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SCHOOLS INQUIRY COMMISSION. 



Vol. VIII. 



GENERAL REPORTS 



BT 



ASSISTANT COMMISSIONEES. 



MIDLAND COUNTIES AND 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 



TlivtSente'a ta iaO) ^atxieS at parliament fij; (fTammanTt of ^ec Mn\tits> 




LONDON: 
PBINTED BY GEORGE E. EYEE AND WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE, 

PKINTEES TO THE QUEBN's MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 
TOB HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 

1868. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII. 



Page 
Instetjctions to Assistant Commissioners - - - v 

General Report on the Counties of Flint, Denbigh, Montgomery, 

Glamorgan, and Hereford, by H. M. Bompas, Esq. - - 1 

Special Eeport on Birmingham Free School, and General Report 
on the Counties of Stafford and Warwick, by T. H. Green, 
Esq. ... ... 91 

General Report on the Counties of Norfolk and Northumberland, 

by J. L. Hammond, Esq. - ... - 255 

Summary Minute on Endowed Grammar Schools in the Counties 
of Cambridge, Huntingdon, and Suffolk, by D. C. Richmond, 
Esq. . - - - - - - 635 

Summary Minute on Endowed Grammar Schools in Counties of 

Bedford, Chester, and Derby, by R. S. Wright, Esq. - 657 

Eeport on the Schools of Sir W. Harpur's Charity, Bedford, by 

R. S. Wright, Esq. - - - - - - 677 

Report on Jones's Free Grammar School, Monmouth, by H. M. 

Bompas, Esq. ...... 701 



nC43. a. c. 3. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO ASSISTANT COMMISSIONERS. 



Schools Inquiry Commissionj 
2, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., 
SiE, March 1865. 

The duty assigned to the Schools Inquiry Commissioners 
is to ascertain the state of education in the schools that have not 
been already reported on, and to recommend measures, if any can 
be devised, for its improvement. It is obvious, that in order to dis- 
charge this duty the Commissioners must begin by ascertaining 
the facts. The education now given in the schools, the facilities 
for improvement that may already exist in them, the demands and 
wishes of the parents, the cost of the present system, the pro- 
bable cost of a better, the burden which the parents are willing to 
bear, these and similar facts must be the basis of any measures 
which it would be wise to recommend. 

The Commissioners have already issued circulars, copies of 
which are now put into your hands. The answers will give much 
information on the chief points on which it is needed. But this 
information is of necessity incomplete ; it requires to be supple- 
mented by the evidence of independent observers. The masters, 
for instance, may tell what they teach ; but it is only by indepen- 
dent examination that the true value of that teaching can be 
ascertained. 

For this reason the Commissioners have determined to send 
Assistant Commissioners into selected districts to make careful 
inquiry on the spot into all the facts that bear upon the subject. 
The district assigned to you for this purpose is — 

I. Your first duty will therefore be to ascertain the present 
state of education in the district. You will observe that by the 
words of the Commission (a copy of which is annexed), the in- 
quiry is bounded on the one side by the province assigned to the 
Duke of Newcastle's Commission in 1858, and on the other by 
that assigned to the Earl of Clarendon's Commission in 1861. It 
is not possible to draw the boundary precisely in a country in 
which no class of society is separated by a definite line from that 
which is above and that which is below it. But you will under- 
stand that you are required to give your chief attention to the 
schools attended by the children of such of the gentry, clergy, 
professional and commercial men as are of limited means, and of 
fanners and tradesmen. 



vi Schools Inquiry Commission. 

A. The schools which you have thus to inspect seem to be 
divisible into three classes : — 

1. The grammar schools and those endowed schools which, 

though not grammar schools, do not appear to have been 
intended for the children of labourers. 

2. Proprietary schools, which not being endowed, are private 

property, but are owned by single proprietors, or by pro- 
prietary bodies, distinct from the schoolmasters. 

3. Private schools, which are the property of the schoolmasters 

who teach in them. 

1. In regard to the grammar and other endowed schools, it is 
desirable to ascertain not only what is their present condition, but 
also how far they seem to be fulfilling the purpose for which they 
were founded. You will therefore endeavour to inform yourself 
both what sort of education the founder meant to prescribe, and 
to what class of children he meant to give that education. You 
will report whether the school appears to fulfil these two purposes ; 
and if not, whether this is due to' some fault in the management, 
or whether the two purposes have become incompatible with each 
other by lapse of time, and scholars are no longer to be found 
whose parents wish them to learn what the school was founded to 
teach. 

It is a further question whether, without reference to its 
original purpose, the school is now a useful institution. You will, 
therefore, endeavour to get leave to examine the scholars, or a part 
of them, that you may judge for yourself what is the character of 
the instruction. You will report whether the education is good 
of its kind, and suitable to the needs of the scholars ; whether the 
discipline appears to be careful and effective ; and the moral tone 
sound. You will endeavour to ascertain whether the parents of 
the scholars appear to value the teaching that the boys receive, 
and particularly whether the boys remain long enough at school 
to derive the full benefit of that teaching. You will report 
whether the results, taken altogether, are satisfactory and propor- 
tionate to the amount of endowment ; and if not, whether the 
fault appears. to lie with the school or with the parents, or is due 
to circumstances independent of both. 

You will also inspect the grounds and buildings, and report on 
the schoolrooms, the accommodation for boarders, if any be pro- 
vided, and the playground. 

Finally, it will be desirable to ascertain the estimation in which 
the school is held in the neighbourhood, and whether there is any 
general wish to have a change in the character of the instruction, 
or in the laws or regulations of the foundation ; and if so, what 
are "the reasons for such a wish, and whether they appear to have 
any ground to rest on. 

2. The great increase of late years in the number of proprietary 
Schools is a strong testimony to the disposition of the public to 
think favourably of the principle upon which they are founded ; 
and it has even been suggested that the grammar schools might be 
much improved by attaching proprietary schools to them. It will 



Instructions to Assistant Commissioners. vii 

be well, therefore, to examine with care what special results are 
obtained by schools of this kind, and to what causes these results- 
are due. It is also of importance that you should ascertain 
whether the control of the directors interferes injuriously with the 
master in the conduct of the school. In other respects your 
inquiry into these schools will not differ from that which you will 
make into the graiAmar schools, except that the absence of a 
foundation will render unnecessary any comparison of the present 
condition with the object aimed at by the founder. 

3. The great number of the private schools renders it impossible, 
even if it were ;idvisab!e, to make a personal inspection of every 
one of them throughout your district. You must be left very much 
to your own discretion to decide which you will visit, and how 
closely and searchingly you will examine any that you do visit. 
But you will bear in mind that the general object oP the Commis- 
sion is to ascertain what is the character, quality, and moral tone 
of the education now given to the children of the middle classes ; 
and you must push your examination far enough to satisfy your 
own mind that you can give a trustworthy report on this xJoint. 
Many of the schools will undoubtedly be found so like each other, 
that to have seen a few is to have seen them all. The few that 
may perhaps be exceptional will be prevented, by being exceptional, 
from aiFecting the general result. By going first to the county 
towns, and one or two others of considerable size, and making a 
tolerably exhaustive inquiry there, you will probably obtain such 
a general conception of the education of the whole district as will 
enable you afterwards to decide without difficulty what schools to 
visit and what to pass over elsewheie. 

You will be supplied with circulars of questions to be answered, 
and statistical forms to be filled up for as many private schools in 
your district as you find vdlling to supply such information. 

B. To the inquiry into schools of the ordinary kind it may be 
well to add an examination of what may be called supplementary 
means of education. Such, for instance, are Art schools, which 
the scholars of ordinary schools have it in their power to attend, 
and special schools or colleges in which professional rather than 
general education is given. 

This inquiry is to be considered as strictly subordinate to the 
other. General and not special instruction appears to the Com- 
missioners to be their proper province. But still there are some 
facts which it is important to ascertain in regard to means of 
education of this kind. You will examine, for instance, whether 
Art schools are found to put good drawing within the reach of 
boys who could not otherwise obtain it, and whether this may not 
be the cheapest and most efficient means of supplying this kind of 
instruction. It is a question of the same kind, whether in towns 
good museums may not supply means of teaching natural science ; 
whether the scholars from several schools might not attend a com- 
mon lecture in chemistry and have the use of a common laboratory. 

In the professional schools and colleges you should inquire what 
previous general instruction is found to be the best preparation, 



viii Schools Inquiry Commission. 

and whether the authorities of schools of this kind prefer that their 
pupils should possess sound general knowledge on their entrance, 
or that they should have anticipated the elements of what they 
are now to learn. On the other hand, it would be well to inquire 
how far these professional schools are themselves successful in 
preparing boys for professions ; and, if not successful, what appears 
to be the reason of their failure ; if successful, Vhether that success 
has to be purchased by the sacrifice of general cultivation. 

C. The education of girls does not fall so largely within the 
province of the Commission as that of boys. Girls are much more 
often educated at home, or in schools too small to deserve the 
name. And the Commission are not charged with an inquiry into 
domestic education or private tuition. 

But the education of girls cannot be excluded from view. It is 
said that there are endowments to which girls as well as boys have 
a claim, and it will therefore be impossible to make recommenda- 
tions relating to endowments without reference to both sexes. 
Further there are endowments not hitherto applied to education 
which may possibly be so applied hereafter ; and in dealing with 
these it seems unreasonable to take for granted that girls are to be 
excluded. And even if the Commissioners find themselves unable 
to recommend immediate measures for the improvement of the 
education of girls, it will still be well worth while to ascertain and 
lay before the public information respecting the present state of 
that education, and thus supply a basis for subsequent action to 
this end. 

You will, therefore, report on the more important girls' schools 
in your district, and particularly on any which possess endowments. 
You will endeavour to ascertain what amount and kind of education 
is generally considered necessary for girls, what time is given to it, 
what it annually costs, and how far it appears to fit the girls for 
their after life. 

II. Besides Inquiring into the state of education, it will be your 
duty to find out from the parents what are their own wishes,* and 
what expense they are willing to incur. Upon their co-operation 
all improvement must mainly depend. And even if their wishes 
are mistaken and arise from imperfect acquaintance with the 
subject of education, it is still necessary to ascertain them as an 
important element in the consideration of what is to be done, 
whether through this Commission or other agency. The wishes 
of the parents can, of course, be ascertained only by conversation 
and correspondence. In the course of your examination into the 
schools you are sure to meet with many whose interest in the 
matter and general intelligence will make their statements on this 
subject valuable. You will endeavour to find out how far it is the 
wish of the pp.i-ents to alter the subjects of instruction ; how far to 
introduce teaching of a more professional character ; whether they 
are at aU aware of the cost of a really sound education, and whether 
they are willing to incur that cost; what are their prejudices in 
reference to associating with the class below them and the class 



Instructions to Assistant Commissioners. ix 

above them; under what circumstances they would prefer day 
schools or boarding schools respectively. The answers to these and 
similar questions will be of the utmost importance in determining 
what measures of improvement are not only desirable but practi- 
cable. In short, you will generally endeavour to inform yourself 
of the desire which may prevail among the middle classes of society 
in your district for an improved system of education that may be 
made available for their children, and also of such measures as may 
recently have been taken to meet their wishes in this respect. 

In conclusion, I am to warn you that the Commissioners can 
give you no compulsory powers. The success or failure of your 
mission wiU depend very largely on your own tact and prudence. 
It is true that your duties are of a kind that ought to encourage 
those who are employed in education to give you every assistance 
in their power. There cannot be the slightest doubt that what- 
ever tends to throw light on the present state of education, and 
still more whatever tends to improve it, will largely increase the 
demand for teachers of every kind, and by so doing will promote 
their interests, and add importance to their profession. But it would 
not be dilficult to convey the contrary impression, and to close 
almost all access to information by prosecuting your inquiries in an 
inquisitorial and injudicious spirit. It will be your duty to arrive 
at the truth in whatever way shall give least trouble and least 
annoyance to those from whom you are seeking it. You wiU of 
course make no distinction with regard to religious creed in respect 
of the schools you may desire to visit. 

The main object of your mission will be to collect matters of 
fact, and ascertain the opinions of others. At the same time the 
Commissioners do not wish to preclude you from expressing any 
opinions of your own as to the remedial measures which you may 
think expedient. But it will be desirable that you should express 
such opinions in as brief and summary a manner as possible. 

The Commissioners consider that your inquiry may be completed 
in six months, and that you Avill be able to finish your Keport 
within two months afterwards. 

By order of the Commissioners, 

H. J. EOBY, Secretary, 



SCHOOLS INQUIEY COMMISSIOl^. 



REPORT 



MR. H. M. BOMPAS. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Character of the district inquired into - . - - 1 

Statistics respecting the boys' schools in the district - - - 8 

Observations on the subjects taught in tlie boys' schools - - 18 

The advantage of examinations and insufficiency of those now existing - 26 

Method adopted in examining the boys' schools in the district - - 27 

Results of the examination of the boys' schools - - - 31 

Statistics respecting the girls' schools in the district - - - 40 

Observations on the subjects taught in the girls' schools - - 59 

The advantages of examinations for girls - - - - 54 

Method adopted in examining the girls' schools in the district - - 56 

Results of the examination of the girls' schools - - - - 67 

Preparatory schools - - - - - -61 

Boarding schools - - - - - - -62 

Rewards and punishments - - - - • - 64 

Holidays . . - - . - 66 

Schools of art - - - - " - - - 66 

Endowments - - - - - - - -67 

Conclusions -.-. ...76 

Appendix A. — Papers set to the boys' schools - - - 77 

Appendix B.— Papers set to the girls' schools - - 81 

Index - ■ - - - - - - -86 



LIST OF TABLES CONTAINED IN THE REPORT. 

1. .Annual, value of property arranged according to counties - 5 

2. Number of persons paying income tax arranged according to 

counties - - - - - - -5 

3. Number of day schools, mixed schools, and boarding schools, and 

boys, in them, arranged according to counties - - - 1 1 

4. Number of schools of various sizes, arranged according to counties - 11 
5. -Number of endowed and private schools, and pupils in them, 

arranged according to counties - - - - - 12 

6. Number of day schools charging various prices, and of boys in (hem, 

arranged according to counties - - - - - 16 

7. Number of boarding schools charging various prices, and of boys in 

them, arranged according to counties - - - - 16 

8. Per-centage of boys learning and schools teaching the principal 

branches of education - - - - - -17 



xiv Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Page 



24 
30 
30 



9. The profession of the parents of the pupils in different classes of 
boys' schools ------- 

10. Ages of the boys examined, arranged according to counties 

11. Ages of boys examined, arranged according to the class of schools - 

12. Number of boys learning the principal subjects in each county - 31 

13. Number of boys learning the principal subjects at each age - 32 

14. Number of boys learning the principal subjects in each class of 

schools ---■""" 

15. Number of boys who answered two of the questions in Latin - 32 

16. Average number of marks obtained by the boys in each subject in 

each class of school - - - - - - 33 

17. Average number of marks obtained in each subject in the afternoon 

papers, by boys who learnt them - - - - 36 

18. Average number of marks obtained by the boys in each school on the 

whole papers - - - - - - -3/ 

19. Number of boys obtaining a high number of marks in each class of 

school - - - - - - - -38 

20. Average number of marks obtained by the boys in each county - 38 

21. Average marks obtained in the morning paper by boys learning 

and not learning Latin - - - - - - 39 

22. Average marks obtainad in the morning paper by boys learning 

and not learning Euclid - - - - - - 39 

23. Number of day, mixed, and boarding schools, and of girls in them, 

arranged according to counties - - - . - 44 

24. Number of girls' schools of various sizes, arranged according to 

counties - - - - - - - -45 

25. Number of girls' schools containing various numbers of boarders, 

arranged according to counties - - - - - 45 

26. Number of schools charging various prices, and girls in them, 

arranged according to counties - - - - - 48 

27. Per-centage of schools teaching and girls learning the principal 

subjects - - - - - - - -49 

28. Ages of girls examined - - - - - - 66 

29. Number of girls learning the principal subjects in each county - 57 

30. Number of girls learning the principal subjects of each age - 58 

31. Time spent on the study of. music, drawing, and needlework 

respectively - - - - - - -58 

32. Average number of marks obtained by the girls in each subject in 

each class of schools - - - - - -58 

33. Average number of marks obtained in each subject in the afternoon 

papers by girls who learnt them - - - - - 60 

34. Average number of marks obtained by the girls in each school on the 

whole papers - - - - - . -60 

35. Number of girls obtaining a high number of marks in each class of 

schools - - - - - . . -61 

36. Average number of mai:ks obtained by the girls in each county - 61 



U E P R T. 



Mr Lords and Gentlemen, 

I HAVE now to lay before you the result of my inquiries District 
into the state of Middle-class Education in the district assigned ^s^'S°e°« 
ine. This district included the four AVelsh counties of Glamor- 
gan, Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomery, to which were subsequently 
added the county of Hereford and the towns of Chester, Shrews- 
bury, and Monmouth. 

To collect the requisite information I have been twice through Mode of 
the whole of my district. On the first occasion I visited all the collecting 
schools in it, with very few exceptions, and collected such statistics '" o"nation. 
concerning them and concerning the wants of the population sur- 
rounding them as I was able to obtain ; I also endeavoured to ascer- 
tain the opinions of the masters and mistresses on some of the most 
important questions connected with education ; and, lastly, I exa- 
mined viva voce a certain number of the schools. On the second occa- 
sion my object was to ascertain the actual state of knowledge of the 
children in the schools. For this pui-pose I prepared three papers 
of questions for boys and three papers for girls, copies of which 
will be given in the appendix to this Eeport. I set these papers to 
as many schools as were willing to receive them, in all cases super- 
intending the examination in person, or being represented by a 
gentleman acting as my deputy. In this way I examined 1,485 
boj^s from 39 schools, and 626 girls from 37 schools; and the 
results of those examinations, and the conclusions I have drawn 
from them, will be found at pp. 39 and 67. I also sent to all the 
private schools in my district the questions supplied to me by the 
Commission ; but I have not received many answers, only 
IS boys' schools and 29 girls' schools having returned the forms 
filled up, many of them only partially. This did not arise in most 
cases from any unwillingness to give the required infoi'mation, but 
merely from the difficulty in giving the requisite time experienced 
by persons so constantly engaged as are the masters and mis- 
tresses of most schools. Very many others, I know, wished and 
intended to return me their forms filled up. Several mistresses, objections to 
however, declined to fill up the paper, mainly, I think, on account questions 
of the nth and 12th questions, which they misunderstood, and " and 12. 
considered to amount to a reflection on their mode of keeping 
school. These two questions, in fact, have been one of the chief 

11643. a. c. 3. X 



Moral 
training. 



Aid afforded 
me in my 
investigation. 



Characteristics 
of district. 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 



Swansea, 
Cardiff, and 
Merthyr. 



2 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

obstacles I have experienced in obtaining the information 
required. . , 

I have felt strongly that in one respect my investigations liave 
been incomplete. I have only been able to test the intellec- 
tual training and general arrangements of the schools ; i have 
not attempted to investigate— and I think it would have been 
impossible to do so— the moral training, which is, after all, the 
most important part of education. I have, of course, formed some 
opinion in the case of individual schools ; and I may say generally, 
that, with some lamentable exceptions, the masters of schools in 
my district are, I believe, endeavouring to do their duty in this 
respect. I shall not, however, make any more particular repert- 
on this branch of the subject. 

On both occasions I have met with very great kindness and 
courtesy ; and in the majority of cases the masters and mistresses 
have afforded me all the information I desired, often at very consi- 
derable inconvenience to themselves, and have permitted me to 
examine their schools if I wished to do so. I would take this op- 
portunity, too, to return my especial thanks to those gentlemen 
who aided me in conducting my examinations. Whenever I have 
needed it, I have found gentlemen willing to devote the whole or 
greater part of a day to acting as my deputies in schools at which 
I was not able to be personally present, or aiding me when the 
numbers to be examined were more than I could properly super- 
intend. I was also greatly indebted to various gentlemen for the 
loan of rooms in which to conduct joint examinations ; and I may 
mention, in particular, the vicars choral of Hereford Cathedral, 
the vicars of Swansea, of St. Mary, Cardiff, and of Newtown, the 
mayor of Leominster, and the master of the grammar school at 
Swansea. The masters of the national schools at Swansea, Car- 
diff, and Newtown also deserve my sincere thanks for the aid they 
gave me in effecting the necessary arrangements. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the schools, and the 
education provided by them, I will endeavour to give some idea of 
the characteristics of the several counties comprised in my district. 

Glamorganshire is for the most part a mining and commercial 
district. The abundant supplies of coal and iron that are found 
in it attract into it and afford occupation to a very large popula- 
tion: the same causes make the ports on the coast active 
commercial centres, where a large amount of business is carried 
on besides that which I have named. The rise of this commercial 
activity in the county has been very rapid, and the increase of 
the population has been so likewise. During the 10 years from 
1851 to 1861 the population increased from 240,095 to 326,254, 
or nearly 36 per cent., though the rate of increase throughout 
the whole of South Wales was only 15 per cent. 

The three most important towns in the county are Swansea, 
Cardiff, and Merthyr ; their populations within the limits of the 
parliamentary boroughs are respectively 41,606, 32,954, and 
83,875. In 1831 their populations were only 19,672, 6,187, 
and 27,201. They differ very conpidcrably in character. Merthyr 



il7r. Jiumpas's Report. 3 

is tlie great centre of the iron mauufacture, ami the population 
consists ahnost entirely of persons engaged in the iron works. 
The number, therefore, of persons who are in a position to send 
their children to any other than a national or British school is 
comparatively very small, and it is still further diminished by the 
fact that there are excellent schools, conducted on the system of 
the National School Society, attached to each of the principal 
works, which the children of the managers, and others, (who, if this 
were not the case, wcJld be sent to private schools,) attend. 
Cardiff is the great shipping port for the coal and iron of the 
district, and has a more mixed population. The increase in the 
number of its inhabitants has been exceedingly rapid, especially 
about the docks, and in consequence rents are very high, and 
there is great difficulty in finding good accommodation for schools. 
The population in that part of the to\vii is such as is usually fjund in 
seaports, containing a large number of persons of the lowest classj 
together with a considerable number of sea captains, tradesmen, 
and others of the lower middle-class. The town has few attrac- 
tions except for purposes of business, and the inhabitants are 
almost all of them engaged in some trade or profession. The 
suburbs are healthy, and there are one or two considerable 
boarding schools ; but many of the upper middle-class send their 
children to Bath or Clifton, which are within easy reach, and this, 
appears to affect injuriously the upper-class schools in the town. 
Swansea has great commercial activity independently of the 
coal trade. It is the great centre of the trade in copper, more 
than half of the copper brought to England being smelted there. 
The inhabitants are for the most part prosperous, and besides 
those who have amassed fortunes in various branches of coannerce 
it contains a large number of well-to-do tradesmen, and clerks in the 
various works and offices, who receive considerable salnries. It pos- ^, 
sessesalso many of the attractions of a wateringplace,and there are a 
considerable number of ipersons living there who have no business 
engagements. It has, therefore, a far larger number of children 
needing a good education than either of the other towns. 

The agricultural population of the county consists chiefly of 
small farmers, many of whom have to work harder and live more 
sparingly than ordinary labourers. Such persons can hardly be 
expected to provide their children with more than a National 
school education. Where there are larger holdings the difficulty of 
obtaining labour is very great, owing to the high wages offered in 
the mining districts, and this both lessens the i)rofits of the farmers 
and at times almost obliges them to keep their children at home 
to do the necessary work on the farm, which, could not otherwise 
be provided for. 

The county of Flint is also to some extent a mining county. Flintshire. 
Coal and lead are found in considerable quantities, and it seems 
probable that these works will increase. At present, however, 
there has been no great influx of English into the county, and 
tlie mining operations, especially the lead mines, are conducted 
mainly by small adventurers. The towns are all small, the largest 
being Holywell and Mold, with populations of only 5,335 and 

A 2 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Denbighshire. 



Montgomery- 
shire. 



Herefordshire, 



Monmouth, 
Chester, and 
Shre-wsbiiry. 



3,735 respectively. Welsh is still spoken in many parts oi the 

county, but not on the borders of Cheshire, while it is becoming 

gradually supplanted by English along the coast and in the towns. 

Denbighshire is a large and important county, differing very much 

in character in different parts. It is mostly agricultural, but has 

several towns scattered through it. Wrexham, the principal one, 

is an important town of 7,5C2 inhabitants, with a considerable trade. 

Euabon is becoming surrounded by a very large population, owing 

to the coal and iron mines adjacent to it. There seems reason to 

suppose that there are minerals under a considerable part of the 

county. This is of some importance, as rendering probable an 

increase in value at some future time of the lands held by the 

different endowed schools. In the agricultural part of the county 

the farms are larger than in Glamorganshire, and its extreme 

beauty has drawn into it many gentlemen whose seats are scattered 

about it. It is greatly visited in summer by tourists, especially 

the vales of Llangollen, Clwyd, and Llanrwst, and in such places 

English is pretty generally spoken ; but in the less frequented 

parts "Welsh still prevails, and only a few miles from Denbigh I 

heard of persons holding considerable farms who knew no English. 

A great part of the county is very thinly populated, and for a 

distance of 15 miles square there are no schools of any kind 

except national schools. 

Montgomeryshire is an agricultural county, with the exception of 
the towns in which the woollen manufacture is carried on. It is 
very thinly populated, and the western district is mountainous. 
The population are rather poor, even the woollen manufacture 
being in a depressed state, and affording apparently but uncertain 
j)rofits. Through a large part of the county Welsh is the language 
still usually spoken. 

The county of Hereford is also an agricultural county, and 
considerable parts of it have not as yet been visited by the com- 
mercial activity which has spread throughout the rest of England. 
Hereford itself is an important county town, with a population of 
15,587, and is prosperous iind increasing. The four other principal 
towns are Koss, Leominster, Ledbury, and Kington. The farmers 
are for the most part prosperous, and have especially made large 
profits from their hop gardens during the last two or three years. 
The land is very rich, the average annual value per acre being 
25s., while in Glamorganshire it is only 10.s. 

Monmouth is a small and very quiet county town, with only 
5,783 inhabitants, but is remarkable for its Grammar School, 
which has a very large endowment. Chester contains 31,110 
inhabitants, and Shrewsbury 22,163. They contain a consider- 
able number of schools, to which Welsh children sometimes go 
on account of their vicinity to Wales, and it was mainly for that 
reason that they were added to my district. In the schools at 
Shrewsbury there appear, however, to be at present very few 
Welsh pupils. 

Some idea of the relative wealth and commercial Importance of 
the counties may be formed from the returns of the property-tax. 
The following table gives the annual value at which the differept 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 



species of property are rated in each county, and also the net Value of 
annual income taxed under schedule D., i.e., derived from trades, ^["^f^'^"' 
professions, or employments in the county : — ■ 

Table L 



district. 







Gross Annual Value of Property assessed under Schedule A. 


NetAmount 


County of 


Acreage. 


Land. 


Messuages. 


Mines and 
Ironworks. 


Xtatlways 
and Canals. 


Other 
Property, 


assessed 

under 

Schedule D. 


Denbigh 
Flint - 
Montgomery - 
Glaniorgan - 
Hereford 


386,052 
184,905 
483,323 
547,494 
534,823 


. £ 
326,915 
205,584 
287,168 
272,249 
678,635 


£ 

78,994 

74,051 

51,.552 

453,310 

147,448 


£ 

117,764 

53,467 

5,109 

356,568 

894 


& 

5,461 

2,8') 1 

2,913 

131,972 

40,611 


3,795 
3,069 
4,220 

88,778 
7,285 


■£, 

86,847 
107,366 

60,812 
527,116 
137,087 



The enormously superior wealth of Glamorganshire and the 
value of the land in Herefordshire are apparent. 

The object of the present inquiry being the education of the Proportion of 
middle, and upper classes, the returns of the population of the t^e population 
different counties obviously afford but a very small clue to the num- gjassf ™' ° 
ber of children who need such an education. An approximate idea 
of this, however, may be obtained from the inconie-tax returns. All 
persons with incomes derived from any trade, profession, or occupa- 
tion within the county are included in the income-tax returns 
under schedules D. or E. They do not include persons who derive 
their income only from fixed sources, such as the funds, but 
propably in such counties as those under consideration the number 
of these is comparatively small. Under scliedule B are assessed 
all those who are tenants of land of the value of 2QQI. a year or 
upwards, that being considered equivalent to the possession of an 
income of lOOZ. a year. From this number, however, considerable 
deductions must be made, from the fact that the ftxrms and not the 
persons are rated, and that one person holding two farms would be 
counted as two persons. 

The following table will show the number of persons engaged Income tax 
in any business or occupation who have a total income above lOOZ. i"eta™s. 
and less than 200Z., and also those who have an income above 200/. 

Table 2. 



County of 



Denbigh - 

riint 

Montgomery 

Glamorgan 

Hereford 



Total 
Population. 



104,346 

39,941 

76,923 

326,254 

106,796 



Persons 

having an 

Income more 

than 100?., less 

than 2002. 



187 
354 
255 
1,350 
268 



Per.Wn3 

having; an 

Income of 

more than 

•iWl. 



469 
375 
200 
1,689 
"76 



Persons 




having Farms 


Total 


ofSOOi.aYe.^r 


Middle Class 


and upwards. 




1,.^09 


2,165 


1,100. 


1,389 


. 1,353 


1,873 


1,778 


4,817 


4,827 


5,871 



It will be seen that, with the exception of Glamorganshire, all the 
counties have a fiir larger population devoted to agriculture than 



6 



Schools Inquiry Ctmynission. 



Number of 
children of 
the middle 

class. 



Character of 
the Welsh. 



to all other pursuits put together. It will also be remarked that 
in Flint, Montgomery, and Glamorganshire nearly half the persons 
who have incomes exceeding lOOZ. have less than 200/. a year. 

It appears from the census tables that the average number of 
children in a family where the father and mother are living is 2-26, 
and where the head of the family is a widow or widower is 1"35, 
and also that the numbers of families in which there is a husband 
and wife, in which the head is a widow or widower, and in which the 
head is a bachelor or spinster, are about in the proportion of 40, 19 
ahd 41. 'The average number of children to a family, therefore, 
may be reckoned at 1'16. About one-third of these may be taken as 
the number of children between the ages of 10 and 16, giving about 
■38 as the number of children to a family who should be receiving 
a middle-class education. Assuming that these are half of them 
boys, we may say, as a rough approximation, that there are 411 
boys of the middle class, between the ages of 10 and 16, in Denbigh- 
shire, 359 in Flint, 356 in Montgomeryshire, 915 in Glamorganshire, 
and 1,115 in Herefordshire, or a total of 3,156. It will be seen 
from Table 3 that this is considerably above the numbers of boys 
actually in schools in the five counties, as might be expected from 
the fact that the average time boys remain at school is considerably 
less than six years, while deductions have to be made for boys 
educated at home and boys sent to national schools. In Glamorgan- 
shire, however, the number of boys in school is in excess of that 
given above. The greatest difference in the numbers is, as might 
be expected, in the agricultural county, Herefordshire, the educa- 
tion of farmers' children being much below that of other classes of 
the community. 

A few remarks may also be desirable with respect to the 
character of the Welsh, and the effect of the use of the Welsh 
language on the schools in my district. 

The Welsh, as a rule, are wanting in enterprise, .and not 
willing to expend or risk money for future advantages. They 
are, however, steady and industrious. They are also distinguished 
by a great love of knowledge, and even among the common 
miners there are many well acquainted with the highest part of 
mathematics, and it is quite usual for servants and labourers to 
compose essays and poems for the various eistedtifods. It would 
iippear to result from these two characteristics, that on the one 
hand parents are unwilling to spend money on the education of 
I heir children for the sake of the future advantages that may flow 
to them from it, and on the other, those very children when ^rown 
up will pinch themselves to save enough to enable them to go to 
school for a year when they are between 20 and 30. The presence 
in Welsh schools, especially those in South Wales, of these young 
men is a very marked characteristic. In many schools there are a 
considerable number of young men from 18 to 25 years of 
age, who have worked either as miners or as farmers, and saved 
just enough to enable them to live for a year in the cheapest 
way and attend school. At the end of the time they either return 
to their work, and occupy in it a rather superior position to that 



Mr. Bompais Heport. 7 

which they held before, or go to some college and enter the 
dissenting ministry. They not unfrequently go to schools on the 
borders of England, as, for instance, at Shrewsbury, or Kington 
in Herefordshire. They work in classes with boys of 12 or 13 
without the least hesitation, and apparently with no disadvantage 
to either. The fact that throughout Wales it is usual for the 
Sunday sctoolo' to be attended by grown-up pei'sons as well as 
children seems to prevent any feeling of pride in the matter, and 
to take away also the feeling that childhood is the special time for 
education. Except as above, and in respect of the language, I 
do not think "^ that there is any material difference between the 
state of education in a Welsh and an English county. 

One important consideration in Welsh schools, however, is the Prevalence of 
Welsh language. This is still spoken for the most part in the J'^^^^'s'i 
country districts. In thfe towns English is spoken almost entirely, 
and also along the English border. In all schools, whether for 
elementary education or otherwise, English is the language taught, 
and in most middle-class schools the master either does not kViow 
Welsh, or, if he does, abstains from using it in school, in ordei: 
that the boys may speak and understand English. From this 
and other causes Welsh is gradually disappearing as a spoken 
language. All the children, in fact, learn English, though many 
now forget it as they grow up ; and, as the railways and other 
causes bring into the country those who can speak English but do 
not know Welsh, there will be an additional inducement to them 
not to do so. The language is dying out most rapidly in Glamorgan- 
shire, mainly on account of the great influx of English and Irish. 
Thirty years ago Welsh was usually spoken in Swansea ; now it is 
never heard there, except from persons coming in from the country. 
The shopkeepers and others, however, still learn it in order to be able 
to communicate with country persons. It would appear that it is 
beginning in some parts to be considered unfashionable for girls to 
know Welsh, and this feeling is likely to make the language die 
out rapidly, at least among the middle classes. The Welsh Its effect on 
language interferes in two ways with education. In many cases education. 
the pupils do not know English well enough to understand what 
the master says for a considerable time after they come to school. 
I met with several schools to which pupils not uncommonly came 
who could not speak a word of English, the master or mistress of 
which did not understand any Welsh. Where the main object is 
to learn English this may be an advantage ; but it must interfere 
greatly with the acquisition by the pupil of other branches of 
knowledge. Even when the pupils know English suificiently to 
understand their master, they often think in Welsh, and have to 
translate the lessons they receive into Welsh before xhey fully 
comprehend them ; this makes them seem dull and slow in dnder- 
standing what is taught them. Whenever Welsh is the Janguage 
usually spoken by their parents, this will, I think, be the case ; 
and it certainly adds greatly to the difficulty of teaching, especially 
in day schools to which the pupils come from a country district. 
I was greatly struck by the fact that children who know English 



8 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

very imperfectly speak, nevertheless, with such a good accent, 
and so grammatically, that their deficiency very often is not 
perceived at first ; I am convinced that in some cases the masters 
attribute to natural deficiency an apparent dullness jthat arises 
really from an imperfect knowledge of English, i can only 
account for this peculiarity by the fact that the pupils learn what 
little English they know when they are children, and that chil- 
dren can imitate accents and modes of speaking better than older 
persons ; certainly any foreigner who was acquainted with as few 
words as some of the boys are in Welsh schools would speak a 
broken English which no one could mistake. I think this fact 
may be worthy of consideration in determining the question, at 
Avhat age and in what manner French and other modern lan- 
guages should be taught. 
Classes of I proceed to consider the education supplied by the schools 

schools usually {^ t}jg above district. It may be well to state first, in a general 
toTTOs. ° form, the result of my inquiries. In the large towns there are usually 
first, National and British schools, to which the children of the 
working classes and the small shopkeepers go. These charge from 
2d. to 6d. a week, according to the position in life of the children 
who attend. 2ndly, there are usually one or two schools kept 
either by masters who have formerly taught a National school, or 
by persons of similar position ; such masters for the most part 
appear to take an interest ia their work, but seldom teacb more 
ilian is taught at the National schools. They chai'ge 10s. or 15s. 
a quarter, or in some cases by the week; they sometimes have 
mixed schools for boys and girls. To such schools the smaller 
tradespeople send their children ; and many who at first go to a 
National school are sent when 11 or 12 yeai-s old for a year to 
such a school to " finish," more for the sake of their being able to 
say that they have been educated at a private schoolthan on 
account of any difference in the education itself. Some of these 
schools are very bad, but I think such are exceptions ; the 
masters usually do their best, and though there is a deficiency 
in point of order and discipline, the boys get more individual 
attention than can be given in a National school to any except the 
first class. The chiklren of parents of a rather higher class of 
EDciety often attend such schools for the first few years of tlieir 
education ; in fact, each class of school contains boys who will be 
reinoved for the last year or two of their education to more 
expensive schools. Srdly. Above these there are schools which 
charge from one guinea to two guineas a quarter for day boys, and 
which almost invariably have boarders also, especially if chaiffinc 
tiie higher terms. Of these, the grammar schools for the mostpai^ 
still make classics the foundation of their education, but other 
schools almost without exception have ceased to teach Greek 
except occasionally, and pay most attention to the more practical 
subjects. The day scholars of these schools are the sons of trades- 
men and professional men. The latter very usually leave and oo 
to a boarding school in England for the last year or two oF their 
education, partly for the sake of losing any peculiarities which 



Mr. Bompas's Reporter 9 

they may have as Welshmen, partly that they may break off the 
associations which they have formed at school with boys of the 
same town of a lower position in society, and partly in some cases 
from a preference for the stricter discipline of a boarding school. 
The boarders are usually from some distance ; in the case of the 
grammar schools they frequently come from England; in the 
commercial schools they are mostly the sons of farmers, not 
however, at all universally of farmers in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. 

To illustrate these observations we may take the instance of Schools at 
Swansea, the most important town, educationally speaking, in my '^^°^*^' 
district. In it there are, besides the National and British Schools, 
a school of about 30 boys at 10.s. a quarter, a school of about 80 
boys at one guinea a quarter, a school of about 90 boys, another 
of 60 boys, and another of 30 boys at 1^ guineas a quarter; the 
grammar school of about 90, and another School of 30, charging two 
guineas a quarter. There does not appear to be much distinction 
between the five last-mentioned schools, with respect to the class 
of boys who attend them, which includes the sons of tradesmen, 
clerks, and professional men ; the first-mentioned school is attended 
by boys corresponding to the upper class of boys attending the 
National schools, and the second is almost entirely attended by the 
sons of tradesmen and farmers. There is also a boarding school at 
the Mumbles, a few miles from Swansea, containing VO boys of a 
class similar to those in the five schools above mentioned. In the 
grammar school,- and the grammar school only, are classics made 
the principal subject of education, though classics are taught in 
diflTerent degrees in all but one of the other schools. 

In small towns there is usually a school charging 10s. or one Schools in 
guinea a quarter, and sometimes a better school charging one and a small towns, 
half or two guineas. The principal schools in small towns are, 
perhaps, more deserving than any others of the serious attention of 
the Commission ; they are far more difiicult to support than those in 
larger towns, for the number of children of an age to go to school 
varies' from time to tiaie, and the size of the school is therefore 
necessarily fluctuating; and if such schools are in an unsatisfactory 
state in any townj the education of the sons of the tradespeople is 
likely to suffer seriously. A second school is seldom started, the 
boys in the town not being sufficiently numerous to support two 
schools, and the tradesmen and other inhabitants have, therefore, 
no alternative but either to send their sons to a boarding school, 
or to put up with the unsatisfactory teaching which the particular 
school may afford. The former of these alternatives often entails 
a greater expense than they are well able to afford. 

It is in the case of farmers and others living in small villages, Education in- 
however, that the greatest difficulty occurs. These, if they are country 
near some town, often send their boys into it to echool by day, but 
otherwise they are obliged either to send them to the National 
school or to a boarding school. The former they objec; to from a 
feeling that they do not need charitable help, or from a dislike to 
the associations which their children would form there ; and even if 



10 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Favourable 
opinion of the 
educatioii 
given. 



Chief 
difficulties. 



Time boys 
remain at 
school. 



Irregularity of 
attendance. 



Reir.cdy for 
this evil. 



they do send their children to them, such rural schools are usually 
in a very unsatisfactory state. The latter, if the family be large, 
is often beyond their means. These remarks do not apply merely 
to farmers, but still more to clergymen and other professional men 
living in country villages, and I fear the education obtained by the 
children of such persons is often very unsatisfactory. I shall refer 
to this question again when treating of endowments. 

With respect to the education given at the schools, I may state 
that I have formed on the whole a favourable opinion. It of 
course varies greatly in different schools, and there are still many 
schools in which it is exceedingly unsatisfactorj^ In most cases, 
however, the masters are really in earnest in their work and 
endeavouring to do their best. The result of the examinations to 
be presently detailed will afford more distinct information on this 
point. 

The great difficulty in the way of education appears to be the 
short time that the pupils remain at school, and the irregularity with 
which they attend even during the few years that they are there. 
The time boys remain at school appears to be diminishing ; this is 
partly owing to the much larger number of boys who can find 
employment in various ways than formerly, and partly to the fact 
that boys now acquire more readily the elements of reading, 
writing, and arithmetic, on account of the better books in use and 
better methods of teaching employed ; and in many cases parents 
take their sons away as soon as they are able to read, write, 
and cipher tolerably, without reference to their age. A still 
greater evil, at least in the cheaper schools, is the irregularity of 
the attendance of the pupils. It is a very common thing for a boy 
to be kept away from school for a quarter on account of harvest, 
or because his parents are going to the sea-side ; and in some cases 
boys are only sent to school the longest quarters, in order that their 
parents may get as much as possible for their monej'. So common 
is this in some places, that the schools have adopted the plan of 
dividing the year equally, independently of Easter, in order to 
avoid it. In some cases this irregularity of attendance seems 
almost unavoidable, as in parts of Glamorganshire, where labour at 
harvest and other busy times actually cannot be obtained, and the 
assistance of his sens is absolutely necessary to the farmer to 
preserve his crops. In most cases, however, it arises simply from 
the apathy of the parents, and their carelessness respecting the 
education of their children. The masters everywhere complain of 
this most bitterly and apparently with good reason. Until parents 
can be made to feel that it is necessary for the purposes of educa- 
tion that the boys should attend school regularly, and that to keep 
them away is as real a crime as to ill-treat their children physically, 
it is vain to hope that education will be really successful. Various 
remedies for this evil have been suggested. It is hoped by many 
that the generation who are now being educated, having learnt 
more than their predecessors, will have also learnt to value education 
more highly. Some think that an improvement might be effected in 
the case of farmers, the class whose children are the most frequently 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 



11 



kept away, if the principal landholders of each district would use 
every, occasion and all the influence they possess to impress on them 
• the importance of a regular education. , A system of examinations 
would probably have much influence in the same direction, both by 
keeping the question of education before the. public mind, and by 
inducing the boys to wish really to be regular in order to secure a 
prize — the will of the children having but too.much influence with 
their parents in this matter^ I hope the present inquiry may do 
much good in the same way, by calling the attention of the public 
in the districts in which the inquiry has been prosecuted to the 
evils of irregular attend£!,nce at school. 

I proceed now to give the statistics of the schools in my district. Statistics. 
drawn mainly from the answers I received to the questions supplied 
to me by the Commissioners, and shall illustrate the results by such 
information as I have been able to obtain by personal inquiries. 

I felt some difficulty in deciding what schools came within the Difficulty in 
terms of the Commission ; on jthe one hand many National Schools Jh^i'g^n- 
have a senior class in which the boys are taught Euclid and alge- eluded in the 
bra, and on the other hand there are private schools to which well- Commission. 
to-do tradesmen send their sons, at which, lit tie, more than reading, 
writing, and arithmetic, and the elements of history, geography, 
and grammar, are taughf. I have drawn the line as well as I have 
been able, excluding for the most, part weekly schools, and includ- 
ing all schools for the children of farmers and tradesmen, unless 
they were only preparatory sphools. The number and size of the 
schools in the different counties and the number of children in 
them, whether as day boys or . boarders, will be seen from the 
following tables: — 

Table 3. No. of boys' 

schools and 
scholars. 



County of 


No. of 

Day 

Schools. 


No. of 
Mixed 
Schools. 


No. of 
Boarding 
Schools. 


Total 
Schools. 


No. of 
Day Boys. 


No. of 
Boarders. 


Total 
Boys. 


Denbigh 
Flint - 
Montgomery - 
Glamorgan 
Hereford 
Chester (city) - 


3 
2 
1 
10 
2 


5 
4 
4 
14 
8 
5 


3 



2 
1 


11 

6 

5 

24 

12 
7 


167 
179 
12S 
840 
286 
130 


163 
33 
60 
226 
227 
138 


330 
212 

188 

1,066 

513 

268 


Total - 


20 


40 


6 


65 


1,730 


847 


2,577 



Table 4. 



Size of schools. 



County of 



Denbigh 
Flint - 
Montgoinery 
Glamorgan 
Hereford 
Chester (city) 

Total 



No. of Schools 
containing less 
than 25 Boys. 



3 
1 
1 
2 
4 
3 

14 



No. of Schools 
containing more 
than 25 Boys and 
less than 50 Boys. 



7 
4 
2 
14 
4 



33 



No. of Schools 

containing more 

than' 50 Boys. 



18 



12 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



No. of endowed 
and private 
schools, and 
scholars in 
them 
respectively. 



Endowed 
larger than 
private schools. 



Proprietary 
schools. 



Comparative 
merits of 
hoarding and 
day schools. 







Table 5 


. 










County of 






"gel 

mg 

M 

46 
30 
20 
29 
49 





^11 


it 

91 
76 
75 
768 
112 
60 


.5- 
d|l 

«i 

117 
3 
40 
197 
178 
138 


III 


Denbigh - 

Flint - 

Montgomery 

Glamorgan 

Hereford - . - 

Chester (city) - ' - 


3 
1 
2 

4 
1 


76 
103 

53* 

72 
174 

70 


122 
133 

73 
101 
223 

70 

722 


7 
3 
4 
22 
8 


208 
79 
115 
965 
290 
198 


Total - 


15 


548 


174 


.50 1 1,182 

i 


673 


1,855 



It will be seen from the last table that endowed schools are on 
an average rather larger than private schools, the diflference being 
in the number of day boys ; the average for endowed schools 
being 37 day scholars and 11 boarders, and in private schools 
24 day scholars and 13 boarders. This is partly due, no doubt, to 
the fact that the endowments enable them to give a good educa- 
tion for a very small payment, especially in the case of day boys. 
The system of proprietary schools seems hardly as yet to have 
been introduced into my district — one in the city of Hereford, 
and one small one in Denbighshire, being the only examples ; tlie 
Ladies' College at Hereford, however, is a remarkable instance of 
a similar principle being applied to ladies' schools, it having been 
established by a joint stock company \7ith limited liability. 

If any difficulty should arise hereafter in the formation of pro- 
prietary schools, either from the provisions of the " Joint Stock 
Companies Act, 1862," which renders a partnership of more 
than 20 persons for purposes of profit illegal,, or from the fact that 
an action cannot be brought against any of their own body to 
enforce the payment of the school fees. It may be desirable to 
adopt this plan, and form the proprietary body into a joint-stock 
company. 

There is some difference of opinion as to the relative merits of 
day schools and boarding schools as places of education. Almost 
all the masters of schools agree in saying that it is better for a boy 
to be a boarder than a day scholar. Their reasons appear to be prin- 
cipally two : 1st, that day boys are liable to interruptions at home 
which prevent them from properly preparing their lessons in the 
evening, and have their minds so taken up with other interests, that 
they cannot fix them on their work ; and, 2ndly, that a boarding 
school affords, on account of its stricter discipline, the best moral 
training, and gives the master greater opportunities of knowing the 
boys thoroughly, and so enables him to train iiiore effectually their 
characters and dispositions. The over indulgence of parents, or 
their failing to support the authority of the masters, often occasions 
difficulty in the education of day boys. 

* The day scholars at this Grammar School are of the same class as attend a 
National school. 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 13 

Boarders appear in many cases to be less remunerative to the 
masters than their day scholars, and I have no reason therefore to 
attribute the above opinion to prejudice. Among parents there is 
more difference of opinion, but very many of them also prefer 
boarding schools. 

In very many cases, however, that which decides the mode of 
education is the question of expense. Boarding schools are neces- 
sarily much more expensive than day schools need be, or usually 
iare, and most parents, therefore, unless wealthy, are glad to avail 
themselves of a good day school, if there be one in the town in 
which they ai'e living. On the other hand, farmers (avHo it will be 
remembered are as numerous as all those who derive their 
incomes, from any other trade or profession) have for the most 
part no day schools to which they can send their sons except the 
Ifational or British schools, and they therefore are compelled to 
send their sons to bbarding schools, at any rate for the latter part 
of their education. 

Most schools consist partly of boarders and partly of day Schools having 
scholars. Those that take only day scholars are usually schools ^oarders and 
for the lower middle class. Only six schools in my district ^ <= o ars. 
ta,ke only boairders. Almost all the masters, however, that I 
have spoken to on the subject think that the presence of day 
scholars is an injury to a boarding school; they give as reasons 
that the day scholars bring the news of the town into the school, 
and so distract the attention of the boarders from their work ; that 
the preservation of the discipline of the school is rendered more 
difficult by the boys having a means of communiciitlng with the 
town ; that the day boys are apt to come with their lessons un- 
prepared, and thus delay the class ; and that the hours of the day 
scholars being fixed, they cannot alter the school hours to suit the 
weathei", or any special circumstances that may arise ; these 
remark^ seem t6 apply- with more force to girls' schools than to 
boy's' schools. ' On the other hand, the masters of most day schpols 
seeni to be of opinion that the presence of a few boarders in the 
sdhool is an advantage. It appears to raise the estirnation and 
standing of the school, and creates a degree of esprit de corps 
aniong the' scholars. In the case of high class schools it also 
adds considei'ably to the income of the schoolmaster, and thus 
enables him to render the school more efficient. In the lower 
class 6f schools the boardefs appear to be less profitable than the 
day scholars. Against these advantages it is urged by others that Objection to 
the toasters are apt to neglect the day scholars for the sake of the ^oarders in 
boarders, in whom they feel a stronger interest. In the new scheme Monmonth" 
for the Llanrwst Grammar School, the number of boarders allowed grammar 
to be taken by the head-master has been limited to 12,in consequence s<='i°<'ls. 
of this feeling ; and a strong party at Monmouth are using every 
endeavour to prevent any alteration in the present rules, which pro- 
hibit the master of the grammar school there from taking any board- 
ers. AtButhin, on the contrary, great opposition was shown to the Contrary 
late master, on the ground that he was unwilling to take any S^^?.^ ^* 
boarders, from which it was said (and I think with more reason) that " °* 
the school was likely to suffer. My own impression is, that it is 



14 



Schoofs Inquiry Commission. 



Relative 
advantages of 
large and 
small schools. 



Size of classes 
and number of 
masters. 



Number of boys 
in a class 
varies Trith 
subjects 



always a benefit to the day scholars in a school' when the master 
takes some boarders, and that in many cases the boarders also in 
mixed schools are more favourably situated than those in schools 
where there are only boarders, because while they have the advan- 
tage of large numbers when in school, they have more of the, 
individual care and personal influence of the master out of school. 

The size of the schools in my district is shown by Table 4. 
AU masters almost desire that their schools should be as large as 
possible, and their evidence, therefore, is of little value as to the 
best size for a school. The general impression of parents, also, 
however, is, I think, in favour of a large school. The advantages 
of such a school appear to be that the boys can be divided into 
classes of a sufficient size, and yet the boys in each class be nearly 
equal to one another in knowledge ; and thus larger classes can be 
taught efficiently by one master. There can also be a more per- 
fect division of labour among the mastert!, each taking the duties 
for which he is most fit. From these causes, and from the fact ■ 
that many of the household expenses are the same for a large school 
as a small one, the education is or should be cheaper. There is also 
more competition among the boys and more esprit de corps. The 
objections to a large school are, that the boys must be left more to 
assistant masters, who are usually not men of the same ability and 
who have always far less motive to exertion than the head-master ; 
and that while the head-master will have less personal influence 
oh each of the boys in a large number, it is not the duty of the 
assistant masters to supplement that influence in the case of any 
individual boys. Of this, however, being rather a question of moral 
influence than of intellectual training, I cannot speak with any 
authority. It may be remarked that the cheaper schools, charging 
one guinea a quarter, or less, are usually taught entirely by the 
head-master, and seldom contain more than 30 or 40 boys. 

The size of the classes into which the boys are divided varies 
both with the schools and with the subjects. Omitting one or two 
schools, which from their small size or other reasons would not 
give any true criterion on the subject, out of 18 private schools 
from which I have returns,' I find seven taught entirely by the 
master himself, with an average of 39 boys in each school ; this 
number is, however, increased by one large school of 70 boys 
taught by the master alone, with some assistance from the elder 
boys. The average without this would be 34, which may perhaps 
be taken as a fair average for schools of that class. The other 11 
schools contain 517 boys and 31 teachers, or one teacher to 
17 boys. The number of masters is greatest in the most expensive 
schools ; thus, in the four most expensive of the above schools, 
there are 157 boys and 12 masters, or one master to every 13 boys. 

The number of boys taught in class at one time is not of course 
so large as the above. It varies considerably with the subjects 
taught, the classes in Latin and Greek being decidedly smaller 
than those in history and grammar, &c. Thus on an average of 
eight schools I find the average size of a class in the English°sub- 
jects is 13, and in Latin only seven. This diflference may partly 
atise from the fact that in almost every school the number of boys 



Jlir. I^umpas^s Report. 



15 



learning Latin is smaller than that of those learning English gram- 
mar, history, and geography ; but most masters agree that it is 
possible to" teach a larger class of boys well in the English subjects 
than in Latin. The general opinion is, that 12 is about the largest 
number that can be properly taught classics in one class, but that 
15 or even 20 may by a good master be taught history or geogra- 
phy quite as well as a smaller number. This probably arises partly 
from the fact that to translate even one sentence in Latin takes 
longer than to answer several questions in history or geography ; 
and a master can, therefore, test the knowledge of a larger number 
of boys in a given time in the latter subject than the former. It 
is possible that the necessity in classical schools of the classes being 
smaller is one reason why such schools are usually the most expen- 
sive. 

The following table will show the usual charge for education Terms charged 
in my district. 

Table 6. — Day Schools. 



to day 
scholars. 





Glan 


lorganshire. 


De^i 


biglishire. 


I'lintshire. 


Montgomeryshire.. 






» 












« 














































































































13 






-a 
































,! 


^'o 




°o 






°o 




o 


On 




o 




,^" 




m 


6V 


^ 


w 


,m 


^ 


H 


,"" 


^ 


W 




^^ 


a 


■s 


'''-'^ 


«M 


O 


^^ 




■o 


^^ 


n 


■s 








d 






d 










o 








o 


-A 




O 


1? 




d 


12; 




6 


;? 






-A i ' 




f<:, 






^ 






!2i 




Sphools charg- 


" ^ 


313 ! 10 


O 


55 


7 


5 


171 


30 


1 
3 


83 


28 


.ingrot inore 






















! than Iguinea 






















■ per quarter. 






















More than 1 


11 


451 ' 185 


5 


92 


39 


1 




2 


40 


32 


guinea and 






















not more tlian 






















2 guineas per 






















quai'ter. 
























More than 2 


3 


74 


25 


1 


20 


3S 


1 


8 


3- 




._ 


- 


guin'ea^<i per 


























quarter. 



























[continued) . 





Herefords 


liiro. 


Chcste 


r. 





Total. 






1 rt 




n 


<« 


g 


n 






3 


fe 




'o 






■3 


S^ 












,^ 


13 




rd 




/ : 




A 
& 




^^1 




o 


°1 




m 




'^£. 




■s 


'^OQ 


P 


o 


12; o 


P 


•s 








d 




o 


o 







d 






d 


^ 




o 


ki 




d 


|2; 






fe 






^ 






^ 




ScTiools charging not more than 


5 


161 


42 








23 


787 


163 


1 guinea per qiuirter. 




















More than 1 guinea and not more 


3 


63 


96 


1 


70 




25 


719 


34,2. 


than 2 guineas per quarter. ' 




















More than 2 guineas per quarter. 


2 


02 


43 


5 


60 


78 


12 


224 


186 



The above are, of course, exclusive of extra charges. In some 
cases there is a lower charge for boys under a certain age. 1 
have in most cases clMSsified the school according to the liigher 
charge. . , 



16 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Terms charged 
l)y boarding 
schools. 



Table 7.— Boaeding Schools. 





Glamorganshlrp. 


Denbighshire. 


Flintshire. 


Montgomerj'shjre 




■i 


M 


k 

II 


■§ 




1"^ 


1 


ll 


II 

Hi's 


3 


S4 

©'3 


Is 






M^ 




7?' 


w™ 


el 


75 


fe«! 


•s 


B"j 


S";; 




O 


r§ 




o 


o p 


O 




Si 


o 


■og 


S'i 




d 


feifl 


n.S 


o 


;2;.S 


O.S 


d 


S.S 


o.t! 


o 


^.H 


n.S 




Iz; 


■12 


15 


^ 




^ 


K 




fe 


% 




iz; 


Schools charg- 


4 


202 


1 ' 


.SI 




1 


8 


57 


2 


8 


35 


ing less than 


























25 guineas a 
year, 
liess than 35 


























4 


73 


155 


4 


63 


29 


2 


22 


46 


2 


52 


83 


guineas and 


























not less than 


























25 giiineas a 
year, 
less than BO 


















p 








5 


95 


137 


o 


42 


45 . 


1- _ 






_ 


_ 


^ 


guineas and 


























not less than 














' 












S5 guineas a 


























year. 


























Hot less than 


1 


10 


27 


1 


22 


22 


1 


3 


3 






-. 


50 guineas a 


























year. 



























(contimted.) 





Herefordshire. 


Chester, 


Total 






?' CB 


1^. 




m a 


^ 09 






§,- 








































































































o 




Si 


■§ 

02 

■3 


6" 




1 
o 


5cQ 
d " 






d 


^.s 


d.3 


o 


S.S 


o.S 


£ 


;z;.S 


n=- 




^ 




fe 


^ 




^ 


fe 




;z; 


Schools cliarging less tliati 25 gui- 


4 


83 


65 








12 


172 


359 


neas a year. 




















Less than 35 guineas and not less 


3 


75 


47 






_ 


15 


290 


360 


than 25 tineas a year. 




















Xess than 50 guineas and not less 


1 


8 


63 


3 


54 


51 


11 


200 


301 


than 35 guineas a yesr. 




















Not less than 50 guineas a year. 


2 


60 


60 


3 


84 


9 


8 


179 


126 



Pupils taken at 
less than the 
terms named. 



Extras. 



There is one subject connected with these schools on which I 
have not been able to obtain exact information, but which renders 
it necessary to receive the results with caution. It is very usual 
for schoolmasters to take some pupils at less than the terms named 
in their prospectus. This is sometimes confined to the sons of clero-y- 
men, or boys having some special claim to consideration, while 
in others it extends to any who are unwilling or unable to pay 
the full terms. It is, I think, done principally in unsuccessful 
schools, in which it is difficult to obtain the full terms. I do not 
think, however, that this will materially affect the results given 
in the table, which are formed from the terms mentioned in the 
prospectuses. 

French, German, drawing, drilling, and music, if taught, are 
usually extras, and in some cases Latin and Greek also. These latter 
are made extras chiefly in small schools, where they are required 



Mr. Bompai's Efiporf. 



17 



by one or two boys only. I found some masters who had formerly 
made Latin an extra had given up doing so, on the ground that 
the extra charge preyented many from learning it, while they 
thought it was a subject which it was desirable should be learned 
by all their pupils. 

It is difficult to give more than a general idea of the ages of the Ages of the 
scholars. Out of 1,094 scholars mentioned in the returns from 25 ^'^'^o'^i's- 
schools in my district, 205 are under 10 ; 559 between 10 and 14 ; 
230 between 14 and 16 ; and 100 over 16. The latter include the 
young men whom I have mentioned above, and whose presence in 
the schools of Wales and the neighbouring English counties is one of 
their most marked characteristics. In the cheaper schools the boys 
leave earlier, because they are usually of a lower grade of society, 
and therefore have to enter when younger on some employment. 
Thus in schools charging two guineas or upwards, the per-centage 
of the pupils more than 14 years of age is 32 per cent., while for 
schools charging one guinea or less per quarter it is 28 per cent. 
The age at which boys leave school depends, however, a good deal 
upon the master : if parents see their son making real progress, 
they are usually ready to allow him to remain another year at 
school if the master advises it. It will be remembered, however, 
that for the reasons given above the difficulty of retaining boys 
long at school appears to be increasing. 

In considering the subjects that are taught at the various schools, 
I shall first give a Table showing the per-centage of schools which 
teach, and of boys who learn, the more important subjects, and then 
make some remarks upon the subjects separately. 

Number of 
schools at 
which the 
more im- 
portant subjects 
are taught, 
and number of 
boys who learn 
them. 





Table 8. 


















^ 






J- w 




.| 




I 


%k% 


Boysi 
above 
arter 
n. 


.1 


II 


Subjects. 


II 




s 


« to ^ 




b 


1^ 






1 




Per-oentag 

Schools char 

Guinea 

who 


n 




Greek - 


59 


83 


15 


23 


23 


30 


4 


Latin - - _ - , 


87 


100 


46 


56 


59 


80 


32 


French ~ 


76 


100 


26 


31 


37 


73 


21 


German 


14 


23 


1 


4 


2 


— 


— 


Book-keeping 


75 


66 


11 


16 


7 


78 


1 + 


Mensuration and surveying - 


65 


54 


8 


11 


4 


73 


in 


Mathematics beyond arithmetic 


80 


92 


28 


32 


32 


71 


24 


English Grammar - 


86 


77 


71 


86 


72 


lOo 


86 


Miisic - 


45 


50 


11 


26 


13 


50 


9 


Drawing 


95 


)00 


37 


38 


33 


92 


32 


Chemistry - 


19 


13 


2 


12 


1 


31 


3 



These Tables are formed from the returns that I have received, Remarks on 
which are not sufficiently numerous to make the results perfectly the difterent 
accurate. I think, however, they give a substantially correct view ^'^ ^^'^ s aug . 



n. c. 3. 



18 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

of the extent to which the diflferent subjects are taught in my 
district. The returns do not include the schools in Chester, but 
only in the five counties of my district. The returns from Chester 
would differ in some degree, though in the main analogous. 
It will be seen that German and chemistry are hardly taught at 
all ; they are not taught in fact as part of the school course any- 
where. Book-keeping and mensuration are most taught in the 
cheap schools, while Latin and Greek are most taught in the 
more expensive schools; and especially in grammar schools; 
English grammar is taught everywhere except in two or three 
of the leading grammar schools. Euclid and algebra are much 
less taught than Latin, though more so than Greek, and there 
is less difference in the amount of them taught in the cheaper 
and more expensive schools. A good deal of the teaching of 
Euclid is, I think, of a very unsatisfactory kind, many of the 
boys who profess to learn it really knowing nothing at all of the 
subject. There is, I think, rather more music taught than appears, 
some boys learning it away from school, and some schools having 
classes for the boys in play hours as part of their recreation. 

Eeligious teaching. In almost all schools some time is given 
to direct religious teaching. The nature of this varies in different 
schools. In grammar schools, and in some other schools, it 
includes the teaching of the Church catechism, but boys are 
usually allowed to omit this at the request of their parente. In 
schools where the* boys are required to bring a written request 
from the parents before they are excused, such a request is seldom 
sent. This, however, probably does not so much arise from a 
willingness that their boys should learn it as from a dislike to 
interfere. In one or two schools the masters have told me that it 
would create a difficulty if some boys learned jt and others did 
not, and that it was desirable, therefore, that it should be 
compulsory on all ; others, however, stated that there was no 
difficulty in so arranging the times for learning it, that it should 
not interfere at all with the work or discipline of the school. At 
Cowbridge Grammar School the Church catechism was at one time 
taught to all the boys in the school ; but it having been suggested 
that some of the answers when put into the mouths of Dissenters 
were absolutely untrue, and that repeating them therefore taught 
such boys to undervalue truth, or to disbelieve the whole — a view 
in which the present head-master seems to fully concur — it has for 
some years past been taught only to the sons of members of the 
Church of England. Most of the larger private schools in my 
district are kept by Dissenters. I believe there is only one 
private school in the four Welsh counties containing more than 
50 boys that is not. They, however, contain boys whose parents 
are members of the Church of England, as the grammar Bchools 
contain many boys whose parents are Dissenters. 

Greek This subject is but little taught, as will be seen from 
the Tables, except in the grammar schools, and the almost 
unanimous opinion of the masters of schools is that Greek ought 
not to form a branch of ordinary education, except in the case of 



Mr, Bompas's Report. 19 

boyg whp are going up to one of the universities, or are going to 
eoter one of the learned professions. The wishes of the parents 
appear to be the s*me, although in towns like Jluthin and 
Cowbridge, where thei'e are old and important grammar schools 
forming the chief point of interest in the town, many tradesmen 
are anxious that their sons sh-ould have a classical education. 
Teaching it to one or two boys causes such an interruption to the 
routine of the school that in some of the larger schools which are 
intended to give a commercial education Greek is not taught at 
all. In smaller schools where the boys necessarily receive more 
individual teaching it is sometimes taught to two or three boys ; 
but such teaching does not usually extend further than the 
grammar and the translation of some easy author. 

Latin is taught in almost all schools, but in the lower middle 
class schools only to a small proportion of the boys. The masters, 
however, are almost unanimous in wishing that all boys should 
learn it, except those who come for only a quarter or two, and 
know hardly anything when they come. Various reasons are 
given for this wish. TIjb principal are the help that it aifords to 
boys in understanding English and learning other languages, and 
the discipline it exercises on their minds : this latter appears to 
be the great reason for which it is valued by masters. They say 
that it is the hardest subject which the boys learn, and that it 
produces in them habits of industry and attention which would 
more than compensate for the time spent upon it if it had no 
further use. Many masters say that they find that boya who 
learn Latin get on fiaster with their history, geography) and 
English grammar, &c., than boys who do not do so, but give 
their time to additional lessons in those other subjects. In many 
schools, however, the boys are not taught more Latin than ig suffi- 
cient to enable them to translate a Pelpetus or a few sentences in 
Henry's First Book. This will be best seen from the results of 
the examination to be given hereafter. The opinions of the 
parents of the pupils is less favourable to the study of Latin. 
Very many of them prefer their sons confining their attention to 
reading, writing, arithmetic, and similar subjects; or learning 
the modern languages and the sciences instead of Latin. The 
opinions and wishes of the masters exert a great influence, how- 
ever, and the number of boys who learn Latin usually increases in 
a well managed school on this account. Thus, one master told me 
that when he commenced his school only 15 per cent, of his boys 
learnt Latin ; but that after 7 years 80 per cent, did so, though tlie 
class of boys was the same, and at the Llanrwst grammar 
school the head-master was at first obliged to give up a rule he 
had made, that all the boys should learn Latin on account of the 
strong opposition of the parents ; but after a few years he found 
that all the boys but one or two ^d learn Latin, and was able to 
re-establish the rule. 

The abstract .question whether any other subject could be 
made to supply the place of Latin as a mental discipline is a 
question rather of opinion than of fact, though some degree of 

B 2 



20 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

light may be thrown on it by the results of my examinations. One 
master, whose school showed that he was competent to express an 
opinion of some value, said that he thought the modern languages 
might be made to supply the place of Latin, and with advantage, 
were it not that ao many of the examinations of the present day 
require a knowledge of Latin, such, for example, as the preli- 
minary examinations for attorneys and medical men, and that 
schools are, therefore, obliged to teach it to enable the boys who are 
preparing for such positions to pass the examinations : but that 
that being so it became almost impossible to have a second system 
in the school for the education of the other boys. It is, I think, 
a fact, and one worthy of consideration that the subjects of 
examination do thus compulsorily fix the course of study in all 
schools, and oblige them to be to a great extent the same. If a 
choice of subjects were given to the candidates at the examinations 
it would allow different systems of instruction to be pursued by 
different masters, and might end in a lasting improvement in the 
education of the country. 

The same master said that he found that the boys who did not 
learn Latin were usually behind the boys who did so in all their 
other subjects, but that he intended for the future to make them 
learn Euclid during the time that the others were learning Latin. 
I asked him to let me know the result, and have since heard from 
him that though at present there has not been time to make any 
wide generalization, his last school examination showed a great 
advance in those who had done extra Euclid, and they were not 
at all, as before, behind the other boys in general subjects. If the 
effect of different studies upon the general position of boys in the 
school were more carefully noted by other masters, it might lead 
to very valuable results. 

French is taught more in some districts than others. It will be 
seen that the number of boys .learning it is larger than that of 
those learning Greek, though much smaller than that of those who 
learn Latin. Most of the masters consider it a useful and impor- 
tant subject, but as it is useful rather for its own sake than for its 
influence on the school work, as a whole they do not press it upon 
the parents so much as they do Latin. The wishes of the parents 
vary greatly in different districts : in Swansea, Neath, and Cardiff) 
at which there is a large trade with France, it is considered very 
important ; but in other parts, even of Glamorganshire, though boys 
often go on leaving school to one of the places I have named, the 
parents appear to care very little for it. Two reasons, probably, 
have made it less usually learned than it would otherwise have been. 
In most schools it is charged as an extra : this is the case in three- 
fourths of the schools from which I have returns. None of the 
boys, therefore, learn it if the parents are indifferent about it, 
while if it were not an extra th^ would do so, nnless the parents 
actually objected, in those schools in which the masters wished it. 
The other reason affects the masters rather than the parents, and is 
the difficulty of teaching it : the master of the school is seldom able 
to teach it himself, while it is difficult to obtain an assistant who is 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 2 1 

able to do so who is also well fitted to aid ia the other parts of the 
school work. It seems usually considered best that it should be 
taught by a Frenchman, though on this there is some difference of 
opinion. On the one hand a Frenchman is seldom able to maintain 
discipline among English boys, or to understand their difficulties 
and requirements; on the other hand, few Englishmen can teach 
either the accent or the minutiae of the idioms. In practice, it is, I 
think, usually taught by a Frenchman. One disadvantage of the 
subject being charged for as an extra is, that the boys commence 
learning the subject later than they otherwise would. It would 
seem, as I have before pointed out, when speaking of the Welsh 
language, that the younger children are, the more readily they 
catch the accent of a foreign language, and it is an advantage 
therefore for boys to commence learning modern languages when 
quite young. The boys do not usually attain any great pro- 
ficiency, and very few, I think, learn to speak the language 
fluently. 

German, as will be seen, is taught to hardly any boys in 
my district though some of the parents would, I think, be glad 
that their children should learn it. There is not, however, time to 
teach all the subjects that are desirable when the boys remain so 
few years at school. 

Arithmetic is taught to almost all the boys in all schools, and in 
the lower schools a good deal of time is spent on it. By some 
masters a good deal of attention is paid to mental arithmetic. The 
results of the teaching vary greatly in different schools, and are 
not for the most part very satisfactory, though this is in 
many cases due to the class of boys taught and their irregular 
attendance. ' 

Book-keeping and mensuration, especially the former, are taught 
in very many schools, and mainly because they are likely to be of 
real' value to the boys in after life. It is thought by some, how- 
ever, that book-keeping is so soon leariit practically when a boy 
goes into business, that it is not worth while to teach it to him in 
school. The study has, however, an additional value as an exercise 
in writing, and as teaching habits of order and neatness, and seems 
to be well worth the time bestowed on it even on those grounds. 
It is usually taught by means of books published for the purpose 
by Chambers. 

The other branches of mathematics usually taught, are Euclid 
and algebra; in very few schools do the boys get to anything 
higher. Euclid is very generally taught to some of the boys, 
and in some schools seemed to be well taught ; but the results 
given by the examination do not seem to me to be at all satisfac- 
tory : a large number were just beginning and had only learnt two 
or three propositions of the first book. I think about the same 
number of boys learn algebra as Euclid, or, if anything, rather 
fewer. 

Science is but little taught except in quite an elementary form : 
the great difncuity appears to be the expense. In those parts of 
my district, where there is much mining or manufacturing employ- 



22 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

ment, there seemed to be a wish both among masters and parents 
that it could be taught more extensively. The owners of chemical 
and other manufacturing works with whom I conversed, seemed, 
however, to think it undesirable that the persons employed on 
thgir works should have any knowledge of science, as it rendered 
them less likely to follow implicitly the instructions given them. 
I think, however, this must be a mistake. Chemistry is taught 
practically in one or two schools, and in one it was taught 
practically and apparently efEciently for a charge of 1/. a year, 
which I was told covered all expenses. It seems generally con- 
sidered, however, too expensive to be introduced into ordinary 
schools, and it is impossible for it to be so where the number of 
boys is small. 

History and Geography receive a good deal of attention in the 
lower schools : in the grammar schools there is often but little time 
allowed for them. I think there is usually too little attention 
•paid to the constitutional part of our history, or to the lives of 
scientific and literary men. Very few of the boys in the schools I 
examined viva voce knew anything of Lord Bacon, and their only 
acquaintance with the Magna Charta for the most part was that it 
was the Charter of English liberties ; but why, they could not tell. 
In some schools, however, history is well taught. A difficulty 
arises in the study of geography in classifying boys : a class which 
one year has been learning the geography of England will the 
next year go on with that of Europe, and the third year perhaps 
with that of America. A new boy coming the second or third 
year, who knows but little geography, may thus learn the geography 
of America before he knows that of his own country. This diffi- 
culty is got over in some schools by giving each boy a special 
lesson of his own as well as a class lesson, and sometimes in other 
ways, but the difficulty seems to be inherent in the subject. The 
lessons in geography are I believe usually said, viva, voce, and the 
results of this are apparent in the examination, from the fact that 
few boys know how to spell correctly the names of places, or even 
geographical terms, though they write words which have a similar 
sound. To prevent this, I think it would be desirable that lessons 
in geography should be more frequently written out.. 

English Grammar is now taught in all except one or two of the old 
grammar schools, and the importance of the study of English as a 
part of education is being increasingly recognized. In one gram- 
mar school in which it had been recently introduced, the master 
told me that he found the subject of j great value, not only for its 
own sake, but as assisting the boys in the study of Latin. The 
inability that is shown in my examination to parse an English 
sentence proves, I think, the necessity of still further teaching, 
and shows that the study of Latin grammar is not alone sufficient. 
In some of the classical schools the attention paid to the, English 
in the exercises of translation sent up by the boys is considered the 
chief means of teaching English, and takes the place of any special 
^tudy of English grammar. It would be well if more attention were 
paid in all schools both to the English and the writing of exercises 



Mr, Bompas^s Report. 23 

sent up in other subjects. Various grammars are used, but meet 
schools use either Lennie's, or Allen and Cornwall's for the lower, 
and Morell's for the upper classes. A good deal of attention is paid 
to Morell's System of Analysis in some of the higher schools. 

English literature seems seldom to be made a distinct branch of 
study. 

Musio is, I think, taught more than formerly, though still only 
to a very limited extent. In some schools it is taught out of 
school hours, a band being formed among the boys as one of their 
recreations. I shall have to treat more at length on the subject 
of music when speaking of girls' schools, and shall have then to 
point out the disadvantages of instrumental music as a general 
branch of education. 

Drawing. I was surprised to find how very generally drawing 
was taught, and it will be seen that in this respect it is next to 
Latin, far more boys learning it than learn either Greek, French, 
or mathematics (excluding arithmetic). In some schools it is 
taught to all the boys as a part of the necessary school work, a 
given time being set apart during which all the boys draw. It 
is the more remarkable that it is so generally learnt, because it is 
usually charged as an extra, as much so as French. It seems to be 
thought highly of as a branch of education both by parents and 
masters, and I think it is likely to become even more general. 
Various kinds of drawing are taught, but principally mechanical 
drawing, and freehand drawing from the flat. Several of the 
masters have complained to me that the parents insist, or at least 
expect, that their sons shall bring home at the end of the half- 
year drawings that will look pretty, and that they cannot there- 
fore teach them in a really scientific manner. The necessity of 
pleasing parents in such things, and making the result of the 
teaching apparent to them, is certainly one of the difficulties of 
education at the present time, and tends to make it superficial ; 
it might perhaps be partially met, as will be suggested hereafter by 
a system of examinations. 

Table 9 is taken from the answers received from schools Occupation of 
respecting the profession or occupation of the parents of the ^ parents^of 
pupils. The classification is necessarily a rough one, but will 
serve to show the nature of the schools in my district. It will be 
observed that the social position of the boarders is almost 
invariably higher than that of the day scholars, and that in 
grammar schools there is usually a greater number of boys of 
diflferent classes than in any others. The lower class of boys are 
attracted to them, either by free admissions, or at least a lower rate 
of charge than would be possible if it were not for the endowments. 
The higher class of boys are attracted partly by the name of the 
school, partly by the exhibitions, and partly by the abilities of the 
masters, who are induced by the endowments to settle in them. 



24 



Salaries of 

assistant 

masters. 



Superiority of 

trained 

masters. 



Schdols Inquiry Commission. 
Table 9. 





BOAEDEES. , 




DAT SCHOLAES. 






Sons of 
S Erofesional 
Men. 


S=3 


J 
Zt 




o pi 
CO o 

1 




1 






.11 

5 


m ^ 


10 






4 




.5 


6 


a 


% ' 


8 


4 




2 








20 






5 


2 








4 


6 


2 1 7 


1 


1 4 


9 


10 








7 


2 


1 j 10 




a :-, 


8 


4 




3 




7 


5 


' 8 i 


Average 


8 


6 




1 




41 


2t i 1* 1 lOi 


H 



2 , 1 

O 


3 


1 




1 




6 


11 


i 

i 3 




sea - 




13 


2 


3 




4 


9 j 1 


4 




■§160 3 




14 


3 






4 


6 

i 






5 




4 


« 


1 


1 

11 ; 


8 


1- 5 


u 


I 
1 








1 
1 






Average 


8^ 


H 


2 


i! 3i 


94 i 1 i 3J i 



3^ on 

S S 

O 0) 

O fcD 
02 g 



Averai^e i 





6 




14 




1 20 






5 
2i 


15 


1* 


H 


12 



The salaries of the assistant masters are for the most part very- 
small, of eighteen private schools from which I have complete 
returns (the endowed schools make no return on this point) ten 
have no assistant masters, and at the other eight schools there are 
sixteen assistant masters, whose salaries are as follows : — one 70/. 
one 601, two 50L, five 40/., one 35/., two 30/., one 25/., three 
20/., with in each case, board and lodging ; the average, therefore, 
being .38/. 2s. 6d. Only a few of these are classical masters, and 
they are the best paid. I am told that the salaries of good assis- 
tants are, however, increasing. The general opinion among the 
head-masters of schools seems to be that masters who haveT)een 
trained at one of the Government training colleges are most effi- 
cient teachers of English grammar and history, geography, &c., 
more so than even graduates of either of the Universities. This is 
a striking proof of the need there is that a master should know how 



Mr. Bompas's Report, 25 

to teach and how to maintain discipline, and not merely possess 
a knowledge of the subject to be taught, and is a proof also that it 
is possible to learn how to teach. It appears to me that one of the 
great deficiencies in our present school system is the absence of 
any special training for the masters of our middle-class schools. 
Those who devote themselves to tuition are not articled to some 
good master, or in any way taught the special knowledge required 
in their profession, as is the case in almost all other employments, 
but are left to gather up the knowledge of the best mode of per- 
forming their duties from their own personal experience. This 
no doubt saves them from expense at the commencement of their 
career, but it may account in some degree for the small salaries 
they receive, and the small success that often accompanies their 
teaching. This, however, is not the place to suggest remedies 
for this evil. 

With respect to the desirability of schools being examined and Examination 
publicly reported on, there is not much difference of opinion. °fs<=''°°ls. 
Out of 27 answers that I have received to the question asked 
by the Commission on this subject, 18 are favourable; some of 
them being expressed most strongly, and only two are distinctly 
opposed to it, both of them from schools in which an investigation 
is much needed. In the remaining cases the masters do not see 
any particular advantage in it, or feel unable to give a decided 
opinion. The advantage of an examination appears to be threefold — 

First, it enables the parents of the pupils to select the best Advantages of 

schools. This is only partially the case, because it can afford but ~ "' 

very small indication of the moral influence and training of the 
school, which, after all, is the most important consideration. The 
parents are, however, for the most part better able to judge of that 
than of the actual progress made by their boys in their studies, 
for they are often unacquainted with the subjects taught, and 
almost always have partially forgotten them ; they cannot, there- 
fore, apply any efficient test of their sons' proficiency in them, and 
must leave it to the master. I believe that a really good school 
usually increases, and an inferior one fails even now ; but I think 
this is by no means always the case, and that any means which 
would throw light on the practical working of schools would be 
considered by most parents a great boon. 

Secondly, it acts as an incentive to the masters, and rewards 
those who are really efficient. In the case of some mastei's such 
an incentive is greatly needed, and in the case of most it would 
be beneficial, while all probably would be glad to see some 
tangible result of their labours. They are at present greatly 
tempted to teach mainly such subjects as can be appreciated by 
the parents, and to teach those subjects in a way which will 
produce the most visible results. This temptation would be done 
away if they knew that the result of their teaching was to be 
tested by men really versed in the subjects instead of by the 
parents only. 

Thirdly, it acts as an incentive to the boys, and puts in the 
hands of the masters a means of encouraging and spurring on their 



an examina- 
tion. 



26 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

pupils which might in many cases go far to replace punishments. 
It would give them, too, a motive for acquiring a real and thorough 
knowledge of the subjects they learn, instead of such a smatter- 
ing as might please a superficial observer. 
Ways in which At present the want is met in various ways. The larger schools 
this want is Jq gome instances are examined by examiners from Oxford or 
now met. Cambridge, or through the College of Preceptors. The expense 

of the former is too great to be incurred except by the highest 
class of schools, while the latter does not appear to be generally 
popular, though I am not cerjfiin of the reason. I believe, 
however, the College of Preceptors has not such a standing in 
public estimation as to make masters seek its certificates. In the 
smaller schools the masters either examine their pupils themselves, 
or ask some neighbouring gentleman to examine them. Both these 
plans are unsatisfactory. If the master examines, it is no incen- 
tive to himself, and affords no guarantee to the parent, and the 
influence on the boys is not wholly satisfactory, for if prizes are 
not given they care little for the result, and if prizes are given the 
master is apt to be accused of favouritism, and jealousy springs up. 
This latter is so diflBcult to prevent, that in several schools prize 
giving has been given up in consequence. If a friend examines 
he is seldom really competent for a duty which requires much 
more than a mere knowledge of the subject, and if he is, he is pre- 
judiced in favour of his friend, and the results of the examination, 
therefore, cannot be relied on, even if they are not purposely 
one-sided. The result of this is not only that no dependence can 
be placed on such reports, but that if any school is carefully 
examined, and the report fairly states the defects which are sure 
to exist, it is in danger of being considered worse than other 
schools on account of its honesty. It is these smaller schools 
which most need an examination on all the grounds I have 
mentioned above, and they at present have no means of obtaining 
one. 
The Oxford An attempt has been made to supply the want by the Oxford 

and Cambridge and Cambridge Local Examinations. I have inquired carefully 
Examinatious. ^°*° ^"^^ working of these, and I believe that on the whole they 
are very beneficial. The objection has been urged against them 
that they lead masters to give special attention to some boys and 
to neglect others. I believe that in some schools this is so to a 
limited extent. I think, however, the evil is not so great as some 
have supposed, and that the good gained by the encouragement 
given both to masters and pupils exceeds the evil. It does, however, 
increase the temptation which all masters must feel to help on the 
Insufficiency of clcver boys to the neglect of the more backward ones. These 
these. examinations, however, do not at all supply the want I have 

mentioned, for, first, they do not at all affect the lower middle- 
class schools : when boys leave school at 14 it is in vain for the 
master to hope that he_ can fit them for the local examinations. 
Secondly, they do not influence or affect any but the higher classes 
in any schools : the lower boys, who most need an inducement to 
work, are not affected at all. Thirdly, it is a very uncertain test of 



Mrt Bomfais Report 27 

the work of a school, because the number of boys who go up is 
smallj and depends not only on the ability of the boys to pass the 
examinations, but upon the wishes of the parents and their wil- 
lingness to pay the necessary expense. This latter is the great 
difficulty ; very many parents are unwilling to pay the cost of 
their sons going to one of the local centres and residing there 
during the examination. Several masters have told me that unless 
they are prepared to pay that expense themselves they cannot 
persuade their pupils to go up ; and I have heard of schools in 
which the masters do pay all the ^xpenses, considering it a good 
investment as a means of advertising their school. 

There seems, therefore, still to be required a systematic ex- Modes of 
amination of schools as a whole. Almost every possible mode of selecting 
appointing examiners has been suggested by different masters — examiners, 
as a rule the lower schools say by Grovernment, the upper schools 
say by the Universities. Some think they should be elected by 
the masters of schools as a body ; and one has suggested that they 
should be selected by the parents. I think the parents, at any rate 
where they belong to the lower middle-class would, as a rule, 
prefer the examination being conducted by Government. It is 
probable that in some cases the parents would object to the 
examination altogether, as I have been told by several masters and 
mistresses that the parents objected to their children taking part in 
my examination. I think, however, this objection arises from a 
misapprehension, and would cease if the examinations were once 
established. It applies, too, more to girls than boys. All the 
masters agree that the examination should be voluntary, and 
though they would, I think, be willing to contribute something 
they would not — at any rate in all cases — be willing or able to 
contribute a sufficient sum to cover all the expenses. 

It was partly with a view to test the possibility of such an Reasons for 
examination by written papers of whole schools that I adopted the examining the 
mode which I did of examining the schools in my district. It was, ^^^^n papers 
however, mainly for the following reasons : — 1st, I found it diffi- 
cult for want of time to examine more than a part of a school 
viva voce in one day ; 2ndly, I felt that it would be difficult to keep 
the same standard before my mind in going from school to school ; 
3rdly, 1 felt that any opinion I should express as the result of such 
an examination could have only the uncertain value always 
attaching to an opinion while the results of a written examination 
could be put In the form of statistics, and would speak for them- 
selves. 

The plan I adopted was as follows. I prepared a paper of Mode of con- 
questions in dictation, English grammar, geography, history, ducting the 
French, and arithmetic to set inthe morning, and two papers to examination. 
be set together in the afternoon, including questions in Greek, 
Latin, German; modern history, algebra, Euclid, book-keeping, 
mensuration, natural philosophy, and natural science, the list of 
subjects being taken from that given in form B of the papers of 
questions sent to private schools. These papers are given in the 
Appendix. I did not, as will be seen, set any questions in religious 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



knowledge. This was partly because I felt that it would be diflS- 
cult to set questions which should test fairly schools in which such 
very different religious teaching took place, but mainly because I 
thought it objectionable to mix up such questions with those in 
other subjects, and I could not for want of time give a separate 
paper to them. I allowed three hours in the morning and three 
hours in the afternoon to answer these papers, and in practice 
I found that the examination never occupied the whole time. 
None of the questions, therefore, were left unanswered from 
want of time. As it was necessary to compress so many sub- 
jects into so short a time, I was compelled to ask only questions 
admitting of short answers, which will account for some of the 
questions that I have set. It will be seen that in each subject I 
set a very easy question, and then others gradually increasing in 
difficulty. The younger children thus had an opportunity of 
answering the first ones, while the elder pupils took but a little 
while in answering those, and were then tested by the harder ones 
JMumber of which succeeded. ' I examined in all 1,485 boys belonging to 39 
boys exammed. different schools. In each case I asked leave to examine all the 
boys in the school who could write an intelligible answer to a 
question, and in most cases I did so, though in some instances a 
few of the younger boys were not present, though old enough to 
write, and a few of the more backward elder boys were also 
absent. The number of boys returned as belonging to the 3? 
schools is 1,887. In some of the increasing schools the number of 
boys I examined was greater than that returned as belonging to 
the school. At Swansea, Cardiff, Hereford, and Chester, the 
schools met in a central building for the purpose of examination. 
At other towns I examined the schools in their own schoolrooms, 
and if there was more than one school to be examined, asked some 
gentlemen to act as my deputies to superintend the examinations in 
those schools at which I could not be present myself. 

In the towns in which the different schools met I found no 
difficulty in obtaining suitable rooms for the examination of the 
schools, nor in obtaining the necessary tables and other appliances 
— thanks to the very kind assistance I received on all hands — and I 
am strongly of opinion that an examination of several schools 
together out of their own schoolrooms is the most satisfactory to 
all parties. 

The result of my examinations seems to me to show that 
there is no difficulty in examining whole schools instead of 
only selected boys presenting themselves at some central spot. I 
found it best that the masters should be present, both that they 
might be satisfied that all was conducted fairly, and because their 
presence formed a check upon their boys and rendered it easier 
to maintain order. There was in the present case no inducement 
to the masters to aid their boys or to endeavour to obtain sur- 
reptitiously a knowledge of the papers, because the results of the 
examination of particular schools were not to be made known. In 
the case of an annual examination in which there would be a 
report on each school^ some further precautions would have to be 
taken upon which it is unnecessary to enter here. 



Possibility of 
obtaining 
rooms for 
central 
examinations. 



Mr. Bompas's Report. :i9 

It is hardly necessary to say that the results of such an exaraina- Degree iu 
tlon cannot be considered as minutely accurate. A s. it was not to be which the 
a competition between the different schools, and was in all cases a reUe/o™.^^ 
voluntary act of courtesy on the part of the masters, I imposed 
no more restrictions than I thought necessary for the purpose 
of obtaining a substantial accuracy ; there was iu some schools 
a good deal of copying, which may tend to make the results appear 
too favourable, on the other hand, many of the boys had never 
been in an examination before, and did not show half the knowledge 
they possessed. Again, the questions being necessarily such as 
admitted of short answers, many of the latter are only guesses, 
and as I have not taken off marks for mistakes in marking the 
questions, this will make some cf the subjects — such as botany and 
natural philosophy — appear better known than is really the case. I 
believe that all these uncertainties might be obviated without 
difficulty in an annual examination. I should have been able to 
lessen them to a considerable extent myself if I had had at the 
commencement the experience I now possess. The results of the 
examination, however, may, I think, be trusted as substantially 
accurate, and wiU give a fair idea of the knowledge possessed by 
boys at different ages and of the education actually given by 
different classes of schools. 

To persons unaccustomed to examinations the results may seem Reasons for 
small, and undoubtedly in some schools and on some subjects they requite, 
are so. It is, however, I need hardly say, more difficult to answer a 
sei'ies of questioiis in an examination than it would appear to be to 
anyone who has not tried. It must be remembered, also, that the 
examination took place in the middle of a quarter, and without 
any special preparation on the part of the schools. Much better 
results would be no doubt obtained by an examination held at the 
end of the half-year, and of which the schools had due notice. 
Much allowance also must be made for the fact that it was boys, 
not men who were examined; and boys, especially when young, 
are unable to produce at will the knowledge they really possess. 
I think, however, the results do show, that boys, unless excep- 
tionally clever, cannot be taught in the limited time at which 
they are at school so much as is usually supposed. That it is to a 
great extent this fact, and not a deficiency in the teaching which 
prevents the results being more satisfactory, is shown by the fact 
that they are the same in all schools. There are several school.'* 
in my district carefully taught by able and experienced men, but 
the results, though certainly better than those obtained at cheaper 
schools, are not so to any great extent. On tlie other hand, in 
some of the schools in which the master Avas really incompetent, 
the difference is marked. In judging of the results fairly, it is 
necessary, also to take account of the early training of the boys 
and the difficulties the masters have to contend against from their 
irregular attendance : these hindrances are greater in my district 
than they would be in some parts of England or in more expensive 
and high-class schools. 

The papers which I set, with the number of marks I gave for 
each question, are to be found in Appendix A. 



30 



Schools Inquiry Corfimimon. 



Number pf 
marks giTen 
for eapji 
subject. 


The marks allotted 

Dictation 
English Grammar 
Geography - 
English History 
French 




Arithmetic - 




Writing 



to the different subjects were— 



Ages of the 
boys examined. 



150 

150 
50 
50 

100 
50 
50 

100 
40 
50 

120 
90 



Total morning paper 600 Total afternoon papers 1,000 

Before giving the results of the examination I shall give a few 
tables of the ages, &c-, of the boys examined, as the number of 
schools examined was larger than that of those who answered the 
questions sent by the Commissioners, and such Tables will, there- 
fore, be useful for purposes of comparison with those given above. 

I examined in all 1,485 boys and their ages are given in the 
following Table : — 

Table 10. 



50 


Latin 


100 


Greek 


100 


German 


100 


Modem History 


100 


Algebra 


100 


Trigonometry 


50 


Conic Sections 




Euclid 




Mensuration 




Book-keeping 




Natural Philosophy 




Natural Science 



Ages - A 


20 

warcls 


18 


18 


17 


16 


16 


U 


13 


12 


11 


10 


S 


8 


7 


Total. 


Glamorganshire 


23 


r. 


8 


21 


17 


68 


78 


117 


lOS 


102 


76 


42 


le 


3 


663 


DeuWehshire - 
FlintsSire 




1 


2 


8 


10 


27 


S9 


»1 


24 


17 


11 


4 


i 


1 


177 


1 


- 


- 




2 


7 


16 


35 


22 


13 


12 


s 


1 


— 


112 






le- 


- 


~ 


a 


S 


4 


» 


10 


8 


3 


1 


f^ 


=- 


42 


1 


1 


2 


8 


16 


28 


50 


52 


41 


33 


26 


13 


4 


- 


%'li, 


Chester - 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


14 


26 


31 


30 


17 


10 


3 


1 


— 


133 


Monmouth 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


11 


16 


2« 


9 


9 


111 


3 


- 


- 


83 


Totals 


26 


7 


12 


39 


62 


150 


228 


295 


239 


199 


148 


69 


18 


4 


i,4as 



Most of the older pupils are of the class above referred to who 
come to school for a short time when young men to improve them- 
selves. Thus, 46 out of the 83 pupils above 16 (including all 
those above 20) had come to the school since they were 16, The 
number of boys who receive a continuous education continuing 
after they are 17 is comparatively small. 

At schools charging one guinea a quarter or less, the boys, 
excluding the younjg men, are younger than in the more expensive 
schools as will be seen from tbe following Table : — 



The age of the 








Table 11. 
















cheaper schools No. of hoys of the I 
compared •with age of i 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


16 


14 


13 


12 1 11 ; 10 


9 


8 


7 


Total. 


that of those 

in the more j„ gchools charging one 

expensive. guinea » quarter or 

less - - . - 
In schools charging 

more than one granea 

a quarter 


10 

15 


1 
6 


1 
11 


6 
34 


8 
48 


31 
120 


62 
165 


89 
206 


71 
166 


66 ! 45 j 18 
133 103 51 


5 - 
IS ' 4 


415 
1.070 



Mr. Bompai's Jteport. 



31 



It will be seen that the boys of 15 and 16 form a much smaller 
proportion of the whole in the cheaper schools. All the boys 
above 16 belong to the class of young men before spoken of. The 
proportion of the boys between 12 and 14 to the whole is almost 
identical. 

With respect to the time the boys had remained at school, 182 
had remained four years or upwards at the school in which they were 
examined, only 38 of whom were in schools charging one guinea a 
quarter or less. 474 had been in the school less than a year, of 
whom 154 were in schools charging one guinea a quarter or less. 

Of the 1,485 boys examined 536 were boarders and 949 day 
scholars. 

Before giving the number of marks that have been obtained, it 
may be desirable to state generally the principle of marking I have 
adopted. I have given the marks rather liberally, taking off but 
few marks for a mistake if it appeared probable from the answer 
that the boy had really learnt the subject or rule a knowledge of 
which the question was intended to test. In the dictation I have 
taken off two marks for every mistake up to 15, and one mark for 
every additional mistake. In the first two questions in geography 
I have taken off a mark for a mis-spelling of the name of the town, 
but I have not taken notice of the spelling elsewhere. In the case 
of the fourth and fifth questions in geography I have only given 
five marks, if the answer to one only was right, as it is in that case 
usually the result of a guess. 

The following tables will give the number of boys learning the 
different subjects, first divided according to counties, then according 
to ages, and lastly, according to the classes of schools. In these 
tables I have considered only these boys as learning a subject who 
have obtained some marks in it. Many boys in Euclid, for 
example, only attempted to answer the first question (the definition 
of an acute-angled triangle) and did that wholly wrong, obtaining 
no marks, and are therefore not reckoned, and the Euclid will 
therefore appear rather less generally taught than is professed in 
the schools. 

I have not considered as learning Greek those who only answered 
questions in Greek History. 

Table 12. 



Time the boys 
had remained 
at school. 



Nranber of 
boarders and 
day scholars. 

Principle on 
which the 
marks have 
been given. 





g 

'i 














^ 


i 




i 


&0 


1 


6 
u 

.1 






County or Town. 


■So 


.a 






i 


w 


si 


1 


1 


■A 




1 


i 


1 


« 


», 




II 




.a 
1 


■3 
1 


1 


1 






1 

o 




N 




1^ 


fi 


Glamorgansliire 


663 


242 


295 


84 


5 


45 


95 


10 


2 


136 


47 


62 


SI 


42 


73 


187 


Denbign shire 
Flintshire - 


177 


7S 


128 


36 


- 


as 


82 


1 


- 


68 


2 


« 


15 


14 


30 


Vi 


86 


.s 


S9 


2 


_ 


1 


8 




- 


19 


3 


6 


4 




6 


8 


Montgomeryshire - 
Herefordshire 


42 


10 


7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


2 


1 


3 




Wi 


275 


106 


122 


47 


ti 


20 


18 


_ 


- 


40 


S 


27 


10 


17 


W 


67 


Chester 


133 


66 


77 


7 


1 


10 


5 


> 


- 


12 


9 


22 


16 


22 


IS 


60 


Monmouth - 


83 


4 


25 


12 


- 


1 


13 


2 


- 


f!0 


10 


6' 


2 


6 


3 


3 


Total ^ 


1,469 


609 


693 


188 


n 


102 


171 


IS 


2 


297 


74 


168 


89 


144 


161 


386 



Number of boys 
learning the 
principal 
subjects in 
each county. 



* The numbers for these two sutgeets are taiken from the ansrrers to the intro- 
ductory questions of the afternoon paper. 



32 



Snhools Inquiry Commission. 



Number of boys 
learning the 
principal 
subjects, at 
different ages. 



Amount of 
Latin learnt. 











Table 


13 




















Ages. 


k 




1 


1 


g 

s 


i 


i 


o 


o 
1 
1 


i 


1 
1 


1 
1 


j 

1 


i 
1 


•s 

15 
19 


f 


IS and above 


13S 

M9 


M 

78 


91 
«7 


52 
34 


7 
S 


24 
17 


53 

4(7 


6 


2 


67 
64 


21 

22 


33 

40 


26 
26 


21 
20 


HI 

62 




225 


10* 


117 


35 




23 


R« 


2 


- 


71 


16 


46 


18 


24 


<i6 






287 


ns 


139 


33 


1 


1R 


20 


- 


- 


62 


11 


30 


18 


18 


2.4 




12 


235 


77 


109 


20 


1 


10 


B 


- 


- 


21 


4 


13 


« 


12 


24 




11 


196 


44 


fi5 


fi 


_ 


« 


3 


- 


- 


8 


- 


4 


4 


6 


14 




TJndor 11 


231 


30 


74 


6 


- 


5 


1 


- 


- 


8 


74 


2 
168 


1 










1,459 


610 


692 


180 


12 


101 


172 


13 


3 


296 


99 !104 

i 


151 


385 



Number of boys 
learning the "~ 
principal 

subjects in '3 

schools ,a 

charging ^ 

different terms. ". 

o 
S5 



Table 14. 



Schools. 



Classical grammar 

schools - 
Schools charging 

more than one 

guinea per 

quarter - 
Unsatisfactory 

schools cliarging 

as above - 
Schools charging 
one guinea or less 
Unsatisfactory 

schools charging 

as above - 



C above 14 
(.under 14 

3 above 14 
1 uuder 14 

\ above 14 
1 under 14 

(above 14 
' under 14 

f above 14 
■) under 14 




I have included in the Table under the head of schools charging 
more than a guinea, some of the smaller grammar schools which 
charge only one guinea or less. I have thought it better to divide 
the private schools in order to make a fairer comparison with the 
classical grammar schools, which are all of them old established 
and well managed, and should be compared, therefore, with the 
better class of semi-classical schools. 

Very many of those who are included in the above table ns 
learning the subjects really know very little of them. Thus in 
Latin, taking as a test, the correct answering of the two following 
questions : — Translate into English, Epistolam quam misi vidit, 
and translate into Latin, " He was a good boy ;" I find the follow- 
ing result : — 

Table 15. 



Classical grammar schools T above 13 

" l."r"ier 13 

Schools charging more than one guinea / above 13 

a quarter - - - -\ under 13 

Schools charging one guinea a quarter f above 13 

or less - - - -"[under 13 



Boys 

learuing 
Latin. 


Boys 
answering 

both 
questions 
correctly. 


130 


76 


106 


12 


269 


84 


121 


9 


32 


6 


16 


3 



Mr, Bompas's Report. 
Table 16, 



33 



Column 1. 

Classical 
Grammar 
Schools. 



Column 2. 

Semi-Classical 
Grammar 
Schools, 



Column 3. 

Semi-Classical 
Private Schools 
having over 20 
Boarders, and 
charging over 
30 guineas. 



Column 4. 



Column 5, 



Semi-Classical 

Private Schools a«™; r^i.^o-^ i 
having over 20 x&f"";^L*l'"^f 
Pn,r^„.= o„H Private Schools, 



Boarders, and 

charging lees 

than 30 guineas 

a year. 



having less than 
20 Boarders. 



Column 6. 

Private 

Day Schools, 

charging 4 

guineas a year 

or less. 



Column 7. 

Inefficient 
Grammar 
Schools. 



Column 8. 

Inefficient 
Schools of class 
j given in 
I Column 3. 



Column 9. 

Inefficient 

Schools of class 

given in 

Column 6. 



Number of schools in the 
class - - - 

No. of boys in such] 15 
schools of the ages 1 14 
respectively -J 1.3 



4 
32 
30 
34 



3 
21 

28 
30 



3 
20 
35 
27 



3 

8 

20 
33 



12 

10 

24 



4 

9 

24 

39 



3 
2 

4 
16 



2 
3 

9 

11 



4 

6 

12 

12 









Average 
Marks 


-Average 


Average 


Average 


Avci-age 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Subjects. 


Age. 


Marks 


Marks 


Marks 


Slarks 


Marks 


Marks 


Marks 


Marks 


3 a j? 




obtained by 
each Boy. 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 


obtained by 






each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy. 


each Boy 




[• 


15 


35 


31 


30 


28 


32 


29 


36 


33 


27 


50 


Dictation 


14 


33 


26 


29 


25 


32 


26 


32 


31 


20 






13 


32 


26 


27 


28 


28 


24 


27 


32 


23 


100 


English gram- 


15 
14 


28 


23 


24 


16 


30 


18 


14 


23 


23 




mar 


18 


19 


24 


14 


16 


21 


5 


13 


9 






13 


19 


18 


27 


10 


17 


15 


11 


16 


9 






15 


42 


51 


36 


41 


40 


39 


56 


43 


22 


100 


Geography -■ 


14 


40 


48 


37 


39 


3b 


34 


40 


40 


21 




. 


13 


39 


38 


39 


43 


29 


33 


33 


47 


17 


100 


English his- 


15 


35 


34 


26 


35 


40 


16 


18 


20 


20 




tory 


14 


30 


30 


30 


20 


28 


23 


24 


15 


12 




13 


35 


27 


30 


25 


25 


11 


17 


12 


10 






15 


27 


14 


15 


13 


31 





28 





26 


100 


French 


14 


22 


18 


15 


5 


27 




1 


4 


8 




. 


13 


15 


13 


13 


7 


18 


1 


9 


11 


7 






15 


57 


63 


63 


64 


60 


67 


40 


65 


39 


100 


Arithmetic -• 


14 


49 


50 


60 


49 


50 


66 


40 


42 


23 




. 


13 


41 


42 


46 


48 


50 


44 


36 


35 ' 


23 






15 


' 29 


31 


29 


30 


24 


26 


30 


28 


26 


50 


Writing 


14 


25 


29 


30 


32 


27 


25 


34 


27 


28 


600 


Total for the ' 


13 
15 


25 


29 


29 


31 


26 


29 


30 


26 


26 


253 


248 


224 


227 


258 


195 


233 


211 


183 




morning 


14 


219 


220 


224 


183 


216 


201 


194 


172 


120 




paper 
Latin - i 


13 

15 


207 


194 


212 


191 


193 


158 


163 


180 


114 


43 


33 


13 


12 


24 








1 


1 


150 


14 


42 


28 


14 


10 


12 


4 


1 


3 







I 


13 


32 


19 


22 


6 


10 


1 


5 


5 









15 


22 


3 








3 














150 


Greek 


14 


15 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 















13 


12 


2 


2 


1 














1 






15 


11 


























50 


German 


14 

































13 





1 























50 


Modem his- 


15 


2 


4 


1 






















tory 


14 


2 


2 


1 








2 





1 







13 


3 


2 














1 












15 


17 


16 


17 





15 


U 











100 


Algebra 


14 


8 


4 


9 


2 


2 


6 















13 


4 


4 


5 


1 


5 


2 











50 


Trigono- 


15 








4 





2 
















metry 


14 
13 










1 



























50 


Conic Sec- 


15 































tions 


14 
13 










































15 


13 


13 


18 


6 


15 


2 











100 


Euclid 


14 


9 


10 


8 


3 


4 


2 















13 


3 


5 


6 


4 


3 


1 















15 





5 


1 





7 


8 








. 


40 


Mensnration- ■ 


14 





5 





1 


2 


5 















13 





2 





1 





2 















15 




10 


8 


8 


12 


8 








12 


50 


Book-keeping- 


14 




8 


9 


1 


1 


3 





2 







13 




6 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 





2 


120 


Natural Phi- 
losophy - 


15 
14 
13 




5 
7 
3 


6 
2 

1 


2 
2 

1 



2 
1 



6 








7 

2 


2 

2 


90 


Natural 
Science - 


15 
14 




5 

7 


3 
2 


3 

1 


2 



\ 








1 






1000 


Total marks 


13 
15 




1 


2 


2 


1 


1 











110 


93 


72 


32 


78 


30 


• 


8 


14 




in the after- • 


14 


78 


61 


47 


22 


26 


31 


1 


7 





1600 


noon papers 
Total marks 


13 
15 


57 


43 


41 


19 


21 


8 


~ 


1 


5 


363 


341 


296 


• 259 


336 


225 


233 


219 


197 




obtained - 


14 


297 


281 


271 


205 


242 


232 


195 


179 


120 






13 


264 


237 


253 


210 


214 


166 


170 


187 


119 
















1 











Mr. Bompas's Report. ' 35 

In eight schools In which Latin was taught no boys answered Amount of 
the two correctly. It would seem, therefore, that five-sixths of ^""^^"^ learnt, 
the boys who learn Latin in the lower middle-class schools do not 
learn enough to be of any value to them, except as a means of 
training them to habits of thought and application. Similarly 
the amount of Euclid learnt is for the most part very small. In 
the second question in Euclid I set two propositions. In one 
school out of 28 boys learning Euclid, 19 wrote out one or 
other of the propositions correctly ; and in seven other schools, 
out of 84 boys learning Euclid, 30 wrote out one of the proposi- 
tions correctly, and eight others nearly so ; but in the remaining 
16 schools, out of 163 boys learning Euclid, only 12 wrote out 
either proposition correctly, and only 9 others wrote either of 
them out at all nearly so; yet in these 16 schools are Included 
some of the best grammar schools and private schools in my dis- 
trict. This would seem to show either that Euclid cannot be 
successfully taught to boys, or that the present modes of teaching 
it are unsatisfactory, and the time allowed for It too short to be 
eiFectual : I think the latter must be the main reason, though It 
js no doubt a difficult subject to teach young boys. 

In order to make any fair comparison of the schools it will be 
necessary to confine the attention to boys of the same age, and the 
ages 13, 14, and 15 will be best for the purpose, as under 13 there 
is a great element of uncertainty introduced by the Inexperience 
of the pupils, and above 1 5 there are so few boys In the schools 
as to prevent the average being a fair one. 

By a semi-classical school I mean a school in which the boys Mode of 
do not all learn Latin, and only exceptionally learn Greek. None classifying the 
of the private schools in my district which I examined are really s''''°°'^- 
classical schools. The schools in column five contain usually three 
or four boarders, and 10 to 30 day scholars : they are usually 
more expensive if anything than the larger schools. It will be 
observed that there is a very little difierence between the gram- 
mar schools and private schools as regards the morning paper ; the 
arithmetic Is a little better in the private schools, and equally so 
in the cheaper as the dearer schools. The French, and in a less 
degree,' the spelling, English grammar, and English history 
become less In the cheaper schools. It must be remembered that 
the grammar schools spend much of their time on classics, and 
that on the other hand the boys remain longer at them and are 
better trained at home. In the afternoon papers the deficiency 
of classics In private schools and the deficiency in book-keeping 
and mensuration in the classical grammar schools is apparent. 
The averages for the subjects In the afternoon papers give, how- 
ever, an imperfect test of the teaching, as a low average arises 
sometimes from the fact that few boys were learning the subject 
and sometimes from bad teaching. In Table 17, therefore, I have 
given the number of boys learning each subject, and the average 
marks obtained by such boys. 



a. c. 3. 



36 



Schools Inquiry Commission, 






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37 



Table 18 shows the actual totals for the morning and afternoon 
papers of all the schools examined, and will thus give an idea of 
the extent to which the schools vary from one another. 









Table 


18. 










Results : 
oMained from 

oacVi nnlinnl. 


Schools. 


i 


Werage Marks gained 
on Morning Papers. 


4.vera«e Marks gained ^^^';!«^fcH?„^'"'^ 
on iufernoon pipers. f^^Siinltton. 




16 


1* 


18 


16 


14 


IS 


IB 


14 


IS 




1 


237 


235 


230 


140 


90 


66 


377 


325 


296 




2 


260 


248 


201 


126 


98 


63 


386 


346 


254 


Schools. 


S 


279 


.211 


188 


14ff 


72 


43 


426 


283 


231 


' ^ 


4 


246 


186 


212 


67 . 


65 


66 


313 


241 


267 




5 


273 


283 


213 


123 


86 . 


-45 


306 


369 


25S 


^ 


6 


261 


24S 


193 


87 


83 


24 


843 


328 


222 




7 


267 


227 


■203 


143 


29 


16 


410 


256 


219 


Semi-Classical 
- Grammar Schools. 


8 
9 


192 
233 


133 
•121 


159 
132 


71 


31 


61 


263 
233 


164 
•121 


210 
132 




10 


— 


261 


197 


— ' 


— 


25 


— 


261 


222 




ii 


— 


•132 


171 


— 


•29 


6 


— 


•161 


177 




-12 


1 — 


HI 


•379 


— 


— 


♦61 


- — 


111 


■•440 


Proprietary Schools 


13 
14 


200 
202 


194 
204 


198 
161 


89 

37 


24 
39 


27 
31 


23# 

239 


218 • 
243 


226 
192 




'15 


270 


237 


263 


149 


89 


91 


419 


826 


351 . ii 




16 


274 


247 


232 


141 


62 


47 


415 


-309 


"279 




17 


285 


287 


193 


101 


71 


10 


886 


353 


203 




18 


206 


254 


216 


51 


69 


64 


267 


323 


270 


Private Schools charg- 
ing more than one 
" Guinea aQuarter for " 
Day Scholars. 


19 
20 
21 
22 


191 

288 
217 
•266 


214 
194 
183 
170 


294 
176 
167 
182 


67 
74 
84 


18 
60 
11 


45 

85 

28 

6 


253 
363 
801 
•266 


232 
254 
194 
170 


339 
210 

196 
188 




23 


184 


173 


174 


12 


11 


12 


196 


184 


186 




24 


22.') 


145 


163 


40 


7 


3 


266 


152 


156 




26 


279 


— 


187 


67 


— 


12 


386 


— 


199 




L26 


— 


— 


186 


— 


- 


13 


— 


— 


199 




1^27 


•244 


265 


187 


— 


43 


4 


•244 


.308 


191 




28 


229 


176 


248 


13 


,8 


41 


242 


183 


289 




29 


203 


178 


177 


64 


37 


28 


257 


210 


200 




80 


266 


147 


138 


27 


— 


— 


293 


147 


188 


' Private Schools charg- 
ing one Guinea a 
Quarter or less for 
Day Scholars. 


31 
32 
33 

34 


162 
* 93 
•122 


•209 

178 

91 

210 


163 
94 
99 

172 


- 


44 


15 


162 
• 93 

•122 


•209 

178 

91 

254 


153 

94 
99 

187 




35 


_ 


145 


139 


— 


— 


3 


— 


145 


142 




36 


85 


— 


124 


4 


— 


22 


89 


— 


146 




37 


— 


— 


223 


— 


— 


11 


— 


— 


234 


• 


1-38 


— 


— 


143 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


148 



* In these schools there vraa only one hoy of the age so marked, and the numher cannot there- 
fore he safely taken as a test of the school. In No. 9 there are no afternoon papers, though a 
few of the Doys professed to learn Latin i the examination, however, was not in any way 
satisfactory. In No. 15 there was a great deal of copying, and the results may therefore be rather 
' higher than they should he. 

It may be interesting also to see in what schools the best results 
are produced in regard to the first boys, and I therefore give a 

D 2 



38 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Number of 
toys showing 
special 
proficiency. 



Eesnlts of the 
examination 
-arranged 
according to 
<;onnties. 



Inferiority of 

agricultural 

counties. 



table showing the number of boys who obtained half maiks ii 
different classes of schools. 



the 



Table IS 


. 










Class of School. 




Percent, of boys 
obtaining half 
marks in morn- 
ing paper. 


m 

■stJt 

Ilii 


Per oont. of boys 
obtaining at least 
100 marks in 
afternoon paper. 


Per cent, of boys; 
obtaining at leasi 
200 marks in 
afternoon papet. 


Per cent, of boys 
obtaining at leas 
300 mark^ in th 
afternoon .paper 


1. Classical grammar schools - - 

2. Semi-classical grammar schools - 

5. PriTate schools having not less than 20 

boarders, and charging not less than 
80 guineas a year - - ", „" 

4. Private schools having not less than 20 
boarders, and charging less than 30 
guineas a year , - - - 

B. Private schools having less than 20 
boarders - - - - - 

6. Private day schools charging not more 

than 4 guineas a year . - - 

7. Infftcient grammar schools 

8. Ineffi(!ient schools of same class as (8) 
g. IneCaoient school of same class as 6 


173 
110 

160 

96 

75 

102 
18 
50 
54 


19-2 
21-8 

40 

4-8 

14-7 

2-9 
11-1 
2 
1-9 


S-6 
3-6 

4-7 

1-3 

1 

2 


SO 2 
21-8 

18 

5-8 

8 

7-8 
5-5 
4 


14-3 
2-7 

67 

1 - 
1-S 

2 


5.8 
1-8 

1-3 


Total .... 


827 


13-S 


2-4 


15-4 


6 


1-7 



The average number of marks obtained by the boys, classified 
as to counties is as follows : 

' Table 20. 







Morning 




Afternoon 




Total 




County of 


=1 




paper. 






paper. 












it 


15 


14 


13 


15 


14 


13 


15 


14 


1 


Glamorgan - 


16 


256 


219 


187 


95 


54 


28 


351 


273 


215 


Denbigh 


5 


235 


241 


204 


87 


42 


43 


322 


283 


247 


Flint - 


3 


204 


136 


143 


71 


21 


20 


275 


157 


163 


Hereford 


7 


219 


171 


198 


47 


44 


28 


266 


195 


226 


Chestei- (city) 


4 


246 


223 


205 


87 


49 


39 


333 


272 


244 



As I only examined two schools in Montgomeryshire, and the 

returns from one are not complete, I have thought it fairer net 

to give an average for that county ; there are, in fact, very few 

schools, as will have been seen, in the county. The results show, 

as might have been expected, that an agricultural population gives 

a less favourable result for the schools, Glamorgan and Chester 

being at the head of the list. The difficulties experienced by 

farmers in educating their children, and the indiiFerence often 

shewn by tljem on the subject, resulting perhaps from the action 

ot these (hftioulties on successive generations have been already 
remarked on. 

thefr Enrfi^rSfbipT^"'^ 'Y\ *''" ^^^7'^^^ learn Latin do best in 
bear thif out fe' T^ ^^'^ '""^"^^^ ^^ ^^^ examination fully 
st;e?lstlitedt\et:itT!!*fSrs:'^ ^^^^ ^^-ols, whic( 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 
Table 21. 



39 





1st solioo 


. 




2iid school. 








Ages 


15 


M 


13 


IB 


14 


13 


Marts obtained on morning paper by 

Boys learning Latin 
Boys not learning Latin 


304 
211 


298 
147 


266 
187 


219 
162 


211 
179 


211 
147 



Advantages of 
learning Latin. 



There can be no doubt that the great difference is owing to the 
fact that it is the boys who are most proficient in other subjects 
who are selected to learn Latin,, whether this is the whole reason 
it is difficult to say : it may be worthy of remark, hov/ever, that 
applying the same test to Euclid the results are not so marked— 
thus from the same schools we get. 

Table 22, 





1st scliool. 


2iid school. 


Ages - .... 


15 


14 


13 


15 


14 


13 


Marks obtained on morning paper by 

Boys learning Euclid 
Boys not leanfing Euclid 


274 
207 


259 

208 


317 
174 


237 
199 


' 251 
182 


274 
173 



It would require statistics from many other similar schools in 
other parts of the country before any certainty could be arrived 
at, as to the effect that the study of Latin has upon the power of 
learning otlier languages. 

I have been struck by the deficiency of answers to the third Deficiency in 
quiestion in English Gra,mmar and the first question in arithmetic. f^^^^J ^^^ 
Thus out of 1,034 boys above 12 years of age only 114 obtained 
half marks for the third question in grammar, and 47 of those 
boys were in four schools containing 189 pupils. And so out of 
the same number of boys 442 failed to answer the first question 
in arithmetic. 

It v/ould be easy tO' adduce examples of answers apparently Specimens of 
displaying the most lamentable ignorance, and in fact sometimes erroneous 
doing so. I think, however, it is a most unsafe test of the state of g^use of 
a scbool, as they often arise from thoughtlessness or nervousness, and tbem. 
cannot be avoided even by careful teaching. I may adduce two 
examples as illustrating this. In answer to the fifth question, in 
history, viz., " In whose reign was the Petition of Rights passed ? 
Mention any three of its provisions," one boy put, " He lived three 
days with nothing to eat but peas." Upon inquiry I found that he 
had been reading the day before the account of the Duke of Mon- 
mouth's sufferings after the battle of Sedgemoor, and lie had evi- 
dently caught at the words " provisions " and " three " without 
trying to understand the question. Again, in one of the girls' 
schools, a girl of 15, after looking at the first question in geography, 
and thinking a moment, said out loud, '■ The capital of Scotland is 
Ireland. No, the capital of Ireland is Scotland." Yet after she 



40 



Schools Inquiry Commission, 



Importance of 
inquiring into 
girls' schools. 



TJnsatisfactory 
condition of 
girls' schools, 
and its, reason. 

Motives of the 
mistresses in 
keeping school 



Pre quent 
change of 
mistresses. 



had become -less excited, she answered, not only that question 
but the rest of the paper, very fairly. Neither of the schools 
were particularly deficient, and I adduce these examples as show- 
ing the untrustworthiness of single answers, however absurd, as 
a test either of the pupils or the school. 

In the previous pages I have confined my attention almost 
entirely to boys' schools, but besides inquiring into them I was 
directed by my instructions to inquire also into the schools for 
girls. This inquiry has proved more important and interesting 
than I anticipated, and is, in fact, even more so in many re- 
spects than that as to the education of boys. Girls' schools are 
more numerous than boys' schools, though the number of pupils in 
them appears to be not quite so great, and they have hitherto 
received less attention ; again, there is less agreement of opinion 
with respect to the best subjects for the education of girls than 
there is with respect to those most suited for boys, and I 
have been led strongly to the belief that an alteration in the 
subjects now usually taught is desirable. The mistresses have 
less opportunities than masters of learning the methods em- 
ployed at other schools, and the general opinions that have been 
formed in relation to education, while they are, as a rule, far more 
willing and anxious to receive suggestions and advice than the 
masters. I think, too, that the views of the mistresses are for the 
most part in advance of those of parents in relation to the edu- 
cation of girls, and it is especially desirable, therefore, that the 
matter should receive some degree of general attention, and public 
opinion on the subject be, if possible, improved. 

Girls' schools, on the whole, seem to be in a less satisfactory 
condition than those for boys; though I found many in which 
the mistresses were doing good work, and the moral and religious 
influence appeared to be all that could be desired. The reasons 
of this unsatisfactory position of girls' schools are various; it 
is still not unusual for ladies to open schools solely because 
they need some increase to their income, without having any 
taste or aptitude for teaching, while others take pupils to give 
themselves some occupation, without considering it the principal 
object of their lives, or throwing into it all their energy as a man 
does into his profession. This happens the oftener because of the 
subjects which are usually taught to girls, and the mode in which 
they are taught, neither being such as to require much real train- 
ing on the part of the mistresses. There are no doubt some 
counterbalancing advantages in these small schools kept by ladies 
who seek to add somewhat to their income, since they approach 
more nearly to a home, and allow of more personal and individual 
influence being exerted by the mistress over the girls : the system 
is sure, however, to produce many unsatisfactory as well as some 
satisfactory schools. Again, the mistresses of schools change much 
oftener than the masters in boys' schools. The latter seldom open 
a school without intending to make it the principal employment of 
their lives, and their marrying, so far from interfering with their 
continuing to teach, is xisually almost necessary to the success of 



Mr.- Bofnpas's Report. 41 

Iheir school. On the contrary, very many young ladies open a 
school on finishing their own education, hardly intending to con- 
tinue it for more than a few years, and if they marry they almost 
invariably cease to teach, and the school passes into other hands. 
Thus a large number of mistresses, just when they have acquired 
■the experience which would make their teaching valuable, cease to 
teach, and leave their schools to other hands, who have to gather 
up fresh experience. Again, mistresses have no means of acquiring Absence of 
that high education which is obtained by men at the Universities, ^"Jation^for 
and which can hardly be obtained except in a place devoted to the mistresses, 
study of the higher branches of knowledge and strong in the tra- 
ditions of successive bodies of teachers. This applies, indeed, 
mainly to the upper class of schools, the masters of the lower 
middle-class boys' schools having seldom had a university educa- 
tion; but if the upper-class schools are really well taught, the 
result is felt in other schools also. An almost equal disadvantage Absence of - 
under which mistresses labour is the absence of any examination examinations 

- ' , * tor misrrcsBGs 

by which they can test their own acquirements or evidence them 
to others. The need of such examinations is very generally felt, 
and most of the mistresses I have spoken to have expressed in the 
strongest terms their sense of the want of them. The head of a 
school has now no means of ascertaining the capacity of any 
■governess to teach a particular subject except her testimonials, 
which are often given by those who are themselves unfit to judge 
of her acquirements, and has therefore to take her on trial before 
Bhe can form an opinion as to her suitability. Among the gover- 
nesses themselves I think there is a similar wish for some means 
of evidencing the acquirements which they may possess; and I 
was told by one young lady, who was just opening a school, that 
she had gone to France to finish her education, mainly in order 
that she might obtain one of those certificates of fitness to teach 
which can be obtained in France, but not in England, and that 
she knew other girls who were going over to France to be edu- 
cated for the same reason. I can hardly suppose that this great 
want will be sutFered to continue much longer. 

Perhaps the chief obstacle to the satisfactory education of girls Different 
is the different object that appears to be sought by it from that "^''^'e'^e^uca^* 
which is sought in the education of boys. The main object of tion of girls 
the education of a boy is to train his intellect, and to teach him to and boys, 
think and to work ; and even when much time is given to those 
subjects which will be useful to him in his future pursuits — which 
is, I think, increasingly the case— they are usually in some degree 
of an intellectual character, or taught in such a way as to effect the 
above objects. In the case of girls, however, the necessity of mental 
training seems to be to a great extent overlooked, and the only 
desire is to store their minds with such information and to teach 
them such accomplishments as may make them appear to advantage 
in society : subjects, therefore, which would exercise the reasoning 
powers and other mental faculties such as mathematics, classics, 
or science, in any but its elementary forms, are seldom taught, 
while much time is spent on learning facts of history and geo- 



42 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Classification 
of gii-ls' 
schools. 
Numerousness 
of cheap 
Schools. 



Finishing 
schools. 



graphy, and such general information as may be acquired from 
elementary lectures on science, or books like Mangnall's Questions, 
■while a still larger portion of the short time that is allotted to 
education is devoted to music and other accomplishments. The 
reason of this difference may perhaps be traced further back to the 
different aims which boys and girls set before them in their lives. 
A boy seeks to get on in life and to compete with his fellow-men 
in business or in a profession; a girl usually looks forward to being 
married, and so forming a home for herself, and seeks therefore to 
make herself an attractive and agreeable companion. I do not think 
this latter object is really so fully obtained by the present course 
of instruction as it might be by a different one, but I believe it is 
not unnaturally supposed to be so. 

Girls' schools may be classified in a manner very similar to boys' 
schools, but the cheap schools at which only elementary knowledge 
is taught are much more numerous. This arises mainly from the 
fact that children are sent to girls' schools much younger than to 
boys' schcoLs, and there are many schools in which the mistresses 
only profess to teach their pupils till they are II or 12, after which 
they are sent to other schools to finish their education. There is 
also a class of schools called finishing schools, to which there is 
nothing corresponding among boys' schools, which have no pupils, 
or hardly any, under 14 or 15, and whose avowed object is to com- 
plete the education of girls who have been brought up to that age 
at home or at cheaper schools, and which teach principally the 
accomplishments. These schools are for the most part boarding- 
schools, and usually congregate round one or two centres. Thus 
at Malvern there are collected a very large number of ladies' 
schools, while there are comparatively few in the neighbouring 
towns of Herefordshire. The reason that such schools congregate 
together seems to be mainly that it is easier to obtain really 
efficient masters where there are many schools together, and partly 
also that such places acquire a reputation for the education given 
at them, and it is thought fashionable to have been educated at one 
of them. The town of Chester forms in some degree such a centre, 
but there is no other within my district, which arises probably 
from the wish felt by most parents to send their daughters 
to school out of Wales to finish their education, that they 
may lose their Welsh accent and habits. The existence of this 
class of school for girls, and not for boys, may be accounted for 
partly by a very general feeling that home education is the 
most suitable for girls, at any rate, as far as it is compatible 
with the acquirement of the accomplishments which are deemed 
necessary; and partly from the great expense of girls' schools, 
which makes parents wish to shorten as far as possible the time 
that their daughters are at them. They may perhaps also be 
considered as supplying in some degree the place occupied by the 
Universities in the education of men. With respect to the subjects 
taught in different classes of schools, music takes very much the 
place of Latin, though it is rather more universal; and I have 
considered as a rule that no school came within the terms of t 



Mr. Bompa&'s Report. 43 

Commission at wliich It was not taught. There is, I think, rather Mixture of 
more objection felt to different classes of society mixing in girls' "'jesses in 
schools than in boys' schools. Only one or two of the schools in ^*^ °° ^' 
my district, bowcTcr, are confined to the daughters of professional 
men. The upper class of tradesmen are for the most part able 
and willing to pay higher temis, and few mistresses therefore are 
willing entirely to exclude their daughters for the chance of 
obtaining more of those of professional men. 

I may again illustrate my remarks by the case of Swansea. In Schools in 
that town there are 12 schools at which the accomplishments are Swansea. 
taught, and there are two others of the same class at the Mumbles. 
Four of these are intended for day-scholars only, but they are not 
in all cases the less expensive schools. Of the above, four charge 
25/. a year or less for boarders, and 4 guineas a year or less for day- 
scholars, and one charges 50 guineas a year for boarders, the 
others charging intermediate terms. This is, however, exclusive 
of the accomplishments, which are in all cases extra, and which 
make the actual payment for a girls' school very different from 
that for a boys' school professing to charge the same amount. 
The pupils are in all cases the children of the upper class of 
tradesmen, farmers, and professional men ; but in the cheaper 
schools are almost entirely confined to the first ; while in one or 
two of the more expensive schools they are mainly the daughters of 
merchants, manufacturers, and professional men. Seven of these 
contain between 10 and 20 pupils, five between 20 and 30, and the 
other two between 30 and 40. Besides the above, there are 12 
schools which only profess to teach young children, and which do 
not appear to me to come within the terms of the Commission, 
• though I visited some of them. These for the most part, as well 
as many of those before mentioned, take boys under nine or ten 
years of age, as well as girls. They are mostly small schools, and Schools in 
principally for day-scholars. ^™*^' to'^^- 

There are fewer towns without any girls' school than without any 
boys' school, and the schools being smaller, there is more likelihood 
of a second school being opened if the existing one is unsatisfactory; Education in 
and there is therefore, I think, less difference between the eflficiency country 
of schools in the small and large towns. Farmers and men living °^*™*^- 
in country districts have of course the same difficulty in finding 
schools for their daughters as their sons, but it is of less importance, 
because they have less difiiculty in providing them with an educa- 
tion at home. This is, I think, usually done at any rate for some 
years, but the governesses employed for that purpose arc, I fear, 
often very unfit for their work, being very imperfectly educated 
themselves; while the treatment they receive, and the position 
they occupy in the household, is such as to prevent the probability 
of any superior persons entering on the position, even if the salaries 
offered were likely to tempt them to do so. Tiie number of gover- 
nesses throughout the country must be very large, and considering 
that they usually only devote a few years of their life to teaching, 
if all the persons who are really qualified to teach were to devote 
themselves to it, they would not, I should think, be sufficient to 
supply the demand. At present any tradesman's or farmer's 



44 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



daughter who has been to school for a few years, if she disukes 
the idea of being a servant, is considered as a matter of course 
fit to undertake the duties of a governess. 
Short time In girls schools as in boys' schools the great difficulties that the 

that the pupils migtresses meet with appear to be the irregularity of their pupils' 
scCol! ^* attendance and the short time that they remain at school. Girls 
on the whole remain at school to rather a later age than boys do. 
This is, I believe, partly because they cannot so easily enter upon 
any situation when young ; partly because girls' schools being on 
the whole more expensive than those for boys, the firet part of 
their education is conducted at home, and they are sent to 
school for a year or two when thought old enough to gain the 
greatest advantage from it. It is not unusual, therefore, for 
girls to come to school for the first time when they are from 14 to 
16. They then frequently stop a very short time, one or two 
quarters perhaps, and in this time they are supposed to learn 
especially accomplishments, though very often ignorant of the 
elements of education. I have met with girls of 16 and more 
just come to school who knew absolutely nothing, except how to 
read and write, and that imperfectly. I believe that girls remain 
at school, on an average, a less number of years than boys do ; 
though when they are educated wholly at school and are of 
the upper middle class, they remain at school longer than boys, 
Irregularity of both coming to school earlier and remaining later. The irregularity 
attendance. of their attendance seems to be even greater than that of boys; in 
day-schools a very small reason is often sufficient to keep them 
from school, and in both day and boarding schools they are often 
kept away for a quarter or even for a year or two without any 
apparent necessity, and on returning to school in such cases they 
have usually forgotten most of that which they had previously 
learnt. To prevent the habit of staying away for a quarter some 
mistresses insist on being paid for the quarter whether the pupils 
are there or not, unless a quarter's notice has been duly given. 
This, however, can only be done by mistresses who can afford to 
risk lo^ng a pupil, as it often gives offence, I cannot but think, 
however, that it is really a right plan. The total number of girls' 
schools in my district that come within the terms of the commis- 
sion is 95, which it will be seen is a larger number than that of 
the boys' schools. The following tables will show the size and 
nature of the schools and correspond to tables 3 and 4. 

Table 23. 



Numher of 
schools and 
pupils. 



County of 



Glamorgan 
Denbigh 
Hint - 
Montgomery 
Hereford 
Chester (city) 



Total 







No. of 










1 No. of 
1 day 
sdiooIs. 


No. of 
mixed 
schools. 


board- 
ing 
schools. 


Total 
schools. 


No, of 

day 
pupils. 


No. Of 
board- 
ei-s. 


Total 
girls. 


1 
1.1 24 ] 


- .89 


674 


253 


927 




15 


277 


149 


426 


G :! : 1 


10 


20S 


28 


236 


1 8 1 1 


10 


168 


55 


223 


^ 


13 j 


15 


193 


158 


360 




2 \ 8 


6 


i'i 


101 


146 


■ 1 29 

1 


.57 


9 


95 


iso-i 


744 


2307 



Mr. JBompas's Report. 



45 



Table 24. 



Size of schools. 



Connty of 


Schools 
containing less 
than 25 girls. 


Schools 

containing less 

than 60 and mdre 

than 26 girls.. 


Schools 

containing more 

than 60 girls. 


No. of 
schools. 


No. of 
pupils. 


No. of 
schools. 


No. of 
pupils. 


No. of 
schools. 


No. of 
pupils. 


Glamorgan . - 24 
Denbigh - . 7 
mint ... -8 
Montgomery . 7 
Hereford . - - 8 
CliKter (oitj) . . . 5 


S70 
126 
177 
120 
140 
, 85 


13 


2 
3 
7 


380 
186 
69 
103 
210 


3 

2 

- 

1 


177 
114 

60 


Total 


59 


1018 


SO 


938 


6 


351 



Table 25. 





Schools having 
more than 20 
boardeijs.' '' 


Schools having 
more than 10 
and less than 
20 boarders. 


Schools having 

less than 

10 boarders. 


Total 
boarding schools. 


County of 


































1 


■§ 


II 


i 


1 


II 


■3 


1 


II 


■1 


1 




















o 3 
6^ 












d m' 


6 99 


■1 


oj3 
6% 


•^ 


d 03 


dS 


d'.S 


SI 




% 


% 


;? 


121 


|Z| 


% 


% 


^ 


fe 


^ 


fe 


ii 


Glamorgan 


3 


114 


46 


6 


67 


87 


16 


72 


292 


26 


253 


425 


Denbigh 


2 


77 


- 


4 


66 


83 


4 


16 


77 


10 


149 


160 


Flint 


1 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


8 


63 


4 


28 


63 


Montgomery - 
Hereford 


1 


20 


20 


- 


- 


- 


8 


36 


132 


9 


65 


162 


1 


3(1 


6 


7 


107 


76 


5 


21 


71 


13 


158 


152 


Chester (city) - 


2 


68 


26 


3 


43 


13 








6 


101 


39 


Total 


10 


319 


97 


20 


273 


259 


30 


152 


636 


66 


744 


991 



Size of 

boarding 

schools. 



There are only two endowed schools in my district, viz., the Endowed 
two Howell Schools, the one at Landaif, containing at the time of schools. 
my visit 60 boarders and 10 day scholars, and the one at Denbigh 
containing 55 boarders. The existence of these large schools increase 
the averages given in the above table for Glamorganshire and Den- 
bighshire. I have not included in the above statistics Shrewsbury, Sht'ewsbtay. 
in which there are four schools. They all declined to be examined, 
and I have not received any answers from them. They are boarding- 
schools of a similar description to those in Chester, but I should 
think not so good. As, however, I was able to gain so little infor- 
mation about them and they presented no peculiarity as far as I 
could learn, I have omitted them altogether. 

The preference of boarding to day-schools is less common in the Relative merits 
case of girls than boys, and in fact day-schools are usually pre- of boardbg 
ferred for them, except during the last year or two of their educa- schooS!^ 
tion. On the other hand, girls are less able to valk any consider- 



46 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Small size of 
girls' schools, 
and its reasons. 



Eelative 
number of 
mistresses and 
pnpils. 



able distance to school than boys, and the pupils of each school, 
especially in towns, tisually come from its immediate neigh- 
bourhood, which may be one reason why girls' schools are so 
numerous. In the country they are for a similar reason more 
often obliged to be sent to a boarding-school on account oi the 
absence of any day-school in the neighbourhood. I have, however, 
heard of several instances of girls walking three or four miles 
into a town to school, and being, notwithstanding, among the 
most regular pupils ; in other instances I have heard of their 
being driven every morning the whole or part of the way to 
school. 

"With respect to the size of schools, the diiference between those 
for boys and girls is, it will be seen, very marked. _ The origin 
of this I have heard attributed to various causes. _ It is, no doubt, 
partly due to the greater number of ladies wishing to engage in 
teaching, while very many of the mistresses shrink from the 
responsibility and actual physical labour of the management of a 
large school. The objection, however, seems to be as strong on 
the part of the parents as the mistresses ; very many have based 
their objection on the fact that girls are more easily biassed than 
boys, and that in a large school there is sure to be onebad girl 
who it is said would lead astray all the rest. The_ mistresses, 
however, of two or three of the best schools in my district, strongly 
deny this, and say that there are as distinct a tone of feeling and 
esprit de corps in a girls' school as in any boys' school which would 
put down any misconduct in a single girl. I do not think, there- 
fore, that it is a valid ground of objection, though it seems to 
influence many. Another reason is, that a small school is more 
like home, and there is more of the direct personal influence of the 
mistress brought to bear on the individual girls. The daily Jife, 
too, being more like that in an ordinary family, they can be the 
better taught what is proper behaviour in the different positions 
in which they may be placed in after life. One of the advantages 
of a large boarding-school for boys is supposed to "be the forma- 
tion of a strong hardy character, and both a large school and a 
boarding-school may be thought unfavourable to the formation of 
the gentle and feminine character which it is desired tO form in 
girls. 

The proportion of mistresses to pupils is ver}' great. Thus in 
29 schools from which I have returns, there were 770 pupils, 
79 mistresses, and five pupil teachers ; omitting the two Howell 
Schools, the proportion of mistresses is still greater, being 73 mis- 
tresses (including pupil teachers) to 645 girls. As in the case of 
boys' schools the number of mistresses is greatest when the terms 
are_ high. In the three schools from which I have returns in 
which the terms are about 50 guineas per annum exclusive of 
accomplishments, there are 53 girls and 13 mistresses, or one 
mistress to every four girls. One main cause of this is, I believe, 
the smallness of the schools which renders it difficult to divide the 
children into classes, and the necessity for having resident mis- 



Mr. Bompas's Beport. 47 

tresses for the different accomplishments, "When it is remembered 
that in addition to these mistresses the senior pupils arc taught 
musicj drawing, and dancing, and often some other accomplish- 
ments by masters, the contrast with boys' schools is very marked. 
The size of the classes differs less from those in boys' schools ; thus, 
on an average of 10 schools, the number of pupils in the first class 
in English grammar is eight. There are, however, more subjects 
which are taught to the girls individually than are so taught to 
boys. 

The expense of a girl's education is greater than that of a boy's. Expense of 
The usual charges for education in the ordinary English branches education at ■ 
is indeed less, but there are so many extras, and that for subjects S'^''^' ^"''oo's. 
which it is considered necessary for girls to learn, as more than 
counterbalance this. 

The following table shows the terms of the schools in my 
district, but they almost all charge also from 4Z. 4«, to SI. 8s. each 
for music, French, dancing and other accomplishments : if the sub- 
jects are taught by masters they become often still more expensive. 
For an average bill in most schools, therefore, 10 or 1 2 guineas must 
be added to the nominal charge, and in the higher scliools a much 
larger amount. Thus, an average bill for a school charging 60 guineas 
for boarders would be at least 100 guineas. The most expensive 
boys' school in my district has 64i. for an average, and 73Z. for the 
highest bill. There are at least three girls' schools whose average 
bills must be 90Z. or \QOl. and whose highest bills must amount to 
at least 120Z. In one school, for which 60 guineas Js charged 
for board and education, even arithmetic is an extra, the following 
being the list of extras given in the prospectus : 

Music and singing, each - 8 guineas per annum. Extras. 

German and Italian, each - 

Drawing 

Calisthenics 

Latin 

Class singing 

Arithmetic, including algebra, 

Euclid, &c. - - 

Lectures on Natural Philosophy 

Laundress, seat at church, use of library and piano being also 
extras. , 

I do not give this list in any degree as a reflection on the par- 
ticular school, with which I was much pleased, but as illustrating 
the great expense of female education as at present conducted, as 
compared with that for boys. I believe, even in the school above 
mentioned the expenses of conducting it are so great, that very 
little profit is made by the mistress. 



8 guineas per 


annum. 


6 „ 




6 „ 




6 „ 




4 „ 


„ • 


3 „ 




4 „ 




4 „ 





48 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Number of 
schools 
classified ^ 
accoTding to 
their terms and 
to the counties. 



Table 26. 



Schools charging 60 guineas a year 
or upwards for boarders 

Schools charging more thau 25 
guineas a year and less than 60 
guineas a year for boarders and 
more than four guineas a year 
for day scholars . - . 

Schools charging not more than 
-25 guineas a, year for boarders 
or four guineas' a year for day 
scholars t - - - 



Gla- 
morgan- 
shire. 



24 92 



Den- 
bigh- 
shire. 



127 



6 67 



9715 



162 



Flint- 
shire. 



Mpnt- 

gomery- 

shire. 






15 il?; 



25 



i,209 8 30 



Here- 
ford- 
shire. 



.Si « 

fQ I — 



'^'^ 



20, 



14810 



77 



Chester. Totals. 



67 



34 



s 



12; >?; 



IS 7 



31 28 



58 



110 



26 



2X4 llil * 



Evils and 
advantages of 
extras. 



The system of extras is attended with some evils. It induces 
parents to put off the time for learning a subject till long after it 
would have been really best for the pupils to begin it, and it is also 
usually unsatisfactory to the parents, and likely to prejudice them 
against the proper education of their children. On the other hand, 
it is undoubtedly desirable that parents should be able to diminish 
the cost of their daughters' education by omitting the more expen- 
sive accomplishments, and it may tend to check the general study 
of them. The actual expense of a girl's education is no doubt less 
than appears, because it is very usual in girls' schools for ladies to 
take lower terms than those held out in their prospectus. I cannot 
but think this is undesirable except for very special reasons, and I 
believe it sometimes ends in the mistress having habitually to 
accept lower terms than those justly due to her. 

The question whether girls are best taught by mistresses or 
masters is one on which there seems to be a pretty general agree- 
ment of opinion. It would seem that the commencement of a 
subject is best taught by mistresses, who know more of the disposi- 
tions of the girls, and are able to act and speak more freely to them. 
On the other hand, the higher parts are best taught by masters, 
the girls being usually more willing to exert themselve? to please 
them and having more respect for their opinions. This adds, 
however, further to the expense of the school, because as a mistress 
is usually present during the giving of the lesson, for the sake of 
propriety, there are really two persons engaged in teaching the one 
pupil. ° 

Age of pupils. Out of 348 pupils in girls' schools whose ages I have returned- 
to me, 116 were under 10, these no doubt including many 
boys; 136 between 10 and 14; 65 between 14 and 16; and 31 
above 16. 

With respect to the subjects taught in the various schools, the 



What subjects 
are taught by 
masters better 
than by 
mistresses. 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 



49 



following tables will show the number of schools which teach and 
pupils who learn some of the principal subjects ; 



Table 27. 



Subjects, 



French 

Book-keeping 

Instrumental music 

Vocal music 

Drawing 

•Arithmetic 

Dancing 



PeroentaRe 
of schools 
teaching. 



71 
24 
100 
41 
65 
65 
54 



Percentage 
of pupils 

learning. 



23 
5 
55 
13 
19 
49 
24 



Number of 
schools 
teaching and 
pupils learning 
the principal 
subjects. 



These statistics being formed from the returns of, only 17 schools 
cannot be considered as very accurate ; it must be remembered in 
relation to them that the schools contain a large proportion of 
children under 10 who could hardly learn the subjects. Drawing 
is usually taught during one half of the year only. In the more 
expensive schools French and music are learnt as a matter of 
course by all the pupils. 

Latin is, I believe, taught in only three schools, except to the Latin. 
little boys who may be in them, though some other mistresses 
Avould teach it if the pupils were willing to learn, and some of them 
do teach Latin roots. The chief reasons that it is not taught 
appear to be, first, a want of time, so much being devoted to music 
and other accomplishments, and to needlework of various kinds. 
Secondly, that it will be no use to pupils in life — a reason assigned 
to me again and again when asking why the pupils did not learn 
Latin or Euclid or even the higher parts of arithmetic. Thirdly, 
that very few of the mistresses are able to teach it. 
. French is taught pretty generally, and I think known better by French, 
girls than boys; this I imagine is partly due to the greater time 
and more prominent position among the studies allotted to it, and 
partly perhaps to a greater aptitude in girls for the study of 
languages. 

In the upper schools it is usual to have a French lady resident 
in the house and to make the pupils speak French the greater 
part of the day either every day or on certain days in the week. 
Some mistresses, however, object to this on the ground that the 
girls thus acquire a habit of 'speaking inaccurately, the mistress not 
being always by to correct them, and they being, in fact, unable 
to speak correctly from want of knowledge of the language. In 
most schools, however, the advantage of gaining some degree ot 
fluency in speaking is considered to more than counter-balance this 
evil, and various means are adopted, such as giving bad marks to 
girls making mistakes or good marks to those correcting them, to 
induce them to speak correctly. 



50 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Italian and 
Gennan. 



Arithmetic. 



Italian is not, I tliink, taught at all in my district, and German 
is taught in about 10 schools, but only to two or three pupils in 
each. 

Arithmetic is not nearly so well or carefully taught in girls 
schools as in boys' schools. Very few girls get beyond practice, 
and the majority know hardly more than the first four rules. ^ The 
reason of this deficiency is not, I believe, any want of capacity or 
inclination in the pupils, but, as in the case of Latin, partly a 
belief that the higher parts of arithmetic will be of no practical 
use, and still more the incapacity of the mistresses. With regard 
to the former it is no doubt true that the importance to boys of a 
goodknowledgeof arithmetic as enabling them to obtain situations 
more readily is one reason of the attention paid to it in commercial 
schools, but the value of its higher rules as a mental training, aiid 
as affording practice in and command over the earlier part of it 
ought not to be overlooked. With regard to the latter reason, 
I believe few governesses have been well taught arithmetic them- 
selves, and those few have no means of proving their capacity and 
are not therefore selected specially to teach that subject ; in some 
schools it is taught by masters and charged as an extra, but this 
I should think, it can hardly be doubted, is undesirable, for the 
reasons amongst others that render masters undesirable at the 
commencement of the study of music or other accomplishments. 
Book-keeping. Book-keeping is taught in some of the lower schools in my district, 
for the sake of girls who will be required to help to keep the 
books in their fathers' shops. The mistresses as a rule are hardly 
capable of judging of the expediency of teaching aZ^eJra or: Euclid. 
In one school in which algebra was taught the mistress informed 
me that it was always a favourite subject with the girls. 

Natural history and physics are taught by means of lectures in 
a few of the upper schools. This, however, is only possible in the 
neighbourhood of large towns, or where there are several schools 
together. 

It is thought by some mistresses, and I think with good reason, 
that these lectures afford little mental discipline and give only an 
uncertain and incorrect knowledge, at any rate unless supple- 
mented by an independent study of the subject ; they may be of 
value however as giving a useful and entertaining variety in the 
routine of schoolwork if too much time be not taken up by them. 
In most other schools the facts of science are taught from elemen- 
tary books, but I fear usually with a like result. I was struck by 
the fact that in my examinations, though many of the pupils 
attempted to answer the question " What gases is the air com- 
posed of?" very few answered it correctly. Most said oxygen and 
hydrogen. A real and systematic study of a science, such as 
chemistry or botany, is not, I think, anywhere attempted. 

History and geography receive a good deal of time and attention 
and they are as a rule better taught in girls' schools than in boys' 
schools. I think, however, that more stress might be laid with 
advantage on the constitutional part of history. 



Natural 
history and^ 
physios. 



History and 
geography. 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 51 

English grammar seems to be less understood and, I suppose, English 
therefore is worse taught in girls' schools than in boya' schools, g'^ammar. 
In parsing the sentence, " What reason have you for saying that?" 
I was surprised to find how very few were aware that you is the 
nominative to have. The number was small even among the boys, 
but still smaller among the girls that I examined. I think this 
is partly the result of the subject being taught rather as a series 
of facts and rules than according to any natural system, and partly 
of the girls not having been trained to think by any otlier subjects 
which exercise the reasoning power. The absence of the know- 
ledge of Latin or Greek grammar or, in many case?, of any other 
grammar at all no doubt also is one cause of it. 

Music is almost universally learnt except by a few girls in the Music. 
lower middle class schools who remain but a very short time. 
In many cases farmers' daughters who know hardly any history or 
€ven spelling, and who have only six or nine months in which to 
finish their education, learn music, and that though there may be 
no instrument at their homes on which they can practice. In the 
higher class schools a great deal of time is usually devoted to 
it, from one to two hours a day being spent thus, and sometimes 
even more, if singing be also learned. The opinion of a large 
majority of the mistresses seems to be that this ought not to be so, 
but that if after having tried for six months the pupil appears to 
have no taste for music, she ought not to be allowed to continue its 
study, but should learn drawing or some branch of science instead. 
A few of the mistresses, however, consider that by continued perse- 
verance anyone may be taught to play fairly, and that the ability 
to play is worth the sacrifice of time. 

Except for the positive advantage of knov/ing it, Instrumental, Disadvantages 
music appears to be as undesirable a subject for educational pur- ^^.™"f'° «^ ^ 
poses as could be well found. It affords very little exercise to the education. 
mind, and indeed a great part of the time that Is occupied in it 
is occupied in the merely physical training of the hands. It is, 
therefore, of very little value for mental training. Again, a large 
amount of time must be spent on it to be of any value. It is 
necessarily taught to each child separately. It is a subject the 
teaching of which is very expensive, especlfilly if taught by 
masters, because two teachers are then required for each pupil 
during the time of each lesson, instead of one teacher to ten pupils, 
which is a fair proportion in other subjects ; the expense there- 
fore having to be reckoned by pounds instead of shillings. The 
necessary appliances for teaching it, viz., the piano and music, 
are also very expensive. Independently of the expense the study 
of music introduces great difficulties into the arrangements of the 
school. The number of pianos being limited, it is necessary that 
the girls should practise whenever there is a piano vacant, and this 
often interferes with their other studies. Some schools seem to 
succeed in so arranging the classes as to get over this difficulty 
to a great extent, but it Is only by having many pianos and by 
the pupils practising at all hours out of school. Another dis- 
advantage is that the pianos being in different rooms, the practising 

a. c. 3. jjj 



52 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Drawing. 



Dancing. 



Needlework. 



cannot be carried on under the eye of the mistress, and as there is 
no result, as in exercises in other studies, by which it can be seen 
whether the pupil has properly attended to her duties or not, 
there is no check on idle and improper conduct during that 
time. . - 

When there is a real laste for music it may be worth while, 
notwithstanding all these difficulties, to make the required sacri- 
fice for the sake of the pleasure and advantage to be gained ; but. 
when it is considered how little use is likely to be made of it by 
o-irls who have no real love for it, I cannot but agree with the 
mistresses in thinking that it is a great pity that its study should 
be considered necessary in such cases. In one school in which 
music was not taught — the lady who kept it belonging to the 
Society of Friends — the subject was replaced by the study of 
Latin, German, and Euclid, and I could not but think with 
advantage. 

The study of the theory of music and the practice of class- 
singing are not open to the above objections, but no doubt are 
attended with many advantages. I am not sufficiently acquainted' 
with the subjects myself to be able to judge whether they could! 
be made to take the place of instrumental music as a branch of. 
education, and have not been able to gather much information on 
this head, as it is not anywhere systematically attempted. 

Drawing, though taught more or less in most schools, is not 
learned by so many pupils as music; many of the mistresses, 
itowever, regret that it is not taught more generally. It is 
almost always taught in the form of free-hand drawing from the 
flat. 

Dancing is usually learned, but is taught for the most part by a 
master or mistress, who comes to give lessons. Not unfrequently ; 
the children attend at classes held at the house of the dancing 
master or mistress. It is usually taught during a part only of 
the year, and is very often combined with calisthenics. These 
latter are in many schools taught to all the pupils as part of the 
ordinary school course. I find that in almost all schools dancing 
is the favourite amusement out of school in wet weather. 

Some form of needleicork is taught in almost all school?. The 
nature of the work, however, is left almost entirely to the parents; 
usually the time devoted to it is about equally divided between 
plain and fancy work. The girls generally prefer fancy work, and 
are anxious to take home some specimens which they have worked 
at the end of the half-year, and plain work is often neglected in 
consequence. _ In one school, as a means of teaching the girls plain 
work, the mistress had started a class out of school hours to 
make clothes for the poor; and this plan appeared to be answering 
the required object. The work is almost always sent by the 
parents, and no attempt seems to be made to teach sewing, as 
all other branches of education are taught, by examples not in 
themselves useful, but chosen especially for the purpose of 
education. I asked some mistresses why they did not get some 
pieces of hnen on which to teach the children to hem. fee, in the 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 53 

same way that they procured copy-books to teach the children to 
write. The idea seemed new to them, and they could give no 
explanation of the different manner in which the subjects are 
taught. I subsequently found one school in which the mistress 
said that such was her practice. There appears to be very little 
instruction in the art of cutting out and making up dresses and 
other large articles of clothing, and it is difficult to see how this 
can be taught under the present system. I ought, perhaps, 
to mention that in the Howell schools needlework seems to be 
thoroughly taught, the children making their own clothes. 

I asked several of. the mistresses vvhether it would be possible Cooking and 
and desirable to teacsh household duties, and in particular cook- ^oM^du^'''' 
ing. The latter is included in the scheme settled by the Court ' ' 

of Chancery for the Howell schools, though it has never been 
actually taught in them. The universal opinion appeared to be 
that it was impossible, and that such subjects must be taught at 
home. I did not, however, hear any difficulty suggested which 
appeared to me insuperable. It might probably involve some 
^Iteration in the part of the premises occupied by the servants, 
and would doubtless, cause some expense or waste of materials ; 
and care might be i-equired to prevent the pupils becoming intimate 
with the servants, or the latter being interfered with in their work; 
but I am not aware of any other difficulty, except the want of 
knowledge on the part of the teachers. 

Much more attention is ]>aid to the behaviour of the pupils in Deportment, 
girls' schools than in boys' schools ; indeed, in the former the 
teaching of deportment is as real a part of the duties of the school 
as the teaching of any other branch of knowledge. It would, 
perhaps, be well if a little more attention could be paid to it, in 
boys' schools. I think these remarks will illustrate the difference 
which I have previously pointed out between the subjects that are 
taught to boys and girls, and the motives that have led to the 
selection of those subjects. 

. I have no reason to believe that there is any materiiil dif- Relative 
ference in the powers of boys and girls to learn the various subjects pojers of boys- 
of education. Very few persons were really competent to express ^° ^" 
any opinion on this point, the experience of most having been only 
of one or the other ; but thosa who were seemed to be all of the 
opinion that there was no diftv.rence in their powers, though w real 
difference existed in their natures and characters which no similarity 
of education could eradicate or affect. One gentleman, who kept 
a boys' eclioal, and subsequently gave it up and kept a girls' 
school, consisting mainly of the sisters of his former pupils, said 
that he taught them the same subjects except Greek, which he 
taught to a few boys, but to none of the girls, and that he found 
no difference in their facility in learning the other sul)ject8, 
although the girls were rather quicker and more impatient, making 
a second guess when told that they were wrong, instead of waiting 
as the boys did for further expla\!ations. I met; also a lady who 
had been educated at the mixed school at Alnwick, where boys 
and girls are taught together, and examined together by papers 

E 2 



54 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Earlier age at 
•vrhich the 
female mind 
developes. 



Eeasons of the 
present system 
of education 
for girls. 



Beneficial 
effect of 
examinations 
on girls. 



sent from Cambridge, and slie said that she h.ad usually been firec, 
excelling all the boys, and that it was generally the case that one 
or two girls were first, though Latin formed one of the subjects ot 
examination. i • i 

It must also be remembered that, as above stated, girls remam 
at school to a later age than boys, and that ihey arrive much 
earlier at a full development , of their minds, and that they are 
able to study from 15 to 17 with a mature power of thought and 
appreciation of the value of knowledge, which boys do not attain 
till 17 or 18, an age after which :few boys who are not going up to 
the Universities remain at school. _ _ ;.^ 

The explanation of the present system of education, which 'is 
almost confined to the teaching of such subjects as a girl ca^ show 
in society, and excludes most subjects which would train and 
strengthen. the mind, appears to be two-fold. First, as I hjive 
remarked above, the object alike of the parents and of the children 
is that the latter. should be agre,eab]fe and attractive companions 
rather than useful .and intelligent women, and they do not suflS.- 
ciently realize that the latter is a necessary step to the fprm^r^ 
Secondly, gii'Is are far more susceptible than boys of praise and 
blame, and they seek, therefore, to excel, in such subjects as can 
be appreciated by their parents and friends on their return from 
school. They have hardly any motive to counterbalan<]iej this-: 
the desire to fit himself for some situation or office, or to be, sufr- 
cessful in, one of the many examinations which now exfst-is a 
more powerful, motive with most bpys than the mere love flf 
display; but there are at present, ,110 corresponding moitiyes^ for 
girls. ;,.r . , r;, „ ,.!■ 't,. .,,. ; -■..;.,;_ .- 

The fact that mistresses, as a, rule wish for some increase, in 
the more solid parts of ieducation rendgr.ed it necessary to inq[uire 
what means could (be adopted to counterbalance tlie above motives, 
and I have endeavoured, therefoi-e, to ascertain, whe;ther a system pf 
examinations couM be extended to girls' schools as a means of regu- 
lating the course of studies which.the existing examinatioi^ cer- 
tainly very largely do in boys' Schoolsf I have been led strongly to the 
conclusion that they could be so. Examinations appear to me to 
be more valuable as a means of influencing girls than boys, because, 
as I have said, the < former are,. far more affected, by praise and 
blame than the latter. In the examinations I have held the girls 
have evinced far greater interest than the boys. This may have 
been partly on account of the novelty of them, but I think not 
entirely so. , , , , . , , , , 

Such examinations would afford to the girk a motive ior 
pursuing the severer course of studies quite equal to the desire 
of displaying their acquirements' before their friends, success in 
the examination itself being a proof of such acquirements. It is 
true that such examinations would not directly influenee the 
parents, but one of the great evils complained of by the mistresses 
IS that the parents always aUow themselves to be led by the 
children, and they would certainly yield almost always to the com- 



tainly yi 

bined wishes of the children and their teachers. 



Mr. Bompas's Report_ 55 

The opinions of the mistresses on the subject of examinations, Views of the 

as expressed by the answers to the questions furnished by the mistresses -witU 

Comraission, are on the whole favourable. Of the 20 who express ""^^P*?* *° 

..,, 1-,,^ f 1 '■ examinations, 

an opinion on the subject, 15 say yes, tour say no, and one says 

yes, if the report was made only to the head of the school. Some 
misapprehension, however, occurred at first as to the meaning of a 
public examination. The only examinations of girls' schools at pre- 
sent existing to which that epithet can be at all applied are those 
of certain endowed schools to which the public are admitted ; such, 
for example, as those held in the Howell schools under the existing 
scheme, and which I cannot but think are exceedingly objectionable. 
Many of the mistresses thought that such examinations (viva voce 
examinations in the presence of the public) were meant in question 
77, and this may be the explanation of the four negative answers. 

Undoubtedly, however, there was among some of the mistresses 
a shrinking from an examination, and several objected to an 
examination of their schools, and others permitted it only on 
condition of its being held in their own schoolroom. I think, 
however, this was the result of a want of experience, since all 
the ladies who have allowed me to examine their schools, often 
with some reluctance, have expressed to me after the examination 
was over a wish that such an examination could be repeated 
annually. I examined In all, by written papers, 37 schools, con- 
taining 632 children, and three others viva voce. Of the remalnderj 
some I might have examined, but did not do so from want of time, 
and others I was refused permission by their mistresses to examine. 

In some cases the refusal, no doubt, arose from a consciousness 
of the unsatisfactory state of the schools, but I do not think that 
this was always the case. I believe that the schools that I did 
examine were fair specimens of the whole, including the best 
schools In my district and also some of the worst. In Hereford- 
shire there were only three schools that I did not examine out of 
the whole number, and I have little doubt that I should have been 
able to examine those but for special circumstances. 

Seventeen of the schools I examined not in their own rooms, Combined 
but at central places, the loan of which I obtained for the occa- examination oi 
sion, and I believe that those examinations were most liked by 
the schools, as they were also most satisfactory to myself. The 
towns at which I held these joint examinations were Swansea, 
Newtown, Hereford, and Leominster. At the examination at 
Swansea, which was the first occasion on which I held a joint 
public examination of girls' . schools, there were nine schools 
present, mustering In all 99 pupils, of whom four or five were boys 
under the age of 10. The pupils themselves seemed for the 
most part to enjoy the examination, though a few were too nervous 
to do so. I believe the wish of the pupils, equally with the 
mistresses, was that It might be repeated. 

In a few cases I examined the schools also viva voce, but the girls Viva voce 
were then In most cases too nervous for me to gain any accurate examinations, 
idea of what they really knew. This was not the case at the 



56 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Objection to 
any publicity 
for girls. 



Number of 

pupils 

examined. 



Howell Schools where they are accustomed to such examinations, 
and would no doubt cease in other schools after a time ; I think, 
however, that a written examination is much more satisfactory and 
would be generally preferred by the mistresses and pupils. I have 
stated elsewhere the strong need that 1 have heard everywhere 
expressed for examinations to test the capacity of governesses. I 
think for the above reasons they would be also of advantage in the 
case of girls not intending to engage subsequently in teaching, 
and that if such a system of examinations were adopted ladies^ 
schools would soon very largely avail themselves of it. One 
other point remains to be noticed, which I have heard often spokea 
of in my district. There is a very general objection to anything 
in the nature of public display in connexion with the education of 
girls. The mistresses are very desirous of an examination con- 
ducted by public authority, and the results of which should be 
inade known to the mistresses and pupils, but they would in many 
cases object to any publication of the names of the girls. An 
examination, the results of which should be announced to the head 
of each school, and a record of which should be preserved that 
there might be no possibility of its being misused or garbled^ 
would, I tliink, be satisfactory to all those to whom I have spoken 
on the subject. 

My examination of girls' schools was conducted in a precisely 
similar manner to that of the boys' schools. A smaller proportion 
of the pupils in the schools, however, attended, especially, when 
the examination was conducted in some central place. The number 
of pupils I have returned as belonging to the schools examined is 
974, while the pupils actually present at the examinations were 618. 
This arose partly from the fact that girls' schools usually contain 
pupils of a younger age than boys' schools do. 

The morning paper I made as similar as possible to that for boys 
in order to admit of a comparison between the two, and for the 
same reason I shall give the results in as similar a form as possible. 
I examined in all 618 pupils from 37 different schools, whose ages 
were as follows : — 



Age of pupils 
examined. 



Table 28. 



Ages - 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


10 


13 


12 


. 11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


Total. 


Glamoi-gansliiro 


_ 


_ 


13 


11 


28 


S9 


ii 


34 


22 


30 


20 


12 


B 


2 


259 


Denbighshire - 


- 


2 


6 


8 


10 


17 


16 


7 


4 


7 


4 


_ 


■_ 


_ 


80 


FUntshiro 




- 


- 


1 


6 


C 


10 


7 





13 


8 


4 


_ 


■ ^■' 


61 


Montgomeryshire 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


3 


2 


6 


4 


2 


1 


a 






' 21 


Herefordshire - 


1 


1 


4 


11 


23 


2U. 


21 


24 


17 


IS 


7 


2 






' WS 


Chester - 


" 


1 


6 


8 


12 


11 


4 


6 


3 


- 


1 




- 


-■ 


. 47 


Total 


1 


i 


28 


34 


81 


101 


96 


83 


56 


65 


41 21 


5 


2 


618 



It will be seen that there are no pupils above the age of 20 as 
there are in the boys' schools, and that rather a larger proport'io n 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 



57 



of the children are above 15 or under eight ; of the younger pupils Time the 
13 were boys ; 130 of the pupils had been at the school more pup>'?l»a>'e 
than four years, 48 of whom, however, were in the two Howell's school, 
schools;' 179, had been less than one year; 317 of the pupils were Number of 
boarders and 289 day scholars; the other- 12 did not state which hoarders and 
.they were. ^^^ scholars. 

The piapers set and the number of marks given for each ques- Marks allotted 
tion will be found in Appendix B, pp. 81 to 85. '^°^*^=^ 

The marks allotted to the different subjects, therefore, were : — 

Dictation- - - 50 

English gramrnar - - ,100 

jGceography- ' - - 100 

English history , - - 100 

French - - - 100 

Arithmetic - - ,100 

Writing - - - 50 



Total morning paper - 600 



Latin ~ 


- 150 


Italian - 


r 35 


German 


- 50 


Modern history 
Algebra 


- 65 

- 100 


Euclid- ; (- 


- 100 


Book-keeping - 
Natural philosophy 
Natiiral science , 


- 50 
120 

- 105 



Total afternoon papers 875 



The marks for the morning paper, therefore, were the same as for 
the boys ; those for the afternoon papers seven-eighths of the 
number of marks given for the boys' afternoon papers. 

I shall divide the private schools into those charging not less 
than 40 guinieas a y^ar for boarders, those charging more than 25 
guineas a year and not more than 40 guineas a year, and those 
charging not more than 25 guineas a year for boarders, or four 
guineas a year for day scholars, and I shall Call them for shortness 
liigher, middle, and lower schools respectively. The foUowiug 
tables give the number of pupils learning the principal subjects, 
and may be compared with Tables 12 and 13 for boys: — 



Table 29. 







■i 


1^ 


-6 


i 


3 
J" 


1 


i 


o 

If 


i 
1 
1 , 


■ B 


GlamoTgajishu'e 


. ,259. 


92 


2 


73 


5 


70 


187 


10 


. 19 


56.. 


,..57 


Denbighshire - 


80 


44 


- 


12 




10 


56 


- 


2 


S 


29 


FUntshire 


61 


11 


- 


- 




- 


21 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mon%omeryshu-c 


21 


_. 


- 


~ 


^ 


- 


■ B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Herefordshire 


150 


62 


7 


33 


6 


27 


103 


4 


6 


21 


25 


Chester - 


28 


28 


10 


17 


6 


11 
113 


23 


- 


2 


2 


14 


Total - 


699 


2,37 


19 


135 


16 


400. 


14 


29 


82 


126 



Number of 
girls learning 
each subject in 
each countv. 



* The numbers for this subjeot.are taken from the answers to the introductory questions in 
the afternoon paper. Neither algebra nor Italian are learnt at all, and Euclid only by two 
pupils. 



58 



Schools Inquiry Comrtiission, 



Number of 
girls learning 
each subject at 
different ages. 



Time spent on 
music, drawing, 
and needle- 
work. 



Average marks 
obtained in 
the examina- 
tion by girls of 
the ages of 
13, 14, and 15. 









Table 30. 
























^ 










s 






^ 




^ 




s 






3 










is 


^ 


3 


g 






rt 




■a 
1i 


■3 


to 




.s 




3| 




.g 


1' 


%' 
^ 




1 


o 


1* 




1 


10 and above 


64 


45 


31 


3 


26 


49 


_ 


'1 3' 


8 


20 


28 


10 


74 


45 


30 


■8 


27 


58 


1 


1 


5 


25 


2» 


14 


97 


47 


85 


4 


28 


70 


1 


5 


« 


14 


19 


18 


94 


43 


19 


1 


19 


70 


- 


8 


4 


^5 


19 


12 


81 


27 


10 


- 


10 


50 


— 


■■ ."i 


8 


'7 


16 


H 


5C 


16 


4 


- 


S 


40 


- 


- 


2 


- 


7 


Under 11 


133 


16 


5 


- 


5 


62 


- 


1 


1 


2 


10 


Total - 


S99 


239 


1S4 


16 


117 


897 


2 


14 


-29 


S3 


124 



The answers in natural philosophy and natural science were 
almost entirely either guesses or such as might be gained from any 
book of general information ; it will be seen, therefore, that the 
only subjects taught to any considerable extent beyond those given 
in the morning paper are history, music, and drawing. The follow- 
ing table will give some idea of the time spent on music, drawing, 
and needlework : — • 

Table 31. =r .: 



No. of girls learninaf - - - 

Ifc. of girls, spending more than six hours 

and less, than 10 hours a week on the 

subject - , -■ 

No. of girls spending more than 10 hours a 

week on the subject . . - 



Music. 



357 

213 
15 



Drawing. 



125 

7 



Plain 
work. 



257 

65 
21 



Fancy 
work. 



307 

68 
20 



The following tables give the average marks obtained by the 
pupils, and correspond to tables 16-20 for boys: — 









Table 


32. 
















Endowed 

schools. 


Higher 
private 


Middle 
private 


Lower 




private 










SGhooIs^ 


^schools. 
, 9 


schools. 


Number of schools in the class 






2 


5 


21 


No. of girls in such schools of the 


' \l 


21 


18 


19 


22 


ages re 


spectively 


- 


\ ;l^ 


22 
18 


12 

7 


15 
25 


43 
39 


FuU No. 

njarTv.s 

given for 

subject. 


Subject. 




Ago. 


Average 
marks 
obtained 
by eacJi 


Average 

marks 

obtaiurcl 

by each 


Average 
marks 
obtained 
by each 


Average 

marks 

obtained 

by each 












..•gir!., ., 


girl 


-girl- 


50 


Dictation - 


. 


15 
14 


38 
37 


.SI 
34 


26 
27 


29 
31 






.. 


13 


33 


26 


29 


29 


100 


English grammar 


{ 


15 
14 
13 


28 
20 
15 


35 
32 

8 


18 
19 
17 


17 

18. 
17- 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 



59 



Pull No. 






Average 


Average 


Avei'age 


Average 


of nfua^s 


Subjects. 


Age. 


marks 


rawks 


marks 


marks 


given 


obtained 


obtained 


obtained 


obtained 


for:^ 


: 




by each 


byeaeh 


by each 


by each 


subject. 






girl. 


- girl. 


gill. 


girl. 


« 


c 


15 


54 


50"^ ' 


33 


38 


100 


Geography - - ■ 


14 


46 


50 


39 


32 






13 


44 


33 


38 


34 




■ 


15 


44 


38 


28 


23 


100 


English History - • 


14 


37 


36 


31 


19 






13 


42 


15 


27 


18 






15 


37 


36 


19 


9 


100 


IVench - - • 


14^ 


20 


39 


17 


5 






13 


13 


2 


18 


7 


'^' 




15 


35 


32 


15 


. 19 


100 


Arithmetic - 


14 


22 


29 


26 


19 






13 


22 


7 


16 


21 






15 


31 


31 


29 


31 


50 


"VVriting - - • 


14 


Si 


30 


31 


31 




Total for the morn- 


13 
15 


30 


58 


29 


29 


600 


267 


252 


168 


166 






14 


213 


249 


191 


155 




ing paper - 


13 


200 


120 


174 


154 




Latin - - ■ 


15 


17 


15 


4 


1 


150 ; 


14 


8 


_ 18 


5 


5 




"" ' "' : 


13 


7 


16 


4 


2 






15 


5 


8 








■— — 50 


German - - \ 


14 





11 


6 





- 




13 


















15 


15 


14 


9 


2 


65 


Modern history - ■ 


14 


8 


16 


9 


3 






13 


8 


5 


9 









15 


34 


35 


25 


18 


_ 100 


Music •• - - ■ 


- 14 


- 25 


38 


22 


24. 


, , i - ,-; 


?iif!ni f>;^/; 


'.•rn 13 


,29, 


,52 


23 


,21 




Euclid -;o'f 'loj s 


<> . 15 


' 


3 








100 


•" ' 14 





"/2 












13 











» 






15 


1 











-50 


Book-keeping - - ■ 


14 





3 





1 






13 








1 





r >•»/'■> ■ 


■'"' ■ ;;- r 


15 


1 


2 


1 


1 


120 


Natural philosophy' - • 


14 





2 





a 


_ - 


- -' ' ' 


13' 








f 









15 


7 


14 


4 


2 


; • 105 


■Natural science - ■ 


14 


2 


5 


' ■"5 







Total for afternoon 


13 


, '• 2 


7 


-7- 





''' 875 


15 

._ .11.- 
13 


78 

4.5- , 

46 


91 
,._ 96 . 

80 


42 

42 

48 


23 
32 


^■'-i'. ! 


.'^'T -1 '■' r^ u ii^^- 


22 






15 


345 


343 


210 


189 


1475 


Total marks obtained ■ 


14 


258 


345 


233 


187 






13 


24« 


200 


222 


176 



60 



Average marks 
obtained in the 
subjects of the 
afternoon 
paper by girls 
learning those 
subjects. 



ScJiools Inquin/ Commission. 
Table 33. 





i?ls.' 


Endowed 
seliools. 


Higher private 
schools. 


Middle private 
schools. 


Lower private 
schools. 


- -- -■ - 


No. of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 


Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 


No. of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 


Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 


No. of 

girls 
learn- 
ing tlie 
subject. 


Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained.. 


No. of 
girls 
learn- 
ing the 
subject. 


Average 
marks 

ob- 
tained. 


Latin - \ 
German- - -! 
Modem history \ 
Music - - 1 
Euclid - 1 

Book-Jceeping , - \ 

Natural philo- J 
sophy - - ]^ 

Natural science \ 


15 

14 

18 

15 

14 

IS 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

16 

14 

13 

15 

14 

13 

15 

14 

IS 

15 . 

14 

13 


18 
10 
8 
3 

11 
8 
6 
19 
19 
20 

1 
1 

I 
5 


22 
17 
16 
33 

28 
23 
24 
S3 
29 
27 

20 

20 

I 

. . 17 

18 
7 


6 
6 
1 
S 
3 

5 
4 
1 
6 
7 
3 
1 
1 

1 

■1 
2 

.^> 
2 
1 


- 

22 

24 

47 

23 

31 

26 
83 
15 
52 
43 
19 
SO 
20 
- 

20 

20 
10 

25 
21 
22 - 


5 
6 

5 

5 

6 

8 
14 
12 - 
16 


1 
1 

3 
6 
6 
7 - 


13 
12 
15 

29 
22 
22 
30 

sg - 

2* 

20 

20 

27 
12 
12 
18 


3 
13 

-.4 

' 6 
9 

13 
29 
24 

8 

1 
1 

3 

1 


9 
15 
14 

10 

14 

22 
37 
32 

20 

20 
20 

12 
15 



Average marks 
obtained in 
different 
schools. 



Table 34. 







Average marks, 
gained oii morning 


Average marks 
gained on the 


Total average marks 


Schools. 




paper. 


afternoon paper. 








15 


14 


13 


15 


.14 J3 


15 


14 


13 


Endowed schools ■ ■ 


- 1 
. 2 


269 
266 


201 
223 


218 
160 


101 

44 


52 
39 


61 
22 


370 
310 


253 
262 


269 
182 




3 


181 


- 


121* 


64 


- 


.£2 


^5 


. - . 


183 




4 


191 


246* 


177 


114 


95 


89 


305 


340 


266 


Higher schools - < 


5 


801 


239 




94 


77 




395 


336 






6 


217 


186 


118 






_ 


217 


186 


118 




L V 


843 


388* 


- 


CO 


214 


_ 


43S 


602 






' 8 


199' 


165 


192 


45 


54 


52 


244 


219 


244 




9 


20i 


95* 


177 


95 


55 


62 


296 


160 


239 




10 


106* 


157* 


165 


15 


63 


29 


121 


220 


184 




11 


179* 


- 


171 


65 




73 


'244 




244 


Middle schools - -j 


1^ 


215 


221 


235 


29 


30 


SO 


244 


251 


265 




18 


123 


39* 


143 


80 




23 


163 


39 


165 




14 


175 


143 


173 


54 


83 


35 


229 


176 


208 




16 


165 


81S« 


150 


73 


- 30 


71 


'228 


S43 : 


£21 




Lib 


120 


811 


228* 


22 


102 


40 


143 


413 


268 




IV 


163 


208 


- 


48 


69 




£01 


277 






IS 


836* 


236' 


- 


65 





_ 


400 


236 


_ 




19 


198 


88 


148 


28 




12 


226 


- 88 


160 




20 


268* 


. 143 


161 


- 


31 


IS 


368 


177 


174 






- 


129 


103 


-\ 


26 


-20 




1S4 


122 




22 
23 


181* 


287* 
233* 


263 
167* 


40 


80 


62 
5 


221 


287 
812 


315 
163 - 




26 
26 
27 


138 


151 


; 187 


SS 


36 


59 


176 


187 


246 


Lower schools 


123 


90* 
222* 


96 

66» 

142* 


3 

7 


45 


7 


126 
139 


90 


103 

66 

143 




29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
L35 


123 
191 


176* 
154 

l.'Se 
lOS 
151 
117 


243* 
101 
228 
85* 

137 

203* 

lOS* 


23 


20 
70 

13 

17 

22 

2 


45 

27 

83 



10 

45 


123 

214 


196 

234 

148 
125 
178 
119 


267 

138 

286 

85 

147 
248 
168 



were not set to school 6. 



sse so marked. The afternoon papers 



Mr. Dompas^s Report. 



Gl 



Table 35. 



Endo-vred schools - 
Higher private schools 
Middle private schools 
Lower private schools 

, Total 



No. of 

girls iu 

the 

school 
over 12. 



96 

58 

89 

172 



415 



Per- 
centage 
of girl^ 
obtaining 
200 marlis 
and less 
thau-300 

in the 
morning 

papers. 



32-3 

44'S 

18 

18 



25-1 



Per- 
centage 
of ^irls 
obtaining 
at least 
300 marks 

in the 
morning 
papers. 



26 

15-5 
4-5 
3-.5 



Percentage 

of girls 
obtaining 
more thaii 
100 marks 
and less 
than 200 
marks in 
the after- 
noon 
paper. 



19-8 
25-9 

5-6 

6 



10-6 



9-6 



Per- 
centage 
of girls 

obtaining 
at least 

200 marks 
in the 

afternoon 
paper. 



Number of 
girls distin- 
guishing them- 
selves in the 
examination. 



1-7 



The following are the results classified according to counties :- 

Table 36. 



.,. 


■ 4. 


Morning 


Afternoon 




Total. 






11 


















15 


M 


13 


.15 


14 


13 


15 


14 


13 


Crlamorganshire 
Denbighshire - 
!Plintshire ■ - 


16 


226 


196 


188 


■76 


50 


47 


232 


216 


235 


8 


254 


204 


160 


89 


40 


17 


293 


244 


177 


5 


160 


147 


169 


16 


5 


23 


176 


152 


192 


Herefordishu-e 


8 


1(16 


158 


149 


89 


S8 


27 


225 


196 


176 


Chester - 


3 


238 


231 


147 


101 


79 


89 


842 


810 


238 


Montgomeryshire 


2 


122 


156 


104 


7 


22 





129 


178 


IM 



Results of the 
examination 
classified 
according to 
counties. 



The deficiency in parsing and numeration is, as may be supposed, 
even more marked in girls than in boys ; only 33 obtained half- 
inarks'for the third question in English grammar, and only 148 
answered the first question in arithmetic. 

There is another class of schools besides those already mentioned, Preparatory 
namely, preparatory schools for children under the age of nine or schools. 
ten; these sometimes receive boys only, and sometimes boys and 
girls; they are not numerous; I only know of five in my district, 
but there may have been some others, as I did not make any 
minute inqiiiries respecting them. I think such opinions as I 
could gather were favourable to these schools as a means of educa- 
tion for yQung boys. It is very difficult, however, to test them 
■except by the opinions of the masters of the schools to which the 
laoys subsequently go, the pupils being too young for a satisfactory 
examination. In the case of ^irls such schools have the disadvan- 
tage' that they involve a change of school as the pupils grow up; 
in the case of' boys this disadvantage is equally felt if they are 
sent, as they now usually are, to girls' schools. Most of the girls' 
schools in my district have some boys in them. 

The prevailing opinion seemed to be that boys came, on the 
whole, better prepared from preparatory schools than from home; 
but that it depended upon the particular case and the nature of 
the home. 



62 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Boarding 
schools. 



Insufficiency of 

school 

buildings. 



Separate heds 
for the pupils, 
■where 
provided. 



Means of 
Ueejping order 
in the 
hed-rooms. 



"With respect to the arrangements and influence oi boarding 
schools, apart from the question of the teaching which is given 
in them, my information is, I fear, necessarily imperfect. In 
such schools the moral is far more important than the intellec- 
tual training, and of such training I have, as I have before stated, 
been only able to form a very general opinion. The school build- 
ings are, as may be supposed, of very various kinds, but usually, I 
think, sufficient for the actual necessities of teaching. In some 
places, however, there is a great difficulty in obtaining suitable 
premises. Thus in that part of Cardiif which is near the docks, 
there was, when I went there, no school having a better school- 
room than the drawing-room of an ordinary house, and the boys 
were in many cases much crowded, and the ventilation unsatisfac- 
tory. Since then one school has obtained better premises, which 
were in preparation when I was there ; but there will probably be 
always a difficulty in getting really good premises where land is so 
valuable. In some other places I have met with the same diffi- 
ciilty, though in a less degree. Very few private middle-class 
schools, however, have in their premises all the conveniences that 
are desirable for a school, since the masters are seldom able to 
build for themselves, and are therefore dependant upon the houses 
which happen to exist in the neighbourhood in which they wish to 
open their schools. There is less difficulty in the case of girls' 
schools, on account of their being usually smaller. The school 
fittings are seldom in first-rate order, though in most cases sufficient 
for practical purposes. It was suggested to me, however, by one 
master, and I think with reason, that it is only when the fittings 
are themselves really good and in thorough repair, that the boyg 
can be expected to abstain from marking or injuring them, and 
can be thus taught habits of care and order. The moral influ- 
ence of a well-ordered and well-kept schoolroom is, I think, an 
important consideration, which is too often neglected. Very few 
schools have separate class-rooms or other such accommodation. 
The bed-rooms are usually sufficient, though in some cases more 
crowded than in others. The elder boys are generally provided 
with separate beds, though in a few cheap schools this is not the 
case. In endowed schools, with one exception, all the boys have 
separate beds. In the private schools from which I have returns 
4 do and 10 do not have separate beds for all the boys. In 
girls' schools it is much less usual for the pupils to have separate 
beds ; out of 20 schools which have returned answers to the ques- 
tions on that subject only six have answered in the affirmative. I 
am told that the girls, and very often the parents also, object to 
separate beds ; and one mistress told me that she had at first fitted 
up her rooms with single beds, but was obliged to alter them, because 
the pupils slcepmg alone was in so many instances obiected to by 
their friends. ■" 

Very various opinions have been expressed to me as to the best 
means of keeping order among boys in their bed-rooms, and from 
what I have seen and heard I believe it depends on the habits 
and character of the masler what regulations are best Most 



Mr, Bompas's Msport. 63 

toasters prefer rooms of moderate size, containing from four to 
eight beds each, and tlie eldest boy in the room is then generally 
expected to be in some degree responsible for the behaviour of the 
others. , In some schools it is usual to question the boys as to 
their, gbseryance of certain rules. There would appear, however, 
to be a danger Ijest this, unless carefully watched, should lead to 
habits of systematic falsehood. One or two masters have spoken Large 
-strongly, in favour of large dormitories divided into separate dormitories. 
cubicles. This is( probably the most perfect system, if the master 
has such control, over the boys as to be, , able to insure their not 
leaving their cubicles after they have once retired to bed. Unless 
this can bo done there are more likely to be objectionable habits 
formed under that system than when several boys being in the same 
room form some, sort of check on each other's conduct. . Large 
dormitories, however,^ would seldom be possible except in endowed 
school^, from , the wa^it of puitable buildings. In some schools 
absolute ^ileixee is enjoined after -the boys retire to rest ; but this 
is, I think, ]jot,the case in tjie best schools. ' 

Most schools, have some sort of playground, though in some. Playgrounds, 
cases a piece of open public ground near the school is made to 
answer the purpose. In , towns, however, the playgrounds are 
sometimes very small. The want is the more felt as the boys 
cannoti as in the, country dista;icts, make the neighbouring fields 
supply the place, of a playground. In girls' schools, there is 
usually a garden in which the pupils walk and play;, but not 
lisually ci^, playgro^n,d in ■ the strict sense of the word; They do 
not seem for the most part to have many outdoor games ; but 
iui^Qors dancing forms an almost universally favourite amusement. 
f One .very important part of the school arrangements seems to me School library. 
tQite the library. JtlQg.t endowed schools possess something of the 
kind, but many priy£it,e sphoqlg do not possess any. There is a 
^iffere^ce of opinion among the masters. as to whether it is desirable 
fpr bCffis ;tp! read much during. the time they are, at school. Some 
mas.iers think thaf;the time which is not devoted to study ought 
tp fee spent iii bodily exercise, .Qp prne otTier complete .change of 
occupation. On the Sunday, however, at any rate, it seems very 
desirable that the boys should haye books to read; and in schpols 
where they .have.np libi-ary the boys eitb-^r bringibookp with them 
from bfime, or are lent them by the masters ; but a school library 
accomplishes thp object mpre satisfactorily. , Jn the Howell school 
ajfpienbigh the mistress, tpld me that gjie found great difSculty 
|ii 'affprdipg,.the, children occupation on Suaday, owing to their 
h^aying no library. ..It may be questioned, I think, >vhether some 
.prp,yisjon ought not to be made in school education fppjthe form- 
'fltljpn of a habit pf reading, since the value of such a habit in after 
life is go great, and whether some sacrifice, of the stricter school 
Studies might not be well made, if necessary, for such an important 
objiecti. ,^, ,, -, . , , ,, , _ ., ,;-,.,.. . , 

' it is not unusual for boys to lodge in a to.>vn where there i? a Practice of 
good, school and attend it as day, scholars in order tp save the toyslodgmg 
expense of boarding. This is especially the case at some endowed ^ ^™^* ^*^' 



6-i Schools Inquiry Cutmnisiann. 

schools such as Llaiirwst and Monmouth, but it is true_ of some 
private schools also. Tliis would appear to be as objectioDable a 
system as possible, and oiight not, I think, to be allowed in the 
case of any endowed scliool ; the boys are under no control when 
out of school, and having usually only one little room, they 
wander about the streets as much as possible, while in many cases 
the lodgings themselves, being only chosen for cheapness, are 
barely respectable. All the masters agree in condemning the 
practice most strongly, and at Ruthin the head-master refused to 
take boys unless living either with their relatives or with one of 
the masters, and I think most reasonably, though probably he 
had no legal right to refuse to receive any boys who were living 
in the town. Special regulations with respect to this ought, 
I think, to be introduced Into the schemes granted to grammar 
schools by the Court of Chancery, but if so, it will be necessary 
to provide some cheap means of boarding in connexion with the 
schools. 
Punishments. Xhe punishments in use in boys' schools are mainly three — 
caning, impositions, and the loss of marks. Corporal punishment 
has almost entirely ceased as a usual punishment, and though few 
masters say that they never use the cane, most reserve it for 
extreme cases, not using it above once or twice in a year. In one 
or two schools, however, it is still used as an ordinary punishment, 
and certainly in the only case which I had special opportunities of 
observing, without lessening the respect or affection of the boys 
for their master. Corporal punishment was not used in any of 
the girls' schools v/hich came within the terms of the Commission ; 
its place seems to be taken by a punishment not used in boys 
schools, viz. sending the pupils to bed. This I am told, under 
proper management, can be made a very severe punishment, 
though usually it is little more than a disgrace and disappointment. 
One or two mistresses seemed to think it unwholesome, but I 
cannot see that it need be so, certainly not so much so as extra 
work. 

Impositions which are, perhaps, the most universal form of 
punishment, are open to several objections. If the school work is 
sufRciently hard, any considerable addition of impositions becomes 
unwholesome, involving the loss of necessary exercise and recreation. 
An idle boy, too, is apt to receive several impositions successlvely[till 
it becomes impossible for him to do them. After a boy has been 
punished he needs especially all his energies and powers of work 
to enable him to make a fresh start and recover his position, but 
if the punishment has been an imposition he comes to his ordinary 
work tired, and is likely to fail again in it. Lastly, the impositions 
too often cause the subjects he is learning to be associated in a 
boy's mind with all that is disagreeable and evil so as to make him 
dislike learning instead of the contrarv. I have met with one or 
two_ girls' schools where the contrary 'practice was tried and the 
punishment consisted in enforced idleness, the pupils beino- taught 
to regard work as a privilege. There can be no doubt that 
enforced idleness can be made as severe a punishment as anyy 



Jlr. Bumpas's Report. 65 

being in fact the severest used in prisons, and 1 think it is well 
worth consideration and trial. It is, however, difficult to use it 
as a punishment for slight offences, as to many boys idleness 
for a'shoi-t time would bo a pleasure, and a long suspension of 
employment could only be used occasionally. It is difficult, too, 
to find, the means of separate confinement which are practically 
required if several pupils require to be punished at once. In 
schools where marks are given daily and prizes in accordance witli 
them, the loss of marks is the usual punishment for defective 
preparation ; it is apt, however, to have little effect upon the 
idler boys, who having no chance of a prize care little for the 
marks. In girls' schools a system of marks, if well arranged, is, I 
think, usually very, effective, girls being more susceptible to praise 
and Wame and the disgrace implied in losing marks affording 
usually the necessary restraint. Many mistresses told me that 
their pupils never required punishment, and that to express dis- 
pleasure at their conduct was all that was ever required. I must 
confess to extreme incredulity as to such stateiuents, and I believe 
that, punishments are much the same in girls' schools as boys' 
schools, except that as I have said above, sending the pupils to 
bed is substituted for corporal punishment, and that punishments 
which are expressive of disgrace as well as the corresponding 
rewards are more effective, partly from the fact that the schools 
are smaller, and partly fi'om the difference of character in boys 
and girls above mentioned. 

The systems of rewards differ, of course, widely. In the lower Eewai-ds. 
middle class schools the system of prize-giving has in many cases 
been given up oh account of the' jealousy it occasions among the 
children and the dissatisfaction on the part of the parents of the 
children who do not obtain them. In a few cases the difficulty is 
got over by giving some rewai'd annually to every child. When 
prizes are given the usual practice is to give marks for each lesson 
daily, and then to give prizes to those who obtain most marks in 
tlie half year. Jn many schools there is also an annual examina- 
tion, the marks obtziined at which are added on to the marks 
obtained for the daily work during the year. Very few schools, I 
think, give prizes for success in tlie examination alone. In one or 
two large schools tliere are a double set of prizes, one awarded 
according to the daily marks, and one according to the result of the 
examination. The system of mnrking is occasionally very elaborate; 
thus in one school the boys received a mark for every sum they 
did, and were allowed to do as many as they liked out of school 
hours ; the result was, that the first boys did an immense number 
of sums as extra work, and the arithmetic was very good, though 
rather to the neglect of other subjects. The system of allowing 
boys to obtain marks by extra work I met with also, elsewhere, 
and it tends to teach boys to work for their own pleasure and not 
only because they are obliged ; there is a danger perhaps, how- 
ever, of its leading to overwork. In some schools the masters 
adopt the plan either instead of or as well as prizes, of sending 
home monthly reports to the parents, containing the marks 



66 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



obtained by tbe boys and their position in the school, and the 
plan seemed to work well. It is not, however, I think, adopted in 
many schools. 

Holidays. The aftiount of holidays given is greater in endowed schools 

than in private schools. The average number of weeks during 
which the pupils are in school, being according to the answers 
I have received, 40 for endowed schools and 42 for private 
schools. It is less for cheap schools, than for those of a higher 
class, the number of weeks in school being on an average 43 in 
the lower class schools and in some instances reaching 46 or 47. 
As a rule the masters like long holidays and the parents short 
ones. The parents of the lower middle class especially object to 
long holidays, partly, I think, from a wish to obtain as much 
teaching as possible for their money, and partly because they have 
less accommodation for their children and less means of providing 
amusement for them when at home. The reason that endowed 
schools give longer holidays may be partly that they are less 
dependant on the wishes of the parents, but is mainly, I think, 
the remnant of old customs, and points to the fact that holidays 
are diminishing and not increasing. In Kuthin School it has 
been always the habit to give three half-holidays in the week, 
but the present master intends to reduce them to two. Most 
teachers say that much time is spent in recovering the ground lost 
during the vacation and getting the pupils into steady habits 
of work. In day-schools it is difficult to say why such inter- 
ruptions to habits of work should be allowed, but in the case of 
boarding schools, parents would hardly consent to be separated 
entirely from their children, and, probably, would not agree to 
any great curtailment of the holidays, at any rate in summer. 
Considerable difficulty is felt with respect to the best time of 
giving holidays. Parents usually like to take their children with 
them to the sea-side when they go there, which is often later than 
the time when holidays are now usually given, and they often 
keep their children from school during the Michaelmas quarter for 
that reason ; so also the farmers often want their children at home 
during harvest time to help them. One or two schools, but only 
one or two, adopt, consequently, a later time for the holidays, viz., 
August. Most masters are of opinion that this time is even more 
inconvenient, as those farmers who do not need their children to 
help them are so busy at that time that they cannot take them to 
the sea-side or attend to them if at home. The general opinion of 
the masters appeared to be that the earlier time was usually pre- 
ferred by the parents. 

Schools of Art. Before proceeding to the last subject for consideration, viz., the 
endowments existing in my district, I may say a word or two as 
to the Schools of Art in it. These are not used by other schools 
as a means of teaching the boys drawing, but are valued as a means 
of bringing into the neighbourhood a good teacher who can go to 
the different schools to teach them. It seems to be considered 
that the boys are not likely to work so well when away from the 
school and not under the eye of their master. I should think 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 67 

it probable that the great spread in drawing as a subject of education 
is in some degree the result of the existence of Schools of Art. 
The examinations and prizes awarded by the Society of Arts have 
done much towards the same end. It is, I think, a question worthy 
of consideration whether a similar means might not be used for ex- 
tending the teaching of science in schools. It is, as I have said, at Means of 

present difficult to teach chemistry and other sciences practically in ^^I'^'^^g 
11 ic.i -^i . ii",.''i, science. 

schools on account ot the expense, and yet it would seem desn-able, 

especially in certain districts, such as Swansea, that such teaching 
should exist. If a central laboratory were established under an 
efficient teacher, I think, from what the masters stated to me, they 
would avail themselves of it and send some of their boys to learn 
science practically while the existence of such a teacher in the town 
Avould, I have no doubt, lead to an effort to have the subject taught 
in some of the larger schools. At Swansea there is an institution to 
whicli a laboratory was formerly attached which is now used for 
the purposes of the School of Ai-t ; but I have little doubt that 
either there or elsewhere accommodation could be obtained for a 
laboratory if any system of teaching science similar to that now 
carried out with respect to art were adopted by the government. 

The question of endowments may be considei'ed under two Endowments 
heads — those that were left for purposes of education, and those 
that have been left for other charitable objects. There are in my 
district 17 existing grammar schools, viz., those at Cowbridge and 
Swansea, in Glamorganshire; Denbigh, Llanrwst, Ruabon, Ruthin, 
and "Wrexham, in Denbighshire; Hawarden, Holywell, and St. 
Asaph, in Flint; Deythur, in Montgomeryshire; Bromyard, 
Hereford, Kington, and Lucton, in Herefordshire, and those at 
Chester and Monmouth. There are also two endowed girls' schools, 
viz., the Howell schools at Llandaff and Denbigh. Besides these 
there are no fewer than nine towns and villages in Herefordshire 
where there are endowments which were originally intended to 
support grammar schools, but which, being inadequate for that 
purpose, are now paid to the National schools in those places. It 
will have been seen from the preceding report that tiie actual state 
of these grammar schools is very various, and I leave for my special 
report on each school the notice of their special peculiarities, and 
confine myself to pointing out some general principles which may be 
deduced from them. First, then, it may be well to recall the special Present 
educational wants that need to be supplied. They are, I think, educational 
mainly three — a, school in each town for those parents who cannot 
affijrd to send their children to a boarding school ; means of educa- 
tion for the children of farmers and others in the country who have 
no day school near them ; and who cannot themselves Avell aiford the 
expense of a boarding school ; and a means of education for orphans 
or others who from exceptional circumstances are imable to pay 
the ordinary expense of an education such as their position in 
society entitles them to. To effisct the first purpose was the main 
intention with which many of the endowments were left, and it 
would seem as if some small endowments were necessary to accom- 
plish it. Small country towns do not usually offer a sufficiently 

a. c. 3. V 



68 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Endowed 
schools CO 
injury to 
private schools, 



Best form of 
endowment. 



Large 
endowments. 



attractive sphere to induce a good master to settle down in them 
unless there is some small endowment to counterbalance the 
superior advantages of other places. There are several towns in 
my district in which there are no grammar schools, in which there 
are no private schools either ; Llangollen and Leominster may be 
mentioned as instances. I think that the existence of a grammar 
school in a town, unless it be a very small town, is favourable 
rather than otherwise to the existence of private schools, because 
it awakens an interest in education which induces parents to wish 
to send their children to some school who would otherwise leave 
them uneducated, or at most send them to the national school 
Thus, of the five principal towns in Herefordshire, viz., Hereford, 
Kington, Ledbury, Leominster, and Eoss, the two first alone 
have more than one school, they being the two that have grammar 
schools, and Leominster also, when its grammar school was in 
existence, had a good private school also. Now its grammar school 
has ceased to exist, and the private school too. At Llangollen 
there is now a ladies' school, and the mistress told me that when 
she first came hardly any of the farmers or tradespeople seemed 
to take any interest in the education of their children, and she had 
few pupils. The existence of her school seems gradually to have 
awakened an interest in education, and now she has many more 
pupils,^ while others of the children are sent away to school. I do 
not think, therefore, that a badly managed grammar school does 
actual harm, by keeping out private schools without supplying 
their place ; while the advantage of a really well-managed school 
with a good master can hardly be over estimated. The best form 
of endowment for the above purpose is probably good buildings. 
Eeally good premises, with a small endowment for which a few 
boys may be taught free, is quite sufficient to render a town a 
desirable place for a master to settle in, and to insure the existence 
of a school in the town. A fixed stijiend without buildings is very 
apt to lead the master to become careless of his school, thinking 
the stipend without work more valuable than an increased income 
obtained from a more flourishing school, which would entail 
constant labour. Kington grammar school is an instance of an 
endowment working in that way. 

There are many schools, however, having large endowments, 
such as Monmouth, Hereford, Swansea, &c., and a question 
arises as to the effect which they produce. At present the en- 
dowments are used to cheapen the education of boys of the 
upper jniddle class either by enabling the school to give a better 
education at a given rate or afibrding the boys scholarships by 
^u^'^L *^-®^ P'^^ ^^^ '^ longer education. It may be questioned 
whether in either case much advantage is gained. Persons of the 
upper middle-class can as a rule well afibrd to pay for any education 
that their boys need, and it can hardly have been the intention of 
iounders of grammar schools to relieve them of expense. The ad- 
vantages possessed by grammar schools do, I think, tell injuriously 
against private schools, few existing in my district of the same 
class as these upper grammar schools, while they are not required 



Mr. Bompas','! Report. 6g 

to skow to persons of that position in society tlie neceeeity of pro- 
viding an education for their eons. It can hardly be doubted that 
their place would be supplied by private or proprietary sohoole if 
they did not exist. Little guidance as to the employment of the 
endowments can be obtained from the intentions of the founders 
on account of the change of circumstances. In the days when the 
schools were founded it was difficult, if not impossible, to obtain 
an education in anyway unless there was a school in the neigh- 
bourhood. Now, to the upper middle-class the distance of the 
school has become almost a matter of indifference, and most boys 
are sent to boarding schools at a distance from their homes. It 
would seem, therefore, as if these endowments might be used with 
advantage to supply the second educational want above mentioned ; 
yet no systematic attempt has been made, as far as 1 am aware, in 
my district to employ the endowments for the aid of the small 
farmers and others of the lower middle-class living in the Country 
with no schools in their immediate neighbourhood. 

A strong opinion was expressed to me by the late Dean of Here- Education of 
ford that the sons of farmers should be educated at the National atTationT'* 
schools in their neighbourhood, paying at a higher rate than the schools. 
other children so that their education should not be a charitable one. 
He thought that the schools themselves would be thus improved 
and the other children benefited, and that the farmers' sons would 
receive a more satisfactory education than in any other way. I do 
not think that this opinion is a very general one, and there seem to 
be several practical difficulties which it might be difficult to over- 
come. There is a growing wish among the clergy to have a 
school in every parish, and this renders the sdioola too small to be 
adequate for the sort of education that would be required under 
the above system. The farmers do pot like their sons receiving 
their education together with the sons of their labourers, and 
though this objection might be overcome if the schools were very 
good ones, it would require far more attention and pains than is 
usually bestowed on such schools to render them sufficiently 
attractive to overcome it. There is al^o a feeling that it is more 
respectable for their sons to be educated at least in part at a 
private school, which induces farmers for the most part to prefer 
sending them to one. I do not think, therefore, that national schools 
are likely, in fact, to supply the want I have above referred to. 

If large cheap boarding schools were opened with these endow- Employment of 
ments it might indeed interfere somewhat with the existing private cents' to^' 
boarding schools for the same class, but I cannot but think % great establish 
benefit would be confered upon the boys themselves. It would cheap boarding 
probably be necessary to place the admission of boys under certain °° ^' 
restrictions, giving perhaps to a committee the power of admitting 
them to the school at the reduced rate, and requiring them to 
prove that they belonged to the class for which the school was 
intended. About 221. a year appears to be the lowest sum at 
which boarders can be made to pay, and even then it is hardly 
possible to provide such teachers as are desirable for their educa- 
tion. A school which should receive 100 farmers' boys at 12/. a 

F 2 



70 



Schooh Inquiry Commission. 



Difficulty 
arising from 
the maBtere 
and trustees. 



The Howell 
schools. 



year would confer, I believe, a great benefit on the class If the 
admission of boys were properly conducted. The third class whom 
I have referred to above as needing help are already partially 
provided for at some grammar schools, a certain number of boys 
having a right to a free education, and fit candidates being selected 
by the trustees of the school. 

Some difficulty would probably arise in applying the endow- 
ments of grammar schools to the education of the sons of the lower 
middle class from the not unnatural wish of the masters and trus- 
tees to render their schools as well known and high-class schools 
as possible, and the opposition which they would therefore offer 
to any such scheme. The difficulty might perhaps be met by 
having an upper and lower school under the same management. 
Many masters have complained to me of the difficulty that they find 
arising from the presence in their school of a few boys who from 
natural 3ullness, idleness, or imperfect early education are unable to 
keep pace with the rest, and who would be far better taught in a 
lower class of school ; on the other hand, in every commercial 
school there are some boys whose special aptitude entitles them to 
a high-class education. A combination of two schools under one 
head would, in the opinion of some masters that I have spoken to, 
greatly lessen the difficulty, but as there is no example in my 
district of such a double school on any considerable scale I cannot 
support this opinion by facts. If such double schools do not 
answer, I think, for the reasons above-mentioned, that the endow- 
ments should be used for lower, not upper, middle-class schools. 

The only schools in which endowments are applied in a manner 
at all resembling that which I suggest are the Howell schools for 
girls. These afford, in the first place, a perfectly free education to 
55 orphans, who are selected .by the committees of local governors 
who manage the schools, consisting of the principal gentlemen of 
the neighbourhood. To these orphans board and clothing is given 
free as well as education, and they remain at the schools till they 
are 17 or 18, at the discretion of the local governors. Besides 
these there are 60 other pupils to whom a free education is given, 
but who pay for their board and clothing ; they are also selected 
by the local governors but are not necessarily orphans. They are 
selected as far as possible from applicants whose parents are 
gentlemen or professional men, but who are not able without help 
to give their daughters a really good education. There are also 
a certain number of day pupils admitted to the school who pay 
for their education, though at a rate hardly equivalent to its 
actual value. Even these schools, however, though affording 
^fP^° tl^tise only by whom it is needed do not meet the wants 
of the lower middle class, though they do in some measure those 
of professional men residing in country districts. They afford an 
mstance, however, of a boarding school being offered at less than 
a remunerative price to those who would not otherwise obtain a 
good education for their children. It may be questioned whether 
It ]s wise to confine schools entirely to those receiving aid from 
the endowments, and whether boarders paying remuneratin«' 



Mr. Bompas^s Report. 7 1 

terms, as well as day scholars, might not be advantageously added 
to the Howell schools as they often are to grammar schools, so as 
to Introduce into the schools more of the ordinary motives which 
influence mistresses and pupils, and to lessen the constant feeling 
among the latter that they are receiving a charitable education. 

The difiSculty in confining endowments to those who renlly 
need them arises partly from the danger of an improper selection 
of objects of the charity and the suspicion that is always likely 
to attach to those who are electors, that they are unduly biassed, 
and secondly from the unwillingness that would exist in the case 
of many parents to receive such charitable aid. These difficulties, 
however, do not seem to have materially interfered with the 
working of the Howell schools, and might, I think, be overcome, 
especially if a competitive examination formed one of the means of 
selecting those who should be admitted on the foundation. 

One of the most common uses to which endowments are now Scholarships 
put is the granting scholarships tenable at the universities. 
In all the schools -whose revenues are increasing this is one of 
the objects to which the trustees seek to apply them. Such an 
application of the revenues of a school seems, however, to be 
inconsistent with the opinions expressed by the University Com- 
missioners when reforming the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. 
They as far as possible threw open scholarships which had been 
j)reviously attached to particular schools, considering such restric- 
tions unadvisable and a remarkable instance occurred in the case 
of Cowbridge grammar school, the scholarships attached to which 
were all thrown open leaving this, which is one of the most impor- 
tant grammar schools in my district practically unendowed. That 
the Commissioners were right in supposing that the scholarships 
were more valuable to the cause of general education if open to 
all comers than when attached to a particular school, there can, 
I should think, be little question. In several schools the scholar- 
ships are sufficiently numerous to render any boy who wishes 
to go to the University practically assured of one even without dis- 
tinguishing himself, and thus the incentive to work is greatly 
lessened : by affording an attraction to the school indepen- 
dent of the education offered they also lessen the incentive 
to the masters to render that education as good as possible. It 
seems inconsistent with the above to establish fresh scholar- 
ships to be held at the universities attached to particular 
schools. On the other hand it is said, with much force by 
those interested in particular schools, that it is impossible for 
them to compete with other schools which have scholarships if they 
have none, and that, as long as other schools have them they must 
likewise. It would be well if some general principles could be 
laid down for the regulation of this subject. It is sufficient for 
me here to point out the broad fact, that while Cowbridge and 
some other schools have been deprived of their ancient scholarships, 
Swansea, Monmouth, and others are seeking to establish new ones. 

It has been proposed in some instances to give scholarships to be 
held by boys while at the school, and to offer such scholarships for • 



7'2 



Schools Inquiry Commission. 



Unsatisfactory 
nature of the 
schemes for 
endowed 
schools. 

Swansea 
grammar 
school. 



The Howell 
schools.. 



competition to boys educated in the surrounding National schools, 
so that any boy of the working classes of special ability might be 
able to obtain a higher education. This has not, I think, been tried 
to any great extent ; it was tried for a time at Ruabon grammar 
school, but without much success, the National schoolmasters being 
unwilling to part with their best boys, as they needed their help as 
pupil teachers, &c., and the boys themselves being unable to re- 
main at school for any additional time without earning anything. 
It has been said, and I think truly, that if such scholarships were 
given they should be of such an amount as would be equal to the 
probable earnings of the boys if at work, and not merely amount 
to a free education. The opponents of such a system say that by 
giving to children a better education than that' which their parents 
are able to afford, you render them unfit for the position which 
their parents occupy, while you do not provide them with the 
means of obtaining employment in the higher sphere of life for 
which their education would fit them. In the Howell school at 
Llandaff, some girls of the lower middle class were at first ad- 
mitted ; but this has been discontinued. Where, as at that school, 
the education includes all the accomplishments, and the mode 
of living includes all the comforts of a high-class school, such 
girls are often rendered dissatisfied with their homes and unfit for 
the mode of life to which their family circumstances necessarily 
call them, I think this danger, though doubtless often exagge- 
rated, should be taken account of in determining the mode in 
which endowments should be employed, and that if an education 
is given to the children much above that usually obtained by the 
class of society to which their parents belong, some means should 
be at the same time provided for placing them in positions in which 
that education wUl be practically available to them. 

In accordance with my instructions I have examined the various 
schemes under which the schools are now conducted, and have 
been led to the conclusion that they are often very unsatisfactory, 
and that some improvement is required in the way in which 
they are prepared. Thus in the scheme for Swansea grammar 
school, which was granted in 1850, it is provided that up to the 
number of 20 all sons of poor freemen or burgesses of Swansea, 
who may be admitted to the school, shall receive their education 
free of any charge whatever. Yet no means are provided for 
selecting the 20 who are to receive a free education, if more than 
20 (as is the case) are in the school. So also the maximum pay* 
ment is fixed by the scheme at 2*. 6d. a week, which proved whoUy 
insufficient, and eight guineas a year has been habitually charged 
in defiance of the scheme. Again, it is provided that in case the 
minerals under the trust property are worked, the whole profits 
shall be mvested and only- the income used, though as it is pro- 
bable that the minerals which are now being worked will not be 
exhausted for 50 or 100 years, the school will thus have a very smaU 
income for the first half of that period, and a very large one for 
the remainder. Again in the scheme for the Howell schools, 
sanctioned by the Court of Chancery in 1853, provision is made 



Mr.,Bompas's Report. 73 

for an education of the highest class, including all the accomplish- 
ments, being given to the pupils, while the buildings and fittings 
are of the most perfect kind, yet the scheme provided that day 
scholars should be admitted who should not pay more than 6d. a 
week, and a doubt was thus raised whether the school was not 
intended for children of the lowest class, till on a recent application 
to the Court of Chancery the maximum has been raised to 21 a 
quarter. Again, in the scheme for the grammar school at 
Llanrwst it is provided that the master shall not take more than Llanrwst 
12 boarders, and that day scholars shall pay only two guineas a grammar 
year. The village of Llanrwst is not large enough to support a 
large day school ; and, as the master stated to me with great forcej 
if he charged high terms for his boarders, and had sons of gentle- 
men, they objected to associate with boys of the class that came 
as day boys, the terms being so low, while if he charged lower 
terms, and received the sons of farmers, which would probably be 
of most use in that neighbourhood, it was impossible to make the 
school answer with so small a number of boarders. The restriction 
in number also encourages the practice of boys coming to lodge in 
the village to attend the school, on which I have animadverted 
above. It would appear that the schemes need the supervision of 
persons practically acquainted with the educational questions Of 
the day. It would be a great boon also if slight modifications of 
the scheme which are rendered desirable by the varying character 
of the master or circumstances of the school,' could be made as 
easily and at as little expense as possible. 

One point on which" there is some difference in different schools, Mode of 
and on which I have heard strong opinions expressed, is as to the ^fg^"^^ 
mode of appointment of the second or other masters in the schools. 
The appointment of the second master is very frequently vested 
in the same body as elect the head master, though in some instances 
the head master has a right to appoint all the rest. I think the 
opinion is almost universal that the latter is preferable. The 
existence of two distinct authorities in a school is likely to injure 
its discipline, and to lead to discord and discomfort. It is not 
only necessary that the masters should be good and able men, but 
that their dispositions should be suited to one another if the school 
is to work well., and this it is impossible to obtain with any cer- 
tainty if their appointments are independent of one another. 
Serious difficulties have occurred at the Howell school, Denbigh, 
mainly from this cause, and very many instances have been pointed 
out to me where difficulties have arisen in a similar manner, or have 
only been avoided by the greatest forbearance and care on all sides. 
The only advantage that I know of obtained by the separate ap- 
pointment of the masters is that they fonn to some extent a check 
upon one another if the head master is incompetent ; but such 
incompetence may be better provided for by 'external checks than 
by the introduction of contradictory elements into the internal 
management of the school. 

One fact that must strike anyone on looking into the history of Mode of 
endowments, is that any which have been left in the form of a ^^^5*'°^ 



74 Schools Inqmrij Conimission. 

fixed annual sum of money become in the course of years utterly 
inadequate for the purpose for which they are intended, while those 
which were left in the form of land continue equally sufficient, or 
even increase in amount. This is of course the necessary conse- 
quence of the fact, that the value of money is for ever diminishing 
in relation to other objects, A good illustration is found in the 
early granmaar schools of Herefordshire above referred to, or in 
the Cowbridge grammar school, the founder of which intended to 
endow it richly, and leaving land for that purpose to Jesus College, 
Oxford, directed that 20?. a year should be paid to the head-master, 
and that the surplus should be employed in increasing the college 
fellowships so as to make them about the same amount: the 
mastership still continues worth 20/. a year, while the fellowships 
are worth several hundreds. Notwithstanding this fact, it has 
become usual to invest trust property in the funds, rendering it 
certain that the income will by degrees become wholly insufficient 
for the objects for which it is now employed. The advantage of 
handing down endowments to posterity may be an oj)en question, 
but it ought to be distinctly understood that, by investing them in 
a form in which their value steadily diminishes, their disappearance 
is as certainly secured as if part of the principal was spent annually 
as income. The form of investment which has proved most bene- 
ficial in times past, in my district, has been an investment in land 
near the school, because then, if from the discovery of mines or 
other causes the population has largely increased, the value of 
the land has increased with it, and a means thus been afforded of 
supplying the increased demand for education. 
Applicability I ought perhaps to notice a suggestion that has been made with 
of endowments respect to the endowuients belonging to the Howell Schools and 
tcTiools. some others ; viz., that they ought to be employed in the support 

of National schools, or schools of that class, to as to relieve the 
consolidated fund. From an exactly similar feeling trustees were in 
the habit, some years back, of applying the money left in various 
parishes for the relief of the poor, to the reduction of the pooi-s 
rate. This is now, however, held to have been a misappropria- 
tion of the fundd, and the trustees have been greatly blamed for 
having applied them to that purpose, which, as lias been truly said, 
makes them beneficial to the class who possess property^ and not 
to the poor. The very same arguments show the impropriety of 
applying any funds left to improve the education of the poor, to 
the relief of the consolidated fund. Sucli an application of the 
endowments does not benefit education, but only relieves the tax- 
payers. Whatever else may be a legitimate use of them, that 
cannot be if the principle of endowments at all be admitted. 
Help which I have been frequently asked, during the course of my inquiries, 

might he for my advice and assistance in improving the condition of the 

TnnuaT '^ '" endowed schools. It is often the case that beneficial reforms 
examiner in ■•ire neglected, from its being nobody's business to commence 
effecting tliem. Thus at St. Asaph new school buildings are very oreatly 

improvoment.. needed, but there seems to be a difficulty in getting an.y one to 
move in tlie matter. Should any system of annual cxamYnation 



Mr. Bompas's Report. 75 

or inspection of grammar schools be adopted, I think one great 
benefit that would accrue would be that there would then be 
always some one who could suggest and set on foot the various 
necessary improvements without exciting the jealousy which is 
apt to exist between parties residing in the neighbourhood of the 
school, if one of them commences any such reforms. 

With respect to endowments not specifically devoted to educa- Endowments 
tional purposes I have little to say, as I think there are none in ""* *"'' 
my district which would be applicable to the education of any but education" 
the working classes. There are very considerable sums spent j^qj^j 
annually in doles to the poor with apparently very little benefit 
to them ; the jealousies and heartburnings, and dissatisfaction that 
they cause probably counterbalancing the good that they do. Many 
clergymen, I believe, wish that there were none such in their 
parishes. It would be impossible, however, to divert the money 
to other purposes without causing greater dissatisfaction. In many 
cases the recipients were originally bound to attend church ; but 
this is in many places now being altered, being found only to en- 
courage hypocrisy and formalism. At Holywell, however, a large 
sum of money has recently been given to the parish, the interest to 
be bestowed on poor persons who regularly attend church and 
receive the Holy Communion. The evils such a condition is likely 
to produce will, I should think, hardly be compensated by the 
good, if any, which the money may do. 

The only large charities which I need specially notice are the Baker Charity. 
Baker Charity, at Ross, and the Jervis Charity. The former now 
amounts to 800?,, a year and is of quite recent origin, having been 
left by will in 1836. It is spent in small .""ms, which 
serve to keep the recipients just above parish reiief. There 
is a difierence of opinion as to whether it really does any good, 
but it certainly does not seem to he doing harm. Thei'e are 
other good schools for the poorer classes already in the town, 
and it would be entii-ely setting aside the objects of the testator 
to apply it to the foundation of a grammar school, which might 
otherwise be desirable. The Jervis Charity is one of large amount, jervis Charity. 
and to which attention has often been directed. It was left in 
1790, for the benefit of the poor inhabitants of the three parishes of 
Stanton-upon-Wye, Bredwardine, and Letton in Herefordshire. 
The only restriction as to its application contained in the will was 
that none of it should be spent on building. A scheme having been 
settled by the Court of Chancery for its distribution in food, 
clothing, medicine, &c., it was soon found that it attracted 
into the parishes all the vagabonds of the county, and pro- 
duced the greatest idleness and demoralizaton, the only persons 
benefited being the landlords, the rents in the three parishes 
being higher, and the wages considerably lower, than in the 
rest of the county. A new scheme was adopted, by which a 
large sum was expended in building schools, including one for 
boarders, and no one is permitted to share in the benefits of the 
charity unless he has resided five years in one of the parishes, and 
is of unblemished character. The charity now amounts to about 



76 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

2,400?. a year, of which 600Z. is given away in food, clothing, &c., 
to the poor, and the rest is expended on salaries to the oflacers, on 
the schools, and on medicine and food for the sick. All the children 
at the schools are clothed from 7 to 14 years of age. They are 
about 130 in number. The new scheme works much better than 
the former one, though many still think that the_ charity does 
injury, and few, I believe, would consider that it does much 
good. The boarding-school, which would accommodate 60 chil- 
dren, has never been opened, the funds being after all insufficient 
for that purpose, and when I visited it the large building was 
standing empty and unused, except in those parts where the day- 
school is held. It would be difficult to conceive a more striking 
instance of the failure of the express wishes of a testator, the 
waste of money in building he so specially endeavoured to pro- 
vide against being the very thing that has happened. There can, 
I think, be little doubt that the suggestions of the late Dean 
of Hereford should have been adopted, and the charity thrown 
open to the whole of Herefordshire, which would have been a leas 
departure from the wishes of the testator than employing it for 
the one purpose which he had forbidden. If spread over a large 
area it might be the means of effecting much good. In no case, 
however, probably would it have been employed for purposes 
coming within the terms of the present Commission. 
Conchisions to I venture, then, in conclusion, to summarise the principal sug- 
fr^ ^^^&^ gestions that seem to arise from the facts and opinions in the 
report. foregoing report. 

1st, Endowments should be made available for the lower instead 
of the uppe" middle classes, especially by providing a good day- 
school in every town, and cheap boarding-schools for the sons of 
small farmers, &c. 

2nd. Opportunities should be offered to all masters and mis- 
tresses of having their whole schools examined and reported upon 
annually by competent examiners. 

3rd. The subjects and methods of education in girls' schools 
should be modified. 

4th. Means should be provided for training masters in the art 
of teaching. 

5th. Examinations should be established or other opportunities 
afforded to mistresses of proving their proficiency in different 
branches of knowledge. 

6th. All possible meatis should be adopted to stir up the parents 
to take more interest in the education of their children, and to 
induce them to send their children to school with more regularity. 
I remain, my Lords and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

HeistrY M. Bompas. 



Mr. Bompas^s ReporL 77 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX (A.) 



Morning Paper. Elementary Questions. For Boys. The papers set. 

Introductory. 

1 . What is your name ? 

2. What is your age ? 

3. What school do you attend ? 

4. Are you a boarder or a day scholar ? 

5. How long have you been at the school ? 

English Grammar. 

1 . Write down the passage read by the examiner ? 

ITie following was the passage read : — I thought that their house 
was in London, but I find that it is not there, but still farther off. 
They hunted the red deer in the forest, and coursed the hares over the 
plain. The besieging army made fresh parallels and recommenced the 
attack. He could not separate the chaotic mass of miscellaneous articles. 
He was amiable, and his habits and manners were agreeable, but he was 
haughty and conceited ; and while he inveighed against the foibles of 
others without reference to the occurrences which led to their actions, and 
refused to listen when they solicited his forbearance, his conscience per- 
mitted him, notwithstanding, to indulge in all the artifices of diplomacy. 

2. Write down the perfect and past participle of each of the following 

verbs, (1.) to hate, (2.) to lie down, (3.) to slay. 

3. Parse the following sentence. What reason have you for saying 

that"! 

Geography. 

1. What are the names of the capitals of (1.) Ireland and (2.) 

Russia ? 10 

2. Mention the names of any two towns in Kent. 10 

3. What is an isthmus P 6 

English History. 

1. When did William the Conqueror come to England? and who were 

the next two kings of England ? 8 

2. In whose reign did the House of Commons first meet ? 8 

3. When and between what nations was the battle of Crecy fought P 8 

French. 

1. Write down the present tense of avoir. 10 

2. Translate into Enghsh, Sonpire a deijbx fMes. 10 

3. Translate into French, The mother of the child is beautiful. 10 

Arithmetic. 

1. Write down in figures the number Ten million fifty-one thousand 

and twenty. - 8 

2. Subtract 2734 from 4381. 4 

3. Divide 95142 by 471. 8 

4. What will 17,412 yards of cloth cost at lis. 2d. per yard ? 10 



73 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

FuRTHEB (Questions. 
Enfflish Grammar. 

L Are the verbs in the following sentences active, passive, or neuter ? 
() .) He lived a life of self-sacnfice. (2.) The battle was won by his 
courage. (3.) The clock was striking twelve. 15 

5. Write out the following sentence with all the mistakes in grammar 

corrected. If James hat or coat was stole, who could I persuade to 
give him new ones. 15 

6. Analyse the following sentence : — 

The daisy by the shadow that it casts. 

Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun. 30 

English History. 

4. Who were the first four sovereigns after the Commonwealth ? And 

what was then- relationship to each other ? 16 

5. In whose reign was the Bill of Rights passed ? Mention any three 

of its provisions. 16 

6. When was the battle of Blenheim fought ? — ^And what nations took 

part in it? 12 

7. When did (1.) Caxton and (2.) Richard Hooker live? And for what 

were they remarkable ? 16 

8. Which of the following adjectives do you consider applicable to (1 .) 

King John (2.) King Charles II. ? — Luxurious, cruel, vacillating, 
mean spirited, usurping, cowardly, tyrannical ? 16 

Geography. 

•i. Is Newcastle east or west of London ? 10 

6. Is Bristol north or south of Dover ? 10 

6. From what countries do we get (1.) dried currants, (2.) ivory? 25 

7. What is the form of government in Russia ? 10 
R. Is the length of a degree of longitude the same ever}^vhp,re ? — if not,_ 

where is it longest ? 20 

Arithmetic. 

5. What is the value of | of i —'„ ? 10 

6. Which is greatest, f or Af ? 10 

7. Reduce ^ to a decimal. \{) 

8. Divide '124 by 62. 10 
!'. If a sack of potatoes will last a family of 3 persons 10 days, how long 

wiU it last a family of 15 persons ? 15 

10. What is the interest on 30^. for 2 years at 5 per cent ? Would the dis- 
count on the same sum due 2 years hence at the same rate per cent, 
be greater or less ? 1^ 

Fn-iwh. 

i. What is the gender of (1.) mer, (2.) nation, (3.) c6Ye? 1.3 

5. What is the difference in meaning between La dame que fai vue 

peindre, and La dame que ftii vu peindre ? 15 

6. Translate into English, Je viei>s de dire h votre ph-e que s'il vient h 

pleuvoir il ne viendra pas. 20 

7. Translate into French, In reply to your favour of the 16th we beo to 

thelZia'' "'"" *''* """'** •^'"' ''" '""'^"" ^"^ ""'"^^ ^^"^''' *° '^««^* 
For Writing " -60 



Mr. Bompas'n Report. 79 

Afternoon Papers. Paper (2.) For Boys. 

Introductory . 

1. What is your name ? 

2. What school do you attend ? 

3. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend in learning music? 

4. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend in learning drawing ? 

Latin Language and History. 

1. What is the genitive singular of (I.) musa and (2.) supellex? 5 

2. What is the genitive plural of (1.) homo, and (2.) nox ? 6 

3. Write down the third person plural, perfect tense, active and passive 

voices, of the following verbs : — (1.) amo, {2.)facib. 10 

4. What is the meaning of consulo, (1.) when it governs the dative, (2.) 

when it governs the accusative ? 10 

5. What is examen derived from ? 10 

6. Translate into English, (I.) £pis<oiam jaawi misividit? 10 
(2.) Fiat {pace deum dixerim) jactura religionis ; oblivio deorum capiat 

pectora vestra ; num senatum quoque de hello consuli non placet ? non 
ad populum ferri, velint juheantne cum Gallis helium geri ? 25 

7. Translate into Latin, (I.) He was a good hoy. 10 
(2.) He hegged them to send ambassadors to Syracuse to ascertain the 

truth : and declared that he was not aware of any injury being done 
him by Jitus ? 25 

8. Scan the Une, Bentibus horrendis custos erat arietis aurei. 10 

9. Who composed the &st triumvirate ? 16 
10. What did the Licinian Rogations enact ? and when were they passed ? 16 

Greek Language and History. 

1. What is the accusative singular of ficuriheis ? and the dative singular 

oivavs? 15 

2. What is the nominative plural of ofiJs ? and the dative of Tv<pBels ? 15 

3. Distinguish between v, fi, i), ^, ^. 15 

4. What is the meaning of irajiii o-oC, irapii o-ol, irapA a-4i 15 
What is the second aorist active first person singular of relBu ? and the 

first aorist middle second person singular of (ttiWu. 16 

fr. Translate (1.) ^ cflo-os ayflpdnrous ?X"- 16 

(2.) an^oripuv Sfiov aKoStrai, IvBviwvuivovs 8ti oSt' &v ^Kfiva Sivaivro 
iroieiv iJ.)i irepav avfmpaTTSvrasv, offr' &v oir iirexeipV'^av i\9e!v liii 
vwh Twv a{tTay oUfiefoi aa8^ffea6ai. 30 

7. Who commanded the Grreeks at the battle of Thermopyle? 15 

8. To what states did the Generals Brasidas, Cleon, and Epaminondas 

respectively belong ? 15 

Germjin. 

1. Decline SoAb. 10 

2. Give the parts of the verb sprechen ? 10 

3. Translate into English, Diefleissige Tochter sassgam allein und spann 

v/ahrend Karl ein deutsches Lied sang. 15 

4. Translate into German, I received a letter from Germany yesterday. 15 

Modern History. 

1. What king of France ordered the massacre of St. Bartholomew? i'3 

2. What was the extent of the empire of Charles V., Emperor of Ger- 

many. 1 6 

3. What two empresses were opposed to Frederick the Great,? 20 



25 



80 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

Afternoon Papers. Papbr (1.) F"* ^'>^^- 

Introductory . 

1. What is your name 'i 

2. What school do you attend ? 

Algebra, 

1. Reduce to its simplest form (o+3) (a — 3) ~ {2a? — 2 («+5),} 

2. Solve the following equations : 

'-'■•> 3 "• 4 "■ '^ -" 1x2 + 2/2 = 3 .T + 1. 

Expand by the binomial theorem to three terms (1—2 x)f . 30 

Trigonometry. 

1 . What is meant by the cosine of an angle f 15 

2. What is the value of the cosine of an angle of 60° ? 15 

3. If two sides of a triangle a, b, are given, and the angle A opposite to 

one of them, write down (without proving them) the formulw you 
would use to find the other angles. 20 

Conic Sections, 

1. Write down the general equation to a straight line. 16 

2. What are the loci of the following equations ? — 

{}.) a» ■>ry^=\. (2.) a!^ + j/2 = 0. (3.) a^ — y" = 1. 

(4.) r" _ ^2 _ 0. 35 

Hviclid. 

1. What is an acute-angled triangle ? 10 

2. Write out the following propositions of Euclid : — (1.) If two angles 

of a triangle are equal to one another, the sides also which subtend 
or are opposite to the equal angles, shall be equal to one another, 
B. I. Prop. 6. (2.) If one circle touch another internally in any 
point, the straight line which joins their centres being produced 
shall pass through that point of contact, B. III. Prop. 11. 40 

3. In B. I. Prop. 12. " To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given 

straight line of unlimited length from a given point without it, the 
following construction is given by Euclid : — 
Let A be the given point, and BC the given a 

straight line ; take any point D ore the 
opposite side of BC from A, and with 
centre A at the distance A D describe the 
circle E D F, cutting B C in the points 
E and F. Bisect E F on G and join 
A G, A G shall be the line required. 
Are the words in italics necessary, and if so why ? 20 

4. Is the following a correct solution of the problem. From a given 

point to draw a straight line touching a given circle ; if not, why is 
it defective: — 
Let A be the given point, B D F, the given 
circle. Find C, the centre of the circle, 
and draw the line C E meeting the circle 
in D. From A draw A D at right angles 
to CE, A D shall be the line required. 
Because A D is drawn from the extremity 
of the radius C D at right angles to it, 
therefore A D touches the circle, and __ 

it is drawn from the point A.— Q. E. F. "^ go 

Mensuration. 

A 

1. Draw a line from A perpendicular to B C oq 

B c 

2. What is the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 2 feet P 20 




Mr. Bompas's Report. 



81 



Book- 


keeping. 






John Jones. 


12. 




Cr. 




Fol. 




£ 


s. 


1 . If the following be a copy of a 


81 


By Goods - 


11 


13 


page in your ledger, what is 










the meaning of the figures 81 










and 17 in the left-hand 










column ? 


17 


By Cash - 


6 


3 




2. In the following bill of exchange.which is the name of the drawer and 
which of the acceptor ? S • 

K London, April 10, 1865. 
Three moi^is after date pay to 
James Snwh ninety-four pounds. 

ri 

£94. Henry Thomas. 



To F. Morris, Esq. 



Natural Pfdlosophy. 



30 



20 



1. If two equal forces act on a point not in the same straight line, can 

their resultant ever be less than either of them ? 

2. What distance will a body falling from rest pass through in the third 

second, the force of gravity being taken as equal to 32 feetP 

3. ^^'^lat is the ratio of the power to the weight when in equihbrium on a 

straight lever, the power and weight both acting at right angles to 
the lever ? 

4. If a body floating in water is exactly half immersed in it, what is its 

specific gravity, the specific gravity of water being taken as unity ? 

5. If the refractive index of water is f, how far below the surface will a 

fish appear to be, its real depth being 8 feet ? 

6. Should a short-sighted person use a convex or concave lens ? 

Natural Science. 

1. What gases is the air composed \)f, and what is their proportion ? 

2. Write down the chemical symbols for saltpetre and sulphuric acids, and 

show by symbols the decomposition which ensues if equal weights 
of the two substances be mixed ? 

3. To which of the three classes — exogens, endogens, acrogena (or cryp- 

togamic plants) do ferns belong P. 



20 



20 



20 

20 

20 
20 



20 



20 
30 



APPENDIX (B). 



Morning Paper. 



Elementary Uubstions. 

Introductory. 

1. What is your name? 

2. What is your age ? 

3. What school do you attend? 

4. Are you a boarder or a day scholar ? 

5. How long have you been at the school ? 

English Grammar. 

1. Write down the passage read by the examiner? (The passage read was 

the same as that given to the boys.) 50 

2. Write down the perfect and past participle of each of the following 

verbs, (1.) to live, (2.) to fly, (3.) to eat. 12 

3. Parse the following sentence. What reason have you for saying that ? 28 



For Girls. Papers set and 
marks given. 



82 Schools Tnquirii Commission. 

Geography . 

1. What are the namesof the capitals of (1.) Scotland, (2.) Austria? 10 

2. Mention the names of any two towns in Yorkshire. i'^' 

3. What is a peninsula? 

English History. 

1. When did William the Conqueror come to England? and who were the 

next two kings of England? ^ ^, a 

2. In whose reign did the House of Commons first meet / „ , , o 

3. When and between what nations was the battle of Hastings fought ? 8 

French. 

1. Write down the present tense 'of e^re. 1" 

2. Translate into EngUsh, Sa mire a trois fils. K' 

3. Translate into French, The daughter of the man is good. 10 

Arithmetie. 

1. Write down in figures the number. One million fifteen thousand and ten. 8 

2. Subtract 3845 from 5492. ^ 

3. Divide 141,905 by 281. « 

4. What will 9,213 yards of cloth cost at 12s. 4d. jier yard ? 10 



Further Questions. 
English Grammar. 

4. Are the verbs in the following sentences active, passive, or neuter? (1.) 

He died a peaceful death. (2.) He was sent by the general. (3.) The 
hen sat three weeks. 1 5 

5. Write out the following sentence with all the mistakes in Grammar 

corrected. If Janes hag or parasol was stole, who could I persuade 
to give her new ones. ■ '5 

6. Analyse the following sentence. 

The daisy by the shadow that it casts, 

Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun. 30 

English History. 

4. Who were the four sovereigns that immediately preceded the Common- 

wealth ? and what was their relationship to each other ? 16 

5. In whose reign was the Petition of Right presented? Mention any three 

of its provisions. IC 

6. When was the battle of the Boyne fought ? and what nations took part . 

in it. 12 

7. When did Wickliffe and Jeremy Taylor live? and for what were they 

remarkable? Ifi 

8. Which of the following adjectives do you consider applicable to Henry 

VIII. and James I., cruel, mean spirited, deceitful, cowardly, tyran- 
nical, conceited, usurping ? 16 
Geography. 
4. Is York east or west of London ? 10 
i). Is Exeter north or south of Dover ? 10 

6. From what countries do we get (1.) coffee, (2.) mahogany ? 26 

7. What is the form of government in Austria? 10 

8. Is the length of a degree of longitude the same everywhere? if not, 

where is it longest ? 20 
Arithmetic, 

h. What is the value of -| of | -4- V" ? 10 

6. Which is greatest,! or -J-f? 10 

7. Reduce -^ to a decimal. 10 

8. Diinde •248by6'2. 10 
!'. If a piece of work will employ 4 workmen 12 days how long will it 

employ 16 workmen? 15 

10. What is the interest of Wl. for 3 yeai-s at 5 per cent. ? Would the dis- 
count on the same sum due 3 years hence at the same rate per cent, 
be greater or less ? 15 



Mr. Bompas's Report, 



83 



French. 

4. What is the gender of (1.) part (a part), (2.) description (a description), 

(3.) incendie (a fire) ? 

5. What is the difference in meaning between La dame quefai vuepeindre 1 

and La dame quej'ai vu peindre ? 

6. Translate into English, Je viens de dire h voire plre que s'il vient a 

pleuvoir il ne viendra pas. 

7. Translate into French, In reply to your favour of the IGth we bey to 

return you our best thanks for the order you were pleased to transmit 
therewith. 
For \vriting. 



15 
15 



20 



20 
50 



Afternoon Papers. 



Paper (1). For Girls. 

Introductory, 

1. What is your name ? 

2. What school do you attend ? 

Music. 

1. How many notes are there in the octave ? 6 

2. How many flats or sharps are there in the key of E ? 10 

3. How many flats are there in the key of Bjj ? 10 

4. How many demisemiquavers are equal to a minim ? 10 

5. What is the meaning ofthe terms Da Capo, Crescendo, a.r^&Rallentando'? 15 

6. What is the difference between the major and the minor scales ? 20 

7. How do you find the relative minor of any major key? . ^^ 

8. Is there any difference in the signature of a major key and its relative 

minor ? 15 

Algebra. 

1. Reduce to its simplest form (a-4) (a+4) — {2a''— 4 (a+4)} 

2. Divide 0^—9 by a +3. 

3. Solve the following equations : — 

n ^ Imf '^ + 1 Q io\ f a^ — y^=a; + l 

(1-) -^—-T~ =3- (2-) U^+/=3^ + l 45 



25 

30 



Euclid, 

1 . What is an acute angled triangle ? 

2. Write out the following propositions of Euclid : — 

(1.) From the greater of two given straight lines to cut off a part 
ec|ual to the less, B. I., Prop. 3. (2.) To find the centre of a given 
circle, B. III., Prop. 1. 

3. In B. I., Prop. 9. To bisect a given rectilineal angle 
the following construction is given by Euclid : 

Let B AC be the given rectilineal angle ; in BA, take any 
point b, and from AC the greater cut off a part AE equal 
to AU, join ED, and upon ED, on the side remote from A, 
describe an equilateral triangle DFE and join AF, AF 
will bisect the angle BAC. Are the words in italics neces- 
sary, and if so, why ? 

4. Is the following a correct solution of the 
problem, from a given point to draw a straight 
line equal to a given straight line : 

Let A be the given point and BC the given 
straight line ; join AB, and on AB describe the 
equilateral triangle ADB. Produce DA to E ; 
and with centre D at the distance DC, describe 
the circle CFH, cutting DE in F ; AF is the 
line required. Because D is the centre of the 
circle CFH, DC is equal to DF ; but BD, AD 
parts of them are equal, therefore the remainder 
AF is equal to the remainder BC. Q.E.D. 

a. c. 3, Q_2 




10 



40 



20 



84 Sclifiols Inquiry Commission. 



John Jones p. 121. 
Book-keeping. Cr. 



fol. 



81 
17 



By Goods 
By Cash 



£ 



11 13 2 
5 3 0-20 
drawer and 



1. If the followinpt be a copy of a 
page in your ledger, what is the mean- 
ing of the figures 81 and 1 7 in the left- 
hand column. 

2. In the following bill of exchange which is the name of the 
which of the acceptor ? 

m London, April 10, 1865. 

Three monthg after date pay to 
James Smithoiinety-four pounds. 

s 

^94 ptj Henry Thomas. 

To F. Morris, Esq. 

Natural Philosophy. 

1. If two forces act on a point but not in the same straight hne, will 
their resultant be increased or diminished by making the angle between 
the two forces greater 1 ' 

2. Through what distance will a body fall from rest in three seconds, 
the force of gravity being taken as equal to 32 feet ? 20 

3. What is the greatest weight which you can support with a single 
moveable pulley if you exert a force equal to 5 lbs ? 20 

4. If a body is floating in water and only J of its bulk is above the sur- 
face of the water, what is its specific gravity, the specific gravity of water 
being taken as unity? 20 

5. If the refractive index of water is f , how far below the surface wiU a 
fish appear to be, its real depth being 8 feet ? 20 

6. Should a long-sighted person use a convex or a concave lens ? 20 

Natural Science. 

1. What gases is the air composed of, and in what proportions? 20 

2. Write down the chemical symbols for potassium and sulphuric acid. 40 

3. What is meant by the calix of a flower? 30 

4. To which of the three classes exogens, endogens, and acrogens (or 
cryptogamous plants) do ferns belong ? 15 



Afternoon Paper. Paper (2). For Girls. 

Introductory. 
■ 1 . What is your name ? 

2. What school do you attend ? 

3. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend in learning music, in- 
cluding practising^? 

4. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend on drawing ? 

5. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend on plain needlework ? 

6. How many hours a week (if any) do you spend on fancy work ? 

Latin Language and History. 

1. What is the nominative plural of regnum ? 5 

2. What is the genitive of (1.) homo, (2.) unus'i 10 

3. What is the first person singular future active of amo ? 10 

4. What are the perfect and supine of {\.)fr%co, (2.) pello ? 10 

5. What is the meaning of consulo (1.) when it governs the dative (2.), 
when it governs the accusative? 15 

6. Translate into English, (1.) Omnis Gallia divisa est in tres partes? 10 

(2.) Quaramus quonam modo mtam agere possimus, si nihil interesse 
nostra pntemus, valeamus agrine sirmis, vaoemus an cruciemur dolore, 
frigus, famem propulsare possimus necne possimus, 26 



3Ir. Bompas's Report 85 

7. Translate into Latin, (1.) She loved her sister. 10 

(2.) The Lacedtemonians, to gain peace, of which they stood much in 
need, determined to prevent their allies from devastating the country. 25 

8. Who were the members of the second triumvirate ? 15 

9. By what Roman general was Carthage destroyed? 

Italian. 

1. Translate into English, II fiore che mi ha dato quella donna e bello 
assai ? 16 

2. Translate into Italian, It appears to me that your hand is rather larger 
than mine ? 20 

German. 

1. Decline Sohn. 10 

2. Give the parts of the verb «precAe» 10 

3. Translate into English, Diefleissige Tochter sass ganz allein und spann 
wahrend Karl ein deutsches Lied sang ? 15 

4. Translate into German, I received a letter from Germany yesterday ? 15 

Mod&rn History. 

1. By what king was the Edict of Nantes revoked ? 15 

2. What was the extent of the empire of Charles V., Emperor of Ger- 
many ? 20 

3. What two empresses were contemporaries of Frederick the Great ? 20 

4. How long was Napoleon Buonaparte emperor after his return from 
Elba? 15 



g-h2 



86 Schpols Liquiry Commission. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Baker's Charity - ...---75 

Boys — 

Boys of the middle class, number of - - - - - 6 

Boys learning different subjects at each age, number of - - - 32 

„ „ „ „ in each county, number of - - 31 

„ „ „ „ in different classes of school, number of 32 

„ lodginpf by themselves in towns, practice of - - - 63 

„ showing special proficiency, number of - - - - 38 

Character of the Welsh people - - - - - - 6 

Characteristics of the to-svns of Chester, Monmouth, and Shrewsbury - 4 

„ „ county Denbigh . - . - 4 

„ Flint 3 

„ „ „ Glamorgan - - - - - 2 

„ „ „ Hereford - - - - - 4 

„ „ Montgomery - - - - 4 

District assigned ----- -.1 

Education — 

Apparent state of education in the district - - - - 10 

Different objects sought in the education of boys and girls - - 41 

State of education in country districts - - - 9 

Endowments - - - - . - 67 

Best form of endowment - - - - - 68 

Effects of large endowments - - . . - 68 

Endos^Tnents not for purposes of education - - - - 75 

Inapplicability of endowments to National schools - - 74 

Investment of ----..-73 

English grammar and numeration — 
Deficiency in- ---..-39 

Euclid — Amount learnt - - - - - . -35 

Examinations — 

Examination of schools desirable - - - . - 25 

Existing examinations - - . - -26 

Feasibility of examining the whole of schools - - - 28 

Good that might be effected by an annual examiner - . - 74 

Method of examination adopted - - . . .27 

Modes of appointing examiners suggested - . . - 27 

Reasons for the apparent smallness of the results - - - 29 

Keliability of the results obtained . « . . - 29 



3{r, Bompas's Report, 87 

Page 

Examinations for boys — 

Ages of tlie boys examined - - - - • - 34 

Boarders and day scholars examined, number of - - - 31 

Boys examSned, number of - - - - 28 

Marks allotted to each subject, number of - - - 30 

Papers set to the boys' schools - - - 77 

Results of the examination for each county - - 38 

„ „ „ school - - - 37 

„ „ „ in each subject - - - - 33 

Examinations for girls — 

Ages of girls examined ... -66 

Beneficial effect of examination for girls - .54 

Girls examined, number of - - - . 66 

Marks allotted to each subject, number of - . - 57 

Objection to publicity in the case of girls . - . .66 

Opinions of the mistresses on examinations - - - - 65 

Papers set to girls' schools - - 81 

Eesults of the examination for each county . 61 

„ „ „ „ school - . 60 

„ „ J, in each subject - .68 

United examination of girls' schools . .66 

Examinations to test governesses, want of - - .41 

Girls- 
Advantages of masters for teaching girls - '- - 48 
Girls learning different subjects at each age, number of - 68 
„ „ „ „ in each county, number of . 67 
„ showing special proficiency, number of . - - 61 
Importance of an inquiry into the education of girls . .40 
Reasons of the present system of female education . 64 
State of education of girls in country districts . . .43 
HoKdays ..... .66 

Jervis's Charity - . • . . _ - 76 

Kindness received ... . _ o 

Latin — 

Advantage of, in education . - - - - 39 

Amount leanit .... .32 
Masters — 

Mode of appointing masters - - - . . - 73 

Salaries of - - - . - 24 

Superiority of trained masters - - - - 24 

Method of awarding marks - - - - - 31 
Mistakes — Instances of """--- 39 

Mode of collecting the required information - - ■■ 1 

Music and drawing, time allotted to the study of . . - 68 

Playgrounds - - - - . . . .63 

Punishments --.-.. -64 

Relative powers of boys and girls ... - 63 

Regards ' <•' » - . . . . .65 



88 Schools Inquiry Commission. 

Page 

Scholarships - - - - - " " 'a 

Schemes for endowed schools - - - ■ " - /^ 
Schools — 

Boarding schools — 

Arrangements of boarding schools - - - - 62 

Cheap boarding schools - - - - - - 69 

Dormitories, apd the modes of maintaining order - - - 63 

School buildings - - ... 62 

Howell schools - - - - - - 70 

Influence of endowed on private schools ... 68 

Mixed schools - - - - - - -13 

National schools - - - - - - -69 

Preparatory schools - - - - - , - 61 

Proprietary schools - - - - - - -12 

Schools of art - - - - - - - 66 

School libraries - - - - - - -63 

Schools for Boys — 

Age of scholars - - - - - - -17 

Difficulties experienced by masters of boys' schools - - 10 

Extras - - - - - - - -16 

Nature of boys' schools in large towns - - - - 8 

„ „ small towns - - - 9 

Per-centage of boys learning and schools teaching each subject - 17 

Relative merits of day and boarding schools - - - - 12 

Size of boys' schools - - - - - - 14 

Size of classes, and number of masters - - - - 14 

Social position of the pupils - - ... 23 

Statistics of boys' schools in district . . . .15 

Subjects taught in boys' schools — 

Book-keeping and mensuration - - - - - 21 

Drawing --- ----23 

English grammar - - - - - . .22 

English literature - - - -.. . . .23 

Euclid and algebra - - . . . - 21 

French - - . . . . . .20 

German . - - - . . . -21 

Greek . - - . . . . -19 

History and geography - - . . . .22 

Latin - . . . „ -19 

Music - . - . . . . -23 

Rehgious knowledge - - - . . .18 

Science - - - - . . . .22 

Terms charged by boarding schools - . . . - 16 

"day „ 15 

Town of Swansea taken as an instance - . . -9 

Years boys had been at school, number of . . . .31 
Schools for Girls — 

Classification of girls' schools . . . " . .42 

Difficulties experienced by mistresses of" girls' schools . . 44 

Endowed girls' schools - ... _ - _ i c 

Expense of education at girls' schools - . . .41 

Extras .... ' >i 

- 47 



Mr. Bompas's Beport. 89 

Page 

Schools for Girls — cont. 

Finishing schools - - - - - - -42 

Girls' schools in small towns - - - • - - 43 

„° „ Swansea - - - - - - 43 

Mixture of social classes in girls' schools - - - - 43 

Per-centage of girls learning, and schools teaching each subject - 49 

Proportion of mistresses to pupils . - . - 46 

Relative merits of day and boarding schools - - - 45 

Science — Means of teaching - - - - - - 71 

Shrewsbury — Schools at - - - - - - 45 

Schools classified according to their terms . . - - 

Short time for which ladies usually keep school - - - 40 

Size of girls' schools - - - - - - 46 

Statistics of girls' schools in district - - - - - 44 

Subjects taught in girls' schools — 

Arithmetic - - - - - - - -50 

Book-keeping - - - - - - -50 

Cooking and household duties - - - - - 63 

Dancing - - - - - - - -62 

Drawing - - - - - - - -62 

English grammar - - - - - - -51 

French - - - - - - - - 49 

History and geography - - - - - - 50 

Italian ...- ..-60 

Latin ..---- - 49 

Music - - - - - - - -51 

„ its disadvantage as a branch of education - - - 61 

Natural history and physics - - - - -60 

University education, want for mistresses - - - 41 

Value of property in district - - - - - - 6 

Welsh language — 

Prevalence of- - - - - - - -7 

Its effect on education - - - - - - 7 



SCHOOLS INQUIEY OOMMISSIOJ!^. 



REPORT 

BT 

MR. T. H. GREEN. 



Mr, Green's Report. — Contents. 



CONTENTS. 



REPORT ON KING EDWARD'S SCHOOL, 
BIRMINGHAM. 

Page 
Results of the present constitution of the Board of Governors in connexion 
with the system of personal nomination, gratuitous education, and 
restriction on the eligibility , of scholars . - . 91—116 

Constitution of governing body — its exclusive effect - - - 91 

Relation of governors to the municipality - - - 92 
Its results — (o) immobility, due (1) to absence of moving spirits, (2) to 

fear of resistance from the town council - 92 
{h) Danger of religious exclusiveness — at present a mere 

danger - ----- 93 

Restrictions on eligibility, and their result - - - 94 

Views in the town on the subject - - - - 95 

Practical objection to identification of the board of governors with the 

town council - - - - - 95 
Nomination of scholars, and examination of those nominated - - 96, S7 

Local restriction on nominations ----- 97 

Effect of nomination system on preliminary education- - - - - 99 
Consequent ignorance in lower part of school and thinness of upper 

part - - ... - - 100 

Remedy, to establish competitive examination for entrance - ] 01 
This partly exists already, but not complete unless payment of fees is 

made the rule, with exemptions for merit - - 102 

Popular feeling about fees - - - - 103 

Proposal to make charitable exceptions - - . . 104 

No need of this, if " elementary" schools made the most of - 106 

Good material now obtained from the Parade school - - - 106 

Relation of schools on King Edward's foundation to National schools - 107 

What is wanted to raise the character of the former - - 108 
No class would be excluded from the grammar school on the proposed 

system ... .... 109 

Relation of the grammar school to the private schools - - 110 

How it might virtually affiliate them - - - - - 111 

Is there any need for preparatory schools distinct from the " elementary ?" 112 

Three standards of admission, according to age, desirable - 113 

Local restrictions on exhibitions - - - - - 1 1 4 

No hardship in fees, properly regulated - - - - - 115 

What should be their amount ? - - - - - - 116 

Future disposal of income - - - - - -117 

Review of the drawhaehs to the efficiency of ihe School in promoting 
(l) practical education, (2) liberal education, whether general, or adapted 
to the Universities - - - . . 118-140 

Division of departments - - - - - - -118 

Kind of boys in- each "- ' - ' - ' - ' - . . 119 



Mr. Greeris Report. — Contents. 

Page 

Provision for practical education in English school . . - 120 

Noise and bad arrangement in it - - - 121 

Preliminary ignorance - - - - - - -122 

Boys wanting English education often in classical school - 123 

Get hardly any English or general education in the latter - ] 24 

The classical standard cannot otherwise he maintained - - 125 

Condition of the under-masters - - - - - 126 

Desrability of giving more general education ... - 127 

Such education does not "pay " - - - - 128 

What is done for it in the upper classes of English department -_ - 129 

Few reach these - - - - . - 130 

Possibility of combining the two departments for certain lessons 131 

Evening classes - - 131 

Cerlain lines of life for which no preparation is given in the grammar 

schgol ... .. 132 

Neglect, of mathematics - ... 133 

Is a third department wanted ? - .... 134 

View of university among commercial men - - 135 

What might be done by the school to. increase the number who go to a 

university ... . . . 136 

Transfer from the English school to the classical should be facilitated 
—how? ... ... 136,137 

Establishment of scholarships . - 138 

Changes in regard to exhibitions . - - 139 

*i*iii^gosed re-modeUing of the department — system - - 140 

" MoraPtane," and means of improving it ... 141 

Situation of tne^fflTOOl^^^udvantages and disadvantages - 142, 143 

Relation of the school to "local examinations " - - 144 



GENERAL REPORT. 



Division of grammar schools into those used as such, and those used as 

elementary schools ..... _ j^^g 

In the former division, education given may be considered under the 
heads (1) liberal, (2) commercial . . . . .14-6 

General review of the present character of the liberal education, and of 
the reasons why it is not better . 147-185 

Sketch of the standard attained in Latin, mathematics, French and 

English ' 147, 148 

Remedy for the present state of things not to be found in a radical 

change of the subjects and method of instruction . , 143 

Abandonment of Latin for young boys in the grammai- schools quite a 
different thmg from a modification of the classical system in the great 
schools and universities - . . . _ -i^n 

Review of the educational value of the " modern " studies - 149 150 

May it not be desirable to adopt them as a sop to commercial pai-ents ? I61' 152 
To the average parents Latin not necessarily an offence; to the best an ' 
object of desire - . . , .' _ jgg 153 



Mr. Green's Report. — Contents. 

Page 
To give it up, would be to sacrifice the best boys to the worst, without 
any corresponding gain to tlie latter, and finally divorce the grammar' 
schools from the universities --.... 154 

Real reasons of the defects of grammar schools, and first, why more hoys 

don't go to them ...... 154-168 

(a) The position of the master of the grammar school has generally 
been such as to give him no adequate motive for making the 
school popvilar — contrast with the private schoolmaster 154, 155 

He does not spread his net wide enough, and often will not con- 
descend to manage the very manageable commercial parent - 157 

He often does not care for his work, or has other work - - 157 

(6) The buildings and situation of grammar schools often bad ; 

illustrations - - - - - 157, 158 

(c) Preference of boarding school to day school, and reasons for it 159 

(d) General abstention of the professional class from use of the 
grammar school - - - - - - ] 60 

Reasons for it (1) social ... 161,162 

„ (2) educational ... I63 

Commercial parents often object to the grammar school, as not giving 
the shortest cut to necessary knowledge .... Ig4 

Comparison of grammar schools with private schools in this respect and 
in that of numbers - - - - - 164,165 

Many boys locally out of reach of a grammar sehool ; where and why 
this is the case ...... IQQ^ 167 

Special consideration of the case of sons of farmers in remote districts 167, 168 

Why the grammar schools don't malce more of the boys who do go to 
them ------.- 169-185 

(a) Uneducated parentage - - - - - 169 

(6) Presence in the schools of boys who ought not to be there at 
aU, "who learn nothing and prevent others from learning : 
this due (1) to gratuitous system, (2) to want of entrance 
examination .... 170, 17I 

(c) Want of effective reward to better boys : the old universities 

out of reach - - - - 172 

Special obstacles in way of a Dissenter - - - 173 

Attractions of London University and civil service, - - - 173 

Day-boys, generally meant to leave early for business - - 174 

Only stimulus for these to be found in the " local examinations " - 175 

Consideration of the general effect of these on schools - 176, 177 

Difficulty of combining preparation for them (1) with that for public 

schools, (2) with that for universities - - - - 178, 179 

Value attached to success in them - . . . . igQ 

(d) Defects of teaching in the grammar schools ; distraction of 

the masters, and modes of classification - 180, 181 

(e) Difficulty of getting good under-masters ... 182 

Question between graduates and others - - - - - 183 

Possible simplification of work, by abandonment of Greek in lesser 
schools ........ 183 

(/) Want of oral teaching in lower classes and of work on paper 

in the higher ...... I84 

(^) Defects of building and arrangement - - - 185 



Mr. Green's Report. — Contents. 

Page 

Review of the state of " commercial education " in grammar schools 185-191 

Iftfi 
Comparison with private schools . ■ 

Cases where the classical standard is kept up at the expense of the 

commercial - - - ' ' " " 

How far, and why, this is unavoidable - - 187 

In some cases income insufficient to keep up both - 188 

Two ordinary ways of attempting to keep up both - - 189 

Alternative studies ; objections to this - - - - - 189 

Separate departments ; objections to this ... 190 

Suggestion of a better plan ... - 191 

Review of the mode and extent to which private effort supplements the 
action of grammar schools . - - 192-212 

A. (1.) Cases where the private schools have it aU their own way, 

e.g. the Potteries - 192 

Small number in them— where are the rest? - - 192 
Character (a) of the more, (6) of the less expensive private 

schools here ..---- 193 

Vacuum which they don't fill .... 194 
(2.) Action of private schools as cheap boarding-schools; why they 

are cheaper than grammar schools ... 195 
Two classes of them in respect of terms ; demand for, and 

character of, the cheaper class - - 196-198 

Defects in the principals, the assistants, the buildings - 199 

Want of effective examination - 200 
Few schools of this class use "local examinations;" good 

effect on such as do - - - 201 

What is wanted to extend the benefit . - - 202 
(3.) Action of cheap private schools, as day-schools, side by side 

with grammar schools - - 203 
(4.) Action of more expensive private schools in like juxta- 
position - - 204,205 

5. Action of private schools of the latter sort as boarding-schools 206 
What the grammar school might do, but the private school 

cannot do - ... - 207 

B. Supplemental action of proprietary schools ; 1st at Leamington 208 

2nd at Tettenhall - .... 209 

Inferences to be drawn from the estabhshment of this school, and diffi- 
culties in its way ... . 209, 210 

(3rd.) Edgbaston ; its object ; causes of its partial decline, and condi- 
tions of its success ■ ... 211,212 

HoXv far are National and British schools supplemental to grammar 

schools? ---..... 212 

Consideration of the possibility of getting more money for grammar 
schools, and of the way in which it should be applied - - 213-231 

Application to its proper purpose of the income of grammar schools in 

villages, now applied to elementary schools - . . . 213 

Uselessness of the endawment in these places, as at present applied 214, 215 



Mr. Qreen's Beport, — Contents. 

Suggestions of change in certain cases : Page 

(1.) At Bradley and Church Eaton - - - - - 216 

(2.) At Dilhorne 217 

(3.) At Audley and Newchapel ..... 218 

Possible resources of the grammar school at Newcastle, and of Orme's 

School 219,220 

Proposal to establish a high school at Newcastle, and suggestions for 
working it--.----- 221 

Desirable transfer of funds at Walsall and Hampton-Lucy - - 222 

Useless charity in large amounts at various places - - 223-225 

Plan for establishing high schools ; great need of them - - 226 

Where should they be ? - - - - - - 22? 

Supposing them to be established, what schools should continue inde- 
pendent? ..-..-.- 228 
What should be affiliated to them? - - - - - 229 

Limit of income desirable for scliools of each class ... 229 

Cases where the limit is reached, and where it is not - - 230, 231 

Preparatory schools specially wanted in certain cases - - - 230 

Obstacles to proposed changes - - . . . 231-237 

1. Local opposition in some cases ..... 232 

2. Cry of injustice to poor ...... 232 

3. Existing " commercial departments " in the way ... 233 

4. Want of initiative -.-..-- 233 
Suggestions as to where an initiative might best be found, and as to 

the constitution of boards of trustees - - - - - 234 

5. Objection of masters to affiliation - . - - . 235 

6. Denominational difficulty ...--- 236 

7. General want of interest in high education among the commercial 

class - . - . 237, 238 

Importance in this respect of really opening the old universities - 237, 238 

Education of girls ....... 238-261 

Incompleteness of accessible information .... 238 

Grades of school in respect of terms ..... 238 

Small number of girls to be found in them ; where are the rest? - 239 
With girls, sound education not necessary for the purposes of life, 

except in certain cases ...... 240 

Training of teachers — the apprenticing system and its results - - 241 

Grammar schools wanted for girls ..... 242 

Usefulness of the " Bath Row School " at Birmingham - - 243 

What else is wanted at Birmingham ..... 244 

Demand for the proposed schools, as felt by various classes - - 245 

Difficulties in the way of their successful operation ... 246 

Means of establishing them — their probable expense ... 247 

Waste of teaching power in present system .... 248 

Probable effect of the proposed schools on others, and on the opinion of 

parents ........ 249 

Present state of the more expensive schools .... 250 



ME. GEEEN'S EEPOET 

ON 

THE SCHOOLS IN THE COUNTIES OE STAFFORD 
AND WARWICK, 

AND 

SPECIAL EEPOET 

ON 

KING EDWARD VI. FREE SCHOOL, BIRMINGHAM.* 



Mt Loeds and Gentlemen, 

The matters to which, in pursuance of my instructions, I Dmsion of the 
directed my attention at Birmingham, may be divided under two »"''J«'=*- 
main heads, (A) those affecting the condition of the grammar 
schools externally, which naturally fall under the view of the 
governors and the general public, and (B) those affecting it 
internally, which fall rather under the view of the masters and 
pupils of the school. 

Under A, the first point to be considered is the constitution of Constitution of 
the Board of Governors, as determined by law and custom. By |°^y""'^ 
law, i.e., by the original letters jiatent of Edward VI., and by the 
Act of 1831, vacancies in the Board are filled up by co-optation. 
By custom, no dissenters during the last half century, nor any one 
connected with the municipal government of the town since the 
establishment of such government, have been admitted to the 
Board. This customary exclusion, it is to be observed, is the 
result of the rule of co-optatiori. 

On such a question in such a place, social and political feeling 
is sure to run rather high ; but while opinion with regard to it is 
strong, the facts ascertainable by a stranger are few. I shall pro- 
bably best serve the purpose of the Commission by stating the 
chief aspects of the question as it presents itself to an inquirer on 
the spot, and one or two points in which the present system ope- 
rates favourably or otherwise on the welfare of the school. As it 
is universally admitted that the present Board has discharged its 
duties with all care and conscientiousness, such a statement can 
involve no reflections on individuals. 

Hitherto, so far as I could ascertain, the Board has fairly repre- Exclusive 
sented the upper or more select section of society in Birmingham, effect of thwm 
so far as this section is politically conservative and attached to the 
Established Church. Its enemies assert that it represents merely 
a clique, but this, I think, is only true in the sense implied in the 
above statement. In Birmingham, as elsewhere, there is an un- 
fortunate, though natural, tendency in the professional class, and 

* This report relates ttiroughout to the state of things in the year 1865. 
a. e. 3. I 



92 



Birmingltnm Free School. 



R elation of 
governing 
body to the 
municipality. 



Practical 
results. 
General im- 
mobility due 
(1) to absence 
of moving 
spirits. 



(S') To fear of 
resistance from 
Town Council. 



among those commercial men whose families have been well on 
for one or two generations, to stand aloof from municipal affairs. 
The exceptions to this rule, — and there are several notable excep- 
tions, — have been uniformly men of liberal politics, and generally 
dissenters. Thus, a Board composed of conservative churchmen, of 
good social position, has necessarily been antagonistic to the town 
council, and careless or contemptuous of local politics. To belong 
to it has been a certain social distinction. Social and municipal 
distinctions have not coincided, and hence the Board has been an 
object of public animosity, irrespectively of the manner in which 
it has exercised its function. 

The first evil resulting from this state of things I should de- 
scribe as a general immobility in the management of the school. 
As dissenters or radicals, the Board has excluded most of those 
who would be disposed to move, and likely to move with discre- 
tion. It is noticeable that, with one or two exceptions lately intro- 
duced, the names of those who have been foremost in the establish- 
ment and conduct of such educational agencies as the Midland 
institute and the public libraries, are not to be found on the list 
of governors. The dissenting congregations in Birmingham are 
not only as numerous as those of the Establishment, but (as would 
be generally admitted) include at least as many persons of intel- 
lect and education. Among their ministers are several men of 
great ability, and specially qualified to give an opinion of the 
educational wants of the town, as being in intimate contact with 
the middle class. Among the dissenting or liberal laymen, again, 
are to be found those who would be best able to commend any 
desirable change in the scheme under which the school is at pre^ 
sent managed to the approval of the citizens. The actual gover- 
nors, on the other hand, have been men naturally averse to change, 
and possessed by a just pride in the success with which the school 
grew up under their management during the 20 years which fol- 
lowed the enactment of the new scheme in 1831. Their secretary, 
who is also their solicitor, and who, from his professional eminence 
and long connexion with the school, has great influence with them, 
has also been an effective power on the side of maintaining the 
" status quo." The conservative tendency thus induced has been 
strengthened by a permanent practical obstacle to change. The 
governors have been aware that, owing to the state of their rela- 
tions with the municipality indicated above, the enactment of any 
change that they might think d'isirable in the scheme of 1831 
would be opposed with all the resources of the municipal purse.* 



* As it is, whenever the town council is promoting a local bill, the governors of 
the school have to take precautions against the insertion of provisions trenching on 
their privileges. Not long ago the town council inserted in such a bill a clause 
providing that the mayor and ex-mayor of the borough should be ex officio governors 
of the school. 1,000?. was mentioned to me as the sum spent in fighting for and 
against this clause. 

The formidable character of a contest with the town council may be illustrated 
by the fact that shortly before my visit to Birmingham about 7,000i had been spent 
by the council in resisting a gas company's bill. 



Mr. Green's Report. 93 

I did not find that all the governors were willing to admit th9.t 
they had been influenced by this fear of opposition, but men are 
not always conscious of their, own motives, and no other reason 
could be given for their unwillingness to go to Parliament to 
obtain changes which they admit to be desirable, and which many 
of them are most anxious for. The most important of these — a 
modification of the present absolutely gratuitous system of educa- 
tion — is clearly one which a body, not commanding popular sym- 
pathy, could not hope to carry through. 

A second objection to the present constitution of the Board Danger of 
arises from its liability to religious exclusiveness in the manage- religious 
ment of the school. However carefully the openness of the school 
may be provided for by the Act of Parliament, it is clear that, so 
long as the right of nominating scholars is exercised as a right of 
individual patronage by the several governors, which has hitherto 
been the case, and so long as there are more applicants for admis- 
sion than can be admitted, there is opportunity for a preference 
being shown to the children of churchmen as against those of 
dissenters. So long, also, as religious instruction according to 
the doctrines of the Church of England continues to be given at . 
the school, there is a possibility that difficulties more or less defi- 
nite may be put in the way of exemptions from such instruction. 
As a matter of fact, however, I could not hear of any suspicion of This at present 
unfairness on religious grounds in the distribution of nominations, ™^'''^ danger, 
nor does exemption from religious instruction and attendance at 
prayers subject a pupil to any disadvantage except the loss of a 
certain number of marks. Such exemption is seldom sought for 
except in the case of Jews. The fact that there are Jews in the 
school, and a natural proportion of dissenters, including several 
sons of ministers, is sufficient evidence on this head. The esta- 
blishment of the proprietary school at Edgbaston, on the basis of 
the entire exclusion of religious instruction, is not, as might 
seem at first sight, any indication of unfairness to dissenters at the 
grammar school. It was founded mainly by Unitarians, who pre- 
ferred a purely secular system on general grounds, and, with the 
exception of a few Unitarians and Jews, I could not hear of any 
parents whose reasons for preferring it to the grammar school had 
anything definitely to do with religion. Its system excludes cor- 
poral punishment as well as religious teaching, and this is a strong 
ground of preference with many parents. Others choose it as 
more select than the grammar school ; others as more conveniently 
situate. On the whole, after conversation with the leading dis- 
senters of the town, both laymen and ministers, I satisfied myself 
that, though they objected to the customary exclusion of dis- 
senters from the Board of Governors as wrong in principle, and 
liable at any time to lead to practical injustice, they had no cases 
of present hardship to allege, except such as arise from the diffi- 
culty of access to the governors experienced by poor and obscure 
parents, which s greater in the case of dissenters than of church- 
men, as the former have not so ready an introduction through 
their ministers. This evil, however, arises properly from the nomi- 

i2 



94 



B{rmi7if/hnm Free School. 



Awkward 
local restric- 
tions on 
eligibility. 



Their result. 



Views in the 
town as the 
change 
desirable. 



nation system, not from the constitution of the Board, and will be 
considered below. 

The only other point in the constitution of the Board which it 
is important to notice is the local restriction on eligibility. Ac- 
cording to the Act of 1831, only such persons are eligible for 
the office of governor as (a.) reside within four miles of the present 
site of the grammar school, and are bond fide rated to the relief of 
the poor of the parish of Birmingham, or (/3) exercise any profes- 
sion or carry on any trade within the limits of the town, parish, 
or manor of Birmingham. This Act was passed before the exist- 
ence of the present borough, the limits of which extend far beyond 
the old parish. The suburbs in which the better classes chiefly 
reside are outside the parish. Acting professional men would 
generally be qualified under (jS), and acting men of business under 
both {a) and (/3), but men retired from a business or profession, 
who might very usefully give their leisure to the management of 
the school, would almost always be excluded. As the loss of the 
original qualification does not disqualify a governor once elected, 
the restriction operates less awkwardly than it otherwise would. 
The result, however, is in some cases rather grotesque, for while 
an active Birmingham citizen, living to all intents and purposes in 
the town, is ineligible because his rateable property or place of 
business happens to be outside the old parish, another man, who 
resides at a distance from the town and seldom comes near it, may 
continue a governor in virtue of his original qualification, or may 
be elected for the first time, if he has an interest in some firm 
carrying on business within the parish. An extension of the area 
of eligibility so as to include persons either carrying on business, 
or rated to the relief of the poor, or holding property within the 
borough, and resident within a moderate distance, would, I think, 
give general satisfaction both to the governors and public. On 
the other hand, the admission of persons to the oflice of governor, 
not closely connected with the town, would be generally objected 
to, and the number of necessary attendances at meetings of the 
governors might, it is generally thought, be desirably increased. 
According to the scheme of 1831, it is only the neglect to attend 
any meeting during two years that disqualifies a governor, and 
even then he is re-eligible. 

As to the general constitution of the governing Board, which it 
might be desirable to substitute for the present one, opinion in 
Birmingham seemed to be a good deal divided. Outside the circle 
of the governors themselves almost every one, except a few rather 
exquisite politicians, would lament the present absolute separation 
and antagonism between the governing body of the school and 
that of the town, and most would condemn the principle of co- 
optation. But as to the amount of power over the school which 
should be conceded to the town council, and as to the way in 
which it might be expected to exercise this power, I heard rather 
different opinions from men of equal authority on the subject. 
On the one hand I found men, themselves important members of 
the town council, deprecating the concession of an effective con- 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 95 

trol over the school to that body. One of them told me that if 
the appointment of governors were placed without restriction in 
the hands of the town council, though many of their nominees 
might be good, he could foresee the appointment of others " who 
" would drag every school question through every public-house 
" in the borough." Others, on the contrary, urged that the 
management of the school would have small attraction for dema- 
gogues ; while its association, directly or indirectly, with the muni- 
cipal government would lead more men of education to seek a share 
in the latter. As an indication of what might be expected from 
the town council, they instanced the appointments which it now 
makes to the committees of the Midland institute and the town 
libraries, which are admitted to be good. 

Such a question is out of the reach of statistics, and, according Two extremes, 
as people approach one or other of the above views as to what 
might be expected from the town council, they differ as to the 
number of governors which it should be allowed to nominate. 
Some would be content with such a recognition of the municipality 
as would be involved in the presence of the mayor and ex-mayor 
" ex officio '' on the Board— an arrangement which would have the 
minimum of effect, as by the time these officials had learnt their 
business in relation to the school, that relation would have ceased. 
In the opposite extreme is the view involved in a resolution 
passed by the town council itself, claiming the entire government. 
Between these two extremes lies the proposition which would ^"^^ ^ '"^^°- 
abolish the co-optation of governors altogether, but give the 
appointment of one -third or half the Board to some such body as 
the borough magistrates, while it would compel the town council 
in its appointment of the other two-thirds or half to take a certain 
proportion from outside its own body* It was further suggested 
to me that it might be well to limit the town council in its selec- 
tion of the rest to the aldermen or ex-aldermen. The rationale 
of this last restriction would be that the popularity of a mere 
demagogue seldom lasts long enough for him to be made an 
alderman. 

One definite practical objection was mentioned to me against Practical ob- 

placing a virtual command of the management of the school in •''i^i'°° '''.*^°™' 

^ 1 1 n 1 M mi n ^ i i i- plete capitula- 

the hands of the town council. I he property or the school lies tionto Town 

in the streets of Birmingham, and its pecuniary interests are, in Council, 
consequence, constantly liable to be affected by schemes for im- 
provement of the town. This being so, it would seem equally 
undesirable that these interests should be maintained by a body 
(as in times past) distinctly antagonistic to the town council, 
and by one virtually identical with it. The conflict, not of 
interest, but of feeling, between the two bodies has once, at 
least, stood in the way of arrangements likely to enhance the 
value of the school property; but though it is most desirable 
that this conflict should cease, and though no one would expect 

* This is in general the scheme of the " School Reform Association." It will be 
found iu detail in their report, of which I transmit a copy. 



96 



Birmingham Free School. 



Mode of 
nominating 
&ee scholars. 



the town cotincil of Binningham to follow the example of other 
town councils in " starving the grammar school " for the 
benefit of the ratepayers, yet, as a matter of business, the several 
interests of town and school are more sure of being fairly 
adjusted if kept in separate though friendly hands. 
General result. The general tesults of my inquiry on this subject were these : 
(1.) That the general opinion of Birmingham, so far as it is in- 
tferested In the question, would accept any modification of the 
present system of co-optation which would secure a representation 
on the governing Board of the rflunicipality on the one hand 
and the nonconformists on the other. (2.) That it would be 
opposed, on the whole, to the introduction of Crown nominees or 
magnates of the neighbouring counties upon the Board. I have 
reason to believe that the present governors are willing, not 
indeed to surrender the principle of co-optation, but to bind 
themselves to the co-optation of a certain number of town 
councillors and dissenters. This, however, the Commissioners 
will be able to ascertain from the governors personally. I should 
quite expect such a concession to be well received by the town. 

I now come to a question of wider practical bearings, — the 
nomination of free scholars. By the scheme embodied in the 
Act of 1831, "'No boy shall be admitted to the school under the 
" age of eight years, and who shall not be able to write and 
" read English ; and the master under whose care such boy is to 
" be placed shall examine and admit him if he be so qualified, 
" but not otherwise." " All boys, not sons of inhabitants of the 
" town, manor, or parish of Birmingham, or of parishes touching 
" upon or adjacent to the same, shall pay to the governors for 
" education at the school such annual sum as the governors, with 
" advice of the bishop, shall from time to time fix." This sum, 
by a subsequent ordinance of the governors, was fixed at not less 
than 15?., nor more than 201. a year. The practice in pursuance of 
the above rule has hitherto (with an important recent modification 
to be noticed afterwards) been as follows. As many "sons of 
" inhabitants, &c." as the school-building would accommodate, 
about 500, have been admitted, on nomination by the governors, 
without any fee whatever. The nomination, however, has not 
been by the governors in council or collectively. There being 
20 governors, each has a twentieth part of a year's nominations 
to dispose of individually, and a parent desiring admission for his 
boy to the school has to seek out a governor with a nomination 
to spare. Thus, instead of a general list of applicants being 
kept by the secretary, who should be admitted as vacancies 
occurred, a private list is kept by each governor, and the same 
boy will very likely have his name down on several of these lists. 
Accordingly, v,-h"n it falls to the turn of any given governor to 
nominate a scholar, he has first to ascertain whether°any of the 
boys on his list have been already nominated by some one else. 
It then remains for him to decide whether he take the first boy 
on his list not yet nominated, or make a selection according tO his 
knowledge of the circumstances of the applicants. The practice 



Mr. Greenes Report. 97 

of the governors in this last respect has not been uniform* Some 
have simply followed the order of the time of application ; others, 
and I think the greater number, have been in the habit of 
exercising a discretion. 

The nomination having been given, the examination for Of examining 
enttance follows. This consists of three parts. A sum is written ^^g^ated. 
on a board in figures, which the boy has to reproduce in words, 
and another in words which he has to reproduce in figures. He 
has, further, to write down one or two simple verses of the Bible 
from dictation, and to read aloud a few other verses. If he made 
more than two or three mistakes in each subject, he would be 
rejected. In regard to this examination, however, an important 
change has been made by the present head master (appointed in 
1862). Under his predecessor, the examination for admission 
took place immediately on the nomination being given; and as 
nominations were given according to an estimate of the number 
of vacancies likely to occur in the year, an interval of some 
months might elapse between the nomination, with the con- 
sequent entrance-examination, and the actual admission to the 
school. This interval was naturally often spent by a boy, the 
examination being safely passed, in forgetting that which enabled 
him to pass it, so that when he came to be placed in the school 
he would be literally unable to read. According to the present 
arrangement, the examination for entrance does not take place 
till a vacancy actually occurs, and immediately precedes the 
actual entrance. 

It will be observed that, according to the above mode of pro- Three-fold 
cedure, a parent, wishing to get a son into the school, has a three- uncertainty 
fold uncertainty before him. In the first place he cannot tell above^phtn °™ 
when he may find a governor who will promise him a nomination. 
Secondly, the nomination having been promised, he cannot tell 
when it will be given. Thirdly, the nomination having been 
given, he cannot teU for certain when a vacancy will occur, 
which will enable his son actually to enter. 

Of the inconvenient results arising from the nomination ^'^'^ effects of 
system, so determined by the scheme of 1829, or by custom, it (i) due to re- 
will be well to take that first which is at once least considerable striction of 
and least disputable, viz., the confinement of the free education freedom to the 
to the sons of inhabitants of the parish of Birmingham and 
adjacent parishes. Adjacent is understood to mean contiguous. 
Now there are certain parishes contiguous to the present Parlia- 
mentary borough (which did not exist at the time when the 
scheme in question was enacted), bilt not contiguous to the old 
parish. Their inhabitants, therefore, cannot send sons to the 
grammar school,* while other people residing at a greater dis- 

* In pursuance of the clause in the scheme of 1829 (enacted in 1831), the 
governors ordained that boys, not sons of inhabitants of the parish or adjacent 
parishes, should pay in advance an annual sum of not less than 15Z. or more than 
20?., but that no such boys should be admitted to the exclusion of sons of inhabitants 
of the parish or adjacent parishes. As more of the latter are always applying for 
admission than can be admitted, tbis amounts to an exclusion of all othersi 



98 Birmingham Free School. 

tance from the school, but within a parish that happens somewhere 
to abut oa the old parish of Birmingham, can send their sons to 
it without any payment whatever. I heard, for instance, of a 
clergyman, himself formerly a master of the school, but now 
holding a small incumbency in the parish of Northfield, who 
could not make use of the school for his sons, because this parish 
is not conterminous with the parish of Birmingham, though it is 
with the borough. On the other hand, people resident two miles 
further off in the parish of King's Norton, which meets that of 
Birmingham at a single point, could use it freely. 

The excluded parish of Northfield contains 3,130 inhabitants. 
That of Yardley, which is in the same position, being conter- 
terminous with the present borough, but not with the parish, has 
a population of 3,848, and is rapidly increasing. It contains a 
new suburb, Acock's Green, much frequented by the less wealthy 
tradesmen and manufacturers of Birmingham. The number of 
boys in these two parishes whom the present regulation excludes 
is no doubt comparatively small, but it may at any time increase 
with the establishment of a popular suburb within either of them. 
The exclusion, moreover, is liable at any time to lead to dispute, 
for other divisions have so far superseded parochial ones for 
practical purposes, that neither the governors or secretary ou 
the one hand, nor the parents on the other, are likely always to 
know whether a boy is admissible in respect of residence or not. 
It would seem much simpler to ignore parochial boundaries 
altogether, and take a certain distance from the school as the 
measure of the area of admissibility. Two facts, at any rate, 
are to be borne in mind : one, that the middle-class population of 
the town is gravitating more and more to the suburbs ; the other, 
that owing to the position of the school close to the central 
station, and to the point where the several lines of suburban 
omnibuses converge, it is available as a day-school for boys living 
almost anywhere within a radius of five or six miles of it. On 
this subject I shall have afterwards to dwell in a difierent 
connexion. 

So much for the local limitations on the privileges of the 

school. Of the mode in which these privileges are "enjoyed" 

by those who are within the favoured parishes it is impossible to 

speak too strongly. Indiscriminately free admission under any 

system would be an evil in the negative sense, for it involves the 

sacrifice of fees from parents very well able to pay them, and it 

(2) Bad effect excludes the stimulus of admission by competition. Under the 

on preliminary system (now modified) which has been pursued at Birmingham it 

e ucation. becomes a more positive evil. It makes the primary education of 

boys destined for the free-school worse than it would be if there 

were no free-school at all. 

To explain this result I must recall what I said above of the way 
in which nominations are given, and the uncertainty which results 
from it. A parent relies on getting his son educated for nothing 
sooner or later, but he cannot tell whether it will be soon or later 
A clergyman or dissenting minister, any respectable professional 



Mr. GreevUs Report. 99 

man, a tradesman with a " genteel connexion," would be pretty Often long 
sure of getting a nomination as soon as he wanted it. These, ^^^^ ^'^ ?**" 
however, are the sort of people who would take care that their tion, during 
sons were being educated somewhere, if not at the grammar school, which boy 
As it. is, the school is largely filled with the sons of small trades- "ss'ected. 
men and manufacturers, who are probably more numerous rela- 
tively in Birmingham than in any other of our great towns. 
Among these people the delay experienced in getting nominations 
is a source of considerable irritation. I heard it often asserted 
that while a pushing man, or one who could make himself useful 
to a governor or governor's friend, could get a nomination at once, 
though perhaps a new comer into the town, another, who had 
paid rates for a quarter of a century, had to wait some years, and 
make a dozen applications for one. Such complaints, of course, 
are to be taken at what they are worth.* It is only natural that 
the governors should exercise some discretion in the bestowal of 
their patronage, and probably the diflSculty complained of is often 
due to the applicants not going the right way to work. Several 
of the governors will only notice an application when made in 
writing. The applicant perhaps is not aware of this rule, or has 
some diflBculty in conforming to it. He makes a personal applica- 
tion, is repulsed, and for ever after has a grievance. But though 
it would be unjust to visit such grievances on any governor per- 
sonally, the existence of them is due to the system which makes 
the nomination of scholars matter of individual patronage. Their 
existence, however, is the least part of the evil which arises from 
it. The irritation of the parent while he is waiting for a nomina- 
tion would be of less moment if he kept his son regularly at a good 
school in the interval ; but the chances are that he does not. The 
anticipation that his son will ultimately get an education for 
nothing lowers his standard of educational expenditure. If, 
for the sake of getting him out of the road, he sends his son to a 
private school at all, it will be to one where the payment is too 
small for the teaching to be good. Even here his son will pro- 
bably get less than the average amount of attention, for the 
master can have no inducement to take pains with a boy whom 
he may any day see transferred to the grammar school without 
recognition of his pains. 

The consequence of this state of things has been, firstly, a dead Hence great 
weight of preliminary ignorance to be dealt with in the lower ignorance in 
classes of the grammar school; and, secondly, a degradation of the school. 

* One of the governors showed me on his list applications of five years' standing, 
which he had not yet heen able to satisfy. The late pupils of the school, whom I 
talked to about it, specified various periods as those during which they had been kept 
waiting, from five years to two. On the other hand, I heard of a pushing solicitor, 
who, wishing to get three sons in at once, wrote to all the governors at once, and 
immediately got five nominations, two more than he wanted. 

A tradesman of the town observed to me that a man, whose wife was stay maker 
to a governor's wife, could get a nomination at once. This he seemed to think 
constituted a peculiar intimacy of relation. 

The editor of one of the newspapers of the town told me that people often sought 
nominations through him, who could not get them in any other way. 



100 



Birmingham Free School. 



Instances. 



Hence (1) 
many boys 
turned out ill- 
equipped for 
business. 



(2)Very few 
■well-equipped 
as scholars. 



State of the 
lower part of 
the classical 
department. 



private schools in the town. On the first point the evidenoo of 
the masters of the school is unanimous. They complain that hoys 
often come at the age of 12 or upwards knowing nothing beyond 
the minimum which is requisite for admission. One day, when I 
was in the school, a boy of 14, who had already been admitted, 
was examined by the head-master in order to ascertain what claSS 
he was fit for. He knew no Latin, spelt " wrong," " roung,^' did 
not know the name of any river in England, or of any English 
king but Charles I., or the capitals of Scotland, Ireland, or France, 
or how much 30 pence made. He had been trained at a private 
school where 65 boys were taught by only one master. This, I 
was assured, was by no means an uncommon case.* The evil will 
appear in a stronger light, when it is remembered that most 
of the boys get no sort of education, regular or incidental, at 
home, and that very few of them stay at school beyond 16. A 
boy who, after waiting a year or two for a nomination, enters the 
school when turned 12, with no acquired knowledge of English 
grammar, and without ever having heard English correctly spoken 
at home, defective also in arithmetic and penmanship, really wants 
the three years, which are all that he will spend at school, to obtain 
the simple elementary knowledge necessary for the business of 
life. Now this, I should say, has been the ordinary case at 
Birmingham, and hence two results ; on the one hand it has been 
very difficult to keep up effective classes for the higher subjects, 
whether in the way of classics, science, or modern languages ; on 
the other hand, the mass of boys who cannot be raised to the level 
of these subjects have not been getting the lower, practical educa- 
tion so effectively as they might. In the classical department, 
though arithmetic and writing are now adequately attended to, 
yet Latin and Greek absorb the greater part of both the teaching 
and the learning power. Yet the head master told me that be- 
tween the highest boy of the first class and the lowest of the 
second, which two classes are taught together by him, and do not 
together contain more than about 25 boys, he could place six 
Rugby forms. Again, it is the exception in the classical school 
for a boy to rise beyond the fifth class, yet it is as much as the 
best boys in this class can do painfully to make out Ovid's 
Heroides and the Greek Delectus. The average age in this class 
is 13|. Now as there are a certain number of sharp small boys 
in it under 13, who are generally at the top, it follows that it con- 
tains a quantity of boys turned 14, who are thus probably within 
a year of leaving, and who, after learning little else than Latin 
and Greek, do not know enough even to read an easy Latin 
book to themselves in after-life. From the fifth class downwards 
is to be found a mass of boys who clearly, according to the fitness 
of things, ought not to be in the classical departmen't at all, but in 



* Another mstance fell under my notice of a boy, 16 years old, and the son of 
parents rich enough to keep a carriage, who had not even the qualification in readin* 
and writing necessary for admission. His parents, expecting the school ultimately 
to teach mm everytmng, had let him run idle; 



Mr, Gfeen's Etipoft. 101 

the English. They have entered the classical, in sotne cases, be- 
cause it is rather more genteel, in others because nominations to 
the classical (the pressure for them being less) are more easily ob- 
tained. As it is they are struggling with Latin and Greek most 
of their time, when they ought to be learning — for the simple 
reason that they have not learnt to do it already, and will not 
learn afterwards — to put together an ordinary English sentence. 
In the English department itself there are only a few picked boys 
who master the elementary subjects early enough to make any- 
thing of chemistry, mathematics, or modern languages. 

Such a state of things is very depressing to the masters, and 
keeps back the clever or better-taught boys. The master, if he 
spends himself in teaching the mass what ought not to be taught 
them by him at all, has not life for " forcing" those who are really 
susceptible of it, and who in turn (as some of them have told me) 
find that they are not urged to do as much as they can. A head 
master, who has an eye for budding talent, may of course so 
sweep the school as to get the clever boys to the front, and leave 
the rest to their chance. I suspect that when the school was most 
distinguished at the universities, the distinction was obtained to 
some extent by this method, but it is a method which few men can 
be expected to have the ability, and not all the conscience, to 
pursue. It would, however, be a wrong conclusion from what has 
been said to advise that the school should so lower its aims, with 
regard to most of its pupils, as to give them merely the elemen- 
tary English education which all of them want, and many now 
only inadequately obtain. The true conclusion is that this educa- Elementary 
tion should be given them before they come to the school, and this, education 
with a change in the nomination system, might, I believe, be the °^|. ^foyg ^°' 
case. In other words, I believe that the governors of the grammar entrance. 
school, if their hands were free, might set the standard of prelimi- 
nary education in the town as they pleased. If they were able to 
say that the privilege of free education at the grammar school 
should no longer be given away as a gratuity, but as a reward for 
elementary knowledge, they would soon be able to fill it with boys 
from their own elementary schools, and from the private schools of 
the town, who would know as much on entering it as many now 
do when they leave it. 

An. important step in this direction has been taken within the Competitive 
last 18 months. The governors, though not entitled, or believing examination 
themselves not entitled,* under the Act of 1831, to admit any sons partly intro- 
of inhabitants, &c. at a fee, have been able to some extent, owing duced. 
to the great pressure for entrance, to make priority of entrance 
matter of competition. At the instance of the head master they 



* The head master is disposed to think that under the existing scheme, if so many 
boys were admitted free as the present building will accommodate, i.e., about 500, it 
would be allowable, on new buildings being made, to admit at a fee any number 
more. Unfortunately, as soon as any boys are adihitted at a fee, so as t6 interfere 
*ith the purely charitable character of the institution, it becomes chargeable to the 
local rat«S, to the probable amount, as was stated to me by one who ought to know, 
of nearly 2,660/. a year. 



102 



Birrriingham Free School. 



The system 
cannot be 
thoroughly 
carried out 
without fees. 



agreed, at the beginning of 1865, to put a certain number of nomi- 
nations each year into his hands. He was then, twice a year, to 
hold an examination, and the boys who did best in it were to enter 
the school at once. Those who failed might take their chance 
another time, or wait till they could get a nomination from a 
governor ia the ordinary course. The number of nominations 
thus thrown open to competition for 1865 was 40; for 1866 it 
will, I believe, be 80. The examination, according to a circular 
issued by the head master, is arranged as follows: — If under 12, 
the candidates, whether it be the classical or the English depart- 
ment into which they desire admission, are examined in reading 
and writing from dictation, in the outlines of English history and 
elementary geography, in Latin, and in certain rules of arithmetic, 
viz., the first four, simple and compound, reduction, practice, and 
simple proportion. If over 12, those who are candidates for the 
English school are examined also in vulgar fractions ; those who 
are candidates for the classical school, in vulgar fractions and 
Greek. No subject is in any special sense a " plucking " subject, 
but Latin and arithmetic are made the most of. 

Last summer the announcement of these nominations, to be 
given by competition, brought a boy all the way from Dereham, 
whom circumstances enabled to change his residence to Birming- 
ham, and who was tempted by the prospect of free education. 
With this exception, the boys who have been head in the compe- 
tition have almost uniformly been trained at the elementary 
schools on King Edward's foundation. After them have come 
boys from some of the national schools of the town. Only a few 
from private schools have as yet gained admission in this way. 
This competition for priority of entrance, so far as it goes, — and 
henceforth about half the boys admitted will be admitted in this 
way, — is a departure from the old system of nomination by indi- 
vidual governors, and, so far, is a remedy for the evils which 
appear to have been incidental to that system. To give all their 
nominations by competition would be all that the governors under 
the present scheme believe themselves able to do, and this would 
probably be doing a great deal to stimulate preliminary education 
and raise the character of the lower classes in the school. It is 
to be observed, however, that if all nominations were given in this 
way, the distinction of obtaining one would proportionately fall. 
The examination would, in fact, be simply an entrance examina- 
tion, become competitive through the pressure for entrance. 
Careless parents, though they would make better provision for 
their sons' preliminary education than they do now, would still 
make sure of getting him in some time, and once in he would not 
be distinguished from the most carefully trained. The bad effect, 
too, of the simply gratuitous system, in lowering the standard of 
payment for education, and with it the character of private schools, 
would still continue. It is therefore most desirable that the 
governors should have power to exact an annual fee from the 
ordinary boys, so as to make exemption from this the prize for a 
certain number who should do best in the entrance examination. 



Mr. Green's Report. 103 

A plan of this kind was proposed in the report of the " School 
" Reform Association " ,of the town issued last summer, and 
would, I think, be acceptable to many, probably to a majority, of 
the governors. 

Whether it would be acceptable to the public in general is a How would 
question more difficult to answer. The " School Reform Associa- proposal of 
tion," which, I believe, adopted it without difficulty, represents most reived ? 
of the leaders of opinion in the town. On the other hand I heard 
objections to it on what may, without harshness, be called senti- 
mental grounds, from quarters whence I should not have expected 
it ; and one or two parents of past or present pupils of the school, 
belonging to the class of lesser shopkeepers, spoke of the present 
charge for books, &c. in the classical school as being quite as much 
as could be borne, without addition of a fee. On such a point 
conclusive evidence is not to be attained. It must be admitted, 
in the first place, that, partly from long habituation to a gra- 
tuitous system, partly from a feeling natural to a people keen in 
business and only half convinced of the value of education, there 
is some niggardliness at Birmingham in regard to payments for 
education. Chemistry is taught in the upper division of the first 
class in the English school, and this is a study, one would suppose, 
likely to be valued as practically available. I heard, however, 
from Mr. Fleay, who was acting as master of the English school 
last summer, that three parents that half-year had wished to with- 
draw their sons from the chemistry lesson on account of the expense 
of the books and apparatus, which then cost each boy 25s. The 
private schoolmasters of the town, who draw on the class of small 
manufacturers and shopkeepers, are not generally able to charge 
more than 4Z. a year, with a very small sum in addition for books, 
&c. The cost of necessary books for a boy, who reaches the 
upper classes of the classical department in the grammar school, 
would probably not fall far short of this. Again, though most of 
the Birmingham tradesmen, sending sons to the grammar school, 
could very well affijrd lOZ. a head for them if they could adjust 
such a sum to their imagination, yet there are a good many boys 
in the school, and those often among the most promising — sons 
of widows or of tradesmen whose prosperity has been in inverse 
ratio to the size of their families — on whom such a fee could be 
paid with difficulty, if at all. I heard, for instance, of a promising 
boy in the first class who would have had to be withdrawn from 
the school on account of the cost of books, but for the charitable 
interposition of the head master. Several other cases, more or less 
similar, occur to my memory at once. They were cases of this 
kind, I found, that people generally had in mind when they objected 
oif-hand to the abolition of gratuitous education. They regarded it 
as meant to make the school more select at the expense of its univer- 
sal availability. Whether this result Avould really follow or no, 
would depend on the way in which the proposed new system was 
worked. 

I found it a very common opinion among people favourable Proposal to 
both to the general exaction of fees and to the principle of entrance ^^fees^the"^"* 



104 



Birmingham Free School, 



rule, Trith 
charitable ex- 
ceptions. 



Evil of such 
exceptions. 



How the need 
of them might 
he avoided. 



The "ele- 
mentary 
schools." 



by competition, that if exemption from fees were made without 
reservation the prize for excellence in the examination for entrance, 
it would be obtained by boys whose parents could affordto pay the 
most for a preliminary forcing. To be among the first in this exa- 
mination, it was urged, would become an intellectual distinction. 
As such, parents would desire it for their children, and desiring it, 
the wealthy would have better means of obtaining it,by the purchase 
of ^' cramming " power, than the poor, nor would they be too 
proud to accept it because it involved gratuitous education. Thus 
the poverty which gives the only true title to such education 
would be the means of exclusion from it. To prevent this result 
various modifications of the competitive system have been proposed. 
Several persons, whose opinion was of importance, while proposing 
to make the payment of a fee the rule, and free admission a 
privilege to be competed for, thought that the competition for this 
privilege should be restricted to boys from King Edward's elemen- 
tary schools, or from schools receiving Government aid. To meet 
the case of boys of gentle parentage, sons, for instance, of de- 
ceased ministers, for whom such schools might be unsuitable, but 
who might yet be ill able to pay a fee at the grammar school, it 
was suggested that a certain number might still be admitted free 
on nomination ; the nomination, however, to be given by the 
governors collectively, so as to guard against the suspicion of 
favouritism. 

Any restriction on the competition for free entrance, such as 
the above, would, I think, be undesirable on two principal grounds. 
In the first place, the free admission would still retain something 
of an eleemosynary character. The free boys, having gained 
their freedom in virtue of a protective system, would be regarded 
as an inferior caste by those who paid. This at any rate was the 
uniform anticipation of those best able to judge, the young men 
who had lately left the school whom I consulted on the subject 
Secondly, the restricted competition would fail to do what I 
believe might be done by open competition, in the way of stimu- 
lating and elevating the private schools. They would still con- 
tinue to maintain a struggling existence side by side with the 
grammar school, instead of being insensibly affiliated to it. 

The true solution of the difficulty is to be found, I believe, in 
the suggestion made in an appendix to the report of the " School 
" Reform Association," that the standard of the examination for 
entrance to the grammar school should be adjusted to that of the 
highest class in the King Edward's elementary schools. This 
suggestion, indeed, pretty much represents the actual practice of 
the head master in his conduct of the present competitive exami- 
nation for nominations. 

In the elementary schools the means are ready to hand at once 
for relieving the grammar school from the duty of giving a mere 
clerk's education, which is all that many who now use it want, 
and for giving the poorest boys an equal chance with the richest 
of obtaining that elementary knowledge on which the competitive 
examination for entrance to the grammar school ought to turn. 



Mr. Greenes Report. 1 05 

By a clerk's education I mean the learning to read and spell cor- These may 
rectly, to write a plain hand, to oast accounts quickly, to compose prepare poor 
grammatically an ordinary English sentence, and to know some- quatefy both 
thing of the map of England and (perhaps) the world. This for proposed 
really is all that is meant by a " practical " or " commercial " entrance ex- 
education. It is all that a young man wants to qualify him for foj. tuainess. 
any ordinary office in the way of commerce or manufacture, and 
it is all that he goes to a " commercial academy " to learn. In 
special manufactures he may want some elementary knowledge of 
chemistry or mechanics, but this he can commonly learn best in 
the business ; the knowledge of a modem language may sometimes 
be turned to account, but is seldom necessary ; a small know- 
ledge of Latin words and declensions is necessary for a druggist, 
and the faculty of making out an easy piece of a Latin author for 
one who aspires to pass the "preliminary legal" examination. 
These, however, are exceptional cases. The ordinary " commer- 
cial " education means simply what I have specified above, and 
this, I believe, may be and is adequately given at Birmingham by 
the King Edward's elementary schools. 

To satisfy myself on this point, I spent some time in one of the Evidence of 
elementary schools, that in the Parade, which is the only one that *^^^- 
has hitherto done much towards feeding the grammar school. I 
should say without hesitation that the first class here, consisting 
of about 30 boys, knew more all round than the six best boys in 
any commercial academy that I visited. I heard them do lessons 
in "mental " (i.e., oral) arithmetic, in history and geography, in 
English grammar, and in Latin. Their mental arithmetic was 
excellent. They could do sums in fractions and decimals, in pro- 
portion and in practice, without slates or paper, with wonderful 
exactness and celerity. The outlines of English history and 
general geography they all seemed to know very well. In the 
analysis of English sentences there was more diiFerence. All 
knew the rules well enough, but two or three were much quicker 
than the rest in applying them to complicated cases. Their hand- 
writing seemed generally good. Now, here were 30 boys, of 
whom only five were turned 13 (15 of the rest being betweeu 12 
and 13, 10 between 12 and 11), who to the best of my judgment 
had already acquired all the elementary knowledge necessary for 
a clerk.* They might, without losing any of their qualifications 
in this respect, if their parents did not insist on utilizing them at 
once for business, be transferred to a school which should give 
them the chance of developing a taste for science, or literature, or 
even classical learning. A school which was supplied regularly 
with boys of 12 years old, knowing as much as these boys knew, 
though it might not turn out just the type of scholar now sent 
forth from the foundations of Eton and Winchester, would not 



' Of three boys transferred from this school to the grammar school at the last 
competitive examination for entrance previous to my vigit, one had beei}. placed in 
the third, one in the fourth, and one in the fifth class of the English department. 
This means that the lowest of them was placed at least half-way up this department. 



106 



Birmingham Free School. 



EeUef of 
grammai' 
school to be 
obtained thus. 



Steps already 
taken in this 
direction. 



Latin now 
taught at one 
elementary 
school. 



Effect of this. 



fail to produce plenty of men of the sort who now get first classes 
at Oxford, and become wranglers at Cambridge. The elementary 
subjects being adequately mastered to begin with, little time would 
suffice for keeping them up, and the school might devote itself to 
the higher subjects without being open to the accusation that it 
turned out a great many bad clerks and accountants for the sake 
of turning out a very few good scholars. Such an accusation 
must inevitably have a certain amount of truth at present, for 
however careful the arrangements may be for teaching arithmetic 
and writing, these subjects are sure to flourish more (supposing 
the teacher to be competent) where, as in the "commercial 
" academies," they are taught almost alone, than where they are 
only the second or third thing in the master's, and hence in the 
scholar's, mind. 

As a step towards making this elementary school act as a 
regular feeder to the grammar school, the head master (who has 
the supervision of the elementary school) has had Latin introduced 
into the first class. He will probably seek for authority to do 
the same in the other elementary schools as opportunity offers. 
If the grammar school is to act as an avenue to the universities, 
it is very desirable that boys who enter it at about the age of 12 
should already know something of Latin. Whatever importance, 
therefore, might be attached to elementary " English " subjects 
in the entrance examination, Latin would naturally hold a con- 
siderable place in it. It follows that if boys from the elementary 
schools are to attain the front rank in this examination, and with 
it the privilege of free education, in open competition, some 
amount of Latin must be introduced into the first classes of these 
schools. In the Parade school it was being taught last autumn to 
about 30 boys, of whom, judging from the experience of last year, 
not more than a quarter could be expected to go on to the gram- 
mar school. It is taught to a great extent orally by the master, 
who applies very effectively to the Latin lesson the method which 
the boys have learnt to employ in the analysis of Enghsh 
sentences. It seemed that in this way the boys escaped the 
hopeless mystification as to the nominative and accusative cases, 
under which beginners in Latin generally labour. In virtue of 
the same method the master is able to shorten the time given to 
English grammar and analysis, and it is by this curtailment chiefly 
that time is found for the Latin. I understood that only one or 
two parents had objected to the introduction of the new subject, 
and the master finds that though the Latin lesson is apt to be less 
well learnt than others out of school, it is very popular in school. 

The question naturally arises whether this "modicum" of 
Latin can be taught to the first class in the elementary schools 
for the benefit of the small proportion of the boys who go on to 
the grammar school without injustice to the majority, and without 
gradually drawing into the elementary schools a higher class of 
boys than that which now uses them. As to the injustice, it 
must be admitted that it is no positive benefit to boys, who will 
forget them in six months, to learn the Latin declensions and 



Mr. Green's Report, 107 

conjugations. At tlie same time it must be remembered that, as 
it is, the Latin lesson is made to a great extent a general gram- 
mar lesson. Supposing the better boys to give two hours a week 
to Latin for a year under a master who would make it interesting, 
as a good trained master can, by the oral method, and turn the 
previous drill in English grammar to account, they might at 
least learn to unravel a simple Latin sentence, which would be a 
great step to begin with in the grammar school.* Now of these 
two hours, one at least may be taken as saved from the English 
grammar, which would have 'Otherwise to be taught during it. 
The remaining one hour a vreek is no great amount for the 
average boy to waste, if it be wasted, for the sake of opening the 
higher learning to his more capable brother. That a rather 
higher class should be drawn to the elementary schools than at 
present use them is, I think, desirable. The boys at the Parade 
school, as it is, are rather of a higher grade than those at the 
other three, owing, perhaps, to its situation in rather a better part 
of the town. Most of them are sons of small tradesmen or small 
manufacturers, (jewellers, for instance,") only a few of parents 
earning weekly wages. As this school is, or even a little higher, 
I should think all the elementary schools might with advantage 
become. They ought at least to occupy a position definitely Desirable as 
above the schools receiving Government aid. They ought to be tending to raise 
able to offer aspiring boys from these schools a definitely higher gchoolTaboTe^ 
education. Now these schools, as it is, are used largely by the the rank of 
smaller tradesmen. Several boys go from them to the grammar JJ'°5« ™'^«'" 
school, and I can recal the case of one of the most promising boys in °''^«™™«'' • 
the first class of the classical department, who stayed at a National 
school till he was 11. f At a school (under Government inspec- 
tion) connected with Mr. G. Dawson's congregation, the boys in 
the first class pay 9rf. cr Is. a week, and several of them learn 
Euclid, and read Telemaque in French. There is an interval, 
however, to be filled between such schools and the grammar school, 
the grammar school, i.e., as it ought to be, and the King Edward's 
elementary schools ought to fill it. Let them by all means 
receive as many sons of small tradesmen or mechanics as they can, 
but only on the understanding that they are to have an education 
distinctly above the level of a National school. 

A rise in the standard of education in the elementary schools More oatlay 
would involve a greater outlay on teaching power. As it is, I required on 
doubt whether they are adequately supplied in this respect. The sciiooL"^ 
staff in each boys' school consists of a master (at 150Z. a year), 
an assistant, at 45Z. a year, and a pupil-teacher. For teaching 
nearly 150 boys, considering the age and attainments of many of 
them, one additional hand at least is wanted. The master at the 

* At present, as -will be seen from the returns, three honrs a week are given to 
Latin, one and a half to English grammar, in the Parade (or Edward Street) school. 

I The case of this boy was remarkable, though not at all uncommon. He entered 
the grammar sehool at 11, and knowing no Latin was placed at the bottom of the 
classical department. His good preliminary training enabled him to rise so rapidly, 
that in four years he had traversed nine classes,, and ■was within about 15 of the top 
of the school. 

a. c. 3. K 



108- 



Birmngham Free School. 



Shoald fees be 
charged in 
them? 



or entrance to 
them be com- 
petitive ? 



Parade school told me that though he could conduct a class of 80 ■ 
boys in arithmetic, in other subjects 40 was as many as he could 
manage. I should think, from what I saw, that in such a lesson 
as English grammar, and still more in Latin, a greater subdivision' 
was desirable.' Again, the salary of the master, as no provision 
is made for his retirement, seems scarcely sufficient, especially if 
in time to come he is to be expected to teach Latin. ^ I know of 
one master of a school receiving Government aid in Birmingham, 
whose income is considerably la,rger. 45 Z. a year, as I was told 
by the master in the Parade, is not enough to attra;ct an assistant 
worth having. The only chance of filling the situation satisfacV 
torily is to retain an old pupil in it. On the whole, if the elemen- 
tary schools are to act as feeders to the grammar school, I should' 
say that an additional expenditure of 100?. or 150Z. a year on each: 
would be necessary.* ' 
' This suggests the question of the desirability of exacting fees 
from the scholars in these schools. At present any parent can 
gain admission for his child to them, as soon as there is room for 
him, without the payment of any fee. Among people very anxious 
to do away with simply gratuitous education at the grammar 
school, I found an impression that the time had not come for 
abolishing it at the elementary schools. I failed, however, to. 
arrive at any definite result on this point. The master of the 
Parade school thought that a small fee would not be objected to, 
but that 2Z. ayear would be the maximum. \l. a year would 
sufl&ce to cover the additional outlay suggested above. 

It has been proposed here again to apply the competitive systerii, 
sd that while a small fee should be paid as a rule, free admission 
should be given to the best boys from the schools in the. town 
under Government inspection. In this way a regular ascent' 
might be possible for the promising son of a mechanic from the 
^National or British school to the grammar school, and from it to 
the University. The chief objections which I heard to such a 
plan were, first, that though in exceptional cases a boy might be 
able to turn to account the opportunities of higher education thus 
afforded him, yet generally a double change of school, in a space 
perhaps of two or three years, would be bad for a boy ; secondly, 
that the character of the National or British schools would be 
lowered by the regular loss of their best boys as soon as they came 
to the front, and that thus an jnjury would be done to their 
masters. The injury would be greater if they were Dissenters, 
as they could not then hope to get masterships on King Edward's, 
foundation. It is of some significance that the master of one of 
the best of these schools, who made the last objection to me, added 
that if the change, which lowered the standard of his school, were 
part of a scheme which made free entrance to the grammar school 
a privilege to be gained by competition, he should at once abandon 
his school, and make a much larger income by preparing boys for 
the entrance examination. 



* This is irrespective of the department for girls. 



Mr. Green's Report. 109 

. Whether the above plan were carried- out or no, picked boys Proposed 
from the National and British schools might be sure of winning notbeexdusive 
their- fair share of free admissions to the grammar school in the of any class, 
ftipst unrestricted competition, if the line of examination already 
adopted is continued or extended. The apprehension that as the 
Standard of the school rises it will gradually be modified, so ais to 
be more like the examination for entrance to the foundations at 
Eton and Winchester, is, I think, unfounded. Any .head-master 
would see that a school, situate in a noisy street in the middle' of 
a smoky town, can never hope to draw largely on the '' genteel^' 
dasses. His chance of working it with distinction depeiids 
^peaking generally) on his success in getting the cream of the 
boys whose parents, as a class, want a mercantile' educaition for 
them, and in stimulating them to seek the " higher culture." To 
do this he must take, as his test of promise, proficiency in th^ 
recognized elements of a mercantile education. Of what may be 
e;xpected from the better National school-boys in an examination 
in" these elements, a sufficient sign is afforded by the results of the 
'■ BirminghaBi prize education scheme." The managers of this •'<'-,"• 

scheme offer special prizes to , boys educated in schools under 
Government inspection in the following subjects : arithmetic, 
ordinary and "mental," English history, geography, dictation, 
letter-writing, and English grammar. Now these are just the 
subjects which, with the addition of Latin, constitute for boys 
tmder 12 the programme of the competitive examination for 
priority of entrance instituted by the present head master. Under 
the prize scheme at the examination last preceding my visit to 
Birmingham, five boys under 12 got special prizes for ordinary 
arithmetic, six for mental arithmetic, three for geography, six for 
dictation, two for English history, one for letter-writing, one for 
grammar. Having seen the examination papers, I am convinced 
that these prize boys, even without the knowledge of Latin, of 
which they might probably learn a little in extra hours, would be 
quite sure of getting admission to the grammar school by compe- 
tition according to the present system, and that on any new 
system which gave 20 per cent, of the admissions free, making 
payment the rule, supposing the entrance examination to remain 
the same in principle, they would have a good chance of gaining 
their freedom. The real difficulty would be to tempt the parents 
of such boys to consent to the continuance of their education after 
they had learnt everything necessary for practical purposes, and 
had become available. for earning money. 

Enough has probably been said to show that with the existing Desirable to 
appliances for preliminary education, boys of the poorer "middle extend number 
class " might hold their own in any well-managed system of com- "5^00^*°**'^ 
petition for free entrance to the grammar school. The grammar 
school might make a wider -sweep of thei best boys of this class by 
increasing the number of its affiliated schools. The four that now 
exist are all, I think, within a radius of a mile from the Exchange, 
which is the practical centre of the town. The class of small 
shopkeepers is very strong in many of the suburbs, and three or 
four more elementary schools might be established in these, e.g., 

E 2 



1 10 Birmingham Fi-ee School. 

at Aston, on the Coventry and Moseley roads, or even at Smeth- 
wick, with great advantage, and perhaps with a prospect of 
drawing more hoys likely to go on to the grammar school than are 
attracted by those in the centre of the town. The wants of 
the middle class in these suburbs are very inadequately sup- 
plied by private schools. This is indicated by the success of 
the Bridge-trust school at Handsworth, which on being esta- 
blished in a region where there had only been one or two struggling 
private schools before, though it charges a fee of 4?. a year, at 
once drew 100 boys, and within a year rose to 150. 

Such suburban affihated schools would naturally tend to take 
a higher standard than the existing elementary schools. They 
would do so for two reasons ; firstly, because the suburbs are 
better provided with schools for the poor than the old parts of the 
town, which the rich have deserted ; secondly, because the shop- 
keepers, who reside in them, are on the whole a higher class. 
These schools would in fact be parallel, in respect of the boys 
who would attend them, to the existing commercial academies. 
Relation of the This brings me to the general question of the relation of the 
grammarschool grammar school to private schools. Here two facts deserve special 
schooir'^^*^ attention. (1.) The more educated class of parents using the 
grammar school, who naturally do not like (supposing them to be 
able) to send them to it very young, feel a want of adequate pre- 
paratory schools for them. There are several ladles, chiefly about 
Edgbaston, who keep schools for little boys, and the masters of 
the grammar school assured me that, with the exception of the 
boys from the King Edward's elementary schools, those prepared 
by these ladies were generally the best prepared. This, however, 
does not satisfy the want, for a boy outgrows a lady's school 
before a sensitive parent would think him old enough to be 
knocked about at the grammar school. (2.) The number of boys 
attending schools of any kind, public or private, professing to be 
of the "middle" kind, in Birmingham and its suburbs, seems 
much smaller than it ought to be. The population of the borough 
of Birmingham and the contiguous parishes was, I believe, in 1861 
365,742, having grown to this from 273,328 since 1851. Pro- 
bably It might fairly be reckoned at 400,000 in 1865. Now, so 
far as my experience has gone, even with the present low standard 
of middle education, 6 in 1,000 is a fair proportion to expect to 
be in attendance at middle schools. There ought, accordingly, to 
be 2,400 at such schools in the above district. I cannot, however, 
account for anything like the number. The grammar school, with 
its branches, will account for 1,000 ; the Edgbaston proprietary 
.school and the Bridge-trust school at Handsworth * for another 
300.^ With regard to the private schools, I could not succeed in 
•getting precise information, but I do not think they will account 
for more than another 400. This gives a total of 1,700 as against 
the expected 2,400.f 



» A good many of the hoys at Handsworth come from West Bromwich and other 
places outside the district -which I am considerins 
t See Note A. ®' 



Mr. GreerHs Report. Ill 

Two inferences, It would seem, may safely be drawn from these Bad effect on 
facts. The existing private schools, on the one hand, are not of a ihem at present, 
kind to suit parents whose requirements are at all high, and on 
the other they fail to get any sufficient hold of boys of the lower 
middle class. Here, then, is a gap for the grammar school, so far 
as its funds allow, to fill. It may naturally be objected that the 
demand, if a real one, will attract its own supply ; that the educa- 
tional want, if it is really felt, will be satisfied by private enter- 
prize. The answer to this is, firstly, that with people so ill 
educated as small tradesmen and manufacturers commonly are, 
the supply of education must precede and create the demand ; 
secondly, that at Birmingham the grammar schoolj as hitherto 
rnanaged, has tended to prevent the required supply being fur- 
nished by private enterprize. A private schoolmaster at Birming- 
ham has at present three principal difiiculties to contend with: 

(1) the competition of cheap boarding-schools in agreeable localities ; 

(2) the impossibility of making his terms high enough to do his 
work really well ; (3) the premature and irregular departure of 
his pupils. With the second and third of these difficulties the 
grammar school has a good deal to do. It is true that the terms 
of the private schools at Birmingham, varying from 4Z. to 6?. a 
year, are not lower than those which I found common elsewhere, 
but in the " midland metropolis " one would expect them to be 
higher than in country towns. At any rate one would expect to 
find certain private schools of a higher kind, such as that kept 
by Mr. Langley at Wolverhampton, charging 10/. or 121. a year 
for day-boys. I am not aware of any such school in Birmingham 
or in its suburbs, nor of private day-schools can I recall more than 
two that ever send in for University local examinations, and these 
two only send in at considerable intervals.* The simple explana- 
tion of this low standard is that a private school cannot hold up its 
head against the competition of a rich grammar school which is 
really in good repute, and gives its education for nothing. A 
father will neither pay much for his son's education, when he 
knows that his neighbours are paying nothing at all, nor, in a 
general way, will he keep him at the school where he has to pay, 
after he gets a chance of sending him where he will not. Hence 
the complaint heard everywhere from private schoolmasters, that 
they lose their boys as soon as they begin to make something of 
them, is heard with special frequency at Birmingham. 

No one would complain, on general grounds, of boys being I* niiglit insen- 
transferred from the private schools to the grammar schools. On ^^^ '*** 
the contrary, it is the best thing that can happen to them. The 
evil is, that so long as the transfer is made in the present irregular 
and unrecognized manner, it lowers the private school without 
bringing any countervailing credit to it or benefit to the grammar 
school. If, on the other hand, the transfer were only made as the 
result of a public examination, held at regular intervals which 
should exclude all but those who know as much as a well-taught 

* See Appendix on Private schools at Birmingham. 



112 Eirminrihain Free Sch'ool. 

, ^ , . boy; of 11 or 12. years old ought to know, and should gain for those 
, \ \yho excel in it free education as an exceptional privilege, then, 

instead of being injurious to the private schools, it would offer them 
a definite distinction to aim at. It was not to all the private 
schoolmasters that I could bring the possibility of such an altered 
system sufficiently home, to ascertain how far they would acquiesce 
in it. It has already been introduced imperfectly by the com- 
petitive examination for priority of entrance, and I found one 
school for small boys — very good of its kind — at Sutton- Cold- 
field, of ■vyhich the master was distinctly laying himself out to 
prejp.are for this examination. Others were evidently disposed, tp 
do the same as soon. as the examination should have attained a 
certain amount of recognized dignity. Others, again, spoke with 
contempt of the commercial education afforded by the grammar 
school— a contempt, as I generally found, applicable to a past 
condition, of the English department — aijd considered that undey 
any system they would maintain a rivalry with it. Some of these 
■\Y0uld probably find it more for their interest, if the system above 
indicated were carried out, to acquiesce in the position of prepaci- 
tory schools. Others would, no doubt, still have an independent 
work to do, especially in the discipline of dull, idle, or backward 
boys, and these would have reason to be thankful for a change 
which, by preventing the education of such boys for nothing at 
the grammar school, would raise the price of it in the private 
school. 
Any need of •■:; '^^^ change in the character of the private schools, which might 
preparatory thus be expected to follow from the proposed change in the mode 
schools distinct pf entrance to the grammar school, would go far to supply the 
lary ones ? want of good preparatory schools now felt by the more educated 
class. Tliis is to be borne in , mind in considering schemes, th^ 
have been suggested for the establishment of a preparatory school 
out of the funds of the grammar school. These schemes may 
virtually be reduced to two, one for establishing a separate j pre- 
paratory department in the same situation as the present, school; 
another for establishing several smaller preparatory schools in the 
suburbs. The first of these is favoured by the head master, though 
I do not know that he would be opposed to the other. He her 
lieves that it would be possible, by building at one end of the 
present play-ground, to accommodate 500 more boys, at a cost of 
about 6,000/, He believes that a large increase in the numberspf 
- - ■ the school is desirable, with a view to creating a more effective 

competition towards the top. The governors have also had a plan 
under consideration for building on the present site with the same 
object, but at a much larger cost. With regard to any such 
scheme it is to be considered whether it is desirable (1) to burd^ 
the head master with the supervision of more boys than he alrefidy 
has under him ; and (2) to bring the little boys into the middle of 
the town. _ On the first point the present head master will forgive 
.me for saying that, great as his energy is, he has already quite as 
much on his hands, in the way of general management, as is 
consistent with the retention of the freshness necessary for the 



. Mr. Green's Report. 113 

leffective teaching of the first class. On the second, it must be •■,: 

remembered that most of the boys for whom such a school would ■: ' 

be wantedj supposing the elementary schools to do their work 
properly, are of the class that resides in the suburbs. The little 
boys would, many of them, be unable to go home between morn- 
ing and afternoon schools, and would, in consequence, have to 
iaog about the streets and get dinner at cook-shops. - ■ 

1 As to the establishment of a special preparatory school (ot This need would 
schools) in the suburbs, my own notion would be that the estal- mettypmate 
-blishment of suburban schools, on the plan of the present elementary enterprise, 
ones, ougbt to take precedence of it. The latter would supply a 
want not likely otherwise to be supplied, while the work of the 
preparatory school, as soon as admission to the grammar school 
was made something of a distinction, would, I should expect, be 
largely done by private establishments, which would find their 
account in doing it well. It was suggested to me by a private 
schoolmaster that- the grammar school might, with- ad vantage, sub- 
sidize private schools that should be found to act effectively as 
preparatory to it. The suggestion was significant in several 
ways ; but such schools, I think, if they did their work well, sup- 
posing the gratuitous system at the grammar school to be abolished, 
would find themselves suflSciently subsidized by parents. If the 
governors determined to establish a suburban preparatory school, 
their unoccupied land at Lady- wood would give them an excellent 
site. 

One other suggestion with regard to the admission of scholars Three stan- 
remains to be noticed. In an appendix to the report of the local dards of admis- 
" School-reform Association " it is proposed that there should be 
-two standards of admission, one for boys between 10 and 12, 
another for boys over 12. A distinction of the same sort is made 
in the head master's programme for the competitive entrance- 
examination. It has been thought by some that it might be 
'desirable to have a third entrance-examination for boys above M 
or 15, and that some of those who excelled in it should be admitted 
free, though residing beyond the limits of the coUtigUous parishes, 
f within a radiua (say) of 10 miles. The object of this would be Why? 
to constitute a sort of affiliation of the neighbouring grammar 
schools at Solihull, Sutton-Coldfield, Yardley (Hall-Grreen), and 
Walsall,. and of the Bridge- Trust school at Handsworth, to the 
Birmingham grammar school. None of these schools have exhi- 
bitions, except an insignificant one at "Walsall, and they hafdly 
ever keep a boy beyond 16. They are thus scarcely able to give' " 
any one disposed to stay longer an effective education for the Uni- 
versity* The Birmingham grammar school, which is quite avail- 
able as a day-school, by use of the railway, for a resident at any 
of tbese places, might add the requisite supplement and furnish a 
passage to the Universities. For this purpose, however, a change 
would have to be made in the local restriction on eligibility to ex- 
hibitions imposed by the scheme of 1831. 

According to this, a candidate for an exhibition, resident in the Change of local 
parisjiy'is, if qualified, to have a preference. The qnaUficntion is regSd'toe^- 



114 



Birmingham Free School. 



Wtions neces- 
sary. 



General result 
of proposed 
changes. 



understood to be fitness to pass his examinations at the IJniversitj 
As has been already stated, the parish is not conterniinous with 
the borough. According to the census of '61 it contains 212,621 
inhabitants, as against 296,076 in the borough. Another 64,000 
may be added for the population of the adjacent parishes, entitled 
to send boys freely to the grammar school. The whole number 
of boys in the school, therefore, should be to those having a pre- 
ferential title to exhibitions as about 5 to 3. Really, owing to 
the gravitation of the respectable classes away from the centre of 
the town, the proportion is a good deal larger. At the examina- 
tion last Midsummer of five candidates for exhibitions, only one 
was resident in the parish. He was decidedly the worst of the 
lot, but being qualified was necessarily elected. 

Among distinguished ^fay-scholars, genuine Birmingham boya, 
whom the present rule has excluded from exhibitions, may be 
mentioned the present Professor Lightfoot, of Cambridge, and 
Mr. Humphrys, who has just got one of the Chancellor's medals 
at Cambridge. A few years ago the son of a widow at Hands- 
worth, in order to qualify himself for an exhibition, took a lodging 
at considerable expense and inconvenience within the parish, at 
which he used to sleep. The governors have since made an ordi- 
nance requiring three years bona fide residence of the parents 
within the parish, in order to constitute a qualification. 

The removal of this restriction in favour of the parish is uni- 
versally desired ; but in order to give efifect to the plan mentioned 
above, it would be necessary to deal further with the secondary 
preference of inhabitants of contiguous parishes, and substitute 
for it a preference of residents within ten miles. Such a change 
might provoke some opposition, which, however, might be pro- 
pitiated by the foundation, when the school funds allow it, of an 
additional exhibition. The proposed affiliation would be sure to 
draw good material to the school, and is the more natural, as all 
the grammar schools mentioned, except that at Walsall, are in 
places which are, or are becoming, respectable suburbs of Bir- 
mingham. I have before my mind one boy in particular at Sutton- 
Coldfield, whom his father told me he should certainly send to 
Birmingham if he were eligible for an exhibition, and who, accord- 
ing to his present promise, is likely to gain distinction at the 
University. At Handsworth I heard of another case of the same 
kind, but had not an opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
the boy in question. 

The general effect of the scheme above delineated, which in its 
main features, even when I have not so presented it, expresses the 
opinions of people of importance in connexion either with the 
town or with the school, would be to make the present grammar 
school a central high school, having affiliated branches. Supposing 
it to be carried out, a parent proposing to send a son to the 
grammar school, would be situated as follows. He would in the 
first place be relieved from all the annoyance of seeking for a nomi- 
nation, and from the uncertainty as to when it would be obtained. 
He would know that at a certain time, without asking any one's 



Mr. GreerHs Report. 115 

favour, he would have to present his son for examination, for which 
the elementary schools, perhaps at a trifling fee, if he chose to 
avail himself of them, would furnish an adequate preparation. 
If the son found himself among the first quarter, or so, at the 
examination, ho would be admitted free. If he failed to reach this 
position, but still passed, his father would have to consider whether 
he should enter the grammar school at a fee, or take another year 
or two of education at the elementary school, so as perfectly to fit 
himself for a merchant's or manufacturer's office. Supposing him 
not to succeed in passing, and to be too old to try again, this would 
of itself be an indication that he was the sort of boy for whom 
continued education at the elementary schools, or (if he were in a 
better social position) at a private academy, would be more suitable 
than an effiart after classical or scientific accomplishment at the 
grammar school. 

After using my best endeavours, I was unable to hear of any They would not 
cases in which such an arrangement would act as a real hardship, involve hard- 
There are, it is true, at Birmingham, over and above the class ^ 'P*"^"^""®" 
of small shopkeepers to be found everywhere, a large number of 
people who might be reckoned either among the " working " or the 
" middle " class, according to the definition taken of each class.* 
According to the Government " Reform Statistics," they would be 
reckoned " workmen," for they work with their own hands, having 
commonly an apprentice and a journeyman or two under them. 
Many of these people who now send sons to the English depart- 
ment of the grammar school would probably be prevented from 
doing so by any considerable fee. I recall the case of a young 
man, for some time head of the English department, and who had 
clearly derived a good deal of real culture from it ; whose father, 
a brass founder in a small way, sent another son to a school where 
he only paid about a shilling a week. This may be taken to 
represent the father's natural standard of payment. A higher fee, 
charged at the grammar school, would have prevented him from 
sending his son to it, which would undoubtedly have been a very 
great loss. It is noticeable, however, that the son whom he did 
send had been previously educated at one of the elementary 
schools, to which he chiefly ascribes his success at the grammar 
school, and would have been quite sure to win his freedom in a 
competitive examination on the system indicated above. If he 
had not had the ability to do so, it would have been no hardship) to 
him to continue at the elementary school. On the whole I found 
that although my suggestion of the propriety of paying fees, in 
conversation with late pupils of the school, was generally met at 
first by the objection that it would exclude a great number, yet it 
afterwards appeared that those among the number whose exclusion 
would be undesirable, would be sure to obtain free admission by 
competition, and that the rest, being of the class called by their 

* These people work chiefly as hrass founders or "jewellers." Statistics with 
regard to them will be found in a paper on the trades of Birmingham, read at the 
last meeting of the British Association, and published in the association's report. 



116 



Birminrjlunn Free School. 



What should be 
the amount of 
the fee ? 



Fee should be 
the same for 
both depart- 
ments. 



schoolfellows "roughs," would be better at the (improved and 
extended) elementary schools. The other objection which I heard 
from, the sarae quarter, that if freedom were exceptional free boys 
would be despised, though it would be valid if the freedom were 
eleemosynary, would not apply if the freedom were made the 
reward of intellectual merit. To admit it would be to contradict 
all the experience derived from similar systems elsewhere. 

As to ihe proper amount of the fee, i venture to think that the 
" School-reform Association," was idisposed to place it too high. 
They propose to fix it at half the cost of education of each boy. 
By reckoning under the cost of education the money spent on 
payment of exhibitioners, the management of the estate, secretary^ 
salary, &c., they: make this cost about 2<dl. a year. The fee 
accordingly would be 10?. a year. They are in favour, moreover, 
of making the fee for the English department loss than that foj: 
the classical, on the principle that education in it costs less. 

A fee of lOZ. a year would, I think, effect a much larger 
exclusion than is desirable. There is no private school in the town, 
so far as I know, which at present charges more than 6Z., and the 
case of the Edgbaston school is not in point. It has no endow- 
ment, is situate in a genteel suburb, and is meant to be more select 
than the grammar school, if it is to be in any large measure fed 
by the elementary schools, can ever hope to be. The selectness 
of the grammar school ought to be of a different kind, a select- 
ness secured not solely by the fee, but also by the standard of the 
entrance examination, which from its relation to its own elementary 
schools it has peculiar facilities for keeping up. I should think 
the fee commonly charged by the private schools, i.e. from 4?. to 
6/. a year, would for the present be enough. 4Z. a year is the fee 
at the Bridge-trust school at Handsworth, which succeeds 
admirably. %l. a year on each boy would in fact cover nearly half 
the sum spent on actual teaching power at the grammar school.. 

The head master objects to the plan of making ■ a difference 
between the fees payable in the classical and English departments 
as tending to lower the position of the latter. At present, so far 
as I could make out from boys who had lately left, there is a 
certain amount of caste separation between the boys of the two 
departments which a difference of payment would tend to fix and 
perpetuate. It would also tend to commit the governors to the 
maintenance of the present division into departments, which as I 
shall afterwards point out, is or may become of questionable 
utility, nor is the doctrine that the fee should be proportionate to 
the cost of education one which it is desirable to press. According 
to strict economical principles it ought doubtless to be soj but 
educational endowments are inconsistent with strict economical 
principles altogether. They in fact act as bribes to parents to seek 
a higher education for their children than they otherwise would, 
nor, m a place where the temptation to put boys to business 
early, and the aversion to the "higher culture " as impractical, are 

•ong, can this bribery be better bestowed than in inducing parents 

prefer the " classical " to the « English " education for their sons 



stroni 
to 



; Mr. Gveen.s>~Rfi1('rU 117 

by offering them the more costly educ^lional article S,t, the same 
price as the less.: ; , 

; ;0f the. money gained by the exaction of fees, the greater part Future disposal 
might with advantage be spent within the grammar school on °f income, 
increasing the number and pay of the hiasters, on founding scholar- ; . 

ships tenable sit thet school^ and perhaps on . founding new, or 
increasing the yalue of the present, exhibitions. Whatever arises 
;fr©m the natural increase in the value of the school property may 
then be -Bp^nt oa the extension of the elementary schools. This 
increase will in all probability be rapid and large, It will depend 
.partly on the letting for building purposes of the, vacant land 
beldnging to the school at Ladywood.. The letting of this can only 
be a question of a few yearsj Within 10 years the annual income 
,^,f the school, which is already 13,000/., may fairly be expected to 
have reached 20,000Z., with a prospect of continuous increase after- 
wards, as leases fall in. The cost of the improvement in the 
.existing elementary schools, which I have spoken of as desirable, 
.might be covered by the exaction of a yearly fee of 1/. from each, 
pupil. This being off their hands, I, do not see why the governors 
should not at once set about building four additional elementary 
schools. The yearly cost of the existing four for girls as well as 
;boys is, I believe, about 2,800Z. , By the time the new ones were 
builti the governors might expect, I should think, to have this 
additional amount of yearly income at command. If not, they 
might begin with admitting boys only, though (as I shall explain 
elsewhere) -it- would be most desirable, as soon as possible, to 
:supply additional accommodation for girls. On all points connect^ 
with finance, however, I speak with special deference to the 
judgment of the governors. 

In concluding what I have to say on this part of my subject, I 
will observe once again tha,t the changes in the existing, system , j_ 

which I have suggested, and which in substance would, I believe 
be acceptable to many or most of the governors, can only be 
carried, out as a whole by a new scheme, and that to carry such, a 
scheme through Parliament will scarcely be possible without some 
concession to the town as to the i constitution of the governing 
board. As the governors, I am convinced, have a single eye to the 
welfare of the school, I should not be surprised to hear that some 
such concession was under consideration by them. 

(B.) In regard to the internal working of the school, the first Dmsioninto 
thing to notice is the division into two departments, the " classical " departments, 
and the " English," in which the curriculum of instruction is wholly 
different, and which are not taught together on any single subject. 
The Act of 1831 provided for the building of two new schools, one 
to be classical, the other to teach " the modern .languages, arts, 
and sciences." These were to . be in different situations. The Its origin, 
former was to be built on the old grammar school site, the latter 
in Peck Lane. The classical school — the existing structure — was 
built first, and was so costly that when it was finished there was no 
;nioney to build a commercial school on a different site ; accordingly, 
;in virtue of an Act of 18.37, it was arranged that the commercial 



1 1 8 Blrmingliam Free School. 

school should be held in the same building as the other. ^ The room 
originally intended for a library was devoted to it, and in this, ever 
since its establishment in the following year (1838), it has continued 
to be held. 
And history. J'or some time the English department continued to hold quite a 

secondary position. According to the scheme of 1838, a master 
was appointed to teach it at a salary of 250Z. a year, to whom an 
assistant was assigned. For some time these two masters had the 
sole teaching of it. Its position gradually improved, but no con- 
siderable change was made till 1860, when by an ordinance of the 
governors it was arranged that the second-master of the school, who 
had formerly been engaged in the classical department, and whose 
income is over 5507. a year, in addition to a house and liberty to 
take 12 boarders, should have the management of the English 
department. The second-master who first undertook this charge 
wa& Mr. Neville Hutchinson, now teacher of chemistry at Rugby, 
and under him, according to all accounts, this department made a 
great start. Now, except so far as the instructions of the head 
master are given solely to the classical school, the two are nearly 
on a level in respect of teaching power. Of 10 ordinary under 
masters, six work under the head master in the classical, four 
under the second master in the English school. Of the work of one 
German, two French, four arithmetic and writing masters, the 
English school gets its full share. The mathematical master now 
confines himself to the classical school. The number of boys in 
the two schools is about equal, but nominations for the English 
department are in by far the larger request. The proportion 
between applications for them and applications for admission to 
the classical department was stated by some of the governors to 
be as two to one, by others to be as four to one. 
Functions of Of the several functions of these two departments, the best 
each. generalnotion may be given by saying that on the whole the classical 

department has set itself to teach classics, with a supplement 
of mathematics, and little else ; that the English department sets 
itself to give a boy a clerk's education, with the addition of some 
knowledge of Latin, and (supposing him to complete the 
course) of English literature and history, French and German, 
mathematics and chemistry. A boy of ability, who went througii 
the classical school, would be as thoroughly qualified, except in 
mathematics, for Oxford or Cambridge as school could make him. 
One who stayed in the English department till 16, and spent the 
last two years in the first class, would probably have learnt enough 
Latin to make out 30 or 40 lines of Virgil in an hour, would have 
gone some way in trigonometry, would havegot up four or five plays 
of Shakspeare well, would know the outline of English history, 
and enough French or German (not generally bothf to read an 
ordinary book or write an ordinary letter, would have had a good deal 
of practice in writing English, and have learnt enough cliemistry 
at least to be very much interested in the subject. As preliminary 
to this, it would have been his own fault if he had not learnt all 
that a clerk needs to learn, except book-keeping, thouo-h very 



.Mr. Greenes Report. 119 

likely during his last two years at school he would have lost some 
of his readiness at accounts and spoilt his handwriting. It must 
be remembered, moreover, that the above account only applies to 
just the cream of the boys, and that in respect of the English 
sclioblit represents a state of things that has obtained only during 
the last three or four years, and has scarcely yet found its way 
into popular appreciation in the town. 

Between the classes of boys severally using the two departments Kind of boys 
It is difficult to draw a more definite distinction than that the '^sing each, 
classical boys are on the whole more " genteel." The more 
wealthy merchants and manufacturers, those, at least, whose wealth 
is of longer standing, generally send their sons to boarding schools. 
If they sent them to a day school, it would be most likely to the 
Edgbaston proprietary school, especially in case they were Dissen- 
ters. The professional men of the town, on the other hand, generally 
make use of the grammar school. The medical men, from the 
nature • of their calling, are still unlikely to withdraw to the 
suburbs, and I was told by one who ought to know that probably 
four-fifths of them had themselves been educated at the grammar 
sehool. These naturally send their sons to it. The clergy and 
dissenting ministers, and to a considerable extent the solicitors, do 
the same. The professional class, then, may be reckoned tlie first 
element in the constituency of the classical school. I do not 
suppose that any one belonging to it ever sent a son to the other 
department.* Any one, again, who had been much in contact 
with educated people, or who believed his son to have what is 
called '• a turn for books," would prefer the classical department. 
Others, again, would select it from a vague notion of its being 
higher in social estimation ; otliers, lastly, would accept a nomina- 
tion to it, simply because it can more quickly be obtained. Any 
one who distinctly meant to put his son to some business at or 
before the age of 16, would naturally send him to the English 
school, though he might take the other as an alternative. As a 
matter of fact many boys do leave the classical department for 
business under 16, as will be seen from the returns. 

The distinction of departments, then, does not correspond to 
that between the " classical " and " modern " departments at such 
schools as Cheltenham or Marlborough, where the " modern " 
prepares specially for Woolwich, or the civil service, or civil en- 
gineering. It represents a distinction of social circumstances as 
much as or more than a distinction of educational objects. The 
course of education in the classical department is determined ex- 
clusively with reference to the old Universities, yet not more than 
about four boys a year, excluding boarders, go from it to these 
Universities. From the English school, again, almost all the boys 



* Of 10 day boys in the first class last summer, four were sons of professional 
men. In the third were nine sons of professional men, nine sons of men in various 
kinds of business, the rest being sons of widows or boarders. One of the masters of 
the fourth and fifth classes (there are two parallel fourths and fifths) told me that of 
about 25 boys under him seyep or eight were sons of- medical men. 



120 Birmingham Free School, 

become clerks in offices of various kinds, but the course of study 
in the upper classes of this department gives no special qualifica- 
tion for such clerkships. A boy from the third or fourth class— as 
I learnt from late pupils of the school, whb, after gaining some 
real culture, were toiling at desks — would be quite as well fitted 
for them as one from the first. The state of the case may be put 
in short thus : — The education necessary for commercial life, the' 
school, in its English department, now adequately gives — gives, 
[{■ however,' in its lower classes, and no better than it is given at one' 

of the elementary schools or at a good National schooL It also 
gives an education which qualifies, if pursued, for the highest dis- 
tinctions at Oxford and Cambridge. The eduCationj however, 
given in the higher classes of the English school, and to all those 
in the classical school,, except the few'who go to Oxford or Cain- 
bridge, is one having no special reference to any office or distinc- 
tion to be obtained after the education itself is over. I do not 
say this in condemnation' of the school. It is not that the boys, 
in large numbers, want a particular kind of education for their 
after life, which the school refuses to give, but that the educatioa 
necessary for this purpose is too scanty to fill the course of a 
school whose standard is decently high. 

On this part of the subject the questions which it seems impor- 
tant to answer are the following: — (1.) Does the school give the 
education which it professes to give for practical purposes as effec- 
tively as it might ? (2.) Does it do all that might be done to 
supplement this education by general culture? (3.) Are there 
any lines of life the education for which is in any demand, and is 
not supplied by the school ? (4.) Could more be done than is 
done by the school to tempt its pupils to reach a higher calling— | 
one, at least, which requires a more learned education — than that 
to which circumstances naturally lead them ? 
Defects of prac- (1.) On the first of these questions, there has no doubt been a 
tical education, general notion in the town that boys from the grammar school 
have not been well trained as clerks. They have had the reputa- 
Eeasons. tion of writing badly, and being bad accountants. These are the 

points on which I generally found that the private schoolmasters 
of the town believed themselves able to do more for an average 
boy than the grammar school did. The merchants, however, are 
very ready to take boys from the grammar school as clerks, and I 
believe that the complaints made against it refer properly to a 
past period, when the masters in the English department were not 
numerous enough for their work, and before certain changes intro- 
duced by the present head master had taken effect. The most 
Formerly important of these concern the teaching of arithmetic. In the 
inadequate pro- early days of the English school, very poor provisio.n was made 
Irithmetio. ^^^ *^^^* '^^^ '^^^^^ present arithmetical master told me that when 
he first came he had to teach -arithmetic unaided to all the boys 
of the English school, 210 in number. There was then only one 
black board in the school. After additional arithmetical teachers 
had come to be employed, there still continued to be no distinct 
arithmetical classification, and the ordinary masters took no part 



3Ir. Green's Report. 121 

in teaching it. As a boy's place in the school depended chiefly 
on his merit in other subjects than arithmetic, it would constantly 
l^appen that "the same arithmetical work was being done by boys 
utterljoftifferent in arithmetical knowledge, to the great discourage- 
ment 'and hindrance of those who were advanced in it. A boy 
from the 'elementary schools, transferred to the grammar school, 
would at that time rather lose ground than otherwise in arithmetic, 
as one or two such boys 'told me had been the case with them- 
selves. At present the separate classification for arithmetic in the 
English school is nearly, though not quite, complete. The boys 
in the two upper classes' form one group, which is rearranged on al 
mathematical basis three mornings a week. The classes below 
the' second form another group, which is rearranged on an arith- 
metical basis three afternoons and one morning during the 
week (six hours a week in all). The best 20 of this group form a 
class by themselves. They belong commonly, I was told, to the 
lower classes in general work, being often boys froiii the elemen- 
tary schools. Below this 20 the arithmetical classes are rather 
larger, but still do not contain more than 30 each.' The ordinary 
masters being now employed to teach arithmetic in addition to the 
special arithmetical masters, they are smaller than the classes for 
general work.* Special examinations in arithmetic are now held 
throughout the school at stated intervals during the half year, and 
special prizes are given for it. 

According to the above arrangement, it can scarcely be said 
that arithmetic is neglected in the English school, and the teachers 
are admitted on all hands to be very efficient. At the examina- 
tion last Midsummer, my coUeague, who attended to that depart- 
ment, pronounced the arithmetic to be on the whole quite satis- 
factory. To this braiich of education, however, as to others, the 
outward arrangements of the English school cannot but be preju- 
dicial. This school is taught altogether in one large room, which 
is very noisy (as it faces New Street, the busiest thoroughfare of 
the town), and decidedly over-crowded. To accommodate more 
scholars, a gallery has been erected at each end of the room, and 
in each gallery about 50 boys are taught. Under one of the gal- 
leries is a class-room, separated by glass doors from the body of 
the school-room. 

Masters and pupils are unanimous in describing the noise of NoiseinEnglish 
this room as most distressing. The junior classes in the galleries school, 
suffer the most. In each gallery is one master, having to teach 
in one case 50, in the other 57 boys. This is a considerable 
number for one man in any case, and the difficulty is increased by 
the boys under each master being divided into two classes, one of 
which learns a lesson or writes something while the other is being 



* The result of the above management is, that if a boy is carried by his general 
work into the. second class he has to give more time to mathematics than to arith- 
metic, though his knowledge of the latter may be far from complete. Instances of 
this kind are not uncommon, and so fer the arithmetical classification is not yet 
perfect. 



122 Birmingham Free School. 

heard. The arrangements do not allow of the master properly 
overlooking one class while he hears the other. He is troubled 
at once with the buzz of the learning class on one side of him, 
with the murmur ascending from the classes below, and with the 
roar of wheels in the street.* He is at the same time breathing 
the atmosphere natural to the upper regions of a crowded and ill- 
ventilated (though lofty) room. The teachers and boys on the 
floor do not suffer quite so much, but still considerably, As there 
is not room for all the boys under one master to write at once, 
the master (who always has, nominally or virtually, two classes,) 
has one part of his boys standing round his desk to say a lesson 
while the rest are learning or writing. Over the latter he cannot 
maintain a proper supervision, and, as they sit writing at double 
desks, so as to face each other, they are very apt to keep up a 
game involving more or less noise all the time. Each master, 
again, in turn, except the lowest, carries off one of his classes to 
the sepai'ate class room,| and meantime his other class is left in the 
large room, with no one to keep it in order but the second master 
(master of the English school), who is responsible for the general 
order of the room, but is all the while teaching or looking over 
exercises himself. 

The result, even under good management, is an amount of sus- 
tained noise, increased by a strong echo in the room, which makes 
a stranger wonder that any teaching can go on at all. After long 
habituation to it, the late second master told me that teaching in 
the English school cost double the labour that it would in a quiet 
room, and produced only half the effect. The late pupils of the 
school speak to the same purpose. One of them, who^e experience 
was of a period six or seven years ago, told me that towards dusk 
on an autumn or winter afternoon , the English school " became a 
" mere bear-garden." The discipline has probably been more 
effective lately, but those who had left the top of the English 
school within the last year or two all agreed in saying that during 
a lesson round the master's desk in the great school, especially if 
the lesson was in mathematics or a modern language, the noise 
was very distressing, and that they got twice as much good from 
a lesson in the separate class room. 
Preliminary It is very likely that sometimes a dull or idle boy, knowing hardly 

Ignorance. anything to begin with (which is the case with many who enter 
the grammar school), amid this noise and distraction may remain 
virtually untaught in the elements, however good the teaching 
may be, and that such an one, on his removal to a well-manao-ed 
private school, just when he is beginning to be ashamed of his 
ignorance, may, with the more direct personal attention which he 
there receives, improve rapidly in elementary knowledge. It is- 
very likely, also, that such a boy might learn spelling" writing. 



* I found myself that, as I stood by tHe master's side in one of these galleries, I 
conld not hear half of -what the boys said, though his more practised ear seemed able 
to do so. As the boys stand round him in three sides of a quadrangle it must be 
very difficult ior those on one side to hear -what is said by those on the other 

•f Each master has the use of this for about 1^ hoiu-s a day 



Mr. Green's Report. 123 

and arithmetic more effectively where virtually little else is 
attended to, than where, as in the grammar school, they are the 
accompaniments of Latin and other subjects. This is ])robably 
the true account of the cases often mentioned to me (without 
details) by private schoolmasters, of boys who have come to them 
from the Ens;lish department of the grammar school, ignorant of 
the elements, and under their care quickly acquire them. 

The remedy for such cases of elementary ignorance (which Remeiiies. 
already, I think, belong rather to the past than the present) is to 
be found, as I have previously stated, rather in the improvement 
of preliminary education through King Edward's elementary 
schools or otherwise, than within the grammar school itself. A 
boy from the first class of the elementary schools, as I have go^l 
evidence for saying, would be able to do accounts or write a busi- 
ness letter sufiiciently for practical purposes before entering the 
grammar school. When in it he would only require to keep up 
what he already knew. The elementary part, however, of the 
education in the English department of the grammar school 
would improve like all other branches with the improvement of the 
accommodation for teaching. More room is imperatively required. 
The boys now taught on the floor might, perhaps, with an addi- 
tional class-room be adequately provided for, but the gallery 
classes ought to be removed altogether. Such removal, I should 
think, was required on sanitary, if on no other grounds. One 
additional master also is certainly wanted for the lower part of 
the English school. 

So much for the English department. Many of the complaints. Boys in the 
however, which may be heard in Birmingham as to the neglect of <='assical de- 
practical education in the grammar school refer really to the case should rather 
of boys who have been placed in the classical department, and be in the 
then removed for business at or under the age of 16. That such ^"S'^^'*- 
boy» should not be found well qualified for their work is very 
natural. Distraction through noise and overcrowding cannot 
indeed be now com])lained of in the classical school. The room 
in which it is taught is considerably larger than the other, and, 
unlike it, was originally meant for a schoolroom. It lies also 
away from the street. But though it only had to accommodate 
as many boys as the other school, it was found inconveniently full, 
till on Mr. Hutchinson's resignation of the ofiice of second master, 
some rooms in his house, which is part of the school building, 
were converted at the instance of the head-master into class-rooms. 
This made it possible to withdraw four classes altogether from 
the great schoolroom, which cannot now be said to be either too 
full or noisy. If the classical school now fails to give a clerk's 
education adequately, it is because its object is different. It has 
as yet no separate classification for arithmetic, and marks for this 
subject have not much influence as compared with those for Latin System of the 
and Greek on the promotion from class to class. In the six lower ^'^'^f^ purely 
classes about three hours a week are given to it. The teachers 
are able, and the classes are small, but a boy not well trained in 
it to begin with would be very likely not to learn it well, simply 
a. c. S. L 



124 



Birmingham Free School. 



Hence little 
general culti- 
vation of in- 
ferior boys. 



from, finding it treated as quite a secondary subject. Supposing 
him to leave for business at 15 or 16, when he has reached the 
fourth or fifth class (and this is a very common case), he will pror 
bably for the two previous years have attended to hardly anythiijg 
but Latin and Greek, and if he learnt a "good roiind hand", in 
the lower classes, will have lost it for a scribble with writing 
exercises in the higher. He will, in fact, be much less fitted for 
a clerk than a boy from the elementary schools. What is wrong 
here, however, is not the teaching of the classical school, except 
in so far as it fails through want of a separate arithmetical classi- 
fication, but the arrangement through which , the boy was placed 
in the, classical school at all. This points to a fault in the relgr 
tion between the two departments, which will be considered more 
fully afterwards. 

(2.) On the second of the questions mentioned above^-Does 
the grammar school do all that might be done to supplement the 
practical elementary education by general culture ? — what has 
just been said of the classical department has an important bearing. 
It would certainly seem that a boy who does not rise above the 
fourth or fifth class in the classical school, and leaves it at 16, 
gets very little " general culture " indeed. Setting aside the 
amount of arithmetic specified above, and a little Euclid which he 
only, learns when he reaches the fifth class, he will have learnt 
scarcely anything but the elements of Latin and Greek. Of 
geography he will have learnt something in the lower classes, buj 
as it is dropped in the higher he will probably have forgotten, ifc 
Of history, unless he has had some special interest in it, he will 
have learnt next to nothing. One hour a week is given to history 
(ancient) in the fourth and fifth classes, and not so much as this 
regularly in the third. It is not, I think, generally taught witH 
much spirit, and no regular cycle of periods is arranged. A boy, 
who has read one period of history in one class, reads, the same, 
perhaps in a difierent manual, on his promotion to the next 
French, now that means are provided for teaching it in a separate 
class-room, (a provision universally admitted to be most bene- 
ficent,) he will have had the opportunity of learning well, but as 
attention to it will have had very little comparative influence on 
his promotion in the school, the chances are that he will have 
neglected it. Latin and Greek, in short, have been supreme in 
his education, and he has learnt enough of them to make out 
Cassar and Xenophon with difficulty. Within a couple of years, 
probably, of his beginning commercial life he will remember a 
few examples from the Latin and Greek grammar, and nothing 
more. 

This exclusive attention to classics is felt as an evil by parents 
who have sent their sons to the classical department, not from 
chance or from a notion that it is the more distinguished, but from 
a distinct desire that they should obtain some amount of classical 
knowledge. In the case of boys who rise Ivigher and stav loncfir 
than the one I have supposed, though the evil may be less, as tije 
amount of classical knowledge gained is greater, still, unless, they 



Mr. Green's Report. 125 

are ititcnded foB Cambridge', the want of all supplementary culti- 
vation i^ to be lam'ented. Among the discontented parents^ 
however, though' there wafe a desire for more history, more modem 
languages, more physical sciemje, as the case might be, I did not 
find any desire for an essential curtailment of the classical studies. 
The qiiestioDj therefore, seems to be. Can the classical character 
of the classical department be kept up, and at the same time more 
provision made for general cultivation ? As matters stand at Hard to main- 
present it requires an absorbing and exclusive effort to keep np tain classical 
the classical standard in the upper part of the school. Anything, a^y o^g].°~B. 
therefore, 'which tended to lighten this necessary effort would so tem. 
far facilitate the introduction of supplementary studies. 

The difficulty of maintaining the standard is due, I believe. Why ? 
mainly to three causes: (a), want of preliminary education; (/3), the 
exhaustive drain- of laoys from the middle of the school who leave for 
commercial life, and the consequent rapidity of proiliotion ; (7), a 
certain want of spirit in the junior masters, due mainly to the hard- 
ness of their position. On {a) enpugh has been said already in a 
different connexion. A boy who, up tftjtheiage of 12 or over, has 
not learnt to speak or write his own langnage correctly, and who has 
not, be it observed, in many cases, those- about him at his home to 
whom such correctness is habitual, is proportionately unreceptive of 
Latin and Greek grammar. With the want of early education is 
also closely connected the want of encouragement and assistance 
in learning lessons, especially classical lessons, at home. So far as 
the school- has a remedy for this evil, it can only be through the 
operation of its entrance examination. 

For (|3) there is probably no remedy, short of a higher apprecia- 
tion of education among men of business, and a modification of 
the received view that 16 is the latest age at which a boy- ought 
to enter an office. Whatever the remedy, of the evil there is no 
question. After the midsummer examination, it is no uncommon 
thing in the middle of the school for a whole class to be changed^ 
through either the promotion or departure of the boys who com- 
posed it. The better boys are often promoted two classes at a 
time. The consequences are (1), that it is next to impossible' to 
maintain a proper graduation of study in the supplementary sub- 
jects ; and (2), that in order to qualify the boy, thus rapidly 
thrown up into the third, fourth, and fifth classes, who can often 
scarcely construe, for being taught along with boys aspiring to 
scholarships at -Oxford and Cambridge, under the headmaster, 
Latin and Greek have to' bci worked at to the exclusion of every- 
thing else. 

As to (7), I should be sorry to cast any reflection on so hard- Condition of 
worked, and, as it seems to me, hardly-used a body of men as the *astws 
under-maeters at Birmingham. -They do their work in all cases 
conscieiltiously, and in many very effectively.' I may say here, 
however; once tfor all, that I think their position a very trying 
one; and their p'ay inadequate. They ai?e, in Consequence, with 
scarcely an exception, gloomy and down-hearted, and men in their 
temper, however diligent and coiiscientiQus,are not likely to do 

L 2 



126 Birmingham Fiee School 

their work with much freshness or elasticity. The pay of the 
head and second master is, of course, quite sufficient. Below 
them, the teacher of the 3rd class gets altogether 3251. a year, and 
the mathematical master 250?. The senior master in the English 
school (having been originally the chief master) also gets 250/. 
The rest of the ordinary masters get 200Z. a year, and are expected 
to be graduates of Oxford or Cambridge. No one who knows 
anything of these Universities will suppose that any but quite 
inferior men would, for such a salary, take such a place, with all 
the unpleasantness of teaching rough boys in a noisy school, unless 
under peculiar circumstances, or as leading to something better. 
It is probably on the latter ground that the governors hope to 
attract young men for a time to the school, but the attraction is 
very poor of its kind. "Within the school itself— setting aside the 
second mastership, which requires special qualifications not likely 
to be found in any of the ordinary masters — there is only one 
possible promotion to look forward to, and that is only to a salary 
of 325?. a year. The prospect of promotion to better-paid scholastic 
employment elsewhere is at best a precarious one, nor for most 
kinds of such employment would apprenticeship at Birmingham 
be reckoned a good qualification. But even if it were, teaching 
supplied solely by apprentices is hardly likely to be what it 
should be, especially if the apprentices are discontented at having 
stayed longer than their time. For a certain number, at any rate, 
of more permanent teachers adequate provision — i.e., provision 
that would render marriage possible — ought to be made. The 
mathematical mastership, for instance, is one which cannot with 
advantage be constantly changing hands, yet the present salary is 
wholly inadequate to retain a good master. The present holder 
of it, whose loss would have been a great one, has been kept to 
the town by domestic circumstancesj and having a Cambridge 
fellowship, he is able to live in tolerable comfort. Otherwise, 
no one of his merit could have been retained without double 
the salary. As it is, I think that he feels his position to be a hard 
one.* 

Supposing the pay of the ordinary graduate masters to be raised, 
as it ought to be, by at least lOOZ. a year, the question would arise 



* The salary of the ordinary under-master, 2007. a year, is not more than may be 
made— at Birmingham, I helieve, in at least one instance is made — by the master of 
a school receiving Government aid. The question suggests itself -whether the junior 
classes, in the English department at any rate, might not with advantage be taught 
by masters of this sort : for instance, by masters promoted from King Edward's 
elementary schools. At present the two lowest classes in the English school are 
taught by a master holding a Government certificate, and with very satisfactory 
results. The promotion of a master from the elementary schools was, I believe, tried 
some years ago, but not found to answer. The repetition of the experiment was 
very much deprecated by the older graduate mastera (not the head master) to whom 
I spoke about it. Though it cannot be disputed that in method of teaching a good 
certificated master is likely to excel a raw graduate, it is said that he has not the 
same civilizing influence on the boys, an influence certainly much needed in the 
lower classes of King Edward's School. However this might be, the difficiUty of 
properly amagamating the graduate and non-graduate masters is a sei-ious one, and 
)», I think, felt aa such already. 



Mr. Green's Report. 127 

whether this should be given in cash or by the provision of board 
and lodging at a common hall, after the example of Marlborough 
and "Wellington Colleges. My intercourse with the under-masters 
led me to think that the latter arrangement would be far the most 
desirable. It Is not easy for them to get suitable lodgings at all, 
and then only at a considerable distance from the school, and 
(generally) from each other. They have not naturally much 
opportunity of mixing in the society of the place, and may not 
much care to avail themselves of what they have. Living toge- 
ther they would form a society among themselves, their interest 
in the school would be quickened by comparison of counsels, and 
they could supply themselves more readily with books and news- 
papers. Altogether their life would be more cheerful and on better 
terms with celibacy. 

If, by the removal of the evils above explained, it were possible Desirability 
to raise the general standard of the middle part of the classical ^°™S more 
school, more attention might be given to history or physical science classical 
or modern languages, without diminishing the effectiveness of the education, 
school as a nursery for the Universities. Such a modification of 
the present system would be desirable for boys destined for the 
Universities, as well as for those meant for business ; but unless 
carried further than would be consistent with the educational in- 
terests of the former, it would, I think, scarcely meet the case of 
the latter. There is such an essential difference between the case 
of boys whose regular education terminates at the age of 17 at 
latest, and that of boys with whom it will be continued for some 
years longer, that it is hard to see how the same system can suit 
both. Every one knows that if a boy is to get a scholarship at 
Oxford or Cambridge, classics or mathematics must form the back- 
bone of his education. Nor did I find that for boys intended for 
the University of London, with a view to the medical profession, 
any essential departure from the classical and mathematical system 
was desired by their parents, except sometimes with reference to 
what the school, of course, cannot take into account — the capacity 
of individuals. A boy, on the other hand, whose education is to 
stop when he leaves school, must lay at school the foundations of 
any general knowledge to whicli he may afterwards attain. If he 
has not there become acquainted in outline with the history of 
modern nations and modern literature, and of physical science, the 
chances are that he will be repelled from reading on these subjects 
in after-life by elementary ignorance, or that, if he attempts it, his 
reading will be wasted from having nothing to fasten upon. This 
class of boys would really be better suited by the education given 
in the first class of the English department, if somewhat extended. 
Their transfer to this department is, however, prevented not only 
by social considerations, but by the physical impossibility, accord- 
ing to present arrangements, of accommodating more boys in it. 
Their removal, moreover, would so attenuate the classical depart- 
ment that there would not be enough competition in its lower 
regions to form effective classes for those who remained in it. 
Without an entire revolution of system their case could only be 



128 



Birmingham Free School. 



What is done 
for it in 
English 
Department. 



Such cultiva- 
tion does not 
' pay ' in 
business; 



met by allowing alternative studies, i. e., by allowing boys in the 
classical department to substitute for some of the ordinary lessons 
work to be done in common with the upper boys of the English- 
school. Such an arrangement could only be made with great diffi- 
culty, and before saying more about it, it will be well to explain 
what provision for " general culture " is now made in the latter 
department. 

The education given in the first class of the English school is 
very multifarious, and the question which an observer w6a1d first 
a,sk abput it would be, for -what in particular does it qualify its re- 
cipients ? This is a question which it would be difficult to answer, 
but the explanation of the difficulty is that the business of Bir- 
mingham absorbs nearly all the boys who pass through the English 
school, and that this business is not of a kind which requires any 
preliminary education but the most elementary. An aoquaintaBoe 
with " book-keeping" is, of course, necessary for a clerk, but the 
general voice of the merchants seems to be that a boy learns it better 
in the mercantile house, according to the particular method of the 
house, than at school. It is not at present taught in the grammar 
school. The only advantage to be gained by teaching it there 
would be this, that possibly, if his clerk came to him having 
already some practical knowledge, the merchant might not insist on 
his coming quite so young, and that thus a boy, instead of leaving 
at 15, might be kept to 16 ; but the opposite results might follow^ 
The merchant might say that the " practical knowledge," not being 
of the right sort, only made the boy more difficult to shake down 
into the regular routine of the office. Eor the kind of manufacture 
involving the electro-deposit, such as "jewellery," some elementary 
knowledge of chemistry is useful — so much only, however, as may 
soon be acquired by an apprentice in the business. The son of a 
jeweller, meant to continue the father's business, might be allowed 
by his father to remain longer at school on the understanding that 
the chemistry learnt there might be turned to practical account. 
I became acquainted with a case of this kind, but the boy in ques- 
tion, though he found some of his chemical knowledge useful, had 
learnt far more than was necessary for his calling, and was seeking 
opportunity to continue his chemical studies in Germany. An- 
other case was mentioned to me of a boy from the English school 
who obtained a well-paid place in Allsopp's brewery on the 
strength of his chemical knowledge. Cases again may occur 
where a knowledge of French, or — which at Birmingham is more 
likely — of German may be turned to account, but they are quite 
exceptional. A commercial house, doing a large foreio-n trade, 
generally employs a foreigner, or one who has lived considerably 
abroad, to do its foreign correspondence, and only perhaps 10 per 
cent, of its clerks would be wanted to know even the commercial 
terms of any language but their own.* A school knowledge of 



♦ In a house connected chiefly Tvith the South American trade, and where con- 
sequently Spanish was the modern language in demand, I understood that of 50 
clerks only six were required to know any Spanish. A thormigh knowledge of it 



Mr. Greenes Report. 329 

mechanics could 'be held up as practically useful with less plausibi- 
lity at Birmingham than in many other large towns, as it has no 
great madhine-'makiiig establishment. For those manufactures 
which involve engraviii^, and which are largely pursued at 
Birmingham, some practice in drawing is necessary, and many 
masters, I believe, compel their apprentices to take lessons in it. 

On the Avhole, though the prospect of pi-aotical availability may StiU something 
not be altogether without influence, it cannot at Birmingham be ^?"^ for it in 
relied on as a general incentive to any study beyond the region of of^English^^ 
the -simplest elementary knowledge, or as a set-off to the desire to department. 
make a boy practically useful as soon as possible^ The English 
department, therefore, in its promotion of " general culture," has 
very little to appeal to but the genuine desire for knowledge, 
though in its selection of the sort of knowledge to be cultivated it 
may, and does, look to the appearance of practical usefulness. 
From conversation with late pupils, and from what I saw and 
heard at the midsummer examination, I believe that a boy who 
stays two or three years in the " upper first" class of this depart- 
ment gets as good an education, looking to his future life, as under 
the circumstances is possible. He is in the first place well trained 
in English, which, considering his probable domestic antecedents, 
is itself a great point. A yearly prize is given for an examination 
in plays of Shakspear,* and a boy who stays long enough comes 
really to know and think about some five or six of the best plays. 
A more general acquaintance with English literature used to be 
cultivated by lessons in a short history of it by Collier. For this 
the acting master last summer had substituted, I should think 
wisely, a lesson three times a week in Chaucer and Shakspear ; a 
short English theme, or paraphase, is written in or out of school 
every week ; at midsummer a prize is given for an English essay. 
I saw several of the essays both for last year and for previous 
years, which showed, at least, that the better boys learnt to get 
together a considerable amount of information, and to express it in 
good form and correct English. The study of English history 
seemed to suffer from want of good manuals, the " Student's 
Hume " being used by the first, " Mrs. Markham " by the lower 
classes. The best indication of the general result of the English 
part of the education is that it clearly gives the better boys a taste 
for English reading. I recall one boy in particular, who within 
rather more than a year after leaving school, had in his evenings 
read through Macaulay's History, Hallam's Constitutional History, 
Clarendon, and Craik's History of English Literature. 



would only be wanted in the one man who conducted the foreign correspondence. 
In; order to fill this department, a large merchant commonly sends one of his sons 
.ahroad for a time. A.n ordinary clerk, bred at the grammar school, could scarcely 
aspire to it. The number of merchants and manufacturers at Birmingham, however, 
riot too magnificent to use the grammar school, and yet desiring a practical know- 
ledge of modern languages for their sons, is very considerable. Spanish and German, 
I believe, are each in more demand for mercantile purposes than French. 

* This is a prize given by Professor Lightfoot, of Cambridge, and open to both 
departments, though unifoi-mly obtained by the English. 



130 Birmingham Free School. 

Latin, though taught in the lower classes of the English school, 
used to be given up iu the first. It has now been restored, and is 
taught in the time (one hour ,ind forty minutes a week) formerly 
given to " Morell's Analysis." The boys seemed able to make out 
Virgil slowly, but with fair correctness, and the acting master, 
•when I was there, used to treat Latin, English, and German 
grammar comparatively. 

Of the chemistry I cannot speak from personal knowledge; 
three lessons a week are given in it, and the examiner who 
attended to it last midsummer pronounced it fairly done. The 
great difficulty with regard to it is that most boys who reach the 
" upper first," in which alone chemistry is tanght, seldom stay 
more than a year in it, whereas two years is i-eckoned the minimum 
necessary for gaining an adequate practical knowledge of it. In 
mathematics the better boys generally go some way in trigono- 
metry, as far as the " solution of triangles." The examiner last 
midsummer reported that they did well what they professed to do, 
though he dia not reckon the standard high, as considering the 
age of the boys and the time given to other subjects, it was hardly 
likely to be. 

The teachers in French and German are tlioroughly good. 
Tlie better boys generally learn one language well and the other 
imperfectly, according as their taste inclines them more to one 
or the other. The head boy last summer seemed to have learnt 
German as thoroughly as was possible for one of his age who had 
not been in the country, and was going to perfect himself by 
residence there. 

The special study of geography is stimulated by a prize. Last 
summer some of the boys appeared to be very well up in the more 
advanced geography (physical, &c.), though they had rather for- 
gotten the simpler elements. The arrangement made for teaching 
drawing is that those who want to learn (102 last summer) attend 
the school of Art on half-holiday afternoons. They are taught 
by the master of this school and his assistants, all together and 
by'themselves, for a certain payment made by the governors. It 
is generally admitted that this arrangement does not work well, 
the boys being languid and careless over their work, and that if 
it is to be learnt satisfactorily, drawing must be tauoht at the 
school as part of the school work. 

Te-w reach this. The great fault with regard to this general education is that 
very few boys comparatively come within its range at all, and that 
for those who do it does not last long enough. Not a fifth part of 
the boys who enter the English school reacli the " upper first " 
class, and below it the only considerable supplement of the " clerk's 
Why more education " is Latin. Of such as do reach it even those who stay 
don't. in it the longest find the subjects rather over crowded, and if the 

pupil is conscious of this, much more must the master be. The 
only way of affording relief, under present circumstances, would 
be by again discontinuing Latin in the " upper first," and this I 
tlilnk would be undesirable both in itself and as interfering with 



Mr. Greenes Report. 131 

the possibility of that transfer from the English to the classical 
school, which at present is the only channel through which access 
to the University can be gained. The real remedy is more remote, 
arid is to be found, firstly, in such an improvement of preliminary 
education as will bring boys up to the standard of the first class 
more quickly and frequently, and, secondly, such an enhanced 
appreciation of general education in the town as will induce parents 
to leave their sons a year or two longer at school. In order to 
encourage this, the head-master is anxious for the conversion of 
two prizes of \Ql. each, now given annually by the governors to 
the best boys in the English school, into scholarships of 61. a year 
each, tenable at the school and open to boys under 14. 

To revert to the case of the boys in the classical department who Possibility of 
are meant for commercial life, the unsuitableness of their present o^timng the 
education might be remedied if above a certain class, say the sixth, mentsXr " 
i.e., when it had become apparent whether they were likely to certain 
make anything of an education having reference to the Univer- subjects, 
sities, they were allowed for Greek to substitute lessons in English, 
or German, or physical science, with the upper boys of the English 
school. I must confess that none of the masters gave any coun- 
tenance to the suggestion of such an arrangement. Over and 
above the inherent difficulties of a system of substitution, the 
social difference between the boys of the two departments was 
thought to be an impediment to any such partial amalgamation. 
But for this difference, which is such, it must be admitted, that a 
stranger could tell at a glance to which of the two departments a 
given class belonged, it is difficult to see why in modern languages 
lessons at any rate some amalgamation has not already been 
established. 

Another institution has been suggested, for the extension of Eveniusr 
the general education of those who leave young for business, in classes. 
the shape of evening classes connected with the school. At the 
" Midland Institute " evening classes are held in English history 
find literature, in chemistry, mechanics, &c., but they are not much 
frequented by late pupils of the grammar school. They were not 
in fact intended by the original founders of the institute for the 
class to which these pupils generally belong, but rather for artisans. 
For the most part thej' are not attended by artisans, but by clerks, 
clerks, however, generally both older and less respectable socially 
than the boys turned out even by the English department of the 
grammar school. I could not obtain exact statistics on the point, 
but I satisfied myself that hardly any young men educated at the 
grammar school were in attendance at any of the classes, except 
at the chemical one. On the whole the " Institute " does not 
furnish any regular continuation to the education begun at the 
grammar school. Evening classes held in the school hj teachers 
belonging to the school would be more likely to do so. Several 
young men, who ->ad lately left the English department, assured 
me that they should like nothing better than to go on with their 
lessons in the evenings under their old master and with their old 
companions. Some of them had actually been in the habit of 



T^ 



132 



Birmingham Free School. 



Difficulties 
in way of 
these. 



Certain lines 
of professional 
life for -vrliieh 
no preparation 
given at the 
school. 



doing work privately with one or other of the masters of the 
school, though distance of residence is apt to make such an 
arrangement very awkward. 

The practical difficulties in the way of evening classes at the 
school would be these ; firstly, on the part of the pupils, many 
houses keep them at work tiU 7 or 7 "30, after which the going and 
coming, with a meal, would occupy at least another hour ; secondly, 
on the part of the school, it has at present neither the necessary 
room nor the necessary teachers at command. All the available 
rooms are occupied with boys during the day, and have to be 
given up to cleansing and ventilation at night. On the three 
weekly half-holidays, however, it might be possible, I should think, 
to get the cleaning and ventilation done sufficiently during the 
afternoon. The want of teaching power is a more serious obstacle. 
The only man who would be looked to in an ordinary way for 
holding these classes would be the second master, and he has quite 
enough on his hands without it. This want might be supplied by 
the addition to the staff of ordinary masters of one or two men 
who should act rather in the capacity of lecturers on special sub- 
jects, an addition which is or may become desirable for further 
purposes, to be mentioned shortly. 

(3.) It appears, from what has been already said, that the gram- 
mar school suffers from not being able to set before its scholars 
any definite practical object for the attainment of which any high 
education is necessary. We are thus led to the third of the ques- 
tions proposed above. Are there any lines of life, the education 
for which is in any demand and is not supplied by the school ? I 
have already said that as a rule the business of Birmingham can 
and must abs.orb the boys of Birmingham. This is certainly true 
of almost all who pass through the English department and of 
most of those who pass through the classical. Of the rest a few- 
go to Oxford and Cambridge, while more are articled to solicitors 
or matriculate at the London University. For the " preliminary 
" legal examination " a boy from the upper part of either depart- 
ment might, I should think, with a very little special preparation, 
be adequately qualified. The matriculation examination for the 
•London University is very miscellaneous, but an ordinary boy 
who made the most of the instruction in the classical department 
would not require much extra teaching to pass it, though he miwht 
have reason to regret that mathematics had not been made more 
of in his education and that he had not learnt any physical science. 
Other openings, which are found very tempting to younw men 
elsewhere, ai-e afforded by tlie military college at Woolwich and 
by the Indian Civil Service. At Birmingham, of course, these 
openings could never be sought after as they are at such a place 
as Cheltenham. There are many parents, however, even at Bir- 
mingham, to be found in the professional class, especially among 
the clergy and dissenting ministers, who cannot find good openings 
for their sons in business and who would think an education at 
the University too expensive and questionable a speculation. For 
such people the grammar school offers rather an awkward alterna- 



Mr. Green's Report. 133 

tive. In the English school, which ihey would probably think unfit 
for their sons on social groutidsjan education is to be had which would 
suit them if they looked to commercial life ; in the other depart- 
ment a classical system is maintained with peculiar rigidity and 
exclusiyeness, only qualifying specially for the Universities. 

If a better educational provision were made for this class of Ifeglect of 
people, it would appear, I think, to be already larger than is mathematics. 
commonly supposed, and more persons, whose pla«e of residence 
is not absolutely fixed for them by circumstances, might be 
attracted to, or retained in, the suburbs of the town by the pros- 
pect of special educational advantages for their sons. According' 
to the present constitution of the school, such provision could only 
be made by the method of alternative studies. In regard to 
mathematics, this method has already been introduced, but can 
scarcely be said to be effectively worked. Above the fourth class 
a boy is allowed to do extra mathematics instead of verses. Only 
two boys, however, were last summer availing themselves of this 
liberty. The verses being written out of school, the extra mathe- 
matics are done also out of school. As the mathematical master 
has no access to the boys, or the boys to him, out of schoolj this 
implies that they are not done under the master's supervision, and as 
individual attention is, I believe, of special importance to progress 
in mathematics, it follows that they are done with corresponding 
want of effect. In the ordinary mathematical work, done in 
school, as there is no separate classification for it, the master is 
unable to push the more advanced mathematicians, as he otherwise 
might, through having to teach them along with the most back- 
ward. Of 20 boys, taught together in the first class last summer, 
one had gone over analytical conic sections, and begun the dif- 
ferential calculus, while those at the bottom were only doing the 
simpler parts of algebra. Nor in the regular hours do the arrange- 
ments allow of the master's bestowing especial attention on the 
more advanced pupils. As soon as he begins to do so, he finds 
that their time with him is up, and that they are wanted for a 
classical lesson. 

The substitution of extra mathematics for composition might be 
made more effective by arranging that composition should be done 
in 'School, in place of certain lessons now prepared in school, but 
which should then be prepared at home. The mathematical work, 
which is substituted for composition, might then also be done in 
school under the personal attention of the mathematical master. 
Supposing this to be done, and the mathematical classification to 
be recast, a more effective preparation for "Woolwich might be 
given. As it is, I believe that only three boys from the grammar 
school have gained admission there, and of these two left before- 
hand for special preparation. For the Indian and the higher 
departments of the English Civil Service, a preparation could only 
be given by allowing a further system of substitution, and by 
providing lectures in English history and literature, together with 
additional teaching power in mathematics and natural science. On 
the practicability of such a plan I have not the materials for es- 



134 



Birmingham Free School. 



Third depart- 
ment ■wanted? 



View of 
University 
among com- 
mercial men. 



presslni? an opinion. It would In fact amount to the institution of 
a new -department, giving a higher education than the Present 
English one and not adjusted to the requirements ot the old 
Universities, like the present classical one.* Such a department 
would satisfy an existing demand, but whether that demand would 
become large enough to make the proposed department answer, 
and whether it could be supplemented by a demand for general 
education on the part of the boys meant for commercial life but 
now bred in the classical school, I cannot venture to say. At 
any rate, until the general character of the middle region of the 
classical department is raised, it does not afford an adequate basis 
for " bifurcation." Until there are more boys in it of the age of 
15, thoroughly grounded in Latin, arithmetic, and Euclid, and 
likely to stay two or three years longer in the school, though not 
meant for the University, it would be questionable policy to pro- 
vide a separate course of instruction for them. "With the improve- 
ment of preliminary education, however, the time may come for 
doing this, and with it for engaging one or two special lecturers, 
in physical science, in Englisli^history and literature, or even_ in 
logic, whose presence might facilitate the establishment of evening 
classes, suggested above, and lessen the present requirement of 
multifarious knowledge in the second master. 

(4.) The essential question, then, with regard to such a new 
middle department would be whether enough promising boys could 
be kept at school till the age of 18, properly to fill it. It is the 
same question as that on which depends the success of the school 
as a place of preparation for the Universities. We are thus 
brought to the fourth topic, proposed above. Could more be done 
than is done by the school to tempt its pupils to seek a higher 
education than they seek at present 1 

The unfrequency of aspiration for University training al Bir- 
mingham is not really to be wondered at. Great fortunes are not 
made there quickly enough to allow of there being many persons 
able to send sons to the ijniversity simply as a matter of luxury, 
and tliese would not make use of the grammar school. Plenty 
could well afford to pay for a University education, if it enabled 
their sons to provide for themselves afterwards, but such people 
naturally ask themselves, what is to come of it ? On the one hand, 
if advantage is taken of openings ready to hand in commercial life, 
the sons are under the father's eye ; the father knows what they 
are about, and may feel pretty confident that, by the time they 
are 25, they will be prosperous enough to marry, and may lead in 
more affluence and comfort the life that he has led before tliem. 
The Universities, on the other hand, are unknown ground to him. 
He thinks of them as places where young men stay at great ex- 



* If it could te made to give a preparation for the profession of a civil engineer as 
well as for Wool-wicli and the civil service, its practical availability Mould he much 
extended. There is a faculty of civil engineering, as well as of medicine and theology, 
at Queen's College, Birmingham, but it has failed with the general failure of that 
institution. This failure, however, is not to be taken as a sign that the institution 
did not meet an existing want, hut rather to be ascribed to faulty management. 



Mr. Greens Rcjwrt. 135 

pense till tbey are 23, and then are unfitted for business without 
knowing what else to do with themselves. Unless, therefore, he 
has a definite project for making his son a clergyman, a project 
only possible among churchmen, and rare amongst them, he puts 
him to commercial life, which means, and probably for some time 
to come will mean, that he takes him from school at the latest at 
the age of 16. This is, and must be, the natural course of things 
at Birmingham with the commercial, and to a large extent with 
the professional class. On the other side must be set a consider- 
able though not very discriminating appreciation of intellectual 
decorations, which is strong even among men who have very little 
education themselves. There must also be set the reflection that 
in the commercial class are a considerable number of men who, 
through no fault of their own, have not greatly prospered, and can 
find no very favourable openings for their sons in business. Such 
persons are easily encouraged by the appearance of a taste for 
books in their sons to seek for them a scholastic career, and the 
temptation of exhibitions and scholarships can be set before them 
with great effect. As a rule, it is not among the rich that the 
grammar school must seek for a large supply of boys to train for 
the University. Among them a University career will always be Who can be 
looked upon as a speculation, and as comparatively not a good one. fo^Jard to it 
To men with a less advantageous alternative before them, if a way 
Is opened to it by exhibitions, it will offer much higher attractions. 
This is not the place to remark on the limitation of these attrac- 
tions to churchmen, by the exclusion of dissenters from the ulti- 
mate prizes on which they depend, the fellowships and the 
masterships in grammar schools.* Such as they are. King Edward's 
foundation has excellent means of bringing them home to Bir- 
mingham parents. Through its elementary schools it can draw 
into its net all the more promising boys in the town of other than 
wealthy parentage, and by a proper application of its funds it 
might provide a graduation of scholarships, tenable at the school. Value of ex- 
for the best of these, which should carry them on to the exhibitions, hibitious. 
which again would carry them to the University. 

It has already had a most beneficent influence, as I had several 
opportunities for observing, in familiarizing persons of quite the 
lower trading rank with the notion of a possible University career 
for their sons. A small baker or publican, who thinks of sending 
his son to College, can quote instances of men in the same position 
who have done the same before him. In order, however, to make 
the avenue to the Universities as wide and open as possible, the 
following changes seem desirable, (a) a more systematic affiliation of 
thee lementary schools to the grammar school, (^) more facility 
of transfer from the English to the classical school, (y) the 
institution of scholarships tenable at the school, (s) a modification 



* I may perhaps be allowed here to call attention to the unintelligible rule at 
King Edward's School, which confines the second mastership to clergymen. The 
second master has, so far as I know, no religious functions whatever to perform, and 
the rule greatly limits the area of eligibility. 



136 



Birmingham Free School. 



Difficulties of 
transfer from 
English de- 
partment to 
classical. 



of the present rule with regard to the examination for exhibitions, 
and gradually an increase in their number. 

On (a) enough has been said in a previous part of this report. 
It may be added that even on the old system, when the transfer of 
a boy from an elementary school to the grammar school depended 
on the chance of his attracting the, head master's attention on 
occasion of his inspection of the former, one instance occurred of a 
boy, so transferred, who finally got a first class and an open fellow- 
ship at Oxford, and another of one who got an appointment in the 
Indian Civil Service. Similar cases have probably occurred, which 
(lid not come to my knowledge. I saw enough, however, to con- 
vince me that In the elementary schools, as they are, (and still more, 
as they might become,) there exists a material out of which a 
succession of boys fit for scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge 
might be moulded. ' Li; 

{p) At present a boy may, with the consent of his parents, be 
transferred from the English to the classical school at the pleasure 
of the head master, and such transfer is not unfrequently made. 
Both the young men just referred to, on promotion from the ele- 
mentary school, began an the English department of the grammar 
school. Among others transferred from the English department 
to the classical, I heard of one who had become 4th wrangler, and 
of another who had got a scholarship at St. John's, Cambridga! 
The transfer^ however, is difficult to manage, owing to the dlscer- 
pancy of. studies between the two departments. The only study 
.contributing directly to University success, that is carried far in 
the English department. Is that of mathematics, while in the other 
department classics have It all their own way. The chances are 
ihat a boy In the English department however diligent and 
successful he may be in his school work, never thinks of changing 
his position till he Is 15 or 16 years old, the age at which an 
independent Interest in study seems generally first to awaken. By 
this time he probably has gone as far in mathematics as all but 
the few best puplk in the classical school. He also knows some 
English history, and has had some practice in writing English. Of 
Latin he probably knows enough to construe Cjesar, and has been 
well drilled in the grammar. So qualified, his mathematics and 
general Intelligence would carry him to the second class of the 
classical school, and his Latin perhaps to the fourth, but he knows 
no Greek. Now -Greek Is begun in the eighth class of the classical 
department ; in this, therefore, he would have to be placed among 
little boys and dunces. This is In Itself discouraging, and_^thougS 
If he worked hard at Greek, he might find himself in two years in 
the class for which his general attainment qualified him to begin 
with, during all this time In every subject but Greekj he ^tfould 
naturally have been losing ground ; owing to the want of a separate 
mathematical classification he will have been doing work, while 
knowing some trigonometry himself, with boys who have not 
begun Euclid and can scarcely do vulgar fractions. His English 
knowledge will have been lying fallow, and even m Latm he will 
have been doing work below his proper level. The consequence 



il/r. Greenes Report 137 

of' this state of things is that unless a boy is transferred from the 
English to the classical department while still very young, at 13 or 
under, the transfer is not likely to be successful. Its success, 
therefore, depends on the skill of the masters in picking out 
promising talent among the little boys, and however great this 
skill may be, it can scarcely fail to miss a good deal that a better 
organization might lay hold of. Talent often does not fully appear 
till a- later age, and if it is especially of the mathematical kind 
there is on the present system veiy little object in transferring it 
to the classical department. Moreover, neither the boy nor his 
parent, when the boy is stilLyoung, may care for a transfer, and 
yet both, two or three years later, when a taste for learning has 
manifested itself, may be glad of it. 

That the evil, here indicated, is a real one, I had sufficient 
evidence in what I heard from old pupils of the English school." 
Several of these told me that they had distinct thoughts, when they 
\yere about the top of the English school and had become interested 
ia study, of transferring themselves to the classical with a view 
tOr-reaching the University, but that in the first place they did not 
like the notion of passing from the top of one department to near 
the bottom of the other, and, secondly, they knew that their strong- 
points mathematics, would go for nothing in the classical depart- 
ment. They, all, however, seemed to think that the prospect of 
obtaining a small scholarship, tenable in the classical school, would 
have been a great inducement to themselves to make the experiment, 
and would tell strongly on both parents and boys generally in the 
same direction, thus confirming the view, suggested to me in other 
ways, of the -sensibility of the trading class even to slight 
intellectual decorations. One young man in particular, who, having 
been born in humble life, and educated in the English department, i - ' 

had found his way to Cambridge, and become a wrangler without " ■ 

entering the classical department at all, assured me from his own 
knowledge that a high wrangler might be got every year from the 
English department, if only he could be induced, as such" a one 
easily might be, by a small scholarship and the prospect of an 
exhibition to stay long enough at the school. 

The question of the possibility of establishing a better relation How these 
between the two departments involves the question of the position <^^" ^^ ™^'- 
which Greek ought to occupy in a school which sets itself to pre- 
pare for the Universities. On the answer to this question depends 
generally, to a great extent, the possibility of eflfectively com- 
bining the education of average boys for commercial life, and that 
of picked boys for the University. It would seem to an un- 
practised man that a diligent and intelligent boy who had beea 
well grounded in Latin might soon gain an equal knowledge of 
Greek though, he did not begin it till three or four years later. 
This, however, is not the general opinion of schoolmasters, and 
thus, in the classical department of King Edward's School, which 
boys enter only just able to read and write, out of eleven classes 
Greek is begun in the eighth. With.out venturing to criticize the 
intrinsic utility of this, I will only remark that it would unques- 



138 



Birminijliam Free School. 



"Want of 
scholarship. 



Mathematics 
should count 
forexhibitions 



tionably facilitate the transfer of promising boys from the Englis.i 
to the classical school if Greek were not begun so low down in the 
latter. For the same purpose^ on the other hand, it is most desir- 
able that the standard of Latin should be kept as high in the Eng- 
lish school as is compatible with justice to the commercial boys, and 
for this reason it is most happy that it has been restored to its for- 
mer place in the instruction of the upper first of that department.' 

(7) The unpleasantness, however, of passing from the top of 
one department to a low class in the other would be faced by those 
who could face it with most advantage, if any distinct recognition 
of their attainments were offered them, independently of their 
place in the school, and some more substantial reward proposed to 
them in the future. The first requisite for this purpose is a 
distinct classification in the classical department for mathematics, 
if not for history and modern languages. The second is the 
establishment of scholarships, tenable in the classical department, 
which the best boys from the other department might have a 
chance of obtaining. The latter want has been to some exteat 
recently met by the liberality of the present head-master in offer- 
ing at his own expense two scholarships every year, of lOZ. a year 
each, open to boys under 16, and tenable during the stay of the 
holder at the school. One of these each year is to be given for 
excellence in mathematics, in order to elicit talent from the 
English school. This institution, which the Grovernors will pro- 
bably put upon a permanent basis when the state of their 
finances allows it, will serve the purpose at once of satisfying the 
ambition of the boy who ventures, when old enough to go to 
business, on a change of departments, and of taking him^ to some 
extent, off his father's hands, 

(S) Such a boy, however, will probably have no reason to 
congratulate himself on his experiment if he fails ultimately to get 
either an exhibition at the school or a scholarship at the University. 
According to the present rule, the exclusion of mathematics 
from the examination for exhibitions, will very likely prevent him 
from getting the first, and the low standard of mathematics in the 
school, which this exclusion causes, from getting the second. The 
school has 10 exhibitions of 50?. a year, tenable for four years, at 
Oxford and Cambridge, of which two or three are given away in 
alternate years respectively. According to the scheme of 1829, 
the examination is to be solely classical. The examiners are to 
" report to the Governors the names of such boys, being candi- 
" dates for exhibitions, as they shall find qualified to receive 
" exhibitions, and shall arrange the names of the said candidates 
" according to their respective excellence in classical learning." 
The Governors are then to " give exhibitions to such of the boys 
" as shall be reported qualified to hold the same, according to the 
" order in which such boys shall be respectively classed by the 
" examiners." * This rule is precisely carried out. It is true 



* Another clause in the scheme of 1829 empowers the gOTernors to make fresh 
statutes " touching the orders, goTernment, and direction of the head master and 



Mr. Green's Report. 139 

ihat in the case already mentioned, of the boy who began in the 
English school and finally became fourth wrangler, some con- 
sideration, as ,1 was told, was allowed to his mathematical exoel- 
ience, without which, he would not have got an exhibition, but I 
30uld:not iasoertain how this was managed, or that anything of 
the: kind had been done before or since.. The result is very dis-^ 
30uraging to mathematical study,* and with it to, the prospects of 
1 boy who transfers himself to-tJie classical department from' the 
Srst class of the English. 

As to> the evil of the above rule there is so much agreement 
that it alone might have been expected to induce- the Governors 
to apply for an alteration of the scheme, if other considerations 
bad not interfered. There is not quite the same agreement as to - 
the position which should be given to mathematics in .the final 
examination. The head-master would wish them to > count to a 
limited extent for all the exhibitions rather than that they should 
bave a preference for any. This arrangement might be desirable 
m generalgrounds, but the case of the boys transferred from the 
English department would scarcely be met, unless, for an occasional , 
exhibition, at any rate, mathematical m6rit had the preference. . 
[f the Governors were able so to increase the number of exhibi-i 
;ions as to give away three every year, and if the same relative." 
[^reference were given to mathematics t for one as to classiesMfor 
:hc other two, none being purely either classical or mathematical, 
;he several conditions of the problem might, perhaps, be satisfied. 
Sufficient general encouragement would be given to mathematical 
study to make the result more adequate to the time nominally 
aestowed on it,$ and a boy from the English school who was- 
^ood-, enough to get the mathematical , scholarship at 15, might 
baye leasonable hope of obtaining at the end of his school-time 
the means of access to the University. 

I may be allowed here to express a hope that in the bestowal of 
iny increase in the income of the school, the foundation of scholar- 
ships tenable at the school,, and an addition to the number, if not 
;o the value, of the exhibitions, will hold a considerable place. 



' usher, and assistant and other masters, and the mode of education of the scholars 
■- of the school, and of the exhibitions hereby directed to be established." This, I 
uppose, is not to be understood as giving them power to piodify the rule with regard 
exhibitions established by the same scheme. 

* The only rewards which a mathematician in the classical school has to look to 
re, (1) a yearly prize, called " The Albert," and (2) Lench's scholarship, consisting 
if the income of 500Z. for four years. This being of such small value, so seldom 
■acant, and requiring the holder to go to Oxford, is not of much use. No minimum 
if attainment is fixed as the qualification for it, and the boy who last got it knew (as 

was told) scarcely enough mathematics to pass the little go at Oxford. 

r,t There would be a. further question as to the desirability of allowing physical 

cience to count in the examination for the mathematical exhibition. 

% Six hours a week are given to mathematics in the first class of the classical 
iShool.yet last summer, as I understood, only four boys had got as far as trigonome- 
;y.j Several pupils of the school, who have done well in mathematics in Cambridge^ 
ave left it for special mathematical teaching before going to Cambridge. This has 
ertainly not been due to any want of ability and diligence in the mathematical 
iaster,'l)ut to the system of the school. 

C..C.3. M 



liO Birmingham Free School. 

This is the proper supplement to a general improvement in the 
working and standard of the school. The number and value of 
scholastic employments, to which the University is the introduc- 
tion, is constantly increasing, and it may be hoped that^ before 
long the expense of the University career itself will be diminished. 
This being so, and considering the strong spirit of self-elevation 
that is at work in the lower stratum of the middle class at Bir- 
mingham, it is not too much to expect that, with a suflBcient pecu- 
niary stimulus, the number of boys sent yearly from the Kinc 
Edward's School to the University might shortly be doubled. 
There can be no better employment of educational endowments 
than as a balance, in the interest of learning, to the attractions of 
money-making. 
Proposed Although it would be possible to make the transition from one 

remodell^ of department to the other more regular and easy by the means above 
system. indicated, the separation of the two departments, as it at present 

stands, must continue, I venture to think, a wasteful and incon- 
venient one. As I have pointed out, there are many boys in ths 
classical department who, looking to their future course of life, 
should rather be in the English ; while on the other hand there jsf 
and under any modification of the present system must remain, in 
the English department, a good deal of talent that might have been 
more adequately developed in the classical. At the same time there 
are a certain number of boys who want an education less purely 
adapted for Oxford and Cambridge than that given in the classical 
department, but which yet should go further and have a more 
special object than that given in the English department. This 
want of adaptation, which involves a waste of power, might be 
avoided by a scheme of the following kind. Let there be a com- 
mon preparatory department, containing about 300 boys, and two 
special departments containing about 200 between them. The pre- 
paratory department should give the necessary "English educatio^^ 
and teach also Latin, French, and elementary mathematics. Of the 
special departments one should set itself to prepare for the Univer- 
sities ; the other, while keeping up Latin, should attend specially to 
mathematics, physical science, and modern languages and litera- 
ture. For each of these departments there should be an entrance 
examination, open to boys of the preparatory department or of 
any schools in the district, and one or two of the boys who did best 
in this should be rewarded with a scholarship tenable in the special 
department. The standard of this examination should be so fixed 
that the cleverest of the boys from the preparatory department 
should be able to pass it soon after the age of 13, the average 
diligent boy not later than 15. For the university department it 
should turn principally on Latin, with mathematics and Greek in- 
subordination ; for the other, or " modern " department, mainly on 
mathematics, with Latin and French in subordination. « EngM* 
subjects might count in both. In order to prepare for it, boys in 
the lower department, on reaching the higher classes, should be 
allowed to learn Greek as a substitute for French. 

This scheme would suppose that a good many bovs, who now 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 141 

enter the grammar school, should finish their education in the im- 
proved and extended elementary schools. Of those who entered 
the preparatory department a good many would not pass beyond 
it, but would leave it for business at 15 or 16, having acquired in 
it all the elementary knowledge necessary for their after life. Only 
the better boys would emerge into the special departments, which 
thus might be able to keep up a really high standard. The ad- Advantages of 
vantages of such a scheme would be, (i), that it would enable *'"^' 
the head-master to secure for his University department all the 
boys likely to turn its education to account : (2), that in the 
special modern department it would ;meet the wants at once of the 
boys meant for business in the town, but whose parents are willing 
to leave them at school beyond the usual age, and of those who 
seek appointments at "Woolwich or as civil engineers; and, (3), 
that it would enable the school, through its special departments, 
to act itself as a local university to the whole district for which it 
would be available as a day-school, which, probably, contains a 
population of at least 800,000. Its difficulties would consist (1) Difficulties. 
in the mixture in the lower department of boys more and less 
genteel, and ;^2) in the postponement of Greek. As to the first, 
it must be remembered that the scheme presupposes the absorption 
by the elementary schools of the rougher element now found in 
the English, and the lower region of the classical, school. As to 
the second, it must be remembered that though the boys passed 
up from the preparatory to the special University depart.nent 
would begin Greek later than most boys do at Rugby or Win- 
chester, they would presumably have had a more thorough elemen- 
tary training, and would be, according to general testimony, more 
capable of hard work. Such an arrangement is, probably, too re- 
mote from the present one to meet with general acceptance, but it 
was commended to my attention by men versed in education, 
whose opinion is at least worth recording. 

As to the " moral tone " of the school it is in the nature of the Moral tone. 
case impossible to furnish precise information. I heard nothing 
that led me to suppose that there was anything serious to com- 
plain of in the moral state of the boj'S. Among some of them, 
however, there is no doubt a good deal of roughness of language 
and manner, and cases of pilfering sometimes occur, but I found 
that professional men of the town who would be particular in such 
matters sent their sons to the school with perfect confidence, 
trusting to instinct to keep them from mixing with unmannerly 
boys, and instructing them not to loiter in the streets on their 
way home. Such faults as there are in the moral state of the 
school are clearly due in great measure to its situation in the 
middle of a great town, on the streets of which the boys are 
turned directly they escape from their lessons. It would be a Means of 
great advantage in this respect if a common dining hall were '^P^'o^^S 
established for tlie use of such boys as live too far from the school 
to go home between morning and afternoon lessons. Such boys Dining hall. 
are numerous, and either they must get their dinner at taverns 
aUd cookshops to the detriment alike of their manners and diges- 

M 2 



142 



Birmingham Free School. 



Library. 



Playground. 



Situation of 
school. 



Its evils. 



tions, or their parents must at some expense and inconvenience; 
engage a room for them in the town to which they may resort at- 
midrday. This is done to my knowledge by careful parentst 
having several sons at the school, but it is difficult to manage 'in . 
the case of a single boy, and many are probably on this ground 
sent to boarding schools in preference to the grammar school. h- 

Another beneficent institution on moral, no less than on intel-' 
lectual grounds, would be the establishment of a good readings 
room and library in the precincts of the school. According to m- 
ordinance of the year 1838, the governors resolved to "appro-' 
" priate annually a sum not exceeding 200Z. towards the purchase 
" of books for a school library." This resolution, ho-wever,'doe8i 
not seem ever to have been acted upon. At present there iS a 
small library kept up by subscription, managed and mainly used 
by the upper boys of the classical school, but it is not calculated, 
to be of much use to the school generally. Many of the boys it 
must be remembered have not only no access to books, but very- 
little opportunity for private reading, at home. By taking the 
necessary steps they can, it is true, obtain books from the libraries- 
in the town, which are very good, but this implies a certain 
amount of forethought which is not always to be expected from 
a boy. What is wanted is a large room contiguous to the school 
well supplied . with books of reference and illustration, where the 
boys might be allowed, under conditions, to sit as much as they 
liked, and whence they might take books home in the evening,-: 
Such an institution would do a great deal both to keep the boyw 
from loitering in the streets, and to give them a taste for reading. 
It might in time also become a centre for literary or debating 
societies among' past or present pupils of the school. 

So long as the school remains where it is, the want of an 
adjacent playground must always be a serious one. As it isj 
there is a large open yard at the back of the school in which' 
the boys can knock about during any break in the lessons, but 
the field, which is rented by the governors for cricket and other 
games, is three miles off, and the majority of the boys make no 
use of it. It is in fact only available for those boys who live on 
the side of the town where it is situate. The cricket club is now 
less exclusive than formerly, and includes 100 boys, mostly of the 
classical department. There is also a rifle corps of 80. Manf 
of the boys, however, get little exercise during the greater part 
of the year, except by walking between school and home, and un- 
doubtedly suffer in consequence ; as some of them told me, they 
had tried going to the cricket ground, but found themselves tired 
before getting there. 

Another result, evil or otherwise, of the situation of the school- 
is the difficulty which is becoming an impossibility of attracting* 
boarders to it. According to the scheme, the head-master is; 
entitled to take 18 boarders, the second master 12, On Mr, 
Hutchinson's resignation of the second mastership, as has beea 
already stated, the second master's house, which there was little 
prospect henceforth of filling with boarders, was converted to 



Mr. Green's Beport. 143 

school uses, r The head-master last summer had still 10 boarders, 
but these were only the remains of the lot which he brought with 
him on his appointment. He did not expect to replace them, and 
, as sanitary reasons have compelled him to transfer his wife and 
• family to a country house, where he himself generally sleeps, 

■ it is not likely that he will. 

i,e The absence of boarders is regarded with different feelings by 
different people. By some their presence was always regarded 

■ Wth jealousy; by others, and those, I think, more intimately 
acquainted with the school, they were reckoned a very valuable 
ielement. I could not asceirtain that there had generally been 
■ill-feeling; between them and the other boys, and they have been 
'.useful as taking the lead in the establishment of common games, 
and as. forming a means of communication on minor matters 
between the master and the school If they are still to be retained, 
supposing the; school to cohtioiue in the middle of the town, either 
the head-master with his family must reside there too,* which I 
have good medical authority for pronouncing most undesirable, or 
they must live with the head-master in the suburbsj and come in 
with him to school, which is a very awkward arrangement.- Either 
•way, as they are ineUgible for exhibitions, there would in these ' 
days be very little attraction, for them. Unless the terms charged 
for them were rather high they would not under the circumstances 
.be remunerative. If the prospect of obtaining them were defi- 
nitely abandoned, the accommodation now provided for them in 
the head-master'^s house might be made available for additional 
plass-rooms, which are much required, or for. lodgings for some 

of the under masters. The above evils, resulting from the 
present situation of the , school, have led several persons of judg- 
ment to desire its removal. The present building they would 
.either, sell, and it might be sold at an immense price, or give up to 
;the English department, according to the original scheme of 1829. 
,The higher department they would transfer to the suburbs. Such Its advantages, 
a, transfer would doubtless have many advantages, but it would be 
regarded, I think, with jealousy in the town, and would very 
likely provoke opposition to the measures which 1 have spoken of 
as desirable for the purpose of raising the standard, of the school, 
especially to the exaction of fees. Its advantages would be dearly 
purchased at the loss of that universal availability which belongs 
to the school as it now stands. No other situation could be any 
thing like so central, or so accessible by railway. Already a large 
number of boys come in by rail every morning, and if the school 
•came to draw on a larger district in the way previously suggested, 
its neighbourhood to .the central station would become of still 
greater importance. 

The character of the present building is too well known to 
require description or criticism. Though excellent of its kind, it 

, * A master living at the school -would have to send his children two mUes in a 
carriage or cab before they could reach a place fit for them to walk in. The atmo- 
sphere about the school is charged ■with smoke to a degree very trying to certain 
constitutions. 



144 



Birmingham Free School. 



Good state of 
the school in 
classics. 



It does not 
send in for 
"middle class 
examinations.' 



is not sufficient for present purposes, on the grounds already 
mentioned. 

Having Lad occasion to notice certain shortcomings in the 
operation of the school, the result not at all of individual neglect, 
but of a system inadequate in some respects to present require- 
ments, I am glad to remark finally on the excellence of the 
general teaching as evinced by the examination in which I took 
part last midsummer. On this in other branches I have already 
spoken, but the state of the classical teaching in the upper classes 
has yet to be noticed. There was unmlstakeable evidence that 
this had been most careful and eifective, and there was promise of 
its bearing fruit in the good scholarship of the exhibitioners for 
two or three years to come. The candidates for exhibitions for 
1865 were a very fair set, and very well up in their work. Three 
of them at least might have a good chance of a first class at 
Oxford, if they went there, but several of those who meant to stay 
another year at school were distinctly better, and there were 
some, not more than 16 years old, who showed great promise.* 

Some remark has been occasioned by the very small show 
which Birmingham makes in the Oxford local examination lists, 
and which is due no doubt to the abstention from the examination 
of the boys in the grammar school. The head-master puts no 
impediment in the way of their going in, but he does not encou- 
rage it, and in consequence both boys and parents think the school 
examinations enough. In 1865 not a single boy from the gram- 
mar school entered the " local examination." The reason urged 
for this abstention is that on the one hand the school can supply 
competition enough within its own limits, so that there is no 
object in seeking it outside ; and that, on the other hand, it is 
undesirable to conform the course of instruction given in the 
school to that virtually prescribed by the Oxford examination, 
while without such conformity success adequate to the position 
of the school cannot be obtained. The examination for juniors 
it is said, is adapted to the case of boys v\rho leave school at the 
age of 15, while the course of instruction in the English depart- 
ment is meant for boys who stay (as only a minority do stay) to 
the age of 16. The preparation for the examination, moreover, 
would involve the special " cramming " in certain subjects of 
certain boys, which would interfere with the general working of 
the school. How far these reasons ought to weigh against the 
desirability of maintaining the chai-acter of the local examinations, 
and of affording the public some recognized and independent test 
of the result of education in the grammar school, it is not for 
me to decide. 

In conclusion I must express my obligations to all connected 
with the grammar school, and to all with whom I came in contact 
in the town, for the readiness with which they have facilitated my 



* I am glad to find this observation, made in 1865, confirmed hy the number of 
open scholarships— four, I think, at Oxford alone— ^vhioh have been o-ot by boys 
from Kmg I'.dward s School during the spring and summer of 1867 



Mr. Green's Report. 145 

inquiries. It was a great advantage to me to meet with so much 
intelligent opinion on education, as I found at Birmingham. 
Among all classes there is a general pride in the school, a general 
admission of the benefits which it has conferred on the town, due 
in great measure to the judgment of the governors in their 
selection of head-masters, and a general desire to maintain or 
elevate its character as a place of high education. As was remarked 
to me by one of the leading " school reformers," before there can 
be any wide spread desire for University education in the Birming- 
ham district, the grammar school itself must act as a university to 
the district. With its magnificent endowment, this is not at all 
too high a position for its attainment, if it will apply its wealth 
to stimulate, rather than to supersede, the educational effort of 
others. 



146 



GENERAL EEEOET. 



Grammar 
schools fall 
into two 
groups. 



Income of 
each. 



Standard of 
education in 
the first. 

I. Liberal. 



The grammar schools of Staffordshire and Warwickshire — 
excluding that at Birminghatn, which, as essentially differen'c'ed 
from the rest by the greatness of its endowment and 'the populatiofl 
which it serves, has been treated of in a separate report— fall 
naturally into two groups, according as they do or do not profess 
to give an education definitely higher than that given in elemen- 
tary schools for the poor. Those which do make this profession 
are, of course, generally to be found in towns ; those which do 
not, in villages. The' gross annual income from endowments of 
schools of the former class in the two counties is now, according 
to the best calculation I can make, 8,173Z., of which 4,590l 
belongs to schools (14 in number) in Staffordshire, 3,583/. to 
schools (nine in number) in Warwickshire. To this should be 
added a further annual sum of 460/. appropriated to exhibi- 
tioners at the Universities. This sum benefits the county of 
Warwick alone, 235/. of it belonging to the grammar school at 
Coventry, 195/. to that at Warwick, 30/. to that at Stratford- 
on-Avon. Staffordshire has no exhibitions, except one at Walsall, 
representing the interest on less than 700/., which has not been 
in existence long enough to have produced any effect. The gross 
annual income from endowments of grammar schools of the latter 
class is now 1,295/., of which 1,123/. belongs to those (nine in 
number) in Staffordshire, 172/. to those (three in number) in 
Warwickshire. The population of the two counties, after sub- 
traction of those who may be reckoned as served by the gram- 
mar school at Birmingham, is about 900,000. 

It will be well, in the first place, to state the general result of 
my inquiries as to the existing standard of education ia the 
grammar schools, which, in the case of the first of the above- 
mentioned groups, will fall under two heads— (I.) liberal, (11.) 
commercial, education. On the necessary elements of a commer- 
cial, or clerk's education— that sort of education which is generally 
requisite for one who has to make money by other than manual 
labour-— I have spoken in my report on the Birmingham schools, 
(p. 105). By a liberal education I understand everything beyond 
these necessary elements, whether it be sought for with a view to 
a university career, or to the " liberal " professions, or for its 
own sake. 

(I.) The channels by which this education is imparted at the 
grammar schools are still chiefly the Latin and Greek lano-uao-es 



. ' . Mr. GreerCs Report. 147 

and mathematics. There were only, one or two schools at which ■•''■ 

I found" lessons given either in < English history and literature, r,.' 

or in the French language, or in chemistry, in such a way as to ..•>.-[:■.:' 

have much educational effect. ■ As a general rule the knowledge 

of Latin- in: a grammar school is the measure of attainment in all )'-'■ 

other subjeotsj According to the ordinary classification; then, Knowledge of 

which is -determined- mainly by proficiency in Latin, there were ff *J,'' V* ^''^ 

•at the time of my inquiry in the several -first, classes' of those classes. 

schools im the two counties, at which the teaching of Latin is 

anything more than a profession, 69 boys. From thig number I 

-should strike oif 1-2 as obviously unfit to be classed along with 

the rest;. On the other hand about 40- may be added from classes 

nominally below the fifst at certain schoolsi, as on an average up 

to the level of the first groiip^ which is thus raised to 97 (69 — 12 

+ 40). -These 97 are, of course, of various degrees of attain- ■ ■ r 

ment, but besides lihem I can say with some confidence there 

are nonein the schoo-ls which I examined^ who with any amount 

of time allowed and with unlimited use of the dictionary, would 

make out for themselves with decent correctness an or43inary 

passage of Cicero or Virgil.. The power of translation into Latin 

I found almost universally below that of translation from it, and 

the knowledge of Greek lower in proportion to the Latin than it 

would be at an ordinary " public school." 

This may naturally be thought a poor result froqi cbarita/ble 
endowments, producing more than 8,d00L a year, which were given 
for, and are still professedly applied to the purpose of teaching 
Latin. Nor will such an impression be lessened by the considera- 
tion that,- small as is the number of those who attain the general 
standard specified above,- hardly any either go beyond it at present, ' 

or are likely to do so in the future. Of the whole number not Comparison'' ' 
more than four would-be qualified in knowledge of Latin for the "withKugby. 
6th form at Rugby. Another 12 might by the same test befitted 
for the upper or lower 5th in that school. The rest would range 
from the " upper middle "to the " shell, " i.e. they would in no 
case have less than five forms and 200 boys above them. Again, 
it was quite the exception to hear of boys near the top of their 
respective schools who were likely either to stay much longer 
where they were or to seek higher education elsewhere. At "^^y ^°y^ 
Warwick (which has exhibitions) there was one boy intending to ^°™^ ^°^ 
go to the University. At Coventry, which is similarly provided, 
there were two such ; and another, the most promising in the school, 
who was only prevented from aiming at the University by the cir- 
cumstance of his being a Dissenter. Of the upper boys at Bre- 
wood there were some six, and a like number at Atherstone and 
Wolverhampton respectively, who might be expected to stay lono- 
enough at school to become fair scholars. The same might be said 
of one boy at Stratford, and another at Sutton- Coldfield. At 
Lichfield were two or three promising boys, likely to go on to 
other schools. Probably Stafford might furnish a few more of the 
same kind, but there T had not an ojiportunity of gaining exact 



148 



Counties of Stafford and Warwicli, 



Most have 
come to the 
end of their 
tether. 

Standard in 
other things. 

Mathematics. 



Prench. 



English. 



Causes of the 
above short- 
comings. 

What the 
remedy is not. 



Not the aban- 
donment of 
Latin. 



Controversy 

"between 

" words " and 

" things " does 

notarise till 

later. 



information.* Altogether not more than 30 of the 97 could be 
expected to rise considerably beyond their present standard of 
attainment. Of these 30, again, not more than half would be likely 
to find their way to any university. 

The amount of "liberal" education conveyed through the 
classics having been thus roughly estimated, the next question is. 
What is done by other studies to supplement it? As regards 
mathematics, I only found five grammar schools, viz., Stratford, 
Warwick, Coventry, Stafford, and Brewood, in which any one was 
reading anything beyond Euclid and elementary algebra, and at 
only one of these — Brewood — is the mathematical standard rela- 
tively higher than the classical. The five schools together would 
not furnish more than 12 boys who had gone so far as plane 
trigonometry, and of the rest of the 97 but a small minority had 
been over six books of Euclid. As to knowledge of French I 
cannot speak precisely, but I set or saw translations from French 
into English at all the schools where I understood that it was 
made much of, and if 20 were taken as the number of those in all 
the schools who could translate a passage from an ordinary French 
writer for themselves, so as at all to understand it, the allowance 
would be a liberal one. At Brewood and Coventry, and at those 
schools only, (to the best of my knowledge,) lessons are given in 
history and English literature of a kind which can be reckoned 
to contribute to liberal education. These schools together might 
produce about 10 boys having an intelligent interest in English 
literature, and a knowledge of history that would be likely to 
continue with them. Chemistry is studied to some purpose by a 
few boys at Walsall and Stafford. 

In considering the probable causes and possible remedies of the 
short-coming above delineated, it will be best to begin with a 
process of exclusion. Observation of the present working of 
grammar schools and intercourse with their teachers lead me 
distinctly to the result that a remedy is not to be found either in 
a radical change of the subjects of instruction, or in new methods 
of teaching as distinct from a greater general effectiveness on the 
part of the teachers. u 

The question between classical and other methods of education, |;; 
and between the English and continental systems of teaching 
classics, is doubtless of great importance in its bearing on the 
upper classes of the great schools and on the Universities. 
Through them (as will afterwards be pointed outf) it has an 
indirect bearing on the condition of grammar schools. But it is 
most important to notice that the boys in the grammar schools of 
which I am speaking — even the select 97 — have not reached the 
stage at which the controversy of systems can rationally be raised, ; 
When a boy has got that acquaintance with gramn\atical forms, 
without which he cannot speak or write any languao-e, even his 



"■ The master of the Stafford school— not, I am sure, from any fear of the 
result, but on prniciple -declined to allow of my examining any of his boys. 
He sent me, ho^^yever a budget of papers which some of them had done for him, 

t bee pages 163, 1/2, and 1/9. 



3Ir. Greenes Report. 149 

own, with more than accidental correctness ; when he has learnt 
to appreciate other distinctions than those which can be directly 
seen, and smelt, and handled; when ho has become capable of 
inference in regions besides those of profit and loss ; when he has 
leaj-nt the difference between the word that first occurs to him and 
the right word ; then a serious question arises as to the parts 
which the acquisition of positive knowledge and of skill in the use 
of words should severally fill in his education. The grammar- 
school boy, however, nearly always disposes of the qviestion by 
leaving school as soon as — often before — he has received the pre- 
liminary mental training without which neither real knowledge 
nor literary skill can be acquired at all. 

The primary question, then, is, how boys of the sort frequent- Difficulty in 
ing the lesser grammar schools can be brought in larger numbers grammar 
and at an earlier age to the level which is now only attained reaching the 
by the highest class at the best of them, and at which liberal stage at which 
education can first be said properly to begin. The apparently "'iteral" 
short cut to this end — of substituting modern languages for an i,e„ins. 
ancient one, and botany or chemistry for grammar — would be 
found, I think, a longer road. Setting aside for the present This won't he 
deficiences on the part of the teacher, the real difficulties which reached sooner 

*■ DV fflVlDlT Up 

have to be met on the part of the taught are an absence of Latin. 

intellectual interest, an incapacity for intellectual effort, and an 

obtuseness to distinctions of thought. Either the proposed 

" modern " curriculum would appeal to the same intellectual 

interest, and exact the same effort and refinement of intellect as 

the present classical one, or it would not. If it would, it would 

meet with the same passive resistance as the present ; if it would 

not, to adopt it would be not to overcome existing difficulties, but 

to acquiesce in them. Whether, in any case, such acquiescence Why not. 

may be necessary, is a further question ; but it is inconsistent 

with the attainment of the object here under consideration. 

It will be well, however, to consider more in detail in what the 
" modern " education at a grammar school might consist. The 
study of the English language, philologically, is clearly beyond 
the grammar school level. To be pursued to any purpose it pre- 
supposes the possession of just that intellectual apparatus which 
it is our problem to supply. The study of English literature, Why studyof 
again, though most valuable under a good teacher to boys who ^"Slisli ••^orCt 
have reached the stage at which those in question leave off, is 
impossible till the power of appreciating language other than that 
of common life has been attained. When professedly adopted in 
"middle schools," it consists, so far as I have observed, in 
cramming "manuals," which dispose of Milton in a couple of 
pages, with an enumeration of his works, the dates of their 
publication, and a few stock criticisms which have no more mean- 
ing to a boy than an account of the pictures in the Academy to one 
who has never seen a work of art. History and geography, as why that of 
ordinarily taught, by the almost uniform confession of the teachers Mstory and 
serve merely to exercise the memory. Their educational value &^°S^^^^y- 
(and this is itself a drawback) depends solely on the spirit with 



ISO 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Why that of 

English 

Grammar. 



Why that of 

modern 

languages. 



Why that of 

physical 

science. 



which they are taught ; but at best, studied as a boy must study 
them, they do nothing to elicit the faculties of inference ; nor 
can they take much real hold on those who are wholly witihout 
political knowledge or interest. English grammar is very properly 
taught for practical purposes to boys not habituated to speak and 
read English correctly at home, but as an instrument of iibferal 
education it seems comparatively poor. If taught philosopbicaily 
it at once runs up into logic, out of the reach of the uncultivated 
schoolboy. As taught in the ordinary empirical way, it does not 
serve the purpose of Latin. It is the degree to which the learning 
of Latin requires a perception of difference between words and 
phrases apparently alike, and of equivalence between those 
apparently unlike, that gives it at once its value and its un- 
pleasantness. English grammar, on the other hand, having few 
inflections, and being (in greater or less degree) native to the 
learner;; does little to stir the faculties of discrimination and com- 
parison out of that "stark and dead eongealment " which binds 
the average intellect of the ^ grammar school. I cannot reeaiH a 
single instance of a school where Latin grammar was well and 
systematically taught, and English only casually, in which 
English grammar itself was not better understood than in those 
where it was systematically taught and Latin grammar excep- 
tionally.* The same remarks apply in a modified degree to 
the juvenile study of French. They are probably- a g^od deal 
• less applicable to German, but just in so far as the learning of 
German is more difficult and less generally recognized as of 
practical utility, the popular objection to it will be the greater. 
At present, outside of Birmingham, (where it is taught both at 
the . grammar school and the proprietary school,) German is not 
taught at any school in the two counties, so far as I know, except 
the Leamington College, which is frequented by boys of a higher 
grade socially than those who commonly go to a grammar school, 
and the Brewood Gramma,r School, where it is not made much of.* 
There remain the physical sciences. Of their educational value 
I speak with the diffidence proper to one who has no thorough 
-acquaintance with them. This value, it must be noticed, is only 
in question with regard to boys in that state in which to construe 
a few sentences in Csssar and to learn Euclid is a serious difiiculty. 
I will not dispute that even to boys in this state those less abstract 
branches of physical science, siich as botany and physiologj, 
which I presume can alone be within their reach, may be tauglrt 
in such a way as to afford an equal mental discipline with Latin 
grammar and_ construing. If so taught, however, they will be 
equally objectionable. It is only because, as ordinarily taught, 
they do not require the same effort of abstraction from sense as 
the elements of Latin, only because they appeal more directly to 
eye and ear instead of thought, that they are more popular subjects. 



* It should be remembered, howevei-, that the boys in schools of the former 
kmd, bemg mostly of a higher social grade than those in the latter were pre- 
sumably more accustomed to correct grammatical speech. > . . , 

t The merest beginnings of German grammar are taught at Wolverhampton. 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 1 5 1 

'■' -TheTinost sufiicient gi-ound, -I believe, oa-wluGh the substitution 
of physical science or modern languages for Latin in the grammar 
schools can be urged, is as a compromise. Admitting, it may be 
*iid, that they are an Inferior educational organ, yet they are more 
popular with boys and parents', as at once more easy and more 
available in practical life. Since classical studies are confessedly, 
abandoned by all but a very few in the grammar schools before 
they harVe been carried far enough to be of much value on their 
own account, might it not be well to adopt other studies, which, 
will attract a larger number, be pursued with more zeal, and ' ; 

which, hoWeveri inferior in absolute value, a good teacher may yet 
turti to account' as instruments of true mental cultivation? 

Thcinotion tha,t 'parents of the' " middle class " have a distinct what parents 
preference for " modern " subjects as against Latin, is apt to be think of the 
far too readily accepted. To most of them, as has been pointed ^t^^es™" 
out elsewhere, the prospect of a modern, as distinct from a mere jg^ parents 
elerKs, education proving of ! practical value is far too remote to of higher 
haV-e much influeiiice. In the iron and pottery districts, I heard of '^°°?™^''''*^^ 
3*: few fboys for whom a knowledge of modem languages was 
necessary, and who went abroad— generally either to Switzerland 
or Germany — at considerable expense to obtain it. These would 
be boys who were expected to become the managing men in large 
establishments. As such, they were presumably born in wealth, - --o 

and therefore of a class which, as things go, prefers a- distant ■' 

hoarding school to a local grammar scliool. At any. rate their 
parents were of a kind who could so well afford to leave them at 
school for a year or two after they were 15,. in ■ order to learn 
modern languages, that they could supply no argument for 
changing the system of education for boys under 15. Their case 
would be met by a system of bi-furcation after that stage had been 
reached, to which the shortest way is now being considered.' The 
notion, however, of a possible utility of an acquaintance with 
French and German is no doubt beginning to reach a less wealthy 
class. In the iron district, particularly, enough instances occur of 
such an acquaintance being turned to account, or the want of it 
being felt, to make the smaller manufacturers alive to its impor- 
tance. Since the conclusion of the commerciak treaty with France, 
I'was told, French teaching was sensibly in more demand. 

How this demand is to be met I shall consider more in detail 
under the head of Commercial Education.* If a parent, howevei-, 
found that a boy who learnt French on a basis of Latin knew as 
much of it at the age of 15 as one, who learnt French only, knew at 
14, he would generally have enough vague reverence for the classics 
about him to prefer the former result to the latter. The former is 
one whitih a well-managed grammar school may certainly secure ; 
nor if it turns fairly to account the advantages which an endow- 
ment gives it, need it ever lose a boy worth having to the 
private academy on the ground of its insisting on Latin as pre- 
liminary to modern languages. Those' only will. be lost to* whom 

* See pacre 191. 



132 



Counties of Staffqrd and Warwick. 



2ndly, parents 
of lower 
commercial 
rank. 



Latin not 
necessarily 
an offence 
to them. 

Instance from 
Handswortli. 



Causes of 
popularity 
of this 
school. 



the knowledge of a modern language happens to be necessary, and 
whose early education has been so neglected as to make _ the 
shortest road to it the only practicable one. Towards chemistry 
the ordinary parental feeling is much the same as towards French 
or German, only that the cases where a school knowledge of it is 
of direct utility in business are more exceptional, while a practical 
acquaintance with it is more easily acquired in the shop. 

It cannot be too strongly insisted on, however, that to that class 
of parents which forms the main constituency of the grammar 
school, the shopkeepers and small manufacturers, the " modern" 
subjects are matter of equal indifference with the classical. What 
they want for their sons is an education which will qualify them 
for business, i.e., which will enable them to read, write, do accounts, 
and compose an ordinary letter — in the most compendious possible 
way. It is for this they send them to private commercial schools 
at 4Z. or Ql. a year. The aversion to the grammar school has 
arisen not from its teaching Latin, but from its failing to teach 
writing and arithmetic, or at any rate to teach them expeditiously. 
Let these be properly attended to, and the commercial parent, 
though he may object to the addition of anything else as loss of 
time, had as lief the addition be of Latin as of French or chemistry. 

That to require the learning of Latin is not to alienate parents of 
the trading class is shown by the success of the "Bridge-Trust'' 
school at Handsworth. This was started about three years ago 
for the benefit of the shopkeepers and lesser iron-masters of the 
neighbourhood, and on this class it has continued almost solely 
to draw. Greek is not attempted in it, but Latin is part of its 
regular system, and has a good deal of time given to it by all the 
boys above the one or two lower classes. French is taught also, 
but is quite secondary, the master considering it his first business 
to make the Latin standard decently high. When I was there, 
the knowledge of Latin was relatively higher than that of French, 
which even the upper boys had only learnt for a short time. Yet 
this school got nearly 150 boys within a year of its foundation 
and could get many more if it had room. Charging 4Z. a year, it 
is hardly at all cheaper than the private schools to which the boys 
whom it attracts would otherwise go ; yet it has driven aU the 
private schoolmasters of the neighbourhood from the field. This 
success I believe, apart from the great merits and popular qualities 
of its master, it owes to two causes. It has what almost every 
town grammar school with proper management might have — a 
good building and playground ; and it provides adequately for 
what the parents really want and understand — good writing, 
arithmetic, and drawing. One or two parents, having sons there, 
expressed to me a hesitating desire for rather more French and 
less Latin ; but this objection did not interfere with their general 
satisfaction, and will probably vanish, if they find, as they will 
when the school has had time to develope its system, that their 
sons know French as well in the long run as if they learnt it at a 
" modern" forcing establishment, though at the cost of waiting 
rather longer for it. 



Mr. Green's Report. 153 

Finally, on the parental side of the question it is to be remarked, Parents who 
that there are certain persons — few in number but the salt of their really thirst 
class — to whom a local grammar school in which classics and 
mathematics are taught affords the sole means of obtaining that '^^^"^ '^^ "®" 
education for their sons, which they definitely desire. Such are 
the poorer clergy, dissenting ministers, and the better sort of pri- 
vate and Government schoolmasters. Even a small country town 
is seldom without them. They are the hills and trees which break 
the monotonous level of commercial intelligence. Several such 
men are definitely before my mind when I say that they desire 
rather more than less of the classical element in the grammar 
school education, by which alone they can hope to push their sons 
a little higher up the intellectual ladder, of which they have 
themselves mounted the first step. In itself, the rational desire 
of one such father is surely more to be esteemed than the utili- 
tarian instinct of ninety-and-nine practical persons, who want no 
learning. 

As with the parents, so with the boys. A change of system why boys 
would be to sacrifice the few who want to learn to the many who prefer 
don't. The modern languages and " sciences'" are doubtless more g^^fgcts'^ 
acceptable to the majority of boys than Latin and Greek, but for 
the simple reason that they are easier. To the mature student of Evils of 
physical science, who applies to his subject the same method and ^ejding *" 
intensity which the student of language or metaphysic applies to fgren,^. 
his, it is of course an equal discipline, but by the universal testi- 
mony of schoolmasters it is just because, as taught to boys, it does 
not exact the same method and intensity that it is preferred by 
them ; nor does it imply any disrespect to the study to suppose 
that it would gain little by the unreasonable service of those who 
want either the capacity or the diligence to write a Latin exercise 
without violation of .the concords. The substitution of it, no less It means a 
than that of modern languages, for Latin would be to acquiesce in lower standard 
a distinctly lower intellectual standard, and that not for the majority 
of boys only, but for all. A small grammar school cannot work Why for all. 
effectively a system of alternative studies, save within very narrow 
limits. It has not the necessary staff for the purpose, and the 
exceptional study is sure to be neglected. Thus the abandonment 
of Latin for the majority would ultimately involve its virtual 
abandonment for the few. This, I believe, for reasons above 
indicated, would be a definite loss to the best boys, and would be 
no equivalent gain to the ordinary run, who would get no more 
real culture out of the new studies than out of the old, and would It would seal 
lose that beneficial consciousness of their own inferiority which is ^i''°''<!6 of 
induced by contact with a study, to them disagreeably difficult. fchoTfrom 
It woiild also finally seal the divorce of the grammar school from university. 
the University. It would do this in two ways, by its action both 
on masters and on boys. The present head-masters of grammar 
schools in the towns are almost always graduates of Oxford or 
Cambridge, and on the present system rationally so. If active and 
interested in their work, as they always Avould be if the system of 
paying them were put on a better footing, they teach elementary 



154- 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Evils of this 
result in 
regard (1) to 
masters, (2) 
to boys. 



Keal reasons 
of defects of 
grammar 
schools. 

Why don't 
more go to 
them. 
Position of 
masters. 



No pecuniary 
stimulus to 
popularity. 



Former 
reasons for 
snuhhing 
town-boys. 



classics and mathematics better than any one else would, and 
better than they would themselves teach anything else. What 
they have themselves learnt as boys, they can teach to boys, . But 
on the ':' modern " system, unless the old universities, with the, 
schools which mainly feed them, also modernize themselves, their, 
<rraduates will be out of place in the provincial grammar schooL 
Their best men, indeed, if they applied themselves to the " modjern " 
subjects, might perhaps teach them better than any one else, but: 
it is only graduates of the second rank that the provincial grammar, 
schools can command. Such men in teaching the modern subjects, 
having no longeJJ the advantage of teaching what they have them- 
selves been drilled in from boyhood, would probably do their •work. 
t)ut poorly, and would gradually be superseded by men trained to 
the business, of the stamp of the better kind of certificated masters. 
This change would probably be in itself an, evil, for, so far as 
my observation goes, the existing graduate master, with all the,. 
Inactivity which the possession of an income independent pt.^s^ 
schplastlc exertions is apt to engender, is yet a better source of local 
civilization than his supposed successor would be. At, any rate it- 
would cut off one of the main channels, far too few already, by 
which the possibility of a university career is brought home to the 
imagination of the commercial class. The tendency of the modem 
system with the boys themselves would be of the same. kind. It 
would extinguish every spark of aspiration towards the University." 
The great check on such aspiration at present is the prevalent no- 
tion that education should be an easy and agreeable process, which 
will qualify the recipient for making money at 15. This notion 
the adoption of the " modern " system would sanction and enthrone. 
No recognition of the modern studies in their higher branches by 
the Universities could mitigate this evil, for it would not be the 
vsrant of reward for their thorough prosecution that would be at 
fault, but the absence of any spirit for carrying any study into, its 
more difficult theoretical stages. 

The real reasons why the grammar schools are doing so little, 
for liberal education are to be found, I believe, mainly outside the, 
actual system of instruction pursued in the schools themselves.; 
They maybe conveniently summed up under two heads; (a), 
reasons why more boys don't come to them; and ,(5), reasons why 
those who do come fail to reach a higher standard of learning. 

Under («), the reason (1) which should be put first as bearing- 
more or less on all that follow, is the position of the head-masters 
of these schools. Till within a very recent period this was in all 
cases of a kind wliich gave them no pecuniary stimulus to make 
their several schools useful to the immediate neighbourhood. No 
fees could be charged for day-boys, and from the endowment the 
master derived an income of which he could only be deprived on 
the ground of scandalous misconduct, and even so not without an 
expensive chancery suit. This income he generally increased by 
taking as boarders the sons of the professional men and lessep 
gentry from the country round ; but though this was a motive for? 
making the school acceptable to one class of society, it was equally. 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 155 

so for making it unacceptable to another. Tiie town boys, who 
would have been unsuitable company for the more genteel 
boarders, were often frightened away by the terrors either of the 
cane or of the " classics." If they came, they either failed to get 
the education for business which they wanted, or were relegated 
to a " writing school," which gave them no chance of rising to 
such higher education as the school might afford. I came quite to 
expect, on inquiring into the past history of schools now depen- 
dent almost wholly on day boys, to hear of a time, 30 or 40 years 
back, when they flourished as boarding schools, and educated many 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood who would not think of sending 
their sons to them in their present state. Success of this kind 
seemed generally to have been attended by corresponding inatten- 
tion to the ordinary town boys. With the increase in facilities 
of travelling, and the multiplication of large, attractive boarding 
schools, the day of such success is finally over, but the impression 
made by the old state of things on the mind of the commercial 
class is by no means effaced, nor has sufficient security been 
generally taken that the grammar-school master, having lost his 
old function, should vigorously adopt a new one. Many of the I^ ™^°y 
' schools in the two counties have been put under new schemes g^muhirt"" 
within the last 10 years or so, and in these cases provision has attract day- 
been almost always made for the payment of a yearly fee by ^°7^- 
the boys of sufficient amount to give the master some interest 
in getting them. In no case, however, except Birmingham, is the Nowhere 
payment of the master out of the endowment made to depend gj;^i„„ 
' largely on the number of boys in the school ; and of the schools 
" professing to teach Latin there are still seven, representing a gross 
5' annual income from endowment of nearly 4000Z. where no fee at 
*■' all, or none remunerative, is charged on the ordinary boys.* 
k I do not at all mean to imply that in these cases or in others 
ti want of pecuniary stimulus leads to positive neglect of duty. I 
am glad to sa,y that I did not in the two counties come across 
- a single case of such neglect. But between neglect of a school, 
ill and the effort to make it as attractive as it might be, there is a 
V wide interval. A private schoolmaster resorts to all kinds of Contrast with 
devices to push his school, and without adopting these the P"vate school- 
it endowed master might yet with advantage take a leaf out of his ™^ * 
J, book. He touts for boys as a commercial traveller for orders. If 
sj his connexion lies with the farmers, he commonly goes round in 
g a gig on a holiday afternoon, calls at the houses of parents who 
ill have sent him boys already, and gets leave to carry off any stray 
H son that he finds hanging about at home, whose clothes are sent 
! after him on the following market-day. He promises to give each 
I) boy a " practical education " of the exact kind he wants, makes 
j|i a great fuss about "individual attention," and has to pay for 
ill 

'' * At Walsall, Rugeley, Nuneaton, and Coleshillno yearly fees at all are paid. 

I< At Brewood and Coventry (by sons of freemen), 30s. a year is paid. At 
li Stratford boys living inside the borough pay nothing, and that which is paid 
J by others does not go to the master but accumulates. At Audley only weekly 

pence are paid, but as this is virtually a village school, though professing 

Latin I have not reckoned it here. 



156 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Master of 
grammar 
school does 
not look out 
for boys. 



Snubs com- 
mercial 



These not 
really difficult 
to manage. 



his professions by submission to irritating interference from the 
parents, not so much in the way of regulating the boy's studies, 
for which they are generally too ignorant, as of withdrawing him 
fitfully from instruction altogether. No one who has observed 
the difficulties, in which the private commercial schoolmaster is 
placed from inability to hold his own against parents and pupils, 
can doubt the possible utility of endowments in face of the present 
standard of intelligence on educational matters among the people 
on whom such a master depends. But the present effect of the 
endowment is often to prevent the master from making the 
grammar school as popular as it might be made without any 
sacrifice of principle. This appears in a multitude of details, 
which it is impossible to particularize. One or two points, how- 
ever, which specially struck me, may be mentioned. 

The master of a grammar school is apt not to look out pro- 
perly for eligible boys. Not associating personally with the class 
of parents most likely to use his school, he scarcely knows what 
boys in the neighbourhood are to be had. Hence. I believe, he 
loses a good many to the private academies, especially from out- 
lying places, whom a little notice from him might attract, and he 
misses certain boys, to be found in the upper classes of the better 
schools under the Privy Council, who are capable of higher edu- 
cation. As I shall have to speak of both these kind of boys in 
another connexion, I will say no more of them here.* Further, 
the endowed master is apt needlessly to trample on the notions of 
education current among the commercial class. That education 
should be " general," not " special," and that classics and mathe- 
matics are the best instruments of general education, are pro- 
positions which certainly will not be disputed in this report ; but 
there is no reason why they should be obtruded on parents who 
do not understand them, but suppose them — not without justifica- 
tion in the experience of the past — to mean that a boy subjected to 
the " general " education of the grammar school wiU be of no use 
in business at the age of 16. A late master of a grammar school 
with whom I conversed on the subject expressed a conviction 
that any apparent compromise with commercial ideas in educa- 
tion was as bad policy as compromise with Dissenters on the 
questions agitated by the Liberation Society. This conviction, 
to which the practice of certain grammar schools, though of far 
fev/er than formerly, still corresponds, I believe to be utterly 
erroneous. So far as 1 could see and hear, when once a master 
has got hold of a decently promising boy, he may with good 
management teach him almost what he likes. As it is, parents 
are often alienated at the outset by an expressed contempt for 
practical education. If on the other hand the master would pro 
mise them adequate attention to writing and arithmetic, and so 
much to English grammar as is necessary to make the son of 
uneducated parents write a correct letter, he might add anything 
else at his pleasure. 

It is to be remembered, also, that the master of a grammar 
school often obtains his position without any special interest in 

* See pages 196 and 212. 



Mr. Green's Report, 151 

the work that lies really before him. I should suppose, from 

what I heard of the past, that trustees were generally much more Master of 

alive now, than they were (say) 30 years ago, to the duty of g''ammar 

appointing the best man. When testimonials, however, to oha- „qj. interested 

racter, ability, and knowledge are good, they cannot be expected in his worlc 

to look much further. Hence the mastership often falls to a 

respectable clergymanj of some accomplishments, who is on the 

lookout for some quiet way of earning money to support a family, 

but who has little heart for his work to begin with, and soon loses 

what he has. The evil is aggravated by the fact that a man, once 

appointed to a grammar school, seSms generally to stay there till he 

dies, or is pensioned out in extreme old age, and that in most cases 

there is nothing to prevent his holding other clerical appointments. 

Excluding chaplaincies of unions, which seem generally to be filled 

by masters of grammar schools, there are eight schools in the two Often has 

counties of which the masters hold other appointments. In one of °*®' ^°*' 

these cases — that of Walsall — the master is necessarily under the Instances. 

scheme (of 1797) minister of a chapel of ease, which involves his "'^^^ ' 

preaching two sermons on Sunday. Owing to the size of the 

place and school, this is a most mischievous arrangement, and is 

felt as such by the master. The master at Stratford is in a pre- Stratford, 

cisely similar position. At Newcastle, again, the master of the Newcastle, 

grammar school has the care of a large parish in the town, and 

has his attention diverted from the school to a most unfortunate 

extent. At Eanver the master of the grammar school is also Kinver. 

vicar of the parish, and has till lately given up the care of the 

school almost wholly to a deputy. In the other cases the clerical 

work is of a less absorbing kind, but in all, I think, it tends to 

divert the master's interest in greater or less degree from the 

school. In two of them the master avowed to me his desire to be 

rid of his scholastic work altogether. In three other cases, where 

no clerical appointment was held, a similar desire was either 

expressed or was obviously operative. 

(2.) The next general cause to be noticed, as lowering the Bad tnildiugs 
number of boys in attendance at grammar schools, is to be found *"^ eituation. 
in their frequently unattractive externals. As a rule, according 
to my experience, the grammar school of a town is in a far worse 
situation, has a far worse building, and is far worse supplied with 
educational appliances than the schools for the poor. It is, in 
fact, generally the worst public building in the place. For details 
on this head I must refer to my reports on individual schools. 
At 10 of the schools, professing to be classical, that I visited, 
there is nothing worthy to be called a play-ground at all, and at 
only four in all is there anything more than a large yard, without 
grass. The schools at Wolverhampton and Coventry call for Instances : 
special notice in this respect, on account of the size of their ^°^^Q^^atir 
endowments, the former having a gross income of 1,187Z., the Newcastle, ' 
latter of 1,066J. The Wolverhampton school stands in that street Burton, 
of the town which is or was the worst, both on moral and sanitary '^^^^''^■ 
grounds. The Coventry school is taught in a building, interesting 
to the architect or antiquarian, but inconvenient for the purpose, 

N 2 



158 



Counties of Stafford and WarioicJt. 



Contrast, in 
illustration of 



schools at 
Atherstone and two 
Nuneaton. 



in the worst part of the town, and close to a polluted stream. 
Neither has a playground. At Newcastle, Burton, and Warwick 
an impression that the school is unwholesome has definitely pre- 
vented boys from being sent to it. Such drawbacks are the more 
considerable in presence of the growing preference for boarding 
schools as against day schools, and of the growing reluctance of 
professional men, on social grounds, to u%e the town school for 
their sons. 

The operation of the general causes (1) and (2) above men- 
tioned may be illustrated by the contrast between the manage- 
h^-men^^^ "' ^^^^"* ^"^ condition of two neighbouring schools in Warwickshire, 
Atherstone, and Nuneaton. The income from endowment of the 
schools is nearly the same. The population which could 
conveniently send day boys to Nuneaton is nearly double of that 
which could so send them to Atherstone ; nor am I aware of any 
essential difference between the circumstances of the two popula- 
tions. At Nuneaton the building is bad and badly situate, nor is 
there any playground. No fees are charged. The master is vicar 
of a neighbouring parish (population only 199), and, though 
thoroughly competent to teach, does not possess much interest in 
his scholastic work. At Atherstone the building is excellent, 
there is an acre of playground, and a fee of 4?. 4*. a year is 
charged on the ordinary day-boys. The late master, moreover, 
who had left rather less than a year before my visit, and to whom 
the credit of raising the school was mainly due, was according to 
all accounts a most energetic man, who laid hands on every boy 
of every class who could be got into the school. The results are 
these. At Atherstone in October 1865 there were 80 boys, 60 
being day-scholars. There were nine boys in the first class, 12 in 
the second. The first class was reading the Apology in Greek, 
Xiivy in Latin. The second was doing SaJlust (their Greek I did 
not hear). Each class was well up to its work, and some of the 
boys I thought of considerable promise, such as, considering their 
age (for none were over 16), might have a fair chance of scholar- 
ships at the University. Two boys from the school, indeed, now 
hold scholarships at St. John's, Cambridge. The best boy in the 
school was a day scholar of humble birth, and altogether only 
about half the boys in the two highest classes were boarders. 
Here, then, was a school in a small and sleepy country town, 
which had got 60 boys of the town into its net, giving all a chance 
of reaching the " higher learning," and of this chance several had 
availed themselves to a degree which, even if it were carried no 
further, must leave a permanent impression. At Nuneaton, in 
the same month, there were only 25 boys, divided into two 
departments, only six being under the head master. Of these six 
only one was up to the mark of the second class at Atherstone. 
Of the 19 in the lower department only one or two were likely 
ever to pass in the upper, and to the rest the " higher learning " 
could not be said to be within reach. The superiority of Ather- 
stone in numbers is certainly not due to its " modernizing " the 
style of education, for this would be inconsistent with its superiority 



Causes of 
success of 
Atherstone. 



Mr. Greenes Report. 159 

in quality, and as will be noticed elsewhere,* English subjects are 
perhaps unduly neglected there, nor, though it so happens that an 
unusual proportion of the middling families of the town have sons 
of an age to go to school, will this really explain the difference 
in the face of Nuneaton's larger population. The true account of 
its excellence is to be found in the spirit shown by the trustees in 
building, in the active encouragement which, being residents in 
the town, they have given to the school, and especially in the 
energy of the late master in getting hold of and pushing forward 
boys. As good as Atherstone is, every grammar school in a 
country town, having an equal endowment, might with energetic 
management become. 

(3.) The next general causes to be reckoned under (a) are the 
general preference of boarding schools to day schools, and the 
unwillingness of professional and commercial parents generally to 
use the town grammar school. The first of these causes depends 
greatly on the second, but so far as it rests on other grounds it 
may be considered separately. 

The preference for large boarding schools is partly simple Preference of 
fashion. It goes along with that reverence for the conventional gg^o™^ 
character of the English gentleman, which is obtruded on us in Reasons of 
all the literature of the day, and which in various graduations of tl»is. 
form has worked itself down through all classes of society above Pashion. 
the shopkeeper. This character large boarding schools are rightly 
thought to have special means of generating. They foster an 
early susceptibility to the club-law of honour ; form habits of ready 
address towards equals and of contempt towards " those that are 
without ;" lead to the concealment, if not to the suppression, of 
egotism and self-conceit in ordinary companionship ; and by their 
organization of games develope a muscular bearing suitable to 
such a temper. This being a result now recognized as valuable, 
each class seeks after it according to its means and standard, and 
in the circulars of private schools one finds its production adver- 
tized at a surprisingly low figure. There are more tangible Boarding 
reasons, however, for the popularity of boarding schools, which school saves 
were frequently brought under my notice, and are connected with r^^°*^ "'°" ^■ 
the stress of occupation among men of business. Outside the 
homes of the less distracted ministers of religion, there is scarcely 
a father to be found who knows anything about or takes any prac- 
tical interest in the education of his sons. The man of business 
leaves home after breakfast, and when he returns for a late dinner 
or tea, he likes his son to be jocose and companionable, but not 
to bother him about lessons. The mother and sisters, however 
desirous they may be for the boy's intellectual distinction in the 
abstract, have seldom strength of mind to check his readiness to 
take part in any social amusement that may be going on. The 
consequence is that he does next to nothing at home, and there is 
not enough competition to stimulate him much in the local day- 
school. Meanwhile he is very likely forming acquaintances in the 

'* See page 187. 



160 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Beasons why 

professional 

men don't use 

grammar 

school. 

Gratuitous 

entry. 

Instances. 
Coventry. 



WalsaU. 



Nuneaton, 

Charging fees 
does not set 
things right. 
Instances. 
Burton. 



Newcastle. 
Warwick. 



neighbourhood which his parents think socially and morally ob- 
jectionable, and becoming rather disagreeable in his domestic 
relations. A sovereign remedy for this mischief is thought to 
be his migration to a boarding schooL Here greater competition 
and the supervision of the master in the evenings may make him 
more studious, though I doubt whether they generally do so. At 
any rate, disagreeable connexions are broken, the family is free 
from responsibility, and the boy is more acceptable to his home, 
and his home to the boy, when he returns to it for the holidays. 
No better than these are the general grounds ' for preferring a 
boarding school, as such. Both professional and commercial 
parents, however, often choose it because it supplies something 
which they want, and which cannot be supplied at the grammar 
school. 

(4.) At most of the schools that I visited the absence of sons of 
professional men was very, remarkable. On the whole, it was 
most conspicuous in those schools where no fees are charged, and 
which consequently are apt to have their lower classes filled with 
boys who, in respect both of birth and of capacity for learning, 
had better be in a national school. At the Coventry school (serving 
a population of 40,000), which has the attraction of good exhibi- 
tions (though awkwardly limited *), and a master well able to give 
the highest education, there was scarcely a single son of a pro- 
fessional man in the upper classes. Here the almost gratuitous 
admission of sons of freemen — they pay SO*, a year — and the 
unsuitable situation of the school, must be borne in mind. At 
Walsall school,f where admission is wholly gratuitous, and where 
the boys of the lower department, who learn neither Latin nor 
Euclid, partly use the same school-room, though not the same 
playground, as the rest, there were only two or three sons of pro- 
fessional men out of more than 100, and I ascertained that parents 
of this sort generally objected to use the school on account of the 
company. The objection, I understood, had not been so strong 
some years ago, when the two departments were taught in separate 
parts of the town. At Nuneaton school, where there are no fees, 
was only one son of a professional man, and he, I was told, was 
the first who had been there for years. "Where fees are charged, 
however, the evil continues, though not quite to the same extent. 
At Burton a division of departments has been introduced, for the 
first of which 7Z. a year is charged, yet the professional class was 
represented in it by the sons of a single family. Here the entire 
want of playground, and the supposed unhealthiness of situation, 
are drawbacks. At Newcastle, where there are similar objections 
in aggravated degree, the professional men seemed to have quite 
given up using the grammar school. At the Warwick school fees 
are charged, the master is thoroughly able to give the best educa- 
tion for the Universities, and there are three exhibitions of 65/. 



* See page 173. 

t The endowment is 1,000Z. a year gross. 



The population 39,000. 



Mr. Greeds Report. 161 

a year eaqh.* The school, moreover, is accessible as a day-school 
not merely to the covmty town, but to the whole of Leamington. 
It has more sons of professional parents relatively to its whole 
number (44) than the schools previously mentioned, but still 
a very scant supply considering how many might come, and that 
the course of instruction is more adapted for them than it is in 
most grammar schools. Here again want of playground and bad Four schools 
situation are to be noticed. Only at four schools of those I visited, po^^on^of sons 
viz., Lichfield, Brewood, Atherstone, and Sutton-Coldfield, did of professiooai 
the professional class seem adequately represented. At Lichfield, gentlemen, 
the endowment being scanty, the fee charged on the ordinary 
scholars is high enough to exclude the lower rank of commercial 
hoys, who resort either to a private, or to a very good endowed 
elementary school, in the city. Brewood and Sutton-Coldfield 
have both considerable attractions in the way of building and play- Reasons in 
ground, and both are in repute as boarding schools. At Brewood each case, 
the boarders form two-thirds, at Sutton-Coldfield one-third, of the 
entire school. At the former, " English " subjects certainly re- 
ceive a full share of attention ; at the latter, though I do not 
mean to imply that they are neglected, yet the system of the 
school is rather laid out with reference to the wants of professional 
men, and there is a private commercial academy in the town 
which seems to flourish in numbers. At Atherstone, as I have 
said before, every boy of every class that can in any sense be 
reckoned fit for the grammar school goes to it. Almost the best 
hoys in the school last year were severally sons of an exciseman and 
a gardener, while all the sons of professional men in the town, who 
were of fit age, were in attendance. I thought here, however, 
that, though the general standard of the school was excellent, 
arithmetic and writing had been somewhat neglected, and there is 
an impression to that effect among the tradesmen of the town. 

The general objection of professional men to using the local Permanent 

fframmar school, so far as it is independent of such remediable grounds for 
& ., , _ . , , , .-,\. , , f. , J ahstention ot 

evils as defects in the master and buildmg, has a tworolo source — professional 

dislike of mixture between their sons and those of tradesmen, and men. 

an opinion that the small grammar school cannot give adequate 

preparation for the large " public school," at which, if prosperous, 

they generally propose ultimately to place them. The dislike of 

mixture with inferior boys is so closely bound up with prevalent 

and well-understood feelings of English society, that little need be 

said about it. So far as it can be said to rest on moral grounds. Mixture of 

these are to be found in the facts that the code of honour is apt to classes. 

be less strict among the sons of tradesmen, that their language is 

more frequently coarse, and that they are receptacles for all local 

scandals. It is generally stronger in small towns than in larger 

ones. In the small town every one knows and talks about every one 

else, and an acquaintance between the boys of two families leads to 

each family becoming acquainted with the domestic affairs of the 

■^ In two instances during the last few years the holders of these have been 
placed in the first class at Oxford. 



162 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Modes of quali- 
fying this 
objection. 



Instance from 
, Handsworth. 



Professional 
man wants 
education 
for his sons 
other than the 
grammar 
school can irell 
give. 



other. So long as the tradesmen of country towns continue their 
habit of spending the evening in the bar-rooms of inns, a sensitive 
father may be excused for wishing to have as little connexion as 
possible between his family and theirs. The difficulties of social 
mixture in a grammar school, however, seem to be greatly lessened 
by the influence of the master on the manners of the boy, and by 
the possession of a good playground. "Where, as is most commonly 
the case, the grammar school has no playground, or only a yard, 
the day boys after lessons are turned directly on the street. This 
affects the mixture of classes in two ways. It is companionship 
with under-bred boys in fite street which the more refined parent 
specially fears for his son ; and, on the other hand, it is by inter- 
course with his boys in the precincts of the school and in the 
playground that the master may best succeed in softening the 
manners of the rougher ones, and giving a common tone of honour 
and gentleness to all. Of what may be done in this way, the 
Bridge Trust School at Handsworth affords a good instance. The 
boys there are almost all of the trading class, which is very 
numerous thereabouts. Having spent four days in and about the 
school, I had good opportunity of observing their outward be- 
haviour, and this seemed to me as good as any one could wish — a 
good deal better than that of the same class at Kong Edward's 
School, Birmingham. At Handsworth a good playground adjoins 
the school, and the head-master, mainly by this means, sees a good 
deal of all the elder boys out of school hours. At Birmingham 
the rank and file of the boys emerge immediately on the street, 
and the masters can see nothing of them when lessons are over. 
If there were many professional men about Handsworth, which 
there are not, there could be no reason against their sending their 
sons to the school, except that the education given in it might not 
be sufficiently classical.* This brings me to the second obstacle to 
the availability of grammar schools for the professional class. 

Those members of this class who have been themselves, so to 
speak, born to education, are the people whose sons the master of 
a grammar school naturally looks for as his best material. In 
the present state of things, however, it would be difficult with a 
good conscience to recommend them to use an ordinary grammai' 
school, even though it be well conducted. They naturally desire 
their sons to have a chance of a university career, if they should 
show a desire for it, and of turning such a career to the best 
account. Short of this, they desire them, before taking to a 
business or profession, to have such an education as is given in 
the higher classes of the public schools. Neither desire is likely 
to be well satisfied by the provincial grammar school. A boy who 
stays on at the grammar school till he goes to the University no 
doubt eases his father's pocket as much as he would do by getting 
an exhibition from a boarding school, but for his last three or four 

* The best instance of an amalgamation of classes that I have met with— 
clue in large measure, I believe, to excellence of building, situation and play- 
ground — is the Loughborough grammiu- school. This not being \vithin the 
district dealt with by the present report, I have not referred to it in the text. 



Mr. Green's Report. 163 

years at school he will have to be taught alone. Thus he will why it can't 
lose the stimulus of competition, and not knowing how to measure gi'^^ it. 
himself, will probably acquiesce in too low a standard. His Want of 
master may give him as much attention as he would receive at a competition, 
public school, or more; but the master who spends three-quarters of leisure for 
of his time in drivmg the "syntaxis minor" into boys of 14, higher studies 
cannot keep his scholarship up to the level which is maintained by "n the part of 
the higher masters at liugby and Winchester. The difficulty is ^^^ "*^'®''- 
probably greater in regard to classical than to mathematical study 
(which may perhaps account for the fact that boys from the small 
grammar schools achieve comparative success at Cambridge), and 
in the case of the former is aggravated by the importance attached 
to composition in English classical scholarship. In greater or 
less degree, however, it must be felt in all branches of the higher 
education. Nor is it easy for the grammar school to fulfil well 
the subordinate function of educating boys up to the age and 
standard at which they may with advantage be transferred to one 
of the great public schools. On this point I found the testimony 
of the best masters of grammar schools concurrent. If the town System 
grammar school is to do its duty by the ordinary boys, it must requisite for 
adapt its system to a far greater want of home cultivation, and an not test suited 
earlier need of bringing arithmetic and writing to perfection, than to sons of 
are supposed in those for whom the course of instruction at the educated men. 
great schools is adapted. It ought in the first place to take care The former 
that all its scholars, except the stupid or neglected, be accomplished want too much 
in all ordinary arithmetic, and able to write a good clerk's hand ^" "^ '°' 
by the time they are 12 years old. It is better on aU grounds to 
get this necessary part of the education, which in justice to the 
ordinary boys must be imparted some time, out of the way at first. 
It is what the commercial parents value and understand, and it 
is what the sound commercial schools, by giving it exclusive at- 
tention, bring early to perfection. If neglected to begin with, 
parents are dissatisfied, and the more promising boys are cumbered 
with it during their last two or three years at school, when they 
are most capable of receiving some liberal cultivation. Secondly, Too much 
for boys who form the staple of our provincial grammar school, English 
some early teaching of English grammar is unquestionably wanted. Si'ammar. 
Bred as they are at home, they are incapable without this of 
reading and writing correctly,* and are thus not only inadequately 
equipped for practical life, but seriously hampered in the acquisi- 
tion of any other language. 

Now, for the sons of educated professional men, who are 
to be sent ultimately to Rugby, Winchester, or Marlborough, 
any formal instruction in English grammar is, with a view 
to success at these schools, simply thrown away, nor does any 
large share of attention to writing and arithmetic "pay." If, 
then, they are sent to a grammar school conducted on the plan 
above delineated, they are either not taught in the best Avay 

* Any one, who will take the trouble to look over the advertisements of inn- 
keepers at the end of Bradshaw's Guide, will find that scarcely one is gram- 
inatioally correct. I. know of no reason for supposing that innkeepers are 
worse educated than ordinary shopkeepers. 



164 Counties of Stafford and Wamnck. 

for their final destination, or they are taught exceptionally, and 
such exceptional teaching is always found to be bad both for 
those in whose favour the exception is made and for the rest. I 
have not found a single grammar school where a reconciliation 
between the two kinds of want has been achieved with perfect 
success, though I have found several where each want was imper- 
fectly satisfied from an attempt to satisfy the other.* As the 
younger grammar schoolmasters are becoming conscious of the 
impossibility of maintaining their hold on the higher professional 
class, they naturally throw themselves more on the commercial. 
In seeking to attract this they meet with further difficulties, 
which have next to be considered. 
Objections of C^') ^^^ Statement of these has been to a great extent antici- 
commereial pated in what has been already said. So far as they are per- 
class to gram- manent they arise mainly from the greater attraction which the 
mar so oo . private commercial school offers to the parent who wishes his son 
to be qualified for business by the shortest possible method. This 
Private schools attraction is no doubt in many instances factitious. Of the private 
thought to give schools into which I gained admission, and which were presumably 
shorter out to q^ ^j^g whole the best of their kind, there were some in which the 
necessary for arithmetic was worse than in the worst grammar schools. In 
business. most, I think, the knowledge of English grammar and the general 

Do they ? faculty of composing a correct English letter were no greater than 

Yes, if good of ^^ *^^® second-rate grammar schools. At the sounder private 
their kind. schools, however, charging from 4Z. to 6Z. a year, and making 
little profession of anything beyond " English " subjects, the 
writing and arithmetic of the boys at a given age, say 12, were, 
if not better in themselves, yet better for commercial purposes 
than were those of boys of the same age at most grammar schools. 
This is the natural result of the fact that they are almost exclu- 
sively attended to. There are also certain commercial accom- 
plishments, much thought of by parents of the trading class, of 
which the private schools make great parade, while the grammar 
schools commonly ignore them. Such are book-keeping, com- 
mercial letter-writing, mechanical drawing, &c. On the extent 
to which these may be provided for by a grammar school I shall 
speak afterwards. It is clear, however, that in a school which 
aims at laying the foundation of a liberal education, they can 
never be treated as other than supplementary. Those parents, 
therefore, who wish them to be primary will send their sons to 
schools where they are treated as such. A certain number also 
will always be alienated by the rigid system which a grammar 
school, having only two masters, must always maintain if it is to 
teach thoroughly what it professes. These will prefer the private 
school, which ostensibly consults the several wishes and capacities 
of individual parents and boys. More will be said on these points 
under the heads of "commercial education" and "private 
schools." The boys thus lost to the grammar school on com- 



* A successful reconciliation is, I think, more nearly approached at Loughr 
borough than at any other school that I have aeen. 



Mr. Greenes Report, 165 

mercial grounds are on the whole those who would furnish the 
least promising material for " liberal education." Such as they 
are, their loss might often be avoided by a fuller recognition on 
the part of the grammar-school m£|,sters of their true poisition, but 
so long as the feeling of the trading class on education remains 
what it is it cannot be altogether prevented. 

It may be well here to give such informatioii as I have been Statistic? as to 
able to obtain with regard to the number of day boys attending J^um^'ei" taught 
grammar and commercial schools severally in given populations, and private 
It was only in certain towns that I succeeded in learning enough schools 
from the private schoolmasters to obtain even approximate respectively. 
statistics on this point. There is also in all cases a difficulty as 
to the amount of population served by the schools of a country 
town, according as villages around do or do not send boys to 
them. In the round numbers given below I have made rough 
allowance for such villages according to information obtained in 
the several towns : 

, Stafford. Population, 14,000 ; in grammar school, classical 
department, 37 ; commercial department, 35 ; in private schools, 
virtually not classical, 60. 

Liclifield. Population, 7000 ; grammar school, 26 ; private 
schools, virtually not classical, 45 (?) ; tradesmens' sons in Mynor's 
English School, 4, 

Atherstone. Population, 5,500 ; grammar school, 60. 

Uttoxeter. Population, 6,000 ; grammar school, classical depart- 
ment, 22 ; English department, 18 ; private school, not classical, 28. 

Stratford-on-Avon. Population, 7,000 ; grammar school, 30 ; 
private school, classical, 14 ; ditto, not classical, 20. 

Wolverhampton. Population (inclusive of Bilston), 90,000 ;* 
grammar school (about), 105 ; private schools, teaching Latin, 
62 ; ditto, virtually not classical (about), 233. 

Walsall. Population, 40,000 ; grammar school, 115 (classical 
department, 70 ; English, 45) ; private school, virtually not clas- 
sical, 35. Perhaps one or two other very small private schools. 

Those schools I have described as virtually not classical, 
where there is a profession of Latin, but where it is only taught 
to a sixth part of the boys, or less, and to these only with a 
view to employment as druggists. It will be observed that 
whereas in the country towns the proportion of boys attending Contract be- 
middle schools of some kind is nearly 10 to the 1,000, at the *"^een country 
manufacturing towns of "Wolverhampton and Walsall it is less mamufacturins 
than five to the 1,000. The same remark applies in yet stronger towns. 
degree to Birmingham, and, I believe, to the Potteries.f The 
explanation, probably, is partly that in manufacturing places the 
number of labourers is relatively greater, partly that in the 
larger towns the small shopkeepers make more use of schools 
under the Privy Council. In all the places mentioned, except 
perhaps Stratford, the grammar school is as full as it conveniently 

* The Parliamentary borough of Wolverhampton includes several townships 
not reckoned here, 
t See Report on Birmingham, page 110, and below, page 166. 



166 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Many persons 
virtually out of 
reacli of gram- 
mar schools. 
In the pottery 
towns. 



In the " Black 
Country." 



This sometimes 
due to pa- 
rochial limita- 
tions, as at 
Walsall. 



could be, though on the other hand I do not know that in any 
of them many are kept out for want of room. The figures in 
other towns having grammar schools would, to the best of my 
belief, correspond on the whole to those given. 

(6.) There is a large middle population, however, in the two coun- 
ties, rich as they are in grammar schools, which is practically out of 
their reach. The most obvious instance of this is in the iron and 
pottery district of North Staffordshire. In the parishes of Wolstan- 
ton, Burslem, and Stoke-on-Trent is a population — practically a 
town population — of moi-e than 120,000 without any available 
grammar school within reach. That at Newcastle is as full as its 
miserable accommodation will allow without drawing on this popu- 
lation, and has besides no attraction to offer them adequate to the 
fee which it charges for out-town boys. The iron district of South 
Staffordshire cannot be said to be ill-supplied with grammar schook 
Those at Birmingham, Handsworth, Walsall, Wolverhampton, and 
Dudley possess together a gross annual income of about 16,000/. 
and no place in the " Black country " is more than four miles 
from one or other of them. These schools, however, together 
(including the elementary schools on King Edward's foundation 
at Birmingham) are not educating more than 1,500 boys out of 
a population of about 800,000. If the smallness of this number 
were mainly due to the inaccessibility of grammar schools, it 
might be expected to be compensated by a large attendance at 
private schools, yet I feel sure, though unable to give exact 
statistics, that not more than 1,000 are to be found at such 
schools within the same distance. At the same time, an enlarge- 
ment in the present grammar schools, a change in their local 
restrictions, and an establishment of some new ones on the model 
of the Bridge Trust School at Handsworth would bring many 
more within the range of a " middle " education. At Walsall, for 
instance, the freedom of education, which is absolute, is confined 
to sons of residents in the parish. Extra parochial boys have to 
pay 10/. a year, a higher fee than is charged at any private 
school in the district, except one on the genteel side of Wolver- 
hampton, which charges the same, and has only 25 day boys.* 
The result of this system is that the school is filled with free 
boys, one-third of whom might as well be at a national or British 
school, while the sons of resjiectable tradesmen and others, living 
in some cases almost at the doors of the school are virtually ex- 
cluded.! I say " excluded," for — setting aside the question of 
room — the commercial parent of the district In question will always 
think it a better bargain to send his son to a boarding-school at 
30Z. a year than to a day grammar school at 10/. If the privilege 
of the parish were abolished and a fee of 4/. a year charged on all 
day boys without distinction, or with exemption in "favour of 

* With this exception, and that of another school at Wolverhampton, which 
charges 11. a year, the fee for day-boys at all the private schools in the districts 
that I am acquainted with, is 4Z. to 6/. according to the subjects taught. 

t In the same street as the grammar school, a few yards higher up, ai'e 
several ron's of respectable middle-class houses, which are in RushaU parish. 



Mr. Green R He-port. 107 

merit, on the plan oF the Bridge Trust School at Handsworth, 
boys would come to it, as they do to that, from a distance of three 
miles, and it would thus become available for Wednesbury and 
Darlaston, which are within that distance, and have a population 
of more than 30,000. 

Supposing this change to be made, I do not see that distance 
could be urged by any parent in the " Black country " as a reason 
for not sending his son to a grammar school. The Wolverhampton 
school is already open at a small fee and under certain conditions, 
and a certain number of boys, 10 or 12, do come to it from Wil- 
lenhall and Sedgely — places distant three miles each. It must be 
remembered, however, that distances are longer to the imagination 
of residents in a town than to that of residents in a village. A Distance -which 
farmer, if he likes a school, thinks nothing of sending his son six miles ahoy can be 
to it every day, and for a school in a country town, supplying pro- come. 
per conveniences for dinner, four miles may certainly be taken as 
the radius of its availability for day boys. But it is different with 
a population like that of the " Black country "accustomed to have 
all the necessities of life brought to its doors. Those few parents 
who value an education above that which is necessary for busi- 
ness will send their sons some miles to seek it, but if the grammar 
school wants to get hold of the average mass of commercial boys 
in such a class it must go to seek them. Of the best way of 
doing this I shall speak afterwards. 

Another set of boys, which may be taken as to a large extent How far sons 
lost to the grammar schools by difficulty of access, are the sons of "f farmers are 
farmers. It is true that farmers are in a special way estranged 
from the grammar school by influences referred to before. On 
the one hand its system is peculiarly objectionable to parents who 
make a practice of keeping their sons at home and in ignorance 
till they are 12 or 13, and then want them to learn to write and 
keep accounts with the least amount of trouble and discipline; on 
the other, the fascinations of the private schoolmaster seem to take 
a special hold on the mind of the farmer. There is a considerable 
population of this class, however, in the two counties out of the 
reach of grammar schools used as such, even if it desired to use them. 
This is the ease with the whole district of Staffordshire lying north All in Northern 
of a line drawn from Market Drayton to TJttoxeter. The number P*''* "f S*ai'- 
of farmers in this district, so far as it can be collected from the census- reach. ^'^^ °" 
returns (here only partially available, in most other cases utterly 
unavailable for my purposes), is 2,260. The great mass of these, 
however, are very small holders, after the custom of that region, for 
whose sons the national or British school is perfectly available. In 
the district of Staffordshire south of the above mentioned line, the 
cases of farmers living more than six miles from a grammar school 
must be quite exceptional. In Warwickshire, on the other hand, the In parts of 
census-districts of Alcester, Southam, and Kugby * must be wholly Warwickshire, 
outside this distance, and those of Solihull, Stratford, and Warwick 

* Some villages in the Rugby district are in Northamptonshire, but these 
are at least balanced by those in the Shipston district, which are in Warwick- 
shire and which I have not reckoned. 



168 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



these cases. 



partly so. Taking the whole number in the three former, and half 
the number in the three latter, districts, returned as farmers above 
the age of 20, we have a total of 1,567. These are mostly con- 
siderable holders (the average holding in the Southam district 
seems to be a little over 200 acres), they must be generally heads 
of families, brothers, sons and grandsons being returned separately, 
and how they get their sons educated I am at a loss to say. There 
are only 12 boarding-schools mentioned in the Directory (which 
I have generally found accurate) within the district, and farmers 
do not often use schools far from home. From five of these I ob- 
tained some information, and taking them as average specimens, 
the 12 will not account for the education of more than 200 sons of 
farmers at the outside. I do not know whether there are any 
statistics of authority on the point, but I should suppose that to 
1,500 good-sized farms there would be at least 500 boys of an age 
What hecomes to be at school.* The 300, who according to this calculation ought 
of the hoys in to be at some school and are not at the private schools, cannot be 
accounted for by the supposition that they are at national or 
British schools, for the farmers in this district seem generally un- 
willing to use these. The explanation I believe to be that the 
sons of farmers commonly get extremely irregular schooling. 
They are kept at home under the nominal tuition of an elder 
sister, or of a governess paid 15?. a year, till they are 13 or 14. 
Then they are sent to a boarding-school for a year or two, but as 
they generally stay at home during the " short quarter," and are 
irregular at other times, they do not really get more than a years 
instruction. That this is the general practice is the uniform state- 
ment of schoolmasters whose connexion lies with the farming class, 
and is a natural inference from what I have seen of sons of farmers 
at the schools that I have visited. It was always a safe guess that 
any unusually big and backward boy in a private school was the 
son of a farmer, and an inquiry as to the cause of his backward- 
ness was always met by the explanation that he had not been in 
the school long and had been away half his time. At Baneton a 
" middle school,'' on a small scale, but very promising, has lately 
been established for the special benefit of the farming class under 
the auspices of Lady Willoughby de Broke. The master, who 
had only been there about a year at the time of my visit, had got 
together a good many boys, sons of farmers, of about the age of 
12, and with these he told me he had to begin de novo in the very 
elements of education. 

The practical disuse of grammar schools by farmers extends far 
beyond the regions where they may be considered inaccessible. 
Farmers are great supporters of private schools in country towns, 
and I do not recall a single grammar school, used as such, in 
which a farmer's son was other than rather an exceptional pheno- 
menon. How far this material, unworked at present by the 
grammar schools, can be worked by them to advantage, will he 
considered afterwards. At the best a very scanty fruit in the way 
of " liberal education" can be expected from it for some generations. 

* It appears from the census-returns that there is generally one boy over 
9 and under 16 years of age to every three houses. 



Farmers great 
patrons of 
private scliools, 



Mr. Green's Report. 169 

Enough having been said of the reasons why the grammar -why the gram- 
schools fail to attract more boys, it remains to inquire (6) the mar schools 
reasons why they do not make more of those they get. ''°"'* ™^" 

(1). In the fore-front of these is to be put the fact, already the hoys they 
mentioned, that they have to a great extent lost their hold on the get. 
professional class. The difference between the educational standard 
of the professional class generally and the commercial class generally 
forces itself strongly on any one conversant with provincial life. The 
explanation of it is to be found in the simple fact that while the edu- Uneducated 
cation of the commercial man has stopped at the age of 15, that of parentage, 
the professional men — setting aside the lower stratum of attorneys 
and apothecaries — was continued from three to eight years longer. 
The difference in amount of education, which this implies, between 
the parents of the two classes, must be conceived of as increasing in 
geometrical ratio if we are to appreciate the difference of educational 
impulse which they severally apply to their children In the one 
case there are no books (except a few with gilt leaves, only moved to 
be dusted,) no intellectual traditions, small opportunities of study at 
home. The father, probably, spends the evening with his friends at 
some place of social resort ; the mother is tired with household cares, 
and if she had the will, has not often sufficient elementary know- 
ledge to overlook even the studies of a small boy.* The entire 
education of the son, therefore, has to be done in school. He goes 
there unable to read or speak correctly ; as he grows older, he reads 
nothing for himself to quicken the unconscious perception of ana- 
logies on which good scholarship depends ; uor does any gentle 
pedagogue at home supply the absence of the schoolmaster in the 
evening. There is nothing future to stimulate his intellectual 
ambition. The possibility of an education at the University never 
entered the horizon of the family imagination, nor has he ever 
heard any one commended for knowledge or literary ability. The 
son of a professional man, on the other hand, learns his own 
language, it is to be hoped, in the nursery. He is early accus- 
tomed to the sight and use of books. There are those about him at 
home who, if they like, can see that he does at home what his 
master sets him, and as he grows older, familiar example may 
accustom him to the notion of knowledge as a source of utility 
and estimation. 

Such general statements as the above must be taken with due Evidence of 
abatement for individual exceptions. They wbuld be accepted *^^.^^ effects 
by masters of grammar schools with a readiness which, as these 
gentlemen are generally dissatisfied with their position, may be 
thought somewhat deceptive. They are confirmed, howeveir, by 
my own observation of the general inferiority of the work done by 
the day-boys of grammar schools at homef to that done under the 
master's eye; by the increasing difficulty of getting lessons learnt at 

* As to the bearing of this state of things on the qtlestion between day 
schools and boarding schools, see below, page 196. 

t As a case in which this evil has been to a, great extent remedied through 
the pressure of the head-master, t may instance the grammar school at Wolver- 
hampton. 



170 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Where there 
are no fees, 
school filled 
with hoys, who 
learn nothing 
and prevent 
others from 
learning. 



Instances of 
Walsall and 
Coventry. 



home as the subjects become higher and more remote from simple 
writing or arithmetic ; by the fact that the use of an expression or 
illustration which would be familiar to boys bred among books or 
educated people, is often received by a grammar school class with a 
stare ; by the common inability of the upper boys in these schools 
to write simple English correctly ; and by my general experience 
(to which there are some noticeable exceptions) that the only boys 
in them who have attained the elements of scholarship are the few 
of professional parentage. They agree also with the remark, 
frequently made by the masters of private schools, that as a rule 
the only parents, who desire much beyond the commercial routine 
of education for their sons, are either professional men, or those 
who through family relationship or otherwise have been brought 
into connexion with such men. 

(2.) Over and above the general want of a stimulating intel- 
lectual atmosphere, the effects of parentage appear specifically in 
the elementary ignorance of the lower classes in a grammar 
school. This arises partly from the received view of the grammar 
school as a charitable institution which is to remove the- burden of 
education wholly from the shoulders of parents, a view which is 
generally dominant where the school has not been put under a 
new scheme, and in other places is only gradually disappearing 
before the exaction of fees and of a minimum of preliminary 
knowledge as the condition of entrance. The effect of free ad- 
mission 1 always found to be so to lower the general character 
of the school as to deprive promising boys of the humbler class of 
any real benefit they might gain by entering it. It leads to the 
invasion of the school by a " mixed multitude " of boys too 
numerous to be absorbed in a higher element than their own, who 
get no good from it themselves which they might not get else- 
where, and prevent its doing good to others. I observed that at 
Coventry, where a virtually gratuitous education is given to sons 
of freemen, while others pay 10/. 10«. or 61. 6s. a year, according 
as they do or do not learn Greek, among the nine head boys only 
two were sons of freemen. Of the rest, six were paying day-boys 
and one a boarder. The sons of freemen, I was told, generally left 
before reaching the third class from the top, in order to avoid the 
cost (about 21. 10s.) of books required for that class. Coventrj' 
school is in fact only good lor any thing in virtue of the boys in it 
who pay fees. Walsall school has not this redeeming element, 
and with a large endowment and most efficient master can only 
bring on an average about two boys a year out of more than 100 to 
the level of the third class in the University local examination for 
juniors. Though it lays itself out specially for this examination, 
the cases of higher success are very rare. Where a fee is charged 
things are rather better, but even here the endowment is applied, 
not to stimulate or reward the attainment of a higher kind of 
knowledge than would otherwise be attained, but (in the case of 
nine boys out of 10) to pay a man 300Z. a year for teaching what 
might as well be taught by one receiving only 100?. The entrance 
examination did not at any school that I visited, even where it 



Mr. Green's Report 171 

was strictest, preclude the necessity of teaching the simplest 
spelling to the majority of boys that entered it. At Handsworth 
free admission is given annually to a few boys who pass the best 
examination among the scholars of the national and British 
fichools. A similar arrangement exists at Burton. With these In other cases 
exceptions, I think it may be said that nothing is done by the ^^"' °f l'ig'> 
grammar schools of the two counties to encourage the education e"a^uation. 
of boys previously to their admission to the school. The result is jj^jj ^^ ^j^j^^ 
that these schools in their lower classes are giving an education 
the same in kind as that given in the national schools, but under 
a different name, and (on the whole) to a different grade of boys, 
while in all but their highest classes they are giving the same 
education as the cheap private schools, and to boys in the same 
rank of life. This state of things is evil, negatively and positively. Preliminary 
Negatively, because the grammar schools, if they would raise g^JJJ'u^at^d"*'' 
their education throughout above that which is to be had else- 
where, and then give admission to it, thus elevated, as the reward 
of early knowledge, have the power to advance the elementary 
teaching of ordinary boys by a space of two or three years, and 
to put the stamp of public discredit on the inability, now very 
common, of boys born in competence to read and spell at the age 
of 12 — a power which by their present system they throw away. 
Positively, because not only do the mass of boys, owing to the Higher educa- 
waste of some years, which might have been given to elementary tion retarded, 
learning before entry to the grammar school, lose all chance of 
availing themselves of the higher education which the grammar 
school has to give, but the few of more promise are kept back by 
the dead weight of ignorance in the lower classes, and by want of 
competition when they reach the upper. It was my general 
experience to find in the lesser grammar schools one boy, in the 
larger two or three, so far superior to the rest as either to have to 
be taught separately, thus seriously trenching on the master's 
time, or to be distinctly kept back by classification with inferior 
boys. These inferior boys, however, would be themselves quite 
an aristocracy compared with those in the region below the two 
first classes, a region from which the majority never emerge. 
Low as is the level of the first class In a grammar school, it is 
a level which it is quite the exception to reach. Generally, where 
there are six classes, most boys will leave in the third from the 
top. That is, such is the loss of time to begin with, that the 
average boy, when he reaches the age at which he is fit for 
business, has only learnt to read, write, and do accounts, with 
enough Latin to make him think it a nuisance. Such a boy can 
have no intellectual interest to counterbalance his own desire to 
be independent, and his father's to have him off his hands. He, 
therefore, leaves school. If, through better preliminary training, 
he had had enough knowledge, by the time he was fit for business, 
to care at all for increasing it, he might have preferred additional 
learning to making money, and induced his father to do the same. 
The effect of the present system is thus to minimize the number 
of those who become capable of " liberal education," and when 

a. c. 3. O 



172 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Want of 
effective re- 
ward to higher 
boys, 



Universities 
generally out 
of reach. 

Reasons of 
this. 



Special ob- 
stacles in the 
way of a 
Dissenter. 



they have become capable of it so to lower their own standard 
and their master's, through constant commerce with dunces, that 
they pursue it under a disadvantage unknown in the higher forms 
of the " public schools." 

(3i) While the few who reach the ordinary level of the gram-? 
mar school are thus depressed through want of effective emidation, 
there is little to reinvigorate them in the way of effective reward. 
As has been explained, they are mostly of a class to which the 
Universities are quite unknown ground. Their parents are either 
unable to bear the expense of a university course, or, if they are 
prosperous men who have risen from the ranks, generally un- 
willing.* The college system, maintained at Oxford and Camr 
bridge, by putting a certain mystery about the University career^ 
and raising its expense, increases the difficulty. The father of the 
aspiring grammar-school boy probably does not know how to 
communicate with the authorities of a college. Fees and caution- 
money perplex him. He is ignorant as to how scholarships and 
bible-clerkships may be best obtained. It is possible for him, of 
course, to leave all such matters in the hands of the schoolmaster; 
but an arrangement on his son's behalf, which is wholly uniiH 
telliglble to him personally, he is sure to look upon with a less 
favourable eye- The difficulty of expense, however, is much 
greater. Witbojit a college scholarship, or (at Cambridge) a 
sizarship, boys of the kind - under consideration cannot possibly 
compass a degree at the old universities. A scholarship they iave 
very little chance of obtaining. At Oxford, certainly, the picked 
boy -from the provincial grammar school would have a much better 
chance relatively of being placed in the first class at the final exami-r 
nation than of gaining a scholarship, his capacity for obtaining posi- 
tive knowledge being relatively superior to his skill in the use of 
words. The sizarships at Cambridge, though not absolutely 
" publici juris," sometimes afford an opening of a kind that does 
not exist at Oxford, and the only scholarships that have been 
obtained of late years by boys from the schools that I visitedi 
setting aside Warwick, have been at Cambridge.- At best, how- 
ever, to a grammar-school boy of 15, and still more to his father, 
the contingency of obtaining access to the University in this way 
must seem very remote. If the boy continues at school on the 
strength of it,'and is finally cheated of his hope, the old universities 
are virtually closed against him, and he has lost four years which 
might have given him a good footing in business. Any one who 
inquires into the personal histories connected with provincial 
grammar schools will find enough instances of enterprises upon 
Oxford and Cambridge proving a bad speculation to make him 
cautious in advising an imitation of them. ■ 

The impediments between the grammar school and Oxford and 
Cambridge, great in any case, are greater to a Dissenter. The 
restrictions in favour of Churchmen on scholarships, fellowships, 

* Men of the latter sort, who "aim high" educationally, will probably 
either not use the grammar school &t all, or early transfer their sons to' a more 
select school. 



Mr. Green's Report. 173 

and degrees, need not here be enlarged upon. A special restric- 
tion oa- the exhibitions attached to Coventry school calls for 
special notice. These are tenable for seven years, three of which 
are to be spent at school where the holder receives 5Z. a year ; four 
at the University, where he receives 35?. a year. A candidate for 
one of these, while he has still three years to spend at scho6l; and 
is thus pfesumably not over 16, has to declare his intention of , 
taking Orders. This of course constitutes an absolute exclusion of 
Dissenters. At the time ' of iny' visit, while two or thtee Bxhibi-' 
tions were waiting to be filled up, the most promising boy in the 
school — a boy for whom a first class at Oxford might modestly he 
predicted — as the son of a Baptist, was prevented from taking one, ' ' 

and in consequence from contemplating a university career. I 
found, however, in;his case, as in that of other Dissenters, that the 
prosp'eet of a difficulty in providihg for himself at Oxford or 
Gambridge' was not the sole reason against trying to get there.' 
A further question had to be met. What is residence at the 
University to lead to ? In the case of a Churchman, the question, 
though formidable, may be answeredti' If- -lie proposes tb take 
Orders, a gtiod degree may improve Ms position and prospect of 
preferment. Short of this, it may always be turned to account in a 
scholastic career. But to a Dissenter nearly all the masterships in: 
schools are closed as much as the benefices, and unless he is b'orll 
to Wealth, it is difficult to tell him of any adequate return, which 
a successful career at the old universities can bring, as compared 
with the outlay which they exact. This is the more important t6 
notice, as the better boys at grammar schools are often Dissenters. 
The ministers of Nonconformist congregations are among the 
few educated parents who habitually usfe them.* 

It may be safely assumed that the only rewards which can be 
reckoned on as incentives to a pursuit of knowledge beyond the 
point reached at the age of 16, are those which contribute to 
future success in life. Failing the attractions of Oxfprd and Attractions of 
Cambridge, those only remain which are offered by the University London TJm- 
of London and the Civil Service, and in the grammar schools ^^'^^' ^' 
which I visited I heard of very few cases in which these were ^^y ^"'*''- 
in operation. At the Stafibrd school were two boys preparing ^ 

.for matriculation at the London University. I do not recall any 
who were doing so at any other grammar school outside of Birming- 
ham, though of course I may have failed to notice such cases. It 
may safely be said, however, that so far as the grammar schools 
in Staffordshire and "Warwickshire are concerned, the attractions 
of the University of London are doing very little to lead boys 
to stay longer at school or reach a higher education than they 
otherwise would. This is to be accounted for partly by the fact 
that the grammar schoolmasters are not generally familiar with 
this University and its system, and hence do little to direct the 
thoughts of parents or pupils towards it ; partly by the fact that it. 
is not the recognized channnel to any profession, except the 

* On the use of grammar schools by Dissenters, see page 236. 

o 2 



1Y4 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Attractions of 
Civil Service. 

Drawbacks. 



Day boys 
generally 
meant for 
business. 

Age at which 
these leave. 



What educa- 
tional reward 
for these ? 
Prizes in the 
school. 
Example of 
private schools. 



medical,* and that it has no emoluments or old-established dis- 
tinctions to offer, like those of Oxford and Cambridge, as a set-oif 
to the loss of time and opportunities involved in an extension of 
education beyond the age of 16. I found a few cases, where an 
appointment in the Civil Service was being looked forward to as a 
reward for protracted education, but here the element of con- 
tingency, arising from the requirement of a nomination, greatly 
detracts from the effectiveness of the stimulus, and confines its 
operation almost entirely to boys resident in represented towns. 

On the whole, with a few exceptions — such exceptions as to be 
noticeable — the day-boys in the grammar schools that I saw 
were destined for various kinds of business, on which it is the 
custom to enter at the age of 16 at latest. In the country towns, 
as might be expected, the age for leaving the grammar school is 
generally rather later than in the manufacturing towns, but this 
is 'compensated by the boys in the former being more backward 
to begin with. At Walsall I only found one boy in the school over 
16 ; at "Wolverhampton two. At the latter school, however, under 
the influence of a new scheme and energetic management, it seemed 
that several boys were likely to stay on to the age mentioned, or 
longer. At Coventry were four who had turned this age, two of 
these being retained as holders of exhibitions. At Warwick I noted 
two such, one being retained by anticipation of an exhibition; at 
Stafford, which has no such attraction, also three. At Brewood 
there were several, but Brewood is essentially a boarding-school. 
Elsewhere a day-boy of 16 was so rarely met with, as at once to 
arrest one's attention. Setting aside these mentioned, I can answer 
for there not being six in all the grammar schools together. Those 
who stay the longest, with the exception of the few who contemplate 
the University, are those who intend to be attorneys or chemists. 
The early removal of the rest from school is due partly to the 
objection of merchants to take boys over 15 as clerks, partly to 
the customary period of apprenticeship being seven years, which 
parents desire to be over by the time the son is of age. 

In this state of things, the only incentives to study are merely 
honorary, and as such, comparatively feeble. They are either 
provided by the school itself, in the shape of prizes, or from 
without by the '•' local examinations" of the Universities and those 
of the Society of Arts. In respect of distribution of prizes, the 
grammar schools might, I think, with advantage take a hint from 
the private schools. The latter, being under a strong necessity 
of advertisement, generally have a great display of distribution of 
prizes, in the presence of parents and friends, twice a year. In 
many cases their masters have confessed to me that they had to 
give prizes without discrimination for fear of giving offence —a 
fact which should be borne in mind in considering the value of 
educational endowments. With that stricter justice, however, 
which their independent position enables them to maintain, the 

* I am avirare that many dissenting ministers obtain degrees from the 
University of London, but sons of Dissenters, contemplating ministerial em- 
ployment, would generally be removed early from the grammar school to a 
special institution for training ministers. 



Mr. Greeris Report. ] "5 

masters of grammar schools might well take similar means for 
giving publicity to their rewards. In some cases they already do 
so, but in many others owing to that backwardness, which is partly 
natural to a " scholar and gentleman," partly the result of a 
guaranteed income, nothing of the kind is attempted. 

The stimulus of the " local examinations " seemed in some cases Middle class 
to be very effective. The gramimar schools at Brewood, Wolver- examinations ; 
hampton, Walsall, Stafford, Solihull, Coventry, and Burton have ^^^*4''fo°^' 
all sent in boys, more or fewer, to them during the last few years, these. 
Of these, Brewood, "Walsall, and Stafford send in regularly, and 
lay out their system of education accordingly. The rest have 
hitherto only used them exceptionally. Coventry having exhibi- 
tions, in its upper classes adapts its instruction rather to the 
Universities. At Burton the teaching of the younger boys in the 
upper department seemed more purely classical than I have found 
it where the local examinations are specially looked to. Wolver- 
hampton, under a new master, has as yet hardly got its system set 
at all, but is laying itself out rather for the Universities. The 
only school that has sent in largely to the local examination for " Seniors " 
" seniors" is Brewood. In the Cambridge examination for 
" seniors" different boys from Brewood have been head in 
" English subjects " for four successive years. The whole first 
class of eight boys, at the time of my visit was doing the work 
prescribed for the next examination for seniors at Wolverhampton. 
At Walsall was one boy reading for the senior examination, and 
that seemed to be about the yearly average. From Stafford, on 
an average, about two seniors have passed each year. From Bur- 
ton only two seniors altogether have passed ; from Coventry one ; 
and from Wolverhampton one. 

The examination for juniors, as it catches boys just at the age and" Juniors.' 
when the best are likely to leave the ordinary grammar school, is 
much more in request, and I found that at all the schools men- 
tioned above, except Wolverhampton and Coventry, as well as at 
some others, the work prescribed for it was the subject of the 
regular lessons of those in the higher classes who had not yet 
passed it. Altogether at least 25 boys were professedly preparing 
for it. 

At ihe schools making no use of these examinations, I heard Objections to 
three reasons assigned for such abstention. In some cases distance ^^^ °°™" 
from the local centre makes it impossible for boys to go in, unless 
their parents or the school master will be at charges to take a 
lodging for them. In others the better boys were said to be of 
such a class, that their parents would rather turn up their noses 
at a "middle-class" examination. This objection seemed only 
applicable to a few at Sutton-Coldfield, and perhaps Lichfield. 
Finally, some masters objected to the special preparation necessary 
for success in these examinations as " cramming," and held it to 
be inconsistent with the best general arrangement of the studies of 
a grammar school. The last objection is the only one that re- 
quires consideration, and raises the general question of the effect 
on the schools of the new local action of the Universities. 



176 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Their effect on 
schools. 



Pressure on 
promising boy. 



Good for them 
and not bad for 

the rest. 



Advantage of i 
sending in 
entire classes. 



Objections to 
the kind of 
work which 
these exami- 
nations exact. 



failure in,. the "local examinatioiis " attaches a considerable 
stigma to a grammar school. The private schoolmasters " watch 
for. its- halting," and, though its complete abstention may be 
credited as appropriate, to its classical superiority, the "plucking" 
of its pupils at once raises an outcry. In order, however, to secur? 
success it is necessary, say the objecting, inasters, to give an undue 
share of attention to the boys who are to be sent in, and to certain 
books and subjiects as distinct from general education. As tQtthe first 
ground it; is clear that the mere forcing of the few boys at the topiof 
a school cannot win for the school that sustained success in liieae 
examinations which is necessary to its permanent reputation. ^ But 
that provision for a series of "local Jionours." implies a systematic 
pressure on the; promising boysitlnroughout a school; to the exchii' 
sion of their more stupid fellows, is, liiMnk, true. I constantly 
found the. classes under the ;head-master:.at a grammar school 
i'eading a book obviously too hard for the majority of boys in it, 
because it was prescribed for the next local examinaiaoni, for whicH 
only one or two were going in. So in the lower classes Euclid 
and , " English analysis " were sometimes being prematurely at- 
tempted by the majority in order to get the fevr, who were likely 
sometime to be qualified for. the local exajminatioivearly into train- 
ing. Compendia of English history, also, will be got up for the' 
same purpose by boys for whom stories about Alfred and thei Cakes, 
or Charles in the Oak, would be more suitable. .The good or evil 
of such a system must be.matter of opinion, but I may venture ^to 
express the strong conviction that so long as the average :boys are 
taught the necessary elements, the more the clever ones are forced; 
the better. The latter gain by it, and those who are incapable of 
gain cannot be said to lose. . , . 

The objection in question, however, is more satisfactorily met 
at schools, which have attained a certain standard, by sending in 
%vhole classes at once to the examinations. This is done at Bre- 
wood, where, as I have said, the whole first class was preparing for 
the senior, and the second for the junior Cambridge examination. 
A similar arrangement is made at Stafford, and at one of the chief 
private schools in Staffordshire-^Mr. Sydenham's at. Cannock.* 
So far as I could see, it removed the possibility of the ordinary 
boys being victimized for the sake of the best, while it provided a 
more effective stimulus for the latter. . > 

That the result of the examinations under discussion is an 
undue attention to certain subjects, and to the fragments of Latin 
annually selected by the University, is a more true and serious 
objection. It seemed that the construing of the 5th .Jineid, 
which was being got up last autumn for the Cambridge examina- 
tion, was literally learnt by heart by the boys who were to be sent 
in. If they were put on to translate a lesson which they had learnt 
for the first time they could make nothing of it, while the part 



* This scliool is to all intents and piirposes a private one, though it has an 
endowment of 10/., and I have accordingly throughout left it out of account 
in speaking of grammar schools. ' '■ 



Mr. Greens Report. 177 

w^hich they had finally got up they had at their tongue's end. In 
the parsing and construing, again, of the given portion they were 
often very exact, while unable to turn the simplest English, which 
they had not seen before, into Latin. This experience enabled 
me to appreciate the observation of the head-master at Wolver- 
hSinpton, which is that of an excellent teacher of boys, that a boy 
preparing for these examinations generally went back rather than 
Otherwise in Latin during the time 6f preparation, as compared 
with those who pursued their ordinary class- work. In regard to How far valid. 
other than classical subjects the same objection has some validity. 
The preparation in question exacts a systematic teaching of 
English grammar, practice in English "analysis and paraphrase," 
and a familiarity with the outline of English history. It, exacts 
this bond fide, and in the schools that had successfully pursued 
this line I found among the upper boys a quickness and accuracy 
in " analysis," and a knowledge of the leading facts of English 
history, which were certainly not to be found in schools that 
held aloof from it. For boys of half-educated parentage, and 
destined for the shop or counting-house, so soon as the examina- 
tion is over, the system is probably a good thing. Without it an 
intelligent interest in the literature and history of their own 
country might not be possible for them in after life. For boys, 
on the other hand, born among any kind of literary habitudes, or 
likely to continue their education to the verge of manhood, it can 
hardly be beneficial. For them the simple encouragement of a 
taste for reading is more to be desired than much paraphrase, and 
a familiarity with the living physiognomy of one small period of 
history than an acquaintance with the skeleton of all. 
' The adoption, therefore, of the " local examination" system is only 
satisfactory on the supposition, which for reasons already stated I 
believe to be necessary, that the ordinary grammar school must 
lay itself out for the former class of boys rather than the latter. 
This is a supposition, however, which the master of a grammar 
school is slow to admit, and the mode of teaching that foUows 
from it, according to the system of the " niiddle-class examina- 
tions," is one likely to be specially irksome to a highly educated 
man.* The practical problem remains how the system can be 
made to consist with general cultivation, and with a preparation 
for a possible university career of the best talent that it elicits. 

With a preparation of young boys for the "public schools," J^i'eparatiou for 
such as Eugby and Winchester, it seems all but absolutely incom- 'ati™le°°°ft" 
patible. Till the local examinations acquire more social ■prestige, preparation for 
parents who have the public schools in view will probably not public schools. 
mtich like their sons to go in for them. The sons themselves, if 
they go in, must either be drilled in English subjects to an extent 
not supposed by the entrance examinations at the schools men- 
tioned, or run a risk of being " plucked in the preliminary," and 

* It was a, feeling of the above objections, I believe, which led the master of 
the proprietary school at Edgbaston, after a period of remarkable success in the 
local examinations, to hold aloof from, them altogether for some years, Bovs 
from this school, however, are now again sent in for them. 



178 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



How far com- 
patible with. 
preparation 
for Universi- 
ties. 

Instance from 
Brewood. 



How far 
exceptional. 



in Latin and Gteek must be taught in a way not the best calcu- 
lated to make them fine scholars. If, on the other hand, they are 
treated as exceptions, they spoil the system of the school and get 
less regular teaching themselves. The public schools, of course, 
have it in their power, by modifying their present system, to 
remove this difficulty, and would thereby do much to obliterate 
the social demarcations which at present are growing stronger in 
education ; but this is hardly to be expected of them. I heard of 
one boy from Brewood who had gone on to Harrow and been well 
placed there, but this was a solitary exception. The third class 
,it Burton, in which were some boys, chiefly the master's song, 
preparing for Winchester, did not seem to be pursuing the line of 
study best fitted to qualify the ordinary middle-class boy for the 
local examinations, though no doubt the candidates for Winchester, 
if they were diverted from their Latin and Greek for a few 
months to English grammar and history, might do very well in 
them. 

Of the possible combination of a system specially adapted to 
the local examinations with eflfective preparation for theUniversities, 
Brewood school is the best illustration that I have met with. It 
has achieved great success in these examinations, and its numbers 
have risen in about six years from almost nothing to nearly 100, 
of whom two-thirds are boarders. It sends about 12 juniors on 
an average, and two or three seniors, every year to the Cambridge 
examination at Wolverhampton. At the same time it has, during 
the last few years, sent several boys to Cambridge, who have done 
very well. A year previous to my visit three, I think, had gone 
there, who had passed the local examination for seniors (in the 
first class) nearly three years before. Two of these had got open 
scholarships at St. John's College. When I was there, a younger 
generation had filled the upper classes. Several of them, however,i,iit 
seemed likely to go on to the University, and all (with a few special 
exceptions) had been or would be sent in for the local examina- 
tions. It must be observed that the successes which Brewood boys- 
have obtained at the University have been mathematical, and the 
school was clearly stronger relatively in mathematics than in 
classics. Greek is not begun till nearly three-quarters of the way 
up the school, and after that there are exemptions from its study.. 
In the second class from the top there were several young boys, 
who had evidently been well taught in classics and were beyond 
the ordinary grammar school leveh Still, though there were several 
boys in the school who promised well for gaining scholar- 
ships in time by mathematical knowledge, there were none for 
whom I should much anticipate them on the strength of their 
Latin and Greek. It is to be remembered, moreover, that Bre- 
wood from the position it has obtained, is able to attract boys of a 
higher class socially, and who have presumably more home-cultiva- 
tion, than those who frequent the ordinary grammar school. Its 
boarders pay 50/. a year, and though there is no sort of exclusive- ; 
ness in its management, many of the day-boys being sons of the 
farmers of the neighbourhood, its upper classes are clearly not in 



Mr, Greens ReporL 179 

the same need of preliminarjr civilization as most who are sent in 
to the examination for juniors. This circumstance, and the skilful 
teaching of the head-master, render it possible to compress the 
subjects other than classics and mathematics, which the local 
examiners require, within very small compass. Though its success, 
as already mentioned, has been eminent in " English " subjects, only 
1^ hour a week is given by the first class to history and geography 
together, and no special lessons are given in English grammar on 
literature till a month or two before the examination begins. 
Scantiness of time for these subjects is more than compensated 
by general intelligence, frequent practice in English writing, and 
effective teaching. On the whole my conclusion is that, with 
good material and teaching, a grammar school that lays itself out 
for the local examinations, if it can get its best boys to stay on 
for the examination for seniors, may again give the best of these More compati- 
a good training for scholarships at Cambridge. Such boys, how- rati^'for ^^* 
ever, will at present have a worse chance of scholarships at Cambridge 
Oxford. The examination for these, with the exception of a few *™ ^^ 
given for special excellence in mathematics, is mainly suited to 
the coui'se of instruction pursued at the great classical schools, 
and though a young man of the kind in question might very likely 
get a final first class at Oxford, if once he were there, yet the 
want of a scholarship bars his way. On the question whether How far 
preparation for the local examination constitutes a good general compatible 
training it is only necessary to remark that all education must be ^'itivation. 
relative to the time at which it is likely to stop. The process 
which a boy has to go through, in order to get ready for the 
" junior " examination, can scarcely be a desirable one if his educa- 
tion is to be contiued beyond it. It implies the learning of too 
many things at once, and the virtual learning-by-heart of transla- 
tions from Latin books instead of a gradual acquaintance with the 
Latin tongue. The same remark applies with some modification 
to the examination of "seniors." But it does not at all follow that 
either examination may not be the best for the majority of those 
who go in for it, with whom it is the final goal of regular educa- 
tion. 

To return to the question of the value of the local examinations Value to be 
in the way of reward, it will be seen from what has been said attached to 
that they have on the whole little value as leading to anything ^^^^^ exami- 
further. It is only in exceptional cases that even the examina- nations as a 
tion for seniors can serve in any way as a stepping-stone to the r^'^ard. 
University, and again it is only exceptionally that boys can be got 
to stay long enough at a grammar school to go in for this. Nor in 
nine cases out of ten can success in these examinations be in any 
sense a source to success in life. Of the estimation attached to 
them by the public I heard diiferent accounts. At Coventry I 
was told that parents would only allow their sons to go in for them 
as a favour to the master of the grammar school, while at Wolver- 
liampton (which is a Cambridge local centre) the master of the 
school told me that though he personally objected to preparing 
boys for them, he yet intended to do so because they formed the 
one test by which the local public measured the school. The 



180 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

truth I believe to be that though -parents of the middle-class in 
general are beginning to look to them as a test of the goodness of 
schools, they yet have no particular ambition as individuals for 
I their sons to succeed in them, because such success does not as a 
rule provide any better openings in business. Thus they afford 
a powerful stimulus to the schoolmaster, where his positioais such 
(which it is not always) as to render him sensitive to parental 
opinion, but on the boys they act mainly through him.' His 
ambition to some extent communicates itself to them, and a public 
distribution of prizes for success in the examinations by a local 
magnate adds some further incentive, especially to those who live 
in and about the town where the distribution takes place. Of this 
I had good evidence, particularly at Brewood, and at Mr, Syden- 
ham's school at Cannock, The best testimony to the efifect of the 
system is to be found in what I heard from all the schoolmasters 
■who', had largely availed themselves of it, viz., that it -has already 
lengthened the time which the better boys give to education by 
at least a year. Those who would otherwise have been removed 
from school at the age of 14 are allowed to stay there till 15, in 
order to go in for the examination for *' juniors," and those again 
who have distinguished themselves in this are often tempted to give 
still another year to preparation for that for " seniors." 

The examinations by the Society of Arts and those instituted 
by the Government Department of Science and Art are not, 
according to my experience, much used by grammar schools. The 
chemical examination of the latter is resorted to by boys from 
Walsall, and at Kinver also I found some youths, late pupils of the 
grammar school, who had gone in for the former. These exami- 
nations do not carry the same local prestige as those instituted by 
the Universities, and the drawbacks mentioned to the effectiveness 
of the latter apply to them with more force. 
Defects of {'^•) Having explained the chief difl&culties on the side of the 

teaching in tlie pupils, as they presented themselves to me, which interfere with 
grammar the attainment of a higher standard, I come now to those which 

lie rather on the side of the masters. Among these I must be 
understood to presuppose that want of sustained energy on the 
part of many grammar school masters, very different from negli- 
gence, and due to the nature of their position, which has been 
previously given as one of the reasons why their schools are not 
Distraction of more full. To this must be added the distraction which results 
the masters. from teaching a great variety of subjects to boys of the most 
various degrees of knowledge and capacity. The subjects taii^t 
in a grammar school, which seriously attempts the classicsj are as 
numerous as those taught at a great " public school," and perhaps 
the gradations among the boys are not much less so.* For dealing 
with this heterogenous material there are but two or three masters.' 
Among these there can be no satisfactory division of labour. 
Either one man must teach all the classics, another all the mathe- 
matics and arithmetic, and a third all the English, or each man 
must take the entire teaching of a certain number of boys on all 

■*At Nuneaton the six upper boys were divided into four classes ; at Warwick 
the eight upper boys, in like manner, into four classes. 



Mr. Green's Report. ISl 

subjects. 'If the former plail is adopted,' the classification for all Modes of 
subjects must be the same. The first class in mathematics for classification, 
instance must coincide with the first class in classics : otherwise 
the mathematical master, having his second class while the classical 
master hears his first, will want some of the boys occupied with 
the latter. The result is, that a boy, for instance, who has a 
specialty for arithmetic, has either to be put above his level in 
classics, or below his level In arithmetic. If the former alternative 
is adopted, he is a drag on the others in classics ; if the latter, 
(which- is more common in grammar schools), he is himself kept 
back in arithmetic — a result' very unfortunate to the repute- of 
the school with commercial parents. 

To take an instance. At Warwick are two masters, one of Instance of 
whom takes all the classics, the other all the arithmetic and mathe- °^® ^""."V^ 
matics. The school is divided into two main groups which are 
taught in separate rooms. The upper one, on a given day, will 
be occupied with the ckssieal master in the morning and the 
mathematical in the afternoon, the lower one with the mathe^ 
matical in the morning and the classical in the afternoon. Ac- 
cording to this arrangement, the same boy must be in the same 
group for all subjects, and the mathematical master complained to 
me of the embarrassment of having to teach a boy very backward , 
in arithmetic, along with the first group, because he happened to 
have reached its level, in classics. The only way in which this evil 
could be avoided would be by the whole school doing arithmetic at 
one time,' on a distinct classification, and this implies that both 
masters should take part in teaching it. 

This way out of the difficulty (which applies equally to all sub- Other mode, 
jects, though the competition between classics and arithmetic is Its defect. 
most important), may be desirable under the circumstances, but is 
very unsatisfactory in itself To teach three classes in Latin and 
Greek alone is somewhat distracting, — especially, when as is often 
the case, they ought properly to be broken into four or five, if 
circumstances allowed. To teach them also French, arithmetic, 
and history breaks a master's time into half-hours. And this is 
what actually happens in most grammar schools. The conse- 
quence is that none but a specially gifted master can apply himself 
with any elasticity to any of the lessons that he has to give. The 
masters at Rugby, I believe — at any rate those of the higher forms 
^^get up their lessons beforehand. It would be generally admitted 
that a man could not be an effective teacher of advanced pupils 
who did not do this, and perhaps to make a lesson really effective 
to young or backward boys may be no less a work of art. I may 
be doing injustice, but I doubt whether any one of the masters of 
the schools that I visited ever prepares a lesson beforehand, nor do 
I see how he should. Supposing this state of things to be com- 
patible with the most effective teaching of such boys as form the 
first class of most grammar schools, it can scarcely be so with that 
of boys preparing for the University. There are also instances of 
boys who stay on at. the grammar school beyond the ordinary 
time for general cultivation, and with a view to the Civil Service. 



182 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Difficulty of 
getting good 
under-masters. 



Evil of having 
one on the 
foundation. 



Cases Trhere 
the income is 
not sufficient 
to provide a 
good assistant 
of any kind. 



Under a better system tliere might, it is to be hoped, he more. 
What is specially wanted for such boys is such spirited discourse 
on history, literature, and science as may create a real interest in 
these matters — an object which the manuals can never achieve— 
and this the distracted grammar school master, who has perhaps 
never himself travelled out of the routine of elementary classics 
and mathematics, is in most cases incapable of giving. The evil 
of course is aggravated when the master is partly occupied with 
work outside his school, or has lost interest in his vocation. 

(5). I have already expressed an opinion that graduates from 
Oxford and Cambridge are, on the whole, the most suitable men 
to act as head-masters' of grammar schools. Provided that the 
trustees are on their guard against men of this class who are 
involuntarily seeking such a position under stress of circumstances, 
I don't think they would gain by travelling into other regions. 
The question, however, is a different one as regards the assistant- 
masters. In several schools provision is made for an under-master, 
who is to be on the foundation, and is as virtually irremoveable 
as the head-master himself. This arrangement is generally recog- 
nized as bad. It not only leads to all the evils of divided empire, 
but establishes an officer who has security of tenure without re- 
sponsibility — who, like the head master, is strong in the strength of 
an endowment which can be taken from him only by a process which 
no one will undertake, but who is not subject to the same restraints 
of public opinion. Without invidiously particularizing, I ought to 
say that I have met with several cases which strongly illustrate the 
above remark. The mischief, I think, is generally greater, where 
such an under-master is a graduate, for in that case he is apt to 
consider the elementary work, to which he is relegated, as beneath 
him. ,i 

Where this evil is avoided, and the under-masters are all readily., 
removable either by the trustees or head-master, there are still 
great difficulties in the way of getting effective assistance. In 
some cases the income of the school, according to present arrange- 
ments, is not enough to provide a good assistant of any kind. 
Without an assistant it may safely be said that a grammar school 
cannot be conducted as such at all. Of those professedly so con- 
ducted, at Solihull IQl. a year is all the money it is possible to 
give to an assistant, although fees are charged. For such a sum_ 
a graduate is out of the question, nor can a good man of another , 
sort be kept, though by a happy chance he may be obtained for a 
few months. At Uttoxeter the under-master gets 100/. a year. 
At Coleshill (where, however, no fees are charged) he gets 80?. 
Neither sum will get a first-rate certificated master, much less a 
graduate. At Lichfield adequate assistance can only be obtained 
by charging a higher fee on the day-boys, and making the school 
more dependent on boarders than is desirable. At Newcastle it 
would be impossible for a decent salary to be given to an assistant 
but for the objectionable arrangement by which the head-master 
has a parish in the town. Here, however, by proper measures, the 
income from endowment might be increased. At Stone, where Latin 



Mr. GreetHs Eeport. 183 

might with advantage be taught, only one master Is possible, and 
hence it is not attempted. 

In such cases as the above, where a really good assistant of any 
kind is out of reach, it is clearly better to acquiesce even in a 
second-rate man from a training college than to engage a Dublin 
graduate, who must have some defect either of character or capacity. 
This view, however, is not always accepted by the mas^ters of the 
schools in question. In cases where a better salary is forthcoming, 
the matter is more doubtful. In a school where there are three Question 
or four masters, and which teaches Greek in the higher classes, g^Iduates and 
it is almost necessary that the second of them, who sends up others. 
boys direct to the classes under the head-master, should be a 
graduate.* The doubt arises as to lower masters in such a 
school, and as to the second where only two are kept. The 
graduates obtainable at tbe given price are, with some notable 
exceptions, such as the second masters at Stratford and War- 
wick, of a very inferior type, nor are they so available as others 
might be in the commercial part of education, and in teaching 
such things as book-keeping, mechanical drawing, and mensu- 
ration, which have great attractions for commercial parents, and 
with good management can be taught without taking much time 
from other subjects, supposing a competent teacher to be at 
hand. On the other hand, the non-graduate master is not always 
trustworthy in the teaching of Latin, and commonly does not pro- 
fess Greek; he has (perhaps) a less civilizing influence on the 
manners of the town boys, and is apt to be offensive to the head- 
master. Without attempting to decide between the claims of the 
graduate and the non-graduate, I will only notice the want of 
effective teaching in the classes below the head-master's as one of 
the reasons why the upper stratum of the grammar school is reached 
by so few boys, and by them so late. There is clearly a want of 
men better suited to the grammar-school system than the certifi- 
cated masters, and to whom 150Z. a year is not so poor a pittance 
as it Is to one who has spent 600/. or 700Z. on his " education " at 
Oxford or Cambridge. At present, so far as I have seen, the Merit of 
want is best met by men from the Scotch universities, especially graduates from 
from Aberdeen. The best assistants that I found at the best pri- 
vate schools — the only ones who could teach Latin without being 
given to drink — were of this sort. The only grammar schools, at 
which I noticed them, were outside the district now under con- 
sideration. Loughborough and Oundle afford very favourable 
instances of their employment. The whole question would be 
very much simplified by the abandonment of the attempt to teach Possible sim- 
Greek. If this were done, better teaching could be provided on pjification by 
all other subjects in the classes below the head-master's for the <,£ (jreek. 
same salary as is now given to a graduate.f A good instance of 

* At Burton, however, where the full number of masters is four, and where 
15 boys learn Greek, there is no assistant who is a graduate. I did not observe 
any bad results from this. 

t The schools having graduates as under-masters are Wolverhampton (2), 
Brewood (2), Walsall, Coventry, Sutton-Coldfield, Atherstone (2), Nuneaton 



184 Counties of Stafford, and Warwick. 

this kind is furnished by the Bridge- Trust School at Handsworth, 
where Latin is taught — very soundly so far as it goes — through- 
the greater part of the school, but Greek not at all, and where, 
none of the under-masters are graduates. On any other system this 
school could not teach the same number of boys nearly so Well as 
it does.. On the conditions under which a general adoption of 

this system might be advisable I shall speak afterwards. 

Want of oral (6.) I do not . doLibt that a practised observer of educational' 
teaching in phenomena would have noticed many points, in which the modes' 
owe asses, of teaching prevalent in grammar schools operate injuriously on 
the progress of the pupils. 1 can only mention two as having; 
specially struck me. In many cases there seems to be not enough^ 
work on paper in the higher classes, and not enough oral teaching 
in the lower. In schools where I have observed rapid progress in- 
elementary subjects to be achieved by young boys, the master hasj 
been in the habit of making them do their lessons, to a great ex- 
tent, aloud. Instead of setting them a quantity of sums to do by 
themselves, he makes them do one after another orally to him. 
Each blunder is thus corrected as it occurs, a constant spirit of 
emulation is kept up, and there is none of that hopeless moping 
over an irretrievable series of mistakes, which may be seen in 
little boys when they work by themselves. English grammar,, 
spelling, and geography may be taught in the same way and T 
believe that the quickness with which these elementary subjects 
are got up in national, as compared with grammar schools, is 
mainly due to the greater practice of the oral method in the former. 
The cheap private schools seemed to me to vary in goodness accord-' 
ing as this method was more or less pursued in them, and it is on 
account of their skill in it that I believe certificated masters to be 
specially useful in the lower classes of a grammar school. The 
masters of grammar schools complain that boys who are habituated 
to it — those, for instance, who come on to the grammar school- 
from the national school — are incapable of learning lessons by 
themselves. No doubt it may be kept up to too advanced an age. 
But for the object of getting elementary knowledge, especially 
the knowledge of arithmetic and grammar, into commercial; boys' 
at the earliest possible age it seems most valuable, and thisis an 
object of primary importance to the grammar school, if it is to 
fulfil what after all is its true function, that of .drawing boys Tvho- 
come for a commercial education on to a liberal one. 
Of work on The system of doing work on paper is the exact opposite of the 

higher" '^^ ^^^ method of teaching, but I believe the former to be as impor*' 
-' '■ " tant to the higher as the latter to the lower- classes. The charac- 

teristic fault of the upper classes in most grammar schools seemed 
to be a certain slovenliness and inexactness of mind. This appeared' 
especially in the badness of their Latin exercises, in the.tendency' 
when construing viva voce to slur over the auxiliary words- and-tr 

(Dublin), Coleshill (Dublin), Warwick, Stratford. The first five can welK 
afford the luxury. Atherstone only obtains its second graduate by an arrange' ; 
ment which the commercial parents complain of. Warwick and Stratford only 
get good graduates accidentally. -It 



'; Mr. Green's Report. 185 

repeat the nominative case,' after a relative sentence, and in tlieii' 
bad English when set to Avrite on some ordinary subject. The 
best cathartic for this malady I hold to be. the constant practice of 
loriife^ translationsy the correction of which by the master is the 
beat possible^ exercise in English grammar as well as Latin, and 
frequent examination on paper. This involves a good deal of 
additional trouble both to masters and boys, against whichj no 
dQnbt,"the flesh rebels, and I think there is too much tendency to 
neglect it. At Burton I understood that there was an examination 
on paper every wijek, and the. good result appeared in the neatness 
and exactness with which the; upper boys did their work. At 
Brewood the upper iboys haveifrequent practice in writing English^ 
and there ares examinations in arithmetic and algebra every fort- 
nights The good effect of this was obvious, while written trans- 
lation from the classics seemed to have been scarcely* ' frequent 
enough. At Coventry, again, the most satisfactory thing about 
thfi school was the English writing of some of the upper boys, 
whidh was suchs that the training necessary to produce it- must 
haA*© been anedncation in itselfl It contrasted strongly with the 
Latin writing to which, so far as I could learn, comparatively little 
attention had been given. At the other schools which I saw it 
seemed that English writing was hardly practised at ail, and trans- 
lation on paper from and into Latin not so much as it should be. 
If my impression in. this respect is correct, it illustrates the im- 
portance of instituting,, if possible, examinations on paper, which 
shall excite more interest in the schools than those at present held 
by the- masters themselves, or by men whom they appoint, seem 
generally to do. 

i(7.) Finally, as a general cause, prejudicial alike to, the higher Defects of 
and to the most elementary education, must be noticed the general "'^^'^'^S ™"J 
inconvenience of the buildings in which the grammar schools are 
taughfer For details on this head I must refer to my reports on 
individual schools. . The building is in many cases too small for its 
purpose. In others separate class-rooms are urgently i needed. 
The desks are, oftener than not, badly arranged, being either double, ,- 

so that the boys sit facing each other with every facility for talking 
and play, or ranged along the wall, so that they have their- backs 
to the master. The latter arrangement is a special- obstacle to 
giving oral lessons to large groups. The noise in the schools, re- 
sulting mainly, I think, from bad arrangement, was often very, 
troublesome to me, when examining, and must.be a serious impedi- 
ment -to the effectiveness of the teacher and the attention of the 
boys: It Vi^'as very rare to see any educational appliances in the 
schools, except a black-board and a few very old maps. 

(II.)-' As to the state of commercial education in the grammar II. Commercial 

schools a good deaL has unavoidably been said, by anticipation eiJucation. 

already. I entered on my work with the , expectation of finding 

this department much more efficiently conducted in private schools 

than in grammar schools. This expecta,tion, however, which Not better on 

certainly corresponds not only with the professions of private *?^^°'V", 

X. i ,. t, jv -xi, a X- ■ • • .Li • 1*^ f .1 private schools, 

schoolmasters, but with a noatin<T impression m the mind of the 



186 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick, 



Cases where 
classical 
standard is 
raised at ex- 
pense of the 
commercial. 



commercial class, has not, on the whole, been confirmed h 
experience. The essentials of a commercial education are simph 
(1) good handwriting; (2) good "mental arithmetic" or, in othe 
words, ready reckoning ; (3) enough practice in grammar and coni' 
position to write a commercial letter correctly. Drawing anc 
French are desirable accessories. As baa been previously es- 
plained, they are not likely ever to be wanted by nine commercial 
boys out of ten ; but there is a general impression among parents 
that they may come in usefully. That there is a good deal offancj 
in this is shown by the fact that while German is quite as much 
a commercial language as French in the district where I have been 
employed, it is in hardly any demand at the schools. Now, in the 
private schools which I was allowed to examine, and which were, 
probably, not the worst of their kind, I cannot say that I found 
these subjects better taught than in the grammar schools. In 
several grammar schools, no doubt, they are (to judge by results) 
defectively taught, but so they are In many private schools. lo 
take arithmetic as a general test, if the number of sums done 
right in the grammar schools that I examined were divided bytle 
number of boys who tried them, and the same process performed 
in the case of the private schools examined, the average number 
done right by each boy would appear quite as great in the former 
case as the latter. The chief distinction that I observed was that 
instances of complete failure were more frequent in the grammar 
schools, and that the style of arithmetic done in these schools was 
perhaps less strictly commercial. Of handwriting I do not pro- 
fess to be a judge, but I did not observe any general distinction 
in this respect between the two kinds of school. At the same 
time I have no doubt that both writing and arithmetic are 
generally taught more quickly in the private schools, for the 
simple reason that they are taught almost alone, and that a boy 
who at the age of 12 was backward in commercial education, and 
wanted to be perfect in it by the time he was 14, would be more 
likely to get what he wanted in them.* 

As a rule, I found that in those grammar schools where arith- 
metical knowledge was defective the knowledge of Latm was 
defective also. There were exceptions to this rule, however, and 
in some cases certainly the classical standard of the school had 
been advanced rather at the expense of the commercial. At the 
Atherstone school, excellent in most respects, I thought the 
arithmetic defective. The same remark applies to Lichfield, but 
with some modification, the classics there being not quite so good, 
the arithmetic rather better than at Atherstone. At Eugeley 
most of the boys whose work I saw did fairly in Latin construing 
and English writing, but very poorly in arithmetic. These were 
the only cases where the contrast between the general kinds of 
work was strong. At Warwick and Stratford, however, I thought 



* In the simple office of imparting elementary linowledge the Edward Stoeet 
branch school at Birmingham seemed decidedly above any other that I saw. 
grammar or private. 



Mr. Greeyh Report. . 187 

that scarcely enough provision was made for the commercial side 
of education as compared with the classical. At Warwick know- 
ledge of Latin is the sole basis of classification, and this always 
implies a certain disadvantage to boys whose parents wish them, 
and who are disposed themselves, to push specially in other things 
At Stratford no provision is made for teaching French or drawing, 
nor is English grammar regularly taught. In all the above cases, 
except Rugeley, some complaint was made to me by intelligent 
persons, not at all disposed to seek for any lowering of the classical 
standard, of the defects pointed out. In most, if not all, of them, 
however, it is undoubtedly the competition between the classical 
or liberal and the commercial elements in education that has 
caused the balance to turn against the latter. It is important to 
enquire how far this result is a necessary one. 

At Atherstone some complaint had been caused by the removal 
of an English teacher from the office of under-master, the pay- 
ment of which is provided for by the scheme, and the appointment 
to it of a graduate. The consequence of this arrangement had been Howfar this 
that the English teaching was done at a less charge by 40Z. a year is unavoidable. 
than it had been previously, and, some people in the town thought, 
worse done. The head-master's answer was, in brief, that but for Want of funds 
the change he should only have been able to keep one graduate *° ^*^P "P 
assistant, and that two were wanted to keep up the classical and 
mathematical standard of the school. He admitted that the 
difficulty was caused chiefly by the boarders, as without them one 
graduate assistant would have been enough, but unquestionably 
in that school the boarders contribute essentially to the maintenance 
of its general standard. On the other hand the reduction in the 
charge for English teaching is no doubt an injury to that depart- 
ment. On the present system and with the present funds I do 
not see a way out of the difficulty. In the Lichfield school, again, 
the neglect of arithmetic, such as it is, is probably due to the fact 
that the boys are with the exception of six free boys either 
boarders or admitted at a fee which excludes those most anxious for 
commercial education. But on no other system could the school 
with its present income be carried on, unless it were given up to 
commercial education " pure and simple." At Warwick, again, the 
disproportion between the income of the school and the value of 
its exhibitions 'is at fault. Having such exhibitions, it is bound 
to keep up its standard of classical teaching at all costs. Though 
the conduct of it is perhaps hardly so energetic as it might be, yet it 
would in any case be very difficult for it to maintain its standard 
in classics and at the same time do full justice to other subjects 
without an increase of income. Such an improvement of building 
and situation as would make it attractive for boarders might do 
something, but unless the boarders were of the commercial class 
the additional teaching power in classics which they would require 
would absorb such increased revenue as they might bring. At 
Stratford I thought that the boys, though well-taught and intelli- 
gent, had scarcely enough to do, and time might be found for sub- 
jects now neglected without taking it from the classics. Here 
however, the second master is of a much higher calibre than the 

». 0. 3. -p 



188 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Special im- 
portance to 
grammai- 
school of 
keeping up 
commercial 
standard. 



Level of 
income l^elow 
which the t^o 
kinds of educa- 
tion cannot 
both be fully 
supplied. 



Where the 
income is 
higher some 
difficulty still 
remains, 



salary given him could be expected to attract. He is a graduate, 
and is able, in addition to English lessons and arithnaetic, to under- 
take all the matheniatics and as much Latin as may be wanted. 
In the event of his leaving, the difficulty on the present system 
of providing adequately for the English subjects, without lowering 
the standard in classics and mathematics, would at once arise. 

It must be borne in mind, in the consideration of this question, 
that it is not enough for the grammar schools merely to give as 
good a commercial education as the average private school. To 
parents of the commercial class the private school offers attrac- 
tions at which the grammar school cannot and ought not to aim. 
The grammar school therefore cannot maintain an hold on this 
class unless it offers to them the article of commercial education, 
which they want, either of better quality at the same price, or 
of the same quality as a charity. The former alternative is clearly 
the only desirable one. Yet it is extremely difficult, on grounds 
above indicated, for a grammar school, having an income not 
exceeding 4O0Z. a year, to supply the superior commercial educa- 
tion required, and at the same time, according to the present theory 
of its duties, to supply a complete classical and mathematical 
education for the Universities. In trying to do both, it will very 
likely fail to do either well. A fee of 4Z. a year is all that can be 
wisely charged in a provincial town,* and it is desirable to have a 
few boys free. Suppose there are 50 boys paying this sum, this, 
in addition to an income from endowment of 400/., gives 600?. A 
good head-master can hardly be got for less than 400/. a year, 
nor can a master who will do full justice to the commercial de- 
partment be got for less than 150Z. A visiting master for drawing 
or French will absorb the rest of the income. Now it is im- 
possible that a single master can adequately maintain the classical 
teaching in such a school at the level which good preparation for the 
Universities requires. If he seeks to meet this difficulty by taking 
enough boarders to pay for another classical master, he raises a new 
one as to the relation of these boarders to the commercial master. 
The only arrangement, I believe, by which the difficulty could be 
satisfactorily met would be one which should relieve the classical 
department by transferring the teaching of Greek and the higher 
classics to some upper school, which the smaller grammar schools 
should feed. But of this more below. 

Where the revenues of the school are such as will allow, con- 
sistently with the maintenance of the classical standard, of the 
employment of a superior English master, such as the best turned 
oulr by the Government training colleges,! the commercial educa- 

* I do not mean that the fee might not ultimately be raised to a higher sum, 
but that, considering the habituation to the gratuitous system, and the received 
notions on educational expenditure among small shopkeepers, this is as much 
as could wisely be charged at present. 

f I found a good instance of this kind at the Wolverhampton grammar 
school, where is an English master from the Battersea training college, who, 
besides giving excellent elementary instruction to the lower boys, teaches book- 
keeping, &c., to some of the upper ones, to the great contentment of their 
parents. These secondary commercial accomplishments — book-keeping, 
mechanical drawing, and the like — may easily be taught without seriously 



Mr. Green's Report. 189 

tion need not suffer so seriously by combination with the classical 
and mathematical. If the system of the school is to be uniform, 
each is inevitably to some extent in the way of the other. The 
boy whose main object is an educational- equipment for business, 
cannot get this so expeditiously as he might if nothing else were 
attended to. On the other hand, as has been previously pointed 
out, those whose parents wish them to be pushed as quickly as pos- 
sible in the subjects, on which success at the great schools and 
universities depends, will be kept back by superfluous arithmetic 
and geography. It is sometimes attempted to satisfy both wants 
at once by a system of alternative studies or by a separation of Ways of 
departments. Neither plan seems to work satisfactorily. When meeting this, 
boys are exempted from Greek, for instance,* that they may give AltematlTe 
more time to modern languages or history, it is found, according to ''*"^®^| 
the uniform testimony of schoolmasters that they make hardly any ^Jeetionsto 
additional progress in the subjects to which extra time is given, 
while they lose ground both in general intelligence and in habits of 
application. This is due partly to the intellectual slackness which 
results from the consciousness of having given up the hardest sub- 
jects, but mainly from the fact that the exceptional studies cannot 
be pursued under adequate supervision from the higher masters. 
Were the alternative studies of equal dignity, as for instance, 
classics and mathematics, the case would be different, but when the 
one course of study is taken by all the boys of promise, the other 
by the backward boys, who don't profess to aim at the higher 
education, the latter inevitably becomes a secondary care to the 
masters, at any rate to those of them whose oversight is most 
effective. If the majority of the upper boys, on the other hand, 
or the more promising of them, lapse from the higher to the com- 
mercial studies, the standard of the school, as a place of classical 
education even for the few, inevitably falls. 

The institution of a separate commercial department, as at Separate 
Walsall, Stafford, Burton, and Uttoxeter, seems a still worse way ^^pai'toents. 
out of the difficulty. This, it is to be observed, does not mean a 
simple division of the school into groups according to knowledge, 
so that those in the lower ^oup should rise into the upper when 
they had learnt a certain quantity. It means that those parents who 
wish their boys merely to learn just enough to act as clerks, or serve 
in a shop, place them in a '•' commercial department ", while those 
who wish them to learn a little Latin and mathematics, or possibly 
Greek, place them in the "classical ," without any reference in 
either case to the amount of knowledge which a boy possesses on 

infringing on other things, if the head-master is not unwisely contemptuous of 
them, and if there is anyone at hand to teach them. Complaint was made to me 
by a father at Atherstone that his son, who had been bred at the grammar school, 
had missed a good situation from inability to write a " commercial letter." 
Supposing the boy to have learnt his own language beforehand, one hour's 
lesson a day for a week would have given him the art that was lacking. 

* As at firewood, where the substitution of German for Greek is allowed, 
and at Coventry where the commercial boys learn extra French, arithmetic, 
and English History in place of Greek, paying (if not sons of freemen) 6Z. &s. 
a year, as against 10?. 10s. paid by those who learn Greek. 

p 2 



ISO 



Counties of Hta;fford and H'nrwich. 



Objections 1o 
this. 



Does not 
attract sons of 
professional 
men. 



Degrades the 

commercial 

boys. 



entrance to the school. In all the above schools (except Walsall, 
where education is gratuitous), the fees charged for the two de- 
partments are different. At Stafford they are 4Z. and 21. a year 
respectively, at Burton 11. and 21, at Uttoxeter 51. and 3Z. At 
Walsall and Uttoxeter neither Latin nor mathematics is taught in 
the commercial department, at Stafford and Burton they are taught 
to a few boys in it, who are likely to be transferred to the classical. 

If this arrangement either enabled the higher subjects to be 
taught more exclusively in the classical department, or met the 
objections of professional men to the grammar school, something 
might be said for it ; but it does neither. In many cases, no doubt, 
it has been found necessary in order to avert opposition to the 
introduction of fees on the part of the lower class of those who 
have been accustomed to gratuitous education, but suj)posing fees 
to be introduced, I doubt whether one more son of a professional 
man has been attracted to a grammar school through its separation 
into departments. The dislike whicli such a man feels to the 
mixture of his boys with those of a lower class is a dislike not so 
much of their mixture in school as of their mixture in the street, 
and this is what the division of departments, except by very elaborate 
and invidious arrangements, cannot prevent. The boys, accord- 
ingly, who constitute the classical department^ are mostly of the 
commercial class, whose parents have rather higher aspirations 
than the rest. The separation from the " commercial department " 
does not make them come better taught to begin with, nor does it 
remove that want of interest in the higher subjects which arises 
from their position and prospects. Thus, the great drag on pro- 
gress in the classical department remains unchanged, and if it 
moves at all more quickly from the absence of the Pariahs who are 
relegated to the " commercial," this is more than compensated by 
the hopeless degradation of the latter. I never met with a school 
where a system of transfer from the commercial department to 
the classical was effectively worked. The transfer is useless, 
unless made when a boy is still very young. A head-master may, 
no doubt, by keeping up an active supervision over the lower 
department, occasionally catch a promising boy in it, while still 
quite young, and get him transferred to the higher. But here is 
a double risk. The head-master may fail to notice the boy, and 
the parents, accustomed to the lower fee, may be unwilling to pay 
the higher. If, as at Burton, regular provision is made for the 
admission of certain boys from the commercial department to the 
classical without payment of a fee, boys do not generally avail 
themselves of this till they are near the top of the former. Then, 
having learnt little or no Latin, they are not fit to be placed in the 
higher classes of the classical department, while they are too old and 
too far advanced in English subjects to improve themselves in the 
lower. Thus, a boy whom parental ignorance or selfishness has 
once placed in the commercial department is prettty sure to stay 
there, whatever his latent capacity. With nothing to stimulate 
his ambition, he learns even the commercial subjects!^ this was my 
uniform experience) no better than his neighbour in the classical; 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 191 

and pays the penalty for the sin of his parents in a permanent 
vulgarity of mind. 

The separation of departments, as ordinarily carried out, is thus is specially 
wasteful of juvenile intellect. It is wasteful also both of teaching '"'""'"f"'- 
power and of the resources which grammar schools possess for 
raising the education of the middle class. The teacher of the 
commercial boys is not able to do what he very well might in 
teaching English subjects to the classical department, while the 
teachers of the latter again can do hardly anything for the com- 
mercial. At the same time the commercial department is giving 
under another name an education the same in, kind as that given 
at the National and British schools, which is thus given, so to 
speak, twice over. Provision having been made for elementary 
education in one way, the grammar school steps in and provides 
for it in another. To gratify the whim of parents, who think 
" grammar school " a finer name than " National school," or (as at 
Walsall) prefer a school where they pay nothing to one where they 
pay a few pence a week, it applies money which might do much 
to stimulate education of a kind not yet generally appreciated, to 
provide an education which all — at least of the class under con- 
sideration — value enough to seek without stimulus, and which is 
already adequately provided elsewhere. 

The means of reconciling the opposite wants of classical and Outline of true 
commercial education are to be found, I believe (1) in the exaction ^°^"'^°°' 
of a larger amount of elementary knowledge at entrance to the 
grammar schools than is now required at the best, (2) in such a 
postponement of Greek as would render it possible, without 
trenching on the time given to Latin, to secure that the average 
boy should be perfect in arithmetic, and able to write English 
correctly by the age of 14 at latest. After that age a bifurcation 
might be allowed either, where the staff is strong enough, at the 
grammar school itself, or at upper schools to be founded for the 
purpose. This plan, of which more will be said under the head of 
Remedies for the existing state of things, I believe to be the only 
one by which commercial requirements can be satisfied and at the 
same time the way kept open to the higher learning, without 
sacrificing the great advantages of uniformity of system. The 
words " arithmetic " and " Latin " should be graven on the heart; 
of every grammar-school master. The one represents the primary 
condition of popularity with the commercial class ; the other the 
wicket-gate through which must pass every boy, not endowed 
with special gifts or the subject of some uncovenanted mercies, 
who is to attain an appreciation of anything high and remote in 
the intellectual world. 

Before proceeding to the consideration of remedies, however, it Private effort. 
may be desirable to describe more in detail the supplemental ^°^ ^'"'^"P" 
action of private and proprietary schools as they at present exist, grammai- 
1 propose to give in an appendix, without names, an account of schools ? 
each private school that I examined or from which -I obtained 
information. Plere I shall merely point out the modes in which 
they may be considered to supply that which is lacking on the 
part of the grammav schools. 



192 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



1. Where there 
is no grammar 
school. 



e.y. in the 
Potteries. 



Small number 
in the private 
schools in the 
Potteries. 



Where are the 
rest? 



(I.) They may be thought to do this most obviously in the case 
of districts which have no available grammar school within reach. 
The Pottery district of North Staffordshire is of this kind, and 
here private enterprise in education has had a fair field before it. 
There have been no endowments either to stimulate or to interfere 
with it, while it has had to deal with a middle class which cer- 
tainly has the means, if it had the will, to pay handsomely for the 
teaching of its sons. Under such circumstances, most favourable 
for illustrating its strength, it has, on the contrary, shown its 
weakness. This appears alike from the small number of the boys 
whom it educates, from the low standard of the education given 
to this small number, and from complaints, on the part of the 
few people in the district who care for a good education, of the 
general want of it and of the difficulty of obtaining it for their 



sons. 



The population of the ' parliamentary borough of Stoke-on- 
Trent, which is co-extensive with the Pottery towns, in 1861 
was 101,207.* According to a rough estimate previously given 
(page 110) such a population should send 600 boys to middle 
schools of some kind. In the Potteries, however, the workmen 
bear an unusually large proportion to the middle class. I have 
no means of estimating the proportion precisely, but from a 
parliamentary return published in 1860, which gives the number 
of male persons who were at once assessed to the poors^ rate upon 
a gross rental of 2Ql. and upwards, and charged to any of the 
assessed taxes or to the income tax under Schedules (B) and (D), 
it appears that the number of such persons at Stoke was 1,021, 
while at Birmingham it was 5,456. The population of Birming- 
ham, on the other hand, was scarcely three times that of Stoke. 
Perhaps on the strength of these figures we may take the relative 
number of the " middle class" in Stoke to be to that of Birmingham 
as 3 to 5. The number of boys, then, who should be at middle 
schools may be reduced from 600 to 360. Now, in the whole 
Pottery district I could only ascertain the existence of three 
private middle schools, having together 160 boys. One or two 
others were entered in the directory, but if they existed, they 
were so obscure that no one seemed to know anything about 
them, A few boys also from the district attend the Newcastle 
grammar school, but altogether it may be safely reckoned that 
not more than 200 boys in the district are receiving a middle 
education, as day pupils, in place of the 360. What becomes of 
the rest it is not easy to say. A few no doubt are sent to school else- 
where. I heard of one or two of the more wealthy and aspiring 
manufacturers who had sent sons abroad for education. Several 
families, again, from the Potteries take houses in the village of 
Alsager, which is only a few riailes distant by rail, and send their 
sons thence as day-boys to a flourishing school at Sandbach. 
Occasionally a boy from the Potteries is sent as a boarder to the 



* This does not include several large villages, whence a day-school in the Potteries 
■would be accessible. 



Mr. Green's Report. 193 

grammar school at Macclesfield. On the whole, however, the 
explanation of the smallnesa of the number in middle schools on 
the spot is to be found in the fact that many are sent to National 
or British schools, whose parents could well afford a higher 
education, and that the time given to schooling is reduced to a 
minimum. A boy is perhaps sent to a commercial school at the 
age of 10 ; by the time he is 12 he has learnt to write a plain 
hand and to do a certain amount of " ready reckoning ;" he is then 
fit for business, and is accordingly removed. 

The three private schools which I examined in the Potteries Character of 
feeemed to be honest institutions of their kind, and to do fairly what gchooVsTn'^the 
they professed to do. In one of them the fee for a day-boy was Potteries. 
12/. a year; in the other two A.I. In the first, which draws on 
the professional class and the upper rank of commercial men, Latin 
is regularly taught. Greek was so till lately, but now is optional — 
to the sorrow of the master, who knows that what is optional is 
neglected. In this school a boy, who would stay long enough, (a) Of the 
might receive the elements of a liberal education, but with the ™'"^* «^P™- 
exception of one boy, the master's nephew, who struck me as most 
promising, it did not seem that anyone in the school was really 
likely to obtain an education worthy of such a name. The fault, 
however, was not with the master, but with the want of capacity 
or of early knowledge or of aspiration on the part of the bojfu 
The positive result of their schooling, over and above its civilizing 
influence, might be summed up as the necessary " English " 
education, enough knowledge of French to facilitate the later ac- 
quisition of the language if it were wanted for the purposes of life, 
and enough Latin to enable them to make out Virgil in an unin- 
telligent way, and to be forgotten in a twelvemonth. The education 
given in the school, it should be remembered, would, except in 
peculiar cases, be final. 

In the other two schools mentioned the education given is simply (A) Of the less 
of the kind which I have described above (page 105) as a "clerk's e^'pensive. 
education." The parents do not care, and therefore will not pay, 
for anything more. The boys commonly enter the school unable 
in any proper sense to read, and they will not stay beyond the age 
of 14 at latest. The classification, moreover, in private schools, 
whether owing to the necessity of the case, i.e., to the variety of age 
and attainment among the boys when they enter, or owing to a 
traditionary want of method, is less simple than in the elementary 
schools under the PHvy Council. The use of boys, again, to help 
in teaching is impossible, or at least unknown, in them. These 
things being borne in mind, it cannot be expected that for a yearly 
payment (often irregular) of 4L per boy the private schoolmaster 
should provide teaching power enough to attempt Latin and Euclid, 
unless in exceptional cases. As a matter of fact, he certainly does 
not. In one of the schools in question there were 80 boys to be 
taught, and one assistant ; in the other 36 boys, and no assistant. 
The schoolroom in each case was small, inconvenient, and ill- 
ventilated — a garret, in fact, turned to account. Subject to such 
disadvantages the teaching seemed to be good of its kind, i.e., the 



194 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Want of gram- 
mar school felt 
in the Potteries. 



By •whom ? 



Why private 
enterprise 
cannqt meet 
the want. 



upper boys had learnt to write and do sums fairly, and had some 
notion of the composition of an English sentence. In one of them 
especially the quickness of some of the boys in obvious arithmetic 
was remarkable. 

Among the more educated inhabitants of the Potteries I found a 
general sense of the want of a good middle or grammar school. Men, 
whose families have been rich for one or two generations, naturally 
do not feel the evil in their own persons. They withdraw to pleasant 
houses on the outskirts of the district where their wealth is made, 
and send their sons to the " public" schools. Those, again, — and 
they are a numerous class — who have themselves risen from being 
workmen, or something not much higher, to considerable wealth, 
do not generally feel the want of more education for their sons than 
is necessary for making money. There remains, however, the large 
body of professional men which such a population brings together, 
who cannot obtain on the spot such an education as they desire for 
their sons, and yet in many cases can ill afford to send them to 
good boarding schools. The ministers of religion, of whom, accord- 
ing to the census of 1861, there were 76 in the census districts of 
Stoke and Wolstanton,* suifer most in this respect, and many of 
them spoke to me very feelingly on the matter. Meanwhile an 
oppressive atmosphere of well-to-do ignorance hangs over the 
district. The signs of diffused interest in things intellectual, 
commonly found in large towns, such as evening classes and popular 
lectures, seem here to be wholly absent. 

It may be said that in a case like this the short-comings of 
private enterprise are only temporary ; that the wealth and popu- 
lation of the Potteries are new, and that when they are older 
they will attract to themselves a proper supply of education. To 
this I answer, that in time probably a sufficient supply of the 
" clerk's education " will be forthcoming, but nothing more. At 
present even this is lacking, as is shown by the fact that the rector 
of Stoke has formed special classes for sons of shopkeepers in a 
separate part of his national school. But a larger supply of edu- 
cation of this kind will do nothing either to meet the wants of the 
poorer professional men, or to elicit the intellectual aspiration of 
the " new rich." The latter, when they have been rich long 
enough to care to improve it, will be too genteel to use a local 
school at all, while the former by themselves will be unable to 
support a local school adequate to their wants. A well-endowed 
grammar school, on the other hand, if it could be imported into 
the Potteries and properly worked, would find a considerable class 
already craving for the higher education which it . might impart 
but unable to supply its ovvn need, and another class, much larger, 
which would send its boys to it merely to learn what is useful in 
the market, but would often keep them there to learn something 
better. If it did something also to check the vulgar tendency of 
the larger capitaUsts to send their sons to schools where they only 
learn to despise their homes, it would be no slight gain. On the 



These districts are co-extensive ivith the Pottery towns and their adjuncts. 



Mr. Green's Report. 195 

possible means of establishing such a school in the Potteries I 
shall speak below. 

The Potteries are the only urban district I met with where 
middle education had been left wholly to private enterprise. Of 
the use made of private schools by farmers I have spoken already 
(p. 78). How far this results from local necessity, how far from 
a traditionary preference, it is difficult precisely to decide. What 
the well-to-do farmer likes is a cheap boarding school, which will 
profess to pay more individual attention to his son than a gram- 
mar school generally will. It is as cheap boarding schools that 
the supplementary action of private schools should next be 
considered. 

(II.) The general causes through which the grammar schools H- Mvate 
fail to act efficiently as boarding schools are — (a) a frequent want adventure 
of enterprise on the part of the masters, fostered by jealousy of boarding 
boarders on the part of the privileged townspeople, (Jb) badness schools. 
of situation and building, (c) the unwillingness of the parents, 
who would not be above a provincial boarding school, to pay the 
terms which the master of a grammar school naturally charges. Why the 
Of (a) and (b) enough has been said on pp. 65 and 67. Of the grammar 
grammar schools in Staffordshire and Warwickshire, Brewood j^^g"" ^ ^' " 
alone offers any considerable attraction or accommodation to 
boarders. It has about 60 of them. Sutton-Coldfield comes 
next with 24, then Atherstone with 20, the accommodation in each 
case being good. At Lichfield I found 17, but the accommoda- 
tion for them was in part rented by the master. The remaining 
grammar schools in the two counties (excluding Birmingham) had 
only 4o boarders among them, and several of these were living in 
rented houses. On the other hand, in several cases (e. g. at War- 
wick, Stratford, and Nuneaton) room that might have been avail- 
able for boarders was not so used, either from the master not 
wishing to have them, or from unsuitableness of situation and 
surroundings, or from a combination of these reasons. 

With regard to reason (c) it might seem that the master of a 
grammar school with an endowment at his back ought to undei"- 
bid the private schoolmaster. As a matter of fact he does not, Private masters 
and there are great difficulties in the way of his doing so. As is '^'^ ^° *^® 
well known, the possibility of making a profit on boarders taken ™^ " eaper. 
at a cheap rate depends on their number. Where 10 boarders 
would scarcely cover expenses, 30 will yield a considerable profit. 
Now, with a few exceptions, the grammar schools that I have met 
with only afford accommodation for such a number of boarders as, 
at the rate of payment to be expected from the class of parents 
who are not above using them as boarding schools, is scarcely 
remunerative. It may be asked, why under sucli circumstances 
does not the master take another house at his own risk ? To this 
tlie answer is, that in many cases the managers would object to 
his doing so, and that, where they do not, such an enterprise 
could only be made to answer by an amount of " touting " and 
advertisement, to which the master of a grammar school may have 
a natural repugnance. Supposing him, however, to have large 
accommodation provided by the trustees, he will still find it hard 



196 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



2 Classes of 
private school 
in respect of 
charge. 



The cheaper. 



Causes of the 
taste for them. 



to compete in cheapness with the private boarding schools. These 
for the most part take boys at a rate of 25^. a year each, to which 
an average of 51. a year may be added for extras. Setting 
aside those which prepare boys for the public schools, I did not 
discover more than eight private schools in the t\\ j counties that 
charged considerably more than this, while some fall below it. 
On these terms, strange as it may seem, the private schoolmaster 
makes a profit. If he gets 50 boarders he will clear, after de- 
duction for assisting masters, and without starving the boys, as 
much as 500?. a year.* This, however, supposes a rigid economy 
of a kind of which " a scholar and gentleman," such as the gram- 
mar-school master is presumed to be and often is, may scarcely 
be capable. It supposes unpleasant bargaining with tradesmen, 
and a minimizing of the number and wages of servants (facilitated 
by putting the boys two in a bed), and that the schoolmaster's 
wife shall herself act as cook. 

These considerations may explain why it is left to private enter- 
prise to meet the large demand for cheap boarding schools, which 
exists on the part of farmers and tradesmen. If my reckoning is 
right the grammar schools of the two counties only take 167 
boarders altogether, and scarcely half a dozen of these are taken 
at a less charge than 30Z. a year for board and education. f Most 
of them pay much more, as at Brewood and Sutton-Coldfield, 
where the yearly charges are 60/. and 60Z. respectively. Of the 
private schools whence I obtained information (excluding those 
that prepare for Kugby, &c.) 20 take boarders at or under 33i. a 
year for board and education, and the boarders in these number 
416. In most of these cases the charge is only about '251. a year. 
Only eight schools on the other hand, containing 190 boarders, 
take them at a yearly charge, varying from 33Z. to 53Z. It must 
be remembered also, that while none of the more expensive schools, 
to the best of my belief, escaped me, there were many cheaper 
ones from which I failed to obtain information. The people who 
support these cheap schools are no doubt in fact persons living 
either, like farmers, away from towns, or in towns where there is 
no grammar school. But they are to a greater extent, I think, 
persons who have the chance of sending their sons as day-boys to 
a grammar school, but who distinctly prefer a boarding school. 
Of some general grounds for this preference I have spoken above 
(p. 159). Other reasons that have come under my notice have 
been (a) a supposed neglect of duU boys in grammar schools. The 
private schoolmaster generally has some triumphant stories of 
boarders who have come to him from grammar schools where 
nothing has been made of them, and whom he has soon taught all 
they needed to know. In reality these are generally boys who 
have never been properly managed at home, and in consequence 

* In a school of the kind in question there would generally be extra charges of 1/. 
a quarter for P'rench or Latin (not commonly for both), German, drawing, music, and 
dancing. Supposing that on an average, in a school of 50, each boy paid for one extra 
over the whole year, this would give enough to pay the salaries of the ordinary aissist- 
aiits as well as of the visiting masters. 

■f In this statement I take the average number as given by the master. I did not 
find quite so iaany in attendance. 



Mr, Green's Report. 197 

have neglected their lessons in the grammar school, but whom a 
change to a new school, and the personal supervision of a master 
in the evening, wakens up. {b) A prevalent habit in the class under 
consideration of either sending their sons to a national school or 
letting them run wild, till the age of 12, and then sending them 
for two years or less to a boarding school to be " finished." The 
masters of private schools constantly allege this practice as a 
reason why they can make so little of their pupils — (c) a general 
dislike among the same class to the fixed rules of the grammar 
school, and a desire to have the system modified to suit the use of 
each boy, a desire to which the private schoolmasters often 
express a readiness to conform, (d) A fancy for subjects of 
instruction that promise to be practically useful, such as book- 
keeping, mechanical drawing, and mensuration, of which the private 
schoolmaster commonly makes a great parade. The objection to 
Latin, which is often spoken of as a reason for preferring the cheap 
boarding school to the grammar school, is seldom anything positive, 
but really reducible to one or more of the reasons above given. 
The character of such schools is very much what might be expected Character of 
from the rate of payment, and the objects of the people using them, ^'i*'^^ schools. 
I quote the following from an elaborate letter, written by the 
master of one of the oldest and largest of them, in answer to my 
request for permission to examine. It is illustrative in many 
respects: — "I may here remark that you will find no great pro- 
" flciency attained by the generality of the pupils in any particular 
" branch of study taught, in consequence of the comparatively 
" brief and inadequate period of their attendance (not extending 
" over twelve months on an average), a circumstance corroborative 
" of the fact, that most of the youths sent to this school have been 
" sadly neglected in their education on the part of their parents. 
" First, from the want of their due appreciation of its advantages ; 
" secondly, from the too common practice of removing their 
" children from school to school, so fatal to their progress; and, 
" lastly, from the prevalent notion entertained by that class, by 
" which this and similar establishments are chiefly supported, that 
" beyond a little initiatory training at some church or chapel, Sun- 
" day or weekly school, a couple of years or so (here a little and 
" there a little, now a quarter and then a quarter) are quite 
" suflScient for the requirements of any business for which their 
" sons may be destined."* The " requirements of business " 
mean the faculty of reading, of doing sums quickly, of writing a 
legible hand, and of composing a business letter. Of the schools 
that I am describing only two could be said to teach anything 

* I may be aUovped to quote another paragraph from the same letter, as a sample of 
the rich epistolary style to which schoolmasters are addicted: — " I am perfectly 
" -willing, under the conditions mentioned in your letter, to further the laudable 
" objects of the Schools Inquiry Uommission by acceding to your wishes; but next 
" Wednesday, not being a day that will suit our convenience, I would propose the 
" examinalion be postponed to some day next week that you may appoint ; not, be it 
" observed, with a view of taking the pupils through a course of preparatory training, 
" or drilling for the occasion, and thus interfering with the regular routine of school 
" business to no useful purpose, but merely as a matter of greater convenience and 
" compatibility with pre-existing arrangements." The writer of the above was a 
Scotchman. 



198 Counties of Stafford and fVarwick. 

Nothing really more than this. The rest make a great profession of other sub- 
bXriW and Jects, especially history, geography, and English grammar. The 
arithmetic master, whose letter I have quoted, in a " curriculum of instruc- 
tion " which he communicated to me, described his pupils as 
composing historical and geographical exercises every week, 
" which required considerable research from various authors ; " also 
as applying " critical analysis" to English grammar. On examina- 
tion I found that, though no worse than most others of the same 
class, they really knew nothing of history, geography, or grammar. 
It would be tedious to multiply instances of ignorance. My 
ordinary test of the upper boys in these schools as to intelligence 
of their own language was to make them take down from dictation 
the first stanza of Cowper's " Alexander Selkirk " (" I am monarch 
of all I survey, My right there is none to dispute," &c.) and then 
examine them in the grammar of it. It was very rare, even with 
the top boys, to get it correctly written, and still rarer not to be 
told that "right" in the second line was the nominative case. Of 
their geographical knowledge no unfair sample is an answer which 
I received in a Warwickshire school to the question whether there 
was any other river Avon than that in "Warwickshire — " Milford 
'Aven." Of English history the knowledge was uniformly very 
poor, and of a kind that could scarcely survive a month after the 
boy's leaving school. Latin and French in the cheap boarding 
school, though they commonly figure in the advertisement, are as 
a rule not taught at all. Sometimes they are attempted for the 
sake of saying so, or to meet the wants of boys meaning to be 
druggists. I never found any intelligent or grammatical know- 
ledge of them, any knowledge of them, in short, which might not 
with advantage have been replaced by a slightly more intelligent 
knowledge of English. On the other hand the knowledge 
" necessary for busine.ss," as above described, is for the most part 
really imparted, though not without scandalous exceptions. This 
the parents can test. It is imparted, however, in a way to secure 
a minimum of intelligepce. Writing and spelling, for instance, 
instead of being taught by practice in writing from dictation, are 
taught mainly by writing from foolish copies and by learning off"^ 
long lists of words on spelling-cards. The art of composing a 
tradesman's letter at best requires little exercise of thought, but at 
the commercial academy it is acquired in the most thoughtless 
manner possible by the simple copying of specimens.* 

While there is nothing to elevate these schools, but rather much 
to depress them, on the part of the people who use them, it can 
hardly be expected that a general reform should be initiated by the 
Defects in the masters. Among these there is a great diversity. Some are in- 
pnncipa s, telligent and well-informed enough, anxious that their sons should 
have a better education than themselves, and eager to take advan- 
tage of any change by which access to the higher learning may be 
cheapened in England ; others, however, are curiously ignorant. 
One of them, for instance, who had formerly been English master 



* On the teaching of arithmetic at these schoolsj see above, page 186. 



Mr. Green's Beport. 1&9 

in a granmiai' school, inquired of nie in a letter whether he was 
obligated to ansvrer the questions issued by the Commission. Even 
the more competent are greatly at the mercy of the traditions of 
their craft. Instead of giving oral lessons to large classes together 
in grammar and geography, which is the only way of eliciting 
intelligence, they set their boys to learn pieces by heart out of 
grammar nnd geography books, which they then hear sleepily 
repeated. I found that even men who had been masters in schools 
under the Privy Council, and thus had experience of the better 
method, when they came to set up private academies of their 
own, would adopt the old routine.* Then the rate of payment in the buildings, 
does not allow the master, unless he gets a very large number of 
boarders, to obtain either decent assistant-teachers or decent places 
for teaching. No words are too strong to express the badness of 
the schoolroom at most of the cheap academies. Generally it is a 
barn or a pigeon-cote, or a scullery in a back yard, or (at best) a 
large attic, close and yet cold, full of draughts, noisy, and too 
small for its purpose. That the tradesman should prefer it for his 
son to a commodious national school, where the clerk's education 
is at least equally well given, is a curious instance of class-feeling. 
The salaries of assistants in these schools range from 20Z. to 40/. '" *be assist- 
a year, with board and lodging, and the assistants are what such ""*"■ 
pay for such work is likely to attract. Sometimes they are little 
more than lads, otherwise they are either ignorant or of question- 
able character. In my examinations I not unfrequently found them 
fragrant of alcohol. Their inefficiency and bad character is a con- 
stant theme with the principals of schools, but a better article will 
scarcely be got unless at a higher price. 

I have observed above (page 172) that the grammar schools Want of effec- 
sufFer from want of a system of exaonnation that shall act as f,u |;^^cxamina- 
effective stimulus to masters and boys. The same remark applies 
more strongly to the cheap private schools. Till the establish- 
ment of the " local examinations " there was nothing to bring to 
light either their merits or defects, and these examinations, as it is, 
scarcely touch them f Of the private boarding schools, charging 
less than than .33/. a year for board and education in Staffordshire 
and Warwickshire, only two, those that I have mentioned as giving 
an education beyond the " requirements of business," send boys in 
for them, and in one of these the yearly charge is 32i,J Of the Rare use of 
rest within this mark, some owing to remoteness from a " local '9'^'''^ h'^^™^"*! 
centre " would have a difficulty in sending boys in, but none are of this class, 
really up to the standard which the examinations require. They 

* Another time-honoured custom, .still commonly retained, is that of providing the 
boys with emblazoned note-books, in which corrected sums, generally having reference 
to buying or selling, are written down in inks of many colours, to be shown to 
parents. 

t I only heard of one school which resorted to the examinations conducted by the 
College of Preceptors. I may have overlooked some, but these examinations certainly 
carry but little prestige. 

X From one other one boy has passed the " local examination." I have left out of 
reckoning, also, a school from which two or three boys have passed it, but which is 
essentially a day-school, though it takes a very few boarders at a rate under .3.3/. a 
year. 



200 



Counties of Stafford and Wanoich 



Opinion of 
private school- 
masters on 
systematic 
examinations. 



Project of 
registration. 



are thu^ left without any examination or inspection from without. 
One of the questions issued by the CommissionerB to private 
schoolmasters was : " Would it be an advantage or otherwise if 
" your school were examined annually and publicly reported on 
" by independent examiners?" To this the masters in question 
would sometimes reply that the school was so examined already, 
sometimes that the parents were sufficient judges. The first 
answer refers to a device of which several masters avail themselves, 
of getting some acquaintance — perhaps a necessitous or accomo- 
dating clergyman — to hold an examination in the presence of 
parents, in which questions are asked out of some manual which 
the boys have learnt by heart, and after which small prizes are 
given all round to avoid jealousy. As to the judgment of parents, 
that has some weight on two questions : whether the boys get 
enough to eat or not, and whether they are fit for business when 
they leave school. A school with regard to which these questions 
cannot be favourably answered will not flourish in the long run, 
but of anything further the parents are no judges at all. Nothing 
can distinguish a school where the intelligence of the boys is 
brought out from one where it is not, nothing can get rid of the 
pretentious routine now in vogue, but some examination which 
shall be reckoned as a public test. 

The better rnasters are quite aware of this, and several expressed 
themselves very strongly In favour of regular inspection.* A 
movement, as is well known, has long been going on in favour of 
the " registration " of schools. This might do something to 
prevent cases of scandalous deficiency, but would give no special 
stimulus to excellence. What is wanted is some system that may 
extend to more schools, and to more boys in the schools, the good 
now done by the university " local examinations," which at present 
only serve to make the best of the cheap schools better, and in 
these only aifect the best boys. As it was, they had clearly been of 
great benefit to the two cheap boarding schools which I mentioned 
as using them. One of these calls itself a grammar school. Keally 
it possesses a small endowment, not given for the teaching of 
grammar, and a house which is not used by the master. The 
yearly income from endowment and house is 35/. and a few 
shillings. In consideration of this the master takes two day-boys 
free ; the rest, if day-boys, pay 47. 4s. a year ; if boarders 24Z. 3. 
or 26?. 5s. (for board and tuition), according to age.f There were, 
in the autumn of 1865, 17 day-boys and 58 boarders. The house 
and play-ground used by them, which are very pleasantly and healthily 
situated, are not part of the school property, so that on the whole 
the establishment may be reckoned simply a private speculation. 



* One of them, however, formerly master of a national school, remarked that, 
" unless the inspectors difFered hoth in tone and manner from those who examine 
" national schools, their visits would be extremely objectionable." 

f This does not include the charge for learning French or for washing, which 
together would cost about 5A a year. The only other extras were such as music, 
drawing, and dancing. 



Mr. Greenes Beport. 201 

It is used mainly by the lesser manufacturers, the lesser coal and 
iron masters, and the tradesmen of Staffordshire ; to some extent also 
by farmers. Considering the nature of its clientMe, the lowness of Good effect of 

its charges, and that it has had no patronage from a superior class, '9''^' examina- 
.1 '^^ 1 . T •■ V • .1 11 tions on sehools 

the result seemed encouragmg, in its lower regions the school ^jiich send in 
did not appear to differ from the ordinary cheap boarding school, to them. 
but the 10 upper boys (whose ages were between 13 and 16) were 
quite of a higher order. They all knew four books of Euclid 
well, and they all had a good knowledge of geography and of the 
outline of English history. The latter knowledge was doubtless 
" crammed," but still was of a kind to make an intelligent in- 
terest in history, after school was left, much more possible than it 
is with most boys of the same class. They did not all learn Latin, 
but those who did, though they did not and probably never would 
know enough to make out an easy Latin book for themselves, 
had some intelligence of the grammar, and were clearly much 
stimulated by the effort to construe Cicero and Caesar ; two of 
them could translate an ordinary French book into English pretty 
well, and those whom I tried in writing English could express 
themselves correctly and easily on an ordinary subject ; four of 
them, I understood, had gone some way in trigonometry, and 
from their excellence in Euclid I should have confidence that what 
they professed to know they did know. Throughout the upper 
classes of the school there appeared an activity of mind and desire 
to learn, quite unlike what is generally to be found in a commer- 
cial academy. 

The other school draws on the same class of boys, charging 32Z. 
and 36Z. for boarders, according to age, 71. for day-boys.* It has 
29 boarders, 37 day-boys. At this I found an upper stratum 
about on a level with that just described. None had gone so far 
in mathematics, while on the other hand there were more who 
had a fair knowledge of French ; this is to be accounted for by 
the fact that in this school French is taught by the principal 
master himself, who has been a good deal in France, and it is a 
general rule in private schools of this kind that that subject alone 
is well learnt, which the principal himself teaches. The upper boys, 
further, could write English correctly, and had an exact and ready 
knowledge of the outline of English history. The Latin did not 
come to much. As in all schools of the kind, it seemed to have 
been taught by a man who had not himself learnt it in youth ; 
but though no boy in the school probably, if set down by him- 
self to an easy piece of Latin with a dictionary, could make it 
out correctly, I am far from thinking the effort to learn it thrown 
away. 

The two schools just described have both of late years sent in 
their best boys regularly for the Cambridge " local examinations, "t 

* It must te remembered that in schools of this order an abatement is often made 
from the ostensible terms. A younger brother is not generally expected to pay so 
much as the older. 

t For both of them the Cambridge examination is more convenient than the Oxford 
in respect of place. The time of the Cambridge examination seemed to be generally 
preferred. 



202 Gountieis of Stq-fford ami Wunoick. 

and their superiority ia greatly due to this. The first had passed 
in three years one senior and 13 juniors, two of the latter having 
They keep gained a second class. The other, in the same time, had passed 
school?"^^'^ "* three seniors (one in " honours ") and 18 juniors (three being in 
" honours ").* This had at once given the schools an effective 
" advertisement " (for parents, who can neither value nor judge of 
education in itself, care for its result as a decoration), and set 
before the boys a definite object of ambition. The latter result is 
most iujportant as a set-off to the tendency, peculiarly strong in 
the manufacturing district of which I am speaking, to leave school 
at the age of 14. If a boy can be got to pass the examination for 
" juniors " under that age, he may be induced to stay on another 
year in order to try for honours in the same examination. Then 
there is a farther bait to him to pass the examination for 
seniors in the ensuing year, and if he can compass that, to try for 
" honours " the year after that. This is not a mere figure of the 
imagination. In the former of the two schools described were 
five boys who had passed the Cambridge " junior," and ^yho were 
hoping to pass the next Cambridge " senior ;" none of these, as the 
master assured me, would have been likely to have continued with 
him but for this inducement, and he had hopes, if they succeeded 
in passing, that some of them wovild stay on yet another vear 
to try for " honours." 

This beneficial result, it is true, does not affect more than a 
sixth part of either of the above schools at any one time. As has 
been said, the main body of the boys in them are not perceptibly 
above the state commonly found in cheap commercial schools, but a 
" screw," formerly unknown, is applied during the last two years 
that a boy spends in them. This, so far as it goes, would seem to 
be a clear gain. The worst that can be fairly said is, not that it leads 
to the neglect of ordinary boys, but that it leaves them as they 
would otherwise have been, and ultimately about half of them feel 
the effect of the final stimulus : that is, in schools where otherwise 
nothing would have been taught beyond reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, half the boys are now subject to instruction, which at 
least gives them the chance of learning the elements of grammar 
and exact science, and to read a modern language. What is 
Whatis wanted Wanted in addition is (1) some encouragement to them to pursue 
to extend the this learning further, and (2) the means of imparting this elemen- 
^"^ *' tary learning earlier and more uniformly. Of (1) I shall not say 

more here ; (2) supposes partly, no doubt, a more general culti- 
vation among the class from which the boys in question come, but 
also a better training and more liberal payment of schoolmasters. 
Heal education is at present confined to the first class, even in the 
best of the cheap commercial schools, not merely because of the 
time that has to be spent on the " three 'Bs," but because one 
master alone in the school can impart it, and even he can only do 
it in a clumsy way. In anything beyond " commercial " subjects 
he is probably self-educated. Perhaps in teaching mathematics 



The " honours " were not very high. 



Mr. Green's Report. 203 

this may not be so much of a drawback, and it is in mathematics Higher trainiag 
that these schools are best able to succeed, but in teaching Ian- °f ™*sters. 
guages it tells at once. Such a man is scarcely able to make a 
lesson in one language bear on a lesson in another, and hence will 
tell one (what I was often told by the more candid) that know - 
ledge of Latin does not fixcilitate the acquisition of French. Thus 
insufficiently equipped to begin with, the master is distracted by 
the care of making both ends meet in his economy. It is in conse- 
quence very difficult for him to conduct the instruction, even of 
his higher boys, in all subjects. If, besides the English subjects, 
he can teach them efficiently either Latin, or French, or mathe- 
matics, it is as much as can be expected ; and such is the qua.lity 
of the assistants whom the present rate of payment enables him to 
obtain, that neither is any subject which he does not teach himself 
to the higher boys likely to be taught them well, nor is any good 
preparation for the higher work of the school likely to be given in 
the lower classes. 

III. The absence or insufficiency of grammar schools in certain 
localities, and the want of cheap boarding schools, may be reckoned, 
according to my experience, as the permanent causes of the demand 
for " classical and commercial academies." This statement, however, 
leaves unaccounted for the existence both of private day schools 
side by side with the grammar schools, and of boarding schools 
charging from 33Z. to 50/. for board and tuition — charging, i.e., at 
the same rate at which most grammar scliools take boarders. On 
the existence and importance of such day schools I may refer to 
the figures given on page 165. Of boarding schools, charging at 
the rate mentioned, I have said that I only discovered eight, one 
in the Potteries with five boarders, two near Birmingham having 
respectively 15 and 23, two in Warwick and Leamington having 
respectively 19 and 26, one near Coventry with 60, one at 
Wolverhampton with 22, one at Stratford with 16. 

(iS.) In places where grammar schools with adequate endowment (S) Action of 
exist, the number of boys in private day schools is due to causes P"^^*^ "^^J'^ 

SCllOOlS SlQP nv 

which need not be more than temporary. Most of these have side with gram- 
already been noticed, such as the reasons marked (a) (c) and {d) on mar schools. 
pages 196-7. As the education of the commercial class gradually 
improves there will be fewer cases of exceptionally backward 
boys who require an exclusive drill in the knowledge necessary 
for business, such as the system of a grammar school ought not to 
allow of; at the same time parents will be less disposed to insist on 
the acquisition at school of the " practical knowledge," which is 
acquired soon enough and more soundly in actual business. If the 
grammar schools, on their part, -will meet them half way by some 
such plan as that delineated on page 191, so as to secure that all 
boys shall be expert in arithmetic and able to write English 
legibly, quickly, and correctly, by the age of 14, they need not in With good 
the long run lose many to the private schools because they ™ai>ag«™«°t 
insist on Latin and refuse to make exceptions, ihe iJridge-trust schools would 
school at Handsworth, conducted on this principle, killed three l^i^l *ese. 
private day schools in the first year of its existence. 

a.o z. Q 



204 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Causes of the 
popularity of 
more expensiye 
private day 
schools. 



' Modem 

subjects.' 



Laxity. 



Comparatiye 
seleetness. 



{y.) The reasons here noticed for preferring a private day 
school to an equally accessible grammar school apply to private 
schools of the cheaper sort. It is on somewhat different grounds 
that I should account for the existence of private schools charging 
over 11. a year for day-boys in the neighbourhood of grammar 
schools. The counter-attraction to the grammar school in the 
way of instruction which these offer is not so much a greater 
celerity and certainty in imparting the " clerk's education " as an 
dttention to " modern subjects." " The empty vessel makes the 
biggest sound," and this phrase " modern subjects," powerful to 
the parental ear, diminishes in meaning as it is more thoroughly 
investigated. Practically, it means French, the elements of 
popular science^ geography, and a meagre outline of modem his^ 
tory. Of these subjects the three last are popiJar with boys 
and parents of the well-to-do middle, class, because they are easy; 
French, because' it is both easy and likely to be jiseful. , While in 
many grammar schools they are still unduly neglected, the. private 
schools of the kind now under consideration make a great profession 
of them. The result scarcely seemed to correspond to the pro- 
fession. In perhaps three private schools French was better 
known than in the average grammar school, though certainly not 
better than in the best. The knowledge of history and geography 
was indeed better in all private schools of this class than in 
grammar schools where these subjects are distinctly neglected, but 
not so good as in grammar schools where they are attended to at 
much less cost of time. (See remarks on Brewood, p. 179.) The 
popular science, I think, seldom comes to much. I did not dis- 
cover any private day school in my district that had a chemical 
laboratory. 

(8.) Parents, however, are not critical, and the prospect of an 
easy road to general accomplishment, which their stupid sons (of 
whose stupidity they are never convinced) may traverse as quickly 
as the most intelligent, has great charms for them. They are also 
attracted by the laxity of rule which the private schools allow. 
The masters of these are not only often obliged to put up with the 
constant absence of a boy from school for no necessary reason ; they 
have also to consent to give up systematically a large number of the 
best hours for work to lessons in music, drawing, and dancing. 
"With one voice they complain of this, but would lose their cus- 
tom if they resisted. It is not an uncommon case for six hours a 
week to be taken from the regular school-time for such lessons, 
and it implies no disrespect for the accomplishments in question, 
considering the preliminary ignorance and the general stupidity 
of the boys, and the early age at which they leave school, to 
regard them as seriously interfering with the small chance that' 
would otherwise exist of communicating a liberal education. 

(e.) The more genteel private day school has often a superior 
attraction to the grammar school, apart from subjects (and laxity) 
of instruction, in being more select and better off in respect of 
situation and premises. Of the frequent defect of grammar 
schools in situation, building, and playground, and of the con- 



Mr. Green's Rsport. 205 

nexion of this defect with a repugnance to them on the part of 
the jnore "genteer* cjasges, I have spoken above (pp. 166 and 162). 
Whenever such defect exists, a private school, charging §7. a yea? 
or upwards for day-boys, is pretty sure to find custoni. 

If to the above reqisons be added an indefinite but deeply- 
rooted dislike and distrust of grammar schools on the part of ^he 
middle class generally, and especially of Dissenters,* dexived from 
the mismanagement of them in the past, we shall have exhausted, 
the causes, to j-jthe best of my belief, which enable private day , , .. ^ 
schools to compete successfully with endowments. In most Instances ^atrK< 
cases of such competition that came under my notice there was ^''^'*''''^' V 
something about the past or present state of the grammar school f ^': 

to account for it. .At Stratford, are two private schools, takm^ 
day-boys, besides the granimar schoor. One . of these, haying 
20 boys, is of the cheap sorr, and does^, not commonly give any- 
thing beyond an English education. Its existence is explained by 
the fact that in the grammar school there (see p. 97), though the 
boys are taught tq do sums well and to understand English, Latin 
is ostensibly too dominant, and a boy who wanted primarily a 
" clerk's education" would hardly get in it what he wanted. In 
the same town there is a more expensive school, which draws 14 
day-boys from the families of professional men and the more 
wealthy tradesmen. This is explained by the fact, firstly, that 
no modern language or drawing is taught in the gramma,r school, 
while history and geography, are made very little of ; secondly, 
that owing to the want of playground the boys from the grammar 
shool are turned out directly on the street, and in conspquencd 
get a reputation for ill manners. In almost the saine way I should At Warwick, 
account for the existence of private day schools in the district 
from which the Warwick grammar school is accessible. It ought 
to attract the middle population of Leamington as well as of 
Warwick ; but the Leamington people will not send their sons 
two or three miles to a school which has indeed two good masters 
but of which the rooms are inconvenient, the situation and sur- 
roundings bad, the playground small and damp, and in which the 
" English " teaching is not very well organized. Accordingly 
they support two private schools on the less genteel side of 
Leamington, of which one charges 8L, the other 6/. a year for 
day-boys. In Warwick itself is a private school where the neces- 
saries of commercial education are thought to be learnt more 
quickly than at the grammar school. At Wolverhampton are At Wolver- 
some flourishing private day schools, which mainly owe their hampton. 
existence to the bad situation and buildings of the grammar 
school and a reputed neglect of the necessary English education 
in It till within the last year or two.f At Lichfield the existence At Lichfield, 
of a cheap day school is attributable to the ,high charge for day- 
boys in the grammar school. To one or other of the above 
instances corresponds nearly every case of rivalry between grain- 

* See, however, page 173. 

t From what I have heard since writing lie above, I have reason to believe that 
the private; schoolmasters of Wolverhampton are already taking alarm at the advance 
of the grammar school,' which in a year and a halfiad risen.in numberfi.frQm._lJQ.0-io 
186, and that one at least was intending to leave. 

Q2 



206 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Causes of suc- 
cess of more 
expensive pri- 
vate boarding 
schools. 



How far the 
grammar 
schools can su- 
persede private 
schools. 



mar and private schools as day schools. In the long run, I am 
convinced, notwithstanding the reasons noticed under (/3), (7), 
and (S), a well-organized grammar school, with good building, 
situation, and playground, which paid due attention to arithmetic 
and writing, and (in its upper classes) to French, might empty all 
surrounding day schools, however rigidly it Insisted on Latin 
Its competition with private boarding schools would be a some- 
what different question. 

These, as has been said, so far as they compete with the grammar 
schools, may be divided into a more and a less expensive class, of 
which the latter has been sufficiently considered. To the success 
of boarding schools charging over 321. a year * aU the causes con- 
tribute which have been spoken of in relation to the more expensive 
private day schools, and their operation is streng-thened by the 
general feeling in favour of getting boys from home (see p. 159). 
This feeling would be checked by an improvement of the grammar 
schools as dai/ schools, but would not be got rid of, while on the 
other hand the tendency of commercial men in the larger towns to 
remove their families, so soon as they can afford it, to a suburban 
or rural residence frequently makes the use of the day school difficult 
or impossible. The case of the upper class of fanners is, of course, 
generally a stronger one. So far, then, the demand for boarding 
schools is one that must continue. It is to be noticed, however, 
that of the boarding schools with which I became acquainted only 
two of the cheap sort (both large) and two of the more expensive 
(one with 60 boys. One with 15) were properly in the country 
the rest were in towns and in the neighbourhood of grammar 
schools. Why, then, should not the grammar schools satisfy the 
demand now satisfied by these private schools ? 

In many cases no doubt they might. The existence of five out 
of eight of the more expensive private boarding schools seemed 
distinctly due to defects, present or recent, in a neigliliouring 
grammar school, remediable either by masters or trustees. In each 
of these cases, if the grammar school were well situate, well built, 
and provided good room for boarders (and expenditure for these 
objects, even out of a small income, will always repay itself), and 
if its masters would give facility for day boarding, and condescend, 
without the least sacrifice of Latin or Euclid, in the matter of 
" English " and " modern ■" subjects, the private boarding school 
might be maintained by its present master but would not pay a 
successor. The other three were of a kind that would be likely to 
survive any improvement of grammar schools. One (a very sound 
one) chiefly depended on a Baptist connexion ; another drew on 
backward and neglected sons of well-to-do parents from the " Black 
country " ; the third, a very flourishing institution, is delightfully 
situated in the country, makes a great and (I think) just profession 
of moral discipline, and gives a very miscellaneous, chiefly " modern," 
education, which is supposed to be elastic enough to suit all minds 
and all modes of future life, and which, though it does not seem to 
produce any eminent intellectual result, is genuine of its kind. 



* See page 203. 



Mr. Greens Report, 207 

The demand now satisfied by the cheap boarding schools is not, How far they 
in its present form, one which it is either possible or desirable for ^^^^°^ 
the grammar schools to meet. It is not desirable, for it I'epresents 
(see page 197) a debasement of ideas on education, to which the 
grammar school ought not to condescend ; nor is it possible, for 
though county schools on a large scale may take boarders at as low 
a rate as the cheap commercial academy, the master of a grammar 
school, whose number must generally be small, cannot be expected 
to do so. But though the grammar school cannot meet this demand, 
it may, by making itself more attractiverfis a day school to comm(;r- 
cial parents in the way indicated on page 203, greatly lessen it. Till 
popular ideas on education cbange, however, the demand must to 
a great extent continue, and can only be made less mischievous by 
society taking some security against gross incompetence on the part 
of the masters of the schools in question, and by the provision of 
some effective stimulus to the intellectual ambition of them and 
their pupils. 

If it is asked, finally, why it is to be wished that the grammar Whatthe gram- 
schools should supersede private schools, the answer is that the ""^"^^"J""!^ . 
former may, while the latter scarcely can, help a boy to get beyond the private " 
the intellectual position to which he is born. The operation of school cannot, 
commercial supply and demand, pure and simple, in education, 
means, on the whole, that as the father is such will the son be. An 
uneducated father generally has a low conception of education. 
If he grows very rich he may perhaps send his son to a fashionable 
school or to the university, that he may learn to be like the sons 
of the landed gentry, and the boy commonly becomes like them 
" with a vengeance ; " otherwise he sends him to a private school 
of the kind described, where he meets other boys of the same class. 
Here there is nothing to raise him above the traditions of his 
home. Neither those about him nor those above him are likely to 
do anything to enlarge his intellectual horizon, and there is no 
path of reward to tempt him on to the higher learning. He is 
naturally in a hurry to leave and make money as his father made 
it. Those parents, on the other hand, who have a higher idea of 
education but no large share in this world's goods, if their lot is 
cast in a region of private schools, must conform to the general 
level. They must send their sons to schools of which the standard 
is set by the capacity and aspiration of the majoiity. Thus in 
almost all the decent private schools I found one or two boys, 13 
or 14 years old, who seemed to have more faculty and desire of 
learning than was ever likely to be brought out. Now, a well- 
organized system of grammar schools by which the poorer schools 
should pass on their best boys with small exhibitions to the 
richer, and these again should transfer their elite with larger exhi- 
bitions to the university, would at once meet the aspiration of 
the few and raise that of the many. It would spread its net to 
catch boys who want a commercial education, and having caught 
them, while it gave them what they wanted wouldj by a process 
of natural selection, keep for the higher learning all who were fit 
for it. It would bring every boy of capacity by the age of 14 or 
so in contact with the mind of a scholar and familiarize him with 



208 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Supplemental 
action of pro- 
prietary 
schools. 



Leamington. 



Failm-e of this. 



Tettenhall. 



Its objects. 



the prospect of an intellectual career. Such a system would find 
no small class of parents eager to avail themselves of it,* and once 
inaugurated it would, by its own operation, perpetually augment 
this class. Not only would it by degrees create a taste for the 
pursuit of science and literature in our large towns (where there 
might be plenty of leisure for it if only there were the will) ; it 
would constantly be increasing the demand for schoolmasters 
of high university degree, and thus be giving to the scholastic 
career more of the material encouragement which it at present 
lacks. If it is desired faiiiy to get rid of the notion ingrained 
in the mind of the commercial class, and of which an historical 
account can easily be given, that high education is the perquisite 
of the clergy and gentry, this is the way to do it. . 

Before leaving the consideration of the supplemental action of 
private persons in middle education, some notice must be taken 
of proprietary schools. Of these I only met with three, those 
at Leamington, Tettenhall, and Edgbaston. The Leamington; 
College was originally established on the proprietary plan ; i.e., it 
belonged to shareholders; but some years ago it was decided to vest 
the property in trustees. Inasmuch as sons of tradesmen in the town 
were virtually excluded from it (an exception having been made, 
I believe, in only one case), it could hardly be reckoned a middle 
school. It was in fact intended for the sons of the unemployed: 
gentry resident in Leamington, and as an attractioii to bring more 
of that class into the place. It did not make a good start, and 
though it revived considerably (as was natural) under the late 
master, yet it did not succeed in clearing itself of debt. It had, 
indeed, no very definite opening. It did not want to have sons 
of tradesmen, nor were its system or rate of paymentj adapted to 
them. On the other hand, the more wealthy resident gentry, 
unless they had a preference (rarely found) for a day school, 
naturally preferred the old public schools, while people, who 
wished for a residence in that district with a view to local educa- 
tion, would, if possible, quarter themselves on Eugby. Whatever 
the reason, the Leamington College has not prospered, and since 
my visit has been sold in order to pay off the debt. 

The proprietary school at Tettenhall was started by a number 
of wealthy men, mostly engaged in the commerce or manufactures 
of South Staffordshire, " whose object," to use their own language, 
" was to establish a school which should furnish on moderate 
" terms a sound and liberal education, both classical and com- 
" mercial, with a religions training in harmony with the principles 
" held by Evangelical Nonconformists." The school circular 
further states that " A thorough education in the classics and 
" mathematics is made the main element in the school course, 
" which includes also a sound training in all the usual branches 
" of an English education, together with the French language, 



* See pages 153 and 194. 
t 20/. a year for day-boys. 



.-■ ■ Mr: Green's Repwt. 309 

" ^nd the rudiments of drawing and vocal music. The senior 

"sohojlars, will be. prepared and encpuraged to matriculate at the 

" University of London." It is entirely a boarding school. The 

yearly charge, ..including necessary extras, is 47/. 5s. Weekly, 

boarders pay 9L 9s. a year less.* Boys entering above the age of 

15 pay 10^. 10s. a year more. In favour of sons of ministers of 

religion (this is important to observe) a reduction of 25 per cent. 

is made. The shareholders have no privilege of nominating boys 

to the school. All may come for whom there is room. Some 

pecuniary return is contemplated on the outlay — five per cent is 

talked of — but with the originators of the scheme this was certainly 

not an object. The school is excellently situate in one of the Its condition.. , 

pleasantest villages of England, easily accessible from Wolveiv 

hampton and the " Black country," but unaiFected by its smoke 

and noise. Its head master is a man of learning and ability, of 

high repute among the Independents. In the autumn of 1865 

the arrangements were still so far from complete that the directors 

thought it better not to allow an examination or to furnish 

answers to the questions issued by the Commission. All the 

information, however, that I asked for, was readily granted. 

At that time the new building (which is, I believe, now open) 
was only just above the ground. The school meanwhile was held 
in an old mansion close by, which, with its grounds, has been 
bought by the directors. The arrangements contemplated were 
very elaborate, and when complete would accommodate nearly 
120 boys, for whom there would be six resident masters. When 
I was there the number of boys was 42, all that the then accom- 
modation would admit. Of these two-thirds were Independents, 
and most of the rest Baptists. More than half seemed to be 
intended for commercial life, but the master hoped to keep all till 
the age of 17 or 18, and to make matriculation at the University 
of London part of the system of the school. Hitherto no boy 
had left under 16, save for illness. The master's plan was to teach 
Latin and Greek to all, and only to vary from the " public school " 
model in this, that he would make more of the " English Educa- 
tion " in the lower classes, and would not attempt much composition 
in verse. 

The establishment of such a school at least bears witness to a Inferences to 
strong zeal for the higher education among the dissenting men of estibuXntnr 
business of that district, a class not apt to be credited with it. of this school. 
There is more of it, to the best of my belief, among them — in 
consequence perhaps of the influence of certain ministers — than 
among the Churchmen of the same class in that district.. The* 
interest, however, is on the whole a new one with them. The 
long exclusion of Dissenters from the old universities, and from 
the endowments which give to the clerical profession a social 
[prestige, have led them generally to regard the pursuit of com- 
merce as their necessary inheritance and thus to terminate the 

* It IS supposed that their washing is done at home. 



210 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

education of their sons at the age when qualifications for commerce 
are supposed to be sufficiently obtained. But a considerable 
change is appearing among them in this respect, and though the 
question of turning to more general account the educational 
endowments of the country is not one with which they, any more 
than other people, are yet very familiar, no one in my experience 
caught so eagerly at any scheme that might be suggested for 
facilitating access to the higher culture as certain Dissenting 
ministers and laymen whom it was my privilege to meet, nor did 
any assure me so strongly of a readiness to take advantage of such 
a scheme on the part of the classes which they represented. 
Limitations to The drawbacks which I should anticipate to the efficiency of 
possiWe success tj^g Tattenhall school, would be the want of good feeders, and the 
want of effective ultimate reward. If it is to do its work in the 
best way as a place of training for universities, it ought to be fed 
by boys of about the age of 13, already sufficiently equipped in 
arithmetic and Enirlish writing, and well grounded in Latin. If 
It does not get most of its boys in this state, as it cannot, like 
Eton or Harrow, ignore English teaching, it will be pulled down 
by the necessities of " commercial education/' Now in the present 
state of things Nonconformists of the class in question have 
scarcely the means of getting this early preliminary education for 
their boys. In a very fev/ cases it might be given at home. 
Otherwise it could only be got at grammar schools and cheap 
private schools in the condition already described, which at best 
only bring a few boys, and these not till the age of 15, to the state 
in. which they ought to be on entering such a school as Tettenhall 
seems to be, A well endowed school would have the remedy in 
its hands, if it would only use it. It might institute an entrance 
examination in the preliminary subjects, and give exhibitions, 
tenable at school, to those who did best in it. Such an examina- 
tion would be something for the smaller schools to aim at, and in 
time they would have boys forthcoming up to the required 
standaed. As it is, the directors of the Tettenhall institution 
propose to found two scholarships, tenable at the school, of 25i. 
a year each. This is indeed a laudable proof of their spirit, but 
more are wanted. If they could lay hands on some grammar 
school funds at present wasted, and apply them to the establish- 
ment of several scholarships, open to all comers, they might convert 
all the small grammar schools and the best private schools about, 
so far as they contain sons of Dissenters, into serviceable feeders. 
But in this, as in other cases, where the heart is there is not the 
treasure. 
Importance to In like manner I should doubt whether the attractions, of the 
disabaities*\°^ University of London will suffice to induce many of the pupils, 
Oxford and with the alternative of the early pursuit of profitable business 
Cambridge. before them, to pursue their studies at due length and with due 
thoroughness. The head master is quite aware of the superior 
stimulus which the endowments of Oxford and Cambridge enable 
them to afford, and assured me that if the disabilities which they 
impose on Dissenters were once thoroughly removed, he should 



Mr. GreerHs Report. 211 

set himself to prepare boys to compete for scholarships at those 
universities, as he does now to matriculate at the University of 
London. 

The origin of the proprietary school at Edgbaston (charging Edgbaston: 
from 9Z. to 2\l. a year for day boys according to position in school) 
has already been referred to (p. 93.) The system which its founders its objects. 
and managers contemplated, was one which should give to boys 
destined for commercial life at once the necessary education and 
as much general cultivation as possible, while at the same time it 
should be available as a preparation for universities. Accordingly 
Latin and French were to be taught throughout, and German 
in the higher classes. Greek was to be optional. For classics, 
mathematics, and modern languages severally, there was to be a 
separate classification, so that each study might have an un- 
trammelled chance of flourishing. This programme has been 
adhered to. At first its success was considerable ; it sent a good 
many boys to the London Univei'sity and achieved remarkable 
distinction in the Oxford local examinations. It also got an open 
scholarship at Oxford and another at Cambridge. Of late years 
it has declined both in numbers* and success. For a time it 
ceased to send boys in for the " local examinations," and though Its partial 
it sent in three juniors in 1865, they did not greatly dis- decline. 
tinguish themselves. One very promising boy from it came up 
to Oxford in 1866, but he was so much better than any one else 
in the school that he had for some time been taught by himself. 
Very few have gone from it lately to the London University, and 
the general age for leaving the school was shortened. Hardly 
any have stayed on beyond 16 ; most have left at 15. 

The only assignable causes that I could discover for this decline Causes of this, 
were (1) that at the time of its foundation many of the persons 
who started it had themselves sons for whom they wished a high 
education, and whom they kept at the school long enough to get 
it. These sons are now grown up and others have not appeared 
to take their place; parents of the same position as the foijnders 
of the school being now more disposed to use distant boarding- 
schools. (2) That since the Edgbaston school was founded there 
has been an improvement in the grammar school, especially in its 
non-classical department and in its general arrangements. It may 
be added that the late head master, who left a few months ago, 
though a most accomplished scholar and admirably fitted to give 
reality to the " modern " education, perhaps gave scarcely enough 
attention to the routine of school work. 

For whatever reason, the attempt to combine the classical and 
the modern education has not succeeded at Edgbaston. In 1865 
only 12 boys, less than a sixth of the school, were learning Greek. 
In the third class from the top only three out of ] 5 were learning 
it, and the proportion was not much larger in the classes above 
this. The Latin scholarship was clearly at a low ebb. The exer- 
cises which I saw of 12 boys in the second-class from the top, 

* It had under 80 boys in 1865, having at one time had 120. 



212 



Counties of Stafford and Warwich. 



Conditions of 
success of this 
school. 



School under 
Privy Council, 
how far sup- 
plemental to 
grammar 
school. 



though not at all difficult, were full of gross grammatical blunders. 
The knowledge of French in the school, on the other hand, so far 
as I was able to judge of it, was very good. That in such a school, 
under such a system, the " modern " subjects should triumph over 
the classical seems, apart from all questions of management, an 
inevitable result. A parent, who distinctly looked to a university 
career for his son, would send him to the grammar school which 
has exhibitions, not to the proprietary school. The, boys in the 
latter, therefore, may be presumed generally to have no strong 
stimulus to classical studies at home, and not to have learnt the 
Latin grammar early. At school their time is very much divided 
and there is no prestige attaching to success in Latin above that 
which attaches to success in other subjects to compensate for its 
far greater difficulty of attainment. In short, all the general 
conditions that conduce to success in classical studies are wanting 
here. There is want of early education, want of pressure at home, 
want of sufficiently exclusive attention, want of sufficient reward 
at school, and want of a definite result from classical study in after 
life. The object of the originators of this school, however — that 
of giving a good general education to boys destined for business — 
is a most important one. For its attainment two conditions at 
least are necessary, good early education and a habit of remaining 
at school till the age of 17 or 18. If the Edgbaston school 
received its boys well drilled in Latin accidence,; and could be 
relieved of the burden of teaching elementary English and arith- 
metic, it might give to boys, who would stay long enough, a good 
" modern " education, based on that real knowledge of Latin, 
without which no one is a qualified citizen of the intellectual 
commonwealth of the modern world. In any case, however, it 
would suffer from the absence of boys destined for professions for 
which a good education is necessary, and from the want of sub- 
stantial rewards for continued and diligent study. AH that is 
possible for the Edgbaston school in the way of " modern '' 
education ought to be more possible for a grammar school with 
an income approaching 20,000Z. a year, with the great additional 
advantage on the part of the latter that it might keep its 
" modern" students, to some extent, in contact with those who 
were pursuing longer methods and give them a constant induce- 
ment to undertake those methods thejnselves (see above, pp. 131, 
138, and 140). The benefit of this in modifying the superficial 
tone apt to result from the " modern " education, wouldjj think, 
though indefinite, be very great. 

I know of no other supplements to the grammar schools than 
those mentioned, unless schools under the Privy Council, so far 
as they educate sons of tradesmen and farmers, may be so reckoned. 
On this point, I presume, statistics may be obtained at head- 
quarters. Among the masters of the cheap commercial schools, 
I heard frequent complaints that boys who, considering the 
position of their parents, ought to be sent to them, were sent 
instead -to schools receiving Government aid. . Such a master, near 
West Bromwich, told me that by conference with the master of a 



Mr. Green's Eeport, 213 

neighbouring Wesleyan school under Government inspection, he 

had ascertained that there were. 70 boys in attendance at the 

lattei", whose parents might rather have been expected to send 

them to a middle school of some sort. My impression is, that 

this is a sample of a practice prevalent thoughout the " Black 

country," and at Birmingham, where the middle class emerges Difference 

rapidly from the working class, and it has an important bearing ^etween manu- 
iU ^- 1 ^1 . 1 11 ■ ° facturmg towns 

on the question whether the grammar schools can in any way use ami others. 

the schools und^r the Privy Council as their feeders.* To some 

extent the same practice prevails in the Potteries, nor do the 

small farmers of North Staffordshire object to using the same 

school as the labourers, if they like it in other respects. In 

country towns, and in the rural districts where farms are large, 

distinctions of class are more fixed and matter of more social 

jealousy. Here, accordingly, the school under inspection, unless 

it happens to have a hold on some particular congregation of 

Dissenters, is more exclusively used by children of the poor. 

Any plan for the improvement of grammar schools must begin Funds available 
with the question of funds. Are those which they at present actually or pos- 
possess sufficient to meet the wants of an improved system, and if provement™ 
not, how can more be obtained ? In answering this question, the 
first thing to take account of is the present application of property, 
bequeathed for the purpose of teaching grammar, to other pur- 
poses. I have already stated that in nine grammar schools of 
Staffordshire, having a gross annual income of 1,123Z. and in three 
of Warwickshire, with a gross annual income of 172/., the educa- 
tion given does not profess to be higher than that given in 
elementary schools for the poor.f To these ought in fairness to be 
added Audley, with annual income of 155/., where two boys learn 
a little Latin, but where the rest are not above the level of a Grammar 
National school, and the lower departments at Walsall and Coles- school money 
hill, on which together about 220/. a year is spent, and from which ^nages!^*^" 
there is no transition to the upper department. It would be 
reasonable to add, most of the money spent on lower departments 
elsewhere, from which boys are exceptionally transferred to the 
upper, but in which the general level is not above that of a 
National school ; also the income of the grammar schools at 
Hatnpton Lucy, Abbot's-Bromley, (121/. and 20/. respectively,) 
where Latin is professed, but where, from the nature of the case^; 
a grammar school is of no use. Setting these latter cases aside, 
we have a yearly income of 1,650/. derived from grammar school 
funds and not devoted to grammar school purposes. 

That it should be so devoted in the places for whose benefit it 
was left, is in most of the above cases barely possible. At Walsall 
certainly, at Coleshill possibly, the lower department might use- 
fully be made preparatory to the upper. The other places are 
villages, and the only example I have met with . of a successful 

* See Note B. 

t The nine in Staffordshire are Aldridge, Barton-under-Needwood, Bradley, Church- 
Eaton, Dilhome, Gnosall, Madeley, Newchapel, Eolleston. The three in Warwick- 
shire are Kingsbury, Monks-Kirby, and Salford-Priors. From the gross annual 
income stated in the text must be deducted 751., which represents voluntary grants in 
supplement of endowments. 



214 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



grammar school in a village is that of Appleby in Leicestershire. 
That is rather a peculiar case. It has had a local repute as a 
grammar school for several generations, which it has only lost for 
short intervals. It has an imposing and (on the whole) corn- 
It takes the niodious building, and is central to many villages. Thus, having 
na^y^lementary ^^^ t^e fortune a few years ago to obtain an excellent master, who 
school. brought several boarders of a good sort with him, it promises, 

supposing the master to be duly supported by the trustees, to act 
as a very useful middle school, maintaining a high standard of 
classics and mathematics, to the country about. Possibly, some 
of the schools under consideration might with good management 
have been kept up to the same mark, but having now permanently 
fallen from it, they can scarcely regain it. As it is, they can 
scarcely, with one or two exceptions, be reckoned even a superior 
sort of village school, their effect being simply to provide out of 
an endowment an education which might otherwise be provided, 
with better security for usefulness, out of local subscriptions, 
Does no good Government grant, and school pence. Under the present rule of 
thereby. the Education Office, which prevents more than a certain sum per 

head being paid from endowment and Government grant together, 
they have generally no chance of a Government grant, and hence 
are not under Government inspection. Only three out of 13 are 
so inspected. Six others are examined regularly by a diocesan 
inspector ; four others not at all. In seven of them no fees at all, 
or fees merely nominal, are paid. In one of the others, boys from 
outside the parish, about a third of the school, pay 9rf. a week, 
while the rest are free. In another, more than half are free, the 
rest paying from 4s. to 6s. a quarter. In another, six out of 80 
on the books pay 10s. Gd. per quarter, the rest being free. In 
another, about half are free, the i-est paying 17. a quarter. In the 
other three weekly pence are paid. In one case 4Ql. a year is 
added to an endowment of QQl. by a resident landowner. In 
another, 1.5/. is added to .54/. by the parish.* In none of the other 
cases is anything done by subscription or otherwise to supplement 
the endowment. 
Instances. It is clear, then, that in the places in question the grammar 

school funds are simply taking the place of the sources from which 
elementary schools are commonly maintained. We have next to 
inquire (1) whether there is anything in these places that would 
make the maintenance of an elementary school in the ordinary 
way difficult, and (2) whether, supposing such school to be main- 
tained, it would fail to do any good done by the existing school. 
The first question must be answered in the negative. Some of 
the places are at a peculiar advantage, none at any disadvantage, 
for the maintenance of a National school. In two of them, 
Dilhorne and Eolleston, are resident baronets, one supposed to be 
of great wealth. In another, Church Eaton, the benefice is very 
valuable. Another, Barton-under-Needwood, is a model village 
in situation and appearance, and has several resident gentry. In 
none of the other cases is there any exceptional poverty. To the 

* The case referred to is that of Monk's liirby. The 5il. includes a yearly grant 
of iil. made hy the trustees, hut not required by the terms of the trust. 



Mr. Green's Report. 215 

second question, I think, the answer must be that in most of these 
places a school maintained by subscriptions, fees, and Govern- 
ment grant would be better than the existing one. This remark 
does not apply to the three under Government inspection. In 
these, some Government money is lost through the possession of 
an endowment, but the endowment more than covers the loss, and 
thus presumably attracts a better master than might otherwise be 
had. In several of the others evils were noticeable which Govern- . 
ment inspection might tend to remove, especially irregularity 
of attendance. Where this irregularity damages the income of 
the school by lessening the Government grant, more vigorous 
measures are taken to check it than where it involves no such fine. 
Thus, in one of these village "grammar schools," I only found 36 
in attendance out of 80 on the books ; in another, 33 out of 90, 
in another, 20 out of 35. The master of another told me that on 
a rainy day his school was nearly empty. One of these schools, 
again, was held in a building wholly unfit for the purpose. 
Generally, the absence of an inspection on which money depends 
leads to a slackness of work. Against these evils, as it seemed, 
very little countervailing good was to be set. In five out of 1.3, 
there were sons of farmers mixed with the poor boys, but I heard 
no reason for supposing that in these cases the willingness of the 
farmers to use the school was due to its endowment. Gratuitous- 
ness of education is i-ather the reverse of an attraction to farmers, 
who like to be able to say as one said in my hearing, " I pay a 
shilling a week for my lad, and no thanks to no man." In three 
out of the 13, there was some filtration to the "grammar school," 
out of a lower mixed school, which if it had been effectively 
worked, as it did not seem to be, might have kept the former to a 
higher standard than that of the ordinary National school in a 
village. In the rest, however, there was no pretence of this kind. 
Pour of them were themselves mixed schools. For the boys in 
the others there was no preparatory instruction, except such as 
might be given at a dame's or infant school, and the standard of 
admission was merely nominal. 

Where these grammar school endowments in villages are small 
in amount, as is generally the case, it might not be thought very 
desirable, even if there were the power to interfere with them, 
except so far as to secure that the elementary schools which they 
maintain are good of their kind. There are three cases in Stafford- Cases where 
shire where either from peculiarity of situation, or from size of ^^^^ resent 
endowment, the utility of some interference from without can system is 
hardly be questioned. These are (1) the case of Bradley and wanted. 
Church Eaton, (2) that of Dilhorne, (3) that of Newchapel and 
Audlej'. In the first are two villages, little more than two miles 
distant, possessing endowments for the purpose of teaching gram- 
mar which together produce a gross income of 405/. a year.* Out 
of this are maintained two common village schools. In one of 
these, I understood, there were no sons of farmers, and as the 

* For present charges on this income, see separate reports. 



216 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

farms were said to be large, and the farmers to keep phaetons, it 
was not expected that there would be many. In the other were 
several sons of farmers, but most of these were likely to go on to 
Bradley and some other school to be finished. One of the schools is for boys 
Church Eaton, alone, but the only means for preparing boys for it is a dame's 
school. The other is a mixed school, and for it there is no 
preparation. 

These schools, left as they are, can scarcely be much raised in 
character. The population in one village is a little under, in the 
other a little over 600, and in. both cases there was a decrease 
between 1851 and 1861. They do not lie on any main road, nor 
are they central to other villages.- Bradley is vdthin five miles of 
the grammar school at Stafford, to which both its clergyman and 
its schoolmaster were sending sons as day bays at the time of 
my visit. The Bradley ^farmers, I understood, frtequently sent 
sons there. Church Eaton is rather further from the Stafford 
school, but not too far for its farmers to use it with facilities 
for boarding by the day or week. On the other side, of it, at a 
distance of about seven miles, is Newport with a grammar school> 
to which the Church Eaton farmers sometimes send their sons. 
The only mode in which the grammar school endowments of the 
two places could be made really useful to the neighbourhood — for 
at present they are merely doing what in other less favoured places 
is done without them — would be something of this kind : Let the 
two endowments be combined, and out of them be established one 
middle school, which should give facilities for day and weekly 
boarding, with a view of di'awing to it the sons of the farmers (who 
thereabouts are generally well off), of the schoolmasters and 
poorer clergy for six miles round. To this purpose 200Z. a year 
might be applied. The fee should be Al. a year. If 30 boys 
were got at this rate, and if a little more money could be got by 
taking boarders, — and the farmers at a little distance would be glad 
to make use of it for boarders, — there would be enough to secure 
a good master, able to teach elementary Latin, mathematics, and 
French, and a competent assistant for writing and arithmetic. A 
certain number of boys might be taken free on examination fi"om 
the district round, and some more free boys might be selected from 
the elementary schools of the two villages. Towards each of these 
30?. a year might be given from the grammar school funds. If 
the rule of the Privy Council could be so far relaxed in such excep- 
tional cases, as that this money should not cause any deduction 
from the Government grant that might otherwise be earned, these 
schools would still be in a peculiarly good position. This scheme 
would involve the incurrence of a debt for a new school building. 
When this was cleared off, there would still remain (allowing for 
ordinary deductions) more than 100?. a year, which should be paid 
over to the Stafford grammar school, supposing that school to be 
then fitted to act as a good upper school, or to some other school so 
fitted, on the understanding that such school should take a certain 
number of boys free, after sufficient examination, from the new 
middle school to be established as above. The prime conditions 



Mr. Green's Report. 217 

of the success of this new school would be that it should get a good 
master with a wife who was a judicious and comfortable house- 
keeper, that it should exact sufficient elementary knowledge at 
entrance, and look well to writing, arithmetic, and Latin 
grammar. 

Before considering the impediments to such a change, it will Dilhome 
be well to notice the other cases where a similar change is specially Present state. 
desirable. My report on Dilhome explains how out of an income 
of about 260?, a year only 70Z. is at present spent on the school, 
which is of the. common village sort, but used largely by sons of 
farmers, and. how the whole income must soon be available. To 
the advantages^ there noticed, which' Dilhome possesses for the 
maintenance of an elementary school in the usual way, it should be 
added that at Blythe Marsh], a hamlet of the same parish, only two 
miles distant, is an endowment of 28Z. a year for a school for the 
poor. This latter school is at present damaged by the existence of 
the school at Dilhorne. This being entirely free and exacting no 
preliminary knowledge, it is impossible for the Blythe Marsh 
school to charge a fee. It subsists simply on its endowment, and 
only keeps its boys till they are old enough to walk to Dilhorne. 
As girls are inadmissible at Dilhorne they finish at Blythe 
Marsh. 

It is clear! to an outsider that the wants of the boys of the parish What might 
of Dilhorne would be better met than they are at present by an ^^ '^°"^- 
elementary school under Government inspection, midway between 
Dilhorne and Blythe Marsh, which would be quite available for all 
but infants in both places, as well as in Forsbrook, which forms 
the remainder of the parish. If the Blythe Marsh endowment were 
applied to such a school and supplemented by weekly pence and a 
Government grant, earned in the ordinary way, a better school 
would in all probability exist in the parisli than exists now. The 
grammar school fund might be mulcted to find a building for it, 
and it would not be much to expect from private endeavours in 
such a place that they should be able, with the ordinary help, 
to maintain .schools for girls and infants at the two extremities of 
the parish. - Any good purpose which the present Dilhorne school 
may serve as a place of elementary education for the sons of small 
farmers in the region north and north-east of Dilhorne ought to 
be served by a new elementary school at Kings] ey, about four miles 
distant in that direction, which, owing to the discovery of minerals, 
will have an income of about 190J. a year from endowment, and 
thus ought to be able to provide an excellent English education. 

The grammar school money of Dilhorne should then be applied 
to the. establishment of a " middle" school {i.e., a school which 
should give an English education, with the elements of Latin, 
Erencb, and ihathematics) within the parish of Dilhorne, but close 
by the Blythe' Bridge station. Here it would be quite available 
for all Dilhorne boys capable of a " middle education;" it would 
be available also for day boarders from Cheadle, a small town, 
four ihiles distant, where there is no middle school, private or 
othe^y' and- whence seven or eight boys now come as private day 



218 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

pupils to the curate of BIythe-Marsh, hard by ; further, what is 
more important, it would be available for day boarders from 
Longton, a Pottery town of 16,000 inhabitants, distant four miles 
by road and rail, which has no endowed middle school and only a 
very inconsiderable private one. For this purpose, after deduction 
for the object mentioned above, and for repairs of property, &c., 
about 230Z. a year might he available. If the school were well 
managed it might soon get 50 day boys, and attract plenty of 
boarders from the Pottery district. It might take select free boys 
from the elementary school to be established as above, and a certain 
number from the district generally to be chosen for proficiency in 
elementary knowledge. It might thus turn the National and 
British schools of the neighbourhood as well as the private schools 
into its feeders. How an upper school might be established for it 
to feed I shall explain below. 
Andley and In this way the " middle " education of one end of the Pottery 

Potteries' district might be provided for. That of the northern part of it 

might be provided for by dealing with the grammar school funds 
of Newchapel and Audley, in a way that would at least do no harm 
to either of these places, while it would do much good to others. 
For the use at present made of these funds I must refer to 
my separate reports. In the case of Newchapel there is nothing 
in the original bequest to prevent the transfer of the school to 
Tunstall, and it seemed to be a general opinion that such trans- 
fer was desirable. The same, of course, cannot be said about 
Audley. As it is, 20/. a year of the Audley grammar school 
money goes to a mixed school of girls and little boys, and 
another 20?. goes in clothes and food to the poor. Now Audley 
is a place where there should be no difficulty in maintaining an 
elementary school in the ordinary way ; the people earn mostly 
large wages, and the landov.'iiers are wealthy. The mixed school 
might, therefore, fairly be thrown, so far as it is not self-support- 
ing, on voluntary contributions ; and there can be no good in 
the gratuities to the poor. The 40/. a year, then, now spent on 
the mixed school and gratuities, might fairly be given to an 
elementary school for boys, which, if it were allowed to earn a 
Government Grant without deduction, would with weekly fees be 
well off. The remaining 100/. a year might, I think, with advan- 
tage be combined with the Newchapel money (120Z. a year and 
probably capable of some increase)* to form a middle school at 
Tunstall, on the plan suggested in the preceding case. If estab- 
lished on the western side of Tunstall it would not be more than 
three miles from Audley, to select boys from which it should be 
freely open ; in like manner it might be open to picked boys 
from the villages which now have a privilege in the Newchapel 
school. As to the great use of which such a school would be to 
the northern part of the Pottery district, I found a general 
agreement among intelligent persons. 



* Besides tr ]Ethe trustees of Newcliapel school have about 800/. in hand. 



Mr. Greev's Report. 219 

The other Pottery towns — Burslem, Hanlcy, and Stoke — are How the other 
in no part much more than tliree miles from Newcastle, in some ^ot'^^'T to^™^ 
parts only two. For their " middle " population the grammar school ^ded for.*^"" 
of Newcastle, if changed in site, enlarged, and generally im- 
proved, ought to be quite available. Sufficient pecuniary means, 
I believe, are at hand for these changes. Under part of the land 
from which this school derives its income lies valuable " carbo- 
naceous iron ore," which could be easily and economically raised. 
Indeed, if the land belonged to an individual owner there is little 
doubt that the minerals would have been already worked. The 
following estimate of their value is from a good local authority : 
" The calcined produce of the three upper red mines, Which Minerals under 
" alone are worth working now, would average from 10,000 to ^^""^ "^ ^^^• 
" 12,000?. tons an acre, and at the fair average royalty of Is. Qd. ^ ^^"^ °°- 
" per ton would realize, for the entire estate, from 10,000Z. to 
" 12,000/.; the whole might be worked out easily in 10 years. 
" When the three upper red mines are gone there would still be 
" left the Bassy mine, and all the upper coal strata, which in 
" 10 or 15 years from this time would form a most valuable 
" property." It is clear that within a very few years from the 
letting of these minerals the trustees of the Newcastle school 
would be in a condition to carry on a middle school with excel- 
lent building and appliances. It would be most useful, howevei', 
if of the same order as those of which I have suggested the foun- 
dation at Blythe-Bridge, and Tunstall; that is, it should set itself 
to impart an " English " education, with the elements of Latin, 
French, and mathematics, and should feed an upper school which 
might be established as follows : 

In Newcastle is a charity founded by Edward Orme in 1704, Orme's 
primarily for apprenticing boys and then, with whatever money *"'**• 
was left, for teaching the poor children of Newcastle to read, 
write, and cast accounts, and for buying them books. Some of 
the money arising from Orme's bequest was invested in 48 acres 
of land, hard by the estate just described as belonging to the gram- 
school. In 1846 a scheme for the management of the charity 
was obtained from the Court of Chancery, which is still in force, 
and under which an elementary school is maintained, giving a 
perfectly gratuitous education to poor boys. The income of the 
charity when this scheme was obtained was, 1 believe, only 160/. 
a year ; and the size of the school contemplated appears from a 
clause which provides " that the trustees shall not refuse to nomi- 
" nate any child eligible to this charity, if the number of 
" children on the foundation shall not exceed 50 ; but, neverthe- 
" less, nothing herein contained shall be construed to limit the 
" number of the foundation children to be admitted to the said 
" school, if the means and accommodation will afford education 
" for more than 50." A few years afterwards, however, carbo- 
naceous iron ore was discovered under the land mentioned, for 
the working of which a lease of 21 years was granted; under 
this lease the trustees have in some years received more than 
2,0007. In 1851 a fine new school was built, on which altogethej- 

a. c. .3. B 



220 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



What is to be 
done with them. 



Poor school or 
high middle 
school. 



about 2,600L was spent: in this 150 boys receive an excellent ele- 
mentary education gratuitously — books, stationery, and all mate- 
rials being found by the trustees. Three masters are maintained 
in it at salaries of 150?., 1 lOZ., and 75?. a year respectively ; another 
50Z. a year is spent on books, stationery, &c. Altogether the out- 
goings from the charity are about 500/. a year. The money that 
has accrued from minerals and been invested in the funds 
amounts now to considerably more than 20,000/. As to what may 
be expected in the future, I quote the following from the local 
authority previously referred to : — " The mines on this estate are 
" of unusual thickness and quality, and the three mines yet un- 
" exhausted (consisting of about 1 1 acres of half yard, 1 1 acres 
" of red shag, and nearly 11 of red mine) should produce an 
" average of 15,000 calcined tons to the acre, which should at all 
" events secure a minimum of 1,000/. a year to the expiration of the 
" lease. At that time the Bassy mine, which is now quite un- 
" touched, would be well in the market, and that with the 
" Spencroft, 10 foot, great row and little row coals, and all the 
" argillaceous ironstones, would safely ensure a new lease for 21 
" or 30 years at a minimum of 800/. or 1,000/. per annum, with 
" the certainty that the royalties would yield far more than that 
" sum annually. Thus within a very few years from this the 
" corpus of the trust will amount to 30,000/., exclusive of surface 
" rental, and exclusive of a great annual income which must for 
" many years infallibly arise from the deeper minerals to which 
" it is only necessary to sink the present pits." 

Opinion seemed to be divided in Newcastle as to the best way 
of applying these accumulations. Some were for establishing 
another school for the poor on the model of the present one, 
others for founding a middle school. It must be observed that 
the present school, though very useful, is not so in the way of 
giving an education to boys who could not otherwise obtain it. 
The scholars are nominated by the trustees on the ground of 
merit in themselves or their parents, not specially on the ground 
of poverty. Generally they are transferred to Onne's school 
from the National or British schools, and the transfer enables 
them to get a longer and more thorough education than they 
otherwise would, and to gain a better position in after life. Of 
the boys who had left the school up to a certain year, one half 
had become either pupil teachers, or clerks, or apprentices, or 
errand boys, very few of whom, but for the education obtained at 
this school, could have become anything but ordinary labourers. 
It is probable, however, that one such school would be enough 
for the town, if admission to it, instead of being somewhat arbi- 
trary (as owing to the nomination system it now is), were syste- 
matically made a prize for merit at the National and Dissenting 
schools of the town, so that it should become distinctly superior 
to, not parallel with, them. Another free school of the kind would 
probably rather have the effect of damaging the schools at which 
pence are paid. It would be a more real boon to give poor boys 
who have capacity for it a chance of rising to the higher learning, as 



Mr. Green's Report. 221 

might be done by establishing for boys in Orme's school small exlii- Question 
bitions to the grammar school, supposing the latter to be rehabili- ""''^etliei" 
tated and affiliated to a higher school, according to previous sug- setool Uke 
gestions. There is doubtless a class of boys in Newcastle, as in present 
other towns, of parentage too poor and debased to take advantage P^^^'s school 
of schools under the Privy Council system, but on them— sup- ^^ '^^°**^- 
posing that their education does not soon come to be provided for 
by a rate — a school on the expensive scale of the existing Orme's 
school would be thrown away. There is, moreover, another 
charity in Newcastle — Hatrell's — now in suspense, but available 
for the education of the poor, producing nearly 100?. a year. 
Perhaps it might be too sanguine to hope that any part of the in- 
come from the " Burgesses' Lands " of Newcastle — now spent in 
the payment of some 30s. a year to each burgess, which is of 
course wasted — should ever be applied to education ; but on the 
whole it is reasonable to think that a deduction of lOOZ. a year 
from the resources of Orme's charity for elementary education, in 
addition to the sum (435/. a year)* already so applied, would jus- 
tify the application of the rest to education of a higher kind. If How high 
15,000Z. of the accumulations, with the surface rent, were applied ^"'^'^'jV^^ 
to the former object, there would still in a year or two be should be ' 
15,000/. for other purposes, with the sure prospect of the gradual -worked, 
addition of some 40,000Z. during the ensuing 30 years. This 
would quite suffice to establish a high school, which might be 
so worked as to supply upper departments — one preparatory for 
the universities, the other devoted mainly to physical science and 
modern languages — primarily to the improved Newcastle gram- 
mar school, but also to the proposed middle schools at Tunstall 
and Blythe Bridge, if they should happily come into existence. 
The grammar schools at Stone and Uttoxeter, whence there is 
easy access by rail to Newcastle, and that at Leek, if it could be 
put on a satisfactory and permanent footing, whence there will 
soon be such access, might also in some way be affiliated to it. 
That such a school might thrive at Newcastle no one who con- 
sidered the question seemed to doubt; it is a place with many 
attractions for residents, open to smokeless country on two sides 
out of four, and only needs a good school to become the gen- 
teel suburb of the Potteries and neighbouring iron district. On 
the great need in that district of higher means of education I have 
remarked above (p. 194). If well provided with buildings, play- 
ground, and exhibitions, the high school might probably almost 
support itself upon boarders and day-boys. If it took picked 
boys free from the affiliated schools, it might without damaging 
its usefulness charge (say) lOZ. a year for day-boys, and 50Z. for 
boarders. Thirty boarders at that rate would yield a master, if he 
had his house rentfree,a clear income of more than 600Z. a year. If 
the grammar school could be put under the same management as 

* This represents the present expenditure minus the salaries of clerk and agent, 
which cannot be regarded as spent specially on the existing school. 

R 2 



•222 Oountief: of Sin ford and IVarwick. 

the proposed liigli school and share a modern language master with 
it, there would be a saving of expense and probably more efficiency. _ 
Desirable The only transfers of grammar school funds in the shires of 

transfer of Statford and Warwick, besides those already spoken of, that 

saUandHamp. seemed to me specially desirable were at Walsall and Hampton- 
tou-Liicy. Lucy. If the Walsall grammar school would apply 150/. a yearT 

out of its I,OOOZ. to establish a branch school at or near Wednes- 
bury, pretty much on the plan of the King Edward's elementary 
schools at Birmingham, it would do a great service and might 
more than remunerate itself by charging fees at Walsall (see pp. 
76 and 101). I have already stated reasons for thinking that many 
boys in that region are sent to National or British schools whose 
parents could well afford a higher school. The best of these 
might be taught by a school of the kind suggested, charging a fee 
of 21. a year, of whom again the best, after a good grounding in 
the elements, might be transferred to Walsall. | At Hampton- 
Lucy it is attempted to use the grammar school as such, but 
without, as it seemed, any beneficial result. To all the boys 
learning " grammar " in it the Stratford school would with facili- 
ties for day-boarding be accessible, and if it paid over lOOZ. a 
year to that school on condition that the corporation put it on a 
better footing, while it received enough, with proper manage- 
ment, to secure there being a good elementary school at Hamp- 
ton, no one there would be the worse and the neighbourhood of 
Stratford would be much the better. In the other cases in the two 
counties where a grammar school endowment exists in a Tillage, the 
amount being small, it might be well to allow of its appropriation to 
an elementary school, if any security existed — and there is none_^ 
now — that the elementary school should be good of its kind ; if it 
were so, the farmers, even where they keep phaetons and pianos, 
would send their sons to it, notwithstanding the mixture with the 
poor, at least up to a certain age, and they could not do betfcer.§ 
Charity money, Over and above the application to grammar school purposes of 
grammar school funds not now so applied, and of some part of the 
proceeds of Orme's educational charity, something, it is to be 
hoped, may ultimately be obtained for the same object from pro- 
perty belonging to charities or to corporations. The extent and 
application of such property might fitly form the subject of a 
separate inquiry. It is one of which I can only speak generally, 
and with reference to places where a grammar school needs 
Stafford. subsidy. At Stafford, as at Newcastle, are " Burgesses' Lands." 

They extend, I believe, over more than 200 acres. From Sep- 
tember to spring they are common. The practice is for each 

* On a difficulty as to the patronage of the grammar school, see special report. 

f If with this could he combined some of the money now given at Wednesbury in 
doles, &c., so much the better. 

X J'or some of them it would be six miles distant, but these come on ponies as it is, 

§ Out of 24 " grammar schools " used as elementary village schools, which I met 
with in the five counties that I traversed, only eight had a fair mixture of sons of 
farmers. The other 16, however, were not, or had very lately become, good schools 
of their kind. I have doubts, notwithstanding, whether the larger graziers of South 
Warwickshire would often condescend to use such a school, however good. 



Mr. Green's Report. 223 

" old and necessitous burgess " who is not a pauper, to have an 
acre assigned to him at a rent of 8s. This he generally sublets 
to some one at a rent of 2Z. or more. The practical result thus is 
to put a gratuity of 30s. or 2Z. in the pocket of the " necessitous 
burgess," which I was told, he generally spends in drink. These 
lands, I understood, if enclosed, would be worth at least 40,000Z. 
That sum had in fact been offered for them for some public pur- 
pose. They might, again, be let at a very high rent as garden- 
ground. I should suppose that provision might be made for paying 
the burgesses as much as they at present receive from them, and 
at the same time 15,000Z, or 20,000/. might be obtained for public 
purposes. At Burton also there are town lands vested in feoffees. Burton. 
who in the autumn of 1865 had, I was told, more than 30,00OZ. 
invested. They had given liberally to elementary schools of all 
denominations, and might not be unwilling to do something for 
middle education. Lichfield abounds in charities, and has in Lichfield. 
consequence an ill-conditioned surplus population. About 600/. 
a year, I believe, is spent in doles and gratuities of various kinds, 
and with a very bad effect. A quantity of the inhabitants work 
as market gardeners, and in the summer earn high wages, which 
they waste, in expectation of living on charity during the winter. 
Here also, as in other cases of the same kind, these gratuities are 
said to be turned to political account by the authorities. Into the 
the truth of such statements it is not my business to inquire, but 
the system clearly opens a wide door to abuse of this kind. The 
sum above mentioned is exclusive of the income from the " Conduit 
Lands," and of that of the hospitals. One of the latter, St John's, 
is said (I speak under correction) to have lands which at a rack- 
rent would produce 5,000Z. a year.* Under the circumstances the 
starved condition of the grammar school (with an income of 96/. 
a year, of which 60/. is a grant from the " Conduit Lands "), is 
scarcely creditable to a place where the " educated class" is 
relatively so strong. At West Bromwich is a charity estate, West Brom- 
producing, as I understood, about 270/. a year, which might pos- "ffich. 
sibly be available for purposes of education. It might be usefully 
spent either on the existing " Bridge Trust '_' school at Handsworth, 
or on a new school of the same kind on the side of West Bromwich, 
most remote from Handsworth, i.e., about Hill Top. At Leek, 
as I have stated in my separate report, a good deal of money 
(about 200/. a year) is spent in doles and gifts to the poor. That 
any of this should be spent on the grammar school is perhaps more 
to be wished than expected. 

In Warwickshire, Warwick itself and Coventry are well-known Warwick, 
seats of charitable foundations. In Warwick, a town of 10,000 

■* The first known statutes of the hospital were promulgated by Bishop Smith in 
1495. These prescribe that lOZ. a year shall be paid to a master, and Hi. to an usher, 
for teaching grammar. In 1740 the hospital school was formally amalgamated with 
the existing town grammar school. The payment from the hospital to the school has 
never increased, notwithstanding the improved value of its estate of 786 acres. The 
income of the " conduit lands " is chiefly applied to purposes elsewhere met by rates. 
More of it might be applied to education without anyone in the place being the worse 
off for it. Elementary education is well provided for, as it is, by Minor's English 
school. 



224 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



White's 
Charity . 



Coventry. 



Sutton Cold- 
field. 



inhabitants, without trade or manufacture, more than 1,000?. a 
year is spent in doles and gratuities to the poor. This is exclusive 
of hospitals, and further (1) of a charity for schooling poor 
children, producing 225Z. a year net ; (2) of Henry VIII.'s charity, 
producing about 3,O0OZ. a year, which, after deduction of 400?. a 
year for the grammar school, is spent for purposes elsewhere met 
by rates ; (3) of White's charity. The object of White's charity, 
which is shared by Coventry, Leicester, Northampton, and 
Nottingham, is to advance money without interest for a term of 
years, on security being given for its repayment, to young men 
who are setting up in business. At "Warwick, owing to want of 
trade and to the requirement of security for repayment, the 
money is not applied for to the full amount. Thus while 8,000?. 
is out on loan, more than 18,-000?. is accumulated. It is a general 
opinion in the place, I think, that this money should be applied to 
education, and it is also generally admitted that the money spent 
on doles and gratuities is at present simply mischievous. The 
town is burdened with poor for whom there is no regular em- 
ployment, and some of whom are said to boast that what with 
charities, elections, and assizes (where they act as javelin-men), 
they have got along without doing a stroke of work for many 
years. In the year 1854 a movement was started for a better 
application of the charity-money, and a scheme proposed for a 
rehabilitation of the grammar school. An inquiry was held in the 
place by a representative of the Charity Commission, but nothing 
has been done since. Everyone seems to have been waiting for 
everyone else. What is wanted here, as in similar circumstances 
elsewhere, is an initiative from without. 

In. Coventry about 13,000L a year, I believe, is spent by the 
various charities ; of this — setting aside hospitals, schools for the 
poor, and the maintenance of old men and women at regular weekly 
payments — about 2,000?. a year is spent in variable gratuities, and 
600?. a year in coals. The trustees of White's charity at Coventrv 
a few years ago devoted their accumulations to the establishment 
of an industrial school, but they have more in hand already, and 
are constantly accumulating more. 

At Sutton Coldfield exists a " Warden and Society," holding 
property of which the gross income in 1864 was 2,628?.* This 
has been spent partly on purposes met elsewhere by rates (such 
as the supply of water), partly on almshouses and "poor maidens' 
" portions," partly on schools for the poor in Sutton and neigh- 
bouring villages. To the latter about 1,000?. a year is applied, 
but of this 375?. goes in clothing. The payments to the masters 
and mistresses of the schools are not large. The masters at the 
three, where there are masters, received for salary and fuel in 1864 
respectively, 76?. 10«., 65?. 10«., 70?. 10s. The schools have been 
under no regular inspection. A clergyman of the neighbourhood. 



* The result of the existence of this rich corporation is generally admitted hy im- 
partial persons to be bad. It pauperizes the people in character and ideas, and renders 
municipal government of the ordinary kmd impossible, while it does not adequately 
meet the purposes of such government. The di-ainage of the town is bad. A case 
to some extent parallel is that of Melton Mowbray. 



Mr. Greenes Report. 225 

excellently qualified, examined them 12 years ago, and reported 
them to be below the level of good schools under the Privy 
Council. The clergyman of the place does not consider that there 
has been much improvement since. The other most considerable 
charges on the income of the society are for almshouses, blankets, 
a lying-in charity, and poor maidens' portions. These come to 
about 400Z. a year. The only expenditure on " middle " edu- 
cation consists of 467. a year, of which 4Ql. is paid to the master 
of the grammar schools on the understanding that he take certain 
boys free to be nominated by the society. Proposals have been 
made by members of the society to apply more money to the same 
purpose ; in particular the income of a sum of about 2,300/. recently 
made by a sale of land to the London and North-western railway, 
but have not yet succeeded. It has been proposed either to 
establish a middle school apart from the grammar school, which I 
think would be a great mistake, or to provide an English depart- 
ment at the grammar school, or to found an exhibition at it. My 
experience of English departments is not favourable, as I have 
already explained. The ground for the establishment of such a 
department at Sutton Coldfield would be that hitherto this school 
has been used, to some -extent, by a class of boys of whom many 
go on to the public schools, and that with these arithmetic and 
English writing do not require so much attention as with boys of 
a lower rank. The wants of the case would probably be best met 
by the establishment of a preparatory school, which should pro- 
vide a sound English education early, and thus enable the grammar 
school, to give as much attention as it now does to classics without 
unfairness to the boys going into business at 16. There were 
many boys in the school at the time of my visit who would have 
been the better for passing through such a preparatory school. 
If, besides, some small exhibitions were founded, tenable at the 
school, to be given primarily for proficiency in the subjects taught 
at the preparatory school, and one or two of 25Z. a year for boys 
of 15, tenable at some school or schools well qualified to prepare 
for the universities,* the grammar school would be well off, and 
able to supply all the " middle ■"' education wanted for the place. 
For these purposes the income of " the Warden and Society " might, 
do doubt, with good management suflfice, without detriment to any 
good object which it at present serves. Setting aside the question 
of a management at once more effective and more economical of 
the schools which it maintains for the poor, a great part of the 
expenditure described as " incidental," which, in 1864, amounted 
to 430/., can hardly be regarded as permanent. 

Supposing that from any of the sources above mentioned a high 
school could be established for Staffordshire (in addition to the 
one to which it has been suggested that Orme's money should be 
applied), and another for Warwickshire, it would seem that as far 

* Exhibitions of this kind would be preferable to one direct to the university, on 
the ground of a relation between the Sutton Coldfield School and the grammar school 
at Birmingham, which I believe it would be possible to establish (see above pp. ll') 
and 114), 



2'26 Counties of Stafford cmdefFarwick. 

as funds go, the grammar schools of the two counties (except in a few 
cases to be mentioned presently), would be well able to supply 
the middle class with a suitable education, having in it the elements 
of " liberality." For an education without such elements, yet 
, outwardly distinct from that given in National schools, there 
would no doubt be still a demand. This, however, the grammar 
schools should not seek to meet, but gradually to divert into a 
Plan for high more worthy direction. The high school to be effective, should 
schools. jj^^,g j.^jj departments, the basis of division being that suggested 

above (p. 140 and p. 221.) should have accommodation for boarders 
and give facilities for boarding both by the day and the week. It 
should also be centrally situate and easily approachable by rail. 
The charge should scarcely be more than 40?. a year for board and 
teaching,* and there should be exhibitions of 251. a year tenable 
at the school, most of which, if not all, should be appropriated to 
boys either resident or trained at schools, public or private, in the 
county. Whether these should not be confined to the department 
preparatory for university, as a set-off to the utilitarian attractions 
of the other, would be a matter for consideration ; at anj' rate it 
would be very desirable that a boy in the " modern" department, 
for whom the rewards given by the universities for knowledge of 
mathematics and physical science might have attractions, should 
be able to tranfer himself from that department to the other 
with an exhibition, tenable at the school, awarded for merit in 
those subjects. There should, further, be exhibitions to the 
university. 
Need of them. The reasons for desiring the establishment for such high schools 
are as follows : — (1.) A small grammar school caanot give an edu- 
cation likely to enable a boy to get a scholarship at the university. 
It is scarcely likely that the master of such a school, though of 
course there will be exceptions, should have the knowledge or 
ability to impart such nn education. If he has, he can only 
impart it to the exceptional boy whom he finds receptive of it, at 
the cost of neglecting more necessary work. The exceptional 
boy, moreover, is at an essential disadvantage from want of com- 
petition, nor can the small school afford him an exhibition at the 
end of hia time. There is thus a gap between the schools fre- 
quented by the less wealthy of the middle class and the univer- 
sities, which, except by the proposed high schools, cannot be 
filled. (2.) Such schools would make it possible to simplify the 
work of the smaller grammar schools, and remove the occasion 
for the mischievous separation into " classical " and " commercial " 
departments (see above, p. 187, et seg,). It would be under- 
stood that the higher classical education was not to be attempted 
by the smaller schools ; that they were to concentrate attention 



* I pm'posely suggested a higher charge for the proposed high school at New- 
castle-iinder-I.yme, heeause it -would be accessible as a day-school to most of the bovs 
fiom the schools which might be expected to .feed it. There could be no reason for 
putting the charge lower than 40/., supposing exhibitions to be provided. The sort of 
pai-ents who would be hkely to send boys to it at all without exhibitions are nuite 
ready to pay that nr more. ' 



Mr. Greens Report. 227 

on English writing, arithmetic, Latin and Euclid, with French in 
the higher classes, and that further classical or scientific edu- 
cation would be furnished elsewhere to such as were fit for it. 
Gi'eek grammar might be learnt instead of French by boys looking 
to the classical department of the higli school in their last year, 
but with this exception, which need not be serious, there would 
be a uniform system throughout the school, and one in which all 
the masters, even those not trained at universities, might be 
expected to take apart. (3.) The high school might offer to the 
smaller schools the stimulus in the way of reward, which they 
now lack, by instituting a severe entrance examination in the sub- 
jects which it is thought desirable for the latter chiefly to cultivate, 
and awarding exhibitions tenable at the school to those who did 
best in it. The better private schools, as well as the grammar 
schools, would soon find it to their advantage to lay themselves 
out for this examination. 

A subordinate question is, where the high school should be. Where should 
It may be premised that none of the existing " public schools " '*^ 
(in the technical sense) would serve the purpose. Their system 
presupposes less previous attention to arithmetic and English 
writing, and more previous attention to Greek, than it is desirable 
that the small grammar schools should give; nor could any 
existing grammar school be turned to account for the purpose, 
except one already acting on a large scale as a place of education 
for universities. Of any other grammar school the head master 
would presumably be not qualified for the conduct of a high school. 

The only school in the two counties that would satisfy the Use of King 
requisite conditions in this respect is King Edward's school at ^ ff ;n*i,is 
Birmingham, and this from its position, though admirably qualified ^^y. 
to serve as a high school to the population which can go in and 
out of Birmingham daily by rail, is not calculated to act as a 
boarding school. There is something to be said for the establish- 
ment of a new school for the purpose in some eligible rural place, 
but, if so situated, it would lose the advantage of having a town 
population close at hand to support it, and of being available for 
parents who might be disposed to take houses in its neighbour- 
hood for the purpose of using it as a day-school. On such a 
scheme, too, there would be less chance of winning for the school 
some share of the charitable and municipal funds already spoken 
of The best chance for inducing the people of a town to 
acquiesce in the application of these to the establishment of a 
middle class school would lie in the assurance that the school 
would bring residents and trade to the town, an assurance which 
could not be given if the school were some miles away. Thus, in 
Warwickshire, the place for a high school would, I think, unques- 
tionably be Warwick itself It is central and easily accessible, Warwick an 
and a school there might be so situate as to be easily available as el'giWe place, 
a day-school for Leamington, where it would find a constituency 
in the greater part at once of those parents who formerly main- 
tained the " Leamington College," and of those who support a 
flourishing private school charging from 8/. to 10/. a year for day- 



228 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Possibly Lich- 
field. 



What schools 
should he 
independent. 



boys. The trustees of King Henry VIIPs charity could furnish 
an excellent site, with plenty of room for playground, on one of 
the roads leading from Warwick to Leamington, and it might 
fairly be hoped that they would also supply money for the building 
in consideration of the material benefits it would confer on the 
town. The accumulations of White's charity would furnish a 
suiEcient endowment, if the existing grammar school could, by 
improved buildings and appliances, be made so effective a feeder 
of the high school as to relieve the latter of the burden of teaching 
boys under a certain standard, and if the exhibitions on Fulk 
Weale's foundation, now appropriated to the grammar school, 
could be transferred to the high school. In Staffordshire the 
question of site would be more difficult. The town of Stafford 
itself, would be most central and accessible. On the other hand 
Lichfield' is the great seat of superfluous charities. Possibly, if a 
high school were once started at Lichfield ovit of some of the pro- 
ceeds of these, the townspeople of Stafford and Burton might not 
be unwilling to lay the town lands at those places under some 
contribution towards the maintenance of an exhibition fund at the 
new school, on the ground that exhibitions, tenable at a high 
school by boys belonging to the county, would do more to improve 
those several schools, than money spent directly upon them. 

Indulging for the moment the anticipation that such high 
schools may be established, let us consider the future position of 
the existing grammar schools in the two counties. Those at 
Coventry and Wolverhampton could not do better than continue 
self-contained and independent. The income of each is over 
1,000Z. a year.* Coventry school has already exhibitions to the 
university, which would be valuable if released from the existing 
mischievous restrictions (p. 173). It urgently needs a change of 
site, new buildings, and a playground, but out of the abundant 
charities of the town enough, it is to be hoped, might be got for 
these purposes. The money that might be gained by the sale of 
the existing premises, added to the accumulations in the hands of 
White's trustees, would probably be now sufficient. The same 
need exists at Wolverhampton, but an appeal to the abundant 
wealth and public spirit of the town, now that the conduct of the 
school is admitted to be effective, would produce enough to supply 
new buildings and in time exhibitions. Supposing these changes 
to be made, each of the above schools would have enough to main- 
tain at once a preparatory school, and an upper school in two 
departments, according to the plan previously suggested. A fee 
of Al. a year for the preparatory department (in which the ruck 
of the "commercial" boys might be expected to finish), and of 8/. 
a year in the upper, would correspond to the rates of payment in 
the two classes of private school previously described (p. 203 et seq.) 
To give a better article than the private school at the same, not at 
a lower, rate, should be the object of the grammar school. Lower 



* In the case of Coventry tliis is subject to temporary deductions, for w hieh see 
separate report. 



Mr. Green's Report. 229 

fees, then, than the above, would not be desirable, and if each 
department took a certain number of boys free by examination, 
no one would be excluded whom it would be useful to admit. 
Now if three masters — a chief master for the preparatory depart- 
ment, and for the upper department one mainly classical, another 
mathematical and scientific — could be secured out of endowment, 
it might safely be reckoned that in respect of such other masters 
as might be necessary, a school charging the above fees would be 
self-supporting. 1,000/. a year ought to be enough to secure 
three good masters for the purposes specified, if the school was so 
built and situate as to be suitable for boarders, and if for each 
master a house with good room for boarders was provided. 

When a grammar school has an annual income from endow- What affiliated 
ment nmch under 1,000Z., unless it has some peculiar attraction to -"g'l schools. 
for boarders, it would do well, to the best of my belief, to act as 
prepai-atory to one of the proposed high schools. This means, 
that it should confine itself to teaching " Englisli," Latin, French, 
and elementary mathematics, and should not attempt to keep any 
but backwark boys much beyond the age of 15 (see p. 140). 
There need be no formal " affiliation " to the high school. If the 
latter offered scholarships, tenable at itself, to boys of the county 
who should do best in these subjects, the end would in time be 
gained. With good buildings and situation, and a yearly fee of 4Z. ^^''^t endow- 
a boy, a clear income from endowment of 250?. a year should for°affilia"ed 
enable a school under ordinary circumstances to fulfil this prepa- schools. 
ratory function. If there were a prospect of adding 150Z. a year 
as profit on 10 boarders at 40/. a year each, the endowment 
should be enough to secure a good head-master, and the expense 
of necessary assistance would be covered by fees. With a less 
income, such a school could not be satisfactorily conducted, for an 
assistant could not be kept, and without an assistant either the 
Latin or the " English " must break down. A multitude of 
boarders at high terms might, no doubt, supply the defect, but 
they could not be got to a school conducted on the plan proposed, 
or if they could, would be objectionably heterogeneous to the day- 
boys. Thus, at Stone, where a gratuity from Trinity College 
makes up the income to lOOZ. a year, and 4Z. a year is charged for 
day-boys, the master cannot afford an assistant and Latin is not 
taught. The education given, though more sound of its kind, is 
not in kind much different from that given in a cheap commercial 
" academy." At Solihull, where the conditions are pretty much 
the same, an assistant is kept and Latin is taught to some purpose, 
without neglect of " English," but a stranger must wonder why 
the master stays there. The recourse, frequently had under such 
circumstances to chaplaincies of unions and job-duty on Sundays, 
is scarcely desirable. 

A clear income of 250Z. from endowment may suffice for a 
grammar school of the second rank, but 400/. would do better. 
Where from the nature of the case there is small chance of 
boarders and at the same time a large population, a larger sum 
might be necessary to secure the services of an adequate head- 



230 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



What should 
be done with 
money above 
this limit. 



Preparatory 
schools. 



Cases where 
the limit is not 
reached. 



master. The largest endowment in the two counties, after those 
mentioned, is at Walsall, where it produces about 1,000/. a year, 
and is likely gradually to increase. From the nature of the popii- 
lation, however, and other circumstances, the Walsall school is not 
calculated to act as an independent place of training for universi- 
ties. At the same time, supposing it to act as a school of the 
second rank, it is one where a large endowment is wanted. It is 
not well fitted for boarders, and the population to which it is 
easily accessible, ought to furnish at least 300 proper subjects for 
a "middle" education. For these, some process of filtration 
Hvould be eminently desirable. Thus, while 600Z. a year from 
endowment would not be too much to assign to the grammar 
school proper,* any available income above this would be well 
bestowed on the establishment of preparatory schools, such as the 
best of the elementary schools in Birmingham, at Walsall itself, 
and Wednesbury, as suggested above (p. 222). Schools of this 
kind would be very useful in most cases, but they are specially 
wanted in places like Walsall and Birmingham, where the limit 
between the middle class and the working class is not very exactly 
defined; i.e., where there are many workmen who earn enough to 
use a school somev/hat above the National and British schools, 
and at the same time many small masters who have not risen long 
or far above the rank of workmen. In such cases there will be a 
mass of boys, which, if thrown without stint on the grammar school, 
is sure to depress it, but which yet, if sifted by a preparatory 
school, may supply it with most valuable material. In such cases, 
too, the customary age for finishing education is sure to be early, 
and the need of getting the elementary part of it over vvith all 
possible expedition proportionately great. 

Wherever else in the two 
anything that can be called a town, the income from endowment 
is up to or above the minimum limit mentioned, except at Stone, 
Uttoxeter, Kinver, Solihull, Lichfield, and Tamworth.f At 
Kinver the income is so near the limit, and the situation so eligible 
for boarders, that with enterprise in building and management it 
might get along very well as a school of the second rank. The 
school at Solihull is maintained out of a charity applied to general 
parish purposes, which at the time of my visit was repairing the 
church steeple, and proposing to spend 250?. on a town hall. If 
the school could be rebuilt, and good room provided for boarders, 
the situation being very eligible for them, it might get along in 
spite of its small income. Lichfield, with its present endowment 
and accommodation, can only be kept up by the exaction of a 
higher charge for ordinary day-boys than most shopkeepers are 
likely to be willing to pay. To the abundant charities of this 
"city" attention has been already called. At Tamworth the 
school has been for some time in abeyance, but is shortly to be 



counties a grammar school exists in 



* I suppose throughout that the head-master of the Walsall school is relieved of 
duty at St. Paul's church, and that a fee of il a ycai- is charged for day-boys. 

t Account is nut taken here of Newcastlc-undcr-Lymc or of Leek (see above p. 221"). 



Mr. Green's Report. 231 

reopened in a new building. It is hoped that the expense of the 
building may be defrayed by subscription, on the plan that every 
subscriber of lOOJ. should have the right of nominating a scholar, 
and lj500Z. may be obtained from a local charity. Even then, 
however, the yearly income will be little over lOOZ., and this being 
so, it is hard to see how the school can get on without charging a 
considerably higher fee than 4?. a year. The schools at Stone 
and Uttoxeter are in the hands of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Their income consists of a fixed charge (13Z. 6s. Qd. in each case) 
on an estate, which is said lo be now very valuable. When it was 
left, its value was stated to be 80Z. a year, of which sum the charge 
for Stone, Uttoxeter, and a third school, was just a half. Till 
lately, however, the schools had no profit from the increased value 
of the estate. Now by " gratuities " Trinity College makes up 
the income of the Stone school to lOOZ. a year, that of the 
Uttoxeter school to 150Z. a year. The effect of scanty endow- 
ment is, at Stone, that Latin is not attempted ; at Uttoxeter that 
the pay for the master of the English department is not enough to 
secure a good one, and that this department languishes. 

At the remaining town grammar schools in the two counties, Case.s where it 
the income from endowment is quite, sufficient for schools of the '^• 
second i-ank, if duly supplemented by yearly fees of 4Z, At 
Burton, Nuneaton, Coleshill, and Stratford, new buildings, with 
playground and accommodation for boarders, are urgently needed. 
Coleshill might charge its endowment with the expenditure for 
this purpose, and yet, if it abolished its lower (it may fairly bo 
called its pauper) department, might have enough to maintain a 
good school for the few tradesmen of the town, and for the farmers 
and lesser clergy around. Nuneaton, again, could well afford to 
rebuild. At Stratford the maintenance of the school is a charge 
on the corporation, which spends money liberally for town 
purposes. When I was there, it had, I understood, for the time 
rather over-spent itself, but no doubt it will soon have the power, 
and probably the will, to do something for the school. Meanwhile 
the fees paid by boys from outside the borough are accumulated, 
and in 1865 had reached a sum over 800Z. At Burton, considering 
the size and importance of the town, it might be well to leave the 
endowinent untouched for purposes of building, but here the 
feoffees of the town lands and the millionare-brewers may fairly 
be looked to for the supply of a new school with proper belongings. 
Wherever a school of the second rank, after due satisfaction of 
external requirements, had a clear income from endowment of 
more thai; 250Z. a year, it would be a question to be settled 
according to the circumstances of each case, whether part of the 
overplus might not be devoted to the establishment of small 
exhibitions tenable at a high school, if one existed. 

In conclusion should be noticed the difficulties, which, from local Obstacles to 
inquiries, I should expect to present themselves to changes in the PJ'°Posed 
direction suggested. (1.) So far as they involve the application 
to the purpose of teaching " grammar " of money left for that 
purpose, but now spent on elementary schools in villages, they 



232 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

In some cases would generally meet with opposition from the clergy and land- 
loealopposition. i^^.^^ ^f ^j^^^^ villages, who again would probably get support from 
the farmers. Whenever I ventured to suggest a change of this 
kind in the places concerned, I always took care that it should be 
one that would secure the interest of the people of the privileged 
place, so far as they were capable of an education above that of 
an elementary school. I always found, however, that while the 
terms of the founder's will, appropriating the bequest to the 
particular place, were much insisted on, those which stipulate for 
an education in " grammar " were ignored. The question, how- 
ever, in its proper form, was really quite new to the people. They 
knew that the school in each case was to be for the benefit of the 
village, and that there were not enough well-to-do people in the 
place to fill it as a grammar school. A plan by which it could 
be made available for a wider area, and as a grammar school, 
without prejudice to the interest of the village itself, had never been 
suggested to them, and when made for the first time was naturally 
received with an incredulous smile. As any such plan would 
presuppose the establishment of an elementary school for the 
village to be maintained in part by subscription, it would be 
unwelcome, however well understood, to those on whom the 
responsibility of subscription would chiefly fall. The clergy 
would not be opposed to it in itself; where they are poor and 
have sons to educate, they would welcome it as a boon ; but they 
fear that if the grammar school money were diverted from the 
maintenance of the school for the poor, they would get no sufficient 
help from the landlords for the latter, which would in consequence 
either perish or become a burden on them. The places in ques- 
tion, as I have said before, have on the whole rather exceptional 
advantages for the maintenance of such a school in the ordinary 
way, but the misapplication of the grammar endowment has 
tended to dry up the ordinary sources of voluntary effbrt. 

(2.) In such cases, as in others where an application of charity- 
money to the " middle " or " higher " education might be sug- 
gested, a cry would be raised of injustice to the poor. Even 
where general opinion might favour the diversion to educational 
objects of the money now spent in doles and gratuities, the claims 
of any education but the most elementary would scarcely be 
Cry ofiDjus- recognized. Education is thought to be an affair of classes, and 
tice to poor. j^jj classes above the poor, it is said, can afford to pay for the teach- 
ing suitable to them. It is not yet a recognized idea, that 
educational endowments can be so worked as in some degree to 
efface demarcations of class, to give a freedom of self-elevation in 
the social scale other than that given by money, and to keep " the 
career open to the talents." It is only in primary education that 
the poor are thought to have any interest, and since this is not yet 
systematically provided for by a charge on property, but is still 
very much matter of charity and accident, it is naturally regarded 
as the one proper object of charitable bequests. For a single 
man to be found having views about better education for the 
middle class, a hundred may be found having views about the 



Mr. Green's Report. 233 

education of the poor. (3.) Meanwhile, the questions at issue 
being so ill understood, the grammar schools have been readjusting 
themselves and doing it in a very clumsy way. The doctrine Commercial 
being retained, as in the absence of high schools it must needs be, l^r^^olies 
that each grammar school is to act as an independent place of established. 
training for universities, it has been held that the only way to 
combine this with the satisfaction of the wants of the com- 
mercial class is to establish a separate commercial department. 
The objections to this arrangement have been already noticed 
(p. 189), but when it has once been made, an attempt to change it 
would be liable to excite the suspicion of the class of people to 
whose instance it has been conceded, and in whom past experience 
has fixed the notion that Latin necessarily drives out arithmetic, 
and that Latin is only good for a " gentleman." 

(4.) In this state of things, the absence of any strong and ^^."t.°f 
central initiative is a great misfortune. No one who has occasion '°>'^^'^"^'^- 
to hear much of the past history of grammar schools will question 
the reality of the good done by the Charity Commission ; but 
when gross abuses have been got rid of, its work seems to be at an 
end. For the purpose of recasting the system of grammar school 
education it is with its present powers ineffective on two grounds ; 
it can only act in the way of giving effect to a clearly formed 
public opinion, and it has to treat each school as out of relation to 
all others. A clearly formed public opinion, however, on the sub- 
ject of middle education cannot be said to exist. There is little 
more than a vague, though strong, feeling that while dead lan- 
guages may be fine things for a clergyman or a man who has 
nothing to do, they are of no use to a man of business, and that 
to learn them is incompatible with learning what a man of busi- 
ness needs to know. A few years of a really good organization 
of grammar schools would, I believe, wholly remove this feeling, 
but the attainment of this organization according to the present 
order of things presupposes just that change or development of 
local opinion, which it alone can create. On the other hand, in 
many cases where local opinion is not clear or strong enough to 
move for itself, it would, if approached on the right side, gladly 
welcome authoritative suggestions from without. In towns I often 
heard it said that proposals for the improvement of middle educa- 
tion and the application to it of charitable or municipal funds, 
which would have small chance of success if they issued from a 
party— especially if from the "genteel" party — within the town, 
would probably be well received if they came from some board 
analogous to the Charity Commission. On the question, where 
the needful initiative might best be placed, it is not my business 
to dwell. The desirability of placing it, if possible, with the 
same body which has the supervision of the charities of the 
country, must occur to everyone acquainted with the educa- 
tional resources which these charities furnish, arid who has 
observed the prestige which the Charity Commission has already 
acquired in the provinces. An initiative, it is to be remem- 
bered, is nearly all that is wanted. Once let the high schools be 



234 Counties of Stafford and Wanoick. 

established, with adequate endowments and exhibitions of the 
two kinds suggested, and then for the other schools, if only 
endowment could be provided where it is lacking, a brief or- 
dinance prescribing fees (with 'exemptions for merit), proper 
buildings, a real entrance examination, and openness to in- 
spection, would be all that was wanted. The nature of the 
examinations for entrance and for exhibitions at the high school, 
and of that held by the inspector, would sufficiently determine 
the character of the teaching given in the lesser grammar schools. 
It would be a further question, when the grammar school system 
had been fairly put on its legs by the action of some central power, 
Possible use of whether the direction of it should be left to the boards of trustees 
county boards, and governors as at present constituted, or whether county boards 
should be established. The institution of the latter would have 
some advantages. It might tend to bring the grammar schools 
into more systematic relations to the National and British schools, 
which, if the farmers can be induced to use the latter, would be 
very useful in the rural districts, as well as in the larger towns 
(see above p. 213). It might facilitate the establishment of middle 
schools in districts where gi'ammar endowments were wanting, 
such as those already referred to (pp. 167 and 168) about Southam 
and Kineton on the eastern side of Warwickshire, and about 
Alcester and Henley-in-Arden on the western. It might also 
facilitate the transfer in whole or part of endowments for teaching 
grammar in villages to grammar schools in neighbouring towns. 
Present interest The position of Church Eaton and Bradley in relation to Stafford 
of trustees. has been already described as rendering such transfer desirable. 
If the schools of Leicestershire and Northamptonshire were part 
of my present subject, stronger instances of the same kind might 
be found in the relation of Blakesley to Towcester, of Burton- 
Latimer to Kettering, of Clipstone to Market Harborough, of 
Barrow to Loughborough. In the case of grammar schools in 
villages the trustees, so far as I could learn, with some notable 
exceptions, take little active interest in their office. In one place 
that I visited, where a good village grammar school is within ear- 
shot of the squire's garden, he, being a trustee of the school, is in 
the habit of saying that he had far rather hear the sound of a 
dog-kennel in such close neighbourhood than that of a school.* 
This no doubt is an extreme case, but neither the squires nor the 
country clergy can be relied on to exert themselves much on behalf 
of schools which they don't make use of themselves, and which yet 
do not, like schools for the poor, excite either benevolence or church 
feeling. On the other hand, in towns, though there are cases 
of neglect like that at Newcastle, where the trustees have never 
met since many years ago they elected the present headmaster, 
yet generally (as at Atherstone, Wolverhampton, and Lough- 
borough), the trustees being of a kind themselves to send boys to 
the grammar school, take a very useful interest in it. The great 

* In tlie case referred to, the master of the school, who vr&s a man to trust, told me 
that there were only three out of 13 trustees who did not positively oppose the progress 
of the school as a grammar school ; two of these three were clergymen 



Mr. Green's Report. 235 

danger in towns is lest, on the principle of co-optation, the trustees 
should come to represent merely a clique and a particular form of 
local opinion.* Where this is the case, however disinterested 
their management, they are sure to be met by a popular cry as 
soon as they propose a change. I can only account for the main- ^tion"^"""^' 
tenance of the gratuitous system at Walsall by the fact that the 
trustees, representing meiely the Conservative opinion of the 
town, are obnoxious to popular clamour, even when proposing that 
which fi om another quarter would be readily accepted. If county 
boards are established, I am persuaded that they will be useless 
for the reform of middle education, unless thoroughly representa- 
tive of the general class interested in that education. The great 
obstacle to be dealt with is the notion that high education is only 
proper to the gentry. How far the gentry are likely to be earnest 
in attacking this notion I will not inquire, but an attack upon it 
from them, if made, would provoke suspicion. It can only be 
got rid of by an appeal from the right quarter to the self-respect 
of the class infected with it. 

(5.) A further difficulty to the change proposed, so far as it Objection of 
involves inspection and something like an affiliation of the small "^^^^f-^ *° 
schools to a high school, might be found in the attitude of some 
of the existing masters, who are virtually irremoveable and almost 
uncontrollable. Of inspection, someofthe best masters would (for 
some time at least) be most jealous. It was not at the worst schools 
that I had most difficulty in getting leave to examine. Others, how- 
ever, would welcome inspection, especially as the best means of 
removing the notion — which, once fixed in the commercial class, 
does not vanish till long after the ground of it has vanished — that 
arithmetic and English are neglected to make way for Latin and 
Greek. The resistance to the due operation of the high school 
would be most formidable if it proceeded from the master of the 
existing grammar school in the town where the high school might 
be established. At Warwick, I think, such resistance need not 
be apprehended. At Stafford or Newcastle it might, perhaps, be 
expected,! though not on the same ground in each place. If the 
high school were once in full operation, offering exhibitions tenable 
at the school, the affiliation ol the smaller schools to it need be of 
no rigid kind. It would rest with the masters in each case to give 
reality to it by educating boys with a view to the examination for 
exhibitions. The trustees of the smaller schools might stimulate 
the process by establishing exhibitions to the high school out of 
their own funds, as these admitted of it. Many of the existing 
masters would readily enter into the plan of affiliation ; others, 
chiefly those of older standing, still cling to the notion of 
educatmg boys for the university, even where no boy for many 

* In this regard the restriction of the trusteeship to members of the Church of 
England, where it exists (as at Walsall), may become practically mischievous. The 
fact that a proposal to exact fees at Walsall would undoubtedly be made an occasion 
by the Dissenters to press for the removal of the disabilities, to which they are now 
subject there, has increased the unwillingness of the governors to make the proposal. 

■f The Lichfield mastership is now vacant. 

a. c. 3. S 



236 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Denomina- 
tional 
difBculty. 



Bad effect on 
middle educa- 
tion of denomi- 
nationalism at 
the Universi- 
ties. 



years has presented himself for the purpose. Where a sehooiy 
like that at Atherstone, is producing boys who get scholarships at 
the universities, and at the same time educating ail the boys in 
the town but those of the poor, it would be a pity to trench on its 
independence, if evidence could be given (which is now laclcing) 
that English writing and arithmetic were duly attended to along- 
side of the classics, 

(6.) The only other difficulty to be noticed is that which might 
arise as to tiie mixture in a high school of sons of Churchmen and 
sons of Dissenters. This difBculty would scarcely affect any but 
boarders. Practically, so far as I could learn, Dissenters scarcely 
ever object to the presence of their sons either at prayers according 
to the liturgy of the Church of England, or at religious lessons 
given by a clergyman, so long as they have their evenings and 
Sundays at home, and are not compelled to learn the catechism,* 
Even where, as at Walsall, the boys have to go to church on 
Sunday, the Dissenters, though disliking the rule, acquiesce, as 
is shown by the presence of sons of Dissenting ministers in the 
school. Where a bo}', however, was wholly removed for the time 
from parental supervision, the feeling would in many cases be 
different. Even then several Dissenters, and ministers among 
them, told me that for the sake of the advantages offered by a high 
school, giving a cheap avenue to the universities, they would be 
disposed to send sons to it as boarders, though religious teaching 
might be given and worship held in it according to the principles 
and forms of the Established Church, so long as they were subject 
to no individual pressure in the interest of the Church, and were 
not expected to be confirmed. Others seemed to take a different 
view, and while they would object to the absence of definite 
doctrinal religious teaching, would equally object to submitting 
their sons to teaching according to tiie doctrines of the Church. 
The case of the latter might be met in some degree by facilities 
for weekly boarding. Many, however, would probably prefer 
a denominational school of their own, like that at Teltenhall, 
which, if adequately endowed, would serve every purpose. 

There is another respect, however, in which the separation 
between Churchmen and Dissenters presents a very serious hin- 
drance to the spread of high education among the class wbich 
lies outside the landed or capitalist gentry and the " three 
professions," over and above all educational defects which an im- 
proved organization of schools can remedy. There is lacking in 
this class the public sentiment in favour of the sort of learning 
which requires many years for its attainment. It is not from the 



* Where a grammar-school is regulated by a recent scheme, the rights of Dissenters 
are generally protected by a conscience-clause. In the other cases -within my expe- 
rience, it did not appear that the religious teaching, being tempered by the discretion of 
the master, acted as a bar to Dissenters. There is a tendency now, however, in some 
places to put pressure on the master of the grammar-school in the direction of a more 
strict enforcement of Church of England teaching. I saw enough, especially in the 
county of Bucldngham, to lead to the opinion that the protection of the Noncon-i- 
fonnist conscience cannot safely be left to discretion, but needs to he systematic. ■ , 



Mr. 'Green's Report. 237 

successful men of the class, as a rule, that any germination of 
this sentiment can yet be looked for. Only by a special grace can 
any one bred amid the keen interests, the obvious profits, the 
" quick returns " of prosperous commerce, be drawn into the 
devious and difficult paths \vhich lead to the knowledge that is its 
own reward. Among men, however, not made to get on, — men 
whose heart is with their few books, or in the Lord's house, while 
they are behind the dOunter or at the clerk's desk ; — among those, 
again, who, having the instinct for letters, yet spend their life in 
teaching arts not " ingenuous " to the children of commerce, and 
among the preachers who' deal with the intellect of men of business 
at the intervals when it is open to other interests that those of the 
immediate present; — here the lacking Sentiment already exists, 
and only needs an open path for its development and realization. 
This open path it has not found in time past, nor will it find in 
the future, whatever cheapening and widening of the avenue to 
the Universities may be achieved, unless that career of learning 
and teaching at the endowed Universities themselves, and in the 
endowed schools, which is now only open to Churchmen who 
have some command of money, be also open to poor men and 
Dissenters. Men of the kind described, — traders who do not love 
trade and whom trade does not love, — small schoolmasters and 
ministers in towns, — are always poor, and, at least as often as not, are 
Dissenters. For their sons poverty in any case must make access 
to Oxford and Cambridge, so long as the present artificial system 
of expense is maintained there, extremely difficult ; and if they 
are Dissenters, the positions in which a man of learning who is 
not a popular book-maker can alone hope to provide for himself 
after taking a degree — I mean the fellowships and masterships 
of good schools — are as yet closed against them. Their intellec- 
tual aspiration is thus necessarily thwarted or crushed. Nor is 
the evil to be measured merely by the result to the individuals 
immediately suffering from it. It lowers the tone of the class of 
which these individuals have practically the chief spiritual direc- 
tion. If an adequate prolongation of study were more possible 
to the men of whom the dissenting ministers and private school 
masters in towns are made, the men of business to wh^s- 
wants they minister would more often conceive of such pro- 
longation as possible for their sons. The class which now sends 
its hopeful youth to Oxford and Cambridge would not do so to 
the same extent, unless the clerical and scholastic professions were 
looked to as likely employments for the young men in after-life. 
But no well-to-do Dissenter ever contemplates the possibility of 
his son becoming a minister or a schoolmaster, mainly for the 
reason that exclusion from the old Universities has, in the case of 
Dissenters, deprived these callings of half their dignity. If this 
exclusion, along with that caused by the expense of the present 
College system, were got rid of, the Universities would gradually 
get hold of a new class of students, who, in turn, as schoolmasters 
or ministers, acting on the ideas of commercial men more intimately 
than the clergy of the Establishment can do, would raise their 

S2 



'38 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Incompleteness 
of accessible 
information. 



Grades of 
school in re- 
spect of terms. 



respect for learned empoyments ; while at the same time, and by the 
same process, these employments, as pursued by Dissenters, would 
become " better " in the ordinary sense, and thus be more often 
regarded by men of business ae offering such a career to their 
more studious sons as may compensate for the continuance of their 
education to the age of 23. Meanwhile Oxford and Cambridge 
would gain by the multiplication of those students, from whom 
alone, as a rule, sustained study can be expected, — of those who 
pursue it as a definite preparation for employment as teachers or 
preachers. Without such an expansion of the Universities, the 
best organization of middle schools would be a body without a 
spirit. 

Education of Girls. 

Tl)e information which I was able to obtain as to the education 
of girls was less complete than I could have desired. Out of 50 
private schools for girls to which I sent the questions and schedules 
drawn up by the Conunissioners, only six sent answers spon- 
taneously. From 19 others, by means of personal application, I 
obtained a greater or less amount of information. In several cases, 
however, a personal application lor information was repulsed with 
more or less severity, on the ground that the inquiries made by the 
Coinmissioners were " impertinent and inquisitorial.'' Of strictly 
private schools I was only able to examine nine. The principals cf 
some few others might probably have consented to an examination 
if I had been able to call and spend an hour in negotiation, but I 
spent so much time, often fruitlessly, in this way as it was, that 
1 was obliged to leave some dozen schools whicb I knew of 
unattempted. I examined, besides, the " Bath Row elementary 
school for girls" at Birmingham — the only one of the branch 
schools on King Edward's foundation that seemed to come within 
the limits of inquiry prescribed to me, and also that part of jMiss 
Selwyn's establishment at Sandwall Hall which falls within the 
same limits. 

In respect of terms charged for boarders, the schools from which 
I obtained information might be divided into four classes : (a) In 
the lowei", the charge for " board and instruction in English, 
" grammar, history, geography, writing and arithmetic," would be 
from 18 to 20 guineas a year ; French, music, singing and drawing 
would be charged for as extras at the rate of 4/. 4s. a year each. 
At such schools most of the elder pupils would be learning either 
French or music, but few learn more than one extra subject at any- 
one time, {b) In the next grade, the regular charge would be 25 
guineas with the same extras at the same rate. In this grade 
rather m^ore would learn extra subjects. In both the above grades, 
" plain and ornamental needle work " would often be an item in 
the advertisement, as included in the regular charge, and music 
would be much more often learnt as an extra than French.* 
(c) Next come schools of which the cost, including extras which the 



* In these schools washing would generally be charged as an extra at the rate of 
3?. a year. 



Mr. Green's Report 239 

pupils learn as a matter of course, would be from 45 to 50 guineas. 
{(i) Finally comes a class of school in whicb the lowest charge 
practically (including extras uniformly learnt) would be 60 guineas 
a year, while most would pay 70Z. or 80?.* At Leamington are 
one or two schools where the terms are higher still, but nowhere 
else (I think) within the counties of Stafford and "Warwick. 

Where day pupils are taken in schools of the grades (a) and 
(6) the regular charge would be from four to six guineas, with 
extras at the same rate as for the boarders. In schools of grade 
(c) day pupils, learning extra subjects which all do learn, would 
pay on an average from 12 to 16 guineas a year. In schools of 
grade (d) day pupils are seldom taken at all ; where they are taken, 
the minimum payment practically would be 20 guineas a year. 
The additional charge for day boarding (i.e. dining) would vary 
from 4/. 4s. a year in the two lower grades to 8l. 8.9. in the highest. 

A great difficulty in the way of obtaining precise information as Small number 
to the education of gii-ls of the middle class arises from the small found at*middle 
numbers to be found in schools of any size or notoriety. At schools. 
Walsall, for instance, with a population now above 40,000, I 
could only ascertain the existence of two " establishments for 
young ladies,'' and these had only 37 day pupils between them. 
In the same town the number of boys at discoverable middle 
schools is unusually small, but it is l-iO. One naturally asks, 
Where are the sisters of these boys educated? To this question I 
can give no satisfactory answer. It arises in all towns, except in 
those watering-places that are special nests of schools for girls. 
In Wolverhampton I obtained information from four schools for 
girls, which had 70 day pupils between them. I could only hear Examples. 
of the existence of two others, which were certainly not larger, and 
would not have more than 30 day pupils between them. In the 
immediate neighbourhood were middle schools with about '250 
boys. The same contrast obtained at Birmingham, though I could 
not state it in such precise terms. The explanation is not to be 
found in the use of boarding schools, for there would only be a few 
genteel families in the places in question which would send their 
daughters to distant boarding schools, while in those of the neigh- 
bourhood the number of boarders was relatively as small as that 
of day pupils. It is to be found partly, I believe, in the use of very 
small schools which do not obtain any general recognition in the 
towns where they exist. Many ladies appear in the Directory as 
keeping schools of whom I could hear nothing in any other way, 
and in traversing the streets of Birmingham I often observed a 
notice up. generally over a small shop, of a school for girls, not 
mentioned even in the Directory. It is common, I believe, for a Where are the 
widow, or the wife of a shopkeeper in needy circumstances, or any ^^^^ ? 
woman who wishes to help herself, to set up a school to which 
come half-a-d6zen daughters of tradesmen living hard by. The 
brothers of these girls would probably go as day-boys either to a 

* At Birmingham I am only aware of two schools of grade (d), both taking day- 
scholars as well as boarders, but not having more than 60 of both sorts between 
them. In the counties of Stafford and Warwick I only discovered one other school 
of this grade, except those at Leamington, where are several such. 



240 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Education with 
girls not 
necessary for 
getting on. 



Demand for 
music. 



Two classes of 
girls who havt 
a pecuniary 
interest in 
education. 



grammar school or to a commercial school of some size, charging 
M. a year. In other cases probably the mother herself teaches her 
daughters the little (besides sewing) that they need to know, or an 
elder sister is sent to school for a time and afterwards attends to 
the education of the younger ones. The employment of a gover- 
ness (common among the more wealthy farmers) is not, any more 
than that of a visiting teacher, common among the tradesmen of 
towns. Whatever the true account of the matter may be, the 
fact certainly is that not a sixth part of the girls above the class 
supposed to attend National and British schools, and of the 
recognised age for education, are to be found in local schools of any 
size or general estimation. 

It is to be remembered that while boys of the commercial class 
cannot get on in life unless they are able at least to write, spell, 
and do accounts quickly and well, it is not generally so with their 
sisters, For the latter the recognized way of getting on is to marry, 
and I do not suppose that this provision for after-life is, as a general 
rule, obtained less quickly or successfully for lack of completeness in 
elementary knowledge. Thus in the schools of grades (a) and (b) 
the uniform complaint of the principals was that sound elementary 
knowledge was not cared for either by the pupils or their parents ; 
that what tliey did care for was music ; that considering the time 
spent on this it was very difficult to teach anything else thoroughly 
to girls who (as is commonly the case) first come to school at the 
age of 12, having had no real education at home, and will only stay 
three years. , This statement I found to correspond with my own 
observation in the few schools of the kind in question which I was 
allowed to examine. In none of them was the arithmetic good 
for anything, or was there any intelligence of English grammar, 
history, or geography. On the other hand, the writing from 
dictation, so long only as obvious words occurred, was rather 
better than in corresponding private schools for boys, the expla-. 
nation doubtless being that to write a correct letter in a pointed 
liand on an ordinary topic is an accomplishment of recognized 
importance to the girls by whom schools of this kind are fre- 
quented. In most of these schools music, though charged as an 
extra, is learnt by nearly three-fourths of the pupils, at one time 
or another by nearly all, and takes up at least a quarter of the 
school-time. French, meanwhile, is learnt by very few, and by 
these, as the teachers confessed, seldom long enough to be known. 

There are girls,- liowever, who suifer definitely in regard to their 
prospects from these defects in elementary teaching. Such are 
those who will seek employment in shops, and those (whose case is 
far worse) who will have themselves to live by teaching. Of the 
former, in such a town as Birmingham, there are considerable 
numbers, but they are not, I think, generally in a position to use 
even the cheapest of the schools that I am speaking of. In only 
one such school did I hear of arithmetical knowledge being in 
practical demand, and there it was in demand not so much for the 
use of spinsters in shops, as for the use of the wives and daughters 
of men engaged in the jewelry business, or in some of the other 
Birmingham crafts pursued by small masters, who often get no 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 241 

help from outside their own families. The young women employed 
in shops are of the class which hovers between the National school 
and the cheap " young ladies' school," but I suspect they more 
often use the former. For them such institutions as the elementary 
schools for girls on King Edward's foundation at Birmingham are 
eminently useful, and they are even more so for those who are 
destined themselves to become teachers, whose general want of 
adequate training is the most striking and most easily remediable 
evil that came under my notice in the matter of the education of 
women. 

At present the persons engaged in the conduct of private Training of 
schools for girls are of three kinds : (1.) ladies not trained to the *^^'='*®''^- 
business, who have taken to it under the pressure of circumstances 
not anticipated in youth, which require them to earn their own 
living ; (2.) ladies who have been trained to the work, but in the 
way of serving as " articled pupils " in schools ; (3.) the native 
rrench and German teachers. The principals of schools are 
tgenerally of the first kind, the English teachers of the second. 
The latter, I fear, seldom save even the amount of money neces- 
sary to start a school of their own. For a girl who in early life has 
the prospect before her of earning her own bread, and proposes to 
do so as a teacher, there is generally no other mode of qualifying 
herself available than that of being apprenticed in a school. 
According to common usage she would be articled at the^ age of Apprenticing 
14 or 15, and after three years would seek a situation either as ^y^*^™- 
governess in a family or assistant in a schooL The " articled pupil " 
when she begins her apprenticeship can hardly help being ignorant. 
Her best chance has probably been to attend a good National 
school, but this (as the daughter of a respectable farnaer or trades- 
man who has not succeeded or has died early) she may on social 
grounds have been unwilling to do. During her apprenticeship 
•she has little chance of improving herself ■ She is used as the 
drudge of the school, and has her time wholly taken up with 
minding the little girls and teaching them' to write and spell. As 
ihe mistress is probably not herself regularly trained and maintains 
no good system in the school (I am speaking of schools of grades - 

a and &) the appreritice has no chance of learning anything by 
example. When her time is up she is glad of a salary of 15/. or 20/. 
a year, which she earns in carrying on the hopeless system . to 
which she has been bred at another similar school, or in preparing 
a farmer's daughter to be sent ignorant to a boarding school at the 
age of 14. The evil thus perpetuates itself. An unmethodical its results, 
system requires a large number of teachers, and any quantity of 
unmethodical teachers are to be had. The principals having this 
supply at command,. do not insist on higher terms from parents, 
nor will the latter (though in the towns I have mentioned they 
<:ould well afford it) pay at a higher rate for their daughters at 
schools while they can get governesses for them at home so 
•cheaply. So the system of wasteful cheapness is maintained, 
and the self-acting process of supply and demand has no power 
to change it. Schools that now charge 201. may come to charge 



242 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Grammar 
schools for 
girls wanted. 



Beneficence of 
" Bath Eow 
School " at 
Birmingham. 



407. and to employ a native French teacher Instead of an English 
drudge, but others will take their place at the lower rate and do 
the old work. Meanwhile the poor girls who want training as 
teachers will be no more able to get into the better schools 
than they are at present, and those that alone are open to them 
will have become even more unmixedly bad than they are at present. 

The education of boys in England has only been saved from the 
abyss of triviality and vulgarity by the application, however 
clumsy, of endowments. In other countries the same purpose has 
been served, perhaps better, by appropriations from the revenues 
of the state. For girls the same salvation can only be obtained 
in the same way. In their case, however, a much smaller sum 
would suffice than in that of boys, partly from the nature of the 
case, partly because, the application being made " de novo," there 
would be no vested interests to take account of. What is wanted 
is the establishment on the outskirts of every considerable town of 
a school which should do for girls what a well organized grammar 
school does for boys ; that is, one which should take day-pupils 
at the rate of about 4Z. a year and should be able, in virtue of 
endowment, subscriptions, or Government grant, to give them a 
sound training in English and arithmetic, in at least one 
modern language, and either in music or drawing, at the same 
terms for which a nominal training in English and arithmetic with 
a power of fingering a piano is now imparted In the schools of 
grades {a) and (h). Such a school of course would not attract the 
sort of girls who are now sent to boarding schools at Brighton or 
Kensington, but it might attract the best of those who now go to 
the cheap private schools, as well as the daughters of the 
poorer professional men, who have now often much difficulty in 
obtaining suitable education. It would not do its work fully 
unless it took a certain number of girls free. Only thus would it 
enable those whom early poverty compels to contemplate the 
employment of teachers from the beginning, to exempt tliemselves 
from the " articled pupil " system, and stay at school till the age 
of 18. 

An instance of what may be achieved in the way of English 
education for girls by the good organization, which an endowment 
makes it possible to maintain, is affijrded by the " Bath Row 
Elementary School " at Birmingham. The elementary schools on 
King Edward's foundation for girls, as for boys, have not hitherto 
generally attempted an education superior in kind to that given in 
a National school. In the one mentioned, however, I found an 
upper class of 25 girls, who had reached a distinctly higher level. 
In what is ordinarily understood by " English education " they 
M'ere, for their age, better than the best in the " boarding schools 
for young ladies " that I examined, and they had a sound elemen- 
mentary knowledge of French besides. In arithmetic they were 
simply perfect. _ In less than an hour I saw them do 18 sums in 
fractions, practice, interest, proportion, decimals, and duodeci- 
mals ; most of them got all the sums right, and the rest had very 
few mistakes. They did very well in the " analysis " of the first 



Mr. Greens Report. 243 

book of the Paradise Lost and would bear pressing in it. The Account of it. 
outline of Enjjlish history they knew thoroughly, and of the 
other history they were not ignorant : some of them could tell me 
me a good deal, for instance, about the 30 years' war. They 
answered as well as could be wished in geography ; French they 
had not begun long, and had learnt quite as a supplementary- 
thing. But most of them could translate Voltaire's Charles XIL 
correctly, and they had a sound knowledge of the grammar. Mr. 
Evans, the head-master of King Edward's school, to whom, as 
well as to the mistresses of the Bath itow school, much credit is 
due for the high standard attained, was making some arrange- 
ment when 1 was there to secure a weekly lesson, chiefly in 
pronunciation, for these girls from the French master of the 
grammar school. The best in the class were the five monitors,* 
all of whom, I understood, intended to take to teaching as a pro- 
fession. To qualify themselves better for this, some of them had 
taken evening lessons in drawing at the School of Art ; f some also 
had learnt music out of school ; neither music nor drawing being 
taught in the school. Except the monitors, none of them were 
over 14, and unless they became monitors and intended perma- 
nently to take to teaching, it was not expected that any would 
stay much beyond this age. There were several under 14 who, 
if they would continue their education another three years, 
would become (so far as one could anticipate) as well qualified for 
teachers as possible. The lady who chiefly taught them, and cer- 
tainly taught them admirably, had herself been bred in the 
school. The cost of teaching power for tlie whole school is only 
about 200^. a year, and more than half of this must be reckoned 
as spent on the elementary teaching of the girls (more than 100) 
below the upper 25. In an ordinary private school of grade (a) 
or (6) 200A a year would be the cost of educating 25 " young 
ladies."t That is, while for the given sum in these latter schools 
25 girls all learn " English " and arithmetic badly, most of them 
music badly, and a few French badly, in the Bath Bow school 
the same number all learn " English " and arithmetic well, most 
learn French well, and a few drawing well, while at the same 
time 100 others learn well to read, write, sum, and sew. 

This result is admirable as far as it goes, and the governors of What else is 
King Edward's school could not, I conceive, find a better appli- ^'^"^"^ ^' ^"^" 
cation for their growing income than to the purpose of extending ° 
to more girls, and those of a somewhat higher rank socially, the 
benefits now enjoyed by the 25 that I have described. The 
manners of these (so far as I could presume to judge) were per- 
fectly ladylike, but they were of comparatively humble origin, 
being mostly daughters of small tradesmen or superior artisans, 

* These earn a small salary. 

t In such a school the charge for day pupils in English would he four guineas a 
year, and on an average — at least in grade (4) — each girl would learn one extra at 
the same charge. 

% To enable them to do this, a payment is made to the School of Art out of the 
income of the charity. 



244 Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 

and might be objected to by the principals of the higher grades of 
boarding school (who perhaps affect hyper-criticism in the matter) 
as not °' presentable." A " grammar school " for girls of the 
kind described above would supply tiie deficiency. At Birming- 
ham it might be maintained at a really high level. King Edward's 
school and the School of Art would furnish it with excellent 
visiting masters for modern languages and drawing, and the 
former, if certain changes that I have ventured to suggest (pp. 132 
and 140) were adopted, might further supply lectures on history, 
literature, and science. Charging 4/. or 6/. a year, without extras, 
for ordinary pupils, it might take the best girls from the elementary 
schools free, or with exhibitions which should represent what the 
older pupils now earn as monitors. These elementary schools 
should, if possible, all be raised to the level of that in Bath B.ow. 
In the case of that in the Parade, there should be no difficulty 
about this. With the other two, situate in what are reckoned 
low parts of the town, the case might be somewhat different. 
Meanwhile, as I have already suggested (pp. 109 & IIV), the 
establishment of new ones, further from the centre of the town 
would be most desirable. 

i Of the practicability of establishing for girls such a high school 
with feeders, considering the resources at the command, or soon to 
be- at tb e command, of the governors of King Edward's school, there 
can be no doubt. A consideration (1) of the felt demand for it ; (2) 
ofrthe possibility of similar or affiliated schools being set up else- 
where ; (3) of its probable results^ especially if its operation were 
thus extended, will bring together the few further observations I 
have tomake on thisipart of my subject. The whole question is so 
new, not ionly to the general public but to those engaged in the 
edilcation of girls, so far as it was my fortune. to meet them, that 
few precise facts or ascertainable opinions can be recorded upon it. 
Felt demand for (l.^ .Bi the demand, as felt, the first element to be noticed is 
such schools : thsidifficulty experienced by girls, who mean to be become teachers, 
, . , in qualifying themselves for situations that yield decent salaries, 

to teach • O^ the unfortunate position of such girls I have already said 

enough. Likcf other ill-used classes they have probably no 
general conception of the vyay out of their troubles, but the more 
clever and ambitious of them distinctly desire better training and 
means of getting on. This is sliown at Birmingham by the large 
attendance of girls, mostly of this sort, at the evening lessons in 
modern languages (and even, to a less extent, in English history 
and- literature) given at the Midland Institute. What the 
Midland Institute does more or less accidentally and exceptionally, 
a high school would do systematically and generally. 
by principals The next element is the present difficulty experienced by the prin- 
of schools ; cipals of private schools in obtaining satisfactory English teachersj_ 
though the standard of satisfaction is not high. As to this difficulty, 
I found (with, I think,. one exception) uniform testimony. For a 
vacant English teachership, I was told, many applications were 
generally received from persons who could not even spell. These 
of course, would often be women unexpectedly thrown on their own 



Mr. Green's Report. 245 

resources, and for neither the distress nor the incompetence of 
such can any remedy be devised. It is to be remembered too 
that the badness of the applicants is partly due to the smallness of 
the salaries, which again is due to the combination cf a system, 
that requires a ridiculous number of teachers for a given i>umber 
■of pupils, with stinginess as regards payment for education on 
the part of commercial parents. The relation, however, of the 
badness of the teachers to the scantiness of their pay, and of this 
scantiness to the combination mentioned, is not one of consequent 
and antecedent, but of reciprocal action. The better training of 
the teachers is a coordinate though not the sole condition of thc; 
improvement of their position. As it is, besides the unhappy 
apprentices grown into journey-women, whose lot I have described, 
the only English teachers who have learnt their business are those 
from the Government training colleges, and those trained at 
Scotch institutions. The former are complained of by the prin- 
cipals — I know not with what justice — as defective in manners. 
The latter were certainly the best that I met with or heard of. 
The complaint of the principals about them is that they are too 
much used to teaching or being taught in large classes — a com- 
plaint which I take to indicate that they have better notions of 
organization than the principals themselves. 

Among the commercial classes, so far as I could see and hear, among com- 
the demand for a sounder education than is now to be, had for ™^'^<='*1 '^l^^ » 
girls is not yet of a pronounced and definite kind. If it were, 
there would be less need than there is for the application to the 
purpose of endowments or public money. In regard to girls even 
more than to boys it is true that the supply, of education must; 
precede and create a general derhand. , With the people in ques- 
tion,, marriage, as a rule, is early, and not more is expected of a 
wife, I think, than tha.t she should be able to write a correct note, 
to keep simple accounts, and to. display some,;":aeco.mplishmenJ; " 
at an evening party. It is not yet a recognized idea that she 
should be able in any stage ordegree to direct the intellectual eduy 
«alion of her children.* At Birmingham, however, I found several 
men of business strongly impressed with (he need of improvement, 
and I believe that if the governors of the Grammar School cared 
to invite subscriptions in aid of a grant from endowment for the- pro- 
motion on any well-considered plan of the middle or higher educa- 
tion of girls, they might easily get them. From a single person that 
I know of a considerable sum might be expected. Those, however, 
who most strongly feel the practical need of an education for their 
daughters at once cheap and good are the poorer professional men, 
especially the ministers of religion. The sons of a poor clergyman among profes. 
have at least a good chance of obtaining as high an educfition as sional men. 
those of the rich and noble, but it is not so with the daughters. 
If their parents are at leisure, they may learn much in the best 
way from them, but a clergyman in a large town has presumably 

* On the bearing of this upon the condition of grammar schools see above, pp. 
'Ji9 and 169. . 



246 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



no leisure, and his wife very little. It is mainly to meet this 
want, and to do so after a more liberal method than_ is sup- 



posed to obtain at professed " Clergy Daughters' Schools," 
that Miss Selwyn has engrafted a school for girls of the middle 
rank on her establishment at Sandwell Hall. This school is very 
useful in its way, but is necessarily on a limited scale, involves 
no guarantee of permanence, and does not tend, as the institution 
suggested would, spontaneously to propagate its influence. On 
the whole, there can be no doubt that a High School for girls at 
Birmingham, well placed, would at once find in the daughters of a 
large class of professional men, a constituency of the most pro- 
Difficulties, raising kind. The objections that would be felt to its use would 
rest on its want of selectness, on the approach to it through a 
greater or less length of busy streets, and on the strictness of the 
system which it ought to maintain. The mixture of classes in it 
would be a fatal objection to those by whom £2;ood manners are at 
once greatly prized and have to be learnt. Those, however, who 
set less store by them, or with whom tliey are natural or here- 
ditary, would not feel the difficulty, for if good manners were not 
acquired in the High School, they certainly need not be lost in it. 
On the system that I have suggested, it would be practically much 
more select than the grammar school now is, and those would 
not object to use it for their daughters who now do not object to 
use the grammar school or the proprietary school for their sons. 
The difficulties of approach to it could not be thoroughly overcome. 
If situate at Edgbaston, however, near the Five Ways, it would 
be easily available as a day school for two-thirds of those for whose 
use it would be intended, and for most of the others if facilities 
were given for day-boarding, as seemed generally to be the case 
m the private schools of the same neighbourhood. It is to be 
remembered that, if a proper affiliation of elementary schools 
to it were established, it would not receive its pupils till the 
age of 14. For the present, strictness of system would pre- 
vent the popularity of the school with a large class of parents. 
From all the principals of schools for girls with whom I conversed 
I heard the complaint that they were obliged to take pupils of 
all ages and all degrees of ignorance, and to make all kinds of ex- 
ceptions as to subjects and hours of instruction. It is their impo- 
tence to resist the weakness of pupils and parents in these matters 
that calls for the establishment of a school, independent because 
endowed, which in time would raise the conception of education 
in the commercial class ta a level where regularity of system 
would be appreciated. 
Means of esta- (2) The means for establishing such a high school at Birming- 
bUsHing gram- jjam are certainly of a kind that do not exist at present in any 
^Ig_ other place with which I became acquainted. The necessary 

conditions are (a) the command of a certain amount of money, 
whether from endowment or any other source, over and above 
the payment received from pupils. (6) Such supervision from 
without, as will prevent the sacrifice of educational order to parental 
laxity, (c) a supply of trained teachers having some conception of 



Mr. GreerCs Report. '247 

organization and of a general public system. The conditions (a) and 
(h) are not likely to be at present fulfilled, but if High Schools 
for boys were established, as I have elsewhere suggested, a con- 
siderable step would be taken towards their fulfilment. It might 
then be possible, without endowment, to establish corresponding 
schools for girls, which should have some share in the teaching 
power of the High Schools, and be under the supervision of their 
head masters. Let us suppose such a school to have 40 pupils, 
paying 6Z. a year, and eight others free. If occasional but regular 
lessons were given in history, arithmetic, and modern languages, 
by the masters of the High School for boys,* and if the pupils were 
all above 14, and sifted by an entrance examination, I believe that 
two qualified teachers would be enough to conduct the ordinary 
lessons in English, French, and German of 48 girls. Supposing a 
residence to be provided, 240/. a year(150Z. and 90/.) would afford 
sufficient payment for the teachers. Music and drawing would have 
to be extras, but where there is a School of Art drawing may be 
taught cheaply ,f and a master in music might be shared by girls 
and boys at a rate which would not add much to the expenses of 
the former. Meanwhile, the direction of the head master of the 
High School, and occasional examination by him, might secure 
the general organization and the maintenance of the severer 
studies. It has been the supervision of the head master of the 
grammar school at Birmingham over the elementary schools that, 
in default of other inspection, has kept these up to the mark. J 

On this plan the High School for girls, if once a building with Number of 
residences were provided, would be self-supporting, except so far teachers 
as it received lessons from the masters of the school for boys. The °^^ 
most obvious objection to the plan is that two ordinary teachers 
would not be enough for 48 girls. At present, in schools where 
Trench and music are generally learnt, the principals reckon that 
one teacher is wanted to every seven girls. This, in fact, in 
schools above grade (a) is about the number actually in use, and 
nothing is more certain than that, so long as the quantity of 
teachers is so great, the quality, except in the most expensive 
schools, must be bad. The present requirement of such a number Wastefiilness 
is due, so far as I could ascertain, to the variety of age and attain- "^stpm^"* 
ment in the pupils, to the number of subjects of which some 
teaching has to be squezed into a very short period, to the arbi- 
trary exceptions allowed, and to the way in which music is taught. 
It is common in a school of 25 girls to find the ages varying from 
8 to 17. Perhaps half of these will be girls who come about the 

* In two or three of the private schools for girls at Birmingham arithmetic is 
taught (according to private agreement) hy a master fi'om the Grammar School. In 
the only one of these that I examined the arithmetic was exceptionally good. In 
another I noticed the good result of German having heen taught by a master from 
the Grammar School, and in another that of French having been taught by a master 
from the Proprietary School. 

f The School of Art at Stoke might be useful to a school for girls, attached to 
that for boys which I have proposed at Newcastle-under Lyne. The School of Art 
at Wolverhampton has been shut up. The only other one in my district (except 
that at Birmingham) is at Coventry. 

X See Note C. 



system. 



24.8 



Counties of Stafford- and Warwick, 



age of 9 and stay till 12, going onto some other school; and the 
other half girls who come about 13 and stay till 16. Of the latter 
Eeasonsforit. many come very ignorant, while those who have learnt soinething 
have not learnt it according to the mode in use in the school to 
which they come. Some know a little French, but are very- 
backward in " English ; " others are pretty good in arithmetic, 
but know no French; The effect of this diversity is aggravated 
by the iiumber of subjects attempted. " English," Latin, and a 
little Euclid are as much as can be taught with effect to ordinary 
boys who leave grammar schopls at 16, but while the strictly 
intellectual studies of girls in a corresponding position are aa 
various and (if really pursued) as difficult, a minimum of six 
hours a week — an average of 9 hours — has to be found in addition 
for music. These hours are spent in " practising " on the piano, 
and as the best supplied establishments have only one piano to half- 
a-dozen girls, the music lessons have to be taken in detachments. 
It follows that the school time must be broken into half-hours, and 
the natural classes info minute sub-divisions, in order to keep the 
pianos at work and yet not overcrowded.* If to this general con- 
fusion be added a general want of real training on the part of the 
teachers, which enslaves them to bad manuals and makes them in- 
capable of teaching a class instead of hearing lessons, there will be 
enough to account for a system so wasteful of teaching power as 
that "now in vogue. 

From the wenknesses on which this system depends the pro- 
posed High School should be able to save itself. It would have 
to fix a uniform age of admission, and establish an entrance ex- 
amination. This, to begin with, would do much to simplify classi- 
fication. Then it would have to fix a definite course of instruc- 
tion, not too full, and refuse to allow exceptions. Out of the 
musical difiiculty I confess that I cannot suggest a way of escape, 
but a practical teacher, trained to organization, would doubtless 
soon find one. In this, as in other respects, the effectiveness of 
the scheme would depend on the fulfilment of condition (c), as 
stated above, and this for the district in question might be achieved 
at once by such an institution as King Edward's Charity at Bir- 
mingham has the means of establishing. 

As the great High School for girls at Birmingham, if it existed, 
would facilitate the establishment of others by supplying trained 
teachers, so if once High Schools generally were set on foot, some 
kind of adjustment, if not affiliation, of private schools to them 
would gradually come about through the infiltration Into the latter 
of teachers bred in the High Schools, and in the notions of sys- 
tem and public responsibility which they would foster. The 
usual absence of any such notions at present among those who 
have the charge of private schools for girls is most notable and 
distressing. This appears specially in their horror of examinations^ 
Only five mistresses, of those that I communicated with, pro- 



Effect of pro- 
posed schools 
on others. 



» The school at which I found the best general education was a small one for 
daughters of Friends, at which no music was taught. I understood, however, that 
even among Friends the demand for instruction in music was becoming general. 



Mr. Greens' -Re-port. 249 

nounced in favour of an independent examination of their schools. 
' The rest on various grounds were against it, aSj I presume, were 
those who refused to hold any communication with me. The 
grounds alleged were sometimes that responsibility was owed only 
to the parents of the pupils in the school, sometimes that an examina- 
tion would be no test of the real proficiency of the pupils. Some- 
tim.es a plain confession was made that, while owing to the ignorance 
of the pupils, to the shortness of their stay at school and the number 
of subjects to be taught, very little was really learnt, a public report 
to that effect would be very damaging. It was evident that most 
of the principals had no conception of what a system of examina- 
tion by recognized authorities would be like, but were fearful of 
any test of the existing routine, while others were conscious of 
being victimized by a state of things which they were powerless 
to change. The extension of the " local examinations " by the uni- 
versities to girls will probably be productive of much good, as at 
once enabling competent assistant-teachers to distinguish them- 
selves from incompetent,* bringing home the idea of public 
recognition to the principals, and enabling the best of these to 
take a higher tone with parents. The principal of a sound and 
honest school at AVolverhampton told me that when it was an- 
nounced that the University of Cambridge would hold an 
examination there she tried to form a class especially to prepare 
for it, but that her day pupil?, their parents being careless and On opinion of 
indulgent, -would not stand the necessary pressure. This is but pa^'^^i'ts. 
one symptom of a general slackness of domestic interest in educa- 
tion, which, mischievous enough in the case of boys, is unqualified 
in the case of girls by any practical necessity of mental effort, and 
sanctioned by the doctrine that competition in learning is bad for 
them, a doctrine which the good people who hold it would, per- 
haps, modify if they remembered that competition in learning is 
practically the only set-ol? to competition in frivolities. It will 
be but slowly and partially that the "local examinations" — which, "Local exami- 
it muist be borne in mind, as yet furnish the only intellectual nations." 
decoration open to fchool-girls — will tell upon the present slack- 
ness, but in some degree theyundoubtedly will do so, and just so 
far will enable the better schoolmistresses to be more exacting in 
their system. But for the purpose both of supplying teachers with 
the will and faculty to be thus exacting, and of enabling them to 
give efi'ect to their will and faculty, the institution of endowed 
high schools, carrying -prestige and maintaining a standard which 
the private schools with or without their good-will would have to 
emulate, would be far more powerful. 

(S.) The good results to be expected from the realization of the 

scheme here shadowed forth have been mostly stated by anticipa- 
tion in the review of present needs. It would operate both directly 
and by example. The High School, paying its own teachers 
liberally and teaching its own pupils thoroughly, would raise the 

* They might do this in the " examination for seniors," -which, if the limit of age 
-were the same as in that for boys, would catch them just at the age -when they gene- 
rally begin to serve as teachers. 



•250 



Counties of Stafford and Warwick. 



Effect on more 

expensive 

schools. 



Faults in best 
of these. 



general conception of what payment and teaching should be. At 
the same time it would supply a race of qualified teachers who 
would at once improve the style of education in the private schools 
and i-aise the rate of remuneration, without additional cost to the 
parents, by showing practically that on a good system girls can 
be better taught with fewer hands than at present. It would 
further gradually create that higher public sentiment with regard 
to the intellectual training of women, which in turn would enable 
it to enlarge its operation in ways not yet distinctly visible. 
Its influence would be first felt in the education of girls, 
for whom the schools of grade (d) are too expensive. But 
those who resort to the more costly schools would gradually 
feel its benefit in the improvement of their teachers. In the 
only schools of this kind that I was allowed to examine the 
education in many respects seemed very satisfactory. Among 
the older pupils in them I found some real intelligence of English 
authors and of the principles of correct expression in English, and 
in particular some real knowledge of history, which made the 
absence of such intelligence and knowledge in the cheaper schools 
the more painful,* for it appeared that only those born to educa- 
tion had a chance of obtaining it. The chief defect that struck 
me (apart from general badness of arithmetic, which in girls bom 
in a certain amount of wealth is perhaps inevitable) was the loose- 
ness of the way in which they translated French. To any one 
drilled in grammatical accuracy according to the received methods 
of classical schools this was very vexatious, and would seem to 
destroy the educational value of the study. It is due, I think, to 
the fact that French is learnt to a great extent conversationally, 
and from foreign teachers whose knowledge of English is not very 
precise. Thus girls who can speak French fluently and give a 
free paraphrase in English of a passage from a French book are 
not able to analyse an involved construction or gi^^e its exact 
equivalent in English. The teaching of modern languages by 
persons who had themselves been trained, as they might be in a 
High School, under a real scholar, would probably tend to remedy 
this defect. A thoroughly educated foreigner having a scholar- 
like knowledge of English (such a one as a High School for girls 
at Birmingham might have at command) can no doubt teach his 
own language better than any one else; but where instruction 
from such a master cannot be obtained, or only obtained at inter- 
vals, I believe that for educational purposes, both to boys and 
girls, modern languages may best be taught by a properly-taught 
Englishman or Englishwoman. That the teaching of " English " or 



* I noticed no essential difference in these respects between schools of grades (c) 
and (d), but a marked one between the two more expensive grades on the one hand 
and the two cheaper ones on the other. 

The small extent to which German was learnt surprised me. Even in schools of 
grade (rf), and among the older pupils it was only learnt exceptionally, and by those 
who did learn it not at all thoroughly. Below grade (e) it is not learnt at all. In 
one school of grade (c) I found two pupils who knew more of it than any that I 
found elsewhere. 



Mr. GreerCs Report. 251 

Latin on the one hand and of modern languages on the other to 
the same set of boys or girls should be wholly in different hands 
is itself a great evil. 

The principals of several schools of grade (d) objected to any State of most 
examination of their pupils being made. They did so often ex- °tg*^^es^°^ 
plicitly on the ground that owing to the indifference to real educa- 
tion on the part both of the pupils and the parents, and to the 
time absorbed by " accomplishments," it was impossible to produce 
a satisfactory result. It cannot be too strongly urged that so 
long as girls are sent to school for three years at the age of 14 
without having previously received any solid education or having 
been ever accustomed or expected to make any intellectual effort, 
and then give 12 hours a week to music and singing,* neither real 
knowledge nor the faculty of obtaining it can be imparted. This 
is now the common case. For its remedy not so much sounder 
teaching as a sounder opinion is needed. That girls should 
learn to play and sing, and still more to draw, is most desir- 
able, but at present they learn these things, in deference to a 
false conventionality, as a matter of course, without reference to 
individual capacity and (so I was assured by the teachers them- 
selves) in the most superficial way.j With a healthier senti- 
ment among parents on such subjects and a better educational 
system a higher aesthetic result might, it is to be hoped, be 
obtained at a less cost of time. 

I have the honour to be. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

T. H. Green. 



* The inroad on other studies which this implies is not to he measured merely 
hy the actual time lost. The music-lesson, constantly coming as an interruption to 
other lessons, keeps the pupil in constant distraction. 

t I was told (1) that the music of the great masters was very little practised ; (2) 
that the teaching of drawing-masters from the Schools of Art was very unpopular 
with girls, and little used, hecause they spent much time ou the elements, particu- 
larly on geometrical drawing, and did not quickly help the pupil to make up showy 
sketches. 



252 Mr. Green's Report. — Appendix. 



APPENDIX, 



NOTE A., p. 110. 

The statement that " with the present low standard of middle education, 6 in 
1,000 is a fair proportion to expect to be in attendance at middle schools," is the 
result of questions put to those most likely to know, wherever I went, as to the 
number to be expected at a good grammar school, if such existed. By those who 
might be- expected to be at middle schools I mean those whose parents would be 
definitely above sending them to a National school, and would not be definitely 
above sending them to a good local grammar school, if such existed. In the 
estimate, however, of those in attendance at middle schools in Birmingham I 
have included the boys at the elementary schools on King Edward's founda^ 
tion, whose parents for the most part would not be definitely above sending 
them to a national scliool. As a matter of fact the brothers and sisters of boys 
at these elementary schools are constantly sent to National or British schools. 

Excluding for the present the class of boys resorting to the " elementary 
schools," there is some statistical ground for saying that at Birmingham six 
boys to every 1,000 inhabitants should be at the grammar school or some cor- 
responding school. According to a return from the Poor Law Board, pre- 
sented to Parliament in March 1861, it appears that the number of male persons 
in Birmingham who were charged to any of the assessed taxes or to the income 
tax under schedule (B.) and (D.) respectively for the year 1859-60, and who alsa 
were assessed to the poors' rate upon a gross rental of 20L and upwards, was 
6,456. These persons were presumably householders, and of a position in life 
to be above the use of a national school. To them must be added widows of 
the same rank in life, who may be fairly taken as raising the number to 6,090, 
It appears further from the census of 1861 that there was at Birmingham about 
one boy over the age of 9 and under 16 to every three houses. Thus for the 
6,090 householders of the rank specified there should be 2,030 boys of the age 
specified. At the time the return was made the popidation of the borough of 
Birmingham was probably 290,000. Supposing aU the 2,030 boys to be of a 
kind to go to a " middle school " in the place, that woidd give 7 to the 1,000. 
A deduction, however, should be made for those who, under any circumstances, 
would be sent to a boarding school away from home. 

I have some doubts about the above estimate. In the first place I cannot 
make out for certain whether the parliamentary returns gives the numbers for 
the borough or for the parish of Birmingham — a question which seriously 
affects the proportion ; secondly, the number of male persons in Birmingham 
according to the return charged to assessed taxes or income tax under schedules 
(B.) and (D.), but not "occupiers of tenements rated to poors rate" at all is 
4,356, a number quite out of proportion to that which is returned in other cases. 

Taking the above return as a test on the principles stated, the boys at 
middle schools at Lichfield should be 10, at Stafford 10, at Stoke 4, at 
"Walsall 6, at Wolverhampton 4i, at Coventry 6^, to the 1,000, without 
allowance for widows. 

It is obvious, however, that the standard here taken overleaps a large number, 
especially in the populous towns, who might be drawn to middle schools. 
This number might be ascertained roughly by a return of the number of houses 
rented at over 15Z. a year, but such a return I do not possess. In Birmingham, 
however, the number may be learnt proximately from the Government electoral 
returns of last year. The number of male occupiers in the borough of 
Birmingham at 10?. and upwards is given as 19,062. It appears incidentally 
that in the parish of Birmingham 3,252 voters were occupiers of tenements 
from lOl. to 15?. gross estimated rental. Nothing is said about Aston or 
Edgbaston, but supposing the proportion to be the same there, and making 
allowance for the difference between 101. occupiers and voters, there should be 



Mr. GreerCs Report. — Appendix. 253 

about 13,000 male occupiers above \bl. rental. To these, without taking 
account of sons of widows, there should be 4,500 boys between 9 and 16. To 
take the age from 7 to 14 would make little difference. Supposing the 
population of the borough of Birmingham to have been 330,000 in 1866, this 
would give a proportion of more than 13i to the 1,000 for those who might be 
at the grammar school or its feeders. 

NOTE B., p. 213. 
On this question I have only to say (a) that the only case I have met with 
where boys were transferred systematically from the National or British school 
to a grammar school was that of the Bridge Trust School at Haudsworth. 
There a certain number are every year admitted freely by competition from the 
schools for the poor. The trustees fix the number at their discretion, so long 
as there be not more than 30 such boys in the school at any one time. When 
I was there, the practice had been to admit two free boys in this way each year. 
The master considered that he could fitly absorb about one such boy to every 
20. (b) That in other cases where boys had been transferred from a national 
school to a grammar school, the experiment did not seem to have succeeded 
very well. The reason for its failure was generally the same as that for which 
a transfer from the lower to the upper department of a grammar school is 
generally a failure (see p. 100). It had been made too late. The system of 
the grammar school supposes that an average boy at 13 or 14 knows some 
Latin but is still imperfect in arithmetic ; the advanced boy from the national 
school, on the other hand, at that age (which is the age at which he generally 
makes the transfer in question) is perfect in arithmetic but knows no Latin ; in 
consequence he cannot adjust himself to the system of the grammar school and 
gains little from it. If the grammar school maintained a severe entrance 
examination for all boys in elementary knowledge, through which the best boys 
from the national school under a certain age might gain free admission to it, 
the case would be different. These latter would be caught younger, while the 
ordinary boys at the grammar school would get their arithmetic over at an 
earlier age. 

NOTE C, p. 247. (Education of Girls.) 

At Loughborough an upper school for girls has been established on Burton's 
foundation according to the scheme of 1849 (clauses 26 and ff). The fee 
paid in it is 15s. a quarter. The instruction in it by the scheme is to consist 
of "reading, writing, arithmetic, EngUsh grammar, geography, biography, 
" history, singing, and needle-work, and such other branches of education as 
" the trustees, with the advice and assistance of the head-mistress shall 
"' direct." Every girl also is to learn "to mend and make up her own 
" clothes." This school, it must be confessed, has not been a success. As it 
was not in my special district, and my time at Loughborough was limited, I 
made no minute inquiry about it, but I understood that, while it was very well 
conducted, the number of girls in it had within a few years declined from 
60 to 18. The reasons assigned for this were (1) that parents who were 
ambitious of gentility objected to its want of selectness, (2) that others — 
such as would use the private schools which I have described as grades (a) and 
(S) — disliked it on account of the thoroughness of its English system, and 
omission to teach " the piano," (3) that a lower class still were satisfied with a 
national school, or with no regular schooling at all. In short, I suppose the only- 
girls whom it would suit would be those intending to become teachers. This 
is not encouraging, but it must be remembered that Loughborough is not a 
favourable place for trying such an experiment. To the success of such a 
school it would be necessary, I think, that the fee should be rather higher 
than SI. a year, while at the same time several picked girls should be admitted 
free, and that the girls should be taught to play on the piano. 



T 2 



255 



SCHOOLS BTQUIRY COMMISSION. 



REPORT 



BY 



J. L. HAMMOND, ESQ. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

INTRODUCTORY 261 

(I.) EDUCATION OF BOYS 263 

1. NORTHUMBERLAND WITH GATESHEAD]: 

SCBOOI.S rURXriSKIIffG IVIAT&RIAI.S FOR INqVIRV. 

(a) Endowed Schools - ... 263 

(6) Proprietary Schools .... 266 

(c) Private Schools ..... 266 
Number of private schools within the range of the 

Commission .... - 268 

Number of schedules of inquiry delivered - - 269 

Number of schools inspected ... 269 

Objections to the inquiry ... - 2/0 

General Summary of all Schools inspected - 272 

genera! description of education in northxmi- 

BERIiAND. 

Adb AT^WHiQH Boys LEAVE School - - - 273 

Classification of Schools . - - . 274 

(a) "Working men's schools .... 274 

(i) Town schools, 
(ii) Rural schools. 

(S) Tradesmen's schools ... 276 

(i) Writing schools, 
(ii) English schools. ~ 

(c) Commercial and professional schools - - 277 

Peculiarities of Northumberland Schools - 277 

Mixture of classes ...... 277 

Mixture of sexes ..... 277 

Day school system - - - - . 279 

Its effects on the supply of scholars - - 281 

Accessories and indirect iniluences of schools - 283 

Distribution and Locality of Schools - - 284 

(A) Rural districts - - - - - 284 

(B) Towns and larger villages .... 286 
(a) Newcastle - . - - 286 
{b) Gateshead - ... 288 

(c) North Shields 289 

(d) Berwick - . . - 290 

(e) Morpeth - . - - 292 
(/) Alnwick - - - 293 
(g) Hexham - - - 296 
(h) Blyth ... - - 297 
(i) Smaller town and villages ... 298 

Allendale, Belford, Wooler, Stamfordham, 
Haltwhistle, Ponteland, Bellingham, Roth- 
bury, Haydon Bridge. 
Schoolmasters, their Social Position and 

Qualificatons ..... 300 

Graduates and certificated masters ... 300 

Commercial schoolmasters .... 300 

Adventurers in rural districts ... 302 

Proprietors of inferior town schools - - . 304 

School Buildings ..... 304 

School Assistants .... - 306 

Their rates of payment .... 307 

Price of Education ..... 307 

Day scholars ..... 307 

(i) Weekly schools, 
(ii) Tradesmen's schools, 
(iii) Commercial and professional schools. 



Table of Contents. 25t 

Page 
Boarders --.... 309 

Boarding House Accommodation - - - 309 

p1.aygr011nds ------ 310 

Moral Tone AND Discipline - - - 311 

Corporal punishment ... - 313 

Difficulties experienced by Schoolmasters . 315 

Irregularity of attendance - - . - 315 

IndSference and interference of parents - - 316 

Want of sufficient teaching power - - . 316 

Special difficulties - . - - -316 

Prizes, Exhibitions, &c. - - . . 317 

Examinations - - - . - - 318 

Newcastle Grammar School examination - - 318 

Views of schoolmasters respecting examinations - 319 

Examination of endowed schools - '- - 321 

Vacations and Half Holidays - - - 321 

2. NORFOLK (WITH BECCLES AND BUNGAT SCHOOLS AND 
FRAMLINGHAM COLLEGE) : 

SCHOOLS FITRHISHHTG nEAXERXAIiS FOR INf^VIRV. 

(a) Endowed Schools - - - - 323 

{b\ Proprietary Schools - - - . . 328 

(c) Private Schools - - - - 329 

Number of schedules of inquiry delivered - - 329 

Number of returns received - - 330 

Specimens of all kinds of schools inspected - - 330 

Objections to the inquiry - . - - 332 

General Summary of all Schools inspected - 333 

CENERAIi DESCRIPTIOir OF EDVCATIOIT IN BfORFOZiK. 

Age at which Boys leave School ... 338 

Class Schools ...... 340 

Recent Changes and Improvements in Local 

Schools ... - - 342 

PnESENT Educational Machinery - - - 346 

Early Home teaching .... 346 

Boarding School System - - 348 

Playgrounds . - . . . 352 
Miscellaneous Particulars relating to Schools 

and Schoolmasters ... 353 

Schoolmasters, their Social Position and 

Qualifications . . - . - 354 

Graduates and certificated masters - - . 354 

Commercial schoolmasters - - 355 

Registration .... 355 

School advertising AND School Agencies - 356 

Distribution and Locality of Schools - 358 

(a) County towns ... - - 358 

\h) Norwich ----- 360 

(c) Yarmouth - - - - - - 36 1 

(rf) King's Lynn - - - - - 362 

Number of Schools in Norfolk - - - 362 

Classification of Schools . - - - 363 

(a) Classical schools _ . - - - 363 

(6) Semi-classical schools - - , - - 365 

(c) Non-classical schools - . - - 368 
(i) Boarding schools, 
(ii) Day schools. 

Albert Middle Class College, Framlingham - 370 
Framlingham College, Norwich Commercial 

SCHOQL, AND NEWCASTLE GrAMMAR ScHOOL 

compared - - - - - - 3/8 



258 Table of Contents. 

Page 
3. NOEFOLK AND NORTHltMBEIlIiAND : 

CENERAXi COBIPABISOJSr BETWBE]S3' THE T-WO OOT7»fTlES. 

MTiDDLB Classes differently constituted - 381 

Thbib Mental "Peculiaeities ... 382 

Effects thereby produced on the recognized 

Qualifications of Teachers ... 383 
Opinions prevalent in either County respect- 
ing religious Instruction ... 384 
General Education ... - - 386 
Preparatory, Special, and Professional Educa- 
tion ,...--- 38/ 
Newcastle College of Medicine - - 389 
Schools of Navigation - - - 389 
Schools of Art - - . . 390 
Methods of Teaching - - - 391 
Subjects of Instruction ... - 394 
(a) Religious knowledge - - - 395 
(6) Greek - - - - - 397 

(c) Latin - - - - 399 

(d) French - - - 401 

(e) German .... 403 
(/J Arithmetic - - - 404 
\g) Book-keeping . . - - . 410 
(h) Mensuration ... 410 
(i) Mathematics - - - .411 

Ejachd 
Algebra 
Trigonometry 

(J) Natural science ... . 413 

{I) History 415 

(m) Geography .... 417 

(ji) English grammar, composition, and literature 418 

(o) Reading - - - - - - 426 

(p) Writing 428 

\q) Music ...... 430 

(r) Drawing ...... 430 

Quantity of Educational means - - 430 

Norfolk. 

Northumberland. 

Modern Extensions and Improvements - - 432 

Norfolk. 

Northumberland. 

Cost of Education ..... 435 

Day scholars. 

Boarders. 

Tabulated estimate of charges for day scholars and 

boarders ...... 438 

Circumstances affecting the cost of Education 438 
Willingness and ability of Parents to pay the 

true cost ...... 440 

Case of poor farmers and small country tradespeople 442 

Case of poor clergymen and professional men - 443 

Superiority of classical to semi-classical education - 444 

•ESfJiOVir-HtB.TSTS : 

Table of Norfolk Endowed Schools - - 445 
Endowments producing inadequate results - - 446 
Suggestions for the utilization of Norfolk endow- 
ments ...... 448 

Exhibitions ...... 450 

Table of Northumberland Endowed Schools - 452 
Suggestions for the utilization of Northumberland 

endowments ..... 453 

General remarks and suggestions on Endowed 

Schools -•-... 454 



Table of Contents. 259 

Page 

Utilisation oj endowments by means of exhibitions - 45S 

Boarding liouse system - . . . 459 

Boards of Management for particular Schools 4()1 

General Local Boards - - - - 461 

Central Educational Board ... 4()() 

Schemes ...... 4CS 

State Inspection ..... 46!J 

(11.) EDUCATION OF GIRLS 471 

NORFOLK AND NORTHUMBERLAND ; 

GE9T£Z£A3i AJSTi IKTIXOBTrCTORV ^BBIHCAKSS. 

Endowments for Girls .... 471 

Corporation and Proprietary Schools - . 474 

Motives influencing Parents in the selection 

OF Schools for their Daughters . 475 

Importance attached to instrumental music - 476 

Social and moral considerations ... 477 

Effects thereby produced on thh Schools 

themselves ..... 4/8 

Their Studies - . . 478 

Management . - - 478 

Constitution ..... 479 
F&KTICVX.ii.RS OBTAXSfBS E'ROSS XBTQUIRIT TSS1Q, 
ANH INS?£CTZO£r OF OSRSiS' SCKOOXiS. 

Account of proceedings in Norfolk . . 482 

Objections to the inquiry .... 482 

Number of schedules of inquiry deUvered . - 484 

Number of returns received ... 484 

Number of schools inspected - - 486 

Account of proceedings in Northumberland 486 

Number of schedules of inquiry dehvered . 486 

Number of returns received - - . 487 

Examination of schools by means of written papers - 487 

Number of schools inspected - ■ - 490 

Boarders in Ladies' Schools - - 490 

School Accommodation .... 491 

Inner life of Boarding Schools - - 492 

Favouritism shown by schoolmistresses - 493 

Demeanour of boarding school girls - - 493 

Character of women affected by the want of solid 

studies ..... 493 

Cost of Education ... . 494 

Norfolk select boarding schools ... 494 

Norfolk schools for farming and trading classes 495 

Northumberland schools .... 497 

Cheap seminaries .... - 499 

Competition among Girls' Schools - - 501 
Schoolmistresses a conscientious and fairly culti- 
vated class ..... 501 

Visiting Teachers - - - - 502 

Their duties and emoluments - - 602 

School Assistants and Pupil Teachers - - 603 

Their salaries ..... 603 

Difficulties experienced by Schoolmistresses 604 
A difficulty peculiar to inferior Northumberland 

schools ...... 605 

Age of Scholars ..... 505 

Subjects of Instruction .... 606 

Relative number of students in specified subjects - 607 

Quality of Instruction .... 510 

Reading, writing, and spelling ... 510 
Arithmetic - - - - - -511 

English grammar - - - - -614 



260 Table of Contents. 

Page 

Geography ------ 515 

History -.---- 516 

Religious knowledge .... 519 

English literature .... 520 

Miscellaneous subjects - - . » 521 

Languages ..---- 523 

Defective methods of teaching ... 524 

Inability of females to teach certain subjects - 526 

Examination of scholars the only remedy - - 527 

Mixed Schools for advanced Students op both 

SEXES ..... 528 

Effects of the female system of teaching on 

the intellectual character of English women 529 

(III.) FUNDS THAT MAY BE MADE APPLICABLE TO THE IM- 
PROVEMENT OF SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCA- 
TION ........ 530 

Overgrown Endowments of Primary Schools - 530 
Trusts not connected with Education - 531 

Norfolk ; 

Summary of charities belonging to the city of 

Norwich . - - . 531 

Specimen of a Norwich charity for an obsolete 
object ..... 534 

Specimen of a Norfolk conjoint trust requiring 

regulation . - . . . 534 

Specimen of a charity with funds in excess of 
its claims - . . . . 535 

Northumberland : 

Crewe's charity .... 535 

Hospitals of St. Mary the Virgin and St. Mary 
Magdalene ..... 636 

Freemen's rights and dividends - - 536 



APPENDIX. 

(A.) Abstract op Replies to Particulars of In- 
quiry relating to Private Schools for Boys 638 

(B.) Tables showing the relative number of 
Boys at Private Schools studying the 
different subjects of instruction - - 674 

(C.) Time tables for Boys' Schools - - 675 

(D.) Additional particulars relating to Fram- 
lingham College - - . . . 680 

(E.) Additional particulars relating to the 
Newcastle College op Medicine - . 582 

(F.) Abstract of Replies to Particulars of 
Inquiry relating to Private Schools for 
Girls. - - . - . - 585 

(G.) Time tables for Girls' Department at 
Haydon Bridge School, and for Berwick 
Corporation Academy . - _ _ 613 

(H.) Examination Papers for Girls' Schools, 
with tables showing the performances op 
the Pupils in each subject . - _ 615 

(I.) Summary of contents of " Mangnall's Ques- 
tions " AND specimen exercises FROM " Eve'S 

School Examiner" - - - . 629 



REPORT. 



My Lords and Gentlemen, 

I HAVE the honour to submit to you the following Report 
on the education of boys and girls above the labouring class in 
the district assigned to me by order of your Board. 

My district consisted of two main subdivisions, the counties of 
Norfolk and Northumberland. These counties present many 
points of difference in some of the essential particulars forming the 
subject of your inquiry. 

In reporting upon a district of this heterogeneous character, it is 
difficult to preserve a clear consecutive order of arrangement, 
except by treating each subdivision entirely as a district by itself. 
But I was not aware that the educational systems of the two 
counties were so dissimilar untU I had carried my investigations 
too far to allow of a change in my original plan ; which was to 
treat some matters as local and peculiar to each subdivision, and 
others as general and common to both. The adoption of this plan 
has, I fear, caused a certain confusion of arrangement and some 
repetition of statement which might otherwise have been avoided. 

There is, however, some advantage gained by treating the 
district as a composite whole. In the latter part of my remarks 
on Boys' Schools I have employed this mode of treatment for 
purposes of comparison and mutual illustration, and, even where 
the plan of a separate arrangement has been more strictly followed, 
I have sometimes found it useful to note, by way of anticipation or 
retrospect, the peculiarities of either county without reference to 
that arrangement. 

In the case of schools exclusively attended by girls the contrast 
presented by the two counties is not so striking or important as to 
render a separate notice of either county necessary, 

My Eeport begins with an account of the education of boys in 
Northumberland with Gateshead : the sole reason for this being 
that I completed the inspection of schools in that county before I 
had finished my work in Norfolk. 

I have next described the Norfolk schools for boys. My 
account of these is not so circumstantial as that of the North- 
umberland schools; first, because I received less assistance and 
information from Norfolk schoolmasters; secondly, because the 
day-school system, characteristic of Northumberland, is favourable 
to the permanence of schools in small towns and villages, and at 
the same time brings all the educational opportunities of each sepa- 
rate centre of population within the compass of easy observation. 



262 Mr. Hammond's Report. 

From a description of Norfolk boys' schools I have digressed 
into that portion of my Eeport in which I have ceased to deal with 
either county separately. 

In the course of my General Report I have given some account 
of every important Proprietary Establishment in my district. 
Strictly speaking, however, one or two of them, such as the 
Ajjricultural College 'at Framlingham and the Corporation 
Academy at Berwick, should be regarded rather as endowed foun- 
dations. 

Although I have reported specially on every endowed gi-ammar 
school in Norfolk and Northumberland, I have referred in my 
general report to the subject of local endowments. Thus towards 
the end of my remarks upon boys' schools will be found a tabu- 
lated summary of all actual and so-called grammar schools in 
either county. I have added comments on their present condition, 
pointing out their results, noting their failures and suggesting 
modifications in the application of their funds. The notice of 
particular endowments has led me to offer some suggestions 
respecting educational endowments in general; and with these 
suggestions 1 have brought to a close that portion of my report 
which refers to the education of boys. 

The education of girls I have reserved for separate notice. 
Although the institution of mixed schools is an important feature 
peculiar to Northumberland, and on that account deserving of 
separate notice, I have for many reasons preferred an arrange- 
ment by which the particulars respecting female education in the 
two counties are placed, as much as possible, side by side. 

The chief peculiarity of ladies' schools, both in Norfolk and 
Northumberland, is the defective method of teaching employed. 
In all schools the method is substantially the same, and this 
common fault overshadows all minor differences of organization, 
social status, and price. Of course, as must be expected, the sub- 
jects of instruction and the capacities and attainments of teachers 
vary in different schools. But in all ladies' schools alike, whethei" 
they be day schools or boarding schools, class schools or open 
schools, whatever be their locality, terms and range of instruc- 
tion, and however teachers may differ in point of earnestness and 
enlightenment, there is universally a misdirection of effort ; anl 
the training, whatever may be its other advantages, is not pro- 
motive of vigorous intellectual health. From this point of view 
all ladies' schools may be regarded as belonging to one and the 
same educational class. 

I examined the pupils in several ladies' schools by means of 
printed questions. These questions, together with the results of 
my examination, will be found in an appendix,* which also contains 
among other things tabulated abstracts of the replies received by 
me in answer to the Commissioners' Particulars of Inquiry for 
Private Schools. 



* See Appendix (A.), p. 537 ; Appendix (F.), p. 585 ; Appendix (H.), p. 615. 



(I.)-EDUCATION OF BOYS. ^^^^l^^^ 

NOKTHTIMBEE- 



LAKD. 



1. NORTHUMBERLAND WITH GATESHEAD. 



I WAS occupied in this portion of my district for about 15 Time spent in 
weelis in the course of 1865, viz., from July 19th to October ^°^*'™^^'^" 
7th, from October 28th to November 10th, and from December 
11th to December 21st. 

On my first arrival at Newcastle in July 1865 all the schools 
were closed for the holidays, and there was no prospect of admit- 
tance into anj' of them for the next six weeks ; partly because at 
Newcastle pupils are very irregular in returning to school after 
the summer holidays, and partly because the teachers objected to 
submit their pupils to examination immediately after six weeks of 
idleness. 

The time thus rendered unavailable for the inspection of 
schools I devoted to personal interviews with schoolmasters and 
schoolmistresses, trustees and other persons, who from their 
position or pursuits seemed likely to be of use to me. During 
this interval I visited all the towns and populous villages in the 
county, making such inquiry as might help me to ascertain what 
schools it would be desirable and possible to inspect at a future 
time; for everywhere, as at Newcastle, I found the holidays later 
than in most of the Norfolk scliools, and latest of all in the 
agricultural districts, where vacation time is always determined 
by the season of harvest. 

SCHOOLS FURNISHING MATERIALS FOR INQUIRY. 

(a) Endowed Schools. 

There was no difficulty in ascertaining what endowed schools Endowed 
should be set down for inspection. With one exception, they are schools m 
correclly specified in the digest of tiie Charity Commissioners land -with 
Report and in the return ordered by the House of Commons to Gateshead. 
be printed 5th July 1865. They are there stated to be the follow- 
ing:— 

(L) Newcastle-on-Tyne Free Grammar School - Boys' school. 

(2.) AUendale - - Brideshill Grammar School Mixed school. 

(3.) Alnwick - Corporation Grammar School Mixed school. 

'4.) Hexham - - Free Grammar School - - *Mixed school. 

(5.) Morpeth - - Grammar School . - - Boys' school. 

(6.) Rothbury - Grammar School - - Boys' school. 

(7.) Tynemouth - Kettlewell's School - Boys' school. 

(8.) Warden - - Haydon Bridge Grammar School - Mixed school. 

(9.) Berwick-upon- Grammar School - - - Boys' school. 
Tweed. 

(10.) Gateshead - Anchorage School - - Boys' school. 

* Now no longer a mixed school. See extract from head master's letter quoted 
in note on p. 278 (1867). 



264 Mr. Hammond's Report. 

Schools . "^^^ exception is Kettlewell's school, Tynemouth. On visiting 
NoRjHUMBEK- itj I found that it could only be regarded as a school legitimately 
LAND. attended by the children of the poorest classes, and by them 
KettleweTl's exclusively. It is true that some of the other schools in the 
school, Tyne- above list are now practically parish schools ; but they were 
mouth, asohool intended for the benefit of all classes, and, except perhaps in the 
for t e poor. ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ Allendale school, some representatives of the farming 
and trading classes are to be found in all of them. But Kettlewell's 
school was founded specially for poor boys, with a preference for 
orphans and fatherless children ; and although the trustees may 
direct instruction to be given in such useful knowledge and 
learning as they shall from time to time deem prudent, and Latin 
has been at one time taught, yet no instruction is now given 
beyond the rudiments, the boys belong to the very neediest classes, 
and the school is under Government inspection. I therefore 
erased it from my list. 
Widdiington's On the othei' hand, Widdrington's school, Stamfordham, classed 
school, as a non-classical school in the digest, and not noticed in the re- 

Stamfordham. ^^^^^ ^^^ founded for all the children of the parish. The master 
is a clergyman of the Church of England. A classical education 
has been furnished by the school in former times, and the endow- 
ment is more than is required for the education of the labouring 
classes. For these reasons I placed it on my list for inspection. 
Other endowed Other endowed schools respecting which I made inquiry were 
schools non- the following : — 



classical. 



(1.) Newcastle-on-Tyiie St. Mary's Hospital School - Boys' school, 

(2.) Bellingham - Read's School - - - Mixed school. 

(3.) Haltwhistle - Lady Capel's School - - Mixed school. 

(4.) Ponteland - Coates' School - - - Mixed school. 

(6.) Rothbury - - Girls' Endowed School - - Girls' school. 

(1.) *S'^. Mary's Hospital School, Newcastle, is closely connected 
by the provisions of 9 & 10 Vict. c. 42. with the Free Grammar 
School. I visited it ; but finding that by the scheme it was in- 
tended to be " of a class similar to the schools of the National 
" Society,'' I did not formally examine the scholars. 

There are other schools in Newcastle (the most important being 
the Orphan House Wesleyan, and the Royal Jubilee schools) 
which give the same kind of instruction to the- same class of 
pupils as the National and British schools. The two just men- 
tioned are both under Government inspection, and neither they 
nor others of a similar class in Newcastle, Gateshead, and the 
larger towns can be regarded as coming within the province of 
the Commission ; but they all probably contain some scholars 
belonging to the middle class, and thus compete with certain of 
the private schools which I have visited. 

(2.) Read's School, Bellingham, was expressly founded for 50 
poor children of the chapelry of Bellingham; and, 

(3.) Lady CapeVs School, Haltwhistle, for the children — boys 
and girls — of poor persons of the parish. 

These are not in any sense of the word middle-class schools ; 
but I examined the scholars in both of them, because the districts 



Northumberland Endowed Schools. 265 

are, comparatively speaking, populous, and the schools In some Boys' 
instances are attended by the children of tradesmen and farmers. norSotber- 

(4.) Coated School, Ponteland, was founded for 15 or more ^^"• 
poor children of the parish, and is now attended by 20 children 
of either sex, who are taught reading and writing gratuitously. 
They are also clothed and shod out of the endowment, which is 
more than sufficient to provide education for the labouring 
classes of the district. In former times the master of the school 
has been a clergyman ; and the present vicar of Ponteland con- 
siders that under a new scheme a better provision may be made 
for the poor, and a portion of the endowment applied to the 
purposes of secondary education. I made arrangements for 
examining the scholars, but on my arrival at Ponteland I found 
that the master had been called away on important business, and 
the school was closed." 

(5.) Endowed Girls' School, Rofhbuv)/.^— This school receives a 
payment from Thomlinson's Charity, and professes to supply to 
girls' of the parish the same kind of education, mutatis mutandis, as 
Thomlinson's school does to boys. I examined the scholars. 

In every other instance, except four, the endowed schools in other 
Northumberland were expressly founded for the children of the charitable 
poor. In every case but one the endowment is so small, and the endo-wments. 
district in which the school is situated is so poor, that the most 
proper use of the charity is to apply it in aid of a parish school 
for the labouring classes. The only exception is that of Heron's Heron's 
Charity, Simonburn. The portion of this charity devoted to the Charity, 
purposes of a National school is no doubt wisely applied. There Simonhurn. 
is, however, a considerable Income, intended partly for appren- 
ticing, and expended solely upon doles, respecting which a 
different opinion might be entertained. I have therefore men- 
tioned the circumstance in my account of separate schools, 
although I did not visit the school itself, which is a National 
school under Government inspection. 

The ten schools which I have treated as endowed schools, in Endowed 
which persons above the labouring class have an interest, though grammar 
originally founded more or less with the same object, have now ^yl's^^ie into 
become very different in their character. They may be divided three groups, 
roughly into three groups : — (1.) Parish or working men's schools ; 
such as jfillendale, Rothbury, Haydon Bridge, and Stamfordham 
schools. (2.) Tradesmen's sclioos ; such as Newcastle, Alnwick, 
Hexham, and Gateshead schools : and (3.) commercial and profes- 
sional schools ; such as Morpeth and Berwick schools. The above 
division is open to some criticism ; but having due regard to the 
social condition of the majority of scholars, the age at which they 
leave school, the pursuits for which they are intended, the subjects 
of instruction taught, and the method of teaching adopted, I 
consider that it fairly represents the relative status, social and edu- 
cational, of the several schools. And the same classification will 
be found to apply generally to the proprietary and private schools 
in this portion of my district. 



266 



Mr. HammonSs Report. 



Boys' 
Schools, 

NoMnUMBEK- 
LAND. 

Proprietary 
schools. 



(/() Proprietary Schools. 

Passing on to the proprietary schools, I must premise that 
there are no schools of this class in Northumberland which will 
furnish any very important data for deciding whether the principle 
on which such schools are founded is a sound one ; but as the 
following are not endowed, and at the same time are the private pro- 
perty of persons distinct from the schoolmaster, they must be con- 
sidered as a separate class, although the Hexham school is the 
only one which, in ordinary parlance, would be called a proprietary 
school. I examined them all, and in their case, as in the case of 
the endowed schools above specified, I had every facility afforded 
me for a complete and thorough inspection. 



a.) Allendale - 
(2.) Alnwick - 
(3.) Belford - 
(4.) Hexham - 
(5.) Wooler - 
(6.) Berwiok-on-Tweed 



Lonkley School - 
The Duke's School 
Presbyterian School 
Proprietary School 
Presbyterian School 
Corporation Academy 



- Mixed school. 

- Boys' school. 
Mixed school. 

- Mixed school. 

- Mixed school. 

- Mixed school. 



" Adven- 
turers." 



Of these schools the Allendale, Belford, and Wooler schools are 
parish schools. The Alnwick, Hexham, and Berwick schools 
belong to the second group, and are what I have called trades- 
men's schools. 

(c) Private Schools. 

Private schools. In a cej'tain sense some of the schools which I now proceed to 
treat as private schools should more strictly be considered pro- 
prietarj^ 

In those parts of the county which are thinly populated, and 
where a day school, connected with the Church of England or with 
some other Congregational body, does not exist, it has been the 
practice among farmers witli young and growing families to 
combine together and invite a master, generally a Scotchman, to 
settle among them and keep school. This is still the custom in 
a few places. The children of the " hinds," or agricultural 
labourers, supply the bulk of the scholars; but in case the pay- 
ments from them should not be sufficient to attract a competent 
man, the farmers guarantee that the master's i-eceipts shall not 
fall iDelow a certain annual sum. In former times the dominie 
was billeted on the different farmers in succession ; the modern 
practice is to provide him with a school-room and a lodging. The 
master is generally called an " adventurer," though this term is 
also applied to private schoolmasters who own or rent their own 
school-house. 

In my report I have considered the " adventurers " as belonging 
to the class of private schoolmasters. The distinction is a local 
one, of no practical importance, and the " adventurers " in the 
rural districts are disappearing, as the modern system of Govern- 
ment education becomes more extended. 

I found considerable difficulty in making a selection of private 



Difficulty in 



pSfchools. «°1^°«^« f°^- inspection. 



NortMimherland Private Schools. 267 

III the first place, the number of schools which would be Boys' 
regarded in other parts of England as middle-class schools is „ Schools, 
extremely small; and as there is in Northumberland but little j,tjsT>. 

social prejudice on the subject of schools, the sons of skilled 

artisans, who know the value of education better than many ^° *^|^^? 
wealthier tradespeople and farmers, would be found in some of!ounty. ™*^ 
these. On the other hand, there are in Newcastle and in the 
colliery and manvifacturing districts along the Tyne several si^hools 
of an inferior sort, which are attended by the children of small 
shopkeepers as well as by those of skilled and unskilled mechanics ; 
and in the rural districts the children of farmers always attend 
the same schools as tlie children of their hinds. 

Again, it is scarcely credible how few persons resident in a Ignorance of 
town of an)' size can give any information whatever respecting the residents m 
private schools in their place of residence. An incidental advan- respecting 
tage resulting from the University local examinations is that in each private schools, 
permanent centre there will always be at least a secretary and two 
or three committee-men acquainted with the opportunities for 
classical and commercial education in their district; but there 
is no such centre in Northumberland, and apparently only one 
private school in the county has ever sent in candidates for 
the local examinations. Thus it happens that, whereas several 
persons can furnish complete information respecting the various 
public schools in Newcastle intended for the children of the poor, 
no one knows the names of more than three or four private school- 
masters at most. Two* private establishments are in every respect 
so superior to the rest that they were always named to me wherever 
I made inquiry ; but respecting the existence or character of other 
academies I could learn nothing, except from the teachers 
themselves. 

With the help of local and scholastic directories I eventually 
drew up a first list of schools, from which I gradually eliminated 
those which proved on inquiry not to come widiin the province 
of the Commission. These were very numerous. For instance, 
Crockford's Scholastic Directoi-y for 1861 contains the names 
of more than 180 private schoolmasters, and nearly 140 private 
schoolmistresses, residing in tliis portion of my district. Of these 
a large majority, classed under the heads of " private schools for 
gentlemen" and "private schools for ladies," proved to be the 
names of teachers in colliery and parish schools. 

At length I succeeded in making a list of all schools that 
could in any sense be considered to come within the range of the 
present inquiry. It included many which in no oilier part of 
England would be regarded as middle-class schools ; but, on the 
other hand, no middle-class school for boys, properly so called, was, 
I ventuie to believe, omitted. In the process of framing it I visited 
Newcastle, Gateshead, North Shields and Tynemouth, Morpeth, 
Bedlington, Blyth, Rothbury, Alnwick, Alnmouth, Belford, 

* Since my inspection the proprietor of one of these schools has left Newcastle, and. 
his school has jassed into other hands. (1867.) 

o. c. 3. -p- 



268 Mr. Hammond's Report. 

Boys' Bamburgh, Berwick and Tweedmouth, Wooler, Bellingham, 

SoHooLB, Chollerton, Hexham, Corbridge, Haydon Bridge, Allendale, 

™™''™" Haltwhistle, Stamfordham, and Fonteland. Besides the masters 

' of the various endowed and proprietary schools enumerated above, 

I saw between 80 and 90 private schoolmasters and school- 
mistresses in different parts of the county. 

I proceed to give a statement of the boys' and mixed schools 
to which schedules of inquiry for private schools (boys) were 
sent, and which it seemed desirable, if possible, to inspect. 

My original list contained the names of 40 schools; 14 in New- 
castle, 7 in Gateshead, 6 in North Shields, 4 in Berwick and 
Tweedmouth, 2 in Blylh, and 7 scattered in different parts of 
Northumberland. Of the 40 schools, about one half differed from 
" Mixed parish schools only in being private establishments. The leading 

schools." characteristic of these schools is the mixed attendance of boys and 

girls, though in a few instances this criterion would not strictly 
apply. The whole number of middle-class schools in Northum- 
berland and Gatesheadj endowed, proprietary, and private, in 
which the scholars are exclusively boys is, I believe, 21, and the 
boys attending them are about 1,200 in number ; the three largest 
schools in Newcastle furnishing more than 500 between them. 
Objectors to the Two private schoolmasters only, one at Morpeth and one at 
Commissioners' Gateshead, refused all communication with me, and even declined 
mquiry. ^^ g^g ^^ printed Particulars of Inquiry, It is not worth while 

to state their reasons, which fall under one or other head of 
general objections briefly noticed below. The Morpeth, school is 
the only middle-class school for boys, except the grammar school, 
in the town ; but it hardly competes with the grammar school, 
being, as I am informed, a writing or English school, long esta- 
blished and respectable. The Gateshead school is, I understand, 
a new establishment, due to the enterprise of a retired exciseman. 
Although it is styled a " classical, mathematical, and commercial 
academy," the master has had but little experience in teaching, 
the instruction is quite rudimentary, and the pupils belong to 
the working class or to the lowest stratum of shopkeepers. The 
school, therefore, is one of no importance in connection with the 
present inquiry, although it is fair to observe that the room in 
which it is held is the best school-room in Gateshead, and one of 
the best in the northern part of my district. 

Five persons, one a female with a preparatory school for young 
boys, and four masters of mixed schools of the inferior sort, de- 
clined to send returns, and refused or deprecated inspection after 
a perusal of the printed schedules. Two were dissenting clergy- 
men. One, who handed me a card bearing his name, " The Rev. 
Dr. ... M.A., E.C.P.," was manifestly much relieved in 
mind when I forbore to press my request. Having caught a 
glimpse of his^ pupils and school accommodation during lesson 
tune on a previous visit, I am doing no injustice to either master 
or scholars in classing the school with the working men's or lowest 
group of schools. The other three were likewise schools merely 
competing, as I learnt from the masters themselves, with the 



Northumberland Private Schools inspected. 269 

National and British schools in their respective towns. One of Boys' 
them writes to say that his scholars " are composed of all who „ Schools, 
" cannot get on in the National school." The preparatory school land. 

was a dame's school for young boys of the " small tradesmen " 

class. 

Of the remaining 33 schools, three proved to be so decidedly 
below the lowest possible standard of middle-class schools that 
it was not worth while to send the circulars of questions to them, 
though I visited them all, and examined some of the scholars in 
one of them. In another of these three I found that the ma- 
jority of the boys left an hour before noon to fetch their parents' 
dinners ; yet this was a school in which some tradespeople's chil- 
dren might be found. 

My list was thus reduced to 30 private schoolsi Schedules sent 

I have entered into the foregoing particulars in order to show *" ^^ schools. 
the very small number of really middle-class schools in Northum- 
berland. One only refused all communication with me, — the com- 
mercial school at Morpeth noticed above ; and of the 30 schools 
just mentioned, 15 would not have contained a single farmer's 
or tradesman's son in Norfolk. It will thus be seen that, inclusive 
of proprietary and endowed schools, there are in the whole of this 
subdivision of my district about 25 schools which may be 
considered socially superior to the ordinary parish schools. 

Of the 30 private schools remaining on my list, 24 have sent Eeturns 
returns or more less detailed. Of these returns four or five con- 2Tsohools™™ 
tain only a few answers, almost useless, and little or no statistical 
information. They are all from schools of no practical importance. 
An abstract of the answers is given in the tabulated statement 
appended to this report. 

The six schools which have not sent returns have been inspected Six schools in- 
by me, and I have a sufficient knowledge of their character and ^^"^^ ^^°^ 
organization. Three of them are schools of some importance as returns have 
tradesmen's schools. One is a small establishment of a superior heen received, 
description, attended by a somewhat better class of boys. The 
master had just come to the county, and could give no written 
information of any value ; but he readily permitted me to see his 
school at work. It contained but a few boys, and although I 
deferred my visit of inspection till the latest possible period, I saw 
it at a great disadvantage. 

On the whole I have received returns from 24 schools, of 
which I inspected 20, besides inspecting eight others from which 
no returns have been received. 

Of the 28 private schools inspected by me, five may be Twenty-eight 
placed in the " commercial and professional " group of schools, ten ?''^°°'^ 
in the " tradesmen's " group, and the rest are in no respect 
superior to ordinary parish or working men's schools. 

Taking into consideration the number and character of the 
schools, endowed, proprietary, and private, actually inspected, and 
the returns received from private schools, I feel satisfied that I 
have been furnished with the necessary and sufficient data for 
forming a correct estimate of the state of middle-class education 

i; 2 



270 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



BOTS' 

Schools' 
nokthombee- 

I.AND. 

Letter from 
private 
schoolmaster 
declining visit 
of inspection. 



in Northumberland and Gateshead. For this result I am greatly 
indebted to the readiness and courtesy with which most of the 
persons engaged in education met my applications for assistance 
and co-operation. 

Of the four schools, furnishing returns but not inspected, three 
were of the humblest class, of which I had already seen a sufficient 
number of specimens for my purpose. Tlie following letter will 
explain why I did not examine the fourth. 

I transcribe it in full, because it is a temperate statement of 
the views taken by many private schoolmasters, especially of 
the second rank, respecting their responsibilities and the rela- 
tions existing between them and their employers. The sentiments 
expressed are more prevalent, however, in Norfolk than in 
Northumberland, 

Sir, 

After having forwarded, as requested, distinct and concise replies to 
the inquiries contained in the schedules handed to me last month, I confess I 
am a little surprised to find that my small academy is chosen for a personal 
visit. It is a compliment that I am sorry to say I cannot properly appreciate. 

I have occupied my present residence, as a teacher, for m.ore than 25 years. 
My school has always heen distinctly a private one, limited in number, and 
unassuming in character. I wish it to remain so. 

In answer to Question 90, I ventured to express a want of confidence in 
public examinations, as conferring little advantage upon a position so obscure 
as mine. I still see no reason to alter this opinion. 

The question that interests me most is to maintain a good understanding 
with my supporters. This I have generally succeeded in doing by a faithful 
discharge of my duties, and without soliciting the assistance or patronage of 
any one. I hope to continue in this course. 

Believing that I have given you in the schedules more information respecting 
my academy than the most anxious parent ever required, and that the educa- 
tional measures ab.eady in operation with me are perfectly satisfactory to my 
friends, you must allow me, with every respect to yourself and the instructions 
you have received, to decline your contemplated yiAi on Monday the 18th 
instant. 

I am, &c.. 



Reasons why Although the returns sent to me are, in not a few instances, 
^!l"!=l^^™ * incomplete, and although some masters, whose schools I have 

not sent or sent •■ji ° ht-i 

incomplete. Visited, liave not sent any returns at all, i attribute tins apparent 
neglect mainly to the great labour involved in answering so many 
questions and giving all the particulars required. The daily work 
of teachers conducting cheap schools, which cannot support an 
adequate staff of assistants, is so great and exhausting, that such 
persons could not find time to collect and transcribe the minute 
and circumstantial information demanded in the printed schedules. 
In many instances, too, where the scholars were of both sexes, the 
questions were often inapplicable to the conditions of the school 
organization. And, lastly, few of the inferior class of school- 
masters, whose pupils are constantly changing, keep the necessary 
registers for supplying the details required for the statistical 
forms. 

Questions One or two masters were disposed to demur to some of the 

Sndersto''o'd. I^estions on tiie ground of their inquisitorial character. These 



Objections to the Inquiry, 271 

were chiefly the questions relating to payments and accounts Bots' 
and to the domestic arrangements for boarders; but, owing to the Schools, 
small number of boarding-schools, this was not so general a ^o^humbeh- 

ground of complaint as in Norfolk. 1 

The meaning and object of some questions were sometimes mis- 
apprehended. One master writes as follows : " I was sorry to 
*' observe in the questions sent to nie a considerable number of 
*' apparently little significance, whilst a number of most important 
^' questions were omitted. I do trust that, notwithstanding the 
" surmises of some of our educationists here, it was unintentional, 
" or not done from any sinister motive." The first subject of 
complaint is illustrated and partly explained by this gentleman's 
answer to* Question 2. 

Q: Give the name and description of the master of the school ? 
A. * * * F.E.I.S. ; 45 years oF age, 5 it. 1 1 ins. high. 

I have not learnt what were the important questions omitted, or 
what the supposed motives for their omission. 

A feeling of suspicion was more generall3' entertained and ex- 
pressed against the interference of the Commission by proprietors 
of humble establishments, competing with National and British 
schools. These persons consider that the Government grants Otjectiona 
■already place them at an unfair commercial disadvantage, and ™^'^^ '^ ^o™^ 
they complain that the children of the lower middle class, whose class^of private 
parents can afford to pay for their education, are not only desert- schoolmaster.s. 
ing their former places of instruction, but are driving the really 
poor children out of the establishments pensioned or endowed for 
their support. In Northumberland, where there is no social 
feeling to prevent a farmer or tradesman from sending his child 
to a Government school, the improvements caused by grants in 
the form, if not in the substance, of instruction are seriously 
affecting private educational enterprise. In the country parishes 
" adventurers " are giving way before certificated and trained 
masters. In the. towns the children of small traders, clerics, &e., 
are resorting to the public schools. One master,, whose school I 
examined, writes thus : " Probably the great majority oi working 
" people prefer small private schools such as mine to large public 
" schools, notwithstanding the inducements held out by the latter, 
" such as prizes, trips, inspectors' certificates, pupil-teacherships, 
" money clubs, &c., &c. " ; and another, ironically, I presume, 
approves of National schools, "for they are so bad they help the 
" private "schools." Biit others, more candid or sagacious, are 
alarmed at their increased importance, and insist that their benefits 
should not be extended, as they frequendy are by a graduated 
scale of payments, beyoud the limits of the very poorest classes. 
And though the operation of the Revised Code, by limiting the 



* Other schoolmasters and schoolmistresses have made similar mistakes as to the 
meaning of this question. Another question which has been misunderstood by several 
persons is Question 2i, " What is the average time that" the pupils remain in the 
Bchool J " ' " ' 



272 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



B6ts' 

Schools, 
nokthumber- 



Stumnary of 
boys' and 
mixed scliools 
inspected. 



subjects of instruction to the essentials, would at first sight seem 
calculated to benefit such of the private schoolmasters as are will- 
" ing and able to impart instruction in the higher subjects, I am 
informed on the best authority that this will not be its effect. My 
own experience also leads me to believe that the private schools 
of the lowest class will be compelled to confine themselves to the 
same subjects as the Government schools if they are. to compete 
with them at all successfully ; for, as the first and indispensable 
requirement not only of the working but also of the tradii^ 
classes, is a sound instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
no school will meet with much favour if it sacrifices the essentials 
to any other branch of study ; and the standard attained by the 
Government schools in the elementary subjects must eventually 
become the standard of private schools competing with them. 

Though my visit may have been regarded in some quarters as 
an omen or fresh instance of State interference in educational 
matters, I found the more intelligent schoolmasters of the humbler 
class very ready to admit me to their schools. It is only fair 
to say that there are among them some zealous and laborious 
workers, struggling against many diificulties, and earning but a 
scanty and precarious remuneration, which is quite inadequate to 
procure for them any paid assistance. In every school of this 
grade, where an assistant (not a pupil) was employed in teach- 
ing, the assistant was the father; wife, son, or daughter of the 
schoolmaster. 

General Summary oi' Schools. 

The number of schools, not girls' schools, which were inspected 
by me in Northumberland and Gateshead, is 46 : viz. 12 endowed, 
6 proprietary, and 28 private schools. 

The endowed schools are the following : — 



(1.) Newcastle - 


Grammar School 






Boys. 


(2.) AUendale - 


Brideshill School 


- 


. 


Mixed. 


(3.) Alnwick - 


Corporation Grammar 


School 


. 


Mixed. 


(4.) Hexham - 


Grammar School 


_ 


_ 


Mixed. 


(5.) Morpeth - 


Grammar School 


. 


- 


Boys. 


(6.) RothbuiT - 
(7.) Stamfordham 


ThomJinson's School- 


. 


.. 


Boys. 


Widdrington's School 


_ 


_ 


Mixed. 


(8.) Haydon Bridge - 


School 


- 


- 


Mixed- 


(9.) Berwick - 


Grammar School 


- 


. 


Boys. 


(10.) Gateshead 


Anchorage School 


- 


- 


Boys. 


(11.) Bellingham 


Read's School 


. 


. 


Mixedj 


(12.) Haltwhistle 


Capel's School 


- 




MLxed. 



The proprietary schools are— 








(1.) Allendale 


Lonkley School 






Mixed. 


■ (2.) Alnwick - 


The Duke's School - 


. 


_ 


Boy«. 


(3.) BeUord - 


Presbyterian School - 


. 


• 


Mixed. 


{4.) Hexham - 


Proprietary school 


., 


.. 


Mixed. 


(5.) Wooler - 


Presbyterian school 


« 


_ 


Mixed- 


(6.) Berwick - 


Corporation Academy - ' 


- 


- 


Mixed- 



General deicitpMon of Northumberland Schools. 273 

•■ Of tlie private schools 12 are boys' schools and 16 are mixed Botb' 
schools. Ten at least out of the 28 are working men's schools. j^ ^"^^^br. 

Most of the schools, whether endowed,, proprietary, or private, land. 
were examined viva voce in accordance with the practice generally — - 
observed in' Northumbei-land. Few indeed contained pupils 
sufficiently advanced to be examined by written papers : ' but 
where this mode of examination seemed desirable I adopted it. 
The papers were chiefly on arithmetic, but in some instances 
they included questions in Euclid, algebra, and trigonometry. 

Thus in ten schools an aggregate number of 198 boys sent 
up answers in arithmetic. 

Four schools furnished an aggregate number of 19 boys who 
answered questions in Euclid and algebra. 

And from Morpeth Grammar School I received answers in 
trigonometry from two of the older pupils. 

The total number of boij/s in these 46 schools was about 2,400 
but a considerable proportion of them, probably not less than 
1,000, were sons of mechanics and labourers. ■ 

These may be distributed roughly as follows : 

Total No. No. of boys belonging to 

■of boys. tlie working classes. 

Endowed schools - 700 - 350 

Proprietary „ - 375 - 250 

Private „. - 1,325 - 400 



Total - - 2,400 - 1,000 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP EDUCATION IN NORTHUM- 
BERLAND. . 

A very large majority of middle-class boys educated in North- 
umberland and Gateshead schools are intended for the clerk's 
desk, the counter, or the farm. The proportion trained for 
learned professions, when compared with that in most English 
counties, is inappreciable, and. much smaller now than it was 
formerly. Practically the local schools do not pretend to fit boys 
for the English universities. On the average not one boy in two 
years proceeds to any of them direct from a Northumberland 
schdol, and no boy entirely educated in the county could ever 
attain any distinction at Oxford or Cambridge. Eight boys a 
year, at most, may pass on to Scotch universities, but these would 
in many cases be unable to join any class above the lowest. 
Moreover, there is no centre in Northumberland for University 
local examinations, and only two or three schools in the county 
have ever sent in candidates for them. 

Age at ■which Boys leavk School. 
■ It will readily be imagined from this statement that the highest Highest 
Standard of education in this subdivision of my district is com- ^f^^^^^j?^ 
paratively low. The most advanced students who commence and jg.^. 



274 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



Boys' 

Schools, 

nokthumebk- 

LAND. 

Mean level. 



Age at which 
boys leave 
school. 



Lowest group 
of schools (a). 



complete their general course in local schools are destined for 
the law, for medicine, or for civil engineering. They are very few 
in number, and they generally leave school at the age of 16, 
]Boys intended for merchants' offices leave at an earlier age. 

The mean level of education is determined by the require- 
ments of farmers, tradesmen, and small merchants, wlio desire for 
their sons such a general training as will fit them for business at 
the earliest age at whicii they can earn a livelihood. There is an 
active demand on the Quayside at Newcastle for sliarp lads, and 
such lads can easily obtain situations of some value at the age 
of 14. This is the age at which most boys leave school, and very 
few indeed remain after tliey are 16. 

Of 930 boys attending the best private schools, and of 417 at- 
tending* grammar schools in the county, 16 and 11 respectively are 
youths above 16 years of age. It may safely be asserted that 
throughout this part of my district the average number of scliolars 
above that age is nearer one than two per cent., and in many in- 
stances it would be found iJiat the older scholars are not pursuing 
higher branches of study, but merely retrieving the neglect of 
early years. 

A general education, at once sound and comprehensive, is 
under these circumstances quite out' of the question. The large 
majority of scholars are of an age when boys of the most promis- 
ing abilities have scarcely begun to' think methodically, and very 
few indeed remain long enough at school to understand or acquire 
the first principles of inferential reasoning. The instruci;ion given 
at most of the schools is consequently mechanical in its character 
and instrnmeulal in its object. And this supply corresponds with 
the general demand. Nothing is asked for beyond tiie ability to 
read and spell correctly, to compose a business letter, to write a 
fair hand, and to enter and keep accounts. The corresponding 
programme in a school prospectus comprises reading and dicta- 
tion, the rudiments of English grammar, writing, plain and orna- 
mental, and commercial arithmetic. This is the staple of the 
instruction generally offered, and most effectively imparted, by 
the great mass of boys' and mixed schools. 

Classification of Schools. 

I have already remarked that the schools in Northumberland 
and Gateshead, in which any boys above the labouring class are to 
be found, divide themselves into three groups. 

The lowest group consists of working men's schools, in which, 
however, especially in the rural districts, sons of farmers and 
tradesmen may be found. In the country these are actually parish 
schools; in the towns they are private establishments competing 
with National and British schools. I shall call these working 
men's schools, though the term is more correct than convenient. 



* I have only taken into account those schools in which it is possible to distin- 
guish the number of boys from the number of girls. At mixed schools girls remain 
rather longer than boys. 



Classification of Schools. 275 

The intermediate group I have called tradesmen's schools. Boys' 
They are town schools, frequented generally by the children of nokthumbbk- 
tradesmen and clerks. land. 

The highest group, which I have designated as commercial and — 77 
professional schools, are attended by boys of various classes ; but „roup^(6v ^ 
they contain distinctively those who are intended for their parents' Highest group 
houses of business, and who are destined to become solicitors, (c). 
medical practitioners, civil engineers, and the like. 

It must be tinderstood that this classification is not precisely 
accurate, and that it is sometimes difficult to assign to a particular 
school its proper place in the above list. 

The lowest class of schools, visited by me are town schools of Group (a) 
the first-named grotjp. They are attended chiefly by the chii- comprises 
dren of labourer.? and mechanics, but contain a few of the " small ggjioo"^." 
" tradesmen " class. They invariably comprise children of both 
sexes, as do also the country or parish schools of the same 
group. 

The education in these town schools is confined to reading, 
including Scripture, spelling, writing, and ciphering, with the 
merest rudiments of grammar, and sometimes the outlines of 
geography. 

In the country or parish schools the presence of a better (2) country- 
class of scholars sometimes gives occasion for instruction in otber P^"^^ ^°^°°'^- 
subjects. 

English grammar and parsing are more tboroughly taught. 
Mensuration is learnt by one or two older boys, who also practise 
land surveying to some extent. 

English history, French, and Latin are in a few instances 
attempted, but are generally quite worthless. 

The tradesmen's schools are either writing schools or English Group (6) 
schools. '=°'"P™«« 

In the lowest group of schools just described there is often a 
want of proper accommodation for writing, and writing materials 
and books form a troublesome item of expense. The chief atten- 
tion is therefore given to reading and spelling, and ciphering is 
taught orally rather than from text-books. In the writing schools (i) writing 
of the second group prominent importance is attached to the art ^'=^°°'^ > 
of plain and ornamental writing. 

The school-rooms are fitted up for the purpose, and consider- 
able time is spent over copybooks. 

There is no oral teaching ; the scholars merely read, and repeat 
lessons in spelling and perhaps in geography or history. 

In arithmetic each scholar sits at his desk, and after obtaining 
the answer of a sum, as given in his text-book, proceeds to enter 
the solution neatly in a* "ciphering book." 

Practically in these schools nothing is taught beyond reading, 

* The master of school No. 13 (Northumberlimd) in the tables appended to this 
KepoTt, -when enumerating the subjects of instruction best fitted, in his opinion, for 
the education of the majority of his scholars, specifies among others " Arithmetic, 
" entered in ciphering books prepared and ruled bi/ the pupils," 



276 Mr. Hammond's Report. 

Boys' spellitig, ciphering, and; writing; " There is Httle- pretence' of 

^Schools, attempting even geography or grammar, but a few boys some- 

•'*'°^™™'''^"' times advance to book-keeping and elementary algebra. This 

— — lattet subject, however, is quite worthless when taught in such 

schools. I doubt whether a single writing-school pupil could 

even state, much less explain, the law of indices. 

Intellectually considered, the instruction given at these schools 
is extremely meagre. In fact, no mental faculty of the pupils is 
exercised or even interfered with by the teacher. But a successful 
school of this class nevertheless finds great favour with merchants 
in need of clerics ; for neatness, method, and regularity are im- 
perceptibly instilled by the system. The schools are therefore 
popular with parents, and are apparently not without their use. 
They have one merit: except in the higher rules of arithmetic, 
they do not pretend to teach more than they do teach ; and even 
an illiterate parent can test pretty correctly the progress which 
his son makes at sucb a school. 
(2) English I have called anotber class of tradesmen's schools English 

schools. schools. 

: For tbe purposes of education proper these, when good of their 
kind, are very superior to the writing schools just described. 
But they are liable to one defect ; they can be employed more 
easily than any other class of schools for purposes of imposture. 
When the instruction is limited to what the masters are really 
competent to teach, they are most useful institutions ; but the 
prospectuses of some of these academies are often mere make- 
beheves. 

The following is a specimen : — • 

Senior Department. 

Subjects of Instruction, 

Reading, writing, arithmetic, mental and mercantile, English grammar, 
compositionj geography, mapping, drawing, history, ancient and modern, the 
sciences, book-keeping by single and double entry, algebra, mechanics, 
mathematics, theoretical and practical (including land surveying, navigation, 
&c.), with Latin, Greek, or French, at 31s. &d. per quarter, or when more than 
one foreign language is learned at once, at 42s. 

Such is the programme of studies in a school where the master 
is competent to teach reading and spelling, writing, arithmetic, 
the elements of English grammar, composition, geography, and 
the skeleton outline of English history. The school would be a 
useful one if the instruction were confined to these branches. 
But of ancient history, Euclid, Latin, and Greek the master 
was profoundly ignorant, and the results of the teaching in these 
subjects and in French (except in the case of one foreign boy) 
were simply ridiculous. 

The Duke's School at Alnwick is a good specimen of a school 
of this class, confining itself to the subjects above specified. But 
by far the most important and successful tradesmen's school in 
the county, aiming too as it does at some of the higher branches 
of education, is the Grammar School at Newcastle. 



Mixture of^-Munk's and' Sexes in Local Schools. 277 

•> The eommefoial aufl profes&ional schools in the county do not -Boys' 
number more than six or seven. Schqow, 

The general course in this group of schools includes Latin and '^^^^^^^^' 

sometimes Oreeki French and sometimes German, Euclid, algebra, 

and sometimes trigonometry, besides the subjects specified in Group (c) 
the account above given of English schools. The principles of commercial 
English grammar and the theoretical knowledge of arithmetic are and profession- 
taught with some success, and it is needless to state that orna- ^^ schools. 
mental writing and the " ciphering book " system are discarded. 

Some peculiarities of Northumberland Schools. 
Mixture of Classes. 

As the subjects deemed sufficient for a boy attending a trades- Mixture of 
men's school are generally considered essential by an intelligent ^^^^f^ ^°, 
artisan, and are not beyond the ambition of a " hind " or agricul- i^^ schools. 
tural labourer, it follows that the same school can supply the 
education in demand both to the labouring classes and to others 
immediately and considerably above them in wealth and station. 
Though this is equally the case in other parts of England, yet in 
Norfolk (for instance) the consciousness of class distinctions almost 
invariably prevents a farmer or well-to-do tradesman from sending 
his son to a parish school. In Noi-thumberland this sentiment is 
neither strong nor general, and at the same time the proportion of 
the labouring population, mechanics, colliers, hinds, and shepherds 
is large. Hence there are but few tradesmen's schools, and a con- 
siderable number of schools of a cheaper description. Again, the 
labouring classes in many parts of Northumberland are superior 
in intelligence and education to the same classes in Norfolk. A 
consequence of this is that their private schools are better. Cer- 
tainly, though I have seen several of them in the North, I have seen 
nowhere anything so deplorable as a really low-class private school 
which I stumbled on by accident or mistake in Norfolk. These 
considerations partly account for the presence of middle-class 
scholars in working men's schools. 

The terms in these schools, being adapted to the means of the School charges 
labouring classes, are necessarily low ; and as for the reasons above lov. 
given the farming and trading population have no objection to 
avail themselves of these places of education, the working men's 
schools compete with, and to some extent bring down the terms of, 
the tradesmen's and professional schools. Thus education is 
comparatively cheap throughout the county. 

Mixture of Sexes. .< 

Where education is cheap, scholars must be numerous. Hence 
another peculiarity in schools attended by the middle classes in 
the- northern part of my district. With the exception of the pro- Mixture of 
fessional schools, they are in general attended by children of both sexes iu North- 

._„f4„^ . , ' umberland 

sexes. t T 

Of the 46 schools visited and inspected by me only 19 are 

exclusively boys' schools,; and, except possibly a few unimportant 



278 Mr, Hammonds Report. 

Boys' preparatory schools, I have seen every such school but two in the 
Schools, county. These, as might be expected, are generally of a better 

^°™"™" description than the rest. 

1 ' There are doubtless otlier reasons for the mixture of sexes in 

Keasons for it. the Northumberland and Gateshead schools; such for instance as 
long traditional custom, and the example of schools in Scotland, 
whicli supplies masters to many of the Northumbrian schools. 
But economy was the main and original cause of this custom, 
and now contributes to keep it alive probably in Scotland as in 
Northumberland. Even quite recently a proprietary scl;ool of 
a far superior type to that of most mixed schools has been 
established at Hexham, and I am assured that it is only by the 
admission of girls to the school that the proprietors are enabled 
to supply an education for boys at terms which parents of the 
middle class are willing to pay. 

Effects of the I cannot speak with certainly of the effects produced by this 

mixture of mixture of the sexes at the same school. The subject is either 

^®^f ^ ™ ■'^°''"'" considered a delicate one or is not thought of at all. The latter 
nmberland . , . , o , , . . . 

schools. IS the case with most persons accustomed to the institution ; 

strangers on the contrary speak doubtfully or badly of its practical 

results. In one case, that of Berwick Corporation Academy, the 

practice of caning girls on the hand in the presence of boys was 

reported to me without any symptoms of repugnance by one of 

the masters. The arrangements of conveniences for the children 

were also objectionable ; but I understand that the corporation. 

meditate a new system by which the girls will be entirely separated 

from the boys' school.* It was remarkable that the girls in this 

* I haye lately received from a resident the following remarks respecting certain 
recent changes in the Corporation Academy at Berwick. Though under the new system 
the girls are not entirely separated from the boys' school, what has been done already 
is an indication of what may be done hereafter. I should mention that the Corporation 
haye since my visit to Berwick purchased the old Grammar School premises. They 
are adjacent to the Academy, though entered by a separate passage, and from a 
different street : 

" The principle of division now made is that the older boys and older gii'ls are taught 
together by masters in the old Corporation Academy premises ; the younger chil- 
dren, both male and female, by mistresses in the old Grammar School premises. The 
older hoys and girls, though taught the same lessons and in the same classes, do not 
talie ])laces indiscriminately, but only hoys with boys, and girls similarly. The boys 
enter the yard and academy by their old entrance ; the girls through the old Gram- 
mar School premises. The older boys have now the old academy playground and 
waterclosets, &c. The older girls have theii- playground with the little children 
(part of the old Grammar School playground), and also their conveniences there. 

" These are very considerable changes which we have had effected, and remove 
many of the objections against mixed schools. The reason why the Corporation 
could not he induced to go fm-ther with the separation of the sexes, was on the ground 
of increased expense in the matter of teachers. But these restrictions, in themselves 
absolutely necessary precautions, show that the mixed system is not good, at all 
events for cliildren beyond a certain age, say 10 years. The two sexes under strict 
and well defined regulations (the maintenance of which, however, is in itself a great 
waste of power) may be taught together without much harm ; but they clearly 
cannot be trained or educated together. And mere lesson-saying on a form is of 
course hut a small part of education." 

At the time of my visit to Hexham there were two female scholars at the Grammar 
School, and formerly there were many more. There are none at present. The head • 
master's views on the subject of mixed education may be gathered from the following 
observations extracted from one of his letters to me : 



Day School System prevalent in Northumberland. 279 

academy were in appearance and behaviour, as well as in the Bots' 
results of my examination, very superior to the boys ; the latter Schools, 
being in some instances the most unruly and ill-conditioned I ■^''^™n™^'^" 

have seen anywhere. At Hexham Proprietary School, wliere the 

intermixture is most complete, the boys and girls being arranged 
in class without regard to sex, the girls, instead of being bolder 
or more confident, as might have been expected, were more sliy 
and timid than in any ladies' school. 1 had great difficulty in 
overcoming this shyness, and found it impossible in some instances 
to extract an answer even from pupils who were quite able to 
give the correct one. The boys also were affected in the same 
way. 

In most mixed schools the rule is to make the boys and girls Prevalence ot 
repeat their lessons in class together, though they sit in separate fjf^u^hout^he 
parts of the school ; and in class each sex is arranged so that the county, 
boys take places among themselves and the girls among themselves. 

Educationally 1 believe the institution of mixed schools taught 
by masters to be more advantageous to girls than to boys. 

Day School System. 

The disregard of class distinctions, the mixture of sexes, and 
the cheapness of education thence resulting, produce another 
striking peculiarity in the schools of this county. They are 
almost all day schools. I believe I am strictly accurate in report- 
ing that at the tilne of my visit there were in the whole county 
of Northumberland, exclusive of Newcastle, only three boys 
lodging in masters' houses. There' was not, so far as I could 
learn, a single boarder in North Shields, Berwick, Morpeth, or 
Alnwick. There were four in Gateshead (which is not in the 
county), one in Blyth, and two in Hexham. Of the latter, one 
was at the grammar and the other at the proprietary school. 

At Morpeth Grammar School the experiment of attaching a 
dormitory for 12 boarders to the master's house has been tried, 
and has* failed. The failure is ascribed to different causes by the 
master and trustees, but it is not the less a fact. At Berwick 
Grammar School the master is permitted to take boarders not 
exceeding 40, and is required to reside in the school-house, which 
just furnishes the ordinary accommodation for a married man 
with a family. It is unnecessary, therefore, to observe that he 
has no boarders. Negotiations are now on foot for securing f to 



" Since my coming here, five years ago, I have always dissuaded parents from 
Bending girls to my school, and I have at length succeded in eliminating the female 
element from it entirely. I found the presence of girls to act as a serious ' disturbing 
force ' on the studies and conduct of the boys, and vice versa. In one case I was 
obliged to ask a father to remove his daughter from my school. 

" There are now four good schools for girls in this town, and as it is generally known 
that I do not wish to have female pupils, I apprehend that the anomaly peculiar to 
this school has now ceased" (1867). 

* See, however, note on p. 293 (1867). 

■)• These premises have now been bought and appropriated to the Grammar School 
(1867). 



280 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



BOTS' 

Schools, 

nokthumbek- 



Boarding 
schools in 

Newcastle. 



Comparison 
■with certain 
hoarding 
schools in 
the Norfolk 
district. 



the school the benefit of more adv«ntageous premises, in which 
case the experiment of a boarding school will be tried under 
possible conditions. The same thing is in contemplation at 
Hay don Bridge School. 

Even in Newcastle the number of boarders is comparatively 
very small. There are none at the grammar school; but a 
new scheme, which is soon to come into operation, provides 
a house for the head master, in which he will be allowed 
to take boarders, not exceeding 20. The two most important 
private schools, whose average numbers during the last three 
years have been 195 and 105 respectively, have had during the 
same period an average of 15 and 10 boarders eacL A third 
school has seven boarders. Another, a lady^s preparatory school 
for young boys, contains from eight to ten at most, and besides 
these there are none, unless a few should be found in one or two 
preparatory schools kept by ladies, which are scarcely to be 
regarded as schools, but rather as " weaning establishments," 
affording an easy transition from the comforts of home to the 
rougher life of a large public school. On the whole, 50 is a large 
average to assume for the total number of boys boarding in schools 
at Newcastle. 

A comparison of these figures with those furnished by a town of 
the same population in the south of England would make the 
small proportion of boarders still more apparent. I have not, 
however, the means of making such a comparison, except in an 
incomplete form. The population of Norwich is about two-thirds 
of the population of Newcastle. I have information respecting 
the number of pupils at four private schools, and at the grammar 
and commercial schools at Norwich. Taking the aggregate of 
these schools, the proportion of boarders to day scholars in Norwich 
is at least* one to three, in Newcastle it is about one to twent}'. 
The difference is still more remarkable in the country schools in 
each county. Four or five years ago there was a private school at 
Aylsham with 80 boarders ; that is to say, with twice the number 
of all the boarders at all the schools, exclusive of preparatory 
schools, in the whole county of Northumberland. Three or 
four schools in Norfolk have each of them quite as many 
boarders as there are in the whole of the northern subdivision of my 
district. Beccles, in Suffolk, with a population of between 4,000 
and 5,000, has a grammar sciiool with nearly as many boarders 
as there are in the whole town of Newcastle, the population 
of which is 110,000, and besides the grammar school I am 
informed that there is also at Beccles a large private school 
with boarders. Finally, the Albert Middle Class College at 
Framlingham, in Suffolk, within one year of its foundation had, 
from the county of Suffolk alone, more than four times the 



* If the commercial department of Norwich School, which is purely a day school, 
be left out of consideration, the four private schools and the grammar department of 
Norwich School wotild he found to haye almost an equal number of boarders and 
day boys. 



ScholuTs attending Local Schools. 281 

number of boarders at all boys' schools, of every class and de- Bars' 
scription, in the whole of Northumberland, Schools, 

In fact, the farmers and country tradespeople in the two sub- ^o^^^s^^^bee- 
divisions of my district hold exactly opposite 'views on the subject t^' 
of boarding schools. In Norfolk persons belonging to these classes 
do not like to keep their sons at home after the age of twelve, 
but send them to boarding schools, generally in the immediate 
neighbourhood or at the nearest market town; in Northumberland, 
on the contrary, they usually send their boys to day schools, but 
if they do send them to boarding schools they seem to prefer 
sending them out of the county. 

In some cases boys attending day schools lodge in the neighbour- 
hood. I have no precise information on this subject, and the 
number of such boys is too small to require any lengthened notice. 
The fact, however, shows that the absence of boarding schools for 
boys is not entirely attributable to the unwillingness of parents to 
send their sons away from home. The general idea of education General idea 
prevalent among the lower middle classes of Northumberland jforthimber "^ 
involves merely the necessity of a school-room and teacher; the land confined 
former being a place to learn and repeat lessons in, and the latter ^solely to 
a person who sells instruction just as any other article may be ^^^^'^S- 
sold. In some of the commoner schools a price is attached to 
each separate item of instruction, as, for instance, so much to 
reading, so much to writing, and so much to arithmetic. Butthe 
moral and personal influence of the teacher on his pupils, or of the 
pupils on one another, are made of no account; and the one 
thing in demand is simply instruction. 

This may to some extent explain the mode of teaching adopted 
in these parts, which is more showy and demonstrative than it is 
in Norfolk. The exertions made by the master in conveying 
instruction are more laborious, and the scholars rather receive 
their knowledge from him than acquire it for themselves. The 
teacher moreover seems to know the capacities of his pupils 
better than he does their characters, and tries to strengthen his 
hold on their intellects rather than on their aflFections, In Norfolk In ISforfolk (he 
boarding schools the opposite state of things is often observable, ideaofeduca- 
and the master's wife, whose existence is unknown in a Northum- tiaUy^dSrent 
berland school, unless she happens to teach the younger pupils, 
becomes as important a person as the master himself, and probably 
knows as much of the dispositions and characters of the scholars 
as their own parents do. 

Effects of the Day School System on the supply of Scholars in 

Local Schools, 

It follows, from the want of boarding schools, that no boys from No ex-county 
other parts of England come to Northumberland for their educa- boys educated 
tion. Some few of the day scholars in Newcastle may live across |" ^orthumber- 
the Tyne; but their exceptional presence in a Northumberland 
school does not practically affect the general rule, that none but 
Northumberland boys are educated in Northumberland. In 



282 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



BOTS' 

Schools, 

NOHTHtTMEEB 
LAND. 



Boys of the 
upper middle 
class educated 
out of the 
county. 



With an 

unimportant 

exception. 



Norfolk, on the contrary, a large proportion of the boarders at 
the better grammar schools come from a distance, — a fact Tvhich 
is often cited with dissatisfaction by persons who consider such 
schools to have been intended for the sole or special benefit of local 
residents; and in the large private school lately dissolved at 
Aylsham, out of 80 boarders only a very small number were 
natives of the county. 

Again, in a great measure from the same cause, the landed 
gentry, clergy, professional persons, and wealthier manufacturers 
and merchants of Northumberland, almost without exception, send 
their sons to be educated out of the county. There is no doubt 
a growing disposition on the part of the rich everywhere to 
patronize the large public schools, but in Northumberland the 
less affluent of the Jiiglier middle class, who cannot afford the 
expense of Eton, Harrow, or Rugby, nevertheless prefer such 
schools as Rossall, Durham, or the Collegiate Institution at 
Liverpool, to any of the Northumberland schools, which, in fact, 
partly in consequence of the want of boarders, cannot pretend to 
supply a first-class classical or mathematical education. It is true 
that the strong accent or " burr," which might be caught from 
provincial schoolfellows, is also of the nature of a deterrent; but 
the main reason for this migration of boys requiring an education 
for the universities or for the learned professions, is that there 
are no schools at hand that can completely supply it. This has 
not always been the case. The Newcastle Grammar School, for 
instance, towards the end of last century counted among its scholars 
several who were afterwards distinguished as men of learning 
and ability, and a generation later the grammar school at Berwick 
was a flourishing classical school. Three pupils who graduated 
at Cambridge in 1825, 1828, and 1830 successively, were all 
elected Fellows of Trinity. But there is no such education now 
imparted in the county, and persons requiring it must look for it 
elsewhere. 

An insignificant exception to the general rule, that persons of 
wealth sends their sons to schools out of the county, may be 
found in the case of a few merchants, who have risen rapidly to 
wealth and position without much education, and who are at the 
same time too indulgent to their children to remove them from 
the comforts of home. For their accommodation one or two small 
day schools exist, at which the terms are somewhat higher than 
usual, though they never exceed 12 guineas per annum. The 
teaching and organization of such schools are hardly subjects of 
inquirj' under the terms of the Commission, for the masters' 
functions do not in general differ from those of a private tutor. 
But I saw certainly two schools of this description. They were 
remarkable for laxity of discipline and for a want of system and 
order. In one especially, the master's great aim was to save his 
pupils all possible ti-ouble and all necessity for close application 
by conveying his instruction in an amusing and discursive form. 
Many persons would be satisfied and even pleased v/ith the 
results of this system. It produces a love of information, pro* 



Want of Playrfi'ounds and School Tone. 283 

vided it can be easily acquired, and an interest in general topics Boys' 
of conversation ; but none of the higher faculties of the mind are Schools, 
directly trained. The masters of these schools are more de- ^^°^™™^'^- 
pendent than any others on the caprices of parents, and the — 
parents of their scholars have little earnestness, judgment, or 
experience in matters connected with education, which their own 
success in life rather inclines them to undervalue and despise. 

Accessories and indirect Influences of Schools. 

Where there are no boarders, there are generally no play- Want of play- 
grounds. Throughout the county the absence or inadequacy of S''°""ds. 
places set apart for the recreation of scholars at once strikes a 
stranger, though it is not felt or regarded by the parents of the 
pupils. 

This, vchich follows naturally from the idea of a school as 
conceived by the lower middle classes, operates as an additional 
motive among the wealthier inhabitants for sending their children 
out of the county. For the want of a playground, while it reduces 
• a school to the conception of a school-room and teacher, — the ideal 
of most Northumberland tradesmen, — prevents the existence of 
that esprit de co7-ps and moral tone among the boys, which are 
gradually assuming greater importance, as elements of education, 
in the estimation of the higher classes. In Northumberland, as 
there are, with few exceptions, no playgrounds, so there are no 
cricket clubs, foot-ball matches, or other associations for competi- 
tion in athletic sports. Such arrangements for games as may be 
organized among the boys of a day school are made without the 
knowledge of the master, who feels little or no interest in his 
pupils when once they are beyond the walls of the school-room. 
The only exception that I know of is in the case of Newcastle 
Grammar School, where annual swimming matches are encouraged 
and attended by the head master. 

As the influence of the master is generally not felt beyond the General 
limits of the school premises, so that of the boys on one another, "'fl"e°<=e "f 
except as rivals in class, is only slight, whether for good or evil, another 
and such as it is, it is due to the accidental contact of particular comparatively 
boys, and is not regulated by any school feeling or traditionary ^^'Sm- 
code. Each individual boy in a Northumberland or Gateshead 
school' is an independent unit ; and beyond the school walls 
schoolfellowship supplies no element of cohesion or association. 

That part, or supposed part, of a boy's education which is 
acquired, not from masters, but by the mutual intercourse of 
schoolfellows in their daily games and amusements, is not in de- 
mand, and is therefore, so to speak, not on sale. The parents * 
who take advantage of local schools do not care to allow their 
children's habits and principles to be in any way formed or 
fixed by free and unrestricted intercourse with companions who 
merely happen to be receiving instruction at the same school, but 
prefer to keep the direction of these matters in their own hands. 
Probably many do not think of the subject at all in connexion 

a. c. 3, «• 



284 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



BOTS' 

Schools, 
northumbek' 

LAND. 



Locality of 
schools iu 
Northumber- 
land de- 
termined by 
the popula- 
tion. 



No middle- 
class schools in 
rural districts. 



with education : those who do, are of opinion that the morality 
of a day school is higher than that of a boarding school ; and this 
is the view taken by many masters. But, as from the nature of 
the case their experience is quite one-sided, their testimony 
cannot be considered conclusive on this point. 

It is worth while to remark that the substitution of boarding 
schools for day schools would increase the price of education in 
Northumberland, and that all encouragement of intercourse be- 
tween scholars out of school hours tends to destroy the equality of 
ranks within the school walls. This, however, is a subject which 
will fall more appropriately into place when I have to describe 
the boarding schools of Norfolk. 

Distribution and Locality of Schools, 
(a) hubal districts. 

The circumstance that all schools in Northumberland are day- 
schools naturally serves to determine their locality. Except in 
the towns and larger villages no schools are to be found of a 
higher class than parish schools ; and in every place of sufficient 
size some school or schools exist, whicli, whatever their character, 
are attended by the children of farmers and tradespeople. 

In this respect Northumberland presents another striking con- 
trast to Norfolk, where, except in Norwich, Yarmouth, and King's 
Lynn, the phenomenon of a middle-class school may be said to be 
quite fortuitous and entirely independent of the wants of the im- 
mediate neighbourhood. Thus, for instance, there are no middle- 
class schools worth noticing in SwafiFham or Wells, though there 
are at Fakenham and Diss ; and at Beccles there is a large private 
school in spite of the competition of two well-endowed schools. So 
at Aylsham the dissolution a few years back of a private school 
with 80 boarders did not much affect the educational interests of 
the place, though it seriously interfered with the tradesmen's 
profits in the town. At East Dereham the best private school for 
boys in the county virtually excludes the children of residents, 
being strictly confined to boarders, and in like manner the best 
ladles' school of any size is in the middle of a country park, six or 
seven miles distant from any town of importance. 

In Northumberland, on the contrary, the schools follow the 
population. Beyond the boundaries of the towns and larger 
villages the education of the middle classes, who foi'm a remark- 
ably small proportion of the population when compared with that 
in other parts of England, is almost entirely afforded by Church 
of England National schools supported by landed proprietors, or 
by schools of a similar class and character maintained by 
different denominations. After the Church of England, the 
English Presbyterian church has a numerical preponderance; 
but there are also schools in different agricultural parts of the 
county kept up by old Roman Catholic families. 

All these schools are of a class that would entitle them to 
Government grants, and at least half of them are under Govern- 



Schools in Rural Districts. 285 

ment inspection. For a range of country extending 12 miles In Boys' 
all directions round Wooler to the boundaries of Berwickshire Schools, 
and Roxburghshire, I could only hear of one private or adven-- NoKiHnMBEK- 

turer's school, attended, as I was assured, by less than 20 scholars, ' _' 

even at the most favourable season, viz., from Old Martinmas to Educational 
Old May Day. All the scholars were described to me as being ?^??'^^"'H?\ 

1 1 *i 1 p 1 • 1 ^^ trie QlStriCt 

the children oi hnids. vma^ Wooler. 

In each of the small hamlets which are scattered over this area 
there is generally a single school, either National and dependent 
on the support of a landed proprietor, or denominational and main- 
tained by the prevailing congregation in the place. Thus, for 
instance, there are schools of this kind at Doddington, Ford, 
Lowick (2), Ancroft, Branxton, Cornhill, Kirk Newton, Brandon, 
Chatton, Lillburn Tower, Eglingham, Ingram, Glanton, Whitting- 
ham, and perhaps atother places. Of the 15 just enumerated 10 
iare under Government inspection, and may fairly be considered 
the best specimens of schools affording education to the farming 
class in this remote agricultural district. The proportion of pupils 
of this class will depend, however, not on the character and quality 
of the teaching, which must be accepted, such as it is, but on the 
number of farmers within a certain distance from the schools who 
may happen to have young families ; and this number is liable of 
course to constant fluctuations. 

This description of the educational opportunities afforded to 
farmers in the district round Wooler applies also to the districts 
of which Bellingham and Halt whistle form the chief centres ; and Bellingbam and 
these three districts comprise the whole of the northern, western,- HaltwWstle. 
and south-western divisions of the county. 

Schools of the same description, attended, however, mainly by Eastern coast 
the children of colliers and miners, supply the staple of the and southern 
village education on the eastern coast and in the southern part of "iistrict. 
Northumberland. The schools lie more thickly together as the 
population becomes more compact; so that while the farmer is 
still compelled to send his children to one or other of them, he 
has at least in some cases the advantage of a choice of schools, 
which the more western districts do not afford. 

Though all the boys and girls of the farming and trading class 
in the thinly populated agricultural districts invariably attend 
these schools till the age of 13 or 14, some of them (more especially 
the girls) are at that age transferred to southern schools "to finish." 
I am informed that the practice of attendance at the local schoolj 
up to a certain age is invariable, that of a subsequent migration 
southwards is not. 

It is in these districts, and especially in the neighbourhood of 
the collieries and mines, that the effects of State aid to education 
have been most evident in superseding the adventurer's school, 
which' a generation or two back chiefly supplied the instruction of 
all classes in these parts. 

X 2 



286 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



Boys' 

Schools, 
noethcmbek- 

LAND. 



(B) TOWNS AND LABGEB TILLAGES. 

Havlno- now briefly noticed the case of districtsin Nortbutn- 
berland where the education of the whole community is supplied 
by a single school, or at best by a limited choice between schools 
of the same description, I pass on to the towns and larger 
villages, where a certain competition and distinction between 
schools exists, and where the farmer and tradesman can exercise 
some degree of choice in the selection of a school. 

By passing in review the actual middle-class schools to be found 
in the most important towns a general idea can be formed of the 
kind and quality of instruction which finds most favour with 
parents, and is best supplied by schoolmasters. I shall take the 
towns in the following order : — 



Newcastle 
middle-class 
schools. 
Two large 
private schools. 



Newcastle. 




Morpeth 


Gateshead. 




Alnwick 


North Shields. 




Hexham 


Berwick. 




Blytli. 




(«) Newcastle. 



The education of the middle classes in Newcastle is chiefly 
supplied by three schools, the grammar school and two private 
establishments. The two private schools are attended generally 
by pupils of a higher class than the grammar school, and the 
method of teaching adopted in both of them is better suited for 
boys intended for the learned professions. One of them has rather 
the character of a modern school. Special attention is paid to 
physical science and chemistry, but instruction is given to about 
fifty boys in Latin and in mathematics, including a little trigo- 
nometry. Some half dozen boys learn Greek and German, and 
about one boy in four learns French. Geography, English 
history, linglish grammar, and composition are subjects of 
considerable importance. The English histoi-y in this school is 
particularly good. The school is a boarding school, but not more 
than 13 out of nearly 200 boys are boarders. 

Tlie second private school is also a boarding school, with about 
10 boarders and 90 day scholars. All the boys who have passed 
through the preparatory department attached to the school learn 
Latin, and about one hoj in four learns Euclid and algebra. 
French is taught to about half the scholars, but no instruction is 
given in German. The Latin of the higher boys was about the 
best in the county, Morpeth and Berwick grammar schools and 
the private school last noticed being the only other schools where 
any progress is made in the intelligent translation of authors. 
Little or no Greek is taught, and in this respect only the instruc- 
tion differs from that of a Norfolk classical school. 

In these two schools the teaching in the higher classes allows 
more scope for individual and original thought among the pupils 
than that adopted in the grammar school at Newcastle. A few 
of the boys are encouraged to attempt composition in the English 



Newcastle Schools, 287 

language, and they are more or less habituated to the practice of jjo^s' 
writing down their own independent work on paper. On entering Schools, 
the last-named school I had no difficulty in collecting a number Nouthdmbek- 

of boySj who without any warning or preparation sat down at once ' 

to answer a paper in arithmetic, Euclid, and algebra, and some of 
the work shown up was very satisfactory. 

It is in this respect that these schools are superior both Grammar 
in their aim and method to the grammar school.* This is not the school. 
fault of the latter school, which really professes to perform other 
and not less useful functions. It labours under the disadvantage 
cf losing its scholars at an earlier age than the otlier schools ; the 
scholars themselves are mainly Intended for trade, and the classes 
are so large that It is impossible to adjust the teaching to the 
capacities of the highest boys without entirely neglecting the 
lowest. Very little work Is In consequence written dovvn on 
paper by the individual boys, and the instruction is confined to a 
careful and accurate grounding in those subjects, or branches of 
subjects, which can be taught catechetical ly. The teaching being 
thus conveyed by question and answer, much more attention Is 
paid in the languages to grammar than to authors, and In 
geometry to book-work and the text of Euclid than to problems 
and deductions. In the ordinary subjects of an English course, 
where the instruction is confined to facts and rules which can be 
repeated by word of mouth as satisfactorily as they can be explained 
111 writing, this school is almost as perfect as a school can be, 
the knowledge of these subjects being very generally and equally 
diffused among all the pupils of a large class, and the eagerness 
and animation which every boy under examination displays afford- 
ing excellent evidence of the success of the teaching. So with 
French, Latin, and Greek ; questions In accidence and syntax, so 
far as they can conveniently be put by word of mouth, are In 
almost every instance answered with amazing rapidity and accuracy. 
Euclid and arithmetic are more intelligently taught ; and I have 
no hesitation In saying tliat the oral instruction in the text of 
Euclid at this school Is the best specimen of teaching of any kind 
that I have witnessed at any school. 

Yet this school has never sent In a boy to a University local 
examination, and probably would not be very successful in any 
examination by written exercises. The best pupils at the private 
scliools just noticed are more at ease with a paper of questions 
requiring some exertion of thought than the grammar school 
boys, who in their turn would quite eclipse the former in a viva 
voce examination on the Greek and Latin Irregular verbs or the 
text of Euclid. 

It is for this reason that, notwithstanding the remarkable 
efficiency of the teaching In this school, I place it on a lower 

* In this and in other parts of my report I have not given any lengthened de- 
scription of endowed schools, as a separate account of each is furnished elsewhere. 
But I have supplied such particulars respecting the proprietary schools in my district 
as are necessary for a complete insight into their constitution and results. 



288 



Mr, fjammon^s Report. 



BoTs' 
Schools, 
Northumber- 
land. 



Smaller 
academies. 



Trinity House 
school. 



School of Art. 



College of 
Medicine. 



Gateshead 

middle-class 

schools. 



grade than tllPSe; to whicsha student Jias a chance of discoverirvg 
for himself some few at least of the principles which underlie the 
rules imparted to liira by his teachers. In the grammar school 
the best pupils cannot under the present system arrive at that 
stage of proficiency, and the school, which is an admirable one 
for a boy of moderate abilities and unambitious prospects, is cal- 
culated to dwarf and narrow the intellect of a thoughtful youth 
capable of aspiring to a higher rank of life. 

There are at the most six other schools in Newcastle which may 
be considered as socially superior to working men's schools. Oiie 
is a prosperous writing school, and another a smaller school of the 
same description. The rest are English schools. One of them I 
have not examined, but of the others it may safely be affirmed 
that all subjects beyond the ordinary English course of reading 
and spelling, writing, arithmetic,. geography, and grammar might 
be discarded with advantage. The Euclid, algebra, Latin, and 
even the' French taught in these schools are quite worthless. 

The, nine schools contain about 800 scholars, of whom 530 
attend the three more important schools, 

. The remaining schools in Newcastle are either National, British, 
and endowed charity schools, or else private schools competing with 
them. I examined three or four of the private schools of this 
class. 

There is a Trinity House School of Navigation, but the boys, 
who, are about 20 in number, do not receive a special instruction. 
It is really a school of a superior description for the children of 
small traders and artisans, who are charged sixpence a week^ 
Theoretically the boys are. supposed to be intended for the sea, 
practically, they go into various lines of business. 

The School of Art at Newcastle is a successful and useful 
institution. The total number of scholars taught by its agency in 
186.5 was 2,239. At the time of my visit it contained 483 pupils, 
the large majority of whom attended the artisans' classes. These 
being cheap classes held in the evening, some boys of the middle 
ranks of life take advantage of them. But there are also special 
day classes, at a higher fee, both for male and female students, 
besides a similar weekly class for teachers and governesses. The 
school of art masters do not, however, visit any middle class 
schools for boys. 

Newcastle contains one professional school, the College of 
Medicine, which is connected by express regulation with the 
University of Durham. 

(5) Gateshead. 

The highest education imparted in Gateshead at the time of 
my visit was supplied by a private school with about 30 boys, of 
-whom four were boarders. But the Anchorage School was seen 
by me at a disadvantage, as it had suifered lately from a constant 
change of masters. 

The instruction given in the private school comprised, beyond 
the subjects taught in English schools, Euclid, algebra, history. 



Gateshead and North Shields' Schools. 



289 



IVeiich, and Ijatin. The master had been but a short time in Boys' 
Gateshead ; but the method of teaching adopted was sound, and uoKrauMBBK- 
the school is likely to do good service. If the Anchorage School land. 

should' prove successful under its new master, the competition 

between the schools will be useful to both of them. At present 
there are not more than 50 boys attending these two schools. 

There are two private schools which seem to belong to the 
tradesmen's group. One is a very remarkable school of its kind. 
The instruction is confined simply to the " essentials," with Eng- 
lish grammar ; no geography, history, mathematics, or languages 
are attempted. The school is a mixed school ; and the girls are 
fully as well trained as the boys. Even the Newcastle Grammar 
School cannot compete with this school in the extraordinary 
rapidity and accuracy with which almost every scholar answered 
the questions, and worked the sums proposed to him. There was 
no exercise of thought or reflection in the process; all was effected 
by mere strength of memory and smartness of attention. The 
application of rules and processes was instantaneous : they were 
learnt blindly and punctiliously by heart; and I feel sure that 
hot a single principle was understood. The writing of the pupils 
in this school is excellent; and though the instruction in arith- 
metic is oral, the ciphering book system is partty in use. The 
master, whose scholars are very successful in obtaining situations 
on the Quay side, explained to me that he did not approve of the 
system, but that the merchants required it. One of them had 
remarked to him that he considered it equivalent to the gain of 
a clerk's salary for one year to have a boy introduced to his office 
from a school where " ciphering books " were in vogue. 

The other private school is a small unassuming establishment, 
where the boys seemed fairly taught English, including geography. 

The number of boys in these two schools is about 90. 

All the remaining schools in Gateshead are working men's 
schools. I visited two, and applied for permission to see a third ; 
but those whicli 1 saw require no notice. 

(c) North Shields. 

There are three small schools in North Shields which are supe- Noith Shields 
rior socially to the rest. They do not contain more than 50 boys middle-class 
between them. They differ in many respects. The master of 
one of them is a gentleman well known in Newcastle and the 
neighbourhood for the interest he has always taken in the cause 
of education. Some of his pamphlets on the subject are written 
with great ability, and he has long kept a school at North Shields, 
which was at one time much larger than it is at present. The 

, subjects of instruction include Euclid, algebra, and Latin. His- 
tory, geography, and French are not taught. A second school, 
on. the. contrary, devbteS especial attention to history and general 
knowledge. The best description of its nature and objects is 
given by the master's own answer to the question — " What are the 

"** subjects in your opinion best fitted for the majority of your 



290 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



BOTS' 

, Schools, 
nouthumbee- 



Berwick 

middle-class 

schools. 

Grammar 

school. 

Corporation 
academy. 



" scholars?" It is as follows: "History, reading, geography, 
" arithmetic, grammar, composition, politics, news of the day, 
" biography, natural history, natural philosophy, book-keeping, 
" commercial hand-writing, mental calculation, travels, drawing, 
« &c. &c." 

A. third school lately established adopts an educational system, 
not so rigidly philosophical as that of the first-named school, and 
not so discursive as that of the other. 

There are two large and useful tradesmen's schools in the town. 
The number of boys in them (they are both mixed schools) is 
about 150. Both are satisfactory schools of their class, and one 
of them especially, from which I regret to find T have received no 
returns, passed an excellent examination in the usual commercial 
subjects, including geography. 

I believe there is only one other school in the town which con- 
tains any but working men's children. I asked leave to inspect 
it, but was refused. The master gave me, however, to understand 
that it competed with the Government schools. 

The poorest class in tlie parish of Tynemouth, consisting chiefly 
of fishermen, have the advantage of free instructional Kettlewell's 
endowed school, which is wrongly classed in the Digest of the 
Charity Commissioners' Report as a grammar school. 

(d) Berwick, 

The endowed grammar school at Berwick is a commercial and 
professional school, attended by about 35 day boys. The subjects 
taught are, in addition to the usual English course, Euclid, 
algebra, history, French, and Latin. There were no boys learn- 
ing Greek at the time of my visit. 

The chief, if not the only school belonging to the tradesmen's 
group, is the Corporation Academy, attended by a fluctuating 
number of boys, girls, and infants. At the time of my inspecti)n 
there were about 100 boys present. 

In my separate report on Berwick Grammar school, it is stated 
that in 1632 a voluntary subscription was set on foot for the 
maintenance of a Grammar School, which subscription has passed 
since 1663 into a customary payment exacted from every freeman 
on admission. Some of the earliest subscribers being desirous of 
having an English school, the Corporation Academy in a certain 
sense owes its existence to this circumstance. It would appear 
that the first payment to a schoolmaster out of the town stock 
was made in 1652, but it was not till 1798 that the present 
building was erected on a playground belonging to the Grammar 
School Trust. Since that time the Corporation Academy has 
been a very important commercial school. 

The school, however, is not open to any but the children of 
freemen, and these do not include children from Spittal and 
Tweedmouth, which now form part of the borough of Berwick. 
The education is quite gratuitous, the school being maintained 
by the Corporation at an expense of more than 800/. per annum. 
The scholars belong to all ranks in life, and side by side may be 



Berwick Schools. 291 

found the children of fishermen, tradespeople, and professional Boys' 

OOHOOLSf 

persons. ^ ^ ^ Nokthumbbk* 

The accommodation is not sufficient to allow of an extension of land. 

the benefits of the scliool to others besides the children now ' 

privileged. But it is felt by some that, if the school aceommoda- 
lion could be increased, it would be desirable to open the school 
to the districts of Spittal and Tweedmouth, and also to the 
children of non-freemen. The latter would reasonably be expected 
to pay for their education as indeed they do in the similar in- 
stitution at Alnwick. Although there would be no injustice in 
exacting a small fee from most of the children of freemen attending 
the school, such' a payment would be very unpopular and the 
opposition to it would probably prove insurmountable. 

At the same time the town clerk, a gentleman who from his 
experience and position is entitled to pronounce an opinion on the 
subject, suggests that an extension of the school can be effected 
without imposing any charge for freemen's children. 

It appears that the Corporation of Berwick possesses property 
to the amount of about 10,000L per ann. After the expenses of 
the Corporation (including the interest on a debt of 55,000/.) 
have been defrayed, the residue of this property derived from 
allotments is divided among the freemen under the name of 
" stints and meadows." The town clerk informed me very 
candidly that he himself as the oldest freeman received the largest 
dividend, something between 10/. and ] 1/. per ann. ; but he 
lamented the existence of the ' system and thought that the 
residue of the Corporation property, instead of being portioned 
out among individual freemen, should be applied to public improve- 
ments, and more especially to education. If this could be done 
in such a way as not to affect existing interests, there would be a 
considerable sum which could be converted to public uses with but 
little private loss. My informant considered that In this way 
funds would be provided sufficient for such an extension of the 
school as is above proposed. 

At present the school contains six rooms, one devoted to sewing 
under the charge of mistresses, and five class rooms, each with its 
separate master. One class-room is a writing school ; one is the 
rector's or head-master's own room, with excellent appliances in the 
way of desks and maps ; one is the English and one the mathe- 
matical master's room; while the fifth is given up to the juniors, 
who learn little beyond the essentials. The education is confined to 
the usual English course, with French and German. The latter 
language seemed to be more satisfactorily taught than in most 
schools. But I cannot speak favourably of the general result of my 
examination, so far at least as the boys were concerned. In 
dictation the boys' spelling was very bad, and their answers to an 
arithmetic paper, were equally unsatisfactory. The girls, on 
the contrary, did the dictation exercise very correctly, and their 
arithmetic was better than that of the boys. In the English 
master's room I heard a grammar lesson repeated by a junior 



292 



Mr. Hammonds Report. 



Boys' class. Little or no oral explfiuation was given and the method, of 
■ NoOTHOTraEK- teaching was inferior to that generally adopted in Northumberland 



XAND. 



Private 
schools. 



Morpetli 

middle-class 

schools. 

Grammar 

school. 



schools. The best department was apparently the mathematical, 
though the mathematics were practical, not scientific in their 
character. 

The worst feature in Berwick Corporation Academy is the 
want of discipline. This is owing to the interference of 
parents. Though the school is nominally managed by a com- 
mittee of the town council, freemen treat it as their own indi- 
vidual property. Boys are excused attendance and removed from 
particular classes without the rector's sanction or concurrence; 
and some of the rules framed by the committee tend rather 
to promote irregularity and to weaken the authority of the 
masters. 

Yet with many defects the academy is an important institution, 
and the girls educated in it receive a sounder instruction than 
most of their sex and class. If it were properly managed and its 
benefits extended to all residents within the borough, there would 
be few more useful commercial schools in Northumberland. 

From the practice of caning girls in the presence of boys and 
also from the defective provision made for the separate con- 
veniences for each sex, it may be inferred that the school was 
originally founded on the model of Scotch borough schools and 
that no great changes have been introduced since its foundation. 

There is now* some plan proposed for making two departments 
for boys and girls respectively. It is boped that this may be 
effected by acquiring the grammar school premises, should that 
school be removed from its present site. 

There is one private school in Berwick for boys and girls, 
containing about 30 boys, which should perhaps be considered as 
a tradesmen's school. 

Two others, and one in Tweedmoiith, rank only with the schools 
for the working classes. 

The education provided for the poorer inhabitants of Berwick 
by British, National, or Union schools is said to be very com- 
plete of its kind; and the instruction given at the British school 
which is attended by the children of many non-freemen of the 
middle class, is such as to qualify the best pupils for clerkships 
and other situations affording a good opening for commercial life. 

(e) Morpeth. 

To a boy of ability the grammar school at Morpeth offers the 
best education in the whole county of Northumberland. As I 
have explained in nay special report on the school, the method 
;of teaching is very much the reverse of that adopted at the New- 
castle Grammar School. 

There were, however, at the time of my visit only three boys 
learning Greek ; and in mathematics two boys only had advanced 



* See note on p. 278 (1867). 



Mai'peth'anS Alnwkk Schools. 293 

as far as trigonometry ; but th^se students wei-e emanolpated from Boy^' 
the- mere servile acquisition of facts and rules, and having passed j;ro^'Tm3MfiE 
through this necessary discipline had arrived at a stage where they land. - 

could safely begin to reflect and reason for themselves. The com- 

panionship and intercourse of such boys with one another, and the 
emulation excited by a comparison of intelligent work, tested by 
independent examiners, are elements essential to the success of a 
superior school ; and no teacher, however laborious, can supply 
the want of them. Even at Morpeth Grammar School these 
advantages exist only in a very slight and imperfect degree ; but 
such as they are, they give the school, viewed as a place of pre- 
paration for a higher course of study, a decided superiority over 
all other public schools in the county. 

The institution of periodical examinations conducted by gradu- 
ates of Durham University, and the competition of scholars from 
this school in the Oxford local examinations are the best features 
in the educational system ; but it must be admitted that the number 
of boys* (30) reaping the benefits of this system is not large, and 
that while the senior and junior classes are in a healthy state, the 
intermediate classes are not. The same defect was observable in 
Hok School} a very similar institution, except that there Greek 
was more extensively taught. 

As a mere training school for commercial pursuits Morpeth 
Grammar School is inferior to many in the county, and notably 
to the Grammar School at Newcastle. 

There is a " tradesmen's " school in the town, respecting which Private school. 
I have no information, but the number of boys attending it does 
not exceed 30. It is not a mixed school. 

These two schools do not contain more than 70 boys, and three 
is no other school in the town above the rank of a National school. 

(f) Alnwick. 

At Alnwick there are two schools belonging to the " trades- Alnwick 
men's school " group, the Corporation Grammar School and the middle-class 
Duke's School. 

The first of these schools is described in my special report on 
endowed schools. 

The other is a school founded by a former Duke of Northum- The Duke's 
berland, and maintained by bis successors. It was originally school. 
instituted for 200 poor boys. The number is now limited to 100, 
all of whom are educated free of all expense. 

The class of scholars has been raised, not so much by any express 
act or resolution, as by the very advantages which the school 
affords. 

■The limitation of the numbers and the improvement in the 
class of scholars have naturally created some- dissatisfaction, and 
one correspondent writes to inform me that very many of the 

* Since my visit the numbers ha-^e considerably increased. I learn that there are 
now 43 boys, of wh6m four are boarders (1867). 



NOKTHUMBEK' 
LAND. 



294 Mr. Hammond^s Beport. 

Boys' boys belong to the opulent classes, and that none, or hardly any. 
Schools, are admitted who do not show a certain amount of education, 
■ Jibility, and aptitude. 

The Duke's manager, who gave me every facility for inspecting 
the school, explained to me that the changes recently introduced 
were not made with any intention of altering the character of the 
schoo], but merely to improve its efficiency. The boys belong 
chiefly to the poorer classes, but a few are admitted of a higher 
grade than the rest. As there is considerable competition for 
nominations to the school, all applicants are first examined by 
the master, and on his furnishing a satisfactory report the boys 
are appointed by the manager as vacancies occur in the school. 
In making his appointments the manager is influenced chiefly 
by the circumstances and conduct of the parents, subject, however, 
in every case to the intellectual test above mentioned. 

The beneficial results of this entrance examination upon the 
teaching of the school are very evident, and give the master a 
great advantage over his rival at the Corporation Grammar 
School, where pupils of all grades are admitted without being 
required to know anything. 

The Duke's School was formerly under Government inspection; 
but the late Duke objected to this arrangement, and the yearly 
examination of scholars has been discontinued. 

There is a good school-room, but no class-room, the manager 
fearing that it might be used for the purpose of bestowing extra 
attention on the boys of a better class, who in some instances 
attend the school. In addition to a playground there are 24 
little gardens contiguous to the school, which are awarded to the 
best boys, who receive the profits from their cultivation. All the 
arrangements connected with this school are pleasing and satis- 
factory, and the boys are very well-conducted. They belong to 
every rank in life, from the labouring to the professional class, 
Hud some of them remain at the school till the age of 15. Few 
are admitted under nine years of age, but there is no superior limit 
of age for admission. 

The school is a Church of England school. Instruction in the 
catechism and attendance at church are compulsory. The master, 
who has an assistant, is a certificated teacher. 

I was much pleased with the vivd voce examination of the 
pupils. No languages are taught, but instruction is given in 
drawing and in the elements of chemistry. 

The drawing, which is educational in its character, was in some 
instances very good. Casts of mouldings taken from Alnwick 
Castle furnish excellent models. 

I set some questions to be answered by the pupils, but the 
master apparently does not imderstand the importance of adherinf 
rigidly to the rule that a boy's work in an examination should 
be strictly his own. The answers, therefore, which I have re- 
ceived afford no real evidence of what the boys can put down in 
writing, when they are left entirely to themselves. 



Hexhdm Schools. 295 

In this latter respect the Corporation Grammar School proved Boys' 
itself superior to the Duke's School. The pupils in this case Schools, 
underwent a strict bond fide examination, and though the result "^^land!^^"" 

was less satisfactory than in the case of the Duke's School, the 

readiness of the master to conform in all respects to the recog- 
nized regulations of an examination gave me a better impression 
of his views as to tlie real aims and duties of a teacher. 

The number of boys at the Corporation School is about 70; 
a few learn a little Latin, Euclid, and algebra. The knowledge 
of these subjects is, however, scanty and inaccurate, although it 
is not so entirely useless as at most private schools of the same 
grade. 

There is only one private school in Alnwick. The master Private school. 
declined my offer to examine it, alleging that in consequence of 
the competition of the Duke's School it contained for the most 
part the intellectual dregs of the town. The boys belong chiefly 
to the humbler classes. 

{g) Hexham. 

The grammar school at Kexham contained about 30 boys at Hexham 
the time of my visit. It is not easy to assign its right place in niifidle-oiass 
the classification of schools which I have adopted. The qualifi- Qramm 
cations of the master, the method of teaching employed, and the school. 
occasional presence of boys who proceed to some higher place of 
education, would mark it out as a school of the "commercial and 
" professional" class; but the actual social rank of the scholars, 
and the pursuits for which they are generally intended, compel me 
to regard it as belonging to the second group. It is, moreover, 
open to* girls as well as to boys. 

The education in arithmetic and English grammar is sound 
and good. Some Latin is taught, but history and geography are 
almost entirely neglected. 

On the day of my inspection the proprietary school at Hexham Troprietary 
contained 34 boys and 17 girls. I have already remarked upon school. 
the indiscriminate arrangement of the classes in this school, 
which is socially, though not educationally, a better school than 
the grammar school. I have also reported that the admission of 
girls is necessary to make the school self-supporting. 

The school was originally established by two or three residents 
whoj being desirous of obtaining a good education for their own 
children, clubbed together and built a school-room. They then 
engaged a master and mistress very much in the same maimer as 
farmers engage an " adventurer " in a rural district. In course 
of time they admitted the sons and daughters of other residents, 
and at present the school is open to all persons who are willing 
to pay 4/. and 6Z. per annum respectively for children under or 
above the age of twelve. The other school charges do not 
exceed 8s. per annum ; but music and drawing are extras, the 
former at four guineas and the latter at two guineas per annum. 

* The school is no longer attended hy girls (1867). 



LAND. 



296 Mr. Hammond's Report. 

Boys' The school belongs to three gentlemen, who guarantee that the 

T<r^™°,!!^;„ master's salary shall not be less than 100?. a year. They allow 
the master to use his discretion in the internal management o\ 
the school, and to appoint his assistant master and governess, 
subject to their approval ; but they exercise a control over the 
dismissal of the teachers, the admission and expulsion of pupils, 
the studies, discipline, and conduct of examinations. They derive 
no pecuniary advantages from the school, and the receipts, which 
are collected by the master, are devoted to maintaining and 
increasing its efficiency. Out of them are paid salaries, rent, and 
all expenses. The balance forms the master's income, and is 
estimated at 200Z. per annum. The assistant's salary is 50/. per 
annum. The governess, who teaches sewing, music and drawing, 
and (if required) a junior English class, receives 601. a year. 
The school is not connected with any religious denomination, and 
no provisions are made for formal religious instruction, nor is 
any one responsible for it, but the school vrork begins, as in many 
Northumberland schools, with extempore prayer. 

Discipline is enforced by detention in school, by " poenas " aad 
caning, inflicted publicly. There is an open space of two acres 
round the school which serves for a playground. Some pupils 
come in every day from a distance of two mUes and dine in the 
school-room; but the majority of the boys are resident in the 
town. 

There are three departments in the school : the classical, com- 
mercial, and English departments. 

In the classical department about twenty* pupils were learning 
French and Latin. Nine had just begun German. In the com- 
mercial department all were learning writing and arithmetic ; 
four were learning geometry, and five algebra. Mensuration and 
book-keeping are classed under this department, but there were 
no pupils in these subjects. 

In the English department all learnt Scripture, reading and 
geography. Some were learning grammar, including syntax and 
analysis, composition, and dictation. History is not taught. 

Fourteen boys learnt drawing as an extra. 

I had great difficulty in obtaining answers from the scholars in 
consequence of their exceeding shyness. More than twice the time 
requisite in a school like Newcastle Grammar School was spent in 
extracting from both boys and girls knowledge which they perhaps 
all possessed, but which only a Tew would disclose. Thus only two 
boys and one girl could be induced to answer in English gram- 
mar, two boys in Latin and F'rench, and one girl in the latter 
language. I was more successful with the second class in geo- 
graphy, which was on the whole satisfactory. The youngest chil- 
dren were very good in dictation. 



* In this number girls are included. The boys receiving instruction in Latin 
French, German, and mathematics were 16, 11, 4 and 5 respectively. Three learnt 
music and 14 learnt drawing as extras. Eight are returned as students in physics," 
and the same nufflber in English literature. 



Blyth Schools. 297 

In arithmetic, I examined boys and girls of all ages, but the Bo^s' 
result vvas not good. NoI™«b'ek- 

Though the children were extremely modest and well behaved, laud. 

the discipline appeared to be lax. The pupils were orderly enough, 

but they lacked earnestness and were incapable of sustained 
attention. Not only did I fail to extract answers from a majority 
of the pupils, but I could not prevent them from examining each 
other's slates or helping their neighbours. They were more 
impatient than children at most Northumberland schools, at being 
detained a few minutes beyond the school hour. 

There is an excellent school-room, capable of holding eighty 
scholars, there is also a class-room attached to it, and chiefly used 
by the girls for their special subjects, sewing and music. 

The only other school in Hexham is a private school of tVie Private school. 
lowest class. I visited it, and found the scholars, boys and girls, 
very deficient. The fault can hardly be ascribed to the master, 
who attempts to teach 86 children single-handed. The education 
was certainly not fit for any one who aspired to rise above the 
raqk of a labourer or unskilled mechanic. A few arithmetical 
processes and grammatical rules are learnt by rote, but nothing 
of any kind was understood bj' a single child. 

(7i) Bli/th. 

There is a commercial school in Blyth attended by about 45 Blyth middle- 
boys.* It is not a mixed school, but I assume that the lowest class <=l^ss schools. 
is represented in it, as I noticed some of the boys were without 
shoes or stockings. 

The education given is confined to commercial subjects, with 
tbe outlines of geography ; a little smattering of Latin crops out 
now and then in the teaching, as, for instance, in the derivation of 
words occurring in a reading lesson. But the real substance of 
the instruction given in this school, which makes it, I think, the 
best private tradesmen's school I saw in Northumberland, is to 
be found in the English grammar and the commercial arith- 
metic. The English grammar was inferior to that at Morpeth 
and Hexham Grammar Schools only because the masters of these 
two schools have had the advantage of learning other languages 
besides English, but it was not surpassed in any other Northum- 
berland school; and the commercial arithmetic was still better. 
Except the Euclid lessons at Newcastle Grammar School, I have 
heard nothing so intelligent as a lesson in arithmetic, in which 
the master catechetically taught his junior pupils how to work 
and explain a sum in "reduction." The arithmetic, however, 
was confined to the practical commercial rules, and none of the 
boys could point a sum in simple division of decimals. 

Another school at Blyth, which 1 visited, was a purely working 
men's school, containing 86 children. 

* The master of this school reports that seven of his scholars have proceeded 
during the last three years to Edinburgh University. No boy certainly could be 
prepared at a school of this kind for either Oxford or Cambridge. 



298 



Mr. HammoncPs Report. 



EoTs" I was informed by the incumbent of Blyth that the children of 

Schools, professional gentlemen, such as surgeons, &c., often go to the 
°^™^^^^' National school for elementary instruction. 

(«) Smaller towns and villages. 

In no other place in Northumberland is there a single school 
essentially different from a parish school. Some, however, of the 
country towns or villages have two or more schools of this 
class. 

Allendale. ^t Allendale, besides the Brideshill Grammar School, there is a 

proprietary school vested in certain trustees, who represent different 
religious denominations. It is of exactly the same educational 
character as the endowed school, and the subjects of instruction 
are almost entirely confined to the " essentials." Owing in some 
measure to the inefficiency of the late grammar school master, it 
has been well attended by children of both sexes. The girls are 
not taught needlework, and the scholars are annually examined 
by a British and Foreign Inspector. The numbers were 43 boys 
and 13 girls, aged from 5 to 13, all taught by a single master. " 

At Wooler and at Belford there is a National as well as a 
Presbyterian School. All four schools are under Government 
inspection. In both places the Presbyterian school was repre- 
sented to me as affording the better instruction, and as attended 
by the few scholars of a higher class who might be in want of 
schooling. • I therefore selected these two schools for inspection 
They differ in no respect from ordinary Government schools. The 

Belford. Belford school is under a certificated master and mistress, and 

a little geography is added to the usual branches of instruction. 
The school premises are remarkably good, and being very supe- 
rior to those of private schoolmasters of the same class, while 
the teaching is satisfactory of its kind, it is not surprising that a 
third school at Belford, conducted by a private master, has been 
.obliged to withdraw from competition. The numbers at Belford 
Presbyterian School were 91 boys, girls, and infants, most of them 

Wooler. being the children of hinds. At the Wooler school the master 

sometimes has a French or Latin pupil ; but the quality of the 
instruction given in these languages is not good, and the operation 
of the Revised Code will probably restrict the subjects for the 
future to the essentials with geography. The numbers on the 
day of my visit were 51 boys and 27 girls, but in the winter 
months they sometimes reach 140. 

At Haltvvhislle, Stamfordham, and Ponteland there are en- 
dowed schools, and in each village a private or adventurer's 
establishment as well. At Hallwhistle I examined both schools; 
■ Stamfordham. at Stamfordham I visited the endowed school, and at Ponteland 
the private school. All were mixed schools, chiefly resorted to 

Halt-nhistle. by tlie children of hinds or labourers. The Haltwhistle private 
school was, in respect of the condition of the scholars, somewhat 
better than the rest, and four of the boys were just beginning 

Ponteland. Latin. At the Ponteland school an older lad was studying 



Schools in small Towns. 299 

mensuration. All these schools lose a large proportion of their Boys' 
scholars during the summer months, and practically no i-eal Schools, 
progress is made in anything except reading, spelling, writing, Northumbek- 

and ciphering. J ' 

At Bellingham there are three schools for the poor. One, an Bellingham. 
endowed school under Government inspection, I visited and found 
to be simply a National school. The others are a British and a 
Roman Catholic School in no wise superior to it. But about five 
miles from Bellingiiam there is a small adventurer's school, in con- 
nection with the English Presbyterian Church, v/hich is probably 
the best of its kind in the county. The fanners sometimes send 
their sons to board at houses in tiie neighbourhood of the school, 
m order that they may enjoy the advantages of the teaching there 
given. But there were no such boarders at the time of my visit, 
and the instruction was confined to purely English subjects, 
including geography and English history. 

I did, however, see a youth in the town of Bellingiiam who had 
been prepared at this school for the University of Durham, and has 
since passed his entrance examination. He told me that he had 
read portions of Greek plays and of Horace's Satires, and that he 
had advanced in mathematics as far as conic sections ; but on 
inquiry it turned out tliat he knew nothing of the nature or pro- 
perties of the curves, and that he had merely got up some rules of 
thumb from Nesbit's Mensuration for the measurement of parabolic 
and other areas. In fact, his acquaintance with the simpler 
geometric conceptions and proofs was limited to a knowledge of 
the definitions and of a few early propositions in the first book of 
Euclid. 

The school seldom contains scholars requiring more than a 
good parish school education, but, owing to the superior qualifi- 
cations of the master and the comparatively limited number of 
pupils in so remote a spot, it is possible that now and then a 
plodding boy of some ability could be trained at the school so as 
to pass the examinations for an ordinary university degree. But 
the normal functions of the school are exactly the same as those 
of a superior parish school. 

At Kothbury the endowed school supplies a sound elementary Rothbmy. 
education to all- the boys in the town, including the sons of farmers 
and tradesmen, and occasionally of some professional persons. Eor 
instance, at the time of my visit the son of a Presbyterian clergy- 
man was receiving instruction there. Tiie education is too good 
of its kind to allow of any real competition, and the only boys 
not attending the school are young boys, who are taught in a small 
mixed establishment kept by a lad}'. 

At Haydon Bridge Grammar School, although the education is HaydonBridge 
not so satisfactory as at Rothbury, the privilege of free instruction 
open to all residents prevents the establishment of a private school 
in the village. This, however, is not always the result produced 
by the existence of a free school in a small place, as may be seen 
from the instances of Stamfordham, Ponteland, and Haltwhistle. 

a. c. S. Y 



300 Mr. Hammonffs Report. 

Boys' It appears that when the master is not in a decidedly superior 

Schools, social position to the parents of his pupils, the latter prefer to see 

NoMHUMBEK- ^ gpppjjj ggj^pgj established in their village, partly because it pro- 

!:^" motes competition and partly because it gives them an opportunity 

of indulging any private pique they may feel against either 

teacher. This leads sometimes to periodical migrations ot scholars 

to and from either school, — an evil complained of by more than 

one schoolmaster in their ansvi'ers to the schedules of questions. 

Schoolmasters, their Social Position and 
Qualifications. 

Social position The Social position of schoolmasters in Northumberland depends, 
mastor'" '^^ course, to some extent, upon the recognition of their qualifica- 
tions. As my business was to examine learners, not * teachers, I 
feel some delicacy and difficulty in alluding to this subject ; but a 
few facts which came under my notice, may be useful as illustra- 
tive of particular cases, though they should not be considered as 
data for any general conclusions. 
Graduates. Yive masters of grammar schools and two private schoolmasters 

are graduates of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin. I do not know 
the precise number of Durham, London, and Scotch graduates; 
but I think that there are five or six. 
Certificated The number of certificated teachers conducting private schools 

teachers. jg very small, but there are some employed in endowed and in 

parish schools. The master of the Duke's School, Alnwick, holds 
a certificate. 
Other school- Of the persons conducting commercial or English schools few 
masters. appear to have any credentials beyond their experience and 

success, which, when properly established, may fairly be recognised 
as certificates in themselves. Some few masters have appended 
titular initials to their names (E.C.P. and F.E.I.S.) ; and^ one 
Their qualifica- Styles himself at full length a Senior Licentiate of the Educational 
tions for Institute of Scotland. The best evidence of his qualifications is 

teac mg. furnished by himself in his answers to the printed questions, e.g., 

Question. What system of rewards and prizes is in use in the school? — 
Answer. No rewards nor prizes in use ; but the cleverst boys get to be dux of 
his class. 

Question. Is the school classified .... separately for every subject or group 
of subjects? — Answer. Seperately for every subject. 



* In 1865 schoolmasters were appointed to Allendale and Haydon Bridge 
Endowed Schools. In both cases there was a competitive examination of candidates. 
At Allendale the schoolmaster elected held a Government certificate. At Haydon 
Bridge it is necessary that the head master should he in priest's orders, and the 
gentleman appointed had graduated in honours at Cambridge. The examination of 
candidates for the head mastership is prescribed by the deed of foundation. It was 
stated to me that of the competitors for the vacant post two had distinguished 
themselves beyond the rest, one by his answers in mathematics, the other by the 
excellence of his Latin verse composition. The latter was eventually selected. 
Haydon Bridge School is practically little better than a parish school, and for 
many years there has not been a schoolboy in the whole county of Northumberland 
who could write a single line of Latin verse. 



Qualifications of Schoolmasters. 301 

Question, What difficulties, if any, do you find in the discharge of your Boys' 
duty? — Answer. None in particular, unless defective accomodation, which. Schools, 
under present circumstances, cannot be remedied. Nokthumeer- 

Question. Would it, in your opinion, be an advantage or otherwise, if your land. 

school were examined annually, and publicly reported on by independent 

examiners? — Answer. Yes; provided my accomodation was satisfactory. 

Question. If such examiners are desirable, how should they be appointed? — 
Answer, By profFessional gentlemen in the neighbourhood, who have received a 
collegian education. 

In answer to question 43, it is stated that the ordinary school 
education supplied to his pupils is sufficient without supplementary 
aid to prepare a boy of good ability for " Scholarships at the Scotch 
Universities ; " but in reference to the other competitive examina- 
tions specified in the question, it is added " that his (the master's) 
*' attention has not been directed to them." 

It must not be imagined that the above answers afford a fair 
specimen of the literary culture of Northumberland school- 
masters in general ; but I have received a few returns and letters 
which are not quite faultless in point of spelling, and without 
attaching undue importance to mistakes of this nature, I think it 
right to record all that are to be ascribed to ignorance. One 
teacher w^rites seperately , a second untill, a third circumstenceS) a 
fourth occurrance and theorettically, while a fifth sends the fol- 
lowing sentences in a letter : — " If the artificers have the material 
" prepaired, the work will commence this week, but 1 have not 
■" been able to asceria\n possitively, &c., &c.''* 

The educational course expected by ])arents from commercial 
schoolmasters is so unscientific in quality and so limited in quan- 
tity, that no particular credentials are necessary from persons 
professing to supply it. They must, of course, be able to read and 
write fairly and to cipher pretty correctly ; but their success will 
depend on their moral qualities rather than on their intellectual 
culture. In addition to a certain fondness for teaching and power 
of management, tact, common sense, methodical habits, patience, 
firmness, and evenness of temper are the really important requi- 
sites. A room furnished with a few desks and maps and an 
assortment of the cheapest books from which some modicum of 
knowledge may be extracted, are the materials to work with. All 
the geography and grammar necessary in the opinion of most 
merchants and parents for future clerks or shop assistants can be 
learnt by an intelligent and industrious man in the course of a 
fortnight. And no other subjects are required. 

It is only when such a master oversteps his mark that his defi- 
ciencies betray themselves. The temptation to do so does not 



* On the part of Norfolk schoolmasters only two instances of false spelling came 
under my notice. One wrote perigrinations in a letter addressed to me; another, a 
certificated teacher, not only yf rote fourty in an arithmetic paper set to his scholars, 
bat in correcting their exercises on English grammar invariably substituted 
comparitive for comparative wherever the word occurred. The opposite fault of 
leaving real blunders uncorrected was more frequent, and I have alluded to it in 
another part of my report ; but this I ascribe to carelessness and not to ignorance. 

T 2 



302 



Mr. Hammond^s Report. 



Boys' 

Schools, 

nokiiidmeer- 

liAND. 



Adventurers. 



often occur; but in one school especially the master seemed bent 
on a voluntary display of his ignorance. Greek, Latln,_ Ancient 
History, and Euclid supplied him with various opportunities, and 
he blundered in all. It is not necessary to specify the nature of 
the mistakes made; but they were such as a public school boy of 
fourteen would have been punished for. Latin was professedly 
tawo-ht in this school ; i.e., Cossar and Virgil were read. Not one 
boy could decline the relative pronoun, or give the perfect passive 
of amo. False quantities were incessant, but I do not attach 
much importance to them in the north, as they are generally dis- 
regarded. The only time I heard the quantity of a Latin word 
noticed was by a Scotch graduate. A boy read the word feriilis in 
his delectus, and was corrected and told to call \t fertllis. 

But even in schools where the education is confined to English, 
the method of teaching grammar and arithmetic at once marks 
the difference between the really competent and incompetent 
man. Some few of the Northumberland schoolmasters, conduct- 
ing quite second rate schools, were men not only of skill and 
experience in teaching, but gifted also with great natural sagacity 
and acuteness. But in point of literary and scientific attainments, 
none appeared to me at all equal to a self-taught private school- 
master in Norfolk, whose acquaintance I had an opportunity of 
making during my inspection. In their methods of teaching, in 
the variety of their knowledge, and in the earnestness of their 
desire to add to it, three or four old fashioned schoolmasters in 
Northumberland were superior to any certificated teacher I have 
met with. 

Socially non-graduate masters of flourishing commercial schools 
occupy much the same position as the parents of their best pupils. 
Private schoolmasters of this class, being free from the care and 
trouble of boarding establishments, are more independent in their 
relations with their supporters than they are in Norfolk. 

I have ali'cad}' referred to a class of schoolmasters in the rural 
districts, who are specially called " adventui'ers." The system 
which they represent is, I understand, not unlike that of the 
parish schools in Scotland, except that it is purely voluntary. In 
Scotland, as I am informed, the heritors of different parishes when 
appointing a schoolmaster, assign to him a salary between the 
limits of 35Z and 70/. per annum, regard being had to the size 
of the parish and the other emoluments which may ex officio 
accrue to the schoolmaster. The average amount is from 55Z. to 
'60/. per annum, and my informant considers that such an average 
is a proof of liberality on the part of the heritors generally. 

In Northumberland the guaranteed income is sometimes as low 
as 30/., a sum less than the total amount received in money and 
kind by ordinary hinds or labourers. The "adventurer,' there" 
fore, is generally inferior to a Scotch parish schoolmaster, many of 
whom are persons of some learning or scientific culture. 

I heard some amusing accounts of the habits of the « adven- 
turer " class, and as the same description of them was very general 



NOKTUCMBEE- 
LAND. 



Adventurers in Rural Districts. 303 

wherever tlie class was known, I cannot consider it as altogether Boys' 
calumnious. Schools, 

At one place I had been informed casually of a school as exist- 
ing somewhere in the neighbourhood, and I expressed an intention 
to go in search of it. " You will never find it," I was told, "it 
is only a byre with a mud floor." My informant added that it 
was in a very desolate situation, and that at that season (harvest 
time) there would only be half a dozen scholars. Between Novem- 
ber and May there might be a dozen or twenty. ISText day, on 
repeating my inquiries, I was assured that I need not give myself 
any further trovible, for the master had been seen frequently of 
late in the village in a state of semi-intoxication, which was a sure 
proof that the business was dull, or that the school was up for 
harvest. 

In another part of the country I was told by a clergyman 
that farmers did not object to the schoolmaster indulging on 
Saturday nights, if he could measure land, and would keep sober 
for his work on lawful days. 

At a third place the master did not observe the last named 
stipulation, and the school was constantly shut up for a day or 
two in consequence. In this case the guarantee was so low, that 
a gardening job or other like work was frequently more remunera- 
tive than teaching. Thus his school, which he had kept for 
several years, was sometimes closed for a twelvemonth at a time. 
In this instance the farmers had the alternative of an endowed 
school, but they seemed to like competition. When dissatisfied or 
piqued with the endowed schoolmaster, they opened fresh negotia- 
tions with the adventurer, commenced a new subscription list and 
set the school at work again. 

In a fourth village containing an endowed school a person 
lately removed on the ground of immorality from an appointment 
in a neighbouring vi'orkhouse had just opened a private school 
iit the time of ray visit. It was decidedly the more popular school 
of the two. The master's success was apparently not affected by 
the circumstances which had obliged him to open an adventurer's 
school, and it could scarcely be due to his intellectual fitness, for 
he is the Senior Licentiate of the Educational Institute of 
Scotland i-eferred to in a former page (p. 300). 

In another place the private schoolmaster (not a guaranteed 
adventurer, I think) informed me that harvest holidays not only 
suited the boys for field work, but fell in with his own arrange- 
ments; " for I hold my sales in September," he added. I learnt 
afterwards that he was the postmaster and auctioneer of the 
village. 

A sixth schoolmaster, apologizing for the scanty information 
contained in his returns, writes as follows: — "Besides, I am par- 
" ticularly occupied in making out surveying calculations and 
" accounts for farmers beside us. They let their fields of 
" potatoes, &c. at a rate per acre to families in town. Lots vary 
" from 1 drill to upwards of 30 drills, I have more than 120 



304 



Mr. Hammond's Report. 



Bom' 

•SCHOOLS, 
'KOUTHUMBEE- 



Pi'oprietors of 
inferior town 
schools. 



School accom- 
modation in 
Northumber- 
land. 



'" lots from one farmer ; properly they should be all given in 
" before the farmers settle with their reapers. It i«, therefore, 
" impossible for me to give averages and details so minutely as I 
" would otherwise have done." 

It will be seen from the above account that the adventurer or 
private schoolmaster in rural districts is poorly remunerated and 
obliged to depend on other sources of income besides his 
school. Even when he is entitled to respect by reason of his 
ability and conduct his inferiors speak of him in patronising 
terms. The ostler of the village inn who drove me over to a 
school, kept, I should imagine, by the ablest teacher of this class, 

volunteered the remark that " Mr. was a vara intelligent 

" young mon." Mr. •■ proved to be a man of some education 

and the highest respectability, and to judge from his appearance 
ten years older than his panegyrist. 

The teachers of the lowest class of town schools are subjected to 
all the social disadvantages incidental to a laborious and ill-paid 
calling. As parents often select these schools because they will 
not pay ready money, and as they are constantly removing their 
children from one school to another, it will be imagined that these 
schoolmasters have often a hard struggle to make ends meet. 
One schoolmaster writes as follows : — " I may here take the 
" liberty to remark that the fees are paid weekly, and are as 
" follows : Reading ScZ., with writing Ad., with arithmetic 6<f., 
" and English grammar 8cf Weekly payments prevail in all 
" the schools of the town, with the exception of the Corporation 
" schools and one private school. The fees are, of course, too 
" low to realize a respectable living to the teacher of such a 
" school as mine, but in the other schools they are subsidized by 
■' the Government giant, and are in consequence adequate to 
'•' cover all expenses. Weekly schools ought, in my opinion, to 
" be discouraged, as they are great hindrances to the pupil's 
" improvement. As the teacher has hold of his scholar only for 
" the week he has prepaid the fee, he has no heart to enter 
'• earnestly upon the task of tuition, finding from daily experience 
" that the more faithfully he performs his duty the greater will be 
" the certainty of his pupils removing and going to another school. 
" There is not a boy in my school, or in that of any other in the 
" town, but has yearly made the circuit of the wliole schools." 
The competition, moreover, was represented to me as being very 
severe in Newcastle. One master asserted that there were sixty 
private schools such as his. They are held often in small, over- 
crowded, and unhealthy rooms situated in dingy streets ; but still 
the teachers impressed me as being often in point of intellect 
superior to the writing schoolmasters. For instance, their instruc- 
tion is mainly oral and their arithmetic taught on the black board. 

School Buildings. 
The schoolroom accommodation in all classes of Northumber- 
land schools is very inferior to that in Norfolk. I have just 
alluded to the humbler establishments in Newcastle belonging to 



School Buildings. 



305 



private schoolmasters, and the same description applies to other 
private schools in large towns. In many cases school is held in 
small dwelling houses never designed for the purpose. The 
rooms were often hot and stifling when I visited them in ilie 
autumn, and could not be tidy or healthy at any time. In one 
of these schools I envied a boy who had come without his jacket, 
and in another school of a better class the heat was so oppressive 
that with every window open all the children were in a state of 
chronic and profuse perspiration. Sometimes, however, private 
schoolmasters hire the basement floors of dissenting chapels; 
others again, including adventurers in rural districts, are pro- 
vided with buildings erected originally as schools. These build- 
ings are naturally more convenient, but they are never furnished 
with a second or class room, and generally the appliances for 
writing are old fashioned and defective. In the writing schools, 
which almost invariably consist of a single room, there is more 
neatness and order, and the method of instruction requires an 
ample supply of desks and materials necessary for writing; but 
maps and blackboards are dispensed with. These, however, are 
always to be found in the tradesmen's schools, which I have 
classed as English schools, and in such schools the educational 
apparatus is generally sufficient, even when they are held in 
ordinary dwelling houses, as is not unfrequently the case with 
small schools. The schoolroom is sometimes formed out of two 
or more rooms by the removal of partition walls, but such an 
arrangement is never so satisfactory as the erection of a separate 
school building. Still parents in Northumberland really care but 
little about school accommodation, and the ideas prevalent on 
this subject are very much the same as those entertained by all 
classes in all parts of England forty or fifty years ago. Whatever 
improvements have been introduced into Northumberland in this 
respect are due to the spontaneous action of schoolmasters and 
school managers. Thus the best school buildings in the county 
are generally the most modern,* and belong to endowed or 
proprietary establishments. The Grammar School at Morpeth, 
the Duke's School and the Corporation School at Alnwick, and 
the Proprietary School at Hexham, are among the best, being 
large, clean, commodious, and well ventilated, although the 
Morpeth School is the only one with a class room always 
available for the general work of the school. The Grammar 
School at Newcastle is held in a private dwelling house, quite 
unadapted to the requirements of a large school, and though the 
premises are spacious, the arrangements for the several classes 
are out of date and very inconvenient. On the contrary, the 
largest private school in Newcastle is very complete and well 
arranged, and for a school of its numbers it is far the best 



- Boys' 

Schools, 

NoRTHnMBEK- 
LAND. 



* Of the older school buildings in the county the most substantial and commodious 
are those belonging to th« endowed schools of Haydon Bridge and Rothbury and to 
. the Corporation Academy at Berwick. 



306 



Mr. Hammond's Report, 



Boys' 
Schools, 

koethumdek- 

LAND. 



in the county. It contains nine very good class rooms, two 
or more of which can, by the removal of partitions, be formed 
into a lono- lecture room whenever occasion requires. Each 
master has his own room, v.hicli leads to an inconvenient practice 
of hourly shifting whole classes from one room to another, a 
practice which interferes with the orderly pursuit cf study, and 
takes up considerable time. It certainly would seem more con- 
venient and natural to shift the teachers instead of the classes. 
The other important school in Newcastle occupies two large 
houses thrown into one in the modern part of the town. The 
accommodation, intended for about 100 boys, consists of five 
class rooms, one a preparatory department under the charge of a 
lady, and the others appropriated to the master and his assistants, 
each of whom usually retains his own class and class room. The 
class rooms are large enough for 30 boys each, but there is no 
school room proper. On the other hand, the best private schools 
in Gateshead and North Shields, though comparatively small 
schools, have each a sufficiently large schoolroom, built expressly 
for the purpose, but no class rooms. 



School Assistants. 



Staff of assis- 
tants in- 
Sufficient, 



Tiie question of school accommodation is not unconnected with 
that of school assistants. In schools where the work is conducted 
in a single room there is generally but one assistant, if any ; on 
the contrary, when the scholars are distributed among several 
class rooms there must be an assistant for each room. In inferior 
schools, as I have already remarked, the only assistance is that 
given by a pupil teacher or by some relative of the proprietor. 
This kind of assistance is usually not good for much ; that of pupil 
teachers especially seemed to me worse than inefficient. The 
alternative plan of dispensing with assistance altogether cannot 
possibly be adopted in a school with more than 50 pupils, though 
I saw two or three schools in which the master attempted to deal 
single-handed with 80 or 90 scholars, 
tut economized In writing schools, assistants are not so necessary, as the master's 
by the practice duty is confined mainly to the inspection of copy books, and he 
troubles himself very little with oral teaching or explanation. At 
the same time oral teaching in a properly organized English 
school tends to economize the teaching power, if the object be to 
bring up large classes to a respectable standard without encou- 
raging boys of special ability. Thus at Newcastle Grammar 
School there are on an average 220 boys receiving instruction 
from six teachers, one teacher being always off duty; and at the 
Duke's School, Alnwick, a hundred boys are efficiently taught by a 
master with one assistant. On the average one teacher to 35 boys 
is found sufficient wlierever the instruction is imparted rather with 
the view of arousing the attention than of developing the reason- 
ing powers of the boys. But in Norfolk semi-classical schools, 
such for instance as Saham Toney College, a teacher cannot take 
in hand so large a number and at the same time prepare any con- 



ing. 



Price of Education. 307 

siderable proportion of his scliolars for a formal examination by Boys' 
means of written exercises. And for the same reason if any change NoimroMBEK- 
were introduced into the method of teaching now popular in North- land. 

uniberliind schools, so as, for Instance, to prepare boys for tiie Uni- 

versity Local Examinations, I believe it would be found that scliools 
such as Newcastle Grammar School and the Duke's School at 
Alnwick would require an increase in their staff of assistants. This 
in fact is to a certain extent proved by the case of schools which 
attempt a higher course of education. In the two large private 
schools at Newcastle there is a teacher for every 20 boys, and at 
Berwick and Morpeth Grammar Schools, which, however, ought 
to contain a larger number of scholars, there is a teacher for 
every 15. 

The only information I can give as to the salaries of assistants in School assis- 
private schools may be gleaned from the tables appended to this tints' salaries, 
report. The salaries are certainly lower than in Norfolk, no 
assistant receiving more than 60Z. per annum, with board and lodg- 
ing. At Hexham Proprietary School, a school which, without 
departing from local customs, represents the most modern develop- 
ment of middle-class opinions on the subject of education, the 
assistant-master receives 50/., and the governess 60/. per annum. 
At* Berwick Corporation Academy the mathematical master 
receives 100/. per annum, and the other male assistants (three in 
number) 80/. per annum each. In the endowed schools the 
assistants' stipends, though generally higher than in private 
schools, are so low as to preclude all hope of securing the services 
of an English graduate. The work of assistance in all Northum- 
berland schools is accordingly undertaken by an inferior class of 
teachers. What, however, is wanting in knowledge and ability is 
to a certain extent supplied by zeal and laborious exertion. Thus, 
in Newcastle Grammar School, v/liere the assistants are perhaps 
the best in the county, the satisfactory state of the teaching is in 
a great measure due to them, although they are only qualified to 
impart instruction in a mechanical way, very much as an average 
certificated master would. The efficiency of the Grammar School 
at Rothbury is in the same way attributable to the exceptional 
qualifications of the assistant master, who receives only 80/. per 
annum for his services. 

Pkick of Education. 

The low rate of payment to assistants and to teachers generally Day scholars, 
is the natural result of a low current price of education. In the 
private schools which I have classed as working men's schools 
the cost to a labourer is at least as great as in a National school, 
but parents of a higher grade availing themselves of these schools, 
whether in towns or in rural districts, get the advantage of what 
may be called labourers' terms. Thus in the " weekly " schools, Weeklyschools. 
instruction — 

* The rector or head master has a salaty of 180/. per annum and a residence. 



308 



Mr, Hamrrtond's Report 



Boys' 
Schools, 

NoiiTHUMBEJR- 
LAND. 



Tradesmen's 
schools. 



Commercial 
and profes- 
sional schools. 



In reading is to be had for 3d. per week, r, ' ' 

In reading and writing for 4d. per week. 
In reading, writing, and arithmetic for 6d. per week. 
And in the same subjects (with grammar) for 8d. per week. 

The " quarterly " schools of the same class oifer much the 
satne terms, instruction in all the four branches taught being 
charged for at the rate of about 30s. per annum. 

The charges in tradesmen's schools generally vary, not ac- 
cording to the elementary subjects taught, but according to the 
ages of the pupils. Four guineas per annum is the usual average 
for boys above ten years of age, two or three guineas being the 
charge for yoimger boys. But in these schools the ancient and 
modern languages are almost invariably extras, not often asked 
for and of very bad quality when supplied. Drawing also is very 
little taught in Northumberland private schools of this class, and 
the above average charges are not supposed to include it. At 
Hexham Proprietary School, where the general school fee for a 
course including Latin, French, and German, is 41. per annum 
for children (boys and girls) under 12 years of age, and 61. per 
annum for all others, drawing is an extra for which the annual 
charge is two guineas. This school is, with one exception, as 
^expensive as any of its class in the county. The exception is a 
small" school in North Shields, where the annual fee is 12 guineas, 
not because of any peculiar educational advantages offered by the 
teacher, but in consideration of its somewhat exclusive character. 
The school is too unimportant to notice, were it not that it is, 
as far as I know, the only instance of a school in Northumberland, 
where the current price is raised by considerations of a social 
nature. It is also remarkable that the master of this school com- 
plained more bitterly than any other of the insufficiency of his 
remuneration. 

The four schools which stand first in order in the appended 
tables for Northumberland are the* only private schools in the 
county in which a boy can possibly obtain any real knowledge of 
Latin or mathematics. In these schools the terms are higher. 
They are highest in the first school on the list, which is an old 
established school of good reputation, educationally superior to 
all the Norfolk private schools which admit day-boys. The terms 
in this school, exclusive of extras, of which there is a long list, 
are 8 guineas, 12 guineas, and 16 guineas for boys under 10, above 
10, and above 14 years of age respectively. The second school 
in the tabular list has furnished no information as to the school 
fees for day boys. But except at these two schools and the small 
school in North Shields just noticed, there is not a single day boy 
at a Northumberland or Gateshead school whose education (every 
subject included) costs more than eight guineas per annumf ; 



* I ought to except School No. 6 in the tables, -which I was not permitted to 
inspect. . .^ . _ 

t This is the charge for non-freemen's sons at Berwick Gra^mmar School. ' 



Boarding Schools,' 309 

and tlie average ptice of education fif tlie two large private schools 'Boss' 
■send '.the working ' men's schools be left out of account) would Sohwoi-s, 
certainly be under 51. per annum. NoKTHtrMBiiE- 

- Tins average price is lower than in Norfolk, but the terms for 

boalrders are not. The reasons for this I shall explain in another Terms for 
part of my report. At present I shall merely give the amounts ^"'"■''^®''^ 
of bills charged at the three boarding schools which have supplied 
information on this point. Two of them are the two leading 
private schools in Newcastle, and the third is a newly-established 
school in Gateshead. 

The highest bills for the year 1864 in these schools were 
respectively, 

63Z. As. 6d. ; 591. 3s. 2d. ; and 42?. 0*. Qd. 

The lowest were, 

42?. 3s. 9c?. ; 33?. Os. Od. ; and 30?. Os. Od. 

The average being, 

48?. 175. Id; 43?. 13s. 6d.; and 36?. Os. Od. 

The several items of which two of these series of bills are 
composed will be found given in detail on a future page (p. 437). 

A prospectus of a fourth establishment, with seven or eight 
boarders, states the terms to be from 25 to 35 guineas per annum ; 
but I have no means of ascertaining what is and what is not 
covered by the charge. The school is practically an English 
school, though It professes to supply several other branches be- 
sides English. At the same school dinner is provided for day 
pupils at a charge of one guinea and a half per quarter, an 
arrangement I have not observed in other schools, though it 
must be most useful in a disH'ict where day schools are in vogue. 
It is more usual for day scholars coming from a distance to bring 
their dinner with them and to take their meal in the schoolroom. 

At a ladies' preparatory school in Newcastle, vfhere there are 
eight or ten boarders at most, the charges are 25?. and 30?. respec- 
tively for boys under and over six years of age, extras amounting 
to about 6?. per annum. The boys in this establishment belong 
to a somewhat superior class, and most of them do not complete 
their education in the county. The terms at a similar kind of 
school kept by a clergyman in Yarmouth were about 10 guineas 
per quarter of 10 weeks; but another preparatory school in 
Norfolk, conducted by ladies, was, in my opinion, both better and 
cheaper than the Newcastle school. In this latter school, where 
there were 22 boys aged from six or seven to 12, the terms were 
from 23 to 28 guineas per annum, and the instruction as well as the 
domestic arrangements were thoroughly satisfactory. Nothing, in 
fact, could be better than the food and accommodation provided 
for the boys; but an experience of 10 years had proved that the 
terms were barely remunerative, and probably they have since been 
raised. 

Boarding Schools. 

. When the accommodation for boarders iii Norfolk schools is Boarding house 
compared with that in Northumberland schools the relative dear- accommodation 



310 



Mr. HammoncHs Rejiort. 



Boys' ness of these latter schools becomes more apparent. There are 

NootXibeh- °"^J' "^"'° boarding schools in Northumberland sufficiently im- 

LAND. portant to notice, and I have no doubt that they are the best in 

. the county. These two I inspected. In the smaller school (as will 

in Norfolk**' be seen from the tabular statement) each boy has a separate bed 
and an allowance of 768 cubic feet for bed room. The rooms, 
moreover, are large and well ventilated, and in this respect the 
health and comfort of the boys are fully provided for. From 
personal experience I can further testify to the abundance and 
excellent quality of their fare, as well as to the pleasant relations 
existing between the boys and their master; in fact the school, in 
this respect, was as good as any in Norfolk, but there was not 
even an apology for a playground, the school being situated in 
one of the busiest streets in Newcastle. 

In the larger boarding school there is a gravel enclosure con- 
taining 1,422 square yards, and an asphalted shed for use in wet 
weather ; but, on the other hand, the bed room accommodation is 
veiy inferior. When I visited the rooms I thought them the 
worst I had seen anywhere, and I find by the master's return 
that the allowance of bed r