset at Sea," " Moonlight at Sea," " Sunrise in a Fog — near Newport, Propical 

Sunset at Sea," "Shipwreck," and "Off Marblehead." 

Among the younger artists whose labors have closely identified them with this city, Warren Sheppard 
has earned a comparatively wide reputation. His earlier work exhibited a marked inclination towards the 
school of Martin Rico, under whom at one time Mr. Sheppard desired to study ; latterly he has encouraged 
a tendency in the direction of marine painting. Mr. Sheppard was born in New Jersey in April, 1858, but 
has lived in Brooklyn since the age of fifteen. He learned drawing and perspective in the Cooper Institute 
in New York, and taught himself the principles of coloring by studying directly from nature. Mr. Shep- 
pard has been abroad three times and has studied both in Venice and Paris. He has exhibited in London. 
Among his more notable works are: "The Restless Sea," which will figure in the galleries at the World's 
Fair, "The Golden Palace," "A Canal in Venice," and "Santa Maria della Salute." Mr. Sheppard's studio 
is in his residence at 426 Ninth street. 

William Hamilt(jn Gibson, a life-long Brooklynite, is a painter whose work is an essential feature of 
every collection of American paintings; though he is perhaps best known to the extensive public that observes 
the work of a successful illustrator of the popular magazines, and wherever Harper s Magazine goes his 
work is a familiar and welcome feature. Original investigation of nature has given him subjects that have 
more than a pictorial interest, and while his rendering of them is exquisite in art and poetic in feeling, his 
accuracy as a naturalist lends an added element of interest. His father, the late E. T. H. Gibson, was a 
prominent Brooklynite, and the son was born at the country home in Sandy Hook, Conn., in 1850. He was 
educated at the Brooklyn Polytechnic and the famous " Gunnery " school in Washington, Conn. Artistic 
from youth, he began to paint in water colors in boyhood, and has been entirely self-taught in his calling. 
He has had so good a teacher that his technical skill is remarkable, while his freedom from the traditions 
of the schools has resulted in a style that is thoroughly original, but without a trace of eccentricity. He 
now devotes most of his time to water color work in which he has been a favorite exhibitor for many years ; 
but he works also in oil, pastel, gouache, crayon, pencil, smoke and charcoal. He is a member of the 
Water Color Society, the Brooklyn Art Club, the Salmagundi and the Century Club, of New York. His 
residence in Brooklyn is on Lincoln place, and he has recently completed a handsome house on the hills of 
Washington, Conn., where for many years he has made his summer home. 

Though living and working in New York SrANLEV Middleton is a Brooklynite by birth and education. 
He was born in 1854. He studied in New York under A. C. Howland, and when twenty years old crossed 
the ocean to still further cultivate his artistic predilections. He spent more than four years in Paris, and 
then returned to this country, where he remained about the same length of time ; he then revisited Paris 
and studied there five years. During all the years which he spent in the French capital, he studied under 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



78s 



such masters as Jaquesson, De La Chevreuse, Dagnau-Bonveret, Harpigne and Benjamin Constant. He 
returned to America five years ago, and occupies a studio in tlie Siierwell building on West sytli street. 
He devotes liimself almost exclusively to figure and portrait painting, and in these lines has won merited 
recognition. His ideal head of "Rosalind" is the example selected to illustrate the account of Mr. Henry 
T. Cox's collection, on a later page in this volume. He is a member of the Salmagundi Club. i- 

J. Carter Bearu made his entree into the artistic circles of New York in 1865, and since that time has 
become very widely known as one of the leading illustrators of the day. He has also done a great deal 
towards illustrating the school books of the present generation and, until a few years ago, was a contributor 
to the water color exhibitions in New York. Mr. Beard was born in Cincinnati on June 6, 1837 ; he was 
educated at Miami University in his native state, where he was a fellow member in the Delta Kappa 
Epsilon Society with Whitelaw Reid. He studied law under the late Rutherford B. Hayes, but after being 
admitted to the bar he abandoned his prospects as a lawyer and entered upon the study of art. 

Joseph A. De La Harpe is a scenic artist, who was born at Lausanne, Switzerland, on June i, 1850, 
two months after the death of his father, an officer under the Russian government. His mother was a lady 
of much literary ability and was an aquarelle artist of excellent merit. When her son was seven years old 
she came to America, being an invalid, and having vainly sought relief at the various curative resorts of 
Europe, upon medical advice she visited the hot sulphur springs near Salt Lake City, the result of which 
was her complete restoration. She made her home in Salt Lake City and remained there until her death, 
about fifteen years ago. Mr. De La Harpe made frequent sketching tours to the wilds of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where he often remained for months at a time, becoming thoroughly acquainted with an extensive 
region. He served as a guide to several surveying, mining and geohjgical parties, and he assisted in the 
survey on the wildest and roughest part of the Union Pacific Railway in the Weber and Echo caiions on 
Brigham Young's contract. As guide to a party sent out to secure Indian relics, mineralogical specimens 
and other articles for the Salt Lake Museum, he led it through the " three valleys " — Salt Lake, Tooele and 
Skull valleys — into the Wasatch range of the Rockies. He remained in Utah until he was twenty-one 
years old, his last employment there being with Brigham Young, who engaged him first to sketch and 
paint, from caged specimens, the wild animals of the Rocky Mountain region. These pictures were for 
the Salt Lake Museum, but several of them are now in the Smithsonian Institute at Washington. Mr. 
De La Harpe took up scene painting at Mr. Young's suggestion, and was placed in the Salt Lake Theatre, 
of which the Mormon president was the proprietor. He distinguished himself as a portrait painter also, and 
among his works were portraits of such dignitaries in the Mormon Church as Brigham Young, Heber C. Kim- 
ball, who was Young's first councillor; Daniel H. Wells, mayor of Salt Lake City and lieutenant-general of the 

" Nauvoo I^egion " or Mormon militia, and others. He 
also painted portraits of Joseph and Hiram Smith, the 
founders of the Mormon sect, from ambrotype like- 
nesses, by the aid of such descriptive information as 
he could gather. Ambition led him to turn his face 
eastward, and after short sojourns in several western 
cities he reached New York and entered upon an en- 
gagement with Augustin Daly, who was about to pro- 
duce a dramatization of Mark Twain's " Roughing It " 
and other plays dealing with life in the far west, the 
scenery for which was of course extremely familiar to 
Mr. De La Harpe. Afterwards he was engaged at 
Booth's Theatre, at the corner of Twenty-third street 
and Sixth avenue, and he has produced scenery for 
nearly every first-class theatre in New York city. In 
1876 he became a resident of Brooklyn and painted 
for Hooley's Theatre, the Brooklyn Theatre, Hyde & 
])ehman's, the Academy of Music, the Grand Opera 
House and others. He designed Hyde & Behman's 
Theatre and superintended its construction, and at this 
writing is engaged in painting a drop curtain and the 
scenery for that firm's new house in Williamsburgh. 
He has painted scenery in forty-seven theatres, of 
which twenty-four are in Brooklyn and New York. 
He also made the architectural designs and plans for 
the buildings of the Brooklyn Jockey Club. Mr. De 
La Harpe married Miss May Valentine in 1874. 




JOSEPH A. De La Hakpe. 



786 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

The histor)' of amateur photography in this city is a story of rapid development from the smallest pos- 
sible origin. Twelve years ago there was no regular organization of amateurs in Brooklyn ; to-day there 
ai<e two large and influential associations, which have exerted more or less influence in the advancement of 
the science. When the Brooklyn Academy of Photography was established in 1887, a dozen amateur photo- 
graphers were collected with the greatest difficulty for the purpose of organization. Prior to that time the 
late George B. Brainerd, at one time deputy water purveyor of Brooklyn, was regarded as the pioneer of 
amateur photography in this city and on Long Island; his work was admirable and unique; his methods 
were many of them original, and he designed a hand camera, which has since been generally used by ama- 
teurs in this city and elsewhere, and was perhaps the first magazine camera ever in e.xistence. Other 
important contributions to photography, which have been made by Brooklyn amateurs, are a method of 
determining the speed of the shutter and a method of photographing luminous objects, both of which 
resulted from exhaustive research by Dr. Wallace Goold Levison; Dr. French of this city utilized photo- 
graphy to reproduce the action of the vocal chords, and many of our local amateurs have attained the 
highest possible perfection in the mechanical and artistic details of their art. It is generally conceded that 
cameras in the hands of Brooklyn men have produced some of the best results achieved in the United 
States during the last decade by amateurs or professionals. 

The Brooklyn Academy of Photography was organized and incorporated in February, 1887, with 
a dozen charter members; they were : Wallace Goold Levison, president ; Frank La Manna, first vice-presi- 
dent ; James L. Cornell, second vice-president ; Willis Dodge, corresponding secretary; Adrian V. Mar- 
tense, recording secretary ; George B. Brainerd, treasurer ; C. G. Levison, Gonzalo Poey, John Merritt, 
M. D., John Lefferts, Jr., Charles H. Carter and William T. Wintringham. All these twelve constituted 
a board of trustees. The avowed object of the academy as announced in its first printed prospectus was 
the " advancement of photography in its scientific, historical, art and technical applications." This state- 
ment permitted great latitude of interpretation. At first the meetings of the academy were held in mem- 
bers' houses at irregular intervals; then came an offer from Dr. Hoagland of rooms in the Hoagland 
Laboratory on Henry street. The offer was accepted, and the first meeting was held in the new quarters 
in January, 1889. Apartments were afterwards obtained at 517 Fulton street, and, after remaining there 
a year, the academy moved to its present rooms at 177 Montague street. Here they are supplied with the 
best developing facilities, electric lights, and all photographic conveniences. Weekly meetings are held for 
the discussion of technical subjects. The academy is in close touch with foreign photographic societies, 
and Frank La Manna, its late president and one of the most enthusiastic and expert among its members, 
is councillor of the International Photographic Union of Paris. The academy has preserved complete 
records of many interestmg occurrences, including the great blizzard of t888, the Washington centennial 
of 1889 and the Columbian celebration of 1892. The official "History of the Centennial Celebration" of 
1889 contains twenty-six illustrations taken from negatives made by the members of the academy. This 
number was nearly one-half of all the illustrations in the book, the balance being mostly reproductions of 
old engravings. The valuable contributions of the academy to the illustrations of this volume, from the 
negatives taken by the late George B. Brainerd twenty years ago of historic landmarks in and around Brook- 
lyn, are fully credited elsewhere. The academy belongs to the American League of Amateur Photograph- 
ers and to that organization's slide interchange. Its active membership now numbers about one hun- 
dred, and its corresponding, associate and honorary members aggregate nearly forty. Its officers are : 
John Merritt, M. D., president ; Harry S. Fowler, corresponding secretary ; William T. Wintringham, 
treasurer. 

The Brooklyn Society of Amateur Photographers, which was merged in the Brooklyn Academy 
of Photography in August, 1891, was organized by a few enthusiasts, among whom were Allan Ormsbee, 
Homer Ladd, George R. Sheldon and H. P.'Sewell, on March 22,1889. Mr. Ormsbee was the society's first 
president, and his successors in office were C. M. Trowbridge and Homer Ladd. Meetings were first held 
at members' houses, and, within a short time after the date of organization, rooms were secured in a build- 
ing at 412 Jay street. These premises were abandoned in 1890, and the meetings were again held at 
private houses. The society held several creditable print exhibitions, and accomplished a great deal of 
excellent work, both as an organization and through the efforts of individual members. At the time of its 
absorption by the academy the society had thirty-two members. 

The Department of Photography of the Brooklyn Institute was organized with thirty-four 
members on March 26, 1889. Its nucleus had existed for some time previous as the Linden Camera Club, 
which had a limited membership, and met at the residence of Alexander Black, on Linden street, in the 
Eastern District. To-day the department has a membership not very far short of two hundred. At first the 
department occupied rooms in the old Institute building on Washington street, but after that structure was 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 787 

gutted by fire on September 12, 1890, it found a home at 201 Montague street, its present location. Here 
its suite of apartments includes a studio room and dark and enlarging rooms. The department gives fre- 
quent exhibitions and lectures, and has a number of excursions every year for the benefit of the members. 
Alexander Black was the first president of the department. The present officers are : J. Foster Flagg, 
president ; G. W. Wundram, vice-president ; Lewis E. Meeker, M. D., curator ; Gould W. Hart, secretary ; 
Miss Anna L. Meeker, corresponding secretary ; Pierre L. Le Brun, treasurer. 

PRIVATE ART COLLECTIONS. 



Of the higher forms of recreation the patronage of art and the passion for collecting pictures find 
many devotees among the residents of Brooklyn, and her collectors are familiar figures at all the great 
sales and are well-known in the studios of Europe and America. Some have formed general collections, 
in which the various schools of art are represented by characteristic examples ; some have sought the 
masterpieces of distinct schools and of individual painters ; some have made it their pleasure and their 
pride to cover their walls with the best productions of American artists, and all have done something for 
the encouragement of home art. In consequence of the liberal and cultured zeal of the collectors of 
Brooklyn, the city has many creditable collections to show, some of which are of the first rank, in the 
number, the quality or the representative character of the treasures they have accumulated. 

MR. JOHN T. MARTIN'S COLLECTION. 

In John T. Martin's gallery, at No. 28 Pierrepont street, is an important collection thoroughly well 
displayed. It is one of the pioneer collections of Brooklyn. Mr. and Mrs. Martin have spent a portion of 
each year in Europe, and among the art treasures of the Old World they found much refreshing enjoyment 
and gradually developed a taste for the works of the great painters of the day. Many were purchased 
during their trips abroad, from the artists themselves ; others were obtained on the breaking up of 
collections in this country, and soon the walls of their commodious Brooklyn house were crowded. Then 
it was decided to build a picture gallery. This was completed in the year 1876. After much weeding 
out and many additions, much of it due, of late years, to the refined taste and excellent judgment of Mrs. 
Martin, the owners came to look upon it as a fairly complete and representative collection, and in this 
opinion were strengthened by the judgment of those who came to visit it, as its reputation spread among 
the art lovers of the country. 

This collection is valuable rather in its comprehensive representation of the canvases of leading 
artists than of any one period or school. Indeed, there are only ten cases in which more than one example 
of the same artist is found, and these may be attributed to the unexpected obtaining of a rarer example 
after the first one had been purchased. As a consequence there are three of Diaz, three of Zimmerman, 
and two each of Breton, Detaille, Gauerman, Knaus, Lambinet, Millet, Meyer von Bremen, Shayer, Staigg, 
and Troyon. The latter represent two widely different periods and styles, and of the Detailles, the 
later one was a commission given in the artist's studio in 1880. The catalogue contains nearly one 
hundred numbers, and its representative character may be judged from the following names : Artz, 
Bargue, Becker, Bodenmuller, Bonheur (Rosa), Bouguereau, Boutibonne, Breton, Cabanel, Charlemont, 
Benjamin Constant, Casado, Casanova, Chevilliard, Chierici, Corot, Dalbono, Daubigny, Defregger, 
Denner, De Neuville, Desgoffe, Detaille, Diaz, Dupre, Duverger, Echtler, Escosura, Faustini, Fichel, 
FVomentin, Gauerman, Gerome, Girardet, Gros, Guillemin, Gysis, Hallberger, Heck, Herring, Beaufain, 
Irving, Jacque, Jimenez, Koekkoek, Koken, Klimsch, Knaus, Lambinet, Landelle, Lecompte, Le Roux, 
Madon, Martin, Max, Meissonier, Millet, Meyer von Bremen, Merle, Mount, Pascutti, Pettenkofen, Preyer, 
Read, Robbe, Rousseau, Schutze, Schutzenburger, Schreyer, Shayer, Soyer, Staigg, Troyon, Van Marcke, 
Van Mieris, Verboeckhoven, Vibert, Vineau, Von Rhomberg, Willems, Zamacois, Zimmerman. 

The first of the canvases to which the visitor is attracted is a De Neuville, painted to order in 
1873. It is called " The Siege of Gravelotte," and depicts a dashing charge of dragoons upon the break- 
ing ranks of the enemy. It is full of spirited action and color, and may be accepted as a specimen of 
this artist's best work. Opposite to it is a pendant picture by the other great French painter of soldier's 
life, Detaille, which shows "The Return from a Grand Manoeuvre." It was ordered at the same time as 
the De Neuville picture, and therefore the two afford an excellent opportunity for comparison of these two 
celebrated artists. The Detaille only suffers from it in the scene and the subject itself ; the action is neces- 
sarily less spirited ; the mind reposes on it instead of being aroused and excited, as is the case when you 
stand before De Neuville's dragoons and are thrilled with incident after incident in the actual battle. Near 
by is the Corot, which was purchased in Paris from Goupil, in 1884. In this quiet scene, where the evening 



788 



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" The Christening," bv Ludwig Knaus. 

sun Steals gently over a hill, flecking the branches of a rugged cedar on its summit, you find absolute 
repose. It is one of the largest and most important Corots in this country, and many noted connoisseurs 
envy its possessor. There are two excellent Bretons, the one a group in the hay field, a mother with baby 
at breast forming the centre figure, which was originally in the collection of James Matthews, and the 
other a peasant girl lying on the bank of a lily pond, and called "Meditation." Between the soft grays 
of the Corot, with its highly poetic and tender feeling, and the soft and suggestive grass greens of the 
Breton last mentioned, is a little gem of bright color which was painted by Meissonier in 1867. It is 
called " The Return Home," and is a gay cavalier in scarlet coat and scarlet feather in his drab hat, 
full of life and sentient expression. Over it are a couple of Millets, peasants going to work in the 
gray dawn, the beams of the sun coming from the background and giving the delicate touches of light 
and dark shadow which characterize the greater portion of this famous artist's work. It awakens exactly 
the same sentiment as does the famous " Angelus," that quiet intro-reflective mood which, like the most 
joyous song of the nightingale, has yet a tinge of sadness in it. The Daubigny shows Nature in a less 
sombre vein. The cares of the day are over ; a little mirthful jesting and subdued laughter, and then 
to sleep. It is called " Evening on the Seine," and as one watches the shadows flit across the silvery 
face of the stream there seems to come the distant hum and gleam of lights from never sleeping Paris 
at no great distance. This work came from the John Wolfe collection, and was the first of Daubigny's 
pictures to command a high price in this country. Among the other examples of the 1830 school to be 
found in this gallery its rank is high. The price paid for this picture was only $5,200, but at that time 
Daubignys were going a-begging at from $1,000 to $3,000, and most of them were not of a quality to com- 
pare with the one purchased by Mr. Martin. After the high price paid by Mr. Martin on his own judg- 
ment, many others, and in some respects better, examples of this artist's work were sent over. They are 
now scattered all over the country, but Mr. Martin may be said to be the pioneer in their introduction here. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 789 

There are some connoisseurs who hold that the jewel of Mr. Martin's collection is " The Christening," 
by Ludwig Knaus, a work that cost Mr. Martin $50,000, and that helped t(j set the standard of the artist's 
reputation for the future. Knaus was of the Dusseldorf school, and the excellent drawing, full, rich color 
and vigorous realism for which this great German artist is famous, are further exemplified in his pictures of 
"The Herd Boy," and "A Female Head," also to be found in this collection. The latter was purchased 
from the studio of the artist in Berlin. Another work which these art lovers took direct from the easel 
at Munich is " The Spirit Hand," by Gabriel Ma.x, which depicts a young woman in mourning robes, with 
sad eyes and tear-stained cheeks to whom a shadowy hand is held out in consoling sympathy. It is a 
strong picture with a sad motive. Another picture calculated to raise sombre thought is one by Merle, 
called "The Inconsolable." It is a group of peasant children, open eyed and breathless, by an old well, 
on the frame of which sits a weary gypsy mother, bending tenderly and dry eyed over her dead baby. Turn 
from these to gayer scenes, first among which is a splendid Carl Becker, called " The Welcome Guests." 
The costumes are of that graceful Venetian moyeii age which this painter affects, and the scene is laid on the 
terrace of a noble villa in the country, near Venice. Near by is another picture which tells a whole story. 
It was painted to order by Hector Le Roux and is called " Aurelia and Pomponia." These were the names of 
two vestal virgins condemned to death during the reign of Caracalla. In a large hall the vestals are assem- 
bled. Two empty chairs in the first row bear the names of the condemned. The Superior, with her sur- 
rounding attendants, form the High Tribunal. The High Priest is reading the sentence to the trembling 
girls who are doomed ; the faces of the other virgins are filled with pity and horror. It is a powerful con- 
ception, and masterly carried out. 

There is a picture by Pettenkofer which commands instant attention, and has been very highly spoken 
of. The title is " Pendant le Duel," and the atmospheric effects seem the more wonderful the more it 
is looked into. The figures are full of life ; even the horses seem to have a glimmering idea that a tragedy 
is being enacted. But the chief charm is in the perspective, and the clever manner in which the fleeting 
mood of nature in a frosty dawn is captured. The old woman's head by Denner is a speaking likeness, 
executed with that microscopic accuracy and infinite elaboration of detail which made him famous at the 
age of twenty-four. For a similar accuracy of drawing, but more forceful in execution and color, " The 
Sentinel," by Bargue, is also noteworthy. It was purchased at the Morgan sale, and is thought to be one 
of the best examples of the artist in this country. 

Among other gems of this collection is a magnificent Van Marcke, painted at the epoch after he turned 
from landscape to the portrayal of cattle. The canvas was finished to order in 1878, the year in which 
the artist was awarded the first-class medal by the Paris salon. There are also two excellent examples of 
Troyon, of whom Van Marcke was a pupil, and a notable canvas by Rousseau called " Les Bucherounes." 
This is a superb illustration of the close of an autumn day. Rosa Bonheur's landscape, with sheep and cattle, 
is from the collection of the late W. Tilden Blodgett, and is well-known. Mr. Blodgett was one of the con- 
noisseurs sent to Europe to represent the Metropolitan Museum and purchase notable works for it. 

The works of Diaz are much admired by Mr. Martin, and the three canvases bearing his name are 
among his best. The " Scene of the Forest of Fontainebleau " is from the collection of the banker Oppen- 
heim, of Paris; "The Bathers" is full of soft, dreamy sentiment, and "Venus and Adonis" is as pure in 
drawing as faultless in color. 

For a picture full of vivid coloring Casado's " Interior of Goya's Studio " is an excellent example. It 
represents the artist Goya at work upon the portrait of the beautiful Duchess of Alba, and the proud 
model, in lovely costume, reclines gracefully upon a divan, while at her feet and toward the left of the 
cabinet are a group of noblemen in gay apparel apparently passing the time over a collection of engravings 
or in contemplating the beauty of their aristocratic mistress. Defregger is represented by a large canvas 
called "Italian Beggar Singers," which has much merit, and the three figure paintings by Zimmerman 
cannot be passed by without a note of admiration by those interested in skillful characterization. 

Of more than passing interest among these great artists is T. Buchanan Read's "Sheridan's Ride." It 
is of interest, because several replicas were made of it at a time when the subject was one of much verse 
and many newspaper articles, and there arose quite a contention among art collectors as to which one 
possessed the original picture. The one in Mr. Martin's gallery is certified by the artist himself, which 
ought to end the discussion. 

Of the statuary, the large piece in an alcove, "Cleopatra Before Cresar," was executed to order by 
Lucardi, of Rome, in 1873. " Michael Angelo's First Effort," shows the great sculptor as a youth chiseling 
away at the head of a fawn. It is by Zocci, of Florence. There is an " II Penseroso " and an " Undine," 
by Mozier, a "Proserpine" and "Head of Greek Slave," by Powers, and other marbles, including a bust of 
Mr. Martin, by AVagmuller, of Munich. In the library there is also an excellent portrait of Mr. Martin, 
painted by Benjamin Constant, and Mrs. Martin has a large and important collection of fans, of every age 
and clime, and her tiny cabinets of rare porcelains are of exceptional beauty and value. 



ytjo THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

THE LATE DAVID C. LYALL'S COLLECTION. 

Brooklyn has recently lost two important collections, and even before the death of Mr. David C. 
Lyall, in the summer of 1892, the loss of his collection also was a settled fact, as he had intended remov- 
ing it to the new house he had built in New York. It is worthy of record, however, and of a prominent 
place in Brooklyn's history, for in beautiful works by the best masters it is both rich and rare. As in several 
other Brooklyn collections, the works of the Barbizon school cut an important figure. Of these Mr. Lyall 
had three of Millet, three of Corot, three of Rousseau, four of Daubigny, four of Jules Dupre, two of Diaz, 
two of Jacque ; while Troyon, Delacroix and Courbet also are represented. It only needed a Decamps to 
fill the lists of the Barbizon men, and make this one of the finest representative collections of that school in 
thi= country ; for of these twenty-five canvases, nearly every one ranks high, and a large majority of them 
are masterpieces. Of the Millets, "La Naissance du Veau " is perhaps the best known. It is one of the 
studies of peasant life that he so loved to portray. It was a salon picture of 1864. It was among the most 
important of the works of this artist shown at the e.Khibition of his paintings by the American Art Associa- 
tion several years ago. The three Corots are of almost equal merit, but " Le Bouleau" is esteemed to be 
the most important work of the three. It is characterized by the simplicity of manner and the subdued 
harmonies which mark about the middle period of this artist's many works. Of the three superb Rousseaus, 
one is of a peasant plowing on a moist morning ; the horse pants as he trudges through the loamy soil, and 
his heavy breath mingles with the mist. Other figures at work are dimly shown in the background. 
Equally realistic is another scene depicting huge rocks and wide-spreading oaks in autumn foliage, near 
the shade of which cattle are browsing in the soft sunshine, which is contrasted with the purple woods 
closing in the background. The Daubigny landscapes are all superb examples. 

The Dupres offer striking contrasts of the versatility of his great genius as a close student of nature in 
all her moods— from a misty dawn, out of which looms up a huge oak, while beyond are seen the farm build- 
ings with just a suggestion of renewed life about them, to a soft summer sky beaming on luxuriant 
vegetation, and an evening scene with rippled water and wind-blown clouds. Diaz, who in early life labored 
with Dupre as a journeyman painter on porcelain, has in this collection an important canvas which may be 
accepted as an illustration of the vitality of that joyous nature which supported him through the afflictions 
of a laborious youth and the privations of a neglected early manhood. It is a fanciful conceit of nymphs 
and cupids, and is splendid in both modeling and color. One of the Jacques, a landscape with sheep, is 
masterly in treatment. These lead us to the large and important Troyon. It is universally considered that 
this painting surpasses in excellence any of his other works. It is a cattle piece, more splendid in spirit and 
more powerful in color, vivid realism, and quiet naturalness than the one with which this great artist aston- 
ished the French salon in 1847, after his close study of the old Dutch masters. It was purchased at the sale 
of the Stewart collection. The canvas by Eugene Delacroix is the well-known one called " L'enlevement 
de Rebecca," which in splendid color portrays a powerful incident from Scott's Ivanhoe. Every detail of 
the picture is full of spirited action and glowing color. Another great picture is the Jules Breton, " La Fin 
du Travail," which was painted to order in 1887 and declared by the artist himself to be his masterpiece. 
Of the marked originality and bold personal style of Courbet there is a powerful example. A ra\'ine 
winds through the middle, shut in by bold rocky precipices, whose summits are crowned with dark foliage. 
It is nature in her milder haunts and sterner moods. A canvas three by five feet represents the last 
work done by De Neuville, "Cutting the Telegraph Wires" — an episode of the Franco-Prussian War, the 
entrance of the French into the town of Etretat. What makes this important picture the more interesting 
is the fact that the officers in the foreground are all portraits, and in Mr. Lyall's possession is an auto- 
graph letter from the artist describing the incident and giving names of the participants. There is 
another stirring military piece called "Prise d'une Batterie," an incident of the Crimean War, also a com- 
mission picture. This is by Paul Alexander Protais, whose "Before and after Combat" is so famous. 
Among other canvases painted to order are two charming landscapes by Leon Pelouse, and two dainty 
water colors by Maurice Leloir, of whom there is also a good example in oil ; " Le Voix Celeste," by 
Hebert, an important work ; one of Bonnat's " La Cruche Cassee " pictures a pretty Italian girl in her 
tattered dress of many colors in distress over her mishap ; a first class example of Eugene Isabey, 
" Cardinal's Blessings ; " in regard to all of which space prevents an adequate description, as also to any 
particular reference to the excellent examples of Pasini, David Johnson, G. Michel, VoUon, B. W. Leader 
(an English artist who received his first American commission from Mr. Lyall), F. L. Francais, V. Palmaroli, 
Lambinet, G. B. O'Neil, R. A., Louis Cabot, August Bonheur, Bastien Lepage, Hector Hanoteau, Madon, 
Boldini, Henner (a Magdalen), Erskin-Nichol, J. L. Gerome (" Ambulating Arab Merchant"), R. Brascassat, 
Fromentin ("Souvenir d'Algiers"). Cazin has a picture of his garden, which shows his poetic brush, and 
the well-known but always beautiful " Le Printemps," by Cot, and others. There are a number of excel- 
lent water colors in Mr. Lyall's drawing-room, notably one by the greatest of English landscape artists, 
J. M. W. Turner ; two by Birket Foster, one by David Cox, and a pastel by Millet. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



791 




' Rosalind," by Stanley Middleton. 



MR. HENRY T. COX'S COLLECTION. 

Among the early collectors of paintings is Henry T. Cox, of No. 236 Henry street, corner of Joralemon 
street. His little gallery extension is a charming nook in which to while away many an hour, surrounded 
by covetable gems and pictures of the highest merit, from the easels of such eminent artists as Cabanel, 
Gerome, Van Marcke, Cazin, Daubigny, Schreyer, Diaz, George H. Boughton, Jules Dupre, Bouguereau, 
Corot, Henner, Edouard Frere, Jacque, Fromentin, Jensen, Rousseau, Lerolle, Delort, Rico, Vollon, Worms, 
Meyer Von Bremen, Koekkoek, Meyerheim, Jacomin, Flamm, Jordain, J. H. Tracy, Perrier, S. Middleton, 
Robie, J. Goubie, Steinheil, D. Huntington, De Haas, Voltz, A. Point, Sir David AVilkie, Induno, Zuber, 
Buhler, Adolph Weisz, L. Munthe, J. Breling, James Ward (of London), H. Baron, Munier, G. B. O'Neil, 
Echtler, E. Ciceri, Eugene Feyen, A. Siegert, Leon Glaize ; and water colors by Schultz, Maccari, Louis 
Leloir, De Penne, Colman, Meyer Von Bremen, Vibert, Bright, Detaille, Boughton, L. C. Tiffany and 
others. Corot, Jacques, Diaz, Perrier, Jules Dupre and a few others of the masters are represented by two 
and in a few instances by three examples. Mr. Cox's frequent visits to Europe, extending over a period of 
many years, have afforded him good opportunities of acquiring relative art values and so true taste, and 
his selections are sufficient proof that he has not gone into single-minded rapture about any particular 
school or schools. Most of his paintings have been purchased direct from the artist's easel or have been 
commissioned ; and that he is wholly cosmopolitan in art is shown by the names on the corner of the 
canvases. 

Of the grandly imaginative work by Alex. Cabanel, called " The Trysting Place of Souls," the great 
artist said he got the inspiration from "A Midsummer Night's Dream ; " 

"And yonder shines Aurora's harbinger, 
At whose approach ghosts, wandering here and there, 
Troop home to churchyards." 



7^2 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

He has represented a soul that has been called back to earth and has for a time resumed its fleshly 
garb to hold converse once more with those it loved in life. There are two Greek figures, the girl seated 
on a bank, under dark overhanging trees, with sad eyes gazing on vacancy ; trying to look into those eyes 
a youth, a lover, who an.xiously pleads. ^Dimly discernible in the distance is a church with faint light in 
one window. The filmy drapery of the girl, the melancholy pose, the depth of gentle grief in the dark moist 
eyes, the delicate etheriality of the whole figure, these show the master hand in a conception which in all its 
details is in powerful sympathy with the ideal Master Poet. It is a composition truly great. But the 
girl's face in particular is fascinating and haunting. One might well exclaim on turning away from it: "I 
have seen a soul." 

From Gerome's easel Mr. Cox has a magnificent example of this great artist. It is a life-size portrait 
of a Bashi Bazouk, whose soft, smooth, dark-brown skin is contrasted with his many colored turban, and 
his worn satin cloak — the sheen and texture of which is marvelously shown. LeroUe's picture of the 
" Potato Harvest " in its composition and its scheme of soft misty grays might easily be mistaken for a 
Millet. Bouguereau's "Child of the Vintage," a life-size female head wreathed in vine leaves, is as fine 
an example of his great technical knowledge and masterly skill as any in this country. The Huntington, 
painted many years ago for Mr. Cox, is a little gem in portraiture, finished like a miniature and called 
" Beatrice." Another excellent ideal head is that of " Rosalind," by Stanley Middleton. His Van Marcke 
is an unusual example by that excellent artist, representing a village scene with two fine cows in the fore- 
ground, followed by sheep and calves. The style is very broad, resembling in a measure that of his master. 
Constant Troyon ; there is strong and beautiful effect in the thatched cottages by the roadside and the 
cloudy sky ; the cows are admirably treated. 

Of the so-called " School of 1830," there are ten choice examples, representing six artists : Daubigny, 
Corot, Dupre, Fromentin, Diaz and Rousseau, all being worthy specimens. The Sir David Wilkie is his well- 
known " Teaching the Blackbird to Whistle." The innkeeper with his red " weskit " and his jug and his 
glass, has the wicker cage on the table, and his earnestness as a teacher is such that even when you look at 
the picture your lips unconsciously pucker. The examples of Perrier show a chateau in Spain, and a 
charming landscape in his minutely beautiful style. " The Widow's Acre," by George H. Boughton, is 
a scene on the picturestiue " Isle of Wight ;" a charming landscape with figures in the foreground and 
fishermen's cottages in the distance. 

The Charles Jacques are three in number ; one called " The Coming Storm," shows cattle standing in 
the water craning their necks in the direction of the swiftly moving rain clouds; another of a barnyard 
with fowls, in his inimitable manner; and a third, landscape and sheep. Schreyer is represented by two 
large and important works. " In Danger " is the title of one ; over a landscape thinly veiled in snow comes 
a sleigh, with a single horse. The driver leans forward, madly urging him on ; the animal rears and shrieks 
in terror, for the scent of the wolves, shown in the corner of the middle foreground, has caught its nostrils. 
The other shows Wallachian teamsters, hurrying homeward in the face of a coming storm. From Cazin 
there is a very important example called "The Last Quarter of the Moon," certainly one of the finest ever 
produced by this brilliant artist; the whole picture swims in an atmosphere luminous with that tender mellow 
light Cazin throws over many of his works ; it stands forth a gem indeed. Taking Mr. Cox's collection as a 
whole, it is most carefully and judiciously selected. 

Another of Mr. Cox's recreations tends in the direction of adding extra illustrations to books. His 
house is filled with books, all rare or at least valuable editions. For some of his extended books he has 
hunted the material for years and years. Among his extra-illustrated works, he feels justly proud of his 
"Horace Walpole and his World," Isaak Walton's "Angler," "Byron," " Mary Queen of Scots," "Life of 
Stothard," and others. His library is famous among the book-lovers, and includes more than 4,000 volumes. 

MR. HENRY M. JOHNSTON'S COLLECTION. 

Henry M. Johnston is another of the lirooklyn collectors who at the beginning of his career as 
such was firmly impressed with the belief that the men of 1830 were the greatest artists of the century. 
He began the accumulation of examples of their works fifteen years ago, and his method of collection 
has been similar to that of Mr. Walters, of Baltimore, who, in his lifetime, has owned and disposed of 
more works of art than any man in this country. Mr. Johnston never sells a picture, but if a better 
example than the one he has of a certain artist comes into the market he makes an exchange and pays 
the difference ; or if his own examples are too good to be parted with, he buys outright. The advantage 
of such a method is that it enables one to accumulate and discriminately weed out at the same time. 
But although Mr. Johnston has proceeded on the rule of obtaining one good example of each great master, 
it has happened, simply because of the excellence of his first purchases, that he has in some instances more 
than one. Particularly is this the case in regard to the works of the men of Barbizon. He has, for 
instance, three superb Corots, three of Diaz, two of Delacroix, three of Jacque, three of Jules Dupre; 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



793 



and of Cazin, who has blown a breath of new life into the landscape art of France, fallen, as it was, into 
a stagnated imitation of the mannerisms of those great masters, Mr. Johnston has no less than four 
important canvases. 

There are about eighty first-class pictures in this collection, and in addition to the above named are 
examples of Rousseau, Troyon, Van Marcke, Daubigny, Rosa Bonheur, Jules Breton, Isabey, De Neuville, 
Martin Rico, Clays, Grison, Michel, Mettling, Marilhat, Lambinet, Kaemmerer, Becker, Jalabert, A. Pasini, 
Monticelli, Pelouse, V. Hugnet, Claude Monet, Courbet, J. B. Jongkind, Vollon, Zamacois, Bouguereau, 
Robie, Raybet, Braith, Desgoffe, Vernet Lecompte, Smith-Hald, Watelin (son-in-law and pupil of Van 
Marcke), Pierre Outin, Carl Hoff, Pierre Mignard, Guido Reni, and choice e.xamples of George Inness, David 
Johnson, Arthur Quartley, J. Francis Murphy and Leonard Ochtman. When the careful weeding-out 
process which Mr. Johnston has carried on for the last decade is borne in mind, such a formidable array 
of famous names will help to form an opinion of his really rare and valuable collection as it now stands. 

Most of the Corots that have come to this country are landscapes simply, painted after the artist had 
simplified his manner, created a system of subdued harmonies, and achieved such triumphs over the prob- 
lems of light and air that he became preeminent as the poet-painter of the evening and the dawn. Two of 




"The EMBARK.iTioN," BY LOUIS E. G. Isabey. 

Mr. Johnston's examples are of this period and show the delicacy of color and the silvery charm under 
which nature smiles upon the artist soul she loves. The third Corot, called "Tiger Seeking Prey," is of an 
earlier period, when his pictures exhibited greater breadth, strength, and more vigorous striving after color 
effects; when it was the sublime rather than the gentler moods of nature which appealed to him. The 
effect is one of impressive weirdness and the picture has all the sublime power of the mythological pictures 
Corot painted at this time. Mr. Johnston's superb Monticelli is six feet two by three feet four, upright, 
and its blaze of color would illuminate and make glorious any gallery in the world. The Empress Eugenie 
had it painted to order for one of her political friends. It was a gift worthy of an Empress, and it is only 
to the fall of the Empire and the stress of circumstances which led to the ruin of the noble family that 
owned it that we are indebted for a sight of it. 

There is one of the largest and most important work of Bouguereau, called " Art and Literature," an 
allegory painted in 1867, for the library of the late J. Stryker Jenkins. The figures of the two women are 
a type of womanhood idealized and made sublime. Jules Dupre's " Oak by the River " is also well-known. 
It was selected for exhibition at the Barye loan collection of one hundred masterpieces. It was then in com- 
petition, so to speak, not only with the masterpieces of all the really great landscapes, but those also of the 
same artist. There were several very superior examples of his brush in this collection, but many con- 



-„. THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

/ 94 

noisseurs held that for certain qualities of breadth and tone, in the vastness of the blue empyrean, in the far 
stretching distances, in the lovely dark green shadowed by a huge oak, on the edge of a silvery, weedy pool, 
and the powerful manner in which the sunlight, instead of being reflected lives and vibrates in the picture 
itself — this was a masterpiece among the masterpieces. 

There is a masterly Delacroix "Tiger and Serpent," a companion picture of that in the Seney sale from 
the Secretan collection, and of the same date and quality. A large snake is coiled round the trunk of a 
cedar, its hissing head poised and pointing to a Bengal tiger only a few feet away. In this animal all the 
powerful coloring for which Delacroix is famous is boldly shown, and nothing so supple, so cruel, so realis- 
tically ferocious can be imagined as this open-mouthed beast. You cannot look at it without an apprehen- 
sion that it is about to spring. By many this has been held to be one of the best examples of Delacroix in 
this country. The other Delacroix is called " The Combat," and is a stirring scene of conflict in the desert. 

Which of the Jacques to select for mention is a difficult question. He has a charming moonlight scene 
which strongly reminds you of the " Sheepfold," by Millet ; but there is a greater one of his, larger and 
more filled with poetic sentiment. The clouds tell you that a storm has just passed over ; the sheep are 
being driven back to the pasture ; and the atmosphere is bright yet heavy with the summer rain. You 
instinctively feel that no other artist could paint this scene, and in a little tell so much. 

From Theodore Rousseau's brush there is shown a small picture which tells you much more of him than 
some of his larger works, for it is painted in loving memory of the birthplace of his fame. It is a scene in 
the outskirts of Barbizon, and in the middle distance is seen, half hidden in delicately shaded foliage, the 
country inn where the great artists of 1830 met nightly and compared notes. And then come the Cazins, 
landscapes which you feel that you could walk into, the ambient air so cleverly depicted that you smell 
the perfume of the flowers your careless feet have crushed. One of them, showing a thunder storm, will 
become famous in after years. The Rosa Bonheur was painted only a year or two before she startled the 
art world with her celebrated " Horse Fair." It is a good landscape, and the cattle show the closest of 
observation of animal life and the artist's wondrous skill in depicting it. The Jules Breton will make you 
pause for a moment. It is a summer day scene on the coast of Brittany, great as a landscape, but greater 
still in the color and life he has portrayed in the girls lounging about the crags or washing in the deep cool 
basin in the foreground. Probably you will never see a prettier bit of Holland by moonlight than is shown 
by Jongkind, and the De Neuville, a "Mounted Sentry," is one of those bits of rare coloring which 
connoisseurs seek and only rarely find. 

The Isabey, too, is a glorious piece of color and of action. It is called " The Embarkation." There is 
the royal barge, purply and gilt, and to the platform below the jetty are hurrying gaily dressed men and 
women of the fashion of Louis XIV. But the glory of the picture is in its scheme of color ; the stormy sky 
and the angry waves dashing against the slimy timbers of the old wharf. Felix Ziem is represented by 
"The Quay of Marseilles," strongly contrasted both in color and treatment ; and by its side is one of the 
best Venetian scenes Rico has painted. The Michel is one of his largest and most important landscapes. 

The latest, and perhaps the most important, addition to Mr. Johnston's collection is a masterpiece by 
Millet called " The Madman." To the admirers of Millet this work will be of absorbing interest, as it 
shows him in a new phase. The picture has never been exhibited. It was painted for Dr. Sema, an old per- 
sonal friend of Millet, was taken direct from the easel as soon as completed, and has only changed hands 
once since. Mrs. Johnston, who is an enthusiast on art, has draped with a curtain the new purchase in 
which she takes a wholesome pride, and when this is withdrawn the first feeling is one of horror, as the 
abnormally staring bloodshot eyes hold and fascinate you. This feeling, however, soon fades and in its 
place steals one of supreme, overwhelming pity. For it is not the face and expression of a maniac. The 
gentle timid mouth with its twitching tremulous lips contradicts this ; you seek the eyes again, where you 
find no ferocious glare, but a maelstrom of sad thoughts showing through a veil of bitter tears. You catch 
the rising sob from a heart as full of sorrows as the sea of sands, and say with Shakespeare : " That he is 
mad, 'tis true ; 'tis true, 'tis pity ; and pity 'tis 'tis true." The scheme of coloring gives it the appearance 
of a Rembrandt, and the allegorical accessories seem to indicate that the artist intended to paint a raving 
maniac, but that his innate humanity unconsciously softened it into a striking picture of a man whose 
reason has succumbed beneath an avalanche of sorrow. 

Unfortunately for Brooklyn, while this volume is in press Mr. Johnston is offering his fine collection 
for sale. 

MR. HENRY T. CHAPMAN, JR.'S, COLLECTION. 

Henry T. Chapman, Jr., is a collector in the best sense of the word. He has delved through 
mediocrity in search of the gems of art with the patient persistence of the Cape miner groping for 
diamonds, and, like the latter, has discovered them in the most unexpected places. All his life the collec- 
tion of beautiful things has been his hobby and his pride. He was one of the first private collectors of 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



795 



this country, and it has taken him thirty-five years to gather together the art treasures which glorify his 
Brooklyn home at No. 340 Clinton avenue, and have given his collection an international reputation. 

He has in all upwards of three hundred canvases, perhaps one-third of which are rare old masters. 
They are all uncatalogued and unclassified, and the visitors, of whom there are many, have to take them in 
at random as they strike the eye. It is only after some study of them that it is borne in upon the mind that 
one school predominates, and it is the many superb examples of this school which makes the collection so 
thoroughly noteworthy. These are known throughout the art world as " The Barbizons." Mr. Chapman 
was one of the first to recognize the greatness of these original geniuses at a time when they were not 
accepted as prophets in their native land. To his mind "the phalan.x of 1830," as it is called — the noble 
little army of which was composed of Rousseau, Diaz, Decamps, Millet, Dupr^, Delacroix, Daubigny, Corot, 
Courbet, Troyon, and Jacque — were masters, and he risked his prescience on the greatness of their works 
long before the great collectors had begun to bid fortunes for their names. He bought what he could of 
their paintings, and he urged their claims on others when his means did not permit him to add further to his 
own store. The fruits of his connoisseurship have been seen at many local exhibitions, but his collection 
includes many works of first importance that have never been seen except on the walls of their proud owner. 
Among these is a group of pictures by the poet-painter Jean Francois Millet, in which the author of 
the famous " Angelus" freely reveals his humanity of sentiment and technical mastery. One of these has 
the caption ^^ pauvre et content," and Joseph Jefferson observed of it in a burst of enthusiasm, " Poor and 

content is rich and rich enough." 
The picture is low in color, ripe and 
rich, and shows care of drawing 
and completeness of finish. It was 
painted before Millet had fallen 
into monotony, and exhibits greater 
variety and subtlety than his later 
works. 

The masterpieces of Constantin 
Troyon illustrate that artist's mas- 
tery of landscape and the portrayal 
of the brute creation in his various 
periods, from landscape only to land- 
scape and cattle, and the third per- 
iod when the landscape became a 
mere background for the animals. 
"The Forest of Fontainebleau," 
painted in 1847, is one of pure land- 
scape, and serves excellently well to 
show how great a landscape painter 
this artist was before he made him- 
self one of the greatest of modern 
cattle painters. 

The second period noticeable in 
Constantin Troyon's work is one 
which is a good example of his tran- 
sition from landscape to cattle. The 
scene is a grassy common, such as 
one sees on the outskirts of any 
French hamlet. A little grove 
crosses the middle ground ; a shower 
lurks in the lazy summer sky. On 
the common a broken-down donkey 
has been turned out to die, and 
around him gather a herd of goats, some of which, with satyr-like sarcasm, mock his misery with sportive 
assaults. This is eminently true to nature and bold in execution. It dates two years after the Fontainebleau 
landscape. There is also a picture by this artist which represents two cows at a marshy pool which crosses 
the foreground, with a distance of low pasture under a cloudy sky. The broad and certain execution and 
the powerful color of this picture set it among the masterpieces. Mr. Chapman has another of the same 
period, two goats grazing on a stony hillside, and all that he needs is an example of this artist in which the 
landscape is entirely subordinated to the cattle to make the collection complete. He will doubtless obtain it. 




'The Girl with the Mousetrap," by Sir Joshua Reynold;;. 
Drawn by Richard Creyfields^from the original painting. 



yc,6 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Of the Corots there is a large and important one called " The Harvesters Returning from the Field," 
which illustrates the artist's middle period, at the time when he was working in Rome, and betrayed its 
influences. In its scheme of color and wondrous atmosphere effects it surpasses many of his better efforts. 
Of these there is also an e.xample, a little gem of a landscape, featherly delicate in its phases of light and 
shadow. 

Most notable of all the Barbizons in this collection is the great e.xample of Jules Dupre. This picture 
was painted between 1S35 and 1S40, when the artist was in the full vigor of his manhood and enthusiasm, 
and is undoubtedly his masterpiece. Nothing can compare with the delicacy which is shown in the pene- 
trability of its foliage and its scheme of light and coloring. Only to look at it is to recline on a mossy 
knoll in the forest, see the moving panorama of fleecy clouds overhead, feel the gentle swaying of the 
foliage under the soft summer zephyrs, hear the insects buzz and the birds sing. A smaller work by the 
same master, of about the same period, also shows a lordly oak in the foreground, and in this also the 
artist demonstrates his familiar contact with nature. One can understand from these two examples of his 
earlier work how Dupre was able, in his decrepitude, to paint such excellent portraits of nature from 
memory and experience. 

The principal picture by Daubigny is "The Time of Apple Blossoms." It is one of those simple 
studies of nature in which Daubigny rejoiced, and no American collection contains an example of his brush- 
work which more glorifies his genius. The pictures of Eugene Delacroix include a brilliant sketch for 
historical composition and several conceptions of animal life. In one of these we see a lion rending a 
serpent that has intruded upon his seclusion ; in another, a weary, hunted tiger in a cane-brake laps water 
at a stream ; another has a Bengal man-eater at rest. It is hardly larger than a girl's palm, yet has all 
the glow and sparkle of a casket of gems. 

Alexandre Gabriel Decamps shows his handiwork in a picture of large dimensions and of sumptuous 
tone and color. It is an interior lighted only by one window, and the scene of color shows up the figures 
in the middle foreground and throws others and the rest of the picture into deep shadow. To an audience 
of peasant children a vagrant showman is exhibiting his marionettes in their portable theatre. It is the 
same Punch and Judy show which amuses crowds of children on the Avenue des Champs Elysees, in the 
provinces, and throughout rural England even unto this day and generation, and is a pleasing reminiscence 
of youthful joys as well as of one of Decamps' long tramps afoot, for he who painted was like Dickens 
who wrote, fond of going forth on wayward journeys in quest of possibilities. " Looking at this picture," 
writes a noted art critic, " one can fancy the artist in the unseen doorway, sketch book in hand, with his 
hound curled at his feet — one of those hounds that went hunting with him one day and whose baying 
called the Fontainebleau foresters to find a great artist lying with his skull shattered at the base of a tree, 
against which his horse had thrown him, dying as he had lived, a misunderstood, lonely man." 

From the several examples of Diaz may be singled out a nymph and Cupid in the best style of the 
artist in this class of subjects, and a study of a young woman in a garden with a hound at her feet. The 
example of Van Marcke is of the earlier period, when he was yet under the influence of Troyon, and in 
several respects it is much richer in tone than many of his works of a later period. The Courbets and 
the Delacroixs are also excellent examples, and, on the whole, as a collection of the Barbizons there is 
no other in the country that can compare with this. 

Another great Frenchman of the same period was Thomas Couture, whose " Romans of the Decadence" 
is a glory to the national collection of France. Next to his " Decadence " in artistic appreciation comes 
the masterpiece in the Chapman collection, the " Magdalen." The fair sinner is seated in repentance in 
a sylvan retreat. Carnal vanity, in the presence of two roguish Cupidons, tempt her with cajolements of 
passion and a bait of jewels. With her eyes on a rustic cross and her hands clasping the Bible, she resists 
their allurements. The figures are life-size and in their vitality of color and perfection of modeling have 
as much of the palpitant quality of actual flesh and blood as art can simulate. Couture has left no 
allegory more striking and lifelike than this. 

Probably next in importance come the works of George Michel, in regard to which Mr. Chapman has a 
veritable enthusiasm and an ambition to possess all his masterpieces. When he was abroad in 1879, he 
came to the conclusion that this artist was not appreciated as he would be some day, and he hunted up and 
purchased no less than thirty-nine of his canvases. In after years he added to and eliminated from this 
collection until it became one of the choicest in the country. At least three of these Michels are conceded 
to be the finest in existence. They are "Quarries near Montmartre," "The Approaching Storm," and 
"The Hill of Montmartre." 

But all these, after all, are but selected examples in the grand collection of Mr. Chapman. He is in 
reality broad and liberal in mind, and not wedded to any time or school. Such early Dutch painters as 
Van Goyen and John Van Ravensteyn and Holbein and Phillip Roos, and Peter Van Bloemen, find a place 
on his walls, alongside with Sir Joshua Reynolds (" The Girl with the Mousetrap"), Watteau, Caspar, 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 797 

Poussln, Claude Lorraine, Hobbema, Van Dyke, Paul Delaroche and Salvator Rosa. The latter is repre- 
sented by his famous picture of "The Deluge," made familiar to everybody by the popular reproductions of it. 

There are so many episodes of passing interest in Mr. Chapman's collection that it is difficult to decide 
which are the more worthy of mention. There is the color scheme of the great picture painted by the mad 
artist of the mad King of Bavaria, life behind the scenes of a circus; there is the original of Peter Von 
Bloeman's " Descent from the Cross," known wherever the Bible is known ; a portrait by Madame Le Brun, 
which in some inexplicable way seems to call up memories of her interesting career; the famous English 
artist Morland claims your attention by his chubby country boy in his drab smock frock, and a red field 
poppy in his hat— a charming little piece ; and there are many other illustrations of English art that you 
are unable to carry in your mind from an afternoon visit. One thing that you are sure to remember, how- 
ever, is the very interesting examples of Paul Delaroche's work. He has in the Louvre a large picture of 
"The Death of Queen Elizabeth," who died as she lived, a cruel, vainglorious woman, surrounded by 
flatterers and sycophants, even on her deathbed. Two of the original portraits for this great historical 
work happily fell into the hands of Mr. Chapman, and they are of more than historical interest in that they 
are such excellent examples of the early period of French Academic art. 

As will be seen from this necessarily brief sketch you go into this collection with the idea of making a 
careful study of the Barbizons, but your mind is switched off into other tracks by the multitude of other 
interesting objects. The collection of old Chinese porcelains is one of the finest in the country. It contains 
several examples of the peachblow, which occasioned such a sensation at the sale of Mrs. Morgan's collec- 
tion of "old blues;" tea-leaf color, mirror- black, and coral. Then there are the bronzes, which range from 
the earliest period down to Barye, and include some of the famous silver bronzes of India. There are 
some exquisite ivory carvings, and Mrs. Chapman has a room to herself, the walls of which are entirely dedi- 
cated to autographs and the portraits of their writers. They range from Napoleon as Consul down to the 
great men of to-day, and the collection is one of surpassing interest. She has also a series of sketches of 
her own hand of a shipwreck at Point Lookout, her summer home. She saw the vessel struggling in the 
storm, gave the first alarm, and the pictures commemorating the life saving are wreathed with the old ropes 
that formed the ladder of salvation for many lives. There is a head of Mr. Chapman in clay. Hartley 
made it in thirty-one minutes before the Rembrandt Club, of which Mr. Chapman is a prominent member. 
There are art books galore, including a whole library of catalogues, the Turner Gallery, Michael Angelo's 
works, many rare art publications, and about five thousand valuable engravings. There are many cabinets, 
quaint and ancient, interesting in the stories they tell of our forefathers' expedients before science got out 
of its swaddling clothes, and among these is one kept carefully locked which is a history all in itself of the 
first attempts at the manufacture of glass. But the examples selected are of the most fragile description. 
They are as fine pearls with the fire-gleam of the opal. 

Mr. Chapman keeps in reserve his favorite picture. The critical opinion of its owner is that it is the 
greatest Rousseau in the world, and in this fact the visitor will find an additional charm. He is desirous of 
showing it a little before the sunset gun is fired on Governor's Island, for, singular to say, this picture is as 
the tourmaline, a stone which varies in its color depths with its immediate surroundings. It was the fortune 
of the writer to see this picture at the hour it is best seen. And it was curious indeed, and vastly interest- 
ing, to watch the transformations of color and depth of tone which the varying light made in this picture. 
It was something uncanny. It was in the beginning of the study a masterly piece of brushwork ; then you 
found yourself looking from a window over a pastoral scene of great beauty in which everything changed 
with the throes of the dying sun. There are other Rousseaus in Mr. Chapman's collection — there are many 
scattered about this country — but there is none in which the splendor of imagination and the genius of 
human fingers is shown quite so well in the delineation of one of Nature's sweetest moods. 

MR. JOSEPH C. HOAGLAND'S COLLECTION. 

Joseph C. Hoagland is a collector of much taste and discrimination, who made his purchases only 
after thought. The first striking point in his canvases is the presence of a strong individuality on the 
part of the gentleman who brought them together, an individuality as broad and liberal as are the canons of 
true art themselves. Unfortunately, Mr. Hoagland has been too busy and too devoted to the collecting of 
pictures to find time to have them catalogued, and consequently only a partial list can be given. But the 
following names will serve to show in how liberal a spirit he has pursued his hunting pleasures into the 
realms of art : Daubigny, Rousseau, John Phillip, Gainsborough, Kowalski, Henner, Troyon, Schreyer, 
Mollinger, Lerolle, Yeend King, Leo Hermann, Van Marcke, Jules Breton, Corot, Monticelli, Neuhuys. 
Diaz, Jules Dupre, James Price, C. E. Jacque, John Burr, G. Michel, O'Connor, H. W. Ranger, Houseman, 
Wilson, Stortenbeker, J. F. Herring, H. Jacquette, E. J. Nieman, Herman Ten Kate, Marie Ten Kate, 
Rozier, Niemann, H. P. Smith, Ogden Wood, Nicholas Maes, J. Richet, Burr H. Nichols. Of several of 
these there are more than one example. 



79S 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Many connoisseurs who have visited the gallery of their confrlre have been primarily attracted by his 
pictures by Troyon and the latter's pupil Van Marcke, and one of the most exquisite of Daubignys there is 
to be found. The Van Marcke occupies the place of honor, so far as the mere hanging is concerned, and is 
admitted to be one of the finest, if not the finest example of this artist's brush during his best and most suc- 
cessful period. One solitary Holstein cow fills the whole of the large canvas, with head erect, eye dilated 
and yet soft, and body full of vigorous yet reposeful action. The drawing is superb, but the coloring, the 
deep blacks and dead whites, and the sheen of light caught here and there in the satiny skin, are depicted 
with a faithfulness entirely unsurpassable. The picture was purchased at the sale of the Graves collection. 
The o-rand Troycm might well find a place by its side. It was sold in the Probasco collection in 1887, and 
was also the subject of spirited bidding. It is called " The Approaching Storm," and measures sixty- 
two inches by forty-four. Troyon painted this in 1859, and it is one of the few landscapes he painted 
at that period, as he had already found that his cattle pieces, for some undefinable reason, secured a readier 




"The Appkoaciii.ng Siorm," by Constantine Trovon. 

sale. As to the Daubigny, " Le Fin du Mai," scarcely anything so exquisitely and poetically sweet can be 
found in paint. It was painted in 1870, and Mr. Hoagland was fortunate to secure it at the sale of A. T. 
Stewart's collection. 

The Rousseau is small, but gives some of the best effects of this artist. It is a glen, overhung with 
dense foliage, with here and there only a glimpse of gray sky. The example by the English artist John 
Phillip is an impressionist study of a girl with a greyhound, which Mr. Hoagland picked up in Wales. 
Kowalski shows his handiwork in a Russian scene, the horses and dogs demonstrating careful drawing and 
accurate knowledge, and the Henner is probably the loveliest woman's head that was ever limned — a 
small oval face shadowed with a mass of dark hair, round scjft eyes that pierce you like the shafts of 
truth. As a conception of idealized feminine loveliness this will stand for all time. The splendid 
action and color of Shreyer's " Arabs making a Charge " arrests the eye for a moment, and then comes 
a pastoral which reminds you of Millet, even after you notice the signature of A. MoUinger in the corner. 
It is a Millet subject, peasants returning home from their toil, and in its sympathetic, atmospheric effects 
is very much like Millet in treatment. Differently handled is the picture of G. Lerolle, "Burning the 
Weeds," which is a sombre evening on a lonely stubble field, illuminated by the flame and drifting smoke 
from the burning piles of weeds. There is a dainty bit of English scenery by Yeend King, and a genre 
picture, by Leo Hermann, called " L'Incroyable." 

Jules Breton is well represented in a large canvas showing cattle and a peasant girl in a noonday 
reverie ; and near to it is one of Corot's bosky, balsam-laden woods, into the cool shadow of which the 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 799 

sun scarcely penetrates. Another scene in the wild wood, but flooded with sunshine, is by A. Monticelli, 
and was painted before that artist went entirely crazy on gorgeous coloring. Another by the same artist 
shows a group of pretty girls in a garden, with rosy cupids gamboling at their feet. There are three 
Dutch interiors by Neuhuys, all of which show painstaking study and niceties of detail, and a nice bit of 
English scenery in the early autumn represents James Price. Another scene of rural content is by Jacque, 
and acknowledged to be one of his best. This work comes from the Thomas Howell collection. 

Although Mr. Hoagland shares his love for the fine arts with a passion for yachting, there are but 
few marines in his collection. There is one, certainly, which is a masterpiece of its kind, and perhaps 
this satisfies him. It is by Jules Dupre, and is justly celebrated. It is of the sea as only a seaman sees 
it, far away from land in the playground of the storms. This is after a storm, when the sea's loud, 
angry growls are changed to moans, and it heaves and pants with the passion spent. It is one of a few 
of Dupre's marines which are really masterly, and Mr. Hoagland's keen sympathy with the sea gives it, 
in his eyes, an additional value. His Diaz is also a good one, and forms the strongest kind of a con- 
trast to the Dupre. It is a pastoral scene of great beauty, in which nature in her most resplendent raiment 
lies down amid her works for an afternoon nap. There is also an exceedingly pretty landscape by J. Richet, 
who was a pupil of Diaz, and who in this work, at least, shows the influence of the master. 

For many years it was said in England that no man could paint horses, or ever had painted them, 
as faithfully as J. F. Herring did, and there are many cosmopolitan connoisseurs who hold that in this 
he has no superior. Very few of his pictures have been permitted to come to this country, and the one 
in this collection is something to be proud of. It is of the days Charles Dickens loved to go back to, 
when the arrival of the stage-coach in a town was an event. Herring here portrays "Changing Horses," 
the first mail coach from Winchester to Portchester, a village midway where the horses take their pound 
of oat meal in lukewarm water, and the red-nosed driver " takes his hot, he does." The inn is a low, white- 
washed building roofed with thatch, and in the inn yard are scattered a few yokels in the twine- 
embroidered smock-frocks, now fast disappearing. As an episode des moeurs the picture tells a story of 
increasing interest as time rolls on, but the close observation and artistic skill shown in the portrayal of 
the horses will be a study of moment for all artists for all time. There is a fine example of P. Storten- 
beker of the Hague, " On the Dikas in Holland," which was painted to order when Mr. Hoagland was 
in Holland in 1890. Its peculiarity is the wondrous luminous effect of the sky, which casts its lights 
and shadows over the dikes, dotted with well-drawn cattle. 

There is not space to describe all the good pictures in this collection, but it is pleasing to add that 
American artists also find a somewhat prominent place in it. There is a Richard Creifels, a head of "The 
Old Captain " — a strong work with remarkable coloring ; a farmyard scene by H. \V. Ranger, who 
somehow has made a greater reputation by his water colors; a pleasing landscape by H. P. Smitii, and a 
comedy in colors by Burr H. Nichols. Who painted the portrait of Alfred the Great will probably never be 
known. Mr. Hoagland purchased it upon its artistic value, as he did a large picture of the court lady of 
the time of the Seventh Earl of Derby, and several others. Weedon Grossmith — where is there one who 
has spent any time in the metropolis of Great Britain who does not know him as the prince of drawing- 
room entertainers ? Yet here he figures as an artist in oil, picturing a youth spinning a teetotum. 
Whether he intended it or not, it is something of an allegory on his own history. 

There is another point which belongs to art if it does not to pictures. Mr. Hoagland's library is 
wainscoted from top to bottom with the finest specimen of carved oak work to be found in this country. 
In pursuit of art he found this in an old convent in Belgium. It is in panel, and a heavy cornice has 
been made in this country to match it. In the bric-a-brac of the room good taste is shown to keep every- 
thing in harmony with this handsome antique workmanship, and even the stained glass windows are 
interesting in that ornaments of exquisite coloring are shown in them, being fac-similes of the book-marks 
of the old bibliophiles. 

MR. JOHN B. LADD'S COLLECTION. 

John B. Ladd began collecting pictures in 1877, and now his house at No. 246 Henry street is nearly filled 
with them. He has bought as a gentleman buys, for his own recreation and pleasure, and has been courageous 
enough to base his own judgment on the merits of the works themselves, rather than follow so-called expert 
judgment or be influenced by mere names, which, it sometimes happens, attain a certain popularity by the 
adroit puffery of dealers. For all this, in his collection are to be found examples of many of the most 
famous of modern French painters— some of those well-known and some only just creeping up among the 
artists of other countries of Europe — and some excellent examples of home talent. In fine, it is a miscel- 
laneous collection, in which every work is of merit, and all possess an interest to genuine art lovers. 

Such a collection, in the absence of any classified catalogue, can be only treated in a general way, and 
works of more than ordinary merit have to be passed with a mere mention in order to give an idea of the 



Soo 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



wide range which the collection covers. There are, to begin with, some excellent examples of the Barbizon 
school. The most important of these is a Corot, a scene at Mantes, which very finely exhibits the best 
qualities of this artist. It shows a broad country road grassed on either side, and peasants lazily gossip- 
ing; in the background, the tops of the houses, and the spire of the old cathedral showing above the foli- 
age. A Van Marcke, which came direct from the artist's sale last year, shows a cleverly drawn horse 
and the village smithy. It has a charming out-of-door feeling, and expresses more than some of his more 
closely finished pictures. Jacque is represented in a small interior, done at his best period, and a more 
important work, called " The Approaching Storm." The cloud effects in the latter are wonderfully good, 
light filtering through the dark sky in patches, and falling on the flock of sheep in the middle foreground. 
The Daubigny is small, but the quality is very fine. It depicts summer in the fields, not far from Paris. Of 
the Holland school a strong and interesting Israels and two superb examples by Mauve, who died in 1889. 
One of the best pictures of Eugene Ciceri, called " Spring at Daybreak," is found here, and a pendant 
which has the soft brown tones of autumn for a motive. For spirited action and glow of color, " The 
Attack," by A. Pasini, is to be very highly commended. A regiment of horse is rushing pell-mell, all 
crowded together, through a narrow defile, kicking up a cloud of desert sand, and in the background is 
the smoke of battle but a short distance away. It is a masterpiece of conception and execution. 

After this an Inness, called " A Cloudy Day," a gentle pastoral with cattle, rests the eye and calms the 
excitement of enthusiasm. It is painted with that individuality of poetic thought which gives the place of 
first eminence in American art, and it has all the strength and vigor of a Dupre without at all reminding 
you of that other great artist's handiwork. Near it is a sunset landscape by A. H. Wyant which, when the 
light of fading day is on it has the peculiar characteristic of Mr. Chapman's celebrated Rousseau, and 
seems to take on new life in the illumination of the sky by the reflection of the sun's last ruddy glow. The 
foreground is a wood, the crowded details of which are made apparent without any nicety of paint. Horatio 
Walker, another American, has a picture called " After the Rain." It is somewhat after the Dutch school. 
The clever handling of the cow and calf in the foreground is worthy of the artist, who has been called the 




" Mantes," ky Jean B. C. Corot. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 3oi 

best cattle painter of this country. There is an excellent Rico, a Venetian scene, of course, but it is less 
architectural and in many respects more pleasing in its sentiment than many of his works. There is an 
important work by Richard Pauli, a young American, a pretty moonlight scene not far from Englewood, 
N. J.; Bolton Jones has a " Landscape with Cattle," near Cape Ann ; a gem by Arthur Quartley, "Dawn 
at Sea," and a small Carleton Wiggins remarkably rich in tone. 

Among other excellent examples are : The famous old mill at Venice, by Santoro ; figure of a soldier, by 
E. Berne-Bellecour ; a head by F. Dielman ; " The Gunning Season," by Leonard Ochtman ; an important 
work by Hugo Kaufmann, full of dry humor ; " Christmas Morning," by Seignac ; " Scandinavian Girl," by 
Carl Sierig ; E. Grison's celebrated painting, " At the Antiquarian's ; " an old country garden by Pelouse, 
who died in 1891 ; " The Wood Cutter's Cabin," by Jacomin, a little gem ; a magnificent woodland scene, 
by Sanchez-Perrier, painted in 1888 ; " Distraite," figure of a charming face shrouded in black lace, by 
Claudie ; "Boulevard des Capucines, Paris," by Jean Beraud ; "The Stirrup Cup," an important work by 
J. A. Walker, the English artist who was born in the West Indies, and paints after the French school ; 
"Scene in the Franco-German War," by Chr. Sell, who has been called the German Meissonier ; "The 
Astronomer," by Paul Burmeister, and a number of water colors of the Dutch school and original etchings 
by well-known artists. 

Mr. Ladd has also a fine collection of old Chinese porcelains, some rare pieces in solid colors, and 
blue and white. 

HON. CARLL H. DeSILVER'S COLLECTION. 

Carll H. DeSilver has in his residence, at No. 43 Pierrepont street, quite a number of excellent canvases 
which he has gathered together during the past fifteen years. His collection seems to show a decided taste 
for landscapes which subtly depict the more tender beauties of nature, and of the modern French school 
he has several good examples, as well as of leading American artists who paint this mood. But the walls 
are by no means monotonous either in tone or subject. Here and there are impressionist bits of gay color 
and remarkably fine figure pictures. Conspicuous among the latter is " The Mirror of Nature," by Leon 
Perrault, in which the well-drawn and captivating figures have a background of the sweetest charm. The 
" Mirror " is a rock-bound, pellucid spring, reflecting two pretty girls in gay Italian costume, bending over 
it, one of whom is gently dabbling her foot in the cool water. Another sylvan scene of great beauty hang- 
ing near it, is by A. H. Wyant, who has become the pictorial chronicler of the magnificent scenery of 
the Adirondack wilderness. Its value can be judged from the fact that it was sent to Paris as a represen- 
tative American landscape, and received a medal. 

Daubigny, the master poet of the twilight, is seen here in an unusual phase, for among all his pictures 
there are few of the beauty of the moonlight. In the treatment of light, air, color and feeling this picture 
is regarded as Daubigny's masterpiece, and there lies in it an additional interest in the fact that it was one 
of the last canvases upon which he recorded his title to undying fame. The first picture Mr. De Silver 
bought, and therefore one of reminiscent interest, is a pietty love story by Professor Amberg, of Berlin, 
called "A Question of the Heart." Of Kowalski there is a good representation; a mounted hunter and 
two dogs in a wintry landscape ; of Carleton Wiggins, a small landscape with cattle ; of Rico, " A Venetian 
Palace," small but showing as much of his rare quality as do his larger pictures ; of Sanchez-Perrier, a little 
scene that is full of sparkle and brilliancy. 

The Vibert in Mr. De Silver's collection is also an admirable example. It is called " Embarras du 
Choix," and represents a Cardinal before a massive bronze vase filled with flowers. For accuracy both of 
drawing and coloring, and for elegance in their arrangement, these flowers cannot be surpassed. The 
Cardinal's figure is in itself a study for artists, for in the robe there are no less than eight shades of red 
harmoniously blended. Another great color picture is " The Children's Toilet," by Vacslav Brozik, a pupil of 
Munkacsy, and son-in-law of Mr. Seidelmeyer, of Paris. Mr. De Silver's example of this artist is a domestic 
scene, the nurse washing the baby, and another baby who has just gone through the ordeal, with other 
interesting details. Tito Lessi is a young Italian who undoubtedly will have a future if "The Mandolin 
Player," a careful study of color, is to be taken as a characteristic example. There are two little figure 
pieces by Bruc-Lajos and Leo Hermann, and a small Diaz showing a stormy sky and moist landscape ; 
a Russian snow scene by Jan Chelminski ; a " Friar of Orders Grey," a study with a gleam of humor in it 
by Tamborini ; " Head of An Armenian Girl," by Grogeart ; a pretty landscape by Henry P. Smith, and an 
interesting souvenir of Wm. M. Chase. This last is a picture of his own studio, so well-known to art lovers, 
and shows a young girl turning over the leaves of a huge volume of his sketches and color schemes. 

That most charming of early pastoral romances, " The Vicar of Wakefield," is recalled by a portrait of 
" Olivia," by George H. Boughton. It is a large picture, and represents Olivia bashfully drawing a letter 
from her bosom to hide it in the trunk of an adjacent tree for her lover. Two water colors, " The Wine 
Taster," by Vibert, and "// maime il ne maime pas," a girl plucking the petals of a daisy, by de Curvillon, 
represent two of the leading aquarellists of France by fine examples of their deft handiwork. A little 



802 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 







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"The Mirror of Nature," bv Leo.n Perrault. 

picture of dogs, by Armfield, an English artist, tells its story well ; R. W. Van Boskerck is represented in 
a Dutch scene ; David Johnson by a landscape of great merit ; Grison, by a carefully finished picture 
called "The Reader," and J. R. Goubie, by a work which demonstrates his title to fam.e as the foremost 
French illustrator of "high-life" equestrianism. Another Frenchman, Croche-Pierre, has here a canvas 
entitled " Meditation," which is a masterly exhibit of close detail in portraiture ; and a fruit piece of great 
richness of color is signed in the corner Marston Ream. 

Among the rooms which these pictures fill with an atmosphere of good taste and refinement, you will 
also see specimens of Gobelin tapestry, fine Bohemian glass, English cameos, Chinese jade, an interesting 
cabinet of family miniatures, one by Rembrandt Pearle, who painted many of Washington and his family, 
and some more recent ones by Gerald Hayward, an Englishman who is devoting himself to this branch of 
art in America, and whose work has done so much in the revival of the interest in and the taste for miniature 
painting, which has recently become noteworthy. 



MR. JOHN S. JAMES'S COLLECTION. 

A collection which is almost entirely made up of modern French and American examples is that of Mr. 
John S. James, at No. 6 Pierrepont street. Mr. James has been collecting for a few years only ; but that 
his taste and judgment are recognized among the art lovers of Brooklyn is indicated by his three 
successive elections as president of the Rembrandt Club. It was at one of the meetings of this influential 
art club that Mr. James found a text to guide him in the selection of pictures for the beautifying of his 
home and the elevation and recreation of his life. William M. Chase, the justly celebrated New York 
artist, was addressing the club, and in the course of his advice to its members said : " Don't be guided by 
any school or names, or by anybody. When you see a good picture buy it on your own judgment. This 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



803 



will give you much more pleasure in after years and do much more to develop a true taste." Mr. James 
has rigorously followed this advice, and still continues to find pleasure in doing so. His collection is not 
large, but among the artists represented are good examples of the works of Becker, Beraud, Mme. Demont- 
Breton, Domingo-Munoz, Enrique-Serra, Goubie, Grison, Hagborg, Jacquet, Kowalski, Lesrel, Schreyer, 
Van Boskerck, Vibert, A. F. Bellows, Bierstadt, Bridgeman, W. M. Chase, W. A. Coffin, Bolton Jones, 
David Johnson, Percy Moran, Pauli, Walter Satterlee, Henry P. Smith, F. Hopkinson Smith and Carleton 
Wiggins. 

The first picture which strikes you on a visit to his collection, partly from its position, is a large and 
important Breton, not one of the famous Jules, but of his talented daughter Madame Demont-Breton. Mr. 
James has a large and important work of hers called '■^ Le Premier Pas'' It is the first step of a chubby 
babe, and the little journey is made along the knees of the proud and happy mother, as she leans back 
in her chair and laughs until the apple blossoms overhead quiver with her joy. It is in the painting of chil- 
dren that this artist is at her best. 

The example of Kagborg is an unusual one, as this great Swedish painter usually devotes his talent 
to coast scenes and fishermen. This is a smoothly painted and prettily colored picture of an aristocratic 
garden, with a gay gallant, cocked hat tucked under arm, making love to a lady fair in tender blue, 
blushing when her stern papa appears on the terrace. Of Kowalski, the Polish painter of horses and 
hunting, there is a small but excellent example, the hounds in full cry among the turnips, the huntsman's 
horse just rising for the fence. It is full of splendid life and action, and the flat landscape is breezily and 
charmingly treated, " The Oaks," by David Johnson, who is very widely known as a landscape artist, is very 
like a Rousseau in its tender tones ; and another artist's work, worthy of being ranked with the famous 
Barbizons, is that of Carleton Wiggins, who after some years study in Paris returned to this country 
one of the best equipped cattle painters of America. In this example the sheep are handled with masterly 




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The SURPKisK," by Hagborg. 



8o4 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



skill but it is as a quiet pastoral, a scene in the Barbizon district, with its beautiful atmosphere effects of 
evening, that it is most to be prized. 

Percy Moran is represented by a well-known work, called " Day Dreams." It is of a New England 
interior, a girl sitting in the wide window-seat, dreaming and watching the apple trees wave in the summer 
sunshine. There is a spinning wheel, some geraniums in pots, and an atmosphere of contented home 
life about the whole which is charming. " The Orange Dance," by Enrique-Serra, shows a harem scene 
full of contrasts and harmonies of color. Bierstadt is represented by a sunset picture in the San Joaquin 
Valley, with Mount Diablo in the distance ; and Walter Satterlee by two pretty figures arranging flowers, 
called " Easter Morning." Frederick A. Bridgeman, who began his artist life as a regular attendant at 
the night school of the Brooklyn Art Association, shows his clever brush in the figures of a languishing 
Algerine ; and another Brooklynite, who studied marine under De Haas, and after a sojurn abroad is 
now beginning. to be called the American Rico, is well represented by an ambitious picture of Venice. This 
is Warren Shepherd. It is a picture of the Golden Palace, silhouetted against the blue sky and reflected on 
the silvery surface of the grand canal. The architecture of the palace, by the way, should be well known to 
Brooklyn's citizens, as it is pretty closely copied in the design of the Montauk Club House. 

Harry Chase, one of our most distinguished marine painters, has also a Venetian scene ; it is of sail- 
boats, and is one of his best examples. W. A. Coffin, one of the best art critics and lecturers on art in the 
country, a pupil of Bonnat, is represented by a work which he calls " Palm Sunday " — peasants in a narrow 
street waiting for the priest's benediction as he heads a procession just emerging from the church door. 
The figures are splendidly drawn, and the coloring is rich and harmonious. William M. Chase has a pretty 
scene in Prospect Park, and F. Hopkinson Smith " A Gondola Landing." H. Bolton Jones has a picture 
of early spring, juicy and crisp, and evidently entirely painted out of doors. Goubie, a French artist of 
the modern school who has made his great hit by equestrian scenes, and whose picture, " The Presentation 
of the Stag's Foot," was one of the prizes of the Stebbin's sale, is showing in a pleasing study of an after- 
noon ride. There is a study in red by Vibert, a carman lolling and smoking a cigarette ; an excellent 
example of Hooper, the English artist, called " After the Shower." A painting by Jan V. Chelminski, "The 
Reconnaissance," mounted scouts scouring across a level plain of snow, which not only shows his clever 
handling of the horse but some capital landscape effects; a beautiful little Lesrel called "The Color 
Bearer; " a large picture by Domingo-Munoz, called " The Spy's Report; " a little genre by Grison ; and a 
first rate Schreyer, an Arab scout, remarkably clever and spirited in action. Jean Beraud is represented by 
a realistic scene in the church of the Magdelene, Paris — two figures in black, a devotee, and a charming 
mondaine ; and Sanchez-Perier shows a study of soft spring greens which is not so minute in its treatment and 
possesses a greater depth of treatment and sympathetic effects than most of his pictures. He has been called 
the Meissonier of Spain. There are also in the collection a number of important water colors by A. F. Bel- 
lows, Walter Satterlee, Neill Mitchell, and others, including one by Story, which is of interest as one of his 
early efforts as an artist. 

Besides his presidency of the Rembrandt Club, Mr. James also fills the office of the Vice-President of 
the Brooklyn Art Association, and is a trustee of the Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

MR. ALEXANDER BARRIE'S COLLECTION. 

The collection of Mr. Alexander Barrie, of No. ii6 Montague street, is an excellent illustration of the 
value of care and good taste in selection, maintaining a high standard, and improving that standard by 
judicious weeding out and replacing good examples with better ones. Mr. Barrie's taste grows and 
advances with the advancement of art itself, and in his broad love for art he has made it his aim to keep 
abreast of the times. 

Two of the most important works in point of size and in some other respects are the landscapes by 
George Inness and A. H. Wyant. These are of special interest for purposes of comparison, from the fact 
that both were commission pictures and both were painted at about the same time. This was in 1890, and 
the works therefore represent the ripened judgment and skill of the artists. The Innes is called " Sunset 
Seen Through the Georgia Pines," and its depth of tone and tender feeling make it one of the most 
emotional renderings of the poetry of the death of day that has ever been limned. The Wyant is also a 
local scene, an early morning near Crofts, N. Y., that matches in size and quality with his choice specimen 
of Inness — a wide landscape, in which nothing is accented beyond the foreground, but where one warms 
in the rays of sun poured through an air that is softly grayed and brightened with mist. A pool, trees and 
column of smoke lazily drifting upward, far away, are in the composition, and the sky is lightly mottled. 
It is a work full of subtleties, but in its effect large, serene and pure ; a picture that has something new for 
the beholder every day. 

These two canvases are in themselves a proof that Mr. Barrie in his collection places quality before 
quantity. In this respect the work of Pokitonow, who has been called the Meissonier of Russian landscape. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



805 



is a large picture in a small space. It was painted in Paris, and shows a widespreading plain, dotted with 
ricks and with farm buildings in the distance. Across the middle ground a shepherd is conducting his 
flock ; merely little dots they are, but they bear the force of the magnifying glass, and come out under it 
with a perfection of detail that leads one to think the artist may have worked with such a glass. 

In Emilio Sanchez-Perrier's " Midsummer Noon," the bank rising from the roadside is protected by a 
wall of rough stones, with a picket fence upon the top. Beyond the fence is seen a glimpse of the vegeta- 
tion of a farm garden. Steps of stone lead through the wall from the road to the level of the garden, and 
on the right hand an end of the cottage appears. It is the dead hour of a midsummer day. The old farm- 
house and its inmates doze together in the drowsy heat, while nature pants in the broad glare from a sky 
which blazes in a vast blue expanse of ether unspotted by a cloud. The road is deserted, and no wandering 




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feet stir the dry dust that powders wayside weeds and grass. The sun is supreme master of the scene, 
which it rules with a scepter of fire. 

Rico is represented by one of his admirable Venetian compositions, which with Brooklyn collectors 
seem to find favor. It shows the Royal Gardens, with gondolas passing on the calm, bright water, the over- 
hanging trees and characteristic Venetian architecture in marble, lighted by a sun that fills the air with a 
lazy heat. A capital rural picture, which tells a pleasing story of boys bird-nesting, is by Dargelas. The 
cool shade of the woods is made to be felt, and the figures of the boys in the trees are excellently drawn. A 
picture which forms a contrast to this is a lively bit of bright color by Professor W. Pelten, a Russian, who 
paints in Munich, representing a lumbering country coach stopped by a single highwayman. The life and 
action of the horses are very striking. 

An interior by J. A. Grison is a tale of the dead bird and the quarrel over it. The owner is making her 
plaint, the dead pet in its wicker cage at her feet, and a big countrywoman is angrily defending herself. 
The scene is the library of the manor house, and the fat old lord and the lean old notary who are trying 
the momentous case are marvels of character painting. The pose of the figures, too, and the careful detail 
of the library shelves and fire-place show this to be one of Grison's best efforts. A leash of hunting dogs 
by O. DePenne is clean in drawing, clear in color — fine fellows with bright eyes and panting throats, 
dappled with yellow and white and tied to a tree biding their time when the hunt shall begin. It might be 
contrasted with the two terriers by Troyon, if there were any grounds of comparison. The latter is a little 
gem. There is an example by Ottenfeld, of Munich, who also paints in miniature, called "The Tile 
Painter," which is a great lesson in subdued harmonies in color, and an excellent landscape, as bright and 
clear as a summer morning, by F. Cordero, a young Spanish painter. E. Munier is represented by a small 



8o6 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



canvas which in tone and modeling reminds one very forcibly of Bougue-reau. It is called "Coming from 

the Orchard," a figure of a pretty girl with a basket of red, ripe fruit and a white pigeon on her shoulder. 

A good example of George Michel is "A French Village." There is a stream in the foreground, and the 
little white village is thrown up by a hill of tilled corn behind it, on which the only light in the picture 
falls. It is one of the few Michels in this country selected for an illustrated article for the pages of the 
Century Magazine on the works of this e.xtraordinary genius, whom it has required two generations of 
artistic education for the public to appreciate. 

A small figure piece in which the posing and the texture of the ladies' dresses show an exquisitely deli- 
cate touch, is called "Conversation," and shows three figures seated before a fire-place. It is a fine 
example of the careful pencil of Bakolowicz. Next to it hangs a Jules Dupre— a river scene with cattle on 
the bank and heavy clouds passing overhead, is painted with dash and strength, which shows in a measure 
the force of that great master. 

Filippo Palazzi, a native of the Abruzzi, who has influenced for good a number of the contemporary 
Italian painters, and who shows a needed spirit of sincerity in the Italian school, has a capital little figure 
on the palette of an old man praying before a large book, the light of a concealed candle striking into his 
face and evoking the lines and hollows that give it a worn and weary expression. The white and scattered 
locks, the roughened cheeks, the knotted, bony hands, have been copied with a patient enthusiasm that 
recalls the Durer of old and the Meissonier of to-day. 

Of Alberto Pasini. there is " A Constantinople Market." C. Van Haanen, an Austro-Dutchman, of whom 
little is seen in this country, has a couple of faggot gatherers, a woman and child, who form a picture that 
in treatment recalls Munkacsy, though it is more careful. The Berne-Bellecour is a French soldier in gray 
fatigue uniform, with red cap on head, standing guard with drawn sabre. There is an easy martial pose, 
and the figure is detached with rare skill from the drill ground, heights and barracks that appear beyond. 
Hamilton Gibson's water color shows the Connecticut hills and vales that he fihds near his home ; copious 
foliage and ground growth, a distant house or so, a bright sky ; in all, serenity and content. Hoboken, 
with its wealth of smells and trying populace, has in its Elysian Fields one of the rarest sketching grounds 
within fifty miles of New York, though civilization is beginning to prose along its water front. Abandoned 
boats, whose holds still shelter the needy and unwashed, and ancient after-cabins dragged from the hulKs 
and set up on either side of a narrow lane, where humble trades are carried on, invite the sketcher and 
painter to put their picturesqueness and inconsistency on record before they disappear. Arthur Quartley 
went there in the course of his restless search for subjects, and Mr. Barrie has a trophy of his visit in the 
picture of an old wreck moldering on the muddy beach, with a well-rendered bit of distance behind — grate- 
ful yet forcible in grays. 

Mr. Barrie has also made a careful selection of water colors. Among the principal names are : Arthur 
Quartley, W. Hamilton Gibson, Charles Mente, Delancey Gill, G. C. Curran, G. Vizzotto, and M. Pagani, 
the latter a magnificent piece of coloring, representing a feast day in Venice, showing a brilliant group 
of people in a market place. 

MR. GEORGE C. BARCLAY'S COLLECTION. 

An interesting collection of some thirty-five numbers is that of Mr. George C, Barclay, of No. 160 Remsen 
street. It is princ'pally made up of the works of foreign artists, but American art also finds a prominent 
place in it. Of the latter David Johnson, Inness, Wyant, Edward Moran, Wiggins, M. F. H. DeHaas and J. 
G. Brown are well represented, and hang fearlessly alongside Troyon, Corot, Jacque and Diaz and other 
European masters. In fact, Mr. Barclay is remarkably cosmopolitan in his art, and believes in possessing 
whatever is beautiful in art rather than in narrowing his taste and scope to certain phases of it. 

The Carleton Wiggins example shows a flock of sheep flecked with sunshine. It evinces careful study 
of animal life, and in both tone and technique is one of the best pictures this artist has sent from his easel. 
Another painting of sheep, by Anton Mauve, is hung on the opposite wall. It is early evening and the 
shepherd is driving his flock into the fold for the night. Everything is still and subdued ; no breeze waves 
the leafless branches that stand out against the cold, gray sky. Day is dead ; night is not yet born. 
Although Mr. Barclay has many excellent canvases, this one ought to be given the place of honor as the 
gem of his collection. In the breadth of execution, simplicity of material, and close observations of the 
variations of nature which characterize Mauve's later works, this is one of his masterpieces. 

The Corot is one of that artist's middle period, before he begain to paint his famous silver-grays. It is 
soft and full of tender feeling. The Diaz is remarkable for its depth and strength. It is a somewhat 
sombre autumn scene, a woodland road, the light falling in a broad patch in the centre of the picture. The 
Troyon is an excellent example of cattle, to the excellence of which the landscape is subordinated. The 
Jacque is a small canvas, but strong and poetic. It is an evening scene, with sheep coming down to drink 
at the stream in the foreground. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 807 

The landscapes by Inness and Wyant are both important works, painted on commission but a few years 
ago. Both possess all the best points of these famous landscapists, and no better examples of their brushes 
are to be found. They are both large canvases. "The Secret," by Merle, cleverly contrasts the modeling 
and flesh coloring of a deep brunette and a blonde and that of a child. The figures are beautiful, and the 
lines and folds of their drapery and the scheme of color are remarkably skillful and harmonious. Orison's 
"The Beggar's Song" is a little canvas in which ten figures are prettily posed. It is a brilliant garden 
party, in which the gaiety is arrested for a moment by the appearance of a tattered old beggar in the fore- 
ground. Another little figure picture, great in its clever limning of facial expression, is " The Connoisseurs," 
by L. G. Brillouin. Gerome is represented by the single figure of an old French juge d' instruction, in " Deep 
Thought," which is the title ; and a Tamburini by an old monk leaning back in his leather chair and finding 
"Solid Comfort" in his pipe. 

Among other important works which limitation of space forbids mentioning to the length their merits 
would warrant, are an excellent landscape by David Johnson; "The Rat Hunt," by David Col; a 
Verboeckhoven landscape with sheep and poultry, very cleverly executed ; a grand example of A. Passani's 
color in "A Persian Market;" "Cows," by T. Sydney Cooper, of London; horse in a stable by W. Ver- 
schuur, which shows close study and skillful handling; a glow of bold coloring in a garden party by 
Monticelli ; a good cow picture by Carleton Wiggins called "The Summer Storm ;" "Teaching the Black- 
bird," by Jiminez Y. Aranda, and view of distant Paris by A. VoUon. "The Music Lesson," painted in 
Rome by Guerra, will arrest the attention for some time, and there is one of J. G. Brown's famous figure 
pieces called " Too Old to Mend." For its color and strength, " A Pool in the Adirondacks," by W. Casi- 
lear, is worthy of mention, and the Hagborg, " The First Born," showing a coast scene with boatman and 
wife and baby, and cold water and cold sky, will bear careful scrutiny, It is in every way an excellent 
example. Other notable works are " Preparing for the Chase," by Charles Van Falen ; "Contemplation," 
by Leon Y. Escosura ; " Tara's Harp," by Isno Kemendy ; farm scene by Eniile Lambinet, in which the 
willows stand out so powerfully that you can feel them wave in the light breeze ; " Morning, Casco Bay," 
by Edward Moran ; " Sunset on the Coast of France," by M. F. H. DeHaas ; and a spirited water color 
by Detaille. 

It wdl be seen that with but very few exceptions all these canvases bear the names of artists of renown, 
and furthermore they are as excellent examples of their works as could be obtained. 

THE LATE EDWARD A. SECCOMB'S COLLECTION. 

The late Edward A. Seccomb, of whose life a sketch appears elsewhere, was a most enthusiastic 
American. He carried his patriotism even into his home, and as Claude Melnotte says in his wooing 
of " The Lady of Lyons," " We'll have no friends that are not lovers," so this American gentleman said 
of his taste for art : " I love best the gems produced by my countrymen." His may be called, therefore, 
an American collection. He had but few examples of the works of foreign artists. But his collection 
bristles with the efforts of the best brushwork this country has yet produced. Among their names are 
Harry Chase, Edmund C. Tarbell, Carleton Wiggins, C. Harry Eaton, Fred S. Cozzens, Mrs. Julia Dillon, 
C. Morgan Mcllheney, C, Melville Dewey, Walter Blackmore, F. S. Church, D. W. Tryon, W. Bliss Baker, 
Leonard Ochtman (a Dutchman who has adopted this country, or has been adopted by it), G. H. Smith, 
George Inness, F. A. Bridgman, Kate Langdon, Francis C. Jones, VV. Hamilton Gibson, A. F. Tait, Alfred 
Kappes, C. Y. Turner, Eastman Johnson, Henry Mosler, Will H. Low, W. L. Palmer, Elliot Dangerfield, J. 
Francis Murphy, Professor Niemeyer, Harriet B. Kellogg. E. H. Blashfield, H. Bolton Jones, R. M. Shurt- 
leff, A. H. Wyant, Joseph Lyman, ^Varren Shepherd, F. Hopkinson Smith, G. H. Smillie, and Homer 
Martin. 

These well-known names are in themselves sufficient to demonstrate the value and importance of this 
collection, and Mr. Seccomb hoped that in course of time it might become one of the important American 
collections of the country. The " Marine," by Harry Chase, a scene off New Bedford, called " Running Free," 
was etched by Leon Moran, some time ago, and is therefore familiar. But those who have seen it in black 
and white only will deem it a privilege to see in the original the life and color and breezy atmosphere 
which are its charm. The Tarbell picture, " After the Ball," took the Thomas B. Clarke prize at the 
New York Academy of Design, in 1890. It is a single figure, excellent in anatomy and in the conveyance 
of the expression of thought, and also in its novel scheme of light. The landscape and cattle by Wiggins, 
in its clever drawing and tender morning atmosphere, is worthy to hang with the Troyons and Van Marckes. 
There is another of his, equally meritorious, of twilight with sheep. Harry Eaton's picture is of an early 
morning, saturated with dew ; and for sweet poetry there is scarcely anything to compare with the shep- 
herdess with the lamb which hangs next to it, which is one of the dainty conceptions of F. S. Church. 

Bliss Baker, who made a name by the time he was twenty-one and then was taken away, has one of his 
best works in this collection. The Inness was painted as late as 1888, and possesses, as do all his works, 



8o8 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



an undying charm of pastoral beauty. D. W. Tryon is said to be one of the coming men of American 
art and this example of his work stands a chance of becoming valuable. Ochtman's " Early Morning " 
shows a Corot delicacy and gentleness, and there is another fine picture of his called " A Passing Cloud." 
Of F \ Bridgman there is a splendid example, a scene of Eastern life painted to order in 1883. There are 
two pictures by Bolton Jones (a particularly good one called " Early Spring "), and also two by his brother, 
Francis C. Jones. Kate Langdon, who was a pupil of Bolton Jones, is also seen in two excellent land- 
scapes. Most of these pictures are too well known to need description. There is, for instance, C. Y. Turner's 
" The Song ; " it should be called " The Singer," but for the clever effect by which the song is made to fill, 
not only the enthusiasm of the pretty woman who sings, but the whole of her surroundings. Then there is 
Alfred Kappes' little picture, " Mending his Ways," a white headed negro with a well-worn sock on his 
hand; Eastman Johnson's "Girl with a Rabbit," and Bricher's "Home of the Gulls," and scene off the 




Cattle and Landscape, by Carleton Wiggins. 

marine coast near Bar Harbor. There are two very good examples of Smillie's best work in landscape, and 
Tait's sketch of Adirondack scenery is of great merit. Mosler shows a carefully painted picture of a 
female head, and Will H. Low a study in pink, a pretty girl gathering field poppies. The Palmer picture 
is a lovely little snow scene, and Elliot Dangerfield's representative is a splendid realization of the glorious 
color effects of vari-colored chrysanthemums. Warren Sheppard, "the Brooklyn Boy," is of course well 
represented in this American gallery, and almost equally of course it is by a scene under the dreamy skies 
of the Adriatic. Blashfield's picture is a bold design in color of three cleverly drawn girls dancing on 
juicy grapes with their shapely feet to press them into wine — another contribution of a successful Brooklyn 
artist. There are a number of good pictures by other prominent artists of the day : A little gem by J. M. 
Barnsley, one of W. L. Bradford's "Land of the Midnight Sun," a figure piece by J. H. Witt, and another by 
Rudolph Epp ; a Van Schaick that resembles a Vibert, and in some respects is superior in execution ; two 
examples of W. L. Peckwell ; a lovely picture of a June morning by M. Waterman ; a still, quiet pool in the 
Adirondacks, with beautiful effects, by A. H. Wyant ; a Spanish piece by Josu Jiminez ; a Siddons Mowbray 
called " The Siesta," in which the modeling of the two girls is remarkably fine ; a Gessa fruit-piece, glorious 
in delicate coloring (the only example of this artistic work in the country); and a Kowalski called "The 
Polish Lisurgents," which is a country scene in which every person and every animal is full of life and 
motion, and the seriousness of the marauders is tempered with the spice of humor. 

In every respect the collection is one of which Brooklyn may well be proud, both for its merit and for 
the fact that it was gathered by one who was a most liberal patron of native art. This account of it was 
prepared with Mr. Seccomb's cooperation, before his death. 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 809 



MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT. 

That the inhabitants of Broolilyn are and liave been a music-loving people is a statement which needs no 
argument or proof. Although little record has been made of the earlier associations and clubs devoted to 
the cultivation of musical art and taste, yet we may believe that this was rather due to a general poverty of 
chronicles and chroniclers than to any lack of material. Unfortunately, however, that material was suffered 
to be lost. From the time that de Beauvois, the schoolmaster, taught the choir of the ancient Dutch 
church to fit the sacred strains of psalm tunes, approved by the Synod of Dortrecht, to the intricacies of 
the Hollandish vocabulary; from the days when the children of all the "Vans "and the " sens " made 
melody in praise of St. Nicholas around the Christmas fire, to the time of oratorios and symphonies of glee 
clubs and philharmonic societies, of operas and concerts, Brooklyn has fostered the love of music and has 
multiplied opportunities for its study and enjoyment. 

About the first and almost the only early association of any prominence about which we have accurate 
information was the Brooklyn Sacred Music Society, which gave the oratorios of "Samson" and the 
"Messiah" at Plymouth Church, and performed the "Seven Sleepers" of Karl Lowe in the hall of the old 
academy on the site of the present Packer Institute. Of this society the late Luther B. Wyman was presi- 
dent and Paul K. Weitzel was musical conductor. 

The organization of the Philharmonic Society marked a new era in the musical life of Brooklyn. 
The initiatory steps were taken in 1857. Theretofore Brooklyn had been dependent mainly upon New 
York for instrumental music of a high grade. The New York society was organized by the musicians, who 
divided the net receipts among themselves. If they were successful, theirs was the gain ; but if unprofitable 
pecuniarily, the loss was borne by the individual members. As the principal performers resided in New 
York, Brooklyn was dependent upon its sister city for them, and they declined to play unless regularly 
employed and guaranteed the payment of their salaries, an arrangement, by the way, which continued until 
within a year past. On the evening of April 15, 1857, a company of gentlemen met, pursuant to notice, at 
the Brooklyn Athenaeum to organize an association for the purpose of giving Brooklyn a series of musical 
concerts similar to those so long enjoyed by the citizens of New York under the auspices of their 
Philharmonic Society. A committee, composed of Luther B. Wyman, Robert R. Raymond, John Green- 
wood, Edward Whitehouse, Carl Prox, Leopold Bierwith and Mr. Spies, was appointed to draft a plan of 
organization and a constitution. On May 5 the committee reported, about one hundred persons being 
present. Professor Raymond presented a constitution, which was adopted, and a committee appointed to 
nominate a board of directors. The report having been accepted, the board in turn elected Mr. Luther B. 
\Vyman president of the society with Edward Whitehouse, treasurer. The first e.xecutive committee was 
composed of Messrs. Charles Congdon, P. K. Weitzel, George C. Ripley, W. M. Newell and Charles A. 
Townsend. The first conductor was Theodore Eisfeldt. He was succeeded by Carl Bergmann, to whom 
succeeded Theodore Thomas, who held the position until 1891, when the society turned over the entire 
management to the Boston Symphony Society, under the leadership of Arthur Nikisch. During Mr. 
Thomas' conductorship, a volunteer chorus of nearly five hundred voices was formed. Mr. Paul Tidden 
had principal charge of this chorus, v/hich produced the oratorios of "Elijah," the "Creation," Bach's 
" Cantata " and other important works, with the aid of the grand Philharmonic orchestra. Upon the 
death of Mr. Wyman, Mr. Henry K. Sheldon was chosen president. George William Warren, then organ- 
ist of Holy Trinity Church, and now of St. Thomas, New York, was for many years chairman of the music 
committee, and upon his removal to New York Horatio C. King was chosen and held the office for about 
ten years, when he retired from the board. Upon the chairman of that committee devolved the principal 
details of the management. The history of the Philharmonic embraces an almost uninterrupted period of 
success, the large income being devoted to the employment of the best vocal and instrumental talent 
almost without regard to cost. The concerts were always attended by the most cultured audiences, and 
for a generation were the principal musical feature of the city. 

Organ Concerts may be said to have practically originated in Plymouth Church, in 1866, when the 
church purchased what was then the largest and most improved church organ in this country, second only 
in size to the imported organ in Boston Music Hall. The use of this magnificent instrument, built by 
Hook of Boston, with its four organs and fifty-two speaking stops, was not to be confined to Sabbath 
worship only. Henry Ward Beecher, with his usual liberal spirit, resolved that it should be made to serve 
the public as an educator in the best organ music. One series of concerts was given in 1S67. In 1869 
the project was resumed with brilliant success, and was continued for five years, during which were heard 
the leading organists in Brooklyn, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Rochester, Montreal, Toronto and 
other large cities. An interesting and instructive feature of the programme was a brief biography of each 



gio THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

composer presented, or a description of the composition performed. Tiie e.xample thus set was imitated 
all over the country, and the organ was popularized and enjoyed in a manner hitherto unknown in the 
United States. Staid churches threw open their doors and the people had an opportunity to witness the 
possibilities of this most magnificent of instruments ; among them the Tabernacle (Dr. Talmage's), 
Trinity and Grace Episcopal churches in New York, and the edifices of other prominent religious corpora- 
tions. Although the programmes were chiefly of organ music, variety was given by the introduction of 
vocal and instrumental soloists, some of them already noted and who have since become famous upon the 
lyric stage. 

The Seidl Society was organized in 1889, its leading spirit being Mrs. Laura C. Holloway (now Mrs. 
Langford), who secured the support of a large number of prominent ladies in carrying out a plan to have a 
series of concerts in the Academy of Music by the orchestra under the leadership of Anton Seidl and to in- 
crease the attendance at the summer concerts at Brighton Beach. Incidentally a fund was provided to en- 
tertain poor children at a sea-side home at Coney Island, and facilities were afforded to working girls for 
the enjoyment of the privileges of the society, including both music and recreation. The receptions by the 
society, composed of ladies, have been most unique and interesting. Notable among the performances under 
the auspices of the society was the production of portions of "Parsifal," by permission of Cosima Wagner. 

There are other musical associations of note, and at the head of the list is The Amateur Opera 
Association. This association has been in existence for about ten years, and, as its name implies, is com- 
posed solely of amateurs ; but as its character is essentially dramatic the sketch of the association is placed 
with those of the dramatic societies in the chapter on The Stage. 

Besides these there are a large number of societies of a greater or less degree of prominence. The 
Amphion Society, a chorus of mixed voices recruited chiefly from the eastern part of the city, has had a 
career of special usefulness. Its officers for 1892 were : Henry A. Powell, president ; J . H. Darlington, vice- 
president ; Eugene AV. Gombers, recording secretary; C. A. Eabry, financial secretary; W. H. Neidlinger, 
musical director. The Apollo Club, a male chorus composed of amateurs, has had exceptional popu- 
larity, and its subscription concerts have rivaled the Philharmonic in point of numbers and brilliancy. Its 
officers are Carll H. De Silver, president ; Daniel Wescoat, secretary, and Dudley Buck, director of music. 
The Brooklyn Choral Society, which was organized for the production of oratorios and other composi- 
tions of the highest class, has a strong hold upon popular favor. Its presentation of the " Messiah " at the 
Tabernacle in 1892 was a notable success.. Its chief managers are Henry E. Hutchinson, president ; William 
H. Williams, vice-president ; Clement Lockitt, treasurer ; Dexter M. Swaney, secretary of the subscribing 
members ; Frederick C. Buys, secretary of the active members, and C. M. Wiske, musical director. The 
Brooklyn Cecilian, Mr. Albert S. Caswell, director, is a mixed chorus of about eight hundred young 
voices, chiefly recruited from the public schools, and has performed a most excellent work in the training 
of children at a nominal charge. It was organized in 1881. Mr. Caswell has the assistance of William B. 
Goate., Charles S. Yerbury and Joseph A. Campbell. 

The remaining societies are : The Arion Maennerchor — Peter Bertsch, president ; H. B. Scharmann, 
honorary president ; Louis Zoellner, Gottfried G. Kaufmann, secretaries, ^^lolian — Benjamin R. Western, 
president ; Henry F. Herkner, vice-president ; Otto A. Draudt, secretary. Brooklyn Maennerchor — 
Fred Beyer, president; W. E. Blossfeld, secretary; Julius Bode, musical director. Membership, 75. 
CiECELiA Ladies' Vocal Society — Mrs. Bernard Peters, president ; Mrs. Joseph F. Knapp, vice-president ; 
Mrs. Alvah G. Brown, recording secretary ; Mrs. Wm. E. Kuster, financial secretary ; Mrs. John S. King, 
corresponding secretary; Mrs. Geo. Essig, treasurer; W. H. Neidlinger, musical director. Cecilia — 
William Schroeder, president ; Gustav Traubmann, secretary; Frank Joa, treasurer ; Ernest Sharpf, musical 
director. Chester Glee Club — William H. Nichols, president ; Nathaniel B. Hoxie, Jr., vice-president ; 
Wm. J. Clark, secretary; Abiel Wood, treasurer. Concordia Maennerchor — Henry Shirk, president ; 
Hugo Meyer, vice-president; Wm. Essberger, recording secretary; Wm. Werneburg, corresponding secre- 
tary; Chas. Noll, financial secretary. Concordia Quartette Club — Fritz Brink, president ; Chas. Mild- 
ner, secretary ; Chas. Wonneberger, director. Concordia Quartette — Charles Stucker, president ; William 
Dassau, vice-president ; Theodore Bock, secretary; A. Fehmel, financial secretary. Concordia Singing 
Society — Bernard Diester, president ; F. Bock, secretary ; H. Nekeman, financial secretary ; F. Bischoff, 
treasurer. Church Music Society — A new organization. Prof. Charles S. Morse, organist of Plymouth 
Church, musical director. Deutscher Liederkranz — A. H. Tieman, president ; H. Friedlander, secre- 
tary. Euterpe — Dudley R. Andrews, president; George Rawden, secretary; W. H. Hoschke, treasurer ; 
C. Mortimer Wiske, musical director. Harmonia— Carl Becker, president ; Paul Fiebig, secretary. Hes- 
sischer Saengerbund — Ditmas Lange, president ; Henry Berehl, conductor. Monday Night Chorus — 
R. W. Bainbridge, president ; John R. Benner, Jr., secretary ; Arthur Claasen, musical director. Oratorien 
Gesellschaft — Ernst Lasche, president ; Guenther Kiesewelter, director. Prospect Heights Choral 
Society — Mrs, Frank Mulford, secretary ; F. Irving Crane, musical director. Saengerbund — George Rehn, 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



8ii 



president; Ferdinand Roth and John Brune, vice-presidents ; Jacob Michaelis, corresponding secretary ; 
C. H. Kohehaas, recording secretary; T. G. Rohrbery, treasurer. The Saengeruund Male Chorus is 
the most prosperous German society, and is a pioneer in the musical contests with sister societies from 
other cities. Schwabischer Saengerbund— Carl Eichman, president; E. F. Kunzelman, secretary; 
August Bischoff, musical director. Social Quartette Club— Leopold Hartner, president;' John Geh- 
ring, treasurer ; John Munz, financial secretary. United Singers of Brooklyn— Simon K. Saenger, 
president; Charles T. Vorgang, vice-president ; Bernhard Klein, secretary ; EmilWildner, financial secre- 
tary ; Samuel Wandelt, treasurer ; H. Friedlaender, librarian ; Gunther Kieswelter, musical director. 
Williamsburgh Saengerbund— Charles Vorgang, president; Louis Berton, secretary. Zoellner Maen- 
nerchor — A. W. Newman, president. 

Robert Thallon is a musician who has won the praise of critics as a piano performer and instructor 
of remarkable skill. He was born at Liverpool on March i8, 1852. The family moved to Brooklyn a year 




or two after the birth of their son Robert, and he lived here until 1864. In that year he returned to Europe 
and studied music, until 1875. While abroad he was a pupil at the great centres of education on the conti- 
nent; at Leipsic he was taught the pianist's art by Wenzel, Coccius and Jadassohn; he became an accom- 
plished organist under the instruction of Volckmar, of Homburg; he mastered the chief of all musical in- 
struments under the tuition of such eminent violinists as David, Routgen and Hermann of Leipsic, Keller, 
of Stuttgart, and Baur, of Paris; harmony and composition he pursued at Leipsic, Hamburg and in England, 
under Jadassohn, Volckmar and Hatton ; and his voice was cultivated at Florence, Leipsic, Milan and New 
York, by Vannuncini, Gloggner, Nava, Romani and Henschel. This varied education has been utilized by 
Mr. Thallon principally as a means to broaden his work as a teacher of piano playing, that being the essence 
of his life-work. He labors in his profession because he loves it and not because of the necessity that so 



8i2 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

often becomes an excuse for imperfection. Witli his pupils his instruction is aimed to inspire the artistic 
idea and musical sense rather tlian to impart sheer technique, preferring the practical to the mechanical 
understanding. Those who possess to an unusual extent inherent taste, reproductive memory, and powers 
of imagination, are given a thorough course of training in every branch of the art, and in each case Mr. 
Thallon develops, as far as is possible, the individuality of his student. At most of the more important 
musical events in Brooklyn he figures prominently, and is one of the best known musicians in the city. 

In Dudley Buck the city of Brooklyn claims a musician whose reputation extends over his native 
land and Europe. His ancestors were the Winthrops, Dudleys and Adamses, of New England. He was born 
on March lo, 1839, in Hartford, and early manifested a taste for music. While a student at Trinity College 
in his native city he was offered the post of organist at St, John's Episcopal Church and in that capacity 
earned his first money as a musician. In 1S58 he was sent to Europe to acquire a complete musical educa- 
tion. He studied at the Leipsic Conservatory in fellowship with Carl Rosa, Arthur Sullivan and others 
who have since become eminent as musicians. Moritz Hauptmann taught him harmony and Ernst 
Frederick Richter composition. He mastered the piano under the guidance of Moscheles and Plaidy, 
while Julius Rietz, the associate and companion of Mendelssohn, instructed him in orchestration. At 
Dresden he perfected himself in organ music under the direction of the famous Johann Gottlieb Schneider. 
After spending three years in Germany Mr. Buck passed twelve months in Paris and returned to America 
in December, 1S62. He accepted an organist's position in the North Congregational Church at Hartford 
and was soon surrounded by a large class of pupils. His father died in 1867 and Dudley Buck bade good- 
bye to Hartford in 1869. Prior to this he had acquired a national reputation through the series of organ 
concerts which he gave throughout the country in 1864. On these occasions he performed many works of 
his own composition and succeeded, as few others have ever done, in popularizing classical music. From 
Hartford he moved to Chicago to undertake the direction of the choir of St. James' P. E. Church. After 
the great fire of 1 87 1 he became organist at St. Paul's Church and at Music Hall, Boston. Here his work and 
personality drew the attention of Theodore Thomas who, in his concerts, gave prominence to some of Mr. 
Buck's compositions and, in 1875, offered their author an appointment as assistant conductor at the summer 
concerts in Central Park Garden. Prior to entering upon his new duties Mr. Buck accompanied Mr. 
Thomas to the Cincinnati Musical festival. His engagement with Mr. Thomas lasted for one summer, 
when the concerts at Central Park Garden terminated and Mr. Buck was called upon to compose the music 
for Sidney Lanier's cantata, "The Centennial Meditation of Columbia," wdiich was sung, under Thomas' 
direction, at the opening of the Philadelphia exhibition in May, 1876. In 1878 Mr. Buck became organist 
and choirmaster in Holy Trinity Church in Brooklyn, where he has since remained. To his efforts is due 
the existence of the famous Apollo Club of Brooklyn, and many of his best known scores have been written 
for its benefit. Mr. Buck's first published works were in the line of sacred music. 

John Hyatt Brewer is one of the younger composers and organists, but he is one of the best 
known. His success as the director of music and organist at the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church 
during the past thirteen years has given him an extended reputation. Mr. Brewer was born in Brooklyn on 
January 18, 1856, of Scotch-English parentage. Until his fifteenth year he sang in boy choirs, and studied 
music under Diller, Navarro, Caulfield and Whitely, becoming in 1877 a pupil of Dudley Buck on the organ 
and in counterpoint and composition. He was a charter member of the Apollo Club, organized in 1877, 
under the leadership of Dudley Buck, and has always been its accompanist. He is a member of the Music 
Club of New York and the Manuscript Society, and is a director in the department of music in the Brooklyn 
Institute. 

As a musician C. Morti.mkr Wiskk has won a reputation which long has been more than local. During 
his twenty years residence in this city he has been constantly active in the prosecution of his profession. 
He has held positions as organist and choirmaster in the First Reformed Church, Hanson Place Baptist 
Church, Hanson Place Methodist Episcopal Church and Christ Church, Eastern District ; and during the 
whole period of his service in these several situations he has been absent from his post only one Sunday, 
and then because of sickness. Probably no one else in the United States has displayed more activity in 
organizing musical societies, both public and private ; in 1874 he was elected conductor of the Brooklyn 
Choral Union, and remained at its head until it disbanded; in 1880 he established the Amphion Musical 
Society, consisting of a male chorus and an amateur orchestra, and continued as its leader for eleven years. 
He was the promoter and manager of the Amphion Academy Company, and he organized the Caecelia Ladies' 
Vocal Society, which is still enjoying an active existence. Five years ago he was elected conductor of the 
Brooklyn Choral, then a glee society with a chorus of seventy-five voices; he has so far improved its affairs 
that Its chorus now numbers 400, and it is recognized as one of the best oratorio societies in America. Mr. 
Wiske's activity as a musician has extended to other cities than this. In New York he founded the 
Orpheus and Schubert clubs and the New York Chorus Society. The last of these organizations produced 
two seasons since three important works, none of which had ever been heard in the United States before. 



1 



LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



813 




C. Mortimer Wiske. 



From the active management of these societies Mr. 
Wiske's Brooklyn engagements have compelled his 
retirement. For the four years prior to May i, 1S.S5, 
he was chorus master under Theodore Thomas, and 
had charge of the choruses for the Wagner festivals 
of 1884; he also aided in training the choruses for the 
May festival at the 7th Regiment armory in 1SS2. 
The Euterpe Society of this city is Mr. Wiske's latest 
creation. It is an offshoot or reorganization of the 
old Amphion Society, but is larger in scope than its 
predecessor. It has a chorus of forty male voices and 
an orchestra of eighty-five instruments. Mr. AViske 
conducts societies at Westfield and Passaic, N. J., and 
his services as a conductor are much \n demand in 
other musical centres than New York city. C. Mor- 
timer Wiske was born at Bennington, Vt., on January 
12, 1853, but when he was si.\ months old his parents 
removed to Troy, N. Y., where he received his early 
education. His musical talent developed while quite 
young, and when twelve years old he was appointed 
an organist at Tibbett's Chapel, and four years later 
he was engaged as organist and musical conductor 
at the Church of the Ascension in Troy, where he 
remained until his removal to New York city m 1S72. 
The following season he made Brooklyn his perma- 
nent home. 

Pf.rlee V. Jervis has place in the van of pianoforte performers and mstrucLors in Brooklyn, and 
musical culture in the city has derived from his teachings and e.xhibitions an impetus which has won him 
distinction in the profession. Combined with native talent, that genius of hard work which is invariably a 
conqueror, has been the secret of his success. He did not at first choose the calling for which nature had 
fitted him, but devoted himself to work in a banking house until his artistic inclination asserted itself too 
strongly to be resisted. Then he became a student of the piano with Dr. AVilliam Mason and Mrs. yVgnes 
Morgan, of New York, as his instructors. He studied theory with Dudley Buck, Brooklyn's famed organist 
and composer. For twelve years he has been a teacher, both in Brooklyn and New York, so excelling in his 
method of imparting instruction that it became necessary for him to relinquish largely his work as a concert 
pianist, in which he early acquired reputation. His playing is marked by accurate interpretation, sympa- 
thetic touch and artistic refinement in the shading of tones. That which makes him excellent as a performer 
renders him inspiring as a teacher ; the spirit of the natural musician and the technique of the student are 
blended felicitously in all his work and he infuses in his pupils the earnest, the enthusiasm, and the ardor in 
work which distinguishes him. His studios at 141 Montague street, Brooklyn, and Carnegie Music Hall, 
New York, are the resort of leaders in the social world of both cities and the list of his pupils includes the 
names of many of the most prominent families. He is a member of the Brooklyn Institute department of 
music and was one of the organizers of that department. He is identified also m many other enterprises for 
the advancement of musical culture. He is a contributor to the literature of music as a writer for T/ii: 
Etude, of Philadelphia, and Musical Notes, of New York. Mr. Jervis was born in Brooklyn in 1858, and 
traces his lineage to the planting in America of the Jervis family, early in colonial times, by the posterity of 
that Gervaise who, crossing the English channel with William the Conqueror, eventually settled in Scotland 
and was the progenitor of a family that has figured for hundreds of years in the records of the landed gentry 
of England and Scotland. The parents of Mr. Jervis are H. C. S. and Mary Jervis and he is their eldest 
son. He married Miss Helen Hutchinson, of Essex, Conn., in 1S90, and their home is at 141 Montague 

street. 

Frank H. Chandler. — For more than two decades the name of Chandler has been associated with 
music and musical matters in Brooklyn, and Chandler's piano store has been the headquarters of the leading 
choral and orchestral societies and the favorite resort of musically inclined Brooklynites. Mr. Chandler is 
practical in his knowledge of the mechanism of instruments, having in early life served his full term of ap- 
prenticeship and worked for several years thereafter on both church and parlor organs, and also on pianos, 
thereby becoming familiar with every detail of their construction and gaining that knowledge which is 
so essential to the accurate judgment of the merits of the article in which he deals. He was born at 
West Randolph, Vt., on February 13, 1836, being one of a family of eight sons and five daughters. Both he 



Su 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




and his younger brother, Albert B. Chandler, presi- 
dent of the Postal Telegraph Company, are enthusi- 
astic members of the Brooklyn Society of Vermonters. 
In 1861 he enlisted for three years in the 4th Vermont 
volunteers and served in the band attached to his 
regiment for eleven months, at the end of which time 
he was honorably discharged by an act of congress, 
which abolished regimental bands. From that time 
until 1865 he was in the national government service 
at the Springfield, Mass., armory, and at the ordnance 
agency in New York. He spent the two years imme- 
diately succeeding the termination of the Civil war in 
a manufacturing establishment in Barnesville, Ga. In 
the spring of 1867 he came to Brooklyn and at once 
interested himself in what has since become his life- 
work, and in 1869 he began business independently. 
During all this time he has represented the Chickering 
& Sons' pianos and at present he has in addition the 
Fischer, Ivers & Pond, Marshall & Wendell, and 
many other cheaper instruments. He is recognized, 
throughout his e.xtensive acquaintance, as a man of 
excellent judgment, of the highest integrity, and as 
wholly without prejudice as human nature can be. 
To his wise counsel and unselfish example many 
younger men are indebted, in part, for a useful and 
FRANK H. CHANDLER. hoHorablc carcer. Mr. Chandler's home is at 177 

South Oxford street, this city, where, with his wife and one son, Frank W. Chandler, now nineteen yeai'3 

old, he has resided several years. 

CONSERVATORIES OF MUSIC. j 

Of local schools for musical instruction there are several of note. The oldest is the Groschel Conserva- 
tory, founded by the late Prof. J. W. Groschel. It was formally opened in September, 1S64, and in a few 
months enrolled over two hundred pupils. Professor 
Groschel was assisted especially by his two talented 
daughters, Sophie (afterwards Mrs. Chadick) and 
Louise, both educated in Germany, together with a 
corDS of efficient vocal and instrumental instructors. 
Upon the retirement of Professor Groschel in 1876, 
the two daughters continued in the management until 
1890, when they transferred the institution to Max 
Spicker, the present proprietor. His corps of assist- 
ants embraces artists of the highest character and 
distinguished in their several specialties. 

Max Spicker was a musician born. Manifesting 
in childhood marked aptitude and love for his art, 
he resolved at an early age to make it his profession. 
He gained a classical education at the High School 
in Koenigsburg, Germany, in which city he was born 
in 1858. His first musical instruction was received 
from the famous musicians Louis Koehler and Robert 
Schwalm, and in 1876 he entered the Royal Academy 
of Music at Leipsic, and graduated with high honors 
in 1878. At once identifying himself with musical 
productions of the highest class, he conducted operas 
in Heidelberg, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle and at the 
Royal Opera Houses in Ghent, Belgium and Potsdam, 
Germany. During this period he composed many 
instrumental works for orchestra as well as choruses, 
all of which received high commendation from the Louis Moi.lenhauer. 




LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS. 



815 



critics. His part songs as well as vocal solos, published by E. F. Luckhardt, of Berlin, attained a wide 
popularity. During his connection with the Beethoven Society his pen was continually active, and his 
songs have been sung by such distinguished artists as Lili Lehmann, Etelka Gerster, Emily Winant, Antonia 
Meilke, Ritter-Goetze, Theodore Reichmann, F. F. Powers and Andreas Dippel. His choral works have 
been performed by our leading American and German singing societies, conspicuous among them being the 
Apollo Club, of Brooklyn, the Arion, Liederkranz, Beethoven, Musurgia and Maennerchor, of New York, the 
Orpheus, of Boston, the Liedertafel and Orpheus, of Buffalo, the Mendelssohn Glee Club, of Rochester, the 
Germania Maennerchor, of Baltimore, the Arion, of Newark, and other associations, and were presented also 




at the state musical festivals in Connecticut and New Orleans. The great orchestral concerts, given in the 
winter at the Academy of Music, Brooklyn, and conducted by him, are prominent features of the musical 
season, and the concerts by the students of his conservatory are the only entertainments of this character 
in which the performers have the support of a full professional orchestra. Mr. Spicker is a brilliant pianist 
and a thorough musician and scholar, and in his social and business relations deservedly esteemed and 
popular. 

The founder of the Mollenhauer Colleges of Music was the eminent 'cello soloist, Henry Mollenhauer. 
Twenty-four years before his death in 1891, he established his school on Livingston street, near Court, and 
there gave instruction, founded on scientific basis, to thousands of students, many of whom have achieved 
prominence in the professional world. His mode of procedure was broadly eclectic, confining itself to no 
particular author and pledged to no special school. 

Louis Mollenhauer was born in Brooklyn on December 17, 1863. As soon as he was able to handle an 
instrument, his father placed in his hands a miniature violin, and before he was six years old he was wont to 
delight and astonish the family's friends by his natural aptitude and the phenomenal acuteness of his ear. 



8i6 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



He early appeared in public and was greeted with the warmest enthusiasm, not only on account of his youth, 
but as one in whom was manifest an inherent talent of great promise. At the age of fifteen he gave several 
orchestral concerts, and he was also a member of the Schubert and Mollenhauer Quintet clubs, devoted to 
the exposition of the best classical compositions for five parts. Although Mr. Mollenhauer is less than thirty 
years old, he may be said to have worked hard as a student for twenty years, playing during that time 
hundreds'of compositions, officiating as orchestral conductor, superintending and drilling the college classes, 
achieving honors as a soloist, and otherwise fitting himself for the perpetuation of the college, which, since 
the untimely death of his father, it has devolved upon him to manage and superintend. The success and 
reputation achieved and enjoyed by the parent institution has rendered necessary the opening of a new 
branch at 280 Lafayette avenue, where the instruction of the pupils is under the direct supervision of 
Louis Mollenhauer. In regard to his personal characteristics Mr. Mollenhauer is studious rather than 
conversational, but on his favorite theme he becomes enthusiastic and speaks with authority. He is very 
charitable, having contributed much to deserving objects by his performance on their behalf. Li addi- 
tion to Mr. Louis Mollenhauer, the eldest son of the founder of the college, there are Adolph, the 'cello 
virtuoso, and the three sisters, the Misses Ida, Johanna and Celia, each of whom is a born as well as a 
trained artist and a skillful teacher, and Master Henry, a boy of remarkable promise. 

R. EsTAVA DE Stefani is the friend of musical 
culture in Brooklyn, and his Grand Italian Conserva- 
tory of Music, at 539, 541 and 543 Fulton street and ' 
452 Gold street, is one of the leading institutions of 
the kind. The excellence of the instruction given, 
the perfect system of the management and the com- 
prehensive scope of the school all tend to the full 
development of the talents and the most complete 
unfolding of the genius possessed by those who be- 
come pupils under Signor Stefani and his corps of 
assistants. Signor Stefani has acquired European 
fame as a vocalist. He was born on the Island of Cuba, 
where his father was prominent as one of the civil 
officials in the Eastern District. His parents were 
Spanish, and he was sent to Barcelona, in Spain, to 
study law, in which he won his degree. The Spanish 
student's love for music was strongly marked in him 
and was liberally gratified during his university course. 
He appeared in a number of amateur performances 
of opera in Barcelona, and his evident talent for the 
operatic stage attracted the attention of the director 
of the Government Conservatory of Music, by whose 
advice he went to Italy and placed himself under the 
direction of Professors Romani and Ronconi. Two 
years after, in the cast of "Lucrezia Borgia," he made 
his debut at Alba, Italy ; afterwards he sang at sixty- 
two performances of classic opera during an engage- 
ment of three months at the Grand Theatro Carlo 

Felice, in Genoa, with such success that the king of Spain conferred upon him the royal cross of Charles 
the Third. He has appeared with such artists as Durand, Gabbi, Tctrazzani, C!ampanini, Tamagno, Gayarre, 
Massini, Aramburo and others of great reputation ; and he is himself a perfectly equipped artist. His 
conservatory is planned on a noble scale and is especially adapted f<jr students who are looking toward a 
career upon the lyric or operatic stage. The conservatory affords a thorough and complete education in 
every department of music, and Signor Stefani's performances of grand Italian opera, with orchestra, 
chorus, costumes and scenery, the performers being his advanced pupils, have been heartily endorsed by the 
press of Brooklyn and New York as indicating one of the greatest successes in musical teaching. 

Other music schools of prominence are A. Arnold's Conservatory of Music, of which August Arnold is 
director ; Venth's College of Music, Carl Venth, proprietor ; and the Prospect Hill College of Music, under 
the directorship of F'. H. Daniels. 




R. EsTAVA DE Stefani. 




Old Armory BuiLDiNn, Henry and Ckanderry Streets. 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



TLITARY service, voluntarily assumed b)- the private citizen in time of peace, is 
recognized as one of the most honorable forms in which a man can discharge his 
duty to the State. Whatever may have been true of the old-time " training days," 
' and even of the very early militia, there is no longer any suggestion of " playing 
soldier" in the service of the National Guard of the State of New York. The 
thoroughness of drill and discipline and the ready acquiescence in it by the private 
soldier, who while in uniform regards himself no longer as a business man or pro- 
fessional man ; the perfect organization and equipment and the high character and 
local prominence of those who enter the ranks and fill the offices of the National 
Guard, have placed the service on a high plane of efficiency and repute. In con- 
stant readiness for duty — whether to quell local disturbances when they pass be- 
yond the control of the police, or to spring to the defence of the country, as the 
militia regiments did when the war of the rebellion began — the existence of a 
thoroughly efficient National Guard gives to the community a sense of security for which other countries 
depend on the presence of a large standing army. The occasional calls to duty, too, such as were made upon 
the regiments of this and other states during the labor riots of 1877 and during the threatened invasion from 
Canada in an earlier time, and the presence of unruly bodies of disturbers of the peace, give to the service a 
practical character that invites into it many who are willing to give time to the preparations for possible 
emergencies, but could not be tempted merely by pleasure or holiday glory. The National Guard in New 
York state dates from the organizing act of 1786, in accordance with the provisions of an act in 1777, ordain- 
ing that the militia should be armed and disciplined and in readiness for service, in peace as well as in war. 
The first organization was in two divisions, with brigades of four regiments each. In 1S54 a reorganization 




gjg THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

provided for eight divisions of two to four brigades eacli ; and under the stress of war times in 1862 it was 
ordered that the full number of thirty-two brigades should be organized. By the consolidation act of 1882 
the number of divisions was reduced to four, with two brigades each, and the organization of the Guard was 
still further simplified in 1SS6, by reducing the state commands to four brigades only, all reporting directly 
to the adjutant-general at Albany, who then became the only major-general in the service. The 2d Division, 
in which, until 1SS6, were included all the Brooklyn commands, was established at the beginning of the 
National Guard in the state. Its extent varied at different times, including different brigades according to 
the distribution of the several commands. Major Aaron Ward, of Sing Sing, commanded the division until 
1858, when he was succeeded in turn by General Harmanus B. Duryea, in 1858 ; General John B. Woodward, 
in 1869; General Thomas S. Dakin, in 1875; General James Jourdan, in 1879; and General Edward L. 
Molineu.x, in 1884. Until 1862 there was only one brigade actually organized in Brooklyn — the Fifth, which 
became the Third in 1S82, when the Eleventh became the Fourth. This brigade was commanded succes- 
sively by Generals H. B. Duryea, Philip S. Crooke, E. B. Fowler, Thomas S. Dakin, James Jourdan, C. T. 
Christensen, and James McLeer. The 4th Brigade, organized as the Eleventh in i86r by General Jesse C. 
Smith, was commanded by this officer until 1868, when he was followed by Generals J. V. Meserole, in 1868 ; 
Ira L. Beebe, in 1876; Edward L. Molineux,in 1879 ; William H. Brownell, in 1881, and Rodney C. Ward, in 
1885. In 1886, when the organization of the troops of the state in four divisions and eight brigades was 
discontinued, and an organization in four brigades was substituted, the Brooklyn regiments were all embraced 
in the 2d Brigade, of which General James McLeer was made commander. In the fall of 1892 the National 
Guard of the state numbered 12,874 of all ranks, comprised in thirteen regiments, one battalion and forty- 
six separate companies of infantry, five batteries of artillery, one troop of cavalry and three signal corps. By 
the same census the numerical strength of the 2d Brigade was placed at 3,004. At the beginning of 1892 the 
2d brigade comprised five regiments of infantry, an artillery battery, a signal corps and one separate com- 
pany. During the year this muster was reduced by the retirement of one of the regiments, the Thirty-second, 
the disbandment of w-hich occurred on May 26, 1892. It was an eight company infantry regiment which was 
organized as a four company battalion on October 8, 1868. It was enlarged to seven companies on August 
8, 1870, and the eighth company was added on February 24, 187 1. It was organized by Germans and for a 
long time the preponderating element of the organization was of that nationality. Its successive com- 
manders were : Colonels Henry Edward Roehr, John Rueger, Louis Bossert, Louis Finkelmeier and Henry 
C. Clark. At the time when it was mustered out the armory of the regiment was at Stagg street and Bush- 
wick avenue. Companies F and K of the Thirty-second became, respectively, companies E and H of the 
13th Regiment. At the close of 1892 the 2d Brigade was composed as follows : 13th Regiment, ten com- 
panies infantry, (new) armory on Sumner avenue, between Putnam and Jefferson avenues; 14th Regiment, ten 
companies infantry, (new) armory on Eighth avenue, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth sts. ; 23d Regiment, ten 
companies infantry, (new) armory on Bedford avenue, between Atlantic avenue and Pacific street ; 47th Regi- 
ment, eight companies infantry, armory on Marcy avenue, between Heyward and Lynch streets ; 3d battery, 
gatling guns and howitzers, armory at 759-765 Dean street; 17th Separate Company, infantry, armory at 
170 Amity street, Flushing, Queens County. The brigade staff of General McLeer is composed of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John B. Frothingham, assistant adjutant-general; Major W. H. A. Cochran, inspector; 
Major Frank Lyman, engineer ; Major \\'illiam J. Gaynor, judge-advocate ; Major George R. F^owler, sur- 
geon ; Major Francis D. Beard, ordnance officer; Major Peter H. McNulty, quartermaster ; Major Theodore 
H. Babcock, inspector of rifle practice ; Captain Frederick T. Leigh, signal officer ; Captain Charles W. 
Tracy, Jr., aide-de-camp ; Captain John H. Shults, Jr., aide-de-camp. 

Brigadier-General J.^mes McLeer was a young student in the law office of the late General Philip S. Crooke 
in 1S61 when the internecine war resulting from the secession of the southern states called the young men 
of the nation to arms. He was one of the earliest volunteers from his native city of Brooklyn, and enlisted 
as a private in Company C, 14th Regiment. When the first detachment of Union troops crossed the Poto- 
mac and took possessi(jn of the grounds in the vicinity of the Arlington House, he was one of the number. 
In the hard fighting which began on July 21 the regiment was conspicuous by its bravery and endurance, 
and during one of the many charges General McLeer sustained serious wounds in the head and right arm, 
which made necessary a sojourn of several weeks in a hospital. His wounds were not fully healed when he 
insisted on rejoining his regiment, with which he participated in the arduous campaign of 1862 in Virginia. 
On August 29, 1862, the regiment was engaged in the battle of Grovetown,and the young soldier was deliv- 
ering a shot from his rifle when his left arm was shattered. Determined to fire once more he did so with 
his right arm and then fell with a shattered right leg. He lay on the field all night and until the afternoon of 
the next day, when he was removed ; he had done the best he could with his uninjured arm to staunch the 
flow of blood from his wounds, but his injuries were so serious that amputation of the left arm was neces- 
sary, and he would have lost his right leg had his physical condition permitted the operation. The limb 
was saved by successful surgical treatment, but in so shattered a condition that its usefulness is retained by 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 819 

the application of splints. In 1863 he was honorably discharged from the army with the rank of sergeant. 
When the 14th Regiment was reorganized after the war, he was elected first lieutenant of his old company 
and subsequently he was made quartermaster on the staff of Colonel Fowler. Rising successively through 
the grades of major and lieutenant-colonel he was made colonel of the regiment in 1873, and held the com- 
mand until 1885 when he was promoted to his present rank and placed in command of the 5th Brigade. From 
the organization of the Grand Army of the Republic he has been active in its ranks, and he is a charter mem- 
ber of Wadsworth Post, No. 2 — the first post organized in Kings County; he has held various offices in the 
organization. In civil life General McLeer has been prominent many years. He was born in December, 
1840, and, as already stated, intended to become a lawyer; in fact his admission to the bar was near at hand 
when his war career began. In 1865 he was elected city auditor of Brooklyn on the Republican ticket. He 




Brigadier-General James McLker. 

was the nominee for street commissioner in 1869, but, although his election was conceded, he did not serve. 
He was appointed pension agent for the district of Long Island in 1873, and held that office until it was 
consolidated with the New York office. His next position was that of postmaster of Brooklyn, to which he 
was appointed in December, 1877, and he served eight years from the first day of the next year. Since 
1889 he has held the office of assessor. 

THIRTEENTH REGIMENT. 

The 13th Regiment dates its history nearly as far back as any command in the state, its first com- 
pany having been organized in 1827 as the Brooklyn Light Guard. The regiment was organized on July 5, 
1847, with Abel Smith as colonel, Edward Beers as lieutenant-colonel, and John H. Cans as major. The 
companies were: Right-flank, company of light artillery, Brooklyn City Guard, Captain J. N. Olney ; Com- 
pany A, Pearson Light Guard, Captain J. J. Dillon; Company B, Washington Horse Guard, Captain J. McLeer; 
Company C, Brooklyn Light Guard, Captain Charles Morrison; Company D, Williamsburgh Light Artillery, 
Captain Lewis ; Company E, Williamsburgh Light Artillery, Captain Hanford ; Company F, Oregon Guard, 
Captain Walsh ; Company G, Washington Guards, and Company H, Jefferson Guard, Captain Willys. The 
companies at this time had different uniforms, one at least wearing the dress of the old Continentals. The 
City Guard (Captain R. V. W. Thome, now deceased) wore red coats, and the Brooklyn Light Guard wore white 
coats. The Continentals were commanded by Captain Burnett, father-in-law of General Jourdan. After a 
few years' trial it was found that the elements could not be made homogeneous, and the German companies 
from' Williamsburgh were detached and formed the nucleus of the 28th Regiment. About the year 1858 the 
gray uniform was adopted, and the regiment made its first parade in the new dress at the celebration of the 



820 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



introduction of water into Brool^lyn on April 27, 1859. Some of the companies whicli refused to adopt the 
gra)' withdrew from the regiment. Li i<S6o Compan}' 1! was consolidated with Company C and Company A 
of the 14th Regiment, commantled l)y Captain Horace A. Sprague, was transferred and became Company B 
of the ijth Regiment. The command then comjirised eight companies. During all this period the organi- 
zation occupicti the armory at the corner of Henry and Cranberry streets, subsequently used by the Gatlino- 
Batter}', and now given over to commercial purposes. Immediately upon the call of President Lincoln for 
seventy-five thousand men the Thirteenth unanimousl}' tendeied its services, and on April 23, 1861, the 
regiment, eight hundred strong, started for the seat of war. In anticipation of serious disturbance in Balti- 
more at the approaching election, the Thirteenth was orderetl to that city to assist in maintaining order. 
During its absence a home guard ol Company G had been formed, which subsequently became the nucleus of 



■^ 




Tim; I i,i.:xiii rk.;imkxt .Memory (Present', Flathusii .\vexue .\ni, IIaxshx 1'lace. 
the 23d Regiment. On the return of the Th,rteenth in the latter part of Julv this guard turned out to receive 
It. Many ot the Thirteenth's officers and men then and later entered the volunteer service Upon the 
retirement of Colonel Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel R. ]!. Clark was elected colonel, with John B Woodward 
lieutenant-colonel, and S. K. Boyd major; and on May 2, 1062, the regiment again responded to the call 
ot the government. E.xcept the Eleventh no other New York militia 



-p, . , ,, T ■ , ''^ regiment went so far south as the 

I hirteenth. It lormed a part of the extreme left wing of McClellan's armv, and rentlered very effeetivf 
vice. On the expn-ation of the term of service, on August 31, the men returned he 



ry eiieetive ser 

,,,,,,,.,. .. „ , lome. Again in June, 

1863, and for the third time, the regiment was called into active service and was hurried to the front Col- 
onel John B. Woodward was in command, with W. A. McKee as lieutenant-colonel. The overwhelming 
defeat of the Confederates at Gettysburg rendered the services of the militia no longer indispensable and 
in consequence of the draft nots m New \-ork in July, 1863, the Thirteenth was ordered home Durin'. the 
month ot August ,t did guard duty m the city while the draft proceeded. In 1S66 Colonel Woodward 
resigned, and was succeeded by Colonel James Jourdan. He, in turn, was succeeded by Colonel Thomas S 
Dakin ,n 1869, and upon the latter's election as brigadier-general Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick A Mason 
was chosen colonel. In 1870 Philip H. Briggs was lieutenant-colonel, and Edward S. Daniell mai<,r The 
drum corps association was organized in 1869. On October 21, 1875, the regiment was first mustered and 
mspec ed in its new armory, at Hanson place and Flatbush avenue. Lieutenant-Colonel Brigo-s was elected 
colonel ,n January 1876, vice General Jourdan, commander-elect of the 5th Brigade. Captain Harry H 
Beadle was elected lieutenant-colonel, and William R. Syme, for some time adjutant, was made major The 
service of the regiment since the war has included duty during the Orange riots of 1871 and the great 
railroad strike of ,877, when the prompt action of Govern<ir Robin.son in calling out the troops undoubtedly 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



preserved the state from the devastation which befell Pennsylvania and Maryland in that year. Colonel 
Austen took command on July 13, 1877. In July, 1879, brevet Brigadier-Creneral C. T. Christensen was 
elected major, vice King, appointed judge-advocate on the staff of General E. E. Molineux, nth Brigade, 
and subsequently lieutenant-colonel, vice Beadle, honorably discharged. Captain J. Frank Dillont (Com- 
pany F) was chosen major, and subsequently lieutenant-colonel. He resigned in the spring of 1881. In the 
spring of 1888 a parade of the regiment took place in honor of the official induction of the Rev. T. De 
Witt Talmage as chaplain of the regiment. Previous to this, in 1885, the regiment had formed the guard 
of honor at the funeral of the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, its chaplain. The regiment also formed part of 
the guard of honor at the funeral of General U. S. Grant in August, 1886. Company K is the most recent 
addition to the Thirteenth. It was organized in 1888 as the " Talmage Company," in honor of the chaplain 
of the regiment, the Rev. T. De Witt Talmage. It was mustered into service to replace the original Com- 
pany K, that disbanded some time ago. Captain Charles H. Luscomb commands it. Colonel David E. Aus- 
ten, the present regimental commandant, was commissioned on July 13, 1877. In 1884 he was succeeded by 
General A. C. Barnes, who in turn was followed by Colonel Edward Fackner in 1SS7. A year later Colonel 
Fackner resigned, and Colonel Austen was again elected to the colonelcy of the regiment. 

The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher was appointed chaplain in iSIarch, 1878. Among Mr. Beecher's pre- 
decessors were the Rev. Edward Taylor, the Rev. J. Halstead Carroll and the Rev. Henry M. Storrs. In 
June, 1878, was begun in the lecture-room of Plymouth Church the recruiting for Company G, commonly 
known as the " Beecher Company," and Captain William L. Watson, a veteran of the war of the rebellion, 
was elected captain in July. An important acciuisition was made also in the selection of the veteran 
Harvey B. Dodworth, in September of the same year, as bandmaster, a position in which he was succeeded 
by Fred. N. Innes. The veteran association of the 13th Regiment was organized on September 29, 1874. 
At a meeting held on November 5, 1874, a constitution was adopted, and General Heath was elected presi- 
dent, and Captain S. H. Wing, secretary. The first annual meeting of the association was held in the city 
armory on April 23, 1875, and a regular regimental formation was adopted with the following officers : Col- 
onel, Henry Heath; lieutenant-colonel, John B. Woodward; major, Adam T. ]3odge; adjutant, A. I-I.Wing; 
quartermaster, J- S. Van Cleef ; commissary, William R. Syme ; eight captains and ei,L;ht lieutenants were 
elected at the same meeting. The veteran association has taken an active interest in all matters con- 
nected with the regiment. The officers of the association in 1892 were: Theodore II. Gates, president ; F. 
A. Baldwin, secretary ; C. W. Tandy, treasurer ; John P. Scrvmser, commissai^y. The field and staff of the 
13th Regiment are : David E. Austen, colonel; William L. A\'atson, lieutenant-colonel; George G. Cochran, 
major; William F. Penney, adjutant; Charles Werner, quartermaster; Jerry A. Wernberg, commissary 
of subsistence; John A. Cochran, surgeon; Arthur R. 
Jarrett, assistant surgeon; Rev. T. De Witt Talmage, 
chaplain; T. H. Babcock, inspector of ride practice. 

The military experience of Colonel David E. Aus- 
ten began two years before the beginning of the Civil 
war. He enlisted in Company H, 7th Regiment, in 
February, 1859, and went south when the regiment 
was ordered to guard the capital of the nation. Hav- 
ing been elected to a first lieutenantcy, he joined the 
47th Regiment in November, 1862, and then became 
attached to Company I. In August of the succeeding 
year he was promoted to the rank of adjutant. He 
was elected captain of Company I in March, 1S64; 
major of the regiment in October, 1865; lieutenant- 
colonel in January, 1868, and colonel in 1869. Wliile 
holding this rank he was called to the command "f the 
Thirteenth and received his commission on July 13, 
1877. Seven years later he was succeeded by Colonel 
A. C. Barnes, who gave place, in 1887, to Colonel Ivd- 
ward Fackner. The latter resigned within a year and 
Colonel Austen was called upon to resume his old 
duties. David E. Austen was born in New York city 
on February 6, 1841. His mother died while he was 
an infant and he was brought up under the care of 
his father's parents. His grandfather, David Austen, 
was the prime factor in the uptown religious move- 
ment among the Episcopalians on Manhattan Island, 




Colonel D.-wiit h;. Austen. 



822 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



^ 



r 



which resulted in the erection of Grace Church at the corner of Tenth street and Broadway. He and Peter 
Schermerhorn were the first wardens of the new parish. Colonel Austen was educated in the Swinburne 
Collegiate Institute at White Plains. At the age of twenty he accepted the offices of superintendent and 
chemist of the New York Kerosene Oil Company. He afterward became president of the Brooklyn Oil 
Refining Company. His first political office was held in the New York custom house. Having studied 
law in the intervals allowed by his business, he was admitted to the bar after being graduated with the 
highest honors from the law school of New York University. His professional career was interrupted by 
his appointment to the deputy auditorship of the finance department of New York city, and within two 
years he was made one of the two auditors in charge of that division of the municipal government. His 
faith in the doctrines of republicanism was first shaken when Horace Greeley entered the presidential arena 
in 1S72. He sympathized at that time with the coalescing factions which had united in the candidacy of 
the great editor and since then he has remained a Democrat without being in any sense a partisan. In the 
days of Hubert O. Thompson's ascendancy Colonel Austen was one of the delegates to the general com- 
mittee of the New York county democracy. 

William LeRoy AVatson, lieutenant-colonel of the 13th Regiment, is a veteran of the Union army, 
who, since the close of the Civil war, has given long continued and brilliant service to the state as a member 

of the National Guard. His military history began 
with his enlistment in the summer of 1862, when he 
was eighteen years old, as a private in the 2d Wis- 
consin Volunteers. He was at that time a student at 
the Lawrence University in Appleton, Wis., to which 
institution he went in 1859 from Albany, N. Y., his 
native place. After participating in the engagements 
at Perryville, or Chapin Hill, Ky., Stone River and 
Hoorus Gap, and in the Tallahoma campaign, he was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Chickamauga and sent 
to the Libby Prison. He escaped by way of the cele- 
brated tunnel, but was recaptured, and after being held 
at Libby Prison some time longer was transferred to 
Columbia, S. C, from which place he finally escaped 
and, rejoining his regiment, served with it until the 
war ended, when he was honorably mustered out with 
the rank of captain. After the war he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, yth Regiment, in which command he served 
the full term of seven years. His ne.xt military ex- 
perience was his connection with the 13th Regiment. 
When Company G, of that regiment, the " Beecher 
Company," was recruited in the summer of 1878, the 
command was tendered Captain Watson and he ac- 
cepted the commission on August 16, 1878. When Mr. 
Beecher died the company was selected as the guard of 
honor for the body while it lay in state in Plymouth 
'^ Church. In appreciation of its services the company 
received from Mr. Beecher's family the sword and belt 
worn by the famous clergyman as chaplain of the regiment, and it hangs in a handsome case upon the 
walls of the company room. Captain Watson retained command of the company until he was elected 
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. The family of which Mr. Watson is a member originated in America 
with John Watson, who was a land surveyor in Hartford, Conn., in 1644, having come from England as a 
member of the colony at Plymouth, Mass. William LeRoy Watson was born at Albany, N. Y., on March 8, 
1844, and attended the public schools there until he went to Wisconsin in 1859. He has been engaged 
many years in the business of a commission merchant and is a member of the New York Produce Exchange. 
He is a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion and of U. S. Grant Post, G. A. R. 

Major George G. Cochran was born in Brooklyn on November 3, 1863. He was educated at the 
Juvenile High School and the Polytechnic Institute, and afterward studied medicine at Columbia College. 
At the outset of his career he held the position of assistant surgeon at Chambers Street Hospital and Mount 
Sinai Hospital, New York city. He is an inspector of the Brooklyn board of health. In 1880 he assisted 
Colonel David E. Austen in organizing the cadet corps of the 13th Regiment and in 1881 he was appointed 
captain of the cadets. He was obliged to resign his commission when he entered Columbia College, but 
while traveling in Europe, in 1S86, he was elected to the second lieutenantcy of Company I, 13th Regiment. 




LlEUTENAMT-COLONEL WiLLIAM L. WATSON. 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



823 



On May 6, 1887, he was advanced a step and on January 16, 1888, he was elected captain. Since 1889 he has 
been a member of both the regimental and brigade examining boards, and since 1890 has held the presi- 
dency of the latter. In 1890 he was assistant instructor of guard duty at the state camp. From the date 
of his enlistment in the cadet corps, and for the whole period of his service with the National Guard, he 
held the annual 100 per cent, medals, and is also the possessor of the state marksman's and armory sharp- 
shooters' badges. He was largely engaged in the introduction among second brigade organizations of 
the method of signaling with flags, torches and electric lights, and he was mainly instrumental in estab- 
lishing a bicycle corps in connection with his immediate command. In 1892 he was elected major of the 
13th Regiment. He married Miss Edith Austen, daughter of Colonel David E, Austen. 

John F. Carroll was elected second lieutenant of Company F, 32d Regiment, on December 17, 1891. 
When that organization was disbanded he was transferred with his original rank to Company E, 13th 
Regiment. He was born in Brooklyn on August 31, 1862. When he was four years old his father died and 
he made his home with an uncle at College Point. He was educated at the Feurst Military College at that 
place, and at Fairchild's Academy, in the town of Flushing. He entered the publication office of A. S. 
Barnes & Co., thoroughly mastered the printing and bookbinding trades, and eventually became foreman 
and assistant superintendent of the binding department. In 1885 he was prominent in the organization of 
the Johnson Literary Society, of which he was five times elected president. He was also one of the organi- 
zers of the St. James Outing Club, and as its first captain held office two years. 

James McNevin, ordnance sergeant of the 13th Regiment, and superintendent of the armory, is the 
wearer of many trophies of marksmanship, and he holds the championship of the regiment for the highest 
score at all ranges. He was a member of the team matched against Sir Henry Halford's team of British 
volunteers at Creedmoor in 18S2, and was the military long range champion of the United States in 1889. 
His time is given wholly to his regimental duties. He was born in London, England, in 1847. 

FOURTEENTH REGIMENT. 

The 14th Regiment, the oldest of 2d Brigade organizations and the only one that served through the 
war for the LTnion, has a history of which any command might well be proud. From 1S46, the date of its 




Fourteenth Regiment Armory (Present;, North Poktla.nd .\vi.nli:, 

formation, until the beginning of the Civil war, the career of the regiment was uneventful. On April 18, 
1861, report was made to headquarters that the command was ready for service, and on May 18 eight line 
companies and an engineer corps — 825 officers and men, under the command of Col. Alfred M. Wood — 
started for Washington. On May 23, a day which is always celebrated by the command, General Irwin 



824 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



McDowell mustered the regiment into the service of the LTnited States as the 84th N. Y. Volunteers. Early 
in July the regiment crossed into Virginia and encamped near Arlington House. Two companies were here 
added to the organization, which, 960 strong, was assigned to General Andrew Porter's brigade. The cam- 
paign of the " Red Legged Devils " began on July 16, with a march to Armandale, continued the next day to 
a point north of Centreville, where a stop was made until the 21st. Long before dawn of that day the 
troops moved out of camp. In the battle of Lull Run, to which this movement was preliminary, the regi- 
ment was engaged four hours and a half. It recaptured the guns of Rickett's battery, but was unable to 
hold them for lack of reinforcements; such was its conduct generally that special mention of the regiment 
was made in general orders. After the battle the F(.)urtcenth returned to the old camp at Arlington, and 
stayed there until September 28, when it participated in the advance upon Munson's and Hall's Hills. Winter 
quarters were established on Upton's Hill, where the command remained until the spring of 1862. From 
that time until the regiment was mustered out of service it was engaged in twenty-one battles. Li the three 
days' fight at Gettysburg the loss was fully fifty per cent, of the number engaged: iS killed, no wounded 
and 90 missing. There was no hardship of war that the gallant soldiers of the Fourteenth did not endure. 
On May 22, 1864, came the order for its return home. Cattle cars were furnished by the quartermas- 
ter's department, and on the afternoon of the 24th the regiment was on its way to Brooklyn. At Elizabeth- 
town they were met by a committee of Brooklyn citizens, while at Jersey City the common council reception 
committee, the 13th Regiment and the 14th Regiment veteran association, were on hand to receive them. 
The demonstration with which tlie T'liurteenth was welcomed by the thousands of people who lined the 
streets of Brooklyn was one never to be forgotten. 'I'he 14th Regiment, originally known as the Brooklyn 
Chasseurs, was made uj") of separate companies variously uniformed ; it was not until 1861 that the red 
Zouave dress was adopted. I'hilip G. Crooke, of I^'latbush, was the first colonel ; he was succeeded in 1852 
by Jesse C. Smith, Viho gave way to Alfred JNL 'Wood ; E. B. Prowler -was made colonel on October 24, 1S62 ; 
James McLeer took command in 1S73, and Harry W. Michell, the present commandant, in 1885. Colonels 
Crooke, Smith, Fowler and IMcLeer became generals. The field and staff officers are : colonel, Harry \V. 
]\Iichell ; lieutenant-djlonel, Selden C. Clobridge ; major, Benjamin S. Steen ; commissary of subsistence, 
'W. H. Fitzgerald; all of whom served through the war; adjutant, A. L. Kline; surgeon, Frank L. R. Teta- 
more; assistant surgeon, L. J. Cartloua ; chaplain, J. Oramel Peck ; inspector of rifle practice, John J. Dixon. 
Colonel H.\i;i;\' \\'. ^NIicHi.i.i, has been the commanding officer of the 14th Regim.ent since November 
30, 1S85, He enlisted ni the regiment when the days of holiday soldiering had given place to the sterner 
period of at'tual warfare, the date of his enrollment being that upon which the regiment gave notice of its 
readiness to go to the front. Fie was a member of Company C, and was so good a soldier that on August 

I, 1S61, he was made a corporal, and three months 
later was promoted to the rank of sergeant. On Feb- 
ruary II, 1S63, he was commissioned second lieuten- 



ant. In the battle of Gettysburg he was wounded in 
the breast, but continueil in the discharge of his duties, 
and was rewarded on July 27 by the placing of a first 
lieutenant's bar upon his shoulder straps. In the bat- 
tle of the Wilderness he was acting as assistant adju- 
tant-general of the 2d Brigade of the 5th Corps, and 
while attending to his duties on May 5 was taken 
prisoner. He was a prisoner eleven months in all, 
and vi-as finally exchanged just before the war ended. 
The record of his rise to the command of the 14th 
Regiment can be given briefly in the dates of his com- 
mit. -ions, as follows : captain. May 25, 1865 ; major, 
March 25, 1875 ; lieutenant-colonel, October 29, 1883, 
and colonel, November 30, 1885. In every position to 
which he has been called in the regiment he has been 
v.n indefatigable worker, and he has sometimes been 
spoken of as "the pride of the Fighting Fourteenth." 
for the i)ast twenty years he has been connected with 
the tax office of Brooklyn. He is a member of the 
(band Army of the Republic and of the Knights of St. 
John and Malta. New York city is his native place, 
and he was born on March 23, 1837. After preparing 
for college at a school in Schoharie, N. Y,, he studied 
at Hamilton College. 




C'-iLoNM. Hai;kv \V. iric 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



82s 




LlEUlENANT-COLOnEL SELDEN C. CLOBRIDGE, 



The military record of Lieutenant-Colonel Sel- 
DEN C. Clobridge is that of a gallant soldier whose 
duty was performed well and faithfully in the face of 
every danger, and whose scars are testimonials of his 
personal bravery. He enlisted in the 115th Regiment, 
N. Y. Volunteers, on August 8, 1862, as corporal, and 
in the following January was made sergeant. He 
was wounded in the leg at Olustee, Fla., his shoulder 
was injured at Deep Bottom, Va., and his right arm 
was lost in the assault upon Fort Gilmer. Corrrmis- 
sioned lieutenant on April 29, 1865, he was honorably 
discharged from the service with the brevet rank of 
major in the New York State Volunteers. He was 
appointed adjutant of the 14th Regiment on May i, 
1878, and on October 9, 1883, he received his commis- 
sion as major. He was promoted to the rank he now 
holds on November 30, 1885. His energy in overcom- 
ing the physical inconvenience caused by the loss of 
his arm has been remarkable. By practice he became 
one of the most accomplished left hand penmen in 
the United States and won the prize for this class of 
handwriting which was offered by the editor of a mili- 
tary publication. The intrinsic value of the premium 
was heightened by the fact that it was awarded through 
Admiral Farragut, whose name was affixed to the let- 
ter of presentation, though at the time the admiral 
was cruising in Russian waters. He was represented, however, by General U. S. Grant, whose signature 
ornaments the left hand corner of the epistle, and Lieutenant-Colonel Clobridge thus became the possessor 
of a document to which is appended the autographs of the greatest sailor and the greatest soldier that 
the Civil war produced. He was born on January 15, 1846, at Turin, Lewis County, N. Y. His early life 
was spent attending to the duties of his father's farm and obtaining such education as the country schools 
and an academy at Fort Edward afforded. Before coming to New York he spent three years at Albany as 

a clerk in the office of Governor Reuben E. Fenton, 
and while so employed he drafted the original bill 
creating Prospect Park. For eleven years he served 
as an employee at the custom house. At this writing 
he holds a position of responsibility in the office of 
the Brooklyn tax collector. He married Eva Beardslay 
Small, daughter of Darius Small, a farmer near Little 
Falls, N. Y. 

Major Benjamin S. Steen carries an empty sleeve 
as a memento of the services he rendered his country 
at the time of the Civil war. He enlisted in the 14th 
Regiment on October 15, 1858, and went south with 
his comrades when they left Brooklyn for the seat of 
war. He then held the rank of corporal. He was 
promoted to the rank of sergeant in August following, 
and served with distinction on many stubbornly con- 
tested fields. In the bloody fight at Groveton, on 
August 29, 1862, he lost his arm, and in the succeed- 
ing December he was honorably discharged from the 
service. Soon afterwards he was given a commission 
in the 158th New York Volunteers, but his wound in- 
capacitated him. He was elected to a second lieuten- 
antcy in his old regiment on May 27, 1865, and was 
promoted to the grade of first lieutenant on Novem- 
ber 2, 1867. He received his captain's commission on 
November 22, 1872, and was given his major's rank 
Major Benjamin s. Steen. on May 20, 1889. He was born at Flushing, L. I., on 




826 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Lieutenant A. L. Kline, Adjutant. 



June 4, 1840, and spent ten years of his life in the 
employ of the Brooklyn Eagle. He was foreman of 
the pressroom when he went out with the volunteers. 
For twenty years he has been employed as a customs 
inspector. 

A. L. Kline, adjutant of the 14th Regiment, is 
to-day the senior adjutant in the National Guard of 
New York State. He enlisted in the "Fighting Four- 
teenth," on May 24, 1S76. He began his military career 
as a private and every promotion has been a well de- 
served tribute to his merit as a soldier. He was made 
a corporal on September 13, 1878, and quartermaster- 
sergeant on December i, 1881. He ceased to be a 
non-commissioned officer on January 23, 1882, when 
he became a second lieutenant; more than three years 
afterwards, on March 16, 1S85, he was advanced to the 
rank of first lieutenant. He was appointed adjutant 
on January 25, 1892. He was born at Newton, Sussex 
County, N. J., on F'ebruary 21, 1857. After obtaining 
an education at public and private schools, he came to 
live in Brooklyn in 1872. He engaged with W. C. Peet 
& Co., neckwear manufacturers, and remained with 
them until the firm dissolved in 1886. While there he 
received a thorough education in the business and was 
in charge of the selling and shipping departments. 
He and his brother, B. C. Kline, opened their present 
wholesale furnishing business, at 529 Broadway, in June, 1890. He is a member of Fort Greene Council, 
Royal Arcanum, and of the Genesta Bowling Club. He was a member of the Grant Monument Association. 
The quartermaster of the 14th Regiment, Frederick E. Shipman, enlisted in the National Guard on 
July 2, 1884, as a private in Co. F, 47th Regiment. He was made quartermaster-sergeant on July 30, 1884, 
and was honorably discharged in April, 1891. He reentered the service in less than a year and was 
appointed to his present rank on January 25, 1892. He is engaged in the plate glass insurance business and 
is now superintendent of that department of The 
Fidelity and Casualty Insurance Company. He was 
born in Brooklyn on January 30, i860, and is the son 
of E. D. Shipman, a manufacturer of agricultural im- 
plements. His grandfather was a colonel in the Con- 
necticut state militia. He was educated at the public 
schools in the Eastern District, which he attended 
until his seventeenth year. He is a member of the 
masonic fraternity. He married Catherine McCort, 
daughter of Peter McCort, of Ohio. 

Frank L. R. Tetamore, M. D., began his connec- 
tion with the National Guard as a hospital steward in 
April, 1S79, when he joined the T4th Regiment. He 
was made assistant surgeon on June 2, 1886, and sur- 
geon on June 2, 1892. He studied under Dr. George 
R. Fowler, surgeon of the 2d Brigade, and was gradu- 
ated from the Long Island College Hospital with the 
class of 1882. He at once began to practice surgery 
and acquired prominence as a specialist in those deli- 
cate operations which relate to the restoration of the 
face by transplanting tissue. He successfully demon- 
strated that the bones of animals could not be utilized 
in restoring injured portions of the face, but by the 
transplanting of tissue he succeeded in constructing an 
artificial face for a lady from Scranton, Pa., who was 
fearfully disfigured in a railway accident on the Read- 
ing road. He is medical examiner for the Knights lieutenant fkeueriok e. shipman, quartermaster. 




THE NATIONAL GUARD 



827 



of St. John and Malta and for the Fraternal Mystic Circle ; is a member of the Chapter General of 
America, the highest division of the Knights of Malta. He was born at Hudson, Columbia County, N. Y., 
on August 28, 185 1, and during his boyhood was employed as a druggist's assistant. 

John H. Foote, who has been sergeant-major of the regiment since December 14, 1891, enlisted on 
February 11, 18S5, as a private in Company B. On February 16, 1888, he was made quartermaster-sergeant, 
and on February i, the next year, he was made first sergeant, which rank he held nearly three years. 
He is a native of Brooklyn and was born on July 10, 1866. He was educated at the public schools and 
is engaged in the jewelry business. 

Frederick H. Stevenson, the regimental quartermaster-sergeant, was born in New York on January 
28, 1864. He was educated at the Brooklyn Business College When fourteen years old he entered the 
employ of his father, George Stevenson, a wholesale cigar manufacturer. He is now a salesman for another 
firm. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum and the Order of Foresters. His military record began on 
December 13, 1883, when he entered the regiment as a private in Company A. On July 17, 1884, he was 
warranted corporal ; on October 15, 1886, second sergeant; and on July 5, 1S88, first sergeant. He was 
made quartermaster-sergeant on January 11, 1892. His record of attendance is 100 per cent. 

Color Bearer William J. Le Pine enlisted in the 14th Regiment in April, 1865. He had served in the 
navy under the command of Commodore Chauncey and for a time, during 1857, was employed on the steam 
frigate "Niagara." In August, 1861, he enlisted in the 2d N. Y. Volunteer Cavalry, and after two years of 
meritorious service he was honorably discharged because of illness. For si.x months after joining the 14th 
Regiment he served as a private in Company C. He was promoted to the rank of corporal at the end of 
that time and twelve months later he was made a sergeant. He was color bearer during the ten years end- 
ing in 1882, and was reappointed to that position in March, 1892. He was born in London, England, on 
April 25, 1833, and first saw the shores of America when he was eight years old. He has earned some dis- 
tinction in local Republican politics, and during 1881 and 1882 he represented the thirteenth ward in the 
board of aldermen. For ten years he served as constable and deputy sheriff. 

Captain Hassell Nutt, of Company D, enlisted as a private in Company I on April 2, 1873, and on 
June 17, 1874, he became second lieutenant. He was promoted to the next higher grade in July, 1876, 
was appointed adjutant on May i, 1885, and commissary of subsistence on October 13, 1886. A year later 
he was elected to the command of Company D. He is in the employ of the post office department. He 
was born in England, at the seaport of Hull, on January 17, 1853, and in his boyhood came to the United 
States, where he was educated at public and private schools. He is a member of the Twenty-third Ward 
Republican Association, the Letter Carriers' Mutual Benefit Association, the National Provident Union, 
the Order of Tonti and the masonic fraternity. 

William L. Garcia, first lieutenant of Company - ^-^-..™j,,,.,--,;^^,-- ., — _^™. ,-- 

D, joined the regiment on May 14, 18S6, when he 
enlisted as a private in Company E. His interest in 
his military duties has been active from the first and 
he has risen from grade to grade with considerable 
rapidity. He was made corporal on May 4, 1888 ; ser- 
geant on November 9, 1888; first sergeant on Feb- 
ruary 17, 1890; and commissary-sergeant on January 
II, 1892. In February, 1893, he was elected to his 
present rank and commissioned. Born in New York 
city on October 28, 1866, he was educated at the pub- 
lic schools there and at the high school. 

Captain Edmund H. Mitchell, of Company E, 
enlisted in the volunteer service not long after the 
beginning of the Civil war. He joined the 51st Regi- 
ment, N. Y. Volunteers, which was commonly known 
as the Shepherd Rifles, and saw a great deal of active 
service, participating in most of the earlier operations 
under McClellan. He was twice wounded at Antie- 
tam, once in the hand and once in the head. This 
incapacitated him for a time and he returned home. 
Shortly after the reorganization of the 37th Infantry 
as a part of the State National Guard he became a 
member of Company B and continued with it until it 
was disbanded. In 1869 he joined the 14th Regiment, 
enlisting as a private in Company A, but left the 14th captain edmunu h. Mitchell. 




g^g THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

shortly afterwards on being elected captain of Company A, 84th Regiment, N. G., S. N. Y. He returned 
to the 14th in 1870 and was transferred by Colonel Debevoise to the command of Company E, which he 
reori^anized. On January 30, 1879, he retired, but was again elected captain of his old company on Decem- 
ber 31, 1891. He was born in Brooklyn on January ig, 1846, and was educated at the public schools, the 
Free Academy of New York and Manhattan College. He married Miss Louise Marie Maziere, of Mezieres, 
France, whose family was represented by several of its members in the French military service and in the 

Belgian army. 

The commanding officer of Company G, Captain John L. J. Hagcstrom, enlisted as a private on Sep- 
tember I, 1861. He was made quartermaster-sergeant on October 8, 1883, and became left general guide 
on April'4, 1884. Two years later, on November 29, he was made commissary-sergeant and was elected 
second lieutenant of Company G on February 26, 1890. His captain's commission was dated March 26, 
1891. He was born in Sweden on March g, 1859, and came to the United States in 1880, after having first 
undergone a collegiate training in his native land. He has been engaged twelve years as a photographer. 

Richard H. Harding, Jr., captain of Company B, enlisted in the ranks of the National Guard on 
October 17, 1884. He joined Company I, 47th Regiment, as a private; on June 17, 1889, he was elected 
second lieutenant of Company C, 14th Regiment, and on November 4 of the same year he received his 
commission as first lieutenant. On March 25, 1892, he received his present command. He was born at 
Spring Valley, N. Y., on April 4, 1865, and was graduated from the Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn. 

Sergeant James T. Ashley enlisted in Company H in 1884, and was made a corporal two years later. 
Soon aft^er his appointment as sergeant, in June, 1891, he was, through the consolidation of two companies, 
transferred to Company I, and his appointment was continued with the original date. He was born at 
Speedsville, Tompkins County, N. Y., on September 29, 1866, and came to Brooklyn at the age of five, where 
he attended the public schools. After filling several clerical positions he entered the banking business and 
was employed as a clerk until i88g, when he was appointed assistant national bank examiner for New York 
city. He is a member of the Twenty-third Ward Republican Club, and the Sigma Alpha Phi Club, of 
New York. 

John Cooper, right general guide and acting sergeant-major of the first battalion, is a native of Eng- 
land and was born in London on February 25, 1865. When he was five years old he was brought to the 
United States, and was educated in the public schools. He is a member of Fort Greene Lodge, L O. 0. F., 
secretary of the Mutual Aid Association of the Brady Manufacturing Company, and recording and financial 
secretary of the non-commissioned staff of the regiment. He enlisted in the 14th Regiment on April 9, 
18S5, joining Company I as a private. In less than a year he became a corporal, and on March 2, 1887, he 
was detailed as a marker. On March 19, 1888, he was appointed left general guide, and in February, 1889, 
he was advanced to his present rank 

TWENTY-THIRD REGIMENT. 

The 23d Regiment, although the youngest save one of all the state regiments, has risen to an eminence 
among the commands composing the 2d Brigade which is most creditable to its officers and members. To 
so high a degree has it been brought in equipment and discipline that, in the reports of the inspector-gene- 
ral, it has received the highest figure of merit among all the regiments of the state. The organization of 
the regiment resulted from a movement in April, 1861, for the formation of a home guard which, besides 
acquiring proficiency in military duty, should provide relief for the families of the Brooklyn City Guard, 
then away at the front. The newly formed company assumed the name of Relief Guard, Company G, 13th 
Regiment. It adopted the fatigue dress of the 13th Regiment as its uniform, and perfected its organi- 
zation by electing a board of civil officers. On June 19, 1861, it was determined to change the name of the 
company from " Relief Guard " to " City Guard Reserve," and at the same time a movement in the direc- 
tion of regimental organization was made. Application was made to the 13th Regiment for a position in its 
ranks, but it was not granted. About this time Governor Morgan authorized the enrollment of four new 
regiments of militia in Kings County, to be known as the nth Brigade, and commanded by the late General 
Jesse C. Smith. The plan of regimental formation provided for the drawing by lot of thirty-five names 
from the relief guard to form Company A of the new regiment, designated the " Twenty-third." The 
E.xcelsior Guard, under the command of Captain IJeers, was to form Company B, and the remaining mem- 
bers of the reserve were to form Company C. The drawing took place on January 20, 1862. Upon its 
conclusion Company A was mustered into the state service. Company B was sworn in on the following 
evening and Company C on the 31st of the same month. A fourth company, D, was soon after accepted 
by the state authorities. This company numbered about sixty men drawn from the City Guard. Within 
two months, four more companies, G, H, I and K, were added, raising the command to the status of a full 
regiment, of which Captain Everdell was elected colonel. On June 16, 1863, the summons came for the 
regiment to go to the front. Two days later it left for Harrisburg, Pa., where it was quartered in Camp 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



829 




Twenty-Third Regiment Armory. 

Curtin, and subsequently sent across the Susquehanna to Bridgeport Heights, to garrison Fort Washington 
— an unfinished fortification in which the Twenty-third received its first introduction to the pick and 
shovel as weapons of modern warfare. On June 29, detachments from the 23d, 8th and 56th regiments were 
sent to Oyster Point for picket duty. Here the regiment received its first fire from the enemy. On July 17 
it started on the return trip to Brooklyn. In October, 1863, Colonel Everdell resigned his commission and 
was succeeded by Colonel Calvin E. Pratt. Colonel Pratt commanded the famous Light Brigade at Marye's 
Heights, and was brevetted brigadier-general for conspicuous gallantry. He commanded the regiment until 
March, 1868, his successor being Colonel Rodney C. Ward. In 1871, through the efforts of Colonel Ward, 
a bill was passed by the legislature appropriating f 160,000 for the construction of a new armory for his 
command. The corner-stone of the new building on Clermont, between Myrtle and Willoughby avenues, 
was laid by Mayor S. S. Powell, in October, 1872, and the regiment took possession of its new home on Sep- 
tember 30, 1873. In April, 1873, Company G had disbanded, but the vacant letter was taken up in Decem- 
ber of the same )^ear by the enlistment in a body of the Brooklyn City Guard — formerly Company G, 13th 
Regiment. The disbandment of Company I, in December, 1874, again reduced the regiment to eight com- 
panies, at which number it remained until 1879, when Company H was organized, chiefly from the cadet corps 
of the regiment. In 1884 a new company, I, was organized and the regiment increased to ten companies. 
In July of the centennial year the command went to Philadelphia to take part in the Fourth of July parade. 
Six months later the regiment formed a guard of honor at the funeral of the victims of the Brooklyn 
theatre disaster. During the labor troubles of 1877 the regiment was stationed at Hornellsville, N. Y., 
that being considered the key to the strikers' position in this state. Colonel John N. Partridge succeeded 
to the command in January, 1880. He resigned in February, 1882, to become fire commissioner of Brook- 
lyn, under Mayor Low. A month later Colonel Rodney C. Ward was recalled to the command of the 
regiment. The chief event of Colonel Ward's second administration was the inauguration by this regiment, 
on July 18, 1882, of the state camp of instruction, at Peekskill. The state service uniform was adopted the 
same year. Colonel Ward resigned in February, i-886, to become brigadier-general of the 4th Brigade. He 
was succeeded by Charles L. Finck, who was elected colonel on March 22, 1886. In January, 1887, the 
regiment celebrated its first quarter century of active duty. Colonel Finck resigned in May, 1887, on 
account of ill health, and Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander S. Bacon commanded the regiment until October, 
when Colonel Partridge was recalled to the command. With the exception of the chaplain, the present 
officers of the regiment have all carried a rifle in the National Guard, and all but Colonel Partridge and 
Lieutenant Oliver, the commissary — who were officers during the civil war — have served as enlisted men in 
the Twenty-third. The field and staff officers in 1892 were: colonel, John N. Partridge; lieutenant- 
colonel, Alexis C. Smith; major, Ezra DeForest ; adjutant, Theodore W. Sillcocks; quartermaster, George 



8^0 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Edward Hall- commissary of subsistence, Richard Oliver ; surgeon, William E. Spencer ; assistant surgeon, 
Henry I Cochran • chaplain, H. Price Collier; and inspector of rifle practice, Heywood C. Broun. At the 
fill meeting of theNational Rifle Association, in 1891, the regimental team won the state and 2d Brigade 
prizes A "member of the team, Sergeant Robert Findlay, Company G, won the military championship of 
the United States m the president's match at Creedmoor. The veteran association of the 23d Regiment 
was or-anized on February 15, 1870, and incorporated on January 27, 1874. The board of officers in 1892 
consist^'ed of General Alfred C. Barnes, president ; Major Darius Ferry, vice-president ; E. S. Benedict, 
secretary ■ F A. Rand, treasurer. 

Colonel John N Partridge was born at Leicester, Worcester County, Mass., in 1838, and there 
passed his early boyhood ; but when his school days ended he took up his residence in Boston. When the 
Confederate batteries fired upon Fort Sumter he was a private in the New England Guards, an independent 

military organization of Boston. The members of this 
association volunteered in a body for the defence of 
the nation's honor, and were mustered into service as 
the 4th Battalion of Massachusetts volunteer militia, 
and enrolled among the thirty days' men that answered 
the president's first call for troops. At the end of 
his thirty days' term of service, he entered the 24th 
Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry as a first lieutenant, 
and was promoted to a captaincy on February 6, 1864. 
On May 16, of the same year, while leading his com- 
pany in the assault on Fort Darling, at Drury's Bluff, 
on the James River, he received a severe wound in 
the temple, and was discharged from the service on 
September 27 following, on account of sickness con- 
tracted in the trenches before Petersburg. He made 
his home in Brooklyn, and for a time devoted himself 
exclusively to business, but on February 10, 1869, he 
joined Company H of the 23d Regiment, and was 
commissioned first lieutenant. In the same year he 
was elected captain of Company K, and in 1871 became 
major of his regiment. He held this position until 
March, 1875, when he took his discharge. The life of 
a civilian, however, failed to satisfy him, and once 
more, at the solicitation of his comrades, his name was 
placed on the regimental rolls and he was made com- 
missary of subsistence on May 10, 1875. In June of 
the same year he again became major, and on June 
COLONEL joH.N N. P..HTMDOL. ^g^ ^g^g^ ,^ _ ^^.^^^ profflotcd to lieutenant-coloncl. From 

January 10, 1S80, until February 15, 18S2, he was colonel of the regiment, resigning to accept the office of 
fire commissioner, under Mayor Low. In this capacity he served the city from February 7, 18S2, until 
February 5, 1S84, introducing many reforms and greatly improving the fire department. In 1884 he was 
made police commissioner, and served in that capacity two years. In October, 1887, he was again placed at 
the head " Ours," as the Twenty-third is called. He has done much to further the interests of the regiment, 
To his efforts is due the state appropriation of $300,000 for the new armory on Bedford avenue and Pacific 
street. He is president and general manager of the Brooklyn City and Newtown Railroad Company. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Alexis C. Smith is a Brooklynite by birth, and has for many years been active 
in the local militia. He was born on February 2, 1852, and is a son of the late Jesse C. Smith, who was for 
fifty years a resident of Brooklyn, and held the office of surrogate of Kings County in 1852. Jesse C. Smith 
was colonel of the 14th New York Regiment before the war, and afterwards organized and commanded the 
nth Brigade, of Brooklyn. Alexis C. Smith began his military career at the Polytechnic Institute, being a 
member there of a company of which Seth Low was captain. He joined Company A, 23d Regiment, on 
March i, 1876; was elected corporal on September 4, 1S78, and sergeant on June 4, 1879. Having served 
a year as instructor of the cadet corps connected with the regiment, he was made first sergeant of Company 
H, when the cadets were formally enrolled in the regiment under that designation in September, 1879. He 
was elected first lieutenant on March 5, 1880, captain on October 16, 1882, and lieutenant-colonel on 
December 5, 1887. Like his father before him, he is a lawyer as well as a military man. 

Major Ezra Df. Forest has served more than twenty years in the 23d Regiment and has risen through 
every grade fr(jm that of private to the one he now hcjlds. He was born in Bridgeport, Conn., in 185 1, but 




THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



831 



has lived in this city since infancy. He was educated at the public schools and at the Adelphi Academy, 
from which he was graduated. On October 19, 1872, he enlisted in Company C, 23d Regiment. He married, 
in 1880, Mary Gordon Wilber, daughter of Dr. J. G. Wilber. 

Richard Oliver, commissary in the 23d Regiment, is the oldest commissioned officer in the state of New 
York. He served — from April 19, 1861 — one year in the yth Regiment as private and the remaining three 
years of the war, until its close, in the 13th Regiment as second lieutenant. He has been a member of the 
rifle team since 1885, and has won many medals. He is now second lieutenant of the Veteran Association 
of the Brooklyn City Guard. He has long been a citizen of Brooklyn, and has devoted many years of his 
life to mission work in the fifth ward. He is a jeweler doing business in New York. He is an Englishman 
by birth, and is sixty-five years old. He received a good education in Buffalo, N. Y. He has found time, 
besides looking after the poor, to indulge his public spirit in other matters also beneficial to the city. He 
was one of the originators of the Young Republican Club ; was some years a member of the volunteer fire 
department, and has been identified with the E.xcelsior Club since 1857. 

Captain Willard LyiM.\n Candee has lived in Brooklyn since 1862, and his residence is one of the 
centres of social life in Brooklyn. He married when 
twenty-one years old, his wife being a daughter of 

Timothy Cornwall, and a member of one of the oldest ' 

families in Brooklyn. He is a member of the Union 
League Club and vice-president of the Electric Club, of 
New York. In 1875 he enlisted in the 23d Regiment 
as a private in Company C, and he is now captain of 
Company B, ranking as the senior captain in the regi- 
ment. He is one of the best marksmen in the service, 
and has been a winner of trophies from the beginning 
of the competitive rifle contests in the state militia, 
winning a bar every year since 1875. His progress 
in the science of military tactics is indicated by the 
record of his advance from the ranks ; he was made 
sergeant of Company C in January, 1877 ; first ser- 
geant in May, 1879; was elected second lieutenant of 
Company B just a year after and attained the rank of 
first lieutenant late in 1882. In the business world he 
occupies the position of resident manager of the Inter- 
national Okonite Company (Limited). This is an Eng- 
lish corporation, and its annual meetings are held in 
England, but it is of American origin. Captain Candee 
was for a time a director of the Franklin Avenue street 
railroad, of Brooklyn, and he is vice-president of the 
Suburban Electrical Light Company, of Elizabeth, N. J. 
He began his business career in the machine manu- 
facturing business, from which he went into the busi- 
ness of electric lighting, and then into the telephone 
business. He laid the first cable across the Brooklyn Bridge when Henry C. Murphy was president, and later 
became interested in the manufacture of wires for electrical purposes. He was born in Yonkers, N. Y., in 
1851, and is the son of the late Edward W. Candee, who for many years was in the stock brokerage busi- 
ness in New York, and was afterwards in the real estate business in Brooklyn. He was educated at the 
Adelphi Academy. 

Charles R. Silkman, captain of Company G, joined Company C on February 20, 1882, as a private 
and in 1883 he was elected a corporal. In June, 1885, he was given the rank of sergeant by a unanimous 
vote. When the regiment visited Newport in 1886 he accompanied it and wore the shoulder straps of a 
second lieutenant. His promotion to the first lieutenancy of the company was made in January, 1890. Eight 
months later he was elected captain of Company G in the same regiment, and his commission was issued 
to him in September, 1890. The company has maintained an e.xcellent character under his command and 
stands high in the matters of drill, discipline and numbers. As a business man he has had a successful 
career and is now engaged in the drygoods commission business in New York. He began as a boy in the dry- 
goods store of William Knisely & Co., in that city. In 1883 he interested a number of capitalists, among 
whom was Governor Howard, of Rhode Island, in a project for the manufacture of book-binders' cloth. 
The result was the organization of the Interlaken Mills, at Providence, R. I. Mr. Silkman was born in 
New York city on May 27, 1859, and was a student at Madison University, Hamilton, N. Y., until 1876, 




Captain Willakd L. Candee. 



832 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



when he began his business experience. In 1880 he 
married Irene E. Hallock, daughter of Thomas A. 
Hailoci^, of Mattituck, L. I. He has been a member 
of the Union League Club since 1890. 

Charles H, Pennover, who joined the Brooklyn 
City Guard on May 28, 1862, has been in the military 
service of the state continuously since that time. 
He was a member of the 13th Regiment for eleven 
years, became a corporal and afterwards, a sergeant in 
Company G, and was the recipient of the ten years' 
war service medal given by that regiment to long 
service men who were war veterans. He left the 
Thirteenth in 1873 to join the 23d Regiment as ser- 
geant of Company G, and afterward he became first 
sergeant. He is the oldest member of the regiment 
in point of service and has received its ten year and 
its fifteen year war service medals. He was born in 
Norwalk, Conn., on September 8, 1841, and came to 
Brooklyn in his boyhood. He attended the public 
schools until he was seventeen years old, when he 
obtained employment in a hardware store, where he 
continued until he went to the front with the 13th 
Regiment. Later he went to California, and was 
engaged eighteen months in the hardware and min- 
ing implement business. Returning to New York he 
was employed as salesman with William Bryce & Co., 
hardware dealers, of New York, seventeen years. Then he founded the United States Net and Twine 
Company, and was a partner in that concern from 1881 until 1886. In November, 1886, he began in New 
York his present business, which is the manufacture and sale of fishing tackle, twine and sporting goods. 




Captain Charles R. .Silk.vian, 



FORTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT. 

The 47th Regiment had its beginning in the summer and fall of 1861, when three companies of home 
guards were organized in the eastern section of the 
city. With the understanding that a regiment was to 
be formed, J. V. Meserole took command of one of 
these, which afterward was known as Company A. On 
January 17, 1862, the first three commands were mus- 
tered into the service of the state. Company D was 
sworn in during the month, and Companies E and F 
in March. As there were then si-x companies, regi- 
mental organization was effected, and an election 
for colonel was held. Captain J. V. Meserole was 
chosen for the position, and the regiment was desig- 
nated in his honor, the Forty-seventh, he having been 
a membe- of the fourth company of the 7th Regi- 
ment. In May, Companies G and H were sworn in. 
About two months after thg election of Colonel Mese- 
role word came from state headquarters to prepare 
for duty at the front. At noon on May 29 marching 
orders were received and at half-past four o'clock the 
ne.xt day the regiment started on its way to Washing- 
ton. A short stay was made at the capitol, and then 
the regiment was ordered to Baltimore, where it estab- 
lished Camp Williamsburgh, on Druid Hill. The 4th 
New York vacated Fort McHenry soon afterwards, and 
the 47th took possession. On June i8th the regiment 
was mustered into the United States service for a 
term of three months from the time it left Brooklyn. 
The 47th was relieved by the 18th Connecticut and Colonel John G. eddy. 




THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



^33 




Forty-Seventh Regiment Armory (Present), North Portland Avenue. 

marched from the fort to Baltimore on its way home. Companies C and H were disbanded, and the other 
companies were kept at work in their quarters until June, 1863, when, with Company I, which has been 
organized in February, it went to the front again, this time to Virginia. After thirty days' service the 
regiment was recalled on account of the draft riots, and continued on duty in Brooklyn for two months. 
Company K, Captain Powell, was mustered into the regiment on February 5, 1862, and another company, 
H, was organized in the fifteenth ward by Captain Sullivan, but at present it is not in existence. On 
April 8, 1868, Colonel Meserole was made brigadier-general and David E. Austen, now in command of the 
13th Regiment, was chosen colonel of the 47th. He was succeeded on September 5, 1877, by William H. 
Brownell, who was followed, on his promotion to brigadier-general, by Major Truman V. Tuttle, Lieutenant- 
Colonel George C. Bradley having resigned. After Colonel Tuttle, the commandant was Edward F. Gaylor, 
the predecessor of John G. Eddy, the present colonel of the regiment. The field and staff officers of the 
regiment are colonel, John G. Eddy; lieutenant-colonel, William Henry Hubbell ; major, William R. Petti- 
grew; adjutant, Walter F. Barnes ; quartermaster, Andrew R. Baird ; commissary of subsistence, John George 
Herold, Jr.; surgeon, Charles N. Co.x ; assistant surgeon, Fred DeForest Bailey; chaplain, James Henry 
Darlington; inspector of rifle practice, Frank J. LeCount, Jr. 

Colonel John G. Eddy owes his predilection for military life in some measure to the influence of 
heredity. His great-grandfather, John Eddy, was an ensign in the train band of Gloucester, Mass., and 
held a commission dated May 6, 1776; he fought in the revolutionary war. His grandfather, John Eddy, 
Jr., was colonel in the Massachusetts militia and also served as a member of the Bay State legislature. 
Colonel Eddy is the direct descendant of William Eddy, born at Bristol, England, in 1550, and of John 
Eddy, who with his brother arrived at Plymouth, Mass., on August 10, 1630. John G. Eddy was born in 
New York on August 17, 1852, but was educated at public school No. 11 in this city; after being graduated 
there he engaged in business with his father George M. Eddy, with whom he is now associated in the firm of 
George M. Eddy & Co. Colonel Eddy entered the ranks of the 47th Regiment as a private, on November 
16, 1875; he became second lieutenant on October 30, 1877 ; first lieutenant on October 8, 187S; adjutant 
on April 6, 1881 ; major on November 19, 1884; lieutenant-colonel on April 2, 1S90; and colonel on March 
18, 1891. Colonel Eddy has qualified as a marksman at Creedmoor for sixteen successive years, and for 
six years was a member of the 2d Brigade examining board He is a member of the Union League Club. 
In 1879 he married Miss Virginia H. O'Hara, of Brooklyn. 

THIRD BATTERY. 

What is now the Third (Gatling) Battery was organized on August 15, 1864, by Major E. O. Hotchkiss, 
a member of Brigadier-General J. C. Smith's staff. It was known as Company A, first Battery, light artillery, 



834 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



and was armed with howitzers. Major Hotchkiss, who 
was the first commandant, was succeeded by First 
Lieutenant Joseph S. Amoore. In 1868 he gave way 
to First Lieutenant Ira L. Beebe and, in 1870, on the 
Latter's appointment as chief of artillery on the 2d 
Division staff, W. H. H. Beebe took command. Suc- 
ceeding him, Julius F. Simons was captain and in 1872 
Ira L. Beebe returned to his old position. He was 
followed by John A. Edwards, whose successor was 
Henry S. Rasquin, the present commandant. The bat- 
tery was housed originally in the old state armory on 
the site of the present quarters of the 14th Regiment. 
In May, 1875, when it had become the Catling Battery 
of the nth Brigade, it was transferred to the city 
armory on Henry street. Designated on January i, 
187S, as Battery N, it was four years later renamed the 
3cl Battery. Just previous to the election of Captain 
i^„™4 '^j^j^^B^^Uffl^t^^W Rasquin, the command moved from Henry street to 

I* 3* 'SH^^^P I^^B^^K Cothic Hall, on Adams street. This building was 

destroyed by fire on December 19, 1882, and from that 
time until the battery had a home of its own, at 759- 
765 Dean street, drills were held in the 14th Regiment 
armory, on North Portland avenue. The battery 
made its first public appearance with howitzers at the 
obsequies of President Lincoln. During the railroad 
riot of 1S77 it was called out to do active duty. 
The battery is now armed with four fifty calibre Catling guns and four twelve pound howitzers. Over 
seventy men are on the muster roll and a fine showing is always made of the men at inspection and on 
parade. The officers are : captain, Henry S. Rasquin ; first lieutenant, Henry H. Rogee ; second lieutenants, 
George E. Laing and E. 1). Chemidlin ; surgeon, C. D. Beasley. A biographical sketch of Captain 
Henry S. Rasquin, whose portrait is here given, will be found in the chapter on The Bench and Bar. 




Captain Henry S. Rasquin. 



SIGNAL CORPS. 

The Signal Corps attached to the 2d Brigade was organized as a part of the nth Brigade in 1879, by 
Major Morris B. Farr, under orders from General Edward L. Molineu.x, the members being volunteers from 
the several regiments. In 1S85 General Molineux made it a distinct organization, directed by Major 
(;e()rge R. Herbert, as signal officer, and attached the corps to the headquarters of the 2d Division. 
Major H. D. Perrine, who had been the first captain of the corps, succeeded Major Herbert as signal 
ofiicer in Afay of the following year and Captain Frederick T. Leigh took command of the corps. A few 
months later the division was abolished, and the corps was ordered to disband ; but through the efforts of 
General McLeer and others it was not mustered out of service, and in 1887 Governor Hill authorized the 
formation of a 2d Brigade signal corps. Captain Frederick T. Leigh was appointed signal officer on the 2d 
Brigade Staff, continuing in command of the new organization, and the headquarters of the corps were estab- 
lished in a room on the top floor of the Hall of Records, near the headquarters of the brigade. From the 
roof of the building communication with the several armories of the city can be easily established. Signals 
are made in the day time with red or white flags, according as the background is light or dark. At night 
the signaling, or "wig-wagging," as it is called, is done with torches. The flags designated as "large" and 
"small" are four and two feet square, and are mounted on poles eight and four feet long respectively. 
The American Morse alphabet is used. The dot is represented by a movement to the right of the sender, 
the dash by a movement to the left, and a motion to the front denotes a space. In the rapidity and correct- 
ness of the work Captain Leigh's men are unexcelled by any similar organization in the country. 

ex-officers 

It is difficult, within ordinary limits of space, to do justice to the achievements of Major-General 
Edward L. Mulinku.x, or to give expression to what his comrades and subordinates would say of him. A 
mere catalogue of his distinguished services in the army and in the service of the state — any one of them 
sufficient for a "record" — would fill images of this volume; and every man who has come in contact with 
him in official relations has something to add to the story of his bravery, wisdom, skill, prudence and con- 
siderateness. With countless opportunities for putting himself forward, he was always ready to leave all 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



83s 



the show work to others, and every member of his division stafi remembers how he invariably cautioned 
them to see that the brigade commanders had full credit for what was done. He was born on October 12, 
1833, in London, England, of a family which, under the name of Molyneux, had flourished since the days of 
the Conqueror. Coming to America in his infancy, he was educated at the Mechanics' Society School, in 
New York, and entered the business house of ex-mayor Daniel F. Tiemann, in which he became a partner, 
continuing there until the beginning of the war. After the war he became a partner in the wholesale paint 
and artists' supplies house of C. T. Raynolds & Co., where he remains. He is a member of the Chamber of 
Commerce, of the New York Board of Trade and Transportation, and has held various offices in the associ- 
ations of the paint trade. His soldiering began in 1854, when he became a member of the Brooklyn City 
Guard, Company G, 13th Regiment. At the first call for troops in 1861, he joined the 7th Regiment and 
went to the front. Returning, he was prominent in the organization of the 23d Regiment, of which he 
became lieutenant colonel, and was instrumental in reorganizing the nth Brigade. In 1862, with the rank 

of lieutenant-colonel, he raised the 139th Regiment, 
N. Y. Volunteers, and in November of that year, as full 
colonel, he was mustered with his regiment into the 
service of the United States. Assigned to the Banks 
expedition, his men were the first to land at Baton 
Rouge, La. At the battle of Irish Bend, April 14, 1863, 
as he was leading his men and rallying them with 
" Forward, New York ! " he was shot in the mouth, the 
ball carrying away part of his jaw. The " draft riots " 
occurring during his absence on sick leave, he vol- 
unteered his services and did effective duty during 
those troubles. He was back in the field by July, and 
served as assistant inspector on the staff of Major- 
General Franklin ; as provost marshal general and 
commissioner for exchange of prisoners ; as military 
commander of the La Fourche District ; at Bermuda 
Hundreds with Butler, and in the Shenandoah Valley. 
He was promoted to be brigadier-general for conspicu- 
ous gallantry and zeal at Fisher's Hill, Winchester and 
Cedar Creek. He was afterwards brevetted major- 
general for gallantry during the war. As military com- 
mander of the northern district of Georgia, near the 
end of the war and after it, he not only secured obedi- 
ence to the government, but did it so wisely as to 
receive the thanks of the mayor, citizens and common 
council of Augusta for his " bold administration of mili- 
tary law," which "brought order out of chaos" while 
it "respected the rights of the citizens," and led them 
Among the endorsements on his papers recommending his 
promotion were those of Generals Sheridan, Gillmore, Emory, Hurlbut, Grover, Birge, Woodford and others. 
In 1868 he was by act of legislature commissioned major-general for his sevices during the war. When the 
nth Brigade, N. G., S. N. Y., was organized he became the brigade inspector. In 1879 he was given the 
command of the brigade, and in 1884 he v/as appointed by Governor Cleveland major-general, commanding 
the 2d Division. During his tenure of this command, which lasted until all the Brooklyn regiments were 
included in a single brigade, he devoted himself to practically preparing the troops for service. Special 
attention was given to street riot drill, both by day and by night ; field mancEuvres over rough ground, and 
out-door drill in winter, which he demonstrated was healthier than summer work. His development of the 
signal service in the National Guard was perhaps the most strikingly successful of his measures. Among 
his contributions to military literature are published articles on "Riots in Cities," "Railroad Riots and 
their Suppression," and " Military Drill in Public Schools." His plan for the latter form of education was 
practically exemplified in the cadet system of Boston. Abroad he has been identified with the problem of 
military operations in desert campaigns, for which he submitted plans for a water supply on the principle 
of the American pipe-lines. He offered to take a corps of five hundred American rifles to attempt the 
relief of Gordon at Khartoum, paying his own expenses and serving without compensation, if James Gordon 
Bennett would guarantee the funds of the corps. General Molineux was president of the National Rifle 
Association during the time of the international match in which Sir Henry Halford captained the British 
team. He has been commander of the New York Military Order of the Loyal Legion, president of the 




Major-general Edward L. Molineux. 
to " cherish a sincere respect " for him. 



§36 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



United Service Club and 19th Army Corps, vice-president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac, and 
is a member of Rankin Post, No. 10, G. A. R. As a mason he is a member of Mistletoe Lodge. He is also 
a member of the Brooklyn and the United Service club. 

Ceneral Edward B Fowler, war colonel of the 14th Regiment, possesses an enviable record of mili- 
tary service His ancestors were among the early settlers of Hempstead, L. I. He was born in New York 
in 1827 but his family came to Brooklyn when he was an infant. Besides availing himself of the educa- 
tional f'acilites afforded by the public schools of that period, he received special instruction, from a graduate 
of Yale College ia mathematics, for which he evinced a marked talent, and in other studies not included in 
the school curriculum Early in life he displayed a predilection for military affairs, and at the age of eighteen 
was serving as first sergeant of the Union Blues. When the 14th Regiment was organized in 1847, he 

received a lieutenant's commission and afterward rose 
through every rank to that of colonel. When the 
14th went to the front he gave up his position as an 
accountant with the Brooklyn Gas Light Company 
and engaged in active service as lieutenant-colonel. 
He succeeded to the command of his regiment after 
the first battle of Bull Run. In that memorable 
engagement Lieutenant-Colonel Fowler was reported 
to have been killed, and extended obituary notices 
were published in the daily papers on the decease of a . 
gallant soldier. He was seriously wounded at Grove- 
ton, or the second Bull Run, and again at Gettysburg, 
but on the latter occasion his injury was not grave 
enough to prevent his continuing in command of his 
men. During the war he also participated in the en 
gagements at Binn's Hill, Falmouth, Spottsylvania 
Rappahannock Station, Sulphur Springs, Gainesville 
Seminary Hill, Mine Run, the Wilderness, Laurel Hill 
and Spottsylvania Court House, in all of which he was 
eiiher in command of the regiment or of the brigade tc 
which it was attached. He was mustered out of ser- 
vice with his regiment on June 6, 1864, and, for gal- 
lant and meritorious conduct, was brevetted brigadier- 
general. His connection with the 14th continued for 
a year or two longer, until terminated by his resigna- 
tion. He has been for years president of the 14th N. Y. 
S. M. War Veteran Association. General Fowler's ener- 
gies, since his return from the war, have been succes- 
sively directed to duties as custom house official, merchant, bank officer, chief clerk of the Brooklyn board of 
audit, treasurer of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, chief clerk of the internal revenue depart- 
ment of this city, and auditor of the Commercial Cable Company, of New York. He was at one time a 
member of the Kings County board of supervisors, representing the eleventh ward in that body. In 1852 
he married Miss Annie Cook. The fire in General Fowler's house, at 532 Monroe street, on March 15, 
1891, remains fresh in the recollection of a community that keenly sympathized with him in the death of his 
youngest son, William D., who lost his life on that occasion. 

Edward Fackner, ex-colonel of the 13th Regiment, is not at present actively connected with the 
National Guard, but is a thorough guardsman, having served the state twenty-two years. He was born in New 
York city in 1849, and before he had completed his education the civil war had begun. In June, 1863, when 
but fourteen years old, he went to the front with the 12th Regiment, N. G., S. N. Y.,and passed his fifteenth 
birthday in Carlisle, Pa., when the Confederates under General Fitz Hugh Lee stormed that town. In 1886 
he married the eldest daughter of Leonard Moody, and later entered his father-in-law's real estate office, of 
which he is now the manager. He inherited his military tastes from his father, who served twenty-seven 
years in the militia and was captain of a v:avalry troop in the 8th Regiment. Colonel Fackner served six- 
teen years in the 12th Regiment, going through all the grades, from private to captain of Company K, and 
was considered an authority on the skirmish drill. His company was selected to drill as skirmishers before 
United States army officers in Madison Square Garden. In 1881 he resigned from the 12th Regiment and 
later was elected captain of Company E, 13th Regiment. In 1885 he was elected lieutenant-colonel and 
subsequently colonel, resigning while in Europe, He is a member of Lafayette Post, No. 140, G. A. R., 
Socrates Lodge, F. & A. M., the Montauk Club and the Amaranth Literary and Dramatic Society. 




Brigadier-General Edward B. Fowler. 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



837 



Willis L. Ogden, who formerly held the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 23d Regiment, began his 
military career in the 13th Regiment in 1861, and went south with that organization during the civil war. 
From the 13th he went to the 23d Regiment, and for many years he was captain of Company K. His 
service in the National Guard continued for twenty years. He was born in Philadelphia, in October, 1843. 
After a course of study at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute he began his business life at the age of 
fourteen. He has lived in Brooklyn since 1852 ; he is a member of the First Presbyterian Church and a 

director of the Young Men's Christian Association. 
He is also a member of the Hamilton Club and of the 
Brooklyn Young Republican Club. 

Ch.^rles E. Waters, late major of the 23d Regi- 
ment, enlisted as a private in Company A, on January 
7, 1874. He was made corporal of the same company 
on March i, 1875; sergeant on March 15, 1876 ; first 
sergeant on May 6, 1878; first lieutenant of Company 
E, on May 6, 1879; captain of Company K, on March 
4, 1880, and major of the regiment on April 19, 1886. 
He resigned in June, 1892. Mr. Waters was born in 
New York city, in 1846. 

BROOKLYN CITY GUARD. 

In August, 1842, a call was issued inviting all who 
wished to aid in the organization of a volunteer mili- 
tary company in the city of Brooklyn, to attend a 
meeting which was to be held on the evening of the 
23d inst. This call was signed by Seth Haskell Low, 
L. L. Atwater and John M. Pratt, and the meeting was 
held in a building which then stood on the corner 
of Furman and Fulton streets. An organization was 
effected of an artillery company, James N. Olney being 
the first captain. For some years the Brooklyn City 
Guard, as it was first named, drilled and held meet- 
ings in the building in which its organization was 
effected. Then Gothic Hall, on Adams street, was 
fitted up as an armory, and there balls and other gather- 
ings of a social character were held — in fact, the City Guard was looked upon as the fashionable military 
organization of the city. Until 1847 the City Guard remained a separate and independent organization, 
but in that year it became affiliated with the 13th Regiment, of which it became the right flank company, 
under Colonel Abel Smith and Lieutenant-Colonel Edwin Beers. Captain Olney retained his position for 
several years, and then went to California, and afterwards became a brigadier-general during the war, 
serving on the western frontier. Thomas Brooks succeeded him in the captaincy, and he, in turn, was fol- 
lowed by William Everdell and Richard V. W. Thorne, Jr., the latter having been a cadet at West Point. 
Commanded by Captain Thorne, on April 23, 1861, the company, as a part of the 13th Regiment, left Brook- 
lyn, on a three months' term of service. In 1862, they served another three months' term under the same 
captain, and in 1863, one month in Pennsylvania. Captain Thorne meanwhile had retired, and William R. 
Hunter was appointed in his place. In 1873, the company was transferred to the 23d Regiment, becoming 
Company G, the first captain being Alfred H. Williams, who was succeeded in 1885 by Harold L. Crane, the 
latter being followed by George W. Middleton. Among those who served as members of the Brooklyn City 
Guard were many who have since become prominent in commercial, social and political life. There are 
comparatively few of the older members still alive, but those remaining are organized as the Veteran Asso- 
ciation of the Brooklyn City Guard. This organization was effected on April 5, 187 1. The membership in 
1892 was 130, and the officers were: John B. Woodward, captain; Edward A. Seccomb, first lieutenant; 
Richard Oliver, second lieutenant; Bernard Suydam, first sergeant; Morgan G. Bulkeley, quartermaster. 
The association gives annual dinners at some one of the principal hotels. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Clifford L. Middleton is counted among the most prominent veterans of the 
Brooklyn City Guard and is a member of the Veterans' Association of the 23d Regiment. He enlisted as 
a private in Company G, 13th Regiment, on June i, 1870, and was elected corporal on May 7, 1873, being 
transferred with Company G to the 23d Regiment on January 2, 1873. His staff services began on Febru- 
ary 7, 1880, when he was appointed first lieutenant and aide-de-camp of the tith Brigade. On February 
27, 1882, he was commissioned captain and aide-de-camp of the 4th Brigade. On February 19, 1883, he 




Colonel Edward Fackner. 



S,S THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

became commissary of subsistence, and on April 23, 1883, he was promoted to the rank of major. On 
January 5, 18.85, l^e became quartermaster; and on April 19, 1886, he became lieutenant-colonel and assist- 
ant adjutant-o-eneral of the 4th Brigade. He served successively on the staffs of Generals Molineux, 
Browned and Ward and was made a supernumary officer of the state with the rank of lieutenant-colonel 
on Aun-ust 5, 1886. He was still on this list in 1893. From 1887 to 1889 he was an associate member of 
the Old Guard, of New York. He was born in Brooklyn on July 31, 1850, and until his seventeenth year 
attended private schools. He then entered the commission business in the employ of Middleton & Co., a 
firm which was founded in 1834 by his father, J. N. B. Middleton, and his uncle, Thomas D. Middleton. 
On January i, 1872, he became a partner in the firm. He has been a member of the produce exchange 
since 1885. He is a life member of the Hamilton Club, the Brooklyn Riding and Driving Club, and the 
Marine and Field Club; and a life member of the Excelsior Club. 

Harold L. Crane, who is a veteran of the 23d Regiment and a member of the veteran association of 
the Brooklyn City Guard, was a National Guardsman twenty-three years and four months, and retired in 
1889 with the rank of captain. He has made an interesting record of having risen from the ranks twice, 
for after obtaining a staff position he was obliged by illness to retire for about a year and after his recovery 
he enlisted again as a private. His first enlistment was in the 23d Regiment in March, 1864. After serving 
five years he was appointed on General Meserole's staff, where he served until 1876, when his military 
record was interrupted by the visitation of illness just mentioned. In 1877 he joined Company G in his 
old regiment and was in the ranks until 1879, when he was made a sergeant. His promotion to a second 
lieutenancy was made the same year. He was commissioned as first lieutenant in 1880, and his captam's 
commission was issued in March, 1885. Mr. Crane is a descendant of an English family which settled in 
America in 1650. He was born in New York city on February 4, 1846, and his parents came to Brooklyn 
to live in 1848. He obtained his education at the Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, and at the High School 
in New York, and began business on his own account on February 4, 1867, when he became a member of 
the New York firm of Shannon, Miller & Crane, dealers in military and importers of French goods. In 
1867 he married Miss Elsie E. Dillon, daughter of Robert Dillon. He is a member of the Hamilton Club 
and of the Seawanhaka, Corinthian and Great South Bay yacht clubs. He is also a member of the Down 
Town Club, of New York. 

James W. Sands was a member of the Brooklyn City Guard when it was in the service of the United 
States government in 1861, as Company G, 13th Regiment, and he is now enrolled as a member of the 
veteran association of the Guard. Subsequently he served in the navy, receiving an appointment as 
assistant paymaster. He was on Admiral Farragut's flagship " Hartford " and was one of the great naval 
commander's officers when New Orleans, Port Hudson and Vicksburg were captured. Although of Ameri- 
can parentage, he was born in Liverpool, England, on August i, 1838, but came to America before he was 
a year old. His father, Joseph T. Sands, who died in 1890 in the eighty-third year of his age, was an old 
and honored resident of Brooklyn. James W. Sands ended his studies when he was nineteen years old and 
became a clerk in the employ of his uncle, Joseph Sands, with whom he remained until the beginning of 
the war. Upon the return of peace he engaged in the railway and electric supply business. He married 
Miss E. J. Durham, of Durhamville, N. Y. He has been a member of the Hamilton Club five or six years, 
of the Marine and Field Club since its organization and of the Union League Club, New York, since i8gi. 

Charles F. Hitzelberger is a veteran of the 23d Regiment who rendered faithful service to the state 
as a member of the National Guard for twelve years. He enlisted in Company G (Brooklyn City Guard) 
in April, 1879. He is an enthusiast on military matters and is enrolled in the veteran association of the 
Guard. His father, Frederick Hitzelberger, was a union soldier during the civil war and was for many 
years an officer in the state militia. Charles F. Hitzelberger is a native Brooklynite and was born on April 
5, 1853. After receiving his early education at a private school he was a student at the Hoboken Academy. 
In 1880 he began business on his own account as printer, lithographer and manufacturing stationer. He 
married Miss Maria A. Hobe, daughter of Charles Hobe. He is a Mason and a member of Stella Lodge. 

James A. Avres joined the City Guard on April 22, 1861, and went with it on its three months' cam- 
paign in that year and on its thirty days' campaign in 1863. He was made a corporal in 1863 and retired 
with that rank. He is a veteran of the 13th Regiment and a member of the veteran association of the 
Guard. New Canaan, C(jnn., is his native place, and he was born on October 11, 1840. His parents 
removed to iirookiyn when he was four years old and he attended both public and private schools. His 
early business life was passed in various lines of trade until 1867, when he was employed by a grain ware- 
housing company, with which he remained as confidential clerk. He is a member of the Brooklyn Riding 
and Driving, Excelsior and Crescent clubs. 

Benjamin Haskell joined the Brooklyn City Guard in 1855, and during his membership in the com- 
pany he was a corporal and then sergeant. He went to the front with the company in 1861, and in 1863 
he was ni the Union army again as chief of staff of the nth Brigade and participated in the battle of 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 



839 




Gettysburg. As a veteran he affiliates with Clarence 
D. McKenzie Post, 399, G. A. R. He is treasurer of 
the American Wood Decorating Machine Company, of 
New York. This company, in which a number of well- 
known Brooklynites are interested, does a large busi- 
ness in the production of machines for embossing or 
otherwise ornamenting wood with designs representing 
carved work for mouldings, panels and other orna- 
mental purposes. Mr. Haskell was born in New York 
city on November 3, 1835, of New England parent- 
age, and was educated at Davenport Academy, Brook- 
lyn. He married Miss Hattie E. Steele, daughter of 
Perez S. Steele, a drygoods merchant in New York. 

The records of the City Guard show that James 
F. Atkinson joined that organization on April 3, 1S61, 
and served with his comrades in the three months' 
campaign at Suffolk, Va., and also in the thirty days' 
campaign when the services of the state troops were 
needed to repel Lee's dash into Pennsylvania. After 
spending five years in the ranks he retired with two 
honorable discharges from the government. He is 
counted as one of the most active members of the 
veteran association. He is the Long Island agent for 
the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of 

Milwaukee. He was born in Rochester, N. Y., on 

Benjamin Haskell. \-i o 1 iii- tii 

April 10, 1834, and was educated ni a private school 

near that city. Mr. Atkinson married Miss Louisa M. Fitch, daughter of James M. Fitch, of Oberlin, O. 

Samuel H. Kissam is one of the members of the veteran association who was with the Brooklyn City 
Guard when it went on its three months' campaign. He joined the corps as a private in 1854 and rose to 
the rank of first lieutenant. In 1863 he resigned on account of his business engagements. He is the son of 
a clergyman, and was born in the town of Bethlehem, near Albany, N. Y., in 1831. His school life was 
passed at a boarding school in Chatham, Columbia County, N. Y., and in 1846 he came to Brooklyn with his 
father, who retired from the ministry in that year. Since 1863 he has been engaged in the banking and 
brokerage business in New York. He married Miss Sarah Pinkney, whose father, William T. Pinkney, was 
president of a well-known insurance company. 

William Ellsworth joined the City Guard in May, 1862, and was with the organization in both of its 
campaigns as Company G of the 13th Regiment. He is now a veteran of the regiment. He has had a long 
and varied business experience, and is now connected with the Caledonia Insurance Company. His father 
was a prominent citizen of Brooklyn, and was a descendant of an English family which settled in Holland 
during the reign of William and Mary, and came to New Amsterdam before 1700. William Ellsworth was 
born in Brooklyn on July 5, 1838, and was educated at the public schools and the College of the City of 
New York. 

Charles J. Holt joined the 14th Regiment in 1861, acting with the engineer corps. After the dis- 
abling of Colonel Wood at the first battle of Bull Run, he served under Colonel Fowler until May, 1862, when 
he enlisted in the 13th Regiment. He has been a member since 1873 of Company G, the Brooklyn City 
Guard, now in the 23d Regiment, of which he is quartermaster-sergeant. He has resided in Brooklyn since 
1S46, and has been a member of the Amaranth Dramatic Association sixteen years ; for six years he was 
vice-president of the society. He has been a member of the Excelsior Club since its organization and was 
a member of the volunteer fire department nine years as one of Pacific Company, No. 14. He has been 
a member of the Gilbert Dramatic Society since 1882, and is also a member of Lafayette Post, 140, G. A. R. 
He was born in Richmond Va., on July 26, 1835. When five years of age his parents brought him to New 
York, where he attended public school No. 5. Later he studied at Betts' Institute, Stamford, Conn. 

Bernard Suvuam enlisted in Company G, 23d Regiment, on March 12, 1886. He was made corporal 
on January 25, 1889, and sergeant on February 29, 1892. He became a veteran in March, 1891, and a mem- 
ber of the veteran association of the City Guard in the same year. In Api'il, 1892, he was unanimously 
elected secretary of the association. He was made a mason in Lexington Lodge, 310, F. & A. M,, in Feb- 
ruary, 1891, and in the following December was installed as senior deacon. He was born in Queens, 
Long Island, on August 10, 1865. His father, Isaac D. B. Suydam, was born in Bushwick, now part of the 
city of Brooklyn, December 16, 1823, After receiving his education the elder Suydam remained at home until 



840 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Bernard Suydam. 



September, 1846, when he married Miss Phebe Ryder, 
daughter of Lawrence Ryder, and sister of John L. 
Ryder, who was supervisor of the town of Flatlands a 
number of years. Bernard Suydam received his early 
education at a public school in the village of Queens, 
and at the age of fourteen attended Browne's College 
in Brooklyn, from which he was graduated in March, 
18S2. He entered the employ of S. H. Payne, of New 
York, who was at that time one of the largest for- 
warding agents in the city, where he remained two 
and one-half years, after which he was connected with 
George Pence in the cigar business. In July, 1886, 
he connected himself with the manufacturmg concern 
of Jacob Adler & Co. in New York. 

Walter K. Paye, a member of the veteran asso- 
ciation of the Guard, donned the uniform of a militia- 
man in 1859 as a private in the New York City Guard, 
and, after a membership of two years in that organi- 
zation, transferred his name to the rolls of the Brook- 
lyn City Guard, when it was Company G, 13th Regi- 
ment. He continued a member of Company G until 
it was merged in Company G, 23d Regiment, and then 
was honorably discharged. He joined the Old Guard, 
of New York, in which was incorporated his old com- 
pany, the New York City Guard, which united with 
the New York Light Guard after the war in forming 
the Old Guard. He has held the positions of corporal, sergeant and lieutenant, and for three years was 
vice-president. He is interested in a number of social organizations including the Hamilton and the Rem- 
brandt clubs, and the Lisurance Club, of New York city. He is a director of the Apollo Club and assisted 
in the organization of the Amaranth Dramatic Society, in which he held membership four or five years. 
He has been connected with the Guardian Fire Insurance Company, New York, twenty-five years and was 
elected to the presidency in 1885. He married Helen M. Fordham, daughter of A. S. Fordham, an old resi- 
dent of Brooklyn. 

For twenty years, and until April, 1892, when he resigned, J. Oscar Voute held the secretaryship of 
the veteran association. He enlisted in Company G, 13th Regiment, in January, 1862, and served from 
May until September at Suffolk, Va. Afterward he successively held the ranks of corporal, sergeant and 
lieutenant. His military history is identified with that of the Brooklyn City Guard for a period of seven- 
teen years in the 13th and 23d Regiments. He is a member of Lafayette Post, 140, G. A. R. His ances- 
tors were Huguenots, who, seeking refuge in Holland, settled in Amsterdam. He was born in October, 
1840, at Hanau, a town near Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. At the age of four he was brought to the 
United States by his parents and received his educati(jn at the College of the City of New York. He left 
that institution in 1858 and began work in the offices of the New York Life Insurance Company, in whose 
employ he has since remained. He is a member of the Huguenot Society of America, the Reform Club, the 
Delta Kapiia Epsilon Club of New York and Anglo-Sa.xon Lodge, 137, F. & A. M. He married Henrietta 
V. Conradt, daughter of Theophilus Morgan Conradt, of Baltimore. 

As a private in Company G, 13th Regiment, Frank G. Miller served for three months during 1862. 
He was also connected with the volunteer fire department, and for si.\ years served as treasurer of engine 
company No. 22, whose head(iuariers were in Degraw street. He was born in Brooklyn on March 19, 1841, 
at 17 Strong place, a home which his family had occupied for fifty-sLx years. His father, William J. Miller, 
was born in New London in 1S09, and was a direct descendant of those old Puritan governors, John Win- 
throp and Saltonstall ; his mother was the eldest daughter of the late Jeremiah H. Taylor, who during the 
middle of the present century held considerable real estate in South Brooklyn. In 1865 he married Miss 
Bessie Gilchrist. He is a charter member of Covenant Lodge, F. & A. M., and for the past twenty years 
has been treasurer of the Lodge, 

Francis E. Dodge joined the City Guard in 1864. He was born in this city on March 3, 1841, and ' 
was educated at a private school. He is treasurer of the Long Island College Hospital and the New York 
Port Society, a director of the Academy of Music and of the Brooklyn Riding and Driving Club and a 
member of the Crescent Athletic, Hamilton and Montauk clubs. 

Howard A. Porter was a member of Company G, 13th Regiment, during its three months of serv'ice 



THE NATIONAL GUARD. 841 

at Annapolis and Baltimore in 1861, having joined the company in April of that year. That ended his 
active service, but he is a member of the veteran association of the Brooklyn City Guard. West Hartford, 
Conn., is his native place and he is the son of Dr. Henry B. Porter, who was a prominent physician of New 
Haven. He was born on November 7, 1831, and studied at the New Haven public schools until 1846. In 
1852 he came to New York and was employed in the wholesale grocery business until he went south as a 
soldier. Some time after the conclusion of the war he was appointed to a position in the sub-treasury, in 
New York, where he is now employed. 

Wheaton B. Despard enlisted in Company G, 23d Regiment, in June, 1S75. In September, 1880, he 
was made commissary sergeant, a post which he still occupies. He was born in New York on November 
2Si 1855- His father was Arthur W. Despard, who is conspicuous as the first drug broker who ever conducted 
business in New York. The son was educated at a private school on Staten Island and afterwards at Hell- 
muth College, near the city of London, Ontario. He is recording secretary of the E.xcelsior Club and a 
member of the Crescent Athletic Club. 

James B. Bach is a prominent grand army man, and has been honored with high office in Lafayette 
Post, of New York, in which he is enrolled as a member. He joined the City Guard in 1S59, and was 
elected first lieutenant of Company H, 13th Regiment, in which capacity he accompanied the regiment to 
Virginia in 1862, on what was known as the Suffolk campaign ; and in 1863 he commanded the company in 
the Gettysburg campaign. He was born in Brooklyn, on June 4, 1836, and began his business life as a clerk 
in a banking house. In 1865, he began business on his own account as a broker, and in 1867 he became one 
of the firm of Smith, Gould, Martin & Co., which firm was succeeded by Willard, Martin & Bach and then 
by Joslyn, Bach & Co. In the firm first named Jay Gould was a general partner and Mr. Bach was the 
"Company ;" in the other firms Jay Gould was the special partner. Mr. Bach remained in the firm of Jos- 
lyn, Bach & Co. until it dissolved in 1885, when he engaged in business on his own account once more and 
was interested in various enterprises until he accepted his present position of secretary of the Western Im- 
provement Company. He married Mary E. Gardiner, daughter of W. G. Gardiner. He is an honorary 
member of the Excelsior Club. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 




LUB life is one of the tilings in wiiich Broolclyn lias expanded mightily dur- 
ing the past few years. Ten years ago the clubs could have been counted 
on the fingers of one hand, while to-day there are at least a dozen important 
organizations, housed in structures rivaling those in any other city and 
numbering on their membership rolls thousands of names. Besides these 
notable examples there are many other similar organizations of lesser size 
but of almost equal importance. Club life here is different from that of 
New York, just as Brooklyn is different from her sister city in almost every 
respect; there it is an end, while here it is an adjunct to the domestic life. 
In New York a club man, in the distinctive sense of the term, is usually a 
bachelor to whom the club practically means home ; if he be not a bachelor, 
the bachelor instincts are predominant in him and the home instincts of 
decidedly lesser significance. The great number of Brooklyn's club men 
are of an entirely different stamp. They may have the club instinct, but the 
home instinct is so much greater that it invades and permeates the club atmosphere. Naturally there are 
exceptions to this rule. For instance, the Brooklyn and Excelsior clubs are essentially bachelor clubs and 
approach, more nearly than any others in the city, the New York idea. In these two there are undoubtedly 
more men who look upon them as the chief social factors of. their existence than can be found elsewhere. 
Of the two the Excelsior probably conies nearer to the general idea of what a man's club should be. But 
generally speaking there is a growing tendency among the Brooklyn clubs to encourage the partici- 
pation of women in their affairs. Scarcely a club now closes its doors to members of the gentler sex 
and almost every one has found it of advantage to admit them to certain privileges. The Hamilton, the 
Hanover, the Montauk, the Union League, and the Crescent, at its country house, all have dining rooms 
for ladies, and a number of these admit them to the privilege of the bowling alleys. From its very nature 
the Riding and Driving Club is largely dependent upon the ladies, and unless the signs of the times are 
misleading, the day is not far distant when women will have an emphatic voice in the management of the 
clubs on this side of the river. When this shall come to pass it will eradicate the last vestige of the vener- 
able prejudice growing out of a belief that the club is the rival of the home, and the honor of having estab- 
lished an almost ideal condition will belong to the clubs of Brooklyn. 



HAMILTON CLUB. 



One of the most important societies in the early history of the city was the Young Men's Literary 
Association of Brooklyn, organized on November 2, 1830, by the "young men of the village of Brooklyn." 
In those days Alexander Hamilton was the ideal of young men in America, and in his honor the name of 
the society was changed in October, 1831, to the Hamilton Literary Association of Brooklyn. Among the 
early members were Edgar J. Bartow, George ^V. Dow, Horace H. Dow, Josiah C. Dow, Richard C. Dow, 
John Tasker Howard, Joseph Howard, John Jewett, Jr., William Jones, Jr., Thomas G. King, Abiel A. Low, 
Henry C. Murphy, Israel AVard Raymond, John H. Raymond, Francis P. Sanford, D. N. Schoonmaker, 
Henry Silliman, Alden J. Spooner and Robert Tucker. Henry C. Murphy framed the constitution and 
was the first president. The first lecture course ever given in the city was inaugurated by this associ- 
ation, which flourished for half a century. The succession of membership was kept up by a younger gener- 
ation, as the original members passed beyond the years of activit)^ and the social quality of the association 
was maintained at a high level ; so that when, in 1880, the project of a new club was discussed, the old 
Hamilton Literary Association furnished the most desirable material for a nucleus, and its spirit was 
preserved in the Hamilton Club, which was organized by ninety-two members of the old association and was 
incorporated in May, 1S82, the first board of officers including Samuel McLean, president; D. H. Cochran, 
vice-president; A. A, Abbott, secretary ; and Tasker Marvin, treasurer. Temporary quarters were found 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



843 



for the club on the corner of Clinton and Joralemon streets, and the project of a new club house suited 
to the needs of the club was at once mooted. In 1S84 the building on the corner of Clinton and Remsen 
streets was erected at a cost of over $100,000. The home of the club is in the modern Italian style, and 
furnishes commodious parlors, library, art gallery, dining rooms, private and main billiard room, smoking 
rooms, card rooms, and bowling alley. The club inherited the fine library of the old Hamilton Literary 
Association, to which constant additions have been made ; and the art gallery contains some of the finest 
art works m this city. Among these is an elegant Sevres vase presented by the French government in 
recognition of the hospitable reception by the club of the sculptor Bartholdi and his fellow delegates. 
Another noteworthy feature in the collection is Huntington's large painting, "The Republican Court," pur- 
chased at the sale of the late A. T. Stewart's pictures. The chief artistic project of the club at the present 




Thk Hamilton Clup, Remsen and Clinton Streets. 

time is the erection of a bronze statue of Alexander Hamilton from the hand of William Ordway Partridge, 
a Brooklynite born in Paris. A plaster model of the statue is at this writing in the library of the club, and 
the bronze itself will soon be in position in the court-yard of the club house. Mr. Partridge received his 
schooling in Brooklyn but obtained his art education in Europe. The club is literary as well as artistic 
in its tastes and has a library of 2,200 volumes, to which additions are constantly being made by gift and 
purchase. The membership in the Hamilton is rapidly approaching the limit, and the early prospect of 
a waiting list is already having its effect on the desirability of this club, which has from the beginning 
attracted many of the most eligible club men in the city. The officers of the club, elected in April, 1892, 
are : George M. Olcott, president ; J. Spencer Turner, vice-president ; I. Sherwood Coffin, secretary ; James 
McKeen, treasurer. 

George M. Olcott, besides being president of the Hamilton Club, is a highly esteemed member of the 
Crescent, Montauk and the Riding and Driving clubs. He was for many years a trustee of the Brooklyn 
Institute and occupies the same official position with regard to its successor, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences. He is politically independent, although he is classified as a Republican and usually votes that 
ticket. He was born in Brooklyn on August 25, 1835, and for more than twenty years has made his home 
in Grace Court. He is president of the Phoeni.N; Chemical Works, formerly located at the foot of Fifty-ninth 
street, Brooklyn. Since 1856 he has been engaged in the importing drug business, beginning in the employ 
of Richard J. Dodge and John Colville, who were known as Dodge & Colville. The firm later became 



844 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




George M. Olcott. 

Dodge, Colville & Olcott and is now known as Dodge & Olcott, with headquarters in New York. Mr. Ol- 
cott is at the present time the senior member of the firm. He is engaged in various other enterprises and 
is a trustee of the Bowery Savings Bank, the Franklin Trust Company and the Franklin Safe Deposit Com- 
pany; a director of the Market and Fulton National Bank, and the Lloyds Plate Glass Insurance Company. 
He is as popular among the club men of New York as he is in Brooklyn, being a member of The Players', . 
the Down Town and the Fulton clubs. He is married, has three children and the same number of grand- 
children. He occasionally participates in out-door sports, of which he is a great admirer. 

In the days of America's maritime supremacy, so far as fast ships were concerned, few men contributed 
more directly to the fostering of this particular branch of enterprise than the firm of A. A. Low & Brothers, 
of which JosiAH O. Low was a member. Since his retirement from active life he has in various ways been 
prominent in the community. The son of Seth and Mary Porter Low, he was born in Salem, Mass., on 
March 15, 1S21. With several of his brothers he was educated in the English and classical school kept by 
Messrs. Fames and Putnam. He began business as a clerk in 1836. Li 1845 he became a partner with his 
brother, A. A. Low, under the firm name of A. A. Low & Brother. He married Martha Elizabeth Mills, 
daughter of Thomas Helme and Martha Smith Mills. He is a member of the Unitarian denomination and 
was repeatedly trustee in the Church of the Saviour during the pastorates of Drs. Farley and Putnam. He 
was one of the organizers of the Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute in 1853 and is a trustee of its suc- 
cessor, the Polytechnic Institute. He was one of the first board of directors of the Children's Aid Society, 
and was one of the early subscribers to the Academy of Music stock list ; he is one of the directors of the 
corporation. A large portion of his time in later years has been spent at his summer residence at Newport, 
R. I. He is a trustee of the Brooklyn Trust Company and has been connected with the Down Town Club 
in New York and the' Brooklyn Club. 

During a residence in Brooklyn of a quarter of a century Charles Albert Hoyt has lent his influ- 
ence freely to those objects which naturally appeal to a man who possesses the advantages conferred 
by education and fortune. He is a member of the New England Society of New York, the Society of the 
Sons of the Revolution and the Long Island Historical Society; a trustee of St. Charles Borromeo's Church, 
on Sidney place, and vice-president of St. Vincent's Home for Newsboys. He was born in Burlington, Vt., 
m 1839. His father's ancestors had settled in New England with the earliest colonists in the seventeenth 
century. Some of them distinguished themselves in revolutionary days and a branch of the family found a 
foothold among the hills of New Hampshire, where Mr. Hoyt's grandfather, who was a friend of William 
Lloyd Garrison, was on several occasions the Free Soil candidate for governor of the state; he was elected 
to the state legislature to represent his native town no less than fifteen times, and was elected several 
times to the state senate and the governor's council. Mr. Hoyt's mother was one of the Deming family ; 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 



845 



her grandfather was killed in the battle of Bennington, and was one of the five brothers who fought under 
General Stark in that battle. Another maternal ancestor was a captain in the American army, and by ser- 
vice in the revolutionary war earned the distinction of becoming one of the original members of the Order 
of the Cincinnati. Mr. Hoyt is the son of the Rev. William Henry Hoyt. He was educated at the Univer- 
sity of Vermont and at the Georgetown College, D. C, from both of which he was graduated with the degrees 
of Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts. For a time he assisted his father in newspaper work in Burling- 
ton, and in 1857 he came to New York. Early in the sixties he engaged in the rubber trade as an employee 
of the firm of Poppenhusen & Konig, which controlled the Goodyear hard rubber patents. He acquired a 




Charles A. Hoyt. 

partnership in the business about twenty years ago, after having reached some time previously the positions 
he still occupies as treasurer of the India Rubber Comb Company and of the Goodyear Hard Rubber Com- 
pany. He became a resident of Brooklyn in 1867, and has lived in the first ward ever since. His home 
is at 15 Pierrepont street. He is a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce, a life member of the 
New York Press Club, a director and one of the founders of the German-American Insurance Company and 
a trustee in the Brooklyn Homoepathic Hospital. In 1S62 he married Miss Julia Sherman, who traces her 
ancestry to the Pilgrim fathers. One son, who is now in business in Denver, is their only child. 

In the record of Brooklyn enterprise Henry Harper Benedict figures prominently. He was born on 
October 9, 1844, in Herkimer County, N. Y. His grandfather, Elias Benedict, was one of the pioneers who 
left Connecticut in the last century and created new homes for themselves in New York state. His father, 
Micaiah Benedict, born in 1801, was a public man of considerable note and was for many years one of the 
justices of the peace for Herkimer County. yVfter being graduated, in 1865, from Eastman's Business Col- 
lege at Poughkeepsie, Henry H. Benedict became a student at Hamilton College. While studying at that 
institution and prior to his graduation in 1869, he occupied the chair of Latin and Mathematics at Fairfield 
Seminary. After leaving Hamilton College he went to Ilion, N. Y., and was employed by E. Remington & 
Sons. He remained with them thirteen years in the capacity of confidential secretary and director. In 
1882 he aided in the organization of the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, who purchased the entire 
typewriter manufacturing plant owned by the Remingtons at Ilion and assumed the title of the Remington 




Standard Typewriter Manufacturing Compan3^ In 1S92 the present company of Wyckoff, Seamans & Bene- 
dict was incorporated and Mr. Benedict, who had been treasurer of the Standard Typewriter Manufactur- 
ing Company, became secretary of the new corporation. On October 10, 1S67, he married Miss Maria 
Nellis, daughter of a well-known resident of Fort Plain, N. Y. They have one child. In their home at 116 
Willow street there is a magnificent collection of old line engravings and etchings, some of them by Rem- 
brandt, and all products of the best European and American masters. Mr. Benedict has also a well- 
selected library of rare and standard volumes, many of which, like his pictures, have been collected during 
their owner's frequent travels in Europe. He is a member of the Republican Club, the Grolier Club and 
the Delta Kappa Epsilon Society of New York, and the Hamilton Club and Long Island Historical Society 
of Brooklyn. Until his resignation some time ago, he was a memlier of the art committee of the Union 
League Club, He is a member of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church of New York, but usually attends 
divine worship at the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn. He was one of the organizers of the First Presby- 
terian Church at Ilion, and was for many years an elder, treasurer, trustee, member of the building com- 
mittee and superintendent of the Sunday-school ; he is an ex-president of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation of Ilion. 

(]lub life in Brooklyn has no more active promoter than Willtam W. Rossiter, president of the Termi- 
nal Wareliouse Company, of New York. He has served three years as one of the directors of the Hamilton 
Club, assisted in the organization of the Montauk Club, of which he is a director ; he joined the Marine 
and Field Club in the early period of its existence. During a membership of twenty years in the Memorial 
Presbyterian Church he has given to it ten years of service as a trustee ; and when the beautiful church 
edifice at Seventh avenue and St. John's place was built he rendered valuable assistance as a member of 
the building committee. His philanthropic disposition has been manifested in a long and useful connection 
with the Children's Aid Society, of which he has been a trustee more than twelve years and of which he has 
been treasurer nine years. Born in this state in 184S, he has lived in Brooklyn since his boyhood and was 
educated at the Polytechnic Institute. He began his business career in the house of Wallace & Wickes, in 
New York city, and as a member of the firm of Rossiter & Skidmore he succeeded to its trade in 1872. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCLAL LIFE. 



847 




William \V. Rossitek. 



Retiring from the firm in May, 1S91, lie devoted himself to the great inter- 
est of which he is the present head. Among other business institutions 
with which Mr. Rossiter is connected is the Brooklyn City Savings Bank 
of which he was one of the originators and of which he is a trustee ; he 
is also a member of the board of directors of the Corn Exchange Bank, of 
New York city. He was identified with the state militia for fifteen years, 
nine years of which period was given as a member of the 7th Regiment, 
in which he rose to the rank of sergeant. For three years he was quarter- 
master of the 23d Regiment and he served three years on the brigade 
staff of General Beebe as captain and ordnance officer. His home is at 50 
Seventh avenue. 

The name of Budington has a place in Brooklyn chronicles, not only 
because of the part played in the city's history by the Rev. William Ives 
Budington, D. D., but also because of the prominence gained by his son, 
William G. Budington, M. D., who, besides his professional distinction, 
has a wide social popularity. From 1872 until 1881 he was a practic- 
ing physician in Brooklyn, during which time he was, for one year, 
a sanitary inspector attached to the health department, and, for a year and a half, he served the 
Kings County Hospital as a resident physician, maintaining meantime a general practice in the city. He 
was one of the first to join the Long Island Wheelmen and became known as an expert bicyclist ; he is a 
member of the Atlantic Yacht Club. He was born in Boston, Mass., on October 29, 1845, and first became 
a resident of Brooklyn in 1855, when his father accepted the call of the Clinton Avenue Congregational 
Church. His preliminary education was gained at the Polytechnic Institute ; later he matriculated at Yale 
College, and after being graduated there with the class of '65, he came to New York and pursued a course 
of study at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, which granted him his degree in 1872. He retired in 
1881, and has spent most of the time since then in traveling. He is unmarried and for the past seven years 
has had a residence in New York city. He maintains a keen interest in all athletic matters and is a 
member of the New York Athletic Club. 

Flaiien Ball Candler is a lawyer established in New York. He was born on December 16, 183S, in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. His father was Samuel M. Candler, born in Marblehead, Mass., a descendant of a 
well-known English family, and his mother, Elizabeth C. Ball, was a daughter of Flamen Ball, of New York 
city. Mr. Candler obtained his education at what is now known as the New York College, read law with Bar- 
rett & Brinsmead, and was admitted to the bar in i860. In 1864 he became a partner of Edgar S. Van 
Winkle in New York, and the present title of the firm is Jay & Candler, Mr. Van Winkle having died in 1882 

and Colonel William Jay having been a law partner of Mr. Candler since 
1868. He has been a continuous resident of Brooklyn since i860. On 
October 18, 1865, he married Marcia Lillian Welch, daughter of Captain 
Robert W. Welch. They have two sons and one daughter living. The 
eldest son, Robert W. Candler, is practicing law with his father. Mr. 
Candler was a charter member of the Oxford Club, but resigned and 
became a member of the Hamilton Club. He is a member of the Tuxedo 
Club, of the Congregational Club, Brooklyn, and of the Down Town 
Club, New York. From i860 until 1886 he was a member and an officer 
of the Clinton Avenue Congregational Church, but is now a member, and 
until recently has been a trustee, of the Church of the Pilgrims. 

Edward B. Bartlett was born in Portland, Me., and is a son of 
William and Mary (Crie) Bartlett, of whose eight children he was the 
youngest. His father was engaged in the shipping business in that 
state. His grandfather, John Bartlett, was in the active service of his 
country as captain in the army, during the war of 18 12-15. The family 
Flamen b. Candler. belongs to the American branch of an English line which is trace- 

able back to the time of the Norman conquest. His parents having removed to Brooklyn when he was ten 
years old, his education was received at its public schools and the Polytechnic Institute. He commenced 
his business life with the old tea and coffee house of Sturges, Bennett & Co. After remaining with them 
some years he entered the warehousing firm of C. L. & J. L. Colby, in Brooklyn, and subsequently 
succeeded to their business under the firm name of E. B. Bartlett & Co. In 1SS8 most of the large ware- 
houses and elevators on the Brooklyn water front were leased to the Empire Warehouse Company, Limited, 
of which he was chosen president, in which position he remains. He is president of the Brooklyn Warehouse 
and Storage Company and of the Columbian Whaleback Steamship Company, and a director in the People's 





Ll)\V Vkl) ]> 



Trust Company, the Southern National Bank, the United States and Brazil Mail Steamship Company and in 
various other organizations, both business and social ; he is a member of the New Yorlv Chamber of Com- 
merce, of the Produce, Cotton, Coffee and Maritime exchanges, of the Union League Club and the Down 
Town Club, of New York, and of the Hamilton, the Montauk and the Riding and Driving clubs, of Brooklyn. 
He has borne the part of a public-spirited citizen, and has given an active and liberal support not only to the 
churches and charities of Brooklyn, but to every movement for the public welfare. In political affairs he 
has always cooperated with the Republican party, but has never been willing to add to his other duties the 
responsibilities of pLiblic office. 

Robert D. Benedict, of the New York bar, was born at Burlington, Vt., on October 3, 1828. His father 
was for many years a professor in the University of Vermont, where the son was educated and whence he 
was graduated in 1848. After his graduation he came to Brooklyn, where he taught school two years, and 
then entered the office, in New York city, of his uncle, Erastus C. Benedict, afterwards chancellor of the 
University of the State. He was admitted to the bar in 185 i and has practiced law ever since. In 1854 he 
married Miss Frances A. Weaver, of Colchester, Vt., and settled in Brooklyn, which he had left for a few 
years after concluding his school teaching. He is well known to the legal profession as the editor of 
" Benedict's Reports," in ten volumes, presenting the decisions of the United States district courts. His 
law practice is largely in the admiralty court. From the foundation of the New York Times till the death 
of Henry J. Raymond, its fcnmder, Mr. Benedict was connected with that newspaper as reporter of the United 
States courts and as a writer of editorials. He was twenty years a member of Plymouth Church. For the 
last eighteen years he has been a member and is a trustee of the Central Congregational Church. He was 
president of the board of elections in Brooklyn several years after its creation, and was the last president 
of the Republican League. F"or many years he has been a trustee of the Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn and 
he is a director of the Lawyers' Surety Company, of New York, vice-president of the New England Society, 
Brooklyn, and president of the Brooklyn Society of Vermonters and of the Congregational Club. He was 
also a member of the Kings County Club, and of the Union League Club. 

WiLMAM Peet was born at 165 William street. New York, on December 4, 1822. In 1828 his parents 
removed to Brooklyn, and purchased and occupied the old homestead of David Codwise, at 184 Columbia 
Heights. On his twenty-first birthday he began to prepare for college. He studied at Yale, where he was 
graduated in 1847 ; and he has been secretary of his class almost ever since. He spent the first year after 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 



849 




William Peet. 



his graduation at the Yale law school, and then went to Utica, and 
entered the office of Mattison & Doolittle, the latter of whom after- 
wards became a justice of the supreme court. Among his associates 
there was Roscoe Conkling. Mr. Peet was admitted to the bar on Novem- 
ber 2, 1848, being a member of the first class subsequent to the adoption 
of the code of practice. On April 19, 1849, he opened his first law office 
on the corner of Wall and Pearl streets, New York, and has continued to 
practice in that city ever since, his present firm being Bristow, Peet &: 
Opdyke. In 1851 he married Miss Homans and removed to the Hill, 
where he became successively vestryman of the Church of the Messiah 
and of St. Peter's. In 1869 he removed to Rockland Count)', but he 
returned in 1874 to the homestead on Columbia Heights, which he still 
occupies. He was one of the organizers of the Atlantic Yacht Club, his 
name being first on the list ; he also assisted in organizing the Hamilton 
Club, and the Lawyers* Club, of New York. 

Eugene W. Durkee, whose name stands first on the list of members 
of the Hamilton Club, is prominent in a number of other social organi- 
zations, having been connected with the Brooklyn Gun Club si.x years, the Manhattan Athletic Club 
three years, the Crescent Club two years and the Union League Club of New York five years, besides 
being a member of the Eastern Field Trial, Central Field Trial, New England Field Trial and Ameri- 
can Kennel clubs. At Patchogue, L. I., he owns a farm of one hundred and fifty-si.x acres, upon which 
are a beautiful residence, extensive stables, a half mile track and large kennels which are noted for the 
prize winners they have produced. These things are simply the diversions of a very busy man, for he is 
the head of a firm which conducts a long established and prosperous business ; he is senior partner in the 
house of E. R. Durkee & Co., New York, manufacturers of and dealers in spices and grocers' sundries. 
This firm was established in 1850 by his father, E. R. Durkee, and it operates mills in Brooklyn. Mr. 
Durkee was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1850 and his parents moved to Brooklyn in 1851. His early studies 
were prosecuted at Professor Overheiser's school and he completed his education at the University of 
Geneva, in Switzerland, where he studied until 1S71, in which year his business experience began. He 
married Miss E. F. Brigham, daughter of L. H. Brigham, of Brooklyn. She died twelve years ago. 

Caiiden Crosby Dike was born in Providence, 
R. I., on September 18, 1832, and is the son of Albyn 
V. and Phoebe A. Dike. In February, 1849, when six- 
teen years of age, he left his birthplace and came to 
Brooklyn. His first home in this city was on Clark 
street, the site now occupied by a portion of Oving- 
ton's establishment; his early association with the 
Heights engendered in him a certain love of that 
locality which resulted in his becoming a permanent 
resident of that section. His first occupation was in 
the employ of Wilmerdings, Priest & Mount, auction- 
eers. He next engaged in the wool business ; form- 
ing with his brothers, Henry A. and James P. Dike, 
the firm of Dike Brothers, who conducted a large for- 
eign and domestic trade as wool commission merchants 
and importers. At a later time he became senior part- 
ner and ultimately retired from the firm, after being 
closely and actively associated with its affairs for 
thirty-six years. The two and a half years succeeding 
his withdrawal from active business were devoted to 
foreign travel, in which he was accompanied by his 
family. After his return to America he interested 
himself to a great extent in various financial and chari- 
table institutions, with which his connection has since 
been maintained and enlarged. He is a director and 
was one of the organizers of the Kings County Bank 
and the Hamilton Trust Company; is a trustee of the 
South Brooklyn Savings Bank, the Homceopathic Hos- 
pital and the Church of the Pilgrims ; a member of the 




/a-**.^-^^^^^*^ ''^. .-<Cw^, 



8so 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Laurentian Club and an organizer of the famous Apollo Club ; he is also a member of the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce. In social life and in charitable enterprises his duties are shared by his wife, whom he 
married in 1S57, and who was formerly Miss Jeannie D. Scott, of Attica, a daughter of David and Maria 
Scott, and a granddaughter of Major-General Phiiieas Stanton, a prominent actor in the war of 1812. Three 
years after his marriage Mr. Dike built the handsome house now occupied by him at 194 Columbia Heights. 
Norman Seymour Bentley was born at Sandy Creek, Oswego County, N. Y., on March 31, 1831. He 
is the son of the late Elias Bentley, an esteemed citizen of Milton, Saratoga County, N. Y. ; his mother's 
maiden name was Sarah Seymour. After studying at the public schools of his native place and at an 
academical private school in Pulaski, he became a teacher at the age of fourteen and taught in 1845-6 at 
Sandy Creek. In 1850, when nineteen years old, he entered the wholesale grocery trade in New York 
city as a member of the firm of Gasper &: Co. Withdrawing from this firm in 1856, he took an interest 




Norman S. Bentley. 

in the wholesale grocery house of Gordon, Fellows & McMillan, to whose entire business, excluding the 
liquor department, he succeeded in 1861, forming the house of Bentley & Burton, to which another partner 
was admitted in 1867. The excellent promise of investments in land in Oregon was brought to his attention 
about 1868 and he associated himself with Colonel T. Egenton Hogg of that state in acquiring landed 
interests there, the enterprise giving birth to the Oregon Development Company, the Pacific Construction 
Company, the Oregon Pacific Syndicate, the Oregon Pacific Railroad and several other large interests. He 
has been a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce more than thirty years and takes especial 
pride m what he regards as a public service which he was able to render on the special committee of that 
body appointed to consider the matter of ordnance and harbor defence for the country. The preparation of 
the report was entrusted to him, and after it had been unanimously adopted by the chamber and 
warmly commended by the press, it received the most respectful attention of congress and was described 
by the late Samuel J. Randall, chairman of the congressional committee on ways and means, as the chart 
for appropriations in that year; its effect has been felt in congress ever since in connection with the 
appropriations for defence. The result was especially beneficial to New York and Brooklyn. In politics 
Mr. Bentley is an ardent Republican and was a member of the first Republican club ever organized in New 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 



851 



York, the Fremont and Dayton Club, which was active in the Fremont campaign ; and he was a delegate 
to the convention held in Saratoga which organized the Republican party in this state. He married on 
February 4, 1858, Miss Emilie M. Wagner, second daughter of the late Daniel B. Wagner, then of Budd's 
Lake, N. J. His home is at 271 Hicks street and he is a regular attendant at Grace P. E. Church; he 
is an Episcopalian, but his life-long friendship for Mr. Beecher led him to attend Plymouth Church during 
the early part of the famous preacher's ministry, and occasionally throughout Mr. Beecher's life. In 
his own religious denomination he has been an effective worker, serving many years as vestryman of St. 
John's Church; he was afterwards a communicant of the Church of the Redeemer several years and then 
he went to All Saints Church, where he was superintendent of the Sunday-school. He has been many years 
prominently identified with the Y. M. C. A., of New York. Other organizations in which he holds member- 
ship are the Hamilton, the Brooklyn, and the Apollo clubs, of Brooklyn, the Down Town Club, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, American Museum of Natural History, the Board of Trade and Transportation, of New 
York, and the American Geographical Society. 

Abram B. B.wlis was born in Brooklyn in 1845. He was educated at the Brooklyn Polytechnic 
Institute and at Princeton, entering the former institution on the first day it opened and being graduated 
in 1862. He went at once to Princeton and was graduated in 1866. Immediately after leaving college he 
entered the office of his father, a prominent Wall street broker and the founder of the present commission 
firm of Baylis & Co. Upon the death of his father he succeeded to his interests and became the senior 
member of the firm. He is vice president of the Brooklyn Trust Company and a director in the Mechanics' 
Bank and the old Brooklyn Savings Bank. He is a prominent figure in Brooklyn's social life and is a mem- 
ber of the Hamilton, Crescent Athletic and Brooklyn Riding and Driving clubs. 

Among Brooklynites there are none who have contributed more to the multiplication of useful appli- 
ances than George W. Demond, who, after many years of successful business life, is now enjoying the 
ease deserved by long continued industry and enterprise. He has taken out many patents, all of them 
on valuable devices, and he is enrolled as a life member of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' 
Association. He is of French extraction, and his name in its original form was Dumaine, of which its pres- 
ent form is a corruption. His grandfather emigrated to America from France at the time of the French 
revolution, and from New York went to Trois Rivieres, Canada. He had married a lady whose family was 
from Holland ; she had one son, who was born in Montreal in October, 1794. This son, who was the father 
of George W. Demond, served with the Montreal Voltigeurs in the British army during the war of 1812, 
and was wounded and taken prisoner by the Americans, who took him to Albany, N. Y., where he utilized his 
trade of tin and coppersmith by applying it to the production of tin cups for the American soldiers. He 
married about 1814, and in 1830 returned to Canada, 

where George AV. Demond, his fourth son, was born at • ■■ ,,,„»„,,„-,-., ,.„,....., .,, 

St. John's on January 22, 1S3 1. George was educated 
in Plattsburg and Champlain, N. Y., where his father 
spent the closing portion of his life, and after leav- 
ing the Champlain Academy he was engaged with his 
father in the manufacture of tinware. He organized 
the Massachusetts Steam Heating Company in 1856, 
and introduced the first low pressure heating appara- 
tus under the Gold patent in connection with James 
J. Walworth & Co. He was also engaged in the 
furnace and stove business as one of the firm of 
Demond, Perry & Fenn, which was succeeded by 
Demond & Fenn. During the civil war he fitted out 
several men at his own e.xpense for service in the Union 
army. After fifteen years of business in Boston he 
came to New York in 1865, and in the year following 
he organized the American Ventilating Company of 
New York, introducing patent ventilators of his own 
invention and making use of the Griffith ventilators, 
the rights in which he had acquired by purchase. He 
was treasurer and vice-president of the company until 
1886, when it dissolved by limitation. He formed with 
George M. Pullman and others the Chicago Ventilator 
Company. He has been a resident of Brooklyn since 
1865, and has taken an active interest in local affairs. 
He is a member of the Nineteenth Ward Republican 




.,^*J 



George W. Demond. 



3s= 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Association and a life member of tlie Amphion Musical Society. He practically retired from active busi- 
ness in 1884. With his family he attends the First Reformed Church, in which he holds the office of treasurer. 
Herman Behr was born in Hamburg, Germany, on March 4, 1S47, His father, immediately upon 
arriving in America, came to live in Brooklyn, and was for many years a prominent hardware merchant. 
Young Behr left school at the age of si.xteen to work in his father's factory, remaining there until the 
latter's death, which occurred in 1S65. He then engaged in the manufacture of skates on his own account, 
but did not make any very great success of his venture, and accordingly relinquished it to accept a position 
with a down-town business house in New York city. In 1872 he began his present business — that of the 
manufacture of sand and garnet paper — in which he has been more than ordinarily successful. His resi- 
dence at Pierrepont and Henry streets was designed and constructed under the direction of architect 
Frank Freeman. It is constructed of Scotch sandstone and Belleville brownstone, with facing of terra- 
cotta brick. The entrance is by a double raised stoop, on each side of which are bay windows with 
opalescent stained glass. The entrance hall is an apartment of artistic beauty and design ; its main feature 
is a kind of raised ingle-nook or alcove, in which is an open fireplace of Scotch sandstone. The design is 
antique, the andirons and mantel being in perfect keeping. To the right upon entering is the drawing 
room, e.xtending two-thirds of the entire depth of the house. This room is finished in polished mahogany, 
unlike the hall, which is of oak, while the ceiling, divided into panels, is decorated in white and gold. An 
open fireplace occupies a position near the bay window on one side. The dining room is situated in the 
rear of the drawing room, from which it is separated by sliding doors. It is finished with oak and has an 
open fireplace of red Numidian marble with artistically designed andirons and a mante' of carved oak. 
The library, which is in the rear, directly facing the front entrance, is finished in cherry, with book cases of 
the same wood. The ceiling is dome-shaped, decorated in white and gold — the latter predominating. Mr. 
Behr is a prominent member of the Germania Club, of which he has been the president ; and to his efforts 
while serving on the building committee of that organization much is due. He is a member of the Ger- 
man Club of New York, and of the Hamilton, Crescent, and Rembrandt clubs of this city. 

From a New England ancestry that may be traced to an honorable source in old England, George J. 
Laighton inherited those qualities of industry, honesty and thrift that can always be discerned in the char- 
acter of successful business men. He has lived in Brooklyn nearly thirty years and enjoys a full degree of 
popularity as a citizen. He is a life member of the New England Society and a trustee of the Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital. He is engaged in the manufacture of hardware and has headquarters at 45 Chambers 
street, New York. He acquired his first knowledge of the business in a store in Portsmouth, N. H., in 
which city he was born on March 27, 1S46, and where he was graduated at the high school when fifteen 

years old. He came to Brooklyn in 1863, and obtained 
.-,,-„^.^, .,.,.-„.,:,.,,.,„ employment in the New York house of the Russell & 

Erwin Manufacturing Company, of New Britain, Conn., 
and he is now a director and associate manager of the 
New York branch of that company, having become a 
member of the company in 1867. 

Samuel J. Cawley was born in Philadelphia in 
1850. Like the majority of Philadelphians of that time 
he was of Quaker parentage. For some time he at- 
tended the New York grammar schools and free 
academy and later the Philadelphia high school. In 
i860 he began his mercantile career with William A. 
Drown & Company, of Philadelphia. Four years later 
he came to New York to become a member of the 
firm of George J. Byrd & Company. He became a 
nember of the present umbrella manufacturing firm of 
Heiter, Glen & Cawley in 18S8. He married Miss 
Mary Brice, of Philadelphia, the daughter of William 
]jrice,a former president of the Commercial E.xchange 
of Philadelphia, and one of the building commission- 
ers of that city. He moved to Brooklyn in 1876, since 
which year he has been thoroughly identified with the 
social life of the city, being a member of the Hamilton 
and O.xford clubs here and a member of the Man- 
hattan Athletic Club, in New York. He takes an 
interest in the government of his adopted city, but 
is in no respect a politician or an office seeker. 




Samuki. J. Cawley. 




^ 




S54 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



William Satterlee Packer Prentice, who was born at i Grace court in 1852, is a great-grandson 
of Major Nathaniel Sarteli Prentice, who was captain of the third company, i6th Regiment, New Hampshire 
militia, under Colonel Bellows, and subsequently was elected major in Colonel Nahum Baldwin's regiment 
(the 2d New Hampshire), but did not serve ; in 1775 he was a member of the New Hampshire provin- 
cial congress. Mr. Prentice was educated at the Polytechnic Institute, and engaged in business on Wall 
street in 1872. He remained there seven years, when he became manager of his father's extensive interests 
at the Prentice stores in this city. In 1881 he returned to Wall street, and joined the firm of W. C. Sheldon 
& Co. He married Miss Ella Crawford Sheldon in 1S80, and their home is at 44 Remsen street. He is a 
member of the Ihpetongaand Crescent Athletic clubs, Brooklyn, the Down Town Club and the New Eno-land 
Society, of New York, and the Parmachenee Fishing and Game Club, of Maine. He is a director in the 
Brooklyn Riding and Driving Clul), and a member of the Society of Sons of the Revolution. He is an 
enthusiastic sportsman and is devoted to the pleasures derivable from rod and gun. 

Charles Curie, of the law firm of Curie, Smith & Mackie, of New York, has been ten years a well- 
known and highly-esteemed citizen of Brooklyn. He was born near Montbeliard, Department du Doubs 
France, in 1842, and coming to America with his parents in 1844 resided first in Paterson, N. J. In 1859 
he entered into the service of the importing house of Ad. Koop & Sattler, New York, where he remained 
attending to the custom house business of the firm, until the beginning of the civil war. On April in, 
1S61, he enlisted in the Hawkins Zouaves, 9th New York Volunteers. In the charge of his regiment on 
Fort Defiance, Roanoke Island, he was the first to reach the works and to wave the flag of the gth Regi- 
ment over them, alth(jugh then he was a private soldier and but little over nineteen years of age. He was 
wounded in the charge of his regiment on the Confederate batteries at Antietam, and was furloughed and 
subsequently promoted to lieutenant in the 2d Battalion, Hawkins Zouaves. He was in General A. J. 
Smith's command in the Red River campaign, was appointed acting ordnance officer of the brigade and 
later of the division, and continued in A. J. Smith's and Joseph A. Mower's commands in their campaigns 
in Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi and Missouri. He was promoted to the rank of captain in May, 1S64. 
His last campaign e.xtended from the Mississippi river to the Little Big Blue river, near Kansas, where 
Price's forces were run down and forced to fight, capitulate, or scatter. During the march back to the 
Mississippi with orders to join General Thomas at Nashville, Tenn., he took cold and gave out while in 
command of his company when about half way back, was sent to Jefferson barracks hospital, and on 
December 16, 1864, was honorably discharged from the service on account of disability. He had sufii- 
ciently recovered by January i, 1866, to return to his vocation of custom house clerk for his old firm, where 
he remained until January i, 1868, when he began a custom house brokerage business with Julius Binge, 

of New York, under the firm name of Binge & Curie. 

r ~" He removed from Paterson to Brooklyn and was ad- 

■ mitted to the bar of this state in 1SS2. He had had 

i an extensive experience in custom house matters, and 

systematically compiled all the decisions of the United 
States supreme court on custom house duties, etc., from 
the beginning of the government, and when the act of 
1883 was passed, the first general tariff act since the 
passage of the revised statutes in 1874, his readiness 
in deciding questions under it and his willingness to 
back his opinion by prosecuting the cases upon a con- 
tingent fee, brought him all the work he could attend 
to in a short time. Many tariff questions have been 
successfully litigated by Mr. Curie in the interest of 
importers, and his clientage includes the most promi- 
nent importing houses in New York. Until the pas- 
sage of the McKinley tariff bill, Mr. Curie was alone in 
tii^^H^^^Bk Wf^^^^^^K- '^'^ practice, but after that the firm of Curie, Smith & 

Mackie was organized in New York. He occupies the 
old homestead of N. P. Willis, "Idlewild," Cornwall- 
on-Hudson, from Friday to Tuesday, and the remain- 
der of the week he is in Brooklyn. He is a member 
of Ivanhoe Lodge, F. & A. M., of Farragut Post, G. A. 
R., of Paterson, N. J., an honorary member of E. A. 
Kimball Post, of New York city, and a member of the 
New York commandery of the Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion of New York. In Brooklyn he is a 




Charles Cukie. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 855 

member of the Hamilton, Lincoln, and Riding and Driving clubs, and the society of the officers of the 
New Jersey Battalion at Yorktown. In 1870 he married Miss Jennie Andrews, daughter of James Andrews, 
of Paterson, N. J. He is a pew-holder in the Central Congregational Church. 

One of the most active business men in the sister cities is John Gibb, who at the same time is one of 
the best known men in club circles in Brooklyn, where he resides. Besides his connection with the 
Hamilton Club he is a member of the Brooklyn, O.xford, Crescent and Germania clubs. He was born in 
Forfarshire, Scotland, in 1829, and came to America at the age of twenty-one. His first employment was 




John Gibb. 

in the large importing house of J. R. Jaffray & Co., where his industry and thorough fidelity to the interests 
of his employers soon resulted in his advancement to responsible positions. At the end of fifteen years he 
had saved enough to go into business on his own account, and in company with Philo L. Mills he founded 
the New York firm of Mills & Gibb in 1865. In 1887 he acquired the controlling interest in the firm of 
Frederick Loeser & Co., Brooklyn, the business of which since that time has been under the management of 
himself and his son, Howard. He is a director in the Brooklyn Trust Company and a trustee of the 
Adelphi Academy. In 1852 he married Miss Balston, of Brooklyn, who died in 1878; he contracted a 
second marriage in 1882. His residence is at 218 Gates avenue. 

Lewis Thurber Lazell is counted among the older members of the club. He is at the head of the 
perfume manufacturing corporation known as Lazell, Dalley & Co., of New York. He began life at the age 
of fourteen as a clerk in a book store ; three years later he engaged in the drug business at Worcester, Mass. 
In 1885 he moved to New York and organized the firm of Lazell, Marsh & Hunn, one of his new associates, 
Mr. Marsh, having once been a clerk in his employ. During the following decade the business flourished, 
though the firm-name was several times changed. With the beginning of the year 1891 the firm discon- 
tinued the manufacture of drugs and was reorganfzed upon its present basis. Mr. Lazell was born in 
Bellingham, Mass., in 1825, and was educated at Worcester. His ancestors were French Huguenots, who 
emigrated to America in 1636. In 1847 he married Miss Ellen Stone, of Worcester. Eleven years after his 
marriage he moved to Brooklyn and now resides on Livingston street. He has been connected with the 
First Baptist Church since 1858, and is president of its board of trustees. 





Edward Henry Kellogg, who has been one of Brooklyn's representative citizens many years, is a 
descendant of Asa Kellogg, of Springfield, Mass., who died about 1820. On the maternal side he is a 
grandson of one of the patriots of the revolutionary period. Patriotism is an inherited trait in the Kellogg 
family, also, for they are of Scotch extraction and their early ancestors were firm adherents of King James 
the First, having left their own land to accompany that monarch to England. Mr. Kellogg was born in 
Ira, Cayuga County, N. Y., on September i, 182S, and his boyhood was spent on his father's farm. He 
studied at the Victory Academy until he was fourteen years old and ended his studies at Wenzer's Quaker 
seminary, at Venice, Cayuga County, N. Y. At the age of si.\teen he went to Auburn, N. Y., to take a 
clerkship in a store. From Auburn he went to Rochester, where he was engaged in a similar capacity, and 
in 185 1 he moved to New York city. He made his home in Brooklyn and obtained a clerkship in a New 
York commission house, the interests of which he served with such fidelity and success that he rose to a 
partnership in the establishment. His thorough business methods were allied with far-seeing sagacity 
and it is to him perhaps more than to any other individual the honor belongs of introducing the use of 
petroleum for lubricating purposes. So great did the demand become that the firm found it necessary as 
early as 1876 to establish a branch house in Liverpool, England, to facilitate its e.xport business. In addi- 
tion to his present interest in the New York house he is actively connected with the Dime Savings Bank of 
Brooklyn, of which he is vice-president and to the affairs of which he gives close attention, dividing his 
business hours between his office in that institution and his office in New York. He is a member of the 
Union League Club, the Importers' and Traders' Club, and the Down Town Association, of New York, and 
of the Hamilton Club, of Brooklyn. In i860 he married Charlotte, daughter of Francis Fickett, one of the 
old-time shipbuilders of New York. His residence is one of the handsomest on Columbia Heights. 

WiLLi.\.M KuJMHEL Wilson is vice-president, secretary and one of the directors of the Snell Manufac- 
turing Company, which manufactures tools for car and bridge building, and he has charge of the New York 
st(jres. His business experience began in 1871, when he was given a clerkship in the wholesale hardware 
jobbing house of Clark, Wilson & Co., a New York firm of which his father was a member. After several 
years of clerkship he was admitted as a partner and later the firm was reorganized under the name of Bates, 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



857 




William K. Wilson. 



Wilson & Co., continuing until 1888, when it retired from the jobbing 
trade and devoted itself to manufacturing. Mr. Wilson was born in 1848 ; 
he attended school at Tarrytown, N. Y., and then at Englewood, N. J., 
subsequently attending St. Germain, a collegiate institute near Paris, 
France, where he was graduated in 186S. James Clark Wilson, his father, 
was the son of Dr. James Wilson, a distinguished New York physician 
of revolutionary times. Mr. Wilson has been connected with the 7th 
Regiment for the past twenty years. About the year 1875 he married 
Miss Lizzie Lockwood, daughter of Major John B. Lockwood, an officer 
in the Union army. 

Since his arrival in the United States in 1874, George Gray Ward 
has been a resident of Brooklyn and he is prominent in the Episcopal 
church here as one of the vestrymen of St. Ann's. In addition to his 
membership in the Hamilton Club he holds that relation to the Down 
Town Club of New York. He was born in England in 1844 and was 
educated at Cambridge. Telegraphy and electrical science interested 
him at an early age and he was employed some time in the British govern- 
ment's telegraphic service in Egypt. Subsequently he was on the steamship " Great Eastern " and assisted 
in laying one of the Atlantic cables. After coming to America he was associated with Laurence Oliphant, 
the author, who was connected with Atlantic telegraphy at that time; and later he organized the Com- 
mercial Cable Company for Messrs. Mackay and Bennett. He contributed materially to the success of that 
enterprise and is vice-president of the company. He is also a director in the Postal Telegraph Company 
and the Brooklyn District Telegraph Company, and vice-president of the American Forcite Company. 

The interests of trade brought Frederick W. Moss into active association with the commercial life of 
the United States in 1865, ten years before he became a resident of the country. He was born in 1849 in 
Sheffield, England, where he was educated at Sheffield College. In New York he represents the firm of 
Moss & Gamble, of Sheffield, manufacturers of steel for tools. He is a member of the Hamilton, Rem- 
brandt, and Riding and Driving clubs, and of the Long Island Historical Society, a life member of the St. 
George Society and a trustee of the Children's Aid Society, the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities and the 
Church of the Pilgrims. Until recently he was a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce. He 
resides at 33 Remsen street. 

John Askew Tucker is a member of the Quogue Field and the Great South Bay Yacht clubs as 
well as of the Hamilton. He is a native of Brooklyn, having been born on Washington street in 1840. 
Richard Sands Tucker was his father and his mother was Sarah Ann Carter, a daughter of Robert Carter. 
He was a student at the Polytechnic Institute when that institution of learning was opened and in 1861 he 
was graduated at Columbia College. As a member of the 7th Regiment he took part in the campaigning 
of that command during the early years of the civil war. After his return from the south he became a 
clerk with the firm of Tucker, Carter & Co., which eventually was incorporated under the state laws as the 
Tucker & Carter Cordage Company. Its officers are : C. P. Marsh, president ; J. A. Tucker, treasurer ; E. 
M. Johnson, secretary. Mr. Tucker is a director of the Leather Manufacturers' Bank of New York and is a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Maritime Exchange. He is one of the commissioners in 
charge of improving the parks on Brooklyn Heights. In politics he is a Republican. For many years he 
was one of the vestrymen of the Church of the Redeemer and at one time he was one of the wardens ; at 
the present time he is a member of Grace Church on Brooklyn Heights. In 1866 he married Miss Jeannie 
A. Parsons, in New York. 

Henry Everston Nitchie is largely interested in one of the most prominent business enterprises of 
Brooklyn, that of warehousing, being a member of the firm of E. B. Bartlett & Co., and a vice-president 
and secretary of the Empire Warehouse Company, limited, both of which have their warehouses on the 
Brooklyn water front. His office is in New York city, and his home is at 42 Lefferts place, Brooklyn. He 
is a member of the Hamilton and Lincoln clubs, the Down Town Club, of New York, and the Shelter Island 
Yacht Club. He was born in Brooklyn in 1848, and was educated at the Polytechnic Institute ; in 1862 he 
obtained employment with Frothingham & Co.,drygoods commission merchants of New York, and remained 
with them six or seven years ; he then went into the insurance brokerage business, which he continued until 
1882. In that year he became a member of the firm of E. B. Bartlett & Co. On the maternal side he is allied 
to New England people, his mother being a member of the Howard family, which came from Salem, Mass., 
to Brooklyn early in its history. He married Miss E. W. Duncklee in Brooklyn in 1872, and the family 
attends the Classon Avenue Presbyterian Church, of which he is a member. 

William Crawford Sheldon, Jr., is a great-grandson of Sergeant Job Sheldon, who in the war of the 
revolution served in Colonel Olney's regiment of the Rhode Island line. He was born in Brooklyn and 



8s8 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



lived in his native city until recently, when he moved to Bernardsville, N. J. His home in Brooklyn was on 
Pierrepont street He is a member of the Hamilton Club, of Brooklyn, the University and Calumet clubs 
and the Society of Sons of the Revolution, New York. All his business life has been devoted to banking 
and he is one of the firm of William C. Sheldon & Co., New York. He was born in 1859 and was educated 
at St Paul's School Concord, N. H., and Trinity College. In 18S4 he married Miss Bessie Benham. 

Carll H De Silver, although a native of the west, has spent the greater portion of his life in this city, 
where his activity in all social and charitable functions has placed him among the most prominent people. 
He was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1846, and coming here in 1859 received his education at the Poly- 




Carll H. De Silver. 



technic Institute. Soon after completing his studies he visited the Orient and spent five years in China, making 
himself familiar with the commercial relations established between Hong Kong and other cities of the 
celestial empire and the United States. Before attaining his twenty-first year he had traveled around the 
globe. Upon returning to his native country he entered the field of stock speculation in Wall street, and 
has since risen to eminence among those who have acquired fortunes in that exciting financial theatre. He 
is vice-president of the Homoeopathic Hospital's board of trustees, vice-president of the Apollo Glee Club, 
vice-president of the Rembrandt Club, a director of the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society, a trustee of the 
Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences, and a life member of the Hamilton and Brooklyn clubs. He is also 
a member of the Crescent and Germania clubs. As an art connoisseur his reputation stands deservedly 
high. Some of his pictures are described in the chapter on Literature and the Fine Arts. He has taken 
some share in politics, and was chairman of the city convention which renominated A. C. Chapin for the 
mayoralty in 1889. He is now one of the state commissioners of charities. 

For more than thirty years Arthur Murphy has been a resident of Brooklyn, but his professional 
career belongs rather to New York, where he has an excellent law practice. He was born on December 9, 
1853, in New York city. He is of Scotch blood on his mother's side, and his father was of Irish birth. He was 
educated at the public schools of New York and Brooklyn, and has studied in France, Germany and Scot- 
land. He attended Columbia College Law School, and was graduated in 1874, being admitted to the bar in 
the winter of that year, and at once commenced the practice of the law. His practice is confined more 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 



859 




George E. Ide. 



particularly to the mercantile and commercial branches, 
embracing assignments, insolvency and bankruptcy 
proceedings. He is secretary and treasurer of Snow, 
Church & Co., a large collection corporation with 
branches throughout the country. He is also director 
in the New York and Chicago Chemical Company. He 
lived in the fourth ward nearly twenty-eight years, and 
for three years he was president of the Democratic 
Association of that ward. On June 5, 1SS3, he married 
Miss Florence K. Nokes, of Washington, D. C. He 
resides at 392 Clinton street. He is active in church 
work, and is secretary and trustee of the Second Pres- 
byterian Church of Brooklyn. He is greatly inter- 
ested in boating, sailing and fishing, and is fond of 
reading. He is a member of the Franklin Literary 
Society and the St. Patrick Society. 

Men who while still in early life have won a posi- 
tion of eminence in business circles are not plentiful 
enough to render their success an event too usual for 
comment. One of those whose energy has placed him 
in a post of much responsibility is George E. Ide, who 
was born in this city on May 10, i860. He was pre- 
pared for college at the Polytechnic Institute, and was 
graduated from Yale with the class of 1S81 ; while at 
the great New Haven University he was a member 
of the Scroll and Key and Phi Beta Kappa socie- 
ties. After completing his education he passed eight years in the employ of Dominick & Dickerman, the 
well-known firm of New York brokers. He then spent a short time with S. V. White & Co., and in May, 
1890, became secretary of the Home Life Insurance Company. He was elected to the vice-presidency of 
the company, a position which he now occupies. He is a member of the Hamilton Club and of the execu- 
tive committee of the Brooklyn Civil Service Reform Association ; he is also a member of the Insurance 
Club of New York. 

Richard S. Barnes was born in Brooklyn on November 21, 1854. He is a son of the late Alfred S. 
Barnes. He obtained his education successively at the Adelphi Academy, the Polytechnic Institute and at 
Williston Seminar}^, East Hampton, Mass. In 1872 he made a tour of Europe and the picture galleries of 
the old world inspired him, in later years, to gather about him numerous works of modern artists, until now 
he possesses one of the finest private galleries in the city. He became a partner in the firm of A. S. Barnes 
& Co. in I "^83, and upon the transfer of the school book department to the American Book Company 
he remained with the old house in the management of its business. The firm of A. S. Barnes & Co. 
dissolved in November, 1891, and in the incorporation that followed he was elected to the office of treasurer. 
He is a director in the Kings County Bank, trustee of the Brooklyn Institute, treasurer of the Automatic 
Fire Alarm Company, New York, and has been treasurer of the Congregational Club of Brooklyn since its 
organization. In politics he is a Republican and has stood by the Young Republican Club since its forma- 
tion. He joined the 23d Regiment in 1S79, served his term of enlistment, and was then instrumental in form- 
ing the veteran association of Company D, of which he was president four successive years. He is a 
member of the Hamilton, Riding and Driving, Rembrandt, and Marine and Field clubs, of Brooklyn, and 
of the Down Town Club, in New York. He is also a trustee of the Brooklyn Hospital, the Union for 
Christian Work and one of the auditors of the American Missionary Association. He has a summer house 
at Washington, Conn. 

On both sides of the East River Dick S. Ramsay has made his influence felt both in business and social 
relations. He was one of the first fifty members of the Hamilton Club, an early member of the Carleton 
and one of the few American members of the Germania. The Long Island Historical Society includes him 
in its membership, he is a director of the Long Island Free Library, a life member of the Seney Hospital, 
past master of Orion Lodge, 717, F. & A. M., and a contributor to various charitable organizations. He is 
one of the trustees of the Kings County Trust Company. In New York he is a director of the Hide and 
Leather Bank, a trustee of the East River Savings Bank, managing director and treasurer of the Ely-Ramsay 
Company, director and treasurer of the Stove Manufacturers' Supply and Repair Association, member of 
the New York Chamber of Commerce, the New York Board of Trade and Transportation, the Consolidated 
Stock and Petroleum Exchange, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, His continuance in office as the 



86o 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Dick S. Ramsay. 



president of the New York Local Stove Manufacturers' 
Association and liis election to the vice-presidency 
of the National Stove Manufacturers' Association, are 
indications of the esteem in which he is held among 
his business associates. He was a member of the firm 
of Ely & Ramsay, of New York, until 1890 when the 
firm became an incorporated company. In iSSo a con- 
flagration swept away Ely & Ramsay's factory, leav- 
ing them absolutely nothing except the firm's reputa- 
tion for enterprise and integrity. But within a few 
months they had purchased and equipped a factory 
at Peekskill and began what has continued to be a 
career of decided prosperity. Mr. Ramsay was born 
in Columbus, Ky., on August 9, 1S46. His home was 
among the first to receive the invasion of the Confeder- 
ate and then of the LTnion army. They destroyed every- 
thing, leaving his widowed mother and four boys, of 
whom he was the eldest, entirely without means. He 
decided to try his fortune in the north and in 1862 
went to Chicago, where he obtained a clerkship in a 
wholesale drug house. The war period was one of 
speculation and with his first earnings he began specu- 
lating, and continued it with such success that in 1866 
he left Chicago with a fortune. He visited New York, 
intending to go to Europe, but was induced to visit 
Wall street. Within six months every dollar he had 
was lost. He at once engaged in soliciting insurance and continued this until 1869, when he put his savmgs 
into the stock of a manufacturing company and again lost all. Not discouraged, he essayed business again, 
associating himself in 1870 with N. L. Ely. A small retail stove store was opened and from that beginning 
their present business has grown. 

EXCELSIOR CLUB. 

In its origin the Excelsior Club is one of the oldest in Brooklyn, and its history has been continuous, 
although its character has essentially changed. It was organized as the Excelsior Base Ball Club on Decem- 
ber 8, 1854, and while its name indicated the special object for which it came into existence the social ele- 
ment, which afterwards became dominant in the organization, had its recognized place. The club was incor- 
porated under its original name in 1874. About that time, or soon after, its activity in athletic sports ceased 
and it became a purely social club, dropping the words " base ball " from its name in 1S78. While the mem- 
bership is comparatively small, it includes some of the best known club men in the city, and is largely made 
up of the younger men. There is a degree of social intercourse among the members that is peculiar to this 
one club, and it has been said that it resembles, socially, a college society more than it does the ordinary type 
of organizations of its class. Its house, at 133 Clinton street, corner of Livingston, is large enough for its 
purposes, and is attractively furnished and decorated. The officers are : George W. Chauncey, president ; 
Harry C. Duval, vice-president; F. S. Little, recording secretary ; J. E. Lawrence, corresponding secretary ; 
J. Lloyd Hall, treasurer. 

GERMANIA CLUB. 

Among the larger and better known clubs of Brooklyn, the Germania is entitled to rank among the first 
in point of age. The late Dr. Arming, a physician of considerable prominence, who lived near the corner 
of State and Court streets more than thirty years ago, was largely instrumental in forming the club on a 
basis that practically made it a distinctively German organization. The Germania was organized in 1859. 
Besides Dr. Arming the list of members at that time included James Eschwege, K. E. Kahl, Frank Gross, 
A. Graef, Adolph Kraft, Charles Graef, J. C. Tidden, J. H. Lau and Fred. Hornbostel. The first club rooms 
were in a building which stood on the northwest corner of Clinton street and Atlantic avenue, on the site 
now occupied by the Fougera apartment house. When its needs had been increased by gradual accessions 
of membership the organization moved, in 1865, to a house at 164 Atlantic avenue. The club's history for 
the next twenty years was one of peaceful prosperity. It embraced, by degrees, the best German element 
in Brooklyn until its list of members reached the limit of three hundred. In 18S8 a movement was inaug- 
urated to raise funds for the erection of a new club house. A suitable site was purchased on Schermerhorn 
street, just below the corner of Smith street, and preparations for building the proposed edifice began in the 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



86i 



early part of 1890. The opening reception was held in October of the same year and on that occasion Mayor 
Chapin and other prominent city officials were present. As a specimen of Romanesque architecture the 
building IS unsurpassed by any other structure in Brooklyn. It is four stories in height, built of light' col- 
ored brick, terra-cotta and brownstone. The front on Schermerhorn street is ninety feet in width The 
basement is built of rough hewn brownstone. A flight of stone steps, converging towards the top, leads to 
a wide arched doorway, supported by four finely carved pillars of red sandstone, with Corinthian foliage and 
floral designs in terra-cotta. To the right of the entrance the building is flanked by a huge circular tower, 
rising from the basement to a point just above the fourth story, where it terminates in a conical roof. There 




Germania Clui; House, .Schermerhorn Street. 



are four rows of arched and mullioned windows in the tower, with panes of bent glass. On the opposite 
side of the building, between the first and second stories, a wide bay window projects outward for some dis- 
tance, its roof forming a balcony of considerable dimensions, enclosed by rails of dark brownstone. The 
features of this window are two panes of bent glass, eight by ten feet in size, which are said to be the largest 
of their kind in this country. Above the arch of the doorway four pilasters, faced with terra-cotta flower 
and basket work, and capped with elaborately carved brownstone copings, extend to the full height of the 
building, terminating at either corner of the gable. At every suitable space on the front of the club house 
there is an abundance of delicated carvings and moulding, while each of the windows is supported on sheaves 
of slender columns, crowned with richly foliated capitals. The wide and massively paneled oak doors open 
into a vestibule, which leads to a hallway of fair proportions, in the rear of which rises a wide staircase, 
with newels and balustrades of white oak. To the left of the stairway is the main reception room, an apart- 
ment one hundred by forty feet in size, with a vaulted ceiling, twenty-five feet high, supported on a double 
row of massive Corinthian columns. On the opposite side of the hallway is the ladies' reception room, 
library, reading and writing room, with servants' apartments in the rear. In the basement are the bowling 
alleys. Between the first and second stories is a mezzanine floor with a large reading room, private apart- 
ments for dinner parties, hat and cloak rooms and a cafe. On the second floor the grand dining hall, with 
paneled wainscoting of white oak and a high vaulted ceiling with groined arches, occupies one entire side 
of the building. The other apartments on this floor are for the use of the employees. There is also 



862 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



in this Story a mezzanine floor, containing the superintendent's office, cloak, dressing and bath rooms. The 
third floor is occupied by ladies' parlors, waiting and toilet rooms and an extensive kitchen. The fourth 
story is devoted to a ball-room and theatre having an auditorium one hundred feet long and sixty-four feet 
wide capable of seating a thousand people. A gallery encircles this entire apartment, which has a stage 
twenty-eight feet deep, and si.vty feet wide at the footlights. The theatre has, on a small scale, all the 
accessory apartments usually found at a place of public amusement. Including the furnishing, the club 
house co'st $140,000. It was erected under the supervision of a building committee headed by ex-Mayor 
Frederick A Sc'hroeder, associated in his work with Gustav Schimmel, Carl Goepel, P. Lichtenstein, H, B. 




Brooklyn Clue House, Pierrepont and Clinton Streets. 

Scharmann, Herman Behr and C. F. Erhart. The ofhcers of the club are : C. Kirchoff, president ; L. Hein- 
sheim, vice-president ; U. Palmedo, treasurer ; Alfred Lichtenstein, secretary. 

BROOKLYN CLUB. 

Toward the close of 1864, or early in 1865, Dr. A. Cook Hull, a prominent homoeopathic physician in 
Brooklyn, proposed to John Winslow that they, together with a dozen other gentlemen, should rent a room 
in some suitable building on the heights for the purpose of having some convenient place for social meet- 
ings. Mr. Winslow consented, but suggested that the prospective organization widen its scope and embody 
as nearly as possible the features and conveniences of a regular club. On April 24, 1865, the Brooklyn Club 
began its corporate existence. The five signers to the certificate of incorporation were : Dr. A. Cook Hull, 
Charles J. Lowrey, E. S. Mills, Geo. W. Parsons and John Winslow. At that time the club had about fifty 
members. Very soon after it became legally entitled to acquire property under its corporate name the 
Brooklyn Club purchased a brick house on the southeast corner of Clinton and Pierrepont streets, the site 
it now occupies. The building was originally a private seminary for young ladies and had been used for 
that purpose only a short time prior to its sale. The price paid was about $24,000. From time to time 
the structure was improved internally and externally. In December, 1883, the club bought for $18,000 a 
commodious brick house, at 138 Pierrepont street, adjoining its own property, and for a time rented the new 
acciuisition at a figure which paid the expenses attending its purchase. Early in 1S86 the two buildings 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



%3 



were practically rebuilt and incorporated as one structure, presenting as they do now a handsome front of 
brick and brownstone, about sixty feet in width on Pierrepont street. On Clinton street the house has a 
depth of one hundred feet. During twenty of the most important years of its history-from 1870 until 
1890— one of Brooklyn's best known citizens Benjamin D. Silliman, was president of the club. Under his 
management the indebtedness of the organization was practically liquidated, the membership increased to 
the full limit, and the club brought to its present prosperous condition. During the early portion of 
this period the Brooklyn was the only club in this city, until the Oxford, and later the Hamilton, attained 
each a recognized social existence. During Mr. Silliman's presidency there were many prominent events 










Union League Clue House, Bedford Avenue and Dean Street. 

in the history of the organization. At different times it publicly entertained the Duke of Connaught, the 
Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, Admiral Farragut, General Sherman, General Grant, Henry M. Stanley, John 
Tyndall, and many other men of note. Since 1885 its membership has been kept at the constitutional 
limit of three hundred, and this small number renders it one of the most exclusive of such institutions. 
David M. Stone succeeded Mr. Silliman as president and remained in office one term. The present offi- 
cials of the club are: Benjamin F. Tracy, president; Henry D. Polhemus, vice-president; William D. 
Steele, secretary ; and H. C. Duval, treasurer. 



UNION LEAGUE CLUB. 

Among the social clubs of Brooklyn the Union League is numerically the largest, and as a political 
factor it is more influential than any other, besides being one of the foremost in social standing. The club 
is an outgrowth of the Twenty-third Ward Social Republican Club, an institution which began its existence 
in Thayer's Hall, corner of Bedford avenue and Fulton street, in March, 1887, with a membership of less 
than twenty. Most of those interested in its success were business men who had only now and then an 
evening to give to politics, and who met to discuss plans for the promotion of the interests of Repub- 
licanism in this city. Arlington Hall, at Gates and Nostrand avenues, was secured as a place of rendez- 
vous, and on February 11, 1888, the constitution was amended and the name of Union League Club was 
adopted. On March 16, 1888, the members incorporated their organization under the title of "The Union 



864 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

League Club of Brooklyn ;" at that time less than seventy names had been placed upon the roster. The 
incorporators, who comprised the executive committee, were : Francis H. Wilson, president ; John W. Hussey 
and Devine M. Hunger, vice-presidents ; John S. Nugent, treasurer ; John T. Sackett and Frank R. Moore, 
secretaries. James O. Bedell was the first president of the club, with Howard M. Smith and Henry M. 
Calvert as vice-presidents. John S. Nugent was the treasurer and Devine M. Munger was secretary. The 
object of the club, as set forth in the preamble to its constitution, is : "To promote social intercourse; to 
advance the cause of good government by awaking a political interest in citizens ; to overcome existing 
indifference in the discharge of political duties and to perform such other work as may best conserve the 
welfare of the Republican party." In the spring of 1889 the club removed to Hancock Hall, on Bedford 
avenue, near Fulton street, where it remained until it took possession of the building now occupied. The 
corner-stone of its present club house was laid in October, 1889, and the winter of 1890-91 saw the comple- 
tion of the structure. It is built in a modified Romanesque style and occupies a plot of ground with a 
frontage of one hundred and twenty feet on Bedford avenue and one hundred and fifteen feet on Dean 
street. The building has a frontage of ninety-four feet on Bedford avenue and sixty-one feet on Dean 
street. It contains four stories and an attic, resting on a basement of rock granite. The first three stories 
are constructed of cinnamon colored brick with heavy brownstone trimmings, and above that brick and 
terra cotta are used ; the roof is covered with Spanish tiles. The main entrance, on Bedford avenue, is 
massive and imposing, with huge rounded arches, and heavy balustrades and columns, relieved by elaborate 
carving; medallion portraits of Grant and Lincoln, typifying the military and civil powers of the Republi- 
can party, look down from the spandrels at either side of the centre arch. At the Dean street corner a 
projecting tower, octagonal in shape, rises from the basement to a point high above the roof, where it 
tapers into a cone which is topped by a flagstaff. On the opposite front a series of bay windows, beginning 
at the second story and ending at the attic, are crowned by a copper casting of a gigantic eagle with out- 
stretched wings. The lowest of these windows rests on another eagle, carved in stone and perched upon 
an American shield. These are merely salient features in the external architecture ; and no amount of 
minutise in description would afford an adequate idea of the appearance of well-balanced solidity and grace- 
fulness presented by the building. The interior is panelled in choice woods with light and dark finish ; 
there are elaborate carvings, marble and tiled hallways, magnificent mirrors, stained glass windows, and 
frescoes of attractive design and coloring. Opening into the main hallway are the reception rooms, 
assembly room, ladies' parlor and office, while a magnificent winding staircase and elevators lead to the 
other floors which are devoted to billiard rooms, library, card rooms, banqueting hall, private dining rooms 
and committee rooms, gymnasium, baths, cloak rooms, bachelor apartments and employees' quarters. In 
the basement are well arranged bowling alleys. The building is lighted by electricity from the club's own 
electric plant, consisting of two engines and two dynamos capable of furnishing eight hundred incandes- 
cent lights. The cost of the building, including the site and furniture, was $215,000, and the money was 
raised by paying $40,000 out of the treasury surplus, and issuing bonds to the amount of $175,000, which 
were all taken by the members of the club. An equestrian statue of General Ulysses S. Grant is now in 
the hands of William Ordway Partridge, the sculptor, at his Parisian studio, and when completed it will be 
placed in front of the club house. The statue is to cost $30,000, and is to be of the same size as that of 
Washington in Union Square, New York. The Union League Club stands unrivaled for stability and rapid 
growth. In less than two years from the time of its incorporation the club had increased in numbers from 
less than seventy to about nine hundred, and at present it has over a thousand members. It exerts a pecu- 
liar influence over the entire field of Republican politics in this city, because those connected with it are, 
for the most part, men whose private characters are known to all. Representatives of every profession are 
enrolled on its books, including several clergymen. Despite the fact that it is essentially a political club, 
no member of it can receive the club's indorsement, in its corporate capacity, for any public office to which 
he may aspire. Francis H. Wilson was elected president in March, 1888, and continued in that office until 
March, 1892. At the annual election of officers of the club in March, 1892, Howard M. Smith was chosen 
president; Benjamin F. Blair, first vice-president; Charles H. Russell, second vice-president; Clarence D. 
Heaton, treasurer; Herbert S. Ogden, recording secretary ; Frederick J. Middlebrook, corresponding secre- 
tary. The executive committee, which has power to make all rules and regulations necessary to carry into 
effect the purposes of the club, was then constituted as follows : John S. Nugent, Jacob G. Dettmar. Clarence 
W. Seamans, Henry S. Hayes, Jacob D. Ackerman, Frederick C. Truslow, Daniel G. Harriman, William W. 
Heaton, Andrew B. Rogers, Benjamin Estes, John W. Hussey, Aaron G. Perham, Andrew D. Baird, Charles 
B. Hobbs, Guernsey Sackett, John O. McKean, William O. Wyckoff and Frank H. Weed. As this volume 
goes to press Charles S. Whitney becomes president of the club. 

Howard M. Smith is well known in the city as a financier and as an ardent champion of Republican 
principles. He is vice-president and cashier of the Bedford Bank ; vice-president of the Brooklyn Real 
Estate Exchange, which he aided materially in organizing; trustee in the People's Trust Company ; and 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



865 



director in the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Company. He was born near the town of De Witt, Onondaga 
County, N. Y., in 1841. His parents lived on a farm, and educated their son at the common schools until 
he was old enough to enter upon a course of higher study, when he passed through the Polytechnic Insti- 
tute in Chittenango, and the seminary at Cazenovia. During the civil war he served with credit ; most of 
the time as a staff officer, with the 184th Infantry and the 6th New York Cavalry. He has been twenty- 
two years a resident of this city and has displayed an active interest in local political affairs. In company 




Howard M. Smith. 

with William Ziegler he conducted a number of extensive speculative dealings in the real estate field about 
fifteen years ago, but his present activity in this direction is confined solely to purchases for investment. 
His time and attention are mainly occupied by the affairs of the financial institution of which he is cashier. 
When a boy he attended the first Republican state convention in company with his father, who was one of 
the delegates ; and his experience and impressions on this occasion were in no small measure responsible 
for his unswerving loyalty in after life to the principles of his party. His connection with the Union 
League Club has been that of an active worker since its organization. He has done much to promote its 
interests in every way, and until his election as president in 1892 had always served on the executive com- 
mittee or held the office of chairman of the house committee. He is one of the trustees for the holders of 
the club bonds. His military career has entitled him to an honorable position on the rolls of the Loyal 
Legion, of which he has been a member several years. 

Clarence D. Heaton was born in Liberty street, New York, on December 26, 1840; and five years 
later came to Brooklyn. He was graduated from the Polytechnic Institute in 1857. After leaving school 
he occupied a clerical position in a provision house in New York, and when he had been there for two years 
he accepted a place with the Irving Savings Institution, New York. For seventeen years he filled various 
positions of a subordinate character and won promotions until, in 1876, he became secretary of the institu- 
tion, and occupied this place until 1890. At the election held that year he was chosen president. Among 
bankers he is credited with exercising a most discreet judgment and he is thoroughly informed on all 
matters pertaining to the interests of the institution with which he is connected. For twenty-five years he 
has been a member of the Long Island Historical Society and of the Long Island Council, Royal Arcanum, 
and he is treasurer of the Union League Club. He is married and has two sons, both of whom are engaged 
in the banking business. For more than eighteen years he has been a member of the Lafayette Avenue 
Presbyterian Church. 

Francis H. Wilson is one of the earnest men to whom the Union League Club is indebted for its 
present magnificent condition. His presidency began when the club was in its infancy, and when there 
were few who would prophesy for it a future rivaling, in a great measure, that of its namesake in New York. 



866 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




He continued at the head of affairs until the institu- 
tion was established upon a sure foundation and then 
resigned office. He was one of the organizers of the 
club and has been an active spirit in it from the 
beginning ; no club ever had a president more gener- 
ally liked and respected. On his formal retirement 
from office on the evening of March 3, 1892, he said 
in his address : " It has never been the policy of this 
club to live in the past. It has always faced the 
future" — and with this sentiment, the keynote of his 
policy in the management of the institution's affairs, 
he handed the reins of authority to his successor. He 
was born in Oneida County, N. Y., on February 11, 
1844, and lived in the city of Utica until he reached 
the age of eleven ; for the next eight years he worked 
on his father's farm, four and a half miles from the 
village of Clinton. At intervals, during the winter, 
he attended the district school. In the autumn of i860 
he entered the preparatory school of Dr. Benjamin W. 
Dwight at Clinton. While a pupil in that institution 
he displayed that persistency and determination to 
succeed which has always been one of his most pro- 
nounced characteristics and to which must be credited 
many of his later triumphs. His education cost him 
a daily walk of nine miles to and from his home, but 
his punctuality was never interrupted save once, when 
the death of an elder brother, a soldier in the Union army, necessitated his absence from school for a week. 
In the summer of 1863 he was graduated at the head of his class. He entered Yale College in the fol- 
lowing September and took his degree of Bachelor of Arts with the class of '67. During the ne.xt four 
years he was associated with a brother as principal of a successful preparatory school at Rochester. In 
1S72 he came to New York and studied law at Columbia College. After graduation he began practice in 
the office of the Hon. Enoch L. Fancher, where he remained two years. He then opened an office of his 
own in New York. In September, 18S4, he moved 

to Brooklyn. He has been prominent in Republican - ~^B 

politics. . ^^ 

Clarence W. Seamans was one of the first mem- 
bers of the Union League, and when it took possession 
of its new home he was made chairman of the house 
committee. He was born at Ilion, N. Y., on June 5, 
1854. Educated in the public schools of his native 
town he entered, at the age of fifteen, the employ of 
the Remington Arms Company as an office boy, and 
rose to the responsibilities of a clerskhip. He was 
sent to Utah in 1875 as the representative of the Rem- 
ingtons to manage large timber and mining interests, 
and remained there until 1878, when he returned to 
New York to become manager for the Fairbanks Com- 
pany, which had the general agency for all the type- 
writing machines manufactured by the Remingtons at 
In 1880 the Remington Company brought the 



Francis H. V/ilsdn. 



Ilion. 



New York agency under its own control and retained 
Mr. Seamans as manager ; two years later the business 
passed into the hands of Wyckoff, Seamans & Bene- 
dict, in which firm Mr. Seamans held a one-third 
interest. It owns and operates the Remington plant 
at Ilion. Mr. Seamans moved to Brooklyn in 1879, 
and afterwards became prominent in the evolution 
of the Union League Club, in which he is now one of 
the executive committee. He is a member of the New 




Clarence W. Seamans. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



867 




York Avenue M. E, Church. His philanthropic incli- 
nations prompted him to present to his native town a 
free public library and a building admirably adapted to 
the purpose for which it was designed ; it was given 
without any conditions other than that it should be 
open six days during every week and that a suitable 
person should be secured as librarian. 

James Oliver Bedell was one of the seven found- 
ers and the first president of the Union League. For 
the past eight years he has been at the head of one of 
the most important departments in the drygoods estab- 
lishment of the H. B. Claflin Company, and during that 
period has frequently visited the markets of the old 
world, where his discrimination and experience made 
him invaluable as a buyer. Immediately prior to the 
commencement of his association with the H. B. Claflin 
Company, he was employed some years as a buyer in 
the interest of a large drygoods jobbing firm in New 
York. His duties in this capacity demanded a semi- 
annual journey to Europe and thus was begun a 
remarkable record of eighty voyages across the 
Atlantic. These ocean experiences are embodied in 
many pleasant personal recollections, interspersed with 
memories of accidents, such as the collision of the 
Guion liner "Arizona" with an iceberg off the Grand 
James o. Bedell. 2^^.^,.^ ^^ Newfoundland. He was born at Keyport, 
Monmouth County, N. J., in 1836, and received a common school education in his native town ; at the age 
of sixteen he completed an academic course at Charlotteville, Schoharie County, N. Y. He began his mer- 
cantUe career as a clerk in a general country store in New Jersey whence, after two years' experience, he 
came to New York and became a clerk in the drygoods business until the outbreak of the civil war. 
Receiving from the governor of his native state a commission to recruit, he performed the duty satisfactorily, 
and in 1862 accepted a second lieutenancy in Company E, J4th Regiment, N. J. Volunteers. After serving 
nearly two years he was honorably discharged on a sur- 
geon's certificate of disability. He resumed business e.- ■-. -^--r^-^-,f^,,^«'v^,tv,s-.'-r---''--:w.^--r,m~.-^,~,„i:~,-- ,;,-.. ,:, ~.~,-^. 

after the complete restoration of his health. In 1877 
he became a resident of Brooklyn and for twelve 
years has been a prominent figure in the social and 
political life of the twenty-third ward. He is a mem- 
ber of Erastus T. Tefft Post, G. A. R. 

John S. Nugent, who was treasurer of the club 
from its organization until March, 1892, made an envi- 
able record by the marked ability with which he man- 
aged its finances during that long term of service. He 
was born in the Province of Ontario, Canada, on 
August II, 1850. From the age of two years until he 
was sixteen he lived on his father's farm near Lon- 
don, Ontario ; he attended the village school in winter, 
and worked on the farm during the rest of the year. 
When he was sixteen years old, he was sent to Vic- 
toria College for two terms, and then came to New 
York and obtained a situation as clerk in Lord & 
Taylor's store on Grand street. At the end of a year 
he accepted the position of book-keeper in a house 
engaged in the paper business. He was soon advanced 
to the position of salesman, which position he held until 
March i, 1876, when he went into the paper business as 
a member of the firm of Nugent & Steves. The firm 
was prosperous from the outset, and on January i, 1883, 
Mr. Nugent bought out the interest of his partner, Mr. 




John S. Nugent. 



g(53 THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Steves and with Tolui F. Romig formed the firm of J. S. Nugent & Co. In August, 1891,113 interests were 
sold to the National Folding Box & Paper Co., of which company Mr. Nugent became secretary, and chair- 
man of the executive committee of its board of directors. He is a member of the executive committee of 
the club, and has always taken a deep and effective interest in its welfare. 

John W. Hussf.y in performing the arduous and important task of superintending the erection of the 
club house earned for himself the gratitude not only of his associates in the organization but also of every 
man whose local pride caused him to appreciate anything that beautifies the city where he lives. He is 
one of the charter members of the organization and has always been active in everything calculated to 
promote its welfare ; he was the first to hold the office of vice-president and served in that capacity three 
years; in 1891 he was unanimously elected for a like term as a member of the executive committee. He 
was born at Rochester, N. H., on July 19, 1835, and is a graduate of Limerick Academy in Maine. When 
he reached the age of sixteen he began to learn the trade of a machinist at South Newmarket, N. H., and 
made a specialty of constructing engines, locomotives and sugar machines. In i860 he went to the West 
Indies and spent the succeeding three years in selling and operating machines for use in the sugar trade; 
subsequently he employed himself in erecting and operating rubber and paper factories in New Jersey. In 
1S76 he moved to Brooklyn and became a member and director of the White, Potter Si Paige Manufacturing 
Company, taking charge of its lumber and fancy cabinet wood interests. In 1892 he withdrew from the 
company and established a wholesale lumber business in New York. 

Devine M. Munger is another of the men whose energy assisted the development of the club, and his 
services as secretary of the building committee, under the direction of which the new club house was completed, 
have been gratefully appreciated by his fellow members in the organization. He was born in New York 
and was educated in the ninth ward at public school No. 3. At an early age he began to learn the trade of 
a stereotyper, but engaged later in the transportation business, which he followed during the next fourteen 
years, eventually attaining the position of manager. Then he interested himself in building transactions 
and speculated to a considerable extent in real estate. When the Union League Club was instituted he 
was chosen secretary ; he occupied this position from March, 1887, until March, 1888, and, in conjunction 
with J. O. Bedell, then president of the club, practically devoted all his leisure time to the service of the 
organization. Upon resigning the office of secretary he was elected second vice-president, a position which 
he held until 1S92. 

WiLLi.-\M M. Adams is a life insurance manager and was formerly a teacher. He was born in New 
York city on August 20, 1838, and on both sides of his parentage he traces his ancestry to the Puritan 
settlers of New England ; his great-grandfather on the maternal side died on the "Jersey" prison ship in 
Wallabout Bay. Mr. Adams was graduated at the Free Academy (now the College of the City of New 
York) in 1855, from which institution he afterwards received the degree of Master of Arts. He first turned 
his attention to school teaching and soon became vice-principal of a New York school, but left that profes- 
sion to devote himself to mercantile life. In 1866 he moved to Brooklyn 
and took charge of school No. 15. In 1869 he was chosen assistant 
superintendent of the Brooklyn public schools, but declined the appoint- 
ment and took charge of one of the departments of the New York Life 
Insurance Company, with which corporation he remains. In 1S60 he 
married Miss Ellen H. Franklin, of Hoboken, N. J. In 1856 he joined 
the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, of New York city, where he had at- 
tended from boyhood; on coming to Brooklyn he made his home in the 
twentieth ward and connected himself with the Washington Avenue Bap- 
tist Church, of which he acted as the Sunday-school superintendent four 
years, and afterwards became a deacon. In 1888 he removed to the 
twenty-third ward and transferred his membership to the Marcy Avenue 
liaptist Church of which he is an active member. 

Captain William H. Thompson was born at St. Stephen, N. B., on 
May 13, 1S40, and was a grandson of James Brown, who was a member 
of the Provincial Parliament of New Brunswick thirty-six years. After 

attending school until he was seventeen years old, he went one day to 
William M. Adams. ^ ■ , , 11 ■ , . . , , . . , , . 

see a ship-launch, and the sight inspired him with a desire to go to sea. 

Accordingly he shipped on board the " Constitution," remaining on board that ship until she was lost, 

three years later, at San Salvador, on the very point where Columbus landed. He shipped as a boy, and in 

the later half of his time on board he was made successively third, second, and chief officer. After serving 

as mate on several vessels he took command of the clipper ship " Hypatia," an American vessel which was 

sold to English owners, and upon which, under the English flag, he sailed in the East India trade from 

Liverpool. In 1866 he was transferred to the " Andromeda," the largest sailing vessel of her day; she was 




SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



869 




built for the Confederate service and was named the 
"Shenandoah," but the British Government refused to 
allow her to sail from a British port on her intended 
mission, and so she was sold for mercantile purposes ; 
he commanded her until 1870, when he became super- 
intendent of the building of the White Star Line of 
steamers. In 1871 he took command of the steamer 
" Oceanic," from which he was transferred to the 
"Republic" in 1872, and sent out to open the line to 
all the Pacific ports of South America, in which under- 
taking he succeeded. After his return he commanded 
the steamer "Celtic," and then the " Britannic," taking 
command of each new ship added to the line by virtue 
of his rank of commodore. He was at this time the 
only officer displaying the flag of the Royal Naval 
Reserve sailing to New York, and he held a commis- 
sion in that branch of the service. In this capacity 
he had the honor of presentation at the court of St. J 
James in 1878. He was the recipient of a gold watch 
presented by the president of the United States, and 
of a gold medal from the Shipwreck and Humane 
Society, for saving the crew of the American ship 
"Mountain Eagle," in January, 1872 ; and he received 
a silver service and two silver cups from passengers 
on the " Britannic " for making the quickest trip 
across the Atlantic. In 1864 he invented an instru- William h. Thompson. 

ment for observing the stars, enabling the mariner to find his position at night almost as well as by day, 
and in 1872 he invented a method of extinguishing fires on board ship, and was granted royal letters patent, 
the AVhite Star and other lines adopting it at once ; in 1882, all the great steamship lines carrying passen- 
gers from America were obliged by a special act of Congress to adopt it. He resigned from the White 
Star Line in 1878 to organize a line for the New York Central Railroad Company, but the enterprise was 
not carried out. In 1879 he engaged in the shipping and commission business in New York, and in 1881 he 
organized the Anglo-American Dry Dock Company, and built two dry docks at Erie Basin, Brooklyn. He 
was president of the company two years, when he resigned, though he is still a shareholder in the company. 
He remained in the shipping business until 1886, when he accepted a position with the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society, of New York, eventually becoming manager of the metropolitan district, which position 
he retains. In 1891 he was elected to membership in the New York Chamber of Commerce. 

Hugh M. Funston is a representative business man whose home has been in Brooklyn for many years 
and whose career is an exemplification of the indomitable spirit which animates the American man of 
affairs. When he was sixteen years old he came to New York and soon after became a clerk with a fire- 
works manufacturing firm in New York city. Nine years later, in 1857, he was the head of the firm into 
whose employ he had entered as a lad, the firm being Funston & Schofield, and under his energetic man- 
agement it prospered so greatly that in a few years he was able to retire with a considerable fortune. 
Settling in Rockland County he invested largely in real estate at Spring Valley, where he made his home. 
While living there he built a fine academy at a cost of $14,000, furnished it completely, hired an efficient 
corps of teachers and kept it in operation for the benefit of the community. A serious depreciation in the 
value of real estate which occurred several years later impaired his fortune to such an extent that he 
accepted an invitation from his successors in the fireworks business to take an interest in the enterprise, 
and at the present time he is largely interested in the Consolidated Fireworks Company of America. He 
was born on August 19, 1833, and is a direct descendant on his mother's side from one of the Huguenot 
families who fled from France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. When he was a child his parents 
removed with him to Greenwich, Conn., where he remained until he was sixteen years old, receiving his edu- 
cation first at the common schools and subsequently at what was known as the Greenwich Academy. A 
little more than thirty-six years ago he enlisted as a private in Company A, 7th Regiment, N. Y. S. M., in 
which he was rapidly promoted through the different grades of non-commissioned officers to that of first 
lieutenant. He remained in active service until he removed from New York and took up his residence in 
Brooklyn. During his connection with the 7th Regiment he was present at the famous "Dead Rabbit 
Riots," also the "Sepoy, or Quarantine Riots." In April, 1861, he went with his regiment to Washington, 
and again in the following year. In 1863, when Pennsylvania was threatened with invasion by the 



g^Q THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

Confederates, he marched with his regiment to the defence. He is a member of the Veteran Association 
of the 7th Regiment, and has always been active in advancing the interests of that organization. In May, 
1887, he was mustered into Lafayette Post, G. A. R. He became a Freemason in 1864, joining Varick 
Lodge of Jersey City ; he has since attained a high rank in the order, and is looked upon as a practical 




Hugh m. Funston. 

exponent of its principles in every respect. He is a member and trustee of the Sixth Avenue Methodist 
Episcopal Church and is one of a committee of three for the building of the new edifice on Seventh avenue. 
He married Miss Anna D. Dickinson, daughter of Dr. Dickinson, of Brooklyn, in 1853. 

Jacob D. Ackerman was one of the early members of the club and has served since March, 1892, as 
one of the executive committee. He was one of the finance committee during the building of the new club 
house. Born in Bergen County, N. J., he attended the public schools in New York, and was graduated at 
the Collegiate School of the Reformed Church. After being nine months a clerk at Hoboken, N. J., he 
engaged himself to drive a cart in New York city, where in four years he saved enough to buy a horse 
and cart of his own and continued in the same line of work on his own account. Eventually he drifted into 
the forwarding business in connection with the New Bedford steamers. From that line he went to the 
Fall River Line as forwarding agent, which position he retains. He became a resident of Brooklyn in 
1863 and has lived here ever since. He is a past regent of the New York Council, Royal Arcanum. 

Daniel G. Harkiman, who has been chairman of the executive committee since the organization of 
the club, was born at New Sharon in Franklin County, Me., and after preparing for college at Kent's Hill, 
was graduated at Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn. He was a member of the first convention 
that adopted the title of "The Republican Party." This convention met in the village of Strong, Franklin 
County, Me., on August 7, 1854. Mr. Harriman was admitted to the bar in Cumberland County, Me., in 
1867. A year later he moved from his native state to New York and became a resident of Brooklyn. 
Liimediately upon his arrival here he was admitted to practice by the general term at Newburgh, and for 
several years occupied an office in Brooklyn with George G. Reynolds. In 1874 he transferred his office to 
New York and has since continued as a practitioner in that city. He has always been a strong exponent 
of practical party loyalty, has served on the executive committee of the Brooklyn Young Republican Club 
several years, and has delivered many speeches in this city, and elsewhere in favor of his party's candidates. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



871 




Daniel G. Harkiman. 



In 1888 he made an address before the Union League ^ ^' 
Club on "Protection versus Free Trade," which was 
printed by the club and circulated to the extent of 
1,250,000 copies; in 1892 he wrote "American Tariffs 
from Plymouth Rock to McKinley," which was pub- 
lished in pamphlet form by the American Tariff League. 
It comprised about one hundred pages and furnished a 
complete history of our protective system from the 
earliest times ; it became exceedingly popular and the 
first edition alone distributed 100,000 copies. 

John F. Romig was born on February 10, 1853, in 
Morrisania, Westchester County, now within the limits 
of New York city. When he was eight years old his fam- 
ily moved to Pittsburg, Pa., where he attended school. 
At the age of sixteen he entered the employ of the 
leading local confectioner, in which he remained until 
he was twenty-one years old. After engaging in busi- 
ness for himself for a short period, he was employed in 
1876 by Nugent & Steves as manager of their west- 
ern territory, and continued in that capacity until he 
succeeded Mr. Steves as a member of the firm, the name 
of which was changed to J. S. Nugent & Co. They 
conducted business until 1891, when the firm, together 
with D. S. Walton & Co., the Cornell, Shelton Co., F. 
H. Benton & Co., Munson & Co., the Whiting Co. and 
the Chicopee Box Co. disposed of their interests to 
the National Folding Box & Paper Co., which had been organized for the purpose of consolidation. On the 
first of August, 1891, Mr. Romig was appointed manager of the sales department of the newly formed com- 
pany, which position he retains. He is a member of the Sunday-school Union of the M. E. Church and of 
the New York Educational Society, and since he became a resident of Brooklyn, in 1S81, he has been an 
active member and one of the trustees of the New York Avenue M. E. Church. For several years he was 
assistant superintendent of the Sunday-school and since 1890 he has been superintendent. He is recording 

secretary of the Veteran Ministers' Relief Associa- 
tion of the M. E. Church. In 1874 he married Miss 
Mary Wachter, daughter of Dr. Charles L. Wachter, 
who was six years an army surgeon in various field and 
government hospitals. 

Major Augustus C. Tate, marshal of the United 
States circuit court of appeals, has been distin- 
guished in public life for many years and is a well 
known Brooklynite. He was born in New York city on 
January 6, 1835, and received preliminary education 
at a public school. At the age of fourteen he went 
to Charlotte Academy in Delaware County, N. Y., 
where he remained three years and then returned to 
New York to assist his father in the drygoods business. 
On April 19, 1861, he enlisted in the 12th Regi- 
ment, N. Y. S. M., then commanded by Colonel Daniel 
Butterfield. He was at once made color sergeant 
and served in that capacity during the three months 
the Twelfth was in active service. At the expiration 
of the ninety days' term he again enlisted ; he was 
! commissioned captain in the 131st N. Y. Volunteers and 
! was promoted to the rank of major on September 8, 
1863. He participated in most of the important battles 
of the southwest, seeing much hard service along the 
Mississippi. In 1865 he was mustered out with his 

, , regiment and returned to Brooklyn. Under the 

John f. Romig. collectorship of Chester A. Arthur, he was appointed 




872 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




inspector in the New York custom house and acted 
as aid to A. B. Cornell, surveyor of the port. He 



Amos Broadnax. 



continued as inspector until 1883, when President 
Arthur appointed him United States marshal for the 
eastern district of New York. He held that office until 
1887. In June, 1891 he was appointed marshal of 
the United States circuit court of appeals, established 
by the previous session of congress — practically a 
life position. He has been at every Republican state 
and national convention for the past twenty-five years. 
In 1868 he was secretary to the national convention 
held in Chicago. He is a member of the Society of 
the Army of the Potomac and of U. S. Grant Post, G. 
A. R. 

Amos Broadnax is a descendant from an old Eng- 
lish family of that name having its seat in Kent, Eng- 
land. He was born in Hoboken, N. J., in 1827. In his 
boyhood and early manhood he learned the trade of 
machinist and mechanical engineer. In 1848 he entered 
the engineer corps of the United States navy, where 
he served until 1855. In that year he resigned and 
began the study of law at St. Louis, Mo., being admit- 
ted to the bar in 1858. He moved to Washington in 
1861 ; practiced law there until 1862, when he entered 
the service of the United States government in the 
building of the iron clad monitors, "Tecumseh," "Man- 
hattan " and "Mahopac," which were constructed in Jersey City. His earliest political opinions were 
moulded on Whig lines, and his first vote in a presidential contest was cast for John C. Fremont. Since 
that time he has voted with the Republican party. 

Israel F. Fischer is one of the most earnest politicians in the club, never holding public office, but 
indefatigable in his work for candidates on the Republican ticket. He has been a resident of Brooklyn 
since 1887. Two years after coming to this city he was chairman of the Republican campaign committee. 
He was elected chairman of the executive committee 
of the Republican General Committee in 1890, and was 
reelected in 1892, but resigned at the May meeting of 
the committee that year. He was born in New York 
city on August 18, 1858, and after attending the public 
schools until his thirteenth year he entered the law 
office of Henry S. Bennett as a clerk. This clerkship 
continued until 1879, when he was admitted to the bar 
and began practice. He entered into partnership with 
Mr. Bennett in 1887, and in 1892 the law firm of Davi 
son & Fischer was formed, with Mr. Bennett as senioi 
counsel. Mr. Fischer is a member of the Canarsie 
Yacht Club, of which he has been commodore two 
years. During that period the club has grown in mem- 
bership from fifty-four to one hundred and fifty-six. 

John S. McKeon, who is one of the executive com- 
mittee of the club, is one of the most successful busi- 
ness men of Brooklyn and is identified with a variety 
of local interests both of a business and social char- 
acter. He is a member of the Hanover Club, Knights 
of Honor, Royal Arcanum, and other organizations : a 
trustee of the Eastern District Hospital, Kings County 
Savings Bank, and Kings County Building and Loan 
Association; and in the Ross Street Presbyterian 
Church he holds the office of treasurer. From the 
year 1845, '" which he was born, he has been a resi- 
dent of Brooklyn. His education was obtained at the Israel F. Fischer. 




SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



873 




John S McKeon. 



public schools, of which he was a pupil until 1859, 
when he was graduated at public school No. i. Begin- 
ning as an errand boy in a clothing store, he ob- 
tained a clerkship in the clothing house of Hanford 
& Browning, of New York, in iS6i. After leaving 
that firm he was in the wholesale trade in the boys' 
clothing business in New York until 1870, when he be- 
came a partner in the firm of Smith, Gray, McKeon 
& Co., in Brooklyn. Retiring from that firm in 1879, 
Mr. McKeon established himself at the corner of 
Bioadway and Bedford avenue and began the manu- 
facture and sale of clothing. He does both a whole- 
sale and retail business, and employs more than five 
hundred persons. 

Edw.\rd H. Hobbs is prominent as a leader of 
the Republican party in Brooklyn as well as a success- 
ful lawyer and man of affairs. For sixteen consecu- 
tive years he served as a delegate from the twenty- 
fourth ward to the Republican General Committee ; 
he has been a member of the executive commtttee of 
that body the same length of time, and was four 
years its chairman. In 18S4 he was chairman of the 
county campaign committee. With the exception of 
the last two, he has been delegate to all the state con- 
ventions of his party since 1877. For five years he was 
a delegate to the Republican State Committee and 
one year was its treasurer. He was a delegate to the national convention of 1884, from what was then the 
second district. Although never an office seeker, he was nominated for the office of surrogate in 1883, and, 
though he failed of election, he ran more than 35,000 votes ahead of the state ticket. He aided in organizing 
the Bedford Bank and is one of its directors. He was born in the town of Ellenburgh, Clinton County, 
N. Y., on June 5, 1835. His parents were pioneers in the settlement of northern New York, his father ser- 
ving on the frontier as a captain of infantry during the war of 181 2. While Edward was a boy the family 
removed to Malone, Franklin County. He prepared 

for college at the Franklin Academy and entered ,,, 

Middlebury College, in Averment. During his senior 
year in college he enlisted as a private in the army 
and served under General McClellan, in the army of 
the Potomac, until the fall of 1862 ; and then under 
General Hunter in South Carolina and under General 
Foster in North Carolina. He was promoted to a 
lieutenancy and at the chjse of his service was adju- 
tant of his regiment. After the war he studied at the 
Albany Law School, and, in 1867, began practice in 
New York with F. A. Wilcox, and later in the office of 
ex-Judge Beebe, under the firm name of Beebe, Wil- 
cox & Hobbs. This connection lasted until 1883, when 
Mr. Hobbs left to form the firm of Hobbs & Gifford. 
He is a general practitioner and is equally familiar 
with commercial, admiralty and corporation law. He 
is a director in the Equitable Mortgage Co., of Kansas 
City and New York. 

Henry Siede is one of the prominent men of Brook- 
lyn who are native to the city wherein they have 
lived successful lives. He was born at 297 Gate 
avenue, on August 18, 1863, and moving to 277 Gates 
avenue, two years later, has lived there ever since. 
He was educated at public school No. 3 and at the 
Adelphi Academy, where he studied three years. He 
completed his studies at Dresden, Saxony, where he 




Edward H. Hobbs. 



874 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



lived four years and learned the trade of furrier. The year 1876 he spent at Leipsic and in travel, after 
which he came home and embarked in the manufacture of dolls' furs under a patent of his own. In 1878 
he became a clerk in his father's fur store ; in June, 1886, Mr. Siede, senior, died, leaving his entire property 
to his wife. His son bought the business in May, 1887. He is very fond of saddle riding and is a member 
of the Riding and Driving Club and the Park Riding Club of New York. He worships at the Central Con- 
gregational Church. 

Wii.li.JlM O. Wyckoff, for many years president of the Remington Standard Typewriter Manufacturing 
Company, was born on his father's farm in the town of Lansing, Tompkins County, N. Y., on February 
16, 1835. He was educated at the public schools and the Ithaca Academy. About the year 1856 he settled 
on government land in Blue Earth County, Minnesota, acquiring one hundred and sixty acres, with the 
intention of earnmg enough to enable him to take a college course. The crisis of 1857 caused him to 
abandon that idea, and in July he returned to Ithaca and began the study of law in the office of a 
prominent attorney there. When the civil war began he discontinued his law studies and enlisted as a 
private in the first company organized in Tompkins County; a company which later formed a part of the 
32d N. Y. Volunteers. Before the regiment reached the front he was promoted to the rank of second 
lieutenant; immediately after the battle of Bull Run he was advanced to the rank of first lieutenant, and 
before the full term of two years for which he had enlisted had expired, he was made captain of the 
company. Returning to Ithaca at the expiration of his term of service, he resumed his law studies, and on 
November 16, 1863, at Binghamton, was admitted to practice. About that time he pursued a course of study 
and was graduated at Ames Business College, Syracuse, N. Y. He early became interested in the phono- 
graphic art, pursuing this study while attending school, reading law, and during his leisure hours in the 
service. In January, 1866, he was appointed official stenographer of the supreme court for the sixth judicial 
district of New York, which position he held sixteen consecutive years. He was one of the founders of the 
New York State Stenographers' Association, holding for one term the ofilice of president of the association, 
in which he retains his membership. About the year 1875 he obtained the agency for the sale of Remington 
typewriting machines. When not engaged in court work he applied himself diligently to the introduction 
of the typewriter into law offices and business houses. In 1882, at the solicitation of the Remingtons and 
others interested, he associated himself with C. W. Seamans and H. H.Benedict, and the firm of Wyckoff, 
Seamans & Benedict was formed for the purpose of carrying on the typewriter business ; at the same time 
they entered into a contract with E. Remington & Sons to take their entire production of typewriters and 
place them on the market. The venture proved successful, and in 1886 all the rights, title, interest, 
franchises, tools, machinery, etc., pertaining to the manufacture of the Remington typewriter passed into 

the hands of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. That firm 

i -7, immediately organized the Remington Standard Type- 

[' writer Manufacturing Company, for the manufacture 

i . of the machines, and Mr. Wyckoff was elected presi- 

_, ^ dent. When, on May 19, 1892, with a capital of $3,000, - 

000, the Remington Standard Typewriter Manufac- 
turing Company was consolidated with the Standard 
Typewriter Company, the corporate style assumed by 
the firm as selling agents, Mr. Wyckoff was elected 
president of the new company. He was one of the 
early and most active members of the Union League; 
for four years he has been a member of the executive 
committee, having been chairman of the reception com- 
mittee on the occasion of the dedication of the new 
building, and of the first ladies' reception given by 
the club. 

Walter Scott, Jr., was one of the first members 
of the club and is one of its most enthusiastic work- 
ers. He is the youngest of six children, and was born 
of Scotch parents in Montreal, Canada, on December 
22, 1861. At the age of four his family moved to Bos- 
ton, Mass., where he attended the public schools. His 
first experience in a mercantile way was as a cash boy 
in one of the large drygoods stores of Boston, and 
thereafter for a short time he was employed by a drug- 
gist. He was barely fifteen years of age when he 
entered the employ of Butler Brothers, wholesale 




William o. Wyckoff. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



87s 




Walter Scott, Jr. 



'' dealers in small wares and notions, and was rapidly 
! promoted from one position to another. When the 
Chicago branch of this firm was established in 1879, 
he was for a time connected with the house in that 
city, but he was again transferred to the New York 
store which had just been opened. In 1885 he was 
admitted to the firm of Butler Brothers, and he is one 
of the managers of their business in New York. He 
ranks as a leader among the largest and most influen- 
tial of Scottish associations in the United States. He 
is not a brilliant orator, but his force and logic more 
than compensate for any lack of brilliancy, and in 
several important debates in which he has participated 
at the annual conventions of the United Clans, he has 
almost invariably come out victorious. He has served 
four years on the membership committee of the Union 
League Club, and he is vice-royal chief of the Order 
of Scottish Clans of the United States and Canada; 
he is a member of the Scottish Charitable Society of 
i Boston, St. Andrew's Society of New York, Waverly 

Club of Brooklyn, New York Scottish Society and the 
l^j Royal Arcanum. In 18S3 he married Miss Sadie D. 

Campbell, of Boston, and they have lived in Brooklyn 
continuously since that time. He is known among 

"' ' ""•■■ his friends as a lover of athletic sports and is the 

possessor of several trophies won on the cinder path. 

He is a lover of horses and is an adept with the rod and gun. 

Albert C. Hallam, M. D., is a member of the family which has been distinguished in the literary 

world, one of its members being Henry Hallam, author of "The History of the Middle Ages." The 

father of Dr. Hallam was a frequent contributor to Boston periodicals, and his mother was a member of the 

prominent New England family of Bowles. Dr. Hallam was born in Watertown, Conn., on June 22, 1844, 

and received his rudimentary education in the schools of Waterbury, Conn. After completing his common 

school studies he entered Yale College in 1863, and 

was graduated in 1866 with high honors. He began , s 

the study of his profession in 1863 with Dr. James 5 

Welch, of Winsted, Conn., and continued with him 

during the vacation seasons of the three years he was 

at Yale. On January 20, 1866, he located in Brook- 
lyn and began the practice of his profession. On 

November 4, 1867, he married Miss Mary Devendorf, 

daughter of Dr. Edward Devendorf, a well-known 

physician of Brooklyn and a resident of the fifteenth 

ward. On August 23, 1888, Mrs. Hallam died ; his 

family now consists of his two daughters. Having 

been an extensive traveler in all parts of Europe he 

has collected a number of fine art productions, which 

adorn the walls of his residence. Aside from his 

professional duties he is a member of a number of 

social clubs and various organizations of the city, 

among which, besides the Union League Club, are the 

Amphion Singing Society, the Royal Arcanum, Legion 

of Honor, and the A. O. U. W. He was the first 

vice-president of the Hanover Club, is vice-president 

of the Bushwick Savings Bank and the Amphion 

Academy Company, and a member of the Brooklyn 

Bureau of Charities. He was a member of the board 

of education under Mayor Low. He is always 

generous to worthy charitable causes and is highly 

respected. 




Albert C. Hallam, M. D. 



876 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Andrew B. Rogers, Jr., has been actively associated in the work of the club ever since he became a 
resident of Brooklyn; he is a member of the executive committee, and was a member of the house 
committee when the new club house was opened. He was born in New York on February 7, 1851, and was 
educated at the public schools and at the College of the City of New York. He began his business career 
in 1866 as a clerk in the employ of Charles Downer. Afterwards, in 1873, he organized the drug importing 
firm of Dickinson &: Rogers, which gave way in 1881 to its successor, Rogers & Pratt. He moved to 
Brooklyn in i8go. He is prominent in the councils of the Methodist Episcopal denomination and is a 
member of the board of stewards of the Nostrand Avenue M. E. Church. He was one of the presidential 
electors in 1S88 from this state. 

Charles S. \VHrri\EY has been signally successful in his relations with the club as chairman of the 
house committee; and he is a well known man in the social life and club circles of the city. He was born 
in Brooklyn on November 7, 1S56, and was educated at Lockwood's Academy and the Adelphi Academy. 
At the age of eighteen he was graduated with the highest honors and left school to begin business life. 
After an experience of two years with a prominent Brooklyn real estate firm, he accepted employment with 
Sawyer, Wallace & Co., of New York, with whom he remained for six years. During that time he was 
advanced from one position to another until he finally became chief clerk in the exporting department. He 
next connected himself with the ship brokerage and commission firm of J. V. Whitney & Co., of which his 
father was the senior member, and in which, within a short time, he was admitted to a partnership. The 
relations of the firm with the commercial world have been greatly extended through the energy of its 
junior partner. He has held the office of vice-president and president of the New York Maritime 
Exchange; he was elected to the latter office at the age of thirty-two and was the youngest man ever 
chosen to fill that post. He proved himself a capable executive oiificer, and after serving one term declined 
an offer of unanimous reelection. He is a member of the Crescent Athletic and Prospect Gun clubs 
His family consists of his wife and three children, and he is a member and vestryman of St. Bartholomew's 
Episcopal Church. He owns a handsome country residence at Arlington, Vt. 

Aaron G. Perha.m was one of the organizers of the club, has served for two years on the finance 
committee, and is a member of the executive committee. He was born in Wayne County, Pa., and was 
educated at the district schools and at Wyoming Seminary, at Kingston I^a. His youth and early manhood 
were spent in hard work on his father's farm, with the exception of two winters spent in the severe school 
of the lumber camps of northern Pennsylvania. The money earned in lumbering he used to pay for his 
seminary education. His first business engagement was that of book keeper at Rupert, Pa. From there he 
removed to Millburn, X. J., and on January i, 1870, he took the position of accountant in a wholesale coal 

office in Philadelphia, In May, 1874, he removed to 
Brooklyn, where he has since continuously resided. 
For three years after coming to New York he was em- 
ployed as salesman in the wholesale coal business, and 
then became a partner in the firm of J. D Kurtz, 
Crook & Co. He is now a partner in the firm of 
Crook & Perham, wholesale coal merchants of New 
York. He is a member of the Coal Trade Club of 
New York, and a trustee of the New York Coal Ex- 
change; he is also a director in the Weehawken 
Wharf Company and vice-president of the Edgar 
Boiler Company. He has taken an active interest in 
public affairs and was for a number of years a mem- 
ber of the Republican General Committee of Kings 
County. For more than seven years he was a mem- 
ber of the 23d Regiment, N. G,, S. N. Y., five years 
of which time he was second lieutenant of Company 
G ; and he is now a member of the regimental and 
Company G veteran associations. 

One of the early members of the club is L Au- 
gustus Stanwoou ; he is well known and thoroughly 
liked by his fellow members, and is also prominent as 
a laborer for the welfare of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association ; he is a deacon of Plymouth Church 
and active in Sunday school work. He was born in 
Augusta, Me., and early in life learned the trade of a 
paper manufacturer. He advances claims, which are 




Aaron G. Perham. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



877 




generally admitted, to have been the first manufacturer in America to use wood as a material for paper 
making. In 1875 he moved to Brooklyn and in the same year secured an appointment to a position in the 
New York custom house, which he filled for many years, making at the same time a study of law, for 
which profession he had a strong predilection. Since 1888 he has practiced in the federal courts. He is a 
staunch Republican and a skillful expositor of the principles of that party. 

James P. Philip was born in September, 1861, in Catskill, Greene County, N. Y., and was prepared for 
the higher paths of educational training at the Catskill Academy. From this institution he went to Rutgers 

College, where he was president of his class ; he edited the Rutgers 
Targum and the College Annual; was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society, and was graduated among the honor men of the class of 1882. 
^^M^^ A year later he began to study law in the office of Eugene Burlingame 

^^^^^^ at Albany, N. Y.; he also studied at the Albany Law School, where he 

^K^ M was president of his class and where he was graduated in 1886. He 

^B^^W., returned to Catskill, and for twelve months occupied desk room in the 

^^^l-^ f office of John A. Griswold ; at the end of the year he moved to New York, 

^^B^Wf ^""^i accepting a position with the Title Guarantee & Trust Company, 

JS'^AjiAfeSMii became assistant manager of the branch office which that institution had 

established in Brooklyn. In 1890 he dissolved his connection with the 
corporation, and resumed private practice in Brooklyn. He is secretary 
of the Long Island Country Club. 

Andrew Peck is one in whom the contest with untoward circum- 
stances, creating and developing a spirit of self-reliance, seems to have 
developed also an unselfish nature into one of broad and noble gener- 
osity. He was born on October 15, 1836, in the city of New York. He 
James . hilip. ^^^^ Orphaned at an early age, and the Leke and Watts Orphan House 

became his shelter. His gratitude for what was done for him there has been shown since in the constant 
interest he has taken in the institution and in the formation in 1884 of the l,eke and Watts Association, a 
beneficial and social organization composed of former male inmates of the house, of which he has been pre- 
sident from the first. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a general storekeeper at Rockville, N. 
Y., and experienced so many unnecessary hardships that early one spring morning in 1852 he ran away, tak- 
ing with him only the clothes he wore and in his pocket the sum of si.\-pence, the first money he ever had, 
to call his own. After many vicissitudes he reached New York city and secured employment in a grocery 
store up town, but remained only a short time. In 1859 
he took charge of a book and stationery store in Jersey 
City. At the beginning of the civil strife he enlisted 
for three years in the 38th N. Y. Volunteers, and after 
serving ten months was honorably discharged on ac- 
count of physical disability resulting from exposure. 
He had married in Jersey City a week before his 
departure for the south. After his return he began 
publishing in a small way on his own account, and 
in 1863 he returned to the bookselling business and 
began making baseballs and selling them to small 
stores, thus beginning a trade that has grown to 
immense proportions and with which his name is in- 
separably connected. In 1868 he was joined in busi- 
ness by W. Irving Snyder, the two men forming the 
house of Peck & Snyder of New York. Business in- 
terests led Mr Peck to become a resident of Brook- 
lyn in the spring of 1876, he having bought out 
several knitting plants for the manufacture of woolen, 
silk and other gymnasium goods. Since that time he 
has secured blocks of lots, and has built many houses 
and also a few flat buildings and factories. He is a 
member of a number of societies and institutions. 
In freemasonry he has manifested a very active in- 
terest, and is an officer in several of the local bodies, 
having taken all the many degrees. His family con- 
sists of his wife and one daughter. He has one of the 




Andrew Peck. 



878 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




Abram M. Kirby. 



largest and most valuable masonic libraries ever col- 
lected, comprising more than 15,000 books and pam- 
phlets. 

Abram IVIulford Kirby is a scion of an old Long 
Island family. He is a descendant of William Mul- 
ford, an original proprietor of Southampton, whither 
he moved from Salem, Mass., in 1645. On the paternal 
side also he has a Long Island ancestry. He was 
born at Cutchogue, Suffolk County, on September 16, 
1S39; but within a few weeks was brought to Brook- 
lyn, where he was educated. His parents were Francis 
___^_»> _»_^^^^^_«- *--• Kirby and Philena H. Kirby. At the beginning of 

ttHHtt| ' ^&^^^|H||i^'''^^^^^^^^ the war he left for the front with the 13th Regiment, 

^^^^^ /I^Kfk ^^^r^ ^^ ' '^^^^^"^^ N. Y. S. M., serving in the engineer corps of the regi- 

ment. He began his business career in the office of 
the People's Fire Insurance Company of New York, 
on March i, 1856, and on May 21, 1857, entered the 
employ of the newly formed Brooklyn company, the 
Montauk, of which he subsequently became secretary. 
His longest business connection was as one of the 
secretaries with the Continental Insurance Company 
of New York, with which he was associated nineteen 
years. During this period he was active in the councils 
of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters. At 
the present time he represents the Traveler's Casu- 
alty Company of Hartford, in developing a compara- 
tively new line of casualty business, that of general employers' liability in connection with street rail- 
ways. He is a member of Kane Lodge of the masonic fraternity. Post Lafayette, 140, C. A. R., 
the 'Lawyers' Insurance, New York Athletic, and Manhattan Athletic clubs of New York, and the 
L'nion League Club of Brooklyn, the St. Nicholas Society of New York and the Society of Old Brook- 
lynites. He is a communicant, and was for some years a vestryman of St. John's P. E. Church. 

Among tlie younger men whose social inclinations and political principles have made them valuable in 
the ranks of the club, there are few better known to 
their associates in the organization than Frank E. 
Kirby. He was born in Brooklyn in December, 1859. 
He was educated, first at the public schools, and 
afterwards at Professor Overheiser's academy. When 
he left school he obtained employment as an office 
boy with Jesse Hoyt & Co., grain merchants of New 
York, and he gradually advanced himself to a member- 
ship in the Produce E.xchange, which he retained four 
years ; the latter half of this period he spent as buyer 
and seller for tlie firm of Henry Clews & Co. His 
next change placed him on the road as agent for the 
Palmer Chemical Company, in whose employ he re- 
mained three years. His next situation of responsi- 
bility was that of special agent for the Employers' 
Liability Assurance Corporation of London, which 
position he has continued to occupy until the present 
time. He is also secretary and treasurer of the Mor- 
gan Drug Company, in which he is financially inter- 
ested. He is a member of the Insurance Club of 
New York. 

The family of which Chester B. Lawrence is a 
member is a very large one which originated in Eng- 
land and came to America from Holland. Three of 
his ancestors received from the Dutch government 
grants of land now included in the towns of New- 
town, Hempstead and Flushing, L. I. His father, Frank E. kirby. 




SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



879 




Chester B. Lawrence. 



Effingham N. Lawrence, established more than sixty 
years ago the warehouse storage business in which the 
son is still engaged. In 1854 he was one of the firm 
owning Coe's stores, and which in 185S opened the 
warehouse opposite Catharine Ferry, New York, both 
of which are now owned by Lawrence, Son & Gerrish, 
of which Chester B. Lawrence has been, since the 
death of his father, the senior member. He is a 
thorough Brooklynite. The residence at 319 Wash- 
ington avenue, which he built for his wife twelve 
years ago, is one of the handsomest, both in architec- 
ture and furnishing, of Brooklyn's many handsome 
homes. He is a member of the Lincoln and Rem- 
brandt clubs and of the Sundown Fishing Club. Since 
1884 he has been an executive committeeman of the 
Republican Club and for a year he was vice-president. 
He was born in New York city on September 15, 1845. 
He attended school at Portchester for eight years and, 
in 1862, engaged as clerk in a shipping house until 
1865, when he became a partner with his father in 
business. He married a daughter of George C, Peters, 
of New York, and has made Brooklyn his home 
since 1868. 

John F. Henry is the descendant of a family 
that originally came from Aberdeen, Scotland, and 
settled in Massachusetts, prior to the revolutionary 

war. Another branch of the same family made a home in Virginia and one of its members was the famous 

patriot, Patrick Henry. James M. Henry, the father of John F. Henry, was for many years prominent in 

public life as a citizen of Waterbury, Vt., and represented that constituency several terms in the state legis- 
lature. His brother, General William Wirt Henry, earned a reputation as a gallant soldier, was four terms 

in the Vermont senate, served two terms as mayor of Burlington, Vt., and held office under the Federal 

government as United States marshal. John F. Henrv was born in Waterbury, Vt., on February 25, 1834. 

He was educated at the Bakersfield Academy, and on 

August I, 1855, began his business career by opening 

a drug store in his native town. He was successful, 

accumulated money, and rapidly attained prominence 

in municipal and state politics. He became clerk of 

the district and then was appointed postmaster by 

President Lincoln. At the age of twenty-two he was 

made a trustee of the leading Congregational church 

in Waterbury, although not a member. In 1859 he 

opened a branch drug store in Montreal, where he 

conducted a successful business during the next ten 

years. On January i, 1866, he came to Brooklyn and 

acquired an interest in the firm of Demas Barnes & 

Co., of New York. For three years he remained as 

a partner in the firm, and then became the sole 

proprietor, the firm name being changed to John F. 

Henry & Co. He is the treasurer of the Republican 

General Committee of Kings County, a member of 

the executive committee of that body, and president 

of the Tenth Ward Republican Association. In 1873, 

he received the senatorial nomination in the second 

district, and four years later headed the municipal 

ticket against James Howell, who then for the first time 

appeared before the electors as a candidate for the may- 
oralty. He is a charter member of the New York Board 

of Trade and Transportation, and served twelve years 

as chairman of that organization's executive committee. 




THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



Daring a period of twenty-two years lie has been active and prominent in the New York Chamber 
of Commerce, and he is president of the American Board of Transportation and Commerce. He was for 
several years the largest stockholder in the Brooklyn Union, and for three or four terms acted as president 
of the corporation publishing that paper. In this enterprise he was associated with General Benjamin F. 
Tracy ex-Mayor Frederick A. Schroeder and others. He was at various times a partner in the well known 
New Orleans drug house of Barnes, Ward & Co., and in the firm of John F. Henry & Co., of Montreal. He 
is a member of the New England Society of New York, the Society of the Sons of the Revolution, and the 
New York Tariff League. In Brooklyn he is a member of the New England Society, the Vermont Society, 
the Long Island Historical Society, and other organizations. Although not a member, he has been a trustee 
of the South Congregational Church twenty-three years. 

Distinguished in the social life of Brooklyn by those tastes which ennoble and refine, Henry T. Chap- 
man, Jr., is not less known for other qualities in the great financial world of the metropolis. He is a native 
of New York, but for more than fifty years has lived 
in Brooklyn. His father came to Brooklyn about 1839 
and built a home on Clinton avenue near the corner 
of Lafayette, in the immediate vicinity of his son's i 
present residence. The son was at first instructed by 
private tutors and at the Bousaud Academy in Brook- 
lyn, completing his studies in Europe. While abroad 
he cultivated a taste for the fine arts and the subse- 
quent encouragement of this predilection has led to 
results which are noted at length elsewhere in this 
volume. He was one of the original eleven organizers 




of the 23d Regiment, N. G., S. N. Y. 



i^hich he after- 




Henry T. Chapman, Jr. 



wards held the rank of major ; he resigned to accept 
the colonelcy of the s6th Regiment and afterwards 
received a staff appointment under General John B. 
Woodward. He has been associated with financial 
interests many years and was connected with a New 
York bank ; for some time past he has been among 
the more prominent members of the New York Stock 
Exchange. He is a member of the Oxford, Rembrandt, 
and other clubs, and is a trustee of the Brooklyn Art 
Association. 

The ancestral records of Isaac C. DeBevgise, 
which have been noted in a preceding chapter, are so 
inseparably associated with those of the earlier set- 
tlers on Long Island that they constitute in some 
measure a portion of the history of Brooklyn. The 
house which he himself built, and where he has made 
his home for many years, is situated in a section now included among the most populous districts in the 
city, and stands upon ground that once constituted a portion of the famous farm which Joris Jansen de 
Rapalje purchased from the Indians in 1637. This property comprised 335 acres, part of which covered the 
site now occupied by the grounds of the United States Marine Hospital, and became known as Rennaga- 
conck. Mr. DeBevoise was born in 1837, in the old family homestead at Bushwick, where his father, Charles 
I. DeBevoise, who for years had been supervisor of Bushwick, was born. His mother was Jane Rapalje, 
daughter of Folkert Rapalje and Agnes DeBevoise. He was educated at Union Hall Academy in 
Jamaica. His early life was passed on the paternal estate at Bushwick, and as he advanced in life his time 
was exclusively devoted to the improvement of the property which he inherited. His family connections 
give him an honorable place among the members of the Holland Society, and his financial interests have 
placed him on the board of trustees connected with the Williamsburgh Savings Bank. He is fond of music 
and the fine arts, and is the possessor of many interesting relics relating to his family and to the early 
history of Bushwick; among these there was, until lately, an old communion tankard once the property of 
the "Beehive" church at Bushwick, which bears the date, 1708, and which he has transferred to the 
keeping of the Holland Society. In i860 he married Miss Caroline A. Schenck, daughter of Cornelius 
Schenck, of New York; they have four children. 

John T. Sackett is a charter member of the club and filled the office of secretary from March, 1888, 
until March, 1892. He is a rising young lawyer of Brooklyn, and is one of the exceptionally active mem- 
bers of the club. He was born in New York city on October i, 1864, and at the age of nine years came to 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. S8i 

Brooklyn with his parents. He attended public school in this city, and spent nearly two years at St. Paul's 
Military School in Garden City, L. I. In 1886 he was graduated from Cornell University and then took a 
two years' course at Columbia College Law School. He was graduated at the latter in May, 1888, and in 
the same month was admitted to practice in the state courts. Since that time he has been engaged in the 
practice of his profession in New York city. While at Cornell University he was business manager of the 
Cornell Daily Sun, and he was the memorial orator uf the class of '86. In November, 1891, he married a 
niece of George G. Reynolds, late chief justice of the city court. 

William G. Hoople was born near the Long Sault of St. Lawrence river, Dickinson's Landing, Canada, 
in 1S41, on a farm which his grandfather received from the government as a loyalist. In 1862 he came to 
New York, procured employment with his uncle, who was engaged in the leather business, and four years 
later became his partner. Upon the retirement of his uncle from the business he associated himself with 
Loring A. Robertson. The latter died in the fall of i8go, since which time Mr. Hoople has conducted the 
business alone. In June, 1867, he was married at the Long Sault, to Miss Agnes Blackburn. He has 
resided in Brooklyn since 1876 and is a member of the Central Congregational Church, assistant superin- 
tendent of Bethesda Chapel, and serves on the prudential committee in the church with which he is con- 
nected. 

Since 1866 Charles H. Rutherford has been an esteemed citizen of Brooklyn, and his membership 
in the club is one of many years standing. Very soon after coming here he united with the Nostrand 
Avenue M. E. Church, and for years has acted as a trustee. He is interested in general church work and is 
a member of the Brooklyn Church Society. He was born at White Plains, N. Y., in 1841, and was 
educated at a private boarding school kept by his father in Nyack. In 1862 he went to New York city 
where he became a clerk with Hegeman & Co., in the drug business. One year later he went to the firm of 
James S. Aspinwall, wholesale druggists, with whom he remained as chief clerk until he embarked in busi- 
ness for himself. He was married in 1S66, the same year that he moved to Brooklyn. 

Clark D. Rhinehart was born at Brunswick, Ulster County, N. Y., on January 7, 1S44. At the age 
of twelve he left his home to begin work as a clerk in a store at Rochester, and later he learned the trade 
of a carpenter, but left the bench to accept a situation as a shipping clerk with a grocery firm in Newburgh. 
In 1863 he enlisted in the 5th N. Y. Cavalry, and in 1865 he settled in Greenpoint, where the shipping busi- 
ness engaged his attention until 1S72, when he disposed of his interest and occupied himself with the manu- 
facture of composition roofing. From 1879 until 1880 he was clerk of the Brooklyn board of audit, and 
until 1882 he served as clerk to the late Francis B. Fisher, In 1883 he was elected civil justice in the third 
district, and upon the expiration of his term of office in 1887, was at once chosen as candidate for the 
shrievalty against William A. Furey. He was elected and served the full term of three years. 

LINCOLN CLUB. 

Early in the month of January, 1878, about a dozen gentlemen, who were more or less known in Repub- 
lican political circles of the city, bound themselves together in an association for the dual purpose of social 
enjoyment and furthering the interest of the Republican party. For more than a year the new club, which 
took the name of the war president, met at private residences. In the spring of 1879, having received many 
accessions of membership, the Lincoln Club rented one of two frame houses that then occupied the site of 
the club's present quarters at 65 and 67 Putnam avenue. The building was small, but suited at that time 
the needs of the organization, which in the following autumn made a successful application to the legisla- 
ture for an act of incorporation. Soon after this the club, through no constitutional movement, but rather 
by the openly and informally expressed opinion of a majority of its members, abandoned its political fea- 
tures, and became purely social in its ends and aims. Having in this manner thrown open the doors to all 
suitable applicants for membership, the club immediately increased in size and in importance. Many Demo- 
crats, prominent in their party, placed their names upon its rolls. District Attorney James W. Ridgway 
became one of the most popular members and was elected a trustee in 1892. Police Commissioner Henry 
I. Hayden, who was formerly president, is another distinguished Democrat who is a member of the club, and 
Alfred C. Chapin was a member during his residence in the seventh ward, but resigned in 1S90. In 1883 
the growth of the club demanded the purchase and extensive alteration of both the frame houses referred 
to above. In 1886 a large extension was built in the rear of the club house at an expense bordering on 
$9,000. Three years later, in the spring of 1889, the club determined to erect a house that would not only 
be a credit to the organization, but would place it upon a plane with any of the great social institutions of 
Brooklyn. Architect R. L. Daus, of Brooklyn, was selected to make the necessary plans. The expense was 
estimated at $30,000, but subsequent demands carried it considerably beyond that figure. In the late 
autumn of 1889 the club's new home was ready for occupancy. The building as it now stands is four stories 
in height, and has a frontage on Putnam avenue of forty-five feet, with a depth of one hundred and twenty 
feet, including the extension erected in i886, which was left standmg. The material used in its construction 



882 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



is pressed brick varied with Lake Superior brownstone, and trimmed with terra-cotta moulding and 
carvino- The architecture is what is known as early French Renaissance. The dominant feature of this 
peculirr style is a combination of solidity with lightness, due to the impression left upon the mediaeval 
architecture of France by Italian ideas. There is a massive stoop with elaborately carved balustrades lead- 
ing to an entrance of handsome proportions and beautifully decorated. In the lowest story are three stained 
glass windows with handsome designs of female figures, emblematic of Concord, Prosperity and Friendship. 
From a point between the second and third stories projects a massive corbel supporting the base of a 
tower which rises some distance above the tiled roof, and is topped with a flag pole. A magnificently 




Lincoln Club House, Putnam Avenue. 

carved bay window and an oriel window in the tower are also prominent features. The entire first floor of 
the building is practically one apartment, with the exception of a dining-room and office. A handsome hall- 
way leads into a reception room with a massive fire-place and mantel ; and from this apartment an archway 
affords access to a parlor of generous dimensions, handsomely carpeted and furnished, which in turn is con- 
nected with a reading room in the rear. The second floor contains billiard and card rooms ; the third floor, 
bed-rooms and a bath-room, and the fourth, apartments for employees. In the basement is a commodious 
kitchen and four bowling alleys. The history of the club has been one of peaceful progress, and its present 
home-like and attractive features are due entirely to the care exercised in electing to membership only those 
who are in harmony with the club's social purpose. The receptions of the club are social events of prime 
importance. Most of the eminent visitors to the city are entertained in the club house. The officers of the 
club elected in 1892 are : Herbert T. Ketcham, president ; Eugene 1). Berri, vice-president ; George Crosby, 
treasurer ; Emerson W. Keyes, secretary. 

Herbert T. Ketcham was born at Huntington, L. I., in 1850, and has been a resident of Brooklyn 
since 1858. He became a student at Williams College in 1867, and was graduated at that institution in 
1874. For seventeen years he has practiced law with marked success. In 1877 he married Miss 
Olivia E. Phillips, of Portland, Me.; their home is 178 Lefferts place. Mr. Ketcham has devoted much of 
his leisure time to the production of literature of a general character. Until his election to the presidency 
of the Lincoln Club, he had not prominently identified himself with social affairs. His early training in the 
field of athletics gave him prominence as a member of the Lincoln Club bowling team. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



883 



Eugene D. Berri, a club man who has devoted much time to social recreation since his retirement 
from active business, is the vice-president of the club, and is deservedly popular among his fellow members 
and a large circle of friends. 

Martin E. Berry, formerly president of the club, was born in Brooklyn on August 10, 1863. He was 
educated at public school No. 11, and when fifteen years old engaged in the warehousing business with E. 
B. Bartlett & Co., in whose employ he remained thirteen years. He then made a venture on his own 
account as a forwarding agent, and has since continued in that line of business. He is a trustee of the 
club and a member of the house committee. In the winter of 1891-2 he was one of a team of five that 
captured for the club the inter-club bowling championship. He is a member of the Crescent Athletic Club. 
Horace E. Dresser was born in New York, on June 22, 1841. He received a public school education 
in that city, and was graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1859. He immediately began 
business life by accepting a boy's position in the 
wholesale hosiery concern of John J. Hinchman & Co., 
New York, and in less than six years was managing 
partner, though four years were spent in other employ- 
ment. Soon after entering the hosiery business he 
accepted a clerkship in the naval office of the port of 
New York, from which he was soon promoted. While 
filling official positions he devoted his spare time to 
literary work, contributing to the New York news- 
papers. In 1863 he compiled "The Battle Record of 
the American Rebellion," and in 1864 I). Appleton & 
Co., published his compilation of "The United States 
Internal Revenue and Tariff Laws;" other editions 
being published by the same firm in 1865, and by 
Harper Bros., in 1870 and 1872. He is senior partner 
of the mercantile firm of Dresser & Olmsted, New 
York. He became a permanent resident of Brooklyn 
in 1876. In 1882 he was appointed a member of the 
board of education by Mayor Low and was reap- 
pointed by the same mayor in 1885, and by Mayor 
Chapin in 1888. He strongly advocated the develop- 
ment of the central grammar school into such an insti- 
tution as it is to-day, and was one of the founders of 
the training school for teachers. While thus engaged 
in fostering higher education, he was equally interested 
in the primary branches and was the first to introduce 
kindergarten instruction in the public schools. In 1888 
he was elected president of the Seventh Ward Republi- 
can Association. A year later his party offered him the nomination for state senator in the third district, but 
he declined the honor, although its tender was equivalent to an election. In 1891 he was nominated as the 
Republican candidate for supervisor-at-large, and polled a larger vote, in the city of Brooklyn, than that cast 
for any candidate on the Republican state, county or city ticket, except the candidates for mayor and 
secretary of state. In April, 1892, the Republican state convention named him as one of the presidential 
electors. He has been many years a member of the club, and is a member of the Union League Club and 
the New England Society. In the Union League he has been a member of the executive and members 
committees and the committee on literary exercises, and chairman of the finance committee. 

Joseph A. Velsor, born in New York city in 1834, is of Dutch descent, the family name having been 
formerly Van Velsor. He was educated at the public schools and at the New York Free Academy, from 
which he was graduated in 1854. His first employment was in 1855 in the store at 9 Clold street. New York, 
of which since 1865 he has been a proprietor, the firm name being changed in that year to Peek & Velsor. 
Mr. Peek died in 1885, but the title has been retained ; the business is dealing in botanic drugs. Mr. Velsor 
is a member of the Lincoln, Union League, and Marine and Field clubs, of Brooklyn, and the Fulton Club, 
of New York city. 

John W. Rhoades is among the most active members of the club. He is one of those who constitute 
the library committee. His ancestors were prominently identified for many generations with the history of 
Connecticut. He was born in New York in the year 1847, and studied at the public schools of that city ; 
he was graduated at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. His first employment was with the New York 
News Company, the affairs of which are now entirely under his management. His promotion was rapid, 




Horace E. Dresser. 



884 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




John H. Ireland. 



and was due to his marked e.xecutive talent and to the facility with which 
he mastered the various details of the business. He has been prominently 
in various social and political organizations, including among the latter 
the Young Republican Club. He is fond of aquatic sports, and spends 
his summer with his family on the shores of New Jersey and Connecticut. 
John H. Ireland was born in Brooklyn in 1837. He was educated 
at public school No. 4. On leaving school he was for a time employed 
in A. T. Stewart's drygoods house. He afterwards spent five years in the 
employment of Remsen & Burroughs, lime and brick dealers. Since 1858 
he has been connected with the firm of Cross, Austin & Co., lumber deal- 
ers, at first as clerk, but since 1870 as a member of the firm. He is a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees of the Washington Avenue Baptist Church. In 
1863 he married Miss Martha Colyer. She died in 1882, leaving two daugh- 
ters, now Mrs. Charles A. Van Iderstine and Mrs. Arthur L. Tinker. 

Frank S. Henderson is especially well known in masonic circles, 
having begun his masonic career in Stella Lodge, 485, F. & A. M., and 
served as its master three years. He is a member of Gate of the Temple 
Chapter, R. .\. M., and of Clinton Commandery No. 14, Knights Templar. In the Scottish rite he has advanced 
to the 32° and he is also a noble of Kismet Temple, 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, a member of the Aurora 
Grata Club, the Northwestern Masonic Association and 
the Council Bluffs, la.. Knights Templars Masonic 
Association. He is a charter member of Gilbert Coun- 
cil, Royal Arcanum, National Provident Union, Ameri 
can Legion of Honor, Order of the World, United 
States Accident Association and Atlantic Lodge, Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. On November 27, 
1877, he married Miss Gussie M. Taylor, of Brook- 
lyn, at Amityville, L. I. He was born in Brooklyn on 
October 28, 1855, and was educated at public school 
No. I. His home is at 204 Schermerhorn street. 

A descendant of that sturdy Anglo-Sa.xon race 
which has attained to the highest plane of physical 
development in the bracing climate of Canada, J. 
Austin Shaw is an admirable type of that great class 
of the population whose members have become citi- 
zens by adoption. He was born at Oshawa, Ontario, 
in 1850, and attended the public schools in his native 
town until the age of fifteen, when he was licensed as 
a teacher. For five years he was engaged in instruct- 
ing Canadian youth, and at the same time prepared 

himself for college 
under private tu- 
ition. In 1871 he 
moved to Toronto, 
and laid the founda- 
tion of the nursery business which he has since pursued and enlarged 
until its proportions are equal to those of any other similar enterprise 
in the state of New York. In 1880 he removed to Rochester, and in 
18S8 to Brooklyn, where he has established his main office and where, in 
1890, he added the business of a florist to that of nurseryman. He is a 
member of the Lincoln Club, the Royal Arcanum and the Franklin 
Literary Society. 

Robert B. Shimer was born in Warren County, N. J., on April 11, 
1837. He was the son of a prosperous farmer of that district, and his 
early life was spent on the farm and in a country school, near Easton, Pa., 
where he was educated. After leaving school he became a clerk in a 
drygoods store in Easton. He soon migrated to New York and entered 
the employment of Stewart & Mettler, a wholesale grocery firm, doing 





Frank S. Henderson. 



J. Austin Shaw. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



8S5 




Robert B. Shimer. 



business at 64 Dey street. He remained in tliis posi- 
tion four years and then left New Yorlv for Pliiladel- 
pliia, where he worked two years in a general notion 
store. From Philadelphia he went to White Haven, 
Luzerne County, Pa., and formed the firm of Sharpe 
& Shimer, engaged in lumber finishing. After some- 
what varied experiences in that region he returned 
to New York and became a clerk in the poultry trade 
with Hillier, Case & Co. In 1881 he came to Brook- 
lyn, where he has since lived. His next position was 
that of a salesman with Drew & French, with whom he 
remained three years. Then he joined the firm of 
Borum & Miles on a salary and with a share of the 
profits. In i860 he formed the firm of Gould & Shinier, 
poultry merchants, to which the present firm of Robert 
B. Shimer & Co., of New York, is the successor. He 
married Miss Charlotte E. Christie, of Paterson, N. L, 
on November 2, 1876. He has been a member of the 
Jjincoln Club six years. He was one of the members 
of the L^nion League Club when that organization 
was founded. In politics he is a l^epublican and a 
staunch upholder of his party. 

Frederick H. Parsons has resided in the seventh 
ward from the time when he came to Brooklyn with 
his parents, excepting a brief period when he was in 
Europe. His home is at 193 Lefferts place. Being an 

enthusiast in regard to physical culture he is a member of the Crescent Athletic Club, of Brooklyn, and the 

Manhattan Athletic Club, of New York city; and by reason of his business afifiliations as a fire insurance 

broker he is a member of the Insurance Club, in which organization he is prominently active. From Buffalo, 

where he was born on April 10, 1853, he was taken by his parents to Union City, Pa., in 1861. They 

remained there until 1864, when they came to Brooklyn, and he attended public school No. 3, from which he 

went to the Adelphi Academy, where he was graduated in 1868. His intention was to make architecture his 

profession, and he pursued the study of his chosen art 

in Europe for some time, but his health being impaired 

he returned to Brooklyn and obtained employment in 

the house of James Sonneborn & Co., a firm engaged 

in the export of petroleum, hi 1874 he went into fire 

insurance brokerage, making a speciality of what are 

known as petroleum risks, and this branch of insurance 

has been retained as a feature in his business. He is 

a man of executive ability, and possesses a talent for 

organization which was displayed in the formation of 

the Alliance Insurance Association in 1887. He was 

president of the company for a short time pending the 

election of a regular underwriter to that position, and 

he was president of the Metropolitan Board of Fire 

Insurance Brokers, which was formed about the same 

time, holding the office from 1888 until 1890, inclusive. 

In 1878 he married Miss Lina Moore, of Brooklyn, 

who bore one son, his only child ; she died about a 

year later. He married Miss Anna Lounsberry, of 

Brooklyn, in 1881. He is active in the local affairs of 

the city, and is a Republican in politics. 

Cornwall, England, was the birthplace of William 

Westlake, a resident of Brooklyn and one of the 

largest inventors of railway appliances in this country. 

His father was an ironmonger, whitesmith, and tin 

plate worker. At the age of sixteen Wm. Westlake 

came with his parents to the United States, and located 




Frederick H. Parsons. 



886 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 




William Westlake. 



in Milwaukee, Wis., wliere his father died two weeks 
after their arrival; the care and suijport of his mother 
and SIX children thus devolved upon him. He imme- 
diately sought and obtained employment as a "roller- 
boy " in the office of the Evening Wisconsin, and made 
some e.xtra money by sawing wood. He next bound 
himself as an apprentice to I. S. Pardee, and it was 
while with the latter that he invented his famous loose 
globe railway lantern which is now in use all over the 
world, and which has since made a dozen or more men 
rich. In 1857 he entered the employ of what is now 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. I\uil Railway, where he 
conceived and invented the " Westlake Ventilating 
Car Heater." He has taken out one hundred letters 
patent, and those only on his most useful and profit- 
able inventions. In 1S77 he established himself in 
business in New York, and from that time his exer- 
tions were crowned with success. In 18S3 he retired 
from active business, although he continues to devote 
much of his time to making new discoveries. He has 
recently perfected a system on which he has been ex- 
perimenting for five years for burning soft coal with- 
out smoke. He is an influential and public spirited 
citizen, and has many ardent friends in the Lincoln 
Club, of which he is a trustee. 

Jay Stone, chief clerk of the permanent board of 
engineers, U. S. A., in New York city, is a conspicuous member of the club. He was born in New York city 
on July 20, 1851, and was educated at the city's public schools. He went west soon after leaving school 
and became attached to General Terry's headquarters, of the military department of Dakota, at St. Paul, 
Minn., as chief clerk of the judge advocate's office. He remained in the department of Dakota from 1872 
until 1881, serving in 1877 as secretary of the Sitting Bull Indian commission, which went into the British 
possessions after the massacre of General Custer. In 18S1 he went to Washington and was assigned to 
duty in the war department, being appointed chief of the correspondence division of that department on 
July 3, 1882. In 1887 he came to Brooklyn to live, and entered upon the work of chief clerk of the board 
of engineers on fortifications and river and harbor improvements in New York city. The assassination of 
President Garfield took place during his residence in Washington, and he was one of the attendants at the 
White House during the night of that fatal day. He also had charge of the telegraphic correspondence at 
Elberon, N. T.,at the time of the president's death. While in Washington he acted as private secretary to 
secretaries of war Alexander Ramsay, Robert T. Lincoln and William C. Endicott. 

William G. Crea:\ier, who has been a resident of Brooklyn for many years, is an inventor of railroad 
appliances. He was born in Hunterdon County, N. J., on November 26, 1821, and educated at Hartwick 
Seminary in Otsego County, N. Y. At the age of nineteen he engaged in business as a dealer in stoves and 
tinware at Perth Amboy, N. J., but shortly afterward removed to Paterson, N. J., where he continued in the 
same business until he moved to Birmingham, Conn., in 1845, and engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
yarns. In 1S50 he went to New Haven and engaged in the range, stove and heater trade ; three years later 
he moved this business to New York and lived there until i860, when he became a citizen of Brooklyn. In 
1857 Mr. Creamer invented a safety brake for railroad trains, and shortly after he perfected an arrangement 
whereby the engineer was given complete control over all the brakes of the trains and enabled to operate 
them simultaneously. Since i860 he has been engaged in the manufacture of various apparatus for rail- 
roads. In 1869 he established a factory in Brooklyn on the block bounded by Court, Smith and Creamer 
streets. The last having received its name in honor of Mr. Creamer. He is a member of the Long Island 
Historical Society, and in January, 1892, was elected treasurer of the New England Society, of which he has 
been a member since its organization. 

Frank Sittig has been a resident of Brooklyn for twelve years, and a member of the Lincoln Club 
since 1887. He was the captain of the club's bowling team that captured the inter-club prize in the season 
of 1890-91. He is also the vice-president of the Florence Dramatic Association. He was born in New 
York city on April 24, 1S52, and received his education in private schools. In 1S65 he entered a wholesale 
grocery store as clerk, and has been identified with that trade since that time. In 1872 he became a mem- 
ber of the firm of R. C. Williams & Co., wholesale grocers, of New York. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



887 




Hanover Club House, Bedford Avenue and Rodney Street. 



THE HANOVER CLUB. 

For several years prior to 1890 the residents of the Eastern District had considered the question of 
starting a first-class social club, but nothing definite had been done. The Hanover Club was an almost 
impromptu result. Millard F. Smith, who was one of those who had discussed the matter, obtained an 
option on the Hawley mansion, which was one of the most comfortable^ commodious and substantial struc- 
tures in the Eastern District. It was peculiarly adapted for club purposes, and although the property had 
originally cost over $70,000, Mr. Smith had a ten-days' option at $27,500. In the spring of the year named 
the proposition was discussed by a few well-known men, and an invitation was sent out on March 5 for a 
meeting in the evening of March 7, to discuss a project for the organization of an Eastern District club. 
The call was signed by Andrew D. Baird, F. W. Wurster, Charles Cooper, William C. Bryant, Henry Seibert, 
Charles H. Russell, Dr. A. C. Hallam, E. B. Havens, Warren E. Smith, H. G. Taylor, Charles Fox, B. E. 
Veatch, J. A. Peterkin, Millard F. Smith, James A. Sperry and Louis Conrad. About seventy-five gentle- 
men were present at the meeting, and it was decided to organize under the name of the Hanover Club and 
to purchase the property, which is on the corner of Bedford avenue and Rodney street. A purchasing com- 
mittee with Colonel A. D. Baird as chairman was named, and on the following day $500 was paid toward the 
purchase price. The second meeting was held on March 18, when a set of by-laws, proposed by a commit- 
tee of which Mr. Frank Sperry was chairman, was adopted, and articles of incorporation were signed. Mr. 
Benjamin D. Bacon presided, and Mr. James A. Sperry recorded. Andrew D. Baird, Millard F. Smith, John 
Cartledge, J. Adolph Mollenhauer, William Donald, Benjamin D. Bacon, William C. Bryant, E. B. Havens, 
Mathew Dean, Henry Hasler, Edwin Knowles, Frederick W. Wurster, J. Henry Dick, A. C. Hallam and H. 
F. Gunnison were chosen as directors. Subsequently Robert P. Lethbridge was elected in place of John 
Cartledge, and James D. Bell in place of William Donald, both of whom had resigned. The Board elected 
as officers of the club : William C. Bryant, president ; A. C. Hallam, vice-president ; H. F. Gunnison, secre- 
tary ; Millard F. Smith, treasurer. It was decided to build an extension to the Hawley house and to thor- 
oughly remodel the old building. P. J. Lauritzen was selected as the architect. The building committee 
having in charge the enlargement of the club house consisted of Andrew D. Baird, J. Adolph Mollenhauer, 
A. C. Hallam and Millard F. Smith. The furnishing committee consisted of Edwin Knowles, Henry Hasler, 
R. P. Lethbridge and E. B. Havens. The membership steadily increased, and the work on the building was 
carried on with all possible energy. On January ig, 1891, the club house was formally opened. The club, 
with a membership of over four hundred, immediately entered upon its prosperous career. The opening 
reception was soon followed by a brilliant reception to the ladies. The affair was a great success and in 
every way creditable to the new organization. At the first annual meeting the directors, with one or two 



ggg THE EACiLE AND BROOKLYN. 

exceptions, were reelected, and the same officers were unanimously asked to serve another year. At the 
Kecund annual meeting held in March, 1S92, the officers retired voluntarily, and the following members 
were elected as their successors : Frederick W. Wurster, president; J. Henry Dick, vice-president; John W. 
Hesse, secretary ; Andrew 1). Baird, treasurer. The following are the directors : F. AV. Wurster, J. Henry 
Dick, lohn \V. Hesse, A. D. Baird, William C. Bryant, James D. Bell, Benjamin D. Bacon, Charles H. Bailey, 
L. I. Busby, Edwin Knowles, William Krumbeck, Millard F. Smith, J. Adolph Mollenhauer, George T. Moon 
and George W. AA'eeks. 

Already in its brief history the Hanover Club has stepped to a place well to the front among the clubs 
of Brooklyn. It numbers among its members some of the best known and most influential men in the city, 
and is fortunate in having a club house admirably located and well adapted for the purposes of a social 
organization. The bUliard room is one of the handsomest in the city. The bowling alleys are well 
equipped, and largely patronized l)y the members. .\ very popular feature has been the admission of ladies 
to the cafe. This has been a privilege greatly appreciated by the members, and has had much to do with 
the success of the club. There is a private entrance on Rodney street leading to a well-furnished ladies' 
parlor adjoining the restaurant. The ladies are given the privilege of the bowling alleys in the afternoon. 
Entertainments, lectures, receptions, theatre parties have been given by the club from time to time. Inter- 
est in the organization has not been permitted to lag, but on the contrary there has been no lack of energy 
or work on the part of the officers and the several committees. Financially the club is in excellent condi- 
tion ; the annual dues have been raised from $24 to $36, the initiation fee of $25 remaining as at the outset. 




Frederick W. Wurster. 

Frederick W. Wursif.r, president of the club, is the son of people who came from Germany about 
sixty years ago and settled at Plymouth, North Carolina. He was born there on April i 1850. When he 
was seven years old his parents came to Brooklyn, where their son has lived ever since. His education was 
concluded by his graduation fr(.)m public school No. 16 m this citv, and at the age of twenty he went into 
trade, establishing later a manufactory of iron springs and axles at 375 Kent avenue, and a foundry 
at the corner of Rodney and Ainslie streets, both of which are under his exclusive control. He is a repub- 
lican, and, although not an active politician, he presided over the Nineteenth Ward Republican Association 
in 1887 and 1888. For nine years he has been a director of the Manufacturers' National Bank. He was 
one of the incorporators and is a trustee of the Nassau Trust Company, a trustee of the Kings County 
Building and Loan Association, vice-president and acting-president of the Spring and Axle Association of 
the United States, and a trustee of the Ross Street Presbyterian Church. He is fond of society, and prior 
to his election to the chief office m the Hanover Club was president of the Windsor Club. His taste for ar-t 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



889 



and music has been highly cultivated, and his home at 170 Rodney street contains a number of costly paint- 
ings, including some of the best examples of the work of modern masters ever brought to Brooklyn. His 
fondness for out-door recreation includes a keen appreciation of the sport of angling, and much of his 
leisure in the summer is spent in pursuit of this amusement. He is a lover of horses, and has been an 
extensive traveler. On September 15, 1874, he married Miss Emilie Scheig. 

John Henry Dick, vice-president and one of the incorporators of the club, is the son of William Dick, 
the millionaire sugar refiner, and is known as a member of several prominent clubs, and a lover of athletic- 
sports. He was born in New York city, February 22, 1851. He received his early education at Stamford, 
Conn., and later attended the Bryant and Stratton 
Business College, in this city. After leaving school he 
was employed by his father — then senior member of 
the firm of Dick & Meyer — in the firm's sugar refinery 
in the Eastern District ; he became secretary of the 
Dick & Meyer Company, which post he held until the 
burning of the refinery on September 7, 1889. He is 
secretary of the Dick & Meyer Sugar Trust, and is 
interested in the Mollenhauer Sugar Refining Com- 
pany. He married Miss Julia T. Mollenhauer on 
November 24, 1886 ; they have one son and two daugh- 
ters. A democrat in politics, he has never sought 
political recognition. Many of the institutions in the 
Eastern District, in which part of the city he has his 
home, enlist his interest ; he is a director of the 
-A-mphion Academy, and of the Brooklyn Throat Hos- 
pital. He is an expert bowler, and was captain of the 
Hanover team in the inter-club league. He is a mem- 
ber of the Germania Club, of Brooklyn, and of the 
Manhattan Club, of New York. He is an active mem- 
ber of the Lutheran church. His summer residence 
at Islip, L. I., affords him an opportunity for field 
sports in their season. 

Colonel Andrew D. Baird has taken an import- 
ant part in assuring the success of the Hanover Club, 
and was its first president. He was born in Kelso, 
Roxburyshire, Scotland, on October 14, 1839, and 
attended school in his native town until his tenth ^""^ ^™^^ ^^'^'^■ 

year, when he began work on a farm. In 1853 his parents came to this country, landing in New York 
on July 4. Their first home was in the Eastern District, on the corner of Division avenue and Second 
street. Andrew was apprenticed to a blacksmith, with whom he worked for ten months, leaving his 
employer at the expiration of that time to learn the stone-cutting trade with the firm of Gill Brothers. This 
was his occupation until his enlistment as a private in the 79th N. Y. Highlanders, on May 13, 1861. He 
was present at the first battle of Bull Run, and at the termination of the engagement was promoted to the 
rank of sergeant ; for his good service at Beaufort, South Carolina, he was made a second lieutenant ; and 
after the battle of Chantilly he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. At Chantilly he was severely 
wounded ; the bullet remaining in his body ever since, but causing him no subsequent suffering or incon- 
venience. In 1868 he received a captain's commission. From the Vicksburg campaign until the sur- 
render of Lee, he served under General Grant, as major, brevet lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel, 
receiving his promotion through special orders from the war department for bravery on the field and 
meritorious conduct in camp. He commanded his regiment from May, 1S64, until July, 1865. Through- 
out the war the Seventy-ninth was continuously doing active duty, and Colonel Baird performed gallant 
service in every engagement ; taking part in about forty-five battles and receiving three wounds. Return- 
ing to Brooklyn in 1867, he formed a partnership in a stone-cutting business with Robinson Gill ; conduct- 
ing his work in the yard where his apprenticeship was served. He is a Republican and was alderman from 
the nineteenth ward for three consecutive terms, from 1876 until 1880. His majority when he was first 
elected was 498, although Tilden carried the ward in the presidential contest of that year by 152 votes. He 
was twice re-elected, defeating Frederick Kronenburgh by a majority of 980 and James Winters by 1,800. 
While in the board of aldermen, he was chosen to be leader of his Republican colleagues, but he acted accord- 
ing to his convictions, irrespective of the demands of party or clique, and was the only Republican v/ho 
voted against the combination of his political friends and opponents, which was made during Mayor Howell's 





CoLONKL Andrew D. Baird. 

administration, for the purpose of placing Frederick Massey and Jacob Worth in the department of city 
works ; he voted against the Bond elevated railroad scheme, and against the extravagant expenditure of 
public funds in the construction of water mains ; and he was one of Mayor Low's most trusted advisers and 
supporters in every reformatory measure undertaken by that official. In 1885, although he was the unani- 
mous choice of his party for mayor, he gracefully withdrew in favor of an independent candidate. His 
action met with such general commendation that there was no dissentmg voice raised when the Republicans 
placed him in nomination in 1887 and again in 1889, for the chief office of the municipal government. In 
1890 he declined the postmastership of Brooklyn, offered to him by President Harrison. He is a member of 
the Union League Club, a trustee of the Nassau Trust Company, the Kings County Trust Company and the 
Williamsburgh Savings Bank, the Brooklyn Throat Hospital, the Eastern District Industrial School and the 
Ross Street Presbyterian Church ; and a director of the Manufacturers' National Bank and the Twenty- 
sixth Ward Bank. One of the most sociable and most popular citizens of the Eastern District, his benevo- 
lences are extensive, and to his kindness more than one man owes his success in life. He occupies a 
handsome house at 140 Hewes street. His stone yards, which are among the largest in the United States, 
are located on Wythe and Kent avenues. On July 9, 1866, he married Miss Mary Warner of this city. She 
died in 1874, leaving three children; and on February 22, 1882, he married Miss Catherine Lamb of Brooklyn. 
Andrew R. Baird, son of Colonel Andrew D. Baird, was born in Brooklyn on June 9, 1867. His 
education was acquired at public school No. 16, with a subsequent course of study at Wright's Business 
College — from which he was graduated with high credit. In 1885 he was engaged in his father's stone- 
cutting establishment, at the corner of Keap street and AVythe avenue, and he soon became a partner. He 
retains his interest in that business and conducts another yard, at the corner of Hooper street and Wythe 
avenue, where he makes a specialty of handling blue stone. He is interested as a partner in the firm of 
Harold & Co., tailors, of New York. On September 6, 1889, he married i\Iiss Mary I. Fitzgerald, who died 
after a few months of wedded life ; on December 10, 1891, he married Miss Lizzie C. Bellows of Brooklyn. 
He maintains a keen interest in all that conduces to the prosperity of Brooklyn and is an earnest worker 
in any project tending in that direction. The son of a man who has twice been the Republican candidate 
for mayor of our city, it is natural that he should remain staunchly loyal to the same political faith. He 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCL\L LIFE. 



891 



was formerly an active member of the Nineteenth Ward Republican Association and is now a member of a 
similar organization ,n the twenty-fifth ward. He >s a popular member of the Union League and Home 
clubs, the Amph.on Musical Society, the Seawanhaka Boat Club, and the Middletown Club of Con- 





necticut. He is quartermaster of the 47th Regiment, N. G., S. N. Y. Thoroughbred horses, athletics 
and various forms of out-door sports have a strong attraction for him, but his business prevents him from 
indulging his tastes very freely. 

LuDwiG NisSEN is a scion of an old and honorable family, one branch of which gave to Denmark her 
celebrated statesman, George Nicholas Von Nissen ; while his mother's ancestors, under the name of Von 
Dawartzky, ranked high among the old Polish nobility. Ludwig Nissen was born in Husum, Schleswig- 
Holstein, on December 2, 1855, and after acquiring his education at the public schools of Husum he occupied, 
for a short time, a position, as assistant-secretary of the Imperial District Court of Schleswig-Holsteiu. 
Imbued with a desire to enjoy more liberty than his fatherland allowed its children, he decided to come to 
America. He landed in New York on September 11, 1872. He had no friends here, and all the money he 
had was about two dollars and fifty cents ; nor was he able to speak English. Attacking the problem of 
life courageously, he turned his hand to whatever he found, and previous to his final success, found occu- 
pation with a barber, served as a hotel book-keeper and manager; started for himself as a butcher, conducted 
successfully a restaurant, lost $5,000 in the wine business through the mistakes of a partner, and found him- 
self in debt, but with life still before him. On May i, 1881, Mr. Nissen, with a Mr. Schilling, established a 
small jewelry firm, known as Schilling & Nissen, at 51 Nassau street. New York. The business was 
thoroughly congenial to Mr. Nissen's tastes, and ever since he has devoted his whole energy to its advance- 
ment. Trade increased gradually until, at the end of two years, the ability of his partner as a successful 
manager was so fully recognized by Mr. Schilling that the firm was reorganized under the title of Ludwig 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 

592 

Nissen & Co. In 18S5 the firm removed to larger quarters at 18 John street, where it is still located. At 
the expiration of five years Mr. Nissen purchased his partner's interest and associated A. C. Chase, a former 
Brooklynite, in the business with himself. Mr. Nissen is recognized as one of the leading diamond mer- 
chants in the United States, and so potent has his influence become in certain circles that the New York 
Jewelers' Association, composed of sixty members, representing about $20,000,000 of aggregate capital, has 
for the past two years unanimously chosen him as its treasurer ; and in January, 1892, he was sent to Albany 
as chairman of a jewelers' committee, composed, besides himself, of Charles L. Tiffany and Joseph Fahys. 





The purpose of the committee was to appear in company with other trade representatives and argue before 
the senate committee the necessity of increasing the state appropriation for the Columbian Exposition from 
$300,000 to $500,000. He acquitted himself so ably on that occasion that his address was one of the two 
that were published from among the many delivered. His trade is indebted to his vigorous efforts for a 
marked decrease in the amount of diamond thievery, to which the customs of the trade render these mer- 
chants peculiarly liable. His prosecutions of noted diamond thieves have been effective. On December 
27, 18S2, Mr. Nissen married Miss Katie Quick, of New York city. They became residents of Brooklyn 
in March, 1886, and have a refined and comfortable home at 43 Monroe street, which is ornamented by 
works of art of great merit, collected with studious care both in this country and in Europe. Mr. Nissen 
has been a member of the Hanover Club's entertainment committee since the organization of the club ; he 
is a director of the Aurora Grata, the Brooklyn and the Germania clubs, and of the Amateur Opera Asso- 
ciation ; he is a Scottish Rite Mason and a noble of the Mystic Shrine. He has lately been elected as a 
director of the new Sherman Bank, at the corner of Broadway and Eighteenth street. New York, an enter- 
prise of which he was an incorporator. His love for out-door recreation is centred in a fondness for horses. 
He has traveled a great deal, and for some time past has made annual visits to Europe. 



SOCIAL CLUBS AND SOCIAL LIFE. 



893 




Peter J. Lauritzen is a man who has enhanced the architectural beauty of three American cities, 
and among some of his most noteworthy works are the Peabody School in Washmgton, budt when Mr. 
Lauritzen was city architect; the Manhattan Athletic 
Club, New York, and the Union League Club, Brook- 
lyn. This city is also indebted to Mr. Lauritzen for 
a number of handsome office blocks and many beau- 
tiful residences built under his personal supervision. 
His was born in Jutland, Denmark, in 1847, and was 
educated at the Polytechnic school of Copenhagen. 
He completed a long course of study on architecture 
under several famous professors and came to this 
country to practice his profession. His first employ- 
ment was in the office of the supervising architect of 
the United States government under Mr. Mullett, 
In 187s he was appointed city architect in Washing- 
ton, after successful competition for the plans of the 
Peabody School. He was consul at Washington for 
the Danish government from 1875 until 1883, when 
he removed to New York and, recognizing the grow- 
ing importance of fire-proof construction, he took 
charge of the Jackson Iron Works in New York, 
which he managed successfully for two years. When 
the trustees of the Manhattan Athletic Club were 
contemplating the erection of one of the finest club 
houses in the world, and after a competition in which 
more than ten different sets of drawings were offered 
by prominent designers, the contract was awarded 
to Mr. Lauritzen by the unanimous vote of the board 
of trustees of the club. Mr. Lauritzen met with a 
very serious loss two years ago ; his office was burned 
to the ground and with it he lost the work of a life-time. The disaster was followed by the purchase 

of the office and outfit in business of the late Carl 
Pfeiffer. The buildings in Brooklyn which attest the 
artistic taste of this eminent architect are many. 
The Wechsler block was built according to his de- 
signs ; and the home of the Hanover Club is one of 
his creations. He is very fond of out-door sports, 
and in 1878 held the championship of the world for 
long range rifle shooting, winning this distinction in 
a match at Benning's range in the city of Washing- 
ton. During the year 1890 he resided in Brooklyn, 
but he afterward removed to New York. He is a 
member of the Union League and Manhattan Ath- 
letic clubs. 

Emilio PuiG is a native of Barcelona, Spain, and 
was born on May 24, 1838. He received his early 
education there, and at the age of nineteen went to 
Porto Rico and engaged as clerk with a firm at that 
time carrying on an extensive trade between Spain 
and Cuba. In 1857 he resigned his clerkship at Porto 
Rico and came to America, engaging in the cotton 
trade at Charleston, S. C, until 1864, when he changed 
his business headquarters to New York, and estab- 
lished the firm of E. Puig & Co. ; later the firm name 
was changed to Menacho, Puig cS: Co. Mr. Puig's 
associates dying, he took entire control of the busi- 
ness. Two years ago Charles F. Emerson was taken 
as a partner, and the firm's name is now Puig & Emer- 
son. In addition to carrying on a large exporting 



Peter J. Lauritzen. 




Emilio Puig. 



894 



THE EAGLE AND BROOKLYN. 



business, Puig & Emerson are the agents of the PiniUo's and the E. P. & Co. Steamship lines, which have a 
large fleet of "vessels plying between Cuba, Spain and the United States. Mr. Puig is a member of the N. Y. 
Produce Exchange, the IVIaritime E.xchange, the Spanish Chamber of Commerce in New York, and the 
Circulo Colon Cervantes, and is a trustee of the Brooklyn, E. D., Homoeopathic Dispensary. On January 
14 1865, Mr. Puig married Miss Emma R. Lincoln, daughter of a prominent Herkimer County, N. Y., family. 
Immedi'ately after the marriage they purchased a residence at 152 Hewes street, Brooklyn, where they 
have lived ever since. They have one son and three daughters. Mr. Puig is one of the