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fi50mrfillwej;siitg Jilratg 

leltic Collection 


3ames Morgan Hart 

A.ISl5^5^ ■■'••?' 1-1/ 5-1 1.9 


924 092 516 297 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 92409251 6297 



line 12 from top of 

page 17, read 'ar instead of "'or." 



20, , 

, 7oso 


,, 14 

24, , 

, enables 

„ "enable." 


26, , 

, Achaius 

„ "Archaiua." 



54, , 

, Lugadius 

„ "Ludagius." 

„ 11 


63, , 



., 23 

141, , 

, preceding 

,, " proceeding." 


„ 3 


269, , 

, Sherrard 

„ " Skerrard." 






(First Series.) 





' ' Where are the heroes of the ages past '! 
Where the brave chieftains, where the mighty ones 
Who flourished in the infancy of days ? 
All to the grave gono down." 

— Henry Kirke White. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in thi> ynir 1876, by Richard, 
Oulahan, of Washington, D. C, in the office <;/ t/ie Librarian of 
Con-gress, at Washington. 

Second Edition. 









7-« & TV,, BROADWAY. 





All Rights Hesen-fil. 

A. ivjjj-g 




Eminent historians have written the History of Ireland ; 
but it may he matter for surprise that the "Irish Gene- 
alogies " were never pablished. This surprise, however, 
lessens when we reflect that the distracted state of Ireland 
in the bitter past, and the passions that have agitated her 
different sects and parties may have supplied motives for 
their suppression. Those passions are happily subsiding . 
I therefore trust there is no irregularity in now unveiling 
the Irish Genealogies. 

As accounting for the appearance of this Work, I should 
mention that, from a certain family tradition conveyed to 
me in my boyhood, it was my life's ambition to meet with 
some ancient Irish Manuscript that would throw light on 
my family pedigree. It was, therefore, that I hailed with 
pleasure the publication, in 1846, of the " Annals of the 
Four Masters "* (Dublin : Geraghty, 8, Anglesea Street), 
which Owen Connellan, Irish Historiographer to their late 
Majesties George the Fourth and William the Fourth, 
translated into English from Irish Manuscripts preserved 
in the Libraries of Trinity College and the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, Dublin. From the same Manuscripts the late 

* Four Masters : — The " Four Masters " were so called, because 
Michael O'Clery, Peregrine O'Clery, Conary O'Clery, together with 
Peregrine O'Duigenan (a learned antiquary of Kilronan, in the 
County Eoscommon), were the four principal compilers of the ancient 
Annals of Ireland. Besides the above-named authors, however, two 
other eminent antiquaries and chroniclers assisted in the compilation 
of the Annals — namely, Perfassa O'Mulconry and Maurice 
O'Mulconry, both of the County Roscommon. — Connellan. 



John O'Donovan, LL.D., M.R.I.A., also translated and 
edited the " Annala Rioghachta Eireann ; or, The Annals 
of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from 
the Earliest Period to the Year A.D. 1616. DubUn: 
Hodges and Smith, Grafton Street, 1851." 

From the authenticity which attaches to them, these 
Annals, either in the original Irish Manuscripts, or in the 
translations made from them, have, since their first publi- 
cation, been the basis of all Irish historic works, including 
the Archaeological and Celtic Society's productions, the 
chief antiquarian treatises of the country, and all attempts 
at Irish chronicles — whether popular or exact. 

Those "Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland" I need 
not say I read with care ; from them I derived a large 
fund of valuable information which I freely employed in 
the compilation of this Volume. 

For other information in connection with my subject, 
I am also indebted to "The Tribes and Customs of 
the district of Hy-Maine,"* published by the Irish 
Archseological Society; "The Book of Rights:" Celtic 
Society; " The Topographical Poems, by O'Dugan and 
0'H.eerin:"+ Irish Arch, and Celt. Society ; '■ Eollin's 
Ancient History :" Blaclde and Son, Glasgow ; Yeatman's 

* Hy- Maine :—" 'H.j-M.ava.s" was the principality of the 
O'Kellys ; a large territory comprised within the present counties 
of Galway and Roscommon, and extending from the Shannon, at 
Lanesborough, to the County Clare, and from Athlone to Athenry 
in the County Galway ; these O'Kellys were of the Clan Colla (see 
Part iii., chap. x.). The O'Kellys in the ancient Kino-dom of Meath 
who were one of the families known as the " Four Tribes of 
Tara" (seepage 271), were descended from the Clan Colman of the 
southern Hy-Niall. ' 

t O'Dugan and O'ffeerin:— Shane O'Dugan, the author of 
" O'Dugan's Topography," was chief poet of O'KeUy of Hy-Maine- 


"Early English History:" Longmans, Green and Co., 
London; Miss Cusack's " History of Ireland:" National 
Publication Office, Kenmare ; " Lrish Names of Places," 
by P. "W. Joyce, LL.D.: M'Glashan and Gill, Dublin; 
O'Callagban's " History of the Irish Brigades .•" Cameron 
and Ferguson, Glasgow ; "Haverty's History of Ireland :" 
Duffy, Dublin ; The Able MacGeoghagan's "History of 
Ireland;" Keating's " History of Ireland," etc. 

But the work to which I am indebted for the Ibish 
Pedigrees is that portion of the Annals of Ireland known 
as " O'Clery's Irish Genealogies ;" so called, because 
compiled by Michael O'Clery, who was the chief author of 
the "Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland," above 
mentioned. In O'Clery's Genealogies I found (see No. 
81, pages 27, 110, 136) my Family Pedigree ; and in that 
priceless work I traced the Origin and Stem of the Irish 
Nation, the ancestry of the ancient Irish families in 
Ireland, the pedigrees of the more leading families among 
them down to the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
and (see page 24) the Eoyal Stem of Ireland from which 
our gracious Queen derives her lineal descent ! 

Actuated by the consideration that, should I neglect to 
publish this Work or consign it to a future lime, another 
opportunity for collecting materials reliable as those now 
in my possession might never again present itself, I have 
ventured to unveil the Irisii Genealogies. I had no sect 
or party to subserve ; for, in the Irish Pedigrees are 

and died, A.D. 1372. Giolla-na-Neev O'Heerin, who died, A.v. 1420, 
wrote a continuation of O'Dugan's Topography : these Topographies 
give names of the Irish Chiefs and Clans in Ireland from the twelfth 
to the fifteenth century. — Connellan. 

given the genealogies of families of various shades of 

religious and political opinions. 

I am not insensible of the many imperfections which 

the Volume presents to the literary critic ; but, as errors 

and inaccuracies are inseparable from the first edition of 

any book, I hope that a generous Public will be 

To its faults a little blind, 
To its merits ever kind. 

May, however, the knowledge of the interesting fact which 
" The Stem of the Eoyal Family " discloses, in relation to 
the Queen's Irish lineal descent, endear Her Majesty to the 
Irish people, and conduce to a more kindly feeling between 
the English and the Irish nations than has, imhappily, 
existed between them for the last seven hundred years ! 



Ulster King of Arms, 



Your learned Works, " The Vicissitudes of 
Families," "The Peerage and Baronetage;" "The 
Landed Gentry;" "Dormant and Extinct Peerage;" 
"Family Eomance," etc., evidence such vast histori- 
cal and genealogical research, that, as an humble tribute 
to your genius, I beg leave to dedicate to you my Irish 
Pedigrees : satisfied that, on the Genealogies which I 
trace in these pages, no other person is more competent 
than you to pronounce an opinion. 

Among those Genealogies are the Origin and Stem of 
the Irish Nation, and the Uneage or lineal descent from 
that Stem, of the following ancient Families : — Fitz- 
patrick, Guinness, Mac Carthy, Mao Dermott, Mac 
Donnell (of Antrim), MacLoghlin, Mac Mahon (of Ulster), 
Mac Morough, -Mac Swiney, Maguire, O'Brien, O'Byrne, 
O'Carroll, O'Conor (Connaught), O'Conor (Faley), 


O'Conor (Kerry), O'Donel, O'Farrell, O'Felan, O'Flaherty, 
O'Hart, O'Kelly, O'Melaghlin, O'Moore, O'Neill, O'Nowlan, 
O'Eielly, O'Eourke, O'Sullivan, O'Toole, and the present 
Eoyal Family, etc. ; and, although not of Irish descent, 
I have added the Pedigrees of the Burke and Fitzgerald 

The genealogy of the Eoyal House of Austria has, it is said, 
been traced back to the Deluge ; but to those unacquainted 
with ancient Irish records it is difficult to conceive, that 
the Irish, who are almost unknown, can trace their origin 
and genealogy back to times so remote ; while most of the 
leading countries of Europe are comparatively new, and 
scarcely understand their origin. In Camden's Britannia, 
page 728, it is said: "From the deepest sources of anti- 
quity the history of the Irish is taken ; so that, m com- 
parison to them, that of other nations is but novelty and 
a beginning." 

Some people have endeavoured to ennoble their origin 
and establish it on an illustrious and ancient foundation ; 
but, to give them some brilliancy in the midst of the dark- 
ness which surrounds them, fable is often made use of 
instead of history : they prefer to lose themselves in an 
abyss of antiquity, than candidly avow themselves to be 
of modern mediocrity. 

The Egyptians reckon a period of forty-eight thousand 
years, and pretend to have seen twelve hundred eclipses 
before the reign of Alexander the Great. The Chaldeans 
ascend still higher : they pretend to have made astrono- 
mical observations, during four hundred thousand years. 
The Chinese count upon a revolution of forty thousand 
years, and pretend to have made observations long before 
the Creation, as established by Moses. 


The Arcadians boast that they are more ancient than the 
moon ; and the Sicilians assert that Palermo was founded 
in the time of the patriarch Isaac, by a colony of Hebrews, 
Phoenicians, and Syrians ! The origin of the Eomans is 
not well established : some attribute it to the Trojans ; 
others give to them different founders. Without seeking 
after such distant prodigies of antiquity, we have the 
history of " Brutus," forged by Geoffry of Monmouth, an 
English monk of the twelfth century : this friar, zealous 
for the glory of his nation, and wishing to give it an illus- 
trious beginning, introduces the story of a certain Brutus, 
great grandson of iEneas, the Trojan, having peopled 
Britain ; and, by this happy discovery, finds for it, at the 
same time, an origin and a name (see page 83). This 
system did not succeed : it was rejected by Nubrigensis, 
Polydore Virgil, Buchanan, Camden, Baker, and others. 

Even the writings of the Jewish people are, in some 
instances, obscure ; for, although God conducted with a 
peculiar care the pens of the holy writers, in everything 
regarding the laws, the prophecies, canticles, the history 
of the creation of the world, and all that was above 
human understanding, the same writers have, according to 
the learned Abbe MacGeoghagan, treated of the genealogies 
of families, and have given an account of historical facts, 
which they had known from the study of tradition, and which 
were known to all who wished to be instructed in them. 

Objections have been advanced against the accuracy of 
the Irish Genealogies ; because it is difficult to reconcile 
a point of chronology on the subject of Gaodhal, who, ac- 
cording to the Pagan Irish chroniclers, was (see No. 16, 
pages 29 and 35) fifth in descent from Japhet, and contem- 


porary of Moses ; who, according to the Book of Genesis, 
was of the fourteenth or fifteenth generation after Shem. 
Granting the genealogy of Moses, as recorded, to be cor- 
rect, the anachronism which here presents itself may 
easily be accounted for, on the supposition that the 
copyist of the Milesian Manuscripts may have omitted some 
generations between Japhet and Gaodhal. In the 
histories of those times so far remote, there are other 
things, besides, hard to be reconciled. The learned differ 
about the king who reigned in Egypt in the time of Moses, 
and who was drowned in the Eed Sea : some pretend that 
it was Amenophis, father of Sesostris ; others say that it 
was Pheron, son of Sesostris ; whilst the Pagan Irish 
chroniclers say it was Pharaoh Cincris. The Hebrews, 
the Greeks, and the Latins disagree concerning the num- 
ber of years that elapsed from the time of the Creation 
to the coming of the Messiah ; whilst, on this point, the 
Septiiagint agrees with the Pagan Irish chroniclers. These 
differences, however, do not affect the truth of the events 
recorded to have happened in the interval between the 
Creation and the birth of our Eedeemer ; for instance : 
the deluge, the birth of Abraham, the building of the 
Temple of Jerusalem, etc. ; nor ought a similar anachron- 
ism with respect to Gaodhal and Moses destroy the truth- 
fulness of the Irish Pedigrees. 

It has been also objected, that navigation was unknown 
in those early periods, and that it therefore cannot be 
believed that the Gathelians (or descendants of Gaodhal) 
had been able to make such distant voyages by sea as 
that from Egypt to Crete, from Crete to Scythia, from 
Seythia to Africa, from Africa to Spain, and from Spain 


to Ireland. This difficulty will vanish if we but consider 
that the art of sailing had been at all times in use, at 
least since the deluge. We know that long before 
Solomon, the Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Greeks pos- 
sessed the art of navigation. "The Phoenicians," says 
Herodotus, " who traded to all countries, with the 
merchandise of Egypt and Assyria, arrived at Argos, a 
trading city in Greece ; and, after disposing of their 
merchandise, they carried off the wives of the Greeks, to- 
gether with lo, daughter of King Inachus, who reigned at 
Argos, about the year of the world, 8,112 ; after which, 
some Greeks trading to Tyre carried away, in their turn, 
Europa, daughter of the King of Tyre, to be revenged for 
the insult their countrymen sustained by the carrying off 
of their wives from Argos." 

It may be asked. Why did not the Gathelians establish 
themselves in some part of the continent, rather than 
expose themselves to so many dangers by sea ? The 
answer is : The Scythians, from whom the Gathelians 
are descended, had neither cities nor houses ; they were 
continually roving, and lived in tents, sometimes in one 
country, sometimes in another ; for, in those early ages, 
society had not been sufficiently settled, and property in 
the possession of lands was not then established, as it 
since has been : this accounts for the taste for voyages and 
emigrations which prevailed in the early ages of the 
world. The Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Cartha- 
ginians (who were themselves a colony of Phoenicians) 
sent colonies into different countries ; and Carthage her- 
self, after having founded three hundred cities on the 
coast of Africa, and finding herself still overcharged with 


inhabitants, sent Hanno with a fleet and thirty thousand 
volunteers, to make discoveries on the coast of Africa 
beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and to establish some 
colonies there. But, whatever truth may be attached to 
the Irish Annals in regard to the genealogies of the Irish 
Nation, and the voyages and transmigrations of the Gael 
in different countries, it appears at all times indisputable 
that these people, while claiming the glory of having come 
originally from Egypt, derived their origin trom the 
Scythians: the accounts of foreign authors confirm it; 
among others, Newton (Chron. Dublin edit., page 10) 
says, that "Greece and all Europe had been peopled by 
the Cimmerians or Scythians from the borders of the 
Euxine Sea, who, like the Tartars, in the north of Asia, 
led a wandering life."''= 

According to the Four Masters (see page 66), Saint 
Patrick, Saint Benignus, and St. Carioch, were three of 
the nine personages appointed by the triennial parliament 
of Tara, in the reign of Laeghaire,t the 128th Milesian 
monarch of Ireland : "to review, examine, and reduce 
into order all the monuments of antiquity, genealogies, 
chronicles, and records of the Kingdom ;" these monu- 
ments of antiquity, genealogies, chronicles, and records, 
so reviewed, examined, and reduced into order by St. 

* See the Abbe' MacGeoghagan's History of Ireland. 

t Lacghaire : — Ware begins Ms "Antiquities of Ireland" witli 
the reign of this monarch, and the apostleship of Saint Patrick- and 
he assigns it as a reason for doing so, that much of what had been 
written concerning the predecessors of that monarch was mixed 
with fables and anachronisms. As this is a fault common to all 
ancient histories, no doubt Ware's criticism is just ; two things in 
it, however, are worthy of notice, namely : first, that Laeo-haire had 
predecessors in the monarchy, and monuments which speak of them • 
and, second, that these monuments were mixed with fable and anach- 
ronisms. — MacOeoghagan. 


Patrick and Ms colleagues on that occasion, were 
carefully preserved in our national archives ; and the 
latest revision of the Annals of Ireland was by 
the " Four Masters," of whom Michael O'Clery, a monk 
of the order of St. Francis, was the principal ; who him- 
self compiled the Irish Genealogies, "from the ancient 
and approved chronicles, records, and other books of anti- 
quity of the Kingdom of Ireland." 

Addressing his friend " Fargal (or Farrell) O'Gara, lord 
of Moy O'Gara and Coolavin, one of the two knights elected 
to represent the County Sligo in the parliament held in 
Dublin, this present year of our Lord, 1634," to whom 
the Annals of the Four Masters were inscribed, Michael 
O'Clery, their chief author, says in the Dedication page : — 
" On the 22nd January, a.d. 1632, this work was under- 
taken in the Convent of Donegal, and was finished in the 
same Convent on the 10th day of August, 1636 ; being the 
eleventh year of the reign of Charles, king of England, 
France, Scotland, and Ireland." ■'■ -■• * O'Clery 
proceeds : '^ In every country enlightened by civilization, 
and confirmed therein through a succession of ages, it has 
been customary to record the events produced by time. 
For sundry reasons nothing was deemed more profitable 
and honourable than to study and peruse the works of 
ancient writers, who gave a faithful account of the chiefs 
and nobles who figured on the stage of life in the preced- 
ing ages, that posterity might be informed how their 
forefathers employed their time, how long they continued 
in power, and how they finished their days," 

O'Clery continues : "In consequence of your uneasi- 
ness on the general ignorance of our civil history, and of 


the monarchs, provincial kings, lords, and chieftains, who 
flourished in this country through a succession of ages ; 
with equal want of kno wledge of the synchronism neces- 
sary for throwing light on the transactions of each, I have 
informed you that I entertained hopes of joining to my 
own labours the assistance of antiquaries I held most 
in esteem for compiling a body of Annals, wherein those 
matters should be digested under their proper heads : 
judging that, should such a compilation be neglected at 
present, or consigned to a future time, a risk might be 
run that the materials for it would never again be brought 

And O'Clery adds : "In this idea I have collected the 
most authentic Annals I could find in my travels (from 
A.D. 1616, to 1632) through the kingdom ; from which I 
have compiled this work, which I now commit to the 
world under your name and patronage." 

The Annals so collected by O'Clery were digested as 
follows : one portion of them is an historical abridg- 
ment of the Irish kings, their reign and succession, their 
genealogies and death ; another portion is a tract on the 
genealogies of the Irish saints, called " Sanctilogium 
Genealogicum ;" the third treats of the first inhabitants 
and different conquests of Ireland, the succession of her 
kings, their wars, and other remarkable events from the 
Deluge until the arrival of the English in the twelfth 
century ; another of the works was CdUed the Annals of 
Donegal; and another, the Irish Genealogies. 

From O'Clery's Irish Genealogies, O'Farrell, who was 
Irish Historiographer to Queen Anne, translated into 
English, A.D. 1709, his Linea Antiqua : a Manuscript copy 


of -whicli was deposited in the Office of Arms, Ireland, 
and another in the Eoyal Library at Windsor; and 
from the same reliable source I have compiled these 
pages ; which, however, do not contain all the genealogies 
given by O'Clery : in a second volume, if God spare me, 
I intend to complete the Irish Pedigbees ; which, if col- 
lected into this Volume, would render it too voluminous 
and expensive for the masses, for whom it is principally 

In aU ages and in all nations some families were more 
distinguished than others : thus some of the ancient 
families of distinction were known by the prefix "De," 
" Don," " Mao," " 0'," or " Von," etc. The " 0' " and 
"Mac" became peculiar to Ireland : hence the following 
lines : — 

" By Mac aud you'll always know- 
True Irishmen, they say ; 

But, if they lack both " 0' " and " Mao," 
No Irishmen are they." 

Many of the old Irish families omit the and Mac ; 
others of them, from causes perhaps over which they had 
no control, have so twisted and translated their sirnames, 
that it is often difficult to determine whether those 
families are of Irish, English, or French extraction. By 
looking for the simame, however, in the page of this 
Work to which the "Index of Sirnames" refers, the 
descent of the family bearing that name may, as a rule, 
be ascertained. Other families are considered as of 
English or Anglo-Norman descent, but some of those 
families can be easily traced to Irish origin ; for example, 
,"Hort" can be derived from the Irish proper name 


O'h-Airt; "Ouseley" and "Wesley," from MacUaislaidh 
[ooseley] — see MacUais, in the "Index of Simames ; 
" Verdon" and " De Verdon," from the Irish Fhear-duinn 
[fhar-dun] , signifying the hivim man ; etc. 

The Work also contains the names of the Irish Chiefs 
and Clans in Ireland, from the twelfth to the fifteenth 
century, and where the territories they possessed were 
located ; the names of the leading families of Danish, 
Anglo-Norman, Englisii, and Scotch descent, who settled 
in Ireland from the twelfth to the seventeenth century ; 
and of the modern Irish nobility. Under these several 
heads Connellan's Four Masters contains very full infor- 
mation — more than, in case of the Irish Chiefs and Clans, 
is given in O'Dugan's and O'Heerin's Topographies : 
Connellan I have therefore adopted, save, in a few 
instances, where I found that, inadvertently perhaps, 
some of the Irish families were mystified. 

Some Irish sirnames are now obsolete, and some extinct; 
the following are the modern forms of a few of the 
obsolete sirnames : — "Mac Firbis " has become Forbes; 
" Mao Geough," Goiujh [Goff] and Mac Go ugh ; "Mac 
Tague," Montagu: "Mulligan," Mohjncux; " O'Barie," 
Barry: " O'Bearry, " Bernj and Bury: " O'Caoinhan," 
Keenan; " O'Donocho," O'Donokoe; " O'Gnive," Agnue 
and, more lately, Agnew : " O'Eahilly," O'PdeUy, etc. 

Some of the Irish sirnames, as they were spelled in the 
Irish language, are given in the foot-notes to the " Index 
of Sirnames " at end of this Volume, but written in the 
Eoman letter ; the Irish derivation of many more of them 
is given in the body of the Work : to the Celtic scholar 
the sirnames so spelled and the Anglicised forms which 


they have assumed may be interesting, if not instructive. 
To the English scholar some of the Irish proper names 
are difficult of pronunciation : to obviate that difficulty, 
many of them occurring in these pages are Latinized, or 
Anglicised ; but, to preserve the identity of the person, 
the epithet, if any, by which such person is known in 
ancient Irish history, is also preserved. 

On the importance that should attach in our schools and 
colleges to a knowledge of the Irish language, the learned 
Mr. Patrick M'Mahon, late M. P. for NewEoss, writing to 
me on the subject, is pleased to say : — 

" I think it a great pity that Irish is not more studied 
as a key to Greek and Latin and the modern dialects of 
Latin. One who knows Irish well will readily master 
Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. Our 
Carthaginian forefathers were famed for their knowledge 
of languages: Carthago bilingids. An effort should be 
made to have it taught more generally in the Irish schools 
and colleges, and not through antiquarian sentimentality ; 
but as the readiest means of enabling our youths to master 
modern languages. I am very glad to see that you know 
it -so thoroughly." 

The Irish language" is, indeed, the " key" to the modern 
languages of Europe : hence, several European Universi- 
ties have lately established chairs for the cultivation of 
Celtic learning. Besides : the Irish or Celtic was the 

* Irish Language : — " Est qui Jem lingua Hibernica, et elegans 
cum primis, et opulenta ; sed ad earn isto modo excolendam (sicuti 
reliquas fere Europae linguas vernaculas intra hoc speculum exoultas 
videmus), uondum exatitit liactenua qui aaimum adjiceret ; nullum 
adhuc habemus hujus linguee Lexicon, ^ive per se factum, sive cum 
alia lingua comparatum. " — Epist. Usser. 


language of the Gael ; and the Gael were the descendants 
of Gaodhal, above mentioned : the Irish, then, if not the 
most ancient, is certainly one of the most ancient 
languages in the world. 

Many were the revolutions of empires, states, and 
nations, since the days of that Gaodhal : The Assyrian 
made way for the Babylonian empire; the Babylonian for 
the Medo-Persian ; the Medo-Persian for the Macedonian; 
the Macedonian for the Eoman ; and, in its turn also, the 
Roman empire ceased to have existence : so, in Ireland, 
the Tua-de-Danans conquered the ancient Firvolgians ; so 
the Milesian or Scottish Nation conquered the Tua-de- 
Danans; and so was the Milesian Irish Nation subdued 
by the Anglo-Normans ; as were the De Danans by the 
Milesians; as were the ancient Britons by the Saxons ; 
and as were the Saxons by the Normans. But we should 
not forget that the course of events, the progresses and 
retrogressions of the world's history are from God : His 
writing is upon the wall whenever and wherever it is His 
holy will. 

Notwithstanding, however, those revolutions of empires, 
states, and nations, it is a strange fact, that (see No. 16, 
page 29) the Queen of England can trace her lineage back 
to that Gaodhal ! The envious may cavil, and dispute 
the truthfulness of this ancient lineage ; but the gene- 
alogies traced in O'Clery's Irish Pedigrees will, I believe, 
bear the strictest scrutinj'. 

With respect and esteem, I am, Sir, 

Your ever faithful servant, 


EiNGSEND, Dublin, 

Pecemhei; 1875. 




I. —The Creation 7 

II. — ^ Ancient Irisli Proper Names and Adfixes, 16 

III.— The Stem of tlie Royal Family, 24 


I. — The Stem of tlie Irish Nation from Adam down to .Milesius 

of Spain, 31 

II. — EoU of the Milesian Monarchs of Ireland, 49 


III. — The Stem of the Irish Nation from Milesius of Spain 
down to Florence MacCarthy Mor. 

The House of Heber : — 

1. The Stem of the M'Carthy Family, .57 

2. „ O'Brien ,, 71 

3. „ O'SulUvan , 73 

4. „ O'Carroll (Ely) 75 

IV. — The leading families descended from Heber, 78 

v. — The Stem of the House of Ith (uncle of Milesius of Spain), 

and the leading families descended from him, 79 

VI. — The Kings of Munster since the advent of St. Patrick to 

Ireland, A. D. 432, 81 


I, — The Stem of the Irish Nation from Milesius of Spain 
down to James O'Farrell. 
The House of Ir : 

1. The Stem of the O'Farrell Family, 84 

•i. „ Guinness ,, ... ... . . 89 

3. „ O'Conor (Kerry) 92 

4. ,, O'Moore , 94 



II. — The Kings of Ulster before the advent of St. Patrick to 

Ireland, 90 

III. — The leading familiea descended from Ir, ... ... ... 9S 


The Herkmon Line. 
The Heremon Line ruled over the Kiagdoms of Connaught, 
Dalriada, Leinster, Meath, Ossory, Scotland, Ulster (since the 
fourth century); the Principalities of Clanaboy, Tirconnell, Tirowen ; 
and England, since the reign of King Henry the Second. 

I. — The Stem of the Irish Nation from Milesius of Spain down to Art 
Oge O'NeOl. 

The House of Heremon : — 

1 . The Stem of the O'Conor (Faley) Family, . 

... 129 


, Fitzpatrick ,, 

... 131 

\l : 

, O'Felan, 

, O'Wowlau, ,, 

... 133 
... 135 



... 13& 


, Mac DouneU (of Antrim) 

... 141 

■ 8 

, O'Conor (Connaught) 

O'Kelly (of Hy-Mame) . 

... 144 
... 146 

1.2 : 

O'Melaghlin, ,, 

... 149 

... 150 


, Present Royal Family 

... 151 


, O'Toole ,, 

... 156 


, O'Kourke ,, 

... 158 


MaoMahon (of Ulster) . 
, Maguire ,, 

... 159 
... 160 


, MacMorough ,, 

... 161 
... 162 



121, 163 
... 163 



... 164 



... 165 


, Mac Swiney, ,, 

... 166 


, Mac Dermott ,, 

... 167 

These ancient Far 

allies, from 1 to 23, inclusive, are 

lere given in 

chronological order : 

Nos. 3 and 4 are of equal antiqui 

ty, so are 7 

and 8, 9 and 10, 14 £ 

md 15, 16 and 17, 18 and 19. 



II. — The Kings of Connaught since the advent of St. Patrick 

to Ireland, 168 

III. — The Genealogy of the Kings of Dalriada, 169 

IV.— The Kings of Leinster 171 

v.— The Hy-JSTiaU Septs 172 

VI.— The O'MelaghHn Family, 177 

VII.— The Kings of Meath, 180 

VIII.— The Kings of Ossory, 18.5 

IX.— The Kings of Scotland 186 

X.— The Clan CoUa, 187 

XI. — The Kings of Ulster since the fourth century, ... 19S 

XII. — The leading families descended from Heremon, .. 201 


I. — The Stem of the Burke Family down to King James the 

Second, 210 

II.— The Stem of the Fitzgerald Family, 212 


I. — The origin of Sirnames in Ireland, .. ... ' ... 214 


II— The Chief Irish Families in Munster 215 

III. — III Thomond, or Limerick and Clare : 

1. The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 218 

2. Anglo-Norman Families, 222 

3. Modem N'obUity 222 

IV. — In Desmond, or Cork and Kerry : — 

1. The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 223 

2. Anglo-Norman Families, 229 

3. Modern Nobility, „ 232 

V. — tn Ormond and Desies, or Tipperary and Waterford : — 

1. The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 236 

2. Anglo-Norman and English Families, 241 

3. Modern Nobility, 243 

Ulster (since the fourth century). 
VI. — The principal Families in Ulster. 

1. Oriel, or the County Louth : — 



(a.) The Xrisli Chiefs and Clans, 244 

(6.) Anglo-Norman Families ... .. ... 244 

(c. ) Modern Nobility, 244 

2. Monaghan : — 

(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 245 

(c) Modern Nobility, 245 

3. Armagh : — 

(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 245 

(6) Chief English Families, 247 

(c) Modern Nobility, 247 

4. Fermanagh : 

(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, ... ... ... 247 

(i) English and Scotch Families, 249 

((?) Modern Nobility, 260 

5. VUdia, or Down and Part of Antrim : — 

(«) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 250 

(&) Anglo-Norman Settlers, 253 

(c) Modern Nobility, 253 

6. Dalriada, or part of Antrim and Derry : — 

(a ) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 254 

(c.) Modern Nobility 255 

7. Tirowen, or Tyrone .• — 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 256 

(c.) Modern NobOity, 260 

8. Tirconnell, or Donegal : — 

(«.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, ... 2C1 

(6. ) English and Scotch Families, 264 

(c.) Modern Nobility, 265 

9. Brefney, or Cavan and Leitrim .■ — 

{a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, ... .. ... 265 

(c. ) Modern Gentry and Nobility, ... ... 269 

Ancient Meath. 
"VII.— The principal Families in the Kingdom of Meath. 
1. Meath :— 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans 270 

(5.) Anglo-Norman Families, 276 

(c.) Modern Nobility, 277 



2. Westmeath : 

(^c.) Modern Nobility, 279 

3. Annaly, or Longford : — 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 280 

(c.) Modern Nobility, 281 

4. Dublin, Kildare, and King's Counties : — 

(a) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 281 

(6.) Anglo-Norman and English Families, ... 283 
(c.) Modern Nobility, 285 


VIII. — The principal Families in Leinster. 

1. JSy-Kinselagh and C'tialan, or Wexford, Wicklow, 

Carlow, and Part of Dublin : — 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 290 

(ft.) Tbaglo-Norman and English Families, ... 293 
(c.) Modern NobUity, 294 

2. Ossory, 3. Offaley, 4. Leix, or Kilkenny, King's, 

and Queen's Counties : — 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 296 

(6.) Anglo-Norman and English Families, ... 303 

(c) Modern NobUity, 307 


IX. — The principal Families in Connaught. 

1. Mayo and Sligo : — 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 309 

(ft.) Anglo-Norman Settlers, .. 314 

(c.) Modem Nobility, 318 

2. Roscommon and Galway :— 

(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans, 319 

(ft.) Anglo-Norman and English Families, ... 328 

(c.) Modem NobUity 329 

3. Leitrim (see under "Brefney''). 



Ancient Church Property. 364 

Banners, ... ... .•• ••■ ••■ ■ ■■ •" •" ' 

Bards, 341 

Battle-Cries, ^47 

Battle of Clontarf 349 

Brehons ... ... ... .■• •■• ■• ••• ••■ 342 

Bruce, The Invasion of Ireland by 365 

Cairns, ... ... ■■■ •. .•• ••• •■■ •-• 336 

Civil War of A, D. 1641 371 

Cromleacs, ... ... ... ••. ••• ■.- ■■■ ■•• 333 

Druidical Temples, ... ... ... •■• 336 

Ecclesiastical divisions of Ireland, 354 

Election of Kings, Princes, and Chiefs, ... ... .. ... 344 

Elk, The Irish 334 

Emerald Isle, 334 

Eric 346 

Erin, The Antiquity of the Name ... .. ... ... 331 

"Flightof the Earls," The 373 

Gavelkind and Ancient Tenures, ... ... ... 345 

Gold Mines, 364 

" Hibemia," first so called by Julius Cajsar, ... ... ... 332 

Knights of St. George, 367 

Milesian Irish Peerage, ... ... ... ... 369 

Music, 342 

Pale, The English 365 

Parliaments, The Irish ... ... ... ... ... ... 387 

"Plantation" of Ulster, The 370 

Raths, 340 

Bound Towers, ... 334 

" Scotia," The term, first applied to Scotland by Niall of the 

Nine Hostages, ... ... ... 333 

Seminaries and Pilgrimages, 354 



Sepulchral Mounds, 339 

Spanish Armada, The ... 369 

" Stone of Destiny," The 336 

Tanistry, 343 

Tara, 371 

Tara Deserted, ... 371 

Warriors, ... ... 347 

Wars of EUzabeth .370 

Weapons, .. 347 

Index, 375 

Index of Siknames, 384 



Adam was the firat man ; of whom all mankind is propa- 
gated (Genesis, i.). According to the more general opinions 
of divines, the creation took place in the first year of the 
world ;* the flood, before Christ 2,348 ; and the Nativity of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, anno mundi, or year 
of the world, 4,004 The Four Masters fix the date of the 
deluge as before Christ 2,957 ; and of the Nativity, as 
anno mundi 5,199. While it is not my purpose to enter 
into a chronological discussion, I may observe, that the 
Septuagint agrees with the Four Masters in their compu- 
tation of time. 

* First year of the world : We read in the Bible, tliat in six days 
God made tlie heavens and the earth ; that on the fourth day 
{Oenesis, i 14) He made the sun and the moon to be "for signs, and 
for seasons, and for days, and for years." The sun, then, is the 
standard for our computation of time : hence the ' ' first year of the 
world " must have commenced with the creation of the sun. 

According to our system of astronomy, the earth revolves round 
its own axis once in twenty -four hours, producing day and night; ' 
and round Ithe sun once in the year, producing the four seasons: 
therefore, before the creation of the sun, the days of twenty-four 
hours each had no existence. But, while the "day " by which we 
compute our year consists of twenty-four hours, nearly. Geology 
supplies unerring testimony, that the pre-solar "days" mentioned 
in the Sacred Volume in connection with the creation were, each, a 
period of vast duration. 

Geology also clearly teaches, that the lowest forms of vegetable 
and animal life were first called into existence, which were gradually 
followed by other add higher organizations; and confirms the truth 
of divine revelation, that Man was the last created animal, and that 
a comparatively recent period only has elapsed since his first 
appearance on the surface of our globe. 


According to Dr. O'Connor, in his Berum Hibernicarum 
Scriptores Veteres, the year of the Pagan Irish was luni- 
Bolar, consisting, like that of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, 
of 365 days and six hours. But while it is certain that 
the ancient Irish had four seasons in their year, the fact 
is, that, according to the Book of Rights, we cannot yet 
determine the season with which the Pagan Irish year 

The chroniclers of sacred history fix the date of the 
building of Nineveh, as one hundred and fifteen years after 
the flood ; the Tower of Babel as one hundred and forty 
years ; and the reign of Belus, son of Nimrod, in Babylon, 
as about two hundred and fifteen years. According to 
the Four Masters, Bartholinus was the first planter of 
Ireland, one hundred and eighty-five years after the 
building of Nineveh, or three hundred years after the 

"When the flood had subsided, and that Noah and his 
sons had come out of the ark, God blessed them and said : 
"Increase and multiply, and fill the earth." And the 
sons of Noah who came out of the arj£ were Shem, Ham, 
and Japhet : from these was all mankind spread over the 
whole earth {Gen., ix.). 

Noah divided the world amongst his three sons : to Shem 
he gave Asia within the Euphrates to the Indian ocean ; 
to Ham, Syria, Arabia, and Africa ; and to his favourite, 
Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the Euphrates, together 

*Tlie deluge: Forty days before the deluge, according to the Four 
Masters, Ceasair came to Ireland with a little colony of some 
women and three men; '-Bith, Ladhra, and Fintain, their names." 
Ladhra died at Ard-Ladhran (in the County Wexford); "and from 
him it was named." " He was the first that died in Ireland." Bith 
died at Sliabh Beatha (now Anglicised Slieve Beagh, a mountain on 
the confines of the Counties of Fermanagh and Monaghan); "and 
from him the mountain is named." Ceasair died at Cuil Ceasra, in 
Connaught, and was interred in Cairn Ceasra (on the banks of the 
river Boyle), near Cuil Ceasra. From Fintain is named Feart 
Fintain, i. e. , Fintain' s grave; situated in the territory of Aradh [Aral, 
over Lough Deirgdheire (now Lough Derg—an expansion of the 
river Shannon, between Killaloe, in the County Clare, and Portumna 
in the County Galway). — O'Donovan's Four Masters. ' 


■with Europe to Gades (or Cadiz) : "May God enlarge 
Japhet, and may he dwell in the tents of Shein, and 
Canaan be his servant" {Gen., ix. 27). 

Japhet had fifteen sons, amongst whom he divided 
Europe and the part of Asia that fell to his lot. The 
Bible gives the names of seven of those sons, namely : 
Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Mosoch, and Thiras. 
The nations descended from these seven sons are known ; 
but we know not the names of the sons from whom are 
descended the Chinese and other nations of Eastern Asia. 

The sons of Shem were Cham, Assur, Arphaxad, Lud, 
and Aram. This Assur was the founder of Nineveh : 
from him Assyria was so called. The sons of Ham were 
Chus or Cush, Mesram, Phut, and Canaan : and Cush 
begot Nimrod. 

From Madai, son of Japhet came the Madeans, whom 
the Greeks called Medes; from Javan, son of Japhet, were 
descended the Greeks and lonians ; from Thiras, son of 
Japhet, came the Thracians ; from Thogarma, son of 
Gomer, son of Japhet, came the Phrygians and Armenians; 
from Iber, son of Thubal, son of Japhet, came the Iberians, 
afterwards called Spaniards. 

Javan, or Ion, was the fourth son of Japhet. Although 
the Hebrews, Chaldeans, Arabians, and others gave no 
other appellation than that of " lonians " to all the 
Grecian nations, yet from the fact that Alexander the 
Great, in the prediction of Daniel (Dan. viii. 21), is men- 
tioned under the name of ".Javan," or "Ion," it is evident 
that Javan was not onlythe father of the lonians (who were 
but one particular Greek nation), but also the father of all 
those nations that went under the general denomination 
of Greeks. The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tharsis, 
Cettbim, and Dodanim. Elishah : the ancient city of 
Elis, in Peloponnesus, the Elysian fields, and the river 
Elissus contributed to preserve his memory. Tharsis is 
believed to have settled in Achaia, or the neighbouring 
provinces of Greece, as Elishah did in Peloponnesus. 
Cetthim (or Chittim) was, according to the first book of 
the Maccabees (I Mace, i. 1.), the father of the Mace- 
donians, for it is there said that Alexander, the son of 


Philip the Macedonian, went out of his country (which 
was that of Chittim), to make war against Darius, King 
of Persia ; and Dodanim was, no doubt, the ancestor of 
the Danai of the Greeks, and the Tua-de-Danans of ancient 

Homer calls the Grecians Hellenes, Danai, Argiyes, and 
Acliaians; hut, from whomsoever the Grecians derive their 
name, it is strange that the word " Grseous " is not once 
used in Virgil. Pliny says that the Grecians rrere so 
called from the name of an ancient king, of whom they had 
but a very uncertain tradition. 

Greece, in her infant state, was exposed to great com- 
motions, and frequent revolutions, because, as the people 
had no settled correspondence, and no superior power to 
give laws to the rest, everything was determined by force 
and violence : the strongest invaded the lands of their 
neighbours, which they thought more fertile and delight- 
ful than their own ; and dispossessed the lawful owners, 
who were thus obliged to seek new settlements elsewhere. 

Magog was the son of Japhet from whom the Milesian 
Irish nation is descended. He was contemporary with the 
building of Nineveh, and his son Baath was contemporary 
with Nimrod. 

Upon the division of the earth by Noah amongst his 
sons, and by Japhet of his part thereof amongst his sons, 
Scythia came to Baath's lot ; whereof he and his posterity 
were kings. Thus in Scythia, in Central Asia, far from 
the scene of Babel, the valley of Shinar (the Magh Senaar 
of the ancient Irish annalists), it is considered that Baath 
and his people took no part with those of Shem and Ham 
in their impious attempt at the building of that tower j 
that, therefore, on that head they did not incur the dis- 
pleasure of the Lord ; and that, hence, the lasting vitality 
of the Celtic language. 

That Celtic language was the Scythian, and, according 
■ to the Four Masters, was called " Bearla Tobbai'' [beurla: 
Irish, a metathesis of Beul-ra ; from " beul," the mouth, 
and "ra," a word; Gr. reo, I say); and was, from Gaodhal 
or Gathelus, who " refined and adorned it," afterwards 
called " Gaodh-ilg " or " Gaelic " {Gaoidheilge or Oaelga: 
Irish, the Celtic language of the Irish and Highland Scotch). 


The Celtic is the same as the Gaelic language ;* for Celt 
is strictly the same as Gael, and the Greek Keltai and 
Oalatai, and the Latin Oalli, are all one [See Lidddl's 
History of Rome). 

According to an ancient Irish poem — 

One was at first the language of mankind, 
Till haughty Mimrod, with presumption blind, 
Proud Babel built; then, with confusion struck. 
Seventy-two different tongues the workmen spoke. 

That one language was the language of mankind down 
from Adam to the building of the Tower of Babel, when 
" the whole earth was of one language and of one speech" 
(Gen., xi. 1) : there are at present, it is said, no less than 
3,642 languages and dialects spoken throughout the world. 

Fenius Farsa (No. 14, Part I., o. i.), son of Baath, son 
of Magog, son of Japhet, was the inventor of "letters." 
His name, in Irish, was Pheniusa Farsa ; whose descen- 
dants were called Feini: a term Latinized Phenii, and 
Anglicised Phmnicians. The ancient Irish were also called 
. Feine : a proof of identity of origin between the Phoenicians 
and the ancient Irish.! 

Cadmus the Phoenician, by O'Flaherty and others men- 
tioned as brother of Fenius Farsa, was, according to the 
ancient Irish historians, contemporary with Joshua. 

* The Oaellc Language: It is to that ancient language that the 
Irish poet refers in the following lines : — 

Sweet tongue of our Druids, and bards of past ages; 
Sweet tongue of our monarohs, our saints, and our sages; 
Sweet tongue of our heroes, and free-born sires. 
When we cease to preserve thee, our glory expires. 

■^Ancient Irish : "The great affinity between the Phcenioian and 
Irish language and alphabet has been shown by various learned 
antiquaries — as Vallancey, Sir Laurence Parsons, the learned Sir 
William Betham (late Ulster King of Arms),Villaneuva, and others; 
and they have likevidse pointed out a similarity between the Irish 
language and that of the Carthaginians, who were a colony of the 
Tyrians and Phcenioians. The Pho3nician alphabet was first brought 
to Greece from Egypt by Cadmus; and Phenix, brother of Cadmus 
the Phoenician, who first introduced letters amongst the Greeks and 
Phoenicians, is considered by O'Flaherty, Charles O'Conor, and 
others, to be the same as the celebrated Pheniusa or Feniusa Farsa 


After the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel, 
Eenius Farsa, then king of Scythia, employed able and 
learned men to go among the dispersed multitude to learn 
their several languages ; who, when those learned men 
returned well skilled in what they went for, opened a school 
in the valley of Shinar, where, with his younger son Niul or 
Niulus, he remained teaching for twenty years, On 
account of the great learning of this Niulus, the Four 
Masters inform us that Pharaoh invited him into Egypt ; 
granted him and his colony a territory for themselves on 
the borders of the Bed Sea ; and gave liim his daughter 
Scota in marriage. In that territory Niulus became ac- 
quainted with Moses, with whom he lived on the most 
friendly terms. Prom Gaodhal [Gael] , son of Niulus, 
son of Fenius Farsa, the Feine and their descendants 
were afterwards called the Clan-na-Gaeh 

In Asia Minor, the Phoenicians founded the cities of 
Miletus and Mycale, in Mseonia, on the shore of the 
^gean Sea — the ancient Lake Gyges. The people of 
Miletus were called Milesians on account of their heroism 
{Mileadh : Irish, a hero), even before the time of Milesius 
of Spain. 

According to Mariana and other Spanish historians, 
the Brigantes (a people so called after Breoghan or Brigus, 
the grandfather of Milesius of Spain, see No. 34, Part I., 
c. i.) were some of the Brigas or Phrygians of Asia Minor ; 
and the same people as the ancient Trojans ! Brigus sent 
a colony from Spain into Britain ; and many of the 
descendants of that Gaelic colony, who settled in Ireland 
since the Anglo-Norman invasion, are considered of Anglo- 
Saxon or Anglo-Norman descent. 

Brigantia ■ (now Corunna), a city in Galina, in the 
north of Spain, was founded by Breoghan or Brigus ; and 

of the old Irisli Mstoriaus; who state that he was king of Scythia, 
and ancestor of the Mileaiana of Spain who came to Ireland; and, 
being a man of great learning, is said to have invented the Irish 
alphabet, which his Milesian posterity brought to Ireland; and it 
may be farther observed, that the Irish, in their own language, 
were, from Pheuiusa or Peniusa, called Feini: a term Latinized 
Fhenii, and signifying Phcenicians, as shown by Ohaiies O'Conor 
and in O'Brien's Dictionary. "— Gonnellan's Four Masters, pace oSsl 


from Brigantia the Brigantea came to Ireland with the 
Milesians. According to Ptolemy's Map of ancient Ire- 
land, the Brigantes inhabited the territories in Leinster 
and Munster, now forming the counties of Wexford, 
Waterford, Tipperary, Kilkenny, Carlow, and Queen's 

Homer,* the most ancient author in the heathen world, 
names the " proud Miletus " as among the Trojan forces 
mentioned in the "Catalogue," book II. of the Iliad: 

" Of those who round MieoDia's realms reside, 
Or whom the vales in shade of Tmolus hide, 
Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake; 
Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. 
There, from the fields where wild Maeauder flows, 
High Mycale and Latmoa' shady brows, 
And proud Miletus . . ." — Popes' Homer. 

" If we look upon this Catalogue with an eye to ancient learning," 
says Pope, " it may be observed, that, however fabulous the other 
part of Homer's poem may be according to the nature of Epic poetry, 
this account of the people, princes, and countries, is purely historical, 
founded on the real transactions of those times; and by far the most 
valuable piece of history and geography left us concerning the state 
of Greece in that early period. Greece was then divided into several 
dynasties, which Homer has enumerated under their respective 
princes; and his division was looked upon so exact, that we are told 
of many controversies concerning the boundaries of Grecian cities, 
which have been decided upon the authority of this piece, ('The 
Catalogue ') : the city of Calydon was adjudged to the ^tolians not- 
withstanding the pretentions of jEolia, because Homer had ranked 
it among the towns belonging to the former. When the Milesians 
and people of Priene disputed their claim to Mycale, a verse of 
Homer (that above given) carried it in favour of the Milesians." 

Spain was first peopled after the deluge by the descen- 
dants of Iber, who were called Iberes and Iberi ; the 
country, Iberia ; and its chief river, Ebro. The Phoenicians 

* Homer: According to some of the ancients, Homer was a native 
of Mffionia- -the old name of Lydia in Asia Minor, and was therefore 
called Mmonides. As a Mseonian, then, his language must not have 
been very different, if at all, from that spoken by Cadmus the 
Phcenician, or Cadmus of Miletus, as he was also called: Miletus 
having been a city in MiEonia. The name " Homer " was only an 
epithet applied to Mjeonides, because he was blind {Homeroi: Gr., 
blind men). 


in early ages settled in Iberia, and gave it the name of 
Spania, from " span," which, in their language, signified 
a rabbit, as the place abounded in rabbits ; by the Romans 
the country was called Hispania ; and by the Spaniards, 
JEspana, Anglicised Spam. The city of Gades (or Cadiz) 
was founded by the Phoenicians ; who were celebrated for 
their commercial intercourse with various ancient nations, 
as Greece, Italy, Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Ireland. _ In 
Eee's Ct/clopedia, in the article on " Ireland," it is said: 

" It does not appear improbable, much less absurd, to 
suppose, that the Phoenicians might have colonized Ireland 
at an early period, and introduced their laws, customs, 
and knowledge, with a comparatively high state of civili- 
zation ; and that these might have been gradually lost 
amidst the disturbances of the country, and at last com- 
pletely destroyed by the irruptions of the Ostmen " (or 

Dr. O'Brien, in his Irish Dictionary,* at the word 
" Fearmuighe," considers that the ancient territory of 
Fermoy, in the County of Cork, derived its name from 
the Phoenicians of Spain who settled there, and were 
called in Irish Fir-Mu'ujhe-Feini, Latinized Viri-Campi 
Phmniorum, or the Men of the Plain of the Phanicians. 
The Phoenicians, being skilful navigators, were celebrated 
for their commercial intercourse with other nations : hence, 
they were, by some of the Irish historians, confounded 
with the Fomorians {For/h : Irish, plundering ; muir, the 
sea ; and hence signifying Pirates) : a name by which, on 
account of their piratical expeditions, the Scandinavians 
were, according to O'Donovan's Four Masters, known to 
the ancient Irish ; and, because of their having come from 
Getulia or Lybia (the Gothia of the Gael), in the north of 

*0'Brien's Dictionary : The Right Rev. John O'Brien, R. C. 
Bishop of Cloyne, was the author of this Irish-English Dictionary, 
•which is a very learned and valuable work, not only on the Irish 
language, but on the topography of Ireland and the genealogies of 
its ancient chiefs and clans. This work was first published at Paris, 
A.D. 1768; and a new edition of it was published in Dublin in the 
year 1832, by the Right Rev. Robert Daly, late Lord Bishop of 
Cashel. Copies of the 1832 edition, together with other rare Irish 
works, may be had of John O'Daly, 9, Anglesea Street, Dublin. 


Africa, where Carthage was afterwards built, the Feine 
or Phoenicians were considered by some "to have been 
African or Phoenician Pirates, descendants of Ham." 
These Feine are represented as a race of giants ; and from 
them the Fiana Eireann are considered to have been so 
•called : the name " Fiana Eireann " being (on account of 
their great strength and stature) given to that ancient 
military organization which flourished in the reign of 
Cormac Mac Art, monarch of Ireland in the third century; 
and which, before it became disaffected, was the prop and 
protection of the monarchy.* 

At an early stage in the world's history the Gael, 
moving westwards, reached Gaul, whence, in after ages, 
they crossed the Alps {AUp : Irish, a huge heap of earth), 
into Italy, where they possessed the territory called by 
tfae Eomans Gallia Cisalpina or Oaul this side of the Alps ; 
and others of them proceeding now eastwards penetrated 
into Greece, and settled on the banks of the Ister, where 
they were called Istrians. From Gaul they crossed the 
Pyrenees mountains, and settled in Iberia or Spain ; and, 
there mixing with the Iberians, they were called Gelto-Iberi. 

The Celts were the first inhabitants of Europe after the 
deluge. They inhabited those parts on the borders of 
Europe and Asia, about the Euxine sea, and thence spread 
over Western Europe and the countries afterwards called 
Germany, Gaul, Italy, Iberia or Spain, Britain and Ire- 
land. The western part of the European continent, com- 
prising parts of Gaul, Germany, Spain, and Italy, was, by 
ancient geographers, denominated Celtica, or the Land of 
.the Celts — a name afterwards applied to Gaul, as the land 
of the Gael. Southern Italy was peopled by a mixture of 
Celts and Greeks. 

*The Monarchy: In the reign of Cormac Mac Art or Cormac 
Ulfada the one hundred and Efteenth monarch of Ireland, flourished 
the celebrated mUitary organization called the Fiana Eireann or 
Irish Fenians, who (Uke the Ked Branch Knights of Ulster) formed 
A militia for the defence of the throne. Their leader was the re- 
nowned Finn, the son of CumhaU (commonly called " Finn Mac 
Coole," whose genealogy see in Part HI. c. i. 1 .) who resided at the 
hill of Allen in KUdare. Finn and his companions-in-arms are to 
this day vividly remembered in tradition and legend, in every part 


The Celts were of the Caucasian race — a race which 
included the ancient and modern Europeans (with the 
exception of the Lapps and Finns) and "Western Asiatics, 
such as the Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, Persians, 
Scythians, Parthians, Arabs, Jews, Syrians, Turks, Aff- 
ghans, and Hindoos. To these must also be added the 
European colonists who have settled in America, Aus- 
tralia, and other parts of the world. But, notwithstanding 
all the variations in colour and appearance which are 
observable in the Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, Mal- 
ayan, and American races, God has made of one blood all 
nations of men; and the most positive identity exists 
among them all. 

In his Irish Dictionary, O'Brien derives from the Celtic 
many names of countries terminating in tan : as Britan or 
Britain ; Aquitain, in Gaul ; Lusitan or Lusitania, the 
ancient name of Portugal ; Mauritan or Mauritania, the 
land of the Moors ; Arabistan, the land of the Arabs ; 
Turkistan, the land of the Tui-ks ; Kurdistan, the land of 
the Kurds ; Farsistan, Luristan, etc., in Persia ; Caffristan 
and Afghanistan, the land of the Caf&es, and Afghans ; 
Hindostan, the land of the Hindoos, etc. 

A great affinity between the Celtic and the Sanscrit 
languages has also been shown by many etymologists ,- 
and the word " Sanscrit," itself, has been derived from the 
Celtic word " Seanscrobhtha," which signifies old writings, 
and has the same signification in the Irish language. As 

of Ireland ; and the hills, the glens, and the rooks of the country 
still attest, not merely their existence — for that, no one who has- 
studied the question can doubt — but the important part they played 
in the government and military affairs of the kingdom. One of the 
principal amusements of these old heroes, "when not employed in 
war, was hunting; and after their long ejjorting excursions, they had 
certain favourite hills on which they were in the habit of resting 
and feasting during the intervals of the chase. These hills, most of 
which are covered by cairns or moats, are called Suidhe Finn [Seefin] 
— Finn's seats or resting places ; and they are found in each of the 
four provinces of Ireland. Immediately under the brow of the 
mountain, Seefin, near Kilfinane in Limerick, reposes the beautiful 
vale of Glenosheen, whose name commemorates the great poet and 
warrior, Oisin [Osheen], the son of Finn. — See Joyce's Irish Names. 
of Places. 


the Sanscrit is one of the most ancient of languages, we 
can therefore easily imagine the great antiquity of the 

The principal Celtic nations were the Gauls, the Celtsa, 
the BelgsB, and the Gauls of Northern Italy ; the Galatians 
or Gauls of Asia Minor ; the Boii and Pannonians of 
Germany, branches of the Gauls ; the Geltiberians of 
Spain ; the Cimmerians of Germany ; the Umbrians ; the 
Etrurians or Etruscans; the Samnites and Sabines of Italy; 
the Thracians and Pelasgians of Greece ; the Britons, the 
Welsh, and the Manx ; the Caledonians, and the Irish, etc. 

The Teutonic nations were the Goths and Vandals, who 
overthrew the Eoman empire, and conquered parts of 
Prance, Spain, Italy, and Africa ; the Franks and Bur- 
gundians, who conquered France ; the Loiigobards, who 
conquered Northern Italy or Lorn-hardy ; the Suevi, Alem- 
anni, and other powerful nations of ancient Germany, 
and Anglo-Saxons who conquered England; and the 
Scandinavians or people of Sweden, Norway, and Den- 
mark. In modern times, the Teutonic nations are the 
Germans, Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, Dutch, Swiss, 
English or British, the Anglo-Irish, and the Anglo- 
Americans, etc. 

The name " Teuton " is derived from the Gothic Teut^ 
which signifies a god : and the term " Teutons " has been 
applied to various nations of Scythian origin, speaking 
cogpate dialects of one great language, the Celtic. 

The Slavonic nations were sometimes called Sdavonians ,- 
and were descended from the Slavi or Sclavi of the Eoman 
writers — a Scythian race who dwelt in Germany. The 
name is derived from " Slava," which signifies glory. 
The Sarmatians were also of Scythian origin, and settled 
in the territory from them called by the Eomans, Sarmatia ; 
which comprised the country now called Poland, and parts 
of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. 

As it was Cadmus the Phoenician that introduced the 
use of letters into Greece, about the time that Moses is 
considered to have written the Pentateuch (or first five 
books of the Bible), the knowledge of letters must have 
therefore existed among the Phoenicians and their colonies 


long before Homer wrote ; and there can be no doubt that 
letters and their use were then known in Cadmus's own 
city of Miletus and the other cities of Asia Minor ; for, 
according to Herodotus, who is believed to have written 
about four hundred and fifty years before Christ, the 
lonians of Asia Minor preceded the other Greeks in acquir- 
ing the art of writing ; and used skins on which to write 
before they had the "papyrus." It would therefore appear 
that the Feine or Phoenicians* were the first people 
acquainted with the art of writing by letters : hence they 
were able to record for the information of their descendants 
their genealogy and the leading historical events of their 
race, down from our first parents. 

If, then, it was the Celtic or Phoenician alphabet that 
Cadmus the Phoenician introduced from Egypt into Greece ; 
if the Celtic was the language of the Scythians ; if Penius 
Farsa was the inventor of " letters" ; if, on account of his 
great reputation for learning, Niulus, son of Fenius Farsa, 
was invited by Pharaoh to settle in Egypt : we may infer 
that the Celtic language and alphabet were known in 
Egypt ; and that it was in the school conducted by Fenius 
Farsa and Niulus in the valley of Shinar, or from Niulus 
and his colony in Egypt, that the Egyptians received their 
knowledge of letters. 

But, wherever the Phoenicians and the Egyptians them- 
selves received their education, it was they who had the 
honour of instructing, civilizing, and polishing the Grecians 
by the colonies they sent among them : the Phoenicians 

* The Phmnicians : If a similarity of language and religious rites is 
justly considered to demonstrate an identity of origin amongst 
different nations, then the PhcEnioians, Carthaginians, and the 
ancient Irish nations were identical in origin : for the Celtic or 
Scythian was their common language. In the preface to O'Brien's 
Irish Dictionary, the affinity between the Irish or Celtic and the 
Phcenician and other Eastei-u languages, is shown from various 
writers ; and in the learned notes by Huddlestoue to Toland's 
History of the Druids, is pointed out the great similarity— almost 
amounting to an identity— between the Irish alphabet and that 
brought from Egypt by Cadmus the Phoenician. The worship of the 
sun, under the names of Bel, Seal, and Baal, the chief deity of 
Druidism in Ireland, as among the Phoenicians, is also remarkable. 
— Connellan's Four Masters. 


taught them navigation, writing, and commerce ; the 
Egyptians, by the knowledge of their laws and polity, 
gave them a taste for arts and sciences, and initiated them 
into their mysteries. 

As the Milesian or Scotic Irish nation is descended from 
the ycythian family, it may not be out of place here to 
give a brief sketch of Scythia : 

Japhet, son of Noah, was the ancestor of the Scythians. 
The name " Scythian" was applied to those nations who 
displayed skill in hunting and the use of the bow. In his 
Dictionary, O'Brien states, that the word " Scythian" is 
derived from the Celtic word "Sciot," which, in the Irish 
language, signifies a dart or arrow ; and this derivation 
seems probable, as the Scythian nations were all famous 
archers, particularly the Parthians. The Greek colonists 
on the north of the Euxine or Black Sea, hearing their 
Scythian neighbours frequently call archers, shooters, and 
hunters (who were very numerous among them), by the 
names of " Seuti," " Scythi," " Schuten," or " Shuten," 
each of which signifies tScythians, applied that name to the 
whole nation. This word, or rather its ancient primary 
signification, is still preserved in the English, German, 
Lithuanian, Finnish, Livonian, Courlandish, Lapponian, 
Esthonian, and Prussian tongues : a fact which goes to 
prove that these nations are of Scythian origin. 

The Scythians were among the most warlike and valiant 
people of antiquity, and fought chiefly in war chariots. 
They worshipped the sun, moon, and winds, and their 
chief deity was their god of war, called by the Greeks 
'At; and Odin or Wodin, by the Goths, Germans, and 
Scandinavians. The Sacse, ancestors of the Saxons ; the 
Sarmatffi, progenitors of the Sarmatians ; the Bastern^, 
the Goths, the Vandals, the Daci or Dacians, the Scan- 
dinavians, the Germans, the Franks, who conquered 
France ; the Suevi, Alans, Alemauni ; the Longobards,_ 
who conquered northern Italy, and gave it the name of 
Lombardy ; and many other tribes, were all powerful 
nations of the Scythian family. The Huns of Asia, who, 
under Attila, in the fifth century, overran the Eoman 
empire, are stated by some writers to have been Scythians, 


but that opinion is incorrect ; for the Huns were of the 
Mongol or Tartar, while the Scythians were of the great 
Caucasian race. The name " Tartar," the modern appel- 
lation of the pastoral tribes of Europe and Asia, was 
unknown to the ancients ; and the opinion that "Tartarus," 
the name of the infernal regions, was borrowed from the 
word " Tartar," on account of the gloomy aspect of the 
country about the Cimmerian Bosphorus, has no just 
foundation, as that word is a modern corruption, the 
genuine names being " Tatars" and " Tatary," not 
Tartars and Tartary. 

Scythia was divided into two large portions — European 
and Asiatic : the former extending along the north of the 
Danube and the Euxine ; the latter, beyond the Caspian 
Sea and the Eiver Jaxartes, now Siboon. Scythia in 
Asia was divided by the chain of the Imaus mountains or 
Beloor Tag— a branch projecting north from the Indian 
Caucasus, now the Hindoo Cush, or western part of the 
Himalayas. These divisions were distinguished by the 
names of Scythia intra, and extra Imaum, or Scythia 
inside, and beyond Imaus. Ancient Scythia included all 
the country to the north of the Ister or Lower Danube, 
and east of the Carpathian mountains ; extending north 
to the Hyperborean or Frozen Ocean, and eastwards as 
far as the Seres, on the west of China : an immense 
region, but still not commensurate with the whole of what 
is now called Tartary, which extends to the north and 
west of China as far as the mouth of the Amoor. 

Moving to the west, the Scythians settled in Scythia in 
Europe — that vast tract of country north of the Danube 
and Black Sea, and embracing what is now known as 
"European Eussia." At a later period it was called 
Getm or Gotlii ; and, in a more advanced stage of geogra- 
phical knowledge, Sarmatia Europaa. 

The term " Gets" is evidently a generic designation 
given to various tribes of Scythians, as the Massa-Oeta, 
the Thyssa-Oetm, the Tyri-Getce, etc. ; as, in later times, 
we read of the Mceso-Gothi, the Visi-Gothi, the Ostro-Gothi : 
hence, as in the latter case " Gothi" or " Goths" was 
the primary appellation, so in the former case was the 
term " Getaa." 


The ".Gete" of the Gael dwelt in Getulia or Lybia in 
iihe north of Africa, where Carthage was afterwards buUt : 
these Getae and the Carthaginians were identical in 
•origin ; but the " Getse" of Herodotus dwelt to the south 
of the Danube, and were by him classed as Thracians, 
while he extended Thrace to the Danube ; thus maldng 
it include what in subsequent times was called Moesia, now 
Bulgaria. In the expedition of Alexander the Great, 
however, to the Danube, the Getse inhabited the north 
«ide of the stream. The Thyssa Getse were located on the 
Volga ;* the Tyri-Getse, on the Tyras or Dniester ; and 
the Massa-GetEB, on the Jaxartes, etc. The Scythia 
invaded by Darius, and described by Herodotus, extended 
in length from Hungary, Transylvania, and Western 
Wallachia, on the west, to the Don on the east ; and 
included the countries now known as Eastern Wallachia, 
the whole of Moldavia, and the Buckowine, Bessarabia, 
Boudjack, Little Tartary, Podolia, Wolhynia, Ukraine 
Proper, the province of Belgorod, and part of the country 
•of the Don Cossacks. But, besides these countries, the 
ancient Scythia in Europe included the whole of European 
Russia, Poland, Scandinavia, Wallachia, stretching east 
from the Norwegian and Kiolin mountains, to the Uralian 
range. In the account of European Scythia, given by 
Herodotus, the peninsula of the "Tauri" — Taurica Cher- 
sonesus or Crim Tartary, as it was called — is not included. 
The Tauri were a savage, cruel, and inhospitable people : 
from this savage tribe and others of similar dispositions 
along its coast, it is not improbable that the Euxine 
acquired among the ancients the epithet of the ' ' Inhospi- 
table Sea." 

Historians, in the accounts they have left us of the 
manners and character of the Scythians, relate things of 
them that are entirely opposite and contradictory. At one 
time they represent them as the justest and most moderate 
people in the world ; at another, they describe them as a 

* Volga : Tte ancestors of these Thyssa-Gretfe of Herodotus •were, 
uo doubt, the "Firvolgians," -who, according to the Four Masters, 
invaded Ireland before the Tua-de-Danans (Firvolgians .• the men 
from the banks of the Volga.) 


fierce and barbarous nation, whicli carried its cruelty to- 
such excesses as are shocking to human nature. This 
contrariety is a manifest proof that those different charac- 
ters are to be applied to different nations in that vast 
family, and that although theywere all comprehendedunder 
one and the same general denomination of " Scythians," 
we ought not to confound them or their characters together. 
According to Justin, they lived in great simplicity and 
innocence. They did not give the name of goods or riches 
to anything but what, humanly speaking, traly deserved 
that title ; as health, strength, courage, the love of labour 
and liberty, innocence of life, sincerity, an abhorrence of 
all fraud and dissimulation, and, in a word, all such 
qualities as render man more virtuous and more valuable. 
If to these happy dispositions we could add the knowledge 
of the true God, without which the most exalted virtues 
are of little value, they would have been a perfect people. 
" When," says Eollin, " we compare the manners of 
the Scythians with those of the present age, we are tempted 
to believe, that the pencils which drew so beautiful a 
picture of them were not free from partiality ; and that 
Justin and Horace have decked them with virtues that did 
not belong to them. But all antiquity agrees in giving 
the same testimony of them ; and Homer, in particular, 
whose opinion ought to be of great weight, calls them the- 
most just and upright of men." 


As most of the ancient Irish proper names mentioned in 
these pages would, if written as spelled in the Irish, be to 
many difficult of pronunciation, some of them are Latinized 
or Anglicised, in order to obviate that difSculty. At this 
stage it may be well to give the following Irish proper 
names and adflxes : — 

^odA (pronounced " Ee" or "E") was one of the most 
frequent names of kings and chiefs among the Irish. The 
word signifies fire, and was probably derived from the re- 


ligious worship of the Druids. Tlie name (Anglicised 
Hugh) has been Latinized " Ae'dus," " Aedanus," 
"Aidus," " Aidanus," "Hugo," and " Odo." 

Aonqus (pronounced " Angus") is derived from " Aon," 
excellent, and " gus," strength. From this name has been 
derived the sirname Guinness ; and from its compound 
" Mac Aongusa," the sirname Mac Guinness and Magenis, 
the ancient lords of Iveagh, in the county Down. 

Ardgal ox Artgal maybe derived from "Ard," exalted, 
and " gal," valour : or from the proper name " Airt," and 
" gaol" [geel] a relative of. ' ^ , 

Airt, from "Art," noUe ; as, Irish //tcflr, 'or, genitive 

fhir ; Lat. vir, the man ; Gr. 'Ar, The Man or god of war. 

From this proper name are derived the sirnames Hart, 

O'Hart, and, according to Mac Pherson, Artho or Arthur. 

Brian, from " Bri," strength, and " an" very great : 
meaning a warrior of great strength. It has been Anglicised 
Bryan and Bernard ; and has become a sirname in the 
families of the O'Briens and the Bernards. 

Brandubh {Bran : Irish, a raven ; dubh [duff] black), the 
tenth king of Leinster since the advent of St. Patrick to 
Ireland, and who lived in the sixth century, was so called 
on account of the dark colour of his hair. Some writers 
make this Brandubh the ancestor of the 0' Brains or 
O'Byrnes, chiefs of Wicklow, but this is a mistake ; for 
(seethe stem of the O'Byme family. No. 20, Part III. c. i.), 
Faolan, the eighteenth Christian King of Leinster, was 
the ancestor of that ancient family ; who derived their 
sirname from Bran Fionn or Bran the Fair, who is No. 
108 on that family stem. 

Blosgach signifies a strong man ; and is the root of the 
sirname Mac Blosgaidh or Mac Closkey, a clan in Derry. 

Cathal [Cah-al] signifies a great warrior : from "_ Cath," 
a battle, and " all," great. From this name is derived the 
sirname Cahil. 

Cathair [Cahir] has the same meaning as " Cathal" ; 
and is derived from " Cath," a battle, and " ar," slaughter. 
It is Latinized Cathirius. 

Connac (Latinized " Cormacus") signifies the son of the 
chariot; it is derived from " Corb," a chariot, and " mac," 


Cairbre (Latinized " Cairbreus," and Anglicised 
" Carbry,") is derived by some from " Corb," a chariot, 
and " ri," a king, signifying the chief or ruler of the chariot. 

Conn (Latinized " Quintus," and Anglicised " Quinn,") 
is derived from " Conn," ivisdom or sense. It is by some 
derived from " Cu," (genitive " Con,") which signifies 
a hound ; and was figuratively applied to a swiftfooted 
warrior. This was a favourite name with the chiefs of the 
O'Neills, because of their lineal descent from Conn of the 
Hundred Battles (in Irish called " Con Ceadcaljjia,"), the 
110th Milesian monarch of Ireland, who lived in the 
second century. 

Conall means friendship ; or it may be derived from 
" Con," the genitive of " Cu," a hound (signifying a swift- 
footed warrior), and " all," great or mighty. 

Cathbhar [Cah-war] was a favorite name amongst the 
chiefs of the O'Donels, and signifies a helmeted warrior: 
from "Cathbhar," a helmet," or perhaps from "Cath," 
nar or battle, and " Barr," a chief. As the O'Donels, like 
the O'Neills, were lineal descendants of Conn of the Hun- 
dred Battles (Con Ceadcatha), it is probable they assumed 
the adfix " Cath," in commemoration of that illustrious 

Conchobhar (Anglicised " Conor," and Latinized 
" Conquo varus" and "Cornelius,") became a sirname, 
as in the family of the O'Conors, kings of Connaught, 
and others of that name in Ireland. This name is also 
derived from " Cu" or " Con," as above, and " Cobhair," 
tiid ; signifying the helping warrior. 

Wherever " Cu," a hound, commences the name of any 
chief, it means, figuratively, a swift-footed warrior; as 
" Cuchonnacht," which signifies the warrior of Connaught ; 
" Cuchullain," a famous warrior of the Red Branch 
Knights of Ulster : as Vlladh or Ulster is sometimes in- 
fleeted " Ullain" ; " Cu-Ulladh" means the warrior of 
Ulster; " Cu-Midhe," the warrior of Meath, ha. "Cuchon- 
nacht" was a favourite name of the Maguires, princes of 
Fermanagh ; and has been Anglicised " Conor," and 
" Constantine." 

Domhnall [Donal] , Anglicised " Daniel," became a 
sirname in the illustrious families of the MaoDonalds 


MaoDonnells, O'Donels, and Daniels ; the name is derived 
from " Domhan," the world, and "all," mighty. 

Bonoch, Doncha, or Donchu (Anglicised JDonoqh and 
Denis, in Ireland ; and Duncan, in Scotland), is probably 
derived from " Donn," brown, and " Cu," a warrior, 
signifying the brown-haired warrior. The sirnames Mac- 
Donogh and O'Donoghoe are derived from this proper name. 

Diarmaid, signifying the god of amis, is derived from 
" Dia," a god, and " Armaid," the genitive plural of 
■" Arm." As an epithet, it was applied to a warrior 
equivalent to one of Homer's heroes — " Dios Krateros 
Diomedes," the god-like fighting Diomede. This name is 
Anglicised " Diarmot," and has become a sirname, as 
MacDiarmada or MacDermotts, princes of Moylurg, in the 
county of Eoscommon. 

Eochaidh (pronounced " Eochy," " Ohy," and " Achy,") 
is derived from "Each" [ogh] or " Eoch," a steed ; it is 
Latinized " Achaius," and signifies a horseman or knight. 

Eachmarcach [oghmarchagh] , and Eachmilidh [oghmili] , 
have a similar signification: the former from "Each," 
,rt steed, and " marcach." a rider ; the latter from " Each," 
a steed, and " Milidh," a knight. 

Eigneachan [Enekan] , derived from " Eigean," force, 
and "Neach" [nagh] , a person; and may signify a 
plundefiing chief, etc. 

Eoghan or Eogan, signifies (" Oge-an") a young man or 
youthful warrior. It has been Anglicised " Owen," and 
^'Eugene," and "Latinized " Eugenius." It was a 
favourite name of the O'Neills, from their progenitor, 
Eoghan, a son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, the 126th 
monarch of Ireland. 

From. " Owen" is derived the sirname Owens. 

Feidhlim or Fei dhlimidh (-pvonounoed " Felim," and 
"Felimy,") has been Anglicised "Felix," and Latinized 
" Fedlimius ;" and signifies great goodness. It is derived 
from the Irish " Feile," hospitality. 

Feargal, derived from "Fear" [fhar] , a man, and "gal," 
valour, or "gaol" [geel] , a relative. This Irish word 
"Feargal," which signifies a valiant warrior, is the root 
of the Latin proper name " Virgil." It is also the root 
of the Irish sii-names Freel, Farrell, and O'Farrell; as 


O'Fergail (or O'Farrells), princes of Annaly. In the 
families of the O'Eourkes, and the O'Eiellys, as well as 
the O'Farrells, it was also a favourite Christian name ; as 
Farrell O'Eourke, Farrell O'Reilly, and Farrell O'Farrell, 

Fergus is derived from "Fear," a man, and "gus," 
strength ; and signifies a strong warrior. 

Fiacha is a frequent name of kings and chiefs from the 
earliest ages, and is derived from "Fiacha," a hunter; 
probably from the occupation or amusement of hunting, so 
frequent in early times. We read in the Scriptures that 
Nimrod was a mighty hunter. 

£lann signifies of a red complexion, and has become a 
sirname ; as O'Flainn or OFlinn, of whom there were 
several clans. The name 0' Flanagan is derived from the 
same source. 

Fionn sigm&es fair-haired ; and was a favourite adfix 
to the names of many kings and chiefs. This word is the 
origin of the sirname Finn. 

Flaithbheartach (pronounced " Flaherty") may appear 
in the Irish to have an uncouth sound ; but it has a very 
expressive signification, being derived from "■ Flaith," a 
chief, and " beartach," of deeds : and means a chief of 
noble deeds. It has become a sirname, as the O'Flahertys, 
chiefs of West Connaught. 

Guaire signifies nohle or excellent ; and is the root of the 
sirname Macguire or Maguire. 

Gearrmaide (a name of some chiefs), derived from 
" Gearr," short, and " maide," a stick; signifying the 
chief of the short cudgel. The first who obtained this 
designation was, no doubt, distinguished for his stick- 

Gioll a, hatinized. " Gulielmus," and Anglicised "Wil- 
liam," signifies a servant or disciple ; as Giolla-Josa 
(Anglicised " Giles" and Latinized " Gelasius,") the ser- 
vant of Jesus; Giolla Chriosd (Anglicised " Gilchreest,") 
the servant of Christ ; Giolla Muire, the servant of Mary ; 
Giolla Paidraig, the servant of St. Patrick, etc. 

Maol was prefixed chiefly to the names of ecclesiastics, 
and signifies a bald or tonsured person, who became the 
spiritual servant or devotee of some saint ; as Maol-Iosa 


the servant of Jesus ; Maol-Peadair, the servant of Peter ; 
Maol-Poil, the servant of Paul; Maol-Coluim, the senant of 
St. Columkille — a name known as " Malcolm," and which 
was borne by many of the kings of Scotland. This word 
" Maol" is the root of the sirname Moxjles. 

Maolseachlain, signifying the servant of St. Seachnal or 
Secundinus, the nephew of St. Patrick, was a name 
frequent amongst the chiefs and kings of Meath ; it is 
contiactedi to Melaghlin, which is the Irish for the Christian 
name "Malachy;" and has been applied as a sirname 
to the latest kings of Meath and their descendants, under 
the name " O'Melaghlin." 

Maolmordha (Mordha : Irish, proud, noble, majestic) was 
a favourite name of the chiefs of the O'Eiellys ; it has 
been Anglicised " Miles" or " Myles." 

Muircheartach (whence the sirname Moriarty) is derived 
from " Muir," the sea, and " ceart," a right ; and may 
signify a naval tirurior, or chief who established his rights 
at sea. This name has also been Anglicised " Murtagh." 

Muiredhach (whence the sirname Murdoch) may be 
derived from " Muir," the sea, and " Eadhach," a protector : 
a name equivalent to that of admiral. It has been 
Anglicised " Morogh," and "Maurice." 

Niall (genitive Neil!) signifies a noble knight, or champion. 
This became the tribe name of the Hy-Nialls, who were 
descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages. 

Putdhraighe or Ruadhraige, may be derivedfrom "Euadh," 
valiant, or " ruadh," red, and "Eigh," a king ; signifying 
the valiant king, or the red-haired king. This name has been 
Anglicised "Eory," " Eoderiok," and " Eogers." 

Toirdhealbhach [Torlogh] is derivedfrom "Tor," a tower, 
-and " dealbhach," shape or form; signifying a man of 
tower-like stature. The name has been Anglicised "Terence," 
or " Terry." 

Tomaltach is derived from " Tomailt," provisions, good- 
liviyig, plentiness of food ; and hence came to signify a man 
of hospitality. It is derived from the Irish " tomhas," a 
measure; and from "tomhas," by Metathesis, comes the 
English proper name Thomas. 

Torloch (from "Tor," a tower, and " leac," a stone) 
signified a man possessed of great strength and stature. 


Tualhal (pronounced " Tua-bal" or " Tool") is derived 
from " Tuatha," territories : meaning one possessed of 
large landed property. This name has become a sirname, 
as Tuaihail or Toole, and O'Tuathail or O'Toole. 

Tighearnan or Tiarnan, derived from " Tiarna," a lord, 
was a favourite name among the chiefs of the O'Eourkes. 
It also is the root of the sirnames, 2'ieniey, Kernayi, Mac- 
Keman, and MacTernan. 

Tadhg or Teige originally signified a poet. It is the root 
of the sirnames Teague, MacTague, Tighe, and Montague. 

Ualgarg was the name of chiefs among the O'Eourkes ; 
and was derived from " Uaill," famous, and "garg," 
fierce; signifying a famous and fierce warrior. 

A few names of women are here also given : — 

" Dearforgail" or " Dearvorgail" signifies a purely fair 
daughter; from "Dew:," a daughter, and " iorgi].," purely 

Duhhdeasa or Dudeasa signifies a dark-haired beauty : 
from "Dubh," dark, and " deas," beautiful. 

Fionnghuala (from " Fionn," white, and " guala," 
ahouldei's) sigjiifies a fair-shouldered icoman. This namft 
has been Anglicised " Penelope." 

Flanna signifies a red or rosy-complexioned beauty. 

Mor (large) signifies a fine or majestic woma72. 


The following are some of the leading prefixes and 
affixes employed in the formation of Irish proper names : 

Cinel or Kinel signifies kindred, race, descendants ; as 
Kinel-Owen, the descendants of Owen; Kinel-Connell the 
descendants of Connell, etc. 

Clann or Clon, children, descmidants, race ; as, Clan-na- 
Mile [meel] , the descendants of Milesius ; Clan-na-Qael 
the descendants of Goodhal, etc. 

Fear [fhar] , a man; fhear, the man : fir,feara, men ; as 


Feargaol, a relative ; fir-tire (Lat. terra), the men of the 
country : contracted to " Vartry," a river in the county 
Wicklow, etc. 

Lis, a fort ; as Listoivel, the fort of the monarch Tuathal. 

Mac, the son or descendant of; as Gormac Mac Art, Cormue 
the son of Art ; ilacDonald and MacDonnell, the descendants 
of Donald, etc. 

Muintir, the people of ; as Munterowen, in Galway, the 
people of Owen. 

Ne, progeny ; as, Carroiv-ne-kin-Airt, the Irish name for 
" Kinnaird" — a townland in the parish of Crossmolina, 
barony of Tyrawley, and county of Mayo ; which means 
the quarter of land where settled the progeny of the offspring 
of the monarch Airt-Ean-Fhear, or, as it is contracted, 
Airt-Enear. And the name " Tirenaar," (Tir-Enear), & 
barony in the west of Mayo, is, no doubt, similarly derived. 

Ua, 0' Hy, Ui, descendants of ; as O'Brien, the descendants 
of Brien ; Hy-Niall, the septs or descendants of Niall of the 
Nine Hostages ; Ui Laeghaire [O'Leary] , the descendants of 
Leary ; TJa-Hairt ox O'h-Airt [O'Hart,] the descendants of 
Airt, etc. 

Rath, a fort or stronghold ; as Rathcoole, Code's fort, &c. 

Euadh [rooa] or Roe, red ; as. The MacDermot Roe, the 
sandy-haired MacDeiinot, etc. 

Tulla, a hill, a green; as Tullaghoge (" oge," young), 
the hill of the youths, now Tullyhau'k, in the parish of 
Desertcreaght, and barony of Dungannon. "Tullaghoge" 
was a green eminence in the immediate territory of the 
O'Hagans, who were the lawgivers of the O'Neills, and 
were known as " The Kinel-Owen of Tullaghoge ;" where, 
since the destruction of the palace of Aileach [Ely] , a.d. 
1101, the stone chair, upon which The O'Neill was pro- 
claimed, was preserved up to a.d. 1602 ; when it was 
demolished by LordMountjoy, then LordDeputy of Ireland. 

Tir or Tyr (Lat. terra), a district or territory; as, lyrauiey, 
a barony in the county of Mayo, which means Aidy's 
district ; Tyrone, Owen's district ; Tyrconnell, the district of 
Clan-Connell — now the county of Donegal. 

For further information on the subject of Irish 
" Adfixes," see Connellan's Four Masters, and Joyce's 
excellent work — Irish Names of Places. 



136. Victoria Alexandrina, Queen of Great Britain 
AND Ireland : daughter of 

135. Edward, Duke of Kent, son of 

134. George the Third : son of 

133. Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales : son of 

132. George the Second : son of 

131. George the First : son of 

130. Princess Sophia :i- daughter of 

129. Elizabeth : daughter of 

128. James the First of England and Sixth of Scotland: 
son of 

127. Mary, Queen of Scots : daughter of 

126. James the Fifth of Scotland: son of 

125. Margaret : daughter of 

124. Elizabeth of York : daughter of 

123. Edward the Fourth : son of 

122. Eichard Plantagenet : son of 

121. Lady Ann Mortimer : daughter of 

120. Eoger Mortimer : son of 

119. Lady Philippa : I daughter of 

118. Lionel, Duke of Clarence: son of 

117. Edward the Third : son of 

116. Edward the Second : son of 

* Royal Family : The Pedigrees given in these pages are carefully 
compiled from the genealogical portion of the Annals of the Four 
Masters, called "O'Clery's Book of Irish Pedigrees;" which commence 
with the creation of Man. In the compilation of this august stem, 
I have consulted " Reynard's Chart," which, in connection with 
"O'Clery's Irish Pedigrees," enable me to trace, in unbroken 
lineage, down from Adam, the genealogy and lineal descent of tha 
present Eoyal Family. It is right to observe that I give only the 
leading historical facts mentioned in the " Irish Pedigrees;" with 
the narrative of these facts abridged. 

■\Princess SopMa : This princess was daughter of Elizabeth, 
Queen of Bohemia; was born at the Hague, in Holland, in October, 
A.I). 1630; and was married to Ernest Augustus, duke of Bruns- 
wick Lunenburg and first elector of Hanover, A.D. 1658. She died 
at Hanover on the Sth June, 1714. 

tLady Philippa : Lady Philippa was the only child of Lionel, 
duke of Clarence; was born on the 16th August, 1335; and married 
to Edward Mortimer, earl of March, from whom proceeded the 
House of York or "The White Rose." 


11'5. Edward the First :* son of 

114. Henry the Third : son of 

113. John :• son of 

112. Henry the Second : son of 

111. The Princess Maude: daughter of 

110. Queen Matilda (in whom the lineal descent continues; 
■who was the wife of Henry the First of England, the 
joungest son of William the Conqueror : from both of 
whom the kings and queens of England have since been 
•descended) : only daughter of 

"Bdward the First : King Edward the First was twice married: 
first to Eleanor, sister of Alphonso XI. , king of Castile, in Spain; 
.and second to Margaret, daughter of Philip III., king of France. 
Of this second marriage was born Thomas Plantagenet, at Brotherton 
(a small village iu Yorkshire), A.D. 1300, who, in consequence, was 
called De Brotherton; who was created earl of Norfolk, and made 
•earl marshal of England. This Thomas Plantagenet left a daughter, 
from whom came — 

1. The Mowbrays and Howards, dukes of Norfolk. 2. The Earls 
•of Suffolk. 3. The Earls of Carlisle. 4. The Earls of Effingham. 
5. The Lords Stanford. 6. The Lords Berkeley. 7. The Marquises 
■of Salisbury. 

Edmund, the second son by this second marriage, was created 
earl of Kent. 

From Thomas Plantagenet is also descended the Ord family of 
Newton Ketton ; whose genealogy, in unbroken lineage from King 
Edward the First of England down to John Eobert Ord of Haughton 
Hall, Darlington, I have traced, as follows : 1. Thomas Plantagenet, 
:Son of King Edward the First ; 2. Lady Margaret, his daughter ; 
3. Elizabeth, her daughter, who married John, Lord Mowbray ; 4, 
CJatherine, their daughter ; 5. Sir Thomas Grey, her son, who married 
Alice, daughter of Ralph Neville, the great Earl of Westmoreland ; 
■6. Elizabeth, their daughter, who married Philip, Lord Darcy and 
Mennell ; 7. John, Lord Darcy, their son, who married Margaret, 
daughter of Henry, Lord Grey and Wilton ; 8. John, Lord Darcy, 
their son, who married Iran, daughter of John, Lord Greystock ; 9. 
Eichard, their son, who married Eleanor, daughter of John, Lord 
Scroop of tJpsal ; 10. William, Lord Darcy, their son, who married 
Euphemia, daughter of Sir John Langton ; 11. Jane, their daughter, 
who married Sir Roger Grey of Horton ; 12. Their daughter (whose 
Jiame I do not know), who married Edward Muschamp of Barmore ; 
13. Their daughter (whose name I do not know), who married Gawin 
Ord of Fenwick ; 1-i. Oliver, their son ; 15. Lionel, of Fishburn, his 
son; 16. Ralph, his sou ; 17. Lionel, of Sedgefield, his .son; 18. 
Thomas, his son; 19. George, commonly called the "Patriarch of 
■ithe Ords of Newton Ketton,," his son ; 20. John, of Nekton Ketton, 
his son ; 21. Thomas, of same place, hfs son ; 22. John, of same place, 
ilis son ; and 23. John Robert Ord, his son. 


109. Malcolm the Third of Scotland : son of 

108. Duncan, son of Crinan. 

Malcolm the Second left no issue but two daughters ^. 
named Beatri-s (or Beatrice) and Loda : Beatrice, the- 
elder daughter, got married to Crinan, Lord of the Isles, 
and by him had a son named Duncan ; while Doda, the- 
younger daughter, got married to Synel, Lord of Glammis, 
and by him had a son named MacBeatha or Macbeth. 
Before the accession to the throne of Scotland of Malcolm 
the Third or Malcolm Cann Mor {Cann Mor : Irish, large- 
head), as he was called, on account of the size of his head^ 
the lineal descent continued in the following : 

108. Duncan (son of Crinan) : son of 

107. Beatrix (or Beatrice) : daughter of 

106. Malcolm the Second : son of 

105. Kenneth (2) : son of 

104. Malcolm the First : son of 

103. Donald : son of 

102. Constantine : son of 

101. Kenneth: son of 

100. Alpin : son of 
99. Eochy (or Archaius) Einnamail : son of 
98. Aodh (or Hugh) Fionn : son of 
97. Donart (2) : son of 
96. Donald Breac : son of 

95. Eochy Buidhe (buidhe : Irish, yellow) : son of 
94. .iEdhan (Aidanus or Hugh) : son of 
93. Gabhran. 

The Scotch historians differ in some particulars frora 
the ancient Irish annalists ; for instance : they record this- 
Gabhran (No. 93) as the son, instead of the grandson, of 
Donart (or Dungardus), No. 91. 

93. Gabhran: son of 

92. Eochy (or Achaius) : son of 

91. Donart (or Dungardus : son of 

90. Fergus Mor Mao Earca. 

"In A.D. 498, Fergus Mor Mae Earca, in the twentieth 
year of the reign of his father, Muredach (3), son of 
Eugenius or Owen, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
with five more of his brothers, viz., another Fergus, twO' 
more named Loam, and two named Aongus or .^neas,. 


with a complete army, went into Scotland, to assist his 
grandfather, Loarn, who was king of Dalriada, and who 
was much oppressed by his enemies the Picts ; who wer& 
in several battles and engagements vanquished and over- 
come by Fergus and his party. Whereupon, on the king's 
death, which happened about the same time, the said 
Fergus was unanimously elected and chosen king, as 
being of the blood Eoyal, by his mother ; and the said 
Fergus was the first absolute king of Scotland, of the 
Milesian Eace : so the succession continued in his blood 
and lineage ever since to this day." — Four Masters. 

Before him, the Milesian kings in that country were 
kings only of that part called Balnada, of which Loarn, 
the grandfather of Fergus Mac Earca {Mac Earca : Irish, 
son of Earca, daughter of Loarn) was the last king (See 
"The Genealogy of the kings of Dalriada " in Part III., 
0. iii). According- to the Scottish chronicles, it was A.D. 
424, that Fergus Mor Mac Earca went from Ireland to 

90. Fergus Mor Mae Earca, the founder of the monarchy 
in Scotland, and brother of Murchertus Mor Mac Earca, 
the 131st monarch of Ireland (see Part I., c. ii. for the 
Eoll of the Milesian Monarchs of Ireland) : son of 

89. Muredach (3) : son of 

88. Eugenius (or Owen) : son of 

87. Niallus Magnus (or Niall Mor), the 126th monarch 
(commonly called NiaU of the Nine Hostages) : son of 

86. Eochy Muigh Meadhoin [Moyvone] , the 124th 
monarch : son of 

85. Muredach (2) Tireach [Teeragh] , the 122nd mon- 
arch : son of 

84. Piaeha (orFiachus) Srabhteine, the 120th monarch : 
son of 

83. Carbry Liflechar, the 117th monarch : son of 

82. Cormac Ulfhada (commonly called " Cormac Mac 
Art "), the 115th monarch : son of 

81. Airt-Ean-Fhear (or Art-Enear), the 112th monarch,, 
and the ancestor of O'h-Airt or O'Hart: son of 

80. Con Ceadcatha (Quintus Centibellis) or Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, the llOth monarch : son of 

79. FeUm Eachtmar or Felim the Lawgiver, the 108th 
monarch : son of 


78. Tuathal Teachtmar, the 106tli monarch : son of 
77. Fiacha Fionn-Ola, the 104th monarch : son of 
76. Feredach Fionn-Feachtnach, the 102nd monarch : 
son of 

75. Crimthann Niadh-Nar, the 100th monarch ; who 
reigned when Cheist was born : son of 

74. Lugadius Sriabhn-dearg, the 98th monarch : son of 
73. Bress-Nar-Lothar : son of 
72. Eochy Feidlioch, the 93rd monarch : son of 
71. Fionn : son of 
70. Fioonlogh : son of 
69. Eoighen Euadh : son of 
68. Assaman Eamhna : son of 
67. Ennius Aigneaeh, the 84th monarch : son of 
66. ^neas Turmeach-Teamrach, the 81st monarch 
(from whose younger son, Fiacha Firmara, the Kings of 
Dakiada in Scotland, down to Loarn, the maternal grand- 
father of Fergus Mor Mao Earca, No. 90 on this stem, 
was descended) : son of 

65. Eochy Altleathan, the 79th monarch : son of 
64. Oliollus Cassfiaclagh, the 77th monarch: son of 
63. Conlaus Caomh, the 76th monarch : son of 
62. larngleo Fathaeh, the 74th monarch : son of 
61. Melga (laudabilU) "Molfach," the 71st monarch : 
son of 

60. Cohthacus Caol-bhreagh, the 69th monarch : son of 
59. Hugonius Magnus {Vgain Mor), the 66th monarch : 
son of 

58. Aehaius Beidhach : son of 
57. Duachus Ladhrach, the 59th monarch : son of 
56. Fiachus Tolgrach, the 55th monarch : son of 
55. Muredaehus Bolgrach, the 46th monarch : son of 
54. Simeon Breac, the 44th monarch : son of 
53. Aidanus (or Aodh) Glas : ^on of 
52. Nuodus Fionnfail, the 89th monarch : son of 
51. Gialcliadius, the 37th monarch : son of 
50. Oliollus Olchaion : son of 

49. Siornaus {lonrjavus) " Saobach," the 34th monarch: 
son of 

48. Denius : son of 

47. Eothactus, the 22nd monarch : son of 


46. Maine : son of 

45. ^neas OUmuca, the 20th monarch ; son of 

44. Fiachus Lawranna, the 18th monarch : son of 

43. Smirngallus : son of 

42. Enbrothius : son of 

41. Tigern Masius, the 13th monarch : son of 

40. Fallachus : son of 

39. Ethrialus, the 11th monarch : son of 

38. Eurialus Faidli, the 10th monarch : son of 

37. Heremon, the second monarch of Ireland, of the 
Milesian line : son of Galamh [Galav] or Milesius of 
of SpaLa. 

36. Mllesius of Spain : son of 

35. BUe : son of 

34. Breoghan (or Brigus) : son of 

33. Brathaus : son of 

32. Deagha : son of 

31. Areadh : son of 

30. Allodius : son of 

29. Nuadhad : son of 

28. Nemiallus : son of 

27. Febrie Glas : son of 

26. Agnon Fionn : son of 

25. Heber Glunfionn : son of 

24. Lamhfionn : son of 

23. Agnon : son of 

22. Tait : son of 

21. Ogamaia : son of 

20. Boemain : son of 

19. Heber 8cott ; son of 

18. Sruth : son of 

17. Asruth : son of 

16. Gaodhal (or Gathelus), a quo the Clan-na-Gael or 
the Gael: son of 

15. Niulus : son of 

14. Fenius Farsa, the inventor of Letters : son of 

13. Baath : son of 

12. Magog : son of 

11. Japbet : son of 

10. Noah : son of 
9. Lamech : son of 


8. Methuselah : son of 

7. Enoch : son of 

6. Jared: son of 

5. Mahalaleel : son of 

4. Cainan : son of 

3. Enos : son of 

2. Seth : son of 

1. ADAM; who was the first man {Genesis, i.). 



" God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who was 
ifrom all eternity, did, in the beginning of Time, of 
nothing, create Bed Earth ; and of red earth framed Adam ; 
:and of a Eib out of the side of Adam fashioned Eve. 
After which Creation, Plasmation, and Formation, suc- 
<ceeded Generations, as follows" — B'our Masters : — 

1. Adam. 

2. Seth. 

3. Enos. 

4. Cain an. 

5. Mahalaleel. 

6. Jared. 

7. Enoch. 

8. Methuselah. 

9. Lamech. 

10. Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, 
Tbegotten of his wife Titea : viz., to Shem, Asia within the 
Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean ; to Ham, Syria, Arabia, 
land Africa ; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the 
Euphrates, together with Europe to Gades (or Cadiz). 

11. Japhet was the eldest son of Noah. He had fifteen 
sons, amongst whom he divided Europe and the part of 
Asia which his father had allotted to him. 

12. Magog : from whom descended the Parthians, 
Bactrians, Amazons, etc.; Bartholinus, the first planter 
■of Ireland,* about three hundred years after the Flood ; 

* Ireland: According to the Four Masters, " Ireland " is so called 
.from /)•, the second son of Milesius of Spain who left any issue; it 
was known to the ancients by the following names: — 

To the Irish as— 1. Inis Ealga or tKe Noble Isle. 2. Rodh-Inis 
•or the Woody Island. 3. Crioch Fuinidh, the Final or most remote 


and also the rest of the colonies* that planted there, viz., 
the Nemedians, who planted Ireland anno mundi three 
thousand and forty-six, or three hundred and eighteen 
years after the birth of Abraham, and two thousand one- 
hundred and fifty-three years before Christ. The Neme- 
dians continued in Ireland for two hundred and seventeen 
years ; within which time a colony of theirs went into the 

country. 4. Inis-Fail or the Island of Destiny. 5. Fodhla. 
6. Banba. 7. Eire, Eri, Eirin, and Erin, supposed by some to- 
signify the Western Isle, 

To the Greeks and Eomans as— 8. lerne, lerna, lernis, Iris, and 
Irin. 9. Ivernia, Ibernia, Hibernia, Juvemia, Jouvemia, Hiberia, 
Hiberione, and Verna. 10. Insula Sacra or the Sacred Isle. 11. 
Ogygia or the most ancient Land. Plutarch, in the first century, 
calls Ireland Ogygia ; and, according to 'Flaherty, Egypt -s^-as also 
called Ogygia ; and Caimden says that Ireland is justly called 
" Ogygia," -which signifies most ancient, as the Irish can trace their 
history from the most remote antiquity : hence O'Flaherty has 
adopted the name " Ogygia" for his celebrated -work, in Latin, on 
Irish history and antiquities. 12. Scotia or the Land of the Scots. 
13. Insula Sanctorum or the Island of Saints. 

To the Anglo-Saxons as — 14. Eire-land, or Ireland. 

To the Danes as — 15. Irlandi, and Irar. 

To the Anglo-Normans as — 16. Irelande. 

* Colonies : According to some of the ancient Irish Chroniclers, the 
folio-wing -were the nations that colonized Ireland: — 

1. Bartholinus and his follo-wers, called in Irish Muintir Pharthalon 
or the People of Bartholinus. 2. The Nemedians. 3. The Fomorians. 

4. The Firvolgians, sometimes called Firbolgs, Belgse, or Belgians. 

5. The Tua-rle-Danans. 6. The Milesians or Gael. 7. The Cruth- 
neans or Picts. 8. The Danes and Nor-wegians, or Scandinavians. 
9. The Anglo-Normans. 10. The Anglo-Saxons or English. 11. The 

1. Bartholinus and his follo-wers came from Scythia, and were 
located chiefly in Ulster, at Inis-Saimer in Donegal, and at Ben- 
Edair (now the Hill of Ho-wth), in the County Dubbn. After they 
had been in Ireland some thirty years, nearly the -whole people 
perished by a plague; thousands of them were buried in a common, 
tomb in Tallaght, a place near Dublin: the name "Tallaght" meaning 
Tam-Laght or The Plague Sepulchre. 

2. The Nemedians came from Scythia in Europe, and -were located 
chiefly in Ulster, at Ardmacha or Armagh; in Derry and Donegal;, 
and at the Hill of Uisneaoh, which is situated a few miles from 
Mullingar, in the County Westmeath. 

3. Fomorians: According to the Annals of Clonmacnoise, the 
Fomorians (foghylrish, plundering; muir the sea) -were a "sept 
descended from Cham, son of Noeh, who lived by pyracie and spoile 


northern parts of Scotland, under the conduct of their 
leader Britanus or Briottan Maol or Balel ; from whom 
Britain takes its name, and not from "Brutus" as some 
persons believed. Prom Magog were also descended the 
Belgarian or Firvolgian colony that succeeded the 
Nemedians, anno mundi three thousand two hundred and 
sixty-six ; and who first erected Ireland into a monarchy 
[According to some writers, a people called " Pomorians" 
invaded Ireland next after the Nemedians] . This Fir- 
volgian colony continued in Ireland for thirty-six years, 
under nine of their Kings ; when they were supplanted 
by the " Tua-de-Danans " (which means the people of the 
god Dan, whom they adored), who possessed Ireland for 
one hundred and ninety-seven years, during the reigns of 
nine of their kings ; and who were then conquered by the 
GatheUan, Milesian, or Scottish Nation (the three names 
by which the Irish people were known), anno mundi three 
thousand five hundred. This Milesian or Scottish Irish 
Nation possessed and enjoyed the kingdom of Ireland 
for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years, 
under one hundred and eighty-three monarchs; until their 
submission to King Henry the Second of England, anno 
mundi one thousand one hundred and eighty-six. 

of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the 
whole world. " According to O'Donovan's Four Masters, the name 
"Fomorians" was that given by the ancient Irish to the inhabitants 
of Finland, Denmark, and Norway; but, according to Connellsn, 
those people are considered to have come from the north of Africa, 
from a place called Lybia or Getulia, and to have been some of the 
Fein^ or Phoenicians, whose descendants afterwards founded the 
city of Carthage in Africa; and in Spain, the cities of Gadhir or 
Gades (now Cadiz) and Kartabah (now Cordova). As Sidon in 
Phenicia was a maritime city in the time of Joshua, and its people 
expert navigators; and as the Phenicians, Sidonians, and Tyrians, 
in those early ages, were celebrated for their commercial intercourse 
with Greece, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Britain, there is nothing what- 
ever improbable m a colony of them having sailed from Africa to 
Ireland: whose coming from Africa may have led to the belief that 
they were "descended from Cham (Ham)," as their commercial 
intercourse with other nations may have led to their being considered 
"pirates." Possibly, then, the Fomorians here mentioned were the 
Erithneans, who were Phcenicians, and a colony of whom settled m 
Ireland at a very early period in the world's history. 



13. Baath, one of the sons of Magog ; to whom Soythia 
came as his lot, upon the division of the Earth by Noah 
amongst his sons, and by Japhet of his part thereof, 
amongst his sons. 

14. Phenius Farsa (Fenius Farsa) was king of Scythia, 
at the time that Ninus ruled the Assyrian Empire ; and, 
being a wise man, and desirous to learn the languages 
that not long before confounded the builders of the Tower 
of Babel, employed able and learned men to go among 
the dispersed multitude to learn their several languages ; 
who some time after returning well skilled in what they 
went for, Fenius Farsa erected a school in the valley of 
Senaar, near the city of ^othena, in the forty-second 
year of the reign of Ninus ; whereupon, having continued 
with his youngest son Niulus for twenty years, he returned 
home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to his 
eldest son Nenuallus : leaving to Niulus no other patri- 
mony than his learning and the benefit of the said school. 

15. Niulus, after his father returned to Scythia, con- 
tinued some time at ^Eothena, teaching the languages and 
other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great 
learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh, the Eing ; 
who gave him the land of Campus-Cyrunt, near the Eed 
Sea, to inhabit ; and his daughter Scota in marriage : from 

The "Fomorians" are represented as a race of giants, and were 
celebrated as having been great builders ia stone. They were located 
principally along the coasts of Ulster and Connanght, mostly in 
Antrim, Derry, Donegal, Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo, and had their 
chief fortress, called "Tor Conaing " or Conang's Tower, on "Tor- 
Inib " or the Island of the Tower, now Tory Island, off the coast of 
Donegal ; and another at the Giants' Causeway, which was called 
*' Clochan-na-Fomoraigh " or the Causeway of the Fomorians, as it 
was supposed to have been constructed by this people ; who, from 
their great strength and stature, were, as above mentioned, called 
giants : hence the term " Giant's Causeway " : a stupendous naturaJ 
curiosity of volcanic origin, situated on the sea-coast of Antrim, and 
consisting of a countless number of basaltic columns of immense 
height, which, from the regularity of their formation and arrange- 
ment, have the appearance of a vast work of art ; and hence were 
supposed to have been constructed by giants. 

After the Fomorians became masters of the country, the Nemedians 
were reduced to a state of slavery, and compelled to pay a great 
annual tribute on the first day of winter — consisting of corn, eattle 


whom their posterity are ever since called Scots ; but 
according to some annalists, the name " Scots " is derived 
from the word Scythia. 

It was this Niulus that employed Gaodhal [Gael] or 
Gathelus, son of Ethor, a learned and skilful man, to 
compose or rather refine and adorn the language, called 
Bearla Tobbai, which was common to all Niul's posterity, 
and afterwards called Gaodh-ilg, from the said Gaodhal 
who composed or refined it ; and for his sake also Niulus 
called his eldest son Gaodhal. 

[The following is a translation of an extract from the 
derivation of this proper name, as given in Halliday's Vol. 
of Keating's Irish History, page 230 : 

"Antiquaries assert that the name of Gaodlialhs from the compound 
word formed of ' gaoith ' and ' dil, ' which means a lover of learning ; 
for, ' gaoith ' is the same as wisdom or learning, and ' dU ' is the same 
as loving or fond. "] 

16. Gaodhal or Gathelus, the son of Niulus, was the 
ancestor of the Clan-na-Gael, that is, the children or 
descendants of Gaodhal. In his youth this Gathelus was 

milk, and other provisions ; and the place where these tributes were 
received was named "Moy Ceitne, " signifying the Plain of Compulsion; 
and so called from these circumstances. This plain was situated 
between the rivers Erne and Drabhois, between Ballyshannon and 
Bundrowes, on the borders of Donegal, Leitrim, and Fermanagh, 
along the sea shore. — Connellan's Four Masters. 

Three bands of the Nemedians emigrated with their respective 
captains : one party wandered into the north of Europe ; others made 
their way to Greece, where they were enslaved, and obtained the 
name of "'Firbolgs " or bagman, from the leathern bags which they 
were compelled to carry ; and the third section took refuge in 
England, which obtained its name Britain from their leader Briotan 
Maol. — Miss Cusack. 

4. The Firvolgians, who were also Scythians, divided Ireland 
amongst the five sons of their leader Dela Mac Loich ; " Slainge (or 
Slaue) was he by whom Teamor (Tara) was first raised" (Four 

One hundred and fifty monarchs reigned in Tara from that period 
until its abandonment in the reign of Diarmot, son of Fergus Cearr- 
Bheoil (Carroll), who was the 133rd monarch of Ireland, and King 
of Meath. 

The Firvolgians ruled over Connaught down to the third century, 
when Cormao Mac Art, the 11.5 th monarch of Ireland, attacked and 


stung in the neck by a serpent, and -was immediately 
brought to Moses, who, laying his Eod upon the -wounded 
place, instantly cured him : whence followed the word 
" Glas " to be added to his name, as Gaodhal Glas (glas: 
Irish, green ; Lat. glaucus ; Gr. glaukos), on account of the 
green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his 
"life, remained on his neck after the wound was healed. 
And Gaodhal obtained a further blessing : namely, that 
no venemous beast can live any time where his posterity 
should inhabit ; which is verified in Greta or Candia, 
Gothia or Getulia, Ireland, etc. The Irish chroniclers 
affirm, that from this time Gaodhal and his posterity did 
paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on their banners 
and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs in imi- 
tation of the Israelites ; and that a Thunderbolt was the 
cognizance in their chief standard for many generations 
after this Gaodhal. 

17. Asruth, after his father's death, continued in 
Egypt, and governed his colony in peace during his life. 

18. Sruth, soon after his father's death, was set upon 
by the Egyptians, on account of their former animosities 
towards their predecessors for having taken part with the 
Israelites against them ; which animosities until then lay 

defeated the forces of Aodli [ee] or Hugh, son of Garadh, King of 
Connaught, who was the last King of the FirboJg race ; and the 
sovereignty of that province was then transferred to the Milesians of 
the race of Heremon — the descendants of King Cormac Mac Art. The 
Firbolg race never after acquired any authority in Ireland, being 
reduced to the ranks of farmers and peasants; but they were still 
very numerous, and to this day a great many of the peasantry, par- 
ticularly in Connaught, are considered to be of Firvolgiau origin. 

5. The Tua-cle-Danans, also of the Scythian family, invaded Ireland 
thirty-six years after the plantation by the Firvolgians. According 
to some annalists, they came originally from Persia ; and to others, 
from Greece ; and were located chiefly at Tara in Meath, at Croaghan 
in Connaught, and at AUeach in Donegal. The Danans being highly 
sliUled in the arts, the Round Towers of Ireland are supposed to 
have been built by them. The light, gay, joyous element of the 
Irish character may be traced to them. They were a brave and high- 
spirited race, and famous for their skUl in what was then termed 
' ' Magic " : hence, in after ages, this wonderful people were considered 
to have continued to live in hills or raths, as the "good people," 
long so commonly believed in as fairies, in Ireland. But their ' 'magic" 


raked up in the embers, and now broke out in a flame to 
that degree, that after many battles and conflicts wherein 
most of his colony lost their lives, Sruth was forced with 
the few remaining to depart the country ; and, after many 
traverses at sea, arrived at the Island of Greta, now called 
Candia, where he paid his last tribute to nature. 

19. Heber Scott, after his father's death and a year's 
stay in Greta, departed thence, leaving some of his people 
to inhabit the Island ; where some of their posterity likely 
still remains, " because the Island breeds no venemous 
serpent ever since." He and his people soon after arrived 
in Scythia ; where, his cousins, the posterity of Nenuallus 
(eldest son of Fenius Farsa), refusing to allot a place of 
habitation for him and his colony, they fought many 
battles, wherein Heber (with the assistance of some of 
the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), being 
always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from 
the other, and settled himself and his colony in Scythia ; 
who continued there for four generations. Heber Scott 
was afterwards slain in battle by Noemus, the former 
king's son. 

20. Boemain ; 21. Ogamain ; and 22. Tait, were each 

consisted in the exercise of the mechanical arts, of -whicli those who 
had previously invaded Ireland were then ignorant. It is a remarkable 
fact, that weapons of warfare found in the earns or grave-mounds of 
the Firvolgians are of an inferior kind to those found in the earns of 
the Tua-de-Danans : a proof of the superior intelligence of the latter 
over the former people. — Miss Cusack. 

6. The Milesians invaded Ireland one hundred and ninety-seven 
years later than the Tua-de-Uanans; and were called Clan-na-Mile 
[meel], signifying the descendants of Milesius. 

7. The Cruthneans or Picts were also Scythians, and, according to 
our ancient historians, came from Thrace soon after the arrival of 

.the Milesians; but, not being permitted by the Milesians to remain 
in Ireland, they sailed to Scotland and became the possessors of that 
country. In after ages colonies of them came over and settled in 
Ulster ; they were located chiefly in the territories which now form 
the counties of Down, Antrim, and Derry. 

8. The Danes and Norwegians, or Scandinavians, a Teutonic race 
of Scythian origin, came to Ireland in great numbers, in the nmth 
and tenth centuries, and were located chiefly in Leinster and 
Munster, in many places along the seacoast: their strongholds bemg 
the towns of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick. 


kings of Scythia, but in constant war with the natives ; 
so that after Tait's death his son 

23. Agnon and his followers betook themselves to sea, 
wandering and coasting upon the Caspian Sea for several 
(some say seven) years, in which time he died. 

24. Lamhfionn and his fleet remained at sea for some 
time after his father's death, resting and refreshing them- 
selves upon such islands as they met with. It was then 
that Cachear, their magician or Druid, foretold that there 
would be no end of their peregrinations and travel until 
they should arrive at the Western Island of Europe, now 
called Ireland, which was the place destined for their 
future and lasting abode and settlement ; and that not 
they but their posterity after three hundred years should 
arrive there. After many traverses of fortune at sea, this 
little fleet with their leader arrived at last and landed at 
Gothia or Getulia — more recently called Lybia, where 
Carthage was afterwards built ; and, soon after, Lamhfionn 
died there. 

9. TJie Anglo-Normans came to Ireland in the twelfth century, 
and possessed themselves of a great part of the country, under their 
chief leader, Eichard de Clare, who was also named Strongbow; 
they were a Teutonic race descended from the Normans of France, 
who were a mixture of Norwegians, Danes, and French, and who 
conquered England in the eleventh century. The English invasion 
of Ireland was accomplished mostly through the agency of Bermod 
MacMurrogh, king of Leinster; on account of his having heen driven 
from his country by the Irish monarch for the abduction of the wife 
of Tieman O'Rourlie, Prince of Brefney — as commemorated by 
Thomas Moore in "The Song of O'Euarb," given in the Jrish 
Melodies. For that act, Roderick O'Connor, the last monarch of 
Ireland, invaded the territory of Dermod, A.D. 1167, and put him to 
flight. King Dermod vias obliged after many defeats to leave 
Ireland, A.D. 1168; throw himself at the feet of King Henry the 
Second, of England, and crave his assistance, offering to become his 
liegeman. Henry, on receiving Dermod's oath of allegiance, granted 
by letters patent a general license to all his English subjects to aid 
king Dermod in the recovery of his kingdom. Dermod then engaged 
in hie cause Richard de Clare, commonly called Strongbow, to whom 
he afterwards gave his daughter, Eva, in marriage; and through his 
influence an army was raise.l, headed by Robert Fitzstephen, Myler 
Fitzhenry, Harvey de Monte Marisco, Maurice Preudergast, Maurice 
Fitzgerald, and others; with which, in May, A.D. 1169, he landed 
. in Bannow-bay, near Wexford, which they soon reduced, tocether 


25. Heber Glunfionn -was born in Getulia, where he died. 
His posterity continued there to the eighth generation ; 
and were kings or chief rulers there for one hundred and 
fifty years — some say three hundred years. 

26. Agnon Pionn ; 27. Febric Glas ; 28. Nenuallus ; 
29. Nuadhad; 30. Allodius; 31. Arcadh; and 82. Deagha : 
of these nothing remarkable is mentioned, but that they 
lived and died kings in Gotliia or Getulia. 

33. Brathaus was born in Gothia. Eemembering the 
Druid's prediction, and his people having considerably 
multiplied during their abode in Getulia, he departed 
thence with a numerous fleet to seek out the country 
destined for their final settlement, by the prophecy of 
Cachear, the Druid above mentioned ; and, after some 
time, he landed upon the coast of Spain, and by strong 
hand settled himself and his colony in Galicia, in the 
north of that country. 

34. Breoghan or Brigus was king of Galicia, Andalusia, 
Murcia, Castile, and Portugal, all which he conquered ; 
and built Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia in Galicia, and 
the city of Brigansa or Braganza in Portugal — called after 
him ; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called 

witt tlie adjoining counties. In 1170, Earl Strongbow landed at 
Waterford witli a large body of f oUo-wers, and laid siege to that 
city, whioli he took. He then joined king Dermod's forces, marched 
for Dublin, and having defeated the monarch Roderick, entered the 
city, and after great slaughter made himself master. 

King Dermod died in ms castle at Ferns, County Wexford, about 
the 65th year of his age. Of him Holingshed says — "He was a man 
of tail stature and of a large and great body, a valiant and bold warrior, 
in his nation; from his continual shouting, his voice was hoarse; he 
rather chose to be feared than to be loved, and was a great oppressor 
of his nobility; to his own people he was rough and grievous, and 
hateful unto strangers; his hand was against aU men, and all men 
-against him. 

10. The Anglo- SaTMus or English, also a Teutonic race, came from 
the twelfth to the eighteenth century. The Britons or Welsh, a 
mixture of Celts and Saxons, came in the twelfth and thirteenth 
■centuries. These English colonies were located chiefly in Leinster, 
hut also in great numbers in Munster and Connaught, and partly 
in Ulster. — ' 

11. The Scots, who were chiefly Celts of Irish descent, came in 
great numbers from the tenth to the sixteenth century, and settled 
in Ulster, mostly in Antrim, Down, and Derry; but on the Planta- 


after him Brigia. It is considered that " Castile" itself 
was so called from the figure of a castle which Brigus bore 
for his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a colony into 
Britain, who settled in the counties of York, Lancaster, 
Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after him, 
were called Brigantes ; whose posterity gave formidable' 
opposition to the Eomans, at the time of the Roman 
invasion of Britain. 

35. BUe was king of those countries after his father'^ 
death ; and his son Galamh [Galav] or Milesius suc- 
ceeded him. 

36. Milesius, in his youth and during his father's life- 
time, went into Scythia, where he was kindly received by 
the king of that country, who gave him his daughter in 
marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. In 
this capacity Galamh defeated the king's enemies, gained 
much fame, and the love of all the king's subjects. His 
growing greatness and popularity excited against him the 
jealousy of the king ; who, fearing the worst, resolved on 
privately despatching Milesius out of the way, for openly 
he dared not attempt it. Admonished of the king's inten- 
tions in his regard, Milesius slew him ; and thereupon 
quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of sixty 
sail. Pharaoh Nectonibus, then king of Egypt, being 

tion with British colonies, in the seventeenth century, the new 
settlers in that province were chieflj' Scotch, who were a mixture of 
Celts and Saxons. Thus the seven first colonies were a mixture of 
Scythians, Gael, and Phoenicians; but the four last were mostly 
Teutons, though mixed with Celts; and a compound of all these 
races, in which the Celtic blood is predominant, forms the present 
population of Ireland. 

Stronghow : The ancestors of Strongbow were descended from the 
Dukes of Normandy ; and came to England with William the Con- 
queror. They were lords of Clare in Suffolk, from which they took 
the name of de Clare, and were created earls of Pembroke, in Wales. 
Gilbert de Clare, earl of Pembroke, being a famous archer, was 
designated " De Arcu Forti," which signifies of the Strong Bow; 
and his son Richard also bore that name, and the titles of earl of 
Pembroke, Strigul and Chepstow. Richardde Clare, earl of Pembroke,, 
who invaded Ireland in May, a.d. 1169, is described by Giraldus 
Cambrensis (Giraldus Cambrensis : Lat., Oerald the Welshman), the 
private secretary of King John, as follows : — " Earl Strongbow wa» 
of a sanguine complexion, freckled in the face, his eyes grey, and. 


informed of his arrival and of his great valour, -wisdom, 
and conduct in arms, made him General of all his forces 
against the King of Ethiopia then invading his country. 
Here, as ia Scythia, Milesius was victorious ; he forced 
the enemy to submit to the conqueror's own terms of 
peace. By these exploits Milesius found great favour with 
Pharaoh, who gave him, being then a widower, his daugh- 
ter in marriage ; and kept him eight years afterwards in 

During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed 
the most ingenious and able persons among his people, to 
be instructed in the several trades, arts, and sciences used 
in Egypt : in order to have them taught to the rest of his 
people on his return to Spain. 

At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and 
steered towards Spain, where he arrived to the great joy 
and comfort of his people, who were much harassed by 
the rebelUon of the natives and by the intrusion of other 
foreign nations that forced in after his father's death, and 
during his own long absence from Spain. With these and 

features feminine, hia voice not strong, neck slender, in stature tall 
and well-formed, courteous and gentle in manners ; what he could 
not compass by deeds, he would win by good words and gentle 
speeches ; in time of peace he was more readj' to yield and obey, 
than to rule and command ; out of the camp he was more like a 
soldier- companion than a captain ; but in the camp and in war, he 
carried with him the state and countenance of a valiant captain. Of 
himself he was slow to adventure anything, but being advised and 
set on he refused no attempts. In all chances of war, he was still 
one and the same manner of man, being neither dismayed by adver- 
sity, nor puffed up with prosperity." 

Strongbow, as already mentioned, was invited to Ireland by 
Dermod Mac Murrogh, king of Leinster, who gave him hia daughter 
Eva in marriage, at Waterford, a.d. 1171, with the reversion of the 
whole kingdom of Leinster after Dermod's death. By his wife, Eva, 
Strongbow had an only daughter, Isabel, who was married to , 
William Le Marechal, Earl Marshal of England, afterwards earl of 
Pembroke. After many battles with the Irish chiefs, Strongbow 
died at Dublin, of a mortification in his foot, in the month of May, 
A.D. 1176 ; and was buried in Christ Church, where his monument 
still remains. The descendants of the Anglo-Norman chiefs who 
came with Strongbow, were known by the name of "Strongbownians;" 
and form to thia day many of the principal familiea in Ireland. 


those he often met ; and, in fifty-four battles, victoriously 
fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them 
out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. 
In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in 
Spain, of twenty-six years' continuance, occasioned, as 
well by reason of the former troubles which hindered the 
people from cultivating and manuring the ground, as for 
want of rain to moisten the earth ; but Milesius supetsti- 
tiously believed the famine to have fallen upon him and 
his people as a judgment and punishment from their gods, 
for their negligence in seeking out the country destined 
for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear, 
their Druid or magician, as already mentioned ; the time 
limited by the prophecy for the accomplishment thereof 
being now nearly, if not fully, expired. To expiate his 
fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, 
with the general approbation of his people, sent his uncle 
Ithe or Ithius, with his son Lugadius, and one hundred 
and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those 
western islands ; who, accordingly, arriving at the island 
since then called Ireland, and landing in that part of it 
now called Munster, left his son with fifty of his men to 
guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the 
island. Informed, among other things, that the three 
sons of Cearmad, called Mac-Cuill, Mac-Ceacht, and Mac- 

The Dukes of Normandy : According to Jolmatone's " Celto- 
Scandinavian Antiquities," Turner's " Anglo. Saxons," and other 
sources, Eolf or Eollo, a Norwegian larl, sprung from the ancient 
kings of Norway, was expelled from Norway by king Harold 
Harfager. Eollo retired with his ships to Denmark, and afterwards 
to the Orkneys and Hebrides, and was joined by many Danish and 
Norwegian warriors. They attacked England, in the beginning of 
the tenth century, a.d. 911, but unable to make any settlement there 
after several attempts, being opposed by King Alfred, they set sail 
for France, overran a great part of the country ; and, finally, Eollo, 
at the head of thirty-thousand Danish and Norwegian warriors, 
compelled Charles the Simple, King of France, to cede to them the 
principality of Neustria, vphich, from these Nordmen, Northmen, 
Normands, or Normans, got the name of Normandy. Rollo received 
his principality, and obtained in marriage Gisella, daughter of King 
Charles the Simple, on condition that he and his followers should 
adopt the Christian Faith ; -with which terms the Norwegian Chief 
complied : he and his people became Christians. Eolf or JRollo and 


Greine, did theii and for thirty years before rule and 
govern the island, each for one year in his turn ; and 
that the country was called after the names of their three 
queens — Eire, Fola, and Banbha, respectively : one year 
called " Eire," the next "Fola," and the next " Banbha," 
as their husbands reigned in their regular turns ; by 
■which names the island is ever since indifferently called, 
but most commonly Eire, because, that Mac-Cuill, the 
husband of Eire, ruled and governed the country in his 
turn the year that the Clan-na-Mile, or the sons of Milesius, 
arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further 
informed that the three brothers were then at Oileach- 
Neid (or Aileach Neid), in. the north part of the country, 
•engaged in the settlement of some family differences, 
Ithius directed his course thither ; sending orders to his 
son to sail about with his ship and the rest of his men, 
and meet him there. 

When Ithius arrived where the (Danan) brothers were, 
he was honorably received and entertained by them ; and, 
finding him to be a man of great wisdom and knowledge, 
they referred their disputes to him for decision. That 
decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithius exhor- 
ted them to mutual love, peace, and forbearance ; adding 
much in praise of their delightful, pleasant, and fruitful 
country ; and then took his leave, to return to his ship, 
and go back to Spain. 

No sooner was he gone than the brothers began to 

liis descendants, as Dukes of Normandy, ruled over that province 
from the tenth to the thirteenth century ; and, in the eleventh 
century, William, Duke of Normandy, claiming the crown of 
England, landed with an immense army at Pevensey in Sussex, on 
the 28th September, A.D. 1066, and, on Saturday the 14th October, 
fought the great battle near Hastings ; in which the Anglo-Saxons, 
under Harold their king, were totally vanquished. The victory of 
Hastings thus transferred, in one battle and in a single day, the 
Anglo-Saxon Sceptre to the Normans of France ; and their duke 
became king of England, under the title of " "William the Conqueror." 
The Norman Nobles of England and France produced many of the 
most valiant champions amongst the Knights Templars, the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, of Malta, and of Rhodes, famous in those 
ages in the East for their defence of the Holy Land and other parts 
•of Christendom, against the Turks and Saracens. 


reflect on the high commendations which Ithius gave 
of the Island ; aad, suspecting his design of bringing 
others to invade it, resolved to prevent him, and therefore 
pursued him with a strong party, overtook him, fought 
and routed his men and wounded himself to death (before 
Ms son or the rest of his men left on ship-board could 
come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and 
his name, " Magh Ithe" or The Plain of Ith (an extensive 
plain in the barony of Eaphoe, county of Donegal) ; 
whence his son, having found him in that condition, 
brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and 
there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his 
friends and relations to avenge his murder. 

And here I think it not amiss to notify what the Irish 
chroniclers observe upon this matter : viz., that all the 
invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, Bartholinus, 
Nemedius, Firvolgians,Tua-De-Danans, and Clan-na-MUe, 
were originally Scythians of the line of Japhet, who had 
the language called Bearla-Tohbai or Gaoidhelg common 
amongst them all ; and consequently not to be wondered 
at, that Ithius and the Tua-lJe-Danans understood one 
another without an Interpreter : both speaking the same 
language, though perhaps with some difference in the 

The exposing of the dead body of Ithius had the desired 
effect, for thereupon Milesius made great preparations in 
order to invade Ireland : as well to avenge his uncle's 
death, as also in obedience to the will of bis gods, signified 
by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid; but, before he could 
effect that object, he died, leaving the care and charge of 
that expedition upon his eight legitimate sons by his two 
wives before mentioned. 

Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior,, 
and fortunate and prosperous in all his undertakings \ 
witness his name of " Milesius," given him from the many 
battles (some say a thousand, which the word " Mile " 
signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously 
fought and won, as well in Spain, as in all the other 
countries and kingdoms he traversed in his younger days. 

The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent 
in the execution of their father's command; but, soon after 


his death, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, 
set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia (now 
Corunna) in Galicia, and sailed prosperously to the coasts 
■of Ireland or Inis-Fail* where they met many difficulties 
and various chances before they could land ; occasioned 
by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by 
the Tua-de-Danans, to obstruct their landing; for, by their 
magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to 
the Milesians or Clan-na-Mile in the form of a Hog, and 
no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many 
other names it had belore, was called Muo-Inis or The 
Hog Island) ; and withal raised so great a storm, that the 
Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of 
them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of 
Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the fleet commanded 
by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving 

*Inii-Fail : Thomas Moore, in his Irish Melodies, commemorates 
this circumstance, in the 

" Song of InuisfaU " : 

They came from a laud beyond the sea 

AJad. now o'er the western main 
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly. 

From the sunny land of Spain. 
" Oh, Where's the isle we've seen in dreams, 

Our destined home or grave ? " 
Thus sang they, as by the morning's beams, 

They swept the Atlantic wave. 

And lo ! where afar o'er ocean shines 

A spark of radiant green. 
As though in that deep lay emerald mines, 

Whose light through the wave was seen. 
' ' 'Tis Innisfail — 'tis Innisfail I " 

Rings o'er the echoing sea ; 
While, bending to heaven, the warriors hail 

That home of the brave and free. 
Then turned they unto the Eastern wave, 

Where now their Day-god's eye 
A look of such sunny omen gave 

As lighted up sea and sky. 
Nor frown was seen through sky or sea, 

Nor tear o'er leaf or sod, 
When first on their Isle of Destiny 

Our great forefathers trod . 


brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers 
lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, 
fought and routed the three Tua-De-Danan Kings at 
Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at 
Talten, where another bloody battle was fought ; wherein 
the three (Tua-De-Danan) Kings and their queens were 
slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed : so 
that they could never after give any opposition to the 
Clan-na-Mile in their new conquest ; who, having thus 
sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithius, 
gained the possession of the country foretold them by 
Cachear, some ages past, as already mentioned. 

Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining 
of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided 
the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land 
to their brother Amergin, who was their arch-priest, 
Druid, or magician ; and to their nephew Heber-Donn, and 
to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly 
the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole 
monarchs of the Gathelian, Milesian, or Scottish Eace, 
that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for 2885 
years from the first year of their reign, anno mundi 3500, 
to their submission to the Crown of England in the person 
of King Henry the Second ; who, being also of the Milesian 
Eace hy Maude his mother (and granddaughter of Malcolm 
Cann Mor, King of Scotland), was lineally descended from 
Fergus the Great or Fergus Mor Mac Earca, first King of 
Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon : 
so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the 
Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six 
hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time. 

Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, 
when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they 
quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardcath or Geshill 
(Geashill, near Tullamore in the King's County), where 
Heber was slain by Heremon ; and, soon after, Amergin, 
who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in 
another battle fought between them, likewise .slain by 
Heremon. Heremon thus became sole monarch, and made 
a new division of the land amongst his comrades and 
friends, viz. : the south part, now called Munster, he gave 


to his brother JEeber's four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and 
Fergna ; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's 
only son Heber-Donn ; the east part or Coigeadh .Galian, 
now called Leinster, he gave to Criomthann-Sciath-bheil, 
one of his commanders ; and the west part, now called 
Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mao-Oigge, another of 
his commanders ; allotting a part of Munster to Lugadius 
(the son of Ithius, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), 
amongst his brother Heber's sons. 

From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon 
(Amergin dying without issue), are all the Milesian Irish 
of Ireland and Scotland descended, viz. : from Heber, the 
eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom 
thirty-eight were sole monarchsof Ireland), and most of the 
nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families 
in Scotland, are descended. 

From Hyrus (or Ir), the second brother, all the provincial 
Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole monarchs of 
Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, 
and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and 
Connaught, derive their pedigrees ; and, in Sotland, the 
Clan-na-Eory^the descendants of an eminent man, named 
Eory or Eoderick, who was monarch of Ireland for seventy 

From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were 
descended one hundred and fourteen sole monarchs of 
Ireland; the provincial Kings and Heremonian nobility 
and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, 
Tirconnell, and Clan-na-Boy ; the Kings of Dalriada ; all 
the Kings of Scotland from Fergus Mor Mac Earca down 
to the Stuarts; and the kings and queens of England 
from Henry the Second down to the present. 

The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian 
Irish or Clan-na-Mile, as not being descended from Milesiiis, 
but from his uncle Ithe or Ithius ; of whose posterity there 
were also some monarchs of Ireland (see Eoll of the Irish 
Monarchs, in next Chapter), and many provincial or half 
provincial Kings of Munster : that country upon the first 
division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to 
Lugadius, son of Ithius, whose posterity continued there 


This invasion, conquest, or plantation of Ireland by the 
Milesian or Scottish Nation took place in the Year of the 
"World three thousand five hundred, or the next year after 
Solomon began the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, 
and one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years before 
the Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ ; which, according 
to the Irish computation of Time, occurred anno mundi five 
thousand one hundred and ninety-nine : therein agreeing 
■with the Septuagint, Eoman Martyrologies, Eusebius,. 
Orosius, and other ancient authors ; which computation 
tHe ancient Irish chroniclers exactly observed in their 
Books of the Eeigns of the Monarchs of Ireland, and other 
Antiquities of that Kingdom; out of which the following 
Eoll of the Monarchs of Ireland, from the beginning of 
the Milesian monarchy to their submission to King 
Henry the Second of England, a Prince of their own 
Blood, is exactly collected. 

[The original name of Milesius of Spain was, as already 
mentioned, " Galamh " (Gall: Ixish, a stranger ; amh, a 
negative affix), which means no stranger : meaning that he 
was no stranger in Egypt ; where, in assisting the 
Egyptians to vanquish their enemies, he displayed such 
heroism, that Pharoah Nectonibus, the king, conferred on 
him the hand of his daughter Scota ; and where he was 
called " Milethea Spaine " (or the Gathelian Hero of Spain), 
which was afterwards contracted to " Mile Spaine " 
/'meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to " Milesius " 
{Mileadh : Irish, a hero ; Lat., Miles, a soldier). 

As it was Solomon, king of Israel, who laid the 
foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, and that the 
Milesian invasion of Ireland took place the next year after 
the laying of that foundation, we may infer that Solomon 
was contemporary with Milesius of Spain ; and that the 
Pharoah, king of Egypt, who (I Kings iii. 1.) gave his 
daughter in marriage to Solomon, was the Pharaoh who 
conferred on Milesius the hand of another of his daughters, 
named Scota.] 

Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and 
standard, it is said, for the following reasons : namely, that, 
in his travels in his younger days into foreign countries, 
passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed 


in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble 
and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions in his 
shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon 
and his grandson Heber-Donn, son of Ir, after their 
conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they 
did the country ; each of them bearing a Lion in his shield 
and banner, but of different colours ; which the Chiefs of 
their posterity continue to this day : some with additions 
and differences ; others plain and entire as they had it 
from their ancestors. 

As the kings descended from Heber, Heremon, and Ir 
(the three sons of Milesius of Spain who left any issue), 
as well as those descended from their relative Lugadius 
(the son of Ithe), were all eligible for the monarchy, the 
letter H, E, I, or L is employed in the following Eoll, 
before the name of each monarch there given, to distinguish 
his lineal descent. Thus H, E, and I refer to the three 
brothers Heber, Heremon, and Ir : H is placed before the 
names of the monarchs who were descended from Heber ; 
E, those descended from Eremon or Heremon; I, those 
descended from Ir ; and L, those descended from 


Names of the one hundred and eighty-three Kings or 
Monarchs of Ireland, from the conquest thereof by the 
Milesian or Scottish Nation, anno mundi 3,500, down to 
the monarch Eoderick O'Conor, anno Domini 1186, a 
period which embraces two thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-five years : 

Before Christ, 

1. H. Heber and Heremon, jointly, began to 

reign a.m. 3,500 ; or ... ... 1699 

2. E. Heremon, alone ... .. ... 1698 

3. E. Mumneus'^ 

4. B. Lugneus U three brothers ... 1683 
6. E. Lagneus J 



H. Er \ 

^■^J"^^ S four brothers ... 
H. Feron / 

H. PergnaJ 


... 1680 



E. Eurialus Faidh ... 

... 1680 


E. Ethrialus 

... 1670: 


H. Conmalius 

... 1650 


E. Tigern Masius 

... 1620 


L. Achaius Edghothach 

... 1536 


I. Kermnaus ) Uj.Qj-}jgj.g 
I. Sobharchius 3 

... 1532 


H. Achaius (2) Faobhar Glas ... 

... 1492 


E. Fiachus Lawrainne 

... 1472 


H. Achaius (8) Mumha 

... 1448 


E. .Slneas Ollmuca ... 

... 1427 


H. Ennius Airgthach 

... 1409 


E. Eothactus 

... 1382 


I. Sedneus ... 

... 1357 


I. Fiachus (2) Fionn Scothach 

... 1352 


H. Munemonius 

... 1832 


H. Faldergodius 

... 1827 


I. Ollav Fodla, A.M. 3882 

... 1817 


I. Finacta Fionn- Sneachta 

... 1277 


I. Slanollus... 

... 1257 


I. Geidius OUghothach 

... 1240 


I. Fiachus (3) 

... 1228 


I. Berngalius 

... 1208 


I. Oliollus ... 

... 1196 


E. Siornaus (longssvus) " Saobach,' 

' lived 

250 years, and reigned 150.... 

... 1180 


H. Eothactus (2) 

... 1030 


H. Elimius... 

... 1023 


E. Gialchadius 

.. 1022 


H. Art Imleach 

... lOlS 


E. Nuodus Fionnfail 

... 1001 


H. Breassus Eegius ... 

... 961 


L. Achaius (4) Appach 

... 952 


I. Finnius ... 



H. Sedneus (2) Innarraigh 

... 929 


E. Simeon Breac 



H. Duachus Fionn ... 

... 9oa 


46. E. Muredachus Bolgrach ... ... 893 

47. H. Ennius (2) Dearg ... ... 892 

48. H. Lugadiiis lardhoun ... ... 880 

49. I. Longimanus ... ... ... 871 

60. H. Achaius (5) Uarcheas ... ... 855 

51. E. Achaius (6), brother of No. 53 ... 843 

52. H. Lugadius Lamhdearg ... ... 838 

63. E. Conangus Beag-Eaglach ... ... 831 

64. H. Art (2) ... ... ... ... 811 

55. E.FiachusTolgrach ... ... ... 805 

66. H. Oliollus (2) Fionn ... ... 795 

67. H. Achaius (7) ... ... ... 784 

58. I. Argetmarus ... ... ... 777 

59. E. DuachusLadhrach ... ... 747 

60. H. Lugadius Lagha ... ... .. 737 

61. I. Aidus Kuffus ■] 

62. I. Dithorbus I- ... ... ... 730 

63. I. Kimbathus J 

These three, Nos. 61, 62, and 63, were grandchildren of 
Argetmarus, No. 58 ; and they mutually agreed to reign 
by turns, each of them for seven years. They accordingly 
reigned until each of them reigned three times seven 
years ; and Aldus Euffus, No. 61, before it came to his 
fourth turn to reign, was drowned at Eaa Roe (now Bally- 
shannon), leaving issue one daughter named Macha 
Mongrua, who succeeded to the Monarchy. 


I. Macha Mongrua {a Queen) ... 



H. Keactus Eigh-dearg 



E. Hugonius Magnus {Ugain Mor) 



E. Banchadius survived his elevation to 
the monarchy only one day. 


E. Laegrius Lore 



E. Cobthacus Coal-bhreagh 



E. Lauradius N avails 



E. Melga (laudabilis) "Molfach" 



H. Moghcorbus 



E. MnQ&s (2) Ollamh 



E. larngleo Fathach ... 



H. Fercorbus 



76. E. Conlaus Caomh ... ... .. 462 

77. E. Oliollus (3) Oass-fiaclagh ... ... 442 

78. H. Adamarus Folcthaion ... . ... 417 

79. E. Achaius (8) Altlealian ... ... 412 

80. E. Fergusius Fortamhail ... ... 895 

81. B. Mneas (3) Turmeach-Teamreach ... 884 

82. E. Conallus CoUamrach ... ... 824 

83. H. Niadhsedliamain ... ... ... 319 

84. B. Ennius (8) Aigneach ... ... 312 

85. E. Crimthann Cosgrach ... ... 292 

86. I. Eodricus Magnus {Rory Mor) ; a quo 

Clan-na-Rory ... ... ... 288 

87. H. Innatmarus ... ... ... 218 

88. I. Bresalius Bo-dhiobha ... ... 209 

89. H. Lugadius (4) Luaighne ... ... 198 

90. I. Congalius (2) Clareineach ... ... 183 

91. H. Duachus (2) Dalta-Deadha .. ... 168 

92. I. Fachnaus Fathach ... ... 158 

93. E. Achaius (9) Feidlioch ... ... 142 

94. E. Achaius (10) Aireamh ... ... 130 

95. E. Edersceolus ... ... ... 115 

96. E. Nuodus (2) Neacht, ... ... 110 

97. E. Conarius Magnus [Conaire Mor), ... 109 
After the death of Conaire Mor, there was an interregnum 

of five years. 

98. E. Lugadius Sriabhn-dearg, ... ... 34 

99. E. Conquovarus (Conor), ... ... 8 

100. E. Crimthann (2) Niadh-Nar, ... ... 7 

In the seventh year of this Crimthann's reign, our Lord 

Jesus Chbist was born. 

Anno Domini. 

101. — Carbry Cinn-Caitt, ... ... 9 

102. B. Feredachus Fionn-Feachtnach, ... 14 

103. E. Fiatachus Fionn (a quo Dal Fiatach), 36 

104. E. Fiachus (5) Fionn-Ola, ... ... 39 

105. I. Elimius (2) Mac Conrach, ... ... 55 

106. E. Tuathalius Teaohtmar, ... ... 76 

107. I. Malius Mac Rochrardhe, ... ... 106 

108. E. Felim Eachtmar, ... ... ... no 

109. E. Cathirius Magnus [Cahir Mur,) ... 119 


110. E. Quintus Centibellis {Con Ceadcatha) or Conn of 
the Hundred Battles, ... ... ' ... 122 

111. E. Conarius (2) MaoMogha Laime ... 157 

112. E. Airt-Ean-Phear* {or Arturus-Ean-Fhear) 165 
(This monarch was the ancestor of O'Hart.) 

113. L. Lugadius Mac Con (Luy Mac Con), 195 

114. E. Fergus Dubh-Dheadach, ... ... 225 

115. E. Cormac-Mac-Airt {Gormac Vlfhada) ... 226 

116. E. Achaius (11) Gunnat, ... ... 266 

117. E. Cairbry Liffechar, ... ... ... 267 

118. L. Fothadius Airgtheach.) x, ,, „„, 

119. L. Fotha Cairpeach, '[Brothers ... 284 

120. E. Fiachus (7) Srabhteine, ... ... 285 

121. E. Colla Uais ; a quo MacEvoy... ... 322 

122. E. Muredachus Tireach, ... ... 326 

123. I. Caolbadius, ... ... ... 356 

124. E. Achaius (12) Muigh-Meadhoin, ... 357 

125. H. Crimthann (3), ... ... ... 365 

126. E. Niallus Magnus, ... ... ... 378 

127. E. Dathy, ... ... ... ... 405 

All the foregoing monarchs were Pagans ; but some 
authors are of opinion that Nos. 112) 115, and 126 were 
enlightened by the Holy Spirit in the truths of Christianity. 
Others are of opinion that the next monarch Laegrius, son 
of Niallus Mangus, No. 126, died a Pagan, although reigning 
at the time of the advent of St. Patrick in Ireland. 

Anno Domini. 

128. E . Laegrius Mac Niall (son of Niallus Magnus) 428 

129. E. OlioUus Molt son of Dathy, ... .. 458 

*Airt-Ean-Fhear : It is stated in the "History of the Cemeteries," 
that Airt beliered in the Faith, the day before the battle (of Magh 
Mucroimhe, near Athenry, where he was slain by Luy Mac Con, 
A.U. 195), and predicted the spread of Christianity. It would 
appear also that he had some presentiment of his death ; for he 
directed that he should not be buried at Brugh on the (river) Boyne, 
the Pagan cemetery of his forefathers, but at a place then called 
Dumha Dergluachra (the burial mound of the red rushy place), 
" where Trevait {Trevet, in the county Meath) is at this day " (Hist, 
of Cemeteries : see Petries "Round Towers." page 100). — Joyce's 
Irish Names of Places, 





E. Ludagius, son of Laegrius Mac Niall, ... 478 
E. Murchertus Mor Mac Earca, Brother of Fergus 
Mor Mac Earca, the Pounder of the monarchy in 
Scotland, ... ... ... ... 503 

E. Tuathal (2) Maolgharbh, ... ... 527 

B . Dermitius, son of Fergus Cearr-Bheoil, ... 538 

E.Donaldus, 1 Brothers : both died of the Plague, 

E. Fergusius, (3),) ° ' 

in one day, ... ... ... 558 

l:Botri,''^'}^^P^—^ Uncle ... 561 

E. Anmireus, ... ... ... 563 

Boetanus (2) ... ... ... ... 566 

E. Aldus (2) ... .. ... ... 567 

E. Aldus (3) ... ... , ... ... 594 

This Aldus had a brother named Lochan Dilmhain, who 
was, according to some of the ancient Irish annalists, 
ancestor of the Dillons. [This monarch and his successor 
Colman Rlmldh reigned only six years, and it would 
appear that they reigned jointly : as the date of Colman'a 
accession to the monarchy is not separately recorded.] 







































Colman Rimidh, 

• •■ 

Aldus (4) Uar-Iodhnaoh, 

... 600 

Malcovus, .. 

... 607 

Sumneus Meann, ... 

... 610 

Donaldus (2), 

... 623 


... 639 

Congallus (3), 

... 652 

Dermitius (2),)„ . j • • ,, 

... 656 


... 664 


... 669 

Flnachta Fleadhach, 

... 673 


... 698 

Congallus (4), 

... 701 


... 708 

Fogartus, ... 

... 718 


... 719 


... 722 


160. E. Aldus (5) Ollann, ... ... ... 729 

161. B. Donaldus (3), ... ... ... 738 

162. E. Niallus (2; Prassach, ... ... 758 

163. E. Donchadus, ... ... ... 765 

164. E. Aldus (6) Ornigh ... ... ... 792 

In this monarch's reign the Danes* Invaded Ireland. 

165. E. Conquovarus (2) ... ... ... 817 

166. E. Niallus (3) CalUe ... ... ... 881 

167. E. Malachlas (1) ... ... ... 844 

168. E. Aldus (7) Flonnllath ... ... 860 

169. E. Flann Slonna (ancestor of Fox) ... 876 

170. E. Niallus (4) Glundubh (ancestor of 0'.V«!7?) 914 

171. E. Donchadus (2) ... ... ... 917 

172. E. Congallus ... ... ... 942 

178. E. Donaldus (4) ... ... ... 954 

174. E. Malachy the 11. (ancestor of O'MelaghUn) 978 

* The Danes : " Ten years with fourscore and seven hundred was 
the age of Christ when the pagans went to Ireland. " The Vickings 
or Danes having been defeated in Glamorganshire iji Wales, invaded 
Ireland, in the reign of the monarch Aldus Ornigh, In A. D. 798, 
they ravaged the Isle of Man, and the Hebrides in Scotland ; in 
«02, they burned " Hi Colum Cille" ; in 807, for the first time in 
Ireland, they marched inland; in 812 and 813 they made raids in 
Connaught and Munster. After thirty years of this predatory war- 
fare had continued, Turgesius, a Norwegian Prince, established 
himself as sovereign of the Vikings, and made Armagh his head- 
quarters, A. D. 830. Sometimes the Danish chiefs mustered all their 
forces and left the island for a brief period, to ravage the shores of 
England or Scotland ; but, wild, brave, and cruel, they soon returned 
to inflict new barbarities on the unfortunate Irish. Turgesius 
appropriated the abbeys and churches of the country ; and placed 
an abbot of his own in every monastery. A Danish captain was 
placed in charge of each village ; and each family was obliged to 
maintain a soldier of that nation, who made himself master of the 
house— using and wasting the food, for lack of which the children 
•of the lavrful owner were often dying of hunger. All education was 
strictly forbidden : books and manuscripts were burned and 
"drowned"; and the poets, historians, and musicians, imprisoned and 
driven to the woods and mountains. Martial sports were interdicted, 
from the lowest to the highest rank ; even nobles and princes, were 
forbidden to wear their usual habiliments : the cast-off clothes of 
the Danes being considered sufficiently good for slaves ! In a.d. 948, 
the Danes were converted to Chi-istianity ; and at that time possessed 
many of the sea-coast towns of Ireland — including Dublin, Limerick, 
Wexford, and Waterford. — Miss Cusach 


Malachy the Second was the last absolute monarch of 
Ireland. He reigned as monarch twenty-four years before 
the accession to the monarchy of Brian Boru, and again 
after Brian's death, which took place a.d. 1014, at the 
Battle of Clontarf. 

175. H. Brian Boromhe [Boru] ... ... 1001 

(This monarch was the ancestor of O'Brien.) 

Brian reigned sixty-six years, twelve of which as mon- 
arch ; he was 88 years of age when slain at the Battle of 
Clontarf. After Brian's death — 

Malachy the Second was restored to the monarchy, 

A.D 1014 

After nine years' reign, Malachy died a penitent at 
Cro-Inis (or the Cell on the Island), upon Loch Annin in 
Westmeath, a.d. 1023 ; being the forty-eighth Christian 
King of Ireland, and accounted the last absolute monarch 
of the Milesian or Scottish line : the provincial kings and 
princes always after contesting, fighting, and quarrelling 
for the sovereignty, until they put all into confusion, and 
that the King of Leinster brought in King Henry the 
Second to assist him against his enemies. 

Those and such as our histories mention to have 
assumed the name and title of monarchs of Ireland, without 
the general consent of the major part of the Kingdom, are 
as follows : — 

176. H. Doneha (Donough), or Donchadus ... 1022 
This Doneha was son of Brian Boru, and was king of 

Munster till the death of the monarch Malachy the Second. 
He then assumed the title of monarch, till defeated and 
banished from Ireland by Dermot, son of Donough, called 
" Moal-na-Mho," king of Leinster, who is accounted by 
some to succeed Doneha in the monarchy ; yet is assigned 
no years for his reign, but that he contested with the said 
Doneha until he utterly defeated and banished him, a.d. 
1064 : from which time it is Ukely that Dermot reigned 
the rest of the fifty-two years assigned for the reign of 
Doneha or Donchadus, who died at Borne, a.d. 1074. 

177. E. Dermot (3) or Dermitius ... ... 

By the Irish historians this Dermot, son of Donough, 

king of Leinster, is assigned no date for his accession to 
the monarchy. 


178. H. Turloch O'Brien ... ... ... 1074 

This Turloch was the son of Teige, eldest son of Brian 

Boru ; and was styled monarch of Ireland from his uncle's 
death at Rome, a.d. 1074. 

179. B. Donald (5) MacLoghlin, son of Ardgal, king of 
Aileach, was styled monarch, and ruled alone for twelve 
years; began to reign ... ... ... 1086 

180. H. Murchertus O'Brien, king of Munster, was, 
from 1098 up to his death, a.d. 1119, jointly in the 
monarchy with Donald MacLoghlin ; began to reign 1098. 

Donald reigned alone after the death of Murchertus- 
O'Brien to his own death, a.d. 1121 ; began to reign alone 
the second time, and reigned two years ... 1119 

From Donald's death, a.d. 1121, to a.d. 1136, though 
many contested, yet, for fifteen years, none assumed the 
title of monarch ... ... ... ... 1121 

181. E. Tirloch Mor O'Conor, king of Connaught for 
fifty years, and monarch from a.d. ... ... 1136 

182. E. Murchertus (2) MacLoghlin, grandson of 
Donald (No. 179 above), was styled monarch, from 

A.D. ... ... ... ... ... 1156 

183. E. Eoderick (2) or Eodricus O'Conor ... 1166 

" Roderick O'Conor. king of Connaught, was the last undoubted 
mouarcli of Ireland from his predecessor's death, a.d. 1166, for 
twenty years, to the year 1186 ; within which time, by the invita- 
tion of Dermot-Na-Ngall (or Dennot of the Strangers), king of 
Leinster, the English first invaded Ireland, a.d. 1169. Strongbow 
lauded therein 1170. King Henry the Second landed a.d. 1172. 
The monarch Eoderick, seeing his subjects flinch and his own sons 
turn against him, hearkened to and accepted the conditions offered 
bJTTi by King Henry, which being ratified on both sides, a.d. 1175, 
Eoderick continued in the government (at least the name of it), 
until A.D. 1186, when, weary of the world and its troubles, he for- 
sook it and all its pomp, and retired to a monastery, where he finished. 
his course religiously, a.d. 1198." — Four Masters. 





1, The MacCakthy Family. 

Hbbbr was the eldest son of Milesius of Spain wh^ 
left any issue ; from him the following ancient families 
are descended : 

1. MacCarthy; 2. O'Brien ; 3. O'Sullivan; 4. O'CarroU 
(Ely), etc. From this stem branched all the kings, 
nobility, gentry, and people of Munster*, of the Reber Une. 

36. Milesius. 

12 |3 

37. Ir (Hynis). 37. Heremon. 

37. Heber Fionn, son of Milesius, was the first Milesian 
monarch of Ireland, conjointly with his brother Heremon; 
he was slain in the year before Christ 1698. 

38. Conmalius: his son; was the twelfth monarch; he 
died, B.C. 1620. 

39. Achaius Faobhar Glas: his son; the 17th monarch; 
■40. Ennius Airgthach : his son ; was the 21st monarch ; 

and the first who caused silver shields to be made. 

41. Glassius: his son. 

42. Eossius: his son. 

43. Eothactus: his son. 

44. Ferard: his son. 

45. Cassius: his son. 

46. Munemonius: his son; was the 25th monarch; and 
the first who ordained his nobles to wear gold chains, 
about their necks. 

*Munster : A short time beforfi the Christian era Eoohy Feidliooh, 
the 93rd Mile&iau monarch of Ireland, divided the kingdom into 
five provinces : namely, Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, and the two 
provinces of Munster. The name of a province in Irish is ' 'Coigeadh" 
{coogu], which signifies & fifth ■part. 

Tuathal Teacbtmar (orTuathal the LejiJimate), the 106th monarch 


47. Faldergpdius : his son; was the 26th monarch of 
Ireland; and the first who ordered his nobility to wear 
^old rings on their fingers. 

48. Cassius (2) Cedchaingnigh : his son. This Cassius 
was a learned man ; he revised the study of the laws, 
poetry, and other laudable sciences (which were) much 
•eclipsed and little practised since the death of Amergin 
Glungheal, one of the sons of Milesius, who was their 
Druid or Arch-priest, and who was slain in battle by his 
brother Heremon soon after their brother Heber's death.. 

49. Falbheus lolchoraigh: his son; was the first who 
•ordained that stonewalls should be built as boundaries 
between the neighbours' lands. 

50. Roanus: his son. 

51. Eothactus (2): his son; was the 85th monarch. 

52. Elimius 011-Fhionach (OZZ-F/iionac/i.: Irish, a great 
drinker of toine) : his son. 

53. Art Imleach: his son; the 38th monarch of Ireland; 
slain, B.C., 1001. 

54. Breassus Eegius: his son; was the 40th monarch; 
was slain, b.c, 952. 

55. Sedneus Innarraigh : his son; was the 43rd monarch; 
and the first who, in Ireland, enlisted soldiers in pay and 
under good discipline ; before his time they had no other 
pay than what they could gain from their enemies. 

56. Duachus Fionn: his son; died, b.c, 893. 

■of Ireland, made, in the beginning of the second century, a new 
division of Ireland into five provinces ; and, having taken a portion 
from each of the provinces of Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and 
Connaught, formed the new province of Meath. 

This division continued for many centuries, and even long after 
the Anglo-Norman invasion. Thus the Irish government was a 
Pentarchy : a supreme Monarch being elected to preside over all the 
provincial kings ; and designated " Ard-Eigh " or High King. 

The " Kingdom of Munster " (in Irish Mumha, Mumhan, and 
Mumhain) derived its name, according to O'Flaherty's "Ogygia," 
from Eochy Mumha, who was king of Munster and the 19th Milesian 
monarch of Ireland. Munster is Latinised " Momonia ". Ancient 
Munster comprised the present counties of Tipperary, Waterford, 
Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and part of Kilkenny; to which, in the latter 
part of the third century, was added the territory now forming the 
■County of Clare, by Lughaidh Meann, King of Munster, of the race 
■of the Dalcassians, who took it from Connaught and added it to 


57. Ennius (2) Dearg: his son; was the 4:7th monarch 
of Ireland. In the twelfth year of his reign, he died sud- 
denly with most of his retinue adoring their false gods at 
Shabh Mis, b.c. 880 years. In his time money was first 
coined in Ireland. 

58. Lugadius lardhoun : his son. 

59. Achaius (2): his son. 

60. Lugadius (2): his son; died, b.c. 831. 

61. Art (2): his son; was the 54th monarch; and was. 
slain by his successor (uncle to the former monarch), 
B.C. 805. 

62. Olioll Fionn: his son. 

63. Achaius (3): his son. 

64. Lugadius (3) Lagha: his son; died, b.c. 730. 

65. Keactus Eigh-Dhearg: his son; was the 65th mon- 
arch; and was called "Eigh-Dhearg" or the red king,, 
for having a hand in a woman's blood : having slain queen 
Macha of the line of Ir, and the only woman that held the 
monarchy of Ireland. He was a warlike prince and fortu- 
nate in his undertakings. He went into Scotland with a 
powerful army to reduce to obedience the Pictish nation^ 
then growing refractory in the payment of their yearly 
tribute to the monarchs of Ireland; which having per- 
formed, he returned, and, after twenty years' reign, was 
slain in battle by his Heremonian successor, b.c, 633. 

66. Cobthacus Caomh : his son. 

67. Moghcorbus : his son. 

68. Fercorbus : his son. 

69. Adamarus Folt Chaion ; his son ; died B.C., 412. 

Ancient Munster is mentioned under the following diviaiona, 
namely, Tuadh Mumhan or'SoTth Munster, Anglicised "Thomond";: 
Deas Mumhan or South Munster, rendered "Desmond"; UrmhumJia 
or Oirmhumha or East Munster, rendered "Ormond " ; and lar 
Mumhan or West Munster. 

Thomond, under its ancient kings, extended from the Isles of 
Arran, off the coast of Galway, to the mountain of Eibline, near 
Cashel in Tipperary, thence to Cairn Feradaigh, now Knock Aine ia 
Limerick, and from Leim Chucullain (or Guchullin's Leap), now 
Loop-Head, at the mouth of the Shannon in the county of Clare, tO' 
Sliabh Dala mountain in Ossory, on the borders of Tipperary 
Kilkenny, and Queen's County: thus comprising the present counties; 


70. Niadhsedhaman : his son ; was the 83rd monarch. 
In his time the wild deer were, some say through the 
sorcery and witchcraft of his mother, usually driven home 
with bhe cows, and tamely suffered themselves to be milked 
«very day. 

71. Innatmarus : his son ; was the 87th monarch. 

72. Lugadius (4) Luaighne : his son ; was the 89th 

73. Cairbre lmsghe3jthan(Liisg-leatha7i : Irish, broad/ace): 
his son. 

74. Duaehus Dalta Deadha : his son ; was the 91st 
monarch and the last of thirty-three monarchs of the 
Heberian line that ruled the kingdom ; and but one more 
■of them came to the monarchy — namely Brian Boru, the 
thirty-first generation down from this Duaehus, who pulled 
out his younger brother Deadha' s eyes (and thus made him 
blind: hence the epithet "Dalta") for daring to come 
between him and the throne. 

75. Achaius (4) Garbh : his son. 

76. Muredach Muchna : his son. 

77. Mofebhis : wife of Muredach Muchna. 

[In the ancient Irish Regal EoU, the Four Masters found 
that, by mistake, the name of Mofebhis was entered after 
that of her husband, Muredach Muchna, instead of the 
name of their son Loich Mor ; and, sooner than disturb 

of Clare and Limerick, with the greater part of Tipperary ; but, in 
after times, Thomond was confined to the present county of Clare. 

Ormond was one of the large divisions of ancient Munster. 
Ancient Ormond extended fromGabhran (now Gom-an) in the County 
of Kilkenny, westward to CnamhchoiU or Cleathchoill, near the 
town of Tipperary, and from Beaman Eile (now Barnanelly), a 
parish in the County of Tipperary (in which is situated the Devil's 
Bit Mountains); and from thence southward to Oileau-Ui-Bhric or 
O' Brio's Island, near Bonmahon, on the coast of Waterford: thus 
comprising the greater part of Tipperary, with parts of the Counties 
of Kilkenny and Waterford. The name of Ormond is still retained 
in the two baronies of Ormond, in Tipperary. 

Deisp. or Desies was an ancient territory, comprising the greater 
part of Waterford, with a part of Tipperary ; and got its name from 
the tribe of the Deisigh (a quo Deasy and Dease), also called Z)e««. 
These Desii were descended from Fiachus Suidhe, a brother of Conn 
of the Hundred Battles, the 1 10th monarch of Ireland; who, in Meath, 
possessed a large territory called from them Deise or Deise Teamrach, 


the register numbers of the succeeding names, O'Clery 
thought best to let the name of Mofebhis remain on the 
Roll, but to point out the inaccuracy.] 

78. Loich Mor : son of Muredach and Mofebhis. 

79. Ennius (3) Munchaion : his son. 

80. Dearg Theine : his son. 

This Dearg Theine had a competitor in the kingdom of 
Munster, named Darin, of the Sept of Lugadius, son of 
Ith or Ithius, the first (Milesian) discoverer of Ireland; 
between whom it was agreed that their posterity should 
reign by turns, and when either of the septs was king, 
the other should govern in the civil affairs of the kingdom; 
which agreement continued so, alternately, for some 

81. Dearg (2) : his son. 

82. Mogha Neid : his son 

83. Eugenius Magnus or Owen Mor : his son. This- 
Eugenius was commonly called " Mogha Nuadhad," and 
was a wise and politic prince and a great warrior; from him 
"Magh-Nua-Dhad" (now Maynooth) is so called: where 
a great Battle was fought between him and Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, the 110th monarch of Ireland, A.D. 122. 
with whom he was in continual wars, until at last, after 

that is Deise of Tara — because situated near Tara ; and the name of 
this ancient territory is still retained in the two baronies of Deece, 
in the county of Meath. In the reign of Cormac Mac Art, the 115tb 
monarch of Ireland, Aongus or ^neas, prince of Deise in Meath, 
grandson of Fiacha Suidhe, resenting the exclusion of his own branch 
of the family from the monarchy, waged a rebellion against Cormac 
Mac Art ; and with a body of forces broke into the palace of Tara, ' 
wounded Cormac, and killed his son Celleach ; but Cormac, having 
quelled the rebellion in seven successive battles, drove Aongus and 
his accomplices into Munster, where they got settlements from Olioll 
Olum, then King of Munster ; who granted them the lands extending 
from the river Suir southward to the sea, and from Lismore to Oean 
Criadain, now C'readan Head : thus comprising almost the whole of 
the territory afterwards called Waterford ; and they gave to that 
country the name of "Deise" or "Nandesi," which was called i)et«i, 
in Munster, to distinguish it from Beise. in Meath. The Desian» 
becoming numerous and powerful in Munster, Aongus or ..Eneas, 
King of Munster in the fifth century, conferred on them additional 
lands, and annexed to their territory Magh JTeimin, which extended 
north of the river Suir as far as Corca Eathrach, comprising tha 

CHAP, m.] THE maccarthy family. 6S 

mamy bloody battles, he forced him to divide the kingdom 
■with him in two equal parts by the boundary of Esker 
Biada — a long ridge of Hills from Dublin to Galway ; 
determining the south part to himself, which he called 
after bis own name " Leath Mogha " or Mogha's Half (of 
Ireland^, as the north part was called " Leath Cuinn " or 
Conn's half ; and requiring Conn to give his daughter Sabina 
(or Sadhbh) in marriage to his eldest son Olioll Olum. 
Beara, daughter of Heber, the great King of Castile (in 
Spain), was his wife, and the mother of Olioll Olum and 
of two daughters (who were named) Caomheall and Scoth- 
niamh ; after all, he was slain in Battle by the said Conn 
of the Hundred Battles. 

84. Olioll Olum: his son; was the first of this line 
named in the Eegal Roll to be king of both Munsters ; 
for, before him, there were two septs that were alternately 
kings of Munster, until this Olioll married Sabina, daughter 
of the monarch Conn of the Hundred Battles, and widow 
of Mac Niadh, chief of the other sept of Darin, descended 
from Ith (or Ithius), and by whom she had one son named 
Lugha, commonly called Luy-Mac-Con ; who, when he 
came to man's age, demanded from Olioll, his stepfather, 
the benefit of the agreement formerly made between their 
ancestors ; which OlioU not only refused to grant, but he 
also banished Mac-Con out of Ireland; who retired into 
Scotland, where, among his many friends and relations, 
he soon collected a strong party, returned with them to 
Ireland, and with the help and assistance of the rest of his 
sept who joined with them, he made war upon Olioll; to 

country called Maehaire Caisil or the Plain of Cashel, and distriota 
about (Jlonmel ; foraiing the present barony of Mirldlethird, with part 
of Offa, in Tipperary. The territogy comprised in this grant of King 
Aongua was distinguished by the name of " Deise Taaisceart" or 
ifortfi Desie, and the old territory in Waterford was called "Deise 
Deisceart" or South Desie. The name of '-Desie "is still retained 
in the two baronies of Decies, in the county of Waterford. 

Desmond: The territory called " Desmond" comprised, according 
to Smith in Ms histories of Cork and Kerry, the whole of the present 
County of Cork, and the greater part of Kerry, together with a 
portion of Waterford, and also a small part of the south of Tipperary, 
bordering on Cork, called the " Eoganacht Cashel:" thus extendmg 
from Brandon Mountain, in the barony of Coroaguiney, County of 


-whose assistance his brother-in-law Airt-Ean-Fhear, then 
monarch of Ireland, came with a good army; between 
whom and Mac Con was fought the great and memorable 
battle of Magh Mncromha (or Muckrove, near Athenry), 
where the monarch himself, together with seven of OlioU's 
nine sons by Sabina, lost their lives, and their army was 
totally defeated and routed. By this great victory Mac Con 
not only recovered his right to the Kingdom of Munster, 
but the monarchy also, wherein he maintained himself for 
thirty years ; leaving the Kingdom of Munster to his step- 
father, Olioll Olum, undisturbed. 

After the battle, Olioll, having but two sons left alive, 
namely, Cormac Cass and Kian, and being very old, settled 
his kingdom upon Cormac, the elder son of the two, and 
his posterity; but soon after being informed thatEugenius 
Magnus or Owen Mor, his eldest son (who was slain in the 
battle of Magh Mucromha, above mentioned), had by a 
Druid's daughter issue, named Peach (Fiacha Muilleathan 
as he was called), born after his father's death, Olioll 
ordained that Cormac should be king during his life, and 
Feach to succeed him, and after him Cormac's son, and 
their posterity to continue so by turns ; which (arrange- 
ment) was observed between them for many generations, 
sometimes dividing the kingdom between them, by the 
name of South, or North Munster, or Desmond, and 

Kerry, to tlie river Blaokwater, near Lismore, in the County of 
Waterford; but in after times, under the Fitzgeralds, Earls of 
Desmond, this territory was confined to the barojiies of Bear and 
Bantry, and other portions of the south-west of Cork, together with 
that part of Kerry south of the river Mang. 

West Munster : The north wsstem part of Kerry, with a large 
portion of Limerick, extending to the Shannon, and comprising the 
present baronies of Upper and Lower ConneUo, was called "lar 
Mumhan" or West Munster. This territory iis connected with some 
of the earliest events in Irish history. Bartholinus, who planted the 
first colony in Ireland, sailed from Greece through " Muir Toirian" 
(the ancient Irish name of the Mediterranean Sea), and landed on 
the coast of Ireland at Inver Soeine— now the Bay of Kenmare, in 

The Milesians, of the race of Heber Pionn, possessed Munster; 
but the descendants of Ith, the Uncle of Milesius, also possessed in 


From these three sons of Olioll Olum arealltheHeherian 
nobility and gentry of Munster and other parts of Ireland 
descended: viz. — ^from Eugenius Magnus or Owen Mor 
are MacCarthy, O'Sullivan, O'Keefe, and the rest of the 
ancient nobility of Desmond; from Cormao Cass are 
O'Bnen, MacJdahon, O'Kennedy, and the rest of the 
nobility and^ gentry of Thomond ; and from Kian or Cian 
are O'Carroll (of "Ely O'Carroll"), O'Meagher, O'Hara, 
O'Gara, etc. 

85. Eugenius Magnus : his son. 

86. Fiacha (or Feach) Muilleathan : his son. 

87. Oliollus Flann-beag. This Olioll, king of Munster 
for thirty years, had an elder brother, Oliollus Flann Mor, 
who, having no issue, adopted his younger brother to be 
his heir; conditionally, that his name should be inserted 
in the Pedigree as the father of this Olioll ; and so it is in 
several copies of the Munster antiquaries, with the reason 
thereof as here given. 

88. Lugadius: his son. This Lugadius had a younger 
brother named Daire (or Darius) Cearb, who was ancestor 
of O'Donovan and O'CuUen of Carbry; and by a second 
marriage he had two sons, Lughach and Oobthach — from 
the latter of whom comes the name "O'Cobhthay," or 

89. Core : his son ; who, to shun the unnatural love of 
his stepmother, fled in his youth to Scotland ; where he 
married Mong-Fionn, daughter of Feredach Fionn, other- 
wise called Fionn Cormac, king of the Plots (who are in 
Irish called Cruithnegich or Cruthneans), by whom he had 
several sons, whereof Maine Leamhna, who remained in 
Scotland, was theanoestorof "Mor-Mhaor-Leamhna", i.e. 
Great Stewards of Lennox ; from whom were descended the 
Kings of Scotland and England of the Stewart or Stuart 
family, and Cronan, who married Cairche, daughter of 

early times a great part of Munster. The race of Heber furnished 
most of the kings of Munster, and many of them were also monarchs 
of Ireland. The race of Ith or the Ithians also furnished many 
kings of Munster, and some of them were also monarchs of Ireland. 
The Heberians were by the old annalists called " Deirgtheine" after 
one of their ancient kings of that name; the Ithians were also called 
"Dairin^," from one of their kings so named. 



Laeghaire (or Leary) Mac Niall (Mac NeillJ, the 128th 
monarch of Ireland, by whomhe got territory in Westmeath 
from her called "Ouircneach," now called Dillon' s Country. 
This Core, also, although never converted to 
Christianity, was one of the three kings or princes 
appointed by the triennial parliament held at Tara in St. 
Patrick's time, to review, examine, and reduce into order 
all the monuments of antiquity, genealogies, chronicles, 
and records of the kingdom ; the other two being Daire 
or Darius, a prince of Ulster, and Leary the monarch. 
With these three were associated for that purpose St. 
Patrick, St. Benignus, and St. Carioch ; together with 
Dubhthach, Fergus, and Eosse Mac Trichinn, the chief 
antiquaries of Ireland (at the time). From Core, the city 
of Cork is also called. 

90. Nathfraoch : his son ; reigned 20 years 

91. iBneas : his son. This was the first Christian king 
of Munster. He had twenty-four sons and twenty-four 
daughters, whereof he devoted to the service of God one- 
half of both sexes. 

When this king was baptized by St. Patrick, the Saint, 
offering to fasten his Staff or Crozier in the ground, 
accidentally happened to pierce the foot of iEneas through, 
whereby he lost much blood ; but thinking it to be part of 
the ceremony (of Baptism), he patiently endured it until 
the Saint had done. He ordained three pence per annum 
from every person that should be baptized throughout 
Munster, to be paid to St. Patrick and the Church in 
manner following : viz., five hundred cows, five hundred 

The Clan-na-Deaghaidh settled in Munster a short time before 
the Christian Bra. They were named Degadians from Deagadh or 
Deadha their chief ; and Ernans, from Olioll Earon, a Heremonian 
prince in Ulster and an ancestor of Deag (see Ko. 68 in the gene- 
alogy of the kings of Dalriada). 

The Degadians or Ernans, being expelled from Ulster by the race of 
Ir or Clan-na-Eory, went to Munster, where they were favourably 
received and had lands allotted to them by Duaoh, king of Munster 
of the race of Heber, and the 91st monarch of Ireland. 

The Clan-na-Deagha or Ernana, according to Keating, O'Flaherty, 
O'Halloran, and other historians, became very powerful, and were 
the chief military commanders of Munster, and masters nearly of the 
entire country, some of them became kings of Munster, and three 


stone of iron, five hundred shirts, five hundred coverlets, 
and five hundred sheep, every third year. He reigned 36 
years, at the end whereof he and his wife Eithne, daughter 
of Crimthann-Cass, king of Leinster, were slain. 

92. Felim , his son ; was the second Christian king of 
Munster. His eleven brothers that did not enter into 
Eeligious Orders were — 1. Eocha, the third Christian 
king of Munster, ancestor of O'Keeffe; 2. Dubh Ghiloach ; 

3. Breasail, from whom descended the great antiquary 
and holy man Cormac Mac Culenan, the 39th Christian 
Mng of Munster, and Archbishop of Cashel, author of the 
ancient Irish Chronicle called the " Psalter of Cashel ;" 

4. Senach; 5. Aodh (or Hugh) Caoch (Eithne was mother 
of the last three) ; 6. Carrthann ; 7. Nafireg ; 8. Aodh 

[ee] ; 9. FeUm ; 10. Losian ; and 11. Dathy, from all of 
whom many families are descended. 
98. Crimthann : his son. 

94. Aodh Dubh [Duff] : his son ; reigned 15 years. 

95. Falbhe Flann : his son ; was the 16th Christian 
king of Munster, and reigned 40 years. He had a brother 
named Fingin, who reigned before him, and who is said by 
the Munster antiquaries to be the elder; this Fingin i-s 
ancestor to Sullivan and 0' Sullivan. 

96. Colga : his son ; was the 21st Christian king of 
Munster, for 13 years. 

97. Nathfraoch (2): his son. 

98. Daolgus : his son. 

99. Dungal: his son; from whom are Clan Dungaile or 
O'Riordan, who was antiquary to O'Carroll. Dungal had 
a brother named Snedhus, from whom are Cinell Oonaill 
(Connell), Clan Cearbhaill (O'Carroll), Clan Laoghaire 
(O'Leary), etc. 

of them also monarchs of Ireland : namely, Eideracol, Conaire Mor, 
and Conaire the Second, who were respectively the 95th, 97th, 
and one hundred and eleventh monarchs of Ireland. This king 
Conaire the Second was married to Sarad, sister of Airt- Ean-Fhear, 
his successor in the monarchy : of this marriage was Cairbre Riada, 
from whom were descended the Dalriadiaus, princes in Dalriada in 
Ulster ; and who was the first king of Dalriada in Scotland, of which 
Loara the maternal grandfather of Fergus Mor Mao Earoa— the 
founder of the monarchy in Scotland, was the last. 


100. Snedhus: his son; had five brothers, named— 1. 
Algenan, the 32nd Christian king ; 2. Moalguala, the 33rd 
king; 3. Fogartach; 4. Edersoeol; and 5. Dungus, from 
all of whom are many families. Maolguala here mentioned 
had a son named Maolfogartach, who was the 34th 
Christian king of Munster, who was taken prisoner and 
stoned to death by the Danes, then newly invading Ireland. 

101. Artgal: son of Snedhus. 

102. Lachtna: his son. 

103. Buochan : his son. 

104. Ceallachan (CaUaghan) Cashel : his son ; the 
42nd Christian king of Munster ; reigned ten years ; was 
a great scourge to the Danes, with whom he fought many 
battles, and at length routed them totally out of Munster. 

105. Doucha or Duncan: his son: was the first "Prince 
of Desmond." 

106. Justin or Saorbhreathach : his son: had two brothers 
named Foghartaeh or Maolfoghartach, the 43rd king of 
Munster after Christianity was planted there ; and Miircha, 
ancestor to 0' CaUaghan of Cloonmeen. 

107. Carrthach: his son; Prince of Desmond, and a 
great commander against the Danes; a quo Garthy. This 
Carrthach was ancestor of The MacCarthy. 

108. Muredach (2) : his son. 

109. Cormac Magh Tamhnach: his son; was king of 
Desmond and the first who assumed the sirname " Mac- 
Carthy." His successors were styled "Zings of Desmond," 
down to their submission to King Henry the Second, a.d. 
1186. Sometime before him the ancient division of south 
and north Munster, or Desmond and Thomond, was 
renewed: this family retaining that of kings of south 
Munster or Desmond, and the progeny of Cormac Cass, 

About the beginning of the Christian era, Eochy Abrat Kuadh or 
Eochy of the Ued Brows, of the race of Heber, a man of gigantic 
stature, was king of South Munster ; and Conrigh Mao Daire, one 
of tie chiefs of the Deagas or Ernans, -was prince of North Munster, 
and was succeeded by Carbry Fionn Mor, son of the monarch 
Conaire Mor, as king of Munster. In the second century, Eochy, 
the son of Daire, succeeded as king of both Munsters. In the same 
century, Owen Mor, the celebrated king of Munster, also called 
Eogan Taidleach or Owen the splendid, of the race of Heber and 


second spn of OlioU Olum, that of north Munster or 
Thomond ; to which they were trusting during the reigns 
of fifty kings of this sept over all Munster, from Fiaoha 
Mulleathan down to Mahoon, son of Kennedy, and elder 
brother of Brian Boromha (Boru), the first of the other 
sept that attained to the sovereignty of all Munster ; which 
they kept and maintained always after, and also assumed 
that of the whole monarchy of Ireland for the most part 
of the time tiU the English invasion and their submission 
to King Henry the Second of England. 

110. Dermot of Gill Badhuine: his son. This Dermot 
had a brother called Fiagin-Leicce Lachtna, who was 
styled "King of Cork"; and the first of the family that 
submitted to the English yoke, a.d. 1171. He was slain 
at Cork by Theobald Butler, 1186. 

111. Donal MorNaCurra: his son. This Donal had 
& brother named Cormac-Liathanach, who was ancestor 
of the family of MacCarthy, called Clan Teige Eoe Na 
Scairte: from this Donal Mor the word "Mor" oi Grtat 
was added to the surname of the elder branch of this 
family, to distinguish them from the younger branches 
spread from this ancient stock. 

112. Cormac Fionn: his son. 

113. Donald EoeMacCarthy Mor: lais son. This Donald, 
Prince of Desmond, had four brothers: namely — 1. Donn 
of Inis-Droighen, ancestor of MacCarthy of Acha-Eassy ; 
2. Dermott, from whom are the family called MacDonoiigh 

maternally descended from the Clan-na-Deaga, was a great warrior. 
The Emana or Clan-na-Deaga becoming so powerful at the time, as 
nearly to assume the entire sovereignty of Munster— to the exclusion 
of the race of Heber— they were attacked and conquered by Owen 
Mor, who expelled them from Munster, except such families of them 
as yielded him submission. . 

Conn of the Hundred Battles, having succeeded Cahu- Mor as (the 
110th) monarch of Ireland, had long and fierce contests with the 
abovenamed Owen Mor for the sovereignty of the country; but they 
at length agreed to divide the kingdom between them, by a line 
drawn direct from DubUn to Gal way: the northern half, consistmg 
of the kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, and Connaught, bemg ^onixs 
share, and hence called " Leath Cuinn," signifying Conn's half ; and 
the southern portion, or Kingdoms of Leinster and Munster, being 
aUotted to Owen Mor or Mogha Nuadhad, as he was also caUed, 


and tlie MacCarthys of Duhallow; 3. Donald Fionn, 
ancestor of the family of MacCarthys called Clann Donal 
Fionn of Everaliah; and 4. Doncha An Droman, from 
whom are the family of MacDonneU in Barrotts. 

114. Donald Oge MacCarthy Mor: his son. 

115. Cormac MacCarthy Mor: his son. 

116. Donald MacCarthy Mor: his son. This Donald 
had seven brothers: 1. Dermott Mor of Muscry, ancestor 
of MacCarthy, lords of Muscry and earls of Clan-Carthy; 
2. Feach or Fiacha, ancestor of MacCarthy of Maing; 
8. Donoch, aquo MacCarthy of Ard-Canaghty; 4. Fingin, 
also called Florence ; 5. Owen; 6. Donald Buidhe (Boy) ; 
and 7. Teige of Leamhain. 

117. Teige Na Manistreach: his son. 

118. Donald An Daimh (Daimh: Irish, a poet or learned 
man): his son. 

119. Teige Liath: his son. 

120. Cormac Leithreach : 

121. Donald An Drumin: his son. 

122. Donald: his son. 

123. Elana: his daughter; who married MacCarthy 
Eeagh, who, in her right, became "MacCarthy Mor." 

124. Donald: her son. This Donald married Sara, 
daughter of MaoDonnell, earl of Antrim. 

125. Florence MacCarthy Mor: his son. This Florence 
died without issue male, and was succeeded by his brother 
Charles MacCarthy Mor. 

and hence called " Leath Mogha" or Mor/ha's half; and tliia division 
was long recognised in after times, and is often mentioned in the 
Annala of the Four Masters. But Owen Mor was afterwards defeated 
and forced to fly to Spain, where he lived for some time in exile; 
and there entering into a confederacy with Fraech" his brother-in-law. 
Prince of Castile, they collected a powerful army with which they 
landed in Ireland, to recover the sovereignty from Conn of the 
Hundred Battles; and both armies fought a tremendous battle on 
the plam of Moylena, in which Conn was victorious, and Owen Mor 
was slam. According to O'Flaherty, this battle was fought in the 
ancient barony of Fircall, in the King's County; and there are still 
to be seen there two hillocks or sepulchral mounds, in one of which 
was buried the body of Owen, and in the other that of Fraech the 
Spaniard, who was slso slain in that battle. ' 

Olioll Olum, son of Owen Mor, having refused to grant to Lugaid 



2. The Stem of the O'Bkien Family; 

Wlio are descended from Cormac Cass, the second son of 
Olioll Olum, King of Munster, No 84 on the foregoing 
(MacCarthy) stem. 

84. Olioll Olum. 


85. Eugenius Magnus, 

85. Kian. 
Ancestor of MacCarthy. 85. Cormac Cass: son of Olioll Olum. 
86. Mogha Corb: his son. 

87. Eear Corb: his son. 

88. jEneas Tireach: his son. 

89. Lugadius Meann: his son. 

90. Conall Each Luath : his son. 

91. Cass : his son ; a quo the name " Dalcassians." 

92. Bladd : Ms son. 

93. Carthann Fionn : his son ; from whose brother, 
Brennan Ban, are descended Brennan, Muldowney, Glinn 
or Glynn, Maglin, Magan, etc. 

94. Eocha Ball-dearg : his son. 

95. Conall : his son. 

96. Aodh Caomh : his son. 

97. Cathal : his son. 

98. Turlogh : his son. 

99. Mathun : his son ; from whose brother Algenan are 
descended O'Meara, Seanlan, and MacArthur. 

or Luy Mac Con the portion of Munster to which he was by a former 
arrangement entitled, Luy contended with Olioll ; who defeated him 
and Nemeth, prince of the Ernans, in a great battle ; after which 
Olioll became sole King of Munster. 

Lugaid Mac Con having been expelled from Munster by Olioll 
Olum, and banished to Britain, projected an invasion of Ireland ; 
and, assisted by the Britons and other foreign auxiliaries under the 
command of Beine Briot or Beine the Briton, who was one of the 
most famous warriors of that age, and son of the King of Wales, 
landed a powerful army in Galway. Olioll's cause was espoused by 
his brother-in-law Airt-Ean-Fhear (then monarch of Irelajid, and the 


100. Anluan: his son, 

101. Core: his son. 

102. Lachtna: his son. 

103. Lorcan (called also Fingin): his son. 

104. Kennedy: his son; from whose three brothers 
Cosgrach, Lonergan, and Congal are descended Cosgrave, 
Lonergan, Nevin, Hogan, etc. 

105. Brian Boromha (Boru): his son; the 175th 
monarch of Ireland; slain on Good Friday, a.d. 1014; 
from him the sirname O'Brien. 

106. Teige : his son. 

107. Turlogh: his son; the 178th monarch. 

108. Dermot: his son. 

109. Turlogh : his son. 

110. Donal Cor Daniel) Mor: his son; was the last 
king of North Munster, or Thomond. 

111. Donoch Cairbreach O'Brien: his son; was the 
first of the family who assumed this sirname, and the 
title of "Prince." 

112. Conor Na-Siuddine : his son. 

113. Teige Coal-Uisce : his son. 

114. Turlogh Mor : his son. 

115. Murtagh : his son. 

116. Mathun or Mathew : his son. 

117. Bryan-Catha-an-Aonaigh : his son. 

118. Turlogh: his son. 

119. Teige : his son. 

uncle of Luy Mac Con), and by Forga, king of ConuaugM, who 
collected their forces and fought a great battle with the foreigners, 
in the county of Galway, where the latter were Yictorious ; and 
after which Luy Mac Con became monarch of Ireland, leaving 
Munster to hia stepfather OlioU. In this battle the monarch 
Airt was slain ; and his head cut off near a brook or pool, 
which, from that circumstance, was called "Turloch Airt" — situated 
between Moyvola and Killoman in the county of Galway. According 
to Connellan, the Irish kerns and galloglasses generally decapitated 
the chiefs they had slain in battle, as they considered no man 
actually dead until his head was cut off. 

OlioU Olum had three sons, named Eugenius or Owen, Cormac 
Cass, and Cian or Kian ; and by his will he made a regulation that 
the kingdom of Munster should be ruled alternately by one of the 
posterity of Eugenius and Cormac Cass. From Cormac Casa, king of 


120. Turlogh : his son. 

121. Conor: his son ;- whose brother was first created 
Baron of InchiquLa and Earl of Thomond. 

122. Donoch : his son. 

123. Conor or Cornelius : his son. 

124. Donoch (or Donough) : his son. 

125. Henry : his son ; left no male issue. Henry, son 
of his brother Bryan, succeeded him. 

126. Henry : his nephew. 

127. Henry : his son. 

128. Henry O'Brien: his son; who was the seventh 
Earl of Thomond. 


3. — The Stem or the 0' Sullivan Family; 

Who are descended from Fingin, son of Aodh (or Hugh) 
Dubh, King of Munster, No. 94 on the MacCarthy Stem 
(see ante). 

94. Aodh Dubh. 

1 1 2 

95. FalbheFlann. 95. Fingin. 

95. FingiQ : son of Aodh Dubh. 

96. Seachnasagh : his son. 

Munster, or, according to others, ids descendant Cais, who was king 
of Thomond in the fifth century, their posterity got the name ' ' Dal 
Cais," Anglicised DcUcassians ; the various families of whom were 
located chiefly in that part of Thomond which forms the present 
county of Clare ; and the ruling famOy of them were the O'Briens, 
kings of Thomond. From Owen, another of the sous of Olioll Olum, 
were descended the Eoganachts or Eugenians, who were, alternately 
with the Dalcassians, kings of Munster from the third to the eleventh 
century. The Eugenians possessed Desmond or South Munster. 
The head family of the Eugenians were the MacCarthys, princes of 
Desmond. From Cian, the third son of OlioU Olum, were descended 
the Clan Kian, who were located chiefly in Ormond ; and the chief 
of which families were the O'CarroUs, princes of Ely. In the latter 
part of the third century, Lugaid Meann, king of Munster, of the 
race of the Dalcassians, took from Connaught the territory afterwards 


97. Fiachra An Gaircedh : his son. 

98. Flann Noba : his son. 

99. Dubhinraght : his son. 

100. Morogh : his son. 

101. Moghtigern : his son. 

102. Maolura : his son. 

108. Bulevan : his son ; the ancestor of, and a quo the' 
sirnames, O'Sullivan and Sullivan. 

104. Lorean : his son. 

105. Buoa-Atha-Cru : his son. 

106. Hugh : his son. 

107. Cahal : his son. 

108. Buoa O'Sullivan : his son ; and the first who 
assumed this sirname. 

109. MacGrath : his son. 

110. Donald : his son. 

111. Gilmochud: his son. 

This Gilmochud was ancestor of " O'Sullivan Mor ;" 
and his brother, Philip O'Sullivan, was ancestor of 
" O'Sullivan Beara." Philip's son, Annay, had two sons, 

called the county of Clare, and added it to Thomond. In the 
seventh century, Guaire, the 12th Christian king of Connaught, 
having collected a great army, marched into Thomond, for the pur- 
pose of recovering the territory of Clare, which had been taken from 
Connaught ; and fought a great battle against the Munater forces 
commanded by Falbhe Flann and Dioma, Kings of Munster, but the 
Conacians were defeated. In the third century Fiacha MuiUeathan, 
King of Munater, and the grandson of Olioll Olum, had his residence 
at Rath-Naoi, near Cashel, now called KnockrafFan ; and this Fiacha 
granted to Cairbre Muac, son of the King of Meath, and a famous 
bard, as a reward for his poems, an extensive territory, called from 
him "Muscrith Tire," comprising the present baronies of Ormond, 
in the county of Tipperary. The Kings of Desmond, of the Eoghan 
or Eugenian race, were also styled Kings of Cashel, as they chiefly 
resided there. The name "Cashel," in Irish "Caisiol" or 
' ' Caiseal, " signifies a stone fortress or castle ; or, according to others, 
a rock ; or, as stated in Cormac's Glossary, is derived from "Cioa," 
rent, and " ail," a rock, signifying the roch of tribute : as the people 
paid tribute there to their kings. This fortress of the kings was 
situated on the great rock of Cashel ; and Core, king of Munster, of 
the Owen Mor or Eugenian race, in the fourth century, was the 
first who made Cashel a royal residence. This Core, residing some- 
time in Albany, married Mongfinna, daughter of Feredach, King of 
the Picts ; and the princes descended from this marriage were, 


named Awly and Gilmoehud : in that Awly continued the 
lineage of O' Sullivan Beara ; and his brother Gilmochud 
was the ancestor of " O'Sullivan Moal." 

112. Dunlong : his son, 

113. Murtagh : his son. 

114. Bernard : his son. 

115. Buochan : his son. 

116. Dunlong : his son. 

117. Eoger : his son. 

118. Conor O'Sullivan Mor: his son. 

ni.— THE HOUSE OF HEBEE— Continued. 

4 — The Stem op the O'Caeeoll (Ely) Family ; 

Who are descended from Kian, the third son of Olioll 
Olum, King of Munster, No. 84 on the MacCarthy Stem 
(see ante). 

84. Olioll Olum. 

1 I 2 I 3 

85. Eugenius. 85. Cormac Cass. 85. Kian 

85. Kian : third son of Olioll. 

86. Teige : his son. 

87. Conla : his son. 

88. lomchadh : his son. 
This lomchadh had a brother named Knnachta, who 

was ancestor of 0' Meagher. 

according to O'Flaherty, progenitors of the earls of Lennox and 
Marr, who were " Great Stewards" of Scotland ; a quo the sirname 
Stmart or Stuart. iEneas or Aongus, who was the first Christian 
King of Munster, was the grandson of this Core. In the ninth and 
tenth centuries the Danes overran different parts of Ireland, and 
made settlements, particularly in the sea-ports of Dublin, Wexford, 
Waterford, Limerick, and Cork. In the middle of the tenth century, 
Callaghan, King of Cashel, of theEugenian race, a celebrated warrior, 
carried on long and fierce contests with the Danes ; whom he defeated 
in many battles. CaUaghan died a,i>. 952. Lorcan was king of the 
Dalcassians in the tenth century ; and, dying a.d. 942, was succeeded 
by his son Cineidh (or Kennedy), as King of Thomond ; who, dymg 


89. lomdhuin : his son ; from whose brother Feig the 
O'Flanagans of Ely and the O'Conors of Ciannacht (or 
Keenaght) are descended. 

90. Earc : his son. 

91. Eile-Eigh-Dhearg : his son. 

From this Eile-Eigh Dhearg (or Eile, the Red King) the 
territories possessed in Leinster by this sept were called 
" Eile" or "Duiche Eile," i.e. the estate of Ely, whereof 
his posterity were styled " Kings" ; there being no other 
title of honour then used in Ireland, till the English in- 
troduced that of "duke," "marquis," "earl," "viscount," 
and "baron." 

92. Druadh : his son. 

93. Amruadh: his son; who was ancestor of 0' Corcoran 
(now Corcoran). 

94. Meachar : his son. 

95. Tal : his son. 

96. Teige : his son. 

97. Inne : his son. 

98. Lonan : his son. 

99. Altin : his son. 

100. Ultan : his son. 

101. Knavin : his son. 

102. Dubhlaoy : his son. 

103. Hugh : his son. 

104. OearbheoU : his son. 

From this Cearbheoil his posterity took the sirname 
0' Carroll. 

105. Monach O'CarroU : his son ; was the first of this 
family who assumed this sirname. 

A.B. 950, was succeeded by his son Mathoon or Mahouu, wlio became 
King of Munster. Mahoun, having been slain by one of the Irish 
chiefs of Thomond, named Donovan, was succeeded as King of 
Munster by his brother Brian, afterwards known as the celebrated 
Brian Boru. 

The place of inauguration of the O'Briens, as kings and princes of 
Thomond, was at Magh Adhair, a plain in the barony of Tullagh, . 
county of Clare ; and their battle-cry was " Lamhlaidir An 
Uachdar," which means The Strong Hand Uppermost. On their 
-armorial ensigns were three lions rampant, which were also on the 
standards of Brian Boru, borne by the DaJoassians at the battle of 
•Clontarf. In modern times the O'Briens were marquises of Thomond, 


106. Cu-Coirneach (also called Cu-Boirne) : his son. 

107. Eiog-Bhradan : his son. 

108. Donald : his son. 

109. Fionn : his son. 

110. Maolroona : his son. 

111. Donoch : his son. 

112. GoU-an-Bheolaigh : his son. 

113. Fionn (2) : his son. 

114. Teige : his son. 

115. Maolroona (2) : his son. 

116. Eoger : his son. 

117. Teige (called Teige of Callen) : his son. 

118. Teige Aibhle-Magh-Glaisse : his son. 

119. Maolroona (3)-na-Feisoige : his son. 

This Mulroona was the ancestor of Birrae (from whom, 
no doubt, the town of " Birr " was so called). 

120. John : his son. 

121. Maolroona (4) : his son ; died, A.D. 1532. 

122. Ferdinando : his son. 

123. Teige Caoch : his son. 

This Teige was created Lord Baron of Ely, A.D. 1552. 

124. Eoger : his son. 

125. Maolroona (5) : his son. 

126. Charles O'CarroU : his son. 

earls of Inchiquin, and barons of Barren, in the county of Clare ; and 
many of them were distinguished commanders in the Irish Brigades 
in the service of France, under the titles of earls of Clare and counts 
of Thomond. 

Brian is represented by our old annalists as a man of fine figure, large 
stature, of great strength of body, and undaunted valour ; and has 
been always justly celebrated as one of the greatest of the Irish 
Monarchs, equally conspicuous for his mental endowments and 
physical energies ; a man of great intellectual powers, sagacity, and 
bravery; a warrior and legislator; and, at the same time, distinguished 
for his munificence, piety, and patronage of learned men : thus com- 
bining all the elements of a great character, and equally eminent 
in the arts of war and peace ; a hero and patriot, whose memory will 
always remain famous as one of the foremost of the Irish kings, in 
wisdom and valour. Brian lived at his palace of Cean Cora (Kincora), 
in a style of regal splendour and magnificence, unequalled by any of 
the Irish kings since the days of Cormac Mac Art, the celebrated 
monarch of Ireland in the third century— the glories of whose palace 
at Tara were for many ages the theme of the Irish bards. — 
Connellan's Four Masters. 



[part I. 


The names of some of the leading families descended 
from Heber, Ir, and Heremon — the sons of Milesius of 
Spain who left any issue — are collected in these pages, 
and spelled as they were in their transition from the Irish 
to the Enghsh language. Some of those names are stiU 
spelled almost the same as they were then, whUe others 
of them have been more or less modernized; the word. 
Italicised (in parenthesis) after any of the names is the 
modern form of that simame. 

The following were among the leading families descended 
from Heber : — 

Ahem [Ahearn). 

BeoUan [Boland). 


Brenan (Brennan). 

Bryan {Brien, Bernard). 

Burn (Burtis). 

Cahal (Cahil). 

Callachan {Callaghan), 

Carbry (Carbery). 






Conang (Ounning). 

Conell {Connell). 

Conry (Conroy). 

Cooley (Cooling). 

Corcran (Corcoran). 

Cormac (Cormack). 


Culen (CuUen,CoUen, Collins) 

Culenan (CuUinan). 


Doverchon (Durkin). 

Evin (Evans). 


Glassin (Glashan). 
Glinn (Glynn). 

Iffernan (Heffernan). 

Kellechar (Kelleher). 
Knavin (Nevin). 

Lidhain (Liddane). 
Liver (Lefroy). 
Lonargan (Lonergan). 

MacConmara (MacNamara). 
• Magan. 

Meachar (Meagher). 
Morea (Moray, Murray). 
Muldowney (Molony). 
O'Bryan {O'Brien). 

«HAP. v.] 




O'CarroU "Ely." 

O'Conor "Keenagitt." 

O'Deadha (O'Dea). 

O'Donocho (O'Donohoe). 


OTinin (O'Finan). 



O'Gormogan (0' Gorman). 



O'Hugh {O'Hea, O'Hayes). 



O'Sulevan (C Sullivan). 
Tuama (Twomey). 


Ithe or Ithius was the son of Breoghan, king of Spain, 
and was uncle of Milesius ; his descendants mostly settled 
in Munster. Among the leading families descended from 
him are the following : — 






MacAllim {Macallum). 


O'Curnan {O'Curran). 






O'Baire {0' Barry). 


O'Plynn (of Ards). 






C Coffey. 




34. Breoghan or Brigus, king of Spain. 
85. Ith or Ithius : his son ; the first Milesian discoverer 
■of Ireland; and uncle of Milesius. 

36. Lugadius : his son ; a quo the Ithians were called 

37. Mai : hia son. 


38. Edaman: his son. 

39. Logha : his son. 

40. Mathsin: his son. 

41. Sin: his son. 

42. Gossaman: his son. 

43. Adaman: his son. 

44. Heremon: his son. 

45. Logha Feile: his son. 

46. Lachtnan: his son. 

47. Nuaclad Argni: his son. 

48. Deargthine: his son. 

49. DeaghaDerg: his son. 

50. Deagha Amhra : his son. 
61. Ferulnigh : his son. 

52. Sithbolg : his son. 

53. Daire (or Darius) Diomcha : his son. 

54. Eaeh-Bolg : his son. 

Each-Bolg had a brother named Luy, who was the an- 
cestor of Clancy of Dartry, in Leitrim ; and Macaulay of 
Cahy, in Westmeath. 

55. Ferulnigh (2) : his son. 

56. Daire (2) : his son; from whom the Ithians were 
called Darinians. 

57. Luy : his son. 

58. Mae Niadh : his son. 

Sabina, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, was 
married to this Mac Niadh [Nia] , by whom she had a son 
named Luy Mac Con {Cu; Irish, gen. cun, coin, or cuin, 
a greyhound, also a chmnpion ; Gr. Ku-on), to whom the 
soubriquet " Mac Con" was affixed, because in his youth 
he was wont to suckle the teat of a favourite greyhound. 
After Mac Niadh's death, Sabina got married to Olioll 
Olum, king of Munster, as already mentioned. 

59. Luy Mac Con: his son; the 118th monarch of 

This Luy Mac Con had five sons, from whom the sir- 
names C>'(7o2fe2/, O'DriscoU, 0'Baire,0'Leary, 0'Curnan,o{ 
Leitrim ; O'Flynn, of Ards ; MacAlUm (or Macalhmi), in 
Scotland; O'Hallinan, O'Cowhey, O' Crowley; 0'Cormack,in 
Munster, etc. 



Since the Advent of St. Patrich to Ireland, 

A.D. 432. 

1. .SIneas, the first Chiistian Ring of that kingdom. 

2. Felim, his son. 

3. Eocha or Achaius, brother of Felim. 

4. Crimthann, son of Eocha. 

5. Fergus Scannal, son of Crimthann. 

6. Comghall. 

7. Cormac, son of AlioU Mac Daire Cearb. 

8. Carbre Crom, son of Crimthann. 

9. Aodh [ee] Ban (Ban: Irish, white or fair). 

10. Fingin: his son. 

11. Garbith. 

12. Awly. 

13. Felim, son of Tigernach ; died in the reign of the 
140th monarch, Aidus (2). 

14. Fingin, son of Aodh Dubh MacCrimthann. 

15. Cathal or Charles, son of Aodh Dubh {Duff). 

16. Falbhe Flann, son of Aodh Duff. 

17. Aodh Binnean ; died in the reign of the 145th 
monarch, Sumneus Meann. 

18. Cuan, son of Awly. 

19. Maonach, son of Fingin. 

20. Cu-Ceannmaghair, son of Cathal. 

21. Colga, son of Falbhe Flann. 

22. Pionnghuin, son of Cu-Ceann-bhagar. 

23. Eadersceol, son of Maolumha. 

24. Cormac, son of AlioU. 

25. Cathusach, son of Eadersceol. 

26. Cathal, son of Fionnghuin ; contemporary with the 
160th monarch, Aidus (5) Ollann. 

27. Maoldun, son of Aodh Binnean. 

28. Airtre, son of Cathal ; in his time the Danes first 
came to Ireland. 

29. Tuathal, son of Airtre. 

30. Felim, son of Crimthann; contemporary with the 
165th monarch, Conquovarus (2) ; died, a.d. 845. 


31. Olchobhar, son of Keneth Abatt of Imleach. 

32. Algerian, sonofDungal. 

33. Maolghuala : his brother ; was stoned to death by 
the Danes. 

84. Maolfogartach : his son. 

85. Ceannfaola, son of Mochtigern ; was contemporary 
with the 168th monarch, Aidus (7) Finnliath. 

86. Doncha, son of Dubhdavaren. 

87. Dubhiachta, son of Maolgula. 

38. Fingin (Fionnghuin) : his son. 

39. Cormac, son of Culenan ; was King and Bishop of 
Munster ; bom in the reign of the 166th monarch, Niallus 
(3) Caille ; began his own reign (of seven years) in the 
reign of the 169th monarch, Flann Sionna ; and was slain 
A.D. 905. 

40. Flahertach, son of Inmanen. 

41. Fingin, who was also called Lorcan. 

42. Ceallachan Cashel : a quo 0' Callaghan, 

43. Maolfoghartach, son of Doncha. 

44. Dubhdavoren. 

45. Fergraith, son of Algenan. 

46. Mathoon (Mahon), son of Kennedy (or Kenneth). 

47. Maolmorra Mac Brain. 

48. Brian Boromha (Boru), the 175th monarch; reigned 
sixty-six years ; was slain in his BBth year of age at the 
famous battle of Clontarf, a.d. 1014. 

49. Doncha, son of Brian Boru, No. 176 on the " Eoll 
of the Monarchs of Ireland " ; died at Eome, a.d. 1074, 

50. Dungal, son of Maolfoghartach. 

51. Turloch O'Brien, the 178th monarch. 

52. Murcha O'Brien, the 180th monarch, 
( 58. Donoch MacOarthy, in Desmond. 

} 54. Conor O'Brien, in Thomond. 

( 55. Dermot MacOarthy, in Desmond. 

\ 56. Teige O'Brien, in Thomond. 

j 57. Dermot MacOarthy Mor, in Desmond. 

I 58. Donal (or Daniel) Mor O'Brien, in Thomond. 

Both of these last two Kings (Nos. 57 and 58) of Mun- 
ster submitted to King Henry the Second, a.d. 1172. 

The following Table gives the number of the Irish and 

■CHAP. VI.] 



Scotch Kings, and the average number of years that each 
King reigned, since the advent of St. Patrick* to Ireland : 

Name of Kingdom. 


of Kings. 

Average Reign 




14 years. 
12 „ 



15 „ 



12 „ 

Ossory 22 
Scotland, downto Malcolm III. 53 
Ulster 54 

27 „ 
10 „ 
13 „ 

The average reign of the foregoing Kings illustrates the 
fact, that to have attained to the royal dignity in the 
turbulent times of the past did not conduce to ensure 

*St. Patrick: "Saint Patrick first communicated to the Irish 
people the Soman alphabet and Latin language, but the Irish had 
their own Celtic alphabet and a written language many centuries 
before the arrival of St. Patrick ; though it has been absurdly 
asserted by some shallow antiquarians, that the Irish had no use of 
letters before his time. " — Coi\nellan's Four Masters. 




1. — The Stem op the O'Faerell Family. 

Ib, or Hyrus, was the fifth son of Milesius, but the second 
of those who left any issue. From him the following 
ancient families are descended : Guiimess, MacGuinness, 
and Magenis ; O'Conor " Kerry," O'Farrell, and 0' Moore, 

36. Milesius. 


|1 |2 |3 

37. Heber Fionn. 37. Ir. 37. Heremon. 

(See the Stem 38. Heber Don : his son. 
of the 39. Hebric : his son. 

MacCarthy 40. Artreus : his son. 
Family.) 41. Arturus; his son. 

42. Sednaus : his son; 23rd monarch. 

43. Fiachus Fionn Scothach : his son ; 
was the 24tb monarch. 

44. Ollamh Fodlah [Ollav Fola] : his son. 
This Ollav was the 27th monarch of Ireland ; began to 

reign before Christ 1317, and reigned forty years. " Ollav 
Fola," as the name implies, was so called from his great 
Zgarm'jfiy and deep knowledge in the sciences, and instructing 
his people ; his first name was Grimthann. It was this 
monarch who first instituted Triennial Parliaments at 
Tara, which met about the time called " Samhuin" (or 
the first of November) for making laws, reforming general 
abuses, revising antiquities, genealogies, and chronicles, 
and purging them from all corruption and falsehood that 
might have been foisted into them since the last meeting. 


This Triennial Convention was called " Feis Teamhrach," 
whicli signifies The Parliament of Tara ; and was strictly 
observed from the first institution thereof by Ollav Fola, 
for upwards of 2,500 years, up to the submission by the 
Irish to King Henry the Second. 

According to some chroniclers, "Ulster" was first called 
" Ula" from Ollav Fola. His posterity held and main- 
tained themselves in the monarchy of Ireland for two 
hundred and fifty years, without any of the two other septs 
■of Heber and Heremon intercepting them. 

45. Carbry : his son. 

46. Lauradeus : his son. 

47. Brathaus : his son. 

48. Finnius : his son ; the 42nd monarch. 

49. (Longimanus) Siorlamh : his son ; 49th monarch. 
This monarch's hands were very long : hence, his name 

^'Siorlamh," Latinized "Longimanus," ox long -handed ; 
he was slain b.c. 855. 

50. Argetmarus : his son ; 58th monarch. 

51. Fomarius : his son. 

52. Dubius : his son. 

53. Eossius : his son. 

54. Strubius : his son. 

55. Indercus : his son. 

56. Glassius : his son. 

57. Carbreus : his son. 

58. Feberdil : his son. 

59. Folgenus : his son. 

60. Dubius : his son. 

61. Sithricus : his son. 

62. Eodricus Magnus (Eory Mor) : his son. 

This Eory was the 86th monarch of Ireland ; and died, 
before Christ 218 years. From him the " Clan-na-Eory" 
were so called. 

63. Eossius (2) : his son. 

This Eossius had a brother named Kionga or Aongus, 
from whom were descended Guinness, MacGuinness, and 

64. Fergus Mor (or Fergusius Magnus) : his son. This 
Fergus Mor (commonly called "Fergus Mac Eoy," or 
■" Fergus Mac Eoich," from Eocha, his mother, who was 


of the sept of Ithe or Ithius) was king of Ulster for three- 
(some say seven) years, and then forced from the sove- 
reignty by his cousin Conor MacNessa (so called from 
Neass, his mother), son of Fachna Fathach, the 92nd 
monarch of Ireland ; whereupon he retired into Con- 
naught, where he was received by Maud, the queen of 
that province ; and, sustained by her, was in continual 
war with Conor Mac Nessa during their lives. By Maud, 
Fergus had three sons, commonly named in the following 
order : Ciar or Kiar, Core, and Conmac ; but, according- 
to the Irish genealogists, they are named in the following 
order, namely — Conmac, Kiar, and Core. This Kiar was 
the ancestor of the people called " Ciariaidhe," after whom 
the five territories they possessed took the name of Kerry: 
the chiefs of which were styled kings and princes until 
their submission to the Crown of England. Of this sept 
the O'Conor " Kerry" was the leading family. 

65. Conmac : son of Fergusius Magnus. 

Conmac was the eldest of the three sons of Fergus Mac 
Eoy by Maud, queen of Connaught ; whose proportion of 
his mother's inheritance and what he acquired by his own 
prowess and valour, was called, after his name, " Con- 
macne" (signifying the poaterity of Conmac); whereof there 
were five: namely — 1, Conmaene Eein; 2, Conmacne 
Mara (now Connemara) ; 3, Conmacne Cuile-tola ; 4, 
Conmacne Cuile ; and 5, Conmacne Cinel-Dubhain ; con- 
taining all that (territory) which we now call the county of 
Longford, a large part of the counties of Leitrim, Sligo, 
and Galway, and Conmacne Beicce, now called ' 'Cuircneach" 
or Billons Country, in the county of Westmeath : of aU 
of which this Conmac's posterity were styled kings, till 
their submission to the Crown of England. 

66. Moghatoi: his son. 

67. Messaman: his son. 

68. Mochta: his son. 

69. Ketghvin: his son. 

70. Enna: his son. 

71. Gobhre: his son. 

72. luchar: his son, 

73. Boghaman: his son. 

74. Alta: his son. 


75. Taire : his son. 

76. Teagha: his son. 

77. Ethinon: his son. 

78. Orbsenmar: his son; after whose death a great 
Lake or Loch broke out in the place where he dwelt ; 
which, from him, is ever since called "LochOrbsen," now 
Lough Comb. 

79. Conmacne: his son. 

Some Irish annalists are of opinion that the territories 
called "Conmacne," above mentioned, are so called after 
this Conmacne, and not from Conmac, No. 65 on this 

80. Lughach : his son. 

81. Beibhdhe: his son. 

82. Bearra : his son; a quo O'Bearra or Berry. 

83. Uisle: his son. 

84. Eachdach: his son. 

85. Fomeart: his son. 

86. Neart: his son. 

87. Meadhrua: his son. 

88. Dubh: his son. 

89. Earcoll: his son. 

90. Earc: his son. 

91. Eachdach (2): his son. 

92. Cuscrach: his son. 

93. Finnfhear: his son. 

94. Fionnlogh: his son. 

95. Onchu: his son. 

96. Neidhe: his son. 

97. Finghin: his son. 

98. Fiobrann : his son. 

This Fiobrann had four brothers, from three of whom 
the following families are descended: — 1, Maoldabhreac 
(whose son Siriden was ancestor of Sheridan), ancestor of 
O'Ciarrovan (Eirwan), O'Ciaragan {Kerrigan), etc. ; 2, 
Mochan, who was ancestor of O'Moran ; and 3, Einnall, 
who was ancestor of O'Daly of Conmacne. 

99. Mairne : his son. 

From this Maime's brothers are descended O'Canavan, 
O'Birren or Birney and MacBimey, O'Kenny, O'Branagan, 
Martin, Bredin, etc. 


100. Croman: his son. 

101. Emhin: his son. 

From, this Emhin's three brothers are descended Reynolds, 
Shanly, Mulvy, Gaynor, O'Quinn, of Muintir Gilgan — a 
territory in the county of Longford; O'Mulkeeran, etc. 

102. Angall: his son. 

From this Angall that part of Conmacne now known as 
the county of Longford, andpart of the county of Westmeath, 
was called the "Upper Anghaile" or Upper Annaly, and 
the adjacent part of the county of Leitrim was called the 
" Lower Anghaile," ox Lower Annaly; and his posterity, 
after they lost the title of kings of Conmacne, which his 
ancestors enjoyed, were, upon their submission to the 
Crown of England, styled lords of both Anghalies or 

103. Braon: his son. 

This Braon's brother, Fingin, was ancestor of O'Finnegan, 
O'Fagan, etc. 

104. Congal: his son. 

105. Fergal: his son. 

This Fergal was king of Conmacne : and was slain 
fighting on the side of Brian Boru, at the battle of Glontarf, 
A.D. 1014. He was the ancestor of O'Farrell. 

106. Eocha: his son. 

107. Seanloch: his son. 

108. Braon (2) : his son. 

This Braon was the first of the family that assumed 
the sirname "O'Farrell." 

109. GioUa losa (Gillacius) : his son. This name has 
also been Latinized " Gelasius ;" a quo Giles. 

110. Moroch: his son. 

111. Daniel or Donal: his son. 

112. Awly : his son. 

113. Hugh: his son. 

114. Gillacius (2) : his son. 

115. Moroch (2): his son. 

116. Cathal or Charles: his son. 

117. Thomas: his son. 

118. Charles (2): his son. 

119. Eoger: his son. 

120. Bryan Buidhe [Boy] : his son. 


121. Pachna: his son. 

122. Iriel: his son. 

123. James: his son. 

124. Eoger: his son. 

125. Francis: his son. 

126. Eoger: his son. 

127. James OTarrell: his son. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF IR.— Continued : 

2. — The Stem of the Guinness Family. 

The 86th monarch of Ireland was Kodricus Magnus (or 
Eory Mor), No. 62 on the foregoing Stem, who died before 
Christ 218 years, and from whom were descended the 
" Clan-na-Eory." That monarch had two sons named 
Eossius andKionga; from Eossius descended the O'Farrell 
family ; and the following are the issue and progeny of 
Kionga, from whom were descended Guinness, MacOuinness, 
and ilagenis. 

62. Eodricus Magnus. 

|1 : 

63. Eossius. 

63. Kionga : son of Eodricus. 
See the Stem of the 64. Cappa: his son. 

O'Farrell FamUy. 65. FachnausFathach: hisson. 

This Fachnaus Fathach was the 92nd monarch of 

66. Cass : his son ; and brother of Conor MacNessa, who 
■deposed Fergus Mac Eoy from the sovereignty of Ulster. 

67. Amergin: his son. 

68. Conall Ceamaeh : his son ; the famous warrior, so 
often mentioned in the Irish Annals as connected with the 
Eed Branch Knights of Ulster. 

69. Iriel Glunmar : his son. This Iriel had a brother 
named Laoiseach Lannmor, who was also called Lysach, 


and wto was the ancestor of O'Moira or O'Moore (now 

70. Fiacha Fionn Amhnais : Iriel's son ; who, of the- 
line of Ir, was the 24th King of Ulster, in Emania. 

71. Muredach Fionn: his son. 

72. Fionnchadh : his son. 

73. Connchadh or Donnchadh: his son. 

74. Gialchad: his son. 

75. Cathbha: his son. 

76. Eochradh: his son. 

77. Mai; his son; the 107th monarch. 

78. Cearb: his son. 

79. Breasal Breac: his son. 

80. Tiobraid Tireach: his son. 

Tiobraid Tireach was the 30th King of Ulster, of the- 
Irianline; and was contemporary with Conn of the Hundred 
Battles, the 110th monarch of Ireland, whom he assassi- 
nated A.D. 157. 

81. Fergus Galeang or Foghlas: his son. 

82. Aongus Gobhneann: his son; a quo Gowan and 

83. Fiacha Araidhe : his son. 

From this Fiacha Araidhe, who was the 37th King of 
Ulster oftheIrianline,theancient territory of "Dalaradia" 
(sometimes called "Ulidia," comprising the present county 
of Down and part of the county Antrim) was so named. 

84. Cass : his son. 

This Cass had a brother named Sodhan, who wa& 
ancestor of O'Manning, MacWard, and O'Dugan, etc., now 
Mantling, Ward, Dugan, etc. 

85. Felim: his son. 

86. lomchadh: his son. 

87. Eosse: his son. 

88. Luigheach: his son. 

89. Eocha Cobha: his son. 

From this "Eocha," Iveagh, a territory in the County 
of Down, derived its name ; and from that territory his 
descendants in after ages took their title as lords of Iveagh. 

90. Crunnbhadroi : his son. 

91. Caolbha: his son; the (123rd and) last monarch of 
the Irian race. 


92. Connall: his son. 

This ConnaU's brother, Saraan, was the last king of 
Ulster, of the Irian line ; in his time the Three CoUas con- 
quered Ulster. 

93. Fotha: his son. 

94. Maine: his son. 

95. Saraan: his son. 

96. Mongan: his son. 

97. Aidan (also called Foghartach): his son; who was 
ancestor of MacArtan. 

98. Breassal Beldearg: his son. 

99. Connor: his son. 

100. Daniel: his son. 

101. Blathmac: his son. 

102. Laignan: his son. 

103. Edeadha: his son. 

104. Aongus or ^neas Mor: his son; who was the- 
ancestor of Ouinness, MacGuinjiess, and Mayenis. 

105. Aongus Oge; his son. 

106. Eachmile [oghmeel] : his son. 

107. Aongus Guinness : his son ; was the first of the- 
family who assumed this sirname. 

108. Eachmile (2): his son. 

109. Flahertaeh: his son. 

110. Hugh Eathmhar: his son. 

111. Dubhinse: his son. 

112. Gilcolm: his son. 

113. Eoger or Eory: his son. 

114. Eachmile (8): his son. 

115. Murtogh Eiaganach : his son. 

1 16. Arthur or Art-na-Madhman : his son. 

117. Hugh: his son. 
lis. Art: his son. 

119. Hugh (2) : his son. 

120. Daniel: his son. 

121. Daniel Oge: his son. 

122. Hugh (called Ferdinand) : his son. 

123. Art Eoe : his son. 

124. Hugh (4) Oge : his son. 

125. Arthur (luinness: his son. 


I.— THE HOUfcJE OP IR— Continued. 

3. — The Stem of the O'Conor (Kerry) Family; 

Who are descended from Fergusius Magnus, grandson of 
Eodricus Magnus, the 86tli monarch of Ireland, and No. 
62 on the stem of the O'Farrell family. This Fergus Mor, 
commonly known as "Fergus MacEoy," was forced from 
the sovereignty of Ulster by his cousin Connor MacNessa ; 
and retired to Connaught, where he was favourably 
received by Maud, the famous queen of that Province. 
The three sons of Maud by Fergus were Conmac, Kiar, 
and Core: this Kiar was the ancestor of O'Conor "Kerry," 
of which ancient family the following is the stem; but I 
am unable to give the sirnames derived from any of the 
names except Nos. 89 and 103: 

64. Fergusius Magnus. 

65. Conmac. 65. Kiar. 

65. Core. 
66. Mogha Taoy : his son. 
See the O'Farrell Stem. 67. Astaman : his son. 
68. Ulacht : his son. 

69. Lamhny : his son. 

70. Eunna : his son. 

71. Dealbhna : his son. 

72. Fionn Bhan : his son. 

73. Eochaman : his son. 

74. Aithrea : his son. 

75. Eochoman (2) : his son. 

76. Orbsenmar : his son. 

77. Mogha- Airt: his son. 

78. Saul: his son. 

79. Messincon : his son. 

80. Uilin : his son. 

81. lomghon : his son. 

82. Hebric; his son. 

83. lomcha : his son. 

84. Forba : his son. 


85. Eethach : Lis son. 

86. Senach : his son. 

87. Durrthacht: his son. 

88. Hugh Logha : his son. 

89. Multuile : his son ; a quo Multully and Tally. 

90. Bachtbran: his son. 

91. Cobthaoh : his son. 

92. Colman: his son. 

93. Flaith Fearna: his son. 

94. Melachlin: hisson. 

95. Fionn: his son. 

96. Conor : his son. 

97. Dermott: his son. 

98. Cu-Luachra: his son. 

99. Eoger : his son. 

100. Teige : his son. 

101. Hugh : his son. 

102. Charles : his son. 

103. Conor: his son ; a quo O' Conor (Kerry). 

104. Maolbreath : his son. 

105. Core : his son. 

106. Mahoon : his son. 

107. Dermot (2) Sluaghach : his son. 

108. Mahoon (2) : his son. 

109. Dermott (3): his son. 

110. Conor (8): his son. 

111. Dermot (4) : his son. 

112. Conor (4) : his son. 

113. Conor (5) : his son. 

114. Conor (6) : his son. 

115. John: his son. 

116. Conor (7) : his son. 

117. Conor (8) Fionn : his son. 

' 118. Conor (9) Baccach : his son. 
119. John O'Gonor " Kerry" : his son. 


I.— THE HOUSE OF IR— Continued. 

4. — The Stem of the O'Moobe Family. 

Iriel Glunmar, No. 69 on the Guinness Family Stem, had 
a brother named Laoiseach Lannmor, who was the ancestor 
of 0' Moore ; the following is the pedigree of that ancient 
family : 

68. Conall Cearnach. 

|1 |2 

69. Iriel Glunmar. 69. Laoiseach Lannmor. 

70. Lugha-Laoghsy ; his son. 
See the Stem of the 
Guinness Family. 

This Lugha was the first king of Lease (or Leix), now 
the Queen's County. 

71. Lugh-Longach : his son. 

72. Baccan : his son. 

73. Earc : his son. 

74. Guaire : his son. 

75. Eoghan or Owen ; his son. 

76. Lugna : his son. 

77. Cormac : his son. 

78. Carrthach or Carrthan ; his son. 

79. Sarbile : his son. 

80. Barrach : his son. 

81. Naxar : his son. 

82. Barrach (2) : his son. 

83. Aongus : his son. 

84. Baccan : his son. 

85. Bearnach : his son. 

86. Maithghin : his son. 

87. Mesgill : his son. 

88. Bearnach (2) : his son. 

89. Charles : his son. 

90. Cionaodh or Kenneth : his son. 

91. Gaothin : his son. 

92. Cearnach : his son. 


93. Cinnedeacli : his son. 

94. Maolmordha: his son; a quo the sirname O'Moore. 

95. Kenneth (2) : his son. 

96. Cearnach (2): his son; a quo Carney and Kerney. 
97- Kenneth (3) : his son. 

98. Amergin : his son. 

99. Eaolan : his son. 

100. Amergin (2) : his son. 

101. Lysaoh or Lewis ; his son ; a quo Lewis. 

102. Cu-Chogry or Conor : his son. 

103. Lysach (2) : his son. 

104. Daniel O'Moore : his son ; the first that assumed 
this sirname. 

105. Cu-Chogry : his son. 

106. Lysach (3) : his son. 

This Lysach was the last king of Leix, a.d. 1183. 

107. Neill: his son. 

108. Lysach (4) : his son. 

109. David : his son ; lord of Leix. 

110. MelachUn : his son. do. 

111. ConeU : his son ; do. 

112. Koger : his son ; do. 

113. Eoger Oge : his son ; do. 

This Eoger was slain by the English, a.d. 1578. 

114. Anthony O'Moore : his son. 

" Anthony O'Moore joined O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, and, in a great 
battle, defeated tte English army, a.d. 1598. In a.d. 1600, he and 
Captain Tyrrell went into Mnnster and joined with MacCarthy there, 
where, in a great engagement, the English army is defeated, and 
their general, the earl of Ormonde, taken prisoner. Soon after, A.D. 
1601, the Mnnster and Leinster confederates submit, except this 
O'Moore and O'Conor ' Faley,' who are left in the lurch and slain ; 
and their estates and territories of Lease and Offaly (or O'Phaley) 
seized, confiscated, and disposed to English planters, and called by 
the name of the King's and Queen's Counties. " — Four Masters. 



Before the Advent af St. Patrick to Ireland. 
(The Line of Ik.) 

Although the province of Ulster was always governed by 
kings and princes of the blood of Ir, with sovereign in- 
dependent authority, from their first possession thereof, 
A.M. 3501, yet there is no account extant of their names 
or succession until the year 667 before Christ, that Macha 
Mongrua, queen of Ulster and of all Ireland, and her 
husband Kimbathus (the 63rd monarch), built the city of 
" Eamhata Macha " or Emania (near the city of Armagh) 
for the regal seat of the kings of Ulster ; which continued 
BO during the reigns of the following kings, who were 
called kings of Emania, as well as of Ulster : — 

1. Macha Mongruadh [Mongrua] , a queen, and the 
64th monarch of Ireland. This Macha and her husband 
Kimbathus reigned jointly for seven years ; and Macha,. 
alone, seven years more. 

2. Achaius Eolach, son of Feig, son of Fomorius. 

3. Uamanchan, son of Cass, son of Argettmar. 

4. Conor, son of Cathir, son of Coranus. 

5. Fiachna, son of Felim, son of Uamanchan. 

6. Darius (Daire), son of Forgo, son of Felim. 

7. Ennius, son of Eocha, son of Felim. 

8. Finneadh, son of Bacceadh, son of Darius. 

9. Conor Maol, son of Fortha, son of Forgo. 

10. Eodricus Magnus, the 86th monarch of Ireland. 

11. Cormac, son of Lathy, son of Conor Maol. 

12. Mochta, son of Morchai. 

13. Ennius, son of Darius, son of Conor Maol. 

14. Achaius, son of Lathy. 

15. Breasal, son of Eodricus Magnus, was the SStb 

16. Congalius, his brother, was the 90th monarch. 

17. Fachna Fathach, son of Cass, was the 92nd monarch. 

18. Fergus, son of Libde, son of Eodricus Magnus. 

19. Fergusius Magnus (Mac Eoy), grandson of Eodricus. 

20. Conor, son of Fachna Fathach, the 92nd monarch.. 


21. Ciisraoli, son of Macha. 

22. Glasny, son of Conor. 

23. Iriel Glunmhar [Ghinmar], son of Conall Cearnach. 

24. Fiacha Fionn Amhnais, son of Iriel. 

25. Fiatach Finnidil. 

26. Muredach, son of Fiaclia Fionn- Amhnais. 

27. Elim, son of Conrach, was the 105th monarch. 

28. Ogamon, son of Fiataeh. 

29. Mai, son of Eochraidhe, was the 107th monarch. 

30. Tiobraid Tireach (No. 80 on the Guinness family- 

31. Breasal, son of Briun, son of Eochraidhe (or Rory). 
In this Breasal's time a numerous colony of the Her- 

■emonian sept poured into Ulster, overcame the natives, 
and forced a great part of the country from them; where 
they settled and called Dal Fiataeh (from their leader 
Fiataeh Fionn), whereof the chiefs were styled kings, and 
sometimes of all Ulster ; and there continued for some 
generations, till at length they were extirpated by the 
natives ; when some of them settled in Laeighis (or Leix), 
now the Queen's County ; and some of them in Munster. 

82. Fergus, a Heremonian usurper, called " Dubh- 
Dheadach," was (the 114th) monarch for one year. 

33. Achaius Gunnatt was (the II 6th) monarch for one 

84. jEneas Fionn, son of Fergus (No. 32 on this Roll). 

35. .^neas Gabhran, son of Fergus. 

36. Luy, son of ^neas Fionn. 

37. Fiacha Araidhe: a quo the territory of "Dalaradia" 
in Ulster is so called. This Fiacha (who is No. 83 on 
the stem of the Guinness family) it was who extirpated 
the Heremonians. 

38. Felim : grandson of Fiacha Araidhe. 

39. Imcha: his son. 

40. Fergo, son of Dalian. 

41. Rosse, son of Imcha. 

42. Muredach: bis son. 

43. Eochy Cobha: son of Luigheach (or Luy), son of 
Eosse ; a quo is called the territory of Iveagh. 

44. Crunnbhadroi (or Crunbadroy) : his son. 

45. Frochar: his son. 


46. Fergus Fogha: his son. 

47. Caolbha (or Caolbadius) : son of (No. 44) Crunn- 
bhadroi ; brother of Frochar, and uncle of Fergus Fogha. 
This Caolbadius (is No. 91 on the stem of the Guinness 
family, and was the 123rd monarch of Ireland) was the 
last monarch of the line of Ir; andwas, a.d. 357, slain by (the 
124th monarch) Eochy Moyvone, of the line of Heremon. 

48. Saraan, son of Caolbha (or Caolbadius). This- 
Saraan was the last king of Ulster of the Irian line. In 
his time, the three brothers, called the "Three Collas", 
with the Heremonian power of Leinster and Connaught, 
invaded Ulster, conquered the country, burnt and de- 
stroyed the regal city of Emania, and transplanted what 
remained of the natives into Dalaradia (in Irish " Dal- 
Araidhe" or "Dal-Naradha") and Iveagh; formed a king- 
dom for themselves and their posterity, called "Orgiall;" 
and whose succession from their first king, Colla- 
da-Chrioch, down to Eory, the last king of Ulidia or 
Dalaradia (who submitted to the Crown of England, in 
the twelfth century), is given in Part III., Chapter XI., 
under the heading ' ' The Kings of Ulster since the Fourth 


The following are among the leading families descended 
from Ir, or Hyrus : — 

Beachan [Beahan). Conor. 

Bearra (fierri/). Convoy (Convy). 

Birney. Conway. 

Branagan. Corry. 

Bredin. Cowan. 

Broghan. Curry. 

Brosky. Daly. 

Canavan. Dubhan (Doan, Douiws). 

Carney. Dorochy (Dorc;/, Darcij). 

Cassan {Casliin). Duffe. 





Ederton [Eerton, Ayrtoii). 

Fachnan (Fannan, Farming). 






Gilcoman [Gilman). 


Gilreagh {Qilroy, Eilroy). 




Gumman fOunj. 


Hughes (or Hayes J. 





Kirrovan (Eirwan). 




Linch [Lynch). 



MacCulroy [Macllroy). 

MacFirbis (Forbes). 








Mulchieran (Mulkeeran). 
Mullegan {Mulligan). 
Multully {Tully). 

O'Conor " Corcomroe." 
O'Conor " Kerry." 
Roddy (Ruddy). 
Scaly (Skelly). 

Torma (Tonney). 
Uppan (Upham). 
Urcuhart (Urquhart). 
Ward. ^— 





Heremon was the seventh son of Milesius of Spain, but 
the third who left any issue ; from him were descended 
the kings, nobility, and gentry of the ancient Kingdoms of 
Connaught, Dalriada, Leinster, Meath, Ossory; of Scot- 
land, since the reign of Fergus Mor MacEarca, in the fifth 
century ; of Ulster, since the fourth century ; of the prin- 
cipalities of Clanaboy, Tirconnell, and Tirowen ; and of 
England, from the reign of Henry the Second down to the 
present time. The Scottish antiquaries record the pedi- 
grees of the nobility and gentry descended from the 
Milesian Kings of Scotland ; the English antiquaries, the 
pedigrees of the nobility and gentry descended from the 
kings and queens of England ; and the Irish antiquaries, 
the pedigrees of the ancient Irish families, among them 
the following, who are all descended, or derive their lineal 
descent, from Heremon : — 1. Fitzpatrick; 2. MacDermott ; 

8. MacDonnell (of Antrim) ; 4. MacLoghlin; 5. MacMahon 
(of Ulster); 6. MacMorough ; 7. MacSwiney; 8. Maguire; 

9. O'Byrne; 10. O'Conor (Connaught); 11. O'Conor 
(Faley or Offaley) ; 12. O'Donel; 18. O'Flaherty ; 14. 
O'Hart; 15. O'Kelly (of Hy-Maine) ; 16. "O'Melaghlin"; 
17. O'Neill ; 18. O'Nowlan or Nolan ; 19. O'Eielly ; 20. 
O'Eourke; 21. O'Toole; 22. O'Felan (Phelan or Whelan) ; 
and 23. The present Eoyal Family of Great Britain and 

These families are here mentioned in alphabetical 
order ; but I give their pedigrees in the chronological order 
in which their respective progenitors entered on the stage 
of life — as recorded by the Four Masters. 


"The House of Heremon,"* writes O'Callaghan, " from the number 
of its princes, or great families — from the multitude of its distin- 
guished characters, as laymen or churchmen — and from the extensive 
territories acquired by those belonging to it, at home and abroad, or 
in Alba as well as in Ireland— was regarded as by far the most 
illustrious : so much so, according to the best native authority, that 
it would be as reasonable to affirm that one pound is equal in value 
to one hundred pounds, as it would be to compare any other line 
with that of Heremon." 

36. MiLEsiDS of Spain. 

|1 |2 

37. Heber. 37. Ir. 

37. Heremon : his son. 

37. Heremon : after Heber was slain, Heremon reigned 
singly for fourteen years ; during which time a certain 
colony called by the Irish " Cruthny," in English 
" Cruthneans" or Picts, arrived in Ireland and requested 
Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, 
which he refused ; but, giving them as wives the widows 
of the Tua-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with 
a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country 
then called "Alba" or "Albion," but now Scotland; 
conditionally, that they and their posterity should be 
tributary to the monarchs of Ireland. Heremon died, 
before Christ 1684, and was succeeded by three of his 
four sons, named Mumneus,! Lugneus, and Lagneus, who 
reigned jointly for three years, and were slain by their 
Hiberian successors. 

"Heremon: According to the "Book of Ballymote," the river 
" Liffey" derived its name from the circumstance of a battle having 
been fought near it by the Milesians, against the Tua-de-Danans ; 
and the horse of the Milesian monarch Heremon, which was named 
" Gabhar [gavar] Liflf^" (gabhar : ancient Scotic and British word 
for the Lat. "equus," ahorse, which, in modern Irish, is "each" 
[ogh], a steed'), having been kiUed there, the river was called " Liff^" 
or " Liffey." In Irish it was called " Amhan Liffe" (Amhan : Irish, 
a river ; Lat. Amnis), signifying the River Liffey, which was first 
Anglicised " Avon Liffey," and, in modern times, changed to Anna 
Liffey — the river on which the city of Dublin is built. — Gonnellan. 

^Mttim/ne : This monarch was buried at Cruaohan (cruachan: 
Irish, o little hill) or Oroaghan, situated near Elphin, in the County 
of Koscommon. In the early ages, Oroaghan became the capital of 


88. Eurialus : his sou ; was the 10th monarch of Ire- 
land; died, B.C. 1670. 

39. Ethrialus : his son ; was the 11th monarch ; slam, 
B.C. 1650. 

40. Pallachus : his son. 

41. Tigernmasius* : his son; was the 13th monarch, 
and reigned seventy-seven years. He and two-thirds of 
the people of Ireland died one night at Magh Sleaght (or 
the Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, adoring 
their false gods, e.g. 1543. He was the first that found 
out and made use of gold mines in Ireland ; and or- 
dained several sorts of colours in the wearing apparel 
of his subjects, to distinguish their degrees : so that every 
man's degree, trade, occupation or calling, from the prince 
to the peasant, was known by his clothes. 

Conuaught and a residence of the ancient kings of Ireland; and at 
Croaghan the states of Connaught held conventions, to make laws 
and inaugurate their kings. There, too, about a century before the 
Christian era, the monarch Eochy Feidlioch {No. 72 in this stem) 
erected a royal residence and a great rath, called "Eath-Cruachan," 
after his queen, Cruachan Croidheirg (croidheirg : Irish, a rising 
Marl), mother of Maud, the celebrated queen of Connaught; who, 
wearing on her head her ' ' Aision" or golden crown, and seated in her 
gilded war-chariot surrounded by several other war-chariots, com- 
manded in person, like the ancient queens of the Amazons, her 
Connaught forces, in the memorable seven years' war against the 
Ked Branch Knights of Ulster, who were commanded by king 
Connor MacNessa. as mentioned in our ancient records. — Connellan. 

* Tigernmasius (or Tiernmas): This Tiernmas was the monarch 
who set up the famous idol called "Crom Cruach" (literally, the 
crooked heap) on the plain of Magh Sleaght, now Fenagh, in the 
barony of Mohill, County of Leitrim. This idol was worshipped up 
to the time of St. Patrick; by whom it was destroyed. Among the 
idol-worship of the ancient Irish at that time was that of the sun: 
the sun-worship which was that of the Magi or wise men of the 
East; who, we are told in Scripture, were led to Bethlehem by divine 
inspiration to see the Infant Jesus. 

This monarch introduced certain distinctions in rank among the 
Irish, which were indicated by the wearing of certain colours : this 
is believed to have been the origin of the Scotch plaid. According 
to Keatinge, one colour was used in the dress of a slave; two colours 
in that of a plebeian; three, in that of a soldier or young lord; four, 
in that of a brughaidh or public victualler; five, in that of a lord of 
a tuath or cantred ; and six colours in that of an ollamh or chief 
professor of any of the liberal arts, and in that of the king and 
queen. — Book of Bights. 


42. Enbrothius: his son. 

43. Smimgallus : his son. 

44. Fiachus Lawranna: his son; was the 18th monarch ; 
.slain, B.C. 1448. 

45. iEneas 011-Muea : his son ; was the 20th monarch. 
In his time the Piets became refractory and refused the 
payment of the tribute imposed on them two hundred and 
fifty years before by Heremon ; but this ^neas went into 
Albion with a strong army, and in fifty set battles over- 
came and forced them to submission. He was slain, b.o. 

46. Maonius : his son. 

47. Rothactus:* his son; was the 22nd mon£trch. He 
was slain by his successor Sedneus, of the line of Ir, b.o. 

48. Denius : his son. 

49. Siornaus " Saobach" [longavus): his son ; was the 
:84th monarch ; slain, b.o. 1030. 

50. OlioUus Olchaion: his son. 

51. Gialchadius: his son; was the 37th monarch; 
slain, B.C. 1013. 

52. Nuodus Fionnfail: his son; was the 39th monarch; 
slain, B.C. 961. 

53. Aidanus Glas : his son. 

54. Simeon Breac : his son ; was the 44th monarch ; 
slain, B.C. S03. 

55. Muredachus Bolgrach : his son ; was the 46th 
monarch; slain, b.c. 892. 

56. Fiachus Tolgrach: his son; was the 55tb monarch; 
slain, B.C. 795. He had an elder brother named Duachus 
Teamhrach, whose two sons, Achaius Framhuine and 
Conangus Beag-eaglach, were the 51st and 53rd monarchs 
of Ireland. 

57. Duachus Ladhrach : his son ; was the 59th monarch ; 
slain, B.C. 737. 

58. Achaius Beidhach : his son. 

*Rothactus (ia Irish " Eoitheachtaigh") : Silver shields were 
made, and four-horse chariots were first used, in the reign of 
ilothactus. — Miss Ousack. 


59. Hugonius Magnus* (Ugaine Mor) : his son. This- 
Hugony the Great was the 66th monarch of Ireland. He 
had twenty-two sons and three daughters by Cresair, 
daughter of the King of Prance ; and divided the Kingdom 
into twenty-five parts, and allotted to each son and daughter 
his and her own part, that they might not encroach upon 
each other. All the sons died without issue but two — 
namely, Laegrius Lore, ancestor of all the Leinster 
Heremonians ; and Cobthacus Caol-bhreagh, from whom 
the Heremonians ot Leath-Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and 
Connaught, derive their pedigree. 

60. Cobthacus Caol-bhreagh: his son; was the 69th 
monarch; and was slain, b.c. 541. 

61. Melga "Molfach" (laudabilis) : his son; was the 
71st monarch ; slain, b.c. 505. 

62. Irereo, also called larngleo Fathach : his son; was 
the 74th monarch of Ireland ; slain, b.c. 473. 

68. Conlaus Caomh: his son; was the 76th monarch; 
died a natural death, b.c. 442. 

64. OlioUus Cass-fiaclach: his son: was the 77th mon- 
arch; slain by his successor, Adamarus Foltchaion, b.c. 

65. Achaius Alt-Leathan: his son; was the 79th mon- 
arch; slain, B.C. 895. 

66. Mnea.s Tuirmeach-Teamrach : his son; was the 8 1st 
monarch; and died at Tara, b.c. 824. His son, Fiachus 
Firmara, was the ancestor of the kings of Dalriada and' 
Argyle in Scotland (see Part III., c. iii). 

67. Ennius Aigneach : his son ; was the 84th monarch ; . 
and was slain, b.c. 292. 

68. Assaman Eamhna: his son. 

^Hugonius Magntis : In the early ages, the Irish kings made 
many mihtary expeditions into foreign countries. XTgain Mor, called 
by O'Flaherty, in his "Ogygia," Hugonius Magnus, was contempo- 
rary with Alexander the'Great ; and is stated to have sailed with a 
fleet into the Mediterranean, landed his forces in Africa, and also- 
attacked Sicily ; and, having proceeded to Gaul, was married to. 
Cffisair, daughter of the king of the Gauls. Hugonius was buried 
at Cruachan. The Irish sent, during the Punic wars, auxiliary 
troops to their Celtic brethren, the Gauls ; who, in their alliance 
with the Carthaginians under Hannibal, fought against the Roman- 
armies in Spain and Italy. — Connellan. 


69. Roighen Euadh: his son. 

70. Fionnlogh: his son. 

71. Fionn: his son. 

72. Achaius Feidlioch: his son; was the 93rd monarch ; 
and died at Tara, b.o. 130. The twenty-five divisions made 
of Ireland by Ugain Mor or Hugony the Great, as already 
mentioned, continued for four hundred and fifty years, 
until Achaius Feidlioch ordained that the old divisions (of 
the country) made by the Firvolgian dynasty should con- 
tinue thereafter : namely, two Munsters, Leinster, Con- 
naught, and Ulster. This Achaius (or Eochy) had a 
brother named Eochy Aireamli, whowasthe 94th monarch. 

73. Bress-Nar-Lothar : his son. 

74. Lugadius Sriabhn-dearg : his son; was the 98th 
monarch. He killed himself by falUng on his sword, in 
the eighth year before Christ. 

75. Crimthann Niadh Nar: ^= liis son; who was the 100th 
monarch of Ireland, and styled " Tlie Heroic." He died 

*Crimthann Niadh Nar : This monarch and Conaire Mor or 
Conary the Great, the 97th monarch of Ireland, respectively made 
expeditions to Britain and Gaul ; and assisted the Picts and Britons 
in their wars with the Eomans. Crimthann was married to Baine, 
daughter of the King of Alba, and the mother of Feredach Fionn 
Feachtnach (the next name on this Stem). 

This Crimthann died at his fortress, called " Dun-Crimthann" 
(at Bin Eadar, now the HID of Howth), after his return from an 
expedition against the Eomans in Britain ; from which he brought 
to Ireland various spoils : amongst other things, a splendid war 
chariot, gUded and highly ornamented ; golden-hilted swords and 
shields, embossed with silver ; a table studded with three hundred 
brilliant gems ; a pair of grey hounds coupled with a splendid silver 
chain estimated to be worth one hundred " Cumal" (cumal : Irish, 
a maid-servant), or three hundred cows ; together with a great 
quantity of other precious articles. In this Crimthann's reign the 
oppression of the Plebeians by the Milesians came to a climax : 
during three years the oppressed Attacotti saved their scanty earn- 
ings to prepare a sumptuous death-feast, which, after Crimthann's 
death, was held at a place called " Magh Cro" or the Fidd of Blood; 
supposed to be situated near Lough Conn in the county of Mayo. 
To this feast the3«in^^ted the provincial kings, nobiHty, and gentry 
of the Milesian race in Ireland, with a view to their extirpation ;.. 
and, when the enjoyment was at its "height, the Attacots treacher- 
ously murdered almost all their unsuspecting victims. 

They then set up a king of their own tribe, a stranger named 
Carbry Cinn Caitt (the 101st monarch of Ireland), who was called 


by a fall from his horse, Anno Domini 9. It was in this 
monarch's reign that our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ 
was born. 

76. FeredachFionnFeachtnaoh: his son; was the 102nd 
monarch; and died at his regal city of Tara, a.d. 36. The 
epithet "feachtnach" was apphed to this monarch, because 
of his truth and sincerity. 

11. FiachusFionnOla:* his son; was the 104th monarch, 
and reigned 17 years. He was slain by his Irian successor, 
the 105th monarch, a.d. 56. This Fiachus was married 
to Eithne, daughter of the king of Alba ; whither, being 
near her confinement at the death of her husband, she 
went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named 

78. Tuathal Teachtmar-.i his son; was the 106th mon- 
arch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got 
together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather 
the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought 

"Cinu Caitt," from the cat-headed shape of his head : the only king 
of a stranger that ruled Ireland since the Milesians first arrived 
there. — Oonnellan. 

*Fiachus Fionn Ola (or Fiacha of the White Oxen) : According to 
some annalists, it was in this monarch's reign that the Milesian 
nobility and gentry of Ireland were treacherously murdered by the 
Attacotti, as already mentioned ; but, in the ' ' Eoll of the Mon- 
archs of Ireland" (see page 49), Carbry Cinn Caitt, whom the 
Attacotti set up as a king of their own tribe, is given as the 101st, 
while this Fiachus is there given as the 104th, monarch of Ireland : 
therefore, Carbry Cinn Caitt reigned before, and not after Fiachus 
Fionn Ola. 

f Tuathal Teachtmar (or Tuathal the Leyitimate) : It is worthy 
of remark that Tacitus, in his " Life of Agricola," states that one 
of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited 
on Agricola, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to solicit 
his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland ; for that, with 
one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be 
subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who 
was about that time in Alba or Caledonia. Tuathal afterwards be- 
came monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year 
of his reign at a.d. 76 ; and as Agricola with tlte Roman legions 
carried on the war against the Caledonians about a.d. 75 to 78, the 
period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar 
was in exile in North Britain ; and he might naturally be expected 
to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to 
the Irish monarchy. — Connellan. 


:and overcame liis enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, 
twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty- 
five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal 
blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he 
thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consfint, 
from each of the four divisions or provinces of Munster, 
Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of 
ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where 
Tuathal had a palace) : one east, another west, a third 
south, and the fourth on the north of it ; and appointed 
all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) 
•under the name of " Meath" to belong for ever after to 
the monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance 
'Of his Table ; on each of which several portions he built 
a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors ; 
for every of which portions the monarch ordained a certain 
■chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial kings 
from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which 
may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It jvas this 
monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine 
(or "Eiric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, asmanyfat muttons, 
(as many) hogs, 6000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") 
of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or 
j)ots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province 
of Leinster to the monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the 
death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina* (under 
'the circumstances mentioned in the Note at foot hereof). 

*Fithir and Darina : Tuathal, the 106tli monaroli of Ireland, had 
two beautiful and marriageable daughters, named Fithir and Darina. 
Eoohy- Ainoheann, king of Leinster, sought and obtained the hand of 
the younger daiighter Darina, and, after the nuptials, carried her to 
his palace at Naas, in Leinster. Eochy determined by stratagem to 
■obtain the other daughter also : for this purpose he shut the young 
queen up in a certain apartment of his palace and gave out a report 
that she was dead ; he then repaired, apparently in great grief, to 
Tara, informed the monarch that his daughter was dead, and asked 
her sister in marriage. Tuathalius gave his consent, and the false 
l^ing Eochy returned home with his new bride Soon after, Darina 
escaped from her prison, unexpectedly encountered the king and hia 
new wife, her sister Fithir : in a moment she divined the truth, and 
had the additional anguish of seeing her sister, who was struck with 
iorror and shame, fall dead before her face. The death of the un- 


This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes 
by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty monarchs of 
Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last re- 
mitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd monarch of 
Ireland, and the 26th Christian monarch, at the request 
and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty 
years' reign, the monarch Tuathal was slain by his suc- 
cessor Mai, A.D. 106. 

79. Fedlimius (Felim) Eachtmar:* his son; was sO' 

happy princess, and the treachery of her husband was too much fer- 
tile young queen ; she returned to her solitary chamber, and soon 
died of a broken heart. The insult offered to his daughters, and' 
their untimely death, roused the indignation of Tuathal, who,. 
at the head of a powerful force, conquered and beheaded Eoohy 
Aincheann, ravaged and burned Leinster to its utmost boundary, and. 
then compelled its humbled and terror-stricken people to bind them- 
selves and their descendants for ever to the payment of a biennial 
tribute to the monarch of Ireland ; which, from the great number- 
of cows exacted by it, obtained the name of the ' ' Boromean Tribute" :. 
"bo " being the Irish word for coio. In the old Annals this tribxite 
is thus described : — 

" The men of Leinster were obliged to pay 
To Tuathal and all the monarchs after him. 
Three-score hundred of the fairest cows, 
And three-score hundred ounces of pure silver. 
And three-score hundred mantles richly woven. 
And three-score hundred of the fattest bogs, 
And three-score hundred of the fattest sheep. 
And three-score hundred cauldrons strong and polished." 

This tribute continued to be levied until the reign of the monarch 
Finaghty, about A.D. 680, by whom it was abolished ; but, as a* 
punishment on the Leinster men for their adherence to the Danish 
cause, it was, A.D. 1002, revived by Brian Boru, King of Munster,, 
when he attained to the monarchy. It was from this circumstance 
of reviving the "Boromean " tribute, that Brian obtained the surname 
"Boroimhe " (Boru). — Mins C'usacl;. 

* Felim Rachtnar : It is singular to remark how the call to a 
life of virginity was felt and corresponded with first in this family in 
Ireland after it was Christianized. As St. Ite was descended from. 
Fiacha, a son of this wise monarch, so the illustrious St. Bridget was. 
descended from Eocha, another son of Felim, and brother of Conn 
of the Hundred Battles. St. Brigid was born at Fochard (now 
Faughart), near Dundalk, about a.d. 453, where her parents hap- 
pened to be staying at the time ; but their usual place of residence 


-called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, 
-among which he established with all firmness that of 
" Eetaliation ;" kept to it inviolably ; and by that means 
preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security 
-during his time. This Felim was the 108th monarch; 
reigned nine years ; and, after all his pomp and greatness, 
-died oi thirst, a.d. 119. 

80. Quintus Centibellis (or Conn of the Hundred 
Battles*) : his son. This Conn was so called from hundreds 
o/ 6aM/(!s by him fought and won : viz., sixty battles against 
•Cathirius Magnus or Cahir Mor, King of Leinster and the 
109th monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in 
the monarchy ; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians ; 
-and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mor or 
Mogha Nua-Dhad their king ; who, notwithstanding, 

was Kildare, where, a.d. 483, she established the famous monastery 
•of "Kildare," which signifies the Church of the Oak. — Miss Ousack. 
St. Ite or Ide is often called the Brigid of Munster; she was bom 
about A.D. 480, and was the first who founded a convent in Munster, 
in a place called Clooncrail : the name of which was afterwards 

•changed to " KiU-Ide," now called Killeedy, a parish in the county 
Limerick. — Joyce. 

*Conn of the Hundred Battles: This name in Irish is "Con 

'Cead-Cathach, " a designation given to that hero of antiquity, in a 
Poem by O'Gnive, the bard of O'Neill, which is quoted in the 
'Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland,' page 423 : 

" Conn of the Hundred Fights, sleep in thy grass-grown tomb, and upbraid 
not our defeats with thy victories." 

To that ancient hero and warrior, Moore pays a graceful tribute 
•of respect in the Song — " How oft has the Benshee cried," given in 
the Irish Melodies. 

According to the popular belief, the " Benshee" or guardian 
spirit of the House of Conn of the Hundred Fights, above mentioned, 
night after night, in the Castle of Dungannon, upbraided the famous 
Hugh O'Neill, for having accepted the earldom of Tir-Owen, con- 
ferred on him by Queen Elizabeth, a.d. 1587. "Hence," writes 
O'CaUaghan, " the Earl did afterwards assume the name of O'Neill, 
and therewith he was so elevated that he would often boast, that 
he would rather be O'Neill of Ulster, than king of Spain." On his 
submission, however, a.d. 1603, his title and estates were confirmed 
to him by King James the First. — O'CaUaghan. 

It is worthy of remark, that, while Conn of the Hundred Battles 
lived in the second century, we read in the Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick, that this Pagan monarch "prophesied" the introduction of 
'Christianity into Ireland ! 


forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom 
■with him. He had two brothers, named Eochy Fionn 
Fohart and Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for them- 
selves, murdered two of their brother's sons, named Conla 
and Crionna ; but they were by the third son Airt-Ean- 
Fhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, 
where they lived near Cashel. From Eocha Fionn Fohart 
descended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta) in 
Lease (or Leix), and St. Bridget, Patroness of Kildare ;, 
from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, 0' Brick, of Dunbrick, and 
O'Faelan {Phelan, or Wlielan) of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. 
Quintus Centibellis reigned thirty-five years ; and by a 
stratagem was treacherously slain by the King of Ulster, 

A.D. 157. 

81. Airt-Ean-Fhear:* his son. This Airt (Latinized 
" Arturus-Ean-Fhear"j was the 112th monarch of Ireland. 
He had two sisters named Sarad and Sabina ; Sarad was 
the wife of Conarius Mac Mogha Laime, the 111th monarch 
of Ireland, by whom she had three sons, called the "Three 
Carbrys: — viz., 1. Carbry {alias Eocha) Eiada — a quo 
" Dalriada" in Ireland, and in Scotland; 2. Carbry 
Bascaon ; and 3. Carbry Muse. Sabina or Sadhbh was 
the wife of Mac Niadh [Mac Nia] , half king of Munster 
(of the sept of Lugadius, son of Ith), by whom she had a 
son named Mac Con ; and by her second husband Olioll 
Olum she had nine sons, seven whereof were slain by their 
half brother Mac Con, in the famous battle of Magh 
Muccromha (or Moy Muckrove), in the county of Galway, 
where also the monarch Airt himself fell, siding with his 
brother-in-law Olioll against (his nephew) the said Mao 
Con, after a reign of thirty years, a.d. 195. 

This monarch was the ancestor of O'h-Airt or O'Hart. 

82. Cormac Ulfhada:-!- his son. This Cormac was the 

*Airt-Ean-Fhear : Literally, this name means "Airt the One 
Man" (Ean : Irish, one ; Lat. Unus ; /hear, 'ar, gen. fhir : Irish, 
the man ; Lat. vlr). This Pagan monarch is believed to have some 
notions of the Christian Faith. 

f Cormac Ulfada : This monarch was commonly known as 
"Cormac Mac Art"; he died at Cleitach, on the Boyne. Before his 
death he gave directions that, instead of at Brugh, a famous burial 
place of the Irish pre-Christian kings, he should be buried in Uoss- 


115th monarch of Ireland ; and was called " Ulfhada," 
because of his long beard. He was the wisest, most learned, 
and best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled 
the Kingdom. He ordained several good laws ; wrote 
several learned treatises, among which his treatise on 
"Kingly Government," directed to his son Carbry Liffe- 
char, is extant and extraordinary. He was very magni- 
ficent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always 
one thousand one hundred and fifty persons in his daily 
retinue constantly attending at his great Hall at Tara;* 
which was three hundred feet long, thirty cubits high, and 
fifty cubits broad, with fourteen doors to it. His daily 
service of plate, flaggons, drinking cups of gold, silver, and 
precious stone, at his Table, ordinarily consisted of one 
hundred and fifty pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were 
all pure silver or gold. He ordained that ten choice per- 
sons should constantly attend him' and his successors — 
monarchs of Ireland, and never to be absent from him : 
viz. — 1. A nobleman to be his companion; 2. a judge to 
deliver and explain the laws of the country in the king's pre- 
sence upon all occasions; 3. an antiquary or historiographer 
io declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurren- 
ces of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion 

na-Ri [Eosnaree], near Slane— both in the county of Meath ; and 
that hia face Bhould be towards the East — through respect for the 
Saviour of the World, whom he knew to have been there born and 

*Oreat Hall of Tara : In the ancient work called ' ' The Book 
of BaUymote," the following stanzas occur : 

" Temor (Tara), the most beautiful of hills, 

Under which Erin is warhke ; 
The chief city of Cormac, the son of Airt, 

Son of valiant Conn of the Hundred Battles. 

" Cormac in worth excelled ; 

Was a warrior, poet, and sage ; 
A true Brehon ; of the Fenian men 

He was a good friend and conpanion. 

" Cormac conquered in fifty battles, 

And compiled the ' Psalter of Tar*. ' 
In that Psalter is contained 

The full substance of history. 


required ;. 4. a Druid or magician to offer sacrifice, and 
presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill, or 
knowledge would enable him ; 5. a poet to praise or dis- 
praise every one according to his good or bad actions ; 6. 
a physician to administer physic to the king and queen 
and to the rest of the (royal) family ; 7. a musician to 
compose music, and sing pleasant sonnets in the king's 
presence when thereunto disposed ; and, 8, 9, and 10, 
three stewards to govern the King's house in all things 
appertaining thereunto. This custom was observed by all 
the succeeding monarchs down to Brian Boromha [Boru] , 

' ' His great house of a thousand heroes, 

With tribes it was delightful ; 
A fair bright fortress of fine men ; 

Three hundred feet was its measure. 

" Its circuit was well arranged ; 

Nor was it narrow by a faulty construction ; 
Nor too small for separate apartments : 

Six times five cubits was its height. 

' ' Grand was the host which attended there, 
And their weapons were glittering with gold ; 

There were three times fifty splendid apartments ; 
And each apartment held fifty persons. 

'' ' Three hundred cup-bearers handed around 

Three times fifty splendid goblets 
To each of the numerous parties there ; 

Which cups were of gold or silver — all 

" Ornamented with pure and precious stones ; 

Thirty hundred were entertained 
By the son of Airt on each day. 

' ' The household of the hosts let us enumerate ; 

Who were in the house of Temor of the tribes : 
This is the exact enumeration — 

Fifty above a thousand warriors. 

^ ' When Cormac resided at Temor, 

His fame was heard by aU the exalted ; 
And a king like the son of Airt-Ean-Fhear, 

There came not of the men of the world. 

— ConncUan. 


the 175th monarch of Ireland, and the 60th down from 
Cormac, without any alteration, only that since they 
received the Christian Faith they changed the Druid or 
magician for a Prelate of the Church. 

What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great 
monarch is, that (which among the truly wise is more 
valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory 
whatsoever) he was to all mankind very just, and so 
upright in his actions, judgments, and laws, that God 
revealed unto him the light of His Faith seven years before 
his death ; and from thenceforward he refused his Druids 
to worship their idol-gods,* and openly professed he would 
no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, 
the Immortal and Invisible King of Ages. Whereupon 
the Druids sought his destruction, which they soon after 
effected (God permitting it) by their adjurations and 
ministry of damned spirits choking him as he sat at 
dinner eating of salmon, some say by a bone of the fish 
sticking in his throat, a.d. 266, after he had reigned forty 
years. He had three sons, Darius, Carbreus, and Ceal- 
lachus, but no issue is recorded from any [of them] but 

*Idol-gods : A vivid tradition relating the circumstance of the 
burial of King Cormac Mac Art has been very beautifully versified 
by Dr. Ferguson in his poem — " The burial of King Cormac" : 

" Crom Cruach and his sub-gods twelve," 

Said Cormac, ' ' are but craven treene ; 
The axe that made them, haft or helve. 

Had worthier of our worship been ; 
" But He who made the tree to grow, 

And hid in earth the iron-stone, 
And made the man with mind to know 

The axe's use, is God alone. " 

" The Druids hear of this fearful speech, and are horrified : 

" They loosed their curse against the King, 
They cursed him in his flesh and bones. 

And daily in their mystic ring 

They turned the maledictive stones." 

For the full poem by Dr. Ferguson on " The Burial of King 
Cormac," see The Story of Ireland (Dublin : A. M. Sullivan). 



from Carbreus or Carbry ; he had also ten daughters, but 
there is no account of any of them only two — namely, 
Grace (or Grania), and Alve, who were both successively 
the wives of the great champion and general of the Irish 
Militia, Fionn, the son of Cubhall [Coole] . 

88. Carbry Liffechar:* his son ; was so called from his 
having been nursed by the side of the river " Liffey" ; 
and was the 117th monarch of Ireland. His mother was 
Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster. After 
seventeen years' reign, he was slain at the Battle of Gaura, 
A.D. 284 : fought by the Militia of Ireland, called the 
" riana Erionn," and arising from a quarrel which hap- 
pened between them ; and in which the monarch, taking 
part with one side against the other, lost his life. 

*Carhry LiffecJiar: This monarch had two sons named Eoohy 
Dubhlen (Dubhlen : Irish, black stream — referring to the dark colour 
in the city of Dublin of the water of the river Liffey) and Fiacha 
Srabhteine : the former so called from his having been nursed in 
Dublin ; the latter, from his having been fostered at Dun Srabhteine, 
in Connaught. According to Connellan, the name ' ' Dubhlen" is 
the root of " Dubblana," which has been corrupted "Eblajia" — the 
name of the city of Dublin, as marked on Ptolemy's Map of Ireland. 

Eoohy Dubhlen was married to Alechia, daughter of Updar, king 
of Alba, by whom (Four Masters), he had three sons, commonly 
called the " Three CoUas" : namely, Colla-da-Chrioch [cree], or 
CoUa of the two territories (meaning that this CoUa possessed terri- 
tories in Ireland and Scotland), Colla Uais [oosh], or Colla the Noble, 
and Colla Meann [man], or Colla the Famous. 

After Carbry Liffechar's death, his younger son, Fiacha Srabhteine, 
succeeded to the monarchy ; but, after he had reigned thirty-seven 
years, the Three CoUas, to restore the succession in their own line, 
made war on him and slew him, a.d. 322, when Colla Uais ascended 
the throne. 

Under the laws of " Tanistry," the Crown in Ireland and Scotland 
was hereditary in the Family, but not exclusively in primogeniture ; 
on this subject Sir Walter Scott, in his "History of Scotland," 
observes : 

' ' The blood of the original founder of the family was held to flow 
in the veins of his successive representatives, and to perpetuate in 
each chief the right of supreme authority over the descendants of his 
own line; who formed his children and subjects, as he became by 
right of birth their sovereign ruler and lawgiver. With the family 
and blood of this chief of chiefs most of the inferior chieftains claimed 
a connection more or less remote. This supreme Chiefdom, or right 
of sovereignty, was hereditary, in so far as the person possessing it 


84. Fiaclius Srabhteine:* his son; was King of Con- 
maught and (the 120th) monarch of Ireland. He had a 
brother named Eochy Dubhlen, who was father of the 
Three CoUas, by whom, after thirty-seven years' reign, 
Fiacha was slain, in the Battle of Uubhcomar, a.d. 322, 
to make way for his nephew Colla Uais, who succeeded in 
the monarchy for four years. 

85. Muredachus Tireacb: his son; having fought and 
defeated Colla Uais after four years' reign, and banished 
himandhis two brothers into Scotland, became (the 122nd) 
monarch of Ireland for 30 years . 

•was chosen from the blood royal of the King deceased ; but it was 
so far elective that any of his kinsmen might be chosen by the 
nation to succeed him ; and, as the office of sovereign could not be 
exercised by a child, the choice generally fell upon a full-grown 
man, the brother or nephew of the deceased, instead of his son or 
grandson. This uncertainty of succession which prevailed in respect 
to the crown itself, proved a constant source of rebellion and blood- 
shed : the postponed heir, when he arose in years, was frequently 
desirous to attain his father's power; and many a murder was com- 
mitted for the sake of rendering straight an oblique line of succession, 
which such preference of an adult had thrown out of the direct course. ' i 

*Fiachus Srabhteine : The three Collas being very valiant, war- 
like, and ambitious princes, combined against their uncle King 
Fiacha, and aspired to the monarchy ; they collected powerful forces, 
and being joined by seven catha or legions of the Firbolg tribe of 
Connaught, they fought, a.d. 322, a fierce battle against the army 
of the monarch Fiacha, at Criogh Rois, south of Tailtean, in Bregia, 
in which the royal army was defeated, and many thousands on both 
sides, together with King Fiacha himself, were slain. This yfa.3 
caEed the battle of Dubhcomar, from "Dubhcomar," the chief 
Druid of King Fiacha, who was slain there ; and the place where the 
battle was fought was near Teltown, between Kells and Navan, near 
the river Blackwater in Meath. After gaining the battle, Colla 
Uais became monarch and reigned nearly four years ; when he was 
deposed by Fiacha 's son, Muredach Tireach, who then, A. B. 326, 
became monarch of Ireland. The Three Collas and their principal 
chiefs, to the number of three hundred, were expelled from Ireland 
(hence the name "Colla": Irish, prohibition; Gr. " kolao," I 
hinder), and forced to take refuge among their relatives in Alba ; 
but, through the friendly influence of their grandfather the king of 
Alba, and the mediation of the Druids, they were afterwards par- 
doned by their cousin, then the Irish monarch, who cordially invited 
them to return to Ireland. — Connellan. 


86. Acliaius Muigh-Meadhoin* [Moyvone] : Hs son ; 
■was the 124th monarch ; and in the eighth year of his 
reign died a natural death at Tara, a.d. 365 ; leaving issue 
(by his two married wives) five sons, viz., by his first wife 
Mong Fionn — 1. Brian, 2. Fiachra, 3. Olioll, 4. Fergus ; 
and by his second wile Carinna, Niallus Magnus. Mong- 
Fionn was daughter of Fiodhach, and sister of Crimthann, 
King of Munster, of the Hiberian sept, and successor to 
Achaius in the monarchy. This Crimthann was poisoned 
by his sister Mong-Fionn, in hopes that Brian, her eldest 
son by Auhaius, would thereby succeed him in the monar- 
chy. To avoid suspicion, she herself drank of the same 
poisoned cup which she presented to her brother ; but, 
notwithstanding that she lost her life by doing so, yet her 
expectations were not realized, for the said Brian and her 
other three sons by the said Achaius — whether out of 
horrorof the mother'sinhumanity in poisoning her brother, 
or otherwise, is not known — were all laid aside, and the 
youngest son of Achaius by his second wife Carinna, 
daughter of the king of Britain, preferred to the monarchy. 
From Brian, the eldest son as aforesaid, were descended 
the kings, nobility, and gentry of Connaught. 

87. Niallus Magnus:! his sou. 

This Niall succeeded his uncle Crimthannus, and was 
the 126th monarch of Ireland. He was a stout, wise, and 

*Muigli-Meadhoin : From the Irish " Magh," a plain; and 
"Meadhoin," a, cultivator. 

\NiaUus Magnus : This Niallus or Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
was, as above mentioned, son of Carinna, daughter of the king of 
Britain ; and his son Eoghan (og-an : Irish, a young man) or Owen, 
was also married to another princess of Britain, named tndorba : a 
proof of the intimacy which existed in the fourth and fifth centuries 
between Britain and Ireland. From a.d. 378 to 405 — the period 
of the " Decline and Fall" of Druidism in Ireland— Niall of the 
" Nine Hostages" was monarch ; and he was so called in reference 
to the principal hostile powers overcome by him and compelled to 
render so many pledges of their submission. He was chiefly renowned 
for his transmarine expeditions against the Roman empire in Britain, 
as well as in Gaul. In one of those expeditions Niallus Magnus 
carried home from Gaul some youths as captives, amongst whom was 
Succat (which name signifies brave in the battle), who, afterwards as 
Saint Patrick [Patricfc: from the Irish Faidricj Lat. pater; Ital. 


warlike prince, and fortunate in all his conquests and 
achievements, and therefore called " Great;" he was also 
called "Niall Naoi-Ghiallach" or Niail of the Nine Hostages, 
from the hostages taken from nine several countries by him 
siibdued and made tributary: viz. — 1. Munster, 2. Leinster, 
3. Connaught, 4. Ulster, 5. the Britons, 6. the Picts, 7, 
the DaLriads, 8. the Saxons, and 9. the Morini — a people 
of France, towards Calais andPiccardy ; whence he marched 
with his victorious army of Irish, Scots, Picts, and Britons, 
further into France, in order to the conquest thereof; and, 
■encamping at the river Loire, and as he sat by the river 
side, was, a.d. 405, in the 27th year of his reign, treach- 
erously slain by Eocha, King of Leinster, in revenge of a 
former wrong by him received, from the said Niall. It was 
in the ninth year of his reign that St. Patrick was first 
brought into Ireland at the age of sixteen years, among 
two himdred children brought by the army out of little 
Brittany (called also Armorica) in France. Niallus Magnus 
was the first that gave the name of "Scotia Minor" to 
"Scotland," and ordained it to be ever after so called; 
until then it went by the name of " Albion." 

88. Eoghan (Eugenius* or Owen) : his son; from whom 
the territory of "Tir-Eoghan" (now Tyrone) in Ulster is 
so called. From this Eoghan came (among others) the 

padre, a father — here meant in a religious sense), became the Apostle 
of Ireland. And when, many years later, that illustrious liberated 
captive, entering, in a maturity of manhood and experience, upon 
his holy mission, was summoned before the supreme assembly at 
Tara, to show why he presumed to interfere with the old religion of 
the country, by endeavouring to introduce a new creed, it was 
Laeghaire [Leary], the son of his former captor Niall, who presided 
as sovereign there. — O'Callaghxin. 

Happy captivity, which led to Ireland's Christianity ! 

*Eagenius: Before the arrival of St. Patrick to Ireland, this son 
of Niall -ohe Great acquired the territory of Aileach, which in many 
centuries afterwards was called after him— " Tir-Owen" or Owen's 
■Country. At Aileach he resided, a.d. 442, when he was converted 
to Christianity by St. Patrick. "The man of God," says the old 
biographer of the Apostle, " accompanied Prince Eugeniua to his 
oourt, which he then held in the most ancient and celebrated seat 
of kings, caUed Aileach, and which the holy bishop consecrated by 
his blessing." The MacLoghlius being descended from the same 


following families : O'Eane or O'Cane, O'Daly of " Leath 
Cuinn" (or the kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, andConnaught), 
O'Hagan, O'Crean, Grogan, O'Carolan, etc. This Eoghan 
had eleven brothers : i. Laegrius (or Leary), the 128th 
monarch, in the fourth year of whose reign St. Patrick, 
the second time, came into Ireland to plant the Christian 
Faith, A.D. 432 ; 2. Conall Crimthann, ancestor of 
" 0'MelaghUii," kingaoiMeath; 3. Conall Gulban, ancestor 
of O'Donel, (princes, lords, and carls of the territory of 
Tirconnell in Ulster), and of O'Boijle, O'Doherty, O'Gal- 
laghei, MacGilfinen, etc.; 4. Piacha, from whom the 
territory from Birr to the Hill of Uisneach in Media 
HibernifB (or Meath) is called " Cinel Fiacha," and from 
him Geoghagan and MacGeoghagan, lords of that territory, 
O'Molloy, O'Donechar or Doonei; etc., derive their pedigree; 
5. Maine (whose patrimony was all the tract of land from 
Lochree to Loch Anuin near Mullingar, and whose descen- 
dants are " Muintir Fagan," i.e. Sionnaoh {siona : Irish, 
a fox) or Fox (lords of the Muintir Fagan territory), 
Magawly, O'Dugan, O'Mulchonry (the princes antiquaries 
of Ireland), O'Henergg {ov Henry), etc.; 6. Carbry, ancestor 
of O'Flanagan of Tua Eatha, "Muintir Cathalan" (or 
Ca7t!7),etc. ; T.Fergus, a quo " Cinel Fergusa" ov Ferguson; 
8. Enna ; 9. Jilneas or Aongus; 10. Ualdhearg; and 11. 
Fergus Alt-leathan. Of these last four sons I find no issue. 
89. Muredachus (3): his son. This Muredachus had 
many sons, but only two of them are especially mentioned 
as his sons by his married wife Earea, daughter of Loarn, 
king of Dalriada in Scotland : namely, Muriartus Magnus 
and Fergusiiis Magnus (or Fergus Mor), both called 
"Mac Earca," because they were the sons of Earca. 

family stem as the O'Neils, a MacLoghlin, or an O'Loghliu, as well as 
an O'Neill, was sometimes Prince of Aileach, until a.d. 1241, when 
Donell O'Loghlin, with ten of his family, and all the chiefs of his 
party, were cut off by his rival, Brian O'Neill, in the battle of 
" Caim-Eirge of Red Spears"; and the supreme power of the 
principality of Aileach thenceforth remained with the O'Neills. — 

In the thirteenth century the "Kingdom of Aileach" ceased to- 
be so called, and the designation " Kingdom of Tir-Owen," in its 
stead, was first applied to that territory. Sixteen of the ArdEighs 
or monarchs of Ireland were princes or kings of Aileach — descended 
from this Eugenius or Owen. — Connellan. 


90. Muriartus Magnus Mac Earca: his son. This 
Muriartus, the eldest son of Muredachus aforesaid, was the 
131st monarch of Ireland; reigned 24 years; and died 
naturally in his bed, which was rare among the Irish 
monarchs in those days ; but others say he was burned in 
a house after being "drowned in wine" (meaning perhaps 
that he was under the influence of drink) on All Halontide 
(or All-Hallow) Eve, a.d. 527. 

It was in the twentieth year of his predecessor's reign, 
that, with a complete army, his brother Fergusius Magnus 
(with five more of his brothers, viz., another Fergus, two 
more named Loam, and two named Aongus or ^neas) 
went into Scotland to assist his grandfather King Loam, 
who was much oppressed by his enemies the Picts ; who, 
vanquished by Fergus and his party, who prosecuted the 
war so vigorously, followed the enemy to their own homes, 
and reduced them to such extremity, that they were glad 
to accept peace upon the conqueror's own conditions ; 
whereupon, and on the king's death, which happened about 
the same time, the said Fergus Mor Mac Earca was unani- 
mously elected and chosen king, as being of the blood 
royal by his mother. And the said Fergus, for a good 
and lucky omen, sent to his brother, the monarch of 
Ireland, for the Marble Seat called " Saxum Fatale" (in 
Irish, " Liath Pail" and " Cloch-na-Cinneamhna," 
implying in English the Stone of Destiny or Fortune) to be 
crowned thereon : which happened accordingly ; for, as he 
was the first absolute king of all Scotland of the Milesian 
Eaee, so the succession continued in his blood and lineage 
ever since to this day. 

This Muriartus had five other brothers besides the six 
already above named : viz., 1. Ferach, ancestor of Mac 
Cathmaol oi Campbell ; 2.Tigernach, ancestor of O'Cunigan 
{ox Cunningham)* andO'ILoesj (Hosey OT Hussy); 3. Mongan, 

*Cunni}igham : This name was originally "Cnnigan," a quo 
"O'Cunigan" or Cunningham. The last name of this family recorded 
by the Four Masters is Murtagh O'Cunningham, son of Owen, «on 
of Murtagh, son of Owen, son of Hugh, son of Teige, son of Awley, 
son of Conel, son of Cunigan (a quo " O'Cunigan"), son of Darius, 
son of Tigemach, son of Muredach, son of Eugenius, son of Niall of 
the Nine Hostages, son of, etc., as above. 


ancestor of O'Croidhen (or Croydon), 0' Donnelly, etc. ; 
4. Dalagh, a quo O'Daly; and 5. Maon, ancestor of 
O'Gormley (or Grimley) and Maconghamna (or Magafney 
and Gajney), etc. 

91. Donaldus Ilchealgach {llchealgach : Irish, decdtfuT): 
his son. This Donaldus was the 134th monarch; reigned 
iointly with his brother for three years ; they both died of 
the " plague" in one day, a.d. 561. They had three other 
brothers : 1. Baodan or Boetanus, the 137th monarch of 
Ireland ; 2. Neiline ; and 3. Scanlan. 

92. Aldus or Hugh : his son. 

93. Maolfireach : his son. 

94. Maoldoon: his son. This monarch had a brother 
named Maoltuile, a quo Multully and Tully. 

95. Fargal: his son. This Fargal was the 156th 
monarch of Ireland ; was slain by Moroch, king of Leinster, 
A.D. 718 ; and had a brother named Adam, a quo the 
O'Dalys of " Leath Cuinn." 

96. NiallusFrassach:hisson. Hewas called "Frassach" 
from certain miraculous showers that, it is said, fell in his 
time ; was the 162nd monarch of Ireland ; and, after 
seven years' reign, retired to St. Columb's Monastery at 
Hye in Scotland, a.d. 765, where he died, a.d. 773. He 
had three brothers, named — 1. Conor, who was ancestor 
of O'Cahan (Anglicised O'Cane and O'Kane); 3. Hugh 
Allan, ancestor of 0' Brain; and 3. Oolca, a quo Mac 
Colcan or Mac Culkin and Culkin. 

97. Aldus Ordnigh: his son; was the 164th monarch ;' 
and, after twenty-five years' reign, was slain in the battle 
of Fearta; a.d. 817. In his reign prodigious thunder and 
lightning occurred, which killed many men, women, and 
children over all the kingdom, particularly in a nook of 
the country between Corcavaskin and the sea in Munster, 
by which one thousand and ten persons were destroyed. 
In his reign occurred many other prodigies — the forerunner 
of the Danish invasion, which soon after followed. 

98. Niallus Caille: his son. This Niallus was the 166th 
monarch of Ireland; and was so called after his death from 
the river " Cailleu," where he was drowned, a.d. 844, 
after thirteen years' reign. He fought many battles with 
the Danes and Norwegians, in most of which although the 


Banes were worsted, yet the continual supplies pouring 
unto them made them very formidable ; (so much so) that 
in this reign they took and fortified Dublin and other 
strong places upon the sea-coasts. 

This Niallus had three brothers, named — 1. Maoldoon, 
a quo " Siol Muldoon" ; 2. Fogartach, ancestor of Muintir 
Cionaodh or Kenny; and 3. Blathmac, a quo Black and 

99. Aldus Pinnliath, i.e. Hoary : his son; was the 168th 
monarch of Ireland; reigned for sixteen years, during 
which time he fought and defeated the Danes in several 
battles and was worsted in others; and died at Drom- 
Enesclann, a.d. 876. This Aldus had four brothers, 
named — 1. Dubhionracht, a quo O' Dubhionrachta ; 2. 
Aongus ; 3. Flahertach, ancestor of O'Hualarg; and 4. 
Braon, a quo Clan Brain of Mogh-Ithe (or Moy-Ith). 
Aldus FinnUath married Maolmare or Mary, daughter of 
Eeneth, son of Alpin — both kings of Scotland. 

100. NiaUus Glundubh [gloonduff] : his son ; was the 
170th monarch of Ireland; and reigned for three years. 
He had many conflicts with the Danes, in which, generally, 
he was victorious. At length making up a great army, in 
order to besiege Dubhn, a battle was fought between them, 
wherein the monarch lost his life, and after great slaughter 
on both sides, his army was routed, a.d. 917. From him 
the simame O'Neill* or "Clan-na-Neil" is derived. He 

*Ths O'Neill : Niallus Glundubh attained to the monarchy, 
A.D. 914, after the death of Flan Siona, ting of Meath; and wag 
slain in a battle with the Danes, at Eathfamham, near Dublin. The 
follo^ving passage from one of the many "Lamentations," written 
at the time by the Irish bards on his death, shows the affection 
entertained for him by his people : — 

"Sorrowful this day is sacred Ireland, 

Without a vaUant chief of ' hostage' reign ; 

It is to see the heavens without a sun. 

To view Magh NeOl without Niall." 
" Magh NeiU," here mentioned, signifies the plain of Neill : meaning, 
no doubt, the " O'Neil-land" forming the two baronies of that name 
in Armagh, which constituted the ancient patrimony of the Hy- 
Niallain, or the descendants of Niallan, who was collaterally descen- 
ded in the fifth degree from Colla-da-Chrioch ; who, writes O'Cal- 
laghan, " overthrew the dominion of the old Irian kings of Qladh," 
whose heraldic emble:n was the "Red Hand of Ulster." That 


had a brother named Donaldus, king of Aileach [Ely] , 
who was ancestor of the family of MacLoghlin, some of 
whom were monarchs of Ireland. 

101. Muriartus Naccochall: his son. This Muriartus 
left no issue; he was succeeded in the principality by 
Donald of Armagh, who was son of Murkertagh or 
Murohertas, son of Niallus Glundubh, the 170th monarch 
of Ireland. 

emblem The O'Neill in after ages assumed, togetlier witli the Battle 
Cry of " Lamh Dearg Abu" [lauv darig aboo], which means — The 
Red Hand for Ever. 

I am informed that, in the humble but honourable position of 
Teacher of a National School, the lineal representative of the monarch 
NiaU Glundubh now resides in a secluded part of the county Cork, 
under a name which some of his forefathers had to assume, in order 
to preserve a portion of their estates, which, however, have since 
passed away from the family. But, modest though be his position, 
the gentleman to whom 1 allude is perhaps more happy— he is 
certainly far more free from care — than were the latest of his 
illustrious ancestors on the throne of Tirowen, the principality of the 
ever-famed O'Neill ; of whom the following lines convey but a faint 
idea : — 

" His Brehons around him — the blue heavens o'er him, 

His true clan behind, and his broadlands before him ; 

While, group'd far below him, on moor, and on heather. 

His Tanists and chiefs are assembled together ; 

They give him a sword, and he swears to protect them ; 

A slender white wand, and he vows to direct them ; 

And then, in God's sunshine, " O'Neill" they all hail him : 

Through life, unto death, ne'er to flinch from, or fail him ; 

And earth hath no spell that can shatter or sever 

That bond from their true hearts — The Red Hand for Ever! 

Proud Lords of Tir-Owen ! high chiefs of Lough Neagh ! 
How broad-stretch'd the lauds that were rul'd by your sway ! 
What eagle would venture to wing them right through. 
But would droop on his pinion, o'er half ere he flew ! 
From the Hills of MacCartan, and waters that ran 
Like steeds down Glen Swilly, to soft-flowing Ban — 
From Clannaboy's heather to Carrick's sea-shore 
And Armagh of the Saints to the wild Innismore— 
From the cave of the hunter on Tir-Connell's hills 
To the dells of Glenarm, all gushing with rills — 

From Antrim's bleak rocks to the woods of Rosstrevor 

An ocho'd your war-shout — ' The Red Hand for Ever' .'" 



102. Donaldus of Armagh:* his nephew. This Donald 
was the 173rd monarch ; he died at Armagh after twenty- 
four years' reign, a.d. 978. During his long reign we find 
but little progress by him (made) against the encroaching 
Danes: he wholly bent his arms against his subjects; 
preying, burning, and slaughtering the people of Con- 
naught, whether deservedly or otherwise I know not, but 
I know it was no reasonable time for them to fall foul 
upon one another while their common enemy was victor- 
iously triumphing over them both. 

103. Moriartus Na Midhet was the first that assumed 

*Do7ialdus of Armagh : This Donald was succeeded in the 
monarchj' by the famous Malachy the Second, king of Meath ; and 
is by some writers called Bonal O'Neill ; but it is to be observed, 
that it was not until some time after the death of Malachy the 
Second (who died, A.D. 1023, and), who, as monarch, succeeded this 
Donaldus of Armagh, a.d. 978, that Moriartus-Na-Midhe was the 
first of the family that ever assumed the sirname "O'Neill." 
Donaldus of Armagh ascended the throne. A, D. 954, and died, a.d. 
978. He was son of Muircheartach (Murkertagh or Murtagh), the 
northern chieftain who was the ''Koydamna" or lieir apparent to 
the throne, as being the son of Niallus Glundubh, above mentioned. 
Donoch the Third of Meath succeeded Niall Glundubh in the 
monarchy, a.d. 917 ; and, with the exception of a victory over the 
Danes, at Bregia (a part of the ancient kingdom of Meath), passed 
his reign in comparative obscurity. Murkertagh Imuir : Irish, the 
sea; Lat. mare; Arab, mara, aniceart : Irish, righteotis ; Lat. certus), 
had conducted a fleet to the Hebrides, whence he returned flushed 
with victory. He assembled a body of troops of special valour, and, 
at the head of a thousand heroes, commenced his "circuit of Ireland:" 
the Danish chief, Sitric, was first seized as a hostage ; next Lorcan, 
king of Leinster ; next the Munster king, Callaghan of Cashel (who 
then had leagued with the Danes, and in conjunction with them 
invaded Meath and Ossory, a.d. 937), "and a fetter was put on 
him by Murkertagh." He afterwards proceeded to Connaught, 
where Conor, son o£ Teige, came to meet him, ' ' but no gyve or lock 
was put upon him." He then returned to Aileach, carrying these 
kings with him as hostages ; where, for five months, he feasted them 
with knightly courtesy, and then sent them to the monarch Donoch, 
in Meath. Murkertagh's valour and prowess procured for him the 
title of — " The Hector of the west of Europe" ; in two years after 
his justly famous exploit he was, however, slain by " Blacaire, son 
of Godfrey, lord of the foreigners," on the 26th March, a.d. 941 ^ 
and "Ardmacha (Armagh) was plundered by the same foreigners, 
on the day after the kUling of Murkertagh." — Mias Guaack. 

\Moriartus Na Midhe : This name in Irish is " Mor-Neart 


the sirname and title of " The Great O'Neill, Prince of 

104. Plathartach An Frostain, Prince of Tyrone. 

105. Aidus or Aodh AtHamh, Prince of Tyrone. 

106. Donald An Togdhamh. This Donald had a brother 
named Anraohan, who was ancestor of MacSwiney. 

107. Flahertach Locha Hadha. 

Na-Midie" {moirneart: Irish., mighty power ; Na-Midhe,of MeatK); 
and, as the word "ne-art" means gnat strength, implies, that this 
prince was powerfully strong — in person, or in the forces at his 

After the destruction of the ancient Palace of Aileach, a.d. 1101, 
the princes of the O'Neill fixed their residence in the south of the 
present county of Tyrone, at Ennia Enaigh, now Inchenny, in the 
parish of Urney ; and the stone chair upon which each of these 
princes was proclaimed, was at TuUahoge (or the hiU of the youths), 
now Tullyhawk, in the parish of Desertcreaght, and barony of 
Dunganuon ; where was seated down to Cromwell's time the family 
of O'Hagan, the lawgiver of TuUahoge, whence the present Barou 
O'Hagan takes his title ; and where, on the stone chair above 
mentioned— the " Leac-na-Righ" or Flagstone of the Kings, the old 
princes or kings of Tir-Oweu were inaugurated by O'Hagan, "and 
called O'Neill after the lawful manner." That " Leac-na-righ" was, 
A.D. 1602, demolished by the lord-deputy Mountjoy. 

"According to the tradition in the country," writes John 
O'Donovan, LL.I)., "O'Hagan inaugurated O'Neill, by putting on 
his golden slipper or sandal ; and hence the sandal always appears 
m the armorial bearings of the O'Hagans." With reference to the 
observance, in Ireland, of a superior prince, or chief, when inaugu- 
rated, having his shoe, slipper, or sandal put on by an inferior 
potentate, but still one of consideration, we find that at the inaugu- 
ration of the O'Connor in Connaught, the same office was performed 
for him by MacDermott, the powerful chief of Moylurg (the old 
barony of Boyle, county JRoscommon), as that performed by O'flagaji 
for the O'Neill in Ulster. There is a resemblance between this 
custom at the inauguration of the old princes of Ireland, and that 
connected with the ceremonial of the later Eomau emperors or those 
of Constantinople, on their creation as such. Under the head of 
^^' Honours and Titles of the Imperial Family," Gibbon notes that 
' the Emperor alone could assume the purple or red buskins." And • 
subsequently relating how the celebrated John Catacuzene assumed, 
A.D. 1341, the imperial dignity, he mentions John being "invested 
with the purple buskins" ; adding, that " his right leg was clothed 
by his noble kinsman, the left by the Latin chiefs, on whom he con- 
ferred the honour of knighthood" : this office of putting on the 
buskins being one of honour in the east, like that of putting on the 
shoe or sandal in the loest. — O'Gallaghan. 


108. Conor Na Fiodhbha, Prince of Tyrone. This Conor 
was murdered, a.d. 1170. 

109. Teige Glinne, Prince of Tyrone. 

110. Moriartus Muighe Line. 

111. Hugh* An Macaomh Toinleasc was slain by 
Melaghlin MacLoghhn and Ardgal MacLoghHn, a.d. 1177. 

112. Neil Eoe+ {Roe: Irish, red) had a brother (some 
say the eldest), named Hugh Dubh [Duff] , who was 
ancestor of the family of O'Neill called "Clan-Aodh- 
Buidhe," but corruptly called "Clanaboy" (and modernized 

*Hugh: This Hugh O'lSTeill was styled " Lord of Tir-Owen," 
"King of the Kinel Owen," "King of Aileaoh," "King of the 
North o£ Erin," etc. 

■\;Neil Soe: The "Clanaboy" branch of the O'Neill family was 
descended from this Neill's brother, Hugh Dubh [dubh: Irish, black). 
After the death of Bryan Catha Duin, No. 113, Hugh Dubh, or, as he 
was also called, Hugh Buidhe [boy] O'Neill (buidlte : Irish, yellow), 
was prince of Tir-Owen, from a.d. 1260 to 1283. His Clan passed 
the river Ban into Eastern Ulster or Antrim and Down; and, 
between a.d. 1383 and 1353, wrested from the mixed population of 
old natives and the descendants of the English settlers, the territory 
hence designated ."Clanaboy" or the Clan of Yellow Hugh. 

The Clanaboy territory was divided into north and south: the 
former situated between the rivers Eavel and Lagan, embracing the 
modern baronies of the two Antrims, two Toomes, two BeUasts, 
Lower Massareue, and county of the town of Carriokfergus; the 
latter, south of the river Lagan, including the present baronies of 
Upper and Lower Castlereagh. Upon the hill of Castlereagh, about 
two miles from Belfast, was the stone chair on which the Rulers of 
the Clanaboy principality (of .which Coim O'Neill, in the reign of 
James the First, was the last chief) were inaugurated. From the 
chieftain-line of this second "Hy-NiaU," sprang the last lineal 
representative of che Clanaboy branch of the O'Neill in Ireland; 
namely, The Eight Honorable John Bruce Pachard O'NeiU, third 
viscount and baron O'Neill, of Shane's Castle, County Antrim; a 
Kepresentative Peer of Ireland; General in the Army; Vice-Admiral 
of the Coast of Ulster; and Constable of Dublin Castle: born at 
Shane's Castle, December, 1780; and deceased, February, 1855, in 
his 75th year. His estates devolved to the Eev. William Chichester, 
Prebendary of St. Michael's, Dublin, who hence took the name of 
'•O'NeiU;" and was, a.d. 1868, in the Peerage of Grfiat Britain and 
Ireland, created "Baron O'Neill," of Shane's Castle, County of 
Antrim. — O'Callaghan. 


113. Bryan Catha Duin.* 

114. Donal or Daniel. f 

115. Hugh had a brother named John. 

116. Neil Mor4 Prince of Tyrone, had two brothers. 

1 17. Neil Oge, had a brother named Henry. 

118. Owen had seven brothers. 

119. Henry had nine brothers. 

120. Conn, Prince of Tyrone, married the Earl of 
Kildare's daughter, a.d. 1483; had two brothers named 
Henry and Daniel; and, in a.d. 1492, was murdered by 
his brother Henry. Immediately after, Henry and Daniel 
quarrelled for the principality of Tyrone, and continued 
in wars till a.d. 1497, when Daniel yielded his claim to 
the murderer. 

121. Conn Bacchach,|| Prince of Tyrone, was kept out 
of the principality by his unnatural uncle Henry, until 
the year a.d. 1498, when he was slain by this Conn and 
his brother Tirloch O'Neill, in revenge of his father's 
murder. Hugh, the son of his other uncle Daniel, gave 
him no little trouble : being also his competitor and in 
war with Conn, until in the year 1524, in a bloody engage- 
ment between them, the said Hugh lost his life; and being 
thus rid of his competitors, Conn began to follow the 
example of his ancestors, who, upon all occasions and 
prospect of advantage or success, were up in arms in 
opposition to the English Government, endeavouring to 
shake off their yoke, and recover their liberties and their 

"Bi-yan Catha Duin : This prince was king of "Kinel-Owen" or the 
Clan Owen; and was slain in the Battle of Down, a.d. 1260. This 
name may signify from the adfix " Catha Duin, " Bryan who was 
slain in the Battle of Dmcn; or Bryan the Noble in Battle. 

•\DoiKil: After the Battle of Bannoelcburn, in Scotland, a.d. 1314, 
Edward, brother of the illustrious Robert Bruce, was invited as 
monarch to Ireland; in whose favor this Donal resigned his claim to 
the principality of Tir-Owen (See, in Appendix, "The Invasion of 
Ireland by Bruce"). 

tNeilMor: This ^^eil— called "Le grand VfJUeW — was "Prince 
of the Irish in Ulster," when King Richard the Second visited 
Dundalk, A D. 1394. 

WCon.n Bacchach {hacchach : Irish, lame). 

<3HAP. I.] THE o'nEILL FAMILY. 127 

right to the Irish Crown, worn by their ancestors for many 
ages successively, as already above shown ; but all in vain : 
and this Conn Bacchach trying his fortune in the same 
manner, and finding his endeavours to be to as little 
purpose as were those of his forefathers, did after a time 
lay down the "cudgels" and submit; and going into 
England, was, upon his openly renouncing his ancient 
title of "O'Neill" and "Prince of Tyrone," received into 
favour and created "Earl of Tyrone," a.d. 1542. At the' 
same time, the title of "Baron of Dungannon" was con- 
ferred on his illegitimate son, who is called Mathew by Sir 
James Ware in his "Annals of Ireland," but in the 
"Pedigree" is entered as Eerdoroch; which was so highly 
resented by Shane an Diomuis (by Ware called Shane 
Dowlenach) the eldest of Conn's legitimate sons, that he 
quarrelled with and broke out in rebellion against his 

122. John or Shane* An Diomuis (that is, John the 
Proud or Haughty) quarrels with O'Donel, a.d. 1556; 
fights, and is routed; and in the same year rebels, calls 

*Shane an Diomuis: Shane "the proud" set no value on the 
earldom conferred on his father; he was inaugurated " O'Neill," and 
"King of XJlster." In October, a.d. 1562, Shane was invited to 
England, and was received by Queen Elizabeth with marked 
courtesy; his appearance at Court is thus described: 

"From Ireland came Shane O'Neill, with a guard of axe-bearing 
galloglasses; their heads bare; their long curling hair flowing on 
their shoulders; their linen garments dyed with saffron; with long, 
open sleeves; with short tunics, and furry cloaks; whom the English 
wondered at as much as they do now at the Chinese or American 
aborigines. " — Miss CusacJc. 

In A.D. 1567, after many attempts at his assassination, Shane, 
according to some accounts, fell a victim to treachery at a feast 
in Carrigfergus; but, according to the Four blasters, O'Neill en- 
deavoured to form an alliance with the Scots, and for that purpose 
proceeded to Clauaboy, where Alexander Oge MacDonnell was 
encamped with six hundred Scots; they received him with apparent 
friendship and caroused together, but an altercation having arisen, 
Alexander Oge, with MacGUlespie and many others, furiously 
attacked O'Neill with their drawn swords and hewed him to pieces; 
and likewise slew almost all his attendants, in revenge of the death 
of James MacDonnell, who had been slain by O'Neill." Shane was 
succeeded in the principality by his cousin Torloch, who died A.D. 


himself "chief monarch of Ireland;" in a.d. 1567 is 
betrayed by the Scots and slain; is succeeded in the. 
principality by Tirloch* Luinneach, by consent of the 
English Government, in preference to the illegitimate 
Matthew, or Shane's two other brothers Tirloeh and Felim 
Caoch (caoch: Irish, dimsighted). 

123. Conn or Connor, son of Shane An Diomuis, suc- 
ceeded his father. In this Conn's time, a.d. 1587, Hugh, 
the son of the aforesaid Mathew, is admitted to the earl- 
dom of Tyrone by the Government ; who order provision 
to be made for this Conn and his brothers, and for _ the 
above Tirloeh Luinneach, for his surrendering the princi- 
pality to Earl Hugh, A.D. 1588. The. earl plots with the 
Spaniard against the state and is betrayed by this Conn ; 
for which he is surprised by the Earl Hugh and hanged, 
A.D. 1590. 

124 Art Oge O'Neill. 

*Tirloch was succeeded in the principality by the famous Hugh. 
"O'Neill," who, from his great miKtary genius, has been called 
"The Irish Hannibal.' 'This Hugh was the son of Ferdorocti 
(_/erdorcha : Irish, the dark featured man ), who was called 
Matthew, Baron of Dungannon, a son of Conn Bacchach O'Neill, 
earl of Tyrone. During Tirloch's lifetime, and as his destined 
successor, Hugh was, A.D. 1585, designated, and A.D. 1587, con- 
firmed, as earl of Tyrone: in order, says Connellan, "to suppress 
the name and authority of O'Neill. " 

Hugh O'Neill had served some years in the English army, when 
a young man; acquired a great knowledge of mOitary aflFairs; and 
was a favourite at the Court of Elizabeth. On his return to Ireland, 
he continued some time in service of the queen; but, having revolted, 
he became the chief leader of the northern Irish, and was (perhaps 
with the exception of his relative, Owen Roe O'Neill) the ablest 
general that ever contended against the English in Ireland. He, 
however, became reconciled to the state in the reign of James the 
First, who, a.d. 1603, confirmed to him his title and estates; but, 
for alleged political reasons, Hugh O'Neill and Rory O'Donel, Earl 
of Tirconnell, were, a.d. 1607, forced to fly from Ireland: they 
retired to Rome, where Hugh died, a.d. 1616; and Rory or Roderick 
O'Donel, a.d. 1617. 

The celebrated Owen Roe O'NeiU, who was commander-in-chief 
of the Irish confederates in Ulster, in the war subsequent to the 
great insurrection of 1641, was the son of Art, son of Ferdoreha 
(or Mathew), Baron ofDungannon above mentioned. "— ConneMara. 


I.— THE HOUSE OF HEEEMON.— Conimiwti. 


I. — The Stem of the O'Conor (Paley) Family; 

Who are descended from Laegrius Lore, a son of Hiigonius 
Magnus (or Ugaine Mor, No. 60, page 104), the 66th mon- 
arch of Ireland. Laegrius Lore, himself, was the 68th 
monarch; and began to reign, before Christ 593. 

60. Hugonius Magnus. 

61. Laegrius Lore: his son. 

62. Oliollus Aine : his son. 

63. Labhradh Loingseach [Lauradius Navalis): his son. 

64. Oliollus Braccan: his son. 

65. ^neas Ollamh: his son; the 73rd monarch. 

66. Braessal: his son. 

67. Fergusius: his son; 80th monarch; slain, b.c. 384, 

68. Pelim : his son. 

69. Crimthann Cosgrach: his son; the 85th monarch. 

70. Mogha-Airt: his son. 

71. Airt or Arturus: his son. 

72. Alloid (by some called Olioll) : his son. 

73. Nuadad Falloid: his son. 

74. Ferragh Foglas : his son. 

75. Olioll Glas: his son. 

76. Fiacha Fobhrec- his son. 

77. Brassal Breac : his son. 

This Braessal Breac had two sons, between whom he 
divided his country, viz.: to his eldest son Luy (who was 
ancestor of the kiigs, nobility, and gentry of Leinster) 
he gave all the territories on the north side of the river 
Berva, from "Wicklow to Drogheda ; and to his son Conla 
(ancestor of the kings, nobility, and gentry of Ossory) he 
gave the south part, from the said river to the sea. 

78. Luy: his son. 

79. Sedna: his son; buUt the royal city of "Eath-Alinne." 

80. Nuadad Neacht (or Neass) : his son ; the 96th 

81. Fergus Fairge (or Fergus the Mariner): his son. 
This Fergus had a brother named Baoisgne, who was 


father of Sualtacli, who was father of Cubhall [Coole] , 
who was father of Fionn, commonly called "Finn Mac- 

82. Eossius: his son. 

83. Fionn File [JiU: Irish, a poet): his son. 

84. Conorius (or Conquovarus) : his son ; the 99th 
monarch of Ireland. 

85. Mogh Corb: his son. 

86. Cu-Corb : his son. 

87. Niadh (or Nia) Corb : his son. 

88. Cormac: his son. ' 

89. Felimy or Felim : his son. 

90. Cathirius Magnus (Cahir Mor) : his son. 

This Cahir Mor* was the 109th monarch of Ireland. 

91. Eossius Failge: his son; a quo "Hy-Failge" (or 
the descendants of Failge), afterwards the name of the 
territory itself which they possessed. This word "Hy- 
FaUge" is the root of "Offaley;" and the origin of the 
epithet applied to the O'Conors of this territory, namely, 
the O'Conors " Faley," signifying the O'Conors of Offaley. 

92. Nathy: his son. 

93. Eugenius or Owen: his son. 

94. Cathal or Cathaoir: his son. 

95. Maolumha: his son. 

96. Foranan : his son. 

97. Congall: his son. 

98. Diomusach: his son; a quo Dempseij and O'Dempsey. 

*Cahir Mor : This monarch waa king of Leinster in the beginning 
of the second century. JEe divided his great possessions amongst 
his thirty sons, in a will called '' The Will of Cahirmore," contained 
in the '"Book of Leaoan" and in the "Book of BaUymote." His 
posterity formed the principal fanaUies in Leinster: namely, the 
O'Conors "Faley," princes of Offaley; the O'Dempseys, the O'Dunns, 
the O'Eegans, MacColgans, O'Hartys, MaoMurroughs, kings of 
Leinster; the Cavenagh3,0'ByTues, O'Tooles, 0'Murphys,0'Mulrians, 
or O'Kyans, the O'Kinsellaghs, O'Duffys, O'DowIings, O'Cormacs, 
O'Muldoons, O'Gormans, O'Mullens, U'Mooneys. etc. The other 
chief families of Leinster, of the Heremon line, descended from the 
same stock as the ancestors of Cahir Mor, were the MacGillpatricks 
or FitzpatrJcks, princes of Ossory; the O'Dwyers, chiefs in Tipperary; 
the O'Nolans, chiefs in Carlow; the O'Brennans, chiefs ia Kilkenny,' 
etc. — Connellan. 


99. Florence or Flann : his son. 

100. ^neas : Ms son. 

101. Muron: his son. 

102. Keneth: his son. 

103. Planega or Flaneha : his son. 

104. Conor : his son ; a qao O'Conor " Faley" or 
O'Oonor of Offaley. 

105. Maolmorra (or Myles) O'Oonor: his son. 

106. Fionn : his son. 

107. Congallach: his son. 

108. Conor: his son. 

109. Braorban : his son. 

110. Dunslevy : his son. 

111. Congallagh (2): his son. 

112. Murtagh: his son; a quo Murtagh. 

113. Conafney: his son; a quo Cooney. 

114. Donogh : his son. 

115. Murtagh: his son. 

116. Maolmorra. his son. 

117. Murtagh (of Kilkenny) : his son. 

118. Murtagh (of Dublin) : his son. 

119. Murtagh (ofCarrig): his son. 

120. Murtagh Oge : his son. 

121. Moroch: his son. 

122. Calaoeh : his son. 
128. Conn: his son. 

124. Cahir : his son. 

125. Patrick: his son. 

126. Teige : his son. 

127- Patrick O'Conor Faley: his son. 


2. — The Stem of the Fitzpatbiok Family ; 

Who are descended from Conla, second son of Breassal 
Breac, a king of Leinster, No. 77 on the Stem of the 


O'Conor " Faley" family, in the preceding chapter. This 
Conla was the ancestor of the kings and gentry of the 
territory of 


77. Breassal Breac, king of Leinster. 

78. Luy: his son. 

78. Conla: his' son. 
(See preceding chapter.) 79. Nuadad: his son. 

80. Carrhach: his son. 

81. Laura: his son. 

82. Luy: his son. 

83. Ailill : his son. 

84. Sedna: his son. 

85. lar : his son. 

86. Crimthann Mor: his son. 

87. ^neas Ossory: his son; from whom "Ossory" is 
so called. 

88. Leary Bernbhradhach : his son. 

89. Awly : his son. 

90. Eochy : his son. 

91. Bryan: his son. 

92. Carbry Caomh: his son. 

93. Conell: his son. 

94. Eomanduach: his son. 

95. Laigny Faolach : his son. 

96. Bigry Caoch: his son. 

97. Cormac : his son. 

98. Keannfaola: his son ; a, quo Kenealy. 

99. Scanlan Mor : his son ; the 2nd king of Ossory. 

100. Eonan Eighfhlaith: his son. 

101. Cronnmaol : his son. 

102. Faelan : his son ; the 4th king of Ossory. 

103. Cucarca: his son. 

104. Anmcha: his son; the 9th king of Ossory. 

105. Fergal: his son. 

106. Dungal: his son; the 14th king of Ossory. 

107. Carol (or Cearbhal): his son; the 15th king of 


108. Ceallach : his son ; the 17th king of Ossory. 

109. Donoch or Doncha : his son ; the 18th king of 

110. Donald: his son. 

111. Giolla Padraig or Gill-Patrick : his son ; a quo the 
sirname Fitzpatrick. 

112. Donogh (or Doncha) : his son; who was the 20th 
king of Ossory. 

113. Donald Fitzpatrick: his son; who first assumed 
this sirname. 

114. Patrick: his son. 

115. Scanlan: his son. 

116. Donald Mor: his son. 

117. JeoSrey Baccach : his son. 

118. Jeoffrey Fionn : his son. 

119. Donald : his son. 

120. Donald Dubh [DufiJ : his son. 

121. Flan (or Florence) : his son. 

122. Florence (2) : his son. 

123. Shane (or John) : his son. 

124. Bryan: his son; was created "lord of Ossory," 
A.D. 1541. 

125. Bryan (2) : his son. 

126. Bryan (3) : his son. 

127. Teige : his son. 

128. Bryan (4) : his son. 

129. Bryan Oge: Ms son. 

130. Florence Fitzpatrick: his son. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF TLEEEUO^.— Continued: 

3. — The Stem or the O'Felan Family. 


Conn or the Hundred Battles, the 110th monarch of 
Ireland, and No. 80, page 109, bad, as already mentioned, 
two brothers named Eochy Finn Fohart andFiacha Suidhe. 


This Fiacha Suidhe was ancestor of O'Felan {Phelan and 
Whelan), princes and lords of Decies in Munster ; Eochy 
Finn Fohart was ancestor of O'Nowlan or Nolan, as in 
next section. 

79. Felim Raehtmar, the 108th monarch of Ireland. 


|1 |2 

80. Con Ceadcatha, 80. Eochy Finn Fohart. 

or, 80. Fiacha Suidhe 

Connof theHundredBattles. (as follows) : 

80. Fiacha Suidhe, son of Felim Eachtmar. 

81. Mnea,8 : his son. 

82. Artcorh : his son. 

83. Eocha, called " Owen Breac" : his son. 

84. Bran ; his son. 

85. Niadbhran : his son. 

86. Earcbhran : his son. 

87. Cainneach : his son. 

88. MacLasre : his son. 

89. Fionntan : his son. 

90. Hugh : his son. 

91. Cumuscach : his son. 

This Cumuscach had two sons, one of whom was 
Doilbhre (a ^uo Doyle), who was ancestor to O'Faelan ; 
and the other son was Breodhoilbh (a quo Brae), who was 
ancestor of 0' Brick. 

O'Felan O'Bnch. 

92. Breodhoilbh. 

93. Donogh : his son. 

94. Daniel: his son. 

95. Cormac : his son. 

96. Eorcagh : his son. 

97. Melaghlin : his son. 

98. Faelagh: his son. 

99. Artcorb : his son. 
100. Breac : his son. 

This Faelan, No. 99, was the ancestor oi O'Faelan, lord 
of North Decies ; and Breac, No. 100, was the ancestor of 
O'Brick. After O'Bric's issue faUed, the whole of Decies 
went to O'Faelan, 

92. Doilbhre 

93. Owen : his son. 

94. Donough : his son. 
96. Daniel : his son. 

96. Eorcagh : his son. 

97. Melaghlin : his son. 

98. Cormac : his son. 

99. Faelan : his son. 

CHAP. I.] . THE o'nowlan family. 135 

I.— THE HOUSE OF B.^U'EUO^— Continued : 

4. — The Stem op the O'Nowlan Family. 


As mentioned in last section, Conn Cead-Catha or Conn 
of the Hundred Battles had two brothers, named Eochy 
Pionn Fohart and Fiaeha Suidhe. This Eocha Fionn 
Fohart was ancestor of O'Nowlan, the lord or prince of the 
"Foharta" — the name by which the descendants of this 
Eocha were called ; and the two principal districts inha- 
bited by them still retain the name, viz. : the baronies of 
Forth in the counties of Wexford and Carlow. From 
" Foharta" is derived the sirname Faharty. 

79. Felim Eachtmar, the 108th monarch, and father of 
Conn of the Hundred Battles. 

80. Eocha Fionn Fohart : his son. 

81. Mnea,s : his son. 

82. Cormac : his son. 

83. Carbry : his son. 

84. Airt-Corb: his son. 

85. Mughna: his son. 

86. Cuibhe : his son. 

87. lar : his son. 

88. Feach or Fiaeha : his son. 

89. Ninneadh : his son. 

90. Baithin : his son. 

91. Eocha (2): his son. 

92. Eonan : his son. 

93. Fiuan : his son. 

94. Maonach : his son ; a quo Mooney of Foharta. 

95. Fergus : his son. 

96. Congal : his son. 

97. Dungus : his son. 

98. Dunan : his son. 

99. Faelan : his son. 

100. Nualan : his son ; a quo Nowlan and Nolan, 

101. Moroch : his son. 

102. Dungus (2) : his son. 

103. CuLEiee : his son. 

104. Ely : his son. 


105. Dunlong: his son. 

106. Eooha (3) Fionn : his son. 

107. Eocha (4) Oge : his son. 

108. Eocha (5) : his son. 

109. Melaghlin . his son. 

110. Ughare : his son. 

111. Awly : his son. 

112. Donogh : his son. 

113. Teige : his son. 

114. John or Shane: his son. 

115. Donal or Daniel : his son. 

116. John O'Nowlan : his son. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF SEB.'EM.O^— Continued : 

5. — Thh Stem or the O'Haet Family. 

Aikt-Ean-Fhbab (or Airt-Enaar), the 112th monarch of 
Ireland, and No. 81 on the Stem of the Irish nation of the 
Heremon line, was the ancestor of O'Hart. This sirname 
has been modernized Bart, Harte, and Hartt. 

81. Airt-Ean-Fhear (Latinized " Arturus-Ean-Fhear"), 
son of Quintus Centibellis or Conn of the Hundred Battles, 
was monarch of Ireland from a.d. 165 to 195. 

82. Oormac Ulfhada (or Cormae of the long beard) : his . 
son; was the 115th monarch of Ireland; and was 
commonly known as " Cormae Mac Art" — signifying 
Cormae the son of Airt. 

83. Carbry Liffechar:* his son; was the 117th 

84. Eochy Dubhlen : his son ; who was married to 

*Garbry Lijfechar : This monarch is mentioned by some annalists 
as the ancestor of MacDonnell (of Antrim), but this is a mistake ; 
for, according to the Jt'our Masters, CoUaXJais, the 121st monarch of 
Ireland and a grandson of Carbry Liffechar, was the ancestor of that 
illustrious family (see next succeeding chapter). 


Alechia, daughter of Updar, king of Alba ; and by her had 
three Bons, who were known as the " Three Collas"* — 
namely, 1. Colla-da-Chrioch (or Pacrioch), 2. Colla Uais 
(who was the 121st monarch of Ireland), and 3. Colla 

85. Colla-da-Chrioch :f his son ; who had three sons 
named — 1. Eochadh, 2. Imchadh [Imcha] , the ancestor 
of 0' Kelly, princes of Hy-Maine ; and 3. Fiacha Cassan, 
from the three of whom many noble families are descended. 
This Fiachra is the ancestor of O'Mooney (of Ulster). 

Colla-da-Chrioch was the founder of the kingdom of 
Orgiall (see Part III., c. xi. for " The Kings of Ulster, 

*77(e Three Collas : The descendants of the Three Collas wore 
ca!'ed "The Clan CoUa." The word "Clan," writes the Eev. Dr. 
Todd, F.T.C.D,, " sigai&es children or descendants. The tribe being 
descended from some common ancestor, the Chieftaia, as the repre- 
sentative of that ancestor, was regarded as the coTam.ou father of the 
Clan, and they as his children." 

+Cona-da-Chriooh [cree] : Some writers say that Colla Uais- 
[oosh] was the eldest sou of Eochy Dubhlen. If this were so, his 
name, and not that of CoUa-da-Chrioch, would be inserted by the 
Four Masters in this family pedigi-ee. 

The leading families descended from Colla Uais are mentioned in 
these pages, under "The Stem of the MacDounell (of Antrim) 
family," in the next following section. Of those descended from 
Colla Meann was Lugny, who, by his wife Bazaar, of the sept of the 
Deciesof Munster, had a son called "Farbreach" [farbra] (farhreach: 
Irish, the heautiful man), who was bishop of Yovar ; and who, 
according to the Four Masters, was fifteen feet in height ! 

The following are among the families of Ulster and Hy-Maine 
descended from Colla-da-Chrioch : — Boylan, Carbery, Cassidy, Cor- 
rigan, Cony, Cosgrave, Curry, Davin, Da,vine, Devin, Deviue, Diver, 
Donegan, DoneUy, Egan, Enright; Fogarty, Garvey, Gillchreest, 
Goff, Gough, Hart, Harte, Hartt, Higgins, Keenan, Kelly, Kennedy, 
Keogh, LaUy, Lannin, Larkin, Laury, Lavan, Lawlor, Leahy, Lee^ 
Loftus, Loingsy (Lynch), Looney, MacArdle, MaoBrock, MacCabe, 
MacCann, MacCoskar, MacCusker, MacDonnell (of Clan Kelly), Mac- 
Bgau, MacGeough, MacGough, Macflugh, MacKenna, MacMahon, 
MaoManus, MaoNeny, MacTague (Anglicised "Montagu"), Mac-" 
Teman, MacTully, Madden, Magrath, Maguire, Malone, Maclvir, 
Mclvor, Meldon, Mitchell, Mooney, Muldoon, Mullally, Muregan, 
Naghten, Neillan, Norton, O'Carroll "Oriel," O'Duffy, O'Dwyer, 
O'Flanagan, O'Hanlon, O'Hanraty, O'Hart, O'Kelly, O'Loghan, 
O'Loghnan (Anglicised "Loftus"), O'Neny, Eoche, Kogan, Eonan, 
Eonayne, Slevin, Tully, etc. 


since the fourth century"), and its first king ; his descen- 
dants ruled over that kingdom, and were also styled 
" Kings of Ulster," down to their submission to the Crown 
of England, in the twelfth century. 

86. Eochadh (a quo Roche) : his son ; king of Ulster. 

87. Deadha Dorn : his son ; king of Ulster. 

88. Fiacha (or Feig) : his son ; king of Ulster. This 
Fiacha had a brother named Lawra, a quo Laury. 

89. Crimthann Liath:* his son. This Crimthann was 
king of Ulster (and an old man, as the epithet " Liath" 
implies ; Liath : Irish, gray) when Saint Patrick came to 
Christianize Ireland ; he had five sons, the most important 
of whom were Eochy, Fergus Ceannfada (who is mentioned 
by some writers as "Fergus Cean"), and Muredach 
Munderg.i" In Eochy continues the stem of this family ; 
Fergus Ceannfada {ceannfada: Irish, long-headed, meaning 
learned), was one of the three antiquaries who assisted 
Leary, the monarch ; Core, king of Munster ; Daire, a 
prince of Ulster ; St. Patrick, St. Benignus, St. Carioch, 
otc, "to review, examine, and reduce into order all the 

*Crimthann Liath: This Crimthann (a quo Griffin or Griffin) 
Liath's descendants were very celebrated; some of them settled ia 
Slane in the county of Meath. Of them Colgan says in his " Trias 
Thaum" : " Est regiunoula Australis Orgielliaj, nunc ad Baroniam 
Slanensem spectans, vulgo Crimthainne dicta." 

Some of the descendants of this Crimthann Liath [leea] assumed 
the sirname Lee. 

■YMuredach Munderg : " Soon after St. Patrick's arrival in Ire- 
land," writes Dr. Joyce, "one of his principal converts was St. 
Donart, Bishop, son of Eochy, king of Ulidia or Ulster.'' 

The Saint's name — a very significant one — was " Domhan-Gabh- 
Airt" (domlian : Irish, the world, and gabh, I take), which means 
I take Art from the world (to serve his Heavenly Master). By 
contraction the name became " Domhang'harf and ultimately 
"Domhanghart" — Anglicised " Donart." 

St. Donart founded two churches — one at Maghera, on the northern 
side of the mountain called Slieve Donard, in Ulster ; and the other, 
according to Colgan, A.SS. page T4S, " on the very summit of the 
mountain itself, far from all human habitation." "The ruins of this 
little church existed down to a recent period on Slieve Donard, 
which takes its name from St. iJonart ; and the name of the moun- 
tain stands as a perpetual memorial of the saint, who is still held in 
extraordinary veneration by the people among the Mourne moun- 
tains. — Joyce. 


monuments of antiquity, genealogies, chronicles, and 
records of the kingdom ;" and Muredach Munderg suc- 
ceeded his father as king of Ulster. From Fergus Ceann- 
fada are descended the 0' Kennedys of Orgiall. 

90. Eochy : the son of Crimthann Liath. 

91. Carbry An-Daimh Airgid:* his son. 

92. Daimhint [Davin] : his son ; a quo Devin, princes 
of Fermanagh. By some, this sirname " Devin" is 
rendered Devine. 

93. Tuathal (or Tool) Maolgharbh : his son ; was the 
132nd monarch of Ireland. This Tuathal had a brother 
named " Clochur," from whom the present town of 
Clogher, in the county of Tyrone, takes its name ; and 
Clochur (clochar : Irish, a college) himself was so called 
because of the college which he founded in that ancient 

94. Tuatan : his son. 

95. Maoldoon : his son : a quo Meldon and Muldoon. 

96. Tual (or Tool) : his son. 

97. Celleach : his son ; a quo Kelly (of Ulster). 

*Carbry An Daimh Airgid : This Carbry -was so called because 
of the great value of the presents he was wont to make (a» ; Irish, 
the def. art. ; daimh [dav], a learned man or poet ; and airgid, 
wealth at money ; Lat. argentum ; Gr. arguros). — Four Masters. 

\Daimhin : From this Daimhin "Devinish Island," in Lough 
Erne, near Enniskillen, in the county of Fermanagh, takes its name ; 
and St. Daimhin, a descendant of that prince of Fermanagh, was the 
founder of the Abbey of Devinish, which is situated on Devinish 
Island. In Irish it was called " Daimhin-Inis," contracted to 
"Daimhinis," and Anglicised " Devinish," which means i)atm/tm's 
(or Devin's) Island. Devinish Island was incorrectly Anglicised the 
"Island of the Ox," on account of the Irish word " damh" [dov], 
an ox, being, in sound, so like the word " daimh" [dav], a learned 
Tnan : hence the observation by Colgan, in reference to the name of 
that island, namely — "quod Latine sonat Bovis Insula." Some of 
the abbots of Devinish were also styled bishops, until, in the twelfth 
century, it was annexed to the see of Clogher. 

The Clan " Daimhin" were long represented by the Devins or 
Davins, and, so late as the fourteenth century, by the family of 
Diver or Dwyer, as lords of Fermanagh. The Maguires, also of the 
same stock, next became princes of Fermanagh, which, after them, 
was called "Maguire's IJountTy."~Four Masters. 


98. Colga : his son ; a quo Colgan. 

99. Donald : his son ; a quo MacDonnel (of Clankelly). 

100. Finaghty : his son. 

101. Art : his son. 

102. Donal: his son. 

103. Felim O'Hart : his son ; the first of the family who 
assumed this sirname. 

104. Maekuanaidh [Mulroony] : his son. This Mul- 
roony's descendants were lords of Fermanagh, and were 
sometimes called " O'Maelruana." 

105. Thomas : his son. 

106. Shane or John: his son. 

107. Art : his son. 

108. Conor : his son. 

109. Tirlogh : his son. 

110. Giolla Chriosd* [Gilchreest] : his son. 

111. Bryan: his son. 

112. Teige : his son. 

113. Awly : his son. 

114. Teige : his son. 

115. Melaghlin (or Malachy) : his son. 

116. Gilchreest Caoch:f his son. 

This Gilchreest had five sons, namely: Hugh, Bryan, 
Teige, William, and Eory. 

117. Hugh : his son. This Hugh had four sons, 
namely: Hugh Oge {oge: Irish, young), Donal Glas 
{glas: Irish, green), Teige Caocht, and Conor. 

118. Hugh Oge: his son. This Hugh had five sons, 
namely: FeUm, Teige Eoe [roe: Irish, red), Conor, Bryan, 
and Neill. 

119. Felim : his son. This Felim had three sons, 
namely: Donoeh Gruama {gruama : Irish, sulky), Donel 
Glas, and Hugh. 

120. Donoeh Gruama : his son. 

121. Teige : his son. 

*Giolla Ghriosd : This name signifies the servant or devoted of 
Christ. The Irish word " Giolla" is therootof the Lat " Gulielmus," 
the French "Guillaume," and the English "William." 

■j^Caoch : This word, which is pi-onouuoed "keeagh, " is the 
same in meaning as the Latin " cseous," dimsighted. 


122. Shane (2) : his son. 

128. Shane (3) : his son. This Shane had two sons, 
namely : Shane and Martin. 

124. Shane (4) : his son. 

125. John or Shane (5) : his son. This John is the 
Writer of these pages, a.d. 1875. 

126. Patrick Andrew O'Hart : his son. 


6. — The Stem of the MacDonnell* (op Antrim) Family. 

CoLLA UaiSj the 121st monarch of Ireland, and son of 
Eochy Dubhlen (No. 84 on the Stem of the O'Hart family 
—see preceeding chapter), wa,s^the ancestor of the Mac- 
DonneUs of Antrim, and, amoiig others, oT the following 
femiUesT^^Agnew, Alexander, Donelan, Flinn, Hale, 
HealyT^MacAIHster, MacClean, Ma^Donkld, MacDougald, 
MacDowell, MacEvoy, MacHale, Jfa^Rory, MacVeagh 
(the ancient Mac Uais), Mac Veigh, MacBheehy, O'Brassil, 
Eogers, Saimders, Saunderson, Sheehy, etc. The subjoined 
is, through as many generations as I can trace, the Stem 
of the MacDonnell (of Antrim) family : — 

*MacDonneU of Antrim: In. Cornie\\a,n'B Four Masters it is said: 
— Some of the ancestors of the tribe " Clan Colla" having gone from 
Ulster in remote times, settled in Scotland, chiefly in Argyle and the 
Hebrides, and, according to Lodge's Peerage on the MacDonneUs, 
earls of Antrim, they became the most numerous and powerful clan 
in the Highlands of Scotland, where they were generally called 
MaeDonalds. In the reign of Malcolm the Fourth, king of Scotland, 
in the twelfth century, Samhairle (Somerled, or Sorley) MacDonnell 
was Thane of Argyle, and his descendants were styled lords of the 
Isles or Hebrides, and lords of Cantyre ; and were allied by inter- 
marriages with the Norwegian earls of the Orkneys, Hebrides, and 
Isle of Man. The MacDonnells continued for many centuries to 
make a conspicuous figure in the history of Scotland, as one of the 
most valiant and powerful clans in that country. Some chiefs of these 


85. Colla Uais [oosh] , the 121st monarch of Ireland ; 
a quo Mac Uais, Anglicised Mac Evoij, Mac Veagh, and 
Mac Veigh. 

86. Eochy : his son. 

87. Earc : his son. 

88. Carthan, a quo MacCartan. 

89. Earc (2). 

90. Fergus. 

91. Godfrey. 

92. Maine. 

MacDonnells came to Ireland in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century ; the first of them mentioned in the Annals of the Four 
Masters being the sons of Eandal, son of Sorley MaeDonnell, the 
Thane or Baron of Argyle above mentioned ; and they, accompanied 
by Thomas MacUchtry (MacGuthrie or MacfJuttry), a chief from 
Galloway, came, a.d., 1211, with seventy-six ships and powerful 
forces to Derry ; they plundered several parts of Derry and 
Donegal, and fresh forces of these Scots having arrived at various 
periods, they made some settlements in Antrim, and continued their 
piratical expeditions along the coasts of Ulster. The MacDonnells 
settled chiefly in those districts called the Eoutes and Glynnes, in 
the territory of ancient Dalriada, in Antrim ; and they had their 
chief fortress at Dunluce. They became very powerful, and formed 
alliances by marriage with the Irish princes and chiefs of Ulster, as 
the O'Neills of Tyrone and Clanaboy, the O'Donels of Donegal, the 
O'Kanes of Derry, the MacMahons of Monaghan, etc. The Mac- 
Donnells carried on long and fierce contests with the MacQuUlans, 
powerful chiefs in Antrim, whom they at length totally vanquished 
in the sixteenth century ; and seized on their lands and their chief 
fortress of Dunseveriok, near the Giant's Causeway. The MacDonnells 
were celebrated commanders of galloglasses in Ulster and Connaught, 
and make a remarkable figure in Irish history, in the various wars 
and battles, from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century, and 
particularly in the reign of Elizabeth ; they were sometimes called 
"Clan Donnells," and by some of the English writers " Mac- 
Connells," The MacAlustrums or MacAllisters of Scotland and 
Ireland were a branch of the MacDonnells, and took their name from 
one of their chiefs named Alastrum or Alexander ; and as the name 
"Sandy" or " Saunders" is a contraction of "Alexander," some 
of the MacAllisters have Anglicised their names " Sauuderson." 
The MacSheehys, according to Lodge, were also a branch of the 
MacDonnells, who came from Scotland to Ireland ; and they also 
were celebrated commanders of galloglasses, particularly in Munster, 
under the Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond. Sir Eandal MacDonn^U, 
son of Sorley Buighe (Buighe : Irish, yellow), son of Alexander, was 
created earl of Antrim by King James the First. — Connellan. 


93. Nialgus. 

94. Swyny. 

95. Murgay. 

96. Roloman. 

97. Gill-Adhamnan. 

98. Gill-bride, a quo Kilbride. 

99. Savarly or Sorley.- 

100. Eanall or Eandal: his son. 

This Eanall's brother, Dubhghall, was ancestor of 

101. Donald: his son; a quo MacDonnell, earl of 
Antrim, and the MacDonalds of Scotland, who were lords 
of the Hebrides and of Cantyre. His brother Alexander 
was ancestor of the sept called " MacDonnell of Ulster"; 
and his brother Eojryor Eoger was ancestor of MacRory 
or Rogers. 

102. MneAs or Aongus Mor : his son. This Aongus 
had a brother named Alastrum, who was ancestor of 
Alexander, MacAllister, MacSheehy, Saunders, Saunderson, 
and Sheehy. 

103. ^neas Oge MacDonnell : his son ; was the first 
to assume this sirname. iEneas Oge had a brother named 
Shane (Eoin or John) who was surnamed the " Gnieve" : 
from this John are descended the family called Mac- 
Gnieve, O'Gnive, or Agnew. 

104. Eoin or John : his son. 

105. Eoin Mor MacDonnell: his son. 

Eoin Mor (or John) MacDonnell had a brother who was 
called "Donald Na Heile": this Donald (instead of 
Dubhghall, brother of Eanall, No. 100 above mentioned) 
is considered by some annalists as the ancestor of Mac- 
Dowell ; from him is also descended Hale, a quo MacHale. 

106. Donald Ballach MacDonnell : his son. 

107. Eoin : his son. 

108. Eoin Cahanach : his son. 

By the epithet " Cahanach" (Cahanach: Irish, of or 
belonging to O'Kane), applied to this Eoin, is meant, that 
he married into the family of O'Kane. 

109. Alexander : his son. 

110. Savarly Buidhe or Sorley Boy : his son. 

111. Eandal (2) : his son ; was the first earl of Antrim. 


This Eandal had another son named Alexander. 

112. Eandal (8): Ms son. 

113. Eandal MacDonnell, son of Alexander, son of 
Eandal (No. Ill above mentioned), was the last earl of 
Antrim, of this ancient family. 


7. — The Stem op the O'Conor Family, 

Kings of Connaiight. 

The eldest brother of Niallus Magnus or Nial of the Nine 
Hostages, No. 87, page 116, was Bryan, the first king of 
Oonnaught of this (the Hy-Niall) sept. This Bryan was 
the ancestor of the O'Conor "Oonnaught" family. 

87. Bryan, the brother of Niallus Magnus. 

88. Duachus Galach : his youngest son. This Duach 
or Duachus was the first Christian king of Oonnaught. 
Duach's brothers who left any issue were, Conell Orison, 
who was ancestor of 0' Medley ; and Arca-Dearg, ancestor 
of O'Hanly (now Hanly and Henly), MacBranuan (now 
Brennan and O'Brennan), etc. 

89. Owen Sreibh : his son ; who was the fifth Christian 
king of that province. 

90. Muredach: his son. 

91. Fergus : his son. 

92. Eochy Tiorm-Charna: his son; who had two brothers 
named Fergna and Duach Teang-Umh. That Fergna was 
ancestor of O'Rourke, kings and lords of West Brefney ; 
of O'Eielly, kings and lords of East Brefney; oi MacTleman 
■or Kiernan, MacGauran (modernized Magovern, and 
Magauran), and MacLaughlin. And Duach Teang-Umh 
was ancestor of 0' Flaherty, McHugh (of Oonnaught), etc. 

93. Aodh or Hugh Abrad: his son; who was the eighth 
Christian king. 

94. Uadach : his son ; the ninth king ; a quo Dowd and 


O'Bowd.* This Uadach had a brother named Cuornan, who 
had a son called Maolruan, from whom " Siol Maolruana" 
is 80 called ; and who was ancestor of O'Hynn, of Con- 

95. Eaghallach : his son ; the 11th king. 

96. Fergus : his son. 

97. Muredach : his son ; the 16th king. 

98. Inrachta : his son ; who was the 17th king. From 
him are descended O'Donriellan , 0' Flanagan (of Connaught), 
O'MuloocJiory, O'Mulbremian ; and Inrachta's brother 
Cathal or Charles was ancestor of O'Finaghty. This 
Inrachta died a.d. 724. 

99. Murgal: his son. 

100. Tumaltach or Timothy : his son. 

101. Murias : his son ; who had abrother named Dermott 
Fionn. This Dermott Fionn was ancestor of 0' Concannon, 
0' Mullen, O'Finn, O'Fahy, etc. Murias died a.d. 815. 

102. Teige Mor : his son. This Teige had a brother 
named Charles, who was ancestor of Geraghty and 

108. Conor .- his son. 

104. Cathal or Charles : his son. This Cathal's younger 
brother Mulclothach was ancestor of O'Tumalty or Tally, 
and MacMorrissy, Morris, and Morrison. 

105. Teige : his son. This Teige, who died a.d. 956, 
married Creassa, daughter of Area, lord of West Connaught ; 
and Area's other daughter Beavionn was wife of Kennedy 
(king of Munsterj, and mother of Brian Boru, the famous 
monarch of Ireland. 

106. Conor : his son ; who was the 40th Christian king 
of Connaught ; and from whom O'Conor "Roe," O'Conor 
"Don, "and 0'Conor"/S/i3o, "derivethesirname "O'Conor." 
He died ad. 973. This Conor had a brother named 
Muboony Mor, who was the ancestor of "Clan Mulroona," 
vi?. : Mulrooney, MacDe7-mott, MacDonough, O'Crolly, etc.; 
and Conor's other brother Teige was ancestor of O'Teige 
or Tighe, who were collectors to the king of Connaught. 

107. Cathal or Charles O'Conor : his son ; was the 42nd 

*0'Dowd: It is a misprint to make this ITadacli the ancestor of 
Dtywd&Tii O'Dowdj who are descended from Fiaohra, brother of 
NiaU of the Nine Hostages, No. 87, page 116. 



Christian king; and the first of this family that assumed 
this sirname. 

108. Teige An Each [ogh] Ghal or Teige of the White 
Steed: his son ; who was the 48rd Christian king. 

109. Aodh (or Hugh) An Gha Bhearney : his son ; who 
was the 44th king. 

110. Eory Na Saighthe Buidhe : his son ; who was the 
46th king. 

111. Tirlogh Mor or Turdelvachus Magnus : his son ; 
who was the 48th king of Connaught, and the 181st mon- 
arch of Ireland. 

112. Cathal Craobh-dearg : his son. This Cathal was 
the fifty-first king. 

113. Aodh : his son. This Aodh or Hugh O'Conor was 
the last king of Connaught. 

114. Eoderick : his son. 

115. Owen : his son. 

116. Hugh (3) : his son. 

117. Felim : his son. 

118. Hugh (4): his son. 

119. Tirlogh Eoe : his son. 

120. Teige O'Conor Roe : his son. 

121. Charles O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

122. Teige Buidhe (Boy) O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

123. Tirlogh Eoe O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

124. Hugh (5) O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

125. Charles Oge O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

126. Teige O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

127. Hugh (6) O'Conor Eoe : his son. 

128. Charles O'Conor Eoe : his son. 
This Charles O'Conor died without issue. 

I.— THE HOUSE OP HEEEMON— Contwrnei : 

8. — The Stem op the O'Kellt Eamilt, 

o/ Hy-Mame, in the counties of Oalway and Boscommon. 

This family is descended from Imchadh or Imcha the 
second son of CoUa-da-Chrioch, No. 85 on the O'Hart 
family stem, page 137: 


85. Colla-da-Chrioch, the first king of Orgiall. 

86. lomolaadh or Imclia : his younger son. 

87. Donal or Daniel: his son. 

88. Eochy : his son. 

89. Maine Mor : his son ; a quo the territory of 
•" Hy-Maine" was so called. 

90. Breassal : his son. 

91. Dalian: his son. 

92. Lughach : his son ; whose brother Fiaehra was 
•ancestor of O'Naghten and MuUally (or Lallg). 

93. Fearach : his son. 

94. Carbry Crom Eis : his son. 

95. Cormac : his son. 

96. Owen Fionn : his son; whose brother Owen Buok 
■was ancestor of 0' Madden, Clancy, Tracey, Hannin, 
Kenny, Hoolahan, etc. 

97. Dicolla : his son. 

98. Dhihach : his son. 

99. Ficholla : his son. 

100. Inrachta : his son ; whose brother Cosgrach was 
.ancestor of O'h-Aedhagan, Anglicised O'Siggin* by some, 
and Egan and MacEgan by others. This family were 
iereditary chief judges of Ireland. 

101. Olioll : his son. 

102. Fiaachta : his son. 

103. Ceallach : his son ; a quo the sirname O'Kelly (of 

104. Aodh or Hugh : his son. 

105. Moroch : his son. 

106. Teige O'KeUy: his son; the first of the family that 
.assumed the sirname O'Kelly. This Teige, as king of 
" Hy-Maine," was slain at the Battle of Clontarf, a.d. 
1014, fighting on the side of the monarch Brian Boru ; 
and is therefore called "Teige Catha Brian," meaning 
Teige who fell in the Battle of Brian. 

107. Conor O'Kelly: his son; whose brother Teige 

* O'Siggin : This sirname is now rendered Higgina ; and the 
present lineal representative of this ancient family is, I find, Thomas 
Higgins, Esq., Solicitor, Tuam, County Galway. 


•was ancestor of MacTague, which has been Anglicised 

108. Dermot : his son. 

109. Conor (2) : his son. 

1 10. Teige (2) : his son. 

111. Daniel (2): his son. 

112. Conor (3) : his son. 

118. Donoch : his son. This Donoch had by his first 
wife three sons ; and by the second wife one son, named 
William, who succeeded him in the principality. 

114. William Buidhe [Boy] : his youngest son. 

115. Melaghlin or Malachy : his son. This Melaghlia 
was the twentieth "O'Kelly," and lord of Hy- Maine. 

116. Donoch: his son. 

Donoch O'Kelly (No. 113 above mentioned), who was 
succeeded in the principality by his youngest son William 
Buidhe [Boy] , was ancestor of O'Eeogh; his eldest son by 
the first marriage was Maine — in whom the stem of the 
O'Kelly family continues : 

113. Donoch, son of Conor (3). 

114. Maine : his son. 

115. Philip : his son. 

116. Murtagh: his son. 

After _ this Murtagh O'Kelly became a widower, he 
entered into Holy Orders ; and was, by Pope Boniface the 
Ninth, made Bishop of Tuam. 

117. Melaghlin: his son. 

118. Donoch : his son. 

119. Conor : his son. 

120. William: his son. 

121. William (2): his son. 
► 122. Edmond : his son. 

123. WilHam (3) : his son. 

124. William (4) : his son. 

125. Edmond O'Kelly: his son. 


ll— THE HOUSE OF KEUEMO'R— Continued : 

9. — The Stem of the O'Donel Family. 

NiALL of the Nine Hostages, No. 87, page 116, had many 
sons, of whom were Conall Crimthann, ancestor of 
" O'Melaghlin," kings of Meath ; and Oonall Gulban, 
ancestor of O'Donel, princes of Tirconnell : 

88. Conall Gulban, son of Niallus Magnus. 

89. Fergus : his son. 

90. Sedna : his son. 

91. Fergus (2) : his son. 

92. Lughach : his son. 
S3. Eonan : his son. 

94. Garue: his son. 

95. Ceannfaola: his son. 

96. Muldun : his son. 

97. Amel : his son. 

98. Ceannfaola (2) : his son. 

99. Muriartus : his son. 

100. Dalagh : his son ; a quo " Siol-n-Dalagh," 
Anglicised Daly. 

101. Egnechan : his son. 

102. Donald: his son ; ancestor of 0'Z)o?i8i. 

103. Cathbharr O'Donel: his son; was the first of the 
family that assumed this sirname. 

104. Gilchreest : his son. 

105. Cathbharr (2) : his son. 

106. Conn : his son. 

107. Teige : his son. 

108. Hugh : his son. 

109. Donald (2) : his son. 

110. Doncha or Donoch : his son. 

111. Egnechan (2) : his son. 

112. Donald Mor : his son. 

113. Donald Oge : his son. 

114. Hugh (2) : his son. 

115. Neil-Garne : his son. 

116. Tirloch An Fhiona fAn Fhiona: Irish, of the 
Wine): his son. 

117. Neil-Garne (2) : his son. 


118. Hugh (3) Eoe : his son. 

119. Hugh (4) Dubh: his son. 

120. Manus : his son ; was the last king or prince of 
Tirconnell. He died, a.d. 1549. 

121. Hugh O'Donel: his son. This Hugh accepted the 
title of " earl of Tirconnell." 

[For later information in connection with the genealogy 
of " O'Donel" and other ancient Irish families, see the 
Appendix to " O'Donovan's Four Masteis.] 


IO.-^The Stem of the " O'Melaghlin" Family, 
Kings of Meath. 

This family was descended from Conall Crimthann, son of 
Niallus Magnus or Niall of the Nine Hostages, No. 87, as 
in the stem of the O'Donel family, in the preceding chapter. 

88. Conall Crimthann, the first Christian king of 

89. Fergus Cearbhoil : his son. 

90. Diarmot : his son ; the 5th king of Meath, and the 
133rd monarch of Ireland. It was in this Dermot's reign, 
that the royal palace of Tara was deserted (see " Tara 
Deserted," in the Appendix). 

91. Colman Mor : his son; the 6th Christian king. 

92. Swyny : his son : the 8th king. 

93. Conall Gulbin: his son; the 11th king. 

94. Armeus or Armeadh : his son. 

95. Diarmot (2) : his son ; the 13th king. 

96. Murcha or Moroch Midheach : his son; the 14th 

97. Donald : his son ; the 19th king. 

98. Doncha or Donoch : his son. 

99. Maelruanaidh or Mulroona : his son ; the 27th king. 
100. Maelseachlinn Mor or Malachy the Great : his 

son ; the 29th Christian king, and the 167th monarch of 


101. Flann (or Florence) Sienna : his son ; the 82nd 
king, and the 169th monarch. 

102. Donoch or Dunchadus : his son ; the 35th king, 
and 171st monarch. 

103. Donald: his son. 

104. Malachy the Second : his son ; was the 4;5th 
Christian king, and the 174th monarch of Ireland. This 
monarch died a great penitent in his Cell (or Cro) on the 
Island of Cro-Inis, in Lough Annin, in the county of 
Westmeath, a.d. 1023; from him his posterity took the 
sirname " O'Melaghlin." 

105. Donald : his son ; the 47th king of Meath. 

106. Conor or Conquovarus : his son ; was murdered 
A.D. 1073. This Conor was the 48th king. 

107. Donald : his son. 

108. Moroch : his son. 

109. Malachy : his son. 

110. Arthur : his son. 

111. Cormac : his son. 

112. Arthur (2) : his son. 

113. Neill: his son. 

114. Cormac (2) : his son. 

115. Cormac (3) Oge: his son. 

116. Conn Mor : his son. 

117. Felim : his son. 

118. Fehm (2) Oge : his son. 

119. Charles: his son. 

120. Moroch : his son. 

121. Charles (2) : his son. 

122. Cormac (4) : his son. 

123. Arthur " O'Melaghlin" : his son. 

It is said that this family, since the reign of Queen 
Anne, have changed their sirname to MacLaughlin. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF BW&EM.O^— Continued: 

11. — Th^ Stem of the Eoyal Family. 

This stem is given in the Table commencing in page 24 ; 
the following names carefully trace the genealogy from 


King Malcolm the Third or Malcolm Cann Mor down to 
Walter, the lord steward of Scotland— the "Mor Mhaor 
Leamhna" (or Great Steward of Lennox) of the Irish 
annalists. This Walter, lord "steward" of Scotland, was 
the ancestor of Stewart, and of the kings of Scotland and 
England of the Stuart dynasty. 

109. Malcolm the Third, king of Scotland, ascended the 
throne, a.d. 1057, and died, a.d. 1094. Malcolm's father, 
King Duncan, was murdered by Macbeth, a.d. 1041, upon 
which occasion this Malcolm and his brother Donald Bane 
(ban : Irish, white ; hahin : Heb., bright), to avoid the same 
fate from Macbeth, fled into Ireland, where, and m Eng- 
land, they spent the most part of their time during the 
life of the usurper. 

110. David:* his youngest son ; king of Scotland. 

111. Henry, prince of Scotland: his only son ; who died 
in his father's life-time, leaving issue three sons, viz. : 
King Malcolm the Fourth, who died without issue, a.d. 
1163; William, surnamed "the Lion," who died a.d. 
1214 ; and, after this WiUiam, his son and grandson, both 
named Alexander, reigned successively, and their issue 
became extinct. 

112. David : the third son of Henry. The issue of this 
David were three daughters, of whom Margaret (the wife, 
first of Alan Fitz-Eoland, and next, of Mai, king of 
Galloway) was mother of Dornagill, who was wife of John 
BaUoll, king of Scotland for a time in her right, by the 
award of Edward the First, king of England.! 

* David : From this David, king of Scotland, the youngest son of 
Malcolm the Third, is descended the Graig family of Banbridge, in 
the County Down ; whose genealogy, in unbroken lineage from this 
King David down to William Graham Graig, of Waterloo-road, 
Dublin, I have traced, as follows : 1. David, king of Scotland ; 2. 
Prince Henry, his son ; 3. David, his son ; 4. Isabel, his daughter ; 
6. Robert Bruce, her son ; 6. Robert Bruce (2), his son, who was 
called "King Robert the First"; 7. Margery, his daughter; 8. 
Robert Stewart, her son ; 9. John, his son ; 10. James, his son ; H. 
Ninion, his son ; 12. James (2), his son ; 13. !Ninion (2), his son ; 14. 
James (3), his son ; 15. Christian, his son ; 16. Ninion (3), his son, 
17. William, his son ; 18. Mary, his daughter ; 19. Mary Dickson, 
her daughter ; 20. Matilda Bailie, her daughter ; 21. Stewart Craig, 
her son ; and 22. William Graham Craig, his son. 

■^ King of England : When, a.d. 1296, Edward the First conquered 


113. Isabel : tlie second daughter of David. This Isabel 
married Eobert Bruce, called " The Noble" ; who competed 
with Baliol for the crown of Scotland. 

Scotland, he carried away from Soone to London, the crown and 
sceptre surrendered by Balioll ; and the " stone of destiny" on 
which the Scottish monarohs were placed when they received their 
royal inauguration. That stone or seat Fergus Mor Mao Earca had, 
for the purpose of his inauguration, sent to him from Ireland to 
Scotland, by his brother Murohertus Mac Earca, the 131st monarch ; 
and that stone-seat, the "stone of destiny" or Lia Fail of the 
ancient Irish, is now preserved in Westminster Abbey, under the 
Coronation Chair. 

This " Lia Fail" was, before Christ 1897, brought to Ireland by 
the Tua-de-Danans ; and on it they crowned their kings. It is 
believed to be the stone on which Jacob reposed : hence the vene- 
ration with which it was regarded, and which for ages secured its 
preservation in Ireland and Scotland. 

Of that " Stone of Destiny" Sir Walter Scott observes : 
" Its virtues are preserved in the celebrated leonine verse — 

" Ni fallat fatum, Scoti, quocuuque locatum 
luvenient lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem. 

" Which may be rendered thus : — 

" Unless the fates are faithless found, 

And prophet's voice be vain. 
Where'er this monument is found 

The Scottish race shall reign. 

" There were Scots who hailed the accomplishment of this pro- 
phecy at the accession of James the Sixth to the crown of England ; 
and exulted, that, ia removing this palladium, the policy of Edward 
resembled that of the people who brought the Trojan horse in 
triumph within their walls, and which occasioned the destruction of 
their royal family. The stone is still preserved, and forms the sup- 
port of King Edward the Confessor's chair, which the sovereign 
occupies at his coronation ; and, independent of the divination so 
long in being accomplished, is in itself a very curious remnant of 
extreme antiquity. " 

Without attaching any superstition whatever to the "Saxum 
Fatale" or " stone of destiny," which thus forms the support of 
King Edward the Confessor's chair, in Westminster Abbey, one 
•cannot help thinking that, after all, there is some force in the 
"divination" respecting it, contained in the lines — ■ 

" Scoti, quocunque locatum 

Invenient lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem" ; 

for, in the person of our gracious Sovereign, the Scottish Race now 
reigns, as it did in the person of the monarch who, in Scott's time, 
swayed the sceptre of the Bribish empire, where the Irish Lia Fail 
is so carefully preserved ! 


114. Eobert Bruce (2) : son of the said Eobert and 
Isabel; was earl of Annundale (Annandale) and of Carrick, 
in right of his wife Martha, who was daughter and heiress 
of the earl of Carrick. 

115. Eobert Bruce (3) : his son. After much trouble 
and many wars between this Eobert and his competitor 
Baliol, Bruce recovered his right to the kingdom, and was 
crowned the fifty-seventh king of Scotland; which he 
maintained for twenty-four years against Balioll, and 
against Edward the First and Edward the Second of 

This Eobert Bruce* had one son named David, who was 
king of Scotland, and died without issue, a.d. 1370 ; and 
one daughter named Margery, upon whose issue by her 
husband the " Mor Mhaor Leamhna" or Great Steward 
of Lennox, namely — Walter, the lord steward of Scotland, 
the crown was entailed in case of the failure of her 
brother's issue. This Walter, lord " steward," was the 
ancestor of Stewart, and of the Stuarts who were kings of 
Scotland and England. 

Queen Matilda was the only daughter of Malcolm the 
Third, king of Scotland ; was the wife of king Henry the 
First of England, who was the youngest son of William 
the Conqueror: she was crowned at Westminster on the 
11th November, a.d. 1100. Queen Matilda's marriage 

*Rohert Bruce : Notwithstanding that King Edward the First of 
England conquered Scotland, carried Balioll a prisoner to London, 
and destroyed all records of antiquity (which came within his reach) 
that inspired the Scots with a spirit of national pride — 

" Still are the Scots determined to oppose 
And treat intruding Edward's friends as foes ; 
Till the reTengeful king, in proud array, 
Swears to make Scotland bend beneath his sway." 

— MacDoTiald. 

Bruce made several fruitless attempts to recover the independence- 
of his country, which, since Balioll resigned it, King Edward the 
First considered as his own ; who, with his last breath, enjoined his 
son and successor, Edward the Second of England, to prosecute the 
war against Scotland, "till that obstinate nation was finally con- 
quered." It was not, however, until the "Battle of Bannockburn,"' 
A.t>. 1314, that the Scots, under this Robert Bruce — afterwards, 
called " King Robert the First" — established their independence. 


to Henry the First united the Irish or Scottish, Saxon, 
and Norman Dynasties ; in her and her daughter, Princess 
Maude, continues the lineal descent of the present Eoyal 
Family of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The Princess Maude was, as already mentioned, daughter 
of King Henry the First of England and of Queen Matilda; 
Queen Matilda was daughter of Malcolm the Third of 
Scotland and of Princess Margaret; Princess Margaret was 
the eldest daughter of Prince Edward and of Agatha; and 
Agatha was daughter of Henry the Third, Emperor of 
Germany. Prince Edward was son of Edmund Ironside 
and of Algitha; and, after his father's death, was banished 
from England to Hungary, by Canute, the Danish king. 
Canute died, a.d. 1036; and Prince Edward afterwards 
returned to England, and died in London, a.d. 1057. 

In Cox's Hibernia Anglicana the following passage is 
quoted from a speech delivered by King James the First, 
at the Council Table in Whitehall, on the 21st of April,. 

"There is a double cause why I should be careful of the welfare 
of that (the Irish) people : first, as King of England, by reason of the 
long possession the Crown of England hath had of that land; and 
also as King of Scotland, for the ancient Kings of Scotland were 
descended from the Kings of Ireland." 

After the death of Queen Anne, George the First, 
Elector of Hanover, son of Ernest Augustus and of the- 
Princess Sophia, ascended the throne of England, a.d. 
1714, pursuant to the "Act of Succession." Ernest 
Augustus, himself, formed a double line of the pedigree, 
for he, as well as his wife, was descended from Henry the 
Second. That Pedigree is thus traced : Ernest Augustus 
was son of George, son of William, son of Ernestus, son 
of Henry, son of Otho the Second, son of Frederick, son 
of Bernard, son of Magnus, son of Albert the Second, son 
of Albert the First, son of Otho the First, Duke of 
Brunswick and Lunenburg ; son of Henry, Duke of Saxony, 
who was the husband of Princess Maude, the eldest 
daughter of King Henry the Second of England, who was 
son of the Princess Maude, daughter of Queen Matilda ; 
who was daughter of King Malcolm the Third of Scotland, 
as above. 


According to the learned Hardiman, George theFourth*, 
■when passing in view of the Hill of Tara, during his visit 
to Ireland, a.d. 1821, 

' ' Declared himself proud of hia descent from the ancient monarcha 
of the land." 

Forman, who wrote in the eighteenth century, says : 
" The greatest antiquity which the august House of Hanover 
itself can boast, is deduced from the Royal Stem of Ireland. ' 

In this work (see page 24), that "Eoyal Stem" is care- 
fully compiled from sources as authentic as any that can 
be found in profane records. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF HEREMON.— Continued : 

12. — The Stem of the O'Toole Family. 

FiACHus or Fiacha, the youngest son of Cahir Mor, the 
109th monarch of Ireland, and No. 90 on the O'Conor 
"Faley" Stem, was ancestor of O'Toole. 

90. Cahir Mor or Cathirius Magnus, King of Leinster, 
and the 109th Monarch of Ireland. 

91. Fiacha: his son. 

92. Breasal Bealach: his son; who was the second 
Christian King of Leinster. This King was ancestor of 
Hughes (of Leinster), Kavanagh or Cavanagh, MacDavid, 
MacMorough, MacOnchon, Mooney (of Wicklow and Wex- 
ford), Murphy, O'Bynie, O'Meala, O'Hanrahan, O'Har- 
rachtan, O'Byan, O'Toole, etc. 

*Oeorge the Fourth: According to Gaskin, the visit in 1821 by His 
Majesty George the Fourth was the first instance in Irish history of 
an English monarch ^dsitiug Ireland as a friend; for, before him, 
when other monarchs came over, it was not a visit but a visitation. 
Even their Viceroys, tOl the accession of the Brunswick Dynasty, 
but too truly justified the bitter witticism of the late Sir Hercules 
Langrishe : 

" In what history," said a modern Viceroy (earl Fitzwilliam), "in 
what history. Sir Hercules, shall I find an account of all the Irish 
Lords Lieutenant ?" 

" Indeed I do not know, my lord," replied Langrishe, "unless it 
be in a continuation of rapine (Rapin)." — Gaskin's Irish Varieties. 


93. Enna Nia Hada: his son; whose brother Laura 
was ancestor of MacMorough. 

94. Dunlong: his son; a quo Bowling. 

95. AilioU; his son; who was the fifth Christian King 
of Leinster. This Ailioll had a brother named Maonach, 
who was the ancestor of Mooney of Wicklow and Wexford. 

96. Cormac; his son. 

97. Carbry Dubh ; his son. 

98. Colman: his son. 

99. Faolan: his son. 
100. Conell: his son. 

101 Bran Moot: his son; was the 14th Christian Eing- 
of Leinster; died a.d. 689. 

102. Moroch: his son; a quo Murphy. This Moroch 
(or Murcha) was the 16th Christian King of Leinster. He 
had a son named Faolan, who was the 18th King of 
Leinster: this Faolan was the ancestor of Byrne and 
O'Byme, of Wicklow. 

103. Muredach: his son; was the ancestor of O' Toole. 

104. Bran; his son. 

105. Muredach (2) his son. 

106. Dunlong: his son. 

107. Ailioll: his son. 

108. Augary: his son. 

109. Tuahal: his son; a quo the simames Toole and 

110. Duncuan: his son. 

HI. Gill-Comgall O'Toole: his son; was the first wha 
assumed this sirname. 

112. Gill-Caomgan : his son. 

113. Duncuan Baccach: his son. 

114. Gill-Comgall Baccach: his son. 

115. Gill-Camhan Faithche: his son. 

116. Waltero: his son. 

117. Gill-Caomhinn Na Fichle: his son. 

118. Faolan: his son. 

119. David: his son. 

120. Aodh or Hugh : his son. 

121. Shane or John Eoe: his son. 

122. Hugh: his son. 

123. John O'Toole: his son. 


I.— THE HOUSE OF HEEEMON.— Continued : 
13. The Stem of the O'Eourkb Family. 

Fergus, No. 91 on the Stem of the O'Conor " Connaught" 
Family, had three sons: viz.— 1. Eochy Tiorm-charna, 
2. Fergna, and 3. Duach Teang-umh ; this Fergna was 
ancestor of O'Rourke, kings and lords of West Brefney ; 
and of O'Rielly, of East Brefney. 

92. Fergna : his son ; who had two sons named Hugh 
Fionn and Brennan ; this Brennan was the ancestor of 
Mac Tiernan or Kieman ; MacGauran, ilayauran, or 
Magovern ; and MacLaughlin. 

93. Hugh Fionn : his son. 

94. Scanlan : his son. 

95. Crimthann : his son. 

96. Felim : his son. 

97. Blamachis : his son. 

98. Boythin : his son. 

99. Doncha or Donoch : his son. 

100. Dubhdara : his son. 

101. Cobthach (by some called Carnachan) : his son. 

102. Hugh (2) : his son. This Hugh had a brother 
named Maolmorra, who was the ancestor of O'Rielly, lords 
and princes of East Brefney, now the county of Cavan. 

103. Tiernan : his son ; who was prince or lord of West 
Brefney ; which contained the three lower baronies of the 
county of Leitrim. 

104. Eork : his son ; a quo the sirname O'Rourke. 

105. Art or Arthur O'Eourke: his son; who first 
assumed this sirname. 

106. Feargal Sean {Sean: Irish, old): his son. 

107. Hugh (3) : his son. 

108. Arthur : his son. 

109. Hugh (4) : his son. 

110. Neil : his son. 

111. Ualarg: his son. This Ualarg had two sons named 
Tiernan and Donald : Donald was ancestor of MacTiernan 
of Corry ; and this Tiernan O'Eourke was the last prince 
of West Brefney. 



14. — The Stem of the MaoMahon Family. 

The MacMahon of Ulster. 

■Cakbey-An-Daimh Airgid, No. 91 on the Stem of the 
O'Hart family (page 136), had a son named Nadslo, who 
■was the ancestor of MacMahon, lords and princes of 

92. Nadslo, son of Carbry An Daimh Airgid. 

93. Fergus: his son. 

94. Konan: his son. 

95. Muldun (also called Mul-Temin) : his son. 

96. Fogarty : his son. 

97. Euorach orEory: his son. 

98. Fogarty (2) : his son. 

99. Paul: his son. 

100. Caroll: his son. 

101. Lagnen: his son. 

102. Mahon: his son; a quo the sirnames Mahon and 

103. Donald: his son. 

104. Cu-Casil: his son. 

105. Donoch MacMahon: his son; the first in this 
family who assumed this sirname. 

106. Faolan: his son. 

107. Hugh : his son. 

108. Mahon (2) : his son. 

109. Manus: his son. 

110. Mahon (3): his son. 

111. Eochy : his son. 

112. Eodolph: his son. 

113. Eochy (2) : his son. 

114. Bryan Mor: his son. 

115. Ardgal: his son. 

116. Eoger : his son. 

117. Owen: his son. 

118. Owen (2) : his son. 

119. John Buidhe [Boy] : his son. 

120. Hugh (2) : his son. 

121. Hugh (3) Oge: his son. 

122. Bryan MacMahon : his son. 


I.— THE HOUSE OFHEREMON— (7o7imiM8i.- 
15. — The Stem of the Maguire Family. 
Nadslo, the ancestor of the MacMahon Family, as in the- 
preceding chapter, had a brother named Cormac: this 
Cormac was the ancestor of Maguire, lords and princes of 

91. Carbry-An-Daimh Airgid. 

92. Cormac: his son. 

93. Hugh : his son. 

94. Fergus : his son. 

95. Cormac (2): his son. " 

96. Egneach orFechiu: his son. 

97. Irgall : his son. 

98. Luan: his son; a quo "Clan Luan;" namely— 
Lavan, O'Lavan, etc. 

99. Kerney : his son ; a quo Kerney. 

100. Uidhir [Ivir] : his son. 

101. Orgiall: his son; a quo Orell. 

102. Searry : his son. 

103. Uidhir (2): his son; a quo Ivir, Ivor, MacGu-yre,. 
Mac Ivir, Mac Ivor, Maguire. 

104. Orgiall (2) : his son. 

105. Searry (2) : his son. 

106. Uidhir Oge : his son. 

107. Eandal: his son. 

108. Dunn Mor : his son. 

109. GioUa losa : his son. 

110. Donald: his son. 

111. Dunn (2) Oge : his son. 

112. Flaherty : his son. 

113. Hugh (2) : his son. 

114. Philip : his son. 

115. Thomas (also called Gilduff) : his son ; a quo the 
Birname Kilduff. 

116. Thomas (2) Oge: his son. 

117. Philip : his son. 

118. Bryan: his son. 

119. Cu-Oonaght: his son. 

120. Cu-Conaght (2): his son. 

121. Cu-Conaght (8): his son. 

122. Hugh (3) Maguire : his son. 


I.— THE HOUSE OP HEUEMO'R— Continued: 
16. — The Stem of the MacMobough Family. 

Enna Nia Hada, No. 93 on the Stem of the O'Toole family, 
had a brother named Laura : this Laura was the ancestor 
of MacMorough, kings of Leinster. 

93. Laura, sonof BreasalBealaeh, the second Christian 
king of Leinster, and brother of Enna Nia Hada, as above. 

94. Enna Cinsealach : his son ; a quo the sirname 

95. Crimthann Gas: his son. 

96. Nathy : his son. 

97. Owen : his son. 

98. Siolan : his son ; a quo Sloan. 

99. Faelan : his son. 

100. Faolchu : his son. 

101. Onchu: his son. 

102. Eudgal : his son. 

103. Hugh: his son. 

104. Dermot: his son. 

105. Carbry : his son. 

106. Keneth : his son. 

107. Ceallach : his son. 

108. Donald : his son. 

109. Dermot (2) : his son. 

110. Donoch Maol Na Mbo : his son. 

111. Dermot : his son. This Dermot or Dermitius was 
the 49th Christian king of Leinster, and the 177th Milesian 
monarch of Lreland. 

112. Murcha, Moroch, or Morough: his sou ; a quo the 
simames Mac Morough and Morrow. This Murcha was the 
50th Christian king of Leinster. 

113. Donoch: his son; who was the 56th king of 

114. 'Dermoi-'^s.-^gsll (Na Ngall: Iriah, the foreigners) 
or Dermot MacMorough : his son. This Dermot was the 
last king of Leinster. 


I.— THE HOUSE OF B.EB.Y.M.ON— Continued : 
17. The Stem of the O'Plahebty Family. 

DuACHUS Teano-Umh (teang-umh: Irisli, brazen tongue), 
brother of Eochy Tiorm-Charna, No. 92 on the Stem of 
the O'Conor "Connaught" family (page 144), was the 
ancestor of 0' Flaherty. 

92. Duachus Teang-umh, son of Fergus, son of Muredach, 
son of Owen Sreibh, the fifth Christian king of Connaught. 

93. Hugh: his son. 

94. Colga: his son. 

95. Caonfaola: his son. 

96. Awly: his son. 

97. Florence (or Flann) Eova: his son. 

98. Fiangall: his son. 

99. Flathnia: his son. 

100. Morogh (called Maonagh): his son; died, a.d. 892. 

101. Urbhan : his son. 

102. Moriagh or Moria: his son. 

103. Maonagh: his son. 

104. Moriagh (2) : his son. 

105. Evin: his son; a quo Evanjs. 

106. Flaherty: his son; a quo the sirname O' Flaherty. 

107. Mulculard: his son. 

108. Moria Mor O'Flaherty: his son; who was the first 
in the family that assumed this sirname. 

109. Soger O'Flaherty: his son. 

110. Hugh (2) : his son. 

111. Muredach: his son. 

112. Hugh (8): his son. 
118. Eoger (2): his son. 

114. Murtagh: his son. 

115. Donald: his son. This Donald had two sons 
named Hugh Mor and Bryan; the stem of the family 
descended from each of these is as follows : 

116. Hugh (4) Mor: his son. 

117. Donald (2): his son. 

118. Owen: his son. 

119. Owen (2) Oge: his son. 

116. Bryan: his son. 

117. Morogh: his sou. 

118. Donald: his son. 

119. Eoger (8): his son. 

CHAP. I.] 



120. Morogh: his son. 

121. Gillduffe: his son. 

122. Donald: his son. 

123. Morogh: his son. 

124. Sir Morogh: his son. 

125. Morogh O'FIaherty : his 

120. Eoger (4) : his son. 

121. Morogh: his son. 

122. Eoger: his son. 

123. Teige: his son. 

124. Donald: his son. 

125. Sir Morogh: his son. 

126. Teige: his son. 

127. Bryan: his son. 

128. Col-Morogh: his son; 
who died, a.d. 1652. 

129. Bryan O'Flaherty: his 


18. The Stem op the O'Neill Family. 

The monarch Niall Glundubh, No. 100, page 121, was 
the ancestor of O'Neill; from him the stem of the O'Neill 
family is there traced down to Art Oge O'Neill. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF nEEEMO^.— Continued. 

19. The Stem of the MacLoghlin Family. 

The monarch Niallus Glundubh, ancestor of the O'Neill 
family, had a younger brother named Donald, who was 
King of Aileach ( a territory in the County Donegal) : this 
Donald was the ancestor of MacLoghlin and O'Loqhlin of 

100. Donald, King of AUeach, brother of Nial Glundubh, 
and second son of the monarch Aldus Finliath, No. 99, 
page 121. 

101. Murtagh : his son. This Murtagh had six brothers, 
one of whom, named Fergus, was King of Aileach. 

102. Donald: son of Murtagh; and King of Aileach. 

103. Donald Oge: his son; King of Aileach. 


104. Muredach: his son; King of Aileach. 

105. Lochlin: his son; King of Aileach. Prom this 
Lochlin his posterity derived the sirnames O'Loghlin and 
MacLoglilin, powerful families in their time. 

106. Ardgal MacLoghlin: his son; King of Aileach; and 
the first of the family that assumed this sirname. 

107. Donald or Donaldus: his son; King of Aileach; 
and the 179th monarch of Ireland. This Donald, _ as 
monarch, reigned jointly with Murchertus O'Brien, King 
of Munster; and alone for thirty-five years, both before 
and after Murchertus. Most of that time was spent in 
bloody wars and devastations between these two com- 
petitors for the monarchy, until at length they agreed to 
the old division of "Leath Mogha" and "Leath Ouinn" 
between them ; and both ended their days very penitently : 
Murchertus, in the monastery of Lismore, a.d. 1119; and 
Donald, in the monastery of Columkille at Derry (now 
Londonderry), a.d. 1121. 

108 Neil: his son; who was King of Aileach. 

109. Murchertus MacLoghlin: his son. This Murchertus 
was King of Aileach, and the 182nd (and last save one) 
monarch of Ireland of the Milesian Irish Race. He was 
a warlike, victorious, and fortunate prince; brought all 
the provinces of Ireland under his subjection; forced 
hostages from them; and after ten years' absolute reign 
was, by Donoch O'Carroll, King of Oriel (that part of the 
ancient kingdom of Onjlall, now the County Louth) slain 
in battle, a.d. 1166.' [I can find no further account of 
this ancient family.] 

I.— THE HOUSE OF HEEEMON— Contrnwai ; 

20. The Stem of the O'Byrne Family. 

MoBOCH or Murcha, who was the sixteenth Christian king 
of Leinster, and who is No. 102 on the stem of the O'Toole 
family (page 157), had a son named Paolan, who was the 
eighteenth king of Leinster : this Faolan was the ancestor 
of O'Byrne of Wicklow. 


103. Faolan, the 18th Christian king of Leinster. 

104. Eory; his son. 

105. Dermot: his son. 

106. Muregan : his son. 

107. Maolmorra: his son. 

108. Bran Fionn: his son; a quo Byrne and 0' Byrne. 

109. Moroch.-his son. 

110. Maolmorra (2): his son. 

111. Brann (2): his son. 

112. Donoch Na Soighe [soighead or saighead: Irish, an 
an-ow, a dart; Lat. sagitta) O'Byrne: his son. This Donoch 
was the first of the family who assumed this sirname. 

113. Donoch (2) Mor: his son. 

114. Donald Na Scath {scath: Irish, a shadow): his son. 

115. Dunlong Dubhchlarana {Buhhchlarana : Irish, a 
small, dark person): his son. 

116. Olioll An Fiodhbha (fiodhhha: Irish, a wood): his 

117. Moroch Mor: his son. 

118. Donoch (3): his son. 

119. Kanald: his son. 

120. Philip: his son. 

121. Lorcan: his son. 

122. Eanald (2): his son. 

123. Conor: his son, 

124. Donald Glas {glas: Irish, green): his son. 

125. Hugh; his son. 

126. Shane or John: his son. 

127. Eedmond: his son. 

128. John (2) : his son. 

129. Hugh (2) : his son. 
180. Fiacha: his son. 

131. FeUm O'Byme: his son. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF HEEEMON.— Cyrttinwed. 

21. The Stem of the O'Eeilly Family. 

Hugh, No 102 on the stem of the O'Rourke family, 
page 158, had a brother named Maolmorra: this Maol- 


morra (Anglicised "Myles") was the ancestor of O'Reilly, 
lords and princes of East Brefney, now the County 

102. Maolmorra, the second brother of Hugh. 

103. Dubhcron : his son. 

104. Cathalan or Calan: his son. 

105. Eaghalach: his son; a quo O'Reilly. 

106. Artan O'Eeilly: his son; was the first of the 
family that assumed this sirname. 

107. Orgiall: his son. 

108. Connaghta: his son. 

109. Macnahihe : his son. 

110. Godfrey: his son. 

111. Charles: his son. 

112. Annay: his son; who was the last king of East 

I.— THE HOUSE OF KE'KEMO'R— Continued: 

22. — The Stem of the MacSwinet Family. 

Hugh or Aldus Athlamh O'Neill, prince of Tyrone, No. 
105, page 124, had two sons named Donald An Togdhamh 
and Anrachan (or Hugh Anrachan) : this Anrachan was 
ancestor of MacSwiney of Fanad and MacSidney " Na 

106. Anrachan, son of Hugh Athlamh O'NeiU. 

107. Hugh : his son. 

108. Dunsleive : his son ; who had a brother named 
Gillchrist. This Gillchrist or Gillchreest was ancestor of 

109. Swyne or Suibhne : his son ; a quo the simames 
Swiney and MacSwinjy. 

110. Maolmuire ()?!«oZf«!»'/-(?; Irish, the devoted of Mary): 
his son. 

111. Moroch Mor MacSwiney : his son ; the first of the 
family who assumed this sirname. 

112. Maolmuire (2) : his son. 


113. Moroch Mir (inir : Irish, a part or portion): his 

At this stage, this ancient family became two branches, 
namely: MacSwiney of Fanad, and MacSwiney Na Tuaidh. 
Some annalists derive this word "Tuaidh" from "tuagh": 
Irish, an axe ; or from " tuagh-catha" : Irish, a battle-axe 
{Gr. "tuo"; Fr. " tuer") ; and some from " tuaith" : 
Irish, a territor;/. 1 am not, however, able to trace the 
stem of MacSwiney-Na-Tuaidh family ; but the following 
is the continuation of the stem of MacSwiney of Fanad. 

114. Moroch (3), son of Moroch Mir, No. 113; ancestor 
of MacSwiney of Fanad. 

115. Tirloch : his son. 

116. Maohnuire (3) : his son. 

117. Moroch (4) : his son. 

118. Maolmuire (4) : his son. 

119. Eory : his son. 

120. Tirloch (2): his son. 

121. Daniel or Donal: his son. 

, 122. Daniel Gorm [gorm: Irish, blue) : his son. 

123. Daniel Oge : his son. 

124. Daniel Gorm (2) : his son. 

125. Hugh (also called Daniel) MacSwiney : his son. 

I.— THE HOUSE OF HEEEMON— C'ontin««(Z : 

23. — The Stem of the MacDermott Family. 

CoNOE, the 40th Christian king of Connaught (from whom 
the O'Conor Eoe, O'Conor Don, and O'Conor Sligo, derive 
the simame O'Conor, and who is No. 106 on the stem of 
the O'Conor "Connaught" family) had a brother named 
Mulroony Mor : this Mulroony was the ancestor of 

106. Mulroony Mor : brother of Conor, as above. This 
Mulroony married the daughter of Flann Abraid O'Mally 
(Anglicised Manly). 

107. Murtogh : his son ; king of Moylurg. He married 
the daughter of O'Dowd, lord of Tyrawley. 



108. Teige . his son. 

109. Mu&oona : his son. 

110. Teige Mor : his son, 

111. Dermot: his son; a quo MacDermott. 

112. Conor MacDermott: his son; was the first who 
assumed this sirname. 

113. Timothy (or Tomaltach): his son. 

114. Cormac: his son; lord of Moylurg. 

115. Conor (2) : his son ; lord of Moylurg. 

116. Gillchrist: his son. 

117. Mulroony : his son. 

118. Timothy: his son. 

119. Conor (3) : his son. 

120. Hugh: his son. 

121. Eory Caoch : his son. 

122. Eory Oge : his son. 

123. Teige (3) : his son. 

124. Eory (3) : his son. 

125. Bryan: his son. 

126. Bryan Oge : his son. 

127. Charles: his son. 

128. Bryan MacDermott : his son. 


Since the Advent of St. Patrick to Ireland, a.d. 432. 

The House op Hebemon — Continued : 

Bbian, the eldest brother of Nial of the Nine Hostages, was 
the first king of Connaught of this sept ; and his son 
Duach or Duachus Galach was the first Christian king. 


Duachus Galach 


Aodh or Hugh 






OUoll Molt 




Duach Fengumha 




Owen Sreibh 




Olioll Anmanna 




Owen Bel 






15. Ceallach 

16. Muredacii 

17. Inrachtach or Inrachta 

18. Gathal or Charles 

19. Inrachta (2) 

20. Fergus 

21. OlioU 
-22. Dubhinracht 

23. Inrachta (3) 

24. Duncatha 

25. Flathry 

26. Flathry (2) 

27. Ardgal 

28. Tiobraid 

43. Teige (3) 

29. Murghias or Murias 

30. Dermott Fionn 

31. Cathal(2) 

32. Fergus (2) 

33. Fionnachta Luibhne 
84. Conor or Conchobhar 

35. Hugh or Aodh (2) 

36. Teige 

37. Cathal (3) 

38. Teige (2) 

39. Fergal 

40. Conor ; a quo O'Conor 

41. Cathal (4) 

42. Cathal (5). 

An Eagh Ghal (or Teige of the White 

44. Aodh An Gha Bearna {Gha : Irish, a spear r 
bearna, a gap.) 

45. Aodh, son of Art UaUach O'Kielly. 

46. Kory, son of Hugh O'Conor. 

47. Donel O'Eourke. 

48. Tirlogh Mor O'Conor (or Turdelvachus Magnus). 

49. Eoderick O'Conor, the last monarch of Ireland. 

50. Conor Maonmaigh O'Conor : his son. 

51. Cathal Craobh-dearg O'Conor. 

52. Hugh O'Conor: his son; the last king of Con- 


In Scotland. 
The House of Hbremon — Continued : 

iEjNEAs Tuirmeach-Tbamrach (No. 66, page 104), the- 
eighty-first monarch of Ireland, who died at Tara, before 
Christ 324, had a son named Fiachus Firmara : this 
Fiachus was ancestor of the kings of Dalriada and Argyle,. 
in Scotland. 


'67. Fiachus Firmara, as 

68. OliollEaron: Hs son 

69. Fearach: his son 

70. Forgo : his son 

71. Maine Mor: his son 

72. Arnold : his son 

73. Kathrean: his son. 

74. Trean: son of Eathrean 

75. Bosin: his son. 

76. Sin: his son 

77. Deadha: his son 

78. lar: his son 

79. Olioll Auglonnach : his 


80. Eugenius : his son. 

81. Edersceol: son of Eugenius; who was the ninety- 
fifth monarch of Ireland. 

82. Conaire Mor (or Conarius Magnus): his son; who 
was the ninety-seventh monarch of Ireland. 

83. Carhry Fionn Mor: his son. 

84. Daire (or Darius) Dorn Mor : his son. 

85. Carhry (2) Cromcheann: his son. 

86. Lughach (or Luy) Allatuun: his son. 

87. MoghaLaimhe: his son. 

88. Conaire (2): his son; who was the one hundred 
:and eleventh monarch of Ireland, and known as "Conaire 
Mac Mogha Laimhe." This Conaire (or Conarius) the 
Second, was married to Sarad, daughter of Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, the 110th monarch of Ireland, who began 
to reign a.d. 122 ; and Sarad was mother of Carbry 
Eiada, the first king of Dalriada {Bal-Riada : Irish, 
Biada's share or portion), in Scotland. 

89. Carbry Biada :* son of Conaire the Second 

90. Kionga, king of Dalriada. 

91. Felim Lamh-foidh : his son ; king of Dalriada. 

92. Eochy Fortamail: his son; king of Dalriada. 

93. Fergus Uallach : his son ; king of Dalriada. 

94. .33neas Feart (feartas : Irish, manly conduct ; Lat. 
virtus) : his son ; king of Dalriada. 

95. Eochy Mun-reamhar : his son; king of Dalriada. 

*Carhry Biada : "One of the most noted facts in ancient Irish 
and British history," writes JDr. Joyce, "is the migration of 
•colonies from the north of Ireland to the neighbouring coasts of 
Scotland, and the intimate intercourse that in consequence existed 
in early ages between the two countries. The first regular settlement 
mentioned by our historians was made in the latter part of the 
second centurj , by Cairbre Biada, eon of Conary the Second, king 


96. Earc: his son; king of Dalriada. 

97. Loarn : his son ; and the last king of Dalriada. 
This was the Loarn to assist whom in his war against 

the Picts, his grandson Fergus Mor Mac Earca went to 
Scotland, a.d. 498, or, according to the Scottish chronicles, 
A.D. 424 ; and this Fergus Mor Mac Earca was the founder 
of the Scottish monarchy (See No. 90, in " The Stem of 
the Eoyal Family," page 24). 


The House of Heeemon — Continued : 

Enna Cinn-Sbalach was king of Leinster at the time of 
the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland; his son Crimthann 
was the first Christian king of that province. From this 
Enna Cinn-sealachwere descended the " Hy-Kinsellagh" ; 
and from him, also, the sirname Kinsela. 

of Ireland. This expedition, wliic}i is mentioned in most of our 
Annals, is confirmed by Bede, in the following words : — ' In course 
of time, Britain, besides the Britons and Picts, received a third 
nation, the Scoti, who, issuing from Hibernia under the leadership 
of Reuda (Riada), secured for themselves, either by friendship or by 
the sword, settlements among the Picts which they still possess. 
From the name of their commander, they are to this day called 
Dalreudini: for, in their language, Dal signifies a part' (Hist. 
EccL, Lib. I. cap. 1). 

' ' There were other colonies also, the moat remarkable of which 
was that led by Fergus, Angus, and Loarn, the three sons of Ere, 
which laid the foundation of the Scottish monarchy. The country 
colonized by these emigrants was known by the name of Airer 
Gaedhil [Arrer-gale], i.e. the territory of the Gael or Iruh ; and the 
name is stiU applied to the territory in the shortened form of Argyle, 
a, living record of these early colonizations. 

" The tribes over whom Cairbre ruled were, as Bede and our own 
Annals record, called from him Dalriada, (Eiada's portion or tribe); 
of which there were two — one in (the north of) Ireland, and the 
other and more illustrious in Scotland." — Irish Names of Places. 




1. Crimthann, son of Enna 

2. Breasal Bealach 

3. Fraoch 

4. IoJ.tann 

5. Alioll 

6. Cormac 

7. Carbry 

8. Colman Mor 

9. Aodh (or Hugh) Cearr 

10. Brandubh 

11. Eonan 

12. Crimthannn Cualan 

13. Felim (by some called 


14. Bran Moot 

15. Geallach Gerrthidhe 

16. Murcha or Moroch 

17. Doncha or Donoch 

18. Faolan 

19. Bran (2) Begg 

20. Hugh or Aodh 

21. Muredan (also called) 


22. Ceallaoh 

23. Eoderick 

24. Bran (3) 

25. Finachta 

26. Muredach 

27. Ceallaoh (3) 

28. Bran (4) 

29. Roderick (2) 

This Diarmot-Na-Ngal was 
last king of Leinster. 

30. Loroan 

31. Tuathal 

32. Dunlong 

33. Muredan (2) 

34. Carbry (2) 

35. Muregan 

36. Alioll (2) 

37. Donald 

38. Cearbhall 

39. Angaire 

40. Faolan (2) 

41. Loroan (2) 

42. Bran (5) 

43. Tuathal (2) 

44. Ceallaoh (4) 

45. Murcha 

46. Angaire (2) 

47. Donald Claon 

48. Doncha (2) Maol-Na- 


49. Diarmot 

50. Murcha, a quo Mae- 


51. Maolmorra 

52. Dunlong (2) 

53. Doncuan 

54. Bran (6) 

55. Angaire (3) 

56. Doncha (3) 

57. Doncha (4) 

58. Diarmot-Na-Ngal. 
Dermot Mae-Morough, the 


The House of Hebemon — Continued ; 

The Septs called the "Hy-Niall" were descended from 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, the 126th monarch of Ireland,, 


•who (see page 27) is No. 87 on " The Stem of the Eoyal 
Family." This Niall was son of Eochy Moyvone, who was 
the 124th monarch : 

86. Eochy Moyvone, the 124th Monarch of Ireland. 

(a) Bryan. (6) OlioU. (c) Fiachra. 

(d) Niallus Magnus, 

I or, 

I Niall of the Nine 

(«) Dathi. Hostages. 

I {g) Awly. 

(h) Fiachra Ealgach. 

The foregoing were the more important descendants of 
Eochy Moyvone : (a) Bryan, the eldest son, was the first 
king of his sept in Connaught, and was the ancestor of the 
O'Conors, kings of that province ; of the MacDermotts of 
Moylurg, an ancient territory in Eoscommon; of the 
O'Flahertys of West Galway, the O'Eourkes of West 
Brefney, the O'Eiellys of East Brefney, etc. (i) Olioll's 
descendants settled in Sligo : from him the district in 
which they settled got the name Tir Olliolla, corrupted to 
" Tirerill" — at present the name- of a barony in that 
county, (c) Fiachra's* descendants gave their name to 
Tir-Fiachra, now the barony of " Tireragh," also in the 
County Sligo ; and possessed the present baronies of 
Carra, Erris, and Tyrawley, in the County Mayo, (d) 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, a quo the "Hy-Niall." («) 
Dathi was the last Pagan monarch of Ireland. His name 
was Feredach, but he got the appellation of " Dathi" or 
"Dathe," which signifies agility ; because he was so expert 
in the use of his arms and handling his weapons, that, if 

* Fiachra: This Fiachra's descendants, called " Hy-Fiachracli, " 
are to be distinguished from the " Hy-Fiachrach Fionn Arda 
Stratha," who were seated along the river Dearg, in the north-west 
of the County Tyrone ; and whose district comprised the parish of 
Ardstraw and some adjoining parishes now belonging to the see of 
Derry. The "Hy-Fiachrach" of Ardstraw were of the Clau-Colla 
— descended from Fiachra, son of Earo, the grandson of Colla Uaia, 
the 121st monarch of Ireland. — Booh of Bights. 


attacked by a hundred persons at the same time — all dis- 
charging their arrows and javelins at him, he would ward 
off every weapon by his dexterity. Like his uncle, Niall 
of the Eine Hostages, Dafchi made war on the Eomans m 
Gaul and Britain ; and, on his last expedition to Gaul, 
was there killed by lightning, at the foot of the Alps. His 
body was brought to Ireland by his soldiers, and buried 
in Eeilig na Eigh (or the Cemetery of the Kings) — the 
burial place of the Pagan kings of Connaught; as Brugh 
Boine (or the Fortress of the Boyne), in Meath, was the 
great cemetery of the Pagan kings of Tara. {g) Amhalgaidh 
or Awly, brother of Dathi, was king of Connaught ; and 
gave his name to Tir- Amhalgaidh, i.e. Awly's district, 
now the barony of " Tyrawley," in the County Mayo. 
This name "Amhalgaidh" is considered the root of Howley. 
(h) Fiachra Ealgach, son of Dathi, gave his name to Tir- 
Fiachra, now Tireragh, in the County Sligo, as above 

(d) Niall of the Nine Hostages had twelve (some say 
fourteen) sons, of whom eight left issue, who are in the 
ancient Irish Annals set down in the following order : 

I. Laeghaire (or Leary), who succeeded his father in the 
monarchy, from a.d. 428 to 458. This Leary was the 
128th Milesian monarch of Ireland. 

II. Conall Crimthaine (or Crimthann) was the first king 
of that sept in the kingdom of Meath. 

III. Fiacha. IV. Maine : These four sons and their 
descendants settled in ancient Meath ; and the next four 
sons and their descendants settled in Ulster. 

V. Eoghan (Owen, or Eugenius) was king of Aileach* 
[Ely]. His descendants, who were called the "Clan Owen," 
afterwards possessed the territory extending over the 
counties of Tyrone and Londonderry, and the two baronies 
of Eaphoe and Inishowen in Donegal : all this district was 
called Tir-Owen or Owen's Country, which is now written 
Tyrone, and restricted to one county. The peninsula 
between Lough Foyle and Lough Swilly took its name 
from Owen ; namely, Inishowen, i.e. Owen's Island. Owen's 
descendants were also called the "Kinel-Owen." 

*Aileach : Greenan Ely (or the Palace of Aileach) was a fort in the 
County Donegal, near Lough Swilly, situated on the isthmus dividing 


VI. Conall Gulban (or Gulbin) whose posterity was- 
called the " Kinel-Connell," * derived his cognomen 
" Gulbin " from having been fostered near the mountain 
Ben Gulbin (Gulbin's Peak), in the County Sligo. His 
posterity ultimately possessed nearly the whole of the 
county Donegal; which from them was called Tir-Connell, 
i.e. Connall's district or territory. Of the descendants of 
Conall Gulbin, there were ten Ard Eighs or monarchs up- 
to the Anglo-Norman invasion. After the establishment of 

it from Longli Foyle, in the barony of Inis'iowen . Donald, prince 
of AiJeach, and the 179th monarch of Ireland, having, a.d. 1088, 
marched against King Murkertagh O'Brien, the 180th monarch, and 
destroyed his famous famUy residence at Kincora, the latter, a.d. 
Hpi, avenged this injury upon " Aileach, among the oak forests- 
immeasurable " ; ordering that, for every sack of provisions in his 
army, a stone from this great northern edifice should be carried 
away to the south. 

Such, after an existence extending beyond the dawn of history, ■« as 
the fate of Aileach ; from which its possessor was, in old writings, 
designated — "King of Aileach of the spacious house — of the vast 
tribute — of the high decisions — of the ready ships — of the armed 
battalions — of the grand bridles — the Prince of Aileach who protects 
all — the mighty-deeded, noble King of Aileach." — O'Callaghan. 

* Kinel-Connell : From the early ages of Christianity in Ireland, 
there were handed down among her leading races certain memorials- 
of the saints whom they most venerated ; respecting which memorials 
there were predictions that connected the future destinies of those 
tribes, for good or for evil, with the preservation, or loss, by them, 
of such local palladiums. That of the Kinel-Connell consisted of a 
portable square box, of several metals, variously ornamented and 
gemmed, and containing in a small wooden case a " Latin Psalter " 
believed to have been written by the hand of him who was the most 
eminent ecclesiastic and great religious Patron of tlieir race — the 
famous St. Columba or Columkille ; who flourished from a.d. 521 to- 
597 ; was the Apostle of the northern Picts ; and the Founder of the 
celebrated monastery in Hye or lona, in Scotland, through which, 
in the language of Dr. Johnson, it became — 

" That illustrious island, once the luminary of the Caledonian 
regions, whence savage clans and roving barbarians, derived the 
benefits of knowledge and the blessings of religion." 

The venerated reliquary here mentioned was styled the " Cathacb 
[caha] of Saint Columkille," from the persuasion entertained and 
handed down by tradition, that it was a kind of spiritual talisman 
which would procure victory for the forces of Tirconnell, if conveyed 
with, and accompanied by, a certain ceremonial among them, previous. 


siraames, there were settled in Tir-Connell the leading 
families of O'Muldorys,* 0'Canannans,0'Donels, O'Boyles, 
O'Gallaghers, O'Doherty's, etc., all of the race of Conail 
Gulbin. . , 

VII. Cairbre, whose descendants gave their name to 
the territory in the County Sligo, now known as the 
barony of "Carbery." 

Vlil. Enna Finn, whose descendants settled in the 
territory which included the present barony of Kaphoe, in 
the County Donegal. 

The southern Ky-Niall were, as already stated, those 
who settled in the kingdom of Meath; and the northern 
Hy-Niall, those who settled in Ulster. The dominant 
Hy-Niall of Ulster were the MacLoghlins, O'Donels, 
O'Loghlins, and O'Neills; of Meath, the " O'MelaghUns. 

The ancestor of O'Donel was, we saw, Donald, grandson 
of Dalach, who died, a.d. 868; and from whom they were 
sometimes called the " Clan Dalach." That Dalach and 
Eighnecan [Enekan] who died, a.d. 901, were the first 
princes of Tirconnell. The Enekan O'Donel, who reigned 

to their giving battle; and it was usually borne to the field, with the 
banner of the Kinel-Connell. On that subject Manus O'Donel the 
last king or prince of Tir-ConneU, in his life of St. Columkille, written 
about the year a.d. 1532, says : 

"'EtOathach, id est prjeliator, vulgo appellatur, fertque traditio, 
quod si circa illius exercitum, antequam hostem adoriantur, tertio 
cum debita reverentia circumduoatur, eveniat ut viotoriam reportet." 

In Scotland, too, we find, in the tenth century, the crazier of that 
Irish saint, as her Apostle, borne for a standard, under the designation 
of the " cathbhuaidh " [cabua] or "battle victory," against the 
Heathen Norsemen. 

The box containing that relic came into the possession of the late 
Sir Neai O'Donnell, Bart., Newport-Mayo, who believed himself to 
be "The O'Donel"; and was subsequently intrusted by Sir Richard 
•O'Donnell to the care of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, as a 
National Antiquity of religious veneration to the Northern Hy- Niall. 
— O'Callaghan. 

*0'Muldory : At the time of the introduction of sirnames into 
Ireland, the O'Muldorys (Anglicised Mulroys) were princes of Tir- 
ConneU. It was they who then had charge of the " Cathach" of 
St. Columkille above alluded to, before it came into the possession 
of the O'Donels. — Book of Rights. 


from A.D. 1200 to 1207, was, however, the first prince 
from whose accession to power Tirconnell may be con- 
sidered the country of "The O'Bonel."''' 


The kings of the southern Hy-Niall were descended 
from Conall Crimthanu, son of Niallus Magnus, as already 
mentioned: these were the kings of Meath; who, since 
the introduction of sirnames were called "O'Melaghlin." 
As, in some of the Irish Annals, we meet with such names 

■ *The O'Donel: According to Keating's History of Ireland, the 
ceremony of inaugurating the kings of Tirconnell was as follows: 
The king, being seated on an eminence, and surrounded by the 
nobility and gentry of his own country, one of the chief of his nobles 
stood before him, with a straight white wand in his hand, and, on 
presenting it to the king of Tirconnell, used to desire him to " receive 
the sovereignty of his country, and to preserve equal and impartial 
justice in every part of his dominions." The reason that the wand 
was straight and white was to put him in mind that he should be 
unbiassed in his judgment, and pure and upright in all his actions. 

"The heads of tMs great name," writes O'Callaghan, "as the 
first native potentates of the north-west of Ireland, were regarded 
with suitable consideration in other countries, as well as in their 
own; being entitled and treated according to the designation of 
princes, chiefs, and lords of Tirconnell, by the kings of England, 
Scotland, France, and Spain, up to the 17th century." The fact 
that Henry O'Donel, a descendant of the O'Donel of Tirconnell, 
was, A.D. 1754, with the consent of Maria Theresa, Empress of 
Austria, maiTied to her cousin, is a sufficient evidence of the high 
consideration with which, on account of his pedigree, he was re- 
garded in Austria, — the Court that has claimed a succession to the 
ancient majesty of the Cassars. Roderick O'Donel, the last chief or 
prince of his name, was, by James the First, A.D. 1603., created 
earl of Tirconnell, with the title during his own lifetime, for his 
eldest son, of baron of Donegal. 

The ancient tribe-name of the family of O'DomhnaUl [O'Donel] 
was "Cinel-Lughdhach," i.e. the race of Lughach, grandson of 
Sedna, who was the grandson of ConaU Gulbin; and their territory 
extended from the stream of Dobhar to the river Suilidhe [SwOly]. — 
£ook of Mights. 



as "GioUa Seaehnal," "O'GioUa Seachnal," etc., and 
and as the names "Maelseachlainn" (a quo 0' Melaghlin) 
and "Seachnal" are from the same root, it may be well 
here to give the origin of that name; which, according to 
Connellan, is derived from Maelseachlainn Mor, the 167th 
monarch of Ireland. Of this family, Connellan writes: 

"The O'Melaghlins, as kings of Meath, had their chief residence 
at Dun-na-Sciath {Dun-rM-Sciath : Irish, the Fort of the Shleldn), 
situated on the banks of Lough Ainuin (now Lough Ennell), near 
Mullingar; and Murtagh O'Melaghlin was king of Meath at the time 
of the Norman invasion; his kingdom was transferred to Hugh 
DeLaoy by a grant from Henry the Second ;* and he was the last 
independent king of Meath; but the O'Melaghlins, for many centuries 
afterwards, amidst incessant and fierce contests with the English 
settlers, maintained their position and considerable possessions- in 
Westmeath, with their titles as kings and princes of Meath, and 
Lords of Clancolman, down to the reign of Elizabeth; and many 
distinguished Chiefs of the O'Melaghlins are mentioned in the course 
of these Annals, from the tenth to the sixteenth century. Some 
Chiefs of them are also mentioned during the Cromwellian and 
Williamite wars, but after those periods all their estates were con- 
liscated, and in modern times scarcely any of the O'Melaghlins are 
to be found; and it is said that the name has been changed to 
' MacLoghlin.' " — Connellan. 

By reference to the pedigree of the MacLoghlin family, 
given in page 163, it will be seen that it is a mistake to 
derive that sirname from "O'Melaghlin;" for the ancestor 
of the MacLoghlins was Loohlin, king of Aileach, the fifth 

'"Henry the Second: In the Charter granting the kingdom of Meath 
to Hugh (or Hugo) DeLaoy, dated at Wexford, a.d. 1172, King 
Henry says: 

"Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, duke of Normandy 
and Aquitain, and earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots,, 
earls, barons, justices, and to all his ministers, and faithful subjects, 
French, English, and Irish, of all his dominions, greeting: Know ye 
that I have given and granted, and, by this my Charter^ confirmed 
unto Hugh DeLacy, in consideration of his services, the land of 
Meath, with the appurtenances; to have and to hold of me and my 
heirs, to him and his heirs, by the service of fifty knights, in as full 
and ample manner as Murchard Hu-Melaghhn held it, or any other 
person before him or after him; and, as an addition, I give to him 
all fees which he owes or shall owe to me about Duvelin [Dublin! 
while he is my bailiff, to do me service in my city of Duvelin 
AVherefore I will and strictly command, that the said Hu^h and his 
heirs shall enjoy the said laud, and shall hold all the liberties and 


in descent from Donald, who was the second son of Aldus 
Finnliath, and brother of the monarch Niall Glundubh, 
the ancestor of O'Neill. 

After the introduction of sirnames, the name "Mael- 
seachlainn" or "Melaghlin" was the Irish Christian name 
for "Malachy" — Latinized "Malachius." Literally, the 
name " Maelseachlaian" signifies a bald old man (Mael : 
Irish, bald; seaghlin, an old man); but in a religious sense 
it means the servant or devoted of St. Seachnal or Secun- 
dinus, who was nephew of St. Patrick, and the Patron 
Saint of Dunshaughlin in the County Meath, as well as 
the Tutelary Saint of the 0' Melaghlin family: just as in 
Scotland the name "Malcolm" (a contraction of the Irish 
" Mael-Colum") was meant to signify a devotee of St. 
ColumkiUe; and that St. ColumkUle was the Tutelary 
Saint of the Kinel-Connell. It was, then, through devotion 
to St. Seachnal, that this family and the Stock from 
which it branched had such proper names as " Maelseach- 
lainn," "Giolla Seachnal," etc. 

Under the year, a.d. 1173, in O'Donovan's Four Masters, 
we read : 

" Maelmochta O'Melaghlin, Abbot of Clonmaonoise died. The 
name Maelmochta signifies servant or devoted of St. Moohta or 
Mooteus, first abbot and patron Saint of Louth. This family is 
generally called O'Maoilseachlainn or O'Maoileaohlainn, which was 
first correctly Anglicised 'O'Melaghlin,' but now incorrectly 
' MacLoghlin.' They are named after their great progenitor Mael- 
eeachlaiim or Malaohy the Second, (the 174th) Monarch of Ireland.') 

This Maelseachlainn (see page 151) was the ancestor of 
the O'Melaghlin family. 

Subjoined are the names of the Kings of Meath since the 
advent of St. Patrick to Ireland, down to Meath's last 
king, a.d. 1172. 

free customs which I have or may have therein, by the aforesaid 
service, from me and my heirs, well and peaceably, freely, quietly, 
and honourably, in wood and plain, in meadows and pastures, in 
water and mills, in warren and ponds, in fishings and huntings, in 
ways and paths, in sea-ports and all other places appertaining to 
the said land, with all liberties which I have therein, or can grant 
or confirm to him by this my Charter. 

"Witness, earl Kichard (Strongbow), son of Gilbert; William 
de Brosa (and many others), at Weisford [Wexford]." — Ware. 



From A.D. 432 to 1172. 
The House op Heremon — Continued: 
1.— CoNALL Crimthann, son of the monarch NiaU of the 
Nine Hostages, was the first Christian king of Meath. 
2. Fiacha : Conall's brother. 
8. Artgal : son of Conall. 

4. Maine: son of Fergus Cearbhall. 

5. Diarmot: Maine's brother; and the 133rd monarch 
of Ireland. In this monarch's reign the royal palace of 
Tara was, a.d. 563, abandoned: after having been the seat 
of the Irish monarchs for more than 2,000 years. 

'^MeatU: The ancient Kingdom of Meath was formed in the 
second century by Tuathal Teachtmar {or Tuathal the Legitimate), 
the 106th monarch of Ireland, by the combination of a portion from 
each of the then four Kingdoms, and their annexation to Meath : 
hence it became a " Cuigeadh" [ooogu] or fifth province. The Irish 
name is "Midie" [mee], which signifies a neck, because it was 
formed by a portion or neck taken from each of the four provinces. 
Others derive it from Midhe, who was chief Druid to Nemedius. 
By the Latin writers it is written " Midia" and "Media." Accor- 
dmg to Keating, Meath contained eighteen territories called 
"Triochas" ; thirty townlands in each territory, twelve ploughlands 
in each townland, and a hundred and twenty acres in each plough- 
land, lie describes its boundaries as extending from the Shannon 
eastward to Dublin, and from Dublin to the river Eigh (now the 
Kye, which flows into the Liffey at Leixlip) ; then by a line drawn 
through Kildare and the King's County to Birr or Parsonstown, from 
the Eye westward to Cluan Courach, now " Cloncurry" ; thence to 
French Mill's ford and to the Cumar (or junction) of Clonard on the 
southern border of Meath ; thence to Tochar Cairbre (or the bog- 
pass of Carbery) in the barony of Carbery and County of Kildare ; 
thence to Geashill in the King's County, to DruimchuiUin (a parish 
in the barony of Eglish in the King's County), and to the river called 
Abhain Chara (probably the little Brosna, flowing into the Shannon 
from Lough Couragh, between Frankford and Birr) ; thence by the 
Shannon northwards to Athlone, and Lough Eee (a part of the 
Shannon between Westmeath and Annaly (or Longford) on one 
side, and Eoscommon on the other); and, finally, thence to Drogheda- 
being bounded on the north by Brefney and Orgiall. Thus the 
ancient kingdom of Meath comprised the present counties of Meath 
and Westmeath, with parts of Dublin, Kildare, King's County ■ the 
greater part of Longford, and small portions of Brefney and Orgiall 

on the borders of the present counties of Oavan and Louth 



Thus the antiquity of Tara as a royal residence in Ire- 
land can well be said to reach beyond 

" The misty space of thrice a thousand years" ! 

6. Colman Mor {Mor: Irish, great) : son of Diarmot; 
a quo the Clan Colman. 

7. Colman Beg: brother of Colman Mor. {Beg -.Ixish., 

8. Swyny : son of Colman Mor. 

9. Fergus : son of Colman Beg. 

10. Aongus : brother of Fergus. 

11. Conall Gulbin : son of Swjmy. 

12. Maolroid [maol: Irish, bald; roidheas, very handsome.) 

13. Diarmot: son of Armeadh. 

14. Murcha: son of Diarmot. 

15. Diarmot II.: son of Murcha. 

16. Armeath: son of Conall Gulbin (No. 11.) 

17. Aodh [Ee] or Hugh: son of Armeath. 

18. Colga: son of Hugh. 

19. Donald: Monarch; son of Murcha. 

20. Niall: son of Diarmot. '' 

21. Murtagh: son of Donald, the Monarch. 

22. Donoch: the 163rd monarch; brother of Murtagh. 

23. Donald II. : son of Donoch ; murdered by the Danes. 

24. MUredach : son of Donald II. 

25. OlioU: son of Milredach. 

26. Conquovarus (or Conor) : the 165th monarch. 

27. Maelruanaidh : brother of Conor. 

28. Flarth : son of Maelruanaidh. 

29. Malachy the Great :=■= Monarch; brother of Flarth. 

80. Lorcan: Monarch; son of Cathal Mor. 

81. Donoch II.: son of Eochougan (or Eochy the 

'''Malachy the Great : According to the arrangement of alternate 
succession to the monarchy, between the northern and southern 
Hy-Niall, Malachy the Great, as king of Meath, attained to the 
monarchy, on the death, A. J>. 844, of the monarch Niallus Caille, 
who belonged to the northern Hy-Niall. This Malachy, A.D. 846, 
met and defeated the Danish forces at Skryne, County Meath ; and 
freed the nation from Turgesius, the Danish king, by drowning 
him in Lough Owel. The death of Turgesius was a signal for general 
onslaught on the Danes ; who were either massacred or driven to 
their ships : and hence were said to be " extirpated." 


32. Flan Siona:* Monarch; son of Malachy the Great. 

33. Conquovarus II. : brother of Flan. 

34. Donald III. : son of Flan. 

35. Donoch III. :f Monarch of Ireland; son of Flan. 

*Flan Siona : As monarch of Ireland this king of Meath suc- 
ceeded Aidus Finliath (a quo Finlay), No. 99, page 121, In Flan's 
reign Cormao MacCuUinan was Archbishop of Cashel and king of 
Munster. Flan, for some cause, waged war on Cormac Mac CuUinan ; 
who, in the field of battle, was killed by falling under his horse, 
which missed its footing on a bank, slippery with the blood of the 
slain. This battle was fought at a place called Bealagh Mughna, 
now Ballaghmoon, in the County of Kildare, a few miles from the 
town of Carlow. 

It is to Cormac Mac Cullinan remotely, as well as to the circum- 
stance of Cashel being the seat of royalty in the South, that '' Cashel 
of the Kings" was, in the twelfth century, raised to the dignity of 
an archiepiscopal see. The Rock of Cashel, and the ruins of a 
small but once beautiful chapel, still preserve the memory of the 
bishop-king. His literary fame has also its memorials : he was 
skilled in Ogham writing, as may be gathered from the following 
poem — 

" Cormac of Cashel, with his champions ; 
Munster is his — may he long enjoy it ! 
Around the king of Eath-Bicli are cultivated 
The letters and the trees. " — Miss Gusack. 
Flan died, a.d. 914, and was succeeded in the monarchy by the 
northern Hy-Niall chief, Niall Glundubh, No. 100, page 121 . 

Ogham writing (in Irish " Ogham Chraov") was an occult manner 
of writing on wood, or stone, used by the ancient Irish ("ogham" : 
Irish, secret writhig, and "chraov," a hough ot branch of a tree); 
and was the mystic species of writing employed by the Druids: 
"For mystic lines, in days of yore, 
A branch and fescue the Druids bore ; 
By which their science, thoughts, and arts, 
Obscurely veil'd, they could impart : 
Behold the formal lines they drew. 
Their Ogham Chraov exposed to view !" 

— Connellan's /ris7t Orammar. 
The word "Ogham" is considered to have originated from Gaul, 
beca,use the ancient Gauls worshipped Hercules as the god of learn- 
ing and eloquence.— Toland's History of the Druids. 

■\Donoch III. : On the death of this monarch, a.d. 942, he was 
succeeded m the monarchy by Congallaoh, who was killed by the 
Danes, a.d. 954. Donald of Armagh, No. 102, page 123 then 
obtamed the royal power ; and, at his death, a.d. 978, themonarchv 
reverted to Malachy the Second, king of Meath. 


36. Aongus : son of Donocli III. 

37. Donoch TV. : son of Donald III. 

38. Fargal: son of Aongus. 

39. Aodh or Hugh: son of Maelruanaidb. 

40. Donald IV. : son of Donoch IV. 

41. Carlus: son of Donald IV. 

42. Murtagh Grigg {grigg : Irish, Greek, so called from 
lis being a good Oreek scholar.) 

43. Donald V. : son of Congallach. 

44. Fargal II. : son of Donald V. 

45. Malachias (or Malachy) II.,* was the 174th (and 
last absolute) monarch of Ireland. 

46. Maolseachlainn. 

*Malach,y the Second: This monarch, A.D. 978, fought a battle 
with the Danes, near Tara, in which he defeated their forces, and 
slew BaguaU, son of Amlaf, king of Dublin. Emboldened by his 
success at Tara, he resolved to attack the Danes in Dublin: he 
therefore laid siege to that city, and after three days compelled it to 
surrender ; liberated two thousand prisoners, including the king of 
Leinster ; and took abundant spoils. He also issued a proclamation, 
freeing every Irishman then in bondage to the Danes, and stipulating 
that the race of NiaU should henceforth be free from tribute to the 
foreigners. Malachy invaded Munster, A.B. 981 ; and, a,d. 989, 
again occupied himself fighting the Danes in Dublin, to which he 
had laid siege for twenty nights — reducing the garrison to such 
straits, that they were obliged to drink the salt water when the 
tide rose in the river. At that time Brian Boru was the undisputed 
king of Monster ; he made reprisals on Malachy the Second by 
sending boats up the Shannon, and burning the royal Rath of Dun- 
na-Sciath. Malachy, in his turn, reprossed the Shannon, burned 
Nenagh, plundered Ormoud, and defeated Brian himself in battle. 
He then marched again to Dublin, and once more attacked " the 
proud invader" — the Danes. It was on this occasion that he 
obtained the "collar of gold,'' which Moore, in his world-famous 
Irish Melodies, has immortalized in the following lines : 

" Let Erin remember the days of old 

Ere her faithless sous betrayed her ; 
When Malachy wore the collar of gold 

Which he won from her proud invader. " 

In Warner's " History of Ireland" it is stated, that Malachy the 
Second successively encountered and defeated in a hand-to-hand 
conflict two of the champions of the Danes, taking a " coUar of 
gold" from the neck of one, and carrying off the sword of the other, 
as trophies of his victory. 


47. Donald VI. : son of Malacliy II. 

48. Ccnquovarus III. : murdered, a.d. 1073. 

49. Murcha: son of Flan; the last king of Meath, 

A.D. 1172. 

[This Murcha it was who founded and amply endowed 
the Abbey of Bective, in the County Meath. The remains 
of that once beautiful structure are j'et in a state of 
tolerable preservation, and testify to the piety and religious 
zeal of Meath's last King.] 

la Mageoghagan's translation of "Aniiala Cluain mic Nois" (or 
the Annals qfCtonmacnoise), we read : 

" A..D. 1022. After the death of King Moyliseaglyn, this kingdom 
(of Ireland) was without a king twenty years, during which time the 
realm was governed by two learned men, the one called Cwan 
O'Lochan, a well learned temporal man and chiefe poet of Ireland ; 
the other, Corcran Cleireagh, a devout and holy man that waa 
(chief) anchorite of all Ireland, whose most abideing was at Lismore. 
The land was governed like a free state and not like a monarchie by 

Of that translation Dr. O'Donovan observes that, while it is a 
work which professes to be a faithful version of the original, it has 
in some instances been obviously interpolated by the translator ; 
who writes that, after the death of Malachy the Second, Cuaiu 
O'Lochain (who was chief poet to that monarch) and Corcran 
Cleireach were appointed governors of Ireland ; " but," says 
O'Donovan, " Cuan did not long enjoy this dignity, for he was slain 
inTeffia, a.d. W2i:' —Booh of Eights. 

In Moore's "History of Ireland," vol. ii. p. 147, it is said — iu 
reference to the alleged provisional government of Ireland after the 
death of King Malachy the Second : ''For this provisional govern- 
ment of Cuan, I can find no authority in any of our regular annals. " 

Nor can the writer of these pages find any authority whatever for 
the assertion, in " O'Glery's Book of Irish Pedigrees." 

The death of Malachy the Second is recorded in O'Donovan's 
Four Masters, as follows : — 

"The age of Christ, 1022. Maelseachlinu Mor, pillar of the 
dignity and nobility of the west of the world, died in- Croinis Locho 
Ainnin, in the seventy -third year of his age, on the 4th of the Nones 
o£ September, on Sunday precisely.'' 

Anciently, the month was divided into Kalends, Nones, and Ides. 
The Kalends fell on the first day of the month. The Nones generally 
fell on the fifth of the month ; but in the months of May, March, 
July, and October, they fell on the 7th of the month. The Ides in 
the latter four months, fell on the 15th ; but generally they fell on 
the 13th of the month. In calculating, instead of looking forward 
from the Kalends to the Nones, and from the Nones to the Ides one 
counted backwards. Any day, suppose the 5th day of the Kalends 
meant the fifth day before the Kalends. Then in dealing with the 


Nones and Ides, a person by coiintiug back, and adding 1 to the- 
number, but adding 2 wben dealing with the Kalends, found the 
day of the month — thus, the 3rd of the Ides of Decembei- is tliree 
days before the Ides ; and as the Ides fell on the 13th in December, 
1 added makes them the 14th of December. Three days then 
subtracted from 14 make 11 : so the 11th of December is the 3rd day 
of the Ides of December ; and so the 2nd of September is the 4th of 
the Nones of September. — See Malone's Church History. 

The House op Hebemon — Continued : 

OssoRY became a kingdom in the sixth century; and. 
Conla, the second son of Breasal Breac, King of Leinster, 
was the ancestor of the kings and gentry of the territory 
of Ossory (see the stem of the Fitzpatrick family). 

1. Tuam-Snamha [snava] . 

2. Scanlan Mor. 

3. Faolchar. 

4. Faelan. 

5. Flann. 

6. AlioU. 

7. Ceallach [Kelly] . 

8. Forbusach. 

9. Anmcha. 

10. Tuam. 

11. Dungal. 

12. Faelan (2) 

13. Maoldun. 

14. Dungal (2). 

15. Cearbhal. 

16. Finnan. 

17. Ceallach (2). 

18. Doncha. 

19. Dermot. 

20. Doncha or Douoch, sou of Giolla Padraig {GiolUt. 
Padraifj: Irish, the devoted of St. Patrick) or Gillpatrick. 
This Doncha Gillpatrick was contemporary with the Irish 
monarch Brian Boru. 

21. Doncha (3). 

22. Teige MacGillpatrick, the last king of Ossory. 



The House op Heeemon — Continued: 

Fbbgus Mob Mac Baeca (or Eric) was the Founder of the 
Scottish monarchy; from him down to Malcolm the Third 
■or Malcolm Cann Mor, fifty-three Milesian kings reigned 
in Scotland, namely: — 

1. Fergus Mor MacEarca. 

2. ^neas : his brother. 

3. Domhangart (Dungardus or Donart) : son of Fergus. 

4. Congall: son of Donart. 

5. Gabhran : brother of Congall. 

6. Conell : son of Congall. 

7. jEdhan: son of Gabhran. 

8. Eooha Buidhe: son of ^dhan. 

9. Connad (or Kinneth) Cearr: son of Eocha. 

10. Fearchar: son of Connad. 

11. Donald Breac: son of Eocha Buidhe. 

12. Conall Cean Gamhna. 

13. Doncha or Duncan: son of Dubhan. 

14. Donald Donn. 

15. Maoldun: son of Conall. 

16. Fearchar Foda. 

17. Eocha Einnamhal: son of Aodh (or Hugh) Fronn. 

18. Anmcheallach : son of Fearchar. 

19. Scalbhan. 

-20. Eocha Angbhadh. 

21. Dongal: son of Scalbhan. 

22. Alpin: son of Eocha. 

23. Muredach : son of Alpin. 

24. Aodh Au'gneach : son of Muredach. 

25. Eooha: son of Aodh. 

26. Donald: son of Constantine (or Conn). 

27. Conall Caomh. 

28. ConaU: his cousin. 

29. Constantine: son of Fergus. 

50. ^neas: brother of Constantine. 

51. Aodh: son of Boanta or Eogonan. 
32. Eugenius : son of jEneas. 

83. Alpin : son of Eugenius. 


34. Kenneth (MacAlpin) : son of Alpin. 

35. Donald : son of Alpin. 

36. Constantine : son of Kenneth. 

37. Aodh or Ethus : brother of Constantine. 

38. Giric (or Gregory) : son of Dongal. 

39. Donald Dasachtagh: son of Constantine. 

40. Constantine : son of Aodh. 

41. Malcolm: son of Donald. 

42. Inulph: son of Constantine. 
48. Dubh : son of Malcolm. - 

44. Acar: brother of Dubh . 

45. Culen: son of Inulph. 

46. Kenneth : son of Malcolm. 

47. Constantine: son of Culen. 

48. Kenneth : son of Dubh. 

49. Malcolm II.: son of Kenneth, son of Malcolm. 
60. Doncha. 

51. Doncha or Duncan: son of Crinan and of Beatrix 
(or Beatrice) ; murdered by MacBeatha or Macbeth, a.d. 

52. Macbeth : son of Synel (lord of Glammis) and of 
Doda, a younger sister of Beatrix. 

53. Sulach : son of Macbeth. 

54. Malcolm the Third : son of Duncan (son of Crinan) ; 
died, A.D. 1094. 


The House of Heeemon — Continued : 

In Part II., Chapter ii, under the heading — "The Kings 
of Ulster before the Advent of St. Patrick to Ireland," the 
names of the Kings of that province are given, down to 
Saraan, the last king of Ulster of the Irian race ; and it is 
there mentioned thatthe Three Collas, with the Heremonian 
power of Leinster and Connaught, invaded Ulster, con- 
quered the country, and there formed a kingdom for them- 
selves and their posterity. 


The Three Collas were, as already mentioned, the sous- 
of Eochy Uubhlen, who was the son of Carbry Liflechar, 
the 117th monarch of Ireland. To the exclusion of this 
Eochy, his younger brother, who was named Fiacha 
Srabhteine, attained to the monarchy as the 120th mon- 
arch. With the view to restore the succession m their 
own line, the Three Collas waged war against Fiacha 
Srabhteine, in his thirty-seventh year's reign, and slew 
him in the battle of Dubhcomar, a.d. 822, when Colla 
Uais ascended the throne, as the 121st monarch ; who, a.d. 
326, was deposed by his successor in the monarchy, 
namely, Muredach Tireach, son of Fiacha Srabhteine. 
This Muredach then banished to Scotland the Three- 
Collas and their principal chiefs, to the number of three- 
hundred ; but, through the influence of the king of Alba, 
and the mediation of the Druids, they were afterwards 
pardoned by the Irish Monarch, who cordially invited them 
.to return to Ireland, and received them into great favour.* 

*Great Favour : In O'Donovan's Fom- Masters, under tlie year 
AJ). 327, it is stated — 

" At the end of this year the Three Collas came to Ireland ; and 
there lived not of their forces but thrice nine persons only. " 

In the year, a.d. 326 (see the Eoll of the Monarchs of Ireland, 
page 53), the monarch Colla Uais was deposed by Muredach Tireach, 
the 122nd monarch. There must be some mistake in assigning the 
year 32; (the very next year after Colla Uais was deposed) as 
that in which the Three Collas returned to Ireland from their exile 
in Scotland ; for, unless in case of a plague, or a battle, or some 
such exceptional cause, it is not reasonable to suppose that, in one 
year, the Collas' forces dwindled away from, at least, " three 
hundred of their principal chiefs" who were exiled with them, down 
to "thrice nine persons only!" And, as Saraan was the last king of 
Ulster of the Irian race, and that he reigned after the death of 
Caolbadius (his father), who was the forty-seventh king of Ulster 
and the 123rd monarch of Ireland, and who, A.D., 357, was slain by 
Achaius Muigh Meadhoin (Eochy Moyvone), the 124th monarch, 
there also appears a mistake in the year (332) usually assigned as 
that in which the Collas invaded and conquered Ulster ; for, as- 
Caolbadius was slain, A. D. 357, and that, after his death, Saraan, his 
son, was king of Ulster at the time of its conquest by the Collas, it 
is evidently a mistake to assign the year a.d. 332 as the date of that 
conquest. Besides : this lapse of more than thirty years, from a.d. 
326, (when the Collas and their principal chiefs were exiled by their 
cousin, the monarch Muredach Tireach), to at least A.D. 357, the 


Ostensibly to avenge an insult offered to their great 
ancestor, Cormac-Mae-Airt, the llStli monarch of Ireland, 
by Fergus Dubh-Dheadach, himself of the Heremonian 
line and the predecessor of Cormac in the monarchy, the 
Irish monarch moved the Three Collas to invade Ulster ; 
and he promised them all the assistance in his power. 
Accordingly, the Collas collected a powerful army; and, 
joined by numerous auxiliaries, and seven catha (cath: 
Irish, a battalion of three thousand soldiers: cath: Chald., a 
battalion) or legions of the Firvolgian or Firholg tribes of 
Connaught, marched into Ulster to wrest from its kings 
the sovereignty of that kingdom. Saraan assembled his 
forces to oppose them; and, both armies having met, they 
fought seven battles, in which the Collas were victorious ; 
but the youngest brother, CoUa Meann, fell on the side of 
the victors. These engagements were called Cath-na-ttri- 
gUolla, or the Battles of the Three Collas.* 

year that the monajch Caolbadius was slain by Eochy Moyvone, 
would explain the passage in reference to the return of the Collas 
from exile, as above quoted, viz. — "and there lived not of their 
forces but thrice nine persons only." 

The mistake may be thus accounted for : 1. in some of the Irish 
Annals Fergus Fogha, No. 46, instead of Saraan, No. 48, on the list 
of kings, page 98, is mentioned as the last Irian king of Ulster ; and 
2. The person -who made the transcript in which a.d. 327 is given as 
the year in which the Three Collas returned to Ireland, may (the 
digits are so nearly alike) have taken that year for a.d. 357 — the year 
of the accession to the monarchy of Eochy Moyvone, son of Muredach 
Tireach. In either case, if the date assigned in the Roll of the 
Monarchs of Ireland for the death of the 123rd monarch — namely, 
A.D. 357, be correct, then the conquest of Ulster by the Three Collas 
could not have taken place before that year — the year in which 
Caolbadius, Saraan's father, was slain bj' his successor in the 

*The Battles of the Three Collas : According to O'Donovan, one of 
those battles was fought in Fearnmagh, nowthe barony of "Famey,"' 
in the County Monaghan. Another of the battles was fought at a 
place called Fearnmagh (or Femmoy) inDalaradia or Ulidia; and the 
place is now known as the parish of Aghaderg, in the barony of 
Iveagh, in the County Down, on the borders of Antrim and Armagh. 
This battle was called Cath-Caim-Eocha-Lethdearg or Cath-Cairn- 
Aghaladerg, signifying the battle commemorated by the cairti raised 
in honour of Eocha, who was styled Lethdearg; and, in proof of the 
correctness of the name, there is still there a great heap of stones 


The Collas having overthrown the natives, slain their 
king, sacked, burned, and destroyed the regal city of 
Eamhain (or Emania*), thereby possessed themselves of 
a great portion of Ireland; but, soon after, the monarch 

(or cairn) at Drummillar, near Loughbricliland, whicli points out 
the place where the (cath or) battle was fought, in which Bocha 
Lethdearg fell: the name " Eocha-Lethdearg" being, in course of 
time, contracted to Aghaladerg, and more lately to Aghaderg. As 
" Eochy" was the first name of CoUa Meann, who fell in that battle, 
it may be inferred that he was the Eochy to whose memory Cairn- 
Eocha, here mentioned, was raised; and, the epithet "lethdearg" 
signifying half red, it may be also inferred that, from the wounds- 
he received in the battle before he was slain, he was half covered 
with blood: hence, perhaps, the name " Eochy Lethdearg." 

The old annalists state that, so great was the slaughter in that- 
memorable battle, the earth was covered with dead bodies, from 
Cairn Eocha to G-lenrighe [Glenree], now the vale of the Newry 
river — a distance of about ten miles ! — Boole of Eights. 

''Emania : Immediately after their victory, the Collas proceeded 
to the palace of Emauia (in Irish "Eamhain Macha"), the seat of 
royalty of the Irian kings, which they burned to the ground: so 
that it never after became the habitation of any of the Ultonian 
kings; but, though that famous palace afterwards lay in a state of 
desertion, it is occasionally referred to in the Annals of Ireland as 
the chief residence of the kings of Orgiall. Their chief residence, 
however, was at Clogher in the County Tyrone, which was once a 
great seat of Druidism. 

According to Colgau in his Trias Thauinaturga, there were in his. 
time (a.d. 1647) extensive remains of Emania; whose site is about 
two miles westward of Armagh, near the river Callan, at a place 
called Navan Hill. 

According to Joyce, the remains of Emania at present consist of 
a circular wall or rampart of earth with a deep fosse, enclosing 
about eleven acres, within which are two smaller circular forts. 
The great rath is still known by the name of the Navan Fort, in 
which the original name is curiously preserved. The proper Irish 
form is Eamhain, which is pronounced aven, "Emauia" being 
merely a latinized form. The Irish article an, contracted as usual 
to )i, placed before the word, makes it nEamhain, the pronunciation 
of which is exactly represented by the word "JSTavan." 

The Red Branch Knights of Ulster, so celebrated in our early 
romances, and whose renown has descended to the present day 
flourished m the Hrst century, and attained their greatest glory m 
the reign of Connor MaoNessa. They (like the Fiana Eireanu else- 
W'here mentioned m these pages) were a kind of militia in the service 
of their king, and received their name from residing in one of the 
. houses of the palace of Emania, called Craov Kua [Creeveroe] or the 


Niall of tbe Nine Hostages conquered that part of Ulster 
known as the "Kingdom of Aileach," of one part of which 
his son Eoghan or Owen, and of the other portion, his- 
son Conall Gulban, were the first princes of the Hy-Niall 

From the Three Oollas descended many noble families 
in Ulster, Connaught, Meath, and Scotland: the families 
descended from them were known as the "Clan OoUa." 
■ The following were among the principal of the chiefs 
and tribes of this race : — The Agnews, Alexanders, Boylans; 
Gassidys, chiefs of Ooole; Connollys, chiefs in Fermanagh; 
Corrys; Devins, lords of Fermanagh; Duffys, Hales, 
Hanrattys (Anglicised "Enrights"); Keenans, chiefs in 
Fermanagh; Kearns, Kierans; Leahys, chiefs in Hy-Maine 
— a territory in Galway and Eoscommon; MacAUisters, 
MacArdles; MacCabes, chiefs in Monaghan, and Cavan; 
MacCanns, lords of Clanbrassil ; MacCleans; MacDonalds 
and MacDonnells, lords of the Hebrides; MacDonnells, 
of Antrim; MacDonnells, of Clankelly, in Fermanagh; 
MacDougalds, MacDougalls, and MacDowells ; MacEvoys,* 
MacVeaghs, and MacVeighs, (the Anglicised forms of the 
ancient MacUais) who were distinguished chieftains in 
the territory now known as the barony of "Moygoish," in 
the County Westmeath; MacGilfinans, lords of Pettigoe; 
MacGilmichaels or Mitchells ; MacGilmores, chiefs in 
Down and Antrim ; MacKennas, chiefs of Truagh in 
Monaghan; MacMahons, princes of Monaghan, lords of 

Red Branch, where they were trained in valour and feats of arms. 
The name of this ancient mOitary college is still preserved in that of 
the adjacent townland of Creeveroe: and thus has descended through 
another medium, to our own time, the echo of those old heroic 
days. — Irish Namea of Places. 

*MacEvoys: Several other noble tribes known as the " Ui-mic- 
Uais" [ee-mic-oosh], signifying the descendants of the noble, were, 
like these families, descended from the monarch CoUa Uais. 

The youngest of the Three Collas, who was named CoUa Meann, 
was father of Mughdom or Moume, from whom was named the 
ancient district of Crioch-Mughdorn or Cree-Mourne, i.e. the (crioch 
or) country of the people called Mughdorna. The name of that 
ancient district is preserved in the word " Cremorne," the name of 
a barony in the County Monaghan. — Irish Names of Places. 


Farney, and barons of Dartrey, at Conagh, where they 
held their chief seat (The MacMahons were sometimes 
styled princes of Orgiall, and several of them changed 
their names to "Matthews"); MacManuses, chiefs in 
Fermanagh ; MacOscars and MacOsgars (Anglicised Mac- 
Cuskers and Cosgraves), who, according to O'Dugan, 
possessed a territory called Fearra Eois (signifying the 
"Men of Boss"), which comprised the district of Magheross 
.about the town of Carrickmacross in the Coiinty_ Mon- 
aghan, with the parish of Clonkeen, adjoining, in the 
County Louth; MaoTullys, and Magraths, chiefs in 
Fermanagh; MacNenys (Anglicised " Bird"), MacEorys 
■(Anglicised "Eogers"), MacSheehys; Maddens, lords of 
Siol Anmcha or Silancha, which ancient territory com- 
prised the present barony of Longford in the County 
Galway, and the parish of Lusmagh on the other (Leinster) 
side of the river Shannon, near Banagher, in the King's 
County; Magees, chiefs in Down and Antrim ; Maguires, 
princes and lords of Fermanagh, and barons of Ennis- 
killen; Muldoons (Anglicised "Meldons"), chiefs of Lurg; 
Mullallys and Lallys, Naghtans and Nortons, chiefs in 
Hy-Maine ; Neillans ; O'CarroUs, princes of Oriel or 
Louth ; O'Flanagans, lords of Tura, in Fermanagh ; 
O'Hanlons, lords of Orior, in Armagh, and Eoyal standard 
bearers of Ulster ; O'Harts, princes of Tara, lords of 
Teffia, and chiefs in Sligo ; O'Kellys, princes and lords of 
Hy-Maine ; O'Nenys, Eogers, Saunderson, Sheehys, etc. 
TheMacQuillans, powerful chiefs in Antrim, are considered 
to have been of the race of Clan Colla, and, like the Mac- 
Allisters, MacCleans, MacDonalds, and MacDonnells of 
Antrim, MacDoweUs,MacElligotts (Anglicised "Elliotts"), 
■etc., to have come from Scotland. 

The Sheehys and MacSheehys were great commanders 
of galloglasses (or heavy armed troops) in Ulster, and also 
in Leinster and Munster. Some of the Sheehys are said 
to have changed their name to " Joyce," and a colony of 
them having settled in West Connaught gave their name 
to the district in that province which, after them, has been 
called Tir-ne-Sheoghaidh (Anglicised " Joyces' Country"): 
the name Sheoghaidh being the Irish for " Sheehy," and 
also Anglicised " Joyce" and " Joy." 


The territory conquered by the Collas in Ulster obtained 
the name " Orgiall," from the circumstance of their 
having, for themselves and their posterity, stipulated with 
the Monarch, that if at any time any princes or chiefs of 
the Clan Colla should be demanded as hostages, and if 
shackled, their fetters should be chains of gold* (hence, 
from the Irish word "Or" [ore], French "or," Lat. 
" aurum," gold ; Irish " ghiall," a hostage, came the name 
" Orgiall." 

After its conquest by the Collas, the Kingdom of Orgiall, 
or, as it was still generally called, the Kingdom of Ulster, 
comprised the extensive territory which includes the pre- 
sent counties of Louth, Monaghan, Fermanagh, Armagh, 
Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim, Down, Donegal, and parts 
of Cavan and Meath ; but, by conquest, and subdivision 
amongst some of the Princes and Chiefs of Clan Colla, 
the Kingdom of Ulster was, in after ages, limited to 
Dalaradia or Ulidia — a territory comprising the present 
County Down and part of Antrim. By Ware, Ussher, 
Colgan, and other Latia writers, the Kingdom of Orgiall 
was called OrgaUia and Ergallia ; and by the English, 
Oriel, t and Uriel. The latter terms however were after- 
wards, in general, confined by the English to the present 
County Louth (Latinized " Lovidia"), which was called 
O'CarroU's Country ;" and which, after it was constituted 
a county, a.d. 1210, formed part of the English Pale. 
Thus, Louth was comprised in the ancient Kingdom of 

*Chains of gold : According to O'Donovan, ■when the hostage took 
an oath, that is, as the prose has it, swore by the hand of the king, 
that he would not escape from his captivity, he was left without a 
fetter ; hut if he should afterwards escape, he then lost his caste, 
and was regarded as a perjured man. Whenever hostages of the 
Clan Colla were fettered, golden chains were used for the purpose : 
hence, they were called " Orgiallans" or " Orghialla," i.e. of the 
golden hostages. It is stated that the king of the Clan CoUa was 
entitled to sit by the side of the monarch of Ireland, but that aU the 
rest were the length of his hand and sword from him. — Book of 

•\-Oriel : The O'Carrolls were princes of Oriel down to the Anglo- 
Norman invasion ; but many of them were kings of Ulidia or Ulster, 
in the early ages. Some writers say they were of the Dal Fiatach 
family, who were of the race of Heremon, descended from Fiatach 



Ulster, which extended as far south as the Boyne at 
Drogheda* and Slane. 

The ancestor of the O'Carrolls of Oriel was Carroll, 
brother cf Eochy, who was father of St. Donart, and son 
of Muredach Munderg, the first Christian King of Ulster. 
This Eochy, being an obstinate Pagan, opposed the Apos- 
tle; who, on that account, prophesied, it is said, that the 
sceptre would pass from him to his brother Carroll, above 
mentioned. And the O'Carrolls continued kings of Oriel 
or Louth, down to the twelfth century, when they were 
dispossessed by the Anglo-Normans, under John de Courcy. t 
In co-operation with St. Malachy, archbishop of Armagh 
in the twelfth century, Donoch O'Carroll, prince of Oriel, 
the last celebrated chief of this family, founded, a.d. 1142, 
and amply endowed, the great Abbey of Mellifont in the 
County Louth. 

Fionn, the 103rd Mileaian monarcli of Ireland ; but these O'Carrolls 
were of the Clan Colla. Dugald MacFirbis, in his pedigrees of the 
Irish families, says, that "the Dal-Fiatachs, who were old kings 
of Ulster, and blended with the Clan-na-Rory, were hemmed into a 
narrow comer of the province, by the race of Conn of the Hundred 
Battles, i. e. the Orghialla and Hy-Niall of the north ; and that even 
this narrow corner was not left to them (Mac Firbis here alludes to 
the obtrusion of the Clanaboy branch of the O'Neill fanuly, who 
subdued almost the entire of Ulidia), so that they had nearly been 
extinguished, except a few of them who had left the original terri- 
tory." And MacFirbis says, "this is the case with the Gael of 
Ireland in this year of our Lord, 1666 ; but," he adds, •' God is 
wide in a strait. " It must be remembered, however, writes O'Donovau, 
that the Dalfiatach tribes had sent forth numerous colonies or swarms, 
who settled in various parts of Ireland, as the seven septs of Laeighis 
(or Leix), in Leinster, etc. — Book of Eights. 

*Drogheda : The chief town of the County Louth was in Irish 
called Droichead- Atha, signifying the Bridge of the Ford ; Droichead- 
Atha has been Anglicised "Drogheda," and Latinized " Pontana" 
{pons : Lat. ; droichead : Irish, a bridge) ; but the name, as originally 
Anglicised, was " Tredagh," which is evidently a corruption of the 
Irish word " Droichead." 

■\:'John de Courcy : Of the Anglo-Norman leaders in Ireland, John 
de Courcy was the most renowned. He was descended from the 
dukes of Lorraine in France ; and his ancestor came to England 
with William the Conqueror. He was a man of great strength, of 
gigantic stature, and indomitable courage. Holingshed says : ' ' De 
Oourcy was mighty of Umb and strong of sinews, very tall and broad 


The dominant family ia Ulidia, when, a.d. 1177, it was 
invaded by John de Courcy, was, according to Connellan, 
that of Cu-Uladh Mac Duinnshleibhe O'h-Eochadha. 
This Cu Ula was brother of Eory, who was the last king 
of Ulster of the race of Clan Colla. 

The " Cu-Ula" portion of this name has been Latinized 
"Canis Ultonise" : meaning that this Chief was swift- 
footed as a hound ; and the " Mac Duinnshleibhe" 
[Dunsleive] portion implies, that Cu. Ula was the son 
of Duinnshleibhe — a name which Giraldus Cambrensis 
Latinized ' ' Dunlevus, ' ' and which is Anglicised ' ' Dunlevy . ' ' 
The " O'h-Eochadha" portion of the name signifies, that 
the Mac Dunsleive here mentioned was descended from 
Eochy, the fifty-first king of Ulster. This Eochy was 
brother of Maolruana, who was the fifty-second king of 
Ulster ; and was slain at the Battle of Clontarf, a.d. 1014, 
fighting on the side of the Irish Monarch, Brian Boru. 
The epithet "Duinnshleibhe" signifies the Chief who had 
his fortress on the mountain. 

Uladh [Ula] was the ancient name of the entire pro- 
vince of Ulster, but, after its conquest by the Three 
Collas, that name, Latinized "Ulidia," was applied to 

in proportion, a most vaKant soldier, the first in the field and the 
foremost in the fight, a noble and right yaliant warrior." Champion 
in his Chronicle says of Viim : "John de Courcy was a warrior of 
noble courage, and in pitch of body like a giant." It is remarked 
that in private life he was modest and religious. 

HoUngshed states that De Courcy rode on a white horse, and had 
three eagles painted on his standard's, to fulfil a prophecy made by 
Merlin — " that a knight riding on a white horse and bearing birds 
«u his shield should be the first of the English who, with force of 
arms, would enter and conquer Ulster." De Courcy and his forces 
subjugated a great part of Orgiall, together with Ulidia ; and had 
his chief castle at Downpatrick. He was married to Africa, daughter 
of firodred, king of the Isle of Man ; and was created earl of XJIster 
by King Henry the Second. After various contests with his great 
rivals the De Lacys, lords of Meath, he was at length overcome, 
taken prisoner, and banished from Ireland : he died an exile in 
Prance, a.d. 1210. The De Courcys, his successors iu Ireland, were 
created barons of Kinsale, and, in consideration of the fame of their 
ancestors, were allowed the peculiar privilege of wearing their hats 
in the royal presence — a right which the baron of Kinsale exercised 
on the occasion of George the Fourth's visit to Ireland, a.d. 1821. — 


that portion of the east of Ulster, bounded on tlie west by 
the Lower Bann and Lough Neagh, and by GUonn or Glen 
Eighe [ree] , now the glen or vale of the Newry river ; 
through which anartificialboundary (from Newry upwards) 
still in tolerable preservation, was formed, now called 
" The Danes' Cast," but known in Irish by the name of 
Gleann Na Muiee Duibhe, signifying " The Valley of the 
Black Pigs." That eastern portion of Ulster, now known ' 
as the County Down and part of the County Antrim,, 
constituted the "Kingdom of Ulster," in the twelfth 
century ; and it is to that territory that the Irish annalists 
who have written in Latin apply the name Ulidia, while 
they mean " Ultonia," to denote all Ulster. 

In the ancient Ecclesiastical divisions of Ireland, the- 
territory of " Orgiall'' was comprised within the ancient 
diocese of Clogher. In early times there were bishops' 
sees at Clones and Louth, which were afterwards annexed 
to Clogher ; and, in the early writers, the bishops of 
Clogher were frequently styled bishops of Orgiall and of 
Ergallia. Thus, it would appear that, after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into Ireland, Clogher, as being the chief 
seat of government of the Kings of Clan Colla, was, for- 
some time, the ecclesiastical metropolis of Ulster ; and 
that, although the see of Armagh was founded by St. 
Patrick, it was not until the Kings of Clan Colla were, by 
conquest, deprived of Clogher, that Armagh, another of 
their seats of government, became the premier see of Ulster. 
In the thirteenth century, the County Louth was separated 
from Clogher, and added to the diocese of Armagh ; where, 
according to the "Tripartite Life of St. Patrick," the first 
site for a church was granted to the Apostle of Ireland by 
a Pagan chieftain named Daire or Darius, a prince of 
Orgiall, and a descendant of Colla-da-Chrioch, the first 
King of Ulster, of the line of Clan Colla. 

In St. Bernard's " Life of St. Malachy," archbishop of 
Armagh in the twelfth century, it is stated (see Colgan's 
Trias Thaum, pages 801-2) that the Clan Colla or Orgialla 
would not allow any bishop among them except one of 
their own family ; that they had carried this through fifteen 
generations ; and that they had claimed the see of Armagh, 
and maintained possession of it for two hundred years. 


•claiming it as their indubitable birthright. And O'Cal- 
laghan writes, that the Primacy of Armagh, " the Eome 
of Ireland," as he calls it, was a " vested interest in one 
family of the race between the tenth and twelfth centuries, 
for nearly two hundred years. 

While entertaining the greatest respect and veneration 
for any dictum of St. Bernard, I may be permitted to 
•offer a few observations on the subject. De mortuis nihil 
nisi boninn. 

If the Clan Colla recognised no ecclesiastical authority 
outside their own episcopacy, it is easy to understand that, 
possessing the civil power, they selected their bishops from 
their own family ; for, what more natural than that the 
dignitary who possesses supreme ecclesiastical authority 
in any country will advance to the episcopate a member 
of his own family, in preference to a stranger : the more so, 
if the temporahties of the sees over which he has eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction were the rich endowments of his 

On the other hand, if the bishops of Clan Colla recog- 
nised ecclesiastical authority outside their own episcopacy, 
then the allegations imply that, without the sanction of 
that ecclesiastical authority, the bishops of that race did, 
for fifteen generations, enter into, and keep, possession of 
their sees. If this were so, I should indeed admit that the 
bishops of Clan Colla were guilty of gross contumacy ; for, 
without taking into account the " nearly two hundred 
years" during which, it is alleged, the Clan Colla had 
claimed the see of Armagh, and maintained possession of 
it, claiming it as their indubitable birthright," the "fifteen 
generations" above mentioned embraced all the generations 
from the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland, a.d. 432, down 
to the eleventh century, or, from Crimthann Liath, who 
was King of Ulster at the time of that advent, down to 
Maelruanaidh : these two personages of the race of Clan 
Colla being, respectively, Nos. 89 and 104 on my family 
pedigree (see pages 138 and 140.) [That Crimthann is 
also No. 5 on the subjoined EoU of " The Kings of Ulster 
since the fourth century."] 

If, then, for six hundred years or fifteen consecutive 
generations the bishops of Clan Colla were disobedient to 


superior ecclesiastical autliority, or, what is the same 
thing, contumacious, it is difficult to see how and by whora 
any of them were ever canonized ; for, I find that some of 
the bishops of that once illustrious race lived and died in 
the odour of sanctity. 

The Four Masters record thirty-eight saints as descended 
from the Three Collas : namely, eighteen from CoUa-da- 
Chrioch ; sixteen, from Colla Uais ; and four, from CoUa 
Meann. Of these saints some were virgins, some were 
bishops, some were abbots ; but at all times the abbots 
ranked as bishops in Ireland. The following were the 
eighteen saints descended from Colla-da-Chrioch : 

9. St. Fergus (29 March) 

10. St. Fiachra (2 May) 

11. St. Flann Feabhla (20 

1. St. Begg (1 August) 

2. St. Brughach (1 Nov.) 

3. St. Curcach, virgin 

4. St. Daimhin (or Damin), 

abbot of Devenish Abbey 
(see page 189), on Deve- 
nishlsland, LoughErne 

5. St. Derfraooh, virgin 

6. St. Donart 

7. St. Duroch, virgin 


12. St. Lochin, virgin 

13. St. Loman of Loughgill 

(4 Feb.) 

14. St. Maeldoid (13 May) 

15. St. Mochaomog 

16. St. Muredach (15 May) 

8. St. Enna of Aaron (21 17. St. Neassa, virgin 
March) 1 18. St. Tegan (9 Sept.) 

Perhaps, however, the allegations above mentioned 
referred to the " erenachs" and " comorbans" ; for, the 
ereiiachs, who were sometimes in holy orders, were_per-30ns 
employed to farm the property or collect'tEe-revenue of 
ecclesiastics : thus, St. Malachy was his'own erenach ; 
while comorhan was a term applied to the successor of a 
bishop or abbot, and to him belonged the cathedral church, 
the tithes, and temporalities. Originally, the comorban 
was in holy orders ; but in after times lay usurpers, of 
course without orders, were called comorbans : because 
they succeeded to the temporalities enjoyed by the bishop 
or abbot. 

"When," says Malone, "a chief or prince founded a 
religious house, or procured the consecration of a bishop 
for a certain church, he richly endowed the house or 
cathedral, and gave the lands free from tribute . . . 


In process of time, influenced by avarice or irreligion, the 
descendants of the pious and munificent founders seized 
on the donations of their ancestors. Services of a spiritual 
kind were attached to these possessions. Sometimes the 
eomorban in the usurping family was consecrated ; and 
thus was fit to fulfil the conditions on which the pious 
donations were made. Very often the eomorban, being a 
layman, got a minister for a mere trifle to discharge the 
spiritual functions necessarily annexed to the temporalities. 
Together with the temporalities he often kept the tithes 
. . . The comorbans claimed the title of successors to 
the founders of churches, whether abbots or bishops. They 
bore the same relation to the whole diocese, that the 
erenach did to particular districts in that diocese."— 
Malone's Church History of Ireland. 


Since the Fourth Century. 

(Line of Clan Colla.) 

The House of Heremon — Continued : 

Colla-da-Chrioch [cree] , • No. 85 on the Stem of the 
O'Hart family, was the firstKingofUlstersinceits conquest 
by the Three CoUas, in the fourth century ; from him, 
since that conquest, all the Kings of Ulster were descended. 

1. Colla-da-Chrioch. 

2. Eochadh : his son. 

3. Deadha Dom : his son. 

4. Fiacha or Feig : his son. 

5. Crimthann Liath : his son. 

This Crimthann Liath [Leea] was the king of Ulster at 
the time of the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland, a.d. 432 ; 
in his reign the monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages con- 
quered that part of Ulster known as the " Kingdom of 

6. Muredach Munderg, son of Crimthann Liath, was 
the first Christian King of Ulster. 


7. Carioll Coscrach. 

8. Eochy, son of Muredach Munderg. This Eoehy 
was father of St. Donart, and brother of Carroll, the 
ancestor of the O'Carrolls, princes of Oriel (or Louth). 

9. Eooha, son of Conlaoch. 

This Eocha was contemporary with Diarmot, the 133rd 
monarch of Ireland. 

10. Feargna, son of Aongus. 

11. Daman, son of Carioll. 

12. AodhDubh. 

18. Daigh, son of Carioll. 

14. Baodan: his brother. 

15. Fiachna : his son. 

16. Guaire, son of Congal. 

17. Fiachna, son of Deman. 

18. Conal Claon, son of Scanlan Mor ot Moyrath 
[Moira] . 

19. Doncha, son of Fiachna. 

20. Maolchobha, son of Fiachna. 

21. Blathmac : his son. 

22. Congal Ceannfada. 

23. Fergus, son of Aidan. 

21. Begg-Barca, son of Blathmac. 

25. Curcuaran, son of Congal. 

26. Aodh Eoin. 

27. Cathusach, son of Olioll. 

28. Fiachna, son of Aodh Eoin. 

29. Eocha: his son. 

30. Tomaltach, son of Inrachta. 

31. Carioll, son of Fiachna. 

82 Malbreasal, son of AlioU. 

83 Muredach, son of Eachdan. 

84 Madudhan : his son. 

85 Loingseach, son of Tomaltach. 

86 Anbith, son of Aodh. 

37. Eachagan. 

38. Eremon, son of Aodh. 

89. Lethlobhar, son of Loingseach. 

40. Fiachna, son of Anbith. 

41. Addigh, sonof Lagny. 

42. Cumuscach. 


43. Aodli, son of Eachagau. 

44. Begg, son of Eremon. 

45. Muredach, son of Eaehagan. 

46. Kennedy (or Ceannfada). 

47. Dubhgall, son of Aodh. 

48. Eocha, son of Gonallan. 

49. Ardgal, son of Madudhan. 

50. Aodi, son of Loingseach. 

51. Eocha, son of Ardgal. 

This Eocha was contemporary with Malachy the Second, 
the 174th monarch of Ireland. 

52. Maobruana, Eocha's brother. 

This Maolruana was king of Ulster at the time of the 
Battle of Clontarf, a.d. 1014 ; and, fighting against the 
Danes, was slain at that memorable battle. 

53. Niall, son of Eocha. 

54. Mathoon, son of Donald. 

55. Donald, son of Mathoon. 

56. NiaU, son of Dubhtuiune. 

57. Doncha MacMahon. 

58. Cu-Ula O'Flathry. 

59. Eory, son of Dunsleive, was the last king of the 
race of Clan Colla, the last king of Ulster, and its fifty- 
fourth king since the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland. 


The following were among the leading families descended 
from Heremon : 





Allein {Allen) 








Anraghan (fla?j 







Binne {Binney) 


Birne . 




Boydon (Boyd) 






Brenan (Brennan) 





Brislan (Breslin) 

Briun [Brien) 


Brodar [Broderick) 



Broin (Byrne) 


Broy (Broe) 



Bruice (^Bruce) 



Cahan {Cane, Kane, Keane) 

Cambel {Campbell) * 


Cananau (Cannon, Canning, 


Caoinlian (Keenan) 

Caolly (Keely, Kiely) 

Carey (Carew) 


Camachan(<?ar??on, Gernon) 

Oarolan (Kerlin) 



Carrihan (Carr) 

Carroll "Oriel" 



Caufield {Caulfield) 



Charleton (Carleton) 



Clery (Clarke) 

Colcan (Culkin) 






Coman (Comyn, Cumminy,. 


Conafney (Cooney, Cuniffe) 

Conan (Coonan) 

Congally (Conolly) 
Conn ay 

*C'ain2}hdl: The Duke of Argyle is d escendecl from this ancient family. 





Coolaghan (Goolahan) 




Corba (Gorhet) 


Corganny (Cranny) 


Cormac (Cormack) 




Cosgar (Cosgrave, Mae- 

Cusker, Mas Coscar, ilae- 

Cratin {Gratin, Grattan, 


Crunegan (Crinnion) 
Cuanach {Keon, Keoiin) 
Cunelvan {Connellan, and 

Cunigan (Cunningham, 


Dalacban (Dalian) 






Demlisy {Dempsey) 







Diehan (Deegan) 

Dicholla [Dihilly) 






Dogherty (Doherty) 


Dolvan (Dolan) 


Donagher (Dooner) 


Donelan (Donnellan) 














Dubhron (Doran) 



[part. hi. 



Dugenan [Dijqnan, Dbjimm) 

Dulla (Booleij) 

Dunacan (Duncan) 

Dimagan [Doneijan, Domjan) 

Dunan {Doonmi) 


Dunechy (Donachy) 

Dunely {Donnelly) 


Dunn {Dunne) 

Duvena {Devany) 

Duyarma {Dermody) 

D'Wyre {Dwyer) 


Dyry {Derris) 


Echin {Eakins) 


EUigott {Elliott) 


Enesy (Hennesy) 


Faelan {Felan, Phelan, 

Fallon (Falloon) 

Feadhal {Fayle) 

Fergusa {t'eryuson) 
Fiaehry (Feery) 
Field {Flelden, FleUUmj) 



Fihily {Field) 










Foranan {Foran) 

Fox, {Reynard, Reynardson) 



Gaffney {Gafney) 


Galchor {Gallagher) 







Garvely {Garvey) 


Gavala {Gawley) 




Gerdon {Gordon) 


Gilbridy {Kilbride) 

Gilcanny {Kilkenny) 



Gilgan {Gilligan, Galligan) 


Gilleran {Gillard) 




Gilkelly (Kilkelly) 






Gnieve {Agnew) 










Gormley (Grimley) 
















Gyraghty [Geraghtij, Garret) 



Kerhy (Kirby) 


Kerin {Kearns) 





Hanratty {Enright) 

Kiblechan {Coolahan) 



Hart {Harit, Harte) 











Killin f Killeen) 

Henergy {Henry) 





Kinlechan (Kinahan) 


Kinselagh (Kinsela, Kinsley} 

Heyn {Hynes) 


Higgin {Biggins) 

Kiran (Kieran) 



Hoesy {Hosey, Hussey) 

Kirrhily (Corly, Curly} 








1 Lahin (Lane) 






Laman [Lemon, Lamond) 

Lamdhean {Laydon) 








Lawlor [Lalor) 

Lawra (Laury) 





Lochan (Logue) 

Lochnan [Loftus) 




Longan (Langan) 

Longbardan (Lombard) 

Longnehan (Lenehan) 

Lorcan (Larkin) 

Luan (Lavan) 

Lynny (Lynn) 



Macanaw (MacKenna) 
















MacDonoch (MacDonogh) 









MacGauran (Magauran, Ma- 









Machin (Macken) 

MacH.ugh(M acKay, Mackey) ; 
Irish, MacAodh [Mac-ee] 

Maclbhir (Maclvir, Maclvor, 
MacGicyre, Maguire, Me- 








MacLochlin (MacLoghUn) 






MaoMoroch (MacMorough, 

MorroiB, Murphy) 

MacOnchon (Maconchy) 
MaCrath {Magrath) 

MacSwyny [MacSwiney) 
MacTague {Montagu) 

MacUais [MacVeagh, Mac- 
Veigh, MacEvoy) 

Maddin [Madden) 
Magillan [Magellan) 


Maine (Mayne) 

Mally [Manly) 



Manchin [Minchin) 




Maongal [Monelly) 

Marcam [Markam) 






Mealla [Melia) 

Mearly (Marley) 











Mongan [Mangan) 






Morishy [Moirisy, Morris, 







Mulcalinn (MulhoUand) 

Mulchay {Mulcahy) 




Muldoon {Meldon) 

Muldory {Mulroy) 


MulfaYill {Mulhall) 

Mnlfin {Bulfin) 

Mulgemry, {Montyomery) 



Mullally (Lally) 

Mullan {Mullen, Moleyns) 

Mulligan [Molineux) 


Mulrian (Ryan) 

Mulrooney (liooney) 



Munechan (Monayhan) 

Munny [Mooney) 




Murrigan (Jdurrin, Morrin) 




Neillan (Neylan) 



Nihell {Newell) 











O'Brio (O'Broch) 


O'Broin {O'Byrne) 


O'Carroll "Oriel" 



O'Conor "Don" 

O'Conor "Faley" 

O'Conor "Eoe" 

O'Conor " Sligo" 






















0' Mulrooney 


O'Neny {MacNeny} 




O'Kahilly (O'Puelbj) 


0' Regan 






O'Euarc (O'Eourke) 





Seachnasy [Shauglmessy^ 













Eagny (Rigvij) 

Skellan {Scallan) 





Eehin [Ehin, Bijnd) 


Eey [Ray, Wray) 

Spellan (Spillane, Spelman) 






Suchan (Soohan) 











Eoidhe {JRoy, Roe) 





Ualaclian (Hoolahan) 




Urchan (Horkan.) 







Euann (Ruane, Roivav) 



Down to King James the Seco7id. 

Harlovbn De Buego, a powerful man in Normandy, had 
issue by Arlott, mother of WiUiam the Conqueror, two 
sons named Eobert and Odo. 

2. Eobert De Burgo came with his half brother WUliam 
to the invasion of England ; upon the conquest of which 
and his being King of England, William the Conqueror 
created him Earl of Cornwall ; and his brother Odo, Bishop 
of Bayaux. 

3. "William, the son of Eobert De Burgo, had two sons: 
1, Adelm De Burgo, ancestor of all the Burkes of Ireland; 
and 2, John De Burgo, who was father of Hubert De 
Burgo, Chief Justice of England and Earl of Kent. 

4. Adelm De Burgo. 

5. William Fitz-Adelm De Burgo. 

6. Eichard De Burgo. This Eichard's second son, who 
was called "Eichard the Younger", was ancestor of the 
Earls of Clanrickard. 

7. Walter De Burgo ; Died, a.d. 1271. 

8. Eichard De Burgo; was called the "Eed Earl of 
Ulster"; and Died, a.d. 1326. 

9. John (Lord) Burke first assumed this sirname. 

10. William Burke was murdered by his own followers, 
A.D. 1338. 

11. Lady Elizabeth Burke, his daughter, married 
Lionel, Duke of Clarence, who was son of King Edward 
the Third; and who, in her right, became Earl of Ulster. 

12. Lady Philippa was the sole heir of Lionel, Duke of 
Clarence, and his wife Lady Elizabeth Burke ; she married 
Edward Mortimer, Earl of March, who, in her right 
became Earl of Ulster. ' 


13. Eoger Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster. 

14. Lady Anne Mortimer was sole heir to her father 
and brother ; and married Earl Plantagenet, who was also 
Earl of Cambridge and of March, and (in her right) Earl 
of Ulster. 

15. Eichard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was slain in 
battle, A.D, 1460. 

16. King Edward the Fourth. 

17. Elizabeth of York married Henry Tudor, who 
became King Henry the Seventh. This Henry was the 
only heir male remaining of the House of Lancaster ; by 
his marriage with Elizabeth of York, the White and Red 
Roses were united ; and England, after many years' bloody 
civU wars. Became peaceable and happy. 

18. Margaret: their eldest daughter. 

19. James Stuart, the fifth Idng of Scotland; died, a.d. 

20. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. 

21. James Stuart (2) was the sixth king of Scotland and 
first of England. 

22. Charles the First; beheaded 30th January, 1648, 
(some say 1649). 

23. James the Second was the forty-seventh sole 
monarch of England down from Edgar, the first sole mon- 
arch of that kingdom of the Saxon line; the twenty-seventh 
from WUliam the Conqueror ; the seventy-seventh king of 
Scotland down from Fergus Mor Mac Eacra or Fergus the 
Great ; and the two-hundred and sixth sole monarch of 
Ireland down from Heber and Heremon, who, jointly, 
were the first sole monarchs of that kingdom of the same 
Milesian line : from one hundred and thirteen of which 
monarchs (besides most of the provincial kings of Munster, 
Ulster, Leinster, Connaught, Meath, and the other lesser 
kings of smaller territories, and the kings of Argyle, 
Dalriada, and Scotland) he was lineally descended. 

King James's issue by his first wife was Mary, who was 
mapned to William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. William 
and Mary, after her father's abdication, became king and 
queen of England, up to their death ; they both died 
without issue. 

King James's second wife was Maria D'Este, daughter 


of Alphonso D'Este, Duke of Modena. This King James 
of England died in exile in France, a.d. 1701, leaving 
issue by his second wife. 

24. James, by some called "King James the Third" ; 
by others, the Pretender. 

[William and Mary having left no issue 'svere succeeded 
by Queen Anne, who, as the second daughter of King James 
the Second, ascended the throne, in March, 1702 ; and 
reigned for twelve years and a half. Pursuant to the Act 
of succession. Queen Anne was, a.d. 1714, succeeded by 
King George the First, son of the Princess Sophia, who 
was daughter of King James the First of England.] 

Down to the 19th Earl of Kildare. 

Otho Geraldino, according to the " Battle Abbey Book," 
came into England from Normandy with William the 
Conqueror, and was one of his chief commanders ; and, 
according to Sir William Dugdale's " Baronage of 
England," was, in the sixth year of the reign of that king, 
created a baron. This Otho Geraldino had two sons, 
named Waltero and Eobert : Waltero was ancestor of all 
the Fitzgeralds of Ireland, and of all the barons of 
Windsor until the issue male became extinct, and came by 
marriage to Hickman, formerly Lord Windsor; and Eobert 
was ancestor of the ancient family of Gerard, formerly 
barons of Stamwell. 

2. Waltero Geraldino. 

3. Gerald; from whom the sirname of '• Geraldino" 
was changed to Fitzgerald. 

4. Maurice Fitzgerald first assumed this sirname ; he 
was one of the first and principal invaders of Ireland, 
where he landed in the sixteenth year of the reign of King 
Henry the Second, a.d. 1169. 

5. Gerald (2). 

6. Maurice (2). 


7. Thomas. 

8. John. 

9. Maurice (3). 

10. Thomas, called " Thomas Au Appa " or Thomas 
of the Ape. He was so called, because, when a child and 
left alone in his cradle at Tralee, where he was nursed, an 
Ape that was in the house took and carried him up to the 
steeple of Tralee, where he unswaddled him, cleaning and 
dressing him as he observed the child's nurse to do ; the 
beholders not daring to speak lest the Ape should let the 
child slip and fall; after a while he brought the child down 
and laid him in his cradle again. This Thomas Fitzgerald 
was the first of the family that got interest in the County 
Kildare, and built Castle Cam in Kildare and the castle of 
Geashill in the King's County, whereof he was made baron, 
as he was already of Shgo, Tyi-connell, and Kerry. 

11. John (2). 

12. Thomas (2). 

13. Maurice (4). 

14. Gerald (3). 

15. John (3) Cam. 

16. Thomas (3). 

17. Gerald (4). 

18. Gerald (5). This Gerald was impeached of high 
treason ; and, in September, 1584, died in the Tower of 

19. Gerald (6). 

20. Henry. 

21. William left no issue; he was, a.d. 1599, drowned 
at Bew-Morris (Beaumaris, in Anglesey). 

22. Gerald (7) Maol or (Gerald the Bald), son of 
Edward, second son of Gerald (No. 18 above mentioned), 
who died in the Tower of London, in September, 1534. 

23. Gerald (8). This Gerald died without issue ; 
leaving the honour and estates to his cousin. 

24. George, son of Thomas, third son of Edward, the 
second son of Gerald (5) No. 18, as already above men- 

25. Wentworth. 

26. John died without issue. He was succeeded by 
his uncle Eobert's son, who was the 19th earl of Kildare. 



[This Part contains from Connellan's Four Masters — 1, 
the names of the Irish Chiefs and Clans in Ireland, in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and, in general, where 
the territories they possessed were located ; 2, the names of 
the leading families of Danish, Anglo-Norman, English, 
and Scotch descent, who settled in Ireland from the twelfth 
to the seventeenth century; and 8, the names of the modern 
Irish nohility. 

For the Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage, Order of the 
Garter, Order of the Thistle, Order of St. Patrick, Order 
of the Bath, Order of the Star of India, Order of St. 
Michael and St. George, Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, 
etc., down to the present time, see " Thom's Official 
Directory" (Dublin: Alexander Thorn). The "Modern 
Nobility " mentioned in these pages are taken from 
Connellan's Four Masters ; published, a.d. 1846.] 

In ancient times there were no sirnames. In order, how- 
ever, to preserve the more correctly the history and genealogy 
of the different tribes, the monarchBrianBoru, who ascended 
the throne, a.d. 1001, made an ordinance that every Family 
and Clan in Ireland should adopt a particular sirname. 
Each family was at liberty to adopt a sirname from some 
particular ancestor, and generally took their names from 
some chief of their tribe, celebrated for his valour, wisdom, 
piety, or some other great qualities: some prefixing "Mac," 
which means son ; and others " Hy," " Ua," " Ui," or 
" 0," each of which signifies of, or a descendant of. 

Without "0" and "Mac," the Irish have no names, 
according to the old verse : 

" Per 0, atque Mae, veras cognoscis Hibernos ; 
His duobus demptis, nuUus Hibernus adest." 

Which has been Anglicised thus : 


By Mac and you'll surely know 

True Irishmen, they say ; 
But, if they lack Both " " and " Mac," 

No Irishmen* are they. 


The following is a brief summary of the Irish families in 
Munster, beginning with the three branches of the race of 
Heber : namely, the Dalcassians, the Eugenians, and the 
Clan Kian. 

I. The Dalcassians : According to Connellan, the chief 
families of this sept were — Lysacht, MacArthur, Mac- 
Bruodin, MacClancy, MacConry (Irish MacConaire, by 

* Irishmen: According to Connellan, many penal Acta of Parliament 
were in the reigns of the Henrys and Edwards, Kings of England,passed, 
compelling the ancient Irish to adopt English "surnames," and the 
English language, dress, manners, and customs; and, no doubt, many 
of the Mdesian Irish did take English surnames in those times, to 
protect their lives and properties, as, otherwise, they forfeited their 
goods and were liable to be punished as Irish enemies. Hence, many 
of the ancient Irish families did so twist and Anglicise their names, 
that it is often difficult to determine whether those families are of Irish 
or English extraction ; and hence, many of them of Irish origin are 
considered of English or French descent. In modern times, too, 
many of the Irish families omitted the and Mac in their sirnames; 
but such names lose muchof their euphonious sound by the omission, 
and besides, are neither English nor Irish. 

Some of the Danish settlers in Ireland took Irish surnames, as the 
Plunkets, Betaghs, Cruises, Dowdalls, Dromgooles, Sweetmans, and 
Palmers, in Dublin, Meath, and Louth; and the Goulds, Coppingers, 
Skiddys, Terrys. and Trants, in Cork. More of the Danish settlers 
prefixed " Mac " to their names, as did many of the Anglo-Norman 
and English families in early times. The following Anglo-Norman or 
English families adopted Irish surnames: — the De Burgos or Burkes of 
Connaught took the name of MacWilliam, and some of them that of 
MaoPhiltp ; the De Angulos or Nangles of Meath and Mayo changed 
the name to MacCostello ; the De Exeters of Mayo, to MacJordan ; 
the Barretts of Mayo, to MacWattin j the Stauntons of Mayo, to 


some Anglicised MacNeir; by others Irwin, Irvine, Irving), 
MacCurtin or Curtin (this name_ was also O'Ourtin, or, in 
Irish, O'Cuarthan, by some 'Anglicised "Jourdan"), 
MacDonnell, MacEniry(MacHenry), MacGrath (Magrath), 
MacMahon, MacNamara, O'Ahern, O'Brien, O'Brody, 
O'Casey, O'Cashin, O'Considine, O'Davoran, O'Dea, 
O'Duhig, O'Grady, O'Hanraghan, O'Hartigan, O'Hea, 
O'Healy, O'Heap, O'Heffernan, O'Hehir, O'Hickey, 
O'Hogau, O'Hurly, O'Kearney, O'Kennedy, O'Liddy, 
O'Lonergan, O'Meara, O'Molony, O'Noonan, or O'Nunan, 
O'Qninn, O'Shanahan, or O'Shannon, O'Sheehan, 
O'Slattery, O'Spillane, O'Twomey, etc. 

The following were also of the Dalcassian race : the 
families of MaoCoghlan, chiefs in the King's County; 
O'Finnelan or O'Penelon, and O'Skully, chiefs in TefSa, or 

II. The Eugenians : Of these the chief families were — 
MacAiiliffe, MacCarthy, MacDonagh, MacElligot, 
MacFinneen, MacGillicuddy, O'Callaghan, O'Oiillen, 
O'Donohoe, O'Finnegan, O'Flannery, O'Fogarty, O'Keeffe, 
O'Kerwick, (Anglicised " Berwick"), O'Lechan or Lyons, 
O'Mahony, O'Meehan, O'Moriarty, O'SuUivan, O'Treacy, 

III. The Clan Kian were, as already stated, located in 
Ormond or the present county of Tipperary ; and the heads 
of the Clan were the O'Carrolls, princes of Ely. The other 
families were — MacKeogh (or Kehoe), O'Corcoran, 
O'Dulhunty, (Anglicised O'Delahunty), O'Meagher. The 
O'Conors, chiefs of Kianaght (now Keenaght) in the County 
Londonderry ; and the O'Garas and O'Haras, lords of 

MacAveely {Mileadh: Irisli a hero), signifying "the son of a hero" ; 
the De Birminghams of Connaught and other places to MacFeorais 
or Peoras (signifying " the son of Pearse " or Percy), from one of their 
chiefs; the Fitzsimous of the King's County, to MacRuddery ( Jiidire: 
Irish, a Knight), signifying " The sou of the knight "; the Le Poera 
(Anglicised "Power") of Kilkenny and Waterford, to MaoShere ; 
the Butlers, to MaoPierce ; the Fitzgeralds, to MacThomas and Mao 
Maurice ; the De Courcy's of Cork, to MacPatrick ; the Barrys of 
Cork, to MacAdam, etc. But it does not appear that any of those 
families adopted the prefix "0," which, according to the Four 
Masters, was confined chiefly to the Milesian families of the highest 
rank. — Oonnellan. 


Lieny and Coolavin in the County Sligo, were also branches 
of the Clan Kian of Munster. 

IV. The Ithians, who were also called Darinians, were 
descended from Ith or Ithius, uncle of Milesius (for some 
of the leading families descended from Ith, see page 79). 

V. The Clan-Na-Deagha were also called Degadians 
and Ernans, from two of their distinguished ancestors ; 
they were celebrated chiefs in Munster, but were originally 
descended, as already shown, from the Heremonians of 
Ulster. Of this Clan the principal families in Munster 
were: 0'Falvy,hereditary admirals of Desmond; O'Connell, 
of Kerry, Limerick, and Clare ; O'Donegan, O'Pihilly, 
O'Mynn, O'Shea; O'Baisan or O'Basken and O'Donnell 
of the County Clare, etc. 

VI. The Irians (or " Clan-Na-Eory ") of Ulster also 
settled several families of note in Munster, as early as the 
first and second centuries ; of whom were the following : 
the O'Conors, lords or princes of Kerry ; the O'Oonors, 
lords of Corcomroe in Clare ; and the O'Loghlins, lords of 
Burren, also in Clare. Of this race were also the O'Parrells, 
lords or princes of Annaly ; the MacEannals (Anglicised 
"Eeynolds") lords of Muinter Eoluis, in the County 
Lei trim, etc. 

VII. Of the Leinster Milesians of the race of Heremon, 
were some chiefs and clans of note in Munster, as the 
O'Felans, princes of Desies in Waterford; and the O'Brics, 
chiefs in Waterford ; the O'Dwyers and O'Eyans, chiefs in 
Tipperary ; and the O'Gormans, chiefs in Clare. 

Vni. The O'Neills of Thomond were originally some 
of the O'NeUls of Ulster, who, having gone to Limerick in 
the tenth century to assist in the expulsion of the Danes, 
on one occasion in battle wore green boughs in their 
helmets ; and from that circumstance got the name 
" O'Craoibh", which signifies of the branches. This name 
was afterwards Anglicised "Creagh"; of whom there are 
still many highly respectable families in the counties of 
Clare, Cork and Tipperary. Some of these O'Neills changed 
their name to " Nihell." 

King Henry the Second, a.d. 1180, granted part of the 
kingdom of Thomond to Herbert Pitzherbert ; but he having 
resigned his claims, it was granted by King John to 


William and Philip de Braosa. In the thirteenth century, 
king Henry the Third gave to Thomas de Clare, son of 
the earl of Gloucester, a grant of the whole kingdom ot 
Thomondor "O'Brien's Coimtry", as it was caUed ,• but 
the O'Briens and other chiefs in Thomond maintained for 
centuries fierce contests with the Anglo Norman and 
English settlers, in defence of their national independence. 


The Ancient Thomond. 
1. The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The following were the Irish chiefs and clans of ancient 
Thomond, or the counties of Limerick and Clare : 1. O'Dea, 
chief of Dysart O'Dea, now the parish of Dysart, harony 
of Inchiquin, County Clare. 2. O'Quinn, chief of Muintir 
Ifernain, a territory about Corofin in the County Clare : 
the O'Heffernans were the tribe who possessed this 
territory; over whom O'Quinn was chief. These O'Quinns 
had also possessions inLimeriok, where they became earls of 
Dunraven. 3. O'Flattery, and O'Cahil, chiefs of Fianchora. 
4. O'Mulmea or Mulmy, chief of Breintire, now Brentry, 
near Callan hill, in the County Clare. 5. O'Hehir, chief 
of Hy-.Plancha and Hy-Cormac, districts in the barony of 
Islands ; and (according to O'Halloran) of Callan, in the 
County Clare. 6. O'Deegan, chief of Muintir Conlochta, 
a district in the parish of Tomgraney, in the barony of 
Tullagh, County Clare. 7. O'Grady, chief of Kinel 
Dongally, a large territory comprising the present 
barony of Lower Tullagh, County Clare. The O'Gradys 
had also large possessions in the County Limerick ; and, 
in modern times, the Eight Hon. Standish O'Grady, 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, was, a.d. 1831, 
created Viscount Guillamore. 8. MacConmara or Mac- 


Namara (literally a warrior of the sea) was chief of the 
territory of Clan Caisin, now the barony of TuUagli, 
in the County Clare. The Macnamaras were also some- 
times styled chiefs of Clan Cuilean, which was the tribe 
name of the family ; derived from Cuilean, one of their 
chiefs in the eighth century. This ancient family held the 
high and honourable office of hereditary marshals of 
thomond. 9. O'Conor, chief of the territory of Fear Arda 
and of Corcomroe, at present a barony in the County 
Clare. 10. O'Loughlin, chief of Burren, now the barony 
of Burren, County Clare, which was sometimes called 
Eastern Corcomroe. The O'Loghlins and O'Conors here 
mentioned were of the same descent : namely, a branch of 
the Clan na Eery, descended from the ancient kings of 
Ulster of the race of Ir. 11. O'Connell, chief of Hy-Cuilean, 
a territory south-east of Abbeyfeale, in the barony of Upper 
Conello, on the verge of the County Limerick, towards the 
river Feale, and the borders of Cork and Kerry. According 
to O'Halloran, the O'Connells had their chief residence in 
Castle Connell, in the County Limerick. In the twelfth 
century the O'Connells settled in Kerry, where they had a 
large territory on the borders of their ancient possessions. 
According to O'Halloran, the O'Falvies, admirals of 
Desmond ; the O'Connells, of Kerry ; O'Sheas, chiefs of 
Muskerry, in Cork ; and several other chiefs, were des- 
cended from the Clan na Deaga, celebrated chiefs of 
Munster, originally a branch of the Heremonians of 
Ulster. Of the Clan na Deaga, was Conaire the Second, 
monarch of L:eland, who was married to Sarad (daughter 
of his predecessor. Conn of the Hundred Battles, monarch 
of L:eland in the second century), by whom he had a son, 
named Cairbre Eiada, from whom were descended the 
Dalriedians of Ulster, and of Scotland. 

Ason of Cairbre Eiada got large possessions in South 
Munster, in the present Counties of Cork and Kerry: from 
him the O'Connells, O'Falvies, and O'Sheas are descended. 
12. MacEneiry (Anglicised MacHenry and Fitzhenry), 
chiefs of Corca Muiceadha, also called Conaill Uachtarach, 
now the barony of Upper Conello, in the County Limerick. 
The MacEneirys were descended from Mahoun (Anglicised 
^'Mahon") king of Munster, and brother of Brian Boru^ 


and had their chief residence at Castletown MacEneiry. 
13. O'Billry, a chief of Hy Conall Guara, now the 
baronies of Upper and Lower Conello, in the County 
Limerick. 14. O'Cullens, O'Kenealys, and O'Sheehans, 
were chiefs in the baronies of Conello, County Limerick. 
15. O'Makessy, chief of Corca Oiche; and O'Bergin, chief 
of Hy-Kossa, districts in the County Limerick. 16. 
O'Mulcallen, a chief of Conriada, now the barony of 
Kenry, County Limerick. 17. O'Clerkin and O'Flannery, 
chiefs of Dal Cairbre Eva, in the barony of Kenry, County 
Limerick. 18. O'Donovan, chief of Cairbre Eva, now the 
barony of Kenry, which was the ancient territory of 
O'Donovan, O'Cleircin, and O'Flannery. The O'Donovans 
had their chief castle at Bruree, County Limerick. 19. 
O'Ciariahaie or Kerwick, chief of Eoganacht Aine, now 
the parish of Knockaney, in the barony of Small County, 
County Limerick. 20. O'Muldoon, also a chief of Eogan- 
acht Aine, same as O'Kerwick. 2L O'Kenealy, chief of 
Eoganacht Grian Guara, a district comprising parts of 
the baronies of Coshma and Small County, in Limerick. 
22. O'Gunning, chief of Crioch Saingil and Aosgreine: 
Crioch Saingil, according to O'Halloran, is now "Single 
Land," and is situated near Limerick; and both the ter- 
ritories here mentioned are, according to O'Brien, com- 
prised in the barony of Small County, in Limerick. 23. 
O'Keely and O'Malley are given as chiefs of Tua Luimnidb 
or "the district about Limerick." 24. O'Keeffe, chief of 
Triocha-Cead-an-Chaliadh, called Cala Ouimne, that is, 
the port or ferry of Limerick. 25. O'Hea, chief of Muscry 
Luachra, a territory lying between Kilmallock and Ard- 
patrick, in the barony of Coshlea, in the County Limerick. 
26. MacDonnell and O'Baskin, chiefs of the territories of 
Corca Baiscind, now the barony of Moyarta, in the County 
Clare. O'Mulcorcra was chief of Hy-Bracain, now the 
barony of Ibrackan; and O'Keely — probably the O'Keely 
above named — was another chief of the same place. One 
of the Corca Baiscinds here mentioned was the present 
barony of Clonderlaw. 27. MacMahon. The MacMahons 
succeeded the above chiefs, as lords of Corca Baiscind; 
and possessed the greater part of the baronies of Moyarta 
and Clonderlaw, in the County Clare. Li O'Brien's 


Dictionary these MacMahons and MacDonnells are given 
as branches of the O'Briens, the jjosterity of Brian Boru; 
and, therefore, of quite a different descent from the 
MacMahons, princes and lords of Monaghan, and the 
MacDonnells, earls of Antrim, who were of the race of 
Clan Colla. 28. O'Gorman chief of Tullichrin, a territory 
comprising parts of the haronies of Moyarta and Ibrackan, 
in the County Clare. 29. O'Diochoila and O'MulIethy 
or Multhy, were chiefs in Corcomroe. 80. O'Drennan, 
chief of Slieve Eise, Finn and of Kinel-Seudna, a district 
on the borders of Clare and Galway. 31. O'Neill, chief 
of Clan Dalvy and of Tradree, a district in the barony of 
Inchiquin, County Clare. This branch of the O'Neill 
family, according to Ferrar, went in the tenth century 
from Ulster to Limerick, to assist in the expulsion of the 
Danes, over whom they gained several victories ; and on 
one occasion, having worn green boughs in their helmets, 
they, from this circumstance, got the name "O'Craoibh," 
signifying o/ the brandies : a name which has been Angli- 
cised " Creagh." 32. O'Davoran, chief of Muintir Lidh- 
eagha (or the O'Liddys), the tribe name of this clan; 
whose territory was situated in the barony of Corcomroe, 
County Clare. 33. The O'Moloneys were chiefs of 
Cuiltenan, now the parish of Kiltonanlea, in the barony 
of Tulla, County Clare. 34. The O'Kearneys, as chiefs 
of Avon-Ui-Kearney or O'Kearney's River, a district 
about Six -Mile -Bridge, in the baronies of Tulla and 
Bunratty, County Clare. 35. The O'Caseys, chiefs of 
Eathconan, in the barony of Pubblebrien, County Limerick. 
86. O'Dinan or Downing, chiefs of Uaithne, now the 
baroney of Owneybeg, in Limerick. 37. The O'Hallinans 
and MacSheehys, chiefs of Ballyhallinan, in the barony 
of Pubblebrien, County Limerick. The O'Hallorans, 
chiefs of Fay-Ui-Hallurain, a district between Tulla and 
Clare, in the County Clare. 88. The Lysaghts are placed 
in a district kbout Ennistymon; the MacConsidines, in 
the barony of Ibrackan ; the O'Dalys of Leath Mogha or 
Munster, in the barony of Burren; the MacGillereaghs 
(MacGilroy, MacGilrea, Gilroy, Kilroy) in the barony of 
Clonderlaw; the MacClanceys, in the barony of Tulla; 
and the MacBruodins, in the barony of Inchiquin : all in 


the County Clare. The MaoArthurs and the O'ScanlanSj 
in the barony of Pubblebrien ; and the O'Mornys, in the 
barony of Lower Conello : all in the County Limerick; etc,; 

2. The Anglo-Norman Families in Limerick and Clare, 
Or Thomond. 

The following were the chief families of Anglo-Norman 
and early English settlers, in the Counties of Limerick and 
Clare: — The De Burgos or Burkes, Fitzgeralds, Fitzgibbon^ 
— a branch of the Fitzgeralds, the De Clares, De Lacys, 
Browns, Barretts, Eoches, Kussells, Sarsfields, Stritches,. 
Purcells, Husseys, Harolds, Tracys, Trants, Comyns, 
Whites, Walshes, Wolfes, Dongans, Rices, Aylmers, 
Nashes, Monsells, Massys, etc. The Fitzgeralds, earls of 
Desmond, had vast possessions in Limerick ; and of the 
estates of Gerald, the sixteenth earl of Desmond, in the 
reign of Elizabeth, about one hundred thousand acres were 
confiscated ia the County Limerick, and divided amongst 
the following English families: — The Annesleys, Barkleys, 
Billingsleys, Bourchiers, Carters, Courtenays, Fittons, 
Mannerings, Stroudes, Trenchards, Thorntons, and 

Limerick was formed into a county as early as the reign of 
King John, a.d. 1210; and Clare, in the reign of Elizabeth, 
A.D. 1565, by the Lord Deputy Sir Henry Sidney. 

3. The Modern Nobility of Limerick and Clare, 
Or Thomond. 

Quoting from Connellan, the following have been the 
noble families in Limerick and Glare, since the reign of 
Henry the Eighth: — The O'Briens,* earls and marquises 

*The O'Briens; A.D. 1643, Murrogh O'Brien, having dispossessed 
his nephew Donogh of the principality of Thomond, repaired to 
England and made his submission to Henry VIII., to whom he 


of Thomond, earls of Inohiquin, barons of Ibraokan, and 
barons of Burren, also viscounts of Clare, and barons of 
Moyarta; ihe Burkes, barons of Castleconnell ; the Roches, 
barons of Tarbert; and the Fitzgeralds, knights of Glin, 
in the County Limerick; the Sarsfields, viscounts of 
Kilmallock, in the County of Limerick; the Dongans, 
earls of Limerick; the Hainiltons, viscounts of Limerick; 
the Fanes, viscounts Fane and barons of Loughguire, in 
Limerick ; the Southwells, barons Southwell of Castle- 
matross in Limerick ; the Fitzgibbons, earls of Clare ; the 
Perrys, earls of Limerick ; the Quinns, earls of Dunraven 
andbarons of Adare, inLimerick ; the O'Gradys, viscounts 
Guillamore in Limerick ; the lords Fitzgerald, and Vesey 
or Vesci, in the County of Clare ; the Masseys, barons of 
Clarina in Limerick; (the Monsells, barons of Emly). 


2%« Ancient Desmond. 

1. — The LtisH Chiefs and Clans. 

CoEK (in Latin " Corcagia," and also " Coracium") got 
its name from Core (No. 89, p. 65), a prince of the Eugenian 
race, who was King of Munster, in the fifth century ; 
Kerry (in Latin " Kerrigia") got its name from Ciar, son 
of Fergus Mac Roy, by Meava or Maud, the celebrated 
Queen of Connaught, a short time before the Christian era. 
This Ciar, in the first century, got a large territory in 
Munster, called from him Ciar Rioghact, signifying Giar's 
Kingdom: hence, the word "Ciaraidhe," Anglicised 
" Kerry." 

resigned his principality, and was created therefor earl of Thomond, 
and baron of Inchiquin : the conditions being, that he should 
utterly forsake and give up the name "O'Brien," and all claims to 
which he might pretend by the same ; and take such name as the 
king should please to give him ; and he and his heirs, and the 
inheritors of his lands, should use the English dress, customs, man- 
ners, and language ; that he should give up the Irish dress, customs, 
and Itaguage, and keep no kerns or galloglasses. — Connellan. 


The Eugenians, we saw, ruled as kings over Desmond 
or South Munster, which comprised the whole of the pre- 
sent County Cork, and the greater part of Kerry, together 
with a portion of Waterford, and a small part of the south 
of Tipperary, bordering on Cork ; while the Dalcassian 
kings ruled over Thomond. From each race was alternately 
elected a king of all Munster ; and, in that kingdom, this 
mode of government continued from the third to the tenth 
century, when Brian JBoru, of the Dalcassian race, became 
king of Munster. After that period the O'Briens alone . 
were kings of Munster and kings of Thomond ; and the 
MacCarthys, who were the head of the Eugenian race, 
were kings and princes of Desmond. 

When, on the English invasion, King Henry the Second 
landed at Waterford, in October a.d. 1171, Dermot Mac- 
Carthy, king of Desmond, waited on him the day after his 
arrival, delivered to him the keys of the city of Cork, and 
did him homage. A.D. 1177, Henry II. granted to Eobert 
Fitzstephen and Milo de Cogan, for the service of sixty 
linights to himself and his son John and their heirs, the 
whole kingdom of Desmond, with the exception of the city 
of Cork and the adjoining cantreds, which belonged to the 
Ostmen or Danes of that city, and which Henry reserved 
to hold in his own hands. The MacCarthys maintained 
long contests for their independence, with the Fitzgeralds, 
earls of Desmond, the Butlers, earls of Ormond, and other 
Anglo-Norman and English settlers ; and held their titles, 
asprinces of Desmond, with considerable possessions, down 
to the reign of Elizabeth. They were divided into two 
great branches, the head of which was MacCarthy Mor : 
of whom Donald MacCarthy was, a.d. 1665, created earl 
of Glencare or Clancare, by Queen Elizabeth; the other 
branch, called MacCarthy Reagh, were styled princes of 
Carbery. Besides the earls of Clancare, the MacCarthys 
were also created at various periods barons of Valentia, 
earls of Clancarthy, earls of Muskerry, and earls of Mount 
Cashel ; and had several strong castles in various parts 
of Cork and Kerry. 

According to Windele, the MacCarthy Mor was inau- 
gurated at Lisban-na-Cuhir in Kerry, at which ceremony 
presided 0' Sullivan Mor and O'Donoghoe Mor : his captains- 


of war were the O'Eourkes, probably a branch of the 
O'Eourkes, princes of Brefney ; the MacEgans were his 
hereditary Brehons (or Judges) ; and the O'Dalys and 
O'Duinins were his hereditary poets and antiquaries. 
There are still in the counties of Cork and Kerry many 
highly respectable families of the MacCarthys ; and several 
of the name have been distinguished commanders in the 
Irish Brigades in the service of France atid Spain. 

County Cork. 
The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

In Cork, the following have been the Irish chiefs and 
clans : — 1. The O'Sullivans had the ancient territory of 
Beara, now the baronies of Beare and Bantry in the 
County Cork ; and were called O'Sullivan Beara, and 
styled princes of Beara. Another branch of the family, 
called O'Sullivan Mor, were lords of Dunkerron, and 
possessed the barony of Dunkerron, in the County Kerry ; 
and their chief seat was the castle of Dunkerron, near the 
river Kenmare. A third branch of the O'Sullivans were 
chiefs of Knockraffan, in Tipperary. The O'Sullivans are 
of the Eugenian race, of the same descent as the Mac- 
Carthys, princes of Desmond ; and took their name from 
Snileabhan, one of their chiefs in the tenth century. In 
the reign of James the First, their extensive possessions 
were confiscated, in consequence of their adherence to the 
earls of Desmond and Tyrone in the Elizabethan wars ; 
and the heads of the family retired to Spain, where many 
of them were distinguished officers in the Spanish service, 
and had the title of Counts of Bearhaven. 2. O'Driscoll, 
head of the Ithian race, chief or prince of Corcaluighe, 
called Cairbreacha, comprising the ancient extensive 
territory of Carbery, in the south-west of Cork. The 
O'Driscolls were lords of Beara, before the O'Sullivans in 
after times became possessors of that territory. 3. O'Keeffe, 
chief of Glen Avon and of Urluachra. Glen Avon is now 


called Glanworth, a place in the barony of Fermoy, County 
Cork. This family had afterwards a large territory in the 
barony of Duhallow, known as " Pobal O'Keeffe." In 
ancient times the O'Keeffes, the O'Dugans, and O'Cosgraves, 
were chiefs in Fearmuighe Feine, now the barony of 
Fermoy ; which was afterwards possessed by the family 
of Roche, -viscounts of Fermoy, and called " Eoche's 
Country." The O'Keeffes at one time were marshals and 
military leaders in Desmond, and were styled princes of 
Fermoy. 4. MacDonogh, chief of Duhalla, now the barony 
of Duhallow, in the County Cork. The MacDonoghs of 
Munster were a branch of the MacCarthys, and were styled 
princes of Duhallow ; their chief residence was the magni- 
ficent castle of Kanturk. 5. O'Mahony, chief of Ivaugh, 
and Kinalmeaky. The O'Mahonys also possessed the 
territory of Kinal Aodha (now the barony of " Kinalea"), 
and a territory in Muskerry, south of the river Lee : both 
in the County Cork ; and another territory called Tiobrad, 
in the County Kerry. They were sometimes styled princes ; 
and possessed several castles, as those of Eosbrin, Ardin- 
tenant, Blackcastle, Ballydesmond, Dunbeacan, Dunmanus, 
Eingmahon,etc. — all along the sea-coast. 6. O'Callaghan, 
chief of Beara, and of Kinalea, in the County Cork. The 
chief of this family was transplanted into Clare by Crom- 
well, who gave him at Killorney considerable property, in 
lieu of his ancient estates. A branch of this family (who 
are of the Eugenian race) are now viscounts of Lismore. 
7. O'Lehan (Lyne, or Lyons) was lord of Hy-Lehan and 
Hy-Namcha, afterwards called the barony of Barrymore, 
from the family of the Barrys, who became its possessors. 
Castle Lehan, now Castlelyons, was the chief seat of this 
family. 8. O'Flynn, chief of Arda (a territory in the barony 
ofCarbery), andHy-Baghamna, now the barony of "Ibane" 
and Barryroe, adjoining Carbery. The castle of Macroom 
was built by the O'Flynns. 9. MacAuliflfe, chief of Glean 
Omra, in the barony of Duhallow, and a branch of the 
MacCarthys. Their chief seat was Castle MacAuliffe, 
near Newmarket. O'Tedgamna (orO'Timony)was another 
ancient chief of this territory. 10. 0'Donnegan (or Dongan), 
chief of "Muscry of the Three Plains," now the half 
barony of Orrery, in the County Cork. O'CuUenau was 


cMef on the same territory, and was hereditary physician 
of Munster. 11. O'Hinmanen (orHannen), chief of Tua- 
Saxon. 12. O'Mulbhehan (Mulvehill or Mulvany, of the 
race of Core, king of Munster), chief of Muscry Trehirne. 
13. O'Breoghan (or O'Brogan : this name "Breoghan" is 
considered the root of Bruen and Brown), O'Glaisin 
(Glashan, or Gleeson), O'Mictyre (Mactyre or Maclntyre), 
and O'Keely were chiefs of Hy-Mac-Caille, now the barony 
of "Imokilly," in the County Cork. 14. O'Corry or 
O'Curry, chief of Ciarraidhe Cuirc, now the barony of 
" Kerry currehy," in the County Cork. 15. O'Cowhey of 
Fuin Cleena, chief of Triocha Meona, now the barony of 
West Barryroe, in the County Cork. These once powerful 
chiefs had seven castles along the coast, in the barony of 
Ibawne and Barryroe. 16. O'FihUlys (Anglicised "Field," 
and " Fielding") were also chiefs in West Barryroe. 17. 
O'Baire, Anglicised O'Barry, chief of Muintir Baire, part 
of ancient Carbery in the County Cork ; and also chief of 
Aron. This family was of the Ithian or Lugadian race. 
18. O'Leary, chief of Hy-Laoghaire or " Iveleary" ; and 
Iveleary, or " O'Leary's Country," lay in Muskerry, in 
the County Cork, between Macroom and Inchageela. 19. 
O'Hea and O'Dea are mentioned among the families of 
Thomond ; they were also chiefs of Carbery, County Cork. 

20. The O'Donovans, also mentioned in Thomond, settled 
in Cork, and were chiefs of Clan Cathail, in West Carbery. 

21. O'Beice or Beeky, chief of Beantraidhe, now the barony 
of Bantry. 22. O'Casey, chief of a territory near Mitchels- 
town, in the County Cork. 23. O'Healy or Hely, chief of 
Domhnach-Mor-O'Healy or Pobal O'Healy, a parish in the 
barony of Muskerry, County Cork. 24. O'Herlihy or 
Hurley is mentioned in the families of Ormond ; they were 
also chiefs in the barony of Muskerry. 25. O'Nunan or 
Noonan, chief of TuUaleis and Castlelissen, now the 
parish of TuUilease, in the barony of Duhallow, County 
Cork. 26. O'Daly, bard to MacCarthy, O'Mahony, Carews, 
and other great families. The O'Dalys were eminent 
poets in Munster. 27. O'h-Aedhagan (Anglicised by some 
" O'Higgins," and by others " Mac Egan") was hereditary 
Brehon or judge in the counties of Cork and Kerry, under 
the MaoCarthys, kings of Desmond. The O'Higginses or 


MacEgans were also hereditary Brehons of Ormond. 28, 
The MaoSwineys were military commanders under the 
MacCarthys, who, in the thirteenth century, brought a 
body of them from Tirconnell or Donegal, where they were 
celebrated as chiefs under the O'Donels ; and hence the 
head of the clan was styled MacSuibhne-na-dTuadh or 
MacSwiney'of the Battle Axes. In Munster, the Mao- 
Swineys had the parish of Kilmurry, in the barony of 
Muskerry, and had their chief castle at 01odagh,_ near 
Macroom, and had also Castlemore in the parish of 
Movidy. 29. MacSheehy : This family was a warlike 
clan, brought from Connaught in the fifteenth century by 
the Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, who appointed them 
their body-guards. Some of them changed the name to 
" Joy;" and of this family was the Irish judge. Baron 
Joy. They are considered to be originally the same as the 
Joyces of Connemara — a race of men of tall and manly 
stature. The MacSheehys and O'Hallinans were chiefs of 
BaUyhallinan, in the parish of Poblebrien, County Lime- 
rick ; and the O'Hallorans were chiefs of Faith-Ui- 
Hallurain, a district between Tulla and Clare, in the 
County Clare. 30. The O'Kearneys were chiefs of Hy- 
Floinn, near Kinsale, in the County Cork. 81. O'Eiordan, 
a clan of note in Muskerry ; and distinguished military 
chiefs in ancient times. 32. The O'Crowleys, chiefs of 
Kilshallow, west of Bandon, and originally a clan from 
Connaught. 33. O'Murphy (originally from Wexford), a 
clan in Muskerry. 34. The O'Aherns, O'Eonaynes, and 
O'Heynes (or Hynes), were old and respectable families in 
the County Cork. 

County Kerry. 

In Kerry, the following have been the Irish chiefs and 
clans: — 1. O'Conor, king or princeof Kerry, was descended 
from 'Kiar, of the Irian race already mentioned ; and took 
the name from Con, one of their chiefs in the eleventh 
century, and from Ciar, their great ancestor : thus making 
the word " Conciar" or "Oonior," Anglicised "Conor" 


(see No. 103, page 93). Prom a portion of the ancient 
inheritance of this family the present barony of Iraghti- 
conor takes its name. 2. O'Donoghoe was of the Eugenian 
race, and chief of Lough Lein ; a branch of this family 
was the O'Donoghoe Mor, lord of Glenfesk or O'Donoghoe 
of the Glen. 3. O'Donnell (of the same race as O'Dono- 
ghoe), chief of Clan Shalvey (a quo Shelly) ; comprising 
the district called Iveleary, and a great portion of 
Muskerry. 4. O'CarroU, prince of Lough Lein. 5. 
O'Falvey, chief of Corca Duibhne (now the barony of 
" Corcaguiney",) and lord of Iveragh : both in the County 
Kerry. The O'Palveys were hereditary admirals of Desmond. 
6. O'Shea, chief of Iveragh. 7. O'Connell, chief of Magh 
O g-Coinchinn, now the barony of " Magonihy" in Kerry. 
These O'Connells were a branch of the O'Connells of 
Thomond; descended from Conaire the Second, the 111th 
monarch of Ireland. O'Leyne or Lane, chief of Hy 
Fearba ; and O'Duivdin, chief of Hy-Flannain : districts 
in the County Kerry. 9. O'Neide, chief of Clar Ciarraidhe 
or the Plain of Kerry. 10. O'Dunady, chief of Slieve 
Luachra, now Slievlogher, on the borders of Limerick and 
Kerry. 11. O'Muircheartaigh (Moriarty, or Murtagh), 
and O'Hinnesvan (or Hinson), chiefs of Aos Aisde of Orlar 
Eltaigh, a district which comprised the parish of Templenoe, 
in the barony of Dunkerron. 12. The MacGillicuddys 
(a branch of the O'SuUivans) were chiefs of a territory in 
the bareny of Dunkerron : from this family the MacGilli- 
cuddy's Eeeks in Kerry got their name ; and some of this 
family Anglicised the name " Archdeacon." 13. Mac 
EUigot (or Elligot), an ancientfamUy in Kerry, from whom 
the parish of BallymaceUigott, in the barony of Trough- 
«nackmy, got its name. MacElligott is derived from 
' ' Mac Leod' ' — originally a Scotch family. 14 . MacFinneen, 
MacCrehan (Grehan or Graham), O'Scanlan, andO'Harney 
{or Hamet), were also clans of note in Kerry. 

2. — The Anglo-Norman Families of Cork and Kerry, 
Or Desmond. 

As already stated. King Henry the Second gave a grant 
of the kingdom of Desmond to Bobert Fitzstephen and 


Milo de Cogan. With that Eobert Fitzstephen came 
Maurice Fitzgerald and other Anglo-Norman chiefs, a.d. 
1169, who assisted Strongbow in the reduction of Ireland. 
In 1173, Maurice Fitzgerald was appointed by Henry the 
Second chief governor of Ireland ; and he and his descen- 
dants got large grants of lands in Leinster and Munster, 
chiefly in the counties of Kildare, Wicklow, Wexford, 
Cork, and Kerry. He died, a.d. 1177, and was buried in 
the abbey of the Grey Friars at Wexford. A branch of 
the Fitzgeralds were, down to the reign of Elizabeth, earls 
of Desmond ; and had immense possessions in the counties 
of Cork and Kerry. Another branch of them became 
barons of Offaly,* earls of Kildare, and dukes of Leinster. 
The Fitzgeralds trace their descent from the dukes of 
Tuscany : some of the family, from Florence, settled in 
Normandy, and thence came to England with William the 
Conqueror. The Geraldines, having frequently joined the 
Irish against the English, were charged by English writers 
as having become Irish in language and manners : hence 
the origin of the expression — " Ipsis Hibernis Hiberniores" 
or More Irish than the Irish themselves. The Fitzgeralds, 
who were created earls of Desmond, became one of the 
most powerful families in Munster ; and several of them 
were lords deputies of Ireland in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. Gerald Fitzgerald, sixteenth Earl of 
Desmond, was one of the greatest subjects in Europe ; he 
held the rankof a " Prince Palatine," with all the authority 
of a provincial king. Having resisted the Reformation in 
the reign of Elizabeth, and waged war against the English 
government, the Earl of Desmonds's forces after long con- 
tests were defeated, and he himself was slain, in a glen 
near Castle Island, in the County Kerry, on the 11th of 
November, a.d. 1588 ; his head was cut off and sent to 
England by Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormond, as a present 
to Queen Elizabeth, who caused it to be fixed on London 
Bridge. James Fitzgerald (nephew of Gerald, Earl of 
Desmond) attempting to recover the estates and honours 
of his ancestors, took up arms and joined the standard of 

*Offaly : The ancient territory of Offaly compriaed a great part 
of the King's County, with part of the Queen's County and Kildare. 


Hugli O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. This James Fitzgerald was 
styled Earl of Desmond ; but his title not being recognised, 
he was designated the " sugan earl," which signifies the 
" earl of straw." His forces being at length defeated and 
himself taken prisoner, he was sent to England along with 
Florence MacCarthy, and imprisoned in the Tower of 
London, where he died, a.d. 1608 ; and thus terminated 
the once illustrious House of Desmond. 

The vast estates of Gerald, Earl of Desmond, were con- 
fiscated in the reign of Elizabeth, and granted to various 
English settlers (called planters or undertakers), on con- 
ditions that no planter should, according to Connellan, 
convey any part of the lands to any of the mere Irish ; 
and the English settlers were also prohibited to intermarry 
with the Irish, and none of the Irish were to be maintained 
in any fanoily ! The following are the names of the English 
settlers in Ireland who obtained grants of the Desmond 
estates in Gork and Waterford, thus confiscated : Sir 
Walter Raleigh,* Arthur Robins, Fane Beecher, Hugh 
Worth, Arthur Hyde, Sir Warham St. Leger, Hugh Cuffe 
(in Irish " Durneen"), Sir Thomas Norris, Sir Arthur 
Hyde, Thomas Say, SirEichard Beacon (in Irish "Beagan"), 
and (the poet) Edmond Spencer. In the County Kerry, 
the following persons got grants of the Desmond estates : 
Sir William Herbert, Charles Herbert, Sir Valentine Brown 
(ancestor of the earls of Kenmare), Sir Edward Denny, 
and some grants to the families of Conway, Holly, and 
others. Of the families who got the Desmond estates in 
Limerick, an account has been given in the names of the 
English settlers ia " Thomond." 

*Sir Walter Raleigh: To Sir Walter Ealeigh we are indebted for 
the introduction into Great Britain and Ireland (consequent upon his 
voyage in a.d. 1585 to colonize Virginia, in North America) of the 
potato plant, and the use of tobacco ; the foi-mer of which has since 
become an almost universal article of diet, and the latter a most 
productive source of revenue. Sir Walter Raleigh it was who iirst 
planted potatoes in Ireland, in a field near Youghal, about A..D. 1610. 
In hia time, too, the publication of newspapers in England is said to 
have originated. Copies of the " English Mercuric," relating to the 
threatened descent of the Spanish Armada, are still preserved in the 
British Museum. 


The other principal Norman and English families of the 
County Cork, were the Cogans, Carews (or Careys), 
Condons (or Cantons), De Courcys, Barrys, Barnwalls, 
Barretts, Eoches, MacGibbons and Fitzgibbons, branches 
of the Fitzgeralds; the Flemings, Sarsfields, Nagles, 
Martells, Percivals, Eussells, Pigotts, Prendergasts, Lom- 
bards, Lavallans, Morgans, Cottors, Meaghs (or Mays), 
Murroghs, Supples, Stackpoles, Whites, Warrens, Hodnets, 
Hardings, Fields, Beechers, Hydes, Jephsons, Garretts, 
Kents, Delahides (or Delahoyds), De Spencers, Deanes, 
Daunts, Vincents, Gardiners, IBeamishes, Courtnays, 
Cuffes, Gores, Hores, Newenhams (or Newmans), etc. 

The Coppingers, Goulds, Galways, Skiddys, and Terrys 
(considered by O'Brien and others to be of Danish descent) 
were in former times very numerous and powerful families 
in Cork. 

Some of the family " De Courcy" took the Irish name 
MacPatrick; some of the "De Barrys," thatof MacDavid; 
the "De la Eupe," that of Eoche, who became viscounts 
of Fermoy; some of the family of " Hodnet" took the 
name MacSherry, etc. 

In Kerry, the following have been the chief Anglo- 
Norman and English families : — The Fitzmaurices, earls 
of Kerry, descended from Eaymond le Gros, a celebrated 
warrior who came over with Strongbow. Eaymond having 
formed an alliance with Dermot MacCarthy, King of 
Desmond, got large grants of land in Kerry, in the territory 
called Lixnaw. The other principal English families were 
the Herberts, Browns, Stacks, Blennerhassets, Crosbies, 
Dennys, Gunns, Godfreys, Morrises, Eices, Springs, etc. 

3. — The Modern Nobility or Cork and Kerry, 
Or Desmond. 

In the County Cork the following have been the noble 
families, since the reign of King John: The De Courcys, 
barons of Kinsale and Eingrone ; the Fitzgeralds, Earls of 
Desmond, barons of Decies, and seneschals of Imokilly ; 


the Fieldings, earls of Denbigh in England, have the title 
of earls of Desmond. Of the Eoyal Family, the dukes of 
Clarence were earls of Munster. The Carews were mar- 
quises of Cork ; the MacCarthys, carls of Clancare, earls 
of Clancarthy, earls of Muskerry, and earls of Mountcashel; 
the Barrys, barons of Olethann, viscounts of Buttevant, 
and earls of Barrymore ; the Eoches, barons of Castle- 
lough, and viscounts of Fermoy ; the Boyles, barons of 
Youghal, Bandon, Broghill, and Castlemartyr, viscounts 
of Dungarvan and Kinnalmeaky, earls of Cork, Orrery, 
and Shannon, and earls of Burlington in England; the 
Percivals, barons of Uuhallow, Kanturk, and Ardeen, and 
earls of Egmont; the St. Legers, viscounts of Doneraile; 
the Touchets, earls of Castlehaven; the Bernards, earls of 
Bandon; the Whites, viscounts of Bearhaven, and earls 
of Bantry ; the Berkleys and Chetwynds, viscounts of 
Bearhaven; the Brodericks, viscounts Midleton; the 
Moores, earls of Charleville ; and the Moores, earls of 
Mountcashel; the Kings, earls of Kingston; the 0' Callaghans 
viscounts of Lismore in Waterford, are originally from 
Cork; the Evanses, barons of Carbery; the Deanes, barons 
of Muskerry; the Tonsons, barons of Eiversdale ; and the 
family of Cavendish, barons of Waterpark. 

In the County Kerry the following have been the noble 
families since the reign of King John : — the Fitzmaurices, 
barons of Lixnaw; and O'Dorney, viscounts of Clan- 
maurice, and earls of Kerry; the Pettys or Fitzmauriee- 
Pettys, barons of Dunkerron, viscounts Clanmaurice, earls 
of Kerry, earls of Shelbourne, and marquises of Lansdowne 
in England ; the Fitzgeralds, knights of Kerry ; the 
Browns, earls of Kenmare, and viscounts of Castlerosse; 
the Herberts, barons of Castleisland ; the Cbilds, viscounts 
of Castlemaine, and earls of Tylney in England; the 
Monsons and Palmers, viscounts of Castlemaine; the 
Powers, viscounts of Valencia ; the Crosbies, viscounts of 
Brandon, and earls of Glandore; the Wynnes, barons 
Hedley; the de Moleynes, barons of Ventry; the Hares, 
barons of Ennismore, and earls of Listoweli; and Spring- 
Biioe, barons Monteagle of Brandon. 

Down to the last century, the mountains of Cork and 
Kerry were covered with ancient forests of oak, ash, pine, 

234 NOTICES ON [part y. 

alder, birch, hazel, and yews of immense size; and afforded 
retreats to wolves and numerous herds of red deer. It is 
needless to speak of the majestic mountains and magni- 
ficent lakes of Kerry, celebrated as they are for their 
surpassing beauty and sublime scenery. 

Or Tipperary and Water/ord. 

The territories which formed ancient Ormond and Desies 
have been already mentioned. As this territory is closely 
associated with the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland, 
the following observations may not here be out of place : 

Waterford is celebrated as the chief landing-place of 
the Anglo-Norman invaders, under Strongbow and his 
followers ; and is also remarkable as the chief place where 
several kings of England landed on their expedition to 
Ireland. In May, a.d. 1169, Eobert Fitzstephen, Maurice 
Fitzgerald, David Barry, Hervy de Monte Marisco, Myler 
Fitzhenry, Maurice Prendergast, and other chiefs from 
Wales (being the first of the Anglo Normans who invaded 
Ireland) landed at the bay of Bag-an-bun or Bannow, in 
the County Wexford, near the bay of Waterford; where 
they were joined by their ally Dermod MacMurrough, 
King of Leinster. In May, 1170, Eaymond le Gros and 
other Anglo-Norman chiefs landed near the rock of Dun- 
donnel, about four miles from Waterford, near the river 
Suir. In August, 1170, Strongbow landed near Waterford, 
and was there married to Eva, daughter of Dermod 
MacMurrough ; who then conferred on his son-in-law the 
title of "heir presumptive" to the kingdom of Leinster. 

A.D. 1171, King Henry the Second embarked at 
Milford Haven, landed at Croch, now Crook, near Water- 
ford, on the 18th of October; and was attended by 
Strongbow, William FitzAdelm, Hugh de Lacy, Humphrey 
de Bohun, and other lords and barons. The day after 


Henry's arrival, Dermot MacCarthy, Kiug of Desmond, 
■Waited on him at Waterford ; delivered to him the keys of 
the city of Cork; and did him homage. Henry, at the 
head of his army, marched to Lismore, and thence to 
Cashel ; near which, on the banks of the Suir, Donal 
O'Brien, King of Thomond, came to meet him, delivered 
to him the keys of the city of Limerick, and did him 
homage as Dermot MacCarthy had done. MacGillpatrick, 
Prince of Ossory; O'Felan, Prince of Desies; and other 
chiefs, subnaitted soon after. From Cashel, Henry re- 
turned through Tipperary to Waterford, and shortly after- 
wards proceeded to Dublin ; where he remaiaed during 
the winter, and in a style of great magnificence entertained 
the Irish kings and princes who had submitted to him. 
In February 1172, Henry returned to Waterford, and 
held a council or parliament at Lismore; and also con- 
vened a synod of bishops and clergy at Cashel. After 
remaining ia Ireland about six months. King Henry 
embarked at Wexford, on Easter Monday, the 17th of 
April, 1172; set sail for England, and arrived the same 
day at Port Finnaia in Wales. A.D. 1174, Eaymond le 
Gros landed at Waterford, with a large force from Wales, 
to relieve Strongbow, then beseiged by the Irish in that 
city; and succeeded ia rescuing him. A.D. 1175, according 
to Lanigan, King Henry sent Nicholas, abbot of Malmes- 
bury, and William FitzAdelm to Ireland, with the BuU 
of Pope Adrian IV., and the Brief of Pope Alexander III., 
conferring on King Henry the Second the kingdom of 
Ireland; when a meeting of bishops was convened at 
Waterford, where these documents were publicly read ; it 
being the first time they were ever published. A.D. 1185, 
Prince John, Earl of Morton, son of King Henry the 
Second, landed at Waterford, accompanied by Ealph 
Glunville, Chief Justice of England, and by Giraldus 
Gambrensis, his secretary and tutor. A.D. 1210, King 
John landed at Waterford, and soon after proceeded to 
Dublin, and from thence through various parts of Meath 
and Ulster. 

Waterford is also celebrated as the place of landing 
and embarkation of other kings of England: namely, of 
Eichard the Second, in the years 1394 and 1399. On the 


and of September, a.d. 1689, King William the Third 
embarked at Waterford for England; and, being again in 
Ireland, at the siege of Limerick, a.d. 1690, he came to 
Waterford and embarked for England on the 5th of 
September. On the 2nd of July, 1690, King James the 
Second, after the battle of the Boyne, arrived at Waterford, 
whence he set sail for Erance. 

Amongst the ancient notices of Waterford, it may be 
mentioned, that, a.d. 1497, in consequence of the loyalty 
of the citizens of Waterford, against the mock princes 
and pretenders to the Crown of England — namely, Lambert 
Simnel, and Perkins Warbeck, King Henry the Seventh 
granted, with other honours, to the city the motto — 

Intacta, Manet Waterfordia: 

hence, it is designated the "Urbs Intacta." In 1536, 
Henry the Eighth sent by Sir William Wyse to the 
citizens of Waterford a gilt sword, to be always borne 
before the Mayors, in remembrance of their renowned 

1. The Irish Chiefs and Clans of Tipperaey & Waterford, 
Or Ormond and Desies. 

In Desies or Waterford, the following were the chiefs 
and clans: — 1. The O'Felans, whose territory was, after 
the Anglo-Norman invasion, transferred to the Le Poers, 
and other Anglo-Norman settlers; but there are still 
very respectable families of the O'Felans (some of whom 
have changed the name to Phelan and Whelan) in the 
Counties of Waterford, Tipperary, Kilkenny, and Queen's 
County. The O'Felans were princes of Desies, and held 
an extensive territory comprising the greater part of the 
present County of Waterford, with part of Tipperary, as 
already explained ; and were descended from the Desians 
of Meath, who were of the. race of Heremon. 2. The 


O'Brics (or O'Brocks), of the same descent as O'Felan. 

3. The O'Briens, a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond. 

4. The 0'Crottys,also a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond. 

5. The Magraths were old and respectable families of 
Waterford; as were also theO'Sheas.O'Ronaynes, O'Helys, 
O'Callaghans, O'Coghlans, O'Mearas, etc. 

In Ormond or the County Tipperary, the following 
have been the chiefs and clans of note: — 1. O'Donoghoe 
(or O'Donohoe), of the Eugenian race, and of the same 
descent as the MacCarthys, kings of Desmond. One of 
the O'Donoghoes is mentioned by the Four Masters, at 
the year a.d. 1088, as "king presumptive" of Cashel. 
The ancient Mngs of Munster, of the Eugenian race, were 
inaugurated on the rock of Cashel; and those of the 
Dalcassian race, or the O'Briens, kings of Thomond, had 
their place of inauguration at Magh Adair, situated in 
the townland of Toonagh, parish of Cloney, barony of 
Upper Tulla, in the County Clare. 2. O'Carroll, Prince 
of Ely, ruled, according to O'Heerin, over eight sub- 
ordinate chiefs; and had their castle at Birr, now 
Parsonstown, in the King's County. O'Carroll was the 
head of the Clan Kian race, as the MacCarthys were of 
the Eugenians: and the O'Briens, of the Dalcassians. 
The territory of "Ely" got its name from Eile, one of its 
princes, in the fifth century; and from being possessed by 
the O'CarroUs, was called "Ely O'Carroll;" which com- 
prised the present barony of Lower Ormond, in the County 
Tipperary, with the barony of Clonlisk and part of Ballybrit, 
in the King's County; extending to Slieve Bloom Mountains, 
on the borders of the Queen's County. The part of Ely 
in the King's County belonged to the ancient province of 
Munster. 3. O'Kennedy, chief of Gleann Omra ; several 
of them are mentioned by the Four Masters as lords of 
Ormond. The O'Kennedys (of Munster) were of the 
Dalcassian race; and possessed the barony of Upper 
Ormond, in the County Tipperary. 4. O'Hurley: a 
branch of this family (who were also of the Dalcassian 
race) settled in Limerick, ,in the barony of Owneybeg, 
and in the parish of Knocklong, in the barony of Coshlea, 
Coimty Limerick; where the ruins of their chief castle 
still remain. Other branches of the O'Hurleys were 


settled in Galway, and had large possessions in t^e 
baronies of Kilconnell, Killian, and Ballymore ; of which 
family were Sir Wilham and Sir John Hurley, baronets. 
5. O'Hern (Hearne, Heron, Ahearne, Ahern), chief of 
Hy-Cearnaidh (or O'Kearney). 6. O'Shanahan (or O'Shan- 
non), descended from Lorcan, a king of Munster, who 
was grandfather of Brian Boru: hence, the O'Shanahans 
or Shannons are a branch of the Dalcassians, who were 
also designated Clan Tail. The O'Shannons were chiefs 
of a territory called Feadha Hy-Bongaile or the Woods of 
Hy-Eongaile — comprising the country about Eibhline; 
and, as Slieve Eibhhne is stated in the old writers to be 
near Cashel, this territory appears to have been situated 
either in the barony of Middlethird or of Eliogarty. 7. 
O'Duffy. 8. O'Dwyer, chief of Hy-Aimrit, was a branch 
of the Heremonians ; and possessed extensive territory in 
the present baronies of Kilnamanach, County Tipperary. 
Some of the O'Dwyers were commanders in the Irish 
Brigade in the Service of France. MacGeoghagan mentions 
General O'Dwyer as governor of Belgrade; and there was 
an Admiral O'Dwyer in the Eussian service. 9. O'Dea, 
and O'Hoiliolla (or O'Hulla), are given by O'Heerin as 
chiefs of Sliabh Ardach, now the barony of "Slieveardagh," 
in Tipperary. 10. O'Carthy, chief of Muiscridh larthar 
Feimin — a territory which, according to O'Halloran, was 
situated near Emly, in Tipperary. 11. O'Meara, chief of 
Hy-Fathaidh, Hy-Niall, and Hy-Eochaidh-Finn. The 
O'Mearas had an extensive territory in the barony of 
Upper Ormond, County Tipperary; and the name of their 
chief residence Tuaim-ui-Meara, is still retained in the 
town of "Toomavara," in that district. The Hy-Nialls 
here mentioned were of the race of Eugenius of Munster. 
12. O'Meagher or Maher, chief of Crioch-ui-Cairin, or 
the land of Hy-Kerrin, now the barony of "Ikerin," in 
the County Tipperary. 13. O'Flanagans, chiefs of Uachtar 
Tire and of Kinel Agra. The district of Uachtar Tire (or 
the Upper Country) was situated in the barony of Iffa 
and Offa, on the borders of Tipperary and Waterford; and 
that of Kinel Agra, in Ely O'Carroll, in the King's County. 
14. O'Breslm, chief of Hy-Athy of Ely, which appears to 
have been a part of Ely O'Carroll, situated near the 


Shannon ; and these O'Breslins were probably a branch of 
the O'Breslins of Donegal, v^ho were Brehons or judges to 
the O'Donels, princes of Tirconnell, and to the MacGuires, 
princes of Fermanagh. 15. O'Keane or O'Cane, chief of 
Hy-Fodhladha, a district supposed to be on the borders of 
Tipperary and Waterford. 16. O'Donegan (or O'Dongan), 
prince of Aradh, was of the race of Heremon. The 
O'Donegans were styled princes of Muiscrith Tire, now 
Lower Ormond, in Tipperary; and possessed Aradh 
Cliach, now the barony of Owney and Arra, also in 
Tipperary. 17. O'Donnelly or O'Dongally, and O'Puirig 
(or O'Furey), also chiefs of Muiscrith Tire, now Lower 
Ormond. 18. O'Sullivan, chief of Eoganacht Mor of 
Knock Eaffan, already mentioned. 19. O'Fogartys, 
chiefs of South Ely, now the barony of Eliogarty, in 
Tipperary, had their chief seats about Thurles; it was 
called South Ely, to distinguish it from North Ely or Ely 
O'CarroU. 20. O'Cullen, chief of Eoganacht of Arra; and 
O'Keely, chief of Aolmoy : these two districts appear to 
have been in the barony of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary. 

21. O'Duinechair (or O'Denehy) and O'Dinan, chiefs of 
Eoganacht Uaithne Ageamar [Owney Agamar] . This 
territory comprised part of the counties of Tipperary 
and Limerick, now the baronies of Owney and Owneybeg. 

22. The O'Eyans or O'Mulrians of Tipperary, afterwards 
possessed Owney in Tipperary, and Owneybeg in Limerick. 
A branch of the O'Eyans were princes of Hy-Drone, in Carlow. 

23. O'Mearns, chief of Eoganacht Eoss Airgid. 24. Mac- 
Eeogh or Kehoe, chief of Uaithne Tire, a territory situated 
in ancient Owney, which comprised the present baronies of 
Owney and Arra, in Tipperary ; and Owneybeg, in Limerick. 
In thatterritory also dwelt the O'Linskeys or Lynches, who 
are described as "men of lands," dwelling in the neighbour- 
hood of the Danes, who possessed Limerick. 25. 
O'Heffernan and O'Callanan were chiefs of Owney Cliach, 
a territory situated in the barony of Owney and Arra, 
County Tipperary ; these O'Heffernans were a branch of 
the O'Heffernans of Clare, whose name is mentioned under 
"Thomond." 26. MacLenehan (Irish Mac Longachain; 
also Anglicised " Long"), chief of Crota Cliach, and Hy- 
Coonagh. This territory was situated partly in the barony 


of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary, and partly in the 
barony of Coonagh, County Limerick. The O'Dwyers, 
already mentioned as chiefs of Kilnamanagh, in Tippe- 
rary, were also located in this territory. 27._ The 
O'Lonergans, ancient chiefs and proprietors of Cahir, and 
the adjoining districts in Tipperary, till the fourteenth 
century, when they were dispossessed by the Butlers, earls 
of Ormond. 28. The Mac-I-Briens or MacBriens, a branch 
of the O'Briens of Thomond, had large possessions in the 
barony of Owney and Arra, in Tipperary, and in the barony 
of Coonagh, County Limerick ; and were styled lords of 
Arra and Coonagh. 29. MaoCorcoran, chief of ClanEooney, 
"of the flowery avenues." 30. O'Hogan, chief of Crioch 
Kian, about Lower Ormond, in Tipperary. 31. Mac- 
Gillfoyle or Gilfoyle, chief of Clan Quinlevan. The 
MacGillfoyles appear to have been located on the borders 
of Tipperary and King's County ; and some of the 
O'Quinlevans have changed the name to " Quinlan." 
32. O'Bannan or Bannin, chief of Hy-Dechi, a territory 
situated in the north of Tipperary. 33. O'Ailche (or 
Ally), chief of Tuatha Faralt. 34. O'Cahil, chief of 
Corca Tine, situated on the borders of Tipperary and 
Kilkenny. 35. O'Dinnerty and O'Amry, clans located on the 
borders of Tipperary andKilkenny. 36. O'Spillane, chief of 
Hy-Luighdeach, situated on the borders of Tipperary and 
Kilkenny. 37. The Mac Egans, in the barony of Arra, 
were hereditary Brehons ; and the O'CuUenans or Mae 
CuUinans, hereditary physicians, in Ormond. 38. The 
O'Scullys, O'Hanrahans, O'Lanigans, and MaGraths were 
also clans of note in Tipperary ; and the O'Honeens, who 
changed their name to " Green," and " Hoyne," were 
numerous in Tipperary and Clare. 

Ormond and Desies were formed into the counties of 
Tipperary and Waterford, a.d. 1210, in the reign of King 
John. Waterford was called by the ancient Irish Cuan- 
na-Grian, signifying the "Harbour of the Sun," and 
afterwards, Glean-na-nGleodh or the "Valley of Lamen- 
tations," from a great battle fought there between the 
Irish and the Danes, in the tenth century. By the Danes 
it was called "Vader Fiord" [vader: Danish, to wade; 
fiord, a ford or haven), signifying the fordable part of the 


haven: hence, " Waterford" is so called. Tipperary is, 
in Irish, Tobardarainn, signifying the " Well of Arainn;" 
and so called from the adjoining territory of Arainn. 
In Tipperary are valuable coal and iron mines, and 
extensive slate quarries. Affane in Waterford was famous 
for Cherries ; first planted there by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who brought them from the Canary Islands. 

2. — The Anglo-Noeman and English Families op 
TippEKAKY and Waterford, 

Or Onnond and Desies. 

A.D. 1177, Henry the Second gave a grant of Desies, or 
the entire County of Waterford, together with the city, to 
Eobert Le Poer, who was his marshal. The Le Poers 
were, at various periods from the thirteenth to the 
seventeenth century, created barons of Donisle and of 
Curraghmore, viscounty of Desies, and earls of Tyrone ; 
and many of them changed the name to " Power." The 
Pitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, had extensive possessions 
and numerous castles in the County Waterford, in the 
baronies of Coshmore and Coshbride ; and had also the 
title of barons of Desies. In the reign of Henry the Sixth, 
A.D. 1447, Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, got grants in Waterford, together 
with the castle and land of Dungarvan, and the title of 
Earl of Waterford, and Viscount of Dungarvan. Thefamily 
of VilUers, earls of Jersey in England, got, in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, large possessions in 
Waterford, by intermarriage with the Fitzgeralds of 
Dromana, a branch of the earls of Desmond ; and were 
created earls of Grandison. The chief English families 
who settled in Waterford were the following: — The 
Aylwards, Anthonys, Allans, Alcocks, Butlers, Browns, 
Barters, Boltons, Birds, Barrens, Burkes, Baggs, Boats, 
Boyds, Creaghs, Carrs, Corrs, Comerfords, Crokers, Cooks, 
Christmases, D'Altons, Dobbyns, Disneys, Drews, 



Duckets, Everards, Fitzgeralds, Greens, Gambles, Goughs, 
Grants, Hales, Jacksons (another name for Johnson : in 
Irish, MacShanes), Kings, Keys, Lombards, Leas or Lees, 
Leonards, Mandevilles, Morgans, Morrises, Madans or 
Maddens, and Mulgans or Mulligans, Newports, Nugents, 
Osbornes,Odells, Powers, Prendergasts, Eochforts, Eoches, 
Rices, Sherlocks, Strongs, Tobins, Ushers, Walls, 
Walshes, Waddings, Wyses, Woodlocks, Whites, etc. 
The early English families principally possessed the terri- 
tory called from them Gal-tir {gal : Irish, a foreigner ; tir, 
a country), now the barony of "Gaultiere," and signifying 
the country of the foreigners. The Walshes (called by 
the Irish Brannaghs or Breathnachs, signifying Britons 
or Welshmen, as they originally came from Wales) are 
still very numerous in Ireland ; and there are many res- 
pectable families of them in the counties of Waterford and 

Otho de Grandison, an Anglo-Norman lord, got a grant 
of Ormond ; but the family of Butler became the chief 
possessors of Tipperary. The ancestors of the Butlers 
came from Normandy to England with William the 
Conqueror. Their original name was Fitz-Walter, from 
Walter, one of their ancestors ; and Theobald Fitz- Walter 
came to Ireland with Henry the Second, and had the office 
of Chief Butler of Ireland conferred on him: the duty 
attached to which was, to attend at the coronation of the 
kings of England, and present them with the first cup of 
wine. From the of&oe of Butlership of Ireland, theytook 
the name of " Butler." In the reign of Edward the 
Third, Tipperary was formed into the " County Palatine 
of Ormond,*" under the Butlers ; who thus became so 
powerful, that different branches of them furnished many 
of the most distinguished families in Ireland. 

*Gounty Palatinate, of Ormond : A "palatinate" was the province 
of a palatiae ; and a "palatine" was one possessed of such royal 
privileges, as to rule in his palatinate almost as a king. 

chap. \.] in ancient ormond and desies. 243 

8. — The Modern Nobility of Tipperary and Waterfoed, 
Or Ormond and Desies. 

The following have been the noble families in Tipperary 
and Waterford, from the reign of King John to the present 
time : 

In Waterford, the Le Poers, barons of Donile and of 
Curraghmore, viscounts of Desies, and earls of Tyrone. 
The Beresfords, by intermarriage with the LePoers, became 
earls of Tyrone, marquises of Waterford, and barons of 
Desies. The Fitzgeralds, barons of Desies and earls of 
Desmond ; the Talbots, earls of Shrewsbury, in England, 
and earls of Waterford and Wexford, in Ireland ; the 
family of Villiers, earls of Jersey in England, and earls of 
Grandison in Ireland ; the Scottish family of Maule, earls 
of Panmure, have the titles of barons Maule and earls of 
Panmure in Waterford and Wexford ; the family of 
Lumley, earls of Scarborough in England, are viscounts 
of Waterford ; the Boyles, earls of Cork, and viscounts of 
Dungarvan ; the O'Briens, earls of Clare, in the reign of 
James the Second, had also the title of viscounts of 
Lismore ; the O'Callaghans are viscounts of Lismore, but 
resident in Tipperary; the St. Legers, barons of Kilmeden; 
the VUUers and Stuarts, barons of Desies; and the Keanes, 
barons Keane of Cappoquin. 

In Tipperary : The Dukes of Cambridge, in the Eoyal 
Family, have tbe title of earls of Tipperary. The Butlers 
were earls, marquises, and dukes of Ormond, and also had 
the following titles in Tipperary: — earls of Carrick, earls 
of Glengall, viscounts of Thurles, viscounts of Ikerrin, 
and barons of Cahir. The MacCarthys were earls of 
Mountcashel ; afterwards the Davises, and, in modern 
times, the Moores, are earls of Mountcashel; the Buckleys, 
viscounts of Cashel; the Scotts, earls of Clonmel ; the 
Hely-Hutchinsons, earls of Donoghmore ; the Kings, earls 
of Kingston ; the Yelvertons, viscounts of Avoumore ; the 
Maudes, viscounts Hawarden; the family of Fairfax, 
viscounts of Emly (that of Monsell is now baron of Emly); 
the Carletons, barons Carleton; the Pritties, barons of 
Dunally; the Bloomfields, barons Bloomlield ; and the 
Mathews, earls of Landaff. 



1. The County Louth, or ancient Oriel. 

(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

In Part III., Chapter x, under the heading " The Clan 
Colla," a sketch of the history of ancient Oriel is given ; 
and it is there mentioned that the O'CarroUs were princes 
of Oriel down to the Anglo-Norman invasion. Amongst 
the other chief clans who possessed Louth were the Mac- 
Canns, MacCartans, O'Kellys, O'Moores, O'Callaghans, 
O'Carraghers, MacColmans, MacCampbells, MacArdles, 
MacKennys or MacEennas, O'Devins, O'Markys, O'Brana- 
gans, MacScanlans, and others. 

In the reign of King John, a.d. 1210, Louth was formed 
into a county ; and acquired its name from the town of 
Louth, in Irish Lugh Mhagh, which signifies the Plain of 
Lugh or Lugaid — and which probably was so called after 
some ancient chief. 

{b) The Anglo-Norman Families, 


(c) The Modern Nobility, 

In Lniith. 

According to Connellan, the chief Anglo-Norman or 
British families settled in Louth were — the De Lacys, De 
Verdons, De Gernons, De Pepards; De Flemmings, barons 
of Slane ; the Bellews of Barmeath, who had formerly the 
title of barons of Duleek ; the De Berminghams, earls of 
Louth, a title afterwards possessed by the Plunkets, a great 
family of Danish descent; the Taaffes, earls of Carlingford; 
the Balls, Brabazons, Taaffes, earls of Carlingford (In the 
peerage of the United Kingdom, Mr. Chichester Fortescue, 
late M.P. for the County Louth, was, a.d. 1874, created 
" baron Carlingford") ; the Balls, Brabazons, Darcys, 
Dowdals, and Clintons, of Danish descent, etc.; the 
Fortescues, now earls of Claremont; and, in more modern 
times, the family of Gorges, barons of Dundalk; and the 
Fosters, viscounts Ferard, and barons of Oriel. 



(tt). That part of the kingdom of Orgiall called Monaghan 
was overrun by the forces of John de Courcy, in the reign 
of King John, but the MacMahons maintained their 
national independence to the reign of Elizabeth ; when 
Monaghan was formed into a county, and so called from 
its chief town Muineachan, which signifies the " Town of 
the Monks." 

(c). Thk Modern Nobility in Monaghan. 

The noble families in Monaghan have been the Dawsons, 
barons of Cremorne ; the Westenras, lords Eossmore; and 
the Blayneys, lords Blayney. The other chief landed 
proprietors are the famUies of Shirley, Leslie, Coote, Corry, 
and Hamilton, etc. 


(a). That part of Orgiall afterwards forming the County 
Armagh was possessed partly by the O'Hanlons and Mac- 
Canns, and partly by the O'Neills, O'Larkius, O'Duvanys 
or Devanys ; and O'Garveys, of the Clan-na-Eory, who, 
according to O'Brien.possessed the CraovEuadh [Creeveroe] 
or the territory of the famous Eed Branch Knights of 
Ulster; O'Hanrattys or Enrignts, of Hy-Meith-Macha* ; 

* Sy-Meith-Macha : The descendants of Muredaoh Meith, son of 
lomchadh [Iraclia], who was a son of Uolla-da-Chriooh, were called 
Hy-Meith or Ui-Meith. There were two territories of this name iu 
the Kingdom of Orgiall : one called sometimes TJi-Meith-Tire (from 
its inland situation), and sometimes Ui-Meith-Maoha, from its 
contiguity to Armagh ; and the other Ui-Moith Mara, from its 
contiguity to the sea. The latter was more anciently called 
" Cuailghne" ; and its name and position are preserved in the 
Anglicised name of "O'Meath," a district iu the County Louth, 
comprising ten townlands, situate between Carlingford and Newry. 
The Hy-Meith Macha" or " Hy Meith Tire" is a territory in the 
present County Monaghan, comprising the parishes of IMUycorbet, 


and O'Donegans of Breasal Maclia.* Ancient Ofgiall 
included the territory embraced in the present counties ot 
Tyrone and Derry ; but of that territory the Clan Colla 
■were gradually dispossessed by the race of Owen (son of 
Niall of the Nine Hostages), from whom it derived the 
name Tir-Owen. 

The native chiefs held their independence down to tbe 
reign of Elizabeth; when Armagh was formed into a 
county, A.D. 1586, by the Lord Deputy, Sir John Perrott. 

Kilmore, and Tehallan, in the barony of Monaghan. Of this territory 
the O'Hanrattya or Enrights were the ancient chiefs, before they 
were dispossessed by the sept of the Mao Mathghamhna (or Mac 
Mahons) ; and Saint Maeldoid, the patron saint of Mucknoe, at 
CastleWayney, was of the same stock as the D'Hanrattys. That 
Saint Maeldoid, according to Colgan, was a lineal descendant of 
CoUa-da-Crioch : " S. Maldodius de Mucknam, filius Fmgim, filii 
Aidi, filii Fiachri, filii Fiacba), filii Eugenii, filii Briani, filii MuredacH, 
filii CoUa-fochrioch (or CoUa-da-Chrioch)." The Muintir Birn (or 
O'Birne), a district in the south of the barony of Duugaunon, 
adjoining the territory of Trough in the County Monaghan, and 
Toaghie, now the barony of Armagh, were descended from the same 
progenitor as the XJi-Meith, namely, Muredaoh Meith, as above. 

*Breasal Madia: This was the territory of the TJi-Breasal, or, 
as they were called, the Ui Breasal Macha ; descended from Breasal, 
son of Felim, son of Fiachra Casan, son of CoUa-da-Chrioch. In 
latter ages this territory was more usually called Glann Breasal, 
Anglicised "Clanbrazil" or " Claubrassil." The tribe of 0"Garyeys 
were the ancient chiefs of this territory ; but in more modern times 
it belonged to the MacCanns, who were descended from Eochadh, 
the son of Colla-da-Chrioch. This territory was on the south of 
Lough Neagh, where the Upper Bann enters that lake, and was 
co-extensive" with the present barony of O'Neilland East, in the 
county of Armagh ; and, according to a map of Ulster made in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, or James the First, it would appear that, 
in the formation of the baronies, more than one territory was placed 
in that of O'Neilland. The fact is, that all the eastern part of the 
kingdom of Orgiall, called "Oirthear," was occupied by septs of the 
race of Niallan : that district including the present baronies of East 
and West O'JS'eilland and also those of Ease and West Orior ; for, 
the sept of O'h-Anluain (or the O'Hanlons), who possessed the two 
latter baronies, were descended from the aforesaid Niallan, another 
descendant of Colla-da-Chrioofc. — Book of Rights, 

chap. vi.] in febuanagh. 247 

(6). The Chief English Families in Armagh. 
In the Armagli portion of ancient Orgiall, the following 
were the chief English families:- — TheAchesons, Brownlows, 
Powells, St. Johns, Hamiltons, Copes, Eowlstons (or 
Eolestones), etc. 

(c). The Modern Nobility in Armagh. 

The modern noble families in Armagh have been the 
Achesons, earls of Gosford ; the Caulfields, earls of 
Charlemont; and the Brownlows, barons of Lurgan. The 
Hamiltons in former times had the title of earls of 

(a.) The Irish Chieps and Clans. 

The following were the Chiefs and Clans of Fermanagh, 
and the territories they possessed in the twelfth century: — 
1. MacXJibhir or Maguibhir (Anglicised Maclvir, Maclvor, 
MacGuire and Maguire) was chief of " Feara Monach" (or 
Fermanagh). 2. O'Muldoon (Anglicised "Meldon"), chief 
of Muintir Maolduin and Feara Luirg, now known as the 
barony of " Lurg." 3. Muintir Taithligh, Tilly or Tully, 
chiefs of Hy-Laoghaire [O'Leary] of Lough Lir, a district 
which lay in the barony of Lurg, near Lough Erne, towards 

* Fermanagh : In the early ages, according to our old annalists, 
the lake called Lough Erne suddenly burst forth and overflowed a 
CTeat tract of land which was called Magh Geauuaiu or the Plain of 
Geannan ; so called from Geannan, one of the Firbolg kings. This 
lake was anciently called Lough Saimer ; and, according to Walah, 
in quoting Cambrensis Eversiis, derived the name " Erne" from Erna, 
the favourite waiting-maid of Maud or Meav (the famous queen of 
Connaught) who was drowned there. In the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth centuries, the head chief of this territory was O'Duibhdara 
or O'Dwyer, whom O'Dugan mentions as chief of the race of Daimhin 
(No. 92 on the O'Hart family stem) ; and several of the name are 


Tyrone. 4. Mac Duilgen or Mac Dwilgau, not mentioned 
in O'Dugan, is, at a.d. 924, in the Annals of the Four 
Masters, given as Fergus MaoUuilgen, lord of Lurg. 5. 
O'Flauagan, chief of Tuath Eatha (a name retained by the 
mountain " Tura") or the District of the Fortress, a 
territory which extended from Belmore to Belleek, and from 
Lough Melvin to Lough Erne, comprising the present 
barony of Magherahoy. 6. Gilfinan, chief of Muintir 
Peodachain of the Port, on the borders of Fermanagh and 
Donegal; and still traceable in the name of " Pettigoe" 
(by metathesis we might derive "Pakenham" from this 
Irish clan: Peodachain, Pachain, Pachena, Pakenha^ 
Pakenham). 7. Mac Giolla Michil or Gilmichael (Angli- 
cised " Mitchell") was chief of Clan Congail. In the 
Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1238, it is stated that 
Clan Congail and O'Ceanfada [O'Kennedy] lay in Tir 
Managh or Fermanagh : this Clan or Tir O'Ceanfhada is 
probably the present barony of " Tirkennedy." 8. 
O'Mulrooney or Eooney, and O'Heaney, who were chiefs 
of Muintir Maolruanaidh (as the descendants of Maol- 
ruanaidh. No. 104, page 140, were called), and of Maoith 
Leirg Monach. 9. MacDonnell, chief of Clan Celleagh, 
now the barony of " Clankelly." 

mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1086, and in 
Mac Firbis's genealogical work, page 304 ; amongst others, Giolla 
Criost O'Duibhdara, prince of Fermanagh, who, a.d. 1076, was killed 
at Daimhinis or Devenish Island, in Lough Erne. After the 
O'Dwyers, the Maguires succeeded to the principality. 

The Maguires were inaugurd,ted as princes of Fermanagh on the 
summit of Cuilcagh, a magnificent mountain near Swanlinbar, on the 
borders of Cavan and Fermanagh ; and sometimes also at a place 
called Sciath Gabhra or Lisnasciath, now Lisnaskea. They possessed 
the entire of Fermanagh : hence called ' ' Maguire's Country" ; and 
maintained their independence as lords of Fermanagh down to the 
reign of James the First, when their country was confiscated like 
other parts of Ulster ; but Conor Roe Maguire obtained re-grants of 
twelve thousand acres of the forfeited, lands of his ancestors, and 
was created baron of Enniskillen — a title which was also borne by 
several of his successors. Cathal or Charles Maguire, archdeacon of 
Clogher in the fifteenth century, who assisted to compile the cele- 
brated "Annals of Ulster" above mentioned, was of this family. 
For an interesting account of the Maguires, in the reign of King 
James the First, see the works of Sir John Davies. — Connellan's- 
Four Masters. 


The following clans, not given in O'Dugan, are collected 
in Connellan's Four Masters from other sources: — 10. The 
MacManuses, a numerous clan (chiefly in Tirkennedy) who 
had the control of the .shipping on Lough Erne, and held 
the ofiSce of hereditary chief managers of the fisheries 
under Maguire. 11. MacCassidys, who were hereditary 
physicians to the Maguires. Eoderick MacCassidy, arch- 
deacon of Clogher, who partly compiled the "Annals of 
Ulster," was a distinguished member of this important 
family. 12. The O'Criochains (who were descended from 
CoUa-da-Chrioch, and some of whom have Anglicised the 
name " Greehan," " Grehan," and " Graham") were a 
numerous clan in Fermanagh. 13. The Magraths, who 
held possessions at Termon Magrath, where they had a 
castle in the parish of Templecarne. 

" Maguire's Country" was, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, a.d. 1569, formed into the County Fermanagh, 
by the lord deputy Sir Henry Sidney. 

(b). English and Scotch Families in Fermanagh. 

■ On the " Plantation of Ulster," in the reign of King 
James the First of England, the following English and 
Scotch famihes obtained extensive grants of the confiscated 
lands in Fermanagh, as given in Pinnar's Survey, a.d. 
1619, quoted in Harris's Uibernica : — Sir James Belford, 
Mr. Adwick ; Sir Stephen Butler, ancestor of the earls of 
Lanesborough ; John Sedborrow, Thomas Flowerdew, 
Edward Hatton, Sir Hugh Wirrall, Sir John Davies (or 
Davis), who was attorney-general to King James the First, 
and a celebrated writer ; Sir Gerrard Lowther, John 
Archdall, Edward Sibthorp, Henry Flower, Thomas 
Blennerhasset, Sir EdwardBlennerhasset, Francis Blenner- 
hasset ; Sir William Cole, ancestor of the earls of Ennis- 
killen ; Sir Henry FoUiot (now Ffol]iot\ Captain Paul 
Gore, Captain Eoger Atkinson, Malcolm Hamilton, George 
Humes, Sir John Humes, and John Dunbar. Two or 
three of the natives obtained grants, namely — Connor 


Mac Shane O'Neill, 1,500 acres; Bryan Magnire, 2,000 
acres ; and Conor Eoe Maguire, who obtained large grants, 
and was created baron of Enniskillen. 

(c). The Modern Nobility in Fermanagh. 

The following have been the noble families in Fermanagh 
since the reign of King James the First: the Coles, earls 
of Enniskillen; the Creightons, earls of Erne; the Corrys, 
carls of Belmore; the Verneys, viscounts of Fermanagh; 
and the Butlers, barons of Newtown-Butler, and earls of 
Lanesborough. The family of Loftus, marquises of Ely, 
have a seat in Fermanagh. 

(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The Chiefs and Claas of Ulidia, and the territories they 
possessed in the twelfth century, as collected from O'Dugan's 
Topography, are as follows: — 

The Craobh Euadh [Creeveroe] or the portion of the 

* Ulidia : The name ' ' Uladh" was applied to the province of 
Ulster, but in after times was confined, as mentioned in the chapter 
on Orgiall, to a large territory on the east of Ulster, called Ulidia. 
This territory was also called Dalaradia (Dal: Irish, a part or 
portion, and Araidhe, a man's name), signifying the descendants of 
Araidhe, a king of Ulster in the third century ; and comprised the 
present (bounty Down, with a great part of Antrim, extending from 
lubhar or Newry, Carlingford Bay, and the Mourne mountains, to 
Slieve Mis mountain in the barony of Antrim ; thus containing, in 
the south and south-east parts of Antrim, the districts along the 
shores of Lough Neagh and Belfast Lough, Carrickfergus, and the 
peninsula of 1 aland Magee to Larne ; and thence in a line westward 
to the river Bann . The remaining portion of the County Auti'im 
obtained the name of Dalriada. Ulidia is remarkable as the scene 
of St. Patrick's early captivity (it being there that he was sold as a 
slave to a chieftain named Milcho, whose flocks he tended near Mis 



Bed Branch Knights of Ulster, a large territory which 
comprised the central parts of the present County Down, 
with some adjoining parts of Armagh, is given by O'Dugan 
as the head territory of Ulidia. The principal chiefs of the 
Creeveroe were — 1. O'Duinnshleibhe or MacDunnshleibhe 
(6'Dunsleive or MacDunsleive), kings or princes of the 
territory (of this family was Eory, the last king of Ulster, 
of the race of Clan Colla, No. 59, page 201. This name 
has been Anglicised "Dunlevy" and "Mac Dunlevy") ; 
0'Heochadha(Anglicised "O'Heoghy," " Hoey," "Howe"), 
a branch of the O'Dunlevys; O'Haidith (Heady or Head), 
O'Eochagain (or O'Geoghagan), O'Lavary, O'Lowry, 
O'Luingsigh (Anglicised Longsy, Linskey, Linch, and 
Lynch), O'Moran, and O'Mathghamhna (O'Mahon, Mao- 
Mahon, andbysome AnglicisedO'Magafney). O'Garvey and 
O'Hanvey, were chiefs of Hy-Eachach Coba, now the barony 
of " Iveagh." 2. MacAongusa, chief of Clan Aodha or 
ClanHugh, the tribe name of the family. (The MacAongusa, 
or the Guinnesses, MacGuinnesses, and Magenises, had 
the baronies of Iveagh and Lecale, and part of Mourne ; 
and were lords of Iveagh, Newry, and Mourne. They 
were the head of the Clan-na-Rory in Ulster). 3. Mao- 
Artan or MacCartan, chief of Kinel Fogartaigh [Fogarty] , 
now the baronies of "Kinelarty," and Dufferin. 4. 
O'Duibheanaigh (Devany, Dooney, Downey), chief of 
Kinel Amhalgaidh, now "Clanawley," in the County 
Down. 5. MacDuileachain or O'Duibhleachain (Doolecan 
or Doolan), chief of Clan Breasail MacDuileachain, near 
Kinelarty in the barony of Castlereagh. 6. O'Coltarain 
(Coleton, Coulter), chief of Dal Coirb, in the barony of 
Castlereagh. 7. O'Flinn, and O'Domhnallain or O'Don- 
nellan, chiefs of Hy-Tuirtre : a people seated on the east 
side of the river Bann and Lough Neagh in Antrim; and 
descended from Fiachra Tort, grandson of King CoUa 
Uais. Hy-Tuirtre comprised the baronies of Toome and 

mountain), and is celebrated as the place where he made the first 
converts to Christianity ; and finally as the place of his death and 
barial. He died at Sabhal, afterwards the parish of " Saul" ; and 
was buried in the cathedral at Dune, which, in consequence, was 
called Dunepatrick or Downpatrick. — Oonnellan. 


Antrim, and was afterwards known as northern Olanaboy. 
8. O'Heirc (Eric, Hirk), chief of Hy-Fiachra Finn, in the 
barony of Massarene. 9. O'Criodain or Credan, chief of 
Machaire Maedhaidh, now the parish of " Magheramisk," 
in the barony of Massareene. 10. O'Haodha or O'Hugh, 
or Hughes, chief of Fearnmhoighe or Fernmoy, a district in 
the County Down, on the borders of Antrim, in the barony 
of Lower Iveagh. 11. O'Caomhain or Kevin, chief of 
Magh Lini, now Moylinny, a district in the barony of 
Antrim. 12. O'Machoiden or O'Maoken, chief of Mughdhorn 
or Mourne. 13. O'Lachnain or O'Loughnin, chief of 
Modharn Beag or Little Mourne. In addition to O'Dugan, 
the following clans in Ulidia are given from other authorities : 
— 14. The MacGees or Magees, of Island Magee. 15. The 
MacGiolla-Muire (MacGillmores or Gilmores), who pos- 
sessed the districts of the great Ards. 16. The^Mac^prys 
or Rogers, chiefs of Killwarlin. 17. The O'Kellys of 
Clanbrasil Mac Coolechan, in the County Down. 18. The 
Wards or Mac "Wards. 19. The Gowans (gobha: Irish, a 
blacksmith) and MacGowans (modernized " Smith," 
" Smeeth," and " Smythe") were of the Irian race and of 
the Clan-na-Eory, and were mostly expelled by the English 
into Donegal ; whence large numbers of them emigrated 
to the County Leitrim, and more lately to the County 
Cavan. The O'Gowans and Cowans were descended from 
Heremon. Dal Buinne, a district in Ulidia, was not given 
by O'Dugan ; but it was situated on the borders of Down 
and Antrim, ai;d contained the parish of Drumbo, in 
Down, with those of Lisburn, Magheragall, Magheramask, 
Glenavy, Aghalee, and Aghagallen, in Antrim. The Dal 
Buinne were of the Irian race. 

In the fourteenth century, Hugh Buidhe O'Neill, prince 
of Tyrone, with his forces, crossed the Bann and took 
possession of the northern part of Ulidia, which, from its 
being possessed by his posterity, who were called Clan 
AodhaBuidhe, was Anglicised "Olanaboy," or "Clandeboy." 
This territory was divided into North Olanaboy and South 
Olanaboy. A part of North Clanaboy also obtained the 
name of "Bryan Carragh's Country," from its having 
been taken from the O'Neills by a chief of the MacDonnells, 
who was called Bryan Garragh. South Clanaboy comprised 


the baronies of Ards, Castlereagh, Kinelarty, andLecale; 
and extended, according to MacGeoghegan, from the Bay 
of Dundrum to the Bay of Carrickfergus on Belfast Lough. 

(b). The Anglo-Norman Settlers in Down and Antrim, 
Or Ulidia. 

John De Courcy with his forces overran a great part of 
Orgiall and Ulidia ; and for a period of twenty years carried 
on an incessant warfare with the native chiefs. As already 
mentioned, he fixed his head- quarters at Downpatrick. 
After De Courcy had been driven out of Ireland by his 
great rivals, the De Lacys, lords of Meath, the latter 
obtained possession of Ulidia, and were created earls of 
Ulster. The De Burgos next became possessors of Ulidia, 
and earls of Ulster ; which title and possessions afterwards 
passed to the Mortimers, earls of March, in England. The 
chief Anglo-Norman and English settlers in Ulidia, under 
De Courcy andhis successors, were : — The Audleys, Bissets, 
Copelands, Fitzsimons, Chamberlains, Bagnalls, Martells, 
Jordans,Mandevilles,Eiddles,EusselIs, Smiths, Stauntons, 
Logans, Savages, Walshes, and Whites. The Fitzgeralds, 
earls of Kildare, obtained Leath Chathail or "Lecale" fa 
well-known barony in the County Down, anciently called 
Magh Liis or the Insular Plain), in the reign of Queen 

(c). The Modern Nobility in Down and Antrim. 
Or Ulidia. 

The following noble famiHes in more modem times settled 
in the County Down : — The Hamiltons, barons of Clanaboy 
and earls of Clanbrassil. The Montgomerys, earls of 
Mount Alexander, in the barony of Ards. The Cromwells, 
viscounts of Ardglass — a title afterwards possessed by the 
Harringtons. The HiUs, barons of Killwarlin, viscounts 


of Hillsborough, and now marquises of Downshire. The 
Annesleys, barons of Glenawley, and viscounts Annesleys 
ofCastlewellan. Eawdon, Hastings, earls of Moira. The 
Jocelyns, barons of Clanbrassil, and earls of Eoden. The 
Stuarts or Stewarts, viscounts Castlereagh, now marquises 
of Londonderry. The Dawneys, viscounts of Down. The 
Wards, barons of Bangor. The Needhams, earls of 
Kilmorry, and viscounts of Newry and Mourne. The 
Smythes, viscounts of Strangford. The Blaekwoods, barons 
of Dufferin, etc. 

Down, in Irish " Dun" (signifying a fortress), was in 
ancient times called Dundaleathglas, and afterwards Dun- 
Patraie or Downpatrick, from St. Patrick having been 
buried there. Down comprised the greater part of ancient 
Ulidia or Dalaradia ; and was, in the reign of Edward the 
Second, formed into two counties, namely, Down, and the 
Ards (or Newtown) ; but in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
both were formed into the present County Down, which 
got its name from the chief town Dune or Downpatrick, 
and is Latinized " Dunum." 


(a). The Ibish Chiefs and Clans. 

The chief clans in Dalriada were as follows : — The O'Kanes 
or O'Canes ; and Mac Uidhilin or MacQuillans, who held 
the territory of the Eoutes, and had their chief seat at 

* Dalriada : This ancient territory comprised the remaining portion 
of the County Antrim, not mentioned under Ulidia in the last chapter, 
together with a small part of the present County Derry : as Dunboe, 
now the parish of Dunboe, in the barony of Coleraine, County Derry, 
was {Four Masters) in ancient Dalriada. As elsewhere mentioned, 
this territory was named after Cairbre Riada, son of Conaire or Conary 
the Second, monarch of Ireland in the second century. Dalriada is 
connected with some of the earliest events in Irish history : in this 
district, according to our old Annalists, the battle of Murbolg was 
fought between the Nemediaus and Fomorians, two of the earliest 
colonies who came to Ireland ; and here Sobairce, monarch of Ireland, 
of the race of Ir, long before the Christian era, erected » fortress in 


Dunluce. The MacDonnells of the Hebrides invaded, a.d. 
1211, the territories of Antrim and Derry [Four Masters) ; 
where they afterwards made settlements. In the reign of 
Elizabeth, Somhairle Buidhe MaoDonnell or " SorleyBoy," 
as he was called by English writers, — a chief from the 
Hebrides, descended from the ancient Irish of the race of 
Clan Colla (as mentioned in page 141), came with his 
forces and took possession of the Glynns. After many 
long and fitrce battles with the MacQiiillans, the MacDon- 
nells made themselves masters of the country, and dis- 
possessed the MacQuillans. Dubourdieu, in his Survey of 
Antrim, says: — "A lineal descendant of the chief Mao- 
QuiUanlives on theroadbetweenBelfastand Oarrickfergus, 
near the silver stream, and probably enjoys more happiness 
as a respectable farmer, than his ancestor did as a prince 
in those turbulent times." The MacDonnells were created 
earls of Antrim. The O'Haras, a branch of the great 
family of O'Hara in the County Sligo, also settled in 
Antrim; and several families of the O'Neills. The other 
clans in this territory were the O'Siadhails or Shiels ; the 
O'Quinns ; O'Furries or f uerys ; MacAUisters ; MacGees 
or Magees, etc. 

(c). The Modebn Nobility in Dalriada. 

The following have been the noble families in Antrim, 
in modem times : The viscounts O'Neill; the Chichesters, 

whioli he resided ; whioh, after him, was called Dunsobairce or the 
Fortress of Sobairce, now " Dunseverick," which is situated on a 
bold rock projecting into the sea near the Giants' Causeway. And 
it is mentioned by the Four Masters that at this fortress of Dun- 
severick, Roitheachtaigh or Rothactns, No. 47, page 103, was killed 
by lightning. In after times, the chief O'Cathain or O'Kane, had 
his castle at Dunseverick, the ruins of which still remain. Dalriada 
was divided into two large districts : 1st. " The Glynns" (so called 
from its consisting of several large glens), which extended from 
Olderfleet or I/arne to the vicinity of Ballycastle, along the sea- 
shore ; and contained the barony of Gleuarm, and part of (Jarey ; 
2nd. " The Routes," called Reuta or Ruta, which oumprehended the 
baronies of Dunluce and Kilconway. — Connellan. 


earls of Belfast, and marquises of Donegal; the earl 
MacCartney, baron of Lisanoure ; the Clotworthys, and 
Skeffingtons, earls of Massareene; and the Vaughans, 
barons of Lisburn. 

Antrim -n as formed into a county in the reign of Edward 
the Second ; and took its name from the chief town, in 
Irish " Aendruim," which is said to signify the Handsome 
Hill: from " Aen" or "Aon," excellent, and " druim," 
a hill. It is Latinized " Aendromia" and " Antrumnia." 

7. TIEOWEN^=. 
(aj. The Ieish Chiefs and Clans. 

The chiefs and clans of Tir-Owen, and the territories they 
possessed in the twelfth century, as given by O'Dugan, are 
as follows : — 1. O'Neill and MacLoghlin, as princes. 2. 
O'Cane, Kane, or Keane, of the race of Owen, and who was 
chief of Cianacht of Glean Geibhin or Keenaght of Glen- 
given. The O'Kanes were also chiefs Df the Creeve, now the 
barony of Coleraine; and, in after times, possessed the greater 
part of the County Derry, which was called "O'Kane's 
Country"; they also, at an early period, possessed part of 
Antrim, and had their seat at the castle of Dunseverick. 3. 
The O'Conors, who were chiefs of Cianacta before the 
O'Kanes, and were descendants of Cian, son of Olioll Olum, 
King of Munster : hence their territory obtained the name of 
Cianachta, a name still preserved in the barony of 
" Keenaught," County Derry. 4. O'Duibhdiorma or 
O'Dwyorma, sometimes Anglicised O'Dermot orO'Dermody, 

* Tirowen : After the couq^uest of Ulster by the Three CoUas, this 
territory was comprised within the Kingdom of Orgiall; but Niall of 
the Nine Hostages, the 126th Monarch of Ireland, conquered that 
part of it called the "KingdomofAileach," of part of which (Tirowen) 
hia son Eoghan or Owen, and of the other part (Tirconnell), his other 
son, ConaU Gulban, were the first princes of the Hy-NiaU sept. In 
after ages the territory of Tirowen expanded by conquest, so as to 
comprise the present counties of Tyrone and Derry, the peninsula of 
Iiiishowen, (situate between Lough Foyle and Lough ywilly), and 


but a distinct clan from MacDeimot, prince of Moylurg in 
Connaught. The O'Dwyorma were ciiiefs of Breadach, 
which comprised the parishes of Upper and Lower Moville, 
in the barony of Innishowen. The name of this district 
is still preserved in the small river " Bredag," which falls 
into Ijough Foyle. 5. O'Gormley or Grimly, chief of 
Kinel Moain or Moen, now the barony of Eaphoe, County 

the gi-eater part of the barony of Raphoe, in the County Donegal. 
This ancient territory is connected with some of the earliest events 
in Irish history. The lake now called Lough Foyle, according to 
Keating and O'Flaherty, suddenly burst forth in the reign of the 
monarch Tigernmasius orTiernmas, No. 41, page 102; and overflowed 
the adjoining plain, which was called Magh Fuinsidhe. This lake, 
mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters as Loch Feabhail Mic 
Lodain, obtained its name from Feabhail (or Foyle), son of Lodan, 
one of the Tua-de-Danan chiefs, who was drowned in its waves. In 
this territory, on a high hiU or mountain called Grianan, on the 
eastern shore of Lough SwUly, south of Inch Island, was situated 
the celebrated fortress called the Grianan of Aileach (from ''Grianan," 
a palace or royal residence, and "Aileach" or '"Oileach, " which 
signifies a stone fortress"). This fortress was also called " Aileach 
Ueid" or "Oileach Neid," from Neid, one of the Tua-de-Danan 
princes; and was for many ages the seat of the ancient kings of Ulster. 
It was built in a circular form of great stones without cement, of 
immense strength, in that style called " Cyclopean " architecture ; 
and some of its extensive ruins remaiu to this day. It was 
demolished, a.d. 1101, by Murtogh O'Brien, King of Munster and 
the 180th monarch of Ireland. This palace of Aileach is supposed 
to have been the " Kegia " of Ptolemy, the celebrated Greek geogra- 
pher, in the second century ; and the river marked " Argita " on his 
map of Ireland, is considered to have been the Finn, which is the 
chief branch of the Foyle river. The territory surrounding the 
fortress of Aileach obtained the name of Moy Aileach or the Plain of 
Ely. Tirowen was peopled by the race of Owen or the Clan Owen, 
who, on the introduction of sirnames, took the name of " O'Neill," 
from their ancestor Niall Glundubh, the 170th monarch of Ireland ; 
and some of them, the name MaoLogblin and O'Loghlin, from 
Loohlin, one of the kings of Aileach. Some of the MacLoghlins, 
during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, were princes of Tirowen, 
and some of them were monarchs of Ireland ; altogether, according 
to O'Flaherty, sixteen of the Clan Owen, were monarchs of Ireland. 
The O'Neills had their chief seat at Dungannon, and were inaug- 
urated as princes of Tyrone, at TuUaghoge, a place between Grange 
and Donaghenry, in the parish of Desertcreight, in the bar(my of 
Dungannon ; where a rude seat of large stones, called Leach-na-Ree 
or the Flag stone of the kings, served them as a coronation chair. — 


Donegal. 6. Moy Ith and Kinel Enda partly in the 
barony of Eaphoe, and partly in the barony of Tirkeran in 
Derry. O'Flaberty places Moy Ith in Cianachta or 
Keenaught. According to O'Dugan, the following were the 
chiefs of Moy Ith :— O'Boyle, O'Mulbraisil, O'Quinn, and 
O'Kenny. 7. O'Broder, O'Mulhall, and O'Hogan, chiefs 
of Carruic Bachuighe, still traceable by the name 
" Carrickbrack," in the barony of Inishowen. 8. O'Hagan, 
chief of Tullaghoge, in the parish of Desertcreight, barony 
of Dungannon, and County Tyrone. 9. O'Donegan or 
Dongan, MacMurchadh or MacMorough, O'Farrell or Freel, 
and MacRogers, chiefs of Tealach Ainbith and of Muintir 
Birn, districts in the baronies of Dungannon and Btrabane. 
10. O'Kelly, chief o± Kinel Eachaidh or Corca Eachaidh, 
probably " Corcaghee," in the barony of Dungannon. 11. 
O'Tierney, and O'Kieran, chiefs of Fearnmuigh. 12. 
O'Duvany, O'Hamil, and O'Heitigein or Magettigan, chiefs 
of three districts called Teallach Cathalain, Tealach Duibh- 
railbe, and Teallach Braenain. 13. O'Mulfoharty, and 
O'Heodhasa or O'Hosey, chiefs of Kinel Tighearnaigh. 14. 
O'Cooney, and O'Bailey, or Bailie, chief of Clan Fergus. 
15. O'Murchada, O'Murphy or O'Morrow, and O'Mellon, 
chiefs of Soil Aodha-Eanaigh. 16. MacFetridge, chief of 
Kinel Feraidaigh, in the north of Tyrone. In the Annals 
of the Four Masters, under a.d. 1185, mention is made of 
Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil (MacCampbell, or MacCowell) 
head chieftain of the Kinel Fereadaidh, who was slain by 
O'Negnaidh or O'Neney, aided by Muintir Chaonain or the 
O'Keenans. That Gillchreest MacCathmhaoil, was also 
head chieftain of clan Aongus, clan Dubhinreacht, clan 
Fogarty O'Ceannfhoda, and clan Colla of Fermanagh — 
" the chief of the councils of the north of Ireland." This, 
name "Cathmbaoil" was Anglicised, respectively, Campbell, 
Cowell, Caghwell, and Caulfield. These Cathmhaoils were 
a powerful clan in Tyrone, and many of them in Monaghan^ 
Louth, and Armagh. 18. The clans of Maolgeimridh, 
Mulgemery, or Montgomery, and of Maolpadraig or Kil- 
patrick, who possessed the two districts of Kinel Fereadaidh 
(or Faraday), in the east of Tyrone. 19. Muintir Taithligh 
of Hy-Laoghaire of Lough Lir, a name Anglicised Mao, 
TullyorTully. 20. O'Hanter or Hunter, chief of Hy-Seaaia. 


The following chiefs and elans, not given by O'Dugan, are 
collected in Connellan's Four Masters, from various other 
sources : 1. O'Criochain, O'Crane, or O'Crehan, mentioned 
inthe Annals of theB'our Masters, under a.d. 1200, chief of Hy- 
Fiachra, a territory which comprised the parish of Ardstraw, 
and some adjoining districts in Tyrone. 2. O'Quinn, chief 
of Moy Lngad and of Riol Cathusaigh (a quo Casey) , as 
given in the Annals of the Four Masters, under a.d. 1218. 
Moy Lugad, according to the Books of Leaean and Bally- 
mote, lay in Keenaght of Glengiven, County Derry. 3. 
The O'Gearbhallins, O'Garolans, or Kerlins, a name some- 
times Anglicised "Carleton," werechiefsof Clan Diarmada, 
now the parish of Clandermod or Glendermod, in Derry. 
4. The O'Brolchans, by some changed to Bradly, were a 
branch of the Kinel Owen. 5. MacBlosgaidh or MacClosky, 
a branch of the O'Kanes, was a numerous clan in the 
parish of Dungiven, and the adjoining localities. 6. 
O'Devlins, chiefs of Muintir Dubhlin, near Ijough Neagh, 
on the borders of Derry and Tyrone. 7. The O'Looneys, 
chiefs of Muintir Loney, a district known as the Monter 
Loney Mountains in Tyrone. 8. O'Connellan, chief of 
Crioch Tullach in Tyrone. 9. O'Donnellys, chiefs in 
Tyrone, at Ballydonnelly and other parts. 10. O'Nena 
{Ean: Irish, a bird), O'Nenys, or MacNenys (a name which 
has been Anglicised "■Bird"), were chiefs of Kinel Naena 
in Tyrone, bordering on Monaghan ; of this family was 
Count O'Neny of Brussels, in the Austrian service, under 
the Empress Maria Theresa. 11. O'Flaherty, lord of 
Kinel Owen, but a branch of the great family of O'Flaherty 
in Connaught. 12. The O'Murrays, a clan in Derry. 13. 
The MacShanes (a name Anglicised " Johnson"), a clan 
in Tyrone. 14. The O'MuUigana, Anglicised "Molineux," 
were also a clan in Tyrone. 15. O'Gnive or O'Gneeves 
(Anglicised " Agnew") were hereditary bards to the O'Neills. 
•The O'Neills maintained their independence down to 
the end of the sixteenth century, as princes of Tyrone ; and 
in the reigns of Henry the Eighth and Elizabeth bore the 
titles of earls of T^'rone and barons of Dungannon. The 
last celebrated chiefs of the name were Hugh O'Neill, tha 
great Earl of Tyrone, famous as the commander of the 
northern Irish in their wars with Elizabeth ; and Owen 


Eoe O'Neill, the general of the Irish of Ulster, in the 
Cromwellian wars, a.d. 1641. Several of the O'Neills have 
been distinguished in the military service of Spain, France, 
and Austria. In consequence of the adherence of the 
Ulster chiefs to Hugh O'Neill, in the wars with Elizabeth, 
six counties in Ulster were confiscated, namely : Tyrone, 
Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Armagh — all in 
the reign of King James the First. A project was then 
formed of peopling these counties with British colonies ; 
this project was called the " Plantation of Ulster." 

The Modern Nobilitj in Tie-Owen. 

In the survey of Ulster by Captain Pynnar, a.d. 1619, 
as stated in Harris's Hihernica, the following English and 
hcotch families are given as those who settled in Tyrone : 
Hamilton — the earl of Abercorn (more lately the title was 
" marquis," and now his Grace the Duke of Abercorn is 
the representative of that ancient family), Sir George 
Hamilton, Sir Claude Hamilton, Sir Eobert Newcomen, 
Sir John Drummond, the earl of Castlehaven, Sir William 
Stewart, Sir John Davis, the Lord Eidgeway, George 
Eidgeway, Sir Gerrard Lowther, the Lord Burley, Sir 
Francis Willoughby, Sir William Cope, John Leigh, 
William Parsons, Sir Eobert Heyborne ; Stewart, Lord of 
Uchiltree ; Captain Saunderson, Eobert Lindsay, Alexander 
Eichardson, Andrew Stewart, David Kennedy, the Lord 
Chichester, Sir Toby Caulfield, Sir Francis Eoe, Sir 
Francis Annesley, and the Lord Wingfield. 

Since the reign of James the First the following noble 
families have settled in Tyrone : — .The Le Poers were earls 
of Tyrone, a title which afterwards passed by intermarriage 
to the Beresfords. The Blounts, viscounts Mountjoy, -a 
title which afterwards passed to the families of Stewart and 
Gardiner. The Trevors, viscounts Dungannon. The 
Stewarts, vissounts Castlestewart. The Knoxes, earls of 
Eanfurley. And the Alexanders, barons of Caledon. 

Derry: In the reign of Elizabeth, "O'Kane's Country" 


was formed by Sir John Perrott into a county, which waa 
called from its chief town the "County of Colerain" ; and 
in the reign of James the First, on the plantation of 
Ulster, a company of undertakers, consisting of merchants 
and traders from London, got grants of the "County of 
Colerain " and town of Derry : hence the city and county 
got the name of "Londonderry." 

Derry, in Lrish " Doire," signifies an Oak Wood ; a,nA. 
the town was anciently called " Doire-Calgach," signifying 
the Oak Wood of Calgach, from a chief of that name ; and 
afterwards " Derry Columkille," from the abbey founded 
there by that saint. The territory which now forms the 
County Derry was part of Tir-Eogain or Tirowen ; and 
O'Cahan or O'Kane being the head chief, it was called 
O'Kane's Country." 

Derry is Latinized " Derria." 

The following noble families derive their titles from this 
county : — The family of Pitt, formerly marquises of 
Londonderry, a title now possessed by the Stewarts. The 
Hamiltons, earls, (now Dukes) of Abercorn, and barons of 
Strabane. The families of Hare and Hanger, barons of 

Part of ancient Tyrone was, about a. d. 1585, formed 
into the County Tyrone, by the lord deputy Sir John 
Perrott. The ancient "Tir-Eogain" has been Latinized 
" Tironia," and sometimes " Eugenia." Tirowen in later 
times was called " O'Neill's Country." 


(a). The Ibise Chiefs and Clans. 

The following clans and chiefs, in Tir Conaill in the 
twelfth century, are given by O'Dugan under the head of 
Kinel Conaill : — 1. O'Maoldoraigh or Muldory, O'Can- 

■ *Tir Oonnell : This territory comprised the remainiag portion of 
Donegal not contained in Tir-Owen, the boundary between both 
being Lough Swilly ; but in the twelfth century the O'Muldorys and 


annain, and Clan Dalagh, were the principal chiefs. In 
the tenth century some of the head chiefs of the Clan 
Connell took the tribe name Clan-na Dalaigh, from Dalagh, 
one of their chiefs, whose death is recorded in the Annals of 
the Four Masters, at a.d. 868 ; hut they afterwards took the 
name O'Domhnaill, or O'Donel, from Domhnall or Donel, 
grandson of Dalagh. 2. The O'Boyles were chiefs of 
Clan Chindfaoladh of Tir Ainmireach, and of Tir Boghaine, 
— territories which comprised the present baronies of 
Boylagh and Banagh : Crioch Baoighilieach or the country 
of the O'Boyles gave name to the barony of "Boylagh;" 
Tir Boghaine wasthe barony of "Banagh." 3. O'Mulvany, 
chief of Magh Seireadh or Massarey. 4. O'Hugh, chief of 
Easruadh [Esroe] or Bally shannon, in the barony of Tir 
Hugh. 5. O'Tairceirt or larkert, chief of Clan Neachtain 
and of Clan Snedgaiie or Snell. 6. Mae Dubhaine or 

O'Donels, princes of Tir-Connell, became masters of the entire of 
Donegal; thus making Lough Foyle and the rivers Foyle and Finn 
the boundaries between Tir-Connell and Tir-Owen. This territory , 
got its name from Conall Gulban, who took possession of it after its 
conquest by Niall of the Nine Hostages. He was brother to Owen, 
who possessed Tir-Owen ; from him the territory obtained the name of 
Tir-Conaill or ' 'Connell 's Country ;" and his posterity were designated 
Kinel Conaill or the race of Conuell, a name which was also applied 
to the territory. 

Some of the earliest events in Irish history are connected with this 
territory, amongst which the following may be noticed: — Inis Saimer 
was a residence of Bartholinus or Partholan, who first planted a 
colony in Ireland ; and this island gave the name Saimer to the river 
now called the Erne, and Lough Erne, which in ancient times was 
called Lough Saimer. The waterfall at Ballyshannon is connected 
with another early event, the death of Aodh Ruadh, an ancient king 
of Ireland who was drowned there : hence it was called Eas-Aodha- 
Ruaidh or the Cataract of Red Hugh ; and hence " Eas-roe" [Ashroe] 
was the ancient name of Ballyshannon. 

In the tenth century a branch of the Kinel (or Clan) Connell took 
the name of O'Canannain, many of whom were celebrated chiefs ; 
and another branch of them took the name of O'Maoldoraidh 
(Anglicised O'Muldory and Mulroy), and became princes of Tir- 
Connell. The O'Donels, in the twelfth century, became princes of 
Tir-Connell. Rory O'Donel, the last chief of the race, was created 
earl of Tir-Connell, but died in exile on the continent; and his estates 
were confiscated in the reign of James the First. The O'Donels were 
maugurated as princes of Tirconnell, on the rock of Donne, at Kil- 
macrenan ; and had their chief castle at Donegal.— CoraneZZan. 


Mao Duane, chiefs of Kinel Nenna or Kinel Enda, a 
district which lay in Inishowen. 7. MacLoingseachain 
(Linskey, or Lynch), chiefs of Glean Binne; and O'Breislen 
or Breslin, chief of Fanaid or Fanad, on the western shore 
of Lough Swilly. 8.. O'Doherty, chief of Ard Miodhair. 
In the Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1197, Each- 
marcach [Oghmarkagh] O'Doherty is mentioned as chief 
of all Tirconnell. The O'Dohertys maintained their rank 
as chiefs of Inishowen down to the reign of James <he 
First. 9. MacGilleseamhais (Anglicised Gilljames, or 
Fitzjames), chief of Eos-Guill, now "Eosgul," in the barony 
of Kilmakrenan. 10. O'Kernaghan, and O'Dallan, chiefs 
of the Tuath Bladhaidh. 11. O'Mulligan, chief of Tir Mae 
Caerthain. 12. O'Donegan, and MacGaiblin or MacGiblin, 
chiefs of Tir Breasail; and O'Maolgaoithe, chief of Muintir 
Maolgaoithe {gaoth: Irish, the wind ; pronounced " ghee "). 
Some of this elan Anglicised their name to "Magee"; and 
others, ' ' Wynne" — another form of ' ' wind, ' ' the E nglish for 
the word "gaoth," as above. 13. MacTernan, chief of Clan 
FearghoHe or Fargal. The following chiefs and clans not gi ven 
by O'Dugan are collected by the B'our Masters and other 
sources: — 14. MacSwiney, a branch of the O'Neills, which 
settled in Donegal, and formed three great families, namely, 
MacSweeny of Fanaid, who had an extensive territory 
west of Lough Swilly, and whose castle was at EathmulUn; 
MacSwiney Boghainach or of Tir Boghaine, now the barony 
of Banagh, who had his castle at Eathain, and in which 
territory was situated Eeachrain Muintir Birn, now Eathlin 
O'Beirne Islands ; and MacSwiney Na d-Tuath, signifying 
JllacSweeny of the Territories. His districts were also called 
" Tuatha Toraighe " or the districts of Tory Island. This 
MacSwiney's possessions lay in the barony of Kilmacrenan. 
According to O'Brien, he was called " MacSwiney Na d- 
Tuath," signifying MacSimney of the Battle-axes — a title- 
said to be derived from their being chiefs of galloglasses, 
flpud from their being standard bearers and marshals to the 
O'Donels. A branch of these MacSwineys who were 
distinguished military leaders, settled in Munster in the 
County Cork, in the thirteenth century ; and became 
commanders under the MacCarthys, princes of Desmond. 
15. O'Gallaghers, descended from a warrior named 


" Gallchobhair," were located in tlie baronies of Eaphoe 
and Tir Hugh, and had a castle at Ballyshannon, and also 
possessed the castle of Lifford ; they were commanders of 
O'Donel's cavalry. Sir John O'Gallagher is mentioned in 
the wars of Elizabeth. 16. O'Furanain, chief of Fion 
Euis, probably the " Bosses," in the barony of Boylagh^ 

17. O'Donnely, chief of Fear Droma, adistrict in Inishowen, 
is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1177. 

18. O'Laney or Lane, chief of Kinel Maoin, a district in 
the barony of Eaphoe. 19. O'Clery or Clarke, hereditary 
historians to the O'Donels ; and the learned authors of the 
Annals of the Four Masters, and other valuable works on 
Irish history and antiquities. They had large possessions 
in the barony of Tir Hugh, and resided in their castle at 
Kilbarron ; the ruins of which still remain on a rock on 
the shore of the Atlantic near Ballyshannon. 20. Mac- 
Ward, a clan in Donegal, were bards to the O'Donels, and 
were very learned men. 

Tir Connell was formed into the County Donegal by the 
lord deputy Sir JohnPerrot, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 

fh). The English and Scotch Families in TiKCONNELLf 
Or Doncyal. 

On the confiscation of Tirconnell, and the settlement of 
British colonies called the "Plantation of Ulster," in the 
reign of King James the First, the following English and 
Scotch families are, in Pynnar's Survey, a.d. 1619, given 
as the possessors of Donegal : — John Murray got all 
Boylagh and Banagh. The following had various districts: 
— Captain Thomas Button, Alexander Cunningham, John 
Cunningham, James Cunningham, Cuthbert Cunningham, 
Sir James Cunningham, James MacCullagh, William 
Stewart, the Laird of Dunduff; Alexander MacAwley, alias 
Stewart ; the Laird of Lusse, Sir John Stewart, Peter 
Benson, William Wilson, Thomas Davis, Captain Mans- 
field, Sir John Kingsmill, Sir Ealph Bingley, Sir Thomas^ 
Coach, Sir George Marburie, Sir WilHam Stewart, Sir 


Basil Brooke, Sir Thomas Chichester, Sir John Vaughan, 
John Wray, Arthur Terrie, Captain Henry Hart, Captain 
Paul Gore, Nathaniel Eowley, William Lynn, and Captain 

(cj. The Modern Nobility in Tirconnell. 

The following have heen the noble families in Donegal 
since the reign of James the First : — 1. The Fitzwilliams, 
earls of Tyrconnell. 2. Eichard Talbot, Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, in the reign of James the Second, was created 
Duke of Tyrconnell. 3. The families of Brownlow and 
Carpenter have been subsequently earls of Tyrconnell. 4. 
The Chichesters, earls of Donegal. 5. The Conynghams, 
earls of Mountcharles. 6. The Cockaynes, barons of Cullen. 
7. The Hewitts, barons of Lifford. Etc. 

Tirconnell was, about a.d. 1585, formed into a county 
by the lord deputy Perrot ; and called Donegal, from its 
chief town. The names Donegal and Tirconnell are 
Latinized " Dungallia " and " Tir-Connellia," and some- 
times " Conallia." 

Donegal, in Ksh " Dun-na-nGall," signifying the 
Fortress of the Foreigners, got its name, it is said, from a 
fortress erected there by the Danes. This ancient territory 
was called Tir-Conaill or the Country of Conall, from 
Conall Gulbin, brother of Owen, and son of Niall of the 
Nine Hostages, as already mentioned. In modern times 
the head chiefs of this territory were The O'Donels : hence 
it was called " O'Donel's Country." 


(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The chiefs and clans of Brefney and the territories they 
possessedinthe twelfth century, are, accordingto O'Dugan, 

* Brefmy : In Irish this word ia " Breifne" or "Brefne," which 
signifies the Hilly Country ; it was called by the English The Brenny, 


•as follows:— 1. O'Euairc or O'Eourke ; 2. O'Eaghallaigh 
or O'liielly: these were the princes of the territory of 
Brefney. 3. MacTighearnain (tighearna : Irish, a lord or 
master), Anglicised MacTernan, Kiernan, Kearns, and 
Masterson, were chiefs of Teallach Dunchada (signifying 
the tribe or territory of Donogh), now the barony of 
^'Tullyhunco," in the Connty Cavan. 4. The Mac- 
Samhradhain (Anglicised MacGauran, Magauran, and 
Magovern) were chiefs of Teallach Eachach (which signifies 
the tribe or territory of Eochy), now the barony of 
" Tullaghagh," County Cavan. This sirname is by some 
rendered "Somers," from the Irish word " Samhradh" 
[aovru] , which signifies summer. 5. MacConsnamha 
(snamh : Irish, to swim; Anglicised "Ford" or "Forde"), 
chief of Clan Cionnaith or Clan Kenny, now known as the 
Muintir Kenny mountains and adjoining districts near 
Lough Allen, in the parish of Innismagrath, County 
Leitrim. 6. MacCagadhain or MacCogan, chief of Clan 
Fearmaighe, a district south of Dartry, and in the present 
barony of Dromahaire, County Leitrim. O'Brien states 
that the MacEgans were chiefs of Clan Fearamuighe in 
Brefney : hence MacCagadhain and MacEagain may, 
probably, have been the same clan. 7. MacDarchaidh or 
MacDarcy, chief of Kinel Luachain, a district in the barony 
of Mohill, County Leitrim, from which the townland of 

and has been Latinized " Brefnia" and "Brefinnia." This ancient 
territory comprised the present counties of Cavan and Leitrim, with 
a portion of Meath, and a part of the barony of Carbury in Sligo : 
O'Kourke being prince of West Brefney or Leitrim ; and O'Rielly, of 
East Brefney or Cavan. Brefney extended from Kells in Meath, to 
Drumcliflf in the County Sligo ; and was part of the Kingdom of 
Connaught, down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when it was formed 
into the counties of Cavan and Leitrim, and Cavan was added to the 
province of Ulster. In this territory Tigern Masius or Tiernmas, the 
13th monarch of Ireland, was the first who introduced Idol worship 
into Ireland ; and set up at Moy Slaght, now Fenagh, in the barony 
of Mohill, County Leitrim, the famous idol, Crom Cruaoh, the chief 
•deity of the Irish Druids, which St. Patrick destroyed . Brefney was 
inhabited in the early ages by the Firvolgians (who are by some 
writers called Belgae and Firbolgs), who went by the name of 
" Ernaidhe," " Erneans," and " Ernaechs" ; which names are stated 
to have been given them from their inhabiting the territories about 
Lough Erne. These Erneans possessed the entire of Brefney. The 


Laheen may be derived. 8. MacPlanncliadha (rendered 
MacClancy), chief of Dartraidhe or Dartry, an ancient 
territory co-extensive with the present barony of Eoss- 
Clogher in Leitrim. 9. O'Finn and O'CarroU, chiefs of 
CJalraighe or Caby, a district adjoining Dartry, in the 
present barony of Dromahaire, and comprehending, as the 
name impUes, an adjoining portion of SUgo, the parish of 
■" Calry" in that county. 10. MaeMaoilliosa or Mallison, 
chief of Magh Breacraighe, a district on the borders of 
Leitrim and Longford. 11. MacFionnbhair or Finvar, 
■chief of Muintir Gearadhain or O'Gredan, a district in the 
southern part of Leitrim. 12. MacEaghnaill or Mac- 
Eannall (Anglicised Eeynolds), who were chiefs of Muinter 
Eoluis, a territory which comprised almost the whole of 
the present baronies of Leitrim, Mohill, and Carrygallen, 
in the County Leitrim, with a portion of the north of 
Longford. This family, like the O'Farrells, princes of 
Annaly or Longford, were of the race of Ir or Clan-na- 
Eory ; and one of their descendants, the celebrated wit 
and poet George Nugent Eeynolds, Esq., of Letterfian, in 

name "Brefney"ia, stccording to " Seward's Topography," derived 
irom " Bre" a h'dl, and therefore signifies the country of hills or the 
hilly country : a derivation which may not appear inappropriate as 
descriptive of the topographical features of the country, as innumer- 
able lulls are scattered over the counties of Cavan and Leitrim. On 
a vast number of these hills over Cavan and Leitrim are found those 
circular earthen ramparts called forts or raths, and some of them 
very large ; which circumstance shows that those hUls were inhabited 
from the earliest ages. As several thousands of these raths exist 
«ven to this day, and many more have been levelled, it is evident 
that there was a very large population in ancient Brefuey. The 
■erection of these raths has been absurdly attributed to the Danes, 
for it is evident that they must have formed the chief habitations 
and fortresses of the ancient Irish, ages before the Danes set foot 
in Ireland ; since they abound chiefly in the interior and remote parts 
of the country, where the Daaes never had any permanent settlement. 
Ancient Brefney bore the name of Hy Briuin Breifne, from its being 
possessed by the race of Bryan, King of Connaught in the fourth 
century, brother of Niall of the Nine Hostages, and sou of Eoohy 
Moyvone, monarch of Ireland from A. D. 357 to 365, and of the race 
of Heremon. That Bryan had twenty-four sons, whose posterity 
possessed the greater part of Connaught, and were called the " Hy- 
Brininrace." Of this race were the O'Conors, kings of Connaught ; 
the O'Rourkes, O'Eiellys, MaoDermotts, MacDonoghs, O'FIahertya, 


Leitrim, is stated to have been the author of the beautiful 
song called "The Exile of Erin," though its composition was 
claimed by Thomas Campbell, author of "The Pleasures 
of Hope." 13. O'Maoilmiadhaigh or Mulvey, chief of 
Magh Neise or Nisi, a district which lay along the Shannon 
in the west of Leitrim, near Carrick-on-8hannon. The 
following clans in the counties of Cavan and Leitrim, not 
given by O'Dugan, are collected from other sources : 14. 
MacBradaigh, MacBrady, or O'Brady, was a very ancient 
and important family in Cavan ; they were, according to 
MacGeoghagan, a branch of the O'CarroUs, chiefs of Calry. 
15. The MacGobhains, MacGowans, or O'Gowans (gobha : 
Irish, a smith), a name which has been Anglicised " Smith," 
were of the race of Ir ; and were remarkable for their great 
strength and bravery. Thus, Smith, Smyth, Smeeth, and 
Smythe, may claim their descent from the Milesian Mac- 
Gowans, originally a powerful clan in Ulidia. 16. Mae 
Giolladuihh, Mac Gillduff, or Kilduff, chiefs of Teallach 

O'Malleys, MacOiraghty (MacGeraghty, or Geraghty), O'Fallona, 
O'Flynns (of Connaught), MacGaurans, MacTieraans or Kemans, 
MacBradya or Bradys, etc. In the tenth century Brefney was divided 
into two principalities, viz., Brefney O'Rourke or West Brefney, and 
Brefney O'Kielly or East Brefney. Brefney O'Rourke comprised the 
present County Leitrim, with the barony of Tullaghagh and part of 
TuUaghoncho in the County Cavan ; and Brefney O'Eielly, the rest 
of the present County Cavan : the river at BaUyconnell being the 
boundary between Brefney O'Eourke and Brefney O'Eielly ; the 
O'Rourkes being the principal chiefs. " O'Eourke's Country" was 
called Brefney O'Eourke, and " O'Rielly's Country," Brefney 
O'Rielly. The O'Eourkes were inaugurated as princes of Brefney 
at a place called Cruachan O'Cuprain, supposed to be Croaghan, near 
Killeshaudra ; the O'Eiellys were inaugurated on the HiU of Sean- 
toman or Shantoman, a large hill between Cavan and Ballyhaise, on 
the summit of which may still be seen the remains of a Druidioal 
temple consisting of several huge stones standing upright. In after 
times the O'Riellya were inaugurated on the Hill of TuUymongan, 
above the town of Cavan ; and took the tribe name of Muintir 
Maolmordha or the People of Maolmordha, one of their celebrated 
chiefs. This name Maolmordha or Mulmora was Latinized "Milesius" 
and Anglicised "Miles" or "Myles." — a favorite Christian name 
with the O'Riellys. The O'Eourkes and O'Riellys maintained their 
independence down to the reign of James the First, and had con- 
siderable possessions even until the Cromwellian wars ; after which 
their estates were confiscated. — Connellan. 


Gairbheith, now the barony of " Tullygarvey," in the 
County Cavan. 17. Mao Taichligh or MaeTilly, chief of 
a district in the parish of Drung, in the barony of Tully- 
garvey. 18. MacCaba or MacCabes, a powerful clan 
originally from Monaghan, but for many centuries settled 
in Cavan. 19. The O'Sheridans, an ancient clan in the 
County Cavan. Eichard Brinsley Sheridan, one of the 
most eminent men of his age, as an orator, dramatist, and 
poet, was of this clan. 20. The O'Corrys or O'Currys were 
a clan located about Cootehill. 21. The O'Clerys or 
Clarkes were a branch of the O'Clerys of Connaught and 
Donegal, and of the same stock as the authors of the 
Annals of the Four Masters. 22. The O'Dalys and 
O'Mulligans, were hereditary bards to the O'Eiellys. 23. 
The Fitzpatricks, a clan originally of the Fitzpatricks of 
Ossory. 24. The Fitzsimons, a clan long located in the 
County Cavan, are of Anglo-Norman descent, who came 
originally from the English Pale. 25. The O'FarelJys, 
a numerous clan in the County Cavan. 26. Several other 
clans in various parts of Cavan, as the O'Murrays, Mac- 
Donnells, O'Conaghtysor Conatys,0'Connells orOonnells, 
MacManuses, O'Lynches, MacGilligans, O'Fays, Mac- 
Gafneys, MacHughs, O'Dolans, O'Droms, etc. 27. And 
several clans in the County Leitrim, not mentioned by 
O'Dugan, as the MacGloins of Eossinver ; the MacFerguses, 
who were hereditary erenachs of the churches of Eossinver, 
and whose name has been Anglicised " Ferguson ;" the 
O'GuirninsorCurrans, celebratedbards and historians; the 
MacKennys or Keaneys, the MacCartans, O'Meehans, etc. 

The Modern Nobility of Beefney. 

Leitrim: The following were the chief British settlers 
to whom large grants of land were given in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James the First: — the Hamiltons, who 
erected a castle at Manorhamilton ; and the family of 
Villiers, dukes of Buckingham. The Skerrards were in 
after times barons of Leitrim, and the family of Clements 
are at present earls of Leitrim. 


Cavan: The following have been the noble families in 
the County Cavan, since the reign of James the First: — 
The Lamberts, earls of Cavan; the Maxwells, earls of 
Farnham; the Cootes, earls of Bellamont ; the Popes, 
earls of Eelturbet ; and the Verneys, barons of Belturbet. 
Amongst the great landed proprietors, but not resident in 
the county, were the marquises of Headfort, the earls of 
Annesley, and the earls of Gosford. And among the 
landed proprietors resident in the county have been — the 
earls of Farnham, the families of Burrowes, Clements, 
Coote, Humphreys, Nesbitt, Pratt, Saunderson, and 
Vernon, etct 

Cavan is derived from the Irish " Cabhan" (pronounced 
" Cawan"), which signifies ahollow place; and corresponds 
with the situation of the town of Cavan, which is located 
in a remarkable hollow. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Brefney O'Eourkewas, 
by the lord deputy Sir Henry Sidney, formed, a.d. 1565, 
into the County Leitrim, and so called from the town of 
Leitrim ; and in the same reign, a.d. 1584, Brefney 
O'Eielly was, by the lord deputy Sir John Perrott, formed 
into a county, and called Cavan, from its chief town. 
Cavan was added to Ulster, and Leitrim was left in 

The name "Leitrim," in Irish Liath-Druim, signifies 
the Grey Hill; and from the town, the county was called 
Leitrim, as the County Cavan was called from the town 
of Cavan. LeitrimisLatinized "Leitrimnia;" and Cavan, 
" Cavania." 

(a). The Ibish Chiefs and Clans. 
O'DuGAN in his Topography says: 

"Let us travel around Fodhla (Ireland), 

Let men proceed to proclaim these tidings; 
From the lands where we now are, 

The five provinces we shall investigate. 

CHAP. VII.] IN MEftTH. 271 

"We give the pre-eminence to Tara, 
Before all the melodious mirthful Gael, 

To all its chieftains and its tribes,* 
And to its just and rightful laws. 

"The princes of Tara I here record: 

The Eoyal O'Hart, and likewise O'Eegan ; 

The host who purchased the harbours 
Were the O'Kellys and O'Connollys." 

The "harbours" here mentioned were those on the river 
Shannon, bordering on the ancient kingdom of Meath. 

The kingdom of Meatih included Bregia and Teffia. 
The chiefs and clans of the kingdom of Meath, and the 
territories they possessed, are as follows: — 1. O'Melaghlins, 
kings of Meath. Of this family Murcha was the king of 
Meath at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion; whose 
kingdom was granted by King Henry the Second to Hugh de 
Lacey. 2. O'h-Airt or the O'Harts were princes of Tara ; 
and when, on the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland, 
they were dispossessed of their territories in Bregia or the 
eastern portion of the kingdom of Meath, they were lords 
of Tef&a or the western portion of that ancient kingdom. 
Connellan styles O'Eegan, O'Kelly, andO'Connolly, princes 
of Tara ; and O'Donovan states that they were of the four 
families who, by pre-eminence, were known as the " Pour 
Tribes of Tara."* The princes of Tara were also styled 
princes of Bregia, t a territory which extended between 

* The Four Tribes of Tara : "The Four Tribes of Tara, according 
to the Battle of ' Magh Rath' [Moira], page 9, where those tribes are 
mentioned, were the families of O'h-Airt [O'Hart], O'Ceallaigh 
[O'Kelly], of Breagh or Bregia, O'Conghaile (considered to be 
O'ConnoUy), and O'Kiagain [O'Regan]." — Boole of Bights, 

fBregia : The great plain of Meath, which included the greater 
parts of the present Counties of Meath and Dablin, was known by 
the name of Magh Breagh {magh hreagh: Irish, the 'magnificent plain), 
signifying the Plain of Magnificence. It was Latinized " Bregia, " 
and by O'Connor called " Campus Brigantium" or the Plain of the 
Brigantes, from its being possessed by the Brigantes or Clan-na- 
Breoghan, as the descendants of Breoghan (No. .34, paj;e 39), were 
called. That plain, situated in the eastern part of the ancient king- 


the Liffey and the Boyne, from Dublin to Drogheda, thence 
to Kells ; and contained the districts about Tara, Trim, 
Navan, Athboy, Dunboyne, Maynooth, Lucan, etc. : the 
territory comprising these districts and that part of the 
present County .Dublin north of the river Liffey, was known 
as "O'Hart's Country." The O'Kellys of Bregia were 
chiefs of Tuath Leighe, parts of the baronies of West 
Narragh and Kilkea in the County Kildare; they had 
also the district about Naas, and had their chief residence 
and castle at Eathascul or the Moat of Ascul, near Athy: 
the territory comprising these districts was known as 
"O'Kelly's Country." These O'Kellys are distinct from 
the O'Kellys of Clan Colla, who were princes of Hy-Maine, 
& territory in Galway and Eoscommon. The O'Eegans 
were chiefs of Hy-Eiagain, now the barony of Tinehinch in 
the Queen's County. 8. The O'Connollys were respectable 
families in Meath, Dublin, and KUdare'; and were chiefs 
in the County Kildare. 4. O'Euadhri or O'Eory, now 
Eogers, lord of Fionn Fochla in Bregia.7^ O'Fallamhain 
or Fallon, lord of Crioch-na-gCeadach : so called from 
Olioll Cedach, son of Cahir Mor, King of Leinster, and 
the 109th monarch of Ireland. The "Country of the 
O'Fallons" was near Athlone, in the County Westmeath, 
but they were afterwards driven across the Shannon into 

dom of Meath, comprised five triocha-clieds or baronies, and included 
Fingal, a territory lying along the coast between Dublin and 
Drogheda. This territory was so called because of a colony of 
Norwegians, who settled there in the tenth century, and who were 
called by the Irish Fionn Ghaill, or Fair-haired Foreigners: hence 
the term "Fingal," which was applied to the Norwegians; while 
Dubh Ghaill or Black Foreigners was the term applied to the Danes. 

According to Connellan'a Four Masters, Bregia, which was a 
portion of the territory possessed by the princes of Tara, presents 
vast plains of unbounded fertility: containing about half a million 
of acres of the finest lands in Ireland. 

Teffia : Another great division of ancient Meath was called 
Teabhtha, Latinized "TefEa," which comprised the present County 
Westmeath, with parts of Longford and the King's County; and was 
the territory of Maine, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. It was 
divided into North and South Teffia. North Teffia or Cairbre Gabhra 
(or Ganra) was that portion of Annaly or the County Longford, 
about Granard; and South Teffia comprised the remaining portions 
of Annaly and Westmeath. 


Eosoommon. (5. O'Coindeal-bhain (O'Kendellans, or 
O'Connellans) princes of Ibh-Laoghaire or "Ive-Leary," 
an extensive territory in the present Counties of Meath 
and Westmeath, which was possessed by the descendants 
of Leary, Monarch of Ireland at the time of St. Patrick. 
The parish of Castletown Kendellan in Westmeath shows 
one part of this ancient territory, and the townland of 
Kendellanstovm, near Navan, shows another part of it. 
7. O'Braoin or O'Breen, chief of Luighne, now th6 parish 
of "Leney," in the barony of Corcaree, "Westmeath. 8. 
O'h-Aongusa or O'Hennesy, chief of Hy-Mao-Uais, now 
the barony of "Moygoish," in Westmeath. The Clan- 
Mac-Uais or MacEvoys, sometimes called MaeVeaghs and 
MaeVeighs, of the race of Clan Colla, were the original 
chiefs of this territory. 9. O'h- Aodha (Anglicised O'Hughes 
and O'Hayes), chief of Odhbha (probably "Odra" or 
"Oddor," in the barony of Skrine, near Tara). 10. 
O'Dubhain or Duane, chief of Cnodhbha, probably 
"Enowth," near Slane. 11. O'h-Ainbeath or O'Hanvey, 
chief of Fearbhile, now the barony of "Farbill," in 
Westmeath. 12. O'Cathasaigh or O'Casey chief of Saithne, 
now " Sonagh," in Westmeath, where one of the castles of 
De Lacey stood, who conferred that property on the Tuite 
family. 18. O'Lochain or O'Loughan, chief of Gailenga, 
now the parish of "Gallen" in the barony of Garrycastle, 
King's County. 14. O'Donchadha or O'Donoghoe, chief 
of Teallach Modharain, probably now "TuUamore," in 
the King's County. 15. O'Hionradhain or O'Hanrahan, 
chief of Corcaraidhe, now the barony of "Corcaree," in 
Westmeath. 16. O'Maolmuaidh or O'Molloy, Prince of 
Ferceall, comprising the present baronies of Ballycowen, 
Ballyboy, and Eglish or "Fercall," in the King's County. 
17. O'Dubhlaidhe or O'Dooley, chief of Fertullaeh, the 
present barony of "FertuUagh," in Westmeath. 18. 
O'Fionnallain or O'Fenelan (of the race of Heber, and tribe 
of the Daleassians), lord of Delbhna Mor, now the barony 
of "Delvin," in Westmeath. 19. O'MaoUugaeh or 
O'Mulledy, chief of Brogha, part of the now baronies of 
Delvin and Farbill. 20. MacCochlain or MacCoghlan 
(of the Daleassians), lord of Dealbhna-Bathra, now the 
barony of Garrycastle, in the King's County. 21. O'Tolairg 


or O'Toler, chief of Cuircne {cuircne: Irish, the progeny of 
Cuirc, Anglicised -'Quirk"), now the barony of Kilkenny 
West, inWestmeath. 22. MacEoghagain or MacGeoghagan, 
Prince of Kenel Fiacha, now the barony of Moycashel, 
■with parts of Eathconrath and Fertullagh. The Mac- 
Geoghagans were one of the principal branches of the 
Clan Colman, and were called Cenel Fiacha, from one of 
sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages.. 23. MacEuairc or 
MacEourke, chief of Aicme-Enda, descended from Enna 
Finn, another son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. This 
Clan was located in the district in which is situated the 
Hill of Uisneach, in the barony of Eathconrath, in West- 
meath. 24. O'Cairbre or O'Carbery, chief of Tuath Binn. 
25. O'Heochadha (O'Heoghey, O'Hoey, O'Howe), chief of 
Cenel-Aengusa. 26. O'Maelcolain or O'Mellon, chief of 
Delvin Beg or Little Delvin, adjoining the barony of 

O'Dugan, in the continuation of his Topography of 
Meath, enumerates the different chiefs and their territories 
in Teffia ; among whom were the following : — 

1. O'Oatharnaigh or O'Kearney. 2. O'Cuinn or O'Quinn. 
3. O'Confiaclaor O'Convally. 4. O'Lachtnain or O'Lough- 
nan, Anglicised Loftus. 5. O'Muireagain, (Murrin, Morrin, 
or Murrigan). The O'Quinns were chiefs of Muintir 
Giolgain, and had their chief castle at KathclLne, in 
Longford. The other chiefs were: — 1. O'Flannigain or 
O'Flanagan, chief of Comar, which O'Dugan places beside 
"O'Braoin's Country." 2. O'Braoin or O'Breen of 
Breaghmhuine, now the barony of "Brawney"in West- 
meath. 3. MacConmeadha or Conmy, of Muintir Lao- 
dagain. 4. MacAodha or MacHugh, of Muintir Tlamain. 
5. MacTaidhg or MacTague, of Muintir Siorthachain. 
By some of the family the name has been Anglicised 
"Montagu." 6. MacAmhalgaidh, (Anglicised respectively, 
MacAwley, Macaulay, Magauley, and MacGawley), chief 
of Cakaidhe or Calrigia, a territory on the borders of 
Westmeath and the King's County ; comprising (according 
to MacGeoghagan) the barony of Kilcourcy, in the King's 
County. 7. MacGarghamna (Anglicised MacGorgan), of 
Muintir Maoilsionna. 8. O'Dalaigh or O'Daley, of Corca 
Adhaimh or Corcadium, a territory in or contiguous to 


the barony of Clonlonan, in Westmeath. 9. O'Scolaidhe 
or 0' Scully, of Dealbhna larthar or West Delvin. 10 
O'Comhraidhe (Anglicised O'Corry or O'Curry), of Hy- 
Mac-Uais or Moygoish in Westmeath. 11. O'Haodha or 
O'Hea, of Tir Teabtha Shoir or East Teffia. 12. O'Cear- 
bhaill or O'Carroll, of Tara. 18. O'Duin, O'Doyne, or 
O'Dunne, of the districts of Tara. 14. MacGiolla Seachlan 
or O'Shaughlin, of Deisceart Breagh, now the parish of 
"Dysart," in Westmeath. 15. O'Eonain or O'Ronayne, 
of Cairbre Gaura or Northern TefSa. 16. O'h-Aongusa or 
O'Hennesy, of Galinga Beg, now the parish of "Gallen," 
in the King's County. 

The following chiefs and clans in Meath and Westmeath 
have not been given by O'Dugan : — 

1. O'Sionnaigh (Anglicised Fox), of the southern Hy- 
Nialls, lords of Muintir Tadhgain in Teffia, containing 
parts of the baronies of Eathconrath and Clonlonan in 
Westmeath, with part of the barony of Zilcourcy in the 
King's County. The head of this family was distinguished 
by the title of "The Fox," and obtained large grants of 
land from Queen Elizabeth, with the title of Lord of Kil- 
courcy. 2. The O'Malones, a branch of the O'Conora, 
kings of Connaught, who had large possessions in the 
barony of Brawney, in Westmeath. In former times, 
these chiefs had the title of "Barons of Clan-Malone," 
and afterwards obtained that of "Barons Sunderlin of 
Lake Sunderlin, in Westmeath. 3. The O'Fagans, a 
numerous clan in Meath and Westmeath, of which there 
were many respectable families, the head of which had 
the title of "Baron of Feltr'im," in Fingal. The following 
were also clans of note in Westmeath, namely : — 4. 
O'Cobthaidh or O'Coffeys. 5. O'Higgins. And in Meath, 
O'LoingseachsorO'Lynches. 6. 0'Murphys. 7. 0'Murrays. 
8. O'Brogans, etc. The chiefs and clans of ancient Meath 
were, with few exceptions, of the same race as the southern 
Hy-Niall; in our days, there are but few families of note, 
descendants of the ancient chiefs and princes of Meath. 


fb). The Anglo-Norman Families in Meath. 

King Henry the Second having granted to Hugh de 
Lacy,* for the service of fifty Knights, the whole Kingdom 
of Meath (see copy of the charter, Note, page 178), De 
Lacy divided that ancient Kingdom amongst his various 
chiefs, who were commonly denominated De Lacy's barons: 
1. Hugh Tyrrell obtained Castleknock; and his descendants 
were for a long period barons of Castleknock. 2. Gilbert 
de Angulo (or Nangle) obtained Magherigallen, now the 
barony of " Morgallion," in Meath. 3. Jocelin, son of 
Gilbert Nangle, obtained Navan and Ardbraccan. The 
Nangles were afterwards barons of Navan ; and many of 
them took the Irish name of " MacCostello," and from them 
the barony of Costello in Mayo derived its name. 4. 

* Hugh de Lacy : The De Lacys came from Normandy with 
William the Conqueror, and were earls of Lincoln in England. Hugh 
de Lacy came to Ireland with King Henry the Second, A.D. 1171, 
and obtained from that monarch a grant of the whole kingdom of 
Meath, as already mentioned. He was lord palatine of Meath, 
and many years chief governor of Ireland. He erected numerous 
castles, particulary in Meath and Westmeath, as those of Trim, 
Kells, Ardnorcher. Durrow, etc., and endowed some monasteries. 
He is thus described in Holingshed : — " His eyes were dark and 
deep-set, his neck short, his stature small, his body hairy, not fleshy, 
but sinewy, strong, and compact ; a very good soldier, but rather 
harsh and hasty." It appears from Hanmer and others, that he was 
an able and politic man in state affairs, but very ambitious and 
covetous of wealth and great possessions ; he is also represented as a 
famous horseman. De Lacy's second wife was a daughter of King 
Eoderick O'Couor ; and his descendants, the De Lacys, were lords 
of Meath, and earls of Ulster, and founded many powerful families 
in Meath, Westmeath, and Louth, and also in Limerick, some of 
whom w-ere distinguished marshals in the service of Austria and 
Russia. The castle of Dearmagh or "Durrow," in the King's County, 
was erected by De Lacy on the site of a famous monastery of St. 
Columkille, which he had thrown down ; and his death was attributed 
by the uneducated Irish to that circumstance as a judgment from 
Heaven. The man who killed De Lacy fled to his accomplices in 
the wood of Clair or "Clara" ; but it appears from MacGeoghagau 
and others, that the Irish attacked and put to the sword the English 
retinue at the castle of Durrow, and that having got De Lacy's body 
into their possession, they concealed it nearly ten years, when, A.D. 
1195, it was interred with great promp in the abbey of Bective, ia 
Meath; Mathew O'Heney, Archbishop of Cashel, and John Com'yn, 
Archbishop of Dublin, attending at the ceremony. — ConneUan. 


William de Missett obtained Luin ; and his descendants 
were barons of Lune, near Trim. 5. Adam Feipo or 
Phepoe obtained Skrine or Skryne, Santreflf or Santry, 
and Glontorth (which means either Clonturk or Clontarf). 
This family had the title of barons of Skrine, which title 
afterwards passed to the family of Marward. 6. Gilbert 
Fitz-Thomas obtained the territories about Kenlis ; and 
his descendants were barons of " Kells." 7. Hugh de 
Hose obtained Dees or the barony of "Deece" in Meath. 
8. The Husseys were made barons of Gal trim. 9. Eichard 
and Thomas Fleming obtained Crandon and other districts. 
The Flemings became barons of Slane ; and a branch of 
the family, viscounts of Longford. 10. Adam Dullard or 
Bollard obtained DuUenevarty. 11. Gilbert de Nugent 
obtained Delvin ; and his descendants were barons of 
Delvin, and earls of Westmeath. 12. Eichard Tuite 
obtained large grants in Westmeath and Longford ; his 
descendants received the title of barons of Moyashell, in 
Westmeath. 13. Eobert De Lacy received Eathwire in 
Westmeath, of which his descendants were barons. 14. 
Jeoffrey de Constantine received Kilbixey, in Westmeath, 
of which his descendants were barons. 14. William Petit 
received Castlebreck and Magheritherinan, now the barony 
of " Magheradernon" ia Westmeath. The Petits became 
barons of MuUingar. 15. Myler-Fitzhenry obtained 
Magherneran, Eathkenin, and Athinorker, now " Ardnor- 
cher." 16. Eichard de Lachapelle, brother of Gilbert 
Nugent, obtained "much land." 

(c). The Modeen Nobility in Meath. 

The following families, either of English or Norman 
descent, settled in Meath in early times : — 1. The De 
Genevilles succeeded the De Lacys as lords of Meath ; 
and afterwards the great family of Mortimer, earls of 
March ia England. 2. The Plunkets, a family of Danish 
descent, became earls of Fingal ; and branches of them 
barons of Dunsaney, and earls of Louth, 3, The Prestons, 


viscounts Gormanstown ; and another branch of them 
viscounts of Tara. 4. The Barnwalls, barons of Trimbles- 
town, and viscounts Kingsland. 5. The Nettervilles, barons 
of Dowth. 6. The Bellews, barons of Duleek*. 7. The 
Darcys of Flatten, some of whom were barons of Navan. 
The family of Jones were afterwards barons of Navan. 
8. The Cusacks, barons of Clonmullen. 9. The Fitz- 
Eustaces, barons of Portlester. 10. The De Bathes of 
Athcarn. 11. The Dowdalls of Athlumney. 12. The 
Flemings of Staholmock. 13. The Betaghs (or Beattys) 
of Moynalty, of Danish descent. 14. The Cruises of 
Cruisetown and Cruis-Eath, etc. 15. The Drakes, of 
Drake-Eath. 16. The Corballys. 17. The Everards. 
18. The Cheevers, some of whom had the title of barons 
of Mount Leinster. 19. TheDardises. 20. The Delahoyds. 
21. The Balffes. 22. The Berfords or Bedfords. 23. 
The Caddells. 24. The Scurlocks or Sherlocks. 25. The 
Dillons. In more modern times the following families:^ 
26, The Brabazons, earls of Meath. 27. The Butlers, 
barons of Dunboyne. 28 Wharton, Baron of Trim. 29. 
Scomberg, Viscount Tara. 30. Cholmondeley (AngUcised 
"Chomney" and " Chomley"), Viscount Kells. 31. 
Hamilton, Viscount Boyne. 32. Colley Wesley or 
Wellesley, of Dangan, Earl of Mornington, afterwards 
Marquis Wellesley, and Duke of Wellington. 33. The 
Taylors, earls of Bective, and marquises of Headfort. 34. 
The Blighs, earls of Darnley . 35. The Marquis Conyngham, 
at Slane. 86. Langford Eowley, Baron of Summerhill. 
37. The Gerards, Garnets, Barneses, Lamberts, Nappier 
of Loughcrew, Wallers, Tisdalls, or Tiesdales, Winters, 
Coddingtons, Nicholsons, and Thomsons, respectable fami- 
lies in modern times in Meath. 

* Duleek: This word is in Irish " Doimiliag," signifying a Aouse 
made of stone. This village was formerly a parliamentary borough ; 
and in early times was the seat of a small diocese, afterwards united 
to the see of Meath. 


(c). The Modeen Nobility. 

In Westmeath the following families were located, to- 
gether with those already enumerated: — 1. The Dillons 
were originally oflrishdescent, andof the raceof Heremon. 
Their ancestor, a chieftain named Dillune or Delion, des- 
cended from a branch of the southern Hy-Niall, in Meath, 
went to France, in the seventh century; and, being a 
famous warrior, became Duke of Aquitaine. One of his 
descendants came to Ireland with King John, and got large 
grants of land in Westmeath and Annaly ; his descendants 
were lords of Drumrany, in the barony of Kilkenny West; 
and having founded many great families in Meath and 
Connaught, became earls of Eoscommon, viscounts Dillon 
in Mayo, barons of Clonbrock, and barons of Kilkenny 
West ; and several of them were counts and generals in 
the French, and Austrian service. 2. The Daltons, and 
the Delameres obtained large possessions in Westmeath 
and Annaly. The chief seat of the Daltons was at Mount 
Dalton, in the barony of Rathconrath, of which they were 
lords ; and some of them were distinguished in the service 
of foreign states. 4. The Deases, in Meath and Westmeath. 
In more modern times the following families had titles in 
Westmeath : — 5. The Eochforts, earls of Belvidere. 6. 
And the De Ginkells, earls of Athlone. 

In Meath, up to very recently, the following baronets 
were located : — Sir William Somerville, Sir Henry 
Meredith, Sir Francis Hopkins, Sir Charles Dillon ; and 
in Westmeath the following : Sir Percy Nugent, and Count 
Nugent, Sir Eichard Nagle, Sir John Bennet Piers, Sir 
Eichard Levinge, and Sir John O'Eielly. 

Ancient Meath constituted the chief part of the English 
Pale*, and was divided into the counties of East Meath 
and Westmeath, in the reign of Henry the Eighth ; but 

* English, Pale : The "English Pale" meant that part of Ireland 
occupied by the English settlers. In a.p. 1603, the distinction 
between the "Pale" and the "Irish Country" terminated, by the 
submission of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. 


its extent was diminished, as East Meath in early times 
contained parts of Dublin and Kildare, and Westmeath 
contained parts of Longford and Kiag's County. 


Anghailb or " Annaly," wliicli was formed out of the 
ancient territory of Teffia, comprised the whole of the 
County Longford, and was the principality of O'Farrell. 
His chief residence was the town of "Longford," anciently 
called Longphort-Ui-Fhearghail or the Fortress of 0' B arrell. 
This territory was divided into Upper and Lower Annaly: 
the former comprising that part of Longford south of 
Granard, and a part of the County Westmeath, was 
possessed by O'Parrell Buidhe (or O'Farrell the Yellow) ; 
the latter, or that portion north of Granard, was possessed 
by O'Farrell Ban (or O'Farrell the Fair). The O'Farrells 
were dispossessed of the eastern part of this territory by 
the English settlers, the Tuites and the Delameres, who 
came over with Hugh de Lacy in the twelfth century. 

(a). The Ikish Chiefs and Clans of Longford. 

Besides the O'Farrells, princes of Annaly, the following 
were among the ancient clans in the County Longford : 
2. O'Cuinn or O'Quinn, who had his castle at Eathcline. 
There was also a powerful family of the Quinns in the 
County Clare (see "Thomond"), distinct from this family 
in Annaly. 8. The MacGilligans. 4. The Muintir (or 
people of) Megiollgain (Magillan, or Magellan) were located 
in the territory of Muintir Eoluis, in the northern portion 
of the County Longford ; and their chief was O'Quinn. 
5. The O'Mulfinnys or Mul Feeneys, whose district was 
called Corcard. 6. The MacCormacks. 7. The Mac- 
Corgabhans, now Gavans. 8. O'Dalys. 9. O'Slamans or 
O'Slevins. 10. And O'Skollys or O'Skellys The O'Farrells 


maintained their sovereignty till the reign of Elizabeth ; 
when Annaly was formed into the County Longford, by 
the lord deputy Sir Henry Sidney. 

(c). The Modern Nobility of Longford. 

In modern times the following families have formed the 
nobility of Annaly : — 1. The Aungiers, earls of Longford; 
afterwards the Flemings ; and nest the Pakenhams. 2. 
The Lanes, earls of Lanesborough, and next the Butlers. 
3. The Gores were earls of Annaly. 4. The family of 
Forbes are now earls of Granard. 


(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The following accounts of the ancient chiefs of the terri- 
tories now forming the counties of Dublin and Kildare, 

* Dublin : The grant of the Kingdom of Meath by King Henry the 
Second to Hugh de Lacy, a.d. H72, included that part of Bregia, 
containing those parts of the present County Dublin, norbh of the 
river Liffey. This grant, King John confirmed to Walter de Lacy, 
lord of Meath, the son of Hugh ; and gave him, besides, Ms fees in 
Fingal, to hold to him and his heirs for ever. 

Parts of the territories of Moy Liffey and Bregia, with a portion 
of Cualan (or Wicklow), were formed into the County Dublin, a.d. 
1210, in the reign of King John. In the sixteenth century, according 
to D'Alton's "History of Dublin," the County Dublin extended 
from Balrothery to Arklow — -thus comprising a great part of the 
present County Wicklow. 

Kildare : In the reign of King John, parts of the territories of 
Moy Liffey, Oflfaley, Leix, and Cualan, were formed into the County 
Kildare ; but it was only a " liberty" dependent on the jurisdiction 
of the Sheriffs of Dublin, until a.d. 1296, ia the reign of Edward the 
First, when Kildare was constituted a distinct county. It was called 
Coill-Dara or the Wood of Oaks, as oak forests abounded there in 
ancient times ; or, according to others, Cill-Dara or the Church of 
the Oaks, as it is said that the first church founded at the present 
town of Kildare was built amidst oak trees. 


together with some of the princes and chiefs of Meath (of 
whom a full account has not been given in the Chapter on 
"Meath") have been collected from the Topographies of 
O'Dugan, 0'Heerin,the^)inaZs of the Four Masters, O'Brien, 
O'Halloran, MacGeoghagan, Ware, O'Flaherty, Charles 
O'Oonor, Seward, and various other sources. As already 
mentioned, the O'Conors^ princes of Offaley; the O'Moores, 
princes of Leix; the O'Dempseys, lords of Clanmaliere, 
all possessed parts of Kildare. The O'Tooles, princes of 
Imaile, in Wicblow, also possessed some of the southern 
parts of Kildare ; and the O'Tooles, together with the 
O'Byrnes, extended their power over the southern parts 
of Dublin, comprising the districts in the Dublin mountains : 
1. MacFogarty, lords of South Bregia, are inentioned 
by the Four Masters in the tenth century. 2. O'Ciardha or 
O'Carey, chiefs of Cairbre O'Ciardha, now the barony of 
"Carbery" in the County Kildare. 3. O'Murcain or 
O'Murcan. 4. O'Bracain or O'Bracken, chiefs of Moy 
Liffey. The O'Murcans and O'Braokens appear to have 
possessed the districts along the Liffey, near Dublin. 5. 
O'Gealbhroin, chiefs of Clar Liffie, or the Plain of the 
Liffey, a territory on the borders of Dublin and Kildare. 
6. O'Fiachra, chiefs of Hy-Ineachruis at Almhuin [Allen] ; 
and O'Haodha or O'Hea, chiefs of Hy-Deadhaidh : terri- 
tories comprised in the County Kildare. 7, O'Muirthe or 
O'Murtha, chiefs of Kinel Flaitheamhuin (or Clan Fleming); 
and O'Fintighearn, chiefs of Hy-Mealla: territories also 
situated in the County Kildare, it would appear in the 
baronies of Bast and "West Ophaley or Offaley. 8. O'CuUin 
or O'CuUen, chiefs of Coille Culluin (or the Woods of 
Cullen), now the barony of "KilcuUen" in the County 
Kildare. 9. The O'Colgans, MacDonnells, O'Dempseys, 
and O'Dunns, were all chiefs of note in Kildare. 10. 
O'Dubhthaigh or O'Duffy, one of the Leinster elans of the 
race of the monarch Cahir Mor ; and of the same descent 
as the MacMoroughs, kings of Leinster, and the O'Tooles 
and O'Byrnes, chiefs of Wicklow. Originally located in 
Kildare and Carlow, and afterwards in Dublin and Meath, 
theO'Dufiysmigratedin modern times to Louth, Monaghan, 
Cavan, Galway, and Eoscommon. 11. The O'Fagans or 
MacFagans are considered by some to be of English descent. 


D'Alton, in his " History of the County Dublin," mentions 
some of this family who, in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth centuries, were high sheriffs in Meath and Dublin. 
In former times the Fagans of Feltrim, nejir Dublin, and 
other parts of that county, were highly respectable, and 
held extensive possessions. 12. The O'Murphys, chiefs 
in Wexford, were also numerous in the counties of Dublin 
and Meath. 13. The O'MuUens were numerous in Meath, 
Dublin and Kildare. 14. MacGiollamocholmog or Giloolm, 
and O'Dunchadaor O'Donoghoe, are mentionedby O'Dugan 
as lords of Fingal, near Dublin ; and, as mentioned in the 
Chapter on " Hy Kinsellagh," there was another Mac- 
Giollamocholmog, lord of a territory on the borders of 
Wicklow. 15. 0'Muircheartaigh, O'Moriarty, orO'Murtagh, 
chiefs of the tribe of O'Maine (a quo "Mayne"); and 
O'Modarn, chiefs of Kinel Eochain, are mentioned by 
O'Dugan as chiefs of the Britons or Welsh ; and appear 
to have been located near Dublin. 16. Mac Muireagain, 
lords of East Liffey, in the tenth century. 

{h). The Anglo-Norman and English Families or Dublin 


As explained in the account of the grant of the Kingdom 
of Meath to Hugh de Lacy by King Henry the Second, De 
Lacyandhis barons became possessed of the greater portion 
of the present County Dublin : Hugh Tyrrell got the terri- 
tory about Castleknock, which was long held by his 
descendants, as barons of Castleknock ; the Phepoes got 
Santry and Clontarf, and, according to MacGeoghegan, 
Vivian de Cursun got the district of Eaheny, near Dublin, 
whichbelongedto GioUamocholmog, Anglicised "Gilcolm," 
and by some "Gill." 

In Dublin: — In the county and city of Dublin, the fol- 
lowing have been the principal Anglo-Norman and English 
families, from the twelfth to the eighteenth century, but 
some of whom, it will be seen, are of Irish descent : — The 
Talbots, Tyrrells, Plunkets, Prestons, Bamwalls, St. 


Lawrences, Taylors, Cruises, Cusacks, Cogans, Whites, 
Walshes, Walls, Warrens, Wogans, Woodlocks, Darcys, 
Nettervilles, Marwards, Phepoes, Fitzwilliams, Flemings, 
Fitzsimons, Archbolds, Archers, Aliens, Aylmers, Balls, 
Bagots, De Bathes, Butlers, Barrys, Barrets, Berminghams, 
Bretts, Bellews, Blakes, Brabazons, Finglasses, Sweetmans, 
Hollywoods, Howths, Husseys, Burnells, Dowdalls, Dillons, 
Segraves, Sarsfields, Stanihursts, Lawlesses, Cadells, 
Evanses, Drakes, Graces, Palmers, Eustaces, Fyans or 
Fynes, Fosters, Goughs, Berrills, Bennets, Browns, Duffs, 
Nangles, Woders, Tuites, Tews, Trants, Peppards, 
Luttrells, Eawsons, Yernons, Delahoydes, Ushers, Garnets, 
Hamiltons, Domvilles, Coghills, Cobbs, Grattans, Moles- 
worths, Latouehes, Puttands, Beresfords, Shaws, Smiths, 
■etc. For accounts of all those families and others, see 
D'Alton's Histories of Dublin and Drogheda. 

In Kildare: — In the County Kildare, the following have 
been the chief families of Anglo-Norman and English 
descent: — Earl Strongbow (a quo, probably the names 
"Strong" and "Stronge") having become heir to the 
kingdom of Leinster, as son-in-law of Dermod MacMurrogh, 
king of that province, as already mentioned, gave grants 
of various parts of Leinster to his followers. Amongst 
other grants, Strongbow gave in Kildare to Maurice 
Fitzgerald, Naas and Offelan, which had been part of 
" O'Kelly's Country" ; to Myler Fitzhenry he gave Carbery; 
to Eobert de Bermingham, Offaley, part of " O'Conffor's 
Country"; to Adam and Eichard de Hereford, a large 
territory about Leixlip, and the district called De Saltu 
Salmonis or The Salmon Leap (on the banks of the 
river Liffey, between Leixlip and Celbridge), from which 
the baronies of North and South " Salt" derive the name; 
and to Robert FitzEichard he gave the barony of Narragh. 
The family of De Eiddlesford, in the reign of King John, 
got the district of Castledermot, which was part of the 
territory of O'Toole, prince of Imaile, in Wioklow ; and 
Eichard de St. Michael got from King John the district 
of Eheban, near Athy, part of " O'Moore's Country"; 
and from the St. Michaels, lords of Eheban, the manors 
of Eheban and Woodstock in Kildare, with Dunamase in 
the Queen's County, passed to the Fitzgeralds, barons of 


Offaley, a.d. 1424, by the marriage of Thomas Fitzgerald 
with Dorothea, daughter of Anthony O'Moore, prince of 
Leix. As already mentioned, the County Kildare, in the 
thirteenth century, became the inheritance of Sibilla, one 
of the daughters of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
by Isabella, daughter of Strongbow, and grand daughter 
of Dej:mod MacMurrogh, King of Leinster; and Sibilla 
having married William Ferrars, Earl of Derby, he became 
in right of his mfe lord of Kildare ; which title passed (by 
intermarriage of his daughter Agnes) to William de Vesey, 
an Anglo-Norman nobleman of the De Veseys, barons of 
Knapton in Yorkshire ; and this William de Vesey was 
appointed by King Edward the First lord justice of Ireland, 
and was lord of Kildare and Eathangan. But, having some 
contests with John FitzThomas Fitzgerald, baron of 
Offaley, who charged him with high treason, it was 
awarded to decide their disputes by single combat. De 
Vesey, having declined the combat and fled to France, 
was attainted, andhis possessions and titles were conferred 
on Fitzgerald, who, a.d. 1316, was, by King Edward the 
Second, created Earl of Kildare ; and his descendants were, 
in modem times, created dukes of Leinster. The other 
chief families of EngUsh descent in Kildare have been the 
Aylmers, Archbolds, Bagots, Burghs or Burkes, Butlers, 
Breretons, Burroughs, Boyces, Dungans or Dongans, 
Keatings, Eastaces or FitzEustaees, Prestons, Lawlesses, 
Wogans, Warrens, Whites, Woulfes, Ponsonbys, Nangles, 
Horts, etc. Some of the Aylmers of Kildare became barons 
of Balrath in Meath ; and Arthur Woulfe, chief justice of 
the Queen'sBench, who was created "Viscount Kilwarden," 
was of the Woulfes of Kildare. 

{c). The Modern Nobility of Dublin and Kildare, 

The following have been the noble families in Dublin 
and Kildare since the reign of King John : — 

In Dublin: — As already explained, the De Lacys were 
lords of Meath and of a great part of Dublin. In the year 


1384, Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, and Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, was created Marquis of Dublin and Duke of 
Ireland; and, in the present Eoyal Family of Great Britain 
and Ireland, some of the dukes of Cumberland were earls 
of Dubhn. The Talbots, a branch of the Talbots, earls of 
Shrewsbury, Waterford, and Wexford, have been celebrated 
families in Dublin and Meath, chiefly at Malahide and 
Belgard in the County Dublin ; and were created barons 
of Malahide, and barons of Fumival : of these was Eichard 
Talbot, the celebrated Duke of Tyrconnell, Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, under King James the Second. The Plunkets, 
great families in Dublin, Meath, and Louth, are said to 
be of Danish descent ; they were created barons of KUleen 
and earls of Pingal; and branches of them, barons of 
Dunsany in Meath, and barons of Louth ; William 
Conyngham Plunket, formerly Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
was created "Baron Plunket." The Prestons, viscounts 
Gormanstown, and some of them viscounts of Tara. The 
St. Lawrences, earls of Howth. The Barnwalls, viscounts 
of Kingsland, and barons of Turvey; and also barons of 
Trimblestown in Meath. The De Courceys, barons of 
Kilbarrock. The Fitzwilliams, viscounts of Merrion. The 
Eawsons, viscounts of Clontarf. The Beaumonts, viscounts 
of Swords ; and the Moles worths, viscounts of Swords. 
The Temples, viscounts Palmerstown or Palmerston. The 
Tracys, viscounts of Eathcoole. Patrick Sarsfield, the 
celebrated commander of the Irish forces under King 
James the Second, was created "Earlof Lucan;" and the 
Binghams are now earls of Lucan. The Marquis of 
Wharton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was created Earl of 
Eathfarnham; and the family of Loftus, viscounts of 
Ely, were earls of Eathfarnham. The Luttrells, earls of 
Carhampton. The Leesons, earls of Miltown. TheHarmams, 
viscounts of Oxmantown (the name of an ancient district 
in the vicinity of Dublin) ; and the family of Parsons, earls 
of Eosse, in the King's County, are barons of Oxmantown. 
The Wenmans, barons of Kilmainham. The Barrys, barons 
of Santry. The Caulfields, earls of Charlemont, reside at 
Marino, Clontarf. The Brabazons, earls of Meath, have 
extensive possessions in Wicklow and Dublin. (And 
Thomas O'Hagan of Dublin , late Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 


the lineal representative of the O'Hagans of Tullaghoge in 
the County Tyrone, was, a.d. 1870, in the peerage of the 
United Kingdom, created "Baron O'Hagan.") 

In Eildare the following have been the noble families 
since the Anglo-Norman invasion: — The Fitzgeralds, 
barons of Offaley, earls and marquises of Kildare, and 
dukes of Leinster. The title of "Earl of Leinster" was, 
A.D. 1659, borne by the family of Cholmondely; and the 
title of "Duke of Leinster" was, a.d. 1719, held by a 
descendant of Duke Schomberg. The De Veseys or De 
Vescis, lords of Kildare and Eathangan. The De Lounders, 
barons of Naas; and the Prestons, barons of Naas. The 
St. Michaels, barons of Eheban. The FitzEustaces, 
barons of KUcullen in Kildare, of Portlester in Meath, 
and viscounts of Baltinglass in Wicklow. The Burkes, 
barons of Naas and earls of Mayo. The Berminghams, 
barons of Carbery. The Wellesleys, barons of Narragh. 
The Aliens, viscounts of Allen in Kildare, and barons of 
Stillorgan in Dublin. The Burghs, barons Down. The 
Pomeroys, barons Harberton and viscounts of Carbery. 
.The Agars, barons of Somerton, and earls of Normanton. 
The Lawlesses, barons of Cloncurry. The barons De 
Eobeck. The Moores, earls and marquises of Drogheda, 
and barons of Mellifont in Louth, reside at Monasterevan 
in Kildare. The Scotts, earls of Clonmel; and the family 
of Clements, earls of Leitrim, have seats in Kildare. 


1. Hy-Kinsellagh and Cualan ; ob Wexpokd, Wicklow, 
Caelow, and paet of Dublin. 

Under this head will be given the history and topograiphy 
of the ancient territories comprised in the present Counties 
of Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, with their chiefs and 

*Leinster : The ancient kingdom of Leinster comprised the present 
Counties of Wexford, Wicklow, Carlow, and Queen's County, the 
greater part of Kildare, King's County, Kilkenny, and that part of 
Dublin south of the river Liffey. Parts of Kilkenny bordering on 
Tipperary, and the southern parts of the King's County, belonged 


clans, and the possessions of each in ancient and modern 
times. The territory of " Hy-Kinsealach" [Hy-Kinsela] 
derived its name from Enna Cinsealach, King of Lemster 
in the time of St. Patrick; and comprised at one time the 
present Counties of "Wexford and Carlow, with some ad- 
joining parts of Wicklow, Kilkenny, and Queen's County. 
O'Dugan, the learned historian of the O'Kellys, princes 
of Hy-Maine, gives a full account of all the chiefs and clans 
of Leath Cuinn (i.e. Conn of the Hundred Battles' half 

to ancient Munster; and some of the northern part of the King's 
County belonged to the province of Meath. The above narned 
territories continued to be the limits of Leinster down to the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth; but in aftertimes the old kingdom of Meath 
was added to Leinster, and also the County Louth, which was a 
part of the ancient kingdom of Ulster. 

Leinster in early times was called Gaillian or Coigeadh Grailhan, 
from its being possessed by the tribe of Firvolgians called Fir- 
Gaillian, signifying spear-men ; but it afterwards got the name of 
Laighean [Laen] from the following circumstance : A few centuries 
before the Christian era, an Irish prince, named Labhra Loingseach 
or Laura of the Ships (Latinized Lauradius Navalis), having been 
banished to Gaul, became commander of the forces to the king of 
of that country; and afterwards led an army of Gauls to Ireland for 
the recovery of the crown. He landed at a place more lately called 
Lough Garman (now Wexford Bay), and proceeded to Dinnrigh, an 
ancient fortress of the kings of Leinster, which was situated near 
the river Barrow, between Carlow and Leighlin, and there put to 
death the monarch Cobthacus Gaolbhreagh (No. 60. page 104), son 
of the monarch Hugony the Great ; and became himself the Ardrigh 
of Ireland. The name "Garman" was afterwards applied to the 
whole of the territory now forming the County Wexford ; and the 
people called ' ' Garmaus, " because this Gaulish colony who settled 
there came from those parts of Germany adjoining Gaul. The Gaulish 
troops brought over by Laura were armed with green broad-headed 
spears, called Laighin, which were introduced amongst all the forces 
of the province : hence it got the name of Coigeadh [coogu] Laighean 
or the province of the spears ; and from Laighean or Laen came the 
name Laen-Tir, which has been Anglicised ' ' Leinster" or the Teritory 
of the Spears. 

When the Firvolgians invaded Ireland, some of them landed in 
large force in Connaught, at Erris, in Mayo; and were called 
Firdomnians or Damnonians. Another body of them landed under 
one of their commanders named Slainge, the son of Dela, at a pla«e 
called after him Inbhear Slainge [Inver Slaney], now the Bay of Wex- 
ford, from which the river "Slaney" takes its name. These Firvolgians 
were called Fir-Gaillian or spear-men as already mentioned; and 


of Ireland or the kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, and Con- 
naught^see page 63), and collected part of the topogra- 
phy of Leinster ; hut O'Heerin, another learned historian, 
who died, a.d. 1420, wrote a continuation of O'Dugan'a 
Topography, commencing thus: "Tuilleadh feasa air 
Eirinn oigh," or An addition of Knowledge on Sacred 
Erin; in which he gives an account of all the chiefs and 
clans of Leath Mogha (i.e. Mogha's half of Ireland or the 
kingdoms of Leinster and Munster), and the territories 
they possessed in the twelfth century. 

possessed the Counties of Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, under 
the name of "Galenii" or "Galenians." This territory was in after 
ages called Hy-Kinsealaoh, which derived its name from Enna 
Cinsealach, King of Leinster at the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland^ 
and comprised the present Counties of Wexford and Carlow, with 
some adjoining parts of Wicklow, Kilkenny, and Queen's County. 

The territories now forming the Counties of Dublin and Kildare 
are connected with some of the earhest events in Irish history: 
Bartholinus, the Scythian, who planted the first colony in Ireland, 
had his residence at Binn Eadair, now the Hill of ilowth. At this 
place Bartholinus was cut oflf by a plague, together with his entire 
colony; all of whom were buried, according to some authors, at 
Moy-nEalta or the Plain of the Birds, afterwards called Clontarf j 
but according to O'Brien these people were buried at a place called 
Tamlachta Muintir Partholaiu (signifying the burial cairns of the 
people of Bartholinus), which is now the Hill of Tallaght, near 
Dublin. Crimthaim Niadh-Nar, monarch of Ireland when Christ was 
bom, had hia chief residence and fortress, called Dun Crimthanu or 
Crimthann's Fort, on the HiU of Howth ; and so had Conary the 
Great, the 97th monarch of Ireland. Crimthann Niadh-Nar was a 
famous warrior, celebrated for his military expeditions to Gaul and 
Britain; and brought to Ireland from foreign countries many valuable 
spoils, amongst other things a gilded war-chariot, two hounds coupled 
together with a silver chain, and valued at three hundred cows : accord- 
ing to the Glossary of King Cormac MacCulleuau of Cashel, this was 
the first introduction of grey-hounds into Ireland. The ancient Irish 
kings and chieftains (like their Celtic or Scythian ancestors), as well 
as those of Gaul and Britain, fought in war-chariots, in the same 
manner as did Maud (elsewhere mentioned), the famous heroine and 
Queen of Connaught; and as did the British Queen Boadicea, etc. 
Numerous memorials of the most remote ages still exist in the 
counties of Dublin and Kildare, as in all other parts of Ireland ; of 
which fuU accounts may be found in D'Alton's History of the County 
and of the Archbishops of 'Dublin ; Ware's and Grose's Antiquities ; 
Vallancey's Collectanea, etc. — Oonnellan. 


(a.) The Irish Chiefs and Clans of Hy-Kinsellagh 


The following accounts of the chiefs and clans of 
Wexford, Wicklow, and Carlow, and the territories pos- 
sessed by each, have been collected from the Topographies 
of O'Heerin, O'Dugan, O'Brien, O'Halloran, and other 
sources. It appears that O'Dugan collected part of the 
topography of Leinster; but it was chiefly compiled by 
O'Heerin, who says : 

"Leath Mogba, the portion o£ Heber tlie Fair, 

The two southern territories of Erin! 

Thus the plain of Leinster is mine; 

And each brave man to the Bay of Limerick." 

1. O'Tuathail or O'Toole, chiefs of Hy-Murray, an 
extensive territory comprising the greater part of the 
baronies of Talbotstown and Shilelagh iu the County 
Wicklow, and extending as far as Almain, now the Hill 
of Allen, in the County Kildare ; thus containing a great 
portion of the baronies of Naas, KilcuUen, Kilkea and 
Moone, and Connell, in that county. The O'Tooles were 
princes of Imaile ; of the same race as the MacMurroghs ; 
and hke them eligible to be kings of the province of 
Leinster. The celebrated St. Lawrence O'Toole was of 
this family. 2. O'Brain, O'Broin, or O'Byrne, who took 
their name from Brann, one of their chiefs in the tenth 
century, were chiefs of Hy-Briuin Cualan (which com- 
prised the greater part of the barony of Ballinacor, called 
"O'Byrne's Country"), and also the Kanelagh: hence 
the O'Byrnes were styled lords of Eanelagh. 3. O'Ceal- 
laigh or O'Kelly, and O'Taidhg, chiefs of Hy-Maile 
[Imaile] and of Hy-Teigh. This ancient family of O'Teig 
have Anglicised the name "Tighe;" and the O'Kellys 
here mentioned were of the same race as the MacMurroghs, 
O'Tooles, O'Byrnes, etc. The territory of Hy.Teigh was 
also called Crioch Cualan or "Cualan's Country;" which 
comprised the baronies of Eathdown, Newcastle, and 
Arklow. 4. MacGiollamooholmog or Gilcolm, chiefs of 
Cualan. 5. O'Cosgraidh or O'Cosgrave, and O'Fiachraidh 
other chiefs m Cualan. 6. O'Gaithin and O'Duulain" or 


Dowling (some of this family have Anglicised the name 
"Laing"), chiefs of Siol Elaigh and the Lagan; this 
territory of Siol Elaigh is now the barony of "Shilelagh," 
in the south of the County Wicklow. 7. O'Murohada or 
O'Murphy, chiefs of Crioch O'Felme or Hy-Peidhlime 
[Hy-Felimy] , and of the same race as the MacMurroghs, 
kings of Leinster. Hy-Felimy extended along the sea 
coast, and was commonly called the "Murrowes;" and 
comprised the barony of Ballagheen in the County 
Wexford. 8. O'Gairbidh or O'Garvey, other chiefs in 
Hy-Felimy. 9. O'Cosgraidh or O'Cosgrave, chiefs of 
Beantraidhe, now the barony of "Bantry," County 
' Wexford. 10. O'Duibhgin, probably O'Dugan, chiefs in 
Shelbourne, a barony in Wexford. 11. O'Lorcain or 
O'Larkin, chiefs of Fothart, the territory of the Foharta, 
now the barony of "Forth," in the County Wexford; the 
O'Larkins had their fortress at Carn, now the headland 
called Carnsore Point. 12. O'h-Airtghoile {Oh'Airtghaol: 
Irish, the kindred of O'Hart), Anglicised "Hartley," chiefs 
of Crioch-na-gCenel (the country of the elans) or Crioch- 
nageneal — a territory near "O'Larkin's Country," above 
mentioned. 13. O'Eiaghain or O'Eyan, lord of Hy-Drona, 
a territory which comprised the present baronies of 
"Idrone," in the County Carlow. The O'Eyans were 
styled princes of Hy-Drona ; and were the stock of the 
O'Eyans who had extensive possessions in Tipperary. 14. 
O'Nuallain, O'NoIan, or O'Nowlan, chiefs of Fotharta 
Feadha, now the barony of "Forth" in the County Carlow. 
15. The O'Kinsellaghs, O'Cahills, O'Doyles, O'Bolgers, 
and MacCoskleys, were powerful clans and had large 
possessions in the Counties of Wexford and Carlow. The 
O'Briens or MaoBriens, and O'Moores, were also respect- 
able families in Wexford. The O'Dorans held the high 
ofSce of hereditary Brehons of Leinster; and, being the 
judges of that province, had extensive possessions under 
its ancient kings. Donal Caomhanach [Oavanagh] , a 
son of King Dermod MacMurrcgh, succeeded partly to 
the inheritance of the kingdom of Leinster ; and from him 
some of his descendants took the name of Kavanagh or 
Cavanayh, or MacMurrogh-Kavanagh. 
The ancient kings of Leinster had fortresses or royal 


residences at Dinnrigh, near the river Barrow, between 
Carlow and Leighlin; at Naas, in Kildare; and in after- 
times at the city of Ferns in Wexford, which was their 
capital; and also at Old Boss in Wexford; and at Bally- 
moon in Carlow. The MacMurroghs were inaugurated 
as kings of Leinster at a place called Cnoe-an-Bhogha, 
attended by O'Nolan, the King's Marshal, and Chief of 
Forth in Carlow; by O'Doran, Chief Brehon of Leinster; 
and by MacKeogh, his Chief Bard; and the MacMurroghs 
maintained their independence, and held the title of 
" Kings of Leinster," with large possessions in Wexford 
and Carlow down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The 
Hy-Cavanagh or O'Cavanaghs were chiefs of the ancient 
territory which now comprises the barony of Idrone East, 
in the County Carlow; and in modern times became the 
representatives of the MacMrrroghs, kings of Leinster. 

Notice on Hy-Kinsellagh. 

The Counties of Waterford and Wexford were intimately 
connected with the Anglo-Norman invasion under Strong- 
bow and his followers: Dermod MacMurrogh, King of 
Leinster, after giving his daughter Eva in marriage to 
Eichard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke (commonly called 
Strongbow), at Waterford, a.d. 1171, also conferred on 
him the title of "Heir Presumptive to the Kingdom of 
Leinster." After Dermod's death, Strongbow succeeded 
to the sovereignty of Leinster, in right of his wife Eva, 
by whom he had an only daughter, Isabel, who became 
heiress of Leinster, and was married to William Marshall, 
Earl of Pembroke; who, in right of his wife, enjoyed the 
sovereignty of Leinster. Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
had by his marriage with Isabel five sons and five 
daughters ; all the sons, namely, William, Eichard, 
Gilbert, Walter, and Anselm, became in succession earls 
of Pembroke, and lords or princes of Leinster; but all 
having died without issue, the male line became extinct ; 


the five daughters were all intermarried into noble familes 
in England, and the different Counties of Leinster were 
divided amongst them and their posterity (see " Hanmer's 
Chronicle;" and Baron Finglas's "Breviate of Ireland," 
in Harris's Hibernica.) 

(b.) The Anslo-Norma.n or English Families in 


The chief Anglo-Normans who came with Strongbow to 
Ireland, and got large grants of lands, were : 

In Wexford — Maurice Fitzgerald, ancestor of the earls 
of Zildare and Desmond; Harvey de Monte Morisco, and 
Robert Fitzstephen. The other families who settled in 
Wexford were, the Carews, Talbots, Devereuxes, Staffords, 
Sinnotts, Suttons, Keatings, Powers, Walshes, Fitzharrises, 
Fitzhenrys, Derenzys,Mastersons, Butlers, Browns, Rositers, 
Eedmonds, Esmonds, Hores, Harveys, Hayes, Hughes, 
Codds, Commerfords, Colcloughs, Lamberts, Boyoes, 
Morgans, Tottenhams, Eams, Furlongs, etc. In the first 
volume of the Desiderata Curiosa Hibemim, an account is 
given of various patentees and undertakers who, in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and King James the First, got extensive 
grants of the forfeited lands which were confiscated in the 
County of Wexford. The following persons obtained lots 
of those lands :— SirEichard Cooke, Sir Laurence Esmond, 
Sir Edward Fisher, Francis Blundell, Nicholas Kenny, 
William Parsons, Sir Eoger Jones, Sir James Carroll, 
Sir Eichard Wingfield, Marshal of the Army ; Sir Adam 
Loftus, Sir Eobert Jacob, Captain Trevellian, Captain 
Fortescue; and Conway Brady, Queen Elizabeth's footman. 
Several families of the old proprietors in Wexford are 
enumerated, with the lands they possessed, and the re- 
grants of part of those lands which they obtained; as the 
Mastersons, MacMurroghs, MacBriens, MacDowlings, 
MacDerinotts, Malones, Cavenaghs, Moores, O'Bolgers, 
O'Dorans, Sinnotts, Walshes, Codds, etc. 

In Carlow the following have been the chief old English 
families : — De Bigod, earls of Norfolk, by intermarriage 


with the daughter of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
became lords of Carlow in the thirteenth century ; and, 
A.D. 1346, the County of Carlow was granted to Thomas 
Plantagenet or De Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal 
of England : whose successors, the Mowbrays, and Howards, 
dukes of Norfolk, possessed the County of Carlow down 
to the reign of King Henry the Eighth, when they were 
deprived of it in consequence of the law against absentees 
being enforced; and after that time the Butlers, earls of 
Ormond, became possessed of a great part of Carlow. 
It may be here observed, that in the fourteenth century 
the Courts of Exchequer and Common Pleas were for a 
long period held at Carlow. The other chief English 
families who settled in Carlow were the following: — the 
Butlers, Browns, Burtons, Bagnals, Carews, Cookes, 
Eustaces, Eochforts, Cheevers, Ponsonbys, Astles or 
Astlys, Bunburys, Blackneys or Blackeneys, Doynes, 
Bruens, etc. 

In Wicklow, Maurice Fitzgerald and his descendants, in 
the reigns of Henry the Second and King John, got exten- 
sive grants of lands about Arklow ; and Walter de Kiddles- 
ford, who had the title of "Baron of Brey," got from 
King John a grant of the lands of Imaile in Wicklow, and 
of Castledermot in Kildare ; both of which belonged to 
the ancient principality of O'Toole. The other chief 
English families of Wicklow were the Butlers, Talbots, 
Eustaces, and Howards. 

(c.) The Modern Nobility of Hy-Kinsellagh. 

The following have been the noble families in Wexford, 
Wicklow, and Carlow, since the reign of King John : — 

In Wexford, in the thirteenth century, tbe noble English 
families of De Mountchensey, and De Valence, got large 
possessions, with the title of Lords of Wexford, by inter- 
marriage with a daughter of Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
above mentioned; and by intermarriage with the De 
Valences, the Talbots, earls of Shrewsbury, became lords 


of "Wexford, in Ireland; the family of Petty, marquises 
of Lansdowne, in England, and earls of Shelbourne, in 
Wexford; the Butlers, viscounts Mountgarret ; theKeatings, 
barons of Kilmananan; the Esmonds, barons of Limerick; 
the Stopfords, earls of Courtown; the family of Loftus, 
earls and marquises of Ely; the family of Phipps, barons 
Mulgrave, barons of New Boss in Wexford, earls of 
Mulgrave, and marquises of Normandy in England ; the 
Ponsonbys, viscounts of Duncannon; the Annesleys, 
viscounts Mountmorris; the Carews, barons Carew. 

In Carlow, the de Bigods, Mowbrays, and Howards, 
dukes of Norfolk, were lords of Carlow; the Butlers, barons 
of Tullyophelim, and viscounts of Tullow; the Carews, 
barons of Idrone; the O'Cavenaghs, barons of Balian; the 
Cheevers, viscounts Mountleinster ; the Fanes, barons of 
Carlow ; the Ogles, viscounts of Carlow ; and the Dawsons, 
viscounts of Carlow; the Knights, earls of Carlow; the 
celebrated Duke of Wharton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 
the reign of Queen Anne, was created Marquis of Carlow. 

In Wicklow, the Howards, earls of Wicklow; the Stuarts, 
earls of Blessington ; and the Boyles, viscounts Blessington; 
the Wingfields, viscounts Powerscourt; the Maynards, 
barons Maynard; the family of Cole, barons of Eanelagh; 
and Jones, viscounts Eanelagh; the Butlers, barons of 
Arklow; the Eustaces, viscounts of Baltinglass ; and the 
Eopers, viscounts of Baltinglass; the Stradfords, barons 
of Baltinglass and earls of Aldborough; the Probys, earls 
of Carysfort ; the Brabazons, earls of Meath ; the Berkeleys, 
barons of Edthdown ; and the family of Monk, earls of 
Eathdown; theearls FitzwiiUamin Englandhave extensive 
possessions in Wicklow. 

Wexford was formed into a County in the reign of King 
John, and was, as already stated, part of the ancient 
territory of Hy-Kinsellagh ; it was called by the Irish 
writers "The County of Lough Carman," as already men- 
tioned. It was also called Oontae Eiavach (signifying 
the grey county), from some peculiar greyish appearance 
of the country; but which Camden incorrectly states to 
have meant the "rough county," It got the name of 
"Wexford" from the town of Wexford, which was called 
by the Danes, "Weisford," signifying ihe western haven : 


a name given to it by the Danish colonies who possessed 
that city in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The greater 
part of Wexford was in former times also sometimes 
called "The County of Ferns," from (as stated by Spencer) 
the city of Ferns, which was the capital of the MacMurroghs, 
kings of Leinster. In the 10th century, the Danes of Wex- 
ford worked the silvermines situated at Clonmines, in the 
County Wexford ; and in that city had a mint where they 
struck several coins. 

Carlow was formed into a County in the reig^i of King 
John ; it was called by the Irish writers Cathairloch and 
Ceatharloch, Anglicised " Caherlough," now "Carlow;" 
and the name is said to have been derived from ,the Irish 
"Cathair," a city, and "loch," a lake: thus signifying the 
City of the Lake ; as it is stated that there was in former 
times a lake adjoining the place where the town of Carlow 
now stands; but there is no lake there at present. 

Wicklow was formed into a County in the reign of King 
James the First ; its name being derived from the town of 
Wicklow, which, it is said, was called by the Danes 
"Wykinlow" or " Wykinlough," signifying the Harbour 
of Ships ; it was called by the Irish Kilmantan. According 
to O'Flaherty, the narae of Wicklow was derived from 
the Irish " Buidhe Clooh," signifying the yellow stone or 
rock ; and probably so called from the yellow colour of its 
granite rooks. Wicklow was in ancient times covered 
with extensive forests ; and the oak woods of Shillelagh, 
on the borders of Wicklow and Wexford, were celebrated 
in former times. The gold mines of Wicklow, celebrated in 
history, were situated in the mountain of Croghan Kinsel- 
lagh, near Arklow; and pieces of solid golden ore of 
various sizes were found in the rivulets : one of which 
pieces was twenty-three ounces in weight. 

2. OssoRY,* 3. Ofpaley, 4. Lek. 

(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The following accounts of the Irish chiefs and clans of 

Ossory, Offaley, and Leix, have been collected from the 

* Ossory, Offaley, and Leix : An account of the ancient history and 
inhabitants of wiiat constituted ancient Leinster has been given in 


topographies of O'Heeran, O'Dugan, O'Brien, O'Halloran, 
and others : — 1. Mac Giolla Padruig or Mao Gillpatrick, 
Anglicised "Pitzpatrick," princes of Ossory. From the 
reign of Henry the Eighth down to that of George the 
Second, the Fitzpatricks were created barons of Castletown, 
barons of Gowran, and earls of Upper Ossory. 2. O'Cear- 
bhaill or 0' Carroll, and O'Donchadhaor O'Donoghoe, chiefs 
of the barony of Gowran and Sliogh Liag, which is pro- 
bably the barony of " Shillelogher," both in KUkenny. 
These O'Carrolls, it is thought, were a branch of the 
O'Carrolls, princes of Ely ; and the O'Donoghoes, a branch 
of the O'Donoghoes, princes of Cashel. 8. O'Conchobhair 
or O'Conor, princes of Hy-Pailge or Offaley, had a fortress 
at the green mound of Gruaehan or Croghan, a beautiful 
hUl situated in the parish of Groghan, within a few miles 
of Philipstown, on the borders of the King's County and 
Westmeath. The O'Conors, princes of Offaley, usually 
denominated "O'Gonors Failey," took their name from 
Conchobhar, prince of Hy Failge, who is mentioned in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1014 ; and had their 

■the Chapter on '" Ily Kinsellagh" ; in this Chapter is given the 
luitory and topography of the territories comprised in Kilkenny, 
King's and Queen's Counties, with their chiefs and clans, and the 
possessions of each in ancient and modem times. 

Ossory comprised almost the whole of the present county of 
Kilkeimy, -with a small part of the south of Tipperary, and also that 
portion of the Queen's County now called the barony of Upper 
Ossory ; and the name of this ancient principality, which was also 
called the " Kingdom of Ossory," is still retained in that of the 
diocese of Ossory. Ancient Ossory, according to some accounts, 
extended through the whole country between the rivers Nore and 
Suir : being bounded on the north and east by the Nore, and on the 
west and south by the Suir ; and was sometimes subject to the kings 
of Leinster, but mostly to the kings of Munster. It is stated by 
O'Halloran, MaoGeoghegan, and others, that Conaire Mor or Conary 
the Great, who was monarch of Ireland at the commencement of the 
Christian era (of the race of the Clan-na-Deaga of Munster, a branch 
of the Heremonians of Ulster) having made war on the people of 
Leinster, to punish them for having killed his father, Edersceol, 
monarch of Ireland, imposed on them a tribute called Erio-ui- 
Edersceol or the Fine of Edersceol ; to be paid annually every first 
day of November, and consisting of three hundred cows, three 
hundred steeds, three hundred gold-handled swords, and three 
hundred purple cloaks. This tribute was sometimes paid to the 


chief fortress at Dangan (now called Philipstown, in the 
King's County), and several castles in other parts of that 
county and in Kildare. They maintained their indepen- 
dence and large possessions down to the reign of Elizabeth, 
after which their estates were confiscated. 4. O'Mordha 
or O'Moore, princes of Laoighis or Leix, were marshals 
and treasurers of Leinster; and had their chief fortress 
at Dunamase, a few miles from Maryboro', erected on a 
rock situated on a hill : a place of almost impregnable 
strength, of which some massive ruins still remain. Like 
other independent princes, as the O'Eiellys of Brefney, the 
O'Tooles of Wicklow, etc., the O'Moores coined their own 
money; and it is stated in Sir Charles Coote's "Survey 
of the Queen's County," that some of the silver coins of 
the O'Moores were in his time extant. 5. O'Diomosaigh 
or O'Dempsey, lords of ClanMaoilughra or " Clanmaliere," 
were a branch of the race of Cahir Mor, and of the same 
descent as the O'Conors Failey; and were sometimes styled 
princes and lords of Clanmaliere and Offaley. The 
O'Dempseys had their chief castle at Geashill in the King's 

monarchs of Ireland, and sometimes to the Kings of Munster ; and 
its levying led to many fierce battles for a long period. Conary the 
Great separated Ossory from Leinster ; and, having added it to 
Munster, gave it to a prince of his own race, named Aongus, and 
freed it from aU dues to the King of Munster, except the honour of 
composing their body guards : hence, Aongus was called Amhas 
Kigh, signifying the king's guard ; and from this circumstance, 
according toO'Halloran, the territory got the name of "Amhas-Eigh," 
afterwards changed to Osraighe, and Anglicised " Ossory." 

Offaley or Ophaley, in Irish "HyFailge," derived its name from 
Eossa Failge or Rossa of the Rings, King of Leinster, son of Cahir 
Mor, monarch of Ireland in the second century. The territory of 
Hy Failge, possessed by the posterity of Rossa Failge, comprised 
almost the whole of the present King's County, with some adjoining 
parts of Kildare and Queen's County ; and afterwards, under the 
O'Conors (who were the head family of the descendants of Rossa 
Failge, and styled princes of Offaley), this territory appears to have 
comprised the present baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestown, and 
the greater part of Philipstown, and part of Geashil, all in the King's 
County, with the barony of Tiuehinch, in the Queen's County, and 
those of East and West "Offaley," in Kildare ; in which the ancient 
name of this principality is still retained. 

Leij:. — In the latter end of the first century, the people of Munster 
made war on Cuchorb, King of Leinster, and conquered that province 


County, and, among many others in that county, had one 
in the barony of Oifaley in Kildare, and one at Ballybrittas, 
in the barony of Portnehinch, in the Queen's County. 6. 
O'Duinn, O'Dunn, or O'Dunne, chiefs of Hy Eiagain 
[O'Eegan] , now the barony of Tinehinch in the Queen's 
County; some of the O'Dunns have changed the name to 
Doyne. 1. O'Eiagain or O'Regans were, it appears, the 
ancient chiefs of Hy -Eiagain, and who gave its name to 
that territory ; which is still retained in the name of the 
parish of "Oregon" or Eosenallis, in the barony of 
Tinehinch. Of the ancient clan of the O'Eegans was 
Maurice Eegan, secretary to Dermod MacMurrogh, king 
of Leinster ; and who wrote an account of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion under Strongbow and his followers, which 
is published in "Harris's Hibernica." 8. O'Brogharain 
are given by O'Dugan as chiefs of the same territory as 
O'Dunn and O'Dempsey. 9. O'Haongusa or O'Hennesy, 
chiefs of Clar Colgan; and O'Haimirgin, chiefs of Tuath 
Geisille: the districts of these two chiefs appear from 
O'Dugan to have been situated about Geashill and Croghan, 
in the baronies of Geashill and Philipstown, in the King's 
County. Another O'Hennesy is mentioned by O'Dugan as 
chief of Galinga Beag [Beg] , now the parish of Gallen, in 
the barony of Garrycastle. 10. O'Maolchein, chiefs of 

as far as tlie hill of Maistean, now Mullaghmast, in the County 
Kildare ; but Cuohorb having appointed as commander-in-chief of 
his forces, Lugaid Laighis, a famous warrior, who was grandson to 
the renowned hero Conall Cearnach or Conall the Victorious, chief 
of the Ked Branch Knights of Ulster, both armies fought two 
terrific battles, about a.d. 90 : one at Athtrodan, now Athy, in 
Kildare, and the other at Cainthine on Magh Eiada, now the plain 
or heath of Maryborough in the Queen's County ; in which the men 
of Leinster were victorious, having routed the Munster troops from 
the hill of Maistean across the river Bearbha (now the " Barrow"), 
and pursued the remnant of their forces as far as SUeve Dala moun- 
tain or Ballach Mor, in Ossory, near Borris in Ossory, on the borders 
of Tipperary and Queen's County. Being thus reinstated in his 
Kingdom of Leinster, chiefly through the valour of Lugaid Laighis, 
Cnchorb conferred on him a territory, which he named Laoighise or 
the Seven districts of Laighis: a name Anglicised " Leise" or 
" Leix," and stUl retained in the name " Abbeyleix." This territory 
was possessed by Lugaid Laighis and his posterity, who were styled 
princes of Leix ; and his descendants, on the introduction of simames, 


Tuath Damliuiglie, signifying the Land of the Oxen, or of 
the two Plains : a district which appears to have adjoined 
that of O'Hennesy. 11. O'Maolmuaidhor O'MoUoy, princes 
of Fear Ceall or the territory comprised m the present 
baronies of Eglish or "rearcall," BaUycowan, and 
Ballyhoy, in the King's County; and formed originally a 
part of the ancient Kingdom of Meath. The O'Molloys. 
were of the southern Hy Niall race or Clan Colman. 12. 
The O'Carrolls, princes of Ely O'Carroll, possessed, as 
already mentioned, the barony of Lower Ormond m 
Tipperary, and those of Clonlisk and Ballybritt in the 
King's County; and had their chief castle at Birr or 
Parsonstown. 13. MacGochlain or Coghlan, princes of 
Dealbhna Eathra [Delvin Ahra] , or the present barony 
of Garryoastle in the King's County; and O'MaoUughach 
or Mulledy, chiefs of the Brogha : a district which appears 
to have adjoined MacCoghlan's territory, and was probably 
part of the barony of Garryoastle, in the King's County, 
and of Clonlonan'in Westmeath. The MacCoghlans were 

took the name O'Movdha or O'Morra (Anglicised " O'Moore"), and 
for many centuries held their rank as princes of Leix. The territory 
of Leix, under the O'Moores, comprised the present baronies of 
Maryboro', CuUinagh, Ballyadams, Stradbally, and part of Portne- 
hinch, in the Queen's County ; together with Athy, and the adjoining 
country in Kildare, now the baronies of Narragh and Rheban. The 
other parts of the Queen's County, as already shown, formed parts 
of other principalities : the barony of Upper Ossory belonged to 
Ossory ; Tinehinch, to Offaley ; part of Portnehiuoh, to O'Dempsey 
of Clan Maliere ; and the barony of Slievemargy was part of Hy- 

The territories of Ossory, Offaley, and Leix, are connected with 
many of the earliest events recorded in Irish history : according to 
our ancient annalists, a great battle was fought between the 
Kemedians and Fomorians at Sliabh Bladhma, now the "Slievebloom" 
mountains, on the borders of the King's and Queen's Counties. 
Heremon and Heber Fionn, sons of Milesius, having contended for 
the sovereignty of Ireland, fonght a great battle at Geiaiol, now 
"Geashill," in the King's County; in which the forces of Heber 
were defeated, and he himself slain : by which Heremon became the 
first sole Milesian monarch of Ireland. Heremon had his chief 
residence and fortress at Airgiodross, near the river Feoir, now the 
"Nore ;" and this royal residence was also called Eath Beathach, 
and is now known as " Rathbeagh," near Freshford, in the County 
Kilkenny. Heremon died at Eathbeagh, and was buried in a 


of the race of the Dalcassians, same as the O'Briens, 
kings of Munster. 14. O'Sionnaigh or Fox, lord of Tefifia 
or Westmeath. O'Dugan, in his topography, gives 
O'Catharnaigh as head prince of Teffia : hence the name 
Sionnaigh has heen rendered " Catharnaigh [Kearney] . 
The chief branch of this family took the name of Sionnach 
O'Catharnaigh, and, the word "sionnach" signifying a 
fox, the family name became " Fox" ; and the Jiead chief 
was generally designated An Sionnach or The Fox. They 
were of the race of the southern Hy Niall ; and their 
territory was called Muintir Tadhgain, which contained 
parts of the baronies of Eathconrath and Clonlonan in 
Westmeath, with part of the barony of Kilcourcy in the 
King's County. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the Foxes 
got the title of lords of Kilcourcy. 15. MacAmhalgaidh 
(Mac Auley, Magauley, or MacGawley), chiefs of Calraidhe- 
an-Chalaor Calry of the Ports: a territory which comprised 
the present parish of Ballyloughloe, in the barony of 
Clonlonan in Westmeath. The "ports" here alluded to 
were those of the Shannon, to which this parish extends. 

sepulsliral monnd which atill remains. It appears that other kings 
of Ireland in early times also resided there ; for it is recorded that 
Euraighe Mor, who was the 86th monarch of Ireland, died at 
Airgiodross. Conmaolor Conmalius (No. 38, page 58), son of Heber 
Fionn, was the first monarch of Ireland of the race of Heber ; he 
fought many great battles for the crown with the race of Heremon, 
particularly a great battle at Geashill, where Palpa, a son of 
Heremon, was slain. 

Kilkenny was, out of the greater part of Ossory, formed into a 
county, in the reign of King John ; and so called from its chief town: 
the name of which, in Irish CUl Chainnigh (signifying the church of 
Canice or Kenny), was derived from Cainneach, a celebrated saint 
who founded the first church there in the latter end of the sixth 

King's and Queen's Counties. — The greater part of the principality 
of Leix, with parts of Ossory and Offaley, were formed into the 
Queen's County ; and the greater part of the principality of fly- 
Falgia or Offaley, with parts of Ely O'CarroU and of the ancient 
Kingdom of Meath, was formed into the King's County — both in the 
sixteenth century, a.d. 1557, by the earl of Sussex, lord deputy in 
the reign of Philip and Mary : after whom they were called the 
King's and Queen's Counties ; and hence the chief town of the 
King's County got the name of "Philipstown," and that of the 
Queen's County, "Maryboro." 


16. O'Gormain (Mac Gorman, O'Gorman, or Gorman), 
chiefs of Crioch mBairce, now the barony of Slievemargue 
in the Queen's County. The O'Gormans were of the race 
of Daire Barach, son of Cahir Mpr, monarch of Ireland in 
the second century; and some of them settled in the 
County Clare, where they had large possessions. 17. 
O'Duibh or O'Duff, chiefs of Hy Criomthan : a district 
about Dun Masc or "Dunamase, " which comprised the 
greater part of the two baronies of Maryboro' in the Queen's 
County. 18. Mac Fiodhbhuidhe, Mac Aodhbhuidhe 
[mac-ee-boy] , or "MacEvoy," chiefs of Tuath-Fiodhbhuidhe: 
a district or territory which appears to have been situated 
in the barony of Stradbally, in the Queen's County. The 
MacEvoys were of the Clan Colla of Ulster ; and also 
possessed a territory in Teffia, called Ui MacUais (signifying 
the descendants of King Colla Uais, brother of Colla-da- 
Chrioch), now the barony of "Moygoish" in the County 
Westmeath. Some of this family have Anglicised the name 
"MacVeigh" and "MacVeagh." 19. O'Ceallaigh or 
O'Kellys, chiefs of Magh Druchtain and of Gailine : terri- 
tories situated in the baronies of Stradbally and Ballyadams, 
in the Queen's County, along the river Barrow. 20. 
O'Caollaidhe or Keely, chief of Crioch O'Muighe, situated 
alongthe Barrow, now probably theparish of "Tullowmoy," 
in the barony of Ballyadams, Queen's County. 21. 
O'Leathlabhair (O'Lawlor, or Lalor) took their name from 
"Lethlobhar" (No. 89, page 200), king of Ulster in the 
tenth century, who was their ancestor. The Lawlors are 
therefore of the Clan Colla; and in ancient times had 
extensive possessions in Leix, chiefly in the barony of 
Stradbally, Queen's County. 22. O'Dubhlaine or Delany, 
chiefs of Tuath-an-Toraidh ; and a clan of note in the 
barony of Upper Ossory, .Queen's County, and also in 
Kilkenny. 23. O'Braonain or O'Brennan, chiefs of Hy- 
Duach or Idoagh, now the barony of Fassadining, in 
Kilkenny. 24. MacBraoin (Bruen or Breen), and O'Broith 
(O'Brit or O'Berth), chiefs of Magh-Seadna. 25. O'Caibh- 
deanaich (Coveny or Keveny), chiefs of Magh Arbh 
[Moy Arve] and Clar Coill. The plain of Moy Arve 
comprised the present barony of Cranagh, in Kilkenny. 
26. O'Gloiairn or MacGloiairn, Anglicised MacLairn or 


MacLaren, chiefs of Cullain : the name of -which territory 
is still retained in that of the parish of "Cullan," barony 
of Kells, County Kilkenny. 27. O'Caollaidhe or Keely, 
chiefs of Hy-Bearchon [Ibercon] , an ancient barony 
(according to Seward) now joined to that of Ida in the 
County Kilkenny; and the name is partially preserved in 
that of the parish of "Rosbercon," in the barony of Ida. 

28. O'Bruadair (O'Broderick or O'Brody), chiefs of Hy-n- 
Eirc, now the barony of "Iverk," in the County Kilkenny. 

29. The O'Sheas of Kilkenny, who changed the name to 
"Shee," were some of the O'Sheas, chiefs in Munster. 

30. The O'Ryans and O'Felans were ancient families of 
note in Kilkenny, as well as in Carlow, Tipperary, and 
Waterford. 81 The Tighes of Kilkenny were of the 
ancient Irish clan of the O'Teiges, who were chiefs of 
note in Wicklow and Wexford. 32. The Floods of Kil- 
kenny are said to be of Irish descent, though supposed to 
be of English origin ; as many of the ancient clans of the 
Maoltuiles and of the MacThellighs (MacTullys or Tullys) 
changed the name to "Flood" — thus translating the name 
from the Irish "Tuile," which signifies a flood. 33. The 
MacCoscrys or Cosgraves, ancient clans in Wicklow and 
Queen's County, changed their name to "Lestrange" or 
"L'Estrange." On the map of Ortelius, the O'Mooneys 
are placed in the Queen's County; and the O'Dowlings 
and O'Niochals or Nicholls are mentioned by some writers 
as clans in the Queen's County. The O'Beehans or Behans 
were a clan in the King's and Queen's Counties. 

(b). The Anglo-Norman and English Settlers in 
OssoEY, Offaley, and Leix. 

As already explained, the daughter of Dermod Mac- 
Murrogh, king of Leinster, having been married to Eichard 
de Clare, earl of Pembroke, commonly called Strongbow, 
the kingdom of Leinster was conferred on Strongbow by 
King Dermod ; and William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
having married Isibella, daughter of Strongbow, by his 


wife Eva, the inheritance of the kingdom of Leinster passed 
to the family of the Marshalls, earls of Pembroke, and -was 
possessed by the five sons of William Marshall, who became 
in succession earls of Pembroke and lords of Leinster; 
and on the extinction of the male line of the Marshalls, 
the counties of Leinster were divided amongst the five 
daughters of the said WilHam Marshall, earl of Pembroke ; 
and their descendants in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries (see Hanmer's "Chronicle," Baron Pinglas's 
"Breviate of Ireland," and "Harris's Hibernica"): Joanna, 
the eldest daughter of the said William Marshall, had, on 
the partition of Leinster, Wexford alloted to her as her 
portion ; and being married to Warren de Montchensey, 
an English baron, he, in right of his wife, became lord of 
Wexford, which afterwards passed by intermarriage to the 
De Valences, earls of Pembroke, and lords of Wexford ; 
and in succession to the family of Hastings, earls of 
Abergavenny; and to the Talbots, earls of Shrewsbury, 
Waterford, and Wexford. Matilda or Maud, another 
daughter of William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, had the 
County Carlow allotted to her; and she married Hugh 
Bigod, earl of Norfolk : this family became lords of Carlow, 
which title, together with the County Carlow, afterwards 
passed in succession, by intermarriages, to the Mowbrays 
and Howards, earls of Norfolk. Sibilla, another of the 
daughters, got the County Kildare, and was married to 
William Ferrars, earl of Ferrers and Derby, who became 
lord of Kildare ; a title which passed by intermarriage to 
the De Veseys. The great family of the Fitzgeralds after- 
wards became earls of Kildare. Isabel, another daughter 
of William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, had for her portion 
the County Kilkenny, and was married to Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester and Hereford ; and, leaving no issue, 
the County Kilkenny, after his decease, fell to his three 
sisters, and passed by intermarriage chiefly to the family 
of the De Spencers, barons De Spencer, in England, and 
afterwards became possessed mostly by the Butlers, earls 
of Ormond. Eva, the fifth daughter of William Marshall, 
had, as her portion, Leix and the manor of Dunamase or 
" O'Moore's Country," comprising the greater part of the 
present Queen's County; and having married William de 


Bruse, lord of Gower and Brecknock in Wales, he became, 
in right of his wife, lord of Leix ; and one of his daughters 
being married to Roger Mortimer, lord of Wigmore in 
Wales, Leix passed to the family of Mortimer, who were 
earls of March in England. The King's County, as already 
stated, was formed out of parts of Offaley, Ely O'CarroU, 
and the kingdom of Meath; and in the grant of Meath 
given by King Henry the Second to Hugh de Lacy, a great 
part of the present King's County was possessed by De 
Lacy ; who built in that county the castle of Durrow, 
where he was slain by one of the Irish galloglasses, as 
mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at a.d. 1186. 
The Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare and barons of Offaley, 
became possessed of a great part of the King's County; 
and the family of De Hose or Hussey had part of Ely 
O'Carroll, and the country about Birr. 

The following have been the chief English families in 
Kilkenny, King's, and Queen's Counties : — 

In Kilkenny, the Butlers, Graces, Walshes, Fitzgeralds, 
Roths, Archers, Cantwells, Shortalls, Purcells, Powers, 
Morrises, Daltons, or D'Altons, Stapletons, Wandesfords, 
Lawlesses, Langrishes, Bryans, Ponsonbys, etc. The 
Butlers became the chief possessors of the County Kilkenny, 
as earls of Ormond and Ossory, dukes of Ormond, earls 
of Kilkenny and Gowran, viscounts of Galmoy, and 
various other titles derived from their extensive estates 
in this County and in Tipperary. "The Graces:" An 
account has already been given of Maurice Fitzgerald, 
a celebrated Anglo-Norman Chief who came over with 
Strongbow, and was ancestor of the earls of Kildare and 
Desmond. William Fitzgerald, brother of Maurice, was 
lord of Carew in Wales ; and the descendants of one of 
his sons took the name of De Carew, and from them, it 
is said, are descended the Carews of Ireland — great families 
in Cork, Wexford, and Carlow. From another of the 
sons of William Fitzgerald, were descended the Gerards, 
families of note in Ireland. The eldest son of William 
Fitzgerald, called Eaymond Fitzwilliam, got the name of 
"Eaymond le Gros," from his great size and strength; he 
was one of the most valiant of the Anglo-Norman Com- 
manders; was married to Basilia de Clare, sister of 


Strongbow; held the office of standard bearer of Leinster ; 
and was for some time Chief Governor of Ireland. Eay- 
mond died about a.d. 1184, and was buried in the Abbey 
of Molana, on the island of Darinis, on the river Black- 
water, in the bay of Youghal. Maurice, the eldest son of 
Eaymond le Gros, was ancestor of the great family of 
the Fitzmaurices, earls of Kerry. Eaymond had another 
son called Hamon le Gros, and his descendants took the 
name of "le Gros," or "le Gras" afterwards changed to 
Grace. The Graces were created barons of Courtown, 
and held an extensive territory in the County Kilkenny, 
called "Grace's Country;" but, in the wars of the Eevolu- 
tion, the Graces lost their hereditary estates: John Grace, 
the last baron of Courtown, having forfeited thirty thousand 
acres of land in Kilkenny for his adherence to King James 
theSecond. "The Walshes:" This family was, by the Irish, 
called Branaghs, from "Breatnach," which signifies a. 
Briton ; as they originally came from Wales with Strongbow 
and his followers. They therefore got extensive posses- 
sions in Waterford, Kilkenny, Wexford, and Carlow; and 
held the office of seneschals of Leinster, under the suc- 
cessors of Strongbow. The Butlers, viscounts of Galmoy; 
the Graces, Walshes, Eoths, and Sheas, lost their extensive 
estates in Kilkenny, in the war of the Eevolution. The 
Burkes, a branch of the Burkes of Connaught, settled in 
Kilkenny and Tipperary ; and some of them in Kilkenny 
took the name of "Gaul," from "Gall," the name by 
which the Irish then called Englishmen ; and from them 
"Gaulstown" got its name. The Purcells were also 
numerous and respectable in Kilkenny and Tipperary; 
and, in the latter County, had the title of barons of 

In the Queen's County, the following were the chief 
families of English descent : — After Leix had been formed 
into a County, the following seven families were the chief 
English settlers in the reigns of Queen Mary and Elizabeth, 
and were called the seven tribes; namely — the Cosbys,, 
Barringtons, Bowens, Eushes, Hartpoles, Hetheringtons, 
and Hovendons; and in the reign of Charles the First,, 
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, having got extensive grants 
of land in the Queen's County, his lands were formed into 


the "Manor of Villiers," and passed to the present dukes 
of Buckingham ; and after the CromwelUan wars and the 
Eevolution, the families of Parnell, Pole, Pigot, Prior, 
Coote, Cowley, Dawson, Despard, Vesey, Staples, Brown, 
Johnson, Trench, Weldon, and Walpole, got extensive 

In King's County, the Pitzgeralds, Digbys, Husseys, and 
Fitzsimons, were the chief English families before the 
reign of Elizabeth ; and some of the Fitzsimons took the 
Irish name of "MacEuddery," from the Irish "MaoEidire," 
which signifies the Son of the Knight. In aftertimes, the 
Armstrongs, Droughts, Burys, Parsons, Molesworths, 
Lestranges, and Westenras, were the chief English settlers. 

(c). The Modeen NoBiLiTy in Ossoby, Oppaley and Leix. 

The following have been the noble families in Kilkenny, 
King's and Queen's Counties, since the reign of King 
John: — 

In Kilkenny. — The Marshalls, earls of Pembroke ; the 
De Clares, earls of Gloucester and Hertford; and the 
De Spencers, as above mentioned, were all lords of 
Kilkenny; the Butlers, earls of Ormond and Ossory, and 
marquises and dukes of Ormond, earls of Kilkenny, earls 
of Gowran, earls of Glengall, earls of Carrick, viscounts 
of Galmoy. viscounts Mountgarrett, and barons of Kells ; 
the Butlers, earls of Ossory; the Fitzpatricks, barons of 
Gowran and earls of Ossory; the Graces, barons of 
Courtown; the Fitzgeralds, barons of Burntchurch; the 
Wandesfords, earls of Castlecomer ; the De Montmorencys, 
viscounts Mountmorres and viscounts Frankfort; the 
Flowers, barons of Castle Durrow, and viscounts 
Ashbrook; the Ponsonbys, earls of Besborough, and 
viscounts Dumcannon; the Agars, barons of Callan, vis- 
counts of CUfden, and barons of Dover ; the Cuffes, viscounts 
Castlecuffe, and barons of Desart. 

In Queen's County, the Marshalls, earls of Pembroke; 
the De Bruses and Mortimers, as above mentioned, were 


lords of Leix; the Pitzpatricks, barons of Castletown, 
barons of Gowran, and earls of Upper Ossory; the Butlers, 
barons of Cloughgrennan ; the Cootes, earls of Mountrath ; 
the Molyneuxes, %dscounts of Maryborough and earls of 
Sefton, in England; the Dawsons, earls of Portarlington ; 
the De Veseys, barons of Knapton and viscounts De 
Vesey or De Vesoi. 

In King's County, the Fitzgeralds, barons of Offaley 
and earls of Kildare; the Digbys, barons of Geashill, and 
earls Digby, in England; the O'Carrolls, barons of Ely; 
the O'Sionnaghs or Foxes, barons of Kilcoureey; the 
O'Dempseys, barons of Phillipstown and viscounts of 
Clanmaliere ; the Lamberts, barons of Kilcoureey and 
earls of Cavan; the Blundells, barons of Edenderry; the 
family of Parsons, at Birr or Parsonstown, earls of Eoss 
and barons of Oxmantown; the Molesworths, barons of 
Philipstown ; the Moores, barons ofTullamore ; the Burys, 
barons of Tullamore and earls of Charleville; the Tolers, 
earls of Norbury and viscounts Glandine; the Westenras, 
barons of Eossmore. 


EoDBKicK O'OoNOE, the last MUesian monarch of Ireland, 
after having reigned twenty years, abdicated the throne, 
A.D. 1186, and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years 
in the monastery of Cong, in the County Mayo, died, a.d. 
1198, in the 82nd year of his age ; and was buried in 
Glonmacnoise, in tlie same sepulchre with his father, 
Torlogh O'Conor, the 181st monarch of Ireland. In the 

*Connaught : According to Keating and O'Flalierty, Connaught 
derived its name either from "Con," one of the chief Druids of the 
Tua-de-Danans, or from Conn Ceadcatha (or Conn of the Hundred 
Battles), Monarch of Ireland in the second century, and of the line of 
Heremon (see No. 80, page 109), whose posterity possessed the 
country: the word "iacht" or "iocht," signifying children or 
posterity, and hence " Ooniacht," the ancient name of Connaught, 
moans the territory possessed by the posterity of Conn. 


chronological poem on the Christian kings of Ireland, 
written in the twelfth century, is the following stanza : — 

" Ocht m-Bliadhna agus deich Ruadri an Ri, 

Mac Toirdhealbhaidli an t-Ard Ei, 
Flaith na n-Eirend: gan fhell, 

Ri deighneaoli deig Eirenn. " 

Anglicised — 

" Eighteen years the monarch Roderick, 

Son of Torlogh, supreme sovereign, 
Ireland's undisputed ruler, 

Was fair Erin's latest king." — 


According to the Four Masters, 'Rodienck O'Conor reigned 
as monarch for twenty years : from a.d. 1166 to a.d. 1186. 


(a) The Ikish Chiefs and Clans. 
The following chiefs and clans and the territories they 
possessed in the twelfth century, in the present Counties 
of Sligo and Mayo, have been collected from O'Dugan and , 
other authorities: — 1. O'Maolcluiche or Mulclohy {clock: 
Irish, a stone), chief of Cairbre, now the barony of Garbery, 
in the County Sligo. This name has been Anglicised 
' ' Stone' ' and ' ' Stoney. " 2. MacDiarmada or MaeDermott, 

The ancient kingdom of Conuaught comprised the present Counties 
of Galway, Mayo, Sligo, Roscommon, andLeitrim, together with Clare, 
now iu Munster, and Cavan, now a part of Ulster; and was divided 
into Tuaisceart Conacht or North Connaught, Deisceart Conacht or 
South Connaught, and lar Conacht or West Connaught. North 
Connaught was also called lachtar Conacht or Lower Connaught; as 
was South Coimaught caUed Uachtar Conacht or Upper Connaught. 

North Connaught is connected with some of the earliest events in 
Irish history: according to our ancient annalists, it was in the time 
of Bartholinus, who planted the first colony in Ireland, that the 
lakes called Lough Conn and Lough Mask in Mayo, and Lough Gara 
in Sligo, on the borders of Roscommon, suddenly hurst forth; and in 
South Connaught, according to O'Flaherty, the lakes called Lough 
Cime (now Lough Hacket),) Lough Riadh or Loughrea, and some 


chief of Tir OlioUa, now the barony of "Tirerill" in the 
County Sligo. The MacDermotts were also princes of 
Moylurg, in the County Roscommon, in South Connaught. 
They afterwards became princes of Coolavin, as successors 
to the O'Garas, lords of Coolavin; and to the present day, 
as the only family of the Milesian Clans who have pre- 
served their ancient titles, retain the title of "Prince of 
Coolavin." 8. MacDonchaidh or MacDonogh, a branch 
of the MacDermotls, afterwards chiefs of Tirerill and of 
Coran, now the barony of "Corran" in Sligo. O'Doncha- 
thaigh is given by O'Dugan as a chief in Corran; this 
name has been Anglicised O'Donagh. 4. O'Dubhalen or 
O'Devlin, another chief in Corran. 5. O'Headhra or 
O'Hara, chief of Luighne, now the barony of "Lieney" in 
the County Sligo ; but Lieney anciently comprised part of 
the baronies of Costello and Gallen in Mayo. The O'Haras 
were descended from OlioU Olum, King of Munster in the 
third century. In the reigns of Queen Anne and George 
the First, the O'Haras were created "Barons of Tirawley 
and Kilmain," in the County Mayo. 6. O'Gadhra or 
O'Gara, given by O'Dugan as chief of Lieney, but in after 
times Lord of Cuil-0'bh-fionn, now thebarony of "Coolavin," 

, j^ptlier lakes in the County Galway, and also the river Suck between 
jJRoscommon and Galway, first began to flow in the time of Heremon, 
Monarch of Ireland, No. 37, page 101; and Lough Key in Moylurg, 
near Boyle in the County Roscommon, first sprang out in the reign of 
the Monarch Tigern Masius or Tiernmas, No. 41, page 102. On the 
arrival of the colony of the Firvolgians in Ireland, a division of them 
landed on the north-western coast of Connaught, in one of the bays, 
now called Blacksod or the Broadhaven. These Firvolgians were 
named Fir-Domhnan or Damnonians; and the country where they 
landed was called larras, or larras-Domhnan, (from ' ' lar," the west 
and "ros," a promontory or peninsula, signifying the western 
promontory or peninsula of the Damnonians) : a term exactly corres- 
ponding with the topographical features of the country; and to the 
present day the name has been retained in that of the half barony 
of "Erris," in the County Mayo. When the Tua-de-Danans, who 
conquered the Firvolgians, first invaded Ireland, they landed in "Ulster 
and proceeded thence to SUeve-au-Iarain (or the Iron Mountain) 
in Brefney, and thence forward into the territory of Connaught. 
The Firvolgians having collected their forces to oppose their pro- 
gress, a desperate battle was fought between them at a place called 
Magh Tuireadh or the Plain of the Tower, in which the Firvoloians 


was of the same stock as the O'Haras and O'Briens, kings 
of Thomond. 7. O'Ciernachain or Kernigan, and O'Huath- 
mharain or O'Haran, other chiefs in Lieney. 8. O'Muir- 
edhaigh or O'Murray, chief of Ceara, now the barony of 
"Carra" in tne County Mayo; and also chief of the 
Lagan, a district in the northern part of tlie barony of 
Tirawley, in Mayo. 9. O'Tighearnaigh or O'Tierney a 
chief in Carra. 10. O'Gormog, another chief in Carra. 
11. O'Maille or O'Malley, chief of Umhall, which O'Dugan 
.states was divided into two territories. This territory, 
whose name is sometimes mentioned as UmaUa and Hy- 
Maha, comprised the present baronies of Murrisk and 
"Burrishoole," in the County Mayo. The O'Malleys are 
of the same descent as the O'Conors, kings of Connaught; 
and seem to have been great mariners. Of them O'Dugan 
says : — 

"A good man yet there never was 

Of the O'Malleys, wlio was not a mariner; 

Of every weather ye are prophets ; 

A tribe of brotherly affection and of friendship. " 

-Of this family was the celebrated heroine Graine-Ui- 
Mhaille [Grana Wale] or Grace O'Malley, daughter of 
Mac William Burke, and wife of the chief "O'Malley"; 
who, in the reign of Elizabeth, commanding her fleet in 
person, performed many remarkable exploits against thM 
English. 12. O'Talcharain, chief of Conmaicne Cuile|l 
now the barony of Kilmain, County Mayo. The following 

were totally defeated — ten thousand of them being slain, together 
with Eoohad, son of Eire their king, who was buried on the sea- 
shore : a cairn of large stones being erected over him as a sepulchral 
monument, which remains to this day. This place is on the strand, 
near Ballysodare in the county of Sfigo, and was called Traigh-an- 
Chairu or The Strand of the Cairn. After a few more battles, the 
De-Danans became possessors of Ireland, which they ruled until the 
arrival of the Milesians, who conquered them ; and, in their turn, 
became masters of Ireland. The Firvolgians, having assisted the 
Milesians in the conquest of the Tua-de-Danans, were, in consequence, 
restored by the Milesians to a great part of their former possessions, 
particularly in Connaught ; in which province they were ruled by 
their own kings of the Firvolgian race down to the third century, 
when the monarch Cormac Mac Art, of the Heremon line, brought 
them under subjection, and annexed Connaught to his kingdom. 


chiefs and clans, not given in O'Dugan, have been collec- 
ted from other sources :— 1. O'Caithniadh, chief of lorras,. 
now the barony of "Erris," in Mayo. 2. O'Ceallachain 
or O'Callaghan, chiefs in Erris; this family was not of the 
O'Callaghans of Munster. 3. O'Caomhain (O'Comyn, or 
O'Commins), a senior branch of the O'Dowd family, and 
chiefs of some districts on the borders of Shgo and Mayo 
in the baronies of Tireragh, Corran, and Oostello. 4. 
O'Gaibhtheachain or O'Gaughan (by some Anglicised 
O'Vaughan) ; and O'Maoilfhiona or O'Maloney, chiefs of 
Calraighe Moy Heleog— a district comprising the parish 
of Crossmolina (in Irish " Crosmaoilfhiona"), in the 
baronyofTyrawley, and County Mayo. 5. O'Gairmiallaigh 
or O'Garvaly, and O'Dorchaidhe or O'Dorchy, chiefs of 
Partraighe or Partry; an ancient territory at the Partry 
mountains in Mayo, the situation of which the present 
parish of "Partry" determines. Many of this family in 
Mayo and Galway have Anglicised the name " Darcey" 
or "D'Arcy"; and have been supposed to be some of the 
D'Arcys of Meath, who claim to he of English descent. 
6. O'Lachtnain or Loughnan (by some of the family 

The Firvolgians appear to have been an athletic race ; and tb.e 
" Clan-na-Morua" of Gonnaught, under their Firvolgian chief, Goll,- 
;: son of Morna, are celebrated in the Ossianic poems and ancient annals 
■''as famous warriors in the third century. Many of the Firvolgian. 
race are still to be found in Connaught, but blended by blood and. 
intermarriages with the Milesians. The Tua-de-Dauans were originally 
Scythians, who had settled some time in Greece, and afterwards 
migrated to Scandinavia or the countries now forming ilSTorway, 
Sweden, and Denmark. From Scandinavia (the "Fomoria" of the 
ancient Irish) the De-Danans came to North Britain where they 
settled colonies, and thence passed into Ireland. It appears that the 
Danans were a highly civilized people, skilled in the arts and 
sciences : hence they were considered as magicians. O'Brien, in his 
learned work on the " Round Towers of Ireland," considers that 
these beautiful structures were built by the I'ua-de-Danans, for 
purposes connected with pagan worship and astronomical obser- 
vations : an opinion very probable when it is considered that they 
were highly skilled in architecture and other arts, from their long 
residence in Greece and intercourse with the Phosnioians. It is stated, 
that Orbsen, a chief descended from the Danans and Pomorians, was 
a famous merchant, and carried on a commercial intercourse between. 
Ireland and Britain ; and that he was killed by Uillinn of the Ked. 
Brows, another De-Danau chief, in a battle called, from that ciroum- 


Anglicised "Loftus"), chiefs of the territory called "The 
Two Bacs," now the parish of Backs, situated between 
Lough Conn and the river Moy, in Mayo. 7. O'Maolfoghmair, 
Anglicised "Milford"; and O'Maolbrennuin, Anglicised 
" Mulrennin," chiefs of Hy-Eachach Muaidhe, a district 
extending along the western bank of the river " Moy," 
between Ballina and Killala. 8. The O'Mongans or 
O'Mangans, chiefs of Breach Magh — a district in the 
parish of Kilmore Moy, on the eastern bank of the Moy, 
in the County Sligo. O'Conniallain or O'Connellan, chief 
of Bun-ui-Conniallan, now " Bonnyconnellan" — a district 
in the barony of Gallen, County Mayo ; and also of 
Cloonconnellan, in the barony of Kilmain. 10. O'Ceirin, 
O'Kieran, or O'Eearns, chiefs of Ciarraighe Loch-na- 
Nairneadh — a territory in the barony of Costello, County 
Mayo, comprising the parishes of Aghamore, Bekan, and 

stance, Magh CJillinu or the Plain of XJiUinn, now the barony of 
"Moycullen," in the County Galway. In South Connaught, the 
territory which forma the present County Clare was taken from 
Connaught in the latter part of the third century, and added to part 
of Limerick, under the name of Tuadh-Mumhain or North Muuater 
(a word Anglicised "Thomond"); of which the O'Briens, of the 
Dalcassiau race, became kings. 

Cormac Mao Art, the celebrated monarch of Ireland in the second 
century, was born in Corran at the place caUed Ath-Cormac or the 
Ford of Cormac, near Keis-Oorran (now " Keash") in the County 
Sligo ; and hence he was called " Cormac of Corran." 

The territory of North Coimaught is connected in a remarkable 
manner with the mission of St. Patrick to Ireland : MuUagh Farry, 
now "Mullafarry," near KiUala, in the barony of Tyrawley, and 
County Mayo, is the place where St. Patrick converted to Christianity 
the king or prince of that territory (Enda Crom) and his seven sons; 
and baptised twelve thousand persons in the water of a well called 
Tobar Enadharc. And Croagh Patrick mountain, also in Mayo, 
was long celebrated for' the miracles it is said the saint performed 
there. The See of KiUala was founded by St. Patrick. 

At Carn Amhalgaidh or " Carnawley," supposed to be the hill of 
Mullaghcarn (where King Awley was buried), the chiefs of the 
O'Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy-Fiachra ; whUe, accor- 
ding to other accounts they were inaugurated on the hill of Ardnaree, 
near Ballina. This principality of Northern Hy Fiaohra comprised 
the present counties of Mayo and Sligo, and a portion of Galway ; 
while the territory of Hy-Fiachra in the County Galway was called 


The otLer clans in Mayo and Sligo were : — The O'Ban- 
nens, O'Brogans, MacConbains or MacConvys ; O'Beans 
{ban: Irish, white), some of whom have Anglicised the 
name "White" and "Whyte"; O'Beolans or 0'J3olands; 
O'Beirnes, some of whom have Anglicised their name 
"Barnes"; O'Flatellys, O'Creans.O'Careys, O'Conachtains 
or O'Conatys of Cabrachor Cabrain Tireragh ; O'Flauellys, 
O'Coolaghans, O'Burns, O'Hughes ; O'Huada or Heady, 
O'Fuada or Fodey (fuadach: Irish, an elopement), and 
O'Tapa or Tappy {tapadh, Irish, haste j — these three last 
sirnames have been Anglicised "Swift"; O'Loingsys or 
O'Lynches ; O'Maolmoicheirghe (moch : Irish, early). 
Anglicised "Early" and "Eardley"; O'Mulrooneys or 
Eooneys, O'Morans, O'Muldoons or Meldons, O'Meehans, 
O'Craffreys or Caffreys, O'Finnegans, O'Morriseys, 
O'Morrisses, or O'Morrisons ; MacGeraghty, Anglicised 
" Grarrett;" O'Spillanes, O'Donels, and MacSwiueys. 

(b). The Anglo-Noeman Settlees in Mayo and Sligo. 

In the twelfth century, John de Courcy made some attempts 
with his Anglo-Norman forces towards the conquest of ■ 
Counaught, but did not succeed to any extent. The De 
Burgos or Burkes, in the reign of King John, obtained 
grants in various parts of Gonnaught ; and, for a long 

the Southern Hy Fiachra or Hy-Fiaohra Aidhne: so named after 
Eogan Aidhne, sou of Dathi, the last pagan monarch of Ireland, who 
was killed by lightning at the foot of the Alps, A.D. 429. This 
territory of Hy Fiachra Aidhne was co-extensive with the present 
diocese of Kihnacduagh ; and was possessed by the descendants of 
Eogan Aidhne, the principal of whom were — the O'Heynes or 
Hyneses, O'Clerys, and O'Shaughnessys. According to O'Duganand 
MacFirbis, fourteen of the race of Hy Fiachra were kings of Con- 
naught : some of whom had their chief residence in Aidhne, in 
Galway ; others at Ceara, now the barony of "Carra," in Mayo; 
and some on the plain of the Muaidhe or the (river) Moy, in Sligo. 
O'Dubhda or O'Dowd were head chiefs of the northern Hy Fiachra, 
and their territory comprised nearly the whole of the present County 
Sligo, with the greater part of Mayo. Many of the O'Dowds, even 
down to modern times, were remarkable for their great strength and 


period, carried on fierce contests with the O'Conors, Kings 
of Connaught, and various chiefs. They made considerable 
conquests ia the country, and were styled lords of Con- 
naught ; but it appears that, in the fourteenth century, 
several chiefs of the Burkes renounced their allegiance to 
the English government, and some of them took the sir- 
name of ' ' MacWilliam" ; and, adopting the Irish language 
and dress, identified themselves with the ancient Irish in 
customs and manners. One of them, namely, Edmund 
de Burgo, took the name of Mac William Oughter or Mac 

stature. The O'Dowds, according to aome annalists, are descended 
from Fiachra Ealgact, son of Dathi, above mentioned ; and took 
their name from Dubhda (duftA ; Irish, hlacli, and "dath" or "da," 
<i Kolour), one of their ancient chiefs. [Others derive the name 
^'Dowd" from No. 94, page Ht.] 

Cruaghan or Croaghan, near Blphin in the County Koscommon, 
became the capital of Connaught and the residence of its ancient 
kings; and the estates of Connaught held conventions there to make 
laws and inaugurate their kings. A.t Cruaghan was the burial 
place of the pagan kings of Connaught, called Eeilig na Eiogh or 
The Cemetery of the kings; here Dathi, the last pagan monarch of 
Ireland, was buried; and a large red pillar-stone erected over his 
grave remains to this day. A poem, giving an account of the kings 
and queens buried at Cruaghan, was composed by Torna Eigeas or 
Torna the Learned, chief bard to the monarch Niall of the jS^ine 
Hostages, in the fourth century, of the commencement of which the 
following is a translation: 

" Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail, 
Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of fame; 
0! Cruacba (Cruaghan), thou hast this concealed 
From the Galls and the Gaels." 

The "Gaels" here mean the Irish themselves; and the "Galls' 
mean all foreigners, as the Danes, the Britons, etc. In the first line 
of the quotation Ireland is called Fail, as Inis Fail (signifying 
Insula Fatalis or the Island of Destiny) : a name given to Ireland by 
the Tua-de-Danans, from a remarkable stone called the Lia Fail 
(signifying Lapis Fatalis, Saxum Fatale) or Stone of Destiny, which 
they brought with them into Ireland. This Lia Fail is believed to 
be the stone or pillar on which Jacob rested; and sitting on which 
the ancient kings, both of the De Danan and Milesian race in Ireland, 
were crowned at Tara. This stone was sent to Scotland in the sixth 
century by the Monarch Murchatus Magnus MacEarca, for the 
coronation purpose of his brother Fergus Mor MacEarca, the founder 
of the Scottish Monarchy in Scotland; and was used for many 
■centuries at the coronation of the Scottish kings, and kept at the 


William the Upper, who was located in Galway, the upper 
part of Connaught ; and another, Mae William Eighter, 
or Mac William the Lower, who was located in Mayo, or 
the loxver part. Some branches of the Burkes took the 
sirnames of MacDavid, MacPhilbin, MacGibbon, from 
their respective ancestors. 

From Eichard or Eickard de Burgo, a great portion of 
the County Galway got the name of Clanrickard, which, 
according to Ware, comprised the baronies of Clare, Dun- 
kellin, Loughrea, Kiltartan, Athenry, and Leitrim. The 
De Bm-gos became the most powerful family in Connaught, 
and were its chief governors under the kings of England. 
They were styled lords of Connaught, and also became 
earls of Ulster ; but, on the death of William de Burgo, 
earl of Ulster, in the fourteenth century, and the marriage 
of his daughter Elizabeth, to Lionel, Duke of Clarence, 
son of King Edward the Third, his titles passed into the 
Eoyal Family of England. 

Ulick Burke, the progenitor of the marquises of Clan- 
rickard, had great possessions in Galway and Eoscommon ; 
and Sir Edmund Burke, called " Albanach," had large 
possessions in Mayo, and was ancestor of the earls of 

Mayo: — ^The other Anglo-Norman or English families 
who settled in Mayo, were the following : — The De Angulos 
or Nangles, who took the Irish surname " MaeCostello," 
and from whom the barony of "Costello" derived its 

Abbey of Scone. When King Edward the First invaded Scotland, 
lie brought with him that Lia Fail to England, and placed it under 
the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey, where it still remains ; 
though it has been erroneously stated in some modern publications, 
that the large pillar stone which stands on the mound or rath at Tara 
is the Stone of Destiny : an assertion at variance with the statements 
of O'Flaherty, the O'Conors, and all other learned antiquarians. 
Three of the De Danan queens, who gave their names to Ireland, 
namely, Eire (from which the name ' ' Eirin" or ' ' Erin" is derived), 
Fodhla, and Banba, together with their husbands, Mac CoiU, Mao 
Cecht, and Mac Greiue, the three Tua-de-Danan Kings slain at the 
time of the Milesian conquest of Ireland, were buried at Cruachan 
in Connaught. Among the Milesian kings and queens interred there, 
were Hugony the Great, monarch of Ireland, No. 59, page 104 ; his 
daughter, the princess Muireaso ; and his son, Cobthaoh Caol- 


name. The De Exeters, who took the name of " Mac- 
Jordan," and were styled lords of Athleathan, in the 
barony of Gallen. The Barretts, some of whom took the 
surname of "MacWatten," and " MacAndrew." The 
Stauntons, in Carra — some of whom took the name of 
"MaoAveely." The Lawlesses, Cusacks, Lynots, Prender- 
gasts, and Fitzmaurices ; the Berminghams, who changed 
their name to " MacFeorais"; the Blakes, Dillons, 
Binghams, etc. The MacPhUips are placed on the map 
of Ortelius in the barony of Costello ; their principal seat 
is at Cloonmore, and they are a branch of the Burkes who 
took the name of " MacPhihp." 

Mayo, according to some accounts, was formed into a 
county, as early as the reign of Edward the Third; but 
not altogether reduced to English rule till the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. In Speed's "Theatre of Great Britain," 
published, a.d. 1676, Mayo is stated to be "replenished 
both with pleasure and fertility, abundantly rich in cattle, 
deer, hawks, and plenty of honey." Mayo derives its name 
from "magh," a plain, and " eo," a y&w tree, signifying 
the Plain of the Tew Trees. 

bhreagh ; Bresnar Lothar, No. 73, page 105 ; Maud (the famous 
queen o£ Coimaught), Deirbhre, and Clothra — all sisters of Bresnar 
Lothar, and daughters of Eochy Feidlioch ; Conn of the Hundred 
Battles and the other sons of Felim ftachtmar, the 108th monarch 
of Ireland ; and other kings, descendants of Conn of the Hundred 
Battles, with the exception of his son Airt, the 112th monarch (who 
directed that he should be buried at Trevet in Meath), and of Airt's, 
son Cormac, the famous monarch of Ireland in the third century, 
who was burie'd at Kos-na-Riogh (now Eosnaree or Eosnari), near 
Slane in the County Meath. According to the "Book of Ballymote," 
this King Cormac, who had some knowledge of Christianity, gave 
orders that he, too, should not be buried at Brugh Boine (which 
was the cemetery of most of the pagan kings of Meath), but at Eos- 
na-Riogh ; and that his face should be towards the rising sun ! 
Brugh Boine (which signifies the "town or fortress of the Boyne") 
was a great cemetery of the pagan kings of Ireland, and, according 
to some antiquaries, was situated near Trim ; but, according to 
others, more probably at the place now called Stackallen, between 
Navau and Slane in Meath. lu various parts of the ancient kingdom 
of Meath, in the counties of Meath, Westmeath, and Dublin, are 
many sepulchral mounds (usually called "moats"), of a circular 
form, and having the appearance of hillocks : these are the sepulchres 


In Sligo, the Anglo-Normans under the Burkes and the 
Fitzgeralds (earls of Kildare) made some settlements, and 
had frequent contests with the O'Conors, and with the 
O'Donels (princes of Tireonnell) ; who had extended their 
power over a great part of Sligo. Sligo derives its name 
from the river Sligeach (" Slig," a shell), and was formed 
into a county, a.d. 1565, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
by the lord deputy Sir Henry Sydney. 

(c). Modern Nobility in Mayo and Sligo. 

The following have been the noble families in Mayo and 
Sligo since the reign of King James the First. 

Mayo : — The Burkes, viscounts Clanmorris and earls of 
Mayo. The Brownes, barons of Kilmain, barons of West- 
port, and barons of Oranmore. The Binghams, barons of 
Castlebar ; and the Savilles, barons of Castlebar. The 
Dillons, barons of Costello-Gallen, and viscounts Dillon. 
The O'Haras, barons of Tyrawley and Kilmain. 

Sligo : The Taaffes, barons of Ballymote, and viscounts 
of Corran. The Cootes, barons of CoUooney. The Scuda- 
mores, viscounts of Sligo. And the Brownes, marquises 
of Sligo. 

of iings, queens, and warriors, of the pagan times. There are several 
of these mounds of great size, particularly on the banks of the Boyne, 
between Drogheda and Slane ; and one of them, at Newgrange, is of 
immense extent, covering an area of two acres ; is about eighty feet 
in height ; and was surrounded by a circle of huge stones standing 
upright, many of which still remain. The interior of this mound is 
formed of a vast heap of stones of various sizes ; and a passage, 
vaulted over with great flags, leads to the interior, where there is a 
large chamber or dome, and in it have been found sepulchral urns, 
and remains of human bones. Cairns or huge heaps of stones, many 
of which still remain on hills and mountains in various parts of 
Ireland, were also in pagan times erected as sepulchres over kings 
and chiefs. 

In the " Books" of Armagh and Ballymote, and other ancient 
records, are given some curious accounts of the customs used in the 
interment of the ancient kings and chiefs : Laoghaire (or Leary), 
monarch of Ireland in the fifth century, was buried in the rampart 



(a). The Irish Chiefs and Clans. 

The following chiefs and clans in Eoscommon and Galway, 
and the territories possessed by them in the twelfth 
century, have been collected from O'Dugan's Topography 
and other sources: — 1. MacDiarmada or MacDermott, 
princes of Moylurg, Tir-Oilill, Tir-Tuathail, Airteach, and 
Clan Cuain. Moylurg comprised the plains of Boyle, in 
the County Eoscommon; Tir-OiliU, now the barony of 
"Tirerill" in SHgo; Airteach, a district in Eoscommon 
near Lough Gara, on the borders of Sligo and Mayo; 
Clan Cuain was a district in the barony of Carra, near 
Gastlebar, comprising the present parishes of Islandeady, 

or rath called Kath Leary, at Tara, with his military weapons and 
armour on him ; his face turned southwards, bidding defiance, as it 
were, to his enemies the men of Leinster. And Owen Beul, a king 
of Connanght in the sixth century, who was mortally wounded at 
the battle of Sligeach (or Sligo), fought with the people of Ulster, 
gave directions that he should be buried with his red javelin in his 
hand, and his face towards Ulster, as in defiance of his enemies ; 
but the Ulstermen came with a strong force and raised the body of 
the king, and buried it near Longh Gill, with the face downwards, 
that it might not be the cause of making them "fly" before the 
Conaoians. Near Lough GUI in Sligo are two great cairns still 
remaiuing, at which place was probably an ancient cemetery of some 
of the kings of Connaught ; and another large one, near Cong, in the 
County Mayo. There are stiU some remains of EeUig-na-Eiogh at 
Cruaohan or Croaghan in the County Eoscommon, consisting of a 
circular area of about two hundred feet in diameter, surrounded with 
some remains of an ancient stone ditch ; and in the interior are heaps 
of rude stones piled upon each other, as stated in "Weld's Survey 
of Eoscommon. " Dun Aengus or the Fortress of Aengus, erected 
on the largest of the Arran Islands, off the coast of Galway, and 
situated on a tremendous cliff overhanging the sea, consists of a 
stone work of immense strength of Cyclopean architecture, composed 
of large stones without mortar or cement. It is of a circular form, 
and capable of containing within its area two hundred cows. 
According to O'Flaherty, it was erected by Aengus and Conchobhar, 
two of the Firvolgian kings of Coimaught before the Christian era ; 
and was also called the Dun of Concovar or Conor. 

After the introduction of Christianity, the Irish kings and chiefs 
were buried in the abbeys, churches, and cathedrals : the monarch 
Brian Boru, killed at the Battle of Clontarf, was, for instance, buried 


Turlough, andBreafify, The MacDermotts were hereditary 
marshals of Connaught, the duties attached to which 
were to raise and regulate the military forces, and to pre- 
pare them for battle, as commanders in chief; also to 
preside at the inauguration of the O'Conors as kings of 
Connaught, and to proclaim their election. The Mac- 
Dermotts derive their descent from Teige of the White 
Steed, King of Connaught in the eleventh century; and 
are a branch of the O'Conors. This Teige had a son 
named Maolruanaidh, the progenitor of the MacDermotts : 
hence their tribe-name was Clan Maolruanaidh or Clan 
Mulrooney. Diarmaid (dia: Irish, a god, and armaid, of 
arms, signifying a great warrior), grandson of Mulrooney, 
who died, a.d. 1165, was the head of the clan; and from 
him they took the name of " MacDermott." The Mac- 
Dermotts had their chief fortress at the Eock of Lough 

IB the cathedral of Armagh ; the kinga of Connaught, in the abbeys 
of Cloiunacnoise, Cong, Knockmoy, Koscommon, etc. 

It is stated by 'Flaherty, that six of the sons of Bryan, king of 
Connaught, the ancestor of the Hy Briuin, were converted and 
baptized by St. Patrick, together with many of the people, on the 
plain of Moyseola in Roscommon ; and that the saint erected 3, 
church, called DomhnaohMor or the "great church," on the banks 
of Lough Sealga, now Lough Hacket ; and that on three pillar stones 
which, for the purpose of pagan worship, had been raised there in 
the ages of idolatry, he had the name of Christ inscribed in three 
languages: on one of them, "Jesus"; on another, " Soter" ; and 
on the third, "Salvator. " Ono, a grandson of Bryan, king of Con- 
naught, made a present to Saint Patrick of his palace, called Imleach 
Ona, where the saint founded the episcopal see of OiMnn or 
" Elphin" ; which obtained the name from a spring well the saint 
had sunk there, and on the margin of which was erected a large 
stone : thus, from " Oil," which means a stone or rock, and "finn," 
which signifies /air or clear, the name Oilfinn or Elphin was derived, 
and which meant the rock of the limpid water. O'Flaherty states 
that this stone continued there till his own time, A.D. 1675. 

A king of Connaught in the latter end of the seventh century, 
named Muireadhach Muilleathan, who died, a.d. 700, and a descen- 
dant of the above named Bryan, son of Eochy Moyvone, was the 
ancestor of the Siol Muireadiaigh or Siol Murray ; which became 
the chief branch of the Hy Briunerace, and possessed the greater 
part of Connaught, but were chiefly located in the territory now 
forming the County Roscommon : hence the term " Siol Murray" 
was applied to that territory. The O'Conors who became kings of 
Connaught were the head chiefs of Siol Murray ; and took their 


Key, on an island in Lougli Key, neji,r Boyle ; and are 
the only Milesian family who have preserved their title, 
namely that of "Hereditary Prince of Coolavin:" a title 
by which the MacDermott is to this day recognised in the 
County Sligo. The principal families of the MacDermotts 
in Connaught are — The MacDermott of Coolavin, and 
MacDermott Eoe of Alderford in the County Eoscommon. 
The following were, according to O'Dugan, the ancient 
chiefs of Moylurg before the time of the MacDermotts: — 

"The ancient chiefs of Moylurg of abundance: 
MacEoach (or MacKeogh); MacMaoin (or MacMaine), 

the great. 
And MacEiabhaidh (or Magreevy) the efficient forces." 

name from Conohobhar or Conor, who was a king of Connaught in 
the tenth century. The grandson of this Conohobhar, Tadhg an 
Eioh Ghal or Teige of the White Steed, who was king of Connaught 
in the beginning of the eleventh century, and who died, A. D. 1030, 
was the &st who took the simame of "O'Conor." In the tenth 
century, as mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, two or 
three of the O'Eourkes are styled kmgs of Connaught ; but, with 
these exceptions, the ancestors of the O'Conors of the race of Hy 
Briune and Siol Murray, and the O'Conors themselves, held the 
sovereignty of Connaught from the fifth to the fifteenth century ; 
and two of them became monarchs of Ireland in the twelfth century, 
namely, Torlogh O'Conor, called Toirdhealbhach Mor or Torlogh the 
Great, who is called by the annalists the "Augustus of Western 
Europe" ; and his son, Roderick O'Conor, who was the last Milesian 
monarch of Ireland. This Torlogh O'Conor died at Dunmore in 
Galway, a.d. 1156, in the 68th year of his age, and was buried at 
Clonmacnoise. And Roderick O'Conor, after having reigned eighteen 
years, abdicated the throne, A.D. 1184, in consequence of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion ; and, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years 
in Cong Abbey, in Mayo, died a.d. 1198, in the 82nd year of his 
age, and was buried in Clonmacnoise in the same sepulchre with his 
father. In the " Memoirs" of Charles O'Conor of Belenagar, it is 
said, that in the latter end of the fourteenth century the two head 
chiefs of the O'Conors, namely Torlogh Koe and Torlogh Don, having 
contended for the lordship of Siol Murray, agreed to divide the 
territory between them. The families descended from Torlogh Don 
called themselves the O'Conors "Don" or the Brown O'Conors; 
while the descendants of Torlogh Roe called themselves the O'Conors 
' 'Roe" or the Red O'Conors. Another branch of the O'Conors got 
great possessions in the County Sligo, and were styled the O'Conors 
" Sligo." — Oonnellan. 



2. O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly. This name is derived from 
Ceallach, a celebrated chief in the ninth century, who is 
the ancestor of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine. These 
O'Kellys are a branch of the Clan CoUa of Orgiall in 
Ulster, and of the same descent as the MacMahons, 
lords of Monaghan; Maguires, lords of Fermanagh ; 
O'Hanlons, lords of Orior in Armagh, etc. In the fourth 
century, Maine Mor or Maine the Great, a chief of the 
Clan Colla, conquered a colony of the Pirbolgs in Con- 
naught; and the territory so conquered, which was 
possessed by his posterity, was after him called Hy-Maine 
(signifying the territory possessed by the descendants of 
Maine), which has been Latinized "Hy-Mania" and 
"I-Mania." This extensive territory comprised, according 
to O'Flaherty and others, a great part of South Connaught 
in the present County Galway, and was afterwards 
extended beyond the river Suck to the Shannon, in the 
south of Eoscommon. It included the baronies of Ballymoe, 
Tiaquin, Killian, and Kilconnel, with part of Clonmacnoon, 
in Galway ; and the barony of Athlone in Eoscommon. 
The O'Kellys were styled princes of Hy-Maine, and their 
territory was called "O'Kelly's Country." 

According to the "Dissertations" of Charles O'Conor, 
the O'Kellys held the office of high treasurers of Con- 
naught, and the MacDermotts that of marshals. Tadhg 
or Teige O'Kelly, one of the commanders of the Connaught 
contingent of Brian Boru's army at the battle of Clontarf, 
was of this ancient family. The O'Kellys had castles at 
Aughrim, GarbaUy, Gallagh, Monivea, Moylough, Mul- 
laghmore, and Aghrane, now Castlekelly in the County 
Galway; and at Athlone, Athleague, Corbeg, Galy, and 
Skrine, in the County Eoscommon. The chiefs of the 
O'Kellys, according to some accounts, were inaugurated 
at Clontuskert, about five miles from Byrecourt in the 
County ! Galway; and held their rank as princes of Hy- 
Maine down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 3. Mac- 
Oireaohtaigh or MacGeraghty, of the same stock as the 
O'Oonors of Connaught. In the Annals of the Four 
Masters, at a.d. 1278, MacOiraghty is mentioned as head 
chief of Siol Murray, a term applied to the central parts 
of the County Eoscommon ; and, in the sixteenth century, 


when deprived of their territories, some of the clan 
Geraghty, settled in Mayo and Sligo, and gave name to 
the island of " Inis Murray," off the coast of Sligo, on 
account of their former title as head chiefs of Siol Murray, 
as in the Annals above mentioned. 4. O'Fionnachta or 
O'Finaghty, chiefs of Clan Conmaigh, and of Clan Mur- 
chada, districts in the two half baronies of Ballymoe in 
the Counties of Galway and Roscommon, in O'Kellya 
principahty of Hy-Maine. The O'Finaghtys here men- 
tioned were of the Clan Colla ; and two distinct chiefs of 
them are given by O'Dugan: one of them, Finaghty of 
■"Clan Murrogh of the Champions;" and the other, 
Finaghty of the " Clan Conway." O'Finaghty, chiefs of 
Clan Conway, had their castle at Dunamon, near the 
river Suck in the County Eoscommon. It is stated in 
some old authorities, that the O'Finaghtys had the 
privilege of drinking the first cup at every royal feast. 
5. O'Fallamhain or O'Fallon were chiefs of Clan Uadach, 
a district in the barony of Athlone, County Eoscommon, 
comprising the parishes of Cam and Dysart; and had a 
castle at Miltown. The O'Fallons were originally chiefs 
in Westmeath near Athlone. 6. O'Birn or O'Beirnes, 
ohiefs of Muintir O'Mannachain or O'Monaghan, a terri- 
tory along the Shannon, in the parish of Ballintobber, in 
Eoscommon, extending nearly to Elphin. 7. O'Mannachain 
or O'Monaghan, was also chief on the same territory as 
O'Beime. These O'Beirnes are of a distinct race from the 
O'Bymes of Wicklow. 8. O'Hainlidhe, O'Hanley, or 
O'Henley, chiefs of Kinel Dobhtha, a large district in the 
barony of Ballintobber, along the Shannon. It formed 
part of the Three Tuatha or The Three Districts. 9. 
MacBranain 'or MacBrennan, sometimes Anglicised 
O'Brennan; and O'Mailmichil, Anglicised "Mitchell." 
The O'Brennans and Mitchells were chiefs of Corca 
Achlann, a large district adjoining Kinel-Dobhtha, in the 
barony of Eoscommon. This district formed part of the 
' ' Tuatha' ' in which was situated the Slieve Baun Mountain. 
10. O'Flannagain or O'Flanagan, chiefs of Clan Oathail, 
a territory in the barony of Eoscommon, north of Elphin. 
O'Maolmordha, O'Morra or O'Moore, O'Carthaidh or 
O'Carthy, and O'Mughroin or O'Moran, were also sub- 


ordinate chiefs of Clan Cathail {Catluil: Irish, Charles), 
or Clan Charles. 11. O'Maolbrenuain or Mulbrennan, 
Anglicised "Mulrenan," chiefs of Clan Conchobhair or 
Clan Conor, a district near Cruachan or Croaghan, in the 
barony and County of Eoscommon. 12. O'Cathalain, 
chief of Clan Fogartaigh [Fogarty] ; and O'Maonaigh or 
O'Mooney, chiefs of Clan Murthuile. Clan Fogarty and 
Clan Murthuile were districts in Ballintubber, County 
Eoscommon. 18. O'Oonceannain or O'Concannon, chiefs 
of Hy-Diarmada, a district on the borders of Eoscommon 
and Galway, in the baronies of Athlone and Ballymoe. 
14. MacMurchada, MacMurrogh, or MacMorrow, chiefs of 
Tomaltaigh in Eoscommon, of which MacOiraghty was 
head chief. 15. O'Floinn or O'Flynn, chiefs of Siol 
Maolruain, a large district in the barony of Ballintubber, 
County Eoscommon; in which lay Slieve Ui Fhloinn or 
O'Flynn's Mountain, which comprised the parishes of 
Kilkeeran and Kiltullagh, and part of the parish of 
Ballynakill, in the barony of Ballymoe, County Galway. 
O'Maolmuaidli, or O'Mulmay, was a subordinate chief 
over Clan Taidhg or Clan Teige, in the same district. 
16. O'Kothlain (O'Eowland, O'Eorand, and O'Eollin), 
chiefs of Coin Fothaidh, a district on the borders of 
Eoscommon and Mayo. 17. O'Sgaithgil, MacSgaithgil,. 
or Scaliil, chiefs of Corca Mogha, a district which com- 
prised the parish of Kilkeeran, in the barony of Killian, 
County Galway. O'Broin, Anglicised "Burns," was chief 
of Lough Gealgosa, a district adjoining Corca Mogha. 
18. O'Talcharain (Taleran or Taleyrand), chiefs of Con- 
maicne Cuile, a district in' the barony of Glare, County 
Galway. 19. O'Cadhla or O'Cawley, chiefs of Conmaicne 
Mara (or Connemara.), now the barony of Ballynahinch, 
in the County Galway. 20. MacConroi, Anglicised "King," 
chiefs of Gno Mor; and O'Haidhnidh or O'Heany, chiefs 
of Gno Beag : districts which lay along the western banks 
of Lough Corrib, in the barony of Moycullen, and County 
of Galway, in the direction of Galway Bay. 2] . MacAodha 
or MacHugh, chiefs of Clan Cosgraidh, a district on the 
eastern side of Lough Corrib. 22. O'Flaithbheartaigh or 
O'Flaherty, chiefs of Muintir Murchadha, now the barony 
of Clare, County Galway. In the thirteenth century th& 


■O'Flahertys were expelled from this territory by the 
EngUsh; and, having settled ou the other side of Lough 
■Oorrib, they got extensive possessions there in the barony 
•of MoycuUen, and were styled lords of lar Conacht or West 
Connaught. They also had the chief naval command 
about Lough Corrib, on some of the islands of which 
they had castles. 23. O'Heidhin or O'Heyne, Anglicised 
"Hynes," was styled Prince of South Hy-Fiachra, a 
district co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh ; 
and comprised the barony of Kiltartan, and parts of the 
baronies of Dunkellin and Loughrea in the County Galway. 
24. O'Seachnasaigh, O'Shaughnessey, or O'Shannesy, 
chiefs of Kinel-AodhaorKinel-Hugh, a district in the barony 
of Kiltartan, Coimty Galway. Kinel-Hugh was sometimes 
called Kinel-Hugh of Echty, a mountainous district on the 
borders of Galway and Clare. O'Cathail or O'Oahil was 
.also a chief of Kinel-Hugh. 25. MacGioUa Ceallaigh or 
MacGilkelly, Anghcised " Kilkelly," chiefs in South 
Piachra. 26. O'Cleirigh or O'Clery, Anglicised "Clarke," 
■chiefs in Hy-Fiachra Aidhne, same. as MacGilkelly. This 
-family took the name "Cleirigh" from Oleireach, one of 
their celebrated chiefs in the tenth century; and a branch 
•of them having settled in Donegal, became bards and 
historians to the O'Donels, princes of Tirconnell, and were 
■the aathors of the Annals of the Four Masters, etc. Other 
branches of the O'Clerys settled in Brefney O'Eeilly or 
•the County Cavan. 27. O'Duibhgiolla or O'Diffely, chiefs 
of Kinel-Cinngamhna [Cean Gamhna] ; MacFiachra 
..(Anglicised MacFetridge), chiefs of Oga Beathra ; 
O'Cathain, O'Cahan, or O'Cane, chiefs of Kenel-Sedna; 
and O'Maghna, chiefs of Ceanridhe, all chiefs in Aidline 
or South Hy-Fiachra: all these chiefs were descended 
from Gauire Aidhne, a king of Connaught in the seventh 
century. 28. O'Madagain or O'Madadhain, Anglicised 
"Madden," chief of Siol Anmchadha or Silancha: a name 
derived from "Anmchadh," a descendant of Colla-da- 
•Chrioch. This territory comprised the present barony of 
Longford in the County Galway, and the parish of 
Lusmagh, on the Leinster side of the river Shannon, in 
the King's County. The O'Maddens are a branch of the 
'Clan Colla, and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, 


princes of Hy-Maine ; and took their name from Madudan 
Mor, one of their ancient chiefs. 29. O'Huallachain or 
O'Hoolaghan, sometimes Anglicised "O'Coolaghan" and 
"MacCoolaghan," chiefs of Siol Anmchadha. 30. O'Maol- 
alaidh or O'Mullally, Anglicised "Lally." 31 . O'Neachtain 
or O'Naghten, Anglicised "Norton." The O'Naghtens 
and O'MuUallys are given by O'Dugan as the two chiefs 
of Maonmuighe or Maenmoy : an extensive plain com- 
prising a great part of the present baronies of Loughrea 
and Leitrim in the County Galway. The O'Naghteus 
and O'MuUallys are branches of the Clan Colla. When 
dispossessed of their territories, the O'MuUallys settled 
at TuUach-na-Dala near Tuam, where they had a castle : 
and the head of the family having afterwards removed to- 
France, a descendant of his became celebrated as an 
orator and a statesman at the time of the French Eevolu- 
tion, and was known as "Count Lally Tollendal:" taking 
his title from his ancient territory in Ireland, "TuUach- 
na-Dala," above mentioned. Several of the O'LaUys 
were celebrated commanders in the Irish Brigade in 
France; and one of them was created "Marquis de LaUy 
Tollendal," and a peer of France, by Napoleon the First. 
32. O'Conaill or O'Connell, chiefs of the territory from 
the river Grian, on the borders of Clare, to the plain of 
Maenmoy; comprising parts of the barony of Leitrim in 
Galway, and of TuUagh in Clare. These O'Connells and 
the MacEgans were marshals of the forces to the O'Kellys, 
princes of Hy-Maine; and of the same descent as the- 
O'Kellys, namely that of the Clan GoUa. 33. MacEideadhain 
or MaoAodhagain (Anglicised "O'Higgin" and "MacEgan") 
were chiefs of Clan Diarmada, a district in the barony of 
Leitrim, County Galway; and had a castle at Dun Doighre, 
now "Duniry." The MacEgans were Brehons in Con- 
naught, and also in Ormond; and many of them eminent 
literary men. 34. MacGioUa Pionnagain or O'Finnegans,, 
sometimes rendered "Finnucane;" and O'Ciouaoith or- 
O'Kenny, chiefs of Clan laitheamhaim or Fhlaitheamhain 
[or Fleming] , called also Muintir Cionaith, a district in 
the barony of Moycarnon, County Eoscommon. Of the 
O'Fmnegan family was Mathias Finnucane, one of the^ 
Judges of the Common Pleas in Ireland, who died, a.d. 


1814. 35. O'Domhnallain or O'Donnelans, chiefs of Clan 
Breasail, a district in the barony of Leitrim, and County 
Galway. 36. O'Donchada or O'Donoghoe, chiefs of Clan 
Cormaic, a district in Maenmoy in Galway, already 
defined. 37. O'Duibhghind, chiefs of the Twelve Ballys 
or Townlands of Duibhghind, a district near Longhrea, 
in the County Galway. 38. O'Docomlain, chiefs pi 
Eidhnigh; and O'Gabhrain or O'Gauran, chiefs of Dal 
Druithne, districts about Loughrea. 89. O'Maolbrighde, 
O'Mulbride, or MacBride, chiefs of Magh Finn and of 
Bredagh, a district in the barony of Athlone, County 
Eoscommon, east of the river Suck. 40. O'Mainnin, 
O'Manniu, O'Mannion, or O'Manning, chiefs of Sodhan: 
a large territory in the barony of Tiaquin, made into six 
divisions, called "The Six Sodhans." The O'Mannins or 
0' Mannings had their chief residence at the castle of 
Clogher, barony of Tiaquin, County Galway; and after- 
wards, at Menlough, in the parish of Killascobe, in the 
same barony. The other chiefs given by O'Dugan on the 
"Six Sodhans" were Mac-an-Bhaird, MacWard or Ward, 
O'Sgurra or Scurry, O'Lennain or Lennon, O'Casain or 
Cashin, O'GiaUa or O'Giallain, rendered Gealan.Gilly, 
and Gill; and O'Maigins or Magin. 41. O'Cathail or 
CahiU, O'Mughroin or Moran, O'Maolruanaidh, Mulrooney, 
or Eooney, the three chiefs of Crumthan or Cruffan, a 
district comprising the barony of Killian, and part of 
Ballymoe in the County Galway. 42. O'Laodog or 
O'Laodhaigh, Anglicised "O'Leahy," chiefs of Caladh, a 
district in the barony of Kilconnell, County Galway. 

The following chiefs and clans not given by O'Dugan 
are collected from other sources: — ^43. The O'Dalys, (who, 
according to some accounts, were a branch of the O'Donels, 
princes of Tirconnell, whose tribe name was Clan Dalaigh 
or Clan Daly) had large possessions in the Counties of 
Galway and Eoscommon. According to the Four Masters, 
the ancestor of the O'Dalys of Leath Cuinn, was Adam, 
brother of Fargal, the 156th Milesian monarch of Ireland, 
No. 95, page 120. The O'Dalys, it appears, settled in 
Connaught as early as the twelfth century. 44. O'Coin- 
dealbhain, O'ConghioUain, O'Conniallain, O'Conallain, or 
O'Connellan, princes of Hy-Leary in the tenth, and 


eleventh centuries; but branches of this family in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, settled in the Counties 
of Roscommon, Galway, and Mayo. Pedigrees of this 
ancient clan are given in the "Books" of Leacan and 
Ballymote; and also in the "Genealogical Book" of the 
O'Clerys. 45. The O'Hallorans, chiefs of Clan Fargal, 
a large district on the east side of the river of Galway, 
near Lough Corrib. 46. The O'Callanans and O'Canavans, 
whom O'Dugan mentions as hereditary physicians in 
Galway. 47. The O'Dubhthaighs or O'DufEys, families 
of note in Galway and Eoscommon. 48. The O'Briens, 
a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond in the County 
Clare, and lords of the Isles of Arran, off the coast of 
Galway. 49. MacCnaimhin or MacNevin, according to 
the "Book of Leacan," chiefs of a district called Crannog 
MacCnaimhin or Crannagh MacNevin, in the parish of 
Tynagh, barony of Leitiim, and County of Galway. This 
name "MacCnaimhin" (cnaimh: L:ish, a hone), has been 
Anglicised "Bone" and "Bonas." 50. MaoEochaidh, 
MacKeogh, or Keogh (a branch of the O'Kellys, princes of 
Hy-Maine), chiefs of Omhanach, now "Onagh," in the 
parish of Taghmaconnell, in the barony of Athlone, 
County Eoscommon. 51. MacGiolladuibh or MacGillduff, 
Anglicised "Kilduff," chiefs of Caladh, along with the 
O'Leahys, in the barony of Kilconnell, County Galway. 
62. TheO'Lorcans or O'Larkins, O'Gebenaighs, Gevennys, 
Gebneys, and Gibneys; O'Aireachtains, Anglicised "Har- 
rington;" O'Fahys, O'Fay or O'Foy; O'Laidins or Laydons, 
and O'Horans or Horan, all clans in Hy-Maine, in the 
County Galway. 53. O'Cobthaigh or O'Coffey, a branch 
of the O'Kellys, princes of Hy-Maine; and chiefs of a large 
district in the barony of Clonmacnoon, County Galway. 
54. The MacManuses; Keons, MacKeons, or MacEwens; 
O'Commins or Cummins, and O'Eonans or Eonaynes, 
clans in the County Eoscommon. 

(6). The Anglo-Norman and English Families in Galway. 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries several families 
from England and Wales settled in the town of Galway 


and other parts of that County; the principal of whom 
were the Athys, Berminghams, Blakes, Bodkins, Brownes, 
Blundels. Deanes, Dillons, Darcys, Frenches, De Jorses, 
Kirwans, Lynches, Lawlesses, Morrises, Martins, Whites, 
etc. Some of these names, however, are shown to be of 
Irish extraction, viz.: theLynches are from the O'Loinsighs^ 
mentioned in the Annals of the Four Maulers, in the tenth 
and eleventh centuries, as chiefs of Ulidia, now the 
County Down; the Darcys, chiefs in Partry, are descended 
from the MacDorchys, or O'Dorchys, and were considered 
to be of EngUsh descent ; the Martins of Galway were 
considered by O'Brien, Vallaneey, and others, to be of 
Firbolg or Firvolgian origin, descended from the old race 
of the Firdomnians Ln Connaught, whom the old annalists 
so frequently mention under the name of Mairtinigh, 
Anglicised "Martineans." The De Jorses came from 
Wales to Galway in the reign of Edward the First, and ' 
having formed an alliance with the O'Flahertys, chiefs of 
West Connaught, got large possessions in Connemara in 
the barony of Boss ; and towards the borders of Mayo a 
large territory which is called "Joyces' Country." These 
De Jorses changed their name to "Joyce." The Joyces 
of Joyces' Country were remarkable for great physical 
strength and gigantic stature. 

(c). MoDEEN Nobility in Galway and Eoscommon. 

The following have been the noble families in Galway 
and Eoscommon since the reign of King James the 

In Galway : The DeBurgs or Burkes, earls and marquises 
of Clanrickard; the Burkes, viscounts of Galway, and 
barons of Brittas; the Berminghams, barons of Athenry; 
the Butlers and Gores, earls of Arran; the De Massues and 
Monctons, viscounts of Galway; the Le Poer Trenches, 
earls of Clancarty, viscounts Dunloe, and barons of 


Kilconnell ; tlie Verekers, viscounts of Gort ; the Dillons, 
barons of Clonbrock; the Frenches, barons French: 
the Brownes, barons of Oranmore ; the Blakes, barons of 
Wallscourt; the Trenches, barons of Ashtown. 

In Roscommon : The Dillons, earls of Eoscommon ; the 
Wilmots and De Ginkles, earls of Athlone; the Kings, 
viscounts Lorton; the Cootes, barons of Castlecoote; the 
Croftons, barons Crofton; the Mahons, barons Hartland; 
and the Sandfords, barons of Mountsandford. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, the Lord Deputy, Sir Henry 
Sydney, a.d. 1565, formed Galway into a County; which 
took its name from the chief town, called in Irish Gaillimh 
[Galliv] , Anglicised "Galway." And in the same reigri 
the same Lord Deputy formed Eoscommon into a County; 
which took its name from the town of Eoscommon, which 
in Irish is " Eos-Coman" (signifying the "Wood of Coman) , 
and was so called from St. Coman, who founded an abbey 
there in the sixth century. 


The Extracts contained in this Appendix were compiled from the 
Annotations of Connellan's Four Masters. Those Annotations, 
according to Connellan, were enriched by valuable materials from 
the Library of the late Sir William Betham, Ulster King-of-Arms, 
himself an eminent antiquary and the liberal friend of Irish history 
and Irish literature ; and compiled from the following sources : — 
"EerumHibernicarum Soriptores Veteres," bytheEev. Dr. Charles 
O'Conor, who, as Librarian to the Duke of Buckingham, at Stowe, 
translated into Latin, and, A.D. 1824, published in that work with 
the original Irish, part of the Annals of the Four Masters, from the 
earliest period of Irish history down to the English invasion, A. D. 
1172; the "Dissertations" of Charles O'Conor on the history of 
Ireland ; O'Flaherty's " Ogygia" ; Vallancey's " Collectanea" ; the 
Histories of Ireland by Keating, O'Halloran, MacGeoghagan, and 
Thomas Moore ; the woiks of Ware, Usher, Colgan, De Burgo, and 
Lanigan ; Harris's " Hibernia Anglicana" ; " Pacata Hibernia" ; 
the History and Annals of Ireland by Cambrensis, Camden, Holin- 
shed, Hanmer, Campion, Temple, Borlase, Curry, and Leland ; 
State Papers, Public Eeoords, Inquisitions, and Peerages ; together 
with numerous Irish MSS., and many valuable documents in public 
and private collections. 

1. EKIN. 

The name "Eire" became the chief appellation of Ireland. From 
" Eire" have been derived the names Mri, Eiriu, Eirin, and lastly 
JSrin: hence, the inhabitants of Ireland have been denominated, 
in Irish, Eirionach and Eirionaigh, Latinized "Erigena," "ErigenEe," 
and " Eriuenses." As shown by O'Conor, Keating, and O'Flaherty, 
" Eria" vias also an ancient name applied to Egypt, and likewise to 
the island of Crete in Greece, now called Candia. "The origin of the 
names "Eirin" and "leme" has been variously explained by 
antiquaries. Eochart and ViUaneuva considered that leme wa» 
deiived from the Phenician words " Iberin" or "Iberne," which 

382 ' APPENDIX. 

signified the most remote bounds or habitations, as Ireland was then 
the most remote part of the known world ; and Rochart was of 
opinion, that, as the Greeks did not visit Ireland in those early ages, 
they got the name " lerne" from the Pheniuians — the only people 
who had intercourse with Ireland in those remote times, and are 
therefore considered to have given Ireland the name " lerne," which 
appears to be derived from the Irish "Eire" or " Birin." According 
to Dr. O'Conor, Camden, and others, the name " Eirin" signifies 
the Western Isle : derived from the Irish " lar," the west, and " in," 
an island, as being the most western isle of Europe. Vallancey 
supposed "Erin" to be the same as "Iran," the ancient name of 
Persia ; and O'Brien, in his book on the "Round Towers," maintains 
the same opinion : namely, that "Erin" or " Irin" is the same as 
"Iran" or Persia, and says that, in the Persian language, it signifies 
the sacred land, and that it got this name from the colony of Tua- 
De-Danans who came to Ireland from Iran or Persia ; and it may be 
observed that the old Irish historians state that Ireland got the name 
',' Eire" from one of the Danan queens. Charles O'Conor, in his 
"Dissertations," considers that "Eire" or "Eri" was derived from 
Erithnea, the name of the country of the Erithneans, who were 
Phenicians, and a colony of whom came to Ireland. Others derive 
"lerne" from the Greek "leros," sacred, and " nesos," an island, 
thus signifying the sacred isle, the same as the Insula Sacra of the 
Roman writers. According to old Irish annalists, Egypt was 
anciently called " Eria," which is only another form of the word 
"Eire" or "Erin." 

2. flIBERNIA. 

Ik the century before the Christian era, Ireland is first called 
" Hibernia," by Julius Cassar, in his account of Britain. By various 
other Roman writers, as Pliny, Juvenal, etc., Ireland is mentioned 
in those early times under the names "Juverna," "Juvernia," 
"Ouvernia," "Ibernia," "Ierna,"and "Vernia"; and by Ptolemy 
in the second century it is called "louemia" or "Ivernia," all of 
which names, Hibernia, etc., are only changes and modifications of 
the Greek name lerne. An ancient geographer, Marcianus of 
Heraclea, who wrote in the third century, and copied the works of 
the celebrated Greek geographer Artemidorus of Ephesus, who lived 

in the century before the Christian era, thus describes Ireland : 

" Juvernia Insula Britannica ad Boream quidem terminatur oceano 
Hyperboreo appellato, ab Oriente vero oceano qui vocatur Hibernious, 
a Meridie vero oceano Virgivio ; sexdecem habet gentes ; undecim 
civitates insignes ; fluvios insignes quindeoim ; quinque promontoria 
insigni et insulas insigues sex." Translated: "Juvernia (Ireland), 
a British isle, is bounded on the north by the ocean called the 
Hyberborean ; on theeast, by the sea which is called the Hibernian • 


and on the &outh, by the Virgivian sea; it contaius "sixteen nations," 
and eleven famous cities, fifteen large rivers, five great promontories, 
and six remarkable islands." 

.3?he "Hyperborean" here mentioned is the Northern sea ; the 
" Hibernian," is the Irish sea between central Ireland and Great 
Britain (in the middle of which is the Isle of Man or the " Insula 
Mevania" of the ancients); the "Virgivian sea" is St. George's 
Channel, between the South of Ireland and England. Gildas, the 
British historian in the sixth century, called St. George's Channel 
and the Irish sea " Scythica Vallis" or the Scythian valley: because 
it was the sea that separated the Scythians or Irish Scots from 
Britain. The " sixteen nations," also alluded to, refer to the several 
nations, as the Brigantees, etc. , who settled in Ireland, but were 
subject to the Milesian kings. 


Ireland is called Scotia, the Scotio Irish Nation, or the Land of the 
Scots, by various Roman and other Latin writers. It got the name 
"Scotia" from the Milesian colony who came from Spain. " Erin" 
is a more ancient name of Ireland than ' ' Scotia" ; for, it is only in 
the third century, that the celebrated philosopher Porphyry of Tyre 
is the first writer recorded who called the Irish Scoti, in the following 
passage from his writings, quoted by St. Jerome : — 

" Neque enim Britannia fertilis proviucia tyrannorum, et ScoticcB 
gentes omnesque usque ad oceanum per circuitum Barbaras nationes 
Moysem Prophetasque coguoverant. " 

Thv^ translated : — 

" For neither Britain, a province fertile in tyrants, nor the Scottish 
people, nor all the barbarous surrounding nations, even unto the 
ocean, have ever known Moses or the prophets." 

It has been stated by Usher and other learned men, that the name 
" Scotia" was exclusively applie'd to Ireland until the eleventh 
oentury,* when modern Scotland first got the name Scotia — its 
ancient name (given to it by the Irish and the natives) being Alba 
or Albain, Anglicised "Albany"; and, to the present day, the peo- 
ple of Scotland are by the Irish called Albanach and Albanaigh. 
Pinkerton, in his " Inquiry into the History of Scotland," says : — 
" From the consent of all antiquity the name Scoti belonged to the 
Irish alone until the eleventh century.'' To distinguish between the 
two countries, various Latin writers, from the twelfth to the six- 
teenth century, mention Ireland as Scotia Vetus or old Scotia, and 
Scotia Major or the Greater Scotia ; and Scotland, as Scotia Minor 
or the Lesser Scotia; and the Irish were called Scoto-Ierni and 
Scoto-Hibemi or Hibernian Soots, and the people of Scotland Sooti- 
Albani or Albanian Scots. 

* Elevmth century : According to " O'Clery's Irish Pedigrees," it 
was in the reign of Nial of the Nine Hostages, that the name 
"Scotia" was first applied to Scotland.— 6'ce7;a,9e 117. 


The " Emerald Isle" is a poetical name appropriately applied to 
Ireland by many writers in modern times, from its exquisite uerdare, 
in whicli it surpasses most other countries. This designation was, 
A.D. 1795, first given to it by the celebrated Dr. William Drennauof 
Belfast, in one of his beautiful poems, entitled " Erin." 


In Boate and Molineux's Natural History of Ireland, Ware's Anti- 
<juities, and other works, accounts are given of the great Irish elk, 
or Moose deer, designated Cervvs Megaceros or the_ great-horned 
deer ; the horns, head, and bones of which have been frequently 
found buried from six to twenty feet deep in bogs and marl-pits, and 
also in lakes, in various parts of Ireland : a circumstance which 
shows the vast length of time the ancient forests have been pros- 
trated, and the bogs formed out of them have been extant ; as well 
as the many ages those gigantic animals, whose remains are found so 
deeply buried, must have lain in those bogs. The immense size and 
strength of the Irish elk is shown by its huge broad and branching 
antlers ; each of the two horns measuring five or six feet in length, 
and having ten or twelve branches on each ; and measuring between 
the extreme tips of the horns, on both sides, ten or twelve feet ; and 
these horns so large and massive as to be from sixty to eighty pounds 
in weight ; so that the animal capable of carrying them must have 
been of great size and strength, and is considered to have been eight 
or ten feet in height, and its body about the same length ; being far 
larger than an ox, and next in size to the elephant. It resembled 
the great Moose deer or elk of America, and is considered to have 
been of the same species ; and also had a great resemblance to the 
European elk or rein-deer of Norway, Sweden, and Lapland ; and it 
may be observed, that the huge skeletons of some fossil elks like the 
Irish, have been found buried deep in the earth in the Isle of Man, 
and also in France and Germany. From the remains of the Irish 
elk found in various parts of Ireland, but mostly in Ulster and in 
Meath, these magnificent animals must have been very numerous in 
Ireland in remote times ; but the race has become extinct for ages, 
and the era of their existence is beyond the reach of historic records, 
though they were once inhabitants of the great forests that waved 
upon the surface of the primeval lands. The huge horns of an elk 
are to be seen at the House of the Royal Dublin Society, and in other 
museums . 

So much has been written about these interesting remains of Irish 
antiquity, that to enumerate the various theories' respectLag them 
would rather embarrass the reader, than elucidate the subject ; let 


it suffice to say tliat the opinions as to the origin, era, and uses of 
those beautiful but mysterious structures, whose history is hidden in 
the night of time, are so various, that, as to whether they were built 
for Pagan or Christian purposes, still remains a subject of antiquarian 
controversy. In the County Dulalin there are Kound Towers at Lusk, 
Swords, and Clondalkin, and some remains of one near the old church, 
of Eathmichael, between Killiney and Bray; and there was in former 
times a Round Tower situated in the " Street of the Sheep," now 
Ship Street, quite convenient to the Castle of Dublin, but no traces of 
it now remain. In the County KQdare there are five Round Towers 
still remaiaing, situated at the town of Kildare, Old KilcuUen, 
Castledermot, Oughterard, and Taghadoe (Anglicised " Taptoo"). 

In the reign of Lugaid Sriabhn-dearg, the 98th monarch of Ireland, 
in the first century, the lake called Lough Neagh suddenly burst 
forth, and overwhelmed in its waters the surrounding plains, with 
all the houses and inhabitants ; and Giraldus Cambrensis (who wrote 
in the twelfth century), speaking of the Round Towers, states that 
a tradition prevailed down to his time, that when the fishermen 
sailed over Lough Neagh, they could, in the clear lake, in calm 
weather, see beneath the waters the Round Towers which, with the 
towns, had been covered by its inundation ; and this statement has 
been adduced as an argument to corroborate the vast antiquity 
attributed to the Round Towers. In one of the Irish Melodies, 
Moore thus alludes to the subject : — 

" On Lough Neagh's banks, as the fisherman strays. 

When the calm clear eve's declining. 
He sees the Round Tower of other days 

In the waves beneath him shining." 

The remains of antiquities in Ireland are very numerous, and 
extremely interesting, though much has been destroyed by the sUent 
hand of time, but much more by the ruthless fury of fanaticism and 
war : The stones of many Druidical temples <ind cromleacs have been 
broken; sepulchral mounds and raths, the ramparts of ancient 
fortresses, and even walls of Cyclopean architecture have been 
levelled ; cairns have been scattered ; round towers have been bar- 
barously thrown down, or shamefully suflfered to fall into dilapidation 
and ruin ; abbeys, churches, and castles have been demolished, and 
their materials placed in other buUdings ; stone crosses, sculptures, 
and statues have been broken and mutilated ; golden and silver 
ornaments of massive size and beautiful workmanship, worn by 
ancient Irish kings, queens, and chieftains, have been carried off to 
other countries, or sold to goldsmiths, and melted down ; and many 
other interesting remains of ancient art have been destroyed, which, 
as being memorials of the ancient past in Ireland, should, with 
unceasing veneration, be preserved to posterity with the most sacred 



The Druidioal Temples were likewise composed of huge stones 
standing upright in a circular form, with great top stones placed on 
them. The most perfect specimen existing of a Druidical temple is 
the stupendous monument of stones called " Stone-Henge, " on 
Salisbury Plain, in England; but in Prance there are Druidical 
remains far more extensive, though of ruder formation, at Carnac, in 
Bretagne, consisting of huge stones standing upright, some of them 
from twelve to fifteen feet in height ; and of those immense stones it 
is stated, that four thousand stUl remain, formed into numerous 
concentric circles, and covering an area of about half a mile in 
diameter. As Druidism was the religious system of the Celtic 
nations, so Druidical monuments are found in all the countries pos- 
sessed by the Celtic race. Cromleacs and other Druidical remains 
still exist in the County Dublin, at Mount Venus, near Tallaght ; at 
Glen Druid, near Cabinteely ; Glen Southwell or the Little Dargle, 
Larch Hill, KOliney Hill, and the Hill of Howth. In various parts 
of KUdare, particularly about Naas and KilcuUin, are huge pillar 
stones considered to be Druidical remains. 


Caiens (so called from the Irish "Carn," which signifies a heap or 
pile of stones) were huge heaps of stones, some of them the size of 
a large house, and containing many thousands of cart loads of stones, 
usually placed on high hills and mountains, and still existing in 
many parts of Ireland. According to Toland and others, they were 
partly erected for Druidical worship, and also as sepulchral monu- 
ments over the remains of warriors and kings ; and some of these 
heaps of stones, used as sepulchres, were called by the Irish 
"Leacht," and " Taimleacht," vihich. si^iiy sepulchral monuments. 


When the Tua-de-Danans came to Ireland they brought with them, 
according to our ancient annalists, a remarkable stone called " Lia 
PaU," signifying the Stone of Fate or of Destiny : and from this 
circumstance Ireland obtained the name luis Pail or the Island of 
Destiny. This Lia Pail was held in the highest veneration ; and 
sitting on it the ancient mouarchs of Ireland, both in the Pagan and 
Christian times were inaugurated at Tara ; and it is stated that 
whenever a legitimate king of the Milesian race was inaugurated, the 
stone emitted a peculiar sound: an effect produced, it is .supposed, by 


some contrivance of the Druids. In the beginning of the sixth 
century Fergus Mao Earca, who was brother to the then reigning 
monarch of Ireland, Murtogh Mac Earoa, having become king of 
Dalriada in Albany, afterwards called Scotland, requested the Irish 
monarch to send to him the Lia FaU to be used at his inauguration, 
in order to give security to his throne in accordance with an ancient 
prophecy — that the Scotic Race would continue to rule as long as it 
was in their possession ; but 'Flaherty is of opinion, that the Stone 
of Destiny was not brought to Scotland until the niuth century, 
when Aidns Finliath, monarch of Ireland, sent it for that purpose 
to his father-in-law Kenneth Mac Alpin, king of all Scotland and 
conqueror of the Picts. The Lia Fail was preserved with great care 
and veneration for many centuries in Scotland ; first, in the monas- 
tery of St. Columkille at Ion a, in the Hebrides ; afterwards at 
Dunstafinage in Argyleshjre, the first royal seat of the Scottish kings 
of Irish race ; and thence it was removed in the ninth century by 
Kenneth Mac Alpin, who placed it at Scone, near Perth, where it 
was preserved in the ancient abbey until a.d. 1296 ; when Edward 
the First, king of England, having overrun Scotland, took away the 
Stone of Destiny from the cathedral of Scone, carried it off as a 
trophy of victory, and placed it under the coronation chair in 
Westminster Abbey, where it still remains This Stone of Destiny 
has been Latinized "Saxum Fatale," and by English writers is called 
"Jacob's Stone," from a tradition that it is part of the stone called 
"Jacob's Pillow," at Bethel, mentioned in the Book of Genesis: 
hence, some have considered that it was first brought to Ireland by 
the Tua-de-Danans from the land of Canaan. It has been asserted 
in some modem publications on Irish antiquities, that the large stone 
standing upright on one of the mounds at Tara is the Stone of 
Destiny, but this assertion is opposed to the statements of Keating, 
O'Flaherty, Ware, Dr. O'Connor, Charles O'Conor, and other learned 
Irish antiquarians, together with the accounts of the Scottish 
historians ; and it is probable that the huge stone standing on the 
mound at Tara (which is six feet above the ground, as well as many 
feet under it, and of immense weight) is the stone mentioned by 
many of the old Irish writers under the name of " Lia-na-bhFian" 
or the Stone of the Fians, as connected with the accounts of some of 
the Fenian warriors. The " Stone of Destiny" is mentioned by 
Hector Bcetius, and other Scottish historians ; and the following 
Irish verse respecting it is quoted by K-^ating and Charles O'Conor: — 

" Cineadh Scuit, saor an fbine, 
Mun budh breag an fhaisdine. 
Mar a ffuighid an Liagh Fail 
Dlighid flaitheas do gjtiabhail. " 

Thus Latinized : 

" Ni f allat f atum, Scoti, quocunque locatum 
Invenient lapidem hunc, regnare tenentar ibidem." 



And may be Anglicised : 

"If fate's decrees be not announced in vain, 
Where'er this stone is found the Scots shall reign." 

[Without attaching any superstition whatever to the "divination" 
contained in this curious prophecy, it is worthy of remark, that, in 
the person of our present gracious Sovereign, the Scottish Race reigns 
where the Stone of Destiny, referred to in that divination, is now 
located !] 


The name " Cromleac" signifies the stone of Crom: and these stones 
were so called from being used in the worship of Crom (the chief 
deity of the Pagan Irish) , said to represent Fate ; or, according to 
Lanigan and others, the god of fire, or the sun, and sometimes called 
Crom Dubh or Black Crom, and Crom Cruagh or Crom of the Heaps 
(of stones, or cairns) ; and the last Sundaj' in summer is still, in the 
Irish-speaking localities of Ireland, called Domhnach Chroim Dubh 
[Dona Crom Duff] or the Sunday of Black Crom : being sacred to 
St. Patrick as the anniversary commemorating the destruction of 
that idol on JVIoy Slaght, now Fenagh in the County Leitrim. These 
cromleacs were Druidical altars on which the Druids offered up 
sacrifices to Crom, and very often human victims ; and. they were 
also used as sepulchral monuments : for, on excavating under them 
funeral urns and remains of human bones have been found ; and by 
the uneducated in Ireland the cromleacs are generally called "giants' 
graves. " 

The chief deities of the Druids were the sun, moon, stars, and 
winds ; and woods, wells, fountains, and rivers, were also objects of 
adoration. The sun was worshipped undei the designation of Bel, 
Beal, or Baal, as by the Pho?nicians and other eastern nations ; and 
also under the name of Grian. The oak was a sacred tree to the 
druids, and the rites of druiilism were chiefly celebrated in the oak 
groves ; and the name Druid, in Irish Draoi or Drui, is supposed to 
be derived from the Irish " Dair" or "Duir," which signifies the 
oak; or, according to others, it was derived from the Greek word 
"Drus," im oak tree ; and toothers, from tlio Gaulish word Derw 
or Deru, which also signified on oak. By Givsar and other Roman 
writers, the Gaulish word for Druids was rendered Druidfe and 
Druides ; and by modern Latin writers the word " Druids" has been 
often translated Magi. Three of the Tua-de- Danau kings of Ireland 
were named from their peculiar deities : one was called Mac Coillor 
the Son of the Wood, as he worshipped the woods ; another Mao 
Ceacht or the Son of the Plough, his god being that chief emblem of 
husbandry ; and the third Mao Greine, as Grian or the Sun was the 
great object of his adoration. 


The cromleaoa are generally composed of from three or four, to six 
or seven huge pillar stones, standing upright and fixed deep in the 
earth on their smaller ends, and varying from five or six, to eight or 
ten feet in height, and on the top of them is placed a prodigious flag 
or table stone in a sloping position — one end being much higher than 
the other. This sloping position it was that gave rise to the popular 
opinion, that " oromleaos" were so called ; but that opinion is found 
to be erroneous. These table stones are of enormous size, and some 
of them estimated to weigh from twenty to forty, or fifty tons ; and 
as many of these oromleacs are situated on high hOls, or in deep 
valleys, and other places of difficult access, and in several instances 
those stones have been conveyed for a distance of many miles — no 
such stones being found in the neighbourhood — these circumstances 
have naturally led"to the belief, that the cromleacs were constructed 
by giants or a race of men of immense strength : and it would appear, 
that a race of men of gigantic strength were alone capable of placing 
those prodigious stones or immense fragments of rocks, in their posi- 
tion ; for, it would be found extremely difficult to convey those huge 
stones any considerable distance, and place them in their position, 
even by the great power of modern machinery. 


Sepulchkal Mounds, commonly called " moats" in Ireland, and 
"barrows" by the English antiquaries, are of a circular, or conical 
form, having the appearance of hillocks ; and of various sizes. The 
interior is generally composed of a heap of small stones resembling a 
cairn, but covered with earth ; and, when opened, they are found to 
contain funeral urns, remains of human bones, military weapons, etc., 
which prove them to have been places of sepulture for kings, chiefs, 
and warriors, in Pagan times ; for, after the introduction of Chris- 
tianity, these sepulchral mounds were discontinued. This mode of 
burial was used by various ancient nations, as the Greeks, Gauls, 
Scythians, Saxons, Scandinavians, etc. : the great sepulchral mounds 
of Achilles and others of Homer's heroes, still remain on the shores 
of the Hellespont ; and Byron beautifully says — 

-I've stood upon A chilles' tomb 

And heard Troy doubted — time will doubt of Home." 

The stupendous earthen mound, resembling a large hill, raised to the 
memory of Alyattes, king of Lydia, long before the Christian era, is 
still to be seen in Asia Minor ; and, in the Crimea, remain some of 
the sepulchral mounds of the old Scythian kings. In England, these 
sepulchral mounds are very numerous and of great size, on Salisbury 
plain, and other places ; and, in Ireland, sepulchral mounds are 
found almost in every county, particularly in Meath, Louth, Dublin, 
and Kildare. Along the banks of the Boyne, between Drogheda and 


Slane, are many mounds ; but the one at Newgrange is the largest 
in Ireland, covering an area of about two acres, and between eighty 
and ninety feet in height, having the appearance of a considerable 
hill ; and this mound was surrounded by a circle of huge stones 
standing upright, many of which still remain. It is stated by Ware, 
that the sepulchral mound at Knocksedan, near Swords in the 
■County Dublin, was opened in his time, and in it were found the 
remains of a man of gigantic size : the skeleton measuring, from the 
ankle bone to the top of the skull, eight feet four inches ; the bones 
of the skull were very thick, and the teeth of enormous size ; the 
limbs were all very large in proportion, and it appears that this giant, 
when living, must have been nearly nine feet high. In Kildare, there 
are many of these mounds on the Curragh, and also at N aas ; Ascul, 
rear Athy ; and at MuUaghmast. 

12. RATHS. 

Eaths (so called from the Irish "Rath," which signifies a /ori or 
fortress, but commonly called Lios, which also signifies a fortress or 
habitation) are circular earthen ramparts, surrounded with a deep 
fosse or ditch, some of them composed of a single rampart, others of 
them of two, and some having treble ramparts ; the usual area in the 
interior of these raths contains from about half a rood to half an 
acre, bat some of them are much larger, and contain in the interior 
from one to two acres. These raths are mostly situated on hOls, and 
are found in every county ; they are extremely numerous in most of 
the counties of Ulster and Counaught, and there are at least thirty 
thousand of them still remaining in Ireland, though many of them 
have been levelled. But, as the uneducated entertain a belief, 
transmitted down by tradition from time immemorial, that it is 
unlucky to meddle with them (supposed as they are to be sacred or 
enchanted ground, and the habitations of the "good people" or 
fairies), and that any intermeddling with them is always followed by 
some misfortune, this childish fear, coupled with a proper feeling of 
veneration for antiquities, has fortunately preserved from destruction 
those interesting memorials of remote ages. These Raths are com- 
monly but erroneously called Danish forts, from some tradition that 
they were erected as fortresses by the Danes ; but though some of 
them may have been erected by the Danes, many thousands of them 
are found in remote parts in the interior of the country, where the 
Danes had no possessions ; being chiefly located in the towns along 
the sea coast. It is therefore evident that these Raths must have 
formed the fortresses and chief habitations of the ancient Irish, and 
many of them no doubt erected by the Firvolgians, Tua-de-Danans, 
.and Milesians, long and long before the Danes arrived in Ireland. 

BARDS. 3411 

13. BARDS. 

Bards and poets flourislied iu every country from the earliest ages ;. 
and Homer, Pindar, and Anaoreon, amongst the Greeks, were desig- 
nated Bards ; their chief themes being love and war ; but the term 
"Bard" was more particularly applied to the poets of the Celtic 
Nations, as the Gauls, Britons, Irish, etc., though some of the 
Teutonic Nations, as the Germans, Saxons, and Scandinavians, also 
had their Bards. The office of the Bard was chiefly to compose war 
songs and poems in praise of men distinguished for their valour, 
patriotism, hospitality, and other virtues ; and to satirize bad men, 
and denounce their vices. A Roman poet thus describes the office of 
the Bard : 

" Vos quoque, qui fortes animas belloqne peremptas 
Laudibus in lonoum vates dimittitis oevum, 
Plurima seouri f udistis carmina Bardi." 

Thus Translated : 

" You too, ye Barxis ! whom sacred raptures fire. 
To chant your heroes to your country's lyre ; 
Who consecrate, in your immortal strain. 
Brave patriot souls in righteous battle slain." 

The Bards were highly honoured among the Gauls, the Germans,, 
the Greeks, the Scandinavians, the Britons, the Irish, etc. In 
Ireland the Bards were a famous order from the earliest ages ; and 
after the Milesian conquest of Ireland, Amergin, one of the sons of 
Milesius, was appointed chief Bard of the Kingdom ; in subsequent 
times, many even of the kings and princes composed poems and 
attained the high honour of being enrolled amongst the Bards. In 
the institutions of the country, the Bards held a rank equal to the 
princes and chief nobility ; the Bards and Brehons were permitted as 
a mark of distinction, to wear six colours in their garments, the kings, 
themselves wearing six, some say seven ; while military commanders 
and various other public officers, according to their rank and dignities, 
wore only five, four, three, and two colours, the slave being allowed 
to wear only one colour. The word " Bard" is also Bard in Irish ;. 
Ollamh [Ollav] was the name applied by the Irish to a professor, a 
sage, a learned man, or poet ; and " Ard Ollamh" or High Poet was 
the designation of the chief Bard to the king — a title equal to that 
of our "Poet Laureate." At a very early period the Bards became 
a numerous body in Ireland ; and, from their undue power iu the 
state, excited the jealousy and enmity of some of the kings and 
princes. In the reign of the 97th monarch, Oonaire Mor, in the 
century before the Christian era, the Bards were proscribed and 
expelled from Munster and Leinster ; they fled to Ulster, where they 
foundrefuge, and were protected and patronized, by Conor MacNessa, 
the then celebrated king of Emania. From time to time down to 
the reign of Elizabeth the Bards of Ireland were proscribed and 


persecuted ; the Acts against minstrels were so strmgent m the 
reigns of Henry the Eighth and Queen Elizabeth,that, m the language 
of the immortal Thomas Moore, "the charms of song were ennobled 
with the glories of martyrdom." Bardism and Brehomsm, like 
many other offices in Ireland, were hereditary in certain families ; 
each of the kings, princes, and chiefs, having his own Bards and 

14. MUSIC. 

In Music, the ancient Irish were highly celebrated : it is stated that 
in the latter end of the eleventh century, about A. i>. 1098, Griffith 
ap Conan, Prince of Wales, who had resided a long time in Ireland, 
brought over with him to Wales "divers cunning musicians, who 
devised in manner all the instrumental music upon the Harp and 
Growth that is there used, and made laws of minstrelsy to retain 
the musicians in due order" (see Hanmer's " Chronicle," page 197). 
It thus appears that the famous Welsh bards were indebted for their 
knowledge of the harp chiefly to the Irish. Giraldus Cambrensis, the 
Secretary of King John, who came to Ireland with the Anglo- 
Normans in the twelfth century, was a Welshman, and a learned 
ecclesiastic ; he extols the skill of the Irish in music, and says that 
in his time they excelled in music and minstrelsy all the European 


Bardism and Brelionism, as well as Druidism (the religious system 
of the Celtic nations), prevailed in Ireland from the earliest ages. 
After the introduction of Christianity, the Druids became extinct, 
but the Bards and Brehons continued in the Christian as well as in 
the Pagan times. That Brelionism was the Law system of the other 
Celtic nations, and that it prevailed amongst the Gauls and Britons, 
as well as amongst the Irish, is probable; for, in "Ctesar's Com- 
mentaries," it is stated that, amongst the Edui, one of the nations 
of Gaul, the title of the chief magistrate or Judge was "Vergobretus"; 
that he was annually chosen ; and had the power of life and death. 
The term Brelion, in Irish ''Breitheamh" [Breha], signifies a. judge; 
and O'Brien considers that the term, which Cfesar Latinized 
"Vergobretus," was, in the Gaulish or Celtic, " Fear-go-Breith," 
signifying the Man of Judgment ox a Judge. The term "Fear-go- 
Breith" has the same signification in the Irish (from "Fear" [farr], 
a man, "go," of or with, and "Breith," judgment) : therefore, it 
appears the " Vei-fjobretus" was the chief Brehon of Gaul. The 
Brehons were the judges and professors of the law, and in ancient 
times delivered their judgments and proclaimed the laws to the 


chiefs and people assembled on the hills and raths on public ocuasious, 
as at the Conventions of Tara, and other great assemblies. The 
Brehons, like the Bards, presided at the inauguration of kings, 
princes, and chiefs ; and, as the judges and expounders of the laws, 
had great power and privileges in the State ; extensive lands were 
allotted to them for their own use. Each of the Irish kings, princes, 
and chiefs, had his own Brehons ; and the office, like that of the 
Bards already mentioned, was hereditary in certain families. 


The system of Brehon laws relating to the tenure of lands, election 
of chiefs, and other regulations, was termed " Tanistry" ; the word 
in Irish is Tanaisteacht, and, according to some authorities, is derived 
from the Celtic word "Tan," a territory, or, according to others, 
from "Tanaiste," the second in command ot seniority. "Tanist," 
in Irish " Tanaiste,'' was the term applied to the successor elect or 
heir apparent of a prince, lord, or chief : this successor or Tanist was 
elected during the lifetime of the lord or chief, and succeeded imme- 
diately after his death ; and it is considered that the Anglo-Saxon 
term " Thane," which meant a lord, was derived from the same 

Mioghdamhna (pronounced " roydamna," a word derived from 
"Eigh," a king, and "damhna," a material) signified a person fit 
or eligible to be a king r hence, with respect to the provincial kings 
and monarchs, the heir apparent (or presumptive) was styled 
Eioghdamhna. Kigh or King was the term applied to each of the 
five provincial kings of Meath, Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, and 
Munster; and Ard-Eigh or High King was the designation of the 
monarch or supreme sovereign. The epithet " Eigh" [ree] was also 
applied to a prince ; and of these princes there were in Ireland about 
thirty ; and each of their principalities comprised a territory varying 
in extent from two or three baronies to a county, and sometimes two 
or more counties. These princes composed the first class of the Irish 
nobility, and held a rank equal to that of Princes, Dukes, Marquises, 
and Earls, in England and other countries. The second class of the 
Milesian nobility was that of '• Tiama" or " Tigheama," a lord, 
derived from "Tir," a country or territory : hence signifying the 
possessor of a territory. Each of these lords possessed a territory 
equal in extent to a barony, or sometimes two baronies, and held a 
rank equal to that of barons ; and there were about two hundred of 
them in Ireland. The third class of the old Irish aristocracy were 
called "Taoiseach" or chief s, derived from "Tus," /r«« or foremost: 
hence signifying the chief leader or head man of the clan ; these 
chiefs held, each of them a territory, varying in extent from a parish 
to two parishes, or more, or sometimes half a barony, and comprising 
from about ten to thirty thousand acres. Of these chiefs there were 


about six hundred or more : aU heads of clans, possessing considerable 
power in the state ; and held a rank equal to that of the principal 
gentry and great landed proprietors of modern times ; and might be 
considered of the same rank as knights and representatives for 
counties, in Parliament. The terms "Tiarna," "Flaith, and 
" Triath," were also often applied by the Irish writers to designate 
princes, lords, and chiefs of note. Cea» (pronounced "Kan") signified 
a head chief or leader ; and the term " Khan," in the eastern 
languages applied to head chiefs, is probably derived from the same 
Celtic root as " Cean." Brughaidhe, deriv^ed from "Bruighe," 
which signifies a farm or land, was the name applied to the head 
farmers, who held large farms under the chiefs ; and these farmers 
were very numerous and wealthy, possessing great flocks, much 
cattle and corn, etc. 


Under the laws of "Tanistry," the Crown was hereditary in the 
family, but not exclusively in primogeniture : the kings, princes, 
lords, and chiefs, were elective; and it appears that the elective 
system, and government by chiefs and clans, prevailed amongst aU 
the Celtic nations, as the Gauls, Britons, Irish, etc., while the 
principle of hereditary snccession and law of primogeniture prevailed 
amongst the Teutonic nations, as the Germans, Franks, Saxons, 
Scandinavians, etc. ; and, on the death of their kings and nobles, 
the eldest son or heir generally succeeded : and thus preserving the 
crown and honours of nobility, in one direct line, gave greater per- 
manence to their institutions. Some of the Slavonic nations, as, for 
instance, the Poles, adopted, like the Celts, the elective principle, in 
the choice of their kings, which led to ruinous contests for the crown 
on the death of each sovereign, and ultimately caused the downfall 
of Poland. Ireland was divided into five kingdcTis, and each of the 
kings of this Pentarchy was considered eligible for the crown, and to 
become Ardrigh or Monarch ; but, on the elective principle, many 
were the fierce contests for the monarchy which prevailed amongst 
the provincial kings, even long after the English invasion. On the^ 
death of a king, prince, or chief, his son oftentimes succeeded, pro- 
vided he was of age, for minors were not eligible ; but, in general, a 
brother, uncle, or some other senior head of the family or clan, or 
sometimes a nephew of the deceased was chosen ; the legitimate 
successor was often set aside by other competitors, and the candidate 
who had most influence, popularity, or military force to support him, 
carried his election by strong hand, and assumed authority by right 
of the sword. The law of alternate succession amongst the different 
chiefs of a clan was often adopted, each taking the lordship in turn ; 
but, when this peaceable compact was not fulfilled, the country was 
laid waste by contending princes and chiefs ; and two rulers were 
often elected in opposition to each other by the Irish themselves ; 


and a rival candidate was frequently set up and sustained by the 
influence of the English. These circumstances led to endless anarchy, 
confusion, and conflicts, throughout the country ; and the kings,' 
princes, and chiefs, being thus almost always in contention with each 
other as to their election, the entire country presented a scene of 
incessant discord. The election and inauguration of Icings, princes, 
and chiefs, took place in the open air, on hiUs, raths, and remarkable 
localities, at great assemblies, attended by the Chiefs, Clans, Clergy, 
Bards, and Brehons. The senior and worthiest candidate, when 
there was no contest, was generally preferred ; and the Tanist or 
Eoydanma peaoeaoly succeeded, unless disqualified by age, infirmity, 
or some moral or physical defect. In the choice of their kings the 
Irish were very exact ; for the candidate, if lame, blind of an eye, or 
labouring under any other physical defect, was rejected. 


The term ' ' Gavelkind, " according to Coke, originated from the 
words Oave all kiride ; but, according to O'Brien, the word in Irish 
is Gabhail-Cine, pronounced "Gavalkine," and appears to be derived 
from "Gabhail," a taking ox share, and " Cine," a kindred or tribe: 
thus signifying the share of a kindred. This ancient tenure, by which 
lands were equally divided amongst the different members of a 
family, prevailed amongst the Celts in Britain and in Ireland, and 
was also adopted amongst the Anglo-Saxons, and is still continued 
in Kent. The English Gavelkind difiered from the Irish : in Ireland, 
the lands were divided only amongst the sons of a family, and the 
illegitimate as well as the legitimate got a share ; while aU the 
females were excluded, but got (instead of lands) a dowry or mar- 
riage portion, in cattle, goods, money, etc. On the deficiency of sous, 
the lands of the Irish chiefs were "gavelled" amongst the males 
next of kin, but the chiefs themselves, and the Tanists, had certain 
mensal laruis, which were hereditary, and appropriated for their 
support, and were never subject to Gavelkind. With regard to the 
rights of property, the tribe or clan had an allodial and original right 
to the tribe lands, and could not be deprived of them ; but different 
persons held them by turns, and paid tribute or rents to the chief. 
By "allodium" was meant a freehold, or land held in one's own 
right, and not by feudal tenure. The chief himself had no hereditary 
estate in his lands, but merely held them for lite ; the inheritance 
rested in no name. When the chieftains died, their sons, or next 
heirs, did not succeed them ; they were succeeded by their Tanists, 
who were elective, and mostly purchased their election by " strong 
hand." When any one of the sept or tribe died, his portion was not 
divided amongst his sons, but the chief of the sept made a new 
partition of all the lands belonging to the sept, and gave every one 
a share according to his seniority. Sir John Davis ascribes the 


violent contentions of the Irish chiefs to this uncertainty of *p^^^^' 
and the constant changes and partition of lands. It would indeed 
appear that those who held lands under the tenure of Tamstry were 
a sort of tenants-at-will ; but if the chief removed any of them, he 
was hound to provide for them other lands on the tribe territory, 
which must always continue in possession of the clan. Many of the 
great Anglo-Irish families, particularly the Fitzgeralds of Munster, 
and the Burkes of Connaught, adopted the Irish language, manners, 
and customs, and the law.s of Tanistry ; but, by the ' ' Statute of 
Kilkenny" and other Acts, such practices were punished as treason 
or felony. Notwithstanding many penal enactments to the contrary, 
however, the laws of Tanistry and Gavelkind continued to be used 
in Ireland down to the reign of James the First, when they were 
abolished by Act of Parliament. The Brehon laws, though very 
defective in many points, were founded in a spirit of mildness and 
equity, and, if properly administered, might prove advantageous ; 
but, according to the learned Charles O'Conor, in his "Dissertations," 
the laws administered in Ireland during the English period, from 
Henry the Second to Elizabeth, were so oppressive, that " during 
these times of desolation, the manners, customs, and condition of the 
Irish proceeded from bad to worse ; their own ancient laws were for 
the most part useless, hurtful, or impracticable ; and they were 
thrown out of the protection of those of England." Of Ireland and 
the Irish, Sir John Davis, in his "Tracts," p. 227, says— " There 
is no nation or people under the sun that doth love equal and 
impartial justice better than the Irish, or will rest better satisfied 
with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves, so as 
they may have the protection and benefit of the law, when upon 
just cause they do desire it." Lord Coke says, in his " Institutes," 
Book IV., 349, " I have been informed by many of those that have 
judicial places in Ireland, and know partly by my own knowledge, 
that there is no nation of the Christian world that are greater lovers 
of justice than the Irish, which virtue must of course be accompanied 
by many others." 

19. ERIC. 

Under the Brehon laws, various crimes were compounded for by a 
fine termed " Eirio" ; and this mostly consisted of cattle reckoned 
by " Cumhals," each cnmhal being equal to three cows. These Erics 
varied from three to three hundred cows ; and sometimes even a 
thousand cows, or more, were exacted as an eric for homicides, 
robberies, and other crimes. Instances however are recorded where 
criminals did not always get off on paying an eric ; for, some male- 
factors were mutilated, hanged, and beheaded, by order of the 
Irish chiefs, for murders, sacrilege, etc. This practice of paying 
only a certain fine for murder, manslaughter, etc., also prevailed 
amongst various ancient nations, as the Greeks, Romans, Gauls, 


Germans, Pranks, Saxons, and ancient Britons, as well as amongst 
the Irish. It may be stated that the erio or fine for homicide, etc., 
under the Brehon laws, was paid to the father, brother, wife, or other 
relatives ot the person killed or injured ; and, according to Ware, 
the Brehon had for his fee the eleventh part of the fine. Amongst 
the Anglo-Saxons, by the laws of King Athelstan, according to 
Blackstone, a fine, denominated "WeregUd" was paid for homicide, 
and this fine varied according to the rank of the person slain, from a 
king to a peasant. The weregild for kOling a " Ceorl" that is a 
<!hurl or peasant, was 266 Thrysmas ; and even the killing of a 
King, according to Blackstone, might be compounded for by a fine 
of thirty thousand Thrysmas ; each "thrysma" being egual to about 
a shilling of our money : the weregild for killing a subject was paid to 
the relatives of the person slain, but that for the death of a king was 
payable —one half to the public, and the other to the royal family. 


The terms applied to military commanders were taoiseach, taoiseaoh- 
ibuidhne, flaith, cean-feadhna, (or head of a force), ceau-aloigh (or 
the leader of a host) ; and the terms, laoch, curraidh, gaisgidh or 
gaisgidheach, and urradh were applied to champions, chieftains, 
and heroes. The chief terms for weapons were the following: — 
Claidheamh [clava], a sword; tuagh or tuagh-catha, a battle-axe; 
laighean, a spear; lann, a lance or javelin; craoiseagh, a lance, 
javelin or halberd; ga, gath, or gai, a dart; saighead, an arrow or 
dart; bolg-saighead, a bag or pouch for arrows or a quiver; sgian, or 
skian, a dagger or large knife (this weapon was carried by all the 
Irish soldiers, as well by the chiefs, and used in close combat) ; the 
ancient sling was called crann-tabhuU. Tlie armour consisted of 
the luireach (Lat., lorica), a coat of mail, the shield, buckler, and 
target, were termed sci.ath; and the helmet, cath-bharr (from "cath," 
a battle, and "barr," tlie head or top). The banners of the ancient 
Irish were termed bratach; and the standard, meirge; the standard- 
bearer was called meirgeach; and a banner-bearer, fear-brataighe. 
The bards attended battle-fields and raised the rosg-catha or war- 
song. The Irish rushed into battle with fierce shouts of defiance, 
and loud battle-cries; their chief cry, according to Ware, was 
"Farrah, Far rah," which, according to some, means to fight 
valiantly, or like a man; and according to others, it is the same as 
the word " Faire, Faire'," which signifies to watch, watch, or be on 
jour guard; and the word "Hurrah" is supposed to have come from 
the same sonree. The war-cry '■ Abu" was used by the Irish, and 
was derived from the Irish word " Buaidh" [bo-ee], which signifies 
victory. This word was Anglicised "Aboo:" hence, the various 
•chieftains are said to have their war-cries, as O'Neill Aboo, O'Donel 
Aboo, O'Brien Aboo; which means respectively "victory to O'Neill," 


« victory to O'Donel," " victory to O'Brieu," etc. The great Anglo- 
Irish families adopted similar war cries : the Fitzgeralds had Crom 
Aboo, derived, it is said, from the castle of Crom in Limerick, one 
of the ancient fortresses of the Fitzgeralds; the Butlers of Ormond 
had Butler Aboo; the Burkes had Clanriokard Aboo, and Mac- 
William Aboo; and various other families had similar cries. The 
Irish chiefs had each their own banner and battle-cry: the O'Neills 
had for their battle-cry Lamh-dearg an-Uachtar or the Red Hand. 
Uppermost (a red or bloody hand being their crest, and borne on 
their banners). In later times The O'Neills assumed the heraldic 
emblem of the ancient kings of Emania, which was. The Red Hand 
of Ulster; together with the battle-cry of Lamh-dearg Aboo or the- 
Eed Hand for Ever. The battle-cry of the O'Briens of Thomond 
was Lamh laidir a n-Uachtar or the Strong Hand Uppermost. 

The Irish forces were composed of kerns, galloglasses, and cavalry;, 
the word "kearn" (in Irish "ceatharnach"), signifying a fcaMte', being 
derived from "cath", a battle; and the word "galloglass" (in Irish, 
"Oall-og-laoch," a foreign warrior, or) a foreign young champion. 
The Scots had likewise, at an early period, their kerns and galloglasses ;. 
and in Shakespeare's Macbeth is mentioned — "the merciless Mac- 
Donald from the Western Isles (or Hebrides), with his kerns and 
galloglasses." The kerns were the light foot of the Irish, armed 
with long spears or pikes, javelins, darts, skians or daggers, bows 
and arrows, and (in the early ages) also with slings. These active 
soldiers made rapid and irregular onsets into the ranks of the enemy;, 
not fightiug in exact order, but rushing and attacking on all sides, 
then rapidly retreating and coming on again at an advantageous 
opportunity. The javelins or short spears, and darts of the keams, 
were favourite weapons; the handles were generally of ash, to- 
which was fitted a long sharp-pointed iron or steel head, 'this- 
javelin was tied to the arm or shoulder by a thong or cord of great 
length, so that they could hurl it at the enemy at several yards 
distance, and recover the weapon again. These darts and javelins 
were whirled rapidly round the head, and then cast -with such force, 
that they penetrated the bodies of men, even through their armour; 
and killed their horses at a great distance. In the account of the 
expedition of King Richard the Second in Ireland, Froissart in his 
"Chronicle" says: "the Irish soldiers were so remarkably strong: 
and active, that on foot they could overtake an English horseman 
at full speed, leap up behind the rider and pull him oif his horse. " 
The kerns were divided into bodies of spearmen, dart-men, slingers, 
and archers, and (in aftertimes) musketeers; the archers were very 
expert, and their bows were made chiefly of ash and yew. The 
galloglasses were the heavy infantry of the Irish, a sort of grenadiers; 
being select men of great strength and stature, armed with swords 
and battle-axes; and also generally wore armour, as helmets and 
breast-plates of iron, coats of mail composed of a net-work of 
small iron rings, and sometimes armour made of strong leather; and 
their shields or bucklers were made of wood, sometimes covered, 
with skins of animals. The Irish commanders all wore armour,. 


telmets, coats of mail, shields, etc. The cavalry of the Irish might 
be considered as mounted kerns, being chiefly a kind of light horse. 
The term " Marcach" was applied to a horseman or cavalry soldier; 
.and " Marc-shluagh" signified a host, army, or troop of cavalry. 
"Kidire" signified a knight, and was the name applied to an 
English chief in armour. The predatory troops of the Irish are 
mentioned under the name of Creach-sluagh (from "oreaoh," 
plunder, and "sluagh," a host); and their hired troops were called 
Buanaighe (from "Buan," bound); and these mercenaries are men- 
tioned by English writers as Bonnoghs or Bonnoghts. 


■Cluana Taikbh was the ancient name of "Clontarf;" and this 
battle is designated by the Fom- Masters Cath Coradh Cluana Tairbh 
or The Battle of Clontarf of the Heroes. In the tenth century, 
many of the sea-coast towns, including Limerick, Dublin, Wexford, 
and Waterf ord, were in possession of the Danes : the ports were to 
them a ready ref age it driven by native valour to embark in their 
fleets; and convenient head-quarters when they had marauding 
•expeditions to England or Scotland in preparation. But Ireland's 
greatest enemy— domestic dissensions — then greatly prevailed: the 
great northern Hy-Nialls, long the bravest and most united of the 
Irish Clans, were now divided into two opposing parties — the Kinel 
Owen or the Clan Owen, and the Kinel Council or the Clan Connell; 
the latter of whom had been for some time excluded ft-om the 
a.lternate accession of sovereignty, which was still maintained 
between the two great families of the race of NiaU of the Nine 
Hostages, the north and south Hy-Niall. 

The sovereignty of Munster had also been settled on the alternate 
principle between the great tribes of the Dalcassians or north 
Munster race, and the Owenists or Engenians, who were the South 
Munster race; until a.d. 942, when Brian Boru's father, as a 
Dalcassian, had to contest the royal power with CaUaghau of 
Cashel, the South Munster prince; but Brian's father nobly yielded 
his claim at the time, and joined his opponent in his contest with 
the Danes. Some time after, Brian's brother, Mahoiin, attained to 
the royal power; but the South Munster men withdrew from him 
their allegiance; allied themselves with the Danes; and became the 
principals in the plot for his assassination. Brian avenged his 
brother's death: the two opposing chiefs, Donovan and MoUoy, 
were slain; and, a.d. 978, Brian became the undisputed king of 
Munster. Malachy the Second, king of Meath, was then monarch 
of Ireland. Brian and Malachy now made up their diflferences, 
united their forces against the common enemy, and obtained another 
important victory at Glen-Mama or the Glen of the Mountain Pass 
— -a valley near Dunlavin, on the borders of Wicklow and Dublin; 


where Harolt, sou of Olaf Cuarau, tlie then Danish king in Ireland, 
was slain, and four thousand of his followers there perished with 
him. Brian at this time gave his daughter in marriage to Sitric, 
another of Olaf 's sons, and completed the family alliance by espousing 
Sitric's mother, the Lady Gormflaith or Gormley, who had been 
divorced from her second husband, King Malachy the Second. 
Brian now proceeded to depose Malachy, A.D. 1002: according to 
Moore, Malachy's magnanimous character was the real ground of 
peace; he submitted to the encroachments rather from motives of 
disinterested desire for his country's welfare, than from any 
reluctance or inability to fight his own battle. Malachy surrendered 
all hostages to Brian, and Brian agreed to recognise Malachy, "with- 
out war or trespass," as sole monarch of Leath Cuinn, while Brian 
himself, in this treaty between them, was acknowledged monarch of 
Leath Mogha. The proud Hy-Nialls of the north were long in 
yielding to Brian's claims; but even them he at length subdued, 
compelling the Kinel Owen to give him hostages, and carrying ofi' 
the lord of Kinel Connell bodily to his fortress at Ivincora. 

It will be remembered that Brian was the third husband of the 
Lady Gormlej', whose brother Maolmordha was king of Leinster, a 
relative of the Dani-h king; and who had obtained his throne 
through the assistance of the Danes. This lady was remarkable 
for her beauty, but her temper was proud and vindictive: this was 
probably the reason why she was repudiated by both Malachy and 
Brian; and why, in return, she was " grim" against them. On one 
occasion, Maelmordha, wearing a tunic of silk which Brian had 
given him, " with a border of gold round it, and silver buttons," 
arrived on some business of state at Kincora, and asked his sister, 
the lady Gormley, to replace one of the silver buttons which had 
come off; but the lady flung the garment into the fire, and then 
bitterly reproached Maelmordha with having accepted this token of 
vassalage. This excited his temper. An opportunity soon ofi'ered 
for a quarrel: Brian's eldest son, Murrogh, was playing a game at 
chess with his cousin, Conoing; Maelmordha was looking on, and 
suggested a move by which Murrogh lost the game. The young prince 
exclaimed: "That was like the advice yougave the Danes, which lost 
them Glen Mama. " Maelmordha replied: " I will give them advice 
now, and they shall not be defeated. " To which Murrogh answered: 
"Then you had better ]-emind them to prepare a yew tree for your 
reception." This was the ostensible casus belli. The king of 
Leinster proceeded to organize a revolt against Brian, and succeeded; 
several of the Irish chiefs flocked to his standerd; an encounter 
soon took place in Meath, where they slew Malachy's grandson, 
Donal; Malachy marched to the rescue, and defeated the assadants 
with great slaughter, a.d, 1013. Fierce reprisals now took place on 
each side; sanctuary was disregarded; and Malachy called on Brian 
to assist him. Brian at once complied. After successfully ravaging 
Ossory, he marched to Dublin, where he was joined by his son 
Murrogh, who had devastated Wicklow— burning, destroying, and 
carrying off captives, until he reached Cill Maighnenn or "Kil'main- 


ham." They now blockaded Dublin, from the 9th September 
ftHtil. Christmas Day; -when Brian, for want of provisions, was 
obliged to raise the siege, and return home.— (See Miss Cusaok's 
History of Ireland). 

The most active preparations on both sides were now being made 
for a mighty and decisive conflict. The Danes had already obtained 
possession of England — a country which had always been united in 
its resistance to their power : why, then, should they not hope to 
conqnerj with at least equal facility, a people who had so many 
opposing interests, and who, unfortunately, but rarely sacrificed 
those interests to the common good. The lady Gormley, Brian's 
wife, was their prime-mover ; she it was who sent her son Sitric, the 
Danish king of Dublin (and the son-m-law of Brian Boru) in all 
directions to obtaio reinforcements for the Danes ; for, she naturally 
ambitioned to acquire for Sitric the entire sovereignty of Ireland, and 
to avenge the various defeats and disasters the Danes had sustained 
in their battles with Brian Boru, and King Malachy of Meath. For 
this purpose, emissaries were sent to collect and combine all the 
forces they possibly could {for the invasion of Ireland) amongst the 
Danes and Norwegians of Northumberland, and of the Orkney 
lalandSj the Hebrides, and Isle of Man, together with auxiliaries 
from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and also, it is said, from the 
Normans of France, and some Belgians, with some Britons from 
Wales and Cornwall. The "Annals of Inisf alien" state that 
Danish forces came from all the places above mentioned, and from 
all parts of the world where the Danes resided ; and the Four 
Masters meatiaa that all the "foreigners" of Eastern Europe came 
against Brian and Malachy. A powerful fleet with these combined 
forces of foreigners arrived in Dublin Bay on Palm Sunday, the 18th 
of April, A.D. 1014, under the command of Brodar, the Danish 
admiral. The entire of these combined foreign forces, together with 
the Danes of Dublin and other parts of Ireland, amounted to twelve 
thousand men ; and their Irish allies the Lagenians (or Leinster 
men), under Maelmordha, king of Leinster, numbered nine thousand 
— ^in all making twenty-one thousand men. When Maelmordha found 
aU his foreign allies assembled, he sent a herald to Brian Boru, 
challenging him to battle on the Plains of Clontarf : this custom 
prevailed amongst the ancient Irish, of selecting a time and place, 
according to mutual consent, to decide their contests in a pitched 
battle. Brian, ' ' with all that obeyed him of the men of Ireland, " 
met the Danes at (Clontarf ; and the battle took place at the mouth 
of the river Tolka, where the bridge of BaUybough now stands. 
Malachy, king of Meath, came with a thousand men; and, according 
to Keating and O'HaUoran, O'Neill, prince of Ulster at the time, 
made an offer of his troops and services, which was declined by 
Brian, in consequence of some former feuds between them ; but 
although O'Neill did not come, some of the Ulster chiefs joined the 
standard of Brian at Clontarf. O'CarroU, prince of Oriel ; the 
prince of Fermanagh; Pelim O'KeUl, a famous warrior, called Felim 
" of the Silver Shield"; Sitric, a prince of Ulster, etc. ; and the 


Morraaors or Great Stewards of Lennox and Marr, with their forces 
from Scotland— all fought on the side of Brian Boru. Brian's entire 
army, consisting in the main, of the provincial troops of the men of 
Munster and Connaught, thus amounted to about twenty thousand 

The Danish forces disposed in three divisions ready for action, 
Brian's army was also disposed in three divisions ; and having, with 
a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other, haranguedhis troops, 
Brian, now 88 years of age, was then compelled to retire to the rere, 
and await the result of the conflict : there he used to say to his 
attendant — "Watch thou the battle and the combats, whilst I say 
the psalms." It was a conflict of heroes — a hand-to-hand fight. On 
either side bravery was not wanting ; and, for a time, the result 
seemed doubtful. Towards the afternoon, however, as many of the 
Danish leaders were out down, their followers began to give way, 
and the Irish forces prepared for a final eff'ort. The Northmen and 
their allies were now flying — the one towards their ships, and the 
others towards Dublin ; but, as they fled towards the (river) Tolka, 
they forgot that it was now swollen with the incoming tide, and 
thousands perished by water who had escaped the sword. In the 
meantime Brodar, perceiving Brian's soldiers in pursuit of the flying 
Danes, and none left to guard the royal tent, rushed forward with 
some of his followers from their concealment in the wood, and, 
attacking the king, slew him, and, it is said, cut off his head, together 
with the hand of the page, who had stretched it forth to save the 
king ; and he then cried out — "Let it be proclaimed from man to 
man that Brian has fallen by (the hand of) Brodar." Immediately 
on hearing of Brian's death, the soldiers who were in pursuit of the 
Danes returned ; and, having taken Brodar, hung him on a tree, 
and tore out his entrails. 

According to the Four Masters, Maelmordha the king of Leinster, 
and many of his chiefs, were slain by Malachy the Second and his 
men ; who, towards the end of the battle, attacked the Danes and 
Lageuians and slew great numbers of them. It is stated in the 
ancient MS. called Leabhar Oiris, as given by Keating, O'Halloran, 
and others, that when Malachy returned to Meath he described the 
Battle of Clontarf, as follows : — 

" It is impossible for human language to describe that battle, nor 
could less than an angel from heaven adequately relate the terrors of 
that day. We were separated from the combatants, as spectators, 
at no greater distance than the breadth of a ditch and of a fallow 
field ; the high wind of the spring blowing towards where we stood. 
Not longer than half an hour after they commenced the conflict, 
could the combatants be distinguished from each other ; not even a 
father or a brother could recognise each other, except by their voices, 
so closely were they mingled together. When the warriors engaged 
and grappled in close combat, it was dreadful to behold how their 
weapons glittered over their heads, in the sun ; giving them the 
appearance of a numerous flock of white sea-gulls flying in the air. 
Our bodies and clothes were all covered over as it were with a red 


rain of blood, borne from the battle-field on the wings of the mud ; 
the swords, spears, and battle-axes of the combatants were so 
cemented and entangled with clotted blood and locks of hair, that 
they could with difficulty use them ; and it was a long time before 
they recovered their former brightness. To those who beheld the 
slaughter, as spectators, the sight was more terrific than to those 
enguged in the battle ; which continued from sunrise until the shades 
of evening, when the fuU tide carried the ships away." 

Although the attempt to establish Danish supremacy in Ireland 
received a death-blow by the victory of Oloutarf, yet the Danes 
continued at Dublin, Waterford, and other places ; and held consi- 
derable power for more than a century after that time^up to the 
Anglo-Norman invasion. The royal tent, and Brian's head-quarters, 
are traditionally said to have been at the place now pointed out by 
the name of " Conquer Hill," near the sea shore, a short distance 
beyond the present village of Clontarf ; but the battlefield extended 
widely over the adjoining plains, and the pursuing and retreating 
parties had fierce conflicts along the shore towards Eaheny, Baldoyle, 
and Howth on one side j and on the other, as far as the river Tolka 
and Ballybough bridge, towards Dubhn. 

The renowned Brian fell, as above mentioned, in the 88th year of 
his age ; and he has been always justly celebrated as one of the 
greatest of the Irish kings; eminent for his valour, wisdom, abilities, 
patriotism, piety, munificence, and patronage of learning and the 
arts ; from the eminence of his character, as a patriot, a hero, and 
a legislator, he has been called the " Irish Alfred" ; and by the 
Four Masters he is designated "The Augustus of Western Europe." 
Clontarf has been called " The Marathon of Ireland" ; but as yet 
no monument has been raised to the memory of Brian, or the heroes 
who fell in that battle. Brian is mentioned to have been a man of 
majestic stature j highly distinguished for his personal prowess, 
bravery, and feats of arms, in his various battles ; his residence was 
at the palace of Kincora, on the banks of the Shannon, near Killaloe, 
in the County Clare. The place was called, in Irish, Ce^n Cora or 
the Head of the Weir, from a weir placed there on the Shannon ; and 
there are still to be seen some remains of the great earthen ramparts 
which surrounded his fortress. Brian Boru's " Harp" is still 
preserved in the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin ; and his glories 
are commemorated by Moore, in one of the Irish Melodies, com- 
mencing thus : — 

" Remember the glories of Brian the brave. 

Though the days of the Hero are o'er ; 
For, lost to Momonia, and cold in his grave, 

He returns to Kincora no more. 

That star of the field, which so often had poured 

Its beam on the battle, is set ; 
But enough of its glory remains on each sword 

To light us to victory yet." 



The ancient Irish, amidst aU their fierce feuds amongst themselves, 
and sanguinary conflicts of centuries with foreign foes, were still a 
religious race, and imbued with a great love of literature ; and their 
kings, princes, and chiefs, founded and amply endowed a vast number 
of ecclesiastical and literary establishments, abbeys, colleges, and 
great schools ; as those of Armagh, Downpatrick, Bangor, Derry, 
Donegal, Clogher, Clones, Devenish, Fenagh, Bo3de, Cong, Mayo, 
Clonfert, Louth, Monasterboyce, Mellifont, 81ane, Kells, Ardbracan, 
Trim, Clonard, Clonmacnoise, Rahan, Fore, Kildare, Clonenagh, 
Tallaght, Glendalough, Leighlin, Ferns, Lismore, Cashel, Holycross, 
Koss, Roscrea, Inisoathay, Arran of the Saints, and others. Of 
these famous seats of piety and learning amongst the ancient Irish, 
many venerable ruins still remain, but of many more even their very 
ruins have disappeared — destroyed by the hand of time, or the still 
more destructive violence of fanaticism and war. The most celebrated 
places of pilgrimage in Ireland were Lough Derg (in Donegal), 
Armagh, Downpatrick, and Derry Columbkille, in Ulster ; Croagh 
Patrick mountain in Mayo ; Arran of the Saints, off the coast of 
Galway ; the seven churches of St. Kiaran at Clonmacnoise, and of 
St. Kevin at Glendalough ; Kildare of St. Bridget ; and Holycross 
in Tipperary. 



The See of Ardmore, in Waterford, was founded in the fifth century 
by the celebrated St. Declan, who was of the tribe of the Desians. 
Ardmore was united to the see of Lismore in the latter end of the 
twelfth century. 

The See of Liimore, in Waterford, was founded in the beginning 
of the seventh century by St. Carthach. The see of Ardmore having 
been annexed to Lismore, as above stated, both were annexed to the 
see of Waterford, in the fourteenth century. 

The See of Waterford was founded by the Danes of that city, in 
the latter end of the eleventh century ; and Malchus, a Dane, was 
appointed its first bishop, A.D. 1096. The bishops of Waterford were 
styled by old writers bishops of Port Lairge, signifying the Port of 
the Thigh, from the river Suir and harbour resembling that part of 
the human body. 

Boscrea, in Tipperary, was an ancient bishop's see, founded by St. 
Cronan, in the latter end of the sixth century, and was in early 
times annexed to Killaloe. 

The See of Emly, in early times the metropolitan see of Munster, 
was founded in the fifth century by the celebrated St. Ailbe, who 
was called the Patrick of Munster. Emly was once a considerable 


city, and was called Imleaoh Tubhair, signifying Emly of the Yew 
Trees ; and sometimes Imleach Ailbe or Emly of St. Ailbe. The 
see of Emly was united to Cashel in the sixteenth century ; and 
comprises parts of the counties of Tipperary and Limerick. 

The See of Cashel was founded in the latter end of the ninth 
century, by the celebrated Cormao MacCullenan, archbishop of 
Cashel, and king of Munster. Its patron saint is Albert, a celebrated 
Irish saint of the seventh century, who became a missionary in 
Germany. The archbishops of Cashel were styled, by the old Irish 
writers, bishops of Leath Mogha or bishops of Munster. A.D. 1101, 
Murtogh O'Brien, king of Munster, convened at Cashel a synod of 
bishops, clergy, and nobility, in which he assigned over to the see 
and its bishops that hitherto royal seat of the kings of Munster ; 
in A.D. 1127 Cormao Mac Carchy erected a church there, called from 
him, Teampull Chormaic or Cormac's Chapel; and, in a.d. 1169, 
Donal O'Brien, king of Thomond, erected a cathedral at Cashel, 
which he amply endowed. A.D. 1172, a great synod of bishops and 
clergy was convened at Cashel by King Henry the Second, in which 
Christian O'Conarchy, bishop of Lismore, presided as the Pope's 
legate ; and King Henry's claim to the sovereignty of Ireland was 
{Four Masters) acknowledged in that assembly. The archiepiscopal 
see of Cashel has jurisdiction over the ecclesiastical province of 
Munster, under which the following are the suffragan sees : — Ardf ert 
and Aghadoe (or Kerry), Cork, Cloyne, Ross, Waterford, Lismore, 
Emly, Limerick, Killaloe, and Kilfenora. 

The See of Kilfenora comprises only the baronies of Burren and 
Corcomroe, in the County Clare ; and is the smallest in Ireland. It 
was anciently called Fenabore, and sometimes Corcomroe ; and was 
founded by St. Fachna. 

The See of Killaloe, in Irish CiU-da-Lua or the Church of Lua, 
got its name from St. Lua or Molua, who founded a church there in 
the sixth century. Killaloe is Latinized "Laonia," and it became 
a bishop's see in the seventh century : the first bishop being St. 
Flannan, a disciple of St. Molua, a.d. 639 ; and son of Torlogh, king 
of Munster. The diocese of Killaloe comprehends the greater part 
of the County Clare, with a large portion of Tipperary, and parts of 
Limerick, King's and Queen's Counties, and Galway. 

Tlie See of Inis Cathay was founded in the fifth century by St. 
Patrick ; and St. Senan, bishop and abbot of Inis Cathay, is men- 
tioned as his successor. Inis Cathay is &n. island near the mouth of 
the Shannon. This ancient see, which comprised some adjoining 
districts in the counties of Limerick and Clare, was annexed to the 
see of Limerick, in the twelfth century. 

The See of Limerick was founded in the sixth century by St. 
Munchin, who became the first bishop. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, several of the bishops of Limerick were Danes : a colony 
of that people possessing the city at that period. The diocese of 
Limerick comprises the greater part of the County Limerick, with a 
portion of Clare. 


The See. of Cork was founded by St. Barr, called Fin-Barr, in the- 
beginning of the seventh century. The diocese comprises, together 
witli the city, a large portion of the County Cork. 

The See of Cloyne was founded by St. Colman, a disciple of St. 
Fin-Bar, of Cork. Cloyne is called in Irish Cluan TJama, which 
signifies the Retreat of the Cave ; is Latinized ' ' Cluanvania" ; and 
comprises about a third of the County Cork. 

The See of Soss was founded in the beginning of the sixth century 
by St. Fachnan ; and was anciently called, in Irish, Eoss Ailithri 
(signifyingthe Plain of Pilgrimage), and, inmodem times, Rosscarbery. 

Aghadoe, an ancient bishop's see, situated near the abbey of 
Innisfallen and Lakes of Killarney, was in very early times annexed 
to Ardfert. 

The See of Ardfert was founded, according to some accounts, by 
St. Ert or Ere, in the latter end of the fifth century ; and, according 
to others, by St. Brendan, in the sixth century, who is the patron 
saint of the diocese, which is sometimes mentioned as the see of 
" Ardfert Brendan." The see of Ardfert was also sometimes styled 
the archbishopric of lar ivlumhan or West Munster, and is also called 
the see of Kerry. The united diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe is 
very large, comprehending the entire County Kerry, with a small 
portion of Cork. 


The See of Armagh, founded by St. Patrick in the fifth century, 
afterwards the seat of an archdiocese, and the metropolitan see of 
all Ireland. The diocese of Armagh comprehends the greater part 
of that county, with parts of Louth, Meath, Tyrone, and London- 
derry ; and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the sees of Meath, 
Ardagh, Kilmore, Clogher, Raphoe, Derry, Down and Connor, and 

The See of Clogher, which was founded by St. MacArtin in the 
fifth century, comprised, in the ancient ecclesiastical divisions of 
Ireland, the principality of Orgiall ; and the bishops of Clogher were 
frequently styled bishops of Orgiall and Ergallia ; but, in the 
thirteenth century, the County Louth was separated from Clogher, 
and added to the diocese of Armagh. In early times, too, there 
were bishops' sees at Clones and Louth, which were afterwards 
annexed to Clogher. St. Mochta or Mocteus, who was contemporary 
with St. Patrick, was the founder and the first bishop of the see of 
Louth. At present the diocese of Clogher comprises the whole of 
Monaghan, the greater part of Fermanagh, parts of Donegal and 
Tyrone, and a small portion of Louth . 

TAe -See of Down, in Latin "Dunum," was founded by St. 
Cailan, m the fifth century. The bishops of Down were, by ancient 
writers, mentioned as bishops of Duudaleathghlas, an ancient name 
of Downpatnck ; they were also styled bishops of Uladh or Ulidia. 


The See of Connor is united to that of Down; wliioh compreheneds 
the ^eater part of the County Down, with a small portion of 

Tlie See of Dromore, which was founded by St. Cohnan in the 
sixth century, comprises a large part of the County Down, with 
small portions of Armagh and Antrim. 

Ardsratha, on the river Derg, now the parish of " Ardatraw" in 
Tyrone, was an ancient bishop's see, founded by St. Eugene in the 
sixth century ; it was also called Kathlurig or Eathlure, from St. 
Lurac, to whom the church was dedicated. The see of Ardsrath 
was, at an early period, transferred to Maghera, in the County 
Derry ; and afterwards, in the twelfth century, annexed to Derry. 
The bishops of these sees were styled bishops of Kinel-Eogaiu or 

See of Derry. A monastery was founded in the sixth century by 
St. Columkille, at a place called Doire Calgach (signifying the Oak 
Wood of Calgach), which St. Adamnan, abbot of lona in the 
seventh century, in his life of St. Columkille, translates "Eoboretum 
Calgachi." It was also called Doire Coluim CUle (or the Oakwood 
of St. Columkille), Anglicised ' ' Derry ColumkOle ;" and gave its 
name to the city and county of Derry. In the twelfth century, a 
regular bishop's see was formed at Derry, to which was afterwards 
■annexed the see of Ardsrath, above mentioned. The diocese of 
Derry comprehends the greater part of the County Londonderry, 
"with nearly half of Tyrone, a large portion of Donegal, and a very 
small portion of Antrim. 

The See of Raphoe was founded by St. Eunan, whom Lanigan 
considers to have been the same person as Adamnan, the celebrated 
abbot of lona, in the seventh century, who was a native of Tyrconnell. 
The diocese of Kaphoe comprehends the greater part of the County 

The See of KUmore was founded by St. FeUm or Felimy in the 
sixth century. The bishops of Kilmore were in early times styled 
Bishops of Brefney. The diocese comprises almost the entire of the 
County Cavan, with the greater part of Leitrim, a large portion of 
Fermanagh, and a smaU portion of Heath. 

The See of Ardagh was founded by St. Mel in the fifth century, 
and its bishops were also styled bishops of Conmaicne, as the diocese 
included the territory in Leitrim called Conmaicne. The diocese of 
Ardagh at present comprehends nearly the whole of the County 
Longford, a large portion of Leitrim, and parts of Westmeath, 
Eoscommon, Sligo, and Cavan, In the Roman Catholic division, 
the ancient See of Clonmannoise, in the King's County, is united to 
Ardagh ; but, in the Protestant Episcopalian Church, the see of 
Clonmacnoise has been united to the diocese of Meath. 

The See of Clonmacnoise, in Irish Cluan Mac Nois, signifies, 
according to some accounts, the Betreat of the Sons of the Noble, 
either from the great numbers of the sons of the Irish nobility who 
resorted to its college for education, or, from many of the Irish 
princes having their burial places in its cemetery. An abbey was 


founded here in the sixth century by St. Kiaran the younger, on 
lands granted by the monarch Diarmot, king of Meath, in whose reign 
the royal palace of Tara was, a.b. 563, abandoned ; and it became 
one of the most celebrated seats of learning and religion in Ireland, 
in the early ages of Christianity. It was formed into a bishop's 
see, and the cathedral was erected in the twelfth century by the 
O'Melaghlins, kings of Meath, who conferred most extensive endow- 
ments of lands on the abbey and see. A city and college were also 
founded, here, and the place maintained its literary and religious 
celebrity for many centuries ; but, having been repeatedly devastated 
by the Danes, during the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, and 
frequently ravaged by the English, in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries ; and its cathedral and churches having been finally 
demolished by the soldiers of the English garrison of Athlone in the 
reign of Elizabeth, it has fallen into utter decay. But its ancient 
greatness is amply demonstrated by the magnificent and venerable 
ruins of the cathedral and seven churches, and of a castle, together 
with two beautiful round towers, some splendid stone crosses, and 
other antiquities which still remain. It contains one of the most 
ancient and extensive cemeteries in Ireland, and was the burial 
place of many of the Irish Christian kings and princes, as the 
O'Conors, kings of Connaught ; the O'Melaghlins, kings of Meath ; 
the O'Kellys, princes of Hy Maine; the MacDermots, princes of 
Moylurg ; and several other ancient and noble families. Clonmac- 
noise, called the "lona of Ireland," is beautifully situated in a 
lovely retreat on the banks of the Shannon ; and, though now part 
of the King's County, the diocese originally formed part of the 
ancient kingdom of Meath, and was united to the see of Meath in 
the sixteenth century. 

The See of Meath. Ancient Meath contained the following bishops' 
sees : — Clouard, Duleek, Ardbracan, Trim, KeUs, Slane, Dun- 
shaughlin, and Kilskyre, in East Meath ; with Fore, and Uisneagh 
or Killere, in VVestmeath. All those sees were consolidated in the 
twelfth century, and formed into the diocese of Meath. In A.D. 
1568, the ancient see of Cloumacnoise, in Westmeath and King's 
County, was aimexed to the diocese of Meath. The ancient see of 
Lusk, which lay in the kingdom of Meath, was united to the diocese 
of Dublin. The diocese of Meath is one of the ten which constitute 
the ecclesiastical province of Armagh ; and comprehends almost the 
whole of the counties of Meath and Westmeath, a large portion of 
the King's County, with parts of Kildare, Longford, and Cavan— 
bemg nearly co-extensive with the ancient kingdom of Meath. 


The See of. Tuam was founded by St. Jarlath in the beginning of 
the sixth century ; and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the sees 
of Killala, Achonry, Elphiu, Clonfert, Kilmacduagh, Kilfenora, and 


Galwiy. The ancient sees of Cong, Mayo, and Enaclidune were, in 
time, annexed to Tuam, whose bishops were often styled bishops of 
Connaurfit ; and of which province, the archbishop of Tuam is the 
metropolitan. The diocese, of Tuam comprises the greater part of the 
County Gal way, and about one-third of Mayo, with a large portion 
of Roscommon. 

The See of Cong was founded by St. Feichin, a native of Sligo, in 
the seventh century ; and was united to the gee of Tuam, in the 
tyelfth century. Cong was also the residence of some of the kings 
of Gdnnaught. 

TJie See of Mayo. In the seventh century, St. Colman, an 
Irishman, who had been bishop of Lindisfarne, in Northumberland, 
founded the monastery of Mayo, chiefly for the use of English 
monks whom he had brought over with him from England. A 
" college also was there founded, ehiefly for the use of the English : 
hence called Magh-Eo-na-Saxon or Mayo of the Saxons.. It is said 
that Alfred, king of Northiimberland, in the seventh century, and 
Alfred the Great, King of England, in the ninth century, both 
received their education in that college. Mayo likewise became a 
bishop's see, and, in the sixteenth cen iury, was annexed to the see 
of Tuam. 

The See of KUlala* or Cill Alaidhe was founded by St. Patrick in 
the fifth century, and its bishops were sometimes called bishops of 
Tir-Amhalgaidh [Tyrawley], as also bishops of Tir-Eiachra, and of 
Hy-Fiachra, sind sometimes of Hy-Eiaohra Muaidhe, that is, of Hy- 
Fiachra of the (river) Moy : so called, to distinguish it from Hy- 
Fiachra Aidhne (or the diocese of Kilmaoduagh) in the County 
Galway. The diocese of FCillala comprehends a great part of the 
County Mayo and a portion of Sligo . 

* Killala : It would appear that the province of Connaught holds 
a distinguished rank with respect to ancient Irish literature ; for the 
' ' Books" of Leacan and Ballymote, compiled by the Mac Firbises 
and other historians in Sligo, are two of the greatest and most 
authentic works on Irish history and antiquities. These voluminous 
MSS., written on fine vellum, comprise the history of Ireland from 
the earliest ages to the fifteenth century ; and are deposited in the 
Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. The Maclirbises 
were of the same stock as the O'Dowds, princes of Hy-Fiachra, 
Their original territory was Magh Broin in Tyrawley ; they after- 
wards settled in Rosserk, between BaUina and Killaja, and lastly at 
Leacan, in the pariah of Kilglass, barony of Tireragh, County Sligo, 
on the right bank of the river Moy, where they had estates and a 
castle, the ruins of which still remain. The MacFirbises held the 
office of Ollamhs [oUavs] or historiographers and poets of Hy- 
Fiachra, and, at one time, of all Connaught. Duald (or Dudley) 
MaoFirbis, who was the last of the hereditai-y antiquaries of 
Leacan, was killed in Doonflin in the County Sligo, ad. 1670, about 
the eightieth year of his age ; and it is stated that he was buried in 
the old church of Kilglass, at Ennisorone. Some of the MacFirbises 
have changed the name to Forbes. 


The See of Achonry or Aohadh Chonaire waa founded in the sixth 
ceatury by St. Finian, bishop of Clonard, in Meath ; who placed 
over it his disciple St. Nathy, its first bishop. In early times, the 
bishops of Achonry were styled bishops of Luighne or Lieney, which 
was the ancient name of the territory. The diocese of Achonry 
comprehends a large portion of the County Sligo, with a considerable 
part of Mayo. 

Drumcliff in Sligo. In the sixth century, a monastery, which was 
long famous as a seat of learning and religion, was here founded by 
St. Columkille. It became a bishop's see, and its abbots were styled 
bishops. It was united to the see of Elphin in the sixteenth century. 

The See of Roscommon. Here) in the sixth century, St. Coman 
founded an abbey, which was called from him Kos Comain or 
" Roscommon" ; which afterwards became a bishop's see, and, at an 
early period, was united to the see of Elphin. 

The See of Ardcarne. Early in the sixth century an abbey was 
founded at Ardcarne, in the barony of Boyle, County Roscommon, 
by St. Beoidh or Beoy ; and it afterwards became a bishop's see, 
which was also at an early period annexed to the see of Elphin. 

The See of Elphin. A church was founded at Elphin, in Ros- 
common, by St. Patrick, who placed over it St. Asicus, one of his 
disciples, and made it a bishop's see. In ancient times the bishops 
of Elphin were styled bishops of East Connaught. The diocese of 
Elphin comprises the greater part of the County Roscommon, with 
considerable portions of the counties of Sligo and Galway. 

The See of Vlonfert. In the sixth century, a monastery waS 
founded at Clonfert, in the present barony of Longford, County 
Galway, by St. Brendan ; and it afterwards became a bishop's see. 
The diocese of Clonfert comprises a large part of the County Galway, 
with part of Roscommon, and a small portion of the King's County. 

Tlie See of Kilmacduagh. A monastery was founded in the present 
barony of Kiltartau, County Galway, in the seventh century, by St. 
Colman, the son of Duach : hence, it was caUed CiU Mac Duach, 
signifying the Church of the son of Duach, which became a bishop's 
see, and gave its name to the diocese. The bishops of Kilmacduagh 
were in ancient times styled bishops of Hy-Fiachra Aidhne, -v, hich- 
was the ancient name of the territory. The diocese of Kilmacduagh 
comprises a large portion of the County Galway. 

The See of Enachdune. A monastery was founded at Enachdune, 
now the parish of Annaghdown, in the barony of Clare, County 
Galway, by St. Brendan, in the sixth century ; it became a bishop's 
see, and in the fourteenth century was united to the diocese of Tuam. 
A.D. 1324. 

The See of Galway. The diocese of Galway, which comprises the 
city of G-alway and some adjoining districts, anciently formed part 
of the diocese of Enachdune, but was afterwards presided over by 
an ecclesiastic who had episcopal authority, and was elected by the 
tribes under the title of " Warden." The wardenship was instituted 
in the fifteenth century, a.d. 1484, by Pope Innocent the Eighth ; 
and the wardens of Galway continued till the year 1831, the first 
year of the Pontificate of Gregory the Sixteenth, who abolished the 
wardenship and erected it into a bishop's see. 



TAe See of Sletty (or Sleibhtiu). Sletty was situated in Hy- 
Kinsellagh, near the river Barrow, about a mile from the present 
town of Carlo w, on the borders of the Queen's County. Here a 
church, the ruins of which still remain, and which gives name to a 
parish in that county , was, in the fifth century, founded by St. Fieoh, 
a celebrated disciple of St. Patrick. St. Fiech made Sletty a bishop's 
see, which in the fifth and sixth centuries was the chief see of 
Leinster, but was afterwards annexed to Leighlin. 

The See of Leighlin. In the beginning of the seventh century, St. 
Gobhan founded a monastery at Leighlin, which St. Molaisre (called 
Laserian) shortly after made a bishop's see. In A.D. 630, a great 
synod of bishops and clergy was held at Leighlin, to regulate the 
time for the celebration of Easter ; and it is stated that at one time 
this abbey contained ^l!een hundred monks. The diocese of Leighlin, 
now annexed to the cUocese of Kildare, comprises the whole of the 
County Carlow, a large part of the Queen's County, with some por- 
tions of Kilkenny and Wicklow. 

The See of Ferns, called in ancient times Fearna Maodhoig or Ferns 
of Moeg, was founded by St. Moeg in the sixth century. The name 
Moeg, in Irish Maodhog, is Latinized "Maidocus" and "Aidanas" ; 
of hSm Giraldus Cambrensis says: — "Sanotus Aidanus qui et 
Hibemice Maidocus dicitur." In the beginning of the seventh 
century, Ferns was made the metropolitan see of Leinster ; and so 
continued untU the beginning of the ninth century, when Kildare 
was constituted the metropoUtan see ; and which continued till the 
twelfth century, when Dublin was constituted the archiepiscopal see 
of Leinster. Ferns became a great city, and was the chief residence 
of the kings of Leinster, but, from its repeated ravages by the Danes, 
it fell into decay. The diocese of Ferns comprises nearly the whole 
of the County Wexford, with small portions of Wicklow and the 
Queen's County. 

The See of Glendalough was founded by St. Kevin (in Irish St. 
Caoimgin), in the sixth century. The name in Irish is Glean-da- 
Loch, signifying the Valley of- the two Lakes, the place being 
situated in a beautiful valley containing two lakes, and surrounded 
with magnificent mountains in the County Wicklow. The diocese 
of Glendalough in ancient times comprised the County Wicklow, and 
a great part of the County Dublin ; and was, in the thirteenth 
century, a.d. 1214, annexed to the see of Dublin ; but the archbishops 
of Dublin, being all English at the time, could not obtain peaceable 
possession of it till the fifteenth century. Glendalough once con- 
tained a large city, but being repeatedly ravaged by the Danes, 
during the ninth and tenth centuries, and by the English in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, it fell into complete decay. Its 
former greatness, however, is sufficiently demonstrated by the 
extensive ruins of a cathedral and seven churches, a round tower, 
and other interesting antiquities which still remain. 

The See of Kildare. St. Bridget, St. Patrick, and St. Columkille, 


•were the thiee great tutelar saints of Ireland. These are the three 
illustrious Irish saints to whom the learned John Colgan, an Irish 
Franciscan of the monastery of Louvain, in the Netherlands, in the 
seventeenth century, alludes in his great work styled " Trias 
Thaumaturga" or the Wonder-working triad. St. Bridget (who was 
the daughter of a prince named Dubhthach, of the same descent as 
the celebrated Conn of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland in 
the second century) was born about A.D. 453, at a place called 
Fochart, in the Kingdom of Orgiall, now "Faughart," near Dundalk, 
in the County Louth ; and founded in the fifth century the famous 
monastery at Kildare, called in Irish Cill-dara, which signifies the 
Church of the Oak, from a great oak tree near which it was erected. 
St. Bridget, according to the Four Masters, died at her monastery 
of Kildare, A.D, 525, on the 1st of February. This monastery was 
the first religious foundation in Kildare ; a great town or city grew 
up there, and an episcopal see there founded in the latter end of the 
fifth century, St. Conlaeth being its first bishop. This place also 
fell into decay, from the repeated devastations of the Danes, in the 
ninth and tenth centuries, and the much more destructive wars of 
later times ; but the magnificent ruins of the ancient cathedral of 
Kildare, with a most beautiful round tower, and some fragments of 
splendid stone crosses which stUl remain, amply demonstrate its 
former greatness. At KilcuUen, in the same county, an abbey was 
founded by St. Iseminus, in the fifth century ; and its abbots were 
styled bishops, down to the twelfth century, at which time it was 
annexed to the see of Kildare. The diocese of Kildare comprises the 
greater part of the County Kildare, with a great part of the King's 
County, and a considerable portion of the Queen's County. 

The See of Ossory was first founded at Saiger, now the parish of 
" Seir-Kierau," near Birr or Parsonstown, in the King's County; 
and was so called from Kieran of Saiger, a celebrated saint who 
founded a church there in the beginning of the fifth century, and 
who was called St. Kiaran the Blder, to distinguish him from 
Kiaran of Clonmacnoise who lived at a later period. The see of 
Saiger was afterwards transferred to Achadhboe or " Aghaboe" 
(sometimes called " Aghavoe") in the barony of Upper Ossory in the 
Queen's County, where a celebrated monastery was founded by St. 
Canice, in the sixth century. The See of Aghaboe continued to be 
the seat of the diocese of Ossory, to near the end of the twelfth 
century, when it was removed to Kilkenny, and called the See of 
Ossory ; and the bishops of Ossory were in early times styled bishops 
of Saiger, and sometimes bishops of Aghavoe. The diocese of 
Ossory comprehends almost the whole of the County Kilkenny, with 
the barony of Upper Ossory in the Queen's County, and the parish 
of Seir-Kiaran, in the King's County : being nearly 'co-extensive 
with the ancient principality of Ossory. Clonenagh, in the Queen's 
County, had a celebrated monastery founded in the fifth century by 
St. Fintan, and its abbots were also styled bishops : this ancient 
see was annexed to the see of Leighlin. Birr had also a celebrated 
abbey founded by tst. Brendan, in the sixth century, and its abbots 
were styled bishops ; it was annexed to the see of Killaloe. 


_ The See of Dublin. Colgan mentions St. Livinus as the first 
bishop of Dublin, in the beginning of the seventh century. Gregory 
was the first who,' a.d. 1152, got the title of Archbishop of Dublin ; 
for, the see of Ferna was in the seventh and eighth centuries the 
chief see of Leinster, but during the ninth, tenth, and eleventh 
centuries, the see of Kildare was made the metropolitan see of that 
province : and hence the bishops of Ferns and of Kildare were in 
those times styled, by the Irish writers, bishops or ai-chbishops of 
Leinster ; but, in the twelfth century, as above mentioned, Dublin 
was constituted the metropolitan see of Leinster, and its bishops 
styled Archbishops of Dublin, and sometimes archbishops of Leinster. 
In the diocese of Dublin were the following ancient sees :^Cluan 
Doloain, now " Clondalkin," near Dublin, where, in the seventh 
century, St. Cronan Moohua founded an abbey, whose abbots were 
styled bishops ; Tamlaght or " TaUaght," near Dublin, where, in 
the sixth century, a monastery was founded, and St. Maolruan is 
mentioned as its first bishop in the eighth century ; Finglas, near 
Dublin, where a monastery was founded in the sixth century by St. 
Cainneach or Kenny, from whom " Kilkenny" derived its name, and 
the abbots of Finglas were, down to the eleventh centuryj styled 
bishops ; Swords, near Dublin, in which St. Columkille founded an 
abbey in the sixth century, whose abbots were styled bishops down 
to the twelfth century ; and Lusk, in the County Dublin, where an 
abbey was founded in the fifth century by St. Maculind, and he and 
his successors down to the twelfth century were denominated abbots 
and bishops of Lusk. These small ancient sees were annexed to 
Dublin in the twelfth century; and, in a.d. 1214, under Henry de 
Loundres, then archbishop of Dublin, the ancient see of Glendalough 
was united to Dublin. But for the reasons above mentioned, under 
"The See of Glendalough," the union of this ancient see with 
Dublin was not peaceably and fully established until the latter end 
of the fifteenth century : the Irish, up to that period, having their 
own recognised bishops of Glendalough. From the twelfth to the 
eighteenth century remarkable contests and controversies were car- 
ried on between the Archbishops of Armagh and of Dublin, respect- 
ing the primaq/, each of those archbishops claiming precedence 
(see "A Church History of Irelaiid," by the Rev. Sylvester Malone. 
Dublin: W. B. Kelly, 8, Grafton street, 186S) ; but the claims of 
Armagh to the primacy were finally conceded, both in the Roman 
Catholic and Protestant Churches— the archbishops of Dublin being 
styled "primates of Ireland," and the archbishobs of Armagh 
" primates of all Ireland. " Another remarkable circumstance con- 
nected with the diocese of Dublin is, that since the eleventh contury 
it contains two cathedrals, namely, those of St. Patrick and Christ 
Church, of which it is said only another instance is to be found in 
any see, and that is at Sarragossa, in Spain. 

The Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough comprises the greater part 
of the County Dublin, together with a great part of Wioklow, and 
parts of Wexford, Kildare, and Queen's County ; and the sees of 
Ossory, Ferns, Kildare and Leighlin, in the ecclesiastical province of 
Leinster, are subject to the jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see of 



The title Aircinaeach or " Erenach " originally meant an Arch- 
deacon, who, aocbrding to ancient discipline, was the manager oTffia 
property of the church. By degrees, this office fell into thelffatfds 
of layinen, who consequently assumed the title of Archdeacons ; and, 
in the middle ages, several archdeacons are found in one and the 
same diocese, some called "majores," others, "minores." In the 
course of time, the Erenaehs became exceedingly numerous in Ire- 
land, and were universally laymen, except that they were tonsured : 
on which account they were ranked among the cfericLjaii_olerk8. 
Each of these Erenaehs used to pay, and was bound to do so, A 
certain subsidy, refections, and a yearly pension to the archbishop 
or bishop, in whose diocese the lands held by them were situated, 
in proportion to the quantity of land and the custom of the country. 
XJssher observes, that in the diocese of Derry and Raphoe the bishop 
got a third part, the other two-thirds being reserved for the repairs 
of churches, hospitality, and the Ereuach's maintenance. In fact, 
the Erenaehs were the actual possessors of old church lands, out of 
which they paid certain contributions, either in money or kind, 
towards ecclesiastical purposes. There was another title in the 
church somewhat similar, but superior in rank to the Erenabh, 
called "Comharba "or " Coarb." Some of the ooarbsor comorbans 
in later times were laymen, and possessed lands belonging to epis- 
copal sees, paying, however, certain mensal dues to the bishops, who 
did not hold the lands in demesne. On the whole, it appears, that 
in ancient times in Ireland the coarbs and Erenaehs were the mana- 
gers of church lands (see XJssher and Lanigan). 


In the reign of Tigeru-Masius, or Tiqearnmas, the thirteenth 
monarch of Ireland, a gold mine was, according to our old annalists, 
discovered near the River Liffey ; and the gold was worked by an 
artificer skilled in metals, named Uachadan, of the men of Cualan : 
a territory which, as already explained, comprised the County 
Wicklow, with some of the southern parts of Dublin. This Uachadan 
IS supposed to have been one of the Tua-de-Danans, who were 
famous for their skill in the arts, and who, after they had been 
conquered by the MHesians, continued to be the chief artificers of 
the kmgdom,— as workers in metals, builders, mechanics, &o. Tn 
an ancient Irish poem on the Tua-de-Danans, contained in the " Book 
of Ballymote," an account is given of the gold mine discovered near 
the Liffey, which is thus mentioned in the following passage :— 

" It was Tigearnmas first established in Ireland 
The art of dyeing cloth of purple and other colours ; 
And the ornamenting of drinking cups and goblets ;' 
And breast pins for mantles, of gold and silver. 


" And "by his directions TJachadan of Cualan 
Was the first man of his tribe, as I record, 
Who ingeniously introduced the operation 
Of refining gold in this kingdom of Erin. " 


The English Pale. — The term " Pale," signifying a fence or enclo- 
sure, was applied to those English settlements in Ireland, within 
which their laws and authority prevailed ; and the designation Pale 
appears to have been first applied to the English territory about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. Spencer, in his "View of 
Ireland," written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, speaking of the 
invasionof Edward Bruce, A. D. 1316, says: "He burned and spoiled 
all the old Enclish Pale." 


In the " Scotic Chronicle " of John of Fordun, written in the 
fourteenth century, there is given in Latin a letter which was sent 
by Donal O'NeiU, king of Ulster, to Pope John the Twenty-Second, 
complaining of the tyranny exercised by the English in Ireland. 
Pope John, moved by the remonstrance of O'Neill and the grievances 
of the Irish people, addressed a letter to King Edward the Second, 
eSiorting hiTti to check the tyranny exercised against the people of 
Ireland ; in consequence of which, the Pontiff says, the Irish were 
constrained to throw off King Edward's dominion, and (alluding to 
Edward Bruce) to appoint another king to rule over them. The 
remonstrance of O'Neill, and Pope John's letter to King Edward, 
are given in Latin in the French edition of MacGeoghegan. It can 
do no good to open afresh the now healing wounds of Ireland, by 
quoting in its entirity Donal O'Neill's letter to Pope John, nor Pope 
John's letter to King Edward. I shall, therefore, confiue myself to 
a few extracts from those important documents, merely to show why 
Edward Bruce attempted an invasion of Ireland. O'Neill says : 
" After our kings for so long a time had strenuously defended by 
their own valour, against the tyrants and kings of many foreign 
countries, the inheritance granted them by God, and always preser- 
ving their native liberty, at length. Pope Adrian, your predecessor, 
an Englishman, not only by birth, but in heart and disposition, in 
the year of our Lord, 1170 . . . . did, as you know, transfer 
the sovereignty of our kingdom, under some certain form of words, 
to the said king . . . The judgment of the Pontiff being thus, 
alas ! blinded by hiaj English prejudice, regardUss of every right, 
he did thus in fact unworthily confer on him our kingdom, thereby 
depriving us of our regal honours ; and delivered us up, having com- 
mitted no crime, and without any rational cause, to be torn as with 


the teeth of the most cruel wild beasts. . . . These few state- 
ments respecting the general origin of our progemtors, and the 
miserable state in which the Roman Pontiff has placed us, suace tor 
the present time." , , „ ■, -j. ■ -j 

In the letter of Pope John to King Edward the Second, it is said : 
" We have a long time since received from the princes and people 
of Ireland letters .... addressed to us. Thesewe have read, 
and, among other things which they contain, have particularly noted 
that our predecessor. Pope Adrian, of happy memory, hath given to 
your illustrious progenitor, Henry the Second, King of England, the 
Kingdom of Ireland, as specified ia his apostolical letters to him. 
. . None have dared to stem the persecutions which have been 
practised against the Irish, nor has any person been found wilHng 
to remedy the cause of them ; not one, I say, has been moved, through 
a holy compassion for their sufferings, although frequent appeals 
have been made to your goodness in their behalf ; and the strong 
cries of the oppressed have reached the ears of your majesty. Thus, 
no longer able to endure such tyranny, the unhappy Irish have been 
constrained to withdraw themselves from your dominion, and to 
seek another to rule over them in your stead. ... As it is, 
therefore, important to your interest to obviate the misfortunes which 
these troubles are capable of producing, they should not be neglected 
in the beginning, lest the evil increase by degrees, and the necessary 
remedies be applied too late." 

Moore, in his " History of Ireland," vol. iii,, page 76, writes : — 
■' So great was the lust and pride of governing on the one side, and 
such the resolution on the other, to cast off the intolerable yoke, 
that, as there never yet had been, so never in this life would there 
be, peace or truce between the nations ; that they themselves had 
already sent letters to the King and counoU, through the hands of 
John Hotham, the bishop of Ely, representing the wrongs and out- 
rages they had so long suffered from the English, and proposing a 
settlement by which all such lands as were known to be rightfully 
theirs, should be secured in future to them by direotitenure from the 
Crown ; or, even agreeing, in order to save the further effusion of 
blood, to submit to any friendly plan proposed by the King himself 
for fair division of the lands between them and their adversaries. To 
this proposition, forwarded to England two years before, no answer 
had been returned : wherefore, they (the Irish) say that, for the 
speedy and more effectual attainment of their object, they have 
called to their aid the illustrious Earl of Carrick, Edward de Bruce, 
a lord descended from the same ancestors as themselves, and have 
made over to him by Letters Patent all the rights which they them- 
selves, as lawful heirs of the Kingdom, respectively possess ; thereby 
constituting him king and lord of Ireland." 

It was therefore that, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
Donal O'Neill, Prince of Tyrone, and several other Irish princes and 
chiefs, invited the renowned Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, (after 
the battle of Bannockburu, A.D., 1314), to assume the sovereignty of 
Ireland, or to send them some prince of his family ; as they considered 


that the House of Bruce had a claim to the crown of Ireland, being 
descended from the old Scottish kings who were of the Milesian Irish 
race. In consequence of this invitation, King Eobert sent his brother 
Edward Bruce to Ireland ; who landed at Olderfleet, in the Bay of 
Lame, on the coast of Antrim, on the 25th day of May, a.d., 1315, 
with a fleet of three hundred sail and six hundred Scots ; and, being 
joined by the Irish chiefs of Ulster, he seized various castles and gar- 
risons, as Carriolifergus, Coleraiue, Carlingford, Dundalk, etc., and 
was crowned as King of Ireland near Dundalk. During his career in 
Ireland for about three years and a-haU, he traversed all the Provinces, 
and is said to have defeated the English forces in eighteen battles ; 
but his followers were at length mostly cut oflf by a dreadful famine, 
and his forces finally defeated and himself slain, on Saturday, the 14th 
of October, a.d., 1318, in a great battle at Faughart, near Dundalk, 
by the English of the Pale, under the command of Sir John Berming- 
ham ; who, for this signal service, was created " Earl of Louth '' by 
King Edward the Second. During the three years and a-half Bruce 
was in Ireland, the people suffered so much from the famine which 
then prevailed, that, according to Malone, "they were necessitated 
to scrape the corpses from the graves." And, quoting from the Bul- 
larium Somanum, Malone adds, in page 235 of his ' ' Church History " 
— " By and by, however, the Pope, either because he considered the 
grievances redressed, or that the extravagances committed in the 
name of liberty would not compensate the doubtful chance of success, 
issued a bull, in the year 1319, condemnatory of all opposition to King 
Edward ; and empowered some bishops in England, by the bull, to 
excommunicate all who, directly or indirectly, attacked the King's 
dominion in Ireland." 


In the reign of Edward the Fourth, the Knights or Brotherhood 
of St. George (so called from their captain or chief commander being 
elected annually on St. George's day) was instituted for the defence 
of the English Pale ; and their force consisted of two hundred armed 
men, namely, 120 archers on horseback, with forty other horsemen, 
aad 40 pages. This fraternity of men-at-arms was, according to Sir 
John Davies and others, instituted A.D. , 1475, and consisted of thir- 
teen of the most noble and worthy persons in the four counties (Dub- 
lin, Louth, Meath, and Kildare) which, in general, constituted the 
Pale ; but, after continuing for about twenty years, it was, A. D. 
1495, suppressed in the reign of Henry the Seventh : the taxes 
le-\'ied for its support becoming obnoxious ; and this military society 
not having aocomphehed the objects of its institution. 


The great conventions or legislative assemblies of Tara were insti- 
tuted by the celebrated OUamh Fodhla, monarch of Ireland, before 


Christ, 1317. This name, pronounced " Ollav Fola," signifies The 
Sage of Ireland ; and is derived from "011amh,"a sage or learned 
man, and " Fodhla," one of the ancient names of Ireland. Ihis 
Irish monarch is celebrated in ancient history as a sage a,nd legis- 
lator ; eminent for learning, wisdom, and excellent institutions ; and 
his historic fame has been recognized by placing his medalhon m 
basso relievo with those of Moses, and other great legislators, on the 
interior of the dome in the Four Courts of Dublin. The convention 
of Tar a, called in Irish Feis Teamrach, from " Feis," which signifies 
a convention or assembly, was ordained by OUav Fola to be held 
every third year in the royal residence at Tara, and was attended 
by the provincial kings, princes, and chiefs — the Druids, the 
brehons or judges, and the Bards in the pagan times ; and, after 
the introduction of Christianity, by the bishops, abbots, and superior 
clergy ; and great number.1 of the people also attended at those as- 
sembUes, which were held every third year, in the month of Novem- 
ber. " Here, the poet-historians brought each his record of the 
events which happened in his province or district, during the time 
that had elapsed since the last assembly ; here, also, the national 
records were examined with the greatest care ; family pedigrees 
were also carefully examined and corrected in this assembly. This 
was a point of great importance ; for a man's right of inheritance to 
property depended on his genealogy, except in rare cases where might 
took place of right, as will happen in civilized nations : hence the 
care of the ancient Irish in transmitting to posterity the names of 
their ancestors." — (MUs Cusack.) The ancient records and chroniolea 
of the kingdom were, by OUav Fola, ordered to be written,* and 
carefully preserved at Tara. 

After the Anglo-Norman invasion, the Anglo-Irish barons and 
chief governors held many great councils, sometimes called Parlia- 
ments ; but, according to Lord Mountmorres, in his " History of 
the Irish Parliaments." the first parliament resularly assembled in 
Ireland was, a.d. 1316, in the reign of Edward the Second : con- 
vened in consequence of the invasion of Ireland by Edward Bruce. 
The Anglo-Irish parliaments were convened chiefly in Dublin, but 
often also at various other cities and towns, as Drogheda, Trim, 
KUdare, Naas, Castledermot, Carlow, Kilkenny, Cashel, Limerick, 
Waterford, and Wexford. It was at a great parliament assembled in 
Dublin by the lord deputy Anthony St. Leger, A.D. 1541, that the 
title of "King of Ireland" was conferred on Henry the Eighth: 
the kings of England being, until that time, styled only " Lords of 
Ireland." In A.D. 1613, in the reign of James the First, a great 
parliament was held in Dublin, by the lord deputy. Sir Arthur 
Chichester, at which attended a great many of the representatives 
of the chief Milesian families. Down to this time, the ancient Irish 
regulated their affairs according to their ancient institutions, called 

* Written : — OUav Fola, it is evident, would not have ordered the 
ancient records and chronicles of the kingdom to be "written," 
unless writing was then known in Ireland. 


Brehon Laws ; but, in the reign of James the First, the laws of 
Brehonism and Tanistry were abolished by Act of Parliament. At 
the parliament held at Drogheda, a.d. 1494, in the reign of Henry 
the Seventh, by the lord deputy. Sir Edward Poyning, an Act, called 
« Poyning's Law," was passed, which rendered the Irish Parliament 
completely subordinate to the Parliament of England ; and no Act 
could be passed in Ireland without the assent of the Privy Council 
and Parliament of England. Poyning's Law continued in force 
for a period of 2S8 years, namely, to a.d. 1782 ; when the indepen- 
dence of the Irish parliament was obtained. After a period of 
eighteen years, the Irish Parliament was, a.d. 1800, extinguished ; 
and became merged, by the "Act of Union," in the Parliament of 
Great Britain. 


The following are the Milesian princes, lords, and chiefs, on whom 

Seepages have been conferred by the sovereigns of England : — The 
'NeiUs, earls of Tyrone, barons of Dungannon, and (in modem 
times) viscounts and earls O'NeiU, in Antrim; the O'Donels, earls of 
Tirconnell ; the Mac DonneUs, earls of Antrim ; the Maguires, 
barons of EnniskiUen ; the O'Riellys, of Brefney ; the Magenisses, 
viscounts of Iveagh in the County Down ; the O'Haras, barons of 
Tyrawley and Kihuaine, in the County Mayo ; the O'Dalys, barons 
of Dunaandle, in Galway ; the O'Maloues, barons of Sunderlin, in 
Westmeath ; the Foxes, barons of Kilcourcy, in King's County and 
Westmeath ; the O'Carrolls, barons of Ely, in King's County and 
Tipperary ; the Mac Murroghs, in Carlow, barons of Balian ; the 
Mac Gillpatricks or Fitzpatricks, barons of Gowran in Kilkenny, 
and earls of Upper Ossory, in the Queen's County ; the O'Dempseys, 
viscounts of ClanmaUere, and barona of Philipstown, in the King's 
and Queen's Counties ; the O'Briens of Clare and Limerick, earls 
and Marquises of Thomond, earls of Inchiquin, viscounts of Clare, 
etc. ; the Mac Carthys of Cork and Kerry, earls of Clancare and 
Clancarthy, and viscounts of Muskerry and Mountcashel ; _ the 
O'CaUaghans of Cork and Tipperary, viscounts of Lismore, in Water- 
ford ; the O'Quinns of Clare, barons of Adare, and . earls of Dun- 
raven, in Limerick ; and the O'Gradys of Clare and Limerick, vis- 
counts of Guillamore j etc. 


Philip the Second, King of Spain, who had been married to Mary, 
Queen of England, irritated at the assistance given by Queen 
Elizabeth to the States of the Netherlands, in their revolt against 
Spain, prepared, a.d. 1588, a powerful naval armament, for the 
invasion of England. This immense fleet was called the ' ' Invincible 



Armada," and consisted of 130 or 140 vessels, sixty-five of which 
•were of great size, and called Galleons. The soldiers, marines, and 
officers on hoard this fleet amounted to about thirty thousand men, 
and they had on board 2,431 pieces of artillery, and vast treasures. 
This immense armament, commanded by the Duke de Medina 
Sidonia, sailed from Lisbon in the latter end of May, but was soon 
after dispersed by a violent storm near Corunna. The fleet being 
refitted, again set sail for England, in August, and after some 
engagements with the English and Dutch fleets, the Spaniards were 
defeated, and, having met many disasters, they resolved to return 
to Spain by the Northern Seas, and sailed round the Orkney Islands, 
where the fleet was overtaken by dreadful storms ; many of then- 
vessels were wrecked, and some driven far northwards and dashed to 
pieces on the rocks of Norway. In August and September about 
thirty of their ships were driven to the shores of Ireland, and seven- 
teen of them which contained 5,394 men were wrecked on the coasts 
of Ulster and Connaught, about the counties of Antrim, Donegal, 
Sligo, Mayo, and Galway. According to Smith's "History of 
Kerry," two of the ships, contaiumg six hundred men, were wrecked 
near the mouth of the Shannon ; and three more, with about eight 
hundred men, were wrecked near the Bay of Tralee and Dingle, on 
the coast of Kerry. Some of the shipwrecked Spanish soldiers were 
taken prisoners, and hanged and beheaded by order of the Lord 
Deputy, Sir William Fitzwilliam ; but those who survived, having 
embarked to return to their own country, the ship foundered, and 
all on board were drowned, in sight of the harbour off the coast of 


In the latter end of the sixteenth century, the wars of the Irish 
princes and chiefs against Queen Elizabeth were incessantly con- 
tinued, from A.D. 1560 to 1600, chiefly in Ulster. 


Some of the Irish chiefs having adhered to the famous Hugh O'Neill, 
Earl of Tyrone, in the war against Elizabeth, six entire counties in 
Ulster, namely, Armagh, Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, and 
Cavan, were confiscated. In the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, in the reign of King James the First, these territories were 
transferred to some English, but mostly Scottish settlers, denominated 
Undertakers and Planters : hence, the project was called the " Plan- 
tation of Ulster." 

TAEA. 87 1 

34. THE CIVIL WAR OF 1641. 

In consequence of tlie confiscation of the possessions of the old Irish 
chiefs in TJlater, as above mentioned, they formed a powerful con- 
federacy for the recovery of their territories ; and a tremendous 
insurrection took place on the 23rd of October, a.d. 1641, which raged 
incessantly for a period of about seven years, mixed up with the Civil 
War in Ireland (between the English Parliamentary forces and the ad- 
herents of King Charles the First), and followed by the Cromwel- 
lianWars, for a period of about three years — from a.d. 1649 to 1652. 

35. TARA. 

The fliU of Tara is large, verdant, level at the top, and extremely 
beautiful ; and though not very high, commands extensive and most 
magnificent prospects over the great and fertile plains of Meath. 
Tara had various names in ancient times. It was first founded as a 
royal residence by Slainge, one of the Firvolgian kings, and was 
afterwards called Liath Druim, or the Hill of Liath ; the Tua-de- 
Danan kings next resided there, when it was by them called Cathair 
Crofinn, or the fortress of Crofin, after one of the Dan an queens ; 
by the MUesian kings it got the name Teamur, or Teamhair, Angli- 
cised " Teamor" and " Tara," and Latinized " Temora"or "Temoria." 
At Tara, the ancient records and chronicles of the Kingdom were 
carefully preserved ; these records and chronicles formed the basis 
of the ancient history of Ireland, called the Psalter of Tara, which 
was brought to complete 'accuracy in the reign of the monarch, 
Cormac MacArt, in the third century; and from the Psalter of Tara 
and other records, was compiled, in the nioth century, by Cormac 
MacCullenan, archbishop of Cashel and King of Munster, the cele- 
brated work called the Psalter of Cashel. The triennial legislative 
assemblies at Tara, which were the parliaments of ancient Ireland, 
continued down to the middle of the sixth century ; the last con- 
vention of the states at Tara being held, according to the " Annals 
of Tigeamach," a.d. 560, in the reign of the monarch Diarmot, who 
abandoned that ancient royal palace, a.d. 563. 

Legislative assemblies were also held at the HiU of Uisneach, 
situated a few mUes from Mulliagar, in Westmeath. These assem- 
blies were convened in the month of May, and after the abandonment 
of Tara, Uisneach was probably one of the chief places for legislative 

Great conventions or legislative assemblies, similar to those at 
Tara, were held in ancient times in the other Provinces : the States 
of Connaught assembled at Croaghan, near Elphin ; the States of 
Ulster, at Emania or Armagh ; the States of Leinster, at Naas, in 
Kildare ; and the States of Munster, at Cashel. The last great 
national convention mentioned in Irish history was that of the states 
of Leath Cuirm (or Meath, Ulster, and Connaught), convened at 


Athboy, in Meath, a.d. 1167, by King Eoderiok O'Conor, to make 
laws and regulations for the dinroh and state ; at which assembly 
according to the Four Masters and other authorities, there attended 
a vast number of the princes, chiefs, clergy, and people of Ulster, 
Oonnanght, and Meath, together with the Danes of Dublin, then 
under subjection to King Roderick. Amongst the clergy who at- 
tended that convention were Gelasius, archbishop of Armagh ; 
Cadhla O'Duffy, archbishop of Tuam ; and Lawrence O'Toole, arch- 
bishop of Dublin or Leinster ; together with great numbers of other 
bishops, abbots, and clergy. In the whole assembly there were 
nineteen thousand horsemen, namely, six thousand from Counaught, 
under the O'Conors, Mac Dermots, O'KeUys, O'Dowds, and other 
princes and chiefs ; four thousand of the men of Brefney, under 
Tiarnan O'Eorke (prince of West Brefney) and O'EieUy (prince of 
East Brefney) ; four thousand of the men of Orgiall, from Louth, 
Down, Monaghan, and Armagh, under Donogh O'CarroU, prince of 
Oriel, and Mac Dunlevy O'Heochy, prince of Ulidia ; two thousand 
men with O'Melaghlin, King of Meath; one thousand with Reginald, 
lord of the Danes of Dublin ; and two thousand with Donogh, son of 
Felan, a prince whose territory is not mentioned. It does not ap- 
pear that those powerful northern princes, O'Neill and O'Donel, who 
ruled over Tyrone, Derry, and Donegal, attended this assembly : 
probably they did not acknowledge the authority of King Roderick 


Tara became deserted as a royal residence, in the sixth century, 
and some earthen ramparts and mounds are all that now remain of 
its ancient magnificence. The circumstance which caused its 
abandonment by the kings, were as follows : — Dermot, monarch 
of Ireland, having taken prisoner and punished a brother or relative 
of St. Piuadhan or "Rodanus," who was abbot of Lothra, now 
" Lorra," in the County Tipperary, St. Rodanus "laid a curse on 
Tara ;" and after the death of the monarch Diarmot, a.d. 565, no 
other king resided there. Though several of the kings were after- 
wards styled Kings of Tara, they did not reside at that royal resi- 
dence, but only took their title from it, as the ancient residence of 
the monarchs. In subsequent times, some of the monarchs resided 
at Tailtean, now Teltown in the County Meath ; and it is mentioned 
that the Irish monarch, Flann Siona, died at Tailtean, a.d. 916. 
Some of the ancient monarchs resided at the palace of Croaghan, in 
Counaught ; some of the kings of Ulster, when monarchs, resided 
at Emania or Armagh ; the princes of Ulster, of the Hy-Niall race, 
when monarchs of Ireland, had their chief residence at the fortress 
of Aileach, in the County Donegal ; Brian Boru, when monarch, re- 
sided at his palace of Kincora, in Thomond, on the banks of the 
river Shannon, near Killaloe, in the County Clare. The southera 

"flight op the eahls." 373 

Hy-Niall race, wiio were kings of Meath, had their chief residence 
(called Dunna-Soiath or the Fortress of the Shields) on the banks of 
Lough Ainnin, now Lough Ennel, near Mullingar, in Westmeath ; 
where Malachy the Second, monarch of Ireland, died, a.d. 1023; 
and the kings of Meath also had a fortress where they resided, situ- 
ated on a liigh hill about a mile from CastlepoUard, and within two 
miles of the Ben or Great HUl of Fore. 


Among the writers who mention the circumstances connected with 
the flight and death of O'Neill and O'Donel, is Cox, who, in his 
Hibernia Anglicana, relates the matter thus : — "On the 7th of May, 
A.D. 1607, a letter directed to Sir William Usher, clerk of the coun- 
cil, was dropped in the council chamber of Dublin Castle, which 
discoTered a conspiracy of the earls of Tyrone and Tirconnell, 
Maguire, O'Kane, the lord of Delvin (Eichard Nugent), and almost 
all the Irish of Ulster, to surprise the Castle of Dublin, and murder 
the lord deputy and council, and set up for themselves." In 
" Anderson's Royal Genealogies " (page 786), another account is 
given of this affair, in which the contrivance of the plot is attributed 
to Robert CecU, Earl of Salisbury, the secretary of state in England. 
Anderson says : — "Artful Cecil employed one St. Lawrence to en- 
trap the earls of Tyrone and Tirconnell, the lord of Delvin, and 
other Irish chiefs, into a sham plot, which had no evidence but his ; 
but, those chiefs being informed that witnesses were to be hired 
against them, foolishly fled from Dublin, and, so taking guilt upon 
them, they were declared rebels ; and six entire counties in Ulster 
were at once forfeited to the Crown, which was what their enemies 
wanted." The earls O'NeOl and O'Donel, with some other chiefs, 
set sail for France, and landed in Normandy, on which the English 
ambassador at the court of King Henry the Fourth demanded that 
they should be surrendered as rebels to King James the First of 
England ; but Henry refused the request vrith scorn, as an act be- 
neath the dignity of a king, The earls next proceeded to Flanders, 
where they were well received by the archduke Albert, who then 
governed the Low Countries ; and they lastly retired to Rome, where 
they were kindly and honourably received by Pope Paul the Fifth, 
who, together with the King of Spain, granted pensions for their 
support. Most of those illustrious exiles died soon after. Con- 
stantine Maguire died at Geneva, in that year, while preparing to 
go to Spain ; the next year, a.d. 1608, the Earl O'Donel died at 
Rome ; and his brother Cathbar died at Rome in the same year ; as 
did also Hugh O'Neill, Baron of Dungannon, son of Hugh, the earl. 
The heroic Hugh O'NeiU himself, died at Rome, a.d. 1616, old, 
blind, and broken down by many misfortunes ; his son Henry, who 
was in the Spanish service, was assassinated a few years afterwards 
at Brussels. The Princes and Chiefs of Tyrone and Tirconnell, who 


died at Home, were buried on St. Peter's Hill, in the churoli of 
Monte Aureo ; and the Latin inscription on their monument is given 
by De Burgo, in the supplement to his " Hibernia Dominicana." 

Owen Roe Mao Ward, who was chief bard to the O'Donels, ac- 
companied the earls in their exile to Eome. He wrote a beautiful 
elegiac poem on the death of the Princes of Tyrone and Tirconnel, 
in which he addresses Nuala, the sister of the Earl Roderick 
O'Donel ; and he pathetically represents her as" weeping alone over 
the graves of the princes, on St. Peter's Hill. This poem, translated 
from the Irish, has been admirably versified by the late Clarence 
Mangan (and is quoted in Connellan's Four Masters, and Sullivan's 
Story of Ireland) ; and the poem concludes with an allusion to the 
blood of Conn of the Hundred Battles* — meaning that the O'Neills 
and O'Donels were descendants of that celebrated king, who was 
monarch of Ireland in the second century. 

* The hlood rf Conn : — By reference to No. 80, page 27, it will be 
seen that the present Royal Family of Great Britain and Ireland 
derives its lineal descent from the Blood of the illustrious Irish 
monarch here mentioned. May the knowledge of this fact conduce 
in the future to greater harmony between the people of England and 
Ireland than has unhappily obtained between these two nations for 
the last seven hundred years; and, as our present gracious Sovereign 
cannot justly be held responsible for the bitter past in Ireland, may 
the knowledge of Her Majesty's h-ish lineal descent endear Her 
Majesty to the Irish people and the Irish race all over the world ! 



Abbev of Bective... 184, 276 
Abbey of Devenish ... 139 

Abbey of MelUfont ... 194 

Aboo 347 

ActofXJmon 369 

Adam ... ... 1 

Adrian lY.. Pope ... 235, 365 
Advent of St. Patrick ... 199 

Agbaderg 189 

Aileach [Ely] 118, 174, 190, 199 

257, 372 
AUeacb Neid ... 43, 257 
Alba 101, 105, 106, 114, 115, 188 
Albanaeh ... 316, 333 

Albany 333 

Albion 101, 103, 117 

AUodium 345 

Alps 9 

Amazons 31, 46, 59, 101 

Ancient Pilgrimages ... 354 
Ancient Proper Names ... 16 
Ancient Seminaries ... 354 

Anglo-Normans ... 32, 38 

Anglo- Saxons ... 32, 39 

Anna Liffey 110 

Annaly ...88,272,280 

Antrim 256 

Arcbdeacon ... .. 364 

Ard-Ladhran 2 

Ard-Kigb [ree] ... 59, 343 

Ards 254 

Argyle ... 104, 171 

Armagh, 32, 55, 96, 123, 196, 246 

Art Enaar (Airt Ean Fhear), 64 

27, 110, 317 

Attacotti 105 

Augustus of Western Europe, 

321, 353 


Baath 4, 34 

Babel, The Tower of 2, 6, 34 

BalioU, John 152 

Banbha ... 43, 316 

Banners 347 

Bannow 234 

Bards 341 

Barrows 339 

Bartbolinus, 2, 31,32,44, 289, 309 

Battle-Cries 347 

Battles of the Three CoUas 189 
Beara ... .. 63 

Bearbha (river Barrow) ... 299 
Beatrice (Beatrix)... 26,187 

Belga3 266 

Ben of Fore 373 

Binn Eadair 32, 105, 287 

Birr ... 77, 237 

Black Foreigners 272 

Blood of Conn ... ... .S74 

Boromean Tribute ... 108 

Boyne 110, 193, 272 

Brannaghs 242 

Breasal Macha 246 

Breast Pins 364 

Brefuey, 180, 265, 267 

Brefney O'Reilly ... 268, 270 
Brefney O'Eourke... 268, 270 
Bregia ...271, 272, 281 

Brehons 342 

Brenny, The 265 

Brian Boru, 56, 69, 319, 352, 353 

Brian Boru's Harp 353 

Brigantes 6, 40 

Brigantia ... 6, 39, 45 

Briganza 39 

Brigia 39 

Brigus 6, 39 


Civil War in Ireland ... 371 
Clauaboy, 47, 125, 194, 252 

Clanbrassil .. 191, 246 

Clan Colla, 173, 191, 197, 221, 

Clan Colman 181 

Clan Connell 175 

Clan Conway 323 

Clan Daimhin 139 

Clandeboy 125 

Clan Donnell 142 

Clan Kiau ... 73, 215 

Clan Murrogli . ... 323 

Clau-na-Deagha, 66, 69, 217, 219 
Clan-na-Gael ... 6, 29, 35 
Clan-na-Mile ... 37, 43, 44 

Clau-na-Morna 312 

Clan-na-Neill 121 

Clan-na-Rory ■- 85, 194, 217 
Clan Owen ... 174, 257 

Clanrickard ... 210, 316 

Clanrickard Aboo 348 

Clare 222 

Clerks 364 

Cloch-na-Cinueamlina ... 119 
Clogher 139, 190, 196 

Clontarf 349 

Coarb 364 

Coined Money ... ... 60 

CoUas, The Three 91, 97, 114, 
115, 137, 187, 188 
Comorbau ... 198, 864 ■ 

Cong 308 

Conmaoue ... 86, 87, 311 

Conn of the Hundred Battles, 61 

62, 69, 80, 109, 308, 317 

Conuaught .. 47, 308 

Connaught, North 309 

Connaught, South 809 

Connaught, West 309 

ConueU's Country 265 

Connemara 86 

Corcomroe ... .. 219 

Cordova 33 

Cork ... 66, 223 

Cormac Mac Culenan. 67, 182, 


* Caledonia : Irish Colli daoinlghe, aigniiying the people of the 
woods : or, literally, the populous woods. ^ ' ^ !> pooi 

Britain 6, 33, 34, 105 

Britons ... 39, 105 

Bruce, Edward ... 126, 367 

Bruce, Margery 154 

Bruce, Robert, 126, 154, 366 
Bruce the Noble, Eobert .. 153 

Brughaidh 102 

Brugh Boine 110, 174, 317 
Bryan Carragh's Country 252 
Butler Aboo 348 

Caoheab, 38, 39, 42, 44 

Cadiz (Gades) 31, 33 

Cadmus ... ... 5 

Cahir Mor ... 69, 130 

Cairbre Gabhra 272 

Cairn Eooha 190 

Cairns ... 318, 336 

Caledonia* 106 

Campus Brigantium ... 271 

Campus Cyruut 34 

'Carbry Cinn-Caitt 105 

Carbry Liffechar 188 

Carbry Riada, 67, 170, 219 

Carlo w ... 294, 296 

Carnawley 313 

Carthage, 9, 15, 33, 38, 104 

Carthaginian Language ... 6 
Cashel, .. 74, 182, 355 

Caspian Sea 38 

Castile ... ... 39 

Cathach of Columkille ... 175 
Caucasian Race ... 10, 14 

Cavan 270 

Ceasair ... ... 2 

Celtica ... ... 9 

Celtic Alphabet ... S3 

Celtic Language ... ... 4 

Celtic Nations 11 

Celto-Iberi 9 

Celts 9, 39 

Chaios of Gold I93 

Chariots ... 103, 105 

Charter of King Henry II. 178 
Cherries ... ... 2-1 1 

Chess 350 

Church Property 364 




Cormac's Chapel 355 

Country of the Clans ... 291 
Country o£ the O'Fallona... 272 
County of Coleraine ... 261 

County of Feraa 296 

County of Lough Garman 295 
County Palatinate of Ormond 242 
Craov Euadh [Ttoe] ... 190 

Creation 1 

Cremorne ... ... 191 

Greta 36 

Croaghan, 101, 315, 316, 372 

Croch , 234 

Cro-Inis ... 56, 151 

Crom 338 

Crom Aboo ... .. 348 

Crom Cruach, 102, 113, 266 

OromDubh 3.38 

Cromleacs ... ... 338 

Cruthneans 32, 37, C5, 101 

Cualan ... 281,287 

Cualan's Country 290 

Gumhal ... 105, 346 

CuUla 195 

Cyclopean Architecture, 257, 319 

Daikine 65 

Dalaradia,90, 97, 98, 189, 193, 250 

DalBuinne 252 

Dalcassians ... 73, 215 

Dal Fiatach ... 97, 193, 194 

Dalriada, 27, 47, 67, 104, 110, 

118, 142, 170, 171, 250, 255 


Damnonians 310 

Danai ... ... 4 

Danes, 8, 32, 37, 55, 68, 81, 181, 
183 217 

Danes' Cast, The ' 196 

Darinians ... 80, 216 

Darius (Dair^) 196 

Dathi 173, 314, 315 

Decies ... ... 63 

Deece 61 

Degadians ... 66, 217 

Deirgtheine 65 

Deise ... 61, 62 

Deisi 62 

Deities of the Druids ... 338 
De Laey's Barons 276 

Deluge ... ... 2 

Dermod MaoMurrogh 38, 39, 41, 
Derry ... 200, 261 

Derry ColumkiUe ... 2S1, 3.'57 
De Saltu Salmonis ... 284 

Desians ... 62, 236 

Desies 61 

Desii 61 

Desmond 60, 63, 64, 230 

Devenish Island .,. 139, 248 
Dillon's Country ... 66, 86 

Doda 26, 187 

Donegal ... 264, 265 

Down 254 

Downpatrick ... 251, 254 

Drogheda 193 

Druidical Temples ... 336 

Druids il2, 113, 188, 8.38 

Dubhcomar ... ... 188 

Dublin ... 114, 281 

Dukes of Normandy 40, 42 

Duleek 278 

Dune ... 251,254 

Dun-na-Sciath .. 178, 373 

Dun Sleibhe 195 

Dysart O'Dea 218 

Eamhain Macha ... 96, 190 

Earca 118 

Eblana 114 

Edward the Confessor's Chair 153 
Egypt ... 34, 331 

Egyptians ... 36, 40 

Eire ... 43, 331 




101, 320 



Ely O'Carroll 



96, 98, 190, 372 



English Pale 

193, 279, 365 


198, 364 


193, 196 




32, 316, 331 




... 66, 68, 217 






Esker Eiada 



... 63 


73, 215 

38, 41, 234 

247, 249 

9, 114, 190 

... 297 

... 272 

9, 114, 130 

32, 34, 266 


Eair-haiked Fokeigners 272 

Fairies 340 

Fanacl 263 

Farbreach 137 

Peine' -■■ 5, 6, 9, 33 

Fermuiglie Feine 8 

Feis Teamhrach ... 85, 368 

Fenius Farsa ... 5, 6, 34 

Fergus MacRoy 85, 86, 96, 223 
Fergus Mor Mac Earca, 26, 46, 
67, 171, 186 
Fiana Eirionn, 
Fine of Edersceol 

Finn Mac Coole 
Fir GaiUian 
Firvolgians, 15, 32, 34, 44, 266, 
288, 310, 312 
Five Provinces ... ••■ 58 
Flight of tte Earls ... 373 

Fodhla [Fola], 43, 270, 316, 368 
Fomoria ... ••■ 312 

Fomorians 8, 3 

Four Masters, The 
Four Tribes of Tara, The 

Gael xx , 9, 32, 

Gaelic Language 





Gallia Cisalpina ... 




Gaodhal [Gael] ... 







Geraldino ... ••• 212 

Getee •■- ••■ ^^ 

Getulia, 8, 15, 33, 36, 38, 39 

(giants' Causeway 34 

Giants' Graves 333 

Giraldus Cambrensis, 40,235, 342 

Glen Mama 349 

Glenree [GlenEigh] 170, 196 

Glyans, The 255 

Gold Chains 58 

Golden Hostages 193 

Gold Mines 101, 296, 364 

Gothi 14 

Gothia ...8, 36, 38, 39 

Goths 14 

Grace O'Malley 

Grace's Country 

Grana Wale 

Graces, The 

Great Stewards of Lennox, 

Griana Ely 

... 4,9 
105, 289 
174, 257 

Hebbr 46, 57, 300 

Heber Scott 37. 

Hector of the West of Europe 123 
Hereditary Succession ... 344 

9, 104, 

34, 300 









5... 271 



194, 315 

Hy-Briun Race 







... 288 



.40, 48 




... 6, 39 




... 370 





Hy-Meith Macha 



223, 348 

Hy-NiaU Septs 



.. 315 

Hy-Nialls of Munster 



... 330 





... 44 




... 288 



... 35 



105, 182 

Idol Gods 


... 345 

Idol Worship 



... 230 






Inauguration of Kings ... 343 
Inis Pail, 32, 45, 315, 336 

Inishowen ... ... 174 

Ini3 Murray 323 

Insula Fatalis 315 

Insula Mevania 333 

Intacta Manet Waterfordia 236 
Inventor of Letters 5, 29 

loniana 3 

Ipsis Hibernis Hibemiores 230 

Ir 31, 46, 47 

Ireland, 31, 32, 33, 36, 38, 42 
Ireland, The Ancient Names of 

9, 31 
Irish Alfred . ... 353 

Irish Alphabet ... . . 5 

Irish Country 279 

Irish Language 5 

Irish Parliaments 367 

Island of Destiny ... 45, 315 

Isle of Man 332 

Israelites ... ... 36 

Istrians ... ... 9 

Ithe ... 42, 47 

Ithians 217 

Iveagh, 90, 97, 98, 189, 251 
Iveagh, Lords of 90 

Jacob's Pillow ... 

... 337 


... 2,31 


... 348 


... 33 

Joyce's Country ... 

192, 329 


.. 184 




86, 223 


... 344 


109, 281 


... 301 

Kincora," 77, 175, 353, 372 

King Cormac Mac Art, 36, 62, 
77, 110, 136, 189, 313, 317 
King Henry the Second, 33, 46 
47, 48, 69, 178, 271 
King's County ... 301, 305 
Knights of St. George ... 367 

Laird of Dunditjt 
Laird of Lusse 




Lamh-dearg Aboo 122 

Lamh Laidir An Uaohdar 76 

Lapis Fatalis 315 

Law of Primogeniture ... 344 
Leach-na-Eigh ... 124, 257 
Leath Cuinn, 63, 69, 104, 288 
Leath Mogha ... 63, 70, 289 

Lecale 253 

Leiuster ... 47, 287 

Leinster Tribute ... 107 

Leitrim 270 

Leix, 94, 97, 110, 194, 296, 298 
Letter of Donal O'Neill ... 365 
Letter of Pope John XXII. 366 

Letters 5, 29 

Lia Fail, 119, 153, 315, 316, 336 


Liffey, 101, 114, 272 

Limerick 222 

Loam, 27, 67, 118, 119, 171 

Londonderry ... ... 261 

Longford 280 

Lord Palatine 276 

Lords of Ireland ... ... 368 

Lough Conn .. 105, 309 

Lough Corrib 87 

Lough Ennell ... 178, 373 

Lough Erne 247 

Lough Foyle 257 

Lough Gara 309 

Lough Garman 288 

Lough Hacket ... ... 309 

Lough Key .. ... 310 

Lough Mask 309 

Lough Neagh 346 

Lough Orbsen 87 

Loughrea ... ... 309 

Lough Saimer 247 

Louth ... 193, 243 

Lugadians 79 

Luy Mao Con, 63, 70, 80 

Lybia, 15, 33, 38 

Mac 215 

Macbeth 26, 152, 187 

MacCarthy Mor 69, 224 

MaoCarthy Eeagh 70, 224 

MacEarca 118 

MacMahon's Country 
MacWilliam Aboo ... 348- 




Magh Adhair 




Magli Breagh 



58, 59 

Magh Cro 


Muscrith Xire 






Magh Ithe 


Magh NeiU 

... 121 



Magh Sleaght 



.. 32, 33, 300 

Magh Senaar 








3, 4, 31, 33 


Z ... 231 

Maguire's Country, 139, 248, 249 
Malachy the Great ... ]81 

Malaohy the Second, 56, 123, 183 

Malcolm 179 

Malcolm Cann Mor, 46, 152, 186 
Manor of Villiers ... 307 

Marathon of Ireland ... 353 

Maryhoro' 301 

Martineans 329 

Matilda, Queen ... 25, 154 

Maud, 86, 101, 247, 289, 317 
Maude, The Princess 25, 46, 154 

Maynooth 62 

Mayo 317 

■Meath, 47, 59, 105, 180, 270 

Mediterranean Sea ... 64 

Menaal Lands 345 

Milesian Irish Peerage ... 369 
Milesians, 6, 7, 32, 87, 311 

Milesius, 6, 37, 40, 41, 42, 44, 48 
Militia of Ireland ... 114 

Miletus 6 

Mint 296 

Moats ... 317, 339 

Modem Nobility 214 

Mogha Nuadhad 62 

Momonia ... 59, 353 

Monaghan 245 

Mor Mhaor Leamhna, 65, 152, 154 

Moses 6, 36 

MoyAUeach 257 

Moy Ceitne 34 

Moyoullen 313 

Moylth 258 

Moylena 70 

Moy Lugad 259 

Moylurg 124 

Moy Muckrove ... 64,110 

Moy Slaght 266 

Muc luis 45 

NiaU of the Nine Hostages, 117 

Nineveh 2 

Ninus 34 

Noah ... 2, 31 

Nones 184 

Normandy 42 

Norwegians ... ."2, 37 

0' 215 

O'Boyle's Country 262 

O'Breen's Country 274 

O'Brien Aboo 347 

O'Brien's Country 218 

O'Byrne's Country ... 290 

O'CarroU's Country . 193 

celery's Genealogical Book 328 
O'Conor's Country ... 284 

O'DouelAboo 347 

O'Donel's Country 265 

O'Donoghoe Mor ... 224, 229 
O'Donoghoe of the Glen ... 229 
O'Dugan Shane .. ... vi. 

Offaley, 130, 230, 296, 298 

Ogham 182 

Ogygia ... 32, 104 

O'Hart's Country 272 

O'Heerin, GioUa-na-Neev vii. 
Oirthear ... .. 246 

O'Kane's Country 256, 260, 261 
O'Kelly's Country 272, 284, 322 
O'Larkiu's Country ... 291 

O'Leary's Country ... 227 

OUamh [oUav], 102, 341, 368 
OUav Pola ... 84, 367 

O'Meath 245 

O'Moore's Country 284, 304 

O'Neill Aboo 347 

O'Neilland 246 

O'Neill's Country 261 


O'NeiU, Hugh 109, 

O'NeiU, Owen Koe 


OrgiaU, 47, 98, 180, 




O'Kielly's Country 



O'Eourke's Country 

Oasory 132, 


O'SuUivan Beara ... 

O'SuUivan Maol ... 

O'Sullivan Mor 74, 

Otho Geraldino 

Owen Roe MacWard 

Owen's Country 




Parliaments of Tara 




Phaiaoh Nectonibus 

Phenician Alphabet 

Phenician Language 

Phenicians, 5, 6, 




Picts, 32, 37, 6.5, 101, 

Plantation of Ulster, 


Poyning's Law 
Primate of all Ireland 
Primate of Ireland... 
Prince Palatine ... 
Proud Miletus 
Psalter of Cashel 
Psalter of Tara 
Punio Wars 


PAGE. 1 


















• •. 


60, 61 1 


, 296, 





























9, 12, 33 1 

5, 6 













• .. 
















... 44 





Eaymond le Gros, 





Eed Branch Knights of Ulster, 9 




Eed Hand of Ulster 


Eed Eose, The 


Eefining Gold 








•Eigh [ree] 



Eiver Suck 


Eoche's Country 


Roderick O'Conor 




Roll of the Irish Monarchs 


Roman Alphabet 








Eound Towers 



Eoutes, The 



Eoyal Family, The Stem of the 





Sacred Stone, 119, 153, 315 

Saint Bridget, 108, 110, 118, 138 

199, 250, 266, 313 

Saint Columkille 175 

Saint Donart, 138, 194, 200 

Saint Malachy 194, 196, 198 

Saint Patrick, 66, 67, 83, 117 
Salmon Leap, The ... 284 

Sanscrit 10 

Sarmatia Europaia... ... 14 

SaxumFatale, 119,153,315 


6, 34, 48 


... 40 

Scotch Plaid 

... 102 


32, 333 

Scotia Major 

... 333 

Scotia Minor 

. 117, 333 

Scotic Irish Nation 

... 13 

Scotie Eace 

... 337 


47, 101, 333 


32, 34, 39 

Scottish Kation 

... 33 


4, 13, 40 



ScytMan Language 


SoytMan Nations ... 

... 13 

Sees of :- 

1. Achonry 

... 360 

2. Aghaboe 

... 362 

3. Aghadoe 

... 356 

4. Ardagh 

... 357 

5. Ardbracan ... 

... 358 

6. Ardcarne 

... 360 

7. Ardfert 

... 356 

8. Ardmore 

... 354 

9. Ardsratha ... 

... 357 

10. Armagh 

... 356 

11. Birr 

... 362 

12. Cashel 

... 3.55 

13. Clogher 

... 356 

14. Clonard 

... 358 

15. Clondalkin ... 

... 363 

16. Clonenagh ... 

... 362 

17. Clonfert 

... 360 

18. Clonmacnoise 

... 357 

19. Cloyne 

... 356 

20. Cong 

... 359 

21. Conor 

... 357 

22. Cork 

... .356 

23. Derry 

... 357 

24. Down 

... 356 

25. Dromore 

... 357 

26. Drumcliffe ... 

... 360 

27. Dublin 

... 363 

28. Duleek 

... 358 

29. Dunsbaughlin 

... 358 

30. Elphin 

... 360 

S\. Emly 

... 354 

32. Enachdune ... 

... 360 

33. Ferns 

... 361 

34. Pinglas 

... 363 

35. Fore 

... 351 

36. Galway 

... 360 

37. Glendalough 

... 361 

S8. Inis Cathay... 

... 355 

39. Kells 

... 358 

40. KilcuUen ... 

... 362 

41. Kildare 

... 361 

42. Kilfenora ... 

... 355 

43. Killala 

... 359 

44. Kill aloe 

... 355 

45. KiUere 

... 358 

46. Kilmacduagh 

... 360 

47. Kilmore 

... 357 


48. Kilskyre 358 

49. Leighlin 361 

50. Limerick 355 

51. Lismore 354 

52. Lusk 363 

53. Mayo 359 

54. Meath 358 

55. Ossory ... ... 362 

56. Eaphoe 357 

57. Roscommon ... 360 
£8. Eoscrea ... ... 354 

59. Ross 356 

60. Saiger 362 

61. Slane 358 

62. Sletty 361 

63. Swords 363 

64. Tallaght 363 

65. Trim 358 

66. Tuam 358 

67. CJisneagh 358 

68. Waterford 354 

Septuagint ... .. 1, 48 

Sepulchral Mounds ... 339 

Sieven Septs of Laeighis ... 194 

Shinar, The Valley of ... 4 
Silver Shields, 58, 103 

Sirnames ... ... 214 

Slavonic Nations ... ... 11 

Slieve Beagh ... ... 2 

Slieve Douard 138 

Slieve Mis 250 

Sligo 318 

Soldiers ... ... 59 

Solomon, King 48 

Sorley MacDonneU ... 142 
Spain, 7, 8, 9, 39, 41, 42, 44 

Spanish Armada 359 

Stone of Destiny, 119, 153, 315, 

336, 337 

Stone of the Fians 337 

Stonewalls ... ... 59 

Strongbow, 38, 39, 40, 41, 234, 

235, 284 

Surnames 215 

Synod of Cashel 355 


... 106 
... 372 
... 336 
32, 289 



Tanistry ... 114, 343 

Tara, 35, 77, 84, 110, 180, 371 

Tara Deserted 372 

Teffia ... 271, 272 

Temple of Jerusalem ... 48 

Teutonic Nations 11 

Tte Irish Hannibal ... 128 

Thomas An Appa 213 

Three Lions 49 

Thomond, 60, 61, 64, 313 

Tiernan O'Rourke 38 

Tiobraid Tireaoh ... 90, 97 

Tipperary 241 

Tirconnell,47, 177, 240, 1:64,265 
Tirowen ... 47, 174 

Tithes 199 

Tobacco 231 

Tory Island ... 34, 263 

Town of the Monks ... 245 

Triennial Parliaments ... S4 

Triooha-cheds 271 

Trojans ... ... 6 

Tua-de-Danana, 4, 15, 32, 33, 36, 

44, 310, 312 

Turgesins ... 55, 181 

TurlochAirt 72 

Tyrone, 117, 174, 261 

tri-BREA.SAi, 246 

Ui-mic Uais ... ... 191 

Uisneagh 32, 274, 371 

Uladh [Ula] ...85, 195, 250 

UUdia, 90, 98, 189, 193, 194, 195 

196, 250, 268 



85, 96, 97, 189 



Urbs Intacta 




Valley of the Black Pigs... 196 

Victoria, Queen 24 

Vitality of the Celtic Language, 

Walter Lord Steward ... 154 

War-chariot 289 

Warriors 347 

Wars of Elizabeth 370 

VVaterford 240 

Weapons ... ... 847 

Wdsh 39 

Weregild 347 

Westmeath 279 

West Munster 64 

Wexford 295 

White Rose, The ... 24, 211 

Wioklow 296 

Wild Deer 61 

WiUiam the Conqueror, 40, 43, 

194, 210, 212, 230 

Wine ... 59, 118 

Wolves 2,34 

Writing 368 

Written Language 83 

Year of the World 
Year, The Pagan Irish 







Adams 216 


... ■ ... 201 

Adwick 249 



Agar ... 287, 307 


222, 256, 260, 295 

Agnew {Agnue), 141, 143, 191, 



201, 205, 259 



Aherni 78, 216, 228, 238 


... 284, 285 

Alastrum 142 



Alcock 241 



Alexander, 141, 142, 143, 191, 


284, 305 

201, 260 



Allen (Allein), 201, 241. 284, 287 



* Sirnames : In pages 78, 98, and 201, are given the names of the 
leading ancient Irish families descended from Heber, Ir, and Here- 
mon, the three sons of MUesius, of Spain, who left any issue; and the 
forms which most of those sirnames first assumed in their transition 
from the Irish to the English language. In this index the modern 
forms of the Irish sirnames are given ; the name Italicised in paren- 
thesis after any sirname is the first English form of that sirname ; 
for instance : "Agnue," Italicised (in parenthesis) after " Agnew " 
above mentioned, was the first English form of the Irish O^Gnive, or 

Since the Irish sirnames were Anglicised, branches of other Irish 
families have omitted, while other branches of the same family have 
retained the prefix "0 " or "Mac" to which they were entitled, 
thus becoming, as it were, two distinct families ; as Boyle and 
O'Boyle, Oallaghan and O'Callaghan, Sheehy and MacSheehy, etc. 
In this index, therefore, those sirnames which stiU retain, and those 
which omit, the prefix " " or " Mac," are separately given ; and 
besides the names of the English, Scotch, and Norman families 
which settled in Ireland since the Anglo-Norman invasion, this 
Index also contains (unintentional omissions excepted) the other 
ancient Irish sirnames in Ireland since the twelfth century. 

1. Aliern: Irish O'h-JEichtldgJiearn ; from which are also derived 
Ahearne, liearne, Heron, and O'AAern. 

2. Armstrong : Irish Lamh Laidir, or the Strong Arm ; rendered 
"Armstrong." The Lamh Laidirs [lauv lawdirs], or Armstrongs, 
are a branch of the O'Briens, kings of Thomond, whose battle-cry 
was "Lamh Laidir an Uachdar" [ooghder] ; or, The Strong Arm 






... 17 



314, 323 



... 294 


... 249 


... 294 

BeUew (Bedlow), 


278, 284 



... 329 


... • 284 


... 249 



... 279 


... 253 


... 264 


... 281 


... .201 



284, 285 



... 278 


... 241 



260, 284 



... 99 



... 220 
233, 295 


... 241 

Bermingham, 284 


317. 329 


253, 294 


... 17, 78; 233 


284, 285 


... 284 


... 258 

Berry {Bearry),' 




... 258 


... 302 



... 278 

Berwick {Kenoich) 

... 216 



244, 284 



215, 278 



240, 314 

Bidgood {Bigod) 


... 293 



... 201 


... 222 



... 241 


... 220 


... 222 



317, 318 


278, 314 


... 264 

Bamwall, 232 


283, 28fi 

Binnay (Binne) 

... 202 

Barret, 215, 222, 232, 

284, 317 



... 201 



253, 306 



241, 2.59 


... 241 

Bimey {O'Birren) 


87, 98 

Barry {O'Barie),' 


80, 216, 



... 78 

227, 232, 233, 


284, 286 



... 253 



217, 220 

Black [Blahmac) . 


121, 202 



... 201 



... 294 



... 231 



... 254 


... 98 

Blake, 121, 202, 284, 317, 329, 330 



... 232 


... 294 

Bean . 

... 314 


... 245 

Beatty (^Betagh) 

... 278 


232, 249 



... 286 


... 278 


... 278 


... 243 


231, 232 


... 260 


201, 227 



308, 329 

Behan (Beachan) 

... 303 



... 241 

3. Bailey, Bailie : Irish O'Baothghalaidh. 

4. Bannin : Irish O'Banain. 

5. Barry : Irish O'Baire.' 

6. Baslcin : Irish O'Baiscin. 

7. Btrgin: Inah O'Aimhirgin. 

8. Berry, Bury : Irish O'Beara. 





Bodkin 329 

Brogan^ " 

227, 275, 313 

Boland(5«oJM ... 78, 314 


98, 299 

Bolger ... 291, 293 



Bolton 241 



Bonas 328 



Bone 328 



Bourchier 222 



Bourke {See "Burke'') 210, etc. 

Brougham (See Broglian. ) 

Bowen 306 

Brown, 222, 227, '" 

231, 232, 233, 

Boyoe ... 285, 293 

241, 284 

293, 294, 307 

Boyd (Boydan) ... 202, 241 


318,329, 330 

Boylan,» 137, 191, 202 


247, 265 202, 233, 243, 205 


134, 2oa 

Brabazon, 244, 278, 284, 286, 295 



Bracken 282 


217, 294, 302 

Bradley 259 


.. 17, 78, 305 

Brady," 202, 268, 293 



Brain 120, 202, 208 

Buckley ■ 

.. " ... 243 

Branagan ... 87, 98, 244 

Bulfin (Mulfin) 


Braogharan 202 



Bredin ... 87, 98 


285, 287, 329 

Breen ... 273, 302 

Burke," 210,215 

222, 223, 241 

Brennan, 71, 78, 130, 144, 202 

285, 287 

314, 318, 329 

208, 302, 323 



Brereton 285 



Breslin, 202, 238, 263 

Burns, ' " 

78, 314, 324 

Brett {Britt), ... 284, 302 



Brick, no, 134, 202, 208, 217, 






Brickney 202 

Bury (Beai-ry) 

307, 308 

Brien ... 78, 202 

Butler, 216, 224, 

241, 242, 243, 

Brin (See "Byrne") 

249, 250, 278, 

281, 284, 285, 

Brialan 202 

293, 294, 295, 

304, 305, 329 

Britt 302 

Byrne," 130 

157, 165, 202 

Brock (^Bnclc) 202, 237, 243 

Byron (See "Byrne") 

Broder'" 258 

Brodericki' 202, 233, 303 


278, 284 

Brody ... 216, 303 

Caffrey (Graffrey) 


Broe [Bro-y) ... 134, 202 



9. Boylan, Boland: Irish O'Baoighellain. 

10. Boyle, 0' Boyle : Irish O'Baoighill. 

11. Brady: Irish 0' Bradaigh. 

12. Broder, Broderick : Irish O'Bruadair. 

13. Brogan, Brown, Broivne, Bruen : Irish O'Breoghan. 

14. Brophy: Irish O'Broithe. 

15. Burgh, Burke, Bourke: French De Burgo. 

16. Bums : Irish O'Brain. 

17. Byrne, O'Byrne, Byron, Brin : Irish O'Broin. 





Cahalau 324 



191, 202 

Cahan ;.. 202, 325 


202, 247 

258, 260 

CahiU, 17, 78, 118, 218, 240, 291 




130, 156, 

202, 291, 

Callaghan, 68, 78, 312 

293, 295 

Callanan,!' ... 239, 328 


... 233 

Campbell, '» 119, 202, 258 


... 324 

Cananan 176, 202, 262 



... 253 

Canavan ... 87, 98, 328 


... 324 

Gane {Cahan),'" 117, 120, 202 



... 202 

239, 254, 256, 325 



294, 295 

Canning {Cananan) ... 202 


.. 233 

Cannon {Cananan), 176. 202, 262 



260, 265 

Canton 232 


... 233 

CautweU 305 



... 241 

Caragter ... 202, 244 


278, 287 

Carbery, 78, 137, 274 



... 278 

Carew (Carey)) 202, 232, 233, 


... 278 

293, 294, 295, 305 


79,' 80 

147, 202 

Carey, 202, 232, 282, 341 

Clarke (CVer-2/),'' 202, 

264, 269, 

Carleton, 202, 243, 259 


Carney 95,98 



270, 287 

Carolan," 118, 202, 259 


... 326 

Carpenter .:. ■•- 265 

Clery," 202, 


314, 325 

Carr ... 202, 241 


... 244 

Carrihan 202 


... 256 

CarroU,2« 76, 78, 202, 229, 266, 


... 264 

268, 275, 293, 297 


... 284 

Carter 222 


... 265 

Carthy," 68, 78, 238, 823 


... 293 

Carty ... 100, 329 
Casey," 78, 202, 216, 221, 227, 


... 278 

Co£fey,^'65, 78,79, 80, 

275, 328 

259, 273 



232, 284 

Cashin {Casaan), 98, 216, 327 


... 284 

18. Callanan : Irish O'Cathalain. 

19. Campbell : Irish MacCathmhaoil. 

20. Cane, Kane, Keane, Keen : Irish O'Cathain. 
2). Catalan, Kerlin : Irish O'Cearbhallain. 

22. Carroll, O'CarroU : Irish O'Cearbhoil. 

23. Carthy, Mac Carthy, O'Carthy : Irish Mac Carthaigh 

24. Casey : Irish O'Caitheasaidh. 

25. Caulfidd : Irish Mac Cathmhaoil. 

26. Clancy : Irish Mac Flannchada. 

27. aarhe, Cleary, O'Clery : Irish O'Clerigh. 

28. Coffey : Irish O'Cobhthaidh. 

29. Cogan : Irish Mac Cagadhain. 




Coglilan, = » 

. 78, 

237, 300 


... 202 


... 293 



250, 295 


... 2.51 



202, 282 


... 202 


... 78 


... 78 


... 202 

Colman (Irisli (7ofomdn, a dim- 
inutive of colum, a dove) 202 

Colum 202 

Conian 202 

Comerford ... 241, 293 

Commina, 202, 312, 328 

Coiryn 202, 222, ;n2 

Conan 202 

Conang ... -.. 78 

Conalty ... 202, 269 

Conaty ... 202, 314 

Conoannon, 145, 202, 324 

Conouau 202 

Condon ... •• 232 

Conmy 274 

Connell. 67, 78, 269 

Connellan, .202, 203, 259, 273, 
313, 327 
ConoUy(CoBfl'aiy),»» 191,202, 
Conor, = » 98, 169, 202, 228 

Conry {Conri) 78 

Conroy 78 

Considine .., 216, 221 

Couatantine ... ... 277 

ConvaUy 274 

Convy U8 

Conway, 98, 231, 323 

Conyngham, 203, 265, 278 

Cooke, 241, 293, 294 

Coolaghan, 203, 205, 314, 326 

Cooley 78 

Cooling 78 

Coonan {Conein) ... 202, 203 
Cooney,'* 131, 202, 203, 2.58 
Coote, 245,270,307,308,318, 
Cope, ... 247, 260 

Copeland 253 

Coppinger, ... 215, 232 

Corbally 278 

Corbet ... .. 203 

Corcoran, 76, 78, 216, 240 

Corgauny 203 

Corly ... 203, 205 

Cormaok, 78, 79, 80, 130, 203 

Corr 241 

Corrigan, 137, 203 

Corry, 98, 137, 191, 203, 227, 

245, 250, 269, 275 

Cosby 306 

Cosgar 203 

Cosgrave, 72, 78, 137, 192, 203, 

225, 290, 291, 303 

Costello 316 

Cottor 232 

Coulter 251 

Courteuay 222, 232, 252 

Coveny 3n2 

Cowan ... ... 98 

Cowell" 258 

Cowhey, 79, 80, 227 

Cowley 307 

Coyle(See "CowelL") 

Craig 152 

Crane 259 

Cranny 203 

Cratin 203 

Creagh," 203, 217, 221, 241 
Crean 118, 203, 314 

Credan 252 

Creehan," 203, 249, 259 

30. Coghlan : Irish O'Cochlain. 

31. Colin, Cellen, Collins, Culleii : Irish O'Coillein. 

32. Conolly, O'Connolly : Irish O'Conghaile. 

33. Conor, Connor, O'Conor : Irish O'Gonchdbliair. 

34. Oooney 1 Irish O'Cuanaich. 

35. Gowell, Campbell, Caulfield : Irish Mac Cathm%aoil. 

36. Creagh : Irish O'Craoibh. 

37. Creehan : Irish O'Criodtain. 





203, 250 










145, 203 






232, 233 




79, 80, 228 




120, 203 

Cruiae (^Grux), 215, 278, 284 
Cuffe {Durneen) 231, 232, 307 

Cnlenan 78 

CuUen [See "Colin"), 65, 78, 216 
220, 239, 282 
CuUenan, 78, 226, 240 

CulkiB (Colcan) 120, 202, 203 
Gumming 202, 203 

Cummins 328 

Cumuaky 203 

Gunelvan {Connellan, Quinlevan, 

Quinlan ... .. 203 

Cnnningham ( Cwmffara), 119, 203 


Gurly 205 

Curran {Cumin), 79, 80, 269 

Curry, 98, 137, 227, 269, 275 

Gurtin 216 

Cusack, 278, 284, 317 

DjlLlas," 203, 263 

Dalton 279, 305 

D' Alton, 241, 305 

Dalvy 203 

Daly, 87, 98, 99, 118, 120, 203 

208, 221, 225, 227, 269, 274 

280, 327. 

Daniel 19 

Daroy {Dorcy)" 98, 244, 278, 
284, 312 


D'Arcy {See " JDarcy") 312 

Dardis 278 

Daunt 232 

Davin(Z)amne),"' 137,139,203 
Daviue, 137, 139, 203 

Davis, 243, 249, 260, 264 

Davoren 216, 221 

Dawney ... ... 254 

Dawaon, 245, 295, 307, 308 

Day {See "O'Dea"), 79, etc. 
Deane, 232, 233, 329 

De Angulo, 215, 276, 316 

Deaae ... 61, 279 

Deaay 61 

De Barry 232 

De Bathe, 278, 284 

De Bermingham, 216, 244, 284 
De Bigod, 293, 295, 304 

DeBohuu 234 

De Braosa 218 

De Brotherton 294 

DeBruse 305 

DeBurgo 252 

De Carew 305 

De Glare, 38, 40, 218, 222, 304 

De Cogan 224, 230 

De Constantine ... 277 

De Courcey, 194, 216, 232, 253 


DeGursun 283 

Deegan,*> ... 203, 218 

De Eate 211 

De Exeter ... 215, 317 

De Fleming,*' ... 244 

DeGeneville .. ... 277 

De Gemou ... ... 244 

De Ginkell ... 279, 330 

De Grandison 242 

De Hereford 284 

De Hose ... 277, 305 

DeJorse 329 

DeLaGhapeUe 277 

38. Dalian : Irish O'Dalachain. 

39. iJarcy, D'Arcy, Dorcy : Irish 0' Dorchaidhe, 

40. Damn, Davine, Devin, Devine : Irish O'Daimhin. 

41. Deegan : Iriah O'Duibhginn. 

42. De Fleming, Fleming : Irish 0' Fhlaitheamhain. 




De Lacy, 178, 222, 234, 244, 253 

271, 27H, 305 

Delahoyd, 232, 278, 284 

Delahunt (De la Hunt) ... 216 

Delahunty 216 

Delamere .., 279, 280 

Delany 302 

De la Kupe 282 

Delmore (See " Delamere "), 279 

De Loundres 287 

De Massue 329 

DeMisaett 277 

De Moleyna ... 233, 293 

De Monte Marisco ... 234 

De Montcliensey, 294, 304 

De Montmorency ... 307 

Dempsey, 130, 203, 208, 281, 282 
298, 308 

Dennehy 239 

Denny ... 231, 232 

De Nugent 277 

De Pepard 244 

Derenzy 293 

De Kiddlesford, 284, 294 

Dermody ... 203,256 

DeEobeok 287 

Derria 203 

Deapard 307 

De Spencer, 232, 304, 307 

De St. Michael 284 

De Valence ... 294, 304 

Devany," 203, 204, 245, 251 

De Verdon " 244 

DeVere 286 

Devereux ... ... 293 

DeVerney 270 

De Veaey, 285, 287, 304, 308 
De Veaci ... 287, 308 


Devin (See "Davin" ), 

137, 139, 


, 203, 244 

Devine {See "Davin"), 

137, 139, 

Devlin {DuhUin) 

259, 310 


...■ 325 


307, 308 


203, 204 

Ditmy.. .. ■■■„ 

... 203 

Dillon," 54, 203, 278, 279, 284 
Dimochar, 203, 317, 318, 329, 330 
Dinan (X»Jnneteme),*i= 221,239 
Dinebane (See Dinan.) 

Dinnerty 240 

Dianey ... ■•• 241 

Diver (Du).ver), 137,203 

Doan," 98 

Dobbyn 241 

Dooomlan ... ... 327 

Dogberty," ... 203, 263 

Dolan, 110, 203, 269 

Dollard 277 

Domville 284 

Donacby ... ... 203 

Donaghy (^ee " Donachy"), 203 

Donegan," -137, 203, 204, 217, 

226, 239, 258, 263 

Dongan {Dungan),<-' 203, 204, 

222, 223, 226, 239, 258, 285 

Donnellan, 141, 145, 203, 251, 327 

DonneUy,'^" 120, 137, 203, 204 

289, 259, 264 

Donoboe " 827 

Donovan, 65, 78, 79, 220, 227 
Doolan {Doolecaii), ... 251 

Dooley, 203, 204, 273 

Doonan (Dman), 203, 204 

Dooner ... 118, 203 

Dooney (See "Devany") ... 251 

43. Devany, Downey, Dooney ; Irish O'Duibheamhna. 

44. De Verdon, Verdon : Irish Fliear duinn. 

45. Dillon, Delion, Dillune : Irisli O'Dilmhain. 

46. Dinan, Dinehane : Iriah O'Dinnehane. 

47. Doan, Doimies, Duaiie, Dwain: Irish O'Dubhain. 

48. Dogherty, O'Dogherty : Iriah O^Docliartaigh. 

49. Donegan, Dongan, Dungan : Irish O'Dunagain. 

50. Donnelly : Irish O'Donnghalie. 

51. Donohoe, O'Donolioe : Irish O'Donchada. 




Doran, 203, 291, 292, 293 

Doroey {See "Darcy"), 98, 312 

Dorney 233 

Dougald, 141, 191, 206 

Dowd 144, 203, 314 

Dowdall," 215, 244, 278, 284 
DowUng,"]30,156, 203, 291, 303 
Dowries [See " Doan") ... 98 
" Devany")... 251 

Downey (See 

Downing, ° * 


Doyne, ° ° 










Duane {See " Doan") 



134, 203, 291 

275, 294, 299 

278, 284 

.. 221 






... 260 


203, 273 
... 203 
... 342 

Dudley 203 

Dufif, 98, 284, 302 

Dufify, 130, 137, 191, 203 208, 

238, 282, 328 

Dugan, 90, 99, 118, 226, 291, 

Duhig 216 

Dunady 229 

Dunbar" 249 

Duncan {Dunacan)^'' ... 203 
Dungan {See " Donegan ") 285 
Dunlevy," 195,204,251,275 
Dunne {See " Doyne"), 130, 204 
282, 299 
Durkin (DovercTion) ... 78 


Dutton ... ... 264 

Duvany," 245,258 

Dwain {See "Doan"). 

Dwinan 225 

Dwyer, 130, 137, 203, 208, 217 

238, 240, 247 

Dygeuan, 203, 204 

Bakins (Ecliin) 










Egau,"" 137, 147, 204 

Elligott (See "MacElUgott") 229 
Elliott (Elligott), 192, 204 

Ennis {See "Ouinness"). 
Enright (Hanratty), 137, 191, 
204, 245 
Esmond, 293, 295 

Eustace, 284, 285, 294, 295 

Evans (Evin), 78, 162, 233, 284 
Everard, 242, 278 











Fanning (FannoM) 


FarreU," 84, 88, 


118, 275, 282 

135, 204 
145, 204, 328 


268, 272, 323 

... 204 
204, 217, 229 

223, 295 




i, 99, 217, 258, 

267, 280 
.. 261 

52. Dowdall : Irish O'Dubhdalathe. 

53. howling: Irish O'Dunlaing. 

54. Downing : Irish O'Dininin. 

55. Doyne, Dunne : Irish O'Duinn. 

56. Dunbar : Irish 0' Duinnbharr. 

57. Duncan : Irish MacDuinnchuan. 

58. Dunlevy : Irish O'Duinnsleiblie. 

59. Duvany : Irish O'Duibhduanaidh. 

60. Egan, Higgins : Irish O'hAedhagain. 

61. Farrell, ffred, O'Farrell : Irish O'Feargaoil 







269, 328 


38, 219, 234, 277, 

F&yle {Falvy)" 


... 204 

284, 293 



... 280 




... 204 





... 277 


232, 233, 306, 317 

Felan," 110, 133 

, 134 

204, 217 

Fitzmaurice-Petty ... 233 


236, 303 

Fitzpatrick {Oilpatriclc), 130, 131 


• >■ 

216, 273 

133, 204, 269, 297 

Fennell (Fenelan) 

216, 273 




.. 204 

Fitzsimon, 216, 253, 269, 284, 307 



204, 269 





285, 304 


277, 285 


... 325 




... 249 


265, 284, 286, 295 



... 290 


204, 259, 324, 325 



227, 232 



Fielden,« = 

... 204 



Fielding, »» 


227, 233 


216, 220 



217, 227 





204, 323 




... 79 

Fleming," 2 

204, 232, 277, 278 


■ >• 

... 284 

281, 282, 284, 326 


... 182 


141, 204, 251, 324 



204, 267 

Flood (See " 

MacTuUy") .. 303 

Finnegan, 88, 99 


314, 326 


249, 307 


... 326 




... 267 


79, 80, 145, 204, 217 



... 293 

226, 248, 268, 324 


... 222 




234, 235 


137, 204, 216, 239 



285, 287 

251, 324 

Fitzgerald, 38, 212 


222, 223 



224, 230, 232, 


234, 241 

Forbes, '° 

98, 281 

242, 243, 253, 


285, 293 



294, 304, 305, 






223, 232 


244, 293 



... 293 


244, 284 

62. Fayle, Falvy -. Irish O'Failbhe. 

63. Fe.lan, Phelan, Whelan : Irish O'Faelain. 

64. Ferrar : Irish Fhear-ard. 

65. Field, Fielden, Fielding, Fihilly : Irish O'Fithcheallaidh. 

66. Flaherty, O'Flaherty : Irish, O'FlalMheartaigh. 

67. Flanagan, O'Flanagan : Irish 0' Flannagain. 

68. Flinn, Flynn, Lynn : Irish O'Floinn. 

69. Fogarty : Irish O'Fogartaigh. 

70. Forbes : Irish MacFirbis. 

71. Ford, Forde, Makinnaw, Makenna : Irish MacOonsnamha. 




Fox," 118, 204, 275, 301, 308 

Foy 328 

Freel (See " Farrell"), 99, 258 

French, 329, 330 

Fuery, 204, 239, 255 

Furanan 264 

Furlong 293 

Fyana 284 

Fynes, ... 204, 284 

Gasney," 120, 204, 269 

ftahan 204 

GaUagher [Qalchor),''* 118, 176 
204, 263, 264 













, 232 


202, 204 
232, 260 
278, 284 
202, 204 
204, 232, 314 

Garvey'" 137,204,245,246,251,291 

Gaughan (GahAin) 312 

Gaul 306 

Gavan 280 

Gawley 204 

Gay nor ... 88, 99 

Gealan 327 

Gebney 328 

Geoghagan," 118, 204, 251, 274 


Gough [Goff] ... 137, 205 
Geraghty (Oyraghty),'"' 145, 204 
Gerard ... 278, 305 

Gemou (Garnan) 202, 204 

Gerty (See "Geraghty") 
Giloanny (Kilkenny) 

... 328 
... 316 
... 328 
... 204 
... 204 
140, 204 
283, 290 
268, 328 
88, 99 
204, 248 
. . 240 
... 263 
283, 327 
... 204 

Gilchreest,'" 137, 








Gillard (Gillaran) 

Gillespie 127 

Gilligan (See " Galligan") 204 

GiUy 327 

Gilman 99 

GUmichael '° (See Mitchell/. 

Gilmore,«« 252 

Gilpatriok," 185 

Gilrea 221 

Gilroy ... 99, 221 

Gilson 99 

GinkeU, ... 279, 330 

Ginn 205 

Glashan ... 78, 227 

72. Fox, Reynard, Eeynardson : Irish O'Sionnaigh. 

73. Gafney, Keveny : Irish O'Caibhaheanaigh. 

74. Gallagher: Irish O'Gallchobhair. 

75. Galligam, Gilligan, O'Galligan : Irish O'Gillagain, 

76. Garvey : Irish O'Gairthith. 

77. Oeoghagan, MacGeoghagan : Irish Mac Eoghagain. 

78. Geraghty, Oerty, Garret : Irish Ma^ Oirachty. 

79. Oilbnde, Kilbride : Irish Giolla Brighid. 

80. Oilchreest : Irish Giolla Chriosd. 

81. Gilcolm : Irish Giollamocholmog. 

82. Gilfinan, Leonard : Irish Mac Giolla Finein. 

83. Gilfoyle : Irish Mac Giolla Phoil. 

84. Giljames : Irish Mac Giolla Stamhais. 

85. Gilmichael, Michil, Mitchell : Irish Giolla Michil. 

86. Gilmore : Irish Giolla Muire. 

87. Gilpatricle, Fitzpatrick : Irish Giolla Padraig. 




Glinn (See "MacOloin"] 

Glisson (Gleeson J ... 



Glynn (Glinn) 





Gore, 232, 249, 265, 




Gormley," 120, 


Gough (Geough), 137, 


Gowan (Oobhan) ... 

Grace 284, 

Graham (ffre/iare), 205, 



Grattan {Gratin) ... 


Green [Honeeii) 

Grehan, 205, 


Grimley (Qormley),^^ 


Guinness, «» 17,84,85, 


Gunning (Conang)... 



... 227 
... 71 
... 227 
... 205 
... 235 

71, 78 
... 205 
205, 232 
1.37, 205 

204, 205 
281, 329 

... 274 
... 244 

205, 302 
205, 2.-i7 

... 311 
205, 242 
215, 232 
99, 252 
305, 306 
229, 249 
... 242 
... 242 
205, 284 
... 267 
240, 242 
229, 249 
... 138 
120, 205, 
118, 205 
89, 91, 99 
99, 232 
78, 220 
... 142 
... 205 

Haiz {See "Hughes") 
Hale, 141,143,191,205,242 
Hallinan, 79, 80, 221, 228 

Halloran 221,228,328 

Hamil" 258 

Hamilton, 223, 245, 247, 249, 
253, 260, 261, 269, 278, 284 

Hanger 261 

Hanlon," 137, 192, 205, 203, 245 
Hanly, 144, 205, 323 

Hannen, 99, 147, 227 

Hanratty, 137, 191, 204, 205, 245 

Hanter" = 

Hanvey (Hanafy),' 








Hart," 17,23,27,63,110,136 
137, 192, 205, 20S, 265, 271 
Harte," 136, 137, 205 

Hartigan 216 

Hartley 291 

Hartpole 306 

Hartt,"" 137, 205 

Harty ... 130,205 

Harvey 293 

Hastings ... • — 304 

Hatton {Haugldony ... 249 


251, 273 

... 311 

... 232 

233, 261 

205, 209 

... 286 

... 229 

... 229 

156, 205 

... 38 

... 222 

... 328 

88. Gorman, O'Oormon : Irish 0''Gormain. 

89. Oormley, Grimley : Irish O'Oairmleadliaidh. 

90. GuinnesSjMacGuinness, Magenis, Ennisjnnes: Irish. Aengusa. 

91. Hamil : Irish O'h-Aighmaill. 

92. Hanlon, 0\Hanlon : Irish O'h-Anluain. 

93. Hanter, Hunter : Irish O'h-Ainbitir. 

94. Hanvey, Hannafy : Irish O'h-Ainbheitli. 

95. Hare : Irish O'h-Ir. 

96. Hart, Harte, Hartt, Hort, O'Hart : Irish O'h-Airt. 

97. Hatton, Haughton : Irish Oli-Eochadhain. 



Haughton {See " Hatton 

Hay [See "Hughes") 

Hayes, 99, 205, 


Heady • ... 

Healy, 78, 141, 205, 



Hearne {See "Ahem"') 

Heffernan," 78, 216, 


Hely {Healy) 

Hely-Hntchinson ... 

Henly {Hanly), 144, 

Hennesy,i»i 204, 205, 

Henry {Henergy) ... 
Herbert, - 231, 


Heron {^See "Ahem ") 

Heyne,!" 205, 228, 

Higgins (See " Egan "), 
205, 227, 
Hindsf^ci/ne),"" 205, 




') 249 

273, 293 
... 251 
251, 314 
216, 227 
248, 324 
... 216 
... 238 
218, 239 
216, 218 

227, 237 
... 243 

205, 323 

273, 275 


118, -205 

232, 233 






314, 325 

... 216 

137, 147 

275, 326 

... 253 

228, 314 

... 229 
... 252 
... 232 


Hoey,i°* .. 251, 274 

Hogan,"» 72, 78, 216, 240, 258 
Holland {See "Mulholland "). 








Horkan (See 




147, 205, 209, 326 



232, 293 

•Harkin") 205, 209 
BoTt {See "Hart") ... 285 

Hosey,i»' 119, 205, 258 

Hovenden 306 

Howard (See"Iver") 294, 295, 304 
Howe {See "Hoey") 251, 274 

Howley 174 

Howth 284 

Hoyne {Honeen) 240 

Hughes, »" 99,156,205,252, 
273, 314 

Hullali"!' 238 

Hume 249 

Humphrey 270 

Hunt (See "De la Hunt ") 216 
Hunter {Hauler) ... ■ ... 258 
Hurley, 78, 216, 227, 237 

Hussey (See " Hosey "), 119, 205 
222, 277, 284, 305, 307 

Hutchinson 243 

Hyde ... 231, 232 

Hynes {Heyne) 205, 228, 314, 


98. Heaney, O'Heaney : Irish O'h-Eignidh. 

99. Heffeman : Irish O'h-Iffernain. 

100. Hehir: Irish O'h-Aithehir. 

101. Hennesy : Irish O'h-Aengusa. 

102. Heyne, Hinds, Hynes : Irish O'h-Eidhin. 

103. Hinson : Irish O'h-Innesvan. 

104. Hoey, Howe : Irish O'h-Eocha'ulh. 

105. Hogan : Irish O'A- Ogain. 

106. Holly: Irish O'h-Oilciolla. 

107. Hosey, DeHosey, Hoesy, Hussey : Irish O'h-Eodhasa. 

108. Hughes, Hayes, Haiz, Hay, 0'Hay,0'Hea:lrisii O'h-Aodha. 

109. Hullah, Hulla : Irish O'h-Oiliolla. 



Tnnes {See 

" Guinness"). 

Irvine^ '° 

... 216 



Irwini ' " 



160, 205 


160, 205 


ICO, 205 

Jackson (MacShaney^-'... 242 

Jacob 293 

Jeptsoii 232 

Joycelyn ... 254, 276 
Johnson (MacShane) 242,259,307 
Jones, 278, 293, 295 
Jordan,"' 216,253,317 
Joy,"* 192, 228 
Joyce,"* 192, 228, 329 
Judge 342 

Kane (Cane;, 118, 120, 143, 202 

205, 254, 255, 256, 259 

Kavanagh,"" 156, 205, 291 

Keane (Oane), 202, 205, 239, 243 


Keaney 269 

Kearney 216,221,228,238,274,301 

Keams [See "Kieran"), 191, 205 

266, 313 

Keary, 202, 232, 282, 314 

Keating,"' 285,293,295 

Keeffe,"' 78 

Keely,"' 202, 205,220, 227, 239 
302, 303 
Keen (See "Cane") 
Keenan ICaoinhan), 137, 191, 202 
205, 258 
Kehoe ... 216, 239 

Keily (See "Keely"). 
Kelleher (Kellechar) ... 78 
Kelly, "» 137, 139, 205, 290, 302 

Kendelan 273 

Kenealy,"" 132, 205,220 

Kennedy, 1" 65, 78, 137, 139 

205, 216, 237, 260 
Kenny,'" 87, 99, 121, 147, 205 

258, 293, 312, 326 

Kent 232 

Keogh,"» 137, 148, 205, 328 
Keon 203, 205, 328 

Keown ... 203, 205 

Kerby 205 

Kerlin {See "Oarolan"), 202, 205 
Kernagan,"* ... 263, 311 
Keman,"" ... 205,268 

Kerney, 95, 99, 160 

110. Irvine, Irving, Irwin, MacNeir : Irish MacConaire. 

111. Iver, Ivor, Ivir, Maelver, Maclvir, Maclvor, Mclvor, 
Maguire : Irish Mac Ibhir [eever]. Dr. Joyce derives Howard as 
well as Ivor from the Irish lomhar [eever], -whioh is, no doubt.another 
form for Ibhir. 

112. JacJeson, Johnson : Irish MacShane, 

113. Jordan : Irish O'Cuirthan. 

114. Joy, Joyce, Sheehy, MacSheehy : Irish Mac Shaoghaidh. 

115. Kavanagh, Cavanagh : Irish O'Caomhanach. 

116. Keating, Keatinge : Irish O'Ceatfadhe. 

117. Keeffe, O'Keeffe : Irish O'Caeimh, O'Oefada. 

118. Keely, Keily, Kiely : Irish O'Ociolidh. 

119. Kelly, O'Kelly : Irish O'Ceallach. 

120. Kenealy: Irish O'Ceannfaola. 

121. Kennedy : Irish O'Ceannfhada. 

122. Kenny ; Irish O'Cinaeith. i 

123. Keogh : Irish Mac Eochaidh. ' 

124. Kernagan: Irish O'Oearnachain. 

125. Keman, Tiernan, Ternan, MacTeman, Masterson : Irish, 
M acTir.ghernairt, signifying the son of the master. 



KeTT(See "Carr") 

... 241 




... 205 

Kerwiok,> = ' 

216, 220 


... 302 

Ke\'iu' = ^ 

... 252 


.. 242 

Kiely (5ee "Keely,") 

202, 205 

Kieran,"9 191, 205, 

258, 313 

Kiernan, 99, 141, 

158, 266 

KUbride [OilhHdey^ 

... 204 

-Kilduff (Gilduff), 160 

205, 268 



205, 325 

Kilkenny (Gilcanny) 

... 205 


... 205 

Kilpatrick (Gitpatnch) 

... 258 


99, 221 


... 205 

King,^" 233, 242, 243, 

324, 330 


... 264 

Kinsela, 130, 171, 

205, 291 


... 205 

"Kxthy [See " Kerwkk" 

... 205 

Kirwan {Kirovan), 8' 

, 99, 329 


... 295 


... 260 

Lact, 178, 222, 234, 

244, 253 


276, 305 


... 205 


Laghnan 205 

Laghney 205 

Laing 291 

LaUy,i»» 187, 147, 192, 206, 326 
Lalor,"* 206, 302 

Lambert, 270, 278, 293, 308 

Lamond 206 

Lane, > » » 206, 229, 264, 281 
Laney,!" 206, 264 

Langan (iom^an)'" ... 206 

Lanigan 240 

Langrishe 305 

Lannen ... 137, 206 

Larkin {Lorcan), * " 1 37, 206, 

245, 291, 828 

Latouche 284 

Laury,!" 137^ 138, 2O6 

Lavan {Lamhari), 137, 160, 206 
LavaUan .. . . 232 

Lavary,"" 251 

X-SLveWe {See "LavaUan")... 232 
Lawless, 284, 285, 287, 305, 817 


Lawlor {See "Lalor ") 99, 137 

206, 302 

Laydon [Lamdhean),^*'' 206, 328 

Lea ... ... 242 

Leahy, 1" 137, 191, 206, 327 

Leary,"" 78, 79, 80, 227, 247 
Lee {Lea'), 137, 138, 242 

126. Kerrin: Irish O'Ceirrin. 

127. Kerwkh, Berwick, Kirhy, Kerhy: Irish O'Ciarmhaie. 

128. Kevin: Irish O'Caemhain. 

129. Kieran, Reams : Irish O'Ciarain. 

130. Kilkelly : Irish MacGiolla Ceallaigh. 

131. Kinehan, Kinlehan : Irish O'Cinlechan. 

132. King : Irish Mac Conroi. 

133. Lally, MuHally : Irish O'Maolalaidh. 

134. Lalor, Lawlor : Irish 0' Leathlabhair. 
1,^5. Lane, Laney : Irish O'Lainidh. 

136. Langan, Long : Irish O'Longain. 

137. Larkin: Irish O'Lorcain. 
188. Laury : Irish O'Labhra. 

139. Lavary: Irish O'Labhradha. 

140. Laydon: Irish O'Lamhdhean. 

141. Leahy: Irish O'Laodhaigh. 

142. Leary O'Leary: Irish O'Laoghaire. 




Lefroy {Liver) 
Le Gras 
Le Gros 

Lenehan [Longnehan] ^ * 

Leonard {Gilfinany * '^ 
Le Peer 241, 

Le Poer Trench ... 

Lestrange, ^ * ° 
L'Estrange, 146, 


Loftus (Louglman) 137, 
274, 286, 293, 

Loughlin, 99, 163, 164, 
Logue (Loghan) ... 
Lombard {Longbardan), 

Lonergan {Lonargany^ 

Long (See " Langan ") 


. 286 

. 78 

, 306 


. 226 

, 260 

, 206 



... 242 

243, 260 

... 329 

... 245 

303, 307 

303, 307 

... 279 


95, 99 

... 229 

... 78 

216, 221 

... 260 

206. 250 

295, 312 

... 253 

176, 208 

219, 257 

... 206 

206, 232 


= 72, 78 

216, 240 

... 239 


Loughnan 137, 


Lowther (Luther) ... 

Lynch {See "Longsy") 
239, 251, 269, 275, 
Ljme (Lehan), 
Lynn {See " Flynn)" 
Lynskey (See " Longsy ' 

Lyons (See " Lehan ") 


251, 314 
137, 259 

252, 312 
... 251 

249, 260 


284, 286 

99, 137 
314, 329 
226, 263 
206, 265 

... 317 
'), 239 
251, 263' 
216, 226 
215 ,221 

MacAUister, 141, 

Mac Andrew 
Mao Arthur, 
Maoaulay, "^ 
MacAwley, * " ^ 



... 216 

142, 143, 191 

192, 206, 255 

79, 80 

... 142 


191, 206, 244 
91, 99, 251 
, 78, 215, 222 


.. 79, 80, 274 


216, 226 
216, 317 
264, 274 

143. Lehan, Lyne, Lyons : Irish O'Lehan. 

144. Lenehan : Irish MacLongachain. 

145. Leonard, Oilfinan : Irish Mac Giolla Finein. 

146. Lesirange, L'Estrange : Irish IlacOoscry 
' 147. Liddy : Irish O'Lideadha. 

148. Logan: Irish O'Leochain. 

149. Lonergan: Irish O'Lonargain. 

150. Longsy, Lmskey, Linch, Lynch : Irish O'Luingsigh. 

151. Looney, O'Looney : Irish O'Loney. 

152. Lowry: Irish 0' Leathlolhra. 

153. Lysacht : Irish Mac Giolla losachi. 
iri' -?f'="'^««2/' Afahessy: Irish O'Macasa. 

Amhalga>^h •^' ^^'^''^'^' ^«'=^«'% Macgau,ley: In.h Mac 

Index of siknames. 











MacCann, 137, 


216, 224, 
MaoClean, 141, 
MaoCloskey, ^ ' ° 


... 87 

... 268 

206, 323 

... 327 


291, 293 


137, 206 

215, 221 


206, 269 

. ... 

244, 258 


206, 244 

245, 246 


251, 269 

65, 68, 72, 78 | 


243, 263 

... 2.^16 


... 249 

... 324 


221, 267 


192, 206 

17, 259 


273, 300 


130, 206 

... 244 

.. 207 

... 142 

'... 324 

... 215 

99, 313 

... 326 


... 240 

... 280 

... 203 


203, 206 















.. 291 

. 303 

215, 276, 316 



120, 206 




137, 192, 203, 206 


156, 206, 232, 316 

"1 145,167,168 

206, 267, 293, 309, 319, 321 

MacDonald, '"^ 141,143,191 

192, 206 

MaoDonnell, " ^ 69, 70, 78, 137 

140, 141, 143, 191, 192,206, 21& 

220, 248, 252, 255, 269. 

"69, 78, 145, 206 

216, 226, 267, 310 

141, 191, 206 

191, 206 

141, 143, 191, 192 




206, 251 





MaoDwilgan ., ... 248 

MacEgan,!" 137, 147, 206, 225 
227, 240, 266, 326 
MacEUigotti" 192, 216, 229 
MacEneiry ... 216, 219 

156. MacCamphell, MacCowell, MacCoyk, MacOaulfidd: Irish. 

157. MotcGarthy : Irish MacCarlhaigh. 

158. MacClancy : Irish MacFlanchada. 

159. MacGloskey : Irish MacBlosgaidh. 

160. MacCuUagh : Irish MacCeallach. 

161. MacDermott : Irish MacDiarmada. 

162. MacDonald, MacDonnell: Irish MacDomJmaiU. 

163. MacDonogh : Irish MacDondiaidh. 

164. MacEgan: iiish. MacAedhagain. 

165. MacElligott, Elligott, Elliott: Irish or Scottish MacLeod. 








MacFetridge,^ " 






MacGauran/« = 

53, 141, 191, 206 
273, 302 

... 282 
... 317 
... 269 
258, 325 
216, 229 
... 99 
... 282 
. .. 206 

144, 168, 206 
266, 268 
MacGawley (See "Macaulay ") 

206, 274, 301 
MaoGeogliagan (Sec 'Geoghagan') 

118, 206, 274 
MaoGeough ... 137, 206 

MacGeraghty, 268, 314, 322, 324 
MacGibbona ... 232, 316 

MacGiblin 263 

MacGilfoyle {See " Oilfoyle") 240 
MaoGilfinan, 118, 191, 206 

MaoGilliouddy ... 216, 229 
MaoGilligan ... 269, 280 

MacGilmicbaeP'"' .. 191 

MacGilmore (See ' 




Gilmore "), 
191, 206, 252 
130, 235, 297 
.. 221 

UacGlom (See "MacMin") 269 

MacGnieve 143 

MacGoflf (^ee "MacOough.") 
MacGaffrey 137 


MacGoey (See "MacKeogh") 

MacGorgan |^* 

MaoGorman 302 

MacGougb ... 137, 206 

MacGowan, 99, 252, 268 

MaoGuinness (See " Gumness " j, 

17, 84, 85, 89, 91, 99, 251. 

MacGuthrie 142 

MaoHale 141, 143, 206 

MacHenry,"» ... 216,219 

MacHugh,!" 99,137,144,206 

269, 274, 324 

MacTlroy {MacCulroy) ... 99 

Maolntyre ... 227 

Maolvir (See " Ivir "), 137, 160 

206, 247 

Maclvor (See Ivor) 137, 160, 206 


MaeJordan ... 215, 317 

Mackay 206 

MackenfJfocAm)"' 206,252 
MacKenna, 137, 191, 206, 244 
Mackenny ... 244, 209 

MacKeogh (Kehoe),-'''^ 216,239 
292, 321, 328 

MacKeon 328 

Mackey 206 

MacLaim ... ... 302 

MaoLame 303 

MacLaughlin, 144, 151, 158, 206 
MaoLenaghan .. ... 239 

MacLeod 229 

Macklin (Irish MacFloinn; See 

MaoLoghlin, 57, 122, 163, 164 
176, 206, 256, 257 

166. MacEvoy, Mac Veagh, Mac Veigh : Irish 3fac Uais (signifying 
the descendants of King CoUa Uais). " MacEvoy " may also be de- 
rived from the Irish MacAodh Bhuidhe [mao-ee-boy], signifying the 
descendants of Yellow Hugh f see page 302). 

167. MacFetridge : Irish MacFiachraidh. 

168. MacOauran : Irish MacSamhradhain. 

169. MacGUmichael : Irish Mac GioUa Michil. 

170. MacHenry: Irish Maclnerigh. 

171. MacHtigh: iTiah Mac A odk [mac-ee]. 

172. Macken: Irish O'Machoiden. 

173. MacKeogh, Kehoe : Irish MacCeoch. 




MacMalion,"* 65, 78, 137, 159 
191, 201, 206, 216, 220, 221 
245, 251. 

MaeMaine 321 

MacManus, 137, 191, 206, 249 
269, 328 

MacMaurioe 216 

MaoMorrisy 145 

MacMorrow, "= 324 

MacMurrogh, " ' 130, 156, 161 

207, 258, 293, 324 

MacMurrogh-Kavanagh - 291 

MaoNamara,!" 78, 216, 218 



















66, 207 


137, 192, 207, 259 



... 156, 207 


192, 207 
192, 207 

216, 232 




142, 192, 207, 254 

217, 267 


MaoEeynolds [MacRannal), 217 


MaoRogersi" 258 

MacEory,!" 141, 143, 192, 207 

MaoRourke ... 207, 274 

MacRuddery ... 216, 307 

MaoScanlan 244 

MacShaue (See "Jachson "), 242 


MacSheehy {See "Joy "), 141 

143, 192, 207,221, 228 

MacS-here 216 

MacSherry 232 

MacSwiney,!'' 124, 166, 207 

228, 263, 314 

MacTague,"" 137, 147, 207, 274 

MacTerence, " ° 207 

MacTernan,!" 137,207, 263, 266 

MacThomas 216 

MaoTilly 269 

MacTiernan'S' 144, 158, 207, 268 
MacTirlogh {See "MacTerence") 

MaoTully, 137, 192, 207, 258,303 

MaoTyre 227 

MacDais"^ ... 207, 273 

MacVeagh,"^ 141, 191, 207, 273 

MaoV"eigh,"2 141, 191, 207, 273 


174. MacMalion, Matthews : Irish MacMailuihamhna. 

175. MacMorrow, MacMurrogh, Morrow, Murphy : Irish Mac- 
Murchada, O'Murchada. 

176. MacNamara : Irish MacConmara. 

177. Macliogers, MacBory, Sogers: Jriah MacBuaidhri. 

178. MacSwiney, Sweeny :, Irish MacSuibhne. 

179. MacTague, Montagu, Montague : Irish MacTaidgh. 

180. MacTerence, MacTerry, Terence, Terrie, MacTirlogh : Irish 

181. MacTernav,MacTiernan, Masterson: Irish MacTiegheinain 
(signifying the son of the master.) 

182. Mac Uais, MacEvoy, Mac Veagh, Mac Veigh : Irish Mac Uais 
(signifying the descendants of King Colla Vais [cose], the 12l3t 
Milesian monarch of Ireland. From the ancient " Mao Uais " (uais, 
uaislt [ooseley] : Irish, nobility, genteel appearance, etc.,) were 
descended the MacUaislaidh, Anglicised Oaseley and Wesley. 




MacWard,"=91,99, 252, 264, 327 
MacWattin ... 215, 817 

MacWiUiam"* ... 215, 315 
Madden, "5 I37, 147, 192, 207 

242 325 
Magafuey, 120, 207, 251, 269 

Magan ... 71, 78 

Ma^auran,"" 144, 158, 207, 266 
Magawley (See "Macaulay") 207 

274, 301 
Magee "'192, 207, 252, 255, 263 
Magellan ... 207, 280 

Mstsenis (See "Gainness"), 17 
84, 85, 89, 91, 99, 251 
Mageraghty ... 145, 207 

Magettigau"' 258 

MagiUan 280 

Magin 327 

Maglin ... 71, 78 

Magovern [See "Magauran"), 

144, 158, 207, 266 
Magratli, 137, 192, 207, 216, 237 

240, 249 

Magreevy,"" 321 

Maguire,"" 137, 160, 192, 206 
207, 247, 248, 250 

Maher,i»i 238 

Mahon, 78, 159, 207, 219, 251 

Mahony,i»2 216 

Maine 207 

Makessy [See "MacAsey" 220 


Mallinson {Mallison) 

Mafone, 137,' 207, 275 

Malony (MuUowiiey)^^' 207 



Manly (0'il/a«(/) ... 







Markham [Marcam) 








Masterson {See 


87, 99, 

90, 99, 
207, 327 
... 327 
... 264 
.. 264 
... 207 
... 244 
... 207 
285, 307 
232, 253 
207, 329 
277, 284 
222, 223 

266, 293 
Matthews [See "MacMalion") 

174, 192, 207, 243 

Maude 243 

Maule 243 

Maxwell 270 

May (Meagh) 232 

Maynard ... .. 295 

Mayne [Maine) ... 207, 283 
McGeough ... 137,206 

McTvor [See " Maclvor ") 206 

183. MacWard, Ward: Jtish Mac Anhhaird. 

184. MacWilliam, Williams: IrisifMacOiolla. 

185. Madden: Irish O'Madagain or O'Madadliain. 

186. Magauran : Irish MacSamhradhain. 

187. Magee : Irish 0' Maolgaoithe. 

188. Magettigan : Irish O'h-Eitigein. 

189. Magreevy : Irish MacIiiabhavdU. 

190. Maguire: Irish Mac Ihhir [See "Ivir.") 

191. Maker, Meagher : Irish O'Meachair. 

192. Mahony, O'Mahony : Irish O'MathahamJma, 

193. Malony : Irish 0' Maoilfhiona. 




Meagher (See -'Maher"), 65, 75 
78, 216, 238 


Meara, 71, 216, 237, 238 

Mearns ... 148, 239 

Meehau 216, 269, 314 

Meldon (ilfaHoon),"* 137,139 
192, 207, 247, 314 

Melia 207 

Melloni'^ .. 258, 274 

Meredith. 279 

Michil {See "MitcheWy^'^ 137, 

Milford 313 

Minchin 207 

Mitchell (Michil),'^''^ 137, 191 

207, 248, 323 
M'lvor {.?ce "Maclvor")... 137 

Modarn 2^3 

Moghan 207 

Moledy ... 273, 300 

Molesworth, 284, 286, 307, 308 

Moleyns 207 

MoUoy,!" 113,207,273,300 
Molony, 78, 216, 221 

Molyneux (Mulligan), > " 99, 207 

208, 259, 308 

Monaghan, ' - 






207, 208, 323 




207, 313 
222, 223, 243 


Monson 233 

Montagu (MacTague), " » 137 

147, 207, 274 
Montgomery (Mulgemry), 207 

208, 253, 258 

Montmorenzy 307 

Mooney,"o 130, 135, 137, 156 

157, 207, 208, 303, 324 

Moore,"! 84, 90, 94, 95, 99, 233 

243, 244, 282, 287, 293, 298 

308, 323. 

Moran, 87, 99, 251, 314, 323, 327 

Moray ... ... 78 

Morell 207 

Morgan, = "" 232,242,293 

Moriarty,«" 21, 207, 216, 229 


Morishy,^"-' 207 

Momy 222 

Morrin, ^ » 2 207, 208, 274 

Morris, = »* 145, 207, 232, 242 

305, 314, 329 
Morrison, 2 "-t 145, 207, 314 

Morrissev, = * 207, 314 

Morrow,!" 161, 207, 258 

Mortimer, 253, 277, 305 

Mowbray 294, 295, 304 

Moylan {See "Mullen") 

Moyles 21 

Mucket 242 

Mulachen 208 

Mulbrasil"' ... 208,258 

Mulbrennan, 145, 208, 324 

194. Meldon, Muldoon : Irish O'Maolduin. 

195. Mellon: Irish O'Meallain. 

196. Michil, Mitchell : Irish GioUa Michil, O'Mailmichil. 

197. Molloy : Irish 0' Maolmhuaidh. 

198. Molyneuy, Mulligan : Irish O'Maolagain. 

199. Monaghan ; Irish O'Muinechain. 

200. Mooney : Irish O'Maenaigh. 

201. Moore, O'Moore : Irish O'Maolmordha. 

202. Morgan, Morrin, Murrin : Irish O'Muiregain. 

203. Moriarty, Murtagh: Irish O'Muircheartaigh. 

204. Morishy, Morris, Morrison, Morrijsey : Irish O'MtiirJtof! or 
MacMuirfios (muir : Irish, the sea, fios : Irish; Lat. visus, knowledge), 
signifying the son of the message from the sea, 

205. Mulbrasil: Irish O'Maolbreasail. 

. 404 



Mulcahy (Mulchay) 


Muldoon {See "Meldon") 

137, 139, 192, 247, 314, 

M ul Jowney 

Mullally (See Lally) 



176, 208, 261 


71, 78 




203, 258 


88, 99 
137, 147 
192, 208, 326 
Mulledy ... 273, 300 

Mullen"" 130, 145. 208, 282 
MuUethy .. ' ... 221 

Mulligan [See " Mo/yneux"), 99 
208, 242, 259, 263, 269 
Mullo-vmey {See " Malony") 99 

Mulpatriok 99 

Mulrenniu ... 313, 324 

Mulrian, 130, 208, 239 

Mulrooney,"! 145, 248, 314, 327 
Mulroy {See Muldory) 176, 208 
Multiiily"2 93, 99, 120 

MulTany,"= ... 227, 262 

MulvehiU 227 

Mulvey,"* ... 88, 99, 268 

MulviUe {Muhehill) ... 227 

Mulvochery ... 99, 145 

Murcau 2S2 

Murdoch'' 1° 21 

Muregan ... .. 137 

Murgally 208 

Murphy (See "MaeMorrow") 

130, 156, 157, 207, 208, 228 

258, 275, 283, 291. 

Murray,"" 78,259,264,269 

275, 311 

Murrigan {See "Morgan") 274 

Murrin {See -'Moigan"), 208,274 

Murragh, ... 139, 232 

Murtagh (See " ilforiartj/ ") 21 

99, 131, 208, 229, 283 

Murtha 282 

Naghten,"' 137, 147, 


Nangle, 21.5, 276, 284, 


Napier {Napper) 




Neillan, 137, 

Neny, 137, 192, 208, 



Nevin, 72. 


Newell (Nilielly^^ 


Newman {Nevienham) 


Neylan {Neillan) ... 



192, 208 
232, 279 
285, 316 
... 278 
... 278 
... 222 
... 254 
... 229 
192, 208 
258, 259 
278, 284 
... 270 
, 78, 328 
... 260 
... 208 
... 232 
... 232 
... 242 
... 208 
... 303 
... 278 

206. Muldory, Mulroy : Irish O'Maoldoraigh. ' 

207. Mul/ohariy : Irish 0' Maolfothartaidk. 

208. Mulhall: Irish O'Maulfabhaill. 

209. MidhoUand : Irish O'Maolchallain. 

210. Mullen, Moleynn, Moylan: Irish O'Maollain. 

211. Mulrooney, Hooney, Rowney: Irish O'Maolruanaidh. 

212. MuUully, Tulty, Mood: Irish O'MaoUuile. 
Miilvany : Irish Maolmaghna. 
Muloey : Irish 0' Maolnldadhaiyh. 
Murdoch : Irish O'Muiredach. 
Murray : Irish O'Mulredkaigh. 

217. Naghten, Norton : Irish 0' NeacUain 

218. Newell, Nihell : Irish O'Neill. 




'Sihell {See "Jfewell") 208,217 
Nolan,2i9 110, 130, 134, 135 

208, 291, 292 

Noonan (?7ana«)... 216,227 

Nowlan(Sec "Nolan"), 110, 130 

134, 135, 208, 291 

Norris 231 

Norton {See "lighten"}, 137 

192, 208, 326 
Nunan (See "Noonan"), 216, 227 
Nugent 242, 277, 279 

O'Beirne ... 263, 323 

O'Birne 202, 208, 240 

O'Boylef'Scc "Boyle"), 118, 176 

208, 258, 262 

O'Brassil ... 141, 208 

O'Brennan, 130, 144, 208, 302 


O'Brien,"" 56, 58, 65, 71, 72, 73 

78, 216, 222, 224, 328 

O'Byme,'" 17, 130, 156, 157 

164, 165, 208, 282, 290 

0'Callaglian,"2 68, 79, 82, 216 

226, 233, 237, 243, 244 

O'Cane {See "Cane,") 117, 120 

239, 2.54, 256, 325 

O'OarroU,"" 229, 266, 268, 275 


O'CarroU "Ely," .58,65,07,75 

76, 79, 216, 237, 300, 308 

O'CarroU " Oriel," 137, 192, 200 

208, 244 


O'Clery,"* 269,314,325 

O'Connell,"" 208, 217, 219, 229 

269, 326 

O'ConnoUy (See "Connolly ") 208 

271, 272 

O'Conor,''^" 76, 79, 84, 8G, 92, 93 

145, 219, 256, 267, 281 

O'Conor " Corcomroe" ... 99 

O'Couor " Don," 145, 167, 208 


O'Conor " Failey," 129, 130, 131 

208, 297 

O'Couor " Keenaght" ... 76 

O'Couor " Kerry," 84, 8G, 92, 93 

99, 217 

O'Conor "Roe," 145,167,208 

O'Conor " Sligo "... 145, 167 

O'Curran {O'Cuman) ... 80 

O'Curry ... 227, 269 

O'Daly, 87,99, 118, 120, 208, 221 

225, 227, 269, 274, 280, 327 

O'Dea,"" 79, 216, 218, 227, 238 

O'Dell 242 

O'Uempsey,"'130, 203, 208, 281 
282, 298, 308 

O'Dermott 256 

0'Doherty,118, 176,208, 268, 311 

O'Donel,"" 118, 149, 176, 208 

228, 262, 314 

O'Donnell, 208, 217, 229 

O'Donogh 310 

O'Donoghoe (fi'DonocUo), '^ " 79 
216, 228, 237, 273, 283, 297, 327 

219. Nolan, Nomlan : Iriali O'Nuallain. 

220. O'Brien : Irish O'Brien. 

221. 0' Byrne : Irish O'Broin. 

222. O'Callaghan, Callarjhaii : Irish O'Ceallachain. 

223. O'CarroU : Irish O'Cearhhoil. 

224. O'Clery : Irish O'Cleirigh. 

225. O'Connell : Irish O'Conaile. 
2-'6. O'Conor : Irish O'Conchohhair. 

227. O'Dea, Day : Irish O'Deagliaidh. 

228. O'Dempsey, Dempsey : Irish 0' Diomosaigh. 

229. O'Donel, O'Donnell: Irish O'Domhnaill. 

230. O'Donoghoe : Irish O'Donchada. 



O'Donovan, 65, 79, 220, 227 

O'Cowd, 145, 167. 208, 314 

0'DriscoU, = " 79,80,225 

0'Dwyer,"2 130, 137, 208, 217 
238, 240, 247 
O'Farrell,"^ 84, 88, 99, 217, 258 
267, 280 

O'Farrely 269 

O'Finan 79 

O'Flalierty,"* 144, 162, 208 

259, 267, 324, 325 

O'Flanagan {See Flanagan), 76 

79, 118, 137, 145, 192, 208, 238 

274 32,T 

O'GaUigan (^ce "GalUgan") 204 

O'Gara, 65, 79, 216, 310 

O'Gauran ... ... 327 

Ogle 295 

O'Gneeve 259 

O'Gnive, 143, 259 

O'Gorman (See " (rormcMs ") 79 

130, 208, 217, 221, 302 

O'Grady, 79, 216, 218, 223 

O'Hagan, " ■> 1 1 8, 124, 208, 258 


O'Halloran,"" 221, 228, 328 

O'Himloii (See "Hanlon ") 137 

192, 208, 245. 246 

O'Hara,^" 65, 79, 216, 255, 310 


O'Hart (See "^art "), " s 17,23 

27, 53, 110, 136, 137, 141, 192 

208, 265, 271. 

O'Hay, O'Hea (See "Hughes"). 

O'Hea, 79, 216, 220, 227, 275, 282 

O'Hugh 262 


O'Keeflfe (See " Keeffe "), 65, 67 

79, 216, 220, 225, 226 

O'Kelly (See " Kelly "),'" 137 

147,192, 208, 244, 252, 271, 272 


O'Leary (See "Leary"), 67, 79 

80, 227, 247 

O'LogUin, 99, 163, 164, 176, 208 

217, 219, 257 

O'Loghan, 137, 273, 274 

O'Loglinaii ... 137, 312 

O'Looney (See " ioonej/ "), 208 


O'Mahony {See " Mahomj "), 79 

216, 226 

O'Mally, 144, 167, 203, 220, 268 


O'Meala ... 156, 208 

O'Meara. 71, 79, 216, 237, 238 

O'MelagUin, 55, 118, 151, 176 

178, 208, 271 

O'Mulconry ... 118, 208 

O'Neill, 55, 121, 122, 124, 163, 

176, 208, 217, 221, 

245, 249, 255, 256, 

257, 259. 

O'Neny, 137, 192, 208, 258, 259 

Ord 25 

0'Eegaii, = " 130,209,271,272 

Orell 160 

0'B,ielly, = " 144, 158, 166, 208 

266, 267, 279 

O'Rourke,-*^ 144, 158, 209, 225 

266, 267, 321 

Osborne 242 

231. O'Driscoll: Irish O'h-Mersceol. 

232. 0' Dioyer, Dwyer : Irish O'Duibhidhir. 

233. O'Parrell, Farrell, Freel : Irish O'Feargaoil. 

234. O'Flaherty : Irish O'Flailkbhearlaigh. 

235. O'Hagan : Irish O'h-Aigaiii. 

236. O'Halloran : Irish O'h-Allurain. 

237. O'Hara : Irish O'h-Faghra. 

238. O'Hart : Irish O'h-Airt. 

239. O'Kelly : Irish O'Ceallaeh. 

240. 0' Regan, Regan : Irish O'Riagain. 

241. 0'Rielly,Rielly, Raleigh, RahiUy. Irish 0' Raghallaigh. 

242. O'Rourke, Rourlce : Irish O'Ruairc. 




0'Shannesy,^''= 325 

O'Shea,"* 209, 217,219, 229, 237 

303, 306 

O'Shaughlin 275 

O'Shaughnesy 314, 325 

Osty 99 

O'Sullivan,^" 58, 65, 67, 72, 74 

79, 216, 225, 239 

0'Toole,2''8 130, 156, 157, 209 

282, 290 

Otty 99 

Ousely (See "Mac Uais.") 
Owens ... 19, 209 


246, 261, 




Parsons, 260, 286, 293, 


Pearse {Pierce) 

Pearson (Mac Pierce) 

Peppard (Pepper) 















233, 284 
... 307 
307, 308 
216, 232 
... 216 
... 216 
... 284 

232, 238 
. . 216 

264, 270 

... 223 


233, 295 
110, 134, 204, 209 

277, 284 





232, 307 

Plunkett, 215, 244, 
Poer, 216, 233, 


Ponsonby, 285, 



Power (Poer), 216, 

Prendergast, 38, 

Preston, 277, 283, 








277, 283, 286 
241, 242, 293 





294, 295, 305 




233, 241, 242 

293, 805 

... 270 

232, 23+, 242 

285, 286, 287 




222, 305 

QuiNN,'" 79, 88, 99, 208, 209 
216, 218, 223, 255, 258, 259 
274, 280. 
Quinlan (Quinlevan),^*'^ 203, 209 
Quinlevan (See " Quinlan") 240 
Quirk,'"'" ... 209, 274 

Rahilly (See " O'Rielly") 209 
Ealeigk (See "O'Bielly") 231, 241 

Ram 293 

Kawdon-Haatings 254 

Eawson ... 284, 286 

Rappan 209 

Ray 209 

243. O'Shannesy, Shanestj; O'Shaufjhnesij, Shawjhnesy: Irish 
0' Seaclinasaigh. 

244. O'Shea, Shea, Shee : Irish O'Seaghda. 

245. 0' Sullivan, Sullivan : Irish O'Suitleabhain. 

246. 0' Toole, Toole: Irish O'Tuathail. 

247. Phelan, Felan, Whelan : Irish O'Faelain. 

248. Quinlan, Quinlevan, Cunelvan, Coniiellan: Irish O'Coin- 

249. Quirk: Irish O'Cuirc. 




Redmond 293 

Regan (See. " 0' Regan "), 1 30 
209, 271, 272, 299 











Ridley (^Riddle) 

Rielly (RaUllij), 





204, 209 

204, 209 

8, 99, 2 '.7, 267 


222, 232, 242 






"i44, 158, 166 



67, 79, 228 

137, 138, 209, 222, 223 

225, 232, 233, 242 

242, 279, 294 


209, 260 
137, 209^ 
141, 143, 192, 209 
232, 272 



"RoWrn. (See -'Roland") ... 324 
Ronan,"* 137, 209, 275, 328 
Eonayne {See " Ronan ")... 137 
209, 228, 237, 2t5, 328 
Rooney {See " JUulrooney "), 162 
208, 209, 248, 314, 327 
Eoper 295 



Rogers, ^ ° ^ 

Roland" 2 


Rourke (See " O'Rourke 
158, 209, 225, 266, 

Rowland {See "Roland" 

Rowney {Rooney), 
Ruddy {Roddy) 
Eyan,"' 130, 156, 




... 209 
... 293 

305, 306 
") 144 
267, 321 
... 209 
I... 324 
265, 278 
162, etc. 
... 209 
... 209 
216. 307 
... 99 
... 306 
232, 253 
209, 217 
291, 303 
... 209 




Sarsfield, 222, 223, 232, 284, 
Saunders,"" 141, 143, 

Saunderson (See "Saunders 
141, 143, 192, 209, 260, 

Say {Soy) 


71, 79, 209, 222, 







216, 240, 


















250. Reynolds : Irish MacRaghnaill. 

251. Rogan : Irish O'Ruadhagain. 

252. Rogers : Irish O'Ruadhri. 

353. Roland, Rollin, Rowland : Irish O'Rothlam. 

254. Ronan, Ronayne : Irish O'Ronain. 

255. Ryan : Irish 0' Riagham. 

256. Sandy, Saunders, Saunderson, Alexander, MacAllister, 
MacAlustrum : Irish ^«m, which has been Anglicised "Alex- 
ander;" and, as the name "Sandy" or "Saunders" is acontraction of 
Alexander, hence the sirnames Sandy, Saunders, etc. 

257. Scully : Irish O'Scolaidhe. 




Scurlook 278 

Scurry ... ... 307 

Sedborow ... ... 249 

Seeny 2(19 

Segin 209 

Segrave 284 

Shanahan.^"* ... 216,238 
Shaiiesy {See "O'Shanesy "), 209 

Shanly ... 88, 99 

Shauuon (See "Shanahan") 216 


Shaughnessy {See "Shanesi/") 209 

314, 325 

Shaw 284 

Shea {See "O'Shea"), 209, 217, 
219, 229, 237, 303, 306 

Shee (See "Shea") 



Sheehy {See "Joy"), 

209, etc. 

216, 220 
141, 143, 
192, 200 

... 229 

87, 99, 269 

241, 278 

... 269 

Shelly, 2" 


Sherlcok (Scurlock) 









Skelly {Scaly, Skally) 

S kiddy 


Slevin, 137, 209 

222, 281, 318 




161, 2U9 


... gg' 

Smeeth, = « > 

25?, 268 

Smith,2"i 99,252 


268, 284 


252, 268 

Smvthe. ■' " ' 


254, 268 


... 262 


... 266 


... 279 


... 209 


... 223 

Soy (See "Say") 

... 231 


... 209 


... 209 



304, 307 

Spillane fSpeUanJ, 


216, 240 


... 232 


... 233 


... 232 


... 232 


... 293 


... 284 


... 307 


... 305 



253, 317 

Stewart,-^"" 65, 74,79, 

152, 154 



261, 264 

St. John 

... 247 

St. Lawrence 

284, 286 

St. Leger 


233, 243 

St. Michael 

... 287 


... 309 


... 309 


.. 295 


... 295 


... 222 


... 284 


242, 284 


258. Slianahan, Shannon : Irish O'Seanchain. 

259. Shelly : Irish 0' Sealbhaidh. 

260. Shiel • Irish 0' Siodhail. 

261. Smeeth, Smith, Smyth, Smythe : Irish Gohhan [Gowan]. 

262. Somers : Irish MacSamhraiJhaiii. 

263. .Stewart, Stuart, Steward : Irish Mor Mhaor Leamhna, or 
"Great Stewards of Lennox." 

264. Stone, Stoney : Irish O'Maolcluiche ("clooh," a stone). 





Stronde 222 


Stewart (See "Stuarf '), 65, 74 


... 247 

79, 1R2, 154, 243, 254, 29." 


... 226 

Sullivan (See "O'SaUivan"),'"'^ 


... 278 

58, 65, 67, 72, 74, 79, 216, 225 


... 209 



... 242 

Supple 232 


273, 308 

Sutton 293 


... 233 

Swiney (Sweeny; see MacSwiney) 

Toole,"! 130, 


20'9, 282 

166, 209 


Sweetman ... 21.5, 284 


... 99 

Swift 314 


... 293 


... 233 

T-iAPPE,"" ... 244,318 

Tracy, 147, 


222. 286 

Talbot, 241, 243, 265, 283, 286 



222, 284 

293, 294, 304 


307, 330 

Taleran 324 


... 222 

Talty (Tumalty) ... 145, 209 


... 293 

Tappy 314 


... 260 

Tarkert 262 



280, 284 

Taylor ... 278, 284 

Tully,"2 93 

, 99, 120, 

137, 209 

Temple 286 


258, 303 

Terence {See "MacTerence") 207 


... 145 

Ternan (.See " MacTernan") 263 


79, 216 

TuTiie (Terry; see "Ternan") 265 


276, 288 

Terry ... 215, 232 

Tew 284 


... 99 

Thomas (-^ce " Fitztlwmas ") 277 


... 99 




... 222 

Thomson 278 


242, 284 

Thornton 222 

Tiernan (See "MacTiernan") 144 



265, 312 



... 330 

Tierney,2o- ... 258, 3U 


. 244 

Tiesdale 278 

V erney 

250, 270 

Tighe ( Teige), ^ " ^ 145, 209, 290 


270, 284 

' tuile,' 

SttU'wan : Irish O'SuilJeabhain. 
Taaffe: Irish O'Taihhthe- 
Tlerney : Irish O'Tighearnaidh. 
Tighe : Irish O'Taidr/h. 
Tilly: Irish O'Taichligh. 
Toler : Irish O'Tolairg. 
Toole: Irish O'Tuathail. 

Tally, MacTully, Flood: Irish O'MaoUuile and Mac Tuile 

a flood). 

Verdon : Irish Fhear-duinn. 




Vesci 223, 287, 308 





233, 242 

Villiers, 241, 243, 269, 306 



285, 314, 329 

Vincent 232 

Whyte (See ' 

' White "], 

314, etc. 


215, 315 

Wadding 242 


... 260 

Wall ... 242, 284 


... 330 

Waller 278 



... 264 

Walpole 307 



293, 295 

Walsh, 222, 242, 253, 284, 293 


... 278 



... 249 

Wandesford .. 305, 307 


... 284 

Ward,"" 90, 99, 252, 254, 327 


284, 285 

Warren 232, 284, 285 


242, 284 

Weldon 307 


... 231 

WeUesley ( Wesley) " = 278, 287 



222, 285 

Weuman 286 


209, 265 

Wealej(See"MacUat^") 278 

Wynne" s 

233, 263 

Westenra 245, 307, 308 


... 242 

Wharton ... 278, 286 

Whelan {See "Phelan"), 110 


... 243 

134, 204, 209, 236 

274. Ward : Irish MacAnhhaird. 

275. Wesley: Irish MacUaidaidh. 

276. White, Whyte: Irish O'Bean {"han," white). 

277. Winter: Irish 0' Maolgeimhraigh {" geimhresidh," winter). 

278. Wynne, Magee : Irish O'Maolgaoithe (" gaoth," the wind). 


George Healy, Steam Printer, 20 Lower Ormond Quay, Dublin.