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3 1924 092 512 635 

Cornell University 

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the Cornell University Library. 

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Author of "The Place-Names of the Liverpool District", 

"Lancashire Place-Names", "The Vernacular Form 

of Abjuration and Confession of Faith, &c.'', 

"Romancing about Names", "The Origin of 

Yanlcee", "Italian Onomatology", &c. 

Assisted by GvtjA Harrison, formerly of Queen's College, London 



The Mobland Press, Ltd., 190 Ebury Street, S.W.I 



Aberdeen Public Library (G. M. Fraser, Esq., Librarian). 

C. W. Adams, Esq., Haileybury College, Hertford. 

C. H. Bellamy, Esq., 7, Rue de I'Epidene, Tourcoing. 

James G. Bisset, Esq., 85, Broad Street, Aberdeen. 

Henry Brierley, Esq., 26, Swinley Road, Wigan. 

Brighton Public Library. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Browne, 2, Campden House Road, W.8. 

J. F. L. Brunner, Esq., M.P., 43, Harrington Gardens, S.W.7. 

A. C. Caldicott, Esq., Church House, Henley-in-Arden. 

G. P. Cardell, Esq., 21, Chorley New Road, Bolton. 

Miss D'Arcy, Spring Road, Abingdon. 

Major R. de S. Dudgeon, Bombay. 

W. H. Duignan, Esq., Gorway House, Walsall. 

William Ford Edgelow, Esq., Braddon Villa, Torquay. 

Frank Gallsworthy, Esq., Wellesley Buildings, Leeds. 

Guildhall Library (Bernard Kettle, Esq., Librarian), London. 

E. Hampden-Cooke, Esq., Barton-on-Humber. 
Rev. H. A. Harris, Thorndon Rectory, Eye. 
Norman P. JafFrey, Esq., Gorway House, Walsall. 

Lieut.- Colonel J. H. Leslie, 31, Kenwood Park Road, Sheffield. 

R. Mond, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.E., Combe Bank, Sevenoaks. 

William Morgan, Esq,, 53, Lucerne Road, Thornton Heath. 

Norwich Free Library. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland (J. C. Hodgson, Esq., Librarian). 

J. Pulsford, Esq., 80, Terminus Road, Eastbourne. 

Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, W.C.2. 

J. Reffitt-Oldfield, Esq., Over Woolacombe, N. Devon. 

F. Sadler, Esq., 201, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 
Rev. C. P. Sheppard, Bourton, Dorset. 

F. R. Twemlow, Esq., Peatswood, Market Drayton. 

Rev. Geoffrey Egerton-Warburton, Warburton Rectory, Warrington. 

Rev. S. C. Wood, Stroxton, Grantham. 

Roland A. Wood-Seys, Esq., Sidmouth. 

The List of Subscribers had to be closed at an early period, as the Publisher 
found that the original subscription-price of £1 Is. Od. was inadequate owing to 
the cost of printing being considerably greater than had at first been anticipated ; 
but he has pleasure in stating that most of those above named have voluntarily 
paid an extra 10s. 6d. in addition to their original subscription. 


Owing to the War the Second Volume of the Dictionary has taken 
longer to complete than was anticipated when the First Volume was 
issued. There is little to add to the preface to Vol. I. In February, 
1917, I suffered a grievous loss by the death, after a long illness, of 
my wife GySa, only daughter of the late Professor F. S. Pulling, 
M.A. Oxon. During the past two years my friend Mr. A. A. Neil, 
M. A., Ph.D., has kindly helped me with the proof-reading. I should 
once again acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Edward Smith for 
the loan of his very useful MS. Index of Place-Names occurring in 
Dr. Birch's 'Gartularium Saxonicum.' This Index, with some re- 
vision, ought to be printed at the expense of the nation. I only 
regret that I had not the use of it for the early parts of the First 
Volume of the Dictionary. 

It has not been thought desirable, on consideration, to print the 
list of treatises quoted, promised in the first Forespeech. Such a 
list could have little intrinsic value ; and, in any case, paper has now 
to be economized. 

I wish, in conclusion, to express my thanks to Mr. Walter Bradley, 
Managing Director of the Morland Press, Ltd., for very valuable co- 
operation in various ways. 

Hy. Harrison. 

August 1918. 


A.-Fr. = Anglo-French. 

A.-Fr.-Lat. = ^^.nglo-French-Latin; 

agent. = agential, denoting the agent. 

anc. = anciently. 

app. = apparently. 

Aram. = Aramaic. 

A.-Sax. = Anglo-Saxon or Old English. 

asp. = aspirated. 

assim. = assimilated; assimilation. 

Bel. = Belonging. 

Bret. = Breton. 

Cal. Geneal. = Calendarium Genealogicum 

(temp. Hen. III.— Edw. I.). 
Cal. Inq. ad q. Damn. = Calendarium In- 

quisitionum ad quod Damnum (temp. 

Edw. II.— Hen. VI.). 
Cal. Inq. P.M. = Calendarium Inquisitio- 

num Post Mortem (A.D. 1217-1485). 
Cal. Rot. Chart. = Calendarium Rotulorum 

Chartarum (temp. John — Edw. IV.). 
Cal. Rot. Orig. = Calendarium Rotulorum 

Originalium (temp. Hen. III. — Edw. 

Cart. Sax. = Cartulai'ium Saxonicum 

Celt. = Celtic. 
Cod. Dipl. = Cqdex Diplomaticus JEvi 

Saxonici (Kemble). 
Cont. = Continental, 
contr. = contraction. 
Corn. =' Cornish, 
corr. = corrupt(ion. 
Dan. = Danish. 

Dan.-Norw. = Dano-Norwegian. 
der. = derivative. 
Dial. = Dialect(al. 
dim. = diminutive(s. 
Dipl. Angl. = Diplomatarium Anglicum 

iEvi Saxonici (Thorpe). 
Dut. = Dutch. 

E.D.D. =Eiielish Dialect Dictionary. 
E., Eng. = English. 
E. Eng. = Eastern English. 
E. Fris. = East Frisian. 
E.M.E. = Early Middle English. 
E. Mod. E. = Early Modern English. 
f. = from, formed on. 
fil. = filial, son-. 
Flem. = Flemish, 
form. = formerly ; formative. 
Frank. = Frankish. 
Fris. = Frisian. 
Gael. = Gaelic. 
Gaul. = Gaulish. 
Goth. = Gothic. 
Gt. Inq. of Serv. = Great Inquest of Service 

(A.D. 1212). 

Heb. = Hebrew. 

Hund. Rolls = Hundred- Rolls or Rotuli 

Hundredorum (A.D. 1274). 
Ir. = Irish. 

L.Ger. = Low German. 
L.Lat. = Low Latin, Late Latin (Post- 
M.Dut. = Middle Dutch. 
M.E. = Middle English (12th to ijlh cent.) 
meton. = metonymic. 
M.H.Ger. = Middle High German (12th 

to 15th cent.) 
M.Ir. = Middle Irish (12th to mid. i6thcent. 
M.N.E. = Middle Northern English. 
M.Scot. = Middle Scottish. 
M.Wel. = Middle Welsh. 
Nat. Gaz. = National Gazetteer of Gt. Bri- 
tain and Ireland, 12 vols., 1868. 
N.E. = Northern English. 
N.E.D. = New English Dictionary. 
N.Fr. = Northern French. 
Norw. = Norwegian, 
occ. = occasionally. 
O.Bret. = Old Breton. 
O.E. = Old English or Anglo-Saxon. 
O.Fr. = Old French. 
O.Fris. = Old Frisian. 
O.Gael. = Old Gaelic. 
O.H.Ger. = Old High German. 
O.L.Ger. = Old Low German. 
O.Ir. = Old Irish. 
O.N. = Old Norse or Icelandic. 
O.N.E. = Old Northern English. 
O.S.E. = Old Southern English. 
O.Sax. = Old (Continental) Saxon. 
O.Teut. = Old Teutonic. 
O.Wel. = Old Welsh. 
Pari. Writs = Parliamentary Writs (A.D. 

1 272-1 326). 
Pict. = Pictish. 
Plac. de Quo Warr. = Placita de Quo 

Warranto (temp. Edw. I., II., III.). 
Plac. Dom. Cap. Westm. = Placita in Domo 

Capitulari Westmonasteriensi (temp. 

Rich. I.-Edw. II.). 
plen. = plenary. 
Rot. Norm. = Rotuli Normanniae (A.D. 

1200-5 ^^^ 1417)- 
Scand. = Scandinavian. 
Sem. = Semitic, 
s.n. = sub nomine. 
S.E. = Southern English. 
S.Fr. = Southern French. 
Swed. = Swedish. 
Teut. = Teutonic, 
var. = variant(s; variantly. 
Wei. = Welsh. 

* = Not recorded (Based on analogy). 
Old English and Old Norse ]>, «S = th 



)f Original Subscribers 

ipeech II 

iviations, &c. 

3 Smith's Poem on Surnames' 

Origin of our Surnames ... 

ndexing of Surnames 

)nary of Surnames, M — Z 

ological' Appendix of the Principal Foreign Names found 
Jritish Directories ... ... ..: 

dments and Additions 


i. — XV 



[The following clever verses by James Smith, of ' Rejected 
Addresses ' fame, although they have more than once been printed, 
are worth reproducing here.] 

Men once were surnamed from their shape or estate, 

(You all may from History worm it) ; 
There was Lewis the Bulky, and Henry the Great, 

John Laekland, and Peter the Hermit. 
But now, when the door-plates of Misters and Dames 

Are read, each so constantly varies 
From the owner's trade, figure, and calling, Surnames 
Seem given by the rule of contraries. 

Mr. Box, though provoked, never doubles his fist, 

Mr. Burns, in his grate, has no fuel ; 
Mr. Playfair won't catch me at hazard or whist, 

Mr. Coward was winged in a duel. 
Mr. Wise is a dunce, Mr. King is a whig, 

Mr. Coffin's uncommonly sprightly, 
And huge Mr. Little broke down in a gig, 

While driving fat Mrs. Golightly. 

Mrs. Drinkwater's apt to indulge in a dram, 

Mrs. Angel's an absolute fury. 
And meek Mr. Lyon let fierce Mr. Lamb 
Tweak his nose in the lobby of Drury. 
At Bath, where the feeble go more than the stout, 

(A conduct well worthy ot Nero), 
Over poor Mr. Lightfoot, confined with the gout, 

Mr. Heaviside danced a"Bolero. 

-Miss Joy, wretched maid, when she chose Mr, Love, 

Found nothing but sorrow await her: 
She now holds in wedlock, as true as a dove. 

That fondest of mates, Mr. Hayter. 
Mr. Oldcastle dwells in a modern-built hut. 

Miss Sage is of madcaps the archest ; 
Of all the queer bachelors Cupid e'er cut. 

Old Mr. Younghusband's the starchest. 

Mr. Child, in a passion, knock'd down Mr. Rock, 

Mr. Stone like an aspen-leaf shivers ; 
rtiss Poole used to dance, but she stands Jike a stock 

Ever since she became Mrs. Rivers ; 
Mr. Swift hobbles onward, no mortal knows how. 

He moves as though cords had entwin'd him ; 
Mr. Metcalfe ran off, upon meeting a cow, 

With pale Mr. "Turnbull behind him. 

Mr. Barker's as mute as a fish in the sea, 

Mr. Miles never moves on a journey ; 
Mr. Gotobed sits up till half-after three, 

Mr. Makepeace was bred an attorney. 
Mr. Gardener can't tell a flower from a root, 

Mr. Wilde with timidity draws back, 
Mr. Ryder performs all his journeys on foot, 

Mr. Foote all his journeys on horseback. 

Mr. Penny, whose father was rolling in wealth, 

Kick'd down all his fortune his dad won, 
Large Mr. Le Fever's the picture of health, 

Mr. Goodenough is but a bad one. 
Mr. Cruickshank stept into three thousand a year, 

By shewing his leg to an heiress — 
Now I hope you'll acknowledge I've made it quite clear 

That surnames ever go by contraries. 



The Anglo-Saxons were well acquainted with the use of what we 
call surnames; but naturally with them such use was exceptional, 
and by way of distinguishment, as, for example, in the famous case 
of the two ill-fated 7th- century missionaries to the Continental 
Saxons, both named Hewald and distinguished from each other by 
the descriptive surnames, from the colour of their hair, Black (Niger) 
and White (Albus). The earliest historical instance of an Anglo- 
Saxon surname seems to be that of Hengest's son, the Kentish King 
Eric (Baeda's Oeric), d. A.D. 512, who was surnamed ^Esc (Bseda's 
Oisc), i.e. Lance or Spear, from the ash-wood shaft. In the follow- 
ing century we have perhaps the earliest recorded instance of an 
Anglo-Saxon patronymic: a monk named Biscop (Bishop) was sur- 
named Baducing, that is Baduc's Son. By the 10th century, with 
the increase of population, surnames had become commoner, and we 
meet with such patronymics as (Eanulf) Penearding, i.e. Pen(h)eard's 
Son, and ( Wulfhere) Cidding, i.e. Cidda's or Cydda's Son, as well as 
names like Wulfgar Leofa (Beloved), Wulfsie se Blaca (the Black), 
and the equivalent of our local surnames in Bryhtwald on (variantly 
aet) Msereweorthe ; while in at least one instance we find what may 
be considered to be the counterpart of our modern double-barrelled 
surnames : Wulfhun se Blaca aet Sumortune. Later still, in the 
11th century, we meet with Godwig se Bucca (the Buck), Mliwig se 
R6od (the Red), jElfweard Dudda, Wulfgaer set Hiwerc, .^Elfwig 
ast Hsegdune ; and a daughter of Cnut, Gunhild, was surnamed 

Further, as to the Scandinavian side of our ancestry, we find, as 
descendants of Harald Bldtand (Blue Tooth), Svend Tiugu-skegg 
(Fork-Beard), Thorgils Sprakalegg (Creak-Leg), Svend Estridsen 
(Estrid's Son), and Harald Heraf6t(Harefoot) ; while one of Blatand's 
daughters married Olaf Tryggvason (Tryggvi's Son). 

The Anglo-Saxons had three words denoting 'surname' or 'cog- 
norhen': cti^nama, literally familiar name';/r^'o««ma:, lit. free name'; 
and td-nama, lit. 'additional name.' The Norsemen used the word 
kenningar-nafn, from the genit. sing., kenntngar, of kenning, mark 
of recognition'. The present-day Dano-Norwegian word is tilnavn. 

The ordinary names of the Anglo-Saxons "were imposed," says 
Sharon Turner ('Hist, of the A. -Saxons,' IV. 47), "as with us, in 
their infancy, by their parents. In several charters it is mentioned 
that the persons therein alluded to had been called from their cradles 
by the names expressed, and which they had received 'not from 
accident, but from the will of their parents.' " 

"The Hebrews attached great importance to the meanings of their 
names" ('Camb. Bible Diet.,' p. 109) ; but it has been argued, on 
insufficient grounds, that the Anglo-Saxons, on the coiitrary, paid no 
such regard to signification. It is true that there are a certain 
number of Anglo-Saxon compound or bi-elemental personal names 
Ti^hich seem to lend colour to this theory; but, on the other hand, the 
vast majority of them make perfectly good sense on analysis, and 
were evidently originally formed with a specific semantic purpose. 
Thus the leading German etymologist, -Kluge, does not hesitate to 




A. -Saxon 
and Scand. 
words for 

Turner on 
A. -Saxon 




Skeat on 

Names as 



and Birch's 



The, Vogue 





on our 


translate Old Germanic names when he has occasion to mention them 
in his 'Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache' (ed. 
1910)— e.g. Ruodolf (Famous Wolf), Adalolf (Adolf), the common 
A.-Saxon ^thelwulf (Noble Wolf), Kuonrat, the A.-Saxon C(o)enred 
(Wise Counsel), Gothic Frithareik-s=German Friedrich=A. -Saxon 
Frithuric, Eng. Frederick (Peace-Ruler), etc.; and Sweet enlarges 
on the meaning of Beowulf (lit. Bee- Wolf) in his 'A.-Saxon Reader,' 
p. 216, although I by no means agree with his extended explanation. 
Moreover we find at any rate one Anglo-Saxon, the Northumbrian 
Latin poet Ethelwolf (.(Ethelwulf), giving the signification of his name: 

Hsec Lupus, alte Pater, stolido de pectore Clarus . . . 
quoted by T. Wright in 'Biographia Britannica Literaria: A.-Saxon 
Period,' p. 371. Two famous Anglo-Saxon scholars, Baeda and 
Alhwin (Alcuin), both wrote treatises on the interpretation of Hebrew 
names; and Baeda liked to comment on the signification of names, as 
in the case of Felix ( Hist. Eccl.,' II. xv.). 

A useful 'List of Anglo-Saxon Names still in use as Surnames' 
(with an Index of Modern Names), by the late Prof. Skeat, appears 
in the Transactions of the Philological Society, 1907, pp. 57-85. As 
the basis of this treatise Skeat has used Searle's Onomasticon Anglo- 
Saxonicum' (1897) for the Old-English names and Bardsley's Dic- 
tionary of English and Welsh Surnames' (l90l) for modern and 
Middle-English names ; both of which works were referred to in my 
Introduction to Vol. I. It is necessary to say here that I do not 
agree with some of the statements made by Skeat in his paper, nota- 
bly the assertion that certain Egel- or .^Egel names are ' intermediate 
forms" or "later variants" of .iEthel- names: the two elements are 
quite distinct, although there may have been one or two late instan- 
ces of confusion between them. Other points of difference may be 
noted by anyone who cares to compare the treatment of certain of 
the names discussed with the etymologies given in my Dictionary. 

Kemble's 'Names, Surnames, and Nic-Names of the Anglo-Saxons' 
(1846) was a noteworthy publication in its day. It^was published 
while his famous 'Codex Diplomaticus ^vi Saxonici' (1839-48) was 
in course of issue to the public. This latter work has never been 
completely superseded, because Dr. Birch's 'Cartularium Saxonicum' 
(1885-1893) stops short at A.D. 975; but with regard to the quality 
of the two publications Dr. Birch's own statement as to the 'Codex 
Diplomaticus,' that "the texts are in a large proportion of cases 
edited incorrectly, and that, in some instances, to a serious extent," 
may safely be accepted. 

The oft-put question. When did surnames come fully into vogue 
in this country ? is a very difficult one to answer. The late Isaac 
Taylor, author of several editions of the celebrated 'Words and 
Places,' later wisely replaced by the much more trustworthy 'Names 
and their Histories' (1896), contributed the following to 'Notes and 
Queries' (2nd Feb. 1901) a year only before his death, so that the 
note represented his mature opinion. "Surnames," he says, "grew 
out of descriptive appellations, and the date at which they originated 
varied according to the locality and the person's rank in life. In the 
South we find them at the beginning of the twelfth century. In the 
Northern counties they were not universal at the end of the four- 
teenth ; and in remote parts of Wales, in the mining districts, and in 


Essay on 

the slums of Glasgow they are still unknown. They were first used 
by the barons and franklins, then by the tradesmen and artisans, and 
lastly by the labourers." 

The Hundred- Rolls, A.D. 1274, abound in surnames; and the 
editor of the Year-Books of Edward III. indicates in the volume for 
the year 1345 what may be considered the general establishment of 
surnames — at any rate in the South of England. William Camden, 
appointed Clarenceux King-of-Arms in 1597,' had reached a some- 
what similar conclusion in the chapter on Surnames in his 'Remaines 
concerning Britaine': I quote from a reprint of the Somerset 
Herald's edition of 1674 which was partly edited by M. A. Lower, 
author of 'Patronymica Britannica' (1860) and 'Essays on English 
Surnames' (4th ed., 1875), works which were long held in high 
esteem but which must now be considered as largely obsolete. 
"About the year of our Lord 1000 (that we may not minute out the 
time)," says Camden, surnames began to be taken up in France. 
.... But not in England till about the time of the Conquest, or else 
a very little before, under King Edward the Confessour, who was all 
Frenchified. And to this time do the Scottish men also refer the an- 
tiquity of their surnames, although Buchanan supposed that they were 
not in use in Scotland many years after. Yet in England, certain it 
is, that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, by little and little 
took surnames, so they were not setled among the common people 
fully, until about- the tinje of King Edward the Second; but still 
varied according to the father's name, as Richardson, if his father 
were Richard ; Hodgeson, if his father were Roger, or in some other 
respect ; and from thenceforth began to be established (some say by 

statute) in their posterity As for my self, I never hitherto found 

any heredita.ry surname before the Conquest, neither any that I know ; 
and yet both I my self and divers whom I know, have pored and 
pusled upon many an old Record and evidence to satisfie our selves 
herein ; and for my part I will acknowledge my self greatly indebted 
to them that will clear this doubt." 

In the 12th century, as we know from an oft-quoted anecdote, 
it was considered, among the upper classes, literally injra digni- 
tatem not to have a surname. "So it seemed a disgrace,'' wrote 
Camden, "for a Gentleman to have but one single name, as the 
meaner sort and bastards had. For the daughter and heir of 
Fitz Hamon, a great Lord, (as Robert of Glocester, in the Library 
of the industrious Antiquary Master John Stow writeth,) when 
King Henry the First would have married her to his base son 
Robert, she first refusing answered : 

It were to me a great shame 

To have a Lord withouten his twa name. 

Whereupon the King his father gave him the name of Fitz Roy, 
who after was Earl of Glocester, and the only Worthy of his Age 
in England." 

As to the approxirpate date of the introduction of surnames in 
France we find, again, that Camden was not much out in his 
estimation when comparison is made with the investigatiops 6f French 
modern scholars. Monsieur H. de Gallier, in his essay on the Surnames, 
origin of proper names in ' La Revue,' Paris, 1901, shows that 

Earl of 

the heredity of names was not evident in France before the 11th 
century, and then was confined to the nobiHty. It is hardly neces- 
sary for me to dwell on the enormous influence which the inflow of 
Frenchmen into this country after the Conquest has had upon our 
nomenclature ; even a cursory perusal of this Dictionary is sufficient 
to show how large a proportion of our surnames had their origin on 
the other side of the English Channel. One feature is, however, 
worthy of special rema,rk : the form in our 1 3th- 1 4th century records 
is very often the present-day French form, which shows what little 
change a large number of surnames have undergone in France in 
the course of centuries. 

On the always interesting subject of British surnames derived 
from French place-names perhaps I may be allowed to quote 
here a note which I contributed to " Notes and Queries" in 1902 
(22nd Feb.) after a tour in Normandy : — • 

Surnames derived from French Towns (9th S-viii. 464 ; 
ix. 16).— As your querist seems to be interested in these, when 
next he is in Normandy he should take ^n opportunity of ex- 
amining the list of " Compagnons de Guillaume a la conqu6te de 
I'Angleterre' en mlxvi.," which he will find graven over the main 
doorway (inside) of t'he old church at Dives. He can there feast 
his eyes on famous Anglo-Norman names galore — Durand, 
GifFard, Talbot, Malet, de Venables, Tirel, de Colleville, Archer, 
Gibard, Gilbert, de Malleville, Basset, Lovvet, de Perci, de 
Manneville, de Vernon, de Laci, de Maci, de Chandos, Corbet, 
de Harcourt, de Mortemer, de Glanville, Maltravers, de Tilly, 
Bertran, &c. — that is to say, unless he choose the more comfort- 
able and fashionable occupation of lounging in the gateway of 
the old " Hostellerie de Guillaume le Conquerant" in,the Rue 
d'Hastings. The monument in the church was erected by the 
Societ6 Fran9aise d'Archeologie in August, 1862, just about a 
year after Arcisse de Caumont set up his celebrated " Colonne 
Commemorative" on the hill overlooking the mouth of the Dives, 
whence the Bastard started on his eventful voyage. 
Wales is the country of the British Isles which is poorest in sur- 
names. In the 16th Annual Report of the Registrar-General for Eng- 
land and Wales (1853) it isstated that the surnames of the Principality, 
if surnames they can be called, do not present the same variety 
[as in England], most of them having been formed in a simple manner 
from the Christian or forename of the father in the genitive case, 
'son' being understood. Thus, Evan's son became Evans, John's 
son Jones, &c. Others were derived from the father's name coalesced 
with a form of the word ap, 'son,' by which Hugh ap Howell became 
Powell, Evan ap Hugh became Pugh; and in like manner were 
formed nearly all the Welsh surnames beginning with the letters B 
Welsh and P. Hereditary surnames were not in use even among the gentry 
Surnames of Wales until the time of Henry VIII., nor were they generally 
established until a much later period ; indeed, at the present day they 
can scarcely be said to be adopted among the lower classes in the 
wilder districts, where, as the marriage registers show, the Christian 
name of the father still frequently becomes the patronymic of the 
son." Numerous stories are told of the fondness of the Welsh, up to 
a comparatively recent period, for lengthy surnames formed on the 


ap- or ah- (for Welsh mab, mutated fab. Old Welsh map, 'son') 
method; and the ensuing dialogue, from an Elizabethan play, may be 
taken as a type of these :— 

Judge. What bail ? What sureties ? - 

Davy. Her cozen ap Rice, ap Evan, ap Morice, ap Morgan, ap 
Lluellyn, ap Madoc, ap Meredith, ap Griffin, ap Davis, ap Owen, 
ap Shinkin [Jenkin] Jones. 

Judge. Two of the most sufficient are enow. 

Sheriff. An't please your Lordship, these are all BUT one! 

Which is the commonest Welsh surname ? The well-informed 
anonymous writer of an article on Welsh Surnames in " The Liver- 
pool Post" of 9th August, 1913, says that if the matter were gone 
into carefully it would probably be found that the most common 
Welsh surname was not Jones but Williams, and this would be found 
to be-particularly the case in North Wales. " In many a district 
Williamses, often not at all related to one another, are ridiculously 
numerous, and various expedients have to be adopted whereby to 
distinguish one family from another. Often, as in Scotland, a man 
gets to be known by the name of his house. He, a Williams, let us 
say, is known as Gwr Vron Wen,' the 'goodman of the white slope;' 
and the goodwife is known as Gwraig Vron Wen.' .... A recent 
standard work on Wales suggests inviting the Joneses and the 
Williamses to choose for themselves new names and getting them 
duly registered^by a new registration-authority proposed to be specially 
appointed for the purpose." 

The same writer does not neglect to dwell upon the Flemish names 
of South- West Wales. " In South Wales — scarcely at all in North 
Wales — are to be found surnames ending in -kin, such as Jenkin, 
Watkin, Hopkin. These names are interesting, for, though now 
borne by people thoroughly Welsh, the names are Flemish. In the 
reigns of Henry I. and Henry II. large numbers of Flemings from 
the Low Countries were settled in South Wales with the view, partly, 
of helping the Norman Lords- Marchers in the gradual conquest of 
that part of the Principality. It was the Flemings who brought in 
the names ending in -kin — the 'jenkin' or 'Little John,' the 'Watkin' 
or 'Little Walter,' the 'Hopkin' or 'Little Robert.' But no Flemings 
invaded North Wales, and so North Wales has no -kin." 

The editor of the 'Registra Antigua de Llantilio Crossenny et 
Penrhos iti Comitatu Monumethensi, 1577-1644.' (1917) says that 
at the period in question the use of surnames was just beginning to 
become general in Wales. ~ The entries in these Monmouthshire 
registers include cognomens like Gweydd, Meddyg, Saer and Rhodwr, 
that is, Weaver, Doctor, Carpenter and Wheelwright respectively. 
'The Registers of Conway, 1541-1793' (1900) record some patronymics 
that never came into general vogue, such as Bedward (ab Edward), 
'Borworth (ab lorwerth) and Bymphrey (ab Humphrey) ; Boumphrey 
being the present-day usual form. 

A useful list of Welsh and Welshified personal names (enwau 
personau), with their English equivalents, is given in the Anwyl- 
Spurrell Welsh Diet., ed. 1915. 

Cornish surnames form an interesting class ; but they have hitherto 
been inadequately dealt with. Bannister's well-known Glossary of 
Cornish Names' (1871) is rightfully described by Jenner, in a very 




Names of 

Names in 





Names as 

General on 
the Origin 
of Scottish 

useful and interesting chapter on the subject in his Handbook ^f the 
Cornish Language' (1904), as being of "so eminently uncritical a 
character as to be of little use." Nevertheless Bannister deserves 
credit for his industry and enterprise. 

The Registrar- General's Report already quoted says : — "From the 
circumstances of their common British origin it might be supposed 
that the Welsh people and the inhabitants of Cornwall would exhibit 
some analogous principles in the construction of their surnames ; 
such, however, is not the case. The Cornish surnames are mostly 
local, derived from words of British root ; and they are often strik- 
ingly peculiar. A large number have the prefix Tre, a town ; the 
words Pol, a pool. Pen, a head, Ros, a heath, and Lan, a church, are 
also of frequent occurrence in surnames." Jenner, referring to such 
famous Cornish names as Trelawny, Rosevear, Carlyon, and Penrose, 
truthfully remarks that "to the ordinary Saxon they sound highly 
aristocratic, and are introduced into modern 'up-country' novels in a 
way that is often amusing to a Cornishman." 

Much of a sound character has been written about Scottish names 
by writers north of the Tweed, but also much that is unsound ; and 
there are a few terrible gentlemen who find Gaelic origins for every- 
thing — even the commonest and best-known purely English names. 
One of the best books on the subject (at any rate as to Celtic names) 
is the 'Personal Names and Surnames of the Town of Inverness' 
(1895), by the late Alexander Macbain, author of an 'Etymological 
Gaelic Dictionary' (1911). He points out, in regard to the Celtic 
names recorded in the I4th-15th centuries, that most of the patrony- 
mics given are not real surnames. 'Henry Fynlasone, bailie of 
Inverness (1475-8), is not really a Clan Finlayson man, for he is 
otherwise called Henry Fynlaw (Gaelic Eanraig Fhionnlaigh, Henry 
Finlay's, i.e., Henry of Finlay). This is still a common way in 
Gaelic for patronymic definition ; for instance, John, son of Thomas, 
may be either Iain Thomais (John Tom's) or Iain Mac-Thomais." 

Macbain enlarges upon the common custom in Scotland of calling 
a farmer or laird by the name of his farm or estate. "Thus, we speak 
of Netherton, Ballintomb, &c., when we mean the tenant or pro- 
prietor. The abuse of this style of speech and writing was carried 
so far that farmers often signed their letters and documents by their 
farm-names — a privilege which noblemen and clerics in high place 
alone possess. An Act was passed in the 17th century forbidding the 
practice. Illegal as it is, we still speak of Cluny and Lochiel, and, 
as they are associated with the heroic period of our Highland history, 
these names are, practically, part of ourselves, and must abide with 

In the 6th Report of the Registrar- General for Scotland we find 
the following remarks on the origin of Scottish surnames : — "Almost 
all the names of our Border and Highland Clans belong to the class 
of surnames derived from patronymics, and they are peculiarly 
Scottish", neither belonging to England nor to Ireland. These sur- 
names include all those beginning with Mac, as Macgregor, 
Mactaggart, etc., besides the simple ones, as Fraser, Cameron, 

Grant, &c The surnames derived from rank and occupation 

are very numerous, but are equally common to England as to Scot- 
land Surnames taken from the locality in which the persons 


originally resided form a very numerous class, and they also are, to 
a great extent, peculiar to Scotland, seeing that there is scarcely a 
county, parish, town, river, or remarkable locality but has its name 

perpetuated in the surnames The sobriquets perpetuated as 

surnames are, perhaps, the most varied of all, and embrace every 
personal or mental quality supposed to reside in the different individ- 
uals to whom they were originally given." 

Mr. G. M. Fraser, the Aberdeen public librarian, in 'The Aber- 
donians and other Lowland Scots' (1914) says that in Aberdeen (as 
in other Lowland Scottish towns) the use of surnames began in the 
12th century. "Prior to that time persons of English blood were 
distinguished in various ways — John the Smith, Richard the Mason, 
Adam son of John, David son of Alice, and so on. Or they would 
be distinguished by the place of origin — John de Kintor, Adam de 
Fyfe, William de Mearns, and so forth." 

In 1899 statistics were published of the comparative prevalence of 
the principal Scottish surnames. The leading position held by the 
name Smith is noteworthy. It should, however, be remembered that 
very frequently in Scotland Smith is a translation of the synonymous 
Gaelic Gow, Gowan, and Caird: — In Glasgow every 130th person 
is a Campbell, every 129th a Wilson, every 128th a Robertson ; 1 in 
every 125 is a Miller, 1 in 124 a Thomson; 1 in 121 answers to 
Brown, while Smith easily takes premier place with 1 in every 88. 
Smith is likewise first, and still more popular, in Edinburgh, the pro- 
portion being almost 1 in 50 ; Brown numbers 1 in 59, and Robertson 
1 in 62. Then a long way off comes Stewart, 1 in 98, with Ross, 
Campbell, and Clark practically equal at a score of points more. In 
Dundee, where every 72nd man is of the great family of Smith, that 
name just beats Robertson, closely attended in turn by Thomson, 
Scott, and Stewart. Brown is quite overshadowed by even such 
names as Nicoll, Fleming and Low. Smith and Miln run neck and 
neck in Aberdeen, with Davidson close up, the figures respectively 
being 1 in 47, 48, and 51. In Perth, Stewart just beats Young for 
first place. Smith being third a long way behind. Inverness still 
more revolutionises Lowland statistics. Every 33rd person there is 
a Fraser, every 43rd a Macdonald, every 48th & Mackenzie. Smith 
is quite uncommon at 1 in 270. In Ayr, again. Smith has most re- 
sponders, with 1 in 80. Smith and Maxwell are inseparable in Dum- 
fries, Wilson being a good third." 

The great prevalence of certain leading surnames in various towns 
and villages in Scotland has led to the introduction of an organized 
system of distinctive nicknames, this especially being necessary 
where many persons bearing the same surname also indulge in the 
same Christian name. In 'Notes and Queries,' 22nd May, 1915, Sir 
Herbert Maxwell draws attention to an article in 'Blackwood's 
Magazine,' March, 1842, on the subject of these 'tee-names,' as they 
are sometimes called, "it seems that there were then in the little 
seaport of Buckie no fewer than twenty-five males rejoicing in the 
name of George Cowie, distinguished from each other as Carrot, 
Doodle, Neep, Biglugs, Beauty, Bam, Helldom', CoUop, Stoattie, 
Snuffers, Rochie, Toothie, Todlowrie, &c. The writer of the article' 
vouches for the following story being authentic: — 

■ vii. 

Period of 
Origin of 

tive Pr;eva- 
lence of 


in Scotland 

A stranger had occasion to call on a fisherman of the name of 
Alexander White, but he was ignorant both of his house and his tee- 
name Meeting a girl, he asked : — 

'Could ye tell me fa'r Sanny Fite lives?' 
'Filk [which] Sanny Fite?' 
'Muckle Sanny Fite.' 
Filk muckle Sanny Fite?' 
'Muckle lang Sanny Fite.' 
'Filk muckle lang Sanny Fite?' 
'Muckle lang gleyed [squinting] Sanny Fite.' 
'O, it's Goup-the-lift [stare-at-the-sky] ye're seeking,' cried the 
girl; 'and fat the deevil for dinna ye speer [inquire] for the man by 
his richt name at ance!'" 

The writer of an article on Distinction-Names' in Chambers's 
Journal,' 11th Sept. 1897, discusses the surname-troubles of a certain 
small Scotch fishing-town, where the so-called streets have (or had) 
no names, the houses no numbers, and the cognomina are dis- 
tinguished by their sameness. Here a skipper may be known by 
the name of his boat, but more frequently by his wife's maiden-name. 
Surname which is the one used for postal purposes ; and this latter usage seems 
Troubles of to be very general. " But this would not. always be sufficient. It 
a Scotch frequently happens that the distinction is already in use. For ex- 
Fishing ample, when James Foster married Katie Logie, there wa'S already 
Town a James Foster (Logie) in the village, and he was forced to find 
another distinction. He accordingly called himself James Foster 
(Katie). That is, if the surname is in use, the husband assumes the 
Christian name of his wife. Thus we have John Thomson (Helen) 
and John Thomson (Isabel). It not unfrequently happens that both 
the surname and Christian name of his wife are in use ; then the 
newly-married man must find another suitable distinction. Two 
plans are open. He may fake both the names or retain his mother's. 
The former plan is clumsy, and leads to confusion. Still, either 
through fondness of their wives or from necessity, some adopt it, and 
several names run in this form, Andrew Walker (Euphemia Deas)." 
A list of Gaelic and Gaelicized personal names, with their English 
equivalents, is given in M 'Alpine's Gaelic Dictionary, ed. 1898. 

The surname-confusion referred to above is by no means confined 
to Scottish fishing towns and villages. The Southport Guardian,' 
3rd December, 1913, contained a report of a supper to fishermen 
Surname and boatmen from the district of Marshside, in the borough of South- 
Confusion port. Here a few surnames (such as Wright, Ball, Sutton, and 
not peculiar Rimmer) have to suffice for almost the whole population. At the 
to Scotland: supper in question no fewer than thirty-one men of the name Wright 
A Lanca- were present. Of these twelve bore the Christian name John ; 
shire in- five, William ; four, Thomas ; four, Robert ; two, Henry ; and two, 
stance Richard; and, in consequence, the above-named Wrights and others 
are distinguished in the newspaper-report by the following nick- 
names in brackets after the name proper : — Toffy, Clogger, Wheel, 
Stem, Pluck, Diamond, Shrimp, Hutch, Cock, Sweet, Pantry, Few, 
Pen, Fash, Mike, Willox, Strodger, Daddy, Smiler, Nice, Jenny's, 
Manty, Fullsea, Music, Owd Ned, Margery, Buskin, Orchard, Sifi, 
and Muff. 

The Irish name-system is elaborate and somewhat comphcated; but 
it is extremely interesting. And Ireland is very fortunate in having 
a Registrar- General (Sir Robert E. Matheson) who has taken the 
deepest interest in its surnames and their origins, as is evidenced by 
his valuable publications (mentioned hereafter) on the subject, which 
have received encomiums from the highest quarters. But this Irish 
name-system has hitherto had only sporadic etymological treatment; 
and there is, for example, no work on the surnames of Ireland com- 
parable with the late Dr. Joyce's well-known two volumes of Irish 
Names of Places' (7th ed., 1898). This publication, however, con- 
tains two excellent, chapters on, respectively, Irish personal and 
family-names, and Irish nicknames. An exceedingly useful little 
work on Irish names and surnames is Mr. de Wulf's Sloinnte 
Gaedheal is Gall' (1906). It contains, besides a long and valuable 
historical introduction, separate alphabetical lists of Christian names 
and surnames with their Irish forms (in Irish characters). Donovan's 
papers on Irish family-names, printed in the 'Irish Penny Journal,' 
184-0-1, were formerly much quoted; and there are numerous eluci- 
datory notes on personal names in the 'Annals of the Four Masters,' a 
work of extraordinary value, the full name-indexes to which have been 
of the greatest help to me. 

The early Irish, like the Anglo-Saxons, had usually only one name ; 
but sometimes, also as in the case of the Anglo-Saxons, a surname 
was added for the sake of distinction. The additional name was cus- 
tomarily a nickname from some personal peculiarity, or a patronymic 
formed by prefixing either mac, 'son', to the father's name, which was 
then put in the genitive case, or d, or ua, 'grandson', to the. grand- 
father's name, which was then similarly inflected. Some of these 
early personal names, like Aodh, Brian, Cian, Conchobhar, Domhnall, 
Donnchadh, Eochaidh, and Eoghan (in the Irish-character forms 
the h is represented by a dot over the preceding letter), have been in 
uninterrupted use from the earliest period of which there is any 
record down to the present day; and the majority, although long ob- 
solete as Christian names, are still preserved as surnames. ''Proba- 
bly," says de Wulf, "all the names in use in Ireland before the fifth 
century were of native origin ; but from that period onwards foreign 
names have been borrowed from time to time from the various nations 
with which Ireland was brought into contact, directly or indirectly, 
in the course of her history. A number of names of Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew origin came in with Christianity. They were almost ex- 
clusively Biblical names and the names of the first Christian mission- 
aries ; but, strange to say, they were not adopted, to any considerable 
extent, as Christian names by our Gaelic ancestors. Even the name 
of the National Apostle, which is now so common, did not come into 
general use until a comparatively late period, and its adoption even 
then was due to Danish and English influence. The first Irishman 
of whom we have record as bearing the-name was Patrick O'Murray, 
Abbot of SS. Peter and Paul's Church at Armagh, who is mentioned 
in the Annals at the year 1255. Forms derived from these names 
by prefixing Maol [Shaven One, i.e. Monk] and Giolla [Servant] were, 
however, common in Ireland from early Christian times." 

Irish surnames proper came into use gradually from about the 
middle of the tenth century, and were formed, as shown above, by 



Early Irish 


Period and 
Method of 
tion of 


tion of 





in Ireland 




est Irish 

prefixing O', or Ua-, to the grandfather's name, or Mac- to the 
father's, which names may have been occupative, as well as purely 
personal. That the mediaeval Irish were well acquainted with the 
meaning of their names is sufficiently proved by the frequency with 
which they interchanged them with others of similar signification. 
Many Irish families have two surnames derived from different ances- 
tors ; and some have two surnames, one of which begins with O', 
the other with Mac-. Mac- surnames are, on the whole, of somewhat 
later formation than O' surnames. 

Most Irish names and surnames were Anglicized during the second 
half of the 16th century. This Anglicization seems to have been the 
work of Anglo- Irish Government officials who possessed, in some 
cases, a knowledge of Irish. 'The Anglicized form was in most in- 
stances originally much nearer the Irish f)ronunciation than at present, 
owing partly to a change in the sound of the English letters, and 
partly to the corruption of the Irish forms. Thus O'Brien and O'Neill 
were originally pronounced O'Breen and O'Nail." 

Nicknames are very common in Ireland. "Arriong the rural popu- 
lation in many parts of the country," says Joyce, "almost every third 
man is known by some name besides his ordinary surname and Christ- 
ian name. Sometimes these epithets are hereditary, and commemorate 
some family peculiarity or tradition ; but more often they describe a 
personal characteristic of the individual. Sometimes they carry re- 
proach, and are not used except to insult ; but very often they are quite 
inoffensive, and are accepted as a matter of course and with perfect 
good humour. I knew a village where more than half the people were 
familiarly known by nicknames, which were always used, the proper 
names being hardly ever mentioned." 

Some examples of these sobriquets were given in a paper on the 
Ulster Dialect (chiefly Donegal) which was read in 1899 before the 
Philological Society (London) by Mr. H. C. Hart. "Nicknames are 
frequent. 'Sally Look-up' had a squint. 'Paddy Polite' polished 
manners. 'Susey Fluke' was a fisherwoman. James CuUiagh was 
the son of a famous culliagh, or cockfighter. Gallagher is so common 
a name in Fanet that substitutes have to be found for it. One 
Gallagher is called 'Bowers' for the sole reason that he used to have 
a friend of that name with him ; this has descended to his son. Other 
Gallaghers, who live on a low-lying farm, are known as the 'Lowlys.' 
In Inishtrahull the name Gallagher is almost universal ; so they adopt 
three generations of Christian names, Con-Dan-Owen,' i.e.. Con, son 
of Dan, son of Owen." 

In his 'Special Report on Surnames in Ireland,' issued as a Blue 
Book in 1894 (when he was Assistant Registrar-General), and as a Sta- 
tionery Office publication in 1909, the present Registrar-General, 
Sir Robert Matheson, prints a table of 100 of the chief surnames 
(including variants) in Ireland, together with the estimated population 
(1890 figures) bearing each surname. The first 20, in numerical 
order, are: Murphy, Kelly, Sullivan, Walsh, Smith, O'Brien, Byrne, 
Ryan, Connor, O'Neill, Reilly, Doyle, McCarthy, Gallagher, Doherty, 
Kennedy, Lynch, Murray, Quinn, Moore. This list shows the ex- 
tent to which the prefixes Mac- and O' have been lost. As de Wulf 
says, "most surnames have been mutilated by dropping Mac- or O', 
and Mac- when retained is usually, but incorrectly, written Mc- or M'," 


Only one of the 20 Irish names given above figures in the first 
20 English and Welsh commonest surnames, according to the Report 
for 1853 of the Registrar-General for England and Wales: that one 
is the ubiquitous Smith, which is first in England (as in Scotland), 
the remaining 19, in numerical order, being: Jones, Williams, Taylor, 
Davies, Brown, Thomas, Evans, Roberts, Johnson, Wilson, Robinson, 
Wright, Wood, Thompson, Hall, Green, Walker, Hughes, Edwards. 

As the Irish Registrar-General points out, it is impossible now, in 
some cases, to trace whether families are of Celtic or- English descent 
as some of the English settlers took Irish names and Irish families 
were compelled to adopt English surnames ; and he quotes a Statute 
of 1366, which provided, inter alia, that Englishmen were to use 
the English language and English names, discarding Irish nomen- 
clature entirely, "in 1465 (5 Ed. IV., cap. 3), a law was passed 
enacting 'that every Irishman that dwells betwixt or amongst English- 
men in the County of Dublin, Myeth, Vriell, and Kildare .... shall 
take to him an English Surname of one town, as Sutton, Chester, 
Trym, Slcryne, Corke, Kinsale ; or colour, as white, blacke, browne ; 
or arte or science, as smith or carpenter; or office, as cooke, butler . . .' " 
But, notwithstanding this enactment, surnames derived from native 
place-names are exceedingly rare in Ireland, as they are in Wales. 

A writer on the subject of Irish nomenclature in 'The Athenaeum,' 
17th May, 1902, says: "in Irish history both processes are found — 
English settlers adopted Irish names and customs for safety where 
they were in a small minority ; Irish people adopted English trans- 
lations of their names by way of aspiration to polite manners and 
more aristrocratic society." 

In his 'Varieties and Synonyiiies of Surnames and Christian Names 
in Ireland' (1901), Sir Robert Matheson dwells upon the difficulties 
encountered by persons searching the Indexes at the General Regis- 
ter Office, Dublin, owing to the great variations in names in Ireland. 
"These variations are not only in spelling and form, but entirely 
different names are used synonymously by the same person or by 
members of the same family. Many of these cases are direct trans- 
lations of Irish names into English, or vice versa, while in others 
they are equivalents, modifications, or corruptions of them. In a 
country where two diflTerent languages are spoken it might be ex- 
pected some such cases would occur, but in Ireland the practice is 
mufch more widespread that is commonly supposed. In addition to 
the changes attributable to the difference of language, time has a 
powerful effect in altering names, which have also a tendency to 
assume various forms in different districts. Illiteracy also operates 
in corrupting names, while they are also frequently varied in spelling 
and form at pleasure." 

Manx names are a small but interesting class; and they are ade- 
quately dealt with in the late A. W. Moore's 'Surnames and 
Place-Names of the Isle of Man' (2nd ed. 1903). The Island has 
a threefold nomenclature, in consonance with its history: (1) Celtic 
(Gaelic), (2) Scandinavian, (3) EngHsh. In a paper on Manx Gaelic 
read before the Philological Society (London) in 1902, Mr. R. W. 
Heaton lamented the rapid decay of the language, as shown by the 
fact that whereas in 1821, out of a population of 40,000, at least half 
were able to spea.k their mother-tongue, at the language-census of 

with the 
est English 
and Welsh 

Doubt as 
to Irish or 




of Irish 


1901 less than a tenth of the natives returned themselves as bi- 
linguists, in spite of a vigorous movement for a revival of Manx 
Gaelic as a spoken language. 

A leading feature of the Gaelic nomenclature of the Isle of Man is 

the number of names beginning with C, K, or Q — a relic of the 'son' 

C-, K-, and prefix Mac-. The Registrar-General for Ireland, in the 'Special Re- 

Q- names port' already referred to, says that on visiting the Island he was 

in Man ' much struck by the peculiar forms many names had assumed there, 

differing from those found in Ireland, though evidently derived from 

the same source. Thus, the name 'Clucas' is the Manx form of Lucas, 

both names being derived from the Celtic MacLucais — Son of Luke. 

Cannell,' a name peculiar to the Isle of Man, is from the Celtic 

MacConaill — Son of Conall. The Irish modern form is M'Connell. 

Kermode,' another Manx name, is contracted from the Celtic name 

MacDiarmaid, Son of Diarmaid — Irish modern form M'Dermott. 

'Mylchreest' 'is from the Celtic Mac Giolla Chriosd — Son of the 

Servant of Christ. The modern Irish form is Gilchrist." Quilliam, 

again, is for MacWilliam. 

mic End 

A necessarily sketchy survey of the surnames of these Islands be- 
ing, thus concluded, it may be well to glance briefly at one or two 
leading features of the name-systems of other countries, beginning 
with what is perhaps the leading characteristic, the patronymic 
suffixes. The common Danish cognate, -sen (for son or seen), of our 
-son termination is not confined to Denmark; it occurs in parts 
of- North Germany (for Low Ger. son) and Holland (for zoon, 
usually, however, suffixed as -zon). One famous Danish -sen name, 
Thorwaldsen, recalls the part which the great sculptor plays, as a 
ings poor little scullion, in Hans Andersen's 'Children's Prattle.' The 
chamberlain's proud little daughter, it will be remembered, haughtily 
proclaimed at the party (according to one of the standard English 
translations) that 'those whose names end in 'sen' are not worth 
knowing; they are of no account at all: one must put one's arms 
akimbo and make these sens' keep their distance." And the boy 
menial, peeping at the party from behind the door, is depressed : "his 
father's name, and therefore his own name too, ended in 'sen'; so 
that he was of no account; he could never come to any good." 

The Danish Jansen (see the writer's 'Glossary of the Principal 
Foreign Names found in British Directories' for this and other' 
names) is in Holland proper Janzon or Jantzon. The family of the 
German scholar Mommsen came from the former Danish province 
of Schleswig. The Danish Nielsen has been wrongly equated by 
some Continental writers with the Dutch Cornelissen. The (High) 
German -sohn (as in Mendelssohn, Davidsohn, etc.) is, however, mod- 
ern, and generally an affix to Jewish names. A curious exception to the 
Teutonic -son patronymics occurs in Frisian, in which -ma, cognate 
with Anglo-Saxon mdga, 'son,' is used. 

There has been much discussion as to the origin of the Spanish 
name-genitive in -ez (as in Mendez, Fernandez, etc.). Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte decided that it was Basque ; a German writer on nomen- 
clature affirmed that it represented the Latin -ictus ; Diez maintained 
that it was Gothic. I do not think there is any doubt that it is the 
Old Teutonic genitive suffix -es (Gothic„-is). 

Other interesting Continental equivalents include the Roumanian 
-escu,-esco ; the Hungarian -fi, -f)fy {fiii, 'boy,' 'son') ; the Slavonic 
-vich, -evich, -ich {-vitch, -evitch, -itch), -eff, -ev ; the Armenian -tan ; 
the Gr. -ides (-iSrjs) and the later ■{o)poulo(s (Mod. Gr. »oO\os=Anc. 
Gr. ttCXos, 'young man,' 'son'); etc. The Polish termination -ski, it 
may parenthetically be mentioned, is an adjectival suffix to surnames 
derived from place-names : thus Poznanski=German Posener. 

The mention above of German-Jewish names reminds us of the 
extraordinary nomenclature which was compulsorily inflicted on the 
Semites in Austria and Germany (also to some extent in France) in 
the later years of the 18th and the early years of the 19th century. 
This bizarre nomenclature is a never-failing source of astonishment 
and amusement to those Britons who have learned German and 
attempt to translate the names. It is true that the persistence with 
which the Jews stuck to their single Hebrew names had, with the 
increase of population, become a nuisance to the States mentioned ; but 
the casual inethod adopted in surnaming the Jewish population — viz., 
in Austria (1787) by means of small committees presided over by a 
stallmeister (riding-master), which worked in a great hurry in order to 
get the troublesome business over, has always been a sore point with a 
large number of the jiominees, particularly those who were sent away 
from the committees with comical, and in some cases outrageous, sur- 
names. Thus Kleinpaul in his 'Deutsche Personennamen' (1909) tells 
(p. 11 8^ a story of two Jews coming out of the Police-Office and discuss- 
ing the respective family-names which had just been given to them : 
One of them had wisely released a little cash privately over the 
transaction, and had received a correspondingly respectable name — 
Weisheit (Wisdom). The other had to be more or less content with 
Schweisshund (Bloodhound). "Why Schweisshund? " said the first ; 
"hast thou not paid enough?" "Gott und die Welt!" returned the 
second Israelite, "I gave half my fortune to have the one letter w put 
in" — which -meant, euphoniously speaking, that an attempt had been 
made, in the first place, to impose on the unfortunate individual a 
German equivalent of 'Dirty-dog.' Other quaint German-Jewish 
names dating from this period of compulsion are Eselshaupt (Ass's- 
head), Rindskopf (Ox-head), Kohlkopf (Cabbage-head, i.e.. Block- 
head), Kanarienvogel (Canary-bird), Zentnerschwer (Hundred- 
weight-heavy), Himmelblau (Sky-blue), Susskind (Sweet - child : 
needless to say ironical), Kirschrot (Cherry-red), Temperaturwechsel 
(Change-of-temperature), Kanalgeruch (Canal - smell), Kiissemich 
(Kiss -me), Muttermilch (Mother's-milk), Mandelbliith (Almond- 
blossom) ; while, in some cases, nonsensical names were bestowed 
through misunderstandings, as, for example, when a Jew named 
Ephraim went to the Police-Office at Frankfort-on-Main : "Wie 
heissen Sie?'' (What's your name?) demanded the official (meaning 
his existing Jewish name). "I weiss net, rothen Sie's" (I don't 
know ; help me out with it) unluckily replied the son of Shem in his 
Jewish-German dialect, which, in the hurify, was not properly grasped 
by the committee. "Very well, you are named Ephraim Rothensies' ' 
was the verdict. Of course many of the Jews received unobjection- 
able names like Hirsch (Hart), Lowe (Lion), Wolf, Silber (Silver), 
Rubinstein (Ruby-stone), Bernstein (Amber), Goldstern (Gold-star), 
etc. : it was only when the changes had been rung indefinitely on 


German - 

ally Out- 
Names y 







these and similar names that the officials were more or less driven to 
bestowing fanciful and ridiculous family- names; although, in extreme 
cases, there is little doubt that personal prejudice played a great part 
in the decisions of the committees. 

Of all the ancients the Romans had by far the most elaborately de- 
veloped name-system. Theupperclassesusuallyhad three names: first, 
the praenomen, corresponding to our Christian name ; second, the 
nomen proper, sometimes called the nomen gentilicium, i.e., the family- 
name : third, the cognomen, or agnomen, i.e., the surname ; although 
where there were four names the last was the agnomen. Thus in 
the name Caius Julius Caesar, Caius was the praenomen, Julius the 
nomen proper, or gentile or family name, Caesar the cognomen. In 
the case of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the last name was 
the agnomen ; but cognomen was sometimes used for agnomen, as 
in "Scipio, cognomine Africanus." The Romans freely used what 
we call nicknames (properly ekenames). Thus Quintus Fabius 
Maximus had no fewer than three at different periods of his life : . 
firstly, Verrucosus (Lat. verruca, a wart), from a wart on his lip ; 
secondly, Agnicula (Lat. agnus, a lamb), from his gentleness; thirdly, 
Cunctator (Delayer), from his guerilla tactics against Hannibal. But 
the Latins had no single word for our nickname as expressing con- 
tempt : their equivalent for this was nomen contumeliosum or 
ignominiosum ; therefore the historians commonly say that Fabius 
was "surnamed" (cognominatus) Verrucosus, or Cunctator. Cog- 
nomentum was sometimes used for cognomen. 

As we all know, English names were often Latinized in our mediaeval 
records. Lists of these have been collected and printed at various 
times — e.g. in Nicolas's 'Notitia Historica' (1824), in Lower's 
'Essays on English Surnames' (4th ed. 1875), and in the various 
editions of Wright's 'Court-Hand Restored.' Many Latinizations 
will be found in my Dictionary under the corresponding surnames. 
Occasionally these Latinizations are useful from an etymological 
point of view ; at other times they are misleading. 

To go further afield something should be said about the personal 
nomenclature of our great Indian Dependency. From time to time 
experts in this subject have made interesting contributions to that 
very useful repository, 'Notes and Queries,' from which I beg leave 
to quote, "it may be taken as a general rule", says one of several 
correspondents writing in the issue of 27th March, 1909, "that among 
themselves no genuine native of India, whether Mohammedan, Hindu, 
Sikh, or Christian, has a surname in the European sense. When any 
such native travels to Europe, Europe insists, for its own conveni- 
ence, that he should have a surname like other people. The Indian 
native cannot but submit, as he submits to other strange customs of 
dress, food, &c. ; but he submits with amusement. The Brahmin 
Ramaswami Iyengar and the Sudra Ranga Pillai become to the 
British tradesmen and others R. Iyengar, Esq., and R. Pillai, Esq., 
the British not knowing that Iyengar and Pillai are mere caste and 

social honorifics Names of genuine Indians are purely personal. 

Only official designations are hereditary." But, writes another cor- 
respondent, "the Parsees have heritable surnames exactly as we have : 
Mundvawala, Kolhapurewala, Petit, Bharucha, Billimoria, Ready- 
money, &c." 


"The Muslimin", said the late W. F. Prideaux, "have no patron- 
ymics [this applies also to the Muslim Turks], but are occasionally 
designated after the names of their birthplace or tribe, e.g., Saiyid 
Husain Bilgrami, a member of the Indian Council, called after the 
town of Belgaum, or Ahmed Durrani, after the Afghan tribe. Mah- 
rattas, in addition to surnames in -kar, have often hereditary names 
derived from occupations, as Gaekwar, a cow-tender." 

The late Jas. Piatt, Jr., had an interesting note in the issue of 
'N. and Q.' of 15th June, 1907, on the word 'Ramsammy.' "it is 
curious,' ' he remarks, "that this word should have acquired the sense 
of a drunken spree. It is very well known as a slang-term applied by 
Europeans to Hindus, much as we call a Scotchman Sandy or Saw- 
ney. It is derived from the common Hindu personal name Ram- 
sammy, more correctly Ramaswamy, 'devotee of the god Rama.' 
There are other names of the same termination, such as Krishna- 
swamy, 'devotee of the god Krishna.' Indian Mohammedans do not 
use these names, but have a similar class formed with the prefix 
'Ghulam.' Among my correspondents I count a Ghulam Rasull 
('servant of the Prophet' ) and a Ghulam Mohi-ud-din ('servant of the 
saint Mohi-ud-din')." 

It is not a far cry from India to China. The following information as 
to Chinese names is extracted from "Chinese Characteristics" (1897, 
p. 56), by Arthur H. Smith : — " It certainly appears singular that 
an eminently practical people like the Chinese should be so inexact 
in regard to their own personal names as observation indicates them 
to be. It is very common to find these names written now with one 
character and again with another, and either, we are informed, will 
answer. But this is not so confusing as the fact that the same man 
often has several different names, his family-name, his 'style,' and, 
strange to say, a wholly different one, used only on registering for 
admission to literary examinations. It is for this reason not un- 
common for a foreigner to mistake one Chinese for two or three. 
The names of Villages are not less uncertain, sometimes appearing 
in two or even three entirely different forms, and none of them is 
admitted to be more 'right' than another. If one should be an 
acknowledged corruption of- another, they may be employed inter- 
changeably ; or the correct name may be used^in official papers and 
the other in ordinary speech ; or yet again, the corruption may be 
used as an adjective, forming with the original appellation a compound 

Two examples of curious nomenclatural customs among savages 
may serve to close this essay. In Madagascar, according to 'The 
Church Abroad,' Jan. 1915, a Malagasy child "is not called after his 
father but the father calls himself after his child, changing his name ; 
for instance, a man who has a son called Rakato will take the name 
Rainikoto, 'the father of Rakato' — the father was known formerly 
as Rabe." The Murray Islanders, it appears from the 'Reports of 
the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits' (vol. 
vi. 1908), have a "multiplicity of names belonging to each individual, 
one of these names being particularly private, special to the man 
himself, and mentioned with great reluctance." 

Hy. Harrison. 





The Committee on the Indexing of Archceological Transactions 
appointed by the Congress of Archceological Societies published in 
1899 the following recommendations: — 

That surnames with the Norman prefix 'de,' e.g., 'd'Amori,' 'da 
Bohun,' 'd'Eyncourt,' 'de Lisle,' 'de la Tour' (which have often 
become anglicized by coalescing, as 'Deincourt,' 'Darell,' 'Dela- 
motte,' &c.), be indexed under D, with cross-references to the eventual 
surname, under which the references will be given, as 'de Braose, see 
Braose;' 'de Vere, see Vere.' 

That surnames with the [English] prefix 'atte,' e.g., 'atte Field,' 
'atte Tree,' 'atte Teye,' &c;, be indexed under those forms, but that 
a cross-reference be appended in each case to the form without the 
prefix, as 'atte Green, see also Green,' and Green, see also atte 
Green.' This rule will apply also in case of such prefixes as 'o' the,' 
'in the,' &c. 

That surnames with the [Norman] prefix 'Fitz,' e.g., 'Fitz Hugh,' 
'Fitzalan,' and [Latin] 'Fil. Johannis,' be indexed only under 'Fitz,' 
except that such a case as 'John Fitz Richard of Loughton' be in- 
dexed under 'Fitz Richard' and 'Loughton.' It should be clearly 
understood that this is only a convention for index purposes, and does 
not determine the actual form of the surname. Names prefixed by 
[Welsh] 'Ap,' [Gaelic and Irish] 'Mac,' [Irish] 'O',' [Dutch] 'Van,' or 
[German] 'Von' should be indexed under those prefixes. 

That surnames like 'Le Strange,' 'I'Estrange,' 'le Tyler,' Ac, be 
indexed under L, with cross-references to the true surname, under 
which the references will be given, as 'le Tyler, see Tyler'. 

That the names of sovereigns be indexed under the personal 
name, with the numerical title when it occurs, followed by (emperor), 
(king), &c., e.g. 'Henry VIII. (king),' 'Elizabeth (queen),' 'Maud 

That names of bishops be indexed under their sees, abbots, &c., 
under their abbeys, princes and peers under their titles, and so forth, 
with cross-references from their proper names; and saints xmder 
their personal names, e.g., 'Agatha (Saint)' ; but surnames and place- 
names derived from saints should be indexed under the full name, as 
"St. Ives,' 'St. Pancras,' 



MAAS, V. the Appendix of Foreign Names. 

MAB(B (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a dim. olMaiel or Amabel, 
„ Lat. Amabilis = Amiable, Lovable [Lat. 

(Celt.) occ. the Wei. mab = Son. 

"I = Mabb I (q.v.) + the Fr. 
\ dim. ^uff. -et, -ot. 

r -x 

\ for Mabley, q.v. 


MABBS, Mabb's (Son) : v. Mabb- 


MABEY 1 = Mab (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y, 
MABIE \ -ie. 

MABLEY, for the earlier il/a6i7!>, Mabely {La.t. 
amabil-is, amiable, with E. dim. suff.-ji,-;*.] 

MABON (A.-Fr.-Lat.) 
Fr, dim. suff. -on. 

(Celt.) Youth; Hero 
Mabon ab Modron. — : 

'Kulhwchac Olwen' 

MABSON = Mab's Son : v. Mab 

Mab(b I (q.v.) + the 
[Wei. mabon] 
: Mabinogion. 

MAC- (Celt.) Son (of) 

[Ir. and Gael.] 

MAC ADAM (Celt, and Heb.) Son of Adam : 
V. Adann. 

MACAIRE (A.-Fr.-Gr.) Blessep, Prosperous 

[Gr. Maxdpiotl 

MACALESTER (Celt. + Gr.) Son of 
MAC ALISTER ■ Alister or Alaster = 
MAC ALLESTER Alexander, q.v. [Gael. 
MAC ALLISTER I ,., Alasdair] 

MAC ALAVEY 1 „ ., , 
MAC ALEAVEY r- '^^"'-^^^y 

MAC ALL for MaoCall, q.v. 

MAC ALLAN (Celt.) Son of Allan, q.v. 

MACJALLEN (Celt.) Son of Allen, q.v. 

MACALLUM (Celt,) for MaoCallum, q.v. 

MAC ALPIN \ (Celt.) SoN of Alpin: v.Alpin 

MACAN \r „ ^ 
MACANN/^""^ MaoCann, q.v. 

MAC ANDREW (Celt.-Gr.) Son of Andrew 
V. Andrew. 

MAC ARD (Celt.) = Mao Art, q'.v. 

MAC ARDLE (Celt.) Son of Ardghal = 

Mighty or Noble Valour [Ir. and Gael. 

ard, noble, etc. + the asp. form of gal, 

valour, battle] 

MAC ART (Celt.) Son of Art = Stone, or 
Noble, Exalted. i 

See Arthur 2- 

MAC ARTHUR (Celt.) Son of Arthur : v. 
Arthur 2- 

MAC ATEER, a form of Mao Intyre, q.v. 

MAC AULAY -. (Celt.+Scand.)'SGNOFOLAF= 

MAC AULEY [Ancestral Relic [Gael. Mac 

MAC AWLEY > Amhlaidh or Amhlaoibh — mac, 

son ; O.N. Olaf — di, great grandfather 

+ lei/, relic] 

(Celt.) Son of Aulay or AOley [Gael. 

and Ir. Mac Amhalghadha] 

Mac Auliffe 

Mac Connell 

MAC AULIFFE (Celt-Scand.) v. Mac Au'lay. MAC CARTIN, v. Mao Garten. 

MAC AVOY (Celt.) i Son of Aedh the Yel- 
low-Haired [Ir. and Gael. Mac Aedha 
Bhuidhe-.v. Mackay; buidke, yeWow] 
2 Son of the Servant of theYellow- 
H AIRED [Ir. and Gael. Mac Gille Bhttidhe] 

MAC BAIN (Celt.) i Son of Bain, q.v. 
2 for Mac Bean, q.v. 

MAC BEAN (Celt.) Son of Beatha = Life 

[Gael, mac, son + beathan (th mute), genit. 

of beatha, life] 

MAC BEATH 1 (Celt.) Son of Life [Gael, mac, 
MAC BETH J son of ; beatha, life] 

MAC BRIDE l(Celt.) Son of Brigit : v. 
MAC BRYDE f Bridget. 

MAC BRIEN (Celt.) Son of Br-ien, q.v. 

MAC CABE ('Celt.-Lat.-Gr.-Syr.) Son of the 
Abbot [Ir. and Gael. Mac Aba — mac, son 
-I- aba{dh, geiiit. of ab, abbot] 
Cp. Mc Nab. 


MAC CAIG (Celt.) v. Mac Kaig. ' 

MAC CALL (Celt.) Son of Cathal = War, 

Warrior [Gael. Mac Cathail — mac, son 

-I- cathail, genit. of cathal, warrior : 

cath, war] 

MAC CALLAN for Mac Allan, q.v. 

MAC CALLUiyi (Celt.) Son of Malcolm, q.v. 

MAC CAN N (Celt.) i Son of Cana = the 
Whelp - [Ir. Mac Cana] 

2 Son' of CATHAN = WARRiOR[Ir. Mac 

Cathain — cath (th = h), war, warrior -t- 

the genit. of the dim., suff. -dn\ 

MAC CARDLE tor Mac Ardle, q.v. 

MAC CARDY for Mac Hardy, q.v. 

MAC CARRICK (Celt.) Son of Carrick or 
Carrach = Rough-Faced [Ir. and Gael. 


MAC CARROLL (Celt.) Son of Carroll, q.v. 

MAC CARTE for Mac Art, q.v. 

MAC CARTEN for Mac Artan (Celt.) = Mao 
Art (q.v.) -I- the dim. suff. -an. 

MAC CARTHY (Celt.) Son of Carthach 

[Ir^ Mac Carthaigh (genit. of Carthach) — 

car, a friend, or carr, a cart, also a spear, 

+ the s\i«. -t{h)achl 

MACCARTNEY (Celt.) ? Son of Cart(h)- ; 
annach = the Kind [Ir. carthannach,' 
charitable, kind] 

MAC CARTY = Mao Carthy, q.v. 

MAC CASKIE (Celt.) Son of Gaisgeach 
= the Hero or Champion [Gael. Mac 


MAC CAUL = Mac Call, q.v. 


MAC CAWLEY J ^°^ ""^° AUiey, q.v. 

MAC CAY (Celt.) = Mackay, q.v. 

MAC CLANCY T (Celt.) Son of the Red- 

MAC CLANCHY J Complexioned [Ir. Mae 

Fhlannchaidh {fU mute)— flatin-ach, red 

-t- the pers. suff.] 

MAC CLAY (Celt.) Son of Lay, q.v. ; or = 
Mac Leay, q.v. 

MAC CLEAN for Mac Lean, q.v. 

MAC CLEARY (Celt.) i Son OF the Clerk or 
Clergyman [Gael. Mac CUreich] 

2 Son of Leary, q.v. 

MAC CLELLAN 1 (Celt.) for Mac Leilan, , 

MAC CLEMENT (Celt. + Lat.) Son of 
Clement, q.v. 

MAC CLEMENTS = Mac Clement (q.v.) -t- 
the Eng. genit. -s suff. 

MAC CLORY, app. for Mac Lowry, Son of 
Lowry, q.v. 

MAC CLOUD for Mac Leod, q.v. 

MAC CLURE for Mac Lure, q.v. 

MAC CLYMONT, for Mac Lamont, Son of 
Lamont or Lamond : v. Lamond. 

MAcgoLLJf-MaoCa„,q.v. , 



Tom's Son : v. Thomas 


(Celt.) Son of Don- 
chadh or Duncan : v. 
Duncan [Gael. Mac 
Dhonnchaidh {dh mute] 

MAC CONNAL 1 ic^u\ cir^vV.^,- 

MAC CON N ELL } C-^"") ^°" °^ Connell, q.v 

Mac Conway 

Mac Fadyen 

MAC CONWAY (Celt.) Son of Conway, q.v. 

MAC CORMAC 1 (Celt.) Son ofCormac(k: 
MAC CORMACK U. Cormac(k 

MAC CORQUODALE(Celt.+Scand.) for Mac 

Thorketill, goN OF Thorketill=Thor's 

Kettle (Sacrificial Cauldron of Thor) 

[Gael, mac, son ; O.N. Thdrr + Milf\ 

MAC COURT (Celt.) Son of Art: v. Arthur. 

MAC COWAN for Mac Owan, q.v. 

MAC COY 1 (Celt.) Son of the Yellow- 

MAC COYD j Haired [Ir. and Gael. Mac 

Bhuidhe — buidhe, yellow] 

MAC CRACKEN (Celt.) app. for Mac Carra- 

chan = Son of Carrachan. Carrachan 

is a dim. of Carrach, 'rough- faced' 

[M'Alpine (Gael. Diet.) deS^nes carrachan as 

'a little, old-fashioned fellow'] 

MAC CRAE V. Mao Rae. 

MAC CRAITH 1 for Mac Kaith (Celt.) Son 
MAC CREATH } OF Rath = Grace or Luck 

MAC CREA (Celt, or Celt.-Teut.)SpN OF Rea, 
q.v. Also for Mac Crae = MacRae, 

MAC CREADIE) (Celt. + Teut.) Son of 
MAC CREADY J Reddie, adim.of Redmond, 


MAC CREERY [for Mac Crory or Mao Rory, 



MAC CRORY for Mac Rory, q.v. 

MAC CUBBIN (Celt.-|-Teut.)SoN ofCubbin, 
a Manx mutation of Gibbon, q.v. 

MAC CUE for Mac Hugh, q.v. 

MAC CULLAGH ) (Celf.) Son of Culloch : 
MAC CULLOCH f v. Culloch. 


MacBaln (Names of Imlerness, p. 38) 
._, says that ' Mac Culloch is possibly iWoc 
Lulach — Little Calf.' 

MAC CULLEN (Celt.) Son of Cullen, q.v. 

MAC CULLUM for Mao Galium, q.v. 

(Celt.) Son of Reavy, q.v. 

MAC CURDY for Mac Hardy, q.v. 

MAC CURRAN (Celt.) SoN OF Curran, q.v. 

MAC CURRICK (Celt.) for Mac Carriok, q.v. 

MAC CUTCHEON (Celt, or Celt.-Teut.) Son 
OF Huch(e)on, a dim. form of Hugh, q.v. 

MAC DAVID (Celt. -^ Heb.) Son of David : 
v. David 


MAC DERMOTT, prop. Mao Diarmid, q.v. 

MAC DIARMID (Celt.) Son OF Diarmald,q.v. 
[Ir. Mac Diarmada] 
MAC DONA 1 (Celt.) Son of Donagh or 
MAC DONAGH / Donnchadh : v. Donaghie. 

MAC DONALD 1 (Celt.) Son of Donall : v. 
MAC DON N ell] DonaKd 

MAC DONOUGH = Mac Donagh, q.v. 

MAC DOUGAL "1 Son of Dougal(l : v. 

MACDOUGALL; Dougal(l [Ir. and GaeL 

Mac Dubhghaill] 

MAcg§wEl:l:}«°^°^^°— -°°-" 

MAC DUFF (Celt.) Son of Dubh : v. Duff 

MAC EACHAN \ (Celt.) Son of Eachan : 
MAC EACH EN jv. Eachan. 

MAC EACHARN \ (Celt.) Son of Eacht(h)-' 
Horse-Lord [Gael, each, horse -f- tigh- 

eartt, lord] 

MAC ELROY for Mac Gilroy (Celt.) Son of 
Gilroy, q.v. 

MAC ENTAGART •, (Ceft.) SoN of the 
MAC ENTEGART \ PRIEST [Gael. Mac-an-t- 
MAC ENTEGGART' shagairt} , 

The Gael, word for ' priest' (nom. case) 

is sagart; for the rule as to eclipsis see 

the note under Mac Intyre. 

MAC ENTIRE 1 ,, , 4. 

MAC ENTYRE j = ^^'^ '"^y^- 'I-^' 

MAC EVOY = Mac Avoy, q.v. 

MAC EWAN 1 c„„ „„ c ^ 

MAC EWEN J Ewan, Ewen, q v. 

MAC FADDEN 1 (Celt.-Lat.) Son of Little ' 
MAC FADYEN J Paddy or Patrick [Ir. Mac 

See Patrick. 

Mac Pall 

Mac Qreary 

MAC FALL -(Celt.-Lat.) Son of Paul [Gael. 
Mac Phail: v. Paul] 

MAC FARLAN ] (Celt. + Heb.) Son of 
mAc FARLAND I Parlan or Partholan = 
MAC FARLAN E f Bartholomew, q,v. [Gael. 
MAC FARLIN I Mac Pharlain, genit. of 

, Parian] 

MAC FEE \ (Celt.) Son of Dubh-shith {sh 

MAC FIE land th = A) = Dark of Peace 

{mac, son + duhh, dark + shith, genit, of 

sith, peace] 

MAC FERSON = Mao Pherson, q.v. 

MAC GAIN (Celt. + Heb.) Son of John [Gael. 
Mac Edin, genit. of Iain : v. John. 
(Gelt.) Son of Kane, q.v. 

MAC GAIR (Celt.) Son of the Short 

[Ir. and Gael. Mac Girr, Mac Ghearr— 

gearr, short] 

MAC GANN for Mac Cann, q.v. 

MAC GARRICK for Mac Capriok, q.v. 

MAC GARRY (Celt.) Son of Garry (q.v.) or 
GadhaR: v. O'Gara. 

MAC GAULEY for Mao Auley, q.v. 

MAC GAURAN (Celt.) Son of Samhradhan 
= Summer [Ir. Mac Samhradhain (s aspi- 
rated), genit. of Samhradhdn = samhradk, 
summer + the dim. Suff. -dn] 

MAC GAVIN (Celt.) Son of Gavin, q.v. 

MAC G EACH IN for Mac Eachan, q.v. 

for Mac Geoch or Mac 

MAC GINITY 1 (Celt.) Son or Finnachta [Ir. 

, MAC GINTY jMdc Fhinndichta {fh mute) = 

the Fair [Ir. fi{o)nn + the,double sufiH 

or the Old [It. fi{o)nnach + the adj. suff. 


MAC GIN LEY (Celt.) i an aspirated form of 
Mac Finley : v. Finlay. 
2 for Mac Kinley, q.v, 

MAC GINN (Celt.) Son of FiNN=the White 
or Pale [Ir. Mac Fhinn {fh njute] 

MAC GIVEN, ? for Mao Gavin, q.v. ' 

MAC GLADE, app. for Mac Leod, q.v. 

MAC GLASHAN (Celt.) Son of Glassan : v. 

MAC GLENNON for Mac Lennan,;q.v. 

MAC GLINCHEY for Mac Linchey (Celt.) = 
Son of Lynch, q.v. 

Keogh. q.v. 



Magee, q.v. 

(Celt.) Son of Angus, q.v. 
[Ir. Mac Aenghusa, genit. of 


MAC GEOCH i= Mac Keogh, q.v. 

MAC GIBBON (Celt.+Teut.)|SoNOF Gibbon, 

MAC GILCHRIST (Celt.) Son OF Gilchrist, 

MAC GILL (Celt.) SoN OF GiLLE = the Ser- 
. VAi<T or DiscipXE [Gael, gille] 

MAC GILLIVRAYl (Celt.) Son of Gille - 

MACGILVERY J BhrAth = Servant of 

Judgment [Gael. ^jVfe, 'servant + bhrdth, 

genit. ol hrdth, judgment] 

MAC GLOIN -, (Celt.) 'the Irish Mac Giolla 
MAC GLOINE Edin, Son of the Servant 
MAC GLOYNE or DiSqiple of Iain = John, 
MAC GLONE J q.v. [Ir.> mac, son + giolla,' 
servant, discijile + the genit. of Iain] 

MAC GLORY, v. Mac Clory. 

MAC GLYNN = Macklin, q.v. 

MAC GOFF (Celt.) Son of Goff, q.v. 

MAC GOLDRICK (Celt.-(-Teut.)SoN OF Gold- 
rick, q.v. ' 

MAC GORMAN \ (Celt.) Son of Gorman, 

MAC GORRIN, for Mac Orain (Celt.) Son of 
Oran, q.v. 

MAC GOUGH (Celt.) Son orGough or Goff, 


MACGOWAnI (Celt.) SoN OF THE Smith 
MAC GOWEhl I [Ir. and Gael. Mac Gobkanl 

Cp. Gow. 
MAC GOVERN = Mac Gauran, q.v. 
MAC GRADY (Celt.) Son of Grady, q.v. 

MACGRANDLE, for Mac Randle (Celt. + 
Teut.) Son of Randle, q.v. 

MAC GRATH, for Mac Craith, q.v. 
MAC GREARY, v. Mac Creary. 

Mac Qreavey 



MAC GREAVY v. Mac Creavey, &c. 



MAC GREGOR (Celt. +Gr.) Son of Gregor : 
V. Gregop. 

MAC GRORY for Mao Rory, q.v. 

MAC GUFFIE for Mac Coffey, SoNOFCoffey, 

MAC GUFFIN (Celt.) ? Son of GeibhionN = 
the Captive [Ir. ^ejMtowB, captivity, bondT 


MACGUIN(N)ESS, v. Mac Ginness, Mac 

MAC GUIRE (Celt.) Son of the PAle-Cqm- 
PLEXiONED [Ir. Mac Uidhir — mac, son + 
uidhir, genit. of odhar, pale, sallovv] 
Cp. Hoare 2. 

MAC GUIRKI (Celt.) Son of Corc = Knife 
MAC GURK J [Ir. Mac Cuirc - cuirc, genit. 

of corc, a knife] 

MAC HALE I for Mac Cahill (Celt.) Son of 
Cathal: v. Cahill. 

2 the Irish Mac HHl,'Sa.\A (as, to the 
main name) to be of Anglo-Norman origin. 
Dr. Mac Hale, Archbishop of Tuam, 
always spelt his name Machdil (Joyce). 

MAC HARDY (Celt.+Teut.) Son of Hardy: 
V. Hardy. 

(Celt.) for Mac Caradoc, Son of 
Caradoc: V. Cradock. 

MACHELL (Fr.-Lat.) i Butcher [O.Fr. 
mac(h)el : cp. Lat. macellarius, a meat- 
2 also said to be a corr. of or used for 
Malchien, Naughty Dog [Lat. mal-us 4- 


MACHIN [ (Fr.-Heb.) French douhile dims, of 
MACHON I Matthew, q.v. 

MAC HENDRY (Gelt. -|-Teut.) Son OF Hendry 
= Henry, q.v. 

MAC HUGH (Celt.-f Teut. or Celt.) Son of 
Hugh :'v. Hugh The name Mac Hugh 
is often the Anglicized form of the Ir. Mac 
Aedha, Son of Aedh or Aodh {(Jh mute) 
= Ardour. 
Cp. Magee. ^ 

MAC HUTCHON (Celt.-1-Teut. or Celt.) Son 
'of Hutchon, a diril. of Hugh, q.v. 

MAC ILRAITH ■) (Celt.) Sonofthe Grey or 

MAC ILRATH > Brindled Serlvant - man , 

MAC ILWRAITH ' [Gael. Mac Gille-riabhaich 

— mac, son of + gille, m., servant -f- 

riabhaich, genit. of riabhach, grey, brindled] 


[Gael. Mac lan-duibh-mac, son of -(- Ian, 

John + duibh, genit. of dubh, black] 

MAC INNES (Celt.) an asp. form of Mac 
Angus, Son of Angus, q.v. 

MAC IN ROY (Celt.) Son of John the Red 
[Gael. Mac fan-ruaidh ^ mac, son of -f- 
lan, John -|- ruaidh, genit. of ruadh, red] 

MACINTIRE \ (CeltO Son of the Carpen- 
MACINTYREJter [Gael, and Ir. Mac-an-t- 

The Gael. , and Ir. wrord for Carpenter 
(nom. case) is saor or saer', s does not 
appear in Macintyre because, according 
to Gael, phonetics, when a noun beginning 
with s is preceded by the article the s is 
eclipsed when the noUn is nominative fern., 
genitive masc, or (generally) dative masc, 
and fem. Each eclipsable consonant has 
its own eclipsing letter; that of s is /. 

Cp, Mactaggart = The Priest's Son. 

MACINTOSH CCelt.) Son of the Chief or 
Prince [Gael. Mac-an-tdisiche} 

MAC IVERUCelt.-|-Teut.) Son of Iver : v. 
MAC IVOR/ Iver. 

MAC IVERS(A.-Celt.-Teut.) Mac Iver's (Son) 
v. Mac Iver. 

MACK (Celt.) An abbreviation of one or other 
of the numerous Mac- names. 

MAC KAGUE 1 for Mac Thaidhg (Manx-Celt.), 
MACKAIG j Son of Tadhg = the Poet 
or Philosopher. 
Cp. Keig. 
MACKAIN \ (Celt.) Son of Kain or Kane 
MAC KANE J [Ir. Mac Cathain :v. O'KaIn] 

MACKAREL-i (A.-Fr.-]>at.) a nickname from 

MACKEREL f the Mackerel [M.E. makarel, 

MACKRELL maJereK, O.Fr. makerel (Fv. 

maquereau), from the prim, form, maca, of 

Lat. macula, a spoti] 

Richard Makarel. — Hund. Rolls. 

MACKARNESS (? Scand.) An obscure name, 
prob. local [O.N. ties, a promontory]. 
Bardsleynotedthe occurrence of 'WiUiam 
de Maukurneys' in the Hund. Rolls (Lines), 
and- the same spelling is found in a York- 
shire roll of 1 324-5. Guppy (' Tfie! Homes 
of Family-Names,' p-agg) found that the ' 
name in theform Mackaness was peculiarly 
a Northamptonshire surname. 

MACKAY (Celt.) Son of Aedh or Aodh =Art 
dour [Qael. and Ir. Mac Aedha or Aodha(dh 
mute) — mac. son + aedh, aodh (genit. 
aedha, aodha), fire, ardour : cp. Wei. didd, 


Mac Kean 

Mac Lay 

Aedh in its original application was 
probably used in the sense of a fiery 
wairrior. The name has been in use in 
, ' Ireland from the most remote antiquity, 

; , arid it was used among the Gauls (^edM«) 
in the time of Julius Caesar.— Joyce, 
Irish Names, ii. 150. 

MAC KEAN ^(Celt.) Son of Keen(e, q.v. 
MAC KEANDhAlso = Maoklan, q.v. 

MAC KEATING (Celt.) Son of Keating, q.v. 

MAC KEE = MacKay, q.v. 

MAC KEEVER, for Mao Iver, q.v. 

MAC KELLAR (Celt. +Lat.) Son OF the 

Cellarer [Gael, wac, son + a borrowing 

from Lat. cellarius, cellarer; Lat. cella, 


MAC KELVEY \ (Celt.) ? Son of'the Ser-' 

MAC KELVIE '^ vant of the DARK(Man) 

[I r. and Gael. Mac Giolla Dhubhthaich — 

mac, son + giolla, gille, servant : v. Duffy] 

MAC KENDRICK, for Mac Hendrick (Celt. + 
Teut.) Son of Hendrick, q.v. 

MAC KENNA (Celt.) Son of Kenna, q.v. 

I (Celt.) Son op Kenny, q.v. 


MAC KENZIE[(Gael.) Son of Coinnech = 

MAC KEOGH (Celt.) Son of Eochaidh = 

Horseman [Ir. Mac Eochadha — mac, son 

. + eochaidh (genit. eochadha), horseman ; 

ech (Gael. eacA) a horse] 

MAC KEON \ (Celt.) Son of Eoghan or 
MAC KEOWN I Owen : v. Owen" [Ir. Mac 

MAC KERNAN (Celt.) Son of Kernan, q.v. 

MAC KERROW (Celt.) Son of Kerrow, q.v. 

MAC KEVITT (Celt.+Heb.) Son of David, 
q.v. [Ir. and Gael. Mac Dltevitt (dh mute] 

MAC KEW for Mao Hugfi, q.v. 

MAC KIAN (Celt.+Heb.)SoN OFlAiN = John, 
q.v. [Ir. and Gael. Mac Edin, genit. of 


MAC KIBBIN for Mac Gibbon (Celt. + Teut), 
Son of Gibbon: v. Gibbon. 

MAC KILLOP (Celt.+Gr.) Son of Philip, q.v. 

MAC KIM 1 (Celt. + Heb.) Son of Sim, 
MAC KIM M J q.v. [Gael. Mac Shim, nom. 

Sim {sh = A] 

MAC KIN for Mac Kian, q.v. 

MAC KlNLAY\ (Celt.) Son of Cinfaoladh 

MAC KINLEY J ,= Learned or Skilful 

Leader [Ir. Mac Cinfhaolaidh {fh mute) 

— mac, son + genit. of cinfaoladh — cinn, 

head, leafier + faoladh, learned, etc.] 

MACKINNA = Mac Kenna, q.v. 

MAC KINNEY = Mac Kenny, q.v.' 

MAC KINNON (Celt.) Son of Fingon= Fair- 
Birth [Gael, mac, son + the asp. form of 
fi{o)nn, fair + a der. of gin, to beget] 

MAC KINTOSH = Macintosh, q.v. 

MAC KIRDY for Mac Hardy, q.v. 

MACKLE for, Mickle, q.v. 

MAG(K)LEHOSE, app. for Micklehose (Teut.) 

Big Hose (a nickname) [O.E. micel = 

O.N. mikill + O.E. O.N. hosa\ 

MACKLIN (Celt.) an asp. form {Mac Fhlainn 
—fh mute) of Mac FlainHi Son of Flann : 
V. O'Flinn. 

MAC KNIGHT (Celt.) = Mac Naught, q.v. 
(A.-Celt.) Son of the Knight : v. 

MAC KOWEN for Mao Owen, q.v. 

MACKRELL, v. Mackarel. 


MAC KYE =. Maokay, q.v. 

MAC LACHLAN SoNOF Laohlan, q.v. 

MAC LAG^N (Celt.) app. Son of the Servant 

OF Aodhagan or Aedijagan = Ardour 

[Gael. Mac Gille Aodhagain : v. Egan, and 

' cp. Maokay] 

MAC LAINE = Mac Lean, q.v. 

MAC LAREN (Celt.+Lat.) Son OF Lawrence, 
q.v. [Gael. Mac Ldbhruinti] 

MAC LARTY, a contr. form of Mac Flaherty, 
Son OF Flaherty, q.v. 

MAC LAUGHLIN (Gelt.) Son of Laughlln or 
Loughlin, q.v. 

MAC LAWRIN = Mao Laren, q.v. 

MAC LAY (Celt.) Son of Lay, q.v. ; or= Mao 
Leay, q.v. 

Mac Lean 

Mac Naughton 

MAC LEAN (Celt.+Heb.) Son of the Ser- 
vant of J o hn [Gael. Mac Gille-Edin - mac, 
son + gille, m., servant + Edin, genit. of 
Iain, John : v, John] 

MAC LEAR (Celt.) Son of Lear, q.v. ; or for 
Mac Lure, q.v. 

MAC LEARY (Celt.) i Son of Leary, q.v. 
2 for Mac Cleary, q.v. 

MAC LEAVY \ (Celt.) Son of Donleavy = 

MAC LEAY J Brown of the Hill [Gael. 

mac, son + donn, brown + shUibhe, genit. 

of sliabh, hill, mountain] 

MAC LELLAN "1 (Celt.) Son ofthe Servant 

MAC LELLANDJ OF Fillan = Wolf [Gael. 

Mac Gillfhaolain {fh mute) — mac, son + 

gille, servant + the genit. oifaolan\ 

MAC LEN NAN (Celt.) i Son of the Servant 
OF Finnan = Fair One [Gael, mac, son 
+ gille, m., servant + fhi(o)nn {fh mute) 
genit. of fi{o)nn, fair + the dim. suff. -dn\ 

2 Son of the Servant of Adamnan 
= Little Adam 

MAC LEOD (Celt.+Scand.) Son of Lj6t= 
Ugly [Gael, mac, son + O.N. Ij6t-r, ugly] 

MAC LEVEY = Mao Leavy, q.v. 

MAC LOUGHLAN 1 (Celt.)SoN of Loughlan, 

MAC LUCKIE (Celt.-Lat.) Sow of Luckie, a 
dim. of Luke, q.v. 

MAC LURE (Celt.) i Son OF the Leper [Gael, 
and Ir. Mac Lohhair -7 mac, son + 
lobhair (bh = w), genit. of lobhar, a' leper] 

2 Son of the Servant of the Book 

[Gael. Mac Gille Leabhair — mac, son 4- 

gille, m., servant -f leabhair (bh = w) 

genit. of leabhar,,a. book] 

MAC MAHON (Celt.) Son of Mathghamhan 
= the Bear : v. Mahon 

MAC MANN, app. corr. of Mac Mahon, q.v. 

MAC MANUS (Celt. + Scand.-Lat.) Son of 
Manus or Magnus = the Great [Lat. 


MAC MASTER (Celt. + Lat.) SoN OF the 
Master [Gael, maighistear, Lat. magister, 


MAC MATH (Celt.) Son of the Good [Ir. 
and Gael, math, good] 


(Celt.) Son ofMiadhachan 
= the Noble or Honour- 
able [Ir. miadhach + 
the dim. suff. -rf«] 

MAC MICHAEL (Celt.) Son of Michael, q.v. 

MAC MILLAN 1 (Celt.) Son of Millan or 


Disciple [Gael. Mac Mhaolain, genit. of 

Maoldn : v. Mullan] 

The Irish form of this name is usually 
Mac Mullan. 

MAC MINN (Celt.) Son of Meann = the 

Famous ; or the Kid [Ir. and Gael. Mac 

Minn, genit. of Meann^ 

MAC MORROUGH\ i the Irish MacMurchad- 
MAC MORROW [ ha: v. Mac Murchie. 
MAC MURROW > 2 the Irish Mac Muiread- 
haigh : v. Mac Murray. 

MAC MULDROCH "I (Celt.) Son of the 

MAC MULDROW J Little Disciple [Ir. 

Mac Maoildroch — maol or mael, disciple, 

servant + droch, little, short] 

MAC MULLAN v(Celt.) Son of Mullan = 
MAC MULLEN Fthe Bald; Monk, Disciple: 
MAC MULLIN > -v. Mullan. 

The Highland form of this name is 
usually Mac Millan, q.v. , 

MAC MURCHIE] (Celt.) Son of Murchadh 


sea + the asp. form of cath, war, warrior] 

Cp. Murphy. 

MAC MURRAY (Celt.) i Son of Morogh : v. 

2 for Irish Mac Murchadha : v. Mac 

MAC NAB > (Celt. + Lat.-Gr.-Syr.) Son of 

MAC NABB [ THE Abbot lGae\.Mac-an-Aba- 

mac,son+an, oi the+aba(,dh, genit. of db, 

abbot — Lat. abbas, Gr. d/S/Soj, Syr. abbd, 

a father] 
Cp. Mac Cabe. ' 

Abair tri uairean Mac-an-Aba gun do 
chab a dhCinadh (Say three times Mac 
Nab{b without shutting' your mouth).^ — 
St. Cojumbus's Conundrums. 

MAC NAGHT "I (Celt.) Son of Neachd = a 
MAC NAUGHT/ Pledge; or Pure One [Ir. 


MAC NAGHTEN ) (Celt.) Son ofNeachtan 

MAC NAUGHTAN > =,a Pledge ; or Pure 

MAC NAUGHTON 1 One [Ir. and Gael.neachd 

4- the dim. suff -rfn] 

Mac Nair 

Mac Ready 

MAC NAIR (Gael.) Son of the Heir [Gael. 

mac, son + an, of the + oighre, heir}* 

(Ir.) Son of the Riser [Ir. mac, son + 

an, of the + ineirghS, riser] 

* This name is not from one source. 
The Gairloch branch is desceaded from 
an Iain Odhar, whose name is condensed 
into In-uir. The pronunciation and other 
facts point to a third origin also : Mac 
I An-fhuidhir Ifh and dh mute] = the 
' Stranger's Son. Prof. Mackinnon makes 
the nume Fuibhir, and takes it from Lat. 
faber, smith. 
' — MacBain, Inverness Names, p. 40. 

MAC NALLY (Celt.) Son OF the Poor- Man 
[Ir. Mac-an-Fhailgigh {fhmuXe) — mac, son 
+ an, of the+the genit. oifdilgeack, poor] 

MAC NAMARA (Celt.) Son of Cumara = 

Hound of the Sea (prob. denoting a 

skilful sailor) [Ir. and Gael. Mac Conmara 

— mac, son + con, genit. of cti, a hound + 

mara, genit. of muir, the sea] 

MAC NAMEE (Celt.) Son of Cumidhe = the 

Meath Hound [Ir. Mac Conmidhe - con, 

genit. of cu, a hound + midhe, bel. to the 

' Prov. of Meath] 


V. Mac Nee 


MAC NEALE [for Mao Neil(l, q.v. 


MAC NEE (Celt.) Son of the Night [Ir. and 
Gael. Mac-na-h-Oidhche — mac, son + na, 
of the + the phon. insertion h+oidhche, 



MAC NEILE KCelt.) Son of Neil(l : v. Nellfl 


MAC NEILLY (Celt.) Son of Fileadh = the 
Bard, Poet [Ir. Mac-an-Fhiledh (/A mute) 
— mac, son J- an, of the + the genit. of 


MAC NEISH \ (Celt.) Son of Angus, q.v. 
MAC NISH J [Gael. Mac Naois, a dial, form 

of Mac Angus] 

MAC NICHOLL^ (Celt. + Gr. ) Son of 
MAC NICOL [Nic(h)ol, a dim. of 
MAC NICOLL > Nio(h)olas, q.v. 




MAC NULTY (Celt.) Son of Ultach = the 

Ulsterman [Ir. Mac-an-Ultaigh - mac, 

son + an, of the + the genit. of Ultach] 

MACONOCHIE, v. Mac Con(n)achie. 

MAC ORIS .1 (Celt.+Gr.) Son of Pierce. 

MAC ORISH J Pierce, A.-Ft. form of Peter, 

q.v. [In Mac Fheorais (fh mute), genit. of 


MAC OWAN \ (Celt.) Son of Owan or Owen: 
MAC OWEN ; V. Owen [Ir. Mac Eoghain, genit. 

of Eoghan] 

MAC PARLAN •, the unasp. forms of Mao 
MAC PARLANd[ Parian, etc., q.v. 

MAC PHAIL (Celt. +Lat.) Son of Paul, q.v. 
[Gael. MacPhail, genit. oi PM\ 

MAC PHEE =Mao Fie, q.v, 1 

MAC PHERSON (Celt.+Lat.) Son of the 

Parson : v. Parson [Gael^ and Ir. Mac 

Phearsuin, genit. of pearsun, parson — ^ 

Lat. persofia] 

MACQUADEl ,, _ .. 

MACQUAID I^Mac Quoid. 

MAC QUARRIE (Celt.) Son of Guaire = the 
Noble, Great [Gael, and Ir. guaire] 

MAC QUEEN (Celt.) a Scotch asp. form of Ir. 
Mac Sweeney, q.v. 

(Celt.+Norse)asp.formof MacSween, 

MAC QUHAE \ asp. forms of Mao Quade : 
MACQUIE J V.Mac Quoid. 

MAC QUILLANl (Celt.) i Ir. Mac Uid{h)ilin 
MACQUILLINJ 2 confused with Mac 

Cullen, q.v. 

MACQUILLIAM (Celt.+Teut.) Son of 
William, q.v. 

MACQUIN \(Celt.) Son of Conn = the 

MAC QUINN; Wise One [Ir. mac, son + 

cuinn, genit. of conn, wise one] 

MAC QUIRE = Mao Guire, q.v. 

MAC QUIRK = Mao Guirk, q.v. 

MAC QUOID (Celt.) Son of the Yellow- 
Haired [Ir. and Gael. Mac Bhuidhe (J}k^ 
tu) -buidhe, yellow (haired] 

MAC RAE (Celt.) Son of Rath = GRAttEor 
Luck [Gael. Mac Railh (th = A] 

(Gelt.orCelt.+Teut.)SoNOFRAE: v. Rae 
= Ray. 

MAC READY (Celt.+Teut.) Son of REDDiE.a 
dim. of Redmond, q.v. 

Mac Ritchie 


MAC RITCHIE (Celt. + Teut.) Son of 
Ritchie, a dim. of IRichard, q.v. 

MAC ROBBIE 1 (Celt. + Teut.) Son of 
MAC ROBIE J Robbie, a dim. ot Robert,q.v. 

MAC ROBERT (Celt.+Teut.) Son of Robert, 


MAP ROBERTS = Mao Robert (q.v.) + the 
■ Eng. genit. -i suff. 

MAC RORY (Celt.>SoNOFRuADHRi:v. Rory, , 

MAC RURY = Mac Rory, q.Vi 

MAC SHANE (Ir. -|- Heb.) Son of John, q.v. 

[Ir. Mac Seoiiij 

MAC SHERRY, Son of Sherry, q.v. 

MAC SWEEN (Celt. + Norse) Son of Sween 
or SwAWi = the Swain [O.N. sveinn, a 

swain, boy] 

. (Celt.) See Mao Sweeney. 


(Celt.) Son of Suibhne : 
V. Sween(e)y. 

MAC TAGGART (Celt.) Son of the Priest 
(Gael. Mac'an-t-shagairt] 

The Gael, word for ' priest' (nom. case) 
is sagart ; for the rule as to eclipsis see the 
note under Mao Intyre. 

MAC TAG UE (Celt.) Son OF the Poet [Ir. 
, Mac Taidhg, genit. of Tadg, a poet] 

MAC TAVISH (Celt.+Heb.) Son of Thomas, 
q.v. [Gael. Mac TamhaiS, genit. of Tamos] 


MAC TEER [ forms of Mao Intyre, q.v. 


Cp. Mao Ateer. 
MAC TIERNAN (Celt.) SoN OF Tighearnan: 
V. Tiernan. 

MAC TIGHE \ (Celt.) Son of the Poet [Ir. 
MAC T\GUE I Mac Taidhg, genit. of Tadg, a 


MAC VEIGH 1 (Celt.) Son of the Yellow- 
MAC VEY } Haired (One) [Ir. MacBhuidhe 
MAC VIE J (6* as i; ; dh myite)—buidhe, yel- 
low (haired] 

MAC VICAR \ (Celt. +Lat.) Son of the 
MACVICKER J Vicar ,[La.t.vicarius] 

MAC WADE = Mao Quade = Mac Quoid 


MAO WALTER (Celt.+Teut.) Son of Walter 

MAC WALTERS 1 = Mao Walter (q.v.) + 
MAC WATERS J the E. genit. -i suff. 

MAC WATT \. (Celt.+Teut!) SonofWatt, 
MAC WATTIE JWattie, dims, of Walter, 

MAC WEAN = Mao Queen, q.v. 

MACWHA l(Celt.) Son of the Yellow- 
MAC WHAE J Haired (One) [Ir. MacBhuidhe 
(bh as Mi; dh m\xte) -buidhe, yellow (hair- 

MAC WILLIAM (Celt. + Teut.) Son of Wil-' 
Ham, q.v. ' , 

MAC WILLIAMS = Mao William (q.v,) + the 
Eng. genit. -5 suff. 


MADDEN \ (Celt.) DoG,HoUND [Ir.Madadhan 
MADDIN J — madadh, a dog + the dim. suff. 


MADDICK \ (Cfelt.) Goodly, Beneficent , 
MADDOCKJ [Wei. forms Madawc, Madog; 
Wei, madog, goodly — wad, good] ,, 

Madawc \he son of Maredudd [Mere- 
dith] possessed Powys within its bound- 
aries, from Pprfoed to Gwauan in the 
uplands of ArwystU.— 

'The Dream of Rhonabwy ' : Mab inogion, 
tr. Guest. 

MADDISON 1 I Maud's Son :v. Maud. 
MADISON J 2 = Mattison, q.v. 

MADDOCKS'l (A.-Celt.) Maddock's (Son) : 
MADDOX Jv. Maddook 

MADEWELL(Epg.) Dweller at the Meadow- 
Well [O.E. mddd, meadow + im»lle\ 

MADGE, V. Mafegs ' 

MAPIN = Madden, q.v. 

MADLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Madley or Madeley 
= the Meadow-Field [O.E. m(hd + ledh] 

MAGEE (Celt,)- Son of Aedh or Aodh = 

Ardour [If. Mac Aedha 01 MacAodha (dh 

mute)— mac, son + the genit. of aedh, 

aodh, ardour, fire : cp. Wei. aidd, ardour] 

Cp. Maokay ; also Aidar) 




MAGEOGHEGAN (Celt.) Son of Echegan = 
(Little) Horse [Ir. Mac Echegain — mac 
son + the genit. oi ech{e)gdn, dim. aiech, 

a horse] 

IMAGER, I a var. of Meager, q.v. 
2 V. Major. 

MAGERAGHTY (Celt.) Son of Oirechtach 

or AlREACHTACH = theJ^OBLEM AN [Ir. Mac 

Oirechtaigh ov Mac Aireachtaigh — mac, son 

+ aireach, a noble + taigh, genit. of the 

5. plen. suff. -tacK\ 

MAGGS (A.-Gr.) Magg's (Son): Magg, a dim. of 

Margaret = a Pearl [Lat. margarita, Gr. 

piapyapLTTi^, a pearl] 

MAGILL = Mac Gill, q.v. 


NN I ='^3-C Gi""! Mao Gennis, q.v- 


MAGINNESS \ = Magennis, Mac Gennis, 

MAGINNIS ) q.v. 

MAGNUS (Scand.-Lat.) Great [Lat. magnus] 
Cp. Mac Manus 

MAGRATH \ _ ■>. „ Craith a V 
MAGRAW / '^^° oraitn, q.v. 

MAGSON, Mag(g)'s Son : v. Maggs. 

MAGUIRE = Mac Guire, q.v. 

MAHER (Celt.) for their. O'DfaheroxO'Meagh- 
er. Descendant of Meachair = the 
Fair, Handsome [Ir. and Gael. meachair\ 

MAHON I (Celt.) the Bear [Ir. and Gael. 
MAHONE J tnathghamhuin] 


MAIDMAN (Eng.) i Meadow-Man lO.E.mckd 
mead(ow + mantt] 

2 confused with the succeeding name. 

MAIDMENT (Teut.) Power - Protection 

[O.Teut. Madmunt, Medmund, etc. — 

* mad, * mid = O.E. mdsip, power, 

reverence, etc. + O.H.Ger. munt = O.E. 

mund, protection] 


Male, q.v. 

MAIN "1 (Teut.) Strength [M.E. mazH, O.E. 

MM^E]mcegen = O.Sax., O.N., O.H.Ger. 

megin, strength, power (a fairly common 

element in O.Teut. names] 

(Fr.-Celt.) One from the Duchy of 
Maine [Fr. Maine, the Lat.-Celt. Cenoma- 


(Fr.-Lat.) name derived from an armorial 
or trade sign of a Hand (or a nick- 
name) [Fr. main, Lat. man-us, the hand] 

MAINPRICE \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Surety [Fr. main, 

MAINPRISE J Lat. man-us, the hand + prise, 

a taking, f. pp. pris of prendre, to take ; 

Lat. prehendere\ 

MAINWARING (Fr.-Lat.-Teut.) Bel. to Mes- 

nilwarin (France) = the Manor of Warin 

[v. Mennell and Warin] 

Robert de Meynwaring. — Hund. Rolls. 
Warin de Menwarin. — Cal- Inq. P.M. 

MAIR "I I Scot, forms of Mayer or Mayor, 
MAI RE/ , q.v. [Gael, waor, an officer] 

2 the A.-French Mair(e = Mayor, q.v. 

Ne to be mair above men 
Ne mynystre under kynges. 

— Piers Plowman, 9486-7. 

MAISEY "1 (Celt.) .Fair, Handsome [Gael. 
MAIZEYJ maiseacK] 

(Scot.-Gr.) a dim. (Maisie) of Margaret : 
V. Maggs 

MAITLAND (Scot.-Eng.) Bel. to Maitland 
(Haddington), prob. = ' the Meadow- 
land' [O.E. mckd-land] if not 'the 
Wormy Land ' [O.E. ma'Sa (Ger. made) 
worm, maggot + land] 

MAJOR (Lat.) Greater, Bigger [Lat. major, 
comp. of magnus] 
Cp. Mayor 

MAKEPEACE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Peacemaker, 

Mediator [M.E. mak, maken, O.E. macian 

to make -1- M.E. paes, peas, pais, O.Fr. 

pais (Fr. paix), Lat. pax, pads, peace] 

MAKIN = May (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. suff. 

MAKINS, Makin's (Son) l^Motir, 
MAKINSON, Makin's Son J '^^ "'a"^'" 

MALBY for Maltby, q.v. 

MALCOLM \ (Celt.) (Shaven) Servant or 

MALCOM J Disciple of St. COLUMBA [Gael. 

mael, shaven one, monk, servant, disciple 

-i- Coluim, of Columba] 

MALDOON = Muldoon, q.v. 

MALE (Celt.) i Shaven One ; Monk, Disciple 

[Gael, and Ir. mael, maol, prim. ' bald '] 

2 Dweller at a Bald or Bare Hill or 

Cape [same etym.] 

(Eng.) for Mayhall, q.v. 




MALES (A.-Celt.) Male's (Son) : v. Male 

MALIN \like Molly, a double dim. of Mary, 
MALLIN J also of Matilda [v. under Malkin] 

MALKIN (A.-Fr.-Teut.) a double dim. of 
Matilda, early form Mahthild = Might 
(in) War [O.Sax.O.H.Ger. maht = O.E. 
m{eidht, miht (= Goth, maht-s) = O.N. 
»!a'«-r, might, power + O.Sax. O.E. hild 
= O.H.Ger. hilt\= O.N. hild-r, war, battle] 
The second element of Matilda is there- 
fore the Teut. female christian name 

(A.-Heb.) a double dim. of Mary = 
Bitterness \H^h. MdrdK} 

Malkin became a provincialism for a 
slut; and even a scarecrow. 
The kitchin malkin pinnes Her richest 
Idckrara 'boiit her leechie necke. 

— Shak,, Cortol, 11. 1.224. 

MALLAN 1 (Celt.) Bald; Monk, Disciple [Ir. 
MALLON \ Maeldn—mael + the dim. suff. -dn\ 

MALLARD (Fr.-Teut.) i a nickname from the 

Wild Drake [M.E. O.Fr. malard, malart, 

a wild drake] 

2 the French Ma{i)llard, L.Lat. Male- 
hard-us, O.Ger. Madelhard = Speech- or 
Council- Strong [the Cont.Teut. cognate 
of O.'E.mce^el, speech, council, etc. + O.Sax.'E,. 
h(e)ard, hard, strong, etc.] 

MALLET \ I (Fr.-Lat.) Naughty [Fr. mal 
MALLETTJ (Lat. mal-us) -|-the dim. suff. -rt] 

Cp. Bonnett. 

2 Accursed [Norm. Fr. waafeft, pp. of 
the verb maleir, tOjCurSe ; Lat. tftaledicere] 

, , Maleit seit oi cil aucidenz. — 

' , (pursed be to-day that mischance) 

0€n., Norm., y.iiS9i;'Mio\sy. 

Malet is on the mural list of 
"Compagnons de Guillaume 4 la con- 
quSte de I'Angleterre en MLXVl" in 
Dives (Calvados) Church; also in the 
copies of the Roll of Battle Abbey. 

MALLEY, v. O'Malley. 

MALLINSON 1 Mal(l)in's Son : v, Mal(l)if). 

MALLOCH \ (Celt.) the Irish Mocheallo^, the 
MALLOCK J name of a saint who flourished 
at the beginning of the 7th cent, and gave 
his name to Kilmallock in Limerick. 

MALONE (Celt.-1-Heb.) Servant or Disciple 
OF St. John: v. John [Ir. Mael Edin'\ 

MALONEY ) (Celt.) for the Irish O'MaoWAowA- 

MALONY \ naigh {dh and mh mute) = 

Grandson of the Servant or Disciple 

OF DoMHNACH [Ir. d or ua, grandson; 

maol, servant, disciple] 

MALPAS \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Mal pas 

MALPASS J (Chesh.)=the Bad Pass or Road 

[Fr. mal pas, Lat. mal-us+pass-us, a. step, 


This pure French name on the Welsh 
border is due to the old Norman Castle 
which was built to command the pass. 

MALSTER (Eng.) for Maltster (orig. female) 

Malt - Maker [M.E. maltestere ; O.E. 

m{e)aU -\- the fern, agent, suff. ■estre'\ 

MALTBY (Scand.) Bel. to Maltby = a Malt- 
HousE [ScauA. malt + by'\ 

MALtHOUSE"! (Eng.) Keeper of a. Malt.' 
MALTHUS J House [O.E. »!(^)aft + Wjr] 

MALTMAN (Eng.) Malt-Maker [O.E. m{e)alt 

+ mann\ 
MAN "I (Eng.) Vassal, Servant ; Hero 
MANN/ [O.E. »2a«B, man, vassal, hero] 

This name is found in the Liber Vitae 
(gth cent, ff.), and in early times was 
doubtless often used as an heroic appella- 
tion : later the notion of vassalage or ser- 
vice was more fully developed. 

Previously to paying the iwergild, the 
king's ' mund ' (a fine to the king for 
breach of his protection) was to be levied ; 
after which, within twenty-one daySj the 
'healsfang' (apprehensio coUi, collistrig- 
ium) was to be discharged; and after 
that, within;twenty-onedays, the 'manb6t,', 
or indemnity to the lord of the slain for 
the loss of his man. — 
Lappenberg-Thorpe, ^.-Sajr.iTJM^i, ii. 413. 
Like master, like man.^O\A Proverb. 

The vassal or tenant, kneeling, ungirt, 
uncovered, and holding up his hands 
between those of his lord, professed that 
he did become his matt from that day 
forth, of Hfe, limb, and earthly honour. — 
Blackstone; Webster. 

•Henry le Man. — Hund. Rolls. 
(Celt.) Bel. to (the Isle of) Man [ ? qym- 
nc man, place, or district] 

MAN BY (Scand.) Bel. to Manby (Lines), 13th 

cent. Manby = ? ' Mann's,' or ' Magne's' 

Estate ' [O.N. by-rj 

MANCHESTER (A.-Lat.-Celt.) Bel to Man- 
chester, the mameceaster of the A.-Saxon 
Chronicle and prob. the Mancunium 




of Roman times [cp. Wei. mdti, a place ; 

the second element is O.E. ceaster, a 

(Roman) city, Lat. castra, a camp] 

MANDER = Maunder, q.v. 

MANDERS = Maunders, q.v. 

MANDERSON = Maunderson, q.v. 

MAN DEVI LLE (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Mandeville 

(Normandy) = the Great Estate [corr. of 

Lat. Magna Villa'] 

Both Mandeville, Eure, and Mande- 
ville, Calvados, occur as Magna Villa in 
the i2tli cent. 

Cp. Manville 

MANDRELL = Mander or Maunder, (q.v.) 
+ the Fr. dim. suff. -el [Lat. ell-us] 

"I (Eng.) Bel. to Manesty (Cum- 

h - - 


MANISTY / berland), app, = the Common 

or Public Sty, or Road [O.E. ge)mcbne, 

common, public + stig, a sty, pen ; or stig, 

a path, road] 

MANFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Manfield = the 

Common Field [O.E. ge)mikne, common, 

pubhc +felc[\ 

MANGAN "I (Celt.) i for the Irish ff Mongain, 

MANGIN J Grandson or Descendant of 

MoNGAN = Hairy [Ir. mong, (long) hair, 

mane + the dim. suff. -dn\ 

2 for the Irish O' Managain, Grandson 
or Descendant of Managan 

MANGER (Eng.) Merchant, Trader, 
Dealer [O.E. tnan{c)gere] 

Hvvaet s»gst );u, Mancgere ? 
Quid dicis tu, Mercator ? 

Mlfrici Colloquium, loth cent. 

MANIFOLD. Dweller by the River Manyfold 
or Manifold, co. Staffs. 

MANISTY, V. Manesty. 

MANLEYl (Eng.) Bel. to Manley = 

MANLY J I Manna 'sLea [A.-Sax. *Maman- 

ledh — Mannan, genit. of Mannd\ 

2 the Common Lea [O.E. ge)mckne, 
common, public + ledfi] 
(Celt.) corr. forms of Mac Neilly (q.v.) 
or of Mac Nally (q.v.) 

MAN LOVE (Eng.) Man-Beloved [A.-Sax. 
Manleof-—man(n, man, hero + ledf, be- 
loved, dear] 

MANNERING for Malnwaring, q.v. 

MANNERS (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Of the Manors 

[O.Fi'. manoir, a mansion — manoir, maneir, 

to dv^ell ; Lat. manere\ 

Dugdale states that the ancestors of 
the Rutland (Manners) family were 
'persons of great note in Northumberland 
for in 25 Henry II. Henry de Maners 
paid 80 marks for livery of his father's 
lands in that country.' — Burke's Peerage, 


The name was Latinized de Maneriis 

MANNING (Eng.) Mann's Son : v. Man(n, 
and + the O.E. fil. suff. -ing 

Manning was the name of a moneyer 
temp. iS:thelred I. 

MANNION, an asp. form of Mangan, q.v. 

MANSELL (A.-Fr.-Lat) One Belonging to a 
Manse ; a Farmer ^ [A.-Fr. ma(u)nsel ; 
Fr. manse, land sufficient to support a 
family ; L.Lat. jwansa, a farm ; Lat. mansus, 
pp, of manere, to reside + the Fr. suff. 
-el, Lat. -ell-US'] 

. Sampson le Maunsel.^-jHa«rf. Rolls. 

Robert le Mansel. — Plac. Dam. Cap. 


In its original (French) home this sur- 
name is now found as Manseau, Manceau, 
Mancel, &c. 

On donnait, au moyen Sge, le nom de 
Mansel a I'individu qui cultivait une 
manse ou qui 6tait pr6pos6 a la percep- 
tion de ses revenus.^- 

Moisy, Noms de Fam. Norm., p. 263. 

MANSER I for Mansergh, q.v. 

2 for Mansel I, q.v. 

MANSERGH (Teut.) Bel. to Mansergh (West- 
moreland) = Mann's (? Harrow-) Land 
[v. Man(n, andcp. M.Dan, harge, a harrow : 
also cp. O.E.pldh, a plot of (plough-) land] 

MANSFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Mansfield = the 
Field or Plain of the River Maun or 
Mann [the river-name is probi Celt., 
? Wei. {afon) man, small (river) + O.E. 


Mansfield is situated on the N. bank of 

the small river Maun or Maun.— Nat. Gaz. 

MANSON ffing.) Man(n)'s Son : v. Man(n 
arid -f- O.E. sunu. 

(Sopt.-Scand.) an assim. form of Mag" 

nusson = Magnus's Son [Lat. magnus, 

great -|- O.N. sun-r'] 

Magnus was adopted by the Norsemen 
as a name out of admiration for Charle- 
magne (Carolus Magnus). 




MANTEL(L \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.)a.^icknameortrade- 
MANTLE J name [M.E. O.Fr. mantel (Fr. 
manieau), a cloak ; Lat. mantell-um, a 


MANTON rEngO Bel. to Manton (Lines, Rut- 
land,. &c.) = (prob.) Man(n)a's Estate 

Manton, Worcester, was the A.-Sax. 

MANUEL for Immanuel : v. Emanuel. 

MAN US, V. Mac Manus. 

MANVILLE (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Manneville 

(Normandy) == the Great Estate [Lat. 

Magna Villa] 

Manneville, Calvados, occurs as Magna 

Villa in i2ot; Manneville -sur-Risle; 

: , , Eure, was Magna Villa in the, i ith cent. 

Cp. Mandeville. 

MANWARING = Mainwaring, q.v. 

MAPLE \ (Eng.) Dweller at the Maple- 
MAPLESJ Tree(s [O.E. mapul-treif\ 

MAPLESON I Mabel's Son: v. under Mabb. 

2 for Mapieston, q.v. 

MAPLESTON (Eng.) Dweller at the Maple's 

Enclosure [O.E. mapul (-treo), maple ) 

tiin, enclosure] 

MAPP, a sharpened form of Mabb, c[-V- 
' . • . '- 

MAPPIN for Mabbin, a double dim. oi Mabel: 
v. Mabb. 

MARA (Celt.) i for O'Meara, q.v. 

2 a shortening of Mac Namara, q.v. 

MARCER = Mepcen, q.v. 

MARCH (Eng.) Dweller at a Boundary, 
Border, Frontier, Mark [M.E, marehe, 
p.E. m{e)arc\ 
Austyn at Caunterbury 
Cristnede the kyng, 

And thorugh miracles, as men now rede, 
Al tliat marehe he tornede 
To Crist and to cristendom; 

— Piers Plowman, 10513-17. 
March, Cambs, had the same spelling 
in the 13th cent. 

MARCHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Marcham, Berks ; 

gtli cent. Latin charter, Mercham — the 

March-Land [v. under March, and + 

O.E. ham{m, a piece of lat^d, enclosure] 

MARCH ANT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Merchant J [M.E. 

marcha{u)nt, O.F. march{e)ant (Fr. mar- 

'■ chand) ; f.Lat. mercans, pres. p. oi mercari, 

to trade] 

A marchant was ther with a forked berd 
In mottelye, and hye on horse he sat. 

— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Az'jo-i. 

MARCOCK = Mark (q.v.) + the pet suff. 

MARCROFT (Eng.) Dvirelier at i the Lake- 
Field [O.E. mere, a lake + croft] 

2 the Boundary-Field [O.E. mckre, a 
boundary -\r croft]* ' 

MARCUS (A.-Lat.), V. the more usual Eng. 
form Mark. 

MARCUSON, Marcus's Son: v. Marcus. 

MARDEN (Eng.) Bel., to Marden = i the 
, Pool- Valley [O.E. mere, a pool 4- denui 

a valley] 

2 the Boundary- Valley [Q.E. m(&re, 
a boundary] 

But Marden, Wilts, was the A.-Saxori 
Mere-dun, ' the hill by the mere.' 

MARDON (Eng.) usually for Marden (q.v.)i; 
but -doit normally represents O.E. dun, a 
down, hill. 

MARGARET (A.-Lat.-Gr.) Pearl (Lat. malr- 
garita, Gr. liapryajtlTiis] 

MARGERISON, Margery's .Son : v. Margery 

Margery, a dim. of Margaret, q.v. 


MARGIN \ double dims.of Margaret, q.v. 


MARGETSON, Marget's Son 1 „ .«„ '^^t/t 
M ARG ETTS, MARdETT s (Son) j ^- W"arget(t. 

MARGINSON, Margin's Son : v. Margin. 

MARGISON 1 Margy's or Margery's Son : 

MARGRIE, V. Margery. 

MARIGOLD (Heb. -|- Eng.) the flower-name 

[(the Virgin) Afary, Heb. Jlfrfriffcbitterness 

-f O.E. gold (from the colour]; 

MARION ) (A.-Fr.-Heb.) dims, of Mary = 

MARYON (Bitterness [Heb. Mdrdh; with 

the Fr. dim. suff. -on] 

MARISON, Mary's Son. 

, Confused with Morlson, q.v. 





' When, Walter, High Steward of Scot- 
land, and ancestor of the royal house of 
Stewart, espoused Marjorie (Margaret), 
only daughter of Robert Bruce, and 
■Eventually heiress to the crown, the 
barony of Ratho was granted by the king 
as a marriage portion to his daughter, by 
charter which is still extant ; and these 
lands, being subsequently denominated 
" Terra de Ratho Marjorie-banks," gave 
rise to the name of Marjoribanks.' 

I — Burke's Landed Gentry, ed. 1849. 

MARK, the Latin AfarcMJ, a common 1 Roman 
prsenomen (gen. abbreviated M.) = 
Hammer [Lat. marcus, a hammer ; dim. 


(Eng.) Dweller at a Mark or Boundary 

[O.E. m(e)arc\ 

MARKEY (Celt.) Horseman, Rider [Ir. mar- 
each = Gael, marcaiche — marc, a horse] 

MARKHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Markham = the 
Mark- or Boundary- Land [O.E. m{e)arc 

+ hamifri] 

MARKLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Mark- or 
Boundary-Land [O.E. m{e)arc + land] 

MARKS \ I Mark's (Son) : v. Mark' 
MARX J 2 for Marcus, q.v. 

MARKSON, Mark's Son : v. Marki 

MARL 1 (Fr.-Lat.) the French Marie, Merle, 

MARLE J a nickname from the Blackbird 

[Fr. merle, Lat. merula] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.-Celt.) Dweller at the Marl 

[O.Fr. marie, L.Lat. margila, dim. of Lat. 

marga, marl ; Celtic] 

Cp. Clay. 

(Teut.) the O.Teut. name - element, 
Marl-, Merl-, Marl- (as in A.-Sax. Mcerle- 
n) [f. mdri, mdere, famous] 

MARLAND (Eng.) Dweller at i the Lake- 

Land [O.E. mere ^- land:] 

2 the Boundary-Land [O.E. mdire + 


■MARLBOROUGH (Eng.) Bel. to Marlborough 
Marlborough, Wilts, occurs in the A.- 
Sax. Chronicle (A.D. 1 1 10) as Mcerlebeorg 
. — 'to Eastron he (Henry) vvses aet Mserle- 
beorge ' [O.E. beorg, a hill ; the first por- 
tion of the name is prob. the A. - Sax. 
name-element Mcerle, f. m(kre, famous, 


MARLER (Eng.) Marl-Worker [v. under 
Marl, and -f- the E. agent, suff. -er] 

MARLEY (Eng.) Dweller at i tlie Lake-Lea 
[O.E. mere, a lake -|- ledh (M.E. ley] 

2 the Boundary- Lea [O.E. mdsre + 

1 ledK] I 

MARLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Marlow (Bucks), 
the Domesday Merlawe = the Hill or 
Tumulus by the Mere [O.E. mere, a lalc'e 

-1- hlAw] 

MARMION l (Fr.) a nickname = Little 
MARMON J Monkey [O.Fr. marmion, a mar- 
mot or small monkey ; merme, very small 
(Scheler) -|- the dim. suff, -i-oii] 

M A R N E R (A. - Fr. - Lat.) Mariner, Sailor 

[M.E. O.Fr. mariner (Fr. marin, marinier) ; 

Lat. marin-us, marine] 

MARPLE (Eng.) Bel. to Marple, anc. Murpull 
= (app.) the Moor-Pool [O.E. mdr-\-pul] 

But for the old form recorded it would 
have been natural to refer the first ele- 
ment of this name to the O.E. mdere, ' a 
boundary,' as Marple is on the R. Gort, 
which there separates the counties of 
Chester and Derby. 

MARPLES I genit. (or pi.) of Marple, q.v. 
2 a corr. form of Maples, q.v. 

MARR (Celt.) Bel. to Mar(r (Aberdeensh.), 
12th cent. Marr, which the late Whitley 
Stokes thought was from a tribal name. 

(Eng.) Bel. to Marr (Yorks), 14th cent. 
Merre, prob. = the Pool [O.E. mere] 

Cp. the Northumbrian dialect - vyord 
mar, ' a pool.' 













(A. - Fr.-Heb.) dims, of Mary == ? 
Bitterness [Heb. Mdrdh; with 
the Fr. dim. suffixes -at, -et, -at, 
-in, -on] 

MARRIAGE (Eng.) doubtless a place-name : 
the suff. is prob. for -ridge or -wjich ; the 
first element representing either O.E. 
mcBre, ' boundary,' or O.E. mere, ' lake.' 

But note O.E. mder-hege, 'boundary- 

MARRINER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Mariner [Fr. 7nari- 
, nier, f. marin, marine; Lat. marin-us] 




MARRISON (A.-Heb.) Mary's Son. 
Confused with Morrison, q.v. 

MARROW (Eng.) Companion, Mate, Lover 

[M.E. marwe] 
(Celt.) for Morrow, q-v. 

MARRSHEng.) Dweller at the Mar(r)s or 
MARS J Meres [v. Marr 2] 

MARSDEN \ (Eng.) Bel. to Marsden (Lanes, 

MARSDIN JYorks, and Durhani) = the 

Marsh-Valley [O.E. mersc, a marsh + 

denu, a valley] 

MARSH (Eng.) Dweller on Low, Wei Land, 
a Morass [O.E. mersc] 

MARSHAL 1 (A. - Fr. - Taut.) ht. Horse- 

MARSHALLJ SERVANT; Farrier; later, 

Stew ARD[M..E,.marschdl,marcl!al,marshall, 

< etc., O.Fr. maresc{h)al {Fr.marechal, farrier; 

field-marshal) ; O.H.Ger. mardscalh — 

marah, a horse + sealh (O-H. scealc), a 

' servant] 

And with that word he gan unto hym calle 
■ A squier, that was marchal of his halle. 

— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 1929-30. 

Gentil furent li senescal 
Gentil furent li marescal. 

— Wace, Rom. de Rou, 


MARSLAND (Eng.) Dweller at 1 the Pool- 
Land [O.E. meres, genit. of mere, a pool 

f land] 
2 the Marsh-Land [O.E. mersc + land] 

M ARSON I for Marston, q.v. 
2 Mark's Son : v. Mark. 

MARSTON (Eng.) Bel, to Marston =1 the- 
Pool-Farmstead [O.E. meres, genit. of 
mere, a pool + tiin] 
2 the Marsh-Farmstead [O.E. mersc 

+ ttitt] 

MARTEL \ the French Martel — Hammer 
MARTELLJ (a nickname, as in the case of , 
Charles Martel) [O.Fr. martel, f Lat. 

Robert Martel.— /f«««;. Rolls. 

MARTEN (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Martin, q.v. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a nickname from the 

, Marten or Weasel [for martern, M.E. 

O.Fr. »!ar<n«, of marten's fur; M.E. O.Fr. 

martre, L.Lat. (pi.) martures; of Teut. 


MARTIN (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Martian [M.E. O.Fr. 
i Martin, Lat. Martin-us ; Lat. Mars, Martis, 

the god of war] 
(Eng.) Bel. to Martin, for Marten, q.v. 

MARTINDALE (Eng.) Bel. to Martindale, for 
Martondale : v. Marton, and-|- O.E.dml. 

MARTINEAU, v. the Appendix of Foreign 
Names [dim. suff. -eau, earlier -el, Lat. 


MARTINET, v. the Appendix of Foreign 
Names [dim. suff. -et] 


MARTINS, Martin's (Son) 1 
MARTINSON, Martin's Son J ^' 

MARTLAND, for Markland, q.v. 

MARTON (Eng.) Bel. to Marton = the Pool- 
Farmstead [O.E. mere + tiin] 

MARTYN = Martin, q.v. 

MARVIN (Eng.) i Sea-Finn [A.-Sax. Merefin— 
mere, sea, lake -1- the national name] 

2, Famous Finn [A.-Sax. Marfin—mCkre, 
famous, glorious] 

There has naturally been confusion with 
:the next name. 

MARWIN (Eng.) i Famous Friend [A.-Sax. 

McBrwine — mtkre = O. Sax. O.H.Ger. 

mdri, famous -f wine = O.Sax. O.H.Ger. 

wini, friend] 

2 Sea-Friend IA.-Sax. Merewine— mere, 

sea, lake] . 

MARWOOD (Eng.) Bel. to Marwodd = i the 

Pool-Wood [O.E. mere + wudu] 

2 the Boundary- Wood [O.E. mckre .+ 


MARX = Marks, q.v. 

MASCALL 1 (A.-Fr.-Teut.) prob. for Marscal 
MASCOLLJ (Maresc(h)al), the hard form of 
Marshall, q.v. 

Gilbert le Marscale.— i/Mnrf. Rolls. 

MASH (Eng.) i meton. for Mash-Maker [der. 
of O.E. miscian, to mix] 
2 for Marsh, q.v. 


MASKELlU. Mascall, &c. 



MASKRY japp.forMuskery, q.v. 

MASLENl (Fr.) the French Masselin = i a : 
MASLIN J double dim. f. Mass{e, =f (a) a 

dim. of Thomas, q.v. (b) a dim. of Maxime, 

Lat. Maximus, ' greatest.' 

2 an assira. form of Marcelin, a dim. f. 
Lat. Marc-US : v. Marki. 1 




(Eng.) melon, for (i) Maker or Seller 

of Maslins . [M.E. maselin, maselyn, a 

, goblet or bowl,' sometimes made of muslin 

. (a mixed metal like brass), but generally 

of maple-wood: O.'E. mces(t)ling, mmslen,. 

a kind of brass, a metal vessel] 

2 Worker in Maslin, a kind of brfj-ss 
[see above] 

They fette [fetched] hym first the 

1 sweet e wyn 
And mede eek in a maselyn. 

— Chaucer, Ca«<. Tafej, B 2041-2. 

Nor brass, nor copper, nor mastlin, npr 
mineral. — Lingua, O.Pl., v. 192 ; T.Wright. 

MASON (A.-Fr.-Teut.) [O.Fr. masson (Fr.' 
mafon), of Teut. orig.] 

This name may also be for Mayson, q.v. 

MASSER (Eng.) i Merchant [O.E. massere] 

2 Mass-Priest [O.E. mcessere] 
MASSEY ^ (Fr.) 1 Bel. to Mac6, Mtcey, or 
MASSIE )■ Massy (villages in Normandy) = 
MASSY ) Matheus's Estate [La t. Ma^Az- 

acum; -dc-um being the Lat. form of the 
Gaul. poss. suff. -dc-os] 

A de Mad ocpnrs in the list of ' Com- 
pagnons de Guillaume a la Conquete de 
I'Angleterre en MLXVI ' graven over the 
main doorway (inside) of the old Church 
at Dives. 

2 a contr. form (Ma€^,'Macey) oiMatthieu 
= Matthew, q.v. 

MASSINGER for Messenger, q.v. 

MASSINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Massingham 
(Norf61k), 13th cent. Massingham and 
Messingham = the Home of the M^ssa 

, Family [A.-Sax. Massingahdm inga, 

■ genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + kdm, home] 

MASSON (Fr.) i = Mason, q.v. 

2 a dim. f. Mass(e: v. under Maslin. 

MASTERMAN (Eng.) Master's Man or 
Servant. , 

MASTERS (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the 

Master's (Son) 
MASTERSON (A.-Fr.-Lat.) 

the Master's Son 

[M.E; maister, 
O.Ft. maistre, 
Lat. magister] 

MATES prob. = Matts, q.v. 

MATHER (Eng.) i Movjter [O.E. mck'Sere] . 

2 Power-Army [A.-Sax. Mcethhere — 
m(B% power, capacity, rank, reverence -f 

here, army] 
MATHERS, Mather's (Son) ■[„ r. .. 
MATHERSON, Mather's Son ;^- "^atner. 

MATHESON for Matthewson, q.v. 

Prob. occ. also for Matherson, q.v.. 

In theNorth Highlands AfaMe50« is used 
as a translation of Macmahon, q.v. 

MATHEW = Matthew, q.v. 
MATHEWS = Matthews, q.v. 

MATH IAS, V. Matthew. Mathias is also a 
Continental Teut. form. 

MATHIESON, 1 for Matthewson, q.v. 
MATHISON, I Prob. occ. also for Mather- 
son, q.v. 

MATHWIN (Eng.) Power -Friend [A.-Sax. 

Mathwine — v. under Mather 2, and -|- 

O.E. wine = O.Sax. O.H.Ger. zt)i«i=O.N. 

vin-r, friend], 

MATKIN, a double dim. of Matthew, q.v. 

MATKINS, Matkin's (Son) 1 .. 

MATKINSON, Matkin's SoN J ' "vatKin. 

MATLAND = Maitland, q.v. 

MATSON, Mat(t)'s Son; v. Matt. 

MATT, a dim. of Matthew, q.v. 

MATTERSON = Matherson, q.v. 


MATTAY }■ forms of Matthew, q.v. 


MATTHEW (A. - Lat. -Gr. -Heb.) Gift of 
Jehovah [Lat. Matthaus, Matthias, Gr. 
MarSaios, MarBlas, Heb. Mattathidh — 
mattath, a gift -f ydh, abbrev. of Jehdvdhi 

Mat(t)hew is used as an Anglicization 
of Mahon, q.v. 

MATTHEWS, Matthew's (Son) \ v. 
MATTHEWSON,Matthew'sSon; Matthew 

MATTHIAS, V. Matthew. 

MATTINSON 1 for Matthewson a V 
MATTISON I '""^ "viaxtnewson, q.v. 

MATTOCK for Maddock, q.v. 

MATTOCKS for Maddocks, q.v. 

MATTS, Matt's (Son) 1^ „.^ 
MATTSON, Matt's Son / '"^"■ 

MAUD \ dims, of Matilda: v. under 
MAUDE J Malkin ante. 


MAUDSLAY [v. Mawd(e)sley. 





MAUGER (Fr.-Teut.) a French descendant 

of the O.Ger. Madelger r=CovHcih-SPEAR 

[the Cont. Teut. cognate of O.K. 

mojSel, speech, council, etc. + O.Sax. 

O.H.Ger. g4r, a spear] 

MAUGHAN = Mahon, q.v. 
MAUL \ I Bel. to Maule (Seine-et-Oise) 
MAULE[ 2 for Ma?/, a dim. of Matilda, also 
MAULL ' of Mary : v. Malkin. 

3 poss. also representing the A.-Sax. 
male pers. name Moll: v. MolJ. 

MAUND, meton. for Maunder<, q.v. 

MAUNDER (Eng.) Maker of Maunds (Bas- 
kets) [O.E. mand, a basket + the agent. 

suff. -ere] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Beggar [f M.E. maundee, 
'the washing of the disciples' feet'; O.Fr. 
mande ; L.Lat. mandat-um, the foot-wash- 
ing; Lat. mandare, to command] 

The divill (like a brave maunder) was 

rid a-begging himselfe, and wanted money. 

— Search for Money, A.D. 1609. 

MAUNDERS, Maunder's (Son) "1 v. 
MAUNDERSON, Maunder's Son j Maunder 

MAUNSELL = Mansell, q.v. 

MAURICE (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Moorish; Dark 
[Lat. Mauritius — Maurus, Gr. MaCpos, a 


Serl fil. Morice.—Hund Rolls. 

Mauricius Capellanus.^/Vzt Soils. 

In Ireland, Morris or Morrish has often 
been adopted as a simplified substitute 
for such native names as Muirgheas (v. 
Morrissey) and Moriarty, q.v. 

MAW (Eng.) I Dweller at the Maw or Mow 
[O.E. miiga, a mow] 

William de la Mawe. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 Man, Warrior ; Son, Kinsman 
[O.E. magu] 

MAWDESLEY ) (Eng.) Bel. to Mawdesley 
MAWDSLEY ) (Lanes) = Maud's orMouD's 
Lea [M.'E. ley, O.'E. leak] 

Hugh de Moudesley. — 

Lane. Inq., A.D. 1293. 
Thomas de Maudesley. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1398, 

MAWDITT (Fr.-Lat.) the French Mauduit = 

Naughty, lit. Badly Conducted [Fr. 

. mal, Lat. male^ badly -(- Fr. duit, pp. of 

duire, Lat. ducere, to lead] 

MAWER (Eng.) Mower [f. O.E. mdwan, to 


MAWSON (Eng.) Maw's Son : v. Maw, esp.^ 

(Teut.) Maud's Son: v. Maud. 

(Heb. -I- Eng.) for Mary's Son : Mary 
= ' Bitterness ' [Heb. mdrdK\ 

MAXIM (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Greatest [Fr. Maxinte, 
Lat. Maxim-us; superl.oC magnus, great] 

MAXTON (Eng. or Celt. -|- Eng.) Bel. to 
Maxton = Maccus' Estate [A.-Sax. 


MAXWELL (Eng. or Celt. + Eng.) Dweller 

at Maccus' Spring or Pool [A.-Sax. 


.iElfere and Maecus, liiddige twegen 
[brave twain]. — 

The Battle of Maldon (A.D. 993), 80. 

MAY \ (Eng.) I Man.'Warrior ; Kinsman, 
MAYE J Son [M.E. may, O.E. mdga, m(!e(c)g] 

Byrhtn6Ses mceg. — 

The Battle of Maldon, 1 14- 

2 Young Girl, Maid [ME. mat, may, 
O.E. mckg{\>] 

That has na barn, ne mai ne knave. — 
Cursor Mundi, 12067. 

Thow glorie of wommanhede, thow 
faire may. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 851. 
(A.-Heb.) dims, of Matthew, q.v. ; also 
of Mary [Heb. Mardh, bitterness] 

MiVFi'i'l= Mayhall, q.v.; cp. also Mlall. 

MAYBRICK (Fr.-Lat. -I- Eng.) Dweller at 

(prob.) the MAY(-Tree) Breck [Fr. Mai, 

Lat. Mai-US, month of May -f- Prov. t. 

breek, a heath, sheep-walk] 

MAYBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Maybury = the 

Tribal or National Hill [O.E. mdegS, 

tribe, nation, province -\- beorg, hill] 

MAYCOCK = May (q.v.) -|- the E. pet suff. 

Also a term for an effeminate man, a 
milksop — 

He sholde be no cowarde, no mayeoeke. 
—Pilgr. Perf., A.D. 1526; N.E.D. 

Cp. Meacock. 

MAYCOX, Maycock's (Son) : v, Mayoock. 

MAYER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Mayor [M.E. meir{e, 

MAYOR J myre, maire, Fr. maire, mayetir, 

maieur, Lat. major, compar. of magnus, 

David le Meir. — Hund. Rolls. 

John le Myre.— Hac. Dom. Cap. Westm. 




And namel)^ ye maistres 
Metres and jugges [judges] 
That have the welthe of this world.^ 
Piers Plowman, 4866-8. 

This name is occ. an Anglicized form of 
the corresponding German Meyer, which 
see in the appendix of Foreign Names. 

MAYERS, Mayer's (Son) : v. Mayer. 

MAYES, May(e)'s (Son) : v. May(e. 

MAYGER, a var. of Meager and Meagher, 

MAYHALL(Eng.)Bel. to Maghull (S.W. Lanes), 

13th cent. Mahalie = the Tribal or 

National Hill [O.E.mcfe^, tribe, nation, 

province + hal(h, a slope, hill, corner] 

(A.-Heb.) a form taken by Michael, q.v. 

MAYHEW, an A.-Fr. form of Matthew, q.v. 
Robert Mahe-n.—Hund. Rolls. 
The present day French forms are 
Maheu and Mahieu. 

MAYHOW for Mayhew, q.v. 

MAYKIN = May (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff 

MAYLE = Male, q.v. 

MAYLER I (Celt.) the Shaven One, Monk, 
MAYLOR J Disciple \lr. Maelir,Maolir-mael, 
maol + the pers. suff. -ir{e'\ 
Maelir mac Maelir. — 

Annals of the P.M., A.D. 1205. 

MAYNARD (A. - Fr. - Teut.) Power -Brave 
\0. T ent. Meginhard, etc. — O.Sax. megin = 
O. E. mmgen = O.H.Ger. megin=O.N.megtn, 
main, power, strength+0.Sax.}iard=O.K. 
h(e)ard = O.H.Ger. hart = O.N. har%-r, 
hard, brave] 

MAYNE - Main(e, q.v. 

MAYO (A.-Fr-Heb.) for Mayhew, q.v". 

(Celt.) Bel. to Mayo = the Plain of 
the Yews [Ir. Magh-ed] 

MAYOR, v. Mayer. 

MAYSON, May's Son : v. May. 

Cp, Mason'. 


MEAGHIN [v. Mao Meeohan. 


MEAGHER I Sneak, Petty Thief [E.M.E, 
MEECHEr] muchare, later mycher, micher] 

M EACOCK (Eng.) Effeminate Man,Coward, 

Milksop [prob. f. O.E. mckg, woman, 

' maiden ; with the E. pet suff. -cock] 

Shee found fault with him because he 
was a meacocke and a milkesoppe.^- 
Tarhon, Newes out of Purgatorie, A.D. 1590. 

Cp. Maycock. 

MEAD \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Meadow [O.E. 

MEADE J meed'] 

Robert atte Mede.— Pari. Writs. 

MEADER (Eng.) i = Mead (q.v.)-l-the agent, 
suff. -er. 

2 Mower ' [O.E. mm^ere] 

The meader walks forth with his scythe 
on his shoulder. — 

Old Ballad, Notes and Q., 1854, X.480 

MEADOWS (Eng.) Dweller at the Grass- 
Lands [O.E. moedwe, dat. of meed, a 


MEADS (Eng.) pi, or genit., of Mead, q.v. 

MEAGER (Eng. or A.-Fr.-Lat.) Lean, Thin, 

Meagre [M.E. megre, O.Fr. maigre, Lat. 

macer, lean : cp. O.E. mceger= O.N. magr= 

Ger. mager, lean] 

Hugh le Megre. — Pari. Writs. 

I am megre and have ben longe seke 
[sick]. — Morte d' Arthur, X. Ixxxvii. 

(Celt.) for Meagher = Maher, q.v. 


. V. Maher. 

of French orig.] MEEARS 

3HER1 , 
MEAKIN I for Makin, q.v. 

2 for Mac Meakin, &c. 

3 =?Meek(e (q.v.) -f- the dim. suff. -kin. 

MEAkIns^} ^^eakin's (Son) : v. Meakin. 

MEAL (Celt.) Dweller at a Little Round 
M EALE I Hill [Gael, and Ir. meall] 

MEALL)(Scand.) Dweller at a Sandhill 

[O.N. mel-r] 
MEALEY, V. O'Melly or O'Malley. 

MEALOR, a var. of Maylor, q.v. 

MEAN (Celt.) Little [Ir. min = Gael, mion] 

MEAR (Eng.) Dweller at a Mere [O.E. mere,': 

a pool] ' 
(Celt.) Merry, Joy^ous [Gael, and Ir. ' 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) a form of Mayer, q.v. 


MEARS tpl., orgenit., of Mear, q.v, 





MEARNS (Celt.) i Mearns (Kincardine), 
c. 1 200 Moerne, ace. to Sir H. Maxwell 
(' Scot. Land-Names', p. 58) representing 
Gael. Magh Girginn, ' the Plain of Cirig '. 

2 Mearns (Glasgow), 12th cent. MeomSi 
Memis, &c.,sugfiAo represent Gael. Magh 
Edma, ' field of barley ' ; with Eng. pi. -4- 

MEATYARD = Meteyard, q.v. 

MECKLE = Miokle, q.v. 

MECREDY = Mac Creadie, q.v. 

MEDCALF (Eng.)? Mad or Silly Calf (nick- 
name for a frisky individual) [O.E. 
ge)mdRdd, foolish, mad + t;{e)alf] 
Bardsley, however, thinks that this is a 
corruption of the next name. 

MEDCRAFT (Eng.) Dweller at a Meadow- 
Croft [O.E. mdsd +. croft'] 

-MEDD = Mead, q.v. 

Philip atte Medde.— PaW. Writs- 

MEDDOWS = Meadows, q.v. 

MEDHURST (Eng.) Dweller at the Meadow- 
Wood [O.E. m^d + hyrst. a wood] 

MEDLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Meadow- 
Land [O.E. mckd + land] 

,'MEDLEY i(Eng.) Bel. to Medley = i the 
.' Meadow-Field [O.E. mdkd + ledh, a field] 

' 2 (for Midley) the Middle Lea [O.E. 

midd -t- ledh] 

:MEDWAY (Celt.) Dweller by the R. Medway 

[the second element is prob. the Wei. 

. - , , g)'!«yt water] 

MEDWIN (Teut. ) the O.Teut. Madwiv, 
Medwin — *mdd,*med = O.E. md'S, power, 
reverence, etc. -|- win- [O.Sax. O.H.Ger. 
wini = O.E. wine = O.N. uin-r, a friend] 

MEE (Eng.) a var. of May, q.v. [O.E. mde{c)g] 
(Celt:) abbrev. of Mac Namee, q.v., or 
: Mac Meechan, q.v. 

MEECH(Eng.) a palatalized form of Meek(e, 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) perh. meton. for Maker 

or Seller of Wick [A.-Fr wi^cfe, Er. meche. 

Lat. myx-us, wick] 

MEEHAN, V. Mac Meehan. 

MEEK j Mild, Humble [M.E. meke, meoc, 
MEEKES O.N. »;j«A-r, soft, meek] 

Robert le Meke.— Ca/, Inq. P.M. 


j^ jfor Meakin, q.v. 

MEEKS, Meek's (Son) : v. Meek. 
1 = M6ap(e)s, q.v. 

JRNE] (Eng.) Bel. to Melbourne = 
?N 1 (prob.) the Mill - Brook 


MEES, MEE's(Son)\ 
MEESON, Mee's Son j^' ""®^' 

MEGGS, Meg(g)'s (Son) ^ Megg, a var. 
MEGGSONT MFrM'q Son \ "^ ^'^Sg ■ v. 
MEGSON I ™^°(°' ^ ^™ ) Maggs 

MEGGY, a double dim. oi Margaret : v. Maggs 

, MEGILLfor Mao Gill, q.v. 

MEGINN for Mac Ginn, q.v. 

MEHEW = Mayhewt q.v. 

MEIKLE = Mickle, q.v. 
MEIKLEJOHN = Micklejohn, q.v. 


[O.E. myln + burne] 

Lord Melbourne, aft-er whom the capital 
of Victoria was called, took his title from 
the Derbyshire Melbourne. 

MELDON (Eng.) Bel. to Meldon = (prob. ) 
the MlLL-HiLL [O.E. myln, a mill + diin, 
a down, hill] 
(Ir.) for Muldoon, q.v. 

MELDRUM (Celt.) Dweller by the Bare 

Ridge [Gael, tnael, maol, bald, bare -1- 

druim, a ridge] 

MELHUISH (Eng.) Bel. to Melhuish = (prob.) 
the MiLL-HuiSH [O.E. myln, a mill, : v. 

MELLADEW (Eng.) Honeydew, Nectar 
[O.E. mele-dedw] 
MELLERfor Miller, q.v. 
MELLIN for Malin, q.v., and Melling, q.v. 

M E LLI N G (Eng.) Bel. to Melling = (the Settle- 
men t of) the M/EL- Tribe [Domesday 
Melinge ; A.-Sax. * Mi^lingas — mdsl, a 
SWORD, also talk, speech -I- the pi. (dat. 
pi. -ing-um) of the fil. suff. -ing] 

M ELLIS (Celt. + Heb.) Servant or Disciple 
OF Jesus , [Gael. Mael losa] 

MELLISH (Celt. -|- Heb.) v. Mellls, 

(Eng.) an assim. form of Melhuish, q.v. 

MELLOR (Eng.) i for Miller, q.v. 

2 Bel. to Mellor = ? the Mill-Bank 
[M.E. melle, O.E. myln, a mill ; O.E. dra, a 





MELLVILLE) (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Malleville in 

MELVILL [ Normandy = the Bad Estate 

MELVILLE 1 [Fr. malle, Lat. mala, bad +' 

Fr. ville, Lat. villa, estate] 

A de Malleville occurs in the list of 
"Compagnons de Guillaume ala Conqu6te 
de I'Angleterre en MLXVI " graven over 
the main doorway (inside) of the old 
church at Dives, Calvados. But Lord 
Melville took his title from Melville in 
Midlothian, the fief of a Norman in the 
time of David I, which in the thirteenth 
century we find as Malavilla. 

MELLY, V. O'Melly. 

MELONE = Malone, q.v. 

MELROSE (Celt.) Bel. to Melrose = the Bare 
Peninsula or Headland [Gael, maol, 

bare + ros] 

MELSON, app. Male's Son : v. Male. 
MELTON (Eng.) Bel. to Melton for Milton = 

1 the Mill-Stead [O.E. myln + tun] 

2 the Middle Farm [O.E. middel+tun\ 

MENCE (Teut.-Lat.) a dim. of Lat. Clemens' 
V. Clement. 

MENDEL Iv. the Appendix of Foreign 

MEN DOZA.v. the Appendix of Foreign Names. 

MENLOVE for Manlove, q.v. 

MENNELL (Fr.-Lat.) Member of a Nobleman's 

Household or Retinue ; a Retainer 

[O.Fr. mesnil, L.Lat. mansionilis, dim. of 

Lat. mansio, -onis, an abode, habitation] 

Mesnil 6tait originairement le nom que 
r on donnait au domaine rural d' un per- 
sonnage notable, et sur lequel il rSsidait 
habituellement avec sa famille et ses 
tenanciers. — 

Moisy, Noms de Fam. Norm., p. 322. 

Cp. Mennle. 

MENNIE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Member of a Noble- 
man's Household or Retinue ; a Re- 
tainer [M.E. meynee, meiny, menye, a 
household, retinue ; O.F. meisnee, mesnie, 
etc., a family; L.Lat. maisnada, mansnada, 
a family ; f. Lat. mansio, -onis, an abode, 
, habitation] 
Sir Myrthe cometh into this place, 
And eke with hym cometh his meynee. 
That lyven in lust and jolite. — 

Chancer, Rom. of the Rose, 6i4r6. 

Cp. Mennell. 

MENTEITH (Celt.) Bel. to Menteith = the 
Moor of the (River) Teith [Gael. 
Monadh Teid]' 

MENZIES, Scot, (genit.) form of Mennle, q.v. 

Before all the menzie, and in her moment 
of power, the Queen humbled lier to the 
dust by taxing her with her shame. — 

Scott, The Abbot, XXXL 

The e in this name represents the M.E. 
3 = y. 

MERCER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Storekeeper; Haber- 
dasher, Draper [M.E. mercer, Fr. mercieti 
L.Lat. mercerius, trader ; Lat. merx, mercis, 


Ketel le Mercer.— if M«i. Rolls. 

MEREDITH (Celt.) the O.Welsh Maredud{d 
{dd=th [ ? the Mod. VVel. marmddydd,', 
' mortal day ' — marw, mortal ; dydd, day] ; 

Maredud ap Ywein. — '' 

[Meredith son of Owain] 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 985. 

Maredud ab Grufud. — 
[Meredith son of Griffith] 

do. do. A.D. 


Madawc the son oi Mareduddpoasesse&ii 
Powys within its boundaries, from Por- 
foed to Gwauan in the uplands of 
Arwystli. — 'The Dream of Rhonabwy:' 
Mdbinogion, tr. Guest. 

MERISON "1 1 Merry's Son : v. Merry. 
MERRISON J 2 Merrick's Son: v. Merrick. 

3 Mary's Son. 

MERRELLj the French Merel, Meriel [the 
MERRILL J stem may be the O.Teut. *»!^r-,; 
tamous (Goth, m^r-s = O.H.Ger. mdri— 
M.H.Ger. mcere—= O.E. mcere); or the 
O.H.Ger. meri (mod. meer) = O.Sax. meri 
= O.E. mere,.sea., ocean; or Celtic, — |- the 
dim. suff. -el, Lat. -ell-us] 

MERRET [the French A/er^f [the stem is 

MERRETT ) the sameas in Merrell (q.v.) + 

the dim. sufi. -et] 

MERRICK, an aphseresized form of Almeric, 

MERRICKS, Merrick's (Son) :v. Merrick. 

MERRIDEW, prob. for the French M^re de 
Dieu, from dwelling by an effigy of the 
' Mother of God.' 

Cp. Pardew for the Fr. Pardieu. 

Hardly for Meredith. 

MERRIDOCH = Murdoch, q.v. 




MERRIMAN \ (Eng.) GAyFELLow[v. Merry, 
MERRYMAN J and + man] 

MlRmTTJf- "««•"•-*(*' q.v. 

MERRY (Eng.) Gay, Blithe, Pleasant [M.E. 

merie, mine, &c., O.E. myrige] 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Mer(r)y, L.Lat. 

Medericus, O.Teut. Medric [v. under 

Med win, and + O.Teut. -n'c (mod. -rich), 


MERRYWEATHER (Eng.) a nickname for a 

Gay or Blithe Fellow [v. Merry, and 

+ O.E. weder, weather] 

Andrew Meriweder. — Hund. Rolls. 

Merryweather was formerly an idiomatic 

phrase for joy, pleasure, or delight. — 

Halliwell, Diet. 

MERSER = Mercer, q.v. 

MERSH = Marsh, q.v. 

MERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Merton = the Mere- 
Farmstead [O.E mere, a pool + frfw] 

MERYETT, the French MMet: v. Merret(t. 

MERYON, the French Marion: v. under 
Merrell and + the dim. suff. -on. 

MESH AM ] (Eng.) Bel. to Mesham or Mas- 

MESSHAM J ham = prob. M.«:(c)g's Home 

or Estate [genit. of O.E. mde{c)g, man, 

warrior, son + hdm\ 

MESKELL = Mascall, q.v. 

MESNY r ^''^"'^^ forms of Mennie, q.v. 

MESSENGER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Message-Bear- 


» : M.E. and Fr. messager; f. Fri message, 

L.Lat. missaticum, message ; Lat. missus, 

p.p. of mittere, to send] 

MESSENT, app. the mod. French messeant, 

'unseemly,' unbecoming' [Fr. »?«-, Lat. 

minus, compar. oi parvus, little +,a deriv. 

of Lat. sedere, to sit] 

MESSER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Master, Sir, Squire 

\0.7x.messerioTmessire — mes,'Ls.t. metis, 

my -|- sire, Lat. senior'] 

Messer, vieux mot pour messire: La 
Fontaine I'afr^quemment appliqu6 k des 
animeaux, et mSme a I'estomac, qu'il a 
appe]6 messer Gaster- — 

Stappers, Diet. d'Etym. Fratif., p. 606. 

2 Field- Keeper, Harvestman [Fr. 
messier, L.Lat. messarius ; f. Lat. messis, 
harvest : cp. Lat. messor, a reaper, mower] 

John le Messer. — Hund. Rolls. 

3 a (Scot.) var. of Macer = Mace- 
Bearer [O.Fr. maissier, massier] 

Ane messer or uthir officiar of armes. — " 
Reg. Pr. CclScot, A.D. 1550. 

4 Purveyor (esp. of meat) [f. M.E. 
messe, O.Fr. mes (mod. mets), a dish o f 
meat ; ult. t. Lat. mittere, missum, to send] 

In the iSth cent. Messers and Salters 
are mentioned together. 


for Medcalf, q.v. 

METEYARD (Eng.) meton. for a Surveyor 

[M.E. mete-yard, a measuring rod — O.E, 

metan, to measure ; gyrd, gerd, rod] 

METHUEN \ (Celt.) Bel. to Methven (Perth), 
METHVEN j i^th cent. Methphen [the second 

element is prob. the Gael, abhuinn (pr. 

aven), river (Almond); the first is doubtful, 
perh. Gael, maoth, smooth] 

Methven is also the name of a tributary 
of the Clyde. 

MEW (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at the Falcons', 

or the Fowls', Place [M.E. meviie, mew ; 

O.Fr. mue, a mew, a moulting ; O.Fr. 

muer, Lat. mutare, to change] 

Ful many a fat partrich hadde he in 
mewe. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 349. 

She findes forth comming from her 
darksome mew, 

Where she all day did hide her hated 
hew. — Spenser, Faerie Queene, Lv. 20. 

(Eng.) a nickname from the Goix 
[O.E. mdzw, a sea-gull] 

John le Mew. — Close Rolls, A.D. 1292. 
MEWS, pi., or genit., of Mew, q.v. 


MEYLER (Celt.) i a var. of Mayler, q.v. 

2 a Welsh surname of app. mixed 
origin [cp. O.Wel. meiliwr, a transgressor; 
Wei. maeliwr, a trader ; also Wei. milwr, 

a soldier] 

Milwyr Ynys Prydein. — 

' Kulhwch ac Olwen': Mabinogion. 

Gronw a Ridit a Meilyr meibon Owein 
ab Edwin. — 

[Goronwy, Rhirid, and Meilyr, the sons 
of Owain son of Edwin] 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 1122. 




Metier et Ivor. — 

Annates Canibrite, A.D. 1170. 

Nicholas ap Meyler, A.D. 1222. — 

Hist. St. David's. 

MEYNELL, V. Menneil. 

MEYNPRICE for Mainprise, q.v. 

And he amendes mowe [may] make, 
Lat [let] meynprise hym have. — 

Piers Plowman, 2257-8. 

MEYRICK, V. Merrick. 

MIALL, a syncopated form of Michaei, q.v. 

MICHAEL (A.-Heb.) Who is Like to God ? 

[Heb. Mikhail -mi, who? + k,' like + 

■El, God] 

MICHAELS, Michael's (Son) "I . ^.. i, , 
MICHAELSON, MiCHAEL'sSoN / ^- IVlichael. 

MICHEL IMcAe/isthe A.-French form of 
MICHELLJ Michael, q.v. 

Walter Michel.— /fM«rf. Rolls. 

MICHELS, Michel's (Son) : V. Michel. 

MICHIE, a Scot, double dim. of IVIJchael, q.v. 

MICHOLS = Michaels, q.v. 

MICKELl (Eng. and Scand.) Big, Great 
MICKLE f [O.E. micel = O.N. mikilf] 

For the eldridge knighte, so mickle of 
mighte. — Sir Cauline, 63. 

MICKLEJOHN (Teut.-Heb.) Big John [O.E. 
micel = O.N. mikill, big + John, q.v.] 

M ICKLEM for Mickleham (Eng.) Dweller at the 

Big Enclosure [O.E. jB!c?;, big + ham{m, 

apiece of land, enclosure] 

The Surrey Mickleham occurs in 
Domesday Book as Micleham. 

MICKLEWRIGHT (Eng.) the Big Wright 
(Worker) [O.E. micel + wyrkta] 

MICKLETHWAIT ] (Scand.) Bel. to Mickle- 

MICKLETHWAITE/thwaite (Yorks, Cumb.) 

= the Big Clearing [O.N. mikill, big + 

yueit, a clearing] 

MIDDLEHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Middlehurst 

= the Middle Copse or Wood [O.E. 

middel + hyrsi\ 

MIDDLEMASS ] for Michaelmas (Eng.) One 

MIDDLEMISS J born on 29TH September 

[M.E. michelmesse, mighelmesse, &c. : v. 

Michael and + O.E. meesse'] 

MIDDLETON (Eng.) Bel. to Middleton = the 
Middle Farmstead [O.E. middel + tun'\ 

MIDDLEWICK \ (Eng.) Dweller at the MlD- 
MIDDLEWEEK/dle Place [O.E. middel + 


MIDGLEY] (Eng.) Dweller at the Big Lea 
MIDGLY J [O.E. micel + leak (M.E. ley"] 
This is the palatal form of the equiva- 
lent guttural Mickley. 

MIDWINTER (Eng.) born at Christmas 

[M.E. midewinter, midewynter, Christmas ; 

O.E. mid-winter\ 

Gonnilda Midewynter. — Hund. Rolls. 

MIELL, a syncopated form of Michael, q.v. 

MIER, V. Meyer. 


MILBANK 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Mill- 
MILLBANK J Bank [M.E. mille + banke] 

IGHkIl'}^^''®' °^ IVIiohael, q.v. 


(Eng.) Dweller by the Mill- 
Stream [O.E. myl{e)n + 

MILDMAY(Eng.) Mild Maid (a nickname) 

[M.E. mild(e, O.E. milde, gentle, mild + , 

M.E. may, O.E. mckgQ-] 

MILDRED (Eng.) i Mild Counsel [A.Sax. 
Mildred (masc.) — milde, mild -|- rdkd, 


Her Mildred bisceop forSferde. 

(In this year Bishop Mildred [of Wor- 
cester] died). — A.-Sax. Chron-, A.D. 772. 

2 Mild Strength [used for the A.-Sax. 
Mild]>ry\> (iem.) — milde + J'ryl'] 

Saint Mildred or Mildthryth was, 
abbess of a nunnery at Minster in the 
Isle of Thanet at the end of the 7th 

MILES I f. the classical Milo, with the Eng. 

genit. -5 suffix. [Lat. Milo{n, Gr. M(Xu»; 

prob. rel. to Gr. fiiSWa, to mill, crush] 

Milo occurs in Domesday Book as the 
name of a Norman landholder ; and 
afterwards we find 

Milo le Mssset.— Hund. Rolls. 

Milo Basset. — Plac. de quo Warr. 

2 the Latin Miles (= Soldier), used in 
the Middle Ages as a title. 

Ego Godricus miles. — 

Chart. Edw. Conf., A.D. 1066. 




Wychard miles.^Hund. Rolls. 

• • . a good knyght : his name was ' 
Mylis. — Morte d' Arthur, I. xxi. 

3 adopted as an Eng. representative of 
the Irish Maelmordha = Noble Disciple 
[Ir. mael, maol, disciple + mordha, noble] 

MILESON, Miles' Son : v. Miles. 

MILFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Milford = the Ford 
by the Mill [v. under Mill, and + O.E. 

Adam de Milford.— i/wwrf. Rolls. 

MILL (Eng.) Dweller at or by a Mill [M.E. 

mill{e, for earlier miln{e, melnCe, myln{e, 

O.t. myl{e)n\ 

Roger atte MiWe.—Hund. Rolls. 

_ (Fr.),the French Mille = i an aphrere- 

sized form oiEmile, formerly also written > 

Emille ; Lat. Mmili-us [prob. rel. to Gr. 

aifjiiX-os, flattering, winning, wily] 

2 Milo : V. iinder Miles. 

MILLAN IV. Mac Millan. 

2 the French Millan (also Milhan), an 
abbrev. form of Emilian (Emilien), the 
Latin Mmilian-us, t. JEmili-us: v. Mill 

MILLAR for Millen, q.v. 

MILLARD (Fr.) Jhe French Mille (v. Mill 

(Fr.) + the dim. suff. -ard [Teut. hard] 

(Eng.) an assim. form of Mil I ward, q.v. 

MILLBANK (Ens;.) Dweller at the Mill-Bank 
[v. under Mill and Bank] 

M|LLBOURN(E (Eng.) Dweller at the Mill- 
Stream [O.E. myl{e)n + bume] 

MILLEN 1 I a var. of Millan, q.v. 
MILLIN ) 2 an Anglicization of the German 
Miihlen (Mills) 

MILLER (Eng.) Corn-Grinder [M.E. millere, 

mellere, for earlier milner(e, mylner(e; f. 

O.E. myl{e)n, a mill] 

See Milner. 
MILLERSON, (the) Miller's Son. 

JJj!-!-^!]^ Vthe French Mille (v. Mill (Fr.) f 
M I LLOT J '"'^ ^''"- ^^^- '^'' ■"'■ 
Roger MiWot—Hund. Rolls. 

MILLHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the Mill- 
House [O.E. myl{e)n -1- hiis] 

MILLICAN ) (Celt.) for the Irish 0'Maoil{e)a- 
MILLIGAN cdin, 0'Maoil{e)agdin, Grandson 
MILLIKEN or Descendant of Maolacan, 
MILLIKIN '' MAOLAGAN = the Little Bald or 

Shaven One, Monk, Disciple [Ir. 

maol, bald, &c. -|- the double dim. suff. 
-ac-dn, (for -oc-dn,) -ag-dn (for -6g-dn] 

MILLICENT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the common I^'rench 
Milcent, Milsent, Milsant = Thousand 
Saints [Lat. de Mille Sanctis] , 

Cp. Toussaint ( All Saints ), also a 
common French surname and masc. 
christian name, and a Norman (Seine- 
Infgrieure) place-name. 

The A.-Fr. fern, christian name Milli- 
ce»f (which, has been confused with the 
above masc. name), earlier Melicent, 
Melisant, is app. for the O.Teut. Amala- 
swinth [amal{ao{ uncertain orig. .swintfi, 
strong, as in Goth. smin]>-s = O.H.Ger. 
-swind = O.-Sax. swi^i = A.-Sax. swtS] 

MILLINER for Milner, q.v. 

MILLINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to MiUington = i 
the Estate of the Mil(l)- Family 
[A.-Sax. *Mil(J)inga-tun-inga, genit pi. 
of the fil. suff. -ing ; tiin, estate, farmstead, 

2 the Mill Enclosure or Farmstead ^ 
[O.E. mylen + ttin] 

The Cheshire MiUington occurs in the 
14th cent, as Mulynton. 

MILLMAN (Eng.) the Mill-Man; Miller 
[O.E. myl(e)n + man(n] 

MILLMOREl (Celt.) Dwellers at the W 
MILMORE /Hill [Gael, meall, a hill -j- 

mdr, big} 


[ = Milne, q.v. 
MILLNER = Milner, q.v. 

MILLNS = Milnes, q.v. 
MILLROY, V. Milroy, 

MILLS (Eng.) i One living at or by Corn- 

2 Mill's (Son) : v. Mill. 
MILLSON, Mill's SoN : v. Mill. 

MILLWARD, V. Mllward. 

MILMAN (Eng.) the Mill-Man; Miller 
[O.E. myl(e)n + man{n'\ 




MILNE (Eng.) One living at or by a Corn- 
Mill [M.E. miln(e, metn{e, myln{e, O.K. 
myl{e)n, a mill] 

Thomas atte Milne. — Cal. Inq. P.M. 

John atte Melne. — Hund. Rolls. 

As don [do] these rokkes or these 
milne stones. — 

Chaucer, Trail. & Cris., ii. 1384. 

MILNER (Eng.) Corn-Miller : v. Miller. 
Alan le Milner.— Cal. Rot. Orig. 
William le Melner — Pari. Writs. 
Munde the mylnere. — 

Piers Plowman, iii. 113. 

This name = the French Meunier 

[O.Fr. molinier'lfGerma.n MuUer [O.H.Ger. 

mulindri], all being ultimately from Latin 

mola, a mill. 

milnI^I P'- ^""^ s^°''- °^ '^""^' I-'- 

MILROY(Celt.) their. O'Maoilruaidh, Descen- 
dant as Maolruadh = the Red 
Disciple [maol, shaven one, monk, 
disciple -h ruadh, red] 

MILSOM for Milson = Mlllson, q.v. 

MILSON = Mlllson, q.v. 

' MILSTED (Eng.) Bel. to Milsted = i the 
Mill-Stead [O.E. myl{e)n -f stede, a 

2 the Middle Stead [O.E. middet] 

MILTHORP(E (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to 
Milthorpe, Milnthorpe = the Mill- Village 
[O.E. mylen = 0.1^. mylna, mill -|- O.E. and 

O.N. ^orp\ 

MILTON (Eng.) Bel. to Milton = i the Mill 

Enclosure or Farmstead [O.E. myl{e)n 

-f to'«] 
Milton, Kent, was Mylentun in A.D. 822. 
2 the Middle Enclosure or Farm- 
stead [O.E. middel] 

Milton Abbas was formerly Middleton; 
and Great Milton, Oxon, occurs in 
Domesday Book as Midelton. 

MILWARD (EngJ Mill-Keeper, Miller 

[M.E. millie, O.E. myl{e)n + M.E. ward, 

O.E. w{e)ard, keeper] 

Robert le Milleward.— /fwwd. Rolls. 

MINCH (A.-Lat.)NuN [M.E. minch, a nun: v. 


M INCH EN ER 1 Anglicized forms of the Ger- 

MINCHINER J man Miinchener, = One 

From Munchen [v. Mlnohln^] 

MINCHIN 1 (A.-Lat.) Nun [M.E. minchin for 
MINCHEN J »2z«cfe«, O.E. mynecen, 3^ n\in; 
O.E. munuc, Lat. monach-us, a monk] 
(Ger.-Lat.) One from Munchen (Mun- 
ich), I ith,cent. Munichen [a dat. pi. form f. 
O.H.Ger. muni{K)h [(Lat. monach-us), a 


MINETT1 the French Minet, = i an abbrev. 
M IN ITT /of Guilleminet, a double dim. f. 

Guillaume, Teut. Wilhelm: v. William. 
2 a dim. i. the O.Teut. name-element 

Minn- : v. Minn' [Fr. dim. suif. -et\ 

MINISTER (A.-Lat.) i the Latin minister, 
'servant,' 'attendant,' 'assistant,' was 
usually adopted as a designation by the 
thanes who witnessed Anglo - Saxon 
charters, as ' Ego .iElfwine minister' ; 
hence we find it as an agnomen in the 
13th-century Hundred Rolls, as 'Haldanus 

2 for Minster, q.v. 

MINN I the O.Teut. personal name Min{n)a 

[O.Sax. minn{i)a = O.H. Ger. minna = 

O.E. myne, love, orig. memory, memorial, 

as in O.N. minne] 

2 V. MacMinn. 

3 for Milne, q.v 

MINNS, Minn's (Son) \ 
MIN(N)SON, Minn's Son ] ' 


MINSHALL \ (Eng.) Bel. to MinshuU, Cheshire 
MINSHULL/[the 14th cent, form Mynshull 
seems to point to the M.E. hul(l, O.E. 
hyll, a hill ; but a deed of the I2tli cent, 
has Munsculf, sculf representing O.E. 
scylfe, a shelf or ledge (of land), Mun- 
app. being for O.E. munuc, Lat. monach-us, 
monk, as the church at Church MinshuU 
"was served by monks from Combermere 


Church MinshuU was so called in 
order to distinguish it from the adjoining 
MinshuU- Veruon, which owes its second 
name to the ancient lords of the manor, 
the Vernons. 

MINSTER (A.-Lat.) i Dweller at a Minster 
[O.E. mynster, Lat. monasterium\ 

2 for Minister, q.v. 

MINTER (A.-Lat.) (legal) Coiner; Money- 
lender, Banker [M.E. myneter, O.E. 
mynetere, minter, money-changer ; f. Lat. 
moneta, mint, money] 

Ralph le Myneter.— AfM«. Gildh. Land. 




MINTON (Eng.) Bel. to Minton (Salop), 13th 

cent. Mineton [the first element is either 

for O.E. mynet, coinage, or the A.-Sax. 

pers. name Min{n)a (v. Minn) + M.E 

-ton = O.E. tun, enclosure, dwelling] 

MIRFIELD (Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to Mirfield 
(Yorks), 14th cent. Mirfeld = the Bog- 
Field [M.E. mir, mire, O.N. myrr (whence 
Dan. myr), a bog + M.E. O.E./«Zd] 

MISON 1 (Eng.) I Bel. to Misson (Notts) 

MISSON J [perh. an assim. shortened form of 

Misterton, which is found in the same 

wapentake of Bassetlaw] 

2 abbrev. of Misterton, q.v. 

MISTERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Misterton (Notts, 

Leic, Soms.) = the Master's Dwelling 

[M.E. mister, maister, O.E. nimgester, 

master, teacher ; Lat. magister (m(a)ister 

is also f. O.Fr. maistre, mod. maitre'] 

MITCHAM \ (Eng.) Bel. to Mitcham (Surrey), 
MITCHEM J anc. Michelhani = the Big En- 
closure or Piece of Land [O.E. mic-el, 
big + ham(m] 

MITCHELL ( A.-Heb. ) a palatal form of 
Michael, q.v. 

(Eng.) a palatal form of Mickie, q.v. 
Roger Michel— Hund. Rolls. 
MITCHELSON, MITCHELL'S Son : v. Mitchell. 

MITGHENER 1 for MInchenep, Minchinep, 

MITCHESON 1 I for Mitchelson, q.v. 
MITCHISON J 2 for Mitchinson, q.v. 

MITCHIN, the French Michin, a double dim. 
oi Michel = Michael, q.v. 

MITCHINSON, Mitchin's Son : v. Mitchin. 

MITFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Mitford (Northumb.), 
13th cent. Mitford = the Confluence- 
Ford [O.E. ge)my\e, a confluence -^ ford\ 

Mitford is at the junction of the rivers 
Wansbeck and Font. 

MITTON (Eng.) Bel. to Mitton = the Con- 
fluence-Farmstead [O.E. ge)my\e, a 
confluence + tun\ 

Mitton, Wore, occurs in a loth-cent. 
Latin charter as Myttun, and is near the 
junction of the Stour with the Severn. 
Mitton, Yorks, at the confluence of the 
Rivers Hodder and Ribble, was form. 
Mytton. Little Mitton, Lanes, is at the 
meet of the Calder and the Ribble. 





[v. MIson. 
= MoIp, q.v. 

\ — Mugg(e)ridge, q.v. 

(Eng.) Bel. to Mobberley 
(Chesh.), anc. Modburlegh = 

J (the Lady) Modburh's Lea 

[A.-Sax. Modburh (genit. Modburge)-mdd, 
mind, courage (mood) ; hurh (f.), strong- 
hold + ledh, lea] 

MOBBS, a var. of Mabbs, q.v. 
MOCKRIDGE = Mugg(e) ridge, q.v. 

MODY = Moody, q.v. 

And so Cometh Dobest aboute 
- And bringeth a-doun Modi- — 

Piers Plowman, X. 212. 
MOFFAT \ (Celt.) Bel. to Moffat (S.Scot.), 
MOFFATT 13th cent. Moffete [its situation is 
MOFFETT [-said to rnake probable the 
MOFFIT I etymology of Gael, magh, a plain 
MOFFITT ; + fada, long] 

MOGFORD = Mugford, q.v. 

MOGG \ I for Magg: v. Maggs. 
MOGGE J 2 for Mogue, q.v. 


MOGHAN I (Celt.) I Little Man, Labourer, 
MOHAN \ Slave [Ir. mogh, man, &c. + the 
MOHEN J dim. suff. -dn\ 

2 for Mahon, q.v. 

MOGUE (Celt.) My Little Aedh = Ardour 
\0.\\. Maedhog for Mo-Aedh-og— mo, my 
+ aedh (dh mute), ardour, fire -f the dim. 

suff. -dg] 

There were several saints called 

Maedhog, of whom the most celebrated 

was Maedhog, first bishop of Ferns > in 

Wexford, who died A.D. 625. — 

Joyce, Irish Names, ii. 30. 

In Wexford Mo-aedh-og is common; but 
the Catholics make it Mogue and the 
Protestants Moses! (Joyce) 

MOIR (Celt.) Big, Great [Gael, (and Ir.) mdr 

= Wei. mawr] 
In Aberdeen this name is pronounced 

MOLD (A.-Fr.-Teut.) a contr. form of 
Matilda : v. Malkin. 

King Wi 11am adde ispoused, as God 
yet [gave] that cas, 

The erles doghter of Flaundres, Mold 
hire name was. — 

Rob. Glouc. Chron. (Wm Conq.), 295-6. 




(A.-FF.-LatJ Bel. to Mold, form. Moald, 

a corr. of Fr. Montalt = the High 

(Castle) Mount [Lat. mons, mont-is, a 

mount + alt-US, high] 

In mediaeval (Latin) documents the 
founder of the famous Norman castle at 
this place was called de Monte Alto. 

Cp. Mowat(t. 
MOLE (Eng.) i a nickname {a) from the 
animal [M.E. molle = L.Ger. mull] 

(b) from being marked with a mole 
[M.E. »zofe,'?, a spot] 

2 the A.-Sax. male pers. name Mole-, 

(Celt.) Bald [Wei. moel = Gael, and 

Ir. maol] 

(Eng. or Celt.) Dweller by the River 


(A.-Fr.-Teut.) prob. also, like Mold and 
Motile, a form oi Matilda : v. Malkin. 

MOLES, genit., and pi., of Mole, q.v. 

MOLESWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Molesworth 
( Hunts ), 13th cent. Molesworth{e = 
Mole's Estate [O.E. war's] 

MOLINEAUX-j(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Molin- 
MOLINEUX leaux (Normandy) = the 
MOLINEUS [Little Mills [O.Fr. molinel, 
MOLYNEUX I a dim. f. L.Lat. molin-us, Lat. 

molina, a mill] 
Adam de Molyneus. — Testa de Nevill. 
MOLL (A.-Heb. and Teut.) a dim. of Maty; 
also (Mall) oi Matilda : v. Malkin. 

(Eng.) an A.-Sax. male name borne 
e.g. by an eighth-century Northumbrian 

Moll ofsleh [killed] Oswine.— 

A.-Sax. Chron., A.D. 761. 
MOLLER, an Anglicized form of the Dan.- 
Norvir. Moller = Miller. 

MOLLET 1 = Moll (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. 
MOLLETT J sufif. -et. 

MOLLIS, Molly's (Son) ] Molly, adouhle 
MOLLISON 1 Molly's Son [ ^im. of Mary ; 
MOLLESON / J a\so of Matilda: 

V. Malkin. 
MOLLOCK = Mullock, q.v. 

MOLLOY (Celt.) Servant or Disciple of 

THE Noble or Good [Ir. Maolmhuaidh or 

Maelmhuaidh {mh, dh mute) --maol or 

mael, servant, disciple + the genit. of 

muadh, noble, good] 

MOLONEY! .«' i^„<.„ r, „ 
MOLONY I = Maloney, q.v. 

MONACHAN ] (Celt.) Monk [Ir. and Gael, 
MONAGHAN \manach, a monk + the dim. 
MONAHAN J suff. -dn\ 

MONCKTON (Eng.) Bel. to Monckton, Monk- 
ton = the Monk's or Monks' Farm or 
Estate [O.E. munuc, a monk ; tiin, farm, 


Monkton, Kent occurs as Munccetun 
in a Latin charter of A.D. 961. Monkton, 
Durham, belonged to the monks of Jarrow. ■ 
At Monkton-Farleigh, Wilts, there are ' 
the ruins of a Cluniac conveiit. 

MONCRIEFF (Celt.) Bel. to Moncrieff (Perth- 
shire), nth cent. Monidcroib = the Hill 
OF the Trees [Gael, monadh, a hill, 
moor ; craoibh, genit. pi. oi craobh, a tree] 

A large portion of the hill is in a good 
state of cultivation, and its heights are 
richly wooded. — Nat. Gas. 

MONDAY (Eng.) a pers. name and nickname 
from the day [O.E. mSnandag, m., day ot 

the moon] 

(Fr.-Teut.) the French Mondy, a dim. 
form oi Raimond [v. Raymond] 

MONEY (Fr.) Bel. to Monnai (Orne), France 
[prob. Fr. monnaie,.'Lat. moneta, a mint] 

MONEYPENNY (Eng.) app. for Manypenny, 
prob. a nickname for a well-to-do person 
[M.E. moni, mony, mani, O.E. monig, manig, 
many -f- M.E. petti, O.E. petii{n)g, a penny] 

Herbert Manipeni. — Hund. Rolls. 

Richard Monypeny. — do. 

MONGER (Eng.) Dealer, Trader [O.E. 


MONIER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Moneyer, Ban- 
MONNIERJKER, (Legal) Coiner [M.E. 

mon(ti)ier (Fr. motitiayeur) ; f. M.E. O.Fr. 

motieie (Fr. monnaie), money ; Lat. tnotieta, 
a mint, money] 

John le Monnier.— il^MM. Gildh. Lotid. 

2 for the French Meutiier = Miller 
[O.Fr. meultiier, Lat. molinari-us] 

MONIGAN lf„, ,, 

MONIGHAN j ^""^ Monaghan, q.v. 

MONKHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at or by the 

Monk's or Monks' House [O.E. mutiiu: 

(Lat. mottach-us), a monk ; Ms, a house] 

MONKMANUhe Monk's Man (-Servant) 
MONKMONJ [E. monk = Dan.-Norw. munk] 
Johannes Munkman. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 




MONKS, the Monk's (Son) [O.E. munuc (Lat. 
monach-us), a monk] 

MONKTON (Eng.) Bel. to Monkton = the 

Monk's or Monks' Farmstead or Estate 

[v. Monckton] 

MONRO \ (Celt.) Dweller at a Red Morass 
MONROE J [Gael. »!0i««, a morass + ruadh 

(rfAimute), red] 

MONSON I = Manson, q.v. 
2 for Monk's Son. 

MONTAGU 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Montaigu 

Montague] (Normandy) = the Peaked 

Hill [Fr. mont, Lat. mons, mont-is, a hill 

+ Fr. aigu, Lat. acut-us, pointed] 

This name was Latinized in mediaeval 
documents de Monte Acuta. 

There are a Montaigu and a Montaigu- 
les-Bois in the Manche Dept. 

MONTEFIORE (ital. Flower-Hill) : v. the 
Appendix of Foreign Names 

MONTEITH (Celt.) Bel. to Monteith (Perth- 
shire) = the Moor of the River Teith 
[Gael, monadh, a moor] 

MONTFORTl (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Montfort 

MONTFORD J ( France ) = the Strong 

(Fortified) Hill [Fr. mont, Lat. mons, 

mont-is, a hill -|- Fr. fort, Lat. fort-is, strong] 

There is a Montfort-sur-Risle in the 
Eufe Dept. 

MONTGOMERY (A.-Fr.-Lat. -f- ? Teut.) Bel. 
to Montgomery = the (Castle-) Hill 


The Welsh town Of Montgomery — 
formerly called by the Welsh Tre- 
Faldwyn, or ' Baldwin's (6 mutated to /) 
Place', from a lord of the marches temp. 
. William L — rose around the castle which 
was recaptured from the Welsh by Roger 
de Montgomeri (Je Monte Gomerico), so 
called from his Norman estate. 

Comte de Montgomery. — 

Paris Directory. 

MOODIE 1 (Eng.) Spirited, Brave, Proud; 

MOODY J later, Morose, Gloomy [M.E. 

mody,0.'E,. mddig\ 

See Mody. 

MOON (Eng.) a name derived from a trade or 
armorial sign [O.E. mdnal 

Cp. the corresponding German Mond. 

(Fr.) Bel. to IVloon, Mohun or Mohon 

There is a Moon in the Manche Dept. 
(Normandy) ; and there is a Mohon in the 
Ardennes Dept. and in the Morbihau 

MOONEY (Celt.) Hero [Ir. Maonach-maon, 
a hero + the pers. suff. -acn\ 

MOOR \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Moor [M.E. 
MOORE ] mor{e, moore, O.E. »irfr, a moor] 

John atte Mor. — Hund. Rolls. 

Jordan de la Mor. — do. 

Adam del More. — Pari. Writs. 

Away then hyed the heire of Linne 
Oer hill and holt, and moore and fenn-e. 
— 'TheHeirof Lynne': Percy's Reliques. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Moor (Native of N. 
Africa) ; of Dark Complexion [Fr.More, 
Maure, Lat. Maur-us, Gr. MaO/j-os, a Moor] 

Robert le Move..— Close Rolls. 

John le Moor. — Plac. de Quo Warr. 

(Celt.) 1 Big [Ir. and Gael. mdr'\ 

2 Noble [Ir. Mordha (dh mute] 

MOORCOCK I a nickname from the bird 
[O.E. mor -f cocc] 

2 = Moor (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.), q,v. -|- the 
E. pet suff. -cock. 

MOORCRAFT,aNorthernformof MooPOPoft, 

MOORCROFT \ ( Eng. ) Dweller at the 

MOORECROFT J Moor-Croft [O.E. mor, a 

moor -f croft, a small field] 


MOORSE [Moor(e)'s (Son) : v. Moor(e 


MOORHEf D (Eng.) Dweller at the Head of 

THE Moor [OiE. mor + hedfod, heiid, 

upper part] 

MOORHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the House 
ON THE Moor [O.E. m6r + hus] 

MOORMAN (Eng.) = Moor (q.v.) + man. 

MOORSOM (Eng.) Bel. to Moorsham (Yorks) 
= the Moor's Ham [genit. of O.E. m(lr, 
a moor -|- Aa»?(?B,a piece of land,dwelling] 

MOORWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the Moor- 
Wood [O.E. mdr -|- wudu] 

MORAN (Celt.) i SEA-WARRiOR[Ir. Murchadh- 

an^mu{i)r, sea -|- the asp. form of cath, 

war, warrior + the dim. suff. -aw] 

2 Big, Tall [Ir. (and Gael.) mor + the 

pet suff. -are] 




MORAND 1 the common French Morand, Mor- 

MORANT J ant, Lat. Morand-us [the gerund. 

p., ' requiring to be delayed,' of Lat. 

moror, to delay] 

MORBEY \ (Scand.) Bel. to Moreby (Yorks) 

MORBY J and Moorby (Lines) = the MooR- 

Habitation(s [O.N. mrfr + by-^'] 

Elena de Moreby.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

MORCOM 1 (Eng.) Dweller in a MooR- 
MORCOMBE J Hollow [O.E. mdr + cumb 

(a word of Celt. orig. : Wei. cwm, a 


MORDAN I tor Morden, q.v. 
2 tor Mordant, q.v. 

MORDANT "I (Fr.-Lat.) Biting, Sarcastic 

MORDAUNT J [Fr. mordant, pr. p. oi mordre, 

Lat. mordere, to bite] 

Robert le Mordaunt. — Hund. Rolls. 

MORDECAI ( Heb. - Pers. ) the Hebrew 
Mord'khay = Little Man [from the Per- 

MORDEN l (Eng.) Bel. to Morden = i the 
MORDIN J Moor-Hollow [O.E. OTor + rfraM] 

2 for Mordon, q.v. 

Morden, Surrey, was the A. -Sax. 
MORDON (Eng.) Bel. to Mordon = the Moor- 
Hill [O.E. m6r -f dun'\ 

Confused with the preceding name. 

MORE = MooKe, q.v. 

Midst mores and mosses, woods and 

To lead a lonesome life. — 

' The Marriage of Sir Gawaine ' : 
Percy's Reliques. 

MOREBY = Mor'b(e)y, q.v. 

MORECRAFT = Moorcraft, q.v. 

MORECROFT = Moopcroft, q.v. 

MOREHOUSE = Moorhouse, q.v. 

MOREL "I (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Dark-Coloured 

MORELLJ[M.E. O.Fr. morel{l; O.Fr. More, 

Moor, black man + the dim. suff. -el 

(Lat. -ell-us) ', Lat. Maur-us, Gr. MaO/j-os, a 

Moor : cp. Fr. moreau, m., morelle, f., very 

Thomas Morel. — Hund. Rolls. 
On d6signe encore aujourd'hui, en 
Normandie, un cheval noir sous la 
denomination de cheval morel. — 

Moisy, Noms de Fam. Norm., p. 328. 

MORELAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Moor- 
Land [O.E. mdr (M.E. more) + land] 

MORETON (Eng.) Bel. to Moreton = the 
Moor-Farm [O.E. mdr (M.E. more) -\- 


MOREWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the Moor- 
Wood [O.E. mdr (M.E. more) -f wudu] 

MOREY(Fr.)Bel.toMorey,Mory (France), the 
M.Lat. *Moriacum = Morus' (Maurus') 
Estate [-dc-um, the Lat.-Gaul. poss. suff.] 

There is a Mory in the Pas-de-Calais 
Dept.; the Moreys are foiind further 

(Eng.) Dweller at the Moor-Hey 
(-Enclosure) [M.E. more, O.E. mdr, moor 
-1- M.E. hey, hay, O.E. haga, an enclosure, 


(Celt.) a var. of Murray, q.v. 

MORFIL ] (Fr.) a nick- or trade-name = 

MORFILL J Elephant's Tusk, Ivory [Fr. 

morfil; app. of Arabic orig.] 

(Wei.) Whale (a nickname) [Wei. 

(Eng.) for Moor-Field [O.E. mdr -\- 


(Eng.) Dweller at the Moor- 
Foot [O.E. mdr + fdt] 

MORGAN (Celt.) i Bright or White Sea 
[Wei. Morgan — mdr, sea -|- can, white, 
bright ; with c mutated to^] 

Ac y bu varw Morgan. — 
[And Morgan died] 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 972. 

Morgan Cam [Crooked]. — 

Ann. Camb., A.D. 1246. 

And Arthur caused Morgan Tud to be 
called to him. He was the chief phy- 
sician. — ' Geraint the Son of Erbin ' : 
Mabinogion, tr. Guest. 

2 Mariner [Ir. Muireagdn, f. muir, sea] 

In Ireland the name Morgan also 
sometimes represents a previous Morogh : 
V. Murray. 

MORGANS (A.-Celt.) Morgan's (Son): v. 

This name replaces the Welsh Ap- 
Morgan [ap, ab, son] 

MORIARTY (Celt.) Sea-Right or Sea-True 

[Ir. Muircheartach — muir, sea + the asp. 

form of ceart, right, justice, true -|- the 

pers. suff. -acK] 




M0RRICE;= l^aurioe, q.v. 

MORIN (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Moor; Dark-Com- 
PLEXiONED [Fr. More (v. Moop(e)2 + the 
dim. suff. -/«] 
Simon Morin. — Hund. Rolls. 

Morin is one of the commonest French 

The name of the French St. Morin was 
Latinized Maurinus. 
(Celt.) a var. of Moran, q.v. 

MORING I Dweller at the Moor-Pasture 
[O.E. m6r = O.N. mdr + O.North. and 
East. E. ing, O.N. eng, a pasture, meadow] 

2 = Morin (q.v.) with intrusive -g. 

MORISON, Morice's Son: v. Morice = 

MORLAND = Moreland, q.v. 

MORLE, app. for Morel, q.v. 

MORLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Morley = the Moor- 
Lea [O.E. mdr-Uah (M.E. Uy\ 

MORLING, app. the French Mor-e (v. 
Moor(e2) with tl^e E. double dim. suff. 

Hugh Moriyng. — Hund. Rolls. 

MORPETH (Eng.) Bel! to Morpeth, 13th cent. 
Morpath — the Moor-Path [O.E. mdr + 

MORRALL for Morrell, Morell, q.v. 

^S'R^fL'L'}=^°-'''l- . 

MORREY = Morey, q.v. 


MORRIS [= Maurice, q.v. 



MORRIN = Morin, q.v. 

MORRISEY WCelt.) for O'Morrisy, Descen- 
MORRISSAyI dant of Muirg(h)eas = Sea 
MORRISSEY Charm or Conjuration [Ir. 
MORRISSY I O'Muirgheasa- 6 or wa, grand- 
son, descendant -f muir, sea -f- the genit. 
oigeas, a charm, conjuration, incantation, 


MORRISON, Morris's or Maurice's Son: 
v. Maurice. 

In the Highlands, Morrison is used to 
translate the Gael. M'Gille-Moire = Son 
of the Servant or Disciple of Mary [v. 


MORROW (Celt.) = Murray, q.v. 

(Eng.) Dweller at the Moor-Row (of , 
Dwellings) [O.E. mdr -f- rAw] 

Willelmus de Morerawe. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

1^255^ I V. Moorse, Moores. 

MORSON I More's Son : More = Moore, 
2 for Morrison, q.v. abbrev. of Mortimer, q.v. ;but 
app. also a French nickname [Fr. mart, 
stagnant, dormant, dull ; Lat. mortu-us, 
dead], as the diminutive forms Mortel, 
Mortet, are likewise found in France. 

MORTAN ] (Fr.)OnefromMortain,Mortaigne, 

MORTEN \ (Normandy). 


The Mortaigne in the Eure Dept. was 
Moritania in A.D. 11 96. 

(Eng.) for Morton, q.v. 

MORTIBOY for the French Afortftoii = Dead 
Wood [v. under Mort and Boyce^ 

MORTIMER (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Mortemer(Nor- 
mandy) = the Dead or Stagnant Water 
[Fr. mortemer—'LsX. mortu-us, dead ; L.Lat. 
mora, a pool, from the pi. (maria) of Lat. 
mare, sea : cp. Fr. mare, a pool, pond ; and 
eau morte, still water] 

Hugh de Mortuomari. — Hund. Rolls. 

Roger de Mortimer. — Hund. Rolls. 

A de Mortemer occurs in the mural list 
of "Compagnons de Guillaume a !a 
Conquete de I'Angleterre en MLXVI, ' 
in the old church at Dives, Normandy. 

The origin of the name of the Vall6e de 
Mortemer, Eure Dept., is explained in \ 
'Gallia Christiana' — " Vallis Mortui 
Maris ab antique appellata propter in- 
undationem fontium . . ." 

N.B. — This name has sometimes been 
used in Ireland as a substitute for the 
native Moriarty, q.v., and Murrogli,q.v. 

MORTIMOREfor Mortimer, q.v. 

MORTLOCK (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Mortlake, 
or Dweller at the Stagnant Pool [Fr. 
mort-lac — Lat. mortu-us, dead ; lac-us, a 

lake, pool] 

Mortlake, Surrey, was Latinized in 
mediaeval records Mortuus Locus. 




'(Celt.) Bel. to Mortlach (Banff) = (prob,) 
' the Big Knoll [Gael, mdr, big + tulach, 

a knoll] 

MORTON (Eng.) Bel. to Morton = the Moor 
Farm or Village fO-E. mdr + tiln] 

MORTY, an abbrev. of 1 Mortfmep, q.v. 

2 (occ.) Moriarty, q.v. 
iVIORTYN, V. Mortin, Morten. 

MOSELEY I (Eng.) Bel. to Moseley = the 

MOSELY / Moss-Lea [O.E. m6s (= O.N. 

m6si), a marsh, moor, moss + ledK] 

MOSER, V. MOsser. 

MoisES (Gr.-Heb.-Copt.) Saved from the 
Water [Lat. Moyses, Gr. Muuir^t, Muo-^s, 
Heb. Mosheh; f. Gopt. »io, water, andowi/V, 

to deliver] 


MOSS (Eiig. and Scand.) Dweller at a Marsh 
or Moor i' [O.E. mds — O.N. m6si\ 

A Richard del Moss was Bailiff of 
Liverpool in 1405. — 

Baines, Hist. L'pool, p. 193. 

(A.-Gr.-Heb.-Copt.)an English abbrev. 
form of Moses, q.v. 

Cp. the French form Moise. 

MOSSER (Eng. and Scand.) = Moss i (q.v.) 
+ the agent. sufF. -er. 

(Scand.) Bel. to Mosser (Cumberland), 
app. the pi. (mosar) of O.N. most, a moss, 
esp. as Mosser " is divided into two parts 
called High and Low Mosser." 

MOSSES, genit. (and pi.) of Moss, q.v. 

MOSSMAN (Eng.) = Moss (q.v.) + man. 

In the Scandinavian-peopled districts, 
esp. Yorks, man, suffixed to a pers. name, 
usually denotes ' Servant of . . . ' 

MOSSOP (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 
Moss-Hope (Valley, Hollow) [v. Moss 

and Hope] 
MOTE 1 (A.-Fr.-Teut.) i Dweller at a Moat 
MOTT I [ (Dial. E. mot), M.E. O.Fr. mote (Ft. 
matte), a mound (with or without a super- 
structure), dike, or foss ; of Teut. orig.] 

The mote is of mercy 
The manoir aboute. — 

Piers Plowman, 3678-9. 

De la Motte is a common French sur- 

2 the O.Teut. name-element M6t-, Mod-, 
= Courage. 

Richard Mote.— Hmd. Rolls. 

MOTLEY (A.-Fr.) a nickname [cp. M.E. 
mottelye, &c., a dress of many colours] 

(Fr. + E.) Dweller at i the Mote- 
Lea [v. under Mote », and -|- M.E. ley, 

O.E, ledh] 

2 the Mote-Low [M.E. low(e, law{e, 
O.E. hldew, a hill, (burial) mound] 

Thomas de RJotlawe. — 

Yor'ks Pall-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

The Mot- here, however, may repre- 
sent the A.-Sax. name-stem Mod- = 
O.Ger. M6t- [A.Sax. m6d, mind, courage 
(mood) = O.Sax mid = O.N. md^-r = 
O.H.Ger. m(u)ot (mod. mut"] 

MOTTERAM, v. Mottnam. 

MOTTERSHEAD (Eng.) Bel. to Mottershead 
(Chesh.), 14th cent. Mottersheved, Mottres- 
heved = Modhere's Head(lanp [the 
A.-Sax. pers. name is a compound of mod, 
mind, courage (mood), with here, army 
(the corresponding O.N. name Mo'Sher is 
seen in Motherby, Cumb.) — l-M.E. keved, 
OiE. hedfod, head, high ground] 

Robert de Mottresheved. — 
Chesh. Chmbrln.'s AcctS; A.D. 1303-4. 

MOTTRAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Mottram (Chesh.) : 
MOTTRUM J = Modhere's Home or Es- 
tate [v. under the preceding name 
(Mottershead is close to Mottram), and -|- 
O.E. ham, home, &c.] 

An Adam de Mottrum was gaoler of 
Macclesfield and bailiff of the forest ' 
there in the middle of the 14th cent. — 
Chesh. Chmbrln.'s Accts., A.D. 1301-60. 

MOULEr= Mole, q.v. 

MOULD = Mold, q.v. 

MOULDER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) an occupative sur- 
name [f. M.E. malde, O.Vr. mole, a mould ; 
Lat. modul-us, a measure] 

MOULDS, Mould's (Son) :v. Mould = Mold. 

MOULSON I Moul(e)'s Son : Moul(e = 
Mole, q.v. 

2 Mould's Son : Mould = Mold, q.v. 

MOULTON (Eng.) Bel. to Moulton = i the 
> Mule-Enclosure [O.E. mtil (Lat. mul-us) 

+ tiin] 
2 Mula's Estate [O.E. tiin} 

The Norfolk Moulton was Miilantun in 
A.D. 1037 ; and it and the Lincolnshire ; 
Moulton were Multon in the 13th cent., 
as was the Cheshire Moulton in A.D. 1303. 




■ \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller on or by a 

■ J HlLLO( '" " 


MOU NSEY / Hillock [O.Fr. moiwel, muncel, 

monceau (Fr. monceau, a heap) ; Lat. 

monticell-us, dim. Of mons, mont-is, a hill] 

Puis prist Morpath, un fort chastel 

Qui ert [Lat, efai] assis sur un moncel. — 

G. Gaimer, Chron.; Godefrpy. 

There is a Monceau in the Nord Dept. ; 
and there are two Les Moiiceaux in the 
Calvados Dept. and one in the Orne 

Comtes^e du Moncel. — Paris Directory. 

MOUNT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Hill 

[M.E. mount, mont, Fr. mont, Lat. mons, 

mont-is, a hill] 

Alan atte Mo\mX.^Close Rolls,A.T>. 1338. 

MOUNTAN ■) (A,-Fr.-Lat. ) Dweller at a 

MOUNTAIN J Mountain [O.Fr. montaine 

(mod. montagne), L.Lat. montanea ; Lat. 

montana, a hilly district] 

Montagne-Fayel is in the Somme 

MOUNTFORD = Montford = Montfort, 


MOUNTJOY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Montjoie 

(Normandy) = a Cairn or Monumental 

Heap [Fr. mont, Lat. mons, mont-is + Fr. 

joie, Lat. gaudi-a, pi. oigaudi-unt, joy] 

Montjoie, for Montjoie-Saint-Denis, was 
an ancient war-cry of the French, fronj 
the hillock near Paris where St. Denis 
suffered martyrdom. 

There are two places called Montjoie 
in the Manche Dept. 

MOUNTNEY 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat) Bel.toMontigny, 
MOUNTENEYjMontagny (Normandy) = the 
Hilly District [M.Lat. Montanac-um — 
montana, a mountain (f. Lat. mons, mont- 
is, a mountain) ; with the Lat.-Celt. 
collective suff. -dc-um"] 
.. We find a Montigny in the Calvadosi' 
Manche, Seine-Inf6rieure, Somme, and 
Pas-de-Calais Depts. 

Robert de Mounteny. — Hund. Rolls. 

MOU TRIE (Scot.) app. from the Fifeshire 
river Motray, where the suff is prob. 
O.N. d = O.E. ed, ' river.' 

MOVILL (Celt.) Bel. to Movilla or Moville = 
the Field of the Old Tree [Ir. Magh- 


MOWAT 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) corr. and abbrev. of 

MOVilATT J de Mont{h)aut or Mont{h)alt = of 

(THE) High Mount [O.Fr. (lit.) del 

mont{h)alt (mod. Fr. du mont hdut), Lat. 

ae illo monte alto] 


In the supposed copies of the Roll of 
Battle Abbey this name variously appears 
as Mohaut, Monhaut, Monthaut, &c. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a double Aim. oi Matilda : 
V. Malkin. 

Cp. Mold. 

MOWBRAY (Fr.) Bel. to Montbray (Manche, 

Normandy) [Fr. mont, Lat. mons, mont-is, 

a hill : the second element may be 

O.N.Fr. bray, mire (of Scand. orig.), or a 

pers. name] 


. I a dim. of Matilda : v. Malkin. 


2 Bel. to Maule (France) 
MOXON, M.ocG'sSow.Mogg= Magg:v. Maggs. 

MOY 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Moy (Scotland and 
MOYE J Ireland) = a Plain or Level Field 
[Gael, and Ir; magh] 
(Fr.-?Celt.) Bel. to Moy, Moye (France) 
[perh. of same meaning and origin as 
above, the Celt. (Gaul.) word being Latin- 
ized mag-us] 

MOYCE 1 (Fr.-Heb.) Anglicized forms of Fr. 
MOYES f Moise = Moses, q.v. 

(A.-Celt.) = Moy(e (q.v.) with the 
Eng. genit. -s suff. 

MOYLAN (Celt.) for the Ir. O'Maoilain = De- 
scendant of Maolan : v. Mullan. 

MOYLE (Celt.) 1 Shaven One; Monk, 
Disciple [Ir. and Gael, mael, maol, prim. 

' bald '] 

2 Dweller on or by a Bald or Bare Hill 

or Headland [same etymology] 

MOYLES = Moyle (q.v.) with the Eng. genit. 
-i suff. Also an Ir. form of Mites, q.v. 

MOYNAGH = Mooney, q.v. 

MOYSE r = Moyes, q.v. 

Willam Moyse. — Hund. Rolls. 
MOYSES 1 a M.E. form of Moses, q.v. 

Moises that saugh [saw] the bush vAth 
flaumes rede ... i ' 

The Holy Goost, the which that Moyses 
wende [weened] 

Had ben a-fyr. — , 

Chaucer's A.B.C., 89, 93-4. 

2 Moyes's (Son): v. Moyes' 

[ = Moseley, q.v. 


MUCH (Eng.) Big, Great [M.E. moche. muche, 
later forms of M.E. moch-el, much-el, O.E. 

myc-el, bip] 




A muche man, as me thoughte, 
And lik to myselv? . . . 

Piers Plowman, 5038-9. 

But he ne lafte nat for reyn ne thonder, 

In siknesse nor in meschief, to visite 

The ferreste [furthest] in his parisshe, 

■mxiche and lite [great and small]. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Prol. 492-4. 

MUCKLESTON (Eng.) Bel. to Muckleston = 
Mucel's Estate [O.E. tun\ 

MUCKLESTONE (Eng.) Bel. to Mucklestone 
= the Great .Stone (Rock, Monument, 
or Stone Castle) [O.E. mycel -\- stdn] 

MUCKLOW (Celt.) Dweller by the Pig-Lake 
[Gael, and Ir. muc, pig + loch, lake] 

MUDD (Eng.) Dweller at the Muddy Place 
[M.E. mud{de, mud ; O.L.Ger.] 

Cp. Clay. 
MUDFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Mudford,or Dweller 
at the Muddy Ford [v. under Mudd, and 
+ M.E.O.E./or(;] 

MUDIE for Moodie, q.v. 

MUFF (A.-Scand.)a corrupt form of the M.N.E. 
maug(h = Brother - in - Law [O.N. 


The Irish place-name Muff is Ir. magh, 
' a plain.' 


MUFFET \ for Moffat, q.v. 


MUGFORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Great 
Ford [M.E. muk-el, O.E. myc-el, great + 

Cp. Much. 

MUGG(E)R1DGE (Eng.) Dweller at the Great 

Ridge [M.E. muk-el, O.E. myc-el -\- M.E. 

rigge, rugge, O.E. hrycg\ 

MUGGLETON (Eng.) Bel. to Muckleton, or 

Dweller at the Great Enclosure or 

Farmstead [M.E. muM, O.E. mycel -f 

M.E. -ton, O.E. tun'] 

MUGLESTONlf ,, , , ^ 
MUGLISTON jfor Muckleston, q.v. 

MUIR \ (Scot-Teut.) Dweller at a Moor 

MUIRE I [Scot. — O.E. and O.N. wJr] 

And as that Ryall raid ovir the rude 

Him betyde ane tempest that tyme 
hard I tell.— 

The Taill of Rauf Coilyear, 13-14. 

MUIRHEAD (Scot-Teut.) Dweller at the 

Moor-Head [Scot. — O.E. and O.N. mdr 

-H O.E. hedfod= O.N. /zo/mS] 

MUIRSON, MuiR's Son : v. Muir. 

MULCASTER (Scand. -|- A.-Lat.) Bel. to Mul- 
caster, corrupted to Muncaster (Cumb.), 
anc. Meolcastre= the (Rom an) Camp at the 
Sandbank or Sandhill [O.N. mel-r, a 
sandbank, sandhill -|- a der. of Lat. 
castra, a camp] 

Muncaster Castle is situated at Esk- 
Meol, near the mouth of the R. Esk. 

MULDOON (Celt.) i Servant or Disciple of 

(St.) Dubhan [Ir. Maol Dubhain (bh 

mUte) : Ir. and Gael, maol, mael, bald, a 

tonsured person, monk, disciple, servant; 

and V. Down 2] 

2 for the Ir. Maol-duin = Chief of the 

Fortress (Joyce). 

MULDROCH.v. MacMuldroch. 

MULFORD (Eng.) Dweller at i the Mule- 
Ford [O.E. miil (Lat. mul-us) -\- ford] 

RicharddeMuleford.^Hund. Rolls. 
2 the Mill-Ford [M.E. mulle, mulne, a 


MULHARN ] (Celt.) Servant or Disciple 
MULHEARN ^ OF Echtighern [Ir. maol, ser- 
MULHERN J vant, &c. ; and V. Ahearn] 

MULHOLLAN 1 (Celt.) Servant or Dis- 

MULHOLLANDJciPLE of Callan = the 

Clamorous [Ir. Maolchallainn — maol, 

servant, &c.-|-the asp. genlt .form oicallan\ 

MULLAN 1 (Celt.) the Little Bald or 

MULLEN f Shaven One; Monk, Disciple 

[Ir. and Gael. Maoldn — maol, bald, &c. 

-|- the dim. suff. -a«] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) v. Mullin^. 

MULLANEY]for 0'Mullan(e)y (Celt.) De- 

MULLANY > scendant of the Servant or 

MULANY J Disciple of Mean = Little 

[Ir. O'Maoilmheanna (mh mute) ^ 6 ot ua, 

grandson, descendant -\- the genit. of 

maol, servant, &c. -|- the genit. of mean, 


MULLENEUXl Molineux n v 
MULLINEUX J ivTOi'"eux,q.v. 

MULLENS (A.-Celt.) Mullen's or Mullan's 
(Son) : V. Mullani. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) v. Mullins^. " 
MULLET(T (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 
Mule [Fr. mulet, a dim. f. Lat. mul-us. a 


MULLIGAN (Celt.) the Little Bald or 

Shaven One, Monk. Disciple [Ir. 


MULLIN (Celt.) for the Irish O'Maoldin = 

Descendant of M aolan [v. M u 1 1 an ' ] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the common French 

(Du) Moulin = (Of the) Mill [Fr. moulin, 

L.Lat. molin-us, f. Lat. mola, a mill] 




MULLINER (Eng.) a var. ol Milner, q.v. [M.E. 

midnere, a miller; 1" M.E. mulne, O.E. 

myl(e)n, a mill] 

There has been some late confusion 

with the next name. 

MULLINEUX for Molineaux, q.v. 

MULLINS (A.-Celt.) Mullin's (Son): v. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Moulines or Moulins 
(France) = the Mills [v. Miullin^] 

MULLOCHI (Celt.) Dweller at a Summit, 
mullock; Height, Hill-Top [Gael, (and 

Ir.) mullacK\ 
(Eng.) the A.-Sax. name-stem Mul- 
[Lat. mul-us (whence als6 O.H.Ger. mut), 
a mule] -f- the dim. suff. -oc. 

Thomas yi\i\\oc.—Hund. Rolls, 

MULLOY = Molloy, q.v. 

MULOCK = Mullock, q.v. 

MULROONEY \ (Celt.) Servant or Disciple 

MULRONEY J OF Ruanaidh = the Red- 

CoMPLEXioNED [Ir. Moolruanaidh—mool, 

mael, servant, etc. + ruanaidh] 

MULROY (Celt.) Servant or Disciple of 

RuADH=the Red-Complexioned [Ir. and 

Gael. Maolruaidh — maol, mael, servant, etc. 

-I- the genit. of ruadh, red] 

MULVANEYl forO'Mulvan(e)y (Celt.) Des- 


Disciple of Mean = the Little [Ir. 
O'Maoilmheana {mh as y) — 6 or ua, grand- 
son, descendant -f- the genit. of maol, 
servant, etc. + the genit. of mean, little] 

MULVEY"! (Celt.) Servant or Disciple of 

MULVY J MiADHACH = the Noble [Ir. 

Maolmhiadhaigh (mh as v, dh mute) — maol, 

servant, &c. -|- the genit. ol miadhach, 

noble, honourable] 

MUMBYT (Scand.) Bel. to Mumby (Lines), 
lyiUISBY J 13th cent. Mumby, Munhy = (prob.) 

Mund's Settlement or Estate [O.N. 

mund, hand, protector; genit. mundu+by-r, 
settlement, etc.] 

MUM FORD 1 (Eng.) Bel. toMundford (Norf.), 

MUNFORD /13th cent. Mundeford = Mund's 

Ford [O.E. mund, hand, protector ; genit. 

munde + ford] 

(Fr.-Lat.) corruptforras of Montfortq.v. 

MUMMERY, a corrupt form of Montbray : v. 

MUNBY, v. under Mumby ante. 
MUNOASTER, v. Mulcaster. 
MUNCE for Munns, q.v. 


MUNCKTON, V. Monckton. 


MUNDIE U. Monday. 


MUNDELL 1 (Teut.) Protector [Teut., as 
MUNDELLA \ O.E., O.Sax., O.N. mund, hand, 
MUNDLE J protector -|- the form, or dim. 

suff. -el-a] 

MUNDING (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Munding = 
Mund (a) 's Son [f. O.E. ntund, hand, pro- 
tector ; with the fil. suff. -ing] 

MUNFORD, V. under Mumford ante. 

MUNGO (Celt.) Gentle - Beloved [Wei. 
mwyn, gentle -f- cu (mutation-form gu), 


Mwyngu or Munghu was a pet-name 
given to Kentigern, the patron-saint of 
Glasgow, who passed a portion of his life 
in Wales. 

MUNK (A.-Lat.) Monk [O.E. munuc, hat 


MUNN (Fr.) i Monk, Friar [A.-Ft. m{o)un, 
pioyne, O.Fr. moytie (Fr. moine), monk; Gr. 
/iocos, solitary] 
Ivo le Moyne. — Hund. Rolls. 
Geoffrey le Moun. — do. 
, Thomas le Mun. — do. 

2 Bel. to Mohun or Mohon (France). 

MUNNING for Munding, q.v. 

MUNNINGS, Munning's or Munding's (Son). 

MUNNS (A.-Fr.) Munn's (Son) : v. Munn. 


\ = Monro, Monroe, q.v. 

MUNSEY =■ Mounsey, q.v. 

MUNT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Mount [M.E. 

munt, mont, Fr. mont, Lat. mons, month, a 

hill ; also O.E. munt, a hill, from Lat.] 

MUNTON for Munckton, Monckton, q.v. 

MURBY, a var. of Morby, q.v. 

MURCH, a var. of March, q.v., the form being 
due to the diphthongal pron. of March as 




MURCHIE (Celt.) an Anglicized form of the 
Ir. Murchadh : v. under Murphy. 

MURCHISON (A.-Celt.) Murchie's Son: v. 
MurchieandMurphy [Ir. MacMurchadha] 

MURCOTTT (Eng.) Bel. to Murcot(t = the 

MURCUTTJ Moor- Cottage [M.E. mor{e, 

O.E. m6r + M.E. cot(e, O.E. cot] 

]V[urcot(t, Oxon, and Murcot(t, North- 
ants, were Morcote in the 13th cent. 

MURDEN for Morden, q.v. 

MURDO for Murdoch, q.v. 

MURDOCH! (Celt.) Sea-Happy [Gael, and 

MURDOCK J Ir. Mu{t)readhach—mu{i)r ,sea-f- 

' adhach, happy, prosperous, lucky] 

MURGATROYD 1 (Gr. + Scand. ) Bel. to 
MURGITROYD f Murgatroyd (Yorks), 14th 
cent. Mergretrode = Mergret's or Mar- 
garet's Clearing [v. Margaret and 


MURISON I Murray's Son: v. Murray'. 
2 for Morrison, q.v. 

MURLESS (Eug.) Dweller at the Moor-Leas 
[O.E. m&r, moor -f ledh, lea] 

MURPHIEH Celt. ) Sea - Warrior [Ir. 

MURPHY ] Murchadh — mu{t)r„ sea + an asp. 

form of cath, war, warrior] 

' O'Murchadha [nepotic (genit.) form of 

MurchadK], now always pronounced in 

Irish O'Mun^oghoo, and Anglicized Murphy, 

without the prefix O.' — 

Annals of the Four Masters, IV. p. 11 58 w. 

Murphy is the commonest name in 
Ireland. ' 

Some leading Murphys are now mak- 
ing their name Morchoe and O'Morchoe — 
a good change. — Joyce. 

MURRAY \ (Celt.) i iox Mor{r)ogh,3.conXr. form 
MURREY J of (a) Mu{i)readhack : v. Murdoch; 
(6) Murchadh: v. Murphy. 

2 Bel. to Moray or to Morrach (Scot- 
land) = the Sea-Field or Marsh [Gael, 
(and Ir.) murmhagh {mh mute) — mu{i}r, sea 

-f the asp. form of magh, a fiel^, plain] 


= Morell, q.v. 

MURRELLS, Murrell's (Son) : v. Murrell, 
Morell. ' 




Murray", q.v. 


MURTAUGHl(Celt.) from the same Irish 
MURTEAGH original as Moriarty, q.v. 

MURTHWAITE (Scand.) Bel. to Murthwaite 
(Westmd. : i6th cent. Myrthwaite) = the 
Moor or Bog Clearing [O.N. m^r-r, a 
moor, bog -H \ueit, a clearing] ' 

MURTON (Eng.) Dweller at the Moor-Farm 
[O.E. m6r:+ ttln] 

Murton,Cumb., and Murton, Northumb., , 
are called indifferently Murton or Moor- 

MUSARD (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Loiterer, Dawdler 
[Fr. musard ; f. muser, to muse, loiter] '. 

MUSCHAMP (Fr.-Teut. + Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to 

Muschamp or Mouchamp (France) = the 

Moss-FiELD [Fr. mousse, O.H.Gfer. mos, 

moss -1- Ft. champ, Lat. campus, a field] 

This name was Latinized in our 

mediaeval records de Musco Campb [Lat. 

musc-us, moss] 

MUSGRAVE V (Eng.) Bel. to Musgrave = the 

M USG ROVE J Moss-Grove [O.E, meSs, moss, 

or O.E. mds, a marsh + grdf] 

MuIhETT } P^^**^"- io"^^^ of Musket(t, q.v. 

MUSKER ] (Celt.) 'The people descended , 
MUSKERY Urom Carbery Muse, son of 
MUSKERRY j Conary XL, were called Mus- 
craidhe (Muskery : O'Dugan) : of these 
there were several tribes, one of which ' 
gave name to the two baronies of' 
Muskerry in Cork.' — • 

Joyce, Irish Local Names, p. 74. 

M USKET 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname or sign- 

MUSKETT/name from the Sparrowhawk 

so called [M.E. musket,ma\e sparrowhawk; 

O.Fr. mousket, mouschet {Ft. emouchet),: 

L.Lat. musc(h)etus, a kind of hawk ; f. Lat." v* 

* musca, a fly] 

M U S P R ATT (Fr.-Teut. -|- Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a 

Moss-Field [Fh mousse, O.H.Ger. mos, 

moss + O.Fr. prat (Fr. pre), Lat. prat-um, 

a field, meadow] 

MUSSON (Eng.) an assim. form of Muston, 

The Leicestershire village, Muston in the / 
13th cent., is now indifferently Muston or 

(Fr.) the Fr. Musson Or Mousson is app. 
(like Musset, Mousset) a dim. nickname 
f. mousset a var. of mouche, a fly, beauty- 
spot, etc. [Lat. musca, a fly, (fig.) a 

meddler]: w 




i/lUSTARD (A.-rr.-Lat. + Teut.) metpn.,for 
Mustarder (Fr. tnoutardier), M\istarAmaker, 
Mustardman (now extinct as surnames) 
[M.E. mustard, mostard, O.Fr. mostarde, f., 
with sufl. -ard (Teut. hard), Lat. must-um, 


WUSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Muston ; or Dweller 

at the Moss Farm or Village [O.E. mds, 

a marsh + tuti\ 

Cp. Musson'. 

WUTCH = Much, q.v. 

VIYALL, V. Miall, Michael. 

VIYCOCK, a form of Maycook, q.v. 

MYDDLETON = Middleton, q.v. 

VIYER (Scand.) Dweller at the MiRE or Bog 

[O.N. myr-r\ 
Richard del Myre. — ' 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D, 1379. 
(A.-Fr.-Lat,) a form of Mayer, q.v. 

(Heb.) the Jewish Meir or Meor= Light, 
Luminary [Heb. maSr] 

( Ger.-Lat. ) an Auglicization of the 

German Meyer = Steward [Ger. meier, 

O.H.Ger. »»ew>-, steward; Lat. mo/or] 

MYERS, Myer's (Son) : v. Myer. 

MYERSCOUGH (Scand.) Bel. to Myerscough 
(Lanes), A.D. 1317 Mirescogh = the Bog- 
Wood [M.E. mire, myre, O.N. m^-r, a bog 
+ M.E. sco{u)gh, O.N. skdg-r, a wood] 

MYERSON, Myer's Son : v. Myer. 

MYHILL =. Michael, q.v. 

MYLCHREESTl (Celt. + Gr.) i theManxil/ac 
MYLCHRIST J Giolla Chreest = Son ofthe 
Servant of Christ. 

2 the Manx Mael Chreest = Servant 

or Disciple of Christ \mael, bald 

(tonsured) one, servant, disciple] 

Cp. Gilchrist. 

MYLER = Meyler, q.v. 

MYLES = iVilles, q.v. 

MYLOTT = Millot, q.v. 

MYNER 1 (A.-rr.-Celt.) Miner [Fr. miner, to 
M YNOR J mine ; of Celt, orig.] 

Masons and mynours, 

And manyothere craftes. — 

Piers Plowman, 44P-1. 

MYTTON } ^*'- '° '^y'o"' Mytton: v. Mitton. 


NABB I a contr. of MacNabb, q.v. 

2 a pet form of Abel, q.v., with attracted 
N-. , 

3 a (North.) form of Knapp, q.v. 
NABOR for Neighbour, q.v. 

NAGEL 1 (Teijt.) Nail, Spike [O.H.Ger. and 

NAGELE ^O.Sax. nagal = Goth. *nagl-s ^ 

NAGLE yO.T^.nagl = Dut. nagel = O.E. 

ncegelyVn.., a nail, etc.] 

The great prevalence of this n^me in 
America is largely due to German im- 
migration. The A.-Saxpn name is seen 
I ^—vocalized — in Such Eng. place-names 
as Nailsworth and Nailstone. 

The commonness of Nagle ' in Ireland 
may be due to the early-eighteenth- 
century .German immigration ; but the 
Hibernicization de N6gla seems to point 
to a French origin, poss. the place-name . 
Nagel in the Eure Dept. 

NAIL 1 ( Eng. ) I the A.-Sax. pers. name 
HMLEyNcegel : v. under Nagel, &c. 

2 v. Naie. 


NAIRN "[(Celt.) Bel. to Nairn, formerly 

NAIRNE J Invemaim=MovTH or the Nairn 

[Gael, inbhir, a confluence, river-mouth : 

tTie river-name may be for Gae\.(amhuinn) 

an-fheam (fh mute) = (river) of the alder] 

NAISH, a diphthongized form of Nash, q.v. 

N ALDER (Eng.) a contr. of Atte Nalder or 

Atten-Alder = At the Alder [M.E. atte 

nalder, E. M.E. at pen al{d)re, O.E. cet\>cbm 

aire (dat. otaler^ 

NALE (Eng.) a contr. of Atte Nale or Atten- 
Ale = At THE Ale (-House) [M.E. atte 
nale, E.M.E. at \>en ale, O.E. at^dm eale] 
And songen [sang] atte nale.— 

Piers Plowman, 4027. 

NALL (Eng,) a contr. of Atte Nail or Atten- 

HaU = At the Hall [E.M.E. at \en (for 

\er) Halle, O.E. cet \ckre hle)alle] 

Occasionally, however, -all may be for 

O.E. heal(h; a corner, also (for heald)[ a 





NANCE (Celt.) Bel. to Nance (Cornw.); or 

Dweller in the Valley [Corn, nans] 

NANGLE (Eng. + Fr.-Lat.) a contr. of Atte 

Nangle or Atten-Angle = At the Angle or 

Corner [E.M.E. at^en angle— O.Yt. angle, 

Lat. angul-us, ap angle] 

Symon in Angulo. — Hund. Rolls. 

NANSON, Nan's Son: Nan, a pet form of ' 

Ann(e (A.-Heb.), q.v. 
NAPER ] ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) Napery - Keeper 
NAPIER i[M.E. nap(p)er{e, keeper of the 
NAPPER J napery or table-linen; O.Fr. naperie, 
"LXat. naparia, mapparia, napery-depart- 
ment of a household ; Lat. mappa, a table- 
napkin : cp. Fr. nappe, a table-cloth] 
John le Napere. — Hund. Rolls. 
Jordan le Nappere. — do. 
NAPTON for Knapton, q.v. 

Napton-on-the-Hill is in Warwickshire. 

NARRACOTT (Eng.) Dweller at the Narrow 
Cot [O.E. nearu ■\- cot] 

NASH (Eng.) a contr. of Atte Nash or Atten- 

Ash = At the AsH(-Tree [E.M.E. aii>en 

as{c)he, O.E. cet Tpdkm cesce] 

Pagan atte Nash.— Ca/. Inq. P.M. 

NASMITH 1 (Eng.) Nail-Smith [O.E. nmgel, 

NASMYTH J nail + smiff, smith] 

NATHAN (Heb.) Given (of God) [Heb. Ndthdn] 

NAUGHXm 1 ^- WlacNaughtan, Mao 
KaUGhTonJ '^-S'^ten. 

NAY (Fr.) Bel. to Nay (Normandy). 

(Celt.) for MacNay, MacNee, q.v. 

NAYLAR ■) (Eng.)' Nail-Maker [M.E. nayler{e; 

NAYLER \ M.E. nayl, O.E. n<egel,'a. nail + the 

NAYLOR J agent, sufif. -ere] 

John le Naylere. — Plac. de Quo Warr. 

'Cloutier, a nayler, a nayle-sraith; a 

seller or maker of nayles.'— 

Cotgrave, Fr. Diet., A.D. i6ii. 

NEAD (Eng.) app. = Ead(e (q v.), with attrac- 
ted N- (as in Ned, a pet form of Edward); 
although there is some evidence of an 
A.-Sax. pers. name Ndoda [f. ndod, zeal, 
desire]: V. under Need ham. 

NEADS, Head's (Son). 

NEAGLE (Eng.) a contr. of Atten-Egle= 
At the (Sign of the) Eagle [E.M.E. at 
Yen egle — O.Fr. aigle, Lat. aquila, an eagle] , 

(Teut.) a var.'of Nagle, Nagel, q.v. 

Sir R. Matheson gives Neagle as a var. 
of Nagle in Ireland (Var. & Syn. Sum. 
Irel, p. 56). 

(A.-Lat.) a var. of Nigel, q.v. 


[^|AJ-^.= NeM(.,q.v. 


NEALS, Neal's (Son). 

NEAME (Eng.) = Fame, Uncle (v. undef 
Eames), with attracted N- from mine, 

N EAMES (Eng.) = Eames (q.v.) with 
attracted N- from mine, thine. 

NEAP (A. -Fr.-Lat.) an abnormal form f. Lat. 
nepos, a grandson, also a nephew : cp, 
Neave, Neve. 
Henry le Nep.—Hund. Rolls. 
Hugh Nepos.^ — do. 
Cp. the common French Le Nepveu. 
(Scand.) Dvi^eller at a Peak [O.N. gnlpa] 

NEARY (Celt.) the Irish Ndradhach (nepotic 
form O' Ndradhaigh—dh mute) [cp. Ir. 
ndr, good, happy -|- adkach, -prosperous, 


NEASMITH, a form of Nasmith, q.v. 

NEAT I (Eng.) i Companion, Vassal, Ten- 
N EATE J ANT [O.E. ge)nedt] 

2 a nickname from the animal [O.E. 

nedt, ox, cow] 

(A.Fr.-Lat.) Neat, Tidy [Fr. net-te ; 

Lat. nitidus] 


NEEVE; i^eve, q.v. 

N EAVES, Neave's (Son) : v. Neve. 
NEED, V. Nead. 


V. Neads. 

NEEDHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Needham (Norf, 
Suff., Derby), rsth cent. Nedham [The 
first element here is somewhat doubtful 
— perh. a pers. name Ndoda, f. O.E. ndod, 
zeal (cp. Needingworth, Hunts), in which 
case the second element will be O.E. hdm, 
a home, residence, rather than O.E. ham{m 
an enclosure, piece of land 
Needwood, Staffs, was Nedwode in the 
Latin portion of a charter of Eadred 

NEEDLER (Eng.) Needle-Maker [M.E 
nedlere, ned{e)ler; O.E. ndsdl, needle -f- thi 
agent, suff. -ere 
Lucas le Nedlere. — Hund. Rolls. 

NEELEYl (Celt.) I for the It. MacConghaok 
NEELY I Son of Conghaol : v. Connel. 1 
2 for Mao Neilly, q.v. 




NEEP = Neap, q.v. 

NEEVE = Neve, q.v. 

NEEVES, Neeve's (Son). 

NEGUS (Eng.), found in 1598 as Negose and 

in 1636 as Neegoose, app. represents the 

O.Angl. (with ge- unpalatalized) n^ah- 

gehiisa, ' neighbour ' In^ah, nigh + gehiisa, 

' ■ housemate] 

Colonel Negus, the concoctor of the 

• drink so called, was of East-Anglian 


NEIGHBOUR tEng.) [O.E. n^ah-{ge)hur~n^ah, 
ijigh ; gejbiir, husbandman, boor] 


■(Celt.) Champion [Ir. and Gael. 


This name was borrowed by the Scandi- 
navians as Njdll, Njdl, and Latinized in 
England as Nigellus. 

NEILSON, Neil's Son: v. Neil. 

NEISH for Mao Neish, q.v. 

N ELDER (Eng.) a contr. of Atten-Elder = At 
THE Elder (-Tree) [E.M.E. at \en eldre: v. 

Cp. Nalder. 

NELL 1 a var. of Neill, q.v. 

3 a pet form of Ellen (A.-Gr.), q.v. 
Adam Nel.—Hund. Rolls- 



NELM \(Eug.) a contr. of Atten-Elm = 

:JTHE Elm (-Tree) [E.M.E. at ]>en 
elme, O.E. at fickm elme] 
In the Hundred Rolls the name was 
Latinized both as ad Ulmum and de Ulmo. 

NELMESl = Nelm(e, q.v., with the genit., 
NELMS J aiid pi., -s suffix. 

NELSON I Nel's or Neil's Son : v. Neil. 

2 Nell's Son : v. NelP. 

Thomas Nellson. — 

Yorhs Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Thomas Nelson. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1458. 

Thomas Neelson. — 

C/oj? .Rott (Duchy of Lane), A.D. 1462-3. 

William Neleson.— iV-/.i?oWs, A.D.1S03. 

William Nelson. — . 

Lane. Fines, A-.T). i<ii6. 

The last named seems certainly to have 

hieen an ancestor of Lord Nelson ; and the 

-earlier Lancashire Nelson and Neelson 

quoted were doubtless of the same stock. 
The immediate progenitor of the Norfolk 
Nelsons is supposed to have left Lanca- 
shire in the suite of the youngest son of 
the I St Earl of Derby when he was 
appointed Bishop of Ely A.D. 1506-7. 

N END (Eng.) a contr. of Atten-End = At the 

' End (of the village, wood, etc.) [E.M.E. 

at \en ende, O.E. at ^(km ende] 

NERN = Nairn, q.v. 

NESBIT ] (Eng.) Bel. to Nesbit(t (North- 

NESBITT iumb.^; Durham), 13th cent. 

NESBETT jTVesebit, 14th cent. Nesbyt [the 

first element is rather O.E. ntess, low 

gBound == Dut. nes, low marshy ground, 

than O.E. nass, a headland h O.E. bita, 

a small piece} 

Cp. Nisbet(t. ^ 

NESMITH, a var. of Nasmith, q.v. 

NESS 1 (Teut.) I Dweller at a Promontory 
NESSE/or Headland [O.E, nass = O.N. 


2 Dweller on Low, Marshy Ground 

[v. under Nesbit and Holderness] 

N ET H E R BY (Scand.) Bel. to Netherby (Cumb.; 
Yorks) = the Lower Farm [O^N. «eSn 

+ .by-r] 

NETHERCLIFT ( Scand. ) Dweller at the 

Lower Cuft or Cleft [O.N. ne'Sri, 

lower; and see Clift] 

NETHERCOTE 1 (Eng.)DwellerattheLoWER 
NETHERCOTT J Cottage [O.E. neo'Sera + 


NETHERFIELD (Eng.) Dweller at the Lower 
Field [O.E. neff&era +feld] 

NETHERSALL | (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller 

NETHERSOLE Vat the Lower Hall [Q.E.. 

NETHERSOLL J neo'Sera = O.N. seSn, lower 

4- O.E. seel = O.N. sal-r, a hall] 

But in Kent, where the Nethersoles are 
mostly found, a sole is a pond or pooL 

NETHERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Netherton ; or 

Dweller at the Lower Farm or Hamlet 

[O.E. neo'Sera -\- itin'] 

NETHERWAY (Eng.) Dweller at the Lower 
Way [O.E. neo'Sera + weg] ~ 

NETHERWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the Lower 
Wood fO.E. neo'Sera + wudu\ 

NETTELFIELD (Eng.) DwellerattheNETTLE- . 
Field [O.E. netel + feld] 




NETTELTON (Eng.) Bel. to Nettleton == 
I the Estate of the Netel(a Family 

[A.-Sax *Netelinga-tun inga, genit. pi. 

of the fil. suff. -ing ; tin, estate, etc.] 
The Wilts place occurs in loth-cent. 
Latin charters as Netelington. 

2 the Nettle-Enclosure [O.E. netel + 


NETTER (Eng.) Net-Maker [O.E. nett, a niet 
f the agent, suff. -ere\ 

NETTLEFIELD = Nettelfleld, q.v. 

NETTLEFOLD (Eng.) Dweller at the Nettle- 
Fold [O.E. netel + fal{o)d, a sheepfold] 

NETTLESHIP (Eng.) Dweller at (prob.) the 
Nettles-Hope \0JK. netel, nettle; and 

V. Hope] 

NETTLETON = Nettelton, q.v. 

NEVE (Teut.) Nephew [M.E. neve, O.E. nefa 

= O.N. nefi, nephew p Dut. neef, nephew, 

cousin = M.H-Ger. neve, O.H.Ger. nevo 

{mod..neffe), nephew] 

Walter le Nsve.^Hund. Rolls. 

By metonymy, neve also denoted a 
spendthrift, or prodigal, as didtlie Lat. 

NEVES, Neve's (Son) : v. Neve. 


2 app. also = Neve (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dini. 
suff. -^)f. 

NEVILE ' ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) Bel, to i N6ville 
NEVILL (Normandy: Manche and Seine- 
NEVILLE J Inf^rieure) ; 2 Neuville (very com- 
mon in France) = the New Town [Fr. 
neuve (f.;, Lat. nova, new + Fr. ville, 
town ; Lat. villa, estate, manor] 

These names were Latinized in our 
records de Nova Villa. 

NEVIN (Celt.) I a contr. of the Irish Giolla- 
naebhin (bh as v)'= the Servant or 
Disciple of the Saint [h.giolla, servant, 
etc. -I- naebh, naomh (genit. naoimh), a 

saint -I- the dim. suft. -lii] 

2 the Irish Cnaimhin [mh as v) [Ir. 
cndimh, a bone -f- the dim. suff. -/«] 

Cp, Niven. 

(Eng.) prob. also = Neve (q.v.) the 
A.-F;-, dim. suff. -in. 

NEVINS Nevin's (Son) 

NEVINSON 1 jj , soj, \ V. Nevin. 

NEVISON j^^^v""^^"" 

1 1 for Knevett, Knyvett, q.v. 

NEW (Eng.) the New (-Comer) [M.E. '«OTe, 

O.E. niwe] 

Richard le Newe. — Hund. Rolls. 

NEWALL for Newhall, q.v. 

Occasionally, as at Newall-with-Clifton, 
W.Yorks, we find the tautological name 
' Newall Hall.' ' 

NEWARK (EngJ Bel to Newark = the New 

Work or STRbNGHOLD [M.E, newe, O.E. 

niwe -t- M.E. wark{e, werk{e, O.E. weorc, a 


Several Scottish Newarks (notably 
Newark Castle, Selkirk) have affixed the 
tautological ' Castle' to the name. 

NEWARN T(Eng. ) Dweller at the New 
NEWARNEJ House [O.E. niwe + earn, a 




NEWBIGGIN ■! ( A.-Scand! ) Bel. to New- 

NEWBIGGING biggin(g, &c., a common 

NEWBEGGIN North. Eng. and Scot, place-, 

NEWBEGIN J name =? the New Building 

or Dwelling [O.N. n^r = O.E. niwe: + 


Stephen Ap Newebigging. — 

Pipe-Roll, A.D. 1259-60. 
Newbegin is in N.Yorks. 

I V. Newbury. 


See Bold'. 

Thomas de Neubold. — 

Inq, ad guod Damn., A.D. 1322, 


( Eng. ) Dweller at the New 
House or Hall [O.E. niwe + 
bold, a dwelling, house, palace] 

"I I for Newbo(u)rn, q.v. 
-I 2 

z for Newbond, q.v. 
NEWBON D 1 (A.-Scand. ) the New Bond 
NEWBOUND f [O.E. «fwe, new; and v. under 


Richard le Newebonde. — Hund. Rolls. 

NEWBORN V (Eng.) Dweller at the New 

NEWBOURN I Burn or Brook [O.'E.niwe 

NEWBURN J + burne] 

Newburn, co. Fife, owes its name to 

the diverted course of a brook. 

NEWBOROUGH (Eng.) Bel. to Newborough: 
V. Newbury. -• 

Newborough, Staffs, was Newburgh, 
Novus Burgus, in the 14th cent. 




NEWBOTTLE (Eng.) Bel. to Newbottle; or 

Dweller at the New House [O.E. niwe + 

botl, a house, building] 

NEWBURGH\ (Eng.) Bel. to Newburgh, 
NEWBURY J Newbury=the New Strong- 
hold [O.E. niwe, dat. nlwan- + burh, dat. 

Newburgh was Latinized de NovoBurgo. 

NEWBY (Scand.) Bel. to Newby ; or Dweller 

at the New Farmstead or Settlement 

[O.N. nji-r + bS-r] 


N EWCO ME 1 (Eng.)NEWcoMER; Stranger 

NEWCpMEN fJM.E. neu, new(e, new(ly + 

come{n ; O.E. niwe + cumen, pp. of cuman, 

to come] 
Robert le Newcomen. — 

Close Rolls, A..Ti. i2ii. 

NEWDICK (Eng.) Dweller at the New Dike 
[O.E, niwe + die] 

NEwfLL"} ^°^ Newall = Newhall, q.v. 

NEWHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Newhall; or Dweller 
at or by the New Hall [O.E. niwe + 


NEWHAM (Eng.)Bel.toNewham; or Dweller 
at the New Enclosure [O.E. niwe + 
ham(m, a piece of land,enclosure, dwelling] 
' Walter de Neubam.—Hund. Rolls. 

NEWIN (Eng^ Dweller at the New Inn or 
House [O.E. niwe + inn, a houfee ; cham- 

NEWINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Newington = 

At the New Farmstead, Manor, 

Estate, &c. [usual A.-Sax. dat. form 'set 

Niwantiine,' horn niwe SLDd tiin] 

Ic ^Ifgyfu se6 hl{^fdige, Eadweardes 
cyninges m6dor, geserndede set Cnute 
cyninge mlnum hldforde faet land set 

(I, ^Ifgifu the lady. King Edward's 
mother, obtained from King Canute, my 
lord, the land at New(ing)ton). — 

Charter of Queen iEIfgifu Emma." 

Richard de Newentonp. — Hund Rolls. 

NEWINS, pi. of Newin,c^.v. 

NEWLAND (Eng.) Bel. to Newland; or 
Dweller at the New Land, i.e. Reclaimed 
Land , [O.E. niwe + land] 

NEWLANDS, pi. of Newland, q.v. 

NEWLAY "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the New Lea 

NEWLEY J [O.E. niwe + leak (M.E. ley, lay), 

a meadow, pasture, field] 

[for Newlyn, q.v. 


NEWLYN (Celt.) Bel. to Newlyn (2), Cornwall. 
AcC. to Bannister this name denotes the 
'New Pool' [Corn. newydh=^A. newydd, 
new + Corn. lyn='SNs\. llyn, a pool]; but 
this can hardly apply to the Newlyn near 
Truro, whose very ancient church is 
dedicated to St. Newlyn. 

NEWMAN (Eng.) the New Man, Newcomer 
[M.E. neu, newe, O.E. niwe + man] 

Richard le Neumaii. — Hund. Rolls. 

Simon le Neweman.^C/ose Rolls. 

This name in our directories is some- 
times an Angljcization of the correspond- 
ing German Neumann. - 

NEWMARCHI (Eng.) Dweller at the New 
NEWMARK J March [O.E. nivie; and v. 


Adam de Neumarche.'— .ffj/nd. Rolls. 

Newmark in ourdirectories is frequently 
an Anglicization of the corresp. German 
Neuniark. I 

NEWNAM for Newnham, q.v. 


There is a Newnes village in Shropshire. 

At the New Enclosure, or Residence, 
or Estate [A.-Sax. dat. form ' set Niwan- , 
kam(me,' i. niwe and (i) hamm, a piece of 
land,, enclosure, messuage; (2) ham, 
dwelling, estate] 

NEWPORT (Eng.) Bel. to Newport = i the 

New Haven [O.E. niwe + port, Lat. 

port-US, a harbour] 

2 the New Town [O.E. niwe + port; 
Lat. porta, a city-gate] 

The name of Newport, LW., was 
Latinized both as Novus Partus and Novus 
Butgus ; Newport, Salop, was called 
Novus Burgus (de Novo Burgo) in its' 
charter by Henry I ; Newport, Mon., was 
called Novus Burgus by Giraldus Cam- 
brensis iu order to distinguish it from 







(Eng.) Dweller At the New 
Houses [O.E. niwe, new + 
Msum, dat. pi. oihus, a house] 

Newsholme, E. Yorks,' is also known as 
Newsham ; Newsholme, near Gisburn, is 
also called Newsome; Newsom (Boldon 




Book, Newsom), Durham, is alternatively 
Newsham; Newsham, Gilling Wapentake, 
is Newhuson in Domesday Book, in which 
the Yorkshire Newsholmes occur as 
Newhuse ; Newsham, N. Lanes, was 
Neusum AS). i2$2. 

Adam de Neusum. — 

Cal. Inq. P.M., A.D. 1254. 
John de Neusum. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1370. 

NEWSON I New's Son: v. New. 
2 for Newsom, q.v. 

NEWSTEAD (Eng.) Bel. to Newstead; or 
Dweller at the New Place [O.E. niwe + 


NEWTON (Eng.) Bel. to Newton; or 

Dweller at the New Farm-stead, Estate, 

Manor, &c. [usual A.-Sax. dat. form 

' set Niwantune ' (v. under Newington), f. 

niwe and <m«] 

Alan de Neuton. — 

Cal. Inq. P.M., A.D. 1249. 
Willelmus de Neweton. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

NIBB = Ibb (q.v.) with attracted initial iV- (as 
in Noll, a pet form of Ol-iver). 

NIBBS, Nibb's (Son) : v. Nibb. 

NIBLETT = Nibb (q.v.) + the double dim. 
suff. -el-et. 

NICHOLLJ '^™®- °'^ Nicholas, Nicolas, q.v. 
Cp. Nicol(l. 

NICHOLAS = Nicolas, q.v. 

This clerk was cleped hende Nicholas. 
—Chaucer, The Millire his Tale, 13. 

NICHOLSON, Nichol's Son 


NICK, a dim. of Nicolas, q.v. 
for Nicol, q.v. 


for Nicols, q.v. 






NICKERSON, a connipt form of Nickinson 
and Nicholson, q.v. 

NICKIN =i Nick (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. suff. -in. 
The French form is Nicquin. 

NiCKINS, Nickin's (Son) 

NICKINSON 1 Nickin's Son 

v. Nickin. 

NICKLESS for Nicolas, q.v. 

NICKLINSON, NiCKLiN's or Nicolin's Son : 
V. Nicolln. . ' 

NICKS, Nick's (Son) \ 
NICKSON, Nick's Son/ 

V. Nick. 

■dims, of Nicolas, q.v. 



In the Hundred Rolls we find the forms 
Nicoll, Nicole, Nichole. 

Nicole and Nicolle are common French 

NICOLAS (Gr.) Victorious People or Army 

[Gr. N«(i\aos — vUir (vUioi, to conquer ; 

vlKiii victory) + Xais, the people, army] 

Nicolas is a very common French sur- 

NICOLET= Nicol (q.v.)-l- the Fr. dim. suff. -rf. 

NICOLIN = Nicol (q.v.)+the Fr. dim. svS.-in. 

\ NicoL(L)'s (Son) : v. Nicol(l. 

NICOLSON, Nicol's Son: v. Nicol. 


NIELDfor Niel, Neil, q.v. 

NIELSON, Niel's Son: v. Niel, Neil. 

NIGEL, the Anglicized form of the Lat. 
Nigellus = Blackish [a dim. f. Lat. niger, 

Nigellus is frequent in Domesday 
Book. It was used to Latinize Niel, 
Neil, q.v. 

NIGHTINGALE \ (Eng.) a nickname from the 
NIGHTINGALL/bird [M.E. nyhtegale, etc., 

O.E. nihtegale] 
NINDfor Nend, q.v. 

NISBET \ (Eng.) Bel. to Nisbet (Berwick, 
NISBETT ( Roxburgh, Haddington, &c.), a 
form of Nesbit, q.v. 

The Roxburgh Nisbet was Nesebita in 
the 1 2th cent., Nesebit in the 13th. 




NISH, a contr. of MacNish, q.v. 

NIVEN (Celti) a contr. of Gilniven, the Gael, 
and Ir. Gitle-, GioUa-naoimheh (mh as v) 
= the Servant or Disciple of the 
Saint [Gael. giUe, Ir. gioUa, servant, dis- 
ciple + the genit. of naomh, a saint + 
the dim. suff. -en] 
Cp. Nevin. 



■ Niven's Son 

V. Niven. 

' i pi. of Noak, q.v. 

NIX, Nick's (Son) : v. Nick, Nicolas. 
William ^ix.—Hund. Rolls. 

NIXEY, an abnormal form = Nix (q.v.) + the 
E. dim. 'suff. -ey. 

NIXON, Nick's Son: v. Nick, Nicolas. 
William Nicson. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

NOACK "I ( Eng. ) a contr. of AttenTOak, 

NOAK k'-Oke = At the Oak [E.M.E. a( 

NOAKE J Ipen (/or ]>er, i.) coke, o^, O.K. let 

\>(km (for Jpckre) dc{e] 

Philip Attenoke. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1275. 

NOBB, a dim. name = Hobb (q.v.) with 
attracted N- (as'in Noll for Ol-iver). 

Geoffrey ^obhe.—ffund. Rolls. 

NOBB.S, Nobb's (Son) : y. Nobb. 

NOBLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) [Fr. nople; Lat. nobil-is, 
welltknown, noble] 

NOBLET ] I = Noble (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
NOBLETT Uuff. -ei. 

2 = Nob (v. Nobb) + the Fr. double 
dim. suff. -el-el. 

Noblet is a common French surname. 

NOCK (Celt.) for Knock, q.v. 
(Eng.) = Noak, q.v. 

NODDER (Eng.) i for the A.-Sax. pers. name 
Nowhere [O.E. no}?, boldness + here, 

2 perh. also a nickname fromM.E.«o(W^«, 
to nod, (orig.) to shake. 

NODE (Teut.) = the M,E. Ode (occurring, for 
example, in the 14th -cent. Yorks Poll- 
Tax) with attracted N- (as in Noll for 
Ol-iver) [O.Teut. Oda; Odo—i.O.S&Ti. 6d 
= O.N. a«S-r = O.H.Ger, ot = O.E. edd, 
prosperity, riches] 

NODES, Node's (Son) 1 „ „„ .„ 
NODESON, Node's Son r- '^°"®- 

NOEL(Fr,-Lat.) Children born at Christmas- 
tide were sometimes baptised by the 
French equivalent of ournames Christmas 
and Midwinter [Fr. noel, by euphony for 
nael, Christmas; Lat. {dies) natalis, birth- 
Adam Noel.— 5cm<. ofGascony, A.D. 1242-3. 

NOELSON, Noel's Son : v. Noel. 

NOKE = Noak, q.v. 

NOKES = Noakes, q.v. 

NOLAN (Celt.) the Ir. Nuallan = Famous,- 
Noble [Ir. nuall -(- the dim. suff. -dti] 

NOLL I a pet form of Oliver (q.v.) with 
attracted N-. 

Here; lies Oliver Goldsmith, for short- 
ness called Noll. — D. Garrick. 

2 for Knoll, q.v. 

I (Celt.)" the Ir. Nuadhan (nepotic 


NOONE/ —genitive— form O'Nuadhain) = 

the New [Ir. (and Gael) nuadh (dh mute), 

new + the dim. suff. -an] 

NOPPS, an unvoiced form of Nobbs, q.v. 

NORBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Norbiiry = the 
NoliTH Stronghold [O.E.'noAi 4; huth, 

dat. byrig] 

Norbury, E. Cheshire, was Norburie in 
the i2th cent., Northbury ih the 13th. 
Norbury, Staffs, in Domesday Book Nort- , 
berie, was Northbyriixi the 13th cent. 

NORCOMBE(Eng.) Dweller at the North 
Hollow [O.E. not^ + cumb (from Celt.] 
There is a Northcombe in W. Devon. 

NORCOTTl (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
NORCUtT i Cottage [O-E. noi^ + cot] 

There are places called Norcott in 
Herts and Berks. 

See Northoot(t. 

NORCROFT (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
Croft [O.E. noif -I- croft, a small field] 

There is a hamlet called Norcroft near 
Barnsley, Yorks. 

NORCROSS (Scand.) Dweller at the North 

Cross [0.N. nor^-r -\- kross (ult. £. Lat. 

crux, crucis^ 

More specifically, Norcross (spelling the 

same in the early i6th cent.) near Fleet- 

w/ood. Lanes. 




NORDEN (Eng.) Dweller at tile North 
Valley XO.E. norf, + denu] 

But the name in our directories is 
sometimes the German and Scand. Norden 
= North. 

Confused with Nordon. 

NORDON (Eng.) Dweller at the North Down 
[O.E. nor]> + dtin, a hill] 

There are Northdov#ns in Kent and 

Confused with Norden. , 

NORFOLK (Eng.) One from Norfolk, the 

A.-Sax. NorthfdIc=the Northern People 

I [O.E. ti0r]> +folc, folk, people] 

... the fertheste ende of Northfolk — 
Piers Plowman, 2950. 

NORGATE (Eng.) DwelleV at the North 
Gate [O.E. norf + geat] 

(Scand.) Dweller at, the North Road 
or Way [O.N, nor\i-r + gata] 

North{e)gate occurs in the Yorks PoU- 
Tax (A.D. 1379), and Northgate in the 
Hundred Rolls for Norfolk (A.D. 1274). 

NORGRAVE I (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
NORG ROVE J Grove \0.'E. nor]f + grdf[ 

NORKETT, a corrupt form of Norcott,q.v. 

NORLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the North Lea 
[O.E. nor\f + ledh (M.E. ley] 

More specifically Nofley, Chesh., in 
the r4th cent. Northlegh, Norlhley. 

NORMAN (Teut.) Northman [(i) O.Fr. 
Norman{d, Dan.-Nofw. Nordmand, O.N. 
Nof^maiS'r (pi. Nor^menn), Northman ; 
Norwegian' (2) O.E. Jfor^mann, Norse- 
man ; Dane] 

In the A.-Saxon Chronicle the term 
NorVmen{n sometimes embraces the 
Danes (v. A.D. 787). Elsewhere they are 
distinguished (v, A.D. 924) — ' . . . o6g}>er 
ge Englisce, ge Denisce, ge NortSmen, ge 
obre ' (. . . both English and Danes, and 
Northmen and others). 

NorVman occurs as a pers. name in 
.England in the loth and nth centuries. 

Normannus ( frequent ) ; Norman ; 
Northman. — Domesday Book. ' 1 

Mathew le Norman; — Hund. Rolls. ' 

Robert Northman.- 


Norman de Arcy. — do. 

'E[t] Peitevin e[t] Bretun et Norman. — 
La Chanson de Roland, 3g6i. 

NORMAN BY (Scand.) Bel. to Normanby (fre- 
quent in the great Scandinavian counties 
Lines and Yorks) == the Northman's 
Settlement' [v. under Norman, and -|- 
O.N. 6j/-r, settlement, farmstead] 

NORMANSELL (Eng.) Dweller at (app.)- 

Norman's or the Northman's Hall 

[O.E. seel = O.N. sal-r, a hall] 

NORMANTON (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to 
Normanton = Norman's br the North- 
man's Estate [O.E. tiin = O.N. tm, 
enclosure, estate] 

The Normanton near Southwell, Notts, 
occurs in a tenth-century charter both as 
Normaniun and Nordmantun. 

NORMIN(G)TON for Normanttfn, q.v. 

NORREYS ( A. - Fr. -Teut. ) Northman; 
Northerner [O.Fr. Noreis, Noreys, Nor^- " 
reis, Nor(r)ois, Northman, Northerner; 
ATor- -I- m, Lat. -gnjH] ■ ■' 
Hugh le Norreis. — 

Charter Rolls, A.D. iigg. 

Thomas le Noreys. — 

Hun4. Rolls, A.D. 1274^^ 
Walter le Noreis. — 

Pari. Writs, A.D. 13 13. 

, Robert le Norreys. — 

Cal. Inq. P.M., A.D. 1327. , 

Cp. NoppJs. 

NORRINGTON, a corrupt form of Northamp- 
ton (q.v.) through the i3th-cent. form 

NORRIS I (A.-Fr.-Teut.) = Norreys, q.v. 

mSddII u I (A--Fr.-Lat.) the Nurse {M.E. 
NORRISH J „^„-^g_ noryce; O.Fr. norrice (Fr. 
nourrice) ; Lat. nutrix, -icis, a nurse] 
Alicia le Noryce. — Cal. Inq. P.M. 

I trowe that to a norice in this cas. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, £561. 

NORTH (Eng.) One from the North [O.E. 

- norY\ 

NORTHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Northam (Devon, . 
Hants, &c.) = the North Enclosure 
[O.E. nor^ -\- ham{m, a piece of land, en- 

NORTHAMPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Northampton, 

A.D. 917 and 921 Hamtun, Domesday 

Northantone = At the North High 

Town [O.E. iior'^, north + hedm, hedn 

dat. of hedh, high -|- jM«(e] 

Northampton is situated on a slope 
rising from the R. Nen. Apparently 
North- was added to the name in order 
to distinguish it from Southampton. . 




NORTHCOT ] (Eng.) Bel. to Northcot(e, 

NORTHCOTE \ Northcott = the North 

NORTHCOTT J Cottage [O.E. norTp + cot] 

Northcott, Berks, seems, however, to 

be for an earlier Noi'thcourt. ^ 

NORTHERN"! (Eng.) Northerner [M.E. 

NORTHEN J northern; O.E. nor^em (and 

nor^an), from tne north] 

NORTHEY (Eng, and Scand.) Dweller at 

I the North Island [O.E. «orl'=O.N.«o/-f'-r 

' + O.E. i{e)g = O.N. ey, island] 

2 the North Hey (Enclosure) [O.E. 

hag-, haga '= O.N. hagi, enclosure, field] 

Northey (Island), Essex, is near the 

meet of the Blackwater and the Chelmer. 

NORTH LEY (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
Lea [O.E. «orJ> + ledh (M.E. ley] 

NORTHOP \ (Eng.)Bel.toNorthoporNoRTH- 
NORTHUP J Hope (Flint) [O.E. nor]> ; and ▼. 

(Scand. and E°gO i°^ Northorp(e, q.v. 

NORTHORP i (Scand. and Eng.) Bel. to 
NORTHORPE J Northorp(e (Lines" ; Yorks) 

= the North Farm or Hamlet [O.N. 

ttOri'-r = O.E. nor]> + O.N. and O.E, YprpJ 

NORTHOVER (Engl) Dweller at the North 
,' Bank or Shore ' [0:E.tior]> + dfer] 

Northover, Soms., is on thp north bank 
of the R. Yeo. 

NORTHRUP } ^°'''°^ °^ Northopp(e, q.v. 

NORTON (Eng.) Bel. to Norton = the North 

Farm, Estate, or VilIage , [A.-Sax. 

Nor)^tm^^nor§ + tAn] 

NORWELL (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
Well or Spring [O.Ei ndr^ + wieU(a] 

NORWICH (Eng.) Bel.. to Norwich, theA.-Sax. 
Nmfwic = the North Place [O.E. nor] 

NORWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the North 
Wood [O.E. nor]) + wudu] 

NOSWORTHY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Nos(e)worthy 
NOSEWORTHY [ (7' Devon) [the second ele- 
ment is the O.E. wor^ig, a farm, enclosure: 
the first element may be the South.E. 
nose, a neck of land] 

NOTHARD (Teut.)i i Neat-Herd [Q.N. naut 
= 0-E. nedt, cattle + O.N. hirlpi-r = O.E. 
hierde, herd(sn)an] 
Willelmus Nouthird. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

2 the A.-Sax. pers. name No\'h{e)ard 

[O.E. nl!\>, boldness -f- A (e)a/-rf, hard, brave] 

NOTLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Notley = i the Nut- 
Tree-Lea [M.E. not(e, O.E. hnutu + M.E. 
ley, O.E. ledh] 

2 :Not(t)'s' or Hnotta's Lea [pers. 
name f. O.E. knot, bald, close-crapped] 

3 CNorrA'S' Lea [pers. name f. O.E. 
cnotta = O.N- kmit-r (whence Cnut or 

Canute), a knot] 

NOTMAN = Not(e)'s MAN(-Seryant) : v. 
under Nott. 
Richard Noteman. — Hund. Rolls. 

NOTON, V. Nottoh- 

NOTSON, Npt(e)'s or Nott's Son : v. Nott. 

Johannes Nottson; — ' 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

NOTT (Eng.) I Bald ; Close-Cropped [M.E. 
not, nott{e, O.E. knot] 

The A.-Sax. pers. name Hnotta occurs. 
Hugh le Notte.— H««d. Rolls. 
A twt heed' [head] hadde he, with a 
broun visage. — 

Chaucer, Prol. Cant. Tales, 109. 

. . . your nott headed country gentleman. 
—Old Plays, VI. 150 ; T. Wright. 

2 tor Knott', q.v. 

3 the (rare) A.-Sax. pers. name Cnotta 
[O.E. cnotta, m., knot], corresp. to the 
O.N. Knilt-r [O.N. knAt-r, m., knot] ; also 
(inore often) an Anglicized form (loth and 
nth cent. Cnut, whence mod. Canute) oi 
the Scand. name : v. Knot(t' and Nutt. 

\ (Eng.) I a nickname from the 


NOTTIDGE / bird called the Nothatch (or 
Nuthatch) [M.E. not{e, O.E. hnutu, a riut 
-f-a palatal deriv. of O.E. haccian, to hack], 

2 Bel. to Nottage (Glam.) [by analogy, 
the -age here may be for -wich, O.E. wfc, 

a place] 

NOTTING (Eng.) represents i an A.-Sax. 
Hnotting = Hnotta's Son [f. O.E. hnot, 
bald, close-cropped ; with ti6ie 'son ' sufT. 


2 an A.-Sax. Cwoftw,? = Cnotta's Son 
[O.E. cnotta, in., a knot; with the 'son ' 

suff. -ing] 

There seems to be no evidence for a 
loi^al origin [O.N.E. ing, a meadovv] of 
this name. 

Cp. Nutting. 

NOJTINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Nottingham, 
1 3th cent. Notinghairi, the Ai-Sax, Snotinga- 
hdm = the Home of the Snot(a Family, 
[the pers. name is prob. contracted f. O.E.' 
snotor= O.N. snotr (in^fact, the form 
Snothringham occurs in \ Latin charter 

. A.D. 868), wise, prudent (cp. N.E. snot, 

neat, handsome)-fthe genit. pi. {-inga) of 

-w,?, son -)- Mm, home, estate] 




NOTTON (Eng.) Bel, to Nottori (Yorks : 14th 
cent. Notton; Dorset) = (prob.) Nott's 
Estate [v. Nott, and + M.E. -ton, O.E. 


NOURSE = Nurse, q.v. 

NOwfu!" I Ang''<:'2ed forms of Noel, q.v. 
NOWLAN, V. Nolan. 

NOYCE \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller by a Nux- 

NOYES /Tree; spec, a Walnut-Tree [Fr. 

mix (O.Fr. mis), a walnut, nut ; Lat. nux, 

nucis, a nut (-tree] 

NUGENT (Fr.) Bel. to Nogent (common in 
France;=the Fair (Wet) Mead [Fr. noue, 
a wet meadow; L.Lat. Borfa +{e, 
fair; l.a.t.genit-; f.^e«i, a patrician family] 
Noe est encore usit6 en basse Norman- 
die avec le sens de petit cours d'eau, petit 
canal, ruisseau. On dit: une prairie de me, 
ou de noue, ou par abr6viation une noe, une 
noue, pour une prairie travers6e par un 
ou plusieurs petits cours d'eau qui lui 
donnent de I'humidite. — Stappers, Diet. 
Synopt. d'Etym. Pranf., p. 795. 

Many bearers of the name Nugent in 
England are immigrants (or descendants 
of immigrants) from Ireland, where this 
French name was usually Hitjernicized 
as Nuinnseann. 

NUN(N (A.-Lat.) i Nun (a nickname; and 
prob. applied to the children of a married 
woman after she had taken the monastic 
vow) [M.E. O.E. nunne, L.Lat. nunna, 

2 Monk [f. L.Lat. nonn-us, a monk] 

(Eng.) a descendant of the A.-Sax. 

(royal) pers. name Nunna [prob. f. L.Lat. 

nonn-us, a monk, father] 

'Ego Nunna rex SflJ'saxouum . . .' (A.D. 
692).— Cart. Sax., No. 78. 
rarely (Heb.) the Heb. Nun [f. Heb. 
nun, to sprout, flourish] 

Joshua, the sonbf JV«». — Ex. 33. 11. 

NUNNS, NUNN'S (Son) \ , 

NUN(N)SON, NUN(N)'s Son ; ^- Nun(n. 

Hugo Nunneson. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
NURSE (A.-Ff.-Lat.) (lit.)ONE who Nourish- 
es [M.E. mrice, nurice, O.Fr. norrice (Fr. 
' nourrice) ; Lat. nutrix, -icis, a nurse] 

NURSEY = Nurse, (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. suff. 

NUSSEY (A.Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Noisy (a fairly 

common French place-name), the L.Lat. 

Nucetum = the Nut-Grove [f. Lat. nux, 

nucis, a nut (-tree) ; with the 'plantation' 

suff. -et-uni\ 

There has prob. been some confusion 
with the preceding name. 

NUTBEAM (Eng.) Dweller by the Nut-Tree 

[O.E. hnutbedm] 
NUTE, V. Nutt. 

NUTHALL (Eng^ Bel. to Nuthall (Notts: 13th 

cent. Nuthal) = the Nut (-Tree) Nook, 

or Slope [O.E. hnutu + h{e)al{h, a nook, 

corner; h(e)al (for h(e)ald) = O.N. hall-r, 

= Ger. halde, a slope] 

Cp. Nuttall. 

NUTHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Nuthurst; or 
Dweller at the Nut-Grove [O.E. hnutu 

+ hyrst^ 
Nuthurst, Warw., was Hnuthyrst A.D, 

NUTKIN = Nut(t (q.v.) -|- the E. (double) dim. 
suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-in'\ 

NUTKINS, NUTKIN'S (Son): v. Nutkin. ' 

NUTLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Ntitley; or Dweller 
at the Nut (-Tree) Lea [O.E. hnutu+ledh 

(M.E. ley] 
Nutley, Hants, was Hnut-ledh A.D. 932, 

NUTMAN (Eng.) i Dealer in Nuts [O.E. 
hnutu, a nut -\- man{n] 
2 Nut(t)'s Man (-Servant): v. Nutt 

NUTSON, Nut(t)'s Son : v. Nutt. 

NUTT (A.-Scand.) an Anglicized form (loth 

and nth cent. Cnut) of the O.N. Kniit-r 

(Canute) [O.N. kniit^, a knot] 

(Eng.) I Dweller by a Nut-Tree [O.E! 

hnutu, a nut] 

2 occ. conf. with Nott, q.v. 

NUTTLE^} (Eng) for Nuthall, q.v. 

Nuttall, Lanes, was spelt the same 
A.D. 1541. 

NUTTER (Eng.) i Nut-Dealer [O.E. hnutu 
-\- the agent, suff. -ere] 
(rarely) 2 a descendant of the A.-Sax. 
pers. name Nowhere [O.E. izrftS, boldness 
-f here, army] 
NUTTING (A. -Scand.) may represent" the 
AngUcized form Cnut of the O.N. Kntit-r 
(v. Nutt, A.-Scand.) with the O.Teut. fil. 
suff. -ing ; but more likely = the ' Nut- 
Meadow' [O.E. hnut, nut -f- O.N.E. ing, 
O.N. eng, meadow] 
Willelmus Nutyng. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D! 1379. 
Cp. Netting. 

NUTTMAN, v. Nutman. 

NYE (Eng.) a contr. of Atten-Ey(e = At the 

Island [E.M.E. at yen (for fer) eye = O.E. 

, <it ^Are i{e)ge'\ 

(Scand.) the Scaad. form of New, q.v. 

[Scalnd. ny, new] 





O'- (Celt.) Grandson, Descendant (of) fir. , 
^ or ua (= Gael, ogha, a grandchild] 

For O'- names not found below see the 
name without the prefix. 

OAK 1 (Eng.) Dweller by an Oak-Tree 

OAKE J [M.E. o{c)k, ok{e, O.E. dc\ 

Richard atte Oke.— CaZ. Inq. P.M. 

OAKDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Oak- Valley 
[O.E. dc + demi] 

OAKES, pi., an,d genit., of Oak(e, q.v. 
Roger of the Okes. — Pari. Writs. 

OAKESHOTT, v. Oakshott. 

OAKEY (Eng.) Dweller at i the OakJsland 

or -Waterside [O.E. dc, oak-tree -f- i(e)g 

(M.E. «y), island, etc] 

2 the Oak-Hey (Enclosure) * [0,E. dc, 
oak-tree + htBg; haga, enclosure, field] 

OAKFORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Oak-Ford 
(Ford by the Oaks) [O.E. dc, oak-tree -1- 

OAKHAM (Eng.) Dweller at the Oak-Land 
[O.E. dc -\- ham(m, a piece of land, en- 

OAKHILL (Eng.) Dweller at the Oak-Hill 

[O.E. dc + hyll] 

There are villages of this name in Soms. 
and Wilts. 

OAKLEY \ (Eng.) Bel. to Oakley; or Dweller 

OAKLY I at the Oak-Lea [O.E. ac, oak-tree 

-t- ledh (M.E. fe(j-] 

This name is commonly found in the 

Hundred Rolls as Ocle(e. 

OAKMAN (Eng.) -= Oak (q.v.) -\- man. 

OAKSHOTT (Eng.) Dweller at i the Oak- 
Corner [E. oak, M.E. oke, etc. -f Dial.E. 
shot, a corner of land ; O.E. dc, oak-tree, 
and sce6t, scedt, a comer, projection] 
2 (occ.) the Oaks-Wood [M.E. okes, 
oaks + holt, O.E. holt, a wood] 

OAR 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Gate = the (River-) 
, OARE J Bank or Shore ' [0,E. dra] 

The Berkshire Oare was Ora A.D. g68. 


OAT "I (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Ot(t, from 

OATE/ Ger. Otho, Ot(t)o [(. O^H.Ger. iSt = 

O.Sax. dd (= O.N. aaS-r = O.E. edd), 

wealth, bliss] 

) (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Ots, also 
j formerly Ot{h)es = Ot and Ot{k)e (v. 

I for Ostler, q.v. 


under Oat(e) with formative -i. 

(Eng.) a nickname for a Dealer in Oats 
[M.E. otes;>0.'E. dte, oat] 

Andreas Otes.—Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Otes de Howarth. — ' 

YorksPoll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

U est Otes et li quens [comte] 
Berengers? — Im Chanson de Roland, 2405. 

OAT(E)SON, Oat(e)'s or Oat(e)s' Son. 

OATLEY (Eiig.) ' Dweller at the Oat-Lea 

[O.E. dt(e)-ledh] 

OBEE ] (Scand.) Bel. to Oby (Norf.) [O.N. 
OBEY ■ by-r, a. settlement, farmstead: the 
OBY J firstelementmaybeforanAngliciza- 
tion of the O.N. eik, oak (as the neighbour- 
ing Ashby is Anglicized), or for a pers. 
narhe — Odd, Aud] 
Oby is one of a httle cluster of Scand. 
names in the country to the north of Yar- 

O'BEIRN'E (Celt.) the Ir. O'Beirn, O'Birn = 
O'Brain, q.v. 

OBERRY for Oldbury, q.v. 

OBORN \ (Eng.) Bel. to Oborne (Dorset), 

OBORNE J app. the Domesday Wocbume — 

the Crooked Brook [O.E. wdh + burite\ 

O'BOYLAN (Celt.) the Ir. aBaoigh{e)allain = 

Descendant of Baogh(e)allan [v.under 

O'Boyle, and -|- the dim. suff. -an] 

O'BOYLE (Celt.) the Ir. O'Baoighill = De- 
scendant OF Baoghall [Ir. 0, grandson^ 
descendant -(- the genit. of baoghal, peril, 


O'BRAIN (Celt.) Descendant of Bran = the 

Raven [v. O'-, and -1- the genit., brain, 

of O.Ir. and O.Gael, bran, a raven] 

There has been some little confusion ' 
with O'Brien. 

O'BRIEN \. (Celt.) the Ir. O'Briain --= Des- 

O'BRYEN J CENDANT of Brian [v. O-', and 

-t- the genit. of Brian, q.v.] 

O'BYRNE (Celt.) the Ir. O'Broin = Descen- 
dant OF Bran : v. O'Brain. 

The Ir. and Gael, brotnn is a genit. of 
bra. 'belly'; but this (unlike O.E.wamb) 
does not seem to have been used as a 
pers. name. 

O'CALLAGHAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'Ceallachain 

= Pescendant OF Ceallachan [v. O'-, 

and Callaghan] 




,0'CASSIDY (Celt.) the Ir. O'Caiside = De- 
scendant OF Ca(i)side [(i) Ir. cas, a 
twisted lock ; ingenious, clever + the 
pers. suff. -id{h)e ; (2) cats, love, esteem-|- 
the adj. plen. suff. -de] 

OCCLESHAW (Eng.) Bel. to Occleshaw 

(Lanes), i3tn cent. Aculleschawe, Acolfshag 

=Acolf"s, or Acwulf's Wood [O.E. 

sc{e)aga, a wood] 

OCCLESTON (Eng.) Bel. to Occlestone 
(Ches.), A;D. 1303-4 Occlekton = Acolf's 
or AcwuLf's Estate . [O.K. tiiti] 

This origin is based on the analogy of 

OCHILTREE (Celt.) Bel. to Ochiltree (Ayr), 
anc. Uchiltre = the High Homestead or 
Hamlet [Cym. uchel, high+«rftdwelling(s] 

OCKENDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Oak- 
Valley [M.E. oken, O.E. dcen, f. dc, oak- 
tree -1- M.E. den{e, O.E. denu, a valley] 
Frequently, however, this name is for 
Ockendon, q,v. 

OCKENDON (Eng;) Bel. to Ockendon (Essex); 

or Dweller at the Oak-Hill [M.E. oken, 

O.E. dcen, f. dc, oak-tree -1- M.E. -i««, 

O.E. dun, a hill] 

OCKFORD = Oakford, q.v. 

OCKLESHAW'= Occleshaw, q.v. 

OCKLES,TON(E = Occleston, q.v. 

O'CLEARY \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'Cleirigh = De- 
O'CLERY J scendant of Clerech [v. O-', 

and Cleary'] 

OCLEE, a M.E. var. of Oakley, q.v. 

O'CON NELL (Celt.) i the Ir. O'Conghail = 
Descendant of Cong(h)al, i.e. Conflict. 

2 the Ir. O'Conaitl = DescendaNiT of 
Conall, i.e., Love, Friendship. 


1 (Celt.) the Ir. 0'Conchobhair= 
I Descendant of Conchobhar 
[v. O'-, and Con nop] 

\ (Engf) I Bel. to Odeham (Devon). 


If the first eleriient is the pers. name 
Ode (v. under Od((ll)ie), the second will 
■represent O.E. hdm, home, estate : if the 
first element is an aphse?fetic form of M.E. 
' wode {OS. wudu), a wood, the second will 
represent O.E. ham(m, a piece of land, 

2 Bel. to Odiham (Haiits) : v. Odiham. 

ODDlEl I f. the A.-French Odo, later Orfe [f. 
ODDY . O.Sax.(fi= O.N. awS-r, wealth, bliss],' 
ODEY with the E. dim. suff. -te, -e)y. 
ODY ' 

The famous half-brother of William I, 

always appears on the Bayeux Tapestry 

as Odo. 

John m. Ode.— Hund. Rolls. 
Cp. Oat(e. 

2 f. the common A.-Sax. Oda, Odda [f. 
dd, a form of O.E. edd, wealth, bliss, with' 
the loth and nth cent. Od(d)a influenced 
by the cognate O.N. Au'S-rJ, with the E. 
dim. suff. -ie, -e)y. 

The Roman Emperor Otto, and also his 
nephew of the same nanie, are called 
Odda in the A.-Sax. Chronicle A.D. 982. 

ODDIKER, an assim. form of OldaCre, q.v. 

ODELL (Eng.) Bel, to Odell (Beds), form. 

Wodhull = the Wood-Hill [M.E. wode, 

O.E. wudu + M.E. hull, O.E. hylQ 

Odell Castle ... is situated on an 

emmence in the midst of well-wooded 

grounds.— iVa/. Gaz. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a dim. f. Odo, Ode: v. 
under Oddie, etc. [Fr. dim. suff. -el] 

ODGER (Teut.) a form (prop. O.Saxon) of 

Eadgar: v. Edgar [O. Sax. 6d=O.B..Ger. 

6t = O.E. edd = 0:N. aiiS-r, wealth; bliss 

+ O.Sax. O.H.Ger. g£r = O.E. gdr = 

O.N. ^ejVr, a spear] 

Li quens Oger li Daneis 

(The count Oger the Dane).—: 

La Chanson de kolaMd,y>'i'i- ■ 
ODGERS, Odger's (Son): v. Odger. 

ODIHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Odiham (Hants), 13th 

cent. Odiham = (app.) Odi's Estate [v. 

Od(d)y, and -|- O.E. hdm, home, estate] 

ODIN EL (Fr.-Teut.) the Scand. name Odin,. 
O^inn [f. O.N. (JS-r, furious, eager, mad], 
with the Fr. dim. suff. -el. 

Geoffrey Odinel.—Hund. Rolls (Yorks). 

ODLIN (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Odelin, f.- 
Odo [v. under, Od die] with the double 
dim. suff. -el-ifi. . 

Henry Oielin.—Hund. Rolls. 

ODLING = Odiln (q.v.) with added -g. 

ODNEL for Odinel, q.v. 

O'DONNELL (Celt.) the Ir. ODornhnaill = 
Descendant of Domhnall [y. OS and 

O'DONOGHOE 1 (Gelt.) the Ir. O'Donnchadha 
O' DO NOG HUE \= Descendant of Donn- 
O'DONOHOE J CHADH [v. O'-, and Dona- 


0' Donovan 



O'DONOVAN (Celt.) the Ir. aDon{n)dhubhain 

= Descendant of Pon(n)dubhan [v. 

O'-, and Donovan] 

O'POWD \ (Celt.) the Ir. Ui Dubhda = (One 

O'DOWDA J of the) Descendants of Dubhda 

or DuBHDE [Ir. ui, pi. of ua or rf, grandson, 

descendant ; and see Dowd (Celt.] 

O'DRISCOLL (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Eidirsceoil = 
Descendant of Eidirsceol [v. O'-, and 
+ the intervocalic insertion h, and v. 


O'DUGAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'Dubhagain = De- 
scendant OF DUBHAGAN [ V. O'-, and 


O'DWYER (Celt.) the Ir. O'Dmbhidhir = 
Descendant of Dubheidir, i.e. Black 
EiDiR [v. O'-, and + the genit. df dubh, 
black, dark 4- the genit. of Wdzr, sense, 


ODY, v: Oddy. 

O'FALLON (Celt.) the Ir. O'Fallomhain = 
Descendant of Fallomhan [v. O'-, and 

OFFOR I 3ssim. forms of Orfeur.q.v. 

OFFLEY (Eng.) Bel. to OfQey (Herts, the 

A.-Sax. (roth cent.) 0#(j»-/ffcfA; ' Staffs", 

Domesday Offeleia, Offelie) = Offa's Lea 

[O.E. Offan-, genit. of Offa + ledh, a 

meadow, field] 

OFFORD (Eng.) i Bel; to Offord (Hunts), the 
A.-Sax. Ottanford = Otta's Ford [O.E. 
Ottan-, genit. oi,OUa (a var; of Otto, q.v.) 

+ ford] 
a an assim. form of OrfoPd, q.v. , 

0'FLAHERTY(CeIt.) their. O' Flaithbheartaigh 

= Descendant of Flaithbheartach [v. , 

O'-, and Flaherty] 

O'FLINN \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'Flainn ='De. 

[v. O'-, and + the genit. of Ir. jtann, red ; 

vlrhence also the name Flan(n)agan, with 
the doable dim. suff. -iSg-dti] 

Flann, or, as he is usually called, Flann 
of the Monastery, was a celebrated 
annalist, poet, and professor, who 
flourished at Monasterboice and died 
A.D. 1056.— 

Joyce, Irish Names of PI., ii. 148. 

. O'G ARA (Celt.) the Ir. 0'GarfAra= Descendant 
OF Gadhar, i.e. the Hound [v. O'-, and 
+ the genit. of ^adAar (dA mute), a hound] 

OGBORN(E 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Ogbourne 

OQBOURN(E J (Wilts), -forta. Okeburne =the 

Oak (-bordered) Stream [O.'E.dc+bUrne: 

with c (li) voiced to g by the influence of 

the following voiced letter 6] 

OGDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Ogden (Lanes, Yorks, 
Hants, &c.) — a voiced form of Oakden, 
Elias de Akeden.— ^ 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246-7. : 

Thomas Okeden. — 

Lanc.Fines,A.D. 1444. 

OGILVIE\ (Celt.) Bel. to Ogilvie (Forfar), 
OGILVY J early 13th cent. O^jtow [the first 
element may be the Pict. cognate of Wei. 
uchel, high ; and (if the physiography of 
the place bears it out) the second element 
may represent a mutated form of Wei. 
ban = Gael, beinn, a peak : but further 
, early forms are desirable] , 

The third son [of Gilibride, Earl of 
Angus, temp. David I.] Gilbert, assumed 
the surname of Ogilvy from lands so called 
in his possession, of which, with Powrie 
and Kyneithein in Angus, he had a charter 
in ^l^2.— Burke's Peerage, &c., s.n. 'Airlie'. 

OG LE (Teut.) 1 Bel. to Ogle (Northumb.), 12th- 
13th cent. OggeKj, OggilQ, Oghell, Oghill, 
Ogel(l, Hoggel, etc. ['There is no real hill 
at Ogle'; so that in view ot the village- 
names Ogle(s)by and Oglethorp the 
Northumbrian place-name mus.t represent 
a pers. name (v. 2) with a lost local suff.] 

2 the O.Scand. CEgel, (Egil [f , with dim. 
Stiff. -e)l, O.N. ag-, agi, awe, terror] (cp. 
Ayl-) ; and dec. the O.Scand. (Eguald-r, 
Aguald-r \uald, might] 

See Sir Henry A. Ogle's 'Researches 
into the Origin of the NaffleOgle' (1901); 
and his ' Ogle and Bothel' (1902). 



(Scand.) Dweller at CEgel's, or 

cEguald's, Settlement or 

Farmstead [v. under Ogle', and 

+ O.N. 6j)-r] 

OGLETHORP (Scand.) Bel. to Oglethorpe 

(Yorks),the Domesday Oglestorp = (Egel's , 

or CEguald's, Farm [v. under Ogle', and 

+ O.N. ^orp] 

OG LEY (Eng.) Bel. to Ogley (Staffs), 1 5th cent. 
Oggeley, 1300 Oggeleye (app. included in, 
an estate c^alled A.D. 996 Ocgingtun) = 
= OcGA's or Ogga's Lea [O.E. ledh, a 
meadow: Ogga (genit. Oggan-) is seem- 
ingly a dim. form of one of the Os-g— 
names, such as Osgar, Qsgod, etc;] 

O'GORMAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'Gormain = 

Descendant of Gorman [v. O'-, and 

! Gorman] 

O'GR/KDY (Ce]t)tM]r.O'Grdda = Descen- 
dant of GrAda [v. O'-, anij Grady] 




O'HAGAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'hAedhagain = De- 
scendant OF Aedhagan [v. O'-, and + 
the intervocalic insertion h+aedh, fire, 
ardour, and the geniti of the double dim. 
suff. -gdn {6g-tin\ 

O'HALLIGAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Ailecain = 
Descendant of Ailecan, i.e. the Noble, 
Beautiful [v. O'-, and + the intervoca- 
licjnsertion h + ail, a stone, rock ; noble, 
beautiful, + the genit. of the double, dim. 
sufl. -can {-6c-dri\ 

O'HANLEY) (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Ainlighe = 

O'HANLY /Descendant of Ainleach or 

AiNLE, i.e. the Comely,. Fair [v. O'-, and 

+ the intervocalic h + the genit. of 

ainleach or ainle] 

O'HANLON (Celt.) [the Ir. O'h-Anluain = 

Descendant of Anluan, i.e. Noble 

Warrior [v. O'-, and + the intervocalic 

insertion h + aon, one, also noble, good, 

and the genit. of luan, a warrior, hero] 

O'HANNANUCelt.) i the Ir. O'h-Ainnin = 
O'HANNON J Descendant of Annin. 

2 the Ir. O'h^Annain = Descendant of 
Annan [v. O'-, and -f the intervocahc 
insertion h + Ir. ann, skill, or anna, 
wealth ; with the genit. of the dim. suff.] 

O'HARA (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Eaghra = De- 
scendant of Eaghra [v. O'-, and + the 
intervocalic insertion K\ 

Eaghra mac Poprigh*, tighearna Lui- 
ghne, Connacht [lord of Luighne, Con- 
naught]. — 

Ann. of the Four Masters, A.D. 926. 

*He is the ancestor from whom the 

Ui-Eaghra, or Cf Haras, of Leyny, in the 

coimty of Sligo, have derived their name. 

— A.F.M., note, ii. 620. 

O'HARE (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Ir = Descendant 
OE Ear [v. O'-, and -f- the intervocalic in- 
sertion h + the genit. ol Ir. ear, east] 

O'HART (Celt.) the Ir. 0'/i-^irt= Descendant 

of Art, i.e. a Stone; Noble [v. O'-, and 

-|-the intervocalic insertion A -)-the genit. 

oi Art: v. under Arthur^] 

O'HARTIGAN (Celt.) = O'Hart (q.v.) with 
the double dim. suff. ig-dn. 

O'HAY \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Aedha = Descei*!- 

O'HEA i DANT of Aedh, i.e. Ai^dour [v. O'-, 

and -f the intervocalic insertion h + the 

genit. of aedh, ardour, fire : cp. Wei. aidd, 

Cp. Mac Kay. 

O'HEALEY (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Eilidhe = De- 
scendant of Eilidh, i.e. the Hind [v. O'-, 
and + the intervocalic insertion h + the 
genit. of eilidh, a hind] 

O'HEANY (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Aonaigh = De- 
scendant of Aonach, i.e. the Prince 
[v. O'-, and + the intervocalic insertion h 
-H the genit. of aonach, a prince] 

O'HENERY (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Inneirghe = De- 
scendant of Inderghe or Innerghe. 

Inderghe mac Mochdin 
(Innerghe, son of Mochan). — 

Ann. of the Four Masters, A,D. 953. 

O'HENNESSY (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Aenghusa = 

Descendant OF Aengus: v! Angus [v.O'-, 

and + the intervocalic insertion h + the 

&s^. g&nii. oi Aengus\ 

O'HERAGHTY (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Aireachtaigh 

■ = Descendant of Aireachtach, i.e. the 

Nobleman [v. O '-, and + the intervocalic 

insertion h + aireach, a noble -1- the genit. 

of the plen. suff. -tacK\ 

O'HICKEYl (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Icidhe = De- 

O'HICKIE J scendant of Icidhe, i.e. the 

Healer [v. O'-, and + the intervocahc 

insertion h + si deriv. from the root ic, to 


O'HIGGIN \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Uiginn = 
O'HIGGINS J Descendant of Uige, i.e.- 
a Jewel [v. O'-, and + the intervocalic 
insertion h -{■ the genit. of uige^ 

O'HYNE \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'h-Eidhin =I)E- 

O'HYNES J scendant of Eadhin [v. O'-, 

and -I- the intervocalic insertion h + the 

genit. of a dim. f. eadh, a guard, protection] 


the Warrior [v. b'-, and + the genit. of 
cathdn, a dim. f. cath, war, warrior] 

OKE = Oak(e, q.v. 

O'KEEF 1 (Celt.) the Ir. O'Caoitnh (mhasv) 
O'KEEFE \ = Descendant of Caomh, i.e. 
O'KEEFFE J the Beautiful [v. O'-, and 


OKELL ] (Eng.) i Dweller at the Oak-Corner^ 
OK ILL J or Slope [O.E. rfc, oak-iree + heal(h, 
a corner ; heal (for heald), a slope] 
2 for Oakhill, q.v. 

O'KELLY (Celt.) their. aCeallaigh^JiKScm- 
DANT of Ceallach : V. Kelly'. 

OKELY = Oakl(e)y, q.v. 

OKEOVER (Eng.) Bel. to Okeover or Oakover 
(Staffs), A.D. 1004 Acofre = the Oak 
(-tree) Bank (of the R. Dove) [O.E. dc + 


OKES = Oakes, q.v. 

"I (Celt.) the Ir. O'Cathain (th a? h) 
J = Descendant of Cathan, i.e. 


Oakey, q.v. 




OLDACRE "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Old Field 
OLDAKER J [O.E. e)ald, old + acer, a field] 

OLDAM, V. Oldham. 

OLDBOROUGH for Oldbury, q.v. 

OLDBRAY for Oldbupy, q.v. 

OLDBURY (Ehg,) Bel. to Oldbury ; or Dwel;- 
ler at or by the Old Stronghold (Camp, 
Fort, Castle) [O.E. e)ald + hurh (dat^ 
r byrig\ 

The Wore. Oldbury occurs in a charter 
A.D. 972 (in the dative inflected form) as 
' on Ealdanbyri. ' 

OLDCASTLE (Eng. -f Lat.) Bel. to Oldcastle; 

or Dweller at the Old Stronghold 

(or Fortified Camp) [O.E. e)ald + castel, 

Lat. casteli-uni] 

The remains of the old stronghold at 
Oldcastle in Cheshire (A.D. 1357-8, 
OldecasteT) were demolished about 1580. 
Oldcastle in Monmouth 'was once the 
residence of Sir John Oldcastle ; the re- 
mains ot the castle are slight' [Nat Gas.). 

OLDERSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the Alder- 
Wood [M.E. alder, alter, O.E. aler, alder- 
tree+M.E. 'shaw(e, O.E. sc(e)aga, r wood] 
OLDHAM (Eng.) Dweller at i the Old En- 
closure or Field [O.E. e)ald + hamm} 
2 the Old Holm (Riparian Land) 
, [Dial. E. holm, river-island, 'flat land near 
\ water '; O.E. Mm] 

Oldham, Lanes, early 13th ceiit. Aid- 
holm', 14th cent. Oldom, has three rivers, 
the Medlock, Irk, and Irwell. 


V. Aldis, Aldhous^. 


There is, however, a Scand. fem. 

pers. name Aldis, for Alfdis'= ' Elf-Maid' 

[O.N. dlf-r, elf + disi maid, goddess] 

OLDREY (Eng.) a descendant of the A.-Sax. 

pers. name Ealdric = Old Ruler [O.E. 

e)ald, old -f rlc-, ruler] 

OLDRID for Aldped, q.v. 

OLDRIDGE for Aldridge, Aldcioh, q.v. 

OLDROYD (A.-Scand.) Dweller at the Old 

Clearing [M.E. old, aid, O.E. e)ald, old 

+ Dial.E. royd, a clearing : v. Royd] 

O'LEARY (Celt.) the Ir. O'Laoghaire = De- 
scendant of Laoghaire [v. O-', and 


O'LEHANE (Celt.) the Ir. O'Liathain {th as h) 

= Descendant of Liathan, i.e. the Grey 

[v. O'-, and -f- liatk, grey -|r the genit. of 

the dim. suff. -dti] 

OLGER for Alger, Algar, q.v. 

OLIFF ] (Scand.) the Scand. Olaf = 
OLLIFF , \ Ancestral Relic [O.N. Oleif-r; 
OLLIFFEJ f. O.N. di, great-grandfather + 

leif-r, rehc] 
There has been confusion with Olive 
(Lat.), q.v. 

OLIPHANT] (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) a nickname 

OLIVANT I and sign - name from the 

OLLIVANT J Elephant [M.E. olifant,olifaunt, 

ollivant, oliphatit, elyphaunt; O.Fr. olifant, 

elefant; I^at. elepha(tijs, -antis ; GT.i\i<j)as, 

-avTos, elephant] 

That ypotame a wonder beest is, 
More than an olifaunt, 1-wis. — 

King Alex., 5184-5. 

Formaystow [mayest thou] surmounten 
thise olifauntes in gretnesse or weighte of 
body? — Chaucer, Boecg, 782. 

With antelop or oliphatit. — 

Colkelbie Sow, 448. 

OLIVE \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) bLiVE [Fr. olive^ Lat. 
OLLIVE J oliva, the olive] 

(Sca:nd.) for OKOiff, q.v. 

OLIVER \ the French Olivier, O.Fr. also 
OLLIVER J Oliver [normally Fr. olivier, olive 
(-tree: hai. olivari-us, ' 01 oVixes' ; I. oliva, 
the olive ; but almost certainly Scand. 
nomenclature has had its influence on the 
great vogue of Oliver — if not the common 
O.N. Oieif-r itself (Dan.-Norw. Olaf) (v. 
OI(l)ifl'),at any rate the O.N. Oelver (Dan.- 
Norw: Olver) (cp. O.N. olvcerr, kind, affect 
tionate) ; while the somewhat rare Norw. 
Olitier is considered by StOylen (' Norske 
Debenavne,' p. 68) to be f. Ole Iver, Ole 
being a pet form of OZa/ or Oto] 

The form in the ' Chanson de Roland ' 
(Oxf. MS.) is invariably Oliver — 

Li empereres [i.e. Charlemagne] est en 
un grant verger, 

Ensembl' od Tavec] lui RoUanz et 
Oliver.— ' , 

La Chanson de Roland, 103-4. 

But the I2th-cent. German adaptation 
usually has Olivier — 
Th6 sprah thfer helet Olivier 
(Then spake the hero Otoer). — 

Ruoldndes Liet, 6005. 

OLIVET I = Olive (q.v.) -(-the Fr. dim. suff. 

2 Bel. to Olivet (France) = the, Olive- 
Grove [Lat. oiivet-itm'] 

OLLERHAD "1 (Teut.) Dweller at the Alder- 

OLLERHEAD J Head [O.E. alor = O.N. olr, 

alder-tree + O.E. hedfod = O.N. hofu'S, 

head, high ground] 




OLLER(E)NSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the 

Alder-Wood [Olleren is an adj. form of 

oiler (v, under Ollerhead) + M.E. shaiii>{e, 

O.E. sc(e)aga,'aL wood] 

OLLERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Ollerton, a torm of 
Allerton, q.v. 

OLLETT, a double dim. of (a) 01(l)ive (q-v.), 
(6) Oliver (q.v.) [Fr. dim. sXiff. -et] 

OLLEY I a double dim. of {a) OI(l)ive (q.v.), 
(6) Oliver (q.v.) [E. dim^suff. -e)yi 

2 Bel. to (a) 0116 (Eure-et-Loire), A.D. 
IS57 Olley, 1466 Oleyum, 1224 Orleium. 

(6) Ouilly' (Calvados). Ouilly would 
normally giv6 an Anglicized Oyley (as in 
Doyley, q.v.) ; but the name without the 
preposition seems to have merged into 

Ouilly-du-Houlley in 1215 was Olleyum, 
1 198 only, 1 1 80 Oilleiai Oilteya; Ouilly-la- 
Ribaude in the i6th cent, was Ouilleia, 
1214 Oilleiala; Ouilly-le-Basset in 1277 
was Oilleium; Ouilly-le-Tesson in 1371 
was Ouilly, 11S5 Oillie (Wace, ' 
Rou'), 1106 Oillei; Ouilly-le-Vicomte in 
1279 occurs as Oilleium [app. f. a pers.' 
name 0(i)llius] 

Henry de Oily. — Testa de Nevill. 

OLLIER is a form of the Bret. Olier, for the 
Fr. Olivier: v. Oliver. 

Ernault, in his ' Diet. Bret.-Franf. du 
dial, de Vaunes', gives the form Oleir. 


V. Oliff. 

OLLIS, OLLEys (Son): V. Olley'. 
OLLIVANT, V. Ollphant. 

OLLIVER, V. Oliver. 

OLNEY(Eng.) Bel. to Olney(Bucks), I3th-i4th- 

cent. Olneye, A.-Sax. Olfaneg = Olla's 

Island or Waterside Wllan-, genit. of 

Olla + O.Merc. 4?, O.E. fe island, etc.] 


O'LOUGHLAN U. under Loughlin, Laoh- 

O'LOUGHLIN J lan(n. 

OLSEN (Scand.) Ole's or Olaf's Soi« : v, the 
Appendix of Foreign Names. 

OLVER, V. Under Oliver, noting the Dan.- 
Norw. Olver. 

OLYETT app. = OU, for Oliver (q.v.) + the 
the Fr. dita. suff. -et. 

O'MAHONEY"! (Celt.) the Ir. O'Mathghamhna 
O'MAHONY J = Descendant of MAThgh- 
AMHUIN, i-e. the Bear. 

O'M ALLEY (Celt.) the Ir. aMaille = Descend 
DANT OF Mall, i.e. the Slow, Tarjjy. 

OMAN, a Scottish surname, prob. represents 
(with dropped -d, as in Scot, roun' for 
round, pun' for p(o)und ; etc.) the Scand. 
Otnund, ' Aanpund\e,' (i) O.N. AmUn4ip 
Amund-r [f.' O.N. di, great-grafidfather + 
mund, hand, protector] (2) O.N. Agmund-r 
{CEgmund-r) [f. agi (ceg-), awe, terror 4- ■ 

Rygh, in his work on ancient pers.' 
names in Norwegian place-names ('Gamie 
Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne , 1901), 
notes, s.n. Amundi, a stead-name Ommund- 
rud ; and BiSrkmann, ' Nordische Per- 
sonennamen in England' (1910), remarks/ 
s.n. Amund, that the name is, not always 
definitely to be separated from Hamund. 

O'MARA 1 (Celt.) the Ir. O'Meara = De- 
O'MEARAJ scendant of Mear, i.e. the 

OMBLER, a form of Ambler, q.v. 

O'MELLY (Celt.) the Ir. O'Meallaigh = De- 
scendant OF Meallach, i.e. the Good, 

OMMANNEY doubtless = Oman (q.v-) + 
the E. dim. suff. -e)y; but the possibility 
of the suflf. being local (M.E. ey,iO.E.i{e)g, 
= O.N. ey, island, waterside; or even for 
M.E. Hey,hay, O.'E. htEgr, haga=O.N. hagi, 
a meatiow) cannot be excluded. 

0'IVIULCONRY(Celt.) the Ir. 0'Maol-C(h)onaire 
= Descendant of the Disciple of 
CoNAiR,E [v. O'-, and + maol, servant, 
disciple -|- conaire : con(n, wisdom, sense 
+ the pers. suff. -aire] 
The Anglicized Conroy is from this 
name as well as from the Ir. MacConrapi 
and O'Conraoi. 

(Celt.) Descendant of Niall: 
V. Neil(l [Ir. Ua Neitt, aNeill] 


ONELY] (Eng.) Bel. to Onely, Northants: 

ONLEY I i6th cent. 0«fey, Onelie; Onneley, 

ONLY J Staffs: Domesday .^«efe^e = i the 

Single Lea [M.E. on, one, ane, an, O.E. 

dn, one, single, unique-^M.E. 2^, lie, O.E. 

'ledh, lea] 
2 On(n)a's, or .S:n(n)a's, Lea. 
ONION (Celt.) for Enion, q.v. 

(Eng.) occ. conf. with Unwin, q.v. 

ONIONS I Onion's (Son) : v. Onion. 

2 a nickname for an Onion-Seller [Fr. 
oignott, Lat. unto, -onis, onion] 




ONSLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Onslow (Salop), the 

Domesday Ondeslow [the second element 

, is O.E. hlAw, a (burial) mound, hfll : the 

■ pers. name (in the genit.) may represent 

an A.-Sax. And(e (cp. O.E. anda, zeal, 


' Roger de Ondeslowe, Lord of Ondes- 

lowe in the liberty of Shrewsbury, 1231.' — 

Burkes Peerage. 

ONTHANK for Unthank, q.v. 

ONWHYN (13th cent. Onwinne) for Unwin, q.v. 

OPENSHAW (Eng.) Bel. to, Openshaw (Lanes), 

A.D. 1282 Opinschawe, Opynsawe,' A.D. 

1322 Openshagh = the Open (app. Unen- 

- 'closed) Wood [M.E. open,opyn, etc., O.E. 

open (= O.N. opinn) + M.E. scjume, etc., 

O.E. sc{e)aga, a wood, copse] 

O'PHELAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'Faelain = De- 
scendant OF Faelan, i.e. the Little 
Wolf [v. O'-, and + the genit. of Ir, 
faelan = fael, faol, a wolf + the dim. suff., 


OPIE r may be f. the A.-Sax. pers. name 

OPP(E)YT Oppa with the E, dim. suff. -ie,-e)y; 

but the name seems to be Confined to 

Cornwall, where (ace. to Lower) it occurs 

in the 15th cent, as Opye, and, later, Oppie, 

O'QUIN V(Celt.) the Ir. O'Cidnn = De- 
O'QUINN J scENDANT OF CoNN, i.e. the Wise 
[v. O'-, and + the genit. (cuinn) oi, conn, , 


O'RAFFERTYl (Celt.) i the Ir. O'Raithbheart- 
O'RAVERTY \ aigh (fh mute, bh as v) = De- 
scendant OF RAITHBEARTACH.i.e., PROS- 
PEROUS, Rich [v. p'-, and + raith, 
prosperity, profit ; bHeartaigh, genit. of 
leartacji, rich] 
2 the Ir, O'Rabhartaigh = Descendant 
OF Rabhartach or Robhartac&, i.e. the 
Red [v. O'-, and -f- robhar, red ; -taigh, 
genit. of the plen. suff, -tach] 

ORAM \ (Eng.) Dweller at the Enclosure on 

OREM J the River-Bank [O.E. dra, a bank, 

shore + ham(m, a piece of land, enclosure] 

Ovyram, Yorks, is Oure in Domesday 
Book. An Orham occurs in a loth-cent. 
Berkshire charter. 

ORAN (Celt.) the Ir. Odhran = Of Pale 

Complexion [Ir. odhar (dh mute), pale, 

sallow + the dirn, suff. -dh] 

St. Patrick's charioteer was St. Odhran. 

ORCHARD (Eng.) Dweller at a Fruit-Garden 

[O.E. ortgeard] 

ORCHARDSON ( Eng. ) prob: represents 

'Orchardward s Son'lO.Eiorigeard-V>{e)ard, 

a gardener ; sunu, son] 

ORD ) (Eng.) I Dweller at a Point or Head- 
0RD£ I LAND [O.E. ord, a point ; spear] 

Ord, Northumb., was Orde in the 13th 

'In Suffolk a promontory is called an 
orrf.'— Halliwell, p. 590. 

2 the common A.-Saxon name-stem 

Ord- [same etyipdlogy : O.E. ord also 

meant 'chief,' 'prince'] 

(Celt.) Dweller at a Conical Hill 
[Gael, ord] 

ORDISH (Eng.) Bel. to (High) Ordish, nr. 
Matlock [the second element seems to be 
the O.E. edisc, a park, pasture: early forms 
are necessary to decide whether the first 
elerrient is O.E. dra, a bank, or the A.-Sax. 
pers. name Ord{a] 

'The name is pretty frequent in Derby- 
shire, especially between Derby and 
Burton-on-Trent.'— T. F. Ordish, F.S.A. 

ORDWAY (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Ordwig=Sl'EA.R- 

War or -Warrior [O.E. ord,spezi + 

w(g, war ; ivlga, warrior] 

Ordwi is fairly common in, Domesday 

O'REILLY! ( Celt. ) ^^'^ ^^- O'Raghallaigh, 
O'RILEY 1 O'Raighilligh = Descendant of 

Raghallach or Roghallach, i.e. 

Valiant, Warlike [v. O'-, and + the 
genit. of raghallach = rdghalacK] 

ORFEUR (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Goldsmith [M.E. O.Fr. 

orfeure, otfevre (mod. Fr. orfhxre) ; Lat. 

aur-um, gold + faber, smith] 

Peter le Oiieure.^Hund. Rolls- 

ORFORD (Eng.)Bel.toOrford=i the Cattle- 
Ford [O.E. or/', cattle -|- /«-rf] 

(occ.) 2 the Upper Ford [O.E. cfer, upper 

+ ford] 

Orford iri Suffolk (13th cent. Oreford) 
is, however, the 'Ford over the R. Ore.' 

ORGAN (Celt.) the Ir. Odhrgan = the PalE 

[Ir. orfAar (i/A mute), pale, sallow 4- the 

double dim. suff. -gdn (dg-dn] 

Cp. Hopgan. 

(A.-Fr.) app. meton. for OpganePi q.v. 

ORGANER (A.-Fr.) Organ-Maker; OrgAn- 

Player [M.E. organer^organ (Fi, organe; 

' Lat. organ-um, Gr. ipyav-ov — whence 

O.E.organori — an instrument) -|-the agent. 

suff. -er] 
Peter leOrganer. — Pari. Writs. 

ORGAR "I (Eng.) the A-Sax.Ordgar [O.E. ord, 
ORGERJ aspear; front, van; prince -i- gdr, 

. a spear] 




The most famous bearer of this, fairly 
common A.-Sax. name was the Devon- 
shire Ealdormati whose daughter JE[i\>T^}f 
King Eadgdr married, as recorded in the 
Chronicle A.D. 965^ 
...he6 [she] Waes Ordgares dohtor ealdor- 

The Domesday torms are Ordgar and 

ORIEL \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 
ORIOL J Oriole, i.e. tlie Golden Thrush 
[O.Fr. oriol; Lat. aureol-us, golden, splen- 
L' oriol cante dous et bas. — 

Larchey, quot. p. 350. 

ORLEBAR"! app. corrupt forms of Orlingbury, 
ORLEBERJq.v. The surname occurs in the 
neighbourhood of Orlingbury. 

ORLINGBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Orlingbury 
(Northants),i3th cent. Orlin^ir, doubtless 
for an A.-Sax. Arlinglurh = Arling's 
Stronghold [the pers. name (found in 
Domesday Book as Arling-us) is f. O.E. 
dr, honour, dignity, benefice, prosperity, 
. etc. ; with the double dim. suff. -l-ing — |- 
burh (dat. byrig), a fortified place] 

ORM "I (Scand.) Serpent; (fig.) Ship (from 
ORMEj, the serpent-figurehead) [O.N.orm-r] 

Orm was a favourite Scand. name (often 
appearing in England as Urm) ; and it is 
common in Domesday Book. 

Robert fiz Orme. — 

La,nc. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1284. 

ORMANDY, surmised by Bardsley (prob. cor- 
rectly), from local knowledge, to be a 
, corrupt form of Osmunderlaw, an early 
form of Osmotherley, a N. Lanes place- 
name : V. Osmotherley. 

ORMEROD] rScand.) Bel. to Ormerod 

ORMROD ■ (Lanes), early-i4th-cent. Orme- 

ORMROYdJ rode = Orm's Clearing [v. 

Opnrj ; and + O.N. ru'S, a clearing in a 


ORMES, Orme's (Son): v. Orme. 


ORmIon'^ } Orm(e)'s Son : v. Opm(e. 

ORMISTON (Scand.) Bel. to Ormiston = 
Orm's Homestead [v. Orm; and + 

O.N. tiin\ 

The Haddington place-name Ormiston 
was so spelt in the 13th cent. The Lane. 
Urmston occurs as Ormiston and Ormeston 
in the 13th cent. 

ORMOND 1 (Celt.) One from Ormond (Ire- 

ORMONDEj land), the Ir. Oir-mumhan (mh 

mule) = East Mumhan (Mun.ster)' [Ir. 

oir, east] 
The -d in Ormond is excrescent. 

ORMSBEE 1 (Scand.) Bel. to Ormsby = Orm's 
ORMSBY J Earm or Estate [v. Onm ; and 

+ b.N. 6ji-r] 

The i3th-cent. spelling of the various 
Orrasbys (Lines, Norf., etc.) was usually 

ORMSHAW (Scand. -|- Eng.) Bel. to Ormshaw 
= Orm's Wood [v. Orm ; and -f M.E. 
shaw, O.E. sc{e)aga = O.N. sk6g-r, a wood] 

We find Ormeshaw as a Lane, surname 
in the i6-i7th cent. 

ORMSHIRE for Ormshaw, q.v. 

ORMSTON, V. Ormiston. 

ORNSBY is more likely to be for Hornsby 
(q.v.) than for Ormsby^ 

O'RORKE \ (Celt.) the Ir. O'Ruairc = De- 

O'ROURKEJ scendant of Ruarc, i.e. the 

Little Chum [v. O-', and -F the genit. of 

Ruarc — ru, dear friend ; ate, little] 

ORPED (Eng.) Bold, Valia'nt, Stout [M.E. 
orped(e, bold, etc. j O.E. orped, grown up, 


Walter le Orpede.— ffMBrf. Rolls. 

OR PEN 1 I said to be French and to represent 
ORPIN Jan earlier Erpen [perh, f. the 
Cont. Teut. cognate of O.E. eixrp, eorp, 
dark ; with the Fr. dim. suff. -w] ' 

2 descendants of the A.-Sax. Eorpwine 

= Swarthy Friend [O.E. eorp, dark, 

swarthy -(- •jaine, friend] 

ORR (Celt.) Pale, Sallow [Gael, and Ir. 

odhar (dh mute] 
Poss. there has been some confusion 
with Oar(e. 

ORRELL ) (Eng.) Bel. to Orrell (Lanes'), 13th 
ORRILL \ cent. Orhul, Horhul, Orul, Orhil, 
Orhill,etc.\The second element is the M.E. 
hil, hul, etc., O.E. hyll, a hill : and if the 
identifications of the Domesday Otegrimele 
and Oiringemele with the Wigan and 
Sefton Orrell respectively are correct Or- 
may be the attenuated representative of 
the Scand. pers. names O'Sgrim or AvIS- 
grim and Ottaring {-ing, 'son' suff.); 
although Otringemele implies as second 
element the O.N. meW, 'a stretch of sand'] 

ORRET (Eng.) Warrior, Champion [O.E. 

dretta, oreta] 




ORROCK, app. for Hoppook, q.v. 

ORTON (Eng.) Bel. to Ortoti = i the Shore 

or Bank Farmstead or Estate [O.E. 

ira, also dfer, shore, bank + tun] 

2 the Upper Farmstead, etc. [O.E. 

ofer + iuti] 

3 Orda's Estate [Orda, i. O.E. ord, a 


1: Orton, or Oreton, Staffs, was the 
'Domesday Overtune, and in the 13th 
century was Overton and Orton. The 
Cumberland Orton was Orreton c. 1300. 

O'RYAN (Celt^ the Ir. 0'J?mj'«= Descendant 
OF Rian, I.e. the Kinglet [v. O'-, and + 
n, a king, prince + the genit. of the dim. 

suff. -dn\ 

OSBALD (Eng.) God-Bold [O.E. ds, a god + 

l{e)ald, bold] 

OSBALDESTON (Eng.) Bel. to Osbaldeston' 

OSBALDISTON I (Lanes) = Osbald's 

OSBALDSTON J Estate or Manor [v. 

Osbald, genit. Osbaldes + O.E. tun] 

Thomas de Osbaldeston. — 

Lacy Inq. P.M., A.p. 131 1. 


OSBERT(Eng.) God-Bright [A.-Sax. Osberht, 

Osbriht—ds, a god -|- be(p)rht, briht, bright, 

glorious, noble] 

Osbriht, a king of Northuiribria, was 

killed at York, A.D. 867, in a conflict with 

the Danes. 

Osbert is the Domesday form. 

OSBORN \ (A.-Scand.) The^OM. Asbiorn 
OSBORNE = Divine Bear [O.N. ds-, 
OSBOURN • divine [dss, a god) + biorn, a 
OSBOURNE bear] was Anglicized Osbeorn, 
OSBURNE 7 Osbern, Osborn [OX rfj,,^ god 
+ be{o)rn, a warrior] 

Two famous Osberns were killed in the 
same battle A.D, 1054 — Osbern Pentecost, 
the Norman, fighting for Macbeth ; and 
Osbern, the son of Earl Siward, with his 
father at the head of the ultimately victor- 
ious Northumbrians. 

Osbern is common in Domesday Book. 
OSCROFT (Teut.) Dweller at i the Ox-Croft 
[O.E. oxa, genit. pi. oxna, an ox -|- croft, a 

small field] 

Stephen de Ox.ecroit.-^Hund. Rolls. 

2 the East Croft [ost, a N. and East, 
dial, form (cp. Dan.-Norw. ost) of E. eait, 

O.E. east + croft] 

3 OuTH's (AutS(r)'s) Croft [O.N. am-r, 
. , wealth] 

• Adam de Outhescr'oft (Oscroft).— 
Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Acets., A.I>. 1303-4. 

OSQATHORP \ (Scand.) Bel. to Osgathorpe 

OSGATHORPEHLeic.) = Osgod's (As- 

gaut's) Farm [v. under Osgood, and + 

O.N. ]>orp] 

OSGERBY (Scand:) i Dweller at Osgar's 

(Asgeir's) Farmstead or Estate [the 

pers. name is compounded of O.N. ds-, 

divine, and geir^r, spear h Jji-r] 

2 for Osgodby, q.v. 

OSGODBY (Scand.) Osgodby = Osgot's 

(Asgaut's) Farmstead or , Estate [v. 

under Osgood, and -f- O.N. b^-r] 

The Yorks and Lines Osgodbys were 

MsaaWy Osgot{e)by in the 13th, cent. 

OSGOOD (A.-Scand.). The O.N. ^5^a«; = 
Divine Gaut [O.N. ds-, divine {dss, a god) 
-1^ the national name (S. Sweden) Gaut-r] 
was Anglicized Osgot, Osgod [O.E. 6s, a 

See the reference to Osgod Clapa under 
CI app. 

O'SHAUGHNESSY (Celt.) the Ir. O'Seachnas- 
aigh = Descendant of Seachnasach 
[app. lit. Ir. seach, a turn ; nasach, customary; 
but Dr. Joyce thinks that the name shotild 
be divided thus : Seach-n^as-ach—seach-n, 
second-|- -as, abstract termination-!- the 
common plen. suff.-acA] 

O'SHEA] (Celt.) the Ir. O'Seaghdha = De- 

O'SHEE J SCENDANT OF Seaghdha, i.e., 

Stately, Majestic [Ir. seaghdha] 

OSKELL (Scand. Askell), a contr. ot Oskettle, 

OSKETTLE (A.-Scand.) The O.N. Asketil(l 
[O.N. ds-, divine (dss, a god) -|- ketill, a 
(sacrificial) cauldron] was Anglicized 
Oscytel [O.E.. 6s, 'a god -|- -cytel, cetel, a 
< kettle, cauldron] 
A Danish king Asketil is referred to as 
Oscytel in the A.-Sax. Chronicle A.D. 875. 

The Domesday form is usually Oschetel 
{ch as k), 

OSKIN, a dim. of one of the Os- pers. names 
-I- the E. dim. suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-ln]\ 

' Osekin.— if«Mi. Rolls. 
OSKINS, Oskin's (Son) : v. Oskin. 
OSLER for Ostler, q.v. 
OSMAN "1 (Teut.) i for Ostman (East Man), 
OSMON J the name given to a Danish settler 
in Ireland [Dan.-Norw. ost, east] 

2 for Osmund, q.v. 

OSMAN D for Osmund, q.v. 

OSMAR"! (Eng.) God-Glorious [the A.-Sax. 
OSMER J Osmcer—ds, a god -f- mcfere, glorious, 


Ojfffi^r was the name of the English 

soldier whose head, when he was killed 




by Eadricat the battle of Sceorstan (A.D,. 
1016), was boastingly paraded as that of 
King Eadmund, whom Osmaer was said 
to closely resemble. 

OSMENT for Osmund, q.v. 

OSMOND l(Eng. and Scand.) Divine Pro- 
OSMUND J TECTOR [A.-Sax. Osmund— ds, a 

god + mund, hand, protector: O.N. 

' Asmund—ds, divine (lisj, a god) + mund] 

Osmund was the name of an eighth- 

dentiiry king of the South Saxons ; and 

I this form is common in Domesday Book. 

OSMOTHERLEY (Scand. + Eng.) i Bel. to 
Osmotherley (Lanes), 13th cent. Osmund- 
erlawe = Osmund's or Asmund's 
Tumulus or HilIock [v. under Osmond; 
O.N. genit. form Asmundar + O.E. A/c6w, 
a (burial) mound] 

2 Bel. to Osraoth'erley (Yorks), 13th 

cent. Osmunderley, Domesday Asmundrelac 

=OsMUND's or Asmund's Lea [V. under 

I and + M.E. Uy, OX. Udh\ 

OSTLE (Scand.) a contr. of Oskettle, q.v. 

OSTLER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) orig. Innkeeper, which 

is -the present meaning of the Fr. hotelier 

[M.E. ostiler, hostiler; O.Fr. hostelier, f. 

hostel (mod. Fr. hdtet), L.Lat. hospitaW] 

O'SULLIVAN (Celt.) the Ir. O'Suileabhain = 

Descendant of SuiLEAB(H)AN, i.e. Light 

or White Eye [v. O'-, and + sMl, an eye 

+ a phon. insertion + the genit. of hdn, 

light, white] 

OSWALD (Eng. and Scand.) Divine Power 
[O.E. 6s = O.N. dss ids-, divine), a god+ 
O.E. w{e)ald = O.N. waW, power, might] 

The most famous historical bearer of 
this name was the Northumbrian christian 
king Oswald who fell A.D. 642 in a battle 
with Penda, king of the Mercians. This / 
battle is traditionally reputed to have 
taken place at or near Oswestry, formerly 
dswaldestre, i.e. Oswald's pross, which 
, the Welsh called by their , equivalent 
Croes Pswallt. The locality does not, ■ 
however, seem to be a likely one for a 
conflict between Northumbrian and Mer- 
cian troops. An earlier ' Oswald's Cross,' 
that eredted by the saint-king near Hex- 
ham, before his victorious encounter with 
the British King Caedwalla (?s related by 
Bseda, 'Hist. Eccl.'i iii. 2), "decided the 
fate of Britain for ever." ' 

The modern DanoyNorwegian forms are 
Aasvald, Osvdld. 


jfor Oswald, q.v. 

OSWIN (Ene. and Scand.) God-Friend [O-E. 

6s = O.N. dss, a god -1- O.E. wine = O.N. 

uin-r, friend] 

Oswine was a 7th-cent. king of Deira ; 
and the name occurs in ' WidsItS ' (1. 53) 
as the ruler of the Eowas — 

Oswine vve6ld Eowum. 

OTFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Otford (Kent), the 

A.-Sax. Ottanford =Otta'sFord [Ottan-, 

genit. of Otta + ford] 

OTLEY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Otley (Yorks: 

OTTLEY J Domesday Othelai:, Suff.: 13th 

cent. Otteley?) — Otta's Lea [M.E. ley{e, 

O.E. ledh, lea] 

O'TOOLE (Celt.) the lij. O'Tuathail (th as h)= 
Descendant of Tuathal, i.e. the Left- 
handed [v. O'-, and -1- the genit. of Ir. 
tuathal, lefthanded, awkward] 

OTTAWAY for Otway, q.v. 

OTTER (A.-Scand.). The 6.N. Ottarir for 
0«Aar= Terrible Army [Q.N. 6tti, terror, 
dread + -har, her-r, army] was Anglicized 
Ohter ('A.-Sax. Chron.', A.D. 911, 918), 
Ohthere ('Beawulf,' 5857, etc.). 

The modern Scand. forms are Ottar, 
Aattar, Otter, etc. StSylen ('Norske 
DObenavne,' p. 70) says that this name 
is often confused with the German Otto. 

(Teut.) I the O.Ger. Other = Prosper- 
ous Army [O.H.Ger. 6t, prosperity -1- heri, 


2 a nickname from the Otter [M.E. 
oter(e, O.E. oter, ottor = O.N. otr = Ger. 
' and Dut. otter] 

Walter Otet.—Hund. Rolls. 

OTTEWELL ] (Teut.) the M.E. Otewel, Otuel; 

OTTIWELL \ 'A..Sax. Chron.' A.D. 1I20, 

OTTWELL J Otorf [the first element is app. 

O.N. 6tti= O.E. 6ht, fear, dread: the second 

is rather O.N. a//, device, instrument, 

machine,- than Scaud. uel = O.E. weld, 

' I weal] 

OTTO (Teut.) Prosperity, Wealth [Teut. 
Otto (Otte),0tho,0do, t.O.H.Ger. o/ = O.Sax. 
6d = O.N. au'S-'r (occ. conf. with odd-r, 
a spear) = O.E. edd, prosperity, wealth, 
etc.; sometimes intended as a dim. 
of an Ot-, Od-, etc., name] 
Ich wolt hern Otten milte nach der 
lenge mezzen. — Walther von der Vogel- 
weide, ' Otto und Friedrich,' i. 

OTTWAY 1 (Teut.) for the Teut. Otwig = 

OTWAY J Prosperous War [O.H.Ger. dt, 

= O.Sax. 6d, prosperity, wealth -|- Tvlg, 


OUGHTON for Aughton, q.v. 




OUGHTRED (Eng.) the common A.-Sax.Uhtred 
= Spritk-Counsel [O.E. Mt = wiht, a 
sprite, creature + reed, counsel, advice] , 
Uctred is tlie usual Domesday form. 
See Ughtred. 
OULD (Eng.) Old [O.E. e)dtd] 

bULDS, OuLD's (Son): v. Ould. • 

OULTON (Eng.) Bel. to Oulton = the Old 
Farmstead or Hamlet [O.E. e)ald + tiin] 
Oulton, Staffs, was Oldeton in the 13th 
Cent. ; Oulton, Chesh., was Olton in the 
14th cent. ; Oulton, Suff., is also known 
as Oldton. 

OUSBY (Scand.),Bel. to Ousby (Cumh.), anc. 

Ulfsiy = Ulf's Estate [the genit. of 

O.N. iilf-r, wolf + by-r, estate, farm] 

OUSTON. Bel. to Ouston. The Northern 
Oustons prob. (but not. certainly) have 
the same origin for their first element as 
Ousby (q.v.) ; but . the Leicester 
Ouston was anc. Osulweston = Osulf's 
or Oswulf's Estate [the genit. of Osulf, 
0«i)«(/'— O.E.(fa = O.N. flss (in compds. ^-), 
a god + O.E. vjulf = O.N. Alf-r, wolf— 

+ tAii] 

OUTERBRIDGE (Eng.) Bel. to Oaghterbridge 
or Oughtibridge (W., Yotks) [the first 
element is doubtless the pers. name seen 
in the Cumberland place-nam^Oughterby, 
viz. the Anglicized form, Ohthere, of the 
O.N. OftAar: V. Otter (A.-Scand.). (The 
Irish place-name component Oughter- is 
the Ir. uachdar, upper] 

OUTRAM (Teiit.) Prosperous Raven 
[O.H.Ger. 6t = O.N. auS-r, prosperity + 
O.H.Ger. h)ram = O.N. hramn, a raven] 

OUTRED for Oughtred, q.v. 

OUTTRIM for Outram, q.v. 

OUVRY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Fr. Ouwe, Ouway, 
forms of Auvray or Aubray: v. Aubreys 

OVEN (Celt.) Dweller at the Caves [Gael. 
uamhan (nth as v) = Ir. tiamhanna ; uamh, 

a Cave] 

OVENDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Ovenden (Yorks), 
14th cent. Ovenden [the second element is 
the O.E. denu, a valley: it is uncertain 
whether the first eleinent is O.E. of en, a 
furnace, or the genit.. Of an-, of the A.-Sax. 
pers. name O/iz (/as v\ 

OVENS = Oven (q.v.) with the Eng. genit., 
or pi,, -s affix. 

OVER (Eng.) Bel. to Over ; or Dweller at a 
River-Bank or a Shore [O.E. ofer] 

John de Ovexc-^Hund. Rolls. 

OVERALL (Eng.)Bel.toOverhall; or Dweller 

at I the Bank-Hall [O.E. tifer, a bank, 

shore -f halT\ 

2 the Bank or Shore Corner [O.E. 
h{e)al{K\ or Slope [O.E. h{e)al{d = O.N. 


There are at least three places Overhall 
or Over Hall in Essex. 

OVERBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Overbury ; or 
Dweller at i the (River-) Bank or Shore 
Stronghold [O.E. 6fer, a bank, shore, 
edge -I- burh (dat. byrig), a fortified place]. 

2 the Upper, or Higher, Stronghold 
[O.E. ofer,^ upper; ufera (cpv.), higher, 


The Wore. Overbury was Uferdbyrig 
(dat. case) A.D. 875. 

OVEREND (Eng.) Dwellpr at i the Upper, or 

Higher, End [O.E. ofer + ende] 

2 the Bank- or Shore-End [O.E. dfer 

+ ende] 
OVERS, genit., or pi., of Over, q.v. 

OVERTON (Engp Bel. to Overton = i the 

Upper, or Higher, Farm or Hamlet 

[O.E. ofer + tAn] 

2 the Bank or Shore Farm or Hamlet 

[O.E. 6fer + tun] 

OVERY (Eng.) Bel. to Overy ; or Dweller at 
I the Upper, or Higher, Hay or En- 
closure [O.E. ofer + hag-, haga] 

2 the Bank or Shore Hay or En- 
closure {O.'E.ifer + hceg-, haga] 

Robert Overhe. — Hund. Rolls. 

(Fr.) for Ouvpy, q.v. 

OVINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Ovingtori = the 
Estate of the Ofa or Ufa Family 

[A.-Sax. *0f- *Ufinga-tun • inga, genit. 

pi. of the fil. sufF.-!»^-|-;a'«, estate, manor,. 

The Hampshire Ovington occurs in a 
loth-cent. Latin charter as Ufinctun. 

OWEN. The Welsh and Irish Anglicized 
Owen, O.Wel. Owein = Ir. Eoghan (O.Ir. 
Eogan) = Gael. Edghann are prob. from 
Lat. Eiigenius, Gr. Bfryei/^s = WELL-BciRN 
[Gr. eS-, noble -f- 7^yos, race, descent] 
Cormac's Glossary gives this, origin for 
£o^a« (one MS. Eo^en) ; and Zimmer con- 
siders Owen to be borrowed from 'Lat. 
Eugenius, as noted by MacBain, p. 400. 
The mediaeval Latinizatipn of Owen as 
Oenus led to a belief that the etymology 
was the Wei. and Bret, oen, ' a lamb.' 
With much stronger reason it was at one 
time considered that the namerepresen ted 
Ir. eoghutin — Gael, ogan- [f. O.Ir. oc = 
Wei. og, young], 'youth.' 




Owein brenhin y Picteit 
(Owen, king of the Picts). — 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 736. 

Maredud uab Owein 
(Meredith son of Owen) 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 986. 
Owein uab Uryen . — 'larlles y ffynnawn ' 
(Lady of the Fountain); MMnogion. 

' Efighan, dim. ESghainin = Owen, 
Eugene." — T. Ua Concheanainn, 

Mion - Chomhrddh, p. 126. 
Cp. Ewan. 

OWENS, Owen's (Son) : v. Owen. 

In Irish, this name is O'h-Eoghain. 

OWLE (Eng.) a nickname, or sign-name, from 
the Owl [O.E. rife] 

OWLER (Scand.) Dweller by an Alder [O.N. 
olr = O.E. alor] 

OWLES, Owle's (Son) : v. Owle. 

OWSTON, V. Ouston. 

Ouston, Leic, is also known as Owston. 

OWTRAM j^.outram. 

(Eng,) Dweller at thfe Ox- 
Hill [O.E. oxa, pi. oxan, 
genit. pi. oxna+ be{o)r'g, a hill] 






1,3th cent. Oxendon) J or Dweller at the 

Ox-Hill [O.E. oxa, pi. oxan, genit. pi. oxna 

+ O.E. dun, a hiU] 

OXENFORDl (Eng.) Bel. to Oxford, the 
OXFORD J A.-Sax. Oxnaford (as in the 


Chronicle A-D. qio— 't6 Oxnaforda') = 

the Ford of the Oxen [O.E. oxna, genit. 

pi. ot oxa, an ox -1- ford] 

' Sire Clerk of Oxenford,' oure hoste 
sayde. — 
Chaucer, The Clerkes Tale of Oxenford, i. 

OXEN HAM (Eng.) Dweller at the Ox-Pasture 
[O.E. oxa, pi. oxan, genit. pi. oxna+ham{my 

OXLADE (Eng.) Dweller at i the Oak-Slade 

[O.E. dc + slced, a valley] 

2 the Ox Way or (Water) course 

[O.E. oxa, an ox, genit. pi. oxna + Idd, a 

way, etc.] 

Michael de Ocslade. — Hund. Rolls. 

"I (Eng.) Dweller at the Ox-Lea 
J [O.E. oxa, genit. pi. oxna + ledh] 

OXNARD (Eng.) Oxen-Herd [O.E. oxa, pi- 
oxan + hierde, a herd] 

Johannes Oxinhird. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

OXSPRINGT (Eng.) Bel. to Oxspring (Yorks: 

OXPRING I 13th and 14th cent. Oxpring); 

or Dweller at the Ox-Spring [O.E. oxa, 

pi. oxan + spryng, a source of water] 

OXTED (Eng.) Bel. to Oxted ; oi' Dweller at 
the Ox-Stead [O.E. oxa, pi. oxan + stede, 

a place] 

OXTON (Eng.) Bel. to Oxton = i the Ox- 

Enclosure [O.E. oxa, genit. pi. oxna + 

tun, enclosure, etc.] 

2 Occ's, or Ocg's^ Estate [O.E. tun\ 

Alexander de Ockeston, — Hund. Rolls. . 

OYLER, a var, of Owler, q.v. 

PACE (A.-Lat.-Gr.-Heb.), a variant of Pa(i)8h. 

William Pace.— r^to de Nevill. 

Easter-eggs are still called pace-eggs 
in the North of England. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Pas (France) ; or 

Dweller at a Pas% or Track [A.-Fr. pace, 

pas, Lat. pa^s-us\ 

PACK \ (A,-Fr.) the French Pajwe = j One 

PACKE J born during the Passover Festival 

or Eastertide [Fr. pdque, O.Fr. pasque, 

Lat. pascha, Gr. Trdtcrxa; Heb. pesakh, a 


2 a der. f. Teut. : v. under (Eng.) 

Paque (without a dim. suif.) is now un- 
common in France. 

(Eng.) I the A. - S^x. pers. name 

Pcec{c)- [either f. an O.Teut. word seen in 

O.N. pakki (m.) = Dut. pak = Ger. pack, 

a pack; or O.E. /"ceca, deceiver: cp. the 

place - name Packington] 

2 meton. for Packman, q.v. 

John fll. Pake.— Hund. Rolls. 

WiUiam Pakke.— dp. 

PACKARD, the French Pac(c)ard (fairly com- 
mon) [v. under Pack(e, and -|- the Fr. 
dim. (or intens.) suff. -ard, O.Teut. hard, 


PACKENHAM, v. Pakenham. 
PACKER (Eng.) Packman, Pedlar ; Packer 
[M.E. packere, etc., f. M.E. packe, a pack : 
V. under Paok(e, (Eng.] 


William le Packere. — 

Plac. Dom. Cap. Westtn. 

Mathew le Pakkere.— CAarter Rolls- 

PACKHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Packham = P^cca's 

Home or Estate. [A.-Sax. *PcBcca(n-hdm: 

V. under Pack(e (Eng.), and + O.E. hdm\ 

PACKINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Packington = 

the Estate of the P.<ec;c(a Family 

\A..-SB.x.*Pceccinga-tiin: y. under Pack(e 

(Eng.), and+O.E. tiin, estate, etc. : cp. the 

A.Sax. Paic{f)ingas'\ 

Packington, Leic, occurs in a loth-cent. 

Latin charter as Pakifiton. Packington, 

Staffs, was Pakintone in the 12th cent. 

Cp. Patching (Eng.). 

PACKMAN (Eng.) Pedlar Jv. under Paok(e 

(Eng.), and + man] 

PACY (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Pacy (Normandy) = 

Pac(c)ius' Estate [M.Lat. Pac{c)iacum 

— dc-um, the Lat. - Gaul, possess, suff.] 

Cp. Pass(e)y. 

PADBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Padbury, 13th cent. 

Padeburi = Pada's Stronghold [O.E. 

burh, a fortified place] 




1 double dims, of Patrick, q.v. 

2 descendants of the A.-Sax.. pers. 
name Pad^dja with the E. dim. 

■ey, -ie. .. 

Padda occurs in Domesday Book. 

PADDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Paddington = 

the Estate of the Pad(d)a Family 

[A.-Sax. *Pad{d)inga-tun— -ingaf genit. pi. 

of the fil. suff. -ing + tUn, estate, etc.] 

The Middlesex Paddington occurs as 
Padingtun in a loth-cent. Latin charter. 

PADDISON, Paddie's or Paddy's Son: v. 
Paddie, Padd(e)y. 

PADDON (Eng.) Dweller at (prob.) the Path- 
Hill [O.E. pa:% + dun] 

PADFIELD (Eng.) Bel, to Padfield; or Dweller 
at the Path-Field [O.E. /keS + feld\ 

A pa'Sfeld is mentioned in the boundar- 
ies specified in a charter of Coenwulfj 
kingof the Mercians, granting land in Kent 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury A.D. 814. 


PADGETT \ for Paget, q.v. 


PADLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Padley ; or Dweller at 
.1 the Path-Lea [O.E.^ffi« + ledh (M.E. 

2 Pad(d)a's Lea. 

The Derbyshire Padley was Paddeleye 
in the 13th cent. 


PADMAN (Eng.) Dweller by a Path [O.E. 

p(B^, a path + man] 

2 = Pedman, q.v. 

PADMORE (Eng.) Dweller at the Path-Moor 

[O.E. pais + mSr] 

PAGAN ] (Lat.) Heathen [E. pagan; Lat. 
PAGEN /-fl^flM-Mj, (lit.) a rustic] 


Pagan-US. — Domesday Book. 

Pagan de la Hale. — Hund- Rolls. 

Cp. Payne. 

PAGE (A.-Fr.-Ital.) Boy-Attend^nt [A.-Fr. 

page, Ital. paggio; prob. f. Gr. iraidloi', 

young boy or slave]. 

PAGET l = Page (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. suff. 
PAGETT ; -e)t. 

PAG HAM (Erig.) Bel. to Pagham (Suss.), the 
A.-Sax. Ptecganhdm = P.iECGa's Home or 
Estate [O.E. hdm] 

PAG NAM I V. Pagham. 
2 V. Pakenham. 

PAG N EL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the O. French Paganel= 

Pagan (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. suff. -el. 
PAICE, V. Pace. ' 

PAIGE, V. Page. 

PAIL l (Eng.) I the A.-Sax. Pdl- : v. under 
PAILEJ Paling. 

2 the A.-Sax. Pcegel [cp. O.E. pcegel, m. 

(M..E.paile), a liquid-measure, pail] 

3 Dweller at a Pale, i.e. ENCLOSLtRE, 
Barrier, BouNDARY[O.E./>a/, pale, stake] ' 

PAILES, genit., and pi., of Pail(e, q.v. 

PAILLARD (A.-Fr.-Lat. -|- Teut.) Profligate, 
Wanton ; Beggar [M.E. O.Fr. paillard, 
i. Lat. palea, chaff, straw -|- the Fr. intens. 
suff. -ard, O.Frank, hard, hard: 'Id6e 
foncifire : qui couche ou qui se vautre sur 
la paille.' — Stappers, p. 200] 

PAILTHORP \ (Eng.) Bel. to Pailthorpeor 

PAILTHORPEJ Palethorpe (said to be the 

name of a chapelry in Notts) [v. under 

Pail(e and + O.E. \orp, a farm, hamlet] 

PaIneI =Payn(e,q.v. 

PANE^^} PAiNE's(Son): v. Paln(e, Payn(e. 

PAIRPOINT for Pierpont, q.v. 

PAISH = Pash, q.v. 

PAISLEY. Bel. to Paisley, the i2th-cent..Pas- 
seleth and Paisleth, i6th-cent. Passele [the 
proposed etymology of the second element, 
Gael, leathad, a slope, hillside, suits the 
topography of the old town : ' the ancient 
part occupies the slopes and summit of a 
declivity.' — Gaz. Scot, ed. Lawson] 




PAKE, V. Pack(e. 

PAKEMAN I Pake's Man (-Servant), 

2 V. Packman. 

PAKENHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Pakenham (Suff/), 
in a ' late version of the vyill of Bishop 
Theodred (c. 950), Pakenhdm, doubtless 
for A,-Sax. Pac{c)an-hdm = P.ffi:c(c)A's 
Home or Estate [v. undeir Pack(e (EngO 

PAKES, Pake's (Son): v. Pake, Pack(e. 

PALETHORPE, v. Pailthorpe. 

PALEY (Eng.) Bel. to Paley (Yorks), 14th cent. 
Palay [M:.'E..lay,ley,0.t.ledh,3.\&a.: the 
first element is prob. O.E. pdl, a pole, 

' stake; but earlier forms of the name are 


. PALFREY 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat., etc.) a nickname 

PALFRY J from the saddle-horse so called 

[M.E. paiefrai, palfrei, O.Fr. palefreiimoA. 

Fr. palefroi) ; l..La.t. paraveredus, an extra 


PALFREYER = Palfrey (q.v.) -f- the agent, 


Palfrey - Keeper , [M,E. ■ 
palfreymaH, pcilfrey-keeper : 
V. under Palfrey, and + E. 

PALG RAVE (Eng.) Bel. to Palgrave (Buff.; • 

Norf.)=ithe Pole or Stake Grove [O.E. 

pdl + grdf] 

The Suffolk place was Palegravein an 

iith-cent. will; the Norfolk harnlet was 

, Palegrave in the 14th cent. 

PALJN, the French PaKw, app. the Cont.-Teut. 
cognate of the A.-Sax. name-'stem Pal- (v. 
under Paling) -)- the Fr. dim. suff. Hn 
[Lat, -in-us\ ratherthan f. O.Fr. pale (mod. 
pdle), pale, pallid [Lat. pallid-us] ' 

PALING (EngO Bel. to Paling or Palling (Norf.) 
= (the Estate of the) Pal(a Family 
[A.-Sax. Palingas: the pers. name-stem 
is app.O.E;/»rf/(m.) = O.N.^rfH (m.),a kind of 
hoe or spade -)- nngas, pi. of the fil. suff. 
-ing;, gehit. pi. -inga, as in the Palinga- of 
a Sussex charter of King Eadred,A.D. 953. 
(Fr.) = Pal in (q.v.) with added -g. 

PALISER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Palisade- or Fence- 
Maker [Fr. paliS, a pale, fence of pales ; 
f. pal, a pale, Lat. fal-us, a stake 4- the 
' agent, suff. -w] 

PALISTER = Paliser (q.v.), but with thefem. 
agent, suff. -Jte;^ [O.E. -wfre] 

PALLARD = Paillard, q.v. 

PALLAT "I the French Pallat, Palat [v. under 
PALLATT J Palin ; and + the Fr. dim. suff. 


PALLET \ the French Pallet, Palet [v. under 
PALLETT 1 Palin; and -H the Fr. dim., suff. 

John Palet.— , 

Kirby's Quest (Soms.), A.p. 1327. 

PALLIARD = Paillard, q.v. 

PALLI S \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i DWeller at a Fenced , 
PALLES J Enclosure [Fr. palis; i. Lat.pal-us, 

a stake] 
2 Dweller at or by a Palace [A.-Fr. 
pdleis \ Lat. palatiu'm\ 
PALLISER = Paliser, q.v. 

PALLISTER = Palister, q.v. 

PALMER (A.-Lat.) Palm-Bearing Pilgrim 

(from Falestipe) {M.E. palmer(e;O.E.palm 

+ the agent, suff. -ere ; Lat. palma, a 


Ralph le Palmere.— /f«»rf. Rolls. 

And whan I come to the kirk, 
And sholde knele to the roodfe, 
And preye for the peple .... 
For pilgrymes and ibr palmeres. — ■ 

Piers Plowman, 2679-83. 

Whpre with ray hands I hewed a house 
Out of a craggy rocke of stone, 
And lived like a palmer poore 
Within that cave iliyself alone.-^ 
'The Legend of Sir Guy': Vevcy's Reliques. 

The corresponding French Paulmier 
and Paumier are not .nearly so common 
in France as Palmer is in this country ; 
and there is now confusion with the Fr. 
paumier, a tennis-court keeper. , 

PALSER for Paliser, q.v 




Ace. to T. Wright ('Prov. Dict.')^a»!/> j'Kob' 
occurs in HoUyband's ' Dictionarie,' A.D. 
1 593, with the definition : ' a coat of diiier- 
ent colours, formerly worn by servants' ; 
but I cannot find the word there. 

PAN COAST, a well-known American corrupt 
form of Pankhurst, q.v. ' 

PANCRUST for Pankhurst, q.v. 

PANG BORN 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Pangbourn 

PANG BOU RN \ (Berks), A.D. 843-4 Pteginga- 

PANG BOURNE J burna = the Br,ook of the 

Pmg{a. Family {-inga, genit, pi. of the 

fil. suff. -ing ; burna, a brook] 

PANKHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Pankhurst or 
Penkhurst ; ace. to Lower, an estate in 

forms of Paplllon, q.v. 




E. Sussex [M.E. hurst, O.K. h^rst, a wood: 
early forms of the name lacking, nothing 
definite can be said as to the origin of the 
first element ; but the Sussex word 
pennock, ' a small bridge over a water- 
course,' may be mentioned as being 
phonetically possible] 

PAN NELL, an assim. form of Pagnel (q.v.) 

In the "Testa de Nevill (13th cent.) the 
same person is called Panel and Painel : 
V. Pain(e, Payn(e. , . 

PANNETT, the same name as Pannell, 
Pagnel, with the dim. suff. -el replaced 
by -et. 

In France Pan{n)et and Panel are about 

PANNIER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) meton. for i Bread- 
basket Maker. 

2 Bread-Seller [M.E. pan(n)ier, Fr. 

panier, Lat. panari-um, a bread-basket ; 

f.JLat.^a«-w, bread] 

Robert le Pannier.^ 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1275. 




(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Pantry - Keeper, 
Butler [M.E. pan(e)ter, pantere, 
A.-Fr. panneter (rr. panetier), 
L.Lat. pdn^tdri-us; 'LX.a.V paneta, bread- 
maker ; Lat. pan-is, bread] 

Robert le Panter. — Hund. Rolls. 

The furst yere, my son, thow shalle be 
pantere or buttilare.- — 

John Russel, Boke of Nurture, 1. 49. 

For piacience is hus [house] paneter. 
And payn [bread] to povetf e fyndeth. — 
P/eraP/ottimflB (ed. Skeat), xvii. 151. 

PANTIN, the French Panetin = Pdnet (v. 
under Pannett) -1- the dirti. suff. -in. 

In moden French a pantin is a dancing 
Jack, puppet. 

PANTING = Pantin, with excresceint -g. 

PANTON (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Panton 
(Lines), 13th cent. Panton [the first ele- 
ment seems to be a pers. name, perh. f. 
O.N. pant-r, a pledge + tun, a homestead, 


PANYER = Pannier, q.v. 

PAPE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Pope (a nickname and 

pageant - name) [Fr. pape, Lat. papa, 

, whence O.E./iif^ij] 

Hugh le Pape.— P/flc. Dom. Cap. Westm. 

PAPILLON (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 
Butterfly [Fr. papillon, Lat. papilio, 


PAPPIN (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Frepch Papin =, 
I Pape (q.v.) -|- the dim. suff. -in. 

2 the Lat. Papin-us, a dim. f. Papi-us, 

the name of a Roman gens [perh. f. Lat. 

pappiis, Gr. wditwos, a grandfather] 

PAPWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Papworth (Camb.), 
13th cent. Papworth, Pappeworth = 
Pap(p)a's Farm or Estate [A.-Sax. - 
*Pap(6)an-wor^ — Pap(p)an-, genit. of 


PARADICE ) (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.-Pers.) i Dweller' 
PARADIS [ at a Paradise,, i.e. an open 
PARADISE ) space or court by a monastery 
or church. 

2 a pers. name [Fr. paradis ; Lat. 
paradis-us, Gr. wapddeur-os, a park, garden, 
or pleasure-ground — used in the 
Septuagint for the Garden of Eden : from 

the Zend] 
The surname Paradis is much commoner 
in France than Paradise (&c.) is in this 

PARAIVIOR V(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Lover, Sweet- 
PARAMORE [ heart [M.E. O.Fr. par amour, 
PARAIVJOUR ) by or for love ; Lat. per amor- 
0{ paramours he sette nat a kers. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3756. 

PARDEW] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the French Par 

PARDEY VDieu = ByGod; a nickname froin 

PARDY J this oath [Fr. par diejt, Lat. per 

deum, ace. of deus ; but the classical form 

of the oath was plural— ^er dees'] 

John Purilieu.— Rolls of Pari. 

He is a kynges brother sone, pardee.— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3084. 

PARDOE "1 for the Cont. Pardo: 1 f. the 
PARDOWJ O.Teut. name-stem Pardr for, 
Bard- [v. under Bardrick], treq. a dim.'of 
a name vvith Pard- (Bard-) for its first 
element (such as Bardwulf); e.g. the 
French saint-name Pardoux appeared in 
Latin as Pardulfus. ' 

2 the Ital., Span., and PoTtMg. pardo (for 
leopardo) — Leopard, 

There has poss. been some confusion 
with Pardew, q.v. 

PARDON (Fr.) the French Pardon is an accus. 
(and dim.) form oi Pardo: v. Pardee'. 

PARFETT 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Perfect, Upright 
PARFITT J iM.E. parfit, patfpt, O.Fi. parf{e)it 

rr r S^^' P'^'^f"^*)' ^^^- Perfect-us] 

He [the ' Doctour of Phisik] was a 

v^n-ayparjlt praktisour.— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 422. 
For lob the parfit patriarke repreoueth 

thy sa-wes.^Piers Plowman, xxi. 153. 




PARGETER \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Plasterer [f.M.E. 
PARGITER J pargeten, O.'ti. pargeter, porgeter, 
to plaster a wall ; Lat. projectare, to cast ■ 


' Mafon, a par^etter : a roughmason, or 

he that trimmeth walls with rough cast.' — 

Nomenclator, A.D. 1585. 

PARHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Parham (Suss. ; Suff.) 
= the Pear(-Tree)-Enclosure [O.E. 
per- + ham{m, a piece Of land, enclosure] 

The Sussex Parham was Perham A.D. 
959, and also in the 13th cent. 

PARIS \ (Lat.-Celt.) Bel. to Paris = the 
PARISS J Town of the Gaulish Tribe Parish 
[The Roman name of the place which 
is now called Paris was Z.Mteizai'arazorMjM: 
Lutetia was supposed by Whitley Stokes 
to be for Lucetia, , ' the light or bright 
place' ; the tribal name is of doubtful 

Robert de Paris. — Hund. Rolls. 

For Frenssh of Parys was to hire [her] 
/ unknowe. — 

Chaucer, Prol. Cant. Tales, 126. 

(Gr.) a pers. name from the celebrated 

Trojan; Lat. Paris, Gr. Jldpis [cp. Gr. 

rdpur-os, almost equal, just like] 

Paris is a very common French surname. 

PARISH (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Dweller at the 

Ecclesiastical Area so called [M.E. 

parisch(e, parysch{e, Fr. paroisse, Lat. 

parcBcia; Gt. irapoiKla, a sojourning] 

Willelmus de Parysch. — 

YorksPoll-Tax,.A.D. 1379. 

PARK ICEng. and A.-Fr.) Dweller in an 

PARKE J Enclosed Ground [M.E. parke, 

parrok, O.'E. pearroc, an enclosure, park 

(O.Fr. pare is prob. f. Teut.] 

John del Vaic— Hund. Rolls. 
Roger atte Parke. — Pari. Writs. 
PARKER (Eng.) Park-Keeper, Gamekeeper 
[M.E.parker(e, etc. ; v. under Papk(e, and 
+ the agent, suff. -«?•] 

Our 13th and 14th cent. Rolls abound 
with such entries as 'Adam le Parker' and 
' Michael le Parcur.' 

Grayvis [reeves], and baylys [bailiffs], 
and parker 

Schone [shall] come toacounteg every 
yere. — The Boke of Curtasye, 589-90. 

PARKERSON, the Parker's Son: v. Parker. 
There may have been some confusion 
with Parkisson, Parkinson, q.v. 

n^ol^f^ I I genit., and pi., of Park(e, q.v. 

2 occ. contr. of Parkins, q.v. 

Cp. Perk(e)8. 

PARKHILL (Eng.) Bel. to Parkhill (Yorks, 

Aberdeen, etc.) = the Park-Hill [v. 

Park and Hill] 

PARKHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the Park- 
House [v. Park and Houbb] 

PARKHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Parkhurst = 
the Park-Wood [v. Park and Hurst] 
Parkhurst (Forest), I.o.W., is mentioned 
in Domesday Book as Parcus Regis. The 
Surrey Parkhurst occurs in the 16th cent, 
as Parkehurst. 


I = Perkin, a dim. of Peter, q.v. 



■ Parkin's Son 

V. Parkin. 

PARKMAN = Park (q.v.) + man. 

PARLEY. The is no trace of a place of this 
name ; so that it may be a descendant of 
the A.-Fr. name Parleben, Parlebien, 'Good 
Speaker' {Fr. parle, he speaks ; (ult. £ 
Lat. parabola, a collation (from Gr.) -f Fr. 
bien (earlier ben), Lat. bene, well] 

PARLE I the French P/erre/ = Pierre (F*eter) 
-I- the dim. suff. -el. 
2 a form of Pearl (q.v.) [cp. Dut. paarl, 


PARLETT, the French pierrelet — Pierre 
(Peter) -|- the double dim. suff. -el -et. 

PARLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Parley (Dorset; Hants) 
= the Pear (-Tree) Lea [O.E. pere -(- 

PARMENTER ■> ( A. - Fr. - Lat. ) Clothier, 
PARMENTIER Tailor [A.-Fr.; O.Fr. par- 
PARMINTER ' mentier ; O.Fr. parement, 
PARMITER ' ornamental clothing {-ment, 
Lat. -ment-um) ; Lat. parare, to prepare] 
Hanio le Parmenter. — Fine Rolls. 
Saher le Parmentier. — Pari. Rolls. 
WilUam le Parmeter. — Pari. Writs. 
. . . le drapier et le parmentier. — 

Louis XL, Nouv. xciv. 348 ; Moisy. 

Le sire de Beaumont aperjut un 

chevalier de Normandie, qu'il connut par 

ses paremens.— 

Chron.deFroissart,'ed.'Bnd:ion,l.j.c. iig. 

PARNALL r ( A.-Fr.-Gr. ) formerly Pemel{e, 

PARNELLJ Fr. iV«e/, Peronel (m.), Pernelle, 

Peronelle (f.), the latter Latinized as 

Petronella or Petronilla,,a\\ dim. forms of 

Peter (Fr. Pere, Pierre), q.v. 

Pernel Clere. — Hund. Rolls. 

William Peronel.— ffawrf. Rolls. 




Pernele Proud-herte 
Platte hire [threw herself down] to the 
ertjie. — Piers Plowman, 2599-3600. 

Parnel(l went out of fashion as a female 
christian name owiijg to its gradually be- 
coming unfavourably connected with the 

' Parnel (Ital. Petronella). A slut ; a 
loose gkV—Prov. Diet., ed. T. Wright. 

Per{r)oneau (-eau for earlier dim. -el, m.) 
is a rather rare surname in France, as 
also is Pdrineau ; the forms with the dims. 
-et, -ot being much commoner. 

PARNHAM (Eng.)Bel. to Parnham (Dorset) 
[the second element is either O.E. ham, 
■ home, estate, or O.E. ham(m, a piece of 
land, enclosure : for the first element 
evidence of early spelling is wanted, but 
it may be noted that Parndon, EsSsx; was 
formerly Parringdon] 

PARNWELL (Eng.) [the second element is 

O.E. wiella, a spring : for the first element 

evidence of early spelling is wanting, and 

the spot is not identified] 

PARR (Engj) Bel. to Parr; or Dweller at a 
Stock-Enclosure [M.E. par{r, (East. 
Dial. E., an animal-pen), O.E. pegrr-, an 

The Lane, place was Parre A.D. 1298, 
i'ar A.D.I 307. 

(A.-Fr.-Gr.) an Anglicized form of the 
French P^e, Pierre = Peter, q.v. 

PARRAM for Parham, q.v. 

PARRAMORE = Paramore, q.v. 


PARRETtI (A-.Fr.-Gr.) 1 = Parr^q.v.) -|- the 
PARR ITT "Ft. dXm. snSs. -at, -et, -ot. . 


2 occ. a nickname from the Parrot 

[same etymology ais i : the French 

christian name Perrot was betowed upon 

the bird as a pet name] 

Cp. Perratt, etc. 

PARRIN (A.-Fr.-Gr.) = Parp» (q.v.) + the 
Fr, dim. suff. -in. 

Cp. Perrin. 

PARRIS 1 I for Paris, q.v. 

PARRISS j 2 Parry's (Son) : v. Parry^ 

PARRISH for Parish, q.v. 

v. under Park ante. 


PARRY (Celt. -{- Teut.) the Welsh Ap-Harry 
= SoN OF Harry : v. Harry [Wei. ap, ah, 

Thomas Ap-Harjy.-^Charter-Rolls. 

(A.-Fr.-Gr.) = Parr' (q.v.) -t- the E. 
dim^ suff. -y. 

PARSLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Parsley = (perh.) 
' Par(r)'s Lea ' [v. Parr ; and -h M.E. ley, 

O.E. ledhl 

There may have been confusion with 

PARSLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Parslow (? Parsloes, 
Essex) [O.E. hlc^w, a (burial) mound, hill : 
without the evidence of early forms 
of the name nothing definite can be said 
as to the origin of the first element, which 
may, represent the A.-Sax. pers. name 
Pceghere in the geuit. case] 

PARSON (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Person (of Rank); 
Priest [il.F,.' persone, persoun, O.f'r. 
persone ; Lat. persona] 
Walter le Persone.— Par/. Rolls. 

A good man was ther of religioun. 
And was a poure persoun of a toun. — ■ 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 477-8. 
(A.-Fr.-Gr. -|- E.) = Pearson, q.v. 

PARSONAGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at, or by, 

the Parsonage [v. under Parson', and 

-I- the Fr. suff. -age, Lat. -atic-us'] 

PARSONS, the Parson's (Son): v. Parson'. 

PARSONSON, the Parson's Son: V. Parson'. 

PART, a form of Pert, q.v. 

PARTINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Partington 
(Chesh.), i6th cent, same spelling = the 
Estate of the Peart(a Family [A.-Sax. 
*Peartinga-tun — Peart- prob. a metathe- 
sized form of O.E. prat{t = O.N. prett-r = 
M.Dut. perte, Dut. part, a trick, whim -(- 
-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing -f- tAn, 
estate, etc.] 

The place-name Peartingawyrth occurs 
in a Sussex charter c. A.D. 791. 

PARTON (Eng.) Bel. to Parton, = the Pear- 
Orchard, or Pear-Tree Farm [O.E. 

pere -\- tun] 

PARTRICK (Teiut.) Glorious Ruler [O.Ger. 
Perhtric for Ber(a)htric — O.H.Ger. ber(a)ht 
= O.Sax. berht = O.E. beio)rkt =• Goth. ■ 
bairht-^s = O.N.biart-r, bright, glorious -f 
a der. qf TeMt.*rik-, ruler, as OiE. rka and 
Goth. m*-j] 

Partryk occurs in the 'Liber Vitse' of 

Robertus Pertryk. — 

Yprks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 


the bird [M.E. partrick(e, pertrich(e, O.Fr. 

pertrisifaod. Ft. perdrix), hat. perdix, Gr. 

ripSii, a partridge] 

(Teut.) a palatal form of Partriok, q.v. 






PASCO V. Pash, Pask. 



Paschal Balistarius. — Close Rolls. 

Pascal (later Pascau)is a very; common 
French surname, the form Paschal (Lat. 
Paschalis) being comparatively rare. 

PASH ] (A.-Lat.-Gr.-Heb.) One born during 

PASK \ the Passover Festival or Easter- 

PASKE J TIDE [M.E. pask(e, pasche, passke 

(O.Fr. pasque),. O.E. pascha, hat. pascha, Gr. 

irda-xo.! Heb. pesakh, a passing-over] 

John Pask.— Hwwrf. Rolls. 

John Passhe. — Valor Eccles. 

PASH LEY, for the French Passeleu [Fy. passe, 

a pass, passage ; Lat. pass-us, a step + ■ 

O.Fr. leu, loup, a wolf ; Lat. lupins'] 


PASKELL;- f'ascall, q.v. 

PASK I N = Pask (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. suff. -in. , 
The French Pasquin is not nearly so 
common as Pasquet. 
PASKINS, Paskin's (Son). 
PASMORE = Passnnope, q.v. ' 

PASS, V. Pace. 

PASS(E)Y, V. Pacy : Pacy-sur-Eure, Paciacum 
in 1195, was Pfljjy in 1356. 

PASSINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Passenham 

,1, *e 1 
f'ASSA's Home or Estate 

PASSMAN (Fr.-Lat. + E.) Dweller at a 
Pass [M.E. pas(s, a pass, passage; Fr. 
pas, hat. pass-US, a step, track + E. man'] 

PASSMORE. If, as seems likely, this is a 

M.E. local name, the first element is prob. 

M.E. pas{s, a pass, passage, narrow 

path [Fr. pas, passe ; Lat. pass-ifs, a step] 

+ M.E. more [O.E. mdt, a moor] 

Cp. Padmore. ! 

PASTON (Eng.) BeL to Fasten (Northamp. — 
loth-cent. Latin-charter form Pastun ; 
Norf. ; Northumb., etc), usual i3th-cent. 
^ form Paston = Pasa's Estate [A.^Sax. 
*Pasantuh — Pasan-, genit. of Pasa (perh. 
an unvoiced form of Basa : v. Bass' and 
Barton) ; tun, estate, etc.] 

PATCH (A.-Fr.) the French Pache, prob. f. 
Teut. : V. undet Pack (A.-Fr.») 

(Eng.) I a palatal form ol Pack, q.v. 

Cp.' Pp.tching. 

2 JESTER, Clown [f. E. patch, an in- 
serted piece of cloth] 

(Northants), the A.-Sax. Passan-hdm = 
Passa's Home or Estate {O.E. hdm\ 

PATCH ELL, the French Pachel = Pache (v. 
Patch (A.-Fr.) + the dim. suff. -el. 

PATCH ETT, the French Packet, Pachot = 
Pache (v. Patch (A.-Fr.) -t- the dim. suff. 
-et, -ot. 

Richard Pachet. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274, 
Alicia Pachot. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

PATCHIN :i the Vreach. Pachin = Pache (v. 
PATCHENJ Patch (A.-Fr.) + the dim. suff. 

PATCHING (A.-Fr.) = Patchin (q.v.), with 
added -g. 

(Eng.) Bel. to Patching (Suss.)) the 

A.-Sax. Paccingas (A.D. 960) = (the 

I Estate of the) 'Pmcc- Family [-j«^as, pi. 

of the O.E. fil. suff. -ing\ 

PATE, a Scot, and N. Eng. dim. of Patrick, 
q.v. ; rarely of Peter, q.v. 

PATEMAN = Pate's Man (-Servant). 

PATER I a contr. of Paternoster, q.v. . 

2 a form of Peter, q.v. 

maker of, or dealer in, paternosters 
(rosaries) [M.E. paternostrer ; Lat. Pater 
Noslet, Our Father 4- the E. agent, suff. 


PATERSON I a Scot, form of Patrickson, 
2 Pater's Son : v. Pater. 

PATES, Pate's (Son) : v. Pate. 

PATESHALL (Erig.) Bel. to i PateshuU or 

Pattishall (Northamp.), 13th cent. Pates- 

hulle = (prob.) Peat(e):s Hill [M.E. 

hull{e, O.E. hyll, a hill] 

We fiiid the A.-Sax. pers. name Peata 

in Peatanig (A.D. 963), now Patney, Wilts. 

2 PatshuU or PatteshuU (Staffs), 13th 

cent. Petleshull, Patleshull = P.a;TEL's or 

Peatel's Hill [M.E. hull, O.E. hyll, 

a hill] 
The A.-Sax. pers. name P^la (for 
Pmtela) occurs in a loth-cent. charter 
(' Cart. Sax.,' 779). 

PATI^l"" ^^y^ (q.v.) + the E. dim. sufi. 
PATY J-«)^>-'^- 

Hugh Paty.— Hund. Rolls. ' 
PATFIELD for Padfield, q.v. 
PATMAN, V. Pateman. 
PATMORE, for Pad more, q.v. 




PATON I the French Paton, an accus. and 
dim. form of the O.Teut. Pato. 

2 Paton is so common a surname in 

Scotland that it must have "another 

source besides the French name ^- prob. 

' the dim. of Patrick (q.V.), with the Fr. 

dim. suff. -on. 

PATRICK, the Latin Patricius, is fotind in 13th 

' and 14th cent. . Eng.- records as Patric, 

. ^Patrik, Patryk, Paterik ; it is the Ir. Pdt- 

raic, Pddraic, Pddraig (O.Ir. Patrice); 

Gael. Pddruig [Lat. patrici-us, patrician, 


PATRICKSON, Patrick's Son: v. Patrick. 

PATTEIVldRE, V. Patmore, Padmore. 

PATTEN "1 I the French Patin, i. the O.Teut. 
PATTIN ) name-stem Pat-, with the Fr. dim. 
suff. -in. ' 

2 Patten, Pattin, like Paton, are so 
common in Scotland and the North of 
England that there must be anpther source 
besides the French name — prob. the 
. dim. of Patrick, (q.v.), with the Fr. dim. 
sufl. -in. 

PATTENDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Pattenden, the 
A.-Sax. Pattandenu = Patta's Valley 
[Pattan-i genit. of Patta + denu (obi. dene), 

a, valley] 

There is a Pattenden in Ketit ; and a 
Hampshire one occurs in a charter of 
King Eadgar (A.D. 973-4) — ' on Pattan 

PATTENER (Fr.) Patten-Maker [M.Fr. 

patinier, f. patin, a patten,' clog ; ■ O.Fr. 

, pate (Ft. patte), a paw] 

PATTERSON for Patrickson, q.v. 


PATTIE [v. Patey, etc. 


PATTIN. V. Patten. , 

PATTINGHAIVI (Eng.) Bel. to Pattinghain 
(Staffs), the Domesday Patingham = the 
Home or Estate, of the Patt(a or 
Peatt(a Family [A.-Sax. *P{e)attinga- 
hdm — -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing; 
Mm, home, etc.] 

PATTINSON, Pattin's Son: v. Pattin, 

PATTlSON \i Pattie's Son: v. Pattie, 

2 for Pattinson, q.v. 

PATTON, V. Paton. 

PATTRICK, V. Patrick. 

PAUL (A.-Lat. ; A.-Fr.-Lat; ) Little [Gr. 

IlaOXof, Lat. Paulus —paul-us, little] 

Wiclif (1380) has the spelling Poul{e.g. 

1. Cor. 1. 1.:' Paul depid apostle ofihesus 

Crist ') ; but Tyndale (1534) aud Cranmer 

(1539) have PawZ. 

Paul is a common French surname. 

PAULDEN \ (Eng.) Bel. to i Polden; 2 Palden 
PAULDIN 1 [The second element is evid. the 

M.E. dene, O.E. denu, a valldy ('John de 

Paldene' occurs in an E. Lane, deed A.D. 

i3z3--Z,a^. Inq. ii. 191). Thefirst element 

may, in the one case, be M.E. pol{e, O.E. 

p6l, a pool; in the other, M.E. pale; pole, 

O.E. pal, a pale, pole, stake] 

, The affix to Polden Hill, Somerset, app. 

shows that the -den should he -don, O.E. 

diin, a hill. > 

PAULDING = Pauldin, Paulden (q.v.), with 
added -g. 

PAULET 1 the French Paulet = Paul (q.y.) 
PAULETT J + the dim suff. -rf. 

, Cp. Pawlett. 
PAULEY! the French Pauly, a (Jeriy. f, Lat. 
PAULY J Paulus through {a) a type Pauli-us, 

(b) the genit. Pauli : v. Paul. 

PA U LIN \the French Paulin = Paul (q.v.) 
PAULLIN J + the dim. suff. -in. 

Paulin de Basset. — Hund. Soils. 

PAULING = Paulin (q.v.) with added -^. 

PAULL, V. Paul. 

PAULSON, Paul's Son : v. Paul. 

PAUNCEFOOTl (A.-Fr.iat.) oqcur in our 
PAUNCEFOTE J I3th-cent. records as Pance- 
fot, Pancevot, the Domesday Pancevolt =, ■ 
Arched Paunch (evid. a nickname for a 
corpulent person) [O.Fr. pakce (rriod. 
panse), Lat. pantex, -ids, the belly + O.Fr. 
volt{e, vaulted, arched (cp. mod. Fr. voUte, 
a vault), Lat. volut-us, pp. oivolvere, to roll] 

The mediaeval Latinization ot this name 
as de Pede Planco (Broad-Foot) was possi- 
bly due to motives of delicacy. 

Pancevolt is one of the old Norman 
names which Camden in his ' Remaines ' 
' prefaced by: "for who knoweth now 
what these names were ? " 

PAUNCEFORT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) may be a separate 
name from Pauncefote, Pauncefoot 
(Burke, s.n. ~ Pauncefort - Duncombe, 
mentions a 'Geoffrey de Pauncefort,' A.D. 
1209-10): if it is, the meaning is much the 
same, but the etymology of the second 
element is, of course, the Fr./ort(«, 'strong' 
,' stout' [Lat./ortwJ- 


PAVELY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Pavilly (Seine- 
Inferieure), M.Lat. Pavil{l)iacus = Pa- 
yiL(L)us' ESTATE {-dc-us, the Lat^Ga^l. 
possess, suff. : the pers. name is app. a 
dim. of Lat. pav-us (earlier pavo), a pea- 
Robert de Pavely. — Hund. Rolls. 

PAVETT the French Pavet, a dim. f. i Lat. 
pav-us (,pdvo), ' peacopk.'. 

2 the place-name Pa vie, Ital. Pavia, Lat. 

PAVEY I ^ ^ 

PAVIE i*''^ French Pavy, Pavie: i One from 
PAVY I f"''^^'^' I*^"' Pavia, Lat. Papia. 

2 a nickname from a kind of Peach 
[Fr. pavie ; f. the place-name as above] 

3 a deriv. f. Lat. pav-us (pavo), genit. 
pavi, ' peacock.' 






(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Paver, Pavior [Fr. 
paveur; paver, to pave ; L.Lat. 

pavare, for Lat. pavire, to ram (as 
PAVIN, the Fr. Pavin, a dim. from the same 

stem as Pavet : v. Pavett. 
PAVITT for Pavett, q.v. 

PAW \ (A. -Lat.) a nickname and sign-name 
PAWE J from the Peacock [M.E. pawe, 0,E. 
pdwa, Lat. pauo, a peacock]; 
Cp. Pay(e. 
PAWLE for Paul, q.v. 

PAWLETT, I Bel. to Pawlett or Paulet 

The family - name — Paulet — of the 
Marquess of Winchester is supposed to 
be taken from this place. Poss. the nam- 
ing was the other way. There seems to 
have been a place called Melcomb Paulet 
in Somerset — the second name evid. from 
the French pers. name — in the isth cent. 

2 for Paulet(t, q.v. 

PAWLIN lf„, Do..i,„ „„ 
PAWLING jforPaulm.q.v. 

PAWSON I Paw(e)'s Son : v. Paw(e. 
2 for Paulson, q.v. 
Stephen Pawessone. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1324. 
Simon Paweson. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

PAXMAN, Pack's Man (-Servant.) : v. Pack. 


2 for Paxton, q.v. 

PAXTON (Eng.) Bel. to Paxton = P^ECc's 
Estate [O.E. tun\ 

Paxton, Hunts, was Pacston in the 13th 
cent ; Paxton, Berw., was Paxtun c. 1 100. 

PAY \ (A.-Lat.) a nickname and sign-name 
PAYE J from the Peacock [M.E. pa, pe, O.E. 
ped, pdwa, Lat. pauo, a peacock] 
PAYAN \ see the commoner (but less correct) 
PAYEN ; Payn(e. 

PAYBODY, V. Peabody. 

PAYLING.v. Paling. 

PAYN 1 ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) lit. Rustic; Pagan, 
PAYNE J Heathen [M.E. pain, payn, payen, 
O.Fr. payen, pagien (Fr. paten), pagan ; 
L.a.t: pagan-US, vUlagei—pag-us, village] 
Gilbert Payn.— Hund. Rolls. 
Payn le Fitz-Waryn. — Pari. Writs. 
Simon Payn. — Lane. Fines (A.D. 1336). 
And the trewe kinnesman, the payenes 
sone. — William and the Werwolf, 354. 
With alle the rytes of his payen wyse.T— 
, Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 2370. 
PAYNEL = Payn (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. suff. 

John Paynel, Chamberlain of Chester, 
A.D. 1326-7. 

John Painel, Chamberlain of , Chester, 
A.D- 1334-6. — Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts. 

PAYNTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Painter [M.E. peyn- 
tour ; i. Fr. peindre, Lat. pingere, to paint] 

PAYTER for Pater, q.v. 

PAYTON I Bel. to Payton or Peyton (Devon ^ 
Suff.; etc.) = (prob.) P^ga's Estate 
[A.-Sax. *Ptzgan-tiin ^ P<Bgan-, genit. of 

2 V. Paton. 

PEA (Eng.) a nickname and sign-name from 
the Peacock [O.E. pea] 

Richard le Pe.—Hund. Rolls. 

PEABODY (Eng.) = Pea (q.v.) + body [M.E. 
bodi, O.E.bodigl 

App. a nickname for a showily-dressed 

PEACE, a va'r. of Pace, q.v. 

PEACH \ (A.-Fr.) i Bel. to Pech (France) ; 

PEACHE J or Dweller at a Hill, Peak [a 

palatal form of pecg (Le Pecq, Seine-et- 

Oise) : cp. Norm. Dial, pec, a hob ; and 

L.Ger. peek = Dut. piek, a pike = O.E. 

p(c, a point, pike, peak] 

Delpech is a fairly common French sur- 

Cp. Peck. 




2 (occ.) a nickname from the Peach and 

local name from the Peach-Tree [M.E. 

peche (Fr. piche), O.Fr. pesche; Lat. persic- 

us, peach-tree, Persian] 

Reginald Peche.— ffwnd. Rolls. 

J. Delpeche.— Pflm Directory. 

PEACHEY= Peaoh(q.v.)+the E..dim. suff. -ey. 

PEACOCK "I (Eng.) a nickname and sign- 

PEACOCKE J name from the Peacock [v. 

Pea; and + cock, O.E. cocc"] 

PEAK \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Pointed Hill 

PEAKE; [M.E. pec, pek; O.E. p^ac, a var. of 

p(c, a point, pike] 

Martyn del' Pek.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

The Peak District, Derbyshire, is re- 
ferred to as Pea£ land in the A.-Sax. 
Chronicle, A.D. 924. 

See Peck and Pike. 
PEAL ) * 

PEALE \ V. Peelfe. 
PEALL ) ' 

PEALLING, V. Pelling. 

PEAR (A.-Lat.) Dweller by a Pear-Tree 

(A.-Fr.-Gr.) the French Pierre = Peter, 

PEARCE, V. Pierce, Piers. 


PEARCH, V. Perch. 

PEARD is app. a contr. of Pearhead (Robert 
Perheved — Hund. iJoHi)— either a nick- 
name, or a local name from a Pear(-Tree) 
Head (-Land) [v. Pear'; and -|- O.E. 
he(ifod, head, high ground, upper part] ; 
but there may have been some confusion 
with Peart, Pert, q.v. 

PEARL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a name from the Jewel 
[M.E. perle, Fr. perk"] . 

Thomas Perle.— C/o5« Rolls, A.D. 1343. 
PEARMAN "1 (Eng.) Dweller by a Pear- 
PEARMAIN ; Tree [O.E. pere (La.t.pir-us) + 

Cp. Oakman, Ashman, etc. > 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Pearmont, q.v. 

PEARMOND 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.)Bel.toPierremont , 
PEARMONT /(Picardy) =iJ the Rock-Hill 
[Fr. pierre, Lat. petra (Gr. Trirpa), a stone, 
rock + Fr. mont, Lat. mens, mantis, a hill] 


V. Pierce, Piers. 

PSARSALL "1 Bel. to Pershall or Pershill 
PEARSAULX (Staffs), A.D. 1188 Pereshulle 

[M.E. hullie^ O.E. hyll, a hill : the pers. 

name (in the genit.) may be the O.Fr. Pere 
if not the rare A'.-Sax. Pteghere^ 

Sir Robert Tunsall, a noble knight, 
And come of royall anceytree ; 
Sir Ibhn Savage, wise and wight, 
Sir Hugh Persall : there was 3. — 

' Bosworth Feilde', 457-66 ; Percy's 
Folio MS. 
PEARSON, V. Pierson. 

PEART, V. Pert. 

PEASCOD (Eng.) meton. for a seller of peas- 
cods [M.E. pese, a pea, pi. pesen ; O.E. 
pise, pi.pisani Lat. pts-um, a pea + M.E. 
codd(e, O.E. codd, a bag] 

PEASE I like Peace, a var. of Pace, q.v. 

2 meton. for a seller of Peas [v. under 

John Pese.— Hund. Rolls. 

PEASGOOD } for Peascod, q.v. 

PEASEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Peas-Field 

[v. under Peascod, and -|- M.E. hey, hayi 

O.E. htzg; haga, an enclosure] 

PEASNALL\ (Eng.) Bel. to Peasenhall, Suff., 

PEASNELLj 13th cent. Pesenhal = the Peas- 

CORNER (-Field) [v. under Peascod, and 

-I- M.E. hal{e, O.E. h{e)al{h, a corner] 

PEAT \ 1 an Early Mod. E. form of Pet 
PEATE J [prob. conn, with Fr. petit{e, little, a 
darling ; cp. South. Fr. petet, soft, delicate) 
small-foot : doubtless f. an O.Celtic *pit, 
something pointed or slender ; cp. WeL 
pid, a tapering point (Gael, and Ir. peata 
{(tax\\ex<,petta), a pet, are borrowed from 


You are a pretty peat, indifferent fair 
too.— Massinger, Maid of Hon. (A.D. 

1632), ii. 2. 

2 short for Peatman, a Cutter of Peat 

[M.E. i>e<(g, L.Lat./p^te, peat] 

3 a dim. of Peter, q.v. [cp. Dut. Piet'\ 

4 f. the M. Dut. pete (mod. peet), a God- 
parent [like Ger. pat{h)e,' f. Lat. pater 
(spiritualis), with change to the weak 

masc. decl.] 

5 a lengthened (dial.) form of Pitt, q.v. 

PEATLING = Peat' (q.v.) -f the dim. suff. 

PEATS, Peat's (Son) : v. Peat. 

PEATT, y. Peat. 




PEATTIE 1= Peat(t (q.v.) + the E. dim. 
PEATY J suff. -ie, -y. 

PEBgRDAY for Peabody, q.v. 

PECHEY = Peaohey, q.v. 

PECK I a var. of Peak, q.v. 

Hugh de Peck. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1325-6. 

Ricardus del Pecke.-^ 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.I). 1579. 

2 conf. with Pake, Paok(e, q.v. 

PECKER = Peck, Peak(e (q.v.) + the agent, 
suff. -er. 
Roger le Peckere. — Huud. Rolls. 

PECKHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Peckham=PECc(A)'s 
or P^cc(a)'s Home [O.E. Mm, home, 


Peckham, Kent, occurs inthe loth cent. 
as Peccham. 
Cp. Packham. 

PECKOVER \ (Eag.) Dweller at the Peak- 

PECOVER I Edge (V. Peck, Peak, and + 

O.E. dfer, an edge, margin] 

PEDDAR \ (Eng.) Pedler, Bagman [M.E.and 

PEDDERJ Scot. pedder(e, f. Dial. E. ped, a 

basket, hamper ; prob. rel. to pad\ 

Richard le Pedder. — 

Lane. ,Assize-RoUs, A.D. 1258. 

Martin }e Pedder(e. — 
, Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Quhvlk [which] at the last of monie 
smale couth [could] mak 
This bonie pedder aiie gude fute pak.— 
The Thrie Priests of Peblis, 191-2. 

PEDDELL\(Teut.) the Dan.-Norw. pedel, 

PEDDLE jSwed. p^dell, Dut. pedel, Ger. 

pedell^BEAOLK [L.Lat. pedell-us, bedell-us ; 

O.H.Ger. pitil, bitil] 

PEDDIE, app. a dim. form of Peddar, 
Pedder, q.v. ^ 

PEDLAR \ = Peddar, Pedder (q.v.) j the -l- 
PEDLER J being due to a formation on a dim., 
ped[d)le, oiped, a basket, etc. 

PEDLEY (Eng.) i Dweller at Peda's Lea 
[O.E. leak, a lea] 

2 a var. of Pad ley, q.v. 

PEDMAN (Eng.) equiv. to. Peddar (q.v.) 
{Dial. E. ped, a basket + matt\ 

William Pedman.—i'i>^-i2tfH,A.D. 1190. 
PEEBLES (Celt.) Bel. to Peebles, A.D. 1 126 

Pebles [app. the Cymric pebyll, pi. of 
pabell, a. tent, pavilion + the M.E. pi. 

suff. -es'] 

' In Peblis toun sumtyme, as I heard 
tell . . .'—The Thrie Priests of Peblis, 1. 


Peak(e, q.v. 

PEEL I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Dweller at a Forti- 

PEELE J fied Residence or Small Castle 

[Mig. pel, peill, pe(e)le; O.Fr. pel, Lat. 

pal-US, a stake. But O.E. pil, Lat. pila, a 

pillar, seems iiot to have been without in- ' 


And at Lythkow wes than [then] apeill, 
Mekill and stark, and stuffit weill 
With Inglis men. — 

Barbour, The Bruce, x. 137-9. 

God save the lady of this pel. — 

Chaucer, Hous of Fame, iii. 220. 

' le ftfe of Hilton,' otherwise ' le Hall 
of Wyche Eves.' — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1550. 
(occ.) 2 for 'Peeled,' i.e. Bald, Ton- 
sured [f. O.F. peler; haX. pilare, to make 

Thomas le Pale.— ParZ. Writs. 
Cp. Pile|. 

PEER for the French Pierre = Peter, q.v. 

pIIrIe} = "'«"«■ 1-- 

PEERSON = Plerson, q.v. 


Peat(e, q.v. 

PEETS = Peats, q.v. 

PEEVER "I Bel. to Peever or Peover (Chesh.), 
PEEVOR J anc. Pevre. 

Peover is on the river of the same name; 
but the river-name is prob. takpn trom 
the village-name. The second element 
can hardly be the O.E. dfer, a river-bank, 
as the form of the name viiih-over is late. 
The name has the appearance of having 
lost a local sufSx ; and it may, in fact, be 
the Pevenvieh of a Latin charter of King 
Eadgar (a.d. 966: ' Cart. Sax.' No. 1175), 
where Pever is prob. a pers. name allied 
to the Ger. Pfeifer = Piper [f. O.H.Ger. 
pfifa, an early borrowing from l,a.t.pipa, a 
pipe (Lat. pipare, to pipe) ; whence also 
Ital. piva, a pipe, and, prob. the Norman 
name, Pever-el] 

John de Pevre. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Acds., A.T>. 1303-4. 

John Pever.— ioMc. Fines, A.D. 1445. 




PEGG (Teut.) I the A.-Sax. name-stem Pe(c)g-, 
Pag- (as in the A.-Sax. geogr. names Pecg- 
esford, Pecganham, Peginga- Pxgingabume, 
etc. [the stem is seen in Dut. and L.Gftr. 
peg-el (whence Mod. High Gcx.pegel), a 
gauge, liquid-measure = O.E. pceg-el, a 
vessel for liquids (as wine), prob. orig, 
with the measure marked off by a peg; 
as well as in E. peg, M.E. pegge] 

2 the pet form. Peg (with dim. suff., 
Peggie), oi Margaret (q.v.) is prob. due to 
the early-8th-cent. St. Pega (St. Guthlac's 
sister), whose name is seen (palatalized) 
in Peakirk (Ndrthants),rwhose ancient 
' church is dedicated to St. Pega [same 


Peter Peg.—Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Magota Pegge. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

There has prob. been some confusion 
with Pigg, q.v. 

PEGGRAM, V. Pegram. 

PEGGS, Pegg's (Son) : v. Pegg. 

■PEGLER, a gutturalized form of Pedler, q.v. 

PEGRAM 1 (A.-Fr..Lat.) Pilgrim [O.Fr.pele- 

PEG RU M J grin (Fr. pilerjn) ; Lat. peregrin-us, 

a stranger: the /has dropped from the 

surname through the lengthening of 

the e] 
WiUiam Pegnn.~Hund. Rolls. 


PEILE V. Peel(e. 


PEIRCE = Pierce, q.v. 

PEIRCEY = Piercy, q.v. 

PEIRSON = Pierson, q.v, 

PELHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Pelham (Herts), 13th 
cent. Pelham [the first element is prob. an 
A.-Sax. pers. name Peola, or Pcella; the 
second, O.E., Wot, home, estate] " 

PELISSIER (Fr.-Lat.) the common French 
Pelissier, Pelissier = Fvrkiek [f. Fr. 
pelisse; Lat, pellici-us, of skins— pellis, a 

hide, skin] 

PELL 1 (Eng.) I descendants of the A.-Sax. 

PELLE J pers. name Pella or Palla [cp; O.E. 

pell, pcell (M.E. pell(e, pall(,e), a pallium 

' ' (Lat.] 

2 Dweller at a Pell, Pill, or Pool 
[Dial. E. pell, pill, are weak forms of pool 
V —O.E. pdl, -pul] 

(Fr.rLat.) the French Pel. Pelle [nick- 
names from tlie O.Fr. and South.Fr. pel 
{Fi.poil), hair,, beard ; Lat. pil-us] . 

■'eUe.—Hund. Soils. 

PELLATT ] the French Pelat, Pellat, Pelet, 
PELLET Pellet, dims, of />«;(/«: v. Pell(e 
PELLETT J (Fr.-Lat.) [Fr. dim. suff. -at, -et] 

PELLEW "I the French Pelleau, a dim. of Pelle : 

PELLOWJ V. Pell(e (Fr.-Lat.) [Fr. dim. -eau, 

earlier -el, Lat. -ell-US'] 

PELLING I theFfench Pelin, Pellin, dims, oi _ 
Pel(le (v. Pell(e, Fr.-Lat.), with excrescent 
-g. [Fr. 3ira. suff. -in, Lat. -in-us] 
2 V, Pilling. 

PELLITER (Fr.-Lat.) the common French 
Pelletier = Furrier [Fr. pelletier ; f. O.Fr. 
pel {mod. peau), Lat. pelHs, a hide,fSkin] 

Adam le Peleter. — Hund. Rolls. 

PELLS, Pell's (Son) : v. Pell. 

PELLY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French PeU, Pelle = 

the Bald \Fr. pele, pp. ofpeler,L,a.t.pilare, 

to make bald] 

PELSALL (Eng.) Bel. to Pelsall (Staffs), late 

loth-cent. Peolshale, (14th cent. Peoleshale) 

= (prob.) Peol's Corner [O.E. h(e)dl(h] 

PELTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pelton (Durham) 
[v. PeU (Eng.), and + O.E. tun, farm, 


PEMBER. There is no trace of this being an 
Eng. localname;othei'wiseit could repre-^ 
sent an O.E. pin-beant, 'pine-grove.' , Nor\ 
does it seem to be Cymric. In all pror 
' bability it is the descendant of an A.-Sax. 
fern, name *Pendburh; this appears allthe 
more likely from the occurrence of the 
Eng. place-name Pertiberton, / . 

PEMBERTON (Engl) Bel. to Pemberton 
(Lanes), A.D. 1200 Penberton [v. under 
Pennber, and -t- O.E. tin, farm, estate, etc.] 

PEMBRIDGE. Bel. to Pembridge (Heref.), 
13th cent. Penbrigge, Penfiebrigge [the 
bridge, O.E. brycg, is over the R. Arrow ; 
the pl^ce is sufficiently close to the Welsh 
' border for the first element to be the 
Wei. pen, a head, hill, rather than the 
O.E. penn, a pen, enclosure, or the A.-Sax. 
pers. name Penda] 

PEMBROKE (Celt.) Bel. to Pembroke, app. 

representing the O.Wth pen-brog = the 

Head or End of the Land [^^Mod. 

Wei. pen, a head, end + bro (compounded, 

mutated to /ro), land, country] 

' It derives its name from i1?«//;o penin- 
sula, which extends for two miles N. of 
the town, between it and the main 
channel of Milford Haven.'— iVai. Gaz. 

(There is another Penfro in co. Car- 




for Pencl(e)gast, q.v. 

F?END(E)GAST seems to be a compound of 
pend- (seen iu the name of the famous 
7th-cent. Mercian King Penda), and Teut. 
gast (O.Sax., O.H.Ger., O.Dut. gast = 
Goth, gast-s = O.E. gest, gi{e)sl = O.N. 
gest-r), guest, stranger. (In jJUrely A.- 
Saxon names the form of the second 
element was usiially -gist, as in the case of 
the FriYegist mentioned in the Chronicle, 
A.I). 993). 

It Pend- is Teutonic it must be the same 
word as O.Fris. pend, pand = East Fris. 
pand = M.L.Ger. and Dut. pand — O.N. 
pant-r (m.) =Ger. pfand, a pledge (O.Fris. 
penda=Ge\: pfdnden); but there are rea- 
sonable grounds for assuming that the 
stem is Celtic (cp. Chad), viz. the 
O.Cymric pend (Wei. pen, Corn. pe{d)n) = 
O.Ir. cend (Ir. and Gael, ceann), head, 

PENDEGRASS, a corr. form of Pend(e)gast, 

PENDER (Eng.) \ the A.-Sax. Pendhere [v. 
under Pend(e)gast, and + O.E. here, army] 
2 a var. of Pinder, q.v. 
William le Pendere. — Mun. Gildh. Land. 


PENDLE. Bel. to Pendle(Hill) (Lanes), A.D. 
1294 PennetAlle, 14th cent. Penhil, Penhul 
[the second element is O.E. hyll, a hill ; 
the hill being over 1800 feet high, the first 
element is rather the Cymric pen/s. head, 
height, than O.E. penn, ah animal-enclo- 

PENDLEBURY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Pendlebury 
PENDLEBERRYJ (Lanes), end 12th cent. 
Penulbery, 13th and 14th cent. Penhulbury, 
PeniWury [This stronghold — O.E. burh, 
dat. byrig — can hardly be conn, with 
Pendle (Hill), from which it is some con- 
siderable distance ; so that the first two 
elements may Represent the A.-Sax. pers. 
name Penw(e)alh, or Peniu{e)aldi\ 

PENDLETON. Bel. to Pendleton (Lanes"), 
13th cent, (both places) Penhulion, Pennul- 
ton, Penelton, Penhiltone [The Manchester 
Pendleton is near Pendlebury (q, v.), so 
that the first two elements of the name of 
the forpier place maybe taken to have the 
same origin with those of the latter. The 
Pendleton near Clitheroe — otherwise 
Little Pendleton — is at the foot of Pendle 
1 Hill :vi Pendle] 

PENDRED "I (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Pendrced 

PENDRETH J [v. under Pend (e)gast, and -)- 

O.E. rckd, counsel, policy] 

- Pettdrced was the name of a Mercian 

minter in Offa's time. 

PENDRICK (Celt. -1- Teut.) the Welsh Ap- 
Hendrick = Son of Hendrick: v. Hend- 
rick. [Wei. api son] 

PENDRY (Celt. + Teut.) the Welsh Ap-Hen- 
dry = Son of Hendry: v. Hendry [Wei. 

ap, son] 

PENEFATHER,v. Pennefather.Pennifathen. 

PENFOLD = Pinfold, q.v. 

PENGELLY /(Celt.) Bel. to Pengelly (Corn- 

PENGILLY Iwall) = the Head of the 

Grove [Corn, and Wei. pen, a head, top 

+ celli (kelly), a grove] 

PENISTON \ (Eng.) Bel. to Peniston(e (W. 

PENISTONE J Yorks), 13th cent. Penneston-' 

Penn's Estate [O.E. tAn, estate, farm] 

PENK 1 V. Pink. 

2 a contr. of Penketh or Penkethman, 

PENKETH rBel. to Penketh (Lanes), 13th 

PENKETT \cent. Penketh, Penket [this name 

is not satisfactorily explainable from 

A.-Sax. sources ; so that jt may poss. be a 

form of the Wei. pen coed (O.Wel. coii), 

' head or end of the Vi/ood ] 

PENKETHMAN \ = Penketh (q.v.), and -1- 

Richard Penkethman, of Warrington, 
AJi.issz— Chester Wills. 

PENLINGTON, app. a corrupt form of Pen- 
dleton, q.v. 

PENMAN (Fr.-Lat. + E.) Scribe, Writer 
[O. Fr. penne, Lat. penna, a feather -f- E. 


(rarely) (Celt.) Bel. to Penmaen = the 

Rock-Head [WA. pen, a head, height -f 

maen, a stone, rock] 

PENN (Eng.) 1 Dweller at a Pen or, Fold 

[O.E. penn\ 
Adam de la Penne.— ffMBrf. Rolls. 

The Staffs Penn is Penne in Domesday 
Book. / 

(occ.) 2 the A.-Sax. pfirs. name Penniji. 

(Celt.) Dweller at a Head or Height 

The Bucks Penn, Penna in the 13th 
century, is on an eminence from which 
views of many counties .can be obtained. 
It may therefore be the Welsh pen. From 
this Penn is derived indirectly the first 
part of the name of Pennsylvania, called 
after Penn, the Quaker, whose family- 
name seems to have been taken from the 
Bucks parish. 

(Fr.) the French P^ (eariier Penne) is 




(a) a nickname and sign-name itorapenne 

[Lat. penna\ a feathef ; (J) a local name 

trom Celt. pen(n, a rock, head [Gaul, penn- 

= Bret. pen(n] 

. . . penn, en gaulois pernios, est un mot 

gallois et breton, d'origine gauloise, qui 

veut dire 't6te et bout.' — d'Arbois de 

Jubainville, Les Celtes (1904), p. 28. 

Larchey mentions' (p. 367) a i3th-cent. 
Albigensian chevalier, Olivier de Penite, 
vvho had a feather for his blazon and 
dated his charters from the Chateau de 
Penne (Rock). 

PENNAGER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Plumier, Feather- 
Dresser i[f., with the agent, suff. -er, 
M.E. O.Ft. pennage, plumage; 'LaX.penna, 
a feather; suff. -age, Lat. -atic-us] 

William le Pennager. — Close Rolls. 

Bardsley says that the Pennager was 
an ' ensign-bearer/ This may poss. have 
been an exceptional meaning ; it, of 
course, involves a different etymology for 
the second element of the name. 

PENNANT (Celt.) Bel. to Pennant (a common 

Welsh place-name) = the Head of the 

Ravine or Brook [Wei. pen, a head + 

nant, a glen, stream] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) One Doing Penance 
[M.E. O.Fr. penant ; Lat. poenitentia, peni- 

Thou art nat lyk a penant or a'goost. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 3124. 

PENNEFATHER, v. Pennifather. 

PEN NELL 1 the French Penel, Fennel = Fine, 

Penne (v. Penn, Fr.) -|- the dim. suff.-e)/ 

[Lat. -ell-us] 

The old form Penel is still commoner 

, in France thfen the later Peneau. 

2 for Paynel, q.v. 

There is also some evidence of con- 
fusion with Pernell (Papnell)i q.v., and 
Pinnell, q.v. 

PENNER (Eng.) One Who Pens Animals 
[f. M.E. pen(n, O.E. penn, a pen, enclo- 
sure ; with the agent, suff. -er] 

John le Penner. — 
■ Subsidy-Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

There is no evidence that this name 
ever denoted a maker of writing-peiis. 


PENNEY, V. Penny. 

PEN N ICK \ (Celt.) Big Head [Bret, pennek— 
PEN NOCK i pen(n, a head + the possess, suff. 

Cp. Pinnock. 

Pennek: Tetu, qui a une grosse tete. Au 
figur6, entet^i opiniatre, obstin6 ..... 
Pennek est un notn de famille assez com- 
mun en Bretagne. On dit aussi, par 
antonomase, siraplement penn, qui, au 
propre, signifie tSte. — 

Le Gonidec, Diet. Bret.-Franf., p. 480. 

PENNIFATHER (Eng.) Skinflint, Niggard, 

Miser [M.E. penifader, penyfad^; O.E. 

pening, penig, penny + feeder, father] 

Richard Penifader. — Hiund. Rolls. 

The idea presumably was that the 

miser 'fathered' or treasured every 


Alas, this reconfirms what I said, rather ; 
Cosmus has ever been a penny-father. — 
Harrington, Epigrams (A.D. 1615), ii. 21. 

PENNIGER, V. Pennager. 

PENNIMAN.v. Pannyman. 

PENNINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pennington 

(Lanes'; Hants) = the Estate of the 

Penn(a Family [A.-Sax. * Penninga-tAn 

— -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing; 

ttin, estate, etc.] 

The N. Lane. Pennington was Pennige- 
tun in Domesday Book, Peninton in 1202, 
and Penynton in 1262-3. The S. Lane, 
place occurs in the same Inquisition 
c. 1332 ('Lane. Inq.', ii. 239) both as 
Pennyngton and Pynnyngton. 

PENNY (Fr.) the common French Peny, also 
Peney, Pennd, a deriv. from Pene, Penne : 
v. Penn (Fr.) 

(Eng.) a nickname from the coin [M.E. 
' peny, pent, O.E. peni(n)g] 

Alexander Peny, — Hund. Rolls. 
Robert Peni. — do. 

PEN NYCOOK (Celt.) Bel. to Penicui(c)k 

(Edinburgh), 13th cent. Penicok, Penycoke 

[prob. Cym. pen-y-cog, head or height of 

the cuckoo] 

PENNYFATHER, v. Pennifather. 

PENNYMAN prob. = Penny's Man (-Ser- 
vant) : V.' Penny. 

PENR(H)YN (Celt.) Bel. to Penr(h)yn = the 
Promontory f Wei. and Com.penr (%»] 

PENRITH (Celt.) Bel. to Penrith (Cumb. : 

13th cent. Penreth, Penryth) = the Red 

Height [Cym. pen, a head, height -f- 

rhudd (« as «, dd as th), red, crimson] 

The Cumberland town is built of the 
local red freestone. 




PENROSE (Celt.) Bel. to Penrose or Penrhos 

= the Head of the Moor or Heath 

[Wei. and Corn, pen, a head, top + Wei. 

r%os = Corn. r6s, a moor, heath] 

There is a Penrose in Monmouth; and 
also one in Cornwall. 

PENRUDDOCK(E (Celt.) Bel. to Penruddock 
(Cumb.), 13th cent; Penredek [Cym. pen, 
a head, height + rhuddog = Corn, ruddoc 
(O.E. ruddoc), a redbreast ; but the place- 
name may not refer particularly to the 
bird — rather to the colour of, the hill] 

PENRY (Celt. + Teut.) the Welsh Ap-Henry 
= Son OF Henry: v. Henry [Wei. a/^, a6, 


PENSON, Penn's Son : v. Penn. 

John Pehnesone. — CloseRoUs,A.D. 1343. 

PENTECOST (A.-Fr.-Gr.) a name given to one 

born at Whitsuntide [M.E. pentecost{e, 

O.Fr. pentecoste (mod. pentecdte) ; f. Gr. 

iretiTrjKiHrT-ds, fiftieth (with reference to the 

number of days after the Passover] 

Pentecost de Morton.-— 

Close Rolls, A,D. 1330. 
See the note under Osborn. 

PENTLAND. Bel. to Peatland (Firth, Parish, 
Hills) [We find the O.N. form Pettaland 
fior^-r in, the Sagas, where Pettaland evid. 
indicates the land of the Pehts or Picts ; 
but the first element of the name 
of the .old Edinburgh p'arish and the 
Hills (i2th cent^ Pentlant) may rather 
be for the Cymric pen, a height, and the 
seqond represent O.Cym. lann (mod. Han) 
= O.Ir. land, an enclosure, land] 

The Pentland Hills derive their name 
from a Brythonic Penn-llann, whence 
i%K-?A/a»(f, with the usual rt/ for the strong 
spirant W.— Rhys, Celt. Brit (ed. 1908), 

P- 313- 

PENTLOW \ (Eng.) Bel. to Pentlow 
PENTE,LOW(E J (Essex), in a late copy of 
the will of the i ith.-cent. Thurston Wine- 
sun^ Pentelaw = Penta's or Penda's 
■ Hill or Tumulus. [O.E. hldkw\ 

From the church-tower on the hill here 
46 churches could be seen in 1868 ace. to 
the Nat. Gas. 

\ (Eng.) Bel. to Pentney (Norf.), 
PENTONY ; ■ ~ 


i3th cent. Penteneye = Penta's 

or Penda's Island orWATERSipE [A.-Sax. 

*Pendan-ig—Pendan-, genit. of Penda + 

ig = OiN. ey, island, etc.] 

Pentney is on the banks of the R. Nen : 

the old watery lands are now drained. 

PEOVER, V. Peevep. 

PEPIN, the common French Pepin, Pdpin : 
I from the O.L.Ger. Pip{p)in (Cp. the 
A.-Sax. Pippen and Dut. Pippin) [prob. a , 
dim. nickname f. the onomatopoetic word 
seen in mod. L.Ger. and Dut. piepen, 
Dan.-Norw. pipe, Swed. pipa {pip, a, chirp, 
whistle), Fr. papier, piper, Lat. pipare, Gr. 
TTiTTrifeii', to pip, chirp, squeak, « whistle] 

(occ.) 2 the O.Fr. pepin (cp. mod. 
pipiniMsie), a gardener, nurseryman [app. 
f. Ij'dX., pepo. a melon : cp. the Norman 

Dial, pepin, ' an apple raised from seed'] 

Pepin is one of the most important 
names m early mediaeval French history. 
Pepin of Landen (Brabant) — d. A.D. 640 
— was the progenitor of the CaroHngian 
dynasty ; his grandson was Pepin le 
C&os. Pepin le Bref was the father of 
Charlemagne ; and Pepin, King of Italy, 
was a son of Charlemagne, i 

William Pepin.— ffa«rf. Rolls. 

PEPPER ^.-Lat. etc.) melon, for Pepperer, 
i.e. 3 Dealer in Pepper [O.E. pipor, Lat. 
piper, pepper] 
(Eng.) English placfe-names like Pepper- 
thorpe, Pepper-Hall, etc., show that this 
surname must have another origin-;— prob. 
(notwithstanding the long t) the O.E. 
pipere, a piper: we find the A.-Sax. 
family-name Piperinges in an 8th-cent. 
charter. ('Cart. Sax.' No. 145). 

PEPPERALLl (Eng.) Bel. to Pepper-Hall 

PEPPERELU /jYorks) [v. under Pepper- 

(Eng.), and + O.E. heall, a hall] 

(Fr.) the O.Fr. Piperel (mod. Pipereau) 

(i) f. (with the double dim. suff. -er-et) 

the stem seen in Pepin ; (2) f. (with the 

dim. suff. -el) O.Fr. piper (or the corresp. 

Teut. word), piper. 

PEPPERCORN (Eng.) melon. for Pepperer: 
V. Pepper (A.-Lat.) [O.E. piporconi] 






the French Pepet, Pepat [f. the 
•stem seen in Pepin ; with the 
Fr. dim. sufi. -ef, -ai] 

PEPPIN, V. Pepin. 

PEPRALL, V. Pepperall. 

PEPYS, Pep's or Pepp's (Son): Pep(p is 
doubtless a shortening of one of the 
above Pep(p- names. 

In the Hundred Rolls we find the 

forms Pepis and Pepes, the latter form also 

, occurring in the lylh cent. PepPes, 

Peppis, and Pepys are found in the i6th 

cAit. [-w;(-;'5) for -es, the M.E. genit. suff.] 




PERCEVAL ] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Frejich Perce- 
PERCIVAL \va.l = lit. ValUey-Piercer, 
PERCIVALLJ evid. a nickname for a stal- 
wart X^x.perce, 3rd pers. pres. sing, indie. 
oipercer, O.Tr. percier, to pierce, penetrate ; 
prob. f. Lat. pertusus, pp. iof pertundere, 
to pierce + Fr. vol, Lat. vall-is, a valley] 

This name is one of a series of similar 
ones : thus we find in French perce-bois, 
' wood-borer ' ; perce-roche, ' rock-piercer ' ; 
percc-foret, ' forest-piercer," a nickname for 
a keen hunter. But the inatter is com- 
plicated by the existence of Perceval or 
Perseval as a place-name : two hamlets 
called Perceval are given in the Calvados 
section of the 'Diet. Topog, de la 
France.' If the name were really local 
(although, of course, a duplicate origin iis 
quite feasible) then we might consider 
the O.Vx. pers{e, 'blue,' 'bluish,' as the 
etymon of .the first element rather than 
the Norm. Yi.perce, ' a holej' 'opening.' 

In the prose version of 'Perceval le 
Gallois,' (ed. Potvin, 1865 etc.), the 
hero's name is variously (sometimes 
strangely) written. Thus we find the 
forms Pellesvaux, Perlevax, Peslevaux 
(perhaps an error), Percevaux, Per- 
cevaX, as well as the most frequent 
Percevalin the nominative. In Chrestien 
deTroyes' lengthy poem, Percevaus seems 
to be the commonest form, with variations 
like Perchevaus, Percheval, Pierceval, in 
addition to Perceval ; e.g.— 

' J'ai nom Percevaus li Galois.' 

'Ha, Pierceval, hiaxxs dos amis' [beau 
doux ami] — Perceval le Gallois, ^940-1. 

In line 30935 we have 'Percheval li 

Potvin took it for granted that the 
French romance was based on the Welsh 
' Peredur,' and remarks (1. 356) that it is 
not known when or how the Welsh name 
Peredur 01 the Breton Peronik 'was trans- 
lated into Perceval ; whereas a later school 
thinks that 'Peredur' and others of the 
' Mabinogion ' were more likely adapta- 
tions of Old French romances. The 
Breton Peronik is evid. the Freiich PSron, •: 
' Little Peter,' with the common Bret. dim. 
suff. -ik ; and if Peredur is not Welsh (the 
name is not convincingly explainable in 
that langiiage) one might have concluded 
that it, too, contained the French form of 
Peter (O.Fr. Pere, mod. Pierre), Wiih a 
Second element dur (Lat.,rfar-»5), ' hard,' 
'stern,' but for the fact that the name 
occurs in the'Annales Cambriae,' A.D. 
580, not to mention Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's 'Hist. Brit.''(iii. 18, 'Vigenius et 
Pereduru's') ; and Peredur: not improbably 
Represents a Latin Peredur-us [per-, intens. 
prefix -|- edur-us, hard, jsevere] : cp. the 
Roman name Per-tmax. 

Wojfram von Eschenbach's ' Parzival ' 
(early r3th cent.) was based on the 
' French romance. In this German version 
we have a couple of lines referring to the 
name showing that the French Perceval 
was interpreted as we have given it 

' DeiswAr [truly] du heizest Parzivdl : 

Der name ist rente enmittendurch.' ( 
Parzival, 140: 16-1^. 

Malory (as usual with him) has much 
diversity of form ; e.g. — 

■ • • And her [their] names shal be 

Persyval of walys and Lamerak of walls. — 

Morte d Arthur, I. xxiv. 

Snx Percyvale de gal'is.^io. do. VII. xiii. 

PERCEY"! (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Percy (Norraan- 
PERCY 1 dy), Percey (Yonne, Haute-Marne, 
&c.) = Persius' Estate [Percy, Calvados, 
was Perceium A.D. . 1 198 : -eium was fre- 
quently used as an equiv. of the Lat.-Gaul. 
possess, suff. -dc-um. Persius is prob. 
borrowed from the Gr. Perseus (Uepa-eis), 
app. a der. f. Gr. TipBa (aor. I. ivepag), to 
destroy ; thus jrcpo-^-iroX« (persfr-polis) is 
translated ' destroyer of cities '] ' 

A de Perci occurs in the mural list ol 
' Compagnons de Guillaum^ la Conquete 
de I'Angleterre en MLXVI ' in Dives 
Church ; Percy is mentioned in conjunc- 
tion with Pygot in Lelafld's supposed 
copy of the Roll of Battle Abbey ; and 
de Percy is given in the Abbe de la Rue's 
supplementary list in his 'Recherches 
sur la Tapisserie de Bayeux' (Caen, 1824) 
— "Wace est loin d'avoir transcrit les 
noms de tous les seigneurs qui aidSrent 
le Due Guillaume dans son expedition." 

Several de Percys occur in our i3th-cent. 
Hundred -Rolls. 

The Perse owt of Northombarlande, 

And a vowe to God mayd he. — 

Chevy Chase, I. 1-2. 
PERCH (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) a nickname fronj the 
Perch, so called from its dark spots [Fr. 
perche, i,a.t.perca, Gx.iripKri,^^ipK(vyos,iiark] 

PERDOE, V. Pardoe. 
PERDUE, V. Pardew. 
PEREGRINE (Fr.-Lat.) Pilgrim, Traveller ; 

Foreigner, Stranger [Lat. j>eregrin-us ; 
■ whence Span, peregrino and Fr. pdlerin 

(Sanctus Pere^rinus, bishop of Auxerre, d. 

A.JD. 304, became in French Saint Pileriti] 

^l^pl^^jv. under Parfett ante, 

PERHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Perham ; or Dweller 
at the PEAR(-Tree)-ENCLOSURE lO.E. pere 

+ ham(m] 
See Parham. 

pIrke} ^^°§-) ^^°^ °^ Park(e, q.v. 

(A,-Fr.-Lat.) Saucy, Pert [f. M.E. pef- 




ken (of birds), topreen, M.E. perke, a perch; 
N.Fr. perque, Fr. perche, Lat.pertica, a rod] 

Perke as a peacock. — 
Spenser, Shepheards Calender: Feb. 1. 8. 
(A.-Gr.) a shortening of Perkin, q.v. 
PERKES, V. Per-ks. 

PERKIN, a dim.otPere, Pier{s, etc., i.e. Peter", 
q.v. [E. dim. suff.-fe« = Flem. -ken ;O.L. Ger. 

Piers the Plowman is called alternative- 
ly Perkyn — 
Quod Perkyn the Plowman, 
'By seint Peter of Rome 1 ' 

Piers Plowman, 3798-9. 
Dauncen he koude so wel and jolily, 
That he was cleped Perkyn Revelour. — 
Chaucer, Gant. Tales, A 4370-1. 
Perkyn the potter into the press past, 
And sayd, 'Randol the refe, a doghter 

thou ;hast, 
Tyb the dere.'— 

' The Turnament of Tottenham,' 21-3: 


PERKS I Perk's (Son) : v. Perk^ ' 

2 occ. a contr. ot Perkins, q.v. 
PERMAIN, V. Pearmain. 

PERNEL y p„„„-,| 
PERNELLj • ^^'^"®"' 

The mod. French peronnelle = hussy, 
gossip, chatterer. 

PEROT, V. Perrott, Parpott. 

PEROWNE, an Anglicized form of i the 

French Peron = Pire, i.e. Peter (q.v.) -|- 

the Fr. dim. suff. -on [Lat. -o»-w] 

William Peron. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 the French Perron : v. Perron. 

Bishop Perowne, who died in 1904, was 
a descendant of one of the French 
rfefugees who came over after the Relo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes. 

PERRATT 1 the French Pdret, Perret, Perreite, 
PERRET \ Pierrat, Pierret=Pire,Perre, Pierre, 
PERRETTj i.e. Peter (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -et, -at. 


PERRIER, the French Pefrier= \ Stone- 
cutter [Fr. pierre (O.Fr. perre. South. Fr. 
peird), Lat. petra, a stone, rock -|- the Fr. 
agent, suff. -ier, Lat. -ari-tis\ 
2 Dweller by a Pear-Tree [Fr. poirier 
(ewcWer peirier) ; t. poire {peire, Span, and 
Ital. pera), L^t. pii;um, a. pear {piriis, a 
pear-tree), with the agent, suff. -ier, Lat. 


PERRIN "I the French Perin, Perrin = Pire, 
PERREN J P^'re, Pierre, i.e. Peter (q.v.) -|- 
the Ff. dim. suff. -in. 

John Perin. — Hund. Rolls. 
Perin de la Montaine.— 

Morte d! Arthur, X. xxxix. 

PERRING = Perrin (q.v.) with added -g. 

PERRINGS for Perrins/. 

PERRINS, Perrin's (Son): v. Perrin. 

PERRIS, Perry's (Son) : v. Perry. 

PERRON I the French Perron, Pierron= Perre, 

Pierre, i.e. Peter (q.v.) -|- the dim. suff. -on 

^ [Lat. -on-is'] 

Saint Pierre was sometimes familiarly 
invoked as Perron. 

2 for the French Du Perron = Of the 
Perron, i.e. Stone Steps, Rock, etc. 

tf. Fr. pierre (O.Fr. perre, South. Fr. peira), 
M. petra, a stone, rock ; with the dim. 

suff. -on] 

PERROT "I the French ' Perrot, Perrotte, 
PEHROTT i Pierrot, PMt=Pire, Perr^, Pierre, 
i.e. Peter (q.v.) -|- the dim. suff. -ot. 

Robert Perot. — Hund. Rolls. 

PERRY (Eng.) Dweller by a Pear-Tree 
\M.K. perye, pirie, pyrie, O.E. pirige] 

Richard de la Pirie. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

William atte Perye. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1352. 

Pyries and plum trees 
Were puffed to the erthe. — 

Piers Plowman, 2503-4. 

And thus I lete hym sitte upon t]xe pyrie. 

And Januarie and May romynge myrie. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 2217-8. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) i i. the French Perre, 
Pierre, i.e. Peter (q.V.) -1- the E. dim. 
suff. -y. 

2 the French Perr^, Du Perri = Of the 

Stony Place [Fr. perri, a der. of perre, 

pierre, a stone, rock; Lat. petra] 

PERRYER, V. Perrier. 

PERRYMAN i Perry's Man (-Servant) : v. 
Perry (A.-Fr.) 

Robertus Perysnian. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, h.T>. 1379. 
2 Pear-Tree Man (Dweller at the 
Pear-Tree(s) : v. Perry (Eng.) 

PERRYN = Perrin, q.v. 




PERSHORE (Eng.) Bel. to Pershore (Wore), 
the A.-Sax. Perscora, Perscore (obi. Per- 
, , . scoran) = (prob ) the Pear-Plot [O.E. pere, 
a pear + scora, a division of land (cp. O.E. 
land-scoru, a piece of land) : f. the p.p. of 
O.E. sciemn, to cut ofl ; hence scierian, to 

The ' Nat, Gaz.' alludes to the " numer- 
ous pear-tree.s which grew in the vicinity." 

PERSHOUSE, V. Purshouse. 

PERSOLL, V. Pearsall. 

PERT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Saucy; earlier, Ready, 

Skilful [M.E. pert, apert, O.Fr. a{s)pert, 

hat. expert-us] 

PERTH (Celt.) Bel. to Perth, 12th cent. Pert, 
Perth = (prob.) the Thorn-Brake; 
Thicket [Pict. cognate of Wei. perth] 


PESCOTT \ V. Peascod. 


PESSONER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Fishmonger [f. 

O.Fr. (loth cent.) pescion (Ft. poisson), a 

fish; 'Lat.piscio, ■onis—piscis, a fish; with 

. the Fr. agent, guff, -er, Lat. -ar-is] 

Wilham le Pessoner. — Hund. Rolls. 

Poissormier is not an uncommon French 

PESTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Baker, Pastry-Cook 
\O.Fr. pestre, Lat. pistor'\ 

Richard' le Pester. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Geoffrey le Pestur. — 

' Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1284. 

Pistor was a surname given to Jupiter 
by the Romans from a well-known siege 

PETCH, v. Peach. 

PETER (A.-Lat.-Gr.) Stone, Rock [Lat. 

Petrus, Gr. IlA-pos— tt^t/jos, a piece of rock, 

a stone; Tr4tpa (whence 'LsA.petra, a stone), 

a rock, crag] 

And ic secge ^€, {>aet ffi eart Petrus, and 
ofer fysne stan ic getimbrige mine 
cyricean. — 

5f. Ma«Aei«, xvi. 18 (A.-Sax. version). 

And I seye to thee that thou art Petir, 

andonthisston I schal bilde mychirche. — 

do. do. (Wiclif, 1380). 

And I saye also unto thee, that thou arte 
Peter: and upon this rocke I wyll Bylde 
my congregacion.— 

do. do. (Tyndale, 1534). 

And he nemde Simon Petrum. — 

St. Mark, iii. 16 (A.-Sax. version). 

And to Symount he putte name Petre.—r 

do. do. (Wiclif). 

' Qy la ? ' quod he. ' Peter ! it am I. '— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 1404. 

PETERKEN 1 = Peter (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. 
PETERKIN fsuflf. -kin = DvLt.-kin = Flem. 
-ken [O.L.Ger. -k-in] 

PETERMAN = Peter's Man (-Servant) : v. 

PETERS, Peter's (Son) \ 
PETERSON, Peter's Son ( ^' *^^^^'^- 

PETERSEN, the Scand. form of Peterson, 

PETHER, a West. Eng. and Corn, form of 
Peter, q.v. 

PETHERICK = Pether (Peter), q.v. + the 
Corn. dini. sufi. -ik. 

PETHERIDGE, a palatal form of Petherick, 

PETIFER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Iron-Foot (a nick- 
name) [A.-Fr. pedefer, Fr. pied de fer — 
Lat. pes, pedis, foot ; de, of; ferr-um, iron] 
William Pedefer.^C&i« Rolls. 


T "1 (A.-Fr.) Little [M.E. petit (E. petty), 
TT J Fr. petit ; perh. t. the Gaul, cognate 
of Wei. pid, a point] 

Hamo le Petit.'— .Hmk^. RoUs,K.V). 1274. 

Robert Petit.— ia«c. Fines, A.D. 1332. 

PETKEN \ double dims, of Peter, q.v. [E. 
PETKIN / dim. suff. -kin = Dut. -kin = Flem. 
ken : O.L.Ger. -k-in\ 
PETRE, a M.E. and Fr. form of Peter, q.v. 

PETRIE I the French Pe>^ = {a) the genit., 
Petri, of Lat. Petrus : v. Peter. 

(J) for the Breton Petrig, a dim. oi Petr: 
v. Peter [Bret. dim. suff. -ig\ 

2 a Scot. dim. of Peter (q.v.) [N.E. and 

Scot. dim. suff. -j>] 

PETT (Eng.) Bel. to Pett (Sussex), a M.E. 

, form of Pit [M.E. /ijY, O.E. />;//] 

Carolus de Pette.— //i<»rf. .ffo/b. 

Pett is situated on low, watery ground. 

(A.-Fr.) Pet : v. Peat'. 
PETTAFER1 . „ ... 

"I American forms of Petty, Petit, 

; qv. 







corrupt forms of Portingale, 




I V. Petit. 

PETTEPHER, v. Petifer. 

PETTER, a form of Peter, q.v. 

PETTERS, Fetter's (Son) 1 v. Petten, 
PETTERSON, Fetter's Son J Peter. 


2 the Fi;ench Petet {also Petot) = Soft, 

Delicate, Small-footed [v. under Peat' 

and + the Fr. dim. suff. -et (and -oi\ 


PETTI FOR U. Petifer. 


PETTIGREW (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Crane-Foot (a 
nickname) [A.-Fr. pee de grue, foot of a 
crane — Lat. pes, pedis, a foot ; de, of j grus 
(abl. grue), a crane] 
Pettigrew is therefore the same as the 
word ' pedigree,', which occurs in the 
i5th-ceint, 'Promptorium Parvulorum ' as 
petygru, etc. 

PET(T)INGER, a (North.) form of Pottinger, 




PETTIVER, V. Petifer. 

PET(T)iVIAN, a var. of Pitman, q.v. [M.E. 

pette, a pit] 

PETTRIDGE(Eng.) Fettridge (Kent), 

A.D. 747 Patlanhryge (JudX. charter), mid- 

loth-cent. Pcetlan-hrycg = P.etla's Ridge 

[A.-Sax. PcBtlan-, genit. of Pcetla + hrycg, 

a ridge] 
PETTY, a weak form of Petit, q.v. 

PETTYFER, v. Petifer. 

PETWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Fetworth (Sussex), 
the Domesday Peteorde- If the Domes- 
day-Book form had been the earliest • 
found there would have been little 
difficulty in concluding that Fetworth 
was Pseta's orPeata's Estate ; but there 
seems to be no doubt that the place is 
that referred to in a late-8th-cent. Latin 
charter of Aldwulf, Ealdorman of the 
South Saxons ('dux Stl]>-Saxonum' ), 
as Peartingawyrth = Vae Estate of the 
Peart- Family [v. under Partington ; 
and -f O.E. wur^, weor^, enclosure, farm, 


PEVENSEY. Bel to Pevensey, nth cent. 
Pefenisea, A.D. 960, 857, ai)d 790 Pevenisel, 
A.D. '788 Pevenesel [The earliest forms dis- 
pose of the river (O.E. ed) theory, and ip 
all probability the second element is the 

O.E. sele (= O.Sax. selij, a hall, house. 
The pers. name, although doubtless 
Teutonic, is not A.-Saxon : it app. repre- 
sents a Cont. LowTGer. variant of the 
A.-Sax.' Pippen (v. Pippin, Pepin), with 
medial p labio-dentalized to / (and then 
v): cp. O.N./»rf/ (I>ah.-Norw. /iflu^) and 
O.L.Ger. pdvos (M.Dut. paeves), pope ; 
while A.-Saxon pdpa (prob. ovving , to 
earlier borrowing) has retained the p of 
Lat. papa: cp. also Fr. pawure jp.^r. 
povre) from Lat. pauper ; Ital. piva, a pipe, 
from Lat. /ij^fl ; and Peverell] 

PEVERALL \ the Norman Peverel (Latinized 

PEVERELL] as Pz>««/ks), a form of the O. 

Fr. Piperel (later Pipereau),v}\th medial p 

labio-dentalized to/ = :; : v. Pepperell 

(Fr.) ; and Peever. 

WiUiam Peverel, to whom William L 
entrusted the care of the castle which he 
built at Nottingham, is said, on very 
meagre ' authority, to have been an 
illegitimate son of the Conqueror. 

William Peverel. — 

Gf. Inq. bfServ., A.D. 1213. 
Sir Hugh le Peverel, A.D. 1344. — 

Blomefield, Hist- Norf. 

PEVERLEY (Eng.) Dweller at Fever's Lea 
[v. under Peever ; ,and -|- M.E. ley, O.E. 


PEW, a contr. of the Wei. ap-Hew = Son of 
Hew or Hugh : v. Hew', Hugh. [Wei. ' 

ap, ab, son] 
Cp. Pugli. 

PEWTER, metpn. for Pewtrer, q.v. 

PEWTRER (A.-Fr.) Fewterer, i.e. Pewter- 
Worker [M.E. pewtir, pewtyr, peutre ; 
O.Fr. pe(a)utre, peltre, a kind of metal, 
an alloy : app. conn, with E. spelter\ 

PEWTRESS, the fern, form of Pewtrer, q.v. 

PEYTON (Eng:) Bel. to Peyton : v. Payton. 

PHARAOH I normally an imit. form of Farrow 

PHAROAH • (q.v.) ; rarely a borrovying of the 

PHARO J Egyptian regal title i^araoft [cp., 

O.Egyptian Pr-o, 'great (or royal) house'] 

" In the New Kingdom it [Pr-'o\ became 
at once personal, and was soon a common 
term for the king .... documents exist 
naming the Pr-'oNJiw, the exact equiva- 
lent of ' Pharaoh-Nechp ' .... In Old 
Coptic ( of the 2nd cent. A-D;) the 
descendant of Pr-'o is simply Pero, ' the 
king.' "—Bible Diet., ed. Hastings, iii. 819. 

PHEASANT (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) a nickname and 

sign-name from the bird so called [M.E. ' 

fesa(u)nt, Fr.faisan, Latphasiam] 

PHELAN for O'Phelan, q.v. 


PHELIP \ forms (chiefly West. Eng.) of Philip, 
PHELP J q.v. 

king Phelip of France. — ' 
Roh. Glouc. Chron. : Wm. Conq., 493 (7786). 



|phel(i)p's (Son), 


PHiLL6T(T, adim. of Plilllp (q.V:), + the Fr. 

dim. suff. -ot. ' . 
PHiLLOT(T)S, Phillot(t)'s (Son). 

PHiLLP, like Phiip, for Philip, q.v. 

PHETHIAN, V. Phythian. 

PHEYSEY, usually for Faoey (q.v.); rarely for 
Vasey (q.v.) 

PHIBB, a dim. of Phil(e)bert, q.v. 

PHiBBS I Phibb's (Son). 
2 for Phipps, q.v. 

PHILBERT I French forms of the O.Ger. 

PHILEBERTiFi'W&^rt = Very or Greatly 
Illustrious or Nobi,e [v. under Filmer, 
and + O.Sax. herht, O.H.Ger. beraht = 
O.E. be(o)rht = Goth, bairht-s = O.N. 
biart-r,^it.) bright, glorious, illustrious,etc.] 

The O.German name was Latinized 

PHILBIN for Philpin, q.v. 

PHILBRiCK \ (East. Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to 
PHILBRIGG iFelbrigg (Norf. : 13th cent. FeU 
bregge', i^ih cexiX. Fellbrigg); or Dweller at 
a Drawbridge, [O.E. feall^ (f. fealtati, to 
fall) = O.N.felli- ((^ fella, to fell, let fall) 
+ O.East.E. brycg = O.N. bryggia, a 
bridge (cp. Swed. fdllbro, a drawbridge] 

PHILBYfor.Filby, q.v. 

PHILCOCK, a dim. of Philip (q.v.) + the pet 
suff. -cask. 

PHILCOX, Philcock's (Son) : v. Philcoclt. 

PHILIBERT, V. Phiibert. 

PHILIP \ (A,-Lat.-Gr.) Horse-Lover [Lat. 
PH I LI PP I Philippus, Gr. *£X«r5ros— *a-os, Ipv- 
PHILLIP I ing ; iiTTTos, a horse] 



Philip's (Son) 

= Philip (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -ot. 




PHILLIPS ■> \ V. Philip. 

PHILIPSON I Philip's Son 

phillipson;*^"'"^^*™ j 

PHILKIN, a dim. of Philip (q.v.) + the E. dim. 
suff. -kin. , 

PHILLIMORE, V. Fillmore. 

PHILLIS, for the French F4lice, Lat. Felicia 
(M.Lat. iorm also Felisia), a fem. form of 
Felix, q.V. 


Philippot and Philippet are common 
French surnames. 

PHILLPOTTS, Phillpot(t)'s (Son): v. 

PHILP for Philip, q.v. 

PHILPIN = Philip (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. suff. 
-in. ' ' 

PHILPS, PiilLP's (Son): v. Phiip, Philip. 

PH I LSON, Phil's Son : Phil, a diml of Philip, 
q-v. . , 


PHINNEY, V. Finney. 

PHIPP, a dim. (assim.) form of Philip, q.v. 

PHIPPtN \ =, Phipp (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
PHIPPIN J suff. -«■«. 

PHIPPS, Phipp's (Son) \ ,, di,i«,, Ph!ii« 
PHIP(P)SON,Phipp'sSon j^- ^'^'PP' ^'^'''P- 

PHIZACKERLEY for Fa;5aokerley, q.v. 

PHCENIX (Gr.) Dweller at the sign of the 
Phoenix , \Lai. phmiix, Or. <j)dlri^ 

PHYSICK, a corrupt iorm of Fishwick (q.v.), 
through the intermediate form Fishick 
(found in a i7th-cent. London Register). 

PHYTHIAN, app. for Vivian, q.v. i , ^ '. 

PIATT, v. Pyett. 

PICARD (Fr.) I Picardian i.e. one from 
Picardy, Fr. Picardie, a province-name of 
doubtful origin, but almost certainly f. 
Fv. pique {pic), a pike (v. Pick'), with the 
dim. suff. -ard. 

The Soci6t6 des Antiquaires de Picardy, 
it appears, considers that Pfcari denoted a 
pike-man.; and it is surmised that PjcarffiV 
was famous for this class of soldier. 

2 = Pic{q (v. Pick) -|- the dim. suff. 
-ar^ [Teut. hard, hard, brave] 

Stephen Picard. — 

Ifund. Rolls, A.p. 1274. 
Rlcardus Picard. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
Cp. Pichard. 




PICHARD, a palatal form of Picard, q.v. 
Roger Pichard. — Hund. Rolls. 
See the note under Pitcher. 

PICK (Fr.) the French Pic, Pkq, Picque ^ 
, I a nickname from the Pike (weapon) [Fr. 
pique, a pike, spear ; the same word as 
pic, a .pick, and Ital. piccd, a pike; also 
O.E. pic, a pike : cp. Lat. pic-us a wood- 

2 a nickname from the Wooppecker 

\¥x. pic, l^si. pic^us] 

Picus (mod. Pico) was an old Italian 
deity who, according to the legend, was 
changed by Circe into a woodpecker. 

3 Dweller at a Peak, Pointed Hill 

[Fr. piciq} 
Hugh Pick.— Hund. Rolls. 

Walter Pik.— do. 

(Eng.) I a weak form of Peak(e, q.v. 
Ralph del Pikke. — Plac. de Quo Warr. 
2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Pic, Pice 
[hardly O.^. pic (n.), pitch (North. ^i(c)4: 
it must therefore be a weak form of O.E. 
pic (m.), a pike] 
PICKANCE I for Pickens, q.v. 

2 a contr. of Piokavance, q.v. 

PICKARD, V. Picard. 

PICKAVANCE \ (A.-Fr.) i Spur Forward! (a 

PICKAVANT J nickname) [f. Fr. piquer, to 

prick, spur ; avant, forward] 

Cp. William Prikeavant. — Hund. Rolls. 

(occ, later) 2 With a PeaIced Beard, 
such as was fashionable in the Shake- 
spearean period [LateA.-Fr. pickedeva{u)nt, 
Fr. pique-devant, lit. ' peak in front '] 

Pickavance is prob. really for the genit. 
form (Pickavants) of Pickavant. 

PICKBURN (Eng.) Dweller at the Pig-Brook 
[v. under Pigg, and -f- M.E. ium{e. O.E. 


PICKEN 1 for the French Pi(c)quin, Picon = 
PICKI N ; Pic{q (v. Pick) -1- the dim. suff. -in, 

PICKENS, PiCKEN's (Son) : v. Picken. 

PICKER I = Pick (Eng.), Peak(e, q.v. -f the 
agent. SufF. -er. 

Cp. Pecker. 

2 the Picker, Gatherer. 

PICKERDITE, doubtless a corrupt form of 

Bickerdike = Bi(c)ker's Dike [v. under 

Biokersteth, and -)- O.N. diki, O.E. die] 

PICKERELL ) I the French Piquerel, a double 
PICKERILL i dim. f. Pic(q. v. Pick.. 

Sabina Pikefel.— /f««rf. Rolls. 

2 for Peakrel, an old dim. name for a 
native of the Peak District, the A.-Sax. 

PICKERING (North.) Bel. to Pickering (N. 
Yorks), 13th cent. Pikering, app. = PiKER's 
Meadow [O.N. eng (Anglicized ing), a 
meadow] ; but Canon Taylor, who re- 
sided in the vicinity, says ('Names and 
their Hist./ p. 222), that Pickedng Lythe 
was "the lythe or district of the Pikerings, 
the 'men of the Pikes' or Peaks of the 
Tfiobrs, at the foot of which lies the town 
of Pickering." 
WiUiam de Pikering (Yorks). — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Hugh de Pikeryng. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. i3io_ 

PICKERSGILL (Scand.) Bel. to Pickersgill = 
Piker's Ravine [O.N. gil, a ravine] 

PICKET \ the Frencli Pi(c)quet, Picot = Pic, 
PICKETT/ P/cj (v. Pick) + the dim. Suff. 

Picot occurs in Domesday Book, and 
Piket in the Hundred Rolls. . 

PICKFORD (Eng.) Dweller at i the Ford by 

the Pick or Peak [v. Pick (Eng.), Peak(e; 

and + M.E. O.^.ford] 

2 a Pig-Ford [v. under Pigg] 

3 V. Pitchford : the Shropshire place 
of this name was also called Pic{k)ford in 
the 13th cent. 

PICKIN, V. under Picken. 

PICKLE (Eng.) Bel. to Pickhill (Yorks, etc.) = 

I the Peak-Hill [v. Pick (Engr), Peak(e; 

and -f- O.E. hylt\ 

2 the Pig-Hill [v. under Pigg] 

PICKLES, genit., and pi, of Pickle, q.v. ' 

In Yorkshire, the surnames Pickles and 
Pighills seem to have been interchange- 

PICKMAN, V. Pikeman. 

In the Plac. de quo Warranto, A.D. 1292, 
the same individual is referred to as Pikman 
and Pikeman. 

PICKMERE (Eng.) Dweller at i the Lake by 
the Pick or I^eak [v. Pick (Eng.), Peak(e, 
and -I- M.E. O.E. mere, a lake] 

2 the Pig-Lake 

[v. under Pigg] 

PICKOP l (Eng.) Dweller at i the Pick or 

PICKUP J Peak Hope or Hill-Recess [v. 

Pick (Eng.), Peak(e, and Hope] 

2 the Pig-Hope [v. under Pigg] 

There is a Pickup near Whalley , Lanes. 




PICKRELL for Piokerell, q.v. 

PICKSUEY, V. Pixley. 

PICKSTOCK (Eng.) Dweller at i the PiCK or 

Peak Place [v. Pick (Eng.), Peak(e, and 

+ M.E. stock, 0.^.'st6c\ 

2 the Pig-Place (Piggery) [v. under 

PICKTHALL. Bel. to Pic(l£)thall (ace. to Bards- 
ley, near Ulverston, Lanes) [the second 
element is app, O.E. j^ell, a plank (-way) : 
the first element may be for pig (v. under 
Pigg ; hardly foTpick == peak} 

PICKWELL (Eng.) Bel. to Piekwell ; or Dwel- 
ler at I the Pig-Spring (spring frequented 
by swine) [v. under Pigg, and -(- M.E. 
welle, Q.E. iv{i)ella\ 
2 Pic(c)a's Spring.! 

PICKWICK (Eng.) Dweller at i the Pick or 

Peak Place [v. Pick (Eng.), Peak(e, and 

+ M.E. wick, O.E. wlc] 

2 the Pig-Place (Piggery, or Swine- 
(market)place) [v. under Pigg] 

fhe form Pikewike occurs in the Wilts 
Hundred Rolls (there is a Pickwick near 
Corsham, Wilts), Bykewyk in a Somerset 
Subsidy-Roll A.D. 1327, and Pikwik in a 
i7th-cent. Yorkshire Register. 

PICKWORTH (Eng.) Bel to Pickworth (Lines, 
Rutl., etc.) = I Pic(c)a's Estate or Farm 

[O.E. worYl 

2 the Estate of the ' Picc- Family 
[A.-Sax. Piccinga-worlp — -inga-, genit. pi. 

of the fil. guff. -!«^] 

3 the Pick or PeakFarm [v. Pick (Eng.), 

Peak(e, and + O.E. wotf] 
Pickworth, Lines, was Pickewurth, Pyhe- 
wurth, Pik{e)worth in the 13th cent. 

PICTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pic(k)ton(Flint, Yorks, 
Chesh., etc.) = i Pic(c)a's Estate [O.E. 


2 the Pick or Peak Farm [v. Pick(Eng.), 

Peak(e, and -|- O.E. tun\ 

Picton, Flintshire, was Picton, Pycton, 
and Peketon in the 13th cent. 

PIDCOCK, foundin the 13th cent, as Pittcok 
is prob. f. a descendant of the fairly com- 
mon A.-Sax. pers. name Piat, or Peot(t, 
with the E. pet suff. -cock; but see also 
under Piddingtpn. 

PIDDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Piddington=the 

Estate of the Pida or Pvda Family 

[A.-Sax. *Pid- or *Pydinga-tiin — -inia, 

genit. pi. of thefil. suff. -ing'-\- tun, estate, 

' , ' etcv] 

The Oxfordshire Piddington was Piding- 

I ton in the 13th cent, 

PIDDUCK, app. f. the stem seen under Pidd- 
ipgton; with the O.E. dim. suff. -«c. 

PIDGEON \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname (and si^n- 
Pl DG I N 1 name) from the Pigeon \tr. pigeon, 
O.Fr. pipjon, Lat. pipio, -onis, a pigeon] 
PIDGLEY for Pidsley, q.v. 

PIDSLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Pidsley (Devon), A.D. 
930 Pideres-ledh = Pid(h)ere's Lea. 

PIEL, V. Peel. 

PIER, the F^pnch Pierre, Lat. Petr-us: v. Peter. 

PIERCE, V. Piers. 

PIERCEYl I = Pierce, Piers (q.v.) -I- the E. 
PIERCY /dim. suff. ->. 

2 var. of Percy, q.v. 
PIERMAN, V. Pearman. 


(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel.toPierrepont 

(N. France) ; or Dweller at 

the Stone Bridge [Fr./>i«r«, 

Lat. petra (Gr. Ttirpa), stone -1- Fr. pont, 

Lat. pons, pontis, a bridge] 

This name was Latinized in our records 

de Petra Ponte ; and in the 13th cent, is 

usually Perpont, Perpunt. 

There are villages called Pierrepont in 
the Depts. Calvados and Somme. 

PIERS, an A.-Fr. f6rm of Petrus : v. Peter. 
Piers Emerik. — Pari. Rolls. 

Piers Gaveston.the favourite of Edward 
IL, came of a Guienne family. 
At heigh prime Piers 
Leet the plowgh stonde. — 

Piers Plowman, 4020-1. 
PIERSE, V. Piers. 

PIERSON, Pier's, or Piers', Son : v. Pier, 

PIETT, V. Pyett. 

PIGG (Scand.) a nickname and sign-name 
from the Pig [M.E. pig(ge must represent 
Dan.-Norw. pige-smn, s. youtig female 
swrine (cp. Dan.-Norw. pigeVctrn, a female 
child)— /'!^e= Swed./i!^a= O.N. ^zfta, agirl: 
note the corresp. Low Ger. bigge, a pig, a 
little child, and Out. big, bigge (f.), a young 
female pig (we find the form with p- voiced 
to b- in this country in the 17th cent.: "In 
English we call a young Swine a bigg."— 
R. Holme, 'Armoury'; N.E.D.) In common 
usage -ii)!« (-swine) was dropped, as it was 
in the'ease of /io^-: v.'Hogg. The first three 
words of Dr. Johnson's definition of a pig 
— 'a young sow or boar' — contain the 
original meaning of thp word] 

This surname is found in the Hundred 
RoWs as Pig and Pigge. 




PIGGIN is found in the 14th cent, as PickynK 
V. Pickin, Pioken. 

PIGGOT •! I tlje French Pigot, Pigat, Piguet, 

PIGGOTT denoted individuals whose faces 

PIGOT were spotted or pitted [f. O.Fr. 

PIGOTT J pigue, pockmarked, freckled, etc., 

with dim. suif. -ot, -at, -ei] 

2 for Picot : v. under Pieket(t. 

I^got occurs ill Leland's supposed copy 

of the Roll of Battle Abbey ; Pigot in 

Hohnshed's copy ; and Pigot is the usual 

form in the Hundred-Rolls. 

A ii5th-cent. Thomas Pygot, of Norfolk, 
was also known as Picot. 

PIGHILLS, V. under Pickles. 

PIKE (EngO I Dweller at a Pointed Hill ; 

also a Pointed Piece of Land, a Gore 

[M.E.pike; O.E. pic, a point, pike] 

2 a nickname from the vyeapon, also the 
fish, so called [same etymology] 

, , 3 Dweller at a Turnpike [same etymo- 
See Peak(e and Pick. 

PIKEMAN (EngO I PIke-Soldier [M.E. pike, 
a weapop ; O.E. pic, a point, pike + man] 

2 Turnpike-Keeper. 

The cheery toot of the guard's horn to, 
warn some drowsy pikeman. — 

Tom Brown's School-Days, I. iv. 

3 = Pike' (q.v.) -|- man. 

PIKESLEY, V. Pixley. 

PIUCH, meton. for a pilch-maker : v Pilcher. 

PILCHER (A.-Lat.) Pilch Maker or Dealer 
\M.E.pilchei'e,pylchere;, f. M.E.pilche, pylche, 
a fur garment ; O.E.pyl(e)ce, Lat. pellicea] , 

PILDITCH (Eng.) Dweller at a Pooi-DiTCH 

[Dial. E. pill, a weak fotm of O.E. pul, a 

pool ; O.E. die, a ditch, dike] 

PILE (A.-Lat.) Dweller at a Small Tower 
[M.E.j»j7e; O.E.pil, Lat. pila, a pillar] 
Richard atte Pile. — 

Subsidy-Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

Swinburne, a little castle or pile. — 
Holland, Camden; T.L.O. Davies, p. 493. 
Cp. Peel(e. 
PILGRAMl(A.-Fr.-Lat. ). Pilgrim [O.Fr. 
PILGRIM i pelegrin; Lut. peregrin-us, a stran- 
The modern French form, PUerin (also 
meaning a hypocrite), is found in our 
Huhdred-RoUs. ' 

PILKINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pilkington , 
(L^ncs), A.H. 1212 PilMntoii, i2ifi Pilkiiig- 
ton, 1319 Pylkyngton; A.-Sax. *Pilocinga-tun 
= the EsTATfe of the Piloc Family [the 
pers. name is prob. the O.E. pil (Lat. ptl- 
um), a spike, dart, with the dim. suff. -oc 
{-uc) + -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing 
-1- <««, estate, manor, etc.] 

Lieut.-Col. Pilkington, F.S.A., of Liver- 
pool, has written much on his ancestry, 
including a 'History of the Pilkington 
Family audits Branches, 1066-1600' (1912). 
He notes that "James Pilkington (who 
became Bishop of Durham), in 1559 when 
Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
signed his name 'Ja: Pilkinton,' whilst in 
his will of i 57 1 he wrote '/a: Pilkington ' r 
the bishop's brother Leonard, who suc- 
ceeded him as Master of the College, 
sighed 'Leo. Pylkyngton,' and in his will of 
1 598, ' Leonarde Pilkington." ' 

PILL I the Dial. E. pill, a form of 0,E. pul, a 
pool: V. Pool (e [v. under Pilton"] 

2 a weak form of Peel, q.v. 

PILLEY (Eng.)Bel.toPiUey(Yorks: 14th cent. 

Pillay ; Hants, etc.) {M.E. ley, lay, O.E. 

,ledh, a meadow: the $rst element may be 

the Dial. E.pill, a pool, or O.E. ^^/, astake, 

or the A,-Sax. pers. name Pila] 

PILLIN "1 (Eng.) Bel. to Pilling (Lanes), A.D. 

PILLING J 1671 Pittin, i6th cent. Pylyn, Pilyn, 
PilliMg, i2';oPylin [It isuncertain whether 
the -g in PUling is original. If it is, the 
name may represent an A.-Sax. *Pilingas 
(dat. *Pilingum), '(the Estate of the) Pil- 
' Family'; or the -ing may be the O.N.E. 
-ing (O.N, eng), a meadow, the first ele- ' 
ment being Dial. E. pill a pool ; or the 
second element may really be N.E. ling 
(O.N. lyng), heath. But if — as seems 
not unlikely — the -g here is excrescent, 
-lyn or -lin may be the N.E. /(«, a pool, and 
pilhs O.E. pil, a stake (there is, or was, 
a large moss at Pilling ; also noted ' fence- 
dikes '] 

PILLINGTON (Eng.) i Bel. to Pillington, 14th 
cent. (Yorks) Pyllyngton, A.-Sax. *Pilinga- 
tiin = the Estate of tiIe Pii^ Family 
[the pers. name is prob. f. O.E. pil, a dart 
4- -inga,gemt.^\.oi the fil. snS.-ing + 
tAn, estate, etc.] 
2 There may have been some confusiod 
with Billington, q.v. 

PILLMAN = Pill (q.y.) -f- man. 

PI LLSBU RY \ (Eng.) Bel. to Pil'sbUrV (Derby), 

PILSBURY JA.-Sax. *Pilesburh =-PIl(e)'s 

Stronghold [O.E. burh, a fortified place] 

PILLSWORTH, V. Pilsworth. 




PI LS DON (Eng.) Bel. to Pilsdon, form. Pillesdon 

(Dorset) = P£l(e)'s Hill [O.E. din, a 

' hill] ■ 

Near this village is Pilsdon Pen Hill 

(930 ft.): if (as in all probability |s the case) 

the Pen is the Wei, pen, a hill, we have in 

this name three separate words denoting 

, a height. 

PILSON, prob. for Pilsdon, q.v. 

PILSWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Pilsworth (Lanes) 
= Pi'l(k)'s Farmstead [O.E. a)or}>, farm, 

The 'ancient hamlet' of Pilsworth 
formed part of the fee held by Roger de 
Midelton, A.D. 1212. 

PILTER, a var. of Pelliter, q.v. 

PILTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pilton (Soms. ; Devon ; 
Northants ; Rutland, etc.) = i the Pool 
Enclosure or Farm [a weak form of 
p.E. piil, a pool + tiin : a variant render- 
ing of the boundaries specified in a Somer- 
setshire charter of Ini, king of Wessex 
(' Cart. Sax.' No. 112), has pil where the 
charter printed in full has put\ 

2 the StAKE-ENCLOsuRE [O.E. pil, a 

stake, pile + t&n\ 

3 Pila's Farm or, Est ate. 

, Pilton, Somerset, occurs in an eighth- 
century Latin charter ('Cart. Sax.' No. 142) 
as Piltun, and in another form of the same 
charter as Hft«« and PoaftoM. The Devon- 
shire Pilton was Pilton in Ijie 13th cent. 

PI M \ (Teut.) f. the O.Teut. pers. name Pimo, 
PIMM J Pymma, the latter being the name of 

a loth-cent. abbot mentioned in the 'Lib. 

Vit.lEccl. Dunelm.' [orig. uncertain, but 

not improbably a dim. form of the O.Teut. 

iif»6^A/(found in France to-day asHmJert), 

Pinbald, etc.] 

Pimme is a common form in the 13th- 

cerit. Hundred-Rolls ; Pym, Pyme, and 

Pymme occur in the 14th cent. 


PIMBLOTT = Pirn (q.v.) -f- the Fr. double 
PI M LETT. ■ dim. suH. -el-et, -el-ot. 

Pimelet, Pimelot, are now rare in France; 
but forms with a single dim- suff., e.g. 
Pim{b)el, Pimet, are fairly common. 

The medial b sometimes occurring in this 
name is the common post-»i labial 

PINCH prob. represents the Dan.-Norw. Pinse 
= Pentecost, q.v. 

PINCHARD = Pinch (q.v.) -h the Fr. dim. 
snf{. -ard [O.Frank, hard, hard, brave] 

PINCHBACKI ('Scand. ) Bel. to Pinchbeck 

pinchbeck]; (Lines), 13th cent Pincebe{c)k, 

A.D.,966 Pineebek, A.D. 810 Pmcebek = 

PiNCE's or PiNSE's Beck [v. under 

Pinch, and + O.N. bekk-r, a brpok] 

Swedish borrowej^ E. (pinchbeck,' the 

metal, in the form pinsback. 

Note that 'pinchback' was formerly used 

to denote a niiser ; more' specifically, one 

who denied himself proper clothes [E. 

pinch and back} 

PINCHES, Pinch's (Son) : v. Pinch. 

PINCH IN \ I = Pinch (q,v.) -f the Fr. dim. 
PINCHING J suff- -'■«• 

2 for Pinchon, q.v. 

PINCHON, the North. Fr. form of Fi.pinson = 
the Finch [like Ital. pincione, a chaffinch, 
allied to O.H.Ger. fincho and O.E. fine, 


Janet, Janotlmais quel oysel [oiseau] 
^s-iVL pinchon, linot, merle, ou cahu? 

Anc. Chans. Norm.; Moisy. 

PINCKNEY, V, Pinkney. 
p'i:S^^} = >°""''en,q.v. 

Walter le Pinder. — Hund. Rolls. 

' The Pindar (or Pinder) of Wakefield ' 
(Georg^ a Green) is the subject of one of 
the Robin Hood ballads. 

She doth not only think of lusty Robin 

But of his meriryman, the Pindar dl \.\is 

Of Wakefield, George a Greene.^ 

Drayton, Poly-Olbion, xxviii, 70-2. 

PINE (A.-Lat.) Dweller at a PiNE(-Tree) [O.E. 
pin(-treow), Lat. pin-usi 

PINER = Pine (q.v.) + the agent, suff. -er. 

PINERO, an altered form of the Portug. , 
Pinhdiro = a Pine-Tree [f. Lai. pin-us] 

PINFOLD (Eng.) Dweller at a Cattle-Pound 
[f. M.E. pinnen, pennen, O.E. pennian, to 
' pen + M.E. fold, O.E. fald, a. fold] 
PINGEON I for Pinchon, q.v. 
2 for Pidgeon, q.v. 

PINGSTON, V. PInxton. 

PINK ]. I a nickname from the Chaffinch 
PINKEJ [Dial E./»««fe: cp.V^eX. pine, a finqh; 

gay, fine] 

' Pink : chaffinch ; pinkfodted goose.' — 
S. Willcox, Local Names of Brit. Birds, 

p. 31- 




2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Pinca, Pincik 

(we find the latter form in Pinckesbrugg, 

occurring in a Somersetshire charter A.D, 

936) [O.E. pinca, pynca, m., a point] 

PINKERTON. A doubtful name. Lower('Pa- 
tronymica Brit.') says HiiAPynkertonoccwrs 
in the Ragman Roll, A.D. 1296, and that it 
is a corrupt form of Punchardon, which is 
found, by the way, in the Yorkshire and 
Devonshire Hundred-Rolls. This is not 
very likely. Punchardon evid. represents the 
Orne place-name Pontchardon [Fr. pont, 
bridge; chardon, thistle, spike]. In my 
opinion, Pinkerton is an obscure Or lost 
' Scottish enclosure-name, the pers. name 
perhaps being the French Pingdrd, if not 
the A.-Sax. Pinca. If, however, the -ton is 
not the M.E. -ton, tun, 'an enclosure, the 
name may represent — with intruded -r- 
— the French Pingueton, a double dim. 
pers. name f. Lat. pingu-is, tat. 

PINKNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Pinkney (Norfolk: 
13th cent. Pinkeney ; Wilts, etc.) = (prob.) 
Pinca's Island or Riparian Land 
[A.-Sax. *Pincan-ig — Pincan-, genit. of 
Pinca. (Q.'E. pinca, ra., a point), -|-(g-, island, 


PINKS, Pink's (Son) : v. Pink. 

PlNKSTON(E, v. Pinxton. 

PINN (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to (Le) Pin (Normandy, 
etc.) = the Pine (-Tree) [Fr. pin, Lat. 
pin-US, pine-tree] 
(Le) Pin is a common French place- 

(Eng.) the somewhat rare A.-Sax. pers. 
name Pinn(a [O.E. pinn, pin, peg, pen 
(Lat. penna]: cp. Pinnell (Eng.) 

Pinn is occ. a var. of Penn, q.y. In an 
8th-cent. Wiltshire charter (' Cart. Sax.! 
279a) we find, in the boundary portion, the 
phrase ' usque la [sic] pinne vel penne.' 

PINNELL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) The common French 
Pinel (later, Pineau) is a dim. i. Fr. Pin (v. 
under Pinn')- It seems to have been 
used as a purely pers. name : it formerly 
also meant 'bouquet,' just as the Lat. 
pin-US also denoted ' a garland (of pine- 

The O.Fr. pinel, in addition to its prim- 
ary signification, denoted a pine-wood 
('bois de pins'). 

Roger Pinel. — Hund. Rolls. 

John Pinel.-^ do. 

(Eng.) (rarely) the A.-Sax. Pinnel, found 
in a charter A.D. 796 relating to land at 
Pinnelesfeld (supp. Pinchfield, Rickmans- 
worth). As this charter is headed Pynnes- 
feld, Pinnel is evid. merely a dim. of Pinn : 
V. Pinn (Eng.) 

Pinnell is occ. for Pennell, q.v. 

PINNER (Eng.) I for Plnder = Poundep.q.v. 

O yonder stands my steed so free 
Among the cocks of hay, Sir ; 
And if the pinner chance to see. 
He'll take my steed away, Sir. — 
'The Baffled Knight,' 17-20: Percy's Reliques. 

2 Pin Maker or Dealer [M.E. pynner, 
pinner; f. M.E. pinne, O.E. pinn, a pin, peg] 

JPywK^-j, nedelers, and glasyers. — 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, Percy Soc, vol. vi. 

3 Bel. to Pinner (M'sex). 

Pinner is supposed to derive its name 
from the little river Pin, in which case 
-er would represent O.E. ora, a bank, 
shore; but more likely the stream-name 
has been 'invented' from the village- 

PIN NICK I Dweller at a Pine-Grove [Bret, 

pineg eg (= Corn, -ek), plen. suff.] 

2 for Pinnock, q.v. 


■ forms of Pennager, q.v. 

PINNINGTON, V. Pennington. 

PINNION (Celt.) for the Wei. Ap-Einion = 
SonofEinion:v. En(n)ion [Wei. a/'jSon], 

PIN NOCK (EngAi a nickname from theHEDGE- 

Sparrow [M.E. and Dial. E. pinnoc{k; 

pin(n for pen, a feather, wing (Lat. penna) 

+ the dim. suff. -ocfk] 

Richard Pinnoc.^-/fMK</. Rolls. 

Thus in the pinnock's nest the cuckoo 
lays. — 

Wolcot (' Peter Pindar '), Works i. 416. 

2 Bel. to Pinnock (Glouc.) [Pinn- is prob. 

foi" Penn- (see the note under Pinn) ; with 

I the dim. suff. -ocQi] 

(Celt.) the place-name St. Pinnock in 
Cornwall shows that Pinnock was also a 
Cornish pers. name. 

Cp. PInniok. 

PINSON, I the French H«50«, a nickname from 
the Finch [Fr. pinson, L.Lat. pinsio : v. 
under Pinohon] 
2 (occ) Pin(n)'s Son : v. Pinn. 

PINTO, v. the Appendix of Foreign Names. 

PINXTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pinxton (Derby) = 
PiNc's Estate [A.-Sax. Pincl,k)es-ttin : v. 
under Pink(e',and-f-O.E. iii», estate, etc.] 

PINYON, V, Pinnion. 




PIPE I a pers. name (found as a man's name 
— Pipe — in Domesday Book) f. the stem 
seen under Pepin (the A.-Sax. pipe, a 
musical instrument (pipe), is a fem. noun). 

John Pype. — 

Subsidy-Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

2 Bel. to Pipe (Hereford : Domesday 

Pipe ; Staffs : 12th cent. Pipe, Pype) ; or 

Dweller by a Pipe or Aqueduct [M.E. 

pipe, pype, O.K.pipel 

Lichfield has for centuries received its 
water by piping from springs at Pipe 

PIPER (Eng. andSca.nd.) PiPER[M.E./i>r/ie/-(«, 
piper{e, OS,, pipere = O.N. />!>««] 
Richard le Pipere. — Pari. Writs. 

Plpere was an A.-Sax. pers. name, as we. 
see from a charter of Nunna, king of the 
South Saxonsi granting land it PiperAnges. 


Pipet is now a somewhat rare surname 
in France. 

PIPPIN, V. Peppin, Pepin. 

William Pippin.— flawd. Rolls. 

PIRIE TfEng.) Dweller by a Pear -Tree 
PIRRIE J {M.E. pirie,pyrie, O.E. pirige, *purige'\ 

Piries [some MSS. pyries'\ andplUmtrees 
Were puffed to the erthe. — 

Piirs Plowman, 2503-4. 

PIRT, V. Pert. 

PITCAIRN (Celt.) Bel. toPitcairn (Perthshire), 
13th cent. Peticarne 7= the Cairn-Croft 
[Pict. pett, a croft, piece of land- = Wei. 
and Corn, peth, a portion (several of the 
East. Scot. Pit- place-names were anc. 
Peth-) ; and Celt, cam, a cairn] 

There are (or were) two cairns by 

PITCHARD, V. Pichapd. 

PITCHER (A.-Fr.) i the French Picher, Pichier, 

palatal forms oi pigu(i)er = Pike-Man [f. 

Fr. pique, a pike, the same word as pic, a 

pick, and lta.\. picca, a pike; also O.E. pic, 

fi pike : cp. Lat. pic-us, a woodpecker] 

2 for the French Pichard: v. Pichard. 

Colonel D. G. Pitcher, in his ' Notes on 
the Surname Pitcher' (1912), mentions a 
' will ot the year 1551 in which the testator,. 
John PychardJ makes a bequest ,to his 
uncle William Pyteher, also referred to as 
Pilchard; while the testator's wife is Alice 
Pyichard. In the Inq. P.M. held in the 
same year the testator's name appears as 

Pichard and also IHchar, and that of his 
wife as Pycharde. The name of a Royalist 
major who was shot in London in 1648 is 
entered in the Parliamentary journals as 
William Picard; in the proceedings of the 
trial as William Pitcher. 

PITCHFORD r (Eng.) Bel. to Pitchford (Sal- 

PITCHFORTH J op), 13th cent. Picheford, also 

Picford \the place is said to owe the first 

element of its name to a pitchy oil-well 

there — O.E. pic, pitch + ford\ 

Cp. PIckford. 

PITHER, V. Pether. 

PITHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the Pit-House 
(House by the Pit) LO.E. pyt{t + husi 

There is a place called Pit Houses in 
Northumberland; and a Pitthouse is men- 
tioned in a lyth-cent. Dorsetshire Visita- 

PITKE(A)THLY (Celt.) Bel. to Pitkeathly or 
Pitcaithly (Perth) [the first element is the 
Pict. pett, a croft, piece of land (v, under 
Pitcairn) ; the second has been referred to 
the Gael, caithleach, husks, chaff (doubt- 

PITKIN, a dim. of Peter (q.v.), with the E. 
dim. sufl. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-iii] 

Prob. in many cases for the Dutch 

PITMAN (Eng.) Dweller at a Pit [O.E. 

pyt + man] 

PITNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Pitney (Soms.) = 

Pix(t)a's Waterside [ prob. A.-Sax. 

■ Pit{t)anig — Pit{t)an-, genit. of Pit{t)a + ig, 

island, waterside] 

We find the form Pittanig in a charter 
A.D. 963 (' Cart. Sax.,' 1118); but here it is 
a variant of the forms Peattahig and Pea- 
tanig which occur earlier in the same 
charter and seem to relate to Patney, Wilts. 

PITT (Eng.) I Dweller at a Pit [O.E. />;;<(< (Lat. 


Robert in the Pyt.— 

Pari. Writs, A.X>. 1300. 

Simon atte Pitte. — 

Close Rolls, A..^. iZC,2. 
2 (rarely) the A.-Sax. pers. name Pita. 

, PITTAWAY = Pittway (q.v.) with intrus. 
medial -a-. 


Ivars. of Pettet, Pettit, q.v. 
PITTMAN = Pitman, q.v. 




PITTS, genit., and pi., of Pitt, q.v. 

PITTWAY (Eng.) Dweller at the Pit-Way, 
i.e. the way to or by the pit [O.E. pyt{t + 

PIX, Pick's (Son) : v. Pick. 

PIXLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Pixley (Heref.), 13th 

cent. Pikesley = Pic's Lea [the pers. name 

is f. O.E. pk, a pike + ledh a lea] 

PIXTON (Eng.) I. Bel. to Pixton = Pic's 
Estate [A.-Sax. *Pices-tiin\ 

There is a Pixton Park in Somersetshire. 

2 for Pinxton, q.v. 

PLACE (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Dweller at a Place, 
i.e. a Hall or Country Mansion [Fr. 
place, a place, town, square ; Lat. platea, 
Gr. TrXoTeid (iem. of irXaris, wide), a broad 

John atte Place. — 

Subsidy Roll (Soms.); A.D. 1327. 

In the 17th century the term 'place- 
house' was used to denote a country- 
seat — 

' I hate London ; our place-house in the 
country is worth a thousand of 't.' — 

Wycherley, The Country Wife. 

PLACKETT, a nickname, with dim. suff. -e)t, 
f. the French plaque, a patch, badge, etc. 

PLAICE, V. Place. 

PLAIN (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Plain or 

Level [Fr. plain{e, a plain, lea, heath; 

Lat. plan-urn, a plain] 

Confused with Plane, q.v. 
PLAISTED, V. Playstead. 

PLAISTER (A.-Lat.-GrO for Plasterer [f. 
O.E. plaster = O.Fr. plaistre (Fr. pldtre), 
a plaster; Lat. emplastr-um, Gr; ^fi,ir\aa-Tp-oi>, 

a plaster] 

PLAISTOW \ _ Di==+„,„ n „ 


PLANE (A.-Fr,-Lat.) Dwe,ller at a Plane-Tree 
[M.E. plane, Fr. plane^ platane, Lat. platan- 
us, Gr. ifK&Tav-oi, a plane-tree] 
Confused with Plain, q.v. 

PLANK (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Dweller at the Plank, 

i.e. over a watercourse or bog [N.Fr. 

planque (Fr. planche), Lat. planca'] 

Matilda de la Plank. — Cal. Geneal. 

There is a place called Les Planques in 

the Pas-de-Calais Dept. 

2 the French pers. name Planque, Lat. 

Planc-us [from a stem plac-, flat ; cp. 

I Gr. trUi, ' anything flat and broad'] 

Plancus (app. orig, applied to a flatfooted 

individual) was a nomen of the gens 


PLANT "1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Planta- 

PLANTEJtion or Grove [Fr. plant; Lat. 

planta, a tviig, graft] 

Du Plant (Duplant) is not an uncommon 
French name. 

PLANTEROSE (A..Fr.-Lat.) Rose-Grovter 

[Fr. plante, he plants; f. Lat. planta, a 

plant -j- Fr. rose, Lat. rosa, a rose] 

John Plaunterose. — Hund. Rolls. 

An analagous French name is Plantevig- 
neS| for a vine-grower. 

de Planterose occurs in the Paris 
Directory, as if for an equiv. 'of the 

PLASKET ] (N.Eng. orScand.) Dweller at a 
PLASKETT \ SWAMEY Piece OF Land [N. and 
PLASKITT J East. Dial. E. plask, a shallow 

pool ; cp. O.E. plcesc = M.Dut. plasch 

(pron. plask), a puddle, and Dan.-Norw. 

plaske, to plash : -et(f app. represents O.E. 

hde/S = O.N. hei^^, Dan.-Norw. hede, a 


The palatal form is seen in the West. 
Eng, ploshett, ' a swampy meadow.' 

Pfaskets, Northumberland, situated on 
the River North Tyne, is variantly Plaws- 
ketts and Plashetts. 

PLASTER, an etymologically more correct 
form than Plaister, q.v. 

PLASTO HEng.) Bel. to Plastow or Plai- 

PLASTOW / stow ( Surrey, Sussex, E^sex, 

Kent, etc) = the Playground, Athletic 

Grounds, Amphitheatre [O.E.ptegstdiv] 

Nicholas de la Pleystowe. — Hund. Rolls. / 

PLATER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Plate-Maker [f. Fr. 

plat, a dishi plate — plat, flat ; L.Lat. 

platt-^s, flat ; cp. Gr. jrXaris, flat, wide] 

2 P'laiter, Folder [f. M.E.playte, O.Fr. 
pleit/ a fold ; Lat. plicat-us, folded] 

Walter Playtur.— if««i. Rolls. 

PLATT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller on a Flat [Fr. 
i>/a<; V. under Plater] 

Du Plat (Duplat) is now rather rare in 

(Eng.) Dweller at a Plot of ground 

' [M.E. platft, app. f. O.E. plot, with the 

M.E. spelling influenced by Fr. plat] 

Now therefore take and cast him into 
the plat of ground. — IL Kings, ix. 26. 

I^oger del Plat.— Hac. Dom.Cap. Westm. 
Geoffrey de Platte.— 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1285. 




PLATTAN "I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a, Plane- 
PLATTEN J TREE [FT.platane: v. under Plane] 
The fruitful! olive, and the platane 
round. — The Faerie Queene, I. i. ix. 

PLATTS, genit., and pi., of Piatt, q.v. 
Johannes de Plattes. — 

Yorks Potl-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

PLAYER (Eng.) Actor; Athlete [O.'E.plegere] 

PLAYFAIR (Eng.) Playmate [M.E. play/ere, 
plaifere; O.E. plega, play + f£ra^ com- 

Than out and cam the Jewis dochter, 
Said, Will ye cum in and dine ? 

1 winnae cum in, I cannae cum in , 
Without my playferes nine. — 

'The Jewis Dochter," 5-8; Percy's Religms. 

PLAYLE 1 (Eng.) app. for Playhale = the 

PLAYLL J Sports-Corner (Field) \0S.. plega, 

play, sport + heal{lit a corner] 

PLAYNE, V. Plane. 

PLAYSTEAD "I (Eng.) Dweller at i a Play or 

PLAYSTED /Sports Place [O.E. plega, 

: play, sport + stede, a place] 

Philip atte Pleystede. — 

Subsidy Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

2 a Sports Post or Pillar [0,E. plega 

+ siudu, pillar, etc.] 
John atte Pleystude. — 

Subsidy Roll (Soms.), A,D. 1327. 

PLEASANCE |;A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Dweller at or by 
a Country-Seat or Pleasant Retreat 
[A.-Fr. plesa{,u)nce, plesence, Fr. plaisance, 
lit. pleasure ; in French topography short 
for 'raaison de plaisance,' country-seat, 
villa, or ' lieu de plaisance,' pleasant re- 
treat ; O.Fr. plaisant, pleasing : v. under 

Reginald de Plesence. — Hund. Rolls. 

Plaisance is a fairly common French 

2 Pleasant's (Son) : v. Pleasant. 

PLEASANT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Plaisant 
•= Pleasant, Droll ; Jester, Humour- 
ist [O.F. plaisant,-p\^,i. plaisirf'LaX. 
placere, to please] 

PLESTU for Plastow, q.v. 

PLEVIN (Fr.) Pledge [O.Fi. plevine, a pledge; 
f. O.Fr. plevir, to pledge] 

PLEW, a North, fotia of Plow, q.v. 

Of pales, of powndis, of parkis, oiplewes, 
Of tounes, of towris, of tresoures un- 
io\As,—Aiuntyrs of Arthure, 146-7. 

PLEWS (Eng.) Plew's (Son) : v. Plew, Plow. 
(Celt. + Taut.) perh. occ. for Wei. Ap- 
Lewis = Son of Lewis, q.v. 

PLIMLEY, V. Plum ley. 

PLIMMAR, V. Plummep. 

PLIMPTON, V. Plympton. 

PLIMSAUL \(Eng. ) Bel. to Plemstall or 

PLIMSOLL J Plemonstall (Chesh.) = Pleg- 

MtJND's Place [O.E. st{e)all, a place : the 

pers. name is a compound of O.E. plega, 

play, sport, and »!««rf, protector] 

A form of this name a.d. 1326-7 was 
Pleymundestowe [O.E. stSw, a place) A 
He^MMBrf was Archbishop of Canterbury 
A.D. 890-914. 

PLOMER, V. Plumer. 

PLOW (Eng.) I a nickname and sign-name 

from the Plough [M.E. plow, plouh, O.E. 

pm = O.N.pldg-r\ 

The pris neet [prize cattle] of Piers 

Plow.— Piers Plowman, 134S7. 

And maister Nicke the silkman at the 
Plow.—Vasqain, Night Cap (a.d. 1612) ; 
Lower, i. 21,1.. 

2 Dweller at the Plough-Land. 

See Plew. 

PLOWDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Plowden (Salop), 
13th centi Ploeden [th,e second element is, 
M.E. den{e, O.E. denu, a valley : the first 
is doubtful ; but note that the 
celebrated Marian lawyer Plowden ('The 
case is altered, quoth Plowden' : Proverb) 
was called Ploy den by John Fletcher, and 
that/>7cf)'(ewasa M.E. var. pf^/(ja)(e, plough 
(it was, however, also a rare'var. of M.E. 
pley{e, play] 

PLOWMAN (Eng.) Ploughman [M.E. /ifoo;, 
O.E. pldh (O.N. pUg-r), plough -f- man(n] 

I may nat doon as evtery plowman may. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 799. 

PLOWRIGHT (Eng.) Plough-Maker [M.E. 
plowwrighte; O.E. pldh + pyrhta] 

PLOWS, genit., and pi., of Plow, q.v. 

PLOYD (Celt.) for the Welsh Ap-Uoyd, Ap- 
Llwyd=SoN OF Llwyd: v. Lloyd [Wei. ap, 


PLUCK (A.-Fr.-Lat.) an Anglicized form of the 
French Plugue, Plo{c)que,^ a nickname for 
a Shaggy individual [like Fr. ^loc, cow- 
hair (also Fr. /"s/mcAs, plush), from a 
L.Lat. */>!7«c;(e)-«s (tp.Ital./'^/Mccrd),shaggy, 
hairy; f. La.t. pil-us, hair] 




PLUCKNETT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) an Anglicized form 

(Hund. Rolls, Plukenet) of the French 

Pluquinet : v. under Pluck, and + the Fr. 

double dim. suff. -in-et. 

PLUCKROSE (Eng.), 13th cent. Pluckerose, is 
app. a nickname for an official who, under 
an ancient tenurial condition, had periodi- 
cally to pluck a rose [O.K. pluccian, to 
pluck, gather + rose (Lat. rosa), a rose] 

PLUES, V. Plews. 



(Eng.) Dweller by a Plum-Trke 
[O.E. plume] 

(Fr.-Lat.) a nickname, or trade-name, 

from the French plume, a feather, plume 

[Lat. pluma] 

The b in forms of this name is the 
common post-m labial intrusion. 

In France, the surname is also found 
with the dim. suff. -et (Plumet). 

(Eng.) Dweller at the Plum- 
Tree Lea [O.E. pltime + ledh] 




PLUMBRIDGE for Plumridge, q.v. 

PLUMER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Feather-Dress- 

PLUMMER fER [Fr. plumier; if. plume, a 

feather, plume, Lat. pluma] 

2 Plumber [Fr. plomUer ; f. plonib, Lat. 
p'lumb-um, leadj 

(Eng.)--= Plum(m (Eng.), q.v. + the 
agent, suff. -et: 

John le piumer.— ijTaMrf. Rolls. 

PLUMM, V. Plum. 

PLUMPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Plumpton = the 

Plum-Tree Orchard or Enclosure 

[O.E. pliime + tiin] 

Both the Northants and the Lane. 

Plumpton were Plumton and Plumpton in 

the 13th cent. 

PLUMPTRE(Ej(Eng.) Dweller by a Plum- 
PLUMTREE (Tree [O.E. plum-triow] 

There are two villages called Plumtree 
in Notts. 

PLUM RIDGE (Eng.) Dweller at the Plum- 
Tree RiDGt [O.E. pltime + hrycg] 

PLUMSTEAD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Plumste(a)d = 
PLUMSTED J the Plum-Tree Place [O.E. 

Plumstead, Kent, was Plumstede in the 
loth cent. 

PLUNKET 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the French {de 
PLUNKETT Ur del) Plonquetife, (de or del) 
PLUNKITT J Planquet{te = i (Of the) Plank- 
Way, Plank-Bridge [Nor. Fr. planque 
(Ft. planche), with dim. suff. -et(te; Lat. 
planca, a board] 
2 f.'the Lat. Planers = Flatfooted 
[with Fr. dim. suff. -et(te] 

There is a ia Planquette in the Eure 
Dept., Normandy. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a nickname or trade- 
name from the cloth so called [M.E. 
plunket, plonket(te, a coarse white wooUefl 
cloth ; a form of A.-Fr. blanket, O.Fr. 
blanchef, a dim. f. O.H.Cier. blanch, white] 

Hir belte was oi plonkette [one MS. 
blunket], vrith birdis full baulde, 

Botonede with besantes, and bokellede 
full bene. —Awntyrs of Arthure, 364-5. 

There may have been sporadic confu- 
sion with Plucknett, q.v. 

PLYMPTON (Celt. + Teut.) Bel. to Plympton 

(Devon) = the Town on the R. Plym 

[O.E. tiin, enclosure, dwelling(s, town: 

the river-name is doubtless Celtic; cp. 

Wei. plym-ol, writhing, twisting] 

(Eng.) a form of Plumpton, q.v. 

POCHIN, the French Pochin, a dim. nicknaine 

f. Fr. poche, a pouch, bag, sack, , (also) 

pock, pustule I app. O.N. poki, a poke, bag; 

and cp. O.K. poc(c — Dut. pdk, a pock] 

POCKETT, the French Po(c)quet, a dim. nick- 
name from North. Fr. poque = Fr. poche : 
V. under Pochin. 

POGKLINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pocklington 
(E.Yorks), 14th cent. Pokelyngton; 13th 
cent. Poelinton, Poklyngton, A.-Sax. *Poc- 
celinga-tun = the Estate of the Poccel 
Family [-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. 
-ing ; tUn, estate, etc.] 

POCOCK, a form of Peacock, q.v. fcp. O.E. 
pdwa (Lat. pauo), a peacock] 

A sheef o£ pocok arwes [arrows], bright 
and kene, 
Under his belt he bar ful thriftily.— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Prol. 104-5. 

PODGER, app. a by-form of Roger, q.v. 

PODMORE (Eng.) Bel. to Podmore (Staffs), 

14th cent. Podmore, Podemor, Domesday 

Podemore - the Tadpole-Moor [M.E. 

pode, a tadpole (prob. aUied to O.N.padda, 

a toad) + ?nor(e, O.E. mdr] 

POE (A.-Lat.) a nickname and siga-name from 
the Peacock [M.E. po(e, O.E. pdwa, Lat. 

Cp. Pocock. 




In the North of England the name poe 
seems to have been transferred at some 
late period to the turkey. 


UEng.) the M.E. Pogge (Yorks), 
J A.-Sa.x. *Ppcga [a var. of O.E. pohha, 


allied to O.N. poki, a pouch, bag] 

I Pog(g)' 

's Son : v. Pogg. 

POILE, a dial. var. of Pole, Pool(e, q.v. 

POIN DEXTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Poing- 

dextre (also Poiugdestre) = Right Fist (a 

sign-name) [Fr. poing, Lat. pugn-us, a fist 

+ Fr. dextre, Lat. dexter, right] 

POINTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Point or Lace Maker 

[M.E. poynter,poyntour, f. M.E. poynt, ^oint, 

Fr. point — Lat. punct-um, a point] 

'Point : A tagged lace, used in ancient 


Vasse le VoyTa.tex.—Hun£ Rolls. 

POINTING I for Ponting, q.v. 

2 (occ.) conf. with Pointon, Poynton, 

POINTON (Eng.) Bel. to Pointon or Poynton: 
V. Poynton. 

POLACK \ ( Teut.-Slav. ) Pole, Polander 

POLAK J [Dan.-Norw. PoM, Swed. PolUck ; 

of Slavonic origin, as Russ. Polydk(e, 


To be a preparation 'gainst the Polack. 

— Hamlet, IL ii. 63. 

POLAND (A.-SIav.) Bel. to Poland, the Fr. 

Pologne, Ger. Polen, Pol. Polska [f. Slav. 

pole, a plain] 

(Eng.) Dweller at the Pool-Land [O.E. 

pol + land] 

POLDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Pool-Hollow 
[O.E. pol + denu] 

POLE (Eng.) Dweller at a Pool [O.E. pol] 
Peter de la Pole. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
John atte Pole.^ — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.V. 1347-8. 
The pole of helle to my witnesse. — 

Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 5966. 

POLKING HORN ) (Celt.) Bel. to Polkinhorne 
POLKINGHORNE ;( Cornwall) [pot is the 
POLKINHORN 'common Corn, word for a 
POLKINHORNE ) a pit or pool : the second y 
element is app. a pers. name] 

POLLACK 1 I Bel. to Pollack (Hants) [doubt* 

POLLAK J ful : perh. O.E. ^rf/, pool + dc, oak 

(tree : ' cp. the Kentish place - name 


2 for Pollock, q.v. 

3 for Pol a (c)k, q.v. 

POLLARD (A.-Fr.-Lat. + Teut.) the French 
Polard, Pollard; Po;(/)- for Paul (q.v:) + 
the Fr. dim. -ard, TeUt. hard, hard, brave] 

(Teut.) One with a Close-Chopped 
Head \M..'e, pol{t)ard, I. pol{l),to clip the 
hair ; pol, poll, the head : cp. L.Ger. /"d/te] 

William VoXaxA.— Hund. Rolls. 
Henry Pollard. — Pari. Writs. 

POLLEN, prob. for Paulln, q.v. 





. I dims, of Paul, q.v. [Fr. dim. sufl. 
-et, -ot'} 

2 (occ.) Bel, to Pawlett (Soms.) : v. 

The Registers of Oxford Univ. in the 
1 6th century show more than one instance 
of the same individual being referred to 
as Paulet, or Poulet(t, and Pollett. 

POLLEX, app., for Polla(c)k's (Son): v. 

POLLEXFEN. ? Dweller at Polla(c)k's Fen 
(-land:v. Polla(cyk. 

POLLEY I for Pawley, Pauley, q.v. 
2 a weak form of Pooley, q.v. 

POLLINGER, an unvoiced form of Bollinger 
= Bullinger, q.v. 

POLLMAN, a weak form of Poolman, q.v. 

POLLOCK ) (A.-Lat.) = Paul . (q.v.) + the 
POLLOK S E. dim. suff. -ock [O.E. -oc\ 

(Celt.) Dweller at i the Place of Holes 

or Pits [Gael, (and Ir.) pollack — poll, a 

hole, pit, pool + the plea. suff. -acK\ 

2 the Little Pit [Gael, pollag] 

Pollo(c)kshaws, Glasgow, was Pollock 

in the 12th cent. 

POLLY, V. Polley. 

POLSON (Lat. + E.) Paul's Son : v. Paul. 

(rarely) (A.-Heb.) Poll's Son: Poll, 

used as a pet fbrm of Mary = Bitterness 

[Heb. mdrdh] 

POMEROY ] (A.-Fr.-Lat. ) Dweller at an 
POMMERY I Apple - Orchard [Fr. pom- 
POMROY ymeraie, apple - orchard ; L.Lat. 
pomeretum (re/«»«, plantation suff.), apple- 
orchard, fruit-garden; Lat. pomarium, 
orchard — pom-um, any kind of fruit] 

Henry de la Pomeraye.— /?««(/. Rolls. 

La Pommeray is a Calvados (Normandy) 

Berry Pomeroy, Devon, owes its second 
name to a Norman grantee. 








Robert Pumfret, 

well-known corrupt forms of 
Pontefraot, q.v. 

-Hund. Rolls. 
POMFREY for Pumfrey, q.v. 
PON D (Eng.) Dweller at i a Pound [v. Pound] 

2 a Pool [M.E. pottd(e, a var. o(pound(e: 
V. Pound] 
Roger atte Ponde. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1343. 

PONDER = Pond (q.v.) + the agent, suff. -«■: 
more specifically, ' keeper of a po(u)nd.' 
William le Pondere. — Hund. Rolls. 

PONSABY for Ponsonby, q.v. 

PONSONBY (Fr.-Lat. + Scand. ) Bel. to 
Ponsonby (Cumb.) = Ponson's Settle- 
ment or Estate {Poifson is tlie fairly 
common French pers. name (Cumberland 
historians mention a Norman Fitz-Pon- 
son), a dim. f. Lat. Ponti-us: — I- O.N. Jji-r] 

PONTEFRAOT (A.-Lat.) Bel. to Pontefract 

(Yorks) = Broken Bridge [Lat. pons, 

/>fl«<-w, a bridge +/rac<-iM J, broken] 

" It was called by the Saxons \sic\ 
Kirkby, but after the Conquest obtamed 
the name of ' Pontfract,' from the breaking 
down of the bridge over the river Aire by 
the Northumbrian insurgents in 1070 
to arrest the progress of William the 
Conqueror, who was in pursuit with a 
formidable army." — Nat. Gaz. 

But the foregoing statement is said to 
be doubtful. 

Pontefract was Latinized in our records 
as Ponsfractus {de Pontefracto). 

PONTIFEX (A.-Lat.) Pontiff (a nickname 

and pageant-name) [Lat. pontifex, a high 

priest ; in Late Lat., a bishop, the pope] 

PONTING (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for (with common ex- 
crescent -g) the French Pontin, Lat. Pon- 
tin^^s [orig. uncertain, but prob. f. (with 
suff. -in) either Lat. pons, pontis, a bridge, 
or Lat. pontus (Gt. irdmos), the sea; or 


A PoBtinus was one of Csesar's 

POOK 1 (Eng. and Scand.) nicknames from 

POOKE J the Elf or Sprite so called [M.E. 

pouke, O.E. plica = O.N. pikQ 

John Pouk. — 

Subsidy-Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

POOL \ (Eng.) Dweller by a Pool or Lake 
POOLE J "'" " •' ^^ ■'" 

Cp. Pole. 

[M.E. pool{e,pol()i, O.E.piiq 

POOLEY (Eng.) Dweller at i the Pool Island 
or Waterside [O.E. pdl +' i(e)gi 

2 the Pool-Lea [O.E. pdl + leak (M.E- 


3 the Pool-Hey [O.E. pdl + Hag-, haga 
(M.E. hey, hay), afield, meadow, endosure] 

POOLMAN (Eng.) = F'ool (q:v.) -|- man. 

POORE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Poor \}li..¥,. poure, povre, 
etc., O.Fr. paure, povre (Fr. pauvre), Lat. 


William le Poure. — 

Close Rolls, A-D. 1272-3. 

POPE (A.-Lat.) a nickname and pageant-name 
[O.E. pdpa, Lat. papa, pope, father] 

Hugh le Pppe.— Zf«Krf. Rolls. 

Lepape (sometimes Le Pape) is a fairly 
common French surname. 

POPHAWl (Eng.) Bel. to Popham = (prob.) 

Poppa's Home [O.E. hdm, home, estate : 

Poppe was an Old Frisian pers. name] 

POPINJAYx (A.-Fr., etc.l a nickname from the 
POPJAY I Parrot [M.E. popinjay, papejay, 
POPJEE [etc., O.Fr. papegai. Span, papa- 
POPJOY ; gayo, a parrot] 

POPKIN (Celt, -f Teut.) for the Welsh Ap- 

Hopkin = Son of Hopkin: v. Hopkin 

[Wei. ap, son] 

John ap Hopkin. — 

Cal. to Pleadings (Eliz. Reg.) 

(Teut.) = Popip (v. under Popham) -|- 

the E. dim. suff. -kin [= Dut. and Flem. 

-ken, O.L.Ger. -k-in] 

POPKISS } POP'^'N'S (Son) : V. Popkin. 

POPLE "I (Teut.-Lat.) Dweller by a Popple- 

POPPLE J or Poplar-Tree [M.E. popyli-tre), 

, O.E. popel-, pqpul- == Scand. poppel ; Lat. 

popul-us, the poplar] 

POPLETT (Eng.) Dweller at the Poplar - 
- HEAD(land [v. under Pop(p)le, and -|- O.E. 
hedfod, a head, high group.d] 

POPPETT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) an old term of endear- 
ment (normally applied to a girl) = Little 
One ; Darling (the mod. puppet) . [A.-Fr. . 
popet (M.Ft. poupette, a baby; and cp. Fr. , 
poupie, a doll), f. 'LsX. pup-us, a little boy, 
pup-a, a little girl, doll ; with dim. suff. -ei\ 

In Frahce, Popet aud Popot are about 
, equifrequent. 

POPPINJER for Popinjay. 



POPPLETON ( Poppleton (Yorks), 
14th cent. Popelton, 13th cent. Popilton, 
loth cent. PopeMn = the Poplar En- 
closure or Farm [v. under Pop(p)le, and 

+ O.E. tiin\ 

POPPLEWELL (Eng.) Dweller at a Poplar- 
Spring (spring by poplar(s) [v. under 
Pop(p)le, and + O.E. w(i>Z/a, a spring] 

PORCH (A..Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at the Porch or 
Portico (ot some large house or public 
building) ; and hence prob. a Doorkeeper 
[Fr. porche, a porch, portal; Lat. portic-us, a 

Stephen atte Porche.^ 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1369. 

PORCH ER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i the common French 

Porcher = Swineherd [Fr. porcher, L.Lat. 

porcari-us ; f. Lat. porc-us, a swine] 

focc.) 2 = Popch (q.v.) + the agent. 

suff. -er. 

Roger le Porcher.— Ca/. Inq. P.M. 
PORCHESTER, v. Portohester. 

PORRETT V'l the French Poret, Porret, app. 

PORRITT / rather for Pfl!(re<, a dim. f. O.Fr. 
paure (Fr. pauwe), Lat. pauper, 'poor,' than 
a nickname from O.Fr. poret, f. Lat. porr- 
us, ' a leek ' [Fr. dim. suff. -ei] 

See Poo re. 

2 for Parr^ett, Parritt, q.v. 
PORSON I tor Parson, q.v. 
(occ.) 2 for Pawson, q.v. 

PORT (A.-Lat.) Dweller at i a Harbour 
[O.E. port, Lat. port-us\ 

2 a (City-) Gate [O.E. port, also Fr. 
porte ; Lat. porta] 

Henricus del Port. — Hund. Rolls. 

Walter de la Porte.— Hufid. Rolls. 

PORTBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Portbury (Soms.), 
14th cent. Portbury [O.E. burh, a strong- 
hold : the first element is rather O.E. port 
(Lat. port-us), a harbour, than O.E. port 
(Lat. porta), a gate ; the place is near 


PORTCH for Pofoh, q.v. 

PORTCHESTER (A.-Lat.) Bel. to Por(t)chester 

(Hants), the A.-Sax. Porfcearter, app. the 

Roman Partus [O.E. port, Lat. port-us, a 

harbour -f- 0,E. eeaster, Lat. castr-um, a 

(Roman) stronghold] 

' Previously to the destruction of the 

' hai-bour, through the retiring of the sea, 

this place was the principal station of the 

British navy, now removed to Portsmouth.' 

—Nat. Gas. 


PORTEOUSl (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from 

PORTEUS J the Breviary [M.E. f^ortous, 

porthous, porthors, O.'Fr. portehors, i (port-.. 

able) breviary ;, f. Fr. porter, Lat. portare, to 

carry, and Fr. hors, Lat. foras, outof doors, 

For on my porthors here I make an 
00th,— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 1321. 

We find the name in a famous old 
Scottish, metrical romance — 
Call your self Sir Porteous. — ' 

Roswall and Lillian, 371. 

In Scotland the word came to denote a 
roll of indictments. 

PORTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Porter, Carrier 

[Fr. porteur ; f. porter, Lat. portare, to carry] 

2 Doorkeeper, Gatekeeper, Janitor 

[Fr. portier, Lat. portari-us ; f. Lat. porta, a 

Robert le Porter. — Hund. Rolls. 
Albin le Portour. — Mun. Gildh. Land. 
Com forth, I wol unto the yate go ; 
Thise porters [some MSS. portours'] ben 
unconning [are stupid] evere mo. — 

Chaucer, Trail. & Cris., V. 1138-39. 


(A.-Lat. ) a Portuguese 
[M.E. Portingale, Parlyngall, 
etc., i.e. Portugal, anc. Porta- 
caie ('Terra Portucalensis '), Lat. Partus 
Cale, the Roman name of the mod. Portu- 
guese O Porto, The Port] 
The princes doughter of Portingale. — 
William and the Werwolf (14th cent.), 1 14. 
The mediaeval ballad ' Old Robin of 
Portingale ' was printed by Percy. 

PORTINGTON ( Eng. ) Bel. to Portlngton 
(Yorks), i3tn cent. Partington, A.'-Sax. 
*Partinga-tun = the Estate of the Port- 
Family l-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. 
-ing + tJin, estate, etc.] 

PORTMAN (Eng.) i Gateman [O.E. />ort (Lat. 

porta), a gate -f- man{n\ 

2 Townsman [O.E. partman(n —part, a 

town, by extension from port (Lat. porta), 

a (cityr) gate] 

PORTSMOUTH (Eng.) Bel. to Portsmouth, 
the A.-Sax. Portes-mttSa = Port's Mouth 
[O.E. mlilSa, mouth of a harbour or river] 

As Portsmouth Harbour was the Partus 
Magnus, or Great Port, of the Romans, if 
the Saxon Port who, according to the 
Chronicle A.o. joi, landed at Partes-mU'Sa, 
did not eventually elect to be known from 
the place where he disembarked, the coin- 
cidence of nomenclature is peculiar; but 
as the name Port occurs elsewhere in 
(certainly later) Anglo-Saxon times it is 
not altogether unlikely that Port was the 
invader's actual name and that he deliber- 




ately Chose, from sentimental reasons, to 
land at a haven which was already known 
as ■ (the) Port, from the Latin Port-us. 
Nevertheless, the nominal association here, 
and in the Chronicle A.D. 534 ("hie [Cerdic 
and Cynric] sealdon heora tv/dtn netum 
Stfife and Wihtgare call Wiht-edland"-^ 
i.e., "they gave to their two nephews, 
Stuf and WUitgar, the vvhole of the Isle of 
Wiht (Wight)," affords much justification 
for Latham's remark (' Eng. Lang.', ed. 
1855, p. 18): "The names of Port and 
Wihtgar give us the strongest facts in 
favour of the suggested hypothesis, viz., 
the expostfacto evolution of personal names 
out of local ones." 

Amediseval Latinization of 'Portsmouth' 
was Porius Ostium [Lat. ostium, entrance, 

PORTUGAL, a more correct form than the 
commoner Poptingale,'q.v. ante. 

The Portugal found a road to the East 
Indies by the Cape of Good Hope. — 
Howell, Letters, 1. i. 35 ; T.L.O. Davies. 

PORTWAY (Eng.) Dweller at a Port- Way, i.e. 
a High Road or Main (Paved) Street 
[O.E. port, a town, by extension from port 
(Lat. porta), a (city-) gate + weg, a way, 

In Philemon Holland's contemporary 
translation of Camden's 'Britannia' we 
find such phrases as "The Port-way, or 
high paved street" (p. 557); "The high 
Port-way, or Roman street '' (p. 507).' 

There is a Portway in Herefordshire 
and one in Oxfordshire ; and the Roman 
road between Salisbury and Silchester 
used to be called Port Way. 

PORTWINE, for Potvine, q.v. 

POSLETT, a shortened form of Postle- 
thwaite, q.v. 

POSNETT, for Poslett, q.v. 

POSSELWHITE, for Postleth waits, q.v. 

POSTANCE 1 Dweller at (app.) the Posterns 

POSTANS ; [O. Fr. posleme (Fr. pdterne) for 

posterle, Lat. posterula, a secret or private 

way, a back-door] 

POSTEL \ (Teut.-Lat.-Gr.) Apostle, Preach- 
POSTI LL ER [M.E. a)postel, O.E. a)pestol and 
POSTLE O.N. postoli, Lat. apostol-us, Or. 
POSTOL I dTrio-ToX-os] 

William Postel.— r«te de N£vill. 

This is apostels lyfe 1 — 

Skelton, Why come ye natf 923. 

POSTGATE \ (Eng.) Dweller at the Post or 

POSG ATE J Stake Gate or Opening [O.E. 

post (Lat. post-is) + geat] 

POSTLETHWAITE ( Scand. ) Dweller at 


Clearing [v.under Postle, Postel;and+ 
O.N. Yueit, a clearing] 

This is a common North-Lancashire 
surname ; but it prob. originated in Cum- 
berland or Westmorland. 

POTHECARY, an aphseresized form pf 

Cp. Pottioary. 

POTKIN, a dim. of Philpot (q.v.) + the E. 
dim. suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-tri] 

POTT I a dim. of Philpot, q.v. 

2 the rare A.-Sax. pers. name Pott- [cp. 
O.E. pott, m., a pot] 

Reginald Pot.— Huttd. Rolls. 

POTTAGE, meton. for Pottinger, q.v. 

POTTEL, the French Potel, a dim. of Phil- 
pot (q.v.) -H the dim. suff. -el [Lat. -ell-US'] 
Richard Potel— Hund. Rolls. 

POTTER (Eng.) Pot-Maker; Pot-Seller 
[M.E. poter(e, potter(e; O.E. pott, a pot -|- 
the agent, suff. -ere] 
The potter whoni Robin Hood failed to 
despoil Said that the ' pottys ' which he 
was carting to NottingTiam for sale there 
were worth ' two nobellys' (Roben Hode 
and the Potter). 

' Potter, a hawker ot earthenware.'^ 

Dial, of Lonsdale, p. 64. 

POTTERTON (Eng.) Bel. toPottertou (Yorks) 

= the Potter's Place [v. under Potter, 

and -I- O.E. tUn, dwelling(s] 

POTTIOARY (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Apothecary 
[M.E. potecary, apotecarie, O.Fr. apotecaire, 
L.Lat. apotecari-us ; f. Lat. apotheca, Gr. 
AiroS'^Kri^ a storehouse] 
POTTING ER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Pottage-Maker 
[M.E. potenger (with common intruded »), 
potager, etc. ; f., with agent, suff. -er, Fr. 
potage — pot, a pot -|- the suff. -age, Lat. 

John Potengex.—ValorEccles. (Hen.viii). 

POTTLE, V. Pottel. 

POTTO N (Eng.) Bel. to Potton (Beds), 13th 
caat. Pottone, \oth. cent. Pottun [prob. = Pot- 
Yard (potter's yard) rather than Pott(a)'s 
Dwelling— O.E. pott, a pot ; tun, enclosure, 

There is also Potton Island, Essex. 

POTTS I Pott's (Son) : v. Pott. 

2 a nickname for a maker or seller of 




Pots; also a kitchen-man or scuHion [O.E. 

pott, a potj 

A serving-man of low degree, 

One Tommy Pots it is his name .... 

For I had a lover of my own, she said ; 

At Strawberry Castle there liv'd he : 

rie change his name from Tommy o' 
th' Potts, 

And the Earl of Arundell now he shall 

Fair Rosamond of Scotland, 22--^, 413-16. 

POTVINE, for the French Poitetiiw, i.e. aNATiVE 

OF THE Province of Poi(c)tou [Lat. 

Pictavin-us, f. Pictavia, the Lat. name of 

Poictou. The name of the tribe called the 

Pictavi, earlier Pictones, is doubtless allied 

to that of the Picts, Lat. Picti, prob.' trom 

pict-us, painted] 

POUL, a M.E. (and French) form of Paul, q.v. 

As Poul the apostle 

To the people taughte. — , 

Piers Plowman, 12,038-39. 

POULETT = Poul, Paul (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -e(. 

POULSOM fbr Poulson, q.v. 

POULSON, Foul's Son: v. Poul, Paul. 

POULTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Poulterer [M.E. 
pol{e)ter, pul(e)ter; f. M.E. pul{e)te, Fr. 
poulet, a chicken, dim. oipoule, a hen; 
Lat. pulla, fern, otpullus, a young animal] 

Adam le Poleter. — Pari., Writs. 

Osbert le Puleter. — Hund. Rolls. 

POULTON (Eng.) Bel. to Poulton = the Pool 
Farmstead or Hamlet' [O.E. pul, p6l, 
pool + tiin} 
The Gloucestershire Poulton was 
Pultiin, A.D. 855. The Lancashire Poulton 
was Poltun in Domesday-Book ; Pulton 
A.D. 1 196. 

POU N D \ (EngJ Dweller at the Enclosure 
PO U N D E j FOR Strayed Cattle [O.E. pund] 

POU N DER (Eng.) Impounder (of Stray Cattle) 
[M.E. pundere ; f. O.E. pyndan, to shut up] 
Richard le Pundere. — Fine-Rolls. 
See Pindep. 

POVAH, V. Povey. 

POVALL ] the French Povel, a form of the 
POVELL I Flemish Pawaie/ = Paul, q.v. 

POVER, V. Poope. 

Acursed may wel be that day 
That^owre man conceyved is. — 

Chaucer, Rom. of. the Rose, 468-9. 

POVEY, a nickname from the Owl [West. E. 


POW IScot. and North. Eng. apocopated 
POWE J forms of Pool(e, q.v. 

POWDER (Celt.) Bel. to Powder (Cornwall) = 

the Oaktree-Region [Corn, pow (Wel. 

pan), region; dar (Wel.^iir), oaktree] 

POWDRELL, the French Poudrel, app. for the 
O.Teut. pers. name Poldheri [O.H.Ger. 
pold, bald, bold -|- heri, army] -|- the Fr. 
dim. suff. -el [Lat. -ell-US'] 

POWEL i (Celt.) I the Welsh Ap-HoweliJ, - 
POWELL J Son of Howel(l : v. Howel. 

John ap-Kowell.jr-Charter-Rolls. 

Trahern ap-Howel (a Welsh hostage 
in Chester Castle). — 

' Chesh. Chmhrlns.' Accts., a.d. 1320. 

2 for the old Welsh pers. name Pwyll = ' 
Forward ; Wary [Wel. pwylt] 

'Pwyll, pendevig Dyved' {Pwyll, lord, 
of Dyfed). — Mabirtogion. 
(A.-Lat.) forms of Poul, Paul, q.v. 
Seinte Powel vorbead wiimmen to 
prechen. — Ancren Riwle (' Speche '). 

POWER, a van of Poope, q.v. 

Warih le Powre. — Hund. Rolls. 

POWERS, Power's (Son). 

POWIS (Celt.) Bel. to Powys-land (Wales) 
[cp. Wel. powys, calm, peace] 

. . . ymhob un o dri chwmwd Powys 
(. . . in each of the three wapentakes of 
Powys). — 

'Breuddwyd Rhonabwy' (Rhonabwy's 
Dream); Mdbinogion. 
POWLE, V. Poul, Paul. 

POWLES, PoWLE's (Son) \ . 

POWLESON, PowLE's Son ]^- f^°*'®' f^^"'- 

POWLESLAND. Dweller at Powle's Land : 
V. Powie, Paul. 

POWLETT, a var. of Pawlett, Paulett, q.v. 

POWLEY, a var. of Pawley, Pauley, q.v. 

POWLING, a var. of Pawling, for Paul in, q.v. 

POWLSON, Powl's Son ; v. Poul, Paul. 

POWNALL 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Pownall (Chesh.), 

POWNELL fA.D. 1356-8 Pounal, ■ Pounale = 

(app.) Puna's Hall [O.Merc, hall, .a hall] 

The ' Hall ' in ' Pownall Hall ' is there^ 
fore prob, tautological. 

POWNCEBY, a corrupt form of Ponsonby, 

POWTER, a var. of Pewter, q.v. 




POXON, V. Pogson. 
POYNpER for Pounder, q.v. 
POYNDEXTER,v. Poindexter. 

POYNINGS (Eng.) Bel. to Poynings (Suss,), 
A.D. 960 Puningas = (the Estate of) the 
Pun- Family [-ingas, pi. of the fil. suff. 


POYNTER, V. Pointer. 

POYNTING.v. Pointing. 

POYNTON (Eng.) i Bel. to Poynton (Chesh.), 

form. Poynington; A.-Sax. *Puninga-tiin= 

the Estate of the Pun-Family l-inga, 

genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing ; tUn, estate, 

' . etc.] 

2 Bel. to Pointon (Lines), 13th cent. 

Pointon, Poynton; A.-Sax. *Punantiln = 

Puna's Estate \Punan-, geriit. of Puna ; 

/rf«, estate, etc.] 

Alan de Pointon. — 

' Cal. Inq. P.M., A.D. 1283. 
Cp. Poynings. 

POYNTZ (A.-Fr.-Lat.). I Bel. to Ponts (Nor- 
mandy) = the Bridges [Fr. pont, Lat. 
pons, pontis, a bridge] 
There is a Ponts in the Manche Dept., 
' and another in the Seine-Inf6rieure Dept. 

2 for the French Pons (Norm. Fr. Pom), 
Lat. Pontius\i. either Lat. pons, pontis, a 
bridge, or Lat. pontus (Gr. irSmos), the sea ; 

or both] 
Walter fil. Ponz.— 

Domesday Book, A.D. 1086. 

Reginald de Ponz, otherwise de Pontibus. 

Lane. Inq., A.D. 1216-22. 

Nicholas Poynz. — Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

POYSER \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Weigher [A.-Fr. 

POYZER 1 poiser(e, peiser{e, weigher; I. O.Fr. 

poiser, peiser, Lat. pensare, to weigh] 

PRAED (Al-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Meadow 
[O.Fr. prade, L.Lat. praJta ; Lat. prai-um, a 


PRANCE (Teut.) a nickname from E. prance, 
'to make a phow' [M.E. ^ra(a)«cen, to 
prance: cp. Dial. Dan. pranse, to Strut, 
pfansk, proud ; Dan.-Norw. prarige, Swed. 
prunka, to make a show; Dut. pronk, a 
show, pronken, to strut] 
Willelmus Prance.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, h.D. \n% 

PRANKARD I from the stem seen under 

PRANCARD \ Prance; with the Fr. dim. suff. 

PRANKERDJ -ard, O.Frank, hard, hard [cp. 

M.E. pranken, to adorn, decorate; and 

Dial. E. prank, frolicsome] 

PRATER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the French Pritre= 
Priest [O.Ft. prestre, Lat. preshyter] 

PRATT (Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Meadow 
[O.Fr. prat (Fr. pr^, Lat. prat-um (a mea- 
dow), whence also South. Fr. prat, Ital. 
prato, Span, prado'] 

Prat and Duprat are common French 

Marquis de Prat.— Pam Directory. 

Cp. Pray. 

(Eng.) a nickname from the O.E. pratt, 

'rraff * n trirlr ' 

'craft, 'a trick.' 
Thomas Prat.- 

-Hund. Rolls. 

PRAY (Fr.-Lat. and Scot.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at 
a Meadow [O.Fr. pray (Fr. pri), Lat. 

prat-um] ' 
The pray bysprent wyth spryngand 
sproutis. — Douglas, Virgil, 400, 40. 

Pray, Pri, Dupray, Duprd, are common 
French surnames. 
Cp. Pratt. 

PREATER, V. the commoner form Prater. 

PRECIOUS (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Precious; Affected 
[O.Fr. precieus (mod. pricieux) ; Lat. 
: pretios-us, valuable] 
There is an apparently well-authenti- 
cated instance of this name being used 
for an earlier ' Priesthouse.' 

PREECE, V. Ppees(e. 

PREEDY, the Welsh equiv. (Ap-Readie) of the 
Gael. IVIac Creadie, q.v. [Wei. ap, son] 

PREEN (Eng.) the A.-Sax. pers. name iV(6» 
[pern, a form of O.E- preon, m., a brooch, 


(Celt.) Bel. to Preen ; or Dweller by a 

(Prominent) Tree [Wei. pren} 

PREES \ (Celt.) I the Welsh Ap-Rhys = Son 
PREESEJ OF Rhys, i.e. Ardour [Wei. ap, 
son ; rhSs, ardour] 
Cp. Price. 

2 Bel. to Prees ; or Dweller at the 
Brake or Brushwood [Wei. presi 

Note' ' Prees Heath,' Shropshire. 
PREIST, v. Prest. 

PRENDERGAST for Pend(e)ga3t, q.v. 

Prendergast, a parish in Pembrokeshire, 
owes its name to Prendergast Place, 
formerly a seat of the Prendergast family. 

PRENTICE 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) aphaeresized forms 

PRENTIS(SJof Apprentice [M..K prentis, 

prentys, prentyce, aprentis, .O.Fr. aprentis ; 

ult. f. Lat. appre(he)ndere, to lay hold of, 

A. prentys whilom dwelled in oure citee, ' 
And of a craft of vitaillers was hee. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 4365'-6. 




"I (Eng.) Bel. to Prescot, Pres- 
j cott= the Priest's or Priests' 



Dwelling [M.E. prestU, O.E. 
(from Lat.-Gr.), priest ; O.E. coft cottage, 

The Lancashire Prescot was Prestecote 
in the 12th cent. 

PRESLAND \ (Eng.) Dwellerat the Priest's 
or Priests' La: 
Ppescot(t ; and 

William de Prestlond.' — 
Chesh- Chmhrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1312-13. 



or Priests' Land [v. under 
Ppescot(t; and +'0.E. land] 

(Eng.) forms of Priestley, q.v. 


PRESOW. Bel. to Preesall (N. Lanes), 13th 
cent. Presho, Preshow, i4tn cent. Preshou, 
Preeshow [The second element is evidently 
O.N. haug-r, a mound : the first element is 
obscur^ ; it does not seem to represent a 
Scand. pers. name, and as thereis a hamlet 
called Preese (Domesday Pres)in the same 
Hundred of Amounderness the possibility 
of Pres- being the Cymric pres, a brake, 
brushwood, cannot definitely be 

PRESS (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 

instrument so called [Fr.presse ; f. presser, 

Lat. pressure, to press] 

(Celt.) Dweller at a Thicket [Gael. 


1 do not think that there has been any 
confusion with Prees. 

PRESSON (Eng.) i Priest's Son [v. Prest ; 
and + O.E. sunu] 

William le Prestessone.^ 

Cal. Rot. Orig. 

2 an assim. form of Preston, q.v. 

] (Eng.) Priest [M.E, prest, O.E. 
; ' /rr^(7rf.(f. Lat.-Gr.] 


Sir Parish Prest, quod he, for Goddes 
bones . . . —Chaucer, Cant Tales, B n66. 
Yong men to him thay warbaith Clark 
and' Preist. — 

The Thrie Priests of Peblis, mZ. 

(A:^Fr.-Lat.) Ready, Quick [M.E. O.Fr. 
prest (mod.Fr. prit), Lat. praest-us\ 

As prest as a sperhauk [sparrowhawk]. 
— Piers Plowman, ^igt. 

The modern French preste,, agile, quick, 
sharp, is from Ital. ^rMto. 


PRESTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr,) Priest [A.-Fr. 

O.Fr. prestre (Fr. pri^e); presbyter, 

Gr. irpeffpiTep-os, an elder of the church] 

Thomas le Prestre. — Hund. Rolls. 
I will . . . bring you the length of Prester 
John's foot.— MmcA Ado, &c., 11. i. 278. 

PRESTON (Eng.) Bel. to Preston = , the 
Priest's or Priests' Place ; Church- 
Domain [O.E. prSost, priest; tAn, estate, 


We see the genit. pi. form, PriostatAn, 
in a charter of the year 946 (' Cart. Sax.' 
No. 811). Preston near Cirencester is 
stated to have belonged to the Confessor's 
priest - chancellor Regenbald. Preston 
near Ledbury " anciently belonged to a 
religious house." Preston, Lanes, is 
Presume in Domesday Book. Preston, 
Warwickshirie, is the Domesday lV«teto««. 
The i3th-cent.form of this common place- 
name is usually Preston, e.g. — 

Adam de Preston. — 

Scut, of Gascony, A.D. 1242-3. 

PRESTWIOH (Eng.) Bel. to Prestwich = the 

Priest's or Priests' Place [O.E. prSqst, 

priest ; wlc, dwelling(s] 

Adam de Prestwrych. — 

Gt. Inq. ofServ., A.D. 1212. 

PRETIOUS, V. Precious. 

PRETT, a var. of Pratt, q.v. 

PRETTIMAN, v. Prettyman. 

PRETTY (Eng.) Crafty, Sly; Fine [M.E. 
pretie, praty, fine, crafty; O.E. prtEttig, 


PREVOST (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Provost [O.Fr. pre- 
vost (mod. priiidt); Lat. praeposit-us, a 
prefect, commander] 
Alan Prepositus. — Hund. Rolls. 

PREW (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Gallant, Valiant [M.E. 

preiv, prue, O. Fr. prou, preu (Fr. preux) , prod, 

gallant; app. f. *prud-us, a syncopated form 

of Lat. ^rouid-us, foreseeing] 

William le Prue.— Co/. Inq. P.M. 

PREWETTl = Prew (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
PREWITT Jsuff. -rf. 

The form in our i3th-cent. Hundred- 
Rolls, Pruet, is the present French form. 

PRICE, v.Preeoe, Prees(e>. 

Madot [Madog] Ap-Ris, a.d. 1381. — 
Thierry,Co»g. de I' Angleterre, App. IL 27. 
Harry Ap-Rice, A.D. 1544.-^ 

I = Pretty (q.v.) + man. 




PRICHARD (Celt. + Teut.) the Welsh ^/i- 

Richard = Son of Richard: v. Richard 

[Wei. ap, son] 

John Ap-Richard.— 

Valor EccleS; temp. Hen. viii. 

PRICHETT I a palatal form of Priokett, q.v, 
2 a weak form of Prichard, q.v. 

PRICKARD (Celt. + Teut.) the Welsh Ap- 

Rickard = Son of Rickard: v. Rickard 

[Wei. ap, son] 

PRICKETT (Eng.) a nickname (and sign- 
name) from the second-year Buck so 
called [M.E. pri{c)ket, pryket; f. MJE.prik- 
ken, O.E. prician, to prick] 

And joyed oft to chace the trembling 
pricket. — 

Spenser, Shepheards Calender (Dec.) 

(Fr.) the French Priquet : (a) a dim. f. 
the Teut. base *prii, to prick. 

(6) a contr. of PerriqUet, f. the Bret. 
Perric, a dim. of O.Fr. Perre (Peter) ; with 
the Fr. dim. suff. -et. 

(Celt. + Teut.) a weak form of Priok- 
ard, q.v. 

Richard Priket. — Hund. Rolls. 

PRICKITT for Priokett, q.v. 

PRIDAY \(? Celt.) Bel. to Priddy (Soms.) 

PRIDDEY [Early forms lacking, nothing de- 

PRIDDY finite can be said of the origin of 

PRIDEE I the name : it may poss. be f. Wei. 

pridd, clay, esp. as there seems to have 

been a hamlet called Prid in Devonshire 

in mediaeval times ; and Pridd- occurs in 

Welsh place-names] 

PRIDE (Eng.) a nickname and pageant-name 

[O.E. pryd-, prSte, pride] 

(Celt.) Precious, Dear [M.Wel. pric[\ 

PRIDEAUX. Bel. to Prideaux (Cornwall), 13th 
cent. Prydeaus, Prudeaus, Prideas, Pridias 
[If this is a native Cornish name we might 
<vell consider the Corn. pri{d (Wei. 
pridd), clay + Corn, aus, als (Wei. allt), a 
cliff, if this suited topographically ; but 
it is stated that 'Prideaux' was originally 
the name of a castle belonging to a Nor- 
man, in which case the name might be 
French, poss. the French place-name (Les) 
Pradeaux, a (pi.) dim. f. O.Fr. prade — 
Lat. prat-um — a meadow ; but this is not 
at all borne out by the I3th-cent. forms 
quoted above] 

Note.-^Colonel W. F. Prideaux tells me 
that the earliest form of the name is Pridias, 
Pridyas, Prydyas. In this case the second 

element may be the Corn, cognate of Wei. 
ias, 'what pervades,' 'nature'; and a French 
origin must be definitely excluded. 

PRIDGEON (Fr.) for the French Preuxjean = 
Gallant John [v. under Prew and John] 

PRIDHAM for Prudhomme, q.v. 

PRIESTER, V. Prester. 

PRIESTLEY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Priestley or 

PRIESTLAY \ Priestleigh; or Dweller at the 

PRIESTLY J Priest's or Priests' Lea 

\0.'E. prSost, priest; ledh, lea] 

Priestleigh, Soms., was Prestlegh A.D. 

PRIESTMAN (Eng.) an augmentative of 
Priest : v. Prest, and -1- man. 

(N.Eng. and Scand.) Priest's Man 

PRIESTNALL (Eng.) Bel. to Priestnall 
(?Chesh.) [Earlier forms than the 1 6th-cent. 
Prestenall lacking, it cannot definitely be 
said whether -all represents O.Merc, hall, 
a hall, O.E. h{e)al{h, a nook, corner, or 
O.E. h{e)al{d, a slops: Presten- is a M.E. 
adject, form oi prest, priest] 

PRIME (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Thin, Slender, Small 
[O.Fr. prim(e ; Lat. prim-us, first] 

PRIMMER (A.-Fr.-Lat.). Premier, First, 
Chief [O.Fr. primier (Fr. premier), Lat. 


PRIMROSE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 
flower [A.-Fr. primerose, by false analogy 
for primerole, f. L.Lat, primula, a primrose 
(butO.Fr. primerose denoted the hollyhock] 

Thomas Primerose. — 1 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1424-5. 
But the iRosebery family took their sur- 
name from an estate at Primrose, co. Fife. 

PRINCE (A.-Fi-.-Lat.) a nickname (applied e.g. 
to a prince's servant) and pageant-name 
[Fr. prince ; Lat. princeps, chief, leader] 

PRING (Eng.) a voiced form of Prink, q.v. 
(Fr.) = Ppin(n (q.v.) with added E. -^. 

PRINGLE, a Scottish surname, was supposed 
by MacBain to be a corrupt form of the 
O.F. pelegrin, a pilgrim ; but this is ex- 
tremely doubtful. The name rather = 
Pring (q.v.) with the dim. suff. -el. A 
pringle was formerly a small Scottish 
silver coin worth about a penny. 

PRINK (Eng.) Pert, Forward [Dial. E., f. 

prink, to adorn, show off; app. a form of 

E. prick, O.E. prician, to prick] 




PRIN(N (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Thin, Small, De- 
licate [ O.Fr. prirti a reduction of 
prm{e ; Lat. prim-us, first] 
2 contr. of Perrin, q.v. 

William Prin.— /f«»d. Rolls. 

PRIOR (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Head of a Priory; also 

a nickname (as for a prior's servant) and 

pageant-name [M.E. O.Fr. pri{o)ur (Fr. 

prieur) ; Lat. prior, first] 

PRITCHARD (Celt, -f Teut.) for the Welsli 

Ap-Richard= Son of Richard, q.v. [Wei. 

ap, son] 
See Prichard. 



PRITT for Prett (through dial, lengthening 
of the e), a var. of Pratt, q.v. 
William de Preet, alias Pret. — 

Plac. de quo Warr. 
PRITTY for Pretty, q.v. 

PRIVETT (Eng.) Bel. to Privett (Hants), said 

to be the Saxon Pruntesfldd = Prunt's 

Stream ; but I have not elsewhere met 

this pers. name [O.K. fldd, a stream, flood; 

O.K. fldde, a channel] 

PROBART \ (Celt. + Teut.) for the Welsh 

PROBE-RT \ Ap^Rohert = Son of Robert,, 

q.v. [Wei. ap, sonj 

PROBIN 1 (Celt. -I- Fr.-Teut.) for the Welsh 
PROB\ H } Ap-Roiin = Son of Robin, q.v. 
Wilham ap-Robyn. — Pari. Rolls. 

We find the form Probin in i6th-cent. 
Cheshire deeds. 

PROCKTER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat^ Proctor, Pro- 

PROCKTOR . curator [M.E. prok(e)tour, a 

PROCTER ' contr. of procuratour; O.Fr. 

PROCTOR J procurator, Lat. procurator, 

manager, agent, administrator] 

For I make Piers the Plowman 

My procuratour and my reve.- — 

Piers Plowman, 13471-2. 
Willelmus Proktour. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

PRODGERl (Celt. -1- Teut.) for the Welsh 

PROGER J Ap-Rodger or Ap-Roger= Hon OF 

Ro(d)ger, q.v. [Wei. ap, son] 


"I (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Prophet (a 

J nickname) lO.Fv.'prophete, Lat. 

propheta, Gr. irpo^^T/s] 

PROPERT, ^ var. of Probert, q.v. ' 

PROSSER \ (Celt.) for the Welsh Ap-Rosser 
PROSSOR J = Son of Rosser, q.v. 
David ap-Rosser. — 

Valor Eccles., temp. Hen. viii. 

PROST (Eng.) Priest \}A.^.prost, O.E.preSst, 


An prostes upe londe singeth. — 
The Owl and the Nightingale (13th cent.), 


Pi^OTHERO \ (Celt.)for the Welsh ^^-iJAyii- 
PROTHEROE ,erch = Son of Rhydderch or 
PROTH RO E RHUDDERCH.i.e. the Reddish- 
PROTHER > Brown [Wei. «>, son: the pers. 
name is a compound of Wei; rhudd(dd as 
th), red, and erch, dark brown] 

PROUDFOOT 1 (Eng.) the M.E. Praudfot, 

PROUDpUTE \Prud{e)fote, a nickname for 

PROUDFIT J one with an arrogant gait 

[M .E. pr(p)ud, pr(o)ut{e, etc., O.E. prAt, 

proud (prob. of Fr. origin) -t- M.E./o<(e, 

O.E. fot, a foot] 

PROUDLOVE (Eng.) a nickname of the same 

class as Sweetlove, Dearlove, etc. (poss. 

bestowed on the successful suitor of a 

village belle) [v. under Proudfoot, and -J- 

M.E. love, O.E. lufu, love] 

PROUT (Eng.) Proud [M.E. pr(p)ui(e, O.E. 

prat (prob. of Fr. origin] 

Thomas le Piute.— Hund. Rolls. 

Sturne he was thoru out al, and heivol 

[haughty] and />««<.— 

Rob. Glouc. Chron. : ' Wm. Conq.' 406 (7729). 



[Dial. E. provan, proven (Scot, prowan), for 

provand, Fr.provende,provision, provender ; 

L.Lat. prcebenda, a payment, etc.] 

We find the Early Mod. E. provant- 
master, one who provided for soldiers. 

Theaw may sleep if t'l lay th' proven 
ready.— Collier (Lanes), Tim Bobbin, p. 67. 

PRO VAST ] (A.-Lat.) Provost [O.E. prdfost; 
PROVIST y'Lat. praposit-us, a commander] 

PROWSE \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Valiant, Gallant 
PR0USE;[M.E, O.Fr. prous, pro(u)z, (Fr. 

Richard le Prouz.— Hund: Rolls. 

To countenance their wedding feast did 
want nor knight nor prowse. — 
Warner, Albions England, a.d. 1592. 

PRUCE I One from Prussia [M.E. Pruce, Fr. 

Prusse, Ger. Preussen ; said to be from a 

Lithuanian or Lettish word meaning 

' neighbours '] 

And if I sente over see . . . 

into iVKce-lond. — 

Piers Plowman, 881 1-13. 
2 occ. conf. Hrith Prouse, Prowse, q.v. 

I "I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) meton. for a purveyor 
I J of provender or provisions, etc. 




PRUDAME for Prudhomme, q.v. 

PRUDEN seems, like Provan, Proven, to have 
lost a final dental, and to be for Prudent 
[Fr. prudent ; Lat. prudens -eritis, foresee- 


Man ; Expert rA.-Fr. O.Fr. prudhom{m)e, 

prodhom{m)e (Wi. prud'homme) ; app. f. a 

syncopated iorm*prud-us oi Lat. prouid-iis, 

foreseeing + Lat. homo, man.] 

Geoffrey Prifdhomme. — Hund. Rolls. 
PRUE, V. Prew. 
PRUETT, V. Prewett. 
PRUST, V. Prost. 
PRYCE, V. Price. 
PRYDE, V. Pride. 
PRYER 1 , 


V. Prior. 


PRYKE (EngO a diphthongized form oi Prick, 
a term of endearment, also the name of a 
pointed weapon [M.E, prikke, prike, O.E. 


PRYNNE, V. Prinn. 

[v. Prime. 

PRYTHERCH (Celt.) ihe'Ws\shAp-Shydderch: 
V. under Protfiero. 

PUCK, V. PooI<(e. 

PUCKRIDGE (Eng. ) Bel. to Puckeridge 

(Herts) = Puca's or the Elf Ridge [O.E. 

puca, an elf ; hrycg, a ridge] 

PUDDEFOOT 1 (Teut.) app. a nickname for a 

PUDDIFOOT Club-footed Person [ cp. 

PUDDEPHAT L.Ger. puddig, thick, stumpy; 

and + E./00*, O.E./rf/] 

PUDDIFER, V. Petifer. 

PUDDLE (Eng.) i S^uat, Dumpy [Dial. E., 

, with dim. suff. -le tor -el: cp. L.Ger. 

puddig, thick, stumpy, f. the same base 

seen in O.E. pud-oc, a wen] 

2 Dweller at a Puddle [M.E. podel, a 

small muddy pool ; f., with dim. suff. -el, 

O.E. pttdd, a ditch] 

PUDSEY (Eng.) Bel. to Pudsey (Yorks), 14th 
cent. Puddesay, Domesday Podechesaie = 
PuDEC's or Puf)Oc's Waterside [The , 
pers. name (in the genitive) is from the 
same base as O.E. pudoi; (-oc, dim. suff.), a 
wen + M.E. ey, O.E. i{e)g, waterside, 


PUGET (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Puget (France) = 

a Ridge or Height [f. L.Lat. podi-um, a 

ridge, height — Lat. podi-um, a projecting 

structure ; with the Fr. dim. suff. -et\ 

PUGH "I for the Welsh Ap-Hugh = Son of 
PUGHEJ Hugh: V. Hugh. 

PULBROOK (Eng.) Dweller at the Pooi^ 
Brook [O.E. pdl + hr6c\ 

PULESTON (Eng.) There is no trace of a 
local name Puleston, which is prob. rather 
a contracted form of the Herefordshire 
place-name Puddlestone than a corrupt 
form of *Paulestun. 

PULFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Pulford (Chesh.), 
A.D. 1303-4 Pulford = the Ford at the 
Pool [O.E. pdl -{■ ford\ 

PULHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Pulham (Norf. ; 
Dorset), 13th cent. Pulham = the Pool- 
Land [O.E. pdl + ham(m, an enclosure, 
piece of land] 

PULLARl (Eng.) Dweller at the Pool-Bank 
puller; [O.E. pdl, a. pool + dra, a bank, 


We find the redundant form PuUar 
Bank in Sussex. 






I meton. for a Poulterer 
[M.E. pullen {pullain{e), poul- 
try; a pi. form, of Fr. poule, a 
hen, fowl, L.Lat. pulla, fem. 
of Lat. pullus, a chicken] 

'PouUailler, a poulter or keeper of 
pullainf.' — Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, ed. 1650. 

She . . . knows how pullen should be 
cramm'd. — 

Beaumont & Fl., Scornful Lady, V. ii. 

2 the French Poulain = (a) a nickname 
from the Colt [M.Fr. poulin, O.Fr. polin, 

Lat. pullin-us] 

(&) a name applied to the children of 

unions between French and Syrians at 

the time of the Crusades [prob. f. Lat. 

pull-US, dark-coloured] 

3 the French Poulaine, an old form of 
Pologne^ Poland : v. Poland. 

4 the French Poulin, a form of Paulin 
(as well as of Poulain) : v. Paulin. 

Nicholas le Pullen.— ffM«rf. Rolls. 
John Puleyn. — do. 

Nicholas Polayn. — 

Soms. Subsidy-Roll (a.d. 1327). 

PULLEY = Pooley, q.v. 

PULLING \i = Pullin, Pullen (q.v.), with 

2 Dweller at the Pool-Meadow [O.E. 



pul, p6l, a pool + O.N.E. ing, O.N. eng, a 


3 for the Fr.-Bret. local name P(9a/e«c = 

Narrow Pool [Bret, poul, a pool + enk, 

William Pulyng. — 

Lane. Assi3e-RoUs,A.D. 1284. 

PULLINQER, an unvoiced form of Bullinger, 


PULSON = Poulson, q.v. 

PULTER = Poultep, q.v. 

William ^e Pulter.— 

Lane. Rental, A.D. 1322. 

PULTON (Eng.) Dweller at the Pool En- 
closure or FiiRMSTEAD [O.E. pul,pol + 


PUMFORD for Pomfret, Pontefract, q.v. 

PUMFREY ' for the Welsh Ap-Humfrey, 
PUMFRAY \ Ap-Humphrey = Son of Hum- 
PUMPHREYJ phrey, Humfrey, q.v. [Wei. 

ap, son\ 

PUMPHERSTON (Celt. + Eng. ) Bel. to 
Pumpherston (Scotland) = Pumphrev's 
Town [O.E. tiin\ 

PUNCH (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Nor.-Fr. Ponchie, Fr. 

Ponce, Lat. Pontius [f. {a) Lat. pons, poritis, 

a bridge ; (6) Lat. pontus (Gr. irdwos), the 

/ sea] 

Robert Punche. — Hund. Soils. 

PUNCHARD, the Nor.-Fr. Ponchard = 

Ponch{e (v. Punch) + the dim. suif. -ard 

[O.Frank, hard, hard] 

PUNCHEON 1 the Nor.-Fr. Ponchon ( Fr. 

PUNSHON i Ponfon) = Ponch{e (v. Punch) 

+ the dim. suff. -on] 

PUNNETT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Fr. Ponet, for 

Pontet, a, local name = the Little Bridge 

[Fr. pent, Lat. pons, pontis, a bridge + the 

Fr. dim. suff. -et] 

PUNT (A.-Fr.-iLat.) I the 'Fx{Du)Pont={Oi the) 
Bridge [Fr. /io«;, Lat. />o» J, -«ftij 

2 (occ.) a contracted form of P u n n ett,q. v. 

PUNTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Fr. Po«rfer, a South. 
Fr. word for a perron [f. Lat. pons, pontis, 

a bridge] 

PUPLETT; v. Poplett. 

PURCELL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 

Young Pig [A.-Fr. puKel(l, porcelQ, O.Fr. 

poreel (Ft. pourceau, a pig), if. (with dim. 

suff. -el) Lat.porc-us, a pig] 

Roger Poreel. — Hund. Rolls. 


PURCEY tor Percy, q.v. 

PURCHAS WA.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from 

PURCHASE theM.E.purchasen (hence M.E. 

PU RCH ES purchas, booty, gain), O.Fr. piir- 

PU RCH ESEV chacer(FT.pourchasser),to pursue 

eagerly ; Lat. prd, and captare, to, catch] 

And bothe we goon abouten cure 

purchas.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, D 1530. 



PURDIE (for Pardew (through the pron. 

PURDUE f/Br-), q.v. ' 



That Redcrosse knight, perdie, I never 
slew. — Spenser, The Faerie Queene, \, vi. 42. 

PURDOM (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 

oath ParDom ! By (the) Lord! [Fr. par, 

Lat. per + Fr. dom, Lat. domin-um (ace. 

of domin-us), lord] 

There has been some confusion with 

the next name. 

PURDON (Eng.) Dweller at the Peartree- 
HlLi, [O.E. pirige, peartree -|- diin, hill] 

PUREFOY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname: Pure 

Faith [Ft. pure ((.), Lat. pura + O.Fn foy 

(Ft. foi), Lai. fides, faithj 

PUREY, like Pury, a var. of Pirie, q.v. 
PURKINS for Perkins, q.v. 


PURNELL for Pernell : v. Parnell. 
PURRIER, a var. of Perrier", q.v. 
PURSELL1 p ,1 

. pursaill; '""'•cell, qv. , 

PURSER (A.-Lat.) i Cashier, Paymaster. 
2 Purse-Maker. 

[M.E. pwser(e ; O.E. purs (Lat. bursa), a 
purse -t- the agent, suft. -ere] 

PURSEY for Percy, q.v. 

PURSHOUSE (Eng.) The first element of 
this Midland local surname (i6th cent. 
Persehouse) is prob. the French pers. name 
Pers or Piers (Peter). Purshall, the 
Worcestershire place-name, was Pershull 
[M.E. hull, a hill] in the 13th and 14th 

PURSLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Purslow (Salop), 
1 6th cent. Purslane [the second element 
is O.E. hlAw, a (burial) mound, hill ; the 
first represents a pers. name in the geni- 
tive ease— perh. the A.-Sax. Paghere] 




PU RTON (Eng.) Bel. to Purton(Wilts, a.d. 796, 
Puritun, Perytiin, a.d. 854, Peritiin ; Glouc, 
etc.) ; Puriton, Soms. = the Pear-Tree 
Orchard or Enclosure [O.E. *purige, 
pyrige,pirige, peartree {pere, pear) + tun, 
enclosure, etc.] 

PURVIS "1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Parvis 
PURVES J or PoRCH(gen. of a church) [A.-Fr. 
parvys, O.Fr. parvis, L.Lat. paravis-us ; 
Lat. paradis-us] 
The parvis, or portico, of old St. Paul's 
was much frequented by lawyers. 
A Sergeant of the Lawe, war and wys, 
That often hadde ben at the Parvys. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 309-10. 
The u in the name is due to the pronun- 
ciation Parvis. 

PU RY, a var. of Pirie, q.v. 
William atte Purye. — 

Subsidy Roll, Soms., A.D: 1327. 

PURYER, a var. of Perriep*, q.v. 

PUSEY 1 (Eng.)Bel.toPusey(Berks); Pewsey 

PUZEY ; (Wilts), the Al-Sax, Pefesig=PETE's 

Waterside ' [O.E. i(e)g, island, etc.] 

PUTLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Putley = i the PiT- 
Lea [v. under Putt', and -t- M.E. ley, 

O.E. ledh] 
2 Put(t)a's Lea [v. under Putt'], 

PUTTMAN}' = P"tt(q.v.) + ... 

2 a metathesized form of Putnam, q.v. 

PUTNAM \ (Eng.) Bel. to Puttenham (Herts; 

PUTTNAM ] Surrey), the A.-9ax. *Puttanhdm 

= Putta's Home or Estate [Puitan-, 

genit. of Putta (v. under Putt") -t- hdm, 

home, etc.] 

PUTNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Putney (Surrey), the 

A.-Sax. Puttanig = Putta's Waterside 

[Puttan-, genit. of Putta (v. under Putt') 

+ i{e)g, island, etc.] 

PUTT (Eng.) I Dweller at a Pit or Pond 
[M.E. put{te,pyt(te, O.E.pyt(t, Lat. pute-us] 
John de la Putte.—Hund. Soils. 
For I shal punysshe hem [them] in 
Or in the^M^ of helle. — 

Piers Plowman, 6356-7. 

j2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Putta, Puta 

[app. a descriptive nickname, f. a var. of 

0:E. pyt{t, a pit or pustule ; Lat. pute-us, a 

PUTTERGALLl „ Do.*„rfoi 
PUTTERGILL )^-P°'^"^^'- 

PUTTOCK 1 (Eng.) i a nickname and sign- 

PUTTICK J name from the Kite [Late M.E. 

puttocke, M.E. puttoc, puttok, a kite, hawk] 

Like as aputtocke having spyde in sight 

A gentle faulcon sitting on an hill.. — 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, V. v. 15. 

2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Puttoc, Puttuc 
[-0C, -uc, dim. suff.] 
Walter Pnttok.—Hund. Rolls. 

PUXON I Puck's Son : v. Puck, Pook(e. 
2 for Puxton, q.v. 

PUXTON (Eng.) Bel. to Puxton (Soms.; 

Wore.) = Puc(c)'s Estate [v. under 

P6ok(e ; and + O.E. tiin] 

PUZEY, V. Pusey. 

PYATT = Py(e (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. sufif. -at. 

PYBUS (N.Eng.orScand.)Dweller at the Pike- 
Busk (Bush) [v. under Pike and Busk] 
Elena Pykebusk. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
But Pike- perh. refers to the prickly 
nature of the bush rather than (as Bards- 
ley thought) to a Peak or Hill. 

PYCOCK = Py(e (q.v.) + cock. 

PY(E (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname and sign-name 

from the Magpie [M.E. O.Fr. pye, pie, 

Lat. pica, a magpie] 

John Py&.—rHund. Rolls. ' 

And she was proud and peert as is a 

/liie.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3950. 

His ledene [speech] be in oure Lordes 
Like a pies chiteryng.— 

Piers Plowman, 7935-6. 
PYECROFT 1 (Fr.-Lat.-t-Eng.) Dweller at the 
PYCROFT J Magpie-Field [v. under Py(e 

and Cpoft] 

PYEFINCH 1 (Fr.-Lat.+ Eng.) a nickname apd 

PYFINCH J sign-name from the Pie-finch or 

Chaffinch [v. under Py(e and Finch'] 

PYET \ = Py(e (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. sufi. 
PYETTJ -et. 

Here comes the worthy prelate as pert 
as a pyet. — W. Scott ; Webster. 

PYGOTT = Pigott, q.v. 
PYKE = Pike, q.v. 
PYLCH(E = Pilch, q.v. 
PYLE = Pile, q.v. 

Who fifty rock-rear'd />yfej and castles... 
— Drayton, Poly-Olbion, xxix. 285. 

PYNE = Pine, q.v. 

With many high lorer [laurel] and pyn. 
—Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 1379. 
PYOTT = Py(e (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. suff. -ot. 
PYPER = Piper, q.v. 
PYRIE = Pirie, q.v. 






QUADLING, V. Quodling. 

QUAGGIN, V. the commoner form Quiggln. 

QUAID (Celt.) for the Irish Mac Uaid = Son 
OF Uad [cp. O.Ir. «arfa, a master] 

QUAIFE (A.-Fr.-Ger.-Lat.), earlier Quoife and 
Coyfe ; a pickname from the headdress or 
cap so called (perh. specifically from the 
close-fitting cap of lawn or silk orig. 
worn by sergeants-at-law) [Fr. cqiffe, 
O.H.Ger. chuppha ; Lat. cuppa, a cup] 

QUAIL \ (Celt. + Lat.) the Manx contracted 
QUAILE .form of the Celt. MacPhail = Son 
QUALE OF Paul, q.v. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a nickname and sign- 
name from the Quail [A.-Fr. quaille (Fr. 
caille) ; of L.Ger. orig.] 
In France, the dim. caillette signifies a 
chatterer, a gossip. 

QUAINT"! (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Prudent, Skilful; 

QUANT J Neat, Fastidious; Odd, Curious 

[M.E, guaynt{e, queynt{e, coyni(e, coint(e; 

O.Fr. coint, prudent, etc.; Lat. cognit-us, 

Michael le QneyrA.— Pari. Writs. 
Margaret la Coynte. — Cat. Inq. P.M. 

And therfore have I greet necessitee 
Upon this queynte world tavyse [to ad- 
vise] me. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 61425-6. 

. . . She, nothing quaint 

Nor 'sdeignfull of so homely fashion. — 

Spenser, The Faerie Queene, III. vii. 10. 

QUAINTON (Eng. ) Bel. to Quainton = 
Quinton, q.v. 

Quainton, Bucks, is also known as 


QUEINTRELL t forms of Cantrell, q.v. 


QUALTER (Celt. + Teut.) for the Irish and 
Manx Mac Walter = Son of Walter, q.v. 

QU ALTERS = Qualter (q.v.) with E. genit. -s. 

QUALTROUGH (Manx), 17th cent. Qualteragh 
— Qualter (q.v.) wdth the pers. suff. -agh 

QUANTOCKI (Eng.) Bel. to Quantock 

QUANTICK f (Soms.), 9th cent. (K. .lElfred's 

Will) Cantuctiin = Cantuc's Estate 

[pers. name with O.E. dim. suff. -uc; + 

O.E. ttin, estate, etc.] 

Cantucuudu (Soms.) occurs in a charter 

a.d. 682 ('Caft. Sax,' No. 62). 

QUAREL "1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.)Dwellerat a Quarry 

QUARELL/ [M.E. quarel, O.Fr. quarrel; prop. 

M.E. quarrer{e,O.Fr. guarriere (Fr. carriire), 

a quarry ;ult. f. Lat. quadrare, to square] 

Ivo 4e Quarel. — Testa de Nevill. 

QUARK, v. Quirk. 

" It was the commoner name in the Isle 
of Man 200 years ago, but now Quirk has 
almost entirely superseded it." — 

A. W. Moore, p. 15. 

QUARLES. Bel. to Quarles (Norf.), a.d. 
1 501-2 same spelling [the lack of suffici- 
ently early forms precludes a definite 
opinion on the etymology, but the name 
looks like a dial. pron. of A.-Fr. quarels= 
quarries: see under Quarel(l] 

QUARMBYl (Scand. ) Bel. to Quarmby 

QUARNBY J (Yorks), 14th cent. Quemhy = 

the Hand-Mill Place [O.N. /6«er«, a 

quern -|- 6j;-r] 

QUARNDON (Eng.) Bel. to Qiiafndon (Derby) 

= the Hand-Mill Hill [O.E. cweom, a 

quern + diin, a hill] 


QUARRELL \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) = Quarel(l, q.v. 


QUARRIER(A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Quarryman [O.Fr. 

quarrier (Fr. carrier), Lat. quadratari-us, a 

stone-cutter (stone-squarer] 

2 Dweller at a Quarry [O.Fr. quarriere 

(Fr. carrihe) ; f. Lat. quadrare, to square] 

QUARRINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Quarrington 
[As Quarrington, Bucks, was formerly 
Quarrendon, and Quarrington, Durham, 
formerly Queringdon (app. for an earlier 
Querendon), these places prob. owe the 
first element of their name to the O.E. 
cweom or cwyrn, a hand-mill, with the 
second element O.E. dun, a hill ; but the 
Lincolnshire Quarrington occurs as 
Querinton, variantly Cuerntntiin (O.E. tUn, 
estate), in a Latin charter of the Confes- 
sor's time which is, however, considered 


QUARTERMAIN \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Four-Han- 

QUARTERMAINE ded, i.e. Mail - Fisted 

QUARTERMAN ' [A.-Fr. quatrentayn{s, qua- 

QUATERMAIN 1 treman{s, quatermain{s, 

O.Fr. jaaft'e-iMfltB, four - handed ; Lat. ' 

quatuor, four, and man-us, hand] 

Clare Quatremayns. — Hund. Rolls. 

QUARTON (Eng.) i for Wharton, q.v. 

2 for Quarnton = the Quern (Hand- 
Mill)-Place [O.E. cweorn + tUn] 

QUATERMASS (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Quatre- 
mares (Normandy) = the Four Pools 




[Fr. guatre, Lat. quatuor, four + theph of 

Ff. mare, L.Lat. mara, a pool ; Lat. mare, 

> sea] 

Adam de Quatremars. — Testa de Nevill. 

QUAY, V, Kay. 

" Probably contracted fro<n Mac Kay. 
It is a purely Manx name, and is com- 
moner than Kay, Kie, Key, or Kee." — 

A. W. Moore, p. 39. 

QUAYLE = Quaile, q.v. 

QUECK, a form of Quick, q.v. [M.E. quek, 
O.E. cwic = O.H.Ger. quec\ 

QUECKETT \ = Queok, Quick (q.v.) + the 
QUECKITT j Fr. dim. suff. -et.\ 

QUEELY, a form of Quilley, q.v. 

QUEEN (Eng.) a nickname and festival-name 
[O.E. <w^», queen ; wife] 

(Celt.) an abbrev. of Mac Queen, q.v. 

QUEENBOROUGH (Eng.) Bel. to Queen- 
borough, Queeniborough = the Queen's 
Stronghold [O.E. cw4n, queen + hurhi 
Queeniborough, Leic, was Quenhure in 
the 13th cent. Queenborough, Kent, was 
anc. Cyninghurg (Royal Castle) : " Edward 
III. rebuilt the castle . . . and conferred 
on it its present name in honour of his 
queen Philippa " {Nat. Gaz.) 

QUEINTRELL, v. Quaintrell. 

QUEK, V. Queck ante. 


V. Queckett ante. 

QUELCH (Celt. + Teut.) for Mac Wekh = 

Son of the Welshman : v, Welch [Ir., 

Gael., and Manx mac, son] 

QUENBY "1 (Scand.) Bel. to Quenby, (Leic), 

QUEIVIBY J 13th cent. Quenebi=\.he Woman's 

or Women's Estate [O.N. kudn, a woman, 

wife ; or O.N. kuenna, genit. pi. of kona, a 

woman, wife + 6j/-r, farm, estate] 

QUENDON (Eng.) Bel. to Quendon (Essex) 

= the Queen's or the Woman's Hill 

[the genit. of O.E. «u/«, a queen, wife ; or 

cwene, a woman + din, a hjll] 

QUENNELL(A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Quenel, 

a local name = the Little Oak [North. 

Fr. quine (Ff. chine), O.Fr. quesne, Lat. 

quesn-us, mutat. of quern-us, of oak ; querc- 

-us, oak-tree -|- the dim. suif. -el] 

(Eng.) I for. the A.-Sax. fern. pers. name 

(a) CiBiitkild [O.'E. cwdn, queen, wife; 

cwene, woman -|- hild, war, battle] 

(ft) Cynehild [O.E. cyne-, royal 4- hild, 
war, battle] 

Thomas Quenild. — Hund. Rolls. 
2 for the A.-Sax. male pers. name 
Coenw{e)ald [O.E. coene, bold, keen + 
iv{e)ald, power] 

QUENTIN (Fr.-Lat.) i for Quintin; q.v. 

2 Bel. to St. Quentin or St. Quintin ; v. 

The French saint-name Quentin was in, 
Latin Quintinus- 

St. Quentin is a common French place- 

QUESNEL \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French (Du) 

QUESNELL J !3»M»e/ = (Of the) Little Oak 

[v. under Quennell (Fr.)] 

Le Quesnel is a Somme place-name. 

QUESTED, a Kentish surname, app. coiitainsi, 
as second element, the M.E. , sted, O.E. 
siede, a place ; but without sufficiently 
early forms nothing definite can be said 
as to the etymology of the first element, 
which may perh. be the East. Dial. E. 
queach, a thicket. 

QUEX (Eng.) Bel. to Quex (Kent). [This place 

" anciently belonged to the Quek family,"' 

from which it is tolerably evident that 

Quex is merely the genit. (Queks) of the 

family-name Quek : v. Queck, Quick] 

QUICK "I (Teut.) i Quick, Lively, Nimble 

QUICKE ) [M.E. quicke, quic, quik, quyk; O.E. 

cwie (= O.Sax. quiU) = O.N. kuik-r, living, 

Robert Quic. — Hund. Rolls. 

And short and guik [variantly quyk] and 
ful of hy sentence.— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, Prol. 306. 

(occ.) 2 Dweller by a Quick-Tree, i.e. 
a Rowan-Tree or Mountain-Ash ; orig, 
an Aspen [O.E. cwic tredw, an aspen] 

QUICKFALL (Scand.) Dweller at the Quick- 
Tree Hill [v. under Quick', and -f- O.N. 
fiall, a hillj fell ; but Quick- here may perh. 
refer to the grass so called : cp. the Dan.- 
Norw. kvikgrcEs] 
This is specifically a Yorkshire and 
Lincolnshire surname. 

QUICKLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Quick- 
Tree (Or the Quick-Grass) Lea [v. undei; 
Quickfall and Quick'', and -|- M.E. ley, 
O.E. ledh, a lea, meadow] 
Qcc. (Celt.) for Quigley, q.v. 

QUICKIVIAN = Quick (q.v.) + man. 




QUIGGIN (Celt.) a contr. of the Erse Mac 

Guaigin = Son of Guagin, i.e. the 

Frivoler [Ir. mac, son + the genit. of 

guagin, a light, frivolous person] 

QUIGLEY (Celt.) for the Irish O'Coigligh or 
O'Cuigligh = Grandson or Descendant 


grandson + the gienit. of Coig- or Cuig- 

leach, app. f. O.Ir. ciiig, counsel, advice, 

with the plen. suff. -l{e)ach] 

QUILKIN (Celt. + Teut.) a contr. of Mac 
Wilkin = Son of Wilkin, q.v. 

aUlLL (Celt.) for (a) the Irish O'Cuill = 

Grandson or Descendant of Coll, i.e. 

the Hazel-Tree [Ir. d or ua, grandson -j- 

the genit. {cuilt) of coll, the hazel-tree] 

(6) the Irish il^acCwW =, Son of Coll, 
i.e. the Hazel-TrEe. 

One of the early Irish kings, Mac Cuill, 
was, according to an ancient native poem, 
so called from his worship of the coll or 
^ hazel-tree. , 

Ceannfaeladh ua Cuill. — 
Annals of the Pour Masters, A.D. 1048. 

QUILLAN 1 (Celt.) i for (a) the Irish O'Cuilinn 

QUILLIN f = Grandson or Descendant of 

Cuileann, i.e. the Whelp [Ir. rf or ua, 

grandson + the genit. of cuileanUj a 


(6) the Irish Mac Cuilinn = Son of 
' Cuileann, i.e. the Whelp. 

2 for the Irish Mac Uidhilin. 

QUILLER (Teut.) Fledgling (a nickname)- 

[Dial. E. quiller/a birdHot yet fully fledged'; 

f. M.E. guille, a quill; app. qf L.Ger. orig.] 

QUILLEY \ (Fr.) Bel. to Quilly (France), app. 

QUILLY J for Guilly, and therefore repre- 
senting a Late Latin *Guilliacum = 
Willi's or Willo's Estate [thepers. 
name is f. O.Teut. will- (O.H.Ger. willo = 
O.Sax. willio ~ O.E. willa), will, desire, 
pleasure : the second eleinent is the Lat.- 
Gaul. possess, sufi. -dc-um] 

QUILLIAM (Celt, -f- Teut.) the Manx con- 
tracted form of Mac William = Son of 
William, q.v. 

QUILTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Quilt-Maker [M.E. 
guilter, quylter; f., with agent, suff. -er, 
M.E. guilt{e,guylt(e,O.FT.cuilte{Fi.couette), 
a quilt ; Lat. culcita, a mattress, cushion] 

Richard le Qm\teT.—Hund. Rolls. 
QUIN, v. O'Quinn. 


QU I NCE (Fr.-Lat.) a French form of the Latin 
Quint\i)us (the common Roman praeiiomen 
usually abbreviated Q) = the Fifth (Son 
or Child) [Lat. guintus, fifth] 

QUINCEYl (Fr.-Lat.) Bel.toQuincey,Quincy, 

QUINCY jQuinfay (France), the M.Lat. 

Quinciacum = Quint(i)us's Estate [v. 

under Quince, and -1- the Lat. - Gaul, 

possess, suff. -dc-uni\ 

This name sometimes oqcurs in our 

i3th-cent. Hundred-I^oUs as de Quency. 

QUINE l (Celt.) contr. of Mac Coinn or Mfac 

QU YN E J Cuinn = Son of Conn, i.e. Counsel, 

Reason [Ir. mac, son -|- coinn or cuinn, 

genit. of conn, counsel, etc.] 

QUINEY, v. Quinney. 

QUIN LAN \ (Celt.) the Irish Caoindhealbhan 

QUINLAND J (</A and bh miite) = Sweet Face 

[Ir. caoin, sweet, kind + the asp. form of 

dealbh, face + the dim. suff. -dn\ 

QUINN, v. O'Quinn. 

QUINNELL, v. Quennell. 

QUINNEY (Celt.) tor the Manx and Irish Mac 

Cuinnaidh (dh mute) = Son of Connaidh, 

i.e. the Crafty [Ir. mac, son + the genit. of 

connaidh{e, crafty] 

QUINSEY for Quinoey, q.v. 

QUINTIN (Fr.-Lat.) the Latin Quintinus, f. 
Quintus : v. under Quince. 

Quintinus Poulet. — 

Pat. Rolls, A.D. 1491-2. 

QUINTON (Eng.) Bel. to Quinton = the 
Queen's Manor [the genit. of O.E. cw^n, 
a queen, wife -)- t<in\ 
The Glouc. Quinton occurs in a ninth- 
century Latin charter as Cwentun. 

QUIRK (Celt.) for the Manx and Irish Mac 

Cuirc = Son of Corc [Ir. mac, son -f- 

cuirc, genit. of corc, a knife] 

QUIXLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Quixley = Quick's 
Lea [v. under Quick, and -|- M.E. Uy, 

O.E. ledhl 

The Quixley referred to in the i4tn 

cent. Yorks Poll-Taxis app. now Whixley. 

QUODLING (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for earlier Querdling, 

which represents an A.-Fr. Querdelioun 

(found in the Close Rolls, A.D. 1328), i.e. 

Ceeur-de-lion == Lion-Hearted [Lat. cor, 

heart ; <2e, of ; leone, abl. of leo, lion] 

QUYi (ScandO i a nickname from the Heifer 

[North. E. and Scot, guy : cp. Swed. gviga, 

Dan.-Norw. koie, a heifer] 

i Bel. to Quy (Cambs) ; or Dweller by 

the Fold or Pen • [O.N. &«/] 





RABAN (Teut.) Raven [O.H.Ger. rtAan, hra- 
ban (mod. robe) = Goth. *hrabn-s, a raven] 

RABBITT (Teut.) i a' nickname from the 

Rabbit [M.E. rahei\ 

2 a corrupt descendant of the O.Teut. 

ReEdbod,Radbod,Radbot= Fleet Messenger 

[O.E. {h)ra!d = *O.Sax. O.H.Ger. rado, 

swift + O.E.6(7(/a=O.Sax.6<?(fo=O.H.Ger. 

boto, messenger] 

RABY (Scand.) Bel. to Raby (Chesh. ; Cumb. ; 
Durham) = i Ra's or the Deer Place 

[O.N. rd, a roe + 6ji-r] 
the Nook or Corner 

2 the Farm in 

[O.N. rd, urd, a nook, corner, + Jji->-] 
The Cheshire Raby was Rabie in 
Doniesday-Book. j 

RACKHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Rackham (Sussex) 
= app. WRiECCA's Home or Estate 
[O.^.wracca, stranger, exile (cognate with 
Ger. recke, warrior, hero — O.H.Ger. 
w)recko, stranger, exile ; &nA Goth, wrakia, 
persecution) ; Mm, home, etc.] 

RACKSTRAW(Eng.) a nickname for a Scaven- 
ger; lit. Straw-Raker [f.O.E. raca, a rake, 

and stredw] 
RADBONE I for Rad borne, q.v. 
2 for Rathbone, q.v. 




(Eng.) Bel. to Radbourne 
(Derby), Radbourn (Warw. : 
Domesday, Redbotne), Red- 
bourn (Herts), Redbourne (Lines: 13th 
cent. Redbom, Redeburn) = 1 the Red 
Stream [O.E. r(e)dd, red -|- bume, a 

2 the Reedy Stream [O.E. hredd, a reed] 
Cp. Rodbour'n(e. 

RADCLIFF ] (Eng.) Bel. to RadcUffe, Rad- 
RADCLIFFE klive = the Red Cliff [O.E. 
RADCLWeFE ) rie)dd + clif: W.Sax. charter 
dat. form ' t6 reddanclife ^ 
This name was Latinized de Rubra Clivo. 
RadcUffe, Lanes, is Radeclive in Domes- 
day-Book. The " cliff of red rock " is on 
the south-eastern side of the River Irwell. 
Cp. RatclifT(e. 

RADFORD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Radford = i the 
RADFORTH J Red Ford [O.E. r(e)dd -f- ford\ 
(rarely) 2 Rada's Ford. 
The Warwickshire Radford was Rede- 
fordm Domesday-Book. The Worcester- 
shire, Oxfordshire, and Notts Radfords 
were Radeford in the 13th cent. A 
Somersetshire Radford was Radaford in 
the loth cent. 

RADLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Radley = i the Red 
Lea [O.E. r{e)dd + ledK\ 

(rarely) 2 Rada's Lea. 

Radley, Berks, was Radeley in the 13th 
cent. Radeledh is the form found in a 
loth-cent. Wilts charter. 

RADMELLI p„w„i„ „„ 
RADIVIALl|= Redmill, q.v. 

Rodmill, or Rodmell, Sussex, was 
formerly Rodmell. 

RADMON(D, v. Redmond. 

Note the form Rddmund in Heyne's 
collection of gth-iith cent. Old Low 
German names — Frankish, Saxon, 
Frisian ('Altniederdeutsche Eigennamen 
aus dem neunten biselften Jahrhundert'). 

RADMORE (Eng.) Bel. to Radmore = 1 the 

Red Moor [O.E. r{e)dd + wjrfr] 

2 the Road-Moor [O.E. rdd + mSrl 

Radmore, Staffs, was anc. Radmore and 

RADNOR (Eng.) Bel. to Radnor, the A.-Sax. 

Readaora, dat. form Readanoran (a.d. 774) 

= At the Red Bank or Shore [O.E. 

r{e)dda, dat. r(e)ddan, red + dra, dat. dran, 

bank, shore] 

RADULF \(Teut. ) the O.Teut. Rcedwulf, 

R^D\^\.PH ] Radwolf, etc. = i Swift Wolf 

[O.E. (h)reed = O.N. hra^ = O.H.Ger. 

rado, fleet, swift -|- O.E. O.Sax. wulf = 
O.N. ulf-r = O.H.Ger. wolf J 

2 Counsel-Wolf [O.E. rdsd = O.Sax. 
rdd = O.N. ra'tS = O.H.Ger. rdt, counsel] 

The Latinized form Radulf-us is com- 
mon in Domesday Book. 

RADWAY (Eng!) i Dweller at the Red Road 

[O.E. r(e)ad + weg\ 

Radway, Warwickshire, the Domesday 

Radwei, Rodeweie, is in the Vale of the 

Red Horse. 

2 a descendant of the A.-Sax. pers. name 
Rcedivig = Fleet Warrior [O.E. (h)rced, 
swift -|- wzga, warrior] 
RAE = Ray, q.v. 

Both daes [does] and roes down [dun] 
and rsd.— Sir Gray Steill, 2327. 

RAEBURN (Eng.) DweUer by the Roe-Brook 
[O.E. rd, a roe + bume^ 

raffe} ' ^®^''"- ^°™^ °^ '^*'^> Ra'ph, q-v. 
A squire he had, whose name was 

That in th'adventure went his half. 
Though writers, tor more stately tone, 
Do call him Ralpho, ' tis all one : 
And when we can, with metre safe, 
We'll call him so ; if not, plain Raph.— 
Butler, Hudibras, L i. 457-62. 
2 dim. forms of Raphael, q.v. 




RAFFETT \ = Raff'(e (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
RAFFITT Jsuff. -rf. 

RAFFLE = Raphael, q.v. 

RAFFLES, Raffle's (Son): v. Raffle, Raphael. 

RAGG "1 (Scand.) i a contr. of the Scand. 

RAGGE I Ragn- names, esp.Ragnar(Ragnhar), 

Ragnuald [O.N. ragna-, genit. ot regin, the 

gods (conn, with Lat. rex, a ruler) ; -har, 

heir, army ; uald, might, power] 

2 a nickname irom the Scand. ragg 
(O.N. rogg), 'shaggy hair.' 

3 a nickname from the O.N. rag-r, 
' Geminate,' 'timid.' 

William Ragge.— ifM«(?. Soils. 
This is more particularly a Yorkshire 

RAGGATT"! I Ragged; Shaggy [M.E. ra^- 

RAGGETT 1 ged{e : cp. O.N. ragga^S-r (and 

O.E. raggig), rough, shaggy] 

Thomas le Ragged. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 for the French Raguet, Ragot [pTob. 
f. the same Teut. stem as (i) ; with the 

Fr. dim. suff. -et, -ot] 

3 for Reigate, q.v. 

RAGMAN I = Ragg',' (q.v.) + tnan. 

2 = Ragg's Man (-Servant) : v. Ragg. 

3 Ragged Man. 

Langlabd uses the name for the Evil 
To go robbe that rageman 
And reve the fruyt fro hym. — 

Piers Plowman, 10,978-9. 

Here rage- is evid. the O.N. rag-r, 
earlier arg'-r = Ger. arg, 'bad.' 

The name occursln the Hundred-Rolls, 
but is now practically extinct. 

RAIKES, V. Rakes. 

RAIL (FrJ a nickname from the bird so called 

[Fr. rdle, earlier rasle ; onomatopoeic] 

A quayle, the raile, and the olde raven. 

' — Skelton, Colyn Cloute, 872. 

RAILTON is a doubtful name; having the 

appearance of an Eng. place-name (of 

which I can find no trace), it may really 

represent a French Rdleton = rdle (v. 

Rail) + the Fr. double dim. suff. -et-on. 

RAILWARD (Eng.) Wardrobe-Keeper [O.E. 
hrag{e)l, drgss, clothes + w(e)ard, keeper] 

RAIN 1 (Teut.) contr.'of one or other of the 

RAINEJ O.Teut. Regetv^, Ragin-, names: v. 

Rainbird, Rainbow, Rayner, etc.] 

(rarely) (Fr.-Lat.) for the French Reine 

= Queen [Fr. reine, Lat. regind] 

RAI N 81 RD (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.) a descendant 
of the (y.TeivA. Reginber{h)t, Raginber{h)t, 
etc., whence Fr. Raitnbert [O.Sax. and 
O.H.Ger. regin-, ragin- — Goth, ragin- 
= O.N. ragn-, rogn- = O.E. reg(e)n-, an 
ancient intens. prefix (conn, with Lat. 
rex, regis, ruler) implying might, rule ; god- 
Hke ( as O.E. regen-w(e)ard, mighty 
guardian) -|- O.Sax. berht = O.H.Ger. 
beraht = Goth. bairht'S = O.N. hiart-r = 
O.E. be{p)rht, bright, illustrious] 

Rainbert. — Domesday-Book. 

(occ.) (Eng.) a nickname from theWooD- 
PECKER,also called the Rainbird because it 
was supposed to foretell the fall of rain 
[O.E. regen, rain -|- bridd, a (young) bird] 

RAINBOW (Teut. and Fr.-Teiit.) a descendant 
ot the O.Teut. Reginbald, Raginbald, etc., 
whence Fr. Raimbaud, Raimbaultfv. under 
Rainbird, and -|- O.Sax. and O.H.Ger. 
bald = Goth. *bali>-s = O.N. ball-r (with 
lost dental) = O.E. b{e)ald, bold] 
(occ.) (Eng.) a nickname from the at- 
inospheric phenomenon, as for one 
affecting gaudy apparel fO.E. regenboga} 

RAINCOCK = Rain (esp. Teut.), q.v. -{■ the 
E. pet suff. -cock. 

RAINER, V. Rayner. 


2 Bel. to Rennes (Brittany), anc. Con- 
date Rhedonum, Or Confluence of the 
Richard de Rennes. — Plac. de quo Warr. 
. . . she [Guenever] was wrapped in 
cered cloth of Raines. — 

Morte d' Arthur, xxi. xi. 

RAINFORD 1 (Eng.)Bel.toRainford(Lancs), 

RAINFORTH j 12th cent. Raineford, 13th cent. 

Rayneford [O.E. ford, a ford : the first 

element is prob. the genit., ran, of O.E. 

rd, a roe, if not the pers. name Rain(e : v. 

RAINGER = Ranger, q.v. 

RAINSCROFT (Eng.) i Dweller at Rain(e)'s 
Croft [v. Rain(e, and H- O.E. croft, a 

small field! 

' 1 1 Rain(e)'s (Son) : v. Rain(e, 

2 for Ravenscroft, q.v 

RAISBECK (Scand.) Bel. to Raisbeck; or 

Dweller at the Roe's Brook [the genit. 

of 0,N. rd, a roe -f bekk-r, a brook] 




RAISON (Teut.) Ray's Son : v. Rfiy. 

RAISTRICK = Rastriokl q.v. 

RAIVELEY = Raveley, q.v. 

RAKE (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at a (Sheep-) 
Walk [N.E. and Scot, rake, raik; O.N. 
reili, a strolling, wandering ; conn, with 
O.E. racian, to go, and racu, a stream-bed] 

RAKES, pi., and genit., of Rake. 

There is a Raikes in the parish of Ripon. 

RALEGH "I (Eng.) Bel. to Raleigh (S. Devon, 
RALEIGH \ etc.); or Dweller at the Roe-Lea 
RALEY J [O.E. rd, a roe + ledh, a lea] 

Hugh de Ralegh. — Hund. Rolls (Devon). 

This name (as is well known) was 
formerly pronounced Rawly — 

Sir Walter Rawleigh was one, that (it 
seems) Fortune had pickt out of purpose, 
of whom to make an example, or to use 
as her tennis-ball. — 

Naunton, Fragmenfa Regalia, c. 1630. 


RALFE Icontr. of i Radulf, Radulph, q.v. 


2 Randolf, Randolph, q.v. 
There has been some confusion with 
Rolf, q.v. 

RALFS, Ralf's (Son) : v. Ralf. 

RALPHS, Ralph's (Son) : v. Ralph. 

RAM \ (Teut.) i a nickname and sign-name 

RAMM J from the Ram [O.E. ram{m = Dut. 

ram — Ger. ramm] 

Geoffrey le Ram. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

William atte Ramme. — 

Fine-Rolls, A.D. 1^20-1. 

2 Raven [O.E. hmm(n — O.H.Ger. 

hram\m (M.H.Ger. ram{m\ 

3 the O.Scand. pers. name Ramm-r = 
J5TR0NG, Mighty [O.N. ramm-r} 

Ram. — Domesday-Book. 

RAMAGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Wild [M.E. ; O.Fr. 

ramage, wild (of a hawk), lit. ' living in 

the branches ' j L.Lat. *ramatic-us, f. Lat. 

ram-US, a branch] 

Or ellis he is not wise ne sage, 
Nomore than is a gote ramage. — 

Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 5383-4. 

RAM BART \ i the O.Teut. Raginbert, etc. : v. 
RAMBERT / under RainbiPd'. 

The French saint-name Ramhert (from 
Teutonic) was Latinized Ragneberl-us. 

2 the O.Teut. Hramher(h)ti etc. = 
Raven-Bright [v. under Ranf»(m'i and 
-f = O.Sax. 6erfe = O.H.Ger. 
berakt = Goth, bairht-s, bright, glorious, 


French forms of i the O.Teut. 
Raginbald, etc. : v. under Rain- 


2 the O.Teut. Hrambald = Raven- 
Bold [v.-under Ramlm', and -f- O.Teut. 

bald, bold] 

RAM BLE. Acorrupt form pf the O.Teut. Ragin- 
bald and Hrambald, largely tlirough the 
French Rambaulf.v. under Rambau(l)t 
and Rainbow'. 

RAM pro N (Eng.) Bel. to Rampton rCambs ; 
Notts), 13th cent. Rampton = 1 the Ram- 
Enclosure [O.E. ram(m -^ tun] 
2 Hr^m(n)'s Estate [v. under Rann(m'] 
The Camb. place was Ramtune in the 
IfiQ- Com. Cantab. 
RAMSAY, V. Ramsey. 

RAMSBOTHAM'i (Etig.) Bel. to Ramsbottom 

RAMSBOTHOM (Lanes) = the Ram's Val- 

RAMSBOTTOM ley [the genit. of O.E. 

RAMSBOTTON > ram(m, a ram -t- boim] 

The ^orms of this name with -bothom, 

-botham are frequently found in the i6th 

cent., e.g. — 

Richard Romesbothom. — 

Lane. Fines, A:D. 1558. 

RAMSBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Ramsbury (Wilts),. 

loth cent. Rammesburh ('t6 Rammesburi') 

= Ramm's Stronghold [the pers. name 

is from O.E. ramm, a ram, genit. rammes 

-H burh, a fortified place] 

RAMSDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Ramsden = i the 

Ram's Valley [the genit. of O.E. ram{m, 

a ram + denu, a valley] 

2 = Ram(m)'s Valley [the pers. name 

from the animal-name, as above] 

3 = HRffi;M(N)'s Valley [O.E. hrcem(n, 

a raven] 
One of the Essex Ramsdens was Ramm- 
esden in,the 13th cent., as also was the Oxfd. 
Ramsden. The Yorkshire place was 
Romsdeyn in the 14th cent. The Hampshire 
tything is variantly Ramsdean. 

RAMSEY \ (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Ramsey 

RAMSAY J = I Hram's or Hr^m(n)'s Island 

or Waterside [the genit. of O.E. hreem(n, 

a raven + ig, i(e)g, island, etc.] 

2 Ram's Island or Waterside [the 

genit. of O.E. ram(m, a ram] 

3 R^m(m)'s Island or Watei^side [the 
genit. of O.N. ram(m)-r, strong -f- ey, is- 
land, etc.] 




9pocopal forms of Randolf. q.v. 

Ramsey, Hunts, occurs in A.-Saxon 

charters both as Rameseg and Hrameseg. 

Ramsey, I.o.M., was anciently Ramsoe 

[Dan.-Norw. 0, island] 

Simon de Ramsey in Huntingdon settled 
in Scotland in the 12th century.^ 

MacBain, Inverness Names, p. 71. 

RAMSGILL \ (Scand.yBel. to Ramsgill = (the) 

RAM SKILL J Ram's Ravine [ the genit. of 

O.N. ramim)-r + git\ 

RANACRE(S (Eng.) Dweller at the Raven- 
FiELlD(s fO.E. hrcefn,&rAvea+<Bcer, afield] 

RANGE, Rand's (Son) ; v. Rand. 

RAND, a contr. of Randolf, q.v. 


Randal the Refe. — 
'TheTurnamentof Tottetoham," 22 ; Percy. 

"They call me Jack when I'm abroad. 

Sometimes they call me John ; 

But when I'm in my father's bower 

Jock Randal is my name. — 

'The Bonny Hind,' 25-28 ; Child, yol. ii. 

RANDLES, Randle's (Son) : v. Randle. 

RAN DOLF 1 (Teut.) the O.L.Ger. Rand{w)ulf, 

RANDOLPH O.N.Rondi2l/-r = Shield- Wolf 

RANDULF rO.L.Ger. rand = O.H.Ger. rant 

RANDULPH-' (mod. H.Ger. rand) = O.N. rond 

= O.E- rand, the edge or the boss of a 

shield, a shiel4 + O.L.Ger. wulf *= 

O.H.Ger. wolf = O.N. Mf-r.= O.E. wulf, 

Randulfns.— Domesday-Book, 

But I kan [know] rymes of Robyn Hood 
And ifa«<fo(/"erl of Chestre.— 

Piers Plowman, 3277-8. 

RANDS, Rand's (Son) : v. Rand. 

RAN FORD, V. RalnfOPd. 

RANGER ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) Forest or Park 

Keeper [Fr. ranger, to range ; f. O.Teut. 

hrittg, a ring, circle] 

RANKEN, V. Rankin. 

RANKILL (Scand.) the Domesday (Yorks) 

Ranchil, Ravenchil, O.N. Hrafnketill = 

Raven-Cauldron [O.N. hrafn, a raven 

+ ketill, a kettle, (sacrificial) cauldron] 

" Ramkel or Ravenkil ... would appear 
to have been Thane of Bootle temp. Hen. 
I."— Lane. Inq. i. 22. 

RANKINi > i=Rand (q.v.) ) -ftheE.dim.suff. 
RANKINEf 2= Rain(e (q.v.)f -Am [O.L.Ger. -k- 

' ' in\ 

RANKING = Rankin (q.v.) with added -^. 
RANNARD = Renard, q.v. 

RANSCLIFF (Eng.) Bel. to Ranscliff = the 

Raven's Cliff [the genit. of 0,E. hrtefn, 

a raven + O.E. clifX 

" Ranscliff, Rainscliff, or Ravenscliffe," 

StaSs.— Nat. Gaz. 

RANSDALE (Eng. and Scand.)Bel. to Ravens- 
dale ; or Dweller at Raven's Dale [the 
genit. of O.E. hreefn = O.N. hrafn, a raven 
(a common pers. name) -f O.E. dcel = , 
O.N. dal-r, a valley] 

RANSFORD (Eng.) Dweller at I^aven's Ford 

[the genit. ot O.E. hreefn = O.N. hrafn, a 

I raven -|- O.E. /orrf] 

RAN SLAW (Eng.) Dweller at Raven's Law 
[the genit. of O.E.. krafn = O.N. hrafn, a 
raven + O.E. klckw, a burial mound, hill] 
Margareta de Ravenslawe. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

RANSLEY (Eng.) i Dweller at Raven's Lea 
[the genit. of O.E. hrafn, a raven (a com- 
mon pers. name) -f O.E. ledh"] 
2 occ. confd. with Ranalaw, q.v. 
RANSOM lf„-Do«=,,« nif 

ransomeT "^"«°"' *'■''• 

So E. ' ransom,' redemption, is f. 
ranso{u)n, Fr. ranfon. 

RANSON I Rand's Son : v. Rand. 

2 Rain(e)'s Son : v. Rain(e. 

RANT, an unvoiced form of Rand, q.v. 

RAPER (N.Eng.) Roper, Rope-Maker [M.E. 
raper ; O.E, rdp = O.N. reip, a rope + the 
agent, suff. -ere] 
Wjllelmus Raper, raper. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. i3jg. 

RAPHAEL (Heb.) Healed of Gob [Heb. 
R'phaM — rdphd, to heal ; El, God] 

RAPKIN = Ralph (q.v.) -\- the E. dim. suff. 

RAPKINS, Rapkin's (Son). 

RAPSON, Ralph's Son : v. Ralph. 

RASEN (Scand.) Bel. to Rasen (the name, 
with qualifying prefixes, of several ad- 
joining townships or hamlets in Lincoln- 
shire), so called from the Rase Riyer 
[O.N. rds, a watercourse, channel, race] 
Robert de Rasen. — 

Hand, Rolls (Lines). 




RASH LEIGH 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Rashleigh, Rash- 
RASSLEIGH J ley, or Rasleigh (Devon), 16th 
cent. Rashley= (proh.) Ra's (or the Roe's) 
Lea [a late genit. of O.E. rd, m., a roe- 
buck + ledh] 
RASSELL, an assim. form of Rastall, q.v. 

RASTALL ) (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Rastel, 

RASTELL I app. a nickname or sign-name 

from the RAKE [O.Fr. rastel (Ft. rdteau), 

Lat. ra.steW-«wz, a rake, mattock] 

Ralph Rastel.— ifMBd. Rolls. 

RASTRICK (Scand.) Bel. to Rastrick (Yorks), 

, / ff. 14th cent. Rastrike, Domesday Rastric 
[doubtful : if the second element corres- 
pond to the Swed. streke, a current, the 
first element would prob. be the O.N. rd, 

a roe] 


RATCLIFFE Uor Racloliff(e, q.v. 


RATHBONE"! found in i4th-cent. Cheshire 
RATHBUN, i Tecoids as' Rathebon, does not 
seem to be English, If the original 
bearers of the name came from Ireland it 
answers to the Irish Rathbane, Rathbaun 
= 'White Fort' [Ir. rath, a fort ; also palace 
+ bdn, white]. If from Wales (as seems 
more likely), the name prob. means the 
' Stumpy Clearing or Plain ' [Wei. rhath, 
a cleared spot, plain (conn, with Ir. rath) 
H- Wei. bon, a stock, stump, stem (conn, 
with Ir. and Gael, bonn, a foundation, 
base] andis apparently aUied to'Ratisbon.' 

RATHBORNE i for Rathbone, q.v. 
2 for Rad borne, q.v. 

RATH M ELL (Scand.) Bel. to Rathmell (Yorks), 

14th cent. Rauthmell, Domesday Rodemele 

= the Red Sandhill or Sandbank 

(Rathmell is on the R. Ribble) [O.N. 

rau^-r, red -f- mel-r'] 

RATTRAY ^(Celt.) Bel. to Rattray (Perth- 
RATTRY J shire^, 13th cent. Rathgriff [prob. 
O.Gael, rath, a fortress (there are traces 
of an old castle at Rattray) -|-?Gael. riabh- 
ach, grey (Ir. riabhach yields -ry in place- 
There is also a Rattray in Aberdeenshire; 
and Rattery in Devonshire. 

RAVELEY (Eng.) Bel. to Raveley (Hunts), 13th 
cent. Ravele [O.E. ledh, a lea : the first 
element is app. a contraction of the 
A.-Scand. pers. name Hr(^f- or Rcefcytel, 
occurring in Domesday-Book as Ravechil 
and Ravechetel, i.e. ' Raven- Kettle.' 

RAVEN (Eng. and Scand.) an ancient English 
and Scandinavian pers. name ; a nick- 
name and sign-name from the Raven 
[O.E. hreefn = O.N. hrctfti] 

The name occurs in the form Ravan in 
'The Oldest-Known List of Scandinavian 
Names' (Yorks, loth cent.) — Saga-Book 
of the Viking Club, Jan. 1906, p. 296. 

The raven was the Danes' national 

Among the spoil taken by the Saxons 
was the famous banner of the Raven, said 
to have been woven in one day by the 
sisters of Inguar and Ubba, and to have 
possessed the property of appearing be- 
fore every battle flying Uke a living bird 
if the Danes were to be victorious; while 
in the contrary event ithung down motion- 
less. — Lappenberg-Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, 
ii. 62 ; ad. from Asser, a.d. 878. 

RAVEN HILL (Eng.) i Dweller at the Raven- 
Hill [O.E. hreefn, a raven -|- hyll\ 
Ravenhill: several places of this name in 
the vicinity of Whitby, North Riding 
Yorks, so named from having been the 
site of the Danish standard, or Raefen, 
during the invasions of Inguar and Ubba 
in the 9th century. — Nat. Gas. 

1 do not know on what authority the 
National Gazetteer made this statement. 

(occ.) 2 for Ravenkill : v. under Ranklll. 

RAVENS, Raven's (Soli) : v. Raven. 

RAVENSCROFT (Eng.) Dweller at Raven's 
Croft [y. under Raven and Croft] 

More specifically Ravenscroft in Che- 
shire, in the 14th cent. Ravenscrofte. 

RAVEN SHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the Raven- 
Wood [O.E. hrafn + sc{e)aga'\ 

RAVENSHEAR for Ravenshaw, q.v. 

RAW "I I = Roe, q.v. [Dan.-Norw. raa (pron. 

RAWE J raw), a roe] 

Theraitf-bucke is the first yeare a kid. — 

Retumefrom Parnassus. A.D. i6o6; T.Wright. 

2 = Row(e, q.v. 

3 a nickname for a boorish individual ; 
also a simpleton (as in 'Johnny Raw') 
[O.E. hredw = O.N. hrd-r, whence Dan.- 
Norw. raa, raw] 

RAWBONE ( '^°™^ °^ Rathbone, q.v. 

RAWCLIFFE (Scand.) Bel. to Rawcliffe = the 
Red Cliff [O.N. rau1S-r, red -|- klif] 

The Lancashire Rawcliffe was Routhe- 
clif and Routheclive in the 13th cent. ; one 
of the Yorks Rawcliffes was Rouclyff in 
the J4th cent. 

RAWDON (Eng.) Bel. to Rawdon (Yorks), 

14th cent. Rawdon = the Roe-Hill [O.E. 

rd = O.N. rd, a roe -1- O.E. dtin, a hill] 




RAWES, Rawe's (Son) : v. Raw(e. 

RAWKIN, a form of Ralph (q.v.) + the E. 
dim. sjuif. -kin. 

RAWKINS, Rawkin's (Son) : v. Rawkin. 

RAWLAND = Rowland, q.v. 

RAWLE, a fonn of Ralph, q.v. [Fr. Ra0ul\ 

RAWLENCE for Rawlins, q.v. 

RAWLES, Rawle's (Son) ; v. Rawle. 

RAWLEY = Raleigh, q.v. 

RAWLIN = Rawl(e), q.v. + the Fr. dim. -in 

[Fr. Raoulin\ 

RAWLING = Rawlfn (q.v.) with added -g. 

RAWLINGS for Rawlins, q.v. 

RAWLINS, Rawlin's (Son) 1 
RAWLINSON, Rawlin's Son/^- «awiin. 

There sepms to have been some little 
confusion with Rowlands and Rowland- 

RAWNSLEY, a var. of Ransley, q.v. 

RAWORTH (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe-Enclo- 
sure [OiE. rd, a roe -)- wor^, enclosure, 


RAWS I Raw's (Son) ; v. Raw. 

2 Rauf's (Ralph's) (Son) : v. Ralph. 

RAWSON I Raw's Son : v. Raw. 

2 Rauf's (Ralph's) Son: v. Ralph. 

Willelmus Raufson. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 






(Scand.) Bel. to Rostherne 
( Chesh. ), A.D. 1349-50 
Routhestom, a.d. 1323 - 4 
Routhisthom = Rauth's 
Thorn [the genit. of O.N. 

rauV-r, red -\- ^om, thorn-tree] 

RAY (Eng. and Scand.) apers. name, nickname, 
and sign-name from the Roe [iVI.E. rayije, 
ra, O.E. O.N. td, a roe] 
Richard le Ray.— Hund. Rolls. 
Undir the rise the ra dyd ryn.-^ 
, ' Tayis Bank,' 37. 

(Sca,nd.) for Wray, q.v. 
(Fr.-Lat.) King (a nickname or pageant- 
name) fO.Fr. ray, rey, Lat. rex, regis, king] 
(Celt.) Dweller at a Plain or Level 
[Gael, (and Ir.) reidh \dh mute] 
Cp. Rae. 

RAYBOLD \ (Teut.) for the O.Teut. Ragin- 

RAYBOULDJ 6flM, etc. [v. under Rainbird', 

and -h O.Teut. bald, bold] 

RAYDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe-Valley 
[v. under RayS and-|-O.E. denu, a valley] 

Confused with Raydon. 

RAYDON (Erig.) Bel. to Raydon ; or Dweller 
at the Roe-Hill [v. under Ray S and -|- 
P.E. dun, a hill] 
Confused with Rayden. 

RAYLEIGH (Eng^ Bel. to Rayleigh; or Dweller 
at the Roe-Lea [v. under Ray', and -|- 

O.E. UaK] 
More specifically Rayleigh, or Raleigh, 

RAYMENT for Raymond, q.v. 

RAYMOND (Teut.) Mighty or Godlike Pro- 
tection [Fr. Raimond, O.Teat.Raginmund: 
V. under Rainbird', and + O.Teut. mund, 
' protection, hand] 

RAYNBIRD = Rainbird, q.v. 

RAYNE = Raine, q.v. 

RAYNER \ (Teut.) Mighty or Godlike Army 
RAYNOR / [O.N. Ragttar = O.L.Ger. Regin- 
heri = A.-Sax. Regenhere [v. under Rain- 
bird, and -1- O.N. -ar for -har, herr = O.E. 
here = O.H.Ger. O.L.Ger. heri = Goth. 
harji-s. army] 
Regenhere (d. a.d. 617) was the name 
of a son ot Rsedwald, king of East AngUa^ 
J Rainer-us is the common Domesday 

form. J?ey««rand Rayner are 13th and 14th 
cent, forms. 

RAYNES = Raines, q.v. 

RAYSON I Ray's Son: v. Ray. 
2 for Rasen, q.v. 

, REA (Celt.) I Grey [Ir. and Gael, ridbhach 

(bh mute] 
2 Dweller by the River Rea [prob; 
Wei. rhe, rapid] 
See Ree. 

READ "1 (Eng.) i Red-H aired ; Red-Com- 

READE J PLEXIONED [M.E. read(e, reed, rede, 

reid, O.E. riad, red] 

Roger le Rede.— ffM»rf. Rolls. 

Willam Jie rede king [William Rufus].— 

Rob. Glouc. Ckrott., 7249. 

2 Bel. to Read (Lanes), 13th and 14th 

cent. Reved [doubtful : the second element 

may be for either M.E. hed{e, O.E. hedfod, 

a head(land, or Dan.-Norw. hede, a heath ; 

and the first may be the M.E. reve, O.E. 

ge)rifa, a repve] 

An ' Adam de Reveshad ' is a surety in 

a Lane. Assize-Roll, a.d. 1246. 

There has been some confusion with 
Ridd, q.v. 




^i;J°CV'}= Ready, q.v. 

READER (Eng.) i Reed-Worker, Thatcher 

[M.K. rederie ; O.E. hrSod, a reed + the 

agent, suff. -ere] 

Emma le Redere. — Hund. Rolls. 

Reders and thackers or thaxters (thatch- 
ers) are commonly mentioned together in 
the accounts of the mediaeval processions 
of craftsmen. 

a Lector ; Student [O.E. r&dere] 

READEY = Ready, q.v. 

READFORD = Redford, q.v. 

READI NG (Eng.) Bel. to Reading, 9th and loth 
cent. Reddingas = (the Estate of the) 
ReAd- Family [O.E. redd, red + the pi., 
-ingas (dat, pi. -ingum), of the fil. suff. -ing] 

H6r cu6m se here t6 Reddingum on 
West Seaxe. 
(In this year came the [Danish] army to 
Reading in Wessex). — 

A.-Sax. Chron., A.D. 871. 

READMAN = Read' (q.v.) + man. 

READSHAW = Redshaw, q.v. 

READWIN (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Rckdwine = 

Counsel-Friend [O.E. rckd, counsel + 

wine, friend] 

READY (Eng.) = Read • (q.v.) +the dim. suff. -y. 

(Ir.) for the Irish O'Riada = Descen- 
dant OF RiAD [Ir. d or ua, grandson, 
descendant; and cp. Ir. riadh-dch, brownish, 


(Ir.-Teut.) a double dim. of Redmond, 

REAKES, a var. of Raikes, Rakes, q.v. 

REAMS (Celt.) Bel. to R(h)eims (France), 
anc. Remis, dat. pi. of the Belgic tribal 
name Remi. 

Hugo de Reymes.— Hund. Rolls. 

Remi was the name of the leading Bel- 
gic people, and it would seem to be of the 
same origin as the Welsh rhwyf, a king, 
Irish riam, before. — 

Rhys, Celt. Brit., ed. 1908, p. 313. 

REARDON = Riordan, q.v. 
REASBECK, a var. of Ralsbeck, q.v. 
REASON I Rea's Son : v. Rea. 

2 a var, of fiayson and Rasen, q.v. 

REAVY 1 (Celt:) Grey [Ir. and Gael, riabhach 
REAY / (bh as v, and sometimes mute] 

But the Caithness place-name Keay 
(13th cent. Ra, i6th cent. Ray) is app. the 
Gael, reidh (dh mute), ' a plain.' 

REBBECK (Fr.-Teut.) One from Rebecq (Pas 
de Calais) = the Roe-Brook [from Low 
Ger., as seen in Dut. ree, a roe, hind, and 
Dut. beek (O.Sax.beki, O.E. 6ecc), a stream] 

RECKITT for Rickett, q.v. 

RECORD I for Rickard, q.V- 
2 for Rickwapd, q.v. 

REDBOURN(E (Eng.) Bel. to Redbourn, Red- 
bourne ; or Dweller at i the Reedy Brook 
[O.E. Mod, a reed -|- bume, a brook] 

2 the Red Brook [O.E. riad, red] 

REDDALL (Eng.) t Dweller at the Red Hall 
[O.E. r^ad, red + h(e)all, a hall] 

2 for Reddell, q.v. 

REDDAWAY for Redway, q.v. 

REDDELL (Eng.) i Dweller at the Red Hill 

[O.E. r^ad (M.E. rede, etc.), red + hyll 

(M.E. hull(e, etc.), a hill] 

Richard atte RedehuUe. — 

Soms. Subsidy-Rdll, A.D. 1327. 

2 Dweller at the Red Well [O.E. riad, 

red -I- w(t)ella, a well, spring] 

Reddell, Wore, was Radewette in the 
13th cent. 

3 for Reddall, q.v. 

There has been some confusion with 
Riddel(l, q.v. 

REDDICK I Dweller at the Red Dike [O.E. 

read + die] 
(rarely) 2 for Riddock, q.v. 


Ready, q.v. 

REDDING (Eng.) i Dweller at the Red Mea- 
dow [O.E. riad, red -f O.N.E. ing, O.N. 
eng, a meadow] 

There is a Redding in Stirlingshire. 

2 for Reading, q.v. 

REDDISH (Eng.) Bel. to Reddish (Lanes), 
13th cent. Reddich, Redich = the Reedy 
Ditch [O.E. hriod, a reed + die, a ditch] 
Confused with Redditch. 

REDDITCH (Eng.) Bel. to Redditch (Wore), 
A.D. 1300 Redediche. The local evidence 
here points to the signification of Red 
Ditch [O.E. r^ad, red + die, a ditch] 

REDDOCK, v. Riddock. 




SErig.) Dweller among the Re;d 
i"ERN(s fO.E. tSad + feami 

been confusion with the 




There has 
next name. 

REDFEN (Eng.) Bel. to Redfen (Warw.), 14th 

cent. Wridefen = the Thicket-Fen [O.E. 

wrid, a thicket + fenn, a fen] 

Confused with the preceding name. 

REDFORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Ford 

[O.E. >-^ai+/ord] 

A Riadford is mentioned (obliquely, 'on 

r6adan ford') in a Somersetshire charter 

A.D. 938. 

Cp. Retford and Radford. 

REDGRAVE U Eng. ) Dweller at the Red 

REDGROVE / Grove [O.E. riad, red + grdf, 

' 'a grovej 

Redgrave, Suffolk, was spelt the same 

in the 14th cent. 

REDHEAD (Eng.) i Red Head [O.E. r^rf, red 
+ hiafod, a head] 
John Redheved. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 Dweller at the Red HEAD(land [same 
Redhead is the name of a promontory 
in Forfarshire. 

REDHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller attheRED House 
[O.E. riad + h,As\ 

REDLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Lea [O.E. 
read, red + Uah (M.E. ley), a meadow] 

Cp. Radley. 

Roger de Redlee. — Himd. Rolls. 

REDMAN (Eng.) Red Man [O.E. riad, red + 

Cp. Blackman. 

2 the A.-Sax Rdbdman — CbUNCiL-MAN 

[O.E. rAd, council, counsel + man\ 

3 Horseman [O.E. rdideman(^n\ 

There has been confusion with Red- 
mayne and Redmond. 

REDMAYNE \ (Eng.) t Bel. to Redmain 
REDMAIN' I (Cumb.), 13th cent. RM{e)man, 
also Rydeman. 

This may be a pers. name with a local 
suffix dropped ; or the name may be due 
to some natural fekture, as a rock, re- 
sembling a man. 

(rarely) 2 the A.-Sax. RAdntcegen — 

Counsel-Strength [O.E. rded, counsel 

+ mcegen, might] 

Confused with Rednnan. 

REDMILL "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Mill 

REDMILEJ [O.E. riad + mylnj 

REDMOND 1 (Teut.) the A.-Sax. Rckdmund, 

RED MONDE i O.Ger. Rddmund = Counsel- 

REDMUND I Pr;otection [O.E. rdd = 

O.Sax. rdd = O.H.Ger. rdt = O.N. rdV, 

counsel, advice+O.E. O.Sax. O.N. mund= 

O.H.Ger. mmt (Ger. mund), hand, protect 

Occ. confused with Redman, q.v. 

REDPATH \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Red Path 
REDPETH ; [OiE. riad + />««] 

More specifically, Redpath, Berwick, 
and Redpeth, Northuniberland. 

REDSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Wood 
[O.E. f'iad, red -1- sc{e)aga (M.E. shaw{e), a 


There is a Redshaw (Hall) in Yorkshire. 

REDWAY (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Road 
[O.E, riad + weg\ 

REDWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Wood 
[O.E. riad -f- w«rf»] 
John de Redewode. — 

Testa de Neuill, 13th cent. 

REE I Dweller by a Stream or Channel 
[Dial. E. and Scot, ree : prob. Dial. Fr, rieu 
(O.Fr. riu, Fr. ru), a stream, gutter— 
nu-{ii)s, Lat. riv-us, a stream, channel ; but 
not imposs. a weak form of O.E. ri^e, a 

2 Dweller at a (Walled) Animal-En- 
CLOsuiiE [Dial. E. and Scot, ree, a walled 
or bahked enclosure for sheep, etc. : perh. 
f. the N.Fr. rie, a bank ; app. a weak deriv. 
of Lat. ripa, a bank:, hardly f. the Fr. local 
,riez (L.Lat. riesa), waste or uncultivated 

Philip ad Res.— Hund. Rolls. 

See Rea and Rye. 
REECE, an Anglicized form of Rhys, q.v. 

REED = Read, q.v. 

Hir mouth ful smal and ther to softe 
and r^erf.— Chaucer, Ca«/. Tales, A 153. 

REEDER = Reader, q.v. 

REEDY = Ready, q.v. 

REEK, a Scot. dim. of Rtckard, Richard, q.v. 

REEKIE, a Scot, double dim. of Rickard, 
Richard, q.v. [E. dim. buff, -ie, -y] 

REEKS, Reek's (Son) : v. Reek. 

REEN (Celt;) Dweller at k Point of Land, 

Promontory [Gael. r(o)inn = Ir. rinn 

(O.Ir. nnd) == Wei. rhyn} 



rIeIe } Anglicized forms of Rhys, q.v. 

Cp. Reece, Rice. 
REESON I Rees's Son : v. Rees. 

2 V. Reason. 

REEVE (Eng.) Steward, Bailiff [M.E. reve, 
refe, etc. ; O.E. ge)rdfa\ 

John le Reve. — Hund. Rolls. 

The reve was a sclendre colerik man . . . 

Wei koude he kepe a garner and a 
bynne ... 

In youthe he lerned hadde a good 
myster [trade] ; 

He was a wel good wrighte, a carpenter. 
—Chaucer, Cant Tales,Vro\. 587, 593, 613-4. 

'What is thy name, ffellow, by thy 
leave ' ? 

' Marry,' quoth hee, ' lohn the Reeve.' — 
John the Reeve, 133-4. 

See also the quotations under Procter 
and Perkin (third). 

REEVELL = Revell, q.v. 

REEVES, (the) Reeve's (Son) \ „ . 
REEVESON, (the) Reeve's Son J ''• «eeve. 
Thoinas le Revesone.^- 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 

REEVEY = Reavy, q.v. 

REFFELL, a form of Raphael, q.v. 

REFFITT, a var. of Raffltt, q.v. 

REGAN (Celt.) Kinglet [Ir. Riagdn—rUa king 
+ the double dim. suff. -g-dn] 

REGINALD (Teut.) the O.Teut. Reginwald, 
Raginwald (Mod. Ger. R^in{w)ald), Regen- 
w{e)ald, etc. = Mighty or Godlike Power 
fv. under Rainbird, and -|- O.Sax.^OaiaW 
= O.H.Ger. gtjwalt = O.E. ge)w(e)ald =■ 
O.N. uald, power, might] 

Regenwald, Reginwald, or Reginald, was 
the name of a Northumbrian king men- 
tioned, e.g., by Simeon of Durham under 
A.D. 912. 

Dr. Kleinpaul (' Die Deutschen Per- 
sonennamen,' 1909), who imagines that 
the German Reinhold is from Reinwald (I), 
goes (p. 39) with somewhat superfluous 
detail into the signification of the latter 

Reinwald beruht wieder auf Reginviald, 
und ist ein Name fiir einen fahigen, mit 
Klugheit seines Amtes waltenden Ge- 

Cp. Reynold. 


REGISTER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Registrar [f. 

REGESTERJ O.Fr. registre, a record,. L.Lat. 

registr-um ; Lat. regerere, sup. regestum, to 

carry back] 

REID, the Scot, form of Read', q.v. 
Reid Kit— ColkeBie Sow, 171. 
... hehadnathingonhisheidbotsyde 
[low-hanging] >«■(? yallow hair. — 

Lindsay, Hist, and Cron. Scotl. ('Ane 

Mirakill Sen"). 

Why rins thy stream, O Yarrow, Yarrow, 

reid [with blood] ? 

' The Braes of Yarrow,' 25: Percy's Reliques. 

REIDPATH, a North, form of Red path, q.v. 

REIDY, a var. of Ready, q.v. 

REIGATE (Eng.)' Bel. to Reigate, 13th and 
14th cent. Reygate = the Ridge-Gate 
[O.E. hrycg, a ridge -t- geat, a gate, open- 

John de Rtygate.— Pipe-Roll, A.D. 1261. 


for O'Reilly, q.v. 




for Ralf, Ralph (q.v.), through the 
■ pron. Rdlf, Ralph. 

REMBLANT, a lallated form of Rembrand(t, 

REMBRAND ) (Teut.) the O.Teut. Renbrand, 

REMBRANT \Reginbrand, etc. = Mighty or 

REMBRANDT' Godlike Brand [v. under 

Rainbird, and -1- O.Teut. brand, brant, i 

sword, firebrand] 

Renbrand occurs in Heyne's List of 9th- 
iith cent. Old Low German Proper 

REMER for Rimer, q.v. 

REM FRY for Renfrey, q.v. 

REMINGTON "I (Eng.) Bel. to Rimington 
REMMINGTON / (Yorks), 14th cent. Rymyng- 
ton, Remyngtonjapp. the Domesday Reni- 
tone) = the Estate of the Hrkmm 
Family [A.-Sax. *Hremminga-tun — hremm, 
a raven -1- -inga, genit. pi', of the fil. suff. 
-ing -t- tun, estate, manor, etc.] 

REMNANT, prob. a corrupt form ol Rem- 
brant, q.v. 

RENACRES, v. Ranacres. 




RENARD (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.) the O.Teut. 
Renhard,, Reginhard, Reginhart (whence 
Fr. Regnard, Regnart, Renard), Reg{e)n- 
h(e)ard, etc. = Mightily Firm or Brave 
[v. under Rainbird, and + O.L.Ger. hard 
= O.H.Ger. hart = O.E. h{e)ard = O.N. 
har^r, hard, firm, brave] 

We find this term in 'Be6wulf,' 1. 657— 

rondas regn-hearde 
(shield-bosses extremely hard). 

(Fr.-Teut.) a nickname from the Fox 
[Fr. renard, a fox : etymology as above] 


(A.-Fr.-Teut.) the O.Teut. Regin- 
wald, Reginwalt, etc.: v. Reynold, 

John Renaud. — 

Soms. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

Richard fll. Renaut. — Testa de Nevill 

RENDALL\ i for Randall, Randell, Randle 
REN DEL I (q.v.), through the pron. Ran-. 

RPMnpF*"! ('^^'■e'y) 2 Bel. to Rendall, Ork- 

RENDLE jjgy^ form. 5e««aJa/ [first element 

doubtful : cp. O.N. renna, a run, course ; 

or perh. Renna is the genit. of a name 

like Renni or Rein{n)i ; and + O.N. dal-r, 

a dale, valley] 

RENDER l (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Renderer; Fat- 
RENDRERJ Melter [f. Fr. rendre, Lat. red- 

dere, to render] 
Johannes Rendrour. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

The process of making lard and candles 
is called rendering : Line. — 

T. Wright, ZJjrf. Prov. Eng., p. 793. 


I = Renfrey, q.v. 

RENFREW (Celt.) Bel. to Renfrew, 12th cent. 

Reinfrew, Renfrew, Renfriu [perh. f. the 

old forms of WeL rhin, a channel, and 

ffrew, stillness] 

RENFREY (Teut.) the O.Teut. Reinfrid, Regin- 
frid, etc. = Mighty or Godlike Peace 
[v. under Rainbird, and -|- O.H.Ger. /r!rf« 
= O.Sax. /n1S«=O.E. friSu^O.^. friS-r, 

(Celt.) for Renfrew, q.v. 

rInNISON } ' RONNIE'S Son : v. Rennle. 

2 occ. for Reynerson. q.v. 
RENKIN = Rankin, q,v. 

RlNSER}=R^y"«''''l-'- - 
RENNARD = Renard, q.v. 

REN N ELDS = Reynolds, q.v. 
RENNELL tor Reynold, q.v. 

plllJj^lLs^jforRennelds, Reynolds, q.v. 

RENNICK for Renwick, q.v. 

RENNIE, a North, double dim. of fieynold, 
Reginald, q.v. [E. dim. suff. -ie] 

RENSHALL for Renshaw, q.v. 

RENSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the Raven- 
Wood or Raven's Wood [O.E. hrafn, a 
raven + sc{e)ag(f, a wood] 

Stephen de Ravenshagh. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1342. 

Richard Raynshaw. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1556. 

John Rainshaw. — 

Wills at Chester, A.D. 1647. 

John Ravenshaw. — do. A.D. 1673. 
Richard Renshaw. — do. A.D. i68o. 
There is a Renishaw near Chesterfield, 

RENTELL i for Rendell, q.v. 
2 for Rentoul, q.v. 

RENTON (Eng.) Bel. to i Renton (Berwick), 
A.D. 1098 Reguintun, c. 1200 Reningtona 
and Regnintun. There is evidently u-n 
confusion in these forms cited by the Rev. 
J. B. Johnston ; and definiteness as to the 
origin of the first element is precluded. 

2 Ranton (Staffs) (through pron. Ran-), 
1 3th cent. Raunton, Ronton, Domesday Ran- 
tone [the first element is prob. the genit;, 
ran, of O.E. rd, a roe(-buck) ; less hkely for 
O.E. rand, a. margin, edge: — + O.E. tun, 

estate, etc.] 

3 Rendon (? where); The place-names 
Renedon and Reyndon iound in the Hun- 
dred-Rolls, and the occurrence of Randiin 
(app. ' Ra's Hill ' — O.E. rdn, genit. of rd, a 
roe + diin, a hill) in gth-cent. Southern 
charters, show that in some cases 'Renton' 
must be for ' Rendon' (cp. Repton). 

Renton, Dumbartonshire, is a modern 
borrowed name. 

RENTOUL (Celt.) Dwelleir at the North 

Point [Gael. rlp)inn, a point, peninsula -|- 

tuath-al (th mute), north] 

RENWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Renwick (Cumb.) 

[O.E. w(c, a place: the first element is 

uncertain — on the analogy of Renshaw 

it may be for the O.E. pers. name Hrcefn 

= O.N. Hrafn, Raven] 




REPINGTON \ (Eng;) Bel. to Reptoii (Derby- 
REPTON J shire), 13th cent. Repindoii, the 
A.-Sax. HrSpa(n)Mn, Hrdopa{n)diin = 
Hr^opa's or Hrypa's Hill [O.E. dAn, a 
hill: the pers. name Hr^pa or Hr4opq. (genit. 
Hrfpan-, Hr^opan-) is an ancient one 
(flifji^occurs among theWoden-descended 
ancestors of the East Anglian kings) and 
is prob. from O.E. hrdpan (pret. hriop-), to 


rIsTELL } ^°^ Rastall, Rastell, q.v. 
RESTON (Etfg.) Bel. to Reston = the Brush- 
wood-Enclosure [O.K.hris{= O.N.hrts), 
brushwood + tiin, enclosure, farm] 
Reston, Berwick, was Ristun end of 1 1 th 
cent. Reston, Lines, was Riston in the 13th 
cent. Reston, Westmd., may be 'Ra's 
(Rop's) Farm.' 
Cp. Riston. 
RETFORD (Erig.) Bel. to Retford (Notts), the 
Domesday Redeford = the Red Ford 
[O.E. read, red + ford'\ 
REUBEN (Heb. ) Behold a Son [Heb. 
Kubhin — r'A, vision ; bin, a son] 
REUTER (Teut.-Lat.) Horseman, Trooper 
[the Mod. High Ger. Reuter is from the 
homophonous Dut. ruiter, L.Lat. ruptari-us 
— rupta, a troop: iJeMfer, however, occurs 
also in M.E. records] 
Cp. Ruttep. 
REVELEY (Eng.) Bel. to Reaveley (Northumb.), 
anc. Reveley = the Reeve's Lea [v. under 
Reeve, and + M.E. ley, O.E. ledh, a 


REVELL (Fr.-Lat.) the French Revel = 

1 Grey, Tawny [f. Lat. rav-us, with Fr. 

dim. suff. -ei, Lat. -ell-us] 

2 Pride, Joy [O.Fr. revel; f. Lat. re- 

hellare, to rebel] 
But the Southern French geographical 
name Revel is a dim. f. Lat. riv-us, a 
brook : Montrevel, Jura, e.g. was Mons 
Rivelli in Latin. 
Revel.— Hawrf. Rolls. 
Cp. Revill. 

REVILL (Fr.-Lat.) i Bel. to R6ville (Normandy) 
= the Royal Manor [Lat. regia villa\ 
2 for Revel I, q.v. 

REW (Eng.) Dweller in a Row [M.E. rewe, 

O.E. rdew] 
Adam atte Rewe. — 

Subsidy-Roll, Soms., A.D. 1327. 

And leet icoraande anon to hakke and 

The okes plde, and leye hem on a 
rewe. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 2865r6. 

(Fr.-Lat.) for i the French De la Rue = 
Of the Street [Fr, rue, a street ; like 

O.Ital. ruga, f. Lat. rw^-a, a wrinkle, ridge] 

Usque ad locum qui vocatur Tudella, 
in ruga ejusdera S- Germani. — 

Charter, A.D. 1 165 ; Brachet. 

2 the French Delru, Delrieu = Of the 

Brooklet [Fr. ru, O.Fr. riu, t. L.Lat. 

riu-s for Lat. riv-us, a watercourse] 

REWES, genit., and pi., of Rew (Eng.), q.v. 

REX (Lat.) King . [Lat. rex] 

John 'Rex.—Hund. Rolls. 

(Teut.) for Ricks, q.v. 

REX(S)TREW for Raokstraw, q.v. 

REY (Eng. and Scand.) for Ray, q.v. 

(Fr.-Lat.) King [O.Fr. rey, rei (^mod. 
roi), Lat. reg-em, ace. of rex, a king] 

REYBOLD, v. Raybold. 

REYBURN, V. Raeburn. 

REYNALDS, v. the commoner form Reynolds. 

REYNARD, v. Renard. 

REYNELL tor ReynQld, q.v. 

REYNER, V. Rayner. 

REYNERSON, Reyner's Son. 

REYNOLD, a vocalized form of Reginald, q.v. : 
rarely is the second element of Reynold 
for O.Teut. hold, gracious, faithful, loyal. 

Rainald-usis a common Domesday form; 
and it is also found in the i^tii-Cent. 
Yorkshire Poll-Tax. Reynold and Reynold 
are Hundred - Rolls spellings. French 
forms are Regnauld, Regnault, Rettaud, etc.; 
Renaud being the usual form of the 
christian name. 

Rainalde [variantly Reynold] .the Reve, 

of Rotland sokene [Rutland jurisdiction]. — 

Piers Plowman, ii. no. 

REYNOLDS, Reynold's (Son) 1 p„„„„,^ 
REYNOLDSON, RfeYNOLD's,SoN J ^- "eynoia 

RHEAD for Read, q.v. 

RHIND (Celt.) Bel. to Rhind or Rhynd /Perth- 
shire) = the Point (of Land) [O.Gael., 
and O.Ir. mrf(mod. Gael. »-(o)««h), a point, 
peninsula = Wei. rhyn, a cape] 
"The village of Rhynd ... is situated 
on a point at the confluence of the Rivers 
Tay and Earn."— ./Va*. Gaz. 

RHOADS for Roads, q.v. 

RHODEN for Roden, q.v. 

RHODES for Rodes, qv. 




RHYDDERCH, v. under P-rothero; but the 
name is rather from Wei. rhy-, 'super-,' 
and derch, ' ex^alted,' 
Ryderch escob [bishop]. — 

Brut y Tywysogion, A.D. 962. 
This name was used as a Welsh equi- 
valent of Roderick, q.v. 
RHYDER for Rider, q.v- 
RHYS fCelt.) Ardour [Wei. rhfs, ardency, a 
rusn — rh^su, to rush ; and cp. rhfs-wr— 
(g)wr, a man — a combatant, savage] 
Rys ab Owein. — 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 1073. 
Rys ieuanc [young] ab Gruffud. — 

Bruty Tywysogiotti A.D. 1202. 
RIBALD (Teut.), the Dopiesday Ribald-us, re- 
presents the O.Teut. Rikbald, Ric{h)bald= 
Powerfully BoLb [O.Sax. Wfa' = O.N. 
rllM" = O.H.Ger. richi, rlhhi = Goth, reik-s 
= O.E. rice, powerful, mighty (Teut. base 
*rik; ruler) + O.Teut. bald, bold] 
Ribald-US. — Hund. Rolls. 
RIBBLE I for Ribald, q.v. 

2 Dweller by the River Ribble, 12th 
cent. Ribbel, in Domesday-Book Ribel- (in 
Ribel-castre, Ribchester) [We do not know 
what the Celtic name of the Ribble was. 
The earliest recorded uncompounded form 
of the name is the Domesday Ripa ('Inter 
' Ripam et Mersham '), which is app. in- 
tended for the Lat. ripa, a river-bank. 
' Ribble ' may, in fact, represent Lat. 
^ rivell-us, a dim. € riv-us, a stream, brook 
(mutation from v to b is regular : cp. 
Besan^on from Vesontion-em), but the size 
of the Ribble is an argument against this 
derivation. The' only point upon which 
we can speak with more or less certainty 
is that the name contains the Euraryan 
root ri, to flow, and is basically conn, 
with, e.g., Wei. rhe, a swift motion, Gr. 
rhSB (Ma), to flow, run, gush ; and 'Rhine' 
and 'Rhone '] ^ 

RIBCHESTER. Bel. to Ribchester (N.Lancs), ' 
I2th cent. Ribbecestre, Domesday Ribel- 
castre = the (Roman) Camp on the Ribble 
[v. under Ribble, and -|- O.E. ceaster, Lat. 


RIBSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Ribston (W. Yorks), 

14th cent. Ribstane, 13th cent. Ribstan, 

Domesday Ripestan = Hryp's Stone 

(House or Monument) [O.E. stdti] 

RICARD (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.) = Richard, q.v. 
Richard IL, Duke of Normandy, is 
called Ricard (' t6 Ricardes rice ') in the 
A.-Saxon Chronicle, a.d. iooo. Ricardes 
occurs in Domesday Book. Ricard is 
fairly common in 13th atid 14th cent. 
English records. In France, Ricard is not 
nearly so common as Richard; and Ricart, 
again, occurs much less frequently than 

RICARDS,RiCARD's(Son);v. Ricard, Richard. 
RICCARD, v. Ricard, Richard. 
RICE, an Anglicized form of Rhys, q.v. 
' Cp. Reece, Rees(e. 

In the i6th-cent. Registers of Oxford 
, Univ. the same Welsh student is called 
indifferently- Rice and Rise Powell. 

RICH (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.) i Wealthy, 

Powerful, Mighty [M.E. riche, ryche, 

O.E. rice; also O.Fr. riche from O.H.Ger. 

rihhi (mod. reicKl 

Hugo le Ryche.— f/M»d. Rolls. 

2 (later) 9 dim. of Richard, q.v. 

RICHARD (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.) Powerfully 
Brave [O.Teut. Richard, Rikhard, etc.— ' 
O.E. rice (mod. rich) = 0.ll.GeT. richi, rihhi 
(mod. reich) = O.Sax. riki = Dut. rijk 
= Goth, reik-s = O.N. rik-r, powerful, 
rich + O.E. h(e)ard = O.H.Ger. hart = 
O.Sax. hard = Dut. hard = Goth, hardu-s 
= O.N. har'S-r, hard, brave, firfti] 

The great popularity of this name ipay 
be said to have begun with Rlc(e)hard, 
that son of H16Shere, the 7th-cent. king of 
Kent, who became a monk at Lucca, 

Richard is an extremely common name 
in France, where it is a synonym for a 
man of wealth (' un richard') and where it 
also occurs with the diminutive sufBxes 
-eau (-el), -et, -ot, -on, -in. 

Cp. Ricard. 

RICHARDS, Richard's (Son) \ 
RICHARDSON, Richard's Son K ' 


RICHART, a French form of Richard, q.v. 

RICH BELL, an orig. fem. name of French 

origin found in our I3th-i4th cent, records 

as Richebelle, Richebele = Richly Fair 

[v. Rich, and -f- O.Fr. bel(l)e, Lat. bella ((.), 

pretty, fair] 

RICHER (Teut. and Fr.-Teut.), Mighty Army 

[O.Teut. Richer, Richere, Richeri, etc. : 

v. under Rich, and -j- O.E. here = 

O.H.Ger. O.Sax. heri = Goth, hatji-s = 

O.N. herr, army] 

Ricer-us, Richer-us. — Domesday-Book. 

Ranulf Richer.— Hund. Rolls. 

This name has largely merged into 

Cp. RIcker. 

RICHERS, Richer's (Son) : v. Richer. 

RICHERT, a Belgian (Flemish) form of 
Richard, q.v. 

RICHES I Rich's (Son) : v. Rich. 

2 for Richersi q.v. 




RICHEY \= Rich (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. 
RICHIE ]-ey,-ie. 

RICHIN = Rich (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. sufl.-i» 

[Lat. -in-us\ 

Exceptionally, Richin has another origin, 
for Foulques, Count of Anjou, was sur- 
named Richin or Rechin [O.Fr. rechin, rude, 
rough ; f. reche, M.H.Ger. resche, roesche, 
O.H.Ger. r6sc{i, sharp, active, hasty] " a 
cause de son humeur rude et aspre " 
(Larchey, pp. 405, 412). 

RICHING = Richin (q.v.) with added E. -g. 

RICHINGS, Riching's (Son). 

RICHIVIAN = Rich (q.v.) + man. 

Richeman fil. John. — Hund. Rolls. 
Confused with Richmond, q.v. 

RICHMOND (Fr.-Teut. + Lat.) Bel. to Rich- 
mond (Yorks), also Richemont (Normandy) 
= the Splendid or Mighty (Castle-) 
Mount [^.O.H.Ger.^fPi (M.H.Ger. 
riche, mod. retch) + 7r. mont, Lat. mans, 

Johannes de Richemond. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Richmond, Surrey, still sometimes re- 
ferred to as West Sheen, owes its present 
name to Heniy VII, who "willed it to be 
hereafter called after his own title. " It is 
the A.-Sax. Sceon [O.E. sc^on, beautiful, 


(Teut.) the O.Teut. pers. name Rlcmund, 
Richmund = Rich or Mighty Protector 
[O.E. rice = O.H.Ger. rlhhi (M.H.Ger. 
riche) + O.E. mund = O.H.Ger. munt 
(O.Sax. and O.N. mund), hand, protection, 


Confused with Rich man, q.v. 

RICK (Teut.) I Wealthy, Powerful, Mighty 

[O.L.Ger. riki = O.E. ric- = O.N. rik-r = 

Goth, reik-s] 

2 a dim. of Rickard, Rickwapd, &c., q.v. 

We also find one occurrence of the 
A.-Sax. word rica [=Goth. reik-s], 'ruler', 
as a pers. name. 

Cp. Rich. 

RICKARD = Rlcard, Richard, q.v. 
RICKARDS, Rickard's (Son). 
RICKARDSON, Rickard's Son. 

RICKART, an Anglicized (or rather American- 
ized)form of the DntchRijkaart^ Rickard, 
Richard, q.v. 

RICKARTS, Rickart's (Son). 
RICKARTSON, Rickart'S Son. 

RICKATSON, I for Rickartson, q.v. 
2 for Ricketson, q.v. 

RiCKER (Teut.) Mighty Army • [O.Teut. 

Rikheri, Richere, etc. : v. under Rick, and 

+ O.L.Ger. heri = O.E. here = O.N. herr 

' = Goth, harji-s, army] 

The mod. French form is Riquer. 

Cp. Richer. 

RICKERBY (Scand. or Fr.-Teut. -f- Scand.) 

Bel. to Rickerby (Cumb.), 13th cent. 

Ricardeby — Ricard's or Rikhard's 

Estate [v. Ricard, Richard, and + 

O.N. b$-r, estate, farmstead] 

RICKERSON I Ricker's Son: v. Rioker. 

2 exceptionally for Rickertson, 
Rickardson, q.v. 

RICKERT, an Anglicized (American) form of 
the Dutch Rijkert = Rickard, Richard, 

RICKERTS, Rickert's (Son). 

RICKERTSON, Rickert's Son. 

RICKET \ = RIok (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. suff. 

, The mod. French form of this name is 


j Ricket(t)'s (Son). 

RICKETSON, Ricket's Son. 
RICKMAN (Teut.) = Rick (q.v.) + man. 

John fil. Rikeman.— /f«Mrf. Rolls. 

Cp. Richman. 

It has often been stated that an A.-Sax. 
pers. name Ricman is found in the Herts 
place-name Rickmansworth ; but as this 
place was formerly Richmereswearth and 
Rykemereswearth, the pers. name involved 
is, of course, the A.-Sax. Ricmobr = 
Mightily Famous [O.E. ric-, mighty, rich 
-I- mckre, famous, glorious] 

RICKON = Riok (q.v.) -(- the Fr. dim. suff. 

Riquon is now somewhat rare in France. 

RICKS, Rick's (Son) 1 „. , 
RICKSON, Rick's Son /'■ '*'•''*• 




RICKWARD (Teut.) Rich or Powerful 
Guardian [O.Teut. Rthtuard, Ricward, 
etc. : V. unfier Rick, and + O.L.Ger. 
ward = O.E. w(e)ard =t O.H.Ger. wart = 
Goth, wards = O.N. uorjp-r, guardian, 


RICKWOOD for Riokward, q.v. 

The nairie, despite its appearance, does 
not seem to be local. 

RIDD (Eng.) I Rider, Trooper [O.E ridda] 
Ridda was the naine of a thane of the 
Mercian king Offa. 
2 conf. with Read, q.v. 
(Celt.) Dweller at a Ford [Wei. rhyd, 

a ford] 

olSS^K ) (Eng.) I the A.-Sax. peirs. name 
S SS^. hJftfe'^e' [O.E. rckd, counsel, advice 
nlooltj +thedim.suff.-./] 

2 the A.-Sax., pers. name Wrckdel [O.E. 
wrckd or wrck^, a band, wreath' {wr{j>an, to 
bind) + the dim. suff. -el: cp. Ridliugton] 

3 for Reddall, Reddell, q.v. 

RIDDER = Rider, q.v. 

RIDDICK, V. Riddock. 

RIDDING (Eng.) i Dweller at the Clearing 

[O.E. hryding] 
2 for Redding, q.v. 

RIDDINGS, pi., and genit., of Ridding. 

RIDDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Wrightington 
(Lanes), 13th cent. Wrichtington^ Wrightin- 
ton = the Estate of the Wyrhta 
Family [A.-Sax. *Wyrhtinga-tAn— ^wyrhta, 
a Wright, worker -)- -inga, genit. pi. of the 
fil. suff. -ing + ttln, estate, etc.] ' 

RIDDLE, V. Riddel(l. 

RIDDLER (EngO SiFTER (of grain, etc.) [O.E. 
hriddel, a riddle, sieve + the agent, suff. 


RIDDLESDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Riddlesden 

(Yorks), the Domesday Redelesden = 

Rebel's (or Wr^del's) Valley [v. under 

Riddel(l >, », and + O.E. denu, a valley] 

RIDDLESWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Riddles- 
worth (Norf.), 13th and 14th cent. Redeles- 
worth = Ridel's (or WriEdel's) Estate 
[v. under Riddel(l\», and + O.E. w{e)orh 
estate, farm, enclosure] 
RIDDOCH (Celt.) Bel. to Redddch (Lanark) 
[doubtful : poss. Gael, reidh. (O.Ir. riid), 
smooth -f achadh, a field] 
RIDDOCK (Celt.) for Riddooh, q.v. 
(Eng.) a var. of Ruddock, q.v. 

RIDEAL, an Irish form of Riddell, q.v. [the 

form is due to Ir. (and Gael.) ridM, a 

riddle, sieve'; borrowed from Etig.] 

Rl DEH AUG H (Eng.) Bel. to Ridehalgh (La:ncs), 
,17th cent. Rydehalgh [The second element 
is the Dial. E. halgh (found also as haugh, 
with common vocalization of /), a riverside 
meadow, a corner, O.N.E. halc= O.W.Sax. 
healh, a corner. In the absence of early 
forms the first element is quite uncertain : 
it may represent a dial, form of O.E. rPf(e, 
a streamlet; O.E. wrid, a thicket; O.E. 
riad, red ; O.E. hrSod, a reed ; or be Dial. E, 
ride, a riding, or road or cutting through a 


Rl DEOUT. The form of this name in the 1 3th- 
cent. Hundred-Rolls, Ridhut, and in the 
i4th-cent. Yorks Poll-Tax, Rydhowt, app. 
points to E. hut [Fr. hutte, a cottage, 
hut ; O.H.Ger. hutta, a hut] ; but the first 
element presents the same difficulty as in 
Ridehalgh, q.v. 

RIDER (Eng.) i Horseman, Trooper ; in late 
A.-Saxon, Norman K:*ight. 

2 Mounted Keeper or Steward ; 
Ranger [M.E. ridere, rydere; O.E. ridere] 

I geve thee eightene pence a day. 
And my bowe shalt thou here ; 
4.nd over all the north countre 

1 make thee chyfe rydere. — 

' Adam Bell ' ; Percy's Reliques. 

3 (late) (Mounted) Commercial Tra-' 


RIDGE (EngO Dweller at a Ridge [M.E. rigge, 

O.E. hrycg] 
RIDGEWAYl (Eng.) Dweller at the Ridge- 
RIDGWAY /Way iO. '&. hrycgweg] 

RIDGLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Ridge-Lea 

[O.E. hrycgledh] 

RIDGMONT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Ridgmont 
(Beds, Yorks, Lanes, etc.) 

The Bedfordshire place app. owes its 
name to a Norman castle which was 
called Ruggemont, or Rougemont, from the 
Red Hill on which it stood {Nat.Gaz.) 
[Fr. 'rouge, f. Lat. ruhe-us, red, through a 
later form rubi-us (rubj-tts) + Fr. mont, 
Lat. motts, mont-is, a hill] 

RIDING (Eng.) i = Ridding, q.v. 

2 (later) Dweller at the Riding, i.e. a 
riding-way cut through a wood [f. O.E. 

ridan, to ride] 
RIDLER = Riddler, q.v. 

RIDLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Ridley; or Dweller at 

I the Red Lea [Dial. E. rid(e, red ; O.E. 

r^ad + M.E. ley, O.E. l^ah, a meadow] 

2 the Reedy Lea [O.E. hr^od, a reed -|- 





3 the Thicket-Lea [O.E. wrid, a thicket 

+ Uah] 

4 the Clearing-Lea [f. Dial. E. rid, to 

clear land (O.N. h)ry]^ia) + Uah] 

RIDLINGTON (Eng.)Bel.toRidlington (Norf.; 
Rutl.), 13th cent. Wridlington = the 
Estate of the Wr^del Family [A-Sax. 
*Wrdedelinga-Mn: ihe pers. name is a dim. 
f. O.E. wrded or iwcfej' {wri^an, to bind), a 
band, wreath -|- -inga, genit. pi. of the fll. 
suff. -ing + tun, estate, etc.] 

The Rutland parish was Redlictun in 

V. Rideout. 



RIDPATH, V. Redpath. 

RIDSDALE <Celt. -1- Eng.) Bel. to Redesdale 
(Northumb.) = the Dale of the R. Rede 
or Reed [the river-name is prob. the Wei. 
rhudd = Gael, ruadh, red, doubtless in- 
fluenced by the cognate M.E. rede, reed, 
O.E. r/flrf, red : — + O.E. dal, a valley] 

RIDYARD (Eng.) Dweller at the Red Enclo- 
sure [O.E. riad + geard\ 




RIG BY (Scand.) Bel. to Rigby (now Ribby), 
Lanes, 13th cent. Riggeby, Domesday 
Ri^i = the Ridge-Farmstead [O.N. 
hrygg-r, a ridge -H b^-r, a dwelling, farm- 
stead, etc.] 

This essentially Lancashire surname 
is found in Yorkshire in the 14th cent, as 
Riggeby and Rygby. 

Cp. Rigsby. 

RIG DEN (Eng.) Bel. to Rigden (app. Kent) 

[this is especially a Kentish surname, so 

that the ' second element is doubtless 

O.E. denu, a valley : the first element inay 

be for Rick- (hardly O.E. hrycg, a ridge] 

RIGG (Scand. and N.Eng.) Dweller at a Ridge 
[O.N. hrygg-r = O.N.E. hrycg] 

RIGGS, pi., and genit., of Rigg. 

RIGHTON for Wrighton, q.v. 

RIGMAIDEN (N.Eng.) Bel. to Rigma(i)den 
(Westm.), 13th and 14th cent. Rygmayden, 
Riggemayden = the Maiden Castle on 
the Ridge [M.E. ryg, rigge, etc., O.N.E. 
hrycg = 0!N. hrygg-r, a ridge + M.E. 
mayden, etc., a maiden — applied to a 
castle or fort that had never been captured 
or which was considered impregnable; 
O.E. mikgden\ 

RIGSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Rigsby (Lines), 13th 
cent. i?j'^«i9',Domesday^ig'M6« [Here the 
common O.N. hrygg-r (Dan.-Norw. ryg), a 
ridge, back(bone, seems to be used as a 
pers. or nick-name; it may be a shortening 
of hrygg-biug-r, crook-backed, or hrygg- 
kn^tt-r, humpbacked : on account of the -s 
genitive the name cannot be the O.N. 

ryg-r, lady, wife : 1- O.N. by-r, farm, 


RILEY \ (Eng.) Dweller at i the Rye-Field 
RILLEY ; [O.E. ryge + fe«A] 

"Rylay in Acryngton," A.D. 1323.— 

Lane. Ing., ii. 198. 

2 the Brook-Field [O.E. r{^(e, a stream- 
let -|- ferfA] 
(Celt.) for O'Reilly, q.v. 

RIMBAULT, the French Raimbault: v, under 

RIMER 1(A.-Fr.) Poet, Minstrel [M.E. 

RIMMER J rywer, rymour, rymeur, rimour; f. 

M.E. O.Fr. rime, rime, metre; either from 

Lat. rhythm-US, rhythm, or O.H.Ger. rim, 

Roger le Rymeur. — 

iMnc. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

"Thomas the Rymour [Thomas of 
Erceldoune], the first Scottish poet." 

( Eng. ) Calculator, Accountant 
[O.E. rtmere] 
The form Rimmer is found in the early 
17th cent. 


I V. Rem(m)ington ante. 

RIND, V. Rhind. 

RINDER, V. Render. 

RINGLAND (Eng.) Bel. to Ringland (Norf.), 

14th cent. Ringland [O.E. hring, a ring, 

circle, round -f- land] 

The piece of land must either have 

been round in shape or situated near a 

(stone) circle. 

RING ROSE (Eng.) [the first element is 
doubtless O.E. hring, a ring, circle, round; 
while the second app. represents the pi. 
of O.E. rckw, a row (as of houses or 
hedges : cp. Dial. E. row, a hedge] 
This seems to be specifically a York- 
shire surname : it is foundas Ryngrose in 
the 1 6th cent. 

RINGSHAW (Eng.) [O.E. hring, a ring, circle, 

round + sc{e)aga, a wood] 

The wood must either have been round 

in shape (cp. ' Round Coppice,' Bucks) or 

have been situated near a (stone) circle. 




RINGSTEAD (Eng.) Bel. to Ringstead (Norf., 
Northants, Dorset, etc.) [O.E. hring, iri., a 
ring, circle, round + stede, a place] 
See the note under Ringland and 
Ringshaw; but in this case there is a 
possibility of the first element being the 
pers. name Hring [same etymology"]. 

Ringstead,! Norfolk, was Ringstede and 
Ringstyde in the Confessor's time. 

RINTELL } ^- Rentoul ante. 

RIORDAN I (Celt.) Royal Bard [Ir. Righ- 

RIORDEN f bkarddn—righ, a king + the asp. 

form of bard, a poet + the dim. suff. -a«] 

RIPLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Ripley (Yorks: Domes- 
day Ripeleia, Ripeleie, 14th cent. Riplay-; 
Derby, Surrey, etc.) = i Hrypa's or 
Hreopa's Lea [A.-Sax. *Hrypan- or 
*Hriopan-ledh — Hr^pam, Hriopan-, genit. 
of Hr^pa, Hriopa ; poss. f. the pret., hrdop-, 
of hrSpan, to shout] 
2 Rip(p)a's Lea [A.-Sax. Rip(p)an-ledh— 
Rip(p)an-, genit. of Rip{p)h ; app. f. ripa, 
- reopa, m., a sheaf {Sceafa, f. O.E. scMf, m., 
a sheaf, occurs as an A.-Sax. pers. name] 
Cp. Repton. 

RIFLING HAM (Eng.) Bel. to Riplingham 
( Yorks ), A.-Sax. *Hr$pelinga-hdm or 
*Rip{p)elinga-hdm = the Home of the 
Hrypel or Rip(p)el Family [the pers. 
name is seen under Ripley, with added 
dim. -el + -inga, genit. pl- of the fil. sufl. 
-ing + hdm, home, estate] 
The / in the modern name can hardly 
be ignored notwithstanding the Domes- 
day Ripiugha'. 

RIPLINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Riplington 
(Hants, Northumb.), A.-Sax. *Hrj)pelittga- 
tUn or *Rip(p)eUnga-tiin = the Estate of 
THE Hrypel or Rip(p)el Family [the 
pers. name is seen under Ripley, with 
added dim. -et + -inga, genit. pl. of the fil. 
suff. -ing + ttin, estate, etc.] 

RIPON IBel. to Ripon (Yorks), 13th cent. 

RIPPON J Ripon, Domesday Ripum, loth cent. 

Rypon, Bede's in hrypum (Hist. Eccl. V. 

XIX), A.-Sax. Chron. a.d. 709 td Ripum 

, [doubtful : but not improb. an O.Anglian 

- cognate (in the dat. pl.) of O.N. rifa (dat. 

pl. rifum), a cleft, fissure (cp. O.N, rtf = 

Ger. rippe = E. rib) if not of O.N. rip-r, a 

We see the Latinized form (Hripis) of 
this place-name in, e.g., the loth-cent. 
Frithgod's metrical account of the conse- 
cration of a new church at Ripon. 

The weak dat. pl. ending {-on) in the 
laterforms of this name is much commoner 
in Old High German than in Old English. 

RIPPINGALE 1 (EBg.)BeltoRippingale(Lmcs), 
RIPPINGALL ; 13th cent. Repinghal{e, Domes- 
day Repinghale, loth cent. (Lat. charters) 
Repingale [the pers. name is doubtless the 
A.-Sax. HrSopa, or Reop{p)a (v. under 
Ripley), with the ' son ' sun. -ing (prob. 
really for the genit. pl. -inga) ; the local 
element representing either O.Merc. Afl//, a 
hall, or halli, a corner, or even hold, a 


RIPPINGTON, V. Repington. 

RISBOROUGH (Eng.) Bel. to Risborough 

RiSBROUGH UBucks), izthcerA. Risebergh, 

RISBROW J A.D. 903 Hrisberg = the 

Bushy Hill [O.E. hris, brushwood -t- 

be{o)rg, a, hill] 

RISBY (Scand.) Bel. to Risby (Yorks: Domes- 
day Risbi ; Lines : anc. Riseby ; Suffolk, etc.) 
= the Farm in the Brushwood [O.N. 
hrts, brushwood + bf-r, farm, estate] 

RISELEY > (Eng.) Bel. to Riseley or Risley 

RISELY J (Beds), 13th cent. Risle = the 

Brushwood-Lea [O^E. hris, brushwood 

+ ledh, lea] 
Cp. Risley. 

RISHTON (Eng.) Bel. to Rishton (Lanes), 
14th cent. Risseton, Risshton = the Farm- 
stead by the Rushes [O.E. rise, a rush 
-f- tAn, a farm, enclosure] 

Cp. Rushton. 

RISHWORTH(Eng.) Bel. to Rishworth (Yorks) 

= the Rushy Estate [O.E. rise, a rush 

+ worj", an estate, enclosure, farm] 

This township is (or was) mostly "un- 
cultivated moor." 

Cp. Rushworth. 

RISING (Eng.) Bel. to (Wood) Rising (Norf.), 
13th cent. Rysing, Rising = the Bushy 
Meadow [O.E. hris = O.N. hris, brush- 
wood + O.Angl. ing, O.N. eng, meadow] 

RISK (Celt.) Dweller at a Morass or Moor 

[Gael, (and Ir.) riasg, riasc; conn, with 

O.E. rise, a rush] 

RISLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Risley (Lanes : 13th 
and 14th cent Riselegh, Ryselegh ; Derby : 
13th cent. Risele/) = the Brushwood- 
Lea [O.E. hris + ledh] 
Cp. Riseley. 

RISTON (Eng.) Bel. to Riston (YOrks : Domes- 
day Ristun, Ristune ; Norfolk : 13th cent. 
Riston) = the Brushwood-Enclosure; 
Bush-Farm [O.E. hris (= O.N. hris), 
brushwood + t4n, enclosure, farm] 
Cp. Reston. 

RITCH = Rich, q.v. 




RITCHIE, a North. E. and Scot, double dim. 
of Richard, q.v. [O.E. dim. suff. -ie, -y\ 
In the 1 6th cent, the form was commonly 

RITSON I for Ritch's Son : v. Ritch, Rich. 
2 for Wpightson, q.v. 

RITTER (Ger.) Cavalier, Knight [v. the 
Appendix of Foreign Names] 

, Cp. Rutter. 

RIVEL(E)Y, V. Reveley. . 

RIVERS (A.-Fr.-LatJ Bel. to Rivieres (France) 
= the Banks, Shores [O.Fr. riviere, like 
Ital. riviera, f. L.Lat. riparia, a bank, sHore 
(also later a river) ; f. Lat. ripa, a bank, 
, shore] 

de Riveres, de Rivers, are the Hundred- 
Rolls forms. 

This name (which has absorbed the 
I3th-cent. A.-French de la< River{e) was 
Latinized de Ripariis. 

RIVINGTON (Eng.yBel. to Rivington (Lanes), 
A.D. 1202 Revington, Rowinton, other 13th- 
cent. forms being Ruwinton, Riviton, 
Rovinton, Rouinton, Rouuinton, Rou(u)yngton, 
Rowyngeton, Rowynton, Ruwington, Ruhivin- 
ton, Rpuington, early-i4th-cent. Rovinton, 
Rovington, Rvoyngton. [This is clearly a case 
where the A.-Saxon form of the name is 
necessary for its elucidation. If we were to 
judge by the i4th-cent. forms we could 
presume an A.-Sax, *Hr6finga-tun, 'the 
Estate of the Hr6f- Family" —hrdf, m.,lit. 
roof, summit, sky+-i«^a, of thefiL 
suff. -ing; hrdf app. being the origin of the 
first element of ' Rochester ' — A.-Sax. 
HrSfes-ceaster. A known variant of this 
word, hr^f-, would enable us to account 
for the Revington of 1202 and hence the 
present form, Rivington, which occurs in 
1587. On the other hand, the divergent 
Rou-, etc., and Rev-, Riv- forms might be 
due to an A.-Sax. pers. name like Riulf, 
for Ricwulf, with the genit. pi. ' son ' suff. 
-inga + <«», estate, farm] 

RIX I for Ricks, q.v. 

2 a local name from O.E. rix, f., a rush 
(the surname de la Rixe occurs in the 
Hundred-Rolls for Somerset). 

RIXON for RIckson, q.v. 


ROAD 1 (Eng.) Dweller at i a RoAD(-Side) 

ROADE J or Riding [M.E. rode, O.E. rdd, f.J 

2 a Cross or Crucifix (Rood) [M.E. 

rode, O.E. rid, i.\ 

Simon de la Rode. — Hund. Rolls. 

But oonly that the holy rode 
Turne us every dreem to gode. — 

Chaucer, Hous of Fame, 57-8. 

(Scand.) Dweller at a Clearing [M.E. 
rode, O.N- riffp-r. a clearing, 'open space in 

a forest*] 

(TeutJ RED(-haired); Ruddy [O.N. 

riffS-r (Dan.-Norw. rod) = O.E. redd = 

Dut. rood (pron. rtJi), red, ruddy] 

ROAdI^ } P'-' ^""^ 2^"**-' °^ Road(e, q.v. 

Roads is common in Bucks. The 
Rhodes of Yorkshire (in the Yorks PoU- 
Tax, A.D. 1379, commonly 'del Rodes') 
and the neighbouring counties (Lanes : 
Richard A&Rodes. — ' Inq. de an. et die,' A.D. 
1269), and the Rhoad(e)s of Lincolnshire, 
may lae set down as Scandinavian. 

ROADHOUSE, a local name = Road (q.v.) + 
house [O.E. O.N. Ajfa] 

ROAD(K)NIGHT(Eng.) Mounted Servant or 

Retainer [O.E. rddcniht — rdd, riding -j- 

cniht, boy, servant (later knight] 

ROAFE 1 „ 1^ 

roalfe; '*'"^•^■^• 

ROAKE (A.-Fr.) Dweller at a Rock [O.Fr. 
roke, roque ; L.Lat. rocca ; app. f. a deriv. 
(rupic-us) of Lat. rupes, a rock] 
Geof. de la Roke. — Hund. Rolls. 
Roque- is common in French place- 

Cp. Roche- 

ROAN "I (Scand.) Dweller at a Roan- or 
ROANE J Rowan -Tree pi.Eng. and Scot. 
roaurtree, rowan-tree I Dan.-Norw. ronne 
(tree) = Swed. ronn, O.N. reyni-r, rowan- 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.-Celt.) Bel. to Rouen [A.-Fr. 
Rotomag-us : -magus is the Latinized form 
of the Gaul, magos (= Ir. and Gael, magh), 
a plain, field ; the first element seems to 
be Gaul. *roto-, and conn, with Lat. rqtare, 
to turn round (Lat. rota, a wheel = Ir. and 
Gael, roth =Wel. rhod acd Bret, wd), and 
rotundus, round] 

ROANSON, a contraction of Rowlandson, 

ROANTREE, v. under Roan (Scand). 

^°^3 1 dim. of Robert, q.v. 

ROBART = Robert, q.v. 
ROBARTS = Roberts, q.v. 


ROB(B)ERD, V. Robert. 

ROB(B)ERDS, Rob(b)erd's (Son): v. Robert. 

ROBBEY") double dim. of Robert, q.v. [E. 
ROBBIE J dim. suff. -^y, rie\ 

ROBBINS = Robins, q.v. 

ROBBS, Robb's (Son) : v. Robb. 

ROBEARTS = Roberts, q.v. 

ROBERSON for Robertson, q.v. 

ROBERT (Teut.) i FAME-BRiGHT[Fr. Robert, O. 
, TevLt.Hruodber(a)ht,Ruodperht, etc.(Mod.H. 
— O.H.Ger. h)ruod- = O.Sax. *hri}S- = O.E. 
A>-<«S- (hr^ = O.N. hr(fS-r, fame, victory + 
O.H.Ger. beraht = O.Sax. berht = O.E. 
be(p)rht = Goth, bairht-s = O.N. hiart-r, 
bright, glorious] 

Rodbert and Rodbriht are usual forms in 
the A.-Saxon Chronicle, nth and 12th 
cent. Fiz-Robert occurs in the copies of 
. the Roll of Battle Abbey. Robertus is the 
form in DomesdayTBook. Robert Wace 
invariably has Robert — 

Li quens iJoftert de Moretoing 
(The count Softer*, of Mortain). — 

Roman de Rou, ii. 183, etc. 
Sire Roberd le fiz Rei [variantly Roy] is 
name ssal be. — Rob. Glouc. Chron., 8895. 
i?oSert [variantly ^oJ^j-^fl the robbere. — 
Piers Plowman, v. 469 (341 1). 
Robert the Bruys erle off Carryk. — 

Barboufj The Bruce, i. 67. 
Robert is still a common French sur- 
name; it occurs also with the dim. 
suffixes -et, -in, -on, etc. 
Rupert is the same name, 
(occ.) 2 Counsei^Bright [f. O.L.Ger. 
Rddberht — rdd (O.E. rded), counsel + 
berht', bright, glorious] 

ROBERTON (Teut.) Bel. to Roberton (Scot.), 
i2th cent. VtllaRoberti, 13th cent. Roberts- 
tun = .Robert's Manor or Estate [v. 
under Robert, and + M.E. tun, O.E. tAii] 

ROBERTSON, Robert's Son J ^' «"°eri. 
Adam fil. Roberti. — Hund. Rolls. 

ROBERTSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at Robert's 

Wood [v. under Robert, and + M.E. 

shati)(e, O.E. sc{e)aga, a wood] 

ROBESON = Robson, q.v. 

ROBEY = Roby, q.v. 

ROBILARD = Rob, a dim. of Robert (q.v.) + 
. the Fr. double dim. suff. -el-ard. 
Robelard.^/fM«rf. Rolls. 



ROBIN, a double dim. of Robert, q.v. [Fr. 

John 'Rohia.— Hund. Rolls. 
Til Robyn the ropere 
Arobs bi the southe. — 

Piers Plowman, 3147-8. 
Now am I Robert [i.e. a gentleman], 
now Robyn [i.e. a poor man]. — 

Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 6337. 
This trayturs name is Robyn Hode. — 
Robin Hood and the Monk, 8g. 

ROBINET 1 = Robin (qJv.) + the Fr. dim. 
ROBINETTJsuff. -«i. 

L'abb6 Brizard a vu, dans les titres de 
la famille de Buat, une meme personne 
appel6e Robert et Robinet. — 

Larchey, p. 416. 

ROBINS, Robin's (Son) 1„ p-uj- 
ROBINSON, Robin's SonJ ^' "°"'"- 

ROBISHAW for Robertshaw, q.v. 

ROBISON, Rob(b)ie's Son: v. Robbie. 

ROBKIN = Rob (q.v.) + the E. (double) dim. 
suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -Mb] 
Robekin is the usual i3th-cent. form. 

ROBLET "I = Rob (q.v.) -|- the Fr. double 
ROBLOT J dim. suff. -el-et, -el-ot. 

Robelet and Robelot are not common now 
in France. 

ROB LIN = Rob (q.v.) + the Fr. double dim. 
suff. -el-in. 
Simon Robelyn. — Hund. Rolls. 
Rotelin is now somewhat rare in France. 

ROBOTHAM "I (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe- 
RO BOTTOM I Valley [O.E. rd, a roe + botm] 

ROBSART (Fr.-Teut.+Lat.) Bel. to Robersart 

(Nord)= Robert's Clearing ("v. Robert, 

and' -I- Dial.Fr, sort, Fr. essart, a clearing, 

f. essarter, to root up; Lat. ex, on\.+sarire, 

saritum, to hoe, weed] 

ROBSON, Rob's Son : v. Rob. 

ROBY (Scand.) Bel. to Roby = i RA's or the 

Roe Stead [O.N. rd, a roe + hy-r\ 

2 the Farm in the Nook or Corner 

[O.N. ti)rd, a nook, corner -t- by-r] 

The Lancashire Roby was Rabi in the 

1 2th and 13th cent; Robi and Roby{e in 

the 14th cent. 

occ. (A.-Fr.-Teut.) = Rob (q.v.) H- the E. 
dim. sufF. -e)y, 

ROCHE '(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Roche (France) ; 

or Dweller at a Rock [Fr. roche, roc^ & 

rock (Ital. raced); app. f. a deriv. (rupica) 

of Lat. rupes, a rode] 




Jordan ide la Roche. — Hund. Rolls. 

That ypotame a wonder beest is . . . 
In nche is his wonyying [dwelling].— 

Kyng Alhaunder, S184, 5196. 

Ther I was bred, alias I that harde day, 
And fostred in a roche of marbul gray. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, F 499-500. 

1 looked about and saw a craggy roche. — 
'The Tower of Doctrine': Percy's Religues. 

( de la ) Roche is a common French 

Cp. Roake. 

occ. (?Celt.) Dweller by the Rivers Roche 
(Essex), Roch (Lanes) [if, as seems very 
probable, these river-names are Celtic the 
etymon may, on analogy, be sought for 
in the early form of Wei. rhwch, 'what is 
rough,' or rhwych, 'what expands '] 

ROCHEFORT (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Rochefort 

(France) = the Strong (Castle-) Rock ; 

FoRTlFlED^RocK [v. under Roche, and 

+ Fr./ort, hat. fort-is, strong] 

This name was Latinized de Rupe Forti. 

Rochefort is a common French place- 

ROCHESTER. Bel. to Rochester (Kent), the 
A.-Sax. (7th cent.) Hrdfes-ceaster, i.e. 
Hr6f's (Roman) Stronghold [the pers. 
name is app. O.K. hrdf, m., (lit. roof), sky, 
heaven, in the genit. -|- 0,E. ceaster, a 
fortified place ; Lat. castr-um, a castle] 
This was Bede's belief (' Hist. Eccl.' IL 
iii.) ; but if Rochester, as has been claimed, 
was the Celt.-Roman Rotibis ^s well as 
Duro-brivis), Bede may have been wrong. 

Rochester, Northumberland, is on a 
rock, and may owe the first element of its 
name to that fact [see under Roche.] 

ROCHFORD (Eng.) Bel. to i Rochford (Essex) 
13th cent. Rocheford = the Ford over 
THE Roche [O.E./ord] 

2 Rochford (Wore), the Domesday 
Rochesforde [this may represent an A.-Sax. 
*Hr6ces-ford, Hrdc being a pers. name 

from the rook — 0,E. hrdc, m.] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Roohefor't, q.v. 

ROCKETT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to (La) Roqnette 

(Normandy) = the Little Rock [O.Fr. 

roqite, a rock + the Fr. dim. suff. -et-te\ 

ROCKINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Rockingham 
(Northants), the A.-Sax. Hrdcinga-hdm = 
the Home or Estate of the Hr6c- 
Family [O.E. hrdc, m., a rook -|- -inga, 
genit. pi. of the fil. sufF. -ing + hdm, home, 


ROCKLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Rockley ; or Dweller 

at the Rocky Lea [M.E. rok(e, O.E. -rocc 

(of Romanic orig.), a rock 4- M.E. le{y, 

O.E. ledh, a meadow] 

The form of this name in the Hundred- 
Rolls, A.D. 1274, was usually Rokele. 

ROCKLIFF(E \ (Eng.) Bel. to Rockcliff(e, Ro- 

ROCLIFFE Jchffe (Yorks) ; or Dweller at 

the Rocky Cliff [v. under Rockley, and 

+ O.E. clif] 

(Scand.) for Rawcliffe, q.v. 

RODBARD \ (Teut.) 1 Red Beard [O.Sax. 

RODBEARD J rdd = Dut. rood (pron. rsd) = 

O.N. ri<fS-r = O.E. redd, redd = Goth. 

rauY-s = O.H.Ger. rSt, red -t- O.Sax. bard 

= t)ut. baard = O.N. ba/S = O.E. b{e)ard 

— Goth. *barda = O.H.Ger. bart, beard] 

2 = Robert, q.v. 

RODBOURN(E (Eng.) Bel. to Rodborne ; or 

Dweller at i the Red Brook [O.E. reod, 

redd, red -|- bume, burtia, a brook] 

2 the Reedt Brook [O.E. hredd, a reed 
-I- bume, burnd\ 

Rodborne, also formerly called Redbom, 
Wilts, is about 13 miles from Rodborne 
Cheney in the same county. It is not 
easy to decide in every case which of the 
two places is meant in Wiltshire charters 
of A.-Saxon times, in which wefindthe vari- 
ant spellings Redbuma, Reddbuma, -e, Rod- 
bame, and Hreddburna; but Rodborne 
Cheney seems usually to be the A.-Sax. 

ROOD I Dweller at a Rod of land [M.E. 
rodd(fi, O.E. rod(d] 

2 a dim. of Roderick, q.v., and Rodolph, 

3 a form of Rudd, q.v., also a weak var. 
of Road(ei q>v. 

Nicholas de la Rodde. — Hund. Rolls. 

Rodd is the name of a Herefordshire 

RODDAM (Eng.) Bel. to Roddam (Northumb.) 

[the second element is O.E. ham(m, a 

piece of land, enclosure, dwelling; for the 

first element see under Road(e] 

This place is mentioned in a late metrical 

version of an alleged grant of land by Kins 

■^thelstan— ■' 1 

1 konig Athelstane 
Giffis heir to Paulane 
Odiham and Roddam. — 

Cart. Sax. No. 1342. 

RODDICK I a var. of Ruddiok, q.v. 

2 an abbrev. of Roderick, q.v. 




RODDY I a double dim. of Roderick, q.v., and 
Rodolph, q.v. [E. dim. suff. -y] 

2 a var. of Ruddy, q.v. 

There does not seem to be any trace of 
this hame being local, with a second ele- 
ment -ey, 'island,' or -hay, -hey, 'enclosure.' 

RODE, V. Road(e. 

RODEN (Eng.) i Bel. to Roden ; or Dweller at 
I the Roe-Valley [O.E. rd, a roe -1- derm, 

a valley] 
2 the Reedy Valley [O.E. hredd, a reed] 
' aet Hrodene ' occurs in an A.-Sax. will 
(' Cart. Sax.' No. 1317). 

RODERICK (Teut.) Famous Ruler [O.Teut. 
Hruodric, Ruodric, Hr^rik, etc. (mod. Ger. 
Roderidi) — O.H.Ger. h)ruod- = O.Sax. 
*hrd^- = O.E. bra's- {hre^ = O.N. hr6^S-r, 
fame, glory, victory -f- a deriv. of O.Teut. 
n'fe-, a ruler, seen in O.Sax. riki = O.E. 
rica = Goth, reik-s, a ruler] 
This Teutonic name is used as an 
Anglicization of the Irish Ruadhri, Gael. 
Ruaridh — which are more often repre- 
sented by Ropy, q.v. — and of the Welsh 
Rhydderch, q.v. 

RODES, v. Roads. 

RODGER (Teut.) Famous Spear [O.Teut. 
HniodgSr (whence Fr. Roger, Rogier), 
Hro^gdr, HrSSgeirr, etc.— O.H.Ger. h)ruod- 
= O.Sax. *hrSS- = O.E. hrSS- (hr^ = 
O.N. hrffS-r, fame, glory, victory -|-0,H.Ger. 
and O.Sax. ger — O.E. gar = O.N.geirr, a 

HrfiSwulf and HrdSgdr.—r 

WidsiS (The Traveller), 91. 

RSSgA' is the form in a loth-i ith cent. 

'Index Bonorum' of the abbey of Werden- 

an-der-Ruhr. The mod. (High) German 

form is Riidiger. 

Cp. Roger. 

RODGERS, Rodger's (Son) 1„ n^rfao- 
RODGERSON, Rodger's Son K' «o°ser. 

RODGIE, a double dim. ol Rodger, q.v. [E. 

dim. sufT. -zV] 

RODICK, V. Roddick. 

RODMAN = Rodd, Road (q.v.) -)- man. 

But exceptionally the first element may 
be that seen under Roderick and Rodger, 
as Rodman occurs in a gth-cent. Register 
of the abbey of Werden-an-der-Ruhr. 

RODMUND (Teut.) Famous Protector 

[O.Teut. Hr{u)odmunt, HfSSmund, etc. — 

v. under Roderick and Rodger, and -|- 

O.H.Ger. munt (mod. mund) = 0;E. O.Sax. 

O.N. mund, hand, protection, protector] 

HreSric and HrA'Smund. — Be&wulf, 2382- 

The Domesday torm is Rodmund. 

RODNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Rodney (Soms.), early 
14th cent, uniformly Rodeneye, pointing to 
an A.-Sax. *H)R6dan-ig = R6da's or 
Hr6da's Island [the pers. name Rdda or 
Hrdda or Hrd^a (genit. Rddan-, etc.) is the 
first element (without the common suff. 
-a) of Roderick and Rodger, q.v. (a Devon- 
shire thew named Hrdda was manumitted 
c. 970 — ' Cart. Sax.' No. 1246] 

RODNIGHT, V. Road(k)night. 

RODOLF "I (Teut.) Famous Wolf [O.Teut. 

RODOLPH I Hruod('w)olf, Ruodolf (whence Fr. 
Rodolphe), Hrd^{w)ulf, etc. — v. under 
Roderick and Rodger, and -|- O.H.Ger. 
wolf — O.Sax. and O.E. wulf = Fris. and 
Dut. wolf = Goth, wulf-s = O.N. Mf-r, 


RODRICK, V. under Roderick. 

RODWAY (Eng.) i Dweller at the ROOD- 
(Cross-)Way [O.E. rod -{■ weg'\ 

2 a form of Radway, q.v. 

RODWELl. (Eng.) Dweller at i the Spring by 
the Road [O.E. rdd + w{i)ell(a, etc.] 

2 the Spring by the Rood (Cross) 
[O.E. rdd, rood] Cp. Cro8(s)well. 

3 the Red Spring (spring issuing from 
red earth) [O.E. redd, redd, red] 

4 the Reedy Spring [O.E. hredd, a reed] 
In A. - Saxon charters we find such 

forms as 'on reddan-wylle' (dat.), "on 
reddwellan ' (dat.), and possibly ' Red 
Spring' is the commonest meaning; 
although redd is occ. found to be for 

Alan de 'Roiev/eW.—Hund. Rolls. 

ROE (Eng. and Scand.) a nickname and sign- 
name from the animal [M.E. ro(e, O.E. 
O.N. rd, a roe] 
John le 'Ro.—Hund. Rolls. 

John de la 'Koe..—Excheq. Iss. 

Cp. Ray, Rae, Raw(e; and there has 
prob. been confusion with Row(e, q.v. 

(Celt.) Of Red Complexion or Hair 
[Ir. and Gael, ruadh (dh mute), red] 

ROEBUCK (Eng. and Scand.) a nickname and 
sign-name from the animal [v. under Roe, 
and -I- O.E. bucc = O.N. bukk-r] 
ROFF [ assim. forms of Rolf(e, q.v. 


ROFFEY \ I = Roff, Roif(e (q.v.) -f- the dim. 
ROFFY /suff. -«)y. 

2 |Dweller at (a) the Rough Island or 
Waterside [O.E, riih, rough, wild -|- ig 

(M.E. ey{e] 




(b) the Rough Hey or Enclosure [O.E. 
nih + hcBg-, haga, enclosure] 

The surname ' de la Rogheye ' occurs in 
the i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls. 

There is a Roughey in Sussex and a 
Rough Hey in Cheshire. 

Rofiy is the name of a shepherd in 
'The Shepheards Calender' (September). 
In the ' glosse ' to this month Spenser 
says — 

Roffy, the name of a shepehearde in 
Marot his i£glogue of Robin and the Kinge. 

The Yonne (France) village - name 
Roffey will hardly have influenced this 

ROGAN (Celt.) Of Red Complexion or Hair 

[Ir. Ruadhacdn (a.d. 8go, etc.) — ruadh (dh 

mute), red + the (double) dim. suff. -cdn 

{6c-dn\ later -gdn\ 

There has been interchange with 

Rohan, q.v. 

ROGER = Rodger, q>. 

Rogerus, 'B.ogenns.^Domesday-Book. 

See the quotations from Chaucer, etc., 
under Hodge. 

Roger (variantly Rogier) is a common 
French surname, found also with the dim. 
suff. -eau (earlier -el), -et, -on. In Wace's 
' Roman de Rou 'Rogier is the usual form, 
as ' Rogier de Montgomeri.' 

ROGERS, Roger's (Son) "1 „ r.^^^^ p«^«„„ 
ROGERSON.Roger'sSon) ^- Ro^*""' Rodgen. 

The (Latinized) form of these patrony- 
mics in the i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls is 
' ill. Rogeri.' 

Many an Irish Mac Rory or Mac Rury 
has Anglicized his name to Rogers and 

ROHAN (Celt.) Of Red Complexion or Hair 

[Ir. Rtiadhdn (a.d. 904, etc.) — ruadh (dh 

, as h), red -f- the dim. suff. -dn] 

There . has been interchange with 

Rogan, q.v. 

ROKEBY (Scand.) Bel. to Rokeby (Yorks), the 
Domesday Rochebi [The first element, 
I despite the absence of the genit. -s seen 
(modified) in Roxby, is doubtless the O.N. 
pers. name Hrdk-r, a rook (in O.West.N. a 
cormorant) ; the name ajpp. occurs too 
early to be a borrowing from O.Fr. roke 
(Ft. roche), a rock : 1- O.N. b^-r, a dwell- 
ing, estate] 

ROKER (A.-Scand.) i Spinner ; or, as spinning 
was essentially a feminine occupation, 
rather Distaff-Maker [M.E. roker, rockere, , 
f. M.E. rok, rock(e, O.N, rokk-r (Dan.-Norw. 
roli) ^ Dut. rok, rokken, a distaff ; with the 
agent, suff. -er] 

Ralph le Roker.—Hund. Rolls. 
2 Bel. to Roker (Durham) = (app.) the 
Roe-MArshJM.E. ro, O.N. (and O.E.) rd, 
a roe + N.E. ker(r, O.N. kiarr, a moss, 
marsh] : cp. the Yorks place-name Raw- 
marsh. But early forms are desirable. 

ROKSTER, the same name as Roker', but 
with the fem. agent. suS. -ster [O.E. -estre] 

ROLAND (Fr.-Teut. ) Famous Land [Fr. 
Roland, O.Fr. Rollant, O.Teut. Ruotlant, 
Hruodlant, Hr&Sland, etc. (mod. Ger. Ru(d)- 
land): v. under Roderick and Rodger, and 
-1- O.Teut. land ( O.H.Ger. lant ), land, 

In the ' Chanson de Roland ' we find 
the forms Rollant (also occurring in the 
' Roman de Rou ')' and Rollanz — e.g. 
' Amis Rollam' (2887) and 'Ami Rollant' 
(2909), the former instance showing in 
both words the formative ^ominative) 
suff. -s (-Z for -ts). The form in the 
Pfaffen Konrad's lath-cent.German adapt- 
ation ' is usually Ruolant — e.g. ' Ruolant 
unde [and] Turpin' (6717). 

Cp. Rowland. 


ROLANDS, Roland's (Son) "I 
ROLANDSON, Roland's Son;^" 


ROLFE [ contr. of Rodolf, q.v. 


John Rolf.— Hund: Rolls. 

Rolf is fairly common in Domesday- 
Book. It was the name of the first Duke of 
Normandy (Rolf'T or Hrolf-r, contr. f. 
HrS^Alf-r and Latinized Rollp). Rolv and 
Rolf are the mod. Norwegian forms. 

There has been some confusion with 
Ra!f(e, q.v. 


1 Rolf(e)'s (Son). 

2 for l^olandson, q.v. 

ROLL \ forms of the O.Fr. Roul (mod. Raoul, 

ROLLE I which, however, really represents 

Ralph or Ralf), lor Rolf, Rodolf, q.v. 

Rolle is not nearly so common a sur- 
name in France as the deriv. Rollet. 
Cp. Rowel I (A.-Fr.-Teut.) 
ROLLAND, v. Roland. 

ROLLANDSON, Rolland's orRoLAND's Son: 
V. Roland. 

ROLLASON I for Rollandson, q.v. 
2 for Rolleeton, q.v. 




ROLLES, Roll(e)'s (Son) : v. Roll(e. 

ROLLESTON (Eng.) Bel. to Rolleston = 
1 R6|julf's or HR61)(w)uLr's Estate [v. 
under Rodolf, and + O.E. tiin] 
The Staffordshire Rolleston occurs a.d. 
942 as Rfffulfes-tun, and in the will (a.d. 
1004) of Wulfric, Earl of Mercia, as 

2 RoLLE's Estate \Rolle is, however, 

merely a late (A.-French) form of the 

same pers. name as under i] 

R§t:l:f7(?l=ff^°"(-(i-) + t^-F--- d-- 

rollat(tJ ^^''■"'■ 

Rollet is a common French surname. 

ROLLIN = Roll(e (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. suff'. 
Rollin is common in France. 

ROLLING for Rollin, q.v. 

ROLLINGS for Rollins, q.v. 

ROLLINGSON for Rollinson, q.v. 

ROLLINS, RoLLiN's (Son) \_ „„,.. 

But Rollinson has been confused with 
Rolandson, q.v. 

ROLLISON for Rollinson, q.v. 

ROLLO, V. under Rolf. 

ROLLS, Roll's (Son) : v. Roll. 

ROLLSTON, v. Rolleston. 

ROLPH, V. Rolf. 

ROLSON I Roll's SoiJ : v. Roll. 
2 a contr. of Rolandson, q.v. 

ROLSTON, V. Rolleston. 

ROLT ( Teut. ) Famous Power [O.Teut. 

Hr(u)odwalt, HrdVw(e)ald, Hrdpuald, etc.— 

V. under Roderick and Rodger, and + 

O.H.Ger. giywalt = O.Snx, gi)wald = O.E. 

ge)'w(e)ald = O.N. uald, power, might] 

The direct ancestor of Rolt is doubtless 
the i2th and 13th cent. Roald (13th cent, 
also Rowald), which by monosyllabication 
and unvoicing of d had become Rolt by ' 
the (early) 17th cent. 

... and twegen eorlas mid [and two 
earls therewith], Ohtor and Hroald. — 

A--Saxon Chron., A.D. 918. 

These were Scandinavian jarls ; Roald 
IS the present Norwegian form. 

A Hrd'Swald was Archbishop of York 
A.D. 930. 

S2J!!^I!^,.l (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Roman [Ft. Romain, 

oSJ^aI^^ Lat. Roman-us] 


Reginald le Romayn. — Hund. Rolls, 

(Teut.) occ. confd. with weak forms of 
Rodmund, q.v.: cp. Rum(m)an (Teut.). 

ROMANS, (the) Roman's (Son) : v. Roman. 

ROME (A.-Fr.-Lat.) One from Rome [Fr. 
Rome, Lat. Roma] 

ROMEO (A.-Ital.-Lat.) Pilgrim to Rome 
[Ital. romeo ; f. Lat. Roma, Rome] 

ROMER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Roamer, Wanderer; 

prop. Pilgrim to Rome [M,E. romer(e, 

O.Fr. romier ; f. Lat. Roma, Rome] 

And religiouse romeris [var. romares] 
Recordare in hir [their] cloistres. — 

Piers Plowman, 2321-2. 

RO M I LLY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Romilly (France) 
=: RoMiLius' Estate [M.Lat. Romiliacus . 
— dc-us, the Latinization of the Gaul, 
possess, suff. -dc-os"] 

There are two villages called Romilly 
. in the Eure Dept., and one in the Eure-et- 
Loir ; in addition to places called Rumilly 
in the Nord, Pas-de-Calais, etc. 

ROMNEY. Bel. to i Romney (Old and New, 

[The River Romney (Kent) was called 
Rumenea ("juxta flumen quod vocatur 
Rumenea") in a Latin charter a.d. 895, 
where -ea may reasonably be supposed to 
be the O.E. ea, river ; while the Rumening 
seta of a Kentish charter a.d. 697, which 
presumably relates to Old Romney, would 
appear to be ' the seat (residence) of 
Rumen's Son' (O.E. -ing, ' son ' suff.); or if 
the -ing of this Latin charter should be for 
the common -zw^a ( then the-aof 
seta might be taken as a sign of the plural 
instead of the dat. sing. But the analogy 
of a river in South Wales which in its upper 
part is called Rhymney ("avon Rymni," 
'Brut y Tywysogion,'A.D. 1070), and in its 
lower (Anglicized) part Rumney, rather 
points to a Celtic origin for Rumen-, poss. 
the early form of Wei. rhym, 'what 
stretches round,' with the dim suff. -/« : 
cp. Wei. rhumen, a dim. of the seeming 
variant rhum, ' what projects or swells ']. 
2 Romagny (Normandy) = Romanus' 

J Estate [M.Lat. *Romaniacus — dc-us, the 
Latinization of the Gaul, possess, suff. 


ROMSEY (Eng.) Bel. to Romsey or Rumsey 
(Hants), I3th-i4th cent. Romesy, ioth 
[The second element is O.E. i{e)g (= 




O.N. ey), island, waterside : if we had 
only the form in the A.-Saxon Chronicle, 
A.D. 971, to guide us (H6r fortSferde 
Eidmund sefieling. and his Ifc litS set 
Rumesige — In this year died Eadmund 
iEtheling, and his body lies at Rumsey) 
we might have inferred that the pers. 
name involved (in the genit.) was trom 
O.E. rihn, liberal, noble; but the persistent 
-0- makes it fairly clear that a pers. name 
is in question ' from the O.E. cognate of 
O.Sax. hrdm = O.H.Ger. h)ruom (mod. 
ruhm), fame, glory] 

RONALD, the Scoto-Scandinavian form of 
Reginald, q.v. [O.N. Rognuald] 

The modern Norse form is Ragnvald as 
well as Rognald. 

RONALDS, Ronald's (Son) "1 D„„aiH 
RONALDSON, Ronald's Son/ ^- "0"aia. 

RONDEL "1 the French Rondel (later form 

ROHOEV-l.] Rondeau) = Round, Plump [Fr. 

rofid, Lat. rotund-us, round + the Fr. dim. 

suff. -el, Lat. -ell-us] 

RONEY, V. Rooney. 

RONILDS for Ronalds, q.v. 

RONNIE, a double dim. of Ronald, q.v. fN.E. 
and Scot. dim. suff. -/V] 

RONSON, a contr. of i Ronaldson, q.v. 
2 Rolandson, q.v. 

RONTREE (Scand.) Dweller at a Roan-Tree 
or Mountain-Ash [Dan.-Norw. rSnnetrce ; 
cp. O.N. reyni-r, a roan-tree, rowan-tree] 

ROOD (Eng.) Dweller at a Cross [M.E. rood, 

rode, O.E. r6d\ 
Cp. Rode, Road". 




2 Famous, Renowned [O.E. and O.Sax. 
r6f = O.H.Ger. ruof, for older *hruof(f 

(mod. H.Ger. ruf, fame, etc.] 

3 the French Ruf = the Red, Red- 
Haired [Lat. ruf-us] 

4 the rare A.-Sax. pers. name Hrdf (v. 
under Rochester) Jcp. O.E. hrdf, m., the 
sky, heaven, (lit.) roof; but the name is 
rather the older form of rSf, famous, seen 

in 2] 

ROOF(W)RIGHT (Eng.) Roof-Builder [O.E. 


ROOK "1 (Eng. and Scand.) a nickname and 

ROOKE ) pers. name from the Rook [M.E. 

rook, roke, O.E. hrdc = O.N. hrdk-r, a rook] 

Geoffrey le Rdke.—Hund- Rolls. 
ROOKER = Roker, q.v. 


(Teut.) I syncopated forms of Rud- 
" Rodolf, q.v. 

ROOKLEDGE, a gutturalized form of Rout- 
ledge, q.v. 

ROOM \ (Teut.-Lat.) for Rome, q.v. [cp- 

ROOME J O.N. RAm, Rome ; and O.E. Rum- 

wealR, a Roman] 

(Teut.) I Fame, Glory [O.H.Ger. 

K)ruom (mod. ruhm) = O.Sax. hrdm = Dut. 

roem (cp. Rumbold] 

2 Liberal, Magnificent [p.E. nim, 

(lit.) spacious, (fig.) bountiful, noble, etc.; 

cognate with O.N. riim-r = Goth, riim-s^ 

Dut. ruim = Fris. rum, spacious, roomy] 

We find the name Riima in an A.-Sax. 

charter a.d. 958. 

ROONEY (Celt.) the Red [Ir. Ruamidh {dh 
mute) — ruanaidh, red, reddish : cp. Mul- 


ROOPE = Rope, q.v. 

ROOFER = Roper, q.v., when it does not 
represent the Dut. roeper (pron. rooper), a 

ROoIe } (^--Fr-Lat.) a form of Rous(e, q.v. 
(Celt.) Dweller at a Moor [Wei. rAos] 
Hugh da Ros.— Pipe-Roll, A.D. 1237-8. 
Philip de Roos. — 

Lattc. Assize-Roll, A.D. 1246. 
These entries relate to Roose, N. Lanes. 

"Roose, Rouse, or Rhos, a hundred in the 
CO. of Pembroke . . . " — Nat. Gaz. 

Roos, E. Yorks, is said to owe its name to 
Peter de Ros, its proprietor temp. Hen. L 

(Eng. etc.) occ. a form of Rose, q.v. [cp. 

Dut. roos, a rose, as in the local name 

Rooseveld (-d as -t), Rosefield] 

ROOTe} (Eng.) Gay, Cheerful [O.E. rdt] 

(Teut.) the Red, Ruddy [O.H.Ger. rdt 
(mod. ro/) = O.Sax. rdd =O.N. ridp-r, red] 
Peter Rote.— Hund. Rolls. 

ROOTS, Root's (Son). 

ROPE (Eng.) theA.-Sax. Rop(p)a, Hrop(p)a 

[f. a deriv. of O.E. hrdpan (= O.Sax. 

hrSpan = Dut. roepen), to shout : cp. O.E. 

hrdp (= Goth, hrdp-s), a shout, clamour] 

ROPER (Eng.) Rope-Maker or -Seller [M.E 
roper{e, raper{e; O.E. rdp, rope -Jf the 
agent, suff. -ere] 
Simeon le Ro^ei.— Hund. Rolls. 
Til Robyn the ropere 
Aroos bi the southe. — 

Piers Plowman, 3147-8. 

ROPES I Rope's (Son) : v. Rope. 

2 a nickname for a Roper : v. Roper. 




ROPKIN for Robkin = Rob (q.v.) + the E. 
dim. sufl. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-iti] 

The unvoicing of 6 to /> here is due to 
the influence of the following voiceless 
letter k. 

ROPKINS, RoPKiN's (Son) : v. Ropkin. 

RORISON, Rory's Son : v. Rory. 

RORKE, V. O'Rorke. 

RORY (Celt.) Red King [Ir. Ruadhri — ruadh 
(dh mute), red + ri, king] 

ROSBOTHAM \ (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe's 
ROSBOTTOM J Valley : v. Robotham, Ro- 

ROSCOE 1 (Scand.) Bel. to Roscoe (Lanes), 
ROSCOW J i6th cent. Roscoe and Roscow = 

the Roe-Wood [O.N, rd (Dan.-Norw. 

raa — pron. raw), a roe -(- O.N. sk6g-r 
(Dan.-Norw. skov), a wood] 

ROSE (A.-Lat.) a pers. name, nickname and 
sign-name from the flower [O.E. rose \ Lat. 

Richard fil. Rose.^Hund. Rolls. 
Nicholas de la Rose. — Hund. Rolls. 
And maister Frank the goldsmith at the 
Rose. — 
Pasquin, Night-Cap, A.D. 1 612; Lower, i. 21 1. 

(Eng.) Roe's (Son) : v. Roe. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) Row(e)'s (Son) — Row{e, 
a contr. of Rowland or Rofand, q.v. 

(Celt.) Dweller at a. Moor [Wei. rhos = 

Corn, rds] 

" Rose-Market or i?Aos-Market, a parish 
in the hundred of Roose, co. Pembroke 
. . . ". — Nat. Gaz. 

Cp. Roos(e. • 

ROSEBERY \(Eng.) Bel. to Roseber(r)y 

ROSEBERRYJ (Edinb., Yorks," ; etc.) = 

I Roe's Stronghold [a genit. of O.E. rd 

(= O.N. rd), a roe (a common pers. name) 

-1- burh, a stronghold] 

2 the Rose-Hill [O.E. rose (Lat. rosc^ 

+ beorh,& hill] 

Rose-Hill is a common Eng. local name. 

ROSENGROVE (Eng.) Dweller at the Rose- 
Grove [O.'E. rosen (fi^^.) + grdf] 

ROSEVEAR(E (Celt.) Bel. to Rosvear (Corn- 
wall) = the Big Heath [Corn, rds (= Wei. 
rhos), a heath, moor + Corn, -vear, mu- 
tated form of mear (= Wei. mawr), great] 

ROSEWARN(E (Celt.) Bel. to Roswarne 
(Cornwall) = the Alder-Heath [Corn. 
rSs (= Wei. rhos), a heath, moor + Corn. 
gwern-en (= Wei. gwem = Bret, guem = 
Gaul, verti; whence Fr. ver(g)ne), an alder- 

R08EWELL (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe's 
Spring (spring frequented by the roe) [a 
genit. of O.K. rd, a roe -|- wiella a spring, 


There is a Rosewell near Lasswade, 
CO. Edinburgh. 

It has been stated that the surname 
Rosewell is from a French Rosseville : if 
there is a place with this name in France 
(I cannot trace it) some Rosewells may 
quite possibly owe their name to France. 
On the other hand, as Rosewell is largely 
a west-country surname, it may possibly 
also represent a Cornish local name, from 
Corn, rds, a heath, and either whdl, a 
work or mine, or g)wSl, a field. 

See Rosweli, Roswald. 

ROSEWORTHY (Celt.) Bel. to Roseworthy 

(Cornwall) [Corn, rds, a heath -1- (app.) 

g)wartha, higher, upper] 

ROSHER I for Rusher, q.v. 
2 for Rossep, q.v. 

ROSKELLl (Scand.) i the O.Scand. pers. 

ROSKILL J name Hros{s)kel [O.N. hross, a 

horse + -kel for ketel or Ixtill, a sacrificial 


2 Bel. to Rosgill (Westmld.), 13th cent. 

Rasegille = (the) Roe's Ravine [a late 

genit. of O.N. rd, a roe (often used as a 

pers. name) -f- gil, a ravine] 

ROSKELLY 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Roskilly (Corn- 

ROSKILLY / wall) [Corn, rrfj, a heath -)- kelly, 

killy (= Wei. celli), a grove] 

ROSLIN (Fr.)the French Rosselin — 1 a double 
dim. f. Fr. Rosse [O.Fr. ros, Lat. russ-us, 
red ; with the Fr. double dim. suff. -el-in\ 

2 a double dim. f. an O.Teut. Ros{s-, 
Hrosis- name (as Roswalt, Hros{s)wald, 
Hrosls)kel, etc. : v. RoskellS Roswald) 
[O.H.Ger. ros (mod. ross) = O.Sax. hross 
= Dut. ros = O.N. hross ( = O.E. hors), a 
horse ; with the Fr. double dim. -el-in] 

The forms in the i3th-cent. Hundred- 
Rolls are Roscelin and Rocelin. 

(Celt.) Bel. to Roslin (Edinb.), 13th cent. 

Roskelyn=t'iie Holly- Wood Moor [Cym. 

rQi)os, a moor -f- celyn, a holly-wood] 

ROSLING = Roslin (q.v.), with added E. -g. 

\ (Teut.) Horse -Protection 


[O.Teut. . Hrosmund, Roswund 
— O.H.Ger. ros (mod. ross) = 
O.Sax. hross = O.N. hross ( = 
O.^.hors), a horse -f O.H.Ger. munt {mod., 
mund) = O.Sax. mund = O.N. mund (= 
O.E. mund), hand, protection, protector ; 
although mund is a fern, noun it was 
sometimes used for male names, as in the 
case of Eddmund] 




ROSS (Celt.) Bel. to Ross ; or Dweller at a 

Promontory or Peninsula [Gael, ros 

— It. ros, M.Ir. roijfN.Irel., a promontory 

or peninsula; S.Irel., a wood): cp. Wei. 

rhos, a moor, and Corn, rds, a heath] 

An ros Muileach (the promontory of 

ROSSALL "I (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Rossall 
ROSSELL J ( N.Lancs ), 13th cent. Roshal, 
iRoshale, T>omesAay Rushale [Without pre- 
Conquest forms nothing definite can be 
said as to the origin of this name : the first 
element may be O.N. hross, a horse, in 
which case the secohd would prob. be 
O.N. haU-r, a slope; or the first theme 
m^y represent a genit. of O.E. rd, a roe, 
which, if used as a pers. name, would 
make the second element O.N.E. hall, a 
hall, when otherwise it might be a weak 
form of either O.N.E. halh,iL corner, nook, 
or O.N.E. hald, a slope] 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Rossel, a dim. f. 
Rosse [O.Fr. ros, Lat. russ-us, red; with 
the Fr. dim. suff. -el, Lat. -ell-us"] 

Cp. Russell. 

ROSSBOTTOM, v. Rosbottom. 

ROSSER (Celt.) seems to represent the Wei. 
rhyswr = Champion, Combatant [v. 
under Rhys ; and for a similar vowel- 
change cp. Prothepo and v. Rhydderch] 

ROSSINGROVE for Rosengrove, q.v. 

ROSSITER. Bel. to i Wroxeter (Salop), the 
A. - Sax. *Wredcen-ceaster (cp. A.-Sax. 
Wredcen-sete, i.e. the seittlers in the Wre- 
kin area), the first element of which is 
due to the Latin name Uriconium, Uiroco- 
nium, Urioconium, etc. [O.E. ceaster, a 
Roman city — Lat. castra, a camp: the 
first element is doubtful (see Rhys, ' Celt. 
Brit.,' ed. 1908, p. 324.] 
2 Rocester ( Staffs ), the Domesday 
Rowecestre, i2tli cent. Roffecestre, 13th cent. 
Rawecestre [O.E. ceaster, a Roman city : 
the first element is. doubtful — poss. 
O.E. rtih (M.E. row, etc.), rough, waste, 


ROSTHERN(E, v. Rawsthorn(e. 

ROSTRON, a metathesized form of Raws- 
torn, Rawsthopn, q.v. 

ROSWALD (Teut.) Horse-Might [O.Teut. 
Roswalt, Hros{s)wald,, etc. — O.H.Ger. ros 
(mod. ross) = O.Sax. hross = O.N. hross 
(= O.E. hors), a horse -1- O.H.Ger. gi)'a)alt 
= O.Sax. gi):wald == O.N. uald (= O.E. 
ge)w{e)ald), might, power] 

Bare him a son, which was his heir. 
Whose name was called Roswall.-^ 

Roswall and Lillian, 1 2- 13. 
2 for Rosewell, q.v. 

ROTHERAM l(Eng.) Bel. to Rotherham 
ROTHERHAM;(Yorks), the Domesday Ro- 
dreha' = the Land. by the R. Rother 
[O.E. ham{m, a piece of land, enclosure : 
the river-name may be from the early 
form of Wei. rhuthr, a rushing— rA«ttw, to 


doTucdSc 1 (A.-Celt.) Anglicizations of the 
ROTHERY J ^^'- Rhydderch : vJRhydderoh. 

ROTHERY (Eng.) Dweller at the Cattle- 
Island or -Waterside [O.E. hreS\per, an 
ox, bull, cow + i{e)g, waterside] 

ROTHSCHILD (Ger.) Red Shield: see the 
Appendix of Foreign Names. 

ROTHWELL (Scand.) Bel. to Rothwell = 

I the Red Spring [O.N. rau)p-r (= Ger. 

roth), red + uell, a spring, well] 

2 the Red Field [O.N. rau^r, red -|- 

aoW-r, a field] 

The Yorks Rothwell was Rodouuelle 
and Rodeuuelle in Domesday-Book. There 
is a famous spring at the Northants 
Rothwell. The Lines Rothwell was 
Rothewelle in the 13th cent. 

ROUGH, a var. of Roche, q.v. 

ROUGHLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Roughley or 

Roughlee ; or Dweller at the Rough Lea 

[O.E. nth, rough, wild -|- ledh, a lea] 

The Lane. Roughlee was Rughelegh 
A.D. 1323. 

ROUGHSEDGE "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Rough 

ROUGHSICH [Ditch or Watercourse 

[O.E. nih + ifc (=O.N. sik(i] 

There is a Rough Sike in Cumberland. 

ROUGHTON (Eng.) Bel. to Roughton. (Norf. : 

14th cent. Roughton ; Lines, etc.) = i the 

Rough Enclosure [O.E. ruh, rough, 

wild, uncultivated -t- tin, enclosure] 

2 Hr6ca's Estate rA.-Sax. *Hr6can- 

ttin — Hrdcan-, genit. ol Hrdca, f. hric, a 

rook : 1- tAn, estate, etc.] 

At Roughton, Norfolk, a considerable 
portion of the land is (or was) heath. 

ROULSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Roulston or Rol- 
leston : v. Rolieston. 

Roulston, Lines, is also known, as 




ROUND (A.-Fr^Lat.) Rotund, Plump [M.E. 
rounde, O.Fr. roond (Fr. rond), Lat. rotund- 

In France, this name usually has a dim. 
Stiff., as in Rondeau (for earlier Rondel), 
Roniiet, Rondelet, etc. 

(Scand.) (occ.) for Rowan (q.v.), with 
intrus. -d. 

ROUNDHAY (Fr. + Eng.) Bel. to Roundhay ; 
or Dweller at the Round En<;losure 
[M.E. rounde, O.Fr. roond (Fr. rond),' Lat. 
rotund-US + M.E. haye, O.E. hag; a field, 

The great Roundhay Park, near Leeds 
(a.d. 1322 La Roundhaye), was formerly 
" enclosed within a circular pale." 

ROUNTREE (Scand.) Dweller at a Rowan- 
Tree [v. under Rowan', and + O.N. tre, 

a tree] 

ROURKE, V. O'Rourke. 

ROUS I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Red, Red - Haired 
ROUSE I [M.E. A.-Fr. rous{e, O.Fr. rous (Fr. 
roux -sse, Prov. ros), Lat. russ-us, red] , 
Jordan le Rous. — Cal Ing. P.M. 
Juliana la Rouse. — Hund. Rolls. 
In Malory we find the name with pre- 
fixed 'de la' — 

My lordes name is the duke de la 
Rouse. — Morte d' Arthur, VII. xxxii. 

My name is, said he, the duke de la 
Rowse.—Idem, VII. xxxiv. 

This name was usually Latinized 
Cp. Russ, Russell. 

ROUSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Rousby (Yorks), the 

Domesday Rozebi = RA's, Estate [a 

genjt. of O.N. rd (Dan.-Norw. raa — aa as 

aw), a roe (used as a pers. name) -|r hy-r, 

estate, farm, etc.] 

ROUTH (Scand.) i Bel. to Routh (Yorks), the 

Domesday Rute, Rutha = the Clearing 

[O.N. ru\, a clearing] 

Cp. Royd. 

2 Red, Red-Haired [O.N. rau^-r, red] 

ROUTLEDGE (Eng.) Bel. to Routledge 

fCumb.) = the Red Lache or Pool 
O.E. redd, red (the form Rout- has been 
influenced by O.N. raulp-r, red) ; and v. 
under Lach(e and Leech''] 

ROW "I (Eng.) Dweller at the Row (of dwel- 
ROWEJlings, hedge-row, etc.) [M.E. rowe, 
O.E. rckw, a row, nedge-row] 
Richard del Rowe. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1350-1. 
Henry del Rowe. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1434. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) I contr. of Rowland, 
Roland, q.v. 

(occ.) 2 for the O.French Roil (seen in 
Wace's ' Roman de Rou '). a contr. of 
Rolf, Rodolf, q.v. 

(Celt.) Red, Red - Haired [Ir. and 
Gael, ruadh {dh mute), red] 

There has naturally been some late 
confusion with Roe, q.v. 

ROWAN (Celt.) Red, Red-Haired [Ir. and 
Gael. Ruadhan {dh mute) — ruadh, red -|- 
the dim. sufT. -dn} 
(Scand.) Dweller at the Rowan-Tree 
(Mountain-Ash) [Dial. Norw. raM« = Dan.- 
Norw. rdn{ne = O.N. reyni-rl 

ROWAN D = Rowan (q,v.) with common 
post-» -d. 

ROWAT l the French Rouat (v. under Row(e 

ROWATT J — A.-Fr.-Teut.»), a double dim. of 

Rolf, Rodolf, q.v. [Fr. dim. suff. -at] 




= Robotham, Robottom, 

ROWOLIFFE = Rawoliffe, q.v. 

ROWDEN = Roden, q.v. 

There are places of this name in Lei- 
cester, Hereford, etc. 

ROWE, V. Row. 

ROWELL "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Roe-Spring, 

ROWLL J i.e. a spring or well frequented by 

roes [O.E. rd, a roe + w(i)ella, a spring] 

The Glouc. Rowell is also called Roel. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) I the French Rouel (v. 
under Row(e — A.-Fr.-Teut.'), a double 
dim. of Rolf, Rodolf, q.v. [Fr. dim, suff. 


2 for the French Raoiil = Ralph, Ralf, 

Death hes tane Rowll of Abirdene 
And gentill Rowll of Corstorphyn ; 
Two bettir fallowis did no man sie. — 
Dunbar, Lament for the Death of the Makkaris. 

ROWEN for Rowan, q.v. 

ROWETT, the French Rouet (v. under Row(e 
— A.-Fr.-Teut.»), a double dim. of Rolf, 
Rodolf, q.v. - [Er. dim. suff. -et\ 

ROWLAND = Roland, q.v. 

This form arises directly from the 13th- 
cent. A.-Fr. Rouland, which is a present- 
day French surname. 

ROWLANDS, Rowland's (Son) 1 „ , ^ 
ROWLANDSON, Rowland's Son / ^-Ro'and. 




rowlettI ''"^- °^ R°"at(t' Ro"et(t, q.v. 

Roulat is now rather rare in France ; but 
Roulet (and Roullet) and Roulot are fairly 
ROWLES, a var. of Rolles, q.v. 

ROWLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Rowley = i the 
Rough Lea [M.E. rou, rowi etc., O.E. rAh, 
roiigh, wild + M.E. ley, etc., O.E. ledh, a 


2 the Roe-Lea [M.E.w, O.E. rd, a roe 

+ M.E. ley, etc., O.E. ledh, a meadow] 

The Staffs Rowley was Rueleg, Route, 
in the I2th and 13th cent. The Yorks 
place was ^ow/e;' in the 14th cent. The 
Lanes Rowley was Roley in the i6th cent. 

ROWLING, a var. of Rolling for Rollin, q.v. 
Roulin (also Roulliri) is nbt imcommon 
in Northern France. 
Cp. Rawlin(g. 

ROWLINGS, Rowling's (Son) "1 v. 
ROWLINGSON, Rowling's Son J' Rowling. 
Rowlingson is, however, sporadically 
for Rowlandson, q.v. 

ROWLINSON I for Rowlandson, q.v. 
2 a var. of Rolllnson, q.v. 

ROWNEY (Celt.) for Rooney, q.v. 

(Scand.) Dweller at the Rowan-Tree 

Island or Waterside [v. under Rowan', 

and + O.N. ey, island, etc.] 

ROWNSON I Round's Son : v., Round. 
2 for Rowlandson, q.v. 

ROWNTREE (Scand.) Dweller at a Rowan- 
Tree [v. under Rowan', and + O.N. tre'] 
This is especially a Yorkshire surname. 
Cp. Rountree. 

ROW3E = Rou8(e, q.v. 



Russel(l, q.v. 

Broom ; Rowton Heath, Cheshire, is a 
famous battlefield. 
2 the Roe-Enclosure [M.E. ro, O.E. rd, 
a roe -f- tin] . 

ROXBU RG H i (Eng.) Bel. to Roxburgh, 12th 

ROXBROUGH (cent. Rokisburc, Rochesburh, 

later Rgkhburgh; O.E. *Hr6ces-burh = 

Hr6c's Stronghold [the genit. of O.E. 

hrdc, a rook (used as a pers. name) + hurti, 

a fortified placfe] 

ROXBY (Scand.) Bel. to Roxby (Yorks», 

Lines) = Hr6k's Estate [the genit. of 

O.N. hrdk-r, a rook (used as a pers. name) 

+ b^-r, farm, estate] 

In the 17th and i8th cent, this surname 

was often spelt Roxbee. , 

ROXETH (Eng.) Bel. to Roxeth (M'sex), a.d. 

84s Hrdces sed^as Cset Hrdces sed^um ') — 

Hr6c'S' Pits or Springs [the genit. of 

O.E. hrdc, a root (used as a pers. name) 

' + the pi. of O.E. sed^, a pit, pool, spring, 


ROXTON (Eng.) Bel. to Roxton = Hr6c's 
Estate [the genit. of O.E. krSc, a rook 
(used as a pers. name) + tiin, estate, etc.] 

ROY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) King (a nickname and 
pageant-name) [Fr. rot, O.Fr. rei, hat. rex, 
regis, a king] 
In to the ring of the Roy Robert, 
The first king of the gud Stewart. — 

Roy Robert, 1-2. 

(Celt.) Red, Red-Haired [Ir. and Gael. 

ruadh {dh mute), red] 

ROYAN (Celt.) Red, Red-Haired [Ir. and 
Gael, ruadh (dh mute), red + the dim. 

suff. -dn] 

ROWSON, Row's Son : v. Row (A.-Fr.-Teut.) 
There has prob. been some confusion 
with Rawson, q.v. 

ROWTON (Eng.) Bel. to Rowton = 'i the 
Rough Enclosure [M.E. rou, row(e, 
rugh{e, etc., O.E. rtih, rough, wild 4- tun, 
' enclosure, etc.] 

The Yorks Rowton was Rugheton and 
Rugetonin Domesday- Book. "The Shrop- 
shire places were Roweton and Ronton in 
the 13th cent. The topography of some 
of the Rowtons makes the connexion with 
a state of uncultivation clear : thus one of 
the Shropshire Rowtons is united to 

2 a fem. name Royse (and Roysia) occurs 

in our 13th and 14th cent, records: this 

seems to be the O.French Roese, Rohais, 

etc.. Latinized Roesia, Roisia, etc.] 


ROYD (Scand.) Dweller at a Clearing [O.N. 
rid]?-r, a forest-clearing] 
Cp. Routh>. 

ROYDEN (Eng.) for Roydon, Rydon, q.v. 

ROYDHOUSE (Scand.) Dweller at the Clear- 
iNG-HousE [v. under Royd, and + O.N. 

ROYDON (Eng.) Bel. to Roydon = the Rye- 
Hill [O.E. ryge = O.N. riig-r, rye + O.E. 

Mn, a hill] 
It is app. one of the Norfolk Roydons 
which occurs as RygedAn in Bishop 
/Elfric's will, a.d. 1037. 



ROYDS, pi. (and genit.) of Royd, q.v. 

ROYFFE, a form of Rolf, q.v. 

ROYLANCE for Rylands, q.v. 

ROYLE 1 V. Ryle. 

2 (occ.) a North, dial, form of Roll(e, 

ROYLES, genit., and pi, of Royle, q.v. 

ROYS(E, V. Royoe. 

ROYSTON (Eng.) i Bel. to Royston (Herts) = 

Royse's or Roisia's Town [v. under 

Royoe', and + M.E. -ton, O.E. tan] 

Royston, Herts : Its present name is 
derived from Roisia de Vere, Countess of 
Norfolk, by whom a cross was set up, and 
near which" an Austin priory was founded 
in Henry H's time . . . which led to the 
erection of houses ; and the place acquired 
the appellation of Royse's TiyOm or Royston. 
—Nat. Gaz. 1868.' 

In mediaeval deeds the Herts place- 
name was Latinized Roissice Oppidum. 

2 Bel. to Royston (Yorks). According 

to Turner's ' Yorkshire Doraesday-Book ' 

this is the Domesday Rorestun and Rores- 

tone [the pers. name involved (in the genit.) 

may be any one of the A. -Sax. names 

Hrfffw{e)ard, Hro^h{e)ard, HrS'pgdr, etc. ; 

or even the O.E. hrdr, vigprous, strong, if 

it could be shown that this word was used 

in pers. nomenclature: — + O.E. tAn, 

estate, farm, etc.] 

ROYTON (Eng.) Bel. to Royton (Lanes : rsth 

and 14th cent. Ryton; Essex, etc.) = the 

Rye-Enclosure [O.E. ryge = O.N. rug-r, 

rye -f- O.E. tun, enclosure, etc.] 

RUBBATHAM for Robotham, qlv. 

RUBEN = Reuben, q.v. [cp. Ger. Ruben} 

Than Ruben cam thider a-gen. — 
13th cent. metr. vers. oiGen.axiA,Bx., 1959. 

RUBENS I Ruben's (Son) : v. Ruben. 

Oft ist noch die Genetivform geblie- 
ben . . . Jakobs, Peters, Rubens. — 

Bahnisch, Die deutschen Personennamen, 

1910, p. 21. 

(rarely) 2 Red, Reddish [Lat. rubens] 

RUBERY \ (Eng.)Bel.toRowberrow(Soms.), 

RU BERRY J i6th cent. Rouberow = the Rough 

Hill [M.E. rou, row{e, O.E. nih, rough, 

wild -f- M.E. bergh(e, berwe,etc., O.E.beorg, 

a hill] 

RUCK for Rook, q.v. 

William le Rxik.—Hund. Rolls. 


RUCKLEDGE, a gutturalized form of Rout- 
. ledge, q.v. 

RUDALUfor Rudhall, q.v. 

RUD(D (Teut.) i Red, Ruddy [O.N. r/rfji-r 

(Dan.-Norw. rod) = O.E. redd (cp, O.E. 

rudu, red colour] 

2 a dim. of Rudolf = Rodolf, q.v. 
Walter Rui.—Hund. Rolls. 
There may have been some confusion 
with Rood, q.v. 


RUDDICK, a form of Ruddock, q.v. 

RUDDIMAN (Eng.) Ruddy Man [O.E. rudig, 

ruddy + man] 

RUDDLE, V. Rudhall. 

Rudhall, Glouc.,is also known as Ruddle. 

RUDDOCK 1 (Eng.) a nickname (and sign- 

RUDDUCK) name) from the Robin [M.E. 

ruddoc(k, O.E. ruddoc, robin-redbreast — 

O.E. rudu, redness -f the dim. suff. -oc\ 

Ralph Ruddoc— /y««rf. Rolls. 

The tame ruddok, and the coward kyte, 

The cok, that orloge is of thorpes lyte. — 

Chaucer, Parlement of Foules, 349-50. 

The ouzell shrills : the ruddock warbles 
soft. — Spenser, Epithalamion, 82. 

RUDDY (Eng.) Red, Ruddy [O.E. rudig] 

(Teut.) a double dim. of Rudolf, Rod- 
olf, q.v. [E. dim. suff. -y] 

RUDGE(Eng.) Dweller at a Ridge or Back 
[M.E. rugge, O.E. hrycg] 
With a pak at his rugge. — 

Piers Plowman, 9346. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Red, Red-Haired [A.-Fr. 

rug(jg)e, Fr. rouge, L.-Lat. rubjus, Lat. 

rubeus, red] 
Osbert le Rugge.— Hund. Rolls. 

RUDGLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Ridge-Lea 
[O.E. hrycg + ledh] 

RUDHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Rudhall = i the 

Red Hall [0,E. redd {rudu, redness), red 

-I- hie)all, a hall] 

2 the Red Corner (of Land) [O.E. 

h{fi)aVJi, a corner, nook] 

Cp. Ruddle. 

RUDKIN (Teut.) a dim. of one of the Teut. 
Rud- names — Rudolf, Rudger (Rodger), 
etc., with the L.Ger. (double!) dim. suff. 
-kin [O.L.Ger. -k-in] 

RUDKINS, RudKin's (Son). 




RUDLAND (Teut.) i Bel. to Rudland; or 
Dweller at {a) the Red Land [O.E. redd 
{rudu, redness) = O.N. riS^-r, red + 


( b ) the Cleared Land [ O.N. rui 

(ri(!\>-r), a clearing] 

Rudland Moor is in Yorkshire. 

2 the O.Teut. pers. name Hruodlant, 
Hrd^land, etc. (mod. Ger. Rudland) : v. 
under Roland. 

RUDMAN = Rucl(d, q.v., + man. 


V. Rodolf. 

RUDSTON 1 (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Rud- 
RUDSTONE/ston(e (Yorks)^ the Domesday 
Rodestan and Rodestein [The name is app. 
due to a large ancient stone pillar, nearly 
30 feet high, which is (or was) preserved 
in the churchyard. The first element is 
either O E. rdd = O.N. rd^a, a rood, cruci- 
fix, or O.E. redd = O.N. riffp-r, red + 
O.E. stdn = O.N. steinn, a stone] 

RUDYARD (Eng.) Bel. to Rudyard (Staffs), the 
Domesday Rudierd, Ia.d. 1004 Rudegeard 
[the second element is O.E. geard, a yard, 
enclosure : the first may represent O.E. 
nide, the rue-plant, an A.-Sax. pers. name 
Ruda, or O.E. redd (O.E. rudu, red colour), 


RUFF I the French Ruf, Ruffe = the Red, 
Red-Haired [Lat. ruf-us] 

2 an assim. form of Rolf, Rodolf, q.v. 

RUFFELL"! (A.-Fr.-LatJ the French Ruffel = 

RUFFLE /the Red, Red-Haired [ f. Lat. 

ruf-us, red -I- the Fr. dim. suff. -el, Lat. 


RUFFIN (A..Fr.-Lat.) the French i?Mi?;«, Rufin, 

Latin Ruf(f)in-us=the Red, Red- Haired 

[f. Lat. ruf-us, red, with the suff. -in-usl 

Rujinus was the name of one of Theo- 

dosius's generals. 

RUFFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Rufford = the 

Rough Ford [O.E. nih, rough + ford] 

The Lancashire Rufford was R(o)ugh- 

ford in the 14th cent. The Yorkshire 

Rufforth is the Domesday Ruford. 

RUFSEDGE = Roughsedge,q.v. 

RUFUS (Lat.) Red, Red-Haired [Lat. ruf us, 

Rufus was a common Roman name, and 
it had derivatives like Rufinus and Ru- 
finianus ; while the geminated forms ^w^iw 
and Ruffinus (showing shortened u) also 

Both Rufus and Ruffus occur in the 13th 
cent. Hundred-Rolls. 

RUGBY (Scand. or Eng.) Bel. to Rugby, the 
Domesday Rocheberie, 13th and 14th cent. 
( and later ) Rokeby, iSth cent. Rukby 
[The absence of pre-Domesday forms 
makes this name difficult : the 
Domesday -berie usually represents O.E. 
be(fi)rh, a hill, and Rugby is "on high 

f round " ; but the cotisistent post-Domes- 
ay occurrence of -by, together with the 
contiguity of other -by names, makes it 
probable that the second element was 
orig. the O.N. hy-r, a farm, estate, etc. ; 
the first element doubtless being the O.N. 
hrdk-r (= O.E. hrSc), a rook, used as a 
pers. name: cp. the Yorks Rokeby, the 
Domesday Rochebi (v. Rokeby). As late 
as the reign of Elizabeth the Warwick- 
shire name was written Rokeby, so that the 
voicing of fe to ^ (due to the influence of 
the following voiced letter b) is compara- 
tively recent] 

RUGELEY (Eng.) Bel. to Rugeley (Staffs), 13th 
cent. Ruggeley, the Domesday Rkgelei = 
the Ridge-Lea [M.E. rugge, O.E. hrycg 4- 
M.E. ley, O.E. ledh] 
"The manor was formerly held by the 
Rudgeleys " ; and the natives' pronuncia- 
tion is ' Ridgeley." 

RUGG (Scand.) Dweller at a Ridge [O.N. 
hrygg-r, a ridge] 
Cp. Rudge. 

RULE (Eng.) Bel. to Rule (Staffs), 13th cent. 
Rewel(e, Rewell, Rewyl, Ruwel, 12th cent. 
Ruwell [the second element is app. M.E. 
well(e, etc., O.E. wielUfl, a spring, well ; 
the first element seems more likely to be 
M.E. rew(e, O.E. r(kw, a hedgerow, than 
M.E. row{e, rugh, O.E. nih, rough] 
(A.-Fr.-Teut.) for the French Raoul : v. 
Rawie, Ralph. 

RUMBLE^} ^- ^»^^o\6, Rumbald. 

RUMBELOW (Eng.) a nickname fora Sailor, 
from an old mariners' cry [perh. = Room 
Below I — somewhat equiv. to the modern 
' Look out below ! ' a cry used to warn 
those in the hold of a vessel while she is 
being loaded] 

RUWIBOLDI (Eng. ) Magnificently Bold 

RUMBALD / [A.-Sax. Rumbold, Rumb{e)ald — 

rum, bountiful, noble, magnificent + -bold, 

b(e)ald, bold] 

(Teut.) Famously or Gloriously Bold 

[O.Teut. Hr{u)ombald, Ruombald, etc. — 

O.H.Ger. hruom, ruom = O.Sax. hrihn = 

Dut. roem, fame, glory -f O.H.Ger. O.Sax. 

O.E. bald = Dut. boud = O.N. ball-r, 

„ ' bold] 

Both Rumbald and Rumbold occur in the 

i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls. 




There is evidence (e.g., a.d. 1545, 
"Robert Rumbold, alias Reynbald." — 
Blomefield, Hist. Nor/., v. 90, quoted by 
Bardsley) of some confusion witii the 
descendants of the O.Teut. Regetibald, 
Regiribald, Raginbald-.v-vrnder Rambau(l)t, 

RUMBOLL, V. Rumbold. 

RUMFITT for Rumfopd, q.v. 

RUM FORD (Eng.) Bel. to Romford (Essex) = 
(prob.) the Wide Ford [O.E. rum, wide 

+ ford] 
Romford is prbn. 'Rumford.' The 
name, Rom, of the stream at Romford is 
modern and taken from the place-name. 
The ford has long been replaced by a 

The hamlet Rumford in co. Stirling 
does not seem to have influenced our 
pers. nomenclature. 

RUMLEY for Romilly, q.v. 

RUMMELOW for Rumbelbw, q.v. 

RUMMINGER (Eng. + Fr.) Stevedore [Early 

Mod. E. ro»ia.gB>- (Hakluyt) ; f. M.E. roum 

(O.E. rUm), room, space, with Fr. suff. 

-age, Lat. -atic-us: the surname has an 

inserted « as in 'messenger'] 

RUM(M)ON ] ( Teut. ) weak forms of the 
RUM(M)AN \O.T&it. Hruodmund, Hrdpmund, 
RUM(M)EN J etc. (v. Rodmund) ; prob. more 

particularly descendants of the O.N. 

Romund-r for /f>-ol'»zM»rf-r(forloss of final 

-d cp. Oman). 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) occ. for Roma(i)n, q.v. 

RUIVI(M)ONS"| Rum(m)on's ( Son ) : Rum- 
RUM(M)ANS kM)AN'S (Son): Rum(m)en's 
RUM(M)ENsJ (Son). 

RUMNEY, v. Romney. 

RUMP (Teut.) a nickname for a stumpy per- 
son fM.E. rumpe (occurring in this form as 
a surname in the i3th-cent. Hundred- 
Rolls and othei" records) ; L.Ger. rump = 
O.N. rump-r (whence Dan.-Norw. rumpe, 
Swed. rumpia) = Dut. romp (= Mod. 
High Ger. runipf) : one of the definitions 
of ' rump ' in Geelmuyden's ' Engelsk 
Ordbog ' (Christiania) is stump'] 

RUMSEY, V. Romsey. 

RUNACRES (Scand.) Dweller at i the Bush- 
Fields [O.N-. runn-r, a bush, shrub -|- akr 
(= O.E. eecer), a field (with late (Eng.) pi. 

2 the Rowan-Tree Fields [Dan.- 
Norw. ronne = Swed. ronn (earlier runn), 
O.N. reyni-r, the rowan-tree] 

There is a Renacres (Hall) in Lancashire 
which occurs in the I3th-r4th centuries as 
Runacres, Ruynacres, Roynacres, Rowyn- 
acres, etc., and in the i6th cent, as 

Confused with Ranacr<es, q.v. 

RUNCH(E)MAN, v. Runoi(e)man. 

RUNOIE, V. Runoy. 

RUNCI(E)MAN (A.-Fr..?Teut. -|- E.) Horse- 
dealer, Jobmaster [v. under Runcy, 
and -I- E. mari\ 

RUNCY (A.-Fr.-?Teut.) a nickname or trade- 
name from the Nag so called [M.E. runcy, 
rouncy, ro{u)nsy, a nag ; O.Fr. ronci, roncin, 
runcin ; M.Lat. runcin-us ; orig. uncert.] 
. . . ne rMBCiM ne sumer [sumpter]. — 

Chanson de Roland, 758. 
He rood upon a rouncy as he kouthe 

In a gowne of faldyng to the knee. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 390-1. 
... on ronsy micht ryde. — 

Taill of Rauf Coilyear, 442. 

RUNDELLI (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname for one 

RUNDLE J of Rotund proportions [Fr..ffoM(;- 

el — rond, round -|- the dim. suif. -el ; 

Lat. rotund-US, round] 

Cp. Round ; also the Fr. double dim. 

rondelet, ' plump,' which also occurs as a 

surname in France. 

RUNTING (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Hrunting \pug. 


Waes ^dem hseit-m6cel Was to that hilted sword 
Hrunting nama \Hrunling (the) name. — 

Beowulf, 2918-19. 

RUPERT, the Ger. Ruprecht, a var. of Robert, 

"Knecht Ruprecht" or "Rupert" is a 
children's bugbear in Germany. 

RuloOE } (Scand.) for Rosooe, q.v. 

(Celt.) app. a var. of Rusky, q.v. 

There is a hamlet Rusco in Kirkcud- 

RUSE = Rou8(e, q.v. 

RUSH (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the French Rousse: v. 

(Eng.) not improb. also a contr. of one 
or other of the Rush- names. 

,The county-Dublin place-name Rush, 
anc. Roseo, ' yew-treepeninsula ' [Ir. ros, 
a peninsula ; ed, a yevv-tree] (Joyce), will 
hardly have influenced this surname. 




RUSHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Rushall (Staffs, Wilts, 

Norf., etc.) = the Rushy Corner [O.E. 

rysc, a rush + h(e)al(h, a corner] 

The Staffs Rushall was Rushate in the 
1 2th cent., Rischale in Domesday-Book. 

RUSHBROOK \ (Eng.) Bel. to Rushbrooke ; 

RUSHBR06KE J or Dweller at the Rushy 

Brook [O.E. rysc, a rush + brdc, a stream] 

The Suffolk Rushbrooke was Rushbroke 
in the 14th cent. ; earlier Ryssebrok. 

RUSHER (Eng.) Rush-Worker [M.E. ryscher; 
f. O.E. rysc, a rush -|- the agent, suff. -ere] 

RUSHFORD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Rushtord ; or 

RUSHFORTH J Dweller at the Rushy Ford 

[O.E. rysc, a rush -t- ford\ 

RUSHMER \(Eng;) Bel. to Rushmer(e; or 

RUSHMERE J Dweller at the Rushy Pool 

[O.E. rysc, a rush -1- mere, a pool] 

RUSHMORE (Eng.) Bel. to Rushmore; or 

JDweller at the Rushy Moor [O.E. rysc, a 

rush -I- mdr, a moor] 

RUSHTON (Eng.) Bel. to Rushton = the 
Rushy Enclosure [O.E. rysc, rise, a rush 
-f- tun, an enclosure] 
Cp. Rishton. 

The RisctUn of a charter, a.d. 854, by 
^}>elwulf, king of the West Saxons, re- 
fers to Ruishton, Somerset. 

RUSHWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Rushworth = 

the Rushy Enclosure [O.E. rysc, a rush 

-I- wor^, an enclosure, farm] 

Cp. Rishworth. 

RUSK (Scand.) Doughty, Bravk Active 
[O.N. rosh-r = O.H.Ger. rosch'\ 

RUSKELL for Roskell, q.v. 

RUSKIE 1 (Celt.) Dweller at a Marshy Place 

RUSKY J [Gael, riascach = Ir. riascach, ricts- 

gach,, rusgach, marshy, a marshy place] 

Ruskie is the name of a Perthshire 
village. ' 

RUSKIN I = RU88, Rous (q.v.) + the L.Ger; 
dim. suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-in\ 

2 — Rusk (q.v.) 4- the Fr. dim. suff. -in. 
RUSLING for Ro8lin(g, q.v. 
RUSS = Rous, q.v. 

John le Rus.—Hund. Rolls. 

Gilbert Kuss.—Hund. Rolls. 

RUSSEL l ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) the Red, Red- 

RUSSELL ^ Haired [A.-Fr. russelQ, O.Fr. 

RUSSILL J roussel ■ v. under Russ, Rous, 

and -f the Fr. . dim. suff. -el : cp. Fr. 

rousseau, m., rousselle, i.i red-haired] 

Both Russel and Russell occur in the 
i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls. 

Russel(l was an old name for the fox, 
from its colour — 

And Daun Russell, the fox, stirtie up at 
ones. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 4524. 

The Russells, and the Fresells [Frasers] 
fre. — Thomas of Ersyldoune, ii. 24. 

RUSSET (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the Red, Red-Haired 
[A.-Fr. russet, O.Fr. rousset: v. under 
Russ. Rous, and -f- the Fr. dim. suff. -et : 
cp. Russel (I] 
Although Rousset is a common surname 
in France, Russet is practically extinct in 
Britain, largely because it has been assi- 
milated to Rust. 

RUST (A.-Fri-Lat.) a monosyllabized form of 
Russet, q.v. 

(Teut.) There is evidence (cp. the A.-Sax. 
place-names Rustingden, Rustewelle, and 
the Sussex ' Rustington ') that the A.-Sax. 
and Dan.-Norw. rAst, 'rust,' originally 
'red,' 'redness,' was used in nomen- 
clature (the co-radical llatin word tor 
' rust,' robigo or riibigo, was also a deity- 

Peter Rust.— /fani Rolls. 

RUSTON (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Ruston 

(Yorks ; Norf.) = Rust's Estate [v. under 

Rust (Teut.), and -t- O.E. O.N. <ij»] 

There has prob. been sporadic confusion 

with Royston and Rushton, q.v. 

RUTHERFORD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Rutherford; or 
RUTHERFURD J Dweller at the Cattle- 
Ford [O.E. hrfSer, an ox, bull, cow -|- 


RUTHVEN (Celt.) Bel. to Ruthven (several in 
E. Scotl.), some I2th-i3th cent, forms 
being Ruthaven, -ruotheven, Rotheivan = 
the Red River [Cym. rhudd (dd as th) = 
Gael, ruadh, red + Cym. afon (/ as v), 
O.Cym. (and Bret.) avon = Gael, abhainn, 

The parish of Ruthven, Forfar, e.g., has 
a light, reddish soil,, which would easily 
influence the colour of the river. 

RUTLAND (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Rutland, 
anc. Roteland, Rotland [Orig. uncertain ; 
but the prob. meaning is ' root-land ' — 
M.E. ra<(e, O.N. r6t (for wrot), a root (O.N. 
rdta = O.E. wrdtan, to root up), as the county 
was formerly noted for its forests, which 
are '' now almost wholly destroyed " (but 
the roots or stumps may at first have been 
left). If the county had been named from 
its red soil the old name would have been 
Rodeland instead of the consistent Rote- 
land or Rotland. 

See the quotation under Reynold. 




RUTLEY (Ehg.) Dweller at i the Root-Lea 
[v. under Rutland, and + M.E. ley, O.E. . 
ledh, a meadow] 

(occ.) 2 the Red Lea [O.E. redd + ledh] 

RUTTER I lilie Rautep (q.v.), from the Dut. 
ruiter, ' trboper,' ' horseman.' Found in 
Early Mod. E. also with the L.Ger, dim. 
suff. -kin. 

2 the M.E. rotour = Rote-Player [f. 
M.E. O.Fr, rote, a musicsal instrument (a 
kind of fiddle) ; O.H.Ger. h)rota, a rote ; 
app. of Celt, orig.; cp. Wei. crwth, a fiddle 
= Gael, and Ir. cruit, a harp, 0.1r. crot, a 

John le Rotour. — 

Sgtns. Subsidy-Soil, A.D. 1327. 

Cp. Crowther. 

RUTTERFORD i Dweller at the Trooper- 
Ford [v. under Rutter', and + M.E. 

O.E. ford] 
2 for Rutherford, q.v. 

RUXTON for Roxton, q.v. 
RUYTON, V. Royton, Ryton. 
RYALU for Ryhall, q.v. . 
RYALLS, genit., and pi., of Ryall, Ryhall, q.v. 
RYAN, V. O'Ryan. 

RYCROFT (Eng.) Dweller at the Rye-Croft 
[O.E. ryge, rye -1- croft, a small field] 

The Yorks Rycroft is spelt the same in 
the 14th cent. 

RYDE (Eng.) Bel. to Ryde (I.o.W.), anc. La 
Ride, La Rithe (also La Rye, prob. by con- 
fusion with Rye in Sussex) = the Rivu- 
let [O.E. «'K«] 
Ryde, or Ride, is a Hampshire dialect- 
word for " streamlet.' 

RYDER = Rider, q.v. 
RYDING = Riding, q.v. 
RYDON (Eng.) Dwieller at the Rye-Hill 
[O.E. ryge + dlin] 
Cp. Roydon. 

RYE 1 Bel. to Ry (Seine-Inf6rieure, etc.) = the 
Bank [O.Fr. rie, a bank] 

This name occurs in the (supp.) copies 
of the Roll of Battle Ahhey — Ry in 
Leland's copy, Rie in Holihshed's copy. 
Mr. Walter Rye, F.S.A., sayS that "Hubert 
de Rye came over with the Conqueror, 
and his sons settled in Norfolk, Notting- 
ham, Deiftjy, and Essex." He adds that 
a Huguenot family of the name settled in 
Norwich in the i6th cent. Blomefield 
(' Hist. Norf.') mentions Hubert de' Rie as 
being governor of Norwich Castle c. 11 00. 

2 Bel. to Rye (Suss.), M. French La Rie 
[drig. uncert. : cp, Ree] 

A 'John de la Rye' of the Kentish 
Hundred-Rolls prob. owed his name to 
the Sussex port. 

RYGATE = Relgate, q.v. 

RYHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Ryhali (Rutland), 
Rihale in a late copy of a Latin charter 
dated a.d. 664 = (prob.) the Rye-Cqrner 
(Field) [O.E. ryge, rye -|- h(e)al{h, a corner, 


RYHILL (Eng.) Bel. to Ryhill, Ryehill; or 
Dweller at the Rye-Hill [O.E. ryge, rye 
+ hyll (U.E. hul{I] 
Cp. Rydon. 

RYLANCE for Rylands, q.v. 

RYLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Rye-Land 
\O.E. ryge + land] 

This would be a fairly common: local 
name ; but the gazetteers mention speci- 
fically a Ryland in Yorks and , one in 
Lines. ' 

Cp. Rylands. 

RYLANDS (Eng.) Dweller at the Rye-Lands 
[O.E. ryge + the mod. pi. of land] 

This (like Ryland) would be a tolerably 
fi^equent local name (cp. Oatlands); but 
most of the owners of the name owe it 
to Lane, and Chesh. spots rather than to 
the now better-known Herefordshire 
Ryelands. The Lane. Rylands was Ri- 
landes, Rylau?ides (and Riland) in the .13th 
cent. ; Rylondes, Ruylondes, etc., in the 14th- 
15th cent. (v. 'The Rylands of the Ry- ' 
lands within Westhoughton, co. L ancaster' 
by J. Paul Rylands, F.S.A.) The Chesh. 
Rylands was Rylondis and Ruylonds in the 
I3th-i4th cent. 

RYLE I for Ryhill, q.v. 

It is the Cheshire place (early- i4th-cent 
Ryhull, Ryehull, Ruyhul) rather than the, 
Northumberland Ryle that has had the 
great surnominal influence, esp. in the 
form 'Royle,' which is very common in 
Chesh. and S. Lanes (v. Guppy, 'Homes of 
Family-Names,' p, 545). 

2 (occ.) for Ryhall, q.v. 
RYLEY, V. the commoner form Riley. 

RYMAN (Eng.) Rye-Man (Dealer) [O.E. ryge, 

rye -|- man{n] 
Cp. Wheatman. 

RYMER = Rimer, q.v. 

RYMILL (Erig,) Dweller at or by the Rye-Mill 
[M.E. ry{e, O.E. ryge + M.E. mille, O.E. 





RYND = Rhind.q.v. 

RYTON (Ehg.) Bel. to Ryton = i the Rye- 
Enclosure [O.E. ryge, lye + tun, enclo- 
sure, etc.] 

2 (rarely) the Rough Enclosure [O.E. 
' ri«A, rough, uncultivated] 

The Yorks Ryton occurs as Ritun and 
Ritone in Domesday-Book ; but the War- 
wickshire Ryton - on - Dunsmore, while 
mentioned in Domesday as Rietone, is 
found in the 13th cent, as Rugintune, 
Rutune, as well as Ruiton. 

RYVEN for Ruthven, q.v. 

SAB ■) 

SABB \ I dim. of Sabin(e, q.v. 


2 Bede tells us (' Hist. Eccl.' ii. 5.) that 
the sons of Sreberht, king of Essex (d. 
A.D. 616), familiarly called him Saba : v, 

SABEY = Sab(b (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. suff. -ey. 

SABI N 1 (Fr.-Lat.) Sabine [Fr. Sdbin, -e, Lat. 
SABINE J Sabinus,m.,Sdbina,i.'] 

A statue of " Sabinus, planter of the 
vines " (the supposed eponymus of the 
Sabines), was among those remarked by 
Mnsas when he entered the palace of 
Latinus — 

. . . Sabinus 

Vitisator, curvam servans sub imagine 
{alcem.—^neis, vii. 178-9. 

Sabino,-a, Savino,-a. — Antico pat- 
ronimico, che voleva dire I'Uomo o la 
Donna del paese dei Sabini, o Sabelli, 
nella Italia centrale. — 

Fumagalli, Diz. Nomi Propriltal, p. 233. 

SACHEVERELL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Sault- 
Chevreuil (Manche, Norm.) = the Roe- 
buck - Forest [0;Fr. sault, 'a forest 
intersected by meadows and fields ' ; Lat. 
salt-US, a forest- or mountain-pasture + 
Fr. chevreuil, a roebuck, roedeer ; Lat. 


Sacheverell was sometimes Latinized 

de Saltu Capella [Lat. capella, a she-goat] 

and the first element often thought to be 

Lat. salt-US, a leap. 

SACK (A.-Fr.) i Bel. to le Sacq (Eure, Norm.) 

The surname Du Sacq (Dusacq) is not 
rare in France. 

2 the French pers. name Sacig prob. 
represents the O.Ger. Sacco [f. the root 
seen in O.Sax. sakan = O.E. sacan 
(ge)saca, an adversary) = Goth, sakan = 
O.H.Ger. sahhan, to dispute, strive, blame] 

SACKER (A.-Lat., etc.) Sack-Maker [O.E. 

sacc + the agent, suff. -ere r f. Lat. sacc-us, 

a bag ; Semit.] 

Adam le Sakkere. — Riley, Mems. of Land. 

SACKERSONi (the) Sacker'sSon:v. Sacker. 
2 for Zachary's Son : v. Zachary. 

SACKETT, the French Sacquet = Sac{q (v. 
Sack') -I- the dim. suff. -et. 

SACKVILLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to i Secqueville" 
(Calvados, Norm.) = the Dry Vill, i.e. 
(app.) the Dry-built [Nor. Fr. secque, f. 
(Fr. sec, sdche), Lat. sice-, dry -f Fr. ville, 

Lat. DiWa] 

This name was Latinized in mediaeval 
documents de Sicca Villa : cp. Drayton, 
Latinized de Arida Villa. 

2 Sacquenville (Eure, Norm.) 

SADD (Eng.) Serious, Discreet, Firm [M.E. 
sad(de ; O.E. seed, primarily meaning 

' sated "] 

In Surrye [Syria] whilom dwelte a 

Of chapmen riche, and tiierto sadde a.ud 
trewe. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 134-5. 

SADDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Saddington 

(Leic), 14th cent. Sadyngton, A.-Sax. 

*Scedingatun = the Estate of the S.«;d- 

Family [O.E. -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. 

suff. -ing -\- ttin, estate, etc.] 

SADG ROVE (Eng.) Dweller at (app.) the Dark 
Grove [North. Dial. E. sad, a dull, dark 
colour (? O.E. seed) -f- E. grove, O.E. grdf] 

SADLER \ (Eng.) Saddler [M.E. sadeler — 

SADTLER J sadel, a saddle -|- the agent, suff. 

■er; O.E. sadol, a saddle] 

SAFFRY^}''- Savery, Savary. 

SAFFORD, an assim. form of Salford, q.v. 

SAGAR \ (Scand. and N.Eng.) Sawyer [sager 

SAGER 1 is a North, dial, word, f. sage (g hard), 

a saw — O.N. sag, sog = O.E. saga : cp. 

Ger. sager, sawyer] 

(Teut.) v. Segar, Segep'. 

Cp. Sayer. 




SAGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Wise, Learned [Fr. sage, 
L.Lat. sapjus, wise ; Lat. sapere, to be wise] 

Richard le Sage. — Hund. Rolls. 

SAGGER I = Sagap or Sager, q.v. 

(rarely) 2 a voiced form of Sacker, q.v. 

SAGGERS, Sagger's (Son) "!„ saseep 
SAGGERSON, Sagger's Son ] '• "^sgep. 


SAILOR / iai7(0oMr, a leaper, dancer; f. Fr. 

saillir, Lat. salire, to leap, spring] 

There was many a tymbester [female 

And saillouris that I dar wel swere 
Couthe her [knew their] craft ful parfitly. — 
Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 769-71. 

(late) (Eng.) Sailor, Seaman [f. M.E. 
seil, O.E. segif)!, a sail ; with the agent. 

suff. -w] 
SAILES, V. Sales. 

SAINSBURY \(Eng.) Bel. to Saint(s)bury 
SAINTSBURYJ (Glouc.) [This is stated to 
be the Domesday Suineberie, which ought 
to yield a mod. ' Swinberry,' i.e. Swine- 
Hill (the Yorks Swine e.g. was Suine in 
Domesday-Book) ; but the tradition in 
Glouc. is that the place was ' Swein's 
Camp,' and there are ancient iiitrench- 
ments which the inhabitants call ' Castle 
Bank.' A transition from 'Sweinsburg' to 
' Sainsbury ' is, however, difficult to credit. 
The -t- in one form of the name is doubt- 
less the common post-« dental intrusion ; 
but it occurs early] 

" Regin. de Seintshurieliv^A 31 H. IL" — 
Fosbrooke, /fwt. G/OMC, ii- 328. 

ST. AUBIN V(Fr.-Lat. ) Bel. to St. Aubin 

ST. AUBYN J (France). Aubin for Albin = 

White, Pale [Lat. Albin-us—alb-us, white] 

There are numerous villages in France 
called St. Aubin. 

ST. CLAIR (Fr.-Lat) Bel. to St. Clair (France). 
Clair = Illustrious [Lat. clar-us, bright, 


There are villages called St. Clair m the 
Manche, Eure, and Seine-Inf6rieure Depts. 

SAISE, V. Sayce. 

SAKER (A.-Fr.) a nickname from the Pere- 
i GRiNE Hawk [Fr. sacre. Span, sacre; of 

Oriental orig.] 

From the bird a piece of artillery was 
named — 
The cannon, blunderbuss, and saker, 
He was th' inventor of, and maker. — "" 
Butler, Hudibras, I. ii. 355-6. 

Se what Salamon [var. Salomon^ seith 
in Sapience bokes.— 

Piers' Plowman, iii. 330. 

SALE (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Sale; or 

Dweller in or by a Hall [O.E. sml = 

O.N. sal-r. a hall] 

ne g6d hafoc |(the) good hawk not 

geond seel swihgetS|through (the) hall beateth. 
Bedwttlf, 4$J9-3o. 
John de la Sale. — Fine-Rolls. 
Cp. Seal(e. 
SALES, genit., and pi., of Sale, q.v. 

SALFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Salford.; or Dweller 
at I the WiLLdw-FoRD [O.E. s{e)alh rf 


2 the Salt Ford [O.E. s{e)alt + ford] 

The Lane, place (Domesday, Salford; 
later also Sauford) and the Bedfd. village 
belong to i ; the Warw. Salford Priors 
and the Oxfd. parish (both 8th-cent. 
Saltford) app. owe their name to salt- 

SALISBURY (Eng.) Bel. to i Salisbury (Wilts) 

= Searo's Stronghold [A.-Sax. Chron., 

Searoburh, Seresburh, etc. : the pers. name 

is f. O.E. searo, armour, arms ; device ; skill 

+ burh, a stronghold] 

" Ego Adelsinus Sarisberiensis ecclesise 
episcopus." — 

Cart. Sax. no. 1228 (A.D- 969)- 
2 Salesbury (Lanes) [Of the early forms of 
this place-name from 1235 to 1503 collected 
by Wyld and Hirst (' Lane. Place-Names,' 
p. 225) only one (A.p. 131 1 Salesbury) has 
the medial genitive -s-, other forms being 
Salebury', Salebiri, and (1503) Sailebury. 
It is therefore not all certain that we have 
here to do with a pers. name (in the genit.) 
as the -s- may be merely euphonid. If the 
first element is not pers. it is prob. O.E. 
' stel, a hall ; if it is pers. it may be for 
O.E. salo (= O.N. sol-r), dark, or O.E. stkl. 

happiness (cp. O.N. sail, happy) : f- 

O.E. burh, a stronghold] 

SALKELD \ (Scand.) Bel. to Salkeld (Cumb.) 
SALKILD / 13th cent. Salkeld = the WiLLOW- 
Tree Spring [O.N. sella = O.E. s{e)alh, a 
willow -I- O.N. kelda, a spring] 
There is a mineral spring on the com- 
mon having chalybeate properties. — 

Nat. Gaz., 1868. 

SALMON 1 (Heb.) for Salomon, Solomon, 
SALMAN J q.v. 

(occ.) (Teut.) for the O.Teut. Salaman, 
[app. f. O.H.Ger. salo - O.E. salo, dark, 





(occ.) (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname or trade- 
name from the fish [O.Fr. saulmon (Fr. 
saumon), Lat. salmo, -onis, a salmon] 

(occ.) (Fr.-Lat. or Teut.) Bel. to St. 
Almand or St. Amand (France). ■ 

The name Salmon was often Latinized 
in mediaeval documents de Sancto Ale- 
mondo, impl3ning a French ecclesiastical 
place-name St. Almond (cp. Almond), 
which app. has been merged in St. Amand, 
a common Fr.-Lat. place-name which was 
Latinized de Sancto Amando. 
SALMOND for Salmon, q.v. 

SALMONS, Salmon's (Son) : v. Salmon. 

SALOMON 1 _1 e„i„„„„ „ V 
SALOMAN j - Solomon, q.v. 

. . . and }>es ys mftra )jonne Salomon. — 
Matth. Xn. 43 (A.-Sax. vers.). 

. . 1 s6nu [behold] hier m6ra thanne 
Salomon. — do. do. (O.H.Ger. vers.) 

Salomdn the kuning [king]. — 

Heliand (O.Sax.), 1. 1677. 

Lif and deaj?, Bej(> Salomonj is in tunge 
(Mors et vita in manibus lingue). — 

Ancren Riwle {'Speche'). 

. . . he that holdeth hym in verray 
penitence is blessed, after the sentence of 
Salomon.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, I 128. 

Salomon Judaeus.— faf. Rolls. 

Richard Saloman. — Hund. Rolls. 

Cp. Salamon. 

SALOMONS, Salomon's (Son) \ v. 
SALOMONSON, Salomon's Son j Salomon. 




= Salisbury, q.v. 

SALT (Eng.) Bel. to Salt (Staffs) [O.E. s{e)alt, 


The Halen [Wei. halen, salt] referred to 
in the will, a.d. 1004, of Wulfric, Earl of 
Mercia, is supposed to be Salt. 

SALTER (Eng.) Salt Worker or Dealer 

[M.E. salter(e, O.E. s{e)altere — s{e)alt, salt 

-f the agent, suff. -ere'\ 

Sealtere, hwaet us fremaScraeft {"in ? 
(Salter, of what benefit is thy craft to 
us?). — jElfrici Colloq., late loth cent. 

SALTERN (Eng.) Bel. to Saltern ; or Dweller 
at a Salt-Work [O.E. s{e)alt-em] 

SALTHOUSE (Ehg.) Dweller at a Salt- 
House (place where salt was made) [M.E. 
salthus, O.E. s(e)alt-htis'] 

SALTMARSH (fing.) Bel. to Saltmarsh ; or 
Dweller at the Salt (-Watej) Marsh 
[O.E. s(e)att + mersc] 
The Yorks place was Saltmerssh in the 
14th cent, and Saltemersc in Domesday- 

SALTON (Eng.) Bel. to Salton = i the Hall- 
Enclosure [O.E. seel = O.N. sal-r, a hall 

-I- tAn'\ 

2 the Willow-Enclosure [O.E. s(e)alh, 

a willow + tuti\ 

The Yorks Salton was Saletun in 
Domesday-Book. The Haddington Salton 
was Sawtlton in the 13th cent. 

There has been some confusion with 
Saltern, q.v. 

SALTONSTALL (Eng.) Bel. to Salternstall 
(Kent), A.D. 863 SealteiHsteall = the Salt- 
works Place (v. under Saltern, and -|- 
O.E. st(e)all, a place, a stall] 

SALUSBURY = Salisbury, q.v. 

SALVAGE \ etymologically more correct 
SALVI DG E J forms than the much commoner 
Savage, q.v. 

As shepheardes curre,that in darke even- 
inges shade 

Hath tracted forth some salvage beastes 
trade. — Spenser, Faerie Queene, II. vi. 39. 

SAMBORNE \ (Eng.) Bel. to Sambourne 

SAMBOURNEJ (Warwick), the Domesday 

Sandbume; or Dweller at the Sandy 

Brook [O.E. sand, sand -f hume] 

SAM BROOK (Eng.) Bel. to Sambrook; or 
Dweller at the Sandy Brook [O.E. sand- 

SAMMELS ± Samuels, q.v. 

SAMMON\_ e„i„„„ 
SAMON j^- Salmon. 

SAMMONS ^v. Salmons. 

SAMPER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to St. Pierre (St. 
Peter), France [v. under Pier] 

St. Pierre is an exceedingly common 
French place-name. , 

SAMPFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Sampford (Devon, 

Soms., Essex, etc.) = the Sandy Ford 

' [O.E. sand, sand -f- ford] 

One of the Devonshire Sampfords was 

Sand ford (' aet Sand forda ') in the 10th 


SAMPLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to St. Paul 
(France) . ^ [v. Paul] 

John de St. Paul.— i>aW. Rdls. 

Si. Paul is a common French place- 

Cp. Sinclair. 





t Samuel. 

SAMPLES, Sample's (Son) : v. Sample. 

SAMSOn'^ } ■ Splendid Sun [Heb. Shimshdii] 

Samsones strenc)>e, }>et slouh a {>usund 
of his fon [foes] al et one time. — 

Ancren Riwle (' Luve '). 

We find both forms of the name in 
mediaeval German literature, e.g. Sampson 
in Hugo von Montfort's i4th-cent. ' Tage- 
lied,' and Samson in the lath-cent. ' Alex- 
anderlied ' of the Pfaffen Lamprecht. 

2 Sam's Son : v. Samuel. 

SAMS, Sam's (Son) : v. Samuel. 

SAMUEL \ (Heb.) Heard of God, or Asked 

SAMUELL/ofGod [Heb. Sh'miUl, a der. of 

shdma, to hear + El, God] 

SAM U ELLS "lc,„„„r.c/Q„„\ 1 
SAMUELS ] Samuels (Son) [, 

SAMUELSON, Samuel's Son 

SAMWELL for Samuel, q.v. 

SANBORN I etymologically more correct 
SAN BURN J forms than Sambopne, q.v. 

SANCTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sancton (Yorks), 
13th cent. Sancton, Domesday Santon, 
Santun, Santune [O.E. twK.enclosure, village: 
the first elemept of Sa«cto« seems to refer 
to the dedication of the church to 'All 
Saints' — O.E. sand (Lat. sanct-us), 
saint : the Domesday forms can hardly 
be for ' sand,' as the soil is loamy] 

SANDALL\(Eng. or Scand.)' Bel. to Sandal 

SANDELL J (Yorks», Cumb., etc.) = i the 

Sandy Valley [O.E. O.N. sand, sand + 

Q.E. dcBl= O.N. dal-r, a valley] 

(occ.) 2 the Sandy Slope [O.E. O.N. 
sand+ O.E. h(e)al(d = O.N. hall-r, a slope] 

The Yorkshire Sandals odcur in Domes- 
day Book as Sandala and Sandale. 

There is also a Sand Dale in Yorkshire. 

SAN DAY (Scand.) Bel. to Sanday (Scotl.) = 
the Sandy Island [O.N. sand-r, sand + 

ey, island] 
(Eng. and Scand.) v. Sandy. 

SANDBACH ] (Eng.) Bel. to Sandbach 
SAN BACH \ (Chesh.) = the Sandy Brook 
SANDBADGEJ [O.E. sa«rf, sand-f-6«c, brook] 

Sir Richard de Sandbache. — 

Chesh. Chnibrlns.' Accls., A.D. 1303-4. 

SAN DBORN \ etymologically more correct 
SANDBURNJ forms than Sambo(u)rne, q.v. 

SANDBROOK, an etymologically more correct 
form than Sambrook, q.v. ante. 

SANDELL, V. under Sandall. 

SAN DEM AN i (Scand.) True Man [O.N. 

sann-r for san'S-r, wrhence Swed. sann, 

Dan.-Norw. sand (= E. sooth), true -f- 

O.N. mann-r} 

Note the Ger. 5iZ«rfOTfl»«, 'sand-hawker.' 

2 for Sanderman, q.v. 
SANDER I a popular form of Alexander, q.v. 

Sander seems to have been used from a 
comparatively early period by the Teu- 
tons (esp. the Low Germans, incl. the 
Frisians) as a convenient abbreviation of 
the Macedonian conqueror's name. 

" Aleksander, forkortet [shortened] 

Sander." — Stoylen, Norske Dobenavne 

{Norweg. Christ. Names], p. 5. 

2 the O.Teut. Sandheri [the first element 
may be either O.Teut. sand, messenger, or 
sand (O.H.Ger. *sand = Dan.-Norw. sand 
= O.N. sann-r for san'S-r), sooth, true -f- 

heri (O.H.Ger. and O.Sax.), army, host] 

SANDERCOCK = Sander (q.v.) + the pet 
suff. -cock 

SANDERMAN (North.) Sander's Man (-Ser- 
vant) : V. Sander. 

(Eng.) Ambassador [O.E, .tander-mann] 


SANDERS, Sander's (Son) \ 
SANDERSON, Sander's Son J *• 

Cp. Saunders, Saunderson. 

SANDFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Sandford; or 

Dweller at the Sandy Ford [O.E. sand, 

sand +fori\ 

' On sandford.' — 

Cart. Sax. no. 967 (Oxfd. Charter), A.D. 956. 

SANDHAM (Eng.) Dweller at the Sandy Land 
[O.E. sand, sand + hamm, a piece of latid, 


SAN DHOE (Eng.) Bel. to Sandhoe ; or Dweller 
at the Sand-Bluff [O.E. sand + h6\ 

SAN DIE (Scot.-Gr.) a double dim.ofAlexander, 
q.v. [N.E. and Scot. dim. suff. -ie] 

(Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 
Sandy Island or Waterside [O.E. O.N. 
sand, sand -f- O.E. ig = O.N. ey, island, 


SANDIFORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Sandy 
Ford [O.E. sandig + ford\ 

SANDILANDS (Eng.) Dweller at the Sandy 
Lands [O.E. sandig -\- land ; with mod. pi. 

SANDISON, Sandie's Son : v. Sandle'. 

SANDLE = Sandell, q.v. 




SANDOM for Sandham, q.v. 

SAN DON (Eng.) Dweller at the Sand-Hill 
[O.E. sand + diin\ 

SAN DOW = Sand hoe, q.v. 

This name is, of course, quite distinct 
from the imported Slavonic Sandow (w 
as v). 

SANDRINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Sandringham 
(Norf.), form. Sanderingham, O.Angl. 
*Sanderinga-hdm = the HoME OF the 
Sander Family [v. under Sander, and 
+ -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + 
Mm, home, estate] 

SANDS (Eng.) Dweller at the Sands [O.E. 

saM, sand] 

SANDY (A.-Gr.) a double dim. of Alexander, 
q.v. [E. dim. suff. -y\ 

(Eng.) Bel. to ' Sandy (Beds), 13th cent. 

Sandye, Sandeye, Domesday 'in Sandeia' = 

the Sandy Riparian Land [O.E. sand, 

sand + (g, island, waterside] 

SANDYFIRTH (Scand.) Dweller at the Sandy 
Bay [O.N. sandig, sandy + fior^-r, a firth, 


SANDYS, Sandy's (Son): v. Sandy'. 

SANFORD for Sandfopd, q.v. 

SANGER (Eng.) Singer, Minstrel [O.E. 


SANGSTER, the fem. form of Sanger [O.E. 


SAN KEY (Erig.) Bel. to Sankey (Lanes), 12th 
cent. Sonchi, I3th-I4th cent. Sonky, Sanki 
[doubtful : perh. the ' Sunk(en Island or 
Waterside,' f. M.E. sonk(en, sunk — O.E. 
sincan (pret. sing, sane, pp. suncen), tosink 
+ M.E. ey, O.E. ig, island, etc. : cp. the 
Yorkshire local name ' Sunk Isle '] 

SANSBURY, V. Sainsbury. 

, SANSON I for Samson, q.v. 


SANT (A.-Fr.-Lat. and Celt.-Lat.) Saint (a 

nickname) [O.Fr. sant ; Lat.sanct-us, holy : 

also Bret, and Wei. sant\ 

SANTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) the French Santerfe, 

Sansterre = Lackland [Fr. sans, Lat. sine, 

without + Fr. terre, Lat. terra, land] 

SANTLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Sandy Lea 
[O.E. sand, sand + ledh, a lea] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat) Bel. to St. Leu, i.e. St. Loup 

gi'rance) [Fr. saint ; Lat. sanctus, holy + 
ial. Fr, leu = Fr. loup, Lat. lup-us, a wolf) 

SANTON (Eng.) Bel. to Santon (Norf., Suff., 
Linc.,Cumb.,etc.) = the Sandy Enclosure 
[O.E. ^and, sand + tAn, enclosure, etc.] 
Both the Norf. and Line, places were 
Santon in the 13th cent. The Sandtdrt of a 
Kentish charter a.d. 833 js said by Birch 
(' Cart. Sax.' no. 411) to lie " now Samp- 
ton in West Hythe." At Santon, Cumb., 
" drifting sands have covered most of the 
adjoining lands." 

SANTONY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to St. Antony 

[v. Ant(h)ony] 

Antony is a Southern French form of 

SANXTER for Sangster, q.v. 

SAPSED (Eng.) Dweller at the Spruce-Fir 
HEAD(land [f. (with late -5 genit.) O.E. 
sappe, a spruce-fir -|- hedfod, a head, high 


SAPSFORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Ford of 

THE Spruck-Fir(s [v. Under Saplsed, and 

-I- O.E./flr<l 

SAPWELL (Eng.) Dweller at the Spruce-Fir 
Well or Spring [O.E. sceppe + welle'] 

SARD (Fr.) Sardinian [Fr. Sarde; f. Sardi, 

the name of the early inhabitants of 

Sardinia, the Gr. SardB (SopSii] 

SARE, V. Sayer (esp. Celt.). 


SARGEANT \v. Sergeant. 


SARGINSON, Sargent's Son: v. Sargent, 

SARG 00 D (Teut.) the O.Teut. Saragaud, etc. = 

Armoured Goth [O.H.Ger. saro = Goth. 

sarwa = O.N.sdrui= O.E. 5(ff)aro, armour, 

etc. + Gaud, Gaut, Goth] 




SARLEJv. Serle. 

SARSON 1 I Sare's or Saver's Son: v. 
SARSEN / Sayer. 

2 Sarah's Son [Heb. Sdrdh, princess] 

3 Saracen [Fr. Sarrasin, Lat. Saracenus, 
Gr. SofiaKi)i/(5s, Arab, sharqln, pi. of sharqiy. 

Amonges Sarzens and Jewes 
They mowen [may] be saved so. — 

Piers Plowman, 6312-13. 

SARVANTHA.-Fr.-Lat.) Servant [Fr. ser- 
SARVENT J vattt;i.serwr,La.t.seniire,to serve] 




SASS 1 (Fr.-LaU Dweller at a WILLOW- 
SASSE J Tree [O.Fr. sas for sals, etc., Lat. 


(Teut.) Dweller at a Lock or Sluice 
[Dut. sas] 

SATCHELL, the French Sachel: i a palatal 
form of 5ac [v. Sack"] with the Fr. dim. 
suff. -el, Lat. -ell-us. 

(occ^ 2 a North, form, with dim. sufi. 

-el, of Fr. sage = Wise [Lat. sapj-us {sapi- 

tts), f. sapere, to be wise] 

SATTERLEE UEng.) Bel. to Satterleigh 
SATTERLEY [O.E. ledh, a lea : the pers. 
SATTERLY na.meSieter is i that seen in 

SATURLEY j 'Saturday,' A.-Sa.x. Sceter- 
dceg (Lat, Satumi dies) ; 2 the O.E. sdetere, 
a waylayer, spy] 

SATTERTHWAIT "I (Scand.) Bel. to Satter- 
SATTERTHWAITE J thwaite (N. Lanes), i6th 
cent. Saterthwaite, Satterthwkat = the Hill- 
Pasture Clearing [O.N. satr (pi,), hill- 
pastures, dairy-land -f Tfueit, a clearing] 

SAUCE'R (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Sauce - Maker [Fr. 

saucier; f. sauce, Lat. salsa, a thing salted ; 

Lat. sals-, salted] 

Robert le Sauser. — Hund. Rolls. 

SAUL \ (Heb.) Asked For [Heb. ShdAl, pp. 
SAU LL J of the root shdal, to ask] 

(Eng.) Bel. to Saul (Glouc), app. an 
irreg. form of Sale, q.v. 

(Fr.-Teut.) Dweller at a Willow-Tree 
.[Fr. saule, O.H.Ger. salaha (= O.E. s{e)alh), 

a willow] 

(rarely) (Celt.) Dweller at a Barn [Gael, 
(and Ir.) sabhal{l (ph as «] 

''The name Saul, in the Barony of 
Lecale Lower, County Down, is a con- 
tracted form of sabhall, ' a barn.' It takes 
its name from the barn presented to St. 
Patrick by Dicho, the chief of thi, district, 
for the purposes of his missiorc in the 
north of Ireland after his expulsion from 

Reeves, Eccl. Antiq. ; Matheson, Rev. Gen. 
Topog.JndexIrel.igoi (igog), p. 30. 

SAULSBURYI _ eaii«,K..-w nr, 

SAU N BY (Scand.) Bel. to Saundby (Notts) 
i2th cent. Sandebi = (app.) the Sandy 
Farm or Estate [O.N, sand-r, sand + b^-rj 

SAUNDER for Sander (Alexander), q.v. 

We find Saunder and Saundre, as well as 
Sander and Sandre, in the 13th -cent. 
Hundred-Rolls; ' 

SAUNDERS, Saunder's (Son). 

SAUNDERSON, Saunder's Son. 

SAVAGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Wild, Fierce [O.Fr. 
salvage (Fr. sauvage), Lat. silvaticus, be- 
longing to a forest, wild — silva, a forest] 

See Salvage. 

SAVARY \ (Fr.-Teut. ) the French Savary, 
SAVERY J O.Teut. Sabari<:(h, etc. = Mind- 
Powerful [O.H.Ger. sdba- = O.Sax. 
sebo {sevo) = O.E. sefu = O.N. sefi, mind, 
heart -{- O.H.Ger rlc(h, rihhi = O.Sax. 
riki = O.E. rice = O.N. rlk-r, mighty, 


Richard Saveri. — Hund. Rolls. 

This name was Latinized both as 
Savaricus and Savericus, the former, e.g., 
being the Latinization (a.d. 1206) of the 
name of a French chevalier Pierre Savary. 

SAVIDGE for Savage, q.v. 

SAVILE "I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Saville or 

SAVILL • Sauville (France) = the Willow 

SAVILLE ) Farm, Estate, or Village [Dial. 

Fr. sd (Walloon), sau (Picard.),sa/s (Norm.), 

Lat. salix, a willow + Fr. ville, Lat. villa] 

SAVORY for Savary, q.v. 

SAW (A.-Fr.-Lat.) for the French Z)eZ Saux = 
Of the Willow [O.Fr. saux, Lat. salix, 

a willow] 

(Teut.) a late contr. of Saward, q.v. 

SAWARD (Eng.) Sea-Guard (Coast-Guard) 
[A.-Sax. ^w(e)ard — s(b, sea -t- w(e)ard, 


Sdsward was the name of one of the 
three pagan sons (the others were Seaxrfid 
and Sigeberht) of Scfeberht, king of Essex 
(d. A.D. 616). 

The Domesday form was Sauardus ; the 
Hundred-Rolls (Norf.) fojm Saward. 

Cp. Seward. 

SAWKIN = Saw (Teut.) q.v., •{■ the E. dim. 
suff. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-in] 

ISKIs}^— '^(Son). , 

SAWLE, V.Saul. 

SAWLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Sawley (Yorks' : the 

Domesday Sallaia, Sallai; Derby, etc.) 

I the Willow-Lea [O.E. s(e)alh, a willow 

+ ledh, a lea] 

2 the Hall-Lea [O.E. stel, a hall -(- 


SAWMAN for Salman, Salmon, q.v. 

The Hundred-Rolls forms were Sau- 
mau and Saumon. 




SAWREY (Scand.) Bel. to Sawrey (N. Lanes). 
[There are no sufficiently early forms ex- 
- tant to enable the etymology of the name 
to be fixed definitely, but the existence of 
two Wray place-names on the same 
west side of Lake Windermere makes it 
extremely probable that we have here, 
also, the O.N. urd, a nook, corner ; and the 
first element (if the i6th-cent. form Sow- 
raie can be taken as a guide) may be the 
Scand. so, a sow — hardly for, O.N. selia 
= O.Angl. salh, a willow] 

SAX ) (Teut.) the A.-Sax. Seaxa, Saxa =, 
SAXE { O.N. Saxi, from (a) the ethnic name 
(= Saxon) [O.E. S{e)axe = O.N. Saxar, 
Saxons], (p) the word (= Sword) which 
is considered to be the orig. of the ethnic 
name [O.E. s{e)ax = O.Ftis. O.N. sax = 
O.H.Ger. saHs, a short sword, knife] 

S(e)axa was sometimes merely a pet 
form of a pers. name of which S(e)ax- was 
the first element, as SffflArftaW. Saxa anA 
Saxo occur in Domesday-Book. 

I Occasionally this name may be a 

modern Anglicization of the corresp. Ger- 
man Sacks{e; and also represent the 
borrowed Irish Sacs, Enghshman, Saxon. 

SAXBY (Scand.) Bel. to Saxby (Leic, Line.' 

[for the first element see under Sax ; and 

-1- O.N. 6ji-r, farm, estate, settlement] 

Saxbee was a lyth-cent. form of the 
name which prob. survives in America. 

SAXELBY \ (Scand.) Bel. to Saxelby (Line. : 

SAXELBYE; 13th cent. Saxelby; Leic.) = 

Saxel's Estate [the pers. name is that 

seen under Sax, with the addit. of the 

dim. suff. -(e)/ (cp. Saxlingham) : h 

O.N. bi-r, estate, etc.] 

SAXLINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Saxlingham 

(Norf.«) = the Home of the Seax(e)l 

Family [A.-Sax. Seaxlinga-hdm (a.d. 1046): 

V. under Saxelby, ahd + -inga, genit. pi. 

of the fll. suff. -ing -f ham, home, estate] 

SAXON I a syncopated form of Saxton, q.v. 

2 Sax's Son : v. Sax. 

3 the name may sporadically represent 
the ethnic term Saxon, but poss. more 
likely as a transl. ot the Germ. Sachs(e 
[Lai . Saxones, Saxons ; O.E. S(e)axan, pi. : 

V. under Sax] 

SAXTON (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Sacristan, Sexton 

[A.-Fr. sacristan (Fr. sacristain), L.Lat. 

sacristan-US ; f. L.Lat. sacrista, 'guardian 

of sacred things' ; f. Lat. sacer, sacred] 

Hugh Sacristan.— /r««i. Rolls. 

(Eng.) Bel. to Saxton (Yorks), Domes- 
day Saxtutt [*. under Sax, and 4- O.E. 
tUn, farm, estate] 

SAY (Fr.) I Bel. to Sai (Orne, Norm.). 
Hugh de Say.— Hund. Rolls. 

2 Wise, Prudent [B6arn dial, saye ; 
Lai.sag-us, prophetic, sopthsayi ng, whence 

Lat. saga, a fortune-teller] 

William le Saye.—Hund. Rolls. 

3 a nickname from the O.Fr. (and 
South.Fr,) saye (Fr. sale), a Tunic, (Mili- 
tary), Cloak [Lat. *saga, sag-urn, a coarse 
woollen mantle ; also the plaid of the 
Celts, a mihtary cloak ; Gaul. *sdg- (cp. 
Wei. seg-an, a cloak, and Bret, seig, 'petite 

robe '] 

(Eng.) Dweller by, the Sea [M.E. sey, 
see, O.E. sik, sea (== Ger. see (pron. say\ 

" The family of Say are found entered 
as Attsee and de la See in the Yorkshire 
Visitation, i563-"— Bardsley, p. 669. 

SAYCE 1 (A.-Celt.-Teut.) Saxon, Englishman 

SAYSE J [Wel. sais : cp. Gael. Sas-unn-ach = 

Ir. Sas-ann-ach, Englishman, SaXon: v. 

under Sax] 

» An early-i4th-cent. Bishop of Bangor 
was surnamed Seys] a Kenrick Seys is 
mentioned in the Cheshire Chamberlain's 
Accdunts for 1303-4; and an ap Evan 
Sais occurs in ai7th-cent. Glouc. Visitation. 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Willow- 
Tree [Dial. Fr. sdce, O.Fr. sas, sals, etc. ; 
Lat. salix, a willow] 

SAYER (Celt.) Carpenter, Wright [Wel. 
saer= Corn. saer,sair= Ir. and Gael, saor} 
. . . marchauc a elwit Saer 
(. . . a cavalier-^knight— -called Saer).— 
Bruty Tywysogion, A.E). iioo. 
Saer Bude.— /?««</. Rolls. 
Cp. Maclntyre. 

( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) Assayer ; Taster [f. , 
A.-Fr. assai, assay (Fr. essai: cp. Fr. 
essayeur, assayer), a test -f the agent, suff. 
■er ; Lat. exagium, a weighing] 
Thyn assayar schalle be an hownde, 
To assaye thy mele before the. — 

MS. Cantab. ; Halliwell, p. 96. 

The process of "taking say" or "assay" 

of a dead deer consisted in " drawing a 

knife along the belly . . . beginning at 

the brisket."~T. Wright, p. 1 1 1. 

(Teut.) a palatal form of Sagen, Sagar 

Sayer Herberd.— /?««</. Rolls. 
John Sayer.— iJo. 

BAYERS, Sayer's (Son) : v. Sayer. . 

SAYLE = Sale, q.v. 

SAYLER1 ■ ., „ ., 
SAYLOR J ~ S^'l^ri Sailor, q.v. 




SAYLES = Sales, q.v. 
SAYNOR = Seanor- for Senior, q.v. 
SAYSE, V. Sayoe. 
SAYWARD, V. Saward. 
SCADLOCK, V. Scathlock. 

SCAFE I ( Scand. ) Wild ; Awkward ; 

SCAIFE I Crooked, Wry [Dial. N.E, scafe, 

SCAIFF J etc. ; Dan.-Norw. skiav, crooked, 

wry ; O.N. skeif-r] 

SCAILES\fScand.) Bel. to Scales (Lane.; 

SCALES I Cumb., Westmd., etc.) ; or Dweller 

at the Huts or Sheds [O.N. skdli, a hut, 


The Lane. Scales occurs about 1200 as 

SCAMBLER (A.-Lat.) Shamble or Meat- 
Stall Keeper [f. M.E. scifi)amel, etc., O.E. 
scamol, a bench, stool + the agent. sufT. 
-ere ; Lat. scamell-um : cp. Lat. scamn-um, 
a bench, stool] 

SCAM ELL 1 (A.-Lat.) Of the Shamble [see 

SCAM M ELL j under the preceding name; 

and cp. Dan.-Norw. skammel, a stool] 

In the Esse* Hundred-Rolls we find de 
la Scamele and de la Schamele. 

(Scand.) the O.Dan, pers. name S6a»«»««/ 

and Skamil, considered by Bugge and 

Rygh to be short for Skamkell (' Nials 

Saga ') [O.N. skamm-^, short -j- -Ml for 

' ketill, (sacrificial) kettle] 

SCAMP (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Fugitive [i. O.Fr. 

esc(h)amper, to decamp ; 'Lz.t.ex, from, and 

I camp-US, a field] 

SCAMPSTON (Scand.) Bel. to Scampston(E. 

Yorks), the Domesday Scameston = 

Skamm's Enclosure or Homestead [the 

genit. of O.N. siatnm-r, short -f- tiln\ 

SCAMPTON (Scand.) Bel. to Scampton (Lines) 

[the etym. is doubtless the same as in the 

preceding name] 

SCAN LAN \ (Ir.) the Irish Scannldn (O'Scann- 
SCMiLOH yldin) = Scannal (v. Soannell) -f 
, the dim. suff., -ii«. 

SCAN NELL (Ir.) the Irish Scamal(l (O'Scann- 

ail), O.Ir. Scandal (a.d. 775, 881, etc.) [app. 

(like Gael, sgannal, Scandal) a borrowing 

from Lat. scandal-um, Gr. aKivSaX-av, a 

snare, stumbling-block] 

SCAR 1(Scand.) Dweller by a Rock or Cliff 

SCARR; [M.E. and Scot. scar{re; O.N. slxr 

(Dan,-Norw. slijter), a rock] 

Beneath a scar. — 

Burns, ' A Winter Night,' 18. 

SCARBORO 1 (Scand.) Bel. to Scar- 

SCARBOROUGH borough (Yorks), 13th and 

SCARBROW J 14th cent. Scard{e)burgh = 

the Castle at the Gap [0-N. skar^, a gap, 

cleft (applied as a nickname to one with 

a hare-lip) -t- borg, a stronghold] 

(Scand.) i a nickname from the 
Cormorant [O.N. skarf-r'] 


(occ.) 2 for Soarth, 

' Scarf Gap,' Cumb., is prob. for ' Scarth 
Gap,' and therefore tautological. 

SCARGILLl (Scand.) Bel. to Scargill (N. 

SCARGLE J Yorks), 14th cent. Scargill = the 

Scar-Ravine [see under Soar, and H- 

O.N. gil, a ravine] 

SCARISBRICK \ (Scand.) Bel. to Scarisbrick 
SCARASBRICK (Lanes), 13th cent. Scares- 
SCARRISBRICK ■brec{k, Scarisbrec, Skaresbrek 
SCARSBRiCK [the consistent occurrence 
SCARSBROOK jofthe genit. smakes it toler- 
ably certain that the first element is a pers. 
name, prob. the well-known O.Scand. 
Skar^ii = hare-lip (from O.N. sfejrtS, a gap, 
cleft) : — 4- brekka, a slope] 

SCARLETT (A.-Fr.-Pers.) Of Scarlet Com- 
plexion or Dress [M.E.' scarlet(t,, O.Fr. 
escarlate (Fr. dcarlate) ; Pers. sflqaldt, etc., 
scarlet cloth] 

Robin Hood'scompanion,Will Scarlet(t, 
seems to have been so nicknamed from the 
colour of his attire — 
And Scarlett he was flyinge a-foote 
Fast over stocke and stone. — 

Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, S7-8. 

SCARTH (Scand.) i Bel. to Scarth ; or Dweller 
at the Gap or Cleft [O.N. skat^ 

A ' Scard Hundret ' occurs in the Yorks 
Domesday-Book, prob. the Scharth of the 
Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379 ; and there is a 
Scarth-Hill in Lanes. 

2 Hare-Lip 

[same etymology] 

SCATCHARD \ a difficult name, but not un- 
SCATCHERD J likely a palatalized form of the 
O.N. skakk-r, ' wry,' ' skewr ■ (Skakk is a 
modem Norw. christian name) -f- the Fr. 
dim. or intens. suff. -ard, O.Teut. hard, 
'hard,' 'brave.' Hardly f., the mod. Fr. 
fscachsi a scatch or bridle-bit ; but not 
irnpossibly from O.N.Fr. escache (of L.Ger. 
orig.), O.Fr. eschace, whence Fr. ichasse, a 
stilt, and a nickname for any long-legged 
bird, such as the heron. 

SCATHLOCK (Scand.), found in the Notts 
Hundred-Rolls as Scatheloc, may be a 
compound olSka'Si [cp. O.N. sAaSi, scathe, 




harm] (the Norse goddess who fixed the 
snake over Loki) and O.N. lokk-r, a lock of 
hair. It seems to have been the real sur- 
name of Will Scarlet (v. under Scarlett) — 
Johne, and Moche, andWyWe Scathlok — 
Robyn Hode and the Munke, 253. 

SCATTERGOOD ( Eng. ) a nickname for 
I a Philanthropist. 

2 a Spendthrift [M.E. sc(h)ateren, O.E. 
scaterian, to scatter ; M.E. go{p)d, O.E.' gdd, 


Wimcote Schatregod. — Hund. Rolls. 

. . . which intimites a man to act the 

consumption of his own fortunes, to be a 

scatter-good. — Sanders, Physiognomie, 1653; 

Nares, ed. 1888. 

SCAWBY (Scand.) Bel. to Scawby (Lines) ; or 

Dweller at the Place of the Huts or 

Sheds [O.N. sidli, a hut, shed + 6^-r] 


SCAWSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Scawsby or 

Scausby (Yorks), 14th cent. Scaushy, 

Scausceby, Domesday Scalehebi =,Skalk's 

or the Servant's Farmstead [O.N. 

skdlk-r (genit. skdlks), servant + 6^-r] 

SCAWTON (Scand.) Bel. to Scawton (Yorks) 
the Domesday Scaltun = the Place of the 
Huts or Sheds [O.N. skdli, a hut, shed 

+ tun\ 

SCHOALES, V. Scholes. 

SCHOFIELD (Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to Scho- 
field, prop. Sc(h)olefield ( Lanes ) : v. 

SCHOLEFIELD\ (Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to 

SCHOLFIELD J Scholefield or Scolefield 

(Lanes), 14th cent. Scholefeld, Scolefeld 

— the Hut- or Shed-Field [M.E. sc(}t)ole, 

a form of O.N. skdli, a hut, shed -|- M.E. 

O.E. /rid] 

It is tempting to see the M.E. scale, 
' a school,' in this name ; but analogy is 
against the assumption. The various 
Northern places called 'Scholes' corres- 
pond with the various Northern ' Scales ' ; 
the Manx ' Se(h)olaby,' e.g., was formerly 
Scaleby ; and the M.E. scale, ' a bowl,' is 
the O.N. skdl. 

8CH0LER ] (A.-Lat. and A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) 

SCHOLLAR Scholar [O.E. scalere, Lat. 

SCHOULARD J jcAo/ans; also O.Ft. escol(i)er 

(mod. Scalier), f. 0,Fr. escole, Lat. sc(h)ola, 

Gr. (txoXt}, a school] 

SCHOLES (Scand.) Bel. to Scholes (Yorks ; 
Lanes) ; a form of Scales, q.v. 
Adam de Scoles. — 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1285. 

William del Scoles. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1342. 
Ricardus del Scoles. — 

Yarks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
Johannes del Scholes. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A-.'D. 1379. 
See the note under Schol(e)field. 

SCHOLEY 1 (Scand. -I-Eng.) Bel. to Sc(h)oley 
SCHOOLEY;(Yorks), leth csnl. SchoUy, 14th 

cent. Sco/fly= the Hut- or Shed-Lea [M.E. 

sc{h)ole, a form of O.N. skdli. a hut, shed 
-1- M.E. ley, lay, O.E. ledK] 

(Celt.) the O.Irish pers. name Scalaighe 
or Scolaigi: v. Scully. 

SCHOOLCRAFT. Dweller at i the HuTr or 

Shed-Croft [M.E. sc(h)ale, a form of O.N. 

skdli, a hut, shed -|- M.E. craft, a North. 

form of O.E. craft, a small field] 

Richard de Schalecroft. — 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

2 the School-Croft [M.E. scale, O.E. 

scal(uand.O.¥i. escole, Lat. sehala, a school] 

SCISSONS, V, Sissons. 

SCLATER (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Slater [M.E. 
sclatterie, sclater(e; f. (with agent, suff, -er(e) 
M.E. sclat{e, a slate, O.Fr. eselat (Ft. 
Mat), a splinter; cp. O.Sax. sUtan = 
O.H.Ger. sUzan (mod. schleissen) = O.E. 
slitan, to spHt, slit, tear] 
Adam le Sclattere. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
John le Sclatter.— - 
Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1312-13. 

. . . smythis, wrichtis.masonis.cuparis, 
sclateris. — 

Burgh Reeds, of Aberdeen, A.D. 1531. 


SCOBLE I *PP-^°'^™sofScovelI,Soovill,q.v. 

SCOBIE (Scand.) i Dweller at the Wood- 
Farm [O.N. skdg-r, a wood -f b^-r, farm, 

2 a form of Scawby, q.v. 

IcOFIELD^ } '• Sohofleld, Schol(e)fleld. 

SCOGAN 1 (? Celt.) app. f. Gael, sgag (pron. 
SCOGGIN \skog), 'idler,' 'fool,' with the dim. 
8C0GIN J suff. -dn, -in; corresponding to 
Wei ysgogyn, ' fop,' ' flatterer.' 

SCOGGINS, Scoggin's (Son) : v. Sooggln. 

SCOLDING (Scand.) Dane, Scandinavian; 
Scalding [from the Danish royal family 
the Skioldungar (cp. 'Skidldunga Saga') = 
Descendants of Skiold : O.N. skiSld-r, 
skiald- (Dan.-NorwisWoW, Swed. sfe/i)i a 





SCOLES, V. Scholes, Scales. 

SCONE \ (Celt.) Bel. to Scone (Perth), 12th 
SCOONE /.cent. Scoone, nth cent. Scoiwe (and 
Sgoinde) [etymology uncertain ; but as the 
place is in the Pictish country, we must 
(as in the case of ' Perth ') look to Cymric 
rather than Gaelic for the origin of the 
name : perh. the Pict. cognate of Wei. cwn, 
a top, summit (prob, allied to, if not 
borrowed from, Lat, con-us, Gr. kQv-os, a 
cone, peak, apex), with the intens. prefix 
ys, as in Wei. ysgil, a nook (from cil), 
ystref, a dweUing (from tref), ystred, a 
village (from tred] 

SCOONIE (Celt.) Bel. to Scoonie (Fife), 13th 

cent. Sconyn, 12th cent. Sconin [doubtless 

the same origin as Soo(o)neXq.v.), with 

the di^i. suff. -yn, -in, Anglicized to -fe] 

SCORER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Scourer, Scout, Spy 

[M.E. scorer ; f. CKFr. escorre, escourre, to 

run out — Lat. excurrere] 

SCORESBY (Scand.) for Soawsby, q.v. 

SCORRAR, V. Scopep. 

"1 (Eng.) Bei; to Scotforth or 


scotford (Lanes), 13th cent. 
Scotfordy Scotfford, Scoteford, Domesday 
Scozforde (s = ts) = the Scot's Ford [v. 
Scott, and + M.E. O.E./orrf] 
As there is no river at Scotforth, the 
ford or forth must have been a way over 
wet (marsh-) land. 

SCOTLAND (Celt. + Teut.) One from (i) 

Scotland ; (2) Ireland [v. under Scott, 

and + Teut. land] 

The name of two small places called 
Scotland in Lines and Yorks is prob. 
imitative. It is hardly from O.E. ge)scot= 
O.N. skot, 'a tax,' 'payment,' because we 
do not find a corresponding palatal 

William de Scotland. — 

Inq. P.M., A.D. 1286. 

H6r f(5r M]ie[stS.n: cyning on Scotland, 
cbg]>eT ge mid land here ge mid scip here, 
and his micel ofer-hergode. 

(In this year King iEthelstan went into 
Scotland, with both a land-army and a 
fleet, and harried much of it).^- 

, A.-Sax. Chron. A.D. 933. 

SCOTNEY. Bel. to Scotney = Scota's Is- 
land (or Waterside) [A. Sax. *Scotanlg 
—Scotan-, genit. oi Scota (either f. O.N.E. 
and 0.^ast.'E,.ge)scot, arrow, shot, scot (as 
in scot-frio), or (more likely) the Celt, 
name : v. Scott) -t- Hf)g, island, etc.] 

Scotney Castle, SiisSex, is said to have 
been built by and named from Walter de 
Scoteni. Several persons named de 
Scoteni, de Scbteney, or de Scotenye are 
mentioned in the Lincolnshire Hundred- 
Rolls ; and the spot prob. existed in that 
county or bordering ones. 

SCOTSON, (the) Scot's Son : v. under Scott. 

SCOTT (A.-Celt.) orig. Irishman; later 
Scotchman [O.E. Scottas (pi.), Irish ; 
later Scotch ; Lat. Scott (first appearing in 
the 4th cent, in Amm. Marcellinus,'who 
fought in Gaul). The etymology has, of 
course, been much discussed ; but it is al- 
most certain that Isidore of Seville was 
right in saying (6th cent.) that the Scotti 
were so named from their habit of what 
we now call tattooing the body, in which 
case the connexion is evidently with 
E.Irish scoth-aim (mod. Ir. sgath-aim), I 
cut, lop, Gael, sgath, to cut, lop, and Wei. 
ysgwthr, a cutting or carving, a lop ; cog- 
nate with Gr. skhdzo {<rx.i,ia), I cut, and E. 


Scotti propria lingua nomen habent a 
picto corpore, eo quod aculeis ferreis ' 
cum atramento variarum figurarum stig- 
mate adnotentur. — 

Isidorus, Etymologic, IX. ii. 103. 

And }>rfe Scottas c6mon t6 ^Ifrede 
cyninge on ^num batebtitan c&lcum ger6J^ 
rum of Hibernia. 

(And three Scots came to King .Alfred in 

a boat, without any oars, from Ireland). — 

A.-Saxon Chron., A-D. 891. 

Scotta le^da, and scip fiotan, 

fcfege fe6llon. 

(The soldiers of the Scots, and the ship- 
men, doomed fell). — 

'Song of Brunanburh,' 11-12 ; A.-Sax. 
Chron., A.D. 937. 

Mid Scottum ic waes, and mid Peohtura 
(With the Scots I was, and with the 
Victs). —WidsfS (The Traveller), 159. 

Mil o vluydyned oed oet Crist pan 
diffeithuyt Dulyn y gan yr Yscoteit. 

(1000 was the year of Christ when 
Dubhn was laid waste by the Scots). — 

Bruty Tywysogion, A.D. 1000. 

Scot was used by Chaucer as a horse- 
name — 

This Reve sat upon a ful goodstot, r 
■ That was al pomely grey and highte 
Scot. — Prol. Cant. Tales, 615-16. 

Noe, Douglas, quoth Erie Percy then. 
Thy proffer I doe scorne ; 
I will not yeelde to any 5w« 
That ever yett was borne.-'ChevyChase' 
(more modern ballad), 153-6; Percy's Reliques. 




Scot le Garzun. — Patent Rolls, A.D.123S. 

Roger le Scot. — Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Adam Skotte [a relic of the O.N. spell- 
ing Skotar, Scots].— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SCOTTEN . Bel to Scotton (Lines : 13th 
SCOTTON J cent. Scotton(e; Yorks' : Domes- 
day Scottune, ScOtone, Scottine) [v. under 
Sootney, and -|- O.E. or O.N. t^n, farm- 
stead, estate ; but the possibility of one or 
more of the place-names representing (as 
to the first demerit) the O.N. skdg'T, a 
wood, cannot be excluded] 

SCOTTS, Scott's (Son) : v. Soott. 


SCOULLAR r°'^ Soholer, Schollar, q.v. 

SCOVELL \ ('A,-Fr.) Bel. to Escoville (Calva- 
SCOVI L aos,NormJ [the first element may 
SCOVILL be the O.Fr. Escot, a Scot : Escot 
SCOVILLE J is a French surname (v. Scott) -f- 
Fr. ville, Lat. villa, a farm, estate] 

But the spelling Escoldivilla, a.d. i 109, 
hardly bears out the suggested etymology. 

SCOWCROFT (Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to Scow- 
croft (S.Lancs), 14th cent. Scoleeroft = 
the Hut- or Shed-Croft £v. under 
Scholefield, and -|- M.E. O.E. croft, a 

small field] 

In 1689-go members of the same family 
at Haugh, Lanes, were called Scowcroft 
and Scoleeroft. 

Cp. Schoolcraft. 

SCOWLE, V. Skull. 

SCRAFTON (Eng.) Bel. to Scrafton (Yorks), 
the Domesday Scraftun = the Cave- or 
Den-Enclosure [O.E. scraf + ttin\ 

SCRAGG (Scand.) a nickname for a Thin, 

Bony Person [Dial. E. scrag: cp. Dial. 

Swed. skraka, a scraggy person ; and O.N. 

skroggslig-r, scraggy] 

Cp. Soroggie. 

SCRAGGS, Scragg's (Son) : v. Scpagg. 


SCRATON ] App. merely assim. forms of 
SCRATTON V Scrafton, q.v. If, however, 
SCREATQN J ' Scrat(t)on' were really a dis- 
tinct place-name the first element might 
be that seen in ' Scratby ' (Norfolk), which 
one could have considered to be referable 
to a pers. name or nickname from O.N. 
skratti, ' wizard,' ' magician,' if it did not 
apparently occur as ScroMteftj in an iith- 
cent. land-grant ('Cart, Sax.' no. 1017). 


Scrlven, Scrivener, q.v 

SCRIBENS = Scrivens, q.v. 




SCRIMMERGErL= Skrimshire, q.v. 




SCRIPPS, a form (with prefixed S-) of Cripps 
for Crisp, q.v. 

In the Cambridgeshire Hundred-Rolls 
the same person is referred to as Scrips 
and Scrisp. 

SCRIPTOR (Lat.) Writer, Clerk, Secre- 
tary, Author [Lat. scriptor] 

William Scriptor. — Hund. Rolls. 

SCRIPTURE for Scriptor, q.v. 

SCRIVEN ] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Scribe, Public 
SCRIVENER Writer,Clerk [M.E. scrivein, 
SCRIVENOR J scriveyn, scrivayn, etc. (the sur- 
name ' Scrivener,' etc., is a later form with 
the agent, suff. -er), O.Fr. escrivain (Fr. 
icfivaiti), L.Lat. scriban-us, f. Lat. scriba, 

a scribe] 
Margaret Scrivein. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
, Johannes Scryvener. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Adam Scriveyn, if ever it thee bifalle 
BcEce or Troylus for to writen newe, 
Under thy long lokkes thou most have 
the scalle [scab] 

But after my making thou write more 
trewe.— Chaucer's Words unto Adam, his 
owne Scriveyn. 
(Eng.) ' Scriven ' is also from the W. 
Yorks place-name Scriven, Domesday 
Scravinge, O.Angl. *ScreBfinguin, dat. ,of 
*Scrafingas = the Scr^ef Family [the 
pers. name is app. a form of the 0;E. 
scrceb, m., a bird-name (perh. that of the 
cormorant) -|- the pi. of the fil. suff. -ing'\ 

' William de Skrevyn ' occurs in a 
Yorkshire record of 1309-10, 

SCRIVENS, the Scriven's (Son) : v Scriven 

SCROGGIE] (Scand.) i a nickname for a 

SCROGGY V Scraggy person [v. under 

SCROGIE J Scragg] 

2 Dweller at a Scraggy place, i.e. one 

covered with stunted undergrowth or 

brushwood [Scot, and North, and East E. : 

V. under Scragg] 

Amang the braes sae scroggie. — 

Burns, ' My Hoggie,' 8. 




SCRUBY (Scand.) Bel. to Scrooby (Notts), 
13th cent. Scrobby, Domesday Scrobye. 

[O.N. by-r farm, estate : app. the first 
element is the pers. name, Scropi or 
iicroppi {Skro(p)pt), seen in the ' Seroppen 
Jjorpe 'of a Notts charter a.d. 958 
('Cart.fSax.' no. 1044) and noted by Rygh, . 
' Gamle [Old] Personnavne ' (p. 226), as 
occurring in the name of two places in 
Norway called ' Skroparud ' (Skropa-, 
• genit. oi Skropt). 

SCRUTON 1 (N. Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to 
SCRUTTON J Scruton (N. Yorks), i4th cent. 
Scruton, the Domesday Scurueton(e= 
Scurfa's or Skurfa's Farmstead [O.E. 
O.N. tun, enclosure, farm, etc. : the pers. 
name is a descriptive nickname for a 
scurvy individual from either O.N.E. 
scurf, scruf, or O.West Norse skurfa 
(Dan.-Norw. skurv), scurf : a Scand. jarl, 
Scurfa (for Skurfa), is mentioned in the 
A. - Saxon Chronicle under 911 as 
being killed in that year : Biprkman 
('Nordische Personennamen in England,' 
p, 124) notes from Finnur Jfinsson the oc- 
currence of Skurfa as an 0. Scand. nick- 
name ; and Scutf is enumerated as an 
O.Dan, name (Nielsen, ' Olddanske Per- 
sonnavne, p. 85) — so that the place-name 
is most likely Scandinavian] 

SCRYlVIGEOUR\_ei,„i„»i,:„„ „„ 
SCRYMGIOUR } =, q.v. 

SCUDAMORE, v. Skidmore. 

SCULLY (Celt.) the Irish Scolaidhe, Scolaighe 

[the homophonous -aidhe and -aighe are 

personal or agential suffs. : the ste,m may 

be O.Ir. scol = Bret, skol = Wei. ysgol 

(all from Lat. schola), a school] 

Scolaigi Ua h-Aedhacain, ri Dartraigi 

(Scolaighe, grandson of Aedhacan, king 
of Dartry). — - 1 

Annala Uladh {Annals of Ulster), A.D. 946-7. 

After the English invasion the family of 

O'ScolaidheoT O' Scolaighe, now Scully, were 

driven into the county of Tipperary. — 

O'Donovan, Topog. Poems, p. 25. 

There seems to have been some con- 
fusion with Skelly, q.v. 

SCULTHORPE (Scand.) Bel. to Sculthorpe 
(Norf.;, 14th cent. Sculthorp [O-N. ]forp, 'an 
isolated farm,' village : the first element 
is the O.N. and O.Swed. pers. name Skuli 
(mod. Norw. Skule), f. a var. of O.N. sk^la, 
to shelter, protect, Dan.-Norw. skiule, 
same meaning; cp. Dan.-Norw. shul, a 
shelter, protection] 

SCUNTHORPE (Scand.) Bel., to Scunthorpe 
(Lines) [O.N. ^orp, 'an isolated farm,' 
village : the first element is the Dan.- 
Norw. skion = Swed. skdn, beautiful, fair 
— doubtless used as a pers. name] 

8CURR (Scand.) f. the fairly common O.N, 

pers. name Skorri [prob. a descriptive 

nickname and conn, with O.N. sHor, a cut, 

notch, score] 

SCURRY = Sourr (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y. 

SCUJT (Scand.) i Swift, Fleet, Quick; 
Short {O.^. ski6t-r (= O.E. scedi] 

2 a nickname from the Hare [Dial. E. 
scut, a hare; same etymol. as i] 

William le Scut. — Hund. Rolls, 

Hugh le Skut.^ , do. 

Cp. Skeat. 

SCUTTS, Scutt's (Son) : v. Soutt. 

8EABER (Eng. and Scand.) for i the A.-Sax. 

(fem.) name Sigeburh =i Victorious 

Stronghold .[O.E. sige, victory 4- burh 

({.), a fortified place] 

2 the O.Scand. (fera.) name (a) Sigborg 

= Victorious Stronghold [O.N. sig-r, 

victory -|- borg (f.), a stronghold] 

(6) Sigbiorg = Victorious Help [O.N. 
sig-r + bisrg (f.), help, deliverance] 

Sigborg is mostly Danish and Swedish ; 
Sigbiorg (sometimes apocopated to 
Si^fiibr), Norwegian. 

Both Seber and Siber are found in the 

SEABERT, V. Sebright, noting the cognate 
Fr.-Teut. Sebert. 


= Sibopne, q.v. 

SEABRIGHT=SebPight, q.v. 

SEABROOK ■|(Eng.) Bel. to Seabrook 

SEABROOKEJ (Bucks), early 17th cent., 

Sedbrooke = the Lake-Brook [O.E. jc6,lake, 

sea-j-6r(Jc, brook] 

Early spellings are lacking ; but there 
do not seem to be any grounds for assum- 
ing here that ' Sea-' is for ' Sheep ' as 
appears to be the case with Seabridge, 

SEACOMBE (Eng.) Bel. to Seacombe ; or 

SECCOMBE Dweller at the Sea- or.LAKE- 

SECOMBE J Combe [O.E. sck, sea, lake-f- 

cumb (Celt.), valley] 

Seacombe, Cheshire, was Secoumbe, 

Secomifi, Secum, a.d. 1301-4. 

SEADON (Eng.) Dweller at the Hill by the 

Sea or Lakp [O.E. sds, sea, lake+diin, 

' hill] 




SEAFOWL (Eng. and Scand.) the A.-Sax. 

pers. name Sdfugel, Sckfugul, O.N. Sidfugl 

=Sea-Fowl (perh. more specifically the 

Cormorant) [O.E. sdi = 0.^. si6, sea+O.E. 

/M^e/, &c. = O.N./«j-/, fowl] 

SefugM and Sefoul were the 13th- 
cent. forms. 



= Segap, Segep, q.v. 

j =Segars, 


SEAGRAVE I (Eng.) Bel. to Seagrave, 13th 
, SEAGROVEJ cent. Segrave = the Lake- 
Grove [O.E. sik, lake, s^a.+grdf, grcive] 

SEAL \ (Eng.) Bel. or Seal ; or Dweller at ot 
SEALE I by a Hall [O.E. sele, sal, a hall] 

fela ]>c6ra wses... 
j)e jiaet win-reced, 
gest-je/e gyredon, 


many of those were... 
who the wine-house, 
(the) guest-Aa// prepared. 

Bedwulf, 1989-92. 

Sale and Zeal 

SEALBY=Selby, q.v. 

SEALER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Seal-Maker [M.E. 

seler; i. M.E. O.Fr. seel (Fr. scea«), Lat. 

sigill-um, a seal] 


SEAMAN ] (Eng.) Sailor [O.E. jc6»ia«M (early 
SEAMEN ^ used as a pers. name), sailor ; also, 
SEAMON J later, pirate. Viking] 

Samann occurs in Domesday-Book. 
Seman is the usual i3th-cent. form. 

Occasionally this name may represent 

the A.-Sax. Sdkmund [O.E. sde, sea-|-muH<f, 

' protector] and Sigemund [O.E. sige, victory] 

SEAMANS, Seaman's (Son) \ „ fi„o™=„ 
SEAMONS, Seamon's (Son) ) "• Seaman. 

SEAMER (Eng.) i the A-Sax. 5c6»Kir= Sea- 
Famous [O.E. sdk, sea + mckre, famous, 


2 the A.-Sax. Sigemckr = Victoriously 

Famous [O.E. sige, victory] 

3 Bel. to Seamer (Yprks=), 14th cent- 
Semer, Domesday Semer, Semar =the 
Lake-Boundary [O.E. sck, lake + mckre, 

There are no groundsfor assuming that 
this place-name is a pers. name with the 
local suff. dropped. 

4 Tailor [O.E. s^amere'] 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Seymour, q.v. 

SEANOR for Senior, qv. 

SEAR \ I palatal forms of Segar, Seger, q.v. 
SEARE J 2 conf. with Sayer, q.v. 

SEARCH (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a trade-name from the 

Wax-Taper [Fr. cierge, a wax-taper ; Lat. 

cereus, waxen] 

SEARES, Seare's (Son) : v. Seare. 

SEARGEANT, v. Sergeant. 


SEARLES, Searle'S (Son) : v. Se(a)rle. 

SEARS, Sear's (Son) V 
SEARSO N, Sear's Son / ^- ''®*'^- 

SEATH (Eng.) Dweller at a Pit or Pool [O.E. 

(Heb.) = Seth, q.v. 

SEATON (Eng.) Bel. to Seaton = 1 the 
Farm or Estate by the Sea. 

2 the Farm or Estate by the Lake 
[O.E. s<k, sea, lake + tAn : cp. O.N. sid-tiin, , 

Most of our Seatons are on the coast. 
Seaton, Durham, was SektUn in the loth 
cent. The Yorkshire Seatons were 
Seton and Settun in Domesday r Book. 
Seaton, Devon, was Seton and Setoune in 
the 13th cent. Seaton, Cumb., and one 
of the Northumb. Seatons were Seton in 
the 13th cent. 

But Seaton, Rutland, was Segentone in 
, Domesday - Book, app. for A.-Sax. 
*Se(c)ggan - tiin = Se(c)gga's Estate 
[Se(c)ggan-, genit. of Se(c)gga], and 
Seaton, Haddington, owes the first 
element of. its name to a Norman Seiher 
de Sey. 

SEAWARD (Eng.) the A.-Sax. SAw{e)ard = 
Sea-Guardian [O.E. sds + w(e)ard] 
Cp. Seward and Siward. 

SEBASTIAN (A.-Lat.-Gr.) August, Rever- 
enced [Lat. Sebastian-US, ■ Gr. Se/Soo-TcSi 
(Sebastds), a rendering of the Lat. 
Augustus; Gr. o-^^os, awe, reverence] 

SEBBORN = SIborne, q.v. 

SEBLEY = Sibley, q.v. 

SEBRIGHT (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. Sdibe{p)rht = 

Sea-Bright, i.e. Sea-Glorious [O.E. sds, 

sea -t- be(fi)rht, briht, bright, glorious] 

Sckberht, king of Essex, d. a.d. 616. 

2 the A.-Sax. Sigebe{o)rht = Victmiy- 

Bright, i.e. Victory -Glorious [O.E. 

sige, victory] 




The above-mentioned Scfeberht had a 
son, a nephew, and a grandson, all named 
Sigeberht and all kings of Essex. A king 
of East Anglia (d. 635) had the same 
name ; and an 8th-cent. king of Wessex. 
The cognate Continental 5^gs6ert(wherjce 
the French Sebert) was a famous Frankish 

royal name. 

SEBURGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Seberghara 
(Cumb.), 14th cent. Seburgham = (the 
Lady) SiEBURG's (or Sigeburg's) Home 
[the fem. pers. name Sdshurg is a com- 
pound of O.E. sds, sea, and burg or burh, 
stronghold (if the name should be Sigeburg. 
— there is no record suff. early to show 
which is the correct name — the first 

element is O.E. sige^ victory): 1- O.E. 

hdm, home, estate] 

But for the occurrence of the Eng. 
local suff. -ham we would have been 
justified, considering the locality, in 
assuming the pers. name to be the 
common O.Scand. Sigborg or Sigbiiirg (v. 

SECCOMBE for Seacombe, q.v. 

SECKER, a var. of Sacker, q.v., -the form 

(found in Yorkshire in the 14th cent, as 

' ' le Sekke/) being due to the O.N. sekk-r, 

'a sack,' whence also M.Scot; j^ii and 

N.Lanc. seek, ' a sack.' 

SECOMBE for Seacombe, q.v. 

SECRETAN (A-Fr.-Lat.) Sacristan, Sexton 
[Fr. Secretain, Secretan- — sacristain (A.-Fr. 
secrestein) ; L.Lat. sacrista, a sacristan, 
with the suif. -an-us ; Lat. sacer, sacred] 

En patois du Berry secretain et segretain 
se disent encore aujoud'hui pour sacristain. 
Manage recommande le mot actnel sacris- 
tain, et il ajoute qu'il n'y a plus que les 
villageois qui disent segretain.— 

Moisy, Noms de Fam. Norm., p. 414. 

SEDDON (Eng.) This is a widespread Lanca- 
shire surname, but no place-name Seddon 
can be traced ; and in all probability the 
surname is an assim. and mutated form 
(through the pron. Sabden) of the Lane, 
place-name Sabden, 13th and 14th cent. 
Sapedene, Sapeden = 'the Spruce-Fir 
Valley ' [O.E. sappe, spruce-fir -f denu, 
, valley] 

SEDGLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Sedge-Lea 

[O.E. secg + ledh (M.E. ley] 

But the Staffs Sedgley, 13th cent. 

Seggesleyie, A.-Sax. Secges-ledh = Secg's 

Lea [the genit. of O.E. secg, sword, also 

warrior -|- kdh] 

SEDGWICK (Eng.) Dweller at the Sedgy 
Place [O.E. secg, sedge -J- laic, a place] 

But Sedgwick, Westnid., was Seghes- 

wyk in the 14th cent. = Secg's Place 

[the genit. of O.E. secg (= O.N. segg-r), 

sword, also warrior -|- wfc] 

SEEAR, a palatalized form of Segar, q.v. ; and 
cp. Sayep. 

SEEDER (Eng.) Sower 

[O.E. sikdere] 


Segap, q.v. 

SEEKIN, a dim. of one or other of the A.-Sax. 
SA- [O.E. sA, sea], or Sige- \O.Ksige, 
victory], names -|- the (double) dim. suff. 
. -kin [O.L.Ger. -k-in\ 

SEEKING for Seekin. 

SEEKINS, Seekin's (Son): v. Seekin. 


SEELEY \ (Eng.) Happy, Blessed ; Simple 
SEELIE (mod. Silly) [M.E. seli, se(e)ly; 
SEELY J O.E. jcfeft;^, happy: the correspond- 
ing German name is Selig (O.H.Ger. sdlig},- 
happy, etc.] 
John Sely.—Hund. Rolls. 
J)or [there] was in helle a sundri stede 
worXwhere] J>e seli folc reste dede. — ' 
i^th-cent. metrical vers, of Gen. & Ex., 


For sely is that deth, soth for to seyne/ 
That, ofte y-cleped, com'th and endeth 

peyne 1 — 

Chaucer, rroi7. & Cris., iv. 503-4. 

That Nicholas shal shapen hym a wyle 

This sely, jalous housbonde to bigyle.-^ 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3403-4. 

This man lokede opon me. 
And leet the plough stonden ; 
And seyde, ' Sely man, 
Whi syghest thou so harde' ? — 

Piers Plowman's Creed, 881-4. 

The seely man, seeing him ryde so 

And ayme at him, fell flat to ground for 

feare. — 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, IL iii. 6 

SEELMAN, V. Seel, Seal, and -|- E. man. 

SEER, a palatalized form of Segar, q.v. ; and 
cp. Sayer. 

SEERS, SEER's'(Son). 

SEERY (Celt.) the Irish Saoraidhe [f. (i) Ir. 

saor, free (2) saor, carpenter ; with the 

pers. suff. -aidhel 

SEFTON (Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to Sefton (S.W. 
Lanes), 14th cent. Sefton, 13th cent. Cefton, 




Ceffton, Domesday Sextone [The absence 
of pre-Domesday forms makes an abso- 
lutely definite pronouncement on the 
origin of the first element imposs. ; but in 
all probability it is either the A.-Sax. 
pars, name Se/ij or its O.N. cognate Sefi-r- 
O.E. sefa = O.N. sefi, m., mind, heart — 
or else the O.N. sef, sedge ; the second 
origin perh. being the more likely from 
its being topographically suitable. The 
Domesday spelling is evidently a blunder] 

SEGAR 1 (Teut.) i the O.N. SAgeir, A.-Sax. 

SEGER J Sckgdr = Sea-Spear (i.e. Sea-War- 
rior) [O.N. s(k-r = O.E. s<k (O.Sax. 
O.H.Ger. sio), sea-|- OM.geirir = OX..gdr 
(O.Sax. O.H.Ger. g&), a spear] 

2 the A.-Sax. Sigehere. O.Ger. Sigiheri, 
etc. = Victorious Army fO.E. sige = 
O.Sax. O.H.Ger. sigi = O.N. sig-r = 
Goth, sigi-s, victory -|- O.E. here = O.Sax. 
O.H.Ger. heri = O.N. herr ^ Goth, harji-s, 


Sigehere longest I Sigehere longest 
Scfe-Denum weOld. | (the) Sea-Danes ruled. — 
WidsiS {The Traveller), 57-8. 
A Sigehere was king of the East SaxOns 
in the 7th cent. 

3 the A.-Sax. Sigegdr, O.Ger. SigigSr = 
Victorious Spear [components as above], 

A Sigegdr is given in the Deiran royal 
genealogy as a grandson of Woden. 

SEGARS, Segar's (Son) : v. Segar. 

SEGGER = Seger, q.v. 

SEGRAVE = Seagpave, q.v. 

SELBORNE (Eng.) Bel. to Selborne, 13th 
cent. Selebume, a.d. 903 Seleborne = the 
Hall-Brook (brook running by. the hall) 
[O.E. sele, a hall, mansion -r burne, a 

The early forms show fairly conclusively 
(although, it is true that the loth-cent. 
form quoted is in a Latin — not A.-Sax. 
— charter) that the first element is not the 
O.E. sealh, a sallow or willow, as we 
might otherwise have been tempted to as- 
sume it to be. 

SELBY (Scand.) Bel. to Selby (Yorks), anc. 

Sdleheia = the Hall-Farm [O.N. sal-r 

(= O.E. sal, sele), a hall -f- bS-r, a farm] 

The Lines parish-name Saleby (13th 

cent. Saleby) has doubtless the same 


SELDEN \ (Eng.) Dweller at i the Willow- 

SELDON J Valley [O.E. s(e)fl;A(= O.N. sWifl), 

a willow 4- denu, a valley] 

2 the Hall-Valley [O.E. sele, a hall] 

A Salden, Yorks, and a Salden, Bucks, 

occur in the Charter-Rolls temp. Hen. VI ; 

and one Ansell de Seleden is mentioned in 

the Testa de Nevill, 13th cent, 

SELE, V. Seal. 

SELF 1 (Teut.) descendants of i the A.-Sax. 

SELFE J Sckwulf or O.N. S(kAlf-r= Sea- Wolf 

[O.E. O.N. stfe -)- O.E. wulf^ O.N. jj//-r] 

2 the A.-Sax. Sdbldf or O.N. Sckleif-r = 
•Sea - Relic [O.E. O.N. stk + O.E. Idf = 

O.N. leif-r, a relic] 

3 the A.-Sax. Sigeldf or O.N. Sigleif-r = 
Victory-Relic [O.E. sige == O.N. sig-r, 
victory + O.E. Idf = O.N. leif-r, a telle] 

4 the O.N. Solfi, Solvi [of doubtful orig.] 

SELHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Selhurst ; or 

Dweller at the Willow-Copse [O.E. 


SELKIRK (Eng.) Bel. to Selkirk, 12th cent. 
Selechirche, Selechyrche, Selekirke = the 
Palace -Church [O.E. sele, a palace, 
hall + 0.(N.)E. ciVce (= O.N. kirkia), a 

The Scottish kings had a hunting resi- 
dence at Selkirk. 

SELL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to (La) Selle (France); 

or Dweller at a Cell or Hermitage 

[O.Fr. (and M.E.) selle, celle, Lat. cella\ 

Cte. et Ctesse. de la Selle. — 

Paris Directory. 

(Eng.) a weak form of Seal or Sale, 

SELLACK (? Celt.) Bel. to Sellack (Hereford), 
evi'd. a corrupt form of the name of the 
Saint — Teseliach — to whom the church is 

SELLAR, V. Seller. 

SELLARS, v. Sellers. 

llt:uc°K^}f°^ Sellack, q.v. 

SELLENGERl (A.-Fr.-Teut.) BeL to St. 

BELLINGER J L£ger (a common French 
eccles. place-name: several in Normandy) , 
for St. Leutg^r, Liutg#r, Liudg^r, 
L^6d(e)gar, i.e. National Spear fO.H. 
Ger. liut- (Ger. leute, people) = O.Sax. 
liud- = O.E. Mod, nation + O.H.Ger. 
O.Sax. g^r = O.E. gdr, a spear] 

" Sellenger' s-roMud : St. Leget's round, 
a favourite old dance." — 

T. Wright, Prau. Diet., p. 837. 

SELLER ( A.-Fr.-Lat. ) i Saddler [M.E. 

sel{l)er, Fr. sellier; i. Tt. selle, a saddle, 

seat, Lat. sella, a seat] 

Adam le Seler. — 
Cal. Inq. ad quod Damn., A.D. 1316-17. 

2 One in charge of a Cellar or Store- 
room ; Cellarer \A.-Tv. seler, celer, O.Fr. 
celier, Lat. fellari-um, a cellar] 




Roger del Celer.— 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Agnes del Seler.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
(Eng.) Seller, Dealer [M.E. seller; 
f. O.E. sellan, to give] 
SELLERS, genit., and pi., of Seller-. 

SELLEY (A.-Fr.-Lat, + Eng^ Bel. to Sell(e)y ; 

or Dweller at the Cell-Lea [M.E. O.Fr. 

selle, celle, a cell or hermitage ; Lat. cella 

+ M.E. ley, O.E. ledh} 

Selly, Wore, was Selleg', Selley, in the 
13th cent. There is a Sell(e)'y in Salop. 
The Charter-Rolls a.d. 1328 mention a 
Selley in Sussex. 

There has prob. been some confusion 
with Seeley, q.v. 

I = Sell (q.v.) + E. 

man '■ cp. 


2 for the M.E. Seliman, Selyman: v. 
Seel(e)y, and + man. 

3 conf. with Salman (through the 
prbn. Sal-), q.v. 

SELLS, pi., and genit., of Sell, q.v. 

There is a Selles in the Pas-de-Calais 
Dept. ; also one in the Eure Dept. 

SELLWOOD, V. Selwood. 

SELLY, V. Selley. 

SELM "I I an aphaeretic form of Anselm, 

2 Dweller at the Selm, app. meton. for 
a Gate [Dial. E. selm, a gate-rail (E.D.D. : 
N. Ctry., Nhbld., ' a bar of a gate') ; app., 
with altered meaning, f. O.E. selma, a 

John atte Selme. — 

Lay Subsidy-Roll, Soms., A.D. 1327. 


I genit., and pi., of Selm(e, q.v. 

SELSEY (Eng.) Bel. to Selsey (Sussex), the 
A.-Sax. Seoles ig (freq.) = Seal's Island 
[the genit. of O.E. seol(h, a seal, sea-calf 
4- igi island] 
Bede (' Hist. Eccl." IV. 13) translates 
this name as "Insula vituli marini" ; but, 
owing to the use of the genit. sing., it is 
doubtful whether the first element is not 
a pers. name. 

SELTH (Eng.) i Happiness, Prosperity 
[M.E. selth(e, O.E. ge)scklp'] 
Cp. Bliss. 

2 Sailor [O.E. sdlida, scfeKfa, lit. 'sea- 
goer '] 
Selithe de Vfeaham.—ffund. Rolls. 

\ for Simmons, q.v. 

SELWAY (Eng.) i Dweller at the Hall-Way 

[O.E. sele + weg] 

2 for the A.-Sax. pers. name Selewtg = 

Hall-Warrior [O.E. sele, hall + wiga, 


SELWIN 1 (Eng.) Hall-Friend or -Protec- 

SELWYN J TOR [A.-Sax. Selewine — sele, hall 

-I- wine, friend, etc.] 

SELWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at Selwood (the 
forest on the borders of Wilts and Somer- 
set), the A.-Sax. Seal wudu (A. - Sax, 
Chron. a.d. 894), Seal mydu (a.d. 878) = . 
app. the ' Willow-Wood ■ [O.E. seal{h (pi. 
sealas), a willow or sallow] ; but Asser, in 
his Life of iElfred, translated Seluudu as 
Silva Magna in Latin and Coit Maur 
(mod. Coed Mawr) in Welsh, i.e. ' Great 
Wood,' as if the first element of the 
A.-Sax. wood-name were the O.E. sM, 
' good,' and its meaning could be extended 
to signify ' great.' 

lEMON}' = Seaman,q.v. 

(occ.) 2 for Simon, q.v. 

SEMISTER for Sempstep, q.v. 


SEMPER (A.-Fr..Lat.-Gr.) Bel. to St. Pierre 
(an exceedingly common French eccles. 
place-name) [v. Pier, Peter] 

Sempeer is found in England in the 
early 17th cent., Seint6pier and Seyntpiere 
in the 14th; the mediaeval Latinization 
being de Sancto Petro. 

Cp. Samper, which is a present-day 
French surname. 


(occ.) 2 for Simple, q.v. 

SEMPSTER (Eng.) Sempstress; Dress- 
maker; Tailoress [O.E. s^amestre, -esire, 
fern, agent, suff.] 

SENAR, like Seanor, for Senior, q.v. 

SENDALL for Sandall, q.v. 

SENEGAL \ (Fr.-Teut.) Seneschal, Stew- 

SENECHALJARD ; lit. Senior Servant 

[O.Fr; seneschal (Fr. sinechat), L.Lat. 

seniscalc-us, f. an O.Teut. word like Goth. 

*siniskalk-s : cp. Goth, sin-ista, oldest, and 

skalk-s = O.Sax. skalk == O.H.Geir. scalc{h 

= O.E. sc(e)alc, servant] 

Si alicujus seniscalcus, qui servus est, et 

dominus ejus xii vassos infra domum 

habet, occisus fuerit . . . — 

Lex Alemannorum, 79, 3. 

Sample, q.v. 




Sinescal ou Sinecal est la forme nor- 
mande du mot sdn^chal. — 

Moisy, Noms de Pam. Norm., p. 416. 
Cp. Marshall. 

SENHOUSE (Eng.) Bel. to Senhouse or 
Sevenhouse (Cumb.) = the Seven Houses 
[O.E. seofon, seven + Ms, houses] 
Joh'es de Sevenhous de Ebor'. — 

Cal. Inq. ad quod Damn., A.D. 1366. 
Thomas de Senhous. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1385-6. 

SENIOR \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Seignior, Lord (of 
SENIER J a Manor), Squire; Elder [M.E. 
O.Fr. seigno(u)r, seigneur (Fr. seigneur), 
lord ; Lat. senior, older, (hence) greater] 
Michael le Seigneur. — Close Rolls, 
William le Seignour. — Pari. Writs. 
2 a nickname for a seignior's servant ; 
also a pageant-name: cp. Lord'. 

Seigneur is a fairly common French 


SENNETT1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Old, Sage, Wise 

SENNITT l[Fr. Senet, Senot, f. Lat. sen-em, 

SENNOTtJ ace. of senex, old; with the Fr. 

dim. suff. -et, -ot] 

2 conf. with Sinnett, eitc, q.v. 

SENSECAL \ (Fr.-Teut.) Seneschal [v.under 
SENSKELl; Senec(h)al], 

SEPHTON = Sefton, q.v. 

SERGEANT \ (A.-FJr.-Lat.) Officer; Squire; 

SERG EN T 1 Attendant; lit. Servant [M.E. 

serg{e)a(u)nt, serja{u)nt, O.Fr. sergant, 

serjant (Fr, sergent) ; L.Lat. servjens, -entis, 

servant ; Lat. servire, to serve] 

A sergeaunt of the la we, war [wary] and 

wys.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 309. 

See Serjeant. 

SERGEANTSON, the Sergeant's Son: v. 




for Sergeantson, q.v. 


SERJEANT [■ = Sergeant, q.v. 


N'i aura ancelle [Lat. ancilla, maidser- 
vant] ni serjant.— Bible Guyot; Moisy. 

Serjaunt and Serjant are the usual 13th- 
cent. forms in England, as 
John le Serjaunt.— HM«i. Rolls. 

SERJEANTSON, the Serjeant's Son : v. 
Serjeant, Sergeant. 

SERLBY (Scand.) Bel. to Serlby (Notts), the 
Domesday Serlebi = SOrli's Farm or 
Estate [v; under Serle, and + O.N. b^} 

SERLE ] (Teut.) Armour, Arms [O.Teut. 

SERRELL \Serlo, Scerla, Sarle, Sarilo, Serilo, 

SERRILL J SSrli, etc, : O.E. searo = O.H.Ger. 

saro = O.N. sSrui = Goth, sarwa, armour, 

arms, skill, device, etc., with -I dim. suff. 

and the usual form, final vowel] 

Serlo is the Domesday and the usual 
O.Eng. form, with exceptions likfe 
Sterle abb. on Gleweceastre. 
(Scerle abbot of Gloucester^ [i i th cent.] 
— Thorpe, Dipl. Angl., p. 615. 

Richard Serle. — Hund. Rolls. 
The mod. Norse forms are Sorle and 

SERLSON, Serl(e)'s Son : v. Serle. 

SERMON I meton. for Sermoner, q.v. 
2 for Surtnan, q.v. 

SERMONER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Preacher, Speak- 
er [M.E. sermoner, sarmoner (Fr. sermon- 
neur), i. sermone(n, to preach, speak ; Fr. 
sermon, sermon, lecture ; Lat. sermo, -onis, 
talk, discourse] 

SERRILLS, Serrill's (Son): v. Serrlll, 

SERSON I V. Searson. 
2 for Serlson, q.v. 

SETCHELL, a var. of Satohell, q.v. 

SETH (Heb.) Appointed [Heb. SUtK\ 

SETON (Fr. -f E.) Bel. to Seton or Seaton 

(Haddington), A.b. 1296 Seytone = (de) 

' Sey's Ville [see the note under, Seaton] 

SETTER (Eng.) Setter (app. of arrowheads) 

[M.E. settere ; f. O.E. settan, to set] 

Clement le Settere.— il/a«. Gildh. Lond. 

SETTERINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Settrington 
(Yorks), 14th cent. Seterington, 13th cent. 
Seterinton, A,-Sax. *S(&teringa-tiiH = the 
Estate of the S.stere Family [O.E. 
scktere, plotter, schemer, spy, etc + -inga, 
genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing -)- Wh, estate, 

farm, etc.] 

SETTLE (Eng.) Bel. to Settle (Yorks), the 

Domesday Setel,= the Seat, Residence 

[O.E. sell] 
SEVER(E (A,-Fr.-Lat.) the Fr. SMre, Lat. 
Severus (a fairly common Roman family- 
name) = the Severe, Stern, Cruel 
[Lat. sever-us\ 

The Roman emperor who died at York 
A.D. 211 was aptly named. 

John le Severe.— Hund. Rolls. 

SEVERN (Celt.) Dweller by the River Severn, 
the A.-Sax. Stefem, Safyrn (mod. Wei. 




Hafren — H- for orig. S- — but in Geoff- 
rey of Monmouth, Sabren), the Roman 
Sdbrina [perh. conn, with the O.Ir. 
sab{h)rann, a boundary, which, from the 
dawn of history, has certainly been ap- 
propriate enough] 

Geoffrey of Monmouth (' Hist. Brit.' II. 
V.) has an interesting legend that the river 
was named from the drowning therein of 
the daughter, Sabren, of Locrin's German 
princess-mistress Estrildis — 

Jubet enim Estrildem et filiam eius 
Sabren praecipitari in fluvium, qui nunc 
Sabrina dicitur. Fecitque edictum per 
totam Britanniam, ut fluvius nomine 
puellee vocaretur. 

A charter a.d. 706 (' Cart. Sax.' 116) has 
Saberna in the Lat. portion and Smfyrn in 
the O.E. (boundaries) pai^t. 

SEVILLE for Saville, q.v. 

SEWARD I = Seaward, q.v. 

2 for SiwapdS q.v. 

3 Sow-Herd [M.(N.) ^,su{e)herd, O.E. 

sA + hierde'\' 
SEWARDS, Seward's (Son). 

SEWART = Seward, q.v. 

SEWELL ] (Teut.) i the O.Teut. Sewald, Sle- 

SEWILL \wald,etc. = Sea-Power [O.E. 5c6 

SEWALlJ = O.N. s(B-r, sid-r = O.Sax. O.H. 

Ger. s^o, sea + O.E. ge)w{e)ald = O.N. 

uald = O.Saxl ^i)it)aH=O.H.Ger. gi)walt, 

power, might] 

2 the O.Teut. Sigwald, Siguald, &c. = 

Victorious Power [O.E. sige = O.N. 

sig-r =O.Sa;x. O.H.Ger. sigt = Goth. sigi-s, 

Thomas Sewald. — 

Huiid. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Edmund' fil. Sewalli. — 

Inq. a. q. Damn., A.D. 1307-8. 

John Sewell. — 

Chstr. Hearth-Tax Rtns., A.D. 


SEWEL(L)SON, Sewel(l)'s Son: v. Sewell. 

SEWER (A. - Fr. - Lat.) Table - Servant, 

Waiter [JVI-E. sewer{e, sewar(e, O.Fr. 

asseour, table-servant; O.Fr. asseoir, to 

set ; Lat. assidere, to sit by] 

And there he prayd syr Gareth to make 
hym his sewar chyef at the feest. — 

Malory, Morte d' Arthur, vii. 36. 

SEWSTER, for Souster, q.v! ; rarely a fern, 
form of Sewer, q.v. [E. fern. suff. -ster, 

O.E. -estrel 

SEWTER for Souter, q.v. 

SEXSMITH for Sixsmlth, q.v. 

SEXTON \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Sacristan [M.E. 

SEXTONE I se;rteiM, sexteyn, A.-Ft. secresiein 

(Fr. sacristain) : v. under Secretan and 


Upon my feith, thou art som officer, 
Som worthy sexteyn, or som celerer. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 3126. 

(Eng.) for Saxton'. 
N.B. — Sexton was used to Anglicize the 
Ir. Shesnan {O'Seasnain). 

SEYMOUR 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Bel. to St. Maur 

SEYMER J (France), prob. more specif. St. 

Maur-des-Bois, Manche, Norm. [Fr.JIfaMr, 

Lat. Maur-us, Gr. MaCp-os, a Moor, black 

• man] 

This name was Latinized (e.g. in the 

Hundred-Rolls) de Sancto Mauro. 

(Teut.) for Seamer, q.v. 

SEYS, v. Sayce. 

SHAGKEL ] (Eng.) the A.-Sax. pers. (nick-) 
SHACKELL [ name Scacel [O.E. scacol, scacul, 
SHACKLE J a shackle, fetter; f. scacan, to 


SHACKELTON 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Shackleton 

SHACKLETON J (prob. Lanes) [v. under 

Shackel, and -|- O.E. tiin, farm, estate] 

Hugh Schacheliton. — 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

SHACKERLEYl _ ch=,i,„„i„„ nv 
SHACKLEY j - Shakerley, q.v. 

[ (Eng.) a nickname = lascivus. 


Richard Shaklady. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1384. 
Rowland Shakelady. — 
^ Lane. Fines, A.D. 1529. 

SHACKLEFORD 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Shackleford 
SHACKELFORD J (Surrey) [O.E./orrf, a ford: 

the first element (v. under Shackel) prob. 

denotes that the passage of the ford was 
facilitated by fixed shackles or staples] 

SHACKLOCK (Eng.) i meton. for Gaoler 

[M.E. sehakloc{k, a fetter-lock, fetters'; 

O.E. seacol, a shackle + loe, a lock] 

2 for Shakelock, i.e. having a long lock 
of hair [Late M.E. shakeloc(k; f. O.E. 
sc(e)acan, to shake -\- locc, a lock of hair] 

SHADBOLT for Shotbolt, q.v: [the voicing of 

t io d here is due to the influence of the 

following voiced letter 6] 

SHADD (Eng.), the M.E. 5cAad(i(Hund. Rolls), 
is prob. a nickname from the O.E. fish- 
name seeadd, m. (the importance of this 
fish in A.-Saxon times is showQ by the 
fact that there was a 'shad season'), 




rather than conn, with O.E. ge)sc(e)dd, 
n., ' understanding,' , ' discretion.' There 
does not seem to have been any confusion 
between this pers. name and Chad, al- 
though there is app. a place-name instance 
under Shadwell. 

SHADDOCK 1 = Shadd (q.v.) + the O.E. 

SHADRACK ] (Sem.) for the Heb.-Aram. 
SHJKDRfiiKE \ Shadrach [Heb. Shadhrakh : 
SHADRICK J " The etymology of the naflie 
Shadrach is uncertain. Frd. Delitzsch 
suggests that, it is a variant of the 
Babylonian Sudur-Aku, 'Command of 
the Moon-God.' This view is pronounced 
by Schrader to have considerable proba- 
bility."— ZJfrf. Bible, ed. Hastings, iv. 472] 

(Eng.) for Sheldrake, q.v. 

SHADWELL (Ehg.) Bel. to Shadwell (Yorks : 
Domesday Scadeuuelle, a.d. 1285 Schadwell; 
Norf.: 14th cent. Shadwell; Salop, &c. 
[Dial.E. shade, a shed; 0.¥.^sc{e)adu, shade, 
an arbour -f well, O.E. w(i)ella, a well] 
But the London Shadwell is said to be 
for (St.) Chad's Well (v. Chad)—" This 
place, formerly called Chadwelle, took its 
name from a mineral spring in the ' Sun 
Tavern ' fields, dedicated to St. Chad." — 
Nat. Gas., 1868. 

SHAPE (Eng.) i Crooked, Crippled [O.E. 
scdf: cp. Dut. scheef—Gsx. schief, crooked] 

Cp. Scafe. 

2 = Sheaf, q.v. 

SHAFTESBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Shaftesbury, 

the A.-Sax. Sceaftes-hurh (a.d. 982) = 

Sceaft's Stronghold [O.E. sc(e)fl/i!,m.,a 

shaft, spear -f burK\ 

SHAFTO (Eng.) Bel. to Shafto(e (Northumb.), 
14th cent. Shafth(m{e, 13th cent, Schafthou 
=the Shaft-Hill [O.E. sc(e)aft, a shaft, 
spear, pole : used as a pers. name -f- hd, 
a hill, bluff] 
The hill or bluff is now called " Shaftoe 
Crag, a lofty verdant hill. " 

SHAILER,v. Shayler. 

SHAIRP, a North, form of Sharp, q.v. 

SHAKEL(L, V. Shaokel(l. 

SHAKELANCE (E. + Fr.-Lat.) a nickname 

(a.d. 1274 Henry Shakelaunce) of the 

same occupative class as Shakespear(e 

[f. M.E. schaken, O.E. sc(e)acan, to shake 

-I- Fr. lance, Lat. lanced] 

SHAKERLEY(Eng.) Shakerley (Lanes), 
A.D. 12&\ Schakerley [the first element is 
prob, Dial. E.^Aaier, tne quaking or dither- 


ing grass ; f. O.E. sc(e)acan, to shake + 
M.E. ley, O.E. ledh, a lea] 

SHAKESHAFT (Eng.) a nickname of the same 

occupative class as Shakelance and 

Shakespeap(e [f. M.E. schaken, O.E. 

sc{e)acan, to shalce -|- M.E. schaft, O.E. 

sc(e)aft a shaft, spear] 

(Eng.) a nickname for a 
spear-carrying individual, 
as a Beadle, Sergeant, 
and (more especially) a 
Soldier [f. M.E. schaken, O.E. sc(e)acan, 
to shake + M.E. O.E. spere] 

Robertus Schaksper. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Gulielmus filius Johannes Shakspeare. 
—Bapt. Reg. Stratf.-on-Avon, 26th April, 


, Cp. Shakelance and Shakeshaft, the 
name ' William Sharpspere ' found in the 
Close Rolls, a.d. 1278, and the old term 
' shakebuckler ' for a bully ; also the 
Roman Quirinus [f. Lat. quiris, a spear] 

SHALDERS (Eng.) Dweller at the Rushes 
[Dial. E. shalder, a kind of rush] 

SHALLCROSS (Scand.) Bel. to Shallcross 
(Derby), 14th cent. Shalcros=thc Crooked 
Cross [f. O.N. skidlg-r = O.E. sceSUi, 
crooked, wry -|- O.N. kross (Lat. crux, crucis\ 

SHALLIS l fA.-Fr.-Celt.) Bel. to Chalais, 

SHALLES J Challes, Chaillois (France) [app. f, 

the Gaul, cognate of caill, Gael, and 

Ir. coin, a wood] 

SHAMBLER = Soambler, q.v. 

SHAM BROOK for Sambrook, q.v. 

SHAN AH AN (Celt.) Wise, Sagacious, Crafty 

[Ir. Seanachan (O'Seanachain) — seanach -f 

the dim. suff. -^«; cp. lr.seannach = (j&e^. 

sionnach, a fox] 

This name has been used to Hiberni- 

cize the Eng. ' Fox.' 

SHAND (Eng.) Buffoon [O.E. icand] 

SHANDLEY for Shanley, q.v. 

SHANE (Celt.-Heb.) an Irish form of John, 
q.v. [Ir. Seaghan; but this form seems 
really to be uue (with the dim. suft. -dii) 
to the Ir. seagh, esteem, worth, strength ; 
allied to the great Teut. name-stem sig-. 

Cp. Shawn, Shone. 

SHANK "1 (Eng.) a nickname from some pecu- 

SHANKS J liarity of the Leg(s [M.E. schanke, 

0.£. scancay a leg] 




SHANLEY 1 (Celt.) Old Hero [It. Seanlaoch 

SHANLY J (Mac SeanlaoicKj—sean, old + 

Jaoch, a hero, champion] 

SHANN (Celt.) Old [Ir. and Gael, sean, old= 
Cym. hen ; cognate with Lat. senex, senis, 


SHANNAN\(Celt.) i = Shann (q.v) + the 
SHANNON J Ir. dim. suff. -dn [Ir. Seanan] 

2 for Shanahan, q.v. 

The Irish river-name Shannon app. 

means 'Old River' [Ir. sean, old + 

abhan{n, river] 

SHAPCOTT (Eng.) Dweller at the Sheepcote 
\0.'{e)dp + coi\ 

SHAPLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Sheep- 
Land [O.E. sc(e)dp + land] 

SHAPLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Sheep-Lea 
[O.E. sc{e)dp + ledh] 

SHAPMAN (Eng.) Sheep-Man, Shepherd 
[O.E. sc(e)dp + rnann] 

SHAPPARD\_„h„„h„ . „^ 

shapperd1 = s'^«p'^«'^'''1-^- 

SHAPSTER (Eng.) Female Shaper or 

Cutter ; Tailoress [f. M.E. schapen, to 

shape; 0.^.ge)sc(e)ap, a. shape, form -|- 

the fern, agent, suff. -ster, O.E. -estre] 

Cp. Shepster. 

SHAPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shapton or Shepton 
=the Sheep-Farm [O.E. sc(e)dp +<«'«] 

SHARD = Sheard, q.v. 

SHARDLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Shardlow (Derby), 
14th cent. Shardelowe, 13th -cent. Scarde- 
loive— the Notched or Cut Hill [O.E. 
sf{e)ard, hotched + hlckm, a hill, tumulus] 

SHARK (Celt.) Love [Ir. searc {Wel.serch), Ibve] 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname [app. f. N.Fr. 

cherquier = Fr. chercher, to search ; Lat. 

circare, to go round] 

SHARKEY (Gelt.) Loving, Amorous [Ir. 

Searcach (O'Sedfcaigh) — searc, love -|- the 

plen. suff. -ach (cp. Wei. serchog, loving] 

SHARLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Shorn or 

Separated Land [f. O.E. ^c^ra« (pret. 

scear), to cut, shear + land] 

SHARMAN = Shepman, Shearman, q.v. 

SHARNBROOK (Eng.) Bel.^ to Sharnbroolt 

gJeds), A.D. 1268-9 Shamebroke = the 
UNGY Brook [O.E. sc{e)arn, dung-|-6r<fc] 

SHARP l(Eng.) Quick, Smart [M.E. 
SHARPEJ scharpie, O.R sc{e)arp] 

I V. Sherrard, Sherratt. 

SHARPLES T (Eng.) Bel. to Sharpies (Lanes), 

SHARPLESS J 13th cent. Scharples = the 

Rough Pasture [O.E. sc(,e)arp, rough + 

, Idis, a pasture] 

SHARPS, Sharp's (Son) : v. Sharp. 


SHARROCK (Eng.) Dweller at (app.) the 
Shorn or Split Rock [f. O.E. sceran (prt. 
scear), to cut + -rocc (of Romanic orig.), 

a rock] 
Cp. Shorrock. 

SHARROW (Eng.) Bel. to Sharrow (Yorks), 

13th cent. Scharhow = the Shorn or 

Split Hill [f. O.E. sceran (prt. scear), to 

cut + ho, a hill, bluff] 

SHARWOOD = Sherwood, q.v. 

IhATtSckI^"^ Shaddock, q.v. 

SHATWELL (Eng.) t Bel. to Shatwell [O.E. 

w{i)ella, a spring : the first element may 

be either O.E. scedt, a corner, projection, 

or O.E. sceatt, a payment, penny] 

A Shatwell occurs in the Charter-Rolls 
for Leicestershire, a.d. 1365-6. 

2 for Shadwell, q.v, 

SHAUGHNESSY, V. O'Shaughnessy. 

SHAVE = Shafe, q.v. 

SHAW 1 (Eng.) Dweller at a Wood or Grove 
SHAWEJ [M.E. shatvie, schaw{e, schagh, O.E. 


A Scaga occurs in a charter, a.d. 778^ of 
Ecgberht, king of Kent, to the then 
Bishop ot Rochester, of land at ' Br6m- 

Richard de la Schawe. — 

Patent-Rolls, Lanes, A.D. 1271. 

Brice del Schagh. — 

Chesh.Chntbrlns'. Accts-, A.D. 1303-4., 
John atte Schaghe. — 

Exchq. Subs.. Roll, Soms., A.D. 1327. 

Gaillard [merry] he was as goldfynch 
in the shawe. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 4367-8. 

When shawes beene sheene [bright] 
and shraddes [twigs] full fayre. — 
'Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne': 
Percy's Reliques. 

SHAWCROSS (Eng.) Dweller at the Cross 
by the Grove [v. Shaw and Cross] 
There is a Shawcross in W. Yorks. 
(Scand.) for Shalloross, q.v. 




SHAWFIELD (Eng.) Dweller at the Wood- 
Field [v. Shaw, and + M.E. O.K. f eld] 

SHAWN, an Irish form of John, q.v. [Ir. 

See Shane, Shone. 

SHAWYER (Eng.) Dweller at a Wood or 

Grove [v. Shaw, and + the agent. 

suff. -yer (as in ' lawyer '), for -ier] 

SHAYLER 1 (Teut.) Crooked Walker ; 
SHAYLOR J Cripple [f. M.E. shayle, shaile, 

to walk awry (Dial. E. shatter, a cripple) ; 

O.N. s1adlg-r=0.^. sceolh=Ger. and Dut. 
scheel, wry, oblique, crooked] 

SHEA, V. O'Shea. 

SHEAD (Eng.) Dweller at i a Hut, ArBour 
(Shed) [O.E. sceadu] 

2 a Hill-Ridge ; specif., the point from 
which the hill slopes in opposite direc- 
tions [Dial. E. she(a)d; i. O.E. scdadan, 
to part, separate, shed] 

SHEAF \ (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. pers. name 
SHEAFF JSc^a/ya [O.E. jc^a/, a sheaf] 

5cAi/ occurs in the A.-Saxon genealogies 
as the name of a mythical ancestor of 
Woden ; and Scdafa was the name of a 
Lombardic king — 
Sciafa [wfeold] Longbeardum. — 

Widsm {The Traveller), 66. 

2 Dweller at the sign of the Sheaf 

[M.E. scheeftshaf. Sec; O.E. sciaf] 

SHEAL, V. Shiel. 

SHEAN, V. Sheen 

SHEARD (Eng.) i Dweller at a Gap or 

2 Hare-lip [O.E. sceard] 

Cp. Scanth. 

SHEARER (Eng.) Cutter (of wool, cloth) 
[M.E. s(c)'herere, f. M.E. s(c)heren, O.E. 
sceran, to cut] 
Reginald le Scherere. — 

Pari. Writs, A.D. 1300. ' 

SHEARING (Eng.) i Bel. to Shearing or 

Sheering, A.-Sax. *Sciringas=(i'ii.& Estate 

of the) ScfR- Family [O.E. scir, bright, 

white, brilliant -f -ingas (dat. pi. -ingum), 

pi. of the fil. suff. -ingl 

2 the A.-Sax. Sciring = ScIr's Son 
[etym. as i] 
Sciring, — Hund. Rolls. 

SHEARMAN (Eng.) i Cutter (of wool, cloth) 
[M.E. s{c)heiie)man,l. M.E. s{c)heren, O.E. 
sceran, to cut -f- man\ 
Cp. Sherman. 

(occ.) 2 Shireman; Steward, Pro- 
curator [O.E. sclr{e)mann — sclr, ofBce, 
shire, parish, district] 

SHEARS I a nickname and sign-name from 

the Shears [O.E. sciaruru (pi.), shears; 

with later -s pi. sufl.] 

2 Shere's (Son) : y. Shere' 

SHEARSMITH (Eng.) Maker of Shears and 
(Plough-) Shares [v. under Shears (O.E. 
scear, a ploughshare), and + M.E. smith, 


SHEARSON (Eng.) i Shears' Son: v. 

2 Shere's Son : v. Shere'. 

3 (the) Shearer's Son : v. Shearer. 

SHEARWOOD = Sherwood, q.v. 

SHEAT "[(Eng.) i Swift, Quick, Alert 
SHEATEJ [O.¥..sceoi\ 

2 Dweller at a Corner or Projection 
[O.E. scM{a\ 

(rarely) 3 Shooter, Archer [O.E. 

Cp. Skeat(e. 

SHEATH (Eng.) a palatal form of Seath," q.\. 

Cp. 'sheath, a salt-water fountain.' — 

T. Wright, Srov. Diet., p. 846. 

SHEATHER (Eng.) Sheath-Maker [M.E. 
shether, schether ; M.E. shethe, schethe, O.E. 
sc^a^, a sheath, with the agent, suff. -er, 

O.E. -ere] 

SHEE, v. O'Shee. 

SHEEAN "[(Celt.) i the Ir. Sdadhachan = 

SHEEHAN J Wise, Courteous [Ir. seadhach 

(dh mute) -|- the dim. suff. -an] 

2 the lT.Sidheachan = Woi.T [Ir. sidheach 
(dh mute) -1- the dim. suff. -a'«] 

SHEED = Shead, q.v. 

SHEEL = Shiel, q.v. 

SHEEN (Eng.) i Bright, Fair \U.'S.. sheene, 
schene, Q.E. sceone, sciene, sc^ne] 
ne rasegjj sc^ne. 
(nor maiden /air). —Berfo/M//, 6025. 

This hooly mayden, that is so bright and 
ifeenef.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 692. 

Was mounted high in top of heaven 

Spenser, The Faerie Queene, III. iv. 51. 

2 Bel. to Sheen (Surrey : A.-Sax. Sedan; 
Staffs : Domesday Sceon) [etym. as i] 

(Celt.) for Shee(h)an, q.v, 




SHEEPSHANKfS (Eng.y With SHEEP(-like) 
Leg(s, i.e. BowLEGGED [O.E. sceap, sheep 
1 + scanca, leg] 

In the Yorks Poll-Tax a.d. 1379 we 
find both Schepschank and Shepshattk. 

SHEEPSHEAD (Eng.) 1 Bel. to Sheepshed 
(Leic), 13th - 14th cent. Shepesheved, 
Schipished = the Sheep's Head or Hill 
[thdgenit. of M.E. s{c)hep(fi, O.E. sc^ap, 
she;dp + M.E. hed, heved, O.E. h^afod,^ 
1 , head, hill] 

2 a nickname [etym. as i] 

SHEER, V. Shere. 

SHEET, V.I Sheat. 

SHEFFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Sheffield (Yorks), 
14th cent. Sheffield, Schefeld, Domesday 
Scafeld [Sheffield is on the R. Sheaf; but 
the river-name is prob. from the place- 
name, the first element of which may be 
the O.E.icti/, crooked, if not O.E. scMaga, 
a wood ; the second being M.E. O.E./eW, 
ii field, plain] 
Will'us de Sheffeld (Yorks).— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1307-8. 

Sheffield Park, Sussex, is the seat of 
the Earl of Sheffield, and therefore app. 
owes its name to the Yorks town. 

SHEIL = Shiel, q.v. 

SHEILD = Shield, q.v. 

SHEILDS = Shields, q.v. 

SHEILS = Shiels, q.v. 

SHELDON (Eng.) Bel. to Sheldon (Warw. : 
13th. cent. Scheldon; Devon, Derby, &c.) 
[The orig. form, ScelfdUn, is seen in a 
charter of Offa, king of the Mercians, to 
the church oi St. Alban's (' Cart. Sax.' 
no. 264). The first element (scelf or 
scylf(e ) denotes a shelf or ledge, also a 
crag ; the second being O.E. dun, a hill] 

SHELDRAKE (Eng.) a nickname from the 

Duck so called, lit. the 'Shield-Drake' 

[M.E. s{c)held-, a shield -f- drake\ 

Johes. Sheldrake. — 

Inq. a. q. Damn. (Hen. VI). 

SHELDRICK for Sheldrake. 

SHELFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Shelford, the 
A.-Sax. Sceald{e)ford (commonly in the 
obHque form, ' on scealdan ford') = the 
Shallow Ford [O.E. sceald, shallow 

+ ford\ 

Shelford, Camb., was Shelford, a.d. 

1250-1 arid 1361, and Schelford, a.d. 

1324-S, but Sceldford in the Inq. Com. 

Cantab. ; Shelford, Notts, was Shelford, 


A.D. 1310-ir, and Schelford, A-.ry. 1316-17 ; a 
Sheldeford occurs in the Charter-Rolls for 
Leicestershire, a.d. 1304 ; the Sceldeford 
and Scealdeford of an Essex charter 
A.D. 1062 is now Shalfdrd. 

IhIlITOE I v-thecommoner form Shillito(e. 

SHELLEY "I (Eng.) Bel. to Shelley, the A.-Sax. 
S H E LLY f Scelf-ledh = the Shelf- or Ledge- 
Lea [O.E. scelf, scylf{e, a shelf, ledge, also 
a crag -I- /erfft, a lea] 
Shelley, Suff., was Scelfledh c. a.d. 972 
and Shelley a.d. 1321-2 ; Shelley, Yorks, 
situated on a hill, was Scivelei in 
Domesday-Book. , 

Thomas Shelley. — 

Inq. a. q. Damn. (Kent), A.D. 1414-5. 

SHELiyiERDINE (Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to 
Hjalmar's Valley [The O.N. pers. name 
is a compound of hjdlm-r, helm(et, and -ar 

for -har, herr, host, army : 1- O.E- denu, 

a valley] 
Earlier forms than the 17th cent, (same 
spelling) seem to be lacking, but 6n the' 
analogy of O.N. Hjaltland=Sheila.nd the 
etymology given above can hardly be 

SHELTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shelton, the A.-Sax. 
Scelf-tiin=ihs Farm or Estate on or by 
the Shelf or . Ledge [O.E. scelf, scylf(e, 
a shelf, ledge, also a crag -f- /jJk, 

estate, &c.i 
Shelton, Beds, was Scelftun- a.d. 792 ; 
Shelton, Staffs, I2th-i4th cent. Scheltoit, 
was Scelfitone in Domesday - Book ; 
Shelton, Norf., was Shelton, a.d. 1367, as 
Shelton, Notts, was in 1349. 

SHEMELDI found in Yorkshire in the 14th 
SHEMILD [cent, as Schemylde, is prob. 
Scand. with the second element the 
common fern, component hild, 'battle,' 
'war': the first element is rather O.N. 
hfdlm-r, helm(et (v. under Shelmerdihe) 
than a palatalized form of O.N. skdlm, 
' sword.' 

SHENSTON 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Shenstone 
SHENSTONE; (Staffs), i2th cent. Shenestan(e, 
I ith cent, Scenstan = the Bright Stone 
or Rock (Castle) [O.E. sc^one, bright, fair 
+ Stan, stone, rock, stone or rock castle] 
Shenstone is on a hill. In the parish 
" was formerly a castle or fortification, 
the site of which is still called Castle-, 
Field."— (iViji. Gaz.) 

The corresponding German place-name 
is Schonstein. 

SHENTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shenton (Leic), 
a.d. 1349 Sheynton [the first element is the 
O.E. sc^ne, sc^one, fair, beautiful (perh. 
here used as a pers, name) -|- /liw, farm, 

estate, etc>i 







(Eng.) Shepherd [O.E. 


SHEPHERDSON Uthe) Shepherd's Son: 

SHEPPERSON J V. Shephe(a)pd. 

SHEPLEY HEng.) Bel. to Shepley = the 
SHEPPLEY J Sheep-Lea [O.E. scedp + leak 

(M.E. Uy\ 
The Yorks Shepley was Seppeleie and 
Scipelei in Domesday-Book; Scheplay in 
the 14th cent. 
Cp. Shipley. 

SHEPPERD ^ = Shephe(a)rd, q.v. 

SHEPPEY"! (Eng.) Bel. to Sheppey (Kent), 
SH EPPY J the A.-Sax. Scedp-ig= Sheep-Isle 

SHEPSTER = Shapster, q.v. 
. . a shepsteres shere. — 

Piers Plowman, 8683. 

SHEPTON (Eng) Bel. to Shepton = the 

Sheep-Enclosure [O.E. scedp + tHii] 

Shepton-Mallet, Soms., was so spelt a.d. 

1317-18 ; Shepton-Montague, Soms., was 

Shepton Montagu a.d. 1314-15. 

Cp. Shipton. 

SHEPWAY (Eng.) Dweller at a Sheep- Way 

or -Walk [O.E. scedp + weg] 

IhIrEr}= Shearer, q.v. 

SHERARD I the A.-Sax. pers. name Sc(rh(e)ard 

— Splendidly Brave [O.E. scir, bright, 

splendid + h{e)ard, hard, brave] 

2 a contr. form of Sherwood, q.v. 

3 a sibilated form of Gerard, q.v. 

SHERATON (Eng.) Bel. toSheraton (Durham), 

14th cent. Shirveion, Shurveton = Sceorfa's 

or Scurfa's Estate [f.O.E. sceorf, scurf, 

scurf (used as a descriptive nickname: cp. 

' Sorut(t)on) 4- tun, estate, farm, etc.] 

SHERBORN \ (Eng.) Bel. to Sherborne, 
SHERBORNE Sherbourne, or Sherburn = 
SHERBOURNE the Clear or Bright 
SHERBURN Stream [O.E. sclr, bright, 

SHERBURNE ; clear + burne (f.), hurna (m.), 

a brook] 
Sherborne, Dorset, occurs frequently in 
charters of A.-Saxon times, the earliest 
mention app. being a grant dated a.d. 671 
by Coenwealh, king of Wessex, " sedi 
pontiflcali Scireburnensis" ('Cart. Sax.' no. 
26): in King jEifred's Will, as in the 
Chronicle A.D. 867, we find the normal 
A.-Sax. dative form "set Scire burnan." 
Sherburn in Elmet, Yorks, occurs in a 
charter A.D. 963 as "t6 Scke burnan." 
Sherbourn or Sherborne, Warw., was 
Scirebume in Domesday-Book. Sherborn, 

Soms., was Schireburne in the 14th cent. 
Sherborne, Glouc, was Sherebome in the 
14th cent. 

This name was Latinized de Fonte 
Limpido ; also Pons Clarus. 

SHERD = Sheard, q.v. 

SHERE (Eng.) i Fair, Bright, White [M.E. 
shere, schere, O.E. scir^ 

Scira is found as an A.-Sax. pers. name 
in the 8th cent. 

2 Bel. to Shere (Surrey), I3th-I4th cent. 

Shire [the parish includes Shere Ebor- 

acum (which belonged to the House of 

York), and ' Shere ' prob. represents O.E. 

scir, a district, administration] 

Note. — Sheer or shere is a North, dialect- 
word meaning ' odd,' ' singular.' 

SH ERG OLD (Eng.) a nickname = Bright or 

Pure Gold [M.E. s{c)here, O.E. scir H- 

M.E. O.E. gold] 

Cp. the (rare) surname Purgold. 

SHERIDAN ] (Celt.) the Ir. Seireadan, Siri- 
SHEREDAN \dean (a nickname) = Satyr, 
SHERRIDAN J Wild Man [Ir. siride + the 

dim. suif. -dn\ 

According to Matheson's 'Varieties and 
Synonymes of Surnames and Christian 
Names in Ireland,' igoi (p. 60), there are 
current in various parts of that country 
eleven more or less corrupt variants of 

SHERINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Sheringham 

(Norf.), A.-Sax. *Sc{ringa-hdm — the Home 

OF THE ScfR- Family [O.E. scir, bright, 

splendid -|- -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. 

-ing + hdm, home, estate] 

SHERLEY, V.Shirley. 

SHERLOCK (Eng.) i With Fair or White 

Hair [M.E. s{c)herej,schyr{e, etc., O.E. scir 

+ M.E. lok, O.E. locc] 

The form Schyrlok occurs in the 13th 
cent. ; Shirlok in the 14th cent. 

Cp. the surnames Whitelock and 

2 Dweller at the Clear Stream [O.E. 

scir -f- lacu\ 

Cp. the Cheshire place-name Shurlach. 

SHERMAN = Shearman, q.v. 

In the Rolls of the Freemen of the City 
- of Chester (1392-1700) 'sherman' occurs 
frequently as a trade-name, e.g. — 

Nicholas Wilkynson, sherman, alias 
Nicholas Sherraon, A.D. 1476-7. 




SHERRA (Celt.) the Ir. Searrach (a nickname) 
i= the Colt [Ir. searrach, colt, filly] 

This name is sometimes used in Ireland 
for Sheppard, Sherand, q.v. 

Cp- Sherry. 

SHERRARD, v. Sherard. 

SHERRAS, Shbrra's (Son) : v. Sherra [Eng. 

genit. -j] 

SHERRATT I Dweller at the Sheer Gate or 

Opening [O.E. seer-, f. sceran, scieran, to 

cut, shear (prt. j«(a)r, pp. scoren, cut off 

short, precipitous) 4- geat (M.E.yate), a 

gate, opening] 

A Scergeat is mentioned in the A.-Sax. 
Chronicle, A.D. 912. 

2 a weak form of Sherrard, Sherard, 

SHERRIFF (Eng.) Sheriff, Shire -Reeve 
[O.E. sclr-ge)refa] 

A shirreve hadde he been, and a countour. 
Was nowher suCh a worthy vavasour. — 
' Chaucer, Prol. Cant Tales, 359-6o. 

SHERRIN I for Sherwin, q.v. 

2 for Sherrihg = Shearing, q.v. 

3 for the French CfeW« [Fr. cher, dear, 

beloved + the dim. suff. -««] 

SHERRING = Shearing, q.v. 

SHERRINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sherrington, 

' A.-Sax, *Sciringa-tAn = . the Estate of 

THE ScfR- Family [O.E.^aV, bright, 

splendid 4- ringa, genit. pi. ot the fil. suff. 

-ing + tun, estate, etc.] 

The Wilts place was Sherinton, A.D. 

SHERRY (Celt.) for the Irish i MacSearraigh 

= Son of Searrach, i.e. the Colt [Ir. 

searrach, genit. searraigh, a colt, filly] 

2 O'Searraigh = Grandson of Sear- 

SHERSON for Sherston, q.v. 

SHERSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sherston (Wilts) 
[If this place (as has been claimed; is the 
Sceorstdn where Eadmund fought Cnut in 
1016 the name evid. means the 'Projecting 
Rock,' f. O.E. sceorian, to project, jut out, 
', + stdn, stone, rock, Oh the other hand, 
Sherston rarely occurs with -stan or -stone 
in the i3th-i5thcent.:e.g. we find Shereston, 
A.D. 1247-8, Schireston, 1322-3, Sherston, 
1414-S, implying "Scir's Estate.' But the 
speUing Shorstan of the Wilts place-name 
in 1 25 1-2 (Charter-Rolls) is strong evidence 
in favour of an orig. Sceorstdn, as .above. 
Sherston is situated " on an eminence "| 

) (Eng.) to Shervington, 
SHERVINGTON | Lanes (poss. Shevington, 
near Wigan, although this place occurs 
in the 13th cent, as Shevinton and Shefinton), 
A.D. 1284-S Schuruyngton, Schureuyngton 
(Lane. Assize-Rolls), a.d. 1354 Shurvyntoh 
(Lane. Fines), A.-Sax. *Scuffinga-tAn= the 
Estate of the Scurfa Family [the 
pers. name is a nickname f. O.E. scurf, 
scurf -I- -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. Suff. -ing 
-I- tAn, farm, estate] 
Cp. Scruton. 

SHERWELL \ (Eng.) Bel. to Sherwell or Sher- 

SHERWILL J will (Devon) ; or Dweller at the 

Clear Spring [O.E. scir, clear, pure -|- 

w{i)ella, wylla, a spring, well] 

A scirviylla occurs in a charter by Offa, 
A.D. 785. 

SHERWIN \ (Eng.) 1 for the U.'E,. Sherwynd, 

SHERVJEH ] Scherewynd, a nickname for a 

Fleet Runner [f. O.'E.. sceran, to shear, 

cut + wind, wind] 

Peter Scherewynd. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 for an A.-Sax. *Sclrwine = Splendid 
Friend [O.E. scir + wine, friend] 

SHERWOOD (Eng.) Bel. to Sherwood (jNotts), 

14th cent. Sherwode, Shyrwode, 13th cent. 

Scher{e)wode, Scirewode, a.d. 958 Scirwudu 

: [the first element is ratherO.E.srfr,bright, 

fight-coloured (cp. the Ger. Klarholz), than 

O.E. 5«V, district, shire] 

Will'us de Sherwode. — - 

Cal. Ini- ad q. Damn., A.D. 1325-6, 
And Robyn was in mery Scherwode. — 
Rohyn Hode and the Munke, 357. 

(mod.Norw. SjSvald) — sj6-r, sea -|- uald-r, 


SHEWAN (Scand.) Sea -Used [this name 

corresponds exactly to the Swei.sjowan 

(sj as sh) (Dan.-Norw. sovant), f.O.N. sj6-r, 

sce-r, sea -t- uan-r, used, wontj 

This is muqh more probable, for several 
reasons, than the suggested derivation 
from an O.^orseSiguanXO.^.sig-r, victory 
+ «rf«, hope], which, in any case, would 
be a fem. name. 

SHEWARD (Scand.) Sea -Guardian [O.N. 
Sjouar^-r, Sjpuor'S-r— sjo-r, sea -1- -uar^-r, 
ud>^, guard, guardian] 
Cp. Seward. 

SHEWELL for Shewald, q.v. 
Cp. Sewell. 

SHIEL \ (Scand.) Dweller at a Hut or Shed 

SHI ELL J [Scand. skiul {ski or skj as'shi), O.N. 

sk(0l, sk^li, a shed, ^elter^ 




The swallows jintin' round my shiel 

Amuse me at my spinning-wheel. — 

I Burns, ' Bess,' 23-4. 

(Celt.) the Irish Siadhail, a nickname = 
Sloth ! [Ir. siadhail, sloth, sluggishness] 

SHIELD (Eng.) i Dweller at the sign of the 
Shield [O.E. sc{i)eld, scyld] 

2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Sceld, Scild, 
Scyld = Shield, Protection. 

There has been some confusion with 
Shiel, q.v. 

SHIELDS (Scand.)Bel. to Shields; or Dweller 
at the Huts or Sheds [v. Shiel'] 

South Shields " was called Le Sheeles, 
from the sheds built along the shore by 
the fishermen of the Tyne."— iVat. Gaz. 

The spelling in the Yorks Poll-Tax a.d. 
1379 was Scheles. 

(Eng.) Shield's (Son): v. Shield. 

(Celt.) = ShieP (q.v.) with the E. genit. 
•s suff. 

SHIELS (Scand.) pi. of ShleP, q.v. 

(Celt.) = ShieP (q.v.) with the E. genit. 
-J suff. 

(Eng.) for Shields', q.v. 

SHIER = Shere, q.v. 

SHIERS = Shears, q.v. 

SHIERSON = Shearson, q.v. 

SHILCOCK \ I'he first element has been 
SHILLCOCKJ thought to be that seen in 

Sheldrake, q.v. (the sheldrake and shel- 

duck were sometimes called sheld-fowl) ; 

but it is much more Hkely to be the pial. 

E. skill, shrill [O.E. scyl, resounding, noisy 
-|- cocc, a cock] 

SHILDRICK for Sheldrake, q.v. 

SHILLING (Eng.) the A.-Sax, tiers, name 
Scilling, occurring e.g. in ' WidsiS,' 1. 207 ; 
found in the i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls as 
Scilling, Schilling, Schelling, the last being 
the present-day Dutch form [f. the O.E. 
monetary unit scilling, m.] 

SHILLINGFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Shillingford 
(Berks, Devon, Oxf.) [The Berks place 
seems to be the A.-Sax. Scaringaford (a.d. 
931), i.e. the ' Ford of the Scar- Family' 
(cp. O.E. sc{e)ar, a shear or ploughshare) ; 
but the'Devon place (a.d. i 3 14-1 S Schilling- 
ford) and the Oxf. hamlet prob. denote , 
fords where a charge was made (cp. Guild- 
ford) and therefore contain the O.E. 
s«7W«^, shilling, a monetary unit] 

SHILLINGLAW(Eng.) ShiUinglaw [The 
second element is the O.E. hHw, a hill, 

tumulus : the first element is prob. a pers. 
name (v. Shilling) ; but the possibility of 
its being the Scot, shieling, a shed, hut (v. 
Shiel', and with the sufi. -ing) cannot be 


SHILLINGSWORTH (Eng.) Dweller at Scill- 
ing's Estate [A.-Sa.-x..*Scillinges-wor\f :v. 
under Shilling, and -j- O.E. wot^, estate, 

' farm] 

SHILLITO \ This name, uniformly occurring 
SHILLITOE in the Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379, 
SHILLITTO -as Selito, in 1397-8 as Shelito 
SHILLETO ('Notes and Queries,' 2Sth Apl. 
SHILITO / '14, p. 335) undoubtedly presents 
difficulties, chiefly owing to the lack of 
earlier forms. ' It has been suggested that 
it represents a Norman place-name S/7eto/ ; 
but I cannot trace such a place-name; and, ' 
in any case, in the 14th cent, we should 
expect the retention in the surname of the 
final -t. As it is "a great Yorkshire name" 
it is prob. Scandinavian, and the second 
element may be the O.N. td (Swed. taa, 
prou. almost toe), a path, walk, sheepwalk, 
cattle-run (rather than fof the O.E. ho, a 
hill, promontory), with the first element 
either O.N. skiol (sk before i normally 
palatalized to sK), a shiel, shed, shelter, or 
O.N. sei (genit. pi. sella), a shed on a moun- 
tain-pasture. I'he surname now occurs as 
both Sillito(e and Shillito(e, &c. Guppy, 
' Homes of Family-Names ' (p. 550), says : 
"Shropshire contains both these forms, 
Staffordshire has Sillitoe with Sillito, and 
the West Riding has Shillitoe." 

SHILTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shilton, for Shelton, 

The Warw. Shilton was Scelftone in 

SHIMELD, V. Shemeld. 

SHIMMIN Vfrom the IVIanx double dim. form 
SHIMMING Simeen {or Mac Simeen)oi Simon, 
SHIMMEN q.v. [IManx dim. suff. -een = Ir. 

SHINE (Celt.) the Irish Seighin, a dim. of Ir. 
s^igh = Falcon, Hawk [Ir. dim. suff. in] 

Not, however, without confusion with 
the Ir. seighion, ' champion.' 

SHINER (Eng.) a nickname or occupati ve name 
[f. IVI.E. schynen, O.E. scinan, to shine] 

SHINGLER (A.-Lat.) Roofer, Tiler, i.e. with 

shingles or wood-laths [f. M.E. shingle for 

shindle ; Lat. scindula, a shingle] 

SHINGLETON (Eng.) a-palatal form of Single- 
ton, q.v. 

SHINKINS for Jenkins, q.v. 




SHINN, a weak form of Sheen, q.v. 

There may have been confusion with 
Chinn, q.v. The name can hardly be the 
O.E. scinnifl, ' demon,' ' spectre.' , 

SHINNER (Eng.) Wizard, Magician [O.E. 

SHIP \ (Eng.) Dweller at the sign of the Ship 
SHIPP; [O.E. s«>] 

SHIPHAM » (Eng.)Bel.toShiphara;or Dweller 
SHIPPAM J at the Sheep-Encbosure [O.E. 
sc^ap, scip + hamm, eliclosure] 
SHIPLEE 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Shipley; or Dweller 
SHI PLEY J at the Sheep-Lea [O.E. scSap, scip 

, +UaK\ 
A Hampshire charter a.d. 909 has 't6 
scipUage' (dat. form). 

The Yorks Shipley occurs as Scipeleia in 
Domesday-Book. ' 

SHIPMAN (Eng.) I Sailor, Skipper [M.E. 

s{c)hip'man, O.E. scipmann\ 

A shipman was ther, wonynge [dwelling] 

fer by waste ; 

For aught I woot he was of Dertemouthe. 

—Chaucer, Prol. Cant. Tales, A 388-9. 

(occ.) 2 Sheep - Man, i.e. Shepherd 

[O.E. sceap, scip + mann\ 

SHIPPARD \ (Eng.) r Shepherd [O.E. 
SHIPPERD / sctphierde] 

3 for Shipwardi q.v. 

SHIPPER (Eng,) Sailor [M.E. s{c)hippere, O.E. 

SHIPPEY ^ Sheppey, q.v. 

SHIPSTER (Eng.) i Steersman, Pilot [O.E. 


2 Barge-Woman [=Shippep,but with 

the fem. agent, suff. -ster, O.E. -estre] 

SHIPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shipton, 13th - 14th 
cent. Shipton, Schipton = the Sheep-Farm 
[O.E. sceap, scip, sheep + tun, enclosure, 

farm, etc.] 
Cp. Shepton and Skipton. ^ ' 

SHIPWARD (Eng.) Shipmaster, Skipper 
[O.E. scipw{e)ard\ 

SHIPWASH (Eng.) Dweller at a Sheep- Wash 
[O.E. sc4apwasce, place for washing sheep] 

SHIPWAY = Shepway, q.v. 


for Sheapd, q.v. 

SHIRE (Eng.) i Dweller at a Shire \^..'S,.shire, 
, schire ; OiE. scir^ district, parish, diocese] 

Gregory atte Shire. — 

Cal. Wills Ct. Husting, A.D. 1397. 

2 = Shore, q.v. [cp. Dial. E. jAw, clear] 

SHI REMAN (Eng.) Official; Steward; 

Sheriff; Native of a Shire or District 

[O.E. sclr(e)mann] 

In Eastern England ' Shireman ' denotes 
one who is not a native of Norfolk, Suffolk, 
or Essex. 

SHIRES, genit. of Shire, g.v. , 

SHIRLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Shirley ; or Dweller at 
I the Bright or White Lea [O.E. scir -h 


2 the Shire- or Parish-Lea [O.E. scir, 

district, parish, shire] 

-Shirley, Hants, was Shirle, a.d. 1326-7; 
Shirley, Derby, was Scherlay in the late 
14th cent. 

Cp. Sherley. 

SHIRREFF = Sherrlff, q.v. 

SHI RTCLI FF(E \ (Eng.) Dweller at the White 
SHIRTLIFF(E J or Shining Cliff [O.E. scir 

+ clif] 
This is specifically a Yorks surname, 
found as Shirclyf a.d. 1379 and Sheircliffe 
and Sherclyffin the early 17th cent. 

SHMITH for Smith, q.v. [the -h- is prob. due 
to German influence] 

SHOBBROOK \ (Eng.) Bel. to Shobrooke 
SHOBROOK J (Devon) [the first element is 
doubtful ; but the occurrence of Sholbrook 
and Sholebrook, and the analogy of 
> Woburn (O.E. wdh, crooked), make it prob. 
that it represents the O.E. scedlh, crooked, 
if not M.E. shold, O.E. scedld, shallow] 

SHOEBRIDGE (Eng.) Dweller at (app.) the 
Sheep-Ridge [O.E. scedp + hrycg] 

SHOEBROOK = Sho(b)brook, q.v. 

SHOESMITH \(Eng.) Farrier [O.E. scd{h, , 
SHOOSMITH J shoe -1- smip, smith] 

SHOLTO (Celt.) The available evidence is 
not sufficient to show whether this name 
is f. Gael, and Ir. siolta, a teal, sioltaich, a. 
goosander, or f. sial, m., seed, race, clan, 
with the plen. suff. -tach. 

SHONE, an Irish form (Seon) of John, q.v. 

SHOOLBRED (Eug.) School-Bred; a nick- 
name dating irom days when education 
was not so widespread [a palatal form of 
' school' (cp. Ger. schule, school), M.E. scale, 

Lat. schold] 

SHOPP (Eng.) Dweller at a Shop [O.E. 
sceoppa, a stall, booth] 

SHORE (Eng.) . Dweller at the Shore or 

Strand [M.E. schore \ prob. f. O.E. 

, . sc(f)orian, to project] 




(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at the Sewer or 
Drain [O.Fr. sewiere, a sluice, channel; 
essouere, a drain, ditch] 
Robert del Shore. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1374. 

SHOREDITCH (A.-Fr. + E.) Bel. to Shore- 
ditch, 14th cent. Shordych(e = the Sewer- 
Ditch [v. under Shore", and + M.E. 
dych(e, dich{e, O.E. d{c\ 
To the soutere of Southwerk, 
Or of Shordyche dame Emme^ — 

Piers Plowman, 8707-8, 
The author of the old ballad 'Jane 
Shore' believed that Shoreditch owed its 
name to Edward the Fourth's favourite 
mistress ! — 
The which now, since my dying daye, 
Is Shoredttch call'd, as writers saye. — 

l.l- 133-4- 

SHOREHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Shoreham (Kent : 

A.D. 822 Scorham ; Sussex : a.d. 1315-16 

Shoreham \ {—O.'ii. skor), a score, 

notch, cleft, rift -J- hamim, an enclosure] 

SHORLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Shore- 
Land [v. Shore', and -t- M.E. O.E. land] 

SHpRROCK (Eng,) Bel. to Shorrock (Lanes), 
13th cent. Shorrok [doubtful : perh. f. the 
pp., scoren (shorn, precipitous), of O.E. 
seeran, to shear, cut -f- M.E. rok, O.E. -rocc, 

a rock] 

SHORT "1 (Eng.) Little [M.E. s(f)hort, O.'E. 
SHORTTj scl,e)ori\ 

See the note under Shorting. 

In Ireland, ' Short ' has sometimes been 
used to represent the synonymous Ir. 
Gearr (or McGirr). 

SHORTALLl (Eng.) Dweller at the SHORT 
SHORTELL/NoOK [O.E. sc(e)ort, short -|- 

heal(h, nook] 

SHORTER (Eng.) (the) Littler [compar. of 


SHORTHOSE (Eng.) a nickname from Short 

Hose [O.E. sc(e)ort, short -t- hosa, pi. hosan, 

hose, stockings] 

SHORTING (Eng.) Dweller at the Short 
Meadow [O.E. ic(e)ort, short -|- O.North. 
and East.E. ing (O.N. eng), meadow] 
There does not seem to be any record 
of the use of sc(e)ort as a pers. name 
among the Anglo-Saxons (the Scoria quoted 
by Searle, 'Onomas. A.-Sax.', p. 41 1, is due 
to his mistaking the ordinary adjective in 
a local name for a proper name), although 
there is, of course, no reason why it should 
not have be^n used as a nickname (cp. 
\ 'Pepin le Bref ') ; and this fact makes it 
improbable that the second element in 
' Shorting ' is the O.E. 'son' suffix. On the 
other hand, there are various instances of 
its use in A,-Sax. local names ; and Mr. 

E. H. H. Shorting of Broseley, Salop, has 
given me the forms Shorting, Shortinge, 
Shortyng, Shortyn^e, as occurring in i6th- 
cent. East-Anglian deeds. 

SHORTIS, Short's (Son): v. Short. 

SHOTBOLT (Eng.) a nickname for a Cross- 
bowman [f. O.E. scedtan, to shoot -|- holt] 

Thomas Shotbolt. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1456-7. 

SHOTT (Eng.) i Dweller at a Nook or Corner 
[Dial. E. sh6t{t ; O.E. scedt, a corner, pro- 
2 Quick, Ready [O.E. sceSt] 

SHOTTER (Eng.) i = Shott' (q.v.) + the 
agent, suff. -er. 

2 Shooter [f.O.E. scedtan, to shoot ; with 
the £. agent, suff. -er] 
There has prob. been some confusion 
with Shorter, q.v. 

SHOTTON (Eng.) Bel. to Shotton = the No6k- 

Farm [v. under Shott', and -|- O.E. tun, 

farm, estate, etc.] 

The Northumberland place occurs as 

Shotton A.D. 1269-70. 

SHOUBRIDGE, V. Shoebridge. 

SHOULDHAM, v. Shuldham. 

SHOULDING, a palatal form of Scolding, q.v. 

SHOVEL (Scand.) for the O^Scand. Sjdvald-r= 
Sea-Rijler [O.N. sjS-r, sea+vald-r, ruler] 

SHOVELLER 1 (Eng.) Shoveller (of Corn, 

SHOULER \&cA [M.E. schovel, show(e)l, 

SHOWLER J O.E. scofl, a shovel+the agent. 

suff. -er, O.E. -ere] 

SHOWELL (Eng.) i Bel. to Showell (Oxon), 
A.D. 1238-9 Shuwell = the Dark Well 
[O.E. scu{w)a, shadow, darkness -|-w(i)eWa, 

a spring] 
2 = Shewell, q.v. 


SHREVE \ = Sherplff, q.v. 


SHRE;WSBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Shrewsbury, 
the A.-Sax. Scrobbesburh — Scrobb's 
Stronghold [the pers. name (in the 
genit.) is a masc. var. of O.E. scrybh, 
underwood + burh, a fortified place] 
Richard, the son of Scrob, as well as 
Richard's son Osberti, held lands under 
King Eadward in the counties of Hereford, 
Worcester, and Salop. — 

Lapp.-Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, ii. 311. 

SHRIMPTON (Eng.). Littleseems to be known 
of the surname (fairly common in Oxford- 
shire) beyond the apparent fact that 
"from the reign of James L to that of 




[ for Shob(b)rook, q.v. 

George III. sixteen mayors of Wycombe 
[Bucks] bore this name." It may denote 
'the Farm or Estate of Shrimp,' a nickname 
[IM.E. shrimp, a shrimp ; f. O.E. scrimman, 
' to be drawn up or bent (of limbs '] ; but 
not imposs. a corrupt (metathesized) form 
of a name like Shervinton. 

SHROSBREE for Shrewsbury, q.v. 

SHRUBSOLE (Eng.) If the modern form may 
be trusted (early forms seem to be 
lacking) the name denotes ' the Shrubby 
Marsh' or ' Moss' [f. a var. of O.E. scrybb, 
underwood + O.E, sol, mud, a moss or 
boggy place (Kent. dial, sole, a muddy 


SHUBOTHAM, prob. a contr. of Shuffle- 
both am, q.v. 


SHUFFLEBOTHAM "1 (Eng.) Bel. to Shuffle- 
SHUFFLEBOTTOM I bottom or Shipple- 
bottom (Lanes), A.D. 1323 Shipwallebothum, 
A.D. 1285 Schipwallebothon, Schyppewalle- 
hothem, and Schyppewellehothem = the 
Sheep-Well Valley [O.E. sclp, sheep 
+ welle, a well, spring + hotm, a bottom, 


SHUFFREY, a sibilated form of GeolTpey, q.v. 

SHULDHAM 1 (Scand. + E.) Bel. to Should- 

SHULDAM jham (Norf.), 13th cent. Shuld- 

ham = Skiold's Home or Estate [O.N. 

skiold-r, Dan.-Norw. skiold (with sk- before 

i palatalized to sh-), a shield + M.E. ham, 

O.E. hdm(p.N. heim-r), home, &c.] 

Prior' de Shuldham. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1250-1. 

SHUR(R)EY, app. a form of Surrey, q.v. 

SHUTE 1 (Eng.) i Dweller at a Shoot or 

SHUTT J Shut, i.e. a narrow lane or avenue 

[Dial. E. shoot, shut; f. O.E. sceStan, to 

shoot, riin (of a road] 

2 Archer [O.E. scytta\ 

3 Quick, Ready [O.E. scedtl 
Cp. Cockshoot ; and Shott. 

SHUTER (Eng.) Shooter ; Archer [O.E. 

SHUTTLEWORTH(Eng.) Bel. to Shuttleworth 
(Lanes), 14th cent. Shutelesworth, 13th cent. 
Shyotlesworth = Scytel's Estate [the 
pers. name is f. the O.E. scytel, m., a dart, 
missile (E. sfiuttle) + O.E. wor^, estate, 

farm, etc.] 

SHYLOCK is app. a shortened form of the M.E. 
Schyrlok (Hund. Rolls), i.e. White Hair 
[O.E. sclr, bright, white + locc, lock of hair; 

hair] and prob. has nothing to do with the 
M.E. Syloch, which represents the A.-Sax. 
Sigeldc, ' Victorious Contest.' 

SIBARY, V. Slbery. 

SIBB I a contr. of Sibyl, Sibil, Fr. Sibille, Ital. 
Sibilla, Lat. Sibylla, GT.Xt^v\U, a Sibyl or 
prophetess [the deriv. from the stem of the 
Lacon. ZhSs for Attic Geiis, God, and a weak 
dial, form of Attic /3o»Xi}, counsel, is not 
universally accepted] 

2 for the A.-Sax. Sib{b)a, f. (a) A.-Sax. 
j/JJ.relationship.peace, happiness (whence 
E. sib, a relation) ; (6) a pet contr. of the 
Sigeb- names, such as Sigeb(.e)ald (v. Sib- 
bald"), Sigeber{h)t (v. Sebright'), Sigeboda 
(v. Slbbott>). 

SIBBALD (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. Sigeb{e)ald = 
Victoriously Bold [O.E. sige = O.Sax. 
O.H.Ger. sigi = Goth, sigi-s = O.N. Jie-r, 
victory -|- O.E. b{e)ald = O.Sax. O.H.Ger. 
bald = Goth. *bal^-s = O.N. ball-r, bold] 
2 the A.-Sax. SdRb{.e)ald = Sea-Bold 
[O.E. sA = O.Sax. O.H.Ger. sSo = Goth. 
saiw-s = O.N. sA-r, sea + bald, as above] 

A SAbald is recorded in the A.-Saxon 
genealogies as a descendant of Woden 
and a progenitor of the kings of Deira. 

SIBBERING. The earliest forms of this name 
that Mr.G.T. Sibbering,of Newport (Mon.), 
has succeeded in tracing axeSybbering, a.d. 
1643, and Sibbring, a.d. 1655. Phonetically, 
the name could represent an A. - Sax. 
Sigeburhing (with the ' son ' suff -ing); but 
Si^eJMrAisa fem. name. He finds the ndme 
Sidbrincke in 1560, Sydbrinche, in 1569 and 
Sidbrinkeini6og; Sibbrinke in i62/i. These 
surnames, which are app. local names 
of Continental Teut. origin, may be the 
originals of Sibbering. 




Cp. Sibbot(t. 

SIBBOT 1 I = Sibb (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
SIBBOTT J suff. -ot. 

Cp. Sibbet(t. 

2 for the A.-Sax. Sigebod{a (LowGer. and 

■ Fris. Sibod) = Victorious Messenger 

[O.E. sige, victory -|- boda, messenger] 

SIBBS, Sibb's (Son): V. Sibb. 

SIBERY (Eng.) i for the A.-Sax. fem. pers. 
name Sigeburh = Victorious StRjOng- 
hold [O.E. sige, victory -1- burh, a fortified 


• - Sibb (q.v.) -1- the Fr. dim. suff. 


2 for SIdbury, q.v. 




SIBLEY= Sibyl or Sibil (v. under Sibb') + the 
E. dim. suff. -y, -ie. 
Thomas Sihe\y.—Hund. Rolls- 
Geoffrey Sibilie.^ do. 

SIBLING (Eng.) Kinsman [O.E. sibbling] 

SIBORNE (ScandJ the O. Scand. SigbVam = 
Victorious Bear [O.N. sig-r, victory + 

biBm, bear] 

(Eng.) the A.-Sax. Sigebeorn = Victori- 
ous Warrior [O.E. sige, victory + beam, 


The A. - Saxon name was used as an 
equivalent of the Norse name. 


SIBREE = Sibery, q.v. 


SIBSON I Sib(b)'s Son: v. SIbb. 
Thomas Sibson. — 

Yorlis Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

2 Bel. to Sibson or Sibston = Sibbe's 

Farm oV Estate [v. under Sibb', and + 

O.E, tuti] 
But the Leicester Sibson was formerly 
Sibstone, and the second element may be 
O.E. sldn, a ' rock,' ' stone castle.' 

SIBTHORPE (Eng.) Bel. to Sibthorpe (Notts), 

13th cent. Sybethorp, Sibbeth0rp=SiB{B)A's 

Estate [v. under Sibb', and + O.E. )forp, 

, farm, estate] 

SICKELMORE\(Eng.) Dweller at (app.) 

SICKLEMORE I Sicel's orSicoL's Moor [for 

the see under Sioklinghall, and 

+ M.E. more, O.E. mdr, a moor] 

Poss. the place is the Suflolk hamlet 
Sicklesmere ; but some, at any rate, of the 
Sickelmores may owe their name to the 
Staffs Silkmore;, in Domesday Selchmore, 
14th cent. Silkemor, Selkemer, Selkmore, 
doubtless representing a.nA.-Sa.x.*Seolcan- 
mSr = Seolca's Moor [pers. name a nick- 
name f. O.E. seolc, m., silk] 

SIOKLINGHALL (Eng.) Bel. to SickHnghall 
(Yorks), the Domesday SicKw^-a/, O.Angl. 
*Sicolinga-hall = the Hall of the Sicol 
FAMlLYfthe pers. name is evid. a nickname 
from O.E. sicol (Lat. secula),m.,z. sickle -|- 
-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + ball, 

a hall] 

SICKMAN (Eng. or Scand.) Sike-Ma'n [Dial. 
E. sick, ' a small stream or rill ' ; O.E. sic 
= O.N. sik, a ditch, watercourse] 
Ricardus Sykman. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SI D B U RY(Celt. -|- Eng.) Bel. to Sidbury (Castle) 
(Devon: a.d. 1337-8 Sydebiry) = the 
Stronghold on the R. Sip [the river- 
name is prob. Ce|t. and conn, with Wei. 

sid, a winding: 1- O.'E. burh, a fortified 

* place] 

(Eng.) Bel. to Sidbury (Salop, Wilts, 

&c.) = the Broad or Big Fortification 

[O.E. sid -f burJi] 

SIDDALL \ (Eng.) i Bel. to Siddall ; or Dwel- 
SIDDELL J ler at {a) the Wide Dale [O.E. sid 

+ dceh 
, (6) the Wide Nook or Corner [O.E! 

sid -I- heal{h~\ 
The Yorks Siddall was Sydall a.d. 1379, 
as was the Lanes place a.d. 1548. 

2 the A.-Sax. pers. name S!ife/= Broad, 
Big [O.E. sid, wide, big -1- the dim. suff. 

SIDDALLS, pi., and genit., of Siddall, q.v. 
Thomas de Sidales. — 

Lane. Ing., A.D. 1323, , 

SIDDELEY I (Eng.)Bel.toSid(d)ley; orDwel- 
SIDDLEY Ueratthe Broad Lea [O.E.sid+ 
SIDLEY J ledh] 

SIDDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Siddington, the 
A.-Sax. *Sidinga-tlin = the Estate of the 
Sid(a Family [the pers. name is f. O.E. sid, 
broad, big, or O.E. sidu, chastity + -inga, 
genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + tun, estate, 

Richard de Sidinton. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 

SIDDON (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Sidon, f. 

(with dim., or accus., suff. -o)n) the O.Teut. 

Sido [prob. f. the stem sid-, seen in O^Sax. 

and O.E. sidu = Goth, sidu-s, m., custom, 

habit, (also) chastity] 

(Eng.) Bel. to Siddon or Sidon = the 

Broad Hill [O.E.«W, broad -f- dtin, a hill] 

There is a Sidon Hill in Hants. 

SIDDONS, Sid(d)on's (Son) : v. Siddon. 

SIDE (Eng.) Broad, Big [M.E. side, O.E. sid] 

SIDEBOTTOM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Sidebottom ; 

SIDEBOTHAM (or Dweller at the Broad 

Valley [O.E. sid, broad -f botm, a bottom, 

The name occurs iii i5th-cent. Cheshire 
records as Sidbothom, Sidebotham. 
Cp. Longbottom. 
SIDES, Side's (Son): v. Side. 

SID(E)MAN (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Sideman [the 
first element here is rather O.E. side- (as 
in sidefull,c\izsie., respectable, good),f. sidu, 
chastity, than O.E.,j/rf, broad: cp. the 
corresp.O.N. «1Sa-»ja'S-r,'a well-bred man'] 




13th cent, (de) Sydegreves, Sidegreves — 
the Wide Groves [O.E. sld + grcefas\ 

SIDGWICK = Sedgwick, q.v. 

SIDLESHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Sidlesham (Suss.), 
7th cent. Sideleshdm = Sidel's Home [v. 
under Siddell', and + O.E. hdm, home, 


S I D N EY (A.-Fr.-Lat. &c.) i for the Lat. Stdoni-us 
(Ital. Sidonio) = Sidonian, Phcenician [f. 
the Phoenician port Sidon, Gr. 'ZiSiv, Heb. 
Tsiddn; commonly said to denote a fishing- 
station ( " the fish at Zidon were as 
numerous as grains of sand"), f. the root 
tsudh, to lay snares ; but ace. to Josephus 
the port owed its name and origin to Sidon 
the firstborn of Canaan {Gen. x. 15] 

2 Bel. to St. Denys or St. Denis (Nor- 
mandy) [v. under Dennis] 

St. Denis is a common French ecclesias- 
tical village-name; and it is doubtless the 
preponderating source of 'Sidney.' 

Will'us Sidney. — 

Inq. a. q. Damn., A.D. 1324-5. 

Will'us Sydney.— 

Rot. Chart., A.D. 1446-7. 

SI DWELL (Eng.) Bel. to Sidwell (Hants; 
Devon) = the Broad Well , [O.E. sid + 

Cp. Bradweil. 

SIEBERT, a French form of the Teut. Sigebert: 
V. under Sebright'. 

SlEMMSl _ „!,„= n„ 
SIEMS } - S'"'^' "l-'- 

SIEVEKING seems to be for the O.Norse 
SiiSviking-r, denoting one belonging to 
SflS(a)vik [O.N. sOS-r, south + vtk, inlet, 


SIEVER (Scand.) the Norse Siver, Syver for 

Stgvard, O.Norse Sigvar'S-r, Sigvor'S-r = 

Victorious Guard [O.N. sig-r, victory+ 

vSi^-r, guard] 

SIEVEWRIGHT (Eng.) Sieve-Maker [O.E. ■ 

sife + wyrhtd\ 
SIGG (Teut.) I a contr. of one or other of the 
numerous Teut. Sig- names [O.Teut. sig-, ' 


An 8th-cent. Bishop of Selsey, Sigefrith, 
was familiarly known as Sigga, which also 
occurs as an O.Dan, name ; the fdrra in 
the i3th-cent. Hundred-Rolls (Norf.) being 

2 Man, Warrior [f. O.N. segg-r— O.E. 

SIGGER, a form of Seger, Segar(q.v.), esp. 2. 


I Silcock's (Son), 

SIGGIN (Teut.) for the O.Teut. Sigeixiine, 
Sigwin, &c. = Victorious Friend [O.E. , 
sige = O.Sax.O.H.Ger. sigi = O.N. sig-r 
(=Goth. sigi-s), victory -|- O.E. wine = 
O.Sax. O.H.Ger. wini = O.N. uin-r, friend] 
Sigewine occurs in the Liber Vitse Dunelm. 

SIGGINS, SiGGlN's(Son). 

SIGGS, Sigg's (Son): v. Sigg. 

SIKES, V. the commoner form Syl<es. 

SILCOCK = Sil(l, q.v. 4- the E. pet suff. -cock. 
In the Yorks Poll-Tax, a.d. 1379, we 
find the forms Silcok, Silkok, Sylkok. 


SILK "1 (Eng.&c.') a nickname and trade-name 
SILKE J from the material [O.E. seoloc, seolc 
= O.N. silki; of East, orig.] 
Cp. Cotton. 

We find the pers. name Sylc, Seolc{a, in 
A.-Saxon times ; and here the possibility 
of the name being f. O.E. seolQi, m., a seal 
(animal), with the dim. suff. -oc, cannot be 

SILKI N = Sil(l, q.v. -f- the E. dim. suff. -kin 

[O.LGer. -k-in\ 

SILKMAN = Silk, q.v. -)- E. man. 
Thomas Silkman. — 

Chse Rolls, A.D. 1377. 

SILKSWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Silksworth (Dur- 
ham), loth cent. Sylceswyr'S = Sylc's 
Farm or Estate [v. under Silk, and + 
O.E. wyt^, weor^, farm, etc.] 

SILL, a contr. of i Silvester, q.v. 

2 Silvanus, q.v. 

3 Cecil, q.v. 

IIller) = ®®"*''' ^^"^''' "i"- 

SILLIFANT, a West. Eng. form of Sullivan, 

SILLIMAN : V. under Seel(e)y,and -f- E. man, 
O.E. mann. 

The corresponding German name is 

S1LLIT0(E : V. Slli|lito(e. 
SILLS I Sill's (Son) : v. Sill. 

(pec.) 2 a var. of Sells, q.v. 
SILLSON, Sill's Son: v. Sill. 

Silvanus, god of forests ; f. silva, a wood, 

forest] ' 



SILVERLOCK (Eng.) With Silver (white) 
Hair [O.E. silfer, seolfor, silver + locc, 


SILVERMAN, an Anglicization of the Ger. 
SlLBERMANN, q.v. in the Appendix of 
Foreign names. 

SILVERSIDE (Eng.) Bel. to Silverside; or 

Dweller at the White (Hill-) Side [Dial. 

E. silver, white ; O.E. seolfor, silver + E. 

side, O.E. side"] 

John de Sylversyd. — 

Preston Guild-Soils, A.D. 1397. 

SILVERS! DES, pi., and genit., of Silverside. 

SILVERSTONE (Eng.) Bel. to Silverstone; or 

Dweller at the White Stone or Rock 

[Dial. E.iiter, white; O.E. seolfor, silver + 

O.E. stdn, stone, rock, stone castle] 

But Silverstone, Northants, occurs in 
Domesday-Book as Silvestone and Selve- 

This name is often an Anglicization of 
the Ger. Silberstein, q.v. in the Appendix 
of Foreign Names. 

SILVERTHORN \ (Eng.) Dweller by a 

SILVERTHORNE J White Thorn [DiaL E. 

silver, white; O.E. seolfor, silver + O.E. 

forw, thorn-tree] 

SILVERWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at a W'hite 
Wood (as of silver-birches) [Dial. E. silver, 
white ; O.E. seolfor, silver -i^ O.E. wudu, a 


SILVESTER (Lat.) Bel. to a Wood ; Wild 
[Lat. Silvester, f. silva, a wood, forest] 

The form in the 13th - cent. Hundred- 
Rolls was usually Silvestre. 

SIM, a dim. of Simon, Simeon, q.v. 
Thomas Symme. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Bayth Sym and his bruder. — 

Symmie and his Bruder, 10. 

SIMBARB (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Ste. Barbe 

(Normandy) [Barbe is a French form of 

Barbara : v. under Babb'] 

This name was Latinized de Sancta 

SIMCOCK = Sim (q.v.) -f the E. pet sufi. 

In the 14th cent, we find the forms 
Simecok and Symekok. 


SIME, like Sim, a dim. of Simon, Simeon, 

Nowlhir Syme nor his bruder.— 

Symmie and his Bruder, 20. 

SIMEON (Heb.) the Heb. Shim'6n (Gr. Su/teiii') 
[f. the root shdma', to hear] 

' j Simcock's (Son). 

And Leah . . . bare a son, and said. 
Because the Lord hath heard . . . 

— Gen., xxix. 32-3. 

And }>4 waes &.n man pn Hierusalem, 
Jjses nama waes Simedn- 

— St. Luke, ii. 25, A.-Sax. vers. 

?Sor [there] cam Sat brotSer Symeon. — 
I3th-cent. metr. vers. Gen. and Ex., 2266. 

SIMES, Sime's (Son) : v. SIme. 

SIMEY = Si me (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y. 
Bot quhair that Symy levit in synyng. 

— Symmie and his Bruder, i^-' 

SIM ISTER(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Summary- or Precis- 
Writer [M.E. sUmmister, summayster, &c. ; 
O.Fr. som, Lat. summa, sum, main point 
+ O.Fr. maistre, Lat. magister, master] 

(Eng.) Sempstress, Dressmaker [O.E. 


SIMKIN = Sim (q.v.) -J- the E. (double) dim. 
suff. -kin [O.Low Ger. -fe-j»] 

SIMKINS, Simkin's (Son) "1 c:™i,:„ 
SIMKINSON, Simkin's SpNj '^^ =»""'^'"- 

SIMM, like Sim, a dim. of Simon, Simeon, 

SIMMANCElr„, e:„^„„= „„ 
SIMMINS )for Simmons, q.v. 

SIMMOND I (with the common post -« intrus. 
'-d) for Simon, Simeon, q.v. 

2 V. Simond''. 


I Simmon(d)'s (Son). 
SIMMS, SIMM's (Son): v. SImm. 

I for Sumner, q.v. 

■■ Simonett, q.v. 



SIMON I a form of Simeon, q.v. The 
Heb. name seems eventually to have be- 
come confused with the Gr. nickname 
Sim6n (St/idx), 'snub-nosed.' 

. . . and his broSru lacob, and Joseph, 
and Simon. — 

St. Matthew, xiii. 55, A.-Sax. vers. 

2 There has been some confusion with 
Simond', q.v. 

SIMOND I (with the common post -» intrus. -4) 
for Simon, Simeon, q.v. 

2 for the A.-Sax. Sigemund and O.N. 
Sigmund, Domesday Simund = Victori- 
ous Protector [O.E. sige — O.N. sigr, 
victory-i-O.E.O.N. mund, hand, protector] 

Corresponding to the Sigemunt of the 




V. Sim. 

SIWIONDS, SwoND's (Son). 

SIMONETT = Simon (q.v.) + the Fr.Aim.-et. 

SIIVIONS, Simon's (Son) ) „. 
SIIV10NS0N, Simon's Son \ ^- ^""O"- 

SIIVIPKIN (with the common post-wj intrus. -p) 
for Siml<in, q.v. 

SIMPKINS, SiMPKiN's(Son) \ v. Simpkin, 
SIMPKINSON, Simpkin'sSon; Simkin. 

SIMPLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) 1 Simple [Fr. simple; 

Lat. simplex] 
(occ.) 2 for Semple, Sample, q.v. 

SIMPSON (with the common post-»j intrus. 
■p) for Simson, q.v. 

SIMS, Sim's (Son) 1 
SIMSON, Sim's Son; 

SINCLAIR (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to St. Clair 

(several in Normandy) [Fr. clair, Lat. 

clar-us, clear, bright, illustrious] 

This name was Latinized in mediaeval 
deeds de Sancto Claro. 

SINCOCK for Simcock, q.v. 

SINCOX for Simcox, q.v. 

Iindell} ^^"^^ °f Sendall for Sandall, q.v. 

SINGLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Single, Lonely; Pure, 

' Simple, Innocent [M.E. and Dial. E. 

single, singel, sengel, etc. ; O.Fr. sengle, 

single,etc.; Lat. singul-us, single, separate] 

SINGLEHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Singlehurst 
[the second element is M.E. hurst, O.E. 
hyrst, a wood, copse : the first may be 
M.E. singeHScaad. sing(e)t)i shingle; M.E. 
single, sipgle (cp. the Suss, place-name 
Singlecross) ; or the pers. name seen in 


SINGLETON (Eng.) Bel. to Singleton (Lanes: 
1 2th cent. Singelton, Domesday SzK^fe<«« ; 
Sussex : a.d. 1337-8 Singleton) [the first 
element seems to be the A.-Sax, pers. 
name Sengel, occurring in a charter dated 
A.D. 664 in the wood -name Senglesholt, 
which has been identified with Singlesole, 
Canibs (this charter, 'Cart. Sax.' no. 22, 
may not, however, be genuine) ; the pers. 
name prob. being conn, with O.E. singal, 

constant, persevering: f- O.E. <ji«, farm, 

estate, etc.] 

SINKING for Simkins, q.v. 

SINKINSON for Simkinson, q.v. 

SINNETT ■) (A.-Fr.-Lat.) I Love [f.Lat. s/«-aj, 
SINNITT 1^ love, affection, bosom ; with the 
SINNOTTJ Fr. dim. suff. -ei, -0;] 

2 conf. with Sennetti Sk-, q.v. 

(occ.) (Eng.) descendants (esp. Sinnott) 

of the A.-Sax. pers. name Sigen&S = 

Victorious Boldness [O.E. sige, victory 

+ nSS, boldness] 

SIRE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Lord, Master [A.-Fr. sire, 
O.Fr. senre ; Lat. senior, older] 

John le Sire. — Hund. Rolls. 

SIRED 1 (Teut.) Victorious Counsel 
SIRET \ [O. Teut. Sig{e)red,Sigie)rad, &c.— 
SI RETT J O.E. sige= O.Sax. O.H.Ger. sigi 
= O.N. sig-r, victory 4- O.E. rckd = O.Sax. 
rdd = O.H.Ger. rdt = O.N. ra'S, counsel] 
Sigered was a common A.-Saxon name, 
sometimes found in the shortened form 
Sired, the latter being also a frequent 
Domesday form. The forms in the 13th- 
cent. Hundred-Rolls are Sired, Syred, Syrad. 
The fem. pers. names SigrtS [Scand.: 0!N. 
sig-r, victory -|- a deriv. of ri^a, to ride] 
and Sigrida or Sigreda [Latinized forms of 
the A.-Sax. Sigelpry]>—sigg, victory -1- l>ryl>, 
strength] have had little or no surnominal 

(A,-Fr.-Lat.) = Sire (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -et. 

SIRES, (the) Sire's (Son) : v. Sire. 

SIRRELL I like Serrell, a var. of Serle, q.v. 

2 poss. there has been some confusion 

with Cyril, Fr. Cyrille, Gr. Kyrillos (KiptWos) 

[f. Gr. Kipios, a lord, master] 

SISON 1 (A.-rr.-Lat.) 1 Siss's or Ciss's Son: 

SISSON J Ciss, a dim. of Cicdy or Cecilia [Lat. 

Ceecilia, fem. of Cacilius; app.f.Lat. ctscus, 


2 a double dim. of Cicely or Cecilia [Fr. 
dim. suff. -on'] 

In theYorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379, we find 
the variant surnominal forms Sisson, 
Cisson, and Cysson, 

Larchey, 'Diet, des Noms' (p. 442), con- 
siders Sisson to be a derivative of Francis, 
which does not seem very probable. 

SISSERSON for Sister>son,q.v. 

SISSISSON for Sissotson, q.v. 

SISSONS, Sisson's (Son) : v. Sisson'. 

SISSOT = Siss or CiSs (v. under Sis(s)on)-f- 
the Fr. di;m. suff. -ot. 

SISSOTSON, Sissot's Son. 

SISTERSON (Eng.) Sister's or Nun's Son: 

[M.E. systeTi O.E. sweostor, sister, nun + 

M.E. sone, O.E. sunu, son] 

There seems to have been confusion 
with Sissotson, q.v. 

SITTQN, a weak form of Seaton, q.v. 




SIVEWRIGHT = Sievewr-ight, q.v. 
SIVIER I (Eng.) I Sieve-Maker. 
SIVYER J ^Qgg ) 2 (Grain-) Sifter [M.E. siviere, 
etc. ; f. M.E. sive, O.E sife, a sieve] 
Ralph le Siviere. — Hjind. Rolls. 

SIVIERS ■) (the) Sivier's or Sivyer's (Son) : 
SIVYERSJ V. Sivier, &c. 

SIWARD (Teut.) i Victorious Guard or 
Protector [O.Teut. Sigew(e)ard, Sig{i)- 
ward, SigurS-r, &c. : O.E. sige — O.Sax. 
O.H.Ger. sigi = O.N. sig-r = Goth, sigi-s, 
victory -|- O.E. w{e)ard = O.Sax. ward = 
O.H.Ger. wart = O.N. vorS-r = Goth. 
wardia, ward, guard, etc.] 

Eadulf, Earl of Northumbria, a relation 
of Harthacnut, had been received by him 
virith feigned friendship, and was at his 
command murdered by Siward (Sigeweard), 
on whom that powerful earldom was after- 
wards bestowed.— 

Lapp.-Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, ii. 279. 

2 conf. with Seaward, q.v. 

SIXSMITH (Eng.) Sickle-Smith [O.E. sicol+ 

John Sykelsmith. — Cal. Ing. P.M. 

SIZER(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Assizer, Juror; Sizar 

[f. O.Fr. assise, a judicial assembly, a tax, 

etc. ; Lat. assidere, to sit by] 

As sisours [var. sysoiirs^ and somonours 

Sherreves and hire [their] clerkes.-^ 

Piers Plowman, 998-99. 

SKAE (Celt.) Dweller by a Whitethorn-Tree 
[Gael, sgeach = Ir. sceacK\ 

SKAIFE = Sca(i)fe, q.v. 

In the 14th century this name is found 
in Yorkshire as Skayf (also 13th cent.), 
Scayf, Scayff, Scaif. 

SKANE, a var. of Skene, q.v. 

SKEAT 1 (Scand. and N. and East. Eng.) 
SKEATE I Swift, Quick [M.E. 5teJ(e, ifeef, 
SKEET J O.N. sMot-r = O.E. scioi\ 

Sket is the usual i3th-cent. East-Anglian 
form (as 'John Sket,' Norf.) ; and Skete 
occurs in Yorkshire in the 14th cent. 

Sket cam tiding in-til Ubbe 

That Havelok havede with a clubbe . . . 
— Lay of Havelok the Dane, 1926-7. 

In the glossary to 'Havelok' (ed. 1902) 
s.v. sket, the late Prof. Skeat says : "Cp. 
Icel. skjott, quickly, from skjBtr, quick, swift. 
The adj. is still preserved in the surname 
Skeat or Skeet." 

(occ.) 2 Shooter, Archer [O.N. skyii 
= 0.E. scytta] 

SKEATS, Skeat's (Son) : v. Skeat. 

SKEAVINGTON, v. Skefflngtjn. 

SKEEL 1 (Teut.) Crooked, Awry, Squinting 

SKELE J [O.N. skialg-r = O.E. sceolh = Dut. 

(and Ger.) scheet] 

IkEElP } Skeel's (Son): v. Skeel. 
SKEEN = Skene, q.v. 
SKEET = Skeat, q.v, 

SKEFFINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Skeffington 

gvcic), 13th cent. Skeftinton, Scheftinton, 
. Angl. *Sce(ajftinga-tun= the Estate of 
the Sce(a)ft- Family [0.(East.)E.jc^(a)/f 
( = Scand. skaft), a shaft, spear 4- -inga, 
genit. pi. of the fil. suS. -ing + tun, estate, 

farm, etc.] 

This name has evid. been influenced 
by the var. skepti (/> as/) of O.N. skapt, 'a 
shaft,' 'spear.' 

SKEGG (Scand.) Rough - Haired, Shaggy 
[the O.N. skegg, a beard (= O.E. sceaggw, 
nair), gave rise to the pers. names Skegg-r 

and Skeggi] 
Richard Skegge. — 

Chesh. ChmbrlnsWAccts., A.D. 1303-4. 

SKEGGS, Skegg's (Son): v. Skegg. 

SKELBECK (Scand.) Dweller at the Crooked 

Brook [O.N. skialg-r (= O.E. scMh) 

crooked -|- bekk-r, a brook] 

SKELDING, a form of Scolding, q.v. 

But the second element of the Yorks 
place-name Skelding may be the O.N. eng, 
a meadow. 

SKELETON, a corrupt form of Skelton, q.v. 

SKELLAN l (Celt.) Shield [Ir. Sce{a)llan,i. 
SKELLON 1 sceall, a shield -f the dim. suif. 


SKELLAND (Scand. or N.Eng.) Dweller at the 

Crooked (Piece of) Land [O.N. skialg-r 

= O.E. scMk, crooked -|- land] 

(Celt.) for Skellan, q.v. 

SKELLHORN "I (Scand. orN.Eng.) Dweller at 

SKELLORN J (app.) the Crooked Horn 

f-shaped piece of land) [O.N. skialg-r = 

O.E. scMh, crooked -)-Aor«, a horn, corner] 

SKELLY (Celt.) St^ry-Teller, Historian 

\\x. Scialaidhe (=Ga.e\. sgeulaiche), i. sc^al 

(also sc^ul), O.Ir. sc^l, a story, tale -|- the 

pers. suff. -aidhe] 

There seems to have been some con- 
fusion with Scully, q.v. 

SKELTON (Eng.) Bel. to Skelton— a Northern 
(guttural) form of Shelton, q.v. 

Two of the Yorks places were Scheltun 
and Scheltone in Domesday-Book, 




SKENE (Celt.) i Bel. to Skene (Aberdeen) 
[The place is prob. named from Loch 
Skene, as there is also a Loch Skene in 
Dumfriesshire (as well as a Lough Skean 
in Ireland); and as several lochs are narned 
from the colour of their water the connex- 
ion maybe with Gael. sgean(n, cleanliness, 
brightness, app. cognate with O.Norse 
skina = E. 'shine'] 

2 Squint-Eyed; Wild-Eyed [f. Gael. 
sgean, n., a squint, v. 'to look awry' = Ir. 
sgean, 'a wild or mad look' (M.Ir. seen, 

SKEPPER = Skipper, q.v. 

SKERRY (Scand.) Dweller at a Rocky Isle 
[O.N. sker, a rock + ey, an isle] 

SKETCH LEY (? Scand. + Eng.) Bel. to 
Sketchley (Leic), form. Skechley [the first 
element is app. a partly^ palatalized form 
of the O.N. pers. name Skakk-r = crooked 
(cp. the A.-Sax. pers. name SccBccd): — -t- 
M.E. ley, O.E. ledh, meadow] 
But early forms are desirable. 

SKETT = Skeat, q.v. 

SKEVINGTON = Skefflngton, q.v. 

SKEY (Celt.) = Skae, q.v. 

(Scand.) Dweller at a Promontory 

[O.N. skagi\ 

SKID BY (Scand.) Bel. to Skidby (E. Yorks), 

Domesday Sckitebi = Skyti's Estate 

[O.N. skytt (geriit. skyta), shooter, archer 

( = 0.E. scytta) + O.N. bS-r, estate, farm, 


SKIDMORE (Scand.) Bel. to Skidmoor, a.d 
1319 Skydemor [the first element is prob. 
that seen in Skidby -|- O.N. mdr, a moor, 


SKIFFINGTON ;= Skefflngton, q.v. 

We may compare the Leic. skip as a 
var. oiskep, 'basket', &c. (' Leic. Gloss.'p. 

SK I FTLI N G (Scand.) Changeling [a var. (with 

the dim. suff. -/) of the Dan.-Norw. ski/ting, 

a changeling ; f. siifte, O.N. skipta, to shift, 

change, etc.] 

This name occurs in the Yorks PoU- 
Tax A.D. 1379 as Skyftlyng and Skyffilyng. 

SKILBECK = Skelbeck, q.v. 



\ (Manx), early -1 6th -cent. 
SKILLICORNE I Skylycorne, Shillicorne, "a 
name peculiar to the Isle of Man, is 
puzzling : it is most prob. derived from a 
local name, nowforgottfen, beginning with 
the word sMUsi 'rock' [cp. Ir. scillec, 

'splinter of a stone']: we have Skellig and 
Cornaa separately among our local names, 
but not in combination." — Moore, Manx 
Names, p. 58. 

SKILLING,aNorth.orScand. form of Shilling, 

q.v. [cp. Dan.-Norw. skilling, a halfpenny, 

Swed. skilling, a farthing; f. O.N. skilling-r, 

m., (i) pi. money, (2) Shilling (the borrowed 

Gael, sgillinn = penny] 

SKILLMAN (A.-Scand.), found in the Eastern 
counties in the 13th cent, as Skileman, 
Skyleman, is evid. an Anglicized fbrm of 
the O.N. skila-maiS-r, 'trustworthy man'. 
[O.N. skil (genit. pi. skila)i discernment, 
knowledge, reason, etc; (E. skill) + ma'S-i; 


SKILTON = Skelton,q.v. 

SKINNER (A.-Scand.) Flayer (of Hides); 
HiDE-DEAtER ; Tanner [M.E. skynner{e, 
O.N. skinnari ; f. O.N. skinn, skin, fur] 
Robert le Skynnere. — 

Pari. Writs, A.D. 1302. 

SKIPP : the guttural form of Shipp, q.v. [O.N. 
skip=T)xA. schip (pron. almost skip), a ship] 

SKIPPER (Low Teut.) Shipmaster; orig. 
Sailor [M.E. skipper{e, Dan.-Norw- skipper 
= Swed. skeppare, shipmaster — O.N. 
skipari, sailor, seaman ; also Dut. schipper 
(pron. almost skipper), captain, master, 

Cp. Shipper. 

SKIPTON, a Northern form of Shipton, q.v. 
[O.N.E. sdp, sheep] 

The two Yorkshire Skiptons were resp. 
Scipton and Schipetune in Domesday-Book. 

SKIPWITH (Teut.) Bel. to Skipwith (Yorks) 

[M.N.E. skip, O.N.E. sclp, sheep + -with, 

O.N. uiS-r, a wood] 

Will'us Skipwith.— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1377-8. 

But the second element seems to have 

changed since the nth cent., as the 

Domesday form (twice) was Schipewic 

[O.E. wic, a place] 

SKIPWORTH for Skipwith, q.v. 

SKIRBECK (Scand.) Dweller at the Clear 
Brook \0M. skirr, cleax-\-bekk-r, a brook] 

SKIRLAUGH (Scand.) Dweller at the Clear 
Brook [O.N. skirr, clear -|- loik-r, a brook] 

SKIRMISHER] (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Fighter, Fen- 
SKRIMSHIRE I CER, Instructor - IN - Arms 
SKRYMSHER J [M.E. skrymsher, skirmisour, 

etc.; O.Fr. eskermisor, fencer (cp. Fr. 

escarmoucheur, skirmisher) ; O.H.Ger. 
Sherman, scirmen, to defend, fight] 




SKIRROW (Scand.) Dweller at the Sheer or 

Bright Hill or Bluff [O.N. sMrr, sheer, 

bright + haug-r, a how, hill] 

A Skyrhow occurs ia the' Yorks PoU- 
Tax A.D. 1379. 

SKITT, a weak form of Skeat, q.v. 

SKOTT = Scott, q.v. 

SKOTTOW(E (Scand.) Bel. to Scottow (Norf.), 

14th cent. Skothow, 1 3th cent. Scothowe [O.N. 

haug-r, a hill, mound : the first elenient 

is rather a pers. name than O.N. skot, a 

shooting, shot] 

SK0ULDIN6 = Scolding, q.v. 

SKUDDER (Teut.), formerly (1604) Shifter, is 
doubtless the Dut. schutter \scH- almost 
as sk-), 'a shooter', 'marksman', 'archer' : 
if the orig. form were really 'Skudder' it 
would represent the Dut. schudder, 'a 
shaker', f. schudden, 'to shake'. 

SKULL (Scand.) the Norse Skule: v. under 

This name occurs in the Line. Hundred- 
Rolls (A.D. 1274) as Scowle. 

SKURRAY\(Celt.) for the Ir. O'Scuiridh = 

SKURRY J Grandson of Scor(a)idh {dh 

mute), i.e. a Champion [Ir. scor, champion, 

etc. + the pers. suff. a)idh\ 

(Scand.) = Scupp (q.v.) + the E. dim. 
sufif. -y. 


I = Skinnep, q.v. 

Will'us le Skynner.— 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1343. 

SLACK (Eng. and Scand.) Slow, Lazv [O.E. 
slcBc = d.N. slak-r\ 

(Scand.) Dweller at a Hill-Cleft or 
Valley [cp. O.N. slakki, a slope] 

Johannes del Slak'. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SLADE (Eng.) Dweller at a Valley or Dell 
\M.E. slade, O.^. slced\ 

John atte Slade.— CZose Rolls, A.D. 1346. 

For he [Little John] found tow of his owne 

Were slaine both in a slade, — 
'Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne,' 55-6; 
Percy's Reliques. 

...down through the deeper slades. — 

Drayton, PolyoMon, xiv. 290. 

SLADEN (Eng.) Bel. to Sladen; or Dweller at 

the Sloe- Valley [O.E. sld (obi. and pi. 

sldn), sloe + denu, valley] 

Quenilda de Slaneden. — 

Lane. Assine-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

Johannes Sladen. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SLAGG, a voiced form of Slack, q.v. 

Cp. Gael, slag, 'a hollow' (Lewis), from 

SLAPE (Eng.) Dweller at'a Slope [M.E. and 

Dial. E. slape ; I. a var. (*sUpan) of O.E. 

> sMpan (pp. slopen), to slip] 

Randulph atte Slape. — - ' 

Soms. Subs.-RoU, A.D. 1327. 

(Scand.) Crafty, Sly [O.N. sleip-r, 
slippery, etc.] 

SLATE, a var. of Slett, q.v. 




SLATTERY (Celt.) i Straight, Tall [Ir. 


2 Strong, Robust 

[Ir. slatra] 

SLAUGHTER (Eng.) i for Slaughterer; 
Butcher [f. M.E. slaught, O.E. sleaht, 


Cp. Ger. schldchter, 'slaughterer'. 

2 Bel. to Slaughter (Glouc), 14th cent. 
Sloghtre, 13th cent. Sloutre = the Sloe- 
Tree [O.E. sld(k,s\oe + triow (M.E. tre), 


iLAVrN* } = ^'^^®"' ^'^^'"' I'- 

SLAY, a var. of Sly, q.v. [M.E. sleh, etc : cp. 
O.N. slcBg-r, sloeg-r, cunning] 

SLAYMAKER (Eng.), Weaver's Reed or 
Shuttle Maker [M.E. slaymaker; f. O.E. 
sled, a weaver's reed, and macian, to make] 

SLAYMAN (Eng.) i Weaver's Reed or 

Shuttle Maker [M.E. slay, O.E. sled, a 

weaver's reed] 

2 a var. of Slyman, q.v. 
SLAYTER = Slatep, Sclatep, q.v. 

SLAYWRIGHT (Eng.) Weaver's Reed or 
Shuttle Maker [M.E. slaywright, sla- 
wryghte; O.E.sled, a weaver's leed+wyrhta, 

a maker] 

SLEAP (Eng.) Bel. to Sleap (Salop: 13th cent. 

Slepe); or Dweller at the Slip or Slope [f. 

O.E. slipan (pt. sing. sUap), to slip] 

Cp. Sleep. 

SLEATH (Eng. and Scand.) Cruel, Fierce, 
Severe [O.E. slKe = O.N. sKS-r] 

SLEDDALL (Scand.) Bel. to Sleddale 
(Westmld.), i6th cent. Sleddall, 13th cent. 
Sleddal [O.N. dal-^, a valley : the first 
element is .app. O.N. sUtt-r, flat, smooth, 





SLEE, a N.E. and Scot, form of Sly, q.v. 
But little did her auld minny ken 
What thir [O.N. \ieir, they] slee twa 
togither were sayn.-^- 

The Gaherlunyie Man, 14-15. 

SLEEMAN \ I = Slee (q.v.) + man. 
SLEMAN J (rarely) 2 a var. of Slayman', 

SLEEP (Eng.) Bel. to Sleep (Herts); or Dwel- 
ler at the Sup or Slope [v. under Sleap] 

SLEEPER, V. Slipper^ 

SLEET = Slight, q.v. 

SLEIGH = Sly, q.v. 

This clerk was clepedhende Nicholas ... 

And ther-to he was sleigh and ful privee.— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3199, 3201. 

SLEIGHT = Slight, q.v. 

SLEITH = Sleath, q.v. 

SLEMMAN \ _ Qi„^o„ n„ 
SLEMMON 1 = Sleeman, q.v. 

SLETT(Scand.) Dweller at a Plain or Level 
Field [O.N. sUttd\ 

SLEVEN ) (Celt.) for the Ir. O'Sleibhin = De- 

SLEVIN J SCENDANT OF Sliabhin [Ir. d or ua, 

grandson, descendant ; sMibh, genit. pf 

sliabh, m., mountain -f- the dim. suff. -in\ 

SLICK (Eng. and Scand.) Sleek, Smooth ; 
Cunning [M.E. sli{c)ke, O.E. slic = O.N. 


SLIGHT (Teut.) Simple, Plain, Honest; 
Slender [M.E. slight, plain, smooth, 
simple: O.L.Ger. slight^ even, plain, simple: 
cp. Dut. slecht (earlier slicht), simple, plain, 
base; W.Fris. sliuchi (O.Fris. sliuht), 
smooth, simple ; Goth, slaiht-s, smooth, 
etc. ; Ger. schlicht (O.H.Ger. sleht), .plain, 
straightforward, smooth, simple; and O.N. 
slett-r, plain, flat, smooth] 


SLIMMOND \ for Sleeman, q.v. 


SLING (Scand.) Clever, Dexterous, Expert 

[O.N. slyng-r\ 

SLINGER (Scand.) the M.N.E. (Yorks,, 14th 

cent.) Slenger, Slynger [f. O.N- slyngua, 

slongua, to sling ; whence Dah.-Norw. 

slynge = Swed. slunga, to sling, and Swed. 

slungare, slinger] 

SLINGSBY (Scand.) BeL to Slingsby (Yorks), 

r4th cent. Slyngeshy, Domesday Selungesbi 

.=■ Slyng's Farm or Estate [v. under 

Sling, and -I- O.N. 6ji-r, farmstead, etc.] 

SLIPPER (Eng.) Short for Sword-Slipper, i.e. 
Sup- or Scabbard - Maker [f. M.Q. 

slip(p)en, to slip ; f. a var. of O.E. sUpan, 
to slip, glide] 

(Scand.) Grinder, Whetter, Polisher 

[p.N.sUpari, whence Dan.-Norw. sliber, 

Swed. slipare {slipa, to sharpen, etc.); and 

cp. Dut. slijper, grinder, etc.] 

Brand quotes two i6);h-cent. Newcastle 
instances of the trade-name sword-slipper, 
and Halliwell a 17th - cent. Hexham 
example of sword-sliper. It is really doubt- 
ful whether the 14th - cent. Yorkshire 
occupative surnames Swerdslyper and 
Swerdsliper belong to 1 or 2. 

Cp. Sleeper. 

SLOAN "1 (Celt.) Soldier, Warrior [Ir. 

SLOAN E J Sluaghan,Sluaghadhan(ia.ter,ns}iz\\y 

in the genit. with the 'son' prefix, as 

MacSluaghadhain); f. Ir. sluagh, army, host, 

with (in the case of the second form) the 

suff. -adh + the dim. suff. ■dn\ 

Cp. Sloyan. 

5f-2S2!l^r, \ (Eng.) I Bel. to Slocombe ; or 
SLOCOMB Dweller at the SLOE(-tree)i 
SLOCOMBE 1 Valley or Hollow [O.^.sld 

IlSoumb + --* (^- *^« C^"-)- -i\7^ 


A Slacomb occurs in a Somerset charter 
a.d. 942 : 'Cart. Sax.' no. 776 ; and Slo- 
eombe is mentioned in a Devonshire 'Inq. 
ad q. Damn.' a.d. 1316-7. 

2 for Slow-Come, a nickname for a 

Sluggard [O.E. sldw, slow ; cuman (pret. 

sing. c6m), to come] 

SLOLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Sloley (Norf. ; 13th 
cent. S/tfZe>'^) = the SLOE(-tree)-LEA [O.E. 

sld + ledhl 

. Slowman. 

SLOPER (Eng. and Scand.) Slop-Maker or 
-Dealer [M.E. slop(p)e, an outer garment 
(easily slipped on), O.E. o{ei-sl6p, a sur- 
plice, O.N. slopp-r, a loose gown, surplice; 
f. O.E. slApan, to slip, p.p. slopen — O.N. 
sleppa, p.p. sloppinn] 
Agatha le Slopere.— H^M«rf. Rolls. 

SLOTT (Low Teut.) Dweller at a Castle or 
Stronghold [M.E. slot, Dut. slot (= Ger. 
scA/oM, a lock, castle) ; f. Dut. sluiten, to 

shut, lock] 
Walter de la Slot.— Hund. Rolls. 

SLOW "1 (Eng.) I Dweller at the Slough or 
SLOWE ; Bog [O.E. sUli] 

The entry in the Bucks Hundred-Rolls 
(a.d. 1274), 'Stephen de la Slou', evid. 
refers to Slough. 

Now is my cart out of the slow, pardee ! 
—•Chaucer, CtmU Tales, D 1565. 




With conquering ploughs 
He furrows up cold Strymon's slymie 

slows. — 
Sylvester, The Colonies {a-.d. i6ii), 223. 

2 Sluggardly, Lazy [O.E. sldwl 

The antithesis of Snell, q.v. 


SLOWMAN = Slow (q.v.) + E. man. 

SLOYAN "1 (Celt.) = Sloan, q.v. But (unlike 
SLOYNE J Sloan) Sloyan, Sloyne, seem to be 
descended from forms with the 'grandson' 
prefix, as O'Sluaghain (with the dim. suff. 
-dn genit. inflected), O'Sluaighin (with the 
stem genit. infl. and with the dim. suff. 

SLY ^(A.-Scand.) Cunning, Skilful, Art- 
SLYE J FUL [M.E. sly, sligh, sle{i)h, etc. ; O.N. 

slag-r, slceg-r\ 
Cp. Slee. 

SLYMAN I = Sly (q.v.) + E. man. 
2 conf. with SlaymanS q.v. 

SMAIL "I forms (usually North.) of Small, 
SMALE J q.v. 

Henry le Smale, A.D. 1277-8.— 

Vale Royal Ledger-Bk. 

SMAITHWAITE (Scand.) Bel. to Smaithwaite 
(nr. Keswick) ; or Dweller at the Small 
Clearing [O.N. smd-r + ^ueit\ 

SMALEMAN = Smallman, q.v. 
Cp. Small, Smale. 

SMALL (Eng.) Litile, Slender [M.E. smal(le, 

stnaill, etc., O.E. smcel (= O.Sax. O.H.Ger. 

and Scand. smal\ 

This name has been used as the Eng. 
equivalent of the Irish Keelty (O'Caoiltigh) 
[f. Ir. caol, small]. 

SMALLBONE 1 (Eng.) the second element 

SMALLBONES J of these nicknames (i6th 

cent. Smalbone) may refer to 'leg(s' rather 

than 'bone(s' proper [O.E. hdn, bone, leg 

= O.N. and Ger. bein, bone, leg] 

SMALLCOMBE (Eng.) Bel. to Smallcombe 

(Soms.: 14th cent. Smalecome); or Dweller 

at the Small Valley [v. Small and 


SMALLEY (Eng. ; Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to 

Smalley; or Dweller at 1 the Small Lea 

[O.E. smcel + ledh] 

2 the Small Hey or Hay (Enclosure 

or Pasture) [M.E. smaKJe, O.E. smcil = 

Scand. smal, small-|- M.E. hey, hay, hagh{e, 

O.E. ge)hcBg, haga = O.N. hagi, enclosure, 

pasture, etc.] 

Alicia Smalhaghe. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SMALLMAN (Eng.) Little or SLENbER Man 
[v. Small, and + man] 

SMAL(L)PAGE (Eng.) Little or Slender 
Page [v. Small and Page] 

SMALLPIECE (E. + Fr.) Dweller at a Small 
Field or Enclosure [v. under Small, and 
+ Dial. E. piece, a piece of land, enclosure 
or field — M.E. pece, O.Fr. piece ; of Celt. 


SMALLSHANKS (Eng.) Little or Slender 

Legs [v. Small, and + the pi. of M.E. 

shankie, O.E. scanca, a shank, leg] 

SMALLSHAW (Eng.) Dweller at the Little 

or Narrow Wood [v. under Small, and 

+ O.E. scaga, a wood] 

SMALLTHWAITE (Scand.) Dweller at the 
Narrow Clearing [O.N. smal-r + ]'ueii] 

SMART "I (Eng.) Quick, Sharp [M.E. 
SMARTT J smart{e,smert{e,shaTp, quick, pain- 
ful ; O.E. smeari] 

SMEATH (Eng.) i Smooth, Polished, Suave 
[M.E. smeth{e, O.E. smdj-e] 
Philip le Smethe.-^iy«Krf. Rolls. 

2 Dweller at a Plain or Level Field 
[same etym.] 
(occ.) 3 for Smith, q.v. 

Cp. Smeeth. 

SMEATHAM = Smetham, q.v. 

SMEATHMAN = Smeath (q.v.) -|- man. 

SM EATON (Eng.) Bel. to Smeaton (Yorks"), 
Smeeton (Leic), &c. = i the Smooth or 
Ft AT Enclosure [O.E. sme]>e + tun\ 

2 the Smith's or Smiths' Place [O.E. 

smi^, genit. pi. smPfa -f tlin\ 

3 the Small Enclosure or Farm [v. 

One of the Yorkshire Smeatons was 
Smt\'atAn in the loth cent. ('Cart. Sax.' 
no.i2S5.) In Domesday-Book, Gt. Smeaton 
(Yorks) was Smidetune and Smidetone; 
Little Smeaton (Yorks), Smidetune and 
Smedetone ; > Kirk Smeaton (Yorks), 
Smedeton(e ; Smeeton (Leic), Smitone. 

SM EDLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Smedley (Lanes), a.d. 

1505 Smetheley = the Smooth or Flat Lea 

[O.E. sme^e + ledh] 

SMEE (Teut.) i Small [cp. V>vitsmi- and Fris. 

sme- (as in Dut. smient, Fris. smM, lit. 

'small duck', smew) = Dan.-Norw. smaa, 

O.N. smd-r = O.H.Ger. smdhi, small] 

(rarely) 2 an apocopated form of 
Smeath, q.v. 

SMEED = Smeeth, Smeath, q.v. 




SMEETH = Smeath, q.v. 

The Kentish parish Smeeth was Smethe 
in the 13th cent. 

SMEETON, V. Smeaton. 

SMELLIE, a var. of Smalley, q.v. [(;p. W.Fris. 
smel, small, narrow] 

SMELT (Eng.) Gentle, Sdn, Mild [O.E. 

William Smelt.— ifuwrf. Rolls. 

\ (Eng.) Bel. to Smerden (Kent) 
J [O.E. denu, a valley : the first 




element seems to be the O.E. sme{o)ro, fat, 
grease, and may be from the plant-name 


r^ "I (Eng.) Dweller at i the Smooth 
1 J or Level Enclosure [O.E. 
sm^e, smooth, etc. -f- ham{m, enclosure, 
piece of land] 

2 the Smith's Enclosure [O.E. smi'f, 
, smith] 

SMETHICK for Smethwiok. 

SMETHURST (Eng.) Dweller at i the Wood 

on the Smeeth or Plain [v. under Smeeth, 

Smeath', and + O.E. hyrst, a wood] 

2 the Smith's Wood [O.E. smi^, smith] 

SMETHWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Smethwick; or 

Dweller at i the Village on the Smeeth 

or Plain [v. under Smeeth, Smeath', 

and + O.E. wic, dwelling(s] 

2 the Smith's Place [O.E. smiJf, smith] 

The Staffordshire Smethwick was 
Smedewich (d for th, ch as k) in Domesday- 
Book : it "lies on a plain at the foot of the 
Rowley Hills." 

The Cheshire Smelhwick was Smethewik 
A.D. 1431-2. 

SMILTER (Teut.) SMELTER[f. M.Dut. smilten, 
Dut. smelten = Dan.-Norw. smelte, Swed. 
smdlta, to smelt ; with the agent, suff. -er\ 

SMIRTHWAITE, v. Smurthwaite. 

SMISBY (Scand.) Bel. to Smisby (Derby), 

earlier Smithesby = the Smith's Place 

[the genit. of O.N. smiS-r + b;f-r] 

SMITH (Eng. and Scand.) i Worker with 

the Hammer [O.E. smi} or smi^ = O.N. 

smiS-r (=Goth. smi^a\ 

Se Smi^ secg]j: Hwanon J>a.m yrflinge 
sylan-scear ojj|;e culter, fie n& gade haefj>, 
baton of crsefte minon? Hwanon flscere 
ancgel, ofl'e sce6-wyrhtan cfel, ojjfie s6a- 
mere ncfedl, nis hit of minon geweotce ? 

(The Smith saith : Whence the plough- 
man [his] ploughshare or coulter, who no 
goad hatn, without my craft? Whence 

the fisherman [his] hook, or the shoe- 
maker [his] awl, or the tailor [his] needle, 
unless through my work ?) 

Ic hsebbe smi^as, isene-smijias, gold- 
smij), seolfor-smij;, cfer-smi]?, tr6ow-Wyrht- 
an, and manega 6fire mistlicra cr3efta 

(I have smiths, iron-smiths (black- 
smiths), goldsmith, silversmith, brass- 
smith, carpenter(s, and many other 
tradesmen of various crafts,) — 

JElfrici Colloquium, loth cent. 

Many Celtic Cairds and Gows, Gowans, 
and MacGowans, and many German 
Schmidts, have translated themselves into 
English Smiths. 

(occ.) 2 for Smeeth, Smeath, q.v. 

Cp. Smyth(e. 

SMITHAM 1 (Eng.) i Dweller at the Smith's 

SMITHEM J Enclosure [O.E. switS + ham{m 

enclosure, piece of land, dwelling] 

2 for Smetham", q.v. 

SMITH EM AN \ (Eng.) Smith's Man [v. 
SMITHMAN J Smith, and -)- E. OTa«] 

Smytheman and Smythmati are the forms 
in the Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379. 

SMITHER = Smith (q.v.) -f- the agent, suff. 

-er [cp. Dut. smeder, 'forger' ; also O.H. 

Ger. smeidar, ' artifex '] 

SMITHERMAN (Eng.) Smither's Man [v. 
Smithep, and -|- E. man] 

SMITHERS (Eng.) i Smither's (Son): v. 
2 conf. with Smithurst, q.v. 

SMITHETT, a corrupt form of iSmaithwaite, 


2 Smipthwalte, Smurthwaite, q.v. 

SMITHIES 1 (Eng.) Dweller or Worker at 
SMITHYESJ the Smithies [O.E. smiSSe, 


SMITHSON, Smith's Son : v. Smith. 

SMITHURST (Eng.) i Dweller at the Smith's 
Wood [O.E. smi^ + hyrst, a wood] 

2 for Smethupst', q.v. 

Lawrence Smythurst and Henry Smyth- 
urst (of Lomax, Bury).— 

Lattc- Fines, A.D. 1546. 

SMITHWAITE 1 for Smaithwaite, q.v. 

2 for Smirthwaite, Smurthwaite, q.v. 

SMITHWICK (Eng.) i Dweller at the Smith's 
Place [O.E. smiti + wic] 

2 for SmethwIckS q.v. 
SMITTON, v, Smeaton, 




SMOCKER 1 (Eng.) Smock- Maker or 

SM0(0)KER; -Dealer [M.E. smoher, etc.; 

f. M.E. smok, O.E. smocic = O.N. smokk-r] 

SMOLLETT (Eng.) Small-Head [O.E. smal 

+ hedfod] 

SMORFITT (Teut.) This is hardly lilcely to be 
a corrupt form of Smurthwaite. In names, 
a second (unstressed) element -Jit(t usually 
represents -foot; and, in fact, Bardsley 
mentions the surname 5mM;/oote as occurr- 
ing in a i7th-cent. London register. But 
it is not very probable that the first 
element here is the O.N. smior (Dan.- 
NoTw.smor), 'butter'; and possibly it is 
(with intrus. -r) for O.N. smd-r (Dan.- 
Norw. smaa, pron. stnaw), ' small.' 

SMORTHIT, for Smor^hwaite, Smur- 
thwaite, q.v. 

SMORTHWAITEl (Scand.) Bel. to Smor- 

SMURTHWAITEJ thwaite or Smurthwaite 

[The second element is the O.N. ^ueit, a 

clearing : if the first element is the O.N. 

smior = Dan.-Norw. smor, butter (cp. the 

Yorks place-name Butterthwaite), it must 

rather be the flower-name (cp. Dan.-Norw. 

smorblomst, buttercup) ; the possibility, 

however, of the first element being for O.N. 

smd-r = Dan.-Norw. smaa (pron. smaw), 

small, must be considered ; but cp. 


SMYE, a var. of Smee, q.v. 


William le Smyth. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
W: Srhythe et alii. — 

Cal. Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1315-16. 

Wher {"is is not a smy^, Jie sone of 
Marie . . . ?— 5f. Mark, vi. 3 : Wycliffe. 

Hys Sworde upon the schireff hed 
Sertanly he brake in too : 
'The smyth that the made', seid Robyn, 
'I pray God wyrke him woo'.— 

Rohvn Hode and the Munke, 1 13-16. 

SMYTHERS = Smithers, q.v. 

SMYTHSON, Smyth's Son : 

. I M.E. forms of Smith, q.v. 

V. Smyth, 

SNAILHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Snailham(Suss.) = 

(prob.) the Snail-Land [O.E. snegl, sncegl 

+ ham(tn, a piece of land] 

SNAILWELL(Eng.) Bel. to SnailweU (Camb.), 

A.D. 1336 Sneilwelle = the Snail-Spring 

[O.E. snegl, sncegl + w(i)ella\ 

SNAITH (Scand.) Bel. to Snaith (Yorks : 14th 

cent. Snayth) — the Cut-off Piece of 

Land ; or Clearing [O.N. s««tS (f. snf&a, 

to cut) = O.E' i«(6rf] 

Cp. Snead, Sneath. 

SNAPE (Eng.) Bel. to Snape ; or Dweller at 
the Snipped (i.e. Cut-off) Piece of Land 
[M.E. snaype, snap{e, O.E. *sndp, snckp 
('Cart. Sax', no. 1124), f. O.E. *snipan, to 
snip = Dut. and Fris. snippen, to cut into 
small pieces: cp. Dial. E. sneap, to nip, 
etc., and E.Fris. smp(pe, a small piece of 


Henry de la Snape.— fl«»rf. Rolls (Suss.) 

Snape, Suff., was Snape a.d. 1310-11 ; 
Snape, Yorks, was Snaype in the 14th 
cent.; Snape, Lanes, Snape in the 14th 
and ijth cent., but we find an 'Alan del 
Snap' in a Lane. Inq. ad q. Damn. a.d. 

SNARR (Scand.) Quick, Swift; Bold [O.N. 

s?mrr. (Dan.-Norw. snar] , 
SNAYLAM = Snallham, q.v.- 

SNAZEL ] (Eng.) Bel. to Snazell, app. the 

SNAZELL V Sneleshall mentioned in the 

SNAZLE J Charter-Rolls for Bucks a.d. 

1226-7 = Snel's Hall [y. under Snell, 

and + O.E. h{e)all, a hall] 

This is more likely than a connexion 
with the Glouc. place-name .Snowshill, 
a.d. 1318-19 SnosehuU. 

SNEAD 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Snead or Sneath 

SNEED \ = the Cut-off Piece of Land; 

SNEATH I or Clearing [O.E. sndsd (=0.N. 

sttei^ ; f. sntSan, to cut] 

Snead, Montgora., was Snethe a.d. 

1226-7; Snead, Wore, was Snede a.d. 

1328-9, as was the Staff. Sneyd in 1410. 

Cp. Snaith. 

SNEE, the Scand. form of Snow, q.v. [Dan.- 
, Norw. sne(e, O.N. snee-r, snow] 

SN EESAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Snettisham (Norf.), 

SNEEZUM I 13th cent. Snetisham, Snetesham, 

= Snet's Home [the pers. name (in the 

genit.) is f. a variant of O.E. snytrian, to 

be wise : 1- O.E. hdm, home, estate] 

SNELGROVE (Eng.) Dweller at a Snail- 
Grove [O.E. sne(g)l + grdf] 
SNELL (Eng.) Quick, Active, Agile ; earlier 
also Bold, Brave [O.E. snel(l = O.Sax. 
O.H.Ger. . snel(l (mod. schnell) = Dut. 

. . . se snella sunu Wonredes 
(. . . the agile son of Wonred). — 

Beowulf, S934-S. 
M& sendon t6 J)6, scfemen snelle.— 
The Battle of Maldon (A.I).gg3),n. 56-7 (29). 
Sythyne wente into Wales with his 
wyes [men] ^lle, Sweysinto Swaldye with 
his snelle houndes, for to hunt at the 
hartes in thas hye laundes. — 

Morte Arthure (E.E.T.S.), 11. 56-8 
S^A.—Hund. Rolls. 
William Snell. — do^ 




SNEULGROVE = Snelgnove, q.v. 

SMELLING (Eng.)the A.-Sax. Sneling, Snellirtg 
(Domesday Snelling) = Snel(l)'s Son 
[v. under Snell, and + the O.E. fil. suft. 

Snelling TuUinges sunu. — 
I ith-cent. Manum.; Thorpe, Dipl. Angl, p. 633. 

SNELSOn (Eng.) i Snel's Son : v. Snell. 

2 Bel. to (a) Snelson (Chesh.), 14th 
cent. Snelleston, Domesday Senelestune = 
Snel(l)'s Estate [v. under Snell, and + 

O.E. <M«] 

(6) Snelston (Derby) [same etym.] 

SNEYD (Eng.) Bel. to Sneyd (Staffs) = 
Snead, q.v. 

SNIBSON "I (Teut.) Bel. to Snibstop (Leic.) 
SNIBSTON f = SNiB(B)'s Estate [the pers. 
name (in the genit.) is a iiickname from a 
Low Ger. word represented by Dut. sneb, 
a bill, beak, snout, and Swed. snibh, a tip, 
extremity : — + O.E. tiin, estate, etc.] 

SNIDALL ] (Eng.) Bel. to Snydale (W.Yorks), 
SNIDDLE > 14th cent. Snytall, Domesday 
SNIDLE J Snitehala, Snitehale = the Snipe- 
Corner [O.E. snite, a snipe + h{e)al{h, a 


SNIDER, an Anglicized form of the Dut. 
snijder = Gex. Schneider, M.H.Ger. snldare, 
= O.N. sniddari, 'cutter', 'tailor,' 

SNITTERBY (Scand.)BeL to Snitterby (Lines: 

A.D. 1314-15 Snytterby) = Snyth's Estate 

[the pers. name is f. a var. of O.N. snotr, 

wise : 1- O.N. 6^-r, estate, farm, etc] 

SNITTERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sriitterton 
(Derby: A.D. iz^%-ig Snytterton) = Snytre's 
Estate [the pers. name is f. O.K. snytre, 
a var. of snotor, wise :- — [-O.E. tun, estate, 

farm, etc.] 

SNOAD 1 (Eng.) theA.-Sax. pers. (nick-) name 
SNOOD ] Snod(d)a [f. O.E, snod, a fillet, a 

kind ;of head-dress; cognate with O.N. 

smi'S-r, a twist, twirl, and Swed. snodd 
(pp. of sno, to twist), a string, cord] 

Snod Servians . . . —Hund. Rolls. 

SNODDEN, V. Snowden. 

SNODDON, V. Snowdon. 

SNODGRASS (Eng. or Scand.) Dweller at the 

Smooth Grass or Lawn [North. Dial. E. 

and Scot, snod, smooth, trim, pruned : cp. 

O.E. sttddan, to trim, prune ; ahd O.N. 

jMoSS-2»«, bald, smooth] 

SNODIN, V. Snowden. 

SNOOK "l(Eng.)i the A.-Sax. pers. (nick-) 

SNOOKE j name Snoc [conn, with Dut. snoek, 

a pike ; the root-idea being 'something 

markedly projecting'; hence the word was 
prob, applied to a long-nosed individual] 

2 Dweller at a Point, Small Headland, 
or Pointed Rock [Dial. E. snook = Scot. 
snuk{e, 'a small promontory'; Early Eng. 
snok ('west snok') occurring in a late 
version of a Somerset charter dated a.d. 
975 ('Cart. Sax.' no. 1313): see i] 

Robert Snouk. — 

Lay Subs. Roll (Soms.), A.D. 1327. 

3 Bel. to Sevenoak(s (Kent), 14th cent. ' 

Sevenoke, Sevenok, 13th cent. Sevenac' = 

the Seven Oaks [O.E. seofon, seven -|- 

ckc, pi of dc, oak-tree] 

The transition (by syncope) from 
Sevenoak(s to Snookfs is well authent- 

SNOOKS, genit., and pi., ofSnook, q.v. 

SNOW (Eng.) Born in the time of Snow [M.E. 
snou, snow, O.E. sndnsi] 

William Snou. — Hund. Rolls. 

The Dan.-Norw. snu, 'sly,' 'cunning/ 
has prob. not affected this name. 

SNOWBALL is a nickname of comparatively 
mod. orig. 

SNOWDEN \ (Eng.) Dweller at the Snow 
SNOWDON J Hill [O.E. sndw + diin] 

John Snowdone. — 

Lay Subs. RolHSoma.), A.D. 1327. 

There are hamlets called Upper and 
Lower Snowden in W. Yorks, Snowden 
Close in Cumb., and a Snowdon Pool in 
Salop. The (unstressed) suff. -don is 
freq. mutated to -den. The first element. 
Snow-, may sometimes be used fig. for 
colour (cp. Goldhill). The great Welsh 
mountain may occ. have contributed to 
this surname by the migration of a 
Welshman from its neighbourhood. 

SNYDER = Snider, q.v. 

SOAM \ (Scand.) Swarthy, Blackish, 
SOAME/ [O.N.sdm-r] 

SOAMES, Soam(e)'s (Son) : v. Soam(e. 

SOAN \ (Teut.) Son (a pet name) [M,E. 

SOANE / sone, O.E. sunu = Fris. soan = 

M.Dut. sone (Dut. zoon) = Ger. sohn, son] 

Cp. the French surname Fils. 

SOAN ES, Soan(e)'s (Son): v. Soan(e. 

SOAR \ CA.-Fr.-Teut.) With Reddish- 
SOARE J Brown or Yellowish-Brown 

Hair. [O.Fr. sorie (Fr. saur(e)-, of Teut. 

orig. : cp. Low Ger. soor = M.Dut. sore 
(Dut. zoor) ~ O.E. sedr, dry, withered] 

In our 13th and 14th cent, records we 
find the surnames 'le Sor', 'le Sore',aj\i 




'le Soor'; Soar* appearing at the beginning 
of the 17th cent. 

As we might expect, the term was used 
as a name for a sorrel horse — 
For they had two steeds for to keep . . . 
And laid the sheild upon the soar, 
And then he rode the knight before. — 
Sir Gray Steill, 2306, 2309-10. 

SOARES, Soar(e)'s (Son) : v. Soap(e. 

SODEN = Sowden, q.v. 

SOLE (Eng.) Dweller by a (Muddy) Pond or 
Pool [Kent, sole; i. O.E. sol, mud, a 


In i3th-cent. Kentish rolls we find the 
surnames ' de la Sole ', 'atte Sole,' and 
' de SoUs.' 

" The will of Jno. Franklyn, Rector ot 
Ickham, describes property as being 
' Besyde the wateringe sole in thend [the 
end] of Yckhame streete.' " — 
Diet- Kent. Dial. (Parish and Shaw), p. 155. 

SOLES, pi. (and genit.) of Sole, q.v. 

SOLEY (Eng. or Celt. + E.) Bel. to Soley 
(End), Warw., the Domesday Soulege = 
=the (River) Sow-Lea [O.E. ledh] 

(Heb.) more usually Solly, q.v. 

SOLLER (A.-Lat.) One who lives in a Garret 

or Loft [M.E. soler(e ; O.E. solor or O.Fr. 

solier, both f. Lat. solari-um, ' a balcony 

or terrace exposed to the sun ' ] 

In the Hundred-Rolls both ' de Solaria ' 
and ' ad Solarium ' occur as surnames. 

SOLLOWAY for Solway, q.v. 

SOLLY, a (double) dim. of Solomon, q.v. 
[E. dim. suff. -y] 

ISiloMAN}^- Solomon. q.v. 

SOLOMON (Heb.) Peaceful, Peaceable 

[Vulgate Salomon, Gr. ZaKia/iiiv, Heb. 

Sh'ldmdh, f. shdldm, peace] 

When Solomon was born, David was a 
man whose strength had been exhausted 
in warfare and who was keenly sensible 
of the blessings of peace both for a king 
and a kingdom. Hence it was altogether 
natural that at that period of time he 
should have given the name Solomon to a 
son on whom he placed high expectations 
. . . The name was certainly one which 
indicated well a prominent and dis- 
tinctive feature of both the character and 
reign of Solomon. — 

Diet. Bible, ed. Hastings, iv. 560. 

See Salomon. The old form Salomon 
persists in the Tyndale (1534)1 Cranmer 


(1539), and Rheims (1582) Bibles; but 
Solomon is the form in the Geneva Bible 

1557) aiid, of course, in the Authorized 

"ersionof i6n. 

SOLOMONS, Solomon's (Sou). 

SOLWAY (prob. Celt.) One from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Solway Firth. 

[17th cent. Sulloway, c. 1300 Sulway : if 
the name is Celtic the connexion may be 
with the British tribe Selgovce (Ptolemy's 
Selgovoi), the base of which name is 
usually considered to be represented by 
O.Ir. selg (Gael, and Ir. sealg), a hunt ; 
' but more likely the second element of 
' Solway' is that seen in ' Medway ' and 
' Wey,' viz. the early form of Wei. gwy, 
water, in which case the first element 
might be represented by Wei. sul, ' what 
extends round ' : if the name were Teu- 
tonic it could easily represent the O.N. 
cognate of O.E. sol, mud, wet sand-l-O.N. 
vdg-r,^!iha.y, "the chief characteristic of 
the Sblway being the sands exposed at 
low tide " ; but a Celt. orig. is more prob- 

(Eng.) for Salway = Dweller at the 
Hall-way [O.E. s<xl, hall -|- weg, way] 

Cp. Selway. 

Both Saleway and Salweye occur as sur- 
names in a Somersetshire Subsidy-Roll 
a.d. 1327. 

SOMERBY (Scand.) Bel. to Somerby (Lines: 
13th cent. Somerdeby; Leic. : Domesday 
Sumerlidebie = the Summer-Sailor's 
(Viking's) Settlement [the O.N. cognate 
of O.E. sumer-lida, summer-sailor, i.e. a 
Scand. freebooter who voyaged in the 
summer only -|- O.N. b$-r, a farm, settle- 
SwwierWda became a pers. name, occurr- 
ing in Domesday-Book as Summerlede ; it 
survives as Sommerlad. 

SOMERFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Somerford; or 
Dweller at the Summer-Ford (i.e. one 
not available during the winter-rains) 
[O.E. sumer + ford] 
Somerford, Wilts, was Sumerford 
A.D. 685 ; Somerford, Staffs, had the same 
spelling in the 13th cent. 

SOMERS \ „ e„„,„n„» 
SOMMERS f ^- Summers. 

SOMERSET 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Somerset, 13th 
SOMERSETT J cent. So»!ew«te, A.-Sax. Swrnar- 
sdete, Sumor-sckte [O.E. sckte, genit. pi. 
sclkt(e)na, settlers: the first element is app. 
conn, with the Saxon royal summer- 
residence Siimertiin — O.E. sumer, summer 
— now Somerton] 









And him [iElfred] c6mon fcfer ongSan 

(And there came to him there all the 

Somerset-men) — 

A.-Saxon Chron., A.D. 878. 

SOMERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Somerton (Soms., 
Oxf., Norf., Suff., etc.) = 1 the Summer- 
Residence [O.E. sumer, sumor + tun 
dwelling, estate, etc.] 

2 f. the pers. name (a) Sumer, (V) Sumer- 

lida [(a) O.E. sumer, summer; (J) see 

under Somepby ; and 4 O.E. <«n] 

Somerton, Soms. (a Saxon royal 
summer-seat and once the principal place 
in that county), was Sumertun a.d. 860, 
Sumortun, early loth cent. The other 
Somertons were usually Somerton in the 
13th cent, 

(Fr.-Teut. + Fr.-Lat.) Bel. 
to Sommerville (Norm.) 
= S,umar's Estate [O.H. 
Ger. (mod. Sommer), O.Sax., 
O.N. sumar, summer + Fr. 
ville, Lat. wlla'\ 
Robertus de Somervile. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1290. 
SOMMER, V. Summep. 

SOMMERLAD) the A.-Scand. Sumerlida 
SOMMERLAT) (loth cent.) = Summer- 
Sailor [see under Somerby] 

SOMMERS, Sommer's (Son) : v. Sommer, 

SOMMERSET, v. Somerset. 

SOMMERTON, v. Somerton. 

SOMNER, V. Sumner. 

SONDS, a var. of Sands, q.v. 

Fer in Northumberlond the wawe hire 

[wave her] caste. 
And in the sondhir ship stiked so faste. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales. B 508-9. 

SONE = Soane, q.v. 

SONES, Sone's (Son): v. Sone, Soane. 

SOOLE, a var. of Sole, q.v. 

SOPER (Eng.) Soap-Maker [M.E. soper(e; 
M.E. sope, O.E. sdpe, soap + the agent. 

suff. -«•(«] 

Julian le Sopere. — Hund. Rolls. 


SORBEY] (Scand.) Bel. to i Sowerby 

SORBY WYorks^: 14th cent. Saureby, 

SORBIE J Homesday Sourebi, Sorebi; Lanes : 

13th cent. Saureby, Soureby, Domesday 

Sorbi ; Cumb., etc.) ; 2 Sorbie (Wigton : 
iSth cent. Sourbi) = the Muddy Farm- 
Land [O.N. saur-r, mud + bf-r} 

SORESBY"! (Scand.) Bel. to Sor(e)sby (?) 
SORSBY J [early forms are lacking : if the 
place-name is one of several post-Nor- 
man -by names the pers. name (in the 
genit.) forming the first element may be 
that seen under Sor(e, Soap(e ; hardly a 
nickname f. O.N. siirr, sour] 

SORREL "I (A. - Fr. - Teut.) With Reddish- 

SORRELLJ Brown or Yellowish-Brown 

Hair [O.Fr. sorel, a dim.: v. under Soar] 

John Sorel. — Hund. Rolls. 
SOTHAM = Southam, q.v. 

SOTHEBY (Scand.) Dweller at i the South 
Farm or Estate [O.N. siilS-r + bf-r] 
Cp. Southernby, Cumb. 

2 the Sheep-Farm [O.N. saulS-r (genit. 
pi. sau'Sa), a sheep -|- Jji-r] 

SOTHER(A)N (Eng. and Scand.) Southerner 
[O.E. siiSeme' = O.N. su'Srcenn, southern] 

SOTHERTON, v. Southerton. 

SOULfor Sole, q.v. 

SOULBY \ (Scand.) Bel. to Soulby 
SOULSBYJ (Westmd.: 14th cenl. Souhby, 
13th cent. Sulleby ; Cumb.) = S<3li's or 
Solle's (S6lle's) Farmstead [the pers. 
name is considered to be a shortened 
form of O.N. Sdrli, mod. Solle (v. under 

Serle) and Solui (f. sdl-r, sallow): \-b^-r, 

farm, estate] 
SOUNES, a form of Sones, q.v. 

SOURBUTTS = Sowerbutts, q.v. 

SOUSTER, the fem. form of Souter, q.v. 
[O.E. fern, agent, suff. -estre'\ 
Emma le Sowester. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1306-7. 

SOUTER "I (A.-Lat.) Shoemaker, Cobbler 
SOUTAR/[M.E. so^ter(e, O.E. sutere, Lat. 

The devel made a reve for to preche,, 
Or of a soutere, shipman, or a leche 

[physician]. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3903-4. 

The true O. Eng. word is scedwyrhta 
(shoewright), as in iElfric's 'Colloquium,' 
where it glosses sutor. 

SOUTHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Southall (M'sex, 

etc.) ; or Dweller at i the South Corner 

[O.E. su'S + h(e)am 

2 the South Slope [O.E. su'S -f 

h(e)al{d(= O.n.hall-r] 

The M.E. forms are usually Suthalle 

(Norf. Hund.-Rolls a.d. 1274) and 

Southale (Charter-Rolls a.d. 1278). 




SOUTHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Southam; or 
Dweller at the SouTH Enclosure or 
Dwelling [O.E. stiS + ham(m, piece of , 

land, etc.] 

The Warw. place was Su'Sham in the 
loth cent. ; the Su'Sham of a land-grant 
A.D. 965 (by Oswald, Bishop of Worcester 
(' Cart. Sax.' no. n66), may refer to either 
the Glouc. or the Warw. Southam. 

SOUT,HAI\/lPTON(Eng:)Bel. to Southampton, 
A.D. 825 Homtun (also Omtun in a Lat. 
charter), A.D. 837 (A.-Sax. Chron.) 
Hatntun, a.d. 901 Hamtun, A.D. 962 (char- 
ter) and A.D. 980 (A.-Sax. Chron.) Sutham- 
iun [O.E. stiS, south ; hdm, home, re- 
sidence, or ham(m, enclosure, piece of 
land, dwelling (none of the A.-Sax. forms 
of the name which I have noted has the 
a marked as long) + tiin, farm, estate, 
etc. : prob. Homtun or Hamtun may here 
be interpreted ' Home-Farm ', answering 
partly to the O.N. heima-land, 'home- 
estate '. If a dative form Hedrntiine, ' at 
the high place ' (v. under Hampton), had ~ 
authentically been found the description 
would suit Southampton] 

Fr'es minores de Sulhampton. — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1326. 

When Knute, which here alone affected 
the command. 
The crown upon his head at fair 

South-hampton. set. — 
"DraytoxifPoly-OlMon, (a.d. 1612), xii. 396-7. 

SOUTHARD \„ e«,,+i,„,„„rf 
SOUTHART r- ^°"*''*^'^''- 

SOUTHOOMBE (Eng.) DwelleAat the South 
Valley [O.E. s«S + cumb (Celt.] 

SOUTHCOTE "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the South 
SOUTHCOTT J Cottage or South Animal- 
Enclosure [Late M.E. Sowthcott, Early 
M.E. Suthcote, O.E. sii'& + cot: v. under 


SOUTHERN 1 (Eng.) Southerner [O.E. 
SOUTHORN ) suVeme, southern] 

Cp. Sother(a)n. 

SOUTHERTON (Eng.) Bel. to So(u)therton ; 

or Dweller at the Southern (or More 

Southern) Enclosure or Farm [O.E. 

su'Seme, southein (orthecompar., j«itS(e)ra, 

of 5i<S, south) -I- tun, enclosure, etc.] 

SOUTHEY (Eng.) Bel. to Southey, Southea, 

Southay ; or Dweller at i the South 

Island or Waterside [O.E. sA^ -t- ig\ 

2 the South Stream [O.E. siiS -(- ed\ 

In obviously late copies of various 
(Latin)chartersto Croyland Abbey, Lines, 
dated in the 8th, 9th, and loth centuries, 
mention is made of an ' aqua ' called 

I V, Sother(a)n. 

3 the South Hey, Hay, or Enclosure 
[O.E. siiS + ge)hcBg, haga\ 

The surname Suthae (for Suthea) occurs 
in the Norf. Hundred-Rolls a.d. 1274; 
Southeyein a Soms. Subsidy-Roll a.d. 1327. 
There is a Southey in W. Yorks, Southay 
in Soms. 

SOUTHON \ app. weak (syncopated) forms 
SOUTH AN J of Southern, q.v. 

SOUTHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the South 
House [M.E. Southouse; O.E. sUS + Ms] 


SOUTHREY (Eng.) Bel. to Southery (Norf.: 
i^thcent. Suthereye; etc.) = the Southern 
Island or Waterside [O.E. sii'Sera, 
compar. of 5«K, south -f z^, island) etc.] 
Exactly to which place the Suthereye of 
a Latin charter a.d. 942 ("ad ipsam 
insulam .... Suthereye " : ' Cart. Sax.' 
no. 774) refers is uncertain ; and a Southery 
occurs in the Charter-Rolls for Sussex, 
a.d. 1347. Sutherey was a M.E. form of 
Surrey, q.v. 

SOUTHWARD for (i) Southworth, (2) 
Southwood, q.v. 

SOUTHWELL (Eng.) Bel. to Southwell ; or 
Dweller at the South Spring [O.E. sMtS 

-f w{fjelld\ 

Southwell, Notts, occurs in the dative 
form 'at Su'Swellan'^ in a land-charter 
A.D. 958 ('Cart. Sax.' no. 1029). 

SOUTHWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Southwick == the 
South Place [O.E. su'S ■{■ wic, a place, 


William de Suthevyyk (Hunts).— 

Hund. Rolls. 

Soilthwick, Hants, was Suthwic a.d. 
1234-5, Suthwick and Suthwike c. 1445 ; 
Southwick, Northants, ■ws.s Southwick a.d. 
1379-80; Southwick, Sussex, Suthwik a.d. 
1319-20 ; Southwick, Glouc, Suthwike 
A.D. 1346. 

SOUTHWOLD (Eng.) Bel. to Southwold 
(Suff.), the O.Angl. SiiSwald = the South 
Forest ("from an ancient forest now 
cleared "). 

As a surname, Southwold has almost 
entirely been merged into Southwood. 

SOUTHWOOD (Eng.) i Bel. to Southwood; 
or Dweller at the South Wood [O.E. 
su'S + wudu] 
Roger de Suthwode. — Hund. Rolls. 
9 for Southwold, q.v. 




I = Souter, q.v, 

SOUTHWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Southworth 
(Lanes), 14th cent. Sotheworth, Suthworth, 
A.D. 1212 Suthewrthe = the South En- 
closure or' Farm [O.E. 5mS + a/o^^] 


SOWARD (Eng.) Sow-Herd [O.E. su + 


SOWDEN (Eng.) Dweller at 1 the Sow- 
Valley [O.E. sii, sow -f- denu, valley] 

Cp. Sugden. 

2 the South Valley [O.E. siiV + denu] 

3 (for Sowdon) the South Down [O.E. 

Sid's + dun\ 
Walter de Suddon. — 

Soms. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

SOWERBUTTS (? Scand.) No sufficiently 
early forms of this (Lane.) name have 
been found on which to base a definite 
etymology, but it is not unreasonable to 
assume that the second element is the pi. 
of the North. Dial. E. hut{t, ' a small piece 
of ground,' 'a garden-plot', in which 
case the first element may well represent 
the O.N. saurr, ' mud.' 

The name of one William S p, who 

is several times mentioned in Lane. Fines 
A.D. 1503-09, is variously spelt Sourbutts, 
SQurbytts, Sourebuttes, Sowerboits, Sower- 

SOWERBY (Scand.) Bel. to Sowerby: v. 

SOWTER = Soutep, q.v. 

Used by Shakespeare as a dog-name — 
Soivter yrill cry upon't for all this.— 

Twelfth Night, I J. v. 137. 

SPACKMAN = Speakman, q.v. 

SPAFFORD = SpofTord, q.v. 

SPAIN (A.-Lat.-?Phoen.) One from Spain, the 

Span. Espana, Lat. Hispania (Gr. Spania, 

sirai/fa) [usually said to have been named 

by the Phoenicians from the rabbits which 

infested the eastern coast] 

William de Spayne. — Hund.-Rolls. 

The N.T. els T^v'S,%avlav — Romans, xv. 
24, 28 — was translated ' in to Spayne ' by 
Wielif (A.D. 1380) andCranmer(A.D. i539)i 
the A.V. (A.D. 161 1) having 'into Spaine. 

SPALDING (Eng.) Bel. to Spalding (tines), 
13th cent. Spalding(e, the A.-Sax. Spdlde- 
lyng, Spaldeling, Spauldeling [On the 
analogy of Spaldington, Yorks, the last 
element iS; the 0-E. fil. sufi. -ing rather 
than O.North. and East. E. ing (O.N. ewg), 
a meadow, and the first element a pers. 

name with the dim. suff. -el, perh. a nick- 
name f. O.E. spdld, saliva (1), unless conn, 
with Low Ger. spalden, to split (cp. O.E. 
speld, a splinter] 

SPANNER (Eng.) is app. a nickname f. O.E. 
spanere, ' enticer,' 'seducer.' 

SPARHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Sparham (Norf.), 
13th cent. Sparham, A.D. io6o Sparham 
(' Dipl. Angl.', p. 590) [if the second ele- 
ment were the O.E. hdm, home, residence, 
the first element would be a pers. name, 
perh. f. O.E. spar, seen in speerlic, sparing, 
frugal, hardly O.E. spere, a spear (cp. 
O.N. sparr, a kind of spear, and Lat. 
spar-US, a spear) ; if the second element 
(as seems likely) is O.E. hamim, an en- 
closure, piece of land, the first element 
may easily be O.E. sptBr(-stdn), gypsum, 
chalk ; improb. the O.E. cognate of O.N. 
sparri=V>\it, spar, a spar, beam. App. 
this place is not the Spareweham fO.E. 
spearwa, a sparrow) of the Charter-Rolls, 
A.D. 1226-7] 

SPAR HAWK (Eng.) Sparrowhawk [M.E. 

Sperhauk{e, Sparhavec, etc., Domesday 

Sperhavoc, A.-Sax. Spe{a)rhafoc ; f. spearwa, 

sparrow, and hafoc, hawk] 

The refusal of Archbishop Robert to 
consecrate SpearhafocXo the see of London 
[a.d. 1050] had just excited the minds of 
the people anew against the Franks. — 

Lapp. -Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, ii. 300. 
What mighte or may the sely larke seye 
Whan that the sperhauk hath it in his 
foot ?— 

Chaucer, Trail. & Cris., iji. 1191-2. 

SPARK \ (Eng.) an assim. form of Sparhawk, 

(Scand.) a nickname for a Gay Fellow, 
a Gallant [M.E. spark{e ; O.N. spark-r, 
lively, brisk] 
Robertus Spark. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Ere many days, in her fathers park, 
Just at the close of eve-a. 
Again she met with her angry sparke ; 
Which made this lady grieve-a.^ — 
'The Baffled Knight,' 93-6: Percy's 

Cp. Sprake. 


SPARLING (teut.) = Spaprowj (q.v.) -)- the 
(double) dim. suff. -ling : cp. Ger. Sperling, 

SPARROW I (Epg.) a nickname from the 
SPARROWE J Sparrow [M.E. spar{e)wisi 
sparowe, etc., O.E. spearwa — Goth, 
sparma.\ ' 




SPARROWHAWK (Eng.) the fuller form of 
Sparhawk, q.v. 

SPARSHOLT "I (Eng.) Bel. to Sparsholt 
SPARSHOTT J (Berks: a.d. 963 and 1229 
Speresholt; Hants: a.d. 900 Speoreshplt) 
[O.E. holt, a wood.: the first element looks 
like a' pers. name (in the genit.) f. O.E. 
spere = O.N. spior (pi.), a spear ; but the 
above two place-names would provide 
almost the only instances of this word (in 
O.E. neuter like O.Sax. sper) being used 
as a pers. name, and it is not improb. that 
the two holts in question were so named 
from their containing ash-trees suitable for 
spear-shafts ; the early forms quoted are 
against a derivation f, the O.E. cognate of 
O.N. sparri, a spar, beam] 

SPAUL "I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) One from St. Paul (a 
SPAULL J common French eccles. place- 
name) [Fr. saint ; Lat. sanct-us, holy ; and 

V. Paul] 
SPAULDING, V. Spalding. 

SPAWFORTH, V. SpofTorth. 

SPEAIGHT, V. Speight. 

SPEAK "1„ o„„^„ 

SPEAKMAN (Eng.) Spokesman, Speaker, 
Orator [f. O.E. sp{r)ecan, to speak 

-I- manti\ 
Richard Spekeman. — Hund. Rolls- 

SPEAR (Eng.) i meton. for a Spearman 
[M.E. O.E. spere, a spear] 

2 a form of Spyer, q.v. 

SPEARING (Eng.) i representing an A.-Sax. 

* S/>m«^=SPERE's Son [O.E. spere, a 

spear (neuter, like O.Sax. sper; hvA 

O.H.Ger. sper, as mod. speer, was mostly 

masc.) 4- the fil. suff. -ing\ 

Cp. Goring. 

2 perh. also (on grammat. analogy) for 
, the A.-Sax. spyrigend, ' investigator ', 
'explorer', 'scout'. 

SPEARIVIAN (Eng.) v. Spear, and -|- man. 

SPEARS, Spear's (Son) : v. Spear. 

SPECK = Speke, q.v. 

SPECKIVIAN = Speakman, q.v. 

SPEDDING for Speeding, q.v. 

SPEDDY for Speedy, q.v. 

SPEECHLEY"! (Eng.) Bel. to Spetchley 
SPEECHLY J (Wore. : a.d. 967 at Spceclea, 
A.D. 816 SpcBcleahtun) = the Speech-Lea 
(evid. a field where public meetings were 
held) [O.E. spate, speech, also ' palace of 
public speaking ' + ledh, m., dat. led, 
meadow, field] 

perity [O.E. sped] 

Roger Sped. — Hund. Rolls. 

SPEEDING (Eng.) representing an A.-Sax. 
*Speding= Sped's Son [O.E. spM, f., suc- 
cess, prosperity, etc. + the fil. suff. -ing] 
For ari analogous -!M5--formation on a 
fem. noun cp. the A.-Sax. Munding. 

SPEEDY (Eng.) Prosperous, Fortunate; 
(later) Swift [O.Y.. spSdig] 

SPEER = Spear, q.v. 
SPEERS = Spears, q.v. 
SPEET 1 (Teut.) a nickname from the 
S P E i G H T J Woodpecker [M.E. spe(i)ght, 
etc. : cp. Dut. and Ger. specht (O.H.Ger. 
speht), woodpecker] 
Hugo Speght. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Eve, walking forth about the forrests, 

Speights, parrots, peacocks, estrich 

scatter'd feathers.— 
Sylvester's tr. Du Bartas; T. Wright. 

SPEIR = Spear (esp. '), q.v. 
SPEIRS, Speir's (Son). 
SPEKE (Eng.) Bel. to Speke (Lanes : Domes- 
day S/>ec) [a North, form of O.E. spAc, lit. 
speech, also ' place of pubUc speaking ' : 
cp. O.E. sp{r)<kc-hus, auditory, parUament- 


(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a nickname from the 

Woodpecker [A.-Fr. espek, O.Fr. espech(e 

(Fr. ipeiche), M.H.Ger. O.H.Ger. spech, 

woodpecker; allied to E. 'Speight' and 

luZt. pic-usi 

William le Spek.— ff«»rf. Rolls. 

SPELLER ■) (Eng.) Speaker, Orator, 

SPELLAR y Preacher ; Storyteller [M.E. 

speller{e ; f. O.E. spell, a discourse, homily, 

story, narrative + the agent, suff. -e«] 

Miles le Speller. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1306-7. 

Speke we of tha spelleres bolde, 
Sith we have of this lady tolde. — 

Cursor Mundi, 20849-50. 

SPELMAr } (^"g-) ■ ^1"^^- *° SP®"^'"' I-'- 

2for Spillman', q.v. 

SPENCE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Keeper of or Assistant 
in a Provision-Room or Buttery [M.E. 
spence, spens(e, O.Fr. despense, L.Lat. 
dispensa, larder ; f. Lat. dispendere, to 

weigh out] 
Thomas del Spens. — 


Al vinolent [full of wine] as hotel in 
the spence. — 

Chaucer, Cdnt, Tales, D 1931. 




In-to ane spence with vittell greit 

Baith cheis and butter upone thair 
skelfis hie [high shelves]. — 
Henryson, The Uplandis Mous, 102-3. 

SPENCER "1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dispenser (of 
SPENSER j provisions), Buttery or Larder 

Keeper [M.E. spencer, spenser{e, O.Fr. 

despencier, dispensier, L.Lat. dispensari-us ; 
f. Lat. dispendere, to weigh out] 

John le Spencer. — Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Henry le Spenser. — do. 
Roger le Spenser. — 

Lane. Fine's, A.D. 1384. 

The spensere and the botillere [butler] 

The kyng with hem was ful wrothe. — 
Cursor Mundi, 4447-8. 
Syr Hugh the spencer that was the 
kynges chamberlayne. — 

Caxton, Chrott. Eng., cxc. iii. 
The Spenser come with keyis in his 

Opinit the dure, and thame at denner 
fand. — 
Henryson, The Uplandis Mous, 132-3. 

SPENDER (A.-LatO Bursar; Paymaster 

[M.E. spender ; f. O.E. spendan, to spend — 

Lat. expendere, to weigh out, pay out] 

Johannes Spender. — 

YorltsPoll-Tax,A.T). 1379. 

Sometimes the duties of the spender 
seem to have been considered equivalent 
to those of the spenser or spencer (v. 
Spencer): cp. Dut. spinden, 'to distribute 
hTea&';spittde, 'pantry'. 

SPENDLOVEA (Eng.) a nickname for an 
SPENDLOW , Amorous Individual [f. O.E. 
SPENLOVE spendan, to spend + lufu, 
SPENLOW ' love] 

The d was dropped comparatively early: 
we find Spendelove in the Hundred-Rolls 
(a.d. 1274), but Spenlof as well as Spend- 
love in the Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d., 1379. 
Spendelo{w)e occurs in the late i6th cent. 

SPENNER (Eng.) i for Spender, q.v. 
2 for Spinner, q.v. 

SPENS = Spence, q.v. 

SPENSER = Spencer, q.v. 

SPENSTER, a fem. form of Spenser, Spencer 
[O.E. fem. agent, suif. -estre'\ 

SPERLING, v. Sparling. 

SPERLINGS, Sperling's (Son). 

SPERRING - Spearing, q.v. 

SPjCE, meton. for Spicer, q.v, 

SPICER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dealer in Spices 

[M.E. spicer(e, spycer, A.-Fr. espicer (Fr. 

spicier, grocer) ; O.Fr. espice, spice + the 

agent, suff. -er (Lat. -aris) ; Lat. species, 

with subsid. meaning 'merchandise'] 

Richard Lespicer. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 
Spiceres [var. spycers] speken with hym 
To spien hire {their] ware. — 

Piers Plowman, 1332-3. 

SPICKERNELL"! see the commoner form 
SPICKNELL JSplgurnell. 

SPICKFATT (Eng.) a trade nickname 

(= Bacon-Fat) for a Pork - Butcher 

[O.E. spic, bacon, lard + fckti] 

SPIER = Spyer, q.v. i There has been 
SPIERS = Spyers, q.v. J some confusion 
with Spelr(s, Spear(8, q.v. 

SPIGURNELL (prob. Teut;) This obsolete 
official title of the sealer of the King's 
writs is said to owe its origin to Godfrey 
Spigumell or Spigornell, the holder of 
the office under Hen. UL (see, e.g., 
Carpentier, ' Gloss. Nov.', 1766, p. 847, 
quoting Rapin-Thoyras [the surname 
prob. represents a nickname f. the Low 
Ger. spiker-nagel = Mod. High Ger. 
speichemagel, E. 'spike-nail' (whence prob. 
the E. plant-name 'spicknel', 'spignel'] 
These Bohuns were by inheritance for 
a good while the Kings Spigumelh, that 
is, the Sealers of his Writs. — 

Holland's tr. Camden's Brit., ed. 1637, 

p. 312. 
Godefr' Spigornell. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1205-6. 
Nicholas Spikernel. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

SPIKING (Eng.) a nickname f. the 0.(N.)E. 
spicing, m., 'a spike', 'nail'. 
Cp. North. Dial, spiking, 'a large nail'. 

SPILL (Teut.) an old pers. name (Spil-) f. O.E. 
spilian (M.E. spilen) = O.T<l. spila=O.Sax. 
and O.H.Ger. spildn, 'to play'. 

Cp. Spilsbury and Spilsby; and 

SPILLER (Teut.) 1 Player, Performer [v. 
Spill, and -|- the agent, suff. -er] 

Cp. Dan.-Norw. spiller, 'gamester', 
'player' ; Swed. spelare, 'gamester' ; Dut. 
i^e/er, 'player', 'gamester', 'fiddler', 'per- 
former' ; Fris. spylder, 'player' ; Ger. spieler, 
'player,' 'actor', 'performer', 'gambler' 
(M.H.Ger. spilare). 

2 = Speller, q.v. [cp. Goth. spilUn, to 

SPILLIN for Spilling. 




SPILLING, V. Spill, and + the O.Teut. fil. 

SPILLINGS, Spilling's (Son). 

SPILLMAN 1 = Spill (q.v.) + man. 

Richard Spileman. — 

Gt. Inq. Serv., A.D. 1212. 

Nicholas Spilman. — Testa de Nevill. 

Cp. Dan.-Norw. spillemand, 'fiddler'; 
Swed. spelman, 'mean musician' ; Dut. 
spelleman, 'showman' ; Fris. spilman, spyl- 
Wfflw, 'fiddler', 'bandsman'; Ger. spielmann, 
'musician', 'fiddler' (M.H.Ger. spilman, 
'musician', 'minstrel', jester'). 

2 for Spellnnan', q.v. 

SPILSBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Spelsbury 

(Oxon), the A.-Sax. Speolesburh=SPEOl.'s 

Stronghold {the pers. name is f. a var. 

of O.E. spilian, to play : v. Spill]- 

SPILSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Spilsby (Lines), 
A.D. 1254-5 and 1304-5 Spillesby [the pers. 
name (in the genit.) is more likely from 
O.N. spila, to play (cp. Spilsbury) than f. 

O.N. spilla, to destroy : h O.N. bf-r, 

estate, farm] 

SPINDELOW (Eng.) like Spend low for 
Spendlove, q.v. 

SPINDLER (Eng.) Spindle-Maker [M.E. 
spin(d)el, O.E. spinl, spindle + the agent. 

suff. -ere] 

SPINK (Scand.) a nickname from the Finch 
[M.E. and Dial. E. and Scot, spini (late 
M.E. spynke), a finch ; of Scand. orig.: cp. 
Dial. Scand. spink(e, a small bird] 
Emma Spink. — Hund. Rolls. 
The larke with his longe to ; 
The spynke, and the martynet also. — 

Skelton, Phyllyp Sparowe, 406-7. 

The gpviAspink, music's gayest child. — 

Burns, Bruar Water, 43. 

SPINKS, Spink's (Son). 

SPINNER, the M.E. spinner(e, spynner{e [f. 
O.E. spinnan, to spin] 
SPIRE, V. Spyep. 
SPIRES, V. Spyers. 

SPI RETT, a weak form (through the intermed. 
Spyrad: Yorks, a.d. 1379) of Spirhard, 

SPIRHARD (Scand.) Spear-Brave [O.N. 
*Spiorhar^-r—spiSr (=O.E. spere), spear 
-f- har^r (=O.E. h(e)ard), hard, brave] 
Philip Spirhard. — 

Hund. Rolls (Norf.), A.D. 1274. 
Johannes Spirard. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
Cp. Gerard. 

SPIRING, a weak form of Spearing, q.v. 

SPITAL ] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at or by 

SPITTALL (or attendant in) a Hospital 

SPITTLE J [M.t.spitel,spital,O.VT.(h)ospilal 

(Fr. hSpital) ; L.Lat. hospitale, a large 

house ; Lat. hospitalis, relating to a guest 

or host] 

Richard atte Spitale. — 

Pari. Writs, A.D. 1300. 

Lete bere hem [them] to the spitel anoon. 
— Rom. of the Rose, C 6505. 

Spit(t)al or Spittle is a fairly-common 
British place-name : Spittal, Pemb., 
"had formerly a chapel or hospital be- 
longing to Slebech preceptory '' ; Spittal, 
Lines, has "St. Edmund's hospital, which 
was founded for poor women prior to 
1330"; Spittle-Hill, Northumb., "had 
formerly a hospital dedicated to St. 
Leonard" (Nat Gas., 1868). 

SPITTLEHOUSE = Spittle (q.v.) + E. house, 
O.E. hus. 

SPITTLEMAN = Spittle (q.v.) + man. 

Quhen Symkin standis quhisling with 
ane quhip and ane gaid [goad] . . . 
Moist [most] like ane spittellman — suld 
I have ane of thoise? — 

The Fermorar &his Dochter, 49, 52. 
SPLATT, a West. Eng. freq.of Piatt, q.v. [cp. 
the Devon, splat-footedtox plat-footed, splay- 
footed ; and Devon, splat, a large spot] 

Cp. Spiott. 

SPLOTT (EngO Dweller at a Plot of Land 
[O.E. spiott, a spot, plot of land] 

William atte Splotte.— 

Soms. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

SPOFFORD "I (Eng. or A.-Scand.) Bel. to 

SPOFFORTH J Spofforth (Yorks), 14th cent. 

Spofford, Domesday Spoford [O.E. ford, a 

ford, forth : the first element is obscure 

from lack of suff. early documentary 

evidence, but not improb. is f. O.N. spol-r, 

a rail, bar ; hardly O.E. spor, a track] 

SPON (Eng.) Dweller at the sign of the 

Spoon [M.E. spon, O.E. spdn] 

SPONG(E (Eng.) Dweller at i a Bog or 

Swamp [Dial. East. E. spoug, a boggy 

place ; app. a guttural form of O.E. sponge 

(Lat. spongia), a sponge : cp. Gael, spong, 

Ir. spone, Wei. yspwng. Corn, spong, all f. 

Lat. spongia; also Scand. svamp, a 


2 a Narrow Piece of Land [Dial. East. 

E. spong; app. conn, with O.N. spSng, a 

flake, and E. Fris. spange, a thin plate] 

" One cottage and spong of ground in 
Desford aforesaid"— ie«c. Gloss., p. 252. 




SPOON ER (Eng.) Spoon-Maker or -Seller 

[M.E. sponer ; M.E. spop, O.E. spSm a chip 

of wood, spoon + the agent, suff. -ere] 

SPORRIER = Spuprlep, q.v. 
William le Sporier. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1302-3. 

SPOTTISWOOD ] (Eng.) Bel. to Spottis- 

SPOTTISWOODE ^wood (Berwick) = 

SPOTTSWOOD J Spot(t)'s Wood [the 

pers. name is no doubt a nickname (as in 

the case of Wulfric Spot, Earl of Mercia, 

d. loio) from M.E. O.E. spot, a spot (cp. 

O.N. spotii, spott-r, m., a bit, small piece ; 

and M.Dut. spotten, to spot, stain) rather 

than f. O.N. spidt, n., a spear] 

"... Robert de Spottiswood, who 
was born in the reign of King Alex- 
ander III. and died in that 'Of Robert 
Bruce". — Burke's Landed Gentry. 

SPRACK (Scand.) Lively, Quick, Brisk, 

Alert [Dial. E. ; O.N. sprcek-r, spark-r, 

sprightly, &c. : cp. Dial. Swed. sprdk, 

sprdg, talkative ; and Spapk(e'] 

William Sprak. — 

Soms. Subs.-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

SPRACKETT= Sprack+the Fr. dim. suff. -et. 

William Spraket. — 

Soms. Subs.-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

SPRACKLIN 1 =Spraok (q.v.)-|-the double 
SPRACKLEN J dim. suff. -el-in. 

SPRACKLING i = Spraok (q.v.) + the 
double dim. suff. -l-ing. 

(rarely) 2 for the well-known O.Scand. 
nickname Sprakalegg-r, 'Creaking Leg'. 

Spracling-us occurs as a pers. name in 
the 'Liber Vitse Dunelm'. 

There has been confusion with Sprat- 
ling, q.v. 



SPRAGUE U. Sppack. 


He is a good sprag memory. — 

Merry Wives of W., IV. i. 84. 

SPRAGGON = Sppagg, Sprack (q.v.) + the 
Fr. augm. suff. -on. 

SPRAGGONS, Spraggon's (Son). 

SPRAKELING = Sprackling, q.v. 

SPRATLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Sproatley (Yorks), 

Domesday Sprotele, Sprotelai=SPROTA's 

Lea [v. Sproat, Sppot(t, and -)- M.E. ley, 

O.E. 7?4A, a lea] 

SPRATLING =■ Sppat(t, Sppot(t, q.v. H-the 
E. double dim. suff. -l-ing. 

There has been some confusion with 
Spraokling, q.v. 

SPRAT(T, V. Sppot(t. 


SPREADBURY UorSppotbopOUgh.q.v. 


SPREAG I for Sppigg, q.v. 

2 for Sppague, Sppaok, q.v. 

SPRECKLEY does not seem to be an Eng. 
local name, and it therefore prob. repre- 
sents the O.Scand. nicknajne Sprakalegg-r 
[O.N. spraka, to creak, etc. + legg-r, leg] 

SPRIGENS 1 _ e„„:tftfi„o nv 

SPRIG G I (Teut.) a nickname f. the O.Low 
SPRIGGE/Ger. word seen in Mod.L.Ger. 
sprikk, Fris. sprik(ke, O.N. sprek, a stick, 
twig, O.E. sprcec,. a shoot, twig. 

Sprig. — ^A small, slender person. — 

Lonsdale Gloss., p. 79. 

SPRIGGIN = Sprigg (q.v.) 4- the A.-Fr. dim. 
suff. -in. 

William Spiigia.—Hund. Rolls (Norf.) 




SPRIGGS, Sprigg's (Son) : v. Sprigg. 

SPRING (Eng.) i Dweller at a Fountain 
[O.E. spryng; f. springan, to burst forth] 

2 Dweller at a Grove or Young Wood 

[Dial. E.] 

The nightingale, among the thick-leav'd 
spring. — 

Fletcher, Faithful Shepherdess, v. i. 

3 Active, Nimble [Dial. E. ; O.E. 

springan, to spring] 

SPRINGALL \ (A.-Fr,-Teut.) a term applied 

SPR1NGLE I to an Active, Nimble Indi- 

SPRINGALD jviDUAL [M.E. springal{d, a 

SPRINGOLD I youth, stripling (also a military 

engine) ; O.Fr. espringale, a dance, a 

military engine ; f. O.Sax. O.H.Ger. 

springan =? O.N. springa, to spring] 

In the Hundrpd-RoUs (a.d. 1274) we 

find the surname Springald, the vocalized 

form Springaud, and the iinit. form 


There came two springals of full tender 
yeares.— Spenser, Faerie Queene, V. x. 6. 
Springall is occ. for Sppinghall, 




SPRINGETT I = Spring' (q.v.) + the A.-Fr. 
dim. suff. -et. 

Cp. the French surname Sprenguet. 

2 a weak form of Springald, q.v. 

SPRINGHALL (Eng.) Dweller at i the Hall 

by the Spring [O.K. spryng + h(e)all] 

2 the Spring-Nook [O.E. spryng + 

h(e)al(h, a corner, nook] 

There are two Spring Halls in Camb. 
and one in Suff. 

There has been some confusion with 

SPROAT = Sprott, q.v. 

SPROOLE\ (Eng.) Energetic, Active [Dial. 

SPROULE E. : cp. M.E. sproul, M.Scpt. 

SPROWLE 'spreul, to sprawl, O.E. spredwlian, 

SPRULE / 'to move convulsively' ; whence 
also Devon, sproil, active, agile, and 
North. E. (1781 : K.Ti.S.) sprewl, 'to spurn 
and kick . . .'] 

SPROSON I for Sproat's Son: v. Sproat, 
2 for Sproston, q.v. 

SPROSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sproston (Chesh.), 

14th cent. Sprouston = Sprot's Estate 

[v. Sppot(t, and + O.E. tun\ 

SPROTBOROUGH\(Eng.) Bel. to Sprot- 
SPROTBURY /borough (Yorks), 13th 

cent. Sprotburghe, Domesday Sproteburg 

= Sprota's Stronghold 

D [v. 
= O.N, 


SPROT(T (Eng.) the- A.-Sax Sprot(a, a pers. 

name f. sprota, m. ( = O.N. sprott), 'a sprout', 

'shoot', 'peg' [conn, with O.E. sprott = 

Dut. sprot = L.Ger. sprotte, a sprat ; and 

cp. Dut. spruit, a sprout, child] 

WiUiam Sprot. — 

Pipe-Rolls, A.D. 1350. i. 

Richard Sprot. — 

Hund. Soils, A.D. 1274. 

SPRUNT (Eng.) Active, Vigorous [Dial. E. ; 

O.E. spryn(s)d] 

SPUR irScand.) a 
SPURR J Sparrow 

nickname from the 
[O.N. spsrr] 
(Eng.) a sign-name or trade-name from 
the Spur [M.E. spure, O.E. spura] 

SPURGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname or local 

name from the plant so called [E. spurge, 

O.Fr. e)spurge (Fr. spurge), named from 

jts 'cleansing away' warts ; f. Lat. expur- 

gare, to clefin§e away] 

SPURGEONI said to be palatalized meta- 
SPURGIN J thetic forms of the I3th-cent. 
Norfolk Sprigin, through the i6th-cent. 
form Spurgynne (v. Spriggin). This is 
not impossible ; but Spurgeon would 
readily represent a conceivable nickname 

SPURUING = Spup' (q.v.) + the (double) 
dim. suff. -l-ing. : cp. the Ger. Sperling, 

SPURMAN (Eng.) Tracker; Scout [O.E. 
speremann, spyremann; conn, with O.E. 
spor, a track] 
Rog'us Spurman de Caton. — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1329. 

SPURRELL (Eng.) Kicker [O.E. spurul, 
'given to kicking or trampling' (?)] 

SPURRIER (Eng.) Spur-Maker [M.E. spure, 
spore + the agent, suff. -ier ; O.E. spura, 
spora, a spur] 
Cp. Spoppler. 

SPURWAY (Eng.) Dweller at a Track-Way 
[O.E. spor, a track -|- weg, a way] 

SPYER (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Spier, Spy,Watchman, 

Scout [f. M.E. espyen, O.Fr. espier (Fr. 

dpier), O.H.Ger. spekon, to spy] 

William le Spiour. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1301-2. 

Robertas Spyer. — 

Yorks Pott-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

The mod. Fr. 4pieur has also developed 
the meaning 'eavesdropper', 'Paul Pry'. 

SPYERS, (the) Spyer's (Son). 

SQUAREYl (A..Fr.-Lat.) Short and Fat 

SQUARY ; [North. E. : cp. O.Fr. esquarrS, 

squared, L.Lat. exquadrare, to square ; 

Lat. quadrare'] 

SQUEER ] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Squire, Knight's 

SQUIER ^ Attendant; Ut. Shield-Bearer 

SQUIRE J \M..K. squier, squyer, O.Fr. escuier, 

escuyer (Fr. Scuyer), a squire ; f. L.Lat. 

scutarius, a shield-bearer ; Lat. scutum, a 

John le Squier.— /fwBrf. Rolls. 

A Knyght ther was . . . 
With hym ther was his sone, a yong 
Squier. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 43, 79. 

IquierI® I Squeer's, Squier's, Squire's 
squiRES J (^°")- 




SQUIBB (Scand.) a nickname for a Petty 

Fellow [f. M.E. squippen, swippen, to 

move swiftly, flash ; O.N. suipd] 

Or asked for their pas by everie squib 
That list at will them to revile or snib. — 
Spenser, Prosopopoia, 371-2. 

SQUILLER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Keeper of the 

Dishes ; Dish-Washer [M.E. A.-Fr. 

squyl(i)er, squeler; f. O.Fr. escuelle (Ft. 

ecuelle), Lat. scutella, a dish] 

SQUIRRELL (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) a nickname 

from the Squirrel [M.E. squyrel, squirel, 

A.-Fr. esqurel, O.Fr. escurel (Fr. icureuit), 

L.Lat. scurellus, a dim. f. Lat. sciurus, Gr. 

' (FKlovpos, a squirrel] 

STABLE(S, in addition to its face-meaning, 
may occ. be tor Staple(8, q.v. 

STABLEFORD for Stapleford, q.v. 

STABLER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Stableman [M.E. 

stab(e)ler, f. stabel, stable, with the agent. 

suff. -er ; O.Fr. estable, a stable, Lat. siabul- 

unt, a stall, stable] 

William le Stabler.— Hunrf. Rolls. 

STAGE, a contr. of i Eustace, q.v. 

2 the French Anastase: v. under Anstice 
(for Anstace). 

Roger Stace.—Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Johannes Stase. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Robertus Stace.-r 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 142 1-2. 




I the M.Lat. Stacius for the well- 
known Lat. Statins [f. Lat. status, 
stability, prosperity, etc.] 

Stacius le Boloneis. — Cal. Rot. Pat. 

2 a contr. of the Lat. Anastasius: v. 
under Anstice (for Anstace). 

3 = Stace (q.v.) -f the E. dim. suff. -y. 
Johannes Stacy. — 

Inq. adq. Damn., A.D. 1314-15. 

Stacy Hernowe. — 

Soms. Subs.-Roll, A.D. 1327. 
Robertus Stasy. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STAGK "1 (Scand.) Dweller at a Stack, or 

STAGKE J Steep Rock or Hill [O.N. stakk-r 

(Dan.-Norw. stak, Swed. stacK), a stack ; 

borrowed by Gael, (stac, a cliiT, steep hill] 

STACKPOOL ] (Scand. + E.) Bel. to Stack- 

STAGKPOOLE \ pool or Stackpole [v. under 

STACPOOLE J Stack, and + M.E. poole, 

jpoJe, O.E.jEi(;;, apool] 

Stackpole-Elidor, co. Pembroke, "is 
situated on the shore of Stackpole Creek 
and Head, opposite the Stack Rocks in 
the Bristol Channel."— ATat. Gaz. 

STAFFORD (Eng.) I Bel. to Stafford (Staffs), 
the Domesday Stadford, Stafford = the 
Staith or Landing-Place Ford [O.E. 
iteSJ, a bank, shore; hence, a landing- 
place ■\-ford\ 

"It is impossible to doubt that the 
original form was Stmthford." — 

Duignan, Staffs Place-Names, p. 141. 

2 Dweller at the Stave-Ford (i.e. a 
ford which was marked out or facilitated 
by staves) [O.E. sttBf, a staff, stave, stick 

+ ford\ 

There are hamlets called Stafford in 
Somerset, Devon, etc. 

STAGG (A.-Scand.) i a nickname and sign- 
name from the Stag [M.E. stagge. Late 
O.E. stagga, a stag ; O.N. stegg-r, steggi, 
male bird, animal] 

Dialectally, 'stag' was applied in Eng- 
land to other male animals (and birds) 
besides the hart. 

2 a voiced form of Stack, q.v. 
Cp. 'Stag Rock,' off Anglesey, and the 
various Irish 'Stag-Rocks' or 'Stags.' 

STAG MAN (A.-Scand.) Stag -Keeper [v. 
under Stagg, and + E. man\ 

STAIG, a Scot, and N.E. form of Stagg, q.v. 

STAILEY, V. staley. 

STAIN (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Stain ; or 
Dweller at a Stone, i.e. a Rock, or Stone 
Castle [O.E. stdn = O.N. stei«»] 

Cp. Staines. 

STA1NB(0)R0UGH (Eng.) Bel. to Stain- 
b(o)rough (W. Yorks), the Domesday 
Stanburg = the Stone or Rock Strong- 
hold [O.E. stdn + burg] 

STAIN BURN (Eng.) Bel. to Stainburn ; or 

Dweller at the Stony Brook [O.E. stdn, 

a stone + burne, a brook] 

The Yorks place was Stanbume in 

STAI N DRO P (Eng. or Scand.)Bel. to Staindrop 

(Durham), form. Stainthorp = the Stone 

DwELHNG(s [O.E. stdn = O.N. steinn + 

O.E. O.N. yorp] 

This name was Latinized Vicus Saxeus, 




STAINER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Painter, Decorator 

^hort for Distainer; f. O.Fr. desteindre 

(Fr. dSteindre), to take away the colour ; 

Lat. dis-, a privative + tingere, to dye] 

(Teut.) lor the O.Scand. pers. name 

Steinarr for Sleinharr, A.-Sax. Stdnhere = 

RocK(-Firm)-ARMY [O.N. steinn = O.E. 

Stan (=Goth. stains), stone, rock + O.N. 

-harr, herr -O.E. here, army] 

The mod. Norweg. forms are Steinar, 

STAINES \ (Eng.) Bel. to Staines (M'sex), a 
STAINS ) pi. form of the A.-Sax. Sirf« = the 

Boulder, Rock, or Stone House or 


The short A.-Saxon charter of the Con- 
fessor in which this place is referred to in 
the dative as Stane (TDipl. Angl.', p. 4 14) is 
superscribed (doubtless dating from a 
later period) " Carta beati Regis Edwardi 
de Wyndesora et Stanes." 

It usedto'be thought that Staines owed 
its name to an old stone marking the 
boundary of the jurisdiction of the Cor- 
poration of London over the Thames to 
the West. 

Cp. Stanes. 

STAINFIELD = Stanfield, q.v. 

STAIN FORD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Stainford or 

STAINFORTH J Stainforth (Yorks), the 

Domesday Stainforde= the Stone-Ford 

[O.E. sta'B +ford] 

STAIN SBY (Scand.) Bel. to Stainsby (Lines, 

Derby) =Steinn's Dwelling or Estate 

[the genit. of O.N. steinn, a stone, rock 4- 

b$-r, estate, etc.] 

STAINTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stainton (a common 
Eng. place-name), 13th cent. Stanton, 
Staynlon, A.-Sax. Stdntdn : v. Stanton. 

STAIR (Gael.) Dweller at a Marsh - Path 
or the Stepping Stones [Gael, stair; 
prob. conn, with, if not borrowed from, 

Eng. 'stair'] 
Stair, Ayrshire, is on the R, Ayr. 
(Eng.) see Stare. 

STALEY (Eng.) Bel. to Staley (-Bridge), 
Chesh., 14th cent. Stavelegh, Staveley = tiie 
Stave-Lea (i.e. a meadow enclosed by 
staves : cp. 'Hedgeley') [O.E. staf + ledhj 

STALKER (Eng.) Stalker ; hence Fowler, 
Hunter [i. O.E. st{e)alcian, to stalk] 

William le Stalkere.— 
Ch&h' Cbmbrlm'. Aacti., A,D. 1303.4, 

STALLARD (Eng.) for Stallward=STABLE- 

Keeper [O.E. st{e)aU, a stall, stable +. 

w(e)ard, keeper] 

(Scand.) for the O.Scand. pers. name 
Stdlha^r= Steel-Hard. 

STALLBRIDGE] (Eng.) Bel. to Stalbridge 

STALBRI DG E J (Dorset), early - 14th - cent. 

Stapelbrigge, Stapelbrig, a.d. 998 Stapulbricg 

[O.E. stapol, -ul, a post, pillar, staple -|- 

O.E.bricg, brycg, abridge] 

STALLER (Eng. and Scand.) Marshal [O.E. 
st(e)allere=O.N. stallart] 

In the instance of the Marshal, the 
Anglo-Saxon . . Stallere (Comes Stabuli).. . 
is seldom designated the 'cyninges hors- 
thegn'. Of these stalleres or constables 
several are mentioned at the same time, 
who in some districts appear as standard- 
bearers. The first ot them • had the 
highest rank both in the writena-gemfit 
and in the field. — 

Lapp.-Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, ii. 381- 


(Fr.) mayrepresent a L.Lat. 
• *Stalibraci-um, 'Steel Arm', 
either as a nickname or 
heraldic name; but evidence is lacking 
[*L.Lat. stall) of steel, f. Teut. (O.H.Ger. 
stahal, jM/=O.N. stdl) + L.Lat. bracium 
(Fr. bras), Lat. brachium, an arm] 

STALLMAN 1 (Eng.)i Stable-Man, 2 BooTH- 

STALMAN J Man [M.E. stal{le, a stall, 

stable, place, booth ; O.E. st{e)all, a stall, 

stable, place -|- man\ 

Occ. for Stalmine, q.v. 

STALLOM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Stalhara (Norf. : 

STALLON [ 13th cent. 5teZM»», Stalham)=t\i^ 

STALLUM J Stall - Enclosure [M.E. stal, 

O.E. s({e)all, a stall, stable + M.E. ham, 

O.E. harn{m, a piece of laud, enclosure] 

STALLWOOD (Eng.) app. not a local name, 

but an imit. form of Stalwart [O.E. 

stal'wyr^e, serviceable] 

STALLWORTH ] (Eng.) Stalwart [M.E. 
STALLWORTHY J stalworth(,y, stalew(tt)rthe, 
etc. ; O.E. sttel-wyr\>e, serviceable] 
John le Stalewrthe.— i^MBrf. Rolls. 

STALMINE (Scand.) Bel. to Stalmine 
(N.Lancs), 13th cent. Stalmyn, Staleminne, 
Stalmin, Domesday Stalmin [the second 
element is O.N. minni, mynni, mouth (of 
a river, valley, etc.) ; in Engl, usage 
app. also applied to a junction of roads : 
the first element is either O.N. stalli, 
(heathen) altar, qx stuU-r^ % staUj 




STAMFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stamford (Lines : 
A.-Sax. . Stdnford), Stamford (Bridge) 
(Yorks: A.-Sax. Stdnford (Bricg) = tiie 
Stone-Ford (i.e. a ford whose passage 
was facilitated by stones.) 

STAMFORDHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Stamford- 
ham (Northumb.), a.d. i 200-1 Stanford- 
ham [v. under Stamford, and -H O.E. 
ham(m, piece of land, enclosure] 

STAMMERS (Eng.) a nickname for a 

Stammerer or Stutterer [M.E. 

stameren, O.E. stamerian, to stammer] 

STAMPER (Eng.) Pounder; Thrasher; 
Printer; Minter [M.E. stamper{e\ i. 
M.E. stampen, O.E. stempan, to stamp, 

John Stamper. — Hund. Rolls. 

STANANOUGHT (Eng.) app. for 'Stand-at- 
nought' (a nickname). 

STANBERY \ 1 for Stanbury, q.v. 
STANBERRY J 2 for Stanborough, q.v. 

STANBOROUGH 1 (Eng.) 1 Bel. to Stan- 
STANBRA V borough; or Dweller at 

STANBROUGH J the Rocky Hill [O.E. 

stdn, a stone, rock' + heorh, heorg, ahiVi\ 
Stdnbeorh and Stdnbeorg (with dative 

-beorge and -beorwe) are fairly common in 

A^-Sax. charters. Stanborough, Devon, 

was Stahberewe a.d. 1312-13. 

2 for Stanbury, q.v. 

Cp. Stainborough. 

STAN BRIDGE (Eng.) Bel. to Stanbridge; or 
Dweller at the Stone-BRidge [O.E. stdn 


Stanbridge, Beds, was Stanbrigge and 
Stanbrugge ia the M.E. period. 

STANBURY (Eng.) i Bel. to Stanbury; or 
Dweller at the Stone or Rock Fortifi- 
cation [O.E. stdn + burh, dat. byrig] 

2 for Stan b(o) rough, q.v. 

STANGLIFF(E(Eng.) Bel. to Stancliff(e; or 

Dweller by the Rocky Cliff [O.E. stdn, 

a stone, rock-|-c/«/, clyf] 

A Stdnclyf, e.g., occurs in a Wilts 
charter dated a.d. 850. 

STAN DAG E for Standedge, q.v. 

STANDEDGE 1 (Eng.) Dweller at i the Stony 
STANDIDGE J or KocKY Edge or Hill- 
Ridge [M.E. stan(e, O.E. stdn, a stone, 
rock -|- M.E. egge, an edge, (dial.) a hill* 
ridge ; O.E. ecg, an edge] 

In this case the first d in the name is 
the common post-n dental intrusion. 

2 the Stone Ditch or Dike [Dial. E. 
4itshy a dike, fence ; O.E. dk} 

STAN DEN (Eng.) Bel. to Standen; or 
Dweller at the Stony or Rocky Valley 
[O.E. stdn, a stone, rock + denu, dat. dene, 

a valley] 

We find 'in stdndene', e.g., in a Wilts 
charter dated a.d. 778. 

Thomas de Standene. — 

Lane. Inq., A.D. 1292. 

Confused with Standon, q.v. 

STANDERING, v. Standring. 

STANDFIELD for Stanfield, q.v. 

STANDFORD for Stanford, q.v. 

At Standford, Kent, "the ancient Stane 
Street crosses a brook". 

STANDING I for Stanning, q.v. 
(rarely) 2 for Standen, q.v. 

STAN DISH (Eng.) Bel. to Standish (Lanes: 
14th cent. Standissh, Standisch, 13th cent. 
Standische, Stanedisse, \2th ce.xA. Statiedis ; 
Glouc. : 14th cent. Standish, Stanedish, 
a.d. Sy2 Stanedis (Lat. charter) = the Stony 
or Rocky Enclosure or Park [O.E. stdn, 
a stone, rock + edisc, an enclosure, park] 

The Lane. Standish seems to have 
been the more fruitful source of the sur- 
name. The famous Miles Standish 
carried it to America — 

He was a gentlemen born, could trace 
his pedigree plainly 

Back to Hugh Standish of Duxbury Hall, 
in Lancashire, England, 

Who was the son of Ralph, and the 
grandson of Thurston de Standish. — 

Longfellow, The Ctshp. of Miles Standish, 

iii. 140-2. 

STANDLEY for Stanley, q.v. 

STAN DON (Eng.) Bel. to Standon ; or Dweller 

at the Rocky Hill [O.E. stdn, a stone, 

rock + dun, a hill] 

Standon, Herts, was Standuneia a Latin 
charter, a.d. 944-6 ; but Standon, Staffs, 
ace. to Duignan, wasStantone (cp.Stanton) 
in Domesday-Book (this is, however, 
prob. an error, as we find a ' Robertus de 
Standon' mentioned in conn, with Stan- 
don, Staffs, in the Charter-Rolls, a.d. 1283). 

Confused with Standen, q.v. 

STANDRING (Eng.) Dweller at (prob.) the 
Stone Ring or Circle [O.E. stdn + 


Stannering occurs as a Lane, surname 
in the 17th cent, 




STANES: v. Staines; but there is also a 
Lines hamlet, Stane(s, which prob. in- 
volves the O.N. steinn 'a stone,' 'rock,' 
'stone dwelling.' 

STANESBY : v. Stainsby. 

STANFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Stanfield (M.E. 

Stanfeld, Slanefeld); or Dweller at the 

Stony or Rocky Field or Plain [O.E. 

stdn, a stone, rock + feld] 

STANFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stanford; or 

Dweller at the Stone (i.e. Paved)- Ford 

[O.E. stdn -Vford\ 

... on Stanford of Stanf orda [dat. case] . . . 

(...into Stanford; from Stanford...) 

Wore. Land-Charter c. A.D. 757. 

Adam de Stanford. — Hund. Rolls. 
This name was Latinized de Vado Saxi. 
Cp. Stamford. 

STANGER(Eng.) i Pole-Dresser or -Maker 

[M.E. stang(e, O.E. stang = O.N. stong, a 

pole, stake -|- the agent, suff. -ere} 

2 Dweller at the Stony or Rocky Gore 
[O.E. stdn, a stone, rock -|- gdr(a, a three- 
cornered piece of land, a projection] 

A land-name Stdngdr is mentioned, in 
connexion with Upminster, in a charter 
(A.D. io62)oftheConfessor's,'Dipl.Angl.', 
P- 395- 

Jordan de Staugar. — 

Sams. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

STANHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Stanhara ; or 

Dweller at i the Stone House [O.E. 

stdn + hdwi] 

2 the Stone or Stony Enclosure or 
Piece of Land [O.E. stdn + ham{m\ 

The 'aet Stanham' of a Latin + A.-Sax. 
charter a.d. 932 (' Cart. Sax.' no. 692) 
refers to Stoneham, Hants, which is 
claimed to be the Roman 'ad Lapidem' ; 
and as the Lat. lapis, lapidis, in addition 
to its primary meaning, also denoted a 
boundary-stone, sepulchral stone, mile- 
stone, etc., 'Stoneham' may owe its first 
element to a stone of this Kind. 

STANHOPE (Eng.) Bel. to Stanhope; or 

Dweller at the Stony or Rocky Hope 

(Mountain Recess or Hollow) [O.E. stdn, 

: a stone, rock ; and v. Hope'] 

The parish of Stanhope, Durham, 13th 
cent. Stanhop, is mostly "rugged and 

STANHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at the Stone 
House 10.E. stdn + h^] 

STANIER (Eng.) Stone-Worker [M.N.E. 
stance (O.E. stdn) -I- the A.-Fr. agent. 

suff. -ier} 

STANIFORD 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Stony 

STAN I FORTH J or Paved Ford [M.E. stany, 

O.E. stdnig + M.E. forth, ford, O.E. ford] 

Cp. Stainford, Stainfopth, Stanford. 

STANILAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Stony 
Land [O.E. stdnig -I- land] 

STANISTREET (Eng.) Dweller at the Paved 

(usually Roman) Road [O.E. stdnig,slony, 

paved 4- street (Lat. strata via), road] 

Richard de Stanistretei [place-name 
now Stanney Street]. — 

Lane Inq., A.D. 1307. 

STANK \(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller by the Pool 

STANG J [Dial. E. : O.Fr. estang, Lat. stagnant, 

a pool of standing water] 

STANLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stanley; or Dweller 

at the Stony or Rocky Lea [O.E. stdn, 

a stone, rock + ledh (M.E. ley), a lea] 

The M.S.E. forms of this common 
place-name were Stanleg(h, Stanley{e ; the 
M.N.E. forms Stanelegh, Stanelay, Staynley, 

Stanelia Monaster' Stanleya pro 

Stanley.— 5ot Chart., A.D. 1203-4. 

Stanleg Abbatia Ciscestr' ordinis. — 

Rot. Chart., A.D. 1226-7. 

The two foregoing entries relate to the 
old Cistercian priory at Stanley or 
Stanleigh, Wilts. 

The Liverpool suburb Stanley owes its 
name indirectly to the Staffordshire 
Stanley through the great Stanley 

This name was usually Latinized de 
Pascuo Lapidoso. 

STANMER(E (Eng.) Bel. to Stanmer (Suss.), 
the A.-Sax. (8th cent.) Stdnmere = the 
Stony or Rocky Lake [O.E. stdn, aj 
stone, rock -f mere, a lake, pool] 

Stanmer is near Palmer, whose mere 
still exists. 

STANMORE (Eng.) Bel. to Stanmore (M'sex: 
Domesday Stanmera, a.d. 793 Stdnmere f 
Berks : A.D. 948 Stdnmere) = the Stony or 
Rocky Lake [v. under Stanmer(e] 

Gt. Stanmore, M'sex, "includes the 
district of Stanmore Marsh." 

STANNARDl (Teut.) Stone-Hard, Rock- 

STANNARTJ Firm [A.-Sax. Stdnh{e)ard= 

O.N. Steinhar^-r = O.Ger. Steinhart, etc.: 

O.E.i&«« =O.N.ite««« = O.H.Ger. stein - 




Goth. stain-s= O.Sa.x. stin, a stone, rock 

, + O.E. h{e)ard = O.N. har^-r = O.H.Ger. 

hart = Goth, hardu-s = O.Sax. hard, hard, 


Stanard-us occurs in both Domesday 
and the Hundred-Rolls, the latter having 
also Stannard and Stonhard. 

STANNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stanney (Chesh.: 
Domesday Staiiei); or Dweller at i the 
Stony, or Rocky Island or Waterside 
[O.E. stdn, a stone, rock+i^, island, etc.] 

(occ.) 2 the Stony or Rocky Hey or 
Hay (Enclosure) [O.E. ge)hwg, haga] 

STANNIFORD = Staniford, q.v. 

STANNING (Scand.) Bel. to Staining (N. 

Lanes), 13th cent. Staning, Staynyng, 

Stayning, Stenenge = the Stony or Rocky 

Meadow [O.N. steinn (O.E. stdn), a stone, 

rock + eng (O.N.E. ing), a meadow] 

Adam de Staning. — 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

STANNINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stannington 
(Northumb. : 13th and 14th cent. Staning- 
ton; Yorks)=the Estate of the StAn- 
Family [A.-Sax. *Stdninga'-tun—stdn, 
stone, rock, precious stone ; -inga, genit. 
pi. of the fil. suff. -jn^ + t»i«, estate, 

farm, etc.] 

STANNISTREET = Stanistreet, q.v. 

STAN N US (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 

Stone House [O.E. stdn = O.N. steinn 

+ O.E. O.N. hAs'\ 

STANSBIE1 _e+„:„.h» n„ 
STANSBY I =Stain8by, q.v. 

STANSFELD \ (Eng.) Bel. to Stansfield 

STANSFIELD / (Yorks: Domesday Stanesfelt ; 

Suff.: 14th cent. Slansfeld, 13th cent. 

Stanesfeld) = Stan's Field [O.E. stdn, 

genit. stones, stone, rock, precious stone + 

feld, field, plain] 

STAN STEAD! (Eng.) Bel. to Stanstead, 

STANSTEO J Stansted = the Stone or 

Rock Place [O.E. stdn + stede'\ 

Stansted, Essex, was Stanstede in the 

13th cent., Stansted in the 14th cent. ; 

Stanstead, Herts, was Stan{e)stede in 

Domesday-Book, Stansted in the 13th and 

14th cent. ; but Stanstead, Kent, Stansted 

in the 14th cent., was Stdnhdmstede [O.E. 

hdm, a dwelling] in the 9th cent. 

STANTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stanton = i the 
Stone DwELLmG(s. 

2 the Dwelling(s or Farmstead by the 

Stone(s or RocK(s [O.E. stdn, . stone, 

rock + (tin, farmstead, etc.] 

StdntUn occurs fairly frequently in deeds 
of the A.-Saxon period : in Latin charters 
typically " in loco qui dicitur Stantun " 
(without vowel-marks) ; in A.-Saxon docu- 
ments "ssiStdntiine" (dat. case). Stanton is 
the usual form in the i3th-cent. Hundred- 
Rolls. At Stanton-Drew, Soms., are "circles 
of large stones" ; at Stanton-Harcourt, 
Oxon, are "a number of large stones called 
the Devil's Coits"; and in descriptions of 
several of our Stantons particular mention 
is made of stone-quarries. 

STANWAY (Eng.) Bel. to Stanway; or Dweller 
at the Stone or Paved (often Roman) 
Road [13th and 14th cent. stanwey{e', O.E. 

stdn weg\ 
Stanway, Glouc, on a Roman way, is 
referred to in an A.-Saxon charter c. a.d. 
800 ('Cart. Sax.' no. 299) as "on ealdan 
stdnwege" (&iA. case) — "on to the oXAstone 
way"; Stanway, Essex, also on a Roman 
road, occurs in an A.-Sax. will c. a.d. 972 
('Dipl. Angl.', p. 522) as "aet Stdnwegun", 
where -un represents the dat. pi. suff. -urn. 

STANWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Stanwick (North- 
ants : 13th cent. Stanewig ; Yorks : Domes- 
day Steinuege, Stenuueghe) = the Stone or 
Paved Road [O.E. stdn (= O.N. steinn) + 
O.E. weg (= O.N. ueg-r, Goth, wig-s^ 
'Stanwick' is therefore a Northern 
(guttural) form of Stanway, q.v. 

The Yorks place is "on the Roman way 
from Catterick." 

The Northants place occurs as Stane- 
ivigge in a charter ('Cart. Sax.' no. 22) which 
is dated a.d. 664 but which (even if genuine) 
is evidently a copy made centuries later. 

STANWIX is for Stanwicks, a pi. form of 
Stanwick, q.v. 

Stanwix, Cumb. (14th cent. Staymvikes), 
is on a Roman way and near a Roman 

STAPLE (Eng. and A.-Fr.-Teut.) Bel. to 
Staple ; or Dweller at a Pillar or Post, 
hence a Market or Fair-Place [O.E. 
stapol, a pillar, post, etc. ; also O.Fr. 
estaple, a fair, market, borr. f. L.Ger. 
stapel: cp. Dut. stapelhuis, staple-house, 
staple ; stapelrharkt, staple-market ; stapel- 
plaats, staple-town, emporium : (High) 
Ger. stapel, a post, staple, pile, market, is 
borr. f. L.Ger.; the cognate High Ger. 
staffel (O.H.Ger. staffat) meaning a step, 


Robert atte Staple.— 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1277. 

The French place-name Etaples (Pas- 
de-Calais) is pron. locally exactly like Fr. 
e<ape(a storehouse), thentod. form of O.Fr, 




STAPLEFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stapleford (a 
common E. local name),the M.E. Stapelford, 
O.E. Stapolford = the Staple-Ford (i.e. a 
ford which was marked out or otherwise 
facilitated by staples or posts) [v. under 


STAPLER (Eng.) Dealer Iv. under Staple, 
and + the E. agent, sulf. -e)r] 

The corresp. Fr. etapieris now a military 
term for a "distributor of rations." 

STAPLES, pi., and genit., of Staple, q.v, 

STAPLETON (Eng.) Bel. to Stapleton, the 
M.E. Stapleton, Stapelton, Stapilton, O.E. 
StapoltUn = the Staple-Enclosure (i.e. 
the enclosure — with dweUing(s — fenced in 
by posts) [O.E. stapol, a post, pillar, etc.. + 
tiin, enclosure, etc.] 

The Leic. Stapleton occurs as Stapelton 
in a late copy of a Latin charter dated 
A.D. 833. The West-Riding Stapleton is 
Stapletone in Domesday-Book ; but the 
North-Riding Stapleton occurs therein as 
Stapledun [O.E. dun, a hill] 
Robertus de Stapleton.— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1254-5. 
Nicholas de Stapelton. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Bryan de Stapilton. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Cp. , Staple ; but none of the various 
Stapletons is a market-town. 

STAPLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stap(e)ley; or Dweller 

at the Staple-Lea [v. under Stapleton, 

and + O.E. ledh, meadow] 

Ada de Stappeleg [referred to in conn, 
with Stapleg]. — Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1200-1. 
Roger de Stapelye. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1374. 

STARBECK 1 (Scand.) Bel. to Starbeck 

STARBOCK (Yorks) = the Sedgy Brook 

STARBUCK [O.N. storr (Dan.-Norw. 

stcergt?BS, Swed. starrgras), sedge + bekk-r, 


The mutated form Starbok (like Tarbock 
for Torbeck), found as early as 1379, is due 
to the lack of stress in the second element. 

STARE (Eng. and Scand.) a nickname from 

the Starling [O.E. star=0.1i: star{r)i 

(Dan.-Norw. stter, Swed. stare), starling] 

The false lapwyng, ful of trecherye ; 
The stare, that the counseyl can 
be-wrye. — 
Chaucer, Parlement of Foules, 347-8. 
Cp. Stftip and Starp. 

STARES, Stare's (Son). 

STARK \ (Eng. and Scand.) Strong, Stern, 

STARKE J Severe [M.E. stark(e, O.E. st(e)arc 

= 0.N. sterk-r (Dan.-Norw. stark] 

For, God be thanked, I dar make kvaunt 

1 feele my lymes [limbs] stark and 

To do al that a man bilongeth to. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 1457-9. 

STARKEY \ = Stark (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. 
STARKIE J suff. -e)y, -ie. 

STARKIES, Starkie's (Son). 

STARKMAN = Stark (q.v.) + man. 

William Sta.rcmaxi.'— Hund. Rolls. 

STARKS, Stark's (Son) : v. Stark. 

STARLING (Eng.) i a nickname from the 
Starling [M.E. sterling, O.E. starling, m., 
— star, starling -f- the (double) dim. suff. 


2 V. Sterling. 

Starling. — Domesday-Book. 
William Starling. — Hund. Rolls- 
Cp. Stare. 

(Scand.) Bel. to Starling (Lanes, Cumb., 

etc.) [app. N. and East. Dial. E. star{e (v. 

under Starmore), sedge, bent-grass + 

E. ling, O.N. lyng, heath] 

STARMER for Starnfiore, q.v. 

STARMORE (Scand.) Bel. to Starmore (Leic.) 
= the Sedgy Moor [O.N. stdrr (Dan.- 
Norw. stargrzss, Swed. storrgras), sedge 

-I- mdr] 

STARN = Stern, q.v. 

STARNS = Sterns, q.v. 

STARR (Eng.) i Dweller at the sign of the 
Star [M.E. sterre, O.E. steorra] 

2 = Stare, q.v. 

STARRS, pi., and genit., of Starr. 

START (Eng.) Dweller at a Tail or Tongue 
of Land [O.E. steort] 

Cp. Stort. 

STARTIN for Starton, q.v. 

STARTON (Eng.) Bel. to Starton (Warw.), 
i2th and 13th cent. Staverton [v.Staverton] 

STARTUP (Eng.) i Dweller at the Start- 
Hope [v. under Start and Hope] 
Andrew Startup tenanted Startup (1737). 
—Hodgson, Hist Northumb., ii, (183a) 467, 




2 Upstart [f. M.E. stetien, O.E. *steart- 

Xi)cm (conn, with O.E. steartlian, to 

stumble), to start: cp. Dut. storten and 

Ger. sturzen + M.E. up, O.E. up] 

Upon my life, his marriage with that 

start-up. . .. — 

R. Brome, Queen andConcub., H. i. ; 

T. Wright. 

STATHAM 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Staith- 

STATHOM J Enclosure [E. staith{e, a wharf, 

landing-place ; O.E. stetS, a bank, shore 

+ -ham, O.E. ham{m, an enclosure, piece 

of land] 
John de Statham. — 

Hund. Rolls (Camb.), A.D. 1274. 
Elizabeth Stathome.^ — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1544. 

STATON (Eng.) DweUer at the Staith En- 
closure or Farm [v. under Statham, 
and + O.E. tun] 

A Stayton is mentioned in conn, with the 
Abbot of Barlings (Lines) in the Charter- 
Rolls A.D. 1315-16. 

STAUGHTON, like Stoughton, a form of 
Stockton, q.v. 

STAUNTON (Eng.) Bel. to Staunton, a var. of 
Stanton, q.v. 

Staunton Wyville, Leic, is also called 
Stonton ; Staunton-on-Arrow, Heref., was 
Stdntiin A.D. 958 ; Staunton, Notts, was 
Stanton in Domesday-Book. 

Staunton is the usual i3th-cent spelling 
of this name. 

STAVELEY ] (Eng.) Bel. to Staveley, Stavely 

STAVELY \ = the Stave-Lea (i.e. a meadow 

STAVLEY J fenced with staves or stakes) 

[O.E. stcef+ledh (M.E. le{y, lay] 

Staveley, Derby, and Staveley, Yorks, 
were Stavele andStaveley inthe 14th cent.; 
Stavely, Westmd., was Stavele ('in 
Kendale') A.D. 1335; Staveley, Lanes, 
occurs as Stavele and Stavelay in the 13th 

STAVE RTON (Eng.) Bel. to Staverton (Glouc. 
and Wilts : I3th-i4th cent, same spelling ; 
Northts. : a.d. 944 Steefer ttin ('Cart. Sax', 
no. 792). 

[As most of the Stavertons are in the 
West, the p\., stafir, of O.N. staf-^ ( = 
O.E. 5to/), staff, stave, post, can hardly 
come into question (in any case we should 
expect the genit. pi. stafa, not the nom.); 
the first element does not seem to be a 
pers, name; and it is app. merely a 
ptaooetically extended form of O.E. sttrf 

(v. under Staveley, and cp. the Yorks 
slaver, 'a hedge-stake') -t- O.E. tiin, en- 
closure, farmstead] 

STAW(E, a var. of Stow(e, q.v. 

STAYNER = Stainer, q.v. 

ST. CLAIR : V. under Sinclair. 

STEAD \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Farmstead 

STEADE J [Prov. E. stead, 'a farmhouse and 

offices' ; M.E. O.E. stede, a place (=Dut. 

and Scand. stad, a town] 

Richard de Stede. — ' 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1275-6. 
Ricardus del Stede.— 

Yoris Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

There are occ. dialectal variations of 
the signification given above, e.g. — • 

" Stead : an unenclosed plot on a 
mountain or common on which certain 
parties have defined rights . . .". — 

Cumberl. Gloss., p. 94. 

STEADMAN : v. under Stead, and -1- man. 
John le Stedman. — 

Pari. Writs, A.D. 1306. 
STEAL = Steel, q.v. 

STEAN(E (Teut.) i Bel. to Stean(e or Stene 

(Northants) =the Stone" (Rock, or Stone 

Castle) [O.E. stckn = O.N. steinn = Dut. 

steen, Fris. stien = Ger. stein] 

Cp. the Glouc. place-name Steanbridge. 

2 the A.-Sax. pers. name Stmn = O.N. 

Steinn (Domesday Sten) [etym. as'] 

STEAR = Steep, q.v. 

STEARN = Stern, q.v. 

STEARNS = Sterns, q.v. 

STEAVENS = Stephens, q.v. 

STEAVENSON = Stephenson, q.v. 

STEBBING (Eng.) Bel. to Stebbing (Essex), 
14th cent. Stebbing, 13th cent. Stebing = 
(prob.) the Stubby Lea [O.E. stybb, a 
tree-stump -t- O.East.E. «k^ (O.N. e/j^'), a 


STEBBIN(G)S, pi., and genit., of Stebbing. 
STEDMAN = Steadman, q.v. 
STEED (Eng.) i = Stead, q.v. 

2 a nickname from the Stallion [O.E. ' 

STEEDMAN = Steadman, q.v. 

STEEDS. pl„ and genit,, of steedi q.v, 




STEEL "I (Eng.) i a pers. name and nick- 

STEELE J name from the metal [O.E. st$U, 

stieU = O.N. stdl, steel] 

Robert StAc—Hund. Rolls. 

With that great campion Gray Steill 
[var. Steel].— Sir Gray Steill, 2789. 

3 Dweller by a Stile [North. E. steel, a 
stile ; O.E. stiget] 

"Steel, pr. of stile".— 

Dial, of Lonsdale (ii. Lanes), p. 80. 

STEELS, genit., and pi., of Steel. 

ItIene}' = Stean(e,q.v. 

2 a syncopated form of Stephen, q.v. 

STEENIE = Steen» + the E. dim. sufi. -ie. 

Stephen Smith's been paying his 
daughter Nan . . . 
Now if Steenie Smith . . . 

Line. Rhyme ; Halliwell, p. 798. 

STEENSON, Steen's Son : v. Steeti. 

STEENSTRAND (Eng. or Scand.) Dweller at 

the Stony or Rocky Shore [O.E. sttkn= 

O.N. steinn, a stone, rock + O.E. strand 

= O.N. strond] 

STEEPLE (Eng.) Dweller by a Steeple or 
Tower [O.E. stiepel, a tower] 

As is well known, the tower of a church 
was sometimes detached from the main 

STEER 1 (Eng.) a nickname and sign-name 

STEEREJ from theOx[O.E. st^or: cp. Dut. 

and Ger. stier, a bull] 

STEERS, Steer's (Son). 

STEEVE, a dim. of Steph^n, q.v. 

STEEVENS = Stephens, q.v. 

STEEVES, Steeve's (Son) : v. Steeve. 

STEGGALL (Scand.) Dweller at (app.) the 

Steg-Slofe [Dial. E. and Scot, steg, (i) 

a gander, (2) a stag ; O.N. steggi, a male 

bird + O.N. hall-r, a slope] 

STEIN-: V. the Appendix of Foreign Names 
for such Ger. names as Steinbach, 'Stony 
or Rocky Brook' ; Steinberg, 'Rocky Hill'. 

STEINFORTH, a var. of Stainfopth, q.v. 

[with the first element influenced by 
O.N. steinn, a stone, rock] 

Corresponding to the Ger. Steinfurt. 

STELFOX (Eng.) a nickname from the pre- 
datory animal [the first element is app. f. 
M.E. stelen, to steal, go stealthily; O.E. 
Stefan + M.E. Q,\ 

This specif. Lane, and Chesh. surname 
is found in those counties with the same 
spelling in the i6th cent. 

STELLA (Eng.) Bel. to Stella (Durh.) anc. 

Stellinglei, app. repr. an A.- Sax. 

*Ste(a)llittga-ledh = the Lea of the 

Ste(a)ll- Family [-inga, genit. pi. of the 

fil. suff, -ing] 

STEMBRIDGE for Stanbpldge, q.v. 

There is a Stembridge in co. Glamorgan. 

STEMSON for Stenson, q.v. 

STENHOUSE (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at 
the Stone-House [O.E. stckn = O.N. 
steinn (Dan.-Norw. ste;0 + OE. O.N. hiis] 

STENNETT, a double dim. of Stephen, q.v. 
[Fr. dim. suff. -et"] 

STENNING (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. Stckning = 
ST.ffi:N's Son [O.E. stttn, stdn, a stone, 
rock -f the fil. suff. -ing} 
2 V. Steyning. 

STENNINGS, Stenning's (Son). 
STENSON (Eng.) i = Steenson, q.v. 

2 Bel. to Stenson (Derby) the Domesday 

Steintune = (app.) Stan's Farm or Estate 

[the genit. of O.E. stAn, stdn= O.N. steinn, 

a stone, rock -f- tin] 

STENT (Eng.) Dweller at an Allotment or 
Pasturage [Dial. E. stent, stint (Cumbd. 
Gloss., 'a cattle-grass') ; f. Ei stint, to limit] 

STENTON fEng. or Scand.) Bel. to Stenton 
= the Stone or Rock Dwelling(s or 
Farmstead [O.E. stdkn — O.N. steinn 
(Dan.-Norw. sten), a stone, rock + O.E. 

O.N. /«'«] 
Stenton, Haddington, was Steinton, 
c. 1 150. 
Cp. Stanton. 

STEPHEN (Gr.) Crown or Wreath [Gr. 
"ZritpaviK, whence Lat. (and A.-Sax.) 

Stephanus] forma c^Sere Stephanus 
(...the proto-martyr StephetC). — 

Mlfric's Homilies ('Dom. Sept'.) 

Seinte Stefne i)>olede [suffered] be 
stones. — 

Ancren Riwle ('Wrej>|>e'). 
Sir Lancelott and Sr Steven bold. — 

Marr. of Sir Gawaine (Fragmt.) 

STEPHENS, Stephen's (Son) 1 _. ,. 
STEPHENSON, Stephen's Son / ^Stephen. 

Gilbert fil. Stephani. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Richard Stephenes. — 

Sows. Subs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 




8TEPKIN, a double dim. of Stephen, q.v. 
[E. dim. suff. -kin, O.L.Teut. -k-in] 

STEPNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stepney (M'sex). 
14th cent. Stebenhethifi, 13th cent. Steben- 
hith, Domesday Stebenhede [The second 
element is no doubt for O.E. hS>S, a land- 
ing-place, harbour, (not for kdiS, a heath), 
as in the case of 'Lambeth' ; and the first 
element prob. represents the adj. form of 
a var. of O.E. stybb, a tree-stump (the 
haven app. had tree-stumps as mooring- 


'Stepney' seemingly began to be used 
for earlier 'Stepnetn' c. 1600. 

The ancient importance of Stepney as 
a haven is suff. attested by the fact that 
all children born at sea in English vessels 
were supposed to belong parochially to 

STEPTO(E \ (Eng.) app. not local names but 

STEPTOW J nicknames relating to gait (early 

forms not found) [f. O.E. steppan, to step 

+ td, a toe] 

STERK (Scand.) Strong, Stern, Severe 

[O.N. sterk-r] 
Cp. Stark. 

(Eng.) for Stipk, q.v. 

STERLING (Eng.) i nickname from the 

former coin so called [M.E. sterling ; perh. 

= starling : v. under Starling] 

(occ.) 2 for Stapling (q.v.) through the 
pron. Starling. 
(Celt.) for^tirling. q.v. / 

STERN 1 (Eng.) Austere, Severe [M.E. 
STERNE / Sterne, O.E. stieme, styme'\ 

Henry Sterne. — Hund. Rolls. 

(Sc^nd.) Star (a sign-name) [Dan.- 
Norw. stieme, O.N. stiarna, a star] 

But the name in our directories is fre- 
quently the Ger. Stem = Star. 

STERNS, Stern's (Son). 

STERRY (Teut.) Big, Strong, Stout [M.E. 
stere, app. f. the compar., stceri, ot O.N. 
st6rr{= O.H.Ger. stiurt), bi& powerful; 
or an O.E. cognate (allied to E. steer, O.E. 
stior, a bullock) + the E. dim. suff. -y] 
iCp. Storry. 
STERT = Start, q.v. 
STEUART = Stewart, q.v. 
STEVEN = Stephen, q.v. 

STEVENS, Steven's (Son) \ etaohen 
STEVENSON, Steven's Son/ '• "^^Pien. 

Thomas Stevenson. — 

Yorks PfiU-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STEVENTON (Eng.) Bel. to Steventon or Ste- 
vington (Berks : 14th cent. Styvington, 
13th cent. Styvintott, Stivinton, Domesday 
Stivetune ; Beds : 13th cent. Stivinton, 
Domesday Stiventone ; Hants : 14th cent. 
Stivington) = the Estate of the StIf- 
Family [A.Sax. *Stifinga-tiin — st!f, stifi, 
rigid, hard, prob. fig. (as with the cog- 
nate Dan.-Norw. stiv), inflexible, stub- 
born + -inga, genit. pi. of the fll. suff. -ing 
+ tun, estate, farmstead, etc^ 

Steventon, nr. Abingdon, Berks, is prob. 
the same place (with changed land-ele- 
ment) as the Stifinge-hame referred to in 
a grant to Abingdon Abbey by King 
Eadgar in 964 (' Cart. Sax.' no. 1142). 

STEVERSON for Steveson, q.v. 

STEVESON, Steve's Son: Steve, a dim. of 
Stephen, q.v. 

STEWARD \ (EngO Seneschal ; lit. and orig. 

STEWART J Sty-Ward [M.E. styward, sti- 
ward, steward, stuard, etc. ; O.E. stiw(e)ard 
(= O.N. st(uar^S-r) — stigu, sty, animal- 
enclosure -I- w(e)ard, guardian, keeper] 

Hugh le Stivfard.— Hund. Rolls. 

But, shortly, from the castel on a nyght. 
The lordes styward, — God yeve [give] 

him meschance 1 — ... 
Came into the ship allone. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 913-16. 

Schyr Eduuard, that had sic valour, 
Wes ded, and Johne Steward alsua. — 
Barbour, The Bruce, xviii. 108-9. 

It was not till after several generations 
that the Fitz-Walters and Fitz-Alans took 
that name [Stewart], destined to become 
so illustrious, from their office of steward 
of the royal household. — 

C. Innes, Some Scotch Surnames, p. 34. 

In the baptismal registers of St. 
James's, Clerkenwell, a.d. 1723-5, the 
same parents are called both Steward and 

STEWARDSON, Steward's SonI v. Ste- 
STEWARTSON, Stewart's Son/ ward, 

STEWIN, a Scot, form of Stephen, q.v. 

Sanct Stcwin and his tormentouris. — 
Burgh Reeds. Aberdeen, A.D. 1531. 

STEYNING (Eng.) Bel. to Steyning (Suss.), 

the A.-Sax. Staningas (K. iElfred'sWill: 'set 

Steeningum ' (dat.) = (the Estate of the) 

ST.EN- Family [O.E. stdsn, stdn, a stone, 

rock -t- the pi. of thefil. suff. -ing^ 




STICKER (Eng.) (Pig-) Killer [M.E. stikkere ', 

f. O.E. stician {— Dan.-Norw. stikke), to 

stick, kill (pigs, etc.] 

John le Stikkere. — 

Soms. Stibs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 

STICKFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stickford; or 
Dweller at the Stick-Ford (i.e. a ford 
whose passage was marked out or other- 
wise facilitated by sticks or stakes) [O.E. 
sticca (= O.N. stika), a stick, stake +ford] 

STICKLAND (Eng.) Bel. to Stickland ; or 

Dweller at the Steep Land [West. Eng. 

stickle, O.E. sticol, steep, nigh + land] 

Stickland, Soms., is, like Sticklepath, 
nr. Watchet. 

STICKLEPATH (EngJ Bel. to Sticklepath ; or 
Dweller at the Steep Path [West. E. 
stickle, O.E. rfjco/, steep, high + O.E./xztS] 

There are villages called Sticklepath in 
Somerset and Devon. 

, STICKLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stickley; or Dweller 

at I the Stick-Lea (i.e. a meadow fenced 

in by sticks or stakes) [O.E. sticca(=0,'S. 

stika), a stick, stake -|- ledh] 

2 the Steep Lea [West. E. stickle, O.E. 
sticol, steep, high -|- O.E. ledh] 

A Sticlegh, Sticcle, is mentioned in a 
Soms. Subsidy-Roll a.d. 1327. 

STIOKNEY (Eng. or A.-Scand.) Bel. to 
Stickney (Lines), i6th cent, same spelling 
[O.E. {(e)g = O.N. ey, island, waterside : 
the first element is app. an oblique (genit. 
pi.) form of O.E. sticca = O.N. stika, a 
stick, stake, pile] 

STIFF (Eng.) Stiff, Hard, Firm, Strong, 
Proud [M.E. stififi, O.E. stif = Dan.- 
Norw. stiv = Dut. stijf] 
John Stiie.—Hund. Rolls. 

STIGAND (Scand.) Mounting [O.N. Stigand 

(Mod. Norw. Stiand), f. the pres. part, of 

stiga, to mount, ascend] 

Stigand was perh. the most famous 
name ecclesiastically in iith-cent. 
England. It occurs in Domesday-Book in 
this form. 

Gervase fil. Stigandi. — 

Pipe-Rolls, A.D. ti6o. 

STIGGI N, a weak Anglicized form of Stigand, 

STIGGINS, Stiggin's (Son). 

STILE (Eng.) Dweller at a Stile [Q.E. stiget] 

John atte Stile.— /f«»rf. Rolls. 

STILEMAN = Stile (q.v.) -I- E. man. 

STILES, pi., and genit., of Stile, q.v. 

STILL (Eng.) i Silent, Quiet, Gentle [M.E. 

O.E. stille] 

Walter StiWe.—Hund. Rolls. 

(occ.) 2 a weak form of Steel, q.v. 

STILLINGFLEET (Eng.) Bel. to Stilling- 
fleet (Yorks), i4tncent. Stilyngflete, Domes- 
day Steflingeflet, A.-Sax. *Stifelinga-fliot= 
the Stream of the Stifel Family [the 
pers. name is f. (with suff. -et) O.E. stif, 
bard, firm, inflexible -f -inga, genit. pi. of 
the fil. suff. -ing H- fl^ot, a stream, water] 

STILLINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stillington 

(Yorks), Domesday Stivelinctun, A.-Sax. 

*Stifelinga-tiin = the Estate of the 

Stifel Family [v. under Stillingfleet, 

and -I- O.E. tun, estate, farm, etc.] 

As Stillingfleet and Stillington are 
both in the vicinity of York the connexion 
is doubtless with the same A.-Sax. pro- 

STILLMAN = Still (q.v.) + E. man. 

STILLWELL1 (Eng.) Dweller at the CoN- 
STILWELL Jstant Spring (one not in- 
termittent) [O.E. stille, constant, etc. 
-f w(i)ella, a spring] 

ItImSOn'^}^"'^ Stinson, Steenson, q.v. 

STINSON, V. Steenson. 

STIRK "[(Eng.) a nickname (or sign-name) 
STIRKE J from the Bullock or Heifer [O.E. 

(Scand.) conf. with Sterk, q.v. 

STIRLAND (Eng.) Dweller at the Steer- 
Pasture [O.E. stSor (= Dut. stier), a steer, 

ox 4- land] 

STIRLING (Celt.) Bel. to Stirling, 16th cent. 
Striveling, isth cent. Striviling, 13th cent. 
Estrevelyn, Estrivelin, 12th cent. Strivilen, 
not improb. repr. a Cymric *Ystrefelyn, 
Yellow House [Cym. ystre(f, a dwell- 
ing +Jelyu, mutated form oimelyn, yellow] 

In Strivelingschire is the toun of 
Striveling. — 

Boece, Scot. Hist., tr. Bellenden. 
(Eng.) conf. with Sterling, q.v. 

STIRRIP (Eng.) Bel. to Styrrup (Notts), 

STIRR0Pti4th cent. Sterappe, Styrop, 13th 

STIRRUP) cent. Stirap (for Stirop) = ihc 

Steer-Hope [v. steer and Hope] 




STIRSAKER ] (Eng.) Dweller at (the) 

STIRZACKER ^ Steer's Field [the genit. 

STIRZAKER J of O.E. st^or = O.N. stlorr, a 

steer, ox + O.E. acer = O.N. akr, a field] 

Stirzaker, N. Lanes, was Styresacre 
A.D. 1443, Steresaker a.d. 1379, Steres- 
acre a.d. 1332. 

STITT (Eng.) app. a weakened form of O.E. 
s<i> = Strong, Hard. 

STIVE (Eng.) Stiff, Strong, Hard [O.E. 


STIVENS, a weak form of Stevens, Stephens, 

St. JOHN, an Anglicized form of the common 

French eccles. place-name St. Jean — anc. 

St. Jehati [v. John] 

STOATE 1 „. .. „„ 
STOATT ; =Stott,q.v. 


STOBBARD \ = StUbbard, q.v. 


STOBB = Stubb, q.v. [cp. Dut. stobbe, a 

stump, trunk] 

STOBBS = Stubbs, q.v. 

STOCK (Eng.) i Dweller by a (conspicuous) 

Tree Stump or Trunk ; or a Post or 

Pillory [M.E. stockfe, stokk, etc., O.E. 

stoc(c = O.N. stokkr] 

William de la Stocke. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Hen. del Stock.— 

iMttc. Inq., A.p. 1323. 
Jordan atte Stokk. — 

Soms. Subs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 
Reginald atte Stocke. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1330. 
And Scarlette he was flyinge a-foote 
Fast over stocke and stone. — 
' Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne', 
S7-8 ; Percy's Religues. 
Occ. the name may represent an old 
dat. pi. : cp. the ' on stoccum ' of a Soms. 
charter A.D. 963 ('C.S.' no. 1116). 

2 occ. conf. with Stoke, q.v. 

See Stocks ; and the note under 

STOCKBRIDGE (Eng.) Bel. to Stockbridge 

(Hants : 14th cent. Stockbrigg, 13th cent. 

Stocbrigge, Stokebrigg ; Yorks : 14th cent. 

Stokbrig' ; etc.) = the Log-Bridge [O.E. 

stoc(c, trunk, log, etc. + brycg'\ 

William de Stokynbryg.— 

Lane. Fines, hS, 1370. 

STOCK DALE (Ena and Scand.) Bel. to 

Stockdale (yorks, Westmd., etc.) = the 

Tree-Stump Valley [O.E. stoc(c = O.N. 

stokk-r, a tree-stump, trunk, log -|- O.E. 

dal = O.N. dal-r, a valley] 

One of the Yorks Stockdales was 
Stokdale in the 14th cent. 

There is a Stockdalewath [O.N. wa'S, 
a ford] in Cumberland. 

STOCKEN, a M.E. pi. form of Stock, q.v. 

STOCKER (Eng.) i = Stock (q.v.) + the 
agept. suff. -er. 

(later) 2 a Grubber-Up (of tree-stumps) 
[Dial. E. stock, to grub or root up] 

3 conf. with Stoker, q.v, 
Elena le Stocker. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Walter Stokker.— 

Inq. ad q. Damn., c. A.D. 1440. 

STbCKFORD \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Log or 

STOCKFORTH J Stump Ford (a ford whose 

passage was facilitated by logs or stumps) 

[O.E. stoc(c+/o»-i] 

STOCK HAM (Eng.) Bel. to Stockham (13th 
cent. Stockham); or Dweller at the Tree- 
Stump or Trunk Enclosure [O.E. stoc{c 

+ ham{ni\ 

STOCKIN, I for Stocken, q.v. 
2 for Stocking, q.v. 

STOCKING (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Stocking 

(13th cent. Stocking) ; or Dweller at the 

Tree-Stump or Trunk Meadow [O.E. 

stoc{c = O.N. stokk-r -\- O.E. ing = O.N. 

eng, a meadow] 

STOCKINGS, genit., and pi., of Stocking. 

STOCKLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stockley (i3th-i4th 

cent. Stockley(e, Stoklegh, etc.) ; or Dweller 

at the Tree-Stump or Trunk Lea [O.E. 

stoc{c + ledK\ 

Stockley and Stock, Calne, Wilts, are 

referred to in the same Inq. ad q. Damn., 

A.D. 1445-8, as Stockley and Stocke. 

Cp. Stokeley. 

STOCKMAN (Eng.) = Stock (q.y.) -f- man. 

STOCKPORT (Eng.) Bel. to Stockport 
(Chesh.), 13th cent. Stokport, Stockeport, 
i2th cent. Stokeport [O.E. stoc(c, a log, 
beam, post, etc. -1- O.E. port, a town, by 
extension from port (Lat. porta), a (city) 

See Stopfopd. 




STOCKS, pi., and genit., of Stock, q. v. 

He swor her this, by stokkes and by 
stones. — 

Chaucer, Trail. & Cris., iii. 589- 

And all about old stockes and stubs of 
trees. — 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, I. ix. 34,. 

STOCKTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stockton, 13th. 
14th cent. Stockton, Stokton, Stocton, Domes- 
day Stochetun, etc., A.-Sax. Stoctiin = the 
Tree-Stump or Trunk, or Log-Fenced, 
Enclosure [O.E. stoc{c + tun\ 

Stockton is not so common a surname 
as the prevalence of the place-name 
would lead us to expect ; hence it is prob. 
that in some cases the pers. 'Stockton' 
has been cut down to 'Stock' : v. Stock. 

STOCKUM for Stockhann, q.v. 

STOCKWELL (Eng.) Bel. to Stockwell, 13th- 
14th cent. StokwellU, A.-Sax. StocwyU{a = 
the Well by the 'rREE-STUMP(s ; or the 
Log-Fenced Well [O.E. stoc(c + wyll{a, 


IToDAR? ) (Eng-) Horsekeeper [M.E. 
STODDARD [ •S""'*''-*. et=- i OE. stM, stud, 
o-rXr>r\AD-r I herdof horses -|- hierde, heorde, 
ItSSSaRt) herd, keeper] 

Walter Stodhirde.— Par/. Writs. 

For the vowel-change in the surnames 
cp. Hardwick. 

There has prob. been some confusion 
with Stothard, q.v. 

Cp. Studdapd. 

STOGDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Stock or 
Tree-Stump Valley [O.E. stoc(c + denu] 

The voiced -g- for -c- (-k-) is due to the 
influence of the following voiced letter -d-. 

Conf. with the next name. 

STOGDON (Eng.) Dweller at the Stock or 
Tree-Stump Hill [O.E. stoc{c + dUn] 
Conf. with the preceding name. 

STOKE (Eng.) i Bel. to Stoke, M.E. Stok(e, 
O.E. Stdc (' set Stdce ' — dat.) = the Dwel- 
ling-Place, Village [O.E. stic; conn, 
with O.E. stoc(c, a stock, trunk, log, etc.] 

Petrus de Stok (Kent).— 

Charter-Rolls. A.D. 1*04-5. 
Baldewin de Stoke (Suff.) — 

Hand. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Prepositus de Stoke (Soms.) — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1421-2, 

2 conf, with Stock, q.v. 

STOKELEY \ (Eng.) i Bel. to Stokeley ; or 
STOKELY J Dweller at the Stoke-Lea [v. 
under Stoke, and -f M.E. ley, O.E. ledKl 
2 conf. with Stockley, q.v, 

STOKER (Eng.) i = Stoke (q.v.) -|- the E. 
agent, suff. -er. 

2 conf. with Stockep, q.v. 

(Dut.) Fire-Tender [Dut. stoker'\ 

STOKES (Eng.) i pi., and genit., of Stoke, q.v. 
2 conf. with Stocks, q.v. 

Petrus de Stokes (Kent). — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1203-4. 
Robert de Stokes (Oxon). — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

Gair de Stokes.— 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1317-18. 
William Stokes. — 

MSS. D. and C. Wells, A.D. 1490. 
John Stokys, alias Stokes. — 

Lane. Fines, A.D. 1550-1. 

STOLLARD = Stallard, q.v. 

STOMBRIDGE for Stonbridge, Stanbridge, 


STONARD = Stannard, q.v. 

STONBRIDGE = Stanbridge, q.v. 

STONE (Eng.) Bel. to Stone ; or Dweller at a 
Stone (Obelisk, etc.), Rock, or Stone 
Castle [M.E. ston(e, stan{e, O.E. stdn\ 
John de la Stone— Hund. Rolls. 
Stone, Staffs, occurs in the 13th cent, 
freq. as both Stane and Stanes; Stone, 
Wore, was Stanes in Domesday-Book 
and in the 13th cent.; so that 'Stone' 
must sometimes be interpreted with 
plural significance. 

STONECLOUGH (Eng.) Dweller in or by a 

Stony or Rocky Hollow [O.E. stdn, a 

stone, rock -|- *cm, a hollow] 

STONEHALL (Eng,) Bel. to Stonehall; or 
Dweller at i the Stone Hall [O.E. stdn 

+ h(e)aiq 
2 the Stone or Stony Corner [O.E. 
h{e)al(h, a corner] 
William de la Stonhall.— /fanrf. Rolls. 

STONEHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Stoneham : v. 

Stephen de Stoahsm.—Hund. Rolls. 

STONEHEWER (Eng.) Stonecutter [M.E. 

stonhewer; f. O.E. stdn, a stone, and 

hedvoan, to cut] 




STONEHILL (Eng.) Dweller at the Stony or 
Rocky Hill [O.E. sfdn + hylQ 

STONEHOUSE (Eng.) Bel. to Stonehouse; or 
Dweller at the Stone House [O.E. stdn 

+ hits] 
Stonehouse, Glouc, was Stonhus in the 
13th cent. 

STONEMAN (Eng.) = Stone (q.v.) + 

STONER (Eng.) i Stonecutter, Stone- 
mason [O.E. stdn, stone + the agent. 

suff. -er] 
2 = Stone (q^v.) + the agent, suff. -er. 
(rarely) 3 for Stonop, q.v. 

STONES, pi., and genit., of Stone, q.v. 
Elena de Stons. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STONESTREET (Eng.) Dweller at the Stone, 
i.e. Paved Road (usually Roman) [O.E. 

stdn strckt] 
Salomon de Stonstrete (Kent). — 

Hund. Rolls. 

STONEY (Eng.) Bel. to Stoney; or Dweller 

at I the Stony or Rocky Island or 

Waterside [O.E. stdn, a stone, rock 

+ (g] 
2 the Stony Land [for O.E. stdniht] 

STON(E)YHURST (Eng.) Dweller at the 
Stony Wood [O.E. stdnig, stony + hyrst, 

a wood] 

STONHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Stonham = Stone- 
ham, Stanham, q.v. 

STONHILL- Stonehill, q.v. 

STONHOLD (Eng.) Rock-Faithful [O.E. 
stdn, a stone, lock+hold, faithful, loyal, etc.] 

STONHOUSE = Stonehouse, q.v. 

STONIER = Stonep (q.v.), but with the A.-Fr. 
agent. suS. -ier instead of E. -er. 

This name was occ. used for Stone- 
hewer, q.v. 

STONOR (Eng.) Bel. to Stonor (Oxf.), 13th 

cent. Stonore = the Stony or Rocky 

Bank [O.E. stdn 4- 6rd\ 

A stanora occurs in a land-grant a.d. 758 

by King Offa (' C.S.' no. 216). 

STOODLEIGHl _e+„wi«!KU c+.,wi... „„ 
STOODLEY J =Studleigh, Studley, q.v. 

Stoodleigh, Devon, was Stodlegh in the 
14th cent. 

STOOP l (Scand.) Dweller at a Post, Pillar, 

STORE J or Column [North. E.: O.N. stdlpi, 

whence Dan.-Norw. stolpe, a post, prop] 

"Stoop, a post, a gate-post of stone or 

wood,"— (?;w, Dial, lQns4ale, p. 81, 

STOOPS 1 pi., and genit., of Stoop, StopOi 

f q.v. 


STOPFORD \(Eng.) Bel. to Stockport. 

STOPFORTH J Stopford and Stopforth are old 
corrupt forms, nevertheless making good 
sense [v. under Stope] ; but Stok(e)port, 
Stockeport, &c., are earlier : v. Stockport. 

" ' Stopford law-— no stake, no draw.' — 

Stockport is the place meant, nearly one 

half of which borough is in Lancashire." — 

Lane. Legends, Sec, 1882, p. 207* 

STOPHER, a contr. of Christopher, q.v. 

STOPP I a var. of Stoop, Stope, q.v. 

(occ.) 2 an unvoiced form of Stobbi 
Stubb, q.v. 
William del Stopp. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STOPPARD 1 assim. forms of Stopford, 
STOPPORT J Stockport, q.v. 


STOPS J P'*' ^^^ S^"*-' °f Stopp. 

STORCK = Stork, q.v. 

Thomas Storck. — Hund. Rolls. 

STORE (A.-Scand.) Strong, Powerful, Big 
[M.E. stor{e, O-N-stdr-r] 
For Sir Anlaf, the king of Danmark. 
With an ost [host] store and stark, 
Into Inglond is come. — 

Gy of Warwike, p. 383. 
Cp. Storr. 

STORER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Storekeeper, Store- 
man; (Scotl.) Flockmaster [M.E. and 
M.Scot, storour, etc. ; f. (with agent, suff^ 
star, O.Fr. estor, store, provisions ; ult. 1. 
Lat. instaurare, to restore] 
Thomas Storour. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Tyrrheus thare fader was hie maister 

and gyde 
Of stedis, flokkis, bowis, and hirdis 

As storour to the kinge, did kepe and 

jrym [tend]. — 
G. Douglas, Mneid, ed. 1710, p. 224, 


STOREY! = Store (q.v.) -t- the E. dim. suff. 
STORIE i-e)y,-ie. 

Cp. Storrey. 
STORK (Eng.]) a nickname and sign-name 
from the bird [O.E. store - Scand. stork] 
Cp. Storck. 

STORKEY I = Stork (q.v.) -f- the E. dim. 
suff. -ey. ' 

J for Stftrkey, q.v. 




STORM (Teut.) ' a pers. name and nickname 

[f. M.E. storm, O.E. storm, m., O.N. storm-r, 

m. (= Dut. storm - Ger. sturm, M.Ger. also 

storm), a storm, uproar, tumult] 

Hugo Storm. — Hund. Rolls. 

STORMONT. Bel. to Stormont (Perth), a.d. 
1292 Starmonthe (Johnson) [If the name is 
Celt., the second element must be Gael. 
monadh = Wei. mynydd, a mountain-range 
(but Gael, monadh now means a moor, 
heath), and the first element may be Gael. 
star, a Steep cliff, broken teeth ; but perh. 
more likely the name is Teut., viz. late 
O.E. stdr, O.N. stdrr, great + O.E. munt, 
borr. f . Lat. mons, montis, a mountain (cog- ,, 
nate, in any case, with the above Celt. 


STORMS, Storm's (Son) : v. Storm. 

STORR (Scand.) Big, Grkat fO.N. stdr-r (mod. 

Scand. storl 

Roger Storre. — 

Yorks Pott-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Cp. Store. 

= Storr (q.v.) -|- theE. dim. sufl. 




Cp. Stor(e)y. 

STORRS, Storr's (Son) : v. Storr. 

STORT (Eng.) Dweller at a Tail or Tongue 
OF Land [O.E. steort"] 

A Storte (Wilts) occurs in the Charter- 
Rolls a.d. 1283. 

Cp. Start. 

STORY = Store (q.v.) -t- the E. dim. suff. -y. 

STOTE (Eng.) a nickname or sign-name Irom 
the Stot [v. Stott] 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) Stout, Bold [O.Fr. 
esto{u)t : V. under Stout] 

ItOTHARt) (^°S-) Stot-Herd [v. under 

ItStHERD Stott, and + M.E. herde, O.E 


William Stothard.— /f«M(f. Rolls. 

There has prob. been confusion with 
Stoddard, Stodart, q.v. 

STOTT (Eng.) a nickname and sign-name 
from the Stot, i.e. a Horse, Bullock, 
etc. [M.E. and Dial. E. and Scot. stot{te, a 
stallioi^, horse, bullock, ox : cp. O.N sltit-r, 
a bull (Swed. siut, a bullock, Dan.-Norw. 

stud, an ox] 
Thomas Stot.— 

Ifanc. 4sske-R?lls, A.D, 1262-3. 

And Grace gaf Piers 

Of his goodnesse foure stottes ; 

Al that hise oxen eriede [ploughed], 

Thei to harewen [harrovv] after. — 

Piers Plowman, 13489-92. 

This Reve sat upon a ful good stot, 
That was al pomely [dappled] grey, and 
highte Scot. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 615-16. 

If aur nebbour's stot or stirk break into 
til' fog [aftermath] let us net [not] pinfald 
it.— A Bran New Wark (Westmd. Dial.), 

1 78s, 1. 476. 
STOUGHTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stoughton, like 
Staughton, a form of Stockton, q.v. 

STOUR (Celt.) Dweller by the River Stour 
(several in England), usually Stur, dat. 
Sture, in charters of the A.-Sax. period 
[prob. f. the prim, form of Wei. ystwrio 
(ystwr, a stir, noise), to stir, bustle; cognate 
with O.E. styrian, to stir(up), agitate* O.N. 
styr-r, a stir, tumult, M.E. and Dial. 
E. and Scot, stour, O.F. estour, estur, a con- 
flict, commotion, agitation, Scot, stour, to 
move swiftly, to cause foam, or spray ; 
and related to the base of E. storm = Ger. 
Sturm ; and to Bret, stdr, a river] 

(A.-Scand.) a var. of Store, q.v. . 

Cp. Stower. 

STOURBRIDGE. Bel. to iStourbridge (Wore), 

14th cent. Sturbrugg, Stourbrugge = the 

Bridge over the R. Stour [y. Stour, 

and + M.E. hrugg(e, O.E. brycg'\ 

2 Stourbridge (Camb.), formerly Sterre- 
bridge, earlier Steresbreg = Ster's Bridge 
\Ster occurs as a pers. name in Domesday- 
Book ; it is prob. for the O.Scand. Styr: 
cp. O.N. styr-r, m., a stir, tumult] 

STOURTON (Celt. -|- Eng.) Bel. to Stourton 

gVilts, Warw., etc.) = the Farmstead or 
state on the R. Stour [v. Stour, and 
-I- O.E. tun\ 
Conf. with Sturton, q.v. 

STOUT 1 (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Bold, Strong, 

STOUTE / Proud; (later) Corpulent [O.Fr. 

esto{u)t, stout, bold ; O.L.Ger. stolt = Du,t. 

stout, bold = Ger. stols, proud] 

STOVEL ] (Fr.) Bel. to Estouteville (Seine- 

STOVELL Inferieure), anc. Estoteville [Fr. 

STOVILL J ville, Lat. villa, estate, farm, etc. : 

the first element is doubtless a pers. name 

(withfem. suff. -e) f. O.F. esto(u)t, stout, 

bold, O.L.Ger. stolt = Dut. stout, bold] 

Joh'is de Stotevill.— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1 260-1. 
Agnes de Stovile. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 




STOVEN "I (Eng.) Bel. to Stoven (Suff.); or 
STOVIN J Dweller at the Stock or Tree- 
Stump or -Trunk [O.E. stofn] 

" Stoven : a stumpy post." — 

Northts. Dial. ; T. Wright. 
STOW "1 (Eng.) Bel. to Stow or Stowe [O.E. 
STOWE J stdw, dat. stdwe, a place] 

"... apud locum ubi vulgari dicitur 
nomine at Stou)e."-~ 

Charter A.D. 956 ; Cart. Sax. no. 986. 

Oda de Stow. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Joh'es de Stowe. — 

Ing. ad g. Damn., A.D. 1369. 

STOWEL "I (Eng.) Bel. to Stowell (Wilts: 

STOWELLJA.D. 1300-1 Stowell; Soms.: 13th 

cent. Stawell; Glouc, etc.) [v. under 

Stow, and + O.E. heal(h, a corner, nook] 

But the Glouc. Stowell was Stanuuelle 
in Domesday-Book, i.e. the 'Rock-Spring' 
[O.E. Stan, a stone, rock + welle, a spring] 

STOWE R (Celt.) a form of Stour', q.v, 

Stower (West),Dorset, is on the R. Stour. 
(A.-Scand.) a form of Store, q.v. 

STOYLE, a dial, form of Style, q.v. 

STRACHAN (Celt.) i Bel. to Strachan (Kin- 
cardine), anc. Strathauchin [the first 
element is Gael, srath, a valley, strath : 
the second elem. is app. for Gael, achadk^ 
a field, with the dim. sufi. -in] 
2 conf. with Strahan', q.v. 

STRADLING (Eng.) app. a nickname for a 
straddle-legged individual [f. straddle, a 
freq. i.strdd, pret. sing, of O.E. j<nrfa», to 

'Strad(d)ling' was formerly a cant term 
for an Abraham-man. 

STRAFFORD, an assim. form of Stratfopd.q.v. 

STRAHAN (Celt.) i for the Ir. O'Sruthain = 

Descendant of Sruthan, i.e. the Poet, 

Clerk [Ir. 6, ua, grandson, descendant -|- 

sruth, poet, etc. ; with the genit. [-din) of 

the dim. suff. -dn"] 

2 conf. with Strachan', q.v. 

STRAIN, an Anglicized form of Strahan, 
Strachan, q.v. (esp. the former). 

STRAINS, Strain's (Son) : V. Strain. 

STRAKER (Eng.) Stroker ; Striker (an 

occup. surname) [f. O.E. strdcian, to 

stroke ; O.E. strican (pret. sing.' strdc), to 

rub, (also) move, go (E. 'strike'] 

Robert le Straker.— 

Lane. Assise-RolU, A.D. 1246. 

STRAND (Eng.) Dweller at a Shore [O.E. 
strand = O.N. strand] 

STRANp, a North. E. and Scot, form of 
. . . Strang and stitSm6d [resolute]. — 
Cynewulf, Dream of the Rood, 40. 

Fra mi faas [foes] jiat war sa Strang. — 

13th cent. Metr. N. Eng. Psalter : 

Ps. xviii. 17. 

King Hart intohiscumlie castell Strang. — ■ 

G. Douglas, King Hart. 

STRANGE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Foreign [M.E. 
stra(u)nge, O.Fr. estrange (Fr. Strange), 
LatI extraneus, foreign] 
John le Straunge. — Hund. Rolls. 
See Lestrange. 

STRANG(E)WAYS (Eng.) Bel. to Strange- 
ways (Manchester), i6th cent. Strange-^ 
waies, 15th cent. Strangways, 14th cent. 
Strangwas, Strongways = the Strong 
Stubble [O.E. Strang, strong + O.E. 
wdse = Ger. wasen (M.H.Ger. wase, 
O.H.Ger. waso), (damp) sod, grass, brush- 
wood, stubble] 
The second element is that seen in E. 
'wayzgoose,' a stubble-goose, and Dial. E. 
'wase', 'waze', a pad or bundle of straw. 

STRANG MAN = Strang (q.v.) -f- 

STRANGWAYS, v. under Strang(e)way8. 

STRATFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stratford = the 

Street-Ford, i.e. the Ford on the 

Roman Road tO.E. strckt (Lat. strata via), 

(Roman) road, street +fora] 

Stratford - on - Avon, e.g., occurs in 
charters of theA.-Saxon period as Stratford, 
Stretford, and also Stratford. 
Hugh de Stra;tford. — Hund. Rolls. 
And Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly 

After the scoleof Stratford- atte -Bowe.-^ 
Chaucer, Prol, Cant. Tales, 124-5. 

STRATHEARN 1 (Celt). Bel. to Stratheam 

STRATHERN J (Perth), 12th cent. Stradeam 

= the VALLEY of the R. Earn [Gael. 

srath (= Wei. ystrad), a valley] 


STRATTON (Eng.)Bel.toStratton, 13th cent. 
Stratton, A.-Sax. Strckt-tlin ('on Strcbt-tiine' 
— dat.) = the Street (usually Roman 
Road) -Farm [O.E. street (Lat. strata via), 
(Roman) road, street + ttin, farm, 

estate, etc.] 

STRAUSS (Ger.) a nickname = Crest, 
Plume : see the Appendix of Foreign 




STRAWSON (regarding which evidence is 
lacking) may be a corrupt form of 
Strongson, q.v. (Hardly for 'Strauss's 

STRAYTON, a North, form of Stratton, q.v. 

STREACHAN, a var. of Strachan, q.v. 

STREAK \(Eng.) Stern, Strong, Violent 
STREEK; [O.K. stn&e (=I>\it. strak] 

Cp. Stretch. 

STREAT = Street, q.v. 


Streeter, q.v. 

STREATFErLD "I (Eng.) Dweller at the Field 

STREATFIELD J or Plain of the Roman 

Road [v. under Street, and + O.E.feld, 

a fie^ld, plain] 

Lower mentions a Streatfeild in E. 

Sussex called Stretfelde in the i6th cent. 

STREET 1 (A.-Lat.) Dweller at the (Roman) 

STREETE J Road [O.E.strdst (Lat.i^ratovia), 

(Roman) road, street] 

Our 13th and 14th cent, records contain 

such entries as ' [christian name] de la 

Strete', 'atte Strete', and 'del Strete.' 

Street, nr. Shepton-Mallet, Soms., is on 

" the ancient Fosse-Way ". Street, nr. 

Kingsland, Hereford, is "on the Roman 

Way to Staunton." 

STREETEN for Streeton, Stretton, q.v. 

STREETER = Street (q.v.) + the agent, 
suff. -er. 

STREETON = Stretton, q.v. 

STREFFORD, an assim. form of Stretford,q.v. 

STRELLEY "I (Eng.) Bel. to Strelly (Notts), 

STRELLY J i2th cent. Stretleg, Stratlega = 

the Street-Lea [v. under Street, and 

+ O.E. ledKl 

STRENSAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Strensham 

STRENSHAM J (Wore). 13th csai. Strenges- 

ham, but app. the StrengesM of a Wore. 

charter a.d. 972 [As the name stands it 

represents 'Strang's Home' (O.E. Mm, 

home, residence) : the loth-cent. second 

element is O.E. h6, a ridge or promontory. 

Streng (O.E. streng, severe, strong) must 

have had a hdm, and prob. the two forms 

STRETCH (Eng.) Stern, Strong, Violent 

[O.E. strec\ 
Cp. the guttural form Streak. 
Hamon Streche. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Aacts., A.D. 1302-3. 
STRETFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Stretford ; v. 

Stretford, Lanes, 13th cent. Stretford and 
Stratford, is "near the R. Mersey, where 
the Roman way to Chester crossed." 

STRETTELL \ (Eng.) [Early forms are lacking 

STRETTLE J of this local surname, but the 

second element will be either O.E. h{e)all, 

a hall, or O.E. h{e)al{h, a nook, rather than 

O.E. hyll, a hill, although the surname 

Sft-etA/W is found in Cheshire in the lyth 

cent. : the first element is O.E. strdet, a 

(Roman) road] 

There is a Streethall or Strethall in 

Essex, occurring as Strethalle a.d. 132 1-2. 

STRETTON (Eng.) Bel. to Stretton, 13th cent. 
Stretton, A.-Sax. Strdkt-tiin : v. Stratton. 

STRIBLING (Eng.) a voiced form of Stripling 
[-E. strip + tiie (double) dim. suff. -l-ingi 

STRfCKLAND (Eng.) Bel. to Strickland 
(Westmd.), 13th cent. Stirkland, Stirkeland 
= the Stirk-Land [v. under Stirk, and-f 

O.E. land] 
> See the Westmd. quot. under Stott. 

STRIDE (Scand.) Hard, Stubborn, Strong 

[O.N. strCS-r] 
William le Stride. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts., A.D. 1357-8. 

STRINGER (Eng.) String- or Cord-Maker 

(esp. a maker of bow-strings) [O.E. streng 

(= O.N. streng-r), string, rope -|- the 

agent, suff. -ere] 

Both Strenger and Strynger occur in 

Yorkshire in the 14th cent. 

STRING FELLOW (A.-Scand.) earlier Streng- 
fellow = Strong Fellow [M.E. streng, 
O.E. strenge = Scand. streng (O.N. 
strang-r), severe, strong -f- M.E. felawe, 
O.E. fMaga=O.N. fdlagi, partner, fellow] 
Cp. Strongfellow. 

STRIPP (Eng.) app. a nickname for a Thin 
Person — one as thin as a strip [O.E. be- 
stripan, to strip] : hence the dim. 

STRODE, a M.E. form of Stroud, q.v. 

STRONG \ (Eng.) Powerful, Hard, 
STRONGE J S-E.WEKE.\U.E.strong{e,strang{e, 

O.E. Strang^ 

STRONG BOW (Eng.) a nickname[O.E. Strang, 

strong + boga, a bow] 

Ranulf Strongbowe.— HmmA Rolls. 

Richard of Clare, Earl of Pembroke and 

Striguil, a ruined baron later known by 

the nickname of Strongbow, who in 

defiance of Henry's [II.] prohibition 

landed near Waterford. — 

Green, Hist. Eng. People, p. 898, 


STRONG FELLOW (A.-Scaud.), i6th cent. 

Strongfellowe [O.E. strong = O.N. strang-r 

+ QX.fMaga = O.H.Magi] 

Cp. Stringfellow. 

STRONG ITHARM (Eng.)for Strong-in-thb- 

Arm : cp. Armstrong. 

Cheshire born, Cheshire bred, 
Strong i'th' arm, weak i'th' yed. — 

Chesh.' Saying. 
This couplet may really owe its origin 
to the fact that Strongitharm is (or was) 
mostly a Cheshire surname. 

STRONGMAN = Strong (q.v.) + man. 

STRONGSON, Strong's Son : v; Strong. 

ST ROOD : V. Stroud. 

STROTHER (Celt.) Dweller by a Stream 
[Gael, (and Ir.) sruthair, a stream] 
There are the Strother Hills, Durham 
and an ' Alan del Strother ' was Bailiff of 
Tindale (Tynedale) in 1358. 
Cp. Struther. 
STROUD (Eng.) Bel. to Stroud or Strood ; or 
Dweller at the Brushwood or Thicket 
[O.E. strod = M.H.Ger. O.H.Ger. struot, 
bushes, underwood, thicket] 

Strood, Kent, was Strdd (genit. Strddes) 
in a charter dated a.d. 889. 

In the Charter-Rolls, a.d. i 199-1200, a 
Westgrove and a La Strode are bracketed 
together as ' Bosci ' [M.Lat. boscus, a 
bush, thicket]. The surnames 'atte 
Stroude ' and ' atte Strode ' occur in a Soms. 
Subsidy-Roll a.d. 1327. 

STROYAN (Celt.) Dweller at a Streamlet 

[Gael, sruthan {th mute), f. sruth, a stream, 

with the dim. suff. -dn\ 

STRUDE, a var. of Strood, Stroud, q.v. 

STRUDWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Strudwick; or 

Dweller at the Bushy Place [v. under 

Stroud, and + O.E. wic, a place] 

A strdd wic occurs in a Sussex charter 
dated a.d. 956 ('C.S '. no. 961). 

STRUTHER (CeU.) Dweller by a Stream 
[Gael, (and Ir.) sruthair'] 

STRUTHERS = Struther -f the E. pi. (and 
genit.) -J affix. 
There is a Struthers in co. Fife, 

STRUTT (Teut.) Stiff, Pompous [Low Ger. 
strutt, stiff, etc.: cp. O.E. strtiiian, to be 
stiff, and O.N. sirdt-r, a pointed hood] 
In the Hundred-Rolls the same individ- 
ual is referred to as 'John le Strut' and 
'John Strutt." 



STUARD : v. Steward. 

STUART : v. Stewart. 

STUBB (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 
Tree-Stump [O.E. stybb, stubb = O.N. 

... eft on ellen stubb 
(. . . again to the alder-stump). — 
Berks Charter, A.D. 956 ; Cart. Sax. 
no. 1 183. 

Guy de Stub.— Gt. Ing. Serv., A.D. 1212. 

John de Stubbe.— Z,a«c. Fines, A.D. 1333. 

The Dan.-Norw. stub denotes ' stubble ' 
as well as ' tree-stump.' 

STUBBARD UEng.) Ox-Herd [Dial. E. 
STUBBART stub, an ox ; prob. a nickname 
STUBBERD for the animal f. O.E. stybb, 
STO(B)BART J stubb = O.N. stubb-r, a stump, 
log -I- E. herd, O.E. kierde, a herdsman] 

ST U B B I N f or Stu bbing, q.v. 

STUBBING (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 

Tree-Stump Meadow [O.E. stybb, stubb 

= O.N. stubb-r, a tree-stump 4- O.North. 

and East.E. ing = O.N. eng, a meadow] 

Henricus de Stubbyng. — 

Yorks mi-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STUBbInS^} Pl- "''^ Senit., of Stubbing. 

Nicholas de Stubbings.— fla«rf. Rolls. 

STU BBS (Eng. and Scand,) pi., and genit., of 
Stubb, q.v. 

Richard de Stubbes. — 

Hund. Rolls (Yorks). 

With knotty, knarry, bareyne trees 

Of stubbes sharpe and hidouse to 

biholde. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 1977-8. 

See also the quotation from Spenser 
under Stocks. 

" Ye'll find a pretty many stubs about 
when ye gets into de wood ". — 

Diet. Kent. Dial., p^ 166. 

STUCK (Eng.) Short; Stumpy [M.E. stuk; 
I. O.E. stocc, a stump] 

STUGKEY (Eng.) Short and Thick [Dial. 
E. stucky, stocky ; f. O.E. stocc, a stump] 

The West. Eng. (voiced) form is rfMggy — 
"I yer [hear] that 'is missis is a stuggy 
little body. — 

Peasant-Speech af Devon, p. 130, 

STUCKLEY 1 1 for Stookley, (j.v. 
STUKLEY ; 3 foj stukeley, q.v. 




STUDDARD \ (Eng.) = Stoddard, Stoddart, 

(Scand.) Ox-Herd [Dan.-Norw. stud 
(= Swed. stut), an ox + hyrde, a herdsman] 

STUDLEIGHl (Eng.) Bel. to Studleigh, 

STUDLEY I Studley, the M.E. Stodky, 

Siodlegh, A.-Sax. StSdledh (' td stddledge '— 

dat. : 'C.S.' no. 620) = the Stud-Lea 

[O.E. stod, a stud (of horses] 

The Warw. Studley was Stadlei in 

Cp. Stoodleigh, Stoodley. 

STUKELEY(Eng.)Bel. to Stukeley (Hunts), 
loth cent. (Lat. charters) Stivecleia,Styvec- 
lea = the Clearing - Lea [f. O.E. 
stxfician, to root or grub up + ledh, a 


STU NT (Eng.) Stubborn ; Stunted ; Stupid 

[O.E. stunt\ 

The meaning varies somewhat ace. to 
dialect — e.g. : East Yorks, 'stubborn', 
also 'short and thick' ; Kent, 'sullen', 
'dogged' ; Lines, 'fierce', 'sulky". 

STURDEE \ (A. - Fr. - ?Lat.) Sturdy ; orig. 
STURDY J Rash, Reckless [M.E. sturdi; 
O.Fr. estourdi (Fr. dtourdi, giddy, thought- 
less) ; of uncertain but prob. Lat. orig.] 

Walter Stmdx.—Hund. Rolls. 
lTURmVA*N7 }'■ Sturtevant,Sturtivant. 

STU RE f (i6th cent. Stuer), a West. Eng, form 
of Steep, q.v. 

"Thee art lick [like] a skittish stwe." — 
Exmoor Scolding, 1. 49. 

See also "Notes on the Sture Family 
of England', by Rev. W. H. Hornby 
Steer (Reprint from The Antiquary, 1887), 
who would like to connect both 'Sture' 
and 'Steer' With O.N. styrr, 'a stir', 'tumult'. 

2 = Stoup, q.v. 

STURGE is not an easy name, but it is app. 
merely a voiced descendant of the O.E. 
sterced-, 'stern', 'stout', 'strong' (seen in 
sterced-ferKS, 'stern, etc., -minded', in the 
Old Northumbrian poem 'ludith') [conn, 
with O.E. stearc, rigid, stern, strong; 
and therefore with E. 'starch'] 

STURGEON \ (A.-Fr.-Teut.) a nickname from 
STURGIN J thefishso called {O.Vx.est{o)ur- 

geon (Fr. esiurgeon), L.Lat. sturjo, -onis; f. 

O.H.Ger. sturU)e, mod. stiir (= O.E. 
styria), a sturgeon] 

The surname is usually Sturgeon in our 
I4th-i5th cent, records; Sturgion occurs 
in the i6th cent. 

Sturge's (Son) : v. Sturge. 




Johannes Sturgys.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STURM (Storm): see the Appendix of 
Foreign Names. 

STURM AN (Eng.) i Ox-Man or -Herd [v. 
under Sture', Steer, and + man] 

2 Steersman, Skipper [a descendant 
of the O.E. steSrmann, steersman, captain] 

STURMER(Celt. + E.) Bel. to Sturmer(e 

(Essex), 14th cent. Sturmere, A.-Sax. 

Siurtnere = the Stour-Lake [v. under 

Stour (Celt.) and + O.E. mere, a lake] 

The village is situated near the R. 
Stour. The lake formerly covered about 
20 acres : it is mentioned ("embe [about] 
Sturmere") in the A. - Sax. poem 'The 
Battle of Maldon', a.d. 993. 

Rarely this name may be for the Ger. 
Sturmer, ' a blusterer.' 

STURMINSTER (Celt. + A.-Lat.) Bel. to 
Sturminster (Dorset), 14th cent. Stur- 
minster = the (R.) Stour-Minster [v. 
under Stour (Celt.), and -|- O.E. mynster 
(Lat. monasterium), a monastery, church] 

STU RT (Eng.) Bel. to Sturt or Stert ; or 
Dweller at a Tail or Tongue of Land 

[O.E. sUort] 

I3-I4th cent. West. Eng. records contain 
such surnames as 'de la Sturte' and 'atte 

Cp. Start and Stort- 

STURTEVANT"! The evidence is not con- 
STURTIVANT J elusive, but the name 
(found also as Startivant) is app. a nick- 
name — 'Start Away' I^for a messenger or 
pursuivant [f. M.E. sterten, to start, and 
A.-Fr. ava{u)nt, forward, away, O.Fr. 
avant, Lat. ab ante] 

Willelmus Styrtavant. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

STURTON (Eng.) i a metathesized form of 
Stretton, Stratton, q.v. 

2 = Stourton, q.v. 

Sturton (Grange), Yorks, was Stretun in 
, Domesday-Book. Sturton, Notts, form. 
Stretton, "is situated on Ermine Street," 
as also is one of the Line. Sturtons. The 
'Nicholas de Sturton, Wilts', mentioned 
in the Testa de Nevill, evid. hailed from 
the mod, Stourton in 4hat county. 




STUTFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Stutfield or Stot- 
field ; or Dweller at the Horse or Cattle 
Field [v. under Stott, and + M.E. O.E. 


STUTT(A)FORD (Eng.) Dweller at the Horse 
or Cattle Ford [v. under Stott, and + 


STUTTARD i for Stothard, q.v. 

2 conf. with Studdard, Stoddard, q.v. 

STUTTER (Eug.) Stutterer [f. late M.E. 

stut{te, M.E. stolen, to stutter : cp. E.Fris. 

stuttem = Dut. stotteren, to stutter] 

STYDOLPH \ (Eng.) the A.-Sax. StfSwulf 

STI DOLPH J ('Liber Vitae Dunelm." Stithmlf) 

= Strong Wolf [O.E. stUS, stiff, strong, 

firm + «)«//] 

STYE (Eng.) Dweller by i a Sty [O.E. ^^^•(a, 
a sty, animal-pen] 

2 a Path [0,E. siig, a path] 

The scheref made to seke Notyngham, 
Bothe be strete and stye. — 

Roliyn Hode and the Munke, 301-2. 

STYER = Stye + the E. agent. saS.-er. 

STYLE (Eng.) Dweller by a Stile [O.E. 

stigol, -el\ 
Richard de la Style.— ifMBrf. Rolls. 

STYLEMAN = Style + E. man. 

STYLES, geuit;, and pi., of Style, q.v. 

STY(E)MAN = Stye (q.v.) + E. man. 

SUART = Seward, q.v. : cp. Stuart from 

The Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379, has as 
surnames both 5«ar/ and Sueherd. 

SUCH \ Q^.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller by a Tree- 
SUCHE J Stump [Fr. souche; prob. f. the pp., 
succisum, of Lat. succidere, to cut down] 
Alan de la Souche. — Hund. Rolls. 

SUCKBITCH (Eng.) for the M.E. Sokespic, a 

nickname, = Suck-Bacon, for a rustic 

[f. O.E. sitcaii, to suck + sptc, bacon] 

SUCKLING (Eng.) a nickname [f. O.E. stican, 
to suck + the (double) dim. suff. -Hng] 
Robert Suciiag.— Hund. Rolls. 

SUCKSMITH (Eng.) an imit. form of 
Sixsmith, q.v. 

SUDBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Sudbury =the South 
Stronghold [Q.E. srftS + burh] 

Sudbury,. Suffl, occurs in A.-Sax. 
records as SitSbyrig'-dat. case. 

Ric'us [de] Sudbury. — 

Inq. adq. Damn., A,D. 1326. 

SUDDELLl (Eng.) Dweller at i the South 
SUDELL J Dale , [O.E. sA^ + d(Bt\ 

2 the South Corner [O.E. sA^ + 


SU DLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Sudlow ; or Dweller 

at the South Hill or Tumulus [O.E. 

sA'S + hlfkuj] 

Sudlow, Chesh., occurs as Sudlow and 
Sudloe in the 17th cent. 

SUFFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Suffield (Yorks.: 
Domesday Sudfelt, Sudfeld ; Norf.) = the 
South Field or Plain [O.E. swS + feld] 

SUFFOLK (Eng.) One from Suffolk, the M.E. 
Suffpik{e, etc., A.-Sax. SA'^folc = the 
South Folk (of the East Angles). 

A Latin charter dated a.d. 895 ('Cart. 
Sax.' no. 571) has "in pago Suthfolchi". 

. . . they of Kente, Southsex, and 
Surrey, Estsex and of Southfolke and of 

Malory, Morte d Arthur, XXI. iii. 

Suffolke and Norfolke near, so named of 
their sites. — 

Drayton, Polyolbion, xxiii. 135. 

SUGAR (Eng.) is doubtless for the M.E.. 
Sulgar, which occurs more than once as a 
surname in the Yorks Poll-Tax, a.d. 1379 
[the second element is O.E. gdr, a spear : 
the first element seems to represent O.E. 

sylla, good] 

(A.-Fr.-East.) a compar. late nickname 

or trade-name from the article [M.E. 

suger, Fr. sucre. Span. azAcar (a- for Arab. 

al, the) ; Arab, sokkar, sugar] 

SUGDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Sow-Hollow 
[0.(N.)E. sugu, a sow -|- denu, a hollow] 

Robertus de Sugden. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SUGG (Eng.) I a nickname and sign-name 
from the Sow [Dial. N. and East.E. and 
,S<^ql. sugig, 0.(N,)E. sugu = Swed. sugga, 

a sow] 

2 a nickname from the bird so called 
[M.E. sugge, O.E. sugga, a bird] 

SUGGIE = Sugg (q.v.) -f the N.E. and Scot, 
dim. suff. -ie, 

Suggie.— {i) a young sow; (2) a fat 
person (North. Scot.).— Jamieson, 




SUITOR = Soutep, q.v. 

sullivan 1 

SULLOCH 1 (Celt.) Keen-Sighted; Sharp, 
SULLOCK J Knowing [Gael, and Ir. suileach] 

SULLY "l(Fr.-Lat. + Celt.) Bel. to Sully 

SULLEY J (Normandy), a.d. iiig Sul[l]iacum 

= the Estate of Sulla [i-ac-um, the 

Lat.-Gaul. poss. suff.] 

(Eng.) Bel. to Sudeley (Glouc), anc. 
Sulley, Sudley, &c., Domesday Sudlege = 
the South Lea [O.E. siiS + ledh] 

Bartholomew de Sulley, or Sudeley 
(GloMc,).—Hund. Rolls. 

Sully, Glam., app. owes its name to a 
Norman knight — 

"Sully was given by Fitzharamon to Sir 
Robert de Sully, who had a castle here." 

—Nat. Gaz. 

SUMMER I an O.Teut. pers. name and nick- 
name from the season [O.E. sumor, sumer 
= O.N. sumar (Dan.-Norw. sommer, Swed. 
sommar) = O.Sax. O.H.Ger. sumar (Ger. 
sommer) = O.Fris. sumur = Dut. somerl 

John Somer. — 

Sonts. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

Henr' Somer. — 

Charter-Rolls, temp. Hen. VI. 

2 a contr. of the A.-Scand. Sumerlide or 
Sumerlida: v. Summerlee and Somepby. 

3 for Sumnep, q.v. 

SUMMERFIELD (Eng.) Dweller at Summer's 
Field Iv. under Summep, and + M.E. 

(Fr.) for'Somerville, q.v. 

SUM M ERLEE 1 (A.-Scand.) for the A.-Scand. 
SUMMERLEY ] Sumerlide or Sumerlida: v. 
under Somerby. 

In mod. Norwegian we find the form 
Sommaarlee as well as earlier Sumarlide. 

SUMMERS I Summer's (Son) : v, Summep. 
2 for Sumneps, q.v. 

SUMMERSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Somersby 

(Lines) [prob.the same name as Somepby 

(q.v.), but with a genit. -5] 

SUMMERSCALE 1 (Scand.) Dweller at the 


sumar + skdli, a hut] 

The Yorks PoU-Tax, a.d. 1379, has both 
'de Somerscale' and 'de SomerscaUs' as 

SUMMERSET : v. Somepset. 
SUMMER(S)FORD : v. SomepfoPd. 
SUMMERSGILL (Scand.) Dweller 


Sumar's, or SuMARLiDE's, Ravine [v. 
under Summep and Somepby, and -t- 
O.N. gil, a ravine] 

SUMMERSHALL (Eng.) Bel. toSomersall 
(Derby), the Domesday Sumersale = 
Sumer's, or Sumerlide's Hall [v. under 
SummePand Somepby and+O.N.E.Aa//] 

SUMMERSKILL (Scand.) i for Summepsgill, 
2 for Summepscale, q.v. ^' ' 

SUMMERSON i Summer's Son : v.'Summep. 
2 for Sumnepson, q.v. 

SUMMERVILLE = Somepville, q.v. 

SUMNER ] (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Summoner, Appa- 

SUMNOR \ ritor, Ecclesiastical-Court 

SUMPNErJ Officer [M.E. sumenor, 

som{p)nour, somonour, etc., A.-Fr. somenour, 

etc. i f. O.Fr. som(m)oner, to summon, Lat. 

summonere, to remind secretly] 

Hugh le Sumenor. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

John Sompnour. — 

Vale Royal Ledger-Bk., A.D. 1428-32. 

As sisours fassize-men] and somonours, 
Sherreves and hire [their] clerkes, 
Bedelles and baillifs.^ — 

Piers Plowman, 998-1000. 

Ther was also a Reve and a Millere, 
A Somnour and a Pardoner also. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 542-3. 

A Somonour is a rennere up and doun. — 
do. do. D 1283. 

S U M N E RS, (the) Sumner's (Son) 1 v. Su m- 
SUMNERSON, (the) Sumner's SoNj nep. 

SUM(P)TER (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) Pack-Horse 
Man, Sumpter-Horse Attendant [M.E. 
sum{e)ter, sumpter,som{e)ter,O.Tx. sommetier, 
L.hat. summatarius, a pack-horse driver; 
f. L.Lat. sagmarius, a pack-horse ; Gr. 
a&yna, a pack-saddle] 
Thomas le Someter. — 

De Banco Rolls, A.D. 1272-3. 
William le Sumeter. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Ralph, alias Ranulph le Sumpter. — 
Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 

SUM(P)TERMAN = Sum(p)tep + man. 

SUMPTION (A.-Fr.-Lat.) an aphseresized 

form of a name given to one born on the 

festival of the Assumption (isth August) 

[f. the pp., assumptus, of Lat. assumere, to 

take to oneselt^ 




SUMPTON, a corrupt form of Somerton, q.v. 

SUNDAY (Eng.) a nickname and pers. name 

from the day [M.E. sunedai, sunnedei, etc., 

O.E. sunnan-dceg\ 

SUNDERLAND (Eng.) Bel. to Sunderland; 
or Dweller at the Private or Reserved 
Land (land set apart') [O.E. sundarland] 

The Lane. Sunderland was Sunderland 
in the 13th and 14th cent. ; the Yorks 
Sunderlandwick was Sundrelofiwic in 
Domesday-Book ; the Durham place was 

Sounderland in Boldon Book. 


SUNMAN (Eng.) the Domesday and A.-Sax. 

Sun(fi)matt = Sun(ny Man [O.E. sun- 

{sunne, sunna), sun-, sunny -f- man{n'\ 

SUNNER for Sumner, q.v. 

SUNNERS for Sumners, q.v. 

SUNTER for Sum(p)tep, q.v. 

SURFLEET (Eng.) Bel. to Surfleet (Lines), 

13th cent. Surflet = the Sour Water 

[M.E. sur, O.E. sAr, sour + M.E.fiet, O.E. 

Jleot, water, a stream] 

SURLE for Seple, q.v. 

SURMAN \ (Eng.) Sour or Surly Man 

SURMON J [M.E. sur, O.E. siit, sour + mati\ 

Cp. 'Sweetman' ; and E. 'surly'. 

SURR (A.-Fr.-Lat.) prob. for the M.E. and 
M.Scot, ser, sere, etymologically more 
correct than sir, sire : v. Sire. 

"Gud Ser, behald, and thu may se . . " 

—Scot. Legends of the Saints (Machor and 


Hardly, for more than one reason, for 
the Scand. sur [O.N. sur-r\ 'sour,' 'sUUen'. 

SURRAGE for Suppidge, q.v. 

SURREY! (Eng.) Bel. to Surrey, the M.E. 

SURRY ISurreye, A. - Sax. StiWg (dat. 

SiiSrige) = the Southern Waterside 

(of the Thames opp. old London) [O.E. 

.sriSffl, prop, the compar. of sttS, south -|- 

((e)g, waterside, etc.] 

" sfitS ofer Temese on SitSrige." — 

A.-Sax. Chron., A.D. 851. 
Cp. Southpey. 
SURRIDGE (Eng.) Dweller at the South 
Ridge [O.E. srftS -|- hrycg'\ 

SURTEES (Fr.-Lat. + Celt.) Dweller On the 
(R.) Tees [Fr. sur, Lat. super, on ; and v. 


The M.Lat. form of this name was super 
Tysam or Tmam. 

Rivers glso have imposed names to 
some men, as they have to towns situated 
on them; as the old Baron Sur Teys, that 
is, on the River Teys, running between 
Yorkshire and the Bishoprick of 
Duresme. — 

Camden, Remains cone. Brit., ch. 

SUSSEX (Eng.) Bel. to Sussex, the A.-Sax. 
Slits Seaxe = the South Saxons. 

Si's Seaxe and East Seaxe. — 

A.-Sax. Chron., A.D. 823. 

SUTCH = Such, q.v. 

SUTCLIFF \ (Eng.) Dweller by the South 
SUTGLIFFE / Cliff [O.E. jijts + clif'\ 

This surname occurs in the Yorks 

PoU-Tax, A.D. 1379, as both &)u(Ac/(/ and 


SUTER 1 (A.-Lat.) Shoemaker [O.E. sitere, 

SUTORJ Lat. jMtor] 

Patrick le Suter. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. >Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 

See Souter. 

SUTHERLAND (Scand.) Bel. to Sutherland, 
the O.N. Su'Srland = the Southern 
Land (compared with the Orkneys). 

SUTHERST (Eng.) Dweller at the South 
Wood [O.E. iu'tS -1- hyrsi\ 


SUTHREN, V. Sothep(a)n. 


SUTTER for Sutep, q.v. 

SUTTERBY (Scand.) Bel. to Sutterby 
(Lines) = the Southern Dwelling or 
Farmstead [O.N. su'Sr (Swed. soder) + 


SUTTERLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Sotterley (Suff.), 

13th cent. Soterle = the South Lea 

[Soter- for M.E. Sother-, O.E. suiSra, siitSra, 

prop, compar. of silS, south = O.N. 

sUSr (v. under Suttepby) + M.E. ley, 

O.E- ledh, a lea] 

SUTTILLI (Eng.) Dweller at the South 

SUTTLE ; Hill [O.E. siiS hyll; with inter- 

dentalism lost through Scand. influence : 

cp. Suttepby] 

Soothill, W. Yorks, was Sutill in the 
14th cent. 

, (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Subtle, Clever, Cun- 
ning [A.-Fr. sotil, etc. ; Lat. subtilis, fine, 

And if that thow sotil be, 
Help now thiselve.— 

Piers Plowman, I2i8i-3t 




SUTTLEY for Sutferley, q.v. 

SUTTON (Eng.) Bel. to Sutton, the M.E. 
Sutton{e, A.-Sax. SUVtun - the South En- 
closure, Farmstead, or Village 
[O.E. siiS, sOp + mn] 

Sutton, Surrey, occurs in a wholly 
Latin charter dated a.d. 727 ('Cart. Sax.' 
no. 39) as "apud Su^tone," 

SUTTOR for Sutor : v, Suter. 

SWABEY \ (Scand.) Bel. to Swaby (Lines), 
SWABY J 13th cent. Swaby [O.N. 6^-r, farm, 
estate: the 'first element, Swa-,'ma.y re- 
present the O.N. pers. (ethnic) n^me 
Siidf-r (=0.E. Swckf), 'Swabian'; or O.N. 
Sueinn (= O.E. Swan) (v. Swain] 

SWAFFHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Swaffham (Norf. 

and Camb.: 13th cent. Swaffham, Swafham) 

= Sw.«;f's Home or Estate [v. under 

Swaby, and + O.E. hdm\ 

We find the Cont. Low-Ger. counter- 
part of this place-name — SuAfliim — in a 
gth-cent. register of the Abbey of Wer- 

SWAFFI^LD (Eng.) Bel. to Swafield (Norf.), 

13th cent. Swaf eld [O.E. f eld, afield, plain: 

for the first element see under Swaby] 

SWAILES, V. Swales. 

SWAIN "I (Scand. and Eng.) orig. Swine- 

SWAINE J herd; later Herdsman, Servant, 

or Man generally [M.E. swayn(e, sweynie, 

swein, etc. ; O.N. sueinn = U.E. swdn] 

John le Swein,— Hund. Rolls. 

Sueinn (Swed. Sven, Dan.-Norw. Suend, 
a youth, servant), like the almost equally 
lowly Karl (churl), became a royal name — 

Sueinn konungr tiagu-skegg . . . [ob. 


(King Sweyn Forkbeard . . . ). 

Sueinn Dana-konungr ok Ol^fr Suia- 
konungr ... 

(Sweyn, King of the Danes, and Olaf, 
King of the Swedes . . . ). — 

The Death of Olaf Trygguason. 

Hym boes [behoves] serve hym-self 
that has na swayn, 
Or elles he is a fool, as clerkes sayn. — 
Chaucer, Cant- Tales, A 4027-8. 

With that sprong forth anakedswayne.— 
Spenser, Shepheards Cat. (March). 

8WAINS0N, (the) Swain's Son: v. Swain. 

Thomas Swaynesson.— 

rorfe PoU-Tm A.D. 1379. 

SWAiNSTON (Eng.) Dweller at Swain's or 

Swan's Farmstead [v. under Swain, 

and + O.E. mn] 

There is a Swainstou jn the Isle 
of Wight. 

SWALE (Scand.) the Norse Svale, O.Norse 
Suali [O.N. sual-r, cool, cold, fresh] 

Ricardus Swale. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

(Teut.) Dweller by the R. Swale [prob. 
f. O.E. swilian (prt. sg. swal), to swill, 


Thomas de Swale. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

(Eng.) Dweller at a Swale [Dial. E. 

swale, " a gentle rising of the ground, but 

with a corresponding declivity" ; app. f. 

O.E. swellan (prt. sg. sweall), to swell] 

SWALES, Swale's (Son) : v. Swaie, esp.i 

SWALLOW (Eng.) a nickname from the bird 
[M.E, swalewe, swalowe, O.E. swealwe] 

(Scand.) Bel. to Swallow (Lines), a.d. 
1226-7 Swalewe [prob. Dial. N. and East 
E. swallow, a deep hollow, abyss ; O.N. 
suelg-r, f. suelga, to swallow : cp.. O.E. 
swelgend, an abyss, whirlpool, f. O.E. 
swelgan, to swallow, absorb] 

SWAN 1 (Eng. and Scand.) i a nickname 
SWANN \iTom the Swan [O.E. swan ~ 
SWANNE JO.N. s»a«-y] 

Henry le Swan. — Rolls of Pari. 

2 a sign-name. 

Thomas atte Swan. — Close Rolls. 

3 = Swain, q.v. 

SWANCOCK = Swan (q.v.) + the pet suff. 

' -cock. 

SWANCOTT "I (Eng.) Dweller at i the Herds- 

SWANCOAT I mai?sCot [O.E. «i;a'«, a swain, 

herdsman + coi\ 

2 the Swan-Cote [O.E. swan -f cot\ 

There is a township called Swancott 
in Shropshire. 

SWANNINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Swannington 
(Norf. : 14th cent. Swenington ; Leic.) = 
the Estate of the Swan- Family 
[A.-Sax. *Swdninga-tun — swan (= O.N. 
Sueinn), swain, warrior -f- -inga, genit. pi. 
of the fil. suff. -ing | tun, estate, etc.] 

SWANSCOMB(E (Eng.) Bel. to Swanscombe 
{S.tnt), i^th cent. Swaneschampe, A.D. 695 
Suanescamp ('C.S'. no. 87) = Swan's 
Camp [the genit. of O.E, swdn, a swain, 
warrior + eamp, borrowed f, Lat. camp-us\ 




The change in the second element of 
the place-name has doubtless been helped 
by the fact that it is topographically 
suitable, the village being situated "in a 
hollow" [O.E. cumb (f. Celtic), a hollow] 

SWANSON I Swan's Son : v. Swan. 
2 = Swainson, q.v. 

SWANSTON (Eng.) i Dweller at Swan's 

Farmstead [v. Swan, and + M.E. -ton, 

to», O.E. 7(2n, farm, etc.] 

2 = Swainston, q.v. 

There is a Swanston in c6. Edinburgh; 
and a Swanneston occurs in the Charter- 
Rolls for Kent tp. Hen. VI. 

SWANTON (Eng.) Bel. to Swanton (Norf.: 

13th cent. Swanton, Swantun; Kent: A.-Saz. 

, Swdnatun — 'C.S.' no. 1322; etc.) = the 

Swains' Place [O.E. swdn, genit. pi. 

swdna, swain, herdsman -ff tin, dwelling(s] 

SWANWICK (Eng.) Bel. to Swanwick (Hants: 
13th cent. 5wan«uic; Derby, etc.) = Swan's 
Place [v. under Swain, and + O.E. wic\ 

SWARBRECK \ (Scand.) Bel. to Swarbrick 

SWARBRICK \ (N.Lancs) a.d. 1249 Suarte- 

SWARBRIGG J brec = the Black Slope 

[O.N. suart-r, black -|- brekka, a slope] 

William de Swartebricke. — 

Latic, Ing., A.D. 1286. 

SWART (Eng. and Scand.) Swarthy, Dark 

[M.E. swart(e, O.E. sm(e)art = O.N. 

suart-r (= Ger. schwarz] 

hrsefen wandrode, 


(the) raven wan- 
swart and dark- 
brown. — 
The Finnesburh Fight, 69-70. 

Untill a nation straunge, with visage 
swart. — Spenser, Faerie Queene, II. x. 15. 

SWATHLING (Eng.) Bel. to Swathlfng 
(Hants), a.d. 932 Sw(s\>elingeford = the 
Ford of the Sw^>el Family [the pers. 
name is rare, if not unique ; but it is 
evid. a nickname f. (with dim. suff. -el) 
O.E. swa^, a scar, a var. of O.E. swa]>, a 
track, trace + -inga, genit. pi. of the fil, 

suff. -ing] 

SWATMAN = Sweetman, q.v. 

SWEAR = Swire, q.v. 
SWEARS, Swbar's (Son). 

SWEATMAN = Sweetman, q.v, 

SWEENEY! (Celt.) the Irish Suibhne, prob. 

SWEENY J for Suidhne—dh mute (cp. Ir. 

suibhe for suidhe, a session, assize) [Ir. 

suidh, a hero + the dim. suff, -«e] 

(occ.) (Eng.) Dweller at (i) the Swine- 
Meadow [O.E. swin + ge)hteg] 

(2) the Swine Island or Waterside 
[O.E. swln -I- {{e)g'] 
Sweeney is the name of a Shropshire 

SWEET (Eng.) [M.E. swet(e, suete, O.E. sai/te, 


SWEETAPPLE (Eng.) Dweller by theSwEET- 
Apple (Tree) [O.E. swdte -i- mppel] 

SWEETCOCK (Eng.) = Sweet (q.v.) -t- the 
E. pet suff. -cock. 

Adam Swetcoc. — Hu«d. Rolls. 

SWEETENHAM, v. Swetenham. 

SWEETING (Eng.) i the Domesday Sueting, 
A.-Sax. Sweting = Swet(a)'s Son [v. 
under Sweet, and -1- the O.E. fil. sufl. 


2 Dweller at the Sweet Meadow [O-E 

sw^te + ing (O.N. eng), a meadow] 

John de Sweting. — Testa de Nevill. 

SWEETMAN = Sweet (q.v.) -1- E. man. 

Swetman was not an uncommon 
A.-Saxon name. 

There has been sporadic confusion with 
Swetenham, q.v. 

SWEETNAM, v. Swetenham. 


SWEET SIR (Eng. -J- A.-Fr.-Lat.) Sweet 

SWEETSIRE f Sir [v. Sweet and Sire] 


Richard Swetesire. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1355. 
There has been confusion with 
Swltzer, q.v. 

SWENEYl i.e^„„„/ v„ _„ 
SWENY ; Sween(e)y, q.v. 

SWEPSTONE (Eng.) Bel. to Swepstone 
(Leic), the Domesday Scopestone [O.E. 
Stan, a stone : the first element is app. f. 
the pret., scop, of O.E. scieppan, to create, 
form ; and the reference is doubtless to a 
figured or ornamental stone of some kind 
(rather than to the 'Stone of the Poet' 

[O.E. scSpl 




SWETENHAM ] (Eng.^ Bel. lo Swettenham 

SWETNAM KChesh.), I3th-i4th cent. 

S)NETTEN»/KM } Swetenham = Sweta's 

Home [A.-Sax. *Swetan-hdm — Swdtan-, 

genit. of Sweta (f. swite, sweet) + Mm, 

home, estate] 

The -h- in the surname began early to 
drop out — 
Hankyn de Swetenam. — 

Pat. Rolls, A.D. 1403. 

There has been occ. confusion with 

SWETMAN (Eng.) the Domesday and A.-Sax. 
Swetman = Sweet Man [O.E. sw^te + 


SWIFT (Eng.) [M.E. swyft, O.E. swift, fleet] 

SWINBANK (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at the 

Swine-Bank [O.E. swin = O.N. suin; 

and see under Bank] 

A Westmoreland Swinbank occurs in 
the 1 6th cent, as Swynebank. 

(Eng.) Bel, to Swinburn ; or 

Dweller at the Swine-Brook 

[O.E. swin -f- burne\ 


The Northumbrian Swinburn, 13th 
cent. Svjytibume, " takes its name from the 
Swinburn brook, a tributary of the North 
Tyne." {Nat. Gas.) 

(Scand.) the O.Scand. SuinbiSm — 

Wise Bear [O.N. suinn-r, wise, intelligent 

-\- biont, a bear] 

SWIN DALE ] (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Swin- 

SWINDELL \ dale ; or Dweller at the Swine- 

SWINDLE J Valley {O.E. swin = O.N. suin 

+ O.E. dcel = O.N. dal-r] 

Swindale, Westmd., was Swindale c. 


SWINDELLS \ pi., and genit., of Swindell, 
SWINDLES /Swindle. 

But the Chesh. Swindells are said to 
owe their name to a spot called Swyndelves 
[O.E. ge)delf, a ditch, trench] in the 14th 

SWINDEN ■) (Eng.) Bel. to Swinden ; or 

SWIN DIN J Dweller at the Swine- Valley 

[O.E. swin + denu] 

The W. Yorks Swinden was Swyndenie 
in the 14th cent., Suindene in Domesday- 

SWINDLEHURST (Eng.) Dweller at i the 

Swine-Dale Wood [v. under Swindale, 

and -t- O.E. hyrst, a wood] 

2 the Swine-Lea Wood [v. under 
Swinley, and + O.E. hyrst] 

A ' John Swinlehurst ' occurs in a 
Lane. doct. a.d. 1576. 

SWINDLEY for Swinley, q.v. 

SWIN DON (Eng.) Bel. to Swindon ; or Dweller 
at the Swine-Hill [O.E. swin -f </«»] 
The Wilts place was Suindune in 
Domesday-Book ; the Staffs place Swine^ 
dun in the 12th cent. A swindUn ('at 
swindHne'^-AaA.) occurs in a gth-cent. 
Dorset charter ('C.S.' no. 525). 

SWIN FEN (Eng.) Bel. to Swinfen ; or Dweller 
at the Swine-Fen [O.E. swin +/eHn] 

The Staffs place was Swynefen in the 
13th cent., Swinfen in the 12th cent. 

SWIN FORD (Eng.) Bel. to Swinford; or 

Dweller at the Swine-Ford [O.E. swin 

(occ. sw^n) +ford] 

"iErest on swynford. of swinforda 
[daU ..." 

(First to Swinford ; from S • ■ • ) 

— loth-cent. Staffs Charter; Cart. Sax. 

no. 1023. 

SWINGLEHURST for Swindlehurst q.v. [cp. 
'shingle' from 'shindle'] 

SWINGLER (Eng.) Swingle- User ; Flax- 
Dresser [f. M.E. swinglen (M.Dut. 
swingelen), to beat flax ; O.E. swinglian 
(O.E. swingell, swingle, a beating, stroke] 

SWINHOE (Eng.) Bel. to Swinhoe (North- 
umb.), A.D. 1315-16 Swyneho = the 
Swine-Hill or -Ridge [O.E. swin + hd] 

SWINHOPE (Eng.) Bel. to Swinhope ; or 

Dweller at the Swine-Hope [O.E. swin; 

and V. Hope] 

SWINLEY (EngJ Bel. to Swinley ; or Dweller 

at the Swine-Lea [O.E. swin + ledh] 

Swinley, Berks, occurs as 'a&i Swinled' 
(dat.) in a land-charter dated a.d. 942. 

SWINNARD \ (Eng.) Swineherd [M.E. 
SWINNART J swynherd, swynhird{e, O.E. 


SWINNERTONl (Eng.) Bel. to Swinnerton 
SWINERTON /(Staffs) [The 13th - 14th 
cent, forms Swinfqrlon, Swineforton point 
to 'Swine-ford Farm' (" the village is 
near the R. Sow"); but the name of the 
place evidently changed some time in the 
13th cent., as (ace. to Staffs topographers) 
it occurs as Sulvertone in Domesday-Book 
and Silverton and Soulverton a.d. 1205-6, 
implying a pers. name from O.E. seoifor, 
silver -|- tAn, farm, estatej 




SWINNEY = Sweeney, q.v. 

SWINSCOE \ (Scand.) Bel. to Swinscoe 
SWI NSCOW / (Staffs), 13th cent. Swyneskow, 

Sviiniscow = the Swine-Wood [O.N. 

sutn + skdg-r (Dan.-Norw. skov), a wood] 

SWINSTEAD (Eng.) Bel. to Swinstead; or 
Dweller at the Swine-Place [O.E. swin 

+ stede] 
Swinstead, Lines, was Swynested in the 
13th cent. 

SWINTON (Eng.) Bel. to Swinton; or Dweller 
at the Swine-Enclosure or -Farm [O.E. 

swin -I- ftin] 
SWINYARD (EngO i Dweller at the Swine- 
Enclosure {O.E. swin+geard, enclosure, 

2 for Swinnard, q.v. 

SWIRE (Eng.) I a nickname from some pecu- 
liarity of the Neck [M.E. swire, swyer, 
swyre, swiere, swer'e, etc., O.E. sw^ora 
(= O.N. sutri), the neck] 
a Dweller at a Swire [Dial. E. swirei 
'a hollow near the top of aliill'; etym. as'] 

Cp. the Dorset place-name Swyre. 

(rarely) 3 Cousin [O.E. sw^or (= Ger. 


(A.-Fr.-Lat.) a weak form of Squire, q.v. 

SWITHEN 1 (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Swibhun = 
SWITHIN J Strong Hun [O.E. smj, strong] 

SWITHENBANK 1 (Eng.) Dweller at Swith- 
SWITHINBANK J iN's Bank [v. Swithin and 


SWITZER (Swiss) a Swiss [Early Mod. E. 

Switzer = Ger. Schweizer: Schweis, the 

Ger. name of Switzerland, is f. the canton 

and town of- Schwyz, a name prob. of 

Romanic (Romansch) orig.] 

Where are my Switzers ? 
Let them guard the doore. — 

Hamlet (ed. 1623), IV. v. 97-8. 

SWORDER (Eng.) Sword - Maker [M.E. 

swerder; f. (with agent, suff. -er) O.E. 

sweord, a sword] 

SWORDSLIPPER : v. under Slipper. 

SWYER = Swire, q.v. 

SWYNY = Sweeny (esp. 2), q.v. 

SYDDALL = Siddall, q.v. 

SYDENHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Sydenham (Kent, 
Oxford, Devon), I3th-I4th cent. Sydenham, 
Sidenhani, A.-Sax. Sidan Mm = Sida's 
Home [the pers. name Sida, genit. Sidan-, 
is f. O.E. sidu, m., virtue, chastity, or O.E. 
sid, broad ;-^ rf- O.E. Mm, home, estate] 


well-behaved, respectable] 

She's a girt [great] sider.r— 

Lonsdale Gloss-, p. 74. 
SYDNEY, V. Sidney. 

SYER I = Sire, q.v. 

2 a diphthongized descendant of the 
A.-Sax. Sigehere : v. Seger'., 

SYERS, Syer's (Son). 

SYKE (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller by a Rill, 

Gutter, or Small Watercourse 

fO.(N.)E. sic = O.N. sik] 

Henricus del Syke. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Syke. — a rill or small brook, more par- 
ticularly in a low, boggy situation.^- 
M^TS^idiW, Rural Econ. of Yorks 

(Glossary), 1788. 

Syke. — a small wet hollow. — 

Cunibd. Gloss., p. 98. 
SYKES, pi., and genit., of Syke. 

Rogerus del Sykes. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

SYLVESTER = Silvester, q.v. 

SYMCOX = SImoox, q.v. 

SYME = SIme, q.v. 

SYMES = SImes, q.v. 

SYMINGTON (Scot.-Eng.) Bel. to Symington 

(Ayr: 13th cent. Symondstona; Lanark: 

1 2th cent. Villa Symonis Locard) = 

Symon(d)'s or Simon(d)'s Estate fv. 

Slmon(d ; and -|- O.E. /«'n] 

Malcolm Locard possessed lands in 
Ayrshire, 1164, and was father of Symon, 
who acquired Symondstoun or Symington, 
CO. Lanark. — 

Burke's Peerage, etc.,s.n. 'Lockhart.' 


:SlmmondSi Simmons, q.v. 

SYMMS \ _Bi„,m= „„ 


j- = Simon, Simond, q.v. 


SYMONS^l =Simond8, Simons, q.v. 
SYMONDSON : Symond's Son, 
SYMPSON = Simpson, q.v. 




SYMS = Sims, q.v. 

SYNNOtJt} = Sinnett, Sinnott, q.v. 

SYNYER for Senior, q.v. 

SYRE = Syer, q.v. 

SYRED == Slped, q.v. 
SYRES = Syers, q.v. 
SYRETT = Sirett, q.v. 

IyIISn} =Si9(s)on,q.v. 

TAAFFE (Celt.) Quiet, Sluggish [Ir. tamh 

(mh as vor/] 
The Irish form of this name is given by 
de Wulf, 'Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall', p. 
97, as Tabh (cp. Ir. tabh, ocean) ; but this 
is prob. due to an error, especially as 
tabh seems to be a borrowed word. 

In a note in the 'Annals of the Four 
Masters,' under a.d. 1485, the editor says 
that'Taa'"is the present Irish form of 
the name Taaffe in the county of Louth." 

TABARAR = Tab(b)epep, q.v. 

TABB, an abbrev. of one of the Tab(b- names. 

The rare A.-Sax. pers. name Teebba (7th 
cent.), of uncertain orig., can hardly have 
left descendants. 

TAB(B)ERER (A. - Fr. - Span. - Ar.) Tabour- 

Player ; Drummer [M.E. tab(o)urer ; f. 

M.E. O.Fr. tabo(u)r (Fr. tambour), a small 

drum ; through Span. f. Arab, and Pers. 

tambur, a guitar, drum] 

John le Taburer.— /ftt«rf. Rolls. 

TABER, meton. for Taberer, q.v. 

TABERNER i = Tavernep, q.v. 

Benedict Taberner. — Hund. Rolls. 

2 Tabour-Player [f. M.E. tahurn(e, a 

form ot O.Fr. tabourin (Fr. tambourin), a 

small drum, tambourine; a dim. oitabo(ii)r: 

V. under Tab(b)epep] 

Willelmus Taburner. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

In Latin vocabularies of the M.E. period 

taburner and the less correct taberner are 

glossed timpanista and timpanizator[{. Lat. 

tympanum, a tambourine, kettledrum] 

TABLER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Table- or Tablet- 
Maker (playing tables or boards and 
writing-tablets being more particularly 
meant) [f. Fr. table ; Lat. tabula, a board, 
gaming-board, writing-tablet] 

Bartholomew le Tabler.— Wn<* of Pari. 

TABLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Tabley (Chesh.), 13th, 

cent. Tabbele, A.-Sax. *Tabban-ledli = 

T^bba's Lea [A.-Sax. Teebban-, genit. of 

T<gbba : v, note under Tabb] 

TA'BOIS, V. Talboys. 
TABOR, meton. for Tabopep. 

\ V. Tab(b)e 


TACEY, a double dim. of Eustace, q.v. 

TACKLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Tackley (Oxf. : 13th 

cent. TaMk)ele), Takeley (Essex: 13th 

cetit.Takeleye, Tackeleg),A.-Sax.*Tiec{c)an' 

ledh (Teec(c)an; genit. of *Ttec{c)a) = 

T/ec(c)a's Lea 

TACON (Fr.-Teut.) Moisy, 'Noms de Famille 
Norm.' (p. 423), gives as the origin 
of the evid. allied Taguet the Norm. Dial. 
taque, 'a nail' (cogn. with E. 'tack') ; but it 
is much more likely to be the first element 
of a Norse Thak- name [O.N. ^aik^ later 
J>i*fe (Dan.-Norw. toJt) = O.E. j'anc, thought, 
I'avour, grace (thanks): see underTancred] 
with the Fr. dim. suff. -et (-on in the case 
of Tacon). 

We also find in France the dims. 
Taconet, Taconnet, Tacnet, Taconnot; as 
well as Tacot. 

The pers. element in the Norfolk place- 
name Tacolneston is prob. a Scand. 
T{h)akulf (= A.-Sax. Thancwulf) ; and the 
medial '« in the place-name an early 
misreading for v. 

TADD is prob. for the Wei. tad, 'father'. 

TADHUNTER for Todhuntep, q.v. 

TADLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Tadley (Hants)^ a.d. 
909 Tadanledh = Tada's Lea [A.-Sax. 
Tadan-, genit. of Tada ; prob. borrowed 
f. Wei. tad. father] 

TADLOO 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tadlow (Camb.) 
TADLOWJi3th cent. Tadelowe, A.-Sax. 
*Tadan-hMw = Tada's Hill or Tumu- 
lus [v. under Tadley] 

TADMAN (Eng.) for the A.-Sax. Tdtmann = 
Merry Man [O.E. tdt- (= O.N. teit-r), 
cneerful, merry] 
TAFF = Taaffe, q.v. 

TAFNER for TavePnep, q.v, 




TAFT, a North, form of Toft, q.v. (as 'craft' is 

"Taft, a messuage".- °f '<=™ft') 

Jamieson, Scot Diet. 
TAGART "1 ((.gjj J j,pjjjj. jjf MaoTaggart, 


TAGG (Scand.) a nickname from the animal 

[Dial. E. tag, a yearling sheep: cp. Swed. 

tacka,, a ewe] 

"Tag, Tagge, a sheep of the first year". — 

Cp. Tegg. ^"^*' ^^"*' ^"''■ 

(A.-Gr.) a pet form of Agnes [Gr. ayi/lx, 
pure, chaste, sacred] 

Both Tag and Tagge occur as surnames 
in the Yorks Poll-Tax a.d. 1379. 

TAGG ETT \ = -^^Sg (q-v.) + the Ff. dim. 

suff. -et. 

TAGUE (Celt.) a contr. of Mac Tague, q.v. 

TAILER, V. Taylor. 

TAILYOUR, a Scot, form of Taylor, q.v. 

Tailyouris [var. Telyouris\ and Sowtaris, 
blist be ye ! — 

Dunbar, Telyouris and SenvtariS' 
. . . litstaris, wobstaris, tailyeouris. — 
Burgh Seeds. Aberdeen, A.D. 1505. 

TAINTER 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Tinter, Dyer 

TAI NTERER S- [f. Fr. teint, a dye (Fr. teinturier, 

TAI NTOR ) a dyer) ; Lat. tinct-^s, a dyeing 

—'tingere, to dye] 

Stephen le Teynterer. — Hund. Rolls. 

John le Teyntour.— i?oWs of Pari. 

TAIT "I (A.-Scand.) Cheerful, Gay, Brisk 
TAITE • [M.E. te:v/, tete (Scot, tait), O.E. tdt 
TAITT J = O.N.te«-r] 

(later) (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i a nickname from 
some peculiarity of the Head [Fr. tlte^ 
O.Fr. teste, a head ; Lat. testa, a pot, (fig.) 

a skull] 

2 Tite is also a French local name (cp. 

(A. - Fr.) Pillager, Bandit 
fO.Fr. talebot'\ 


Talebotus Talebot.— 

Pine-Rolls, A.D. 1284. 
Ta/Jo/ occurs in the listof "Compagnons 
de, Guillaume ^ la CpnquSte de I'Angle- 
terre en MLXVI" graven over the main 
doorway (inside) of the old church at 
DiveS; and, of course, in the alleged copies 
of the Roll of Battle Abbey. 

In the dialect of Normandy talbot signi- 
fies 'lampblack', 'pot-black'— 

Talehot s'est dit dans I'andenne langue 
pour pillard, voleur; peut-Stre pourrait-on 
rattacher cette denomination k I'habitude 
qu'avaient et qu'ont gard6e certains 
bandits de se rendre m6connaissables en 
se noircissant le visage. — , 

Moisy, Diet. Patois Norm., p. 615. 

TALBOYS (A.-Fr..Lat. + Teut.) i Bel. to 

Taillebois (Orne, Normandy) ; or Dweller 

at the Cut Wood [f. Fr. tailler, to cut (cp. 

Tallis) ; and see Boys, BoyceJ 

2 Wood-Cutter or -Trimmer [same 

Cp.Talfer. ^'^""-^ 

TALFER ) (A,-Fr.-Lat.) the Fr. Taillefer, a 
TALFOR ( trade- or nick-name = Cut Iron 
[f. Fr. tailler, to cut (cp. Tallis), and -1- Fr, 
fer, Lat. ferr-um, iron] 
William Tailefer.— .ff»«rf. Rolls. 
As one of William the First's com- 
panions, Taillefer is mentioned more than 
once by Wace — 

Sires, dist [dit] Taillefer, merci, 
Jo [je] vos ai lungement servi. — 

Roman deRou, ii. 183 sqq. 

TALIE8IN (Celt.) Fair Front, Radiant 
Brow [Wei. tal, the front, forehead, etc.+ 
iesin, fair, radiant, etc.] 
TALINTIRE (Celt.) Bel. to Tallentire (Cumb.), 
A.D. 120S Talghentir [app. Cym. taken 
(c as k), front, brow + tir, land : this ety- 
mology seems to be borne out by the 
topography — " the village is situated on 
a declivity"] 
TALLACK (Celt.) As this is a Cornish name 
the orig. may be the Corn, form (talhac) of 
Wei. talaivg, 'having a large forehead' [f. 
Corn, and Wei. (and Bret.) tal, the front, 


The cogn. Bret, talek, 'qui a un gratia 

front', is used as a family-name in Brittany. 

TALLAND 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Talland (Cornwall), 

TALLANT J evid. named from the Saint 

Tallan to whom the church is dedicated. 

TALLBOY, an imit. form of Talboys, q.v. 

TALLEMACH(E (Fr.) a nickname from the 

O.Fr. tal{e)mache, 'wallet,' 'knapsack.' 

Peter Talemache.— if««rf. Rolls. 

TALLERMAN (Eng.)prob.forTallman (q.v.), 
in which case -er is a phon. intrusion ; it 
may, however, be the compar. suff. 

TALLIS (A..Fr.-LatJ Dweller at the Cut or 
Trimmed Copse [Fr., taillis, a copse ; 
prop, "jeune bois mis en coupe r6gl6e"; f. 
Fr. cut; Lat. talea, a cutting, graft] 

TALLMAN T (Eng.) Willing or Prompt Man 
TALMAN J [M.E, tal, willing, obedient : cp. 
O.E. ge)tal, duick, prompt] 
Walter Talman.- 

Soms. Subsidy-Roll, A.D. 1337, 


TAM, a North, form of T(h)om, q.v. 

TAMBLIN 1 North, forms (with intrus. -J-) of 
TAMBLYN J Tomlin, q.v. 

TAME (Celt.) Bel. to Thame ; or Dweller by 

the R. Tame or Thame [O.Celt, tdm, 

quiet, placid] 

John de Tame (Oxon)— /7«»i. Soils. 

TAM KIN = Tam, T(h)om (q.v.) + the E. 
(double) dim. suff. -kin [O.Low Teut. 


TAMLYN } ^°'^'^- ^°™® °^ Tomlin, q.v. 

TAMMAGE, an assim^ form of Talmage, 
Tallemach(e, q.v. 

TAMPLIN 1 North, forms (with intrus. -/>-) 
TAMPLING r of Tomlin, q.v. 

TAMS, TAM'S (Son) 1 „ Tom T<'h^nm 

TAMSON, Tam's Son] ^- ^^'^^ T(h)om. 

TANCOCK I = Tann' (q.v.) + the pet suff. 

3 an unvoiced form of Dancock, q.v. 

TANCRED (A.-Fr..Teut.) the O.Teut. Tancrad, 
&c. = Gracious Counsel [O.H.Ger. 
danc = O.Sax. thank = O.E. ^anc = O.N. 
Yakk-, Y'oldl, thought, favour, grace, thank 
+ O.H.Ger. rdt = O.Sax. rdd = O.E. 
rckd = O.N. rats, advice, counsel] 

TANDY, an unvoiced form of Dandy, q.v. 

TANFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to TanEeld (Yorks« : 
14th cent. Tanfeld, Domesday Tanefeld; 
Durh.) = the Scrubby Field [O.E. tdn, 
pi. of td, a twig, branch + feld, a field, 

plain] > 

TANGYE (A.-Fr.-Celt. and Corn.) the Fr. 

Tanguy, Bret. Tanguy, Tanneguy (M.Lat. 

Tanneguidus) [perh. Bret, tdn (5= Wei. 

and Corn, tdn), fire + Bret. guiti(= Wei. 

gwiw, Corn, gwyw, apt), brisk] 

Jenner (who does not attempt to ex- 
plain the name) has the following note: — 

"Tangye (Tanguy, a quite common name 
in Brittany, from St. Tanguy, one of the 
entourage of St. Pol of Leon).''— 'Corn. 
Names' : Hdbk. Com. Lang., 1904, p. 199. 

For the first element we may compare 
the fem. name Tannwen of the ' Mabinog- 

Doubtless the Tengy (not infreq.) of the 
Hundred-Rolls (a.d. 1274) is the same 
name — 

Tengy ad Fontera (Camb.) 



I for Tan c red, q.v. 


Both of these forms of Tancred are 
found as early as the 14th cent, in Eng. 

TANKERAY, v. Tanquenay. 

TANN (Eng.) Dweller at the Scrub [v. under 

William de Tan.— 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

There is a Tan Hill in Yorks. 

(Scand.) an O.Scand. pers. name = 

Tooth, Tusk [O.N. tann-r, later tsnn; 

.seen in Hilditann-r, etc.] 

Adam Tan. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TANNAR\ (Eng.) Leather-Maker [O.E. 
TANNER r tannere\ 

See the quot. from 'The Tanner of 
Tamworth' under Barker. 

TANNATTl = Tann' (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. 
TAN N ETT J suff. -at, -et. 

There seems to have been some con- 
fusion with Dannatt, Dannett, q.v. 

TAN NOCH 1 (Celt.) Dweller at a Meadow 
TANNOCK J [Gael, (and Ir.) tamhnachi 

TANQUERAY (Fr.-Teut.) Bel. to Tanqueray 
(France), M.Lat.*ra«cAmac«»i =T(h)anc- 
heri's Estate [for the first element see 
under Tanored: the second is O.Sax. and 
O.H.Ger. fieri, army; the third is the 
Lat.-Gaul. possess, suff. -dc-um] 

The Seine-Inf^rieure place-name Tan- 
carville is the same name with the Lat.- 
Gaul. poss. suff. replaced by Lat. villa. 

TANSLEY. Bel. to Tansley (Derby), the 
Domesday Taneslege [O.E. ledh, a lea : the 
first element seems to be the genit. of the 
O.Scand. pers. name Tann-r (v. Tann'], 

TANTON (Celt.+E.) Bel. to i Tanton (Yorks), 

the Domesday Tametun = the Enclosure 

or Dwelling(s on the R. Tame [O.E. tun, 

enclosure, etc. ; and see under Tame] 

2 Taunton (Soms.), 13th cent. Tanton 
A.-Sax. Tantiin = the Enclosure or 
Dwelling(s on the R. Tan (now Tone) 
[O.E. tun, enclosure, etc.: for the river- 
name cp. O.Ir. tdin, tdn, water] 

Guido de Tanton. — 

Hund. Rolls (Soms.). 





TAPHOUSE (Eng.) Dweller at a Tavern or 
Inn [O.E. tceppa, a tap + hus\ 

Their senses are with blacke damnation 

Whose heart is Satans tap-house or 
his inne. — 

John Taylor, Workes (1630) i. 3. 

There are places called Tap House in 
both Devon and Cornwall. , 

TAPISER 1 (A.-Fr. - Lat. - Gr.) Tapestry- 
TAPISSER j- Worker, Upholsterer [Fr. 
TAPSER j tapissier ; f. Fr. tapisserie, tapes- 
try, to/iji, a carpet, etc.; Lat. to/>?/e, tapestry, 
etc., Gr. Tiiriit, a carpet, rug] 

TAPLAY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tap(e)ley (Devon), 

TAPLEY I iz'(iicmtTapplegh,A..-S>?>.-x..*T(eppan- 

Jedh = TiEPPA's Lea [the pers. , name 

Ttzppa, genit. Teeppan-, is app. a nickname 

(for an innkeeper) f. O.E. teeppa, m., a tap 

(whence ttsppere, a tavern-keeper] 

There may have been sporadic confusion 

with Tabley, q.v. 

TAPLIN = Tamplin (q.v.), with -m- assim. 
to -P-. 

TAPLING = Taplin with intrus. -g. 

TAPP (Eng.) I the A.-Sax. pers. name Tappa : 
V. under Tapley. 

2 an abbrev. of one of the Tap- names. 

3 a North, (esp. Scot.) form of Topp,q.v. 

TAPPENDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Tappenden or 

Toppenderi (Kent), anc. Tappendene, 

A.-Sax. *T(eppan-denu=TMPPA's Valley 

ITiBppan-, genit. of Tteppa : v. under 


TAPPER (Eng.) Beer-Seller, Innkeeper 
[M.E. tapper{e, O.E. tappere] 

John le Tapper. — Hund. Rolls. 

TAPPIN = Tapp (q.v.) + the;A.-Fr. dim. 
suff. -in. 

TAPPING I = Tappin, with intrus. -^. 

2 for an A.-Sax. Tapping— Tapp- + 
the fil. suff. -ing : v. under Tapley. 

Cp. ' Tapping-oe Hall', Essex. 

TAPPLY = Tapley (q.v.) 

TAPSCOTT (Eng.) Dweller at Ta(p)p's Cot 

[v. under Tapp, and -)- M.E. cotl, O.E. 

' cot, a cottage] 

TAPSQN, Tap(p)'s Son ; v. Tapp. 

TAPSTER (Eng.) (orig. female) Beer-Seller, 
Innkeeper [M.E. tappester(e, O.E. 

He knew the tavernes well in all the 

And everich hostiler and tappestere. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 240-1, 

TARBERT \ forms of Torbart (etc.), q.v. 

TARBERT \ (Celt.) Bel. to Tarbet or Tar- 
TARBET jbert = the Isthmus [Gael, tair- 

Tarbet or Tarbert, co. Argyle, "is sit- 
uated on a neck of land between East 
and West Tarbert Lochs". 

(Scand.) for Torbert, q.v. 

TARBOCK \ (Scand.) Bel. to Tarbock (Lanes), 

TARBUCKJanc. Torboc, Torhec = Thor's 

Brook [O.N. bekk-r, a brook] 

TARGE (Fr.-Teut. and E.) a nickname and 

(later) local name [Fr. targe, a shield, 

target ; O.N. targa = O.E. targe, targa, a 

small shield] 

Richard Targe. — Hund. Rolls. 

TARGETT i = Targe (q.v.) -f the Fr. dim. 
suif. -et. [O.Fr. targuete, a small shield] 

Often meton. for Targetman — 
"Scutati . . . Armezdeboucliers. The 
shieldbearers, or targetmen." — 

Nomenclator, A.D. 1585. 
2 for Torgett, q.v. 

TARL(E)TON (Scand.) Bel. to Tarleton 

(Lanes: i3tn cent. Tarleton; Glouc. : anc. 

Thorleton) = Tarald's or Thorwald's 

Estate [v. under Thorald, and -|- O.N. 

tun, enclosure, estate, etc.] 

The form of the pers. name in this 
place-name is exactly paralleled by the 
Norw. place-name TarlebS, in 1563 

Tarald and Torald are present-day 
Norwegian forms of the O.N. Thirald-r 
or Thoruald-r. 

TARLING: v.TeMing, 

TARN (Scand.) Dweller by a Pool [M.E. 
tern(e, O.N. tisrn] 

In Kyng Arthurs tym ane awntyr [ad- 
venture] bityde 

or Tarn Watling,in Cutnberland "]. — 

The Awntyrs of Arthure, 1-2. 

TARR, a var, of Tppr, q.v. 




TARRANT (Celt.) Bel. to Tarrant (Dorset), 
named t. the River, 9-i3th cent. Tarent 
[f. (with post-« intrus. -/) the early form 
ofWel. (and Corn.)Yara«(«, noise, thunder 
= Bret, taran, noise-maker = Ir. toran, 
'a sounding or great noise' (E.Ir. torand, 
thunder) = Gael, torunn, 'a loud, murmur- 
, ing noise'] 
Tarent Abb'ia. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1236-7. 

TARRETt) **"' Terratt, Terrett, q.v. 

T^RRY^ } forms of Terry, q.v. 

TARTT } (^°S.) Sharp, Severe [O.E. t{.e)ari\ 

TASKER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Thrasher, Reaper; 
Task- Worker, i.e. Piece-Worker [M.E. 
taskerie ; f. (with agent, suff. -er) M.E. 
taske, O.Fr. tasque, tasche (Fr. tdche), a task; 
L.Lat. tasca, taxa, a tax; Lat. taxare, to 

Gilbert Tasker. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Henry le Taskere.?— 

Lane. Ing., A.D. 1293. 

TASSELL (A.-Fr.-Lat:) a nickname from the 

Hawk [M.E. tassel{l for earlier tercel, O.Fr. 

t{i)ercel, male hawk ; f . (with dim. suff. -el) 

O.Fr. tierce, tiers, Lat, tertius, third] 

(A.-Fr..Teut.) the French Tassel, a dim. 

f. the O.Ger. Tas{s)o. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.) a double dim. L 
Eustace, q.v. 

TASSEL(L)ER, a form of Teaslep, q.v. 

TATCHELL, the Frenchrac^e/ (^aterTacheau), 
a double dim. f. Eustache: v. Eustace 
l-el, dim. suff. ; Lat. -ell-us] 
Gilbert Tachel.— if«n(/. Rolls. 
TATE, V. Tait(e. 

Nicholas Tate.— Hund. Rolls. 


TATHAM(Eng.) Bel, to Tatham (Lanes), 13th 

cent. Tateham, tatham = Tata's (m.) or 

Tate's (f.) Home [v. under Tait(e, and 

+ O.E. Mm, home, estate] 

TATLOCK (Eng.) Bel. to Tatlock (Chesh. or 
SXancs), i6th cent, same spelling[the first 
dementis the A.-Sax.pers. name Tata (m.) 
or Tate (f.) (v. under Tait(e) : the second 
element is rather for O.E. lacu, a stream, 
th^n 0,£. loc{a, an enclosure, stronghold] 

TATLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Tetlow (Lanes), 14th 
cent. Tetlawe=TiETA.'s Hill or Tumulus 
[the A.-Sax. pers. name Tata is a var. of 
Tata (v. under Tait(e) :■ — l-O.E. hlAw, 

hill, etc.] 
Some confusion with Tad low (q.v.) 
was inevitable. 

TATNELl} fo"- Tattenhair, q.v. 
TATTAM for Tatham, q.v. 

TATTENHALL (Eng.) Bel. to Tattenhall 
(Chesh.), A.D. 1303-4 Tatenhale, A-Sax. 
of Tata (v. under Tait(e) + O.E. A(e)aH, 

a hall] 

TATTERSALL "I (Eng.; Bel. to Tattershalt 

TATTERSHALL f (Lines), 13th cent. Tattes- 

hall, Tateshale, A.-Sax. *Tatesh(e)all = 

Tat's Hall [v. under Tait(e, and + 

O.E. h{e)atl, a hall] 

TATTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tatton (Chesh.), 
13th cent. Tatton, A.-Sax. *Tatan-tiin = 
Tata's Estate [Tahn-, genit. of Tata 
(v. under. Tait(e) -|- O.E. tUn, estate, etc.] 

TATUM for Tatham, q.v. 

TAUNTON (Celt. + E.) Bel. to Taunton : v. 








(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Tavern-Keeper 

[M.E. taverner, etc.Fr. tavemier, 

f. Fr. taverne, a tavern, Lat. 

tdbema, a hut] 

Falco le Taverner. — Hund.Rolls. 

Rie'us Taverner.— 

Inq. adq. Damn., A.D. 1410-11. 

Thiseriotoures thre, of whiche Itelle ... 
Were set hem in a taverne forto drynke... 
By Seinte Marie I seyde this taverner. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, C 661, etc. 

TAVISTOCK (Celt. + E.) Bel. to Tavistock 
(Devon), a.d. 981 lavistoc — 'at Tavistoce', 
(daU = the Dwelling(s on the R. Tavy 
[O.E. st6c,a dwelling-place : for the river- 
name cp. Ir. tamhach (nth as v), quiet, 
sluggish, the stem of which (tamh) is 
cognate with Wei. taw (also a river-name), 

still, quiet] 
Abbas de Tavistock. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1285-6. 

\ (Eng.) 


Leather-Dresser [f. 

taiven, to prepare skins ; 

O.E. tdwian, to prepare, dress] 




TAYLER \ (A.-Fr..Lat.) Tailor [M.E. toy- 

TAYLOR/ lo{u)r, tayler, etc., O.Fr. taitteor 

(Fr. tailleur), prop, cutter; Fr. tailler, to 

cut ; Lat. talea, a cutting] 

This name was Latinized Pamtentdrius. 

Some foolish knave (I thinke) at first 

The slander that three Taylers are one 

man ; 
When many a Taylers boy I know hath 

Hath made tall men much fearefuU io 

be seene. — 

John Taylor, Workes (1630), iii. 73. 

Tay!:IrIon}('^^) TAILOR'S Son. 

TAYNTON (Eng.) Bel. to Taynton (Oxford : 
13th cent. Teynton; Glouc. : 13th cent. 
Teynton, Tethingtone, etc., Domesday 
Tetinton, Tatinion, prob. representing an 
A.-Sax. *Tcetan-tiln = TjETa's Estate 
[Talati; genit. of Tceta : the pers. name is 
prob. conn, with O.E. tpetan, to caress, and 
therefore with O.E. tat = O.N. teit-r, 


TEAGUE, acontractedvar. of Mao Tigue, q.v. 
TEAKLE = Tickle, q.v. 

(Teut.) a nickname from theWATER- 
FowL [M.E. tele, O.E. *tckle] 




Martin Tele.— Hund. Rolls. 

TEALING (Teut.) iia nickname from the 

waterfowl, the Teal [cp. M.Dut. teeling, 

mod. taling, a teal] 

2 Bel. to Tealing (Forfar), 15 th cent. 


TEAR "1 (Eng.) Dweller at a Peak or Point 
TEAPE J [West. Eng. leap ; a lengthening of 

E. 'tip'] 

TEAR I (Celt.) contr. of Mao Tear, a form 
TEARE J of Mao Intyre, q.v. 

TEARLE (Eng.) Stern, Strict, Severe 

> [O.E. ^earl] 

:|:|A|}= Tees, q.v. 

TEASDALE = Teesdale, q.v. 

TEASLER (Eng.) Teaser, Carder [f. O.E. 
Idsel, a teasel; tdsan,to tease or card (wool] 

TEBAY \ (Scand.) Bel. to Tebay (Westmd.), 
TEEBAYJi4th cent. Tybay, Tybey(e, 13th 
cent. Tibbeie, Tybbeye, Thebeye, Thyby, etc. 
[Earlier forms are desirable ; but as the 
township is " situated under Tebay Fell " 
the name is evid, Scand., and the second 

element rather O.N. bf-r, a farm, estate, 
than O.N. ey, island ; the first element 
doubtless being an abrasion of a pers. 
name, prob. one of the various O.N, Thio'S- 
( = A.-Sax. Th^od-) names] 

TEBB, a pet form of Theobald, q.v. 



1 = Tebb (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -flt, -et, -ot. 

2 weak forms (cp. the ¥v.ThSbaut, 
Thiebaut) of Theobald, q.v. 


= Tebbat(t)'s, etc., (Son) : v. 
Tebbat(t, etc. 


I Tebb's (Son) : V. Tebb. 

TEBBY I = Tebb (q.v.) + theE. dim. suff. -y. 
2 conf. with Tebay. 

TEDD (Eng.) a descendant of the first element 

of an A.-Sax. Theod- name (as Theodbald, 

Theodberht, Theodred, Theodric, etc.) [O.E. 

^eSd, nation, people] 

The ibth-cent. Bishop of London, 
Theodred, was also called Tedred; and 
Tedric is a common Domesday form of 

Nowadays 'Ted' is used as a pet form 
of 'Edward'. 

TEDDER (Eng.) for the A.-Sax. Theodhere = 

National Army [O.E. ^edd, nation, people 

+ here, army] 

TEDDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to i Teddington 
(Wore), A.D. 969 Teottingc[_a]tun, a.d. 780 
' Teotting[a]tun — the Estate of the 
Teotta Family [Teotta is app. a pet 
form of an A.-Sax. Theod- name (y. Te^d) 
-I- -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + 
iuK, estate, etc.] 

2 Teddington (M'sex), anc. Todynton [the 
etymol. is prob. the same as i] 

TEDMAN for Tedmond, q.v. 

TEDMONDHEng.) i for the A.-Sax. Theod- 

TEDMUNDJ »i««i= National Protector 

[O.E. \edd, nation, people -|- mund, hand, 


2 for (Bury) St. Edmund (with the -/ of 
'St.' attracted to the pers. name) : v. 

Godfrey 4e St. Edmund. — 

Hmd. Rolls (Norf.). 




I var. of Tedd, q.v. 

TEE I for Tighe : v. Mao TIghe. 

2 poss. also representing the initial of 

some T name : we may compare 

Teebee, near Washington, U.S.A., which 
name, it is beUeved, represents the 
initials of Thomas Blandford, an early 

TEEBAY, V. Tebay. 

TEECE for Tees. q.v. 


TEER, a contr. of Mac Teer, a form of Mao 
Intyre, q.v. 

TEES \(Celt.) Dweller by the R. Tees, 
TEESE Jform.TVw, Teys [There is little doubt 
that this is a bi-elemental name, that the 
first element corresponds to the Scot, 
river-name Tay (occurring in the 12th 
cent, as Tey), representing the GaeL tdmh 
= Ir. tdmh (aspirated form of O.Ir. tdm), 
pron. practically like the cogn. Wei. taw, 
quiet, sluggish, placid ; and that the rem- 
nant (-s)ofthe second element represents 
the Old Celtic word for water seen in 
Mod. Gael, and Ir. uisge (O.Ir. u{i)sce) = 

Wei. wysg] 

Where Teis first from my bounds rich 
Dunelme TOurham] doth divide. — 

Urayton, Polyolbion, xxviii. 314. 

Cp. Surtees. 

TEESDALE (Celt, -t- Teut;) Dweller in the 

Valley of the Tees [v. Tees, and + O.K. 

dtel = O.N. dal-r, valley] 

TEGG (Teut.) a var. of Tagg, q.v. 

A lamb becomes a teg about the first 
Michaelmas after its birth. — 

Leic. Gloss., p. 270. 
(Celt.) Fair, Handsome [Wei. tSg] 

TEGG IN = Tegg (q.v.) + the dim. suff. -in. 

TEIR, a contr. of Mac Teir or Mac Tier, a 
form of Mac Intyre, q.v. 


V. Talfer, Talfor. 

TELFORD for Telfor. 

The real name of Telford the engineer 
was Telfor. 

TELLER \ (A. - Fr. - Lat.) Cloth - Maker, 

TELLIER r Weaver [O.Fr. tellier, Ulier (mod. 

Fr. toilier), a weaver; f. telle, Lat. tela, cloth] 

Johannes Teller. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

Encore aujourd'hui Ton donne, en 
patois picard, le nom de telliers aux fabri- 
cants de toiles. — 

Moisy, Noms de Fam. Norm., p. 426. 

tW^Tt] = Tillett, q.v. 

TELLING (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Taling= Tjel's 
Son [O.E. ge)tal, swift ; with the fil. suff. 


TELLWRIGHT (Eng.) Tent-Maker [O.E. 

teld wyrhta — teld, a tent + wyrhta, a 

Wright, maker] 

There may have been some confusion 
with Tiiewright. 

TEMPANYI „ Tim«<.«« 
TEMPENYJ v-Timpany. 

TEMPERLEYl _ -r:„„^„,^„ „„ 
TEMPERLY ) = Timperley, q.v. 

TEMPEST, the Fr.-Lat. equiv. of E. Storm. 

Isabella Tempest. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.!). 1379. 

TEMPLE (A.-Lat. and A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller in 
or by a Religious House, esp. a Precep- 
tory of the Knights Templars [O.E. 
temp{e)l ; Lat. templ-um, whence also Fr. 


For example, at Temple Bruer, Lines, 
" are the ruins of a Knights Templars' 
preceptory, founded before 1185"; 
Temple Newsham, W. Yorks, "was a 
Knights Templars' preceptory"; the 
Manor of Temple Sowerby, Westmd., 
"was given by the Viponts to the Knights 
Templars"; the Knights Templars poss- 
essed Temple Bryan, co. Cork, in the 
14th cent. 

Les localit€s qui portent le nom de le 
Temple spnt d'anciennes prgceptoreries 
dependant de I'ordre du Temple. — 

Cocheris, Noms de Lieu, p. 165. 

A gentil maunciple [purveyor] was ther 
of a tewj^fe.— Chaucer, Prol. Cant.Tales,s67. 

(Celt.-Lat.) Dweller by a Church [Ir. 
and Gael, teampull; Lat. templ-um, a 


TEMPLEMAN (A.-Lat. + E.)=Temple(q.v.) 
-I- E. man. 
Ambrose le Templeman. — Hund. Rolls. 

TEM PLER 1 (A.-Lat.) Templar [M.E. tempter, 
TEMPLAR/ L.Lat. templarius: v. under 

'Wm&mTevap\e:T.— Hund. Rolls. 

TEMPLETON (A.-Lat. -f- E.) Bel. to Temple- 
ton =x= the Temple-Town [v. under 
Temple, and + M.E. -ton, tun, O.E. tUn, 
estate, village, etc.J 




The manor of Tenjpleton, Devon, 
formerly belonged to the Knights 

TENCH (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a nickname from the 
"fat and sleek" fish so called [M.E. O.Fr. 
tenche (Fr. tanche), Lat. tinea, a tench] 
We should naturally expect a fish nick- 
name to arise in a maritime county: hence 
we find a 'John Tenche' in the Line. 

TENISON, V. Tennison, Dennison. 

TENNANT 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Tenant, Farmer 

TENNENT J [f. Fr. tenant, holding, pres. 

part. , of tenir, Lat. tenere, to holdj 

TENNER for Tanner. 

TENNESONl unvoiced forms of Dennison, 
TENNISON ; q.v. 

TENNEY, an unvoiced form of Denney, q.v. 

TEN N I EL is prob. to be referred to the French 
(Cher) village - name Theniou (form. 
Theniot), a dim. f. a dial. var. of chine, 
' oak-tree '. 

TENNISWOOD. Bel. to Tenniswood, app. 
Yorks and for 'Dennis's Wood'. 

TEN NY, an unvoiced form of Denny, q.v. 

TENNYSON, an unvoiced form of Dennison, 

TENPENNY for TImpany, q.v. 

TENTER (A.-Fr.-Lat.) i Minder, Watch- 
man, Herdsman [an aphzeresized form 
of 'attender'; f. Fr. attendre, to wait — Lat. 
attendere, to stretch to] 
Tenters : watchers of cattle or sheep 
on the moors. — Lonsdale Gloss., p. 85. 
2 Dyer [for M.E. teynturer, etc., Fr. 
teinturier, f. Lat. tinctura, a dyeing] 
Both Teynturer and the Lat. Tinctor 
occur as trade-names in the Hundred- 

TEPPER for Tipper, q.v. 

TEPPETT, an unvoiced form of Tebbett, q.v. 

TERENCE (Ir.-and Fr.-Lat.) the Lat. Teren- 
tius [prob. f. Terentum, the place in the 
Campus Martins where the secular sports 

were held] 
The Irish sometimes use Terence for 
their native Tiirlough {Toirdhealbhach). 

TERLING (Eng.) Bel. to Terling (Essex), the 

A.-Sax. Terlingas = (the Estate of) the 

Terl- Family [the pers. name is app. a 

form of O.E. \earl, stern, strict -H -ingas, 

pi. {-infftm, dat. pi.) of the fil, suff. -ins\ 

TERRATT1 (A.-Fr.-Teut.) double dims, ot 
TERRETT J Theodonio, q.v. [Fr. dim. sufif. 

-at, -et\ 

The present-day French forms are 

Terrat, Terret. Terriet, Thiret, Iherret, 

Therriet, Thiriot, Thieriet, Thierrat, 

Thierret, Thierriot, etc. 

Cp. Terry. 


V. Tirrell. 

TERREY \ (A.-Fr.-Teut.) contr. of Theodoric, 

TERRY 1 q-v- 

Terry.— Hund. Rolls. 

Geoffery Terri. — do. 
Wo was Hawkyn, wo was Kerry ! 
Wo was Tomkyn, wo was Terry I — 
'The Turnament of Tottenham", 222-3 : 
Percy's Reliques. 

The present-day French forms are 
ThSry, Thidry, Thierry. 

A form, Terrick, preserving the orig. 
guttural, remained in Cheshire (and prob. 
elsewhere) in the late-i7th cent.; and a 
I3th-cent. Latinization was Terricus. 

(Ir.-Lat.) a dim. of Terence, q.v. 

TERRISS, Terry's (Son) : v. Terry [the 
formation corresponds to Harriss 


TESMOND(Eng.) the M.E. r«»itfMrf postu- 
lates an A.-Sax. *Teosmund, 'Protector 
from Evil' [O.E. teoso, injury, fraud, evil, 
etc. -I- mund, protector] 

The first element in this name is doubt- 
less that seen in the loth-cent. Ties- 
berd ("dux"), 'Cart. Sax', no. 689; -iVt 
interchanging with -eo-. 

TESSEYMAN 1 the i4th-cent. Tacyman = 

TESSYMAN J Tacy's or Tacey's Man 

(-Servant) [v. Taoey, and -t- E. man^ 

TESTARD (A.-Fr.-Lat. -h Teut.) a nickname 
= Great Head (cp. Greathead) [O.Fr. 
teste (Fr. tite), a head ; Lat. testa, a pot, 
skull + the Fr. intens. suff. -ard, Teut. 

hard, hard] 
Robert Testard.— ffawrf. Rolls. 

Testard is a fairly common name in 
France; but the mod. form Tetard (cp. 
Fr. tStard, bull-head, tadpole) is more 

TESTER I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) 1 Assaykr [f. (with 

TESTARJ the agent, suff. -er) M.E. O.Fr. 

teste, a testing-pot, refining-pot; Lat. testa, 

» for Testardi q.v, 




TETBURY(Eng.) Bel. to Tetbury (Glouc), 
the A. -Sax. Tettanburg=TTsnn:A'sSTRONG- 
HOLD [the pers. name Tetta, genit. Tettan, 
is conn, with O.E. tdstan, to caress, and 
therefore with O.E. tdt- (=. O.N. teit-r), 


TETLEY (Eng.) i Bel. to Tetley [for the first 

element see under Tetbury; and + M.E. 

ley, O.E. ledh, a meadow] 

This name may, however, also be due 
to an early filial form, as a Tettincgledh 
for Tettingaledh \_-inga, genit. pi. of the 
'son' suff. -ing'\ occurs in a loth-cent. 
Kentish Charter: 'Cart. Sax', no. iioi. 

2 for Tetlow, q.v. 

TETLOW ) (Eng.) Bel. to Tetlow (Lancs)> 

TETLAW J 16th cent. Tetlow, isth cent- 

Tetlowe, 14th cent. Tettelowe, Tettelawe 

[for the first element see under Tetbury; 

and + O.E. hl(kw, a hill, tumulus] 

TEVERSALL (Eng.) Bel. to Teversall (Notts), 
15th cent. Tyvershalt, 13th cent. Teversalt, 
Domesday Tevreshalt [the second element 
represents O.E. holt, a wood : the first 
elem., evid. a pers. name in the genitive, 
is prob. a corrupt form of A.-Sax. Theod- 


TEVERSHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Teversham 
(Camb.), 13th cent Teveresham, Domesday 
Teversham [for the first element see under 
Teversall ; and+O.E. hdm, home, estate] 

TEW (Celt.) Fat, Plump [Wei. tew\ 

John le Tieu. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1359-60. 

(Eng.) Bel. to Tew (Oxon), 13th cent. 

Tiwe, Domesday Tewa, Tewe, Teowe [the 

A.-Sax. pers. name TeSw^f, Tiiv(e, with a 

local sufi. lost: the A.-Sax. Tlw, Mars, 

also denoted the Runic T] 

Cp. Tewln. 

TEWER (Eng.) Skin-Dresser [M.E. fewer; f. 
M.E. tewan, tawen, to dress sicins; O.E, 
tdwian, to prepare] 
A tewer of skynnes. — 

Cathol. Anglic, A.D. 1483. 

TEWIN (Eng.) Bel. to TeWin (Herts), the 

Domesday Tewinge, loth cent. Tiwingas 

(dat. pi. Tiwingum) = (the Estate of the) 

Tiw(e Family [v. under Tew', and + 

the pi., -ingas, ot the fil. suff. -ing'\ 

TEWK(E)SBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Tewkesbury 
(Glouc), 13th cent. Teuksbury, Domesday 
Teodechesterie = T(h)eodec's Strong- 
hold [the pers. name is f. A.-Sax. \e6d, 
nation, people, with the dim. suff. -ec:— 
-f itarh, a fortified place] 

TEWSON, Tew's Son : v. Tew. 

THACKER (Eng.) Thatcher, Roofer [M.E. 

thackerie ; O.E. ^aca, ^cec = O.N. ^ak, a 

roof, thatch + the agent, suff. -«re] 

(Scand.) Dweller at the 
Thack or Thatch Corner 
(store - place) [O.N. ^ak, 
thatch -)- urd (Dan.-Norw. 
vraa), a corner] 







Johannes de Thakwra. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

THACKSTER(Eng.)(orig.) Female Thacker , 
or Thatcher [v. Thacker, but with the 
O.E. fem. agent, suff. -estre"] 

THADD/EUSl the Lat. forms of the Gr. 

THADDEUS J Thaddaios (Qa^Saioi), occurring 
in the A.-Saxon version of St. Mark (iii. 
18) as Taddeus. Thaddeus is much used 
among the Poles; and the Polish hero of 
Balfe's famous opera 'The Bohemian 
Girl' is not letting the name readily be 
forgotten in this country. Thaddeus is 
also used in Ireland for the native Tadhg 
(v. MacTague), as shown, e.g., in Con- 
cannon's ' Mion-Chomhr^dh', p. 129. 

[" The most prob. etym. of ' Thaddaeus' 
seems to be that proposed by Dalman, 
who sees in it the Heb. abbrev. of a Gr. 
name beginning with Theo- (' God '), as 
in Theudas." — Hastings, Diet, Christ and 
Gasp., ii. (igo8) 726] 

TUAtNpl(E°g- and Scand.) Thane [M.E. 
THANE J '**^''' ^*'=-' °-^' ^ eg{e)n=OM. ^egH\ 

Eadulf cynges Tpegn on SflS Seaxum.— 
A.-Sax. Chrott., A.D. 897. 

The worthy Thane of Rosse . . . 

. . . that most disloyall traytor, 

The Thane of Cawdor. — 

Macbeth, I. ii. 

John le Theyn.— ffMHrf. RolU. 

Cp. Thayne. 

THAME, V. Tame. 

THAMES (Celt.) Dweller by the R. Thames, 
the A.-Sax. Temes, Tmmes, Tamis, Temis, 
etc. (" be-saSan Temese" in K. iElfred's 
Introd. to Gregory's 'Cura Past.'), the Lat. 
Tamesa and Tamesis [The first element is 
the O.Celt, tdin- (seen in Ir. and Gael. 
tamh, Early Jr. tdm = Mod. Wei. taw), 
still, placid, sluggish : the second elem. is 
a relic of an O.Celt, word for water seen 
in O.Ir. u(i)sce, Mod. Ir. and Gael, uisge = 
Mod. Wei, wysg, water, a stream; cp, 





". . . flumen dividit quod appellatur 
Tamesis."—De Bella Gall., V. xi. 
Tak two stronge men, 
And in Themese cast hem. — 

Piers Plowman, 7743-4. 
Fair Isis . . . (the Mother of great 

Tames). — 

Drayton, Poly-Olbion, xiv. 281. 

Cp. Tame ; and see the quot. under 

THANET (Celt.) Bel. to Thanet (Kent), the 

A.-Sax. Tenet, Tenaet, Tcenet, Tanet, etc., 

Lat. Tanat-us [prob. O.Ir. td(t)ndit, a 

watery place] 

TH ARM \ app. contr. of Strongitharm, q.v. 
THARME J (Hardly for O.E. }^{f)arm, an 

entrail 1) 
THARP = Thopp, q.v. 

THATCHER, th6 palatal form of Thacker, 

When thatchers thinke, their virages 
worth their worke. — 
G. Gascoigne, Steele Glas (A.D. 1376). 

THAXTER, V. Thackster. 

THAYER (A.-Fr.-Teut.)represents an O.Frank, 
cognate, 'Ihiadher (A.D. ,799), of A.-Sax. 
rAeorfAere= National A.Kyci\thiad- = O.E. 
l>e<f<i=O.Sax. thiod = Goth. J)/«rfa = O.N. 
\i6S (O.H.Ger. diot{a), nation, people + 
her^i (as in O.Sax. and O.H.Ger.) = O.E. 
here = Goth, harji-s = O.N. herr, army] 

THAYNE, V. Thane, Thain. 

"Or gyff [if] the Thaxne off Fyff in 
were [war] . . ." — Wyntoun, Cr&nykil, 

vi. 2269. 
THEAKER, a var. oi Thaoker, q.v. 

THEAKSTON(E \ (Eng.) Bel. to Theakston or 
THECKSTON(E J Theakstone (Yorks) [Early 
forms are lacking except that, ace. to 
Turner ('Yorks Domesday-Bk.', p. 59), 
"Theakstpn"corresponds topographically 
to the Domesday Eston ; and the form in 
1619 is Thekeston. The second element is 
therefore rather O.E. <!i«, a farm, estate, 
than O.E. stdn, a stone, rock, etc. ; and the 
first element is prob. a pers. name (in the 
genitive) conn, with O.E. Tfaccan, to cover, 
■ protect : cp. O.E. \eccend, protector] 

THEED (Eng.) usually represents the first 

element of one of the common A--Sax. 

Theod- names ; rarely directly from an 

A.-Sax. Theoda [O.E. ^edd^O.S&Tn. thiod= 

O.N. |>:dtJ=Goth. J)i«da= O.H.Ger. diot(a, 

thiat(a, nation, people] 

William Thede.— ^««rf. Rolls, 

Cpl Tee«l(e and Tedd. 

THELEN (Ger.) : v. the Appendix of Foreign 

THELWALL \ (Eng.) Bel. toThelwall (Chesh.), 
THELWELL j 13th cent. rA^fea»e/= the Plank- 
Well [O.E. Yel, a plank -^a)(i>Ha, a well] 
'Wall' is a Chesh. form of 'well.' 

THEOBALD (Teut.) People-Bold [O.Teut. 
Theod{p)bald, Thiodbald, Theotbald, etc.: 
V. under Theed, and + O.E. Me)ald = 
O.Sax. (and O.H.Ger.) hald = O.N. ball-r 
(for earlier 6a/8-r) = Goth. balS-s, bold] 

A Theodbald was brother of .ffithelfrith, ' 
king of Northumbria, ob. A.D. 617. 

Theobald was the usual ?3th-cent. form. 

The Fr.-Teut. forms are : Thibault, 
Th^aut, Thiebault, Thi^aut, ThUbaud, 
Thibaud, Thibault, Thibaut, etc. 

Cp. Tibbald. 

THEOBALDS, Theobald's (Son). 

THEODORE (A,-Fr.-Lat-.Gr.) Divine Gift 

[Lat. Theodorus, Gr. ee63upos -Oeds, God 

-f- a der. of Supeiv, to give] 

THEODORIC (Teut.) People or Mighty 

Ruler [O.Teut. Theod(o)ric, Thiodric, 

Thiudrik, etc. : v. under Theed, and 4- 

O.Teut. rlk; as in O.E. rlca = Goth. 

reik-s, ruler] 

A Theodric was a sixth-cent, king of 

TheSdrlc we61d Froncum ' 
{Theodric ruled the Franks). — 

Widsm {The Traveller), 1. 49. 

THESAURER\(A.-Lat.-Gr.) Treasurer [f. 

THESORER J (with E. agent, suff. -er) Lat. 

thesaur-us, Gr. er/xa-vp-ii a treasury] 

"... the superplus to be deliverit to 
Alexander Park, or the uther thesaurertox 
the tyme."— 

Burgh Reeds, Edinb., A.D. 1560. 

THETFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Thetford (Norf.), 
the A.-Sax. Theodford ('set Theodfordd — 
dat. : A.-Sax. Chron., A.D. 870) = the 
People's, or Chief, Ford [O.E. ferfi, 
people, nation ; (adjectivfely) great, chief 
(as \eSdvieg, highway) +fordf] 

The small riverside places of the same 
name in Carab. and Line, no doubt have 
the same origin. 

THEW (EngO Servant, Bondsman, Slave 
[M.E. theow, O.E. ferfw, T^e&tva} 

"... and yi ^edwan drincaS medo" 
( , . . and the thews drink mead).— 




THEWLESS \ (Eng.) Immoral, Virtueless 
THEWLIS J lO.E. yedwleds] 

Thomas Thewelesse. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

THEXTON for Theckston, q.v. 

THICK (Eng.) i Thick-Set, Stout [M.E. 
thikke, thicke, O.E. )>«c«] 
William le Thikke. — 

Soms. Subs. Soil, A.D. 1327. 

2 Dweller at a Thicket [M.E. thicke, a 

thicket: ,cp. O.E. Yiccet and Dial. Dan. 

tykke, a thicket] 

From his tall steed, he rusht into the 

thick. — The Faerie Queene, II. i. xxxix. 

THICKBROOM (Eng.) Dweller by or among 

the Thick Broom [O.E. yicce + brdm, the 


THICKLE (Eng.) Fat [O.E. ^iccol] 

THICKNESS \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Thicket 
THICKNESSEJ [O.E. ^icnes, thickness, 


THICKPENNY (Eng^) a nickname from a 
trade-sign [O.E. ^icce +penig, a penny] 

THIMBLEBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thimbleby 
(Line: 13th cent. Thumbleby; Yorks: 
Domesday 7'«OTJW6i)=THeMBEL's Estate 
[the pers. name is a nickname f. O.N. 
Yomb, paunch (we find l>ambar-skeifir, 

pauncn-shaker, as a nickname): hO.N. 

6ji-r, farmstead,' estate, etc.] 

THINGWALLI (Scand.) Bel. to Thingwall 

THINGWELL; (Lane. : 12th cent. Tingwella ; 

Chesh. : Domesday Tinguelle) = the 

Parliament-Field (of the Scandinavians) 

[O.N. ^ing, pariiament + uoll-r, dat. uelli, 

THIRGOOD, V. Thupgood. 





THIRLWELL / (Northumb.),i3thcent.rAMr/e- 
iua//=the Pierced or Broken Wall 
[O.E. I)jir/,aperture, hole, gap, (adj.) pierced 

-I- w{e)all] 
Thirlwall is situated "under the great 
Roman Wall." The name was Latinized 
Murus Perforatus. 

THIRLWAY ■[(Eng.) Dweller at the Gap- 
THIRLAWAY f Way [v. under Thirlwall, and 

-1- 0.'&.weg\ 

As this is a Northeastern surname, the 

relation is app. to an opening in the 

Roman Wall between Tyne and Solway. 

V. Thurkell, Thurkettle. 

\ (Eng.) Bel. to Thirlwall 

THIRN 1 (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. toThirn(e; 

THIRNEJor Dweller at the TnoRN-Tree 

_ [O.E. \yme = O.N. \ymi\ 

THIRSK (Scand.) Bel. to Thirsk (Yorks), 

14th cent. Thresk, 13th cent. Tresis, 

Domesday Tresch, Tresche (ck as k) = the 

Marsh or Fen [Scand. trdsk] 

THIRST, a corrupt forni' of Thipsk, q.v. 

THIRSTON, V. Thurston. 

THIRTICLE, a corrupt form of Thurkettle, 

THIRTLE for Thurkell, Thurkettle, q.v. 

The Yorks place-name Thirtleby was 
Torchilebi (ch as k) in Domesday-Book. 

THISELTON, v. Thistleton. 

THISTLETHWAITE (Scand.) Dweller at the 
Thistle-Clearing [O.N. distill -f- ^ueii\ 

THISTLETON (Eng.) Bel. to Thistleton 
(Rutl. : 13th cent. Thistelton, Domesday 
Tisterton, for Tistelton ; Lane. : 13th cent. 
Thistilton, Thistelton) = the Thistle- 
Enclosure [O.E. JjMte/ (=0.N.})irf«7/) -f- 


THISTLEWOOD (Eng.) Dweller at the 
Thistle- Wood [O.E. J>wte/ -(- vmdu\ 

THOM, a dim. of Thomas, q.v. 

Robert fil. Thome.— Hund. Rolls. 

THOMAS (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.-Heb.) Twin [Lat. 

Thomas, Gr. Thomas {Qaims) ', Heb. Tomi\ 

Witodllce Thomas, 4n of J>am twelfum, 

l>e is gecweden Z)idimus [Gr. SlSv/ios, 

twin] . . . — 

St. John, XX. 24. (A.-Sax. version). 

Walter Thomas.— ff««</. Rolls. 

Thomas is a very common French sur- 
name, and the parent of the diminutives 
Thomasset, Thomassin, Thomasson, etc. 

THOMASIN = Thomas (q.v.) -f- the Fr. dim. 
suff. -in. 

THOMASON, Thomas's Son: v. Thomas. 

THOMASSET=Thoma8 (q.v.) = the Fr. dim. 
suff. -et. 

THOMASSIN = Thomas (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -in. 

THOMASSON i ^ Thomas's Son : v. 

2 = Thomas (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -on. 

THOME, like Thonrii a dim. of Thomas, q.v, 




THOMERSON for Thomasson, q.v. 

THOMES, THOME's'(Son). \ v. Thome, 
THOMESON, Thome's Son ) Thomas. 
Petrus Thome-son. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

THOMLIN = Thorn (Thomas), q.v., + the 
Fr. double dim. suft. -g)Z-j«. 

THOMLINSON, Thomlin's Son. 

THOMM, a dim. of Thomas, q.v. 

THOMMS, Thomm's (Son) 1 v. Thomm, 
THOMMSON, Thomm's Son. J Thomas. 

THOMPSON for Thomson, q.v. 

THOMS,Thom's (Son) 1 „ ^.„ Thom== 
THOMSON.Thom's Son)''-^*'*""'^''""'^- 

THOR \ (Scand.) f. the O.N. Tkori-r (Mod. 

THOREJ Norw. Tore), a der. of Th6r-r, the 

God of Thunder [Q.N. Th6r-r = A.-Sax. 

Thtir (occ, Thdr), Thunor — \unor, 

" TMrr er isanna framastr" 
{Thor is of the gods the foremost). 

" Hamo Thor is mentioned in a charter 
of 1 122 as holding half a bouv^e of land 
in Alderney ". — 

de Gruchy, The Settlement of Norm. 
(Jersey Soc, 191 1), p. 46. 

Orm fil. Thore.— Pipe-Rolls, A.D. 1179. 

THORALBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thoralby (Yorks), 
the Domesday Turalsbi = Thorald's 
Farmstead [v. Thorald, and + O.N. 


THORALD (Scand.) Thor - Ruler [O.N. 

Thoruald-r: v. Thop, and + O.N. uald-r, 

ruler; uald, power, might] 

The Mod. Norwegian form is Torald. 

THORBURN (Scand.) Thor - Bear [O.N. 

Thorbiorn: v. Thop, and + O.N. hiorn, 

bjom, a bear] 

The O.Norse Thorbiorn was Anglicized 
Thurbe(o)rn [O.E. be(p)m, warrior]. 
Torbern and Turbern are the Domesday 
forms. Thorebern, Thorbarn, and Thurbem 
occur as surnames in the Hundred- 
Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

THORESBY 1 (Scand.) BeL to Thoresby 

THORSBY ; (Yorks: Domesday Toresbi; 

Notts: 14th cent. Thuresby, Domesday 

Turesbi ; Lines : 13th cent. Thoresby \ etc.) 

= Thor's Farmstead [v. Thor, and 

Cp. Thuraby. 

THORGANBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thorganby 
(Yorks, Lines) = Thorgunn's Farm- 
stead [the O.N. (fem.) pers. name (Mod. 
Norw. Torgutm) is a compound of Thdr-r 
(v. Thop) and gunn-r (= O.E. gu^), war, 

The Yorks place is stated to be repre- 
sented in Domesday-Bk. byTiw'^iW ; but 
O.N. Thorgisl [gisl, hostage], Mod. Norw. 
Torgils, and Thorgunn have only the first 
element in common. 

THORLEY (Eng.) Bel. to Thorley (Herts: 

15th cent. Thorley, 13th cent. Torleye, 

Domesday Torlei ; Hants, etc.) = Thor's 

Lea [v. under Thop, and + O.E. ledh 

(M.E. ley(e, etc.] 

THORMAN, a weak form of Thopmond, 
Thopmund, q.v. 

THORMOD 1 (Scand.) Thor-Mood [O.N. 

THORMOOD ; Thormo'S-r(=A.-Sax.Thurmod): 

V. Thop, and + O.N. moV-r, wrath, 

courage (mood)] 

There has been confusion with Thop"- 

THORMONDl (Scand.) Thor's Protection 

THORMUND/[O.N. Thormund ( = A.-Sax. 

Thurmuttd) : v. Thop, and + O.N. mund, 

hand, protection] 

THORN l(Eng.) i Dweller by a Thorn- 
THORNE / Tree [O.E. for«] 

Roger atte Thorn. — 

Close Rolls, A.D. 1424-5. 

2 Dweller at the Sign of the Thorn. 

And Oliver the dyer at the Thome. — 
Pasqnin, Night-Cap, A.D. 1612; Lower. 


THORN BER (Eng.) Dweller at the Thorn- 
Grove [O.E. \>om -\- beam, a grove] 


(Eng.) I Dweller at the 

Thorn-Hili, [O.E. ^orn 

+ beorh, a hill] 

2 conf. with Thopnbup^, g.y, 

THORNBURY (Eng.) Bel. to T-hornbury 
(G1ouc.:a.d.896 Thornburh, 't6 Thombyrig,' 
dat.; Heref. : 'aet Thornbyrig', dat.— 
'Wulfgeates Cwide' [Will] ; Devon, etc.) 
= the Thorn-Stronghold [O.E. )>«-« 
+ burh, a fortified place] 

The Herefordsh. parish includes "Wall 
Hill treble-ditched camp." 

THORNBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thornby; or 

Dweller at the THORN-Tree Farmstead 

i;O.N. J-fffw -h b$-r\ 




(Eng.) Bel. to Thornley; or 
Dvveller at the Thorn-Lea 
[O.E. l>or» + leak (M.E. ley, 

THORNCROFT (Eng.) Dweller at the Thorn- 
Croft [O.E. ^orn + croft, a small field] 

THORNDIKE 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Thorn- 
THORN dyke; Dike [O.E. ^em + die] 






But the I3th-cent. forms of the Lane. 
Thornley, Thontedelegh and Thornedeley, 
show that the meaning here is Thorn- 
Head Lea [O.E. hedfod, head, high 
I ground, upper part] 

THORNELOE (Eng.) Dweller at the Thorn- 
Hill [O.E. ^om + hl(kw\ 

THORNES, pi., and genit., of Thorn(e, q.v. 

THORNEWILL \ (Eng.) Dweller at the 
THORN WILL J TnoRN-Tree Spring [O.E. 

^om + w(J.)elld\ 

THORNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Thorney; or 

Dweller at i the Thorn-Island [O.E. 

)fortt + i(e)g\ 

2 the Thorn-Enclosure [O.E. fom -l- 

Thorney, Camb., was the A.-Sax. \iont(g. 
Thorney (Island), Sussex, and Thorney 
(Island), Westminster, were bothTomeia 
in Latin deeds of the A.-Sax. period. 
Thorney, Notts, was Thornhawe and 
Thomehawe in the 13th cent. 


(Eng.) Dweller at the 

Thorny Croft [O.E. 

^omig 4- croft, a small 


There are a Thorneycroft in Yorks and 
a Thornycroft (14th cent. Thomicroft) in 

THORNHILL] (Eng.) BeL to Thornhill; or 

THORNILL t Dweller at the THORN-Tree 

THORN ELL J Hill [O.E. \orn + hyll] 

Thornhill, Yorks, the Domesday Tomil, 

was Thornyll and Thornhyll in the 14th 


THORN I LEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Thorny 
Lea [O.E. Tfomig + leak (M.E. ley] 

TH0RNL(E)Y, v. Thor'nel(e)y. 

THORNS, pi., and genit., of Thorn, q.v. 

TH0RN(E)THWAITE (Scand.) Bel. to Thorn- 
thwaite ; or Dweller at the Thorn- 
Clearing [O.N. )fom + ]>ueit] 

One of the Cumbd. places was Thorn- 
^wayi in the 13th cent. 

THORNTON (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Thorn- 
ton ; or Dweller at the Thorn - Tree 
Enclosure or Farmstead [O.E. O.N. 
Yorn + O.E. O.N. tun] 

Thornton, Dorset, occurs in a charter 958 as ' xt^omtAne' — dat. The 
various York. Thorntons appear in 
Domesday-Bk. as Torentun, Torentune, 
Tornetun, Torneton, Tomitun ; Lane. 
Domesday entries being Torenton, Toren- 
tun ; Chesh., Torintone. 

Forms in the Hundred-Rolls (a.d. 1274) 
are Thorneton, Thorntone. 


(Eng.) a nickname = 
Very Good [O.E. ^rh, 
th(o)rough; in compds., 
very -)- gid, good : cp. 
O.E. Yurh-Mlig, very holy] 

(A.-Scand.) for Thurgood', Thupgate. 
THOROLD for Thorald, q.v. 

THOROTON (Eng.) Bel. to Thorotpn (Notts), 
13th cent. Thurverton, Thorverton, Domes- 

/ day Torvertune = Thorferth's Estate 
[the pers. name is a compound of Thor 

(V. Thop) and O.E./er(A)tS, mind, spirit : 

+ O.E. tAn, farm, estate] 

THORP 1 (Eng. and Scand.) Bel. to Thorp, 
THORPE J Thorpe = the Farmstead, Ham- 
let, Village [O.E. and O.N. ^orp] 

yfa.nB.dsThorpe.—Hund. Rolls. 

The cok, that orloge [clock] is oithorpes 
lyte [little].— 

Chaucer, Parlement of Foules, 350. 

THORRINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Thorrington 
(Essex), 13th cent. Thorington, A.-Sax. 
*Thoringa-tUn =the Estate of the Thor 
Family [v. underThop, and -I- -inga, genit. 
pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + tun, fawn, estate, 


THORSBY, v. Thoresby. 

THRALE (A. -Scand.) Thrall, Servant, 
Slave [M.E thral(e, O.N.E. J>rcB/=O.N. 


And sw4 hw4 swS welle in iow e^rist 

• oSSe foertSmest wosa biS Jie alra ]fr(kl 

otfSe esne. — 

St. Mark X. 44; O. Northumb. vers. 

(Rushworth Gospel). 

In Wycliffe's version of the above verse 
the Lat. servus and Gr. SoCXos have been 
rendered servaunt. 

My servant, which that is my thral 
by right.— Chaucer, Cant. Tales, C 183. 
Cp. Thew. 




THRAVE (A.-Scand.) One of a Company 

(prop, of Threshers: Halliwell) [O.N. J>re/t 

= O.E ge)]'r<Af] 

THRAVES, Thrave's (Son) : v. Thrave. 

ThrIaSgSuld |i?"g-) ^ ""='^"%?,VlU'] 

TUDCAnf-Mi i^ Embroiderer [O.E. frtfei 

THrnDGOULD J -^'i^""- 1° tw'lst + ^oM] 

William Tredegold.— if««rf. Rolls. 

THREDDER (Eng.) Thread-Maker or Em- 
broiderer [0(.E. \>rced, thread -|- the 
agent, suff. -ere] 

THRELFALL (Scand.) Bel. to Threlfall (N. 

Lanes), 13th cent. Threlefel, Threlefal = 

the Thralls' Fell [O.N. ^rMl (genit. 

pi. ^Alla), a thrall, serf +fiall,fell, a hill 

(also dial., a moorj 

THRELKELD (Scand.) Bel. to Threlkeld 

(Cumb.), I3th-i4th cent. Threlkeld = the 

Thrall's or Thralls' Spring [v. under 

Threlfall, and -|- O.N. kelda, a spring] 

THRIMBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thrimby 

(Westmd.), 13th cent. Thirneby, Thumeby 

= the THORN-Tree Farm [O.N. ]?ymi{-tr^, 

+ bf-r, farm, etc.] 

THRING (Eng.) Bel. to Tring (Herts), 13th 
cent. Thring, Domesday Treunge [the 
name app. represents the genit. pi., 
Thyringa-, or the dat. pi. Thyringum, of 
the A.-Sax. family-nameT'Aj'WH^a.s (-iHgas, 
pi. of the ' son' sun. -ing), seen in 'WfdsiS,' 
1. 62 : W6d [we61d = ruled] Thyringuni\ 

THRIPP, a metath. var. of Thorp, q.v. [O.E. 

Jfrep iox\orp] 

THR1ST (Eng.) Bold, Brave [O.E. J>r/rf] 

THROCKMORTON (Eng.) Bel. to Throck- 
morton (Wore), 13th cent. Trokemartuite, 
Trokemertutt, c. i2ooTrochemerton [the first 
two elements prob. represent an A.-Sax. 
pers. name Thracmier {DragmtEr is recor- 
ded), f. Yracu, force, energy, violence, and 
mdre, famous (for the vowel-change cp. 
' mon ' for ' man ') :-^ + <«», farm, 
estate, etc.] 

Throgmorton Street, London, owes its 
name indirectly to the Wore, place. 


THROPP t metath. forms of Thorp, q.v. 


Adam de la Throppe,— H««rf. Rolls. 
There stood a throop, of site delitable, 
In which that poure folk of that village 

Hadden hir [their] beestes and hir [abode];— 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 199-201. 

There are a tything called Throop in 
Hants, a hamlet Throope in Wilts, and 
Throop in Soms. 

THROSBY, a metath. form of Thorsby, 
Thoresby, q.v. 

THROSSELL) (Eng.) a nickname from the 

THROWER (Eng.) Thread - Thrower (in 

textile-manuf.) ; Potter ; Turner [f. 

O.E. ^rdwan, to twist, turn, throw] 

The turner's lathe and the potter's 

wheel are still called a ' throw'. 

Hardly O.E. ^owere, ' martyr'. 
THRUPP for Thropp, Thorp, q.v. 

THRuItlE^ } ^"^ Throasell.Throstle, q.v. 
Sire Thopas fil in love-longynge, 
Al whan he herde the thrustel synge. — 
Chaucer, Cant- Tales, B 1962-3. 

THURBURNi v. Thorburn. 

THURGALAND 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Thurgoland 

THURGOLAND / (Yorks), the DomesdayTar- 

gesland = Thurgisl's Land [v. under 

Thurgis(8, and + O.E. land] 

THURGALLforThurkell, q.v. 

THURGAR 1 (Eng.) Thur-Spear [A.-Sax. 

THURGUR J Thurgar (=0.1i.Thorgeirr):ThAr 

.= ThSr (v. Thor) 4- gdr,a. spear] 

THURGARTON (Eng.) Bel. to Thufgarton 
(Notts : 13th cent. Thurgarton, Domesday 
Turgarstune; Norf.)=THURGAR's Estate 
[v. Thurgar, and-j-O.E. tun, farm, estate] 

THURGATE (A.-Scand.) an Anglicized form 

of the O.N. Thorgaut-r [v. under Thor, 

and + Gaut-r, the ethnic name] 

A Thurgot was an early-i2th-cent. 

bishop of St. Andrews. 

THURGIS(S (Eng. and Scand.) for the A.-Sax. 
Thurgisl,'s Hostage 
[v. under Thor, and -f- O.E. O.N. glsl, a 

The mod. Norweg. form of the name is 
the metathetic TorgilSi 

THURGOOD (A.-Scarid.) like Thurgate for 
the O.N. Thorgaut-r. 

(Eng.) for Thoro(ugh)good, q.v. 
The Domesday forms were Turgod and 
Turgoti Hundred-Rolls, Thurgod, 




THURKELL 1 Thurkell and Thurkill were 
THURKILL } A.-Sax. forms of the O.N. 
T H U R KLE Thorkell, a contr. of Thorketill : 

V. Thurkettle. 

THURKETTLE.themod. form of the A.-Scand. 
Thurcytel, O.N. Thorketill=THOK's (Sacri- 
ficial) Cauldron [v. under Thop, and + 

O.N. ketill\ 

Thus the incident of a jarl named 
Thorketill asking King Eadweard (K. 
Alfred's son) to be his lord is narrated 
in the A.-Saxon Chronicle under the 
year 918 in the words: "Thurcytel eorl 
hine ge-sohte him t6 hl^forde." 

THURLBY(Scand.) Bel. to Thurlby (Lines: 

13th cent. Thurleby), Thoralby (Yorks: 

Domesday Turalzbi) = Thor(u)ald's 

Farmstead [v. Thorald, and + O.N. 

bf-r, farm, estate] 

THURLEIGH \ (Eng.) Bel. to Thurleigh (Beds: 

THURLEY ; Domesday La £s^a), Thurley 

(Kent: A.D. 1316-17 ThurUy) = Thur's 

Lea [v. under Thor, and -|- O.E. ledK\ 

THURLOW (Eng.) Bel. to Thurlow (Suff. : 

I3th-i4th cent. Thrillow(e, Threlowe ; for 

the metathesis cp. ' throp ' for ' thorp ') = 

Thur's Hill or Tumulus [v. under 

Thor, and + O.E. hlAw] 

THURMAN for Thurmond, q.v. 

THURWIOD 1 (Eng. and Scand.)THOR. Mood 

THURMOOD;[A.-Sax. Thurmod=0.^. Thor- 

mo'S-r: v. under Then, and -|- O.E. mdd = 

O.N. mdS-r, wrath, courage (mdod] 

Alan Thurmod. — Hund. Rolls. 

There has been confusion with Thur- 

THURMOND! (Eng. and Scand.) Thor's 


mund = O.N. Thormund : v. under Thop, 

and + O.E. O.N. mutid, hand, protection] 

Walter Thurmond.— £r««rf. Rolls. 

"[(Eng.) Bel. to Thurnhara 
I /Jl ■ 


THURNHAM /(Lane's), 13th cent. Thimum, 
Thymum, Domesday Tiernum = At the 
Thorns [O.E. ^yrnum, dat. pi. oi}fyme, a 


The -h- in this name does riot seem to 

occur until nearly the end of the i6th cent. 

THURNSCOE (Scand). Bel. to- Thurnscoe 

i Yorks) ; or Dweller at the Thorn- Wood 
O.N. \ymi-r, a thorn-tree4-sft<^-r, a wood] 

THURSBY (Scand.) Bel. to Thursby (Cumb.), 

13th cent. Thoresby, 12th cent. Toresbi = 

Thor's Farm or Estate [v. Thor, and 

-t- O.N. Jji-r, farmstead, etc.] 

Cp. Thopsby, Thoresby. 

THURSFIELD (Eng.) Bel. to Thursfield 
(Staffs), the Domesday Turvoldesfeld = 
Thurwald's Field or Plain [the pers. 
name (in the genit.) is a compound of 
Thur (v. Thor) and O.E. w(e)ald, might, 
power : 1- O.E. f eld, a field, plain] 

THURSTAN (Eng. and Scand.) the A.-Sax. 

Thurstan, O.N. Thorstein{n = Thur's or 

Thor's Stone [v. under Thor, and -f- 

O.E. stdn = O.N. steinn] 

Wi[g]stan Thurstanes sunu. — 

The Battle of Maldon (A.D. 993), 297-8. 
Thurstan-us Dispencer. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1228-9. 
Thurstan de Torp. — 

Hand. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 

The second element in this pers. name 
prob. denoted primitively a stone monu- 
ment or image worshipped in the name 
of Thor. 

THURSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Thurston (Suff.) 
and Thur(s)ton (Norf.), 13th cent. Thurs- 
ton = Thur's Estate [v. under Thor, 
and -I- O.E. tun, farm, manor, etc.] 
William de Thurston (Norf.).— 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Ric'us de Thurston (Norf.).— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1303-4. 
Confused with Thurstan, q.v. 

THURTELLl dentalized forms of Thurkell, 
THURTLE /Thurkle, q.v. 

THURWARD(Eng. and ScandJ Thor-Guar- 
In an iith-cent. will (' Dipl. Angl.', p. 
S91) wefindtheformrAarwerrf. Thoreward 
is the form in the I3th-cent. Hundred- 
Rolls. Toruard is the mod. Norw. name . 

THURWOOD for Thurward. 

THWAITE (ScandO Bel. to Thwaite = the 

Clearing [O.N. i>ueit, a clearing; prt. sing. 

of *\>uita (= O.E. Ywitan), to cut] 

Thwaite, Norf., was Tkweit a.d. 1292. 

THWAITES1„, A : c^. 
THWAITS / P •' °" genu., of Thwaite. 

Thomas de Thwaytes.— Ca/. Inq. P.M- 
Thwaites is the name of a Cumberland 




THWELLIN for Uewellyn, q.v. 
Evan ap Thewelin.— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1335. 

THYNNE (Eng.) Thin [M.E. thitine, thyntie, 

O.E. J^ynrie] 
Thomas Tbynae.—Hmd. Rolls. 

TIBB, like Tebb, a pet form of Theobald, q.v. 

We find Tibha and Tiba as early as the 
8th cent. 

Gradually Tib came to be used as a pet 
form of Isabella, and even as a term for a 
common woman, as we see from the 
following : — 

Perkyn the potter into the press past, 

And sayd, Randol, the refe, a doghter 
thou hast, 

Tyb the derei— 

' The Turnament of Tottenham ' : 
Percy's Reliques, 

. . . every Coystril that comes inqui- 
ring for his Tib. — Pericles, IV. vi. iSi, 

In Udall's ' Roister Doister' (e. 1550), 
Tib or Tyb and the dim. Tibet are used 
indifferently for the same female 

TIBBALD, a form of Theobald, q.v. 


I Tibbald's (Son). 






1 = Tibb (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -at, -et, -ot. 

2 weak forms (cp. the Fr.Thibaut, 
Thiebaut — -«- for -1-) of Theo- 
bald, q.v. 

Tibbat(t)'s, etc., (Son) : v.Tib- 
bat(t, etc. 

Cp. Tebbat(t, etc, 



TIBBELL, a weak form of Theobald, q.v. 


TIBBENHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Tib(b)enham 

(Norf.), 13th cent. Tibenham, A.-Sax. 

*Tibanhdm = Tiba's Home or Estate 

\Tiban-, genit. of Tibah'. under Tibb) + 

O.E. ham, home, etc.] 

TIBBERT, a descendant of i the the A.-Sax. 

Tidberht [O.E. tid, season, festival, time 

+ be{o)rht, bright, glorious] 

2 the A.-Sax. Theodberht [O.E. ]>e<ld, 

people, nation] 

TIBBERTON (Eng.) Bel. to i Tibberton 
(Wore.) the Domesday Tidbertun, loth 
cent. Tidbrihtingla]tuti = the Estate of 

THE Tidbriht or Tidberht Family [for 

the pers. name see under Tibbert ' 

+ -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing+tun, 

farm, estate] 

2 Tibberton (Glouc), form. Tyberton, 

the Domesday Tebriston, where -s- (as in 

other cases) no doubt represents the 

strong aspirate in the A.-Sax pers. name 

Tidbriht or Tidberht [v, under Tibbert ', 

and + O.E. tUn, farm, etc.] 

There is also a Tibberton in Salop, as 
well as a Tiberton in Herefordshire, 

TIBB(E)S, TiBB(E)'s (Son) : v. Tibb. 

TIBBIN = Tibb (q.v.) -)- the dim. suff. -in, 

TIBBLE, a weak form of Theobald, q.v. 


TIBBY = Tibb (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y. 

TIBBYSON, Tibby's Son. 

TIBKIN = Tib (v. Tibb) +the E. pet suff. -kin. 

TICE (Eng.) the A.-Sax. pers. name Tisa, app. 

. a var. of Tesa, Tasa [f. O.E. ge)ti,se, 

pleasant (for the change from -s- to -c- 

1 cp. ' twice '] 

TlCEHURST(Eng.) Bel. to Ticehurst (Suss:), 
14th - istn cent. Tichehurst, Ticheshurst, 
Tichesherst, Tychehurst [for the first ele- 
ment V. under Tiohborne, and + O.E. 
hyrst, a wood] 

TICHBORNE (Eng.) Bel. to Ti(t)chborne 
(Hants), 13th cent. Tycheburn, Tichebom, 
A.-Sax. Ticcebume = the Goat-Brook 
[the O.E. dim. ticc-en, a kid, postulates a 
ticc(a, m. (cp. ticces ham, A.D. goo, 'Cart. 
Sax.' no. 596), ticce, L, a goat :— + O.E. 
bume, a brook] 

TICH FIELD (Eng.) Bel. toTi(t)chfieId (Hants), 

c. A.D. gioTiccenesfeld ('Cart. Sax.' no. 629) 

= the Kid's Field [y. under Tiohborne, 

and + O.E. feld, a field, plain] 

Abbas de Tichefeld.— 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1335. 

TICKELL 1 (Eng.) Bel. tp Tickhill (Yorks), 

TICKLE /14th cent. Tikhill, 13th cent. 

Tykehull = the Goat-Hill [O.E. ticc, a 

goat (v. under Tiohborne) -i- O.E. hyll 

(M.E. hull, etc.] 

This is more likely than a connexion 

with Scand. tik, a bitch. 

(Celt.) Stout, Firm [Gael, taiceil] 

TICKENHURST (Eng.) Bel. to Tickenhurst 

(Kent) = the Kid-Grove [O.E, ticcen, a 

kid + hyrst, a grove, wood] 




TICKNALL (EnfT.) Bel. to Ticknall (Derby), 

c. A.D. 1000 Ticenheal — the Kid-Corner 

[O.E. ticcen, a kid + healQi, a corner] 

TlCKNER\(Eng.) Bel. to Ticknor (Kent), 

TICKNOR/A.D. %^z Tycanora ('Cart. Sax.' 

no. 442) = Tyca's Bank or Shore [the 

pers. name Tyca, genit. Tycan-, is prob. a 

var. of O.E. ticc(d, a goat (v. under Tich- 

borne) : h O.E. 6ra, a bank, shore] 

The surname Tycknor occurs in a Lon- 
don marriage-license a.d. 1575. 

(Dutch) Designer, Draughtsman 
(Dut. teekenaarl 
Ticknor is a famous American name. 

TIDBALL (Eng.) i for the common A.-Sax. 

Tidb(e)ald [O.E. tid, festival, season, time 

-1- bie)ald, bold] 

2 for the A,-Sax, Theodb{e)ald : v. Theo- 

Tl DD(Eng.) I the A.-Sax. Tidda,iBOTe commonly 
Tida [f. O.E. tid, festival, season, time] 

2 Bel. to Tydd St. Giles (Camb., 13th 
cent. Tid, Tyd), Tydd St. Mary {Line, 
14th cent. Tydd) [prob. the A.-Sax. pers. 
name Tid{d)a with a lost local element] 

TIDDEMAN "I (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Tid(i)man [f. 

TIDOIMAN J O.E. ft'rf, festival, season, time 

+man(n : cp. O.E. tid writere, an annalist] 

Tiddeman Boker. — Rolls of Pari. 

TIDDER (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. Tidhere [f. O.E. 
tidi festival, etc. -f here, army] 

2 for the A.-Sax. Theodhere [f. O.E. 
\e6d, nation, people + here, army] 

TIDESWELLl (Eng.) Bel. to Tideswell 

TIDSWELL J (Derby), 13th cent. Tideswell, 

Domesday Tidesuuelle = Tide's or Tidi's 

Well [the pers. name fwith masc. vowel- 

suff.) is f. O.E. tid, festival, season, etc.: — 

+ O.E. w{i)ella, a spring] 

" It is said that the town derived its 
name from an ebbing well, which still 
exists, but has long ceased to ebb." {Nat. 
GazX — The wonder is that a well which 
" ebbed " for so long " still exists " I 

' Tideswell ' was much discussed in 
Notes & Queries in the early months 
of 1904. 

TIDGWELL f Jr TItohwell. q.v. 

Tl OMAN, v. under Tiddeman. 

TIDMARSH (Erig.) Bel. to Tidmarsh (Berks), 
form. Tidmershe = Tid's Marsh [v. under 
Tidd, and -|- M.E. mersh{e, etc., O.E. 


TIDY 1 (Eng.) t Readv, Prompt ; Honest j 

TIDEY I Neat [M.E. tidy, Hdi; f. M.E. tid{e, 

O.E. tid, time, season (cp. Scand. tidig = 

Dut. tijdig, early, timely] 

And travailleth and tilieth 
For a tretour also soore 
As for a trewe tidy man. — 

Piers Plowman, 13837-9. 

(rarely) 2 for the A.-Sax. Tidi, Tida (v. 
under TIdd), with the E. dim; suft. -e)y. 

TIDYMAN, V. under Tidy, and -1- E. man. 

TIER, a contr. of MacTler, q.v. 

TIERNAN (Celt.) Lord.Master [IT-Tigheant' 
an — tigheam(a (gh mutel ( = Wei. 
teym, a king), O.Ir. tigeme, a lord -f- the 
dim. suff. -dn\ - 

The stem of this nameis, of course, the 
second element in the famous 'Vortigern.' 

TIERNAYI (Celt.)LoRD,MASTER[Ir.rig'ft«flr»- 

TIERNEY / ach — tigheamifl (^A mute), a lord 

-1- the pers. suff. -acA] 

' Tierney ' is chiefly found in " Dublin, 
Tipperary, andGalway — a very scattered 
name." — 

TIFFANY "1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.-Gr.)DiviNE Showing 
TIFFEN [[Fr. Tiphaine, Theophanie, Lat.. 
TIFFIN } Theophania, Gt. eto^d «o — Geiis, 
God -t- a der. of ipalvav, to show] 

Cristina Typhayn. — 

Soms. Subs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 

This name seems to have been given 
to a child(of eithersex)bornon Epiphany 
Day (6th Jan.). 

TIGG, v. Tegg. 

TIGHE, a contr. of MacTlghe, q.v. 

TILBERT (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Tilbe(o)rht [O.E. 
til, good, liberal + he{o)rht, bright, illus- 

TILBROOK (Eng.) Bel. to Tilbrook (Beds), 

13th cent. Tilhroc, Domesday Tilebroc = 

Tila's Brook [Tila, genit. Tilan-, f. O.E. 

til, good, liberal -f- broc, a brook] 

TILBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Tilbury (Essex), 13th 

cent. Tillebyr', Tilbery, etc., A.-Sax. Tila- 

burg (Baeda, ' Hist. Eccl.' iii. 22) = Tila's 

Stronghold [y. under Tilbrook, and -t- 

O.E. burg, a fortified place] 

TILDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Tilden (app. Kent), 

13th cent. Tildenne = Tila's Valley [v. 

under Tilbrook, and -(- O.E. denu, dat. 

dene, a valley] 




TILDESLEY \ (Eng.) Bel. to Tyldesley 

TILDSLEY J (Lanes), 13th cent. Tyldesley, 

Tildesle [An unrecorded A.-Sax. pers. 

name (in the genit.) seems to be involved 

here, prob. *TiloV, i. til, good, with the 

dim. suff. -o«;— + O.E. ledh (M.E. ley, le, 

etc.), a lea, meadow] 

TILESTON, V. Tilaton. 

TILEWRIGHT (Eng.) Tile-Maker ; Potter 

[O.E. tigelwyrhta] 

In the A.-Sax. Version of S. Matthew, 

xxvii. 7, tigelwyrhta is used to translate the 

Gr. Kepa/ieis, a potter, 

TILFORD 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tilford (Surrey) 
TILLFORD J [Early forms seem tp be lack- 
ing, but the first element is probi the 
pers. name seen in Tilbrook and Tilbury: 
the ford over the Wey has long been 
replaced by a bridge] 

TILL (Eng.) a descendant of one of the A.-Sax. 

Till- or Til- names, as Tilla, Tilli, Tila, 

Tile, Till, Tilbe{oyht, .TilfriS, etc. [f. O.E. 

til, good, liberal] 

Thomas fil. Tilla.— 

, Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1246. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a pet form of Matilda : v. 
under Malkin. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Til or Thil (France); 
or Dweller at a Lime-Tree [Lat. tilia] 

The surname Du Thil in France has 
been largely replaced by the later Du 
Theil (Dutheit). 

TILLARD 1 (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the FrenchTillard, 

r\LLE/\RD j Tilhard, O.Frank. Tilhard -= 

Good (and) Brave [the O.Frank, cognate 

of O.E. til, good, liberal + hard, hard, 

TILLCOCK= TilP,' (q.y.)-t-the pet suff. -cocit. 

TILLER I (Eng.) iHusbandman [f. O.E. tilia, 

TILLIER J land-cultivator, labourer; with later 

E. agent, suff. -er, or A.-Fr. -jer] 

The stalke, the greyne, and floures alle. 
That to the tilieris f6rdone[destroyed]: — 
Chaucer, Som. of the Rose, 4338-9. 

2 Good' Army rA.-Sax. Tilhere — til, 
good, liberal -t- here, army] 

Tilhere was a famous 8th-eent. bishop 
of Worcester. 

The Mbd. Fr. tilleur, a 'stripper', 
'hemp-scutcher", has prob. had no sur- 
nominal influence in this country. 

TILLET(T (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Lime- 

Tree Grove [Fr. Tillet, f. Lat. tiliet-um ■ 

— tilia, a linden- or Ume-tree, with the 

plantatioa-suff. -et-um] 

Marquis du Tillet.— Pam Direct. , 

The form of the place-name in the 
Meuse; Vosges, etc., Departments is 

Cp. Tilly. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) if. the Cont.-Teut. cog- 
nate of O.E. til, 'good' (v. under TilP)i 
with the Fr. dim. suff. -et. 

2 f . a pet form of Matilda (v. under 
Malkin), with the Fr, dim. suff. -et. 

V^fe] =TMiy,q.v. 

TILLING (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Tilling = Till- 
(v. Till') -1- the ' son' suff. -ing. 

TILLINGTON (Eng.) Bel. toTillington (Staffs: 
Domesday Tillintone ; Suss. ; Heref.), 
A.-Sax. *Til(l)inga-ttin = the Estate of 
THE Til(l)- Family [the pers. name is 
f. O.E. til, good -f- -inga, genit. pi. of the 
fil. suff. -ing + ttin, estate, etc.] 

But the Sussex place was Tullingtun in 
a Latin charter a.d. 960, pointing to a 
different origin. 

TILLI0L(L (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Lime- 
Tree [O.Fr. tiliol {Mod. Fr. tilleul), Lat. 
*tiliol-us, a dim. form of tilia, a lime-tree] 

Petr' TilWoW.— Charter-Rolls, tp. Ric. U. 
This name seems almost entirely to 
have merged into Tilly. 

TILLISON, TiLLiE's or Tilly's Son : v. 
Tilly >,". 

TILLMAN 1 (Eng.) i Plougijman, Husband- 
TILLMON J man [f. O.E. tilian, to till+»jaB(», 

2 Good Man [A..Sax. Til{l)man, Til(t)- 
mon — til, good, liberal] 
Tilmott was the name of one of the 
English priests who accompanied the ill- 
fated Hewalds in their mission to the 
Continental Saxons a.d. 690, as related by 
Beeda, ' Hist. Eccl.', v. 10. 

TILLOCK (Eng.) Good rA.-Sax. Tilluc — til, 
^ood, Mberal -I- the dim. suff. -uc] 

TILLOT(T (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the same name as 
Tillet(t (A.-Fr.-Teut.), q.v., but with the 
Fr. dim. suff. -ot instead of -et. 

Tillot is not now a very common 
French surname. 

(A.-Fr.-Lat.) for Tillet(t (A.-Fr.-Lat.), 

TILLOTSON, Tillot's Son. 
JohaHnes Tillotson.— 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A,D. 1379. 




TILLS, TiLL's (Son) : v. Till. 

TILLSON, TiLL's Son : v. Till, 

In the Yorks PoU-Tax (a.d. 1379), this 
surname is found in the forms Tilleson, 
Tylleson, and Tyllson. 

TILLY (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Tilly (France) = 
the Linden-Grove [Lat. tilietum — tilia, 
a linden- or lime-tree + the plantation- 

suff. -et-uni] 
There are several places in France 
called Tilly, two of them being in the 
Dept. of Calvados. 

A de Tilly occurs in the List of " Com- 
pagnons de Guillaume k la ConquSte de 
i'Angleterre en MLXVI " graven over the 
main doorway (inside) of the old church 
at Dives, Calvados. 

Philipa de Tylly alias Tilli.— Cn/. Geneal 

(Eng.) Good [f. the A.-Sax. name-stem 
n/(/- {til, good), with the E. dim. suff. -y] 

A riV/i occurs in the LiberVitae Dunelm. 

(A.-Fr.-Teut.) a double dim. oi Matilda : 
V. under Malkin. 

TILLYER = Tilliep, Tiller', q.v, 

TILMAN: V.Tillman. 

TILNEY (Eng.) Bel. to Tilney (Norf.), 13th 
cent. Tilney(e, A.-Sax. *Tilanig = Tila's 
Island or Waterside [Tilan-, genit. of 
Tila, f. O.E. til, good + i{e)g, island, etc.] 

TILSLEY for Tildesley, q.v. 

TILSON I V. Tillson. 

occ. 2 for Tllston, q.v. 

TILSTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tilston (Chesh.), 
17th cent. Tilston, i6th cent. TyUton, 
A.-Sax. *Tilestiin = Tile's Farm or 
Estate [the pers. name (in the genit.) is f. 

O.E. til, good : 1- tun, estate, etc.] 

John Tylston. — 

Chstr. Freemen-Rolls, A.D. 1537-8. 

TlLTON(Eng.) Bel.toTilton (Leic.), 13th cent. 

Tylton, Domesday Tiletone = TiLA'S Farm 

or Estate [A.-Sax. Tila, genit. Tilan-, f. 

O.E. til, good + Itin, estate, etc.] 

TIMBRELL (A.-Fr.-Ldt.-Gr.) a nickname f. 

the Timbrel [a dim. f. M.E. O.Fr. 

timbre, a tambourine] 

TIMBS (with intrus. b) for Tim(m)8, q.v. 

TIMCOCK = Tim(m, q.v. -K the pet suff. 

TIMES = Tims, q.v. 

TIMEWELL (Eng.) The first element is 
hardly the herb-name 'thyme', and it is 
prob. for ' timber' [O.E. timber, timber, a 
building], the whole name denoting 
a timber-roofed well. 

TIMIN = Tim(m), q.v.+the Fr. dim. suff'. -in. 
Gilbert Timin.— ^««rf. Rolls. 

TIMINS, Timin's (Son). 

TIMLETT = Tim(m), q.v. -f the Fr. double 
dim. suf. -el-et. 

TIMLIN = Tim(m), q.v. + the Fr. double 
dim. suff'. -el-in. 

TIIV!(N1, a dim. of Timothy, q.v. 

TIMMIE = Timm (q.v.)-)-the E. dim. suff. -/e. 

TIMMIN = Timm (q.v.) -|- the Fr. dim. 

suff. -in. 
TIMMINS, Timmin's (Son). 

TIMIVIIS, Timmie's (Son) : v. Timmie. 

TIMMON I = Timm (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -on. 

(rarely) 2 for Timoii, Gr. Tlfuov {Acts, 
vi. 5.) [f. Gr. Ti/ios, Ti/iii, honour, reward] 

TIMMONS, Timmon's (Son). 

TIMMS, Timm's (Son) : v. Tim(m, Timothy. 

TIMOTHY (A.-Gr.) Honoured of God [Gr. 
tt/iieeos (Lat. Tinietheus),f.nfidu, I honour, 
revere -|- Beds, God : cp. the reverse for- 
mation, honoured of God] 

TIMPANY (Celt.) Harper, Minstrel [Ir. 

tiompdnach, f. E.Ir. tiompan, ' a small 

stringed instrument' ; conn, with Lat. 

tympan-um, a. timbrel] 

Tl M PERLEY (Eng.) Bel.toTimperley {Chesh.), 
14th cent. Tymperlegh,Tymperley [The first 
element is app. not for ' timber,' but for 
an A.-Sax. pers. name Timhere, whose 
existence may be inferred from the Tym- 
erington occurring in an ' Inq. ad quod 
Damn." for Yorks tp. Edw. II. :— -)- M.E. 
ley, legh, O.E. ledh, a lea, meadow] 

TIMPSON (with intrus. p) for Timson, q.v. 

TIMS, Tim's (Son) 1 „ -n^i.^ Ti,v,«th« 
TIMSON, Tim's Son) v.Tim(m, Timothy. 

TINCKER (Eng.) Tinker [M.E. tinkere, f. 
tinker, to tinkle ; of imit. orig.] 

TINCKLER = Tinkler, q.v. 





TIN DALE (Celt. + Eng.) Bel. to Tindale, 
TINDALL \ 13-I4th cent. Tyndale, i.e. the 
TINDELL / (River) Tyne-Dale [O.E. daU 
TINDILL a dale, valley] 


TINGAY"! (Scand.) Dweller at the Parlia- 

TINGEYJ MENT-FiELD \0.^.\ing, assembly, 

parliament (Dan.-Norw. ting, court of 

justice) + hagi, a field] 

TINGHILLI (Eng.) Dweller at the Meeting 

TINGLE for Court Hill [O.E. ^ing, a 

meeting, court of justice + hyll] 

The interdental (Ih) sound has been 
lost through Scand. influence (see under 
TIngay) : we find a 'Ricardus Tynghill' 
in the Yorks Poll-Tax a.d. 1379, which 
name had becomeTjin^^/ by the 1 5th cent. 

(Celt. + Eng.) Tingle may sporadically 
be a gutturalized form of Tindal, q.v. 

TINING (Eng.) Dweller at an Enclosure 
(esp. a new enclosure) [Dial. E. titling, f. 
tine, O.E. tynan, to fence, enclose] 
Thomas atte Tynyng. — 

Soms. Subs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 

TINKLER (Eng.) a North, form of Tinker: 
V. Tlncker> [f. M.E. tinklen, to tinkle] 

My bonny lass, I work in brass, 
A tinkler is my station. — 

Burns, The Jolly Beggars, 212-13. 
Henry le Tirikeler. — 

Lane. Assize-Rolls, A.D. 1278. 

Rogerus Tynkler. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TINLING is prob. for the imit. ' ting-a-Hng', a 
nickname for a Tinker or Bellman. 

TINMOUTH : v. Tynemouth. 

V. Tennlswood. 


TINSLAY 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tinsley (Yorks), 
TINSLEY \ 14th cent. Tyneslawe, Domesday 
TIN SLY J Tineslawe [O.E. hlAw, a hill, tu- 
mulus: the pers. name is evid. that seen in 
Tyneberht, the name of a gth-cent. bishop 
of Lichfield, which again is a var. of the 
fairly-common A.-Sax. pers. name Tun- 
beip)rht = World Bright or Glorious ; the 
first element being the O.E. tun, a farm, 
estate, but in the abstract denoting the 
world ; and the pers. element (in the 
genit.) in the Yorks place-name may be a 
shortened form of Tyneberht] 

TINSON for Timson, q.v. 

TIPKIN (16th cent. Typkyn) for TIbkin, q.v. 


TIPLADY, app. a nickname for a libertine. 

TIPLER (A.-Scand.) orig. Beer-Seller [cp. 

Norw. tipla, to tipple, freq. of tippa, ' to 

drip from a point or tip'] 

Tiple, v., to sell ale or beer. Tipler, 
the person who sold it. — 

Boston Records, i6th cent. ; T.Wright. 

No inn keeper, ale - house keeper, 
victualler, or tipler ... — 

Abshp. Grindal, Remains, p. 138. 

TIPPER (Eng.) Header, Pointer, Mounter 
(one who furnished articles with metal 
tips or mounts) [M.E. tipper{e, f. M.E. tip, 
a tip, with the agent, suff. -er{e ; Teut.] 

Henry le Tipper. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Richard le Tippere. — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns'. Accts., A.D. 1303-4. 

!^!pp|^.._ I unvoiced forms of Tibbet(t, q.v. 

Tl PPET(T)S, unvoiced form of Tibbet(t)s,q.-v. 

TIPPIN I for Tibbin, q.v. 
2 for Tipping, q.v. 

TIPPING (Eng.) Tippa 's Son [the A.-Sax. 
pers. name Tippa (' Dipl. Angl'., p. 395) 
-f the 'son' suff. -ing: the name is f. 
an O.Low Teut. word seen in E.Fris. and 
L.Ger. tippen, Swed. ti^pa, to tap, tip, 
strike gently] 
Ewan Typpynge. — 

Preston Guild-Rolls, A.D. 1542. 

There has been confusion with Tippin 
for Tibbin, q.v. 

TIPPINS, Tippin's (Son) : v. TIppln. 

TIPPITT for TIppett, TIbbett, q.v. 

TIPPLE for Tibbie, q.v. 

TIPPLER = Tipler, q.v. 

TIPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tipton or Tibbington 
(Staff's), 13th cent. Tibinton, Domesday 
Tibintone, A.-Sax. *Tibinga-tiin = the 
Estate of the Tiba Family [tlie 
A.-Sax. pers. Tiba or Tibba is a pet contr. 
of a name whose first element is Tid- or 
Theod-, etc., with a second element beginn- 
ing with 6-, as -b{e)ald or -be(o)rht -|- 
-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff'. -ing + tun, 
farm, minor, etc.] 
There is also a small chapelry called 
Tipton in Devonshire. 

TIREBUCK, as it occurs in the neighbourhood 
of Tarbock (v. Tarbook), is no doubt a 




corrupt imitative form of that name ; but 
Tirebuck, the Liverpool novehst, used to 
say that the name was due to an ancestor 
who was so fleet a runner as to " tire 
the buck " I 

TIRNEY = Tierney, q.v. 

TIRRELL (A.-Fr.-Teut.), the 13th cent. Tirel, 
Tirell, Tyrel, Tyrell, weak forms of tlie 
Domesday Turold, Tnrald, O.N. Tlwr(u)ald-r 
(A.-.Sax. Thurw{e)ald) = Thor - Ruler 
[O.N. Thor-r + uald-r, ruler ; uald, power, 

Rad' TnsW— Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1203-4. 
Walter Tyre].— Hund.-Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Edward Tirell et Thomas Tyrell. — 

Ing. ad g. Damn., temp. Hen. VI. 

The French surnames Tirel, later 

Tireau,Thirel, laterThireau, are considered 

by some French writers to be referable to 

Thierry : v. Terpy. 

TISBURY (Eng.) Bel. to Tisbury (Wilts), 
A.-Sax. Tysseburh, Tysanburh (dat., ' t6 
Tysanbyrig) = Tysa's Stronghold [the 
A.-Sax. pers. name Tysa is prob. conn. 

with O.E. ge)t(kse, pleasant : f- bmh, a 

fortified place] 


TISDALL \ = Teesdale, q.v. 


TISSINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tissington 
(Derby), 13th cent. Tissinglon, Domesday 
Tizinctun, A. - Sax. *Tysinga-tun = the 
Estate of the Tysa Family [for the 
pers. name see under Tisbury, and -|- 
-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suft. -ing + tiin, 
estate, farm, etc.] 

TITCHBORNE : v. Tlohborne. 

TITCHEN (Eng.) a nickname from the Km 
[O.E. ticcen, ticgen, a kid] 

TITCHENER] (Eng.) may be apocopated 
TITCHENORJ forms of 'Titchen-Herd', i.e. 
Kid-Herd [v. Titchen] ; but the analogy 
of Buller and Calver seems to show that 
the second element is really the agent, 
suff. -er ; and in any case the meaning is 
the same. 

Lower, 'Eng. Surn.', ii. 43, says: "A 
village in western Sussex bears the name 
Itchenor. In the same district resides a 
family surnamed Titchenor." This is 
perhaps worth mentioning. Lower's idea 
being that ' Titchenor ' " is probably a 
corruption of ' De Itchenor.' " If he had 
suggested that the T- of ' Titchenor' had 
been "attracted'' from the preposition 'at' 
it would have been more to the point ; 
but neither case is probable. 

TITCHFIELD : v. Tiohflelcl. 

TITCHMARSH (Eng.) Bel. to Titchmarsh 

(Nortliants), I3lh cent. Tichemersh{e = 

the Goat-Marsh [v. under TIchborne, 

and -t- O.E. mersc, a marsh] 

TITCHWELL(Eng.) Bel. to Titchwell (Norf.), 
A.u. 1199-1200 Tichewell = the Goat- 
Spring (spring used by goats) [v. under 
TIchborne, and -f O.E. w(i)ella, a spring, 


TITE, the French form of Titus, q.v. 

TITFORD (Etig.) Bel. to Tetford (Lines), 14th 

cent. Tetford [for the first (pers.) element 

see under Tetbury] 

TITHERINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tytheringtou 
(Chesh. : 13th - 14th cent. Tyderinton, 
Tyderington ; Glouc. : 12th cent. Tidring- 
ton, Domesdayrzirra/MBe; Wilts), A.-Sax. 
*Tidheringa-tun or *Theodheringa-tiin = i\ie 
Estate of the Tidhere or Theodhere 
Family [for the pers. name see under 

Tidder: 1- -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. 

suff. -ing -I- tiin, farm, estate, etc.] 

TITHERLEIGH (Eng.) Bel. to Titherleigh 

(Dorset), Tytherley (Hants) [O.E. ledh, a 

lea, meadow: for the first (pers.) element 

see under Titherington] 

TITLEY (Eng.) 1 Bel. to Titley (Heref.), the 

Domesday Titelege, A.-Sax. *Tita7t-ledh = 

Tita's Lea [Titan-, genit. of Tita -1- ledh, 

{., dat. ledge, a meadow] 

2 for Tetley, q.v. 

TITLING (Scand.) a nickname from the 
SpARROvy [O.N. titling-r] 

TITLOW for Tetlow, q.v. 

TITMAN for TIdman : v. under TIddeman. 

TITMAS \ (Eng.) a nickname from the TiT- 
TITMUS MOUSE [M.E. tytmose, titmose — 
TITMUSS [tit, small (cp. O.N. titt-r, a tit) + 
TITTMUS j mose, O.E. mdse, a small bird] 

TITSWORTH (Eng.) Bel. to Tittesworth 

(Staffs), I3tli cent. Tettesworth, Tetesworth 

= Tet(t)'s Farm or Messuage [cp. 

Tetley, Tetbury ; and -|- O.E. W0r%] 

TITTERINGTON, v. Titherington. 

TITTERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Titterton or 

Tytherton (Wilts) [O.E. tiin, farm, estate: 

for the first (pers.) element see under 


TITUS (Lat.) is prob. conn, with Lat. Titan, 
Gr. TiTiv, 'a giant'. 

TIVERTON (Eng.) Bel. to i Tiverton (Devon), 

anc. Twyfordton = the Double-Ford 

Town [O.E. twi-, two-, double -^ ford + 

tiin, enclosure, farm, town] 




There are " two bridges over the Exe 
and Loman, at the points where these 
rivers were formerly forded". — Nat. Gaz. 

2 Tiverton (Chesh.), a.d. iy}2-^Teverton 

[liere a pers. name is in question, prob. 

the fairly common A.-Sax. Tidfri'S : — + 

tiin, farm, etc.] 

TOAU = Toole, q.v. 

TOBBIAS 1 (Gr. - Heb.) Jehovah is Good 

TOBIAS I [Gr. Tw^fas, Heb. Tdbhiydh—tdbh, 

good ; Yak, a contr. of Y'h&vdh, the Lord] 

Ego Tobias presbyter rogatus testis 
subscripsi. — 

Kentish Charter, A.D. 699 ; Cart. Sax. 

no. 99 


TOBIN, a double dim. of Tobias, q.v. 

TOBINS, Tobin's (Son) : v. Tobln. 

TOBIT(T (Gr.-Heb.) [Gr. Twj3fe)fT = Heb. 
Tdbhiydh : v. Tobias] 

TOBY, an Anglicized form of Tobias, q.v. 

"Who so hath rauche, spende manUche": 

So seith Tohye.— Piers Plowman, 5781-2. 

... as seyde the aungel Raphael to 

Thobie. — Chaucer (Pcrsoiins Tale), I 905. 

TOD \ (Teut.) I a nickname from the Fox 

TODD J [M. and Dial. N.E. and Scot, torf, a fox, 

a bush (the fox was called a tod from his 

brush) : cp. O.N. toddi (Dan.-Norw. tot), a 

tuft = Dut. tod, todde, a rag = Ger. notte, 

a tuft] 
John le Tod. — Pari. Writs. 

This tod, to rest him, he passit to ane 
craig . . . 

Than [then] rorfLowrie lukit quhair he 
couth lour [hide]. — 

Henryson, Trial of the Fox. 

My helpless lambs I trust them wi' him ; 
Oh, bid him save their harmless lives 
Frae dogs, an' tods, an' butchers' knives ! 
Burns, Poor Mailie, 28-30. 

2 Dweller at the Bush or Small 
Thicket [etym. as i] 

At length within an yvie todde. — 

Spenser, Shep. Cal. (March). 

TODHUNTER (Eng.) Fox-Hunter [v. Tod 

and Hunter] 

TODNAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tod(d)enham 

TODMAN J (Glouc), the Domesday TVo&Aaw, 

A.-Sax. *Teodanhdm = Teoda's Home or 

Estate [Teodan-, genit. of Teoda (f. O.E. 

d, nation, people) -|- hdm, home, etc.] 

TOFIELD, app. (with intrus. -d) = Tufflll, q.v. 

TOFT (A.-Scand.) Bel. to Toft ; or Dweller at 
a Croft or Messuage [M.E. and Dial. E. 
toft ; O.E. toft, 'a piece of ground' ; f. O.N. 
topt (p as /), a homestead (Dan.-Norw. 

toft, a croft ; Swed. tomt, ground, place] 

A subsidiary meaning in Old Norse, 
"the walls or foundations of a former 
building", may be compared with the 
Kent. Dial, secondary signification, " a 
piece of ground on which a messuage 
formerly stood," and the N. Lane, "a field 
where a house or building once stood." 

"In a court-book of the manor of Der- 
wentwater, Gawan Wren was fined ten 
shillings about 1640 for having two fires 
on in one tofi at the same time." — 

Cumbd. Gloss., p. 104. 

In Piers Plowman (II. 27, 29) the word 
seems to denote an eminence — 

I seigh [saw] a tour on a toft . . . 

A deep dale bynethe. 

Cp. Taft. 

TOFTS, pi. (and genit.) of Toft. 

TOKE (A. - Scand.) the 13th cent. Take, 
Domesday Toka, Tochi, Tocha, etc., 
A.-Scand. Toca VToca I)anus, c. 1030, 
'Liber Vitse' Hyde Abbey), Toce, O.N. 
Take, Toki, a pet contr. of the O.N. 
ThiffSgeir (mod. Norw, Tiodgeir, Tiogiei, 
etc.) = National Spear [O.N. ^iSS, 
nation, people -f- geir-r, a spear] 

TOKELIN = Toke (q.v.) + the Fr. double 
dim. suflf. -e)l-in. 
Richard Tokelyn. — 

Soms. Subs.-Roll, A.D. 1327. 

TOLEMAN = Tolman, q.v. 

TOLER = Toller, q.v. 

TOLFREE"! (Eng.) Toll- Free (free from 

TOLFREY J taxation) [M.E. and M. Scot, toll- 

fre, O.E. toll-frio, 'exempt from toll'] 

The uther mous that in the burgh can 

Wes gild-brother and maid ane fre 

Toll-fre als[o], but [without] custum 
mair or less. — 

Henryson, The Uplandis Mous, 10-12. 

TOLL (A.-Heb.) a dim. of Bartholomew, q.v. 

(Eng.) Dweller at a Toll - House ; 

meton. for Toller, q.v. [O.E. toll, toll, 


TOLLADY, an assim. form of Toplady, q.v. 

TOLLEMACHE for Tallemache, q.v. 

A connexion with M.H.Ger. tolmetsche 
(Ger. dolmetsch). Hung, tolmdcs (of Turk, 
orig.), 'interpreter', is not likely. 




TOLLER (Eng.) Tax-collector [M.E. toller(e, 

O.K. tollere] 
Of ryche Pers, jie tollere. — 
Robt. of Brunne, Handlyng Synne, 5814. 

Loke Matheu was first toller. — 

Cursor Mundi, 25<8°4- 

Taillpurs and tynkeres, 

And tolleres in marketes. — 

Piers Plowman, 438-g. 

TOLLET(T "1 (A.-Fr.-Heb.) double dims, of 
TOLLIT(T I Bartholomew, q.v. 

TOLLEY 1 (A.-Heb.) double dims, of Bar- 
TOLLY I tholomew, q.v. 

(Scand.) Tollei and Tolli are mod. 

Norw. forms of the O.N. Thorleik-r = 

Thor's Sport or Contest [O.N. leik-r, 

sport, contest, etc.] 

TOLLMAN 1 (Eng.) Toll-Man, Tax-Col- 
TOLMAN \ LECTOR [M.E. O.E. toll, toll, tax 
TOLMON J + man] 

TOLMIE, a Scot.-Gael. form of the A.-Scaud. 
Holm(e, q.v. 

TOLMIN, 17th cent. Tolmin, Towlmyn, is prob. 
a Northern local name, in which case the 
second element is the O.N. minni, mynni, 
mouth (of a river, valley, etc.) : in Eng. 
usage applied to the meeting of either 
streams or roads), as in Stalmine, q.v, ; 
and the first element may be the O.N. 
pers. name Toll. But there has been some 
confusion with Tolman. 

TOLMING = Tolmin (q.v.) with excresc. -g. 

TOLNER (Eng.) Tax - Collector [O.E. 

TOLSON, Toll's Son : v. ToM. 

TOM, like Thorn, a dim. of Thomas, q.v. 

TOMALIN for Tomlin, q.v. 

TOMAN (Eng.) a syncopated form of Tolman, 

(Celt.) a nickname f. the Ir. toman, a 
'bush,' a 'tuff. 

TOMBLESON, like Tombllnson, with intrus. 
b for Tomlinson, q.v. 


TOMBLINSON for Tomlinson, q.v. 

TOMBS for Tom(e)8, q.v. 

TOMES = Toms, q.v. 

TOMEY, a double dim. of Thomas, q.v. 

TOMILTY, see the commoner form Tumilty. 


TOM KIN = Tom (Thomas), q.v. + the E. 
(double)^dim. suff. -kin [O.LowTcut. -k-in] 

The 14th - cent. (Yorks) form was 

See the quotation from 'The Turnament 
of Tottenham' under Terry. 

TOMKINS, ToMKiN's (Son) 1 „ t-„,„^. 
TOMKINSON, Tomkin's SonJ^- '"'"xin. 

TOMLEY, a metalhetic form of Tolmie, q.v. 

TOMLIN -Tom (Thomas), q.v. -f the double 
dim. suff. -e)l-in. 

The 14th - cent. English forms are 
Tomelyn, Thomelyn, Tomlyn, Thomlyn. 

Thomelin is now somewhat rare in 

TOMLINS, ToMLiN's(Son) 1 „ .r„,„,i„ 
TOMLINSON, Tomlin's Son j ^- 'O""""- 

HenricusThomlynson. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TOMLYN = Tomlin, q.v. 

TOMMAS = Thomas, q.v. 

TOMPKIN= (with the common post -»; intrus. 
p) Tom kin, q.v. 

TOMPKINS,ToMPKlN's(Son) "I ^ .. 
TOMPKINSON,ToMPKiN'sSoN J ^' ' '""PX'"- 


TOMPSON = (with the common post-w 
intrus. />) Tomson, Thomson, q.v. 

TOMS, Tom's (Son) 1 Tom, like Thorn, a 
TOMSON, Tom's Son J dim. of Thomas, q.v. 


TONER (Ir.) The family of O'Tomhrair, who 
now call themselves Toner, took their 
name from an ancestor 'lomhrar. — ^Joyce, 
Ir. Names of PI., ii. 139. 

TONG 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tong or Tonge; or 
TONGE > Dweller at a Tongue or Point of 
TONGUE I Land (such, e.g., as would be 
formed by the meeting of two streams) 
[M.E. tonge, tunge, O.E. tunge, a tongue] 
Two brooks meet at Tong(e (13th cent. 
Tonglie), Salop ; and Tongland, Kirkcud- 
bright, " stands at the confluence of the 
rivers Tarf and Dee". The Yorks Tong, 
Tunge in the 13th cent., occurs as Tuinc in 

i for Thomasset, q.v. 

I for Thomasset, q.v. 






N \ I a double dim. of Ant(h)ony, q.v. 
rN J [E. di " " ~ ■ ~ 

m. suff. -kin, O.LowTeul. 

2 for Tomkin, q.v. 

TONKINS, Tonkin's (Son) 1 „ T^„^i„ 
TONKINSON, Tonkin's Son r lonKin. 

TONKS, a contr. of Tonkins, q.v. 

TONSON I Tony's Son : v. Tony, Ant(h)ony. 
2 for Tomson, q.v. 

TONY, a dim. of Ant(h)ony, q.v. 

TOOEY, V. Toohy. 

TOOGOOD, I3th-i4th cent. Togod, in spite of 
apparent phonological difficulties, seems 
to represent the Domesday 'lurgod, O.N. 
Thorgaut-r (mod. Norw. Torgaut) : v. 
Thupgood, Thupgate. 

TOOHY (Celt.) North-Country ; Boorish 

[Ir. Tuathach {th as h) — nepotic or genit. 

form O'Tuathaigh — f. tuath, the north + 

the agent, suff. -acK] 

^°g|^,} = Toke,q.v. 

TOOKER (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Tucker, Fuller (of 
cloth) [iVI.E. to(u)ker{e, tuker(e, tokker, a 
fuller; f. Fr. toquer (^toucher), to beat, 
knock ; of Teut. orig. : cp. Low Ger. 
tukken = Ger. zucken, to twitch, jerk, etc.] 

Roger leTukere.—/fM«(/.ifflHi,A.D.i274. 

Alex' le Toukere. — 

Soms. Subs. Roll, A.D. 1327. 

John Touker (Soms.). — 

MSS. Dn. & Ch. Wells, A.D. I474-S- 
Taillours, tanneris, 
And tokkeris bothe. — 

Piers Plowman, 438-9 (MS. Trin. 2). 

Tucker, sb,, fuller.— 

West Devon Gloss., A.I>. 1796. 

TOOKEY (A.-Scand.) the I3th-cent. Toky, nth 
cent. Tokig: the same name as Took(e, 
Toke (q.v.), with the dim. suff. 

TOOLE (Celt.) v. O'Toole. 

TOOLEY (A.-Scand.) the I3th-I4thcent. Toly, 
Toll, nth-cent. Tolig (also O.Dan.), a pet 
form of the O.N. Thorleik-r = Thor's 
SpoRTor Contest [O.N. leik-r, sport, etc.] 

Mod. Norw. forms of O.N. Thorleik-r are 
Tolleik, Toilet, Tolli. 

(Celt.) the Ir. Tuatkal{l)ach {th as h) = 
Tuathal (v. O'Toole) with the pers. suff. 

TOOMBS for Tom(e)8, q.v. 

TOOMER is f. the North. Fr. place-name St. 
Omer, anc. St. Audomar, with the t of St. 
attracted to the pers. name [the pers. 
name isa compound of O.Ger. aud{=0.^. 
au'S-r = O.Sax. dd=O.E. edd), prosperity, 
wealth, happiness, and mdri ( = O.E. 
mcere), famous] 

William de St. Omero. — Hund. Rolls. 

TOOMEYl (Celt.) the Irish O'Tuama = 

TOOMY J Descendant of Tuam [Ir. d or 

ua, grandson, descendant : the pers. name 

is f. the Ir. tua{i)m, a stronghold] 

TOON 1 ^ 
TOONE J 'own, q.v. 

TOOP I (Eiig.) lengthened vars. of Tupp, 
TOOPE J q.v. ; but there may have been 
some confusion with Topp, q.v. 

TOOTAL(L ) (A.-Fr.-Teut.) for the French 

TOOTEL(L ( r(?fe/,adoubledira.ofTheodopio, 

q.v. [Fr. dim. suff. -el] 

As is so often the case with A.-Fr. 
names, our I3th-cent. form is the present- 
day French form — 

Custance Totel. — Hund. Rolls. 

(Eng.) for Toothlll, q.v. 

TOOTH (Eng.) a nickname, like the cognate 
Dent [M.E. toth, O.E. t£^, a tooth, tusk] 

Thomas Toth. — Hund. Rolls. 

TOOTH ILL \ (Eng.) Dweller at a Toot-Hill, 

TOOTILL /i.e. a Look-out - Hill [M.E. 

totehill, totehylle ; i. M.E. toten, O.E. tdtian, 

to peep out, project -f- O.E. hyll, a hill] 

John de Totehill. — ■ 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TOOTING (Eng.) Bel. to Tooting (Surrey), the 
Domesday Totinges, in Latin charters of 
the A.-Sax. period Totinge = (the Estate 
of the) ToTA Family [A.-Sax. Totingas 
(dat. pi. Totingum): the pers. name Tot(t)a 
is a pet form, of one of the A.-Sax. Torht- 
names (O.E. torht, beautiful, glorious) -|- 
-ingas, pi. of the 'son' suff. -ing] 

TOOTLE I for Tootel(l\ q.v. 
2 for Toothlll, q.v. 

TOOVEY (A.-Scand.) the common nth-cent. 

Tofig (Domesday Tovi), O.N. Tofi, a dim. 

of rAzoSi)flH-f= National Ruler [O.N. 

Jiio'S, nation, people -|- vald-r, ruler] 

TOPHAM (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper Field; 

or the Hill-Field [O.E. topp, a summit 

-f ham{m, a piece of land] 




TOPHILL (Eng.) Dweller at the Top of the 
Hill [O.E. topp, a summit + hylt\ 

TOPLADY is app. a nickname fo( a libertine. 

TOPLEY (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper 
Meadow ; or the Hill- Meadow [O.E. 
topp, a summit-|-Zea'A(M.E. ley), ameadow] 

There are a Topley in Shropshire and 
a Topley Pike in Derbyshire. 

TOPLIFF (Eng.) Bel. to Topcliffe (Yorks), 

14th cent. Topcliffe, 13th cent. Topclyf, 

Domesday Topedive = the Top of the 

Cliff [O.E. topp, a summit + clif] 

l (Eng.) Dweller at the Top Leas 

J [O.E. topp, a summit ; ledh, a lea, 


TOPP (Eng. and Scand.) Dweller at a Summit 

[O.E. topp = O.N. topp-r\ 

(Scand.) a nickname f. the O.N. topp-r, 
'tuft', 'lock of hair', 'forelock'. 

TOPPER = Topp (q.v.) + the E. agent, 
sufl. -er. 

TOPPIN for Topping, q.v. 

TOPPING (A.-Scand.) Dweller at the Top 
Meadow [O.E. topp = O.N. topp-r, a top, 
summit + O.N.E. ing, OM.eng, ameadow] 

TOPPLE for Tophill, q.v. 







(Scand.) the O.N. Thorbiart-r = 

Thor-Glorious [v. Thor, and 

+ O.N. biart-r, bright, glorious, 


TORDOFF (Scand.) a corrupt Yorkshire de- 
scendant of the O.N. Tkio'Sulf-r (A.-Sax. 
Theodwulf) = National Wolf [O.N. 
Jpii'S, nation, people + lilf-r, wolf] 

The mod. Norw. form of this name is 

TORGETT (Scand.) the O.N. Thorgaut-r {mod. 
Norw. Torgaut) : v. under Th ungate. 

TORKINGTON (A.-Scand.) Bel. toTorkington 
(Chesh.), i3th-i4th cent. Torkinton, Old 
A.-Scai\A. *Torhinga-ttin = i\\e, Estate of 
the ToRK- Family [thepers. M&meTork{a 
is a contr. of the O.N. Thorkell, Thorketill, 
mod. Norw. Torkell (v. Thurkell, Thur- 

kettle) : h -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. 

-ing -f ttin, estate, etc.] 

TORLEY 1 (Celt.) the Irish Toirdhealbhach 

TORLOGH I (fil. —genit. — form MacToir- 

dhealbhaigh) [Ir. tdir, aid, help +dealbhack, 

ingenious, inventive ; handsome] 

TORMEY (C^lt.) the Irish Tormach (nepotic 

— genit. — form O'Tormaigh) [f. the Ir. verb 

tormach-aim, I increase, magnify; tormach, 

m., an increase, augmentation] 

TORNEY (Celt.) for the Irish O'Torna, i.e. 
Descendant of Torn(a = a Lord [Ir. 
6 or iia, grandson, descendant -\- the genit. 
oilr.tdrn, a head, summit; lord, sovereign] 

"Tomey is now a pretty common family- 
name, the correct form of which is O'Torna. 
According to O'Curry, they derive their 
name from the celebrated poet Torna 
Eigeas, who flourished in the fourth 
century ; and they inhabited the district 
of O'Torna in the North of Kerry." — 

Joyce, Ir. Names of PL, ii. 139 

TORPIN (Scand.) form. Torphin, the O.N. 

Thorfinn-r (mod. Norw. Torfinti) [v. under 

Thon, and -f Finn-r, the ethnic name] 

TORR ] (A.-Lat. ; A.-Celt.) Dweller at a 

TORRE / Tower, or Tower-like Rock or 

Hill [O.E. torr, a tower, rock, tor; Lat. 

turr-is, a tower ; cogn. with Celt. tor{r, a 

mound, heap, pile, conical hill, tower, 

Henry atte Torre. — Fine-Rolls. 

(Scand.) for the O.N. Thori-r, Thdr-r 
(mod. Norw. Tore) : v. Thor. 

TORRAN (Celt.) Dweller at a Knoll or 

Hillock [Gael, torran (Ir. tordn) — torr, a 

hill + the dim. suff. -dn] 


= Torran (q.v.) + the Eng. 
-J suffix. 


There are places called Torrance in cos. 
Lanark and Stirling. 

2 Irish var. of Terence, q.v., and, like 
it, used for the Ir. Toirdhealbhach : v. 

TORRIEl I like Terry', a contr. of Theo- 
TORRY J doric, q.v. 

2 like Torrence", used for the Ir. 
Toirdhealbhach : v. Torley. 

TORT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Wry, Crooked [O.Fr. 
tort, Lat. tort-US, twisted, crooked] 

Ralph le Tort. — Plac. de quo Warr. 

TORTOISESHELL, an imit. form of Tatters- 
hall, q.v. 

TOTHILL, V. Toothill. 

TOTILLER "I (Eng.) Tatler [f. M.E. totelen, 
TOTLER J tatelen = L.Ger. tateln, to tattle] 

John Totiller.— i?t)H5 of Pari. 

The Chaucerian form was totelere. 




TOTMAN for Tottenham, q.v. 

TOTTENHAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tottenham 
TOTTMAN I (M'sex), the Domesday Tote- 
ham, A.-Sax. *Tot(t)an-hdm = Tot(t)a's 
HoMEovEsTATE \Tot{t)an-,%m\t. oiTot{Oa, 
a pet form of one of the A.-Sax. Torht- 
(torht, glorious) names :- 1- ham, home] 

The Turnament of Totenham have we 
in mynde. — Percy's Reliques, II. I. iv. 

\ 1 (Eng.) descendants of the A.-Sax. 
TOTTY ( Tota, : 


Totta, pet forms of one of the 
Torht- [O.E. torht, glorious] names (thus 
the eighth-cent, bishop of Leicester Torht- 
helm was familiarly Totta), -|- the E. dim. 
suff. -ie, -y. 
Johannes Totty. — • 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TOTTINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tottington 
(Lane. : 13th cent. Totyngton, Totingtone, 
Totington ; Norf.), A.-Sax. *Totinga-tun = 
the Estate of the Tota Family [for the 
pers. name see under Tottie, and -|- the 
genit. pi., -inga, ot the fil. suff. -ing -f tun, 

estate, etc.] 

TOUHILL = Toole, O'Toole, q.v. 




TOULSON, V. Tolson. 

TOURNAYlv. the commoner Eng. form 
tourney; Turney. 

TOUT (Eng.) a nickname fM.E. and Dial E. 

tout{e, the buttocks ; f. O.E. totian, to 

project, protrude] 

And Nicholas is scalded in the toute. — 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3853. 

TOVEY, V. Toovey. 

TOW (Eng.) Tough [Dial. E. tow, O.E. toh] 

TOWCESTER (Celt. & A.-Lat.) Bel. to Tow- 
cester (Northants), 14th cent. Toucestre, 
Domesday Touecestre, A.D. 921 Tofeceaster 
' ('t6 Tofe ceastre' — dat.) = the (Roman) 
Camp on the R. Tow [the river-name is a 
form of the Welsh river-name Taw{e — 
Wei. taw, still, placid, sluggish ( = Ir. 
tdmh — »iA as T)) + O.E. ceaster, Lat. 
castra, a camp] 



TOWER (Eng.) a var. of Tawer, q.v. 
Gilbert le Tower.— Hund. Rolls. 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Tower [M.E. 
O.Fr. t(o)ur, Lat. turr-is] 
Hugh de la Tour.— Ca/. Inq. P.M. 

TOWERS (Eng.) the Tower's (Son) : v. 
Tower', Tawer. 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) pi. of TowerS q.v. 

TOWERSON (Eng.) the Tower's Son : v. 
Tower', Tawer. 

TOWGOOD = Toogood, q.v. 

TOWL 1 I for Toll, q.v. 
TOWLE / 2 for Towell, q.v. 

TOWLER for Toller, q.v. 

TOWLSON for Tolson, q.v. 

TOWN "1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Town ; orig. 

TOWNE J an ENCLOSURE, then a Farmstead, 

Village [M.E. t{o)un, t{o)une (M. Scot. 

toun{e), O.E. tun] 

And he went and drew him to aan of 

the citezenis of that cuntre, and he send 

him into his toune to fede swyne. — 

St. Luke, XV. 15 ; M.Scot, vers. (Nisbet). 

In parts of the country, e.g. in the West 

ot England and in Scotland, the town, or 

'toon' (Ihe pron. of O.E. tun), is still the 


TOWNDROW (with intrus. -t?-)for Town row, 

TOWNEND (Eng.) Dweller at the Town 
(Village) -End [M.E. toun{e, O.E. tiin, farm, 
hamlet, village -f- M.E. O.E. ende] 
He lives agen the town-end. — 

S.W.Linc. Gloss., p. 155. 
Cp. Townsend. 

TOWNER (Eng.) =Town (q.v.) -f the agent, 
suff. -er. 

TOWN H ER D 1 (Eng.) Town - HERDSMAN or 

TOWNERD \ Farm-Bailiff [v.underTown, 

and -I- M.E. herd{e, O.E. hierde, guardian, 

keeper, etc.] 

Augustin Tuuherd.— i/wwrf. Rolls. 

TOWNLEY 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Town 

TOWNELEY J (Village)-MEADOw[M.E. f(o)M«, 

O.E. tiin + M.E. ley, etc., O.E. Udh] 

The Lane. Towneley was Tounley,Toun- 

lay, in the 14th cent. 

TOWNMAN (Eng.) This term goes back to 

Anglo-Saxon times [O.E. tun mann, 'man 

belonging to a tfln' — tun, farm, estate, 

manor, etc.] 

TOWNROE 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the Town 

TOWNROW J (Village)-Row (of Dwellings) 

[O.E. tAn -\- raw] 

TOWNS, Town's (Son) : v. Town. 

TOWNSEND 1 (Eng.) Dweller at the End OF 

TOWNSHEND J A Town (Village) [O.E. tiin, 

genit. tunes + ende"] 




Henry atte Tunesende. — Hand. Rolls. 
Asomonour isarennereupanddoun. . . 
And is y-bet [beaten] at everich tounes 
ende. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, D 1283, 85. 

Unto yone hospitall at the tounis end. — 
Henrysoii, Test, of Cresseid, 382. 

The intrus. -h- in the second form of 
this name is found as early as the 13th 

TOWNSLEY, equiv. to Townley, q.v. 

TOWNSON I Town's Son : v. Town. 

2 a corrupt form of Tomlinson, q.v. 

3 for Towlson, Tolson, q.v. 

TOWSE, Tow's (Son) : v. Tow. 

TOWSON I Tow's Son : v. Tow. 
2 for earlier Townson, q.v. 

TOWSTER, the fem. form of Tower=Tawer, 
q.v. [O.E. fem. agent, suif. -estre'] 

TOWZER (Eng.) i Teaser, Carder (of 

wool, etc.) [f. E. touse, M.E. tusen, to pull 

about ; of Teut. orig.] 

2 used as a nickname for a Roisterer, 
Rowdy [same etym.] 

But let him loose amongst my kitchen- 
furniture, my maids, never was seen so 
tarmagant a towzer. — 

Otway, The Atheist (1684) ; T. Wright. 

TOY 1 (Scand.) a specif. East, and North. 
TOYE J name, I3th-I4th cent. Toy, Toye, seems 

to represent the O.N. Thia'Sgeir (mod. 

Norw. Tiogiei) = A.-Sax. Theodgar, i.e. 

National Spear [O.N. JjirfS = O.E. ^edd, 

nation, people + O.N. geir-r = O.E. 
gdr, a spear] 

(Celt.) the Irish O'Tuaith (th mute) = 

Descendant of Tuath, i.e. Northern 

[Ir. tuath, northern] 

TOYNBEE (Scand.) Bel. to Toynby (? Lines) 

[O.N. by-r, farm, estate: the first element 

doubtless represents a pers. name : v. 

under Toynton] 

TOYNTON (Scand.) Bel. to Toynton (Lines), 
a.d. 1317-18 Toynton [O.N. ttin, enclosure, 
homestead : the first element prob. repre- 
sents'the O.N. (fem.) pers. nameThid'Sunn, 
which (as Rygh points out in his 'Gamle 
[Old] Personnavne', p. 250) occurs in 
modern times as Tiown and Tion] 

TOZER, v. Towzer. 

TRACE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Trackway 

[Fr. trace, a trace, path; Lat. tract-us, a 

course, etc.] 

TRACEY I (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Tracy (Nor- 
TRACY f maudy) : (i) Tracy- Bocage — A.D. 
1 198 Traceium, 141 7 Tracheium ; (2) Tracy- 
sur-Mer — i2thcent.7VacsM»i, 1155 (Wace, 
'Rom. de Rou') Tracie, 1255 Tracheium 
[the Lat. suff. -eium denotes possession : 
the first elem. embodies a pers. name, 
prob. the Lat.-Gr. Thrasius, f. Gr. thrasys 
(fifiaais), bold, courageous] 

Richard de Tracy. — Hund. Rolls. 
(Celt.) the Irish Treasach (nepotic — 
genit. — form O'Treasaigh) [Ir. treas, battle 
4- the agent, suff. -acK\ 

TRAFFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Trafilord (Man- 
chester), I3th-i4th cent. Trafford = the 
Tree-Ford (i.e. a ford whose passage was 
facilitated by tree-stumps or timber-piles) 
[O.E. tre&w, a tree, timber (= Dan.-Norw. 
tra, Swed. tra) -f ford[\ 

TRAHAIARN 1 (Celt.) the O.Welsh TraAaj-arM, 

TRAHARN [ a nickname of strength = 

TRAHERN J Super-Iron [Wei. tra, over, 

super- + haiarn, iron] 

Ac yna y bu vrwydyr ym mynyd Cam, 
ac yna y WasTrahayam uab Caradawc uab 
Gruffud wyr lago. 

(And then took place the battle on Cam 
mountain, when was slain Trahaiarn, son 
of Caradoc, son of Griffith, grandson of 

Brut y Tywysogion (Chronicle of the 
[Welshi Princes), A.D. 1079. 

Trahern ap Howel ap Rys (a Welsh 
hostage in Chester Castle). — 

Chesh. Chmbrlns.' Accts.,A.Ti. 1301-2. 




forms of Thrale, q.v. [cp. Dan.- 
Norw. trcel=Swsd.trdl, a bondman] 

TRAINER ] (Celt.) the Irish Treinfhear or 

TRAINOR \ Trdunfhear {fh mute) = Strong 

TRANNER J or Brave Man ; Hero [Ir. triun 

(pron. train), strong, brave -|- the asp. form 

ot fear, a man : cp mod. Gael, treunair, 

'dihgent man'] 

TRANT, V. Trent. 

TRANTER | (Teut.) Peddler, Carrier [cp. 
TRANTOR \ M.Dut. tranten, to walk slowly; 
TRAUNTOR J Low Ger. trant, a walk, pace] 

Dick Dewy's father, Reuben, by voca- 
tion a tranter, or irregular carrier. — 
T. Hardy, Under the Greenwood-Tree, i. 2. 


for Trentham, q.v. 

TRAPNELL (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the YxmchTrapinel, 

a double dim. i. Fr. trapu = Squat, 

Stumpy [v. under Trapp] 




TRAPP (A.-Fr.-Teut.) the French Trappe, 

Trap(e = Squat, Stumpy [Fr. trapu ; of 

Teut. orig. : cp. Ger. trapp, a heavy step ; 

trappen, to walk heavily] 

John Trappe. — Hund. Rolls. 

TRAPPS, Trapp's (Son) : v. Trapp. 

TRASK (Scand.) Dweller at a Bog or Marsh 

[Scand. trdsk] 

TRASS, a form of Trace, q.v. : cp. Scot, tras, 
'a game-track'. 

TRATT, a var. of Trott, q.v. 

TRAVERS \ (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dwellerat a Cross- 

TRAVERSE J Road [O.Fr. travers-e; f. Lat. 

transversus, oblique, athwart] 

TRAVISS I '"'^^'^ forms of Travers(e, q.v. 

In the late i6th and early 17th centuries 
the same individual is often called indiff- 
erently 'Travers' and 'Travis'. 


Trainer, Trainor, q.v. 

TRAYTON, a var. of Treeton, q.v. 

fM.E. treacher, trechour(e, O.Fr. tricheor 
(Fr. tricheur) ; f. O.Fr. trickier, to trick ; Lat. 
tricae, troubles, etc.] 
She makith folk compasse and caste 
To taken other folkis thyng 
Through robberie or myscounting. 
And that is she that makith trechonres. — 
Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose, 194-7. 

TREACY, a form of Tracy (q.v.), esp.' 

TREADAWAY (with intrus.-a-) for Treadway, 


TREADWAY 1 (Eng.) prob. descendants of an 

TREDWAY ] A.-S,&x.*Thrythwig = Mighty 

War or Warrior [O.E. ['rj't', might, 

strength -(- wig, war (wiga, warrior] 

TREADWELL (Eng.) Dweller at a Spring or 

Well by a Path or Road [Dial. E. tread, 

a path, track, way ; f. O.E. tredan, to tread 

-I- E. well, O.E. w{i)ell(a, a spring] 

TREANOR = Trainor, q.v. 

TREBBLE 1 (Eng.)i assim. forms of Trennble, 
TREBLE J Trimble, Trumble, q.v. 

2 descendants of the A.-Sax. Thryth- 

&(e)rtW= Mightily Bold [O.E. I'^-ji)', might, 

strength -|- b(e)ald, bold] 

TREDEGAR (Celt.) Bel. to Tredegar (Monm.) 
= Tegyr's Homestead [Wel. tre, home- 
stead, etc. : the stem of the pers. name 
7V^^»" (with T regularly mutated to D in 
the place-name) is Wel. tSg, fair, hand- 
some. The name Tegyr occurs in the 
'Mabinogion' (Kulhwch ac Olwen). 

TREDINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to Tredington 
(Wore. : 13th cent. Tredinton, Domesday 
Tredinctun, 10th cent.Tredinctutt,Tyrdintun, 
8th cent. Tredincgtun ; G\ouc. : 13th cent. 
Tredintone, Tredigtone), the A.-Sax. *Tred- 
inga-tun = the Estate of the Treda 
Family [the pers. names Treda and 
Tyrda (both 8th - cent. Worcestersh. 
names) are evid. easier-pronounced var. 
masc. formations on the fem. noun f'ryj', 
might, strength -{- -inga, genit. pi. of the 
fil. suff. -ing + tun, estate, etc.] 

TREE (Eng.) Dweller by a (conspicuous) 
Tree [O.E. treow\ 

(Fr.) Bel. to Trie (Oise, etc.) ; or Dweller 

at the Uncultivated or Fallow Land 

[O.Fr. trie, "terrain vague, inculte "] 

TREEBY (Scand.) Dweller at the Tree- 
Farmstead [O.N. <r^ -f by-r] 

TREECE for Trees, q.v. 

TREES (Eng.) pi. (and genit.) of Tree, q.v. 

TREETON (Eng.) Bel. to Treeton (Yorks), the 

Domesday 7>-eto«e= the Tree Enclosure 

or Farmstead [O.E. treo + ttin] 

TREEVES = Treves, q.v. 

TREFFRY 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Treffry (Cornwall) 

TREFRY I = the Town of the Slope [Corn. 

and Wel. tref, a homestead, village, town 

+ the Corn. cogn. of Wel. rhiw, a slope] 

TREFUSESl (Celt.) Bel. to Trefusis (Corn- 
TREFUSIS I wall) [Corn, and Wel. tref, a 
homestead, village, etc. : evidence of early 
forms is lacking, and the wild shots of 
Cornish historians and others at the origin 
of the second element are not worth 
quoting here ; in ray opinion it represents 
the pers. name Huws with the later addit. 
of one of the Corn. pi. sufis., -es^ 

TREGARTHEN 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Tregarthian 
TREGARTHIAN J (Cornwall) [Corn, and Wel. 

tre, a homestead, etc. -I- the pi. of Corn. 

garth, Wel. gardd, a garden (-en, Corn. pi. 
suff. ; -ian for yon, pi. suff.] 

TREGEAR(E (Celt.) Bel. to Tregear(e (Corn- 
wall), 14th cent. Tregaer = the Town of 
the Fort [Corn, and Wel. tre, a home- 
stead, village, etc. -|- a mutated form of 
Corn, car = Wel. caer, a fort, camp] 




The corresponding Wei. place-name is 

TREGETOR (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Juggler [M.E. 

tregeto(u)r; f. O.Fr. tresgeter, to jnsjgle ; 

Lat. trans, across -\-jactare, to throw] 

TREGOS(E 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Tregos(e, Tre- 
TREGOZ(E J goos(e (Cornwall) = the Town 
of the Wood [Corn, and Wei. tre, a home- 
stead, village, etc. -|- the mutated form, 
-gos, of Corn, cos = Wei. coed, a wood] 
Henr' de Tregoze. — 

Charter Rolls, A.D. 1270-1. 


later forms of Trahaiarn, 
etc., q.v. 

TRELAWN \ (Celt.) Dweller at the Church- 

TRELAWNY/TowN [Corn, and Wei. tre, a 

homestead, village, town -f Corn. Ian = 

Wei. llan (O.Wel. lann), a church : the -y 

i uTrelawny represents the Corn, dim . suff.] 

Trelawny, par. Alternon, Cornwall, 
form. Trelany, Trelone, is the Domesday 
Treloen. The correspondingWelsh place- 
name is Trellan ; Welsh has also the 
formation llandref, 'church-village' {-dref 
mutation oi tref, 'village'.) 

TRELOAR (Celt.) Bel. to Treloar (Cornwall) 

[Corn, tre, a homestead, etc. -|- lowr, 

downward, lower] 

TREMAIN I (Celt.)Bel. toTremaine(Corn- 

TREMAINE V wall) = the Town of the 

TREMAYNE J Stone [Corn, and Wei. tre, 

a homestead, village, etc. -f- Corn, men = 

Wei. maen, a stone] 

"In the name Tremaine we may be sure 
that the second syllable is not an adjective 
or it would be 'Trevaine' ; so the meaning 
is not, as one might think, 'the stone 
house' (not a very distinguishing epithet 
in Cornwall), but probably 'the house of 
the stones', i.e. of some stone circle or 
other prehistoric remains." — 

Jenner, Handbk. Com. Lang., p. 193. 

The corresponding Welsh place-name 
is Tremaen or Tremain. In the parish of 
Tremain, Cardigan, "is the Llech-yr-Ast 

TREMBLE (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller by an Aspen- 
Tree [Fr. tremble, an aspen; Lat. tremul-us] 
(Eng.) V. Trimble, Trumble. 

TREMEER 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Tremeer or Tre- 

TREMEREJraere (Cornwall) = Mer's or 

Mear's Home or Estate [Corn, and Wei. 

tre, a homestead, etc. : the pers. name is 

the Corn. mSr or mear (= Wei. mawr), big] 

If this name had signified 'the Big 
Estate' the m of mer or mear would have 
been mutated to v : cp. Trevean. 

TREMELLAN ) (Celt.) Dweller at the Mill 

TREMELLEN IEst.ate or Village [Corn. 

TREMELLIN J and Wei. tre, a homestead, 

village, etc. -|- Corn. mel{r)an = 'We]. melin, 

a mill] 

TREMENHEERE (Celt.) Bel. to Tremenheere 

(Cornwall) = the Menhir-Estate [Corn. 

and Wei. tre, a homestead, village, etc. -|- 

Corn. men = Wei. maen, a stone + Corn. 

heer = Wei. Mr, long] 

TREMLETT (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at an 
Aspen - Grove [Fr. Trem(b)let, f. Lat. 
tremiilet-um (mod. Fr. tremblaie), a place 
planted with aspens ; Lat. tremul-us 
(whence Fr. tremble,a.n aspen) -|- the 'plan- 
tation' suS. -et-um1 

TRENCH (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Dweller at a Cutting 

or Alley [M.E. trench(e ; f. O.Fr. trencher 

(mod. trancher), to cut] 

And in a trench, forth in the park, gooth 
she. — Cha ucer. Cant. Tales, F 392. 

TRENCHARD (Fr.-Lat. + Teut.) a nickname 

from O.Fr. trencher, 'to cut' [O.Fr. trencher 

(mod. trancher), to cut : the (intens.) suff. 

-ard in the name is for the O.Teut. hard, 

hard, brave] 

TRENDELLl (app. Celt.) Bel. to Trendle 

TRENDLE / (Soms.), 14th cent. Tretidyl [If 

the name is not the O.E. trendel, a circle 

(as of stones), the stem is prob.West. Eng. 

trend, a current or stream — app. f. Wei. 

tren(t, rapid; and the suff. the dim. -et\ 

TRENDER, v. Trinder. 

TRENNER = Trainer, q.v. 

TRENT I Dweller by the River Trent, 12th 
cent. Trenta, loth cent. A.-Sax. charters 
Trenta, Traenta, the Treonta of the A.-Sax, 
Chron, a.d. 924, and the Treanta of Bseda. 
What the river was called during the 
Roman occupation is uncertain. Dr. Brad- 
ley's ingenious emendation in 1883 of 
Tacitus's ('Annales', xii. 31) "castris 
antonam " into "cis trisantonara'', and his 
identification of the "Ti-isantona" thus 
evolved with the mod. Trent, which seems 
to have been accepted by Prof. Rhys 
('Celt. Brit.', ed. 1908, p. 80), cannot be 
said to be convincing, and are perhaps no 
longer viewed with favour by their author. 
In my opinion the name is a survival of 
the Lat. torrent-em (Ital. torrinte), a torrent, 
in allusion to the famous bore or eagre of 
the lower part of the river ; the of the 
etymon falling out at an early period owing 




[v. Trent 

to the stress being on the second syllable: 
we may compare the name of the Trenta, 
a mountain-stream of the Austrian Alps. 

. . . ane of the sherriffes men, 
Good William a-Trent was slaine. — 
Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, 75-6. 

2 Bel. to Trent (Dorset) [app. the West. 

Eng. trend, a current or stream ; prob. f. 

Wei. tren(t, rapid] 

Bel. to Trentham (Staffs), 
I2th-I3th cent. Trentham = ihe 
Enclosure on the R. Trent 
, and + O.E. hamm, a piece of 
land, enclosure] 

TRESHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Tresham (Glouc), 
loth cent. Tresham ('Cart. Sax.' no. 1282) 
= (prob.) Treowe's Home [the geuit. of 
O.E. treowe, tr^we, true + hdm, home, 

Will'us Tresham.— 

Charter Rolls, tp. Hen. VI. 

TRESILLIAN (Celt.) Bel. to Tresillian (Corn- 
wall) =Silian's or Sulian's Homestead 
[Corn, and Wei. tre, a homestead : Sultan 
represents Julian] 
Sihan, Cardigansh., is for St. Suhan 
(Julian), as the dedication of the ancient 
church shows. 

TREVARTHEN (Celt.) Bel. to Trevarthian 

(Cornwall) = the High Farmstead [Corn. 

trev, a homestead, etc. -|- arth, high-|-the 

"individualizing" suff. -an ox-en] 

TREVEAR (Celt.) Bel. to Trevear (Cornwall) 

= the Big Farm or Estate fCorn. and 

Wei. tre, a homestead, etc. -t- Corn, -vear, 

mutated form of mear or »!«»"= Wei. mawr 

( = Ir. and Gael, mor), great] 

TREVELIAN \ (Celt.) Bel. to Trevelyan 

TREVELION (Cornwall), the Domesday 

TREVELYAN • Trevelien = Elian's Home- 

TREVILIAN STEAD [Corn, trev, a home- 

TREVILLIONJ stead, etc.] 

TREVELLICK j (Celt.) Bel. to Trevillick 
TREVILLICK ) (Cornwall) = Meilic's Home- 
stead [Corn, and Wei. tre, a homestead, 
etc. ; with the M of the pers. name mu- 
tated to V : the pers. name Meilic occurs 
in the M'dbinogion ('Kulhwch ac Olwen')] 

TREVER = Trevor, q.v. 

TREVES (Fr.) Bel. to Treves (France).Tr6ves, 
Gard, e.g., was Treve a.d. 1227, 1244, and 
1262; but 'apud Tr/wMwi' occurs in 1289, 
and 'Parochia de Trivio' in 1309. If these 
M.Lat. forms were to be trusted, the name 
would, of course, mean 'the Three-Roads' 

TREVETHICK 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Trevethick 
TREVITHICK J (Cornwall) = the Physician's 
Dwelling [Corn, and Wei. tre, a home- 
stead, etc. -\- the mutated form, -vethic, of 
Corn. ?nethic or medhec = Wei. meddyg 
(Lat. medic-us), a physician] 


There is a Trevet in co. Meath, anc. 
Trefoil, i.e. 'Three Sods or Turves', "so 
named . . . because when Art, son of Conn 
of the Hundred Battles, was buried there, 
three sods were dug over his grave in 
honour of the Trinity" (Joyce, 'Irish Local 
Names', p. 90) ; but this place has prob. 
had no surnominal influence. 

TREVINE (Celt.) Bel. to Trevine (Cornwall) = 

the Little Farmstead [Corn, tre, farm, 

homestead, etc. -|- the mutated form, 

-vean, of Corn, bean, Man, little] 

TREVISA (Celt.) Bel. to Trevisa (Cornwall) = 

the Lower Town [Corn, trev = Wei. 

tref, a homestead, hamlet, etc. -f Corn. 

isa = Wei. is, lower] 

TREVOR (Celt.) i the Irish Treabhar = Pru- 
dent, Discreet [O.Ir. trebar] 
2 Bel. to Trevor (Cornwall), a form of 
Trevear, q.v. 
There is also a Trevor in co. Denbigh. 

TREW = True, q.v. 

TREWEN (Celt.) Bel. to Trewen (Cornwall) = 

the White House [Corn, and Wei. tre, a 

homestead, etc. + Corn, and Wei. -wen, 

mutated form o{ given, fem. oigwyn, white] 

There is also a Trewen in co. Cardigan. 

TREWHITT (Eng.) Bel. to Trewhitt (Nor- 

thumb.), 13th cent. Terwit, Tirwhit [perh. 

repr. O.E. tredw-(ge)'wrid, a thicket] 

TREWlNNARD(Celt.-t-E.)Bel. toTrewinnard 
(Cornwall) = Winnard's or Wynn- 
heard's Home or Estate [Corn, and 
Wei. tre, a homestead, etc. ; and see 


TRICKER for Trigger, q.v. 

TRICKETT, the French Triquet, Tricot, etc., f. 
the O.N. Trygg, Tryggui (v. Trigg), with 
the Fr. dim. suff. -et, -ot. 
Thomas Triket. — Hund. Rolls. 

TRICKEY =Trigg (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y. 

TRIGG l(Scand.) the Norw. Trygg, O.N. 
TRIGGE i Tryggui=iheTKiiSTi, True [O.N. 


A Tryggui was, of course, the father of 

King Olaf Trygguason (Olafr konungr 

Trygguason) of the sagas. The form in 

our I3th-i4th cent, records was Trig- and 



\ V. Thrimby. 

Tryg. The word is the second element 
in the name of the Norse Iting of Dublin, 
Sigtryggr, who figures, e.g., in the great 
Nial Saga. 

TRIGGER (Scand.) represents an O.N.Tryggeir 

= Trusty Spear [O.N. trygg-r, trusty, 

true + geir-r, a spearj 

TRIGGETT = Trigg (q.v.) + the Fr. dim. 
suff. -et. 

TRIGGS, Trigg's (Son) : v. Trigg. 

TRIIVIBELL . (A.-Fr.-Lat.) var. of Tremble, 

(Eng.) for Trumble, q.v. 


TRIIVIIV1ER (Eng.) a descendant of the A.-Sax. 
Trumhere = Strong Army [O.E. trum, 
strong, firm + here, army : tlie E. verb, 
'trim', O.E. trymman, is f. the base truni] 

A famous Trumhere was Bishop of the 
Mercians in the 7th cent. 

There has no doubt been some con- 
fusion with the Cornish name Tremeer, 

TRINDER (Eng.) Wheeler, Wheelwright 
[M.E. trinder ; f. O.E. trinde, something 
round — tryndel (trendel), a wheel] 
Hugh le Trinder.— ifM«</. Rolls. 

TRING, V. Thring. 

TRINGHAM (A.-Scand.) Bel. to Tringham, 
14th cent.Trikingham (Line), O. A.-Scand. 
*Tricginga-hdm = the Home of the 
Tricg(a Family [the pers. name is f. the 
O.N. trygg-r, true + -inga, genit. pi. of 
the 'son' suff. -ing -J- ham, home, estate] 

TRIPHERD (Eng.) Herdsman [M.E. tripherdie, 

triphyrd(e ; M.E. (and Dial. E.) trip, a flock 

or herd (of sheep, goats, etc.) + herd(e, 

etc., O.E. hierde, a herdsman] 

Trip, a small flock of sheep. — 

EastNorf. Gloss. (1787). 

TRIPP (Teut.) a nickname f. the verb 'trip', 

M.E. trippen = Dut. trippen = Dan.-Norw. 

trippe, 'to trip', 'skip', etc. : cp. O.N. trippi, 

'a young colt'. 

Gilbert Tn^.—Hund. Rolls: 


TRIPPIER U?"e) I = Tripp (q.v.) + the 


2 for Tripherd, q.v. 

(A.-Fr.) the common FTenchTrip{p)ier= 

I Tripe-Dealer [Fr. tripier, f. tripe, tripe 

(of Celt, orig.) -f the agent, suff. -jVr] 

Tripier. — Celui qui vend en detail les 

issues des animaux tuds k la boucherie. — 

Littr6, Diet., ed. 1889. 


2 Velveteen Maker or Dealer [f. Fr. 
tripe, imitation velvet, velveteen] 
Wallerand Colbert, trippier de velours 
( 1 5 70) . — Godef roy . 

TRIPPET(T = Tripp (q.v.)4- the A.-Fr. dim. 
suff. -et. 
Johannes Trypet. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379 

TRIST (A.-Fr.) Dweller at a Tryst or Hunt- 
ing-Station [M.E. O.Fr. triste, L.Lat. 


Lo, hold thee at thy triste clos, and I 

Shal wel the deer unto thy bowe drive. — 

Chaucer, Trail. & Cris-, ii. 1534-5. 

The French triste, l^at. trist-is, 'sad', does 

not seem to have given rise to a pers. 

name — at any rate to one that has survived. 

TRISTAN (Celt.) Noisy One, Blusterer 

[Wel. trystan (Pughe) ; f. (with suff. -an) 

Wel. trystio, to make a noise, bluster ; 

trwst, a noise (cp. trwstan, clumsy] 

Drystan mab Tallwch. — 

' Breuddwyd Rhonabwy ' (Dream of 
Rhonabwy) ; Mabinogion, etc. 

Trystan the son of Tallwch. — 

do. do. tr. Guest. 

The mod. Welsh version (Edwards) has 
(with mutation) — 

... a [and] Thrystan fab Tallwch. 

Parmi les noms propres pictes plus ou 
moins bien conserves que Ton peut citer, 
d'apres la Chronica Pictorum, il y en a 
dont I'origine celtique est incontestable. 
Ainsi le roi, Drust, fils d'Erp, aurait €\.€ 
contemporain de saint Patrice ; c'est de 
Drust que derive Drystan, nora d'un 
gallois fameux dans le cycle de la Table 
ronde et plus connu en France sous le 
nom de Tristan. — 

de Jubainville, Les Celtes (1904), p. 29. 

Wagner's- 'Tristan und Isolde' was 
based on Gottfried of Strassburg's un- 
finished epic (c. 1210) so entitled. Gott- 
fried, who adapted Thomas of Brittany, 
gives triste, 'sorrowful', as the origin of the 
name Tristan — 

so nenne wir in Tristan. 

nu heizet triste triure [mod.Ger. trauer, 

sorrow] . . . 
von triste Tristan was sin name. — 

11. 1996-2001. 
Cp. Tristram. 

TRISTON I for Tristan, q.v. 

2 for the Corn. Trestean, Tresteen(e 

(i7fh cent.)- = (prob.) the Stained or 

Coloured House [Corn, and Wel. tre, a 

homestead, farm, etc.-|-the Corn. cogn. of 

Wel. ystaen, stained, coloured] 




It is tempting to see the Corn, slean = 
Wei. ysiaen, tin, in ttiis name. 

TRISTRAM (Celt.) lias been confused with 
Tristan (q.v.); but it is, of course, a diffe'.r- 
ent name. We get the cl ue to the meaning 
from t-he medJEeval romancers, e.g. — 

And by cause I shal dye of the byrthe 
of the [thee], I charge the [thee] gentyl- 
woman that thou pray my lord kynge 
Melyodas that whan he is crystned lete 
calle hym Trystratn, that is as moch to 
saye as a sorouful byrthe. — 

Malory, Morte d Arthur, Will. i. 
And we know from Sir Tristram's tem- 
porary inversion of his name toTramtrist 
(VIII. viii.) that the second element is 
-tram [Wei. (and Corn.) trist (Lat. tristis), 
sad, sorrowful + (app.) the early form, 
*tram, of Wei. traf, a strain, labour, travail 
(cp. Wei. Tafwys=Thames ; Rhufeinwr= 
Roman; Addaf = Adam] 
Soe did S>- Tristerant, y' gentle kt, 
To the forrest fresh and gay. — 
'Marr. of Sir Gawaine': Percy's Reliques. 
Tristram de Haule. — Hund. Rolls. 
Tristram was the spelling used by Marie 
de France (13th cent.) in her 'Cheverefoil.' 

TRISTRAN for Tristram, q.v. 

Tristran is the form in an Old-French 
poem printed in Fr. Michel's 'Tristan', 
(1835), e.g.— . . . le pur Tristran. 

TRITTON for Treeton, q.v. 

TRIVET(T (A.-Fr.-Teut.)theA.-French Trivet, 
a labio-dentalized form of Trippet(t, q.v. 
Nicholas Trivet. — 

Soms. Subs.-Roll, A.D. 1327. 
John Tryvet. — 

MSS. Dn. & Ch. Wells, A.D. 1384. 


TRODD 1 (Eng.) Dweller at a Path or Track 
TRODE ; [O.E. trod] 

TROGGER, a var. of Trigger (q.v.) with the 
form of the first element influenced by 
Dan.-Norw. tro, 'trusty', 'true'. 

TROLLOP(E \ (A. - Fr. - Teut.) Loiterer ; 

TROLLIP / Slattern [Dial. E. and Scot. 

trollop, i. troll, Fr. trdler, to stroll; Ger. 

trollen, to roll, loll : -op prob. represents 

the adv. up] 

In the Lane, dialect (and one or two 

others) the word has taken a final -s — 

Aw should as soon think o' gettin' wed 
to a co'n boggart as sich a trollops. — 

Waugh, Sneck-Bant, p. 91. 

A 'William de Trollop' occurs in a 

I4th-cent. Durham record. The 'de' here 

is prob. a mistake ; if it were not, the 
second element would represent hope (v. 
Hope), 'a hollow', and the first doubtless 
be the O.N. troll, 'an elf, 'ogre', 'giant'. 

TROOD, a var. of Trode, Trodd, q.v. 

TROOP ) (A.-Scand.) metath. var. ofThorp(e, 
TROPE V q.v. (Mod. Scand. torp, a farm, also 
TROUP J occurs in place-names as -trup). 
Cp. Throop. 

TROSTON (A.-Scand.) Bel. to Troston (Suff.), 
the A.-Sax. Trosting\a\tiin = the Estate 
OF THE Trost(a Family [the pers. name 
is a form of O.N. traiist-r, trusty, firm ; f. 
traust(MoA. Scand. trost, comfort), help, 
protection -f -inga, genit. pi. of the fil. 
suff. -ing + tun, estate, etc.] 

TROT(T)MAN i=Trot(t)'s Man (-Servant): 
V. Trott. 

2 = Trott (q.v.) -(- man ( = Mod. Ger. 
Trautmann, O.Ger. Trutman). 

TROTT (Teut.) the 14th cent. Trot(e, Trut, 
Trout, etc., 13th cent. Trot{e, Troyt, i2lh 
cent. Trote, Troite, Truite, A.-Sax. Trot(a 
(not common) = Beloved, Dear; Friend 
[Forms of the M.H.Ger. and O.H.Qer. 
trdt (subs, and adj.), dear, beloved, friend 
(Mod. Ger. traut) : cp. M.H.Ger. trohtin, a 
var. of truhtin, lord, prince. The compds. 
formed with triit- in M. H. Ger. are 

Trottuc {-uc dim. suff.T occurs as the 
name of a swineherd of Ecgwine, bishop 
of Worcester, d. a.d. 717/8. 

TROTTER (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Pedestrian, Run- 

ner,Messenger [O.Fr. trotier (Fr. trotteur); 

of Teut. orig.] 

Trottier is a fairly common French 


An p.Ger. Trothari, 'Beloved Army', is 
recorded ; but a corresponding A.-Sax. 
name does not seem to occur. 

TROUGHTON (Eng.) Bel. to Troughton (N. 

Lane), form. Troghton = the Farmstead 

in the Trough or Hollow [M.E. trogh, 

O.E. troh, trog, a trough, basin, hollow -f- 

M.E. -ton, tun, O.E. tiin, farm, etc.] 

TROUNCE, v. Trowns. 

TROUNSON, V. Trownson. 

TROUSDALE (Eng.) Bel. to Troutsdale (N. 
Yorks), the Domesday Truzstal (z = ts) = 
TRtiT(E)'s Stall [for the pers. name see 
under Trott, and -|- O.E. st(e)all, a place, 
stead, cattle-stall] 
On analogy, the Domesday form here 
is to be trusted. 




TROUT (Teut.) a var. ot Trott, q.v. 

(occ.) (A.-Lat.) a nickname from the fish 
so called [O.E. triilit, Lat. tructd] 
Thomas Trout. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 
The surname Bucktrout occurs. 

TROUTBECK (N.Eng. or Scand.) Bel. to 
Troutbeck (Westmd. : 13th cent.Troutbek ; 
Cumbd. : 14th cent. Trutbek) = the Trout- 
Brook [O.E. triiht (the Scandinavians 
may have borrowed this word, but it does 
not seem to be recorded), Lat. tructa, a 
trout+O.N.E. bec{c=OM.bekk-r, abrook] 

TROVER (A.-Fr.-Lat.), the A.-Fr. trovur, O.Fr. 

troveor (Fr. trouv^re) = a Troubadour 

[conn, with Fr. trouver, to find, invent] 

TROW (Eng.) Dweller at i a Trough or 
Hollow [O.E. trog\ 

2 a Tree [O.E. tredw, a tree ; (also fig.) 

a cross] 
William atte Trowe. — Hund. Rolls. 

1 se it, by ensaunple, 

In somer tyme on trowes : 
Ther some bowes ben leved [are 
leaved]. — Piers Plowman, 9798-9800. 

TROWBRIDGE (Eng.) Bel. to Trowbridge 
CWilts), 14th cent.Trowbmgge, Trowbrigge, 
13th cent. Troubrigge = the Tree, i.e. 
Wood Bridge [O.E. treiw + brycg] 

The wooden bridge has long been re- 
placed by a stone structure. 

TROWELL 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Trowell (Notts : 
TROWL(E I 13th cent. Trouwell, Domesday 
Trowalle), Trowle (Wilts : 14th cent. 
Trowell) = i the Spring in the Hollow 
2 the Spring by the Tree [v. under 
Trow, and-f-O.E. w(i)ella, a well, spring] 

As the Notts place is situated " at the 
foot of a declivity" meaning ' prob. applies 
to it. 

TROWER for Thrower, q.v. 

TROWLER (Teut.) Troller, Trundler [f. 

M.E. troUen, to roll ; through Fr. (mod. 

Fr. trdler, to drag about) from Teut. : cp. 

Ger. trollen, to roll, troll] 

TROWN (Scand.) i the 14th - cent. Yorks 

Troune seems to represent the O.N. 

JpriiSinn, Strong, Mighty [O.N. Jj/-mS = 

O.E. J;rji«, strength, might] 

2 the i4th-cent. Yorks Trogne, Trogune, 
is app. f. an O.N. *Thru'Sgunn-r= Mighty 
(in) War [O.N. ]>ru'S, might -|- gunn-r, 

war, battle] 

TROWNS, Trown's (Son) \„t- „«..,„ 
TROWNSON, Trown's Son ; ^- ' '^°^"- 

TROWSDALE"! „ -r„„,.„j„i» 
TROWSDALLJ v- Trousdale. 

TROWSE (Eng.) Bel. to Trowse (Norf.), 14th 
cent. Trowes, Trows [pl.of trow : v. Trow] 

TROY (Fr.-Lat.-Celt.)Bel. toTroyes (France), 
anc. Augusta Trecorum, or Tricas(s)i, 
the chief city of the Gaul, tribe the 
Tricassii [prob. conn, with O.Ir. tri, by, 
through, and (as the descriptive pers. 
element) O.Ir. cas, curly hair (Gael, cas, 

to curl] 

Jacobus de Troys alias Troye. — 

Hund. Rolls. 
Our troy-weight is derived from this 

TRUBRIDGE = Trowbridge, q.v. 

TRUE (Eng.) Faithful, Loyal [M.E. tre{o)we, 
etc., O.E. tredwe} 

TRUEBODY (Eng.), the i7th-cent. Truboddy, 

I3th-I4th cent. Treubodie [v. under True, 

and -I- O.E. bodig^ 

TRUECOCK (Eng.) = True (q.v.) -|- the E. 
pet suft. -cock. 

TRUEFELLOW (Eng.) = True (q.v.), and see 
under Fellow(e)s. 

TRUEFIT(T (Eng.) The second element is 
doubtless for 'foot' [cp. Scot, fit, foot], and 
the first elem. is more likely to represent 
the O.E. tredw, 'wood', than O.E. treowe, 
'faithful' ; the whole name therefore being 
equiv. to the present-day Timber-Toes. 
This is confirmed by the O.N. trS-f6t-r, 
'wooden foot or leg. ' 

TRUELOVE (Eng.) Faithful Love [M.E. 
trewe-love, O.E. (poet.) tre6w-lufu\ 

In the 14th cent, this was the name of 
an aromatic herb (a 'breath-sweetener') — 

Under his tonge a trewe-love he beer 
[bare]. — Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 3692. 

In the same (Miller's) Tale (A 3714-15) 
Chaucer has — 
Alias, quod Absolon, and weylawey, 
That trewe love was ever so yvel biset I 

TRUMAr}=-^-«(^-) + E-"- 

Thomas Treweman. — Hund. Rolls. 


TRUMBLE (Eng.) I a descendant oftheA.-Sax. 

Trumbald = Strongly Bold [O.E. trum, 

strong, firm -|- b(e)ald, bold] 

2 a metathetic form of Turnbull, q.v. 




TRUM(WI (Eiig.) a descendant of a shortened 

form of one of the A.-Sax. Trum- names 


trum, strong, firm] 

The Welsh trum, 'a ridge', 'summit', has 
app. had no surnominal influence. 

TRUMP = Tr'unn(m (q.v.) with intrus. -p. 

TRUMPER (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Trumpeter [IVl.E. 
trumpe, trompe, a trumpet + the agent, 
suff. -er ; f. l'"r. trompe, O.H.Ger. trumpa, a 

Walter Tromper. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

TRUMPINGTON (Eug.) Bel. to Trumpington 
(Camb.), 14th ceat.Trumpyngto(u)n, A.-Sax. 
*Truminga-tun = the Estate of the 
Trum(a Family [see under Trum(m, 
and + -inga, genit. pi. of the 'son' suff. 
-ing + tiin, estate, etc.] 

At Trumpyngtoun, nat fer fro Cante- 
brigge. — 
Chaucer, Cant.Tales ('RevesTale'),A 3921. 

TRUNDELLl late forms ofTpendell, Tren- 
TRUNDLE Idle, q.v. 

"The Norfolk Trundles are clearly de- 
scended from the Trendle family in that 
county, found there so early as 1360". — 
Bardsley, p. 767. 

TRUSCOTT (Eng.) Early forms are lacking : 

the name may represent 'Trut's Cottage' 

[see under Trott, and + O.E. coi\ 

TRUSTRAM 1 through earlier Trystram for 
TRUSTRUM J Tristram, q.v. 

TRY (Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Try or Trie (several in 
France). [see under Tree (Fr.] 

Gaston de Try. — Paris Directory. 

TRYMBY, v. Trimby. 

TUBB (Teut.) the I4th-cent. (Yorks) Tubb, 
Domesday 7mJ«, A.-Sax. (loth cent.)Tubba, 
O. Scand. Tubba = O.Ger. Tubo [app. 
unvoiced forms refble. to O.N. dubba 
(from which Late O.E. dubbian is bor- 
rowed), to equip, arm, dub ; cogn. with 
L.Ger. dubben, to strike] 

Tubba is recorded as the name of a 
Danish chief who was wounded at the 
sack of the monastery at Medeshamstede 
(Peterborough) c. 870. 

(Heb.) a dim form of Tobias, q.v. 
TUBBS, Tube's (Sou) : v. Tubb. 
TUBBY = Tubb (q.v.) + the E. dim. suff. -y. 

TUBMAN I Cooper, Tub-maker [L.Ger. 

tubhe, a tub] 
2 TuB(B)'s IVIan (-Servant) : v. Tubb. 

TUCK (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Tucca, Tuca [prob. 
f. the stem of O.E. tiician, to adorn] 
Peter Tnck.— Close Rolls, A.D. 1278. 
(A.-Scand.) for Took(e, Toke, q.v. 

TUCKER, V. Tooker. 

TUCKERMAN i =Tuoker, Tooker (q.v.) + 
E. man. 
2 (the) Tucker's Man (-Servant). 

TUCKETT I = Tuck (q.v.) + the A.-Fr. dim. 
suff. -et. 

Willelmus Tultet. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379- 

2 the Fr. Touguet = Corner, Angle, 

End [O.Fr. tou(c)quet] 

The South. Fr. tuguet, 'an owl', has 

prob. had no surnominal influence in this 


TUCKEY \ = Tuck (q.v.) -|- the E. dim. 
TUCKIE J suff. -ey, -ie. 
Cp. Tookey. 

TUCKMANianequiv.ofTucker,Tooker, q.v. 

2 Tuck's Man (-Servant) : v. Tuck. 
TUCKSON, Tuck's Son : v. Tuck. 

TUCKWELL (Eng.) Dweller at a Draw-Well 
[f. M.E. tukken. Low Ger. tukken, to pull 
up, to draw -f M.E. welle, O.E. w(i)ella'] 

Cp. Tugwell. 

TUDBALL, a corrupt form of Theod{o)bald : v. 

TUDDENHAM T (Eng.)' Bel. to Tuddenham 

TU DN AM J (Suff. : A.D. 854 Tuddan-hdm ; 

Norf.) = Tudda's Home or Estate [the 

pers. name Tudda, genit. Tuddan-, is a pet 

form of one of the A.-Sax. Thedd- names — 

O.E. \e6d = O.Sax. thiod = O.N. JxrfS = 

Goth, ^iuda, nation, people : — -j- O.E. 

ham, home, etc.] 

Joh'es de Tudenham. — 

Charter Rolls, A.D. 1284-5. 

TUDHOPE (Eng.) Bel. to Tudhope (early 
forms lacking) = (prob.)TuD(D) a's Hope or 
Valley [v. under Tuddenham and Hope] 

TUDOR \ (Wel.-Gr.) the Wel. Tewdwr, a form 
TUDER J of Theodore, q.v. 

Ac y bu uarw Dyfynwal uab Tewdwr 
(And there died Dyvynwal, son of 
Tudor). — 
Brut y Tywysogion {Chron. ofthe\Welsh'\ 
Princes), A.D. 760. 




Ac yno y Has Tewdwr uab Einawn. 
(And there Tudor, son of Einon, was 
slain).— do. do. A.D. 993. 

David ap Rese ap Tudder al' Tudor. — 
Cal. Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1322-3. 

" Tewdwr : Tlieodore, Tudor". — 
'Enwau Personau': Anmyl-Spurrell Diet. 
(ed. 1915), p. 333. 

TUDWORTH (Eng.) Bel. toTudworth (Yorks), 

the Domesday Tudeuuorde = Tud(d)a's 

Farm or Estate [y. under Tuddenhara, 

and + O.E. wor^, farm, estate] 

TUER = Tewer, q.v. 

TUFF (Eng.) i the A.-Sax. Tuf, Tuffa, a nick- 
name [f. O.E. ge)\uf, bushy, tufty — I'm/, 
a tuft ; whence Dial. E. tuff, a tuft, lock] 

2 Tough [O.E. tdh^ 

TUFFILL 1(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. to Touville 

TUFFIELD I (Eure, Normandy), ancTyovilla, 

Tyouvilla [Lat, villa, farm, estate : tlie 

first element is doubtful] 

TUFFIN,i6th cent.ri!i^«, a form of Tiffin, q.v. 

TUF(F)NELL (Eng.) Bel. to Tuf(f)nell, early 

forms of which are lacking ; but analogy 

points to an A.-Sax. *Tuffan-heall = 

'Tuffa's Hall' \Tuffan-, genit. of TufTa 

(v. Tuff) + O.E. heall, a hall] 

TUFFS, Tuff's (Son) : v. Tuff. 

TUFFT 1 (A.-Scand.) var. of Toft, q.v. [O.N. 
TUFT J tupt, topt (p as/), a homestead] 

TUG MAN for Tuokman, q.v. 

TUGWELL (Eng.) Dweller at a Draw- Well 
[f. M.E. toggen, conn, with Low Ger. tukken, 
to pull or draw up -|- M.E. welle, O.E. 

Cp. Tuckwell. 

TUITE (A.-Fr.-Scand.) Bel. to Tuit or Thuit 
(Normandy) = the Thwaite or Clearing 
[O.N. ^ueit, whence Norw. tveit, a clearing] 

" Sir Richard de Tuite, Knt., accom- 
panied Strongbowto Ireland in 11 72, and 
d. 121 1, leaving two sons, Sir Richard de 
Tuite, Knt., surnamed the Black, and 
Maurice Tuite, ancestor of Tuite of 
Sonagh." — 

Burke's Peerage, etc., s.n. 'Tuite'. 

Cocheris, in his 'Noras de Lieu' (p. S8), 
erroneously attributes the T(h)uit names 
in Normandy (e.g. Thuit Anger and 
Thuit Signol in the Dept. Eure, and 
Braquetuit and Carquetuit in tlie Dept. 
Seine-lnf6rieure) to the Scand. toft. 

TUKE, a Scot, form of Tooke, q.v. 

TULETT, v. Tullett. 

TULK (Scand.) Interpreter, Spokesman 

[O.N. tulk-r ; whence mod.5cand. tolk, an 

interpreter, translator] 

But in the Middle-English period tulke, 
or tolke, somewhat vaguely denoted a 
'soldier', "knight', 'personage'. 

TULL (A.-Fr.-Lat.) a French form of the Lat. 
Tiill-us, Tulli-us [orig. obscure] 

TULLETT = Tull (q.v.)-|-the Fr. dim. suff. -et. 
In addition to Tullet, we find in France 
the forms Tullat, Tullot, and Tullon. 

TULLEY, V. Tully. 

TULLIS, Tully's (Son) : v. Tully. 

TULLOCH 1 (Celt.) Bel. to Tulloch (Scotl.) ; 
TULLOCK J or Dweller at a Hillock [Gael. 

(and Ir.) tulacK] 

TULLY (A.-Fr.-Lat. -|- Celt.) Bel. to Tully 
(Somme) = TuLLius's Estate [M.Lat. 
*TuUiacum:dc-um, the Lat.-Gaul. possess. 


(Celt.) I the Ir. Tuile—MacTuile, O'Tuile 
[cp. Ir. tuile, a flood] 

2 the Ir. Tdithliagh — O'Tdithligh [Ir. 
tdithlia{i)gh, a surgeon] 

The various Irish places called Tully 
are from Ir. tulach, 'a hillock': cp.Tulloch. 

TUMBER (Eng.) Tumbler, Dancer [M.E. 
tumber{e, O.E. tumherel 

TUMELTY \ (Celt.) Big, Bulky \lr.Tomaltach 

TUMILTY J— filial form Mac Tomaltaigh, 

nepotic form O' Tomaltaigh \ tomalt, size, 

bulk -t- the pers. sufi. -acK\ 

Tomaltach, tighearna Ciauachta Glinne 
Geimhin, d6cc. 

{Tumilty, lord of Cianachta, etc., died). — 
Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 752. 

According to Concannon.'Mion-Chomh- 
rddh', p. 129, 'Thomas' has been used to 
replace the Ir. 'Tomaltach'. 

TUMMON for Tom-Man, i.e. Tom's Man 
(-Servant) : v. Tom, Thomas. 

In the Yorks Poll-Tax, a.d. 1379, we 
find Tomman, Thomeman, and Thomasman 
as surnames. 

TUMMOND = Tummon (q.v.) with the com- 
mon post -« excresc. -d. 

TUMMONS, Tummon's (Son) : v. Tummon. 



Turn bull 

TUMSON, a form of Thomson, q.v. 
Robert Tumson. — 

Lane. Inq. (1915), A.D. 1346. 

TUNBRIDGE (Celt. + Eng.) Bel. to Tunbridge 
orTonbridge (Kent), 14th cent.Tonebrigge, 
13th cent. Tonebrugge, nth cent. Tonhrucg 
= the Bridgk over the R. Tun or Ton(e 
ip.E. brycg: for the river-name cp. the 
Somersetshire Tone, earlier Tan ; prob. 
conn, with O.Ir. tdn, water] 
Prior de Tonebrigge. — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1325-6. 

TUNDER tor Tunner, q.v. 

TUNKS = Tonks, q.v. 

TUNLEY, V. Townley. 

More specifically Tunley, Glouc. 

TUNNARD, V. Townherd. 

TUNNELER (A.-Fr.) the M.E. toneler, toneleur, 
Fr. tonnelier = a Cooper, Cask-IMaker 
[f. O.Fr. tonnel (mod. Fr. tonneau), a tun or 
cask : the stem is prob. ult. of Celt, orig.] 

TUNNER (Eng.) Cooper, Cask-Maker [M.E. 

O.E. tunne (prob. ult. Celt.), a cask + the 

agent, suff. -ere] 

TUNNICLIFF(E ] Bel. to Tunniclifif (Roch- 
TUNNECLIFF(E Idale), 17th cent. Tunnicliffe, 
TUNNACLIFF(E J earlier Tunaleclif [M.E. 
clifife, O.E. clif, a cliff: the first element 
is prob. for tunnel, O.Fr. tonnelle — the 
whole name therefore denoting a cliff, or 
rock, into which a tunnel had been driven] 

TUN NOCK (Eng.) 13th- 14th cent. Tunnok, 

1 2th cent. Tunnoc, repr.. the A.-Sax. pers. 

name Tun(n)a with the dim. suff. -oc [f. 

O.E. tun, va., garden, manor, world] 

TUNSTALL 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Tunstall (a com- 

TUNSTELL !■ mon Eng. place-name), A.-Sax. 

TUNSTILL J r«'«jteaH= the Farm or Manor 

Stabi,e(s [O.E. tun, farm, etc. -|- steall, 

stall, stable] 

TUNSTEAD (Eng.) Bel. to Tunstead (a 

fairly common Eng. place-name) = the 

Village [O.E. ttinstede] 

TUN WRIGHT (Eng.) Cask-Maker; Cooper 

[M.E. tunwryght ; O.E. tunne, a cask -|- 

wyrhta, a maker] 

TUP ) (Scand.) a nickname from, the Ram 

TUPP([Dial. E. tup, a ram; prob. Scand. 

tupp, a cock, with transferred meaning] 

TUPHERD (Scand.) Tup-Herd [v. under 
Tup, and + O.N. hir^i-r, a herdsman] 
Willelmus Tuphird. — 

Yorks Poll-Tax, A.D. 1379. 

I for Turberville, q.v. 

TUPMAN = Tup (q.v.) -|- E. man; more 
specif., a Breeder of Tups or Rams. 

Tupman, sb., a breeder of, or dealer in, 
tups.— MiW. Agric. Gloss. (1790). 

TUPPER = Tup(p (q.v.) -|- the E. agent, suff. 
-er: equiv. to Tupman, q.v. 

Cp. Buller, Calver. 


TURBERVILLE IfFr.) Bel. to Turberville, 
TURBURVILLE / 13th - cent. Hundred and 
other Rolls Turbervile, Turbervill ; doubt- 
less an obscure spot in N. France = 
Turbert's Estate [the French pers. 
name Turbert = Torbert (qv) ; Lat. 
villa, estate, farm] 



TURBOT(T forms of Torbet(t, etc., Tor- 

TURBAT(t bert, q.v. 



Turbert, Turbot, Turbut, occur in our 
I2th-i3th cent. Rolls. 

TURCK 1 (A. - Fr. - Tatar) Turk [Fr. Turc; 
TURK /said to be ult. f. a Tatar word 
meaning 'brave'] 
William le Turc— Hund. Rolls. 
(Celt.) Boar [Wei. twrch = Gael, and 
Ir. tore (genit. tuirc), a boar] 
Twrch mab Ann was. — ' Kulhwch ac 
Olwen' ; Mabinogion. 
A rare A.-Sax. pers. name Turea, seen 
, in the 8th-cent. Turcandenu (Turkdean, 
Glouc.) and Tureanwyll ('Cart. Sax', no. 
165), has prob. had no surnominal in- 

TURKINGTON = Torkington, q.v. 

TURLE;}forTeaHe, q.v. 

TURLEY = Torley, q.v. 

TURLOUGH = Tonlogh, q.v. 

TURNBULL (Eng.) a nickname of courage 

and strength, Turn-the-Bull [f. O.E. 

turnian, to turn -)- 6m;-] 

The well - known incident of King 

Robert Bruce being saved from the fury 

of one of the white bulls in Stirling Park is 

recounted in Bellenden's (i6th cent.) 

translation of Boece's 'Scotorum Hist.' — 

It is said. King Robert Bruce, eftir his 

coroiiatioun, went to ane hunting in this 

wod, havaud bot ane quiet cumpanie 




with him, and eschapit narowlie of his 
leif; for ane of the bullis, eftir that he wes 
sair woundit be the huntaris, ruschit feirs- 
lie on the king, howbeit he had na 
wapinnis in his hand to debait himself 
fra the dint thairof. Incontinent, ane 
man of gret spreit, quhilk wes standing 
neir by, lap afore the king ; and nocht 
allanerlie [only] kest the bull be manifest 
force to the erd, bot held him, quhill the 
remanent huntaris slew him with thair 
wappinnis. This man that rescoursit 
the king wes callit Turnbull, and wes 
rewardit with riche landis be the king. 

Cp. the French Tournebauf [Fr. bceuf 
(Lat. bos, bovis), an ox, bull]. 

France has also Toumebulle — 
Les Tournebulle de Champagne portent 
d'azur k trois tetes de buffle. — 

Larchey, p. 466. 

TURNELL (Eng.) As this is specifically a 
Yorks surname the connexion is evidently 
with the place-name Thornhill (Domesday 
Tamil) in that county: v. Thornhill. 
There do not seem to be any grounds for 
association with the Fr. tournelle, 'a small 

TURNER I (A.-Fr.-Lat. & Eng.) Lathe- 

TURNOR \ Worker [M.E. t{o)urnour, t(o)ur- 

TURNOURJ KM>-, t{o)urner; f. M.E. t(o)urnen, 

Fr. tourner (Lat. tomare), to turn ; and 

O.E. turnian\ 

Geoffrey le Turner. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274 
Aylbricht le Turnur. — do. 
Will'us Tumour. — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1421-2. 
Tourneur and Letourneur (rarely Le 
Tourneur) are common surnames in 

(Fr. - Lat.) i One from Le Tourneur 
(Calvados, Norm.), a.d. 1155 Tourneor = 
(prob.) (the Place of) the Turner [Fr. 
tourneur, a turner] 
2 for the French Tournier = Tourna- 
ment-Champion [Fr. tournier, 'champion 
de tournois, homme qui dgfie volontiers 
plusieurs combattants en champ clos' ; 
f. tourner, O.Fr. torner, Lat. tomare, to turn] 

TURNEY 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Bel. toTournai, Tour- 

TURNAY / nay, or Tourny (all in Normandy), 

M.Lat. Torneium, Turneium = Tornus' 

or Turnus' Estate {-eium, possess, suff.] 

The forms in our i3th-i4thcent. records 

were de Turney, Turnai, Torney. 

TURNHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Turnham : (i) Turn- 
ham (Hall), Yorks ; (2) Turnham (Green), 
M'sex [the first element represents O.E. 

^yrne, a thorn-tree: the second may be 

either O.E. ham(m, an enclosure, piece of 

land, or for the O.E. dat. pi. suff. -uni\ 

The Yorks place was Turneham in the 
Poll-Tax A.D. 1379, and Thurnham and 
Turnham in the Charter-Rolls A.D. 1 199- 
1200. Thurnham, N.Lancs, Tiernum in 
Domesday-Bk., was consistently Thirnum 
or Thymum in the 13th cent., pointing to 
the dat. pi. suff. -um. Thornham, Kent, 
was Turneham in Domesday-Bk. 



TURNPENNY] (Eng.) a nickname for an 
TURNPENY J adept at what is now called 
'Pitch and Toss,' or some similar coin- 
turning game [f. M.E. t{p)mnen, O.E. 
turnian -f- ^.^.peny, O.TS., peni{n)g\ 

Nicholas Turnepeny. — Hund. Rolls. 

TURPI N (A.-Fr.-Scand.) the French Turpin, a 

descendant of the O.Scand. Thorfinn-r = 

Thor-Finn [v. under Thor, and + the 

ethnic name Finn-r] 

Turfi n . — Domesday-Bk. 

John Turpin. — Hund. Rolls. 

The eighth-cent, archbishop of Rheims 
of this name figures in the 'Chanson de 
Roland' (1. 170) — 

Li due Oger et 1' arcevesque Turpin. 

In the Pfaflen Konrad's twelfth-cent. 
German version of the 'Chanson' he is 
called "ther biscof Turpin." 

'His name' (quoth he), 'if that thou 
list to learne. 

Is hight Sir Turpine, one of mickle 
might'. — 

Spenser, The Faerie Queene, VI. m. xl. 

TURRELL \ (A.-Fr.-Scand.) theFrench Turrel, 
TIRRELL J a descendant of the O.Scand. 

Thor(u)ald-r: v. under Thorald, and cp. 


TURTILLl (A.-Lat.) a nickname from the 

TURTLE / Turtle-Dove [M.E. turtel, turrtle, 

O.E. turtle, f., turtla, m.; Lat. turtur] 

And oxe, and cullfre [O.E. culfre, dove], 
and turrtle. — Ormulum, 1. 989. 

Soul [sole] as the turtel that hath lost 
hire make [mate]. — 

Chaucer, Cant. Tales, E 2080. 
(A.-Fr.-Lat.) Crooked [Fr. ToMrfe/ (later 
Tourteau), a dim. f. Lat. tort-us, crooked] 

TURTON (Eng.) Bel. to Turton (Lanes), 13th- 
14th cent. Turton = the Tower-Dwel- 
ling [M.E. tur, Late O.E. tHr (Lai. turris), 
a tower + M.E. -ton, O.E. tiin, residence, 





Turton Tower is one of the most in- 
teresting structures in tlie neighbourhood 
of Bolton. — Lane. Legends, p. 59. 

TURVEY "I (Eng.) Bel. to Turvey (Beds) [prob. 

TURVY J O.E. turf-haga, grassy enclosure 
(with lost A-) ; but if the Domesday forms 
Torvei and Torveie, and a later Turfeye, 
were to be trusted, the second element 
would be O.E. i(e)g, island, riparian land] 

TUSHINGHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Tushingham 
(Chesh.), A.D. 1303-4 Tussingham, A.-Sax. 
*Tuscinga-hdm = the Home of the 
Tusc(a Family [the pers. name is app. 
a nickname from O.E. tiisc, a tusk (dial., 
and in Shak., 'tush'), large tooth -|- -inga, 
genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing -t- ham, home, 


TUSLER (Eng.) a var. of Teasler, q.v. ; and 
cp. Towzer. 

TUSON = Tewson, q.v. 

TUSTIN (A.-Fr.-Scand.) the French Toustin, 
Toustain, for earlier Turstein, O.N. Thor- 
stein{n: v. under Thunstan. 

Turstin-us. — Domesday-Bk. 
Toutainville, Eure, Normandy, earlier 
Toustainville, was anc. Turstini villa. 

= Tooth ill, q.v. 




TUTT \ (Eng.) the A.-Sax. pers. name Tut{a, 

TUTTE J TM(a [prob. conn, with the O.Teut. 

Thiuda-,Thiot{a- names : see underTheed] 

TUXBURY for Tewkesbury, q.v. 

TUXFORD (Scand. -f Eng.) Bel. to Tuxford 
(Notts), i3th-i4th cent.r«fe5/orrf=TuKE's 
or Toke's Ford [v. Toke, and-l-O.E./ord] 

TWADDELL \ corrupt forms of Tweed(d)ale, 

. 1 corn 

TWAITS = Thwaits, q.v. 

TWAMLEY \^ Twemlow 
TWAMLOW;^' 'wemiow. 

TWEDDELL 1 (i6th cent.Tweddel) forTweed- 
TWEDDLE J(d)ale, q.v. 

TWEED (Celt.) Dweller by the R. Tweed, 

14th cent. Twede, i2th cent. Tweda, 8th 

cent. Tuidus [prob. conn, with O.Wel. 

tyWiad, a spreading ; tyw, that which 


TWEEDALE ] (Celt, f Eng.) Dweller in the 
TWEEDDALE ITweed- Valley [v. Tweed, 
TWEEDLE J and -f- O.E. diell 

TWEEDIE 1 (17th cent. Twedy) shortened 
TWEEDY I forms of Tweed(d)ale, q.v. 

TWEEDLEY (Celt. -|- Eng.) Dweller at the 
Tweed-Lea [v. Tweed, and -t- O.E. ledK] 

TWELL, an aphseretic form of Attewell, q.v. 

TWELLS, genit. of Twell. 

TWELVES, an imit. form of Twells. 

TWEMLOW (Eng.) Bel. toTwemlow (Chesh.), 

13th - 14th cent. Twemlowe = (At) the 

Double Hill or Tumulus [O.E. twdm,. 

dat. of twegeii, m., two -|- hloewe, dat. of 

hl(kw, m., a mound, etc.] 

TWENTYMAN for Twinterman, q.v. 


i V. Twis(a)day. 

TWICHELL, v. Twitchell. 

TWICKENHAM (Eng). Bel. to Twickenham 
(M'sex), loth cent. Tuuiccanham, Tuiccan- 
ham, A.D. 790 (or 793) Tuicanhamme, A.D. 
704 Tuican horn (all Latin charters) [O.E. 
twic{c)en, a junction (usually of roads, 
but also of streams) -j- ham(m, an enclo- 
sure, piece of land] 
Its ancient name was . . . , referring 
to its situation between two streams or 
brooks that flow into the Thames at either 
end of the village. -iVa?. Gaz. (1868). 


TWIDDY\v. Tweedie, Tweedy, Tweed- 
TWIDY J (d)ale. 

TWIFORD, V. the commoner form Twyford. 

TWIGG I (Eng.) Scion, Cadet [O.E. twig = 

TWIGGEJ Dut. twijg, a twig, branch, scion, 

etc. (=Ger. zweig, branch, scion, etc.] 

I for Tweedale, q.v. 




(Eng.) Twin 

[O.E. ge)tivinn] 


TWINEM U. Twynham. 


TWINING (Eng.) Bel. to Twining (Glouc), 

the Domesday Tueninge, A.D. 814 (Lat. 

charter) Bituinceum = Between Streams 

[O.E. betwin, etc., between + ed(u)m, edn, 

dat. pi. of ed, a stream] 

The village ... is situated on the 
road from Gloucester to Worcester, be- 
tween the rivers Severn and Avon. — 

Nat. Gas. 




TWINK (Eng.) a nickname from the Spink or 
Chaffinch [Dial. (West.) E.] 

Twink, a chaffinch. — 

Leigh, Chesh. Gloss-, p. 216. 

TWINTERMAN (Eng.) Herdsman, Shep- 
herd ; more specif., the man who tended 
the two-year-old animals [Dial. E. : f. O.E. 
twi-wintre, of two winters (years] 
A cow-calf is called a twinter or stirk 
during its third year. — Leic. Gloss., p. 280. 
Twinter, a sheep of two winters. — 

Cumbd. Gloss; p. 107. 
The Cleveland Gloss. (Addit.), as well 
as twinter, a two-winter sheep, has thrinter, 
a three-winter sheep. 

TWIS(A)DAY'I (Eng.) a name given to a child 

TWISEDAY J born on a Tuesday (or to a 

foundling discovered on that day) [O.E. 

Tiwes-dtEg, Tiw's Day] 

The spelling Twysontheday mentioned 

by a correspondent of 'Notes & Queries' 

(2gth April, 1916, p. 351) as occurring in 

a Patent Roll of 1411 shows that a late 

mediaeval scribe thought that the name 

Twisaday meant 'Twice a day'. 

TWISDEN (Eng.) Bel. to Twysden (Kent), 
13th cent. Twysden = the Twin (Double) 
Valley [O.E. ge)twisi, twin + denu, 


TWISLE (Eng.) Dweller at a River-Fork 

[O.E. twisld] 

TWISS "1 (Eng.) Twin [O.E. ge)twisa — twi-, 
TWISSE J double] 

TWISSELL = Twisle, q.v. 

TWIST for Twiss, q.v. 

About 1 590-1620 members of the same 
Kenyon (Lane.) family were called 'Twiss' 
and 'Twist.' 

TWITCHELL. Dweller in an Alley or Nar- 
row Passage [Dial. E. twitchel(l] 
Twitchell, sb., a narrow passage or alley 
between houses. — Leic. Gloss., p. 280. 



■ Dwell. 

Bel. to Twitchen ; or 

weller at the Two-Roads' 

Meet (Lat. biviiim) [M.E. 

twichen, O.E. twicen(e, 'place 

where two roads meet'] 

Twitchen, Devon, is prob. referred to 

in the Hundred-Rolls (Devonsh.) entry 

'Richard de la Twichena.' 

TWITE for Thwalte, q.v. 

TWOGOOD = Toogood, q.v. 

TWOHIG (Celt.) the Irish O'Tuathaigh: v. 

TWOHILL, V. Toole, O'TooIe. 

TWOMEYl T- , , 
TWOOMY / = Toom(e)y, q.v. 


TWOM(B)LEY j ^""^ Twemlow, q.v. 

TWOYEAROLD (Eng.) a nickname for a ten- 
der of two-year-old animals : cp. Twin- 

This clumsy surname seems to have 
died out in the 17th or iSth century. 

TWYCROSS (Eng.) Bel. to Twycross ; or 
Dweller at the Double Cross [M.E. 
O.E. twi-, double -|- M.E. cros, O.N. kross] 

TWYDELL for Tweed(d)ale, q.v. 

TWYFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Twyford, 13th cent, 
usually Twyford; or Dweller at the 
Double Ford [O.E. twi-, double -|- ford] 

Thomas de Twiford, Mason. — 

Inq. ad q. Damn., A.D. 1354. 

Thomas de Twyford, Mason. — 

do. do. A.D. 1356. 

TWYMAN for Twyn(h)am, q.v. 

TWYNHAM 1 (Eng.) Bel. to Twynham (now 

TWYNAM J Christchurch, Hants),^ituated 

between the rivers Avon and Stour. 

[Although Twynham — O.E. be)twyn, 
etc., between — occurs in a late copy of 
a charter of K. jEthelstan ('Cart. Sax.' no. 
738), the second element, -ham, is prob. 
really for the dat. pi., ed{u)m, of O.E. ed, 
a river ; it is, in fact, usually stated that 
the 'aet Tweoxnedm' of the A.-Sax. Chron., 
A.D. 901, refers to Christchurch; but this 
is not likely for more than one reason] 

Twynham was once a place of con- 
siderable importance, and is more likely 
than the Sussex Twineham (which is 
prob. of the same etymology) to have given 
surnames — 

In Edward the Confessor's reign the 
priory contained one prior and 24 canons, 
and afterwards fell into the hands of 
Ralph Flarabard, Bishop of Durham, upon 
whom it was bestowed by William II., 
and who rebuilt the Church, dedicating 
it to Christ. It was on this occasion that 
the town assumed its present appellation 
of Christchurch, instead of its ancient 
xiai^e, Twyneham. — 

Nat. Gaz., s.n. 'Christchurch.' 
TWYNING = Twining, q.v. 

TYACK "1 (Celt.) Farmer, Husbandman 
TYACKE J [Corn, tyac = Wei. taiawg, taeog] 

TYAR, V. Tyep. 




TYARS, V. Tyeps. 

TYAS \ (A.-Fr.-Teut.) Teuton, German 

TYEAS I [A.-Fr. O.Fr. tyeis, tyois, tyes. this, 

M.H.Ger. tiusch, tiutsch ; cogn. with Dutch 

and Teutonic] 

Waleiand le Tyeis. — Hund. Rolls. 

Avoit une coustume ens el tiois pays . . . 
Adonc tenoient Franc les Tiois por 
amis. — Berie aus grans pies, V. 

TYDD = Tidd, q.v. 

TYDEMAN = Tiddeman, q.v. 

TYE (Eng.) Dweller at a Common, Croft, or 
Enclosure [M.E. and Dial. E. tye, O.E. 

tyg, tiag\ 

Hugh de la Tye. — Hund. Rolls (Sussex). 

Tye, Tie, sb., an extensive common 
pasture. — Diet. Kent. Dial., p. 180. 

A croft callid Wohies Tie. — 

MS. Accts. St. Dunstan's, Cant. (1510). 
There are places called Tye Green in 
Essex and Suffolk. 

(Celt.) for Tighe, MacTighe, q.v. 

TYER (Celt.) Tiler [Corn, tyor, a tiler; f. ty, 

to coverj 

TYERMAN (Fr. + Eng.) Tireman ; Dress- 
Dealer ; Costumier ; Head-Dresser 
[tire, tyer, is for the M.E. atir, atyr{e, attire, 
dress, head-dress ; f. atiren, atyren, to 
attire, adorn, O.Fr. atirier, to adorn] 

Tireman, a dealer in ornamental 
clothing . . . Tirewoman, a milliner. — 
T. Wright, Prov. Diet., p. 965. 

TYERS, Tver's (Son) : v. Tyer. 

^^ I v. Tighe, MacTighe. 


TYHURST (Eng.) Dweller at the Tye- Wood 

[v. under Tye, and -|- M.E. hurst, O.E. 

hyrst, a wood] 

TYLDESLEY = Tildesley, q.v. 

TYLEE 1 (Eng.) Dweller at a Tile-field or 
TYLEY J Brick-field [O.E. tigel leak] 

TYLER \ (Eng.) Tile- or Brick-Maker 

TYLOR J [M.E. iyler(e, tiler{e, tygheler(e; i. O.E. 

tigele, a tile, brick + the agent, suff. -ere] 

TYMMANY for TImpany, q.v. 

TYMS = Tims, q.v. 

TYNAN (Celt.) the Irish O'Teimhneain (mh 

mute) = Descendant of Teimhnean 

[the pers. (nick-) name is a double dim. 

f. Ir. t^mh, a veil, cover] 

TYNDALL } = ^indale, Tindall, q.v. 

TYNE (Celt.) i Dweller at the R. Tyne [the 
connexion seems to be with O.Erse tain, 

There is also a R. Tyne in Scotland. 
2 the Irish O'TVimAra (wA mute) [f. the 
same stem as Tynan, q.v. ; with the dim. 

suff. -in] 

TYNEIVIOUTH (Celt. + Eng.) Bel. to Tyne- 

mouth = the Mouth of the R. Tyne [v. 

under Tyne, and -f- O.E. tniiva] 

TYRE = Tyer, q.v. 

TYRER, lit. Attirer, the equiv. of Tyerman, 

TYRRELL, v. Tirrell. 

Henry Tyre). — Hund. Rolls. 

TYRWHITT, V. Trewhitt. 

TYSON I = Tyas's Son : v. Tyas. 
2 for Dyson, q.v. 

TYTE, V. Tite, Titus. 

TYTHERINGTON, v. Titherington. 

TYTHERLEIGH, v. Titherleigh. 

TYTLER (Eng.) Tatler [M.E. titeler, f. titelen, 
titeren, to tattle ; conn, with Low Ger. 
tateln, to tattle] 
Of alle tale-telleris 
And titeleris . . . — 

Piers Plowman, 14523-4. 

TYZACK (Fr.) Bel. to Tizac (Gironde) = 
(prob.) Titius's Estate [M.Lat. *Titi- 
acum—dc-um, the Lat.-Gaul. possess, suff.] 


UBANK (Eng.) Dweller at the Yew-Bank 
[O.E. iw; and see under Banl<] 

UCHTRED, V. Ughtred. 

nnil"^ 1 (Eng-) Bel. to Udale or Yewdale = 
UDELL J "'^ Yew- Valley [O.E. iw + dal] 

There are a Yewdale near Coniston 
Water and a Udale Beck flowing into the 

UDEN (Eng.) Dweller at the Yew- Valley 
[O.E, iw + denu] 




UDY (Teut.) 1 6th cent. Udie, the Domesday 
Udi [app. f. a var. of O.N. awS-r = O.Sax. 
dd (= O.E. edd), prosperity, riches, luck] 

Uda occurs as the name of a monk in 
the 'Liber Vitae Dunelm.' ; and Udd is 
found in England in the eighth cent. The 
Continental forms preclude a derivation f. 
O. Wei. udd, a 'chief, 'lord'. 

UFF (Eng.) the A.-Sax. Uf{f)a [f. O.E. «/, m. 
(= Svved. uf), owl] 
(Scand.) an assim. form of the O.N. 
Ulf-r = O.E. Wulf. 

UFFINGTON (Eng.) Bel. to UfSngton : i the 
A.-Sax. *Uffingatun = the Estate of the 
Uffa Family [v. under UfT, and + O.E. 
-inga, genit. pi. of the fil. suff. -ing + tun, 

estate, etc.] 

2 the A.-Sax. C/^a«fMK = Uff A 's Estate 
\Uffan-, genit. of Uffa; and -|- O.E. tuti] 

The Berks Uffington occurs as Uffentiin 
(for Uffantun) c. a.d. 930 ; and an Uffentiin 
occurs in a loth-cent. Durham charter 
('Cart. Sax.' no. 685). 

UFFORD (Eng.) Bel. to Ufford (Northants : 

anc. Ufforde; Suff.: 13th cent. Ufford), 

A.-Sax. *Uffa{n)ford = Uffa's Ford 

\Uffan-, genit. of TJffa (v. under Uff) ; 

and + O.E. ford] 

The Uffawyr^ [O.E. wyr^, worlS, estate] 
of a Northants charter dated a.d. 948 prob. 
relates to the same proprietor who is 
connoted in the Ufford nr. Stamford. 

UGLOW (Eng.) Dweller at Ugga's (Buiial-) 
Mound [A.-Sax. *Uggan-hl<Biv — Uggan-, 
genit. of Ugga, which seems to be of 
Scand. orig. : cp. O.N. ugg-r, fear, awe] 

UGHTRED (Eng.) the Domesday Uctred, 
A.-Sax. Uhtred (common) = Sprite- 
Counsel [O.E. uht = wiht, a sprite, 
creature -|- rAd, counsel, advice] 

Uhtred, the powerful earl of Northum- 
berland, . . . hastened to make his sub- 
mission to Cnut, as he had formerly done 
to his father [Sueinn]. — 

Lappenberg-Thorpe, A.-Sax. Kings, ii. 

220, 229. 
Robertus Ughtrede. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 1300. 

ULF KETTLE (Scand.) the O.N. Ulfketill = 

Ulf-r's (Sacrificial) Cauldron [O.N. 

ulf-r, wolf 4- ketill, cauldron] 

The O.N. Ulfketill was Anglicized 

Ulfcytel and Wulfcytel. 

ULGAR \ (Scand.) the O.N. Ulfgeirr= A.-Sax. 
yiLGEHiWulfgar (common), i.e. Wolf- 
Spear [O.N. geirr = O.E. gar, a spear] 

Both Vlgar and Ulger occur as sur- 
names in the Hundred-Rolls. 

ULUATHORN(E 1 (Scand.) Bel. to UUathorne 

UULITHORN(E f (Westmd.), i6th cent, same 

spelling = (prob., with intrus. -a-) Ulf-r's 

Thorn-Tree [O.N. Alf-r, wolf -|- ^om, 

thorn- tree] 

Ulthwaite, Westmd., was Ulvethewayt 
A.D. 1301. 

ULLMER 1 (Teut.) i for the O.N. Ulfmcerr = 

ULMAR I A.-Sax. Wulfmar, i.e. Wolf- 

ULMER J Famed [O.N. mcerr = O.E. mcere, 

famous, glorious] 

2 the O.l'eut. Ulmar, Ulmer = Owl- 
Famed [O.H.Ger. ula, uwila = O.E. lile 
(Dut. uil), owl + O.H.Ger. and O.Sax. 
mdri = O.E. metre, famous, etc.] 

Ulmer and Ulfmer (common) are the 
Domesday- Bk. forms. 

ULLOCK (Scand.) Bel. to UUock' (Cumb.), 
13th cent. Uhelayk, Ulvelaik, repr. the 
O.N. pers. name Ulfleik-r = Wolf-Sport 
[O.N. leik-r = O.E. Idc, sport, contest], 
with a local suff. lost : the form Ullayk 
mire [O.N. myr-r, a bog, moor], in fact, 
occurs a.d. 1285. 

ULPH (Scand.) the O.N. Ulf-r (mod. Norw. 
Ulf Ulv) = Wolf. 

ULVERSTON (Scand.) Bel. to Ulverston (N. 

Lane), 13th cent. Ulveston, a.d. 1196 

Olveston = Ulf-r's Homestead [see 

under Ulph; and -1- O.N. <m«J 

The -er in this name is the common 
phonetic intrusion ; it does not occur in 
the earliest forms of the name. 

ULYAT(T ] are app. forms of the common 

ULYEAT lA.-Sax. Wulfgeat [O.K. wulf , woM 

LILYET(Tj + the ethnic name Gedtl; with 

W- lost through Scand. influence, the 

surname being mainly found in Lmcoln- 

shire, Yorkshire, and Cambridgeshire. 

Uluiet occurs in Domesday-Bk. 

UMFREVILUE 1 (Fr.-Teut. -|- Lat.) Bel. to 

UMFREWILL I Umfrevill(e, evid. some 

UMPHREVILLE J small place in Normandy = 

Humfrey's or Hunfrid's Estate [see 

under Humfrey, awA-^Yr.ville, Lat. villd\ 

Will'us de Umfrevill. — 

Charter-Rolls, A.D. 128 1. 

UMNEY for Ommaney, q.v. 

UMPUEBY '[(Scand.), a common Yorkshire 

UMPHELBY J surname, evid. represents the 

Yorks- Domesday t/>«ZOT)«6«,J7»/owJ! (which 

is usually said to be Anlaby) ='*Hunleif's 




Estate [the pers. name corresponds to 
the A.-Sax. Hunldf, and is a compd. of 
Hun-, the ethnic name, and O.N. leif = 

O.E. Idf, relic, heritage : 1- O.N. by-r, 

farm, estate] 

UNCLES 1 (A.-Fr.-Lat.) Uncle's (Son) [M.E. 
UNKLESj MMcte, tinkle; Fr. onde; Lat. avun- 


UNDERDOWN (Eng.) Dweller Under the 

Down or Hill [O.E. under; dun, dat. dune'] 

Richard Underdoune. — Testa de Nevill. 

UNDERHAY (Eng.) Dweller Under the 

Hedge or Hedged Enclosure [O.E. 

under ; and v. Hay] 

UNDERHILL (Eng.) Dweller Under the Hill 

[O.E. under; hyll] 

William Underhiil.— ffM«d. Rolls. 

UNDERWOOD (Eng.) Dweller Under the 
Wood [O.E. under ; wudu, dat. wuda] 
John Underwode. — 

Hund. Rolls, A.D. 1274. 
Adam Undirwode. — 

Vale Royal Ledger-Bk., A.D. 1280. 

UNDRELLfor Underhill, q.v. 

UNETT, i6th cent. Unet, is app. the O.Scand. 
pers. name Une [prob. f. O.N. una, to be 
happy] with the Fr. dim. suff. -et. 

UNSWORTH (Scand. + E.) Bel. to Unsworth 
(Lauc.) = Unn's Farm or Estate 
[Undeswortk is the form in 1322 ('Extent 
Manor, Mchstr.'), but the d is -prob. the 
common post-n intrusion, and the pers. 
name the O.Scand. Unn-r (mod. Unn and 

Und), f. O.N. unna, to love : h O.E. 

KiortS, farm, etc.] 

This name is occ. for H unsworth, q.v. 

UNTHANK (Eng.) Bel. to Unthank (a fairly 
common Eng. place-name), 14th cent. 
Unthank, 13th cent. Unthanc, denoting land 
settled upon 'without leave' of the lord of 
the manor [O.E. un\anc, displeasure, ill- 
will, in the genit. case signifying 'against 
one's will', 'without leave' ; as clearly 
shown, e.g., in the A.-Saxon Chronicle, 
A.D. 901, where one MS. has "blitan |)Bes 
cyninges I6afe" (without the King's leave) 
and another "faes cynges unjiances''] 

UNWIN (Eng.) I the 13th cent. Unwine, 12th 

cent. Unwin-us [evid. the A.-Sax. unwine, 

enemy; lit. 'not a friend' — ««-, negative 

prefix, and wine, friend = O.N. uvin-r] 

(rarely) 2 the A.-Sax. Unwene ('fseder 

Unwenes'. — WfdsfS, 230) [O.E. unwene, 

unexpected — un-, negative prefix] 

UPCHER, V. Upsher. 

UPCHURCH (Eng.) Bel. to Upchurch ; or 

Dweller at the Upper or High Church 

[O.E. Up + cirice] 

Upchurch, Kent, was Upcherche in the 

13th cent. 

UPCOTT (Eng.) Bel. toUpcott, I3th-I4thcent. 

Uppecot{e, Upcote; or Dweller at the Upper 

or High Cottage [O.E. Up + coi\ 

This is a West. Eng., esp. Devonshire, 


UPCRAFT (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper or 
High Croft [O.E. up ; and see Craft] 

UPFIELD (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper or 
High Field [O.E. up + feld] 

UPFILL for Upfield. 

UPFOLD (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper or High 
Fold [O.E. up + fal(o)d, a fold, pen, stall] 

UPHAM (Eng.) Bel. to Upham (Hants, Wilts, 

etc.), 13th cent. Upham; or Dweller at the 

Upper Enclosure or Dwelling [O.E. 

up -\- ham(m] 

UPHILL (Eng.) Bel. to Uphill, 13th cent. 
Uppehull, Uppehill; or Dweller at the 
High or Lofty Hill [O.E. tip + hyll\ 

UPJOHN (Celt. -I- Heb.) a corrupt form of 

the Wei. Ap-John = Son of John, q.v. 

[Wei. ap, ab, son (of] 

UPPERTON (Eng.) Bel. to Upperton ; or 
Dweller at the Upper or Higher Farm- 
stead or Village [cp. Upton] 
There are an Upperton in Sussex and 
an Upper Town in Cumberland. 

UPRICHARD (Celt. + Teut.) a corrupt form 
of the Wei. Ap-Richard : v. Pritchard. 

UPRIGHT (Eng.) Upright, Erect [M.E. O.E. 


UPSALL (Eng.) Bel. to Upsall' (N. Yorks), 

13th cent. Upsal(e, Domesday Upesale, 

Upsale = the Upper or High Hall [O.E. 

up -\- sat] 

UPSHER "1 (Eng.) Bel. to Upshire (Essex) = 

UPSHIRE J the Upper or High District or 

Parish [O.E. Ap + scir] 

UPSON, a syncopated form of Upstone, q.v. 

UPSTONE (Eng.) Dweller at the Upper or 

High Stone or Rock, or Stone Castle 

[O.E. up + stdn] 

UPTON (Eng.) Bel. to Upton (acommon Eng. 

place-name), 13th cent. Upton, A.-Sax. 

Uptiin = the Upper or High Farmstead 

or Village [O.E. up -\- t4n] 




UPWARD for Upwood, q.v. 

UPWOOD (Eng,) Bel. to Upwood ; or Dweller 
at the Upper or High Wood [O.E. tip + 

Upwood, Hunts, was Upwode in the 
13th cent., Upwude (a dat. form) in a loth 
cent. Latin charter. 

URAN, see the commoner form Urian. 

URBAN (A.-Lat.) Urbane [Lat. Urban-us, 
belonging to a city (urbs\ 

URCY 1 (Fr.) One from Urcy, Urjay (France), 

URSY J the M.Lat. Ursiacum = i\\e Estate of 

Ursus [the pers. name is Lat. ursus, a 

bear ; the suff. is the Lat. -Gaul, possess. 


URE (Celt.) Dweller by the R. Ure [O.Celt. 

ar, fresh, pure] 

UREN (Scand.) a nickname: Impure, Un- 
chaste [Dan.-Norw. uren — «, negative 
+ ren, pure, etc.] 

URIAN 1 forms (Urien, esp., being Welsh) of 
URIEN [ the Lat. Uranius, Uranus, Gr. Oipavds 
URION J = the Heavenly One [f. Gr. oipa,v6s, 


Owain mab Urien. — Mabinogion, etc. 

Urien, Rhydderch, and others, who 
warred with Hussa, king of Bernicia from 
567 to 574, figure very conspicuously in 
old Welsh poetry.— 

Rhys, Celt.