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1886. v^"'' 


A. ^s-i-jH- 



Printed bv 

Richard Clay and Sons, 






The general accuracy, research, and ability displayed in Bryan's " Biographical and Critical 
Dictionary of Painters and Engravers " obtained for it upon its first appearance in 1816 a 
reputation which was still further enhanced by the publication in 1849 of the late Mr. 
Stanley's edition of the work. Since the latter date, however, the publication of many 
artistic monographs and other valuable works on Art, some of them embodying the results 
of exhaustive searches amongst city records, guild books, and church registers, particularly 
in Italy and in the Netherlands, has furnished so many new sources from which materials 
have been derived for the correction and enlargement of the work. Much indeed of the 
improvement in the present edition is due to the researches of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
Milanesi, Morelli, Bertolotti, and others on the lives and works of the Italian painters ; to 
those of Kramm, Michiels, F^tis, Havard, Hymans, Van den Branden, Weale, and Siret on 
the Dutch and Flemish painters ; to those of Passavant, Waagen, Forster, Meyer, Bode, 
Woltmann, Schlie, Eiegel, and Von Eeber on the painters of Germany and other lands ; 
and to those of the late Sir William Stirling Maxwell and Senor Madrazo on the art and 
artists of Spain. 

Dealing, as a work of this sort does, with facts rather than with criticism, the labours of 
preceding writers must necessarily be used with a frequency which makes special reference in 
every case impossible ; but the Editor trusts that he will not be found to have placed himself 
under any obligations that he may not here frankly and gratefully acknowledge. 

Besides the addition of a large number of names which were not included in the former 
edition, new authority has been given to the old entries by a careful revision, and in many 
instances by important changes. In several cases the notices have been supplied by con- 
tributors specially qualified for the task, such as Mr. W. B. Scott, Dr. J. P. Eichter, the late 
Mrs. Heaton, and others ; these are distinguished by the initials of the writers. The new 
matter introduced will expand the work to double its former size, so that it will make two 
volumes instead of one. The preface and list of works of reference, which should be bound 
at the commencement of the first volume, together with a supplement containing notices of 
artists inadvertently omitted, or recently deceased, as well as some necessary additions and 
corrections, will appear on the completion of the work. 

Much confusion has heretofore arisen in the alphabetical arrangement of biographical 


dictionaries owing to the arbitrary mode in whicli it has been customary to deal with such 
names as are preceded by an article or a preposition, or by both. In order to avoid this 
confusion it has been thought desirable to adopt the grammatical principle sanctioned by the 
Belgian Academy in regard to the names of Flemish and French (or Walloon) origin, which 
are included in the " Biographie Nationale " now in course of publication. 

The arrangement therefore is according to the following plan : 

I. Every artist having a surname is placed under that surname, cross-references being given 
from assumed names and sobriquets whenever needed. 

Thus, Correggio 
Sebastiano del Pionibo 

is entered under 

Allegri, Antonio. 
Barbarelli, Giorgio. 
Biagio, Bernardino. 
iMciani, Sebastiano. 
Bobusti, Jacopo. 
Vecelli, Tiziano. 

J(a) "When the prefix to a name is an article it remaios annexed, because it is an integral 
part of the name ; but when it is a preposition, it is disunited, because it indicates the place 
of origin or birth of the artist, or a territorial or seigneurial name. Thus, the French Le 
and La, and the equivalent Dutch and Flemish De are retained ; while the French de, the 
Italian da and di, the German von, and the Dutch and Flemish van are rejected. 

Thus, Charles Le Brun 

is entered under 

Le Brun. 

Jan David De Heem 


De Heem. 

Jean Francois de Troy 



Heinrich Maria von Hess 



Isaac van Ostade 



(V) When the prefix is an article joined to or preceded by a preposition, as in the French 
du, de la, and des, the Italian del, delta, degli, dai, dagli, and dalle, the Spanish del and de 
la, and the Dutch van der, van de, van den, and ver (a contraction for van der), it cannot be 
disunited from the proper name, because the particles together represent the genitive case of 
the article. 

Thus, AlpJwnse du Fresnoy 
Laurent de La Hire 
Niccolb delV Abhate 
Gfirolamo dai Lihri 
Willem van de Velde 

is entered under 

Du Fresnoy. 
De La Hire. 
Dell' Abhate. 
Dai Lihri. 
Van de Velde. 

(c) English artists bearing foreign names are placed under the prefix, whether it be an 
article or a preposition. 

Thus, Peter De Wint is entered under De Wint. 

NOTICE. vii 

(d) Proper names with the prefix St. are placed as though the word Saint were written in 
full : and similarly, M' and Ma are arranged as Mac. 

(e) Foreign compound names are arranged under the first name. 

Thus, Baptiste Auhry-Lecomte is entered under Auhry-Lecomte. 

Juan Gano de Arevalo ,, Cano de Arevalo. 

II. An artist having no surname is placed under the name of the place from which he is 
known, or failing that, under his own Christian name. 

Thus, Andrea da Bologna is entered under Bologna. 

Andrea del Sarto „ Andrea. 

Fra Bartolommeo „ Bartolommeo. 

III. Anonymous artists known as the Master of the Grab, the Master of the Die, the 
Master of the Bat-Trap, will be found under the common title of Master. 

E. E. G. 


A LIST of the chief general sources of information drawn upon in this revised edition 
of ' Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.' Special works have not been in- 
cluded, as they have been acknowledged under the articles indebted to them. 

The Academy. 
The Art Journal. 


AuvRAY, Louis. See Bellieb de la Chavigneeie. 

Baetsch, Adam. Le Peintre Graveur. Vienna, 

Belliee de la Chavigneeie, Emile. Dictionnaire 

general des Artistes de I'ficole Frangaise depuis 

I'origine des arts de dessin jusqu'a nos jours. 

Continue par Louis Auvray. Paris, 1885. 
Beemudez, Cean. Dicoionario historico de los mas 

ilustres prof esores de las bellas artes en Espana. 

Madrid, 1800. 
Blanc, Cl;iarles. Histoire des Peintres de toutos 

les Ecoles depuis la Renaissance jusqu'k nos 

jours, par Charles Blanc, Th^ophile Gautier, 

P. A. Jeanron, etc., etc. Paris, 1861 (1849) — 

BoDB, Dr. Wilhelm. Studien zur Geschichte der 

holiandischen Malerei. 
Zusatze und Berichtigungen zu Burckhardt's 

'Cicerone.' Leipsio, 1872. 
Der Cicerone, von Jacob Burckhardt, besorgt 

von Wilhelm Bode. Leipsic, 1884. 
Bredius, Abraham. Catalogue des Tableaux du 

Eijks-Museum k Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 

Cud Holland. Vols. L— III. 
Archief voor Nederl. Kunstgeschiedenis. 

Vols. I.-VI. 
Beclliot, p. Dictionnaire des Monogrammes. 

Munich, 1820—1832. 
BuRCKHAEDT, J. See Bode. 
Burgee, W. (Thor6, Th6ophile). Etude sur les 

Peintres hollandais et flamands. Galerie Suer- 

mondt k Aix-la-Chapelle, par W. Burger avec 

catalogue de la Collection par le dooteur 

Waagen. Brussels and Ostend, 1860. 

Chavigneeie. See Belliee de la Chavigneeie. 

Cheist, Prof. Anzeige und Ausdeutung der Mono- 
gramme. Leipsic, 1747. 

Clement, Clara E., and Hutton, Laurence. Ar- 
tists of the Nineteenth Century and their 
Works. Boston, 1879. 

Clement, Charles. Artistes anciens et modernes. 
Paris, 1876. 

Conway, William. Early Flemish • Artists and 
their Predecessors on the Lower Rhine. Lon- 
don, Seeley & Co., 1887. 


Crowe and Cavaloasellb. A New History of 
Painting in Italy. London, 1864 — 66. 

History of Painting in North Italy. Lon- 
don, 1871. 
The Early Flemish Painters. London, 
■ 1879. 
Cunningham, Allan. Lives of the most eminent 
British Painters. Annotated and continued to 
the present time by Mrs. Charles Heaton. 
London, 1879. 

Dallaway. See Walpole. 

Delaboede, Le Vicomte Henri. La Gravure en 

Italic avant Marc Antoine. Paris, 1882. 
La Gravure. Precis 61^mentaire de ses 

origines, de ses proc^dds, et de son histoire. 

Paris, 1882. 

English edition of above, with an additional 

chapter on English engraving by William 

Walker. London, 1886. 
Descamps, J. B. La Vie des Peintres flamands, 

alleinands, et hollandais. Nouvelle Edition, 

angment^e de notes par C. Eoehn. Paris, 

DuMESNiL. See Robeet-Dumesnil. 
Duplessis, G. Histoire de la Gravure. Paris, 1880. 
Dutuit, E. Manuel de I'Amateur d'Estampes. 


Engeeth, E. von. Descriptive Catalogue of the 
pictures in the Vienna Gallery. Vienna, 

Fi5'jis, E. Catalogue descriptif et historique du 
Musde Royal de Belgique. (Bruxelles.) Brus- 
sels, 1882. 

FiSHEE, Richard. Introduction to a Catalogue of 
the Early Italian Prints in the British Museum. 
London, 1886. 

A collection of engravings, etchings, and 
woodcuts. Catalogue privately printed. Lon- 
don, 1879. 

Foed, Richard. Handbook for Travellers in Spain. 
London, 1856. 

Feizzoni, Gustavo. L'Arte Italiana nella Galeria 
Nazionale di Londra. Florence, 1880. 

FtJssLi, J. R. Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon. 
Zurich, 1772—1824. 

Gazette, des Beadx Aets. 

GoNCOUET, E. and J. de. L'Art du XVIII'. Sifecle. 
Paris, 1873. 

Graphiscben Kiinste 



Die Geaphischen Kunste. 

Graves, Algernon. Dictionary of Artists who ex- 
hibited in London 1760—1880. London, 1884. 

Havaed, Henri. L'Art et les Artistes Holland ais. 

Paris, 1879—81. 
Houbeaken, Arnold. De groote Sohouburgh der 

Nederlandsche Kunstschilders en Sohildressen. 

The Hague, 1763. 
Hymans. See Mandeb, Karel van. 

Immeezeel. De Leven en Werken der Holland, 
en Vlaam. Kunstschilders. Amsterdam, 1843. 

Jackson, J. A Treatise on Wood-Engraving. 

London, 1866. 
Jahkbuch dee Koniqlichen Peeussischen Kunst- 

Jordan, Dr. Max. Katalog der Koniglichen Na- 

tional-Galerie zu Berlin. Berlin, 1885. 

Kramm, Christiaan. De Leven en Werken der 
Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, 
Beeldhouwers, Graveursen, Bouwmeesters van 
der vroegsten tot op onzen tijd. (Aanhang- 
sel.) Amsterdam, 1856 — 64. 

KUGLEB, F. Handbook of Painting. German, 
Flemish, and Dutch Schools. Lady Eastlake's 
edition. London, 1879. 

Do. Italian Schools. Sir Henry Layard's 
edition. London, 1887. 


Labokde, L4on de. Histoire de la Gravure en 

Mani^re Noire. Paris, 1839. 

Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France. 

Paris, 1850. 
Lafenestee, Georges. La Peinture Italienne. 

Paris, 1886. 
Lanzi. History of Painting in Italy. Roscoe's 

edition. London, 1847. 
Law, Ernest. Catalogue of Pictures at Hampton 

Court. London, 1881. 
Le Blanc, Charles. Manuel de 1' Amateur d'Es- 

tampes. Paris, 1854 — 56. 
Leeius, Theodore van. Catalogue du Mus6e d'An- 

vers. Antwerp, 1874. 
Les Lettbes et les Arts. 

Lindsay, Alex. William Crawford, Earl of Craw- 
ford and Balcarres. Sketches of the History of 

Christian Art. Second edition. London, 1885. 
Lippmann, F. Der italienische Holzsohnitt im 

XVten. Jahrhundert. Beriin, 1885. 
LoMAzzo, G. P. Arte de la Pittura. Milan, 1584. 
LtJBKE, Dr. W. History of Art (English edition). 

London, 1869. 

Madeazo, Don Pedro. Catalogo Descriptive e 

historico del Museo del Prado. Madrid, 1872. 
Viage artistico de tres siglos por las cole- 

ciones. Barcelona, 1884. 
Magazine of Aet. 
Malvasia, Cesare. Felsina Pittrioe. Bologna, 

Mandbe, Karel van. Livre des Peintres. (H. 

Hyman's translation of Van Mander's ' Schil- 

derboek.') Paris, 1885. 
Maeiette, p. J, Abecedario Pittorioo. Florence, 


Maxwell, Sir William Stiriing, Bart. Annals of 
the Artists of Spain. London, 1848. 

Meyee, Julius. Beschreibendes Verzeichniss der 
Gemalde der koniglichen Museen zu Berlin. 
Beriin, 1883. 

Miohiels, Alfred. Histoire de la Peinture flam- 
ande et hollandaise. Brussels, 1845. 

Milanesi. See Vasaei. 

Moeelli, Giovanni (' LermoliefE '). Italian Mas- 
ters in German Galleries. (ilrs. Eichter's 
translation.) London, 1883. 

Die Galerie Borghese. (In Zeitschrift fiir 
bildende Kunst, Vol. X. 1875.) 

MoscHiNi, p. G. A. Guida per la cittk di Venezia. 
Venice, 1815. 
Guida per I'isola di Murano. Venice, 1808. 

Naqlee, Dr. G. K. Allgemeines Kiinstler-lexikon 
Munich, 1835—52. 

Die Monogrammisten. Munich, 1858— 

D. Nedeel. Kunstbode. 
D. Nedeel. Spectator. 

Ottley, William Young. An Enquiry into the 
Origin and Early History of Engraving on 
Wood and Copper. London, 1816. 

A Collection of one hundred and twenty- 
nine Facsimiles of Rare and Curious Prints. 
London, 1828. 

A Biographical and Critical Dictionary of 
recent and living Painters and Engravers. 
London, 1866. 

Pacheco, Fr. El Arte de la Pintura. Seville, 

Palomino de Castro y Vblasco. El Maseo pit- 

torico y Escala Optica. Madrid, 1715 — 24. 
Passavant, J. D. Le Peintre-Graveur. Leipsio, 

Die christliche Kunst in Spanien. Leipsic, 

Kunstreise durch England und Belgien. 

Frankfort, 1833. 


Raczynski, Count Atanazy. Geschichte der neue- 

ren Kunst. Berlin, 1836 — 42. 
Bedgeavb, Richard and Samuel. A Century of 

Painters of the English School. London, 

Redgeavb, Samuel. A Dictionary of Artists of the 

English School. London, 1878. 
Renouviee, Jules. Types et Maniferes des Maitres- 

Graveurs. Montpellier, 1853. 

Histoire de I'Origine et des Progrfes de la 

Gravure dans les Pays-Bas et en AUemagne 

jusqu'k la fin du 15me. Sifeole. Brussels, 

Richtbr, J. P. Italian Art in the National Gallerv. 

London, 1883. 

Catalogue of Pictures in the Dulwich Gal- 
lery. London, 1880. 

Commentary, forming the sixth volume of 

Bohn's edition of Vasari. London, 1885. 
Ridolfi, 0. Le Vite degl' illustre pittori Veneti. 

Venice, 1648. 
RoBERT-DuMESNiL, A. P. F. Le Peintre-Graveur 

francais. Continued by G. Duplessis. Paris, 

1 835 — 71. 
Robinson, J. C. The Early Portuguese School of 

Painting. London, 1866. 



Zeitschrift fiir bildende Eunst 

RuMOHB. Italienische Forschungen. Berlin, 1826. 

Sandkabt, J. Deutsche Academie der Bau-, Bild- 
und Maler-kiinste. Nuremberg, 1768 — 75. 

Scott, William Bell. The Little Masters of Ger- 
many. London, 1880. 

Sehbert, a. Allgemeines Kiinstler-lexikon. 
Frankfort, 1882. 

SiRET, Adolphe. Dictionnaire Historique des 
Peintres de toutes les i^eoles. Brussels, 1883. 

Smith, J. Catalogue Raisonnd of the Works of 
Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. Lon- 
don, 1829—42. 

Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy. Edited by Leslie Stephen. London. 
1885. (In progress.) 

Stbutt, Joseph. Biographical Dictionary of En- 
gravers. London, 1785. 

Stuers, E. Notice historique et descriptive des 
Tableaux et des Sculptures exposes dans le 
Mus^e Royal de la Haye. The Hague, 1874. 

Thob^. See Bttrgeb. 

TiEABOSCHl. Descrizione de' pittori Modenesi. 
Modena, 1821. 
N otizie degli artifici Modenesi. Modena, 1786. 

Van dee Willigen, A. Les Artistes de Harlem. 

Harlem, 1870. 
Vasabi, Giorgio. Le Opere di Giorgio Vasari con 

nuove annotazioni e commenti di Gaetano 

Milanesi. Florence, 1878—85. 
Vasabi. See Richtee. 
VlABDOT, L. Les Musses d'ltalie. Paris, 1860. 

Waagen, G. F. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. 
London, 1854. 

Handbook of Painting. German, Flemish, 
and Dutch Schools. London, 1879. 
Do. ItaUan Schools. London, 1869. 

Walpole, Horace. Anecdotes of Painting in Eng- 
land. With additions by the Rev. James 
Dallaway. Revised and annotated by Ralph 
N. Wornum. London, 1876. 

Wautebs, a. J. La Peinture Flamande. Paris, 

Weale, W. H. James. Divers Works of Early 
Masters. London, 1846. 

Catalogue du mus^e de I'acad^mie de Bruges. 
Bruges, 1861. Le Beffroi ; Passim. 

Wessely, J. E. Iconographie Gottes und der 
Heiligen. Leipsic, 1874. 

Willshibe, W. H. An Introduction to Early 
Prints. London, 1877. 

Early Prints in the British Museum. Lon- 
don, 1879—83. 

Wolff, Albert. La Capitale de I'Art. Paris, 

WoLTMANN, Alfred, and Woeemann, Karl. His- 
tory of Painting. Vol. I.— Ancient, Early 
Christian, and Medieval Painting. Engliali 
translation, edited by Prof. Sidney Colvin. 
London, 1880. 

Vol. II. — The Painting of the Renascence. 
Translated by Clara Bell. London, 1887. 

WoENUM, Ralph. Catalogue of Pictures in the 
National Gallery. London, 1875. 

The Year's Aet. 1880—89. 

Zanetti. Delia Pittura Veneziana e delle opere 
publiche de' Veneziani maestri. Venice, 

Zani, Abbate P. Materiali per servire alia Storia 
deir Origine e de Progressi del Incisione in 
Rome e in Legno, etc. Parma, 1802. 

Zanotti. Storia dell' Accaderaia Clementina di 
Bologna. Bologna, 1739. 

Zeitschbift fOb bildende Kunst. 



AA, Van dek. See Van dee Aa. 

AACHEN, JoHANN YON (or Aach), -who was 
born in Cologne in 1552, takes his name from 
the town of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), the birth- 
place of his father. His early-displayed talent 
for art induced his parents to comply with his 
wish to become a painter, and he was placed 
under the tuition of a respectable portrait painter, 
named Jerrigh. After passing six years under 
this master, he applied himself to study and 
copy the works of Barthel Spranger. About the 
year 1584 he visited Italy, and first stopped at 
Venice, wliere he passed some time among the 
great works of art in that distinguished school of 
colouring'. He studied especially the style of 
Tintorptto, with mucli success. He afterwards 
went to Eome, where his first painting was an 
altar-piece, representing the ' Nativity,' for one 
of the chapels of the Jesuits' church. He also 
painted a picture which gained him great reputa- 
tion, and has been considered as one of his best 
productions ; in it he represented the portrait 
of the celebrated musician, ' Madonna Venusta 
playing on a Lute,' and introduced himself hold- 
ing a goblet of wine. From Eome he went to 
Florence, where he painted the portrait of the 
famous poetess ' Madonna Laura.' In 1588, the 
Elector of Bavaria invited him to Munich, where 
lie produced his most excellent work the ' Eesur- 
rection of our Saviour,' which has been engraved 
by Raphael Sadeler ; and the ' Finding of the 
True Cross by Helena, mother of Constantine.' 
He painted the portraits of the electoral family, 
and was liberally rewarded by his employer, who 
also presented him with a gold chain and medal. 
By the invitation of the Emperor Eudolph II., he 
visited Prague, where the court was then held, and 
was favoured with the particular patronage of that 
monarch. His first work was a picture of ' Venus 
and Adonis,' which he designed with a taste and 
elegance then little known in Germany. This 
performance was so much admired by the emperor 
that he retained him in his service for the remain- 

der of his life. Von Aachen died in 1615 in Prague. 
It is but justice to this painter to allow him the 
credit of being one of the first that attempted to 
reform the stiff and Gothic taste of his country, 
and although he did not entirely divest liimself of 
it, it may be asserted that his design, always cor- 
rect, approaches sometimes to grace and beauty. 
His 'Bathsheba Bathing,' in the Vienna Gallery, is 
one of his best works. The dales of his birth and 
death, above given, are taken from the inscription 
on the monument, erected at Prague to iiis memory 
by his widow, which was discovered in 1790. 
Other authorities give 1562 as the date of his 

AALST, Van. See Ablst. 


AARTSEN, PiETEE (or Aert- prr-y j-rv 

SEN, or Aeijaensz, in which form /j\ yfY 
it occurs in the record of his death -" 

in the ' Oude Kerk ' at Amsterdam). This painter, 
called from his great height ' Lange Peer,' was 
the son of a stocking manufacturer, and born at 
Amsterdam in 1507. Having shown an early 
inclination for art, he was placed under Allart 
Claessen, with whom he did not, however, reniain 
longer than was necessary to learn the first rudi- 
ments, and in 1535 he joined the Antwerp Guild. 
Before long he had produced several pictures of 
the interiors of kitchens with culinary utensils, 
painted with great spirit, and well coloured. These 
performances were nmch admired, and it is some- 
what remarkable, that although he was so success- 
ful in his attempts in that style, he abandoned these 
subjects, and applied himself to the more elevated 
walk of sacred historical painting, in which he 
acquired no little celebrity. One of his most 
esteemed works was the altar-piece he painted for 
the church of Our Lady at Amsterdam. Tlie 
principal picture represented the ' Death of the 
Virgin Mary,' and on the two folding doors he 
painted the ' Nativity,' and the ' Adoration of the ■ 
Magi.' These subjects were ingeniously composed 
and well drawn, and the -colouring warm and 



harmonious. Sandrart asserts, that he received 
two thousand crowns for this work. 

It is no slight proof of the ability of this master, 
that when Michael van Coxis of Mechlin, one of 
the greatest artists of his time, was asked to paint 
an altar-piece for the new church at Amster- 
dam, he, on seeing the works of Pieter Aartsen, 
declined the undertaking, observing, that they had 
no occasion for his exertions when they pos- 
sessed such a painter. Aartsen died at Amsterdam 
in l.')73. Many good works by him were destroyed 
by the Iconoclasts in 1566 ; the following are his 
best that remain : 






Museum Crucifixion. 

Hospital. Crucifixion. 

Museum. Christ bearing the Cross. 

„ Madonna and Child. 

Museum. The Cook. 

Gallery. Tegetables and Fruit. 

Belvedere. Market Scene. 

He had three sons, Pieter (called ' de jonge '), 
Aeet, and DiRK, and a grandson Geeet, who 
were all painters. 

AAKTSZ, EiJKAEET. According to Van Mander, 
this painter, the son of a poor fisherman, was 
born at Wyck, in North Holland, in 1482. He 
became a scholar of Jan Mostaert, the elder, a 
painter at that time in some repute at Haarlem. 
Under that master be made surprising progress, 
and not only soon surpassed his instructor, but 
became one of the ablest artists of his time. His 
first works on leaving the school of Mostaert, were 
two pictures painted as folding-doors to an altar- 
piece in the great church at Haarlem, wherein he 
represented two subjects from the history of 
Joseph and his brethren. He afterwards settled 
at Antwerp, and was received into the Academy 
there in 1520. He died in that city at the great 
age of 96. Aartsz' s works are for the most part 
to be seen in Priesland. 

ABACCO, Antonio d', was a scholar of Antonio 
da San Gallo, an eminent architect at Eome, where 
he followed the same profession with reputation. 
In the year 1558, he publislied a valuable archi- 
tectural work, entitled lAhro d' Antonio d' Abacco, 
appartenente a V ardiitettura, nel quale sifigurano 
alcuone nohile antichitd, de Roma, with fine prints 
engraved by himself. He also engraved the plans 
of St. Peter from the designs of his master. 

ABARCA, F. A. Ethenaed y. See Ethenaed. 

ABARCA, Maria de, is noticed in the history of 
painting in Spain, as having distinguislied hersell: 
in Madrid as a paintress of miniatures and por- 
traits, which were much admired, even at a period 
in which the art may be considered to have reached 
its highest development in that country, in the 
time of the celebrated Velazquez. The dates of 
her works range from 1640 to 1653, and she died 
probably about 1656. 

ABATE ANDREA, L'. See Belvedere. 

ABATE CICCIO, L'. See Solimena. 

ABBATB Family, The (of Modena). See Dell' 

ABBATI, Giuseppe, who was born at Naples in 
1836, studied first under his father Vincenzo, a 
painter of that town ; and subsequently in the 
Academy at Venice. He excelled in genre and 
architecture, and in landscapes, in which he some- 
what resembles Jules Breton. One of his earliest 
works, ' A Dominican singing in the choir of Santa 
Maria Novella, Florence,' was painted in 1865, 
and received much praise ; it is now in the Pina- 


coteca of Capodirnonte at Naples. In 1866 lie 
took part as a volunteer in the war in the Tyrol. 
Of his works we may mention a ' Peasant Family 
taking a Siesta,' one of his best pictures ; ' The 
Prayer,' in the Galleria Moderna, Florence ; and 
the ' Dominican,' in the Modern Gallery of Milan. 
Abbati died at Florence in 1868, from the bite of 
his own dog — his constant companion. 

ABBATINI, GniDO Ubaldo, who was born at 
Citta di Castello about 1600, was admitted into 
the Academy at Rome. He was a disciple of 
Giuseppe Cesari, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of history in fresco. One of his principal 
works is the ceiling of the chapel of St. Theresa, in 
Santa Maria della Vittoria, at Eome. He died at 
Rome in 1656. 

ABB6, Hendrik, an en- T^ (~f a 

graver, painter, and architect, L-Pv. 'M. y.\-f\ 
was christened in 1639 in the •- x v j. L/xv 
cathedral at Antwerp, in which city some prints 
by him were published in 1670. He is also noticed 
by Heineken, who only mentions him as having 
made some designs for the edition of Ovid's Meta- 
mophoses published by Barrier. 

ABBIATI; FiLiPPO, who was born at Milan in 
1640, was a scholar of Carlo Francesco Nuvolone. 
Under that master he made great progress, and 
proved a very excellent artist, particularly in 
fresco. Fertile and bold in his conceptions, his 
execution was commanding and resolute. In 
conjunction with Federigo Bianchi, he painted 
the cupola of Sant' Alessandro Martyre at Milan. 
One of his best works was ' St. John preaching in 
the Wilderness,' at Saronno. He painted numerous 
altar-pieces in Padua, Bergamo, Turin, Milan, 
and other cities of Italy. He died at Milan, in 

ABBIATI, Giuseppe, a Milanese designer and 
engi'aver, lived in the beginning of the 18th 
century. He etched some small prints of battles, 
and an allegorical subject from his own design. 

ABBIATI, Paolo Maeia. The name of this 
engraver is aflSxed to a portrait of Girolamo Cor- 
naro, procurator of St. Mark. It is without a date 
or the name of the painter. He flourished towards 
the close of the 17 th century ; Zani says he was 
born at Milan. 

ABBOT, John W., was an honorary exhibitor at 
the Academy, from 1793 to 1810. He painted 
landscapes with cattle and figures. There is a 
small etching of a horse inscribed J. Abbot, dated 
1767. He also illustrated books upon American 

ABBOTT, Francis Lemuel, an English portrait 
painter, was born in Leicestershire, in 1760. He 
was a scholar of Francis Hayman. Without the 
possession of much taste, he acquired some reputa- 
tion for the fidthful resemblance of his pictures, 
particularly his portraits of men, which some- 
times approach to excellence. He painted a por- 
trait of Cowper and several of Lord Nelson, which 
were much admired for their truth to nature. A 
portrait of Joseph Nollekens, the sculptor, by him 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. He died in 

ABEL, Gottlieb Friedrich, a German en- 
graver, who was born in 1763, was a pupil of 
Johann von Miiller. He was engraver to the King 
of Wurtemberg, at Stuttgart. He furnished about 
125 plates to Reiter's work descriptive of the 
various trees of Germany. 

ABEL, Hans, a painter of Frankfort, who lived 




about 1494, is supposed to have painted some 
of the beautiful windows which adorn the cathe- 
dral and several churches in that city. He also 
painted banners. 

ABEL, Joseph, a German painter of great 
merit, was born at Aschach in 1768. He was in- 
structed in the school of Fiiger at Vienna, and is 
said to have distinguished himself at an early age. 
He was employed by the Czartoryski family in 
Poland, and visited Home in 1802, where he re- 
mained six years, and produced several pictures, 
the subjects of which were taken from the Greek 
poets and ancient historians, and which gained 
him great applause. AmoTig these, were ' Hector's 
Departure,' and ' Andromache on Hector's Corpse.' 
On his return to Vienna, in 1808, he painted por- 
traits, and large historical compositions, and was 
also employed in the decorations of the theatre. 
He died there in 1818. In the Darmstadt Gallery 
is his ' Brutus and the Relations of Lucretia swear- 
ing to be revenged.' 

ABEL, — . Malvasia mentions this as the name 
of a French artist who, in 1650, received a hundred 
Roman crowns for a copy made by him of the 
'Communion of St. Jerome,' by Domenichino. 
The latter had been paid, a short time previously, 
but fifty crowns for the original. It is to be re- 
gretted that we have not a more complete account 
of this successful copyist. 

ABEL DE PUJOL, Alexandre Denis, was born 
at Valenciennes, in 1787. He evinced early a taste 
for art, and, by his father's consent, became a pupil 
of David. The fortune of the former, however, 
being dissipated by the revolution, the son had for 
some time a struggling life, being left by his master 
very much to his own resources. His first painting 
represented ' Philopoemen recognized whilst split- 
ting wood in the Kitchen of a Friend who had 
invited him to Dinner ; ' and David was so much 
struck with it, that he gave Abel the advantage of 
free admission to his studio. He obtained in 1806 
the first medal at the Academy ; in 1810 the gold 
medal of the second class for his picture of ' Jacob 
blessing the Sons of Joseph ; ' and the Prix de Rome 
for his painting of ' Lycurgus presenting to the Lace- 
dsemonians Charilaus as heir to the Throne.' The 
climate of Rome not agreeing with his health, he 
was forced to return to Paris, when necessity com- 
pelled him to mingle sign-painting with a more 
ennobling application of his talent. In 1814 he 
exhibited ' Britannicus,' which obtained a medal, 
and is now in the Museum at Dijon ; in 1817, ' St. 
Stephen preaching before his Martyrdom,' painted 
for, and now in, the church of St. Etienne du Mont, 
Paris; in 1819, 'The Virgin at the Tomb,' 'Csesar 
in the Senate at the Ides of March ' (purchased 
, by the Duke of Orleans, afterwards King Louis- 
. Philippe, and destroyed in the fire at the Palais- 
. Royal); and ' Sisyphus in the Infernal Regions; ' in 
1822, ' Joseph explaining the Dreams of the Butler 
and Baker of Pharaoh,' which obtained a gold medal 
at Lille, and is now in the Museum of that town ; 
I ' Ixion in Tartarus,' which is in the Imperial Col- 
j lection: 'Germanicus on the field of Battle,' and 
' The Baptism of Clovis,' which is in the cathedral 
of Rheims. He also in 1819 painted the 'Renais- 
sance of the Arts ' on the ceiling of the staircase of 
\, the Louvre, destroyed in the course of the alter- 
' ations made in that establishment in 1856. He also 
painted three subjects over doors at Versailles, and 
some fine frescoes in the church of St. Sulpioe, 
, Paris He was a member of the Legion of Honour, 
f b2 

and of the 'Institute,' to which he was elected 
on the death of Baron Gros. He died at Paris in 

ABELS, Jacobus Theodoeus, who was born at 
Amsterdam in 1803, was instructed in art by Jan 
van Ravenswaay, the animal painter. In 1826 he 
visited Germany, and on his return settled at the 
Hague. He distinguished himself especially in 
painting moonlight landscapes. The Museum at 
Haarlem has works by him. Abels died at Ab- 
eoude in 1866. 

ABENTS, Leonhard. This artist was a native 
of Passau, in Bavaria, and flourished about the 
year 1580. He engraved the pLm of the _ 
city of Passau for Braun's Topography. He A 
marked his plates with this monogram. ■ " ^ 

ABEEEGNO, Giacomo, was a Venetian painter 
who flouiished about the year 1400. 

ABEKLI, Johann Lddwig, a Swiss painter and 
engraver, bom at Wintertlmr, in 1723, was a pupil 
of Felix Meyer, and painted, with success, portraits 
and landscapes. He published several coloured 
prints of views in Switzerliind, which have been 
sufiSciently admired to give birth to a great num- 
ber of imitations. He died at Berne in 1786. 

ABILDGAAHD, Nikolaj Abraham, son and 
pupil of Soren Abildgaard, a Danish historical 
painter of great merit. He was born at Copen- 
hagen in 1744; in 1767 he received the great 
medal at the Academy, and went soon afterwards 
to Italy ; he spent most of his time in Rome, where 
he copied the works of Raphael, Michelangelo, 
and Titian. In 1777 he returned to his native 
country, and in 1786 was made professor in the 
Academy at Copenhagen, of which he was director 
from 1802 until his death, in 1809. He has been 
considered the best painter Denmark has pro- 
duced. His principal subjects were taken from the 
ancient poets ; but some of the best perished in the 
fire that consumed the palace of Christitinburg in 
1794. Fiissli relates that this had such an effect 
on his mind that he scarcely ever painted after- 
wards. His sketches made for them are still pre- 
served in the Copenhagen Gallery, which contains 
besides several good examples of his art. 

ABILDGAARD, Soren, who wns born at Chris- 
tianssand, in Norway, in 1718, studied in Copen- 
hagen, and became a draughtsman of repute. He 
executed many drawings of antiquities in Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark. 

ABRAHAM, Frere. See GiLsON. 

ABRIL, Juan Alfonso, was a native of Valla- 
dolid. He studied under Pablo de Cespedes at 
Cordova, and afterwards entered u, convent. He 
died in 1645 at Valladolid, where there is in the 
Museum a ' Head of St. Paul ' by him, brilliant in 
colour, and in good taste. 

ABSHOVEN (or Abtshoven). See Apshoven. 

ABTS, WouTEE, was born, it is said, at Lier, 
near Antwerp, in 1582. He was admitted as a 
master to the Guild at Antwerp in 1604-5 ; and he 
died in 1642-43. He excelled in painting con- 
versation-pieces and landscapes. Adrian de Bie 
was one of his pupils. (See notice by Van Lerius 
in Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.) 

ACCAMA, Beenabdus, a portrait painter, born 
at Leeuwarden in 1697, where he died in 1756. 
His works were much esteemed by his own coun- 
trymen, but are little known elsewhere. The H6tel 
de Ville of his native town formeily possessed 
several good pictures by him, but they were de- 
stroyed by rioters in 1795. 





ACCAJfA, Matthijs, brother of Bemardus, was 
born at Leeuwarden, in 1702. He went to Italy, 
where he copied, with considerable talent, several 
pictures of tire ancient masters. He died at his 
native town in 1783. He painted historical and 
emblematical subjects. 

ACCER. See Accins. 

ACCHILLIXO, a Bulognese painter, flourished 
about 1324. Verci (Storia. Trevigiana) says that 
the portrait of Can Grande, who died in 1329, was 
painted by him. 

ACCIUS, Cesaeb Antonio (or Accee), an 
Italian landscape painter, lived about 1609, and 
was considered an artist of talent, but his works 
are now little known. Three etchings of land- 
scapes by Accius are mentioned, one of which, 
noticed by Heineken, bears his name and the 
date 1609. 

ACEVEDO, Cristobal de (or Acebedo), an 
historical painter, who was born probably at 
Madrid about 1640, was a disciple of Bartolome 
Carduoho in 1585, and painted pictures for many 
of the convents in the capital. The nobleness of 
his characters, and his purity of design, placed him 
among the good artists of his time. He painted 
large subjects of sacred history. The date of his 
death is unknown, but it took place probably about 
the end of the 16th century. 

ACEVEDO, Manuel (or Acebedo), who was 
born at Madrid in 1744, was a discipleof Jose Lopez, 
but by diligently copying the works of the best 
painters lie soon surpassed his master. He painted 
historical and religious subjects, and was much 
employed in Madrid. Bermudez mentions a ' John 
the Baptist ' and a ' St. Francis ' by him in the 
chapel of the hospital of La Latina at Madrid. 
^s died in 1800. 

A CHEN, Arnodt van. See Aken. 

ACHEN, Johann von. See Aachen. 

ACHTERVELDT. See Ochterveldt. 

ACHTSCHELLINCK, Lucas, was bom at Brus- 
sels, and baptized on the 16tli of January, 1626. 
In 1639 he entered the studio of Pieter van der 
Borcht, but it was not until 1657 that he was 
admitted, as a master, to the Guild. He died in 
Brussels in 1699, and was buried in tliat city, the 
scene of his labours ; and there, in the church of 
SS. Michael and Gudule, in the town-hall, and in 
the Museum, remain a few of his best works. His 
manner is broad and bold ; the foliage of his trees 
lightly touched, and apparently inmotion; his forms 
and scenery are grander than is usual in the works 
of the artists of his country ; and his distances 
recede with a pleasing degradation. His pictures 
hold a place in the choicest collections in the Low 
Countries, and are deservedly admired. The Dres- 
den Gallery has two landscapes ascribed to him. 
Achtschellinck's works were, it is said, ornamented 
with figures by G. van Cost, L. de Deijster, Pieter 
Bout, and other painters. Aohtschellinck had a 
younger brother, Pieteb, who was also a painter. 

ACKER, Jakob, a member of a family of 
artists who flourished at Ulm in the 15th century, 
is known as the author of a painting, representing 
sacred subjects, on the side- wings and the predella 
of an altar-piece in the chapel of St. Leonard, 
in the church-yard at Risstissen. It bears his 
name and the date 1483. In 1473 he decorated 
the doors of the organ-loft at Miinster, in Swabia. 
It has been surmised that this artist may also be 
identical with a gkss-painter, Jakob Acker, who 
flourished in Nordlingen in the 15th century, 


ACKER, Johannes Baptista van, who was bom 
at Bruges in 1794, studied under Ducq, and soon 
became popular as a miniature-painter. In 1834 
he went to Paris, and was there acknowledged 
as one of the best artists of his class. After his 
return to Bruges, he was called by King Leopold 
to Brussels, and painted numerous miniatures of 
the royal family and personages of the court. 
After a journey to England, Van Acker returned 
to Bruges, where he died, in 1863. 

ACKEKilANN, Johann Adam, who was bom at 
Mainz in 1780, and studied there, visited Paris, 
but settled, in 1804, at FranMort. He paid two 
visits to Rome. His winter landscapes gained 
him much praise. Of his works may be mentioned 
' Auerbaoh,' in the Darmstadt Gallery. He died 
at Franldort in 1853. His younger brother, 
Geoeg Feiedeich Ackeemann, was also a land- 
scape painter of repute. He was born at Mainz 
in 1787, and died at Frankfort in 1843. 

ACQUA, B. dell' (or Agua). See Dell' Acqua. 

ACQUA, C. dall' (or Aqua). See Dall' Acqua. 

ACQUARELLI, — , was a Neapolitan painter 
of architecture, of great merit, who flourished 
about 1640. He painted ornamental decoration 
in churches, palaces, and theatres. He worked 
sometimes in conjunction with Sooppa. 

ACQUISTABBNE, Maestro, a painter and de- 
signer of architecture, who was born at Brescia, 
flourished about 1296. 

ADAil, Albeecht, a German painter, chiefly of 
battle-pieces, was born at Nordlingen, in Ba- 4 
varia, in 1786. He accompanied, in 1809, the A 
French and Bavarian army against Austria,*'*^ 
and in 1812 went with the Grand Army in the ex- 
pedition against Russia, an oflficer's rank being 
conferred upon him, with the title of ' Painter to 
the Court.' Some of his most effective pictures 
represent the incidents of that most disastrous 
campaign; as, 'The Battle on the Moscowa,' 'Napo- 
leon surrounded by his Staff.' In 1859 he set out 
with one of his sons to the Italian campaign of 
France and Sardinia against Austria, which ended 
with the Battle of Novara, of which he has left 
several graphic records, besides a series of large 
pictures painted from his first sketches, by com- 
mand of the Emperor Napoleon III. His last 
great work, a commission from King Maximihan 
of Bavaria, has for a subject the decisive charge 
of the Prussian cavalry against a square of the 
enemy at the battle of Zorndorf, where Frederick 
the Great commanded in person. Adam also 
painted portraits and landscapes, and occasionally 
etched. His works, less imaginative and dashing 
than those of Horace Vemet, are remarkable for 
their historical truthfulness, as well as for their 
accuracy of detail. He died at Munich in 1862. 
Albrecht Adam also produced many etchings and 
lithographs. Amongst others of his works may be 
noticed : 

Berlin. Kat. Gall. A Stable (signed and dated 1825). F 
„ „ „ The Battle of Aberfsberg (signed and 

dated 1826). 
J, „ „ Interior of the Painter's Studio 

(sic/Tied and dated 1835). 
Cassel. Gallery. A "Wounded General (signed and 

dated 1826). 
Darmstadt. Gallery. Horses at Pasture. 
Munich. Findkothek. The Storming of the Diippell Re- 
» „ The Battle of Custozza. 

>, „ The Battle of Novara. 

i> ,) Two Men and a Horse. 




Munich. Pindkothek. A Stable. 

,) ), Cavalry Encamped. 

» » Equestrian Portrait of Field-Marshal 

Count Eadetzky. 

ADAM, Geoeg, who was born in 1784, was a 
designer, engraver, and painter of landscapes. In 
Miinicli, acquainted with the most distinguished 
painters of landscapes, he improved rapidly in this 
art ; and he several times visited the Tyrol. He 
was one of the most fertile engravers, and his 
works, mostly landscapes and views, are of merit. 
He died at Nuremberg in 1823. 

ADAM, Hans, a designer and engraver of 
Nuremberg, flourished about 1560. A print, en- 
titled ' A Representation and Description of the 
Battle of Silbershaiisen,' one of several ascribed 
to him, bears the murk of a figure of Adam naked 
standing by a tree, and also the letters H. A. lie 
is said to have died in 1567. 

ADAM, Heinbioh, a brother of Albrecht Adam, 
was born at Nordlingen in 1787. He studied the 
art of painting at Augsburg and Munich, and dis- 
tinguished himself as a painter of landscapes and 
as an engraver. In 1811 he stayed with Albrecht 
at the Lake of Como, and painted in water-colours. 
He also engraved six hunting-pieces, after his 
brother Albrecht, at Milan, in 1813. Subsequently 
he painted landscapes and views of towns, which 
are executed with great truthfulness. He died at 
Munich in 1862. In the Pinakothek there are by 
him a ' View of the Marienplatz in Munich ' sur- 
rounded by 14 smaller views, and a ' View of the 
Max-Joseph-Platz,' also surrounded by 14 smaller 

ADAM, Jakob, an engraver, bom at Vienna in 
1748, was brought up in the Academy in that 
city. In conjunction with his countryman, Johann 
Ernst Mansfeld, he made himself known by a 
series of portraits of the distinguished personages 
of Austria, published at Vienna, which are exe- 
cuted with great neatness and finish; of these, 
that of the Empress Maria Louisa is accounted 
the best. He also executed the plates for a 
Pictorial Bible, or ' Bilderbibel ' (1803), which 
gained him considerable credit. He died in Vienna 
in 1811. 

ADAM, Jean Victok, a French painter and 
lithographer, born at Paris in 1801, was the son of 
Jean Adam, an esteemed engraver. During the 
years 1814 to 1818 he studied at the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts, and also in the ateliers of Meynier 
and Regnault. In 1819 he exhibited ' Herminia 
succouring Tancred.' He was almost immediately 
afterwards employed to paint various subjects for 
the Museum at Versailles, amongst which are, 'The 
Entry of the French into Mainz,' 'The Battle of 
Varroux,' 'The Taking of Menin,"The Battle of 
Castiglione,' 'ThePassage of theCluse,' 'The Battle 
of Montebello,' 'The Capitulation of Meiningen;' 
the last three in association with Alaux. He also 
exhibited down to the year 1838: 'Henry IV., 
after the Battle of Coutras,' ' Trait of Kindness in 
the Duke de Berri,' 'The Postillion,' 'TheVivan- 
diere,' ' The Road to Poissy,' ' The Return from 
the Chase,' ' Horse-fair at Caen,' and numerous 
other subjects. He then retired from publicity, 
till 1846, when he appeared as the exhibitor of 
some works in lithography, to which branch of 
art he afterwards restricted himself. In this line 
he produced a lithographic album, ' Views in the 
Environs of Paris,' ' Studies of Animals for an 
edition of BufEon,' &c. He obtained a gold 

medal in 1824, a second class medal in 1836, 
besides seveml others from Lille, Douai, and 
other cities. He died at Viroflny in 1867. 

ADAM, John, was an English engraver in the 
latter part of the 18th century, who engraved for 
Caulfield's 'History of Remarkable Characters 
from the time of Henry VIII. to James II.,' and 
Herbert's 'Biography of Scottish Personages of 
Distinction.' He also engraved the portraits of 
Queen Elizabeth, and Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester, after F. Zucchero. 

ADAM, P., an English engraver, who flourished 
about the year 1690, executed a few etchings of 
landscapes in a tasteless style. In one of them, 
which is engraved in the manner of Mellan, with- 
out any cross hatchings, a figure is represented 
seated on a bank. He usually signed _-. — . 
his plates with his name — the letters Jjr^ Jpi 
P and A being joined together. ' ^^ ' 

ADAM, PETEft, a German engraver, flourished 
about 1730. Heineken mentions six landscapes by 
a master of this name, probiibly the same. He is 
also supposed to have painted some pictures, 
which have the same monogrum as the prints. 

ADAM, Robert, the son of an architect, was 
born at Kirkcaldy, in Fifeshire, in 1728. After he 
had received a good education at Edinburgh, his 
father sent him to study the fine specimens of 
Roman architecture in Italy, where he remained 
several years. On his return to England, he was 
appointed architect to the king. He died in Lon- 
don in 1792. During his residence on the Conti- 
, nent he had made drawings of the famous Palace 
of Diocletian, at Spalatro in Dalmatia, and in 1764 
published, in conjunction with C16risseau, a volume 
in folio, entitled ' Ruins of the Palace of Diocle- 
tian, at Spalatro in Dalmatia,' with sixty-one well- 
engraved plates from his designs. 

ADAMI, PiETEO, born at Rome, excelled in 
marine subjects ; he painted about the year 1730 ; 
little else is known of his history. 

ADAMO TEDESCO. See Elzheimek. 

ADAMS, Chaklbs, is mentioned by Heineken 
as the engraver of an equestrian portrait of Charles 
I. of England. 

ADAMS, RoBEET, an architect and engraver, 
was born in London in 1640. His eminence in his 
profession procured him the situation of surveyor 
of the works and architect to Queen Elizabeth. 
He made a set of drawings representing the battles 
between the English fleet and the Spanish Armada, 
which were engraved by Augustus Ryther, and 
published in 1589 ; they have now become scarce. 
Adams died in 1595. 

ADDA, Feancesco, Conte d', a Milanese amateur 
painter, scholar and imitator of Leonardo da Vinci, 
painted small pictures on panel and slate for 
private cabinets. An altar-piece, representing 
'John the Baptist' at the Dominican church of 
Santa Maria delle Grazie, at Milan, was formerly 
attributed to him, but the research of 0. Miindler 
has proved that the work is by Giulio Bugiardini, 
whose signature it indeed bears. The Conte 
d' Adda died in 1550. 

ADLER, Philipp, born afr Nuremberg in 1484, 
is called (erroneously) by Florent le Comte, Adler 
Paticina. He mentions a plate by him of ' St. 
Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus,' dated 1518. 
The print, described by Strutt as his best per- 
formance, represents an altar, with the Virgin 
Mary crowned, and a female Saint holding the 
Infant Christ; it was engraved by David Hopfer, 





whose mark, when the print is perfect, is at the 
bottom of the plate. The inscription on the tab- 
let, Hoc OPUS FECIT Philipus Pateicius, 
MDXVlir., most probably relates to the altar having 
been erected by Philipp Adler. In the print 
Strutt had seen, the mark of Hopfer had probably 
been cut ofE. 

ADMIBA AL, B., was a Dutch painter, who flour- 
ished in 1662, AS appears by a picture, with the 
name and date, representing the entrance to a 
city, with numerous figures, many of them in 
Oriental costume ; the style is similar to that of 
Weenix and Thomas Wyok, but displays a less 
delicate peucil than either. 

ADOLFFZ, — . By this engraver, who, from 
his name, appears to have been a native of Ger- 
many, we have a portrait of the Due de Biron, 
Marshal of France, on horseback. It has now 
become scarce. 

ADOLFI, Giro, the younger brother of Giacomo, 
was born at Bergamo in 1683, and was instructed 
by his father Benedetto Adolfi. He possessed a 
more fertile genius than his brother, and a greater 
facility, and distinguished liimself by some con- 
siderable fresco paintings in the public edifices 
in the city of Bergamo, and in the state. He died 
in 1758. His principal works are: 

Bergamo. S.Alessandro d. Croce. Four Evangelists. 

„ S. Maria d. Grazie. Deposition from the Cross. 
Colognola. Parish Church. Decollation of St. John. 

Another brother, of the name of Nicola, painted 
battle-pieces ; his death is not recorded. 

ADOLFI, GiACOMO, was, according to Tassi, 
born at Bergamo in 1682. He was the son of 
Benedetto Adolfi, a painter little known, and had 
not tlie advantage of any instruction superior to 
that of his father. He painted historical subjects. 
Amongst several of his works in the churches at 
Bfergaino, his picture of the 'Crowning of the Vir- 
gin,' in the church of the monastery Del Paradiso, 
is esteemed one of his best productions. 'The 
Adoration of the Magi,' in tlie church of Sant' 
Alessandro della Croce, is another admired picture 
by this master. He died in 1741. 

ADONE. See Doni. 

ADONIS. See De Beuijn, Coenelis. 

ADRIAENS, Lucas (or Adeiaennsson), a native 
of Antwerp, was admitted into the Guild of St. 
I-uke in 1459, and five times held the post of 
dean to the society. He co-operated in the cele- 
brated ' Entremets ' at Bruges in 1468. He died 
about 1493. 

ADRIAENSSEN, Alexandee, 'the elder,' »» 
was born at Antwerp, in 1587. He studied H^ 
under Artus van Laeck, and in 1597-98 ■^-'^^ 
entered, as a scholar of that master, the Guild of 
Painters at Antwerp, of which company he be- 
came a free member in 1610-11. Adriaenssen 
worked at Antwerp, and there enjoyed the friend- 
ship of Van Dijck, who painted his portrait, which 
has been engraved by Anton van der Does. He 
died in his native city in 1661, and was buried 
in the church of St. James. 

The subjects of his pictures are sometimes 
flowers and fruit, whicli he grouped and arranged 
with considerable taste, but he particularly ex- 
celled in the painting of fish, to which he gave 
a surprising appearance of truth and nature ; 
representing them with a freshness and glittering 
effect of colour that produces perfect illusion. 
His works in this way, which are highly finished 


and well coloured, are deservedly esteemed. The 
Berlin Gallery has three splendid examples of his 
art ; two are signed, and one of them bears the 
date 1647. His works are also found in the Gal- 
leries of Madrid and Antwerp, and in private 
collections on the Continent. 

ADRIAENSSEN, Alexandee, 'the younger,' 
a painter of still-life, was born at Antwerp in 1625, 
and died there in 1685. In the records of the 
Antwerp Guild are found several other Adriaens- 
sens, but they are of no great account. (See 
Meyer' s Kiinstler-Lexihon.) 

ADEIANO, A., a Spanish monk of the order 
of Barefooted Carmelites, born at Cordova, was a 
pupil of Pablo de Cespedes. Pacheco, who knew 
him, speaks of him as a great artist ; and Palomino 
states that his convent possessed for a long time a 
' Magdalene' by this master, which was considered 
worthy of Titian. His paintings are rare, as he was 
in the habit of destroying them as soon as finished, 
from a modest opinion, very uncommon to artists, 
of their inferiority. Some fine ones, however, were 
preserved, through the intercession of his friends. 
He died in 1630. 

AEKEN, HiEEONYMUS VAN, commonly known 
as Jeeom Bosch oe— >js^ 

(or Bos) from his c>^ >_ .^'^ 
birthplace, Her- 
togenbosch (Bois- 
le-Duc), was born 
between the years 1460 and 1464. Passavant, 
writing in 1860, says 1450. That he visited Spain, 
as has often been asserted, is sometimes doubted, 
and at all events he did not make a very long 
stay there. In 1493 or 1494 he made a drawing 
for a window in the church of St. John at Her- 
togenbosch, for which he also executed various 
paintings ; and he was later employed by Duke 
Philip le Bel. He died at his birthplace in 1518. 

Van Aeken made a whimsical choice of subjects 
for his pictures, which are generally grotesque re- 
presentations of spectres, devils, and incantations, 
which, however ridiculous, are treated with singu- 
lar ingenuity. He painted a few pictures of a more 
serious oast, among which were the ' Flight into 
Egypt,' and ' Christ bearing His Cross,' in the 
church of Bois-le-Duc, which Karel van Mander 
speaks of in very favourable terms. One of his 
most singular compositions was a picture repre- 
senting ' Our Saviour delivering the ancient Patri- 
archs from Hell.' Judas, in attempting to escape 
with the elect, is seized on by devils, who are in 
the act of hanging him in the air. A ' Last Judg- 
ment' by him, is in the Berlin Gallery, and a ' St. 
Anthony ' in the Antwerp Museum ; and the Madrid 
Museum contains several of his works. It is said 
that Philip II. of Spain so much admired Van 
Aeken' s painting, that he had an altar-piece by him 
perpetually in his oratory. The engravings which 
were formerly ascribed to him are now known to 
have been done by Alaert du Hameel and other 
masters, from Bosch's designs. The following are 
a few of them : 

The Temptation of St. Anthony; a large woodcnt, 
engraved four years after his death ; dated 1522. 

The Last Judgment ; Christ appears in the air, seated on 
a rainbow, and on each side of him are two angela 
sounding trumpets, with labels bearing the inscrip- 
tion: Sdc est dies quern fecit dominvs ; Surgtti 
mortui, venite ad judicium. At the bottom of the 
print are small figures of men and devils of all shapes 

St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus across a river, 




and a hermit with a lantern. Engraved on copper ; very 

curious on account of the innunaerable monstrous 

creatures swarming in the water. A very rare print. 

Constantine at the head of his army, an Angel showing 

him the Cross in the sky. 
The Baptism of Christ by St. John. 
An Assemblage of grotesque figures ; inscribed Al dat 

op, ^e. 
A similar subject; inscribed Dese Jeron, Bosch droUen. 

W. B. S, 
AELS, N. The name of this engraver is affixed 
to a print representing St. Joseph leading the 
.. Infant Jesus by the hand, with a landscape back- 

AELST, EvBET VAN, who was born at Delft in 
1602, excelled in painting birds, dead game, armour, 
vases of gold and silver, and similar subjects. 
He sometimes represented these objects on a clear 
or white ground, in a manner that produced a 
singularly natural efEeot. All his works are care- 
fully finished, his style is clean and flowing, and 
he disposed the inanimate objects he represented 
in a very pleasing and picturesque manner. He 
died at Delft in 1658. Pictures by him are in the 
Galleries at Dresden and Berlin, and the Uffizi, 

AELST, NicoLAUs van, was born at Brussels 
about the year 1527. At an early age he estab- 
lished himself at Rome, where from 1550 to 
1612 he carried on a considerable commerce in 
prints. The names of the painter, and the engraver 
of tihe plates, executed for his collection, were 
frequently omitted, and his own inserted, with the 
word /oj-mis, to denote that he was the publisher. 
It is, however, sufSciently proved that he some- 
times used the graver, as we have several plates 
in which the viovAfeait, or sculpsit,ia added to his 
name. Heineken notices a set of twelve plates of 
birds engraved by this artist. 
AELST, Pauwel van. See Koecke, P. 
AELST, WiLLEM van, the son of a notary, was 
born at Delft in 1620. He was the nephew of Evert 
van Aelst, by whom he was instructed in art. He 
passed four years in Prance and seven in Italy, 
and the polish and exquisite finish of his worlks 
rendered them extremely popular in both coun- 
tries. The Grand Duke of Tuscany employed his 
talents for some time, and, as a mark of his favour 
and approbation, presented him with a gold chain 
and medal. He returned to Holland in 1656, and, 
after spending some time in his native Delft, he 
settled at Amsterdam, where his pictures were so 
much admired that he could with difficulty satisfy 
the demands for his works ; and at' a sale which 
took place shortly after his death his pictures real- 
ized comparatively large sums. He died in that 
city in 1679. He is said to have imparted instruc- 
tion to the celebrated Rachel Ruisch ; she was, 
however, only fifteen at the time of his death. 
Willem van Aelst, from his long residence in 
Italy, acquired the habit of signing his name in 
the language of that country : viz. Guilielmo (or 
more frequently Guill"".) van Aelst. His pictures, 
like those of his uncle, represent fish, dead game, 
and still-life ; they are, however, much more 
neatly finished, and are even more precisely 
wrought up than the highly-valued works of 
Weenix. Some of them, even signed ones, have 
been attributed to his imole Evert — one signed 
W. Vaelst, in the UflSzi Gallery, and two at the 
Hague, bearing the name of Guill"°. van Aelst, 
and dated respectively 1671 and 1663. Other good 
works by Willem van Aelst are in the Galleries of 

Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Copenhagen, and in 
the Pitti Palace at Florence. Van Aelst was called 
by the Italians Guglielmo d'Olanda. 

AENAEjPetrus (also written Aene and Aeneae), 
a German engraver in mezzotint, flourished in 
Friesland from about 1680 to 1700. He was 
chiefly employed in portraits ; and, among others, 
engraved that of Nicolaus IJlankard, Profess, a 
Frank, ML 68 (P. Aeneae, fecit el eaxcudit) ; and 
those of numerous personages of the royal family 
of Nassau. 
AERTSEN, PiETER. See Aaktsbn. 
AERTSZ, RiJKAEET. See Aartsz. 
AETION, who is not noticed by Pliny, is men- 
tioned by Luoian in conjunction with Apelles, 
Euphranor, and Polygnotus, as the most successful 
of the ancient Greek painters in the mixing and 
laying on of colours. Action flourished about 
the time of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, A.D. 
117 — 161. Lucian mentions a graceful picture 
by him, representing 'The Nuptials of Alexander 
with Roxana,' which was exhibited at the Olympic 
games, and excited such admiration that Proxe- 
nidas, one of the judges, exclaimed in the midst 
of the assembly, " I reserve crowns for the heads 
of the Athletae, but I give my daughter in mar- 
riage to the painter Aetion, as a recompense for 
his inimitable picture.'' From the description of 
this painting, written by Lucian, Raphael is said 
to have made a design, executed in fresco in the 
summer-house in the garden of the Villa Borghese, 

AFANAS'EV, Konstantin Jakovlbvioh, a Rus- 
sian engraver, was born at St. Petersburg about 
1793. In 1803 he entered the Academy, where 
he studied under Klauber and Utkin. In 1818, 
during his stay at the castle of Pavlovsk, he en- 
graved several landscapes for the album of the 
.Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. On his 
return to St. Petersburg he soon became famous, 
and could scarcely execute the many commissions 
he received. In 1839 he was made a member of 
the Academy. Afanas'ev was the first Russian 
artist who engraved on steel, and his engravings, 
which are mostly portraits, and executed with 
great neatness, gained him considerable renown. 
He died in 1857. 

AFESA, PiETRO. This painter was called Della 
Basilicata, from his being a native of the province 
of that name, in the kingdom of Naples. He 
flourished about the year 1650. Dominici, in his 
'Lives of the Neapolitan Painters,' mentions him in 
very favourable terms. His works are preserved 
in many of the churches and convents at Naples. 
In the chapel of the convent of Marsico Nuovo, 
in (hat city, is an altar-piece by him, representing 
the ' Assumption of the Virgin Mary,' which is 
highly esteeuied. 
AFPDRDCK. See De Heusoh. 
AFFLITTI. See Ferrajuoli. 
AGABITO, PiETRO Paolo, painter, sculptor, 
and architect, who was born at Sassoferrato, 
flourished from 1511 to 1531. His style was 
influenced by the Venetian school, and his works 
are executed in the manner of Lorenzo Lotto. The 
churches of Sassoferrato contain several of his 
works, among which may be mentioned ' The 
Virgin between St. Catharine and John the Bap- 
tist,' painted in 1611 ; and one, signed Petrus 
Padlus Aqabiti di Saxofbeeato, MDXVIII., both 
in Santa Maria del Pano. An altar-piece by him, 
in the church of the Padri Eiformati, near Jesi, 





representing the Virgin with tlie Infant, is con- 
sidered one of his best paintings. He died at 
Massaccio, where he had settled. (See Meyer's 
' Kilnatler-Lexikon. ' ) 

AG-AK, Jaoquhs d', a portrait painter, was born 
at Paris in 1640. He studied under Ferdinand 
Vouet, and began life as an historical painter, but 
he soon abandoned history for portraiture, in which 
branch of art he became very successful. In 1675 
he was admitted into the Academy, and he became 
also painter in ordinary to the king and his court. 
Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Agar, 
as a Protestant, was shut out from the Academy. 
He accordingly left France in 1682 — never to re- 
turn. He was invited to the court of Denmark, 
and was greatly patronized by King Christian V. 
The portrait of this painter, by himself, has found 
a place in the Florentine Gallery of Artists. It was 
painted, in 1693, by request of King Christian. 
Walpole tells us that he visited England, where 
he resided some time, and met with success. He 
painted the portraits of several of the nobility 
of Queen Anne's reign ; among whom were the 
Duchess of Montagu, the Countesses of Rochfort 
and Sunderland, Thomas Earl of StrafEord, and 
others. A portrait of Charles II. of England, by 
him, is said to have been formerly in the Gallery 
at Christiansburg. He died in 1716 at Copen- 

AGAR, John Samuel, was an English portrait 
painter and engraver, who exhibited his works at 
the Royal Academy from 1796 to 1806. He was 
at one time president of the Society of Engravers. 
His works were chiefly in stipple. He was still 
living in 1835. 

AGAS. See Aggas. 

AGASSB, Jacques Laurent, a celebrated animal 
painter, who was born at Geneva, studied for some 
time in Paris, came to London about 1800, and 
for many years exhibited his works at the Royal 
Academy. Some of them, including six land- 
scapes, were engraved. He died in 1846. 

AGELLIO, Giuseppe. , According to Baglioni, 
this painter was a native of Sorrento, and a scholar 
of Konoalli, called ' Delia Pomarance.' He ex- 
celled in landscape and architecture, and was em- 
ployed by several, of his contemporary historical 
painters to paint the landscapes in the backgrounds 
of their pictures. He flourished at Rome about 
the year 1620. 

AGGAS, Ralph (or Agas), was a draughtsman 
and surveyor. He was a native of Stoke-by- 
Nayland, in SafEolk, and was born probably be- 
tween the years 1540 and 1545. He published a 
plan of Cambridge in the year 1578, and one of 
Oxford in 1588. He also prepared, about 1591, the 
large plan and bird's-eye view of London, which 
was engraved on wood, and published in 1633. 
He died at his native village in 1621. 

AGGAS, Robert, was an English landscape and 
scene painter, who was employed by Charles II. 
A landscape by him is preserved in the Painter 
Stationers' Hall. He died in 1679, aged about 60. 

AGHINETTI, called Guccio del Sero_, a Flor- 
entine painter, who was living in 1331, is ranked 
among the best artists of his time. He had a 
nephew, called Maestro Guccio, who was also 
eminent, and who died in 1409. 

AGI, Cordelle (or Aghi). See Coedellb Agi. 

AGLAOPHON is a name shared by two Greek 
painters, who are supposed to have been grand- 
I'iither and grandson. 

Aglaophon, 'the elder,' was a native of Thasos 
and flourished about 600 B. C. He is famous as 
the father and instructor of PolygnQtus_ and 
Aristophon. Quintilian mentions " the simple 
colouring of Polygnotus and Aglaophon," as 
though their manners were similar. No work can 
be ascribed to either of the two artists with any 
certainty. The painting of the ' Winged Victory ' 
— mentioned by the Scholiast on the 'Birds' of 
Aristophanes — is supposed to be by the elder 
painter, though it has also been ascribed to the 

Aglaophon, 'the younger,' flourished about 416 
B.C., and was probably the son of Aristophon. 
Athenajus mentions that he painted two pictures, 
in one of which Olympias and Pythias were re- 
presented crowning Alcibiades, and in the other 
Nemea held Alcibiades on her knees. Cicero 
was probably speaking of him when he says that 
Aglaophon, Zeuxis, and Apelles were all different 
in their styles, yet each one was perfect in his own. 
AGLIO, A GOSTlNO, who was born at Cremona in 
1777, was educated at Milan, and studied at the 
Brera. In 1803 he came to England to assist 
William Wilkins, R.A., the well-known architect, 
in the production of his ' Antiquities of Magna 
Graecia,' which was published in 1807. For many 
years Aglio was employed in the decoration of 
theatres, churches, and country mansions both in 
England and Ireland. Between the years 1820 
and 1830, he published several books on art, the 
principal of which were, ' A Collection of Capitals 
and Friezes drawn from the Antique,' and 'Anti- 
quities of Mexico,' illustrated with upwards of 
1000 plates, drawn from the originals. He also 
painted a portrait of Queen Victoria, which was 
engraved. He died in 1857. 

AGLIO, Andrea-Salvatoeb di Antonio di 
Aezo, bom at Lugano in 1736, a painter on marble, 
who is said to have been the first who discovered 
the method of fixing colours on that material. 
He died in 1786. 

AGNELLI. Federigo, an Italian engraver and 
printer, who flourished at Milan about the year 
1700. He was chiefly employed in portraits, 
though he occasionally engraved emblematical 
and architectural subjects. He engraved a set 
of plates representing the 'Cathedral at Milan,' to 
which he has afBxed his name, and that of the 
architect, Carlo Butio. 
AGNEN. See Aeken. 

AGNES, a daughter of the Margrave Arnold 
of Meissen, and Abbess of Quedlinburg from 
about 1184 to 1205, practised successfully the arts 
of engraving and miniature painting. 
AGNBSE. See Sant' Agnese. 
AGNOLO, Andrea d'. See Andrea. 
AGNOLO, Battista. See Angolo. 
AGNOLO, Francesco, was a Florentine painter, 
who flourished about 1545. 

AGOSTINO 'dalle Peospettive' painted at 
Bologna about 1525. He was very skilful in aerial 
and lineal perspective, and imitated steps, doors, 
and windows, so perfectly as to deceive men and 
brute animals. He painted a piece at the Car- 
mine, which for its foreshortening Lomazzo in- 
stances, along with the cupola of Correggio at 
Parma, as a model of excellence. This painter 
must not be confounded with Agostino di Bra- 







AGOTY, D'. See Gautier. 

AGKESTI, Livio. This painter was a native of 
Forli, a town in the Eoman territory. He began 
to work about 1550. He studied under Perino 
del Vaga at Eome, and was employed by Pope 
Gregory XIII. in the great works that were 
executed by order of that pontiff in the Vatican. 
In the grand staircase is a considerable fresco 
painting by this master, representing Philip of 
Aragon submitting his kingdom to the dominion 
of Pope Eugenius III. Several other works 
of Agresti are in the churches and public places 
at Eome. In Santa Catarina de' Funari, he 
painted ' St. Peter and St. Paul,' and a picture of 
the ' Annunciation,' and in one of the chapels of 
San Spirito in Sassia is a fine altar-piece, represent- 
ing ' the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.' His best 
works are, however, in his native city of Porli. 
Eome possesses nothing by him equal to the 
chapel he has ornamented in the cathedral, where 
he has represented the ' Last Supper,' and in the 
vault, some admirable figures of the prophets. He 
is said to have visited Germany and worked there, 
but no painting by him is known to exist out of 
Italy. 'The British Museum has a drawing by 
Agresti of a ' Last Supper.' He died at Home 
about 1580, and was buried in San Spirito in 

AGRICOLA, Cheistoph Ludwig, a painter of 
portraits and landscapes, was born at Eatisbon 
in 1667. He studied chiefly from nature, though, 
while in Italy, he was influenced by tlie style of 
Poussin. Agricola lived several years in Naples, 
and some of the views which he made there 
have been brought to England. He died at his 
birthplace in 1719. His landscapes, which are 
executed in a masterly manner, frequently contain 
figures and antique buildings and ruins. Land- 
scapes by hiin are in the Galleries of Florence, 
Vienna, Cassel, and Dresden, and in the Museum of 
Brunswick, which also possesses his own portrait 
by himself. Amongst the engravings by him is 
one of a landscape, into which he has introduced the 
fable of Diana and Actseon. It is signed Agricola 
fedt. Some other engravings by him bear merely 
his initials, C. L. A. 

AGEICOLA, FiLiPPO, who was bom at Urbino 
in 1776, received his art-education in Eome in the 
Academy of St. Luke, of which institution he 
became president in 1843. He formed his art by 
studying the works of the great Italian masters of 
the 16ih century, and of the antique ; and he was 
considered one of the best painters of the time in 
Eome. He was much employed in decorating 
churches — San Onofrio, San Giovanni in Laterano, 
and others. He was engaged upon works for San 
Paolo f uori le Mura when he died in 1857. Besides 
his paintings of mythological and sacred history, 
he executed numerous portraits of great merit ; 
amongst others those of the ' Crown Princess of 
Denmark' (1822), and the 'Countess Perticari.' 
His ' Petrarch and Laura,' and ' Dante and Bea- 
trice,' must also be mentioned. 

AGEICOLA, Kabl Joseph Aloys, was born at 
Seckingen, Baden, in 1779. After a preliminary 
course of instruction in Karlsruhe, he went in 
1798 to Vienna and entered the Academy, where 
he studied under Fiiger. He soon became known 
for his mythological pictures in oil and water- 
colour — of which we may mention a ' Cupid and 
Psyche ' — and for his etchings and lithographs ; 

but he was more especially famed for his minia- 
ture-portraits. After a prosperous career he died 
in Vienna in 1862. He pamted in the style of 
the end of the 18th century, and was an imitator 
of his master Fiiger. He engraved after the 
works of Elzheimer, Raphael, Poussin, Parmigi- 
ano, Domenichino, Fiiger, and others. 

AGROTE, Antonio, an architectural painter, 
flourished about 1750. He painted one of the 
chapels of the Carmelite church at Milan, and the 
decorations of Santa Maria at Brescia, for which 
Carloni painted the figures. 

AGUA, Beenabdino dell' (or Acqtja). See 
Dell' Acqua. 

AGUCCHIA, Giovanni, an engraver, is stated 
by Heineken to have been u, native of Milan, 
flourishing in the 16th century ; and to him he 
ascribes two engravings, one of the cathedral of 
Milan, to which is aflixed the signature, Agucchi 
fece Milano ; and the other of the gatewa\ of a 
large building, bearing the initials G. A. Schmidt, 
in Meyei-'s ' Kiinstler-Lexikon,' doubts whether 
the two works are by the same man, and seems 
to think that there is a possibility of the former 
work being by Federigo Agnelli. 

AGUDO. See Madrazo. 

AGUEEO, Benito Manuel db, a landscape and 
battle painter, was born at Madrid in 1626, and 
was a scholar of Mazo Martinez, whose style and 
manner he closely followed. He endeavoured to 
imitate Titian in his historical compositions, but 
was not successful. He died at Madrid in 1670. 
His pictures are now very rarely seen. 

AGUIAE, ToMAS DE, a disciple of Velazquez, 
painted portraits, which were distinguished for the 
freedom of the style and their strong resemblance. 
Among other eminent persons he painted Antonio 
de Solis, the poet, who celebrates him in a sonnet. 
He was considered an excellent painter of small 
figures. He died in Madrid about 1679. 

AGUILA, Del. See Del Aguila. 

AGUILAE. See Jaueeguy y Aguilar. 

AGUILEEA, Diego de, was a painter of sacred 
history, and resided at Toledo about 1587. He 
was a man of conciliating manners, and a good 
judge of works of art; he was generally con- 
sulted by the nobility and others as to the prices 
demanded by ai-tists, and did justice to both. The 
greater part of his pictures were destroyed by fire. 
'The time of his death is not known. 

AGUILLES. See Boyee. 

AGUIERE, Francisco de, a pupil of Eugenio 
Caxes, was a portrait painter, and a restorer of 
pictures, to which occupation he particularly de- 
voted himself. He commenced to practise it at 
Toledo in 1646, where he was employed to restore 
the pictures in the cathedral, and gave abundant 
proofs of his ignorance and presumption, by alter- 
ing them according to his notions ; a practice that 
has been followed by others since his time, and 
to which may be ascribed the loss of many fine 
pictures of the best Spanish masters. Aguirre is 
otherwise known only by his portraits, which 
never rose above the level of mediocrity. 

AGUIEEE Y MONSALBE, Manuel, a painter 
of Aragon and pupil of Vicente Lopez, became, in 
1846, professor at the Academy of San Luis in 
Saragossa. A collection of portraits of the Kings 
of Aragon by him is in the Casino at Saragossa. 
He died in 1855. 

AGULLO, Francisco, a Spanish painter, exe- 
cuted in 1637 an altar-piece for the convent of St. 






Sebastian at Concentaina, his birthplace, 
died there in 1648. 

AGUSTIN Y GRANDE, Francisco, an historicnl 
painter, who was born at Barcelona in 1763, 
studied in Rome under Raphael Mengs, and 
became one of his best imitators. On his return 
to Spain he became first director of a school of 
design at Cordova, and subsequently, in 1799, a 
member of the Academy of San Fernando at 
Madrid. He died in 1800. Agustin painted 
chiefly for churches, and the greater part of his 
works are in Cordova. 

AHLBORN, August Wilhelm Julius, a land- 
scape painter, who was born at Hanover in 1796, 
received instruction under Wach in Berlin, and 
went in 1827 to complete his education in Italy, 
where he resided nearly thirty years, and thus 
became almost an Italian in manner. He died in 
Rome in 1857. While abroad he sent, from time 
to time, to Berlin, landscapes which gained him 
much praise, and, while in Germany, in 1833 he 
was elected a member of the Berlin Academy 
The first work he sent was a view of the Colosseum 
and the Via S.icra in 1829. He also painted views 
in the Tyrol and North Germany, but they were 
not so successful as his landscapes of southern 
climes. While in Italy he executed sacred pictures 
after Fra Angelico, Perugino, and other early 
Italians. In the Berlin National Gallery there 
are by him a ' View of the Castle of Wernigerode, 
in the Harz,' 1827, and a ' View of Florence,' 1832. 
AIGEN, Karl, who was born at Olmiitz in 
1684, painted in Vienna, and in 1754 became a 
member of the Academy, of which he was subse- 
quently director and professor. He died at 
Vienna in 1762. The Gallery of the Belvedere 
in that city has two works by him — both views 
with figures. 

AIGQIER, Louis Augusts Laurent, a French 
marine painter, was born at Toulon in 1819, and 
died in that town in 1865. There are examples of 
his work in the Museums of Toulon and Marseilles. 

AIKMAN, William, was born at Cairney, in 
Forfarshire, in 1682. He for some time studied 
the law, but his inclination for painting led him to 
change his profession. After studying under Sir 
John Medina for three years, he visited Italy in 
1707, where he studied three years, and afterwards 
went to Turkey. On his return to Scotland in 
1712, he met with great encouragement as a por- 
trait painter, in which branch of the art he chiefly 
excelled. In 1723 he went to London, where he 
successfully practised his art until his death in 
1731. He was possessed of considerable literary 
qualifications, and was on intimate terms with 
Kneller, whose style o£ portraiture he imitated ; 
and with Allan Ramsay, Thomson, and Mallet. 
His memory was celebrated by the two last : 
Mallet wrote his epitaph, and Thomson his elegy. 
His own portrait is in the Uffizi Gallery. 

AINEMOLO, ViNCENZO. See Aniemolo. 

AINMILLER, Max Emmanuel, a painter on glass 
and porcelain, was born at Munich in 1807. ■ 

Having studied architecture for some time /f^ 
at the Munich Academy, where he showed ■'■^ ■**■ 
special ability for ornamentation, he received an 
appointment as designer at the Royal Porcelain 
Manufactory at Nymphenburg. Shortly afterwards 
he gave up this appointment in order to devote 
himself to the art of glass painting, which he helped 
to raise from its long decline, and in it he became 
justly celebrated. Under his direction were pro- 


duoed the splendid glass paintingsfor the cathedrals 
at Ratisbon, Cologne, and Spires, the University 
church at Cambridge, and St. Paul's Cathedral in 
London. He died at Munich in December, 1870. 
The following are some of his best works : 

Berlin. A^at. Gall. Interior of a room at Hohensalzburg. 
„ „ Cloister. 1844. 

, „ Poets' Comer — "Westminster Abbey. 

„ 'Westminster Abbey — Henry VII.'s 

Chapel, &c. 1856. 
„ „ Interior of a Byzantine Church. 

Munich. PinaJcothek. Choir of "Westminster Abbey. 

„ „ "Westminster Abbey — Shrine of 

Edward the Confessor, &c. 
„ „ Cathedral of Hbeims. 

AIROLA, Angela Veronica. According to 
Soprani, this painter was a native of Genoa, and 
was instructed in the art by Domenioo Fiasella, 
called Sarzana. This lady had acquired a con- 
siderable reputation, and had painted some pic- 
tures for the churches in that city, when she 
joined the order of San Bartolommeo dell' Oliveta 
at Genoa. Slje painted several works while in the 
convent. She died in 1670. 

AKEN, Arnout VAN, brother of Jozef van Aken, 
flourished in England in the beginning of the 18th 
century. He etched frontispieces to plays and 
other small works for the publishers. 

AKEN, F. VAN, a painter of fruit, flowers, and 
objects of still-life, flourished in the early part of 
the 18th century (?). No details are recorded of 
his life. His works bear his name, F. van Aken, 
or the initi£ils, F. V. A. 

AKEN, Jan van — not to be confounded with 
Johann von Aachen (who was born in 1552) — was 
a painter and engraver, and was born in Holland 
in 1614. He was a contemporary and friend of 
Pieter van Laer, called Bamboccio. Van Aken 
etched four landscapes, or views of the Rhine, 
— marked H. L. inventor, I. v. Aken, fecit — after 
Hermann Saf tleven, whose style he imitated. We 
have also by him a series of six subjects of horses 
in different positions, with very pleasing back- 
grounds, niarked J. v. Aken, fecit. Heineken 
mentions a print by him, with a horse saddled 
in the foreground, a man behind lying down, and 
another seated with his hat on, Kyv/I \a 
marked /. van Aken, fee. This I XaJ V\. 
print is very scarce. 

■ AKEN, Jozef van, a Flemish artist, who was 
born in 1709 at Antwerp, passed a great part of 
his life in England. He was employed by eminent 
landscape painters to paint the costumes of the 
figures in their pictures, in which he was very 
skilful, and thereby acquired the name of 
'Schneider van Aken' (Van Aken the tailor-). 
He also painted on satin and velvet, and produced 
some excellent works. He died in London in 1749. 

AKEN, Sebastiaen van, a Flemish historical 
painter, was born at Mechlin about 1656, and be- 
came a pupil of Lucas Franchoys, the younger. He 
afterwards went to Rome, where he studied under 
Carlo Maratti, and visited Spain and Portugal. A 
painting by him of St. Norbert is in the village 
church of DufEel, near Mechlin. He died at Mech- 
lin in 1722. 

AKERBOOM, — , was a Dutch painter of the in- 
teriors of cities and villages, of whom no details 
have been recorded. He lived about the middle 
of the 17th century. The execution of his works 




is admirable. Houbraken mentions a highly fin- 
ished miniature picture of the town of Doornick 
by him. 

AKERSLOOT, Willem, a Dutch engraver, was 
born at Haarlem about the year 1600. He was living 
in 1651. He engraved a few plates of portraits, 
and other subjects, amongst which are the follow- 
ing ; 

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange; after A. van der 

Amelia, Princess of Orange, with her two Daughters ; 

after the same, 
Christ taken in the Garden ; after Solbein. 
Christ bound; after P. Moijn. 
Peter denying Christ ; after the same. 

AKREL, Peedeik, was born at Oja, in the pro- 
vince of Sudermania, in Sweden, in 1748. He was 
instructed in the art by Akermnn at Upsal, where 
he engraved the views of some buildings in that 
town, and a few portraits. In 1771 he visited 
Stockholm, where he had access to the instruc- 
tion of the Academy. Two years later he visited 
Paris, but did not remain there long. He died at 
Stockholm in 1804. There is a set of ten well- 
engraved portraits of Swedish personages by 

ALABARDI, Giuseppe, called Sohioppi, a Vene- 
tian painter, lived about 1600. He painted in oil 
and fresco in the Doge's palace, the churches, 
and other public buildings of Venice. His works 
were sometimes allegories and sometimes archi- 
tectural views with figures. He is highly com- 
plimented in an epigram, by F. Euggerius, for 
a picture of ' Mars and Venus.' 

ALAGNA. See Tanzio. 

ALAIS, J., engraved portraits of Edmund Kean 
as Macbeth and as lago, after George Cruikshank, 
which were published in London in 1814. 

ALAMANNI. See Alemani. 

ALAMANNUS. See Alemanno. 

ALAUX, Jean, called Lb Romain, historical 
painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1786. Early in 
life he entered the school of M. Vincent, in Paris, 
where he was a fellow-pnpil with Horace Vernet ; 
subsequently he attended the atelier of P. Gu^rin, 
with Ary SohefEer, Delacroix, and other eminent 
artists. He obtained the Grand Prix de Home in 
1815 ; but did not attract general attention till 1824, 
when he exhibited ' The Combat of the Centaurs 
and Lapithse,' and ' Pandora.' He was much 
patronized by Louis Philippe, and executed several 
oil paintings and frescoes in the Louvre, the 
Luxembourg, and the Historical Museum at Ver- 
sailles. Among the pictures in the last-named 
Gallery we may mention ' The Presentation of 
Poussin to Louis XIII.,' and ' The States-General 
in 1.828.' He was decorated with the cross of the 
Legion of Honour in 1841, and made director of 
the French Academy at Rome fivs years later. He 
died at Paris in 1864. 

ALAUX, Jean Paul, called Gentil, a French 
landscape painter and lithographer, was born at 
Bordeaux in 1788. He became director of the 
School of Design at Bordeaux, and died there in 
1858. A View of Bordeaux painted by him is in 
the Museum of that city. 

ALBA, Maoeino d'. See Fava, Giangiaoomo. 

ALBANESI, Angelo, was an Italian engraver, 
who flourished in tlie latter part of the 18th century. 
By him are some neat, spirited etchings of archi- 
tectural ruins in and near Rome, some of which 
bear his name. He executed a series of engravings 

o£ nymphs after Angelica KaufEmann, which were 
published in London in 1784. He also engraved 
some portraits. 

ALBANI, Feancesco (or Albano). This ad- 
mirable painter, the son of Agostino Albani, a silk 
merchant at Bologna, was born in that city in 1578. 
Although he showed a strong inclination for the arts 
from his childhood, his parents were desirous of 
bringing him up to his f atlier's profession ; but his 
uncle, thinking he perceived in him indications of 
genius, prevailed on his father to place tlie lad, at 
the age of thirteen years, under the care of Denijs 
Calvaert, whose academy was at that time in great 
repute. Guido Reni, who was then a student under 
Calvaert, and the most advanced and the ablest 
of his disciples, conceived a friendship for the 
young Albani, and assisted him in his studies, and 
these kind offices led to an intimacy that existed 
during their lives. The great school of the Carracci 
began at this time to be considered as the most 
celebrated in Lombardy, and Guido having learned 
all he could acquire from his first instructor, be- 
came a scholar of Lodovioo Carracci. He was 
soon followed by Albani, and they continued 
their studies under that distinguished master with 
great assiduity, accompanied by an emulation 
conducive to the advancement of both. Guido, 
on leaving the Carracci, visited Rome, whither 
he was soon after followed by his friend and fel- 
low-student. It was not long before the talent 
of Albani brought him into notice in that metro- 
pohs of art ; and Annibale Carracci (who was 
at that time employed in painting the chapel of 
San Diego, in the national church of the Span- 
iards), falling sick, recommended Albani to be em- 
ployed to finish it, and the greater part of the work 
was completed by him, in a manner that gained 
him great reputation. The Marquis Giustiniani 
employed him to ornament the gallery of his villa 
at I5assano, where he painted the story of 'Neptune 
and Galatea,' and the 'Fall of Phaeton.' He was 
afterwards engaged in some considerable works in 
the Verospi (now the Torlonia) Palace at Rome, 
where he represented different subjects from Ovid, 
treated with great ingenuity. These performances 
established the fame of Albani throughout all 
Italy. The Duke of Mantua invited him to his 
court, where he painted several pictures, represent- 
ing the story of ' Diana and Actjeon,' and ' Venus 
and Cupid.' 

On his return to Rome, he executed the large 
works which are in the tribune of the Madonna 
della Pace. In the church of San Sebastiano is an 
altar-piece representing the martyrdom of that 
saint, entirely in the manner of Carracci, and a 
picture of the 'Assumption,' painted in conjunc- 
tion with Guido Reni. Many other works by this 
master are in the most distinguished situations at 

He died at Bologna, in 1660, in the arms of 
his pupils — with his brush in his hand — in his 
82nd year. The four allegorical pictures of the 
' Elements,' now in the Borghese Palace, which he 
painted for the Cardinal Slaurice of Savoy, are 
reckoned among the finest of his works, and have 
been copied repeatedly, some so successfully as to 
pass for the original works. Albani's paintings are 
not uncommon in the continental galleries. In the 
Louvre there are twenty-two of his pictures, eight 
of which are sacred subjects and fourteen from 
classical mythology. In the Florence Gallery 
there are nine, at Dresden ten, and several of 





his religious paintings are still left in his native 
town, Bologna. 

The following is a list of some of his principal 
works : 

Bologna. S. Bartolom,. Annunciation. 
„ Pinacoteca. Baptism of Christ. 

Dresden. Gallery. 

Florence. Vffizi. 

Milan. Brera. 
Paris. Zotwfe. 


„ Colonna P. 

„ Torlonia P. 


)) » 

Turin. Gallery. 

Amorini dancing — with the Rape of 
Proserpine {similar to that in the 

Diana and Actseon. 

Yenus and Tulcan. 

Creation of Eve. 

Six other paintings. 

His own Portrait. 

Infant Christ (with Angels). 

^nd others. 

Amorini dancing — ^with the Rape of 

Amorini disarmed. 

Tenus and Adonis {eny. by Batidet). 
„ Thirteen other paintings. 

S. Mar. d. F. Children (fresco). 
BorgheseP. Four Seasons (only one by himself). 

Bnropa and the Bull. 

Scenes from Ovid. 

Europa and the Bull. 

Baptism of Christ. 

Four Elements. 

The style of Albani is more beautiful than 
grand ; his compositions are ingenious and abund- 
ant, and his figures are both elegant and graceful. 
He is called by Lanzi the Anaoreon of painting ; 
the fame which the Greek acquired by the de- 
lightful fancy of his odes, Albani reached by the 
fascinating cliarm of his cabinet pictures ; as the 
poet sang of Venus and the Loves, the painter 
selected the most tender and seductive subjects. 
The landscapes which occupy the backgrounds of 
his pictures are extremely pleasing, touched with 
great taste, and there is a freshness and delicacy in 
his colouring that charm the beholder. It cannot, 
however, be denied, that he is to be regarded rather 
as an agreeable than as a great painter. The soft 
and delicate forms of wouien and children were 
more suited to his powers than the delineation of 
the muscular movements of men ; and he generally 
made choice of those pleasing subjects of the 
fable that admitted of the graceful and amiable, 
rather than the heroism of history, that called for 
the nobler exertions of the sublime and terrific. 

Albani had many pupils, among whom Giovanni 
Battista Mola, Carlo Cignani, Andrea- Sacchi, and 
Giovanni Maria Galli, called ' Bibiena,' were the 
most famous. A very rare etching, representing 
the ' Death of Dido,' has been attributed to this 
eminent painter. 

amateur artist, born in Piedmont, came in the 

latter half of the 18th century to Englandand was 
naturalized. He published at Genoa, m 1787, 
' Voyage Pittoresque aux Alpes Pennmes, with 
twelve coloured plates, and during the next 
twenty years several other books of travels in the 
Alps and the South of France, illustrated from his 
own drawings, which he engraved in aquatint. It 
is believed that he died in England soon after 

ALBANO. See Albani. 

ALBARA. See Carboni. 

ALBAKELLI. See Albeeelli. 

ALBARETI, — , born at Rome, painted about 
1520. The name was discovered on a picture of 
'Christ in Glory,' after the manner of the pupils 
of Raphael, when the work, which is in the Parma 
Academy, was cleaned at Paris. It had formeily 
been ascribed to Raphael himself. 

ALBE, Baclee d'. See Baclee d'Albe. 

ALBERELLI, Giacomo (or Albaeelli). This 
painter was a native of Venice, and flourished 
about the year 1600. He was a disciple of Jacopo 
Palma the younger, with whom he worked as a 
coadjutor for thirty-four years. He painted his- 
torical subjects, and there are several of his woiks 
in the public edifices at Venice, of which one of 
the most esteemed is a picture of the ' Baptism of 
Christ,' in the church of the Ognissanti. He died' 
about the year 1650. Ridolfi tells us he was also 
a sculptor. 

ALBERICI, Eneico (or Albeizzi), was born at 
Vilminore, near Bergamo, in 1714, and was a 
scholar of Ferdinando Cairo, of Brescia, under 
whom he studied three years. He is stated by 
Tassi, in his account of the Bergamesque painters, 
to have been a very reputable artist ; and several 
of his works are particularly described by that 
author. He died in 1775 at Bergamo. He painted 
many works for the churches and buildings of 
Brescia, Bergamo, and the villages in the VaUe di 
Scalve. Among many others he painted for tlie 
church Santa Maria del Miracolr, at Brescia, the 
' Woman of Samaria,' the ' Parable of the Pharisee 
and the Publican,' the ' Raising of Lazarus,' the 
' Prodigal Son,' and the ' Good Shepherd.' 

ALBERT, Simon, a distinguished historical 
painter, bom at Haarlem in 1523, was a scholar 
of Jan Mostaert. He lived to a great age, but 
the exact year of his death is not recorded. 



ALBERTI. The family of painters of this name 
was so immerous that it has been thought advisable 
to give a genealogical table. Some of them, how- 
ever, are too unimportant for separate notice. 


painters and engeavees. 


(ab. 1530). 

Eomauo X 

(ab. 1630). 




(ab. 1666). 

Rora.ino II. 
(ab. 1585). 






(1602- ). 





(— 15S6). 

I'ietro Francesco 

(ab. 1060). 

ALBERTI, Alessandeo, the eldest son of 
Alberto, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro in 1551. 
He received instruction in art from a painter of 


the name of Gaspero di Silvestro, of Perugia. In 
1566, Alessandro's uncle Lodovico took him to 
Rome, where he subsequently executed in the 




palaces, churches, and public buildings, pictures 
of much merit. He worked much in conjunction 
with his brothers. He died at Rome in 1696, 
while engaged on the great work of decorating 
the Sala Clementina for Pope Clement VIII. 
Alessandro also worked at Borgo San Sspolcro, 
Naples, and Mantua. 

ALBERTI, Antonio, of Ferrara, painted por- 
traits and sacred subjects, and was distinguished 
in his day. In the sacristy of the church of San 
Bernardino, outside Urbino, is a ' Madonna and 
Child enthroned,' by him, dated 1439. The fres- 
coes in tlie chapel of the Bolognini, at San Petronio, 
Bologna, consisting of incidents from the Passion, 
the Paradise, and the Inferno, and numerous 
figures of saints and angels ; as well as those 
which decorate the inner choir of Sant' Antonio 
Abate, Ferrara, and dated 1433, consisting of a 
half-length Virgin and Child, between SS. Benedic t, 
Sebastian, another saint, and an angel with a bal- 
ance, have all been attributed to Antonio by Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle. The dates of this artist's birth 
and death are unknown. He had a son of the same 
name, who was also a superior artist, living in 1550. 

ALBERTI, Chebubino, called Boegheggiano. 
This eminent artist was born at Borgo San Sepolcro 
in 1553. He was the second son of Alberto 
Alberti, an architect and sculptor. He became a 
reputable painter of history, and executed many 
considerable works both in oil and in fresco, in the 
palaces and churches of Rome, where his principal 
paintings were in the church of Santa Maria in Via. 
He was also director of the Academy of St. Luke 
in that city, where he died in 1615. His native 
town possesses numerous examples of his art, as 
well as several works executed by him in conjunc- 
tion with his brothers, Alessandro and Giovanni. 
He is, however, more celebrated as an engraver 
than a painter, and in that character he is deserv- 
ing of particular attention. It is not ascertained 
from whom he learned the art of engraving ; but, 
from his manner, especially in his exrliest produc- 
tions, it is very probable that he may have been 
first a scholar of Comelis Cort, and afterwards 
have formed to himself a more correct and a freer 
style, by studying the works of Agostino Carracci 
and Francesco Villamena. His plates are executed 
entirely with the graver, and it does not app?ar 
that he made use of the point. His drawing, 
particularly in the nude, is generally correct, and 
the airs of his heads have a pleasing expression, 
but his draperies are clumsy and stifE. His works 
as an engraver may be considered as very extra- 
ordinary productions of genius, and that at a 
period when the art of engraving was at a great 
distance from the perfection to which it after- 
wards arrived. We are indebted to this artist for 
having preserved to us, in his prints, some of the 
beautiful friezes by Polidoro da Caravaggio, 
painted on the facades of the public edifices, which 
have been destroyed by time. 

The prints of this master are very numerous ; 
the whole of his works extend to about 180 
plates, 75 of which are from his own designs ; the 
others are from Michelangelo, Raphael, Polidoro 
da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto, c „ 

and others. He generally marked Si ^ 
his prints with one of these mono- -^J-'/ * -O/ 
grams. The following are his principal works : 

Portrait of Pope Gregory XIXI. oval, with ornaments. 
of Pope Urban VII., the same. 

Portrait of Henri IV. of France, oval. 1595. 

of Pietro Angelo Bargeo. 

Judith with the Head of Holofemes. 

The Nativity ; inscribed, Seus omnipotens, ^c. 

The Flight into Egypt. 1574. 

The Holy Family, with St. EUsabeth. 1571. 

Another Holy Family ; St. Joseph seated, with a book. 

The Body of Christ supported in the clouds by an 

angel ; inscribed, Magnum pietatis opiis, %c. • 
The Virgin Mary and Infant in the clouds ; iascribed, 

Mary Magdalene penitent. 1582. 

St. Catherine receiving the Stigmata. 1574. 

St. Christian drawn out of the sea. 

St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 1599. 

St. Charles of Borromeo, kneeling before the Virgin 

and Infant. 1612. 
Six of Children, for ceilings; dedicated to Cardinal 

Visconti. 1607. 


St. Susannah resting against a pedestal, with a sword. 

The Crucifixion ; after Michelangelo. 

St. Jerome, meditating on the Crucifix; after the same. 

St. Andrew bearing his Cross ; after the same. 1580. 
Two other figures, from the Last Judgment ; after the 

same. 1591. 
Charon, with two other figures ; after the same. 1575. 
Prometheus devoured by the Vulture ; after the same. 

1580. ■' 

The famous Pieta, sculptured by Michelangelo. 
Three— The Creation; Adam and Eve driven out of 

Paradise ; and the same, subjected to labour ; Foh' 

dorus de Caravaggio, invent. 
The Death of the Children of Niobe, in five sheets a 

frieze ; after the same. ' 

The Rape of the Sabines, another frieze ;/)'om the same. 
The Triumph of Camillus ; in the style of the antique. 
Pluto holding a torch. 
Fortune standing on a shell. 
The Presentation ; after Raphael. 
The Resurrection, a grand composition ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; «/<«»• Raphael. 1582. 
Jupiter and Ganymede; after the same. 1580. 
The Graces and Venus leaving Juno and Ceres ; after 

Raphael. 1582. 
The Adoration of the Magi ; after II Rosso. 1574. 
The Transfiguration ; after the same. 
Christ praying on the Moimt ; after the same. 1574. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after 'the same. 
A piece of architecture ; after the same^ in two prints. 

Roma, 1575. 
The Baptism of our Saviour, by St. John ; after A. del 

Sarto. 1574. 
The Miracle of St.. Philip Benizzo ; after A. del Sarto. 

Very fine. 
Tobit and the Angel ; after Tibaldi. 1575. 
Christ praying in the Garden ; after Ferino del Vaga. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Tad. Zucchero 

in two sheets. 1575. 
The Holy Family ; after the same. 
The Scourging of Christ ; after the same. 
The Conversion of St. Paul ; after Tad. Zucchero. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same. 
Another Assumption ; after Fed. Zucchero. 
The Coronation of the Virgin ; after the same. 1572. 

ALBERTI, Durante, called ' Del Nero,' son of 
Romano I. Alberti, was bom at Borgo San Sepolcro 
in 1538 ; and, according to Baglioni, visited Rome 
when young, during the pontificate of Gregory 
XIII. It was not long before he distinguished him- 
self by painting several pictures for the churches 
and other public edifices. In the church of San 
Girolamo della Carita, one of the chapels was en- 
tirely painted by him in fresco, and there was an 
altar-piece in oil by him, representing the Virgin 
and Infant Jesus, with St. Bartolommeo and St. 
Alessandro. In Santa Maria de' Monti, he painted 
the ' Annunciation.' Several other churches at 
Rome possess works of this eminent artist. He 





died in 1613, and was buried with great dietinction 
in the Chiesa del Popolo, attended by all the prin- 
cipal artists in Home. His portrait is in the Aca- 
demy of St. Luke. He had a brother CosiMO, a 
sculptor, engraver, and painter, who died in Rome 
in 1596. 

ALBERTI, Giovanni, brother of Cherubino 
Alberti, and third son of Alberto, was born at Borgo 
S^m Sepolcro, in 1558. He visited Rome in the 
time of Gregory XIIL, and was employed by that 
pontifE in the papal palace on Monte Cavallo, and 
in the Vatican. He excelled in painting land- 
scapes and perspective, in which the figures were 
usually painted by Cherubino. He was also em- 
ployed by Clement VIII. to paint the sacristy of 
San Giovanni in Laterano, and, in conjunction with 
his brothers, to decorate the Sala Clementina in 
the Vatican. For this v/ork, which was commenced 
in 1595 and completed in 1598, the two painters 
(Alessandro had died during the course of execu- 
tion) received 3050 scudi. Giovanni Alberti 
also laboured in his native town, in Mantua, Pe- 
j'ugia, Florence, and elsewhere. He died at Rome 
in 1601. His portrait is in the Academy of St. 
Luke, and another in the UfSzi at Florence. 

ALBERTI, Giuseppe, who was bom at Cavalese, 
in the Tyrol, in 1664, after having studied medi- 
cine at Padua determined to become a painter and 
architect. He worked under Liberi at Venice, 
and further improved himself by study at Rome, 
and then settled at Trieste, where he executed a 
number of religious pictures, which may now be 
seen in Trent, Cavalese, and other towns in the 
Tyrol. He also worked in Italy, to which country 
he paid a second visit. He founded a good school 
of painters in his own town. Alberti died at Cava- 
lese in 1730. His 'Martyrdom of St. Simon of 
Trent,' formerly in the castle of Trent, now in the 
Ferdinandeum at Innsbruck, is his best known 

ALBERTI, JE.4.N Eugene Charles, who was 
born, at Amsterdam in 1781, studied first in that 
city, tlien at Paris under David, and afterwards at 
Rome, where he copied the works of Guido and 
Van Dijck. He subsequently returned and settled 
in Paris. The date of his death is not recorded. 
'Marius among the Ruins of Carthage,' painted in 
1805, gained liim a gold medal. Alberti engraved 
both from his own works and from those of the 
Italian masters. 

ALBERTI, MiOHELE, a painter of Florence, 
flourished in the latter half of the 16lh century. 
He was a disciple of Danielle Ricciarelli, called 
' Da Volterra,' and was a reputable painter of 
history. His principal work is a picture in the 
church of the Trinita dei Monti, at Rome, 
representing the 'Murder of the Innocents,' 
much spoiled by restoration. Miohele ' Alberti 
has, by Orlandi, been erroneously recorded as a 
member of the family of Alberti of Borgo San 

ALBERTI, PiETEO Francesco. This artist, >j^ 
the son of Durante Alberti, was born in 1584. P^ 
Pie painted historical subjects in the style of i-^ 
his father, and has left works in Rome and in his 
birthplace. He was the designer and engraver 
of a plate called ' Accademia de' Pittori,' a large 
print lengthways ; a composition of many figures, 
etched with great spirit, and evidently the work 
of a painter. In Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon ' ten 
engravings are mentioned by him. He died in 
1638 at Rome. 


ALBERTINELLI, Maeiotto, the son _ 
of Biagio di Bindo Albertinelli, was bom r- m 
at Florence in 1474. He was apprenticed, 
when young, to Cosimo Rosselli, in whose ^()A 
studio he was a fellow-pupil with Fra ^--^ 
Bartolommeo. In the year 1509_ they 
entered into partnership, and painted 
conjointly many works, some of which bear the 
monogram of a cross with two interlaced rings. 
When Fra Bartolommeo retired into monastic 
seclusion, his friend and partner finished several 
of his uncompleted woiks. But they again painted 
together from 1510 to 1513. It is related by Vasari, 
that Albertinelli, at one time, being enraged at 
some criticisms which were made on his painting, 
abandoned the brush and opened a public-house ; 
it is certain, however, that he returned to his art 
again. He died at Florence in 1515, on his return 
from a journey to Rome. In painting he resembled 
Fra Bartolommeo as closely as one artist ever 
resembled another. He is much to be admired for 
the design and the chiaroscuro of his pictures. 

The following are some of his best works : 

Berlin. Museum. Assumption {part by Fra Bartolom- 
Cambridge Jitewt7/{a)»Tirgin with Christ and John the 

Mns. Baptist (signed and dated 1509). 

Ca«tle Howard. Adam and Eve {part by Fra Bar- 

,, Abraham's Sacrifice {part hy Fra 

Florence. Accademia. Annimciation {signed and dated 
Holy Trinity. 1510 (?). 
„ Certosa. Crucifixion {signed and dated 1506). 
„ Fitti Fal. Marriage of St. Catherine. 1512 

{part by Fra Bartolommeo). 
J, S. Maria, Last Judgment. Fresco {commenced 
.Kuova, by Fra Bartolommeo — the part by 

Albertinelli is nearly destroyed). 
„ Uffizi. Visitation of the Virgin (Afimaste;-- 

piece). 1503. 
London. J^at. Gall. Virgin and Child {douUful). 
Paris. louvre. Madonna and Child (signed and 
dated 1506), formerly in Santa 
Trinita., Florence. 
„ „ ChristappearingtoMary Magdalene. 

Pisa. S. Catarina. Madonna and Child {part by Fra 


ALBERTOLLI, Giocondo, the most famous of a 
family of artists, was born— according to Meyer's 
' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' — at Bedano, in 1742. He 
studied at Parma under a sculptor, and also in the 
Academy, and at Rome from the antique ; and 
soon became famous for his ornamental architec- 
tural decorations. He was elected, in 1776, pro- 
fessor of ornament to the Milan Academy, but he 
resigned the post in 1812 on account of failing 
eyesight. In 1809 Napoleon made him a Knight 
of the Iron Crown. Albertolli was much em- 
ployed in decorating palaces, churches, and public 
buildings in Italy, and gave a new impetus to the 
art of ornamental design in that country. His 
paintings are scarce. A ' Madonna and Child ' by 
him is in the church of St. Roch, at Milan, in 
which city he died in 1840, aged 98. 

ALBERTOLLI, Raffaello, a pupil of his father 
Giocondo, distinguished himself as an engraver in 
mezzotinto and etching, and executed many por- 
traits of eminent persons. He was born in 1770, 
and died at Milan in 1812. 

ALBERTONI, Paolo, a follower of Carlo Ma- 
ratti, painted in his style ; he died soon after 
1695. There are pictures by him in the church 
of San Carlo in the Corso, in Santa Maria, in the 




Campo Marzo, Santa Marta, and other oliurobes in 
Eome. . 

ALBEETUS, Hans Chbistoph, was a native of 
Dresden, and studied tliere from 1611 to 1622 with 
a goldsmith. We have by him a portrait of Johiinn 
Seckendorfi, rector and professor at Zwickau, en- 
graved from a picture painted by himself, which 
is considered a fine work of art. He died in 

ALBIN, Eleazab, a German, whose family 
niime was Weiss, published several works on 
natural history in London between 1720 and 1738. 
His 'Natural History of Birds' included 306 
plates of biids drawn from hfe. He died, it is 
believed, about 1740. In the Gallery at Cassel 
there is a ' Eioh Man and Lazarus ' by him. 

ALBINI, Alessandeo, was bom in 1668. Ac- 
cording to Malvasia, this painter was a native of 
Bologna, and a distinguished disciple of the school 
of the Carracoi. He acquired great reputation by 
some designs he made for tlie funeral ceremony of 
Agostino Carracci. In the cliurch of San Michele 
in Bosco, at Bologna, he painted a picture of ' the 
Sepulture of St. Valerian and St. Tibertius ; ' and 
one of St. Peter, St. Catherine, St. Agnes, and St. 
Cecilia, in San Pietro Martyro. He died in 1646. 
He painted chiefly in Bologna and the vicinity. 
Massini tells us that he also painted in Eome. 

ALBONI, Paolo (called hy Oretti Paolo An- 
tonio), was a Bolognese landscape painter. He 
was born in 1671 (some say 1650). After practis- 
ing some time in Eome and Naples, he went in 
1710 to Vienna, where he remained nearly thirteen 
years, but being deprived of the use of his right 
side by an attack of paralysis, he returned to 
Bologna ; he subsequently painted with his left 
hand. He imitated the style of Euisdael and 
other Dutch masters ; but his later pictures are 
inferior to his earlier productions. He died in 
1734. He had a daughter, LuiGiA Maria Eosa, 
who also distinguished .herself as a landscape 
painter. She died in 1759. 

ALBOEESI, GiAcoMO, a, Bolognese painter, who 
was born in 1632, was a scholar of Domenioo Santi 
and Agostino Metelli. Hepainted historical subjects, 
but was more celebrated for his pictures of archi- 
tectural views. He worked chiefly in fresco, and 
in conjunction with Fulgenzio Mondini, painted for 
the church of San Petronio, at Bologna, the ' Death 
and Canonization of St. Anthony of Padua.' In 
the church of San Giacomo Maggiore, he painted 
some subjects of perspective, in which the figures 
were by Bartolommeo Passarotti. He died at 
Bologna in 1677. He also worked in conjunction 
with Antonio Maria Pasio, in the cathedral at 

ALBOEN. See Ahlboen. 

ALBEEGHT, Balthasak Augdstin, who was 
bom at Berg, near Aufkirchen in Bavaria, in 1687, 
was a pupil of Nikolaus Gottfried Stuber, and 
studied in Venice and Eome. On his return to his 
native country in 1719, he became popular as an 
historical painter, and was appointed court-painter 
and inspector of the Picture Gallery at Munich, 
where he died in 1765. The churches and galleries 
of Bavaria possess many paintings by him. 

ALBEECHT, C, an obscure German engraver, 
of Berlin, mentioned by Heineken. He worked 
only for the booksellers, and his plates are so 
indifierent, that they are not considered by that 
author worthy of being specified. 

ALBEIZZI. See Albekici. 

Breslau. Art Club. 
Brunswick. Museum. 
Prague. Museum. 

ALCAZAR. See Paret y Alcazar. 

ALDB, H. VAN. See Aldeweeeld. 

ALDEGKEVER, Heinrich (or Alde Grave). 
This celebrated artist was bom in 1502, in . , 
Westphalia, probably at Pader born, where AA' 
his parents resided, but he lived chiefly 
at Soest. Albert Rosenberg, the latest German 
writer on the ' Little Masters,' considers he never 
was a pupil of Diirer, nor ever even visited 
Nuremberg, though Van Mander reports that he 
painted two wings for an altar-piece in a church 
there. His works show, however, that he was much 
influenced by Diirer's practice, and also by that of 
Barthel Beham and Georg Pencz. On his return 
to his own country, he applied himself! at first 
entirely to painting ; and, according to Piissli, 
painted some pictures for the churches and con- 
vents, which have not been identified. 

The following is a list of his few known paint- 
ings : 

Basle. Museum. Portrait of David Joris {doubtful). 
Berlin. Museum. Portrait of Bngelbert Therlaen. 
Portrait of Count Plulipp of Wal- 

deck {dated 1535). 
Portrait of Magdalena Wittig. 

Christ sitting on his tomb. 1529. 
Vienna. Liechtenstein Portrait of a yoiing man {dated 
Galleiy. 1544 ; perhaps his best). 

After a few years he devoted himself entirely 
to engraving, and in that brancli acquired a dis- 
tinguished reputation amongst those artists who 
are called the Little Masters, from their having 
generally engraved plates of a small size. He 
died, it is supposed, at Soest, in 1558. His execu- 
tion is uncommonly neat ; he worked entirely 
with the graver, in a style that is evidently 
founded on that of Albrecht Diirer, and his plates 
are finished with great precision and delicacy. 
His design was full of invention, and his drawing 
shows more of the Italian Eenaissance influence, 
than that of many contemporary German artists. 
He usually marked his plates with the cipher given 
above. His engravings are very numerous, exceed- 
ing three hundred. They bear dates from 1522 
to 1555, the latest authentic date on any of his 
works. The following is as general a list of 
them as the nature of this work will admit, and 
con)prises all his principal plates : for fuller in- 
formation the inquirer is referred to the minute 
descriptions to be found in Heineken, Bartsoh's 
'Peintre Graveur,' and Meyer's ' Kunstler- 


Aldegrever, without a beard ; Aldegrevers. JSfcatis 28. 

The same, with a thick beard. Anno 1537. .^tatis 

suae 15. 
Bust of Martin Luther. 1540. 
Bust of Philip Melaucthon. 1540. 
Albert von der Helle. 1538. 
"Wilhelm, Herzog von JUlich. 1540. 
Johann van Leyden, chief of the Anabaptists. 
Bemhard Knipperdollinck, the fanatic. 


Six — Of Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise. 1540. 

Four — Of the History of Lot. 1555. 

Four— Of the History of Joseph and his Brethren. 1532. 

Seven— Of the History of Thamar and Absalom. 1540. 

David and Bathsheba. 1532. 

The Judgment of Solomon. 1555. 

Judith with the Head of Holofemes. 1528. 

Four— Of the History of Susannah. 1555. 





Four — Of the Parable of the good Samaritan. 1554. 

Five — Of the Bich Man and Lazarus. 1554. 

The Four Evangelists. 1539. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1553. 

The Virgin and Infant, reposing under a tree. 1527. 

The Virgin carrying the Infant Jesus, with a standard. 

Medea and Jason. 1529. 
Eomulus and Eemus taken from their mother, Ehea 

Tarquin and Lucretia. 1539. 
Sophonisba taking the Poison. 1553. 
Marcus Curtius about to leap into the G-ulf. 1532. 
Mutius ScEevola before Porsena. 1530. 
Titus ManHus ordering his Son to be decapitated. 1553. 

It is curious to observe that in this print, as well 

as in one of the same subject by Georg Pencz, the 

instrument of execution resembles the guillotine used 

in France during the Revolution. 
The Count d'Arohambaud destroying his Son before his 

Death ; inscribed Fater ne post suam mortem, ^o. 

Hector in Combat ; small frieze. 1532. 
The Battle of Hannibal and Scipio. 1538. 
Seven— The Divinities that preside over the Planets. 

Thirteen — The Labours of Hercules; fine, and scarce. 

Orpheus and Eurydice ; the only etching by this master ; 

very scarce. 1528. 
Fourteen small plates of different allegorical subjects. 

1549 and 1550. 
Seven— Of the Vhtues 1552. 
Seven— Of the Vices. 1552. 

Eight— Of the Empire of Death over Humanity. 1541. 
Twelve — Of the Procession of a AVestphalian Wedding. 

Eight — Of a similar subject. 1551. 
Six — Of Death dragging away persons of both sexes. 

A "Woman holding an hour-glass, with a skull and a 

globe, on which is inscribed Respicejinem, 1529. 
A "Woman with wings, standing on a globe, holding the 

symbols of prudence and temperance. 1555. 
An Officer carrying a flag. 1540. 
A Man with a sword, surprising a monk and a nun. 

Dated 1530, Very rare. 
Monk and Nun. 1532. 
The Society of Anabaptists, with a number of figures in 

a bath. This is engraved by Virgil Solis after Alde- 


Also throe sets of wedding processions, one 
of twelve prints, the others of eight each; and 
ninety-nine beautiful vignettes, and other orna- 
ments. These last connect him with the gold- 
smith's art. A good collection of his engravings 
may be seen in the Print Room at the British 
Museum. "W. B. S. 

ALDENRATH, Heineich Jakob, who was born 
at Liibeok in 1775, was a portrait painter, a 
miniaturist, and a lithographer. He received in- 
struction from Johann Jakob Tisohbein and from 
Friedrich Karl Groger, with whom he coinmeuced 
a friendship which was only severed by Groger's 
death in 1838. Together they visited the Academies 
of Berlin, Dresden, and Paris ; and after sojourns 
in Liibeck, Kiel, and Copenhagen, they iinally 
settled at Hamburg in 1814, and became cele- 
brated as portrait painters. Aldenrath died in 
Hamburg in 1844. It is said that he painted the 
portrait of the King of Denmark no less than 
thirteen times. Among his lithographs may be 
mentioned the following : 

His own Portrait. 
Portrait of Friedrich Karl Groger. 
Portrait of Klopstock, the poet. 
Portrait of Count Stolberg, the poet. 
Portrait of Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge. 

ALDEWERELD, H. van, a Dutch painter, who 

flourished at Amsterdam about the middle of the 
17th century, was chiefly engaged in painting 
portraits, generally of celebrated personages, 
several of which have been engraved. He occa- 
sionally painted genre pictures. He is frequently 
called in error, H. van Aide, because he was accus- 
tomed to sign his name H. van Aide, with the 
addition of a sketch of a world, which was over- 

ALDIGHIERO da ZEVIO. See Altichiebo 
DA Zevio. 

ALDIVERTI, Alfonso, the son of a notary, 
flourished in the early part of the 17th century at 
Rovigo. He painted in the church of Santa Maria 
della Neve, scenes from the Life of Christ. The 
'Christ Condemned' is signed and dated 1615. 
Bartoli says of these woiks, that they are painted 
in an antique style, and remind one of Diirer's 
engravings. He also painted a ' St. Charles Bor- 
romeo,' in San Bartolommeo, in Rovigo. 

ALDROVANDINI, Pompeo, son of Mauro, and 
cousin and pupil of Tommaso, was bom at 
Bologna in 1677. He was employed much in 
the churches, palaces, and theatres of Dresden, 
Prague, and Vienna, and executed many excellent 
works in oil, in fresco, and in distemper. He 
died at Rome in 1736. 

ALDROVANDINI, Tommaso, the son of Giu- 
seppe Aldrovandini, an architectural painter, was 
born at Bologna in 1653. He was instructed in the 
first principles of design by his uncle Mauro Aldro- 
vandini, an eminent painter of the same subject. 
Tommaso's talent lay in painting perspective views 
and architectural subjects, in which the figures 
were painted by Marc Antonio Francescliini and 
Carlo Cignani, to whose pictures he in return 
painted architectural backgrounds ; he also studied 
figure painting under Cignani. He decorated 
churches, palaces, and theatres in many of the 
principal cities of Italy — Forli, Verona, Venice, 
Parma, Turin, Ferrara, and Genoa, and especially 
in his native Bologna. His most considerable 
work was the Council Chamber of the Ducal 
Palace at Genoa, which he executed in conjunc- 
tion with Francescliini ; it has since been de- 
stroyed by fire. He died in 1736. 

ALE, GiLLES (or IIallet), of Liege, flourished 
in the latter half of the 17th century, and was 
distinguished for the purity of his style, accord- 
ing to the principles of the Roman school. He 
painted in conjunction with Morandi, Bonatti, and 
Romanelli ; and executed an altar-piece in oil, and 
the ceilings of the chapels in fresco, for the 
church of Santa Maria dell' Anima in Rome. He 
died in 1689. Most of tlie paintings by him in 
Liege were destroyed when the French bom- 
barded that town in 1691. 

ALEFOUNDER, John, a student of the Royal 
Academy Schools, practised for some time in 
London the art of portraiture, occasionally in 
miniature. He subsequently went to India, and 
died in 1795 at Calcutta, from the effects of the 
chmate. In 1784 Bartolozzi engraved the portrait 
of ' Peter tlie Wild Boy,' after him, and in the 
same year Hodges engraved his portrait of J. 
Edwin the Actor. 

ALEKSYEEV, Feodor Jakovlevich, 'the 
Russian Canaletto,' was born at St. Petersburg in 
1757. After he had received an education in the 
Academy of his native city he went to Venice for 
the improvement of his art. On his return to 
Russia, he rose to great fame as a painter of archi- 




tectural views, and was mucli employed by the 
emperor and nobility of Russia to decorate their 
palaces. He died in St. Petersburg in 1824. The 
Hermitage possesses good examples of his views 
of Moscow, which are considered his best pro- 

ALEMANI, G-AETANO (or Alamanni), a painter 
of Bologna — who distinguished himself in various 
styles, particularly in architectural and ornamental 
painting for the decoration of churches and theatres 
• — flourished in the latter half of the 18th century. 
He died in 1782. 

ALEMANNO, Giovanni (or Alamannds), was 
also called Giovanni ba MnRANO (one of the 
Venetian Isles). He is supposed from the former 
name to have been a German. He worked in 
conjunction with Antonio da Murano. Between 
tliem-they executed two pictures now in the 
Academy at Venice ; a ' Coronation of the Virgin,' 
signed and dated, Joanes et Antonids de Mubi- 
ANO F., Mcocoxxxx., and a 'Madonna and Child 
enthroned,' signed and dated 1446, Johannes 
Alamannds Antonius da MnRiANO Fe. Several 
pictures by them are still in the chapel of San 
Tarasio in San Zaocaria at Venice. Alemanno is 
known to have painted from 1440 till 1447, after 
which year there is no record of him. 

ALEMANNO, Jdstds d' (or Allamagna), a 
German painter, who practised at Genoa in the 
15th century. He painted in fresco an 'Annunci- 
ation' in a cloister of Snnta Maria di Castello, in 
1451 ; Lanzi considers it a precious picture of its 
sort, finished in the manner of the miniaturists, 
and apparently the precursor of the style of 
Albrecht Diirer. Justus d'Alemanno is not the 
same as Justus of Ghent, as some writers have 

ALEMANNO, Pieteo, a painter of Ascoli in the 
latter part of the 16th century, was a pupU of Carlo 
Crivelli. Several of the churches of Ascoli possess 
paintings by him, but they show little ability either 
in drawing or colour. The church of Santa Maria 
della Carita has an, altar-piece by him dated 1489, 
representing the 'Virgin and Child between SS. 
Michael, Blaise, Jerome, and Nicholas ; ' and in the 
collection of the late Mr. Barker of London was a 
' Virgin and Child, enthroned.' No exact inform- 
ation can be given of the dates of his birth or 
ALEMANS. See Hallemans. 
ALEN, Jan van, a Dutch painter, was born 
at Amsterdam in 1651. He was an imitator of 
Melchior Hondekoeter, and his pictures, like those 
of that master, represent fowls, landscapes, and 
still-life. Though inferior to Hondekoeter, he 
painted those objects with great fidelity. He 
also imitated other masters of the period with so 
much success that his copies have often passed 
for originals. He died in 1698. 

ALENI, ToMMASO DB, called II Fading, was 
born at Cremona, and, according to Orlandi, was 
a disciple of Galeazzo Campi. He was also 
influenced by the works of Perugino. He painted 
history in the style of his instructor, and his works 
in San Domenico, at Cremona, where he was em- 
ployed with Campi, are so much in the manner of 
that master that it is difficult to distinguish them. 
Neither the date of Aleni's birth nor that of his 
death is known. Orlandi says he was bom in 
1500, but a picture signed by him bears that date. 
It is a ' Madonna and Child with Saints,' in the 
Bignani CoUeotion, Castel Maggiore. Another, a 

'Nativity,' signed and dated 1515, formerly in 
the church of San Domenico, is in the town-hall 
of Cremona. 

ALENZA, Lbonabdo, a Spanish painter and 
etcher, was born at Madrid in 1807. He studied 
art under Juan Rivera and Jos4 de Madrazo, and 
became a good portrait painter, but was more 
especially famous for his pictures of the habits of 
the lower classes. He became a member of the 
Academy of Madrid in 1842 ; and died there three 
years later. 

ALEOTTI, Antonio, a Ferrarese painter, who 
flourished at the end of the 16th century, was a 
native of Argenta. He is probably identical with 
Antonio dalP Argento, wlio lived in 1496, and 
painted the frescoes in the Chiesa della Morte in 

ALESIO, Matted Peeez de, called by Baglione 
Matted da Lecoio. This painter was born in 
1547, and studied under Michelangelo. He was 
a Roman by birth, but he is chiefly known by 
the works he executed in Spain, whither, in 
1583, he had been induced to migrate by the 
liberal protection bestowed on art by Philip 
II. It does not, however, appear that he went 
thither by the invitation of the king, or that he 
was employed by that monarch in tlie Escurial. 
His principal works are his fresco paintings in 
the churches at Seville. His manner of designing 
partakes of the grandeur of Michelangelo. The 
most remarkable performance of Alesio is a 
colossal picture, painted in fresco, in 1584, in 
the cathedral at Seville, representing St. Chris- 
topher carrying the Infant Saviour on his shoulder. 
It is of prodigious dimensions, the figure of St. 
Christophet being nearly forty feet high. Palo- 
mino speaks of this enormous production in very 
high terms. He painted in 1687 the same sub- 
ject for the church of San Miguel, and he also 
painted in other public edifices at Seville. After 
residing some years in Spain, he is said to have 
quitted it on account of the preference given to 
the works of Luis de Vargas, whose superiority 
the candour of Alesio induced him to be one of 
the first to acknowledge. Palomino says that Alesio 
returned to Rome and died there about the year 
1600. Baglione, on the other hand, tells us that, 
after having acquired great riches in the West 
Indies, he died tliere in poverty. 

ALESSANDRI, Innocbnte, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Venice about the year 1740, and was 
instructed by F. Bartolozzi, before that artist left 
Italy.- He has executed several prints in line, 
aquatint, and chalk, among which are the fol- 
lowing : 

Four prints, representing Astronomy, Geometry, Music, 
and Painting ; after Domenico Maggiotto. 

The Virgin Mary, with the guardian angel and the 
souls in Purgatory ; after Set. Ricei. 

The Virgin Mary with a glory of angels ; after Pim- 

The Anuunoiatipu ; after F. le Maine. 

The Flight into Egypt ; after the same. 

Two Landscapes ; after Marco Micci. 

Two series of Twelve Landscapes ; after the same, 

ALESSANDRINO. See Magnasco, Alessandko. 

ALESSANDRO and JULIO, two painters of 
Italian origin, of whom little is known, were sup- 
posed to have been brothers and fellow-pupils 
under Giovanni da Udine. In the eaily part of 
the 16th century, they painted in the Alhambra, 
Granada, and elsewhere in Spain, frescoes in the 





manner of Raphael, which had much influence" on 
the style of art in Andalusia. 

ALESSON. See Ekemann-Albsson. 
ALEWIJN, Jak, an amateur painter, who made 
many drawings after the pictures of the old masters. 
He resided at Amsterdam and at Utrecht, where 
he died in 1839. He had a son named Diek, a 
landscape painter, who was born at Amsterdam in 
1800, and died there in 1842. 

ALEXANDER, John. This painter and etcher, 
a descendant of George Jsimesone, was a native 
of Scotland. He went to Italy and studied in 
Florence ; he practised engraving at Rome about 
tlie year 1718. His prints are slight etcliings, prin- 
cipally after Raphael, not very correctly drawn, 
and but very indifferently executed. He returned 
to Scotland in 1720, and painted several historical 
pictures. On the staircase of Gordon Castle is 
the ' Rape of Proserpine ' by him. Alexander died 
about the middle of the 18th century. He en- 
graved a portrait of George Jamesone, and six 
plates after the frescoes of Raphael in the Vatican. 
ALEXANDER, William, an English water- 
colour draughtsman, was bom at Maidstone in 
1767. He accompanied Lord Macartney to China, 
and made drawings of the scenery and customs 
of tliat country to illustrate Sir George Staunton's 
' Historical Account of the Embassy.' He also 
published a work on the Costume of China, and 
another on the Punishments of China. In 1802 
he was made teacher of drawing at the Royal 
Military College at Great Marlow ; and afterwards, 
in 1808, assistant-keeper of the antiquities in the 
British Museum, in which capacity he had charge 
of the collection of prints and drawings. He like- 
wise made the drawings for the earlier volumes of 
the ' Descriptions of Ancient Marbles and Terra- 
cottas in the British Museum.' His designs for 
Britten's 'Architectural Antiquities,' and other 
publications, show considerable talent. Several 
of his water-colour drawings may be seen in the 
South Kensington Museum. He died in 1816. 
ALEXEIEFF. See Aleksyeev. 
ALPANI, DoMENioo (di Paris), a native of Pe- 
rugia, andscliolarof Perugino, was born, according 
to Pascoli, in 1483 ; but all we know for certain is 
that his birth took place in the last quarter of the 
15th century. Tlie earliest work known by him 
is a ' Madonna and Child with SS. Gregory and 
Nicholas,' dated 1618, in the Collegio Gregoriano, 
at Perugia. His works bear a great resemblance to 
those of Raphael, and, were it not for the delicacy 
of the colouring, they might be assigned to his 
school. His reputation has been somewhat in- 
jured by that of his son Orazio ; and even in Pe- 
rugia some fine paintings were long considered to 
be by Orazio, which have since been restored to 
Domenico. The difficulty of discriminating their 
works is increased by their having painted several 
altar-pieces in conjunction ; particularly that at 
the church of the Conventuals at Perugia, which 
is mentioned byMariotti. 'A Holy Family' in the 
tribune of the Uffizi is attributed by some to the 
father, by others to the son. Doinenioo painted — 
in conjunction with his son — a ' Crucifixion' for San 
Francesco at Perugia, in 1553, in which year he 
is supposed to have died. 

ALFANI, Orazio (di Paris, or more properly, 
DI Domenico), was bom at Perugia about the year 
1510. He was a scholar of his father, and studied 
the works of Raphael, whose graceful manner he 
imitated with such success, that some of his best 

pictures have been mistaken for the early pro- 
ductions of that master. Orazio is celebrated as 
having been the first president of the Academy of 
Perugia, which was founded in 1573. He died in 
Rome in 1683. A 'Holy Family,' said to be by 
him, is in the Uffizi, and there is in the Louvre a 
' Marriage of St. Catherine,' dated 1548, which is 
attributed to him. 
ALFARO, Arteaga t. See Artbaga. 
ALFARO Y GAMEZ, Juan db, a Spanish painter, 
was born at Cordova, in 1640. He was first a 
scholar of Antonio del Castillo, but finished his 
studies at Madrid under Velazquez, whose manner 
he followed, particularly in his portraits. He 
knew very little of design, but was a good colour- 
ist, having been employed by Velazquez in copy- 
ing the works of Titian, Rubens, and Van Dijck. 
In the church of the Carmelites is a fine picture, 
byAlfaro, of the 'Incarnation ;' and in the church 
of the Imperial College at Madrid is his celebrated 
picture of the ' Guardian Angel.' Palomino relates 
a story which proves that he possessed more vanity 
than skill. Being employed to paint subjects from 
the life of St. Francis for the cloister of the convent 
of that name, he took them from prints, but had 
the folly to put to each of them Alfaro pinxif. 
His first master, Castillo, to chastise his vanity, 
obtained permission to paint one, and placed at 
the bottom non pinodt Alfaro, which passed into 
a proverb. He was fond of travelling, was well 
versed in literature, wrote poetry, and some inter- 
esting notes on the lives of Becerra, Cespedes, and 
Velazquez. He painted the portrait of Culderon, 
which was placed over the tomb of the poet in the 
church of San Salvador at Madrid. His conduct 
towards his patron, the Admiral of Castille, has 
left a greater stain on his memory than even his 
vanity. He forsook the admiral when he was 
banished, and meanly solicited his patronage when 
recalled : the repulse he received produced melan- 
choly, and caused his death, which took place in 
Madrid in 1680. 

ALPIANO, Epifanio d', a monk of San Salvi, 
at Vallombroso in Tuscany, is mentioned by 
Heinecken as a lover of the arts, who amused him- 
self with engraving. He engraved a set of plates 
of festivals and decorations, dated 1592 ; and in 
1607 a book of writing, in which he styles himself 
' Priore dello Spirito Santo di Firenze.' 

ALFON, Juan, bom at Toledo, painted, in 1418, 
several altar-screens for the cathedral of that city, 
which are still preserved. 

ALFORiE, Niccol6 Guglielmo. This engraver, 
of whom little is known, was a native of Lorraine, 
but resided at Rome. There is a set of twelve 
small upright prints of flowers by him, which, " 
although not very delicately executed, are done 
in a masterly style and with great spirit. They 
are inscribed Nicholaus Gulielmus Alform 
Loiharingusfedt, Eomoe. 

ALGARDI, Alessandeo. This eminent artist 
distinguished himself as an architect, sculptor, and 
engraver. He was born at Bologna in 1602, and 
was educated under Giulio Cesare Conventi. As 
an engraver the few plates we have by him are 
executed in a free, bold, and open manner, 
in the style of Agostino Carracci. He died 
in 1654. He generally marked his plates 
with this monogram : 

The following are attributed to him : 

The Crucifixion ; a large upright plate. 

The Souls dehvered from Purgatory; oval. 





A Blind Beggar and his dog; after Carraoei. 
The Cries of Bologna, after Annibale Garracci, in eighty 
plates, engraved by Algardi, in conjimction with 

Simon Guillain. 

ALGAROTTI, Conte Fbancesco, was bom at 
Venice in 1712. This eminent writer was con- 
sidered one of the greatest connoisseurs in Europe 
in painting, sculpture, and architecture. He de- 
signed and etched for his amusement several 
groups of heads, one of which, containing thirteen 
heads, in the style of the antique, is dated 1744. 
The best edition of his works on art was published 
at Venice in 1791-94. He died at Pisa in 1764. 

ALGHISI. See Galassi. 

ALIAMET, Franqois-Gebmain, younger brother 
of Jean Jacques, was bom at Abbeville, in 1784. 
After having learned engraving at Paris, he came 
to London, and worked for some time under Sir 
Robert Strange. His works are considered ifl- 
ferior to those of his brother. He died in 1790. 
He engraved several portraits, and historical sub- 
jects, of which the following are the principal : 

Mrs. Pritchard, in the character of Hermione; after 

The Flattery of the Courtiers of Canute reproved; 

after Fine. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds; after Annibale 

The Circumcision ; after Gtiido. 
The Annunciation ; after Le Maine. 
St. Ignatius kneeling ; after the same. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after Le Sueur. 
A Sacrifice to Pan ; after A. Sacehi. 
The Surrender of Calais to Edward III.; after Fine. 
The Bathers ; after Watteau. 

ALIAMET, Jean Jacques, a clever French 
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1726. He 
was a pupil of J. P. le Bas, and was first em- 
ployed in vignettes for the booksellers, but he 
soon attempted more important works, and dis- 
tinguished himself by some plates he engraved 
from the pictures of Joseph Vemet. He princi- 
pally excelled in landscapes and sea-pieces, and 
was one of the eight engravers who executed the 
series of ' Batailles de la Chine ' for the Emperor 
of China in the years 1765 to 1774. His style of 
engraving was very neat; he worked with the 
graver and dry point, expressed the various 
degrees of colour well, and carefully avoided any 
exaggeration of shadow. He died in Paris in 
1788. The following are among his best prints : 

A Landscape, with figures and cattle ; after Berohem. 

The Port of Genoa ; after the same. 

A Landscape, with a stag-hunt ; after the earn 

The Female Villagers ; after the same 

The Village Pleasures ; after the same. 

The Spanish Halt ; after Wouwerman. 

A Guard of Uhlans ; after the same. • 

The Moon rising ; after A. van der Neer. 

A View of Boom, by moonlight ; after iht tame. 

The Amusements of Winter ; after A. van de Velde, 

A Storm ; after Joseph Vernet. 

A Fog ; after the same. 

A Fire in a Sea-port by Night ; after the same. 

Two Sea-pieces — The Fishermen, and Eetum from 

Fishing ; after the same 
Four— The Four Times of the Day ; aft^ the same. 
Two plates of the Witches' Meetings ; after Teniers, 
The Birth of Venus ; after Jeaurat. 

ALIBERTI, Giovanni Carlo, a Piedmontese 
painter, was bom at Asti, in 1680. It is not stated 
under whom he studied ; but, according to Lanzi, 
he executed several considerable works in fresco 
in the churches of his native city. He painted the 
ceiling of the church of Sant' Agostino, represent- 
ing that saint taken up into heaven surrounded by 

angels ; and in the choir of the same church, a 
picture of St. Augustine baptizing a number of 
children, and other figures. The composition is 
ingenious, with a fine expression in the heads, and 
embeUished with architecture. He died about 
the year 1740. His style consists of a mixture 
of Maratti, of Giovanni da San Giovanni, and 
of Correggio ; heads and feet that might be attri- 
buted to Guido or Domenichino ; forms peculiar 
to the Carracci, drapery of Paolo Veronese, and 
colours of Guercino. 

ALIBRANDO, Gieolamo, a Sicilian painter, 
called 'the Raphael of Messina,' was born in 1470, 
and received his first instruction in the school 
of the Antonj. The fame which Antonello da 
Messina, his countryman, had acquired in Venice, 
induced him to visit that city, and he there re- 
ceived, for a short time, instruction from Anto- 
nello. He also enjoyed the friendship of Gior- 
gione. He afterwards went to Milan, where he 
became a disciple of Leonardo da Vinci. He 
then went to Rome and studied the antique, and 
the works of Raphael ; from Rome he went to 
Parma, and thence back to Messina, which town 
possesses his best works, the most important of 
which was a large picture of the ' Presentation in 
the Temple,' painted in 1519, for the Chiesa della 
Candelora, It was in existence in the early part 
of the century, but is now no longer to be found. 
Alibrando died of the plague in 1624 at Messina. 

ALIBNSE, L'. See Vassilacchi. 

ALIGHIERI, Giovanni, a monk who flourished 
in Ferrara about 1195, painted miniatures in the 
codex of Virgil in the possession of the Carmel- 
ites in that city. 

ALIGNY, See Caeuellb d'Aligny. 

ALIPRANDI, Michelangelo, a painter of 
Verona, flourished from about 1560 to 1582. He 
was an imitator, if not a pupil, of Paolo Veronese, 
and executed after the niamaer of that master an 
altar-piece — the 'Madonna and Child between St. 
Roch and St. Sebastian' — in the church of SS. 
Nazaro e Celso, at Verona, where it is still pre- 
served. Many of the works which Aliprandi 
painted in and around his native city have un- 
fortunately perished. 

ALIX, Jean, a French painter and engraver, 
born in Paris in 1615, was a scholar of Phillippe 
de Champagne, some of whose paintings he en- 
graved in the style of Morin, but as a painter we 
have no account of his woiks. There is an etch- 
ing by him, of a ' Holy Family,' after Raphael, 
executed in a very light and pleasing style. 

ALIX, PiEBEE Michel, born at Honfleur, in 
1752, was a scholar of Le Bas. He engraved 
in line and executed in aquatint a set of por- 
traits of eminent men, which were printed in 
colours, as well as a large portrait of Napoleon 
in his coronation robes. He died in Paris in 1817. 
In Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' is a list of 104 of 
his plates^historical pieces and portraits after 
various painters. 

ALKEN, Hbnet, a well-known painter and en- 
graver of sporting subjects, published, in 1816, 
' The Beauties and Defects of the Horse ; ' in 1821, 
'National Sports of Great Britain,' with fifty 
coloured plates, and in succeeding years, several 
similar works. He also published in 1849, 'The 
Art and Practice of Etching,' and in 1869, ' Jor- 
rock's Jaunts and Jollities.' 

ALKEN, Samuel, worked in London as an 
engraver in aquatint towards the close of the 18th 





century. He chiefly produced illustrations for 
topographical works — such as ' Views in Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland,' in 1796, and ' Views in 
North Wales,' in 1798. 

ALLAIS, Jean Alexandre, the son of artistic 
parents, was born in Paris in 1792. His father, 
Louis Jean Allais (1762—1833), was an engraver 
of merit, and his mother, nee Brioeau, practised the 
same art. Jean- Alexandre studied under David, 
Urbain, Massard, and Fosseyeux, and soon became 
famous for his prints, which were for the most 
part executed in aquatint. He engraved chiefly 
after the works of Schoppin, Jacquand, Fragonard, 
Dubufe, and Leonardo da Vinci. AUais died in 
Paris in 1850. 

ALLAMAGNA. See Alemanno, Justus d'. 

ALLAN, David, a Scotch painter, was born at 
Alloa, in 1744. He received the rudiments of his art 
in the Academy at Glasgow, founded by Robert and 
Andrew Foulis, the printers. He went to Italy in 
1764, to pursue his studies, and gained in 1773 at 
Rome the prize medal, given by tlie Academy of 
St. Luke for the best historical composition, by his 
' Corinthian Maid drawing the shadow of her lover.' 
He resided there for nearly fourteen years, and 
painted landscapes in the style of Gaspar Poussin. 
He returned in 1777, and supported himself by 
portrait painting in London until 1780, soon after 
which he settled in Edinburgh, where be was made, 
in 1786, master of the Academy. He died near 
Edinburgh in 1796. Allan is sometimes called the 
' Hogarth of Scotland.' He made in 1787 four 
humorous drawings of the Sports of the Carnival 
at Rome, which were engraved by Paul Sandby. 
He also" designed and engraved a series of illustra- 
tions to Allan Ramsay's 'Gentle Shepherd,' pub- 
lished in 1788, and etched some plates for the 
' Songs of the Lowlands of Scotland,' published 
in 1798. David Allan's portrait, by himself, is in 
the Scottish National Gallery. 

ALLAN, Sir William, was born in Edinburgh, 
in 1782, and was in the first instance apprenticed 
to a coach painter, but afterwards studied some 
years at the 'Trustees' Academy in the above-named 
city, where he was the fellow-student of David 
Wilisie, and John Burnet the engraver. Allan was 
the first of the triumvirate to make his way to Lon- 
don. He began by taking Opie for his model, 
imitating him very closely in a picture, called ' A 
Gipsy Boy and Ass,' which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1805. In this year, disnp- 
pointed of the success he had looked for in the 
metropolis, he went to St. Petersburg, where, 
through the kind offices of Sir Alexander Crichton, 
then physician to the imperial fiimily, he met. 
with considerable patronage as a portrait painter. 
He afterwards visited the interior of Russia, 
Tartary, and Turkey, where he collected materials 
for many original and characteristic works, which 
he afterwards painted, illustrative of the scenery 
and customs of eastern Europe. In 1809 he sent 
a picture to the Royal Academy called ' Russian 
Peasants keeping their Holiday,' but this did not 
attract much attention ; and he did not again con- 
tribute to the Exhibition for the next six years. 
In 1814 he returned to London, and in 1816 
exhibited his picture of ' Circassian Captives,' 
now in the possession of the Earl of Wemyss. 
This was followed by ' A Circassian Chief selling 
to a Turkish Pasha captives of a neighbouring- 
tribe taken in war,' and others ' of similar scenes 
which the artist had witnessed in his travels. 


But these productions did not sell at the time 
(some of them are now in the possession of the 
Emperor of Russia), and the artist was so dis- 
heartened that he talked of retiring to the wilds 
of Circassia, when Sir Walter Scott stepped in, 
and started a lottery of one hundred subscribers 
of ten guineas each for the last-named picture, 
which, although the list was not entirely filled, 
put a considerable sum into Allan's pocket. This 
happy circumstance caused him to alter his views, 
and remain at home, enjoying the patronage of 
such fiends as the great novelist introduced to 
him. He now, with the sole excention of a 
picture of ' Tartar Robbers dividing their Spoil,' 
adopted a class of subjects wholly different from 
those he had attempted before ; as, 'A Press Gang,' 
' The Parting between Prince Charles Stuart and 
Flora Maodonald at Portree,' and ' Jeannie Deans's 
first Interview with her Father after his return 
from London;' he, however, still made but little 
progress in public favour, and again he was 
almost giving way to despair, when his sketch of 
' The Murder of Archbishop Sharp on Magus 
Muir,' so admirably described in ' Old Mortality,' 
attracted the notice of Sir Walter Scott, who en- 
couraged him to make a picture of it, which was 
purchased by Mr. Lockbart, and,beingengraved,wa3 
published with much success. Allan now resolved 
to devote himself entirely to subjects of Scottish 
history ; and his next work of consequence was 
' John Knox admonishing Mary Queen of Scots 
on the day when her intention to marry Dainley 
had been made public,' exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1823, and well known by the fine en- 
graving of it by Burnet. This was followed in 
1824 by ' Sir Patrick Lindesey of the Byres and 
Lord William Ruthven compelling Mary Queen of 
Soots to sign her abdication,' and in 1825 by 'The 
Regent Murray shot by Hamilton of Bothwell- 
haugh,' which was exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
and bought by the Duke of Bedford for 800 guineas. 
This picture procured Allan's election as an Asso- 
ciate of the Aciidemy. The works which next 
followed from his pencil were of unequal merit. 
Amongst the best were, in 1831, ' Lord Byron 
reposing in the house of a Turkish Fisherman, 
after swimming across the Hellespont,' and a 
' Portrait of Sir Walter Scott sitting in his study 
reading the proclamation of Mary Queen of Scots 
previously to her marriage with Darnley ' (en- 
graved by Burnet). In 1833 ne produced a 
picture entitled ' The Orphan,' and representing 
Anne Scott seated on the floor near her father's 
chair at Abbotsford. This was bought by Queen 
Adelaide, and is now in the Royal Collection at 
Buckingham Palace. Allan paid a second visitto the 
Continent in 1830, and in 1834 visited Spain. His 
piqture called ' The Moorish Love Letter,' and 
other characteristic productions now exhibited, 
secured his promotion to the rank of Royal Acade- 
mician in 1835. In 1838 he was chosen to fill the 
presidential chair of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
rendered vacant by the death of George Watson ; 
and in 1841 he succeeded Sir David Wilkie as 
Limner to the Queen for Scotland, an office which 
entitles the holder to the honour of knighthood, 
and a small salary. In 1843 Sir William Allan 
exhibited at the Royal Academy his picture of 
'The Battle of Waterloo,' which was purchased 
by the late Duke of Wellington. He exhibited 
another and larger picture of the same subject 
at the Fine Arts competition in Westminster 




Hall in 1843, which, however, to his great dis- 
appointment, found no purchaser. In the former 
picture Napoleon is the principal figure in the 
foreground ; in the latter the Duke of Welling- 
ton. In 1844 he revisited St. Petersburg, and, 
on his return, painted for the Emperor Nicholas 
a picture of 'Peter the Great teaching hia sub- 
jects the Art of Ship-building,' which was ex- 
hibited in London in 1845, and is now in the 
Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. Sir William 
died in his painting-room at Edinburgh before a 
large unfinished picture of ' Tiie Battle of Ban- 
nookburn,' in 1850. This picture is now in the 
National Gallery of Scotland. Besides liis other 
titles, he held those of Honorary Member of the 
Academicians of New York and Philadelphia. His 
excellence as a painter consisted chiefly in con- 
siderable dramatic power in telling a story, and in 
skiKul composition. As a colourist he was deficient. 
In the National Gallery is a single example of his 
pencil, ' Tartar Eobbers dividing their Spoil,' 
which was painted in 1817 (Vernon Collection), 
and whioli has been engraved by J. Stewart, and 
by J. T. Smyth. 

ALLARD, Abraham, an engraver and print- 
seller. There are twelve views of 'the towns of 
Friesland engraved by this artist; and in the 
British Museum is a large print, representing 
the Garden of Love, entitled Het Ltist Hof van 
Flora ; partly etched and finished with the graver 
in a etifE, clumsy style, inscribed^. .4 Z/ar< cecinit. 
C- Allart edit. He lived at Amsterdam towards 
the close of the 17th and the beginning of the 
18th century. 

ALLAKD, Carel, an engraver and printseller, 
who executed a number of mezzotint portraits of 
English celebrities, after the paintings of Lely. 
There are in the British Museum four plates of 
'The Seasons,' represented in half-length figures, 
executed in a coarse, heavy style, without any 
taste. He flourished at Amsterdam toward the 
'* close of the 17th, and the beginning of the 18th 

ALLARD, HuiJCH, a Dutch engraver, flourished 
at Amsterdam in the latter part of the 17th century. 
By him we have ' The Flight of King James after 
the Battle of the Boyne,' \5%0 — Hugo Allard, 
fecit, Garolus Allard, excudit — and some portraits, 
amongst which is that of Adriaan Pauw, one of 
the negotiators of the peace of Miinster. 

ALLARD, Jean Pieeee Eugene, a French his- 
torical and portrait painter, was born at Lyons in 
1829. He studied under Flandrin and Jannot, and 
afterwards went to Rome, where h^was assassin- 
ated in his studio in 1864. 

ALLEGRAIN, Btiennb, a French landscape 
painter, born in Paris in 1644, painted works which 
were much esteemed. Two landscapes by him are 
in the Louvre — one of which was formerly ascribed 
, to MiUet — and several, in the manner of Fran- 
oisque Millet, are at Versailles. At the Hermitage 
at St. Petersburg is a ' Landscape, with the find- 
'■ ing of Moses.' He died in 1736 in Paris. 
" ALLEGRAIN, Gabbibl, born in Paris in 1679, 

f, son and pupil of Btienne, painted in the manner 
J of his father: he died in 1748. He exhibited 
■ at the Salon from the year 1737 to 1747, missing 
' a year occasionally. TheTre are by him at Ver- 
sailles views of the gardens of Versailles, of the 
;; chateau of St. Germain-en-Laye, and of the 
,; chateau of Vincennes. 

ALLEGEI, Antonio, commonly called CoE- 

EEGGIO, was born, according to his Italian bio- 
grapher Pungileoni, in the year 1494, in the small 
town of Correggio near Mantua. His father, Pelle- 
grino Allegri, was a merchant, or tradesman in 
comfortable circumstances, as is proved by his 
having purchased in 1616 a olothiei-'s business, 
and also by his having farmed for nine years two 
estates for which he paid 150 gold ducats a year. 
His mother, named Bernardina Piazzola, belonged 
to the Ormani or Aromani family, and brought hei 
husband a dowry of 100 lire. 

These facts, which have been distinctly ascer- 
tained, prove that Allegri could not have been 
brought up in poverty, nor could he, as was at one 
time supposed, have belonged to a noble family 
of the name of De Allegris, who possessed a castle 
and estates a short distance from Correggio. He 
always, it would appear, lived an easy, comfort- 
able bourgeois life, never, it is true, rising to the 
grandeur and sliow of some of the other great 
masters of the Renaissance, but on the other hand 
never falling into that dire poverty of which 
Vasari gives such a moving picture. Vasari's 
narrative indeed, as regards Allegri, has long been 
known to be more than usually inaccurate. He 
possessed little real knowledge concerning the 
distant Lombard master, though he professed a 
great admiration for him as one " endowed with 
exalted genius," whose works he praised for their 
"attractive grace, charming manner, perfect 
relief, and the exquisite softness of their flesh- 
tints." Nor has modern research, while showing 
the incorrectness of Vasari's statements, found 
out much concerning the personal history of this 
channing master, who, living far distant from 
Rome and Florence, the great centres of art in the 
16th century, remained unknown to most of his 
renowned contemporaries, and thus probably missed 
tbe important part that he might otherwise have 
played in the art of his time. 

The ascertained facts of his life, stripped of all 
conjecture and tradition, may be told in a short 
space. His father, Pellegrino, destined him, it is 
said, for a learned profession, but this is not cer- 
tain. At an early age, however, the young Allegri 
showed an' inclination towards painting, which 
fact does not appear to have been disputed. 
He had an uncle, named Lorenzo, an indifferent 
painter of Correggio, from whom he probably ac- 
quired the first rudiments of the art ; but after- 
wards there is reason to believe that he studied 
under a master named Antonio Bartolotti, or 
Bartolozzi, called also Toguino degli Ancini, who 
in 1500 was the chief master or Caposcuola in 
Correggio. Bulbarini, in his Memorie Patrie, speaks 
of this painter as having been " often assisted by 
his pupil Allegri ; " but Dr. Meyer does not con- 
sider that he gained anything from this master 
'beyond a certain technical practice in tempera 
painting." Unfortunately only two of Bartolotti's 
works are known, and they prove that he had verj 
little capacity. 

Mengs is of opinion that Allegri studied in 
Modena also, under two masters of some repute — 
Francesco Bianchi, called ' 11 Frare,' and Pelle- 
grino Munari — but there is no historical evidence 
to support this view beyond a passage in Vedri- 
ani's Pittore Modenesi, which was added by the 
publisher at a later date. Bianchi died in 1510 
when Allegri was only sixteen, so it is not likely 
that he derived much knowledge from him, even 
if we admit that he studied in Modena, which 





seems unnecessary, considering that an esteemed 
master like Bartolotli was to be found nearer 

But whoever w^ere his early teachers (and other 
masters besides those named are mentioned), his 
style seems to have been formed chiefly by the 
study of Mantegna. It is supposed tliat he had an 
opportunity for such study, for it is said he went to 
Mantua in 1611, at a time when the plague was 
raging at Correggio, and resided there for some 
time. Mantegna himself was dead at this time, 
but at the impressionable period of development 
such a revelation as that of Mantegna's art could 
scarcely fail to have a great influence over the 
style of a youthful artist, and Allegri's study of 
this master doubtless led to that intimate know- 
ledge of foreshortening and perspective which he 
exhibits with so much daring in his great works. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle imagine also that he 
associated with Lorenzo Costa during his stay in 
Mantua, and derived from him something of his 
love for colour. This certainly could not have 
been gained from Mantegna, whose art is severely 
classic and sculpturesque; but Allegri's use of 
chiaroscuro, his exquisite modelling, and his 
gracious manner, if we may so call it, bear so 
much closer afSnity to Leonardo da Vinci than to 
any other master, that it seems almost impossible 
to doubt that in some way or another he also 
caught inspiration from him. 

However this may be, it is certain that when 
he came back to Correggio, at about the age of 
twenty-three, his fame was sufBoiently established 
in his native town for him to receive a commission 
for an important altar-piece. This altar-piece, — his 
first authentic picture,- — painted in 1514 for the con- 
vent of San Francesco in Correggio, is now in the 
Dresden Gallery. It represents the Madonna 
enthroned, with St. Francis and other Saints, and is 
distinguished by a more solemn religious feeling 
than is observable in his later works. After 
painting several other altar-pieces and religious 
subjects in Correggio he received a commission 
from the lady abbess of the convent of San 
Paolo, in Parma, to decorate her nunnery with 
paintings. He accordingly went to Parma in 
1518, and accomplished that lovely series of 
decorative paintings of mythological subjects 
that are now reckoned among his most beautiful 
works, although, strange to say, they remained 
almost unknown for nearly two centuries. 

On his return to Correggio in 1519, after this, his 
first work in Parma, Allegri married a young girl 
of sixteen, named Girolama Francesca, daughter 
of Bartolommeo Merlini de Braghelis, arm-bearer to 
the Marchese of Mantua. She brought her hus- 
band some small fortune, and before this, in the 
same year, 1519, he had received a legacy from 
his maternal uncle, Francesco Ormani, of a house, 
several acres of land, and other property, '' in con- 
sideration of important services." His circum- 
stances therefore could not have been straitened 
at this time, although, owing to lawsuits and other 
causes, he did not at once enter upon the posses- 
sion either of his own or his wife's property. His 
eldest son, Pomponio, was born on the 3rd of 
September, 1521, in Correggio, the learned anato- 
mist Lombardi standing god-father on the occasion 
of the christening. 

Allegri, from tlie time when he was first called 
to Parma in 1518, appears to have kept up a 
constant intercourse with that city, and after the 


birth of his eldest son he went to reside there 
with his wife, three other children being boin to 
him while in that city. " We have no trustworthy 
account," says Dr. Meyer, " of the paintings 
executed by Allegri, partly in Parma and partly 
in Correggio, at this time." They were mostly 
easel pictures, that are now scattered in various 
galleries and are extremely difficult to identify, 
numerous false works being attributed to this 
time. Among the genuine ones, however, tlje 
' Madonna kneehng in worship before the Divine 
Infant,' in the UfSzi, so well known by means of 
engraving and constant repetition, the ' Madonna 
della Cesta,' in the National Gallery, and the 
'Zingarella, or Madonna del Cogniglio,' at Naples, 
are generally thought to belong to this period, 
and to have been suggested by his young wife 
and child. In 1520 Allegri received a commission 
for a far larger work in Parma than any he had 
hitherto done. This was the painting of the 
cupola of the church of San Giovanni, for which 
he entered into a contract with the Benedictines 
of the convent of San Giovanni, signed on 
July 6th, 1520. He did not, however, begin the 
work until about the middle of 1521, and he 
received the last instalment of the sum paid to 
him for it on the 23rd of January, 1524, at which 
date we may conclude that this splendid work was 
quite finished, for in a document still extant, and 
in Allegri's own writing, he declares himself to 
have received " full payment for the remainder of 
the works completed in the said church," and to 
be " pleased, satisfied, and fully paid." The ex- 
act amount of this 'full payment' is somewhat 
difficult to determine, although the various suuis 
were found by Pungileoni to have been all 
entered in the convent books. These amount, 
when added up, to 272 ducats, and Dr. Meyer is 
of opinion that Allegri did not receive more than 
this sniiill sum for his paintings in San Giovanni. 
Other authorities make it up to 472 ducats. Some 
of his paintings on the dome of San Giovanni are '■ 
still in existence, but much ruined by damp and 
time. Many portions are scattered in galleries. 
Their subject is the ' Ascension of Christ in the 
midst of the Apostles,' a subject which gives full 
play for the painter's marvellous powers. The 
masterly foreshortening and sense of movement, 
the brilliancy of the glowing figures, rising as it 
were from a dark background, have called forth 
the admiration of all critics. 

Allegri's next important work in Parma was the 
painting the dome of the cathedial, for which he 
received the 'commission in 1522, though he did 
not begin the work till a later date. In the agree- 
ment it is specified that he shall receive lOOO 
gold ducats, equal to about £1500 of our present 
money ; but numerous difiiculties and disagree- 
ments arose between the chapter of the cathe- 
dral and the painter, and, in the end, the latter did 
not finish more than half of the work stipulated, 
nor receive more than half the payment. After 
Allegri's death, indeed, the cathedral laid claim 
to 140 lire from his heirs on account of some 
unfinished works in the choir. 

But although, as it would seem, Allegri failed 
to satisfy the cathedral authorities, h's paintings 
in the dome of the Cathedral being spoken of 
disparagingly by contemporary critics as a " mere 
hash of frogs," these paintings have been the 
wonder and delight of succeeding generations. 
The subject represented in the great dome is the 




■ Assumption of the Virgin,' her form heing borne 
upwards on luminous clouds to heaven, whitlier she 
ia preceded by the Archangel Gabriel and a joyous 
choir of angelSj all in the most unconstrained 
attitudes and action. The Apostles, from below, 
gaze upwards in ecstasy to view the heavenly 
drama, and numerous putti, or boy angels, flutter 
about, looking as though "about to buist open the 
dome, and fly out into the open air." The entire 
absence of all religious conventionality, and the 
purely sensuous life exhibited in these paintings, 
show a bold disregard for traditional treatment. 

While he was executing these stupendous monu- 
mental frescoes, AUegri also painted some of his 
most perfect oil paintings. Chief among these 
stand ' La Notte,' or ' The Night,' of the Dresden 
Gallery, commissioned by a certain Alberto 
Pratonero of Eeggio, in 1522, for the church of 
San Prospero. This world-famous picture is well 
known, and need not be described. Sir David 
Wilkie, who saw it during his travels in 1826, 
speaks of it as "the most original and poetical of 
all Correggio's works," and one which "though 
shorn of its beams from the treatment it has met 
with, is, in its decay, still not less than an' arch- 
angel ruined." Since his time it has been re- 
stored in 1827 by Palmaroli, and in 1868 by 
Schirmer, and it is stated by Dr. Meyer to "be 
in good preservation, only the azure tints of the 
high lights having somewhat suffered, and the 
shadows grown darker." It is chiefly admired 
for its marvellous efEect of light, and the poetic 
idea of making that light emanate from the new- 
bom babe. 

The magnificent altar-piece, in the Parma Gallery, 
of the Madonna with St. Jerome and the Magdalene, 
called ' II Giorno,' or ' The Day,' is another of Cor- 
reggio's woiks distinguished for its perfection in 
the management of light and shade, and the volup- 
tuous beauty of the Magdalene. Mengs says of this 
graceful figure, that " whoever has not seen it is 
ignorant of what the art of painting can achieve." 
This great painting was executed for a certain 
Donna Briseide Colla, of Parma, a widow lady, 
who paid the painter more liberally than any of 
his other patrons, giving him, it seems, over and 
above the stipulated sum of 80 scudi, various 
presents, consisting of " two cartloads of faggots, 
several bushels of wheat, and a pig." According 
to Dr. Meyer, AUegri did not disdain to thus 
receive payment in kind from some of his less 
wealthy patrons, and possibly it is upon some tra- 
dition of this sort that Vasari's absurd story of 
his dying under a weight of copper money was 
founded. The 'Madonna della Scodella,' in tiie 
Parma Academy, the 'Madonna and St. Sebas- 
tian,' and the 'Madonna and St. George/ at 
Dresden, are likewise considered to belong to this 
time of highest achievement. 

In 1530, AUegri left Parma, and returned to 
Correggio, having before this (probably about the 
end of 1528) lost his young wife. He appears to 
have now made up his mind to settle in his native 
town, where he lived in a good house in the Borgo 
Vecchio (probably the one which he had inherited 
from his uncle). He also bought an estate in 
November, 1630, for 196 scudi, and in 1533 a few 
acres of land. About this time we frequently find 
his name mentioned as witness, he being at one 
time summoned to witness the payment of the 
marriage portion of Clara, the daughter of the 
Lord of Correggio, all of which facts prove that I 

he must have been a man of some means and 
importance in his native city. 

Besides Allegri's great religious pictures, he 
painted a number of mythological subjects, for 
which his style was admirably adapted. TJie 
sensuous quaUties of his art have full play in 
such works as the 'Jupiter and Antiope' of tlie 
Louvre, the ' Education of Cupid,' in the National 
Gallery, the 'Danae' of the Borghese Gallery, 
and the ' Leda ' of the Berlin Museum. Most of 
these works were executed, it is supposed, during 
the last years of the painter's life, but the exact 
dates are uncertain. 

Vasari states that AUegri painted two of these 
pictures — the 'Leda,' and tlie 'Danae,' described 
by him as 'Venus' — forthe Duke of Mantua, who 
afterwards presented them to tlie Emperor Charles 
v., and there seems no reason to doubt liis inform- 
ation in this particular. It is probable, however, 
that AUegri became known to the duke not 
through the intervention of Giiilio Romano, iis has 
been supposed, but rather through the recommend- 
ation of Veronica Gambara, the second wife of 
Giberto of Correggio, who was a ludy of great 
learning, and who founded an Academy in Cor- 
reggio. A letter dated Septetnber 3, 1528, is 
extant from this lady to her friend Beatrice 
d' Este, Duchess of Mantua, inviting her to " come 
and see the chef d'oeuvre of the ' Magdalene in the 
Desert,' just finished by tlie Messer Antonio AUegri. 
It astonishes all who behold it." The cause of 
Allegri's death at the early age of 40 is unknown. 
It was probably sudden, for he had entered upon a 
new commission shortly before. He died on the 
5th of March, 1534; and was buried the next day 
in the Franciscan church at Correggio, a simple 
wooden tablet marking the spot. In the 18th 
century, when his grave was sought for, it could 
not be found, though a skull purporting to be his 
is preserved in the Academy of Modena. 

Allegri's art was thoroughly individual. Vasari 
rightly calls him pittore singolarissimo, but by 
the sensuous character of his painting he is 
more nearly allied to the school of Venice than to 
the severer intellectual schools of Padua or 
Florence. Perhaps what mostly distinguishes his 
style from that of every other master, is his 
delicate perception of the minutest gradations of 
light and shade. His chiaroscuro has been praised 
by artists us simply perfect. It sheds a wonder- 
ful atmosphere of liglit and delight over all his 
works, and his figures Seem literally to live in 
radiant glory. Allegri's Madonnas are beautiful, 
joyous mothers, endowed with every human 
charm ; but with none of the spirituality that 
Raphael infused into the old ascetic type. He 
departed, in fact, as far as the Venetian masters 
from the old religious ideal, and like them made 
aesthetic perfection his sole aim. 



Fresco paintings in the nunnery of San Paolo. 1518. 
St. John ; fresco above a doorway in San Giovanni. 
Frescoes in the domejjf San Giovanni, 1521 — 1522. 
Frescoes in the dome of the cathedral at Parma. 1528 

Madonna della Scala ; fresco now in the Academy at 

The Annunciation ; fresco formerly in the church of the 

Annanziata in Parma ; recently restored and removed 

from the wall, 







Madonna of St. Francis ; Dresden Gallery. 

Piet i ; Academy at Parma. 

Martyrdom of SS. Placidus and Flavia; Academy at 
Parma. 1522—1524? 

La Notte, or The Night ; Dresden Gallery. 1522— 15dO. 

II Giorno, or St. Jerome; Academy at Parma. 1527 — 

Madonna and St. George ; Dresden. About 1530. 

Madonna and St. Sebastian ; Dresden. 1525. 

Marriage of St. Catherine ; Louvre ; numerous copies. 

Virgin in Adoration ; Ufllzi, Florence. 

Madonna della Oesta ; National Gallery. 1520 ? 

La Zingarella ; Naples Gallery 

Madonna hushing the Infant Jesus ; several repetitions 
of this subject. 

The Reading Magdalene ; Dresden ; considered by some 
authorities to be merely a copy. 

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane , Apsley House ; 
given by the King of Spain to the Diike of 'Wel- 

Ecce Homo ; National Gallery. 

Jupiter and Antiope ; Louvre formerly in the pos- 
session of Charles I. 

Education of Cupid ; National Gallery. 

lo and Jupiter ; Vienna Gallery. 

Leda ; Berlin Gallery. 

Ganymede on an eagle ; Vienna Gallery. 

Danae ; Borghese Gallery in Rome. 

The Triumphs of Virtue and Vice; two allegorical 
sketches in tempera, in the Louvre. 

This list is copied from Dr. Meyer's carefully 
prepared catalogues. 

The question has been much discussed as to 
whether Allegri ever practised engraving, but it 
seems almost certain that he never did, or, at all 
events, that no print by him is known. 


Vasari, ' Vite de' piu eccellente pittori,' &c. 
Punffileoni, ' Memorie istoriche di Antonio AUegri.' 3 

vols. Parma, 1817. 
W. Coxe, 'Sketches of the lives of Correggio and 

Parmegiano.' 1823. 
Raphael Menys, 'Life and Works of Ant. AJlegri.' 

Fietro Martini, ' II Correggio.' 1871. 
Quirino Bigi, Antonio Allegri da Correggio.' Parma, 

1860; 2nd edit., 1873. 
Julius Meyer, ' Antonio Allegri da Correggio.' First 
appeared in the 'Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon ' in 
1870. English translation, edited by Mrs. Charles 
Heaton. 1876. 
J. P. Bichter, 'Antonio Allegri, gen. Correggio,' in 
the ' Kunst und Kiinstler.' 1879. 

M, M. H. 
ALLEGRI, LoEENZO, an inferior Italian painter 
of whom very little is known. He was uncle to 
the celebrated Antonio Allegri, called Correggio, 
and is said to have been his first instructor in the 
rules of art. In 1503 he painted a picture for the 
convent of San Francesco in Correggio, but no 
work by his hand is now known to exist. He died 
in 1527, leaving his property to his brother 
Pellegrino, and his nephew Antonio, by whom he 
was much beloved. 

ALLEGRI, PoMPONio, son of Antonio Allegri, 
was born in 1521. He was only thirteen years of 
age when his father died, so he could not have 
received much training from him, but he is said 
to have studied under Rondani, who may likewise 
be considered a follower of AUegri. Pomponio 
inherited a considerable fortune from his father 
and grandfather, and appears for some time to 
have held a good position in Correggio. He 
afterwards, however, sold most of his landed 
property, and his affairs became involved. He 
was altogether an inferior painter, although he 

appears to have been greatly employed, and 
received many important commissions. One of 
his altar-pieces, showing the influence of his 
father, is in the Academy at Parma. It represents 
'Moses showing the Israelites the Tables of the 
Law.' Other works are in various churches. He 
sometimes signed himself Pomponio L.s:ti, latin- 
izing the name of Allegri, as his father also did 
occasionally. He was still living in 1593. After 
his time the family of Allegri appears to have 
fallen into poverty, and to have become extinct. 

M, M. H. 

ALLEGRINI, Fbanoesoo, called La Gubbio. 
This painter was bom at Gubbio in 1587, and was 
a disciple of Giuseppe Cesare. He painted his- 
torical subjects, and executed many works, both 
in oil and in fresco, for the churches and palaces 
at Rome. Works by him are also in Gubbio, in 
Genoa, and Savona. He had a great number of 
scholars, amongst whom were his son, Flaminio, 
and his daughter, Angelica, who also painted 
historical subjects. He died in 1663 at Rome. 

ALLEGRINI, Feancesco, a designer and en- 
graver, was bom at Florence, about the year 1729. 
In 1762, he published, in conjunction with his 
brother Giuseppe, a collection of one hundred por- 
traits of the family of the Medici, with a frontis- 
piece, engraved by himself. He also engraved 
fourteen portraits of Florentine poets, painters, 
and other eminent personages. We have also a 
print by him of the statue of St. Francis of Assisi, 
which is held in much veneration at Siena. 

ALLEGRINI, Giuseppe, brother of Francesco, 
an Italian engraver, who flourished about the year 
1746. We have the following plates by him : 

The Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus ; half figures, 
with this inscription, Egredietur Virgo de radice, %c. 

The Circumcision. 

The Stoning of St. Stephen. 

A small print of Einaldo and Armida. 

A large operatic scene ; after Chamont. 

ALLEMAND, L'. See L'Allbmand. 

ALLEN, FoLPBKT van Oudbn, a designer and 
engraver of Utrecht, flourished in the second half 
of the 17th century. The view of the city of 
Vienna, engraved by J. Mulder, is from a drawing 
by this artist, made in 1686 ; and he has himselE 
engraved a large plate of the city of Prague, a 
slight print, with several figures. He died in 1715. 

ALLEN, James Baylis, an engraver, who was 
born at Birmingham in 1802, was first engaged in 
the business of his father, u. button manufacturer ; 
but afterwards became a pupil of Vincent Barber, 
and migrated to London in 1824, where he died 
in 1876. The chief works he engraved were : 

Battle of the Meeanee; after Armitage. 

The Columns of St. Mark ; after Bonington. 

Bucentaur; after Canaletto. 

The Dogana ; after Canaletto. 

The Battle of Borodino ; after O. Jones, H.A. 

Lftdy Godiva; after G. Jones, S.A. 

The Fiery Furnace ; after O. Jones, S.A. 

The Death of Nelson ; after Turner. 

Phryne going to the Bath as Venus ; after Turner. 

The Decline of Carthage ; after Turner. 

The Temple of Jupiter Panhellenium ; after Turner. 

ALLEN, James C, an engraver, a native _oi 
London, became a pupil of William Cooke, with 
whom he published, in 1821, fifteen engravings of 
views of the interior and exterior of the Coliseum 
at Rome. One of his best plates was the ' Defeat of 
the Spanish Armada,' after De Loutherbourg, 1831. 
He also executed numerous book-illustrations. 




ALLEN, Joseph W., the son of a schoolmaster 
at Hammersmith, was bom in Lambeth in 1803. 
He was educated at St. Paul's School, and was 
afterwards for a short time usher in an academy 
at Taunton. Discovering a talent for drawing, he 
came back to London, resolved to adopt the brush 
as his means of living. In the first instance he 
became an assistant to a picture dealer, under whom 
he acquired a considerable knowledge of the old 
masters, and the pecuniary value of their works. 
He afterwards took to scene painting, in associa- 
tion with Charles Tomkins and Clarkson Stanfield : 
and during Madame Vestris's first lesseeship of the 
Olympic Theatre, he painted most of the scenery 
for her. The natural bent of his genius, however, 
was for pastoral landscape, and the varied pictur- 
esque features of English scenery ; and his little 
fresh, green, and true bits of nature soon at- 
tracted admirers and purchasers. As time went 
on, his talent became manifestly more matured, 
and he was noted, amongst other things, as an ex- 
cellent painter of distances. ' The Vale of Clwyd,' 
exhibited in 1847, created a considerable sensa- 
tion, and was purchased by an Art Union prize- 
holder for three hundred guineas ; and Allen 
repeated it twice in smaller dimensions, for other 
purchasers. ' Leith Hill,' in the following year, 
was almost equally successful. His subjects were 
usually well chosen, and consisted chiefly of views 
in North Wales, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and the mid- 
land counties. Allen took an active part in the 
establishment of the ' Society of British Artists,' 
of which he became the secretary, and attached 
himself to its interests with such devotion that he 
latterly refused to exhibit anywhere else in London 
than at its Gallery in Suifolk Street. There is little 
doubt that his influence tended much to heighten 
the repute for landscape painting which the ex- 
hibitions of this Society have generally enjoyed. 
He was also professor of drawing at the City 
of London School, from its foundation. He died 
in 1852. 

ALLEN, Thomas, was an English marine painter, 
who flourished in the middle of the 18th century. 
He painted scenes from Queen Charlotte's voyage 
and arrival in England. Allen's works were en- 
graved by P. 0. Canot. 

ALLE'T, Jean Chaelbs, a draughtsman and en- 
graver, was born at Paris about the year 1668. 
He resided a long time in Italy, and is supposed 
to have died at Rome in 1732. Owing to his having 
marked his plates sometimes Jean Cliarles AUet, 
and sometimes Carolus Alet, collectors were for 
some time inclined to believe that they were two 
distinct artists ; but from the evident similarity of 
style, it is no longer doubted that all those plates 
are by the same hand. Allot engraved portraits 
and subjects from sacred history, and appears to 
have wished to imitate the manner of F. Spierre 
and Cornells Bloemaert, but his imitation has not 
been very successful. His principal plates are the 
following : 

Andrea Pozzo, Jesuit and architect ; dated 1712. 
Cardinal Aloisio Amadei ; after J. Morcmdi, 1690. 
Ferdinand Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua; after 

A.nt, Lesma. 
Pope Alexander VIII. ; after M. Calendrucci. 1695. 
St. Aloysius Gonzaga, Jesuit ; oval. 
St. Ignatius ; after F. Lueatelli ; oval. 

The Conception of the Virgin ; after And. Pozzo ; oval. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after S. Cantarini. 
The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph adoring the Infant 

Jesus ; after the ftame. 
The Saviour brought before Pilate ; after F. de Fietri, 
Ananias restoring sight to St. Paul; after Fietro da 

The Vision of St. Paul ; after the same painter. 

The last two plates are considered his best his- 
torical works. 

The Death of a Saint, in presence of the Virgin, St. 

Joseph, and St. Francis Xavier. 
The Death of St. Stanislaus Kostka ; after F. Le Oros, 

St. Gaetan, accompanied with a figure of Keligion, and 

Christ holding His Cross ; after Laz. Baldi. 
St. Andronicus, and St. Athanasia ; after F. B. Znc- 

St. Augustine with a child, getting water from the sea ; 

after J. B. Leonardi. 
St. Rosa, crowned by angels; Carolus AUet, del. ^ 

Twelve plates of the Life of Christ; after Fasseri, 
engraved in conjunction with A. v. Jf^esterhout. 

ALLOM, Thomas, architect and landscape 
painter, was bom in March, 1804. He was 
articled to Francis Goodwin, the architect, in 
1819; and, while his pupil, was engaged upon 
the Manchester Town Hall, Derby Gaol, West 
Bromwich Church, and many other public biiill- 
ings. He also assisted in making designs (1834) 
for the then-existing Parliament Houses, which 
were lithographed by him by order of the House 
of Comuions. Wishing to travel, with the objeo.t 
of gaining a more enlarged knowledge of his pro- 
fession, he turned his attention to painting views 
for the purpose of publication. The first illustrated 
work which made its appearance under these cir- 
cumstances was ' The Scenery of Devonshire and 
Cornwall.' This was followed by a similar work 
on the 'Lake District, and Northern Counties,' 
' Scotland Illustrated,' the historical portion of 
which was written by Dr. Beattie. In producing 
these illustrations he endeavoured to give the 
scenes additional interest by depicting the cele- 
brated historical incidents connected with them : 
— thus, in the ' View of Lochiel,' is represented the 
gathering of the clans of Prince Charlie ; in that 
of the ' Castle of Doon ' we see prisoners taken at the 
battle of Falkirk; 'Linlithgow Palace' is represented 
ais being burnt by Hawley's dragoons. His more 
strictly professional engagements, however, inter- 
fered with the completion of these works, and he 
was obliged to give up a portion to other hands. 
Soon after this a proposal was made to him to go 
to the East, and this, being more in accordance 
with his legitimate profession, was too tempting 
to be refused. His work on ' Constantinople and 
Asia Minor' was the result of this journey, in 
wliich he again introduces historical events, such 
as the unfolding of the standard of the Prophet in 
the mosque of Sultan Achmet previous to the 
massacre of the Janissaries by Mahmoud. His 
subsequent work on France is, perhaps, his best 
work, and in this liis intimate knowledge of 
architecture proved of the greatest advantage. In 
1846 he had an audience of Louis-Philippe at 
Paris, when the king expressed his great appro- 
bation of the work, and invited him to visit St. 
Cloud the following season, and requested liim to 
make drawings of the king's own estate at Dreux, 
with monuments to the royal family. In 1846-8 
his designs of proposed improvements on the banks 
of the Thames were exhibited by him in London, 





Manchester, and Paris, and a diploma of merit was 
forwarded from the last of these. He was one of 
the founders of the Institute of British Architects. 
Amongst his architectural works are: Christ- 
church, Highbury, the Cambridge MiHtary Asylum 
at Kingston, Kennington Workhouse, and St. 
Peter's Church, Netting Hill. Amongst his paint- 
ings, which exhibit true feeling and nice execution, 
are those of the 'Cities of the Seven Churches of 
Asia Minor,' which were engraved in the 'Art 
Journal ' in 1862-3. He died at Barnes, in October, 

ALLORI, Alessakdeo, also called Alessandro 
Bbonzino, was born at Florence in 1536. He 
was the son of a painter ; but having the misfor- 
tune, when he was only five years of age, tp lose 
his father, he was placed under the care of his 
uncle, Agnolo Bronzino, who brought him up with 
all the affiection of a parent. Before he was seven- 
teen years of age, he had made such progress 
under this able master, that be painted, from his 
own design, an altar-piece representing the Cruci- 
fixion, a composition of several figures, ingeniously 
arranged and well coloured. When he was nine- 
teen, he visited Rome, where he remained two 
years. The chief objects of his admiration and 
study in that city were the works of Michelangelo, 
and the grand style of that master is discernible in 
his pictures. On his return to Florence, he was 
greatly occupied for the churches and other public 
edifices. He was, however, occasionally prevailed 
on to paint the portraits of some of the distin- 
guished personages of his time, which he treated 
in a great and admirable style. In 1590, he 
published Dialogo sopra V arte del disegnare le 
Figure, illustrated with anatomical plates. " Some 
of his pictures in Rome, representing horses, are 
beautiful. His ' Sacrifice of Isaac,' in the Royal 
Museum, is coloured almost in the Flemish style. 
He was expert in portrait painting, but he abused 
his talent by introducing portraits in the modern 
costume in ancient histories, a fault not uncommon 
in that age. On the whole, his genius appears to 
have been equal to every branch of painting ; but 
it was unequally exercised, and consequently un- 
equally expanded " {Lanzi). In the Berlin Gallery 
there is a female portrait by him, probably repre- 
senting Bianca Cappello, wife of Francis II. of 
Tuscany ; and there are no less than sixteen works 
by him in the Ufiizi, Florence. He died at Florence 
in 1607. 

ALLORI, Angiolo, called II Bronzing, an 
eminent Florentine painter and poet, was born at 
Monticelli near Florence in 1502. He studied first 
under an obscure painter, then under RafEaelino 
del Garbo, and subsequently became the favourite 
disciple of Jacopo Carrucci, called Pontormo, and 
assisted that master in some of his most consider- 
able undertakings, particularly in the chapel of 
San Lorenzo at Florence, which he was employed 
to finish after the death of that master. He ap- 
pears to have studied with attention the dignified 
style of Michelangelo, and there is something of 
the grandeur of that master discernible in all his 
productions. His principal works are at Florence 
and Pisa. He worked both in fresco and oil. He 
also excelled in portraits, and painted the most 
celebrated personages of his time, among whom 
were Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. He frequently 
painted the portraits of Cosimo I., Grand Duke of 
Tuscany, and his wife Eleonora, and there are 
many replica besides. He died at Florence in 


1572. The following are some of his most im- 
portant works : 
Dresden. Gallery. Portrait of Cosimo I. 

^j Portrait of his wife, Eleonora, 

Florence. Academy. Pieta. 

Cartoon for the 'Descent into 
„ Badia. St. Benedict on thorns (/rfsro). 

„ S. Lorenzo. Martyrdom of St. Laurence 
S.Girolamo d. ) ^^ tangere (Jresco). 

„ Fitti Pal. Holy Family. 

, „ Portrait of Cosimo I. 

jj J, Portrait of Francesco I. de' Me- 

dici, and others. 

„ Vffzi. The Descent into Hades (his 


„ „ Portrait of Pontormo. 

„ „ Descent from the Cross. 

j^ „ Annunciation. 

„ „ Pieta. BEOZ: FAO: 

„ „ An Allegory — Prosperity crowned 

by Victory, bkoz : pac : 

^, „ Portrait of Eleonora, wife of 

Cosimo I., afid others. 
London. JVat. Gall. Portrait of a Lady. 

„ „ Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time. 

„ „ A Knight of St. Stephen. 

„ „ Portrait of Cosimo I. 

Lucca. Communal Gal. Portraits of two children of the 
Medici family. 

„ „ Portrait of Cosimo I. 

„ Foyal Palace. Portrait of Cosimo I. 
Madrid. Museum. The Violin-player. 

Paris. Louvre. Male portrait. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Portrait of a Lady (perhaps a 
daughter of Cosimo I.). 

„ „ Portrait of a Lady. 

„ Leuchtenlerg Col. Portrait of a Lady, bbonzino f. 
Kome. Borghese Pal. Portrait of posimo L 
Vienna. Belvedere. Holy Family. be6zino fioeen- 


„ „ Portrait of Cosimo I. 

„ „ Portrait of his wife Eleonora. 

ALLORI, Ckistofano (sometimes called Bron- 
zing), the son of Alessandro, was bom at Florence 
in 1577. He was for some time instructed in 
the art by his father, but he afterwards studied 
under Santi di Tito, and finally improved himself 
in colouring by imitating the harmonious tinting 
of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli. He painted 
several considerable woiks for the churches and 
convents at Florence, and for the palace of the 
Medici. He was also a very celebrated portrait 
painter; and many of the distinguished persons 
of his time were painted by him. Owing to 
vicious habits that often seduced him from his 
labours, his works are extremely rare, and he 
himself comparatively little known. The 'St. 
Julian' of the Pitti Palace is the grandest effort 
of his genius ; his picture of ' Judith with the 
head of Holofemes,' also in the Pitti Palace, is, 
however, of wider acquaintance. Judith, so beau- 
tifully and magnificently attired, is a portrait of 
his mistress ; the attendant is that of her mother, 
and the head of Holofemes that of the painter. 
Numerous copies of this fine work (which has been 
engraved no less than thirteen times), and duplicates 
of hiS most celebrated pictures, are scattered over 
Italy ; the productions of his scholars Tanteri, 
Bruno, Certosini, Cerrini, and others. He died in 
1621 at Florence. Allori made several copies, with 
slight alterations in the background, of Correggio'8 
'Reading Magdalene,' which were such good imi-' 
tations that they have passed as replicas by Cor- 
reggio's own hand. In addition to the worka 
already noticed may be mentioned : 




Florence. XTffizi. His own Portrait. 

„ „ Adoration of the Magi, 

„ ,} The Magdalene. 

„ „ Infant Christ sleeping. 

London. Nat. Gall. Portrait of a Lady. 
Paris. Louvre. Isabella of Aragon at the feet of 
Charles Till. 

ALLSTON, Washington, one of the chief 
painters of the American scliooi, was bom at 
Waccamaw in South Carolina, in 1779. After the 
completion of his university career at Harvard, 
he took up his abode at Charleston, where he, 
however, did not long remain, as he desired to 
go to Europe for the improvement of his art. He 
arrived in London in 1801, and at once entered 
the Royal Academy Schools, where he became 
acquainted with his fellow-countryman. West, 
who was then president. In 1804, Allston went 
with his friend Vanderlyn and with C. R. Leslie 
to Paris, and thence to Rome, where in the follow- 
ing year he painted his ' Joseph's Dream.' At 
Rome, Allston commenced with Washington 
Irving a friendship which lasted for life. He also 
became acquainted with Coleridge, and the Danish 
sculptor, Thorwaldsen. In 1809, he went back 
to America, married a sister of Dr. Charming, 
and then returned to London, where he produced 
his 'Dead Man touching Elisha's bones,' which 
gained a prize of two hundred guineas from the 
British Institution. It is now in the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia. Then 
followed the ' Liberation of St. Peter by the 
Angel,' which was taken to America in 1859, and 
presented by Dr. Hooper in 1877 to the Wor- 
cester Lunatic Hospital, U.S. ; ' Uriel in the Sun,' 
in the possession of the Duke of Sutherland ; and 
' Jacob's Dream,' in the Petworth Gallery. In 
1818, Allston returned to America, and settled at 
Boston, his health weakened by sorrow for the 
death of his wife, and by overwoi k. In the same 
year he was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy. Of the works which he executed in 
the following years, we may notice, the 'Prophet 
Jeremiah,' now in- Yale College; 'Saul and 
the Witch of Endor ;' 'Miriam's Song;' and 
' Dante's Beatrice.' In 1830, Allston married 
again. His second choice was the daughter of 
Chief Justice Dana, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
where he settled. There he spent the remainder 
of his life in secluded industry, occasionally in- 
terrupted by illness. He then produced one of 
his best known works, ' Spalatro' s Vision of the 
Bloody Hand,' from 'The Italian' by Mrs. Rad- 
clifEe — especially remarkable for tlie efEeots of 
light and shade, and for the expression of fright 
and a guilty conscience on the face of Spalatro, 
and the firm determination visible on the counten- 
ance of the monk. This work, which was painted 
for Mr. Ball, of South Carolina, is now in tlie 
Taylor Johnston Collection in New York ; it has 
been engraved by W. J. Linton, His ' Rosalie,' 
executed late in life, is also worthy of mention. 

Allston died at Cambridge in 1843, leaving 
unfinished a large work, on which he had been 
engaged at various times for about forty years. It 
represents 'Belshazzar's Feast,' and is now in 
the Boston .^hen^um, where there is also a 
' Portrait of Benjamin West,' which, with that of 
the poet Coleridge, in the National Portrait Gal- 
lery, proves that Allston excelled in portraiture 
as well as in historic painting. 

The works of this artist, the pride of his country, 
the 'American Titian,' are especially remarkable 

for beauty and power of colouring. His fondness 
for the terrible is especially noticeable in ' Spa- 
latro's Vision,' in ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' 
and in the unfinished ' Belshazzar' s Feast. ' 

ALMELOVEEN, Jan, a Dutch painter and 
engraver, of Mijdrecht, near Utrecht, flourished 
towards the close of the 17th century. He is better 
known by some etchings of landscapes, executed 
with great lightness and intelligence, after the 
manner of Saf tleven, than by anything he has left 
us as a painter. Among his plates are : 

A portrait of Gisbert Voetius ; signed /. Almeloveen, inv. 

A set of twelve landscapes, with small figures ; J". 
Almeloveen^ inv, et fee. 

Six mountainous landscapes, with figures ; Joan, ah 
Alweloveen^ inv. et fee. 

The Four Seasons ; after H. Saftleven. 

Twelve Views of Dutch Tillages ; after the same. 

ALOIS. See Alovigi. 

ALOISI, Baldassaee, called II Galanino, 
was born at Bologna in 1578, and was brought up 
in the school of the Carracci, to whom he was 
related. He was little inferior to the ablest of his 
fellow-students ; of this he has given proof in 
several of his works in the churches at Bologna, 
particularly his admired picture of the ' Visitation,' 
in La Carita, so highly commended by Malvasia ; 
and the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. John the 
Baptist and St. Francis,' in San Paolo in Monte. 
He visited Rome during the pontificate of Urban 
VIII., and here, accordingto Baglioni,hewasmuch 
employed in painting portraits of the most illus- 
trious personages of his time, which were admired 
for the force and truth of their colouring, and for 
their extraordinary relief. He also painted some 
works for the churches at Rome, of which the 
principal was the great altar-piece in the church of 
Gesii e Maria, representing the 'Coronation of the 
Virgin.' He died at Rome in 1638. He was also 
an engraver, and imitated Lanfranco, Badalocchio, 
and Guide Reni. He engraved fifty plates of 
Rap'iiael's works in the Loggie, in the Vatican. 
Aloisi had two sons, ViTO Andrea and Giosekfo 
Carlo, who were painters. 

ALOVIGI, Andrea (or Aloisi, Aloysii, and Di 
Ldigi), of Assisi, called L' Ingeqno, was bom about 
the year 1470. He is said by Vasari to have been a 
fellow-pupil with Raphael under Perugino, and to 
have assisted the latter in the Cambio at Perugia, at 
Assisi, and in the Sistine Chapel. Ingegno, Vasari 
adds, became preuiaturely blind, and received a 
pension from Pope Sixtus IV. This last statement 
Ruinohr points out to be an error, as the Pope 
died in 1484, and Raphael did not enter Perugino' s 
studio till about 1496. Numerous pictures — 
scattered throughout Europe — are attributed to 
Ingegno, amongst them a ' Madonna and Child,' 
in the National Gallery, which is now ascribed in 
the catalogue to Pinturicchio. Most of his works 
are in the manner of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo Vasari 
is the only early writer who mentions this painter, 
and Eumohr has shown that part of the little he 
has said of him is incorrect. That there was such 
a painter is certain, but at present no picture can 
be pointed out as indisputably the work of his 

ALS, Peter, a Danish historical and portrait 
painter, bom at Copenhagen in 1725, studied 
for some time under C. G. Pile. After gaining 
the first great prize given by the Academy at 
Copenhagen in 1755, he went to Rome and entered 
the school of Mengs. He occupied himself chiefly 





in copying the pictures of Raphael and Andrea del 
Sarto, which, it is said, he did with great accuracy. 
He also copied Correggio and Titian. On his 
return to his own country he painted some good 
portraits ; but his colouring was too sombre to 
give a pleasing effect to his pictures of females, 
and his work was frequently so laboured as to be 
deprived of all animation. Copies of the works 
of the old masters by Als are to be seen in 
Denmark. He died in 1775. 

ALSLOOT, Denys van, a portrait and landscape 
painter, who flourished towards the close of the 
16th and the beginning of the 17th century, was 
born at Brussels, but the date is nowhere recorded, 
and but little is known of his life. He was, about 
1600, painter to the Archduke Albert of Austria, 
and his pictures were purchased for high prices. 
He died in the year 1626, or earlier. A landscape 
with the story of Cephalus and Prooris, in the 
Vienna Gallery, is dated 1608. The figures are 
by H. de Clerck. Two. pictures by him are in 
the Brussels Gallery : they represent the Procession 
of St. Gudule at Brussels. By mistake, a second 
painter, Daniel van Alsloot, has been recorded 
by some writers ; but he appai ently never existed. 

ALT, Jakob, who was born at Prankfort-on-the- 
Main in 1789, received his first instruction in art 
in his nati-\-e city, and then removed to Vienna and 
entered the Academy, and soon rose to fame as a 
landscape painter. He then made various journeys 
throughout Austria and Italy, painting, as he went 
along, views in the neighbourhood of the Danube 
and in the city of Vienna. In later life Alt 
painted much in water-colour ; he was also an en- 
graver on stone. He died in Vienna in 1872. One 
of his best works is a ' View in Venice,' in the 
Belvedere Gallery, signed and dated 1834. He 
was employed by the Emperor Ferdinand to paint 
in water-colour a series of views of Rome. 

ALTAMONTE. See Hohenbeeg. 

ALTDORFER, Albrecht, a painter and en- 
graver, was born prior to 1480, as is clear from his 
having received the freedom of the city of Ratis- 
bon in 1505, which could not have been granted 
him had he been under twenty-five years old. He 
had in that year, according to Gumpelzhaimer, 
quitted Amberg for Ratisbon, but the locality of 
his birth is unknown. The coat of arms, which 
there is authority for believing to have been sculp- 
tured on his tombstone, was that of the Altdorfers 
of Landshut, Ratisbon, and Abensberg. At first 
in somewhat narrow circumstances, he soon found 
means of improving his position, and was within 
three years of his arrival at Ratisbon appointed to 
one of the minor ofilces, while in the next year we 
find the town council contributing to the expense 
of his work in the choir of the church of St. 
Peter. In 1517 he is mentioned as having painted 
a curtain for the Ch4sse, and is there alluded to 
under the designation of ' Meister Albrecht.' 
Two years later it fell to his lot, as a member of 
the lower chamber of the city council, to have to 
act offrcially in the expulsion of the Jews from 
Ratisbon. He has left us two etchings of the 
synagogue there as it existed prior to its demolil^ion 
in that year — etchings which have now become 
exceedingly scarce. A church dedicated to ' Our 
Lady' (now the Protestant parish church of 
Ratisbon) rose on the site of tlie synagogue, and 
Altdorfer was engaged to paint a banner for the 
service of the new edifice. A votive painting 
commemorative of a miracle, and two or three 


subsequent works, coimeot his name still more 
closely with this Church of Our Lady. In the 
year 1526 we find him a member of the upper 
chamber, a post which in common with that of 
city architect (to which he either was then, or 
had previously been, appointed), he held till his 
death. The city slaughter-house which he erected 
in the following year is still standing, and he is 
known to have undertaken, amongst other works 
intrusted to him in his capacity of architect, the 
construction of some of the principal fortifications 
which were shortly afterwards thrown out round 
Ratisbon with a view to protect it from the 

In 1528 he was at work on his celebrated paint- 
ing of 'The Victory of Alexander,' which had 
been ordered by Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria, and 
he persuaded the council to relieve him from 
the duties of burgomaster, to which ofRce he had 
been raised, that he might be at liberty to com- 
plete it. 

The death of his wife occurred in 1532. Her 
body was laid in the church of the Augustines. He 
was about this period offered, and persuaded to 
accept, in addition to the offices he already filled, 
the post of bursar to the monastery of the Augus- 
tines, then in the gift of the council. 

His will, which contains some curious particulars, 
is still in existence. It was dated 12 Feb. 1538. 
By it he bequeathed to the poor a silver tankard, 
which had been his wedding present to his wi£e. 
He named as his heirs his two sisters (who were 
then both married), and his brother, Erhardt Alt- 
dorfer. He died apparently immediately after 
executing his will, on the 14th February, 1538, and 
was buried in the church of the Augustines. A 
portion of his tombstone was preserved when the 
church was taken down in 1840. 

As " painter Altdorfer may be regarded as a 
follower, but by no means a slavish imitator, of 
Diirer. It is almost certain that he was Diirer's 
pupil, just after the master's marriage, and there 
is no doubt as to their having been on terms of 
intimacy afterwards. Altdorfer's treatment shows 
considerable feeling for the picturesque. His care- 
ful elaboration of detail, especially in portraying 
the features of a landscape, or the minutiae of archi- 
tectural construction, prove him not only to have 
been a true student of nature, but to have laboured 
with the most assiduous industry. 

The lack of breadth and movement in his com- 
position, coupled with something of that angularity 
in rendering figures from which the painters of 
his country were but just beginning to emancipate 
themselves, render his smaller works more pleasing 
than those on a larger scale. His ' Battle be- 
tween Alexander and Darius,' previously referred 
to, was, however, distinguished among the his- 
torical paintings of his contemporaries, and as 
such is deserving of high praise. This latter work, 
signed and dated 1529, is, with other paintings from 
his band, now in the Munich Pinakothek. 

_ There are altogether about 25 pictures known by 
him. We mention the following : 

Augsburg, Gallery. Triptych — Crucifixioii and Annun- 
ciation. 1517. 
5, „ Birth of the Virgm. 

Berlin. Museum. Diptych— St.Francis and St.Dominic 

{sir/Tied and dated 1507). 
,1 „ Landscape with Figures (signed and 

dated 1507). 
V „ Rest on the FUght into Egypt 

(signed hit mis-dated 1540). 




Berlin. Museum. Landscape -with Figures, 'Der 
Bettell sitzt auf der Sohleppe 
der Hoffart' (signed and dated 
.Munich, Pindkothek. Susannah at the Bath {signed and 
dated 1526). 
„ „ Madonna and Child. 

„ „ Pieta. 

„ „ St. George and the Dragon {signed 

and dated 1510). 
„ „ Landscape with figures. 

Nuremberg. St. Mau- A man and two women rescuing the 
rice, body of St. Quiriuus from the 

,, Landauer 1 t j 

hruderhaus.] landscape. 
„ Castle. Crucifixion {dated 1506). 

Eatisbon. Hist.Soc. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

So late as 1812 there were about 25 of his oil 
paintings (he produced upwards of 70) preserved 
at Eatisbon. At the present date there is only a 
single specimen remaining there. The city records 
mention, however, a purchase in 1651 o£ a volume 
containing a collection of genuine engravings and 
woodcuts by his hand, and this is happily still to 
be seen in the Royal Library at Munich. 

Of his drawings, some of which are heightened 
with white, by far the most important collection is 
that of the Berlin Cabinet. 

He takes his place in the ranks of the 'Little 
Masters,' and is known in France under the title 
of 'Petit Albert.' His works lack the vigour of 
Beham, and the accomplishment of Aldegrever ; 
nor are they in the smallest degree influenced by 
an Italian element. Still there is often present 
a certain fantastic quaintness of conception which 
gives them a peculiar charm, and the landscape 
accessories (in which the introduction of drooping 
foliage is a feature frequently present) are always 
a source of pleasure. Our higher standard of beauty 
prevents our finding this the case with his render- 
ing of mythological subjects. But his genre pieces, 
very small as they are, are things sure of appre- 
ciation. He was truly a German of the old school, 
uninfluenced by the Renaissance, yet he has been 
called the 'father of landscape painting,' being 
the earliest painter who made the landscape pre- 
dominate over the figures in the interest of his 
pictures, and the first to produce etchings of 
scenery. These etchings are slight in efEect, but 
very pictorial; mountain scenery prevailing, and 
the fir-tree always very important. Amongst his 
productions by the latter process are also subjects 
representing ornamental objects, some of them 
doubtless copies of cups and vases in his own 
possession, as well as landscape scenes, the rarity 
of' the latter of which at the present day is the 
more to be regretted from their being the produc- 
tion of his ripest time. 

As a designer for woodcuts, Altdorfer exhibited 
a good deal of activity, but not so much as Durer, 
Beham, and others. He probably did not cut his 
own blocks. The only continuous series of wood- 
cuts which we know him to have produced, is a 
set of forty very small prints, ' The Eall and Re- 
demption,' not his most satisfactory examples. 
fThese commence with ' The Disobedience of Adam 
and Eve,' and illustrate the whole life of the Virgin 
and Passion of Christ, ending with 'The Day of 
Judgment,' and 'The Glorification of Mary.' 'They 
exhibit feebleness in the figures, and a general 
poverty in the details, nor do they often possess 
any of that quaintness of fancy which was one 
of his peculiar charms. The entire catalogue of 

his engraved designs, including Passavant's addi- 
tions to Bartsch, is given below. 
His monogram occurs in the 
accompanying forms : 


(From Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.') 


Heligious Subjects. 

1. Judith with the head of Holofemes. 

2. Samson with the gates of Gaza. 

3. Delilah cutting off Samson's hair. 

4. Solomon's idolatry. 

5. The Repose of Joseph and Mary. 

6. Virgin, seated, holding the Infant Saviour. 

7. Virgin, seated on a throne, holding the Infant 
Saviour, with Angel. 

8. Virgin in profile, standing ; with the Infant Saviour. 
Anna introduced. 

9. Virgin and Child, seated. The Infant stretches his 
arms towards two children, one of whom offers a 
vessel {signed and dated 1507). 

10. The Virgin standing, offering an apple to the Infant 
{signed and dated 1509). 

11. The Virgin sitting, the Infant on her knees, giving 
the blessing. 

12. The Virgin holding the Infant, standing on a 

13. The Virgin with the Infant seated on clouds, a 
Saint to the right. 

14. The Infant Saviour ; the right hand blessuig, the 
left holds a world. 

15. Our Lord driving the merchants from the temple. 

16. Our Lord crovmed with thorns, meeting Mary. 

17. The Little Crucifixion. 

18. The Great Crucifixion. 

19. St. Christopher. 

20. St. George and the Dragon. 

21. St. Jerome reading. 

22. St. Jerome writing. 

23. St. Sebastian fastened to a tree. 

24. St. Sebastian fastened to a pillar. 

25. St. Catherine, sword and wheel. 

26. The Nunnery. 

27. Two Hermits. 

28. Mercury, springing from a tree into the sea. 

29. Neptune, on a sea-monster. 

30. Eape of a Nymph. 

31. Venus, stancJing. Two Cupids ; one holds a tablet. 

32. Venus seated in a bath ; Cupid on a pedestal, after 

33. Venus emerging from the bath ; Cupid on the left, 
afte]' Marcantonio. 

34. Venus on a lawn, with two Cupids. 

35. Judgment of Paris. 

36. Triton, Nereid, and Dolphins. 

37. Man and Satyr struggling for a Nymph, after 

38. Thisbe and Pyramus. 

39. Infant Hercules and the Snakes. 

40. Hercules subduing the Nemean Lion, 

41. Hercules with the two pillars. 

42. Hercules with a cornucopia ; a Nymph with a lyre 
on the left. 

43. Centaur, bearing a vessel with fire. 

44. "Winged Genius, holding a bubble. 

45. Winged Genius, riding on a stick. 

46. "Winged Genius, blowing a bagpipe {dated 1521). 

47. Fortune, standing on a globe {signed and dated 1511). 

48. Pride, regarding herself in a mirror. 

49. Pride, seated on a winged serpent, holding a mirror 
{signed and dated 1506). 

50. Nude female figure on a star ; the nght hand hold- 
ing a torch, the left a sceptre {on some examples the 
legend LASorfiA occurs). 

51. Dido on the funeral pile. 

52. Lucretia seated, holding the dagger {copied with 
variations from Marcantonio, doubtful). 

53. Mutius Scsevola. 

54. The Eoman lady, on a pedestal, from the mediieval 
story of Virgil; ifnale figures fetching fire from he^\ 




55. Soldiers Standing, one drawing his sword. ProfiU, 
looliinq to the left. 

56. The'Warrior, a pole on his shoulder. Profile, looking 
to the right. 

57. The "Warrior. Front view, holds sword and haloert 

58. The Knigbt. One hand holds a vessel, the other a 
loaf. , , ■ , 7 

59. The Drummer. Marching to the right {signed ami 
dated 1510). . 

60. The Little Standard-hearer. Silly landscape m back- 

61. The Great Standard-hearer. Backgrmnd clear 
{signed and dated 1508 or 1510). 

62. The Fiddler. Left hand holds the low. 

63. The Oontemplatire Man, sitting on a stone. Has 
been supposed to be the Artist's portrait. 

64. The Standard-hearer on the right, the "Woman on 
the left. 

65. A Man on the right, grasping a curtain, a woman 
on the left. 

65. {a) The Piper. A warrior, with a hat and feather, 
is Mowing on afiute {signed and dated 1510). 

65. {b) "Winged child, leaning forward, holding a shield. 

66. A "Woman, with hat and feather, half-length. 

67. A "Woman bathing her feet. 

68. A "Woman seated on some armour, and holding a 
vessel ; after Beham. 

69. A nude female figure, with a candlestick. 

70. Interior of the old Synagogue at Eatisbon, with an 

71. Vestibule of the above, with two figures, and an 

72. Martin Luther. Profile, to the right, bearing in- 
scription D. L. M. Probably after Cranach or Hopfer. 

73. Head of a young man, with long hair, and no beard 
{signed and dated 1507). 

Beyond these, Meyer mentions 28 various plates 
of Ornaments, Cups, and Vases, and ten Landscapes. 

Nos- 1 to 40. A series of outs representing the FaJl and 
the Bedemption, all marked with monogram. 

41. Abraham's Sacrifice. 

42. Joshua and Caleb with the fruit. 

43. Jael and Sisera. 

44. The Annunciation {dated 1513). 

45. The Adoration of the Shepherds {signed^. 

40. The Murder of the Innocents {signed and dated 

47. A magnificent Font in a chapel, with angels and 
other figures {signed), 

48. The Resurrection {signed and dated 1513). 

49. The Virgin, in a church, with the Infant on her arm. 

50. The Virgin, seated as on an altar, with the Infant 
on her arm, a Deacon praying before them. 

51. The Virgin and Child, by an altar, on the left of 
which are figures of St. Christopher and St. Barbara, 
on the right those of St. George and St. Catherine. 

52. Our Lady of Batisbon : a balustrade in front with a 
vase of flowers, with the legend — 

" Gantz schdn bistu meinfrundtin vnd 
ein mackel ist nit in dir. Aue MariaP 

53. The Decollation of St. John Baptist {signed and 
dated 1512). 

54. A Decollation of St. John Baptist {signed and dated 

55. St. Christopher stooping to take up the Infant 

56. St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus across the 
stream {signed and dated 1513). 

57. St. George on horseback thrusting his lance into 
the Dragon's throat {signed and dated 1511). 

58. St. George standing, the Dragon under his feet 

59. St. Jerome in a cave, before a crucifix. 

60. St. Jerome. A crucify rests against a rock on the 

61. St. Catherine with a wheel. Two Angels with 
musical Instruments ; others hold a crown above her 

62. Judgment of Paris {sianed and dated 1511). 

63. Thisbe and Pyramus (signed and dated 1513). 

64. A Standard-bearer in a landscape. 


65. Two lovers seated in a landscape a horse tied to a 
branch of a tree on the right {signea and dated 1511), 

66. A title-page. Angels playing music ; aHolyPamily 
represented below on the left. 

67. Three plates representing peasants (attributed to 
Altdorfer liy Wesseley, who p-aises it highly). 

68 A richly ornamented gate ; the ornaments filled in 
with black. W. B. S. 

ALTDORFER, Erhaed, a painter and engraver 
on wood, -was, in all probability, brother of the 
well-known artist Albrecht Altdorfer, in whose will, 
dated 12th Feb. 1538, he is mentioned as a citi- 
zen of Schweriri. He was court-painter to Duke 
Henry the Peaceable, and accompanied him, in 
1512, to a royal marriage at "Wittenberg. There 
he appears to have made the acquaintance of Lucas 
Cranach, as the influence of this master is seen in 
his productions. He painted at Sternberg in 1516 
an altar-piece (now no longer in existence), for 
which Duke Henry engaged to pay him 150 
Rhenish florins. In 1552 he describes himself 
in a letter to the young Duke John Albert of 
Mecklenburg as ' Baumeister,' so that he appears 
to have followed the profession of an architect as 
well as his brother. We know him only by his 
woodcuts, two of which are indicated by a mono- 
gram composed of the letters .E and S combined, 
His work consisted principally of title-pages and 
illustrations for various works, among which may 
be noticed the Liibeck Bible of 1533, and an 
edition of ' Reineke Fuchs,' containing 35 cuts, 
published at Rostock in 1539. 

ALTHAM, — , a German painter, who flourished 
about 1660, painted landscapes and marine subjects 
with considerable ability. He is reported to have 
studied with Salvator Rosa. Works by him are 
in the Colonna Collection at Rome. 

ALTICHIERO da ZEVIO (or Aldighibeo), 
who was born at Zevio, a village near Verona, 
painted, with Avanzi, the decoration of the 
chapels of SS. Felice and Giorgio, at Padua. 
While the principal part of the frescoes in the 
chapel of San Giorgio is attributed to the latter 
artist, for the former are claimed the first seven 
pictures in the chapel of San Felice — formerly San 
Jaoopo — illustrating the life of St. James the 
Greater ; and from documents it appears that the 
payment for the frescoes in San Felice was made 
to Altichiero. But authorities differ much as to 
the authors of the various works in both chapels. 
Liibke says that Altichiero displayed in his works 
a lively conception and a rich finished colouring, 
and, indeed, with the exception of Orcagna's, his 
paintings, together with those of Avanzi, were, 
up to that period, the best productions since the 
time of Giotto. It is not known when this artist 
died. He painted as late as 1382. 

ALTISSIMO, Cbistofano di Papi, dell'. Sea 

ALTMANN, Anton, who was born in "Vienna in 
1808, studied from nature, and under the instruction 
of Mossmer at the Academy. After being instructor 
in drawing to Count Apponyi in Hungary, he settled 
in "Vienna, and became famous as a landscape 
painter. He died there in 1871. Among his most 
important works are the following: 

Cloister of the Convent ' Maria Sohein,' in Bohemia 

Forest Scene. 1840. 
Marshy Landscape. 1846. 
Evening Landscape. 1847. 
Spring In a Forest. 1851. 
The Mill. 1851. 




Altmann executed landscapes in water-colour; 
and also etched from his own designs. 

ALTMANN, Karl, who was bom at Feuoht- 
wangen in 1800, studied fron\,1819 to 1822 in the 
Academy at Dresden. He then went to Munich, 
where he resided until his death in 1861. He 
represented scenes from Bavarian peasant life, 
with much hiimour and originality. 

ALTOBELLO, Francesco Antonio, a Neapo- 
litan painter of the 17th century, was a scholar of 
Carlo di Rosa, who had studied under Massimo 
Stanzioni. Altobello used ultramarine excessively 
in his pictures, which was contrary to Stanzioni' s 
practice. He is mentioned as a man of genius, 
correct in drawing, of good invention, and skilful 
in composition. 

_ ALTOMONTE, Andrea, perhaps a son of Mar- 
tino Altomonte, flourished at Vienna from about 
1728 to 1763, at which date he was draughtsman 
to the Hoftheater. He engraved Teniers's pic- 
ture of ' Abraham and Isaac kneeling to sacrifice 
the ram,' in Prenner's 'Vienna Gallery.' 
ALTOMONTE, Martino. See Hohenbehg. 
ALTZENBAGH, Wilhelm, an engraver, who, 
according to Heineken, flourished about the middle 
of the 17th century. He worksd at Strasburg, 
Cologne, and Paris, and, in conjunction with his 
son, executed twenty plates of Bible subjects. 

ALUNNO, Niccol6. See Liberatorb, Niocol6 

ALVAREZ, LoEENZO, studied at Valladolid and 
Madrid under Bartolome Carduoho ; he established 
himself at Murcia, about 1638, and executed several 
works of merit in the convents there. 

AMALTEO, Girolamo, the brother of Pompo- 
nio, was instructed by him, and gave proofs of a 
noble genius, which is manifested in his works 
of design in small pictures, which appeared like 
miniatures, in several fables executed in fresco, 
and in altar-pieces which he painted in the church 
of San Vito. Ridolfi commends him highly for 
his spirited manner, and Renaldis says that, in his 
opinion, if he had lived longer he would have 
proved no way inferior to the great Pordenone. 
He flourished in the 16th century, and died when 
still young. Graziano, in his poem of ' Orlando,' 
styles him " Girolamo Amalteo de vita santa." 

AMALTEO, PoMPONio, who was born at San 
Vito, a town in Friuh, in the year 1605, was the 
scholar and subsequently son-in-law of Porde- 
none. He painted several historical works in 
fresco in the churches and public places in the 
vicinity of Friuli. At Belluno, there are some 
pictures painted by this master, it is said in 1529, 
representing subjects of Roman history. In 1532 
he was employed at Udine, and in 1533 he painted 
for the duomo of San Vito, a votive St. Eooh, 
with SS. ApoUonia, Sebastian, and two other 
Saints. In the choir of the church of Santa Maria 
de Battisti, at San Vito, are frescoes by him, dated 
1535, representing scenes from the 'Life of the 
Virgin,' &c., which are now much injured by time 
and decay. In 1655 he painted the organ shutters 
at Udine, with scenes from the ' Life of Christ ; ' 
and in 1576 he executed ' The Entombment,' in 
the Monte di Pieta at Udine. Many of the churches 
and public buildings in and around Friuli and 
Treviso possess frescoes and paintings by him. 
The frescoes of ' Daniel and Susanna,' and the 
' Judgments ' of Solomon and Trajan, in the town- 
hall at Ceneda, supposed by Ridolfi to have been 

painted by Pordenone, were really the work of 
Amalteo, and finished by him in 1536. He died 
at San Vito, in 1584. 

AMAND, Jacques FRANgois, who was bom at 
Gault, near Blois, in 1730, studied under Pierre, 
and became a good historical painter. In 1756 
he gained the Prix de Rome for his ' Samson and 
Delilah ; ' he afterwards exhibited at the Salon 
numerous subjects from ancient history and 
mythology. He also engraved several of his own 
compositions. He died at Paris, in 1769. 

AMANN. See Amman. 

AMATO, Francesco, an Italian engraver of the 
17th century. Ot his paintings little is known ; 
but he has left some slight etchings, which are 
executed with spirit, in the style of Biscaino, 
among which are the following : 

St. Joseph seated, reading a book, with the Infant Jesus 
near him — an upright plate; inscribed Franciscua 
Amafus, inv. 

The Prodigal Son. 

AMATO, Giovanni Antonio d', called 'the 
elder,' was born at Naples about the year 1476. 
He was the disciple of Silvestro Bruno, or Buono, 
an old Neapolitan painter then in repute, bnt did 
not study long under him, as the latter died when 
Amato was young ; he afterwards applied himself 
to the study of the works of Pietro Perugino, 
whose manner he followed. There are several of 
his works in the churches at Naples. In San Do- 
menico Maggiore, in the chapel of the family of 
CarrafEa, is a picture by this master of ' The Holy 
Family.' He worked both in oil and in fresco, 
and, being an artist of considerable eminence, 
had a great number of scholars, amongst whom 
were Giovanni B. Azzolini, Pietro Negroni, Simone 
Papa the younger, Cesare Turco, and others. 
Though professionally a painter, his favourite 
study was theology ; and he was celebrated for 
his expositions of many obscure passages of Scrip- 
ture. He died in 1656. 

AMATO, Giovanni Antonio d', ' the younger,' 
nephew of the elder Amato, was born at Naples, 
in 1636. He excelled chiefly in colouring, and 
some of his pictures are as richly coloured as those 
of Titian. His best work is the large altar-piece 
of the Infant Christ in the church of the Banco de' 
Poveri at Naples, in which city he died in 1698. 

AMATRICE, Dell'. See Dell' Amatkice. 

AMAYA, — , an historical painter, scholar of 
Vincenzo Carduoho, and rival of Lorenzo Alvarez, 
painted at Segovia, in 1682, several pictures illus- 
trating the Life of St. Martin, remarkable for their 
correct design and colour. He died about 1690 
or 1692., 

AMBERES, Francisco de, a painter and sculp- 
tor of Toledo, the cathedral of which he orna- 
mented with his pictures in 1502. From 1508 to 
1610 he painted, in conjunction with Juan de Bor- 
gona and Juan de Villoldo, the arabesque chapel, 
which is still an interesting object. 

AMBl&RES, Miguel de — called in Spain, Miguel 
EL Flamengo — is also the same person as Miguel 
Manrique. He was born in Flanders, and learned 
his art there under Rubens, and afterwards, at 
Genoa, from Giovanni Andrea de' Ferrari, and 
Cornells Wael. He subsequently obtained a com- 
mission as captain of a troop in the Spanish service, 
and went to Spain and settled in Malaga, where 
are several works by him in the churches and else- 
where. His portraits are executed in a style 
similar to that of Van Dijck. Miguel de Ambdres 


Amber ger 



died in Spain in the latter half of the 17th cen- 

AMBEEGER, Cheistoph, was horn about the 
year 1490, or later. Nuremberg, Ulm, and Am- 
berg are all given by various authors as his birth- 
place ; and some writers say he studied under his 
father, one Leonhard Amberger. Certain it is, 
however, that Augsburg was the scene of his 
labours. He was, Doppelmayer says, the disciple 
of Hans Holbein the elder. He probably studied 
under Hans Burgkmair, and the paintings of Hans 
Holbein the younger had an evident effect on his 
style, so much so that his works have been some- 
times mistaken for those of Holbein. He painted 
a set of twelve pictures representing the 'History 
of Joseph and his Brethren,' which gained him 
great reputation. He succeeded, however, better 
in portraits than historical subjects. In 1632 he 
painted the portrait of the Emperor Cbarles V. ; 
and Sandrart tells us that this portrait was con- 
sidered by that monarch equal to any of the 
pictures painted of him by Titian. He certainly 
honoured the artist by giving him a gold chain 
and medal on the occasion. The original is in the 
Institute of Fine Arts at Siena, and is there ascribed 
to Holbein. The one at Berlin is a replica, by 
Amberger. He died at Augsburg, in 1563. From 
amongst Amberger's pictures, which are rarely 
signed, the following may be selected as some of 
the best : 

Augsburg. Cathedral. Virgin and Child. 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of Charles V. {signed). 

„ „ Portrait of Sebastian Miinster (dated 

Frankfort. Stadd. Portrait of a yonng man. 
Vienna. Belvedere. Portrait of Martin "Weiss (painted in 
,j „ Six other portraits. 

ji „ Herodias {said to he hy Andrea 

Works hy him are in other collections 
in Vienna. 

AMBLING. See Amling. 

AMBEOGI, DoMENioo, called Menichino del 
Bmzio, from the master under whom he studied, 
Francesco Brizio, was born at Bologna, about 
the year 1600, and distinguished himself as a 
painter of liistory, both in oil and in fresco. He 
also excelled in repi-esenting landscapes, and per- 
spective and architectural views, and was much 
employed in the churclies and palaces at Bologna. 
In the UfSzi there are two landscapes containing 
sacred subjects by him. In San Giacomo Mng- 
giore, is a picture by Ambrogi of the 'Guardian 
Angel,' and in the Annunziata, ' St. Francesco,' 
with a glory of angels. In 1653 he published 
some woodcuts, from his own designs, printed in 
chiaroscuro, of whicli one, mentioned by Heineken, 
represented a woman in a triumphal car, holding 
two flambeaux and a serpent, and conducted by 
Neptune. By him are also a drawing for the Thesis 
of Julius Calaverius, and 'Painting and Sculpture.' 
Amongst the pupils of Ambrogi were Giacinto 
and Pier Antonio Cerva, Giovanni Antonio Fumi- 
ani, and Giacinto Campana. 

AMBROGI, Marco degli. See Degli Ambrogi. 

AMBEOZY, Wenzel Bernhakd, who was born 
at Kuttenberg, in Bohemia, in 1723, received in- 
struction m art at Prague from his brother Joseph, 
who was a miniature painter. He was court- 
pamter to Maria Theresa, and the last president of 
the Painters' Guild at Prague. He painted por- 
traits and altar-pieces in oil ; but was also famous 


for his frescoes, which adorn many of the churches 
and castles of Prague, and other places in Bohemia. 
He died in 1806. 
AMEDBE DE NOB (' Cham '). See No^. 
AMELSFOORT, Qdirinus van, was born at Bois- 
le-Duc in 1760, and died there in 1820. He painted 
allegories, history, and portraits ; in the last the 
likenesses were remarkable for their truth. 

AMERIGI, Michel Angiolo, da Caravaggio, 
(or Amerighi, or Mokigi), was born at Caravaggio, 
a village in the Milanese, in 1569. He was the sou 
of a mason, and was employed when a boy to pre- 
pare the plaster for the fresco painters at Milan. 
The habit of seeing them work inspired him with the 
ambition of becoming an artist ; and without the 
instruction of any particular master, he attached 
himself to a faithlul imitation of nature, and 
formed to himself a manner which, from its singu- 
larity, and a striking effect of light and shadow, 
became extremely popular. For a few years be 
confined himself to painting fruit, flowers, and 
portraits, which were much admired for the fideUty 
of their resemblance. Such was his rigid ad- 
herence to the precise imitation of his model, that 
he copied nature even in her deformities, and he 
afterwards continued the same slavish mechanism 
in the higher department of historical painting. 
After five years of steady application in Milan, 
Caravaggio removed to Venice, where he greatly 
improved his colouring by studying the works of 
Giorgione ; and the pictures painted in his earlier 
manner are infinitely preferable, in point of colour, 
to his later works. From Venice he went to Eome, 
in which city, finding himself, through poverty, 
unable to gain a livelihood as an independent 
painter, he engaged himself to Cesare d'Arpino, 
who employed him to execute the floral and orna- 
mental parts of his pictures. Caravaggio, how- 
ever, was soon enabled to paint for himself. The 
novelty of his manner both pleased and surprised; 
and his works soon became so generally the objects 
of public admiration, that some of the greatest 
artists then in Eome were induced to imitate, with- 
out approving, the new style of Amerigi. Guide and 
Domenichino, to gratify a corrupt public taste, were 
for some time under the necessity of abandoning 
their suavity and their grace, to follow this vulgar 
though vigorous trickery of Caravaggio. This in- 
fatuation did not, however, continue long ; the 
attractions of the grand and the beautiful resumed 
their sway over public opinion. After executing 
many important works, Caravaggio was obliged to 
leave the city on account of the death of a friend, ■ 
whom he had killed in a fit of anger ; he repaired to 
Naples, whence he went to Malta, where he was 
patronized by the grand-master Vignacourt, whose 
portrait he twice painted. Once more, through 
his hot and fiery temper, Caravaggio was driven 
f rorn the town of his choice. He quarrelled with 
a knight, who threw him into prison. Caravaggio, 
however, escaped from captivity and fled to Syra^, .» 
cuse, whence he went to Naples by way of Messina 
and Palermo. Having obtained, through the in- 
fluence of his friends, the Pope's pardon for the 
manslaughter of his companion, Caravaggio set 
sail from Naples for Eome, but he was taken 
prisoner on the way hy some Spaniards, in mistalte . 
for another man. On being set at liberty, he had 
the misfortune to find that the boatmen had gone 
off with the felucca and his property. He con- 
tinued his way as far as Porto Ercole, where, partly 
from his loss, and partly from the heat of the 




weather, lie was taken ill, and died in 1609. The 
merit of Caravaggio is confined to colour, and to 
an extraordinary effect, produced by a daring con- 
trast of light and shadow, which only belongs to 
nature in abstracted situations. To give it veracity 
we must suppose the light to proceed from a 
partial and prescribed aperture, which alone can 
sustain the illusion. He seldom ventured on 
works that required the arrangement of a grand 
composition, for which liis wantof academic study 
rendered him totally inadequate ; he contented 
himself with subjects he could represent in half- 
length figures, and which did not demand a correct 
delineation of the nude. His saints and heroes are 
the representations of the porters who served him 
for models, and which he never thought it neces- 
sary to attempt to ennoble. It must, however, be 
admitted that his works possess wonderful force, 
and that the distributiou of light and shadow is 
conducted with admirable intelligence. The fol- 
lowing is a list of some of the principal works of 
Caravaggio : 

Berlin. Museum. Entombment. 

„ „ Christ on the Momit of Olives. 

„ „ St. Matthew. 

J, „ Love as a ruler. 

„ „ Conquered Love. 

„ „ Male Portrait. 

„ „ . Female Portrait. 

All from the Giustiniani Collection. 
Dresien.Galler^. Card-players. 

„ „ Four othsrs. 

London. Nat. Gall. Christ and the two Disciples at 

Paris. I/mvre, Death of the Virgin. 

„ „ The Fortune-teller. 

„ „ A Concert. 

„ „ , Portrait of Tignacoiirt. 

Petersburg.HermjVap'^.Ecce Homo. 

„ ■ „ Martyrdom of St. Peter. 

Bome. /S. Maria del ( Martyrdom of St. Peter. 
Popolo. \ Conversion of St. Paul. 

„ Vatican Mu>. The Entombment (Ajsmasierpjece). 

His works are also seen in the palaces TCa/N 
of Rome, and in Genoa, Siena, Modena, J[V>j~\_ 
Naples, and Malta. 

AMIGI, Feancesoo, was an Italian engraver, of 
Florence, of the 18th century, who engraved some 
small plates of sacred history subjects, among 
which are : 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 
Christ before Pilate. 
Christ bearing His Cross. 
The Entombment of Christ. 

AMICO. See Aspeetini. 
AMICONI. See Amigoni. 
AMIDANO, GiuLlo Cesare (wrongly called 
PoMPONio), was a native of Parma, and painted 
from about 1560 to 1628. From the resemblance 
of his works to those of Parmigiano, he is sup- 
posed to have frequented his school. If not his 

; disciple, he was certainly one of the most success- 
ful followers of his style. His heads are noble 
and graceful, and his design full of taste. His 
best performance was his picture painted in the 
church of the Madonna del Quartiere, which has 

I been mistaken by good judges for the work of 

J Parmigiano. Orlandi relates that many of the 
pictures of Amidano were purchased by foreigners. 

, AMIEL, Louis Finx, a French portrait painter, 

"f was born at Castelnaudary (Aude) in 1802. He 
was a pupil of Baron Gros, and died at Joinville- 

, le-Pont in 1864. 

|, AMIGAZZI, Giovanni Battista, a painter of 

Verona, who flourished about the middle of the 
17th century, was a scholar of Claudio Ridolfi ; 
his chief talent consisted in the excellence of his 
copies, and several of his works have been mis- 
taken for those of his master. A copy which he 
made of Paolo Veronese's ' Supper in the House of 
the Pharisee' is not only finely drawn, but its 
colours are fresh and vivid even at the present 

AMIGONI, Jacopo, (or Amiconi), was born at 
Venice in 1675. He painted- historical subjects 
and portraits. His first works at Venice were 
two altar-pieces in the church of the Fathers of the 
Oratorio, and a picture of ' St. Catherine and St. 
Andrew,' for the church of St. Eustache. He 
afterwards visited Rome, and from thence went to 
Munich, where he settled for some time ; but his 
chief performances are in England, whither he came 
in 1729 ; he resided here ten years. Whatever may 
be the merit of his works, they were for some time 
in great vogue. He was employed by several of 
the nobility in ornamenting their houses. After 
leaving England in 1739 he returned to Venice, 
where he remained till 1747 ; he then went to 
Spain, and resided there until his death, which 
took place at Madrid in 1752. He etched a few 
plates in a tame, spiritless style ; the following are 
the principal : 

Salvator Mundi ; half length. 
Jupiter and CalHsto. 
Zephyrus and Flora. 
Bathsheba in the Bath. 
Madonna and Child. 

AMIGONI, Ottavio, (or Amiconi), was born at 
Brescia in 1605, and was a scholar of Antonio 
Gandini. His chief excellence was in fresco 
painting, which he treated with great ability, in 
the manner of Paolo Veronese. In the Carmelite 
Church, in his native city, is a very considerable 
work in fresco, executed in conjunction with 
Bernardino Gandini, the son of his master, whicli 
is much extolled by Averoldi. The subjects were 
taken from the Life of St. Alberto. He died in 

AMIL, G. P. DE LA VILLA. See De la Villa- 

AMLING, Carl Gustav, (or Ambling), a 
draughtsman and engraver, was bom at Nurem- 
berg in 1651. He was taken under the protection 
of Maximilian II., Elector of Bavaria, who sent him 
for improvement to Paris, where he received the 
instruction of F. de Poilly, whose manner he fol- 
lowed, but whose excellence he never equalled, 
although he became a very good artist. After a 
few years he returned to Munich, and was ap- 
pointed court-engraver to his patron, Maximilian 
Emmanuel, whose portrait he engraved, as well as 
those of many members of the electoral family. 
Araling died in 1703. He engraved a great num- 
ber of plates of historical subjects and portraits, 
but was much more successful in the latter, many 
of which have great merit. His drawing, par- 
ticularly in the nude, is not correct ; and in all his 
prints, except his portraits, there is a want of efEect. 
The following list comprises all his plates, except 
those he engraved for the academy of Sandrart, 
and some prints after tapestry, which were private 
plates in the possession of the Elector of Bavaria : 

Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria; after T. 
Macolinus, dated 1670, an oval very scarce. 





Maximilian Emmanuel ; after J. S. Champagne ; one of 

his best works. 
Equestrian statue of Maximilian Emmanuel ; after Ah- 

Henrietta Maria Adelaide, Duchess of Bavaria ; after 

Belamonee, 1675 ; oval. 
Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Bavaria, 1676 ; oval. 
Count Johaun von Berlo de Brus, Stadtholder of In- 

goldstadt, 1680 ; large oval. 
Alexander Sigismund, Bishop of Augsburg; P. F. 

Hamilton^ pinx. 
Eomain liberiet, Abbot of St. TJlrich, Afra, and m 

Augsburg ; after himself; a fine portrait ; oval. 
Petrus Marinus Sormannus ; in a medallion. 
Livio Prince Odescalchi ; in a medallion. 
Marcus ab Aviano, 1680 ; oval. 
A young prince conducted to the throne by Hercules 

and Nestor; at the foot of the throne is inscribed, 

Two plates of statues ; engraved for Sandrart's Deutsche 


The Virgin and Child, with two portraits ; after J. A. 

Wolff; a very large plate. 
The Image of the Virgin of Consolation ; 1682 ; large 

plate, oval. 
Veto Ritratto di S. Francesco d'Assisi. 
St. Nicholas of Tolentino; after J. A. Wolff, 1691; 

large plate. 
Vrai Portrait de St. John de S. Facundo; after the 

same; large oval. 
St. Godard kneeling before the Virgin; J. Drentwet, 

Ten plates in folio — Of a triumphal arch in honour of 

the Elector Maximilian Emmanuel. 
Grand Thesis, dedicated to the Emperor Leopold and 

his son Joseph ; S. P. Antonius Lumlinsky, del. 
Another large plate, representing the Virgin Mary 

treading on the Serpent, accompanied by the four 

Doctors of the Church. 

AMMAN, Jeeemias, an engraver of portraits, 
vi\iO worked at SehafEhausen from about 1660 to 
1670, executed, in conjunction vsrith his son, Johann 
Amman, the plates to Patin's ImperatoruTn Ro- 
manorum Numismata (1671), chiefly from the 
drawings of F. Chauveau. 

AMMAN, Johann, a son of Jeremias Amman, 
was a native of SehafEhausen, and flourished about 
the year 1700. He engraved a few portraits, 
among which is one of John Locke. 

AMMAN, Johann, a German engraver, who 
was living at Hanau about 1640. Previously he 
engraved a set of small woodcuts, representing 
the Passion of our Saviour. They are executed in 
a neat and spirited style, and possess considerable 
merit. They were published at Amsterdam in 
1623, with Latin verses. 

AMMAN, JoST, was a painter as well as en- 
graver, but owes his reputation chiefly to his 
excellence in the last-mentioned branch of art. 
He was born at Zurich in Switzerland, in 1539. The 
name of his instructor in art is not recorded. In 
1560, he left Zurich, and went to Nuremberg, 
where he worked until his death, in 1591. Of his 
paintings we have no further account, than that 
his works in stained glass were richly and bril- 
liantly coloured. His pen-drawings partake of the 
spirit and neatness of his prints, and are preserved 
in the portfolios of the curious. As an engraver, 
he was one of the most laborious of the industrious 
artists of his country, who have so ably and amply 
contributed to the advancement of the art. The 
number of his plates is prodigious, and his work 
amounts to upwards of five hundred and fifty 
prints, many of which being of a diminutive size, he 
is sometimes ranged among the artists denominated 

the Little Masters. He engraved on wood and on 
copper, but the productions from the latter are 
very inferior to those from the former. His draw- 
ing, in general, is tolerably correct ; and his exe- 
cution, particularly in his animals, is smart and 
spirited ; his manner of engraving is neat and 
decided. This artist used no less than twelve dif- 
ferent marks in his plates, but they all consist in a 
cipher composed of the letters /and A, as follows: 

C« 0«1 JPv Q,?o \\ 


Twelve small plates, arched— Of illustrious women 
of the Old Testament, beginning with Eve: title, 
Eva die Gebererin. Jost. Amman, fee.; Stef. Herman, 
Eight figures of warriors in ancient costume, small 
upright plates ; marked, Jost. Amman, Inventor. 1590. 
Eight plates — Of persons fighting with swords and 
sticks ; small plates, lengthways ; marked with his 
Six very small plates of friezes. Hunting scenes. 
Eight small plates, lengthways, the Four Seasons, and 

the Four Elements. 1569. 
Twelve small upright plates arched — Of the months 
in the year, represented in full-length figures; Jo, 
Amman, fee, 
A set of plates for a, Bible published at Frankfort. 

The Bombardment of a Town; Jo. Amman, fee, 1570. 

Large plate, lengthways. 
Admiral de Coligny ; fecit Sorimbergce, Jost. Amman, 
I'igurinus. 1573. 

The Creation, large print ; marked J. A, 
An oval print, the Diet of the Empire ; large, length- 
The Marriage of Cana middle-sized print, lengthways, 

J. A. 
A set of one hundred and fifteen prints of arts and 
trades, first printed under the title, XlavowXta, om- 
nium illiberalium, mechaniearum, aut sedentariarum 
artium genera eontinens, printed at Frankfort in 1568. 
This emtion is very scarce ; the book was reprinted 
in 1574. 
A set of one hundred and three prints of subjects from 
Roman History, published at Frankfort, in 1573, 
with the portrait of S, Feyrabend, the celebrated 
A book of hunting ; entitled Newe ligv/rm von alkrlei 

lag und Weidtwerck. Frankfort, 1582. 
A set of one hundred and three prints for a work en- 
titled Cleri totius Ptomante Fccksiee subjeeti, ^c. 
Frankfort. 1585. 
A set of one hundred and twenty prints for a bo;k 
entitled Gynceceum, sive Theatrum Mulierum, Jc. 
Frankfort, 1586. 
A complete list of his works is given in Meyer's 
' Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

V. B. S, 
AMMON, Klemens, a son-in-law of Theodor de 
Bry, the celebrated engraver, worked in Frankfort 
and Heidelberg, in the middle of the 17th century. 
His principal work was the continuation of the 
collection of portraits entitled, Biblioiheca Gai- 
cographica, in six quarto volumes, published by 
Theodor de Bry, to which he added, at Frankfort, 
two volumes, published in 1650 and 1652. His 
plates are poor and stifE, and very inferior to those 
of his relation. 

AMOROSI, Antonio, a native of Comun&nza, 
near Asooli, flourished aboutthe year 1700. Mariette 
says he was born in 1660. He was still Uving in 
1736. He painted frescoes in Civita Vecchia, and 
altar-pieces for the churches at Rome, one of which 
is in_ San Rocco ; but he is principally known as 
a painter of Bamboedafc , or fancy subjects, in 




which he displayed oonsiderahle talent : and Lanzi 
says, that if his colouring had been a little more 
brilliant, his pictures would be equal to those of 
the Flemish school of the same kind. Two of his 
works have been engraved by William Walker. 

AMORT, Kaspab, who was born in 1612 in the 
valley of the Jachenau, went to Munich in 1631, 
and studied art under Johann Donauer. He then 
paid a visit to Italy, where the works of Cara- 
vaggio produced m\ich effect on his style. On 
his return to Munich he was made court painter, 
and executed numerous works for the decoration 
of cloisters and churches. He died at Munich in 

AMSLER, Samuel, an eminent engraver, was 
born in 1791, in Sohinznach, in Switzerland, and 
became a pupil of Hess, at Munich. In 1816 
he arrived in Rome, and formed friendships with 
Overbeck, Cornelius, Thorwaldsen, and other heads 
of the new school, of which he became a member. 
Accuracy and character in outline, and simplicity 
in execution, after the classical examples of Marc- 
Antonio and Albreoht Diirer, were the principles he 
followed in contradistinction to the picturesque, 
but in form and expression negligent, engrav- 
ings of the modern Italian, French, and English 
schools. In this manner, in conjunction with his 
friend Barth, he engraved the great frontispiece 
of the 'Nibelungen' of Cornelius, and the 'Triumph 
of Alexander' of Thorwaldsen. In 1829 Amsler 
became professor of engraving in the Royal Aca- 
demy in Munich, where Cornelius, Schnorr, Hess, 
and other of his friends were already actively 
engaged. Besides different small works which he 
executed in Munich, he engraved Raphael's ' En- 
tombment of Christ,' in the Borghese Gallery of 
Rome ; ' The Holy Family,' and 'The Madonna di 
Casa Tempi,' by the same master, both in the 
Pinakothek. His last work was an engraving of 
the great painting of Overbeck, in Frankfort, ' The 
Union between Religion and the Fine Arts,' the 
completion of which coincides nearly with that of 
his life. He died on the 14th of May, 1849. He 
was not only an excellent artist, and 'an estimable 
man, kind, modest, and very good-natured, but also 
an admirable instructor of his art, who taught a 
number of pupils, now celebrated engravers ; as 
Merz, who engraved ' The Last Judgment,' of Cor- 
nelius, and ' The Destruction of Jerusalem,' of Kaul- 
bach ; Gonzenbach, the author of different 
engravings after Kaulhach, Schleich, &c. A. 
In Meyer' s ' Kunstler-Lexikon ' is a full list ./ti\. 
of Amsler's works. 

AMSTEL, CoRNELis PLOOS van. See Ploos. 

AMSTEL, Jan van, an artist who is said to 
have excelled in landscapes, which he enriched 
with numerous figures in the style of Van Eyok ; 
but when or where he painted is not recorded. 
Guarienti, in his edition of Orlandi, states that 
there was a picture by this artist at Genoa, in the 
possession of an Englishman, representing the 
Crucifixion, and containing upwards of 200 figures 
admirably painted. It is, however, conjectured 
that some better known painter is disguised under 
this name. 

AMULIUS (or Fabullus), a Roman painter, 
flourished in the reign of Nero. He was employed 
in the embellishment of the golden house of that 
emperor, who is said by Suetonius to have himself 
studied the art of painting. The palace became 
a prey to the flames. Pliny represents him as a 
painter of common-place subjects, " humilis rei 
D 2 

pictor ; " yet he mentions a picture of ' Minerva,' 
which cannot be considered to have been a trivial 

ANCINELLI. See Toeee. 

ANCONA, Andeea d'. See Lilio. 

ANCONITONA, L'. See Bonini. 

ANDERLINI, Domenico, a landscape painter, 
born at Pesaro, flourished about 1720 : he was an 
artist of merit. 

ANDERLONI, Faustino, an engraver, bom at 
St. Eufemia, near Brescia, in 1766, received in- 
struction from two artists comparatively unknown 
— Carloni and Benezzi. He subsequently went to 
Pavia to assist Professor Scarpa in illustrating his 
great work on the Anatomy of the Eye. In 1795 
he went to Milan, but in 1801 he was appiinted 
professor of drawing at the University of Pavia. 
He died in 1847. He engraved the illustrations of 
several scientific works, and the portraits of the 
celebrated Herder, Alfieri, Boerhave, and Schiller. 
At a later date he executed a small hut charming 
engraving of the ' Magdalene Sleeping in the 
Wilderness,' after Correggio ; the ' Repose in 
Egypt,' after N. Pousain ; a ' Mater amabilis,' 
after Sassoferrato, and with Garavaglia the ' As- 
cension of the Virgin,' after the painting by Guido 
Reni in the church of Sant' Ambrogio in Genoa ; 
which he did not complete until his seventy-sixth 

ANDERLONI, Pietbo, brother of Faustino, was 
born in 1784, at St. Eufemia, near Brescia, and 
showed an early predilection for art. He studied 
the fundamental principles under P. Palazzi, and 
next received instruction from his brother Faus- 
tino, who, observing that he vacillated between 
painting and engraving, persuaded him to adopt 
the latter art. After greatly profiting by his 
brother's tuition, he entered, at the age of twenty, 
the school of Longhi, where he remained for nine 
years. Under that eminent master he assisted in 
the production of many excellent works, among 
which was 'Ezekiel's Vision,' after Raphael; and 
to some of these the master allowed the pupil to 
place his name, in acknowledgment of the share 
he had in the execution. In 1824 he went to 
Rome for the second time, to make drawings of 
the ' Heliodorus ' and ' Attila ' of Raphael ; and 
in 1831 succeeded his master Longhi as president 
of the Academy of Engravers in Milan. Pietro 
Anderloni was a member of several Academies, 
and held a very distinguished rank among his 
skilful contemporaries in the art. He died at 
his estate o£ Cabiate, near Milan, in 1849. He is 
generally very happy in embodying the character- 
istics of the master whose picture he transfers ; 
his fault is sometimes a near approximation to the 
modern French manner of working too far and 
producing glossiness. The following are among 
his principal works : 

Moses defending the daughters of Jethro; after iV. 

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Titian. 

A Holy Pamily, the Judgment of Solomon, the Helio- 
dorus, and the Meeting of Attila and Pope Leo III. ; 
after Raphael. 

St. John; after Luini. 

Portraits of Canova, Longhi, Appiani, Jenner, &c. 

ANDERSON, Alexandee, who was bom at 
New York in 1775, was the son of a Scotchman, 
and the earliest engraver on wood in America. 
He first studied medicine — obtaining in 1796 the 
degree of Doctor — but abandoned that profession 





in order to devote himself entirely to engraving, 
for which he early displayed a great partiality. 
He studied for some time under John Koberts, a 
Scotch engraver, who had settled in America, and 
soon became famous for his illustrations for books, 
chiefly of an educational character— both on copper 
and wood, but principally the latter. Among the 
most important are those in Webster's ' Spelling 
Book,' Bell's 'Anatomy,' Josephus's 'History,' 
and Shakespeare's Plays, all from original designs. 
An engraving of the ' Last Supper ' (from an 
English design), which was made between 1820 
and 1830, was the last work he produced on copper. 
He afterwards confined himself to wood engraving. 
Anderson worked on to a very great age, and died 
in Jersey City in 1870. His works are in the 
style of English wood engraving of the earher 
part of the'l9th century. (For a full account of 
his life, see ' Art Journal ' for 1858, p. 271.) 

ANDERSON, William, who was bom in Scot- 
land, in 1V57, was a painter of marine subjects, 
chiefly of small dimensions. His subjects are 
treated in a very pleasing manner, with a soJft 
pencil and great amenity of colour. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy from 1787 to 1814. He 
died in 1837. 

ANDERSSON, Nils, a Swedish painter, who was 
bom in East Gothland, in 1817, was the son of 
a peasant. After he had received a course of 
instruction in Stockholm, he travelled through 
Europe, and went in 1854 to Paris, where he 
stayed for two years, and studied under Couture. 
On his return to Stockholm, he was made a mem- 
ber of the Academy, and in 1858 a professor. He 
died at Vaxholm, near Stockholm, in 1865. He 
painted historical pieces, pictures of genre subjects, 
and landscapes with animals. Good examples of 
his work are in the National Museum at Stockholm. 

ANDERTON, Henby, an English painter, who 
was born in 1630, was a scholar of Streater, and 
afterwards went to Italy for improvement. He 
painted historical subjects and portraits, but was 
principally employed in the latter. He acquired 
the patronage of Charles II. by a portrait he 
painted of Mrs. Stuart, afterwards Duchess of 
Richmond, and almost rivalled Sir Peter Lely. He 
died soon^after the year 1665. 

ANDRE, Jean, (or Andeay), who was born in 
Paris, in 1662, became a Dominican in 1679. He 
went to Rome, where he received lessons from 
Carlo Maratti, and studied the works of Michel- 
angelo and Raphael. He painted portraits and 
historical subjects, and has the character of being 
very correct in his designs, and a good colourist. 
He died at Paris in 1753. Amongst his best 
works may be mentioned the ' Feast of the Phari- 
see,' in the Dominican Church at Lyons ; his own 
Portrait, in the Louvre ; the ' Marriage of Cana,' 
and the ' Miracle of the Loaves,' at Bordeaux ; and 
the ' Adoration of the Kings,' and numerous others 
which he painted in various churches in Paris. 
Andre imparted instruction in art to Taraval, 
Chasle, and Dumont. 

ANDRE, Jules, who was bom in Paris in 1807, 
studied under Jolivard and Watelet, and became 
a landscape painter of merit. He travelled in 
Belgium, the south of France, and the Rhine 
country ; and he was also employed at the porce- 
lain manufactory at Sevres. He died at Paris in 
1869. The Galleries of the Luxembourg and Lille 
possess paintings by him. He executed several 
decorative panels in the new Louvre, and in the 


HStel d'Albe. He obtained a second-class medal 
in 1835, and the decoration of the Legion of 
Honour in 1853. Andr^ painted in a manner half, 
way between the style of the old French classic 
landscape painters and that of the modern school. 
His son, Bdmond Maethe Alphonse Andr^, who 
studied under him, and with Pils, became a genre 
painter of some repute. In 1876 he painted a 
' Halt of Zouaves at Patay.' He died in Algiers 
in 1877. ^ 

ANDRE, S. E. DB SAINT. See Saint-Ande^. 

ANDREA, Alessandro, according to Heineken, 
flourished about the year 1578, at which time he 
engraved the portrait of Gilles de Noailles, Abbe 
de St. Amand, the French ambassador at the court 
of Constantinople. 

ANDREA, ZoAN, an engraver of the early part 
oi the 16th century, of whom little is known, is 
called by Zani, a Venetian. He executed a number 
of plates after Albrecht Diirer and ^ 
other masters. Meyer mentions 35 "'^7 Ar 
plates by him. 

Andeea dA. 

ANDREA d' AGNOLO is commonly known as 
Andeea del Sabto, from the profession of his 
father, who was a tailor. He has till lately been 
miscalled Vannucchi. Giovanni Cinelli, writing in 
1677, was the first to call him by that name. The 
mistake arose through the misreading of Andrea's 
monogram of two A's for an A and a F 
crossed. It may be here noted that he is in ^[ 
no case called Vannnoolii by a contemporary. •^' *• 
His name was Andrea d' Agnolo di Francesco 
di Luca di Paolo del Migliore. He was born at 
Florence in 1487, and, having shown an early dis- 
position for drawing, he was placed with a gold- 
smith, to learn the business of engraving on pliite. 
In this situation he was noticed by Giovanni Barile, 
an artist of little note, who persuaded bis father to 
entrust him to his care. Andrea remained under that 
master for three years, and afterwards entered tlie 
school of Piero diCosimo, who was a better colour- 
ist than draughtsman, and from him he acquired 
the habit and knowledge of painting those beautiful 
landscape backgrounds which are seen in many of 
his works. Andrea was, however, more indebted, 
for the cultivation of his talents, to his studies from 
the frescoes of Masaccio and Ghirlandaio, and after- 
wards from the cartoons of Leonardo da Vinci and 
Michelangelo, than to the lessons of his instructors. 
On leaving the school of Cosimo, he formed an 
intimacy with Franciabigio (who had been a dis- 
ciple of Mariotto Albertinelli), and with him he 
lived for some time, but " contemporary history 
contains no reference to anything that they did in 
companionship." Amongst his first works are 
frescoes illustrating the history of St. John the 
Baptist, in the Scalzo, of which the cartoons are pre- 
served in the Palazzo Rinnucoini. The ' Baptism 
of Christ' is in his early manner, and shows an 
undisguised imitation of Albrecht Diirer ; in the 
'Visitation of the Virgin,' painted a few years 
afterwards, his advancement is conspicuous ; and 
in the ' Nativity of St. John,' the last he painted 
of the series, he had nearly reached his most 
admired style. His next undertaking was the 
' Life of St. Filippo Benizzi,' in five pictures, in 
the church of the Servi. In these frescoes, whicl: 
have been engraved by Alchiari, tlie genius of 
Andrea took a bolder flight, and they are con- 
sidered among the most graceful of his works, 




though they were executed while he was still 
young, and it was their excellence which gained 
for him the title, 'Andrea senza Errori' (Andrea 
without faults). The ' Madonna del Sacco,' 
painted over the entrance door, is one of his best 
works. It has received its name from the sack of 
corn upon which St. Joseph reclines. This has 
been well engraved by Raphael Morghen. 

About the year 1516, a ' Dead Christ,' painted 
by Andrea, came to the notice of Francis I. of 
Prance, who commissioned the artist to execute 
for him a ' Madonna,' and in 1518 Andrea was 
induced to go to Paris. He was accompanied 
by his pupil, Andrea S^uazella. There he was 
honoured, and royally treated by the king. He 
painted amongst other works a ' Charity,' now in 
the Louvre, and a ' Piela,' now in the Belvedere 
at Vienna. In 1519 Andrea was induced by his 
wife Lucrezia del Fede, a beautiful woman, whom 
he had married in 1512, to ask, in order thct he 
might return to his native country, leave of absence 
from the king, who granted his request, and com- 
missioned him to purchase works of art for him. 
On his return to Florence, Andrea forgot his 
engagements, and broke through every bond of 
honesty ; he had the imprudence to squander 
away in the society of his friends and his impro- 
vident wife, not only the hberal remuneration he 
had received from Francis for his works, but also 
the funds which had been confided to his trust for 
the acquisition of objects of art. He executed 
numerous works in tlie Scalzo and elsewhere in 
Florence. But reduced at length to a state of 
indigence and distress, and stung with the recol- 
lection of his perfidy and ingratitude, he sank into 
a despondency, which was increased by his jealousy 
of his wife. He was ultimately abandoned by her 
and the false friends with whom he had wasted 
his substance, when his miseries were teiTainated 
in the forty-fourth year of his age, by the plague 
which visited Florence in 1531. His wife survived 
him, her second husband, by forty years. 

Andrea del Sarto possessed an extraordinary 
talent of imitating and copying the works of 
other masters, with an accuracy which sometimes 
deceived even the painters themselves. Of this, 
Vasari mentions a very remarkable instance of 
which he was himself an eye-witness. Raphael 
had painted for the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, 
afterwards Clement VII. , the portrait of Leo X., 
seated between that prelate and Cardinal Rossi, 
in which the drapery and background were 
painted by Giulio Romano. Federigo II., Duke of 
Mantua, passing through Florence to Rome, had 
seen this picture, and had requested Clement VII. 
to make him a present of it, when the Pope gave 
directions to Ottaviano de' Medici to send the por- 
trait to Mantua. Unwilling to deprive Florence 
of so interesting a work of art, Ottaviano employed 
Andrea del Sarto to paint an exact copy of it, which 
was sent to the Duke of Mantua at the time when 
Giulio Romano was in his service. No person 
suspected the deception ; even Giulio was himself 
deceived, and was only convinced of the fact by 
Vasari assuring him that he had seen it painted, 
and by showing him the private mark of Andrea 
del Sarto. This celebrated painter has been erro- 
neously supposed to have etched a plate of the 
' Holy Family,' in which the Virgin is represented 
kneeling before the Infant Christ, with St. Joseph 
and St. John ; it is inscribed Andrea del Sarto fatti 
in Homa; though neatly executed, it is totally un- 

worthy of the hand of this artist, and the inscrip- 
tion most probably relates to the picture from 
which it was designed. 

Amongst Andrea's pupils may be mentioned 
Vasari, Jacopo da Pontormo, Domenico Puligo, 
Giorgio Vasari, F. Salviati, and Squazella. 

The following is a list of several of his most 
important easel-pictures : 

Berlin. Museum. Virgin and Saints (dated 1528). 
Dresden. Gallery. Sacrifice of Abraham. 

„ „ Marriage of St. Catherine. 

Florence. Pif^«8. His own Portrait. 
„ „ St. Giacomo. 

„ „ Madonna ' di San Francesco' (dated 

1517) — his masterpiece. 
„ Pitti Pal. Dispute on the- Holy Trinity. 
„ „ „ Deposition from the Cross. 

„ „ „ Annunciation (with tlieAngel Gabriel, 

followed by two other angels). 
„ „ „ Aimunciation (a copy is ««</*« XoMW«). 

„ „ ,, Assumption of the Virgin. 

„ „ „ Portraits (2) of himself. 

„ „ „ Nine other paintings. 

London. Nat. Gall. Holy Family. 

„ „ „ Portrait of himself (signed with mono- 

gram given above). 
Madrid. Gallery. Virgin and Child with St. Joseph and 
an angel. 
„ „ Portrait of his wif e.Lucrezia del Fede. 

Paris. Zomre. Charity (signed and dated 1518). 
„ „ Holy Family. 

„ „ S.oly'Fa.mWy (signed in full with, the 

monogram of the crossed .A). 
Vetrshg.Mermitage. Virgin and Infant, and St. Catherine. 
Vienna. Belvedere. . Pieta. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle, in their ' New History 
of Painting in Italy from the Second to the Six- 
teenth Century,' 1866, give a very full list of his 
works. See also — 

Biadi, Luigi, ' Notizie inedite delta vita d' Andrea del 

Sarto: Firenze: 18S2. 
Breton, Ernest, ^Notice sur Andrea Vannucchi, dit 

Andrea del Sarto.' Paris: 1848. 
' Gazette des Beanx-Arts,' for 1876 and 1877. 




ANDREA DI COSIMO. See Feltrini. 

ANDREA Di LEONE. See Leone. 

ANDREA DI LUIGI. See Alovigi. 

ANDREAE, Tobias, who was born at Frankfort 
in 1823, studied under J. Becker, and then went 
to Munich, where he made the- acquaintance of 
Rahl and Genelli. In 1853 he visited Italy, and 
painted landscapes, into which he occasionally 
introduced moonlight efEects. Andreae died at 
Munich in 1873. 

ANDREAE, T., is mentioned by Strutt as 
the engraver of a plate representing an emblem- 
atical subject, in which a woman is lying on 
the ground, in the front of the print, and another 
female is standing over her, holding in her hand 
a book, inscribed Giulio Cesare opera. It is 
slightly etched, in a very indifferent style, and is 
signed T. Andreae, inv. etfec. 

ANDRE-BARDON, Michel Francois, an his- 
torical painter and etcher, was born at Aix, in 
Provence, in 1700. He himself signed his name 
Dandr:6-Bardon, or D. Baedon, because his uncle, 
Louis Bardon, made him his heir on condition that 
he continued the name of Bardon ; but his real 
name was Andr6, as the registers of the church of 
St. Madeleine testify. Michel Fran9oi8 was des- 
tined by his parents for jurisprudence, and studied 





at Paris. In 1719 he began to design during his 
leisure hours under the direction of J. B. van 
Loo, and studied painting with J, F. de Troy. 
His progress was so rapid, that he obtained, in 
1725, the second prize at the Royal Academy. He 
went afterwards to Rome, and after being there six 
years he returned to France, through Venice, where 
he stayed six montlis. He painted the Palais-de- 
Justice, the Hotel -de - Ville (which perished in 
1792), and the church of 'St. Jerome, at Aix. He 
went to Paris, where he displayed his talents, not 
only as a painter and etcher, but also as a poet 
and writer. In 1735 he became a member of tlie 
Academy ; in 1752 professor ; afterwards secre- 
tary ; and finally teacher of historical painting. 
He was also the founder of the Aoademie des 
Beaux-Arts at Marseilles. Andre designed with 
great facility, and was a perfect master in repre- 
senting the nude. He died at Paris in 1785. 

The following are his best works : 

Aix. Museum, The Emperor Augustus ordering the 

punishment of the robbers of the 

State money. (Signed Dandee- 

Bardon aotjisextiensis pinxit 

EOMiE JETAT. SUiE 29 ANNO 1729.) 

„ Falais-de-J nstice. Allegorical Figures of the Virtues. 
Marseilles. Mus. Christ on the Cross. 
MontpeUier. Mus. TulUa driving over the dead body of 
Servius Tulhus. 

The work which he executed of ' Jason plough- 
ing,' intended for the tapestry manufactory at 
Beauvais, has disappeared. The following are his 
most important etchings : 

The Dead Body of Christ. 

Two Dead Children at the entrance of a vault. 

The Burial of the Dead. 

Johannes Snellinks ; after Van Dijck. 

ANDREANI, Andrea, a painter, and very cele- 
brated engraver, was born at Mantua, according to 
some biographers, about the year 1540, others say 
1646 ; but BruUiot says his birth did not take place 
until 1660, which seems the more likely, for his 
earliest work bears date 1584. His works as a 
painter are little known, as he appears to have 
devoted himself to engraving at an early period of 
his life, when he settled at Home, some time after 
the art of chiaroscuro on wood had been first 
practised in Italy by Ugo da Carpi. His works 
are confined to woodcuts, which are printed in 
chiaroscuro, and he carried that branch of engrav- 
ing to a much higher degree of perfection than it 
had reached before. His drawing is correct, his 
execution is strong and spirited, and in a very 
masterly style. The number of prints attributed 
to this master is very considerable, as he is 
reported to have procured the blocks executed by 
other artists, and after retouohing them, to have 
published them as his own. He died in 1623. His 
works have frequently been confounded ,,^^ 
with those of Albrecht Altdorfer, from his ^T 
having used a similar cipher. ■^ "- 

The following is a list of his known works, all 
copies from his contemporaries or painters then 
lately deceased : 

The pavement at Siena, two immense prints ; after the 
design of Domenico Beecafumi : very scarce ; dated 

The Deluge, large print, vo. four sheets ; after Titian, 
with his cipher. 

Pharaoh's Host destroyed in the Eed Sea, large print, 
in four sheets ; after the same, 1585, with his cipher. 

The Adoration of the Magi; after Farmigiano, 1585, 
with his cipher. 

The Purification; after Salviati, with his cipher. 1608. 

The Virgin and Child, with a bishop kneeling ; after A, 

Casolani, with his cipher. 1591. 
The Virgin and Child, with St. John presenting a bird, 

and a female saint holding a lily ; after Giae. Ligozzi, 

with his name. 
Christ curing the Leper; after Parmigiano, with his 

Christ curing the Paralytic ; after Franc, de Nauto da 

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Raphael, 

1609, with his cipher. 
Christ departing from Pilate, who is washing his hands ; 

after a basso-rilievo of Jean Boulogne, with the name 

of the engi'aver ; in two sheets. This is one of his 

most finished prints. 
Clurist bearing His Cross ; after A. Casolani, with his 

cipher. 1591. 
The Entombment of Christ ; after G. Scolari, with his 

Another Entombment, half figures ; after Maffaello 

Motta, with the name of the engraver. 
St. Peter preaching; marked with the name FoUdoro, 

and his cipher. 1608. 
St. Sebastian; marked Fridericm Barotius TTrhinaa, 

■with his cipher. 1608. 
The lower part of the picture of St. Nicholas, by 

Titian, with the cipher of Andreani. 
The Triumph of the Church ; Christi Triumphus, large 

frieze, in eight sheets ; after Titian, dedicated to the 

Duke of Mantua in 1599, and published by Calisto 

Ferrante at Borne in 1608. 
An emblematical print, of a Christian after life received 

into Heaven, and crowned by Jesus Christ ; marked 

B. F. for Baptista Franco, and the cipher of the 

engraver. An. m.dc.x. Mantoua. 
The Picture of Human Life, represented by a woman 

at the foot of a rock, assailed by the passions ; marked 

Jac. Ligotivs, inv. et Andreani, 1585. Firenze. 
Tlu:ee prints, after a marble group by Gio. da Bologna, 

seen on three sides, representing the Bape of the 

Sabines ; inscribed Eapta Sabinum a Jo. Bolog. marm, 


Another Bape of the Sabines : after Jean Boulogne, in 

three sheets ; inscribed Andreas Andreanus Mantua- 

nus aeri incidit, fe., m.d.lxxxv. Florentiis. 
Cleha on horseback, with one of her attendants, going 

to cross the Tiber ; marked with the name of Matu- 

rino, and his cipher. 1608. 
Mucins Scsevola holding his hand over a brazier; 

marked with the name of Bald. Feruzzi, and his 

cipher. 1608. 
The Triumph of Julius Csesar, with the title ; a series 

of 10 prints ; very fine ; after And. Mantegna. 


Venus and Cupid, with nymphs bathing ; after Farmi- 
giano, with the cipher of .Ajidreani. 1605. 

Circe giving drink to the companions of Ulysses ; oval 
print ; after Parmigiano, with his name. 1602. 

A "Woman warming herself before the fire ; marked 
Bernard Malpitius, inv., with his cipher. 

The scene of a comedy represented before the Grand 
Duke Cosmo I. ; after a design of Bart. Neroni, largS 
piece. 1579. 

The Triumph of Death, a Sepulchral Monument, repre- 
senting a kind of rock, on which are the three Fates ; 
after Fortuna Fortunio, with the cipher of the en- 

Christian Virtues, six pieces ; also Force, Truth, and 
Virtue ; all after Parmigiano. 

W. B. S. 

ANDREASI, Ippolito, who was bom at Man- 
tua in 1548, was an imitator of Giulio Romano: 
he painted pictures of merit for the churches of 
his native town, where he died in 1608. The 
Louvre possesses a ' Holy Family ' by him. 

ANDRES, Fray Leon de, a Spanish painter of 
the 16th century, is celebrated for the miniatures 
he executed in 1568 for choir-books — especially 
that of 'El Capitulario' — now in the Escorial. 
He died in 1680. 

ANDRIESSEN, Anthonie, who was bom at 
Amsterdam in 1746, painted, in conjunction with 




his brother Jurriaan, under whom he /yv 
studied, landscapes and figure-pieces. xTv^ 
He died at Amsterdam in 1813. 

ANDEIESSEN, Christiaan, who was born at 
Amsterdam in 1775, was the son and scholar of 
Jurriaan, and became a good painter of history, 
genre subjects, landscapes, views of towns, and 
occasionally portraits. Among his works may be 
mentioned a Panorama of Amsterdam. 

ANDRIESSEN, Hbndeick, who was surnamed 
'Mancken Heijn' (The Limper), was born at 
Antwerp, probably in the year 1607. He was a 
painter of still-life ; composed with great skill, 
and finished his pictures artistically. He died in 
Seeland in 1655. 

ANDEIESSEN, Jurbiaan, born at Amsterdam 
in 1742, was a scholar of A. Elliger and J. M. 
Quinkhardt. He was an able artist in decorative 
painting ; the decorations of the new theatre at 
Amsterdam were executed by him and Numan. 
Several distinguished modern Dutch painters are 
from his school. He died at Amsterdam in 1819. 

ANDEIOLI, GiROLAMo, a pupil of Brusasorci, 
was a painter of Verona. His name, with the date 
1606, was inscribed on an altar-piece of ' St. Dome- 
nick and other Saints ' formerly in the church of 
Santa Caterina di Siena at Verona, which building 
now no longer exists. Other paintings of Andri- 
oli are recorded, but none are extant. 

ANDEIOT, .FRAN901S, a French engraver, who 
was born in Paris about 1655, practised both in 
France and in Italy, especially in Rome. He fol- 
lowed the style of F. de Poilly, but is not to be 
classed with that distinguished master. His works 
are, however, esteemed and sought after for the 
. subjects and the masters after whom he engraved. 
The date of his death is not mentioned in any of 
the notices respecting him. Among his most 
esteemed works are : 

Two Aimuuoiations ; a/Ver Albano. 

A Magdalene ; after Ouido. 

Madonna and Child ; after Guido. 

The Holy Family, with a rose ; after Eaphael. 

The Crowning with Thorns ; after Domenichino ; and 
the same ; after A.nn. Carraeci, 

The Good Samaritan ; after Poussin ; and other sub- 
jects of sacred history, after Giiillebault, and other 

ANDBOUET-DUGERCEAU, Jacques, was an 
architect and engraver of whom but scanty records 
have survived. His parents' name was Androuet, 
but they acquired the affix ' dv, Gerceau ' from a 
hoop which they hung on their house as a dis- 
tinguishing mark, and the double name was adopted 
by their son. Jacques was born about 1510, pro- 
bably at Paris, but it was at Orleans, the home of 
his family, that he spent the greater part of his 
life ; and most of his works bear the date of that 
city. He is said to have studied under Etienne 
Delaulne ; but the strong reseniblanoe of his style 
to that of Leonhard Thiry, another artist of Fon- 
tainebleau, has led to the belief that he formed his 
manner from the artists of that school. He visited 
Italy with George d'Armagnac, ambassador of 
Francis I. to the Venetian Court, and on his return 
in 1546-47 he was patronized by the royalty and 
nobility of France. It is supposed that he retired 
to Annency, or Geneva, towards the close of his life, 
and died there- — after 1684. As an engraver his 
subjects were various — mythological, architect- 
ural, perspective, trophies, arabesques, friezes. 
Caryatides, vases, furniture, &c. ; we mention : 

The Marriage of the Virgin ; after Farmigiano (Fran- 
ciscus Parmetisis Inventor). 

The Birth of Christ ; unsii/ned. 

The Gods of Heathen Mythology; after Mosso; 20 

The Loves of the Gods; after Ferine del Yoga and 
Bosso; 20 plates. 

The Labours of Hercules ; after Bosso ; 6 plates. 

The Life of Psyche ; after Baphael; 32 plates. 

The Dog of Montargis fighting his Master's Murdere? 
(faict d. Montargis). 

Plans of Antwerp, Jerusalem, Rome, &c. 

Landscapes, 24 plates. 

' Le Premier Volume des plus Excelleuts Bastiments 
de France.' Paris, m.d.lxxvi. 

' Le Second Volume des plus Bxcellents Bastiments de 
France.' Paris, M.D.LXxrx. Both volumes are dedi- 
cated to Catherine de Medicis, for whom they were 

ANEDA, JuAN DE, was born at Burgos, where 
he painted in 1565, in conjunction with Juan de 
Cea, several pictures, which are still to be seen in 
the cathedral. 

AISTESI, Paolo, landscape painter and etcher, 
was born at Eome about the year 1700. He 
painted landscapes with considerable success at 
Florence and at Eome. The frescoes in the Villa 
Albani, near Eome, are done by him, in conjunc- 
tion with Antonio Bicchierai and Niocol6 Lapic- 
cola. They bear the date 1761, with the signature 
Paolo Anesi fece. He was, Lanzi tells us, one o£ 
the masters of Francesco Zuccarelli. He painted 
ancient ruins in the manner of Pannini, and his 
works have been much confused with those of that 
artist. Four small landscapes, by Anesi, are in the 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen Gallery at Lowenberg. 

ANGARANO, Conte Ottavio. According to 
Zanetti, this artist was of a patrician family of 
Padua, and flourished at Venice in the second half 
of the 17th century. It is not mentioned by whom 
he was instructed in the art, but he was a reput- 
able painter of history, and acquired considerable 
celebrity by a picture he painted for the church of 
SanDaniele, at Venice, representing the 'Nativity,' 
which is highly commended by his biographer, and 
of which there is an etching, as some say, by him- 
self ; but Bartsch ascribes it to Giuseppe Diaman- 
tini. Angarano painted in the manner of the 
followers of Caravaggio. 

ANGE, FRANgois l'. See L'Ange. 

ANGEL, J. X. See Ximenez Angel. 

ANGEL, Pedro (or Angelo), the first of Spain's 
good engravers, flourished at Toledo at the end of 
the 16th and beginning of the 17th century. The 
frontispiece to the ' History of Our Lady of Gua- 
daloupe,' containing the portrait of that ungainly 
idol, published in 1597, is one of his earliest works. 
The elegant armorial design in the title, and the 
fine portrait of Cardinal Tavera in ' Salazar's 
Chronicle,' published 1603 ; and the still finer and 
rarer portrait of Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros in 
Eugenic de Noble's 'Life,' published 1604, are 
by Angelo. He likewise engraved a title-page 
for Luis de Tena's ' Commentary on St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Hebrews,' 1611-17 ; a print of 
' Our Lady of the Conception,' and other devo- 
tional subjects. 

ANGEL, Philips, who was born at Middelburg, 
in the early part of the 17th century, painted at 
Haarlem (where he entered the Guild in 1639), at 
Leyden, and afterwards in Ispahan, and in Batavia, 
where he probably died — after 1665. His only 
known work — a picture of still-life, signed P. 
Angel, 1660 — is in the Berlin Museum. If this 





date is correct it must have been painted while he 
was in the East. 

ANGELI, Battista. See Ansolo. 

ANGELI, FiLiPPO DB LiANo d', was called II 
Napolbtano, from his being sent to Naples when 
he was verj' young. He was born at Rome 
towards the end of the 16th century, and was the 
son of an artist who was employed under Sixtus 
V. He excelled in painting landscapes and battles, 
and, according to Baglioni, was much employed in 
ornamenting the palaces and villas at Rome. He 
frequently painted architectural views, with a 
number of figures arranged and composed with 
great ingenuity. He died at Rome during the 
pontificate of Urban VIIL, about 1640. The 
Louvre has a ' Satyr and Peasant ' by him, and 
his own portrait is in the UflSzi at Florence. 

ANGELI, GiULio. See Angolo. 

ANGELI, GiULio Cbsaee, born at Perugia about 
1570, studied in the school of the Carracoi, at 
Bologna. He was more remarkable for his colour 
than design, and excelled rather in the draped 
than the naked figure. There is a vast work by 
him in the oratory of Sant' Agostino in Perugia, 
where he died in 16.?0. 

ANGELI, Giuseppe, a Venetian painter, scholar 
of Piazzetta, whose style he imitated, was born 
about 1709. He painted cabinet pictures, and 
some altar-pieces. His heads have considerable ex- 
pression, and his extremities are well drawn. The 
painting in the cupola of San Rocco at Venice is 
one of his best works. He executed numerous 
decorations in the churches and public buildings of 
Padua and Rovigo, as well as of Venice. He died 
at Venice in 1798. In the Louvre there is a 
' Little Drummer ' by him. 

ANGELI, Maeco. See Angolo. 

ANGELI, Niccol6, an Italian engraver, flour- 
ished about the year 1635. He was a disciple 
of Remigio Canta-Gallina, and, in conjunction with 
his instructor, engraved, from the designs of 
Giulio Parigi, a set of plates representing the 
festivals which took place at Florence on the 
occasion of the marriage of the Prince of 

ANGELICA, a miniature painter of Tarragona, 
executed, in 1636, the illuminations of the cathe- 
dral choir-books with great neatness and skill. 

ANGELICO, Fra (Giovanni d\ Fibsolb). See 


ANGELINI, SciPIONE, who was born at Perugia 
in 1661, was a skilful painter of flowers ; in his 
pictures they appear newly plucked, and sparkling 
with dewdrops. He painted a great number, 
which he sold to dealers, who exported them to 
England, France, and Holland. He practised at 
Rome ; and died at Perugia in 1729. 

ANGELIS, PiEERB. See Angillis. 

ANGELO, MicHABL. See Buonarroti. 

ANGELO, Pbdbo. See Angel. 

ANGELO DEL MORO. See Angolo del Moro. 

ANGELUCCIO, a scholar of Claude Lorrain, 
was living in 1680, but died young. He is men- 
tioned as an artist of considerable talent ; his 
works are perhaps sometimes mistaken for his 

ANGIER, Paul, an engraver, of whom little 
more is known than that he resided in London 
about the year 1749, and that he was instructed in 
the art by John Tinney. He was chiefly em- 
ployed in engraving for the booksellers, and 
executed several small plates, principally land- 


scapes, in a neat style, but without much taste. 
His best print is a ' View of Tivoli,' after Mouche- 
ron. There is a print, dated 1749, by him, of a 
view of Roman ruins, after Pannini, very neatly 

ANGILLIS, Pierre, (wrongly called Angelis), 
was bom at Dunkirk, in 1685. After learning the 
rudiments of design in his native town, he visited 
Flanders and Germany, and resided some time at 
Antwerp, where he was made a master of the 
Guild of St. Luke, in 1715-16; and at Diisseldorf, 
where he had an opportunity of improving him- 
self, by studying the paintings in the Electoral 
Gallery. He painted conversation-pieces, and land- 
scapes with small figures, into which he was fond 
of introducing fruit and fish. He came to England 
about the j'ear 1719, where he met with great 
encouragement, remaining till 1727, when he set 
out for Italy, and passed three years at Rome, 
where his pictures were admired. But being of a 
reserved disposition, and without ostentation, he 
exhibited his works with reluctance, his studious 
and sober temper inclining him more to the pursuit 
of his art than to the advancement of his fortune. 
On his return from Italy, he stayed at Rennes, in 
Brittany, and met with so much employment, that 
he settled in that city, where he died in 1734. 
His style was a mixture of those of Teniere and 
Watteau, with more grace than the former, and 
more nature than the latter. His pencil is easy, 
bright, and flowing, but his colouring is occasion- 
ally faint and nerveless. 

ANGIOLILLO, called Roccadiramb, was a 
Neapolitan, and flourished about the year 1450. 
He was a disciple of Antonio Solario, called II 
Zingaro, and, according to Dominici, painted • 
several pictures for the churches at Naples. One 
of his most esteemed works was a picture in the 
church of San Lorenzo, representing the ' Virgin 
and Infant Jesus, with St. Francis, St. Anthony of 
Padua, and St. Louis.' He died about the year 

ANGLUS, Benjamin. This artist is mentioned 
by Heineken as the engraver of two emblem- 
atical subjects, one after Antonio Tempesta ; the 
other is probably from his own design, as he adds 
the word/ea'i to his name. 

ANGOLO DEL MORO, Battista, (commonly 
called Angeli, and occasionally Angblo and 
Agnolo), was born at Verona, about the year 
1512. He was a scholar of Francesco Torbido, 
called II Moro, whose daughter he married, and 
whose name he added to his own. He improved 
his stj'le by studying the works of Titian, and 
painted several pictures, both in oil and fresco, for 
the churches at Verona, and sometimes in compe- 
tition with Paolo Veronese. In Sant' Euphemia he 
had painted a fresco of ' Paul before Ananias,' 
which, on the demolition of the wall on which 
it was painted, was sawn out with great care, 
and removed to another part of the church. His 
colouring is more vigorous than that of his in- 
structor, and his design more graceful. Such is 
his picture in San Stefano of ' An Angel pre- 
senting the Palms of Martyrdom to the Inno- 
cents.' He«also painted much in Venice, Mantua, 
and Murano. We have several slight but spirited 
etchings by this master, in which the extremities 
of the figures are drawn in a very masterly style. 
In conjunction with Battista Vicentino, he en- 
graved a set of fifty landscapes, mostly after 
Titian, which are executed in a bold, free style. 




We have also the following plates as specimens of 
his work in this line : 

The Nativity, or Adoration of the Shepherds; after 

The Virgin, with the Infant Christ and St. John ; S. A. 

del Mora, fee. 
The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. John; 

after Raphael. 
Another Holy Family; after the same. 
The Martyrdom of St. Catherine; after Bernardini 

The Baptism of Christ by St. John ; after the same. 

ANGOLO DEL MORO, Giulio, (commonly called 
Angbli), the brother of Battista, was a sculptor, 
architect, and painter. He was a native of Verona, 
tut laboured chiefly at Venice, and in the churches 
and the Doge's Palace of that city he has left 
several pictures. He flourished in the 16th cen- 
tury and the beginning of the 17th. There is no 
record of him later than 1618. There was a third 
brother, Gieolamo, who was also a painter, but of 
no great merit. 

ANGOLO DEL MORO, Marco, (commonly called 
Angbli), the son and pupil and assistant of Bat- 
tista, flourished in the latter half of the 16th 
century at Venice and Verona. He assisted his 
father in his wall decorations at Murano. He 
also practised the art of engraving with consider- 
able success. 

ANGUISGIOLA, Sofonisba, (or Angosciola, also 
written Anguisola, Angussola, and Anguscinola). 
This celebrated painter, the eldest of six sisters, 
was bom of an ancient family at Cremona, about 
1535. She received her first instruction in the 
art from Bernardino Campi, to whom she went in 
1546, but afterwards became a scholar of Bernardo 
Gatti, called Sojaro. After leaving those masters, 
her first efEort in art was an effusion of filial 
affection, expressed in a portrait of her father and 
two of his children. This performance was uni- 
versally admired, and she was soon considered as 
one of the most eminent portrait painters of her 
time. She did not, however, confine herself to 
portraits, but painted some historical subjects of 
a small size, that were highly esteemed, and 
established her reputation. The fame of this 
painter induced Philip II. of Spain, the great 
encourager of art in his time, to invite her to 
Madrid, where she arrived about the year 1560, 
attended by three of her sisters. One of her first 
works in Spain was a portrait of the Queen Isa- 
bella, which was presented by the king to Pope 
Pius IV., to whom she was nearly related, accom- 
panied by a letter addressed to his Holiness by 
Sofonisba, to which that pontifE replied in an 
epistle, highly extolling her performance, and 
assuring her that he had placed it amongst his 
most select pictures. She was married twice : first 
to Don Fabricio di Moncada, a Sicilian nobleman, 
after whose death she returned to her own country 
by way of Genoa. There she married as her 
second husband Orazio Lomellini, the"captain of 
the galley in which she made the voyage. She 
died at Genoa about the year 1625. The following 
may be noted among the most important of her 
paintings : 

Portrait of herself, seated at a clavecin {signed). In a 

private collection in Bologna. 
Portrait of herself (similar to the Bologna picture). 

In the possession of Lord Spencer at Althorpe. 
Portrait of herself. At Nuneham Park. 
Portrait of herself painting a picture (signed). In the 

UMzi, Florence. 

Portrait of herself holding a book {signed and dated 

1554). In the Belvedere, Vienna. 
Three of her sisters playing chess {formerly in the 

collection of Lucien Buonapa'rte ; one of her best works). 

In the possession of Count RaczynsM at Berlin. 
Portrait of a nun {signed). In the possession of Lord 

Portrait of a man. At Burleigh House. 
Portrait of a Venetian Ambassador {signed). In the 

Brognoli Gallery at Brescia. 
Madonna and child (dated 1559). In the Bresdani 

Collection at Cremona. 

ANGUISGIOLA. All the five sisters of Sofo- 
nisba painted with more or less success. Elena, 
the next in age to Sofonisba, after having studied 
with her under Campi and Gatti, entered the con- 
vent of San Vincenzo, at Mantua, where she was 
still living in 1584. Lucia, the third in age, who 
died in 1565, distinguished herself both in painting 
and music ; a portrait of the physician 'Pietro Maria 
of Cremona ' by her, signed ' Lucia Anguisola, 
Amilcaris filia, adolescens, fecit,' is in the Madrid 
Gallery. Mineeva died young. Eueopa and Anna 
Maeia painted subjects from sacred history for 

ANGUS, William, an English designer and en- 
graver of landscapes and buildings, was born in 
1752. He was a pupil of William Walksr. He 
engraved and published a great number of views 
of gentlemen's seats in England and Wales, which 
were executed by him in a delicate and pleasing 
manner. He was "also employed on many other 
topographical publications of the period. He did 
not confine his graver to his own drawings, but 
exercised it on those of Stothard, Paul Sandbj', 
Edward Dayes, George Samuel, and others of high 
repute. He died in 1821. 

ANICHINI, PiBTEO, a Florentine engraver, of 
whose life we have no particulars. He is said by 
Basan to have been born in 1610 ; he died in 1645. 
Among other plates engraved by him, we have 
the following : 

■A Holy Family ; small plate, lengthways ; dated 1644. 
The Good Samaritan ; small, lengthways. 
Cosmo Prince of Btruria. 
Evangelista TorriceUi, the mathematician. 

ANIELLO. See Poetic. 

ANIEMOLO, Vincenzo, (or Ainbmolo^, called 
Vincenzo Romano, was born at Palermo towards 
the end of the 15th century. After having 
studied for some time in his native town the 
works of Perugino and other masters, he went to 
Rome, where, if he did not receive personal in- 
struction from Raphael, the works of that master 
had a great effect on his style. Aniemolo left 
Rome at the time of its pillage and went to 
Messina ; thence he returned to Palermo, where 
he lived until his death, which occurred in 1540. 
He has left in the churches of his native town 
many pictures of merit. Of these we may mention 
the 'Virgin and Child between fOur Saints,' in San 
Pietro Martire ; the ' Virgin of the Rosary,' dated 
1540, in San Domenico ; and the ' Sposalizio,' in 
Santa Maria degli Angeli. All bear strong traces 
of the influence of Raphael. 

ANISIMOFF was a Russian genre painter, who 
obtained a reputation in the course of the first 
ten years of the 19th century by the execution of 
a number of spirited pictures depicting scenes 
from Russian popular life. 

ANJOU, Ren^ of. See Ren:^. 

ANNA, Baldassare d', a Fleming by birth, 





but of the Venetian school of painting. He was a 
pupil of Corona of Murano, and after his master's 
death completed several of his works. He also 
produced many original pictures for the Servi and 
other churches, which, though inferior to those of 
Corona in the selection of forms, surpass them in the 
softness, and sometimes in the force, of the chiaro- 
scuro. He flourished toward the close of the 16th 
and the beginning of the 17th century. The last 
record we have of him is in 1639. 

ANNELLA di MASSIMO. See Beltkano. 

ANN UNCI A^AO, Thomaz Jos^ da. See Da 


ANRAADT, Pietbr van, flourished at Amster- 
dam, where he settled in 1672, and married the 
daughter of the Dutch poet Jan van der Veen. 
Notwithstanding the merit of this master, little is 
known of the circumstances of his life. Accord- 
ing to Houbraken, he was a very eminent his- 
torical painter, and that author mentions a picture 
of ' Regents ' painted by him for the ' Huiszitten- 
huis ' at Amsterdam. Balkema describes him as 
a painter of portraits, animals, and conversation- 

ANSALDO, Andeea, was born at Voltri, a small 
town near Q-enoa, in 1584. He was at first a 
scholar of Orazio Cambiaso ; but becoming im- 
pressed with the beauty and splendour of the 
works of Paolo Veronese, he studied them with 
great attention, and formed for himself an excel- 
lent style of colouring, both in oil and in fresco. 
His chief work was an 'Assumption of the Virgin,' 
in the cupola of the church of the Annunziata at 
Genoa. Many other works of this master are in 
the churches and palaces in that city, and of his 
native town. He possessed a fertile invention, 
and his compositions are decorated with architec- 
ture and landscape, introduced with a very happy 
effect. He died in 1638 in Genoa, having acquired 
the reputation of being one of the best painters of 
his time. 

ANSALONI, ViNCENzo, was a native of Bologna, 
and a disciple of Lodovico Carracci. Under so able 
an instructor he became a reputable painter of 
history. Malvasia speaks in very favourable terms 
of an altar-piece by this master, in the chapel of 
the family of Fioravanti, in the church of St. 
Stefano at Bologna, representing the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian.' His chef-d'oeuvre is a picture 
in the church of the Celestine Monks, representing 
the Virgin Mary with the Infant Saviour in the 
clouds, and below, St. Roch and St. Sebastian. 
According to Zani, he flourished about 1615, and 
died young. 

ANSANO DI PIETRO (di Menico or Dombnico). 
See Sano di Pieteo. 

ANSBLIN, Jean Louis, a French line-engraver, 
who was born in Paris in 1754, was a pupil of A. 
de Saint-Aubin. He became engraver to the king, 
and died at 1823. Among his best works 
are the following : 

La Marquise de Pompadour ; after Van Loo. 

The Siege of Calais ; after Bertheiemy. 

Moliere reading his ' Tartuffe ' at the house of Ninon de 
Lenclos ; after Monsiau. 

The Sleeping Child; after Donato Creti; for Laurent's 
Musee Fran<;ais. 

ANSELL, Chaeles, flourished towards the close 
of the 18th century. His name occurs only twice — 
1780 and 1781— in the catalogues of the Roya! 
Academy. He was celebrated for his drawings of 
the horse, but also drew domestic subiects. His 

42 •• 

' Death of a Race-horse ' was engraved in six 
plates, and published in 1784. 

ANSELMI, GlOEGlo, born at Verona, in 1723, 
was a pupil of Balestra. His masterpiece is the 
painting in fresco in the cupola of Sant' Andrea 
at Mimtua. He died in 1797. 

ANSELMI, MiOHBLANGBLO, called 'Michel- 
angelo da Lucca,' was born at Lucca, in 1491, and 
was a disciple of Bazzi. He principally resided 
at Parma, where one of his first performances 
was a considerable work painted from a design 
of GiuHo Romano, representing the 'Coronation 
of the Virgin.' He painted several pictures of his 
own composition for the cimrches in Parma, some 
of which bear a resemblance to the style of Cor- 
reggio. He died in 1554, at Parma. 

The following are his best works : 

Florence. Uffizi. Nativity. 

London. NoHhirook Coll. Madonna and Saints. 
Paris. Louvre. Virgin in Glory. 

Parma. Cathedral. Madonna and Child. 

„ Gallery. Christ on the way to Calvary. 

^'Secmu" ] Coronation of the Virgin. 
Eeggio. S. Prospero. Baptism of Christ. 

ANSIAUX, Jean Joseph El^onoeb Antoinb, a 
French historical and portrait painter, a scholar of 
Vincent, was born at Liege, in 1764. His works, 
taken from sacred and profane history, and poetical 
subjects, are numerous, and place him among the 
best artists of the French school in the 19th 
century. He also painted portraits of several 
distinguished persons, ministers, and generals of 
Napoleon. He died at Paris in 1840. 

'The following are some of his best works : 

Angers. Cathedral. 
Arras. Cathedral. 
Bordeaux. Museum. 

Le Mans. Cathedral. 
liege. Cathedral. 

„ Hdtel-de-Ville. 

LiUe. Musewm, 

» »» 

Metz. Cathedral. 


Saising of the Cross. 


Eichelieu presenting Poussin 

to Louis XIIL 1817. 
Adoration of the Kings. 
Ascension. 1812. 
Conversion of St. Paul. 1814. 
Eetum of the Prodigal Son. 

St. John rebuking Herod. 

Knding of Moses. 1822. 
The Flagellation. 
Paris S. Etienne-du-Mont. St. Paul preaohing at Athens. 

ANSUINO(or Ansovino), of Forli, who flourished 
about 1465, was one of the pupils of Squarcione, 
a fellow-worker with Mantegna in the frescoes in 
the Eremitani Chapel at Padua ; and his work 
bears traces of the influence of that master. The 
inscription Opus Ansvini is attached to the repre- 
sentation of ' St. Christopher.' 

ANTHONISSEN, H. (? Hendrik) van, a 
Dutch marine painter who flourished about the 
middle of the 17th century. He painted in the 
style of J. van Goyen and Jan Parcellis. He is 
the author of sea paintings, in the Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg, and the Prague Gallery, which through 
their signatures have been ascribed to a mythical 
Hendeik van Antem. 

ANTHONISZOON, Coenelis, (or Antoniszoon), 
was born at Amsterdam, about the year 1500. 
He excelled in representing the interior views 
of towns, which he did wjth uncommon fidelity. 
In the H6tel-de-Ville at Amsterdam is a picture 
by this master, representing that city as it was 
in 1536. He afterwards painted twelve views " 
of the same city, with its principal public build- 
ings, which he engraved on twelve blocks of 




wood. These prints are now rare. He was also 
known as Teunissen — the abbreviation 
of his name. Hence his monogram. In <- X rw 
Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' is a list of ^Lii ^ 
his engravings. 

ANTHONY, George "Wilfred, landscape 
painter, was born at Manchester, where he studied 
landscape painting under Ralston, and afterwards 
under Barber of Birmingham. After travelling 
about for some time, he finally settled at Man- 
chester as a drawing-master. He was also an 
art-critic, and wrote several very able reviews of 
local exhibitions for the ' Manchester Guardian.' 
He died at Manchester, in 1859. 

ANTIDOTUS, a disciple of Euphranor, and the 
instructor of Nicias the Athenian, flourished about 
B.C. 336. He was more remarkable for the labori- 
ous finish of his encaustic paintings than for the 
ingenuity of his invention. His colouring was cold, 
and his outline hard and dry. Among the few 
pictures by him which have been noticed, were ' A 
Warrior ready for Combat ; ' 'A Wrestler ; ' and 
' A Man playing on the Flute.' Pliny is the only 
writer who has mentioned him. 

ANTIGNA, Jean Pierre Alexandre, was 
bom in 1818 at Orleans, at the college of which 
city he was educated. He was taught drawing 
by Salmon, a professor of merit, who, discover- 
ing the talent of his pupil, induced him in 1836 
to enter the studio of Norblin. After remain- 
ing here a twelvemonth he placed himself under 
Delaroche, from whom he received, during seven 
years, instruction and counsel. Under his influ- 
ence he made, in 1841, his debut in religious 
subjects, which he continued to paint until about 
1846, when he turned his attention to genre paint- 
ing, and it was in this branch of art that he 
achieved his reputation. He was awarded medals 
at the Salons of 1847, 1848, and 1851, and he also 
obtained a medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, 
which included a good collection of his works. He 
was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1861. 
He died on the 27th of February, 1878. His chief 
works are : 

Angers. Museum. The Mirror of the Woods. 1865. 
Avignon. Museum. Vision of Jacob. 
Bordeaux. Museum. Episode of the Vendean War. 1864. 
Orleans. Museum. The Chimney Corner. 
„ „ The Krst Plaything. 

„ „ The Storm. 

„ „ Women Bathing, 

Paris. Luxembourg. The Fire. 1850. 

0. J. D. 

ANTIPHILUS, a painter of Egypt, was of 
Greek extraction, and a pupil of Ctesidemus. He 
flourished in the time of Ptolemy Philopator, at 
the close of the third century before Christ. He 
invented the caricatures known as ' Grylli,' — a 
kind of grotesque monsters, part animal or bird 
and part man. Quintilian praises him for his 
facility in painting, and he is also noticed by 
Pliny and Lucian. Amongst his works mentioned 
are a 'Satyr with a Panther-hide,' a ' Boy blow- 
ing a Fire,' and portraits of Philip of Macedon 
and Alexander the Great. 

ANTIQUUS, Johannes, was born at Groningen 
in 1702, and learned from Gerard van der Veen the 
art of painting on glass, which he practised for 
some years ; but he afterwards became a scholar 
of Jan Abel Wassenberg, a respectable painter of 
history and portraits, under whom he studied some 
time. He afterwards went to France, where he 
was much employed as a portrait painter, but did 

not long remain at Paris, being desirous of visiting 
Italy. He resided chiefly at Flo*eiice, where he 
was employed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany for 
six years. His principal work was a large picture 
of the ' Fall of the Giants,' which was esteemed of 
suflicient merit to occasion the sketch of it to be 
placed in the Florentine Academy. After passing 
several years in Italy, he returned to Holland, 
where he met with a very flattering reception, and 
was employed by the Prince of Orange in the 
Palace of Loo, where he painted a large picture of 
' Mars disarmed by the Graces,' and several other 
works. He was a correct draughtsman and a 
good colourist. He died in 1750. His brother 
Lambert was also a painter of merit. He was 
living at Groningen as late as 1751. 

ANTOINE, S^BASTIEN, an engraver of no great 
celebrity, was born at Nancy, in 1687. We have 
by him a portrait of Augustin Calmet, a large oval 
plate, dated 1729 ; the ' Enterprise of Prometheus,' 
from the ceiling at Versailles, painted by Mignard ; 
and a representation of the crown of jewels used 
at the coronation of Louis XV. in 1722. He 
worked chiefly with the graver, in a slight, feeble 
style. He is known to have engraved as late as 

ANTOLINEZ, Josi, was born at Seville in 
1639. At an early age he was sent to Madrid to 
study under Francisco Rizi, one of the painters of 
Philip IV. He painted history and portraits, and 
was also admired for the landscapes he introduced 
into his works. Palomino spoke favourably of 
two pictures by this master, which were in the 
church of La Magdalena at Madrid ; they repre- 
sented the ' Miraculous Conception,' and the ' Good 
Shepherd.' He died, from the efEeots of wounds 
received in a duel, at Madrid in 1676. 

ANTOLINEZ t SARABIA, Francisco, who was 
born at Seville in 1644, was nephew of Jos6 Anto- 
linez. He was an historical and landscape painter, 
and studied in the school -of Murillo, whose style 
and manner of colouring he followed. He went to 
his uncle at Madrid in 1672 ; but notwithstand- 
ing his having already distinguished himself as a 
painter, he left the profession for literary pursuits, 
and for the purpose of obtaining a lucrative situa- 
tion at the bar, having been originally educated at 
Seville for the law. Being unsuccessful, he was 
compelled again to have recourse to painting as a 
means of subsistence. It was then that he pro- 
duced those small pictures from the Bible and the 
life of the Virgin, which are so much admired by 
amateurs for their invention, colour, and facility 
of execution. He died in 1700 at Madrid, regretted 
by the true friends of art, who lamented the mis- 
application of those talents with which he was 

ANTON VON WORMS. See Woensam. 

ANTONAZO (or Antoniacci). See Aquilio. 

Antonello d'. 

ANTONIANUS, Silvanus. According to Pa- 
pillon, this artist was an engraver on wood, and 
flourished about the year 1567. He executed a set 
of cuts for a book of Fables, published at Antwerp 
in 1667, entitled Centum Fabulce ex antiquis 
auctoribue delectce, et a Gabriele Faerno Cremo- 
nensi carminibus explicatm. He usually -^ 

marked his prints with a monogram com- JJ 
posed of an S and an A. t/f I 

ANTONIASSO (or Antoniacci). See Aquilio. 

ANTONIO, Antonello d', (or Degli Antonj), 





commonly known as Antonbllo da Messina, played 
an important pafft in the introduction of oil paint- 
ing into Italy. We have few authentic details of 
this artist's life. He was born at Messina about 
the middle of the 15th century (some writers say 
in 1414, others in 1421, &c.), and studied art_ in 
Sicily, where he painted some time. According 
to Summonzio, lie was a scholar of Colantonio, 
an obscure artist. He went subsequently to 
Naples, and having seen there, in possession of 
Alfonso of Aragon, a painting by Jan van Eyck, 
he was so struck by it, that he left everything 
and went to Flanders, where he studied princi- 
pally after the works of Van Eyck, and became 
acquainted with his disciples, in conjunction with 
whom he is supposed to have executed several 
works. After having thus acquired the art of 
painting in oil, he returned to Italy about the 
year 1465, and it is quite certain that he was at 
Messina in 1472 and 1473, when he painted in San 
Gregorio a triptych, representing the Virgin and 
Child enthroned, with two Angels holding the 
crown, between St. Benedict and St. Gregory. In 
1473 he visited Venice, where he painted a ' Ma- 
donna and St. Michael,' in San Cassiano, now lost, 
which was long considered the chief ornament of 
that church ; besides this he executed excellent 
portraits of a small size, for which he had high 
reputation. His introduction of painting in oil 
made a great sensation among the artists at Venice, 
and he soon became followed by Bartolommeo and 
Luigi Vivarini, Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, Oar- 
paccio and Cima. He is also said to have visited 
several towns in Lorabardy between 1480 and 
1485, and to have been known at Milan as an artist 
of merit. The exact date of his death is uncer- 
tain, but it probably occurred at Venice about 1493. 
Antonello was the first Italian painter who prac- 
tised Van Eyck's method of painting in oil. He 
was an eminent colourist, and his tones are so 
warm, clear, and briglit that he almost surpassed 
Van Eyck. As an Italian he tried to unite a certain 
simplicity and natural beauty with the character- 
istic Flemish execution of the details ; but he did 
not succeed, and for that reason his outline is 
sometimes stiff and bard. His portraits were 
entirely successful, and possessed, in spite of all 
the detail, a certain idealism. The following is a 
list of some of his authentic paintings, compiled 
for the most part from Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon : ' 

Antwerp. Museum. 



Dresden. Gallery. 
Genoa. S^iiiiala Pal. 
London, ^at. Galleri/. 
Messina. S. Gregono. 

„ ^. Niccolo. 

Milan, Casa Trivuld. 

Padua. Casa Miari. 

' „ Casa Maldv/ra. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Eome. Pal. Borghese. 
Venice Academy. 

Christ on the Cross between the two 
Thieves, with the Virgin and the 
Evangelist; 1475. 

The Virgin with the Child in a land- 
scape {signed). 

St. Sebastian (signed). 

A man's portrait {signed 1445 ; 
oric/inally 1478?). 

St. Sebastian. 

Ecce Homo. 

Salvator Mundi. 1465. 

The Virgin and Child between 
St. Gregory and St. Beaedict. 

St. Nicholas. 

Portrait of a man. 

Ecce Homo. 

St. Sebastian. 

Portrait of a man, dated 1475 (pur- 
chased at the Pourtales sale in 
1865, /or frs. 113,500 = £4540). 

Portrait of a man in a red dress. 

Christ bound to the pillar. 

A Nun in tears. 

Venice. Academy. A Virgin reading at a desk. 

Casa GiovaneiU. The portrait of a young Patrician. 
Vienna. Belvedere. The dead body of Christ supported 
by three Angels. 

ANTONIO; GiEOLAMO da, a Carmelite Friar, 
who entered 'his order in 1490, at Florence, and 
worked in it and for it until his death in 1629. He 
is known chiefly by two works — the one a picture 
of ' Christ as a Man of Sorrows,' signed and dated 
1504, in the Carmine : the other, an altar-piece, 
representing ' Christ adored by the Virgin and St. 
.loseph,' signed and dated 1519, in the Scuola 
della Carita, at Savona. 

ANTONIO, Pedeo, was born at Cordova in 1614, 
and was a scholar of Antonio del Castillo. Some 
pictures which he painted for the convent of San 
Pablo at Cordova, established his character as a 
good colourist. He died in 1675 in his native city. 


ANTONIO DA MONZA, Fra. See Monza. 

ANTONIO da MORANO. See Mueano. 





ANTONISSEN, Heneicds Josephus, a painter of 
landscapes and cattle, was bom at Antwerp in 
1737. He entered the studio of Balthazar Besohey, 
in 1762-53, and three years later he was free of the 
Guild at Antwerp of which he was twice Dean. 
His works are mostly in private collections on the 
Continent. In the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort 
there is a ' Landscape with Cattle' by him ; signed 
and dated 1792. He died at Antwerp, in 1794. 
He instructed numerous scholars, and amongst 
them the celebrated Ommeganck. 

ANTONISZOON, Coknelis. See Anthoniszoon. 

ANTONJ, Degli. See Antonio, Antonello d'. 

ANTUM, Aart van, was a Dutch marine-painter, 
who flourislied from about 1630 to 1640. A sea- 
piece by him, signed A. A., is in the Berliu 

APABICIO, Josfi, a Spanish historical painter, 
was born at Alicante, in 1773, and studied in Paris 
under David. His chef-d'oeuvre, ' The Redemption 
of Algerian Captives,' is in the Madrid Gallery. 
He died in Madrid, in 1838. 

APELDOORN, Jan, a landscape painter and 
designer, was scbolar to Jordan Hoorn, a. Amers- 
foort, where he was born in 1765. He painted but 
few pictures in oil. He resided nearly fifty years 
at Utrecht, but died in his native town in 1838. 

APBLLES, the greatest of all Grecian painters, 
was probably born at Colophon in Ionia, although, 
according to Pliny and Ovid, he was a native of 
the isle of Cos ; whilst Strabo and Lucian call him 
an Ephesian. Neither the date of his birth, nor 
that of his death, is known ; it is only certain that he 
flourished from before B.C. 336 until after B.C. 332. 
He was a disciple of Paraphilus, and was probably 
of a distinguished family, as no student of mean 
birth was adihitted into the school of that master. 
Combining in himself all the excellences of the 
artists who had preceded him, and endowed with 
a genius capable of contending with the most 
arduous difiioulties, Apelles is generally supposed 
to have carried art to the highest attainable per- 
fection. He not only excelled in composition, 
design, and colouring, but also possessed an un- 
bounded invention. He was select and beautiful 
in his proportions and contourSj and, above all, his 




figures were always distinguished by an unspeak- 
able grace, which was peculiar to him, and may be 
almost said to have been the effect of inspiration. 
No painter ever applied to the study of his art 
with more persevering assiduity than Apelles. He 
never permitted a day to pass without practising 
some branch of his art ; hence the proverb, Nulla 
dies sine lined. 

His extraordinary talents, and the polished 
accomplishments of his mind, secured him tlie 
patronage and esteem of Alexander the Great, 
from whom he received the exclusive privilege of 
painting his likeness. Among others, was a por- 
trait of Alexander holding a thunderbolt, painted 
on the walls of the temple of Diana, at Ephesus : 
which was so admirably executed, that Plutarch 
reports that it used to be said there were two 
Alexanders, one invincible, the son of Philip, the 
other inimitable, the work of Apelles. For this 
picture he received twenty talents (£4320). 

But his most admired production, which is said 
to have cost the enormous sum of 100 talents 
(£21,600), was a picture of Venus rising from the 
sea, called ' Venus Anadyomene,' which was painted 
for the temple of .Slsoulapius at Cos, and which 
Ovid has celebrated in his verses : 

Si "Venerem Cois nunquam pinxisset Apelles, 
Mersa sub sequoreis ilia lateret aquis. 

Pliny asserts that Alexander permitted his fa- 
vourite mistress, the beautiful Campaspe, to sit to 
liim for his Venus, and that the painter became 
so enamoured of his model, that the conqueror 
resigned her to him. Other writers pretend that 
Phryne served him as a model for his Venus. We 
are told by .3Dlian, in his ' Various Histories,' that, 
having painted a portrait of Alexander on horse- 
back, which was not so much admired as it de- 
served by the monarch, whose horse neighed at 
the sight of the charger in the picture, Apelles said 
to Alexander : " Sire, it is plain that your horse is 
a better judge of painting than your Majesty." 

One of this painter's disciples having shown him 
a picture of Helen, which he had loaded with gold, 
"Young man," said the painter, " not being able 
to make thy Helen beautiful, thou hast resolved 
to make her rich." 

One of the chief excellences of Apelles in por- 
trait painting was to give so perfect a resemblance 
of the jerson represented, that the physiognomists 
were able to form a judgment as easily from his 
pictures as if they had seen the originals. This 
readiness and dexterity in taking a likeness was of 
singular utility to the painter, in extricating him 
from a very perilous dilemma into which he was 
thrown at the court of Ptolemy. When that 
prince reigned in Egypt, Apelles, who had not 
the good fortune to be in favour with Ptolemy, 
was driven by a storm into the port of Alexandria, 
where his enemies suborned a mischievous fellow, 
who was one of the king's buffoons, to play a 
trick upon him, by inviting Apelles, in the king's 
name, to supper. On his arrival, finding Ptolemy 
surprised, and not very well pleased with his visit, 
he apologized for his coming by assuring the 
king that he should not have presumed to wait 
upon him but by his own invitation. Being re- 
quired to point out the person who had thus im- 
posed upon him, he sketched his portrait from 
memory, with a coal upon the wall, which Ptolemy 
instantly recognized to be his buffoon. This ad- 
venture reconciled him to Ptolemy, who after- 
wards loaded him with wealth and honours. 

Antiphilus, a painter of reputation, though 
greatly inferior to Apelles, who was then at the 
court of Ptolemy, accused him of having been 
implicated in the conspiracy of Theodotus, 
governor of Phoenicia, affirming that he had seen 
Apelles at dinner with Theodotus, and that, by 
the advice of that painter, the city of Tyre had 
revolted, and Pelusium had been taken. The 
accusation was totally groundless, Apelles never 
having been at Tyre, and having no acquaintance 
with Theodotus. Ptolemy, however, in the height 
of his resentment, without examining into the 
affair, concluded him guilty, and would have 
punished him with death, had not an accomplice 
of the conspirators declared his innocence, and 
proved that the accusation originated in the 
jealousy and malevolence of Antiphilus. Stung 
with confusion at having listened to so infamous 
a slander, Ptolemy restored Apelles to his favour, 
presented him with a hundred talents, to compen- 
sate for the injury he had sustained, and con- 
demned Antiphilus to be his slave. 

On his return to Greece, as a memorial of the 
persecution, and to avenge himself of his enemies, 
Apelles painted an allegorical picture representing 
' Calumny,' in which he seems to have exerted all 
his inventive faculties. Of this ingenious compo- 
sition, Lucian has furnished us with the following 
description : " On the right of the pict\ne was 
seated a person of magisterial authority, to whom 
the painter has given large ears, like those of 
Midas, who held forth his hand to Calumny, as if 
inviting her to approach. He is attended by 
Ignorance and Suspicion, who are placed by his 
side. Calumny advanced in the form of a beau- 
tiful female, her countenance and demeanour ex- 
hibiting an air of fury and hatred. In one hand 
she held the Torch of Discord, and with the other 
dragged by the hair a youth, personifying Inno- 
cence, who, with eyes raised to heaven, seemed 
to implore the succour of the gods. She was pre- 
ceded by Envy, a figure with a pallid visage and 
an emaciated form, who appeared to be the leader 
of the band. Calumny was also attended by two 
other figures, who seemed to excite and animate 
her, whose deceitful looks discovered them to be 
Intrigue and Treachery. At last followed Re- 
pentance, clothed in black, and covered with con- 
fusion, at the discovery of Truth in the distance, 
environed with celestial light." Such was the 
ingenious fiction which indicated the vengeance of 
Apelles, and which may be regarded as one of 
the most admirable examples of emblematical 
painting that the history of the art affords. 
Raphael made a drawing from Lucian's description 
of this picture ; it is now in the Louvre. 

It was customary with Apelles to exhibit his 
pictures publicly, not for the purpose of being 
flattered with the incense of applause, but with an 
intention of profiting by whatever just criticism 
might be made on the work. That the public 
might feel themselves at liberty to express their 
sentiments freely, he usually concealed himself 
behind a panel, that his presence might not be 
a restraint on the expression of their judgment. 
On one of these occasions, a cobbler found fault 
with some incorrectness in the representation of a . 
slipper, and Apelles, convinced of the judicious 
observation of the artisan, made the necessary 
alteration. The picture being again offered to 
public view in its improved state, the cobbler, 
proud of the success of his first criticism, ventured 





to find fault with the leg, when Apelles, discover- 
ing himself, addressed to him the well-known 
sentence which has since become proverbial, Ne 
supra crepidam sutor. Tlie modesty of this great 
painter was not less worthy of admiration than 
his extraordinary talents. Far from being jealous 
of his contemporaries, he not only extolled their 
merit, but, favoured as he was by fortune, made 
use of his wealth in promoting the interest of his 
rivals. His generous conduct to Protogenes is 
generally known, and is more particularly noticed 
in the account of that painter. Apelles wrote a 
work on painting, which has unfortunately been 

APENS, C, a Dutch engraver, who worked at 
Groningen in the second half of the 17th century. 
He engraved the portraits of Samuel Maresius, D.D., 
and other persons. 

APOLLODOEUS, a Greek painter, was a native 
of Athens, and flourished about B.C. 408. He was 
the first who succeeded in the blending of tones, 
and in the distribution of light and shadow, and 
may be nailed the inventor of oliiaroscuro. Among 
his works is mentioned a picture of ' Ajax struck 
by Lightning,' which was formerly at Pergamus. 

APOLLONIO, GiAOOMO, was born at Bassano in 
1582 or 1584. He was the grandson of Jacopo da 
Ponte, and received instruction in art from his 
uncles Girolarao and Giambattista da Ponte. His 
style is precisely that of his instructors, and his 
works are only distinguished from theirs by a less 
vigorous tone and a less animated touch. In the 
cathedral at Bassano is a ' Magdalene ' by this 
master ; and a picture of ' Christ on the Cross, 
adored by St. Bonaventura,' signed and dated 1611, 
is in the church of the Padri Biformati ; but his 
most esteemed work is the ' Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian,' in the church dedicated to that saint. 
He died in 1654, and was buried in San Francesco, 
in Bassano. 

APONTE, Pedeo de, (or Ponte), who was born 
at Saragossa in the beginning of the 15th century, 
was painter to John II. of Aragon. Ferdinand V. 
took him to Castile, and appointed him ' pintor 
de camera ' in 1479. He is said to have studied in 
Italy under Luca Signorelli and Ghirlandaio. He 
may be considered one of the founders of the 
school of Aragon. He painted an altar-piece in 
the parish church of San Lorenzo at Huesca. 

APOSTOOL, CoRNEHS, a Dutch amateur painter, 
and engraver in aquatint, was born at Amsterdam 
in 1762. He visited England, but returned home 
in 1796, and was in 1808 appointed director of the 
Amsterdam Museum, which office he held until his 
death in 1844. He engraved a portrait of Lavinia 
Fenton, afterwards Duchess of Bolton, after Ho- 
garth, as well as landscapes for the 'Beauties of 
the Dutch School,' 'Select Views in the South of 
France,' ' Travels through the Maritime Alps,' and 
Daniell's 'Views of Hindostan.' 

APPEL, Jakob, was born at Amsterdam in 1680. 
After passing some time under Timotheus de Graaf, 
he was instructed in landscape painting by David 
van der Plaas. According to Descamps; he at first 
imitated the works of Tempesta, but changed his 
manner, and adopted that of Albert Meijeringh. 
His landscapes are not without merit ; but he was 
more successful in his portraits. He died in 1751 
at Amsterdam. 

APPELIUS, Jean, who was born, it is said, in 
Switzerland, flourished at Middelburg in the second 
half of the 18th century as a painter of portraits, 


history, and landscapes. His productions are gener- 
ally large, and exhibit much artistic talent. 

APPELMAN, Babend, was born at the Hague 
in 1640, and in his youth visited Italy. His land- 
scapes are taken from the views in the vicinity 
of Rome. In 1676 he entered the Painters' Guild at 
the Hague. He was at one time employed by the 
Prince of Orange, and decorated a saloon in the 
palace at Soestdijk with very pleasing landscapes 
painted in a good style, and well coloured. He 
also painted portraits, and put in the landscape 
backgrounds of many of the portraits of Jan de 
Baan and others. He died in 1686. 

APPELMANS, G., was a native of Holland, and 
flourished at Leyden about the year 1670. He 
was chiefly employed in engraving portraits and 
other book-plates for the publishers. He also 
engraved the portrait of Thomas Bartholinus, and 
the plates for the ' Anatomia Bartholiniana,' pub- 
lished in 1674. They are neatly executed, but 
in a stiff, formal style. 

APPERT, EuGiiNE, who was born at Angers in 
1814, went to Paris in 1837, and became a disciple 
of Ingres. He painted numerous pictures of merit, 
among which are a portrait of ' Pope Alexander HI. 
as a Beggar,' which is now in the Luxembourg ; 
' Nero before the dead body of Agrippina,' in the 
Museum of Montauban, and several pictures of 
religious subjects in the hospital of Angers. Ap- 
pert painted genre and historical subjects, and also 
still-life. He was a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour. He died at Cannes in 1867. 

APPIANI, Andeba, 'the elder,' who was born 
at Milan in 1764 (or 1761 ?), excelled both in fresco 
and oil painting. In his style there is much origin- 
ality, and a gracefulness which approaches that of 
Correggio. His best performances in fresco are to 
be seen in the palace at Milan ; they have been en- 
graved by Rosaspina and others. Of his works in 
oil, 'Rinaldo in the garden of Armida,' ' Olympus,' 
and ' Venus and Cupid,' are specimens of great 
beauty. Napoleon sat to him for his portrait, and 
appointed him his painter. A portrait of ' Napoleon 
enthroned between Victory and Peace ' is in the 
Leu chtenberg Gallery, at St. Petersburg, a 'Boaz 
and Ruth ' is in the Belvedere, at Vienna. At the 
restoration of the Bourbons he lost his pension, and 
an attack of apoplexy, which he had suffered in 
1813, having rendered it impossible for him to 
paint, he was reduced to the extremity of selling 
all his drawings and other valuables to procure 
subsistence. He lived in this condition until 1817, 
when another attack of apoplexy caused his death 
at Milan. He was a member of the . 
Legion of Honour, and a knight of the AtV 
Iron Crown. IIW 

The following works are also by him : 

Milan. Gallery. Portrait of Himself. 

„ „ Jupiter crowned by the Hours. 

„ „ Portrait of Bonifazio Asioli, musi- 


„ „ Portrait of General Charles-Antoine 


„ „ Portrait of Napoleon Buonaparte. 

,1 „ Apollo and the dying Hyacinthus 


„ „ Daphne pursued by Apollo (fresco). 

„ „ St. John the Evangelist (fresco). 

I, „ Apollo's Chariot. 

APPIANI, Andrea, ' the younger,' who was the 
great-nephew of the painter of the same name, was 
born in 1817. He studied at Rome under Minardi 
and Frans Hayez, and became a good historical 




painter. He was employed by the King of Italy, 
the Emperor of Austria, and other personages of 
celebrity. Of his works may be mentioned ' Petrarch 
and Laura' (1852); 'Laban and Jacob,' and 'La 
povera Maria ' (1859). He died in 18G5. 

APPIANI, Francesco, was born at Anoona in 
1704, and was a scholar of Domenico Simonetti, 
called II Magatta. He afterwards studied at Rome, 
in the time of S. Conoa and Mancini- — with whom 
he lived in habits of intimacy — and acquired a 
pleasing and harmonious style. Of this he has 
given proof in his picture of 'The Death of St. 
Domenick,' which was painted by order of Bene- 
dict XIII. for the church of San Sisto Vecchio in 
Rome, and procured him the honour of a gold 
medal and chain. He resided the greater part 
of his life at Perugia, where he decorated the 
choir of the cathedral, and many of the churches. 
He died in 1792. 

APPIANI, Niocol6, (or Appiano), a Milanese 
painter, who flourished about the year 1610. It 
is said that he was a scholar of Leonardo da Vinci, 
and Cesariani compares him with the greatest 
masters of the age. Two works in the Brera, the 
' Baptism of Christ,' and the ' Adoration of the 
Magi,' are ascribed to Appiani. 

APPIER, Jean, called Hanzelet, an engraver 
and etcher, flourished in Lorraine in the first half 
of the 17th century. His works, which are exe- 
cuted in Callot's early manner, bear dates from 
1610 to 1630, and are signed with the initials 
/. A. M. (Jean Appier Hanzelet), or /. A. (Jean 
Appier), or in full. Besides the following, he 
executed various engravings of pyrotechnic instru- 
ments used in war and for amusement. 

Portrait of Elis^e de Haranoourt, Governor of Nancy. 
Taict a Nancy far Jean Affier^ 1610 {an etching 
finished m'th the graver). 

Ornamental Title-page and small Views of a Journal of 
a Travel in the Levant. 

Title-page. An Allegory. /. A. Hanzelet, feeit, 1617. 

Missale Bomanum, 1631. 

APSCH, Jeeom Andreas, a German engraver 
on wood, born at Nuremberg about the year 1490. 
He assisted Hans Burgkmair in executing the 
woodcuts for a book published at Vienna, entitled 
Ber Weyss Kunig, or ' The W^ise King,' contain- 
ing the principal events of the life and reign of 
the Emperor Maximilian I. He died in 1556. 

APSHOVEN. Concerning a family of artists 
of this name much uncertainty has been expressed. 
The two brothers, Thomas (miscalled Theodor), 
and Ferdinand, have been, by some, considered to 
be the same man. As regards the spelling of the 
surname, it is sometimes found Apshoven, and 
sometimes Abshoven or Abtshoven, but the first 
seems to be the most correct form. 

The following are the members of the Apshoven 
family who practised art at Antwerp in the 16th 
and 17th centuries. Some are too unimportant for 
separate notices- 
Ferdinand i. I — ai.ieis). 

Ferdinand 11. (1676—1664-6). 

Thomas (1622—1664-6). Ferdinand III. (1630—1694). 

Ferdinand IT. (1640— ). Willem (1664— ). 

Waagen mentions a Michael van Apshoven, but 
he is not recorded by any other author. The 
information given below is taken, in a great 
lueasiire, from Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon. ' 

APSHOVEN, Ferdinand van, 'the elder,' is 
recorded to have been baptized at Antwerp, on the 

17th of May, 1576. In 1592-93 he entered the 
atelier of Adam van Noort, and in 1596-97 he was 
free of the Guild of Painters of that city. He was 
both an historical painter and a portraitist ; but no 
work by him exists. That he was successful as a 
teacher in art is evident, for the records of the 
Guild mention seven pupils of his. He died in 
1654 or 1655. 

APSHOVEN, Ferdinand van, 'the younger,' 
son of the painter of the same name, and brother 
of the more celebrated Thomas, was baptized in 
1630. He was a pupil of Teniers the younger, 
and in 1657-58 he was admitted to the Antwerp 
Guild as a master's son. In 1664 he took the oath 
as Captain in the 13th Division of the ' Civic- 
guard.' In 1678-79 he was offered, but declined to 
accept, the office of Dean to the Guild. In 1694 he 
died, and was buried in the church of St. Walburg, 
in Antweip. Ferdinand van Apshoven' s pictures, 
like those of his brother, closely resemble the 
style of Teniers, under whose name many of them 
have passed. An Interior, with two figures — 
almost equal to a Teniers — is in the Rotterdam 
Museum ; another Chamber, with three figures, 
is in the Museum at Dunkirk ; and a third, ' Peas- 
ants in a Tavern,' is in the possession of M. van 
Lerius, of Antwerp. 

APSHOVEN, Thomas van (miscalled Theodoe), 
son of Ferdinand the elder, was baptized at Ant- 
werp on the 30th of November, 1622. He became 
the favourite pupil' of David Teniers the younger, 
whose style he imitated with much success. We 
find various records of Apshoven. In 1652 he 
took the oath as standard-bearer in the 6th Division 
of the Civic-guard, and in 1657 he was made 
Captain of the 8th Division. His death occurred 
between the 18th of September, 1664, and the 
same day in the following year. Apshoven' s pic- 
tures, like those of his master, represent village 
festivals, the interiors of cabarets, with peasants 
regaling and amusing themselves, corps-de-gardes, 
and chemists' laboratories, in all of which he ap- 
proached so near to the admirable style of his 
instructor, that his pictures may easily be mis- 
taken for those of Teniers. His touch is un- 
commonly light and spirited, and his colouring 
clear and silvery. The works of this painter are 
frequently met with in Flanders, where they are 
judged worthy of being placed in the best collec- 
tions. The Dresden Gallery has a picture of 
fruits, &c., by him, signed ' t. v. apshoven.' The 
Darmstadt Gallery has a Landscape, painted in 
1656 ; the Cassel Gallery ' Dancing Peasants ; ' 
and the Prague Gallery, an Interior, by Apshoven. 
AQUA, Ceistoforo dall'. See Dall' Aoqua. 
AQUILA, Arnoud. See Halbn. 
AQUILA, Francesco Faraonb, an eminent 
Italian engraver, was the nephew (not the brother) 
of the celebrated Pietro Aquila : he was born at 
Palermo about 1676, and established himself at 
Rome about the year 1690, and laboured there till 
about 1740. His engravings are numerous, and 
some of them highly esteemed. His style of exe- 
cution is perhaps neater than that of Pietro, but he 
is very inferior to him in correctness of drawing 
and expression. He sometimes worked with the 
graver only, but his plates in that way are cold, 
wanting in effect, and by no means equal to those 
in which he called in the assistance of the point. 
Some of his prints are after his own designs. 
Among his works is a set of nineteen large plates 
of the ' Stanze ' of the Vatican, after Raphael, 





entitled Picturae Sanctij Urhinatis ex Aula ei 
Conclavibus Palatii Vaticani (1722) ; also as 
below : 
St. Rosalia ; from his own design. 
Mars, with his armour hung on a tree ■ the same. 
The Cardinal Casini ; after Vicinelli. 
The Cardinal Giuseppe Maria de Thomasijs ; after F. 

La Vierge au Panier ; after Correggio. 
The Last Supper ; after Atbani. 1711. 
The First Vault in the Vatican; after Giro Ferri ; 

1696 ; circular. 
Two cupolas, one in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament, 

and the other in the church of San Sebastian ; after 

Metro da Cortona ; circular. 
Another cupola, in the Chiesa Nuova ; after the same 

painter ; circular. 
A Warrior, to whom Mars offers a sword, and Minerva 

a crown of laurel ; after Ant. Bonjigli. 
The Victory of Constantine over Maxentius ; after And. 

The Triumph of Constantine ; after the same. 

The dead Saviour in the lap of the Virgin Mary, with 
St. Mary Magdalene, and St. Francis ; after Carracci. 

A Bishop announcing to the Virgin Mary the arrival of 
the body of St. Helena. 

The Repose in Egypt, with St. Joseph at work in the 

The Bark of St. Peter ; after Lanfranco. 

Our Saviour with a Glory, the Virgin Mary, St. Am- 
brose, and St. Charles Borromeo ; crfter Carlo Ma/ratti. 

Three large priuts — Of the vault of St. Francis Xavier 
at Naples ; after Faolo de Mattel. 

Venus showing the arms to ^neas.; after N. Foussin. 

AQUILA, Giorgio, called ' Maestro Giorgio da 
Firenze,' flourished from 1314 to 1325. He was a 
native of Florence, and is said to have been the 
first Italian artist who used nut oil in painting. 

AQUILA, PiETRO, the uncle of Francesco, was 
born at Marsala, near Palermo, probably between 
1640 and 1645. The early part of his life was 
passed in a seminary, preparatory to his devoting 
himself to an ecclesiastical life ; and on his arrival 
at Rome he actually became a monk, which seclu- 
sion, however, did not prevent his following his 
natural inclination for art. He died toward the 
close of the 17th century. According to Baldinucci 
he was a respectable painter, but his reputation 
has reached a higher rank as an engraver. His 
drawing is extremely correct, and he etched his 
plates in a bold and free manner. His best prints 
are those he engraved after the Carracci, which are 
very highly esteemed, and the five mentioned 
below after Pietro da Cortona are very fine. The 
number of his plates is very considerable, 
some of which are engraved from his own 7D 
compositions : viz. J~ A- 

The Adoration of the Magi. 
The Flight into Egypt ; dedicated to B. 0. de Vingte- 

The Holy Family, with St. John kissing the foot of our 

Lions fighting ; an emblematical subject \ inscribed spes 

suscitat iras. 
Fourteen plates containing 160 medallions of Roman 

Emperors, from medals in the cabinet of Queen 

Christina of Sweden. 

St. Luke, Patron of the Academy ; after Zazzaro Baldi. 
Sacrifice of Polyxena ; after Fietro da Cortona. 
Xenophon returned from the Chase ; after the same. 
The Rape of the Sabines ; after the same. 
The Battle of Arbela ; after the same. 
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after the same. 
Moses and the Daughters of Jethro ; after Ciro Ferri. 
Moses striking the Rock ; after the same. 
The Virgin Mary appearing to St. Alexis ; after the same. 

The Vestals keeping up the sacred fire ; after the same. 

La Vierge au Pistolet ; after Carlo Maraiti. 

The Triumph of Religion ; after the same. 

St. Luke showing the Virgin Mary the portrait he Lad 
painted of her ; after the same. 

The Death of the Virgin ; after Morandi. 

The Bible of Raphael, a set of fifty-two prints; en- 
titled Imagines Veteris ac Novi Testamenti. Cesare 
Fantetti engraved thirty-seven of the prints in this 
Bible ; the remaining fifteen are by Pietro Aquila, 
and are very superior to those of Fantetti. 

The Famese Gallery, in twenty-five plates, with the 
statues and ornaments. 

The Chamber of the Palace Famese, in thirteen plates • 
inscribed Imagines Farnesiani CubicuU. 

The Assembly of the Gods, from the painting by Lan- 
franco, in the Villa Borghese at Rome ; in nine plates. 

There are some other plates by this artist, which 
will be found described in the ' Dictionnaire des 
Artistes,' by Heineken, and in Meyer's 'Allge- 
meines Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

AQUILA, PoMPBO dall'. See Dall' Aquila 

AQUILIO, Antonio, called Antoniasso, Anto- 
NIACOI, or Antonazo, was a painter who flourished 
in Rome in the latter part of the 15th century. 
He was much eraploj-ed for the churches and con- 
vents ; but his style was only mediocre. A paint- 
ing by him of the year 1464 is in the sacristy of 
the convent of Sant' Antonio del Monte at Eieti. 
It represents the Madonna and Child with SS. 
Anthony and Francis. Another, of the year 1483, 
is in the cathedral of Velletri, and a third is in 
the cathedral of Capua. It was executed in 1489 
for Girolamo Gaetano, Archbishop of Capua, and 
bears the following inscription: antonatius eo- 
MAKUS M. FOE. P. MCOCCLXXXix. It has been much 
injured by restoration. Antoniasso died about ISOO. 

AQUILIO, Marco, a son of Antonio Aquilio, is 
the author of the ' Resurrection,' still preserved in 
the refectory of the convent of Santa Chiara, at 
Rieti. The predella contains scenes drawn from 
the Passion ; on the border of one of them can be 
read, Marcus Antonius MagiJ Antonatii romanus 
depinxit m.d.x.l. 

ARAGON, Juan be, an historical painter who 
resided at Granada in 1580, and was one of the 
distinguished professors who ornamented the 
beautiful monastery of St. Jerome. 

ARALDI, Alessandro, who was born at Parma 
about the year 1465, studied under Cristoforo 
Caselli, of the school of Giovanni Bellini. He 
painted history in a style which Lanzi denomin- 
ates antico inoderno. In the Parma Gallery is a 
picture by this master, representing the 'Annuncia- 
tion,' which is mentioned as a very creditable per- 
formance ; and in the cathedral there is a fresco, 
executed by him in 1509, of the ' Virgin and Child, 
with St. Joseph.' The churches of his native city 
contain works by him. He died in or after 1530. 

ARBASIA, Cesare, a native of Saluzzo, and a 
pupil of Federigo Zuccaro, flourished towards the 
close of the 16th century. He visited Spain 
during the reign of Philip II., and there executed 
some important works. His style is an imitation 
of the works of Leonardo da Vinci,"and he is incor- 
rectly stated to have been his scholar. His chief 
excellence was in fresco painting, to which the 
ceiling of the church of the Benedictine monks at 
Siivigliano, the work in the Palazzo Pubblico of his 
native town, and other considerable paintings, bear 
testimony. He was an artist of great ability, and 
painted some excellent pictures at Malaga and Cor- 
dova, in fresco and oil. For a picture of the ' In- 
carnation,' and some other works in the cathedral 




of Malaga, he was paid three thousand ducats. At 
Cordova, in 1583, he painted in fresco, in the sanc- 
tuary of the cathedral, the martyrs of that place. 
Leaving Spain, probably with Federigo Zuccaro, 
his former master, he went to Rome, and was 
one of the founders of the Academy of St. Luke, 
of _ which Zuccaro was the first president. He is 
said to have died in Spain in 1614, and is ranked 
by Palomino and Cean Bermudez among the Span- 
ish painters. Palomino's account of this painter is 
incorrect in almost every statement. 

ARBOS Y AYERBE, Manuel, who was a good 
Spanish miniature painter, was sent to Rome by 
Ferdinand VIL, and was subsequently court- 
painter to Isabella II. He died at Madrid in 1876. 

ARCA, Leonaedo dell'. See Dell' Arca. 

ARCAGNDOLO (Abcagnolo, or Aeoagno). 
See CiONB, Andeea di. 

ARCHER, John Wtkeham, was born at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, in 1808. In 1820 he came to 
London, and became a pupil of John Scott, the 
celebrated engraver of animals. In 1827 he pro- 
duced in Newcastle a series of large etchings of 
Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire, and etchings of the 
Abbey Church, and Abbot's Tower at Hexham. 
He then removed to Edinbui'gh, where he made 
a collection of drawings of the ancient edifices 
and streets of that town, after which he returned 
to London, and entered the studio of Messrs. W. 
and E. Finden, in order to improve himself in 
engraving upon steel. Having been elected a 
member of the New Society of Painters in Water 
Colours, he produced a series of drawings of St. 
Mary Overy, previous to its restoration, and of 
Lambeth Palace in all its parts. Archer was 
the author of ' Vestiges of Old London,' a large 
quarto volume, illustrated by etchings ; likewise 
of a series of papers in Douglas Jerrold's Maga- 
zine, entitled ' The Recreations of Mr. Zigzag the 
Elder,' and of numerous contributions to different 
journals. His principal drawings are a series, 
some hundreds in number, of the ancient remains 
of London and its vicinity, in the possession of 
Mr. William Twopenny, and a series of the an- 
tiquities of his native county of Northumberland, 
in the collection at Alnwick Castle. He also 
claimed to have revived the ancient practice of 
engraving on monumental brass, and produced 
several large monuments of this description from 
his own designs. He likewise painted a few works 
in oil. He died May 25, 1864. 

ARCHIjyiEDES. See Genobls. 

ARCIMBOLDO, Giuseppe, was born at Milan in 
1533. He excelled in painting the interiors of 
kitchens, with fruit, vegetables, culinary utensils, 
&o., and occasionally introduced into his pictures 
grotesque figures and drolleries, formed of flowers 
and fruits, which at a distance appeared like 
human figures. He was a favourite artist of the 
Emperors Maximilian II. and Rudolph II., in 
whose service he was employed the greater part of 
his life. He died at Milan in 1593. Four works 
by him are in the Belvedere at Vienna — 'Summer' 
and ' Winter,' which he painted in 1663 ; ' Fire ' 
three years later ; and ' Water.' 

ARCIONI, Daniele, (or Ciecioni,) a worker in 
niello, who is highly praised by Ambrogio Leone, 
is little known in the history of the arts. He 
appears to have been a contemporary of Maso 
Finiguerra and other eminent niellotori. He 
flourished at Milan about 1600. 

AECO, Alonso del. See Del Abco. 

ARDEMANS, Teodoeo, an eminent architect 
and painter, was born at Madrid in 1664, and 
studied painting in the school of Claudio Coello. 
His father was a German. As he chiefly followed 
architecture, his works as a painter were few, hut 
the fresco of the ' Apotheosis of St. Francis ' with 
which he ornamented the vault of the sacristy of 
San Francisco at Madrid was considered a master- 
piece. No painting by him now remains. He was 
made painter to the king in 1704, and held that 
post till his death, which took place at Madrid in 
1726. He designed the celebrated frontispiece to 
the ' Diario de los Viages de Felipe V.,' which was 
engraved by Edelinck ; and it is said that he him- 
self practised the art of engraving. 

ARDENTE, Alessandeo, a Piedmontese painter, 
who appears, from the dates on his pictures, to 
have flourished from the year 1565 to 1592. In 
the church of San Paolo, at Lucca, is a picture of 
St. Antonio Abate, signed, and bearing the former 
date ; and at Moncaliere, near Turin, an altar- 
piece of the 'Adoration of the Magi,' with the 
latter. At Turin, in the Monte della Pieta, is a 
picture of the ' Conversion of St. Paul,' by Ardente, 
painted with a grandeur of style that would in- 
duce us to think he was educated in the Roman 
school. He was painter to Duke Charles Emmanuel 
of Savoy, in whose service he died in 1695. 

AREGIO, Pablo de, (Aeigo, or Aeeegio,) is 
named among the Spanish painters, but it is more 
than probable that he was an Italian, as his name 
imports (Paolo da Reggio, or Arezzo). He painted, 
in 1506, in conjunction with Francesco Neapoli, 
the doors of the high altar of the cathedral of 
Valencia, with subjects from the Life of the Virgin, 
which are admired for correct design, noble charac- 
ter, grandeur of form and expression, and all those 
fine qualities in art that belong to the school of 
Leonardo da Vinci, of whom both the painters are 
supposed to Lave been pupils. 

ARELLANO, Josi de, a Spanish flower painter 
of the 18th century, is represented in the Madrid 
Gallery by two works. 

ARELLANO, Juan de, born at Santorcaz in 
1614, was a scholar of Juan de Solis, but not suc- 
ceeding in the higher branches of art, he copied 
the flower-pictures of Mario di Fieri, and after- 
wards by attention to nature became very eminent 
in that department. His pictures are highly 
esteemed in Spain, and are to be found in most of 
the collections. There are six flower-pieces by him 
in the Madrid Gallery. He died at Madrid in 1676. 

ARELLIUS was a painter of some celebrity, at 
Rome, a short time before the reign of Augustus. 
From the manner in which he is mentioned by 
Pliny, he must have possessed considerable ability. 
That writer reproaches him severely for having 
selected, as the models for his goddesses, the most 
celebrated courtesans of his time ; a reproach 
which he never thought of making to some of the 
greatest artists of Greece, who constantly availed 
themselves of the same practice. 

ARENDS, Jan, born at Dordrecht in 1738, was 
a brother of the poet Roelof Arends. He was 
a pupil of J. Ponse, and painted landscapes and 
marine subjects. He laboured many years at 
Amsterdam and Middelburg, but returned event- 
ually to Dordrecht, where he died in 1805. He 
was well skilled in perspective, and practised 

ARENIUS, Oloe, a Swedish portrait painter, 
and son of a minister in Upland, was born in 





1701. He studied under David von KrafEt, and 
afterwards went to the Netherlands to study the 
old masters. His portraits and miniatures in oil 
are much esteemed, and are to be found in all the 
public galleries, as well as in the best private col- 
lections, in Sweden. Many of them have been 
engraved. He died at Stockholm in 1766. 

ARETINO. See Spinelli. 

ARETUSI, Cesaeb, was a native of Bologna, 
where he flourished in the second half of the 16th 
century. It is not said under whom he studied, 
but lie formed his style from the works of Bagna- 
cavallo. In conjunction with Giambattista Fiorini, 
he painted the cupola of the cathedral of San Pietro 
at Bologna. Aretusi died in 1612. His portraits 
are very highly esteemed, and his great success in 
that line accounts for his having executed so few 
historical works. Several of the most illustrious 
personages of his time sat to him, and his portraits 
have a beauty of colour and a breadth that 
remind us of the works of Correggio. Lanzi ob- 
serves that he was distinguished as a colourist in 
the Venetian taste, but in point of invention 
weak and dull, while Giambattista Fiorini, on the 
other hand, was full of fine conceptions, but 
worthless in his colouring. These two artists 
formed an intimate friendship, and by uniting 
their powers produced paintings of considerable 
merit. The following works, entirely executed 
by Aretusi, are at Bologna : in San Benedetto, a 
' Deposition from the Cross ; ' in San Francesco, 
an ' Annunciation,' and a ' Conception ; ' in San 
Giovanni in Monte, ' The Birth of the Virgin ; ' in 
the Theatine Church, 'St. Bartholomew ; ' in Santa 
Maria della Carita, a ' Madonna, with Charity 
and St. Francis.' He could assume the style of 
almost any painter, and even pass ofl! his imita- 
tions for originals. Those of Correggio were par- 
ticularly successful, and he received a commission 
to execute a copy of the celebrated ' Notte,' by 
that master, for the church of San Giovanni in 
Parma. Mengs, who saw it, declared that were the 
original at Dresden by any accident lost, it might 
be well replaced by so fine a replica. This per- 
formance obtained for him the honour of copying 
the painting executed by Correggio for the tribune 
of the same church, which had been renjoved to 
extend the choir ; and that picture, says Ruta, in 
his Guida, from its accurate imitation of the taste 
displayed in the original, of its conception and of 
its harmony, led those unacquainted with the fact 
to suppose it to he the work of AUegri. This is 
confirmed by Pungileoni in his ' Memorie istoriohe 
di Antonio Allegri, detto II Correggio.' 

ARETUSI, Pelleseino de, (generally called 
Pellegbino Munaei, and also Pbllegeino da 
MoDENA,) was instructed in painting by his father, 
Giovanni, who flourished at Modena in the latter 
part of the 15th century. In 1509 he painted 
an altar-piece for the hospital of Santa Maria de' 
Battii (afterwards Santa Maria della Neve), which 
gained him great reputation. The celebrity of 
Raphael, then in the zenith of his fame, drew 
him to Rome, where he had the advantage of 
being admitted into the school of that inimitable 
painter. His talent was soon discovered by his 
able instructor, and he was selected by him to 
assist in the great works he was then engaged on 
in the Vatican. He was entrusted to paint, from 
the designs of Raphael, the ' Histories of Jacob and 
Solomon,' which he executed entirely to the satisfac- 
tion of his master. Besides these, he painted some 


pictures of his own composition for the churches 
at Rome, particularly in Sant' Eustachio (now- 
perished), and in San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, 
where he painted, in fresco, the life of St. James. 
After the death of Raphael he returned to Modena, 
where he was employed on several of the public 
edifices, and painted in the church of San Paolo 
his celebrated picture of the ' Nativity of Christ,' 
which was designed with all the grace and dignity 
of his great teacher. He also painted the 'Adorar 
tion of the Magi,' in San Francesco, and the ' Coro- 
nation of the Virgin,' in the church of the Servites. 
This eminent artist was high in the public esteem, 
and in the midst of a brilliant career, when the 
world was deprived of his talents by an unforeseen 
and dreadful catastrophe. His son happened to 
have a quarrel with one of hie companions, which 
ended in the death of his antagonist. Pellegrino, 
apprised of the fatal accident, ran out into the 
street, to endeavour to save his son from the pursuit 
of justice ; he was encountered by the relatives of 
the deceased, who fell upon him with the greatest 
fury, and killed him. This tragical event hap- 
pened in 1523. No scholar of Raphael approached 
nearer to him in the sublime character of his 
heads, and the grandeur of his forms. 

AREVALO, J. C. DE. See Cano. 

AREZZO, Jacopino da, a miniature painter of 
the 15th century, illustrated, about 1436, a, Bible, 
Prayer-book, &c., for the Marohese da Ferrara, and 
shortly afterwards the ' Commentaries ' of C^sar 
and a ' Theseus,' the works of Albertus Magnus, 
a Psalter, and a book of love-songs. 

AREZZO, MoNTANO d' , flourished about the end 
of the 13th, and the commencement of the 14th, 
centuries. In 1305 he painted two chapels of the 
Castel Nuovo, and in 1306 two chapels of the 
Castel del Uovo, at Naples. He was a favourite of 
King Robert, who knighted him in 1310. The 
chapel of the Monastery of Monte Vergine, near 
Avellino, has a picture of the Madonna said to he 
by him. The Dormitory dei Giovannetti of the 
Seminario Urhano, at Naples, has a half-length 
picture of a Bishop by him. The dates of Montano 
d'Arezzo's birth and death are no longer known, 
and little can now be found belonging to this artist. 

ARFIAN, Antonio db, a native of Triana, a 
suburb of Seville, studied under Murillo and Luis 
de Vargas. He was employed on several import- 
ant works, both in fresco and in oil ; among 
which was the grand altar-piece of the cathedral 
which he painted in 1654, in concert with Antonio 
Ruiz. Neither the date of his birth nor that of 
his death has been mentioned by any writer, but 
he was still living in 1587, in which year, with his 
son Alonzo's assistance, he painted the ' Legend 
of St. George,' in the church of the Magdalene. 

ARGENTO, Antonio dall'. See Aleotti. 

ARGUELLO, Juan Bautista, painted still-life 
in the cathedral at Seville, in 1594. Nothing 
further is known of him. 

ARIAS FERNANDEZ, Antonio, an histori- 
cal painter, was born at Madrid about 1620, and 
studied under Pedro de las Cuevas. At the age of 
fourteen he painted the great altar-piece of the Car- 
melite monastery at Toledo. This gained him much 
credit ; yet, far from being inflated by the praises 
he received, ho pursued his studies with great 
assiduity, and at tlie age of twenty-five was one 
of the best painters at Madrid. The Duke of 
Oliyarez selected him to paint the series of por- 
traits of the kings and queens of Spain which were 




in the old palace at Madrid. His death occurred 
in that city in 1684. The Madrid Museum has by 
him ' Clirist witli the tribute money,' and ' Charles 
V. and Philip II. of Spain, seated on a throne.' 
lie left a daughter, who practised portrait-painting 
with success. 

ARIDICES, of Corinth, was, with Telephanes, 
the first to improve upon the earliest essays of 
Greek artists, which consisted in tracing a simple 
outline. Aridices introduced other lines indicative 
of the internal parts of the figure, but it was still 
only an outline without colour. 

ARIENTI, Carlo, (or Abeienti,) one of the 
earliest painters of the modern Italian school, 
was born at MUan about 1800 (or at Arcore near 
Monza in 1794) ; and became President of the 
Academy in that city. He was summoned to 
Turin by Charles Albert- to paint in the royal palace 
a battle-piece representing a victory gained over the 
Austrians. Arienti then settled in Turin, and was 
made President of the Art Academy, and became 
the instructor of numerous good artists. He 
subsequently accepted the presidentship of the 
Academy at Bologna, where he died in 1873. He 
painted historical pictures of large dimensions. 
A ' Murder of the Innocents ' by him is in the 
Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. 

ARIGO. See Aeegio. 

ARIJAENSZ, PiETER. See Aahtsen. 

ARISTEIDES, a celebrated Greek painter who 
flourished about B.C. 360 — 330, was a native of 
Thebes. He was a brother and pupil of Nicoma- 
chus, and contemporary with Apelles. He ex- 
celled in painting battle pictures ; one of the most 
celebrated of which was ' The Capture of a City,' 
in which the expressions of a dying woman and 
her infant were much admired : Alexander the 
Great took this picture to Macedonia. Aristeides 
also painted a ' Battle with the Persians,' in which 
there were one hundred figures ; this was pur- 
chased for a large sum by Mnason of Elatea. 
Attalus, king of Pergamus, bought a picture by 
Aristeides, ' A Sick Man on his bed,' for 100 
talents (about £23,600), and Pliny says that 
Lucius Mummius refused more than 200 talents 
for a ' Bacchus ' which he captured at the siege of 
Corinth, and placed in the temple of Ceres at Rome. 
An unfinished picture of ' Iris ' is mentioned by 
Pliny as having excited great admiration. 

ARISTOLAUS, a Greek painter who flourished 
about B.C. 308, was a native of Athens, and son 
and disciple of Pausias. He was celebrated among 
the painters of his time for the severity of his 
style ; from which we may infer that he united 
a purity of form with a, strict simplicity in his 
compositions. His pictures were usually confined 
to a single figure, and he made choice of those 
eminent personages whose memory was endeared 
to their country by their virtues and exploits. 
Among these were Theseus, Epaminondas, and 

ARISTOPHON, the son and pupil of the elder 
Aglaophon, and brother of Polygnotus, was a 
native of Thasos. Pliny, who places him among 
the painters of the second rank, mentions two 
works by him- — ' Ancseus wounded by the boar 
and mourned over by his mother Astypalsea ; ' 
and a picture containing figures of Priam, Helen, 
Ulysses, Deiphobus, Dolon, and Credulitas. 

ARLADD, BenoIt, a younger brother of Jacques- 
Antoine Arlaud, was bom at Geneva. He painted 
miniatures in Amsterdam and afterwards in Lon- 

don, where he died in 1719. A few of Ids portraits 
are known from engravings. 

ARLAUD, Jacques Antoinb, was born at Geneva 
in 1668. His first employment in art was the 
painting of small ornamental miniatures for the 
jewellers at Dijon. He however attempted some 
portraits, and was sufficiently successful to en- 
courage him to settle at Paris, when he was about 
twenty years of age. It was not long before he 
distinguished himself in that metropolis, and his 
pleasing style of painting portraits and fancy sub- 
jects recommended him to the patronage of the 
Duke of Orleans, who, being fond of the art, 
became his pupil, and accommodated him with 
apartments in the palace of St. Cloud. He was 
also favoured with the protection of the Princess 
Palatine, who presented him with her portrait, set 
in diamonds, and on his expressing a desire to visit 
England, gave him, in 1721, a letter of recom- 
mendation to the Princess of Wales, afterwards 
Queen Caroline, whose portrait he had the honour 
of painting. He returned to Paris, where he re- 
mained for a few years, and having acquired an 
ample fortune, he settled in 1729 at Geneva, where 
he died in 1743. Works by him are in the Library 
and Museum of that city. His own portrait is in 
the Uffizi, Florence. 

ARMANN, ViNCENZo, (called MoNSu Armanno, ) 
a Fleming by birth, was bom in 1598. He prac- 
tised at Rome as a landscape painter, and his 
pictures are praised for their similitude to nature. 
Without much selection of ground, or trees, or 
accompaniments, they charm by their truth, and a 
certain stillness of colour, pleasingly chequered 
with light and shade. Passeri relates that he was 
imprisoned by the Inquisition for eating flesh on 
fast days, and that on his liberation he quitted 
Rome in disgust, and died at Venice in 1649 on his 
way back to his native country. 

ARMENINI, Giovanni Battista, who was bom 
at Faenza in 1540, and was a pupil of Perino del 
Vaga, published in 1587, at Ravenna, a work 
entitled, ' De' veri Precetti della Pittura ; ' but he is 
considered a better theorist than practitioner. He 
died in 1609. 

ARMESSIN. See Db l'Armessin. 

ARMSTRONG, Cosmo, an English engraver of 
some repute at the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, engraved illustrations to Kearsley's Shake- 
speare (which appeared in 1805), to Cooke's Poets, 
and to the Arabian Nights. He was a Governor of 
the Society of Engravers, and exhibited as late as 

ARNALD, George, bom in Berkshire in 1763, 
was a pupil of William Pether, and at twenty-five 
years of age exhibited his first picture at the 
Royal Academy. He painted moonlight scenes, 
classical landscapes, and marine subjects, and in 
1810 was elected an Associate of the Academy. 
One of his principal pictures, for which he re- 
ceived a commission of £500, was the ' Battle of 
the Nile,' now in Greenwich Hospital. He died 
in 1841. 

ARNAU, Juan, a Spanish painter, who was 
bom at Barcelona in 1595, was a scholar of Eugenio 
Caxes, at Madrid. He painted historical subjects, 
and was chiefly employed in the churches and 
convents of his native city. In the monastery of 
the Augustines there are several pictures painted 
by him, representing subjects from the life of St. 
Augustine, and in the church of Santa Maria del 
Mar is a picture of 'St. Peter receiving from 





Angels the keys of the Church.' He died at his 
birthplace in 1693. 

ARNHOLD, JoHANN Samuel, who was bom 
in 1766 at Heinitz, a village near Meissen, studied 
in the Art School of the Porcelain factory of 
Meissen, of which he subsequently became pro- 
fessor. He was also court-painter in Dresden. 
He painted in oil and water-colours, and on porce- 
lain and enamel. His pictures sometimes repre- 
sented landscapes and hunting scenes, but he is 
chiefly famous for his fruit and flower pieces. 
He died in 1827. 

ARNOLD, George, who was born in 1763, was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1810. He was appointed landscape painter to 
the Duke of Gloucester. His exhibited works 
mostly represented English scenery — occasionally 
views in Prance. He died in 1841. 

ARNOLD, Habeibt, a landscape painter, was 
born in 1787. Under her maiden name, Gouldsmith, 
this lady exhibited frequently at the Academy, 
and at the gallery of the Water Colour Society, of 
which she was elected a member in 1813. She 
' also occasionally contributed to the Sujfolk Street 
Gallery. She married, rather late in life. Captain 
Arnold, R.N. The last time Mrs. Arnold con- 
tributed to the Royal Academy was in 1854, when 
she sent a ' Landscape with Woodcutters' Cottages 
in Kent.' She died in January, 1863. 

ARNOLD, Heinbich Gotthold, who was born 
in 1785 at Lamiitz, near Radeberg in Saxony, 
studied under Schubert, and improved himself by 
studying the works of Titian, Guido Reni, and 
other great masters in the Dresden Gallery. He 
painted with much success portraits and sacred 
subjects for churches. He was a professor in the 
Academy of Dresden, where he died in 1854. 

ARNOLD, JoHANN, an engraver of no great 
merit, was born at Koniggraz in Bohemia, in 1735, 
and studied under Renz. From 1763 to 1772 he 
worked in Prague. We have by him, among 
other things, a small plate of ' Daniel in the Lions' 
Den,' and a ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' both 
after P. X. Palcko. Meyer gives a list of thirty- 
one of his works. 

ARNOLD, Jonas, of Ulm, painter, designer, 
and engraver. He painted portraits, history, and 
flower-pieces, and died in 1669. He drew the 
portraits and figures engraved by Philip Kilian, 
Sigismond van Bircken, and M. Kiisell. Jonas 
Arnold had two sons, who flourished at Ulm — 
Joseph, a portrait painter, who died in 1671 ; and 
Hans Ulrich, an engraver, who died in 1662. 

ARNOULLET, Balthazar, a French engraver 
on wood, who resided at Lyons in the second half 
of the 16th century. According to Papillon, he 
executed a large woodcut of the town of Poictiers. 

ARNOULT, Nicolas, a French engraver, who 
resided at Paris in the latter part of the 17th cen- 
tury, and acquired some reputation by his por- 
traits of the personages at court. Among these 
are three of Marie of Bavaria, wife of Louis, 
Dauphin of France. No less than 257 plates by 
him are given in Meyer's 'Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

ARNOUX, Michel, a French genre painter, born 
at Belleville, Paris, in 1833. He studied under 
Cogniet, E. Frere, and Dansaert, and died in 1877. 
Amongst his works are : 

The Young Mother. . 1866. 
A Future Companion. 1870. 
TheToUet. 1872. 
The Elder Sister. 1875. 

A Village Smith. 1876. 
The Barber's Wife. 1877. 

ARPINO, II Cavaliere d'. See Cbsaki. 

ARRAGONI. See Laubbntini. 

ARREDONDO, Isidoeo, an eminent Spanish 
painter, was bom at Colmenar de Oreja, in 1653. 
He was first a scholar of Josef Garcia, but he 
afterwards studied under Francisco Rizi. He 
painted history with much success, and on the 
death of Rizi, in 1685, he was appointed painter 
to Charles II. of Spain. One of his principal works 
was a large picture of the 'Incarnation,' which 
Palomino mentions as a very grand composition. 
He painted much in oil and fresco in the churches 
and palaces, and the ' Legend of Cupid and 
Psyche,' in the royal palace, is considered one of 
his best works. He died at Madrid in 1702. 

ARREGIO. See Aresio. 

ARRIENTI. See Aeienti. 

ARROYO, Diego db, a miniature painter, who 
was bom at Toledo in 1498, is supposed to have 
studied either in Italy or under an Italian master. 
His delicate miniature portraits gained him much 
renown, and the appointment of painter to Charles 
V. He also illuminated choir-books for the cathe- 
dral of Toledo. Arroyo died at Madrid in 1551. 

ARSENIO, Fra. See Mascagni. 

ARTARIA, Claudio, an Italian line- engraver, 
was bom at Blevio near Como in 1810. He was a 
pupil of Longhi and of Anderloni, but in 1842 
abandoned the practice of art in order to enter the 
well-known house of Artaria in Vienna. He died 
in that city in 1862. His best works are the 
following : 

The Madonna and Child with Sfc. John ; after Luini. 

The Redeemer ; after Carlo Sold. 

Leonardo da Vinci ; after the portrait hy himself in the 

TribuTie at Florence. 
Archduke Kainer of Austria ; after Pagani. 

ARTAUD, William, the son of a jeweller in 
London, gained a premium at the Society of Arts 
in 1776, and exhibited his first picture at the 
Academy in 1780. In 1786 he won the gold medal 
of the Academy, and nine years afterwards ob- 
tained the travelling studentship. He painted 
portraits and Biblical subjects, some of which 
were engraved in Macklin's Bible. His last pic- 
ture exhibited at the Academy was in 1822. 

ARTEAGA t ALFARO, Fbancisco, brother of 
Matias, engraved, besides others, four plates of 
emblems for La Torre Farfan's book. He worked 
at Seville, where he died in 1711. 

ARTEAGA y ALFARO, Matias, — son of 
Bartolom^ Arteaga, an engraver of repute at 
Seville in the reign of Philip IV., — was born in 
Seville about 1630, and studied painting under his 
fellow-citizen, Vald^s Leal, and became a tolerable 
artist. His pictures, mostly of the Virgin, with 
architectural backgrounds, were inferior to his 
engravings. The best were two altar-pieces in the 
conventual church of San Pablo. He executed 
prints from various works of Vald^s and the 
younger Herrera, and one of ' St. Dominick,' from 
a drawing by Alonso Cano ; also a ' St. Ferdinand ' 
by Murillo, for La Torre Farfan's account of the 
Seville festival in honour of St. Ferdinand; for 
which he likewise engraved views of the Giralda 
tower of Seville, and of the interior and exterior 
of the cathedral. He also executed a series of 
fifty-eight plates for the ' History of St. Juan de 
la Cmz,' the first barefooted Carmelite. He en- 




graved a neat plate of the arms of the family 
of Arze for a book dedicated to a member of the 
house, in 1695. His works are usually signed with 
his name at full length, or in a contracted form. 
He died at Seville in 1704. 

ARTEMON, a Greek painter, who is recorded by 
Pliny to have painted a picture of Queen Strato- 
nice, from which it is presumed that he lived about 
B.C. 300. He also painted ' Hercules and Deian- 
ira ; ' but his most celebrated works were the 
pictures which were carried to Rome, and placed 
in the Octavian Portico, representing ' Hercules 
received amongst the Gods ; ' and the ' History of 
Jjaomedon with Apollo and Neptune.' 

ARTHOIS. See Aetois. 

ARTIGA, Francisco db, a celebrated Spanish 
landscape and historical painter, was bom at 
Huesca, about 1650. He painted several ' Sibyls,' 
' Conceptions,' and perspective views, remarkable 
for their invention, design, and colouring. He was 
also an engraver, an architect, a mathematician, and 
an author of reputation. He died in 1711 at Huesca. 

ARTLETT, Richaed Austin, engraver, was born 
in 1807. He was a pupil of Robert Cooper, and 
afterwards studied under James Thompson. He 
engraved a number of portraits, among which are 
those of Lord Ashburton, after Lawrence, Lord 
Lyndhurst, after Chalon, and Mrs. Gladstone, after 
Say. as well as many plates of sculpture for the 
' Aiit Journal,' one of the latest being ' The Siren 
and the drowned Leander,' in 1873. He died in 
that year. 

ARTOIS, Jacobus van, (or Aetoys, or Jacques 
d'Aethois,) a very eminent landscape painter, was 
born at Brussels in 1613. He studied under Jan 
Mertens, an otherwise unknown painter, and from 
nature in the forests round his native city. The 
landscapes of Artois are faithful representations of 
the scenery of his country ; the fields and forests 
in the neighbourhood of Brussels were the subjects 
of his pictures, which are touched with a light and 
free pencil. His skies and distances are extremely 
well represented, and his trees of grand form, with 
a foliage that appears to be in motion. They are 
very frequently decorated with admirable figures 
by David Teniers, Zegers, Craeyer, and with animals 
by Snrjders, which very materially enhance their 
value, although the merit of his landscapes is con- 
siderable. His pictures are in most of the public 
galleries on the Continent. The Brussels Gallery 
has five ; the Darmstadt four ; the Dresden three ; 
the Copenhagen two ; the Vienna four ; and Madrid 
nine. His works are occasionally seen in England ; 
and there are several in French Museums. He died 
after 1684. His brother Nicolas, and his son Jean 
Baptiste, were also painters. 

AETVELT, Andeies van, was bom at Antwerp 
in 1590. He excelled in painting sea-pieces and 
storms, which he represented with great force 
and effect. He resided for some time at Genoa. 
In 1632 Van Dijok painted a portrait of this artist, 
which is now in the Gallery at Augsburg. Works 
by him are rarely met with. The Belvedere at 
Vienna has a large sea-piece. Artvelt died in 1652. 

ARUNDALB, Feancis, an architectural draughts- 
man, was bom in London in 1 807. He studied under 
Augustus Pugin, and accompanied him to Normandy, 
making drawings for a description which Pugin 
published of the tour. In 1831 Arundale visited 
Egypt with Mr. Hay, and in 1833 he joined Mr. 
Catherwood and Mr. Bonomi on their tour to the 
Holy Land, filling many portfolios with drawings 

of the interesting monuments and ruins of Pales- 
tine. He subsequently visited France and Italy, 
and spent several winters in Rome. He made 
drawings of objects of interest in the cities of 
Italy, in Greece, Sicily, and Asia Minor. He died 
at Brighton in 1853. Arundale executed a few oil- 
paintings from his Eastern sketches. Of his pub- 
lished works of his own drawings we may notice : 

The Edifices of Palladio. 1832. 
Illustrations of Jerusalem and Mount Sinai. 1837. 
The Early History of Egypt (executed in conjunction 
with Mr. Bonomi). 1857. 

ARZEEE, Stepano dall'. See Dall' Aezeee. 

ASAM, CosMAS Damian, who was bom at 
Benediktbeuern, in Bavaria, in 1686, was the son 
of Hans Georg Asam, a painter. He studied for 
some time in Rome, but subsequently took up his 
residence in Munich, and devoted himself to the 
decoration of the churches of Bavaria and Switzer- 
land. As examples of his art mention may be 
made of his works in Munich, Friedberg, Schleiss- 
heim, Innsbruck, and Ratisbon. In Weltenburg 
he built a chapel, and decorated it with paintings. 
He died in 1742. There are some prints by this 
master from his own designs, among which are: 

A Franciscan Monk kneeling, with the Virgin Mary in 

the clouds, surrounded by angels. 
St. Joseph presenting a book to a bishop. 

He had two sons, both of whom were painters: 
Feanz Erasmus, who was bom at Munich in 1720, 
and died in the Cistercian monastery of Schonthal 
in Wiirtemberg in 1795 ; and Bngelbeecht, who 
was a monk in the monastery of Fiirstenf eld near 

ASCANI, Pellbgeino, was an admirable flower 
painter, of the Modenese school. He flourished 
at Carpi from the middle of the 17th century till 
about 1714. His brother Simone was also a 

ASCANIUS. See Wijnen. 

ASCH, PiETBR Janszoon van, was bom at Delft 
in 1603. His talent lay in painting landscapes of 
a small size, and, according to Houbraken, he was 
one of the most admired artists of his time. His 
works are executed in the style of Wijnants and 
the Ruisdaels. Among the best of them are, a 
' Landscape, with the town of Delft in the back- 
ground,' painted in 1669, in the Town Hall at 
Delft; a 'Landscape' in the Van der Hoop Gallery 
at Amsterdam ; and one in the gallery 
of Copenhagen. The date of Van Asoh's ^\ 
death is not recorded, but he lived to a great Vx) 

ASCIANO, Giovanni d', a pupil of Bama of 
Siena, is said to have completed the frescoes left 
unfinished by that master at San Gimignano. At 
Asciano, his birthplace, there is a work by Gio- 
vanni, similar in style to the works of Bama. 
This painter flourished about 1380. 

ASCLEPIODORUS, an Athenian painter, who 
flourished about the il2th Olympiad, was a con- 
temporary of Apelles, who admired his works for 
the exact symmetry of their proportions, and caused 
them to be purchased at very large prices. Pliny 
reports that he painted twelve pictures of the Gods 
for Mnason, the tyrant of Elatea, for which he was 
paid five talents (£1180) each. 

ASENSIO, — , a Spanish painter, who lived 
at Saragossa about the end of the 17th century, 
distinguished himself in portraiture. 

A^HER, Louis (Julius Ludwio), was born at 




Hamburg in 1804. He studied in his native town 
under Gerdt Hardorf and Leo Lehmann, and in 1821 
went for farther instruction to Dresden, and thence 
to Diisseldorf , where he entered the atelier of Cor- 
nelius : there he made the acquaintance of Kaulbach, 
■with whom he continued a friendship through hfe. 
In 1825 he accompanied his master to Munich, and 
was there employed by him on the frescoes of the 
Glyptothek. In 1827 he returned to Hamburg; 
he then, in 1832, went through Berlin to Italy, and 
remained there three years. On his return to Ger- 
many, with the exception of a second visit to Italy 
in 1839, in company with his friend Kaulbach, he 
resided at Munich and at Hamburg, where he died 
in 1878. , . ^ 

Asher's works, which consist of historical pictures, 
genre paintings, and portraits, are found for the most 
part in Hamburg— both in public buildings and 
private collections. 

The following are some of the best examples or. 
his art: 

Peasant Family. 1835. 

Eesurrection of Christ. 1851. 

King Lear with the dead body of Cordelia. 1854. 

St. Cecilia. 

Maria I'Ortolana. 

Portrait of Mile. Jenny Lind. 

ASHFIELD, Edmund, an English painter in 
crayons, who flourished towards the close of the 
17th century, was a scholar of Michael Wright. 
His portraits were much admired. He was the 
instructor of Lutterel, whose merit in crayon 
painting surpassed that of his master. He died 
about 1700. There are a few portraits by him at 
Burleigh House. 

ASHFORD, William, was born at Birmingham 
about 1746. Early in life he went to Dublin and 
took a situation in the Ordnance Office, which he 
gave up in order to follow landscape painting. 
He was one of the original members, andthe first 
president, of the Hibernian Academy, instituted in 
1823. Late in life he retired to Sandymount, near 
Dublin, where he died in 1824. The Fitzwilliam 
Museum at Cambridge possesses some of his best 

ASNE, Michel l'. See L'Asne. 

ASPARI, DoMENloo, who was born at Milan in 
1746, studied under Valdrighi at Parma, and there 
executed some decorative paintings for the Ducal 
Palace. On his return to Milan, he almost entirely 
gave up painting in order to devote his atten- 
tion to engraving, forming his style from that of 
Piranesi : in this branch of art he was very success- 
ful. His masterpiece of painting is the ' Madonna 
and Child enthroned, with Saints,' which he executed 
for the church of Osnago. His portrait, by himself, 
is in the Milan Gallery. He died in 1831. 

Of his engravings we may mention the following : 

The Flight into Egypt ; after a picture said to he hy 

The Last Supper ; after Leonardo da Vinci, 
M. Peregrina Amoretti ; after Boroni. 
Twenty-three Views of Milan. 

ASPER, Hans, a Swiss painter, bom at Zurich 
in 1499. He painted portraits with great success, 
and was also esteemed for his drawings of game, 
birds, and flowers, which he imitated with much 
truth to nature. He painted also pictures of battles 
and kindred subjects. Notwithstanding that the 
merit of this artist was such as to be thought de- 
serving of a medal being struck to record it, he 
lived and died in poverty. He was town-painter ; 



but, unfortunately, most of the works which he 
executed in that capacity on public buildings have 
been destroyed by being painted over, or by the 
pulling down of the houses. He died at Zurich 
in 1571. Numerous portraits, ascribed to Asper, 
are in the Town Library and other collections of 
Zurich. One of his best works is a portrait of 
Regula Gwalter, a daughter of Zwingli, and her 
little daughter of seven years old, in the Town 
Library, which also possesses Zwingli's portrait, 
by the same painter. It is difficult, 
however, to distinguish Asper's pic- t\\ WtSk 
tures from those of other artists of tTl IfiU 
the same school. 

ASPERTINI, Amico, the younger brother of 
Guide Aspertini, was born at Bologna about 1475. 
He studied under Ercole Roberti Grandi and 
Lorenzo Costa, but he appears to have acquired 
the greatest part of his art education by visiting 
various cities in Italy. From 1606 till 1510 he 
was engaged on his masterpiece, the paintings 
of the ' History of the Crucifixion,' which have 
been recently restored, in the chapel of Sant' 
Agostino in San Frediano, at Lucca. He also 
executed works of merit in many of the churches 
and houses of Bologna ; with Cotignola, Bagna- 
cavallo, and Innocenzo da Imola he decorated the 
chapel ' della Pace ' in San Petronio, but the 
work has since been destroyed ; with Francia and 
Costa he painted in Santa Cecilia the still existing 
frescoes of the history of that saint. The Pinaco- 
teca at Bologna has a ' Madonna and Child vsdth 
Saints,' by him, and the Berlin Gallery an 'Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds,' signed amicus bononiensis 
EACIEBAT. Aspertini died at Bologna in 1652. 
He was also a sculptor. According to Vasari, 
he was called 'Amico da due Pennelli,' from his 
being able to paint with both hands at the same 
time. He was of a most capricious and whim- 
sical disposition, approaching sometimes to mental 

ASPERTINI, GuiDO, was born at Bologna 
about the year 1460. He was the scholar of 
Ercole Grandi, and proved a very reputable 
painter of history. His principal work, which he 
finished in 1491, was the ' Crucifixion,' under the 
portico of the cathedral at Bologna. It has since 
perished. He died in the prime of life when 35 
years of age. In the Pinacoteca at Bologna is 
an ' Adoration of the Kings,' by him. 

ASPRUCK, Feanz, a goldsmith, designer, and 
engraver, of a Brussels family, flourished in Augs- 
burg from about 1598 to 1603. From the resem- 
blance of his drawing to that of R. Spranger, it 
is probable he may have been his scholar. There 
are a few prints by him with the initials of his 
name, F. A.; thirteen plates— full-length figures 
— ' Christ and the Apostles,' after Agostino Car- 
raoci, and ' Cupid and Anteros,' a small plate, 
after Joseph lieintz. 

ASSCHE, Henei van, bom at Brussels in 1774, 
showed from his earliest years a predilection for 
painting, and received from his father, who was 
a distinguished amateur artist, the first principles 
of design and perspective. He was afterwards 
placed with Deroy of Brassels, from whom he re- 
ceived further instructions in painting. Journeys 
in Switzerland and Italy contributed to develop 
his talent as a landscape painter. His great 
partiality for representing waterfalls, mountain 
streams, and mills gained for him the name of 
' The Painter of Waterfalls.' Several pictures by 




him may be seen in public and private collections 
of Brussels, Ghent, Lille, and Haarlem, some of 
which are enriched with figures and animals by 
Ommeganck. He died at Brussels in 1841. 

ASSCHOONEBECK, Adeiaan. This artist was 
a native of Holland, and flourished about the year 
1690. We have by him some slight incorrect 
etchings, representing the ' Flight of James the 
Second from England.' 

ASSELIJN, Jan, (or Asselin,) a celebrated land- 
scape painter, was born at Diepen, near Amsterdam, 
in 1610. He was a scholar of Bsajas van de Velde, 
but he went to Italy when young, where he re- 
mained many years. He was denominated ' Krab- 
betje,' on account of a contraction in his fingers. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1660. His pictures repre- 
sent views in the vicinity of Rome, decorated with 
figures and cattle, in the manner of N. Berchem, 
and enriched with vestiges of Roman architecture. 
His skies and distances are tenderly coloured, and 
there is a charming eSect of sunshine in some of 
his works that resembles the warmth of Jan Both. 
His pencil is remarkably firm and neat, and the 
trees and plants are touched with great sharpness 
and spirit. His pictures are highly esteemed, 
and are worthy of a place in the choicest ^T 
collections. They are seen in many of the Jyl 
public galleries on the Continent. 

Amsterdam. Museam, The watchfulness of Jan de Witt 
(an enraged Swan — an allegory) . 
„ Van der Hoop Coll. Italian landscape. 
Berlin. Gallery. Italian sea-port. 

Oassel. Gallery. Landscape. 

Copenhagen.GaKery. Italian landscape ; and others. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. A rocky shore. 

Florence. Uffizi. Landscape. 

Paris. Louvre. Italian views (four). 

Petersburg. Sermitage. View in Italy. 

„ „ Sea-port. 

Vienna. Czemin Coll. Landscape. 

„ Liechtenstein Coll. Italian sea-port {replica of the 
Berlin picture). 

ASSELT, Van dee. See Van dee Asselt. 

ASSEN, Jan van, who was born at Amsterdam 
in 1635, was a good painter of history, portraits, 
and landscape, in the Italian manner ; he studied 
particularly the works of Tempesta. He died at 
his birthplace in 1695. 

ASSEN, Johann Walter van, is a name which 
has been given, rightly or wrongly, to the artist 
who used the accompanying mono- 
gram, which is found on several _ kk Vw 
paintings as well as on some wood- \ ffK^ J\ 
cuts. See Coenblisz, Jacob. 

ASSERETO, Giovacchino, (or Axaeeto,) who 
was bom at Genoa, studied under Borzone and 
Ansaldo, by whose instructions he profited so well, 
that at the age of sixteen he painted a picture of 
the ' Temptation of St. Anthony,' for the oratory 
of Sant' Antonio Abate in Sarzano. He painted 
much in the churches and palaces of Genoa, and 
there are stOI pictures by him in several churches 
and rehgious houses in that city. He painted 
from 1600 to 1649. 

ASSERETO, Giuseppe, son and scholar of Gio- 
vacchino Assereto, painted historical subjects in 
the style of his father. He died after 1650, when 
stiU young. 

ASSISI, Andbea da. See Alovigi. 

ASSISI, TiBEEio DA, was a scholar and imitator 
of Perugino. His works, which are not of great 
merit, may be seen in the churches of Perugia and 
the neighbourhood. A fresco is at San Martino, 

outside Trevi ; a lunette containing a ' Virgin and 
Child,' with a ' Madonna between two Saints,' dated 
1510, and five scenes from the life of St. Francis, 
dated 1512, are still at Montefalco. 
AST, B. VAN DEB. See Van des Ast. 
ASTA, Andbea dell'. See Dell' Asta. 
ASTLEY, John, an English portrait painter, 
was born at Wem, in Shropshire, about 1730. 
He was a scholar of Hudson, and afterwards 
visited Italy, about the same time that Sir Joshua 
Reynolds was at Rome. He possessed talents of 
a superior order, and painted portraits with great 
reputation and success. A lady of large fortune. 
Lady Daniell, whose portrait he had painted, con- 
ceived an affection for him, and offered him her 
hand : on his marriage he relinquished the profes- 
sion. He died in 1787. (For further details of 
his somewhat romantic life see Redgrave's Dic- 

ASTOR, Diego de, of Toledo, studied under 
Domenico Theotocopuli, and in 1606 engraved, 
under his superintendence, a ' St. Francis,' after 
Nic. de Vargas. Astor was engraver to the Mint 
of Segovia, and was also employed to engrave the 
royal seals. Of his plates we may notice the til le- 
page to Colmenares' ' Historia de Segovia ' (Ma- 
drid, 1640), and that to Sonet's book on 'Speech 
for the Dumb,' one of the best works of the kind. 
ATHENION was a native of Maroneia, in 
Thrace, and was a disciple of Glauoion of Corinlh, 
a painter of whom no other mention is made. 
Athenion appears to have been a contemporary of 
Nicias, as his works are compared by Pliny to 
those of that painter, and without any disparity, 
for he adds, " If he had Uved to maturity, no one 
would have been worthy to be compared to him." 
Though his colouring was more austere than that 
of Nicias it was not less agreeable. He painted 
for the temple of Eleusis a picture said to have 
been a portrait of Phylarchus the historian ; and 
at Athens, ' Achilles disguised as a girl, discovered 
by Ulysses.' 

ATKINSON, John Augustus, who was born in 
London in 1775, went, when quite young, with 
his uncle to St. Petersburg, where he studied in 
the picture galleries. In 1801 he returned to 
England, and in 1803 published 'A Picturesque 
Representation of the Manners, Customs, and 
Amusements of the Russians,' in 100 plates, 
drawn and etched by himself. He afterwards 
painted a ' Battle of Waterloo,' which was en- 
graved by John Burnet. He also painted in 
water-colours. His last contribution to the Aca- 
demy exhibition was in 1829. The date of his 
death is not recorded : he was still living in 1831. 
ATKINSON, Thomas Witlam, who was born 
of humble parents about 1799, began life as an 
ecclesiastical stone-carver. In 1831 he published 
his ' Gothic Ornament,' and afterwards settled in 
Manchester as an architect. In 1840 he went to 
London, then through Hamburg and Berlin to St. 
Petersburg, where he obtained permission to travel 
in the inore unfrequented parts of the Russian 
Empire in Asia. He made many drawings and 
sketches, and on his return to England published 
the following works, illustrated by his hand : 
Oriental and 'Westem Siberia. 1858. 
Travels in the Eegion of the Upper and Lower Amoor. 

EeooUectionB of the Tartar Steppes and their Inhabit- 
ants. 1863. 

Atkinson died at Little Walmer in 1861. 





ATTAVANTE (or Vante), a friend of Gherardo, 
and an imitator of Bartolommeo della Gatta, was 
employed by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
for whom he executed a missal, now in the Royal 
Library at Brussels. There is another breviary 
by him in the National Library at Paris, executed 
in the manner of the Ghirlandaj. Other missals 
in Florence and Rome are also ascribed to him. 
Attavante, who was a miniature painter of great 
merit, worked at Florence towards the close of the 
15th century. 

ATTIRET, Jean Denis, who was born at D61e 
in 1702, studied art first under his father, an un- 
known painter ; and then improved his style by a 
visit to Rome. On his return he painted portraits 
at Lyons and at D61e. When little more than 30 
years of age he entered the order of Jesuits, and 
during his noviciate painted four works for the 
cathedral of Avignon. In 1737 Attiret went to 
China, rose to high honour at court, and was ap- 
pointed painter to the Emperor. He painted 
numerous portraits, pictures for churches, battle- 
scenes, landscapes, and fruit and flower pieces. 
Works by him are in the Royal Palace at Pekin, 
where he died in 1768. 

AUBERT, AtJQUSTiN Raymond, who was born 
at Marseilles in 1781, studied at first under 
Guenin, and subsequently with Peyron, in Paris, 
to which city he went in 1802. He soon, how- 
ever, returned to his native town, and in 1810 was 
made Director, of the School of Design, and in that 
capacity directed the studies of numerous pupils 
who afterwards became celebrated. He painted 
history, landscape, and portrait subjects with 
much success. The museum and churches of his 
native town possess several good examples of his 
art. Some of his chief pictures, taken from sacred 
history, are of large dimensions. He died on his 
estate, near Marseilles, in 1847. 

AUBERT, Jean, a French engraver, flourished 
in Paris from about 1720 to 1741, in which year he 
died. His prints are little more than slight etch- 
ings, and without much effect. He engraved the 
Portrait of GiUot; some Academy figures, after 
Edme Bouchardon ; and a 'Drawing-book,' from 
Raphael and other masters, after drawings by 
Bouchardon. He was also an architect. 

AUBERT, Michel. This artist was born in 
Paris about 1704. He engraved portraits and his- 
torical subjects. His manner is slight and free, 
and in some of his historical prints he appears to 
have imitated the style of Gerard Audran, but not 
with very great success. He died in Paris in 
1767. His plates are : 


Elizabeth, Queen of England ; 4to. 

Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy ; after Van DijcTc. 

Victor Amadeus, King of Sardinia ; after Errand. 

James I., King of England. 

Philip of France, Duke of Orleans ; after Nocret. 

Marquise de Montespan. 

Louis XY. on horseback ; after Le Sueur. 

Louis, Dauphin of France, on horseback ; after the same. 

Two portraits — The Dauphin and the Dauphiness ; after 

la Tour, 
Portrait of Charles Stuart, oval ; after the same. 
Sixty-two portraits for Ji'Argenville's Abrige de la 

Vie des plus fameux Feintres. 


The Circumcision ; after Ciro Ferri, 
St. Francis : after Ouido ; arched. 

Pan instructed by Cupid, half-length figures; after 

Annibale Oarracei. 
St. George kneeling before the Virgin Mary and Infant ; 

after Parmigiano. 
Mars and Venus, bound by Love; after Faolo Vera- 

nese, for the Crozat Collection. 
Mars disarmed by Venus ; after the same, for the same- 
Vanity, an allegorical subject ; after Bouchardon. 
Venus reposing with Cupid ; after Boucher. 
The Death of Adonis ; after the sam^. 
Laban seeking for his Gods ; after Jeaurat. 
The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau ; after the same. 
The Promenade on the Eamparts; after Watteau. 
The Rendezvous de Chasse ; after the same. 

AUBERT, Pierre Eugene, a French engraver 
and pupil of Scheuder, was born in Paris in 1789, 
and died there in 1847. His best work is a 
' View at Samboanga in the island of Mindanao,' 
after E. Goupil ; he also engraved ' Ulysses and 
Nausicaa,' after the picture by Rubens in the 
Aguado Gallery. 

AUBERTIN, FRANgois, who was bom at Metz 
in 1773, began life as a soldier, but subsequently 
became an engraver in aquatint, in which pro- 
cess he made certain technical improvements. He 
worked at Dresden, Berlin, Paris, and at Ghent, 
where he died by suicide in 1821. Aubertin 
engraved plates after Berchem, Paul Potter, C. 
Vanloo, Dietrich, and others. 

AUBIN, Atjgustin de SAINT. See Saint- 


AUBRIER, — , was a French engraver of the 
18th century (?) by whom we have a portrait of 
Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois. 

AUBRIET, Claude, who was born at Chfilons- 
sur-Marne about 1666, studied under Jean Joubert, 
and became famous for his drawings of plants. 
In 1700 he accompanied the botanist Tournefort 
to the Levant, and on his return was made, by 
Louis XIV., painter at the Jardin du Roi. He 
died in Paris in 1742. The national libraries of 
Paris and Gottingen possess botanical drawings 
by his hand. 

AUBRY, Abraham, was a native of Oppenheim, 
and flourished about the year 1660. He studied 
under his elder brother Peter, and assisted him in 
his publications in Strasburg. He also carried on 
a considerable business as a printseller. He resided 
at Strasburg, Nuremberg, Frankfort - on - Main, 
and Cologne, and, Fiissli tells us, was still living in 
1682. He engraved, besides other prints, eleven of 
the twelve plates representing the ' Twelve Months 
of the Year' (1663), after Sandrart; the month 
of May was engraved by F. Brun. 

AUBRY, Etiennb, who was born at Versailles 
in 1746, studied under J. A. Silvestre and Joseph 
Vien, and soon became noted for his portraits and 
genre subjects. He exhibited several works of 
great merit at the Salon ; but his life was cut 
short in its prime in 1781, in which year he had 
exhibited the 'Parting of Coriolanus from his 

AUBRY, JoHANN Philipp, an engraver and 
printseller, who resided at Frankfort about the 
year 1670, and was a relative of Peter and Abra- 
ham Aubry. He engraved a great number of 
plates for the booksellers, as well as for his own 
collection. They chiefly consist of portraits, and 
are executed in a very indifferent style. 

AUBRY, Louis FRANgois, who was bom in 
Paris in 1770, studied under Vincent and Isabey, 
and became celebrated as a portrait painter. 
He exhibited at the Salon of 1810 portraits of 




the King and Queen of Westphalia, which were 
praised for their colouring. He died about 1850. 
AUBRY, Petek. According to Huber, this 
artist was born at Oppenheim, about the year 1596. 
He was the elder brother of Abraham Aubry, and 
was also established at Strasburg as a^printseller. 
He is said to have died there in 1666, but a print 
bearing date 1668 has his name as publisher. He 
engraved a great number of portraits of eminent 
persons of different countries, a long list of which 
is given by Heineken. They are executed with 
the graver in a very indifEerent style. Among, 
others are the following : 

Oliver Cromwell. 

Ferdinand Ernest, Count of "Wallenstein. 

Johannes Schmidt, D.D., -Professor of Theology at 

Michael Virdung, Professor at Altdorf. 

AUBEY-LECOMTE, Hyacinthe Louis Viotoe- 
Jban Baptistb, draughtsman on stone, was born 
at Nice in 1797. He studied under G-irodet-Trio- 
son, and became a draughtsman of great merit, 
and did much for the improvement of the art. He 
died in Paris in 1858. Many of Aubry-Lecomte's 
engravings are from works by his instructor : he 
also engraved after Prud'hon, Gerard, Dejuinne, 
Vernet, Greuze, and other French painters. He 
executed a lithograph of the ' Madonna di San 
Sisto,' from the copy of Raphael's picture which 
is in Rouen. The subjects of his works are various 
— historical, both sacred and secular, allegorical, 
portraits, and of a genre character. 

quis d', who was born in 1786, painted and exhi- 
bited, from 1812 to 1822, in the Paris Salon, several 
poetical and historical pictures ; namely, ' Paris 
taking leave of Helen,' ' Heetor forcing Paris to 
quit Helen,' 'Alexander and Bucephalus,' and the 
' Punishment of Hebe.' 

AUDEBERT, Jean Baptists, a French painter 
and etcher, was born at Rochefort in 1759. He 
engraved the plates of the ' Histoire Naturelle des 
Singes,' published in 1800, and the ' Histoire des 
Colibris,' published in 1803. He particularly ex- 
celled in drawing and engraving animals, and 
other objects of natural history. He died in Paris 
in 1800. 

AUDBN-AERD, Robert van, (orOuDEN-AERD,) 
was a reputable painter, and a still more cele- 
brated engraver. He was born at Ghent in 1663, 
and was first a scholar of Francis van Mierhop, 
but he afterwards studied under Hans van Gleef. 
When he was twenty-two years of age he went to 
Rome, where he became a disciple of Carlo Maratti. 
Under this master he became a good painter of 
historical subjects. He amused himself with the 
point in his leisure moments, and some of his 
plates were shown to Carlo Maratti, who recom- 
mended him to devote himself entirely to the art 
of engraving. He, however, painted several pic- 
tures for the churches of his native city, to which 
he returned after an absence, it is said, of thirty- 
seven years. He died at Ghent in 1748. His 
best work is the altar-piece of the high altar in 
the= church of the Carthusians at Ghent, represent- 
ing ' St. Peter appearing to a group of Monks of 
that order.' In the church of St. James is a 
picture by him of ' St. Catharine refusing to worship 
the False Gods.' Several other works by this 
master are in the churches and convents of his 
native city, all of which are painted in the style 
of C. Maratti. 

The plates which he executed entirely with the 
graver are not considered equal to those in which 
he introduced the point. His drawing shows a 
perfect acquaintance with the human figure, and 
is very correct. The principal part of his prints 

are after the pictures of Carlo . _. • _ .-• — . 

Maratti. The following is a /? W yt? 
list of the more important : J- V-ArA.« iVj 



The Cardinal Saoripante ; after G. B. GauUi. 

The Cardinal Taurusi ; after the same. 

The Cardinal Ottoboni ; after the same. 

The Cardinal 3?. Barberini ; after 0. Maratti. 

The Cardinal Henri de la Grange d'Arquien ; after F. 

Desportes. 1695. 
The Cardinal Giuseppe Aichinto ; after Q. Fasseri. 
The Cardinal Andrea di Santa Croce ; after the same. 
The Father Francesco Caraccioli ; after A. Frocaceini, 


Hagar and Ishmael in the desert ; etchinff. 

The Sacrifice of Abraham; etching. 

Bebekah and the servant of Abraham ; etching, 

David with the head of Goliath ; etching. 

Bathsheba in the bath. 

The Annunciation. 

The Adoration of the Magi ; etching. 

The Flight into Egypt ; same. 

The Repose in Egypt ; octagon. 

Our Saviour on the Mount of Olives. 

The Crucifixion. 

The dead Saviour in the lap of the Virgin, with the 
Marys and St. John. 

The Death of the Virgin. 

The Assumption of the Virgin. 

The Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus distributing 
chaplets to nuns. 

Mary Magdalene penitent. 

The Martyrdom of St. Blaise. 

St. Anthony of Padua kissing the Infant Jesus. 

St. Philip Neri. 

Janus, first King of Italy, received amongst the Gods. 

Romulus and Remus. 

Apollo and Daphne, in two sheets. 

The Pope Innocent XII. on his throne, at his feet Heresy 
subdued, and the Four Quarters of the "World pros- 


The Triumph of Julius Csesar, a series of ten plates > 

after A. Mantegna. 
The Nativity ; after Fietro da Coriona. 
Five etchings — Of the life and death of St. Bibiana ; 

three after Fietro da Cortona, and two after Bernini. 
Hippomenes and Atalanta, a group ; after Bernini. 
The Rape of a Sabine woman j after Giovanni da 

St. Facundo ; after Giac. Brandt. 
The Birth of the Virgin ; after Ann. Carracoi. 
The Scourging of St. Andrew ; after Domeniohino, 
St. Andrew led to crucifixion ; after the same. 
St. Andrew transported to Heaven ; after the same. 
St. Luke painting the portrait of the Virgin; after 

Mare Antonio Franceschini. 
The Wrath of Achilles ; after G. B. Gautti ; in three 


ADDINET, Philip, of a French family which 
came to this country at the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, was bom in Soho, London, in 1766. 
He was apprenticed to John Hall, and was first 
employed to engrave the portraits in Harrison's 
' Biographical Magazine,' &c. Among his larger 
works are portraits of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse and 
Sir William Domville, and an excellent engraving 
of Barry's unfinished portrait of Dr. Jolmson. He 
died in London in 1837. 

AUDOUIN, PiBREB, an eminent French en- 
graver, and pupil of Beauvarlet, was born in Paris 
in 1768, and died there in 1822. He engraved for 





the ' Muste PranQais,' published by Laurent, several 
of the finest works of the Italian and Dutch masters. 
The following are fine specimens of his talent : 

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Correggio, 

La belle Jardiniere ; after Maphael. 

The two portraits called Eaphael and his Fencing- 
master ; ascribed to Raphael. 

The Entombment of Christ ; after Caravaggio. 

Charity ; after Andrea del Sarto. 

Melpomene, Erato, and Polyhymnia ; after Le Sueur. 

Two subjects, after Terborch ; one after Mieris ; and 
one after JSetscher, 

Marie Therese Charlotte, Duchess of Angouleme ; after 

Madame Le Brun ; after herself. 

Louis XVIII. in his coronation robes ; after Le Gros. 

AUDBAN Family, the, 



Claude I. 


Claude H. GSrard 

(1639—1684) (1640—1703) 

Claude III. Benoit I. Jean Louis 

(1668—1734) (1661—1721) (1667—1766) (1670—1712) 

Benoit n. 

AUDRAN, Benoit, 'the elder,' the second son 
of Germain Audran, was bom at Lyons in 1661. 
He received his first instruction in the art of en- 
graving from his father ; but had afterwards the 
advantage of studying under his uncle, the cele- 
brated Gerard Audran. Although he never equalled 
the admirable style of his uncle, he engraved many 
plates of historical subjects and portraits, which 
have justly established his reputation. His style, 
like that of Gerard, is bold and clear ; his draw- 
ing of the figure is very correct ; and there is a 
fine expression of character in his heads. He 
was received into the Academy in 1709, and was 
appointed engraver to the king, with a pension. 
He died in 1721, in the village of Ouzouer, near 
Sens. His portrait, after J. Vivien, has been en- 
graved by his nephew Benoit, the younger. The 
following are his principal plates : 


Charles le Goux de la Berchere, Archbishop of Nar- 

bonne ; after L. de Boulogne. 
Jean Baptiste Colbert ; after C. Lefebvre ; oval. 
Joseph Clement of Bavaria, Elector - Archbishop of 

Cologne ; after J. Vivien. 
Henri de Beringhen ; after Nanteuil. 1710. 
Samuel Frisching, General of the Swiss : after J. Saber 

J. F. A. Willading ; after J. Suber. 1718. 
Equestrian Statue of Louis XTV.; after Besjardina ; 

by B. and J. Audran. 


The Baptism of Jesus Christ ; after Albani. 

David with the Head of Goliath ; after a picture in the 
Louvre, formerly attributed to Michelangelo, but now 
ascribed to Daniele da Volterra ; two plates, engraved 
in 1716 and 1717. 

Moses defending the Daughters of Jethro; after Le 

The Espousals of Moses and Zipporah ; after the swine. 
The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same. 1706. 
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same. 
An allegorical subject — Holland accepting Peace ; after 

the same. 
Zephyrus and Flora ; after Ant. Coypel. 
The Pleasures of the Garden ; two friezes ; after Mig- 

nard; engraved by Benoit and Jean Audran. 


The Saviour with Martha and Mary; after Le Sueur. 
St. Paul preaching at Ephesus ; after the same. 
Alexander drinking the Cup which his Physician pre- 
sents him ; after the same. 
The Accouchement of Marie de Medicis ; after Subens. 
The Exchange of the Two Queens ; after the same. 
[The two last form part of the Luxembourg Gallery.] 

Several other prints by this artist are specified 
in the ' Dictionnaire des Artistes,' by Heineken, 
and in Meyer's ' AUgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon ' 
upwards of two hundred are enumerated. 

AUDRAN, Benoit, called ' the younger,' to dis- 
tinguish him from his uncle, was born in Paris in 
1698, and died there in 1772. He was the son 
and pupil of Jean Audran, and engraved in the 
same manner as his father. He engraved prints 
after Paolo Veronese, Poussin, Natoire, Lancret, 
Wal;teau, and other French artists. 

AUDRAN, Charles. This artist was the first 
of the Audran family who became eminent iu the 
art of engraving. He was bom in Paris in 1594. 
In his boyhood he showed a great disposition for 
the art ; he received some instruction in drawing, 
and when still young went to Rome to perfect 
himself: there he produced some plates that were 
admired. He adopted that species of engraving 
that is entirely performed with the graver, and 
appears to have formed his style by an imitation 
of the works of Cornells Bloemaert. On his return 
to France he lived for some time in Lyons, but 
finally settled in Paris, where he died in 1674, 
aged 80. He marked his prints, which are very 
numerous, in the early part of his life with a C-, 
until his brother Claude, who also engraved a few 
plates, marked them with the same letter ; he then 
changed it for K., as the initial of Karl. The 
following are his principal prints : 


Henri of Conde, with the Pour Cardinal Virtues ; JT. 
Audran, sc. ; oval. 

Andre Laurent, physician to Henry IV. ; oval. 

Pierre Seguier ; oval, with ornaments ; after Chauveau. 

An allegorical subject, of two Portraits, with a Genius 
painting a third Portrait ; inscribed on the pallet, 
mius ex duobus; signed C. Audran, fecit. 

subjects after different masters. 

The title for the Gallery of the Great "Women, repre- 
senting Anne of Austria and nineteen other eminent 
women, with a subject from their life in the back- 
ground ; after Fietro da Cortona. 

The Annunciation ; inscribed Spiritus Sanctus, fe, ; 
after Lodovico Carracci, incorrectly attributed on the 
plate to Annibale ; very fine ; it is the picture in the 
Cathedral at Bologna. 

The Baptism of Christ ; small oval ; after Ann. Car- 
racci; no name. 

St. Francis de Paula; after Mellin ; marked Oarl. Au- 
dran, so. 

The Stoning of Stephen ; after Palma ' the younger! 

The Conception of the Virgin Mary ; after Stella. 

The Nativity ; after the same. 

The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and Angels; after 
the same ; fine. 

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, St. John presenting an 
Apple, and St. Catharine kneeling; after Titian; 
very fine. 

The Virgui Mary and Infant Jesus treading on the 
Serpent ; after G. L. Valesio. 

A Thesis, representing Religion as the true Knowledge ; 
inserih^i Nonjudicamus, Sjc; after C. Vignon. 

St. Francis de Paula in ecstasy before the Sacrament ; 
after S. Vouet. 

Frontispiece for a Book, Fame holding the Portrait 
of Cardiaal Mazarin ; after the same. 

The Assumption of the Virgin- after Domeniehino; 
very fine. 




In Dr. Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' is a list of 
223. of his works. 

AUDRAN, Claude, 'the eldest,' the brother (or, 
as some say, the cousin) of Charles, was born in 
Paris in 1597. After receiving some instruction 
from Charles, he removed to Lyons, where he 
died in 1677. Whether he visited Rome or not is 
uncertain. His engravings, which are signed 
either Claude Audran, or CI. Audran, are executed 
after the manner of Cornells Cort and F. Villa- 
mena. They are chiefly portraits and allegories. 
He left three sons, Germain, Claude the younger, 
and Gerard. 

AUDRAN, Claudk, 'the younger,' the second son 
of Claude I., was born at Lyons in 1639. He studied 
drawing with his uncle Charles in Paris, and sub- 
sequently went to Rome. On his return he was 
engaged by Le Brun at Paris, and assisted him in 
his pictures of the ' Passage of the Granicus,' the 
' Battle of Arbela,' and in many other of his works ; 
and was an imitator of his style. He painted also 
in fresco, under the direction of Le Brun, the 
chapel of Colbert's Ch&teau at Sceaux, the gallery 
of the Tuileries, the grand staircase at Versailles, 
and other works. He drew well, and had great 
facility of eexcution. He died in Paris in 1684. 

AUDRAN, Claude, called ' the third,' to dis- 
tinguish him from his grandfather and his uncle, 
was born at Lyons in 1658. He was the eldest 
son of Germain Audran, from whom he received 
instruction in art; he studied also under his uncles, 
Claude II. and Gerard. He was appointed cabinet 
painter to the king ; and also held for twenty-nine 
years the sinecure office of keeper of the Luxem- 
bourg Palace, where he died in 1734. He painted 
in oil and frescoes in several of the royal resid- 
ences of Prance. The ' Twelve Months,' which he 
executed for tapestry for the king, were engraved 
by his brother Jeaii. Claude Audran was instructor 
to the celebrated painter Watteau. 

AUDRAN, GiRAED, the third son of Claude I., 
was born at Lyons in 1 640. After learning the first 
principles of design and engraving from his father 
and from his uncle Charles, he was sent to Paris, 
and received instructions from Le Brun, who gave 
him some of his pictures to engrave. He after- 
wards, in 1667, visited Rome for improvement, 
and he is said to have studied under Carlo Maratti. 
During a residence there of three years, he executed 
some plates which gained him great reputation, 
particularly a portrait of Pope Clement IX. The 
fame of Gerard Audran induced Louis XIV. to 
invite him to return to Paris ; and soon after his 
arrival he was appointed engraver to the king, 
with a considerable pension, and apartments in the 
Gobelins. He now applied himself with great as- 
siduity, and renewed the connection with the cele- 
brated painter Charles Le Brun, whose principal 
works are the subjects of some of his finest plates. 
' The Battles of Alexander ' will ever be regarded 
as a lasting monument of their fame. About the 
year 1675, he apparently paid a second visit to 
Rome, for his ' Four Cardinal Virtues,' after the 
picture by Domenichino, in St. Carlo a' Catinari, at 
Rome, are signed, ' G. Audran sculp. Romae, 1675.' 
He died at Paris in 1703, aged 63. The name of 
this distinguished engraver is familiar to every 
admirer of the art, which he may be said to 
have carried to the highest pitch of perfection, 
particularly in bis large plates of historical sub- 
jects. The following is a list of his principal 
works: they are signed variously G. A. F. : G. Au. 

f.: Gir. Audran: Ge Audran: and Gerardus 


Pope Clement IX., of the family of EospigUosi. 

Andrea Argoli of Padua. 

Samuel Sorbiere ; engraved at Rome in 1687. 

Henri Amauld, Bishop of Angers. 

Benoit Langlois, Capuchin. 

Fran9ois du Quesnoy, called Fiamingo, sculptor. 

St. Paul preaching at Athens, vignette ; inscribed Non 
enim, S;c. 

Wisdom and Abundance, above two Genii with a Ban- 
ner ; inscribed Zouis le Grand. Frontispiece, 1680, 


.fflneas saving his father Auohises ; after Dommichitto, 

The Mystery of the Eosary ; after the same. 

The Martyrdom of St. Agnes ; after the same. 

The Temptation of St. Jerome ; after the same. 

The Four Cardinal Virtues, from the paintings in the 

church of St. Carlo a' Catinari, at Rome, representing 

Justice, Temperance, Prudence, and Fortitude ; after 

the same. 1675. 
Two friezes, St. Paul preaching, and the Descent of the 

Holy Ghost, on one plate ; after Pietro da Cortona. 
Sixteen prints — Of the History of .fflneas, in the Pam- 

phili Gallery ; after the same. 
Three plates — Of the Triumph of David, in the Sac- 

chetti Palace ; after the same. 
The Death of St. Francis ; after Ann. Oarracei. 
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after the same. 
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after the same. 
The Discovery of Achilles disguised ; after the same. 
St. Hyacinth ; an etching ; after Guereino. 
The Magdalene, half length ; after Guido. 
St. Peter walking on the Sea ; after Lanfra/noo. 
The Nativity, a small plate ; after a drawing by Talma 

' the younger! 
Thirteen Hieroglyphical Figures ; after Saphael, in the 

Fourteen plates, called Emblems, or Cupid and Psyche ; 

after Saphael; in a loggia in the Famese garden; 

dedicated to Charles le Brun. 
Moses ar.d the Burning Bush ; after Saphael. 
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra ; (tfter the same. 
The Death of Ananias ; after the same. 
The Descent of the Saracens in the Port of Ostia ; 

from a drawing by Saphael ; etching, without his 

The Clemency of Scipio; after a drawing by Saphael; 

etching, without his name. 
St. Ignatius beaten by Demons; after a drawing by 

SubenSj and not after Saphael, as expressed on the 

plate ; it is St. Ignatius, and not St. Paul. 
Jesus Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter in presence 

of the Apostles ; a fine etching ; JJ. K. inv., G. Au., 

sc. ; very scarce. 
Silenus drmking ; after Giulio Somano ; etching. 
The Rape of Deianeira ; after the same. 
Ganymede ; after Titian ; an octagon. 


Moses taken out of the Eiver Nile ; after N. Poussin ; 

engraved by Benoit and Jean Audran, and retouched 

by Gerard. 
St. John baptizing the Pharisees in the Jordan ; after 

N. Poussin ; two sheets ; very fine. 
The "Woman taken in Adultery ; after the same; fine. 
St. Frances, a Roman Saint, kneefing before the Virgin 

Mary ; after If. Poussin ; copied from a print by P. 

del Po. 
The Flight of Pyrrhus ; after the same; in two sheets ; 

Coriolanus appeased by his Family ; after the same. 
Furius Camillus delivering up the Schoolmaster to his 

Pupils ; large plate ; after the same. 
Rinaldo and Aimida; after the same, engraved by 

Gerard, assisted by Jean and Benoit Audran. 
Daphne changed into a Laurel ; after the same. 
Narcissus ; after the same. 
The Empire of Flora ; after the same. 
The Plague at Rome ; after the same. 





Time discovering Truth ; after N. Foussin ; a ceiling. 

The Plague ; c^ter F. Mignard. In the first impres- 
sions of this plate, the figure in the clouds is Juno 
with a Peacock ; in the latter the figure is changed 
to that of the destroying Angel. 

Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 

Three plates — Of the ceiling of the lesser Gallery at 
Versailles ; after the same ; Apollo and the Muses, 
Prudence and Vigilance. 

Six plates — Of the ceiUng of the Val de Grilce, repre- 
senting the Felicity of the Blessed. 

The Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; after Le Sueur. 

The Martyrdom of St. Gervais and St. Protais ; after 
the same 

The Aurora; after the same; inscribed Lueerna pe- 

Time and Truth dispersing the Clouds of Ignorance ; 
after L. Testellin. 

Pharaoh's Host destroyed in the Red Sea; after F. 

Flight into Egypt ; after the same. 

Battle of the Saracens ; after Botwguignon, 

Taking of the Town of Damietta. 

The Judgment of Solomon ; after Ant. Coypel. 

The Deluge ; after la Fage. 

The Passage of the Red Sea ; after the same. 

The Eape of Proserpine ; after the marble by Girardon. 

Moses and the Burning Bush ; after Chas. le Brun. 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same. 

The Stoning of Stephen ; after the same. 

Four sheets — Of the triumphal Entry of Constantine 
into Rome ; after the same. 

Five sheets — Of the Ceiling of the Chapel of the 
chateau of Sceaux ; after the same ; very fine. 

Six sheets — Of the Pavilion of Sceaux, called the 
Pavilion of Aurora ; dedicated to Louis XIV. ; after 
the same. 

Thirteen large sheets, making together the four prints 
of the Battles, &c. of Alexander ; after le Brun. 1. 
The Passage of the Granicus. 2. The Defeat of 
Darius at Arbela. 3. Porus brought before Alex- 
ander after his Defeat. 4. The triumphal Entry of 
Alexander into Babylon. 

To these are added, The Family of Darius ; engraved 
by Gerard Edelinck, and noticed under his name. 

[The best impressions of these superb prints are those 
marked with the name of Goyton, the printer.] 

AUDEAN, Germain, who was born at Lyons 
in 1631, was instructed by his uncle Charles in the 
art of engraving in Paris. He died at Lyons in 
1710. His merit was considerable, although very 
inferior to that of some others of his family. Ger- 
main had four sons, Claude III., Benoit I., Jean, 
and Louis. He engraved several plates, consisting 
of portraits, and a variety of ornaments, ceilings, 
and vases, amongst which are the following : 

Portraits of Charles Emmanuel II. of Savoy, and his 

wife, in an oval ; after F. de la Monce. 
Portrait of Cardinal de Bicheheu, in an oval. 
Portrait of Theophile Eeynauld. 1663. 
Six sheets of Ceilings ; after George Charmeton. 
Six ornaments of Vases ; after N. Robert. 
A book of Friezes ; after Za Fage. 
A book of views in Italy ; after Fancus. 
Six Landscapes ; after Gaspar Foussin. 
Thirty-one designs — Of Fountains, Friezes, &c. ; after 

Le Brun. 

His plates are signed with his surname, and 
vi'itli his Christian name, in the following forms : 
O : Ger : Germ : and in full. 

AUDRAN, Jean, the brother of Benoit, and the 
third son of Germain Audran, was born at Lyons 
in 1667 ; having learned the rudiments of the art 
under his father, he was placed under the care 
of his uncle, the famous Gerard Audran, in Paris. 
Before he was twenty years of age he displayed 
uncommon ability, and became a very celebrated 
engraver. In 1706 he was made engraver to the 

60 ' 

king, with a pension and apartments at the Gobe- 
lins. The hand of a great master is discernible in 
all his plates ; and without having attained the 
extraordinary perfection of Gerard Audran, his 
claim to excellence is very considerable. He died 
in 1756. His principal prints are : 


Louis XV. ; full length ; after Gohert. 

Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria, with his 
Page ; full length ; after Vivien. 

Clement Augustus of Bavaria, Elector-Archbishop of 
Cologne ; after the same. 

The Duke d'Antin ; after Eiaaud. 

The Abbe Jean d'Estrees ; after the same. 

Victor Marie, Duke d'Estrees, Marshal of France; after 

Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni ; after Trevisani. 

Fran9ois de Salignac de la Motte Fenelon, Archbishop 
of Cambray ; after Vivien. 

Francjois Pierre Gillet ; after Tortebat. 

Francois Robert Secousse, sitting ; after Figaud. 

Peter Paul Rubens ; after Van Dijck ; for the Luxem- 
bourg Gallery. 

Noel Coypel, Painter to the King ; after Coypel. 

Antoine Coysevox, Sculptor to the Kmg ; after Rigaud. 

[The two last were engraved by Audran for his recep- 
tion at the Academy in 1708.] 

Our Saviour preaching to the Multitude ; after Raphael. 
The Infant Savioxir regarding the Cross presented by 

Angels ; after Albani. 
The Nativity ; after Fietro da Cortona ; oval. 
The Good Samaritan ; after Ann. Carracci ; arched. 
St. John administering the Sacrament to the Virgin; 

after Lodovico Carracci. 
I'Our Saviour on the Moimt of Olives ; after Domeni- 

St. Andrew led to Crucifixion ; after Gnido. 
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Guido ; on the plate 

improperly called after Domenichino. 
St. Paul preaching at Athens ; after Ciro Ferri ; a 

small frieze. 
The Triumph of Galatea; after Carlo Maratti; for the 

Crozat Collection. 
The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Claude Audran. 
Six plates — Copies of the large Battles of Alexander; 

by G. Audran. 
St. Augustine ; after F. de Champagne. 
Simeon holding the Infant Jesus ; after M. Corneille. 
Moses saved from the Nile; after Ant. Coypel. 
Jacob and Laban ; after the saine. 
Athaha and Joash ; after the same. 
Esther before Ahasuerus ; after the same. 
The Resurrection ; after the same. 
Cupid and Psyche ; after the same. 
Our Saviour curing the Sick ; after Ant. Dieu. 
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same. 
The Elevation of the Cross ; after Van Dijck. 
The Crucifixion ; after the satne. 
The French Parnassus ; after the bronze by Gamier, 
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Jouvenet. 
The Resurrection of Lazarus ; after the sa/ms. 
The Queen Blanche inspired with the Holy Spirit ; after 

the same. 
Acis and Galatea; after F. Marot. 
Venus punishing Psyche ; after J. M. Nattier. 
Psyche consoled by Cupid; a,fter the same. 
The dead Christ, with the Marys, St. John, and Nico- 

demus ; after Foussin. 
The Rape of the Sabines; efter Foitssin; his most 

esteemed print. 
St. Scholastica at the point of Death ; after J. Restout. 
Andromache entreating for her Son ; after L, Silvestre, 
Henri IV. deliberating on his future Marriage ; after 

Henri IV. departing for the German War; after the 

The Coronation of Marie de M^diois ; after the same, 
[The three last form part of the Luxembourg Gallery.] 

AUDRAN, Louis, the fourth and youngest son 




of Germain Audran, was bom at Lyons in 1670, 
and instructed in engraving by his uncle Gerard. 
He did not execute many plates, but assisted his 
brothers in forwarding theirs. He died at Paris about 
1712. He engraved some copies of the large plates 
executed by his relatives. There is a set of seven 
middle-sized plates by him of the ' Seven Acts of 
Mercy,' after Bourdon. He also engraved after 
the works of Le Brun, Poussin, and other French 

AUDRAN, Pbospek Gabeiel, the grandson of 
Jean Audran, born in Paris in 1744, was a pupil 
of his uncle Benoit II., but having no vocation 
for art, he abandoned it for the law. He after- 
wards became teacher of Hebrew in the College 
de France, which office he retained until his death 
in 1819. He etched some studies of heads. 

AUER, JoHANN Paul, who was born at Nurem- 
berg in 1636, studied from 1654 to 1658 under 
Georg Christoph Bimmart at Eatisbon. In 1660 
he went to Venice, and there received instructions 
from Pietro Liberi. He then went to Rome, where 
he stayed upwards of four years, and thence 
through Turin and Lyons to Paris, and so home 
to Nuremberg in 1670. He died in 1687. Auer 
painted historical, landscape, and genre pictures, 
besides portraits of many famous personages, for 
which he was very celebrated. 

AUERBACH, Johann Gottfeibd, was bom at 
Miihlhausen, in Thuringia, in 1697. He went to 
Vienna, where he subsequently rose to great fame 
as a portrait painter. He was court-painter to the 
Emperor Charles VI., and also to the Empress Maria 
Theresa. He died in Vienna in 1763. In the Bel- 
vedere Gallery there is a portrait of Charles VI. 
by him : he also painted, in 1728, the heads of 
Charles VI. and Count von Althan, in the large 
picture by Solimena, in the same gallery, which 
represents the Emperor receiving from the Count 
the inventory of the Royal Picture Gallery. A 
' St. Anne,' by Auerbach, is in the church of St. 
Margaret in Vienna. He engraved a plate of him- 
self painting the portrait of his wife. 

AUERBACH, Karl, son of Johann Gottfried 
Auerbach, was bom at Vienna in 1723, and became, 
under his father's instruction, a talented painter of 
portraits and history. The cathedral of St. Stephen 
in Vienna possesses an altar-piece and a ceiling- 
painting by him. At Hetzendorf and Innsbruck 
there are also examples of his art. Karl Auerbach 
died in Vienna in 1786 (or 1788). 

AUGUSTIN, Jean Baptiste Jacques, a minia- 
ture painter in enamel, was born at St. Die (Vosges), 
in 1759. He went to Paris in 1781, where he 
struggled against the bad taste then prevailing, and 
regenerated the almost forgotten art practised by 
Petitot. In 1819 he was appointed miniature 
painter to the King, and in 1821 was honoured 
with the title of Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur. 
His miniatures, which are distinguished by purity 
of design, vigour of tone, and richness of colour, 
are eagerly sought for by collectors. Amongst 
the finest portraits produced by him are those of 
'Napoleon I.,' 'The Empress Josephine,' 'Louis 
Buonaparte,' ' Caroline Murat,' ' Louis XVIII.,' 
' The Duke of Angouleme,' ' Baron Denon,' ' Gi- 
rodet the Painter,' 'Lord William Bentinck; ' and 
especially his female portraits after Greuze. He 
died of cholera in Paris in 1832. 

AUGUSTINI, Jan, who was bom at Groningen 
in 1725, studied under Philip van Dijk. He 
painted flowers with some degree of merit ; and his 

portraits were considered to possess an astonish- 
ing resemblance. He died at Haarlem in 1773, 
according to Van der WOligen and Van Eynden, 
although Terwesten says he was still living there 
in 1776. 

AULNE, De l'. See Delaune. 

AUROUX, Nicolas, an engraver, who was born 
at Pont-Saint-Esprit (Gard), worked in Lyons and 
Turin in the middle of the 17th century. Heineken 
speaks of four portraits by him, and a print of the 
' Virgin Mary holding the Infant Saviour, with St. 
John kissing His foot.' There is also a Frontis- 
piece by him to the second volume of Daniel 
Sennert's Opera Tuiedica; dated 1650. 

In Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' there is a list of 
30 engravings by him. 

AUSTIN, RioHAED T., who flourished in London 
in the beginning of the 19th century, studied 
under John Bewick, and became a wood-engraver 
of moderate ability. He was chiefly employed 
by the booksellers. He executed the outs for 
Linnaeus's ' Travels in Lapland,' published in 1811, 
and occasionally painted landscapes. 

AUSTIN, Samuel, was in early life a banker's 
clerk in Liverpool. In 1824 he went to London 
and joined the Society of British Artists, with 
whom he exhibited for three yeais. He then, in 
1827, became an associate member of the Society 
of Painters in Water Colours, and contributed 
landscapes and sea-side pictures to their exhibi- 
tions, until his death in 1834. 

AUSTIN, William, an English engraver, bom 
in London in 1721. He was instructed in the art 
by George Bickham, and has engraved some plates 
of landscapes, after Van der Neer, Euisdael, and 
Zuccarelli. His principal works were a set of six 
plates of ' Views of Ancient Rome,' and four of the 
' Ruins of Palmyra.' He died at Brighton in 1820. 

AUSTRIA, Don Juan of. See Juan. 

AUTGUERS, G., a French engraver, who resided 
at Lyons about the year 1623, worked chiefly 
for the publishers, and engraved some portraits 
and other book plates, which are very indifferently 

AUTISSIER, Louis Maeie, who was born at 
Vannes, in Brittany, in 1772, studied art under 
Vautrin, and then passed some time as a soldier. 
He afterwards settled at Brussels, and devoted 
himself to miniature painting, and became famous 
for his portraits. The following years of his li£e 
were divided between Belgium, Holland, and 
France. He exhibited works at Brussels, Ghent, 
Antwerp, Amsterdam, and Paris ; and was much 
employed in painting miniature portraits of the 
sovereigns, nobility, and celebrities of Belgium 
and the Netherlands. Autissier occasionally exe- 
cuted historical works also in miniature. He died 
at Brussels in 1830. At one time of his life he 
adopted the Christian names of Jean Franjois, 
which his father bore. 

AUTEEAU, Jacques, a French portrait painter 
and dramatic poet, was born in Paris in 1657. He 
died in 1745. His portrait of himself is in the 
Musee of Versailles. 

AUTREAU, Louis, the son of Jacques Autreau, 
painted portraits and genre subjects. He was 
bom about 1692 in Paris, where he died in 1760. 
It is doubtful whether some portraits are by the 
father or by the son. 

AUVRAY, Joseph P^lix Henri, a French his- 
torical painter, was bom at Cambrai in 1800. He 
was a pupil of Momal in Valenciennes, and after- 





wards of Gros in Paris. He exhibited in 1824, 
' St. Louis a Prisoner,' and in 1827, ' Gautier de 
Ch&tiUon defending St. Louis against the Saracens,' 
now in the Museum of Cambrai ; ' St. Paul at Athens,' 
&o. He died in 1833, in his native city. 

AUVRAY, PiEEEB Laurent, a French engraver, 
who was bom in Paris in 1736, studied the art of 
engraving under Cars. He practised in Paris and 
in Basle. He engraved portraits of French come- 
dians and other subjects. 

ADZOU, Pauline, nee DesmarquSts, a distin- 
guished paintress of familiar subjects and portraits, 
was born in Paris in 1775. She was instructed 
by Regnault ; and several of her interesting pic- 
tures, purchased by the French Government, the 
Duchess de Berri, and the Society of Friends to 
the Arts, have been engraved. Two scenes from 
the Life of the Empress Marie-Louise, by her, are 
at Versailles. Madame Auzou died in 1835 in Paris. 

AVAlSfZI, Degli (or De Avaoiis). See Degli 


. AVANZI, Giuseppe, was born at Perrara in 
1645, and studied under Costanzo Cattaneo. He 
painted many pictures for the churches and con- 
vents in that city, which are particularly noticed 
in Guarini' s description of the pictures and sculp- 
ture of Ferrara. In the church of the Madonna 
della Pieta are four pictures of subjects from 
the life of St. Gaetano, and in the church of San 
Domenico is the ' Marriage of St. Catharine,' con- 
sidered his best work. In San Giuseppe are two 
scenes from the life of St. Thekla, the ' Annuncia- 
tion,' and ' Visitation of the Virgin,' scenes from 
the ' Life of Christ,' and other pictures. Numerous 
other churches in Ferrara possess examples of the 
art of Avanzi, who was one of Ferrara' s best 
painters. He died in 1718. 

AVANZI, Jacopo, (or Da Vanzo,) of Verona, 
has long been confused with Jaoopo degli Avanzi 
of Bologna; but the remains of an inscription 
in the Cappella San Giorgio point to Verona as 
the birthplace of Avanzi. He painted decor- 
ations, in conjunction with Altichiero da Zevio, 
in the Cappella San Felice and the Cappella San 
Giorgio in the church of Sant' Antonio at Padua, 
in 1377. It appears that the principal frescoes 
in the Cappella San Felice were the work of Alti- 
chiero ; and of those in the Cappella San Giorgio, 
which were recovered from oblivion in 1837 by 
Dr. E. Forster, the part to be assigned to Altichiero 
has given rise to much dispute ; but it is thought 
by some authorities that Avanzi executed the 
principal portion. The frescoes represent the 
earlier part of the ' History of our Lord,' the 
' Coronation of the Virgin,' the ' Crucifixion,' and 
' Legends of St. George, St. Catharine, and St. 
Lucy.' They prove the painter to have been an 
artist of no common genius, and Kugler, in his 
description of them, speaks of his art as being 
above that of his contemporaries. Avanzi also 
painted two triumphal processions in a public hall 
of Verona, which have long since perished. He 
died about the end of the 14th century. 

AVANZINO, Nuoci, called from his birthplace 
' Avanzino da Citta di Castello,' was born in 1551. 
When he was still young he visited Rome, and 
became the pupil, and subsequently assistant, of 
Niccol6 Pommerancio. During the pontificates of 
Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. this painter was held 
in great esteem, and employed in the loggie of 
San Giovanni in Laterano. He also painted many 
pictures for the churches in Rome, of which 


Baglioni gives a particular account. Among his 
best works may be considered his paintings in 
fresco in San Paolo fuori le mura, representing 
the ' Miracle of the Serpent in the Isle of Malta,' 
the ' Decollation of St. Paul,' and his ' Taking up 
into the third Heaven.' Avanzino died at Rome 
in 1629. 

AVECEDO, Ceistobal, a Spanish painter, some- 
time scholar of Bartolom^ Carducho at Madrid. 
A Murcian born, he is enumerated with the 
nobilities of the city by the native poet, Jacinto 
Polo de Medina. He painted for the chapel of 
the College of San Fulgencio, in Murcia, a large 
picture of that saint adoring the blessed Virgin ; 
this, with other -v^-orks executed for convents, gives 
a favourable impression of his powers. He flour- 
ished in the beginning of the 18th century. 

AVED, Jacques Andr^ Joseph, who was bom 
at Douai in 1702, received his first instruction in art 
from Bernard Picart. Aftersometimespentintravel- 
ling in the Netherlands, he went in 1721 to Paris, and 
entered the studio of A. S. Belle. At that time he 
enjoyed the friendship of Carle van Loo, Boucher, 
Chardin, and other celebrated painters. He soon 
rose to great fame through his portraits, which he 
painted finely and carefully. In 1738 Rousseau 
sat to him ; in 1751 he went to the Hague, and 
painted the portrait of William IV. Soon after he 
executed the portrait of Louis XV., and was made 
painter to the king. Aved exhibited, at intervals, 
at the Paris Salons from 1737 to 1759. He died at 
Paris in 1766. A portrait by him of the Marquis 
de Mirabeau is in the Louvre. His works have 
been engraved by Balechou, L^pici^, Mellini, Daul^, 
and others. 

AVEELEN, Jan van den. See Van den Aveelen. 

AVELINE, Antoinb, a French designer and 
engraver, born in Paris about the year 1691. He 
was probably the son and pupil of Pierre Aveline, 
'the elder,' with whom he has been confused by 
Heineken, Le Blanc, and others. Antoine died in 
Paris in 1743. He engraved a number of plates of 
landscapes, and views of the palaces and chiteaux 
in Prance and other parts of Europe, executed in 
a neat and agreeable style. The following are 
worthy of notice : 

Innocence ; after F. Boucher. 

Six volumes of Ornaments and Figures a la mode ; after 

Bight "Views of French Chateaux. 
Four Views of French Towns. 
Four Plates for ' Nouvelle Description de la Villa de 

Paris,' hy Germain BHce. 

AVELINE, FEANgois Antoine, who was bom in 
Paris in 1727, was the son of Antoine, and cousm 
and scholar of Pierre ' the younger,' but did not 
equal him in talent. He worked chiefly for the 
booksellers at Paris, and afterwards removed to 
London ; but either had not sufScient ability or 
industry to succeed, for he died there in indigence 
in 1762. We have the following plates by him : 

Neptune calming the raging waves ; after Boucher. 

The Four Seasons ; copied from Pierre Aveline. 

Chinese figures ; six plates ; after Boucher. 

The Chinese Bark ; after the same. 

The Spanish Musician ; after J. Velsen. 

The Flemish Musician ; after O. Tenters. 

View of a Port in the Levant ; after Vemet. 

Chinese figures and subjects ; six plates : after Fillement. 
London, 1759. ■> • f > J 

_ AVELINE, Pierre, ' the elder,' was bom in Paris 
in 1660. He studied under Adam PereUe, and 
engraved landscapes, views of towns, and garden 




scenes in the manner of his master. He died, 
according to Marietta, in 1722. The following are 
some of his best plates : 

Nine Costume plates. 

Six Sea-views (with Fauard) ; after J. van Beecq. 

Eighteen Landscapes ; marked Aveliiie inv : etfec. 

Numerous Views in Paris. 

Numerous Views of French Ch&teaoz. 

AVELINE, PiBEEB Alexandre, ' the younger,' 
a French designer and engraver, was bom in Paris 
in 1710. He was a nephew of Antoine Aveline. 
He was instructed in the art by Jean Baptiste de 
Poilly. His drawing, though not very incorrect, is 
stifE and formal. It is, however, to be regretted 
that he did not make a better selection of subjects 
for the exertion of his talent, and that he employed 
a great portion of his time in trifling and insig- 
nificant sketches. He died in Paris in 1760. The 
following are his prints most worthy of notice : 


Four plates of the Seasons, represented by Children. 

Five Plates of the Senses. 

Four Plates of the Quarters of the World. 

Venus at her Toilet. 

Bacchus and Anadne. 


The Cardinal de Fleury, accompanied by the Virtues ; 

after Chevallier. 
The Vrath of Neptune ; after Albani ; inscribed Quos 

Jupiter and lo ; after ScMavone; for Crozat Collection, 
Diana and Actaeon ; after J. Bassano; for the same. 
The infant Moses brought to the Daughter of Pharaoh 

after Gioraione. 
Departure of Jacob ; after CastiffUone; \ for the Bres- 
Noah entering the Aik ; after the same; ] den Gallery. 
The Death of Seneca ; after Luea Giordano. 
Christ healing the Sick ; after Jowvenet, 
A Landscape ; after Nicolaas Berchem ; fine. 
The fortunate Accident ; after Yan Falens. 
Folly; after Corn. Visscher. 

The Birth of Bacchus ; after F. Boucher. • 

The Rape of Europa ; after the same. 
Three Subjects of Cupid ; after the same. 
La Belle Cuisiniere ; after the same. 
Venus and Cupid ; after the same. 
The prudent Shepherdess ; after the same. 
The Bape of Helen ; after JJeshayes. 
.^neas succoured by Apollo ; after the same, 
Hans Carvel's King ; i^ter J. L. JLaurain. 
La Place Maubert, Paris ; after Jeaurat, 
The Flemish Trio; after A. van Ostade, 
A Dog, with Game ; after Oudry. 
A pair — One, a Boy with a Mouse ; the other, a. Girl 

with a Cat ; after C. JParrocel. 
Diana at the Bath ; after Watteau. 
The Bape of Europa; after the same. 
The Charms of Life ; after the same. 
Italian Recreation ; after the same. 

AVELLI. See Xanto Avblli. 

AVELLINO, GritJLio, or Giacinto, d', called II 
Messinese, was a Sicilian, bom at Messina about the 
year 1646. He is said to have been a scholar of 
Salvator Rosa, at Naples, and painted landscapes 
in the grand style of that master. After visiting 
Rome, Venice, and other important cities of Italy, 
he settled at Ferrara, where landscape painting, 
since the time of Dossi, had been almost abandoned, 
and was much employed by the nobility of Ferrara, 
as well as of Cremona, and it is in those cities 
that his works must be sought. He enriched his 
landscapes with ruins, architecture, and figures, 
spiritedly designed, and boldly touched. Avel- 
lino's works are highly prized and much sought 
after. He died in 1700, at Ferrara. 

AVELLINO, Onofrio. According to Dominici 
this painter was born at Naples in 1674 ; he 
studied under Luca Giordano, and subsequently 
with Francesco Solimena. He afterwards passed 
some years at Rome, where he painted the vault of 
the church of San Francesco di Paola, which is 
considered his best performance. In the church of 
Santa Maria di Monte Santo is an altar-piece by this 
master, representing a subject from the Life of St. 
Albert. He died in 1741. Avellino's copies of the 
works of his masters were so successful that they 
have passed for originals. 

AVELLO, Feanc. Santo. See Urbino, Rov. da. 

AVEMANN, Wolf, a native of Nuremberg, was 
a pupil of Hendrik van Steenwijk, and painted 
interiors of churches and other buildings in the 
manner of his master. After the year 1620 he 
left Nuremberg and went to Hesse, where he met 
with a violent death. 

AVERARA, Giovanni Battista, (or Averaria, 
or Aveenaeia,) was bom at Bergamo about the 
year 1508. The name of his instructor in art is 
not known, but he formed his style of colouring 
from the works of Titian. Ridolfi mentions some 
fresco paintings by this master in favourable 
terms, particularly two pictures in the church of 
San Francesco, at Bergamo ; he also executed works 
in the Palazzo del Podesta in that city. He painted 
landscape and architecture, and was greatly cele- 
brated in his day for his observance and skilful 
representation of nature, not only in the scenery, 
but in the figures and animals with which he orna- 
mented his pictures. The beauty of his tints, the 
design of his infant figures, and the nature of his 
landscapes, all show that he aspired to the Titian 
manner. Muccio, in his 'Teatro di Bergamo,' calls 
him a universal genius. He died in 1548. 

AVEECAMP, Hendrik van, was sumamed ' de 
Stomme van Kampen ' ('the Mute of Kampen'), 
— a name Immerzeel tells us he obtained on ac- 
count of his taciturnity. He was probably born 
at Kampen about the end of the 16th century, and 
lived, it is said, at the Hague. He produced many 
pictures, principally landscapes ornamented with 
cattle, and marine subjects ; but they have lost 
much of their value on account of their change of 
colour. His favourite subjects were winter scenes. 
The Dresden Gallery has two Dutch Kermesses on 
the ice ; and other paintings by him are in the 
Galleries of Berlin, Rotterdam, Antwerp, and in 
many private collections in Germany. His draw- 
ings with the pen, and in black chalk, are still 
held in great estimation. They are met with in 
several of the collections of Germany and Holland; 
the Stadel Collection at Frank- t TTT j- 7- 
fort; the Albertina Gallery at f / I 1 fAf' 
Vienna ; the Berlin Museum, and *) J. S 


AVERNARIA. See Aveeaea. 

AVIANI, Feancesco, a native of Vicenza, flour- 
ished about the year 1630. He excelled in paint- 
ing perspective and architectural views, which 
were frequently embellished with figures by Giulio 
Carpioni. His pictures usually represent the most 
remarkable views in Venice. He also produced 
some landscapes and sea-ports. 

AVIBUS, Gaspaeo ab. See Osello. 
AVICE, Chevalier Henri d'. This amateur 
etched for his amusement some plates in a slight, 
though spirited style, after N. Poussin, and other 
masters ; of these the most esteemed is a middle- 
sized plate of the ' Adoration of the Magi,' after 





Poussin. Avioe flourished in the middle of the 
17th century. 

AVIGNON, MiGNAED d'. See Mionard. 

AVILA, Andb^s Sanchez d'. See Sanchez d' 


AVILA, Francisco, was a portrait painter of 
Seville, who flourished in the 1 7th century, and 
was distinguished for the suavity of his colour 
and the truth of his likenesses. 

AVILA, Hernando de, painter and sculptor to 
Philip II. of Spain, flourished in the ndddle of the 
16th century. He was a pupil of Francisco 
Comontes. He executed, in 1568, an altar-piece 
of ' St. John the Baptist,' and the ' Adoration of the 
Kings,' for the cathedral of Toledo. 

AVISSE, FRANgois Remi Joseph, a French genre 
painter, who was born at Douai in 1763. He 
studied in Antwerp, and died in his native town 
in 1843. 

AVOGADEO, PiETRO, was a native of Brescia, 
and flourished about the year 1730. He was a 
scholar of Pompeo Ghitti, whose style he followed 
with a mixture of Venetian colouring, especially 
in the carnations. The contour of his figures is 
graceful, and the general effect of his pictures is 
harmonious and pleasing. His principal work is 
the 'Martyrdom of SS. Crispin and Crispinian,' 
in the church of San Giuseppe, at Brescia. In 
the church of San Francesco are five pictures 
illustrating the 'Life of St. Peter,' in the chapel 
dedicated to that saint. Works hy him are in 
other churches of Brescia. Lanzi observes that, 
in the opinion of many, Avogadro holds the 
first place in Brescian art, after the three great 
painters in Brescia — Bonvicino, Gambara, and 

AVONSTERN. See Seutee, Dan. 

AVONT, Peetee van, was baptized at Mechhn 
on the 14th of January, 1600 ; the day of his birth 
is not recorded. His teacher's name, too, is not 
known. In the year 1622-23 he was made free 
of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and his name 
occurs at intervals in its records, as well as in those 
of the city, till his death, which took place at 
Deurne, near Antwerp, in 1652. He painted land- 
scapes, enriched with figures well drawn, and 
touched with great spirit. He frequently decor- 
ated the landscapes of Vinokenboons, Jan Brueghel, 
the elder and the younger, Jan Wildens, Lodowijok 
de Vadder, and other painters. Three signed land- 
scapes by him are in the Belvedere Gallery, two 
with ' Holy Families,' and one with ' Flora and 
Genii.' The Munich Gallery has a ' Holy Family,' in 
a landscape, the joint production of Avont and 
Jan Brueghel, the elder. The Liechtenstein Gallery 
also has three pictures by Avont. Antwerp, in its 
churches and private collections, has examples of 
his art. The etchings of Avont are rare, and not 
all which are ascribed to him are genuine. The 
following are some of the plates ^ a T T /A 
which have been engraved after 7 Ar \f ^-\ 
his works : >- ' > ¥ V 

The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus, St. John, and 

St. Elisabeth. 
Tte Virgin suckling the Infant, with St. John and an 

The Virgin and Infant in the Clouds ; inscribed Eegina 

The Magdalene ascending to Heaven. 
Twenty-four small plates of Children, on each plate a 

Child and an Angel. They were entitled F<edopce- 

gnion, and engraved by SoUar. 
The Four Elements, represented by Four Children. 


Two Bacchanalian subjects of Children ; one, Bacchus 
drawn in his Gar ; the other, Bacchus carried by Four 
Children; Fet. van Avont, inv.,fee., et exc. 

AVRIL, Jean Jacques, ' the elder,' was bom at 
Paris in 1744 ; he was a scholar of J. G. Wille, 
and has engraved several pljites, which are de- 
servedly admired. He died in Paris in 1831. By 
him we have about 540 pieces, some of large 
dimensions, among which are : 

La Tierge au linge ; after Raphael. 

Mars going to Battle ; after Rubens. 

Mars returning from Battle ; after 'the same. 

A Shepherd and Shepherdess ; called the Croc-en-Jamie; 

after the same. 
Apollo with the Seasons, dancing ; after Roussin, 
Diana and Actseon ; after Albani. 
Diana and Callisto ; after the same. 
Venus revenging herself on Psyche ; after De Troy, 
Pygmalion and Galatea ; after Marillier, 
St. Genevieve ; after 0. van Loo. 
Fishermen returning ; after YernH. 
Travellers in a Storm ; after the same. 
The Shipwreck; dated 1775 ; after the same. 
The Double Eeoompense of Merit ; after R. A, Wille, 

French Patriotism ; after the same. 1788. 
The Taiing of Courtrai ; after Van der Meulen. 1782. 
The Passage of the Khine ; after Berchem. 
Catherine II. on her Travels ; after F. de Meys. 1790. 
Ulysses and Penelope ; after Le Barbier. 
Combat of the Horatii and Curiatii; after the-same. 


AVRIL, Jean Jacques, ' the younger,' who was 
born in Paris in 1771, was the son of J. J. Avril, 
the elder. He studied under Le Barbier, Suvee, 
and Bervic, and engraved some excellent plates 
from pictures by the old masters, as well as many 
plates of sculpture in the Louvre, jBor the ' Musee 
Franyais.' He died in Paris in 1835. 

AXARETO, Giovacchino. See Assereto. 

AXELT, JoHANN. See Azelt. 

AXMANN, Joseph, an engraver, who was bom 
atBriinn in 1793, first studied drawing and painting 
uJider J. J. Weidlich, and, later, engraving under 
Blascloke at Vienna. He died at Salzburg in 1873. 
Among his works are : 

Landscape ; after J. d'Arthois. 

Samson ; after Van Rijck. 

Moonlight Scene ; after Van der Near. 

The Styrian Charcoal Burners ; after Gauermann. 

Madonna ; after Murillo. 

Francis I., Emperor of Austria; after Schiavone, and 

after Schwager, 
Elizabeth, Empress of Austria ; after Schwager. 

AXTMANN, Leopold, a clever animal painter, 
born at Fulnek, in Moravia, in 1700, was the pupil 
of John George Hamilton of Vienna, and rivalled 
him in reputation. He settled at Prague, and died 
there in 1748. He excelled in painting dogs and 
horses ; there are several good pictures By him in 

AYALA, BeenabjS, an historical painter, who 
was bom at Seville in the beginning of the 17th 
century, studied under Zurbaran, and imitated 
his manner in his tints and draperies. No doubt 
many of his pictures are now mistaken for the 
work of his master. He was one of the founders 
of the Academy at Seville in 1660, and was a 
member of it until 1671 ; but as his name does not 
appear with the subscribers to the statutes in 1673, 
it is supposed that his death occurred between 
those years. The Museum of Seville has six of 
his works, and there are others in the churches of 
that city and of Madrid. 

AYBAE XIMENEZ, Pebro, a Spanish painter» 




•was pupil of F. Ximenez, whose style he imitated. 
He painted historical subjects, and the pictures he 
produced in Calatayud, in 1682, are praised for 
their composition, design, and colour. There is no 
account of him after that year. 

AYERBE. See Akbos. 

AYLESFORD, Henbage Finch fourth Earl of, 
previously Lord Guernsey, who was bom in London 
in 17.51, practised art as an amateur with much 
success. He was an honorary exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy from 1786 to 1790. His works are 
chiefly water-colour drawings of architectural and 
rural subjects: he also executed several etchings. 
He died in 1812. 

AZEGLIO. See Tapaeelli d' Aziglio. 

AZELT, JoHANN, (or Axelt,) who was bom in 
1654, appears in Nuremberg records under various 
names — Arzold, Arzoldt, and Atzold. He seems 
to have confined himself almost entirely to por- 
traits, which are but indifiEerently executed. He 
engraved : 

The Emperor Joseph I. ; after A. Banneman. 

Georg Friedrich, Prince of "Waldeck. 

A set of Portraits of the Kings of Spain, Himgarj-, and 
Bohemia, &c. ; and many of the plates in Freher's 
Theatrum Virorum Bruditione Clarorum. 

AZZERBONI, Giovanni, an Italian engraver, 
was a pupil of Guglielmo Morghen. He worked 
at Rome towards the end of the 18th century, and 
appears to have died before 1810. He engraved 
' The Magdalene,' after Guercino. 

AZZOLINI, Giovanni Bernardo, or Bernardino, 
— called Mazzolini or Massolini — was born at 
Naples about the year 1560. He went, in 1610, to 
Genoa, where there are several of his works in the 
churches and convents, and in private collections. 
Two pictures by him, in Genoa, are mentioned by 
Soprani as works of great merit: the one an 
'Annunciation,' painted for the high altar of the 
' Monache Turchine,' and the other a ' Martyrdom 
of St. Apollonia,' in the church of San Giuseppe. 
Azzolini also worked in Naples and Rome. He 
excelled in wax-work, and formed heads with an 
absolute expression of life. 


BAADE, Knud, a marine and landscape painter, 
was born in Skiold, in South Norway, in 1808, and 
removed, while still a boy , with his family to Bergen, 
where he received his- first instruction in art. In 
1827 he went to Copenhagen, and there studied at 
the Academy for about three years, when want of 
means compelled him to go to Christiania and 
commence portrait-painting : thence he went to 
study in Bergen, where the mountain-topped fiords 
and rocky bays afforded ample subjects for his 
pencil — and he also travelled northward to Dront- 
heim in search of material for his pictures. In 
1836 he was persuaded by his countryman, Dahl, 
the well-known landscape painter, to go to Dres- 
den, in which city he studied for three years — 
returning to his native country in 1839 on account 
of a disease in his eyes. In 1846 he went to 
Munich, and soon earned as a landscape painter 
a reputation, which he increased year by year, 
executing paintings of his native country and the 
scenes around his native coasts, which he mostly 
depicted with moonlight effects. Though but an 
invalid, he laboured at Munich 'continually until 
his death, which occurred in that city in 1879. 

Baade was painter to the Court of Sweden, and a 
member of the Academy of Arts at Stockholm. 
The following are among his best works: 
Ohristiania. Nat. Gnllery. "Wood at North Kyst. 
London. Saatli Kensington ) mi Wreck 

Museum. J 
Munich. Pivfikothek. Scene from Norse Mythology. 
Stockholm, Nat. Gallery. Ship by Moonlight. 

BAADER, Amalie, was bom at Erding, in 
Bavaria, in 1763, She studied engraving under J. 
Dorner, the director of the gallery at Munich, and 
practised it for amusement, not as a profession. 
Her mark, an A and B interlaced, is found on 
copies after Rembrandt, G. F. Schmidt of Berlin, 
and some Italian masters. After her marriage she 
was known by her husband's name. Van Schat- 
tenhofer. She died at Munich in 1840. 

BAAK HATTIGH, Jan, a painter of Utrecht, 
lived in the middle of the 17th century, as we find 
by a picture in the hospital of St. Job in that 
city, with the date 1642. It is a landscape with 
figures in the manner of Poelemburg, and ap- 
proaches so near to that master, that it may be 
concluded he was one of his scholars. 

BAAN, J. DE, (or Baen). See De Baan. 

BABEL, P. B., a French designer and etcher, 
was born in Paris in the early years of the 18th 
century (perhaps in 1720), and flourished there as 
late as 1755. He is said to have died in 1761. 
He has left numerous plates of ornamental decora- 
tion — some after his own designs — chiefly for the 
embellishment of hooks. Heineken says that he 
was also a goldsmith. Among his productions 

The plates for Blondel's 'Architecture francaise.' 

Seventy-two vignette illustrations,/}'^™ his own designs, 

for ' Traite de perspective a i'usage des artistes,' by 

B. S. Jeaurat. Paris. 1750. 
Three plates of a Salon for the Princess Sartorinski, of 

Poland; after J. A. Meissonnier. 
Seven plates of decoration for the H6tel de Soubise, 

Paris ; after Boffrand. 

BABUREN, Theodoe van, (or Babbuk,) a Dutch 
painter, who was bom in 1570, was a scholar of 
Pieter Neefs. He painted interiors and churches 
in the manner of that master; but more frequently 
made choice of such subjects as admitted of mirth 
and conviviality ; and his pictures generally repre- 
sent musical assemblies, card-players, &c., painted 
in a free, bold manner, in which his drawing is 
preferable to his colour. His chef-d'oeuvre is an 
' Entombment,' in the style of Caravaggio, in San 
Pietro in Montorio, at Rome. His only etching, 
and this is rare, is from this picture. He died at 
Utrecht in 1624. 

BABYLONE. See Baebarj. 

BACAREEL. See Backeeeel. 

BACCARINI, Jacopo, was born at Reggio about 
the year 1630. He was a scholar of Orazio Talami, 
and painted history in the style of that master. 
Two of his most esteemed pictures, a ' Repose in 
Egypt,' and the 'Death of St. Alexis,' are in the 
church of San Filippo at Reggio. He died in 1682. 

BACCHIACCA, II. See Dbeetini. 

BACCHIOCCO, Caelo. According to Averoldo 
this painter was a native of Milan. That author, 
in his ' Scelte Pitture di Brescia,' mentions several 
of the pictures of this master in the churches and 
convents in that city, particularly in the church of 
SS. Giacomo e Filippo. 

BACCI, Antonio, a native of Mantua, or of Padua, 





was born about 1600. He was a still-life and 
flower painter, and was living at Venice in 1663. 

BACCIARELLI, Maeoellci, was born at Rome 
in 1731, and studied under Benefial. In 1750 he 
was called to Dresden, where he was employed by 
King Augustus III. ; after whose death he went to 
Vienna, and thence to Warsaw, where he was 
much patronized. He painted a set of the Polish 
kings, from Boleslaus Chrobry downwards. That 
of Stanislaus II. (Stanislas Augustus Poniatowski) 
has been engraved by A. de Marcenay de G-huy, 
Kiistner, and A. Fogg. Bacciarelli also painted 
scenes from the History of Poland. He died at 
Warsaw in 1818. 

BACCIO DELLA PoHTA (Fra Baetolommeo). See 
Baetolommbo di Pagholo. 

BACCIOCCHI, Fra Feeeante. This painter 
was a monk, of the order of the Philippines. Some 
of his works are noticed in Barotti's account of 
the paintings and sculpture at Ferrara. One of 
his best pictures was the ' Stoning of St. Stephen,' 
in the church of San Stefano in that city ; and 
in Santa Maria del SufEragio there was a 'Holy 
Family' by him. He flourished in the 17th cen- 

Bach, Karl Daniel Feiedeich, who was born 
at Potsdam, in 1756, studied and painted in Berlin, 
and in Italy, where he was much influenced by the 
works of Raphael. He subsequently became pro- 
fessor in the Art Academy at Breslau, where he 
died, in 1826. He painted historical subjects, por- 
traits, and animals, and he also used the etching- 

BACHELEY, Jacques, a French designer and 
engraver, was born at Pont 1' Eveque, in Normandy, 
in 1712. He studied under Philippe le Bas. He 
was a member of the Academy at Rouen, where 
he died in 1781. We have by him several prints 
of landscapes after the Dutch masters ; amongst 
which are the following : 

View in Italy ; after Sart. Breenherg. 

View on the Tiber ; after the same. 

View of the Bridge of Voges ; after the same. 

View of Rotterdam ; after Van Goijen. 

The Castle of Ryswick ; after Huisdael. 

View near Utrecht ; after the same, 

A Storm on the Coast, of Greenland ; after J. Peters. 

The Redoubt of Schenck ; after B. Beters. 

The Mouth of the Meuse ; after the same. 

The View of Havre de Grace ; after his own drawing. 

BACHELIER, Jean Jacques, was bom in Paris 
in 1724. He was received into the French Academy 
as a flower painter in 1751, and again as an historical 
painter in 1763, in which year he painted the ' Death 
of Abel.' His picture of ' Cimon in Prison, nourished 
by his D&ughter,' exhibited in 1765 as ' Charity Ro- 
maine,' was allowed to replace the former work in 
the Louvre. In 1765 he founded a school of 
design for artisans, still in existence. He died in 
Paris in 1805. He was for fourty-four years 
Director of the Porcelain Factory at Sevres, and 
was also Director of the Academy of Painting, 
Sculpture, and Naval Architecture at Marseilles 

BACHICHE, Le. See Gaulli. 

BACHMANN, Gboeg, also written Pachmann, was 
born probably in 1600, in Friedberg, Bohemia. He 
worked for many years in Vienna, and the churches 
of that city contain examples of his art. He died 
there in 1652. Besides pictures of sacred history, 
Baohmann also executed portraits of no mean 

BACICCIO. See Gaulli. \ 


BACKER, Adkiaan, the nephew of Jacob A. 
Backer, was bom at Amsterdam in 1643. He 
was sent to Italy when he was young, where he 
studied several years, and acquired a taste and 
correctness of design, not very common in the 
artists of his country, which is discernible in all 
his works. His most esteemed picture is in the 
old town-hall at Amsterdam, representing the ' Last 
Judgment ; ' it is an ingenious composition, and is 
painted in a good style. A ' Rape of the Sabines,' 
signed by him and dated 1671, is in the Brunswick 
Gallery. An allegorical picture of ' Painting, 
Peace, and Justice' is in the Antwerp Museum. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1686. 

BACKER, Bt. (BAETH0L0M,a;u8, or Baeent), was 
an engraver, who flourished at Amsterdam m the 
middle of the 18th century. He executed plates 
of portraits and views in a neat, finished manner. 

BACKER, Fbanz de. See De Backer. 

BACKER, Jacob A., or Bakkee (not to be con- 
founded with Jacob de Backer, of Antwerp), 
was bom at Harlingen in 1608 or 1609 ; he studied 
under Lambert Jacobsz at Leeuwarden, and then 
with Rembrandt, whose studio he entered between 
1632 and 1634. His chief residence was at Amster- 
dam, where he distinguished himself as a portrait 
painter. Such was the extraordinary facihty and 
rapidity of this artist, that Houbraken asserts that 
he finished the half-length portrait of a lady, 
dressed in a troublesome drapery and loaded with 
jewels, in one day. He also acquired great reput 
ation as a painter of history; and his pictures 
were extolled in the poetry of Vondel, his country- 
man. He died in 1651, at Amsterdam, in the 
forty-second year of his age. The following are 
some of his most important works : 

Amsterdam. Tovm hall. Two Archery-pieces ; one signed 
J.B. 1642. 
„ V. der Hoop CoK.Syndics. 
Brunswick. Museum. Portrait of himself. 
„ „ Portrait of his wife. (?) 

,1 „ Sleeping Nymph. 

Dresden. Gallery. Portrait of a man (with mono- 

gram J. A. B.). 
jt ), Portrait of a woman (mth mono- 

gram J. A. B.). 

He also etched some plates from his own designs. 

BACKER, Jakob de. See De Backek. 

BACKER, Nicolas de. See Dk Backee. 

BACKEREEL, Gilles, (or Bakeeeel,) who was 
bom at Antwerp in 1572, studied in Italy and then 
returned to his native city, the churches of which 
formerly possessed a number of his works. In 
the Brussels Museum are an 'Adoration of the 
Shepherds,' and the ' Vision of St. FeUx,' and in 
the Vienna Gallery a- ' Hero mourning Leander.' 
Backereel's name is also frequently distorted into 
Baccarelles, Bakanel, Baccarelli, Bacareel, and 
Bakkarell. The date of hia death is not recorded. 

BACKEREEL, Willem, brother of GUles, was 
bom at Antwerp in 1570. He went to Italy to 
study, and "stayed there until his death, in 1600. 
He painted historical subjects and portraits. 

BACKHUIZEN, Hendeik van de Sandb, whose 
mother's name was Van de Sande, was bom 
at the Hague in 1795. He studied under J. 
Heijmans, but derived most of his art instruction 
from nature, and soon became noted for his land- 
scapes, usually containing figures or cattle. In 
1822 he was elected a member of the Academy at 
Amsterdam ; and in 1847 he was made a Knight 
of the Order of the Lion. He died in his native 
city in 1860. His works are seen in the public 




and private collections of Holland and Belgium. 
Two winter-landscapes by him are in the Pina- 
kothek at Munich. 

BACKHUYSEN, Ludolf. See Bakhuisen. 

BACLER d'ALBE, Louis Albert Guillain, 
Baron de, a French artist, was born in 1761 at St. 
Pol (Pas de Calais). He was a brigadier-general, 
and held other military and civil offices under 
Napoleon. He painted, during the invasion of 
the French, in 1797, several views in Italy : the 
' Battle of Lodi,' the ' Passage of the Po,' and 
several other victories of the French armies. He 
also painted some interesting landscapes and clas- 
sical subjects, such as the ' Death of Paris,' and 
'CEdipus wandering in Greece.' He also etched 
and lithographed a large number of landscapes. 
He died at Sevres in 1824. 

BACON, Sir Nathaniel, who was bom in 1547, 
was a half-brother of the great philosopher, Lord 
Chancellor Bacon. He practised art for his amuse- 
ment, after the manner of the Flemish school. 
There exist pictures by him at Gorhambury, the 
family seat, consisting of a whole-length portrait 
of himself, a half-length of his mother, and a 
' Kitchen-maid with Fowls,' admirably painted. 
Several others are at Redgrave Hall, Suffolk. He 
died in 1615. His monument in the chance] of 
Culford church has, in addition to his bust, the 
emblems of a palette and pencils. 

BACQUOY. See Baqhoy. 

BADALOCCHIO, Sisto — called by Malvasia, 
SiSTO Rosa — was born at Parma in 1681, and was 
educated in the school of Annibale Carracci. He 
went with that great master to Rome, and assisted 
him in some of his celebrated works in that city, 
notably in the Farnese Palace. He was an ac- 
complished designer, and possessed an inventive 
genius. After the death of his master, in 1609, 
Badalocchio returned to Bologna, where he was 
much employed. He also worked at Gualtieri, 
Reggio, and Parma. He died at Bologna in 1647. 
One of his best works is a ' St. Francis,' in the 
Parma Gallery. In the Verospi Palace at Rome he 
painted in fresco, after Albani, ' Polyphemus seated 
on a Rook, with Galatea and her Nymphs ; ' 'Poly- 
phemus hurling a Rock on Acis and Galatea ; ' 
' Mercury and Paris,' and the ' Judgment of Paris ; ' 
which have been engraved by Giovanni Girolamo 
Frezza. Sisto Badalocchio etched several plates in 
a free and masterly style ; they are generally 
more finished than those by Guido Reni, though 
not quite so elegantly or so carefully drawn. His 
ordinary mark was aS". B., f. We have among 
others the following plates by him : 

The Statue of the Laocoon; after the aniiqu marble 

(hii test work). 
Six plates — The Apostles and St. Thomas Aquinas; 

from the Cupola of the Cathedral at Parma; after 

Twenty -three plates of Baphael's Bible; after the 

frescoes in the Loggie of the Vatican; the other 

plates of the series being engraved by Zanfranco. 

The Holy Family, with St. Joseph and St. John ; after 


BADAROCCO, Giovanni Raffaello, the son and 
scholar of Giuseppe Badarocco, was bom at Genoa 
in 1648. After studying some time under his 
father he went to Rome, and entered the school of 
Carlo Maratti. Aiming at a freer and bolder style, 
he appears to have preferred the works of Pietro 
da Cortonato those of his master. He also painted 
in Naples and Venice, whence he returned to 

Genoa. There is great suavity and a fine impasto 
in his colouring, which a profusion of ultramarine 
has preserved in all its brilliancy. He was much 
employed in easel historical pictures. Two of his 
largest and best works were in the Certosa at 
Polcevera. He died in 1726. 

BADAROCCO, Giuseppe, who was bom at 
Genoa in 1588, became a scholar of Andrea An- 
saldo, under whosffe tuition he remained some years. 
He was called, from his difficulty of hearing, ' 11 
Sordo.' After leaving the school of Ansaldo he 
visited Florence, where he was so much struck 
with the beauty of the works of Andrea del Sarto, 
that he applied himself with assiduity to the study 
of the pictures of that admirable artist. He proved 
a very good painter of history, and executed several 
works for the churches and public edifices at Flor- 
ence, where he died of the plague in 1667. 

BADENS, Feans, was born at Antwerp in 1671. 
He was the son of an obscure artist, by whom he 
was instructed in the principles of design, but 
he afterwards had the advantage of visiting Italy, 
where he remained four years. On his return to 
the Netherlands he gave ample testimony of the 
advantages he had derived from his studies. Van 
Mander speaks of him in very favourable terms as 
a painter of history and portraits, and says that he 
excelled in painting what are called ' Conversation 
Pieces.' His style of design partook of the taste 
he had acquired in Italy, and, like most of the 
painters of his country, he was an excellent colour- 
ist. His works have now entirely disappeared. It 
is supposed that he died at Amsterdam, but the 
year is not recorded. 

BADENS, Jan, was the younger brother of Prans 
Badens, and was also instructed in art by his father. 
He was bom at Antwerp in 1676, and following 
the example of Frans, he went to Italy at an early 
period of his life, where he resided several years. 
He afterwards visited Germany, where his works, 
both in historical subjects and portraits, were 
highly esteemed. He was favoured with the 
patronage of several of the princes of the empire, 
and acquired in that country both fame and for- 
tune. Returning to his native country, where he 
purposed to pass the remainder of his life in the 
tranquil enjoyment of the fruits of his talents 
and industry, he was robbed and pillaged by 
banditti of all he possessed. This unfortunate 
event threw him into a state of languor and de- 
spondency, which occasioned his death in 1603, at 
the age of 27. 

BADESLADE, Thomas, a landscape artist, 
made many drawings of the country-seats of the 
English nobility and gentry, which were published 
in various county histories between 1719 and 

BADIALE, Albssandko, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Bologna in 1623. He was a disciple of 
Flaminio Torre, and painted several pictures for 
the churches and public edifices at Bologna. He 
was accidentally shot at Bologna in 1668. He 
etched several plates in a slight, free style, from 
the designs of himself and others. He marked his 
prints with the annexed monogram. We \\\ 
have the following prints by him ; Xjl^ 

The Virgin Mary seated, with the Infant Jesus on her 
lap, between St. Philip Neri and St. Anthony of 
Padua ; after Flaminio Torre. 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

Christ taken down from the Cross ; after the same. 

Madonna with Child, who holds a cross and an apple — 
half-length— «/?«?• Carlo Cignani. 





BADILE, Giovanni, a painter of Verona, flour- 
ished in the first half of the 15th century. A 
signed altar-piece by him of the ' Madonna and 
Saints,' in seven compartments, is in the Verona 
Gallery. Records of him exist from 1418 to 1433. 

BADILE, Giovanni Antonio, the great-grand- 
son of Giovanni Badile, was born at Verona in 
1480. He was, according to Lanzi, the first of the 
Veronese painters who divested himself entirely of 
the Gothic manner that prevailed before him, and 
was superior to his contemporaries in the expression 
of his heads and the delicacy of his colouring. He 
was the first teacher of his nephew, Paolo Vero- 
nese. His pictures of the ' Raising of Lazarus,' in 
the Verona Gallery, and ' The Virgin and Infant 
in the Clouds, with several Saints,'_ so highly 
praised by Ridolfi, are worthy of the in- /T=^ 
structor of Paolo Veronese and Zelotti. /^Z^ 
Badile died in 1660. 

BADOUX, RoBBET DE, a native of Brussels, was 
a marine painter and engraver who flourished in 
the first half of the 17th century. He engraved 
some plates for the 'Academic de I'Bpee,' pub- 
lished in 1628. 

BAECK, Elias, of Augsburg, called 'Helden- 
muth,' who was born in 1679, was a painter and 
engraver. He worked for some time in Rome, 
then in Laybach, but finally returned to Augsburg, 
where he died in 1747. His chief works — both 
in painting and engraving — were portraits and 
landscapes. His engravings are sometimes marked 
JS. J3. a. H. (Elias Baeok, alias Heldenmuth). See 
Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

BAECK, Johann Geoeq, an engraver of Augs- 
burg, worked from about 1700 to 1729. He 
engraved portraits, of which a great part are men- 
tioned by Heineken. Amongst these are ' George 
I.' of England and ' Louis XIV.' of France. His 
mark is J. B. or B. fe. 

BAEHR, Johann Kael, who was bom at Riga 
in 1801, studied under Matthaei in Dresden, and 
completed his art education by a sojourn in Italy. 
He finally settled at Dresden, and in 1840 was 
made a Professor at the Academy of Fine Art. He 
died there in 1869. Baebr produced, besides many 
portraits, numerous historical works of merit. He 
was also the author of several literary productions. 
The following are some of his best paintings; 

Virgil and Dante. 

Tlie Anabaptists in Miinster {UtJwgraphed hy Hanfstdngl, 

and hy Teichgrdher). 
Iwan the Crael, of Russia, warned of his death by a 

iFinnish Magician {signed and dated 1850) ; in the 

Dresden Galiery. 
Christ and St. Thomas (at Kiev). 
Christ on the Cross (at Zsckopau), 
Portrait of Julius Mosen (liihoffraphed hy SanfstdngV). 

BAEN, J. DE, (or Baan). See De Baan. 

BAENER, Johann Alexandee, a German en- 
graver, flourished about the year 1670. Among 
other plates he engraved an emblematical subject, 
representing a man kneeling at the feet of another 
man, with a book before him ; and a hand, holding 
a sword, is striking from the clouds at the latter. 
It is executed with the graver in a coarse, heavy 

BAERSTRAET. See Beeestkaaten. 

BAESTEN, Maeia, whose maiden name was 
Ommeganck, painted landscapes and cattle. She 
was a member of the Academy at Antwerp in 1784. 

BAGELAAR, Ernst Willem Jan, who was born 
at Eindhoven, in Holland, in 177.'5, first entered the 


army, but early acquired a liking for the fine arts, 
and instructed himself in that of etching. He 
acquired further knowledge by travelHiig through 
Germany, and by a stay in Paris. Giving up 
soldiering, he retired to his property at Zon, near 
Eindhoven, where he died in 1837. _ His etchings, 
which are numerous, are executed in imitation of 
drawings. Many of them are landscapes from his 
own designs. The style of Jan Luyken had a 
special charm for him, and he possessed a con- 
siderable collection of his drawings. The follow- 
ing will show the variety of his subjects : 

Euth and Boaz ; after LuyTcen. 

Paniel in prayer ; after the same. 

The sleeping Jew ; after Rembrandt. 

Portrait of J. ~W. Pieneman ; after J. W. Fieneman. 

Portrait of the poet Jaxius Secundns; after J. van 

View of Arnheim ; after Schelflumt. 
Sea-piece ; after Van Goijen. 
Storm at Sea ; after L. Bdkhuisen. 
A set of six plates of Cows ; after A. Oidjp (one of liis 

best works). 
Two Cows; after A. van de Velde. 
A Sheep ; ajter Berchem, 
A Sheep; after Dvjardin 

BAGER, Johann Daniel, who was bom at Wies- 
baden in 1734, was a fruit and flower painter. He 
worked some time at Frankfort, where he died in 
1815. Two works by him are in the Stadel GaUery 
in that city. 

BAGLIONI, Cesabe. This artist was bom at 
Bologna, about the middle of the 16th century ; he 
was the son of an obscure painter, Giovanni Pietro 
Baglioni, from whom he received some instruc- 
tion ; but he had the advantage of being a con- 
temporary of the Carracci, and without being a 
disciple of that school, he adopted their style, 
particularly in landscapes, in which he excelled. 
He was a universal artist, and painted history, 
animals, and fruit ; in all of which, according to 
Malvasia, he possessed considerable merit. The 
principal works of this master were at Bologna 
and Parma, where they were highly esteemed. In 
the church of the Madonna del Soccorso, at Bologna, 
he painted a picture of the 'Ascension,' and in San 
Giorgio an altar-piece, representing ' St Anthony 
and St. Martha.' Baglioni was employed in 1610 
by the Duke Ranuccio Farnese at Parma to paint 
the church or oratory of Stirone, dedicated to tjie 
Blessed Virgin, which was destroyed in 1812. 

BAGLIONI, Cavaliere Giovanni, called 'II 
Sordo del Barozzo,' was born at Rome in 1571, 
and was a scholar of Francesco Morelli. He 
was employed in many considerable works at 
Rome during the pontificates of Clement VIII. 
and Paul V. In the church of Santa Maria dell' 
Orto, he painted a chapel in fresco, where- he repre- 
sented the ' Life of the Virgin ; ' and in San Niccol6 
in Careers there is a fine picture of the 'Last 
Supper.' But his most esteemed performance, 
which now no longer exists, was his picture in St. 
Peter's, of that Saint raising Tabitha from the 
dead, for which he was made a Knight of the 
Order of Christ by Pope Paul V. He also painted 
a ' St. Stephen,' in the cathedral of Perugia, and a 
' St. Catharine,' for the cathedral of Loretto. He 
died at Rome in 1644. He was the author of the 
' Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects,' 
who flourished at Rome, from the Pontificate of 
Gregory XIII. until that of Urban VIII., from 
1673 to 1642. 
BAGNACAVALLO. See Eamenghi. 




BAILEY, JoHNj designed and engraved the 
illustrations to Hutchinson's ' Histories of Northum- 
berland and of Durham,' published between 1778 
and 1784. He was afterwards the author of various 
works on agriculture. 

BAILLEUL, P. This artist was a native of 
France, and resided in Paris about the year 1722, 
where he engraved some of the plates which were 
published at that time, representing the ceremonies 
of the coronation of Louis XV. 

BAILLIE, Alexander, an engraver, who flour- 
ished about the year 1764, was born in Scotland. 
After practising his art in Rome, he returned to 
Edinburgh, where he engraved a few portraits, and 
where, it is believed, he died. He engraved a 
plate representing a half-length figure of 'St. 
Cecilia,' and a 'Holy Family,' both after Francesco 
Fernandi, and both signed with his name, and the 
above date. 

BAILLIE, Captain William. This well-known 
amateur acquired a distinguished reputation as an 
engraver. He was born at Killbride, County Car- 
low, in 1723, and passed the early part of his life 
in the army, from which he retired with the rank 
of captain of cavalry. On leaving the service 
Captain Baillie devoted his life entirely to the 
arts, and was for many years considered one of 
the most enlightened connoisseurs of his time. 
By this gentleman we have several plates en- 
graved in various manners ; but his most admired 
productions are those he executed in the style of 
Rembrandt, and his charming copies after the 
etchings of that master. He died in 1810. The 
works of Captain Baillie were published in two 
folio volumes by Boydell, in 1792, entitled, ' A 
Series of 225 Prints and Etchings after Rembrandt, 
Tenters, G. Dou, Poussin, and others.' 
The following are the principal, some of 
which are signed with his name, and 
some marked with the cipher annexed : 

Bust of an Old Man, with a gold chain, in the manner 

of Eembrandt ; two plates, one without the chain. 
Landscape, with a Stone Bridge, engraved 1764 ; scarce. 
Landscape, with the Ituins of a Temple, in the manner 

of Claude. 
Portrait of Sofonisba Anguisciola, painter; ipsapinxit. 
Landscape by Moonlight ; after A. Cuijp. 
The Pen-cntter ; after Gerard Sou. 
The Lacemaker ; after the same. 
The Mother of Gerard Dou ; after the same. 
Susannah justified by Daniel ; after G. van den Eokhout. 
Four Officers, two playing at Trictrac; after Marc 

Geerarts; scarce. 
Portrait of Frans Hals, painter; F. Mais, pinxii. 
Portrait of Frans van Mieris ; after himself. 
Peasants saying Grace ; after Molenaer. 
A Musical Assembly ; after the same. 
James, Duke of Monmouth, on Horseback ; after Net- 

Interior of a Dutch Chamber, with Feasants regaling ; 

after A. Ostade. 1767. 
Interior, with Feasants smoking and drinking; after 

the same. 1765. ' 
Christ healing the Sick, commonly called the Hundred 

Guilder Print. The original plate by Eembrandt, pur- 
chased by Captain Baillie in Holland, and admirably 

retouched by him. 
Beggars at the Door of a. House ; after JRembrandfs 

The Gold-weigher; finely copied from Eembrandt' a 

The Three Trees ; Landscape ; after the same. 
An Old Man, half-length, with a Beard and Cap; W. 

Jiaillie, 1765 ; after Eembrandt. 
The Entombment of Christ ; two plates varied. 
An Old Man, half-length, with a large Beard, and his 

Hands in the Sleeve of his Bobe. 1771> 

Landscape, with a Horse lying ; after Eembrandt' sprint. 

The Holy Family ; after Schidone. 

Interior of a village Alehouse ; after Teniers ; fine. 

A Student sitting before a Table with a Globe and 

Books ; after Terborcti. 
William, Prince of Orange, oa Horseback; after the 

Soldiers quarrelling at Dice ; after Valentin. 
Three Searpieces ; after drawings by W. van de Velde. 

BAILLIU, B. and P. de. See De Baillhi. 
BAILLU, Ernest Joseph, (or Baillt,) who 
was born at Lille in 1753, studied first in the 
Academy of Ghent, then at Antwerp, and sub- 
sequently at Paris. In 1777 he returned to Ghent, 
and was soon afterwards commissioned by the 
magistracy to paint four portraits of the Emperor 
Leopold 11. He also painted a portrait of Maria 
Christina of Austria. In 1792 he gained a, prize, 
at the Academy of Ghent, for his ' CEdipus Colo- 
neus,' and in 1811 he received a gold medal for 
an ' Allegory on the Birth of the King of Rome ; ' 
both of these works he presented to the Society 
of Art and Literature of Ghent. He died in that 
city in 1823. Baillu devoted himself much to 
decorative paintings on walls, wainscots, and fur- 
niture, in which branch of art he became very 

BAILLY, David, a Dutch painter, was born at 
Leyden in 1584. After studying under Kornelis van 
der Voort, he went in 1608 to Italy. He returned 
to the Netherlands in 1613, having spent some 
time in Germany, both going and coming. He 
painted especially portraits, and sometimes per- 
spective views of the interiors of churches and 
temples. His portraits were esteemed for their 
correct likeness, and they were extremely well 
coloured. His church pieces are much admired, 
though inferior to those of Steenwijck, or Pieter 
Neefs. He was still living in 1661. His works are 
rarely seen in public galleries. A portrait of Maria 
van Reigersbergen, wife of the celebrated jurist 
Hugo de Groot, — signed and dated 1624, — is in the 
Museum at Amsterdam, and a Male Portrait in the 
Gottingen Gallery. He was also an engraver. 

BAILLY, Jacques, a miniature painter and en- 
graver, was bom at Gragay (Cher) in 1629. He 
etched twelve spirited plates, representing bouquets 
of flowers. His works are very rare. He died in 
Paris in 1679. 

BAILLY, Nicolas, son of Jacques, was born 
in Paris in 1659, and died there in 1736. He 
painted landscapes, and etched in a neat manner 
17 views of the environs of Paris. 

BAILY, J., an English engraver, practised about 
the year 1790. He engraved some plates after 
Morland, as well as landscapes and views in aqua- 
tint, in a clever manner. 

BAJARDO, Giovanni Battista. This painter 
was bom at Genoa about the year 1620. It is un- 
certain under whom he studied, but he was a 
reputable painter of history, and executed several 
works for the churches and public edifices at 
Genoa, which are deservedly esteemed, particularly 
those in the portico of San Pietro di Banchi, and 
the monastery of Sant' Agostino. His compositions 
are judicious, his design graceful, and he possessed 
great facility of execution. According to Soprani, 
he fell a victim to the plague, which visited Genoa 
in 1657, when he was in the prime of life. 

BAKANEL. See Backeeeel. 

BAKER, J., practised as a portrait painter at 
the beginning of the 18th century. He was one 
of Sir Godfrey Kneller's assistants, and is best 




known by his portrait of Sir Stephen Fox, engraved 
by Jean Simon. 

BAKER, John, an English painter of flowers 
and fruit, born about the year 1736, was, m early 
life, a painter pf heraldic ornaments for coaches. 
Afterwards he distinguished himself by the 
brilliancy of his groups of flowers which he con- 
tributed to the Spring Gardens Exhibition. He 
was one of the original members of the Royal 
Academy of Arts, where there is a very creditable 
specimen of his talents. He died in 1771. 

BAKER, Joseph, in early life an actor, is men- 
tioned by Walpole as a painter of the mtenors of 
churches, both in England and Rome. A view of 
the interior of St. Paul's, by him, was sold at the 
sale of Sir Mark Sykes's pictures. He also drew 
York and Lincoln Cathedrals, which were engraved 
by Vivares. He died in 1770. 

BAKER, Thomas, who was born in 1809, and died 
in 1869, practised the art of landscape painting in 
water-colour in the midland counties with success. 
He was known as ' Baker of Leamington.' 
BAKEREEL. See Backeebel. 
BAKHUISKN, Ludolf, (or Baokhutsen,) a 
celebrated painter of sea-pieces and storms, was 
born at Emden in 1631. He was of a respectable 
family, and was intended by his parents for a 
mercantile profession, for which purpose he was 
sent to Amsterdam. His time was, however, 
more occupied in the society of the painters 
than in the counting-house, and he at length 
became a pupil of Aldert van Everdingen, under 
whom he remained some time. He also studied, it 
is said, under Hendrik Dubbels. His fondness for 
shipping led him frequently to the port of Am- 
sterdam, where he made drawings of the different 
vessels. These designs were admirably executed 
with a pen, and were eagerly sought after by 
collectors, who purchased them at liberal prices. 
This encouragement induced him to attempt the 
representation of similar objects in painting. His 
first essays were successful, and his pictures were 
universally admired. He frequently exposed him- 
self to the greatest danger, by hiring fishermen to 
take him out to sea in the most tempestuous 
weather, to observe the forms of the waves mount- 
ing to the clouds and dashing against the rocks ; 
and he has represented these scenes with a fidelity 
that intimidates the beholder. His pictures of 
these subjects, though rather dark in colouring, 
have raised his reputation even higher than that of 
W. van de Velde, although the works of the latter, 
which represent the sea when calm, or in light 
breezes, are much superior. In the latter part of 
his life Bakhuisen amused himself with etching 
some plates of views of shipping on the Y, a small 
arm of the sea upon which Amsterdam is situated. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1708. Bakhuisen is said 
to have given instruction in drawing to Peter the 
Great, when that monarch was studying at Saar- 
dam. He also practised the art of engraving, and 
has left several plates of marine views, and his 
own portrait. His most celebrated works are : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Embarkation of Jan de Witt on the 
Dutch fleet. 
„ „ Port of Amsterdam {signed and dated 

„ „ The Zuider Zee {signed and dated 

1694), and others. 
Antwerp. Museum. A "War Vessel. 
Berlin. Museum. Stormy Sea on a Eocky Coast. 

„ „ Slightly Troubled Sea {signed and 

dated 1664). 


Copenhagen. Gallery. Sea-pieces and others. 

Dulwioh. Gallery. Boats in a storm {signed and dated 

Florence. Pitti Pal. .A Eough Sea {dated 1669). 
Frankfort. Stddel. View on the Y {signed and dated 

Hague. Gallery. Disembarkation of 'William III. of 
England in I'Oranje-Polder {signed 
and dated 1692). 
„ Entrance of a Dutch port {signed 
and dated 1693). 
jj „ View of the Building Yard of the 

East India Company at Amsterdam 
{signed and dated 1696). 
London. Nat. Gall. Dutch Shipping {signed and dated 
J, „ Four other Sea-pieces. 

Paris. Zouvre. Dutch Squadron {dated 1675). 

, „ Four other Sea-pieces. 

'Petexsbig. Hermitage. A Shipwreck. 

^j „ Portrait of an old man. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Port of Amsterdam. ] 674. 
„ „ Xwo others. 

BAKHUISEN, Ltjdolf, nephew of the great 
marine painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1717, 
and died at Rotterdam in 1782. He was a good 
painter of horses and battles. His brother Geehit 
Bakhuisen practised portrait-painting as an ama- 
teur. He lived at Rotterdam, where he had a tile- 
kiln, to which after his death his brother LudoM 

BAKKARELL. See Backekeel. 

BAKKBR. See Baokee. 

BAL, CoENELis Joseph, who was bom in Ant- 
werp in 1820, first studied in the Academy there, 
and then went to Paris and formed his style under 
Achille Martinet. In 1848 he won the 'Prix de 
Rome,' and improved his knowledge of art by 
travelling in Italy and elsewhere. On his return 
to Paris he made himself famous by his engrav- 
ing of Gallait's ' Temptation of St. Anthony.' On 
the death of Corr, in 1862, he was summoned to 
Antwerp to fill the vacant post of professor to the 
Academy. He died in his native city in 1867. 
Bal received several medals and the order of 
Leopold. The following are his principal engrav- 
ings : 

La Belle Jardiniere ; after Raphael 1856. 
The Montenegrin Woman and her Child ; after Czermak. 
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after Gallait. 
Jeanne la f olle ; after the same. 

The Abdication of Charles V. ; after the same (left 
unflnished at Bal's death). 

BALASSI, Maeio, was bom at Florence in 1604 
He was first a scholar of Jacopo Ligozzi, and 
after the death of that master he studied success- 
ively under Rosselli and Domenico Passignano, 
the latter of whom he assisted in the works he 
executed at Rome by order of Pope Urban VIII. 
He copied the ' Transfiguration ' of Raphael, for 
Prince Taddeo Barberini, who placed it in the 
Capuchin church at Rome, where it is still to be 
seen. He afterwards accompanied Prince Ottavio 
Piccolomini to Vienna, where he painted the por- 
trait of the Emperor Ferdinand III. On his return 
to Italy he worked in Prato, Florence, and Empoli. 
For the church of Sant' Agostino, in Prato, he 
painted a picture of ' St. Nicholas of Tolentino,' 
one of his best works, and for the Society of the 
Stigmata in Florence, one of 'St. Francis.' In the 
Vienna Gallery there is a ' Madonna and Child' by 
him, painted on stone. He died in 1667. 

BALDACCI, Maria Maddalena, a Florentine 
painter, was born at Florence in 1718, and died 
there in 1782. She executed miniatures and crayon 




drawings, and among them the portrait of the 
Empress Maria Theresa. She is represented in 
the Uffizi Gallery by her own portrait. 

BALDASSAEE, who worked at Forli about the 
year 1354, is supposed to be the author of a frag- 
ment of a series of paintings which once adorned 
the church Di Schiavonia. That which remains is 
now in the gymnasium at Forli, and represents 
the Adoration of the Magi and figures of SS. Peter, 
Jerome, Paul, Augustin, three figures, and two 
horses, "creations that do more honour to the 
school of Giotto in these parts than any assigned to 
the artists named by Vasari" (Crowe and Caval- 
caselle, ' A New History of Painting in Italy,' 3 
vols. 1864). 

BALDI, Antonio, a designer and engraver, born 
at La Cava, in the kingdom of Naples, about 1692. 
After having passed some time under Solimena he 
became a pupil of Magliar, to learn the art of en- 
graving. He chiefly resided at Naples, and was 
living, Zani says, as late as 1768. He engraved 
several plates, principally from his own designs, 
amongst which are : 

The Emperor Charles VI. ; oval. 

Don Carlos, King of the Two Sicilies ; oval. 

Nicholas Cyrillus, physician ; after S. Cyrilliis, 

Maria Aurelia Caraccioli, a Kun ; oval. 

St. Ignatius Loyola ; oval ; Ant. Baldi ex Prototype. 

The Monk Raffaele Manca, with an Angel ; oval. 

The Communion of St. Mary of Egypt; A. Baldi, in. 

et so. 
St. Philip Neri in Heaven ; inscribed Cui nomen dedit, SjC. 
St. Emilius interceding for the Neapolitans; I)ivo 

Bmigdo in tdrres, ^e. 
St. Gregory, with the subjects of his Miracles, 1738; 

A'lit. Baldi, fee. 

BALDI, Lazzaho, was bom at Pistoja in 1624. 
He went to Rome when he was very young, and 
became a scholar of Pietro da Cortona. Under so 
able an instructor he became a very eminent artist, 
and painted several pictures for the churches and 
public edifices at Rome, which are particularly 
described by the Abate Titi. In the pontifical 
palace at Monte Cavallo there is a fine picture by 
this master, representing 'David and Goliath,' and 
in the church of St. Luke an altar-pieoe of the 
' Martyrdom of St. Lazarus.' He also worked in 
Camerino, Pistoja, and Perugia. He died at Rome 
in 1703. In the Vienna Gallery there is a picture 
by him of ' St. Martin, Bishop of Tours, raising 
a dead child,' which has been engraved by J. 
Axmann. As an engraver, Baldi is known by 
one single work, 'The Conversion of St. Paul,' 
marked Lazzerus. Baldus. Pistoriensis. invenit. et. 

BALDINI, Bacoio, a Florentine goldsmith and 
engraver, is a master of whom little is known. 
Vasari tells us that he engraved after the designs 
of Botticelli, and that he was a disciple of Maso 
Finiguerra, who is said to have been the inventor of 
engraving in Italy. Nothing has been ascertained 
for certain about Baldini's life, but it is supposed 
that he flourished from about 1460 to 1485. 
Almost all the writers on the subject agree that he 
worked in conjunction with Botticelli, but as their 
works are executed in the same manner, and bear 
neither name nor monogram, it is almost impossible 
to identify them. The following are some which 
are most frequently attributed to Baldini : 

Plates for the ' Monte Santo di Die' 1477. 

Nineteen Plates of Dante's Inferno, printed at Elorenoe 

by Nicoolo Lorenzo della Magna, in 1481. 
Twenty-four of the Prophets. 
Twelve of the Sibyls. 

Theseus and Ariadne. 

Designs for jeweller's ornaments. 

For an exhaustive list of works attributed to 
Baldini, and for a further account of the artist, 
see Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

BALDINI, Pietro Paolo. According to Titi, 
this artist was a native of Rome, and was a dis- 
ciple of Pietro da Cortona. He flourished in the 
middle of the 17th century. He painted historical 
subjects, and several of his works in the public 
edifices at Rome were deservedly admired ; among 
others, some pictures in the churches of San Nic- 
colo da Tolentino, and Santa Maria di Loretto ; but 
above all an altar-piece representing the ' Cruci- 
fixion,' in the church of Sant' Eustachio, finely 
composed, and designed with great care and cor- 

BALDINI, Fra TlBURZlo. This painter was a 
native of Bologna, and flourished in the early part 
of the 17th century. It is not said under whom he 
studied ; but, according to Averoldo, he painted 
several pictures for the churches and convents at 
Brescia, of which the most esteemed were the 
' Marriage of the Virgin with St. Joseph,' and the 
' Murder of the Innocents ' in Santa Maria delle 
Grazie. His taste reminds us of the excellent 
school that flourished in 1500 — magnificence in the 
architecture, great copiousness of composition, and 
clearness of efEect ; but in the general tone of his 
tints, and of his flesh, somewhat of a coldness. 

BALDINI, VlTTORIo, an Italian printer and 
engraver on wood, who, according to Papillon, 
flourished about the year 1600. He died at 
Perrara in 1618. Among other prints he executed 
the woodcuts for an ediuon of Tasso's ' Aminta,' 
printed by him at Ferrara in 1599. He worked for 
the Duke of Ferrara, and for Clement VIII. 

BALDOVINETTI, Alesso, was bom in 1427 at 
Florence. It is not known who was his master ; 
Baldinucoi supposes that it was Uccelli. About 
his youth Vasari tells us only that Alesso, being 
desirous to study painting, left the business of 
his father, who was a rich merchant. In 1448 
he was registered as a member of the Guild of 
St. Luke: "Alesso di Baldovinetti, dipintore." 
There exists a curious note-book by the artist 
(Ricordi di A. Baldovinetti, published by G. 
Picrotti, Lucca, 1868), wherein some of his lost 
pictures are mentioned. Albertini states ('Me- 
moriale,' 1510) that Baldovinetti assisted Andrea 
del Castagno and Domenico Veneziano in the 
fresco paintings of Santa Maria Nuova, executed 
between the years 1439 and 1453, but these have 
been destroyed. The following are the only pic- 
tures by the master which are still preserved : In the 
cloisters of Santa Annunziata he painted between 
the years 1460 and 1462 a large fresco representing 
' The Nativity, with the Adoration of the Shep- 
herds.' In 1465 he furnished the design for the 
portrait of Dante, painted by Domenico del 
Michelino in the duomo of Florence. In 1470 he 
executed the large panel picture representing the 
' Holy Trinity adored by the Saints Gualberto and 
Benedict,' for the altar of the church Santa Trinity, 
now in the Academy at Florence. His wall paint- 
ings, in the choir of the same church, representing 
scenes from the Old Testament, with many portraits 
of distinguished contemporaries, were completed in 
1496, and valued in the following year by the four 
great artists — Gozzoli, Perugino, Filippino Lippi, 
and Rosselli — at 1000 golden florins. These were, 
however, destroyed in 17C0. 





Baldovinetti is certainly one of the most promi- 
nent masters of the early Florentine Renaissance. 
His chief merits lie in the utmost care with which 
he studied and represented natural objects. The 
extensive views of his landscape backgrounds are 
especially remarkable. But the types of his figures, 
which are taken from common life, are rather un- 
pleasing, nor is his colour harmonious. He aimed 
at finding out a new method of mixing colours. 
Vasari remarks that " he sketched his compositions 
in fresco, but finished them in secco, tempering his 
colours with a, yolk of egg mingled with a liquid 
varnish, prepared over the fire." Owing to this 
peculiar process, which did not prove to be success- 
ful, his pictures are now in a very bad state of 
preservation. With better success, Baldovinetti 
devoted himself to works in mosaic, which art had 
not been practised at Florence for about a century. 
In 1481 he restored the mosaic picture over the por- 
trait of San Miniate, at Monte, and in the following 
years (1482—1490) the more important mosaics in 
the tribuna and in the cupola of the Baptistery. 
He died at Florence, in the hospital San Paolo, 
August 29, 1499, and was buried in San Lorenzo. 
His best scholar was Domenico Ghirlandajo, who 
afterwards painted his portrait near that of him- 
self in the frescoes of Santa Maria Novella 
(Vasari). Of his works may be mentioned : 

Florence. Uffzi. Enthroned Virgin and Child, with 

Six Saints. 
„ S. Niccolb. The Virgin with St. Thomas 
Paris. Duchatel Coll. Virgin and Child (douhtful). 

J. P. E. 
BALDBBY, John, an English painter, was born 
about 1750. He exliibited' portraits at the Royal 
Academy in 1793 and 1794, and also engraved a 
few portraits, and other subjects, in the chalk style. 
He was living in 1821. Among his best works 
are the following : 

Diana and her Nymphs; after Carlo Maratti. 
The Benevolent Physician ; after H. Penny. 
Lady Bawdon ; after JReynolas, 
The Finding of Moses ; after Salvator Mosa. 

BALDRIGHI, GitrsEPPB, was bom at Stradella, 
near Pavia, in 1723. After studying for some 
years at Florence, under Vincenzo Meucci, and 
under Boucher in Paris, he was iQvited to the Court 
of Parma, where he was appointed principal 
painter to the Duke. He established a school of 
painting in tliat city, which was much frequented. 
One of his most admired productions is a picture 
of ' Prometheus released,' in the Academy at 
Parma ; he likewise painted a large picture of the 
family of Philip, Duke of Pai-ma, which gained 
him great reputation. His own portrait is in the 
UfBzi, Florence. He died at Parma in 1802. 

BALDUCCI, Giovanni, called Gosci, after his 
maternal uncle, was, according to Baldinucci, a 
native of Florence ; he was a scholar of Battista 
Naldini. In 1590 he went to Rome, where he 
was taken under the protection of the Cardinal 
Alessandro de' Medici, afterwards Leo XL, by 
whom he was employed for some time. Several 
of his works are at Rome and Florence. Towards 
the latter end of his life he visited Naples, where 
he paintsd some pictures for the churches. He 
died there in 1603. 

BALDUCCI, Matted, a native of Fontignano, 
was an associate of Bazzi between 1517 and 1523. 
In the following year he painted an altar-piece in 


San Francesco di Plan, Castagniano, in Montami- 
ata ; and works by him are seen in the Academy 
and churches of Siena. 

BALDDNG, Hans, (called Geien or Gkun, pro- 
bably from his habit of dressing in green,) was 
bom at Gmiind, in Swabia, between 1475 and 
1480; he was a painter, engraver, and designer. 
Nothing is known of the youth of this important 
artist, and two altar-pieces in the Convent of 
Lichtenthal, near Baden-Baden, dated 1496, are 
thought to be his earliest productions. His first 
authenticated painting, dated 1501, representing 
the portrait of the Emperor Maximilian, is in the 
artist's sketch-book, in the Cabinet of Engravings 
at Carlsruhe. In 1507 he painted the altar-piece 
of St. Sebastian, lately in the possession of Herr Fr. 
Lippmann at Vienna, and probably also the ' Adora- 
tion of the Magi,' in the Museum at Berlin. It is 
very likely that Baldung worked at Nuremberg 
from 1507 to 1509, where he executed under the 
direction of Albrecht Diirer the copies of ' Adam 
and Eve,' after that master, in the Pitti Palace at 
Florence, and also probably assisted him in other 
works. In 1509 he removed to Strashurg and 
bought the freedom of that city; in 1511 he 
went to Freiburg, but according to the chroniclers 
stayed subsequently several times at Strashurg, 
where he died in 1545. He was highly esteemed 
by the nobility of his time, especially by the 
Margrave of Baden, and stood on very intimate 
terms with Albrecht Diirer. Baldung, though he 
properly belongs to the Swabian school, exhibits 
in his works a close imitation of the style of 
Albrecht Diirer. He shows himself as a most 
energetic and characteristic artist ; he possessed 
an uncommon gift of invention and expression, 
but was too capricious and impetuous, and often 
too fantastic. His colouring is excellent, except 
in his latest productions, where the carnations are 
too pale. He painted religious, mythological, and 
allegorical subjects, and portraits. It may here be 
added that, if the altar-pieces at Lichtenthal are 
really by him, there is sufficient proof that he 
studied first the works of Schongauer. His chef- 
d'ceuwe is an altar-piece in the cathedral of Frei- 
burg; it bears the inscription, Joannes Baldung 
Cog. Geien Gamundianus Deo et Vietoti Anspi- 
ciBUS Faciebat 1516. It represents the 'Corona- 
tion of the Virgin,' on the inside wings_ the 
' Twelve Apostles,' and on the outside the ' Visita- 
tion,' the ' Flight into Egypt,' the ' Nativity,' and 
an 'Annunciation,' which Kugler attributes to 
another painter. 

His designs, distinguished for their excellent 
conception and a surety of hand reminding us of 
Albrecht Durer, are to be met with at Basle, Berlm, 
Carlsruhe, Copenhagen, Florence, Hanover, Lon- 
don, Paris, and Vienna. 

As an engraver on copper, he was not very 
excellent in the technicalities. The following plates 
may be mentioned : 

The Man of Sorrows. 

The Groom, considered his best ; an etching. 
An old man kissing a girl; an etching. 1507. 
St. Sebastian. 

He was, however, more excellent as a draughts- 
man on wood. What has been said of his paintings 
may be repeated for his woodcuts ; at present we 
know over 60 prints by him, which are _ 

signed with very different monograms, TQ W 
sometimes the two letters H. B. united. 




Adam and Eve m Paradise, Eve plucking the Apple. 
The Fall of Adam ; inscribed on a Tablet, lapsus hu- 

mani generis. 1511. 
Christ and the Twelve Apostles: in thirteen plates. 

The Crucifixion, with St. John supporting the Virgin, 

and Maiy Magdalene behind the Cross; fine, in 

Illustrations to the Ten Commandments. 1516, 1518, 

St. Sebastian, two difiereut prints. 1S12 and 1514. 
A Pieta. 

Silenus drunk, near a Tun : Cupid insulting him. 
An Incantation ; in chiaroscuro. 1510. 
Two Landscapes ; very scarce. 
The Groom and the Sorceress ; no date. 
Four small upright prints^Solomon's Idolatry ; Samson 

and Dehlah; David and Bathsheba; and Aristotle 

and Phryne. Very fine. 
The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. Catharine ; 

half length. 1512. 
Three prints of Horses in a Forest ; marked Baldung. 

The Fates. 

The two mothers, called the ' Kinderaue.' 
Phyllis riding ou Aristotle. 
The portrait of Luther. 
The portrait of the Margrave of Baden. 
The Virgin with St. Anna, both holding the Infant 

Christ; St. Joseph, St. Joachim behind. A large 


The following are his most important paintings : 

AschaSenburg. Gall. 

Basle. Gallery. 


Darmstadt. Gallery. 
Frankfort. Stddel. 
Freiburg. Cathedral. 
Munich. Pinakothek. 


Vienna. Belvedere. 

„ Lippniann Coll. 

Christ on the Cross. 

Joseph and Mary adoring the 

Infant Christ. 
Death and a "Woman. 
Christ on the Cross. 152 — •. 
Christ on the Cross. 1512. 
Triptych. Adoration of the Kings 

— SS. George and Maurice on 

the wings, and two FemaleSaints 

on the exterior. 1507. 
Stoning of St. Stephen. 1522. 
' Noli me tangere.' 1539. 
Heavenly and Earthly Love. 
Altar-piece [see text). 
Portrait of the Margrave Phihpp 

Christoph of Baden. 1514. 
Portrait of the Margrave Philipp 

Christoph of Baden. 1515. 
Portrait of a young man. 1515. 
His own Portrait — clothed in 


"W. B. S. 

BALECHOU, Jean Joseph, a celebrated French 
engraver, was \>oni at Aries in 1719. He studied 
first under a seal-engraver named Michel at Avig- 
non, and afterwards under Lepicie in Paris: 
but, compelled to leave that city, he returned 
to Avignon, where he died in 1764. Balechou 
carried the handling of the graver, as far as 
regards the clearness of the strokes and brilliancy 
of colour, to a higher perfection than any engraver 
of his country that had practised the art before 
him; and if neatness of execution were the greatest 
merit of a print, few artists would have an equal 
claim to distinction ; but if the excellence of the 
plate consists in expressing the effect produced by 
the painter, and in giving the true design, and, if it 
may be so expressed, the colour of the picture, 
his pretensions to superiority will be considerably 
diminished. Notwithstanding the fascination of 
his execution, it will be admitted by every judicious 
observer, that his flesh appears like marble, and 
that the deficiency of his drawing incapacitates 
him from giving the true effect of the style and 
character of the painter. This defect, it must be 
confessed, is most discernible in his historical 

prints and some of his portraits ; and it will be 
admitted that his three plates after Vernet are 
among the fine productions of the graver, although 
they have been so much surpassed by our own 
incomparable Woollett. The following are his most 
important works : 

Anne Charlotte Gauthier de Loiserolle, wife of J. A. 

Aved ; after Aved. 
■William IV., Stadtholder of the Netherlands, when 

Prince of Orange ; after the same. 
Prosper Jolyot de CraiUon ; 1751 ; after the same; fine. 
Jacques Gabriel GriUot, abbe de Pontigny; after 

Charles EoUin; 1741; after G. Coypel. 

Charles Poree, Jesuit ; after Neilson. 

Heinrich, Count von Briihl ; after L. Silvestre ; fine ; but 

it must be before the name of Balechou, as it was ill 

Jean de Jullienne, director of the Gobelins ; 1752 ; 

after Be Troy. 
Madame Julhenne ; after the same. 
Don Philip, Infanta of Spain, Duke of Parma; after 

Charles Antoine Coypel, painter ; after himself. 
Augustus in.. King of Poland; after Eigaud; the first 

impressions are very fiaie ; the plate was afterwards 

much altered 

Infancy and Youth ; two fancy subjects ; after B. Bardon. 
Five fancy subjects ; after JE. Jeaurat. 
La Terra ; the Portrait of Louisa Elizabeth of France, 

Duchess of Parma ; after liattier. 
St. Genevieve ; after C. van Loo. 
The Storm; after Vernet {his chef-d'eeimre). 
The Cahu ; after the same. 
The Bathers ; after the same. 

BALEN, Hendbik van, who was born at Ant- 
werp in 1660, is said to have been instructed in 
the art by Adam van Noort, who was also the 
master of Rubens. On leaving that school he went 
to Italy, where he studied some years, and painted 
several pictures which were greatly admired. On 
his return to Antwerp he was so much employed 
that it was with difficulty he could satisfy the 
demand for his works. In 1593 he was received 
into the guild of St. Luke, and in 1609-10 he was 
dean. Balen was one of the first of the Flemish 
painters who succeeded in that purity of colour, 
which was afterwards carried to such perfection 
by Rubens and Van Dyck. In his cabinet pictures 
he generally made choice of very agreeable sub- 
jects, and frequently represented the ' Metamor- 
phoses ' of Ovid, in which the landscapes were 
generally painted by Jan Brueghel, and the animals 
sometimes by Snyders, who with Van Dyck was a 
pupil of Van Balen. His works of this description 
were extremely popular, and were placed in the 
choicest collections. He did not, however, confine 
himself to works of a small size, but painted, with 
less success however, many pictures for the churches. 
In the cathedral at Antwerp there is a fine altar- 
piece by him. The centre piece represents the 
'Virgin Mary, with the Infant Saviour and St. John ; ' 
and on the two folding-doors, which are now in 
the Antwerp Gallery, a 'Choir of Angels.' For 
another altar in the same church he painted ' St. 
John preaching in the Wilderness,' also now in the 
Antwerp Gallery; well composed and admirably 
coloured. Van Balen occasionally painted figures 
in the landscape pictures of other artists. He died 
at Antwerp in 1638 (or 1632). The following are 
some of the best of his works ; they frequently 
occur in the continental galleries, but he is un- 
represented in the National Gallery : 













Paris. Louvre. 
Petersburg. Hermitage. 



Amsterdam. Gallery. The Gods in Olympus. 
Berlin. Museum. The "Workshop of Vulcan {part by 

Jan Brueghel). 

Plenty {part by Brueghel). 

Diana and Actseon. [by Actaeon. 

Diana and her Nymphs surprised 

Bacchus and Ariadne (signed). 

And others. 

Offering to Cybele. 

A Bacchanalian Scene. 

The Feast of the Gods. 

And many others. 

A Feast of the Gods {signed). 

Repose of the Holy Family. 

Virgin and Child. 

Jupiter and Europa. 

BALEN, Jan van, the son of Hendrik van 
Balen, vpas bom in 1611 at Antwerp, and was 
instructed by his father. After having made con- 
siderable progress in the art, his father sent him to 
Italy, where he had himself derived such advan- 
tage from his studies. He remained some years 
at Rome, and appears to have attached himself to 
the works of Francesco Albani, whose charming 
style he has imitated without attending to his 
purity of design. He returned to Antwerp in 
1642, and died there in 1654. In all his pictures 
the style of his country is discernible ; although 
his colouring is excellent, and his pencil free and 
flowing, we have always to regret his want of 
taste, and his inattention to the correctness of his 
outline. He generally painted cabinet pictures, 
although he sometimes attempted larger works, in 
which he was less successful. He had two brothers, 
Gaspar (born in 1615) and Hendrik (born in 1620), 
who were both painters. 

BALEN, Matthijs van, who was born at Dor- 
drecht in 1684, studied under Arnold Houbraken, 
and became a good painter of historical pieces, 
landscapes, and portraits ; he also practised the art 
of engraving. He died in his birthplace at a great 
age. The Darmstadt Gallery has a ' Holy Family ' 
in a Landscape attributed to him. 

BALESTRA, Antonio, was born at Verona in 
1666. He was first instructed in art by Giovanni 
Zeffio ; but at the age of 21 he went to Venice, 
and became the scholar of Antonio Belluoci. 
After passing a. short time with this master he 
went to Bologna, where he remained some time, 
and afterwards visited Rome, where Carlo Maratti 
was then in high reputation. He attended the 
school of that master, gained the prize at the Aca- 
demy of St. Luke in 1694, and was employed to 
paint several pictures for the churches and palaces 
at Rome. He subsequently resided for many years 
in Venice, and died at Verona in 1740. His style 
bears some resemblance to that of Carlo Maratti, 
and his works are held in considerable estima- 
tion. He selected the best points from every 
school, uniting a variety of beauties in a style of 
his own, which partakes least of all of the Vene- 
tian, though be taught in Venice. He promoted 
the reputation of that school both by his lectures 
and example, and left two excellent imitators in 
his scholars Mariotti and Nogari. In the church of 
Sant' Ignazio at Bologna is a picture by this master, 
representing the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. Igna- 
tius and St. Stanislaus.' The churches of Venice, 
Vicenza, Padua, Brescia, and Verona also possess 
examples of his art. Balestra etched some plates 
from his own designs in a free, masterly style : 
these are sometimes marked with his name at 
length, sometimes with a cipher. We have by 
him, amongst others : 


The Sketch of the Head of a Warrior. 

Two Soldiers ; one standing, and the other sitting down. 

The Virgin Mary and Infant in the Clouds, with St. 

John; macrihei Mater pulchne dileetionis; Antonivs 

Balestra in. et fecit. 1702. 
A Vignette, with two figures holding a Flag Verona 

Portrait of an Architect, Michele Sanmicheli. 

BALESTRA, Giovanni, an Italian engraver, 
was born at Bassano in 1771. He studied under 
Count Remondini, and in 1803 went to Rome, 
where he remained, until his death, which took 
place in 1843. Among his principal works are : 

Christ and the Samaritan "Woman at the Fountain; 
after Garofalo. 
' The Penitent Magdalene ; after Murillo. 
Madonna del Eosario ; after Sassof errata. 
Aurora and Cephalus; after Anmbale Carracei. 

BALLENBERGER, Karl, who was born at 
Ansbach in 1800, went to Munich as a stone-mason 
in 1831, and was ther^ instructed in drawing by Fr. 
Hoffstadt, and subsequently attended the Academy. 
He established himself at Frankfort, and became 
very intimate with Philipp Veit. He followed the 
romantic style of his time, and studied with the 
greatest perseverance old German art. Though 
his productions are carefully executed, his design 
and colouring are hard ; he nevertheless, at onetime, 
found great encouragement. His chief paintings 
are the portraits of Conrad I., Louis of Bavaria, 
and Rupert of the Palatinate, in the Imperial Hall 
of the ' Romer,' at Frankfort. He etched a plate 
of the arms of artists. His ' Death of St. Meinrad ' 
has been engraved by H. Niisser. He died at 
Frankfort in 1860. 

BALLI, SiMONE, a Florentine artist, who, not 
being duly appreciated in his own city, went to 
Genoa and practised under Pazzi. His style 
resembled that of Andrea del Sarto. In addition to 
his pictures for the churches of Genoa, he painted 
small works on copper. He flourished about 1600, 
and died at an advanced age. 

BALLINI, Camillo, the son of Gaspare Ballini, 
a goldsmith at Venice, and pupil of Jacopo Palma 
' the younger,' flourished, according to Zani, about 
the latter part of the 16th century : he was both a 
painter and engraver. Lanzi says he painted in 
Venice in the age of the Mannerists ; Zani speaks 
of him as an artist of talent, and Lodovico 
Dolce commends him for his application and 
assiduity. Numerous decorative paintings by him 
are in the Doge's Palace at Venice. 

BALLIU, P. DE, (or Bailliu). See De Bailliu. 

BALMER, George, the son of a house-painter, 
was born at North Shields about 1806. He was 
brought up as a decorator, and, while young, 
practised at Edinburgh.. Always fond of art, he 
found time to contribute to an Exhibition of 
Water-Colour Drawings in Newcastle in 1831, and 
afterwards assisted "W. J. Carmichael in painting 
the large picture, ' The Heroic Exploit of Admiral 
CoUingwood at Trafalgar,' now in the Trinity 
House at Newcastle. Soon afterwards, Balmer 
visited Holland, the Rhine, and Switzerland, stay- 
ing on his way home at Paris, where he studied 
the masterpieces in the Louvre. On his return he 
settled in London, and for several years exhibited 
pictures of the Rhine, coast scenes, and moon- 
light views. In 1836 he suggested to the Findens 
the publication of a work on ' The Ports and Har- 
bours of Great Britain,' for which he made many 
drawings. Soon after he came into property, and 
in 1842 retired to Ravensworth, in the county of 




Durham, where he died in the prime of life in 
April, 1846. 

BALTARD, Louis Pierre, a French architect, 
painter, and engraver, was born in Paris in 1764. 
He occupied himself jBrst with landscape-painting 
and engraving, and was instructed in architecture 
by Peyre the younger. In 1786 he went to Rome 
for two years ; in 1792 he designed decorations for 
the Opera at Paris. Soon after he was made pro- 
fessor of architecture at the Polytechnic School, 
and subsequently at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 
He died in Paris in 1846. He executed part of 
the plates for the ' Expedition to Egypt,' and 
began to publish at the same time, in 1803, his 
'Paris et ses Monumens.' The work was left 
unfinished with the 25th part on account of the 
great expense. His plates are without exception 
of a light and pure design : among them ma}' be 
mentioned : 

Becueil de vues des Monuments antiques et des prinoi- 

pales fabriques de Rome ; a series of 48 plates in 

aquartint. 1806. 
Athlnseum ou Galerie fran(;aise des productions de tous 

les Arts ; in 14 parts. 
La Colonne de la place Venddme ; 145 plates. 1810. 
Essai methodique sur la decoration des edifices et des 

monuments ; 120 plates. 1817. 
Portrait of N. Poussin. 

BALTHAZAR, Domenico. See De Costere. 

BALTHAZAR, Pieter, (Baltens, or Balten). 
See Db Costere. 

BALTZ, J. Georges, a painter of miniature 
portraits and landscapes on porcelain, was born at 
Strasburg in 1760. Many of his works are found 
in cabinets in France, Russia, and England. He 
died in Paris in 1831. 

BALZAC, Charles Louis, who was born in 
Paris in 1752, was an architect and architectural 
draughtsman. He made many drawings for De- 
non's work on the monuments of Egypt, and also 
views of various interesting Egyptian buildings, 
such as the interior of the Mosque at Hassan, the 
Palace of Karnac, the Great Sphinx, and the 
Pyramids of Ghizeh. Balzac died in Paris in 1820. 

BALZER, JoHANN, a Bohemian engraver, was 
born at Kukus, in Bohemia, in 1738. He was 
first instructed in art by Rentz, but subsequently 
completed his education by travelling through 
Germany, where he visited several Academies. 
He chiefly resided at Prague, where he produced 
numerous works, mostly portraits, and died in 
1799. He left two sons, Anton (1771—1807) and 
JoHANN Karl (1771 — 1805), who were both en- 
gravers. In conjunction with his brothers Mathias 
and GeegoBj and his son Johann Karl, Johann 
Balzer engraved and published several works ; 
amongst which are the following : 

A set of fifty plates of Landscapes and Architectural 
subjects, with Biblical, mythological, and genre groups 
of figures} after Norbert Grand, an old German 

Two sets of Portraits of Artists and Learned Men of 
Bohemia and Moravia; published at Prague in the 
years 1773 to 1782 (ninety plates). 

BAMBERGER, Friedrich, bom at Wiirzburg 
in 1814, was instructed in the principles of paint-- 
ing at Dresden ; he afterwards visited the Aca- 
demy at Berlin, and became a disciple of Krause, 
a painter of marine pictures, and at Cassel of 
Primavesi, an engraver. In 1832 he went to Munich, 
where he became acquainted with Rottmann, whom 
he subsequently followed in his landscapes, with 
great success. In 1845 he visited Normandy and 

England, and one of his best paintings of that 
time is the ' Battle-field of Hastings, with a view of 
the sea.' After a first journey to Spain he settled 
at Munich, but subsequently paid two more visits 
to that country. Many of his Spanish landscapes 
were highly esteemed, but he did not possess the 
capacity of producing great effects. Several of his 
productions are in the Pinakothek and the Sohack 
Gallery at Munich. His drawings and studies are 
of especial merit. He died at Neunenhain, near 
Soden, in the Taunus, in 1873. 

BAMBINI, GlAcoMO, who was born at Ferrara 
about 1682, was a scholar of Domenico Mona. 
There are many of the works of this master in 
the churches and other public edificeg in his native 
city. In the cathedral are three altar-pieces, re- 
presenting the 'Annunciation,' the 'Flight into 
Egypt,' and the ' Conversion of St. Paul.' He 
died at Ferrara in 1622 or 1628. A particular 
account of his other works will be found in 
Barotti's Pitture e Scolture di Ferrara. 

BAMBINI, Cavaliere Niccol6, was born at Venice 
in 1651, and first studied under Giulio Mazzoni at 
Venice ; but afterwards went to Rome, where he 
became a scholar of Carlo Maratti. According to 
Lanzi, he was a correct and elegant designer, with 
a chaste and simple principle of colouring. Some- 
times he designed in the taste of the Roman school, 
as in his picture of San Stefano, painted soon after 
his return from Rome ; and at others he imitated 
the style of Liberi, particularly in the beauty of 
his female heads. He died at Venice in 1736. He 
had two sons, Giovanni and Stefano Bambini, 
who painted in the style of their father. 

BAMBOCCIO. See Laak, Pieter van. 

BAMESBIER, Johann, a portrait painter, of 
German extraction, was a disciple of Lambert 
Lombardus. He was born in 1500, and died in 
1598, at Amsterdam. 

BAMPPYLDE, Coplbstone Warre, a well-known 
amateur, of Hestercombe, Somersetshire, was the 
only son of John Bampfylde, M. P. He was an 
honorary exhibitor of landscapes at the Academy 
towards the end of the 18th century, and a few of 
his works have been engraved by Vivares and 
others. He died in 1791. 

BANCHERO, Anqelo, was born in 1744 at 
Sestri, near Genoa, and went to Rome and studied 
painting under Pompeo Batoni. On his return he 
executed various pictures for the churches of 
Genoa. Especially noticed is a ' St. John in Prison,' 
painted for his native Sestri. Banchero died in 

BANCK, Van der. See Van dbk Banok. 

BANCKS, Charles, (or, as he usually wrote it. 
Banks,) was a Swiss by birth, but settled in 
England in 1746, while still young. He practised 
the art of miniature painting, and occasionally 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in the latter part 
of the 18th century. 

BANDIERA, Benedetto, was born at Perugia 
in 1567. From the resemblance of his works to 
those of Federigo Barocci, it is supposed he was 
a disciple of that master. He painted history, 
both in oil and in fresco, and his pictures were in 
considerable repute. He died in 1634. 

BANDINELLI, Bartolommeo, or Baccio, was 
born at Florence in 1493. He was a very dis- 
tinguished sculptor ; and if he was not so success- 
ful as a painter, he is yet entitled to our notice 
from the grandeur of his design, although he did 
not succeed equally well as a colourist. He was 





extremely jealous of the fame of Michelangelo, and 
was ambitious of excelling in both arts, in imita- 
tion of that great master. But it is seldom that 
human nature is endowed with the faculties of 
that illustrious artist, and it is probable that what- 
ever merit Bandinelli possessed as a painter, was 
deprived of the tribute to which it might be 
entitled, by being brought into the lists against so 
gigantic an adversary. His principal works, as a 
paiuter, were the ' Murder of the Innocents,' en- 
graved by Marco da Ravenna, and the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Laurence,' engraved by Marc-Antonio. He 
died at Florence in 1560. A series of Studies of 
Animals by Bandinelli is in the Louvre, Paris. 

BANKS, Qharles. See Banoks. 

BANNERMAN, Albxandee, was bom at Cam- 
bridge about the year 1730. He engraved several 
of the portraits for Walpole's 'Anecdotes of Paint- 
ers,' and some plates for Boydell's collection, 
among which are : 

Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's Dream; after Spagnoletto. 
The Death of St. Joseph ; after Velasquez. 

Children Dancing ; after Ze Nain. 

He was living at Cambridge in 1770, but the 
date of his death is unknown. 

BANNOIS, — . Strutt mentions this artist as 
the engraver of a portrait of Queen Elizabeth of 

BAPTIST, Jacob. This artist, a native of 
Deutekom, probably of French extraction, resided 
at Amsterdam about the year 1720. He engraved 
principally book-plates, the best known of which 
are the plates for the ' Histoire du Vieux et du 
Nouveau Testament,' from the designs of Goerte 
and others, published by Mortier at Amsterdam 
in 1700. They are executed in a very indifferent 

BAPTIST, Jan Caspar, a native of Antwerp, 
was a scholar of Thomas Willeborts. He visited 
England during the civil war, and was much em- 
ployed by General Lambert. After the Restora- 
tion he became an assistant to Sir Peter Lely, 
and afterwards to Sir Godfrey Kneller. He drew 
well, and excelled in making designs for tapestry. 
The portrait of Charles II. in the hall of the 
Painter-Stainers' Company, and that of the same 
king in the hall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
were painted by him. He died in London in 

BAPTISTS. See Monnoyer. 

BAQUOY, Jean Charles, the eldest son of Mau- 
rice Baquoy, was born in Paris in 1721. He en- 
graved book-plates after the designs of Eisen, 
Gravelot, Moreau, and others, among which are a 
Bet of vignettes for the French translation of 
'Ovid's Metamorphoses,' published by Basan, which 
are executed in a finished style, and a set of plates, 
after Oudry, for the Fables of La Fontaine. He 
also engraved after Boucher, "Watteau, J. Vemet, 
Wouwerman, and other masters. He died in 
Paris in 1777. 

BAQDOY, Maukioe, a French engraver, was 
born about 1680, and worked in Paris from 1710 
to 1740. He engraved a set of vignettes for the 
'Histoire de France, ''by Gabriel Daniel, from the 
designs of Boucher. We have also by him a set 
of landscapes and views, and a naval combat, after 
P. D. Martin, the younger — one of the four large 
battle-pieces after Martin engraved at Paris for 
the Czar, Peter the Great. Baquoy died in 1 747. 

BAQUOY, Pierre Charles, the son and pupil of 
Jean Charles Baquoy, was born in Paris in 1759. 


Besides a variety of book-plates, which are very 
neatly executed, we have by him several prints 
after French painters. He died in Paris in 1829. 
For complete lists of the works of the Baquoys 
see Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

BAR, Bonaventueb db, who was horn in 1700, 
painted after the manner of Watteau. He became 
a member of the Academy at Paris in September 
1728, or December 1727, and his reception painting, 
a ' F^te ChampStre,' is in the Louvre. He died in 

BAR, Jacques Charles, a French engraver, 
published, in 1778, a series of coloured plates of 
the costumes of military and religious orders. 
Besides these he executed several prints, after C. 
N. Cochin, fils, and one called ' The Village Bath,' 
in colours, in conjunction with Chatelet. He 
worked in Paris from 1777 to 1800. 

BARA, Jan, (or Barra,) a Dutch engraver, who 
was born about the year 1574. He came to Eng- 
land, and died in London in 1634. Meyer's 
'Kiinstler-Lexikon' erroneously confounds him 
with Johannes de la Baer, a Flemish glass-painter, 
who was still living in 1669-60. He appears to 
have imitated the style of the Sadelers, but he by 
no means arrived at their excellence. His works 
bear date from 1598 to 1632, and among them are 
the following : 

Christian II., Elector of Saxony. 1605. 
Prince Maurice of Nassau-Orange. 
Joachim, Count of Ortenburg. 
Louis, Duke of Richmond and Leimox ; after Pa-ul 

van Somer. 1624. 
Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I. 


Bust of a Man, with two allegorical figures representing 

Painting and Science. 1622. 
A Landscape, with Phaeton demanding of Apollo the 

conduct of his Car ; Jo. JBarrafe. 
The History of Tobit ; after Zapponi ; four plates. 
Christ and the Apostles ; after Joost van Wingen ; 

thirteen plates. 
Christ and His Disciples going to Emmausj Joann 

A Landscape, with Susannah and the Elders; Joh. 

Barra fecit Londini, 1627. 
The Five Senses ; Johannes Barra fe.; five plates. 
The Seasons ; after P. Steevens ; four plates. 
Susannah and the Elders ; after H. Goltzius. 1598. 
Bathsheba bathing ; after G. Weyer. 
The Parable of the Sower ; after A. Bloemaert. 
Herodias, with the Head of St. John the Baptist ; after 

Johann von Aachen. 
Twelve plates of Grotesque Ornaments ; after Nicasius 

Bousseel, marked Johan: Barra: sculp. Londinij. 


BARABBINO, Simonb, was bom at Polcevera, 
near Genoa, about the year 1585, and was a dis- 
tinguished scholar of Bernardo Castello. His 
extraordinary talent alarmed the jealousy of his 
instructor to such a degree that he expelled him 
from his Academy. He soon afterwards painted a 
picture of ' St. Diego,' for the Nunziata del Guae- 
tato, which Soprani considered equal in merit to 
the work of Castello. Not meeting with the en- 
coui ngement he merited at Genoa, he established 
himself at Milan, where he received the tribute 
due to his ability, which his fellow-citizens had 
denied him. One of the finest works of this 
painter is the ■' Dead Christ with the Virgin, St 
Michael, and St. Andrew,' in the church of San 
Girolamo at Milan. Lanzi says be quitted his 
profession and turned to merchandise, in which 




he did not succeed, and that he died in prison. 
He must have been quite old when he died, as Zani 
says he was living in 1664. 

BAEABB, — , a French architect and engraver, 
a native of Rouen, flourished about the year 1730 
at Paris and Versailles. He engraved prints of 
architectural subjects, and was one of the first to 
work in aquatint. 

BARATTA, Antonio, (or Babatti,) an Italian 
designer and engraver, was bom at Florence about 
the year 1727. He engraved several plates for a 
volume of prints from pictures in the collection of 
the Marquis Gerini, published at Florence in 1759. 
He also engraved, among other portraits, that of 
the painter Giovanni Bettini Cignaroli, after Delia 

BARBALONGA, Antonio, a member of the 
noble family of the Alberti, is often confused 
with Antonio Ricci. He was born at Messina 
in 1600, and was there instructed in painting by 
Sim one Comand6. He went lo Rome, where he 
became a disciple of Domenichino, whose style 
he imitated with great skill. He executed a great 
number of paintings for churches, his chief work 
being tlie ' Conversion of St. Paul,' in the convent 
church of St. Anna at Messina ; others are to be 
met with at Rome, Palermo, and Madrid. He died 
at Messina in 1649. 

BARBALONGA, Antonio. See Ricci, Antonio. 

BARBALONGA, Juan db. See Veemeijen. 

BAKBAHELLI, Giobgio, (or Baebabella) — 
commonly called, from his handsome stature, 
GioBGioNE — was born about 1476, near Castelf ranco 
(probably at the village of Vedelago), where he 
spent the early years of his life. His father, per- 
ceiving his inclination for art, placed him under 
the tuition of Giovanni Bellini, at Venice, where 
Titian soon after became his fellow- student. Gior- 
gione was one of the first of the Venetian painters 
who broke through the timid and constrained style 
to which art had been confined, and introduced a 
freedom of outline, a boldness of handling, and a 
vigorous effect of chiaroscuro, which were before 
unknown. Rich and harmonious in his colouring, 
dignified in his characters, broad and simple in 
his arrangement of light and shadow, he was the 
first that practised the admirable blending of his 
tints, which fonns so great a part of the beauty 
of Venetian colouring. He began by painting 
Scriptural subjects, but, before he left Bellini, he 
turned his attention toward genre painting and por- 
traiture. He was the first amongst the Venetians 
to give — after the manner of Bellini — prominence 
to landscapes ; and into them he introduced strange 
allegories, fables, and legends. His pictures be- 
came the admiration of Titian, who, if he did not 
actually study in the atelier of his former fellow- 
pupil, was influenced by his style, and became for 
a time an ardent disciple. On leaving Bellini, 
Giorgione — after paying a visit to Castelfranco, 
which town he occasionally visited during his life 
— settled in Venice, where he was much patronized 
and fully employed. His was a genius that was 
early developed, and there is scarcely an artist 
who enjoyed such fame as Giorgione did during 
the course of his short life. Even in his youth 
he was employed to paint the portraits of such 
famous personages as the Doges Agostino Barba- 
rigo and Leonardo Loredano, Queen Catarina Cor- 
naro of Cyprus, and Gonzalvo of Cordova. His 
easel -works are unfortunately very scarce, and 
this is perhaps to be acooimted for by the par- 

tiality he displayed for fresco decorations. In 
Castelfranco there are portions of frescoes attri- 
buted — with more or less coiTectness — to him ; but 
it was at Venice that he chiefly laboured in that 
branch of art, though but little now remains, and 
even in Vasari's time some of his work was fast 
disappearing. He painted, amongst others, frescoes 
on the Soranzo Palace, and on his own house, in 
the Campo di San Silvestro ; but most famous of 
all were the frescoes he executed, in 1506 — 1507, 
on the fa9ade of the Fondaco de' Tedeschi (or 
Mart of the Germans), facing the Grand Canal, 
and although Carpaccio, Lazzaro Bastiani, and 
Vittore di Matteo valued it at no less than 150 
ducats, Giorgione was much disgusted because 
Titian's work on another side of the building was 
preferred to his. Giorgione's frescoes represented 
on the upper part single individuals, and below 
trophies, men on. horseback, &c., but all that re- 
mains of them now are the head, torso, and arms 
of a female figure, which even at the close of the 
18th century were in a much damaged condition. 
Giorgione died in 1511 at Venice, Vasari says, of 
the plague. His remains were taken, in 1638, to 
Castelfranco, and buried in the church of San 

When the shortness of his life is taken into 
account, it is not to be wondered at that but few 
works by him are now known ; and, moreover, 
few artists have had more pictures wrongly 
assigned to them than Giorgione. Amongst the 
number of painters whose works have been given / 
him, may be mentioned, Sebastiano del Piombo ; '' 
Palma ; Cariani and Lotto of Bergamo ; Pelle- / 
grino and other painters of the Friulian school ; and' 
Romanino, Moretto, Savoldo, Calisto da Lodi, and 
others of Brescia ; Bonif azio, Andrea Sohiavone, 
and others. 

Of the works that are universally agreed to be 
by him we may notice the following : 

Oastelfrango. Church, 

Florence. Pitti Fed. 

Tirgin and Child between St. 
Francis and St. Liberale {paint- 
ed about 1504: the St. Zwerale 
is supposed to ie a portrait of 
Matteo, a son of Tuzio Costanza, 
for whom the picture was exe- 
cuted). There is an old copy of 
this work at Stafford House. 

A Concert (considered one of his 
best works) ; a copy is in the 
Talazz^Doria, Rome. 

Judgment of Solomon. 

Miracle of the Little Moses. 

„ Vffin.. 

Kingston-Lacy "mar | j^^gment of Solomon {unfinished). 

Adoration of the Kings, 

A Knight in Armour {supposed to 
he the original study for the figure 
of St. Ziberale at Castelfranco). 

Birth of Christ. 

Christ bearing the Cross. 

Three Astrologers. 

Leigh Court {near \ 
Bristol). j 

London. Jf/'at. Gallery. 

„ Beaumont Col. 
"Vicenza. CasaLoschi. 
Vieima. Belvedere. 

Amorigst those works which tradition commonly 
ascribes to Giorgione, but of which the authen- 
ticity is doubted by numerous critics, we may 
notice the following : 


Dresden. Gallery. Meeting of Jacob and Eachel {at- 

tributei to Giovanni d^ Busi). 

London. N'at. Gallery. Death of Peter Martyr {said to he 
by a later Venetian or Ferrarese 

Madrid. Museum, 

David with the head of Goliath. 





Paris. Louwe. Concert (doubted iy Crowe and 

„ „ Holy Family. 

Venice. Manfrini Gal. The Horoscope. 

For further information concerning Giorgione, 
Bee Crowe and Cavalcaselle' s 'History of Painting 
in North Italy,' and Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.' 

BARBARINI, Feanz, an Austrian artist of 
Italian origin, was bom at Znaim in 1804. He 
excelled as a painter of landscapes and as an en- 
graver. He studied at Vienna, under Jos. Kem- 
pel, a sculptor, but devoted himself afterwards to 
landscape painting, in oil and water-colour, in 
which branch he improved himself by visiting 
Salzburg, the Tyrol, and Switzerland. He died 
at Vienna in 1873. Among his etchings may be 
mentioned : 

A Mountainous Region in Austria. 

The Country-house. 

On the Road to Schonbrnnn. 1827. 

The Must Waggon, 1827 ; after J. A. Klein. 

The Saddled Horse ; after the same. 

The Country of the Bernese Oberlaud; after Ville- 

A series of 17 landscapes ; after Rothmuller. 

BARBARJ, Jacopo de', called also Jacob Walch, 
and the ' Master of the Caduceus,' was bom at Ve- 
nice about 1450, and was working at the beginning 
of the 16th century. The history of this master 
has long been a matter of dispute among critics. It 
now seems satisfactorily established that Barbarj 
and Walch, who were formerly considered as two 
difEerent artists, were really the names of the same 
master, who was simply called Walch (that is, a 
foreigner), in Germany, because of his Italian birth. 
The evidence for this birth rests chiefly on a state- 
ment made by Diirer in a MS. preface to his 
' Book of Human Proportions,' preserved in the 
British Museum. He speaks in this of " a man 
named Jacobus, born at Venice, a delightful 
painter," who showed him, when he was quite 
young, a figure of a man and a woman, drawn to 
scale, which greatly delighted him, and " moved 
him to try to arrive at like results." When Diirer 
went to Venice in 1606 he mentions in one of his 
letters that Jacopo was not there, and indeed it 
is generally believed that in this year he accom- 
panied Count Philip of Burgundy to the Nether- 
lands, stopping on *he way at Nuremberg. M. 
Emile Galiohon, who was the first to throw light 
on the history of this master, supposes that he 
first went to Nuremberg at this date ; but an earlier 
residence there of some length is more probable, 
considering that Walch is mentioned by Neudorfier, 
the historian of the Nuremberg artists, as belong- 
ing to that town. He says also that Hans von 
Kulmbach was his pupil. M. Ch. Ephrussi, in his 
recent monograph on Barbarj, considers that he 
resided in Nuremberg between the years 1494 and 
1500, and even an earlier date may well be sur- 
mised. But some time before 1500 Barbarj must 
have been back in Venice, for at that date he 
executed an immense plan or bird's-eye view of 
tliat city, which was engraved on wood, and pub- 
lished by Anton Kolb, the head of the German 
merchants settled in Venice. After his journey to 
the Netherlands we lose sight of him, until his 
name appears in 1510 in the accounts of Margaret, 
Regent of the Netherlands. He is here called 
" Valet de ohambre and Court-painter " to this 
princess, and it is recorded that a sum of seventy- 


six livres and six deniers was paid to him in 
order that he might buy a velvet doublet and a 
robe lined with lamb's-skin. In 1511, also, a 
yearly pension was accorded to him " in considera- 
tion of his good, agreeable, and continual service," 
he being then "weak and old, and receiving no 
other wage." Before 1516 we know he must have 
died,- for in that year he is spoken of in an inven- 
tory of the Archduchess Margaret's effects as "the 
late Master Jacopo." In 1521, when Diirer was 
travelling in the Netherlands, he saw a sketch- 
book by Jacopo, which he admired so much that 
he asked the archduchess to give it him, but she 
said she had already promised it to Bemhard van 

Jacopo de' Barbarj' s art forms a point of contact 
between the German and Italian schools, but his 
style is more that of a Germanized Italian than of 
an Italianized German. His subjects are chiefly 
chosen from classical mythology, and a classic 
grace and feeling are seen in his treatment of them, 
though in execution his prints are often entirely 

Very few paintings can be with certainty 
ascribed to this master. One of these, a still-life 
subject, in the Augsburg Gallery, is signed Jac de 
barbarj. P. 1504, with the Caduceus underneath on 
a conspicuous folded sheet of paper, painted in one 
corner of the picture. There seems, therefore, no 
doubt about the authenticity of this work, though 
it is a strange subject (a pair of gauntlets, and a 
bird, hanging against a wooden wall) to find 
painted by such a master. Other paintings 
ascribed to him are : 

1. St. Jerome in his Cell ; also ascribed to Van Eyck and 
Memling, and by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Antonello 
da Messina. Now in the possession of Lord North- 

2. A bust figure of Christ, signed with the Caduceus and 
the initials I. A. D. B., in the Weimar Gallery. 

3. Virgin and Saints, formerly in the Galichon OoHec- 
tion, signed with the Caduceus and initials I. A. F. P. 

4. A Bust of Christ. \ 

5. St. Catharine. ^.AH in the Dresden Gallery. 

6. St. Barbara. j 

But it is as an engraver that Jacopo de' Barbarj 
is chiefly known. Bartsch enumerates 24 copper- 
plates by him, and more recent critics 29. These 


1. Apollo and Diana. 

2. Ariadne, also called Cleopatra. 

3. Mars and Venus. 

4. Venus. 

5. The great Sacrifice to Priapus. 

6. The little Sacrifice to Priapus. 

7. The Guardian Angel. 

8. Two Tritons caressing in the Sea. 

9. A Fury carried off by a Triton. 

10. Pegasus. 

11. Fauns. 

12. Family of Satyrs. 

13. A Victory. 

14. Victory and Fame, or Imperial Rome. 

15. The Two Doctors. 

16. The Two Centaurs. 

17. Peasant and Family, called by Bartsch 'Adam 

and Eve.' 

18. Three men bound (Les Supplicies). 


19. Adoration of the Magi. 

20. Jesus Christ. 

21. Sebastian bound, 

22. Holy Family, with St. Paul. 

23. Auothex Holy Family (small square plate). 




24. Holy Family, in an enclosed place. 

25. Judith and HolofemeB. 

26. St. Catharine. 

27. St. Jerome. 

28. Hagar. 

The supposition that Jacopo de' Bar- 
barj was also a sculptor has not been 
proved. He signed usually with the 
Caduceus. But it has been supposed 
that the plates signed with W. which 
are generally attributed to A¥olgemut 
are also bj' him. (See article by Dr. Anton 
Springer, Zeitschrift fUr Kunst, October 
1876.) Dr. Springer is of opinion that though he 
signed with the Caduceus in Italy, he adopted the 
W. in Germany in reference to his cognomen of 

See article by Emile Galichon, in ' Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts,' September 1873; 'Notes Bior 
graphiques sur Jacopo de Barbarj,' by Charles 
Ephrussi, 1876. M. M. H. 

BARBASAN, Louis, was, according to Florent 
le Comte, a monk of the Abbey of Premontre, 
and engraved the plan and perspective view of 
that monastery, from a design of P. Bayette, 
another ecclesiastic of the same order. 

BARBATELLI, Bernabdino, called Poccstti, 
also Beknaedino 'dalle Geotteschb,' 'dalle 
Facciate,' or ' DALLE MuSE,' was born at Flor- 
ence in 1542 or 1548. He was a scholar of 
Michele di Ridolfo Ghirlandajo. After quitting 
the school of Miohele, he went to Rome and 
studied the works of Raphael and other great 
masters there. He subsequently returned to his 
native place, not only a pleasing and graceful 
figurist, but rich and learned in his compositions ; 
hence he was enabled to adorn his historical sub- 
jects with beautiful landscapes, with sea views, 
with fi-uit and flowers, draperies and tapestries, 
which he imitated to admiration. He was more 
successful in fresco than in oil painting. Very 
few of his pictures on panel or canvas, but many 
of his frescoes, remain in Florence. He died at 
that city in 1612. The following are some of his 
best works : 

Florence. S. Annun- Scenes from the life of the 
ziata, founder of the Convent of the 

„ San Marco. Scenes from the life of St. An- 
thony (fresco). 
„ Pitti Palace. Life of Cosimo I. (decoration of 

great Saloon). 
„ Certosa. Life of St. Bruno. 

BARBAULT, Jean, a French painter and en- 
graver, who resided some time at Rome, was born 
about 1705. As a painter he is little known, but 
he etched a set of prints of ' Les plus beaux 
Monuments de Rome ancienne,' as well as two 
other series of archaeological plates. He likewise 
executed a few engravings, amongst which are 
the ' Martyrdom of St. Peter,' after Subleyras, and 
the 'Arrival of Columbus in America,' after Soli- 
mena. He died in Rome in 1765 or 1766. 

BARBE, Jan Baptista, a Flemish engraver, was 
bom at Antwerp in 1578. In 1595 he entered the 
studio of Philippe Galle, and in 1610 he was re- 
ceived as a master into the Guild of St. Luke. He 
soon afterwards went to Italy to improve himself 
in drawing, which may account for his being more 
correct in his design than many of his country- 
men. On his return to Antwerp he engraved 
several small and middle-sized plates, in a very 

neat manner, and in a style very similar to that 
of Wieriox. He died at Antwerp in 1649. Van 
Dyok painted a portrait of this artist, which is 
engraved by Bolsweit. 


The Annunciation ; inscribed i 

The Nativity; inscribed Peperit JUium. 

The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph arriving at Bethlehem ; 

inscribed £t reclinavit ewm, SjC. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus in a Garland 

of Flowers ; inscribed Beatus venter, Sjc. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; In diebus, Sjc. 
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus ; Et aperti aunt, S^c, 
The Crucifixion; Proheflli, JfC 
St. Ignatius Loyola kneeling before an Altar. 
Four Emblematical Subjects of the Christian Vu:tues. 


The-tEepose in Egypt ; St. Joseph presenting an Apple 

to the Infant ; after G. B. Paggi. 
The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus embracing St 

Joseph; after Rnbens. 
Twenty-four plates of the Life and Miracles of Father 

Gabriel Maria, founder of the Annunciades ; with his 

Portrait; aper A. van Diepenbeeck. 
The Virgin seated on a Throne, holding the Infant, with 

a Bird ; after Prans Franck, the elder. 

In Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon ' there is a list of 
148 of his engravings. 

BARBELLA, Giovanni Giacomo, was born at 
Cremona in 1690, and died in 1656. He is highly 
extolled by Pasta for his pictures in various 
churches at Bergamo ; and particularly for an 
altar-piece in San Lazzaro, representing the titular 
Saint, remarkable for its dignity of character and 
decision of hand. 

BARBER, Charles, was born in Birmingham, and 
early in life settled in Liverpool, where he became 
president of the Institute of Art in 1813. He 
afterwards exhibited landscapes with the Water- 
Colour Society. He was an occasional contributor 
to the Royal Academy, sending there — ' A View of 
Dovedale,' ' Evening after Rain,' and other land- 
scapes with figures. He died at Liverpool in 

BARBER, Chbistophee, who was born in 1736, 
was a celebrated miniature painter of his time, and 
was especially careful in the preparation of his 
colours. He was a member of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and an occasional contributor to 
the Royal Academy, where, in 1808, he exhibited 
a portrait of himself in his seventy-first year. He 
died in Marylebone in 1810. 

BARBER, John Vincent, the son of an artist at 
Birmingham, made drawings for ' Graphic Illustra- 
tions of Warwickshire,' which was published in 
1829, and exhibited landscapes at the Royal Aca- 
demy from 1812 to 1830. It is believed that he 
died at Rome soon after the latter year. 

BARBER, Thomas, born in Nottingham about 
1768, practised in the midland counties as a por- 
trait painter for many years. In 1819, while 
residing at Derby, he exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy a portrait of Mrs. Siddons. He died at 
Nottingham in 1843. 

BARBER-BEAUMONT, John Thomas. See 

BARBIANI, Andrea. This painter was bom 
at Ravenna about the year 1680, and is supposed 
by Lanzi to have studied under Cesare Pronti. 
He painted history in the style of that master, and 
there are several of his works in the churches and 
public edifices of Ravenna and Rimini, which 





prove him to have been an artist of considerable 
ability. Among his most esteemed productions 
is ' The Four Evangelists,' in the cupola of the 
cathedral of Ravenna. He died at that city in 

BARBIANI, Giovanni Battista, was a native of 
Ravenna, and flourished about the year 1636. It 
is not said under whom he studied, but from his 
manner it is probable that he was a scholar of 
Bartolommeo Cesi. His chief works in oil are 
his ' St. Andrea ' and ' St. Giuseppe,' in the church 
of the Franciscans, and his ' St. Peter ' in Sant' 
Agata, at Ravenna. His best work in fresco is 
the 'Assumption of the Virgin,' in the cupola of 
the chapel of the Madonna del Sudore, in the 
cathedral at Ravenna, which Lanzi says may be 
looked at with pleasure, even after seeing the 
cupola, by Guide, in that city. 

BARBIE, Jacques, (or Barbibe,) an en^aver, 
who worked in Paris from 1735 to 1779, and 
executed among others the following portraits: 

Louis XVI. when Dauphin ; bust in profile. 

Catharine II. of Russia ; after J. G. de Mailly. 

Joseph II. of Austria. 1777. 

Charles III. of Spain. 

General AVolfe ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

BARBIER, Jean Jacques FKANgois le. See 

BARBIER, Nicholas Alexandre, a French 
landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1789. He 
at first executed architectural subjects, but after- 
wards joined the realistic school of landscape 
painting, and exhibited a great number of works 
at the Paris Salons from 1824 to 1861. He died 
at Sceaux in 1864. 

BARBIER- WALBONNE, Jacques Luc, a French 
historical and portrait painter, was bom at Nismes 
in 1769. He was a pupil of David, and painted 
several subjects from Roman history, and others of 
a less heroic kind ; also portraits of the distin- 
guished generals of France. In the Gallery of 
Versailles are portraits, bj' him, of Moreau and 
Moncey. He died at Passy in 1860. 

BARBIEKE, Alessandro del. See Fei. 

BARBIERE, Domenioo del. See Del Barbibeb. 

BARBIERI, Francesco, called Da Legnano, was 
bom in a fortress called Legnano, in the vicinity 
of Brescia, in 1623. He was first intended for the 
profession of arms, but having evinced a great 
desire of becoming a painter, he was placed under 
Bernardino Gandini. He did not long continue 
with that master, but became a scholar of Pietro 
Ricchi, who had studied under Guido Reni. He 
painted history and landscapes, both in oil and 
in fresco ; and in all his works showed a ready 
invention, and a, wonderful facility of execution. 
He died at Verona, according to Orlandi, in 1698. 

BARBIERI, Giovanni Francesco, (called Guer- 
cino, squint-eyed,) was born of humble parentage 
at the small town of Cento, in the Ferrarese terri- 
tory, in 1591. Such was the early indication he 
gave of unoommon genius, that before he was 
ten years old he painted a figure of the Virgin 
on the fagade of his father's house, which would 
have been considered as a very extraordinary pro- 
duction, even at a more mature age. He was a 
pupil of Zagnoni at Cento, and of Cremonini 
and Gennari at Bologna. But he was, in a 
great measure, the disciple of his own genius and 
of nature. It is probable that he derived some 
advantage from studying the celebrated picture by 
Lodovico Carracci, at the Capuchins at Cento, of 


which he always spoke in terms of the highest 
admiration. The works of Guercino are distin- 
guished by three different styles, which he followed 
at different periods of his life. In his early works 
he seems to have been seduced into a violent and 
daring contrast of light and shadow, from the 
extraordinary estimation in which the pictures of 
Caravaggio were at that time held ; and though 
he is always superior to that master in design and 
dignity of character, his first productions were 
infected with the vitiated principles, and something 
of the vulgarity, of that painter. After having 
visited Bologna, Venice, and Ferrara, and having 
made a stay of some duration in Rome, he changed 
his manner ; and his second style is distinguished 
by a grander and more elevated taste of design, 
more amenity and sweetness in his colouring, a 
fine expression in his heads, and an extraordinary 
relief, without the aid of harsh and violent con- 
trast. Such is his masterpiece, the celebrated 
picture of ' St. Petronilla,' in the Gallery of the 
Capitol, Rome : it was formerly in a chapel in St. 
Peter's, and is now represented by a copy ia 
mosaic ; such are also the ' Aurora,' which he 
painted in fresco in the casino of the Villa 
Ludovisi, Rome, his ' St. William of Aquitaine 
assuming the garb of a Monk,' in the Bologna 
Gallery, his ' Dido ' in the Spada Gallery. Rome ; 
and to iiis best time also belong his 'Angels weep- 
ing over the Dead Body of Christ,' in the National 
Gallery, and a ' St. Peter raising Tabitha,' in the 
Pitti Palace. On the death of his patron, Gregory 
XV., in 1623, Guercino left Rome, and removed to 
Cento, where he spent nearly 20 3'ears. In 1626 
he undertook his immense work of the Duomo at 
Piacenza, where he has carried fresco-painting to 
the highest perfection, in the beauty and force of 
his colouring, the boldness of his foreshortening, 
and the magic of his relief. The cupola is divided 
into eight compartments, in the upper part of 
which he has represented the Prophets, accom- 
panied by Angels ; and in the lower, the Sibyls, 
and subjects from the New Testament. These 
admirable performances caused Guercino's powers 
to rank among those of the greatest artists of 
his time. In 1642, after the death of Guido, he 
went to Bologna. Towards the latter part of his 
life, the celebrity which that painter had acquired 
by the beauty and suavity of his style, induced 
Guercino once more to alter his manner. He en- 
deavoured to imitate the grace and elegance of 
Guide's forms, and the silvery sweetness of his 
colouring ; but in attempting delicacy, he fell into 
feebleness and languor, and lost sight of the energy 
and vigour by which his best works are distin- 
guished. Of the pictures painted in his last and 
weakest manner, are most of those in the churches 
at Bologna, the 'Prodigal Son,' in the Turin 
Gallery, the 'Hagar and Ishmael,' in the Milan 
Gallery, and several paintings in the Louvre, 
which gallery contains no less than twelve works 
by Guercino. He died at Bologna in 1666. He 
was the head of a numerous school of painters, 
amongst whom we may notice Benedetto Gennari 
the younger, and G. Bonatti. In Guercino's best 
works even, we look in vain for the graces of ideal 
beauty, or the purest choice of selected nature. 
His figures are distinguished neither by dignity of 
form nor nobleness of air ; and there is generally 
something to be wished for in the expression of 
his heads ; but he subdues us by the vigour of his 
colouring : he is brilliant in his lights, tender in. 




his demi-tintg, and always energetic in his shadows. 
His drawing is bold, and often correct, and his 
execution is of the most prompt and daring facility. 
Of this we have a convincing proof in the sur- 
prising number of important works he accom- 
plished. Malvasia gives a list of them, by which 
it appears that he painted 106 altar-pieces for 
churches, 144 large historical pictures, besides his 
great fresco works, and his numerous Madonnas, 
portraits, and landscapes, in private collections. 
The following is a list of several of his best 

Bologna. Finacoteca. 

Brussels. Museam. 

Dresden. GdUery. 

Dulwich. College. 
Florence. Pitii Pal. 

Genoa. Pal. BrigTwli, 

)» J) 

London. Nat. Gall. 

Madrid. Musenm. 

Milan. Prera. 

Modena. Gtill. Estense. 

Naples. Museum. 
Paris. Louvre. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. 

Eome. Borghese. 

)) 'J 

„ Capitol Mus. 

» M 

)J >» 

» )» 

u Corsini Pal. 

if »j 

,, V. Ludovisi 

„ Spada Pal. 

» Vatican. 

Vienna Belvedere. 

The Duke of Aquitaine receiving 

the cloak of St. Felix. 
St. BruDO and his companion in 

the desert. 
Apollo and Marsyas. 
And others. 
A young man placed under the 

protection of the Virgin by his 

patron Saints, Nicholas, Francis, 

and Joseph. 
Venus finding the body of Adonis. 

Cephalus and the body of Procris. 

And ten others. 

The Woman taken in Adultery. 
St. Sebastian. 
Madonna della Bondinella (with 

the Swallow). 
Six others. 
St. Peter. 
His own Portrait. 
The Samian Sibyl. 
Endymion Asleep. 
'.. Cleopatra. 
Death of Cato. 
Angels weeping over the dead 

body of Christ. 
Susannah at the Bath. 

Abraham dismissing Hagar. 
, Marriage of St. Catharine. 

Lot and his Daughters. 
Virgin and Child. 
The Eesurrectiou of Lazarus. 
Salome with the Head of John the 

The Patron Saints of Modena. 

His own Portrait. 
St. Cecilia. 
And others. 
St. Anne, the Virgin, and the 

Infant Christ. 
Assumption of the Virgin. 
Martyrdom of St. Catharine. 
St. Jerome. 
Mater Dolorosa. 
Eeturn of the Prodigal Son. 
The Persian Sibyl. 
St. Petronilla raised from the tomb. 
St. John the Baptist. 
Cleopatra and Octavius. 
Ecce Homo. 
Christ at the "VTell. 
Aurora driving away Night (fresco). 
Fame with Force and Virtue 

The Death of Dido. 
Incredulity of St. Thomas. 
St. Margaret of Cortona. 
Eeturn of the Prodigal Son. 

This laborious artist left an incredible number of 
admirable drawings, which are highly esteemed ; 
many of them were engraved by Bartolozzi. We 

have a few etchings by Guercino, executed with 
great freedom and spirit ; they are as follow : 

St. Anthony of Padua ; half-length ; Joan Fr. Cent 

St. John ; the same mark. 

St. Peter ; Joan F. Barbieri, f. 

St. Jerome, with a Crucifix ; the same marlc. 

Bust of a Man with a cap and a beard. 

Bust of a "Woman. 

Bust of a Man, in an Oriental costume. 

A life of Guercino, by J. A. Calvi, was pub- 
lished at Bologna in 1808. 

BARBIERI, Ldca. According to Malvasia, this 
painter was a native of Bologna, and a scholar of 
Alessandro Tiarini. He painted architectural views 
and landscapes, and, in conjunction with Francesco 
Carbone (who painted the figures), executed some 
extensive works for the palaces and public edifices 
at Bologna. He flourished at the end of the 16th 
and the beginning of the 17th century. He is not 
to be confused with Lodovico Babbieei, a painter 
of Bologna of the same period. 

BARBIERI, Paolo Antonio. This painter was 
the brother of Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called 
Guercino. He was born at Cento, a village near 
Bologna, in 1603. The subjects of his pictures 
are flowers, fruit, and game, but he particularly 
excelled in painting fish, which he represented 
with astonishing fidelity. He died in 1649. 

BARBOR, Lucius, a miniature painter, worked 
chiefly in enamel, and exhibited at the exhibitions 
in Spring Gardens, London. He died in 1767. 

BARBUDO, El. See Vermeijen. 

BARGA, Gavaliere Giambattista, .(or Baechi,) 
was a native of Mantua, but became a citizen of 
Verona. He flourished about 1650. He is men- 
tioned by Lanzi and Zani as an artist of greut 
ability. It is uncertain whether he was instructed 
by D. Feti, for his style was varied, but abounding 
with pictorial grace and beauty. 

BARCA, Vicente CALDERON db la. See 

BARCLAY, Hugh, born in London in 1797, 
practised as a miniature painter, and was likewise 
celebrated for his copies of the Italian Masters in 
the Louvre. He died in 1859. 

BARCO, Del. See Del Bahco. 

BARDIN, Jean, a French historical painter, 
born at Monthar in 1732, was a pupil of Lagrtoee, 
the elder ; and afterwards studied at Eome. He 
became a popular artist in France, and was ad- 
mitted into the Academy in 1779. He was made 
director of the art school at Orleans in 1788. His 
subjects are partly historical, partly poetical, and 
sometimes religious. He was the instructor, in 
the elements of art, of David and Regnault. He 
died at Orleans in 1809. * 

BARDON, Michel FEANgois d' ANDRE. See 

BARDUCCI, V. The name of this engraver is 
afiBxed to a portrait of Pascal Paoli, the Corsican 
General. It is dated 1768. 

BARDWELL, Thomas, was an English por- 
trait painter, who died about the year 1780. He 
painted some portraits of the principal characters 
of his time, and pubHshed, in 1756, ' The Practice 
of Painting and Perspective made easy.' 

BAREN, Jan Anton van dee. See Van dee 

BAREND van BRUSSEL. See Oelbt. 

BARENGER, Jambs, a nephew of William 
WooUett, the celebrated engraver, was born in 
1780 ; and was well known as a painter of race- 





horses, deer, dogs, and other animals. It is be- 
lieved that he died soon after 1831, the last year 
of his exhibiting at the Royal Academy. 

BARENTSEN, Diek, was born at Amsterdam, 
in 1634. He was the son of an artist of little 
celebrity (perhaps Barent de Dowe, called II 
Sordo), who taught him the rudiments of drawing. 
When twenty-one years of age he went to Italy 
and visited Venice, where he had the good fortune 
to be admitted into the school of Titian, who con- 
ceived for him a particular regard, and bestowed 
on him many marks of friendship. After passing 
seven years under that great master, he returned 
to Holland, and met with great success as a por- 
trait painter. The style he had acquired by a 
minute study of the works of Titian was peculiarly 
favourable to him in his portraits ; and in that 
branch of art he was reputed the ablest artist of 
his country at the time in which he lived. One of 
his principal historical works was an altar-piece, 
representing the ' Fall of Lucifer,' which he painted 
for the great church at Amsterdam. This picture 
was destroyed during the religious troubles of his 
country. He died at Amsterdam in 1592. A por- 
trait of the Duke of Alva by him is in the Gallery 
of that city. 

BARENTZEN, Emilius Ditlev, was born at 
Copenhagen in 1799. He first studied jurisprud- 
ence, and then spent five years in the West Indies. 
In 1821 he entered the Academy at Copenhagen, 
and studied under Eckersberg. In 1831 and 1832 
he visited Paris and Munich; but settling in his 
native city, be soon rose to great reputation as a 
portrait painter, and there executed no less than 
two thousand works. He died in 1868. 

BARGAS, A. F., a Flemish draughtsman and 
engraver, who lived at the beginning of the 18th 
century. He etched a set of six landscapes, from 
his own designs, and a set of four landscapes, 
after Pieter Bout, which are sometimes with ^ 

the name of Bargas, and sometimes with- ZX« 
out it. -J- •*- 

BARGONE, GiAcOMO, was a native of Genoa, 
and studied under Andrea and Ottavio Semini. 
He became one of the most promising artists of 
his country. His drawing was remarkably correct, 
his execution free and prompt, and the contour of 
his figures extremely graceful. The possession 
of such talents excited the jealousy of a contem- 
porary artist, Lazzaro Calvi, who, as Soprani 
relates, after inviting him to a repast, mixed a 
stupefying drug in a goblet of wine, from the 
efEects of which the unfortunate victim perished 
in the prime of life. He flourished in the 16th 
century. • 

BARKER, Benjamin, a brother of 'Barker of 
Bath,' was born in 1776, and became a landscape 
painter of some note. He exhibited both at the 
Royal Academy and at the Water-Colour Society, 
from 1800 to 1821, and occasionally at the British 
Institution. He died at Totnes in 1838. 

BARKER, Charles, was a native of Birming- 
ham, who during forty years, at the early part of 
the i9th century, resided at Liverpool, where he 
ranked high as a teacher of art. He was elected 
president of the Liverpool Academy, to which he 
was a regular contributor. He occasionally also 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in London ; his 
last works exhibited there were, in 1849, ' Evening 
after Rain,' ' A Luggage Train preparing to Shunt,' 
and ' The Dawn of Day, a Foraging-Party Return- 
ing.' H 3 died in 1854. 


BARKER, Henry Aston, who was bom at Glas- 
gow in 1774, assisted his father, Robert Barker, 
in his panoramas, and in time became known for 
those which he executed by himself. He worked 
at Constantinople, Paris, Palermo, Copenhagen, 
Malta, and Venice. He died at Bilton, near Bristol, 
in 1856, having retired from his profession as early 
as 1826. The ' Coronation Procession of George IV.' 
was his last work. 

BARKER, Robert, inventor and painter of 
Panoramic Views, was bom at Kelts, county 
Meath, in 1739. The first panorama he painted 
was a ' View of Edinburgh,' exhibited by him in 
that city in 1788, and in London in 1789. This 
picturesque mode of exhibiting on a large scale 
soon became popular ; and Views of London, 
Dublin, Athens, Lisbon, and other places, quickly 
followed, until Barker's Panoramas became cele- 
brated among the fashionable exhibitions of the 
day. He died at Lambeth in 1806, leaving two 
sons, who carried on similar exhibitions for many 
years in the house built in 1793 by their father in 
Leicester Square. 

BARKER, Samuel, was a cousin of John 
Vanderbank, by whom he was instructed in por- 
trait painting ; but having a talent for painting 
fruit and flowers, he imitated Jean Baptiste, and 
would probably have excelled in that branch of 
art, had he not died young, in 1727. 

BARKER, Thomas, (called ' Barker of Bath,') a 
painter of landscape and rural life, was born in the 
year 1769, near the village of Pontypool, in Mon- 
mouthshire. His father, the son of a barrister, 
having run through a considerable property, com- 
menced practice as an artist, but never attempted 
more than the portraits of horses. Young Barker 
early showed a remarkable genius for drawing 
figures and designing landscapes ; and on the re- 
moval of his family to Bath, the liberal encourage- 
ment of Mr. Spaokman, an opulent coach-builder 
of that city, afEorded him the means of following 
up the bent of his inclination. During the first 
four years he employed himself in copying the 
works of the old Dutch and Flemish masters, which 
he imitated very successfully. At the age of 
twenty-one he was sent to Rome, with ample funds 
to maintain his position there as a gentleman. 
While in that city he painted but little, contenting 
himself with storing his mind vsdth such knowledge 
as might be applied usefully hereafter. In drawing 
or painting he never took a lesson ; he was entirely 
self-taught. Barker was an occasional exhibitor at 
the Royal Academy and the British Institution for 
nearly half a century, during which period he sent 
nearly one hundred pictures. His numerous pro- 
ductions embraced almost the entire range of pic- 
torial subjects, and have the marks of true genius 
stamped upon them. Few pictures of the English 
school are more generally known and appreciated 
than 'The Woodman,' of which it appears two 
were painted, both of them from nature, and of 
life size : the first was sold to Mr. Macklin for 500 
guineas ; the second, which realized the same sum, 
became the property of Lord W. Paulett. In 1821 
he painted the ' Trial of Queen Caroline,' in which 
he introduced portraits of many celebrated men ; 
but perhaps the noblest effort of Barker's pencil 
was the magnificent fresco, 30 feet in length, and 
12 feet in height, representing 'The Inroad of 
the Turks upon Scio, in April, 1822,' painted on 
the wall of his residence, Sion Hill, Bath, and 
possessing merits of the highest order, in compo- 




sition, colour, and effect. While Barker's talents 
were in full vigour, no artist of his time had a 
greater hold on popular favour; his pictures of 
' The Woodman,' ' Old Tom ' (painted before he 
was seventeen years of age), and gipsy groups 
and rustic figures, were copied upon almost every 
available material which would admit of decor- 
ation : Staffordshire pottery, Worcester china, 
Manchester cottons, and Glasgow linens. At one 
time he amassed considerable property by the 
sale of his works, and expended a large sum in 
erecting a mansion for his residence, enriching it 
with sculpture and other choice productions of 
art. He died at Bath in 1847. There are two 
pictures by Barker in the National Gallery : ' A 
Woodman and his Dog in a Storm,' and a Land- 
scape, perhaps on the Somerset Downs. 

BAKLOW, Fkancis, an English painter and 
engraver, born in Lincolnshire in 1626, was the 
pupil of William Shephard, a portrait -painter. 
He excelled in representing animals, birds, fish, 
&c., which he drew with great accuracy ; and 
if his colour and touch had been equal to his 
drawing, he would have ranked amongst the most 
eminent painters of those subjects. The land- 
scapes he introduced into his pictures are very 
pleasing. Hollar engraved in 1671 a set of thir- 
teen plates, after his own designs, entitled ' Several 
ways of Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing, in- 
vented by Francis Barlow.' Some of the plates 
for Edward Benlowe's divine poems, called 'Theo- 
phila,' published in 1652, were engraved by Bar- 
low. He published a translation of 'JEsop's 
Fables,' in 1665, with 110 plates, etched from 
his own designs. He also painted ceilings, and 
designed monuments for Westminster Abbey. 
He frequently signed his plates F. B., sometimes 
enclosed in a circle. He died in 1702. 

BARLOW, J., practised as an engraver in 
London at the end of the 18th century. He en- 
graved some of the illustrations to Ireland's 
' Hogarth,' published in 1791, and for ' Rees's 

BARNA (or Beena), of Siena, flourished in the 
latter half of the 14th century. He painted at 
^Siena, Cortona, Arezzo, and at San Gimignano, 
where a much damaged series of frescoes still 
exists. These frescoes, which are almost all that 
remain to testify to Barna's art, represent the 
' Passion of our Lord,' and are executed somewhat 
after the manner of Simone Martini. Vasari tells 
us that Barna died in 1381, from injuries received 
by a fall from a scaffold, while painting in the 
church of San Gimignano. 

BARNABA da MODENA. See Modbna. 

BARNABEI, Tommaso, known as Maso Papa- 
cello, was a pupil of Luca Signorelli, and aided 
Giulio Romano at Rome. At about 1523-4 he 
assisted Giambattista Carporali at the villa of 
Cardinal Passerini, near Cortona. He painted 
three pictures, representing the ' Annunciation,' the 
'Conception,' and the 'Adoration of the Magi,' in 
the church of Santa Maria del Caloinaio, near 
Cortina, and finally settled at Perugia, where he 
died in 1559. 

BARNARD, William, who was bom in 1774, 
was a mezzotint engraver. Among his most suc- 
cessful plates were ' Summer ' and ' Winter,' both 
after Morland, and a portrait of Nelson. He died 
in 1849, having held for some years the post of 
Keeper of the British Institution. 

BARNEY, JosBPH. There are engravings 

executed in stipple by this artist, after the paint- 
ings of Bassano, W. Hamilton, and others, which 
were published at the end of the 18th century. 

BARNEY, Joseph, a fruit and flower painter, 
was born at Wolverhampton in 1751. He came 
to London in early life, and studied under Zucchi 
and Angelica Kauffmann, and in 1774 received a 
premium from the Society of Arts. ,He exhibited 
liistorical or poetical subjects, or flower pieces, at 
the Royal Academy from 1786 until 1827, and, in 
1815, received an appointment as flower painter 
to the Prince Regent. Barney left two sons 
who followed in his fdotsteps — Joseph Barney, a 
flower painter, who lived chiefly at Southampton, 
and exhibited occasionally at the Water-Colour 
Society (1815 — 1818); and William Whiston 

BARNEY, William Whiston, a mezzotint en- 
graver, was a pupil of Samuel William Reynolds. 
He is best known by his portraits of Sir Airt^hur 
Wellesley, after Hoppner, and the Marquis of 
Blandford, after Cosway, and by various repro- 
ductions of Reinagle's sporting subjects. About 
1805 he bought a commission in the army, and 
served with credit during the Peninsular war. 

BARNUEVO, Sebastiano de HERRERA. See 
Hebheea Baenubvo. 

BAROCCI, Ambrogio, the father of Federigo, 
was a sculptor of some note in the 15th century. 
His portrait, painted by himself, is in the UflSzi at 

BAROCCI, Fbdeeigo, (or Baeoccio) — sometimes 
called FiORE — was born at Urbino in 1528. He 
was the son (?) of Ambrogio Barocci, a sculptor of 
some eminence, and was placed — after he had 
received instruction in design from his father — 
under Battista Franco, with whom he studied until 
that painter left Urbino. Barocci then went with 
his uncle, Bartolommeo Genga, the architect, to 
Pesaro, where he copied some works by Titian. In 
1548 h? went to Rome, and studied the works of 
Raphael. He was favoured with the protection of 
the Cardinal della Rovere, who received him into 
his palace, where he painted some pictures in fresco, 
and the portrait of his patron. After passing 
four years at Rome, he returned to his native 
city, where his first work was a picture of ' St. 
Margaret,' executed for the Confraternity of the 
Holy Sacrament. This work gained him great 
celebrity ; and he was invited by Pope Pius IV. to 
assist in the decoration of the Belvedere Palace 
at Rome, where he painted the ' Virgin Mary and 
Infant Sa"^iour, with several Saints,' and a ceiling 
in fresco, representing the ' Annunciation.' While 
working in the Vatican he was nearly killed by 
poison, and though he did not actually lose his life, 
he was unable to work for four years, and even 
after that time he could paint no longer than about 
two hours each day. Having finished these and 
other works, he returned to Urbino, where he 
painted a fine picture for the cathedral of San 
Lorenzo, at Perugia, of the ' Descent from the 
Cross.' He again visited Rome during the pon- 
tificate of Gregory XIII., when he painted two 
admirable pictures for the Chiesa Nuova, represent- 
ing the ' Visitation of the Virgin Mary to Elisabeth,' 
and the ' Presentation in the Temple,' which are 
considered his best productions, and for the Chiesa 
della Minerva, a fine picture of the ' Last Supper.' 
Barocci spent nearly all the remaining years of his 
life at his native Urbino, where he died in 1612, 
aged 84 years. He was buried in the church of San 





Francesco, with much honour. In the works of 
Barooci we admire an elegant taste, and tliere is 
great amenity and harmony in his colouring. _ He 
seems to have adopted the manner of Correggio as 
the model for his imitation ; and although he has 
succeeded in giving a graceful air to his figures, his 
style must he allowed to partake of something 
, approaching to afEectation, and can never be put m 
competition with the beautiful and touching sim- 
plicity of that inimitable painter. He was a better 
draughtsman than many of his contemporaries, but 
his colouring was not good. Mengs remarks that 
his pictures lacked yellow tints ; and Bellori says 
that he used too much vermilion and ultramarine. 
Among his pictures in public galleries are : 

Dresden. Gallery. Hagar in the Desert. 

„ „ Madonna and two Saints. 

Florence. XJJizi. Virgin pleading for the poor. 

„ „ Noli me tangere. 

„ Portrait of the Duke of TIrhino. 

London. Nat. Gallery. Holy Family, del Gatto. 
Milan. Brera. Martyrdom of St. Vitale (dated 

Munich. Pinakotliek. Saviour appearing to the Mag- 
dalene (dated 1690). 
Paris. Louvre. The Circumcision (signed aiid dated 

„ „ Madonna in glory, with Saints. 

Petersburg, Ilertnitage. Holy Family. 

„ „ Portrait of a Man. 

Rome. Borghese Fal. Burning of Troy. 
„ Corsini Pal. Noli me tangere. 
„ Vatican. The Annunciation. 

„ „ The Ecstasy of St. Miehelina. 

„ „ Madonna. 

„ „ Male portrait. 

Windsor. Castle. Nativity. 

We are indebted to Barocci for some engravings, 
which, although not very commendable for the 
delicacy of their execution, possess the higher 
qualifications of correctness of design and beauty 
of expression. He has left us the following 

The Virgin and our Saviour appearing to St. Francis ; 
a large plate, arched. His principal plate. 

The Virgin holding the Infant Saviour ; a small plate, 
of which the lower part is left unfinished. 

The Virgin in the Clouds, with the Infant Jesus; 
marked F. B. V. F. 

The Annunciation ; on the left of the print a Cat sleep- 
ing ; fine. 

St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 

BARON, Bbenaed, an eminent French engraver, 
was born in Paris about the year 1700. He was 
instructed in engraving by Nicolas-Henri Tardieu, 
whose style he followed. He engraved several 
plates for the Crozat Collection, and afterwards 
came to England, where he resided the remainder 
of his life, and died in London in 1766. Many 
of his engravings are in the Boydell Collection: 
they are executed in a coarse manner, but are not 
without considerable merit. The following are his 
principal works : 


King Charles I. on Horseback, with the Duke d'Eper- 
non ; after Van Dyck. 

Charles I. and Queen, with their two Sons ; after the 

The Nassau Family ; from Earl Cowper's picture ; after 
the same. 

The Pembroke Family; from the picture at 'Wilton; 
after the same. 

Henry VIII. granting the Charter to the Barber- 
Surgeons' Company ; after Holbein. 

The Family of Van Dyck ; after Van Dyck; in the Earl 

of Pembroke's picture. 

Robert, Earl of Carnarvon ; after Van Dyclc ; in the same 

Ann a, Sophia, Countess of Carnavon; after tlw smne; 

in the same collection. 
George, Prince of Wales, on Horseback ; after Adolph. 
Cornells van Tromp, Vice- Admiral of Holland; after 

J. Vanderbank. 
Dr. Mead ; after A. Samsay. 
The liOrd Chancellor Hardwick ; after the same. 
The Lord Chief Justice Eeve ; after J. Amiconi. 
The Cornaro Family; after Titian; the picture is in 

the possession of the Duke of Northumberland. 
Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of "Winchester; after Hogarth. 


Nine plates of the Life of Achilles, with the titles ; afler 

Belisarius ; incorrectly called aper Van Dyck. 
Charles I escaping from Hampton Court; after J, 

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Titian ; for the Crozat Col- 
lection. This is considered his chef-d'teuvre. 
Pan and Syrinx ; after Nic. Berlin. 
The Card-players ; after D. Teniers. 
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after the same. 
The Italian Comedians ; after fVatteau. 
The Companion ; after the same. 
The Two Cousins ; after the same. 
Soldiers plundering a Village ; after the same. 
The Peasants revenged ; after the same. 
St. Cecilia; after Carlo Dolei. 
Moses exposed on the Nile ; after Be Sueur. 
Marriage-a-la--mode ; after Hogarth (two of the plates). 

BARON, Jean, (or Baeonius,) a French en- 
graver, who is sometimes called ' Tolosano,' from 
his birthplace, was born at Toulouse in 1631. 
He resided the greater part of his life at Rome, 
where he worked in union with C. Bloemaert, 
and engraved several plates of historical subjects 
and portraits. They are executed entirely with 
the graver in a neat but dry manner, and are 
not very well drawn. The following are his best 
works : 


Jean Plantavit, Sieur de la Pause, Bishop of Lodeve. 

Cardinal Aquaviva. 

Leonardo Alberti, architect. 

Vito de Bramante, architect. 

Giovanni Francesco Rustici, sculptor. 

Marc Antonio Raimondi, engraver. 

Raphael d'TJrbino. 

Leonardo da Vinci. 

Judith with the head of Holofemes ; after Donienichino. 
The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after Niccolb dell' Ahhate. 
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after the same. 
St. Peter and St. Paul in the Clouds ; after Ann. Car- 

The Virgin in Adoration ; after Guide Heni. 
The Virgin ; a small plate ; after Bernini. 
St. Romualdus, and Monks ; after Andrea Saechi. 
The Plague at Ashdod ; after iV. JPoussin. 

BARONI, Giuseppe, was an Italian engraver, 
who resided at Venice about the year 1720. He en- 
graved some large plates from the paintings of the 
Venetian masters ; among which is a print repre- 
senting the ' Crucifixion, with Angels in the air, and 
St. John and St. Mary Magdalene at the foot_ of 
the Cross.' It is executed in a coarse, unpleasing 
style, and the drawing is very incorrect. 

BARONLCAVALCABO, Kaspae Anton von, a 
Tyrolese historical painter, was born at Sacco in 
1682. He was instructed in the art by Giovanni 
Baroni, a kinsman, and by Antonio Balestra at 
Verona. He then went to Venice and Rome, 
where he studied in the school of Carlo Maratti. 
He devoted his talents chiefly to biblical and re- 




ligious subjects, and he presented many of his pic- 
tures to the churches of Sacco, Trent, and Roveredo. 
During the greater part of his life he lived in 
Sacco, where he died in 1759. Many of his draw- 
ings are in the Library at Innsbruck. 
BAROZZI. See Barocci. 
BARRA, JoHAN. See Baea. 
BARRABAND, Pieeee Paul, a French painter 
of flowers, birds, and other subjects in natural 
history, was born at Aubusson in 1767. He studied 
under Malaine, the designer of the tapestry manu- 
factory of the Gobelins. Le Vaillant, the cele- 
brated traveller, employed him to paint the birds 
of Africa, parrots, and birds of paradise for his 
works. He also supplied the illustrations for the 
edition of Buffon published by Sonnini ; for the 
' History of Insects,' by Latreille, and for the great 
work of the Institute on Egypt. He was professor 
at the School of Design at Lyons ; and he executed 
numerous designs for Sevres porcelain, and decor- 
ated the dining-room at St. Cloud. He died at 
Lyons in 1809. 

BARRALET, John James, of French extraction, 
was born in Ireland ; he was in early life a draw- 
ing-master in Dublin, but came to London and 
practised water-colour painting. He exhibited three 
landscapes at the Royal Academy in 1770, and 
occasionally exhibited in succeeding years. He was 
employed in illustrating books on Irish Antiquities. 
In 1795 he emigrated to America, where he died 
in 1812. His brother, J. Melchioh Baeealet, was 
a teacher in the Royal Academy School, and occa- 
sionally, between the years 1775 and 1789, sent 
tinted drawings to the Academy Exhibitions. 

BARRANGO, Bbenaedo MARTINEZ del. See 
Martinez del Baeeanco. 

BARRAS, Sebastien, a painter and engraver, 
was born at Aix, in Provence, in 1653. He 
was a pupil of Boyer d'Aguilles, and studied for 
some time in Rome. He died at Aix in 1703. The 
first edition of the Boyer d'Aguilles Collection, pub- 
lished in 1709, contained twenty-seven plates in 
mezzotint, scraped by this master ; they were re- 
placed in the second edition by plates engraved by 
Coelemans. The former have become very scarce. 
He also engraved a portrait of Lazarus Maharky- 
Bus, a physician of Antwerp, after Van Dyck. 

BARRAUD, Heney, a younger brother of 
William Barraud, was born in 1812. He ex- 
celled as an animal painter, and in his later life 
exhibited pictures which were engraved and be- 
came very popular. The most important of these 
were, ' We praise thee, God ' (three choir boys 
in their surplices), 'The London Season' (a scene 
in Hyde Park), and ' Lord's Cricket Ground.' He 
died in 1874. 

BARRAUD, Williaw, an animal painter, was 
born in 1810. The family of this artist came over 
to England from Prance at the time of the Revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes ; his father held an 
appointment in the Custom-house, and his grand- 
father was a well-known chronometer-maker in 
Comhill. His taste for painting was most probably 
inherited from his maternal grandfather, an excel- 
lent miniature painter ; but it was not fostered very 
early in life, for, on leaving school, he took a situa- 
tion in the Customs, where he remained but a short 
time ;_ he quitted it to follow the profession most 
in unison with his feelings, under the guidance 
of Abraham Cooper, R.A., with whom he studied 
for a considerable time. Without attaining to the 
highest rank in his peculiar department, that of a 

painter of horses and dogs, for to these he chiefly 
confined his practice, he was always correct in his 
style of work; while the subject pictures which 
he painted, in conjunction with his brother Henry, 
were far above mediocrity, both in conception and 
treatment. The two brothers were for many years 
joint exhibitors at the Royal Academy and the 
British Institution. William Barraud died in 1850. 

BARKE, De la. See Baea. 

BARRERA, Francisco, a Spanish fresco-painter, 
is best known by his eloquent and successful 
appeal on behalf of his fellow-artists, upon whom 
in 1640 the Government wished to impose the 
taxes levied upon trade corporations. No details 
of his life are known. 

BARKERA, Jacobo de, was a Spanish historical 
painter, many of whose works, dated 1522, are in 
the cathedral of Seville. He was a friend and 
fellow-worker of Covarrubias, and died insane, 
but in wbat year is not known. 

BARRET, George, an eminent painter of land- 
scapes, was born in Dublin in 1728 (or 1732), and 
received his first education in art in the Drawing 
Academy of Mr. West, in that city. Having been 
introduced by his patron, Mr. Burke, to the Earl of 
Powersoourt, he passed a great part of his youth 
in studying and drawing the charming scenery 
around Powerscourt Park ; and he soon after gained 
the premium offered by the Dublin Society for the 
best landscape. Barret came to England in 1762, 
and two years afterwards gained the fifty pounds 
premium given by the Society of Arts. He had 
the honour of contributing to the establishment of 
the Royal Academy, of which he was one of the 
earliest members. He was a chaste and faithful 
delineator of English landscape, which he viewed 
with the eye of an artist, and selected with the 
feeling of a man of taste. His colouring is excel- 
lent, and there is a freshness and dewy brightness 
in his verdure which is only to be met with in 
English scenery, and which he has perfectly 
represented. The landscapes of this artist are to 
be found in several of the collections of the nobil- 
ity ; but his principal works are in the possession 
of the Dukes of Portland and Buccleuch. His 
decoration of the great room at Norbury Park, 
near Leatherhead, will ever rank among his most 
celebrated productions. He died at Paddington in 

There are a few spirited and picturesque etch- 
ings by him as follow : 

A View of the Dargles, near Dublin. 

A set of six Views of Cottages near London, 

A large landscape, with Cottages. 

A View of Hawarden Castle ; dated 1773. 

BARRET, George, ' the younger,' a son of the 
artist of the same name, was born about 1774, and 
was one of the first members of the Water-Colour 
Society, on its foundation in 1804, and an exhibitor 
in its Gallery for many years. In 1840 he published 
a series of Letters on the ' Theory and Practice of 
Water-Colour Painting.' He died in 1842, after a 
long illness. There are several drawings by him 
in the South Kensington Museum. His brother, 
J. Barret, and his sister, M. Barret, were also 
painters in water-colours, and occasionally ex- 
hibited their works. Miss Barret died in 1836. 

BARRET, Ranelagh. This artist is mentioned 
by Lord Orford as a noted copyist, who made 
duplicates of several pictures in Sir Robert Wal- 
pole's collection, and of others in the galleries 
of the Duke of Devonshire and Dr. Meade. Ha 




succeeded especially in reproducing the works of 
Eubens. He died in 1768. 

BARRI, GlACOMO, a Venetian painter and en- 
graver, flourished about the year 1670._ He etched 
some plates from his own designs, and in 1671 pub- 
lished a book of some reputation, entitled ' Viaggio 
pittoresco d'ltalia.' He died about 1690. There 
is a slight free etching by him of the ' Nativity, 
after Paolo Veronese. 

BARRIERE, Dominiqttb, a French painter and 
engraver, was born at Marseilles about the year 
1622. He chiefly resided at Rome, where he en- 
graved a considerable number of plates, in a very 
agreeable style, after Claude and other landscape 
painters, as well as other subjects. They are 
neatly etched in the manner of Stef ano della Bella. 
He died in Rome in 1678. He sometimes signed 
his plates with his name, Dominictis Barriere 
Massiliends, and sometimes with the cipher which 
is the mark used by Domenico del Barbiere, 
and thus mistakes frequently arise, although 
their styles are extremely difEerent. Among 
others we have the following by him : 

Portrait of Jean de la Valette ; marked D. B.; scarce. 

A set of six Landscapes. 

A set of twelve Landscapes ; dedicated to Lelio Orsini. 

Seven Views of the ViUa Aldobrandini. 1649. 
A Landscape, with the Zodiac ; inscribed Vim profert 

A View of !Frascati. 

Fontana maggiore nel Giardino di Tivoli, with his 

Eighty-four Views and Statues of the Villa Pamphili. 

Four ; entitled Catafalco e apparato nella ehiesa, S^c, 

Sepulchral Monument of N. L. Plumbini; Dominieus 
jBarriere Gatlus, in. ex. del. et scul. 

Hercules, after a basso-rilievo in the Medicean Garden. 

A large Plate ; entitled Circttm Urbis Agonalibus, $c. 
with many Figures. 1650. 

Several plates of the History of Apollo ; after the pic- 
tures by Someniehino and Viola. 

BARRON, Hugh, the son of an apothecary in 
Soho, was born about 1746, and became a pupil of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. From the year 1766 to 1786 
he exhibited many portraits, which were but poor 
in comparison with the works of his celebrated 
instructor. He died in 1791. 

BARRON, William Augustus, a younger 
brother of Hugh Barron, was a pupil of William 
Tomkins, A.R.A. He gained a Society of Arts 
premium in 1766, and started in life as a teacher 
of drawing. From 1774 to 1777 he exhibited 
landscape views at the Academy, some of which 
were engraved and published. On receiving a 
Government appointment he relinquished his art. 

BARROSO, MiGUBL, a Spanish painter, bom at 
Consuegra in 1538. According to Palomino, he 
was a scholar of Gaspare Beoerra, and distinguished 
himself as an architect, as well as a painter. He 
was employed by Philip II. in the Escorial, where 
he painted, in the pripcipal cloister, the ' Resur- 
rection,' 'Christ appearing to the Apostles,' the 
' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' and ' St. Paul preach- 
ing.' In 1589 he was made painter to the king. 
His compositions are copious, and his design cor- 
rect. Cean Bermudez and Quilliet say that he failed 
sometimes in vigour and knowledge of chiaroscuro ; 
but that his colour was that of Barocci, and his 
forms those of Correggio. He died at the Escorial 
in 1590. 

BARRY, Hbndbie. See Bart. 
BARRY, J., was a miniature painter, who exhi- 


bited at the Royal Academy at intervals from 1784 
to 1819— amongst others the 'Four Seasons,' and 
various fancy portraits. 

BARRY, James. This eminent artist was bom 
at Cork in 1741. He was the son of a ship-master 
who traded from Cork to England, and was intended 
by his father to succeed him in that calling; but 
his decided inclination for drawing induced liis 
parents to permit him to follow the bent of his 
genius ; and he was educated at the Academy of 
Mr. West at Dublin, where, at the age of twenty- 
two, he gained the premium for the best historical 
work, by his picture of ' St. Patrick baptizing the 
King of Cashel.' His merit procured him the 
patronage of Mr. Burke, by whose kindness he was 
enabled to travel, and to visit Italy, where he 
remained four years. During his residence abroad 
he was made a member of the Clementine Academy 
at Bologna, on which occasion he painted for his 
diploma picture ' Philoctetes in the Isle of Lem- 
nos.' He returned to England in 1770, and the 
year afterwards exhibited at the Royal Academy 
his picture of 'Adam and Eve ' (now in the posses- 
sion of the Society of Arts), and the following year 
produced his ' Venus Anadyomene,' a picture which 
gained his election as Associate of the Royal Aca- 
demy. In 1773 he became a Royal Academician. 
In 1775 Barry published a reply to the Abb6 
Winckelmann, who had asserted that the English 
are incapable of attaining any great excellence in 
art, on account of their natural deficiency of genius, 
and the unfavourable temperature of their climate ; 
it was considered a triumphant answer. He soon 
afterwards made his proposal to the Society for 
the Encouragement of Arts to paint gratuitously 
a series of six pictures, allegorically illustrat- 
ing the ' Culture and Progress of Human Know- 
ledge,' which now decorate the great room of the 
Society. This immense work he accomplished, 
without assistance, in the short space of three 
years, and it is sufficient to prove the capacious 
stretch of his mind and the abundance of his 
invention. The most important of the series is 
a view of Elysium (42 feet long), in which 
the artist painted the portraits of the great and 
good of all nations. A young lady, after look- 
ing at it earnestly, said to Barry, " The ladies, I 
see, have not yet arrived in this Paradise of yours." 
" Oh, but they have, madam," replied the painter ; 
" they reached Elysium some time ago ; they are 
beyond that very luminous cloud, and very happy 
they are, I assure you." On the resignation of 
Edward Penny, in 1783, he was elected Professor 
of Painting to the Royal Academy. It is to be 
regretted that this artist's undoubted genius and 
loftiness of mind were accompanied by a fiery and 
turbulent nature, which frequently hurried him 
into the most imprudent and outrageous intemper- 
ance of conduct. This unfortunate disposition 
produced many unpleasant dissensions with hia 
brother Academicians, and finally occasioned his 
expulsion from the Academy in 1799. He died in 
London in 1806 ; his body lay in state in the great 
room of the Society of Arts, and was buried in the 
crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The principal works of Barry are his pictures at 
the Society of Arts, in the Adelphi, hia ' Venus 
Anadyomene,' 'Birth of Pandora,' and 'King Lear,' 
for Boydell's ' Shakespeare Gallery.' His engrav- 
ings of many of his works may be regarded as the 
productions of a painter inattentive to that beauty 
and delicacy of execution which are looked for in the 




productions of a profesflional engraver. " Barry,'' 
Bays Allan Cunningham, " was the greatest enthu- 
siast in art -which this country ever produced ; his 
passion aJiiounted to madness." He was a bigoted 
Roman Catholic, cared little for the society of his 
fellow-men, and lived alone in a wretched house 
in Castle Street, Oxford Market, where Burke once 
helped to cook a steak for their dinner, while 
Barry went out to fetch a pint of porter 1 Barry's 
'Lectures on Painting' have been frequently 

BAETH, Carl, who was born at Eisfeld in 1782, 
studied the art of engraving under J. E. von 
Miiller at Stuttgart, and thence went to Munich in 
1814, and three years later to Rome, for the im- 
provement of his art. On his return to Germany 
he was made director of the Herder Art Institution 
at Frtiburg ; thence he went to Frankfort. He 
subsequently visited Hildburghausen and Darm- 
stadt, where first appeared evidences of the de- 
rangement of mind which caused his death. He 
died at Guntershausen near Cassel in 1853. 
Besides his engravings, Barth left a number of 
portraits, both drawings and paintings. The 
following are his chief plates : 

Charity ; after Vo^el. 

Christ and the Virgin ; after Holbein. 

The Seven Years of Famine ; after Overleck, 

BARTHELEMY, Antoine, (or BsKTHiiLMY,) a 
historical and portrait painter, was bom at Fon- 
tainebleau about the year 1 633. He was received 
into the Academy in 1663, and died at Paris 
in 1669. Another Antoine Barthelemt, likewise 
a painter, died at Paris in 1649. There was also 
JosiAS Barthelemt, living in 1631, and Jean 
Barthelemt, mentioned by the Abbe de MaroUes, 
either of whom might have been the instructor 
of S^bastien Bourdon. 

BARTHOLOMEW, Anne Charlotte, miniature 
and ilower painter, whose parental name was 
Fayermann, was bom at Loddon, in Norfolk, in 
1800. In 1827 she married Mr. Turnbull, the 
composer of several popular melodies, who died 
in 1838 ; and in 1840 she married Valentine Bar- 
tholomew, who had acquired considerable reput- 
ation as a flower painter. She died in 1862. 
Her works were chiefly miniature portraits, and 
occasionally friut and flowers. 

BARTHOLOMEW, Valenhne, who was born 
in 1799, was an early member of the Society of 
Painters in Water Colours, which he joined in 1835. 
He had a special talent for flower painting, a 
branch of art which he pursued with much success, 
his works being chiefly remarkable for the great 
care and the large scale on which they were car- 
ried out. ' Azaleas ' and ' Camellias ' are in the 
South Kensington Museum. Bartholomew held for 
many years the post of Flower Painter in Ordinary 
to the Queen. He died in 1879. 

BARTLETT, William Henrt, a topographical 
landscape painter, was born at Kentish Town in 
1809. In 1823 he was articled to John Britton, the 
architect, and the author of several well-known 
illustrated works on topography. Here — as the 
latter in a biographical sketch informs us — Bartlett 
in the course of the year surpassed his associates 
in accuracy, style, and rapidity. Appreciating his 
pupil's talent, Britton sent him successively into 
Essex, Kent, Bedfordshire, Wiltshire, and other 
parts of England, to sketch and study from nature. 
He went next, in a similar way, to Bristol, Glouces- 

ter, and Hereford, and executed a series of elaborate 
drawings of the sacred edifices there for Britten's 
' Cathedral Antiquities of England.' He afterwards 
made similar sketches for the work entitled ^Pictur- 
esque Antiquities of English Cities.' But Bartlett's 
artistic tours were not confined to the British 
Empire alone; they extended to all the four 
quarters of the globe. Previous to going abroad, 
he travelled over many parts of England, Wales, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and next visited France, 
Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Holland, and Bel- 
gium ; the United States and Canada ; Constan- 
tinople, Asia Minor, Syria, Italy, Greece, and the 
Grecian Archipelago; Palestine, Egypt, Sinai, 
Petra, and the Arabian deserts. He thrice ex- 
plored the East, first in the years 1834 and 1835, 
again in 1842 — 1845, and a third time in 1853. 
He made four voyages to America, between the 
years 1836 and 1852. No less than nineteen large 
volumes in quarto, containing more than lOOC 
engravings from his drawings, are devoted to 
those countries and districts, nearly the whole of 
which contain copious and interesting letter-press 
from the pen of Dr. Beattie, who accompanied the 
artist in some of his voyages and travels. In 
addition to these works, Bartlett showed, in the 
following publications, that he could exercise a 
skilful pen, as well as a rapid pencil : 

■Walks about Jerusalem. 1845. 

Forty Days in the Desert. 1848. 

The Nile -Boat, or Glimpses of Egypt. 1849. 

The Overland Route. 1850. 

Footsteps of Our Lord and nia Apostles in Syria, 

Greece, and Italy. 1851. 
Pictures from Sicily. 1852. 
The Pilgrim Fathers. 1853. 

A new volume, on 'Scripture Sites and Scenes,' 
was in the press, when the artist died, on board 
the steamer ' Egyptus ' on its passage homeward 
between Malta and Marseilles, in 1864. 

BARTOLI, DoMENico. See Ghezzi. 

BARTOLI, PiBTRO Santi. See Santi. 

BARTOLI, Taddeo (or Taddeo di Bartolo), was 
bom at Siena about 1363. The earliest specimen 
of his art is an altar-piece, representing ' St. Peter,' 
painted for San Paolo of Pisa, and dated 1390 : it 
is now in the Louvre. In 1395 he finished an 
altar-piece of the ' Virgin and Child with Saints,' 
for a chapel in San Francesco, Pisa, which is now 
in Vienna; he afterwards adorned the entire chapel 
with frescoes of the figures of Saints, and the ' Life 
of the Virgin.' In 1400—1401 Taddeo painted in 
the Palazzo Pubblico and other buildings in Siena ; 
but of the works he executed then only nine small 
panels, representing nine sentences of the Creed, 
exist. They are in the cathedral. Soon afterwards 
he decorated the cathedral with frescoes represent- 
ing Paradise and Hell. There are preserved in the 
hall of the Palazzo Pubblico, of the same city, two 
paintings that were formerly in the cathedral ; the 
first is an altar-piece representing St. Gimignano, 
with a model of the town in his hand, giving the 
benediction ; its side panels contain four subjects 
drawn from that Saint's life ; the second is a panel 
with a 'Madonna and Child and four Saints.' In 
1403 he painted, at Perugia, an altar-piece repre- 
senting the 'Virgin and Child, with St. Bernard 
and two Angels,' which is now in the.Academy of 
that city. A 'Descent of the Holy Ghost,' also 
painted in 1403, in the church of Sant' Agostino at 
Perugia, where it may still be seen, is especially to 
be admired. In 1404 Taddeo had again returned 





to Siena, and recommenced his works at the 
cathedral, at his former salary of twelve and a half 
florins a month. These frescoes have all likewise 
disappeared. In that same year he was appointed 
an ' Executors di Gabella,' and executed the 
' Nativity,' still kept in the church of the Servi at 
Siena. In 1405 Bm-toli executed four frescoes 
behind the high altar, painted the organ-doors, and 
filled a window in the choir of the cathedral with the 
' Ascensionof the Virgin.' In the years 1406 and 
1407 he was occupied at the renewal of the decora- 
tions in the chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 
as also in the passage leading from the Hall of 
Peace to the Hall of Council, in the same building ; 
and he adorned the Gallery with figures of Ancient 
Romans whose characters symbolized best the vir- 
tues of Magnanimity and Justice ; beneath these 
effigies ran a sentence exhorting the beholders to 
imitate these virtues. In 1409 Taddeo painted 
the 'Annunciation,' between SS. Cosmo and Damian, 
now in the Academy of Siena. In 1410 he went 
to Volterra, where he worked for the church, and 
for the Company of San Francesco. Of these 
labours, all that now remains is an altar-piece, with 
the ' Virgin, Child, and four Saints,' in the Cap- 
pella San Carlo of the cathedral of Volterra. In 
the years 1412, 1416, and 1420 he was again pro- 
moted to the Supreme Council of Siena, and he 
died in 1436(?). Taddeo Bartoli upheld the Sienese 
school by the excellence of his painting, but he 
did not raise it above the style of his predecessors. 
The chief merit of his work lies in the dignity and 
originality of the invention. Some of his small 
pictures do him still greater honour than his larger 
works, and show an imitation of Ambrogio Loren- 
zetti, his great prototype, and also the subdued and 
agreeable style of the Sienese school. 

BARTOLINI, GiosEFFO Maeia, was bom at 
Imola in 1657, and studied at Bologna mider 
Lorenzo Pasinelli. There are several of his works 
in the public edifices at Imola, which are highly 
esteemed, particularly a picture representing a 
' Miracle wrought by St. Biagio,' in the church of 
San Domenioo. He died in 1725. 

BARTOLO DI FREDI was born at Siena about 
1330, and was registered in the Guild of that city 
in 1355 ; he had several children, who all died 
before him, with the exception of Andrea Bartoli. 
He was the companion of Andrea Vanni from 
1353, and was employed in the decorations of the 
Hall of Council, at Siena, in 1361. In 1362 he 
went to San Gimignano, where, according to Vasari, 
he bad already in 1356 painted the entire side of 
the left aisle of the Pieve with scenes drawn from 
the Old Testament. In 1366 the Council of the 
city of Gimignano ordered of him a painting, 
representing ' Two Monks of the Augustine Order,' 
to be placed in the Palazzo Pubblico, in order to 
commemorate the settlement of some disputes 
which had long existed between that order and 
the city. In the early part of 1367 he returned to 
Siena, and was employed with Jacomo di Mino in 
the decorations of the cathedral. In 1372 he rose to 
a position in the government of the city, and was 
sent to welcome the new Podestk, on his approach 
to Siena. In 1381 he was himself made a member 
of the Council, and in 1382 he executed the ' Descent 
from the Cross,' now in the Sacristy of San Fran- 
cesco, Montaloino. The same church also possesses 
panels paioted by him containing the ' Baptism of 
Christ,' figures of SS. Peter, Paul, and Francis, and 
five scenes from the life of St. Philip of Montalcino. 


In 1388 he completed an immense altar-piece for 
the same church, which was originally in the 
resemblance of the front of a cathedral, with a 
central and two side gables, flanked by two towers. 
The centre gable is still in the church, and repre- 
sents the ' Coronation of the Virgin ; ' the remaining 
portions, with scenes from her life, are all in the 
Academy of Siena. The same gallery also pos- 
sesses an ' Adoration of the Magi,' by this artist. 
In 1389 Bartolo, assisted by Luca Thom6, painted 
the altar-piece for the Shoemakers' Company, in 
the cathedral, and continued from that year until 
his death to furnish altar-pieces for the cathedral 
and other churches of Siena, which have now all 
disappeared. His death occurred in 1409. 

In the Louvre at Paris there is a ' Presentation 
in the Temple,' by him. 

BARTOLOM:^. See Bkeenbeegh. 


toeing — commonly known as Fea Baetolommeo, 
or Baocio (the shortened form of Bartolommeo) — 
was also called della Poeta, because he resided 
near the gate of San Pier Gattolini (now the Porta 
Romana), in Florence. He was born at the village 
of SofSgnano, near Prato, in 1475 ; and in 1484 
entered the studio of Cosimo Rosselli, at Florence, 
where he had for a fellow-pupil Albertinelli, with 
whom he commenced a friendship which lasted 
until the bonds were broken, in 1515, by the death 
of Albertinelli. After passing some years under 
Rosselli, Baccio applied himself to an assiduous 
study of the works of Leonardo da Vinci, whose 
grandeur of relief, and admirable chiaroscuro, were 
the particular objects of his admiration. In com- 
pany with his friend, Mariotto Albertinelli, he 
modelled and copied from the ancient bassi-rilievi, 
by which he acquired a breadth of light and shade, 
which is one of the most striking characteristics of 
his style. His first works were of a small size, and 
very highly finished, gracefully composed and de- 
signed. A romantic event in his youth induced him 
to adopt the monastic life. WMlst still a pupil of 
Cosimo Rosselli^ he listened eagerly to the preach- 
ing of the fiery Dominican, Fra Girplamo Savona- 
rola, and became one of his most ardent disciples. 
He even burnt his studies in the kind of auto-da-fe 
made by the people on the Shrove Tuesday of the 
year 1489, in the s(}uare before the convent of St. 
Mark. When, after a reign of three years over 
Florence, the Italian Luther was obliged to shut 
himself up in the convent of which he was the 
prior, and to undergo a siege, Bartolommeo was at 
his side, and, in the heat of the combat, made a 
vow to adopt the monastic life if he escaped the 
danger, and he took the vows in that same con- 
vent of the Dominicans of San Marco, in 1500. 
Hence his name of ' II Frate.' He remained four 
whole years without touching a pencil, and when 
he yielded at length to the solicitations of his 
friends, his fellow-monks and his superiors, it was 
on condition that the convent should receive all 
the produce of his labours. 

In 1498 and 1499 Fra Bartolommeo had painted 
the celebrated fresco of the ' Last Judgment,' in 
Santa Maria Novella, the lower part of which was 
finished by his friend Albertinelli ; and in 1509 he 
entered into a partnership with that painter. When 
Raphael visited Florence, about 1506, he formed 
a friendship with Fra Bartolommeo, from whom 
he received some instruction in the principles of 




colouring and the folding of draperies, and in 
return taught the Frate the rules of perspective. 
About 1514 Fra Bartolommeo went to Rome, where 
he painted the figure of St. Paul and part of that 
of St. Peter, which he was obliged to leave to his 
friend Raphael to finish — it is supposed, on account 
of ill-health. These two figures are now in the 
Quirinal. On his return to Florence, Fra Bar- 
tolommeo executed a few works of great merit, 
and died there in 1517. 

His design approached to that of Raphael in 
grace and grandeur, and he surpassed him in the 
boldness of his relief, and the rich impasto of his 
colouring. His compositions, like those of his 
contemporaries, usually represented the subjects 
then mostly in demand for churches and convents, 
as the 'Virgin with the Infant, surrounded with 
Saints ; ' but he diversified the formality of these 
objects by embellishing them with magnificent 
architecture and groups of angels, or celestial 
choristers, composed and designed with elegance 
and taste. Some of his rivals had accused him of 
being incapable of designing the figure on a large 
scale, and he refuted the calumny by painting his 
masterpiece, the celebrated figure of ' St. Mark,' in 
the Florentine Gallery, regarded as a prodigy of 
art, and which occasioned a learned traveller to 
remark, that it appeared to him a large Grecian 
statue metamorphosed into a painting. The 
jealousy of his opponents charged him with being 
ignorant of the anatomy of the human body, until 
he painted a picture of St. Sebastian, so correctly 
designed, and of so perfect a form, that it excited 
universal admiration, and was judged by the 
monks to be too beautiful a figure to be publicly 
exposed in their church. 

The following is a list of some of Fra Barto- 
lommeo's principal works : 
Berlin. Museum. The Assumption (part ly Alberti- 

Florence. Fiiti Falace. of St. Catharine, 1512 
{part In) Albertinelli). 

„ „ Entombment. 

„ „ Pieta. 

„ „ St. Mark. 

„ TJffid. Patron Saints of Florence (pari hy 


„ n Virgin enthroned with Saints l)ds 

last work). 

Lucca. fS. Romano. God, the Father, adored by St. 

Catharine of - Siena, and Mary 

Magdalene (painted in 1509 for 

San Pietro Martire, Murano). 

,, „ Madonna della Misericordia. 1515. 

Nottingh. S, Mary's \ Madonna (formerly in the Ceritani 

Church. I Gallery, Florence') 
Panshanger.(^^^^^j3„jyp^.jy 1509. 

Paris. Lcmvre. The Virgin and Saints, presiding 

at the Marriage-of St. Catharine. 

1511 (originally in San Marco, 

„ „ The Annunciation (signed and 

dated 1515). 
Petersburg. Hermitage. Madonna with Angels. 
Rome. CdrsiniFal. Holy Family (dated 1516). 
Vienna. £elvedere. Presentation in the Temple. 

BARTOLOMMEO di TOMMASO was a painter 
who flourished in the early part of the 15th cen- 
tury, and was of Umbro-Sienese education. He 
painted a 'Virgin and Saints,' in 1430, for the 
church of San Salvadore, at Foligno. There also 
exist other paintings by him in the churches of that 

BARTOLOMMEO, Neeeoccio di. See De' Landi. 

ANO, Bartolommeo. 

BARTOLOZZI, FeXncesco, a celebrated en- 
graver, was the son of a goldsmith of Florence, 
where he was born in .1725. He was instructed in 
drawing by Ferretti at Florence, and learned 
the art of engraving from Joseph Wagner at 
Venice. His first productions were some plates 
after Marco Rioci, Zuccarelli, and others, engraved 
whilst he was in the employment of Wagner. But 
the theatre destined for the display of liis talents 
was England, where he arrived in 1764. Soon 
after, he was appointed engraver to the king with 
a salary of £300 a year, and in 1768 he was 
made a Royal Academician. Few artists have 
reached so distinguished a rank in their profession 
as Bartolozzi, and that in every species of engrav- 
ing. His etchings, in imitation of the drawings of 
the most eminent painters, admirably represent 
the spirit of the originals, and he was not less 
successful in the exquisitely finished plates he 
produced in the various styles he practised. In 
1802 Bartolozzi accepted the post of director of 
the National Academy of Lisbon, where he died in 
1815. Indefatigable in the exercise of his art, 
Bartolozzi has left us a prodigious number of 
plates, and the only embarrassment we experience 
is in selecting as copious a list of his works as 
our limits will permit, without omitting many 
others quite worthy of notice. 


Abraham and the Angels ; an etching. 
The Miracle of the Manna ; an etching. 
Job abandoned by his Friends. 
Charity, an oval; inscribed Ipse fecit. 
The Origin of Painting. 1787. 
The Virgin and Infant ; circular. 

St. Francis of Sales triumphing over Heresy; after 

St. Luke painting the Portrait of the Virgin; after 

The Adulteress before Christ ; after Agostino Carracci. 
Boland and Olympia ; after Anmbale Carracci. 
Clytie ; circular ; after the same. 
A set of six plates ; after original drawings by the 

Carracci ; in the Eoyal Collection, in imitation of the 

A set of eight subjects; after Castiglione. 
The Parting of Achilles and Briseis ; after Cipriani. 
Hector taking leave of Andromache ; after the same, 
Chryseis restored to her Father ; after the same. 
The Death of Dido ; after the same. 
Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida ; after the same. 
Venus presenting the Cestus to Juno ; after the same. 
Venus attired by the Graces ; after the same. 
Tancred and Herminia ; after the saine. 
Tancred and Clorinda ; after the same. 
Shakespeare crowned by Immortahty ; after the same. 
• Rachel hiding the Idols of her Father ; after Pietro da 

Laocoon attacked by the Serpents ; after the same. 
The Death of Lord Chatham ; after Copley. 
The Virgin and Infant ; after C trio Mold. 
A set of thirteen plates from the paintings by Domcn - 

chino ; in the cloister of Grotta Ferrata. 
Twenty-three plates, making a part of eighty-one, from 

drawings by Guercino ; in the Eoyal Collection. 
A set of Portraits of Illustrious Persons of the time of 

Henry VIII.; after drawings hy Holbein; in the 

Royal Collection. 
Two Portraits of Henry and Charles Brandon, sons of 

the Dukes of Suffolk ; after two miniatures by Hol- 
bein, executed in colours ; very fine, 
Socrates in Prison ; after Angelica Kanffynann. 





Penelope lamenting tJlysses ; after Angelica Zaufmann. 
Telemaohus and Mentor in the Isle of Calypso ; y'ier the 

Paulus Emilius educating his Children ; after the same. 

Coriolanus appeased by his Family ; after the same. 

The Interview of Edgar and Elfrida after her Marriage 
with Athelwold; after the same. This plate was 
begun by the imfortunate Ryland, and was finished 
by Bartolozzi for the benefit of his widow. 

The Portrait of Carlo Cignani ; after G. Maratti. 

The Portrait of Pietro da Cortona ; after the same. 

Prometheus devoured by the Vulture ; after Michel- 

The Bust of Michelangelo. 

King Joim ratifying Magna Charta; after Mortimer; 
the companion engraved under the same circum- 

Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi ; after West. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, and her Son; after Zuechero. 

A Collection of Gems, designed by various artists, 
engraved by Bartolozzi, 

BAETOLOZZI, Gabtano Stefano, a eon of 
Francesco Bartolozzi, wae born in 1757, and was 
also an engraver, but of no great celebrity. He 
was the father of the celebrated Madame Vestris. 
He died in 1821. 

BARTSCH, Adam, Ritter von, a modern German 
engraver, was born at Vienna in 1767. He attended 
the school of engravers in that city, and studied 
there under Schmiitzer. In 1775 he published 
designs of medals during the reign of Maria 
Theresa, and subsequently engraved numerous 
plates, some from the works of great masters, and 
some from his own compositions. He died at 
Hietzing in 1821. He was principal keeper of the 
Imperial and Royal Gallery at Vienna, and author 
of that very elaborate, correct, and useful work, 
' Le Peintre Graveur,' which may be safely pro- 
nounced the best account of prints ever published. 
For this work he etched a series of facsimiles of 
unique or extremely rare etchings by Dutch and 
Flemish artists, in which the touch and spirit of 
the originals are admirably copied. He also pub- 
lished Catalogues of the Etchings by Rembrandt 
and his scholars, of the works of Guido Reni, and 
of those of Lucas van Leyden, and other artists. 

Adam Bartsch. 

Johann Christian Brand, painter. 
A Toung Lady in a Nightcap. 1785. 
Michael "Wohlgemuth, painter. 
Antonio AUegri da Correggio j after Carlo Maratti. 
Madame Tscida. 

A Girl reading by Candlelight, said to be after Quido. 
The Marriage of Alexander and Boxana ; after Parmi- 

A set of thirty-nine plates, in imitation of the drawings 

of several masters, in the Imperial Collection. 
Twelve studies of Animals ; after J. S. Eoos ; four on 

each plate. 
A Traveller passing a Forest, with a Boy holding a 

Lantern ; engraved in the manner of Rembrandt. 
The Obsequies of Publius Decius Mus, large plate ; after . 

Horses ; after Rugendas. 
Cattle ; after Rubens. 
Boar-hunt ; after Snijders. 

His son, Fbibdeich von Baetsch, published, in 
1818 a catalogue raisonn^ of all the prints by his 
father ; they amount to 605 pieces. 

BARTSCH, Gottfried, a German engraver, was 
a native of Schweidnitz in Silesia. He settled at 
Berlin, and was engraver to the ' Great Elector ' 
from 1674 to 1684. By him we have a small collec- 
tion of prints from the pictures in the Gallery at 
Berlin. He also engraved the following plates : 


The Holy Family; after Van Dyck. 
Meleager presenting the Head of the Boar to Atalanta; 
after Rubens, 

BARUFPALDI, Antonio, was born at Perrara 
in 1793, studied at Venice, and died in 1819. The 
gallery of his native city possesses a ' Virgin read- 
ing,' and a 'Tancred and Armida,' by him. 

BARVBZ. See Beevic. 

BARY, Hbndeik, (or Baeey,) an eminent Dutch 
engraver, was bom about the year 1626. He 
appears from his style to have been either a scholar 
of Cornells Visscher, or to have formed himself 
from his mariner. We have several plates by him 
of portraits and various subjects, executed very 
neatly with the graver, which have great merit, 
although they are by no means equal to the works 
of Visscher. He generally marked his plates with 
his name, H. Bary, and sometimes H. B. By him 
we have the following : 


Dirk and "W"alther Crabeth, glass-painters. 

Adriaan Heerebord. 1659. 

Hieronimus van Bivemink. 

Desiderius Erasmus, of Rotterdam. 

Willem Joseph Baron of Ghent, admiral of Holland. 

Bombout Hagerbeets. 

Annius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius. 

Jacobus Taorinus. 

Count Johann Waldstein. 

La Duchesse de la Valliere. 

Hugo Grotius ; after Mirevelt, 

Comehs Ketel, painter ; se ipse pinx. 1659. 

Jacob Backer, painter ; G. Terborehjnnx. ; oval. 

John Schellhammer, pastor ; Escopius del, 

John Zas, pastor ; Ohr. Pierson pinx, 

Jacob BatiUere, predicant ; Westerbaem pinx, 

Arnold Gesteramus, predicant ; Westerbaem pinx. 

Michael Euyter, admiral ; after F. Bol. 

Admiral Tlugh ; after B. van der Heist, 

Leo Ajtzema, historian ; after Jan de Baan, 

George de Mey, theologian ; after G, van Siemsn, 


Neptune, emblematical. 

Allegorical title for the work of Leo van Aitzema. 
A Mother suckling her Child. 
Two Drolleries ; after Brouwer; S, Bary fee., without 

the name of the painter, 
A Peasant Family ; after Pieter A.ertsen. 
Summer and Autumn, in one plate, represented by two 

Children, one holding a handful of Corn ; after Van 

A young Woman leaning on a Table sleeping, and a 

young Man laughing ; after the same. 
A young Lady sitting at a Table, with a Hat and 

Feathers; after Terloreh, 

BARYB, Antoine Louis, born in Paris in 1795, 
was a successful sculptor who also painted in water- 
colours and etched several plates ; he was a pupil 
of Gros. He received the decoration of an officer 
of the Legion of Honour in 1855, and was elected 
a member of the Academy in 1868. He died in 
Paris in 1875. 

BAS, Jacques Philippe lb. See Le Bas. 

BAS, Maetin, (or Basse,) a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1600, Prom the style 
of his plates, it is very probable that he was 
brought up in the school of Wierix; his engrav- 
ings are evidently in imitation of the manner of 
that inaster. He was chiefly employed in portraits. 
We have by him the portrait of Edmund Genungs, 
Jesuit, prefixed to his ' Memoirs,' published 1591; 
the portrait of Philip Bosquexi, marked MaH. 
Basse ; and a small frontispiece of ' St. Peter and 
St, Paul; dated 1622. 




BASAITI, Maeco, a native of Friuli, was bom, 
according to some authorities, of Greek parents, 
and flourislied from about 1503 — the date of his 
earliest known work — ^to 1520. He was a rival 
of Giovanni Bellini, and if he did not equal that 
master in every respect, there are some points in 
which he surpassed him. He was happier in his 
composition, and understood better how to unite his 
grounds with his figures. His pictures are signed 
M. Baxit, Marcus Baxaiti, or Marcus Basaiti. 
The following are his best works : 

Berlin. Museum. Pieta. 

„ „ St. Sebastian. 

London. iVai. Gall. St. Jerome reading. 

„ „ Infant Christ asleep on the lap of 

the Virgin {doubtful). 
Eovigo. Museum. Christ carrying the Cross (jrroiabh/ 

painted in 1517). 
Venice. Academy/. OSrist praying in tne Garden ((ZafetJ 
„ „ Calling of St. James and St. John 

(painted in 1510). 
„ „ A Dead Christ with Two Angels. 

And others. 
„ Mcmfrini G. A Madonna and Child. 

S. Fietro d. \ St. George and the Dragon (dated 
" Castello. J 1520). 

Vienna. Belvedere. Calling of St. James and St. John 
(dated 1515). 

BASAN, PiEEBE FEANgois, a French engraver, 
born in Paris in 1723. He was a pupil of Btienne 
Fessard and Jean DauU^. He was principally 
occupied as a printseller, and published a ' Diction- 
liaire des Graveurs' in 1767. He died in 1797. 
He engraved the following plates : 

The Gothic Songster ; after A. Both. 
An Bcce Homo ; after Carcmaggio. 
Christ breaking the Bread ; after Carlo Dolei, 
St. Maurice ; a/ifer Luea Giordano. 
Bacchus and Ariadne ; ^ter Jordaens. 
Christophe Lemenu de St. PhiUbert ; after Ze Fevre. 
Iiouis XV., with Diogenes ; after Le Maine. 
The Female Gardener ; after JFrans Mieris, 
The Card-players ; after Teniers. 
An Incantation ; after the same. 
Carle Vanloo. 

Armand Gaston de Eohan, called the Cardinal de 

He also executed several copies after the scarce 
etchings of Rembrandt. 

BASCHENIS, BvARlSTO, a native of Bergamo, 
born in 1607, or 1617 (for authorities differ), was a 
painter of the Venetian school. He was among the 
first to introduce in Italy what is now termed paint- 
ing of still-life. He painted musical instruments 
with much effect, arranging them on tables covered 
with the most beautiful tapestries, and mingled 
with various other objects. From these materials 
he produced pictures with so much skill as quite 
to deceive the spectator. He died in 1677. 

BASILETTI, Ltjigi, who was bom at Brescia in 
1780, and died in 1860, is the author of a ' Cascade 
at Tivoli,' in the Brera at Milan. 

BASILI, PiBTEO Angiolo, was born at Gubbio 
about 1550. He was first a scholar of Felice 
Damiani, but afterwards studied under Cristofano 
Boncalli, whose manner he followed, though in a 
more delicate style. His fresco paintings in the 
cloister of Sant' Ubaldo in Gubbio are much 
esteemed ; and in the church of San Marziale is a 
picture in oil of ' Our Saviour preaching,' with a 
great number of figures. Basili died in 1604. 

BASILICATA, Pieteo della. See Afbsa. 

BASIRE, James, a son of Isaac Basire, an 
engraver of maps, was bom in London in 1730. 
Early in life he went with a patron to Rome and 
copied the works of Raphael. In 1760 he became 
engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and ten 
years afterwards to the Royal Society. He assisted 
in the production of Stuart's 'Athens,' and engraved 
several good portraits of eminent men. He died 
in London in 1802. Among his other works were: 

Captain Cook ; after Modges. 

Lady Stanhope, as the Fair Penitent ; after B. Wilson. 

Lord Camden ; aftei' Reynolds. 

Orestes and Py lades before Iphigenia; after West. 

The Field of the Cloth of Gold : the Interview between 

Henry VIII. and Francis I.; after the picture at 

Hampton Court. 

BASIRE, James, a son of the elder painter of 
the same name, was born in 1769, and followed 
his father's profession. He engraved many of the 
architectural plates in John Carter's works on 
'The English Cathedrals.' He was engraver to 
the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. 
He died at Chigwell Wells in 1822. His son, 
Jambs Basibb, born in 1796, was likewise engraver 
to the Society of Antiquaries, and assisted in many 
of Richard Gough's architectural works. He died 
in London in 1869. 

BASSANO. See Pontb. 

BASSANO, Cbsaee, a painter and engraver, was 
born at Milan about the year 1584. We have no 
account of his works as a painter, but he engraved 
the following plates : 

Portrait of Gaspar Asselline. 

A Funeral Frontispiece of Francesco Piccolomini. 

The Nativity. 

BASSE, Maetin. See Bas. 

BASSBLLI, Danibllo, is mentioned by Strutt 
as the engraver of a print representing ' Daniel in 
the Lions' Den,' after P. Caton. It is etched and 
retouched with the graver in a very slight style. 

BASSEN, Bartelmebs van, painter and archi- 
tect, flourished from 1613 to 1650. He painted at 
Delft, at the Hague, and in England. Neither the 
date of his birth nor that of his death is recorded. 
He was a Flemish painter of the interiors of 
churches and other public buildings, which he 
executed in a very skilful manner, both with re- 
gard to perspective and lively colouring. The 
figures in his pictures were frequently executed 
by eminent painters of his day, to whom he re- 
turned the compliment by supplying their archi- 
tectural wants. Among his works are : 

Berlin. Museum. Interior of a Church ; signed B. 

VAN Bassen, 1624, and under- 
neath F. FrANCK riGUEATIT. 

„ „ Interior of a room — toith figures. 

Copenhagen. Gallery. View of a Church, B. tan BASSEif, 
„ „ An Interior. 

Darmstadt. Gallery. Interior of a Room with figures, B. 

T. Bassen. 
Hague, Museum. Interior of a Ohiirch ; signed B. 

TAN Bassen, 1626. 

BASSEPORTE, Madeleine FEANgoiSE, the 
daughter of a wine-merchant, was bom in Paris 
in 1701. She was a pupil of Paul Ponce Antoine 
Robert, and afterwards of Charles Aubriet, whom 
she succeeded in 1741 as miniature painter to the 
king. She taught the daughters of Louis XV., 
and executed a large number of water-colour 
drawings of animals, plants, and flowers, many 
of which are in the library of the Jardin des 





Plantes. She engraved some plates for the Crozat 
Collection and others. We have by her : 

The Martyrdom of St. Fidelio de Sigmaxinga; after 

P. P. Robert de Seri. 
Diana and Endymiou; after a design of Setastiano 


There are also three books of flowers, drawn 
from nature, by her, and engraved by Ayril. Mile. 
Basseporte died at the Jardin du Eoi in Paris in 

BASSETTI, Maboo Antonio, was bom at 
Verona in 1588, and was a scholar of Felice Eicci. 
He afterwards visited Venice, and studied the 
works of the excellent oolourists of that school, 
particularly Tintoretto, whose style he preferred. 
On leaving Venice he went to Eome, where he 
remained for a considerable time. On his return 
to Verona he was employed in painting some pic- 
tures for the public edifices in that city. For the 
church of San Tommaso he painted a picture of 
' St. Peter and other Saints,' and for Sant' Anastasia, 
the ' Coronation of the Virgin.' By these and other 
works, particularly specified by Bidolfi, he acquired 
reputation as an eminent historical painter, but he 
was cut o£E in the prime of life by the plague 
which visited Verona in 1630. His works were 
highly prized, but he left very few, as his maxim 
was, that painting ought not to be pursued by 
journeymen as a mechanic art, but with the leisure 
that is bestowed on literature for the sake of the 
pleasure it affords. In the Munich Gallery there 
is a ' Martyrdom of St. Vitus,' by him. 

BASSI, Antonio. Several of the works of this 
painter are mentioned in descriptions of the pic- 
tures and sculpture of Ferrara, of which city he 
was a native. In the church of San Giovanni 
Battista were two pictures by him, one represent- 
ing the ' Holy Family reposing in Egypt,' the 
other, 'Our Saviour and the Samaritan Woman;' 
and in the church of San Clemente was the 'Virgin 
Mary, St. Anne, and St. Joachim.' He died in 1782. 

BASSI, Feanoesoo, was born at Bologna in 
1662 (?), and was, it is said, a scholar of Lorenzo 
Pasinelli. According to other authorities he was 
a scholar of Cesare Gennari and of Guercino. He 
painted numerous pictures in the public edifices at 
Bologna, and also worked at Florence. He died 
in 1732 (?). He was distinguished as a copyist 
and imitator of Guercino. 

BASSI, Feanoesoo Maria, 'the elder,' was bom 
at Cremona in 1642. He acquired the name of ' II 
Cremonese dei Paesi,' from his eminence in paint- 
ing landscapes, which he touched with great spirit, 
and at the same time sufBciently finished. He 
decorated them with figures and animals, tolerably 
drawn, and neatly painted. The private collec- 
tions at Venice possess many of his pictures. He 
died about the year 1700. His nephew, Feanoesoo 
Maeia, 'the younger,' who studied under him, was 
a painter of no great note. He worked till 1760. 

BAST, Dominique db, bom at Ghent in 
1782, was an amateur painter of landscapes and 
cattle, and also of marine subjects, in which he 
was_ considered to excel, in consequence of his 
having made many voyages by sea as a merchant. 
His pictures are chiefly to be seen in Ghent in 
private collections. 

BASTAED, a painter, executed about the end 
of the 17th century a large picture, not without 
merit, of 'Our Lord served by Angels in the 
Desert/ for the Jesuits' College of Palma, the 

capital of the island of Majorca. No other record 
of his work or life has been preserved. 
BASTAEO, Giuseppe del. See Puglia. 
BASTAEUOLO, II. See Mazzuoli, Giuseppe. 
BASTIANI, Lazzaeo, a Venetian artist, lived in 
the latter half of the 15th century. His early 
pictures show his Paduan education. He was an 
imitator of Vivarini. In 1470, he was an honoured 
member of the College of San Girolamo, Venice; 
and in 1508 was chosen by Bellini to value 
Giorgione's frescoes ; he also received the com- 
mission to paint the Portraits of the Doges, in the 
Hall of the Twenty. The dates of Bastiani's 
birth and death are unknown. He did not paint 
much after 1490. The following are some of his 
best works : 
Bergamo. Lochis Gar- 1 Coronation of the Virgin {ptniited 

rara Gal. j in 1490). 
Venice. Academy. The Nativity (painted in 1490). 
„ „ St. Cenofrio on his tree (painted in 

„ „ Gift of the Eelic (painted for ike 

scuola of San Giovanni Mvangel- 
„ Correr Mus. The Annunciation. 
„ Sani^ Antonio. The Entombment (his earliest 
known work). 
Vienna, Belvedere. The Glorification of St. Venaranda 
(muck damaged). 

BASTIANINO. See Filippi. 

BASTIBR DE BEZ, Jean Joseph, French land- 
scape painter, was born at Le Vigan (Gard) in 
1780. He commenced life as a money-changer, 
but afterwards became a pupil of Watelet, and 
painted a, large number of views in Italy and 
France. He died about 1845. 

BASTON, Thomas, an English painter of sea- 
pieces and shipping, flourished about the year 
1721. Several of his pictures were engraved by 
Kirkall, Harris, and others. He etched a few 
plates from his own designs ; among them is a 
print representing the ' Eoyal Anne,' with other 

BATEMAN, James, was bom in London in 1814, 
and at first starting in life was placed with a 
painter on glass. Though very fond of art, this 
branch was not to his taste. He soon gave it up, 
and accepted a situation as clerk, which he held 
till 1837, in which year he received an ofEerfrom 
two gentlemen, who agreed to take all the pioturts 
he produced in the first year, at the same time 
allowing him £100. He usually painted animals 
and domestic subjects, with much humour. He 
first exhibited at the British Institution in 1840, 
and at the Eoyal Academy in the following year, 
continuing to do so until his death, in March 1849. 

BATHEM. See Battem. 

BATLEY, an English engraver in mezzotint, 
flourished about the year 1770. He was chiefly 
employed in engraving portraits. 

BATONI, Pompeo Gieolamo, (or Battoni,) who 
was born at Lucca in 1708, at first followed the 
profession of his father, who was a goldsmith ; he 
was afterwards sent to Eome to study painting 
under Conca and Masuoci, but his chief lessons 
in art were derived from study of the works of 
Eaphael. A peculiar grace" and agreeableness, par- 
ticularly about his heads, rendered his pictures 
exceedingly popular, and his works were held m 
considerable estimation all over Europe. It was 
fortunate for the reputation and success of Ba- 
toni, that he lived at a period when the arts had 
fallen to a very low ebb in Italy. Mengs, his only 




rival, and hia superior, was chiefly employed in 
Spain ; Batoni was thus the only painter of his time 
at Rome that possessed the least pretension to merit, 
and he consequently met with great employment. 
He was more occupied in painting portraits than 
historical works, although there are several of his 
pictures in the public edifices at Rome. He painted 
the portraits of no less than twenty-two sovereigns. 
Batoni died at Rome in 1787. The following are 
among his best works : 

Berlin. Museum. Cupid and Psyche (signed and dated 

Dresden. Gallery. Penitent Magdalene (copied, in 1757, 
hy Dietrich for Frederick II., King 
of Prussia). 
„ „ And others. 

Florence. Uffizi. Education of AchiUes. 

„ „ Achilles at the Court of Lycomedes. 

„ . „ His own Portrait. 

Frankfort. Stddel. The five Arts (signed and dated 1740). 
Milan. Brera. Madonna and Saints. 
Paris. Louvre. The Virgin. 
Borne. Corsini Pal. Nativity. 
„ S. Maria Mag. Annunciation. 

" ^' ^^^eli. } ^^ °* S™°" ^^^'• 
Vienna. Belvedere. Eetum of the Prodigal Son. 
„ „ Portrait of Joseph II. 

A Life of Batoni, by Boni, was published at 
Rome in 1787. 

BATTAGLIB, Michelangelo delle. See 

BATTEM, Gbkhakd van, (or Bathem,) a Dutch 
landscape painter, who flourished about the year 
1650, and died at Amsterdam in 1690. It is sup- 
posed that he was a pupil of Rembrandt, as some 
of his pictures bear a resemblance to that master's 
manner. His subjects are mountainous landscapes 
with banditti, travellers, and stag-hunts. 

BATTISTELLO. See Caeacciolo. 

BATTY, Lieutenant-Colonel Robekt, the son 
of Dr. Batty of Hastings, was bom about 1789. 
He was at one time in the Grenadier Guards, with 
which regiment he served in the campaign of the 
Western Pyrenees, and at Waterloo. He was an 
amateur artist of considerable merit. He published 
in 1822 'French Scenery;' in 1823 'German 
Scenery ' and ' Welsh Scenery ; ' in 1826 ' Scenery 
of the Rhine, Belgium, and Holland,' all of which 
have been much esteemed ; in 1828 ' Hanoverian, 
Saxon, and Danish Scenery ; ' and in 1832 ' Select 
Views of the principal Cities of Europe.' He died 
in London in 1848. 

BADDESSON, Nicolas, a French flower painter, 
was bom about 1611, and received into the 
Academy in 1671. He died at Paris in 1680, leav- 
ing a son, Jean FEANgois Baudesson, born in 
Paris in 1640, who was also a painter of flowers 
and fruit. He became a member of the Academy 
in 1689, and died in Paris in 1713. 

BAUDET, Etienne, an eminent French en- 
graver, was born at Vineuil, in the department of 
Loir-et-Cher, about 1636. He was a pupil of 
Sebastien Bourdon and Comelis Bloemaert, and 
afterwards went to Rome, and appears to have 
adopted the manner of Cornells Bloemaert in his 
earliest plates, which are executed entirely with 
the graver. He afterwards on his return to Paris 
altered his manner, and calling iu the assistance 
of the point, he executed his best prints, which 
bear a strong resemblance to the manner of Jean 
Baptiste Poilly. He made an excellent choice in 
the subjects of his plates, which are from the works 

of some of the most distinguished masters of Italy 
and France. He was a member of the Royal 
Academy of Paris, in which city he died in 1711. 
The following are his principal works : 


Pope Clement IX. 

Charles Perrault ; after C. Le Brun. 

Louisa, Duchess of Portsmouth, as Venus, caressing a 

Dove ; after H. Oascar. 
Bust of the Emperor Adrian, from the antique. 
Bust of a Roman Lady. 


The Virgin teaching the Infant Jesus to read ; after 

The "Woman of Samaria ; after the same. 
Four plates of the Loves of Venus and Adonis; after 

the same ; engraved at Home in 1672. 
Four circular prints of the Four Elements ; after the 

swme ; dated 1695. 
The Nativity ; after J. Blanchard. 
The Holy FamOy ; after S. Bourdon ; round. 
Six Landscapes ; after the same. 
The dead Christ on the Knees of the Virgin Mary ; after 

Annibale Carracci. 
The Stoning of Stephen ; after the same. 1677. 
Adam and Eve ; after Domenichino ; very fine. 
Six — Of the great Staircase at Versailles; after Le 

Brun ; that of the ceiling is engraved by C. Sim- 

The Communion of the Primitive Christians ; after C 

Moses treading on the Crown of Pharaoh; after JT. 

Moses striking the Bock ; after the same. 

The "Worshipping of the Grolden Calf ; after the same. 

The Holy Family ; after the same. 

Venus reposing ; after the same ; dated 1666. 

Four Grand Landscapes ; after the same ; dedicated to 
the Priuce of Coud6. Dated 1684. 

Four other Grand Landscapes; after the same; dedi- 
cated to the King of France. 

The Tribute Money ; after Valentin. 

BAUDITZ (or Baudies). See Pauditz. 

BAUDOUIN, Pierre Antoine, the son of Michel 
Baudouin, an engraver of little note (who died in 
1754), was born in Paris in 1723. He was a pupil 
and imitator of Boucher, whose younger daughter 
he married in 1758, and through whose influence 
he was elected an Academician in 1763, as a 
miniature painter, on which occasion he presented 
his drawing of ' Hyperides pleading the cause of 
Phryne before the Areopagus,' now in the Louvre. 
Baudouin executed idyllic and erotic subjects in 
water-colours and crayons, but painted but seldom 
in oil. He died in Paris in 1769. 

BAUDOUIN, Simon Ren^. This amateur en- 
graver, who was born in 1723, was an officer in 
the French Guards, and amused himself with the 
point. He etched a set of plates from his own 
designs, representing the military exercise of the 
French infantry. He also engraved some prints of 
battles, after the pictures of Charles Parrocel, and 
a set of small landscapes, after Michau and others. 

BAUDUIN, Anton Feans. See Boudewyns. 

BAUER, Ferdinand Lucas, who was bom at 
Feldsburg, in Austria, in 1760, came to England 
in 1800, and obtained celebrity as a draughtsman 
for the Royal Botanical Society, and for various 
botanical publications. On a journey round the 
world he stayed some time at Botany Bay, and 
made many valuable drawings. He returned to 
Austria in 1812, and died at Hietzing, near Vienna, 
in 1826. A large collection of his drawings may 
be consulted in the British Museum. 

BAUER, JoH.*WiLH. See Baub. 





BAUGIN, J., a Frencli engraver, who flourislied 
about the year 1660. He engraved several por- 
traits, among -which is that of H. de la Mothe. 

BAUGIN, LUBIN, was born at Pithiviers (Loiret) 
about 1610, He was a member of the Corporation 
of Master-Painters, and was admitted into the Eoyal 
Academy of Painting in 1651. He executed many 
designs for tapestry. He studied and imitated 
Parmigiano and Guido. His contemporaries called 
him ' Le petit Guide.' The ' Holy Family,' by him, 
in the Louvre, has been engraved by F. de Poilly. 
He died in Paris in 1663. 

BAUMANN, Adolph, who was born in 1829, 
painted historical pictures in oil and fresco at 
Munich, where he died in 1865. A ' Madonna and 
Child,' by him, is in the Pinakothek. 

BAUMGAETNEB, Johann, known by the name 
of Pater Nokbbet, was bom about the year 1717. 
He executed a number of pen-and-ink drawings, as 
well as historical paintings. He was a member of 
the Academy of Vienna, in which city he died in 
1773. P. Campana engraved his picture at Eome 
of ' St. Dominic kissing the hand of the Child 
Jesus.' There also exist by him : 

Bologna. Capuchin Man. The Magdalene. 
Presburg. Academy. Holy Family. 

Vienna. Capuchin Man. Mary when a Child before the 
High Priest. 
„ „ Death of St. Joseph. 

BAUE, Johann Wilhelm, (or Bauee,) a painter 
and engraver, was born at Strasburg in 1600. He 
studied painting under Friedrich Brentel, and it 
was not long before he surpassed his instructor. 
On leaving that master he went to Italy, and spent 
some years at Eome, where he painted views of 
that city and environs, with small figures, neatly 
touched, which were greatly admired. The Prince 
Giustiniani favoured him with his protection ; and 
he was also patronized by the Duke of Bracciano, 
who allotted him apartments in his palace. 
In 1637 Baur left Eome, and went to Venice, 
where his works were equally admired. He after- 
wards visited Vienna, and was taken into the 
employment of the Emperor Ferdinand III., in 
whose service he died, at Vienna, in 1642. His 
pencil is very neat and spirited, and his colouring 
warm and glowing. It is to be regretted that he 
was not more correct in his design. As an en- 
graver, he acquired considerable celebrity, and 
executed a great number of plates from his own 
designs, the best of which are those taken from 
the ' Metamorphoses ' of Ovid. They are slightly 
etched, and finished with the graver. They are 
very spirited, and resemble the manner of Callot. 
He marked his plates sometimes with his 'YYZJ 
name, and sometimes with the cipher an- VtCj. 
nexed. The following are his principal works : 

Portrait of Don Paolo Giordano II., Orsino, Duca di 
Bracciano ; oval ; dated 1636 ; scarce. 

A set of Habiliments of different Nations, with his 
Portrait ; eighteen prints. 

A set of Battles; entitled Caprici di varie battaglie ; 
fifteen prints. 

Another set of Battles ; fourteen prints, with the title. 

A set of Landscapes, among which are the Four Ele- 
ments ; twelve prints. 

Twenty of Battles, for Strada's History of the Beleic 
"War. ^ 

The Metamorphoses of Ovid ; one hundred and fifty 
prints, published at Vienna, in 1641. 

BAUE, Nicolaas, who was born at Harlingen 
in 1767, was the son of Hendrious Antonius Baue, 
8 portrait painter (born 1736, died 1817). He 


painted landscapes and views of cities, and many 
houses in Holland are embellished by his works. 
He also painted moonlight and winter scenes ; and 
was particularly successful in marine subjects. He 
is considered one of the best of the later Dutch 
marine painters. He died at Harlingen in 1820. 

BAUSA, Gebqoeino, a Spanish painter, bom at 
Mallorca, a town in the vicinity of Valencia, in 
1596. He was a scholar of Francisco Eibalta, and 
was a reputable painter of history. The principal 
altar-piece in the church of St. Philip of the 
Carmelites at Valencia, representing the Martyr- 
dom of that Saint, is by Bausa. There are also 
several pictures by him in the monastery of Los 
Trinitarios Calzados in that city. He died in 1656. 

BADSE, Johann Feiedrich, a German engraver, 
was born at Halle, in Saxony, in 1738. He is 
stated to have learned the art of engraving without 
the instruction of a master, and to have formed his 
manner by an imitation of the admirable prints of 
J. G. Wille. He died at Weimar in 1814. His 
works, which are very numerous, are chiefly exe- 
cuted with the graver, which he handled with 
great purity and firmness. The following are his 
principal plates, except his portraits, which are 
chiefly of German characters of little celebrity: 

Damon and Musidora, subject from Thomson; after 

A Moonlight Scene ; after the same. 
The Magdalene ; from a drawing by Bach, after Batoni. 
Three Apostles ; after Caravaggio ; etching. 
Venus and Oupid ; after Carlo Cignani. 
Michael Ehrlich ; after B. Denner ; a mezzotint. 
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Dietrich. 
The Good Housewife ; after G. Dou. 
Bust of a Girl ; after Greuze. 
Artemisia ; after Guido. 
The Head of Christ ; after the same. 
The Old Confidante ; after Kupetsky. 
Cupid feeling the Point of an Arrow ; after Mems. 
Bust of a Girl, with a Basket of Boses ; after Netscher. 
The Sacrifice of Abraham ; after Oeser. 
La petite Rusee ; after Meynolds. 

A list of his works may be found in Nagler and 
Heineken. See also Dr. G. Keil's 'Katalog des 
Kupferstichwerkes von Johann Friedrich Bause,' 
Leipzig, 1849. His daughter, Julians Wilhel- 
MiNE Bause, etched, with talent, a number of 
landscapes after Kobell, Both, and other artists. 
She was born in 1768, and died in 1837. 

BAVAEESE. See Oefele. 

BAXAITL See Basaiti. 

BAXTEE, Charles, an English portrait and 
subject painter, was born in London in 1809. He 
commenced life as a bookbinder, but afterwards 
studied under Clint. He exhibited at the Eoyal 
Academy, where his first picture appeared in 1834, 
and at the Society of British Artists, of which he 
became a member in 1842. His first works were 
miniatures and portraits in oil, but his greatest 
success was in fancy portraits. He died at Lew- 
isham in 1879. Amongst his works are : 

The Dream of Love. 

Olivia and Sophia (London Exhibition, 1862). 

Peasant Girl of CMoggia. 1869. 

Rich and rare were the gems she wore. 1872. 

BAXTEE, George, a wood-engraver, who was 
born at Lewes in 1806, went in 1825 to London, 
where he became celebrated for a method of print- 
ing in oil-colours which he invented. His best 
works were a copy of 'The Descent from the 
Cross,' by Eubens ; ' The Opening of the First 
Parliament of Queen Victoria,' for which he was 
awarded the Austrian gold medal; the 'Queen's 




Coronation,' and a miniature of ' The Baptism of 
the Prince of Wales.' He was for many years a 
frequent contributor to the Eoyal Academy Exhi- 
bitions. He died at Sydenham in 1867. 

BAXTBE, Thomas, a native of Worcester, bom 
in 1782, excelled in fruit and flower pieces, which 
He painted in water-colours. He also assisted John 
Britton in his work on Salisbury Cathedral. He 
died in London in 1821. 

BAY. See Debay. 

BAYEE, A*GUST von, who was born at Eor- 
sohach in 1804, first studied architecture under 
Weinbrenner, at Carlsruhe. He visited Munich 
and PariSj and subsequently devoted himself to 
painting interiors of churches, chapels, cloisters, 
halls, &c., in which he produced very happy 
efEects. In 1853 he was appointed conservator of 
the monuments and antiquities in the Grand Duchy 
of Baden, and died at Carlsruhe in 1873 (or 1875). 
Among his best works are : 

The interior of the Frauenkirche at Munich. 

A portion of the Cathedral at Chur. 

The Convent of Maulbronn. 

The Organ Player (lithographed hy Fr. Soke). 

An interior of a Cloister (lithographed by Ft. Hohe) . 

There are four works by him in the Pinakothek 
at Munich. 

BAYEE, HiEEONTMUS VON, bom at Bauris, Salz- 
burg, in 1792, was an excellent etcher, a master 
of the University at Landshut'in 1809, and subse- 
quently a professor, and a member of Council at 
the University of Munich. He etched a large 
number of landscapes of great finish. 

BAYEE, Josef, who was bom at Vienna in 1804, 
became a painter of merit, but died there when still 
young, in 1831. In the Belvedere there are two 
works by him — a 'Portrait of a Boy,' signed and 
dated 1829, and ' The Flight into Egypt,' signed 
and dated 1830. 

BAYEU T SUBIAS, Feancisco, was born at 
Saragossa in 1734. He was first instructed by 
Luzan, in Tarragona, and having gained the pre- 
mium at the Academy, he was allowed a pension, 
to enable him to visit Madrid, where he entered 
the school of Gonzales Velazquez. His merit 
attracted the notice of Eaphael Mengs, who recom- 
mended him to the protection of Charles III., 
and that monarch employed him in the Pardo, and 
in the palaces at Aranjuez and Madrid, where he 
also painted several pictures for the churches. In 
1765 he was received into the Academy at Madrid, 
and in 1788 was made painter to the king. He 
died at Madrid in 1795. He etched a few plates. 
The following are a few of his best paintings : 

Madrid. New Palace. The Conquest of Granada. 

„ „ Apotheosis of Hercules. 

„ „ The FaU of the Giants. 

„ „ And others. 

„ Museum. Sacred and Genre pictures (28). 

Works by him are to be seen in the Carthusians 
Madrid, — the ' Life of St. Bruno,' — and frescoes in 
the churches of Toledo and Saragossa. 

BAYEU T SUBIAS, Eamon, was born at Sara- 
gossa in 1746, and was instructed in art by his 
brother Francisco. He is principally to be noticed 
as an assistant to his brother in his fresco works. 
He died at Aranjuez in 1793. 

BAYNES, James, a water-colour painter, was 
bom at Kirkby Lonsdale in 1766, and early in life 
became a student of the Eoyal Academy. In after 
years he exhibited views in North Wales, and in 

Norfolk and other English counties, frequently 
introducing cattle. He died in 1837. 

BAYUCO, J0AN Batjtista, was a painter of some 
repute at Valencia, where he was bom in 1664. 
His best works were his pictures in the cloister of 
the convent of St. Sebastian, illustrative of the 
'Life of San Francisco de Paula.' 

BAZAN, Mariana SILVA. See Silva Bazan. 

BAZICALUVB, Ekcolb, (or Bazzical0ve,) an 
eminent engraver of Pisa, and pupil of G. Parigi, 
flourished about the year 1640, and became cas- 
tellan of the castle of Leghorn. Bartsoh describes 
seven of his prints, and Brulliot others which had 
escaped the notice of that writer. Of his works 
may be mentioned a ' Triumphal Procession,' and 
twelve landscapes. 

BAZIN, Chaeles Lottis, a French painter, 
sculptor, engraver, and lithographer, was born in 
Paris in 1802, where he died in 1859. He was a 
pupil of Girodet-Trioson and of Gerard, after the 
latter of whom he engraved a portrait of Albertine 
de Stael, Duchesse de Broglie. 

BAZIIST, Nicolas, a French engraver, was born at 
Troyes, in Champagne, in 1633, where he died in 
1710. He was a pupil of Claude Mellan, and estab- 
lished himself in Paris as an engraver and print- 
seller. He worked principally with the graver, in 
rather a stifE, dry manner, and published several 
plates, executed by himself and others, chiefly 
engraved by the young artists he employed. His 
plates are portraits and historical subjects, of which 
the following are the principal : 


Madame Helyot, an abbess ; after his own design. 

Madame Guyon, a celebrated visionary. 

Jean du Houssay de Chaillot, a hermit. 

Father Emanuel Magnan. 

Father Anthony Verjus, a Jesuit ; after J. P. de Cany. 

Jean Crasset, a Jesuit ; after Du Mee. 

St. Francis Xavier. 

St. Ignatius de Loyola, founder of the Jesuits. 

Louis XIV., on horseback. 1682. 

Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XIT. ; after 

Le Febiire. 1681. 
Louis, Dauphin of France ; after Martin. 1686. 
Frauijois Barreme, arithmetician. 


St. Francis receiving the Stigmata ; after Baroeci. 

St. Isabella, foundress of the Abbey of Longchamps; 

after Philippe de Champagne. 
The Virgin Mary suckling the Infant Saviour; after 

Two Ladies, one"goiug into a Bath ; after J. Dieu. 
St. Anne teaching St. Elisabeth to read ; ajFter Le Brun, 
St. Maxy, of Egypt, and St. Zozima ; after the same. 
St. Jerome and St. Peter, two plates ; after Liehery, 
The Holy Virgin. 
The Annunciation. 
Christ crowned with Thorns. 
The Crucifixion. 

BAZZANI, Giuseppe, was born at Eeggio in 
1701 (or 1690), and was a scholar of Giovanni 
Canti. According to Lanzi, he studied the works 
and imitated- the style in which Eubens had 
painted in Italy ; at Mantua and in the neigh- 
bouring convents he executed many frescoes with 
great spirit and freedom. He was director of the 
Academy at Mantua, in which city he died in 1769. 

BAZZI, Giovanni Antonio, or Di Bazzi (mis- 
called Eazzi), called ' II Sodoma,' was born at 
Vercelli, in the Piedmontese, in 1473 (or 1477). 
He was the son of a cobbler, and when 13 years of 
age he entered the studio of Martino de Spanzotis, 





an unknown artist, with whom he remained for 
many years. He also seems to have studied the 
works of Leonardo's school, his later pictures show- 
ing that decided Leonardesque style peculiar to 
Bernardino Luini, Andrea Solario, and Cesare da 
Sesto. A ' Madonna,' in the Morelli Collection at 
Milan, is the only one of his early works that still 
exists. We find him at Siena in 1501, where he 
painted, probably soon after his arrival, a ' Depo- 
sition from the Cross.' This picture is now at the 
Academy in Siena, and is decidedly the finest 
altar-piece ever painted in that town. In the year 
1503 he was commissioned to adorn the refectory 
of the convent of St. Anna in Creta, near Eienza, 
with frescoes representing the miracle of the 
loaves and fishes. In 1505 he began at the 
monastery of Mont Oliveto, near Buonconvento, 
the 24 fresco-paintings representing the History of 
St. Benedict. These are very unequal in execution. 
Some are painted with the greatest care, and are full 
of life and grace ; others, however, are more hastily 
done ; and it was for this reason that the artist was 
called by the monks ' Mattaccio ' (scatter-brained). 
Between the years 1507 and 1508 he visited Rome, 
where he was employed in the Vatican by Pope 
Julius II. But very little remains of these fres- 
coes, which were eventually destroyed to make 
room for the works undertaken by Raphael. In 1510 
Bazzi returned to Siena for three years, but was 
again at Rome from 1513 to 1516, when he was 
engaged by Agostino Chigi to paint in the Villa 
Farnesina two large fresco-paintings, 'The Marriage 
of Alexander and Roxana,' and ' The Family of 
Darius. ' The former is generally considered to be 
one of the most enchanting pictures of the whole 
Renaissance. Bazzi here rivals Raphael. In the 
Oratorio of San Bernardino, at Siena, he began to 
paint, al fresco, Four Saints, and other historical 
subjects, in 1515 ; but they were not completed until 
1532. His picture on canvas, representing San 
Sebastian, probably the finest of all Sebastians 
that exist, was executed in 1516. It is now in the 
UflBzi G-allery. Another superior specimen of his 
art is the decoration of the Chapel of St Catherine 
of Siena, in the Church of San Dominico, at Siena, 
painted in 1527. Amongst the scenes from the 
life of the Saint he there represents the ecstasy of 
the Saint with best success. Between the years 
1629 and 1534 he painted, in the town-hall in the 
Sala delle Calestre, some isolated figures of Saints 
(SS. Vittorio, Ansano, and Bernardo Tolomei), and 
a beautiful ' Holy Family ' in the Chapel. ' The 
Adoration of the Magi,' in the Church of St. 
Agostino, was painted in 1536. From 1515 to this 
year he resided permanently at Siena, with the 
exception of a period of seven years (1518 — 1526), 
during which his whereabouts is not known. He 
betook himself to the court of Giacomo V., Prince 
of Piombino, in 1536 ; worked at Volterra in 1540 ; 
and proceeded thence to Pisa, where he was com- 
missioned to execute two pictures for-the duomo, 
and a 'Madonna with Saints,' for the church of 
Santa Maria dolla Spina. After having also visited 
Lucca he returned to Siena, where he died in 

Bazzi was the founder of a new school of painters 
at Siena, where before him every artist had painted 
in the antiquated manner of Duccio's Gothic or 
Byzantine conceptions. His chief imitators are 
Pacchiarotto, Becoaf umi, and Girolamo del Pacchia. 
His figures are distinguished by vague forms and 
tender expressions, but his compositions are often 


crowded and too compact. He became influenced 
by Raphael in his later works, which are dull and 
flimsy in style. Most of them are at Vienna. Vasari 
does not do full justice to the artist, whose rakish 
life, which gave him the nick-name 'II Sodoma,' 
he describes minutely, while he depreciates inten- 
tionally nearly all his works. Besides the works 
mentioned in the text, the following are worthy of 
mention : 



Holy Fami^ 
Ecoe Horn* 


Pitti Palace. 


Mausman Coll. 



Grosvenor Ho. 

"Virgin and Child. 


Cook Coll. 

St. George on Horseback. 


Borghese Palace 

. Virgin and Child. 


Chigi Palace. 

Marriage of St. Catharine 


Two Madonnas. 




J. PR. 

BEACH, Thomas, was bom at Milton Abbas, in 
Dorsetshire, in 1738. He was a pupil of Reynolds, 
and became distinguished as a portrait painter. 
He lived for many years at Bath, and sent his 
pictures to the exhibitions of the Incorporated 
Society of Artists, and afterwards to the Royal 
Academy. Three of his works were included in 
the Exhibition of National Portraits, 1867. His 
picture of ' John Kemble and Mrs. Siddons, in 
" Macbeth," ' is his most celebrated production. 
He died at Dorchester in 1806. 

BEALE, Maet, an eminent portrait painter, was 
born in Suffolk in 1632. She was the daughter 
of the Rev. J. Cradook of Walton-on-Thames, and 
having shown a great inclination for art, she was 
placed under Sir Peter Lely, and soon became 
proficient. By copying several paintings by Van 
Dyck, she acquired a purity and sweetness of 
colouring for which her portraits are distin- 
guished. Of an estimable character, and very 
amiable manners, she was patronized and em- 
ployed by many of the most distinguished persons 
of her time. Her husband was also a painter, but 
of no celebrity. Mrs. Beale died in London in 
1697. In the National Portrait Gallery, London, 
there are by her two portraits — one of Charles II., 
and the other of Abraham Cowley. (See Walpole's 
' Anecdotes.' ) 

BEARD, Thomas. This engraver was a native 
of Ireland, and flourished about the year 1728. He 
worked in mezzotint, and engraved principally 
portraits ; among which are the following : 

The Archbishop of Armagh ; after P. Ashton. 
The Countess of Clarendon; after Kneller. 
Jolm Sterne, Bishop of Clogher ; after Carlton. 

BBATEIZET, Nicolas, (Bbauteizet, or Bea- 
TRICETTO,) a French engraver, was bom at Lune- 
ville in or before 1520. From his style it has been 
conjectured that he was a scholar of Ghisi, and of 
Agostino Veneziano de Musis. From 1640 to 1560 
he engraved under the direction of Michelangelo. 
He died at Rome after 1560. His works are more 
indebted, for the estimation in which they are held, 
to the subjects he has selected, than to the merit 
of their execution. He usually marked his plates 
\vith the letters i\r. £. L. F. Their number is con- 
siderable, but most of them are "XT-) "KTIT 
comprised in the following list: _[\3 J\JJ.^ 

Bust of Kns m. 
Pope Paul III., an oval. 
Pope Paul IT. ; dated 1558. 
Henry II., King of France ; N. B. F. Lot.f. 1558. 




Another Portrait of Henry II. ; dated 1556. 

Hippolita Gonzaga. 

Juan Valverdus, Spaniard. 

Antoine Salamanca, engraver and dealer in prints. 

Don Juan of Austria, an oval, on a monument j inscribed 
Generate della Legha. 

The Genealogy of the first twelve Emperors and Em- 
presses, with their Portraits, from medals ; two sheets. 

The Kings of Poland, in medallions ; inscribed Reges 


Cain killing Abel ; inscribed Fratricida Abelis, A. S- 

ex. 1540. 
Joseph explaining the Dream ; after Raphael; marked 

N. B. F., and his name ; one of his best plates. 
The Nativity of the Yirgin ; after Baccio Bandinelli ; 

inscribed Nieolaus Beatricius restUuit et formis suis 

The Annunciation ; with the names of Michelangelo and 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Barmigiano, K.B.L.F. 
The Holy Family, with St. John ; Jerom. Mutian,pinx., 

Nicolaus Beatricius Lotaringus^ incidit, Sjc. 
The Good Samaritan ; Michelangelo, inv. 
Christ on the Mount of Olives: after Titian; marJced 

N. B. F. 
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Magdalene, and St. 

John ; with the Sun and Moon on each side ; Muei- 

anus Brixianus, itw., Nicolaus Beatricius, S^e. exe. 
The Mater Dolorosa ; after Michelangelo ; If. B. Bomce. 

The taking down from the Cross; after Circignani ; 

marked B. Bonus. 
Christ delivering the Souls from Purgatory ; with the 

names of Raphael and Beatrici. 
The Ascension; after Raphael, with his cipher. 1541. 
The Conversion of St. Paul ; Michelangelo, pinx., S^c. ; 

marked iV. B, 
St. Michael overcoming the Evil Spirit ; after Raphael; 

marked N. B. L. 
The Virgin seated on a Throne, distributing Kosaries ; 

inscribed Kicolaus Beatricius, S;c. exe., oval. 
The Cross worshipped all over the world ; arched plate, 

marked N. B. F., and inscribed Crux illustris, SfC. 


The prophet Jeremiah ; after Michelangelo. 

St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix; after Titian; 
marked N. B. L. F. 

St. Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, relieving the dis- 
tressed ; after Mutiano. 

The Last .Judgment; aper Michelangelo. Dated 1562. 
In nine sheets. 


The Sacrifice of Iphigenia; on the altar is inscribed 

Iphigenia ; it is marked N. B. L. F. 
Ganymede ; after Michelangelo ; inscribed Ganimedes 

jwoenis, §c. 
The Fall of Phaeton ; after Michelangelo ; retouched by 

Tityus devoured by a Vulture; after the same; Ant. 

Salamancha, ex. 
Silenus carried by Children; after the same; N. Bea- 
trice, fee. 
The Dream of Human Life, emblematical subject ; after 

the same. 
Shooting at a Target ; after the same. 
Vertumnus and Pomona ; after Pontormo. 
Beason combating Love ; after B. Bandinelli ; with his 

A Combat between five Men and five Vild Beasts ; after 

Giulio Romano. 1532. 
The Battle of the Amazons ; after a hasso-rilievo ; in- 
scribed Amazonum pugna, S;c. 1559. 
The Battle of the Dacii; after the basso-rilievo of the 

Arch of Constantine; marked N. B. and inscribed 

Tabula Marmora, Igc. 
The Emperor Trajan triumphant ; after a basso-rilievo. 

The Pantheon of M. Agrippa; marked N. B. F. 
The Temple of Fortune; after a drawing ii/ Raphael; 

marked JY. B. F. 

The great Circus; marked iV. Beatrizet Lotaringice ; 

two sheets. 
The Front of the Farnese Palace ; after the design of 

Michelangelo. 1548. 
Statue of Moses ; after Michelangelo ; inscribed Moysis 

ingens, ^e. 
Statue of Jesus Christ; after Michelangelo ; with his 

Equestrian Statue of M. Aurelius. 1558. 
Statue of a Philosopher reading ; inscribed Anaximenes, 

^c. : the plate was afterwards retouched, and the 

Philosopher changed into St. Paul. 
The Castle of St. Angelo. 
The Siege and Taking of LuneviUe ; Mc. Beatrizet Lo- 

taringas, ineidet. 1553, 

BEAU, Pierre Adribn le. See Le Beau. 

BEAUBRUN, Henri, a French portrait painter 
to the king, and a member of the Royal Academy 
of Painting in 1648, was born at Amboise about 
1603 ; he died in 1677. Charles Beaubrun, his 
cousin and fellovr-worker, also -i portrait painter, 
was bom at Amboise in 1604, received into the 
Academy in 1651, and died in Paris in 1692. Works 
by them are in the Madrid Gallery. Mathieu 
Beaubrun, the father of Charles and brother of 
Louis, was likewise a painter. He died in Paris in 
1642. Louis Beaubrun, a portrait painter of the 
16th century, an imitator of the Pourbus, was uncle 
of Charles and Henri, and died in Paris in 1627. 
In 1616, on the occasion of the entry of Louis 
XIII. and Anne of Austria into Paris after their 
marriage, Louis Beaubrun executed a large alle- 
gorical painting for the decoration of the Porte St. 
Jacques, which he himself engraved. 

BEAUCLERK, Lady Diana, a daughter of 
Charles Snencer, second Duke of Marlborough, 
was born in 1734, and became an amateur artist 
of some celebrity. She married, in 1757, Frederick, 
second Viscount Bolingbroke, from whom she was 
divorced in 1768. Two days after she married the 
celebrated wit, Topham Beauclerk, by whom she 
was left a widow in 1780. Her illustrations of 
Burger's ' Leonora ' (1796), and Dryden's ' Fables ' 
(1797), are well known to book collectors. She 
also designed groups of young Bacchanals, and 
other bas-reliefs for Wedgwood. She died in 

BEAUMBZ, Jean de, is recorded to have been 
"painter and valet" to Philip the Hardy, for whom 
he painted numerous works, and decorated, among 
other chapels, that of the Castle of Argilli, in Bur- 
gundy. Jean de Beaumez was employed by hia 
patron from about 1375 to 1395. 

BEAUMONT, Cavaliere Claudio, was born at 
Turin in 1694. After studying some time in his 
native city, he went to Rome, and appli-ed himself 
to copying the works of Raphael, the Carracci, and 
Guido. He appears to have had little respect for the 
Roman painters of his time, except Trevisani, whose 
manner he imitated in the vigour of his tints. On 
his return to Turin, he was employed in decorating 
the royal palace, where he also painted in fresco, in 
the library, various symbolical subjects, relative to 
the Royal Family of Sardinia ; and in the other 
apartments he represented the ' Rape of Helen,' 
and the ' Judgment of Paris.' In the Chiesa della 
Oroce is a fine picture of the 'Descent from the 
Cross.' The King of Sardinia conferred on him 
the order of knighthood in 1766. 

BEAUMONT, Sir George Howland, Baronet, 
an amateur painter, was born at Dunmow, in Essex, 
in 1753. He was a liberal patron of artists, and 
very fond of their society. He was a great 




admirer of Claude and of Wilson; and painted 
in a respectable manner scenes at Coleorton and 
the groves at Charnwood. In 1826 he presented 
sixteen pictures to the National Gallery, which 
collection he greatly helped to establish. The 
Gallery also possesses two landscapes by him, 
presented after his death by his widow. He died 
at Coleorton, Leicestershire, in 1827. 

See Albanis db Beaumont. 

BEAUMONT, John Thomas BARBER, who was 
born in London in 1774, was in early life a, 
miniature painter; and from 1794 to 1806 exhi- 
bited his works under his original name. Barber, 
at the Royal Academy. He subsequently adopted 
the name Beaumont in addition to Barber. He 
is best known as the originator and manager of 
the County Fire Office and of the Provident Life 
Office. He died in London in 1841. 

BEAUMONT, Piekbe Feanqois, a French en- 
graver, was born in Paris about the year 1720. He 
executed some plates, chiefly after Jan Brueghel 
and Ph. Wouwerman. 

Three Views in Flanders ; after Srmghel. 
Four Hunting Pieces ; after N. N. Coypel. 
The Angel appearing to the Shepherds; after Wouwer- 
The Thirsty Traveller ; after the same. 
Eunning at the Ring ; after the same 
The Swimmers ; after the same. 
Cavalry defiling ; after the same. 
Halt of Cavalry ; after the same. 
The Blacksmith ; after the same, 

BEAUNEVEU, Ande^, a painter of miniatures, 
was employed in the early part of the 15th cen- 
tury in illustrating for the Duke Jean de Berry 
a Psalter, now in the National Library at Paris ; 
which for its beauty of conception and careful exe- 
cution will bear favourable comparison with the 
works of Meister VVilhelm. The miniatures in a 
Prayer Book of this duke, now in the Royal Library 
at Brussels, are also attributed to Beauneveu. 

BEAUTRIZET. See B^ateizet. 

BEAUVAIS, DAUPHIN db. See Dauphin de 

BEAUVARLET, Jacques Fiemin, a celebrated 
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1731. He went 
to Paris when young, and was instructed in the art 
by Charles Dupuis and Laurent Cars. His first 
manner was bold and free, and his plales in that 
style are preferred by some to the more finished 
and highly-wrought prints that he afterwards pro- 
duced, although it must be confessed that the 
latter are executed with great neatness and delicacy. 
Beauvarlet married, in 1761, Catherine Jeanne 
Franjoise Desohamps, a young lady who possessed 
some skill in engraving, but who died in 1769 at 
the age of thirty-one. He married again in 1770, 
but became for a second time a widower in 1779. 
Eight years later, in 1787, he married Marie 
Catherine Riollet, who, like his first wife, was an 
engraver. She was born in Paris in 1755, and is 
said to have died in 1788. Beauvarlet himself 
died in Paris in 1797. The following are his 
principal works : 


Marie Adelaide, daughter of Louis XV. ; after Nattier. 
Louis Joseph Savier, Duke of Burgundy; after Fredou. 
Mile. Clairon, actress ; after Van Loo ; by Laurent Cars 

and Beauvarlet. 
The Abbe Nollet ; after la Tour. 
Edme Bouchardon, sculptor ; after Brouais. 1776. 


Jean Baptiste-Poqnelin de Moliere ; after 8. Sowdon. 
The Marquis de Bomballes ; after Moslin and Vernet. 
Catharine, Princess Galizin ; medallion. 
Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick. 
Madame du Barry ; after Drouais. 


Lot and his Daughters ; after Xuca Giordano. 

Susannah and the Elders ; after the same. 

Perseus, combating Phineus, shows the Head of Medusa ; 
after the same. 

Acis and Galatea ; after the same. 

The Judgment of Paris ; after the same. 

The Eape of Europa ; after the same. 

The Rape of the Sabines ; after the same. 

Susannah and the Elders ; after (xuido Canlassi. 

The Sewers ; after Guide Beni ; very highly finished. 

The Incredulity of Thomas ; after Calabrese. 

Venus lamenting the Death of Adonis ; afler A, 

La Rus^e ; after 0. Vega. 

The Double Surprise ; after Ger. Dou 

The Fisherman ; after M. Carre. 

The Tric-trac Players : after Teniers. 

The Bagpiper ; after the'saine. 

The Burgomaster ; after Ostade. 

Diana and Actaeon ; after Rottenhammer. 

The Bathers ; after Boucher. 

The Trap ; after the same. 

Cupid chained by the Graces ; after the same. 

The Children of the Count de Bethime ; after Drouatt, 

Le Cohn Maillard ; after Fragonard. 

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Nattier. 

Susannah and the Elders ; after Vien. 

The Offering to Venus ; after the same. 

The Offering to Ceres ; after the same. 

Cupid holding his Bow ; after C. van Loo, 

La Confidence ; after the same. 

The Sultana ; after the same. 

Lecture Espagnole ; after the same. 

Conversation Espagnole ; after the same. 

Telemachus in the Island of Calypso ; after Eaoux. 

The Toilet, and the Return from the Ball ; two com- 
panions ; after De Troy. 

Seven prints of the History of Esther ; after J. J. de 

A Subject from an Antique Painting at Hercnlanenm, 

A catalogue of his works was published at Abbe- 
ville in 1860 by I'Abbe Dairaine. 

BECCAFUMI, DoMBNico, called II Meoarino, 
distinguished himself as a painter, a sculptor, a 
mosaicist, and an engraver. His father's name 
was Giacomo di Pace. He was born at Cortine, 
near Siena, in 1486, and when a boy was employed 
in watching sheep. Having discovered some dis- 
position for the art, he was taken by his patron, 
Lorenzo Beccafumi, whose name he adopted, from 
that humble situation, and placed under the tuition 
of an indifferent painter, Tozzo, called Capanna. 
He then studied under Giovanni Antonio Vercelli, 
after which he went to Rome, where he applied 
himself with great assiduity to the study of the 
works of Michelangelo and Raphael. On his re- 
turn to Siena, he produced several works, both in 
sculpture and painting, which gained him great 
reputation ; and commenced his celebrated work 
executed in 'graffito in marble, the pavement of" 
the cathedral at Siena, which has been engraved 
by Andrea Andreani. He also painted several 
pictures for the decoration of houses and churches, 
both in oil and distemper. Amongst the works 
by him may be mentioned : 

Berlin. Museum. Madonna and Child. 

Florence. Fitti Pal. Holy Family. 

Munich. FinakothekS.rA3 Family. 

Rome. Doria P. Marriage of St. Catharine. 

Siena. Academy. Madonna and Saints. 

„ „ St. Catharine receiving the Stigmata. 

„ Pal. Pub. I'resooes (on cdlin ' 




As an engraver, we have by him some excellent 
woodcuts ; and he engraved some plates, both 
etched and with the graver only, which show the 
hand of a great master, although they may not 
be 60 pleasing to those who are accustomed to look 
for neatness of handling. He sometimes marked 
his prints with his name, Micarino fe., and some- 
times with a B, divided in the middle, thus T) 
He died at Siena in 1551. We have the f ol- * \i' 
lowing prints by him : 

Paulus III. Pontif ex Maximus ; without a name. 1515. 

An Old Man standing, and a Young Man lying down ; 
Micarino, fee. 

Three Academy Figures ; without a name. 

The Nativity ; after Titian ; a woodcut, fine. 

The Virgin embracing the Infant Jesus ; a woodcut, ! 
three tints. 

St. Peter holding a Book and the Keys ; a woodcut, in ; 

St. Philip holding a Book and a Cross ; the same, 

St. Andrew, with his Cross ; the same. 

A Philosopher, with a Cloak, sitting ; the same. 

St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix ; a woodcut. 

Ten subjects of Alchemy, on the first is inscribed Meca- 
rinus de tSinis inventor. 

BECCARUZZI, Feancesoo, was bom at Cone- 
gliano, in the Friuli, and was a disciple of Porde- 
none, whose manner he followed : he painted with 
considerable reputation, both in oil and in fresco. 
Many of his works, in the churches and convents 
at Trevigi, are described by Ridolfi. One of his best 
performances, according to that author, was the 
picture he painted for the church of the Francis- 
cans, at Gonegliano, representing St. Francis re- 
ceiving the Stigmata, with several Saints. Becca- 
ruzzi flourished in the 16th century. 

BEOERRA, GrASPAEO, a Spanish artist of great 
celebrity, was bom at Baeza, in Andalusia, in 1520. 
He excelled as a painter, a sculptor, and an architect. 
The patronage bestowed on the arts by Charles V. 
induced Becerra to visit Rome for improvement; 
he went at a time when Michelangelo was in the 
zenith of his fame ; and it is said by Palomino, that 
he had the advantage of studying under that great 
master. He was much influenced by the works of 
Raphael and of Daniele da Volterra. On his return, 
in 1556, he was taken under the protection of PhiHp 
II., and executed some works in fresco, in the palace 
at Madrid, which attracted general admiration. In 
1563 he was appointed painter to the Court. He 
was one of the first reformers of the Spanish 
school, by introducing a superior style, founded on 
that OT Buonarroti. Many of his works are in the 
public edifices at Madrid, Valladolid, Astorga, and 
Zamora. He died at Madrid in 1570. The designs 
of Becerra are very rare, and are much esteemed 
for the great care he bestowed on them ; for he 
justly considered design as the foundation of 
painting. [For a full account of his works in 
the public buildings, see Bermudez's ' Diccionario 

BECHON, J., a native of France, who flourished 
about the year 1670, engraved several plates of 
landscapes, executed in a clear, neat style. 

BECK, August, a designer and painter, born at 
Basle, in Switzerland, in 1823, studied art at Duasel- 
dorf ; his works chiefly represent horses and battle 
scenes. From 1859 up to 1871 he drew for the 
illustrated paper of Leipsic. He died at Thun in 

BECK, David, was bom at Arnheim (or Delft) in 
1621. He had the advantage of being a scholar of 
Van Dyck, and became one of his ablest disciples. 
He was at least the most successful. King Charles i 
H 2 ' 

I. favoured him with his patronage, and he was 
appointed to instruct the Prince of Wales and 
Duke of York in drawing. Beck is said to have 
painted with unusual promptitude and facility, 
which, being remarked by the king when sitting to 
him, occasioned that monarch to tell him pleasantly 
that he believed he could paint if he were riding 
post. After passing some years in England, he 
visited Sweden, where he was received with dis- 
tinction by Queen Christina, who appointed him 
her principal painter and chamberlain. Notwith- 
standing the flattering protection he received from 
the queen, his desiret to revisit his native country 
prompted him to solicit permission to return to 
Holland, which he with diflSculty obtained, under 
a promise to return. His attachment to his country 
prevented his fulfilling his engagement, and he 
died at the Hague in 1656. 

BECKENKAMP, Caspab Benedict, who was 
born, in 1747, in the valley of Ehrenbreitstein, near 
Coblence, studied under his father and Jan Zick, at 
Coblence. At first he devoted himself to painting 
landscapes, after C. G. Schutz; but afterwards 
changed to portraiture. He settled at Cologne, 
and imitated with success the style of painting of 
the old German masters. He died in that town in 
1828. Several portraits by him are in the Wallraf 
Museum, Cologne. For the church of Santa Maria 
in Littore, Cologne, he painted a copy of a Pieti— 
once in that church, and now in the Stadel Gallery 
— formerly ascribed to Schoreel, but now given to 

BECKER, Ferdinand, was bom at Gousenheim 
in 1846. He entered the studio of Steinle, at 
Frankfort, in 1868, and afterwards removed to 
Mayence, where he painted his most celebrated 
work, ' Juden im Dom.' He also illustrated the 
German ' Mahrchen.' He died in 1877. 

BECKER, Jakob, born at Dittelsheim, near 
Worms, in 1810, learned the rudiments of painting 
in his native town. He went to Dusseldorf in 
1833, and painted under Schirmer -first landscapes, 
afterwards romantic pieces, and finally genre, in 
which latter branch he especially excelled. In 
1840 he became Professor at the Stadel Institute 
at Frankfort, and was subsequently elected a 
member of the Academies of Berlin and Brussels. 
He died at Frankfort in 1872. Amongst his 'best 
works may be mentioned : 

A Farmer's family praying for the sick mother. 

Evening at the Well in the 'Westerwald. 

The Warrior returning home. 

The Wounded Poacher {in possession of the Count 

Maczynski, Berlin). 
A Shepherd killed by lightning {painted in 1844. Stadel 

The returning home from the harvest-field {engraved by 


BECKER, Louis Hugo, a painter and etcher, born 
at Wesel in 1834, studied landscape painting under 
Schirmer and Gude, at Dusseldorf, about 1852. He 
afterwards visited Westphalia, the Upper Rhine, the 
Moselle, Switzerland,iTormandy, and the neighbour- 
hood of the Baltic. In 1861 he obtained a medal 
at Metz. He died at Dusseldorf in 1868. Among 
his landscapes the most important are : 

The Sacrifice of the Old Germans {in possession of Gl. 

V. Grobeti). 
The Passing Storm. 
Sunday Morning. 
The Shepherd on the Pasture. 
Christmas Eve. 
The Vine-crop on the Moselle. 





BECKER, Pi-iiLiPP Jakob, a German painter, 
■was born at Pforzheim in 1763. At seventeen 
years of age he went to Rome, where he studied 
and formed his style under Raphael Mengs and 
Maron. In 1785 he returned to Carlsruhe, having 
acquired in Italy a high degree of skill in every 
technical requirement of his art. ■ But he was want- 
ing in poetic fancy, and did not succeed in any 
remarkable manner in oil-painting. He died at 
Erlenbad in 1829. He left a large number of 
drawings in crayons and sepia, many of them 
copies, but all admirable for the taste and finish 
displayed in their executionf He was for many 
years Director of all the collections of paintings 
and engravings of the Grand Duke of Baden. 

BECKET, Isaac. This artist was one of the 
earliest mezzotint engravers in England. He was 
born in Kent in 1663, and was bred to the busi- 
ness of a calico-printer ; but becoming acquainted 
with Lutterel, who had made some progress in the 
art of mezzotint engraving, he learned from him 
the process, and executed in that way several 
plates, of which some are portraits. We have the 
following by him : 

Sir Godfrey KneUer ; from a picture hy Kneller, 
Charles II. ; after Kneller. 
James, Duke of York ; after the same. 
Henry, Duke of Grafton ; after T. Haivher, 
The Duchess of Grafton ; after Wissing. 
Charles Melford ; after the same. 
Sir Peter Lely ; Seipse, pinx. 
George, Prince of Denmark ; after Riley. 
Henry Compton, Bishop of London ; after the same. 
Christopher, Earl of Albemarle ; after Murray. 
George, Duke of Buckingham ; after Verhelst. 
John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale ; after Riley. 
Henry, Duke of Norfolk. 

Thomas Oartwright, Bishop of Chester j very scarce. 
Lady Williams ; full length. 
Adrian Beverland, drawn from a statue. 


The Tirgin Mary and St. Joseph, with the Infant Jesus 

asleep, "with two Angels ; iiyithtmt name of painter. 
Time cutting the Wings of Love. 
A Landscape, with a Shepherd and Shepherdess. 
The Dutch Schoolmaster ; after Seemskerk. 
The Village Barber Surgeon ; after J. Lingelbach. 

BECKMANN, Karl, landscape and architectural 
painter, was born in 1799, at Berlin. He received 
his art education chiefly in the studio of Wach. 
During 1824 he spent a short time in Paris ; and 
passed the period between the summer of 1828 and 
the spring of 1833 in Italy. He was afterwards 
appointed Professor of Architecture and Perspec- 
tive to the Royal Academy of Berlin. For his 
pure art-tendency, although he was engaged in 
other departments, he was indebted to Wach, and 
his residence in Italy increased his powerful com- 
bination of form and colour, which give to those 
pictures of his, which treat chiefly of architectural 
subjects, such a solid vigorous stamp. He died 
at Berlin, in 1859. A ' View of the cloister of San 
Benedetto, near Subiaco, by him, is in the National 
Gallery at Berlin. 

BECKWITH, Thomas, a native of Yorkshire, 
was first apprenticed to a house-painter at Wake- 
field, but soon displayed talents as a portrait 
painter; he also made many drawings of the 
churches in the neighbourhood. He latterly re- 
sided at York, where he died in 1786. He pub- 
lished ' A Walk in and about the City of York.' 

BEDAFF, Antonie Aloisxus Emanuel van, an 

historical and portrait painter, was bom at Ant- 
werp in 1787. Three of his works, 'The first 
Meeting of the Estates at Dordrecht,' 'The Last 
Interview between the Prince of Orange and Count 
Egmont,' and ' The Confederation of the Nobles,' 
are in the Gallery at Haarlem. He died at Brussels 
in 1829. 

BEDUSCHI, Antonio, a native of Cremona, 
born in 1576, was a scholar of Campi, whose 
manner he imitated. He is mentioned by P. 
Carasi, and two pictures, painted by him in his 
26th year, are commended for the promise they 
give of future excellence : one is the ' Martyrdom 
of St. Stephen,' and the other a ' Pieta,' for San 
Sepoloro in Piacenza. The time of his death is not 
stated, but he was living in 1607. 

BEECHEY, George D., a son of Sir William 
Beechey, followed his father's profession. From 
the year 1817, he was a faequent exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy. About 1830, he went to India, 
where he attained great celebrity, and was made 
portrait painter and Controller of the Household to 
the King of Oude. A portrait of Hinda, an Indian 
lady whom he married, was exhibited in the Eoyal 
Academy, London, and created a great sensation 
at the time ; but he died early, in India, about 

BEECHEY, Sir William, an English portrait 
painter, bom in 1753, was a native of Burford in 
Oxfordshire. In early life he was placed with a 
solicitor at Stow, but becoming acquainted wi,h 
some of the painters of the day, he took a fancy to 
art, and began the practice of portrait painting. 
In this he distinguished himself so much that he 
was patronized by George the Third, and was 
made portrait painter to Queen Charlotte, and lived 
much at Windsor as instructor to the princesses, 
who entertained the strongest regard for him to 
the end of his life. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1793, and an Academician 
in 1798. He painted, in 1798, a ' Review of the 
Horse Guards,' in which the portraits of George 
the Third, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of 
York, were introduced, and for which he was 
knighted. This picture is now at Hampton Court. 
He at one time attempted fancy subjects, and 
' The Morning Star ' and ' The Evening Star,' the 
portraits of his daughter Lady Grantley as Hebe, 
of Lady Georgina Bathurst as Adoration, are 
beautiful examples of liis skill in this direction; 
but finding the painting of good likenesses was 
more profitable, he confined himself latterly to 
that style. He died at Hampstead, in 1839. In 
sixty-four years he sent no less than 362 portraits 
to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy. 

Dulwich. Gallery. Portrait of Charles Small Pybus, M.P. 
„ „ Portrait of John Philip Kemble. 

„ „ Portrait of Sir P. F. Bourgeois, EA. 

Palace \ ^ Review of the Horse Guards 
London. Nat. Gall. Portrait of .Joseph NoUekens, E.A., 
the sculptor. 

The portraits of Sir William Beechey, which still 
adorn the public halls and family residences of the 
country, are celebrated for their truth to nature, 
and for the freshness of colour which they still 

BEECK, Jan, was born at Looz, and was amonk 
of the convent of St. Lawrence, near Liege, of 
which he became the abbot in 1509. He is con- 
sidered, after the brothers Van Eyok, to be tlie 
most distinguished among the ancient painters of 




Liege. He painted the greater number of the pic- 
tures in the church of his convent, and died in 1516. 

BEECQ, Jean Charles Dominique, a Dutch 
marine painter, who was born at Amsterdam about 
1640, established himself in Paris about 1680, and 
became a member of the Academy in 1681. He 
died, probably in Holland, in 1722. Some of his 
sea-pieces have been engraved by Fouard. 

BEEKE, A. VAN, who lived in the middle of the 
17th century at Bodegraven, in Holland, was an 
excellent painter of fruit-pieces, dead birds, &c. In 
the Royal Gallery at Vienna is a still-life subject. 

BEELDEMAKER, Frans, the son of Jan Beelde- 
maker, was born at the Hague, in 1669, and was 
first instructed by his father ; he then studied under 
Willem Doudyns, an historical painter of some 
celebrity. After passing some years in Italy, he 
returned to Holland, where he was employed in 
painting historical subjects and portraits. He was 
admitted a member of the Academy at the Hague. 
In 1717 he left the Hague and went to live near 
Rotterdam, where he died at a very advanced age. 

BEELDEMAKER, Jan, a Dutch painter, was 
bom at the Hague in 1630, and died in 1680. It 
is not said by whom he was instructed, but he 
excelled in painting boar and stag hunts. They 
are chiefly of small dimensions, and are frequently 
seen in England. 

BEERINGS, Gregorius, was bom at Malines 
about 1500, and died in 1570. He studied in Italy, 
and produced some good pictures of landscapes 
with architectural ruins ; but being of dissipated 
habits, his talents were never fully developed. 

BEERSKI, Count de, miniature painter, was a 
Russian nobleman, the owner of an estate near 
Moscow, who, on the accession of the Emperor 
Nicholas, was obliged to leave Russia on account 
■ of his liberal views. Being entirely ruined by his 
enforced exile, and having a taste for drawing, he 
took to miniature painting, residing in Paris, Ham- 
burg, and London. At the Great Exhibition in 
1851, some of his paintings were exhibited and ob- 
tained first-class honours. He emigrated to America 
in 1859, and died at Rochester, U.S., in 1869. 

BEERESTRAATEN, Alexander, is the name 
given to the author of three paintings, signed A. 
Beerestraaten, in the Galleries of Berlin, St. Peters- 
burg, and Copenhagen. M. Havard denies his 
existence, and considers the Berlin and St. Peters- 
burg pictures to be by the hand of Jan Beere- 
straaten, of whom Alexander is supposed to have 
been a brother. 

BEERESTRAATEN, Jan, was born at Amster- 
dam in 1622, and was christened on the 31st of 
May in the old parish church. His father, Abraham 
Jans, a cooper, assumed the name of Beerestraaten, 
probably because he resided in the Beeren-straat. 
In 1642 Jan married Magdalena van Bronckhorst, 
who bore him five children. He finally died at 
Amsterdam, it is supposed, in 1687. Jan Beere- 
straaten is essentially an Amsterdam painter. He 
was born, painted, and died in that city ; and it is 
in Amsterdam that his best works must be sought 
to this day. His pictures consist of coast-scenes 
and views in towns, with figures. 
Amsterdam. Gallery, The Boatmen's House, i beeee- 


„ „ Euins of the Old Town-Hall at 

Amsterdam., i bebeestbaaten. 

„ „ Sea fight between English and 


„ Town Hall. View of the Dam, Amsterdam. 


Amsterdam .TowmBa?Z. View of Amsterdam taken from. 


„ Six Coll. The Chapel of St. Olof at Amster- 


„ V.d.SoopColl.'WvcA&r: View. J. beeesteaten. 
Berlin. Museum. Winter Landscape. j. beee- 


Paris. Louvre. The Old Port of Genoa, .tobannes 

beeesteaaten fecit. 

Eotterdam. Museum^ The Old Town-Hall of Amster- 
dam {with figures, proiaily by 

(For further information, see 'L'Art et les Artistes 
Hollandais,' by Henry Havard, part iii., 1880.) 

BEESTEN, A. H. van, a Dutch painter of por- 
traits and bassi-rilievi, in which it is said that he 
excelled ; but being a man of great modesty, he 
suffered others to turn his talents to their profit. 
He lived in the middle of the 18th century. 

BEGA, Abr. Corn. See Beqeijn. 

BEGA, Coknblis Pietersz, who was born at 
Haarlem in 1620, was the son of a sculptor called 
Peter Begijn (or Beggijn), and Houbraken tells us 
that he changed his family name to Bega, on 
account of some irregularities of conduct, which 
had occasioned his father to disown him. This is 
doubted by recent writers, who think that perhaps 
Bega is only another form of Begijn. Bega was 
a scholar of Adrian van Ostade ; and though his 
pictures are not equal to the admirable productions 
of that master, they have sufficient merit to rank 
him amongst the most interesting artists of his 
country. His pictures, like those of Van Ostade, 
represent Dutch peasants regaling and amusing 
themselves, and the interiors of Dutch cottages. 
He treated those subjects with a most humorous 
delineation of character ; and his pictures are de- 
servedly placed in the choicest collections. He 
became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in 
1654 ; and died at Haarlem in 1664, of the plague, 
caught while attending a lady suffering from that 
disease, to whom he was to have been married. 
The following are some of his best works : 

The Philosopher. 

Peasants' concert. 

An Interior. 

Lady playing the lute. 

Peasant FamUy. 



The Chemist [signed and datedlQQl). 

Peasants dancing {signed). 

Groups of players. 

A man playing the lute. 
„ „ A woman playing the lute. 

Frankfort. Stadel. Interiors {three). 
Munich. Pinakoik. Interior. 

Paris. Louvre. Interior {signed and dated 1652). 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Interiors. 

He left about thirty-seven etchings, among which 
are the following : 
An interior of an Alehouse, with three Feasants, one 

with a Goblet in his Hand. 
A Sketch of two Peasants and a Boy. 
The interior of a Dutch Cottage, a Man with a Pitcher, 

another Peasant with a woman and a Child. 
A Man leaning on a Table, and his Wife sucHing a 

A Company of five Men and Women regaling. 
Company regaling, a Woman pouring out Wine. 
Bight Peasants, two are playing Cards ; very scarce^ 

BEGARELLI, Antonio (called by Vasari, Bega- 
HINO). This artist is not introduced here as a 
painter, but rather as a designer and modeller, 


Amsterdam. Museum. 










■whose works may rank with those of contemporary 
painters, with whom he seems to have been in close 
connection. He was born at Modena, about the year 
1498, and is said to have been instructed by Gio- 
vanni dell' Abbate, the father of the painter Niccol6. 
Begarelli worked chiefly at Modena, where many 
churches are decorated with his plastic compositions 
in terra-cotta ; and in his later years also at Parma. 
These are free standing figures, nearly life-size, 
grouped together above altars in the chapels, and 
apparently intended to replace pictures. This 
peculiar adaptation of plastic works was first used 
at Modena by Guido Mazzoni (died 1618), called 
II Modanino, a highly- gifted artist of realistic 
tendencies. They form a specialty of Modenese 
art. The assertion that Begarelli was associated 
with Correggio seems to be incorrect. It has been 
supposed (by Vidriani, 1652), that Begarelli made 
the models from which Correggio painted many of 
his floating figures, and even instructed his friend 
in the art of modelling. Begarelli's figures have 
a far closer resemblance to those of the Perrarese 
painter Garofalo than to those of Correggio. They 
have the same types as the former used, and his 
draperies are similarly arranged. Whilst Maz- 
zoni's terra-cotta figures are painted in variegated 
colours, Begarelli painted them entirely in white. 
Vasari relates that " Michelangelo, when passing 
through Modena, saw many beautiful figures which 
the Modenese sculptor, Maestro Antonio Begarino, 
had made of terra-cotta, coloured to look like 
marble, which appeared to him to be most excel- 
lent productions ; and, as that sculptor did not 
know how to work in marble, he said, ' If this 
earth were to become marble, woe to the antiques.' " 
Begarelli died in 1565. J. P. E. 

BEGAS, Karl, a German painter of historical 
subjects, genre, and portraits, was bom atHeinsberg, 
near Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1794. Whilst yet a boy he 
evinced a talent for painting, in which he received 
some instruction from Philippart, whilst pursuing 
the usual course of study at the University of 
Bonn. In 1812 he went to Paris, where he passed 
eight months in the atelier of Gros. The King of 
Prussia, when in Paris in 1814 and 1816, appre- 
ciated the talents of Begas, and made him an 
allowance, which enabled him to visit Italy to 
study the works of the great masters. In 1825 he 
went to Berlin, where he fixed his residence, and 
became a member and professor of the Academy 
ofArts. He died there in 1864. His principal 
paintings are : 

Job and his Friends. 1816. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1818. In the Garrison 
Church at Berlin, * 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 1820. In the Cathe- 
dral, Berlin. 

Tobias and the Angel. 1826 {engraved hy Berger). 

The Eesurrection. 1827 {engraved hy Fischer). 

Tobias and the Angel. 1827. In the National Gallery, 

Lorelei. 1835 {engraved hy Mandel). 

The Sermon on the Mount. 18^. In the church of 

The Transfiguration. 

Christ carrying his Cross. 

Henry IV. at the Castle of Canossa. 

Young Girl under an Oak Tree. 


Himself, in the Wallraf Museum, Cologne. 
His Parents. „ „ „ 

Thorwaldsen, in the Berlin Gallery. 
Queen of Bavaria. Meyerbeer. 





BEGEIJN, Abraham Coenelisz, (or Bega,) a 
native of Holland, bom in 1660, painted landscapes 
and cattle, in the style of Berchem, and his pictures 
of those subjects are very justly admired. His 
pencil is light and free, and his colouring is very 
agreeable. His principal residence was at Berlin, 
where his works were highly esteemed, and, accord- 
ing to Houbraken, he was principal painter to the 
Elector of Brandenburg, afterwards King of Prus- 
sia. He also worked at the Hague In several 
of the collections in Holland, the pictures of this 
master are placed among the most admired painters, 
and they are held in considerable estimation in this 
country. Many Continental galleries contain ex- 
amples of his art; there are three in the Copen- 
hagen Gallery; two in the Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg ; the Dresden Gallery and the Louvre have 
each a ' Landscape with goats,' and the Berlin 
Gallery an ' Italian Landscape with cattle.' Unfor- 
tunately for Begeijn's reputation in England, his 
best works are here ascribed to Berchem, and are 
frequently altered to give a nearer approximation 
to that painter's manner. Begeijn died suddenly 
with the palette in his hand in 1697, at Berlin. 
Various forms of spelling his name occur. 

BBGER, Laubentius. According to Professor 
Christ, this artist was the nephew of Laurentius 
Beger, the celebrated German antiquary, who was 
librarian to Frederick William, Elector of Branden- 
burg. He engraved a set of twelve anatomical 
plates, taken from the designs in the book on 
Anatomy by Vesalius. He is also believed to 
have executed the greater part of the plates of 
antiquities, published by his uncle, entitled The- 
saurus Brandenhurgicus. He flourished towards 
the close of the 17th century. 

BEHAM, Baethel, (Behaim, or Behem,) a Ger- 
man painter, and very eminent engraver, bom at 
Nuremberg in 1502. He was the younger brother 
of the celebrated Hans Sebald Beham, and, accord- 
ing to Sandrart, resided chiefly in Italy, whither 
he had been sent by Duke William of Bavaria, to 
whom he had gone on being expelled from Nurem- 
berg for his heretical opinions. He died in Italy, 
about 1540. The following are the pictures attri- 
buted to him by Rosenberg : 

Adoration of the Magi; an altar-piece with wings, 
painted with different subjects. 

Christ on the Cross, with Mary and John, and the 
Magdalene kneeling. 

The Virgin with the holy Child, standing on the Half- 
Moon, two angels crowning her; formerly an altar- 
piece with wings, paiuted with different subjects. 

Virgin with the holy Child at her breast, and St. Anna 
with two wings, painted with saints. 

Four small pictures, formerly wings of an altar-piece, 
SS. Afra, Pan! the hermit, Antony of Padua, and 
Jacobus the elder. 

[All these are at Donaueschingen, in the Royal Gallery.] 

Berlin. Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

„ SS. Catharine, Paul, and Agnes, on a gold 

„ SS. Crispin and Orispianus, also on a gold 

Carlsruhe. The Flagellation, with wings ; painted with 

Nuremberg. Christ bearing His cross. 
Stuttgart. The Entombment. 

„ St. Bruno. 

Cologne. St. Jerome in Cardinal's babit. 




Prague. Portrait of the Duke of Bavaria and his 

Augsburg. Portrait of Duke Otto Henry. 
Sigmariugen. Wings of an altar - piece ; painted with 

whole-length figures of saints. 
TiVurtsburg. SS. Christopher and Andrew. 

Waagen mentions two more, the principal being 
a Trinity witli Mary, Andrew, and angels, and at 
Schleissheim are the portraits of all the princes 
and princesses of the reigning family ; fifteen in 
number. We believe some of these works men- 
tioned above are doubtful. 

He is, however, more a designer in engraving 
than a painter, and may be considered as having 
been one of the most excellent draughtsmen and 
skilful engravers of the German school. Many 
of the plates by this master being without any 
designating mark, has led occasionally to some 
difficulty and mistake. The prints that bear his 
signature are marked ££. sometimes, and are dated 
from 1620 to 1633. The following list gives his 
engravings on the best authority, that of Herr 
Rosenberg already quoted : 


Louis, Duke of Eavaria. 

Bust of Erasmus Balderman. 1536. 

Bust of Leonard van Eck. 

The Emperor Charles V. ; marked BS, 

Ferdinand I. ; same mark. 


1. Adam and Eve. Adam holds a flaming sword in 

his right band, and takes the apple from Eve with 
his left. 

2, 3, 4. Three small prints. 

5. Mary with the holy Child. A skull at the right. 

6. „ ,, „ „ at a window A vase with 


7. ), „ ,) „ a parrot in the Child's 


8. » suckling the Child at an open window. This 

and some others of the above not certainly 
meant for the Madonna. 

9. Mary with the Child sitting on a rock. 

10. Head of Christ with the crown of thorns. 

11. St. Christopher. 

12. St. Chrysostom's penance : the Mother and Child 

in the background. 

13. St. Severinus, vrith crosier. 

14. Apollo and Daphne. 

15. Hercules. 

16. A naked man, possibly Neptune. 

17. „ ,, with a sword. 

18. Triumph car, of Mars and Venus (?), with other 


19. Cupid partially clothed, riding on a dolphin. 

20. „ „ „ „ a globe, over a 


21. Flora. 

22. A Nereid riding on"a Triton, towards the left. 

23. „ „ „ „ towards the right. 

24. Fight of water-gods. 

25. A Sibyl with book ; before her a child with a torch ; 

after Raphael. 

26. The Judgment of Paris. 

27. The Eape of Helen ; a compo. of thirteen figures. 

28. Lucretia. 

29. 30. Also Lucretia. 

31. Oimon nourished by his daughter. 

32. Cleopatra with the snake at her breast. 

33. Fight of naked men ; thirty-four figures ; on a label 

" Titus Uraechus." 

34. „ „ „ eighteen figures. 

35. „ „ „ twenty -two figures. These 
three prints are in the form of frieses. They are 
the master-work of Barthel Beham, and may 
be considered the most excellent works in point 
of drawing of the early German school. 


36. A naked woman sitting on a shirt of mail. (Valour?) 

37. A sitting female figure ; insciihed, ' Cognitio Dei.' 
38, 39, 40. A child sleeping, with one, three, and four 

death's heads. ' Mors Omnia JSquat ' ou 
the last. 

41. A naked woman sitting on the ground, looking at 

a dead child. A naked man standing on the 
left; very curious, A long inscription from 

42. Woman with hands and feet tied, with a child; 

inscribed ' Der Welt Lauf .' 

43. Death surprising a woman on a bed. 

Thirteen other allegoric miniatures, or of subjects taken 
from actual life, peasants or soldiers. Also thirty-one 
representing genii, ornaments, and heraldic matters. Al- 
together, with the portraits, ninety-two copper engravir gs. 
No woodcuts. W. B. S- 

BEHAM, Hans Sebald, a distinguished German 
engraver, was born at Nuremberg in 1600. He 
was the elder brother of Barthel Beham, and is 
also classed by the collectors among what they 
denominate the Little Masters on account of their 
prints being generally small. Hans Sebald Beham 
engraved on copper, drew on wood, and some few 
etchings have been attributed to him. He pos- 
sessed considerable genius, and a ready invention. 
His drawing of the figure is generally correct, and 
the airs of his heads and turn of his figures, 
though rather clumsy, have great style. His cop- 
per-plates are executed entirely with the graver, 
in a wonderfully neat and delicate manner; and 
his woodcuts are remarkably free and spirited. 
In the early part of his life, he lived at Nurem- 
berg, during which time he marked his plates with 
a cipher, composed of the three letters, H. S- P-, 
and dated from 1519 to 1530. He was expelled 
for heresy, and afterwards resided at Frankfort, 


when he changed his mark to a cipher 
composed of H. S- B., and dated from 
1631 to 1649. He died in 1650, at Frank- 
fort. Examples of his works as a painter are very 
scarce. In the Louvre, Paris, there is a table with 
four scenes from the Life of David, and there are 
five miniatures by him in the prayer-book of the 
Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, in the Library 
of AschafEenburg. His works on copper are very 
numerous ; the following list is as detailed as the 
necessary limit of this work will permit : 

plates withodt the ciphee, 

Engraved at Nuremberg ^ arid datecifrom 1510 to 1530. 

Adam and Eve in several designs ; five small plates. 

St. Jerome, with a Cardinal's Hat and the Lion, 1519. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus. 1520. 
The Virgin, with a Glory, standing, holding the Infant 

Jesus. 1520. Six of the Virgin in all. 
The Death of Dido ; Eegina Didonis imago. 1520. 
St. Anthony, Hermit, vrriting. 1521. 
St. Sebald seated between two trunks of trees, and 

holding in his light hand the model of a church. 

Two Peasants playing on the flute and bagpipe ; very 

Two Peasants, Man and Woman, dancing. 1522 ; very 

A Triton carrying a Nereid on his shoulders. 1523; 

very small. 
A Woman sitting on a Lion. 1524. 
A Yoimg Man and Woman embracing. 1526. 
The Death of Cleopatra. 1529. 

Combat of the Greeks and Trojans ; very small, friese. 
Combat of Achilles and Hector ; same. 
Judith with the head of Holof ernes ; her maid beside 







Engraved at Frankfort, and dated from 1531 to 1549. 

Adam and Eve, behind them a stag. 1536. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise, with the Serpent presenting 

the apple. 1543 ; very fine. 
The Emperor Trajan, with his army, listening to the 

complaint of a woman against his son. 1537. 
Melancholy ; inscribed Meleneolia. 1539 ; in emulation 

of Alhreckt Diirer. 
Patience ; inscribed Patientia ; on a tablet is written, 

Selaldus Beham Noricus fadehat. 1540. 
Fortuna ; a woman holding a palm and a wheel. 1541. 
Infortunium; a woman stopped by an evil genius 

with a lobster. 1541. 
A Young 'Woman, with a buffoon, presenting fruit ; an 

etching. 1540. 
Four very small plates of the Four Evangelists, with 

wings. 1541. 
Twelve small plates of the Labours of Hercules ; in- 
scribed Mrumna Herculis ; dated from 1542 to 1548. 
An Ensign and a Drummer. 1544. 
The Eomaa Charity, with a German inscription. 1544 ; 

The Arms of Beham. 1544. 
Bust of Domitia CalviUa, with the Emperor Trajan ; 

after Antique Medals. 1546. 
The Twelve Months of the Year, each represented by a 
Man and "Woman dancing ; two Months on one plate ; 
six small plates. 1545. Added to these are four 
Village Merry-makings, and many peasant subjects ; 
very small. 
The twelve Apostles. Very small set of twelve. 
Days of the week with their planets. Eight pieces. 
The Liberal Arts. Set of seven allegorical figures. 
Two couples making love and a buffoon. Very small, 
little more than two inches long. This is said by 
Bartsch, No. 212, to be one of his most beautiful 
miniature engravings. The two shields of arms, one 
with a cock, the other an eagle, are also among his 
finest in execution. 
The Judgment of Paris ; Judicium Paridis. 1546 ; fine. 
■ Death walking with a lady ; inscribed Omnem in hotnine, 

4-c. 1547 ; fine. 
A Man trying to pull up a tree ; inscribed Jmpossibile, 

The Virgin holding the Infant Jesus in her arms, with 
a parrot and an apple ; S. Maria. 1549. This and a 
good many others he copied from his brother Barthel, 
the sale for whose works must have been enormous. 

Which are sometimes marked with the one and sometimes 
with the other of his two ciphers. These are of all sizes, 
from two inches to four feet long, four or more sheets 
being put together. 

Public controversy between Luther and a Homan theo- 
logian: many people listening. 

The Fountain of Youth ; a superb composition of great 
length ; one of his finest inventions. 

The Cavalier and nine wives. 

The Bath : many women and children bathing (round). 

Military f^te in honour of Charles V. at Munich. Very 

The Patriarchs with their wives and children ; ten prints. 

Fourteen Csesars, busts, on three sheets. 

An immense series of the costumes of monks. 

A Village Fair, with a steeple and a clock ; large friese ; 
very scarce. 

A Maich of Soldiers ; large friese, in four sheets ; very 
scarce. ' 

Another, same size ; full of figures. 

Bibliese Historise — Comprising three hundred and forty- 
eight prints, of which the greater part have figures 
on both sides. 

For a full account of liis works see Bartsch, torn. 
VIII. Also Adolf Rosenberg. Sebald and Barthel 
Beham, Leipsic, 1875. tjit^ 3_ g^ 

BEICH, Joachim Fbanz, was born at Eavens- 
hurg, Wurtemberg, in 1666. He was the son of 
Wilhelm Beich, a painter of little celebrity, 
IVom whom he received his instruction in the art. 


He excelled in painting landscapes and battles. 
His beet works are in the palaces of the Elector of 
Bavaria, in whose employment he was for several 
years ; among these are several large pictures of 
the battles fought in Hungary by the Elector 
Maximilian Emmanuel. With the permission of 
his patron, he visited Italy, and made many draw- 
ings from the beautiful views in that country. 
His landscapes exhibit very pleasing scenery, and 
he appears to have imitated, in the arrangement of 
his pictures, the tasteful style of Gaspar Poussin. 
He died at Munich, in 1748. The Vienna Gallery 
has two landscapes by him, and the Munich Gallery 
has four. The latter gallery also possesses his 
portrait by Des Maries — " painted in 1744, when 
he was 78 years old." As an engraver, he has 
contributed several charming etchings to the port- 
folios of collectors. We have by him four sets of 
landscapes, with figures and buildings (amounting 
together to twenty-six plates), etched with great 
spirit and facility. 

BEIJER, J. DE. See De Beijer. 
BEIJEEBN, Abraham van, a painter of still-life, 
flourished at the Hague from about 1650 to 1670. 
His favourite subjects are fish, but he also adorns 
his pictures with flowers and fruit, and gold and 
silver vessels. The Galleries of Berlin, Dresden, 
the Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam have each 
a work of this nature, each signed A. V. B. - He is 
by some called Albert van Beijeren; but this is 
asserted by Kramm to be an error. 

BEIN, Jean, a, French engraver, bom at Stras- 
burg in 1789, was a pupil of David and of Reg- 
nault, and entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 
1812. He engraved the Niccolini Madonna after 
Raphael, the originall of which is in the collection 
of Earl Cowper at Panshanger, ' The Marriage of 
the Virgin,' after Vanloo, for the Musfee Royal, 
and plates for the Coronation of Charles X., and 
Gavard's Galeries de Versailles. Bein died in Paris 
in 1857. 

BEINASCHI. See Benaschi. 
BBISSON, FEANgois Joseph Etienne, a French 
engraver, born at Aix, was a scholar of Wille. He 
engraved several subjects after the Italian masters 
for the Galerie du Mus6e, and 'Susannah at the 
Bath,' after Santerre. He died in Paris in 1820. 
BEITLER, Matthias. See Bettleb. 
BELBEULE, T., a French engraver on wood, 
flourished about the year 1580. Papillon mentions 
some cuts of ornamental flowers very delicately 
executed by him. 

BELIN DE FONTENAY, Jean Baptiste (mis- 
called Blain de Fontbnat), a French artist, bom 
at Caen in 1654, was the son of a painter named 
Louis Belin, and a pupil of Monnoyer, better known 
as Baptiste, whose daughter he married in 1687, in 
which year he was received into the Academy. 
He painted flowers and fruit in the manner of his 
master. He had a delicate pencil and a good eye 
for colour ; he painted insects with great exact- 
ness, and finished all his pictures carefully. He 
was employed by Louis XIV. — who gave him lodg- 
ings in the Louvre and a pension of 400 livrep — 
at Fontainebleau, Versailles, and at the Gobelins. 
Belin de Fontenay died in Paris in 1715. _ Two 
flower-pieces by him are in the Louvre. His son, 
Jean Baptiste Belin de Fontenay, who was bom 
in Paris in 1688, and died there in 1730, also 
painted flowers with much success. 

BELJAMBE, Pierre Guillaume Alexandbb, a 
French engraver, was bom at Rouen in 1759, and 




died about 1820. He engraved some plates of 
fancy subjects, from the contemporary painters 
of his country, and a few prints for the collection 
of the Palais Royal ; among others the following : 
Portrait of Pilatre de Rosier. 
Portrait of Jean Sylvain Bailly, Mayor of Paris; after 

C. Monet. 
Cupid repoBing on the breast of Psyche ; after J. B. 

La petite Jeamnette ; after J. B. Greuze. 
The Circumcision; after Gio. Bellini; for the Orleans 

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Carlo Cayliari ; for 

the same. 
The Holy Family ; after Michelangelo ; for the same. 

BELKAMP, Jan van, a Dutch artist, who passed 
the greater part of his artistic life in England, 
where he was much employed in copying the pic- 
tures in the Royal Collection, and died in 1663. 
Some are still in the Royal Collection ; and at 
Drayton there were formerly portraits of Henry 
VII. and Henry VIII., copied from a large picture 
by Holbein, which was burnt at Whitehall. 

BELL, Lady, the sister of William Hamilton, 
R.A., received instruction from her brother and 
from Sir Joshua Reynolds. She delighted in copy- 
ing the pictures of the latter, and was happy in her 
transcripts. She also copied pictures by Rubens in 
Carlton House, among which was a ' Holy Family ' 
which was much praised. She married Sir Thomas 
Bell, Sheriff of London, whose portrait she painted, 
and died in 1825. 

BELL, Robert Charles, an engraver, was 
born at Edinburgh in 1806. He was a pupil of 
John Bengho, and at the same time attended the 
classes at the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, then 
under Sir William Allan, R.A., P.R.S.A. Among 
several pictures for the Royal Scottish Association, 
he engraved ' The Widow,' after Sir W. Allan, and 
' The Expected Penny,' after A. Eraser ; he also 
executed a number of engravings after Mulready, 
Wilkie, Leslie, Eaed, and other well-known artists, 
for the ' Art Journal.' His last work was a large 
plate after Sir W. Allan's picture, ' The Battle of 
Preston Pans,' which he completed only a short 
time before his death. In his earlier days he 
executed a considerable number of vignette por- 
traits, of which those of Professor Wilson and Dr. 
L. Brunton were among the best. He died in his 
native city in 1872. 

BELL, William, who was born at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, about 1740, came to London about the 
year 1768, and was among the first who entered 
as students in the Royal Academy. In 1771 he 
obtained the gold medal, for a picture represent- 
ing 'Venus soliciting Vulcan to forge arms for 
iEneas.' He was much patronized by Lord Dela- 
val, for whom he painted two 'Views of Seaton 
Delaval,' and several portraits of the family. He 
died at Newcastle, about 1804. 
BELLA, Stepano della. See Della Bella. 
BELLANGrE, Jacques, a French painter and 
engraver, was born at Nancy, in 1594. He first 
studied under Claude Henriet, and afterwards went 
to Paris, where he became a scholar of Simon 
Vouet. He painted, amongst other works, a ' Con- 
ception ' for Notre-Dame at Nancy, where he died 
in 1638. As an engraver, he has certainly been 
treated with unmerited severity by Basan, who 
says " that he was a bad painter, and a worse en- 
graver." Although he cannot be classed among the 
ablest artists of his country, yet his plates, though 
executed in rather a singular style, possess con- 

siderable merit, particularly for their general effect. 
His point is free and masterly, and he arranged 
his masses of light and shadow with more than 
usual intelligence. His drawing is not very correct, 
and there is an appearance of affectation in the 
turn of his figures, which is not unfrequently dis- 
cernible in the works of his countrymen. The 
following are his principal plates : 

The Annunciation. 

The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and St. John. 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

The Eesurrection of Lazarus. 

Christ bearing his Cross. 

The dead Saviour lying on the knees of the Virgin Mary. 

The Three Marys going to the sepulchre. 

The Magdalene, half-length. 

St. John the Baptist in the wilderness. 

The Martyrdom of St. Lucia. 

The Death of Virginia. 

Adonis carrying Diana on bis Shoulders. 

BELLANGE, Joseph Louis Hippolttb, a French 
battle painter, was born in Paris in 1800. His 
art was influenced by the wars of the first Napo- 
leon, and while a youth, he produced several mili- 
tary drawings in lithography. He afterwards 
pursued his systematic studies under Gros, and 
with the exception of some portraits, devoted 
himself exclusively to battle-pieces. In 1824, he 
received a second class medal for an historical 
picture, and in 1834 the decoration of the Legion 
of Honour, of which Order he was made an officer 
in 1861. He also gained a prize at the Paris 
Universal Exhibition of 1865. He died in Paris 
in 1866. Amongst his works are : 

The Entry of the French into Mons. 

The Day after the Battle of Jemappes. 

The Passage of the Mineio. 

The Battle of Fleurus {at Versailles). 

A Duel in the Time of Eichelieu. 

The Battle of Wagram {at Versailles). 

The Taking of Teniah de Muzaia {in Salon of 1841, and 

noto at Versailles). 
Taking Russian Ambuscades (1857). 
Episode of the Taking of the Malakoff (1859). 
The Two Friends — Sebastopol, 1855 {exhibited in Salon 

of 1861, at London in 1862, and at. Paris in 1867). 
The Soldier's Farewell {in Leipsic Museum). 
The Soldier's Return {in Leipsic Museum). 
The Return of Napoleon from Elba {in Salon of 1864, 

and Paris Exhibition, 1867). 
The Cuirassiers at Waterloo {in Salon of 1865, and Paris 

Exhibition, 1867). 
The Guard dies {in Salon of 1866, and Paris Exhibition, 

1867 — his last work). 

BELLANGER, J. A. Basan mentions this ama- 
teur engraver as having etched some plates from 
his own designs with considerable taste, intelli- 
gence, and correctness, and a few plates after 
Raphael, among which are the ' Miracle of the 
Loaves and Fishes,' and the ' School of Athena.' 

BELLAVIA, Marc Antonio, was a painter and 
engraver. About 1600, he executed several plates 
after the manner of Annibale Carracci, which have 
been attributed to that artist. The most important 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

A Rest in Egypt. 

Romulus and Remus. 

BELLE, Alexis Simon, a French portrait painter, 
was born in Paris in 1674, and was a pupil of 
Francois de Troy. He died in Paris in 1734. 

BELLE, Clement Louis Marie Anne, a French 
historical painter, and son of Alexis Simon Belle, 
was born in Paris in 1722. He studied under 
Marie Nicole Hortemels, his step-mother, and Fran- 





9ois Lemoine, and in 1761 was received into the 
Academy, of which he became professor in 1765 
and rector in 1790. He was likewise inspector at 
the tapestry manufactory of the Gobelins, where 
he died in 1806. 

BELLE, La. See La Belle. 

BELLECHOSE, Henei, ' de Brabant,' is recorded 
to have been ' painter and valet,' to Jean ' sans peur,' 
in 1415, and in the same year he was employed by 
the Chartreuse of Dijon to paint two pictures — the 
' Life of St. Denis,' and the ' Death of the Virgin.' 

BELLEG-AMBB, Jehan, is a painter who has 
remained, until recently, in obscurity. What we 
now know concerning him is due to the research 
of M. Wauters, Dr. Escallier, and others. Belle- 
gambe was born, apparently at Douai, about the 
year 1470. He studied art, it is supposed, under 
one Jean Gossuin. He is recorded to have resided 
in Douai from the year 1604 to 1531, and further- 
more to have executed works for the churches 
of St. Am^ and of the Dominicans, as well as for 
the town. The only authentic work by him is a 
polyptych in the church of Notre Dame at Douai. 
It was formerly in the abbey church of Anchin, 
and subsequently came, in parts, into the possession 
of Dr. Escallier, who presented it, as a whole, to 
the church of Notre Dame. This work, which is 
a very interesting example of Flemish art of that 
period, was formerly ascribed to Memling. It 
represents the Trinity, the Virgin, St. John the 
Baptist, and numerous saints ; and on the exterior, 
the abbot, the prior, and several monks, together 
with SS. Charlemagne and Benedict. Bellegambe 
is mentioned by Vasari in a list of important 
painters of the Low Countries. 

BELLERS, William, an English landscape 
painter, was a frequent contributor of ' Sunsets,' 
&c., to the exhibitions at the Society of Arts ; and 
in 1774 published with Boydell a series of views 
of the ' Cumberland Lakes.' Some of his land- 
scapes were etched by Canot and other French 

BELLEVOIS, H., (orBELLVos,) was a painter of 
marine subjects, seaports, and storms at sea. It 
is not mentioned by whom he was instructed, but 
his style of painting indicates that W. van de 
Velde and Backhuisen were his models. He re- 
sided at Hamburg, where he died in 1684. 

BELLI, Jacques. See Bellt. 

BELLI, Makoo, a follower of the Bellini, lived 
in the early part of the 16th century : of his life 
or death nothing certain is known, excepting that 
he is the painter of a ' Circumcision' in the Rovigo 

BELLIER, Jean FEANgois Maeie, portrait 
painter to Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, was 
born in Paris in 1745. He painted the panels of 
the carriage for the coronation of Louis XVI., and 
worked with Barthelemy upon the ceilings of the 
Louvre. He died in Paris in 1836. 

BELLINI, Bellini. See Belliniano. 

BELLINI, PiLlPPO, was a native of Urbino, 
and flourished about the year 1594. Almost un- 
noticed in the history of art, he is stated by Lanzi 
to have possessed uncommon capacity. He was a 
follower of the style of Federigo Baroccio, and one 
of the most successful of his imitators, as appears 
in his picture of the ' Circumcision,' in the Basilica 
of Loretto, and in the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' in 
the cathedral at Ancona. Amongst his most im- 
portant works are fourteen pictures of the works 
of ' Charity,' in the Chiesa della Carita at Fabriano, 


and the 'Martyrdom of St. Gaudenzio,' in the 
Conventuali di M. Alboddo. 

BELLINI, Gentile, the eldest son of Jacopo 
Bellini, was probably bom at Venice about 1427, 
but no register of his birth has been found. He 
learned his art from his father, and is supposed 
to have settled in Venice as early as 1460. His 
first known picture painted there is of 1464, when 
be received the commission to paint the doors 
of the great organ at San Marco, still to be 
seen in a gallery leading from San Marco to the 
Ducal Palace. Of a similar date are the four 
gigantic figures of SS. Mark, Theodore, Jerome, 
and Francis d'Assisi, painted in tempera in San 
Marco. In 1466, Gentile finished the ' Apotheosis of 
Lorenzo Giustiniani, first Patriarch of Venice,' for 
Santa Maria dell' Orto, and now in the Academy of 
that city. In 1474, he was appointed to decorate 
the Great Hall of Council, but all his paintings 
there, as well as these of his brother Giovanni, 
perished in the fire of 1577. Some pictures by 
Gentile Bellini, having been carried to Constanti- 
nople by some" Turkish merchants, were shown 
to the Sultan Mahomet II., who applied to the 
senate of Venice to permit the painter to visit 
his court, where, in 1479, he was received with 
particular favour, and painted the portraits of 
the Sultan and Sultana, which were regarded as 
prodigies by the Turks. He was honoured with 
the order of knighthood, and presented with a 
gold chain and medal. On his departure to return 
to Venice, the Sultan gave him letters to the 
Republic expressive of his satisfaction, and the 
senate bestowed on him an honorary stipend for 
life. At some period of his career he visited Rome, 
and brought back with him volumes of various 
designs, which he afterwards bequeathed to his 
pupils Ventura and Girolamo. He died in 1507. 
Of his works the following may be noticed : 

Milan. • Brera. The Sermon of St. Mark (1507) 
{jmished after Genfile^s death by his 
brother Giovanni). 
Paris. Ijmvre, Portraits of two men (in one frame), 
formerly supposed to he those of Gio* 
vanni and Gentile Bellini. 
Venice. Academy, The Procession in the Square of St. 
Mark (1496) 
„ „ The Miracle of the Holy Cross (1500). 

Correr MuslPoitTait of the Doge Fosoari (early 
„ Sir A. fl^. 1 Portrait of the Sultan Mahomet II, 
Layard. ] (1480). 

BELLINI, Cavaliere Giacinto, born at Bologna, 
in the early part of the 17th century, was a scholar 
of Francesco Albani. On leaving the school of 
that master, he was taken under the protection 
of the Count Odoardo Pepoli, by whom he was 
sent to Rome with Francesco Carraoci, for the 
advantage of study. He was not long at Rome 
before he discovered an ability that recommended 
him to the patronage of Cardinal Tonti, who was 
so satisfied with bis performances, that he pro- 
cured him the knighthood of the order of Loretto. 
He painted in the manner of Albani, and his pic- 
tures possess much of the graceful style of that 
esteemed master. He was living in 1660. 

BELLINI, Giovanni, was the younger son of 
Jacopo and the younger brother of Gentile Bellini. 
" Nothing is known of the birth-place or birth-day 
of this great painter.'" — J. A. Crowe. The Berlin 
Gallery Catalogue says, he was born " at Rome or 
Venice, in 1426-27." He first learned his art from 
his father, and up to 1472 continued to paint in 




tempera : his early works show his father's influ- 
ence, but his later productions evince a Mante- 
gnesque feeling. His earliest known picture was 
executed, it is said, in 1464. Soon after 1472 
Giovanni painted in tempera the ehef-d^oeuvre of 
the • Virgin and Child, with SS. Thomas Aquinas, 
Gregory, Jerome, Catharine of Siena, Mary Mag- 
dalene, and other Saints, with three figures of boys 
singing from a hook,' for the church of SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, Venice, said by Vasari " to be one of 
thebest creations up to this time in Venice." This 
painting was formerly in the Cappella del Sacra- 
mento, by the side of Titian's 'Peter Martyr,' 
but both these masterpieces most unfortimately 
perished by fire in 1867. Soon afterwards he 
executed the immense altar-piece of the church of 
San Domenico, Pesaro, of which the centre panel 
represents the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' with 
life-sized figures of ' Christ crowning His Mother, 
who is accompanied by SS. Peter, Paul, Jerome, 
and Francis.' In pilaster niches on each side of 
the above, are eight figures of saints, each two feet 
in height, and these rest on a predella with seven 
subjects, viz., the ' Conversion of St. Paul ; ' the 
'Martyrdom of St. Peter;' the 'Nativity;' 'St. 
Jerome penitent ; ' 'St. Francis receiving the Stig- 
mata ; ' and two subjects taken from the life of St. 
George. Giovanni had laboured for many years 
to perfect himself in the use of the new medium 
of oil, before he produced, about 1476, for a 
chapel in San Giobbe, the splendid ' Virgin and 
Child, with SS. John the Baptist, Francis, Job, 
Louis, Sebastian, and Domenick;' which is said by 
Sansovino to have been the first masterpiece in oil 
Giovanni publicly exhibited in Venice, and which 
is now in the Academy of that city. In 1479 
Giovanni was named by the State to take the place 
of his brother Gentile in the decoration of the 
Great Hall of Council, at Venice ; and in 1483 he 
was appointed Painter to the Government, and in 
this capacity painted the portrait of the Doge 
Giovanni Mocenigo, which is now in the Correr 
Collection, Venice. Although in the service of the 
State, he yet found time to execute the ' Resurrec- 
tion of Christ,' for the cathedral of Vicenza, in 1483 ; 
and other works. Giovanni Bellini was now at the 
height of his fame, and laboured most energetic- 
ally both at his public and private commissions. In 
the year 1488 hecommenced tjheseven designs which 
^e furnished for the Hall of Council, and which re- 
presented different episodes in the history of Venice 
and of her Doges. In that same year he finished 
the great altar-piece given by the Doge Agostino 
Barbarigo to the nuns of Santa Maria degli Angeli, 
at Murano, and now in the church of San Pietro 
Martire, representing the kneeling Doge, in full 
ducal robes, being presented to the Madonna and 
Child, by SS. Mark and Augustine. In 1483 the 
Counil of Ten had conferred upon Giovanni the title 
of 'Pittore del Domino,' and had granted him an 
exemption from the dues of his guild, hoping thus 
to increase his zeal for the completion of his 
frescoes in the Hall of Council ; but finding that 
he did not advance as quickly as had been hoped, 
in 1488 they gave him Luigi Vivarini as a rival ; 
this not proving sufficient incentive, he was 
threatened by the Council in 1494 with the com- 
petition of Perugino. In 1490 Giovanni painted 
the frescoes for the tomb of the Senator Onigo, in 
San Niccolo, Treviso, which were assigned to Anto- 
nello, by Ridolfi ; and in about 1501 he produced 
the 'Baptism of Christ,' in the church of Santa 

Corona, Vicenza. The life-size 'Virgin and Child, 
with Saints,' in Santa Zaccaria, Venice, where the 
artist left the traditional treatment of this subject, 
and produced something more allied to the modern 
school, was painted in 1505. It was about this 
date that Albrecht Diirer came to Venice, and met 
with a cordial welcome from Bellini, who even 
asked for some picture from his hand, and in his 
letters to Pirkheimer, Diirer cannot sufEciently 
praise the kindness and attentiors he received from 
the famous Venetian painter, who was then so uni- 
versally praised and sought after by the greatest 
personages of the period. Amongst many others, 
Isabella of Mantua had begged him for a picture, 
which he consented to furnish, though it is now 
doubtful what was its subject, and where it at 

E resent exists. As a portrait painter Giovanni 
as gained great fame, and produced many speci- 
mens of his skill. The Uffizi Gallery possesses a 
portrait which is said to be his own, although it 
differs from that in the gallery of the Capitol, at 
Rome, which most resembles the medal of the 
artist engraved by Camelio. In 1507 he finished 
his dead brother Gentile's picture of the ' Sermon 
of St. Mark,' in the school of the same name, 
which had been expressly bequeathed to his care 
by Gentile. From this last-named year until the 
close of his career, Giovanni continued to produce 
the numerous pictures now met with in nearly 
all the larger English and Continental Galleries: 
they were executed either by himself or with the 
aid of his numerous pupils, amongst whom can 
be named Titian, Giorgione, Carpaocio, Cima, 
Basaiti, Luigi Vivarini, Previtale, Sebastiano del 
Piombo, and Antonello da Messina. In November, 
1516, Giovanni Bellini died, and was buried by 
the side of his brother Gentile, in the church of SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. The following is a list 
of his most important works : 

Feast of the gods, painted in 1514. 

Alnwick. Castle. 
Bergamo. Carrara. ) 
Academy, j 

n »> 

Berlin. Gallery. 

Ca«tle Howard. 
Dresden. Gallery. 

Florence. Uffisi, 

»> n 

» n 

London. Nat. Gall. 


Pieta (No. 4). 

Pieta (formerly astn'ibed to Man- 
ter/na), (No. 28). 

Madonna and Child (No. 10). 

Madonna and OMld (signed Jo- 
annes Beixiitus), (No. 11). 


Portrait of the Doge Loredano 
(Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe 
this to Catena). 

Portrait of an old man. 

Portrait of himself. 

Dead Christ. 

The Doge Leonardo Loredano 

„ Eastlake Coll. 
Madrid. Mus^m. 

Milan. Brera. 

Naples. Museum. 

Paris. Zouvre. 
Bome. Sarlerini P. 

„ Sorghese P. 

„ Camtol, 


Madonna and Child (signed). 

The Agony in the Garden (early 

St. Peter Martyr (signed). 
Landscape with the death of St. 

Peter Martyr (signed). 
Madonna and Child. 
Madonna and Child with St. Ursula 
, and the Magdalene. 
Madonna (dated 1510). 
Transfiguration (painted after 1472, 

one (^his earliest oil-paintings). 
Holy Family (signed). 
Madonna (' probally hy Pasmalivo ' 

— Crowe and Cavalcaselle). 
Portrait of himself. 
. Madonna and Saints. 



Vienna. Belvedere. A young woman -with a looking- 
glass, called a Venus {painted in 
,j „ Presentation of Christ in the 

Venice. Academy. Madonna with Sue Saints (a5. 1476). 
Madonna {dated 1487). 
,; „ Madonna — ' of the Admiralty- 

Magistrate ' {retouched). 
„ Allegories. 

Madonna and the Sleeping Chnst. 

'' „ Madonna and SS. Paul and George. 

" „ Madonna with the Magdalene and 

St. Catharine. 

Con-«r3fMS. Portrait of Doge Giovanni Moce- 


BELLINI, Jacopo, or Giacomo, who was born at 
Venice about 1400, was a pupil of Gentile da Fabri- 
ano, whom he accompanied to Florence in 1422 ; 
and who stood godfather to his first child. Whilst 
in that city, in 1423, he had an altercation and fight 
with one Bernardo di Ser Silvestri, son of a notary, 
and to avoid any private revenge being taken on 
him, he left Florence for about a year; of this 
absence, however, his adversary took a cowardly 
advantage, and procured a judgment against him, 
so that on Bellini's return he had to purge himself 
of contempt of court by a fine and public penance, 
which he performed in 1425. Soon after this he 
returned to Venice. He resided in Verona from 
1430 to 1436 : but the frescoes he, with the assist- 
ance of his two sons, Gentile and Giovanni, exe- 
cuted there for the Brotherhood of St. John the 
Evangelist, representing the ' Life of Christ and 
the Virgin,' have perished. After again returning 
to Venice, he left for Padua, where he and his sons 
opened a workshop, and all painted together. 
From that city he married his daughter Nicholosia 
to Andrea Mantegna, and he seems to have lived 
there from 1444 to 1460, but the exact date of 
his death is uncertain. Only two — much injured — ■ 
panel-pictures by Jacopo remain to us. They 
both represent the ' Madonna and Child ; ' one 
is in the collection of Count Tadini at Lovere, near 
Bergamo, the other is in the Academy at Venice. 
There are frescoes by him still extant in Verona ; 
a ' Crucifixion ' is in the Archiepiscopal Palace. 
He excelled in portrait painting, and among those 
who sat to him were Lusignano,king of Cyprus, and 
the Doge Cornaro. Jaoopo's fame as an artist rests 
chiefly on his sketch-book, which is now in the 
British Museum. It is signed and dated ' Venice 
1430.' In this sketch-book are many subjects 
from the Old and New Testament, intermingled 
with studies of mythology and scenes from 
country-life : they are executed with the pencil 
and tinted with terra verde, but, unfortunately, 
are not well preserved. Though an excellent 
painter, he is chiefly known as the father of the 
renowned Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, and as 
the father-in-law of the celebrated Mantegna. 

BELLINIANO, Vittorb, who is considered to 
be identical with Bellini Bellini and Vittore di 
Matteo, was a native of Venice, and, according to 
Eidolfi, flourished about the year 1526. He painted 
historical subjects, and several of his pictures are 
in the Confraternity of St. Mark at Venice, and in 
the churches of the neighbouring towns. 

BELLIVERT. See Bilivert. 

BELLOC, Jean Hilaire, who was born at 
Nantes in 1786, studied under Regnault and Gros, 
in Paris, and at first painted historical subjects ; 
but he abandoned these for portraiture, in which 
branch of art he admirably succeeded. His por- 




traits include those of the Duchess of Berri and 
other noted persons. He became Director of the 
Free School of Design in Paris, where he died in 

BELLOTTI, PiBTRO, was bom at Bolzano, in 
1625. He was a scholar of Girolamo Perrabosco, 
under whom he became an excellent colourist. He 
painted some historical subjects ; but was more 
employed in portraits, in which he was very suc- 
cessful. He was a good copyist of other painters. 
He died at Venice, in 1700. 

BBLLOTTO, Bernardo, who was bom at Venice, 
in 1724 or 1720, was the nephew of Antonio Canal, 
called Canaletto, the celebrated painter of the views 
in Venice, whose name he adopted, and by whom 
he was instructed in art. In imitation of his uncle, 
he also painted architectural and perspective views, 
in a very picturesque and spirited manner. He 
resided in Italy, in Germany — especially in Dresden 
— and in Poland. He died at Warsaw in 1780. 
The following are some of his best works : 

Berlin. Gallery. View of Doge's Palace, Venice 

{from the Suermondt Coll.), 
Cassel. Gallery. Views in Venice. 

jyaxmBtit. Gallery . Venetian scene; and, others, 

Dresden. Gallery. Views of Dresden. 

„ „ Views of Pima. 

„ „ Views in Poland. 

„ „ Views iu Italy. 

{In all thirty-eight works.) 
Ijondon. Nat. Gallery. View in Venice. 
Milan. Brera. Landscapes. 

Munich. Pinakothek. View of Munich. 
Petrsbrg. Hermitage. View of the Kialto, Venice. 
Turin. Finacoteca. Views of Turin. 
Vienna. Liechtenstein G. View iu Pima. 

He has etched, from his own designs, several 
views in Dresden, Warsaw, and Vienna, and other 
subjects, as follow : 

A set of six Landscapes and Views. 

A set of twelve architectural Ituins, 

Fifteen Views iu Dresden. 

Eight Views in the environs of Dresden, 

Three Views iu Warsaw. 

BELLUCCI, Antonio. See Belucci. 

BELLUNBLLO. See Bertholotti, Andrea di. 

BELLY, Jacques, a French painter and en- 
graver, was a native of Chartres ; he was horn in 
1609, and died at Chartres in 1674. He was a 
pupil of Simon Vouet, and resided for many years 
in Rome, where he executed his best known work, 
' La Galleiie du Palais Fomaise de la ville de 
Rome,' a series of engravings after the frescoes 
of Annibale and Agostino Carracci, published in 

BELLY, L^ON AuGUSTK Adolphe, a French land- 
scape painter, was born at St. Omer, in 1827. He 
studied under Troyon and Rousseau. He spent 
much of the latter part of his life in the Bast, 
which furnished him with many subjects. He 
died in 1877. His best works are : 

Twilight in November. 

Fishers at Bquilles. 

The Desert of Nassoub. 1857. 

The Plain of Djyseh. 

Pilgrims going to Mecca. 1861. {In the Luxemlmrg 

The Banks of the Nile. 

Approach to an Egyptian Village. 

The Dead Sea. 1866. 

The Nile — ^near Bosetta. 

Montauban in Sologne. 1877. . (/« the LuxevUmrg 

BELMONTE T VACAS, Mariano. This land- 
scape painter was a native of Cordova, and a pro- 




fessor of Fine Arts at Cadiz and at Valencia. He 
exhibited his works in the Spanish Exhibitions 
in 1858, 1860, and 1862, and obtained several 
prizes. He died at Valencia in 1864. Among his 
best paintings are : 

A view of the Casa de Campo at Madrid. 
The Cavern of Palomas at Valencia. 

BELSKY, Alexei, a pupil of Girolamo Bon, 
worked in the second half of the 18th century. In 
the Hermitage at St. Petersburg there is an archi- 
tectural piece by him, sig-ned and dated 1789. 

BELTEAFFIO, Giovanni Antonio, (or Bol- 
TEAFFio,) a nobleman who was born at Milan in 
1467, and studied art under Leonardo da Vinci ; 
but he painted only as an amateur. He died at 
Milan in 1516. Of his works, which are rather 
scarce, the following may be mentioned : 

Bellag;gio. Frizzoni C. Madonna and Child. 
Berlin. Gallery. St. Barbara. 

„ „ Madonna and Child. 

„ „ Portrait of a man {perhaps of 

Antonio Bentivoylio). 
London. Ifat. Gall. Madonna and Child. 
Milan. Poldi Coll. Madonna and Child. 

Naples. Museum. Infant Christ and St. John {after 

Leonardo da Vinci). 
Paris. Lomire. A Virgin and Child, adored by 

the Casio Pamily {once in the 
church of the Misericordia, at 

BELTRANO, Agostino, and his wife, Aniella 
fcalled Aniella Bbltrano-Eosa and Anna di Rosa), 
were Neapolitan painters and scholars of Massimo 
Stanzione, of whom Aniella was the niece. They 
are mentioned together, as they painted alike, and 
jointly prepared many pictures which their master 
afterwards finished. They were both painters of 
no common merit, as is shown by many altar- 
pieces and cabinet pictures in oil. Some, however, 
belong to Aniella alone, and are highly extolled ; 
her uncle is suspected of having had a consider- 
able share in them, as Guide had in those of 
Gentileschi. She was murdered by her husband 
in a fit of jealousy, in the year 1649, at the age 
of 36 : he survived until the year 1666. 

BBLUCCI, Antonio, (or Bbllitcci,) who was 
bom at Soligo, near Venice, in 1654, was a scholar 
of Domenioo Difinico, and according to Orlandi 
painted several altar-pieces for the churches at 
Venice and Verona. He painted in Vienna, for 
Oharles VI. ; at the court of the Elector Palatine ; 
and in London, at Buckingham House and else- 
"where. He returned to his native country, and 
died at Soligo in 1726. In the church of the 
Ascension at Venice, is a fine picture by him of the 
' Nativity.' In the Munich Gallery are a ' Psyche 
and the sleeping Cupid,' and a ' Venus and Cupid, 
riding on the waves ; ' and in the Dresden Gallery 
are a ' Venus, attended by Cupid, feeding a dove,' 
and a ' Madonna and Child.' Several of the land- 
scapes of Tempesta are enriched with figures by 

BELVEDERE, Abate Andkea, bom at Naples in 
1646, was, it is said, a scholar of Ruoppoli, and ex- 
celled in painting fruit and flowers. He was one of 
the artists employed by Charles II. of Spain ; and in 
conjunction with Luca Giordano (who painted the 
figures), he executed several of the ornaments of 
the Escorial. His touch was firm and free, and 
was peculiarly adapted to the imitation of the still- 
life he represented, whilst his knowledge of chiar- 
oscuro enabled him to give his works a natural and 
pleasing effect. He quitted painting for the study 

of literature, and died in 1732 — according to some 
authors at Venice, to others at Florence. 

BEMBO, BoNiFAZio, of Cremona, flourished from 
about 1456 to 1478; He was employed by Fran- 
cesco Sforza at Milan and Padua, but after his 
patron's death he removed to Cremona. He painted 
there, in Sant' Agostino, full-length portraits, in 
fresco, of Francesco Sforza and his wife, Bianca, 
which have been much damaged by restoration. 
Pictures by him also remain in the cloister of La 
Colomba, at Cremona. Bembo was an able art- 
ist, spirited in his attitudes, magnificent in his 
draperies, and glowing in his colours. 

BEMBO, GiANFRANCESCO, who was either younger 
brother or son of Bonifazio, flourished at Cremona 
till 1524. He is supposed to have visited Rome, 
and is thought to be identical with a painter who 
was there known as Vetbiaeio. His works are seen 
in Cremona, in the cathedral of which city are an 
' Adoration of the Kings,' and a ' Presentation in 
the Temple ; ' in San Niccolo is a ' St. Nicholas 
with the Virgin ; ' and in San Pietro is a ' Madonna,' 
dated 1524, his last known work. Bembo's pic- 
tures contain very slight traces of the antique : 
he resembles Fra Bartolonuneo in point of colour- 
ing, but is inferior to him in the dignity of his 
figures and in his drapery. Rosini has given a 
print of a votive picture by him, the design of 
which has much of the grace and dignity of- 

BEMMEL, Van. A family of landscape painters 
of tills name flourished, during the 17th and 18th 
centuries, at Nuremberg and elsewhere. Those 
whose biographies are given were the most note- 
worthy members of this numerous but somewhat 
unimportant family. The accompanying genea- 
logical table is appended, in order to illustrate, in 
as short a space as possible, the relationships of 
these artists. 


, i , 

Joliaun Georg 


iToel Paul Johana Noah Christoph. johauu Chi'istDph. 

(1713— ). (1716-1768). | 

Georg Christoph Gottlieh I 

(1738—1794). ' 

Earl Sebastian Simon Joseph 
(1743—1796). (1747—1791). 

BEMMEL, Petes von, the second son and pupil 
of Willem van Bemmel, was born at Nuremberg 
in 1686. He painted landscapes ; and was especi- 
ally successful in representing thunder-storms and 
winter-scenes. His works are seen in the galleries 
of Brunswick and his native city. He etched six 
plates of landscapes, and died at Eatisbon in 1754. 
His sons, Chkistoph and Johann Christoph von 
Bemmel, followed the art of their father. 

BEMMEL, Willbm van, a Dutch landscape 
painter, was born at Utrecht in 1630. He was the 
scholar of Herman Saf tleven, and, like his instructor, 
excelled in painting landscapes. Not satisfied with 
the scenery of his native country, he went to Italy, 
and passed some years in making drawings of the 
most picturesque views in the environs of Rome. 
On leaving Italy he travelled through Germany, 
and settled at Nuremberg in 1662, where he met 
with great encouragement, and became the founder 
of a numerous family of artists. The studies he 
had brought with him from Italy were an excellent 
resource to him in the composition of his pictures, 
which were frequently enriched with figures by 





Roos and others. His landscapes have rarely 
found their way to England, but may be seen 
in the galleries of Vienna, Dresden, Augsburg, 
Frankfort, and Nuremberg. He etched six plates 
of landscapes which are dated 1654, and show the 
hand of a master. He died at Wohrd, near Nurem- 
berg, in 1708. 

BENAGLIO, Peanobsco, was a follower of Gi- 
rolamo BenagKo, and is said to have painted a 
fresco at Santa Maria della Soala in 1476. There 
are still existing several frescoes by him in dif- 
ferent churches in Verona. The dates of his birth 
and death are unknown. 

BENAGLIO, GiEOLAMO, a painter of Verona, 
flourished in the 16th century. An altar-piece, 
of the 'Madonna and Saints,' dated 1487, and 
several panels by him, are in the Verona Gallery. 

BBNARD, J. F., a French engraver, who 
resided at Paris about the year 1672, engraved 
several architectural and ornamental subjects for 
the work published at Paris by Jean Berain. 

BENASCHI, Giovanni Battista, Cavaliere, (or 
Beinaschi,) a Piedmontese painter, was born at 
Turin, in 1636. He was instructed in the rudi- 
ments of art by Spirito, and then went to Rome, 
where he became the scholar of Pietro del Po ; but 
afterwards formed his style from an imitation of 
the pictures of Lanfranco. The principal works of 
• this artist are at Naples, where he painted several 
ceilings, and other works in fresco. He possessed 
an inventive genius, and was an able designer. 
He died in 1688. There is an etching by this 
painter of a ' Holy Family,' after Giovanni Do- 
menico Cerrini, who was his intimate friend. 

BENAVIDES, Vinoente de, a Spanish painter, 
born at Oran in 1637. He was a scholar of Fran- 
cisco Rizi, at Madrid ; he afterwards became a 
good painter in fresco, and was much employed in 
theatrical decorations. He was appointed painter 
to Charles II. in 1691, and died in 1703^ 

BENAZECH, Charles, a son of Peter Paul 
Benazech, was born in London in 1767. He 
studied under Greuze, and in Rome ; he was in 
Paris during the Revolution, and is best known by 
his four pictures of ' Events in the Life of Louis 
XVI.,' which were engraved by Luigi Schiavonetti. 
He usually painted portraits, some of which he 
himself engraved. He died in 1794, in London. 

BENAZECH, Petbe Paul, an engraver, who is 
said to have been born in London about the year 
1744. He was a pupil of Vivares, and, according 
to Basan, worked some time at Paris, but returned 
to England. We have several plates by him of 
landscapes and other subjects, of which the follow- 
ing are the principal : 

Peasants playing at Bowls ; after A. van Ostade. 
Fishermen ; after Vernet. 
Eeturn from fishing ; after the same, 
A Calm at Sea ; after the same. 
Morning ; after the same. 

Four large landscapes ; after Dietrich ; engraved in 
1770 and 1771. These are his finest prints. 

BBNCOVICH, Fedeeigo, called 'H Federi- 
ghetto di Dalmatia,' was a native of Dalmatia, but 
was educated at Bologna ; he flourished about the 
year 1753. He appears to have studied the style 
of Carlo Cignani, to whose firmness of design he 
approached more nearly than he did to the amenity 
of his colouring. He produced several estimable 
works at Bologna, Milan, and Venice, and in the 
church of the Madonna del Piombo at Bologna 
is an altar-piece by him of the ' Crucifixion of St. 


Andrew.' He was more employed in painting 
easel pictures than large works ; many of the 
former are in Germany, where he resided some 

BENDEL, Hans Sigmund, of SchafEhausen, in 
Switzerland, was an historical painter and lithe-, 
grapher, and attended the Academy of Munich, 
under Kaulbach. He commenced to paint a series 
of cartoons with scenes from Swiss history, but 
unfortunately died, in 1853, before they were com- 
pleted. Among his other works are the illustra- 
tions for Goethe, for Pestalozzi's ' Lienhard und 
Gertrud,' for Hebel's ' Poems,' and for the ' Niiny 
Glockly ' (the Nine o'clock Bell) at SchafEhausen. 

BENDZ, WiLHELM Feedinand, who was bom at 
Odense, in the island of Funen, in 1804, studied 
under Eckersberg in Copenhagen, and became a 
good painter of portraits and genre pieces. In 
1831 he went by way of Munich to Italy, and died 
at Vicenza, in 1832. Of his works we may mention : 

Portrait of the Pastor Hornsyld. 1825. 

A Painter in his Studio. 1826. {In tlie Copenhagen 

Interior of an Art Academy. 1826. {In the Copenhagen 

A Sculptor in his Studio. 1827. {In tlie Copenhagen 

Christian IV. at the Battle of Femem. 1828. 

BENEDETTI, Mattia, was a native of Keggio, 
and a scholar of Orazio Talami. According to 
Averoldi, he flourished about the year 1700, and 
was esteemed as a fresco painter. One of his 
best works was the ceiling of the church of Sant' 
Antonio at Brescia. 

BENEDETTI, Tommaso, who was born in Lon- 
don in 1797, went early to Vienna, where he spent 
the greater part of his life, and died in 1868. 
Amongst his best engravings are the following : 

Portrait of the Emperor Francis I. ; after Ammerling. 
Portrait of the Emperor Francis I. ; after JSupelwieser. 
Portrait of the Duke of Eeiohstadt ; after Daffinger. 
Portrait of the Archduke Charles of Austria; after 

The Entomhmeut ; after Titian. 
Madonna with the Cherries ; after Titian. 

BENEDETTIS, Domenico db. This artist was 
bom in Piedimonte d'Alise about the year 1610. 
He was sent when young to Naples, where he 
was placed under the tuition of Fabrizio Santa- 
fede, and after studying some time under that 
master, he went to Borne, where he had the ad- 
vantage of becoming a scholar of Guide, whose 
graceful and elegant manner he imitated with suc- 
cess. On his return to Naples, he was favoured 
with the protection of the king, whose palace he 
ornamented with several pictures ; he also painted 
some works for the churches. Dominici mentions, 
as his best work, the ceiling of the church of 
Santa Maria Donna Regina, where he has repre- 
sented, in the different compartments, subjects 
from the life of the Virgin Mary, entirely in the 
manner of Guido. He died in 1678. 

BENEDETTO, II. See Castiglione. 

BENEDETTO, Fra. See Fiesole, Benedetto 

BENEDICTO, Roqub, an historical painter of 
Valencia, and scholar of Gaspar de la Huerta, for 
whose works the pictures of Benedicto are often 
mistaken. He was a better colourist than designer. 
His most distinguished picture is the ' Miracle of 
St. Francis de Paul feeding 3000 persons with a 
small quantity of bread.' He died at Valencia in 




BENEFIAL, Cavaliere Maeco, was bom at 
Rome in 1684. Several of his works in that city 
prove him to have possessed very considerable 
ability. In the Academy of St. Luke is a fine 
picture of ' Christ and the Samaritan Woman ; ' 
and in the church of the 'Stimmate,' the ' Flagel- 
lation.' In the Palazzo Spada there is a saloon 
entirely painted by him, which is considered one 
of the finest productions of his time: and there 
are also preserved the cartoons for his great fresco 
work of the dome of the cathedral at Viterbo. 
He died in 1764. 

BENET, Geeonimo, painted portraits, figures 
of the Virgin and Christ, to which he gave con- 
siderable expression. He died at Valladolid in 

BENEVIDES. See Ramirez. 

BENFATTO, LuiGl, who was born at Verona 
in 1551, was the nephew and scholar of Paolo 
Veronese, under whom he acquired a bold and 
vigorous style of painting. According to Eidolfi, 
he maintained for some time after the death of 
Paolo the celebrity of the school, and the splendid 
system of colouring established by that great 
master. He distinguished himself by many admir- 
able works in public buildings at Venice. In the 
church of St. Nicholas is a grand composition by 
him, representing the Ascension of that saint to 
heaven, attended by a choir of angels, and figures 
emblematical of the virtues of Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, and in the Chiesa di Santa Marta are 
several pictures of the life of that saint. Many 
other works of Benfatto are mentioned by Ridolfi. 
He died in 1611. 

BENING, Levina, was the eldest daughter of 
Simon Bening, a miniature painter of Bruges, and 
was instructed in miniature painting by her father. 
She married Georg Teerling of Blankenberghe, 
who came with her to England, where her remark- 
able talents recommended her to the notice of 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and the queens Mary 
and Elizabeth ; with the last of whom she was in 
great favour as late as 1570, but the time of her 
death is not recorded. She was also known in 
England as ' Levina of Bruges.' 

BENING, Simon, a Flemish illuminator and 
miniature painter, was probably a native of Ghent, 
where his father, Alexander Bening, exercised the 
calling of a draughtsman and illuminator. Simon 
worked in Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels, and London, 
and died at Bruges in 1501. There is in the Manu- 
script Department of the British Museum a splen- 
did example of his work, ' Arbre g§nealogique de 
la Maison souveraine de Portugal,' executed be- 
tween the years 1630 and 1534. 

BENINI, SlUisMONDO, was bom at Cremona, 
about the year 1675, and studied under Angelo 
Massarotti. He excelled in painting landscapes, 
in which the gradation in the distances was well 
observed, and the efEects of light managed with 
great skill. His pictures are highly finished and 
Very agreeably coloured. His talent was, however, 
confined to landscape, and when he attempted to 
introduce figures of his own, it always diminished 
the value of his works. 

BENNETT, Chaelbs H., was a designer on 
wood, whose first sketches appeared in ' Diogenes.' 
He also produced many illustrated children's 
books, as well as illustrations to the 'Pilgrim's 
Progress,' and sketches in 'Punch.' He died iu 
1867, aged 37. 

BENNETT, William, a water-colour painter, 

was born in 1811. It is believed that he re- 
ceived his first lessons in art from David Cox. 
In 1848 he was made a member of the New 
Water-Colour Society, and contributed landscapes, 
chiefly of English scenery, to their exhibitions, 
until his death in 1871. 

BENNETT, William James, a water-colour 
painter, was one of the 'Associated Artists' in 
1808, and twelve years afterwards was elected an 
Associate of the Water-Colour Society. He painted 
views near Naples, and on the coast of Barbary. 
His last exhibited drawings were published in 1825. 

BENNETT, William Mineard, born at Exe- 
ter in 1778, was a pupil of Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
and obtained some celebrity as a painter of por- 
traits and miniatures — exhibiting at various times 
at the Academy. About 1835 he went to Paris, 
where he was patronized and decorated by Louis 
Philippe. In his later years he returned to Exeter, 
where he died in 1868. 

BENOIST, Antoinb, (called Dn Ceecle,) a 
French portrait painter, was born at Joigny (Yonne) 
in 1632. He became painter in ordinary and first 
sculptor in wax to Louis XIV., and was received 
into the Academy in 1681. There is at Versailles 
a remarkable medallion of Louis XIV. executed by 
him in coloured wax. He died in Paris in 1717. 

BENOIST, Antoine, a French engraver, was 
born at Soissons in 1721, and died in London in 
1770. He engraved, after Blackey, a portrait of 
Louis XV., King of France. 

BENOIST, Guillaume Philippe, a French line- 
engraver, was born near Coutances, in Nqrmandy, 
in 1725. He engraved, in a neat style, some 
portraits, and a few other subjects. He resided 
during the latter part of his life in London, 
where he died in 1770. The following plates are 
by him : 


Galileo Galilei ; after F. Villainena, 

The President de Montesquieu 

Alexander Pope. 

Bosen de Eoseastein, physician. 

Sir Isaac Newton. 

Blaise Pascal. 

Albert Haller. 

Mile. Olairon, actress. 

Jacques Andre Joseph Aved, painter ; after Aved. 


Jupiter and Juno ; after Giuliano di Farma, 
Bathsheba bathing ; after Bonnieu. 

BENOITS, Madame Maeie Guilhelmine, whose 
maiden name was Laville-Leroux, and to whom 
Demoustier addressed his ' Lettres a Bmilie sur la 
Mythologie,' was born in Paris in 1768. She painted 
many familiar subjects, and the portraits of several 
distinguished persons, among which are those of 
the Emperor Napoleon, and his wife, Maria Louisa. 
A portrait of a negress by her is in the Louvre. 
She died in 1826, in Paris. 

BENOUVILLE, FRANgois LioN, an historical 
painter, who was born in Paris in 1821, and 
studied under Picot. His earliest exhibited works 
were, 'Mercury and Argus ' (1839) ; 'The Hermit 
and the Slothful Knights' (1841), taken from an 
incident in Sir Walter Scott's ' Ivanhoe ; ' ' Judith ' 
(1844); 'Esther' (1845). In 1845 he obtained 
the great prize of Rome, in history, with his pic- 
ture of ' Jesus in the Judgment Hall.' In 1853 
he exhibited a large picture of ' St. Francis of 
Assisi dying, blessing his native city,' which was 





purchased for the Luxembourg G-allery, and at 
once placed him in a distinguished rank in his art ; 
it is now in the Louvre. To the Universal Exhi- 
bition of 1855 Biinouville sent ' Christian Martyrs 
entering the Amphitheatre,' and ' A Prophet of the 
Tribe of Judah killed by a Lion ; ' works more 
remarkable for their composition than their exe- 
cution. In 1857 he exhibited ' The Two Pigeons,' 
' Raphael seeing theFornarina for the first time,' 
and ' Poussin on the banks of the Tiber.' _ About 
this time he painted the decoration of the interior 
of the H6tel de Ville. Early in 1859 he completed 
two pictures, ' St. Clair receivng the body of St. 
Francis of Assisi,' and ' Joan of Arc,' which were 
exhibited in the Salon of that year. He also 
painted portraits. He received two second class 
medals in 1852 and 1865 respectively; a first class 
medal in 1853 ; and the decoration of the Legion 
of Honour in 1855. He died suddenly, in Paris, in 

BENSHEIMER, Johann, a German engraver, 
medallist, and designer, by whom we have a set of 
portraits of the Electors of Saxony. He worked at 
Dantzic, Berlin, and Dresden, where he lived from 
1670 to 1700. He marked his plates with the 
initials of his name, J. B. 

BENSON, GiULio, who was born at Genoa, 
about the year 1601, was a scholar of Giovanni 
Battista Paggi. Soprano says that he was also an 
eminent architect. He painted history and per- 
spective, was patronized by the Doria family, and 
executed some ornamental works in their palace. 
His most esteemed work is the 'Coronation of 
the Virgin,' painted in fresco in the church of the 
Nunziata. There are several of his oil paintings 
in the churches at Genoa ; that of St. Domenico is 
much admired. He died in 1668. 

BENT, Johannes van deb. See Van dee Bent. 

BBNTLBY, Charles, a painter of coast and 
river scenery, in water-colours, was born in 1806. 
He was elected an associate of the Water-Colour 
Society in 1834, and a full member in 1844, and 
constantly contributed to their annual exhibitions. 
His subjects are views in France, Holland, and 
Italy, as well as on the shores of his native country. 
He died of cholera in 1854. 

BENTLEY, Joseph Clayton, a line-engraver, 
was born at Bradford in 1809. His first attempt 
in art was landscape painting ; but coming to 
London in 1832, he commenced to study engraving 
under R. Brandard. Some of his best plates were 
engraved for the Vernon Gallery, after Gains- 
borough, Callcott, and Linnell. Always of a weak 
constitution, his health entirely gave way under 
too persistent exertion, and he died in 1851. 

BENTLEY, Richard, the only son of the 
eminent classical scholar Dr. Bentley, master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, was an amateur artist 
of some celebrity towards the end of the last 
century. He is best known by his illustrations 
of the edition of Gray's works which Horace 
Walpole printed at Strawberry Hill. He died in 

BENTUM, Justus van, a pupil of Godefried 
Schalken, was born at Leyden in 1670, and died 
in 1727. He painted in the manner of his master. 
A picture by him of a 'Cake-seller' is in the 
Belvedere at Vienna. 

BENVENDTI, De'. See Bologna, Simone da. 

BENVENDTO, Giovanni Bati-ista, called Dell' 
Oktolano, because his father, Francesco di Benve- 
nuto, was a gardener, was born at Ferrara about 


the year 1490. By some writers his birth is placed 
as early as 1467. After studying some time in his 
native city, he went to Bologna, where, in 1512-13 
he was influenced in his painting by the works 
of Raphael and Bagnacavallo. He painted in the 
style of Dosso Dossi. Barotti mentions several 
of the works of Benvenuto in his description 
of Ferrara, where they are highly esteemed. In 
the church of San Niccol6 he painted, in 1520 
the ' Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus,' with several 
Saints; in Santa Maria de' Servi the 'Nativity-' 
and in San Lorenzo the ' Adoration of the Magi.' 
From 1612 to 1624 he worked at Ferrara. He 
is supposed to have died, while still young in 
1625. His best work is a ' St. Sebastian, St. Roch 

and St. Demetrius,' in the National Gallery 

formerly in the parochial church of Bondeno near 
Ferrara. In the Ferrara Gallery there are a ' Na- 
tivity ' and a ' Christ in the Garden ' by him. 

BENVENUTO, Pieteo, who was born at Arezzo 
in 1769, studied the works of Andrea del Sarto at 
Florence, and those of Raphael at Rome. He was 
also much influenced by the style of J. L. David, 
and was considered one of the leading painters of 
the modern Tuscan school. His style is noble and 
elevated, although somewhat chargeable with cold- 
ness, his design pure and correct, and his colour 
often brilliant. He painted ' The Saloon of Her- 
cules,' in the Pitti Palace, and the cupola of the 
chapel of the Medici. The last-named is one of 
the most important of his works ; in it are repre- 
sented -eight grand subjects, taken from the Old and 
the New Testament, the four Prophets and the four 
Evangelists. It was under the superintendence of 
this artist that Carlo Lassinio engraved the sub- 
jects in the famous Riccardi Gallery, painted by 
Luca Giordano. He died at Florence in 1844, whUe 
holding the post of Director of the Academy. 
Amongst his best works may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing : 

Arezzo. Cathedral. Judith displaying the head of 
Holoferaes to the assembled 
people (engraved hy Eicciani). 

Florence. Pal. Corsini. Pyrrhus kUling Priam, after the 
taking of Troy {engraved hy 
the same'). 
„ S. Lorenzo. Scenes from the Old and New 
Testament — on the ceiling of 
the CJhoir chapel (fresco). 
„ TTffizi. His own Portrait. 

Kavenna. Cathedral. The death of St. Chrysologus. 


BENVENUTO (di Giovanni) del GUASTA. 
See Del Gdasta, Benvenuto. 

BENWELL, John Hodges, born at Blenheim in 
1764, studied in the Royal Academy Schools, and 
in 1782 gained a silver medal. Some of his works, 
such as his ' Auld Robin Gray,' ' Children in the 
Wood,' &c., were engraved. He used water-colours 
and crayons in an effective manner. He died in 
1786, and was buried in Old St. Pancras church- 

BENWELL, Mart, a painter of portraits in 
crayons and in miniatures, exhibited her works at 
the Incorporated Artists' Society and the Royal 
Academy between 1760 and 1782. Her portrait 
of 'Queen Charlotte' was engraved by Richard 
Houston. Late in life she married a Mr. Code, 
and resided at Paddington, where it is believed 
she died soon aftei; 1800. 

BENZONO, Antonio, was a Veronese painter of 
the 16th century, and a disciple of Francesco 




Carota. The Gallery at Verona possesses a ' Virgin 
and Child, between St. Jerome and St. George,' 
signed and dated by him in 1531. No dates are 
given of his birth or death. 

BER, Jacob, (commonly called Jaoobbee,) was 
born at Bliescastel, in Bavaria, about 1806, and 
studied under Gerard van Spaendonck. He held 
for a long time the post of flower and fruit painter 
at the porcelain factory at Sevres. Ber received 
numerous medals for his fruit and flower paint- 
ings, and the cross of the Legion of Honour. He 
died ,in 1864. 

BBRAIL, Feanqois, a French painter and 
geographer, was born in 1665 at Chateaudun, where 
he died in 1732. There is a view of the Royal 
Abbey of the Magdalen at Chateaudun, engraved 
after him by J. B. Scotin. 

BEEAIN, Jean, 'the elder,' a French painter, was 
born in Paris about the year 1638. He was ap- 
pointed in 1674 "dessinateur de la Chambre et du 
Cabinet du Roi," in which capacity it was his duty 
to design the scenery and costume for the court 
f§tes and ballets. He died in Paris in 1711. 

BERAIN, Jean, 'the younger,' who was born in 
1674, and died in 1726, succeeded his father, Jean 
Berain the elder, as draughtsman to the king, 
and etched several plates, mostly from his own 
designs, in very neat manner, though rather stiff 
and formal ; among others are the following : 

Twelve plates — Of the ornaments of painting and 
sculpture, which are in the gallery of ApoUo in the 

The Mausoleum for the Funeral of Maria Anna Chris- 
tina Victoria of Bavaria. 

Devices for a Funeral Ceremony, 

BBEANGEE, Charles, a French painter of 
animals and fruit, was born at Sevres in 1816. He 
was a pupil of Paul Delaroche, and died in Paris 
in 1863. 

BEBARDI, Fabio, an Italian engraver, horn at 
Siena in 1728. He went to Venice when young 
and learned the art of engraving under Joseph 
Wagner. He has engraved several plates of his- 
torical and other subjects, chiefly after later Vene- 
tian painters : 

St. . Seraphiuus worshipping the Cross, half length ; 

frontispiece. 1767. 
A 'Woman sleeping, surprised by a Sportsman ; after 

Four Pastoral Subjects ; after the same. 
Isaac blessing Jacob ; after J. B. Fiitoni, 
The Sacrifice of Gideon ; after the same. 
Jacob and Bachel ; after J. Varotti. 
Hagar and Ishmael in the Desert ; after J. Varana. 
Six Views in Venice ;, after Canaletto ; engraved by 

Berardi and Wagner, 1742. 

BERCH, Van PLATTEN. See Platten-Bebch. 

BERCHEM. NicoLAAS (or Claas, the shortened 
form) PlETEESZ is commonly known as Berchem 
or Beeghem. By several writers this has been as- 
sumed to be a mere nickname, and various reasons 
have been given for its origin. But inasmuch as 
he is entered in the town-records as Berchem, and 
that he adopted it for the signature on his works, 
it may to all intents and purposes be considered a 
surname. He was born at Haarlem in 1620. His 
father, whose name was Pieter Claasz, was known 
as Pieter Claasz van Haarlem, and it was from 
him that Nicolaas received his first instruction in 
art. He afterwards studied under Jan van Goijen, 
N. Moeijaert, De Grebber, with Jan Wils, whose 
daughter he married, and with Weeninx. The pic- 
lures he painted in tie early part of his life have 

some resemblance to the works of Weeninx, al- 
though touched with more delicacy ; and, like the 
pictures of that master, they represent seaports and 
embarcations. He afterwards formed for himself 
a different and a more interesting manner, repre- 
senting landscapes of most delightful scenery, 
enriched with architectural ruins, and decorated 
with charming groups of figures and cattle. His 
pictures of those subjects are superior to any 
painter of his country, except his contemporary 
Jan Both, and there appears to have been some 
degree of rivalry between these celebrated artists. 
It is related that a great enoourager of art, a 
burgomaster of Dordrecht — Van der Hulk by 
name — engaged Berchem and Both to paint each 
a picture, for which they were to receive re- 
muneration, and the one whose work should be 
thought the better was to have a certain sum, in 
addition, as premium. The two painters did their 
best, and on showing their work to their patron he 
assured them that their admirable performances 
had deprived him of the capability of preference, 
and that, as they had both reached the perfection 
of the art, they were both entitled to the premium, 
the prize of fame. Berchem's painting is No. 
1076 in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Descamps 
considered it his masterpiece. From the sub- 
jects and the manner of many of his paintings it 
has been concluded that Berchem made a journey 
to Italy, though no precise information on the 
subject is to be obtained. He died at Amsterdam 
in 1683. The following is a list of his best paint- 
ings, in the public collections of Europe : they are 
not uncommonly seen in the private galleries of 
England : 

Amsterdam. .Miseum. Winter Landscape {dated 1647 
„ „ The three flacks of Sheep. 

„ „ Cattle crossing a Ford {dated 1656). 

„ „ The Ferry-boat. 

„ „ Landscape and Figures {executed in 

conjunction with Van der Sagen). 
„ V. d. Hoop. Italian Landscape. 

„ Six Coll. Several examples. 

Berlin. Museum. Winter landscape (Bebchem f). 
„ „ Mythological scene in a Landscape 

(Beechem p). 
The Halt at the Inn (Beechem f). 

Brunswick. Gallery. 
Brussels. Museum,. 





Dulwich. Gallery. 

Hague. Museum. 



The Halt at the Forge (Bebchem) 
Female Head (a study). 
Pomona and Vertumnus, 
Landscape with Euins. 
Kepose in the Meadow, 
A Forge (Berchem). 
Herdsmen and Cattle. 
Angels appearing to the Shepherds 

{signed BeeiGhem, 1649), 
A Sunset (Berchem). 
Landscapes {eleven). 
Landscape with Figures, 
Wood Scene. 

Landscape (called ' Le Soir '). 
LandjScape {called ' Le Midi '), 
Landscape (Beeeighem, 164S). 
The Boar Hunt (Beeohem, 1659). 
„ Italian Ford (Beeghem, 1661). 

„ Attack on a Convoy in the Moun- 

tains (Beeohbm). 
JVat. Gall. Crossing the Ford (Bbbchempinxt) 
„ „ Landscape with Euin (Beeghem). 
„ „ Italian Landscape (Berchem). 
„ „ Ploughing (Beeghem). 
„ „ Landscape (Beechem, 165 — ). 
Pinakothek. Landscapes. 

„ And others ; in all, eight works. 

View near Nice (G. Berghem). 
Landscapes with Animals (C. Ber- 
ghem p. 1653). 
The Ford (Bebchem p. 1650). 






Paris. Lotivre. Eiyht oth^r Landscapes with Animals, 

Teteishuvg.Hermitacfe Angels appearing to tlie Shepherds 
„ „ The Eepose in Egypt (Beechem). 

„ „ The Eape of Europa (Bekchem, 

„ „ Autumn (N. Berchem). 

„ „ Halt of Huntsmen (Beechem. No. 

1076 ; on£ of his best works). 
„ „ Italian Scenes. 

„ „ And others ; in all, sixteen works. 

Vienna. Belvedere. Landscapes with Figures and Herds 
„ Czernin Ga^. Landscape. 
„ LiechtensteinGal. Death of Dido. 
„ „ Judgment of Paris. 

„ „ Landscape (and others). 

Berchem sometimes signed his name 0. Berchem, 
the C standing for Claas, and also, in early life, 
Berighem, or Berrighem. He occasionally painted 
animals in the works of other masters, as Euis- 
dael, Hobbema, Jan Wils, and others. The style 
of Berchem is excellent ; he painted with surpris- 
ing facility, yet his pictures have all the finish that 
could be wished. Extremely happy in the choice 
and arrangement of his compositions, he has given 
a singular grace and beauty to his figures, without 
departing from the propriety of costume. The 
distribution of his masses, and his arrangement of 
light and shade, are masterly and intelligent ; and 
the delicate gradation of his aerial perspective, the 
light floating of his skies, and the transparency 
of the water, have never been surpassed by any 
painter of his country. 

This celebrated artist has also amply contributed 
to the portfolios of the collector, by the numerous 
exquisite drawings and etchings he has left us, 
of which the latter are executed in a much more 
finished manner than we are led to expect from 
the point of a painter. There is a descriptive 
catalogue of the etchings of Berchem, ^ 
by Hendrik de Winter, published at Jf 
Amsterdam in 1767. The following /? 1\/Q 
list comprises his principal plates : ^0/ «-/ lO- 


Six plates of Cows, with the title, called the Milkmaid 

C. Berc/hem, fee. et exc. 1634 to 1644. 
Six of Sheep ; in the title print, a woman sitting on a 

Six of Goats ; in the title print, a man sitting with a dog. 
Eight of Sheep ; in the title print, a woman standing 

near a rock. 
Eight of Sheep and Goats ; in the title print, a man. 
Pive larger plates upright, one dated 1652 ; all marked 

BercfheTfiy fee. 
Pour smaller plates of different animals, lengthways; 

marked iV.S. 
Six of the Heads of Sheep, Goats, &c. ; small ; scarce. 


A Cow drinking; ^ej-cAemj/ec. 1680. 

A Cow watering; C. P. Berc/hem, inv. et fee.; fine and 

A Landscape, with two Cows lying, and one standing- 

Beryhem,fec. ^' 

A Landscape, with Cows, and a man riding on an Ass ■ 

Jy. Berghem,,fec. 
A Landscape, with a Woman hathing her feet in a 

Brook, and a Man behind leaning on a Stick, with 
A ^.l ^^ Figures, and a Euin in the distance. 
•A Boy ridmg on an Ass, speaking to another Boy, who 

i^^playmg on the Bagpipes. Called ' The Bagpiper ; ' 

A Landscape with a Man playing on the Flute, and a 
Voman sittmg ; without a mark ; scarce. 

A Landscape, with a Man standing, and a Woman seated 
suckling a child ; without a mark : very scarce. 


BERCHET, PnsRBE, a French painter, born in 
1669. He was a scholar of Charles de la Posse 
under whom he studied till he was found capable 
of undertaking some works in the palaces in 
France. He came to England in 1681, and met 
with employment in ornamenting the houses of 
some of the nobility. His best work is the ceiling 
of the chapel of Trinity College, Oxford, where he 
has represented the ' Ascension.' He died in Lon- 
don in 1720. 

BERCK - HEI.JDE, Gbrrit, (BBRKHSYDEif, or 
Berkeydon,) the younger brother of Job Berck- 
Heijde, was bom at Haarlem in 1638. The success 
of his brother encouraged him to become a painter 
and he was assisted by his instruction. He entered' 
the guild of St. Luke in 1660. These artists ap- 
pear to have been bound to each other by the 
most affectionate attachment ; their pursuit of the 
same profession, instead of producing jealousy or 
ill-will, seems only to have inspired them with a 
laudable emulation, and a desire of contributing to 
each other's celebrity. It is said that they resided 
together with their sister Aechje. Gerrit painted 
at Cologne, Heidelberg, Haarlem, and Amsterdam. 
He died at Haarlem in 1698. The pictures of 
Gerrit Berck-Heijde are faithful representations 
of the principal towns in Holland and Germany, 
painted with great neatness, and well coloured! 
They are sometimes ornamented with figures by 
Job, who surpassed his brother in that branch of 

Amsterdam. Museum. '' 

„ V. d. Hoop. 

Antwerp. Museum. 

Dresden. „ 

Frankfort. StUel. 

Paris. Louvre. 

Rotterdam. Museum 

View of Dam at Amsterdam {signed 
and dated 1677). 

Street Views. 

View of Amsterdam (signed Geeett 
Beeck Heijde, Haeelem, 1668). 

View of the Hague {signed G. 

A pubhc place, with antique build- 
ings and figures {signed). 

A Hawking Party (signed). 

The Stadhuis, Amsterdam (signed). 

View of Amsterdam, showing the 
two Synagogues (signed). 

View of the Trajan Column. 

View of Cologne (signed and dated 

Petersburg.fl'ermite^e.Houses on the canal, Haarlem. 
n „ Hunting party (signed). 

BERCK-HEIJDE, Job, (Berkhbyden, or Ber- 
keydon,) was born at Haarlem in 1630. He 
studied under a painter, Jacob Willemsz de Wet, 
but by a natural inclination for art, he employed 
himself, when young, in making sketches of the 
environs of Haarlem, and the commendation 
bestowed on his first essays encouraged him to 
adopt art as a profession, and he entered the 
guild of St. Luke in 1654. His genius led him to 
paint landscapes and views of die Rhine, which 
he represented in a very pleasing manner, and his 
attentive observance of nature enabled him to give 
an appearance of air and sunshine to his pictures, 
which produces a very agreeable effect. He 
decorated his landscapes with small figures, toler- 
ably correctly drawn, and very neatly touched. 
He sometimes painted village feasts and merry- 
makings, which are not without considerable 
merit. In company with his brother Gerrit, he 
travelled through Germany, and was for some time 
in the employment of the Elector Palatine, for 
whom he painted several pictures, and by whom 
he was presented witn a gold chain and medal. 
He returned with his brother to Holland, where 




he met with great encouragement. He died at 
Haarlem in 1693. The following are some of his 
hest works : 

Amsterdam. Museum. View of Haarlem {signed). 
„ V. d. Hoop. Church interior. 

Berlin. Museum. Winter Landscape (sjjm«d J. Bbeck- 

Brussels.^remSer^ CoZ. View of the Old Bank at Amster- 
dam. 1678. 

Dresden. Gallery. View of the Town-hall at Amster- 
dam (signed J. Beeck Hetde). 
„ „ Interior of the Cathedral of Haar- 

lem (signed and dated 1665). 

Rotterdam. Museum. The old Exchange at Amsterdam 

Petersburg.fl'er»fc?Ya^e. Views in Amsterdam (sigified). 

BERDELLE, Johann Baptist, born at Mentz 
in 1814, studied first at Diisseldorf, under Sohadow, 
and showed a great talent for portrait painting. 
When visiting Munich, in 1840, he was persuaded 
by Genelli to devote himself entirely to historical 
painting. He became a follower of G. Rahl, and 
painted in the manner of the Venetian artists of 
the 16th century. He executed some frescoes in 
the Polytechnikum at Munich, where he died by 
Buicide in 1876. 

BERENGUEE, Fra Ramon, Prior of the Char- 
treuse of Scala Dei, in Catalonia, painted, about 
the middle of the 17th century, a series of small 
pictures for the cloister, from the History of St. 
Bruno and the Order, for which he is said to have 
made copies at Parma from the celebrated works of 
Carducho, whose style he imitated with tolerable 

BERETTINL See Bekeettini. 

BERG, Magnus, who was born in Norway in 
1666, was a painter and sculptor. He was in- 
structed by Andersen, court painter in Denmark. 

BERG, Nicolaas van dee. See Van dee Beeq. 

BEEG, Van den. See Van den Bbeg. 

BBRGAMASCO, II. See Castelli, Giovanni 

BERGAMO, Andeba da. See Coedelle Agi. 

BERGE, Augusts ChAeles de la. See De la 

BERGE, P. VAN dee. See Van dee Beege. 

BERGEN, DiEK van den, (or Beeghbn). See 
Van den Beegen. 

BERGEN, Nicolaas van, who was born at 
Breda in 1670, imitated the manner of Rembrandt ; 
he painted subjects of history, interiors, and con- 
versation-pieces. He died at Breda at the age 
of 29. 

BERGER, Daniel, an engraver, was bom at 
Berlin in 1744. He was instructed in the art by 
his father, who did not attain great celebrity : he 
also studied under G. P. Schmidt. He engraved 
several portraits of the Royal Family of Prussia 
and other distinguished personages, and many his- 
torical and other subjects, principally after the 
painters of his country. In 1787 he was appointed 
rector and professor of engraving of the Academy 
at Berlin. He died in 1824. Among others we 
have by him the following plates : 

The Death of Major de Kleist ; after D. Chodomecky. 

The Virgin and Child ; after Correggio. 

A Bust of a Man with a gold chain ; after G. van den 

The Death of General Schwerin ; after J. C. Frisch. 
The Virgin Mary ; after Baphael. 
Servius Tullius ; after Angelica Kauffmann. 

BERGERET, Pieerb Nolasqub, a French his- 
torical, landscape, and portrait painter, who was 
I 2 

bOm at Bordeaux in 1780, was a pupil of the 
elder Laoour, of Vincent, and of David. His sub- 
jects are of the most interesting kind, whether 
taken from national histories or particular facts 
relating to individuals. Many of his pictures have 
been placed in the Luxembourg and other royal 
palaces. The bas-reliefs on the column of the 
Place Vendfime were designed by him ; he painted 
four of the portraits for the hall of the chancellors, 
and made designs for the medals struck at the 
Mint. Many of his pictures have been engraved ; 
and some serve as illustrations to editions of 
Boileau, La Fontaine, and other French classics. 
Bergeret died at Paris in 1863. 

BEHGHE, Van den. See Van den Berghb. 

BERGHEM. See Beechem. 

BERGLER, Joseph, was born in 1753, at Salz- 
burg. He was Director of the Prague Academy, 
and author of numerous etchings ; during his 
sojourn in Rome he made a particular study of the 
works of Raphael. He was patronized by Cardinal 
Auersperg and Count Thun. His paintings had 
little transparency, and were wanting in reality of 
colour, but he made some good portraits. He 
died at Prague in 1829. 

BERGMANN, Gboeg, who was born at Celle, 
near Hanover, in 1821, studied at the Diisseldorf 
Academy from -1843 to 1847; and became a 
painter of historical and biblical subjects. He 
died in 1870. He executed amongst others : 

Madonna and Child. 1847. 
Madonna and Child. 1850. 

The Death of Charles V. 1851. (Purchased by the 
King of Hanover.) 

BERGMANN, Iqnaz, born at Munich in 1797, 
studied painting under Langer at the Academy 
of that city. He painted portraits in oil, but is 
better known as a lithographer. 

BEEGMtJLLER, Johann Georg, was born at 
Tiirkheim, near Augsburg, in 1688, and studied 
under Andreas Wolf. He painted history and por- 
traits after the manner of Carlo Maratti. Some of 
his works are to be seen in the churches and houses 
of Augsburg, where he resided, and where he died 
in 1765. He is chiefly known by the engravings 
which he made from his own designs. Among 
others we have the following : 

Four — the Baptism of Christ, the Transfiguration, the 

Resurrection, and the Ascension. 
The Conception. 

The Virgin Mary caressing the Infant Christ. 
The Death of St. Joseph ; inscribed S. Joseph moriens. 
Christ on the Mount of Ohves. 
Sancta Catherina Victrix. 
St. Sebastian, Martyr. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus presenting the Eosary to 

St. Dominick. 
St. Francis kissing the Foot of the Infant Jesus. 
An emblematical subject on the Misfortunes of the 

Times : inscribed Tumultum adduxit tempus. 
Justice and Peace ; Jusfitia et Pax, ^c. 
The Foiir Seasons. 1730. 
Four of the Signs of the Zodiac ; 7. G. B. 1730. 
Five figures of Women, emblematical of the Virtues. 

BERGUNZONI, Loeenzo, who was born at 
Bologna in 1646, was first a scholar of Giovanni 
Battista Bolognini, but afterwards studied under 
Guercino. His first attempts were in historical 
subjects, in which he had some success ; but 
having painted the portraits of some persons of 
distinction at Bologna, he met with such encourage- 
ment, that he devoted himself entirely to that 
department of the art in which he excelled. 





BERJOT, Antoine, a French flower and minia- 
ture painter, was born at Lyons in 1763, and died 
there in 1843. The Masee of that city possesses 
many of his works. 

BERKHEYDEN. See Bebok-Heijde. 

BERKMANS, Hendeik, a Dutch painter, born 
at Klundert, near Willemstad, in 1629. His first 
master was Thomas Willebort, under whom he 
studied some time. He afterwards became a 
scholar of J. Jordaens. On leaving that master, 
he painted some historical pictures which gained 
him reputation, but the encouragement he met with 
in painting portraits induced him to forsake a path 
which promised to lead him to celebrity. Such 
was the desire of possessing his portraits, that it 
was with diflSculty he could fulfil his engagements. 
He painted the Count of Nassau, the Admiral de 
Ruyter, and many of the most distinguished per- 
sonages of his country. His best work is a large 
picture of the ' Company of Archers,' in the town- 
hall at Middelburg, where he died in 1690. 

BERLINGHIERI, Bakone, was the son of Ber- 
lingherus, a Milanese, who was still living in 1250. 
He executed several painted crucifixes ; amongst 
others one for the Pieve of Casabasciano, in 1254 ; 
and another in 1284 for Sant' Alessandro Maggiore, 
at Lucca. He had two brothers. Bonaventdea 
Beelingeieei is known to have painted several 
panels and wall-paintings, at Lucca, in 1235 and 
1244, as well as a ' St. Francis of Assisi,' painted 
in 1235 for the church of San Francesco, of Pescia. 
Maeco Beelinghieei, known as a miniature painter, 
executed an Illuminated Bible, finished in 1250. 

BERLINGHIERI, Camillo, was born at Fer- 
rara in 1596. He was the scholar of Carlo Bononi, 
and proved himself a very reputable painter of 
history. His works are chiefly at Ferrara and at 
Venice, where he was called ' II Ferraresino.' In 
the church of San Niccol6, at Ferrara, is a fine 
picture, by him, of the ' Miracle of the Manna,' and 
in Sant' Antonio Abate, the 'Annunciation.' He 
died at Ferrara in 1635. 

BERNA. See Baena. 

BERNABEI, Piee Antoni.o, called Dblla Casa, 
a native of Parma, flourished about the year 1550. 
He was not a scholar of Parmigiano, as has been 
asserted, but was rather a follower of the style of 
Correggio. Although Orlandi contents himself 
with styling this excellent artist Pittor non igno- 
bile, his great work of the cupola of La Madonna 
del Quartiere proves him to have been one of the 
ablest fresco painters of his time in Lombardy. It 
represents a ' Multitude of the Blessed,' a grand 
coniposition, copious without confusion ; the figures 
designed in a Correggiesque style, with great 
relief, and a vigour of colouring which has still 
preserved its original freshness. There are other 
considerable works by this master at the Carmel- 
ites, and in other public places at Parma. 

BERNAERD, Nicaise, a Flemish painter of 
animals and flowers, was born at Antwerp in 
1608, and was a scholar of Frans Snyders. The 
subjects of his pictures bear a great resemblance 
to those of his master, and it is certain that they 
have been sold as the genuine productions of 
Snyders. He went to Italy, and on his return 
settled in Paris, where his works were much ap- 
preciated. He was admitted into the Academy in 
1663, and died in 1678. There are two paintings 
by him in the I^ouvre, where he is called NiCASlus. 
Zani places his birth in 1593, and his death in 1663. 
BEENAEETS, Balthazae, (or Beenard). The 

name of this engraver is affixed to several plates 
of biblical subjects, engraved from the designs of 
Bernard Picart, published at Amsterdam in 1720 
They are executed in a very indifferent style. 

BERNARD, — , a Neapolitan painter, born in 
1680, was a scholar of Solimena, whose manner he 
studiously followed. He died in 1734. 

BERNARD, Jan, a copyist of Paul Potter and 
Berchem, born in 1765, died in 1833. He was a 
member of the Institute, and of the Academy of 
Fine Arts at Amsterdam. 

BERNARD, L., a French engraver who flour- 
ished towards the close of the 17th century has 
left us amongst others the following plates : 

Portrait of Louis XIV. ; c^ter Poerson. 

Portrait of Sebastieu le Prestre de Vauban ; after De 

Shepherd with his flock ; after J. Forest. 

BERNARD, Samuel, a miniature painter and 
engraver, the son of Noel Bernard, a painter, was 
born in Paris in 1615. He was a scholar of Simon 
Vouet and of Louis du Guernier, and made some 
attempts at fresco painting, but not succeeding to 
his expectation, he for some time painted minia- 
tures, but finally devoted himself entirely to en- 
graving. He became Professor of the Academy, 
and died in Paris in 1687. He engraved several 
plates, both in line and in mezzotint, of which the 
following are the principal : 

Charles Louis, Duke of Bavaria ; after Van Dyck. 

Louis du Guernier, miniature painter. 

Philip, Count of Bethuue. 

Anne Tristan de la Beaume de Luze, Archbishop of 

Paris ; after De Troy. 
The Apparition of St. Peter and St. Paul to Attila; 

after Raphael. His best work. 
The Young Astyanax discovered by Ulysses in the 

Tomb of Hector ; after Bourdon. 
The Crucifixion ; after Ph. de Champagne. 
The Virgin Mary, with the dead Christ ; after tite 

The Ascension ; after the same. 
An allegorical subject of Concord. 
The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido. 

The Portrait of Louis XIV. ; oval. 
Sebastian, le Prestre de Vauban ; after F. de Troy. 
The Nativity ; after Rembrandt. 
A Herdsman driving Cattle. 
An Ox Market ; after B. Castiglione. 
The Kepose ; called La Zingara ; after Correggio. 

BERNARD, The Little. See Salomon. 


BERNARDI, Francesco, called Bigolaro, was 
a native of Verona, and a disciple of Domenico 
Feti. He painted historical subjects in the first 
half of the 17th century. 



who lived at Udine in the 16th century, and 
decorated the churches at Lestizza and Cormons 
with frescoes in 1511 and 1518. At the Town- 
hall of Udine, is a ' Coronation of the Virgin,' by 
him. No records remain to show the dates of his 
birth or death. 



BERNASCONI, Ladea, or LuciA, a Roman 
lady, who was a scholar and imitator of Mario 
Nuzzi, better known as Mario de' Fieri. Her 
works, like those of her preceptor, have lost much 
of their original beauty, owing to the use of some 




seductive, but treacherous, vehicle that gave bril- 
liancy at first, but in the lapse of years has changed 
to opacity, giving them a black and squalid ap- 
pearance. The dates of her birth and death are 
not exactly stated, but she was living in 1674. 

BERNATZ, Martin, who was born at Speyer in 
1802, commenced to study art somewhat late in 
life, in the Academy at Vienna. He journeyed 
with Dr. Schubert to Palestine, Abyssinia, and 
elsewhere, and made many valuable views of the 
scenery, which he afterwards published in litho- 
graphy. He settled as a landscape painter at 
Munich, where he died in 1878. 

BBKNAZZANO, Cesaee, a Milanese painter, 
who flourished about the year 1536. He painted 
landscapes, animals, and fruit, in which he excelled, 
particularly as a colourist. The figures in his 
landscapes are generally painted by Cesare da 
Sesto, a scholar of Leonardo da Vinci, under whom 
Bernazzano himself is said to have studied. Won- 
derful things are related of this artist, parallel with 
the stories told of Zeuxis, Protogenes, Apelles, and 
other painters of antiquity. 

BERNETZ, Chkistian, who was born at Ham- 
burg in 1668, and died in 1722, was a painter of 
still-life subjects. A picture by him is in the 
Cassel Gallery. 

BERNIERI, Antonio, who was born atCorreggio 
in 1516, was first instructed by Allegri ; on the 
death of that master he went to Venice, and at- 
tended Titian's school. He visited Rome, and 
returning to Venice worked there until 1563. He 
died at Correggio in 1565. Bernieri was an 
eminent painter of miniatures. He is sometimes 
called ' Antonio da Correggio.' 

BERNINGEOTH, Johann Maetin, the son and 
pupil of Martin Berningroth, was born at Leipsic 
in 1713. He engraved several plates for the book- 
sellers, but he is best known as an engraver of 
portraits, neatly executed in the style of his father. 
He died at Leipsic in 1767. His principal works 

Frederick Augustus III. King of Poland. 

Frederick Christisai, Prince Eeg. Pol. 

John Adolphus, Duke of Saxe-'Weissenfeld. 1745. 

This is considered his best plate. 
Sebastian Felix, Baron von Schwannenberg, 
Ghristianus, Prince of Denmark. 
John Gottfried Eichter, Antiquary. 

BERNINGEOTH, Maetin, a German engraver, 
bom at Ramelsburg in the county of Mansfelden, 
in 1670. He resided at Leipsic, where he engraved 
a great number of portraits in a tolerably neat 
manner, among which are : 

Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, on horseback. 
Frederick Augustus II. King of Poland. 

He died at Leipsic in 1738. 

BERNINI, Giovanni Loebnzo, the sculptor and 
architect, was the son of Pietro Bernini, a Florentine 
painter and sculptor. He was born at Naples in 
1698 ; and occasionally practised the art of paint- 
ing. His own portrait painted by himself is in 
the UfSzi at Florence. He died at Rome in 1680. 
Milizia, in his Vite degli Architetti, gives a list of 
his works in sculpture and architecture. In France 
he is cnlled ' Le Cavalier Bernin.' 

BERNUIS, Baetolome df.l Rio, a Spanish 
painter, was a scholar of Gaspar Becerra. He 
chiefly practised his art at Toledo, where he held, 
for the last twenty years of his life, 1607-1627, 
the post of painter to the Chapter. 

BEKNYNCKEL, Johann, an engraver, whose 

works are little known. There is a small oval 
print by him of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' 
after Johann von Aachen, which is' not without 

BEERAIN, Jean. See Berain. 

BEREE, Jean Baptiste, born at Antwerp in 
1777, painted subjects in the manner of Weenix. 
He afterwards settled in Paris, where his pictures 
are esteemed for their great finish and fine execu- 
tion. He died in Paris in 1828. 

BEREESTYN, C. V., a German engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1650. He engraved some 
plates of landscapes, among which is one repre- 
senting a woody scene, signed with his name and 
the above date. It is very scarce. 

BERRETTINI, Pieteo, (orBEEETTiNi,) commonly 
called PiETEO DA Coetona, was bom at Cortona in 
1596. He was first instructed by Filippo Berrettini, 
his uncle, and afterwards by Andrea Comiuodi, 
whom he accompanied to Florence, and there en- 
tered the atelier of Baccio Ciarpi, where he devoted 
himself to the study of the antique, the reliefs 
of Trajan's column, and the works of Raphael 
and Michelangelo. He resided for many years in 
Rome. The first productions of Berrettini that 
excited attention, were two pictures, painted whilst 
he was yet very young, for the Cardinal Sacchetti, 
representing the ' Rape of the Sabines,' and the 
' Battles of Alexander.' They attracted the notice 
of Pope Urban VIIL, who commissioned him to 
paint a chapel in the church of Santa Bibiena, 
where Ciampelli, an artist of reputation, was at that 
time employed, and who regarded with contempt 
the audacity of so young a man venturing on so 
important a public undertaking ; but Berrettini 
had no sooner commenced the work than Ciampelli 
was convinced of his ability. The success of that 
performance procured for him the commission for 
his celebrated work of the ceiling of the "grand 
saloon in the Palazzo Barberini. It represents an 
'Allegory of the History of the Barberini Family.' 
The richness of the composition, the perfection of 
the chiaroscuro, the harmony of the colour, and 
the splendour of the style, render it one of the 
most perfect specimens of decoration. It has 
been observed, that the drawing is not the most 
correct, and that the draperies have not the ap- 
pearance of nature; but the acknowledged beauties 
of this great work are so agreeable and seductive, 
that it is impossible to contemplate it without 
admiration. After having finished the cartoons 
for some oil paintings for the mosaics of the 
dome of St. Peter's, Berrettini travelled through 
Lombardy, visited Venice, and returned to Rome, 
by way of Florence, where he was engaged by 
the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. to paint the saloon 
and four apartments in the Palazzo Pitti ; here he 
represented the 'Clemency of Alexander to the 
Family of Darius ; ' the ' Continence of Cyrus ; ' 
the 'Firmness of Porsenna;' the 'History of Masi- 
nissa ; ' and other subjects. He did not entirely 
finish the works he had projected for the Grand 
Duke. Disgusted by the intrigues of some artists 
who were jealous of his reputation, he left Florence 
abruptly, and could never be prevailed on to return. 
His frescoes were finished by Ciro Ferri. On his 
arrival at Rome he continued to be loaded with 
commissions, and was employed by Alexander VII., 
who conferred on him the order of the Golden Spur. 
The works of Berrettini exhibit a most fertile in- 
vention and an uncommon facility of operation. 
His figures are not designed with scrupulous cor- 





reotness, nor are the heads of his females strictly 
beautiful ; but they have always a grace and love- 
liness that charm in spite of those deficiencies. If 
his colouring is not always chaste, it is agreeable, 
and possesses much of what the Italians call Vag- 
hezza. His powers were particularly adapted to 
the great works that require to be executed in 
fresco, to which he gave a brilliancy and force 
nearly approaching to oil painting. Berrettini 
died at Rome in 1669. His best disciples were 
Dandini, Giro Ferri, Francesco Romanelli, Pietro 
Testa, Luca Giordano, and Jacques Bourguignon. 
He was also an architect. 

The following is a list of his principal paint- 

Blenheim. Gallery. Eape of the Sabines. (Oie of 

his best works,) 
Brussels. Museum. Marriage of St. Catharine. 

Cortona. S. Aijostino. Virgin and Saints. 
Dresden. Gallery. Mercury warning .^ueas to 

hasten his departure from 
„ „ A Eoman General addressing 

the consuls. 
Dulwich. College. St. Martina triumphing over the 

Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of himself. 

„ Piiti Fal. Frescoes [see text), 

Hague. Gallery. Holy Family. 

liOndon. Devonshire H. Landscape. 

„ Northbrook Col. Magdalene with Angels. 

Milan. Brera. Virgin with Saints. 

Munich. Pinakotheh, "Woman taken in adultery. 
Paris. Louvre, Jacob and Laban. 

„ Birth of the Virgin. 

„ J, St. Martina before Alexander 

„ „ Virgin and ChUd & St. Martina. 

„ „ Eomulus and Remus. 

„ „ Dido and iEneas. 

Petersburg.fl^er»w'(a^c. Holy Family. 

„* „ Christ and the Magdalene. 

„ „ Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

Eome. BarheriniFal, Allegory — fresco. 

„ Chiesa Nuova. Paintings on nave, dome, and 


^'C^p^clni. } Coii^rsion of St. Paul. 
Vienna. Belvedere, St. Paul and Ananias. 

,, „ Return of Hagar. 

), „ Marriage of St. Catharine. 

„ Schonhorn Coll. Hercules. 

BERRETTONI, Niccol6. This painter was born 
at Montefeltro, near Macerata, in 1637. He was the 
ablest scholar of Carlo Maratti, and painted his- 
torical subjects with skill. He was also influenced 
by Guido Reni and Correggio. One of his best 
pictures is an altar-piece in the church of Santa 
Maria, in Monte Santo, in Rome, representing a 
subject from the life of St. Francis. He was re- 
ceived into the Academy of that city in 1675, and 
died in 1682. 

BERRIDGE, John, a pupil of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, gained a prize at the Society of Arts in 
1766, and exhibited portraits at the gallery of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists and at the Royal 
Academy between 1770 and 1785. 

BERRUGDETE, Alonso, an eminent Spanish 
painter, was born at Paredes de Nava, in Castile, 
in 1480. When he had made some progress in the 
art, the fame of Michelangelo induced him to visit 
Italy, and he had the advantage of studying under 
that sublime master. He was the contemporary 
and friend of Andrea del Sarto, and made such 
improvement during his stay in Italy— both at 
Florence and Rome— that he returned to Spain 

118 ^ 

eminently proficient both in painting and sculp, 
ture. He also excelled as an architect. He was 
the first artist who introduced the pure Italian 
style of the 16th century into Spain. The Emperor 
Charles V. took him under his immediate protection, 
appointed him one of his painters, and employed 
him in many considerable works at Madrid, in the 
palace of the Prado, and in the Alhambra of Gra- 
nada. He was also patronized by Philip 11. He 
died rich, at Alcala, in the year 1561, and was 
buried with the greatest magnificence at the ex- 
pense of his sovereign. 

BERRUGUBTB, Pedeo, a native of Paredes de 
Nava, and painter to Philip I. In 1483 he was 
employed with Rincon, by the Chapter of Toledo, 
to paint the walls of the old ' Segrario ' of the 
cathedral. He also painted the cloister in 1496, 
and the vestry in 1497. Cean Bermudez ranks 
him as a painter with Pietro Perugino. His 
earliest known works are supposed to be those 
which he painted in conjunction with one Santos 
Cruz for the high altar of the cathedral at Avila. 
Berruguete died at Madrid about 1500. 

BERSENEV, Ivan, a Russian engraver, born in 
Siberia in 1762. He was a scholar of Guttenberg, 
and afterwards of Bervic, at Paris ; he executed 
several excellent plates, and died in 1790. 

St. John the Evangelist ; after Domeniehino. (Orleans 

The Tempter ; after Titian. (Orleans Gallery.) 
The portrait of Katharina Nicolaevna Orloff. 

BBRTANO, Giovanni Battista. See Ghisi. 

BERTAUD, Maeib Rosalie, a French engraver, 
was born in Paris in 1738. She was instructed 
in the art by St. Aubin and ChofEard, and engraved 
several plates, the best of which are those after the 
pictures of Joseph Vernet, entitled : 

Orage imp^tneux ; an oval plate. 

La Pficheur a la ligne. 

Le Rocher perc6. 

La Barque mise a flot. 

La Pfiche au clair de la Lune. 

Les P^cheuTS Italiens. 

BERTAUX, Jean DUPLESSIS. See Dotlessis- 

BERTELLI, Ceistofano, an Italian engraver, a 
native of Rimini, in the Duchy of Modena, flourished 
about 1525. We have by him a few plates, exe- 
cuted with the graver in rather a stiff manner : 

The Portrait of Ottavio Famese, Duke of Parma. 

The Conversion of St. Paul. 

The Vurgin and Child, with St. Augustine, St. Sebas- 
tian, and St. Helena, with St, Joseph sleeping. 

The Virgin and Child, with St. George and other 

The different Ages of Man. 

The Virgm and Chhd, with St. Sebastian, St. Francis, 
and St. Roch ; after Correggio, 

BERTELLI, Fekeando, an engraver, was bom 
at Venice about the year 1525. He engraved some 
plates after Venetian and other painters. By him 
we have : 

A print, entitled Omnium fere gentium, ^c. Ven. 1569. 
Christ curing the sick ; after Farinati. 1566. 
The Crucifixion ; afteir Giulio Romano. 
Venus and Cupid ; after Titian. 1566. 
Specchio deUa Vita Humana. 1566. 

BERTELLI, LucA. This engraver was pro- 
bably a relation of Ferrando Bertelli. He has 
engraved several plates after the great Italian 
painters, and is said to have been a printseUer, 
Some of his engravings are very scarce. 




A Bust of Hippolita Gonzaga. 

The Israelites tormented by Serpents ; after Michel- 

The Baptism of Christ. 

Christ washing his Disciples' feet ; Lucas, so. 

The Flagellation. 

The Cruciiixion. 

The Descent from the Cross ; fine. 

The Four Evangelists ; after Coxm/en. 

The Last Judgment ; after J. B. Fontana. 

A Woman and Children warming themselves by a 
Fire ; after Titian. 

BBRTERHAM, Johan Baptist, is an engraver 
■whom Strutt lias noticed under the two names of 
Berterham and Bexterlaam. He was a native of 
the Netherlands, and resided at Brussels at the end 
of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century. 
His principal works are after paintings by J. de 
Hoore, N. Cortens, C. Eykens, and others, repre- 
senting the history of the Miraculous Host pre- 
served in the church of St. Michael and St. Gudule 
at Brussels. They are executed with much freedom 
and skill. 

BEBTHELEMY, Antoine. See Bakth^lemy. 

BERTHELEMY, Jean Simon, an historical 
painter, who was born at Laon in 1743, was a 
scholar of Noel Hall4 He visited Rome, and 
painted, in addition to some historical and poetical 
subjects, which have been engraved, the ceilings 
of the palace of Pontainehleau and the Luxem- 
bourg. He was a member of the Academy, and 
director of the School of Design. He died in 
Paris in 1811. 

BERTHOLD, Karl Ferdinand, born at Meissen 
in 1799, was a designer and etcher. He attended 
the Academy at Dresden in 1811, and was a scholar 
of Kijgelgen. One of his best productions is the 
engraving entitled, ' The good and bad efEects of 
Wine.' He died in 1838. 

- BERTHOLOTTI, Andrea di, called Bellunello, 
of Cividale, flourished in the 15th century, and 
was a master in the Guild of San Vito in 1462. 
He seems to have contracted for altar-pieces and 
mural decorations, at Udine, San Vito, and the 
surrounding towns, up to 1490. At the Palazzo 
Communale of Udine is a Crucifixion, with various 
Saints, dated by him in 1476. The sacristy of 
Santa Maria di Castello, San Vito, possesses by 
him a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Peter and 
Paul,' dated 1488 ; and in Savorgnano is a 
' Madonna,' signed and dated 1490. The dates of 
bis birth and death are not known. 

BERTHON, Ren^ ThiJodore, was born at Tours 
in 1776, and studied under David. He painted 
scriptural and historical subjects, and a large 
number of portraits, which, although of no great 
merit, gained him a certain reputation in the days 
of the first empire and the restoration. Among 
his portraits are those of Napoleon I. when First 
Consul, Pauline Bonaparte, Mile. Duchesnois, and 
Lady Morgan. Several of his historical pictures 
are at Versailles. He died in Paris in 1859. His 
daughter, Sidonie Berthon, a miniature painter, 
was a pupil of her father and of Mme de Mirbel. 
She was horn in Paris in 1817, and died in 1871. 

BERTIN, FBANgois Edodard, born in Paris in 
1797, studied under Girodet-Trioson and Bidauld. 
He represented the details and general character of 
a landscape with great skill, but was less successful 
in his colouring. He was inspector of the Beaux 
Arts, and from 1854 director of the 'Journal des 
D^haia.' He died in Paris in 1871. The following 
are some of his best known vrjrks : 

Cimabue meeting with Giotto. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1837. 

A view of Olevano. 

The old Tombs on the Nile. 

The Forest of Fontainebleau. 

View of an excavated Monastery near Viterbo. 

BERTIN, Jean Victor, a painter of historical 
landscapes, who was born in Paris in 1775, was 
a pupil of the celebrated Valenciennes, and was in 
turn the master of Michallon, Coignet, Boisselier, 
Corot, Bnfantin, and others. Amongst his prin- 
cipal works may be cited : 

The Festival of Pan. 
The Offering to Venus. 
Cicero's Eeturn from Exile. 
The FUght of Angelica. 
The Festival of Bacchus. 
Arrival of Napoleon at Ettlingen. 

Many of his works will be found in the galleries 
at Versailles, and in other public collections. In 
the Louvre there is a ' View of the Island of 
Phoenos with the Temple of Minerva.' This artist 
is distinguished for the correctness of his design, 
the severity of his drawing, and his harmonious 
colouring ; but his style is somewhat mannered 
and conventional. He died in Paris in 1842. 

BERTIN, Marc. See Duval. 

BERTIN, Nicolas, a French painter, was born 
in Paris about 1668. His father, a sculptor, died 
when Nicolas was but four years of age, and he 
was placed under the tuition of Jean Jouvenet, 
and afterwards studied under Bon Boulogne. His 
progress was rapid, and at eighteen he gained the 
first prize at the Academy, and was sent to Italy 
for improvement, where he remained four years. 
On his return to Paris he distinguished himself 
by some historical works, and was made an Acade- 
mician in 1703, and became professor in 1716. 
He was employed by Louis XIV. in the chateau 
of Trianon, where he painted ' Vertumnus and 
Pomona,' and other works, but he excelled in 
cabinet pictures. He died in Paris in 1736. 
• The following are his best works : 

Amsterdam. Museum. Joseph and Potiphar's wife (signed). 

„ „ Susannah at the bath (signed). 

Dresden. Gallery. The Acorn and the Pumpkin. 

„ „ The Bear and the Amateur Gar- 

Paris. St. Germain 1 St. PhiUp baptizing the Eunuch of 
des Pres. / Queen Candace {the sketch for this 
picture is in the Louvre). 
„ Louvre. Hercules delivering Prometheus. 

BERTO DI GIOVANNI, a pupil of Perugino, 
painted at Perugia from 1497 to 1525. He exe- 
cuted works for the magistrates, and was a 
member of the guild of that city. He painted 
with a predella, in the convent of Santa Maria di 
Monteluoe at Perugia, the following subjects from 
the Life of Christ : ' The Nativity,' ' The Present- 
ation,' and 'The Marriage' and 'Death of the 
Virgin.' These form part of a large work of the 
' Coronation of the Virgin,' which Raphael was 
originally commissioned to paint, but which was 
subsequently executed by an artist whose name 
has not been recorded. 

BERTOJA, Jacopo, incorrectly Giacinto, (or 
Beetogia,) a native of Parma, painted historical 
pieces in the manner of Parmigiano ; and his cabinet- 
pictures were, in his own time, much prized. He 
flourished in the later years of the 16th century. 
Zani tells us that he died in 1618, at a great age. 

BERTOLOTTI, Giovanni Lorenzo. Accordirg 
to Ratti, this painter was born at Genoa in 1640. 





and was a scholar of Francesco Castiglione. He 
painted historical subjects with considerable skill ; 
and his biographer speaks in very favourable terms 
of a picture painted by him in the church of La 
Visitazione, at Genoa, representing the ' Visitation 
of the "Virgin Mary to St. EHzabeth.' He died 
in 1721. 

BERTRAM, — , a Dutch engraver, who flour- 
ished about the year 1690. He engraved several 
plates, representing views and public buildings, 
which are executed in a very neat style. 

BERTRAND, Noel Fkan^ois, a French en- 
graver, who was born at Soisy-sous-BtioUes in 
1784, was a pupil of the younger Moreau and of 
David. He engraved in the chalk manner a large 
number of figures taken from the works of Raphael, 
Titian, Rubens, Poiissin, LeBrun, David, and other 
great masters, besides some portraits of sovereigns 
and other distinguished persons. He died at Saint- 
Ouen in 1852. 

BERTRY, N. H. JEAURAT de. See Jeaueat. 

BERTUCCI, Giovanni Battista. See Faenza, 
G. B. da. 

BERTUCCI, Jacopo, who is not to be confounded 
with Giovanni Battista Bertucci, flourished at 
Faenza about 1630, and painted in the manner of 
Raphael. He is supposed to be the same as 
Jacopone da Faenza, who, Vasari tells us, painted 
in San Vitale at Ravenna. 

BERTDCCI-PINELLI, Antonia, was, according 
to Malvasia, a native of Bologna, and was instructed 
in art by Lodovico Carracci. She painted some 
pictures for the churches ; among others, the 'Guar- 
dian Angel,' in San Tommaso ; and ' St. Philip and 
St. James,' in the church dedicated to those saints. 
But her most celebrated performance is her picture 
of ' St. John the Evangelist,' in the Annunziata, 
painted from a design of Lodovico Carracci. She 
died in 1640. Her maiden name was Pinelli, but 
she married Giambattista Bertucci (not Giovanni 
Battista da Faenza). Zani places her death, and 
that of lier husband, in 1644. 

BERVIC, Charles Clement, the most eminent 
of modern French engravers, was bom in Paris on 
the 23rd of May, 1756. His family name was 
Balvay, but this he used only in legal documents, 
preferring to adopt as his usual signature that of 
Bervic, which was a surname of his father. His 
baptismal names were those of Charles Cl(5ment, 
which he bore in his youth and which are found on 
his earlier works, until, having need of his certifi- 
cate of baptism, be was astonished to see himself 
named therein Jean Guillaume, and to find himself 
obliged to rectify formally all the documents which 
he had executed in his accustomed names. Upon 
examination, however, of the parish registers, 
which at this period were deposited at the Hotel de 
"Ville, it transpired that the duplicate copy sent 
to the Palais de Justice was in error, and that the 
names of Jean Guillaume assigned to Bervic in the 
latter were in reality those of the infant baptized 
before him. Nevertheless, through obstacles which 
arose in the rectification of his family papers, he 
never resumed his baptismal names. At a very 
early age young Bervio showed a decided taste 
for drawing: he amused himself by copj-ing all 
the prints which fell into his hands, and, although 
entirely without instruction, he succeeded fairly 
well._ This led to his entering the studio of Jean 
Baptiste le Prince, where his talent rapidly de- 
veloped, and he grew ambitious of becoming a 
painter ; but to this his father was averse, fearing 

that he might not attain to eminence in the art. 
However, by way of compromise with a passion 
which could not be subdued, he was allowed in 
1769 to become a pupil of Jean Georges Wille, one 
of the best line- engravers of the day. His earliest 
work is unknown, but the first plate to which ho 
put his name was that of ' Le petit Turc,' aftei 
P. A. Wille, which he completed in 1774. This 
engraving bears evidence of being the work of an 
inexperienced although not unskilful hand, and 
has the metallic lustre and other defects of the 
school of Wille. Marked progress was shown in 
his engravings of 'La Demande accept^e' and 
' Le Repos,' after Lgpicii, and in his portrait of 
S6nac de Meilhan, after Duplessis, all of -which 
were finished in 1783. The portrait of Sdnac de 
Meilhan first revealed the power which Bervic 
possessed of freeing himself from the influences 
of his early education, and of rendering truth- 
fully and characteristically the varied details of 
his subject. This talent soon met with its due 
reward, for in 1784 he was elected a member of 
the Academy, and requested to engrave for hia 
reception a portrait of Count d'Angiviller ; but 
commencing soon after the portrait of the King, 
that of the Count was laid aside, and he never 
became an academician. 

The full-length portrait of Louis XVI. in his 
coronation robes, after the portrait by Callet at 
Versailles, established the reputation which Bervio 
had obtained by the wonderful brilliancy and soft- 
ness with which he reproduced in black and white 
the diverse tones and textures indicated in paint- 
ing by the aid of colour. Bervic kept pace with 
the revolutionary movement, and at one of the 
meetings of the ' Soci^t^ populaire des Arts ' broke 
the copper-plate of the king's portrait, and tore in 
halves all the proofs of it which he possessed. 
The plate has since been skilfully repaired by 
Chollet, and later impressions taken from it. His 
next works of importance were ' The Education of 
Achilles by the centaur Chiron,' after Regnault, 
and its pendant, ' The Rape of Deianeira by the 
centaur Nessus,' after Guido, the originals of both 
of which subjects are in the Louvre. The latter 
gained the decennial prize awarded by the French 
Institute for the best engraving executed between 
the years 1800 and 1810. But Bervic's master- 
piece is undoubtedly his plate of the renowned 
antique group of the ' Death of Laoooon and his 
two Sons,' engraved for the Mus^e Fran5ais, in 
which he appears to have endeavoured to rival 
the ' sufEering marble,' as it has been aptly 
termed, which the Rhodian sculptors Agesander, 
Polydorus, and Athenodorus seem to have 'ani- 
mated with the breath of life. Yet such was his 
modesty, that when his task was done he com- 
plained of having been able but partially to realize 
his aims. 

Sovereigns and nations hastened to do homage 
to Bervic's talents. Louis XVI. gave him, in 
1787, the apartments in the Louvre which had 
been vacant since the death of the painter LcSpici^. 
The order of the Reunion was conferred upon Iiim 
in 1813, and the Legion of Honour in 1819. Most 
of the academies of Europe enrolled him among 
their members, and in 1803 he became a member 
of the Institute of France. Failing sight at length 
compelled him to lay down his graver, and the 
' Testament of Eudamidas,' a bust oJE Napoleon, and 
a half-length portrait of Louis XVIII., of which 
but three proofs exist, remained unfinished at the 




time of his death, which occurred in Paris on the 
23rd of March, 1822. He was twice married : first, 
in 1788, to Mile. Carreaux de Eozemont, a portrait 
painter and pupil of Madame Guyard, who died 
in the same year ; secondly, in 1791, to Mile. 
Bligny, who died in 1793. Bervic established a 
Bchool of engraving, in which his constant aim 
was to warn his pupils against the baneful in- 
fluence of servile imitation, and to guide each one 
according to the bent of his own individual genius. 
Toschi and Henri quel-Dupont are the most cele- 
brated among his many scholars. The following 
are his most important works : 

St, John the Baptist in the "Wilderness ; after JRaphaei. 

(Florence Gallery.) 
The Education of Achilles ; after RegTiauU, 
The Rape of Deianeira -. after Guido. 
The Laocoon ; after a drawing In/ Pierre Bouillon, from 

the antique. (Musee Fran(jais.) 
Innocence ; after Merivtee. 
La Demande acoeptee ; after Zepicid, 
Le Eepos ; after the same. 
he petit Turc ; after P. A. Wille. 
The Testament of Eudamidas ; after JV. Foussin. (This 

plate was finished by Toschi.) 
liOuis XVI., whole-length ; after Callet. 
Napoleon I., bust ; after a drawing hy Boiert Lefetvre. 

(Never finished.) 
louis XVIII. ; after Angustin. (Never finished.) 
Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes; after his own 

Michel Letellier ; after the engraving hy Nanteuil. 
Carl von LinnS ; after A. Boslin. 
Prince Ignacy Jacdb Massalski, Bishop of Wilna ; after 

Gabriel Senao de Meilhan, Intendant of Hainault ; 

after J. S. Duplessis. 

E. E. G. 

BESCHEY, Balthasar, (or Bbsschey,) who was 
born at Antwerp in 1708, studied under Pieter 
Strick, an unimportant painter, but imitated the 
styles of Van Balen and of De Craeyer. In 1753 
he was admitted as a freeman of the Guild of 
St. Luke, and two years later became one of the 
six directors of the Academy in the above town, 
and in the year following that was elected dean 
of St. Luke. He died in 1776, at Antwerp, while 
holding the post of professor in the Academy of 
that city. He painted landscapes at the com- 
mencement of his artistic career, but confined 
himself in after life to sacred history and por- 
traiture. In the two latter branches of art he is 
well represented. His works display a taste for 
harmony, and are for the most part carefully 
executed, but are wanting in delicacy of colouring. 
The following may be mentioned : 

Antwerp. Museum. Joseph sold hy his brethren 
(signed and dated 1744). 

„ „ Joseph viceroy of Egypt {signed 

and dated 1744). 

„ „ Portrait of himself (signed — 

presented ly him to the Aca- 
demy of St. Luke in 1763). 

„ „ Portrait of Martin Joseph Gee- 

Paris. Louvre. A Flemish Family (signed and 

dated 1721). 
Petersburg. Hermitage. The Five Senses. An allegory. 
B. BESCHEIJ, 1733. 

„ „ The Five Senses. An allegory. 


It has been recorded that Besohey had a son 
who was a painter, but this is a mistake. He had, 
however, three younger brothers who followed his 
profession, under his ii.struction, and one elder 

brother, who was a pupil of Goovaert's. This last 
mentioned was Caeel Beschey, who was born at 
Antwerp in 1706. Then, after Balthasar, came 
Jacob Andreas Beschey, born at Antwerp in 1710, 
and still living in 1773. He also was ' doyen ' of 
St. Luke. Next came Joseph Hendrik Beschey, 
who was born at Antwerp in 1714 ; and lastly, Jan 
Francois Beschey, who was born in 1717, at 
Antwerp, where he established himself as a picture 
dealer, and became celebrated for the copies he 
made of the works of Eubens, Van Dyck, Teniers, 
Pijnacker, Moucheron, and other great masters. 
He was dean of the Guild of St. Luke in 1767. 

BESENZI, Paolo Emilio, was bom at Heggio 
in 1624. He distinguished himself as a painter, a 
sculptor, and an architect. Although the friend 
and companion of Lionello Spada, he differed from 
his style, preferring the graceful manner of Albani. 
His principal pictures, which establish his reputa- 
tion as a painter, are in the church of San Pietro. 
He died in 1666. 

BESOET, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was born 
early in the 18th century, and died about 1769. 
He engraved a large plate of the fireworks at the 
Hague in 1748, and many portraits, book-plates, 
and title-pages. 

BESOZZI, Ambeogio, a painter and engraver, 
born at Milan in 1648. He was first a scholar of 
GiosefEo Danedi, and afterwards studied under Giro 
Ferri. He excelled in painting architectural views, 
friezes, basso-relievos, and other works of decora- 
tion. He died at Milan in 1706. Works by him 
are in the galleries and churches of Milan, Turin, 
and Parma. He etched two plates : 

The Portrait of Oorreggio. 

The Apotheosis of a Princess; in which the portrait 

was by Bonacina, and the other part of the plate by 

Besozzi ; after Cesare Fiori, 

BESSA, Panceaoe, a flower painter, was born 
in Paris in 1772. He was a pupil of G. van 
Spaendonck and of Eedoutfe, and was flower 
painter to the Duchess de Berri, to whom he gave 
lessons, and to the Museum of Natural History at 
the Jardin des Plantes. He died at Ecouen about 
the year 1835. 

BESSON, Charles Jean Baptistb, a French 
fresco painter and Dominican, was born near Besan- 
9on in 1816. He was at first a pupil of Souohon, 
but upon going to Rome in 18.36 he entered the 
studio of Delaroolie. In 1839 he became connected 
with the celebrated Lacordaire, and in the follow- 
ing year entered the Dominican order, taking the 
name of Hyacinthe, but did not entirely abandon 
the practice of his art. He died at the convent of 
Mar-Yacub, near Mosul, in 1861. 

BEST, Jean, a French wood-engraver, was born 
at Toul in 1808. He contributed largely to the 
success of the ' Illustration,' as well as of the 
' Magasin pittoresque,' of which he was one of the 
proprietors. He was decorated with the Legion 
of Honour, and died in 1879. 

BESTARD (or Bastard), a painter of Majorca, 
lived at Palma about the end of the 17th century. 
He painted for the convent of Monte Sion there 
a superb picture, measuring 24 palms in length, 
and 15 in height, representing ' Christ in the Desert 
attended by angels ; ' it is considered as one of the 
marvels of the city. He also ornamented several 
other public buildings at Palma. 

BETTELINI, Pieteo, an eminent Italian en- 
graver, was born at Lugano in 1763, and applied 





at an early age to the study of the art. He received 
instructions from Gandolfi and Bartolozzi ; but in 
his subsequent works he incKned more to the style 
of Raphael Morghen. He died at Rome in 1828. 
He is particularly happy in his transcripts of light 
and elegant forms, and enters with much taste and 
spirit into the subject he copies. He does not aim 
at producing brilliant effects, but exercises his 
graver with care and delicacy, corresponding with 
the style of the original picture. In those of a 
sombre or forcible character he is not equally suc- 
cessful. He was held in high estimation by Thor- 
waldsen, who employed him to engrave some of 
his finest works, both figures and bassi-rilievi. 
His engraving of the ' Entombment,' by Andrea del 
Sarto, in the Florence Gallery, exhibits all the 
beauties of the original, and may be quoted, not 
only as his masterpiece, but also among the finest 
examples of art. The following are a portion of 
his justly esteemed productions: 

Entombment ; after Andrea del Sarto, 

Madonna col devoto ; after the painting Jry Correggio, in 

the possession of the King of Bavaria. 
Ecce Homo ; after Correggio. 
St. John ; aftei' Domenichino. 
Sibylla Persica ; after Guercin^. 
Ascension of the Virgin ; after Guido. 
Madonna and sleeping Infant ;■ after Haphael. 
Judgment of Solomon ; after the same. 
Magdalene ; after A'chidone. 
Maria div. Sapientise ; after Titian. 
The Virgin Mary reading a book ; after the same. 
Portrait of Galileo. 
Portrait of Macchiavelli. 
Portrait of Pohziano. 

BBTTES, John, an eminent miniature painter in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was 
patronized. He was a pupil of Nicholas Hilliard, 
and painted the Queen's portrait. He died about 
the year 1570. His brother, Thomas Bettks, was 
also a miniature painter as well as an illuminator. 

BETTI, BlAGio. This painter was born at 
Carigliano in 1535, and was a disciple of Daniele 
da Volterra. He became, in 1^57, a monk of the 
order of the 'Padri Teatini,' of San Silvestro, and his 
works are principally confined to the monastery of 
that order on the Quirinal at Rome. In the refectory 
he painted the ' Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes,' 
which was restored by Anesi in 1847 ; and in the 
library, ' Christ disputing with the Doctors.' He 
died in 1605. 

BETTINI, DoMBNico. According to Orlandi, 
this painter was born at Florence in 1644. He 
was first a scholar of Jaoopo Vignali, but after- 
wards went to Rome, and became a disciple of 
Mario Nuzzi. His pictures, which are well painted, 
represent, like those of his instructor, fruit, flowers, 
birds, and fish. 

BETTINI, PiETHO, an Italian engraver of the 
17th century, who etched a few plates in a slight 
manner. By him, among others, we have : 

Christ appearing to Peter ; after Dommico Ciampelli. 
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Hommickino. 

BETTO, Beenaedino di (Pintueicchio). See 


BETTOLI, Cajbtano. The name of this artist 
is affixed to an etching representing the ' Death of 
St. Joseph,' after Marc Antonio Franoeschini. It 
is executed in a free, spirited style, and appears to 
be the production of a painter. 

BBUCKLAER (or Bbukelaae). See Bueckelaer. 

BEUEELEIN, Hans, an old painter of Nurem- 
berg, highly praised by Neudorfer, painted a 


Crucifixion, on the wall of the Prediger Kloster in 
Nuremberg, now destroyed. He died about 1500. 

BEDRS, Willem, was born at Dordrecht in 
1666. He was a scholar of Willem van Drillen- 
burg, and painted landscapes, portraits, and flowers 
with some dexterity and skill. He also published 
works upon art. 

BEUSBEOM, Feans van, a Dutch engraver, 
flourished from about 1640 to 1650. He was 
principally employed by the booksellers in engrav- 
ing portraits. Among others, he engraved that of 
Ant. le Brun,- after a picture painted by Anselmus 
van HuUe. 

BEUTLER, Jakob, a German engraver, who, 
according to Professor Christ, was a native of 
Ravensburg, flourished about the year 1593. The 
prints he engraved are generally very small, on 
which account he is ranked among the artisis 
distinguished by the name of the Little Masters. 
He usually marked his prints with the initials of 
his name, /. £. As this mark was occasionahy 
used by other German engravers, particularly Jacob 
Binok and Hans Burckmair, who lived about the 
same period, it requires great attention to distin- 
guish their works. 

BEUTLER, Matthias. See Bettleb. 

BEVEREN, Charles van, born at Mechlin in 
1809, was instructed in the rudiments of art in the 
academy of his native city and at Antwerp. He 
settled in Amsterdam in 1830, subsequently visiting 
Paris, Rome, and other cities of Italy, and dis- 
tinguished himself as a painter of history, genre, 
and portraits. He died at Amsterdam in 1850. 
The best known of his works are : 

The Confession of a Sick Girl (in the Finakothek at 

Male Figure. A study (in the Rotterdam Museum). 
The Vision of St. Ignatius. 
The Death of St. Anthony of Padua (in the church of 

Moses and Aaron at Amsterdam, Sis citef-d'wuvre). 

BEVILACQUA. See Salimbeni, Ventura. 

BEWICK, John, a younger brother of Thomas 
Bewick, was born at Cherryburn, in the parish of 
Ovingham, in 1760, and in 1777 was apprenticed as 
a wood-engraver to his brother and Ralph Beilby, 
in Newcastle. He assisted in the cuts of ' Msop'a 
Fables,' and drew and engraved illustrations for 
Goldsmith's and Parnell's Poems, as well as for 
'The Looking Glass for the Mind,' and 'Blossoms 
of Moralitj-,' published in 1796. He also made the 
designs for ' Somerville's Chase,' but did not live to 
engrave them all. He died in 1795, at Ovingham. 
Though he was not so clever an artist as his more 
celebrated brother, many of the works of John 
Bewick deserve much praise. 

BEWICK, Thomas, the eminent restorer of the 
art of engraving on wood, was bom at Cherryburn, 
in the parish of Ovingham, about twelve miles 
westward of Newcastle, in 1753. At the age of 
fourteen he was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby of 
Newcastle, a copper-plate engraver. He might 
have had a master of more eminence, but he 
could not have had one more anxious to en- 
courage his talents, and to point out to him his 
peculiar line of excellence. It happened that 
Charles Hutton (afterwards the distinguished Dr. 
Hutton of Woolwich), then a schoolmaster at 
Newcastle, was preparing his great work on men- 
suration, and applied to Beilby to engrave on 
copper the figures for the work ; he judiciously 
advised that they should be cut on wood, that each 
figure might accompany the proposition it was 




intended to illustrate. The young apprentice was 
employed to execute many of these ; and the 
beauty and accuracy with which they were finished 
led his master strongly to advise him to devote his 
attention to the improvement of this long-lost art. 
At the expiration of his apprenticeship, Bewick 
spent a short time in London and in Scotland, and 
on his return to Newcastle, entered into partner- 
ship with Beilby. About this time, Thomas Saint, 
a printer of Newcastle, was at work on an edition of 
' Gay's Fables,' and Bewick was engaged to furnish 
the cuts. One of these, the ' Old Hound,' obtained 
the premium offered by the Society of Arts for the 
best specimen of wood-engraving, in the year 1775 ; 
but the work was not published until 1779. His 
success in this and an edition of ' Select Fables ' by 
the same printer, induced Bewick to project the 
' History of Quadrupeds.' This work, after several 
years of preparation and labour, was published in 
1790. In the preparation he was encouraged and 
patronized by Marmaduke Tonstal of Wycliffe, 
whose museum of animals, both winged and quad- 
ruped, living and dead, was very extensive. In 
the intervals of collecting materials for this work, 
Bewick was employed in engraving on copper 
the plates of natural history for a small quarto 
volume, entitled ' A Tour through Sweden, Lap- 
land, &c., by Matthew Consett, the companion of 
Sir G. H. Liddell;' 'The Whitley large Ox' 
(bred in Mull). From the moment of the pub- 
lication of the ' History of Quadrupeds,' which 
passed through three editions in three years, 
Thomas Bewick's fame was established. He sub- 
sequently, in conjunction with his brother John, 
supplied the woodcuts for the elegant edition of 
' Goldsmith's Traveller and Deserted Village,' and 
for 'Pamell's Hermit,' both printed by Bulmer. 
These appeared in 1795, and were allowed to excel 
everything of the kind that had before been pro- 
duced. In 1797 was published the first volume of 
' British Birds,' for which Beilby furnished the 
written descriptions ; the second volume, on ' Brit- 
ish Water Birds,' devolved on Bewick alone, who 
was assisted in the literary corrections by the Eev. 
Henry Cotes, vicar of Bedlington. These were 
followed by numerous illustrations of publications 
of the day, in which he availed himself of the 
talents of the several pupils whom he had in- 
structed, and who have since so eminently dis- 
tinguished themselves in the same line of engrav- 
ing ; among these were Nesbitt, Harvey, Robert 
Johnson, Luke Clennell, Eansom, and Hole. Bewick 
was indefatigable, and the number of engravings 
he executed is almost inconceivable. One volume, 
edited by the Rev. T. Hugo, and published in 1870, 
contains impressions of upwards of 2000 wood- 
cuts. He was an early riser ; fond of indulging in 
rustic and athletic sports, which are so prevalent 
in the north ; was warm in his attachments, and 
had some humorous peculiarities. He died, as he 
had lived, a truly honest man, near the Windmill 
Hills, at Gateshead, in 1828. There are several 
memoirs of his life, the best of which is, perhaps, 
that which is included in the ' History of Wood 
Engraving,' by John Jackson, who devoted to 
Bewick fifty pages of his book, illustrated with 
thirty engravings. 

BEWICK, William, bom at Harworth, Dur- 
ham, in 1795, came to London in early life, and 
became a pupil of Haydon, at whose request he 
made drawings of the Elgin Marbles for Goethe. 
In 1822 he sent a large picture of ' The meeting 

of Jacob and Rachel to the British Institution. 
A few years afterwards Sir Thomas Lawrence gave 
him a commission to copy Michelangelo's frescoes 
in the Sistine Chapel, and for three or four years 
he resided in Italy. He then settled in London 
for a few years as a portrait painter, until ill-health 
compelled him to retire into the country. In 1843 
he was one of the competitors for the decorations 
of the Houses of Parliament, and sent up a cartoon 
of 'The Triumph of David.' He died in 1866. 
(See 'Life of William Bewick,' by Thomas Land- 
seer, 1871.) 

BEXTERHAM. See Berteeham. 

BEYER, Jan de. See De Beijeb. 

BEYEEEN. See Beijbhen. 

BEYLBROECK, M., a Flemish engraver, who 
resided in England about the year 1713. He en- 
graved a plate representing the ' Death of Dido,' 
after Sebastien Bourdon, which is neatly executed, 
but stifE and formal, and without much effect. 

BEYTLER, Matthias, (Beitler or Betjtlee,) 
was born at Augsburg about 1660. About 1682 
he was living at Anspach, where he distinguished 
himself as an engraver. The following works by 
this artist are now in existence : 

A little Book of Animals. 1582. 
Twelve plates, mostly representing Animals. 
A little Book of Eoses, &c. 1582. 
Eleven -plates with different figures. 
Christ on the Cross. 

BEZ. See Bastieb de Bez. 

BEZZUOLI, Giuseppe, historical painter, was 
bom at Florence in 1784. His principal works 
are found in his native town ; at St. Remi, ' The 
Baptism of Clovis ; ' in the Villani mansion, ' A 
Madonna ' in fresco ; in the Pitti Palace, ' The 
Entry of Charles VIII. into Florence.' His own 
portrait is in the UflSzi. In the Borghese Palace 
at Rome are two ceilings, representing ' The Toilet 
of Venus,' and ' Venus carrying oS Ascanius.' 
He died in 1865. 

BIAGIO, Beenabdino (di Betto) di, is commonly 
known as Pintueicohio (the 'little painter,' a name 
he acquired from the smallness of his stature, and 
which he, to some extent, adopted in order that 
he might be distinguished from a Bernardino of 
Perugia, a painter of no great merit) ; he was 
also called SOBDICCHIO, either because of deafness, 
or of his corpulency. His father's name was 
Benedetto Biagio, and hence he was sometimes 
called Bernardino di Betto. He was bom at Pe- 
rugia in 1454. He was an assistant, and probably 
also the pupil, of Pietro Perugino, with whom, 
according to Vasari, he worked in the Sistine 
Chapel. Amongst his earliest paintings were some 
frescoes in Santa Maria del Popolo, executed for 
Cardinal della Rovere. He was employed by 
Innocent VIII. to paint frescoes in the castle of 
Sant' Angelo, and the walls in the Belvedere (now 
known as the Museo Clementine), and by Alex- 
ander VI, to decorate the Appartamento Borgia in the 
Vatican. He decorated six rooms, in one of which 
the frescoes were destroyed by Leo X. to make 
way for works by Giovanni da Udine and Perino 
del Vaga. The other five, however, remain intact. 
Pinturicchio also painted frescoes representing the 
' Life of St. Bernard of Siena ' in the Cappella 
Bufalini in Santa Maria Ara Coeli, and various 
frescoes in Santa Maria del Popolo. While at 
Rome, in 1491, he was called to Orvieto to decor- 
ate the cathedral of that town, but of the works 





which he then executed only much-damaged frag- 
ments remain. In 1496 Pintnricchio went from 
Rome to Perugia and executed many good works. 
In 1600—1601 he painted frescoes, representing 
the ' Annunciation of the Virgin,' and ' Christ dis- 
puting with the Doctors,' in the cathedral at 
Spello. He next painted ten subjects from the 
' Life of Enea Silvio Piccolomini ' (afterwards Pius 
II.)— his best and most famous work — in the 
library of the cathedral of Siena. In these fi-es- 
coes he is supposed to have received assistance 
from Raphael in the general design and the out- 
line ; this work occupied him, with various inter- 
ruptions, from 1502 till 1607. The last known 
work by this master is the ' Christ bearing the 
Cross,' in the Casa Borromeo, at Milan, painted in 
1613 ; in which year Pinturiccliio died at Siena 
of starvation and neglect, deserted, it is said, in 
his illness by his heartless wife Grania. Pinturic- 
chio was a very prolific artist, and left many works, 
all executed in the old-fashioned tempera, for he 
never mastered the art of oil painting. He was 
fond of landscape backgrounds, but they are over- 
crowded, and his paintings are loaded with too 
much gilding and architectural ornamentation to 
be in good taste ; with all these faults, he was one 
of the best masters of the Umbrian school. 

To the above-mentioned works may be added 
the following: 

Berlin. Museum. St. Augustine, St. Benedict, and St. 
Bernard {formerly ascribed to Feru- 
„ „ Virgin and C!hild. 

London. Nat. Gall. St. Catharine of Alexandria. 
„ „ The Madonna and ChUd. 

„ „ The return of Ulysses to Penelope. 

(A fresco transferred to canvas; 
formerly/ in the Fetrucci Falace, 
SieTia, painted about 1509.) 
„ „ The Story of Griselda. (i) Her Mar- 

riage, (ii) Her Divorce, (iii) Her 
Ee-instatement. (doubted/) 

Naples. StudJ Gall. The Assumption of the Virgin. 

Paris. Louvre. Madonna and Child between St. 
Gregory and another Saint. 

Perugia. Accademia. The Virgin between SS. Jerome and 
Augustin (painted in 1498 for the 
convent of Santa Anna, Perugia^. 

Eome. Vatican. Coronation of the Virgin (painted 
about 1500). 

Siena. Academy, Virgin enthroned with Saints (painted 
about 1501). 

BIAGIO, Martino (di Baetolommeo) di, was the 
son of Bartolommeo di Biagio, a goldsmith of Siena, 
and a contemporary of Taddeo Bartoli. His name 
appears in the roll of the Guild of the Sienese 
painters, in 1389, but his first known work is in a 
church at Cascina, which is now desecrated. There 
will be found a series of frescoes representing the 
'Virgin and Child,' between SS. Catharine and 
Agatha, life-sized figures of the Saints, colossal 
figures of the Virtues, and scenes drawn from the 
life of the Virgin, with a ' Crucifixion,' that is dated 
1396. He seems to have remained in Pisa up to 
1404, having painted in 1403 a ' Virgin and Child, 
between Saints,' that is now in the Hospital of 
Santa Chiara, in that city. In 1405 and 1406 
Martino decorated the three chapels of San Cres- 
cenzio, San Savino, and San Niccol6, in the Duomo 
of Siena. In 1407 he aided Spinello to decorate 
the Sala di Balia, Siena, where his part was the 
ornamentation of the ceiling with allegorical half- 
figures of the Virtues. He was appointed umpire 
in the valuation of Taddeo Bartoli's paintings in 


the Chapel of the Palace of Siena, and seems to 
have filled several ofiioes in the government of the 
city between the years 1410 and 1428. His death 
probably occurred in 1433. 

Asciano. Boniche Coll. Madonna and Child. Signed in 

Pisa. Academy. Marriage of St. Catharine. 1403. 

Siena. Academy. Madonna with Saints (three). 

BIAGIO, ViNCENZO DI, commonly called Catena, 
possibly from a partiality for jewellery, was born 
probably at Treviso, and flourished towards the 
close of the 16th and the beginning of the 16th 
century. He was a painter of no great origin- 
ality ; he studied at Venice under Bellini, whose 
influence is perceptible in his works ; and he 
also an imitator of Giorgione. Catena painted 
portraits with skill, and was also much esteemi;d 
for his easel pictures of historical subjects ; he 
was employed in decorating the churches of 
Venice, some of which still contain works by his 
hand. His will, dated 1531, proves him to have 
been alive in that year, but we have no later 
record of him. The following are a few of his 
works : 

Berlin. Museum. Madonna and Saints and donor. 
,_, „ Portrait of Count Eaimund Fugger 

(one of his best works). 
Dresden. Gallery. Madonna with Saints. 

„ „ Portrait of Doge Loredano (ascriiei 

to him Ity Crowe and Cavalcaselle ; 

in catalogue to Giovanni Bellini). 

Liverpool. Institution. Madonna and donator (ascribed to 

him by Crowe and Cavalcaselle). 
London. Nat. Gall. ■Warrior adoring the Infant Christ 
(ascribed to Catena : catalogued as 
of the school of Giovanni Bellini ; 
formerly given to Giorgione). 
„ „ ^. Jerome in his study (given to 

him by J. A Crowe; in Cata- 
logue * ascribed to Giovanni Bel- 
lini '). 
Padua. Com. Gal. Presentation in the Temple. 
Petersbrg. Hermitage. Virgin and Child with SS. Peter 

and John the Baptist. 
Venice. Ducal FaX, Madonna and Saints. 
„ S. Simeone. The Holy Trinity. 

„ Academy. SS. Augustine and Jerome. 

BIANCHI, Baldassarb, was born at Bologna in 
1614. He was first a scholar of Giovanni Paderna, 
but afterwards studied under Agostino Mitelh, with 
whom he painted prospective pieces at Sassuolo. 
He passed the greater part of his life in the em- 
ployment of the dukes of Modena and Mantua, 
whose palaces he ornamented with a large number 
of his paintings. He also decorated the theatres^of 
^Modena and Mantua. He died at Modena in 1679. 
'Orlandi states, that he had a daughter, Ldcrezia 
Bianchi, who also distinguished herself in the art. 

BIANCHI, Fedbbigo, a Milanese, was a scholar, 
and subsequently son-in-law, of Giulio Cesare 
Prooaccini. Orlandi reports that at the early 
age of seventeen he painted three works in fresco, 
in the cloister of the monastery of the Padri 
Zoccolanti, at Milan. Several other works by 
this master were in the churches of that city. He 
was greatly patronized by the duke of Savoy, who 
held his talents in high estimation, and honoured 
him with the title of ' Cavaliere,' and a gold chain 
and medal. He flourished in the 17th century. 

BIANCHI, Francesco, (or Francesco del Bi- 
ANCHO Ferraro,) Called II FRABii, was born, ac- 
cording to Vidriani, at Ferrara in 1447. Modena 
is also mentioned as the place of his birth. His 
works werB much esteemed in his time, and are 




said by Vidriani to have been gracefully designed, 
and painted with a fine impasto of colour. He 
also gives him the credit of having been the 
instructor of Correggio. He died in 1510. His 
works are now rarely seen. The Louvre possesses 
a 'Virgin and Child enthroned with two Saints,' 
and the Modena Gallery an ' Annunciation of the 

BIANCHI, Giov. Paolo. See Blancus. 

BIANCHI, IsiDOKO, called 'da Campione,' was 
a native of Milan, and flourished about the year 
1626. He studied under Pietro Francesco Mazzu- 
chelli, and was one of the ablest followers of his 
style. He excelled in fresco painting more than in 
oil, as is evident in his works in the church of Sant' 
Ambrogio at Milan, and in different churches at 
Como. He was chosen by the Duke of Savoy to 
finish a grand saloon at Rivoli, which had been 
commenced, by Mazzuchelli, and was left unfinished 
at his death. He was afterwards made painter to 
the Court, and was knighted in 1631. 

BIANCHI, Orazio, was born at Rome, and, 
according to Abate Titi, was a painter of history 
of fair merit. His best work was the ' Marriage 
of St. Joseph and the Virgin Mary,' in the church 
of San GiosefEo at Rome. 

BIANCHI, Paolo, an artist chiefly employed in 
engraving portraits for the booksellers, flourished 
about the year 1670. His plates are neatly exe- 
cuted with the graver, but in a stifE, tasteless style. 
He engraved some of the portraits for Priorato's 
' History of Leopold,' among which are : 

Cardinal Flavio Chigi, nepEiew of Alexander VII., and 
Luigi de Benevides Oarillio. 

BIANCHI, PiBTBO. This painter was born at 
Home in 1694, and was a scholar of Benedetto Luti 
aad Baciccio. He acquired considerable celebrity 
as a painter of history, portraits, landscapes, and 
animals. Among his most esteemed performances 
are a ' St. Clara,' at Gubbio, and a picture of the 
'Conception,' in the church of Santa Maria degli 
Angeli, at Rome, of which a mosaic copy is in a 
chapel of St. Peter's. He died in 1740. 

BIANCHI, Sebastiano, an Italian engraver, 
flourished about the year 1680. He produced 
some plates of devotional subjects, which are exe- 
cuted with the graver in a very indifEerent style. 
Among others is a print representing the ' Emblems 
of our Saviour's Sufferings, with Angels,' &c. 

BIANCO, Baktolommbo,, distinguished himself 
as an architect, engineer, and painter. He was 
bom at Florence in 1604, and in 1612 he studied 
painting under Biliverti. In 1620 he visited Ger- 
many ; on his return he decorated several houses, 
and painted for churches and theatres. In 1656 
he went to Spain to paint scenes for theatres. He 
died at Madrid in the same year. 

BIANCDCCI, Paolo, was born at Lucca in 
1583, and was, according to Lanzi, a distinguished 
scholar of Guido, whose graceful and delicate style 
he followed. His works bear a near resemblance 
to those of SasBoferrato. Of his best pictures niay 
be noticed, a representation of ' Purgatory,' which 
he painted for the church of the Sufiragio, and an 
altar-piece of several Saints for San Francesco. 
He died in 1658. 

BIARD, PiEBKE, bom in Paris about 1559, was a 
sculptor, architect, painter, and etcher. He studied 
at Rome, and died in Paris in 1609. He etched 
amongst others a spirited plate with two eagles 
and foliage. 

BIARD, PiEEBE, 'the younger,' born in Paris 
between the years 1592 and 1594, was an architect, 
sculptor, painter, and engraver. He was the son 
of Pierre Biard, who is best known as a sculptor. 
He studied in Italy, and executed as an engraver 
74 etchings, representing allegorical and mytho- 
logical subjects, after Raphael, Michelangelo, and 
Giulio Romano. Though his design is deficient, 
he worked with a fine point. He died in Paris 
in 1661. 

BIBIENA. See Galli. 

BICCI, Family of the. 

LoBENZO Di Bioci is the eldest member of a 
family of painters at Florence, about whom Vasari 
is somewhat confused. To Lorenzo di Bicci he 
attributes many works which have since been 
proved to be by the hand of his son, Bicci di 
Lorenzo. Of Lorenzo di Bicci all we know is 
that he was a painter ; and though his name 
occurs as such in records at intervals from 1370 
to 1398, no authentic work by him is in existence. 

Bioci DI Lorenzo, painter and sculptor, the son 
of Lorenzo di Bioci, was born in 1373. He mar- 
ried in 1418, and in 1424 was registered in the 
Guild of Painters at Florence. He was constantly 
employed in decorating churches in that city and 
the neighbourhood, and we find his name recorded 
at frequent intervals from 1420 to 1452, in which 
year he died at Florence, and was buried in the 
Carmine. Vasari, who confuses the Bicci, ascribes 
to Lorenzo di Bicci those works which are now 
given on good authority to the son, Bicci di 
Lorenzo. Amongst Bicci's works may be men- 
tioned ' SS. Cosmo and Damian,' in the UfBzi, and 
frescoes representing the ' Dedication of the 
Church by Pope Martin V.,' in Santa Maria Nuova 
(now Sant' Egidio), in which church he also exe- 
cuted some figures in terra cotta. 

Nebi di Bicci, the son of Bicci di Lorenzo 
(and not, as Vasari says, of Lorenzo di Bicci), was 
a Florentine painter of no great merit, who 
flourished in the 15th century. He was a most 
indefatigable worker, and his pictures are seen in 
the galleries and churches of Florence. His 
masterpiece is ' St. Giovanni Gualberto enthroned, 
with ten Saints,' in the old church of San Pan- 
crazio. (For further information concerning the 
Bicci, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle's 'History of 
Painting in North Italy.') 

BICHARD, — , a French engraver, who flourished 
about the year 1760, engraved some plates repre- 
senting tombs and buildings, from the designs of 
G. M. Dumont. 

BICKART, JoDOCtrs, flourished at Mentz about 
1650 — 1672. He was a painter, and one of the 
earliest engravers in mezzotinto ; but his works 
are very rare. The following are the best known: 

A portrait of an old Man. 

A portrait of John Philip, Elector of Mentz. 

A portrait of an old Man reading. 

BICKER. See Miel. 

BICKHAM, Geobgb, an English engraver, was 
chiefly employed in engraving plates of writing, 
in which he excelled. He died in 1769. We have 
a few portraits and copies of paintings by him, 
but indifEerently executed — among others the fol- 
lowing : 

George Shelly, a writing-master ; after his own design, 

John Clarke, also a writing-master. 
Kohert More, another writing-master. 





Sir Isaac Newton, with emHematical ornaments ; G. 

Bickham, senior, seul. yif>2. Sold by John Bickham, 

TPeace and "War ; after Sulens. 
The Gold and Silver Age ; after Subens. 

BICKHAM, Geokqb, 'the younger,' the son of 
the engraver of the same name, was not more 
distinguished in art than his father. He engraved 
many of the humorous plates published by Miss 
Bowles, as well as the portraits of his father and 
himself in a kind of frieze, representing a view 
of ' Newmarket Race-course.' He died in 1849. 

BIDAULD, Jean Joseph Xavibr, a French land- 
scape painter, was born at Carpentras in 1768. He 
was educated by his brother, Jean Pieebe Xaviee 
BiDAULD, a painter of landscapes and natural his- 
tory, who was born at Carpentras in 1745, and 
died at Lyons in 1813. He obtained a medal 
at the Salon of 1812, and was named member of 
the Institute in the room of Prud'hon, 1823. He 
executed a great number of views of Italy, and 
exhibited during the years from 1791 to 1844. 
Three landscapes by him are in the Louvre. One 
is a view of Subiaco, another represents Avezano 
— both painted in 1789 ; the third bears date 1793. 
He died at Montmorency in 1846. 

BIDEBMANN, Johann Jacob, bom at Winter- 
thur, Switzerland, in 1762, was instructed by A. 
Graff, at Dresden. He travelled considerably, and 
eventually settled at Constance in 1804, and painted 
both in water-colour and oil, mostly small land- 
scapes, with figures and cattle, and often views in 
Switzerland, as well as portraits and conversation- 
pieces. He etched eleven plates of Eglisau on 
the Rhine, in a most beautiful manner. He died 
at Constance in 1828. 

BIE, Db. See De Bib. 

BIEVRE, — DE, an engraver who flourished 
about 1766, produced a few portraits, among which 
is that of Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark. 

BIEZELINGEN, Cheistiaan Jans van, a Dutch 
portrait painter, was born at Delft in 1568. This 
artist painted from memory a portrait of William 
I., Prince of Orange, after his assassination by 
Gerards, as well as a portrait of the latter while 
in prison. He spent several years at the Spanish 
Court, where he was well employed. He died at 
Middelburg in 1600. 

BIFFI, Carlo, a Milanese historical painter and 
etcher, born in 1605, was a pupil of C. Procaccini. 
He died in 1675. 

BIFFIN, Saeah, was born at Bast Quantoxhead, 
near Bridgewater, Somerset, in 1784, without hands 
or feet. She was first instructed by an artist of the 
name of Duke, with whom she resided the greater 
part of her life. After some time the Earl of Morton 
made her acquaintance, and was so much interested 
in her, that he had her instructed by W. M. Craig, 
one of the best miniature painters of the day, under 
whose instruction she improved so rapidly that in 
the year 1821 she received a medal from the 
Society of Arts. She was patronized by George 
III., George IV., William IV., Queen Vifctoria, 
and several other distinguished' " personages. In 
her old age she was rather reduced in circum- 
stances, but a small annuity was purchased for 
her, on which she was able to live comfortably till 
her death, which took place at Liverpool in 1850. 

BIGARI, VlTTOElo, was born in 1692, at Bologna, 
and his works are to be met with in almost every 
public edifice in that city. In the church of the 
Madonna del Soccorso is an admired picture by 

126 ^ 

him of the 'Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus, with St- 
Petronio and othpr Saints.' In the Palazzo Aldro- 
vandi he painted a gallery, in which he represented 
the principal transactions of that noble family. 
His works are mentioned in favourable terms by 
Zanotti in the 'Pitture di Bologna.' He died in 
1776. His sons, Giacomo and Angelo, were also 

BIGG, William Rbdmoeb, who was bom in 1755 
was admitted a student of the Royal Academy in 
1778, became. an associate in 1787, and an Acade- 
mician in 1814. His pictures were generally of 
simple subjects, appealing to the domestic sym- 
pathies ; they were painted with considerable 
power. His 'Shipwrecked Sailor Boy,' 'Boys 
relieving a Blind Man,' ' Black Monday,' and others 
of like character, have been engraved. He died ' 
in London in 1828. 

BIGI, Feancbsco (di Ceistofano), commonly 
known as Feanoiabigio or Feanoia Bigio, was 
born at Florence in 1482. He studied first at the 
Brancacci Chapel, but in 1605 he became acquainted 
with Andrea del Sarto, and studied for some time 
with Albertinelli. He seems to have devoted 
much of his time to portrait painting, many ex- 
amples of which can be seen in England, and on 
the continent. Frescoes by him, although now 
much injured by damp and the effects of time, are 
at San Giovanni Battista della Calza, and at Santa 
Maria de' Candeli, at Florence. In the court of 
the convent of the Servi there is a ' Marriage of 
the Virgin and St. Joseph,' of which the following 
story is told : The fresco was all but finished, and 
the screens were still around it, when a solemn 
feast day of the Order arrived, and some of the 
monks undertook to uncover it on their own re- 
sponsibility. This so enraged Bigi, that he seized 
a mason's hammer and struck out the heads of 
the Virgin and of some of the other figures; 
nor could threats or entreaties prevail on either 
Bigi or any of his fellow- artists to replace them ; 
and thus mutilated it still remains. Bigi 
died at Florence in 1525. 

The following list contains a few of his 
most celebrated works : 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a man {formerly ascrHei 
to Sebastiano del Piombo). 
„ „ Portrait of a young man (with mom- 

gram, and inscribed " 1522 a di 24 
„ „ Portrait of a young man. 

Dresden. Gallery. Bath^heba bathing {with monogram, 

and dated MDxni). 
Florence. Fitti Pal. Portrait of a youth {with monogram, 
and dated MDXini). 
„ . „ Calumny of Apelles. 

„ Vjflzi. Madonna del Pozzo. 

„ „ Temple of Hercules. 

London. Nat. Gal. Portrait of a yomig man {signed with 
the accompanyiiig monogram, and 
inscribed tak: tblia: CHI: BIBN: 
„ Yariorom/h C. Half-length of a man at a wmdow 
{dated mdxvi). 
Paris. Zotwre. Portrait of a young man {ascniei 

in the catalogue to Eaphael). 
Turin. Gallery. Annunciation. 
Windsor Castle. Portrait of the Factor of Pier Frim- 
cesco de' Medici {also ascribed to 
Andrea del Sarto). 
BIGNON, FEANgois, a French engraver, who 
was born in Paris about the year 1620. He was 
principally employed on portraits, which he gener- 
ally executed with the graver, though he occn- 
isionally called in the assistance of the point. His 




style is neat, but there is a want of harmony in 
the efEect of his prints. Some of his portraits are 
ornamented with borders, with small emblematical 
figures, &o. "We have by him : 

St. Margaret ; after N. Poussin. 

Thirty -three Portraits of the Plenipotentiaries as- 
sembled at the Peace of Miinster ; after Z. Heince. 
Published in 1648. 

Twenty-seven Portraits of illustrious Frenchmen ; after 
the pictures by Z. Heince in the gallery of Cardinal 
Richelieu. Published in 1650. 

BIGORDI Family, The. 


Bomenico di Tommaso Davide di Tommaso Benedetto di Tommaao 
(1449—1494). (1452—1526;. (1458-149TJ. 

Bidolfo di Domenico 

Michele di Eidolfo 
(fl. ab. 1668). 

BIGORDI, Benedetto (di Tommaso), called also 
Benedetto del Ghielandaio, was a brother and 
pupil of Domenico, and was born at Florence in 
1458. He frequently assisted his brother in his 
works, and completed some which he left un- 
finished at his death. Benedetto was also known 
as a miniature painter. He died at Florence in 
1497. The following are his principal works : 

Berlin. Museum. Eesurrection of Christ (executed in 
conjunetton with Davide, after the 

Florence. 8. Maria \ 

\ of Domenieo Bigordi), part 
of an altar-piece painted for Santa 
Maria Novella, Florence. 

'^^'■" I St. Lucia. 

Paris. Louvre. Christ bearing the Cross. 

BIGORDI, Davide (di Tommaso), or Davide del 
Ghielandaio, who was born at Florence in 1462, 
was chiefly employed in assisting his brother 
Domenico ; and, with Benedetto, completed some 
of his unfinished works. Davide also practised as 
a mosaicist at Orvieto, Siena, and at Florence, 
where he died in 1625. 

BIGORDI, Domenico, whose full name seems 
to have been Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di 
DofEo Bigordi, is generally called Ghielandaio (or 
in the Florentine dialect GeillandaJo^ In which 
manner he sometimes signed his works), or ' The 
Garlandmaker,' an epithet probably derived from 
his father's profession. He was the son of a gold- 
smith and broker in Florence, and was born there 
in 1449. In his early years he probably followed his 
father's business, but afterwards entered the studio 
of Alessio Baldovinetti, and became one of the 
most distinguished artists of his time — both as a 
m&saioist and a painter. His design was more 
correct and graceful than was usual in his time, 
and the expression of his heads is superior to that 
of any painter who had preceded him. His earliest 
remaining frescoes are those in the Churcli and 
Refectory of Ognissanti, which are dated 1480, and 
represent St. Jerome, and the ' Last Supper.' Soon 
afterwards he commenced his labours at the 
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, in 1481, where a fresco 
of the ' Glory of St. Zanobius ' and other subjects 
still remain. He was called to Rome by Sixtus IV. 
in 1483, to aid in the decoration of the Sistine 
Chapel, where he painted ' The Call of SS. Peter 
and Andrew,' which still remains ; and ' The Resur- 
rection,' which has perished. Previous to 1485 he 
decorated the Cappella San Fina in the Duorao of 
Gimignano with frescoes, representing different 
events in the life of that saint, which are remark- I 

able for their beauty and grandeur of treatment. 
In the year 1485 he completed the decorations of 
the Sassetti Chapel in the church of Santa Triniti, 
Florence: these consist of portraits of Francesco 
Sassetti and his wife Nera; a series of classical 
subjects, and six subjects from the life of St. Francis 
of Assisi. The altar-piece he finished for this chapel 
with the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' is now in 
the Academy of Arts, Florence. His next, and his 
most important commission, was that given him by 
Giovanni Tornabuoni to adorn the choir of Santa 
Maria Novella. These frescoes, which are Bigordi's 
master-pieces, consist of four courses of designs on 
the three walls of the choir, and represent — ^ St 
Francis before the Soldan,' and ' The Death of St, 
Peter, Martyr; ' eight subjects drawn from the lift 
of St. John the Baptist ; and thirteen taken from the 
life of the Virgin. In these beautiful and wonder- 
ful designs will be found twenty-one portraits of 
members of the Sassetti and Medici families, his 
own portrait and those of his assistant Sebastiano 
Mainardi, and of Baldovinetti. After the comple- 
tion of the above immense work, Domenico painted 
by order of Lorenzo de' Medici, the ' Christ in Glory, 
adored by SS. Romualdo, Benedict, Attinia, and 
Greciniana,' for the Badia of Volterra, where it 
still remains. In 1488 he finished the ' Adoration 
of the Magi,' for the church of the Innooenti, 
Florence, in which picture is his own portrait. The 
latest known picture by Ghirlandaio is the ' Visit- 
ation of the Virgin,' dated 1491, and now in the 
Louvre. He died at Florence in 1494. He was the 
founder of an eminent school, and will ever be 
remembered as the instructor of Michelangelo. 
The following are some of his best works : 

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child with Cherubim 
and four Saints (executed with the 
assistance of pupils). 
„ „ Virgin and Child with Saints (exe- 

cuted in conjunction with Francesco 

Adoration of the Shepherds. 1485. 

Madonna with foiu' Saints. 

Adoration of the Kings. 1488. 

The Last Supper (fresco). 

St. Jerome (fresco). 1480. 

Adoration of the Magi. 1487. 

Madonna and Saints. 

Madonna and Saints. 

(i) Madonna and Child with the two 
St. Johns, St. Dominick, and St. 
Michael, (ii) St. Catharine of Siena, 
(iii) St. Lawrence (part of an altar- 
piece executed from designs by 
Domenico for Santa Maria Novella, 
Florence : the exterior wings, 
finished by Davide and Benedetto 
Bigordi and Francesco Granacci, 
aft(fr Domenieo's death, are in the 
Berlin Museum). 
Paris. Zouvre. Visitation, mccccixxxxi. 

S. Gimi- 1 (7^j^„^ Annnnoiation (fresco). 

gnano. I " ' 

Volterra". S.Francesco. Christ adored by Saints. 

BIGORDI, Michele (di Ridolfo), who painted 
at Florence about 1568, died at the age of 75. A 
' Holy Family ' by him is in the Pitti Palace. 

BIGORDI, RiDOLFO (di Domenico )^callad GnjJt^ 
LAKO^o — who was born at Florence in 1483, lost 
his fSher Domenico when he was still a child, 
and was taken under the protection of his uncle 
Davide. He afterwards studied under Cosimo Eos- 
selli and Fra Bartolommeo, and had so far profited 
by the instruction of these masters, that when 
Raphael visited Florence, he was so satisfied of his 



„ Innocenti. 
„ Ognissanti. 

„ Uffizt. 

Lnca. 5^. Martina. 
Munich. Pinakothek. 




ability, that he entrusted him to finish a picture of 
the 'Virgin and Infant' he had commenced, for 
one of the churches at Siena. So highly did Ea- 
phael esteem Eidolfo's talents, that on his return to 
Eome he invited him to assist him in his great 
works in the Vatican. Unfortunately for his fame, 
Eidolfo refused the invitation of Eaphael, for, if 
he had accepted it, he would probably have par- 
ticipated in the glory of that illustrious painter in 
an equal degree with Giulio Eomano. He possessed 
an acute and vivacious imagination, with an elegance 
and *aste in his forms that have a near afiBnity to the 
style of that master. In some of his first produc- 
tions, in San Jacopo at Eipoli, and in San Girolamo 
at Florence,though there is something of the dryness 
of Pietro Perugino, they bear a great resemblance 
to the juvenile works of Eaphael. He approaches 
nearer to the better time of that master in his two 
pictures of subjects from the Life of St. Zanobio, 
originally painted for the Academy at Florence, but 
afterwards placed in the Ducal Gallery. He died 
at Florence in 1561. The print of the ' Procession 
to Calvary' (plate 125 of Eosini) will give an idea 
of his style of composition and delineation of char- 
acter ; but it does not bear much of the impress of 
Fra Bartolommeo or Giulio Eomano. The follow- 
ing are some of his most important pictures: 

Berlin. Museum, Adoration of the Infant Christ. 
Florence. 2'. Vecchio, Holy Trinity. 

„ „ Annunciation. 1514. 

„ Academy. Magdalene and St. Francis at the foot 
of the Gross. 

„ TTffizi. St. Zanobio restoring a child to life. 

„ „ Madonna del Pozzo {also ascribed to 

„ Pitti. Holy Family. 

Pi.stoja.S PutroMag ^iigin adored by Saints. 

BIJE, De. See De Bije. 

BIJLAEET, Jan Jacob, a Dutch painter, was 
born at Eotterdam in 1734. His paintings, some 
of which are at Cassel and Brunswick, mostly 
represent girls, and are weak in colouring. He 
sometimes worked for churches. He died at Ley- 
den in 1809. 

BILCOY, Maeib Marc Antoinh, was born in 
Paris in 1755. He painted a number of genre 
subjects, and was received into the Academy in 
1789. He died in Paris in 1838. 

BILFELDT, Jean Joseph, a French miniature 
painter, was born at Avignon in 1793. He studied 
under Easpay, and devoted himself chiefly to 
miniatures and portraits, some of which are at 
Versailles. He died in Paris about the year 1849. 

BILIVEET, Jan, (or Belliveet,) who was born 
at Maestricht in 1576, was brought up in the 
school of Lodovico Cardi, in Italy, where he was 
called Giovanni Biliverti. He completed some of 
the works left unfinished at the death of his in- 
structor, to whose style he endeavoured to unite 
the expression of Santo di Titi, and something 
of the splendour of Paolo Veronese. He died at 
Florence in 1644. Amongst his best works may 
be mentioned : 

Florence. Pitti Pal. Tobias and the Angel. 

,, VMzi. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Hagar in the Desert. 
Vienna. Belvedere. Christ and the "Woman of 


BILLMAEK, Carl Johann, who was born at 
Slookholm in 1804, was a landscape painter; he 
visited Dalecarlia, St. Petersburg, and Paris, where 
he studied under Deroy. From 1828 to 1830 he pub- 

lished 100 lithographic landscape studies, and in 
1833, whilst in Paris, he produced 29 works, repre- 
senting the scenery of his native country ; and later 
on 24 plates of views on the Ehine, and also 100 
plates in a work entitled, ' Journey from Stockholm 
to Naples.' He was a member of the Academy of 
Stockholm, and received the decoration of the 
Wasa order. He died in Paris in 1870. 

BILLONI, GiAMBATTiSTA, a painter of Padua 
was born in 1676, and died in 1636. He painted 
landscapes and portraits, and sometimes attempted 
history ; but his reputation is now confined to his 

BILLWILLEE, Johann Loeenz Jacob, bom at 
St. Gallen, Switzerland, in 1780, etched the por- 
traits of Piiger, Maurer, Schmutzer, Fischer, and 
himself, and painted genre pieces after Kobell and 
J. Seelos. He committed suicide at Vienna in 

BILLY, Niccol6 and Antonio, (or Billi,) two 
Italian engravers, who flourished about the year 
1734, engraved several portraits and historical 
subjects, executed with the graver in rather a stiff 
dry manner. Niccol6 engraved some plates for the 
Museum Florentinum. 

Fredericus Zuccharus. 

Hans Holbein ; se ipse pinm. 

Pietro Leone Ghezzi ; se ipse del. 

Giovanni Morandi ; se ipse del. 

Cardinal Pompeo Aldrovandi ; G. Berti pinx. 

Cardinal SpineUi ; Dom. Dupra pinx. 

The Infant Jesus sleeping ; oval. 

St. Philip Keri kneeling before the Virgin ; after S. 

The Holy Family ; after Carracci ; half-length fignres. 
The Flight into Egypt ; after Quido. 

BILTIDS, Jacob. See Van deb Bilt, Jacob. 

BIMBI, Bartolommeo, a Florentine artist, who 
was born in 1648, studied under Lorenzo Lippi, 
and after painting historical pieces for a short 
time, became an excellent painter of fruit and 
flowers ; he was considered the Mario of his 
school. He died in 1725. 

BIMEL. See Bumel. 

BINCK. See Bink. 

BINDEE, Joseph, who was born at Vienna in 
1805. received his first art instruction in that city. 
From 1827 to 1834 he resided at Munich. Two 
years later he became teacher at the Stadel Insti- 
tute, Frankfort ; and in 1847 he returned to Vienna 
and was elected in the following year a member of 
the Academy, of which he was made a lecturer in 
1851. He died in 1864. Binder at first painted 
portraits, but afterwards turned his attention to 
historical subjects, a branch of art in which he was 
very successful. Towards the close of his li£e he 
painted frescoes for churches. The following are 
some of his best works : 

Portrait of the Emperor Albert II. {In the Eaisersaal 

at Frankfort.) 
Madonna and Child. 
The Conversion of the Eobber Julian. 
St. Catharine of Siena visiting a poor family. 
St. Florian. 
Conversion of St. Eustachius. {In the Belvedere, 


BINDON, Francis, who was bom in Ireland at 
the beginning of the 18th century, painted por- 
traits of Dean SwiEt, the Archbishop of Armagh, 
Dr. Sheridan, and other celebrated men of the time, 
some of which were engraved. He also practised 
as an architect, and bmlt country mansions. He 
died in 1765. 




BINET, Louis, a French engraver, was born 
in Paris in 1744. He was a pupil of Beauvarlet, 
and engraved several plates after the works of 
Greuze, Joseph Vernet, and other masters. He 
died in Paris about the year 1790. 

BING, Edward, (or Btng,) was an assistant to 
Sir Godfrey Kneller, who, before his death, com- 
missioned him to finish all his portraits which 
were then incomplete, and in return settled on 
him £100 a year. Bing died about the middle of 
the last century. His brother, Egbert Bing, was 
also employed by Kneller. 

BINK, Jakob, (or Binck,) an old German en- 
graver and painter, was born at Cologne between 
1490 and 1504. From the earliest accounts of 
Bink, we must consider it probable that he was a 
pupil of Durer, but this is by no means certain, 
while his early residence in Italy throws a doubt 
upon the supposition. He is also said to have 
worked under Marc' Antonio in Rome. One of 
his largest plates is a rather feeble copy of the very 
popular ' Massacre of the Innocents ' by Raphael. 
Previous to the year 1546 he was appointed painter 
to King Christian III. of Denmark, whose portrait 
and that of his wife Queen Dorothea, by him, are 
said to be at Copenhagen. He was also employed 
by Prince Albrecht of Brandenburg, who sent him 
in 1549 to the Netherlands, to erect a monument 
to the late Princess. Bink now received a fixed 
annual salary from the above-named prince, and 
removed his wife and family to Konigsberg, where, 
about twenty years after, he died, in 1568 or 1569. 
Of his paintings none but portraits are known. In 
the Garderobe at Konigsberg are those of ' Prince 
Albrecht ' and his ' First Wife,' and his own por- 
trait is in the Belvedere, Vienna. Bink's pictures 
are remarkable for correctness of drawing and 
general artistic taste. This artist holds a dis- 
tinguished rank among the engravers denominated, 
on account of the small size of their prints, by the 
name of the ' Little Masters.' His style is very 
neat, sometimes resembling the works of H. Alde- 
grever, but his plates evince less mastery in the 
execution. His drawing is correct, and there is 
an agreeable taste in the turn of his figures. There 
has existed considerable confusion respecting the 
marks of the artists of this period, particularly those 
whose names commence with a B. The works of 
this master are generally marked with the cipher 
annexed, the G meaning Coloniensis. 
Several other engravers used the initials TpT) 
/. B., one of whom, very skilful indeed, J yj 3 
and possessed of much invention, is mis- 
taken by Sandrart for Bink. The following are his 
principal prints: 

The Portrait of Jacob Bink, with a cap, a skull in his 

cloak, and a cup in his right hand. 
The Portrait of Lucas Gassel ; I. B. 1529. Inscribed 

Ima^o ab Jacob Binck ad vivum delineata. 
Portrait of Francis I. ; Franciscus rex Frandai. 
Portrait of Claude, First Queen of Francis I. 1528. 
Christiernus II. Danorum Eex. 1525. 
Elisabeta Danorum Begina. 
Christian III., surrounded by nine shields of arms and 

six Cupids, is one of his most elaborate and excellent 

engravings. It is rare, and not in Bartsch's catar 

St. Jerome, with the Lion. 
Twenty, representing the Divinities; copied after 

Caralius, who engraved these plates after Jl Rosso. 
Adam holding the branch of a tree. 
Eve, with a branch with two apples. 
Lot and his Daughters ; circular ; marked twice. 
David, with the head of Goliath. 1526. 

Jiidith, with the head of Holofemes. 

St. Michael vanquishing the Evil Spirit. 

The Virgin Mary adoring the Infant Jesus in the 

Virgin sitting on a bank. 

Saints, various small prints, including SS. Anthony, 
the Virgin with Catharine and Barbary, Magdalene, 

The Beheading of St. Jobn. 

The Soldier struggling with Death. A fine design. 

Many subjects from fable and allegory, including Cupid, 
Venus, Hercules and Nessus, Pride, Fortune, Justice. 

The Massacre of the Innocents ; copied after Marc' 
antonio ; very scarce ; an inf erio^rint. 

A 'Woman beating and driving away the Devil with 
her crutch. 1528. 

A Soldier and a young woman. 

A Peasant carrying a basket of eggs. 

A Peasant and woman dancing. 

A Vignette, four Cupids mounted on dolphins. 

A Vase, ornamented with the heads of two unicorns. 
"With about fifteen other ornamental trifles. His prints 
amount in number to 140, but many of them are copies 
from Durer, Sebald Beham, and others. He is therefore 
inferior in originality to some other Little Masters, his 

W, B. S. 

BINNEMAN, Walter. This artist, who is sup- 
posed to have been a native of England, flourished 
about the year 1675. He engraved a few portraits, 
which are very indifferently executed ; among 
them is that of Robert Chamberlaine, an arithme- 
tician, prefixed to his ' Accomptant's Guide.' 

BINOIT, Peter, a flower painter of the 17th 
century, flourished in Cologne. In the Darmstadt 
Gallery there are two flower-pieces by him. One 
has his monogram and the date 1611, and the other 
is signed P. BINOIT. FRANCFORT 1620. 

BINYON, Edward, was an English landscape 
painter in oil and water-colours. He lived many 
years in the isle of Capri, where he died in 1876, 
from the effects of bathing while heated. His 
works, which appeared at the Dudley Gallery and 
at the Royal Academy, evinced his power of 
colour and of portraying the effects of the sunny 
south. Amongst his contributions to the latter 
institution were : 

Arch of Titus. 1859. 

Capri. 1870. 

Marina di Laccho, Ischia. 1873. 

Coral Boat at Dawn, Bay of Naples. 1875. 

Hidden Fires, Vesuvius from Capodimonte. 1878. 

BIONDI, Francesco, who was born at Milan in 
1735, painted sacred subjects. He died in 1805. 
In the gallery of his native town there is a 
' Madonna and Child,' by him. 

BIORD, Peter. _ The name of this artist is 
aflBxed to an etching representing ' Cupid and 
Psyche.' It is executed in a bold, spirited style, 
and is apparently the production of a painter. 

BIRCH, Henry, an English engraver, practised 
in the latter part of the 18th century. He engraved 
after Stubbs and other contemporary painters. 

BIRCH, John, portrait and landscape painter, 
was' born at Norton, Derbyshire, in 1807. As a 
boy he gave indication of a love for art, sketching 
the beautiful scenery of the neighbourhood. For 
some time he assisted his father in his business as 
a file-cutter, but afterwards went to a carver and 
gilder, with whom he remained seven years. He 
then determined to take up portrait painting as a 
profession, and went to London, where he studied 
under H. P. Briggs. Here he received several 
commissions to paint copies of the portraits by his 
master, in which he was so successful, that it was 





sometimes difficult to distinguish the copy from the 
original. Amongst the original portraits which he 
painted were several of Ebenezer Elliott, the Corn 
Law Rhymer ; one, a half-length, representing him 
amongst the rocks of Rivilin, was painted on the 
spot, when the poet and painter were on a ramble 
together. His landscapes consist of views of 
the magnificent scenery of Derbyshire: 'Dove- 
dale,' 'Millin's Dale,' 'Matlock High Tor,"_ En- 
trance to the Peak Cavern,' were favourite subjects 
of his pencil. Birch was a man of enlarged and 
liberal views, anicf great conversational powers. 
For some years, towards the latter part of his life, 
he resided in London, making occasional visits to 
his native town, during the last of which it is said 
that he painted about forty portraits in nine 
months. He died at South Hackney in 1857. 

BIRCH, William, a miniature painter and en- 
graver, was born at Warwick about 1760. He 
exhibited enamel portraits at the Royal Academy 
from 1781 to 1794, when he went to Philadelphia, 
where he died. As an engraver he is best known 
by his ' D^lices de la Grande Bretagne,' consist- 
ing of thirty-six plates of ancient buildings in 
Norwich and elsewhere, published in 1791. 

BiRCK, Paul. Strutt mentions tliis artist as 
the engraver of four plates, exclusive of a title, 
representing the 'Four Elements,' in circles, sur- 
rounded with ornaments, which appear to be pat- 
terns for goldsmiths. They are executed with the 
graver in a style resembling that of J. T. de Bry. 
n the title is the following inscription : Quatuor 
Mundi Elementa, elegantibus figuris sen imagin- 
ibus (wtificiosa expressa. Paulus Birch, f. 

BIRCKAERT, Anton, (or Bieckaet,) a German 
engraver, who was born at Augsburg in 1677, and 
resided sometime at Prague, where he died in 1748. 
He engraved some large architectural plates with 
figures, which are executed with the graver in a 
fitifE, formal style. Basan mentions a print by him 
representing the ' Martyrdom of Forty Portuguese 
Jesuits ; ' after Borgognone. Dlabacz has given a 
numerous catalogue of his works. 

BIRCKENHOLZ, Patjlus, was a native of 
Germany, and flourished about the year 1670. He 
was a print-seller as well as an engraver, and pub- 
lished a set of small plates, representing warlike 
trophies, with figures, &c. They are executed 
chiefly with the graver, in a neat, but formal style. 
The title to these plates is Omnis generis instru- 
Tnenta hellica. 

BIRD, Edward, an English painter, born at 
Wolverhampton in 1762 (or 1772), served an appren- 
ticeship to a maker of tea-trays, and was employed 
to embellish them with fruit, flowers, and fanciful 
designs. At the expiration of his term of service he 
left Birmingham, and set up a school for drawing 
at Bristol. During the intervals of instruction 
he made sketches, designs, and compositions for 
pictures ; and it would appear that his progress 
was due to his own observation and persevering 
industry.^ He painted humorous and pathetic sub- 
jects, which attracted much attention, and induced 
the members of the Royal Academy to enrol his 
name as an Associate in 1812, and as an Acade- 
mician in 1815. His best pictures, as historical 
compositions, are 'The Battle of Chevy Chase,' 
and the ' Surrender of Calais.' His chief merit, as 
an artist, lay in natural and touching representa- 
tions of homely and social subjects ; history, both 
sapred and profane, required a spirit more imagin- 
ative than be possessed. He was a kind-hearted 


man, much respected by his brother artists and 
all who knew him. He died at Bristol in 1819 
and was buried in the cloisters of the cathedral! 
Among his best paintings are : 

Good News (exhitited at the Academy in 1809). 

Choristers Behearsing (purchased ly the Prince Regent), 

A Country Auction (exhibited in 1812). 

A Poaclier's Career, m six subjects. 1812. 

Queen Philippa interceding for the Burghers of Calais 

The Day after Chevy Chase (purchased In/ the Duke of 

Sutherland for 300 guineas). 
Death of Eli. (This picture received a prize of 300 

guineas from the British Institiction, and was bought 

for 500 guineas hy the Duke of Sutherland.) 
The Baffle for the Watch (in the National Gallery). 
Christ led to be Crucified (exhitited in 1817). 
The Death of Sapphira (his last work). 1818. 

BIRD, John, a landscape painter, was born in 
1768. He made some of the drawings for Angus's 
'Principal Seats of the Nobility' (1787), and other 
topographical works. He died at Whitby in 1829. 

BISCAINO, Baktolommeo, the son of Giovanni 
Andrea Biscaino, was born at Genoa in 1632. He 
was instructed by his father in the first rudiments 
of the art, and afterwards became a scholar of 
Valeric Castelli. From the early indications he 
gave of uncommon genius, great expectations were 
formed of his future eminence, and they were not 
disappointed. Before he had reached his twenty- 
fifth year he had painted many considerable works, 
but his career was cut short by the plague, which 
visited Genoa in 1657, to which his father and 
himself fell victims. The Dresden Gallery pos- 
sesses three pictures by this artist, representing 
' The Woman taken in Adultery,' ' The Adoration 
of the Magi,' and 'The Circumcision of Christ.' 
He etched several plates, in a free, bold style, 
resembling in some degree the works of Benedetto 
Castiglione, but in a more finished manner. His 
subjects are finely composed and elegantly drawn. 
He sometimes marked his plates B. B. The 
following are his most esteemed prints : 

Moses in the Bulrushes. 

Susannah and the Elders. 

The Nativity, with Angels. 

The Circumcision. 

The Wise Men's Offering. 

Herodias, with the Head of St. John. 

The Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus, with Angels. 

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus, with St. Joseph. 

The Virgin suckling the Infant, with St. Joseph, and 

St. John with his lamb. 
The Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus. 
The Virgin with the Infant Jesus on her knee, St. John 

Mssing his foot, and St. Joseph beliind. 
The Virgin with the Infant Jesus standing on her knee, 

stretching out His arm to St. Joseph ; half-length 

The Holy Family, with St. John holding a cross. 
The Eepose in Egypt, with Angels in the clouds. 
The Infant Jesus reposing on the globe. 
St. Joseph, with the Infant Jesus ; half-length. 
St. Christopher giving his hand to the Infant Jesus. 
St. Christopher, with the Infant Jesus. 
Mary Magdalene in the desert ; dated 1656. 

BISCAINO, Giovanni Andeea, a native of 
Genoa, painted landscapes in a bold and spirited 
style ; but, according to Soprani, the necessity he 
was under to paint with despatch, in order to 
support a numerous family, prevented his ^^^*''*' 
ing that care and attention wliioh would have 
rendered his works more deserving of our esteem. 
He died at Genoa, of the plague, in 1657. . 

BISCAERA, Giovanni, an Italian histoncai 




painter, of Turin, flourished in the first half of the 
19th century. He died in 1851. His own portrait 
is in the Uffizi at Florence. 

BISCHOF, Feiedrich, who was bom at Anspach 
in 1819, was a painter of genre Bubjects. 'The 
First Snow,' by him, is in the Pinakothek at 
Munich. He died in 1873. 

BISCHOP, CoKNELis, a Dutch painter, who was 
bom at Dordrecht in 1630, was a scholar of Fer- 
dinand Bol. He painted history and portraits, in 
the style of his master, but with very indifferent 
success. He died in 1674. His son, Abraham 
BlSPHOP, was eminent as a painter of birds. 

BISET, Karel Emanuel, a Flemish painter, was 
bom at Mechlin in 1633. It is not said by whom 
he was instructed, but he went to Paris when he 
was young, and met with great encouragement, 
his pictures, which represented gallant assemblies, 
balls, concerts, and what are called 'conversations,' 
being adapted to French taste. Notwithstanding 
his success, the love of his native country induced 
him to return to Antwerp, where he was appointed 
director of the Academy, in 1674. He designed 
his subjects with taste, but his colour is rather 
cold and grey. His chief work is a large picture 
in the Brussels Gallery, formerly in the hall of the 
Archers' Guild at Antwerp, representing ' William 
Tell preparing to shoot the Apple from the Head 
of his Son.' A ' Family Group ' by him is in the 
Museum at Eotterdam. He died at Breda in 1680 
(or 1685). His son Jan Baptist Biset was also 
a painter. 

BISI, Fra Bonaventuea, called ' Padre Pittorini,' 
was a monk of the order of St. Francis, at Bologna, 
where he was born in 1612 (or 1610). He had 
been instructed in drawing when young, by Lucio 
Massari, and was celebrated for his copies in 
miniature from the works of Correggio, Titian, 
Guido, &c., many of which were in the cabinet of 
Alfonso IV. of Modena, by whom he was employed. 
He also etched a few plates after Parmigiano, 
Guido, &c., and one after his own design of a 
' Holy Family, with St. John and St. Elisabeth,' 
marked F. B. B. F. 1631. He died at Modena in 

BISI, MiCHELE, an Italian engraver and painter, 
who was bom at Genoa about 1788, does honour to 
the schools of Bartolozzi, Eosaspina, and Longhi. 
He first distinguished himself by the publication 
of the ' Pinacoteca del Palazzo Eeale delle Scienze 
e delle Arti di Milano,' in which he was aided by 
his wife, Eenesta Bisi, who was likewise a pupil 
of Longhi. In 1819 he undertook a series of 
engravings from the paintings of Andrea Appiani, 
in which he was assisted by some of the best 
scholars of Longhi. His engraving of ' Venus 
embracing Cupid' happily expresses the beauty 
of the original picture. Subsequently appeared 
' The Virgin and Infant Christ enthroned, attended 
by St. Anthony and St. Barbara,' after Luini, 
which he has treated in a brilliant and delicate 
manner, preserving the beauty and grace peculiar 
to the master; 'Andromeda and Perseus,' after 
Guercino ; an ' Adoration of the Virgin,' after 
Sassoferrato ; and 'The Offering of the Magi,' 
after Gaudenzio di Ferrara. He also succeeded 
as a painter of landscapes. 

BISQCEET, Antonio, was a Spanish historical 
painter, who was bom at Valencia, and a scholar 
of Eibalta. He established himself at Teruel in 
1620, and became renowned as a painter. He was 
a good colourist and designer, and infused much 
E 2 

sentiment into his pictures, which are chiefly 
subjects from Eomish legends. He also copied 
Sebastiano del Piombo's 'Dead Christ in the arms 
of the Virgin, attended by the Marys and St. John.' 
He died in 1646. 

BISSCHOP, Jan de. See De Bisschop. 

BISSET, James, bom in 1760, first practised as 
a miniature painter at Newmarket. He afterwards 
went to Birmingham, where he engraved the em- 
blematic plates to his 'Poetical Survey round 
Birmingham' (1800). In 1814 he published a 
' Descriptive Guide to Leamington Priors.' He 
died at Leamington in 1832. 

BISSOLO, PiEE Francesco, was, it is believed, 
a native of Treviso, and was brought up in the 
school of the Bellini at Venice. He flourished 
from about 1492 to 1630. His paintings are now 
very rarely to be met with. Some of his works at 
Murano, and in the cathedral of Treviso, were com- 
pared by Lanzi with those of Palma Vecchio. 

Berlin. Gallery. Eesurrection of Christ. 

Castel-Franco. Floriaiw. Altar-piece (sigjied and dated 

lK>ndon. ffat. Gall. Portrait of a lady. 

Venice. Academy, Christ exchanging the crown 

of thorns of St. Catharine of 
Siena for a crown of gold. 
{Signed Feaciscus Bissolo) 
— formerly in San Fietro Mar- 
tire, Murano (c/eneral/y con^ 
tidered his masterpiece). 

Francesco Bissolo is thought by Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle to be possibly identical with Pietro 
de' Ingannati, the author of a ' Madonna and Child,' 
in the Berlin Gallery — signed Petrus de Ingan- 


BISSONI, Giovanni Battista, was born at Padua 
in 1576 ; and, according to Eidolfi, was first a scholar 
of Francesco AppoUodoro, called 11 Porcia, a por- 
trait painter, and afterwards of Dario Varotari. 
Bissoni painted several pictures for the churches 
and convents at Padua and Eavenna. He died in 

BISUCCIO, Leonardo di, of Milan, is a painter 
whose name has been handed down to posterity by 
the reputation of one work only. It is the decora- 
tion of the chapel of Sergiani Carracciolo, in the 
church of San Giovanni a Carbonara, in Naples, 
The subjects are scenes from the life of the Virgin, 
in which several portraits of members of the Car- 
racciolo family have been introduced. In general 
treatment the work resembles the style of Giotto, 
but the heads partake of the beauty of Fra An- 
gelico. Bisuccio lived about the middle of the 
15th century. 

BITTEELICH, Eddard, was bom at Stupnicka, 
in Galicia, where his father had established him- 
self. Whilst Eduard was still young his parents 
moved to Vienna, with the intention of educating 
him for the civil service, but against their will he 
entered Waldmiiller's studio, and devoted himself 
to miniature painting. In 1855 he went to Venice 
in order to copy the works of the old masters. His 
enthusiasm was so great that he would scarcely 
allow himself the time to eat and drink. Upon his 
return he married Marie Singer von Wyssogurski, 
and immediately afterwards put himself under the 
direction of Eahl, whom he never afterwards left 
until his death. For this master he designed many 
fresco paintings, and sketched an immense number 
of small compositions, amongst them the 20 sheets 
for the ' Wanderings of the Argonauts,' and the 





coloured eketohes for the Duke of Oldenburg. 
After Rahl's death, Bitterlioh's principal work — 
executed in conjunction with Griepenkerl — was the 
design for the new Opera House ; and of his earlier 
productions we may name, The Pompeian figures 
in the Ypsilanti Palace, and the 20 Lunettes in the 
Banqueting-hall of the Grand Hotel of Vienna, 
together with the pictures for the restored castle 
of Duke Leopold in Hdrnstein. He died at Press- 
baum, near Vienna, in 1872. 

BITTHEUSER, Johann Pleiokaed, an engraver, 
born at Biitthard in 1774, was instructed by J. G. 
von Miiller; he was professor at Wiirzburg, and 
died there in 1869. The following engravings are 
some of his best works: 

The Last Supper ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 1805. 
The meeting of Augustus and Cleopatra; after 2t. 

The Wife of Domenichino coming out of the bath; 
after Xiomenichino. 

BIZAMANUS was the name of a family of 
painters who belonged to a school at Otranto, in 
Apuleia, and flourished a short time before the 16th 
century. Their paintings are executed in the 
Byzantine style, with landscapes in the back- 
grounds. The painting in the Museo Cristiano of 
the Vatican, of ' Christ, risen from the dead, and 
Mary Magdalene,' is attributed to Donatus Biza- 
manus; and that in the Museum at Berlin, of 
'The Descent from the Cross,' to Angelus Biza- 

BIZEMONT-PRUNELl^, AndeS Gaspaed Pae- 
FAIT, Comte de, French draughtsman and engraver, 
was born at the chateau of Tignonville, near 
i^tampes, in 1752. He was a pupil of E. Gaucher, 
and etched and engraved on wood a considerable 
number of works. He was for some years director 
of the Museum at Orleans, and died there in 1837. 
Among his etchings may be mentioned : 

Hagar and Ishmael ; after Guercino. 
Cephalus and Procris ; after the same. 
Virgin and Child ; after Gnido, 
A Pieti ; after Eibera. 
La Nourrice ; after JVatoire. 

An Allegory upon the death of Louis XVL and of 
Marie Antoinette. 

BIZZELLI, Giovanni, a Florentine painter, born 
in 1556. He was a scholar of Alessandro Allori, 
called Bronzino. He afterwards went to Rome, 
where he painted some pictures for the churches. 
On his return to Florence he executed several 
works for the public edifices, which are described 
by Borghini in his account of the painters and 
sculptors of Florence. He died in 1612. His 
own Portrait and an ' Annunciation ' by him are 
in the Uffizi. 

BLACEO, Beenaedino. Ridolfi describes several 
«rorks of this painter in the churches at Udine, in 
the Friuli— among them, the principal altar-piece 
of the church of Santa Lucia, representing the 
' Virgin and Infant Saviour, with a group of 
Angels, and St. Lucia and St. Agatha;' and in 
Porta Nuova, the ' Virgin and Infant Christ, with 
St. Peter and St. John.' Blaceo appears to have 
flourished about 1650. 

BLACKLOCK, W. J., a landscape painter, was 
born in 1816. His views of scenery in the North 
of England were much admired at the Royal 
Academy Exhibition of 1853 and the two follow- 
ing years. He died at Brampton, Cumberland, in 
1858. ' 

BLACKMORE, John, a mezzotint engraver, 

was bom in London about the year 1740. We 
have by him some well-scraped plates, chiefly 
portraits after Sir Joshua Reynolds, among which 
are the following : 

Samuel Foote ; after Sir Joshua Bej/nelds, 1771. 
"W. H. Bunbury, caricaturist ; after the same, 
Henry Bimbury ; after the same. 
Innocence. 1770. 

He also engraved plates after Frans Hals and other 
Flemish artists. He died about 1780. 

BLACKWELL, Elizabeth, the daughter of a 
London merchant, is known as the author of ' A 
Curious Herbal, containing 600 cuts of the most 
useful plants which are now used in the practice 
of physio, engraved on copper-plates after draw- 
ings taken from the life,' published in 1737 and 
1739. This celebrated botanical work was issued 
at Nuremberg in 1757, with German and Latin text 
and 600 coloured plates, and at Leipsic in 1794. 
Mrs. Blackwell was the wife of Dr. Blackwell 
who for many years was physician to the King 
of Sweden, and was involved in a State prose- 
cution for treason, and beheaded in 1747. His 
widow lived till 1774. 

BLAGRAVB, John, an eminent mathematician, 
a native of Berkshire, published among other 
works, in 1585, 'The Mathematical .Jewel,' illus- 
trated with woodcuts, executed by himself, in a 
neat style. He died in 1611, 

BLAIN DE FONTENAY, Jean Baptiste. A 
mistake for Belin de Fontenat, which see. 

BLAIZE, Candide, a French miniature painter, 
was born at Nancy in 1795, and died in Paris 
about 1855. 

BLAKE, B., a painter of still-life, birds, fish, 
and other objects of that kind. His works, when 
carefully painted, are very pleasing, but his cironm- 
stances, and his mode of living, obliged him to hurry 
his pictures, and too frequently to repeat them. 
As they were to a certain degree popular in his 
day, the dealers held him in thrall, and injured his 
reputation by employing others to copy his works. 
He was also compelled by necessity to make, for 
these patrons, copies of the works of Dutch painters, 
in which he was sometimes so successful . aa to 
enable his employers to mislead their customers. 
Little of his history is known. He exhibited 
'Views of Dunford, near Salisbury,' more than 
once at the Academy; and ' Dead Game' frequently 
with the Society of British Artists, of which he 
was a foundation member. He died about the 
year 1830. 

BLAKE, Nicholas, a draughtsman and engraver, 
who illustrated Hanway's ' Travels in Russia and 
Persia,' published in 1763, an edition of 'Pope's 
Poems,' and other works. He was a native of 
Ireland, and lived for many years in Paris, where 
it is believed he died at the end of the last century. 

BLAKE, William, an artist of high poetic genius, 
and fervent, but xmcontrolled, imagination, was 
the son of a worthy hosier, who had carried on 
business for many years at 28, Broad Street, Golden 
Square, London, where his second son, William, 
was born on the 28th November, 1757. The boy, 
though set in the most prosaic surroundings, soon 
showed a love for art and poetry. He drew designs 
on his father's bills, made sketches on the counter, 
and was fond of wandering dreamily in the fields, 
where, he records, he saw his first vision when a 
boy of eight or ten years of age. At this early age, 
in truth, he was already an artist and poet, for some 




of his poems in his first published volume, entitled 
' Poetical Sketches, by W. B.,' a thin octavo volume 
now very rare, are stated to have been written in 
his twelfth year, and no doubt he had begun before 
this. At ten years of age he was sent to a school 
in the Strand, kept by Pars, to learn drawing; and 
at fourteen his father, who was not rich enough to 
give him a regular education in art, did the best 
for him he could, by apprenticing him to James 
Basire the engraver, second of the name, who em- 
ployed him in making drawings in Westminster 
Abbey and other churches, thereby awaking pro- 
bably that love for Gothic beauty which is manifest 
in many of his works. One of his mystic en- 
gravings, called ' Joseph of Arimathsea among the 
Rocks of Albion,' is dated 1773, and therefore 
belongs to this early apprentice period. When 
this was over, in 1778, he began to engrave a little 
for the publishers, and also attended the antique 
school of the Royal Academy. In 1780 he ex- 
hibited a picture at the Royal Academy — ' The 
Death of Earl Godwin ' — probably executed in 
water-colours ; but he did not continue to send his 
works regularly to the Academy, only seven in all 
having ever been exhibited there. In 1782 this 
erratic genius, who though always at work con- 
sidered it his business " not to gather gold, but to 
make glorious shapes, expressing God-like senti- 
ments," married, and opened a printseller's shop in 
Broad Street. His wife, Katherine Boucher by 
name, was a young woman of no education, not 
even being able to read or write, but she proved a 
noble and wise helpmate, indulging him in all his 
harmless vagaries, and yielding him the most 
loving and untiring service. 

In 1787 Blake issued his ' Songs of Innocence,' 
a small volume of simple poems, set in beautiful 
and fanciful design. His wife aided him in taking 
ofE the impressions from the plates, which were en- 
graved in a peculiar manner, that Blake believed 
had been revealed to him by the spirit of his brother 
Robert. The ' Songs of Innocence ' was followed, 
in 1793, by the ' Gates of Paradise.' This also was 
printed in the same extraordinary fashion, the 
letter-press as well as the designs being drawn on 
the copper with the impervious fluid he considered 
had been revealed to him, but which was probably 
the ordinary stopping-out varnish of engravers ; 
and then the rest of the plate eaten away with 
aquafortis, so that the letters and design remained 
in relief as in stereotype. 

Next came ' The Songs of Experience,' a sort of 
continuation of 'The Songs of Innocence,' and 
afterwards published with it, forming a charming 
little volumej and then several prophetic books, 
beginning with ' Urizen,' a work Allan Cunning- 
ham rightly characterizes as having " the merit or 
fault of surpassing all human comprehension." 
The same may be said of ' The Book of Thel,' and 
'The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,' though the 
latter is said by Swinburne to " give us the high- 
water-mark of Blake's intellect." Other works of 
a like allegorical or prophetic signification are — 
'Visions of the Daughters of Albion,' 'America,' 
and ' Europe,' intricate and wild allegories ; ' The 
French Revolution, a poem in seven books,' Book 
I. only being published; 'The Song of Los, 
or Time,' resembling Urizen in its fitful bursts 
of poetry, but just as mystical and extravagant in 
expression; and 'The Book of Ahania,' published 
in 1795. 

In 1797 he was employed by the bookseller 

Edwards to illustrate an edition of Young's ' Night 
Thoughts.' Great force of imagination is displayed 
in this work, as also in his edition of ' Blair's 
Grave,' for which he designed twelve ' Inventions,' 
that are amongst the most powerful creations of 
his art. His design of 'The Old Man at Death's 
Door' is well known. For these wonderful 'In- 
ventions,' published in 1805, he only received £21. 

In 1800 Blake, who had always hitherto lived in 
poor lodgings in Soho or Lambeth, was persuaded 
by the poet Hayley to remove to a cottage near his 
residence at Felpham in Sussex. Here he lived for 
three years, holding 'high converse' with the 
mighty spirits of the past, not merely by means of 
their works, but, as he believed, by actual inter- 
course with their spirits. For this poet-artist, who 
had been whipped by his father when ho was a 
young boy for asserting he had seen an angel on 
Peckham Rye, was now a confirmed visionary, and 
talked of Homer and Moses, William Wallace, 
Edward I., and even of the great Arch-fiend, as if 
they had sat in person to him for their likenesses. 

Early in 1804 Blake returned to London, and 
settled at 17, South Molton Street, where he con- 
tinued to live for seventeen years. Here he pub- 
lished his mystical book, ' Jerusalem,' which he 
considered his greatest work, charging for a set 
of re-tinted engravings twenty-five guineas ; . also 
the 'Giant Albion,' and 'Milton,' a poem in two 
books, though why called Milton it is difSoult to 

Among Blake's paintings, most of which were 
executed by a process he termed ' fresco,' must be 
mentioned his picture of the ' Canterbury Pilgrim- 
age,' the painting of which, through the double- 
dealing of a print-seller named Cromek, caused a 
deep feeling of resentment in his breast against 
the guileless Stothard, whose celebrated 'Pilgrim- 
age,' painted at the same time for Cromek, quickly 
became popular. Blake exhibited his, with some 
other of his paintings, in the old shop in Broad 
Street, now belonging to his brother, but, as might 
be expected, the exhibition attracted no visitors. 

Blake' s last work, and perhaps his greatest, was 
his series of ' Twenty-one Inventions for the Book 
of Job.' These he painted in water-colour in the 
first instance, for his kind friend, Mr. Butts, but in 
1826 he issued the volume of Job prints, which 
are among the best known of his works, and, 
according to Cunningham, " ought to be in the 
portfolios of all who are lovers of nature and 

At this time he was living in poverty, though 
not, it may be hoped, in actual want, in two upper 
rooms at No. 3, Fountain Court, Strand. He had 
several kind friends who helped him a little, and 
his faithful Kate was still by his side. Here he 
lived happy and contented, working with the graver 
by day and seeing visions by night, and here he 
died on the 12th of August, 1827, chanting songs 
of his own composing to the very last, and " sing- 
ing of the things he saw in heaven." 

It is difficult to form any just estimate of the art 
of this remarkable artist, for its strength and its 
weakness are at times strangely intermingled. At 
the present day its value is probably exaggerated, 
a sort of Blake culte having been instituted, which 
it is only given to the initiated to understand ; but 
even when this shall have burnt itself out, Blake, 
it may be believed, will still retain his position as 
one of the most creative and most imaginative of 
our British artists, one in whom the wisdom of the 





sage, the simplicity of the child, and the uncon- 
trolled imagination of the madman were strangely 
allied. Bibliography: 'Life,' in Allan Cunning- 
ham's ' British Painters,' new edition, 1879. ' Life,' 
by Gilchrist, two vols., 1863. ' Critical Essay,' by 
A. C. Swinburne, 1868. 'Blake's Poetical Works, 
with Memoir,' by W. M. Rossetti, 1875. Catalogue 
with Introductory Remarks of the Exhibition of 
Blake's Works at the Burlington Pine Arts Club, 
1876. M. M. II. 

BLANC, Horace le. See Lb Blanc. 

BLANCHARD, Auguste Jean Baptiste Marie, 
a French line-engraver, was born in Paris in 1792, 
and died there in 1849. He was the pupil of his 
father, Auguste Blanchard, and engraved, among 
other works : 

Madonna and Child with St. John; after Batoni. 

(Aguado Gallery.) 
The Oath of the Horatii ; after David. 
Daphnis and Oliloe ; after Alirier. 
The Entry of Henry IV. into Paris ; after Gerard. 
Elizabeth of Bourbon, Queen of Spain ; after Buiens. 
Josephine, Empress of the French ; after Prud'hon. 

BLANCHARD, Edouard Th^ophilb_, a French 
subject and portrait painter, was born in Paris in 
1844. He studied under Picot and Cabanel, and 
obtained the Prix de Rome in 1868. With his 
friend Regnault he became a volunteer in 1870, 
and fought against the Germans. His works were 
awarded medals in 1872 and 1874. He died in 
1879. The following are amongst his works : 

A Courtesan. 1872. 
Hylas and the Nymphs. 
Herodias. 1874. 
Cortigiana. 1875. 
The Buffoon. 1878. 


BLANCHARD, Gabriel, known as ' Blanchard 
LE NEVEU,' the only son of Jacques Blanchard, was 
born in Paris in 1630, and studied under his uncle, 
Jean Baptiste Blanchard. He was, in 1668, elected 
Academician on the merits of an allegorical paint- 
ing of the ' Birth of Louis XIV.,' now at Versailles ; 
but his most successful work was a picture of ' St. 
Andrew,' which he painted for the Goldsmiths' 
Guild. He became keeper of the royal collection, 
und successively assistant-professor, professor, and, 
in 1699, treasurer of the Academy. He died in 
1704. Two of his sons, Nicolas and Philippe 
Thomas, were likewise painters. 

BLANCHARD, Henri Pierre L:fioN Phara- 
MOND, an historical and landscape painter, was 
born at La Guillotiere, a suburb of Lyons, in 1805. 
He studied under Baron Gros, travelled in many 
distant countries, and went with the French expedi- 
tion to Mexico in the years 1858 and 1859. In 1856 
he was in Russia, and was present at the coronation 
of Alexander II. He died in Paris in 1873. The 
following are some of his principal works : 

Bull- Hunting. 

The Smugglers. 1836. 

The Disarmament of Vera Cruz. 1840. {At Versailles.) 

The Street of El Alari at Tangiers. 

San Isidoro Labrador, the Patron Saint of Madrid. 

Vasoo Nunez de Balboa discovering the South Sea. 

(Paris Univ. Exhib. 1855.) 
The Valley of Jehoshaphat. {Paris Univ. BxMh. 1855.) 
The Arrival of the French at Plan-del-Rio. 1865. 
Farm Yard at Ohatou. 
The Djiguietotka. 
An American Glade. 

He also contributed largely to the ' Illustration,' 
and in 1855 piiblished ' L'ltin^raire Historique et 
Descriptif de Parin k Constantinople ' (12 plates). 


BLANCHARD, Jacques,_ an eminent . French 
painter, was born in Paris in 1600. His first in- 
structor in the art was Nicolas Bollery, his ma- 
ternal uncle ; but when about twenty years of age 
he spent four years at Lyons, studying under 
Horace le Blanc, and then went to Italy, and 
passed two years at Rome. He returned by way 
of Venice, and was so struck with the beautiful 
colouring of the great Venetian masters, especially 
Titian, that he was induced to remain two years 
in that city. On his return to Paris he executed, 
as a reception picture into the Guild of St. Luke, 
a ' St. John on the Isle of Patmos,' which, with 
others of his works, was greatly admired. He was 
the first to establish a true and natural style of 
colouring, in which the artists of his country were 
very deficient, though he scarcely merited the name 
of the ' French Titian,' which was given to him 
by his contemporaries. His chief works at Paris 
were the two pictures he painted for Notre-Dame, 
one representing 'St. Andrew kneeling before the 
Cross,' the other the ' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' 
executed in 1634 ; in the gallery of the Hotel de 
Bouillon, now fallen into ruin, he painted thirteen 
large pictures of subjects from Ovid. The Louvre 
contains four works of his — two of the 'Holy 
Family,' a ' Charity,' and a ' St. Paul in Medita- 
tion,' but they are all of small size : it has not one 
of the large pictures which established his fame 
as a colourist. Although now almost forgotten, 
his reputation was great, and in many respects 
well deserved. He died in Paris in 1638. 

Blanchard etched some plates from his own 
designs and those of others, among which are 
the following : 

The Holy Family ; without his name ; Chez Suart. 
The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and St. John ; 

Chez dartres. 
St. Agnes adoring the Infant Jesus in the arms of the 

Virgin Mary; after Lodomco Carracci; withont 


BLANCHARD, Jean Baptiste, known as ' Blan- 
chard l'oncle,' an historical painter, was bom in 
Paris in 1595. He studied under Nicolas Bollery, 
his maternal uncle, and in 1624 accompanied his 
brother Jacques to Rome. He became an Acade- 
mician in 1663, and died in Paris in 1665. No 
record of his works exists. 

BLANCHARD, Laurent, a French historical 
and portrait painter, was born at Valence, in the 
department of DrSme, and died in Paris in 1819.. 
He exhibited, amongst other works : 

The Marriage of Hercules with Hebe. 1804. 
Telemaohus on the Island of Calypso, 1812. 
Venus complaining to Jupiter. 1812. 
St. John preaching in the Wilderness. 1812. 
A Holy Family. 1819. 

BLANCHERI, Vittoeio. See Blanseri. 

BLANCHE!, Thomas, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1617, accord- 
ing to D'Argenville, although the registers of the 
Academy would place his birth in 1629. His 
genius at first directed him to sculpture, but after 
studying that art for some time under Sarrassin, 
he was advised to abandon it, on account of the 
delicacy of his constitution, and to apply himself 
to painting. After receiving lessons from Poussin, 
whose friend he became, he went to Rome, and 
frequented the studio of Albani, without adopting 
his style. He had also the advantage of study- 
ing under Andrea Sacchi, by whose instruction he 
much benefited. After passing some yean i" 




Italy, one of his friends took him to Lyons, where 
he settled ; but he often visited Paris, where he 
painted, in 1662, for the cathedral of Notre-Dame, 
'The Ecstasy of St. Philip,' now in the Louvre. 
He executed for the Hotel de Ville of Lyons some 
considerable works, which established his reputation 
as one of the ablest historical painters of his country, 
but these were almost entirely destroyed by fire in 
1674. He was admitted into the Academy as a 
portrait painter in 1676, and as an historical 
painter in 1682, on which occasion he painted for 
his picture of reception 'Cadmus killing the 
Dragon,' now in the Louvre. He founded the 
Academy at Lyons in 1681, and died in that city 
in 1689. 

BLANCUS, Cheistoph, an engraver, supposed 
to be a native of Germany, flourished about the 
year 1600. He engraved a few plates in the 
manner of Jan Miiller, but with not much success. 
We have by him : 

A Holy Family, accompanied by Angels ; half-length ; 
after Spranger. 1595. 

The Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti. 1612. 

BLANCDS, Johannes Patjlus, (or Bianchi,) 
according to Heineken, flourished about the year 
1682. We have some etchings by him, which are 
executed in a heavy, indifferent style. Among 
others are an emblematical print, after C. Stores, 
inscribed, lo. Paul. Blancus incid., and 'Christ 
praying in the Garden,' without the name of the 
painter, dated 1682. 

BLANES, Benito RODRIGUEZ. See Rodri- 
guez Blanes. 

BLANKERHOF, Jan Teunisz, called also Jan 
Maat, a Dutch painter of sea-pieces, was born at 
Alkmaar in 1628. He learned the first rudiments 
of the art from Arnold Teerlink, a painter of no 
reputation, and became afterwards a scholar of 
Cesar van Everdingen. On leaving that master 
he went to Italy, and passed some time at Rome, 
where the Flemish Society of Painters conferred 
on him the name of Maat (or comrade). He also 
spent some time in Candia. He was living in 
1674, but the date of his death is not known. His 
best pictures, in which he combined the truth and 
nature of the Dutch school with the grand scenery 
of Italy, represent storms on the coast of the 
Mediterranean. The Brussels Museum and the 
Schleissheim Gallery contain each a good specimen 
of his art. 

BLANSERI, ViTTOEio, (or Blanchbbi,) wag^orn 
at Venice, about 1735, and was educated in the 
school of the Cavaliere Claudio Beaumont. He is 
considered his ablest scholar, and succeeded him in 
the service of the court of Turin, in which city are 
his principal works. Three of his pictures are in 
the church of San Pelagic, one of which, represent- 
ing ' St. Louis fainting, supported by an angel,' is 
particularly admired. ' He iied. in 1775. 

BLARENBERGHB, Henei Di&mk van, a French 
painter in water-colours, born at Lille in 1734, was 
the son of Jacques Guilladme van Blaeenbbrghe, 
a painter, who died in 1742. His works are dis- 
tinguished by the charm of their composition and 
the delicacy of their execution, and are much 
sought after by collectors. He excelled in subjects 
in miniature painted upon snuff-boxes, bonbon- 
nieres, and rings, many of which have realized 
high prices when sold by public auction. At the 
Demidoff sale in 1863, a snuff-box in gold, painted 
with a view of the chSteau of Bellevue, sold for 
11,000 francs. There are drawings by him in the 

Louvre, and some views of European capitals 
painted in oil at Versailles. Blarenberghe died in 
Paris in 1812. He had a son, Louis Nicolas, who 
imitated his style so well that it is impossible to 
distinguish their unsigned works. The dates of 
his birth and death are unknown. 

BLASCO, M ATI as, was a painter of merit at Val- 
ladolid early in the reign of Philip IV. His style 
was simple and natural, and his colouring pleasing. 
He painted for the church of San Lorenzo at Valla- 
dolid a ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ' which bears 
his signature and the date 1621. He also painted 
four pictures of miracles wrought by a favourite 
Virgin of the same church. 

BLEAVIT, — . This artist is mentioned by 
Strutt as an engraver of portraits. Among 
others, he engraved that of Ren6 Descartes, the 

BLECHEN, Kael Eduabd Ferdinand, landscape 
painter, was bom at Kottbus in 1798. Although 
his inclination for art developed itself very early, 
he first, in 1812, entered a banker's business. He 
next occupied himself as a decorative painter. In 
the easel-pieces of his earlier period the influence 
of the Dutch painters manifests itself in a power- 
ful observation of nature in his technical treat- 
ment ; in his conception, however, an uncommon 
fantastic disposition is noticeable — at times in- 
clining to the melancholy, at times to the romantic. 
A journey now undertaken to Italy disclosed to 
him his taste for pure art, and now at length he 
displayed in his pictures and sketches a keen 
insight, astonishing for his time, into the true 
characteristic of light and atmosphere in Italian 
landscape. At this period of his painting his 
former phantastic nature is only occasionally 
noticeable. In 1830 he was made teacher of the 
landscape class at the Berlin Academy, and he may 
be looked upon as the founder of the modern 
Berlin school of landscape, in virtue especially of 
his more important Italian pictures. He died in 
1840 at Berlin. In the Museum there is a ' View 
of Tivoli ; ' and the majority of his water-colour 
drawings and sketches are now in the Royal 
Collection of engravings there. 

BLEECK, PiETEE VAN, a Dutch portrait painter, 
and the son of Richard van Bleeok, painter of 
portraits, was born at the Hague in 1695. He went 
to London in 1728, was much employed, and died 
there in 1764. He engraved several plates in 
mezzotint, which, without any superior excellency, 
are clearly scraped, and have considerable merit. 
He sometimes marked his plates with the 'Tfn 
annexed monogram. We have by him : X^D 

Eichard van Eleeck, painter; se ipse pinx. P, van 

Bleeck junior, fee. 1735. 
Bembrandt van Bijn ; se ipse pinx. Van Bleeck. Viit ; 

■with the cipher. 
Francois du Quesnoy, called Fiammingo, Sculptor ; A. 

van Byck pinx. P.V.B.I.f. 1751. 
Nell Gwyn ; after Lely. 
Mrs. Clive, in the character of Fhillida ; P. van Bleeck 

fee. 1735. 
Mrs. Gibber, in the character of Cordelia ; the same. 
Griffin and Johnson, in the characters of Tribulation 

and Ananias ; the same. 
The Virgin Mary and Infant ; after A. van der Werf. 


BLEECKER. Several painters of this name 
flourished at Haarlem during the 17th century. 
The name is fovmd in various forms — Bleecker, 
Bleeker, Blieoker, Blieker, Blecker, and Bleker. 
The following are the most important : 





BLEECKER, Diek, was a native of Haarlem, and 
flourished in the 17th century. In the Q-allery at 
Brunswick is an excellent portrait, which is sup- 
posed to be his own, painted by himself, and dated 
1617. He lived as late as 1652, the date of a 
painting by him of ' Mary Magdalene.' 

BLEECKER, Gereit Claesz, who died at Haar- 
lem in 1656, distinguished himself there as a 
painter of landscapes and figures. 

BLEECKER, Jan Gaspab, was born at Haarlem 
in 1608. He was a painter, but is more especially 
known by his engravings, which are rather scarce. 
The Brunswick Gallery has a painting of ' St. Paul 
and St. Barnabas ' by him. He etched several 
plates, both from his own designs and after other 
masters, executed in a slight and spirited style, of 
which the following are the principal : 

A Landscape, witii Jacob and Eachel. 
A Landscape, with Eebekah and the servant of Abraham. 
A Peasant and a Woman riding in a waggon. 
A similar subject. 

A Landscape, with a carriage at the door of an inn. 1643. 
A Landscape, with a woman milking a cow, and a 

peasant. 1643 , 
A Landscape, with cattle. 
A Landscape, with a woman on horseback. 
A Landscape, with figures on horseback. 
A Landscape, with a shepherd watching his flock. 


Jacob and Laban dividing their flocks ; J, G, Blecker. 

aq.fort. 1638. 
The Lystrians wishing to sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas ; 

savie mark. 1638. 
The Crucifixion ; C, P. pinx. I. C. B, 

BLEEK, PiETEE VAN. See Bleeck. 

BLEKERS,NoEBBET, a Dutch painter, was born at 
Haarlem about 1635. He painted history, and was 
patronized by the Prince of Orange, for whom he 
painted one of his best pictures, representing the 
' Triumph of Venus.' Vondel, a poet of his country, 
has celebrated the works of this painter. He died 
at Haarlem in 1682. 

BLES, Hendeik, commonly called Heeei met 
DE Bles (with the forelock), was born at Bouvignes 
about 1480. He imitated the style of Joachim 
Patenier, under whom he is supposed to have 
studied at Antwerp, and painted in the stiff and 
dry manner of his time. He generally introduced 
into his landscapes scriptural subjects, with a 
number of neatly drawn figures. Instead of mark- 
ing his works with his name, he usually painted an 
owl in one of the corners, for which reason the 
Italians nicknamed him 'Civetta.' He died at 
Li^ge about 1550 (the Berlin Gallery Catalogue 
says " after 1521 "). His pictures are very curious, 
and much esteemed We note the following : 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man. 

Florence. U£lzi. Landscape with ruin. 

London. iVai. Gall. Christ on the Cross. 

„ „ The Magdalen. 

Modena. S. Fietro. Pieta. 

Munich. Finakothek. Adoration of the Kings. 

Venice. Accademia. Tower of Babel. 

BLESENDORF, Constantin Feiedeioh, the 
brother of Samuel Blesendorf, was born at Berlin 
in 1675. He was a miniature painter in water- 
colour and oil, and an engraver, and worked chiefly 
for the booksellers. He died in 1754. We have 
by him : 

A Frontispiece for Julian's Opera ; S. Blesendorf inv. 

a F. Blesendorf fee. 

Frontispiece for Beyer's Thesaurus Antiguitatam; F. C. 
Blesendorf fee. 

Portrait of Frederick "William, Elector of Brandenburg. 

BLESENDORF, Samuel, a Prussian enamel 
painter and engraver, was born at Berlin in 1670. 
He designed and engraved several portraits for 
Puffendorf's 'History of Sweden.' He worked 
chiefly with the graver, and his plates are very 
neatly finished. He died in 1706. Among others 
we have by him : 

Charles XI., King of Sweden. 

Charles XII. 

Frederick Eudolph Louis, Baron of Canitz. 

Samuel, Baron of Puffendorf . 

Frederick III., Elector of Brandenburg. 1696. 

Frederick William, Prince Electoral. 

Frederick "William ; after Adam de Clere. 

The Portraits of John Frederick of Brandenburg, Mar- 
grave of Anspach, and the Margravine, in a garden ; 
after Gasp. JVetseher. 1682 ; very fine. 

BLEYSWYCK, F. van, a Dutch engraver, who 
flourished at Leyden from about 1720 to 1746. He 
engraved many portraits for the publications of his 
time, which are highly finished, but without much 
taste. Among these are some of the plates for Hof- 
man's 'Portraits historiques des Hommes illustres 
de Dannemark,' dated 1746. He also engraved 
some small landscapes, in which the point and the 
graver are handled with great delicacy. 

BLICKE. See Bliek. 

BLIECKER (or Bliekeb). See Bleeokeb. 

BLIEK, Daniel van, (or Blickb,) was a good 
painter of interiors and exteriors of churches and 
other public buildings ; he lived at Middelburg 
from about 1660 to 1661. His manner of painting 
resembles that of Van Vliet. The Berlin Museum 
has the Interior of a Church, by him, signed and 
dated 1653. 

BLIN, FEANgois, a French landscape painter, 
who was bom at Reimes in 1827, studied under 
Picot, and exhibited at the Salon from 1852 to 
1866, in which year he died in his native town. 
His paintings were often of a gloomy character, 
but showed a close study of nature. The follow- 
ing are the best : 

Euins of the Castle at Guildo ; in the Lille Museum. 

The Old MiU at Guildo. 

A Summer Evening at Sologne. 

BLINKVLIET, M. The exact time when this 
painter fiourished is unknown ; but he imitated 
Berohem so successfully that his works have been 
ascribed to that master : probably they were con- 

BLOCHOM. See Lochom. 

BLOCK, Benjamin, the son of Daniel Block, was 
born at Liibeok in 1631. He was instructed in 
art by his father, and proved a reputable painter 
of history and portraits. The Prince of Mecklen- 
burg, in whose service his father passed a great part 
of his life, took him under his protection, and sent 
him to Italy for improvement. He visited Rome, 
Naples, and Venice, and mefwith employment as 
a portrait painter in each of those cities. On his 
return from Italy he was invited to the court of 
Saxony, where he painted portraits of the electoral 
family and the principal courtiers. He died at 
Ratisbon about 1690. His historical works were 
altar-pieces for the churches in different parts of 
Germany. He was also a good engraver. The 
following portraits are his best plates : 

Friedrioh Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg. 

Marquard Schenk von Oastell. 

AVUhelm Ludwig, Duke of Wurtemberg. 




BLOCK, Daniel, a painter of portraits, was born 
at Stettin, in Pomerania, in 1580. He was a scholar 
of Jakob Scherer, a portrait painter of reputation, 
under wliom he soon became proficient ; and he 
ultimately surpassed his instructor. He was em- 
ployed at the courts of Denmark and Sweden, and 
passed many years in the service of the Duke of 
Mecklenburg. By the exertion of very reputable 
talents he gained a large fortune, of which he was 
deprived by plunder. He died in 1661. 

BLOCK, Jacob Rogeb, a Dutch painter, was bom 
at Gouda in 1580. He went to Italy when he was 
very young, and applied himself particularly to 
the study of architecture and perspective. He 
made designs of the fine remains of antiquity in 
the environs of Rome, and, on his return to 
Holland, painted some pictures composed from 
those subjects, which were highly esteemed. Hou- 
braken reports that Rubens, in a journey he made 
through Holland, visited this artist, and on seeing 
his works, pronounced him the ablest painter of 
his country in the subjects he represented. He 
also excelled in military architecture, and was 
taken into the service of the Archduke Leopold, 
whom he accompanied in some of his campaigns. 
He was killed by a fall from his horse in 1632. 

BLOCKLANDT, Antonis van. See Montfookt. 

BLOBM, A., was a native of Germany, and 
resided at Vienna in the seventeenth century. He 
was chiefly employed by the booksellers. He en- 
graved the portraits, views, battles, &c. for a book 
entitled 'Istoria di Leopoldo Cesare,' published 
at Vienna in 1674. The plates are etched, and 
finished with the graver. 

BLOEM, M., is the author of a picture of ' Dead 
Game,' in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, which 
bears his name and the date 1653 ; another picture 
of still-life in the same gallery is also attributed to 
him. No details of his life are recorded. 

BLOEMAERT, Abraham, a Dutch painter and 
engraver, was born at Gorcum about 1564. He was 
the son of an architect and sculptor, who placed 
him under the tuition of Joost de Beer, but he 
seems to have profited most by studying and copy- 
ing the works of Frans Floris. In 1581 he went 
to Paris, where he stayed three years, studying 
under Jean Bassot and Herry, two unimportant 
painters. On his return to his native country he 
studied at Herenthals under Hieronymus Francken. 
He subsequently painted at Amsterdam and at 
Utrecht, where he died about 1658. He painted 
history and landscapes, allegory, mythology, ani- 
mals, and flowers, and was a very productive artist. 
His colouring is excellent, but his drawing is very 
defective, and frequently negligent. The following 
are his best works : 

Berlin. Museum. Joseph's Dream. 

Oopenhagea. Gallery. The children of Niobe HUed by 
the arrows of Apollo {painted 
for the Emperor Bndolph. 
„ „ Hercules and Omphale; Venus 

and Adonis. 
Hague. Gallery. Hippomenes receiving the prize 

{signed and dated 1626). 
„ „ The Marriage of Peleus {signed 

and dated 1638). 
Munich. Ptjioiortefc.Eaising of Lazarus {dated 1607; 

one of his best works). 
Paris. Louvre. Angelic Salutation. 

„ „ Nativity {signed and dated 1612). 

„ „ Man's Portrait {signed). 

Bloemaert numbers among his scholars his 
four sons, and Jan Gerritsen Ouyp, Gerard and 

Willem van Honthorst, Jan and Andries Both, 
Cornells van Poelenburg, and Jan Baptist Weenix. 

As an engraver, he has a claim to considerable 
attention. We have by him a number of plates 
etched in a free, bold, and masterly manner, some 
of which are in imitation of pen-drawings. But 
his most esteemed prints are those executed in 
chiaroscuro, the outlines of which, contrary to the 
usual process, are not cut on the blocks of wood, 
but are etched on copper. These are very spirited, 
and produce a good effect. His prints are some- 
times signed with his name at full length, but 
more frequently marked Ah. Bl. in., or A. BL, or 
thxm, A. Bloem. 

The following are his principal prints : 

St. John, with a lamb. 
The Magdalene penitent. 
St. Peter penitent. 

The Holy Family ; J. Starterus exo. 1593. 
Foux Landscapes, with figures and animals, 

Moses and Aaron. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus. 
The Holy Family. 

Two Busts, the Virgin Mary and St. Joseph. 
St. Simon, with the Instrument of his martyrdom. 
The Magdalene, with a crucifix. 
St. Jerome reading ; A. Bio. 

Another St. Jerome ; after Farmigiano ; marked F. P. 
A naked Infant ; after Titian. 
A "Woman with a veil ; after Farmigiano. 

BLOEMAERT, Adriaan, was the fourth son of 
Abraham Bloemaert, and received his first instruc- 
tion from his father. He was sent to Italy, where 
he studied some time. He afterwards visited 
Vienna, where he met with emplojrment, and ulti- 
mately settled at Salzburg, and was killed in a 
duel in 1668. He painted history and portraits with 
some success. Heineken attributes to this artist 
several plates of portraits, although they are 
without his name. 

BLOEMAERT, 6oenelis, a very eminent en- 
graver, the third son of Abraham Bloemaert, was 
born at Utrecht in 1603. He was instructed by 
his father in the first principles of design, and 
from a natural inclination for engraving, he de- 
voted himself entirely to that art. His first master 
was Crispyn van de Passe, and it was not long before 
he surpassed his instructor. In 1630 he went to 
Paris, where he distinguished himself by some 
plates he engraved for the ' Temple of the Muses.' 
From Paris he went to Rome, where he fixed his 
residence, and where he lived the greater part of 
his life. He died there in 1680. This admirable 
artist distinguished himself not only by the beauty 
of his graver, but by a talent, unknown before 
him, of effecting an insensible gradation from his 
lights to his shadows, and introducing' a delicate 
variety of tints, in the different distances in his 
subject. Previous to his time there was a great 
inattention to harmony, the lights being left in- 
discriminately clear, so that the picture was ren- 
dered spotty and incongruous. By this essential 
improvement he has established his claim to origin- 
ality, and may be said to have given birth to that 
admirable style which was afterwards so success- 
fully followed by the great engravers of the 
French school, Audran, Baudot, Picart, and Poilly. 
His works are universally admired ; they are 
numerous, and several of them are become very 
scarce. Some of his prints are marked C Bl. and 





others Corn. Bio., or G. Bio. The following are 
the principal : 

iFranciscus Bonisigniis, secretary to Prince Leopold ; 

Giovanni Battista Toretti, Florentine ; Eoma. 
v. de Grebber ; P. Haarlem coTisec. ; C. Bio. sc. 
J. Doens, Scot. Tiieol. 
Jacques Faverau ; after Diepenbeeck ; oval. 
Moses in the Bulrushes. 

Tne Virgin Mary, and the Infant Jesus caressing her. 
A Thesis, with three of the Popes in niches. 
A Frontispiece, where St. Ignatius is presented with a 


Bartholomeus Aribertus, liber Baro Malgrati. 
Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit. 
Cardinal Francesco Peretti di Montalto. 
The Tomb of D. Nomi. 

The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus sleeping. 
The Infant Jesus, with a Glory. 
The Assumption of the Virgin ; fine composition. 
St. Jerome in the Desert. 
The Four Doctors of the Church disputing on the 

St. Francis kneeling before the Infant Christ. 
Christ carrying His Cross, and St. Ignatius ; very fine. 
Avarice, an old "Woman counting money by candlelight, 
liberality, a young "Woman giving drink to a child. 
An old Woman warming her hands at a stove. 
A half-length figure playing the Eomel-pot, called the 

Mustard Grinder. 
Four, called Travellers reposing. 
Two landscapes, in one a woman with a basket, sitting 

under a tree, and in the other, a woman sitting ; fine 

and scarce. 
Thirteen, the twelve Mouths of the Year, and the 

A Cat, with a Eat under her paws ; fine. There are 

many copies of this plate. 
The great Owl, with a pair of spectacles and a book. 

The Virgin, with the Infant seated on a throne, with 

St. Boch and St. Sebastian ; after Barocdo. 
The Holy Family, with St. Joseph with Spectacles; 

after Carracci. 
The Crucifixion ; after the same. 
St. Margaret ; after the same. 
The Nativity ; after Fietro da Cortoiia. 
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Martha holding 

the Palm of Martyrdom ; after the same. 
The Birth of Christ ; after Schiavone. 
The Grenius of Poetry distributing wreaths ; a circular 

St. John in the "Wilderness ; Videns Joannes, ^c. ; after 

Giro Ferri. 
Christ at table with His Disciples ; after the same. 
The Resurrection ; after the same. 
St. Paul preaching at Athens ; after the same. 
The Holy Family, with St. Francis kneeling ; after the 

St. Anthony of Padua kneeling before the Infant 

Jesus ; after the same. 
St. Peter raising Tabitha from the dead ; after Guer- 
cino ; extremely fine. The most capital plate of this 
The Virgin Mary adoring the Infant Jesus sleeping ; 

after Guido. 
The Annunciation ; after Lanfranco ; inscribed Spiritus 

sanctus, ^c. 
St. Luke painting the Virgin and Infant ; after Eaphael. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same. 
The Holy Family ; after Parmigiano. 
The Eesurrection ; after Paolo Veronese. 
The Virgin and Infant Clirist ; after Titian. 

BLOEMAERT, Predeeik, the second son of 
Abraham Bloemaert, "was bom at Utrecht about the 
year 1600, and distinguished himself as an en- 
graver. He learned the art from his father, and 
was chiefly occupied in engra"ving after his designs. 


We have a number of el-.hings by him as well 
as prints in chiaroscuro. His principal work was 
a drawing-book, containing 173 plates, engraved 
from the designs of his father. He also executed 
a few plates entirely "with the graver. His prints 
are sometimes signed A. Bloem. inv. F. B. JUius 
fecit, and sometimes F. B. The following are 
principally after his father's designs : 

Twelve of the Archbishops and Bishops of "CTtrecht, 
two of which are by Corn. Bloemart. 

Thomas a Kempis. 

St. Francis in a Hermitage. 

The Body of Leander on the sea-shore. 

A set of sixteen figures of Men and "Women ; marked 
F. B.fec. 

A set of thirty, of Beggars ; on the title is inscribed 
JVudus inops mutilus, F. B.fec. 

The Five Senses. 

The Four Seasons. 

Twenty Landscapes ; F. S.fSius fecit et exc. 

A Landscape, with a Kgeon-house. 

Fourteen of AniTnals and Birds; entitled Verschofde 
Besten und Vogelen. 

Four of Cock-fighting ; Be Sanabijters. 

BLOEMAERT, Hbndeik, was the eldest son of 
Abraham Bloemaert. He painted portraits, but 
never rose above mediocrity. He died in 1647. A 
portrait of a man signed Bloemabet .ffixAxis 50, 
A. 1643, in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, is 
attributed to him. 

BLOEMEN, Jan Feans van, called Oeizontb, 
was bom at Antwerp in 1662. His pictures bear 
no resemblance to the taste of his country, which 
may be accounted for by his having visited Italy 
when he was very young, and having there passed 
the remainder of Hs life. He there studied under 
Antonius Goubau. He died at Rome in 1740 (?). 
The name of Orizonte was given him by the Society^ 
of Flemings at Rome on account of the beauty 
and delicacy with which he painted the distances 
in his landscapes. His works are well kno'svn in 
this country, and are justly esteemed. Inferior to 
Gaspard Poussin, he may still be ranked among the 
able painters of landscape. He made choice of 
the most interesting views in the vicinity of Rome 
and Tivoli, which he represented with great truth 
and even grandeur. In his forms, as well as in his 
touch, he appears to have imitated the fine style of 
Gaspard Poussin, and in some of his best pictures 
(for he is very unequal) he has approached the 
picturesque beauty of that admirable painter. He 
was also influenced by Claude Lorrain. There is 
scarcely a palace at Rome that is not ornamented 
with some of his works. His best pictures are in 
the pontifical palace at Monte Cavallo, and in the 
Oolonna, Doria, and Eospigliosi palaces. The 
Louvre has six landscapes by him, the Vienna 
Gallery three, the Hermitage St. Petersburg three, 
the Berlin Museum one, the Milan Gallery one, 
and the Dresden Gallery one. He etched five 
plates of views near Rome, executed in a bold 
and masterly style. 

BLOEMEN, Noebert van, called Cephalus, the 
youngest of the three brothers, was bom at Ant- 
werp in 1670. He studied and painted portraits 
and conversation-pieces in Rome, and afterwards 
returned to his native country and settled at 
Amsterdam, where he died in 1746. 
BLOEMEN , PiETEE VAN, called Standaaet, or 

Stendaedo (Standard), a brother of Jan Prans 

van Bloemen, was bom at Antwerp in 1657. 

Following the example of his brother, he went to 

Italy for improvement. The name of Standaart 

was given him by his countrymen at Borne from 




his occasionally painting attacks of cavalry. After 
passing some years in Italy he returned to Flan- 
ders with the studies he had made from the 
objects worthy of notice in the neighbourhood of 
Rome. In 1699 he was made director of the 
Academy at Antwerp ; he died therein 1719. The 
pictures of this master represent battles, the march 
of caravans, horse-fairs, &c., ingeniously composed, 
with a number of figures, horses, and other animals, 
extremely well drawn, and painted with uncommon 
freedom and spirit. He decorated his landscapes 
with the ruins of architecture and statues "from 
the studies he had made in Italy, and his figures 
are designed in a superior style to the usual taste 
of his country. The Dresden Gallery has six pic- 
tures by him, the Vienna Gallery two, the Prank- 
fort two, the Hermitage St. Petersburg one, and 
the Copenhagen one. He etched some of his own 

BLOEMERS, Aenoldus, born at Amsterdam in 
1792, painted flowers, fruit, and animals. He 
was instructed by Antonie Piera, but principally 
imitated Van Huijsum. He died at the Hague in 
1844. The Rotterdam Gallery has a flower-piece 
bj' him. 

BLOIS, Abraham de. See Db Blois. 

BLOK, Anna C. See Pischek. 

BLOK, Johanna. See Koertbn. 

BLOKLANDT, Antonis van. See Montfooet. 

BLOMBERG, August Gotthold Dietrich Hugo, 
Baron von, a poet and painter, was born at Berlin 
in 1820. He studied under Wach in the Academy 
at Berlin, and under L6on Cogniet at Paris, and 
copied Rubens's works in the Louvre. He died at 
Weimar in 1871. Among his paintings may be 
mentioned : 

' Das Domroschen.' 1844. 
' Neptune and Amymone. 184T. 
Twenty-seven sketches from Dante. 
A Town of the Middle-Ages. 
The Merchant of Venice. 1866. 
Benvenuto Cellini in Bngelsberg. 
King William at Koniggratz. 1867. 

BLOMMENDAAL, Reyee Jacobsz, a painter of 
Haarlem, entered the Guild of that city in 1662, 
and died there in 1675. Nothing furtheris known 
of him. 

BLOND, Le (or Blon). See Le Blond. 

BLONDEAU, Jacques, a French engraver, was 
born at Langres about the year 1639. He en- 
graved at Rome several plates after the Italian 
painters, and some after the pictures of Pietro da 
Cortona in the Pitti Palace at Florence. He seems 
to have imitated the style of Cornelis Bloemaert, 
but he never in any way equalled that fine engraver. 
He also engraved some portraits, without putting 
his name on the plates. We have by him the 


Cardinal Francesco Lorenzo Brancati. 1681. 

Cardinal Fortuna Caraffa. 1686. 

Cardinal Maximiljan Gandoia. 1686. 

Cardinal Opitius PaUavicini. 

General Enee, Coimt of Caprara. 

Bene d'Est, Duke of Modena. 

John George III., Elector of Saxony. 

John Sobieski, King of Poland. 

Cardinal Bichi ; after Bourgignon ; oval. 


The Pulpit of St. Peter ; after Bernini. 
The Magdalene, half length ; after Calandrucci. 
The Msfftyrdom of St Laurence ; after Pietro da Cor- 

Eight allegorical subjects ; from the pictures by Pietro 
da Cortona, in the Pitti Palace ; small plates. 

The Circumcision ; after C. Ferri. 

The Crucifixion ; after the same. 

St. Augustine appearing to St. Theresa; after the 

BLONDEEL, Lansloot, or Lancelot, who was 
born at Bruges about 1495, was originally a 
mason, on which account he took a trowel as his 
monogram. He did not turn his attention towards 
art until he was twenty-five years of age. His 
pictures display a study of the Italian style, and are 
noticeable for architectural backgrounds. Speci- 
mens are in the churches of Bruges and elsewhere. 
A 'Last Judgment', in the Berlin Gallery, formerly 
given to him, is now thought to be possibly by 
Jehan Bellegambe. Blondeel designed the chim- 
ney-piece in the Council Hall at Bruges, which 
contains statues of Charles V. and other monarchs. 
He died at Bruges in 1560. 

BLONDEL, Jean PnANgois, a French architect 
and engraver, was born at Rouen in 1705. He 
came to Paris in 1739, and opened a school, the 
fame of which gained him admission into the 
Academy in 1755. He published a description of 
the fetes given by the city of Paris in 1740, on 
tbe marriage of Madame Louise Elizabeth of 
France with Don Philip, Infant of Spain. The 
plates, representing the temporary buildings, fire- 
works, &c., are chiefiy engraved by himself. He 
also etched the plates for some large volumes on 
Architecture, published by himself. Blondel died 
in Paris in 1774. 

._ BLONDEL, Merey Joseph, a French historical 
painter, was born in Paris in 1781. He was a 
pupil of Regnault, carried ofE the grand prize in 
1803, and was elected a member of the Institute in 
1832. His principal works are — ' Philip Augustus 
at Bouvines' (1819), painted for the Duke of 
Orleans ; ' The Fall of Icarus,' and ' .aiolus letting 
loose the Winds against the Trojan Fleet ; ' the 
grand staircase of the Louvre, the ceiling of the 
hall of Henry II., and that of the Grand Hall, in 
the same building ; ' Justice protecting Commerce,' 
six very efBective bas-reliefs in grisaille in the 
Bourse at Paris ; the Gallery of Diana, at Fon- 
tainebleau ; ' Homer at Athens,' and ' Zenobia on 
the Shore of the Araxes,' formerly in the Luxem- 
bourg; 'The Surrender of Ptolemais to Philip 
Augustus,' at Versailles, and several others. He 
died at Paris in 1853. 

BLOOT, PiBTEE DE. See De Bloot. 

BLOOTELING, Abraham, (or Bloteling,) a 
very eminent Dutch designer and engraver, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1634. From the style of 
his etchings it is not unlikely that he was brought 
up under the Visschers. On the inroad of the 
French into Holland in 1672, he came to England, 
where he met with encouragement, but did not 
reside here longer than two or three years. This 
laborious artist produced a great number of etch- 
ings, some plates executed with the graver, and 
several in mezzotint. In 1685 he published the 
collection of gems of Leonardo Agostini, etched 
by himself. He died after 1698. He some- 
times signed his plates with his name at length, 
and sometimes marked them with a cipher, com- 
posed of A and J?, thus '-^ . The works of 
this engraver are sufBciently interesting to excuse 
our giving a more than usually detailed list of 





Thomas Sydenham, Bishop of Worcester; after Mrs 

John 'WilHns, Bishop of Chester ; after the same, 
Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury ; after Greenhill. One of 

the scarcest prints of this artist. 
Edward, Earl of Sandwich ; after Lely. 
Edward, Earl of Montagu ; after the same. 
James, Duke of Monmouth ; after the same. 
Cornells Tromp, Admiral of Holland ; after the same 
Prince Rupert ; after the same. 1673. 
Aert van Nes, Admiral of Holland ; L. de Jonghe pinx, 
Constantijn Huygen ; after Netscher. 
John Henry Thim ; A. Stech piruc. 
Jerome de Bevemingh ; after Vaillant. 
WiUem van Haren ; after the same. 1080. 
Egbert Meesz Kortenaer, Admiral of Holland ; Bart. 

van der Heist pinx. 
The Marquis de MirabeUe ; after Van Dyck. 
Ferdinand de Fiirstenberg, Bishop of Paderbom; A, 

Blotelinq sc. 1669. 
Michel Adriaensz de Euyter, Admiral ; Bloteling fee. 

Sir Thomas More, Lord High Chancellor. 
Edward Stillingfleet, Canon of St. Paul's. 
Henry, Duke of Norfolk. 1678. 
Jane, Duchess of Norfolk. 1681. 
Augustus SteUingwerf, Admiral of Friesland. 
Comehs de Wit, Vice Admiral of Holland. 
Tierck Hides de Fries, Admiral of Friesland. 
Cornells Speelman, Vice Admiral, 

Twelve Views of Gardens ; inscribed Alcune Vedute, ^c. 
Eighteen circular plates of subjects of sacred history, 

with flowers; A. Bloteling fee. 
A Landscape, with Diana bathing ; J. van Neck pinx. ; 

A. Bloteling exc. 
A Landscape, with Alpheus and Arethusa ; the same. 
Six Views of the Environs of Amsterdam ; Jae. Muis- 

dael inv. ; A. Bloteling fee. 1670. 
Actseon devoured by his Dogs ; G. Flink pinx. 
. A Shepherd playing on his Pipe, with a Shepherdess ; 

after the same. 
The Golden Age ; G. Lairesse pinx. ; iV. Visscher exc. 
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Raphael. 
Two Heads of Children ; after Buhens ; rare ; some 

impressions have the name of Eubens. 
The Study of the Head of a Man; after Buhens; A. 

Blotelijig fee. et exc; rare. 
Four Studies of Lions ; after Rubens ; inscribed Varice 

Zeonum Icones, a P. P. 
Two Huntings of the Boar and Stag ; fine. 

Justus Lipeius ; A. Bloteling fee. 
Michelangelo Buonarroti ; A. Bloteling fee. 
Frans 'M.iQYis, painted h/ himself; A. Bloteling fee. 
Jan de Wit, Grand Pensionary of Holland ; after De 

Cornelis de Wit, the brother of Jan ; after Be Baan. 
Staverinus, an old Jew, holding a Medal : Com. Bega 

Titus Oates ; Bawker pinx. 
Desiderius Erasmus ; M. Holbein pinx, 1671. 
Henry Benuet, Earl of Arlington ; after Lely ; oval. 
Charles, Earl of Derby ; after the same. 
Abraham Symmonds, an artist ; after the same. 
Queen Catharine ; after the same. 

William Henry, Prince of Orange ; after the same. 1678. 
Nell Gwyn ; P. Lely pinx. 

Mary of Modena, Duchess of York ; after the same. 
Cornelis Tromp, Admiral of Holland ; after the same. 
Michiel Adriensz de Euijter, Admiral of Holland ; J. 

Lievens pinx. 
The Emperor Leopold I. ; C. Morad pinx, 
Henry Casimir, Prince of Nassau ; M, van Muscherpinx, 
Portrait of a Venetian Lady ; Titiano inv, 
Constantijn Huygens ; B, Valliant pinx, 
Jan de Oronefeld ; after the same. 


The Five Senses ; after C. Bega. 

The Four Ages; circular ; after the sam,e._ 

Hercules destroying the monster ; G. lairesse pinx. 

St. Peter penitent ; after P. Moreels. 

A Landscape, with mythological figures ; T. de Neve 

The Temptation of St. Anthony ; Cam. Frocaceinipinx. 
A Man holding a glass ; Bostrate pinx. 
Bust of a Man ; circular. 

Bust of a young Man crowned with laurels ; circular. 
Bust of Hippolyta ; oval. 
Two Heads, with Phrygian and Grecian Head-dresses ; 

one plate. 
The Satyr, and a Peasant ; oval. 
Vanitas, a Child blowing bubbles. 
Abundance, a figure sitting. 
The head of a Vestal, crowned with roses. 
Small bust of Jupiter ; circular. 
Small bust of Venus ; same. 
Half length of a Boy holding a Cat. 
Cupid and Psyche. 
A Blind Man playing on the Flute. 

BLOT, Maurice, a French Kne-engraver, was bom 
in Paris in 1754. He was a pupil of Augustin de 
St. Aubin, and engraved some portraits and fancy- 
subjects in a neat style. He died in Paris in 1818. 
We have by him : 

L'Occupation du Manage, and Companion ; after Aviry. 
La Promesse de Mariage, and Le Verrou ; after Fra- 

Marcus Sextus ; after Gu4rin. 
Meditation ; afier Guido. 
A Boy blowing bubbles ; after F. Mieris. 
Mars and Venus ; after N. Poussin. 
La Vierge aux Cand61abres ; after Raphael. 
Vanity ; after Leonardo da Vinci, 
The Judgment of Paris ; after Van der Werf. 
The Dauphin and Madame Royal, the children of Louis 

XVI. ; after Madame Le Brun. 1786. 
Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope Pius VI., a frontispiece 

for the Life of that pontiff. 1799. 
Jupiter and lo ; after Eegnault (Mus^e Francais). 
Jupiter and CaHsto ; after the same (Mus6e Fran9ais). 
Andr^ GuiUaiime de GAry, abbS of St. Grenevieve ; after 


BLOTELING. See Blooteling. 

BLUNCK, DiTLEV CoNBAD, who was born at 
Breitenburg, near Itzehoe, in 1799, studied from 
1814 to 1827 in the Academy of Copenhagen, under 
Eckersberg. In 1828 he went to Rome, where he 
spent ten years, and was much influenced by the 
style of Carstens. On his return from Italy he 
lived at Vienna and at Hamburg, where he died in 
1853. Among his best works are the following : 

Christian IV. at Rothenburg. 1823. 
Elijah raising the Widow's Son to life. 1827. 
The Four Ages of Man. 
Manifestation of God to \ 

Ezekiel. 1830. ( , ^i ^ i ,-.7, 

The Engraver at his work- K" ^P'^'^"' ^"^^"V- 

table. 1826. J 

Noah in the Ark. 
Thorwaldsen with Danish 

Artists in a Roman Inn. 

Dish y 
Inn. J 

In the Thorwaldsen Mu- 
seum, Copenhagen. 

BLYHOOFT, ZacAaeias, a Dutch painter, of 
whom but little is known ; it is supposed that he 
lived at Middelburg between 1625 and 1700. Two 
pictures by him are noticed in the Catalogues of 
Hoet and Terwesten, and, in regard to their merit, 
compared to those of Netscher. For this reason 
he is noticed here, as many pictures are ascribed to 
Netscher that resemble his manner, but are not by 




BLYTH, Robert, an English engraver, was born 
in 1750. We have some spirited etchings by him 
from drawings by John Hamilton Mortimer, A.R.A. 
He led a careless life, and committed suicide in 
1784. The following are his best plates : 

Three, of Studies ; in the style of Sahator Bosa and 

De Lairesse. 
Four of the same, with inscriptions. 
Bust of an Oriental Chief. 1779 ; oval. 
Bust of an old Man ; oval. 
Banditti going on an expedition. 1780. 
Banditti returning from an expedition. 1780. 
The Captive. 1781. 

The life and death of a Solder ; four plates. 
A Nymph, with a basket of flowers, sitting on the sear 

shore, with a shepherd. 
Cains Marius reflecting on the ruins of Carthage. 
Nebuchadnezzar recovering his reason ; compamon. 
Homer reciting his Terses to the Grecians. 

BOADEN, John, a portrait painter, exhibited 
his works for many years, between 1812 and 1838, 
at the Royal Academy and the Society of British 
Artists. He died in 1839. In the South Kensing- 
ton Museum is a portrait of the Rev. Chauncy 
Hare Townshend by him. 

BOATERI, Jacopo, a native of Bologna, and a 
pupil of Prancia, flourished in the 15th century. 
He is known as the author of a ' Holy Family,' in 
the Pitti Palace, Florence. The dates of his birth 
and death are alike unrecorded. 

BOBA, Geoege, a painter and engraver of the 
16th century, known by the name of MaItee 
Georges, was a native of Rheims, and is said by 
some to have been a disciple of Frans Floris, and 
by others of Titian. His name in full, or included 
in a monogram very small, is found on some etch- 
ings of landscapes with historical subjects, after 
Primatiocio ; Bartsch gives an account of six of 

BOBADILLA, Geeonimo de, a Spanish painter, 
was bom at Antequera, a small town in the vicinity 
of Seville, in 1620. According to Palomino he was 
a scholar of Francisco Zurbaran, whose manner he 
followed. He excelled in painting historical sub- 
jects of a medium size and perspective _ views. 
He used a peculiar varnish on his pictures, 
which Murillo compared to crystal. He was 
a great collector of academic figures, drawings, 
models, and sketches of celebrated artists. He was 
one of the founders of the Academy at Seville 
in 1660, and continued to support it until his death, 
which took place in that city in 1680. 

BOBBIN, Tim, a name assumed by John Collier, 
the caricaturist. See Colliee. 

BOCANEGRA, Pedro Atanasio, a Spanish 
painter, was born at Granada in 1638. He was a 
scholar of Alonso Cano, but, according to Palomino, 
improved himself in colouring by studying the 
works of Pedro de Moya and Van Dyck. In the 
cloister of Nuestra Senora de Gracia, at Granada, 
is a picture by him of the ' Conception,' and at the 
College of the Jesuits is one of his most esteemed 
works, representing the ' Conversion of St. Paul.' 
He died at Granada in 1688. He was vain and 
arrogant, and boasted his superiority to all the 
artists of his time ; but on being challenged to a 
contest of ability by Mathias de Torres, he slunk 
from the trial, and left Madrid. His works were, 
however, much coveted, and no collection was 
considered complete without a specimen. The 
'Death of St. Clara' by him is in the Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg. 

BOCCACCINO, Boccaccio, was born at Cremona, 
it is_ believed, in 1460, and was either a pupil or 
co-disciple of Domenico Panetti. Influenced by 
Mantegna, he became a celebrated painter, and 
executed in Sant' Agostino, at Cremona, several 
frescoes, in 1497. He visited Rome, but not being 
successful with his ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in 
Santa Maria Transpontina, he returned to Cremona. 
Some of his works bear a strong resemblance to 
those of Perugino, particularly his 'Marriage of 
the Virgin,' and ' The Madonna, with St. Vincent 
and St. Anthony,' in the church of San Vincenzio at 
Cremona, which have been frequently regarded as 
the productions of Vannucoi. One of his most 
admired performances is a frieze in the cathedral 
at Cremona, where he has represented the ' Birth 
of the Virgin,' and some subjects from her life, 
painted in 1606 — 1518. In these Lanzi considers 
him inferior to Perugino in composition, less 
beautiful in the airs of his heads, and less vigor- 
ous in light and shadow, but richer in his drapery, 
more varied in colour, more spirited in his attitudes, 
and perhaps not less harmonious and pleasing in 
his architecture and landscape. Lanzi observes of 
this painter, that he was the best modern among 
the ancients, and the best ancient among the 
moderns. He was one of the instructors of Ben- 
venuto Garofalo. His works extend from 1496 to 
1518, and this last date is usually given as the 
year of his death ; but his will was made in January, 
1525 (new style), and an inventory of the pro- 
perty divided among his heirs, December 26th, 
1625. The following are some of his best works : 

Cremona. Cathedral. Appearance of the Angel to 
Joachim. 1515. 
„ „ Meeting of Joachim and Anna 

„ „ Birth of the Virgin. 1515. 

„ „ Marriage of the Virgin. 

„ ., The Annunciation. 1508. 

„ „ The Visitation. 

„ „ Adoration of the Shepherds. 

„ „ The Circumcision. 

„ „ Christ reasoning vrith the Doc- 

tors. 1518. 
„ „ Christ between the four Patron 

Saints of Cremona. 1506. 
(^All the above are frescoes) 
„ S, Quirico. Virgin and two Saints. 1518. 

Ferrara. FinacotecaDeath of the Virgin. 
London. JViit. Gal. Procession to Calvary. 
Paris. Louvre. Holy Family. 

Venice. Acad. Marriage of St. Catharine. 

„ iS.Giuliano.yiTgm and Child with four 


BOCCACCINO, Camillo, the son of Boccaccio 
Boccaccino, was born at Cremona in 1511, and was 
brought up under his father. Educated in the 
Gothic maxims of Boccaccio, and only permitted 
the career of a very short life, he, however, formed 
to himself a style which was both pleasing and 
grand ; and he was considered as the greatest 
genius of the Cremonese school. In 1537 he 
painted in the niches of the cupola of San Sigis- 
mondo the 'Four Evangelists,' so much in the 
style of Correggio, that it appears almost incredible 
that a young man of twenty-six years of age,_ who 
had never foequented the school of that painter, 
could approach so near to the greatness of Cor- 
reggio, both in the intelligence of perspective and 
in foreshortening. Two other works of this 
painter, at Cremona, are justly admired — the 
'Raising of Lazarus' and the 'Adulteress before 
Christ,' surrounded by friezes of a numerous group 
of Angels, finely composed, and designed in the 




loftiest style. This promising artist died in the 
prime of life, in 1546. 

BOCCACCINO, Francesco, was born at Cremona 
about the year 1680. He studied at Rome, first 
under Brandi, and afterwards in the school of 
Carlo Maratti, under whom he acquired a pleasing 
manner of composing and painting easel pictures 
of historical subjects, which were well esteemed in 
" private collections, and of which he painted more 
than of larger works for the churches. He some- 
times imitated the style of Albani, and, like that 
painter, he was fond of treating mythological 
subjects. He died in 1750. 

BOCCARDI, Giovanni, known as Maestro Gio- 
vanni, was a miniature painter who lived at 
Florence in the early part of the 16th century, and 
who, with his son Feancesoo, painted (1507-23) 
a number of the cboir-books of Monte Cassino and 
Perugia. The influence of the school of Raphael 
was noticeable in these productions. 

BOCCATI, Giovanni, of Camerino, is known by 
a picture — signed and dated 1447 — in the Gallery 
of Perugia. The subject is ' The Virgin and Child 
enthroned, and surrounded by Angels, Seraphim, 
and Saints.' 

BOCCHI, Faustino, was born, according to Or- 
landi, at Brescia in 1659. He was a scholar of 
Angelo Everardi, called II Fiamminghino. He 
chiefly excelled in painting battles and skirmishes 
of cavalry, which he composed with great in- 
genuity, and touched with a spirited pencil. His 
figures, though on a small scale, are correctly 
drawn, and his landscapes are very pleasing. He 
died in 1742. 

BOCCIARDO, Clemente, called Clementone — 
according to Soprani, from the prodigious size of 
his person — was born at Genoa in 1620. He was a 
scholar of Bernardo Strozzi, and accompanied Bene- 
detto Castiglione to Rome, where he studied some 
time, and afterwards visited Florence, where he 
met with encouragement, and painted his portrait 
for the Florentine Gallery. It is engraved in the 
' Museo Fiorentino.' His principal works are at Pisa, 
of which Lanzi distinguishes his ' Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian,' in the church of the Carthusians. More 
ingenious in his compositions, and more correct in 
bis design, than Strozzi, he is inferior to him in the 
truth and purity of his tints. He died in 1658. 

BOCCIARDO, DoMENico, was born at Finale, 
near Genoa, about the year 1686, and was a dis- 
ciple and a follower of the style of Giov. Maria 
Morandi. Without the possession of much inven- 
tion, he was a correct designer and an agreeable 
colourist. In the church of San Paolo, at Genoa, 
is a picture by this painter of St. John baptizing 
several figures. 

BOCHOLT, Franz von, a German engraver, 
who flourished from 1458 to 1480, is said to have 
been a shepherd at Mons, in Hainault ; but it is 
more probable he was a native of Bocholt, a small 
town in the bishopric of Miinster. His prints, 
amounting to fifty-five, are chiefly copies after the 
plates of Martin Schongauer and Von Meckenen, 
although he engraved some few plates from his 
own designs. They are all executed in a laboured, 
stiff style, and are generally marked F. v. B. The 
following are by him : 


St. Anthony carried into the air by demons. 
St. James reading 
St. Michael and the Dragon. 

The Judgment of Solomon. 
The Annunciation. 
The Virgin and Child ; in an arch. 

A Friar struggling with a Girl, who defends herself with 

her distaS. 
Samson strangling the Lion. 
Two Men quarrelling. 
St. George and the Dragon, with ' Francis van Bocholt,' 

in very old characters. 

BOCK, Hans, was a German painter of the 16th 
century, who flourished at Basle, where he executed 
within and without the Rathhaus, some colossal 
frescoes, which render his name famous. The 
Rathhaus also possesses a painting of the 'Calumny 
of Apelles,' by him. His works, though mannered, 
display much power and energy. 

BOCKHORST, Jan van. See Boekhorst. 

BOCKHORST, Johann von, called Langen Jan, 
was born at Miinster in 1610. His family had settled 
at Antwerp when he was young, and he became a 
scholar of Jacob Jordaens. Under that able in- 
structor he became a very distinguished painter 
of historical subjects. "There are many of his 
pictures in the churches in Flanders, and they are 
deservedly ranked among the best productions of 
the Flemish school. In 1633 lie entered the Guild 
of St. Luke at Antwerp. He seems to have taken 
the works of Van Dyck as his model, and some 
of bis best pictures are so much in the style of 
that admirable painter that they may easily be 
mistaken for his works. He also excelled as a 
portrait painter ; many of his portraits are only 
inferior to those of Van Dyck. He died in 1668. 
The following are some of his principal works : 

Apx^p ( CJmrch of Triptych — Resurrection: Annun- 

'*P* \ Beguines. elation : and Ascension. 
„ St. Augustin. The Empress Helena with the 
true Cross. 
Ghent. St. Jacques. Martyrdom of St. James. 

Lille. Museum. Martyrdom of St- Maurice. 1661. 

Madrid. Gallery. Mercury. 

„ „ Ulysses in female attire at the 

Court of Lycomedes. 

BOCKLIN, J. C, was a German engraver, who 
executed a set of British portraits for a German 
edition of the ' History of England.' They are 
poorly engraved, and the whole are copied from 
the prints by White. 

BOOKMAN, G., was a mezzotint engraver, who, 
if not a native of England, resided here in the first 
half of the 18th century. He appears to have 
been also a painter, as he engraved a plate of ' St. 
Dunstan and the Devil,' which is signed with his 
name, with the addition of pinx. et sculp., 1743. 
He died about 1768. ' We have several portraits 
by him, among which are the following : 

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ; after Van Zoo. 

Another Portrait of the same, with Ms hat on ; ad 
vivum. 1746. 

Mary, fourth Daughter of George 11., consort of Fred- 
erick II., of Hesse Cassel ; after J. Worsdale. 

Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke ; after M. Bahl. 

Thomas Chubb, the Deist. 

BOOKMAN, R., is known as the painter of 
portraits of Naval Heroes at Greenwich Hospital 
and Hampton Court, and also as a mezzotint 
engraver. It is believed that he died about 1769. 

BOCKSBERGER, Hans, (or Bocksperger,) born 
at Salzburg in 1540. He painted battle-pieces, 
bunting-parties, allegorical, mythological, and his- 
torical subjects ; and was principally occupied with 




the decorations of houses at Munich, Augsburg, 
Ingolstadt, Passau, Ratisbon, Landshut, and Salz- 
burg. As a wood-engraver he illustrated the fol- 
lowing : 
The Bible with 122 plates. 1565. 
Livy. 1573. 

Flavius Josephus. 1565 — 1571. 
The Book of Animals, by G. Sohaller. 1592. 
All of these were published by Feyerabend, at Frank- 
fort. Besides these, there exist by him several 
handsome designs for armour. 

BOCQUET, Nicolas, a French engraver, men- 
tioned by Basan, lived about the year 1601. There 
are two indifferent prints by him : 

Adam and Eve ; after Maphael. 

St. Bruno kneeling before a Oucifix; after Bon de 

BODART, PiSTEE, a native of Holland, resided 
at Leyden about the year 1723. His prints are 
little known in England. His principal work is a 
drawing-book, entitled " Les Principaux f ondements 
du Dessein," published at Leyden in 1723. It con- 
sists of a great number of plates of heads, hands, 
feet, figures, and groups, from the designs of 
Gerard Hoet. They are chiefly etched, in an 
indifferent style. 

BODDINGTON, Heney John, was born in 1811. 
He was one of the sons of Edward Williams, of 
Barnes, and changed his name because so many of 
his family were painters. He was a member of 
the Society of British Artists, and a constant con- 
tributor to their exhibitions, usually sending views 
on the Thames, or other river subjects. He also 
exhibited at the Royal Academy. He died at 
Barnes in 1865. 

B6DEKKER, Johannes Feedeeik, a Dutch 
portrait painter, was bom at Cleve in 1660. He 
was a scholar of Jan de Baan, and met with great 
encouragement in his profession at Amsterdam 
and the Hague. One of his best productions was 
the half-length portrait of Duke Eberhard Ludwig 
of Wiirtemberg. There is a poorly-scraped mezzo- 
tint by this artist of a ' Boy and a Girl,' half- 
figures, with flowers, after his master, J. de Baan. 
He died at Amsterdam in 1737. 
_ BODEMER, Jakob, was bom in 1777 at Not- 
tingen, in the vicinity of Garlsruhe. He worked at 
first as an enamel painter in Geneva, but in 1799 
entered the Academy of Vienna, and devoted him- 
self to the profession of enamel portrait paint- 
ing, and brought that art to perfection by the 
invention of a glass-like coating to the pictures. 
He died at Vienna in 1824. The following are 
specified among his productions : 

Mary with the Child Jesus {in possession of Prince Zin- 

Madonna in Prayer ; after Holbein {Count Caernin's). 
Cupid ; after Paolo Veronese. 
Portraits of the Imperial Family of Austria. 

BODENEHR, Moeitz, engraver to the court at 
Dresden, was born at Freiburg in 1665 and died at 
Dresden in 1749. He engraved a suite of thirty- 
two mythological and poetical pieces after Samuel 
Botsohild, which were published, with his name, in 
1693. His father, Johann Geoeg Bodenehe, was 
an eminent engraver, who was bom in 1631, and 
died in 1704 ;, and his brothers, Gabeiel and 
Gboeq Conead, followed the same profession. 
Their sons seem to have continued it, for the name 
of Bodenehr is found to a late period, but with 
no particular distinction. There was, however, a 
second Johann Geoeg Bodenehe, an engraver and 

worker in mezzotint, who was born at Dresden in 
1691, and died at Augsburg in 1730; and by him 
some superior portraits were engraved. 

BODERECHT, Maekus, a German engraver in 
mezzotint, flourished about the year 1739. He 
was chiefly employed in portraits, and among 
others engraved that of Johann Thomas Rauner, 
with the above date. 

BODINIER, Guillaume, a French historical and 
portrait painter, was bom at Angers in 1795. He 
studied at Rome under the direction of Pierre 
Gudrin, and exhibited at the Salon from 1827 to 
1857. After a long residence in Rome he returned 
to his native city, where he became director of the 
Museum, and died in 1872. His best work is the 
'Angelus in the Gampagna of Rome,' painted in 

1836, and formerly in the collection of the Duke of 

BODMER, Gottlieb, bom at Munich in 1804, 
was a painter, designer, and lithographer. He first 
painted portraits rmder Stieler. In 1829 he drew 
upon the stone the celebrated Madonna di San 
Sisto, after the engraving of F. Miiller, and after- 
wards two paintings after H. Hess, viz., ' Christmas 
Eve,' and a small altar-piece ; by these works he 
is favourably known. He visited Paris, and re- 
turning to Munich, died in 1837. He carried out, 
among others, the following works : 

The departure of King Otto. 

King Ludwig I. in his family circle. 

The Knight and his Love ; after Foltz, 

The Swiss Grena<Uer ; after Kirner. 

BOECE. See BoExins. 

BOEGLEB, Kael, who was bom at Munich in 

1837, practised there and at Wiesbaden as a 
painter of architecture and views. He died in his 
native city in 1866. In the New Pinakothek at 
Munich there are by him : 

The Maxburg, Munich. 1865. 
The Deanery, Munich. 1865. 
The Military Arsenal, Munich. 1865. 

BOEHMER, Kael Wilhelm, was a painter and 
engraver of Saxony. He was brother-in-law and 
scholar of Dietrich. There is a series of land- 
scapes and marine subjects engraved by him, 
with the dates 1744 and 1754, published in 8vo 
and 12mo, with his name or monogram. The 
series is rare. 

BOEKEL, — VAN, a pupil of Frans Snyders, 
painted living and dead animals in the m3.nner of 
his master. The date of his birth is not recorded ; 
he died in Paris in 1673. In the Louvre there is a 
picture by him of a man with dogs and game. 

BOEKHORST, Jan van, (or Bockhoest,) who 
was born at Deutekom in 1661, was a scholar of 
Kneller. He passed some time with that artist in 
London, and painted portraits in his manner. He 
also painted battle-pieces and some historical com- 
positions, which are rare. He returned to his own 
country, where he died in 1724, at Cleve. In the 
castle at Stockholm there are the Four Evangel- 
ists, and an Angel, by him ; and in the Belvedere 
at Vienna a ' Nymph surprised by Satyrs. 

BOEL, CoENELls, a Flemish engraver, was born 
at Antwerp about the year 1580. He worked 
chiefly with the graver, in the style of the Sadelers, 
in whose school it is probable he was instructed. 
His plates are executed in a clear, neat style, and 
possess considerable merit. He engraved a set of 
oval plates for the ' Fables of Otto Voenius,' 
published at Antwerp in 1608. His most con- 
siderable works were eight large plates of the 





battles of Charles V. and Francis I., executed in 
conjunction with Jode de Gheyn, the younger, after 
Tempesta. He was probably in England, as ap- 
pears from one of his plates, the Frontispiece to a 
Bible, published by the royal authority in 1611, 
very neatly engraved, which is signed C Boel 
fecit, in Richmont, 1611. We have also by him a 
Portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, an oval plate, 
with an ornamental border ; and another plate, of 
'The Last Judgment,' Gornelis Boel fecit, without 
the name of the painter. 

BOEL, CoEYN, the son of Jan Boel, the en- 
graver, was born at Antwerp in 1620. He en- 
graved several of the plates for the book called 
' Teniers's Gallery,' after the pictures in the collec- 
tion of the Archduke Leopold William. We have 
also some etchings by him, principally after the 
pictures of the elder Teniers, representing peasants 
regaling and merry-makings. His death is not 

BOEL, Jan, who was bom at Antwerp in 1592, 
was free of the Guild of Luke in 1610, married in 
1619 and had nine children — among whom were 
Coryn and Pieter. He practised as an engraver. 

BOEL, Jan Baptist, the son of Pieter Boel, the 
engraver, was bom at Antwerp in 1650. In 1674- 
75 he was admitted as a master's son to the Guild 
of St. Luke, and died in 1688-89. In the Antwerp 
Museum is a picture called ' Vanity,' representing 
a dead swan, with a peacock and flowers, painted 
by him for the Guild of St. Luke in 1679-80. 

BOEL, PiETEB, an excellent painter of animals, 
birds, flowers, and fruit, and the son of Jan Boel, 
the engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1622, and 
was a scholar of Frans Snyders. Desirous of im- 
provement, he went to Italy, where his works 
were much admired, both at Rome and at Genoa. 
On his return to Flanders he met with great en- 
couragement. Four of his best pictures, repre- 
senting the Four Elements, are in a private col- 
lection at Antwerp. He died at Paris in 1674. His 
touch is free and spirited, and his colouring natural. 
The Munich Gallery has a picture by him of ' Two 
Dogs guarding dead Game ' ; a ' Boar Hunt ' is in 
the Hague Gallery, and the Madrid Gallery has 
five works by him ; a picture of Still Life is in the 
Antwerp Museum. We have some very spirited 
etchings by Boel of various animals, and a set of 
six plates of birds of prey, with landscapes, entitled 
' Diversi Uccelli a Petro Boel.' 

BOETIUS, Christian Feiedkich, (or Boece,) a 
German engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1706. He 
was a pupil of Zink and C. A. Wartmann, and 
resided chiefly at Dresden, where he was made 
professor of the Electoral Academy in 1764. He 
engraved several of the plates for the Dresden 
Gallery, some portraits, and various other subjects. 
He died at Dresden in 1782. The following are 
among his best prints : 

Landscape with a Monument ; after Breenlergh. 

La Notts ; after Carreggio. 

The Meyer Madonna ; after Holbein {me of his best 

Landscape -with a Cow and Sheep ; after Karel du 

A "Woman holding a Pot with Coals, and a Boy blowing ; 
after Rubens, 

Sportsmen at the Door of an Inn ; after Wouicerman. 

Interior of an Inn ; after T. Wyck. 

The Portrait of Boetius ; in imitation of a chalk draw- 
ing. 1771. 

Portrait of Charles Hutin ; the same. 

Portrait of Baphael Mengs ; the same. 

Portrait of J. Casanova : the same. 

BOETTGER, Johann Gottlieb, a German en- 
graver, was bom at Dresden in 1766. He was a 
pupil of J. G. Schulz, and has engraved several 
plates for the booksellers and others, among which 
we have : 

Portrait of P. W. E. de Eamdohr ; after Graaf. 
Calliope ; after Atigelioa Kaufmann. 
Ganymede ; after Vogel, 
A Vestal ; after the same. 

BOTTNER, WiLHELM, who was born at Cassel 
in 1749, and died in 1805, is represented in the 
gallery of his native town by a picture of 'Dsdalus 
and Icarus.' 

BOETTO, GiovENAL, was, according to Delia 
Valle, a Piedmontese, and flourished at Turin from 
the year 1642 till 1682. He distinguished himself 
as a fresco painter, and was principally employed 
in embellishing the palaces and public edifices at 
Turin with allegorical subjects, which were in- 
geniously composed, and designed with taste and 
elegance. Among his most admired works are 
twelve frescoes, in the Casa Garbalh, representing 
subjects emblematical of the Arts and Sciences, 
Lanzi affirms that he excelled as an engraver, but 
his prints are not specified. 

BOEYERMANS, Theodoee, or Diek, who was 
born at Antwerp in 1620, was a follower of Van 
Dyck. He was free of the Guild of St. Luke- in 
1654, and bis name occurs at intervals on the 
registers until the time of his death, which took 
place at Antwerp in 1677-78. His works — historical 
and portraits — are correctly designed and agreeably 
coloured, and show a good knowledge of chiaro- 
scuro. Amongst them we find : 

Antwerp. Museum. The Ambassador. 

„ „ The Pool of Bethesda. 1675. 


„ „ The Yisit (signed). 

„ „ Antwerp as patroness of painters, 

inscribed antveepls piotoetm 


„ „ Head of a Woman. 

„ j^. i/ffcgwes. Assumption of the Virgin. 1671. 

Convent ■) 
„ of Sceurs V Miraculous cure of a Paralytic. 

Moires. } 
Hague. Gallery. The Judgment of Paris. 

BOGDANI, James, known as a fruit and flower 
painter in England in the time of Queen Anne, was 
a Hungarian by birth. After a long residence ia 
London, he died in Great Queen Street in 1720. 
Some of his pictures are in the Royal Collection 

BOGLE, John, exhibited miniature portraits in 
London from 1769 to 1792. In early life he lived 
in Glasgow and Edinburgh ; afterwards he came 
to London, where it is said he died in poverty. 

BOGUBT, Nicolas Didieb, a French landscape 
painter, was born at ChantiUy in 1755, and passed 
the whole of his life in Rome, where he died in 
1839. There are examples of his work in the 
Galleries of Versailles, Aix, and Montpellier. 

BOHER, FEANgois, a French painter, sculptor, 
and architect, who was likewise a poet, was born 
at Villefranche in 1769, and became director of 
the school of design and architecture at Perpignan. 
He died in his native town in 1825. 

BOIDELSIN, — , (or Boidessin,) was a French 
painter who flourished at Metz at the end of the ' 
17th century. There is a ' Nativity ' by him in the 
convent of the Visitation of St. Mary at Metz ; and 
he also jjainted a ' Vierge au Mont Carmel,' which ia 
well designed and drawn. 




BOILLY, Alphonse, a French engraver, was the 
son of Louis Leopold Boilly, the portrait painter. 
He was born in Paris in 1801, and was a pupil of 
Pierre Alexandre Tardieu and of Forster. He died 
at Le Petit Montrouge in 1867. Among his best 
works are : 

The ■Woman taken in Adultery ; after Titian. 
The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Murillo. 
George Washington, whole length ; after Gilbert Stuart. 
Marie Th^rese Antoinette, Infanta of Spain, Dauphiness 
of France ; after Tocque. 

BOILLY, JuLiEN LEOPOLD, a painter, engraver, 
and lithographer, who was born in Paris in 1796, 
was the son and pupil of Louis Leopold Boilly. 
He also studied under Gros. In 1826 he made a 
journey to Italy, and on his return published a 
series of studies of the costumes of the country. 
He also executed portraits in pastel and in chalk. 
A portrait of his father, by him, is in the Lille 
Museum. He died in Paris in 1874. 

BOILLY, Louis Leopold, was born at La Bassee, 
near Lille, in 1761. His only master was his 
father, Amould Boilly, a wood-carver. ' He under- 
took to paint when in his twelfth year a picture of 
' St. Rooh curing the Plague,' for a chapel of that 
saint. In the following year he executed for the 
brothers of St. Rooh a burial scene containing por- 
traits. These are still to be seen at La Bassee. In 
his fourteenth year he went to an Augustine priory 
at Douai, where he painted several portraits and 
genre pictures. At Arras he painted more than 
300 small portraits in two years. About 1786 he 
settled in Paris, executing a vast number of works. 
In 1799 he gained a prize of 2000 frs._, and in 1833, 
by the desire of the Academy, was invested with 
the Legion of Honour. He is said to have painted 
in all over 5000 portraits, besides other works. 
An 'Arrival of a Diligence' by him, signed and 
dated 1803, is in the Louvre. In the Lille Museum 
are a series of twenty-seven portrait studies for his 
' Interior of the atelier of Isabey,' and a sketch for 
the entire work. Many of his works have been 
engraved by Tresca, Cazenove, Petit, Chaponnier, 
and others, whilst he is stated to have produced 
about a hundred prints himself. He exhibited many 
times from 1793 to 1824, and died in Paris in 1845. 

BOIS, Du. See Du Bois and Dubois. 

BOISFREMONT, Charles db, one of the pages 
of Louis XVI., went to America during the Revolu- 
tion, and there taught himself painting. On his 
return he commenced exhibiting his works, in which 
he seems to have adopted Prud'hon as his model. 
Art is indebted to him for the restoration of the 
pictures at Versailles when they were in a very 
bad state of decay. The date of his birth is uncer- 
tain. He died in 1838. He exhibited amongst 
others the following : 

The Death of Abel. 1803. 

Hector upbraiding Paris (gold medal and 500 francs). 

The Descent of Orpheus into Hell {gold medal and 1000 

francs). 1808. 
The Clemency of Napoleon towards the Princess of 

Hatzfeld (^yurckased by the Government, and executed 

in twpestn/ at the Gobelins for the cabinet of Napoleor 

at the Tuileries). 1808. 
The Education of Jupiter on Mount Ida {forming the 

ceiling of the pavilion of Marsan). 1812. 
The Good Samaritan {in the Rouen Museum.). 1822. 
The Death of Cleopatra {also in the Rouen Museum). 

The Chastity of Joseph. 1826. 
Le D&habill^. Same year. 

BOISSARD, Michel J., was a French engraver 
of the seventeenth century. ' A Holy Family ' of 
the year 1650, is liis only known engraving. 

BOISSARD, Robert, an engraver, was born at 
Valence about 1570. He worked in the manner of 
Theodoor de Bry. He used the same mark as Ren^ 
Boivin, but their works should not be confounded. 
In France and England we have by him : 

Portrait of Robert, Earl of Essex; after Sromley. 

Portrait of Henry IV. of France. 

Nymphs bathing ; in the manner of Aldegrever. 

Judgment of Paris ; in the manner of Lucas van Ley den. 

BOISSELIER, Antoine F^lix, a French his- 
torical and landscape painter, was born in Paris, 
in 1790. He was a pupil of Berlin, and exhibited, 
in 1819, 'The Death of the Athlete Polydamas ; ' 
in 1822, ' The Death of Bayard ' (now at Fontaine- 
bleau) ; and in 1824 obtained the first gold medal. 
He died in 1857. 

BOISSELIER, FiLix, ' the elder,' a French his- 
torical painter, was born at Damphal (Haute- 
Mame) in 1776, and in early life was employed as 
draughtsman in a manufactory of decorative papers. 
At the time of the Revolution he was thrown into 
prison, and after regaining his liberty entered the 
studio of Regnault. In 1805, and again in 1806, 
he obtained the grand prize in painting, and to- 
wards the end of the latter year went to Rome, 
where he died in 1811. His ' Death of Adonis,' 
exhibited in 1812, is now in the Louvre. 

BOISSBREE, Mblchioe, an artist and antiquary, 
was born at Cologne in 1786. He undertook, in 
conjunction with his brother, Sulpice Boisseree, and 
J. B. Bertram, the formation of a collection of 
pictures by ancient German masters, to which the 
three devoted twenty years' labour and the bulk of 
their fortunes. These pictures, with some few 
exceptions which are in the chapel of- St. Maurice 
at Nuremberg, were purchased by the King of 
Bavaria, in 1827, for 120,000 thalers (£18,000), and 
are now in the Pinakothek at Munich. Boisser^e 
executed and published inl834 a series of large litho- 
graphs of these pictures in thirty-eight numbers. He 
was also the discoverer of a new and simple method 
of painting upon glass by means of the brush alone, 
and employed it for the reproduction of the best 
works in the ancient collection formed by him, as 
well as of some chefs-cCosuvre of the Italian school 
which are now at Bonn. His death t»ok place at 
that town in 1851. 

BOISSEVIN, L., was a printseller, and is sup- 
posed to have engraved the following plates : 

Charles I. 

Oliver Cromwell. 

Cardinal Barberini ; dated 1623. 

BOISSIER, Ande^ Claude, a French painter of 
religious subjects, was born at Nantes in 1760. He 
studied under Brenet, and settled at ChS,teau-Gon- 
tier. Among his best works are an ' Assumption ' 
and an 'Apotheosis of St. Vincent de Paul,' both 
of which are at Pekin ; a ' Temptation of Christ,' 
and an 'Adoration of the Shepherds.' He died 
at Chiteau-Gontier about 1840. 

BOISSlilRE. See Db la BoissiSee. 

BOISSIEU, Jean Jacques de, a French painter, 
more celebrated as an engraver, was born at Lyons 
in 1736. He studied first in his native city, but 
afterwards went to Paris, where he numbered 
Joseph Vernet and Greuze among his friends, and 
then to Italy. He subsequently returned to Lyons. 
Declining health compelled him to give up painting 
in oil in favour of drawing and engraving, and 





he preferred to live in retirement near Lyons to 
shining in his profession in Paris. He died at 
Lyons in 1810. He painted some pictures of simi- 
lar subjects to those by Ostade, — the Dutch School 
was ever his favourite, — and also some portraits. 
Two Landscapes with figures and buildings by him 
are in the Berlin Gallery — one is dated 1773 ; and a 
Landscape with figures is in the Louvre. Boissieu 
is, however, principally known by the charming 
etchings he has left us of landscapes and other 
subjects, both from his own designs and those of 
other masters. The number of his plates, which 
are generally marked D. B., with the date, is 140. 
The following are his best prints : 

A mountainous Landscape, with 'WaterfaU ; after 

A Landscape, with Shepherds, by the water-side ; after 

The Quack Doctor ; after K. du Jardin. 
An Old Man, with a Boy reading; in the manner of 

A Cooper working in a Cellar ; the same. 

A Landscape, with a Boy driving an Ox ; after JRuisdael. 

A Landscape, with figures in a Boat, and a Mill ; after 

the same. 
The Great Mill ; after the same. 
The Mower's Rest ; after Adriaan van de Velde. 
An Italian Landscape, with 'Women washing. 
A Forest, with a Cottage, and a Man on Horseback, 

with Peasants. 
Another Forest scene ; the companion. 
A Landscape, with figures and animals, in the middle a 

Hill, on which is a Cross, and an old Man kneeling. 
A View near Tivoli, with a Man and a "Woman mounted 

on a Mule, driving Cattle through a Eivulet. 
A Landscape, with a Hermit, at the entrance of a 

Cavern. 1797. 
A Landscape, with large figures, and two Cows standing 

in the Water. 

The two last mentioned, with the first and ' The 
Great Mill,' are his best plates. See ' Catalogue 
raisonne de son GEuvre.' Lyons. 1878. 8vo. 

BOIT, Charles, the son of a Frenchman, was 
born at Stockholm about 1663, and began life as 
a jeweller. He went to England and established 
himself as a drawing-master, but afterwards took 
to painting in enamel, an art in which he excelled 
so much that he was commissioned to paint for 
Queen Anne a plate twenty-four inches by eighteen 
in commemoration of the victories of the Duke of 
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, which, however, 
was never ffeisbed. At the death of the queen, in 
1714, he fell into difficulties, and fled to Prance, 
where he was much patronized by the court. He 
became a member of the Academy in 1717, and 
died in Paris in 1727. Horace Walpole gives a 
long account of him, and mentions many enamel 
portraits and copies of celebrated paintings exe- 
cuted by him. 

BOITAED, LoTJis Pierre, who was born in 
France, was a pupil of La Farge. He went to Eng- 
land with his father in the reign of George I., and 
became celebrated as an engraver of book plates. 
He married an English lady, and died in London 
in 1758. His most important work was a repre- 
sentation of the Ranelagh Rotunda, after Paolo 
Pannini. Other good plates of bis are those he 
executed for Spence's 'Polymetis.' He also en- 
graved some portraits, among which is that of 
Brown, the soldier who distinguished himself at 
the battle of Dettingen, and one of Elizabeth 

BOIVIN, Riiii, (or Boyvin,) a French draughts- 
man and line-engraver, was bom at Angers about 
the year 1530. and died, as is believed, at Rome 


in 1598. He engraved several plates in the style 
of Cornells Cort, and we have also some etchings by 
him. Some of his plates are from his own designs 
and some from, those of Rosso del Rosso, called 
by the French Mattre Roux. He sometimes signed 
his works with his baptismal name, Benatus, and 
sometimes with a cipher composed of an R and B 

■th"3j £J\, . The following are his principal plates : 

Twelve Portraits of Philosophers and ancient Poets. 

Two Portraits of Clement Marot. 

Portrait of John Sebastian Psanserus. 

Portrait of George Vicelius, Theologian. 

Susannah and the Elders. 

The departure of Hagar and Ishmael from the House 
of Abraham ; a spirited etching. 

Banditti robbing the Cart of a Peasant ; etching. 

The Plates for a work entitled " livre de la Conquests 
de la Toison d'or, par le Prince Jason de Tessalie." 

The Triumph of Virtue and the Defeat of Vice ; after 
Mosso del JRosso. 

Francis I. advancing towards the Temple of Immor- 
tality, leaving behind him Ignorance and the Vices ; 
after the same. 

BOIZOT, Marie Louise Adelaide, a French line- 
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1744. She was the 
daughter of Antoine Boizot, a painter, and sister 
of Louis Simon Boizot, a sculptor, and was in- 
structed in art by her father and by J. J. Flipart. 
She engraved with great neatness several portraits 
and other subjects, and died about the year 1800. 
The following are among her works : 

Jean Joseph Guillaume Brute, Doctor of Sorbonne ; M. 

L. A. Boizot del. etfec. 
Joseph II., Emperor of Germany ; after L. S. Boizot. 
Louis XVI., King of France ; after the same. 
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France ; after the same. 
Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count of Provence, afterwards 

Louis XVIII. ; a/Ker the same. 
Marie Josephine Louise, Countess of Provence; after 

the same. 
Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, afterwards Charles 

X. ; after the same. 
Marie Tnerese, Countess of Artois ; after the same. 
Madame EUzabeth, sister of Louis XVI. ; after the same. 
St. Catharine ; after L. Carracci. 
The Dutch Breakfast ; after G. Metsu. 
A Boy with a Birdcage ; after Netacher. 
A young Turk ; after the same. 
La Liseuse ; after Greuze. 

BO JAN, J. L., was a French engraver, who 
flourished about the year 1670. He was chiefly 
employed by Jean Berain in engraving some of 
the plates for his large work of the Ornaments in 
the Louvre and the Tuileries. 

BOKLUND, Johan Kristoefeb, who was bom in 
1817 at Kulla-Gunnarstorp, Sweden, studied under 
Korner in Lund, and then in Copenhagen, Stock- 
holm, Munich, and lastly under Couture in Paris. 
In 1856 he returned to Stockholm, where he became 
a member of the Academy of which he was after- 
wards Director, and held various important posts, 
including the Curatorship of the National Museum. 
He painted scenes from the Thirty Years' War, 
historic pictures, genre subjects, and portraits. 
Many celebrated persons sat to him. He died at 
Stockholm in 1880. 

BOKSHOORN, Joseph, a Dutch portrait painter, 
was born at the Hague, and came to London in 
1670, where he died at the age of thirty-four. He 
was a scholar of Sir Peter Lely, whose works he 
copied in great perfection. He also copied por- 
traits by Van Dyck, particularly that of the Earl of 
StrafEord, which was in the possession of the Earl 
of Rockingham. Vertue mentions portraits by him 
of Mr. Davenant (son of Sir William) and his wife. 




BOL, CoENELis, was a native of Holland, and 
flourished about the year 1660. He visited England 
before the fire of London, as Tie painted views of 
that conflagration. He also painted representations 
of Sutton Place in Surrey, Arundel House, Somerset 
House, and the Tower. He etched some plates 
representing the seaports of Holland, among which 
is that of the Briel. 

BOL, Ferdinand, was bom at Dordrecht in 1611. 
Of his life we know but little. He went when a 
child with his parents to Amsterdam, his future 
home; studied under Rembrandt; was made a 
citizen ; married, in 1653, Elisabeth Dell ; and died 
there in 1681. His masterpiece, the ' Pour Regents 
of the Leprosy Hospital,' — which formerly hung in 
that institution at Amsterdam, and is now in the 
Townhall, — at a certain exhibition held for chari- 
table purposes is said to have received more notice 
and praise than any of the works of his master, 
Rembrandt. Yet Bol was a most uncertain painter ; 
and although, while under the influence of Rem- 
brandt, he produced works that may have passed 
as being the work of the master himself, he latterly 
degenerated into a bad imitator of Rembrandt, and 
appears even to have exaggerated the faults of his 
manner and style without retaining the power of 
giving the superb effects of light and shade which, 
while in that master's studio, he certainly once pos- 
sessed. This change is apparent in ^^fC^* 
those paintings of Bol that bear a later (x^ 
date than 1660, when he had probably 'ijP ■ ' 
left Rembrandt. 

The following are his principal paintings : 

Amsterdam. Museum, Portrait of Ferdinand Bol. 

„ „ Portrait of Arthur Quellinus, 

Sculptor; Bol. 1663. 
„ „ Portrait of Admiral Michiel Adri- 

ansz de Buyter ; r. bol fecit. 
Amsterdam. „ A Mother with her two Children ; 


„ „ The Instruction ; F. bol. 1663. 

„ Town Sail. Four Eegents of the Leprosy Hos- 
pital (his masterpiece). 

„ ^- ^^i"'^ \ Portrait of Admiral de Euyter. 

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of an Old Lady; F. bol 

FECIT. 1642 
» Brussels. Gallery. Portrait of a Man ; f. bol f. 1660. 
Tfm F and the B interlaced as 
given above, (Formerly called a 
„ „ Portrait of a Woman ; F. BOL F. 

1660. (Formerly called a Sem- 
„ „ Portrait of Saskia van Ulenburgh 

wife of Rembrandt van Byn. 
„ „ A Philosopher in Meditation (a 

somewhat similar picture is in the 

Eest on the Flight into Egypt ; F. 

BOL FECIT. 1644. 
Jacob's Vision ; F. EOL fecit. 
Joseph presenting Jacob to Pha- 
Portrait of Ferdinand Bol. 
Portrait of a Young Man holding 

his Hat and Gloves in his Hand ; 

F. BOL. 1644. 
Portrait of a Man with Curly Hair ; 

F. bol. 1659. 
Portrait of Michiel Adriaansz de 

„ Portrait of Bngel de Euijter; F. 

BOL. 1669. 
Institute. The Angel appearing to Hagar. 
L 2 


Frankfort. SlSdel. 

Hague. Gallery, 


London. JHfat. Gallery, Portrait of an Astronomer; f. 
BOL fecit. 1652. 
„ iVoriftfo-ooi ) Portraits of a Bride and Bride- 

Coll, j groom. 
„ „ A Scene from Guarini's 'Pastor 

Leyden. Town Sail. Allegory of Peace (painted in 

Munich. Pinakothek, Abraham, about to offer up Isaac, 
stopped by an Angel. 
„ „ Portrait of a Man clothed in Black. 

Paris. Louvre. A Philosopher in Meditation. 

„ „ A Young Prince of Holland in a 

Chariot drawn by Goats ; F. BOL. 
„ „ Portrait of a Mathematician. 

„ „ Portrait of a Man ; F. bol. 1659. 

Petersburg. Hermitage. Portrait of a Countess of Nassau- 
Siegen ('probably Frn^stina, wife 
of John the youTi^er). 
„ „ Portraits of Persons, unknown — 

as Theseus and Ariadne. 
„ „ The Savant, writing. 

„ „ Portrait of a Man. 

„ „ Portrait of a Lady, in black, seated, 

holding her gloves. 
„ „ Portrait of a Young Man, his right 

hand on a table. 
„ „ Portrait of a Young Lady, stand- 

ing before an old Man, who is 
seated (miscalled 'Esther and 
„ „ The Philosopher (signed). 

„ „ Portrait of a Young Man (icith a 

forged signature of Membrandt). 
„ „ Portrait of an Old Woman ; F. bol. 

1651 ; OUT 81 JAEE. 
Eotterdam. Museum. Portrait of Dirk van der Waeijen ; 
F. bol. 1656. 
„ „ Portrait of a Lady ; F. BOL fecit. 


Bol's etchings are highly esteemed ; they are 
executed in a bold and free manner, and his lights 
and shadows are very judiciously managed. Al- 
though they are not equal in lightness of touch 
and tasteful style to the etchings of Rembrandt, 
they possess great merit. The following is a list 
of nearly the whole of his prints : 


A young Man, with a round Hat ; marked Bol fee. 

An Officer with his hands on the Hilt of his Sword ; 

Bolfec. 1643. * 

A young Man, with a Cap and Feathers ; F. Bol. 1642. 
A young Woman, half length, with a Cap and Feathers ; 

marked F. Bol f. 1644 ; fine, oval. 
The Woman with the Pear, at a Window; in the 

manner of Rembrandt ; very fine. 
An old Man sitting in a Chair, with some Books and an 

unlighted Candle ; marked Bol ; scarce. 
An old Man, half length, with a Bonnet, leaning on a 

Cane ; in the manner of Rembrandt ; F. Bolfec. 1642. 
Bust of an old Man, seen in front, with a fur Eobe, 

fastened with Diamonds ; no name ; very scarce. 


A Philosopher in Meditation, resting on a Table, on 

which are some Books and a Globe ; very fine. 
Another Philosopher, holding a Book ; F. Bol. 1642. 
. The Astrologer, an old Man sitting at a Table, with 

Books and a Globe; he wears a flat Hat, and his 

Hands are crossed. 
The Family — ^A Woman suckling a new-born Infant, 

vrith a Man holding Linen ; F. Bol. 1649. 
Abraham's Sacrifice ; an arched plate ; F. Bolf. 
Hagar in the Desert, with the infant Ishmael ; F. Bolf. 

A very scarce print, mentioned by Heineken. 
The Sacrifice of Gideon. 
St. Jerome In a Cavern, contemplating a Crucifix ; F, 






BOL, Hans, or Jan, a Flemish painter and en- 
graver, was born at Mechlin in 1634. After study- 
ing- two years under an obscure painter, he travelled 
through Germany, and passed some time at Heidel- 
berg, where he was employed by the Elector of 
the Palatine for two years. After visiting his 
native city he went, in 1572, to Antwerp, where he 
stayed till 1584. He then visited Bergen, Dor- 
drecht, and Delft, but he subsequently settled at 
Amsterdam, where he died in 1593. His works, 
which were greatly esteemed, included several 
copies from the most eminent masters. Van 
Mander speaks highly of two pictures by this 
master, representing ' Dsedalus and Icarus,' and 
' The Crucifixion.' He is, however, more known as 
a painter of landscapes and views in the neighbour- 
hood of Amsterdam. A Landscape by him is in 
the Berlin Gallery. He also painted portraits and 
fruit and flower pieces. In later life he devoted 
himself entirely to miniature painting, in which he 
was very successful. The cabinet of miniatures at 
Munich possesses good examples of his art. He 
etched several plates from his own designs in a 
slight spirited style, which he sometimes marked 
H. B-, and sometimes H. Bol, the H and B joined 
together. We have the following prints by him : 

The Eeconciliation of Jacob aad Esau ; circular. 

The first interview between the Servant of Abraham 

and Eebekah. 
Twelve circular plates of the Twelve Months of the 

Year ; Ad. Collaert excud. 
A set of twelve Landscapes ; H. Bol inv. JoTi. Sadele)' 

A set of twelve Landscapes ; if. Cock exc. S. Bol. 
A large Landscape, with a Man in a Boat catching a 

Goose, with several figures. 

BOLDRINI, Leonardo, lived in the 16th century, 
and is the author of an altar-piece, whose panels 
are now hanging apart in the church of San Gallo, 
near Zogno. No further information of him is 

BOLDRINI, Niccol6, frequently confused with 
Niccol6 Vicentino, was an engraver on wood, born 
at Vicenza in the early part of the 16th century, 
and who was still living in 1566. His prints are 
chiefly after Titian, and it is thought that he 
studied under that master ; they are executed in a 
bold free style. His works are scarce. He marked 

his prints with the cipher ^ Jx^^ . We have the 

following by him : 

John, Baron de Schwarzenburg ; with a border; after 

Albrecht Burer. 
The Wise Men's Offering ; after Titian, with his cipher. 
St. Jerome praying ; in a landscape ; after the same. 
St. Catharine, St. Sebastian, and four other Saints ; 

after the same. 
A mountainous Landscape, with a "Woman milking a 

Venus seated on a Bank, holding Cupid, a Squirrel on 

the Branch of a Tree ; marked Titianus inv. Nieolaus 

Boldrinus Vicentinus ineidebat. 1566. 

BOLLMAN, HiEEONTMDS. By this artist, who 
was probably a native of Germany, we have some 
prints after Raphael and other eminent painters of 
the Italian school. They are executed in a bold, 
free, and effective style, and possess considerable 

BOLLONGIE, Hans or Jan Bolongiek, flourished 
in Holland in the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He entered the Painters' Guild at Haarlem 
in 1623, and is again mentioned in the records in 
1642. Neither his birth nor Ms death is recorded. 


In the Rotterdam Museum is a ' Scene of a Carni- 
val,' signed H. Bollongie, 1628. A flower-piece, 
marked I. B. 1625, in the Dresden Gallery is attri- 
buted to him. Hobatios Bolongier of Haarlem 
was also a painter; he died i