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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 





3 1924 095 615 013 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
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THE 



SANITARY COMMISSION 
BULLETIN. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YOEK, NOVEMBER 1, 1863. 



No. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The XL S. Sanitary Commission have 
long feltwie need of some direct method of 
communication with their -wide-spread con- 
stituency. Those who furnish the money 
and the supplies, by which our extensive 
ministry to the sick and wounded is main- 
tained, have a right to more frequent and 
full accounts of what becomes of their char- 
ity than we have hitherto been able to give 
them. It is true, we have published a large 
number of documents containing this in- 
formation, and distributed them widely ; 
but they have necessarily lacked the fresh- 
ness and the personal details which a less 
compendious and less formal account of 
our current operations would possess. A 
thousand intensely interesting particulars 
reach our several offices at Washington, 
Louisville and New York, which we are 
anxious should come to the knowledge of 
the people ; and we propose in the Bul- 
letin to collect and report these pungent 
details fresh from the hps of our agents in 
the field and the hospital. 

It is high time that an interest, now so 
rooted and gTounded in its own methods 
as the U. S. Sanitary Commission, should 
possess an independent organ for the ex- 
pression of its matured opinions in regard 
to the only safe and wise means of apply- 
ing the gifts of the people to the relief of 
the Army. After all the careful discussion 
which the subject has received, there is 
constant danger of falling back into sloven- 
ly, wasteful, and injurious ways of supply- 
ing the wants of the soldiers. Only the 
most persistent and strenuous resistance to 
an impulsive benevolence, the most earnest 
and obstinate defence of a guarded and 



methodized system of relief, can save the 
public from imposition, and the Army from 
demoi-alization. 

The health and safety of our soldiers re- 
quire an organ, in which questions of 
Army-Hygeine can be discussed with sole 
reference to practical results. There is a 
steady tendency to the neglect or ignoring 
of preventive methods. The condition of 
our barracks, transports, and camps needs 
incessant watchfulness, and a perpetual cry 
of warning must be raised in the ear of the 
responsible oivU and mihtary authorities. 

It is necessary, moreover, that the in- 
terest of the women of the country should 
be quickened anew in the work they have 
undertaken. We have warned them from 
the first that they were enlisted for the war; 
that their industry and self-sacrifice would 
be taxed to the utmost. There is no longer 
novelty or artificial excitement to sustain 
their activity. Only a steady principle of 
patriotic humanity can be depended on 
for continued labors in this holy cause. 
Thank God, there are thousands of noble 
women connected with our work, who for 
more than'two years have given their best 
thoughts, and hours, and labor to the en- 
terprise. Their zeal has outlived all super- 
ficial excitements. They go to their work, 
as the soldier goes to the front, or digs in 
the trench, or advances on the works of the 
enemy. It is their duty and their business 
while the war lasts. But ten thousand such 
noble women are not enough. They must 
be supported by a hundred thousand; yes, 
five hundred thousand other women of sim- 
ilar views and feeUngs, before our supplies 
can be accumulated in adequate quantities. 
Our machinery is in admirable order ; our 
central reservoirs of supplies perfectly 
adapted to their purpose. It is only neces- 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



sary that, witli the opening winter, every 
village Sewing Circle, or Soldiers' EeHef So- 
ciety, or Cliurcli, or Dorcas Association, 
should set itself about a systematic contri- 
bution of supplies to the central associations 
<it Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland, Chicago, or Louisville. 
This done, everything needed in the way of 
sixpplies can be easily and readily procured. 
If there is a jealous scattering ot these re- 
soiirees, a little here and a little there, there 
will be a dreadful waste, and a melancholy 
abuse of the well-established principle of 
unity and economy. 

Again, our moneyed men and institutions 
of wealth must see to it that the efficiency 
of the U. 8. Sanitary Commission is not 
hampered by the want of abundant pecu- 
niary resources. It is universally conceded 
that the efficiency of the Army has been 
vastly sustained by the watchful care of this 
Commission. It is not too much to say 
that our Generals in the field have come to 
depend upon it as a sine qua non. It is an 
established and indispensable, part of the 
public service. The soldiers know it, and 
lean upon it as upon the Home-Arm. The 
nation has no right to withdraw this arm. 
It would not dare to do it outright. And 
-yet, by allowing the strong muscles that 
have thus far held it out, gradually to con- 
tract and shrivel, they may, in effect, and 
without intending or knowing what they 
do, paralyze this arm, and find a withered 
hand where they thought they had a stal- 
wart one outstretched. Nothing but a full 
treasury has given the U. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission its vigor and effectiveness. It has 
hitherto, for a long period of its existence, 
had a hundred thousand dollars at least in 
its treasury, between it and want. It can- 
not work with energy and success with .a 
dollar less than this in reserve. In short, 
when it begins to spend the first doUar of 
its la^ hundred thousand, it must prepare 
to close its operations! It is not prudent 
nor possible for a body whose regular ex- 
penses are forty thousand dollars a month, 
to carry on its affairs systematically on the 
contingency of funds to come in. From 
this time; the IT. S. Sanitary Commission, 
which sees its treasury already reduced to 
$125,000, and which, in one month, will 
see it below $100,000, must have a monthly 



subscription of at least $25,000 from the 
Loyal States, or its day is ended. All the 
supplies in the world wiU not obviate 
the want of money. The more supplies, 
the more the cost of properly and econom- 
ically distributing them. We must main- 
tain our machinery, or all the meal that 
comes to our mill will never be converted 
into bread for the soldier. 

We purpose to make the Bulletin the 
place where all information necessary to 
soldiers or to soldiers' families is to be 
found. Who are entitled to bounties and 
pensions, and how to procure them at 
the least expense, and with the most cer- 
tainty; how furloughs are obtained; how 
our prisoners of war in the enemies' hands- 
may be communicated with; how to get 
convalescents or sick men home; everything 
about the burial of the dead; these and 
similar questions will be carefully and 
reliably answered in our columns. The 
Btjllbtust will be extensively circulated in 
the Army. It will also be sent to all our 
associate members — to all subscribers or 
donors to our funds — to every sewing cir- 
cle contributing to our supplies — to sueh 
clergymen as apply for it for purposes of 
guiding their efforts — and to such other 
persons as we think fitted to use profitably, 
for the benefit of our sick and wounded, 
the information it contains. 

It will be furnished also to subscribers, at 
$2.00 a year, and to single purchasers at 
10 cents a copy. 

It will be published twice a month, on 
the 1st and 15th of each month. 

It is ardently desired that the ladies 
having charge of our home societies would 
send to the General Secretary such written 
suggestions or facts as they may think fitted 
to stir up other women to more abundant 
labors. Our inspectors and relief agents 
are admonished to keep notes of such inci- 
dents as have deeply interested them, and 
to forward them promptly to their respect- 
ive chiefs, for the use of the Bulletut. 

All communications for "ThbSanitaby 
Commission Bulletin " should be addressed 
to the Office of Publication, 823 Broadway, 
New York City. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



REPORTS. 



REPORT OF THE GENERAL SEC- 
RETARY. 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 6th, 1863. 
Kev. H. W. Bellows, D.D., 

President of the U. S. Sanitary Gom'n: 

Sir — Notified by you on tlie IGtli of Sep- 
tember of my election as General Secretary 
of the Commission, I accepted th.e trust, 
and have since, in anticipation of the pres- 
ent session of the Commission, been chiefly 
occupied in ascertaining the condition of 
its work throughout the country, and the 
probable requirements of its service in the 
future. 

The present aspect of the work will best 
be exhibited to you in the reports herewith 
presented, from a consideration of which, 
and from the discussions of the scheme 
proposed by the Committee on organiza- 
tion and the Executive Committee for the 
partial reorganization of the work, the 
Commission will be enabled to determine 
what modifications it should direct for the 
future. 

I may, however, be permitted to caU the 
attention of the Commission directly to 
certain topics which seem to me worthy of 
their present consideration. 

The question has been raised whether 
the Hospital Directory justifies by its use- 
fulness the expenditure it occasions. - The 
reports of Mr. Bowne, Superintendent of 
the Directory, and of Mr. Holbrook, of the 
Louisville office, present facts and consid- 
erations which may determine the Com- 
mission's action. 

Should the Commission adopt that por- 
tion of the programme of work proposed 
by the Executive Committee, which divides 
•the work of Belief and Inspection, assign- 
ing the latter only to the Sanitary Inspect- 
ors, directed by a Head not distracted by 
other duties, a renewed stimulus will be 
given to inspection and a greatly increased 
body of facts wiU accumulate, as data from 
which the Actuary should be expected to 
exhibit promptly, when called upon, the de- 
termined results of the particular analysis 
demanded. Unless the range of inquiry is 
kept restricted within unduly narrow lim- 



its, an increase of clerical force in the sta- 
tistical department wQl be needed. I sub- 
mit the question how far the plans of the 
Commission will admit of expansion in this 
direction. 

The activity of other organizations. State 
and Federal, in presenting to the loyal 
communities the claims of their especial 
work of relief for the Army and Navy, has, 
in some quarters of the country, overshad- 
owed a just apprehension of the work which 
is being more noiselessly, but perhaps not 
less thoroughly, done by the Sanitary Com- 
mission. In some instances grave misap- 
prehension of the Commission's disposi- 
tion and discouragement on the part of its 
friends, on account of supposed impair- 
ment of its usefulness, has been created by 
the too highly-colored statements put forth 
by the advocates of competing organiza- 
tions. 

It seems only just to those who have 
heretofore contributed money and stores 
to the Commission, tha,t they be from time 
to time reassured by personal conference 
with one of its accredited agents as to the 
wisdom of its plans, and be enabled to ex- 
hibit to others its varied beneficence and 
its judicious methods. To more thoroughly 
and minutely inform the rural communi- 
ties on the work and wants of the Commis- 
sion, as well as to remove misunderstand- 
ing and to correct false statements, an 
increase of the force of canvassing agents, 
of late months much reduced, is recom- 
mended. 

***** 

The evident necessity of popularizing in- 
formation as to the Commission's plans 
and practical workings niore fully than it 
has heretofore been done in its octavo doc- 
uments, is very apparent. The issue of 
the Sanitary Reporter, at LouisviUe, has 
done much in this direction. Though giv- 
en largely to details of work west of the 
AUeghanies, it is believed to have excited a 
growing interest in the Commission in all 
the loyal States in which it has been dis- 
tributed. The booklet, "Wliat we did at 
Gettysburg," by a lady who served us and 
humanity there; and the story, from the 
journal of the Special EeHef Agent, "The 
Lord wiU Provide," have already teen en- 
joyed by hundreds who would never have 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



been induced to take up Doonment No. — . 
The Commission may think it well to con- 
sider -whether or not it should open anoth- 
er avenue of communication to the heart 
of the people, by revi-ving the suspended 
project of the " BtrLiiEinsr as the SANiTAEy 
Commission," or by affording in some oth- 
er way the always welcome information of 
what is done for the Army. 

Constant efforts to stimulate the flow of 
supplies of hospital food and clothing have 
resulted, during the quarter, in yielding 
to the Commission's storehouses about 
the average quarterly product of the past 
year, and there is little reason to doubt the 
continuance of this rate of supply. But 
this is not sufficient to relieve the Commis- 
sion from the frequent necessity of consid- 
erable purchases in the commercial market, 
which fact may be adduced as another ar- 
gument, not only for occasional appeals to 
the loyal people from the Commission, or 
its Committees, but also for the multiplica- 
tion of wayside agencies through its dis- 
trict canvassers. 

In accordance with your instxnictions, 
I, on the 24th of September, caused 
the oath of allegiance to the United 
States to be administered, in the following 
words, by a magistrate, to the employees 
of the Commission, assembled by order: 

DisTKiOT OE Columbia, ) 
County op Washington. ) 

We, the undersigned, of Washington 
County, D. C, do solemnly swear, on the 
Holy Evangely of Almighty God, without 
any mental reservation, that we will, at any 
and all times hereafter, and under all cir- 
cumstances, yield a hearty and willing sup- 
port to the Constitution' of the United 
States, and to the Government thereof; 
that we will not, either directly or indirect- 
ly, take up arms against said Government, 
nor aid those now in arms against it; that 
we will not pass without the lines now 

fstabHshed by the Army of the United 
tates, or hereafter from time to time to be 
established by said Army, nor hold any 
correspondence whatsoever with any per- 
son or persons beyond said lines so estab- 
lished by said Army of the United States, 
during the present rebeUion, without per- 
mission from the Secretary of War; also, 
we win do no act hostile or injurious 
to the union of the States; that we will 
give no aid, comfort, or assistance to the 
enemies of the Government, either domes- 
tic or foreign. 



Thirty-seven thus acknowledged their 
f ealty— aU who could be gathered. On the 
next day four others cheerfully took the 
oath, and oae person who decUned to do 
so was, by your order, discharged from the 
service. These forty-two persons consti- 
tute the whole number of individuals who 
are employed hj the Commission in this 
city. The order has been given to the 
Acting Associate Secretary in the Eastern 
Department to cause the oath to be ten- 
dered to each person employed by the 
Commission in thfe Department, the alter- 
native of promptly taking it being dismiss- 
al from the service. 

I submit herewith a roster of persons in 
the service of the Commission, October 1st. 

I present also the accompanying Re- 
ports. [See list at end of Reports.] 

Bespectfully submitted. 

J. FOSTER JENKINS, 

General Secretary. 



REPORT ON THE OPERATIONS OF 

THE EASTERN DEPARTMENT. 

GentIiEMEN — In accordance with the re- 
quest of Dr. J. Foster Jenkins, I beg leave 
to submit the following as my Report of ■ 
the work of the Commission so far as it has 
come under my observation, during a tem- 
porary occupation of the Associate Secre- 
tary's desk. 

On the 29th of July I reported in Wash- 
ington, with the view of using it as head- 
quarters for my operations in the Army of 
the Potomac. Dr. Douglas, who was then 
about starting off on a month's leave of ab- 
sence, requested me to take charge of such 
duties as might require the consideration 
and direction of the Associate Secretary. 
I have acted in accordance with this re- 
quest and an order of the Executive Com- 
mittee (dated Sept. 15, 1863,) down to the 
present time. 

WASHZNaTON Asn> Vicinity. — The Hos- 
pitals in Washington and Alexandria have 
been inspected very carefully by Inspector 
C. W. Brink, during the months of August 
and September. His reports, herewith sub- 
mitted as Documents 1, 2 and 3, will show 
the exact condition of these Hospitals. 
They show improvements consequent upon 
increased knowledge and care on the part 



The Sanitary Gommission Bulletin. 



of their officers, and will now compare fa- 
vorably with, the best Military Hospitals 
which the Medical Department has estab- 
lished for the accommodation of the sick 
and wounded soldiers of our great Army. 
Our Hospital Visitor (Dr. G. C. Caldwell) 
has made stated visits to them all, and is- 
sues of stores have been freely made from 
our local storehouse on requisitions of the 
surgeons, in accordance with the advice of 
Dr. OaldweU. The requisitions of the sur- 
geons have been invariably required in or- 
der to avoid the injury to discipline which 
an indiscriminate distribution of stores, 
through the hands of irresponsible persons, 
always produces. 

In the early portion of September, reports 
having reached the office concerning the 
sickness of the camps occupied by the 10th 
N. Y. Artillery, Dr. C. W. Brink was or- 
dered to mate special inquiry into the 
causes of the iU-health prevailing, and to 
endeavor to have such changes in location 
as good sanitary principles would indicate. 
The result of his inspection is to be found 
in Document 4. 

AiTOAPOiiis, Md. — Inspector Nichols hav- 
ing been ordered from the Department of 
Norfolk, reported at the Central Office, Aug. 
5. After a few days spent in preparing an 
account of his work at Norfolk, he was sent 
to Annapolis, with the view of making an 
inspection of the Camps and Hospitals at ■ 
that place. That inspection (comprised in 
Document 5) will show how shockingly 
unfit for the accommodation of men was the 
camp then employed for paroled men. It 
is a subject of congratulation that this dis- 
grace to the nation has been abolished; 
that our paroled prisoners are at present 
located in comfortable barracks on a new 
camping-ground; and that much of the de- 
structive' tendency to body and spirit which 
surrounded the old camp no longer esdsts 
in the new location. The life of a paroled 
prisoner is one of a dispiriting character. 
He cannot occupy himself with the daily 
occupations of a soldier's life — his parole 
prevents that. Consequently, uidess some 
employment, either mental or physical, be 
furnished him, he becomes a trifling, worth- 
less man — not fitted for the duties either of 
a soldier or a citizen. Athletic games, and 
aU the varied drills of a gymnasium, would 



do away with much of the exhausting 
ennui of Camp Parole. A hundred dollars 
spent in putting up gymnastic apparatus 
would be the means of saying the health 
and the morals of many men now undergo- 
ing a process of demoralization and enfee- 
blement. Would not the establishment of 
a Gymnasium at Camp Parole be a subject 
worthy of effort on the part of the Commis- 
sion ? 

A word is due here to a representative of 
the Commission on duty at Camp Parole 
Hospital. Miss Clara Davis, of Philadel- 
phia, has acted as our representative for 
four months, taking under her special 
charge the low-diet kitchen. The testimo- 
ny of patients and surgeons represents the 
attentions of this kind-hearted. Christian 
woman as most acceptable to the men. In 
this retired place she has devoted herself — 
administering to the wants and needs of 
suffering humanity. No words can express 
the value of such work — they seem at best 
but feeble mockery when used to describe 
the self-sacrifice of one who devotes her 
days to smoothing the pillow of the'invalid 
and extending the little attentions which a 
mother or a sister would offer the sufferer. 

In order to meet a want which has exist- 
ed for some time in this region, a resting- 
place or temporary home for the wives and 
female relatives of the inmates of the Hos- 
pitals, the Special Relief- Agent has estab- 
lished a " Home " in Annapolis, where they 
may obtain food and lodging. Of this he 
will doubtless report to you at length. 

CoNVALBSCBNT Camp, Vibqinia.^I ask 
the attention of ttie Commission to the Re- 
port of Miss Bradley (Document 5}4) on 
the operations in this Camp, which have 
been conducted by her as a Special Relief 
Agent. She has labored untiringly to have 
abuses redressed, and by her personal ex- 
ertions has made many a soldier feel that, 
though absent from home, he was not with- 
out friends. Her own simple statement of 
the nature of her work may well cause sur- 
prise that she has accomplished so much 
by her own efforts. Such agents are an 
honor to the Commission, through whose 
auspices they labor in the cause of the sol- 
dier. 

Spbciaij Rbmbf Dbpaetmbnt. — The op- 
erations of this Department have continued 



6 



The Sanitary Commission BvUdin. 



to be of their usual important character. 
These have been attended to, during the 
absence of the Chief, by his indefatigable 
assistant, Mr. J. B. Abbott. They comprise 
altogether different classes of cases from 
those coming under the eye of the Corps Be- 
lief Agent. The latter distributes under the 
eye of the Medical Officer, and mostly on 
his requsition, ■while the relief agent from 
the Special Department goes directly to 
the needy without any such intermedia- 
tion. My observation of this DepaaH;ment 
makes me anxiovis that the m.ost liberal en- 
couragement should be tendered it by the 
Commission. These special cases can only 
be properly relieved by those yiho are 
trained through an every-day experience, 
extending through months of close obser- 
vation, so as to prevent help being estend- 
' ed to the unworthy, or help being kept 
from the deserving. 

Soldieb's Lodge in AtiExandhia. — The 
Special Belief Department is mentioned in 
this general way, because a more particular 
report belongs to another officer. I may, 
however, mention more particularly one 
establishment belonging to this Depart- 
ment, as it was established during my term 
of service, and more especially for the use 
of the sick and wounded of the Army of 
the Potomac — I refer to the Soldier's Best, 
in Alexandria. This may be considered as 
holding a relation to the Axicj of the Po- 
tomac analogous to that of the Lodge at 
Aquia, when the army was opposite Freder- 
icksburg. Finding that numbers of sick 
and wounded were arriving in Alexandria, 
and were exposed to much privation on 
their arrival, I dispatched Mr. James Bich- 
ardson to ascertain what could be done to- 
wajcds establishing a house for temporary 
relief. He found in Ool J. H. Devereux, 
the Supei-intendeut.of Military Eailroads 
Mad Transportation, a willing appreciator 
of all our plans, and one very willing to aid 
in their execution. A building was appro- 
priated for the purpose of a Soldier's 
Lodge, and through the assistance and lib- 
erality of Ool. Devereux, one of the neatest 
and most useful Lodges now maintained by 
the Commission has been placed upon a 
firm and secure basis. I refer to Mr. Bich- 
ardson's own report for a very lucid account 
of the establishment of this Lodge, (Docu- 



ment 6.) Mr. Edgerly's report of its op- 
erations from August 13 to September 20 
(Document 7) will give an idea of the bene- 
fits that have already resulted. 

Physiologicaii Examtnation oi" Soii- 
DZEBS. — The examinations and measure- 
ments of soldiers, for the coEection of ma- 
terials in the Department of Vital Statis- 
tics, have been continued at Camp Barry 
by Messrs. Buckley and Balch. Mr. E. B. 
FairchUds has been engaged on like duty 
at Davids Island, with the Confederate 
, prisoners confined there. By permission 
of Col. Hofiman, Commissary-General of 
Prisoners, he wiU go to Pt. Lookout as 
soon as transportation can be procured, 
with a view of prosecuting this work to a 
greater extent than was possible at Davids 
Island. The deductions to be made from 
these measurements being likely to prove 
of the greatest possible benefit to military 
and sanitary science, I advise their contin- 
uance for at least three months longer. It 
is only by a lai^e quantity of data that we 
shall be in condition to discuss their value, 
and to arrive at reliable results. 

Bai/timobb. — In Baltimore the store- 
house has been in charge of Mr. J. T. Pan- 
coast, who has worked with a zeal and hon- 
esty of purpose worthy of all imitation, 
not only in the discharge of his duties as 
Depot Agent, but as Hospital Visitor. This 
agency has been of immense importance, 
as many of the supplies forwarded to Get- 
tysburg and Frederick, during and after 
the Confederate invasion of the loyal States, 
were purchased in Baltimpre, where Mr. 
Knapp had located his headquarters for 
this special purpose. In this complicated 
business Mr. Pancoast always proved to be 
most valuable as an aid. The Special Be- 
lief Department in Baltimore has. been in 
charge of Mr. Bullard. 

A fuU examination of the Hospitals of 
Baltimore was made, in accordance with 
orders from this office, by Inspector Julius 
Nichols, early in the month of September. 
From an examination of this (Document 8) 
a very excellent idea may be obtained of 
the present condition and capacity of these 
Hospitals. 

Hospitals at Hageestown, Boonsbob- 
OTJGH, AND Habpee's Fbeky. — The Hospi- 
tals at Hagerstown, Boonsborough, Harper's 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



Ferry, and Maryland Heights, have been 
visited at stated, terms by' Messrs. Hiram 
Schisler and John C. Stranahan, and such 
wants as were discovered were freely sup- 
plied from the storehouse at Frederick. 
This storehouse wiU be closed in a few 
days, as the necessity for its continuation 
has ceased. During the twelve months of 
its existence it has disbursed many thou- 
sands of dollars worth of stores to the 
wounded of the battles of South Mountain 
and Antietam, and to the needy and sick 
of the army within a circle of 30 miles ra- 
dius, since the occurrence of these memo- 
rable battles. Its mission has, however, 
been closed, and I hope the changing for- 
tunes of war will not necessitate its re-es- 
tablishment. The soldiers have had abund- 
ant cause to bless the beneficence of the 
loyal people, who enabled the Commission 
to furnish it so abundantly, that all wants 
of the army, as fast as they have been 
made known, have been supplied. 

NoBFOLK AUD VioiNiTT. — On the 5th of 
August I ordered Mr. James Gall, Jr., to 
proceed to Norfolk and take charge of our 
relief work in that Department. He has 
faithfully performed the duties of EeUef 
Agent since that date, acquiring much 
credit for himself and the Commission by 
his indefatigable labors. His Eeports, 
eight in number, furnished this office 
weekly, will show how faithfully and with 
what good results he has labored. (See 
Documents 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.) 

The sick-rate at Norfolk having increased 
to 30 per cent., I deemed it important to 
direct the attention of the Acting Surgeon- 
General to this important fact. He imme- 
diately had a medical inspection made of 
the Department, and adopted measures to 
obviate, as far as possible, the causes of 
disease. Although the sick-rate increased 
to between 40 and 50 per cent. , still I have 
the happiness now to state that this rate is 
diminishing. We have issued largely to 
aE the hospitals and regiments in the De- 
partment, having been able to keep up the 
supplies through the propeller Elizabeth, 
placed under our orders by the Q. M. De- 
partment. These supplies have included 
large quantities of antiscorbutics and the 
other articles comprised on our supply 
list. 



The arrival of negro troops in this De- 
partment, and the existence of camps of 
contrabands, some in Government employ 
and others only receiving Government sup- 
port, demanded instructions as regards the 
policy of the Commission in this respect. 
I ordered Mr. GaU to furnish to troops 
(without reference to color) our supplies on 
requisitions of medical officers, and to 
, aid moderately sufferers in employ of Quar- 
termasters and Commissaries; but also 
that beyond these two classes of persons, 
in my opinion, jthe suppUes of the Com- 
mission could not be extended. As this 
has been the policy of the Commission 
in the past, so far as I understand it, I 
presume my action will be approved, as 
regards the department of Norfolk. It 
has, at least, given satisfaction thus far. 

Mr. Gall has done essential service to us 
by his efforts to effect the release of our 
officers who were in the hands of the Con- 
federates. The Eeport of Dr. Douglas on 
the battles of Gettysburg contained a f uU 
account of the seizure of these officers. 
Efforts were made to obtain their release, 
through petitions from Confederate sur- 
geons in our lines, addressed to Gen. Eob- 
ert Lee, private letters from citizens of the 
District of Columbia to their friends in 
Eichmond, and a direct communication 
from myself (dated Aug. 28, 1868) to Eob- 
ert Ould, Esq., Confederate Commissioner 
for the Exchange of Prisoners. To these 
efforts must be added the valuable services 
of Gen. Meredith, the U. S. Commission- 
er. Mr. GaU aided in aU these, and final- 
ly, on the 22d ult., the trivial technicalities 
on which these officers were retained being 
removed, they were delivered to Gen. Mer- 
edith, and once more breathed loyal air. 
Mr. Alfred Brengle has, however, still been 
retained by the Confederate Government, 
under plea that he was seized because he 
had conveyed stores to a beleaguered post. 
******* 

Newbeen, North CAKOtMA. — Dr. J. M. 
Page, Sanitary Inspector, assisted by Mr. 
Page as Storekeeper, has charge of this 
District. No letters or Eeports have been 
received from there during my term of ser- 
vice, excepting regular transmissions of 
accounts of stock and lists of sick and 
wounded for the Directory. 



8 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



BEAtrPOET AUD MoBMS ISLAND. — Dr. M. 

M. Marsh, assisted by Mrs. Marsh, has 
been in charge of this District. His com- 
munications have sho-wn how indispensable 
have been the supplies which the Commis- 
sion has lllmished to the troops engaged 
in active operations on Morris Island, and 
how these have been received by the soldiers 
as well as officers. General Gilmore has 
issued a special commendatory order with , 
reference to the efficiency of the Commis- 
sion, and Dr. Marsh has received full as- 
surances from him of the acceptability of 
our work. As Dr. Douglas has made a re- 
cent inspection of this District, and as all 
the suppHes have been forwarded directly 
from New York, I pass over this portion of 
my report, presuming that full information 
win be furnished from other sources. 

New Oklbans. — Inspector G. A. Blake 
has been in charge of this District. It is 
probable that the Army of this Department 
will be employed in a movement towards 
the occupation of Texas. A wide sphere 
for the operations of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion will thus be opened up. 

Westbbn VrRGiNiA. — Finding that the 
troops under General Kelly's command oc- 
cupying stations and camps from Cumber- 
land eastward to Point of Eocks were in 
need of supplies,! ordered Dr. Julius Nichols 
to inspect these troops, and to report their 
needs as they met his eye in his course of 
inspection. He has already made requisi- 
tions to meet the wants of the Hospitals in 
Cumberland and Martinsburg. Thence he 
goes westward, and will return here next 
week and report the result of his inspec- 
tion. Should his report be ready before 
the adjournment of the Commission, I will 
send it in for your consideration. [This 
report was made at the close of the ses- 
sion.] 

T:boe Aemy of the Potomac. — The first 
febors of the Commission were directed to 
its sanitary condition, and when the work 
of furnishing relief to the needy and suffer- 
ing was undertaken as a part of the Commis- 
sion's duties, it began the work in this Army 
with a zeal that has continued down to the 
present time undiminished in its day of de- 
feat or triumph. Early in May, 1863, the 
operations of the Commission in the Army 
were consigned to the care of the present 



writer, which has been continued to the 
date of the present report, excepting so 
much as had reference to the operations for 
a few weeks after the battle of Gettysburg. 
Dr. J. H. Douglas, one of the Associate 
Secretaries, was in charge at the latter 
place during the period to which reference 
is made, returning the duty to my hands 
afterwards. 

With the view of meeting wants as they 
might arise in the field, and of preventing 
that suffering peculiar to armies separated 
from their base of supplies, the Field Be- 
lief Corps was reorganized shortly after the 
battle of Gettysburg. A special report has 
been made on the subject of this organiza- 
tion to the Executive Committee, which is 
now passing through the printer's hands. 
The design is to have a corps of gentlemen 
acting as relief agents, each in a separate 
corps, furnished with his own means of 
transportation, and lodging in the field. 
We have been peculiarly fortunate in our 
selections. The agents are welcomed as 
co-laborers in the great war of law and right 
by the officers. They furnish the needed 
articles just where they are needed, and 
personally superintend the distribution, 
keeping an eye always to the proper use of 
what they have issued. While laboring for 
the good of the whole Army, each feels a 
special pride in seeing that his own special 
family — the Corps to which he belongs — is 
kept in the best possible condition. He 
feels a generous spirit of rivalry towards his 
fellow-agents, and is not willing that his 
own work should be, in any manner, infe- 
rior to that of his brethren. By a system 
of weekly reports made to the Chief Inspec- 
tor, the latter is enabled to control the 
whole movement of the Corps and to keep 
up a complete knowledge of the perfection 
or imperfection of the machinery employ- 
ed. A package of these reports is herewith 
submitted to the inspection of the Commis- 
sion, so that an idea may be gained of the 
ability of the men employed in this work. 
Much information is acquired in these re- 
ports that has heretofore been furnished by 
the formal inspection of our inspectors. 
They have frequently served as a basis of 
action in regard to the sanitary condition 
of regiments, as well as the nature of the 
supplies demanded by the troops. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



The promptness ■with which our agents 
make their appearance when needed may 
be well illustrated by an extract from the 
last Beport of the Agent of the Second Ar- 
my Corps, which was on the advance when 
the movement was made towards Culpep- 
per. He says : ' ' During the last two weeks 
of movements, I have the satisfaction of 
knowing that my wagon was always ahead 
of any other means of relief; that I dis- 
pensed- relief to wounded cavalry from the 
front within an hour after their wounds 
were received. While our own team was 
in motion I have passed out articles to sur- 
geons in charge of ambulance trains return- 
ing from the front.'' ******* 

The Medical Inspector of this Army says, 
"We could not do without the Commis- 
sion; it furnishes so many things which 
cannot be obtained from Government." 
The Medical Director says, "It gives me 
no trouble; there is no interference." 
******* 

With the view of obtaining materials for 
the discussion of me effects of long marches 
and inadeqiiatefood on troops, Inspector W. 
S. Swalm has been detailed, in accordance 
with a plan agreed upon by the Chief of 
the Statistical Department and myself, for 
this duty. He has nearly completed an ex- 
amination of two corps, having made be- 
tween sixty and eighty inspections of regi- 
njents. Should any change of plans in the 
Army bring on another engagement before 
this work is completed, the data already 
obtained by Dr. S. wiU be of the greatest 
possible importance; but their value wiU 
be much enhanced should he be enabled 
to finish this work. 

Gbttxsbueg.- — Our work with the wound- 
ed continues to the present time. Dr. 
Gordon Winslow, formerly Chaplain of 
Duryea's, Zouaves, ^ was [placed, by Dr. J. 
H. Douglas, in charge of the operations at 
this place. Samuel Bacon, Jr., has been 
acting as Storekeeper. This depot has 
been invaluable. In addition to the enor- 
mous distribution of [stores mentioned in 
Dr. Douglas' Eeport, (Document 71,) the 
issues have been very large down to the 
present time. As soon as a want was de- 
tected — and fDr. Winslow seems to have 
been Argus-eyed in this particular— it has 
been supplied. We have purchased, on 



Hospital Fund account, everything re- 
quired for the Hospital which was not ob- 
tainable from the Commissary. The bills 
for these purchases, amounting to over 
$3,000 up to August 15, were paid by the 
Commissary. Since that time these pur- 
chases have' amounted to .between $3,000 
and $4,000. They will also be paid by the 
Commissary. 

In order to show the esteem in which the 
Commission is held by medical officers at 
Gettysburg, the following paper has been 
signed by them : 

Camp Lettebman Hospital, 
Mar Qeltyshurg, Sept. 2Gt7i, 1863. 

The undersigned, surgeons and assistant 
surgeons of the Getj^ral Hospital near Get- 
tysburg, take pleasure in expressing our 
gratification at the manner in which the 
afiairs of the Sanitary Commission have 
been managed in this place since the late 
battle. The supplementary articles for the 
sick and wounded soldiers have been abund- 
ant, comprising every requisite which the 
exigency demanded, and which nothing 
but a well-regulated system, with much 
experience and forethought, could have se- 
cured. We are furthermore convinced that 
the system adopted by the Sanitary Com- 
mission of disbursing their supplies only 
on the requisition of a surgeon, is the only 
proper and safe method. Any other course 
necessarily supposes an extra force, which 
is calculated to cumber the hospital with 
irresponsible attendants, distract the pub- 
lic benefactions, if not divert them from a 
just and equal distribution among the pa- 
tients for whom they are intended. 

Henry Janes, Surg. U. S. V. In charge 
of Hospital, Gettysburg. 

E. N. Chamberlain^ Surg. U. S. V. In 
charge General Hospital. 

S. W. Oakley, Surg. U. S.V., and Acting 
Medical Purveyor. 

J. D. Osborne, Surg. 4th N. J. V., and 
Executive Officer of Camp. 

W. E. Breakey, Assistant Surg. 16th 
Mich. Infantry. 

H. C. May, Assistant [Surg. 145th Eegi- 
ment, N, Y. V. 

J. B. Sturdevant, Assistant Surg. Penn. 
Vols., 

Chas. S. Gauntt, M.D., A. A. Surgepn, 
U. S. A. 



10 



The Sanitary Commission. BiMetin. 



B. r. Butcher, A. A. Surg,, U. S. A. 
J. A. M'Artliur, A. A. Surg., U. S. A. 
W. L. Hays, A. A. Surgeon, TJ. S. A. 
H. H. Sutton, A. A. Surgeon, U. S. A. 
E. P. Townsend, A. A. S., U. S. A. 
Albert B. Stonekke, Ass't Surg; U. S. A. ; 
in charge of 7th Division. 
D. B. Good, A. A. Surg., U. S. A. 
P. S. Leisenring, A. A. Surg., U. S. A. 

HospiTAii Visiting. — This subject is so 
well treated in the Eeport of Dr. CaldweU. 
that I can do no "better than to direct at- 
tention of the Commission to the same. 
I must, however, give my testimony in fa- 
vor of the honest j^and conscientious man- 
ner in which Dr. CaldweU has executed the 
delicate duties of a Hospital Visitor. He 
has temporarily retired from its duties, ex- 
pecting to resume the same during the com- 
ing month. Until that time his place wiU be 
supplied by some other employee of the 
Commission. 

Issues. — I submit an account of the is- 
sues made during the months of August 
and September from the Washington 
Storehouse. This wiU enable the Commis- 
sion to understand how large the issues 
have been. Further particulars as to the 
directions these issues have taken may be 
obtained from the books of the Central 
Office. 

The issues from the storehouses have 
been very large, in consequence of our sys- 
tematic plan of visiting the armies near 
Washington, and more especially the Army 
of the Potomac. As the result of this 
our stock of some woolen goods is becom- 
ing low, and in the item of stimulants We 
have been obliged to purchase largely, but 
(I believe) on fair terms, in the Washington 
market. I am satisfied that the amount 
misused is now as near the minimum as is 
possible. The agents are, as a geneial 
thing, careful in this respect, and from ex- 
perience have learned whom to trust. 

In closing this Eeport, I must express 
my belief that the Commission has done all 
that could have been reasonably expected 
from it during the last two months; and that 
more may be expected hereafter in conse- 
quence of the experience acquired in the 
past, if a sufficient amount of supplies and 
funds be placed at its command. Officers 



are working with a quiet enthusiasm which 
could not be obtained for money, or any 
other reward; and every employee wiU find 
it a source of incalculable pleasure, in the 
future, that he once labored in its ranks, 
at the command of a great people, whose 
souls' heartiest wish and desire was that no 
suffering should exist in the Army of the 
Union which might be prevented by any- 
thing procurable through money or kind 
words. 

With due respect. 

Tour humble servant, 
LEWIS H. STEINEE, 
Chief Inspector A. of P., 
Acting Associate Secretary. 
Washington, Oct. 1, 1863. 



REPORT OF THE HOSPITAL DIREC- 
TORY BUREAU. 

Sanitabt Commission, 
Oct. 1, 1863. 
To Db. J. PosTEB Jenkins, 
Gen'l Seo'y: 
Sib — ^In my last Eeport, of June 9th, I 
had the satisfaction of saying that the Hos- 
pital Directory of the U. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission was receiving regular returns from 
every General Hospital of the U. S. Army. 
This remark stiU holds good. I have to 
report no increase in the number of Hos- 
pitals from which Eeports are received at 
the Central Office, or its several branches. 

The number of names recorded on the 
books of the Hospital Directory from June 
9th to Oct. 1st have been as follows: 

At the Washington Office 64,635 

" New York " 18,771 

" Philadelphia " 12,213 

" Louisville, from May 9. . 96,433 

Total 192,052 

Add number of names on record 

June 9th :., 215,221 

And we have a grand total of. .407,273 
Eecorded as foUows: 
Washington Office, to Oct. 1 , '63 169, 007 
New York " " " 27,820 

PhUadelpMa " " " 24,513 
Louisville " " " 186,438 

Total 407,273 

The nuiliber of applications for informa- 
tion and the number of answers rendered, 
from the organization of the Directory to 
Oct. 1, 1863, have been as follows" 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



11 



Washington Office, No. Inq. 6,712 No. Ans. 4,624 

New York " " 666 " 474 

HuMelplila " " 647 '■ 348 

Louisville " " 5,862 " 4,016 

Total No. Inq. 13,787 Tot. Ans. 9,362 

The Monthly Abstract Sheets are being 
regularly tabulated, as reported in my last, 
and as the new form of the Morning Be- 
port from Hospitals recently recommended 
by the Surgeon-General is being adopted 
throughout the Army, the continuation of 
this branch of the Hospital Bureau wiU re- 
quire an increase of the clerical force of 
two, and perhaps four, competent jjersons 
for the work of tabulating. 

The tabulated returns of casualties as 
rendered to this Bureau, of the actions at 
Gettysburg and Morris Island, July 18th, 
are herewith presented. 

An interesting incident, showing how the 
Hospital Directory can be of aid to the sol- 
dier, has just transpired. 

One , Co. C, 64th Begiment 

New York Volunteers, has by the death of 
relatives abroad become heir to a fortune 
of half a million of dollars. But where is 

private ? He has not been heard from 

for a long time, and it is not known whether 
he is aUve or not. It was suggested that 
the Sanitary Commission be applied to for 
information. 

The reply ta the inquiry was as follows : 

, Co. C, 64th Begiment, New 

York Yolunteers, was admitted to U. S. 
General Hospital, Camp A, Frederick, Md. , 
Nov. 26th, 1862, transferred to Camden St. 
Hospital, Baltimore, May 17, 1863, and 
again transferred to Fort Schuyler Hos- 
pital, New York, April 24, 1863. On the 
17th July following, he was detached to the 
1st Battalion Invalid Corps, and is now on 
duty at Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

JOHN BOWNE, 
Superintendent Hospital Directory. 



REPORT OF SPECIAL RELIEF DE- 
PARTMENT. 

Washingi'on, D. C, 

Oenteaii OEracB, U. S. Sanitary Com'n., 

October 1st, 1863. 

De. J. FosTEB Jenkins, 

General Secretary: 
SiE — ^My last report upon Special Belief 
was dated December I5th, 1862. The pres- 



ent report furnishes the statistics of the 
work from that time to the present date, 
October 1st, 1863, a period of nine and a 
half months. 

The main purpose kept in view in this 
work of Special Belief for the paat two 
years has been this, as indicated by previ- 
ous reports: 

First. To supply to the sick men of the 
newly arrived regiments such medicines, 
food, and care as it is impossible for them 
to receive, in the midst of the confusion, 
and with the unavoidable lack of facilities, 
from their own officers. The men to be 
thus aided are those who are not so sick as 
to have a claim upon a general hospital, and 
yet need immediate care to guard them 
against serious sickness. 

Second. To furnish suitable food, lodg- 
ing, care and assistance to men who are 
honorably discharged from service, sent 
from general hospitals, or from their regi- 
ments, but who are often delayed a day or 
more in the city, sometimes many days be- 
fore they obtain their papers and pay. 

Third. To communicate with distant regi- 
ments in behalf of discharged men whose 
certificates of disability or descriptive lists 
on which to draw their pay prove to be de- 
fective — ^the invalid soldiers meantime be- 
ing cared for, and not exposed to the fa- 
tigue and risk of going in person to their 
regiments to have their papers corrected. 

Fourth. To act as the unpaid agent or 
attorney of discharged soldiers who are too 
feeble or too utterly disabled to present 
their own claim at the paymaster's office. 

Fifth. To look into the condition of dis- 
charged men who assume to be without 
means to pay the expense of going to their 
homes; and to furnish the necessary means 
where we find the man is true and tibie need 
real. 

Sixth. To secure to disabled soldiers rail- 
road tickets at reduced rates; and, through 
an agent at the railroad station, see' that 
these men are not robbed or imposed upon 
by sharpers. 

Seventh. To see that all men who are 
discharged and paid off do at once leave 
the city for their homes; or, in cases where 
they have been induced by evil compan- 
ions to remain behind, to endeavor to res- 



12 



The Sanitary Commission BvEetin. 



cue them, and see them started with 
through-tickets to their own towns. 

Eighth. To make reasonably clean and 
comfortable before they leave the city, such 
discharged men as are deficient in cleanli- 
ness and clothes. 

Ninth. To be prepared to meet at once 
with food or other aid, such immediate ne- 
cessities as arise when sick men arrive in 
the city in large numbers from battle-fields 
or distant hospitals. 

Tenth. To keep a watchful eye upon aU 
soldiers who are out of hospitals, yet not in 
service; and give information to the proper 
authorities of such soldiers as seem endeav- 
oring to avoid duty or to desert from the 
ranks. 

On this basis of objects aimed at, I report 
concerning the work during the past nine 
months in general terms: 

1. Most of these old methods of relief 
have been continued with satisfactory suc- 
cess. 

2. Some new methods of relief have been 
resorted to, which, in their practical work- 
ing, have justified their introduction. 

3. The class of men rightfully claiming 
this Special Belief assistance of the Com- . 
mission has enlarged, embracing with those 
to whom help was previously given, others 
whose newly-developed or increasing needs 
naturally brought them under our care. 

4. The arrangements which are made by 
the Commission in this direction (Special 
EeUef) has evidently become still more gen- 
erally known, and applied for, and appre- 
ciated throughout the Army. 

5. The co-operation of the Medical De- 
partment of the Army, as also of the Quar- 
termaster's, Commissary's and Paymaster's 
Departments, has been stiU. more ready and 
cordial even than before. 

6. The cost of maintaining this branch 
of the Commission's work during the past 
riSne (9) months has somewhat diminished 
relatively to the number of men who have 
been assisted, and the amount of assistance 
rendered to them; although the total 
amount is about one-half larger than in an 
equal term of time before. 

7. WhUe nine (9) months ago the direct 
caU upon the Commission for help from dis- 
abled discharged soldiers, after they had 
returned to their homes, was but infre- 



quent, it has now so largely increased 
(through applications made to the Special 
EeUef Office) as to justify me in presenting 
to you in detail— appended to this report- 
some of the facts of the case, as also some 
statistics which I have collected bearing 
upon the subject; and to call your atten- 
tion to the urgent necessity which evident- 
ly exists for having, from some source as 
early as possible, a comprehensive and 
practical system matured and instituted, 
which wiU provide for this class of men; 
unless we would have throughout the com- 
munity a host of mendicants who, pointing 
to their honorable wounds and disabled 
bodies, wUl have established their necessity 
and right to live upon the charity of the 
people. 

Having made these general statements, I 
will now report, in detail, but briefly as 
may be, tipon the several branches of Re- 
lief; — and first, at Washington: 

1st. "The Home," 374 NoHh Capitol 
Street. — Increased accommodations for se- 
curing room and comfort at the Home, re- 
ferred to in my last report, have been ob- 
tained; and now, instead of 140 beds, we 
have at the Home 320, besides a large bag- 
gage-room, a convenient washroom, a bath- 
house, &c. Two of the additional build- 
ings, one 16 feet by 60, th^ other 28 feet 
by 90, were put up by the Quartermaster's 
Department. The third building, 30 feet 
by 50 (with an L 20 by 35) for a "Hospi- 
tal," this was at the expense of the Com- 
mission, at a cost of about '$800. The ne- 
cessity for this buUding, devoted exclusive- 
ly to Hospital purposes, is found in the 
fact, that although the men who come un- 
der the care of the Commission are mostly 
on their way to their homes, and might 
therefore be supposed to be not so very 
feeble as to need specially "Hospital" 
treatment, yet, as a matter of fact, many of 
them are weakened to such a degree by 
disease, that by the time they reach Wash- 
ington, or the railway station from the 
front, or "from the various hospitals, their 
strength is nearly exhausted, and they are 
only restored, if at aU, by such care as hos- 
pital treatment affords; and frequently they 
are too far gone to make even that avail- 
able, as is indicated by the record, which 
shows that from February 23d to October 



The Samtary Commission Bulletin. 



'\B 



Ist, there -were received at the Home 665 
men, very sick, who were placed in the new 
Hospital, of which number thirty-eight 
died there.. This was, from February 23d, 
when this new building was opened; but 
dating back to December 15th, there has 
been under the charge of the Commission, 
including those just named, some 900 men 
who were very sick and feeble, of which 
number a total of sixty-one (61) have died 
at the Home. These were nearly all men 
having their dischaifge papers with them, 
and they had, consequently, given up their 
claim upon the General or Begimental Hos- 
pitals, and had taken the first stage of their 
journey towards their homes. If they had 
not found the care which the Commission 
thus offered to them, these same men must 
have died in the cars along the way, or at 
some stopping-point on their journey. Of 
the remaining 840 of these very feeble men, 
we have reason to believe that many, except 
for the care and rest secured to them by 
the provision of the Commission, could not 
have lived through their journeys. 

This unusually large proportion of very 
sick or dying men s4io came into our hands 
is accounted for by the fact, that at the time 
of the advance movement of the Army in the 
spring, and the breaking up of the Corps 
Hospitals near Aquia Creek, discharge pa- 
pers were granted to many soldiers who, in 
their earnest desire once more to reach 
their homes, counted upon more strength 
than was left to them, and so they came to 
us, and waited there tiU, with straining 
eyes, and one_hand reached out towards the 
friends they had hoped and longed to see, 
they died. And allow me here to record 
this fact, that although these men died thus 
waiting, hoping, watching to catch the light 
which almost fell upon them from their 
firesides at home, yet from the Hps of no 
one of those sixty dyingimen has a murmur 
or complaint been heard; tender messages 
did they leave to be sent on, but not one 
word of repining at their fate; no syllable 
of regret that they had joined the ranks — 
discharged from the service they were, but 
soldiers stUl — ^they died in their country's 
cause. 

In charge of this "Home Hospital" is 
an experienced and kindly nurse as Ma- 
tron, Miss Charlotte Bradford, who s^ved 



faithfully last summer upon the "Hospi- 
tal Transports;"— there are day and night 
watchers, and aU facilities for giving cheer- 
fulness and comfort to these men detained 
by the way. 

The surgeon now in charge of the Home 
is Dr. T. B. Smith, whose report accompa- 
nies this; his labors are successful. Dr. 
Smith is also Medical Examiner for Pen- 
sions, for the Commission. The former 
surgeon in charge. Dr. Grymes, who for 
nearly a year and a half had given his whole 
soul and strength to the work, died in Jan- 
uary last. He was at his post almost till 
the hour of his death, though too feeble to 
walk without support. He had a loyal and 
a loving heart, and the Commission as well 
as the soldiers certainly have cause to re- 
member him with the deepest, tenderest 
gratitude. 

In order to show more in detail the work 
of the "Home," I make the following ex- 
tracts from the Report of Dr. Smith, in- 
cluded in the Eeport of Mr. J. B. Clark, 
the Superintendent: 

" On many occasions, either during my 
visits to the sick, or just previous to their 
departure for home or their regiments, 
have soldiers spontaneously, and with emo- 
tions of gratitude, exclaimed, ' Doctor, 
this is very unexpected kindness,' 'I have 
seen no such care and comfort since leav- 
ing my home. ' One recently said to me, 
while sitting in the Hospital and looking 
upon the completion of arrangements for 
his departure," ' Doctor, I have been so 
kindly treated here, and been helped so 
much more than at any time before, since 
my sickness, that I am almost afraid to go 
beyond that door.' These are a few of 
many grateful expressions which the com- 
fort they have enjoyed has called forth 
from the soldiers under treatment in this 
Hospital; and not from these only; for we 
keep at the Home constantly a supply of 
beds, stretchers, and comforts of aU kinds, 
to be placed on board the cars when need- 
ed there — articles which are daily sent for 
from the railroad station, where notice is 
given that all these aids are ready, near 
by, for any sick soldier who needs thein on 
his journey. 

That the community at large are only 
partially informed of the character and 



14 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



amount of good work done in this in- 
stitution, I am well satisfied, judging from 
the expressions of favorable surprise made 
by citizen visitors and relatives of soldiers 
who come in from abroad, and thus see and 
judge for themselves. The procuring of 
pay, pensions, and transportation for the 
men while they lie comfortably in the Hos- 
pital under treatment, would alone be ac- 
complishing much, the omission of which 
would cause indescribable suffering, and 
loss and anxiety to the disabled soldier. " 

" Many within the past four months have 
reached the ' Home' in a dying condition. 
Such have invariably, I believe, been care- 
fully watched; their own names, and pa- 
rents' or friends' names and residences ob- 
tained and recorded; their effects secured, 
labeled, and stored away safely. When 
thought wise, on account of time requisite 
to reach this city, their friends have been 
informed of all these circumstances by tel- 
egraph. The dead are in all instances af- 
forded a proper burial in the Government 
grounds, and each grave ijroperly designa- 
ted; or, if so requested by friends, the 
bodies are forwarded." 

"In June last many of the two years' 
regiments went home, and on their way 
through this city, their wounded and sick 
who were too feeble to go forward with the 
regiments, entered our little Hospital. 
Over 120 have in this way either stopped, 
to be subsequently properly disposed of in 
General Hospitals, or simply to have their 
wounds dressed and eat a meal, to invigo- 
rate them for the tiresome railroad journey 
before them." 

"The doors of the 'Home' are open 
night and day; yet vigilant watch is kept, 
not to harbor any man who ought to be with 
his regiment, or reporting to some Medical 
Officer. Otherwise, the * Home ' would 
quickly become what of course there is, as 
we are ready to acknowledge, apparent and 
real danger of its becoming, unless wisely 
managed, viz., a pliila'nthropio interference 
with Army discipline, pleading its human- 
ity as an excuse for its intrusioh. To unite 
tender kindness and cordial welcome with 
the exercise of a discriminating judgment, 
and often stem authority, is not easy; but 
I believe that in our Special EeUef work 
the presence of the one does not exclude 



the working of the other, and that not the 
soldier only, but the Army, is the stronger 
because of the 'Home.' The name of 
every man who enters there is recorded, 
his papers examined, and how he came 
there, found out. Whenever there is a 
doubt about the man, a thorough inves- 
tigation of his case is at once made, which 
sometimes results in turning over to the 
military authorities deserters, and men 
who think that within the walls of a chari- 
table institution they can find a ready shel- 
ter for a mean shirking of duty. 

" I enter this record because it is needed 
to answer the honest objection which, on 
the ground of its 'tendency to weaken 
military discipline,' might be made to the 
fundamental principle on which the Spe- 
cial Relief work of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion is based, and on which the Homes and 
Lodges, scattered now all over the East 
and West, are founded. The authority and 
importance of military discipline are not 
set aside or lost sight of; on the contrary, 
they are always rigidly insisted upon. In 
this work the Sanitary Commission, as the 
representatives of the people at home, seeks 
to do precisely what it believes would gladly 
be done — were it right or possible to enter 
into this kind of work — ^by the Military and 
Medical authorities themselves, under the 
administration which the people aU so cor- 
dially desire to support." 

To turn again to the records of the Home. 

Number of different individuals re- 
ceived there from Dec. 15th, 1862, 
to October 1st, 1863 7,187 

Number of nights' lodging furnish- 
ed 26,523 

Number of meals furnished 65,621 

Almost all the men received here have 
been men discharged from the service on 
account of disability, wounds, or continued 
sickness. Of these, one-half at least were 
delayed in the citj' on account of imperfec- 
tions in some of their discharge papers, the 
final statements, on which to draw their pay, 
requiring often a number, of days for their 
correction. 

The Superintendent's report divides the 
7,187 men received recently at the Home 
as follows: 

Maine .-...,■ 374 

New Hampshire 194 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



15 



Vermont 177 

Massachusetts 866 

Rhode Island 63 

Connecticut 152 

New York 2,063 

New Jersey 410 

Pennsylvania 1,658 

Delaware 29 

Maryland 35 

Virginia 36 

California ^ 3 

Michigan 259 

Ohio 178 

Indiana 118 

lUinois 55 

Wisconsin 199 

Minnesota 10 

Colorado 3 

District of Columbia 5 

U. S. Army, (Begulars) 262 

U. 8. Navy 1 

Quartermaster's Department 8 

Political Eelugees 7 

Contract Nurses 53 

Next in order after the " Home" is Lodge 
No. 2, in " 17th" Street: this was no longer 
needed, and was closed in March; larger 
accommodations more centrally situated 
rendered its continuance unnecessary. 

Number of nights' lodging given 
them from Dec. 15th to March 
12th 1,550 

Number of meals 2,130 

Lodge No. 3, in " F " Street. When this 
Lodge was built, the office for the pay- 
ment of discharged soldiers was near by, 
in " r " St. ; that office haviug been remov- 
ed to "H" St., this Lodge has been closed: 
(it now is used as the local storehouse of 
the Cornmission, and furnishes excellent 
accommodations. ) 

From Dec. 15th until it was closed, 
this Lodge furnished nights' lodg- 



ing. 



3,760 



Meals 17,960 

Lodge No. 4, in " H" Street. This is the 
new Lodge with large accommodations, 
immediately connected with the office of 
the Payniaster for discharged soldiers. It 
was opened about the 1st of Februai-y. 

Number of nights' lodging furnish- 
ed at Lodge No. 4, from February 
1st to Oct. 1st 9,832 

Nuniber of meals furnished. ..... ...50,096 

This relief station consists of six build- 
ings. A dormatory of a hundred beds: a 
dining-room. Beating about one hundred, 
with a large kitchen attached: a baggage- 
room, where all the discharged men comjng 



in to be paid off can deposit their baggage, 
receiving a check for it: a storehouse: 
quarters for the guard: and a building con- 
taining the office of the Free Pension 
Agency, office of the Medical Examiner for 
pensions, and ticket office for thejjEailroad 
agent, selling through-tickets to soldiers at 
reduced rates of fare.. 

All disabled soldiers discharged directly 
from the Army of the Potomac or from the 
Hospitals in this vicinity come to the Pay- 
master's office, which is within this same 
inclosure, to be paid off. Government can 
no longer hold itself directly responsible 
for these men, and here is where we take 
them up. Yet Government cordially co- 
operates in our work, furnishing to the 
Commission part of these very buildings, 
and giving such, army rations at this Lodge 
as we can use for these men advanta- 
. geously with our other supplies. 

The object of the whole thing at this 
Lodge is this, viz. : so to supply to the dis- 
charged soldier close at his hand and with- 
out a cent of cost, all that he needs — food, 
lodging, assistance in correcting his papers, 
aid in looking up his claims, help in ob- 
taining his pension and his bounty — such 
that there can be no excuse or opportunity 
for the soldier to put himself or be put 
into the hands of claim agents and sharp- 
ers, or to go out and expose himself to the 
temptations of the city. 

To secure this end, every man who comes 
to the paymaster with his discharge, at once 
receives a ticket insuring him care and a 
helping hand; and by an arrangement with 
. the paymaster, whenever, a man appears 
with defective papers, he is at once referred 
to the Belief Office for assistance or advice. 
The. work at that office occupies three per- 
sons constantly, besides those who go with 
oases that have to be looked up personally 
at the hospitals or with the regimental offi- 
cers in the field, and cannot be arranged by 
correspondence. 

To indicate something of the kind of 
work done here, I make the following ex- 
tract from the report of Mr. J. B. Abbott, 
who has served most faithfully and efficient- 
ly as Assistant Special Belief Agent, with 
his office at Lodge No. 4, and upon whom 
almost the entire responsibility • in this de- 
partment for the past year has rested. 



16 



The Sanitary Gommission Bulletin. 



"At this office and Lodge No. 4, from 
Jan'y 1st to Oct. 1st, 1863, tlie number of 
discharged soldiers whose accounts against 
the Government have been settled through 
our assistance, men who were too feeble to 
attend to settling their own accounts, or 
who were unable to obtain their pay, be- 
cause of some charge against them on the 
pay-rolls, or some errors in their papers, 
2,130." 

Information and directions have been 
given relative to settling pay accounts, col- 
ilecting arrears of pay, extra duty pay, 
commutation money to about 9,000 men. 

The aggregate value of the 2,130 cases 
amounted to $130,159.01. This amount 
was collected and paid to the soldiers 
through this office. 

But for the gratuitous aid thus affiDrded 
these soldiers discharged from the service, 
disabled by wounds or worn down by long 
marches and exposure in the field, or en- 
feebled by disease, anxious to get home, 
would have applied to " Claim Agents " for 
aid in obtaining speedily their dues from 
the Government, submitting willingly to 
pay a commission ranging from 10 to 40 
per cent. These agents, with some rare and 
admirable exceptions, in four cases out of 
every five, impede the settlement of ac- 
counts instead of facilitating them. 

Taking 10 per cent, as an average, which is 
the lowest commission usually charged by 
Claim Agents, the amount saved to the 
soldiers in adjusting the 2,130 cases of 
which a record has been kept, is shown to 
be $13,015.90. Add to this 10 per cent, of 
the probable aggregate value of the 9,000 
cases in which information and directions 
have been given, (for in most of these cases 
the soldiers would otherwise have gone to 
Claim Agents,) and the amount saved to 
the soldiers through the Commission by 
this office is shown to be at least $70,000 
•during nine months ending Sept. 30th. 

The number of letters written in adjust- 
ing the above cases of sufficient importance 
to make a copy necessary, 2,224. 

Many of the cases have been very diffi- 
cult to adjust, requiring several weeks to 
complete them. Below I add extracts of 
two or three cases from a day's record of 
the Journal, which will show explicitly the 
character of the cases we adjust and the 



difficulties we meet with in completing 
them. 

" Serg't Edward W. M. Passage, Company 
F,,16th Beg't Mich. Vols. Enrolled at 
Plymouth, Mich., in July, 1861, to serve 
three years or during the war. ' Discharged 
by reason of a Surgeon's Certificate of dis- 
ability, given at Convalescent Camp, April 
30th, 1863.' The Commander of the Post 
being unable to obtain from his Company 
Commander his descriptive list, the date of 
last payment could not be given in his 
final statements, nor his clothing account, 
except the amount ($3.60) of extra cloth- 
ing drawn at Convalescent Camp. Left 
his regiment in June, '62, just previous to 
the battles before Biohmond, having fallen 
a victim to the malarial fever; was put 
into one of the corps hospitals for a few 
days, and then sent to Fortress Monroe, 
where he remained a short time. He was 
then transferred to General Hospital in 
Philadelphia. In this Hospital he re- 
ceived a furlough for thirty days, and went 
home to Detroit, Michigan. At the expi- 
ration of his furlough, being tmable to re- 
port back to Philadelphia, he reported, as 
soon as he was able, to the nearest military 
post, St. Mary's General Hospital, De- 
troit, Michigan; but not aware of the prop- 
er form, did not notify the surgeon in 
charge of the Hospital in Philadelphia, 
where he received his furlough; conse- 
quently he was marked ' deserter, ' and so 
reported to his Company Commander, who 
has borne him as 'a deserter' upon the 
subsequent pay-rolls. 

"WhUe in St. Mary's Hospital, having 
partially recovered his health, he received 
papers from Michigan authorizing him to 
recruit men for the service, at the same 
time receiving a furlough for twenty days, 
which was twice extended twenty days. 
At the expiration of his furlough exten- 
sions he reported to the commander of the 
Military Barracks at Detroit, who reported 
him for duty and forwarded him to Wash- 
ington. From Washington he was sent to 
Convalescent Camp, and there pronounced 
unfit for military duty and discharged from 
the service." 

"This man was not aware that he was 
marked ' a deserter ' tOl he applied to the 
Paymaster-General to get indorsed upon 
his final statements the date of his last 
payment. Then he was informed that he 
was entitled to no pay, being borne ' a de- 
serter ' upon the pay-roll. He denied the 
charge, and was referred by the Chief 
Clerk to this office for assistance in get- 
ting the charge removed. 

"We obtained a certificate from the sur- 
geon or physician who attended him after 
the expiration of his furlough until he re- 
ported to St. Mary's Hospital, stating that 
during this time h e was unable to report 



The Sanitary •Commission BuUddn, 



17 



because of disability. This certificate was 
given ijnder oatti before a Notary Public. 
Certificates were also obtained, one by one, 
from the several military posts where he 
had been, coveringhis time from the date 
he was marked a deserter to the date of his 
discharge. Upon these certificates we got 
the charge removed and secured his pay. " 

"Wm. Benty, private, Company P, 16th 
Begiment U. S. fiifantry, enlisted at Clay- 
ton, Iowa, November 6th, 1861. 'Dis- 
charged on a surgeon's certificate of disa- 
bility,' given at Camp Parole, Annapolis, 
Md., April 7th, 1863, 'because of a gun- 
shot wound, the ball never having been ex- 
tracted. ' The wound has not healed, and 
it troubles him very much; he is anxious 
to get home; says he ' cares very little 
about his pay, if he can only get home.' 
He was wounded at Pittsburg Landing, 
Tennessee, sent to Hospital, Newport, Ken- 
tucky, where he remained nearly three 
months. The surgeon considered him un- 
fit for military duty, and was willing to give 
him a discharge, but could not, as he could 
not obtain his descriptive list. At his own 
request, the com.mander of the post gave 
him a pass to go to his regiment, then in 
Northern Alabama, to get his descriptive 
list. On his. way back he was taken pris- 
oner by guerrillas, (this was about the 22d 
of August, 1862,) his money and effects 
taken from him, and his papers destroyed. 
He was sent to Chattanooga, thence to Ma- 
con, Georgia, and after nearly two months' 
confinement, was sent to Richmond and 
paroled on the 18th of October, 1862. At 
the expiration of his pass, given by the 
commander of the post at Newport, Ken- 
tucky, he had been niarked 'a deserter,' 
as nothing had been heard of him, and so 
reported to his commanding officer, who 
marked him ' a deserter ' upon the regi- 
m.ental pay-rolls. 

" We obtained a certificate from the Com- 
missary-General of paroled prisoners, giv- 
ing the date of his capture and parole, gath- 
ered up "one by one all the important facts 
of the case, and forwarded them to his Com- 
pany Commander, so that at length we ob- 
tained a certificate, certifying that the man 
had been wrongly, marked 'a deserter." 
Upon this evidence, the charge was remov- 
ed and his pay secured, amounting to nearly 
one hundred and fifty dollars. 

"This man we furnished transportation 
home, from money of the ' Ware Fund,' and 
when, his account was settled, we forwarded 
him a draft for hia money." 

"George Poole, Company K, 3d Mary- 
land Vols., enrolled in Company 0, Balti- 
more Light Infantry, in Dec, 1861; he was 
subsequently transferred to Company B. 
In June, , 1862, the Baltimore Light Infantry 
was consolidated with the 3d Indiana Yols. 
He was put into Company K, a new com- 



pany formed at the time of oonsoUdation. 
Discharged on a surgeon's certificate of 
disability given at Convalescent Camp; 
claims pay from the 28th of Peb'y, 1862, to 
the date of his discharge, except for the 
months of January, February, March, and 
April, 1863, for which months he was paid, 
except from the 29th of Jan'y to th,e 19th 
of Feb. ; for this period his pay was de- 
ducted, he being marked a ' deserter. ' I 
obtained an official certificate showing that 
he was not a deserter for this period, and 
got the charge removed, which entitles him 
to the amount deducted from his pay. To 
secure his back pay or get it endorsed iipon 
his final statements, we were obliged to get 
statements from rolls in the 2d Comptrol- 
ler's office, 2d Auditor's office, and offices of 
two regimental paymasters, besides exam- 
ining several rolls in different accounts 
on file at the PaymasteifeGeneral's office, to 
verify his statement, or to obtain evidence 
that he was really entitled to the pay which 
he claimed. 

" Having shown satisfactory evidence to 
the Pay Department that he was entitled 
to the pay which he claimed, it was endors- 
ed upon his final statement, and his money 
secured, amounting to 1186.85." 

"We are daily completing such cases as 
the above, and some more compKcated, 
which, except for the aid afforded by the 
Commission, would have been placed in the 
hands of claim agents before referred to, 
who usually charge in such cases from $25 
to $50; or the soldiers would have disposed 
of their claims to some sharper for a pas- 
sage home, as many of these men are very 
willing to do, after having been confined 
in hospitals for months, and anxious to 
reach their friends; and in such cases the 
man leaves with the word ' deserter' affixed 
to him." 

"We are greatly indebted to the uni- 
form kindness, consideration, and co-oper- 
ation that has invariably been extended to 
us by the officers and clerks of the various 
Government offices with whom we have 
had business to perform. I desire espe- 
cially to mention the names of E. H. 
Brooks, Esq., chief clerk, Paymaster-Gen- 
eral's office, and Major D. Taylor, Paymas- 
ter of discharged soldiers." 

" In submitting this report, I desire to 
bear testimony to the faithfidness of my 
assistants, and their constant interest ia 
the work." 

Lodge No. 5, near 6th Street Wharf. This 
was a small building, but it has rendered 
valuable service, giving food and shelter to 
sick or wounded men arriving on the boats 
from Aquia Creek, and furnishing food to 
be carried into such boats as, loaded with 
wounded, had no adequate provision for 
feeding the men on board. 



18 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



An ambulance was stationed at this 
Lodge to take men to the Home, or to Hos- 
pitals: the Superintendent of the Lodge 
visited every boat immediately on its arrival 
at the wharf, and rendered all assistance 
and gave all needed information to the sick 
or wounded, taking those unable to walk 
in ambulances, and guiding the others to 
the horse-cars, and furnishing them with 
tickets to go to the Paymaster's ofSce, or to 
the Home, tii elsewhere, as the case might 
be. 

There was one week, at the time of the 
breaking up of the Corps Hospitals near 
Aqtda, Creek, when we gave cofifee and food 
to over five thousand (5,000) men on board 
the boats which arrived at the wharf. 

The boats came up in such rapid succes- 
sion, that with aU the efficiency of the 
Medical Director, (and surely no man in the 
whole Medical Department — ^I am safe in 
saying — does or can more fully and ad- 
mirably unite wise and energetic efficiency 
with kind and generous humanity, than 
does Dr. Abbott, the Medical Director at 
Washington), with all his promptness in 
having his entire train of ambulances at 
the wharf waiting night and day, it was 
simply impossible but that many of these 
men, numbered by thousands, should be 
detained often some hours before their 
turn would come to be removed. Mean- 
time, they needed just the care we were 
ready to give to them. 

This necessity existed, as is seen, from 
no oversight in having all reasonable pro- 
visions made. 

And in this connection I may fitly refer, 
both for the sake of justice to the Medical 
Department, and as an apology for our own. 
existence, to the frequent inquiry uttered, 
often in a toiie of censure, how it is possi- 
ble, if the Medical officers do their duty, 
that there can be any opportunity even for 
this supplementary work of relief. 

The question shows utter ignorance of 
the terrific weight of work of the most 
complicated and delicate character, which 
the officers of the Medical Department had 
upon their hands, and of their constant 
liability to be called upon at any moment 
to meet great and unexpected emergencies. 
The fact is simply this : that while the Med- 
ical Department has made a larger and 



wiser provision for the comfort of the siek 
and the wounded than the world ever be- 
fore saw, there is not, and cannot be, a 
minuteness of detail and a waiting at 
every comer to give to a fainting soldier a 
cup of water, such as friends at home in 
their anxious love ask for. Tet this 
work needs to be done, and therefore we, 
who are simply the hands to the people's 
heart and bounty, do the work. But if the 
Medical Department were to attempt it in 
all its minutiae of detail, their power for 
their own hundred-fold greater work would 
be weakened in a way that would find no 
justification. 

But to return from this digression: this 
Lodge, No. 5, was removed a month since 
to Maryland Avenue, near the E. K. Sta- 
tionj where it is doing the Same work for 
the sick or wounded arriving by cars from 
the Army, which was formerly done on the 
wharf, for those arriving by boats. 

The whole number of nights' lodging 
furnished at this building from 
Jan. Ist to Oct.. 1st 1,620 

Meals 14,590 

Closely connected with the work at the 
Relief Station in Maryland Avenue is the 
Lodge at Alexandria, located within the 
stockade, near the railway track and junc- 
tion, where aU the cars to and from the 
Army stop. Here there is a Lodge 16 
feet by 90, with an L 24x32, furnished with 
aU conveniences of gas and water, and ad- 
mirably arranged and conducted by Mr. 
James Eichardaon, Special Eelief Agent. 
Alexandria is now the " Gateway of the 
Army of the Potomac," and whenever a 
train of sick or wounded is coming in, a 
telegram is sent in advance from the front, 
and when the train arrives at this point 
food is ready for them and distributed 
among them while the train is waiting. 
Here, too, are often gathered at night sick 
men who arrive too late to go on to Wash- 
ington, or who are unexpectedly delayed. 
A sign upon the office of Col. Devereux 
reads, "All sick, wounded, and invalid sol- 
diers are requested to report to the Sani- 
tary Commission Lodge." 

The necessity for the existence of this 
Eelief Station is indicated by the fact, that 
during the first week after it was opened 
1,761 meals were given here. 



The Sanitary Ootrismssion Bulletin. 



19 



In January last "The Nurses' Home" 
was opened, under the care of Mrs. Dr. 
Caldwell, in Waskyigton, near the Special 
EeUef Office. 

The Nurses' Home has proved a source 
of immense relief to nurses arriving in the 
city, and to those worn down by service at 
the hospitals and needing a few days of 
quiet and rest, and also to the wives and 
mothers, and sometimes daughters, of sol- 
diers, who have come on seeking their hus- 
bands, or sons, or fathers, in the various 
hospitals. We have had a very large num- 
ber, during the past two months, of this 
latter class to care for, who, utterly igno- 
rant of the cost of the journey, and of ob- 
taining board and lodging, even for a day 
or two, in the city, were utterly destitute 
ajid helpless. A number who were weary 
and almost broken-hearted have been re- 
ceived here as at a home. A number of 
refugees, also^mothers and little children 
— have been received here and warmed and 
dothed. This has proved ia its working 
one of the kindest charities of the Com- 
mission. 

Since the "Nurses' Home" was 
opened, in January, the total num- 
ber of nights' lodging given here has 

been 1,583 

Meals furnished 3,040 

Number of different women sheltered 

andadmitted 1,190 

Total cost to Commission, about $2,300 

In regard to the Tree Pension Agency, I 
make th« following extract from the Re- 
port of Mr. Bascom, the Director: 

"The Pension Agency of the Sanitary 
Commission commenced its work on the 
10th of February, 1868, and up to this date 
(Oct. 1st) 985 applications for invalid pen- 
sions have been made from this office, and 
the necessary papers filed in the Govern- 
ment Pension Bureau." 

The Agency has proved a beneficent one 
to the soldiers in many ways. 

1. "It has saved to them already an ag- 
. gregate expense of more than- six thousand 

doUars, ($6,000,) and at the same rate wiU 
save in a year over ten thousaiid ($10,005.) 

2. "It has rescued them from imposi- 
tion, annoyance, and a great amount of 
trouble, in ascertaining in what way to pro- 
cure their pensions. 

3. "It has aided a considerable number 
of soldiers to obtain complete testimony to 
sustain their claims after their regularly , 
appointed and paid attorneys h ave refipsed, " 



unless with additional fees, to procure es- 
sential evidence. 

4. "It has also come to the relief of sev- 
eral who had employed and paid attorneys 
whom the Pension Office has refused, on 
account of some misconduct, to recognize 
as attorneys in any case. 

"Finally, the Agency has been of no 
small service to the Government, in pro- 
curing and forwarding all the testimony 
bearing upon a claipi — that which makes 
against a case, as weU as that which makes 
for it. In this way it will undoubtedly 
save many hundreds of doUars to the Gov- 
ernment in a moderate length of time." 

Agency for getting Back Pay for Soldiers 
in Hospitals. — It was found that very many 
soldiers in hospitals had various amounts 
of back pay due them, ^which their fami- 
lies sorely needed, but which was so tied 
up, that it could not be collected without 
an amount of investigation and labor which 
the Paymasters had no right to bestow 
upon individuals. 

An agent of the Commission, authorized 
by the Paymaster-General's Chief Clerk, has 
entered upon the work of obtaining the 
necessary information in each such case, so 
as to enable the Chief Clerk to furnish to, 
the man a certificate of the pay due to 
him, so that he can draw his money upon it. 

The report of Mr. Neal, the agent of the 
Ooinmission, shows that in Stanton Hos- 
pital alone, during the first week of his 
work, the back pay of 56 men was thus 
collected. Some of it had been due six or 
eight months, and the men had been mus- 
tered and paid for intermediate months, 
leaving this which was due in the position 
of an old debt. The total amount of money 
thus put into the hands of these 56 men 
(almost every dollar of which, as I learned, 
was sent to their homes by the chaplain,) 
was over $3,000. The detail of this work 
involves much painstaking labor, but its 
results amply repay for the time, expense, 
and care. 

Another agency connected with the 
Special Belief Office has been the work of 
seeking to guard the discharged soldiers 
while scattered through the city from being 
robbed or foully dealt with. For this pur- 
pose during the past six months we have 
employed, besides a relief agent, a "Detec- 
tive," who visits the E. E. Station and all 
the places of resort, and whose duty it has 



20 



The Sanitary Commission Buttetvn. 



been to wateh for and taring to justice all 
persons who were imposing upon the sol- 
diers, detaining them, leading them astray, 
or committiijg fraud upon them; and the 
city is full of men who are thus lying in wait 
for the soldier. This detective, by means 
which need not be specified, has rendered 
great service, and his work is not ended. 

The Belief Station and branch of the 
"Home" at "Convalescent Camp," Alexan- 
dria, near Fort Albany, is still under the 
care of Miss Amy M. Bradley, formerly 
matron of the "Home." 

The whole work is managed eflciently 
and with great success. She has the con- 
fidence and co-operation of all the officers 
in charge of the Corps, and daily she comes 
with ambulances into Washington, to the 
Paymaster's office, and to the "Homeland 
EaUway station, bringing the sick and dis- 
charged men who have been receiving her 
care. 

Miss Bradley's report of the past nine 
inonths' labor in this camp of some five 
thousand men, shows what an amount of 
work can tae done, relief affijrded, influence 
exerted by one individual thoroughly in 
earnest, and with resources at hand. 

Tickets directing the bearer to call at the 
Sanitary Commission Lodge, for such arti- 
cles as the Surgeon may specify, are put 
into the hands of all the surgeons and offi- 
cers in the camp, and as occasion calls 
these tickets are flUed out and given to the 
invalids who need supplies. In this way, 
since June 1st, (four months,) Miss Brad- 
ley has distributed from the stock kept 
constantly on hand, some four thousand of 
shirts, drawers, socks, &e., besides some 
10,000 smaller articles, such as towels, hand- 
kerchiefs, slippers, and the like. Previous to 
April, at which time regular hospitals were 
first established here. Miss Bradley, in 
hospital tents attached to the Lodge, at- 
tended to the very ill, receiving there dur- 
ing that time 125 sick men. 

She accompanied to Washington to the 
Paymaster's office during four months, and 
assisted many of the more feeble in getting 
their pay, discharged soldiei s whose united 
pay amounted to over $100,000. 

In the camp she visits and writes letters 
for the sick, and in aU wrys practicable 
ministers ' ' special relief. " 



It has been a good work, and I may fitly 
mention, that imder the wise executive 
management of Lieut. -Col. McKelvey, the 
name " Convalesent Camp" no longer is 
associated with suffering, but is synony- 
mous with care, comfort, and kind and 
liberal provision for all that the convales- 
cent soldier needs. 

The cost to the Commission of maintain- 
ing this branch of its work in Washington 
and vicinity, from Dec. 25th, 1862, to Oct. 
1st, 1863, has been about $24,500. This does 
not include nine hundred and eighty dol- 
lars used from the " Ware Fund, "so called, 
money placed in my hands for purposes 
which do not so legitimately come within 
the original work of the Commission, but 
which yet has an earnest claim. Thus with 
that money we have sent to their homes 
discharged soldiers who were destitute, or 
almost entirely destitute of means: — many 
fathers, mothers, and wives of soldiers; — 
some families of refugees who came to us 
in the saddest condition of want, and 
Army nurses from the front, sick or work- 
ed down by devoted labor. 

Could I give a simple picture — ^in one 
group, as they pass before me — of all the 
persons who have been helped by the few 
hundred dollars, entering with their anx- 
ious faces, their camp-worn or travel-worn 
garments, some in mourning, some very 
aged and bowed down, and some as little 
children, it would be a picture that with 
warm breath wotdd breathe a Tjlessing, 
which could be felt by the very heart of all 
those who have furnished the means for 
these additional charities. 

(The remainder of this report upon Special 
Relief, embracing a statement of the work 
at the North and West, will appear in the 
next number. ) 



REPORT FROM THE ARMY OF THE 
CUMBERLAND. 

Stevenson, Aia., Oct. 10, 1863. 
Db. J. S. Newbebet, 

Sec'y Western Bep't U. S. Sanitary (hm- 

mission, Louisville: 
Deae Sib — I regret that I am as yet un- 
able to furnish you a detailed report of the 
operations of the Sanitary Commission in 
"""^"itifllil nlill th"^"^^^"" of Chickamauga 



The Scmitary Commission Bulletin. 



21 



on the 19th and 20th ult. For the present 
I must beg you to gather an idea of the 
situation, so far as the Commission is con- 
cerned, from the hastily -written letters and 
telegrams I have sent you from time to 
time, and from Bev. Mr. Heywood, who 
accompanied me to the front, and who re- 
turned some time since to Louisville. I 
can only at present give you an outline 
sketch, which I beg you to " fill in" with 
material ah'eady on hand. 

Ever since the occupation of Chattanooga 
by our forces, our sole means of commu- 
nication between that point and the rail- 
road at Stevenson and Bridgeport have 
been by wagons over the Cumberland 
Mountains by two routes, the one being 
about 45 and the other about 60 miles from 
this place. The difficulties in the way of 
transportation were great, but not insur- 
mountable. On the 17th of September seven 
army wagon-loads of well-selected stores 
were safely landed in Chattanooga, and 
on the 23d — thanks to the energy and 
perseverance of Mr. Murdrell, hospital 
steward of the 93d Ohio, three more loads 
were added to the stock. These stores 
constituted almost the entire dependence 
of the hospitals at Chattanooga until the 
Tuesday and "Wednesday succeeding the 
battles. On those days trains containing 
portions of the Medical Purveyor's stores 
reached the front ; thus furnishing an- 
other instance of the necessity of independ- 
ent medical transportation. 

On Monday the 21st, partly because of 
the pressing necessities of the hospitals, 
partly because of possible military con- 
tingencies, the order was given to distrib- 
ute all the sanitary and medical stores 
on hand among the hospitals, and by Tues- 
day evening the Commission's rooms were 
cleared of their contents, and were occu- 
pied? by our wounded men. Those wht) 
had not fallen into the hands of the enemy 
were made measurably comfortable. Dr. 
Bead, who had been ailing for some time, 
and who had now, in addition, a wounded 
son thrown upon his hands, started on 
Tuesday, the 22d of September, with his 
son, and accompanied by Mr. M. C. Bead, 
for the rear. The doctor, as I learned, (I 
passed him on the road without seeing 



then proceeded in search of much-needed 
rest at his home in Ohio. Mr. M. C. 
Bead established his quarters at Steven- 
son, the principal depot for supplies, and 
commenced the reorganization of his de- 
partment at this point. Mr. Bedding, the 
storekeeper at Chattanooga, finding his 
occupation gone for the time being, return- 
ed to Bridgeport with the intention of ac- 
companying such stores as could be trans- 
ported over the mountains. Having start- 
ed Mr. Larrabee to accompany six loads 
from Bridgeport, he came on to Stevenson, 
procured and loaded ten more wagons, and 
started with them for Chattanooga. On 
the day succeeding another wagon was 
added to another train, thus placing sev- 
enteen army wagon-loads on the road at one 
time. Various causes, among which was 
a remarkably heavy rain, conspired to de- 
lay the foremost trains, and at the time 
of the rebel raid five trains containing these 
seventeen wagons had accumulated near the 
foot, and on the hither side of the moun- 
tain. AH were burned except a few loaded 
with forage, which were so wet that they 
could not be thus destroyed. Mr. Bedding 
escaped, as did also Mr. Wm. Andrew. 
Larrabee had missed his train entirely, and 
reached Chattanooga before the attack. Dr. 
Barnum, the only remaining agent of the 
Commission at "the front, "reported to Dr. 
Perin, the Medical Director of the de- 
partment, for such duty as might be as- 
signed him in caring for the wounded, and 
was assigned to temporary duty at U. S. 
General Hospital No. 1. On Tuesday Mr. 
Eno having inquired by courier from 
Bridgeport, as to the special wants at Chat- 
tanooga, dispatched some fifteen ambu- 
lance loads which were taken possession of 
at the General Field Hospital on the 
north side of the river. On Friday morn- 
ing I reached Bridgeport, accompanied by 
Bev. Mr. Heywood and Mr. Bishop, and 
reached Chattanooga on the evening of 
Saturday, the 26th of September. The 
report of the former you have ah-eady re- 
ceived verbally, and those of the latter 
have been transmitted to the Hospital 
Directory as opportunity offered. Mr. 
Bishop has been very materially assisted 
in the labor of collecting the statistics of the 
killed, wounded and missing by Mr. M. D. 



22 



The Sanitary Commission BvMetin. 



Barflett, of Wisconsin, and has receiyed 
some aid from others who came to the front 
as the accredited agents of the Sanitary- 
Commission. 

***** * 

One peculiarity of the situation here is 
the difficulty of transportation already al- 
' luded to, but, because of its bearing upon 
our work, of sufficient importance to call 
for more special mention. By the destiric- 
tion of the bridge at Bridgeport, and the 
occupation of Lookout Mountain by the 
rebels, we were depriyed of railroad com- 
munication with Chattanooga on the one 
hand, and on the other were cut off from 
the best route for wagon transportation. 
Two wagon roads over the mountain on the 
north side of the Tennessee River, which 
would elsewhere and under other circum- 
stances be considered almost impassable, 
furnish the only available routes for the 
transportation of the materiel of war, the 
subsistence of troops, &c. This has very 
much impeded the work of the Commission 
in connection with the movements of the 
army beyond Bridgeport. Notwithstand- 
ing that every effort possible has been 
made at both ends of the route, the amount 
of transportation available for pur purposes 
has been far short of the demand upon 
our stores, and of our ability otherwise to 
meet these demands. On the 17th ult., as 
already mentioned, seven wagon-loads, on . 
the 23d, three wagon-loads, and on the 26th 
one wagon-load, and on the 29th fifteen 
ambulance loads of stores were aU that 
could be got forward to the front during 
the month of September. Thus far this 
month we have been able to get but eight 
wagon-loads to Chattanooga. Besides 
these, four have gone in our service to the 
foot of the mountain with the appliances for 
the Lodge, and fifteen loads started for 
Chattanooga yesterday. Besides this, mat- 
ters are now so far systematized that we 
can certainly depend on a certain amount 
of transportation in every train. AU the 
stores which have gone forward were care- 
fully selected, and have been of incalcula- 
ble service. Besides these there have been 
frequent, and in some cases quite liberal 
distributions from the depots at Bridgeport 
and Stevenson upon requisitions of corps 
and division surceona for the front: to tliA 



post hospitals at these places, and all alonj 
the route as far as Nashville, the woundec 
who were able to get forward have beer 
constantly receiving such aid and comfort 
as were adapted to their necessities. 

Thus much in a general way; the reports 
from Dr. Barnum, Dr. Castleman, Mr, 
Bead, and of the disbursements from the 
various depots, all hereto appended, will 
give yoTi the exact particulars connected 
with the supply department. 

Such general inspection as I was enabled 
to make during my stay, indicated a very 
satisfactory state of health and feeling 
among our troops. Though not "exult- 
ant," or "panting to be led against the 
enemy," as newspaper reporters would 
have it, (there are few raw troops in this 
army,) they are in good heart, and ready to 
move at the word of command wherever 
their duty leads. Where half the time is 
spent in the trenches, and the other half 
in camps crowded together to the utmost 
state of compactness, perfect neatness of 
person and surroundings is impossible. 
They manage, however, to make themselves 
moderately comfortable with the appliances 
at their disposal, and their quarters show 
that considerable attention is paid to the 
observance of the conditions of health. 
* ■ * * * * * 

In no one matter has our operations been 
more delayed by the difficulty of transpor- 
tation than in the establishment of our 
"Mountain Lodge." On the 28th ult. I 
laid the plan for the establishment of a 
resting and feeding place on the ambulance 
route, for the benefit of the wounded in 
transitu, midway between Chattanooga and 
Stevenson, before Surgeon Perin, Medical 
Director of the Department. It at once 
received his hearty approbation, and the 
promise of eveiry necessary aid. I readily 
procured the consent of Eev. O. Kennedy, 
Chaplain of the 101st Ohio, an excellent 
man, with a head, a heart and a hand al- 
ways ready for any good work, to take 
charge of the Lodge, and have taken the 
liberty to appoint him an agent of the Com- 
mission for that purpose. Some delay was 
experienced in procuring the proper "de- 
tail" from his regiment, and he came to 
this place nig the ambulance route, select- 



The Sanitary Commission BvJktin. 



23 



After muoli delay and many disappoint- 
ments he started on the 9tli with the tents, 
stores and furniture, and we can say with 
as much certainty as of any future event, 
that it win be in complete running order 
in time for the next train of wounded men. 
The deprivations and sufferings of those 
on the two trains which have already come 
over that dreaded passage, have convinced 
every one of the necessity of the Lodge, 
and there is no room for fear for the future 
in this regard. It is expected that each am- 
bulance train wiU so arrange its movements 
as to stop at that point, where there is an 
abundance of wood and water, and will be 
abundance of wholesome, palatable food, 
and of kind attention, for a good night's 
rest. The Chaplain has been indefatiga- 
ble in his efforts to get the matter speedily 
and properly under way, and his former 
labors in connection with his regiment and 
in the hospital service furnish every neces- 
sary guarantee that this service will be ad- 
ministered faithfully and well. 

Mr. Bishop has been busily engaged, in 
the face of many discouragements, in pro- 
curing accurate lists of the casualties in the 
recent battles; pressing into the service 
such aid as was available. You will re- 
member that he started from Louisville 
immediately after the battles, with two as- 
sistants for that special service. Dr. HiU- 
man and Mr. Wharton, both of the Direct- 
ory office. It was thought best to leave 
Mr. W. at Nashville to accompany a car- 
load of stores on the next train. At Tul- 
lahoma we met a train of eighteen cars, 
loaded with the wounded who had worked 
their way to the railroad terminus, and who 
had been embarked without food or surgi- 
cal assistance. Quartermaster-Geiu Meigs, 
for whom the train had been specially dis- 
patched, and who kindly permitted our 
party to accompany him, ordered the men 
to be fed by the only hotel in the town, 
and Dr. HiUman and an Indiana surgeon 
— name not remembered — were placed in 
charge to care for the wounded until they 
coidd be regularly relieved. Dr. HiDman 
found so much of that kind of service re- 
quired along the road, and the difficulties 
of reaching Chattanooga so great, that he 
continued rendering such assistance as he 
^rf,irx\^ ^^.c■^.^^■^<.,^f^n.r^ ,niit.i-i-yTifis,lfl.v the 



29th, when he started for the front with 
one of the trains, which afterwards fell into 
the hands of the enemy. I regret exceed- 
ingly that I am unable to give further tid- 
ings of him. The General Hospitals have 
already commenced the transmission of re- 
ports to us, and as rapidly as jaossible all 
the hospitals will assume a more or less 
permanent form, and report daily to the 
office at Louisville. 

I returned to this point from Chattanoo- 
ga on the 5th inst., and expect to start for 
Louisville in two or three days. The work 
of the Commission has been reorganized 
here, and the force is distributed as fol- 
lows: M. C. Read and Mr. Bedding are at 
Chattanooga; Cha.plain Kennedy and Lar- 
rabee are to manage, assisted by the neces- 
sary number of detailed men, the "Mount- 
ain Lodge;'' and F. B. Crary has charge of 
the stores and work of the Commission at 
this point, assisted by Ira Place, the depot 
at Bridgeport having been withdrawn. 
With the exception of Chaijlaiu Kennedy, 
of whom I have already spoken, you are 
well acquainted with the working character 
and abihties of these various representa- 
tives of the Commission ia the field. Be- 
sides these, it is proper to make special 
mention of the labors of William Andrew, 
Esq., of Indiana, sent out by you to in- 
spect, on the ground, the workings of the 
Commission; and of Mr. James Calvert, of 
Kentucky. The former has neglected no 
opportunity to alleviate the sufferings by 
which he wa,s surrounded; to this end con- 
stantly laboring as a, volunteer dresser in 
the hospitals, and accompanying a ti'ain of 
wounded on its three days' journey from 
Chattanooga to this point, and another 
from this to Nashville. The latter,. so soon 
as he had assured himself of the safe deUv- 
eranoe of his three sons from the perils of 
the late battles, reported himself to me for 
such service as might be assigned him. 

The two pressing wants at that time were 
the safe transmission of stores and the 
names of killed and wounded for the Di- 
rectory; he preferred to undertake to sup- 
ply the former need. 

On Tuesday, the 29th ult. , and on Thurs- 
day, the 1st inst., ambulance trains were 
dispatched to the field for our wounded 



24 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



left iii the hands of the enemy. All who 
were severely wounded were paroled and 
brought in — those more slightly wounded 
being reserved for regular exchange, via 
Kichmond. The men are uniform in their 
testimony as to the neglect and consequent 
suffering they experienced. Officers and 
men, including the surgeons who remained 
to take care of the wounded, were, in almost 
all cases, deprived of their blankets, over- 
coats, and in many instances shoes and 
other wearing apparel; they were robbed 
of the contents of their pockets — "green- 
backs " being especially sought after. The 
food left for their subsistence was taken 
from them, and corn-meal and water fur- 
nished in its stead. They likewise suffer- 
ed greatly from the impossibility of having 
their wounds properly attended to — ^the 
rebels having taken from our surgeons the 
greater portion of the appliances left for 
them— including instruments and bandages. 
The ambulances sent with a flag of truce 
for the wounded, ten days after the battle, 
and delivered into the hands of the enemy 
at their lines, were returned robbed of 
everything movable, and in many cases 
broken-down horses substituted for those 
sent out. These matters are referred to as 
affijrding another instance of the chivalrous 
character of our foe and of the manner in 
which he practices the amenities of war, of 
which none better than he can speak. 

Notwithstanding the disagreeabihties, 
general and special, which have attended 
this campaign, and succeeded these battles, 
our soldiers are still the rare heroes they 
have hitherto shown themselves to be after 
the battles on the Peninsula, before Vioks- 
burg and at Stone Biver. Suffering is borne 
with a bravery which is truly splendid; 
there is everywhere the camaraderie of vet- 
eran campaigners, and self-abnegation is 
often manifested worthy of the highest 
type of the Ohriatian. That such a people 
battling in such a cause as ours should so 
suffer at the hands of such a foe, fighting 
for so infernal a cause, must even remain 
hej-e, among the most inscrutable of the 
dispensations of an all-wise and all-good 
Providence. 

Very respectfully, 

GEO. L. ANDKEW, 
Medical Inspector. 



a. 



b. 



REPORTS PRESENTED AT THE 14TH 
SESSION OF THE U. S. SANITARY 
COMMISSION, HELD AT WASH- 
INGTON, D. C, OCT. 6-9, 1863. 

1. — Beport of the Executive Committee. 

2. — Beport of the Committee on Eeorgani- 
zation. 

3. — Beport of the Treasurer. 

4. — Beport of the Auditing Committee. 

5. — Beport of Dr. J. Foster Jenkins, Gen- 
eral Secretary, communicating the 
follo'ndng reports: 

A. — Beport to the United States Sanitary 
Commission on the operations of the 
Eastern Branch, by Lewis H. Stein er. 
Chief Inspector of the Army of the 
Potomac, and Acting Associate Sec- 
retary, accompanied by the following 
reports: 
-Beport of Dr. C. W. Brink concerning 
the Hospitals in Washington, August 
8th, 1863. 
-Bepoi-t of Dr. C. W. Brink upon Hos- 
pitals in the District of Columbia, 
August 17th, 1863. 
■Beport of Dr. C. W. Brink on the Hos- 
pitals in Alexandria, Va. , Sept. 10th, 
1863. 
-Beport of Dr. C. W. Brink on the 10th 
Eegiment New York ArtOlery, gar- 
risoning forts beyond the Eastern 
Branch, Sept. 13th, 1863. 

e. — Beport of Special Inspection at Anna- 
polis, Md., by Dr. Julius Nichols, 
August 20th, 1863. 

/.—Beport of Dr. Julius Nichols, Sanitary 
Inspector, on Baltimore Hospitals. 
Sept. 2d, 1863. 

ff. —Thirty-four Beports from Belief Agents, 
Ai-my of the Potomac, as follows: 

Mr. N. Muii-ay, 2d Corps. August 17, and 
September 27. 

David S. Pope, 6th Corps. August 22, 16, 
30, and September 5, 13, 20, 27. 

Wm. A. Hovey, 1st Coi-ps. August 8, 15, 
22, 29, and September 5. 

Clemans Soest, 3d Corps. Sept. 1 and 28. 

John A. Anderson, 12th Corps. September 
6, 3, and 7 to 22. 

E. M. Barton, 5th Corps. September 6 
and 13, and 6 others. 

/<.— Beport of Dr. Gordon Winslow; ac- 
count of work at Gettysburg, Sep- 



d. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



25 



t. — ^Eight Eeports from James Gall, Jr., 
Belief Agent, Norfolk, Va., from 
August 9 to September 27. 

J. — Eeport of George 0. Caldwell, Ph. D., 
on Hospital visiting for tlie months 
of May, June, July and August. 

k. — Beport of Dr. Alexander McDonald, 
Field Inspector, on his capture and 
imprisonment in Bichmond, Va. 

I — ^Beport from Bev. Mr. Scandlin, Belief 
Agent, same subje'ct. 

m. — Beport from Gen. Kelly's Department 
of the Cumberland, October 8, 1863 
— Dr. Julius Nichols. 

B. — ^Beport of F. N. Knapp, Special Belief 
Agent, accompanied by the following 
reports: 

a.— Eeport of the "Home," J. B. Clark, 
Superintendent. 

6.— Beport of the "Home," T. B. Smith, 
Surgeon. 

a — Beport of Special Belief Station at 
Convalescent Camp, Virginia — Miss 
A. M. Bradley. 

d. — Beport of Special Belief Work at Alex- 
andria — Bev. James Bichardson. 

e. — Eeport of Special Belief Work at Balti- 
more — Sumner BuEard. 

f. — Eeport of Special Belief Work at An- 
napoHs, Md. — Bev. H. O. Henries. 

g. — Eeport of Pension Agent — W. F. Bas- 
com. 

h. — ^Eeport of Special Belief Work at Bos- 
ton — John S. Blatchford. 

t. — ^Eeport relating to local provision for 
the rehef of discharged disabled sol- 
diers and their families, and its ad- 
ministration in Boston, Mass.; pre- 
pared under the direction of the Ex- 
ecutive Cpmmittee of the Boston 
associates. 

C. — Beport concerning work in the Statis- 
tical Department. — T. J. O'ConneU, 
Chief Clerk to Actuary. 

D. — Eeport of Superintendent of Hospital 
Directory — John Bowne. 

E. — Eeport concerning the success of the 
Commission's arrangement for fur- 
nishing to the hospitals of this Dis- 
trict fresh supplies of meat and vege- 
tables, by F. N. Knapp. 

F. — Beport con ceming suppKes and supply- 
correspondence, by Mr. A. J. Bloor, 
listant Secretary. 



6. — Beport of Dr. J. S. Newberry, Asso- 
ciate Secretary, concerning the work 
of the Commission in the Western 
Department, accompanied by the 
following reports: 

a. — Eeport of M. C. Bead, concerning ope- 
rations of the Commission at and 
near Chattanooga, Tenn. , Sept. 24th, 
1863. 

h. — Beport of Dr. Wm. Fithian, of opera- 
tions of the Commission in Missis- 
sippi and Arkansas, Aug. and Sept. , 
1863. 

c— Eeport of H. S. Holbrook, Chief 'Clerk 
of the Hospital Directory at Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

d. — ^Beport of Bev. F. H. Bushnell, Hos- 
pital Visitor at Louisville and New 
Albany. 

7. — Eeport concerning the work of the 
Philadelphia Associates, including a 
statement of the operations of the 
Protective War Claim Agency of the 
United States Sanitary Commission 
in Philadelphia, by C. J. Stille, Esq., 
Associate Member. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Letter from Dr. E. A. CRANE, Inspector 
of the Sanitary Commission. 

HrLTON Head, S. C, Oct. 18, 1863. 

Mr Deab Db. — I am just in from Morris 
Island; I had hoped to be in season to mail 
report by the Fulton, but she sails this 
morning, and I can -send you but a line. 

Dui-ing the past fortnight I have visited 

and inspected regiments — the whole 

command — two regiments excepted, on 
Morris and Folly Islands . 

The results of these inspections are very 
interesting. Some of the facts developed 
are such as I had not expected. , 

Scurvy does not now exist in the com- 
mand before Charleston, nor has it existed 
to any great extent among our troops since 
operations against Charleston have been 
commenced. 

I doubt whether intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers are more prevalent than in the 
Army of the Potomac. 



26 



The Sanitary Gommission Bulletin. 



The health, of the troops is much above 
the average obtaining in commands so long 
employed in field service. 

The prevailing diseases are diarrhoea, 
dysentery, and disabilities peculiar to over- 
worked troops. 

Since the reduction of Wagner and 
Gregg and the lessening of field service, 
the health of the troops has been steadily 
****** 

Yours truly, 

E. A. CEANE, 

Inspector. 



improving. 



Letter from Mr. A. B. DAY, Relief Agent. 
MoBEis Island, S. C, Oct. 15, 1863. 

Deab Sns — ^In addition to the wants of 
the Commission here of which I advised 
you in my last, per Arago, Ibegto add: 

Tea, bed-pans, piUows, bed-sacks, bed- 
dothing, astringent, medicines, Brown's 
Extract Ginger, and woolen clothing. 

We are nearly out of Boston and farina 
crackers. Antiscorbutics of any kind will 
be very useful. We still have diarrhoea, 
dysentery, and malarial fever. Diarrhoea 
ia our chief malady. Our cherry brandy 
and blackberry cordial is nearly out. We 
are now sending a barrel full of water, vin- 
egar, sugar, and ginger mixture every day 
to Gregg and Wagner for the men to drink. 
They esteem it quite a godsend. If you 
could send us a cask of ginger, it would be 
eminently useful. Curried cabbage nearly 
gone. 

Some very compUmentary resolutions 
were passed by the 3d N. H. Begiment at 
a regimental meeting, and a copy handed 
in here expressive of 'their obhgations to 
the Commission. Others, I learn, are com- 
ing in soon. ****** 
In haste, yours, &c., 

A. B. DAY. 



Letter from Chaplain WAYLAND, 7th 
• Regiment Connecticut Vol's. 

7th Connecticut Vol's, Mobeis ) 
Island, S. C, Oct. 14, 1863. ( 
Eev. H. W. Bellows, D.D., 

President U. S. Saniiary Commission: 
Dbae Sik — I beg leave to inclose $130, 
(one hundred and thirty dollars,) subscrib- 
ed by the officers of this regiment, as per 
subscription paper inclosed. 



We are grateful for the relief afforded 
by the agents of the Commission, among 
whom I would particularly mention Dr. 
Marsh, whose efficient action and whose 
conscientious boldness in preventing any 
misappUcation of the bounty of the Com- 
mission, and whose ready and unwearied 
humanity, were peculiarly noteworthy. 

Wishing to your noble charity every suc- 
cess, but yet more fervently hoping that 
soon its labors may be needless, 
I remain, dear sir. 

Very truly yours, 

H. L. WAYLAND, 
Chaplain 1th Conn. 



Extract from a Letter from Dr. GEO. A. 

BLAKE, Inspector at New Orleans, La. 
New Okleans, Oct. 16, 1863. 

* * »■ * The other day I supplied 
deficiencies occasioned by the neglect of 
some officer, that could be supplied from 
no other soxiirce. The medical department 
decided to try an experiment — a sea-voyage 
for convalescents. One hundred and twen- 
ty-five soldiers were selected to make a trip 
to New York and return, on the ' ' Evening 
Star.'' The officers of these men left them 
at Convalescent Camp, without their de- 
scriptive rolls, and that being the basis of 
every issue, no Quartermaster would furnish 
them even the necessaries of life, much 
less its comforts. Col. Beckwith, U. S. A. , 
commanding defences of New Orleans, 
asked me to furnish the men with what- 
ever articles were indispensable for their 
health and comfort. Accordingly, I visited 
the barracks — the men were paraded, an 
inspection made, and their several wants 
ascertained. I delivered stores to the offi- 
cer in command, which were distributed to 
the men aboard ship. The men generally 
were in a sad plight, without shirts, socks, 
or blankets, and with thoroughly ventilated 
pants! Had there been no'U. S. Sanitary 
Commission to give them these substan- 
tial comforts, woolen shirts, drawers, socks, 
quilts, blankets, pants, &c., I believe the 
experiment of sending feeble, shivering 
convalescents to a northern latitude, at 
this season of the year, would have been 
less productive of good. 

TwQX l t iytl HM^ ti ' Luu iT od a A ri i gB i w p. from 



The Sardtary Commission BulleUn. 



27 



the Medical Director of th.e 19tli Army 
Corps, at New Iberia, La., to forward, if 
possible, some woolen shirts and drawers. 
I sent at once about four hundred. * * * 
I inclose a communication to the "Stam- 
ford (Conn.) Advocate," of Sept. 25, re- 
ceived from some one unknown to me. 

"Mb. Editor — There is in our village a 
society called Soldiers* Aid Society. In its 
present plan I believe auxiliary to the San- 
itary Commission, U. S. A. Withia the 
past eleven months I have had large op- 
portunities of watching the practical work- 
ings of this institution in one of its out- 
posts, and think perhaps a plain statement 
of a few facts, as I have learned them, 
might afford encouragement to the ladies 
oogaged in it. 

" My first acquaintance with the Sanitary 
Commission came through a small pamph- 
let, sent me by its agent," soon after our 
arrival at Camp Parapet. Following up 
the invitation contained in it, I made the 
acquaintance of its agent, and "found that 
through him I could obtain, without cir- 
cumlocution, the essentials for the house- 
keeping department of a military hospital, 
whether in active campaign, or guard duty, 
or the more settled condition of post, or 
city hospital, and whether the patients 
were suffering from disease incident to the 
locality in which they were situated, or 
from wounds received in battle. And, Mr. 
Editor,.! wish to bear testimony ^o the 
fact that, in aU these various conditions, 
the Sanitary Commission furnishes to the 
suffering soldier just that kind of delicaoy 
or substantial which a judicious mother or 
wife would furnish if they had opportunity. 
I have seen empty old buUdiiigs, as by 
magic, assume in a day the air of comfort 
and order of arrangement of long-estab- 
lished city hospitals. Not soon shall I 
cease to warm over the recollection of some 
of these transformations. For example, 
men to the number of several hundreds, 
after the fight at Bisland, were brought to 
Berwick City in flat-boats, skiffs, and little 
steamers, wounded in every conceivable 
manner. They had received all the atten- 
tion that good medical skill could afford 
amid the din and smoke of actual conflict, 
but were so dirty, black, and uncomforta- 
ble, as not to be recognized by their most 
intimate friends, until the renovating hands 
of tender nurses had washed away their 
blood and dust, and put on them and their 
beds clean clothes; all which, not excepting 
a piece of soap or a row of pins, 'were fur- 
nished by the model department of the Gulf, 
and the Sanitary Commission, sent thence 
eighty miles over a slow railroad, but in 
time to do aU I have intimated. And I 
must say, that he who had looked, on the 
moniaaM&JttHUiHiMniBiKdor of that 



deserted building in Berwick City, store 
below and tenements above, its large and 
small rooms, dusty, cobwebbed, gloomy, 
and also at the large hall of an adjoining 
building in the same condition, making in 
aU a floor area of about 1,500 yards, had 
seen on the following morning every availa- 
ble yard of this space covered with wounded 
men, our country's braves, suffering anguish 
such as a wounded soldier only knows, 
without the shadow of comfort; on the 
same evening again seen all these sufferers 
arranged in trim rows, on iron bedsteads 
and good mattresses, clean wounds, clean 
bandages, clean lint, dressings, &o., clean 
shirts, clean drawers, clean sheets and pil- 
low-cases, clean wards, with towels, and 
bowls, and brushes, and rows of pins in 
their places, tables supplied with vases of 
flowers, pitchers of ice-water, tumblers, 
bowls, vials, packages, all in their places, 
and the poor sufferers sleeping quietly un- 
der their musquito nets, aU order, aU clean- ' 
Uness, all beautiful, at post hospital No. 2. 
Anybody, I say, that saw, as I saw, aU 
this, and was not moved with deep grati- 
tude towards the institution that furnished 
the means for aU this magic change, is a 
character for a cage in a menagerie. This 
post hospital. No. 2, is but an illustration 
of Nos. 1, 3, 4, at Berwick City, at .the 
same time, also at Brashear City at differ- 
ent times; also at Lafourche Crossing. In 
short, it but illustrates what may be at 
every hospital, extemporized or appointed, 
in the field or in the city, aU over the De- 
partment of the Gulf, as no doubt is the 
case in every department; and if aU. or any 
of this is wanting in any case, it is due to 
negligence on the part of officers in charge 
of hospitals, not to want of means furnished 
by Medical Department and Sanitary Com- 
mission. 

"In conclusion, I would say to friends 
of the soldier everywhere, send your gifts 
through the Sanitary Commission, always. 
They are carefully husbanded and judi- 
ciously distributed to those who need them 
most. Not, as often happens when other- 
wise sent, some articles accumulating to 
the extent of a nuisance, in one place, 
while other articles of rear comfort are en- 
tirely absent; aU unequal and unsatisfacto- 
ry, to say nothing of the greater liability 
of the articles sent irregularly being de- 
voured by the army gulls, men, sometimes 
officers, having no interest in the hospital, 
through whose hands they must pass. 

"God bless the Sanitary Commission, is 
ever the exclajnation of those who know 
it best. . .,11- , , 

" W<rB. /TEOWBEIDGE, 

''Ex-Surgeon, 23d Begt. C. V." 



28 



OThe 8anita/ry Commission BiMetin. 



Memphis, Oct. 18, 1863. 
Db.J. S. Newbeebt, 
Sec'y Western DepH U. 8. Sanitary Com.: 
Dbae Sib — ^Yours of the 28tli ult. arrived 
here two days since, during my absence at 
Corinth. I paid a flying visit to this and 
other points along the railroad, finding no 
small demand for sanitary stores, especially 
vegetables. This demand •was, as I antici- 
pated, greatly enhanced by the presence in 
the district of Gen. Sherman's Army Corps 
on its -way to the Department of the Cum- 
berland. At Lagrange,this corps had de- 
posited over 100 sick, and at Corinth 300 
and more. Besides which were still a small 
number with each regiment, to remain im- 
tU the troops should move across the coun- 
try. The advance of the corps was at 
luia. The 200 barrels of vegetables ship- 
ped to Corinth by me one week ago to-day, 
arrived in time to be largely shared by this 
corps, and did the maximum amount of 
service. The only thing I regret is, that 
the 200 had not been 1, 000. It will stiU be 
some days before these troops get entirely 
out of my reach, and after that, many a 
wea,ry day for them before they get within 
reach of sanitary stores again. The sick 
they leave behind will receive prompt at- 
tention by the United States Sanitary 
Commission. But I must have at once a 
larger amount of stores here. Already the 
fine large cargo left by the Clara Bell is 
run low; the vegetables reduced to 20 bar- 
rels. We have distributed within the week 
500^barrels. I send this morning to Helena 
40 barrels on the earnest request of Dr. 
Weeks, backed by Dr. Pithian, who has 
gone on an exploration to Little Bock. 
This leaves me the 20 barrels aforesaid. I 
shall clearly be compelled to make another 
' draft on the Clara Bell when she arrives, 
although I had designed to send the whole 
of her next cargo below. But the demand 
is lively in this district, aside from the ad- 
dition created by the movement referred 
to. Our latest weekly disbursements wUl 
show some solid figures. Disbursement re- 
ports are forwarded up to last Wednesday; 
Hospital Directory to the 10th inst. 

I saw Surgeon-General Hammond and had 
a moment's conversation with him. He 
is undoubtedly restored to favor, although 
the fact seems not to have transpired yet. 



He issued an order whUe here for the 
erection of one large hospital to be provid- 
ed with from 1,200 to 1,300 beds. On its 
completion it is understood that the other 
general hospitals in this city wiU be vacat- 
ed and abandoned. Such purpose being 
subject, of course, to the modifying changes 
in the features of war. The work on the 
new hospital is to commence without delay. 
Meanwhile, I want potatoes and onions, ifec, 
&c., for immediate use. 

Canned milk and canned beef are entirely 
gone; ditto bedquUts and sheets; ditto 
shirts and drawers, minus a few. Now or 
never, let these come. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. A. WAEEINEE. 



PRISONERS IN RICHMOND. 

The following correspondence relative to 
the forwarding supplies of clothing, &c., 
to soldiers confined in Kichmond, was sug- 
gested by the report made to the Commis- 
sion by Dr. McDonald and Mr. Scandlin. 
These gentlemen, the one an Inspector and 
the other a Belief Agent of the Commission, 
were taken prisoners near Emmettsburg, 
Md., just after the battle of Gettysburg, 
whUe they were on their way to the Army 
of the Potomac with supplies. They were 
taken to Bichmond, and were inmates of 
"Libby Prison" and "Castle Thunder" 
for nearly three months. While there they 
sought every opportunity to benefit their 
fellow-prisoners, and to get such informa- 
tion as would be of service to those who 
should hereafter be there confined. They 
were assured that aU suppMes sent to the 
proper authorities would be applied aooordr 
ing to the desires of those sending them. 

Former experience had given confidence 
to the Commission that these assurances 
could be relied on, as invoices previously 
sent, of clothes and medicines, had reached 
the parties to whom they were sent. A 
new basis of exchange required that the 
present status should be inquired into. 
Hence the correspondence here given: 
Sanitakt Commission, 
Centeai. Ofbioe, 244 F Steeet, 
Washington, B. G., September 29, 1863. 

Genbeaii — ^I am informed by Dr. Alex. 
^"^""TJiirrif lhitifiiii''"Trifini ""- i^'t'S a pris- 



The Sanitary Commission Buttetin. 



29 



oner at BichmoBd, (and who, -with his com- 
panions in captiTity, Bev. Mr. Scandlin, 
also of this Commission, and Leonard 
Brink, are so much indebted to you for 
your efforts towards their release, and your 
personal kindness to them while passing 
into our lines,) that he was told hy Dr. 
"Wiliins, Surgeon in charge 0. S. Military 
Prison Hospital No. 1, (Libby Prison,) that 
if supplies of clothing, bedding, and read- 
ing matter should be sent to his (Dr. Wil- 
kins') case, he would guarantee their dis- 
tribution among the Union prisoners; and 
that Capt. G. W. Alexander, A. A. G. and 
A. P. M., Castle Thunder, made a similar 
promise as regards reading matter, within 
his own precincts. 

From the statement of Dr. McDonald 
and Mr. Scandlin it appears that the above 
supplies are greatly needed by our men 
now imprisoned there, and that a distribu- 
tion of such would be of inestimable bene- 
fit to them. It is questionable, I suppose, 
whether, even if once passed within the 
enemy's Unes, they would be permitted to 
reach their destination; but this Commis- 
sion would gladly take the merest chance 
of their doing so, and would willingly risk 
any trouble and expense in forwarding 
them over our own lines, provided such a 
course should involve no violation of mili- 
tary rules and exigencies on our side. Of 
this you are the judge. In behalf of our 
brave and unfortunate officers and soldiers 
now pioing, amid want, squaUor, and men- 
tal inoccupation, in the. noisome prisons 
of the enemy, will you kindly favor the 
Commission with your decision on this 
point? If favorable to the project, any 
suggestions you may see fit to make to- 
wards its accomplishment will be wel- 
comed, and, if possible, acted upon. 
Very respectfully. 

Tour obedient servant, 
ALFBEDJ. BLOOB, 
Asst. Sec'y. 
Gen'ii S. a. Meeedith:, 
Oomm'r for Exchange of Prisoners, 
Fortress Monroe, Virginia. 

Oyfics, Commissionbb fob E:schangb, 
Fortress Monroe, Va., Octoher 1, 1863. 
AiiFBED J. BiiOOB, Esq., 
Washington, D. C: 
Sib— On making application to the rebel 



authorities, I am informed that blankets, 
clothing, &c., forwarded to our prisoners in 
Bichmond will be duly delivered to them. 
I yesterday forwarded a statement to this 
effect to the Commissary-General of Pris- 
oners at Washington. I do not think ther^ 
is any doubt as to our prisoners receiving 
what is sent. I would respectfully suggest 
that you obtain permission from the Hon. 
B. M. Stanton, Secretary of War, to send 
these things; that obtained, I can assure 
you nothing would give me more pleasure 
than to forward them, if sent to my care to 
this place. Very respectfully. 

Your obed't serv't, 
S. A. MEBEDITH, 
Brig. Gen'l andCJom'r for Exchange. 

Sahitaey Commission, 
Centeaij Ombtob, 244 F Steebt, 
Washington, B. C, Oct. Id, 1863. 

SiE— I have the honor to transmit copies 
of a correspondence between Gen'l S. A. 
Meredith and myself with reference to this 
Commission forwarding supplies for the 
use of Union soldiers now in the hands of 
the enemy in Libby Prison and Castle 
Thunder, and to respectfully request your 
sanction for so doing. 

I may add to the information contained 
in the within correspondence, that Messrs. 
McDonald and Scandlin — (who were cap- 
tured by the enemy on the 5th of July, 
while pushing on from Frederick City to 
Gettysburg with supplies from the stores 
of this Commission for the sick and wound- 
ed, and were only released last week) — ^have 
had, during their nearly three months' im- 
prisonment, first in Libby Prison and af- 
terwards in Castle Thundei-j the amplest 
opportunities for testing in person, as their 
worn frames and shattered health tooplain- 
ly testify, the insufferable hardships and 
humiliations endured by the loyalists in 
these places of confinement, and for judg- 
ing to what an extent relief might be af- 
forded by the appliances of this Commis- 
sion. I am, sir, very respectfully. 
Your obedient servant, 
ALFBED J. BLOOB, 
AssH Sec'y. 
Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, 
Secretary of War. 



30 



The Simitary Commission BvUetin. 



Wae Dbpaetment, 
Washinqton Citt, 
Oetoher 1863. 

Mb. AiFEED J. BlOOK, 

Ass't Sec'y San'y Com., 244 F 
Street, Washington, D. G.: 
SrE — In reply to your letter of the 2d in- 
stant, transmitting correspondence ■with. 
General Meredith in reference to forward- 
ing sanitary aupplies and reading matter 
to the Union prisoners at Richmond, the 
Secretary of War directs me to convey to 
yon his consent for the transmission of 
the articles named through the lines as re- 
quested. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

JA8. A. HAEDIE, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

The following articles were sent to Rich- 
mond, in accordance with this agreement, 
on the 19th inst. : 

600 Woolen Shirts. 

600 Canton Mannel Drawers. 

600 pairs Woolen Socks. 

1000 Handkerchiefs. 

2 cases Reading Matter. 

That these stores have been delivered to 
the Confederate authorities we have assur- 
ance in the following letter: — 

NoBPOiK, Va., Oct. 26th, 1863. 
Db. L. H. Steineb, 

Acting Associate Sed'y San. Gom.': 
Mx Deae Sib— I called on Gen'l Mere- 
dith yesterday, and ascertained that our 
Richmond supplies had gone forwatd aU 
right. As soon as Gen'l M. has been noti- 
fied that the supplies sent by the Govern- 
ment have been received, he is authorized to 
send whatever Gen'l Dow may think neces- 
sary for the comfort of our men on Belle 
Island and in Richmond. The Gen'l thinks 
that it wiU hardly be necessary for the San. 
^om. to send any more clothing, as the 
Government has authorized him to supply 
whatever is needed in that way, but to con- 
fine ourselves to articles of food, delicacies, 
&c. Very respectfully you*s, 

JAMES GALL, Jb., Relief Agent. 

Letters to prisoners at Richmond should 
be of one page, sent open, to care of Brig. 
Gan. S. A. Meredith, Commissioner for Ex- 
change, Portress Monroe, Va. 



SELECTIONS. 



Extracts from a Chapter on WATER in 

SURGEON-GENERAL HAMMOND'S 

TREATISE ON HYGIENE. 

Brinhing Waters. — The only watei-s 

which are fit for drinking (excluding from 

this head the mineral waters, which are 

properly medicinal) are rain water, river 

water, and spring or well water. 

A water to be suitable for this purpose 
should be free from any considerable qlian- 
tity of organic or mineral constituents, and. 
consequently colorless, and jtvithout any 
peculiar odor or taste. At 30° Fahrenheit 
and 30 inches of the barometer one hun- 
dred volumes of water contain about five 
volumes of air. The large quantity of 
water imbibed by an individual renders it 
a matter of great importance that substances 
of a deleterious character should not be 
present, or if they are, that they should 
be capable of being readily removed. 

The army surgeon is frequently called 
upon to decide as to the fitness of water 
for the use of the troops, both for drinking 
and washing, and he should therefore be 
enabled to make a correct decision, and to 
suggest the means that may be available 
for the_ purification of such water as re- 
quires it. For these purposes very few 
apphances, in the way of apparatus and 
tests, are required. 

All waters of the class under considera- 
tion, except rain water, contain lime and 
chlorides, and frequently other mineral 
substances, in solution. The lime is in 
combination with either carbonic or sul- 
phuric acid, or both, and the chlorides are 
those of sodium, magnesium, or potassium. 
It is probable that so far from being inju- 
rious, these matters, when not present in 
too great proportion, are rather beneficial 
to the organism than otherwise. When, 
however, they exist in large quantity, they 
produce intestinal disturbance, and the 
lime salts undoubtedly give rise to oaloxdi 
in the kidneys or bladder. River water is 
also often, as has been said, loaded with 
other impurities. Some of these are of 
such a character as to cause serious diseases 
[in those who use the water in which they . 
are found, and are sometimes so abundant 
as to be destructive to the fish living in 
them. 

The earthy matters which are so abund- 
ant in some of our western river waters al- 
most invariably cause diarrhcea in those 
who are unaccustomed to their use, though 
this effect gradually ceases to be produced 
if the drinking of the water is persisted 
in. 

In the selection of sites for camps, hos- 
pitals, barracks, etc,, the medical officer is 

often nnTinTiH.o,1 -mth rofovcnce to the nbttr- 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



31 



acter of the wat^r. In tte field it is fre- 
quently impossible to camp troops in posi- 
tions which afford good drinking water, hut 
in the location of hospitals and permanent 
works this end can generally be insured. 
It should be recollected that no one sanita- 
ry element is of more importance than the 
one under consideration. I have known 
stations selected without the least regard 
to the character of the water; where this 
was so loaded with saline matters that the 
men were almost constantly affected with 
diarrhoea, or so contaminated with organic 
substances that putrefaction commenced in 
a few hours after it was brought to the 
quarters. * * * * 

Organic matters are frequently present 
in water, and give it qualities which ren- 
der it deleterious. They may be either 
gaseous or morphological, as portions of 
decomposing vegetable or animal remains, 
infusoria, algje, fungi, etc. Water in 
which such matters are found readily be- 
comes putrescent, and is most noxious to 
the health of those who use it as a drink, 
producing diarrhoea and fever. * * 

Examination of Drinking Water. — ^By 
ascertaining the specific gravity |0f the 
water to be tested, a rough idea of the 
quantity of solids contained in it can be 
obtained. Kirwan gives the following 
formula for this purpose, which he states 
will generally indicate the proportion with- 
in one or two per cent. 

Deduct from the specific gravity of the 
water the number 1000, and multiply the 
difference by 1-4, the product will represent 
the quantity of solid contents. It gives 
the weight of the salts in their most desic- 
cated state, and consequently freed from 
their water of crystaULzation. The weight 
of fixed air must be also included. 

Thus, if the water under examination 
possess a specific gravity of 1015, the 1000 
subtracted from this sum leaves 15, which 
multiplied by 1-4, gives 21, the number of 
parts of solid matter in 1000 parts of the 
water.- A better plan is to evaporate to 
dryness a certain amount of water, and to 
weigh the solid residue. 

Szilphuric acid is most readily detected 
by solution of chloride of barium, by the 
action of which a heavy white precipitate 
of sulphate of baryta is produced. 

Ghlorhydric add is indicated by solution 
of nitrate of sUver, by which a flaky pre- 
cipitate of chloride of silver, soluble in 
liquor ammonise, is thrown down. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, if present, forms, 
with solution of acetate of lead, a brown 
precipitate of sulphuret of lead. In water 
containing lead, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
when passed through it, gives a like precip- 
itate. 

Lime gives, with oxalate of ammonia, a 
white precipitate of oxalate of hme. 

■Magnesia is indicated by liquor ammonise. 



which separates it as a. light flaky precipi- 
tate. 

Iron forms, with tincture of galls, a 
black precipitate of tannate of iron; with 
ferrocyanide of potassium, a dark-blue 
precipitate of ferrocyanide of iron is 
formed. 

Organic Constituents. — The organic con- 
stituents of water when not in solution are 
readily detected by means of the micro- 
scope. 

Organic matters, when in solution, can 
be most satisfactorily discovered by means 
of solution of permanganate of potassa. 
This salt gives a bright-red color to the 
distilled water in which it is dissolved, 
which hue is entirely removed on sub- 
jecting it to the action of organic matter. 
We have thus a valuable means of detect- 
ing impurities which would otherwise es- 
cape observation. Tl^e method of pro- 
ceeding is very simple. A drop of satu- 
rated solution of permanganate of potassa, 
or of Condy's disinfectant fluid, (which 
consists of a solution of alkaline perman- 
ganates,) added to a half pint of distilled 
water, gives to it a beautiful pink color, 
which will remain permanent for a long 
time; but if the same quantity be added 
to any ordinary drinking water, the per- 
manganate is decomposed, by the organic 
matter present, and the characteristic color 
is destroyed as soon as found. If there ' 
be much organic matter present, more of 
the solution will be required to produce 
any color at all; and, by the quantity 
used to cause the formation of a perma- 
nent pink tinge, we draw our conclusions 
relative to the purity of the water examin- 
ed. The presence of minute particles of 
organic matter is also readily indicated by 
this reagent. * * * * 



BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 

[From Prof. Jacob's Bebel Invasion of Maryland 
and Pennsylvania.] 

This battle of three days will compare in 
magnitude and far-reaching consequences, 
with any of the great battles of modern 
times. In the battle of Waterloo, the Allies 
had 72,000, the French 80,000 men; in this 
the rebels had 90,000, the Federals about 
60,000 inen. The British had 186 cannon, 
the French 252; the rebels had upwards of 
200,and we an equal number. The Allies lost 
20,000 in killed and wounded; the French 
40,000 in kiUed, wounded, prisoners, and 
deserted; the Federals lost about 4,000 
kUled, 12,000 wounded and 4, 000 prisoners, 
or in all about 20,000; whilst the rebels lost 
5,500 killed, 21,000 wounded, and 9,000 
prisoners and 4,000 stragglers and deserters, 
or a total of about 40,000. The proportion 
of men and of losses in both battles is near- 
ly the same. 



32 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 

Was constituted by the Secretary of War in 
June, 1861, in accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the Surgeon-General of the U. S. 
Army, and itsi appointment and plan of organi- 
zation were approved by the Priasident oSf the 
United States. Its present organization is as 
follows: 

H. W. BeUows, D.D., President, New York. 

A. D. Baohe, LL.D., Vice-President,". Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

J. Foster Jenkins, M.D., General Secretairy, 
New York City. 

George T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 68 Wall 
Street, iNew York. 

Elisha Harris, M.D., New York. 

W. H. VanBuren, M.D., New York,' 

G. W. CuUom, U. S. A. 

A. E. Shiras, TJ. S. A. 

K. C. Wood, Assistant Surg.-Gen'l tJ. S. A. 

Woloott Gibbs, M.D., New York. 

S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 

C. E. Agnew, M.D., New York.- 

J. S. Newberry, M.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Kt. Eev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, K. I, 

Hon. E. W. Burnett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, 111. 

Hon. Joseph Holt, Washington, D. C. 

Horace Binney, Jr., Philadelphia, Penn. 

Rev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 

J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. 

Prof. .IFainaan Eogers, Philadelphia, Penn, 



HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrange- 
ments for supplying information gratuitously, 
with regard to patients in aU the United States 
General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the 
Hospitals in Eastern Virginia,' Maryland, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, North Gaj?blina,- South Caro- 
lina, Florida and Louisiana, address "Office of 
Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. 0." 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address 
"Office of Sanitary Commission, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia." 

For the Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, 
and the New England States, addi-ess "Office 
Women's Central Union, No.. 10 Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York." 

For the Hospitals in Western Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouxi, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas, address 
"Office Sanitary Commission, Louisville, Ky." 

In all cases the name, rank, company, and 
regiment of the person inquired for should be 
given, and where he was when last heard from. 
If the application is by letter, the answer will 
be sent by return of mail; if in person, it will 
"be answered at once; or if by telegraph, an an- 
swer will be returned immediately at the in- 
quirer's expense. 

The office of the Directory will be open daily 
from 8 o'clock, A, M., to 8 o'clock, P. M., and 
in urgent cases applicants ringing the door-bell 
will be received at any hour of the night. 

J^~ Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen, ed- 
itors, and others, can scarcely serve the cause 
of humanity more effectually than by frequently 
and videly disseminating a knowledge of &.& 
above, among those who have friends in tie 
army. The hospital statistics in this depart- 



ment of the Sanitary Commission aire very com- 
plete and exact, and daily prove of incalculable 
value to the soldiers, their friends and relatives. 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Oommission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive system of agencies for securing the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in' its charge for the sick and wounded at points 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points— at New Or- 
leans and at Washiagton, before Gharleston and at 
Chattanooga— its distributions being governed bj-, a 
comparison of the wants of the patients ui aU cases. 
The following is a list of depots, to which auxiliary 
societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to States or looa,lities, 
but simply to their relative necessity for assist- 
ance, are mvited to send their offerings: 

Sanitary CbmmisBion, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No, 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. ' 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 46 
South Sharp Street, Baltimore, Md. 
, Sanitary Commission-, Branch Depot, comer Vine 
and Sixth Streets, Cincinnati,, ,0. , 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 95 
Bank Street,' Cleveland, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, .Chicago, 111. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 59 4th 
Streetj Pittsburg, Penn. 

Sanitary CommlBsion; Branch Depot, No. 32 Dar- 
ned Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Sanitary OommisBlon, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
LoulsviUe, Ky. 

The Commission receives no pecuniary aid whait- 
ever from the Government, and is whoUy depend- 
ent on the voluntary contributions of the pubuo for 
the means of sustaining its operations. Contribii- 
tions to the Treasury are soUcited, and may be 
transmitted to George T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer. 
68 WaU Street, N. Y: s> h . 



RELIEF DEPARTMENT, 

Generaa Superintendent, Kev. r. N. Knapp, Washing- 
ton, D. 0. Chief Assistant, J. B. Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltimore Bailroad Depot, Waih- 
jngtou, D. 0. , 

Lodge No. i, H Street, between 13th and 14th Streets. 

Lodge No. 6, Maryland Avenue, near Eailroad Statioi). 

Nurses' Home, Washington, D. C. 

Soldiers' Home, Third Street, east of Broadway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio— Col. G. W. D. Andrews, Sup't.. 

Soldiers' Home, Cairo, 111.-0. N. Shlpman, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Louisville, Ky.— James Malona, Sup't 
James Morton, Special EeUef Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Nashvine, Tenn.— L. Crane, Sup't' and 
EeUef Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Ohio , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Homo, Cleveland, Ohio— Clark Warren, Sup't 
and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn. C.W. 

Christy, Sup't and BeUef Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, Vioksbttrg, Miss T. Way, Sup't 

AOXHOT ion PENSIONS. 

WiUiam P. Basoom, Pension Agent, Washington, D. C. 

HOSriTAI. CABS. 

Between Washington and New Yorli — Sol. Aadrewa, 
M. D., Surgeon in charge. 

Between LonlsviUe wd Muifceesboro' — Dr. J. P. Bar- 
num, Surgeon in charge. 

SAinXABT STZAMEBS. 

New Sunlelth on the Mississippi Biver, and Ellssabetk 
on the Potomac Biver. 



THE 



SANITARY COMMISSION 
BULLETIN. 



YOL. I. 



NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 15, 1863. 



No. 2. 



The Sanitakt Commission BtrUiETiN is 
published on the first and fifteenth of every 
month, and as it has a circidation, gratuitous 
or other, of above 10,000 copies, it offers an 
unusually valuable medium for advertising. 

AH communications must be addressed to 
the Editor, at the crffice 823 Broadway, and 
m,ust be authenticated by the names and ad- 
dresses of the writers. 

THE LESSON OF THE REPORTS. 

The reports from Chattanooga, which we 
publish in this number of the BuiiiiBTrir, 
throw so much light both on the value of 
the work which the Commission is doing 
and of the diflSoiilties with which it has to 
• contend, that we ask for a careful perusal 
of them, as the- best mode of appealing for 
public sympathy and support. There could 
not be a better illustration of our relations 
with the army than is afforded by the state 
of things which existed there after the bat- 
tle of Chickamauga. The occupation of 
Lookout Mountain by the enemy left our 
army dependent for all its supplies on a 
common and very bad wagon-road, nearly 
eighty miles long, which incessant use and 
heavy rains soon rendered aU but impassa- 
ble for wheels. This at once placed the 
whole force on short rations, and of course 
condemneid numbers of sick and wounded 
to death. It cannot be too clearly remem- 
bered that when a crisis of this sort occurs 
in military operations, the first duty of a 
general is not to take care of those of his 
men who are disabled, but of those who are 
fit for duty. His business is to bring the 
campaign to a successful issue at aU costs, 
and if he can do so and at the same time 
have proper attention paid to those who 
have been stricken down by battle or dis- 
Voi,. L— No. 2. 3 • 



ease, humanity requires that he should do 
it. But if attention to the sick and woimded 
is at all likely to interfere with the proper 
conduct of the military operation, the sad- 
dest, sternest, but most imperative rule of 
war requires that his whole resources in 
transportation, and in everything else, 
should be devoted rather to keeping the 
healthy in health than to restoring the non- 
effectives. Ammunition, and bread for those 
who can use it, are the prime requisites of 
an army under all circumstances; and when 
an army gets into difficulties like those of 
our army at Chattanooga, they only become 
tenfold more requisite than ever. At a 
crisis of this sort, the medical department 
finds itself too often paralyzed for want of 
stores and transportation. The whole 
energies of the military authorities are 
devoted to keeping the ranks fuU, and in 
forwarding reinforcements and munitions; 
so that it may be said that the surgeon finds 
that as his wants increase the means of sup- 
plying them diminish. 

AU these difficulties have been aggravated 
in the West by the nature of the country 
in which the operations are carried on, and 
by the immense distances at which the 
armies frequently find themselves from 
their base — distances which have had no 
parallel in European warfare, or only in 
the campaign of 1812 in Russia. Instances 
have occurred of troops having been de- 
pendent for all their supplies upon a line 
of three hundred miles of wagon-road. And 
these long lines, it must be remembered, 
generally Ue through regions desolated by 
two yeafrs of war and 'incessantly harried 
by guerrillas, in which subsistenofe, forage, 
and often even the shelter of a roof, are 
wanting. That, under su,ch circumstances, 
the medical department of the army should 



34 



The Sanitary Commission BulMin. 



frequently find itself unable to meet the 
demands upon it, is nothuig wonderful; tlie 
wonder would be if it did not. When the 
fierce shocks and sharp blows of war 
come, and the fate of the whole army, or 
the fate of the cause itself is at stake, the. 
hospital is naturally and inevitably sacri- 
ficed to the field. 

It is the business and the aim of the 
Sanitary Commission to gather together 
from every quarter the money and the 
stores contributed by those who, from their 
position, can play no part in the war be- 
yond seeking to aHeviate its misery, who 
have nothing to do with military exigencies, 
and can therefore pay undivided heed to 
those of humanity; to keep these stores and 
money in its hands and follow the army 
with them in its march, husband them until 
a victory, or defeat, or retreat has flung a 
load of suffering on the regular departments 
which they are unable to cope with, and 
then to step i4 and as far as possible fill up 
aU deficiencies. This seems a simple mat- 
ter, but it is not by any means. After all 
the work of collecting stores from every 
comer of the Union has been accomplished, 
even after they have hurried down to what 
seems to be the very edge of the battle- 
field, comes the hardest task of all — that of 
getting them conveyed to the exact spot 
■jyhere they are needed, to the very hospital 
where the sick are struggling for life on 
hard-tack and bad water, or to the very 
field on which the wounded lie starving and 
untended in their torn and bloody clothes, 
^he difficulties of transportation, even for 
the medical department in our army, are im- 
mense; and they are of course still greater 
for the Commission. There ought unques- 
tionably to be separate transportation pro- 
vided for the former. It ought not to be 
dependent on the quartermaster for its 
wagons, to have its sole means of bringing 
•up its stores liable to curtailment or total 
stoppage every time there is any unusual 
demand for wagons and mides on the part 
of other branches of the service. But then, 
as we have already, remarked, it is more 
than doubtful whether it would be possible 
^o organize means of transport for it which 
would under no circumstances be exposed 
to the pressure of thalt necessity which is, 
after aU, the supremelawof an army. What 



general would agree under aU circumstances 
to keep his hands off wagons which might 
save him from a disastrous retreat, even if 
their seizure and conversion to other uses 
involved the death of thousands of wounded 
men ? The Sanitary Commission is also 
constantly forced in the West to rely on the 
quartermaster for its means of sending for- 
ward its stores, and exposed to precisely 
the same risks and delays as everybody 
else. Let the necessities of the wounded 
be ever so great, its means of supplying 
their wants ever so abundant, it has to take 
its chance of reaching them in precisely 
the same way as the regular medical direct- 
ors. The accident which happened to the 
seventeen wagons which were captured 
while under Mr. Bedding's charge, fur- 
nishes an excellent illustration of the obst*. 
cles which have to be^ overcome in the Wesfe 
Its help was probably never more sorely 
needed than at the moment that this sup- 
ply was going forward, and yet one swoop 
of the rebel cavalry converted to the use of 
drunken troopers stores that would proba- 
bly have saved the lives of hundreds and 
hastened the recovery of thousands. 

The robbery of our stores by the team- 
sters is one more proof of the hundreds we 
have had in the course of the war, of tha 
imprudence, to use no stronger term, of 
employing civilians to take charge of the 
army wagons. The teamsters are simply 
hired men, and are not subject to military 
discipline. The wagon-master who accom- 
panies the train has no authority over 
them except that of an employer over his 
servants — and the value of this, in time of 
war in the West, may be readily imagined. 
They belong, however, generally to a drunk- 
en and reckless class, and burden themselves 
with very little responsibility about tha 
property of the Government committed to 
their charge. When one remembers that 
any one of these men has it in his power, by 
upsetting his wagon on the road, to delay 
the advance of a train, it may be a mile or 
two in length, for half a day, and thus per- 
haps endanger the safety of the whole army 
— and instances of this have actually oc- 
curred — one cannot help regretting deeply 
that some effort has not been made to or- 
ganize a military force for the transport 
service. In no European army is the bag- 



The Samtary Commission Bulletin, 



35 



gage committed to tiie custody of civilians. 
Every one of them has a corps enlisted for 
this duty, and ofScered by picked men. 
The Military Train in France, and the 
Land Transport Corps in England, are con- 
sidered amongst the most arduous and re- 
sponsible branches of the service. It ■wiU 
be observed that the worst that could befall 
the scoundrels who gorged themselves on 
the road to Ohattanoogia upon the stores, 
for want of which the sick and wounded 
were perishing, was dismissal from their 
employment. But it wiU be readily imag- 
ined that, to men who could be guilty of 
such an act, this was no very severe punish- 
ment. 

The thing which our agents in the West 
most urge:atly demand is vegetables; this 
is the great want in all the hospitals, and 
the want of them is a serious bar to 
recovery in certain kinds of disease. We 
beg the attention of our readers to the 
remarks in our reports on this subject. 
Vegetables axe of course amongst the 
things that are not procurable at the seat 
of war, and they have to come from the 
Northern States, mainly from the vicinity 
of the laxge towns. Donations of them 
in suflSoient quantities are certainly not to 
be expected from the growers, and they are 
therefore, in the dried form, amongst the 
suppUes for which money is absolutely ne- 
cessary. Mr. Bloor's letter to. Miss Collins, 
which wUl be found in another column, in- 
dicates very clearly what our wants- are like- 
ly to be during the 'coming winter. It 
must not be forgotten, however, by those 
who read it, that let us have ever so large 
quantities of the articles for which he calls, 
the distribution of them still remains to be 
done. They have to be sent in the track of 
the army' over hundreds of miles of wasted 
country, gathered together at depots aU 
across the' continent, and which have to be 
carried by some means or other to those 
who most need them; this is the hardest 
part of our task, and for it money is abso- 
lutely necessary; and the larger the dona- 
tions of supplies the more money we need. 

The Commission cannot receive packages 
for individuals, for here, as in its general 
relief se^rviee, it must bestow the peoples' 
aid where it is most needed. . « 



THE RICHMOND PRISONS. 

The following report from Dr. McDonald 
is very interesting, from the light it throws 
on the condition of the Kichmond prison- 
ers, which, judging from recent accounts, 
has since become worse than he describes 
them: 

Washingion, Sept. 25th, 1863. 
Db.' Lewis H. Stembb, 

Army of Potomac: 
Deab Snt — My report of proceedings 
since July 1st will necessarily be composed 
mainly of brief extracts from the meagre 
diary *hich has been preserved, and such 
statements as may seem fitting; nearly all 
our papers having been lost or destroyed 
while we were on the march. 

July 1st. — At Washington, awaiting a 
chance for a safe forward movement, mili- 
tary men assuring us that the roads to 
Gettysburg were not in a safe condition for 
travel, without an escort. 

2d. — ^News of a battle reached us during 
the evening, and our time till 12.30 A.M. 
was employed in loading goods on the cars 
for Westminster. 

3d. — Started at 1P.M. with Mr. Scandlin, 
Mr. Gall, two teams and drivers, and a ne- 
gro boy; reached EockviHe at 6 P. M. , where 
we fed and rested our horses, and from 
whence we started between 8 and 9 P. M. 
for Frederick, at which place we arrived at 
5.15 A.M. of July 4th, after having travel- 
ed all night. 

The same evening, at 6 P. M., Mr. Gall 
started with an empty foui'-mule team and 
driver for Westminster, there to load from 
the cars and proceed to the field; Mr. 
Scandlin and myself, with a load of stores, 
driver and black boy, made all possible 
speed towards Gettysburg; 11 P.M. passed 
General Kilpatrick's cavalry at Mechanics- 
town, where we halted for the night. 

Sunday, 5th.— At 8 A.M. started for Get- 
tysburg, and about 9.30 A.M. were met by 
a squad of cavalry wearing U. S. uniforms 
and equipments, who commanded us to 
halt, and after inquiring who we were, told 
us to "consider ourselves prisoners of war," 
which we soon found, by the numbers of 
graybacks crowding around us, to be too 
true. These new friends (?) were all eager 
to show their affection by appropriating 



36 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



some part of our property each to himself, 
■without any regard to our comfort or con- 
venience; truly, we had "fallen, among 
thieves." General Stuart appropriated the 
horses, wagon and supplies; a quartermas- 
ter kid siege to our saddle horses; the 
equipments and light articles were soon 
distributed among the men, and then per- 
sonal property was demanded; even the 
Surgeon of the Brigade, who had heard 
our explanation to General Stuart, and un- 
derstood in what service we were engaged, 
came to the rear and haggled with some of 
the men for possession of a saddle and 
bridle taken from one of our horses, as he 
said, "for the purpose of presenting it to a 
friend in Eichmond." His entire soul was 
wrapped in desire for plunder, and we were 
consoled for part of our loss by knowing 
that his grasping spirit had been foiled, 
and he could not get a share of the spoils. 
These changes of ownership were very soon 
accomplished, and we were started over the 
mountains in the direction of Hagerstown; 
but towards evening, finding the road in 
that direction blocked by Union cavalry, 
we were marched by an unfrequented road 
to near Smithstown, where a smart artillery 
duel came off, and so soon as darkness came 
on a guide was procured who led us over 
an unfrequented and very rough roa,d to 
the town of Lytersburg, where we were 
turned in to grass at 1.30 A. M., and rested 
three hours; then were marched about a 
mile, found a check in front, and were 
moved back to the centre of the town; 
halted, and here received food from the 
Union citizens, who gave whatever they 
could spare, and we ate while General 
Stuart was endeavoring to find an outlet of 
escape for his forces. At length we were 
transferred to the care of another command- 
er, and started for Hagerstown; after pro- 
ceeding about four miles, the road was 
again found to be blocked by cavalry; we 
were marched back three miles, and camped 
tin the right of way should be settled. 
About dark were again "en route," and 
marched through Hagerstown, to within 
one mile of WiUiamsport, where we were 
encamped at 2.30 A. M. of July 7, and just 
before dark of the afternoon of this day 
we received a ration of half a pint of flour 
and two ounces of beef, but no means for 



cooking were provided, therefore we ate of 
unleavened bread and toasted beef; col- 
lected a few raUs and endeavored to roost 
as dryly as possible during the rainy night. 
During the march from Lytersburg Moses 
had been moved to • the rear, and at Wil- 
liamsport he was placed with other contra- 
bands. 

Wednesday, 8th. — Were moved back one- 
quarter mile to camp with privates; we pre- 
ferring to remain with them, as there were 
prospects of our becoming of use in vari- 
ous ways, especially in attending the 
wounded, of whom there were quite a num- 
ber. Kained all day and night tUl 12 M. 
During the afternoon received another ra- 
tion similar to that of the previous day; 
disposed of it in like manner. Wrote to 
Col. Mayo, requesting an interview with 
General Pickett, hoping he would release 
us when our position was known to him, 
but received no answer. 

Thursday, 9th .—Started at 1 P.M. for 
the ferry, but finding the facilities for 
transportation were limited, a majority of 
the men— ourselves included — were sent 
back to camp. Mr. Scandlin went with me 
to call on General Pickett during the even- 
ing; his reception of us was rather frigid 
and decidedly formal, he communicating 
with us by means of his adjutant, and de- 
ciding that we must go on to Eichmond. 
On complaining of the insufficient quan- 
tity and poor quality of food the men were 
receiving, we were furnished with an order 
for more food for ourselves, and a promise 
of more on the morrow for the men. Our 
extra rations consisted of two or three 
small hoe-cakes, and a knuckle bone of 
boiled ham, (all the officer had to give us,) 
but our men did not get their extra, nor 
always their regular allowance; however, 
they got plenty of promises of fuU rations 
after crossing to the other side of the Po- 
tomac. 

Friday, 10th.— Moved to the river at 3 A. 
M., crossed at 6.45, and halted till 12.30 P. 
M. The promise of more rations was not 
kept; their wagon trains had been cut off 
by our cavalry, and they could not get sup- 
plies forward; would give us more when 
we got down the valley. The faith in these 
promises was very much weakened by so 
many similar ones stiU remaining unftifill- 



The Scunita/ry Commission Bulletin. 



3t 



ed. At. 12.30 J*. M. commenoed a terrible 
march, -with an escort of cavalry, artillery, 
and infantry, for fear of recapture or a 
stampede; the first hour -we traveled nearly 
six miles under a scorching sun, guards.and 
prisoners, continually. falling by the road- 
side from the effects of heat and exhaus- 
tion. General Imboden, finding that his 
own men were suffering much more than 
the prisoners,, and that he would soon be 
left without a guard, rode to the head of 
the column after the first hour's marbh and 
moderated the rate of travel. During the 
remainder of the day our pace was much 
slower and more regular tiU we camped at 
9.30 P. M. two miles beyond Martinsburg. 
While passing through Martinsburg the 
inhabitants expressed their sympathy by 
kind words and more kiad donations of 
food, in spite of the curses, threats, and 
even blows of our chivalrous cavalry guards, 
some of whom even went so far in their 
brutality as to strike women for giving us 
bread and water. 

After we were encamped, some of the offi- 
cers rode, back to the town and invited the 
inhabitants to bake bread for us, and many 
families, we were told, worked all night pre- 
paring food for us, which was loaded, into 
wagons next morning and sent to Lee's 
Army 1 

Saturday, 11th.— Started at 6 A. M. for 
Bunker's Hill, where we were halted, re- 
ceived and cooked rations, and at 6 P. M. 
commenced a night march over a terribly 
rough road to camp two miles north of 
Winchester, arriving at 2 A.M. of the 12th. 
Our escort was vexed with having to gug,rd 
prisotters during a night march, especially 
the cavalry, who were exceedingly irascible, 
rough and uncourteous, striking the men 
with their sabres, and in some cases even 
placing their pistols at the heads of ex- 
hausted men and threatening to blow out 
their brains, generally ending by pricking 
the poor fellows with their sabres tiU they 
would rise in wrath and proceed on the 
tedious journey. Men and guards were 
this night completely exhausted. 

Sunday, 12th. — Had a short interview 
with General Imboden, and explained to 
him our position; he "could not release 
us." We must go to Bichmond, and from 
thence would certainly be sent home byllhe 



first fiag of truce; meanwhile we would be 
permitted to board in and have the free- 
dom of the city, and most assuredly would 
not be confined in prison. Told him the 
prisoners were exhausted, and could not go 
further without rest; he promised that we 
should only travel two mUes that day, and 
that from thenceforth our marches should 
be short — not to exceed twelve or fifteen 
miles per day. 

Were marched through Winchester in 
season to meet the inhabitants on their way 
home from church, and there was an evi- 
dent desire to make as much display of 
their captives as was possible. Halted 
one mile beyond Winchester, where we re- 
ceived rations for thr*e days, or till such 
time as we should reach Mt. Jackson; viz., 
one quart pf flour and three quarters of a 
pound of fresh beef. 

Monday, 13th. — In Kne at 6 A. M.; de- 
layed by wagon trains on the road till 9.30 
A. M. Had rained all night, and was still 
pouring in torrents; a bridge on the turn-, 
pike had been washed away during the 
night, necessitating a detour of four miles, 
on or through a dirt road and woods, in 
order to ford the stream at a safe- place; 
this detour gave us two miles of double- 
quick march in mud and water ankle deep, 
then a tedious march till 7.30 P. M., when 
we encamped within one and a half miles 
of Strasburg, soaked through, cold, with- 
out shelter, exceedingly tired, almost dis- 
couraged, and with a prospect of passing a 
restless night in the rain and on wet 
ground. 

Tuesday, 14th.— Started at 6 A. M., 
marched twenty-four miles without food, 
and camped at 7 P. M. 

Wednesday, 15th. ^ — Moving at 6 A.M. for 
Mt. Jackson and rations; camped at 9 A. 
M., expecting rations for three days in the 
same ratio as previously, but didn't get any. 
Left at 2 P. M., and reached camp south of 
NewMarket at 7.30 P.M.; drew and ate a 
ration. During the day met carriages con- 
taining a number of persons marked by 
badges on their hats, "Committee for the 
Belief of our Wounded," then proceeding 
to the battle-field. Bemarked to them 
that we belonged to a somewhat similar or- 
ganization of the North, but were then 
held as prisoners, and hoped they would 



38 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



be more f orttmate in their laudable endeav- 
ors to succor tlie distressed than we had 
been. Theywere "sorry " forus, and pass- 
ed on. 

Thursday, 16th. — Column was this day 
marched left in front, affording some rest 
for those who had thus far been in the 
rear, and giving them a better opportunity 
to purchase food of citizens, all of whom 
we found greedy for greenbacks, as well 
as the officers and soldiers; camped two 
miles south of Harrisonburg at 4 P.M., and 
after a heavy thunder-shower—during which 
we rested on our boots, sheltering our 
clothing as much as possible with our rub- 
ber blankets, which were stiU preserved — 
we were blessed with three crackers and a 
quarter of a pound of bacon. 

Friday, 17th. — ^After a cold, restless night, 
were permitted to pay six dollars each for 
a ride of sixteen miles to a point within four 
miles of Staunton, where we camped at 4 
P. M., and received our three crackers, with 
one-quarter pound of bacon. An order was 
issued this day forbidding the purchase of 
greenbacks by any of the citizens. 

Saturday, 18th.— Moved at 6.30 A.M.; 
marched 5)4 miles to a point one and a 
half miles beyond Staunton, where the 
men were relieved of their shelter-tents 
and ■ rubber blankets, received a pint of 
flour and quarter pound of bacon, and were 
ordered to camp to await the arrival of oars 
for an onward move to Eichmond, 

Sunday, 19th. — Had an interview with 
Col. Smith, in charge of prisoners' guard, 
who assured us of our immediate release on 
reaching Eichmond. 

Monday, 20th.— At 7.30 A. M. proceeded 
to the cars, and embarked for Eichmond, 
arriving in that city on the morning of the 
succeeding day, and being safely ensconced 
within the walls of Libby Prison at 4 A. M. 
of the 21st. On entering the Prison, Leon- 
urd Brink was assigned to the citizens' 
room, while Mr. Scandlin and myself were 
sent up stairs to an apartment (occupied 
by Union officers) about forty -five feet wide 
by one hundred and twenty-five in length, 
of which there were four in the building, 
each communicating with the other, and 
well filled, nearly six hundred officers be- 
ing at that time confined in Libby. Soon 
found a bare spot of floor, and lay down I 



for a short rest, having only a rubber 
blanket and Mr. Soandlin's overcoat for a 
bed. At daylight were awakened by the 
sounds of many feet, and found the room 
alive with human beings; and, as we after- 
wards learned, much to our discomfort, 
each conveying about on his person and in 
his clothing quite a stock of living beings. 

Breakfast came during the morning, and 
proved to be nearly all the ration for twen- 
ty-four hours — one-half pound of bread 
and two ounces of boiled beef. This, with 
a pint of soup made from spoiled bacon 
and a little rice, was our daily allowance 
during the first two weeks of our incarcer- 
ation, after which we were permitted to 
purchase vegetables, were furnished with 
cooking-stoves, and ordered to do our own 
cooking, which was a great improvement 
to our fare. 

Our bed, as on the morning of our arriv- 
al, consisted of Mr. Scandlin's coat, a rub- 
ber blanket, and the clothes we were in the 
daily habit of wearing. 

Vermin were plenty, and our most stren- 
uous efforts failed to keep them in abey- 
ance. 

Water was brought from and retained all 
the peculiar characteristics of James Eiver; 
there was generally a sufficient quantity, 
though occasionally the supply would be 
partially cut off, causing considerable vex- 
ation of spirit. The floors were well swept 
twice each day, and were washed once a 
week. The apartments were thoroughly 
fumigated as often as every alternate day, 
and most of the rooms were fairly venti- 
lated. 

Were detained in this Prison tiQ the 
morning of August 10, on which day Eev. 
Josiah Peterkin called to see us, and offer- 
ed to do aU in his power for our release 
and comfort; and soon after his departure 
we were sent into the hospital, with an or- 
der that we be made as comfortable as pos- 
sible until the arrival of the next flag of 
truce, when we were to be paroled and 
sent North. 

Mr. Brengle and Leonard Brink were at 
this time brought from the citizens' room 
and placed in hospital with us. They were 
much emaciated from want of fresh air and 
sufficient diet, but soon recovered a part of 
their former flesh and elasticity of spirit. 



The S&mitary Commission BvUeUn. 



While in the hospital, everything was done 
that oiroumstanees would admit of being 
done for our comfort; the surgeons were 
gentlemanly, kind and attentive to our ne- 
cessary requirements, doing all they could 
to modify the restraint of prison discipline, 
and to make us feel as contented as was 
possible. Remained in hospital till Sep- 
tember 2d, at which time an order was 
issued for the removal of all citizens to , 
Oastle Thunder; and though Mr. Scandlin 
was at the time suffering with a scorbutic 
Umb, and I was ill with dysentery, we were 
moved to the Castle just abotit dark, and 
placed in a damp, vacant room on the 
ground floor, without beds, blankets, or 
any conveniences whatever, there to re- 
maui as best we could till morning should 
reveal our whereabouts, for it was dark 
when we entered. The morning light re- 
vealed to us a room about forty by twenty 
feet, with two grated windows on one side, 
a grated door at one end, a tub partially 
full of dirty water, intended to be used for 
drink, another nearly full of the excre- 
ments of thirty -two persons, who had been 
confined there during the night, many of 
them suffering from diarrhcea; two or three 
sailors' chests, which some of our number 
had brought with them, and a squad of 
tired, emaciated men. Breakfast, a large 
piece of bread and 4 ounces of boiled meat, 
was served in this apartment, without any 
means having been adopted to purify the 
atmosphere or remove the noisome tubs, 
and then we were examined preparatory to 
being sent to different parts of the build- 
ing, as fate and the inspector might decree. 
Mr. Scandlin succeeded in having all our 
party (four persons) placed in the same 
room, (I was too ill at the time to care 
where we went,) and the Commissary very 
kindly loaned me a mattress •to keep my 
bones from the floor; the prisoners in the 
room with us were very kind, and my own 
party were unremitting in their care of me. 
During our sojourn in Libby we had 
managed by means of letters, some of 
which are appended to this document, and 
messages, to keep the authorities aware of 
our confinement, but on reaching Castle 
Thunder aU comjnunication with the outer 
world seemed to be cut off. But, thanks 
to Mr. ScandUn's energy and perseveragce, 



a way was found to make our presence felt, 
and permission was obtained for a personal 
interview with Commissioner Ould. At 
this time I was very lame, and the active 
duties devolved on Mr. 8., who had par- 
tially recovered from his lameness, and he 
went to see the Commissioner; returned 
with a promise that we should be released 
and sent North by the next flag of truce 
boat that took prisoners; this was about 
the 10th of September, and we waited pa- 
tiently as possible the arrival of a boat. 
About September 15th a boat came up, but 
went back without prisoners, and we were 
compelled to wait tiU the night of the 
21st, when we moved to Libby, paroled 
"not to bear arms or perform any of the 
duties of a soldier until regularly exchang- 
ed," and were sent into the hospital to re- 
main tUl morning. One of our number, 
Mr. A. F. Brengle, was retained, he having 
been captured while returning from Har- 
per's Ferryj and the Commissioner decid- 
ing that he was not a regular employ^ of 
the Commission; that he was taken while 
in the act of relieving a beleaguered garri- 
son, and therefore must reftiain for th« 
present. Our colored boy, Moses Gardner, 
was left at Libby, the Confederate Commis- 
sioner refusing to release him. I learned 
from some of the prisoners that he had ac- 
knowledged to haviog been previously a 
slave. 

Tuesday, September 22d.— At 5 A.M. 
were off for the cars, and were soon on the 
road to City Point, where we arrived at 11 
A. M. Found that General Meredith had 
been part way down the river the previous 
day, but had very kindly returned to await 
the arrival of Gen'l Graham and our party, 
whom he welcomed in a true friendly spirit; 
his kind and thoughtful act of returning to 
City Point saved us a series of inconvenien- 
ces, and hastened our arrival in Washing- 
ton several hours. During the trip he was 
very attentive and courteous, expressing 
his warmth and depth of feeling not by 
words alone, but by impressive action. 

At Fortress Monroe were greeted by Mr. 
GaU, (in his own words,) "the last em- 
ploy6 of the Commission to part from us 
on our departure for, and the first to greet 
us on our return from, Richmond." 

Wednesday, 23d. — Left Fortress Monroe 



40 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



at 6.30 P.M.; arrived in Baltimore at 6.30 
of the succeeding morning, whence, after a 
warm greeting from the agents of the Com- 
mission at that place, we proceeded to 
Washington, arriving about 12 M. , and im- 
mediately reported at the Central Office. 

Having secreted and secured our money 
from capture, we were enabled, by remain- 
ing with the privates during the' march, to 
relieve some individual eases of suffering 
by furnishing food, by cheering the de- 
sponding and encouraging the weak; also 
by caring for the sick and wounded, so long 
as they remained vrith us. It has been our 
endeavor, during the entire term of impris- 
onment, to perform our duties as agents of 
the Commission whenever opportunities 
were presented; and we have not always 
waited for the work to come to us, but have 
endeavored to go to it. 

The day succeeding our arrival at Libby, 
I dispatched a note to "Capt. Turner, 
Commandant of the Prison," requesting a 
personal interview with him; the request 
was granted the following morning, and I 
then detailed to him the objects for which 
we were sent out, the operations of the 
Sanitary Commission in times past, and 
the circumstances attending our capture, 
requesting his advice and influence in ob- 
taining our release. By his advice, I im- 
mediately forwarded to Commissioner Ould, 
by the hands of Capt. Turner, a letter, 
dated July 31st, the substance of which is 
contained, as nearly as I am able to re- 
member, in my letter to Lieut. Latoughe, 
August 28th. Hearing no word from Mr. 
Ould, I sent another similar communica- 
tion some days later to Gen'l Winder, and 
August 15th received a verbal message 
from Lieut. Latouche, then acting Com- 
mandant of the Prison, requesting a state- 
ment of our capture, which I sent imme- 
diately, and at the end of which I enumer- 
ated the amount of property taken with us. 
August 27th this statement was returned, 
endorsed, " Get a complete statement of the 
details. , The writer 'of the inclosed seems 
. MOKE troubled about his pboperty than his 
LIBERTY. What say the others ?" or words 
very similar. 

I sent the letter of August 28th to Lieut. 
Latouche in answer to the above, and in- 
closed in it an article out from the Phila- 



delphia Enquirer of July 22, entitled "Hos- 
pitals at Gettysburg." The next day re- 
ceived letter from Mr. Gall, of Aug. 27th, 
a copy of which accompanies the other 
documents, and immediately commenced 
collecting certificates, of which I transmit 
copies, also a statement of their disposi- 
tion. We were not idle in sounding our 
trumpet in the call for Liberty, and but 
few days of our captivity passed without 
some of the Richmond officials being made 
aware of our presence in their citadel and 
capitol. I must add a few words of com- 
mendation for the patient, self-sacrificing 
zeal of my companions in captivity. 

Mr. ScANDUN proved to be all, and mors 
than all he professed; constantly engaged 
in some good work, cheerful under the 
most adverse circumstances, ever ready to 
render aid and comfort to all in distress, ha 
has become endeared not only to the agents 
of the Commission with whom he has been 
so long associated, but to most of the offi- 
cers and men whom chance and the for- 
tunes of war have placed in his path. He 
sought out the sick and inquiring,- gave 
them freely, cheerfully, temporal and spir- 
itual comfort at all times and in all sea- 
sons. He has proved himself to be an 
honest, faithful worker and a tbtje man, 
"the noblest work of God." 

Mr. Brengle had been confined in the 
citizAis' room from the time of reaching 
Richmond till August 10th — a period of 
about twenty days — had become much re- 
duced in strength and size from the efiects 
of hard fare and close confinement, yet 
was always cheerful, hopeful, and disposed 
to make the best of everything. It was 
with feelings of deep regret that we learned 
of the determination to hold him prisoner, 
even after our release. There is at present 
a faint hope of our being able to effect a 
special exchange for him soon. 

Leonard Brink had also been confined 
with the citizens till the time of our remo- 
val to hospital, and his frame showed a de- 
cided want of fleshy covering when ha 
joined us in our new quarters^ Decent 
prison fare soon proved a benefit to him, 
and his patient, contented disposition aid- 
ed greatly in restoring him to something 
like his former dimensions. 

Hoping the results of this expedition 



The Sanitary ' Commission Bulletin. 



41 



may prove of benefit to the cause for wMcli 
we are laboring, witli many thanks to the 
several members bf the Commission ■wjio 
have labored so assiduously in obtaining 
our release, and with the sincere hope that 
there may never again be cause for such 
esertious. ' 



WHAT WE HAVE AND WHAT 
WE NEED. 

Sanitaex Commission, 
Cenieal Office, 244 F St., 
Washington, D. C, Oct. 3, 1863. 

Deab Miss Collins — The time is at 
hand when the chill autumn nights, to be 
followed by the frosts and snows of winter, 
will take the place of the heats of summer, 
and the cry of the army patients and sur- 
geons will be for warm clothing and bed- 
ding, instead of for cotton garments, mos- 
quito netting and fans. However thankful 
we may be for the successes of the Union 
arms, and however certain of their eventual 
triumph, there seems to be no sound reason 
for believing that the war wiU end very 
speedily; and, while it lasts, we may be 
sure that the women of the country will 
insist on their privilege of supplementing, 
in articles of comfort and delicacies suitable 
for the sick and wounded in hospital, the 
necessaries which Government so liberally 
provides for their husbands, lovers, sens 
and brothers in the field. While recog- 
nizing this, our experience during the last 
two winters reminds us of the necessity of 
preparing in season for the extensive calls 
which will soon commence, and which will 
continue throughout the winter — ^f or warm 
clothing and bedding, quilts and blankets, 
woolen under-clothing and socks, will, 
judging by the past, be the articles of this 
kind most in demand; after these, bed and 
piUow-ticks, warm thick dressing gowns 
or wrappers, slippers, sheets, pillow-cases, 
towels and handkerchiefs. Of eatables, 
the chief demand will doubtless be, as here- 
tofore, for stimulants of every kind; jellies 
and farinaceous food, dried fruits and prep- 
arations of beef, mUk and vegetables. 

I inclose with this a schedule showing 
the amount of stock in the Washington 
depots, at this date, of these and other arti- 
cles most in demand. In a parallel columr^ 



is shown their aggregated amount in the- 
storehouses of our branches in Philadel- 
phia, New York and Boston, according to 
the latest weeldy reports furnished by them 
to this office. By this you wiU perceive 
that our stock of blankets, quilts, woolen 
drawers, bed-ticks, pillow-ticks, wrappers, 
dried fruit, farina, stimulants, and jeUies, 
is very low; and that, so far as most of the 
articles are concerned, the same is true of 
the stock of most of our branches. You 
will not fail to observe that appearances 
indicate a return of our old trouble in col- 
lecting woolen drawers in quantities suffi- 
cient to match the woolen shirts; for while 
we have on hand 7,978 of the latter, we 
have only 440 of the former. In view of 
this indication, according as it does with 
our past experience on this head, I would 
suggest the propriety of your calling spe- 
cial attention among your correspondents 
to the fact, and of requesting them to or- 
ganize their sewing labors so as to secure 
proportions of shirts and drawers more 
nearly equal. You will also observe that 
wfe have on hand but 20 piUow-tioks, 20 
sponges, 3 bottles of gin and 3 of brandy; 
whUe our branches have none of any of 
them; that we have but 4 wrappers, and 3 
barrels of dried fruit; and that the united 
stock of this depot and those of our branch- 
es is of the following articles, only: blank- 
ets 401, abdominal bandages 290, bed-ticks 
580; {we had yesterday an order from the 
army of the Potomac for 500 bed-ticks.) 

Your experience has doubtless led you to 
the same conclusion as my own, namely: 
that for our supplies of made-up dry-goods, 
by which I refer to quilts, under-clothing, 
sbcks, &c., and of made-up eatables — I 
mean jeUies, preserves, pickles, dried fruit, 
&c. — we shall have to depend in great part 
on our country contributors; while for im- 
ported liquors and wines, preparations of 
beef and milk, and for fine groceries gener- 
ally, our dependence must be almost entire- 
ly on those in the cities, or rather on the 
funds contributed by city residents; for the 
major part — ^I may say nearly all — of this 
latter expensive description of stock has 
hitherto been purchased directly from the 
dealers by the Commission and its branches. 
It would therefore be well, I think, that 
our methods and correspondence should be 



42 



The 'Sanitary Oommission BvEetin. 



simultaneously conducted with reference 
to these ascertained facts, and that we 
should make the most of the advantages 
afforded by what have been demonstrated 
to be the natural channels of supply, rather 
than that we should endeavor to force the 
current into those which our theories in- 
cline us to regard as the legitimate ones. 

The excess of the stock on hand of linen 
rags, lint and bandages, over the current 
demands in almost aJl the depots tributary 
to the Commission, was, in the early part 
of the year, so great that some of the cor- 
respondents of this office proposed to sell 
their overplus to the paper manufacturers, 
and use the proceeds in the purchase of 
supplies, of which there existed a deficien- 
cy. I was impressed, however, with the 
conviction that this surplus would be but 
temporary, and that it simply resulted from 
the accumulations of old linen made before 
the commencement of the war in the house- 
holds of the country; while I thought 
that the exhaustion of this accumulation, 
and the high prices for the basis of this 
kind of stock ruling in the market since the 
commencement of hostilities, would prove 
an effectual bar to such supplies in the fu- 
ture. I stated my impressions on this sub- 
ject to my correspondents,. and I am happy 
to say they were dissuaded from carrying 
out their intention. On reference to the 
figures, you will perceive that the aggre- 
gated amount of these materials now on 
hand in this depot and in those of our 
branches is only 236 barrels. 

If this stock should, by the chances of 
war, be heavily drawn upon within a month 
or two, I am inclined to think that some 
exertion will be required to replenish it in 
sufficient quantities throughout the winter. 

In reviewing our labors in the past and 
anticipating our prospects for the future, 
it cannot fail to afford matter of remark and 
congratulation to realize the extraordinary 
support which has been extended to the 
Commission, and through it to the National 
cause, by the loyal women of the country; 
for while money has been freely provided 
for its treasury by the rich men of the 
country, from the Pacific to the Atlantic 
Coasts, the articles of clothing and the del- 
icacies in the way of food provided by the 
women — rich and poor alike — ^have tenfold 



exceeded in cash value the donations of the 
former. And it will perhaps encourage 
your correspondents to know what I can 
assure them is the truth — that of some 
twenty thousand (20,000) cases of invoiced 
goods, many of them containing articles 
valued at several hundred dollars, which 
haye been forwarded to this depot of the 
Oommission, not more than one or two have 
failed to reach us. And it may also be sat- 
isfactory to know that the proportion of 
money expenditure for their distribution, 
made by the Oommission for the various 
purposes of the remuneration of its employ- 
&, rent, freight, postage, and aU other in- 
cidental outlays, does not amount to much 
more than three (3) per cent, on the cash 
value of the distributions made through its 
agency to the soldiers of the country. 
Very respectfully and truly yours, 
(Signed) ALFRED J. BLOOE, 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss EiiiiEN OoiiiiiNS, Chairwoman Com. 
Cor. and Supplies, Woman! s Central As- 
sociation of belief, New York. 



THE RATE OF EXCHANGE. 
Mr. E. B. FairohUd is employed at Point 
Lookout in the collection of statistics re- 
garding the physique of the men in the 
rebel armies, and the following letter re- 
cently received from him contains soms 
curious facts as to the comparative value of 
United States and Confederate money, as 
settled by the rebels themselves: 

Sanitabt Commission, Point ) 
Lookout, Oct. 27, 1863. ) 
Db. L. H. Steiner: 

Mt Dear Sir — I received yesterday the 
table and chairs. They were very welcome. 
I am getting on pretty well with my work; 
the cold weather and storm of the past 
week have interfered with me somewhat. 
The rebs are quite thinly clad, and they 
don't like to take off coat and shoes in my 
tent, where there is no fire. I am about 
having a fireplace and chimney built, and 
shall try and make the comforts of my 
tent a temptation to them to stay with me 
long enough to be measured. I have been 
telling them that I expected my spirometer 
by every boat, and many of them are wait- 
ing for that before they are measured. I 



?%e Sanitary Commission BvEebin. 



43 



•wish it might be sent do-wn as soon as pos- 
sible. The poor rebs suffer a good deal; 
many are almost entirely -without shirts, 
very few of them have overcoats, ansd- aU 
are obliged to sleep on the ground, most 
of them in A tents, -with three very much 
worn blankets for sis men. There is a 
good deal of scurvy among them, con- 
tracted at Ft. Delaware; there is also con- 
siderable small-pox. Yesterday afternoon, 
as I had little to do, I accepted the invita- 
tion of one of them to walk through the 
camp; the first time I have been beyond 
my own tent. The main street is their ex- 
change, and of aJil the bartering and *' dick- 
ering" this beats anything I ever saw. The 
street was crowded, as I am informed it is 
from morning to night; here on the side of 
■the street one was making coffee from the 
grounds taJten from the cook-house, which 
he was selling for two dollars and a half 
' ' Confederate, " or five cents ' ' greenbacks, ' ' 
a cup. Another had half a dozen apples, and 
was crjring out " Here's your nice apples, 
two for three doUais;" another, "Here's 
your hard-tack, five for a dollar;" another, 
" Here's your nice tobacco, one chaw for a 
dollar. " While I was standing still looking 
on, I was beset on all sides, to give tobacco 
for rings. One f eUow wanted to sell me a 
pipe. I asked him the price: "Two dol- 
lais and a half ' Confederate, or five cents 
greenbacks,' I don't care which." They 
sell everything. I saw one man who had 
no shirt on, who had just received one 
from the Provost Marshal, trying to sell it 
for tobacco. They make bricks of clay, 
which they dry in the sun, of which they 
make chimneys with fireplaces to warm 
their tents. They used to retake them for 
two dollars and a half a hundred, or five 
cents "greenbacks;'' but recently some of 
our soldiers have been buying them, and 
they have raised the price to twenty-five 
cents a hundred, equivalent to twelve and* 
a half dollars a hundred Confederate. I 
made a bargain with, one of them yesterday 
to build me a chimney. He charged me 
thirty- four dollars, and thought me very lib- 
eral when I oifered him fifty-cents in 
" greeiibaoks. " There is a good deal of 
Confederate money among them; some of 
the men are buying it up. A rebel sergeant 
showed, me $18,000 to-day. I wish yoiJ 



could Gome "down here for a couple of days. 
It would pay you well if you could spare 
the time. The last measurement I have 
taken is No. 565. I have done a good 
day's work to-day. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) E. B. FAIKOHILD. 



THE SANITARY COMMISSION AT 
GETTYSBURG. 

The following has reference to the testi- 
mony borne to tie value of the labors of 
the Commission on the field at Gettysburg, 
by Mr. John F. Seymour, a brother pf 
Governor Seymour of this State: 
To the Editor of the Vii^ Morning HeraW. 

Our townsman, Mr. John F. Seymour, 
has spent eight days at Gettysburg and in 
its nedghborhood, ministering to the wants 
of our wounded soldiers. In a letter just 
received from him, after speaking of their 
condition — " some in churches, some ^n 
bams, some in tents among forest trees, 
some in tents on open fields, some under 
such shelter as a farmer would be ashamed 
to show for his cows, some under blankets 
hung over cross-sticks, and some without 
even so much shelter as that," he says: 
" The United States Medical Department, 
which is not excelled by any in the world 
for efficiency, has' made amjd^ provision for 
10,000 wounded soldiers — ^its officers an(J 
medicines were on the battle-ground — ^but 
when the enemy retreated from Gettysburg 
they left 11,000 wounded men in buildings, 
and on open fields, and in the woods; and 
thus 20,000, instead of 10,000, men were 
immediately to be eared for in a smaU 
village and in a farming country already 
pillaged or partly exhausted by Lee's army. 
The railroad, which might have brought 
supplies, was broken up for miles, and the 
telegraph wires and poles were down. What 
of the Sanitary Commission in this emer- 
gency ? Everything that is praiseworthy. 
The Medical Department could not have 
got along without that and the Christian 
Commission. The soldiers would have 
starved to death without their aid. As 
soon as the railroad was repaired the Sani- 
tary Commission sent an ice-ear daily from 
Philadelphia, loaded with fresh meats, milk 
and vegetables. With its ambulances it 
poured in among the suffering multitude 
thousands of pounds of bread and meat, 
clothing, blankets, bandages, beef -tea, con- 
densed milk, liquors, and, in short, every- 
thing that human kindness could devise 
was gathered up by the wide benevolence 
of this Commission, and poured out among 
the wounded soldiers, friend and foe alike, 
until tliey were more than supplied. I caa- 



u 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



not sufficieutly express my admiration and 
gratitude for the Sanitary and Christian 
Commissions. The Sanitary Commission 
is "worthy of all the aid and confidence 
■which its most zealous friends in Utica 
have ever claimed for it. Fully to appre- 
ciate its labors you need to witness the 
wants and suifferings of the thousands of 
•wounded and dying scattered over miles of 
country around Gettysburg." 

Mr: Seymour speaks further of the con- 
dition of the wounded, and then adds: 

" Imagine, if you can, all these things, 
and then you may understand something 
of the value and the necessity of a Commis- 
sion like this, to which the citizens of Utica 
have so wisely contributed." He says: " In 
addition to the Sanitary and Christian Com- 
missions, delegations from Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania,* Maryland, Michigan and other States 
have been at Gettysburg, striving to miti- 
gate the pain and where the wants of these 
wounded soldiers. " 

Mr. Seymour speaks of the impression 
which, he fears, prevails in relation to the 
conduct of the people of Gettysburg after 
the battle, and concludes thus : 

" Doubfless, miserable wretches are to be 
found there, as in every other place, who 
have extorted money from "soldiers and 
strangers; — but it should be recoUeeted that 
the village and surrounding country had 
been ocpupied by Lee's hungry army before 
the battle. The people were worn out by 
excitement and terror — ^by the presence and 
conflict of great armies — and tiien came 
20,000 wounded men, and thousands of 
anxious friends, all crowding in upon the 
inhabitants. There was scarcely a house 
that was not filled with strangers, occupying 
beds, sofas and floors. The exhausted in- 
habitants fed and lodged them with the 
greatest hospitality. That there were in- 
stances of shameful impositions cannot be 
denied; but they would have been practiced 
anywhere. At Gettysburg they were only 
the exceptions to a generous hospitality of 
a people who had difficulty in providing for 
themselves." 

These extracts from Mr. Seymour's letter 
win, I am sure, be read with interest. If 
any additional testimony were required of 
the ceaseless labors and vigilance, the wise 
, and benevolent action, and the indispensa- 
ble necessity of the Sanitary Commission, 
it is furnished, at least to us, by what is 
here said by a fellow-citizen who is so well 
known and so highly and justly esteemed 
as Mr. Seymour. 

The ladies of Utica who have been so 
long and so patiently, industriously, and 
effectively engaged in contributing to the 
supplies of the Commission, will find some 
reward for their self-sacrificing labors in 
Mr. Seymour's statements, and will be ex- 
cited to continued and increased efforts in 



behalf of such an instrumentality of mercy, 
(as is the Sanitary Commission,) to those 
who are offering up their lives in defence 
of all that is dear to them and to us all. 

Your readers, Mr. Editor, know that 
subscriptions of monthly contributions to 
the funds of the L^idies' Society were quite 
extensively made in the city during the last 
spring. The sums subscribed are payable 
to Mr. Thomas Buchanan, at the Savings 
Bank of Utica. If they are all promptly 
paid it will enable the society to continiie 
its good work without any labor or anxiety 
about funds, and without any further caU 
upon our citizens for pecuniary aid. There 
is a large amount of the subscriptions in 
arrear. The subscribers are urgently re- 
quested to pay arrearages iminediately, and 
hereafter to pay prom/pUy on the first Friday 
of every month, according to the terms of the 
subscription. Unless this is done it will be 
necessary to employ a collector, which will 
involve considerable expense, and so far 
diminish the fund, every dollar of which 
should be devoted to the direct object of 
thie society. 

THE HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

" ONE INQUIRY ASB ONE ANSWER. " 

The working of this machinery, erected 
by the Commission for the supply of iuf or- 
mation with regard to patients in the vari- 
ous United States Hospitals, is well iUus-s 
trated by the following facts taken froln 
Mr. H. S. Holbrook's report from Louis- 
ville, Ky., of Sept. 1, 1863: 

An old man enters the office. He has 
traveled from Northern Ohio to meet his 
son in this city; he has been told to inquire 
at the Sanitary Commission rooms for di- 
rection to the hospital which contains him. 
While the clerk turns to the books, he chats 
of his son and home, of the difierent arti- 
cles in his carpet-bag, put in by mother 
and sisters at home — each had sent some 
little comfort. He is all animation and 
hope, as if at the very door which is to 
admit him to the realization of all his happy 
anticipations. The record says — "died " — 
that very morning ! The register says, ' ' one 
inquiry, one answer. " It does not speak of 
the careful praparatory suggestions that 
sympathy tenderly makes towards the an- 
nouncement of the saddening fact. It does 
not show that strong old man convulsed 
and weeping like a child. You see not his 
departure from the office stunned with grief. 
You feel npt the stifled thanks of his fat^- 
weU grasp— full payment for all your sym- 
pathy and care. He goes slowly and sadly 
away. One of the clerks accompanies him, 
who procures a burial-case for the remains 
of his "poor boy," and assists him in aU 
his pr eparati ons for his mournful- journey 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



45 



home on the same day. The register says 
— "one inquiry, one answer." 

"A mother from Northern Indiana has re- 
ceived a dispatch that her son is sick in 
Nashville; she is on her way to see him; 
she applies for a pass, but passes for ladies 
are seldom granted, and not without a per- 
mit from head-quarters. Her credentials 
are all right, hut she is told that it is more 
than doubtful if she is permitted to go . 
She comes to the Directory; her son's name 
is on the books; "telegraphing is expensive, 
and the result doubtful." " 'Tis too bad," 
she exclaims, " I have seven sons, and all 
of them in the army; I do not wish them 
away, but I do want, if they get sick, the 
privilege of going to nurse them." "My 
dear madam, you shall go; that fact will 
get you a pass," and so it did. The regis- 
ter says, "one inquiry, one answer." 

A sprightly young wife is sent from the 
telegraph office to have a dispatch written 
for a permit to visit her husband in Nash- 
ville. She is quite impatient at the useless 
delay in consulting the records for his 
name. " She knows he is in Nashville, and 
all she wants is a dispatch written, and wiU 
be obliged for as much haste as ■ possible. " 
" Are you sure he is in NashvUle ?" " Cer- 
tainly." "You would have no objections to 
meeting him here ?" "You are playing 
with me, sir; wiU you give me the dis- 
patch ?" "I don't think you wiUneed one. 
This ' Eibstract ' wiU please you better. 
■There are directions where to find your 
husband, a few blocks off. " With one look, 
to be sure she was not being "played" 
with, she was off from the office down street 
at what he would have called the " double 
quick," and found him not in Nashville. 
Had she not come to the Directory, possibly 
she might have obtained a pass to Nash- 
ville, and gone; or failing in that, would 
have gone home without seeing him. 

A short time ago this case came under 
our notice. A soldier in hospital in Nash- 
ville writes to his wife that he is very sick, 
and requests her to come to him. The let- 
ter was dated the 5th Sept. Two days af- 
terwards he is transferred to Louisville, but 
his letter informing her of the change 
never reached her. She leaves home and 
stops over night in Louisville, and goes to 
Nashville on the 15th. There she learns 
that he is in Louisville. Delayed for lack 
of funds, she returns to this city on the 22d 
and finds that he died on the night of the 
16th, the next night after she lodged in 
the same city, so near to each other, yet 
never to meet. Had she known of the 
Hospital Directory, and consulted it, this 
lifelong grief would have been prevented. 

" A father desires to visit a sick son. His 
statements accord with our record. The 
dispatch written for him explains the case. 

"To Brig. -Gen. J. A. Garfield, Chief o4 
Staff, Iforfreesboro', Tenn. : Had four sons 



in army; two are dead; two belong to the 

89th Ohio, Co. . William is sick 

at Gallatin, hospital four. Please grant 

pass. A. . 

J. 8. Newbebet, Voucher." 

The pass was granted. 

A father from Pennsylvania presents a 
letter from the surgeon of a hospital in 
Nashville, saying that his son will be dis- 
charged, and sent to this city in care of the 
Sanitary Commission, and requests the fa- 
ther to meet him here. He asks, " Where 
is he ,?" We have no note of his arrival. 
"He must stiU be in hospital at NashviUe. 
But stay; here is a report just in." The 
name is there, and died August 9, 1863, the 
very day the father received the letter, and 
set out to meet him. His son had sent him 
word not to bring more money than neces- 
sary to pay his fare to LpuisviUe, as he was 
paid off and had enougtf. What wa9 to be 
done ? We loaned him his passage home; 
made out the necessary papers to get the 
effects of his son;, wrote to Nashville to 
Sanitary Commission agents to forward 
them, and he left for home that evening. 

We might multiply similar oases indefi- 
nitely, each one possessing some peculiar- 
ity to vary the service, needed to meet the 
wants of the appUoant. But these must 
suffice. 



HEALTH OF THE BRITISH ARMY. 

The following is a summary of the Be- 
port of the Deputy Inspector General, 
which has just been issued, for the year 
1861: 

It shows that among the troops serving 
in the United Kingdom, the admissions 
into hospital were 1.025 per 1,000 of mean 
strength, the deaths 91.24, and the con- 
stantly sick 5454; a slight reduction from 
the previous year in all these particulars. 
Excluding the depots, because in them 
many are men with health impaired by 
service in unhealthy climates, the mortality 
among the troops was lower than that of 
the male population in the healthy districts 
of England under the age of 25, nearly 
identical with it between 25 and 30, but 
higher than that of the civil population 
above the latter age. The leading facts of 
the great prevalence of venereal and high 
mortality by tubercular diseases remained 
unchanged; the former having caused more 
than a third of all the admissions into hos- 
pital, and the latter above a third of the 
total deaths. The admissions into hospital 
for venereal diseases amounted to 354 per 
1,000 of mean strength, equal to more than 
one man in every three ; and the inefficiency 
thus caused was equal to the loss of the 
services of every soldier at home for 8.56 
days, being a trifle imder the amount in 
the preceding year. The admissions per 



46 



The Scmitwry, Commission Bulletin. 



t,%00 of steength. from this cause reached 
487 at Manchester, 485 at Portsmouth, 470 
at Plymouth, 469 at Belfast, 399 at Wool- 
wich, 361 at Aldershot; in London and 
Windsor thej were 328 among the Foot 
Guards, but only 135 among the Household 
Cavalry. Diseases of the respiratory sys- 
tem, influenza, and tonsillitis were less 
prevalent than in the previous year; they 
prevail most among the dock-yards and 
arsenals, a result probably of the greater 
amount of duty and exposure of the men. 
There were 33 instances of accidental death 
by drowning — a strong hint that the men 
shotdd be instructed in swimming. The 
infliction of corporal punishment varied in 
the year from 1 per 1,000 in London and 
Windsor, to 2.9 in the large manufacturing 
towns. In the cavah-y, artillery, and in- 
fantry regiments, the whole mortality in 
the yeajr was lower than that (7.41) in the 
most healthy districts of England; but this 
comparison is made after the elimination 
of diseased Uves from the ranks of the army 
by invaliding, and the invaliding in all 
arms except the Household Cavalry, was 
higher than 1860. The strength of the 
army having been raised above the author- 
ized establishment, it became necessary to 
reduce it, and for this purpose a number of 
the least efficient men were discharged, who, 
under ordinary circumstances, would have 
continued to serve. If the deaths of men 
invalided in. 1861, and who died before the 
end of that year, be included in the calcu- 
lation, the returns for 1861 show an in- 
crease in the mortality of the Cavalry and 
Foot Guards, but a decrease in that of the 
ArtUlery, Military Train and Infantry reg- 
iments; and the ratio of deaths per 1,000 
of strength becomes 10. 54 in the Household 
Cavalry, 8.43 in the cavalry of the line, 
7; 73 in the Royal Artillery, 12.19 in the 
Foot Guards, and 9.05 in the infantry regi- 
ments. The mortality by tubercular ^s- 
eases was very high in the Household Cav- 
alry, but it is an accidental fluctuation, 
arising from the small numbers under ob- 
servation. Omitting these troops and the 
depots, which included men sent home for 
change of climate, the proportion of deaths 
by tubercular diseases is remarkable for its 
uniformity in all the arms, ranging between 
2^41 per 1,000 in the cavalry of the line 
and the Foot Guards, and 2.75 in the MUi- 
5tary Train. But it is in diseases of this 
class that the effect of invaliding, in redu- 
cing the mortality, must be most strikingly 
seen. Combining the mortality and the 
invaliding, which is the only way of arriv- 
ing at a correct conclusion, the ratios of 
decrease (through tubercular disease) by 
deaths and invaliding, were 8.41 per 1,000 
in the Eoyal Artillery, 8.68 in the infantry 
regiments, 12.18 in the cavalry of the line, 
13.75 in the Military Train, and no less 
than 18.07 in the Foot Guards, or twice as 



great as in the artillery or infantry- These 
proportions are considerably higher than 
in 1860, but the more extensive invaliding 
must be borne in .mind. Delirium tremens 
is only entered as the cause of death in two 
instances in 1861, and it gave rise to fewer 
admissions into hospital than in the preced- 
ing years; so also did "intemperance." 
The admissions from delirium tremens and 
ebriositas conjointly, were 3.28 per 1,000 
of mean strength in the Household-Cavalry, 

5.38 in the cavalry of the line, as high as 

6.39 in the Royal Artillery, 4.47 in the 
Foot Guards, and 5.65 in the infantry regi- 
ments. In the depots, the admissions for 
these diseases, the direct result of drinking, 
were generally considerably higher. It is 
remarkable that the ratio of admissions 
into hospital in some corps is double that 
in others, and that for a considerable part 
of the year, the most sickly and the most 
healthy corps were stationed at the same 
place.* 

From the Mediterranean stations the 
returns are generally satisfactory; but Gi- 
braltar contributes a high ratio of invalids 
from pulmonary and cardiac diseases; and 
disease resulting from immorality, though 
much less than in the army at home, has 
increased, notwithstanding the police regu- 
lations. In Canada, also, there is an in- 
crease of this class of cases, but the amount 
is still much below that shown in the home 
returns; and the returns of sickness gener- 
ally, both from Canada and Npva Scotia, 
present a very satisfactory result when 
compared with those relating to the troops 
serving at home. The report from British 
Columbia indicates a remarkably healthy 
condition of the troops — a detachment of 
the Eoyal Engineers. In a force of 130 
men there was but one death — that of a 
sapper, who was frozen to death while re- 
turning to head-quarters from a surveying 
expedition. From the West Indies, the 
returns show a great improvement over the 
previous year, but the mortality ainong the 
black troops is still very heavy. In Jamai- 
ca, the ratio constantly sick was only 
29.87 per 1,000 among the white troops, 
but 52.23 among the black — a difference 
which is traced to the circumstance of the 
black troops being quartered in the low 
lands, where intermittent fevers are rife, 
while the white troops were in the more 
healthy climate of Newcastle. In Western 
Africa, the mortality of the troops (black) 
considerably exceeded 40 per thousand— a 



* There is very little doubt that the difference in the ' 
rate of admiasionB into hospital in different corps, noted . 
here, is, other tilings being equal, due to difference in 
the o£QoerB. Great inattention to the health and com- 
fort of the men, in the sanitary condition of the quar- 
ters, on the part of the ofQoers, over-rigid discipline, 
and a haraasing amoimt of drill, it is well Imown, have 
a large iaSHaeaise in developing disease, if only by 
driving the nien into Vicl6na. ' couzssa aa a meains of 
distraction. 



The Sanitary Gomtnission' BiMetiw. 



41 



mortstlity greatly above the average of the 
two preceding years. It is attributed partly 
to the fiitigue and exposure of the men in 
two expeditions of a hostile nature. The 
returns from the Cape of Good Hope show 
a considerable improvement in most re- 
jects. The principal medical officer no- 
tices the prevalence of disease of the heart, 
and attributes it in great part to intemper- 
ance, keeping up an excitement of the 
circulation, aggravated by high atmospheric 
temperature. From Mauritius the return 
is, for that climate, remarkably favorable, 
owing, it is supposed, to the influence of 
two hurricanes. In Ceylon, the mortality 
was high, nearly 20 per 1,000, but stiU, 
much below the average of the two previous 
years. In Australia the mortality was, as 
high as 15.44 per 1,000; and in New Zea- 
land also, deducting men kiUed in action, 
the mortality was considerably above the 
average; in both these colonies rheuma- 
tism was the chief cause of invaliding. In 
Southern China the mortality feE to 23 per 
1,000; but in the north, where a large gar- 
rison was left at Tien-tsin, it was more than 
double that ratio, and reached 54 per 1,000. 
The deaths from miasmatic diseases were 
31.80 per 1,000 in the north, and only 12.58 
in the south. The diseases especially fatal 
in the north were dysentery, diarrhoea, and 
cholera. Diseases caused by immorality 
were only half as common in the north as 
in the south; in the south the admissions 
into hospital from this cause reached 511 
per thousand; but their prevalence among 
the native troops, as compared with the 
European, was in proportion of only one to 
seven. The average number constantly 
sick among the European troops, was in 
South China as high as 283 per 1,000, and 
in North China 205; 392 men, 63. 8 per 1,000 
of mean strength, were sent home to Eng- 
land for change of climate, and the number 
flnaUy discharged the service as invalids in 
1861 was 116, or 18.88 per 1,00'0 of strength. 
The ohmate of Tien-tsin is described as 
remarkably dry, and there is great predom- 
iaance of blue sky at aU seasons; the ther- 
mometer ranged in 1861 from 108 deg. to — 
1.5 deg. Lastly we have the returns from 
India. Out of an average force of 57,082 
of her Majesty's troops, 2,097 men ^ed, 
36.74 per 1,000. The chief mortality was 
in Bengal, and was occasioned "by the severe 
epidemic of cholera, which caused more 
than haH the total mortality in that Presi- 
dency. Exclusive of the deaths by it, the 
ratio' of mortality in Bengal amounted to 
only 22 per 1,000, and the mortality in the 
two other Presidencies was much ' lower 
than in 1860; it was 151 13 in Madras, and 
,24.72 in Bombay. Nine men died from 
sunnstroke; 857, 15 per cent, of the average 
strength, were discharged the service as 
invalids in the cdurse of the year. 



WHERE YOUR GIFTS GO. 

It is a white dusty ridge in Alabama; tall, 
slim oaks sprinkle it, and beneath them, 
in streets with a strange, far eastern look, 
stand the tents of one of those blessed 
cities of mercy — a field hospital. The sun 
pours hotly down; a distant drum snarls 
now and then as if in a dream ; the tink- 
ling concert of a cloud of locusts — the ci- 
cada of the South — comes, like the dear 
old sleigh-beUs' chime, from a distant tree. 
"The loud" laugh that tells the vacant 
mind " is unheard; the familiar sound of 
closing doors and children's carol never 
rises there; the tents swell white, and sad, 
and still. Within them lie almost three 
thousand soldiers, marred with aU wounds 
conceivable, wasted with pain, parched 
with fever, -wearily turning, wearily wa,it- 
ing to take up the blessipd march. Ho, for 
the North ! That is the word, the ever- 
abiding charmer that "lingers stiU, behind." 
It is Stevenson; it is NashviUe; it is Louis- 
ville; it is home; it is heaven. Alas for 
it, how they falter and sleep- by the way! 
And every one of these men was somebody's 
boy once; had a mother once, a wife, a 
sister, a sweetheart; but "better is a friend 
that is near than a brother afar off," and 
now comes the blessed mission of woman. 
True, there are only two here in person, 
but how many in heart and work ! 

You have been thinking,, my sisters, 
where is our work in all these scenes ? 
That snowy roll of linen; that little pil- 
low beneath the sufferer's head; that soft 
fold across the gashed breast; that cooling 
drink the rude, kind, stalwart nurse is put- 
ting to yonder boy's white Hps; that deli- 
cacy this poor fellow is just partaking; 
that dressing-gown whose broidered hem 
those long, thin fingers are toying with; 
the slippers a world too wide for the thin', 
faltering feet; the diish of fruit a left hand 
is slowly working at, his right laid upon 
our Federal altar at Chiokamauga, never 
to be lifted more. Your tree, my sister, 
bore that fruit; your fingers wrought,-your 
heart conceived. "What do the women 
say about us boys at home ?" slowly asked 
a poor wreck of a lad, as I sat by his side. 
That brow of his ached, I know, for the 
touch of a loving hand, "and the sound 
of a voice that is still." At the moment 
he asked the question he was turning over 
a Uttle silken needle-book that one of you 
laughmg girls made some day and tucked 
in a corner of a bag, labeled "United 
States Sanitary Commission." On the 
cover of that book you had wrought the 
words — playfully, perhaps — "My bold sol- 
dier boy." I silently pointed to the le- 
gend; the reply struck home to his heart; 
and he burst into tears. I assure you they 
were not bitter tears he shed, and as he 
wiped thiem away with a fine' film .of a 



48 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



handkerchief you girls had hemmed for 
him, his question was twice answered, and 
he .was content. His eyelids closed down, 
his breathing was regular; he had fallen 
asleep, and I thought it was the picture 
of the " Soldier's Dream " over again. 

You hear of the mal-appropriation of 
your gifts, but never fear; one grain may 
fail, but two wiU spring up and blossom 
out into "forget-me-nots." Your work is 
everywhere. Go with me to that tent 
standing apart; it is the dead-house tent. 
Four boys in their brown blankets, four 
white wood coffins, four labels with four 
names on four still breasts. Two of the 
four garments the sleepers wear are of 
Hnen from your stores, stitched by your 
fingers. VerUy, the Ladies' Soldiers' Aid 
Societies should be named "Mary," for 
are they not like her of old, " last at the 
cross and earliest at the grave?" — From 
B. T. Taylor's Chattanooga Correspondence 
with the Chicago Journal. 



RELIEF OF OUR PRISONERS IN 
RICHMOND. 

The following report will, it is hoped, sup- 
ply all needed information as to what can 
be done, and what has been done by the 
Commission for the relief of the Union 
soldiers now confined at Bichmond. 

U. S. Sanitary Commission, No. 
823 Broadway, New Yobk; 
Nov. 11, 1863. 
The Rev. H. W. Bellows, B.B., President 
of the U. S. Sanitary Commission : 

SiK — ^In reply to your request accom- 
panying the letter of the Bev. 

of the 10th inst., which asked what had 
been, and what could be done by the Com- 
mission for the relief of Union men in 
the Bichmond prisons, I have the honor to 

report, foUowLng the order of Mr. 's 

inquiries : 

1. The supplies of clothing and reading 
matter mentioned on page 30 of the Sani- 
tary Commission Bulletin of Nov. 1, of 

which I have sent a copy to Mr. , were 

contained in 15 cases. From Gen. Neal 
Dow we have the acknowledgment of the 

•receipt by him of 13 of these cases, and of 
his partial distribution of them among the 
officers confined with him at Libby prison. 
He was expecting on the 1st inst. to obtain 
permission the next day to complete the 
distribution among the privates on BeUe 
Isle. 

2. The Commission has, since the receipt 
of these advices from Gen. Dow, sent to 
him a consignment of concentrated food, 
beef stock for making soup, condensed 
milk, extract of coffee, sweet chocolate, &o. 



This is evidently experimental. Should 
these articles reach our braves without be- 
ing made to paiy heavier tribute on the 
way than did the first consignment, the 
Commission will of course keep up a steady 
supply. 

3. The Sanitary Commission has been 
unwUHng to assume any responsibility for 
transmitting packages of either food or 
clothing to specified individuals at Bich- 
mond. Its supplies sent there, as in its 
general relief service, are sent to those who 
need them most. Its channel of relief, 
somewhat limited by the Confederate au- 
thorities, wotdd be speedily choked, if it 
was open to consignments for individuals. 
To show how important the Commission 
considers this rule, I may mention that one 
of its own officers whose kinsman is languish- 
ing in Libby, is unwilling to appropriate iig 
privileges for individual relief. 

I may here say that Gen. S. A. Meredith, 
Commissioner for Exchange at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., is authorized by our Govern- 
ment to send on its account such supplies 
of clothing to our men imprisoned at Bich- 
mond as they may need and as the Confed- 
erate authorities will permit. The news- 
papers also assert that Gen. Meredith will 
receive packages for individuals, but of this 
I am not sure. 

4. The Commission is not informed as to 
the methods by which the Government in- 
tends to protect its soldiers from sufferings 
such as they have recently experienced at 
Bichmond, nor as to the prospect of a gen- 
eral exchange of prisoners, but it has asked 
of the Secretary of War the privilege of 
sending, \^ith the assent of the Confederate 
authorities, to the Libby and Belle Isle 
prisons an accredited agent, who will be 
devoted to ministering to the necessities of 
our men there. An efficient and discreet 
person is now under appointment, only 
awaiting permission of the authorities to 
enter upon the mission. 

Eespectfully yours, 

J. FOSTEB JENKINS, 

General Secretary of the U. S. 

Sanitary Commission. 



By the steamer of October 31st, Messrs. 
J. B. Abbott, O. C. Bullard and W. S. 
BuUard saUed for New Orleans, to establish 
in the Department of the Gulf "Homes" 
and "Lodges" in connection' with tlie 
special relief work of the Commission. And 
by the steamer of the 14th inst.. Dr. E. A. 
Crane, sanitary inspector; Mr. Thomas Fur- 
niss, store-keeper ; and Messrs. Edward 
Mitchell, Gordon Grant and John Stephens, 
Jr. , relief agents, went out to the same de- 
partment to reinforce the general working 
corps of the Commission in the extreme 
Southwest. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



49 



REPORT OF SPECIAL RELIEF DE- 
PARTMENT. 

(Continued from our last.). 

Leaving WasMngton, we come next to 
Annapolis; here, in July last, a " Home for 
nurses, mothers, -wives, and relatives of 
sick soldiers " was established, similar in 
its objects and methods to the "Nurses' 
. Home " in Washington. It has met 
an evident need, and given to many wives 
and mothers, who came among strangers, 
seeking their sick husbands or sons, the 
shelter and welcome of a home. During 
the past two (2) months the number of 
meals furnished there has been 2,847; the 
number of nights' lodging 569. There have 
been as many as twenty-five women who 
found their rest here in a single night. The 
" Home " is conveniently located, and with 
an experienced matron in charge, is under 
the immediate supervision of Chaplain 
Henries, U. S. A. ; it is performing a kind 
mission. 

At Baltimore there has been a Special 
Belief agent, who has taken in hand the 
defective papers of discharged men, aided 
in collecting their pay, obtained transpor- 
tation for those without means, and in gen- 
eral given "aid and- comfort " to those 
needing it. His assistant, with great faith- 
fulness, has visited every boat which has 
arrived from Fortress Monroe since the 1st 
of June last, and every train of cars from 
Washington or from the West, looking af ^ 
ter, protecting, directing any soldiers who 
seem to need assistance; his record-book 
shows that he has thus given aid, more or 
less, to 4,627 from June 1st to Oct. 1st, of 
whom he has taken over 2, 000 to the ' 'Union 
Belief Rooms " of Baltimore, where they 
have received meals and lodgings with kind- 
ly care. 

In Philadelphia, there has been much 
done by the " Woman's Penn, Branch TJ. 
S. Sanitary. Commission," in the way of 
Special Belief, although the admirable local 
organizations of the city left comparative- 
ly Br small amount to be done in that direc- 
tion, excepting the work of helping fami- 
lies of soldiers. The "Free Pension Agen- 
cy " of the Philadelphia Branch of the U. 
S. Sanitary Commission, under the efficient 
management of Mr. Ashman, has been do-*! 

Voi,. I.— No. 2. 4 



ing a most valuable service; Tip to the pres- 
ent date Mr. Ashman has made out ths 
pension papers for over one thousand ap- 
plicants, and with painstaking care inves- 
tigated and successfully followed out many 
peculiarly complicated cases. He also, 
without cost, collects all " claims" for dis- 
charged soldiers. Notices of this office 
and its aid are posted in the hospitals in 
that vicinity, and endeavors are made to 
secure its benefits to aU discharged soldiers 
needing such assistance as it renders. 

In New York, whatever Special Belief 
work has fallen upon the Commission has 
been attended to by the " Woman's Cen- 
tral Association of Belief;" with occasional 
exceptions, this workhal consisted injudi- 
ciously assigning the applicant for aid to 
such existing Belief Association in the city 
as his case pointed to; or if more immedi- 
ate assistance was needed, as clothes and 
transportation, such have been furnished. 
The local provisions in New York for as- 
sisting disabled soldiers are large, em- 
bracing the New England Booms and the 
State Institution, "The New York Belief 
Association." 

The following report from Boston ■will 
show the methods adopted there, and tha 
results which have followed. . 

It is to be considered that this Belief 
work in Boston was not started until March 
last, its need until then hardly being ac- 
knowledged, yet the absolute necessity for 
its existence has been asserted by its results 
every day since. I make mention of this 
fact and give the report in fuU, in order to 
set an example and give the suggestion fo 
the various large cities throughout the land, 
and I would ask, whether the associate 
members of the Sanitary Commission in 
such cities and large sea-coast or inland 
towns might not wisely and humanely es- 
tablish "Homes" on a smaller "or broader 
scale, as the case may be. At least they 
should, I am sure, carefully inform them- 
selves of the nature of the needs in their 
midst, and the methods in detail by whioli 
those needs are to be met. 

F. N. Knapp, Special Relief Agent U. S. 
Sanitary Com'n, Washington, D. G.: 
Mt Dbae Sib — I submit herewith a brief 
Eeport relating to the Special Belief ser- 



50 



The Sanitary Commission BvEeUn. 



vice of the Sanitary Commission in Boston. 

This service 'was organized in the month 
of March, 1863, under the direction of an 
executive committee, appointed for the pur- 
pose by the resident associate members. 
The establishment, which is located at No. 
V6 Kingston Street, is in charge of a super- 
intendent and assistants, and has Ijpen 
administered with "the following results: 

From the date of its organization to Oc- 
tober 1, 1863, a period of about six months, 
aid has been rendered to 3,050 soldiers, 
classified as follows: 
Famished with transportation- at Gov't rates. . 1,091 



paidbyCom'n. 142 

by Quarterm'r. 450 

carriage within the city 875 

special attendance to their homes . . 71 

lodging 1,407 

meals— (No. of meals, 4,129) 1,938 

clothing— (No. of garments, 489) .. . 260 

aid in arranging papers 96 

" obtaining pay 91 

medical advice 322 

Wounds dressed 155 

Pi'ocured commutation of rations 73 

loaned money — (amount, $10.02) 19 

Gave money — (amount, $9.08) 28 

Sent to Hbspital 60 

Beferred to local Eehef Associations 25 

Bnhsted 14 

Obtained Pension 1 

Procured CoiBns ( 3 

Total 3,050 

The recipients are thus classified in the 
order of States: Massachusetts, 1,480; 
Maine, 926; New Hampshire, 210; Ver- 
mont, 31; New York, 54; Pennsylvania, 12; 
Ohio, 41; Ehode Island, 9; Maryland, 2; 
District Columbia, 7; Louisiana, 2; Illinois, 
h', Iowa, 4; Minnesota, 6; California, 1; 
Connecticut, 6; TJ. S. Army, 70; U, S. Na- 
vy, 26; Invalid Corps, 45; Kansas, Wiscon- 
sin, Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Ala- 
bama, and Rebel Army, 1 each. 

The following articles, drawn from the 
Supply Department of the N. E. Woman's 
Auxiliary Association, have been used in 
furnishing the rooms and for distribu- 
tion : 

BedquUts, 13; blankets, 18; sheets, 124; 
pillows, 56; pillow-cases, 63; bed-sacks, 12; 
flannel shirts, 70; cotton shirts, 48; socks, 
818 prs. ; towels, 78; slippers, 62 prs. ; old 
shirts, 51; cotton drawers, 106; dressing- 
gowns, 1; flannel drawers, 42; handker- 
chiefs, 60; slings, 16; flannel shirts, 24; 1 
lot bandages and old pants; 6 tin cups and 
2 water-paUs. 

I am unable to furnish you at present 



with an exact statement of the cost of the 

service for the last three months, ending 

October 1, but hand you herewith a fuU 

statement of expense account for the three 

months ending July 1, 1863, which period 

includes the first outlay for furnishing 

rooms, &c. 

For the three months ending July 1, 

1863, the total expenditure, covering the 

whole cost of the service, was $1,962 17, 

classified as f oUows : 

For furnishing Booms % 464 51 

" Hospital 254 82 

" EentandTaxea 118 50 

" Salaries 363 59 

" Advertising 185 00 

" Printing 49 00 

" Stationery 70 71 

Traveling ^ixpenses. 45 00 

Postage ■. 8 00 

Supermtendent'a Cm-rent Expense Ac't. . . 320 03 

Miscellaneous 83 01 



Total $1,962 17 

For this period of three months the num- 
ber of soldiers who received the aid of the 
Commission was 837. 

Deducting from the total expenditure the 
first necessary outlay for furnishing rooms, 
$719 33, as shown in above statement of 
account, and as distinguished from the or- 
dinary current expenses, the cost per sol- 
dier is shown to be as 837 to 1,242 j'^^, or 
about $1.45 each. 

Permit me to add that abundant evidence 
has been afibrded that this service of the 
Commission, as already administered in 
Boston, has been attended with the most 
beneficent and gratifying results. 
I am, my dear sir. 

Very sincerely yours, 
JNO. S. BLATCHFOED, 
(Sfec'y of Boston Ex. Com. Sanitary Com. 
Boston, Oct. 1st, 1863. 

I pass now from the North to the West. 
The Special Relief work at the West, at 
three or four points, was established a year 
and more ago by the Branches of the San- 
itary Commission; while at other points 
this work had not until within six or eight 
months its special place assigned to it, but 
it came in in connection with the general 
Relief work of the Commission. I have 
not ihe reports which would enable me to 
give the details of these Lodges and Homes 
at the West. I can only speak of their 
method.s and their work in general terms, 
and give the gross results of their labors. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



51 



In general terms, then, the same Special 
Belief work is done at the West by the 
Commission and its Branches which has 
been described in detail at Washington; 
modified, of course, at each point, by the 
cirotunstances of the case. Thus, at one 
point there is no occasion for the correc- 
tion of papers, but the largest occasion for 
shelter and care; at one station there is no 
call for clothing and nursing, but the loud- 
est caU for nutritious food; at one section a 
Home or Lodge has no place; in another 
section its open doors are like open arms to 
those ready to perish. 

And thus, according to the needs which 
were to be met, have been the methods and 
amount of Special Relief throughout the 
entire West. And while I cannot furnish 
the detail of "this work, I can with great 
confidence assert, that throughout that re- 
gion an immense amount of KeUef has 
thus been given to thousands and thou- 
sands of soldiers; and at all the several 
points of relief after Lodges have been es- 
tablished the aid has been given promptly, 
wisely, and abundantly. Gould the records 
of these several Lodges and Homes have 
been copied they would, I am sure, make a 
living, history, telling of how much soldiers 
have to bear, and yet what kindly helps are at 
hand to aid in making their burdens light; 
how much, with aU alleviations, soldiers 
have to suffer, yet how nobly and patiently 
the suffering is borne; of weak limbs bound 
in with strong hearts; of eyes looking to- 
wards home, yet with feet firmly set towards 
the camp or battle-field. 

I can, however, merely give in figures 
the numbers cared for at these Homes, as 
indicated by the number of Lodges and of 
meals furnished there to Oct. 1st. Part of 
these Homes, as I said, have been opened 
only seven or eight months — others from 
nearly the beginning of the war. 

The following are some of the figures fur- 
nished by Dr. Newberry, Associate Secreta- 
ry in charge of the Western Department of 
the U. S. San. Com. at Cleveland, Ohio: 
Nights' lodging furnished ......... 2,569 

Meals given , 12,227 

Home at Chicago, HI., (opened 
in July last.) 

Nights' lodging furnished ■• ■ • 3,109 

Meals given 11,325 



Home in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Nights' lodging (about) 10,000 

Meals given. : 40,017 

Home at Louisville, Ky. 

Nights' lodging , 17,765 

Meals given (at the Home) 52,080 

" (at the Station House). 49,933 

Lodge at Nashville, Tenn. 

Nights' lodging 4,821 

Meals given 11,909 

Home ok Cairo, lU. 

Nights' lodging. 79,550 

Mealu given 190,150 

Lodge at Memphis, Tenn. 

Nights' lodging 2,850 

Mealu given 14,780 

This note should hS here made: that at 
Cincinnati, Louisville and Cairo, many 
besides invalid soldiers are included in the 
number of those fed and cared for. At 
these points, the Home of the Commandant 
drawing rations from Government for the 
piirpose, has at times provided for detached 
companies, or parts of regiments, or even 
whole regiments; thus meeting the needs 
which in Washington and elsewhere are 
provided for at the "Soldiers' Kests, " which 
are under the exclusive care of Government. 
This fact, in part, accounts for the numbers 
attached to the record of the Homes at 
those places, which might seem unaccount- 
ably large, if limited strictly to invalid 
soldiers receiving care. 

The Special Relief work upon the Atlan- 
tic coast, from Newbern down, has been 
embraced in the general relief work of the 
commandant until recently. Arrangements 
are now made for establishing Homes and 
all facilities for special relief at all the 
points on the coast wherever there are large 
numbers of our troops. 

[The appendix to this Report, containing 
facts bearing upon the question of the pro- 
vision to be made for disabled discharged 
soldiers, wUl be presented hereafter in 
another connection.] 



Mr. Knapp, our Associate Secretary, has 
just returned from Chicago, too late,unfor- 
tunately, for his account of the "North- 
western Fair," held in that city, to appear 
in this number of the BuLiiBTns. We shall 
publish it in our next. He describes the 
Fair as having been a great success- 



52 



The Sanitary Commission Sultetin, 



REPORTS FROM THE WEST. 

The reports this -week relate almost en- 
tirely to the doings of the Commission in 
Tennessee. Dr. Warriner -writes from 
Memphis, October 6; 

Yours of the 29th mlt, inclbsiDg letter from 
Mrs. A. Hoge, dated in Angus*,- reached me 
yesterday. . I went immediately, to the rooias 
of the Christian Commission to ascertain their 
feelings towards our Commission, and to in- 
quire into their methods of operating. Tkey 
have not received any sanitary stores since 
their estahhshment here, and do not wish 
any. I proposed to turn over to them our mis- 
cellaneous reading matter, and receive from them 
in turn any hoses of sanitary stores which might 
chance to he forwarded to them. They cordial- 
ly agreed to such arrangement. They have a 
very pleasant reading-room, supphed with sec- 
ular and religious newspapers, includir^ some 
of the prominent dailies, and an ample list of 
rehgious books. 

Miscellany they are deficient in, and appre- 
ciate its value as an attraction to many who 
would not otherwise be induced to visit them. 

Mr. Burnett has always been ready to assist 
me and second my efforts wherever in the field 
I have met him. He is at present absent from 
here, on a tour of humanity to Chattanooga. 
His associate here assures me that they are 
agreed and quite decided on the question of dis- 
bursing sanitary stores. 

THE LODGE AT MEMPHIS, 

Through the kindness of the Medical Depart- 
ment I have secured stoves for warming the 
Lodge. 

Gen. Hurlburt has given, me authority for 
purchasing fael, to be paid for out of the con- 
tingent fund under his control. The Lodge is 
doing an excellent work. Mr. Christy's man- 
agement -of it is above criticism. He showed 
me his weekly report, forwarded to-day. There 
has been hitherto so extreme a caution on the 
part of authorities here in supplying to the 
Lodge various little appliances out of GoTrern- 
ment resources, that the items of expense to the 
•Commission have inevitably accumulated to 
heavier sums than I had anticipated. 

Mr. Christy's accounts are kept with great 
strictness, and, I am sure, perfect accuracy. 

On the whole, it is apparent that this depart- 
ment has a heavier monthly expense than is 
reckoned in your ofB.oe. The five hundred dol- 
lars brought me by Mr. Fogle did not pay up 
aixearages by considerable. I shall need as 
much more as soon as it can be sent to me. If 



I do not come North in a few weeks, IwiUmakff 
ont a full account of all expense, and forward. I 
keep a strict account of every item spent for the 
Commission, of course ^ and somehow I find thff 
Commission all the while in debt to me. 

ME, EOBE. 

Major Eobb has been quite bttsy disbursingr 
stores since I was here. I have been informed! 
by several surgeons of a paper recently in cir- 
culation amongst them for their signatures, 
highiy eulogistic of Mr. Eobb, personally and 
offioialfy; so mmch so, as to carry an implied 
depreciation of other Sanitasry Agents. The 
persons who mentioned it to me had signed the 
paper, but were afterwards so painfully impress- 
ed with this feature of it, as to request that the 
paper be suppressed; they assured me that it 
had been. I warrant not wholly some use of it, 
some report of it, or reference to it, has gone tt> 
fruitful quarters, without a shadow of doubt. 
I have not yet felt it necessary to taie this 
method of estaibEshihg myself at either end of 
the hne of my operations. Eobb has obtained 
a considerable portion of his late supplies from 
the Western Commission. 

VEGETAEtES. 

Peoj^e must he roused forthwith to the im- 
portance of sending vegetables to the army. We 
want enough to keep all hands busy disbursing 
them. We want enough to supply whole com- 
mands, and not naerely the hospitals. We have 
none now. We can do no better service than 
feed the army with potatoes and onions. There 
certainly must be a sufficient surplus of these in 
the North to enable us to do it, if we can once 
get the subject sufficiently impressed upon the 
loyal producers of them. It has been only at 
brief and widely separated intervals that we have 
had suppKes of these in adequate abundance to 
justify this general disbursement of them. 
Where it has occurred, the results have been in 
the highest possible degree satisfactory and ben- 
eficial. The effects aa-e not to be weighed or 
estimated. No one thing has done so much to 
establish the reputation of the Commission with 
the army. And yet how very seldom we have 
beeu able to supplement commissary stores to 
this extent 1 If we could do it continually, we 
shoiUd prevent more sickness than our other 
efforts are able to relieve. I wish this notion 
could be preached all through the North, clam- 
orously, and with power. Good old brother 
Chidlaw could do immeasurable good if he would 
concentrate his whole time and his magnifi- 
cent good-wiU power for a season. I trust you 
wiU not neglect to call pubhc attention to thia 
express phase of Sanitary labor, and urge the 



Tlie Banltary Commission BuUdln. 



53 



matter in all eflfeotive ways. Potatoes and our 
tons for the whole army— make that the watch- 
TJTOrd; yarying the monotony from time to time, 
loj the addition of cabbage 1 But don't let people 
incumber us with other kinds of vegetables, 
unless, perhaps, tomatoes. Their value is in- 
"OompaiaMy less than that of tJiose named. 

The same geatleman writes again, Oeto- 
\>&c 23, from tiie same place: 

Sinee my last a heavy requsition has come 
in from luka for stores, and especially vegetables, 
for 400 sick left by the moving Army Corps 
of General Sherman. A post hospital is es- 
tablished there temporarily, to continue accord- 
ing to needs and circumstances. A considera- 
ble portion of the Corps was still at luka at 
last accounts, but in an active and mobile eon- 
i^tion. I was able to make a tolerably fair re- 
sponse to the requisition. But the rooms now 
are welUnigh bare again, and the demand east- 
ward win not be likely to diminish for some 
time to come. I await impatiently the arrival 
«f the Clara BeH. I hear indirectly that 'she 
was still lying at Cairo last Wednesday. 

niABKHCEA. 

I have been employing my leisure for a 
•couple of days visiting the general hospitals 
tere, and examining some of the severe cases 
<of illness. 

The whole nnm/ber of patients in all these 
Jiospitals is to-day 3,023; about 58 of these are 
■cases of extreme exhaustion, and slight pros- 
pect of recovery. The exact number of wound- 
ed I did not learn; it is small. The remainder 
of the eases are in more or less advanced stages 
of oonvaleseenca Increasing coolness of the 
weather is obviously operating favorably. I 
gave attention more especially to the aU-afflict- 
ang scourge of the camp, diarrhoea. I find that 
Enen do actually recover from even the chronic 
stages of the disease. I noted down the eases 
of cure and death, as they stand on the reg- 
isters of the several hospitals, commencing 
with September 1st. The results are as follows: 

OVEBTON JSaSPlTAIi — SePT. 1 TO OcT. 18. 

Cbrnnie. Acute. 

BTumber of oases admitted 199 ilS 

Returned to duty 12 S 

Died 9 2 

Websteb Hospital — Sept. 1 to Oct. 1. 

Chrnnic. Acnte. 

STumber of cases admitted 160 1 

Ketumed to duty 43 

Died 13 .. . 

Union Hoseitaii — Sept. 1 to Oct. 19. 

Chronic. Acute. 

KTumber of cases admitted 176 7 

Ketuined to duty 10 • 

Died. 49 



Jackson Hospitai,— Sept. 1 to Oct. 20. 

Chrnnic. Acute. 

Number of oases admitted 95 8 

Eeturaed to duty 4 2 

Died.... 34 1 

Q-AT0S8 Hospital — Sept. 1 to Oct. 19. 

Chrnnic. Acute. 

Number of oases admitted. .. , 45 39 

Keturned to duty 3 2 

Died 8 

Washington Hospital — Sept. 1 to Oct. 17. 

Chronic. Acute. 

Number of eases admitted 122 23 

Kelumed to duty 21 5 

Bied '. 32 

Abams Hosktai.— Sept. 1 to Oct. 21. 

Chrnnic. Acute. 

Number of cases admitted 274 39 

Eeturned to duty 37 15 

Died .^ 32 

Jefpeeson Hospital — Sept. 1 to Oct. 21. 
Chronic. Acute. 

Number of cases admitted 11 4ft 

Returned to duty 

Died 5 2 

The other two army hospitals are for special 
disease, gangrene and small-pox. The naval 
. hospital I did not visit, as I wa# compelled to 
make haste with this examination. I omitted 
many points that may hereafter prove inter- 
esting, and even important, and confined my- 
self to the one point of the relative mortality 
from this disease. I am not prepared, without 
a much more thorough and prolonged compar- 
ison of eases under treatment, to touch the 
question as to how much the difference in the 
above results may be due to difference in the 
treatment or to other conditions and circum- 
stances. 

A valttable suggestion. 
It strikes me that it would not be a bad 
job for -the Sanitary Commission to under- 
take a connected and systematic inspection 
of all the general hospitals in the Northwest, 
with reference to the mortality or curability of 
the more prominent camp diseases. Personal 
inspection would be a necessary adjunct to the 
study of registers. Is this being done ? It may 
be, and I not know it, naturally enough. Why 
wouldn't the undersigned be a very proper per- 
son to be detailed for a while to such a work? 
The building of more general hospitals in the 
North will, no doubt, be commenced at once. 
You have heard already of Mrs. Gov. Harvey's 
success at Washington in obtaining an order 
for a very large one at Madison, Wisconsin. 
Other applications from Illinois and other 
States will be speedily,- if not already made, 
and doubtless with similar success. Kesulta 
of such inspections as I refer to would or 
might be of great service, in indicating locality 



54 



The Sanitary Commission BvUetiu. 



for the new structures. At all events, it. is 
plain that most valuable information could be 
obtained. But it is all but a suggestion. 

TEGETAJBIiES AGAIN. 

Mr. Oarpenterj of Wisconsin, has arrived 
from Vicksburg. He reports everything in or- 
der there and at Natchez, but vegetables -well- 
uigh exhausted at both points, and the demand 
still feverish. I do not see how we can spare 
anything for New Orleans, after all, with onir 
present supplies. 

And this reminds me to recur to the werk of 
lecturing or talking, or something of the kind, 
directly to the donors, and stimulating, if pos- 
sible, a more abundant, more active, and ' more 
steady supply. If anything can be aceompHsh- 
ed by it more attention should, it seems, to me, 
be given to it. 

Our reports from Ctattanooga furnish 
miioh interesting information touching the 
state of things at the place during the mo- 
mentous and critical period between the 
battle of Chickamauga and the reoccupa- 
tion of Loofeout Valley by Gen'l Hooker. 
It is doubtful whether o'ur armies in the 
West have at any period since the begin- 
ning of the war been placed in a position 
of so much embarrassment and perplexity. 
The loss of the river and railroad sur- 
rounded the work of feeding the troops 
with difSculties that would have been seri- 
ous under ordinary circumstances, but 
which were rendered almost appalling by 
the fact that several thousand wounded 
were lying at Chattanooga in want of al- 
most everything. The weU were on half 
rations, and the sick were dying for want 
of delicacies that to. them were absolute 
necessaries. 

Dr. Read writes from Chattanooga Octo- 
ber 13: 

After my last hastily written report, I spent 
some days at Stevenson and Bridgeport, di- 
recting my main efforts to the securing of 
transportation of stores to Chattanooga. The 
great want of all ordinary supplies at the 
latter place, and the interi-uption of telegraph- 
ic communication with head-quarters, made 
this >■• very difficult work. Frequently an or- 
der would be obtained for ten or twenty wag- , 
ons, but at the time it was presented they 
were not at the post, and before they came in a 
special order would be received by the quarter- 
master to load all wagons with forage or with 
rations, which would be construed as counter- 



manding the previous order; We' suooeededl 
in getting off a few loads and a considerable 
supply by ambulances, which were got through 
in safety and supplied the more pressiiig- de- 
mands. 

THE HOSPITALS AT STEVENSON". 

While at Stevenson, I took the opportunity of 
going frequently through the field hospitals, in 
charge of Dr. McKibben, and found the sick 
and wounded there well provided for and very 
comfortable. The food provided was of excel- 
lent quality, abundant, and of good variety, and 
the cooking excellent. There were two kitch.- 
eDS for each ward, one for the full-diet patients, 
amd on© for those of special diet, both well ar- 
ranged and well furnished. I have visited no 
hospitals in the department where there was a 
better variety of well^^repared food than there. 
Large sujypHes of vegetables were obtained 
from the garden at Murfreesboro"; including 
potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, &c., &c., in 
abundance, and such other articles as were re- 
quired from the Sanitary Booms. 

This garden at Murfreesboro' was one of 
the fruits of General Eosecrans's fore- 
thought. It was made and planted during- 
the months, of inaction which the army 
passed, at that place. 

STATE or THINGS AT CHATTANOOGA. 

On the 28th and 29th, we succeeded in for- 
warding from Stevenson and Bridgeport seven- 
teen wagon-loads of stores, the trains to make ai 
junction at Battle Creek, and go through in spe- 
cial charge of Mr. Larrabee, who left Stevenson 
for that purpose; Mr. Bedding escorting th» 
train from Bridgeport until they met. 

Beceiving word from Dr. Anderson at Chat- 
tanooga, who was in temporary charge of the 
general work of the department, to report at 
that place, I rode through from Bridgeport on 
the 3d, by the Conner route, expecting to 
find our rooms full of stores. But they were 
entirely empty. Our men were living on hard- 
tack, bacon, and coffee, which could be pur- 
chased, only a few rations at a. time, of the 
Commissary; horses and men all on short ra- 
tions, and hard-tack fast becoming a luxury. A 
train of about 400 wagons had been destroyed 
on the 2d, and with it our 17 wagons, and all 
other trains temporarily stopped. About this: 
time the last of our wounded were sent in from 
the rebel lines, who had suffered much in rebel 
hands, and were in want of all things. Some 
of them were without shirts, a few without any 
clothing whatever, the most fortunate with torra 
clothing, begrimed with dust and clotted with 



The Samtafy Commission Bulletin. 



55 



Hood. I purchased at thfe only army clothing 
store in town a few shirts, all I oonld obtain, 
and mainly with money furnished by the Eev. 
Mr. Hey wood, of the Kentucky Branch, and 
gave one each to Frederick Coonrad, 65th O. V. 
I. ; Van Buren Young, 3d Ky. V. I. ; Joseph 
Bray, 18th U. S. I. ; A. Q. Logsden, 8th Ky. V. 
I.; John J. Thompson, 92d Ills., and N. Care, 
84th Ind. Upon the 6th I received notice that 
8 wagon-loads of stores were on the way, and 
on the 7th procured an order for twenty wag- 
ons more to report at our rooms in Stevenson, 
taking forward stores. 

Drractn/rtEs of tbanspoktation. 
The work of obtaining transportation I found 
beset with many and unlooked-for difficulties. 
The loss of a large train and the interruption of 
communication had produced some confusion; 
the army was short of all supplies, and the re- 
sponsible officers of every department were clam- 
orous for transportation. At the same time it 
was evident that the wounded men left here, 
" numbering about 1,400, must be saved, if at all, 
by feeding, and that they must have something 
better than army ratiotts. The Sick also, of 
whom there are many, not an unusual number, 
stand in almost equal need of better articles of 
diet. By engaging to ship only articles of diet 
for the sick and wounded, and after long efforts 
cordially and ably seconded by the surgeons in 
charge of the sick and wounded, I have secured 
a train of twenty wagons, to be now constant- 
ly under our supervision in bringing stores 
ftom Stevenson, as long as the necessity shall 
exist, or until river or railroad communication 
is opened. I would recommend that a trusty, 
efficient man be detailed to take charge of this 
train, accompanying it both coming and going, 
bringing the invoices of the goods shipped in 
each wagon, to guard against. loss from any 
cause, to " cooper" packages that may be broken 
by the way, to see that the drivers are always 
provided with forage for their mules, that they 
are always well cared for,' and that the wagons 
are put in thorough repair at the end of each 
trip. I would suggest also that you send us 
about 30 small white or yellow flags, marked 
"U. S. San. Com. Train," one to be carried by 
each wagon. This will advertise the train and 
frequently give it precedence over other trains 
in getting through, and might, perhaps, save a 
train from being captured, or if captured, pre- 
vent its destruction, under the hope of getting 
it through to Dixie, where there is even a greater 
deinand for such stores than here; and as long 
as a captured train is not destroyed, there is 
hope of its recapture. 



, STATU OTf THE HOSPITALS. 

On the 9th the eight wagon-loads of stores 
reached us iii good co;idition. Over 500 shirts 
were distributed the first day after they were 
opened, and for all the articles of clothing, 
dressings and edibles, there was an eager de- 
mand, far beyond the supply. I could not hope 
to distribute this shipment in such a manner as. 
to avoid all complaint, when we were compelled 
to refuse to issue to many who really needed 
them, because there were others who needed 
them much more. Surgeons of regiments de- 
sired edibles and clothing for their sick, private 
soldiers who had lost their baggage asked to be 
clothed in part, and staff officers asked for shirts 
and drawers, that they might change those they 
had worn unwasBed since the battle. All such 
requests we were compelled to refuse, and in 
accordance with the request of the Medical Di- 
rector, .and our own ideas of the comparative 
wants, to restrict our issues mainly to the most 
needy of the wounded, promising all others 
that their wants should be supplied as soon as 
it could possibly be done. All have seemed 
pleasantly to acquiesce in this arrangement, and 
if tliere has been any complaint it has not been 
brought to our notice. 

The woundea are generally doing well, and 
bear with patience the privations that appear 
unavoidable, but a generous supply of edibles 
suitable for sick and wounded men, including 
stimulants, milk, beef, dried and canned fruits, 
patatoes and onions in large quantities, soft 
crackers, butter, cheese, pickles, green tea, fari- 
naceous delicacies, &c., &c., are indispensable to 
their recovery. I trust that a supply of these 
articles will be ready at Stevenson, to fill at any 
time the 20 wagons, and as often as they can 
make the trip, and if more than that are aocu- 
niulated there, we will undertake to get them 
through. There is a demand also for flannel 
shirts and drawers, sheets, blankets, &o., which, 
while the present- pressure continues, we are not 
to forward in the " Saaitary Train." But let 
them be accumulated without stint at Stevenson, 
for we hope that communication by the river 
and by railroad will soon be opened. And I have 
requested the surgeons here, while waiting for 
that event, to make requisitions at every o.ppor- 
tunity for articles of the latter description, upon 
the Agent at Stevenson, and in that way a very 
fair supply can be got through by ambulances 
and hospital wagons. 

As you are aware, the occupation of the rail- 
road for many days in transporting troops, and 
the subsequent raids upon it between Stevenson 
and NashviUe, stopped for some time the receipt 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



of stores at StevenSon. Tiie same events caus- 
ed an unexpected accumulation of sick at the 
latter place, calling for large issues of sanitary 
stores there, leaving only enough to fiU fifteen 
of the wagons ordered to report there. These 
are now on the way, and we look for their ar- 
rival to-morrow, the 14th. And as to the 20 
wagons constituting our train having probably 
already reported at Stevenson, where we sup- 
pose there are now abundant supplies, we are 
in a measure relieved of anxiety, and anticipate 
a constant and tolerably abundant supply. 

I have to-day received a note from Rev. O. 
Kennedy, who is aiding in our work, that he has 
reached his post on the west side of the moun- 
tain and pitched the tents for the soldiers' 
"Lodge." But to-day, the roifte by which the 
wounded are sent has been changed, and I have 
sent him directions to remove the Lodge to the 
foot of the mountain, in the Sequatchie Valley, 
on Poe's road, where there is a copious spring 
of good water, and where he wiH be enabled to 
feed all the sick and wounded who are sent 
north. Colonel Goddard is ever ready to aid 
us, forwarding the letter by a courier, sent with 
instructions to the couriers at the station near- 
est the Lodge, and about six miles from it, to 
forward it at once by special messenger. 

Seventy-two ambulances leave with wounded 
to-day, and about seventy-five to-morrow. It is 
hoped Mr. Kennedy voU get his Lodge removed 
in time to feed them all. Arrangements are 
made to secure prompt notice when trains of 
sick or wounded are to be started, which will 
be forwarded to Mr. Kennedy, by the couriers 
and by special messenger from the nearest 
cotirier station. This will enable him to be al- 
ways ready to receive his guests. 

THE HOSPITAI; DIEECTOET. 

The answering of special inquiries by friends 
has again becopie an important part of the work 
here. AU that have been received thus far have 
been answered, and in nearly every case the in- 
formation has been definite and positive. But, 
frequently, considerable delay is inevitable. 
The hospitals are not yet thoroughly organized. 
There are three general hospitals for thewound- 
<ted, while almost every division of the army has 
its two hospitals, one for the sick, and one for 
the wounded; yet in each of these wiU be found 
some men from nearly all of the other divisions. 
Frequently each of these hospitals, some of 
them three miles from the river on the other 
side, must be reached and then a visit made to 
the regiment before a definite answer can be re- 
turned. Frequency misiakes in telegraphing the 
naime lead us astray for a time, and in fact, ac- 



curasy in the name is the exceip&on, not the rule, inatl 
the imqidries we receive. Too much care cannot 
be taken in preparing dispatches that they be 
accurate and very plainly written. If the rank, 
company, and regiment is correctly givetn, and 
any part of the name comes, the person meant 
can be identified when found, but any mistake 
in the name increases very much the difficulty 
in the way of finding him. 

It is evident, unless a successful flank move- 
ment is made by the army, that all the most 
gravely woimded of the recent battles, and the 
usual number of sick of the army, wiU here re- 
quire assistance from our stores for a long time. 
The greater part of the wounded now remaining 
must perish or recover here, unless some other 
route is opened for removing them besides the 
wagon-road over the mountains. They need and 
deserve » large and constant supply of such 
stores as are usually forwarded by the Commis- 
sion. Without this, many will die, who, with 
it, would recover. Delicate and nourishing 
food, with a full supply of vegetables, is what, 
on the testimony of all the surgeons in charge^ 
is most needed, and is really indispensable. 

Knowing what you are doing and can do, I 
have promised that there shall soon be a sup- 
ply either equal to the demand, or at least equal 
to the amount of transportation that can be pro- 
cured between this point and Stevesnson. 

The seventeen wagon-loads of stores 
vfhich were forwarded from Stevenson and 
Bridgeport, unhappily, never reached their 
destination. They were all captured on the 
way. Mr. Eedding's account of the inci- 
dent is as follows: 

On the 2Sth ult., while I was at Bridgeport, 
Mr. Read sent me word from Stevenson that he 
had secured some wagons to send stores to the 
front, and to try if I could not procure ten wag- 
ons on an order from Capt. Warren, A. Q. M. 
at the latter place. I was unable to get them 
that day, but was promised them the foDovring 
morning, and immediately telegraphed Mr. 
Read of the promise. His wagons were then 
loaded, sent out, and ordered to camp for the 
night two (2) miles beyond the place, so as to 
enable my train to catch them at Battle Creek 
or Jasper. 

On the morning of the 29th I secured the ten 
wagons, loaded them, and telegraphed Mr. 
Read that there was no one to go in charge, and 
whether I should go. I waited several hours 
for a reply — no one came, and I then started my 
train, with orders to drive as fast as they could 
until they caught the train from Stevenson. I 
then telegraphed Mr. Read that I had started 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



57 



the train, and about two (2) hours afterwards re- 
ceived tlie word tb ride out until I overtook both 
trains, consolidate them, and place them in 
charge of Larrabee, then to return. Larrabee 
had been sent out after the receipt of my first 
dispatch, to go through with the train. 

I then procured a horse, rode on and met the 
two (2) trails a short distance this side of Jas- 
per, at sundown. We oamped'at Jasper for the 
night, and until bedtime I searched for Larrabee, 
but without success. On the following morn- 
ing, the 30th, I had the two trains consolidated, 
started early, and kept a constant lookout for 
Larrabee, but at last concluded that further 
search would be without success, and decided 
to go through with the train myself. We 
camped that night within two miles of the foot 
of the mountain, and on the next morning, 
though subjected to a hard rain, started for the 
mountain. On arriving there, we found sev- 
eral trains already at its base, unable to pro- 
ceed on account of a train being upon it with 
bad mules, broken-down wagons, and deep in 
mud. I examined the condition the train was 
in carefully, and concluded we would be de- 
tained several days by it unless we could find 
another road by which we could go on. It still 
continued to rain very hard, rendering this 
mountain road worse and worse, and the proba- 
bility of this train getting over the mountain in 
four or five days very doubtful. 

Seeing this, I called upon the Quartermasters 
of Negley's and Kousseau's trains to discuss the 
propriety of finding out and taking some other 
road. The plan was accepted, and horsemen 
were immediately sent out to look up and exam- 
ine some other road. In the afternoon they re- 
turned and reported another road running 
through a valley to the left of the road we were 
on, equally as good as it, but about ten (10) 
miles longer. It was then decided by us to take 
this road on the next morning, the 2d. 

Before breakfast on the 2d, the two trains 
spoken of left the mass of wagons at the foot of 
the mountain— a number having come in after 
us on the preceding day, and started out on this 
new road. By an accident, we were detained 
several hours, but about 9 o'clock we were ready 
to start, and I rode over to a house in the val- 
ley to our left to get some food for the trip. 
While over there, a man came dashing up to me 
and stated that a forage train had just been de- 
stroyed by the rebels near the foot of the moun- 
tain on this new road, and that Negley's and 
Eousseau's trains were returning, but was un- 
able to give any particulars. I rode over to our 
camp and spread this news; aU, however, be- 
lieved it to be the work of a few guerrillas; that 



they would not dare to attack us in camp, as 
"we have enough teamsters to wipe them out 
without arms," said they; and they did not be- 
lieve there could be any considerable body of 
rebels on that side of the river, believing the 
river was not fordable. I knew U to be fordable, 
having seen men crossing it for forage on my 
last trip to Bridgeport So believing this, I 
started off to inform the 29th Indiana and an- 
other regiment of mounted infantry encamped 
between three or four miles to our rear, of the 
capture of the forage train, and of our danger; 
but after having gone about one mile, a man 
came dashing by me going to them, and he hav^ 
ing a much swifter horse than my own, I gave 
way to him and returned to camp. I arrived at 
camp at 11 o'clock, and a few moments after a 
man came galloping in and stated that the reb- 
els in large force were in sight just over the hill, 
dashing down the valley — and here allow me to 
say, that by the thoughtlessness and neglect of 
the person whose business it is to protect the 
supplies of this army, there was not a guard to 
any train present. 

There were, according to the estimate of the 
Quartermasters of Negley's, Sheridan's and 
Kousseau's trains, about 400 wagons congrega- 
ted at the foot of the mountain, and not one 
guard with them. There happened to be four 
or five companies of the 21st Kentucky on the 
mountain, which were immediately ordered to 
the foot to repel the rebels, or hold them in 
check until the reinforcements sent for arrived. 
As soon as the appearance of the rebels was made 
known, I ordered our wagons as near the base 
of the mountain as they could get, being Very 
much scattered over the plain, thinking that the 
force present might be able to keep the rebels 
some distance off, and to prevent their burning 
them while the fight was going on! This was 
i done, and I immediately started across the 
plain vrith the intention of getting' in the rear of 
the rebels, watch the fight, and if they succeed- 
ed in whipping our men and in capturing the 
wagons, to see their commander and plead with 
him to spare our stores. I believed that if he was 
not a guerrilla, but had a spark of feeling for 
suffering beings in him, that I could kindle this 
spark into a flame, and that our stores should 
be spared. Although mounted, I made slow 
progress over the plains on account of the mass 
of wagons I had to pass through, and when 
about halfway across,, the rebels having formed 
their line of battle behind the hill I was trying 
to reach, appeared on its top, and without de- 
manding a surrender, commenced firing upon 
the train. I being in the centre of the trains, 
or mass of wagons, and mounted, their balls 



58 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



fell around me like hail. I could not carry out 
my plan then, without great risk of my Ufe, so 
I wheeled around and made for the mountain. 
It was very steep where I struck it, and I had to 
lead my horse up. The Kentucky Infantry, by 
squads, formed themselyes along the side of the 
mountain, and poured a sharp fire into the reb- 
els; but their great superiority in numbers, 
their gradual approach on the train, and the 
fact that they intended to surround us and cut 
off the retreat of every man, which I plainly saw 
they were endeavoring to do, naturally induced 
me to * ' skedaddle " over the mountain as rapidly 
as possible. I went down the road for about 
three-quarters of a mile from its base, and there 
remained until the firing had ceased, then started 
back with the intention of saving our stores if 
they were not already destroyed, if I had to put 
myself in their hands to do it. On arriving at 
a point from which I could see a portion of the 
plain, I saw the main body of the rebels moving 
off in the direction of Jasper, while another 
body were moving off with the prisoners in the 
direction from which they came. I knew then 
we were defeated, and feared the wagons were 
already burned. Presently the Wagon-Master ' 
of my train, having been in and escaped from 
the fight, came along and told me that nearly 
all of our wagons were on fire when he left, the 
rebels having taken some of them to contain 
army supplies, I suppose, or they would never' 
have burned them, and that they had found out 
the contents of some of them, and were feasting 
upon them. Most of our wagons were filled 
with fodder, which the rebels did not take the 
trouble and time to remove; while some had 
none in them. The former they had burned 
before the Wagon-Master of my train left, as al- 
ready stated; and the latter they feasted upon, 
eating and drinking, and "a merrier set," our 
Wagon-Master said, "was never seen." He 
also stated that the rebels had sent a detach- 
ment around the mountain to a point where an- 
other road joins the road on the mountain, 
to cut off and capture those' that had escaped 
from the fight, and that xmless we could reach 
that point before they, did, we would certainly 
fall into iiieir hands. A Captain of the 21st 
Kentucky, who had escaped, asserted the same, 
and believing it to be useless then to put my- 
self into the hands of a drunken set of brutes 
for the few stores that probably remained, and 
considering the consequences of such an act, I 
therefore decided to start for Chattanooga. 
We rushed our horses on until beyond the junc- 
tion of the road spoken of with the one we were 
on, and the same night, at 10 o'clock, safely 
reached this place. 



The force of the rebels, the attacking body 
and the reserve, is estimated at from four to, 
twelve thousand. My own estimate and that of 
nearly all I have seen and conversed with who 
were in the fight, is about four thousand under 
Wheeler. Several trains that were in camp with 
us when the destruction of the forage train was 
announced, retreated in the direction of Jasper; 
but the body of rebels spoken of moved off in 
that direption after the capture of our stores, 
came upon and destroyed them. Dr. Castle- 
man was in the fight with one or both of these, 
and was captured. He asserts, that had bs 
known that we had stores at the mountain, he 
could have saved them. This is questionable, 
however, as he was several miles distant from 
the foot of the mountain at the time of the cap- 
ture of our stores. 

October 18tli, Mr. Bead writes once mors 
of the difficulty of transportation, the 
great difficulty of this Western campaign- 
ing: 

I have written you at every opportunity, and 
frequently by mail, often repeating what I have 
written on account of irregidarities in the mails. 

As I have written and telegraphed, I deem it 
of absolute importance that we have a reliable, 
energetic, hardy man, to act as Wagon-Master 
of our train, to accompany it on all its trips 
over the mountain. A casual agent is good for 
nothing for such a purpose; for, in every in- 
stance thus far, they have abandoned the train 
as soon as they got within hailing distance of 
Chattanooga, and come to our rooms to report 
that the train was coming, and left everything to 
the honesty (?) of drivers and wagon-masters. 

The fifteen wagon-loads have arrived and will 
be unloaded at our rooms this morning, robbed 
of all the stimulants and many other articles. 
Col. McEay has sent in a report of the robbery, 
and I shall do so as soon as I have taken an in- 
ventory and know specially what has been 
stolen. We need goods niuch faster thaii they 
get through, and our means of transportation 
from Stevenson are in excess over the arrivals 
there. We shall lose our train unless we can 
keep it filled. 

On the ■24th he gives some information 
as to where the stores captured by the en- 
emy came from. 

In my letter of the 12th, I gave you in 
haste and in detail an account of the cap- 
ture and destruction of our train of stores; 
but having seen a statement in the ZouisviUe 
Journal of the 14th, made by. Col. Shyrook, of 
Indiana, which you may not have seen, and 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



59 



which is incorrect, and, I think, discouraging 
to some of our "home workers," as it throws 
the entire loss upon the shoulders of one single 
body, I wish to call your attention to it for cor- 
rection, if you think proper, and also to write 
a few lines in regard to matters here. The state- 
ment referred to, given by Mr. Sargent to Col. 
Shyrock, was, that "we lost in the attack 39 
wagon-loads of stores from the Chicago Sanitary 
Commission." This is, for the most part, I 
know, incorrect. There were only eighteen (18) 
instead of thirty-nine (39) wagon-loads, as you 
already know; and in regard to the receipt of 
the stores alone from Chicago, the ten (10) 
wagons- 1 sent from Bridgeport were loaded 
about equally with goods from Cleveland Aid 
Society, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Indiana 
Commissions, but none from Chicago. In those 
sent from Stevenson, there may have been Chi- 
cago stores, but most I know were either pur- 
chased or contributed at Louisville. The num- 
ber of packages sent from Bridgeport was 69 ; 
the number from Stevenson I do not know, as 
no invoice was sent with the goods, and none 
has ever reached this ofice to my knowledge. 
I merely state this in contradiction to an error 
or misstatement which it may be well to cor- 
rect. 

SUITEBINGS OP THE TEOOPS. 

Since writing you last, we have again moved 
our rooms; the buildings we were in being used 
as Palmer's Division Hospital, and quite a num- 
ber of sick coming in from the division, demand- 
ed more room; so at the request of Dr. Perrin, 
Medical Director, we vacated it, having this 
house first secured us. 

The sanitary condition of this army is anything 
but good now. By reason of the heavy rains 
we have had for the last ten days, the wagon- 
roads to Stevenson are rendered almost impas- 
sable, and consequently the Commissaries are 
reduced to almost nothing, and the army is 
drawn down to half rations. The nights are 
very damp and cold, and many soldiers appeal 
here daily for blankets, having lost theirs in the . 
battle, who, under the circumstances, are un- 
able to get them, and have to sleep without cov- 
ering. We have none, the Purveyor has none, 
and they are not to be had at all of any one. 
Sickness is increasing, but diarrhoea seems to 
be the universal plague, and is increasing, and 
vegetables! is the great cry; but at the same 
time, all articles that make good diet are in 
great demand. 

PLUNDEE OP THE WAGONS BT THE THAMSTEES. 

t 

On the 10th, a shipment of ten (10) wagons 
was made at Stevenson, which reached this 



place (I would say a portion of which) on the 
19th, having been subjected to hard rains and 
pillage. While on thft mountain, the teamsters 
of our train — 75 in number — concluded they 
must have a spree, even at the expense of the 
sick and dying soldiers, and appropriated or 
destroyed nine-tenths of all the stimulanis and 
delicacies in the shipment. ■ Only eleven (11) 
wagon-loads arrived here. The exact amount 
pillaged I gave in a report to Col. Goddard, 
who says "they will never drive a team again 
for the Army of the Cumberland. " The amount 
destroyed is as follows : 

346 cans Milk, 

236 bottles Wine and Spirits, 
21 " Cider, 

101 " Ale, 
56 cans Oysters, 

15 " Fruit, 

16 " Beef and 2 Cheeses. 
Also, 2 barrels and 1 box Crackers, 

1 " Lemon Syrup, 
1 " Sundries. 

I think these teamsters will meet their re- 
ward. By this shipment we received a tolerable 
good supply of shirts, and over a thousand 
(1,000) poor soldiers have already exchanged 
their bloody ones for these. 

This being the only shipment made us since 
I wrote you last, our shelves are again nearly 
empty, having nothing of consequence except 
about foiir hundred (400) cans of milk. There 
is a fair supply at Stevenson, and so soon as the 
roads get better, we will receive again. Active 
preparations are going on for clearing the river 
of rebels, so as to have boats ply between here 
and Bridgeport to bring forward stores. 1% must 
be done, and a desperate effort will be made to 
do it. I learn from good authority to-day that 
a division leaves very soon to drive the rebels 
from Lookout Mountain. Ere this reaches you, 
I think and believe boats will be running to 
Bridgeport, and then a depot wiU again be ne- 
cessary there. 

SANITARY HINTS. 



SPECIAL DISINFECTANTS AND 
THEIR APPLICATIONS. 

That there can be no substitute ior fresh 
air to meet the physiologioal requirements 
of respiration and health, should be indeli- 
bly impressed upon every mind. Better 
that aU substances at present employed as 
disinfectants and deodorants were at once 
prohibited by the Medical Department, 
than that such agents should practically 



60 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



tend to be regarded as substitutes for a pure 
atmosphere. But the necessities and priva- 
tions of army life, the multiplied agencies 
of disease, and the vitiating conditions at- 
tendant upon wounds and sickness, create 
necessities for the employment of chemical 
and ether artificial agencies to mitigate, 
and, in some measure, prevent the other- 
■wise inevitable contamination of the local 
atmosphere of crowded hospitals, trans- 
ports, and quarters; and it is only such 
necessary demands for the employment of 
disinfectants that justify even the occasional 
allusion we have made respecting them in 
preceding pages. They are simply aids in 
restoring and preserving healthful purity, 
and not substitutes for cleanliness and 
pure air. 

For the convenience of persons who may 
have occasion to refresh the memory with 
the more practical facts relating to special 
disinfectants, and the best method of their 
application, the following notes are added 
in reference to this subject: 

The principal disinfecting agents maybe 
classified as follows: 



Absorbents amd retainers of 
noxious effluvia, particularly 
the ammoniacal cmd sulphu- 
retted gases. 

Absorbents of inoisture ; "1 
chemical agents that act upon 
orgcmic matter, and recom- 1 
bme some of the elements of\ 
Tioxious e;ffliuoia. J 



CliEtrcoal, 

Sulphate of Lime (Plaster 
Sulpliiteof Lime, [Paris,) 
Silicate of Aluiaina (Po- 
rous Clay.) 

Quicklime, 
Sulphuric Acid, 
Hydrocliloric Acid, 
Nitric aud Nitrous 
Acids. 



Bromiae. 



SolvbJe salts thai are pariic- ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ead, 
ularly available for arresting chloride of Zinc 
^oce!:sesofaecomposiiwn.<md broto-Chloride of Iron, 
for controlimg phosphuretted prpto-Snlphate of Iron 
and sulphuretted gases. j ■""■■" aii^tf^ai^ ui ^^i±. 

Antiseptics that act aiffu-'\ (n-io-jne Saa 
^ciruem destroymg compownd\ cmS^iX^e. 

The most prompt and ^^| 
dent cmtiseptic known. J 

Antiseptic, and of greafj 
power as -an oxidizer, and as [ Permanganate of Potassa. 
on available source of ozone. ) 

Antiseptic and deodora/tit;^ 

tions, and acting with consid- compounas. 
erable energy amdpermamency J 

Destructive of contagious^ 
virus and all trojn^ortdble) Heat. 
infections. ) 



Frost. 



Destructive of Tellow Fever ") 
Tniasma, ami of the malaria 
that produces the " Faludal 
Fevers." J 

Considered theoretically, we may regard 
all disinfecting agents under the following 
heads, and perhaps this would be the more 
scientific arrangement of them: — 1. Ab- 
sorbents of moisture and of noxious effluvia; 
2. Oxidizers [ozone the most active,] and 
Deoxidizers; 3. Other chemical agents that 
break up noxious compounds; 4. Agents that 
form indestructible compounds with putres- 



cent materials; or that destroy cell-life and the 
cryptogamic and infusorial organisms. But 
as the present state of chemical and medi- 
cal knowledge only enables us to make such 
general statements respecting the theoreti- 
cal action of disinfectants, we will follow 
our first classification by a few practical 
statements concerning each of the articles 
mentioned. 

Charcoal. — Freshly burned and broken, 
this substance will absorb from 10 to 14 per 
cent, its own weight of gases and moisture 
from the atmosphere during the period of 
24 hours; and it is capable of absorbing 90 
times its own volume of ammonia, or 55 
times its own volume of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen. Properly applied, charcoal is an 
arrester of putrefaction, and, as such, it is 
worthy of more extensive employment .in 
the better preservation of animal food when 
served out in an unwholesome state by the 
regimental quartermasters. Asa disinfect- 
ant or deodorant for extensive use in masses 
of putrescent material, and for local purifi- 
cation, fresh charcoal is of acknowledged 
value. The British Sanitary Commission, 
in the Crimea, ordered whole ship-loads of 
peat charcoal, which they used in the prog- 
ress of their work of purification in the 
hospitals, barracks, or camps in the East. 
A Report of that Commission states that 
" perhaps the best deodorizing compound 
was one used by the inspectors in all their 
works. It consisted of one part of peat char- 
coal, one part of quicklime, and four parts of 
sand or gravel. " It should be remembered 
that the preservation of the disinfecting 
power of charcoal powder depends upon ite 
being both fresh and dry. 

Sulphate of Lime, Sulphite of Lime, and 
Porous Clay. — AU these substances are 
valuable absorbents of ammoniacal and 
sulphuretted efiluvia, and they constitute 
exceedingly convenient vehicles and auxil- 
iary menstrua for some of the more potent 
and expensive antiseptics. The much vaunt- 
ed French disinfectant, known as the dis- 
infecting powder of Messrs. Come & De- 
meaux, consists of about 94 per cent, of 
finely ground gypsum and 5 or 6 per cent, 
of coal-tar or the " heavy oU of coal-tar." 
McDougall's powder, and the Ridgewood 
disinfectant, consist of carbolic acid com- 
bined with the sulphate of lime and porous 
silicate of alumina, respectively, as will be 
noticed upon a subsequent page. Hypo- 
sulphite of lime possesses the property of 
absoluely arresting fermentation or the 
catalytic processes. The several substances 
of this first class, and their compounds, 
particularly those with carbolic acid or coal- 
tar, are among the most valuable disinfect- 
ants, especially when large quantities of. 
cheap and effectual articles of the kind are 
required. 

Quicklime. — With sulphuretted and with 



The Scmtary Commission Bulletin, 



61 



phosphuretted effluvia, and •with litiinid 
vapors, freshly burned lime unites with 
great avidity, and as an absorbent of mois- 
ture and a chemical base for many acids, it 
is of peculiar value; but lime also eliminates 
or sets free the ammoniacal gases, and, like 
the acids of our second class of disinfect- 
ants, it is of less permanent value than some 
other agents. It is one of the most- con- 
venient antiseptics, and for local applica- 
tions, as in -whitewashing, sprinkKng, desic- 
cating damp surfaces or putrescent sub- 
stances, and for temporarily arresting 
putrefaction, it is invaluable. Lime should 
be used dry and unslacked, except it be 
for the special purpose of combining with 
carbonic acid gas; for the latter object 
it should be reduced to a. creamy hydrate, 
and, in overcrowded wards and barracks, it 
may be usefully employed in this way, dis- 
tributed in shallow plates. Distributed in 
like' manner, sulphuric acid maybe employ- 
ed for diminishing the humidity of the 
atmosphere in a closed and damp apart- 
ment; but for this purpose it is usually 
better to resort to strong currents of air, 
by means of through and through ventila- 
tion, when practicable. 

The topical applications of the acids, par- 
ticularly of the nitric acid, in arresting gan- 
grene, are well understood by surgeons. 
Nitrous acid is a valuable antiseptic, and 
the production and application of its fumes 
constituted the famous disinfecting process 
of Dr. Oarmichael Smyth. 

The/Mmes of nitrous acic? that so long had 
fame for disinfecting purposes in the bar- 
racks, -hospitals, and navy of Great Britain 
may be readily produced by heating a mix- 
ture of nitrate of potassaand sulphuric acid 
in an iron or porcelain dish. Persons who 
resort to this method of fumigation should 
bear in mind the fact that strong fumes of 
nitrous acid are dangerously irritating to 
the throat and lungs. These fuming acids 
are powerful oxidizers, but their avidity for 
water, together with their peculiarities of 
chemical affinity, render their value as dis- 
infectants somewhat uncertain. 

Nitrate of Lead. — Practical considerations 
place this salt at the head of odorless dis- 
iafeoting salts most available for certain 
lopal applications, such as deodorizing a 
cTOse apartment, and the bedding, &c., of 
f.ick ppi-aons, by means of a solution distrib- 
uted oil shallow vessels or upon saturated 
cloths. The nitrate of lead is the basis of 
" Ledoyen's liquid." 

The permanganate of poiassa is far the 
most efficient salt of this kind, and its cost 
alone should limit its employment. It is a 
chemical agent of different and far greater 
powers than any of the metaUio salts in this 
third class. 

Chloride of Zinc. — Though more poweirr 
fully antiseptic than nitrate of lead, it is • 



not as valuable a deodorant. It is most to 
be valued for its property of promptly ar- 
resting putrefactive processes. As "Sir 
Wm. Burnett's disinfectant," it is widely 
known. 

Both this salt, and that of lead, last men- 
tioned, may be employed to delay decom- 
position in a corpse, in the absence of an 
embalmer. This is best accomplished by 
wrapping the dead body in a folded sheet 
that is saturated with either of these salts. 

The Proto-chloride and the Proto-sulphate 
of Iron. — These are valuable and very cheap 
agents for aiding in the control of ammo- 
niacal and sulphuretted effluvia. Being 
soluble, and very cheap, these salts are 
capable of varied and convenient applica- 
tions, separately, or in combination with 
other deodorizing materials. 

Chlorine and its alkali^f compounds. — The 
common preparatjons of chlorinated soda 
and chloride of linie act with great efficiency 
when the carbonic, sulphuretted, or ammo- 
niacal gases are brought into contact with 
them. As their special uses require no 
explanation in this place, we simply append 
brief directions for generating chlorine gas 
where it may be required more immediately 
and copiously than it would be given off by 
the alkaline chlorides or hypochlorites. 

Ready method. — Pour dilute hydrochloric, 
sulphuric, nitric, or acetic acid upon chlo- 
rides of lime, zinc, or soda. This may be 
done gradually by means of a glass or lead 
syphon, or by the capillary &yphon of lamp- 
wick, dropping the acid upon the chloride, 
if desirable to evolve the chlorine steadQy 
for many hours. 

Cheap method. — Mix 6 parts of peroxide 
of manganese with 8 parts of table salt 
(chloride of sodium) in a lead or iron ves- 
sel, which should be set freely within an- 
other vessel of larger capacity; pour upon 
the mixture of manganese and salt 13 parts 
of sulphuric acid, which may be diluted 
with water to abate the rapidity of the 
evolution of the gas. Heat the vessel con- 
taining this mixture by means of hot wa- 
ter or steam, if more rapid evolution of the 
gas is required. 

Ordinary method. — ^Mix four parts of 
fuming hydrochloric (muriatic) acid with 
one part of coarse powder of peroxide of 
manganese, adding water, as may be de- 
sired, to abate the rapidity of evolution. 
Apply moderate heat. The vessel may be 
of a kind to permit the use of the acid 
and the heat. The heat, however, by this 
method, is not indispensable. 

A very neat method of evolving chlorine 
in hospitals and transports, is to put a few 
ounces of the black oxide of manganese 
into a stout glass bottle of large size, rig a 
bulbous pipette to a perforated cork or 
stopper, and fitting an india-rubber bulb 



62 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



upon the headless bulb of the pipette, flU 
the pipette -with muriatic acid, and evolve 
the chlorine at pleasure by occasional pres- 
sure upon the, elastic cap. 

Bromine and its compounds. — This most 
powerful antiseptic has recently been 
brought into requisition in the military 
hospitals as a special disinfectant and ar- 
rester of gangrene. It is applied both top- 
ically and diffusively. Bromine is exceed- 
ingly penetrating and energetic in its ac- 
tion, and consequently is to be mianipulat- 
ed and applied with proper caution. It is 
principally employed in its pure liquid 
form, or in combination with bromide of 
potassium. Special caution should be used 
not to respire the strong fumes or any pul- 
verized compound of bromine, as its ef- 
fects when inhaled are suffocating. The 
following concise statement of the best 
methods for applying this potent disinfec- 
tant we quote from Dr. M. Goldsmith, 
Medical Director of Military Hospitals at 
LouisvUle, Ky., to whom the medical pro- 
fession is largely indebted for its success- 
ful introduction as a topical and prophy- 
lactic agent for the control of hospital gan- 
grene and erysipelas: 

DlEECTIONS rOB UsB. 

1. For Fumigation. — Place vessels, con- 
taining one ounce of the solution at differ- 
ent points of the ward, and in number suf- 
ficient to secure in the latter the constant 
presence of the odor of bromine. 

It should be borne in mind that, if the 
vapor of bromine comes in contact with 
the vapor of water, hydro-bromic acid is 
formed; therefore,, jvhen there is much of 
the vapor of water disengaged in the apart- 
ment, the quantity of the vapor of bromine 
must be correspondingly increased. 

2. Topical Application of the Vapor. — A 
piece of drp lint is to be placed over the 
diseased part; over this is to be placed an- 
other piece of lint, moistened with the solution 
of bromine; over this, a third piece spread 
with simple cerate ; the whole to be covered 
with oiled silk and bandage, so arranged as 
to retain the vapor in contact with the dis- 
eased surface as long as possible. The 
solution is to be removed as often as it 
becomes exhausted by evaporation. 

3. The Solution, in Substance, as a direct 
Application, in Hospital Gangrene, Diph- 
theria, Gangrene of the Tongue, and other 
diseases of this nature: — The parts are first 
to be dried by the application of charpife; 
then the sloughs, if thick, should be 
trimmed out with forceps and scissors as 
much as possible, for the thinner the 
slough the more effective is the remedy. 
The parts having again been dried, the 
solution is applied by means of a mop, or 
a pointed stick of wood, in quantity suffi- 
cient to saturate the sloughs. If the 



sloughs undermine the skin, or dip down 
into intermuscular spaces, the solution 
must be made to follow, with the pointed 
stick, or by means of a glass syringe. 

If the application has. been effectual, all 
odor from the diseased surface ceases, and 
the sloughs become somewhat hardened. 
The remedy should be reapplied every 
second hour, as long as any odor of piltre- 
f action is present, or as long as the sloughs 
appear to be diffluent. It is not always ne- 
cessary, especially when the sloughs are 
diffluent and thin, to use the solution in its 
fuU strength; it may be weakened by the 
addition of water, as the disease subsides. 

The points to be especially attended to, 
in the use of the solution of bromine, are 
two: 1. The solution should be applied in 
strength and frequency sufficient for the 
impregnation of the whole of the sloughs; 2. 
To secure this end, the application should 
be made by the surgeon, himself, and never 
be trusted to a nurse. If the sloughs are 
thick and cannot well be trimmed, the 
bromine may be introduced into the thick- 
ness of the slough by means of a hypo- 
dermic syringe. 

After the topical application of the so- 
lution, jjhe parts, when so situated as to 
render it practicable, should be subjected 
to the influence of the vapor. (See par. 1.) 

Surgeons wiU do well to bear in mind 
that bromine is a new remedy for the pur- 
poses indicated above. The directions for 
its use, given here, are those followed in 
the military hospitals of this city; it may 
be found advisable to modify them as ex- 
perience with the remedy accumulates. It 
is, therefore, earnestly recommended that 
the subject be studied diligently, that the 
effects of the remedy be carefully watched, 
and that the application be varied as new 
facts are developed in its use. 

The investigation of the evidences re- 
specting the antiseptic and prophylactic 
powers of this new disinfectant has reason- 
ably confirmed the opinion of its great 
utility. But to secure its beneficial effects, 
its application should be made with proper 
care and thoroughness. It claims to ar- 
rest the destructive progress of gangrene, 
erysipelas, etc., and utterly to destroy the 
personal and the diffused virus of such mal- 
adies. To accomplish this effectuallv, the 
bromine must be applied to ever^ .. - 
oule of the virus, and this is to be effected 
by means of the pipette syringe, the point- 
ed stick, the scissors, and the solution, for 
local applications; and by its pungent and 
volatile vapors in wards and other infected 
places. This disinfectant certainly prom- 
ises to be a great boon to our military hos- 
pitals. 

Permanganate of Potassa. — A special or- 
der from the Medical Bureau at Washing- 
ton [Giroular, No. 12,1 calls the attention 



TJve Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



63 



of medical officers to " the.virtues of per- 
manganate of potassa as a disinfectant and 
deodorizer." This is a soluble substance 
peculiarly convenient of application and 
remarkably certain and •efficient in its ef- 
fects as a disinfectant. Its employment as 
a deodorizer and prophylactic is limited 
mainly to topical applications, to gangre- 
nous parts or putrescent materials, and to 
general effect upon the atmosphere of con- 
taminated apartments, by means of evapo- 
rating cloths saturated with a strong' solu- 
tion of the permanganate. The oxidizing 
and antiseptic effects of the permanganate 
of potassa upon organic and putrescent 
matter are remarkable. It is the most sen- 
sitive test for the presence of' organic mat- 
ter, which it oxidizes with wonderful facil- 
ity. [See remarks upon this subject in Ham- 
mond's Hygiene.] As this is an expensive 
and deUcate substance, it is to be employed 
economically, upon saturated cloths or in 
dilute solutions upon plates. For purifying 
offensive water for purposes of beverage, 
etc. , a standard solution should be dropped 
into the vessel of water, until the tinge of the 
permanganate begins to appear. The rapid 
and effectual oxidation of the organic {pu^ 
triiX) elements of impure water and other 
substances, even of the atmosphere itself, 
when brought in contact with solutions of 
this salt, and the consequent and almost 
instant deodorization of such impurities, 
render this disinfectant of priceless value 
for practical purposes. And as all prepara- 
tions of manganese are therapeutically tonic, 
probably the minute quantities of this salt 
that would be taken in drinking the water 
purified as above described, would only act 
beneficially. " Condy's Disinfectant," 
" Darby's Fluid," and aUthe vaunted prep- 
arations of "Ozonized water," etc., are 
but soltitions of permanganates. The salts 
are cheaper and more reliable than such 
nostrums, and are now supplied by all med- 
ical purveyors in the army. 

Goal-tar Compounds — Garbolates. — The 
carbolate of Hme has been employed to 
some extent in our camps and hospitals. 
McDougall's powder consists of carbolate 
of lime, sulphate of Hme, quick-lime, etc. 
The Eidgewood disinfectant consists of car- 
bolic acid, proto-chloride of iron, etc., com- 
bined with fullers' earth. Either of these, 
which are furnished by the medical pur- 
veyors, appear to be quite as valuable as 
the more expensive article of MM. Come 
and Demeaux, which is used at the Im- 
perial Oamp at Chalons, and was found 
highly serviceable by Barron Larrey, after 
the great battles of the late Italian cam- 
paign. Coal-tar, in almost any form, is 
available for disinfecting sewers, etc., and 
in the dry powders mentioned, it is availa- 
ble for delaying the process of decomm)- 
sition, whether in a corpse, or in refuse 



material. Carbolic acid has the antiseptic 
powers of creasote, and is largely sold for 
that article. The antiseptic properties of 
coal-tar, its effect upon mephitic gases and 
putrescent material, the permanency of its 
operation, and the cheapness of the article, 
render it available for extensive application 
in neutralizing and arresting cloacal and 
noxious effluvia in the processes of animal 
decomposition. A distinguished Medical 
Inspector of our army, when cut off from 
ordinary medical supplies, effectually ■ and 
quickly abated the nuisances pertaining to- 
an extensive old fortress, by means of an 
extemporized mixture of coal-tar, procured 
from the gas-works upon the premises. For 
use in chamber vessels, close-stools, etc., a 
neat fluid preparation may be made, after 
the formula of M. Demeaux, by mixing 
equal parts of coal-t«r, alcohol, and hot 
soft soap. With the progress of knowledge 
respecting the chemistry of coal-tar and 
other hydro-carbons, the precise value of 
this class of disinfectants will be better un- 
derstood. Coal-tar certainly has remarka- 
ble efficacy in arresting putrescence and 
controlling its effluvia. 

Heat. — ^As a means of immediate disin- 
fection of contaminated garments, bedding, 
and even of close apartments, ships, etc., 
heat is at once a cheap and most effectual 
method. The boiling of infected clothing, 
etc. , is admitted, to effectually destroy any 
contagious poison. And practically, upon 
a large scale in such work, experience 
proves it is best to employ Steam as the 
means of heating. Upon this subject, see 
remarks and plans of M. Baudens [Hospitals 
and Health of Troops, Am. ed., pp. 238- 
204] ; also, a Keport on Heat as a disinf ec- 
tantj in the Transactions of the National 
Sanitary Convention, 1860. It is probable 
that no circumstance contributes more di- 
rectly to the perpetuation and spread of 
the typhus poison, than the accumulation 
and bad management of contaminated 
clothing, etc., that ought, under all cir- 
cumstances, to be purified as soon as it 
leaves the patient or the bed. 

Frost or Low Temperature, when contin- 
ued a sufflcient length of time, will effect- 
ually destroy both the miasma that pro- 
duces yellow fever, and the paludal malaria 
that produces intermittent and remittent 
fevers; but such low temperature has no 
effect to arrest those fevers in the persons 
suffering them. It is worthy of note, that 
a freezing temperature does not appear to 
mitigate the activity of the personally in- 
fectious poisons, or contagions; though, 
with certain exceptions, it arrests putrefac- 
tion and the- catalytic or fermentative pro- 
cesses. 

For the Commission: 

ELISHA HAEKIS, M.D. 



64 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 
Was constituted by the Secretary of War in 
Junei 1861, in accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the Surgeon-General of the U. S. 
Army, and its appointment and plan of organi- 
zation were approved by the President of the 
United States. Its present organization is as 
follows : 
H. W. Bellows, D.D., New York. 
A. D. Bache, LL.D., Washington, D. 0. 

F. L. Olmsted. 

George T. Strong, Esq., New York. 
Elisha Harris, M.£)., New York. 
W. H. Van Buren, M.D., New York. 

G. W. OuUom, 1J. S. A. 
A. E. Shiras, U. S. A. 

K. 0. Wood, Assistant Surg.-Geu'l tJ. S. A. 
Woloott Gibbs, M.D., New York. 
S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 
C. K. Agnew, M.D., New York. 
J. S. Newberry, M.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Kt. Eev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, E. I. ' 
Hon. R. W. Burnett, Cincinnati. Ohio. 
Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, III. 
Hon. Joseph Holt, Washington, D. C. 
Horace Binuey, Jr. , Philadelphia, Penn. 
Eev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 
J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. • 
Prof. Pairman Eogers, Philadelphia, Penn. 

OPFIOEBS; 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., President. 

A. D. Bache, LL.D-, Vice-President. 

George T. Strong, Treasm'er. 

J. Foster Jenkins, M.D., General Secretary, 

J. 8. Newberry, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

J. H. Douglas, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

F. N. Knapp, Associate Secretary. 



HOSPITAL DIRECTORY.- 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrange- 
ments for supplying information gratuitously,, 
with regard to patients in all the United States' 
General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the 
Hospitals in Eastern Virginia, Maryland, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Florida and Louisiana, address " Office of 
Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. C." 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address 
"Office of Sanitary Commission, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. " 

For the Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, 
and the New England States, address "Office 
Women's Central Union, No. 10 Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York." 

For the Hospitals in Western Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas, address 
"Office Sanitary Commission, Louisville, Ky." 

In all cases tiie name, rank, company, and 
regiment of the person inquired for should be 
given, and where he was when last heard from. 
If the application is by letter, the answer will 
be sent by return of mail; if in person, it will 
be answered at once; or if by telegraph, an an- 
swer will be returned immediately at the in- 
quirer's expense. 

^^'^ Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen, ed/- 
itors, and others, can scarcely serve the cause 
of humanity more effectually than by frequently 
and widely disseminating a knowledge of the 
above, among those who have friends in the army. 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Commission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive system of agencies for securing the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in its charge for the sick and wounded at points 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points — at New Or- 
leans and at Washington, before Charleston and at 
Chattanooga — ^its distributions iieing governed by a 
comparison of the wants of the patients in all cases. 
The following is a list of depots, to which auxiliary 
Societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to States or localities, 
but simply to their relative necessity for assist- 
ance, are mvited to send theu- offerings: 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sanitaiy Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 
• Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 46 
South Sharp Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, comer Vina 
and Sixth Streets, Cincinnati, O. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 95 
Bank Street, Cleveland, 0. ♦* 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, Chicago, lU. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 59 4th 
Street, Pittsburg, Penn. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 32 Lar- 
ned Street, Detroit,' Mich. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Sanitaiy Commission, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
LomsvlUe, Ky. 

The Commission receives no pecuniary aid what- 
ever from the Government,, and is WhoUy depend- 
ent on the voluntary contributions of the public for 
the means of snstaming its ope^-ations. Contribu- 
tions to the Treasiuy are solicited, and may be 
transmitted to George T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 
68 Wall Street, N. Y. 



RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 

General Supeimtendent, Eev. F. N. Knapp, Washlna- 
ton, D. C. Chief Asaistant, J. B. Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltimore Eailroad Depot, Waahr 
ington, D. 0. 

lodge No. i, H Street, between 13th and 14th Streets. 

Lodge No. 6, Maryland Avenue, near Bailroad Station, 

Nurses' Home, Waahington, D. C. 

Soldiers' Home, Third Street, east of Broadwaji •Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio— Col. G. W. D. Andrews, Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cairo, 111.— 0. N. Shipman, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Louisville', Ky.— James Malona, Sup't 
James Morton, Special Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Nashville, Tenn.— L. Crane, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Ohio , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, OleTeland, Ohio— Claik Warren, Supl 
and ReUef Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn.— 0."W. 
Christy, Sup't and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, Vioksburg, Miss T. Way, Sup't 

AGBNOT FOB PENSIONS. 

William "S. Bascom, Pension Agent, Washington, D. a 

, HOSPITAIi CABS. 

Between Washington and New York— Sol. Andrews , 
M. D., Surgeon in charge. 

Between Louisville and Murfreesboro'- Dr. J. P. Bar- 
num, Surgeon in charge. 

SANITABT STBAMEBS, 

Mississippi Elver— Olara Bell; Cumberland Eiver— 
NewSuulelth; Potomac Biver—EUzabeth. 



THE 



SANITARY COMMISSION 
BULLETIN. 



VOL.L 



NEW YORK, DECEMBER 1, 1863, 



No. 3. 



The Sanitakx Commission BuiiLBTdj is 
published on the jSrai and ffteenih qf every 
tnonth, and as it has a circulation, gratuitous 
•or other, of above 10,000 copies, it offers an 
tmtisuaUi/ valiuzhle medivmifor advertisiiig, 

A.U communicaUons m,vst he addressed to 
the Editor, at the office 823 Broadway, and 
mvJst he avihenticated by the names and ad- 
dresses of the writers. 

THE GREAT NORTHWESTERN 
SANITARY FAIR. 

Some hundred thousand people of the 
great Northwest have just been drawn to- 
gether at ChicBigo by a Pair, under the im- 
mediate auspices of the "Chicago Branch 
of the U. S. Sanitary Commission." It 
has been glorious I — ^this great tide, not of 
people only or chiefly, but of sympathy 
and of thought and of feeling, which has 
rolled in from hundreds of miles over those 
wide prairies, and along the foot of the dis- 
tant hUlsJ To one who stood there, look- 
ing on, it came like a great whelming tor- 
rent of lore and power, and solemn earnest- 
ness, which was irresistible, carrying every- 
thing before it. All who were present 
unite in saying that they never before 
realized so fuUy the consciousness and the 
exhilarating and invigoratiug effect of 
breathing, as it were, an atmosphere which 
was literally flUed with generous emotions 
and moral earnestness, and where every 
other element was absorbed or neutralized. 

So quietly had the whole affair been 
arranged, and with such excellent method 
conducted, that when this immense con- 
course of people poured in from THinois 
and Indiana, from Michigan and Mis- 
souri, from Wisconsin and Iowa, bearing 
' their gifts with them, it seemed as if some 



sudden and mysterious impulse had taken 
hold of one-quarter of the whole nation, 
who had suddenly sprung to their feet, 
seized whatever of goods or riches were 
nearest at hand, and rushed forth led by 
music and banners; and when, at last, from 
all quarters they had met at the gathering- 
place, to which they had been instinct- 
ively drawn in their hurried march, they 
had, as by common consent, or a certain 
divine impulse, without asking why, laid 
down their treasures, simply feeling that 
God's altar needed these for burnt-offer- 
ing — so generous, and earnest, and full of 
a certain kind of contagious faith seemed 
these men and women who were gathered 
there; and that was just the secret of the 
whole, which made it aU so real to every 
one who was present, while to those 
who were not there, the narration of the 
facts must needs seem exaggerated and 
unreal^ it was this irresistible evidence, 
told by eye, and step, and tongue, and 
hand— evidence of an immense faith — im- 
mense as taken in the mass — faith in God, 
faith in the nation's life, faith in our ar- 
mies, faith in our leaders, faith in our people 
at home. 

The contributions to the Pair, to be sold 
for the benefit of our sick and wounded 
soldiers, were large, were munificent, but 
it was this tone of deep-seated earnestness 
which was largest. It was not merely what 
men and women said and did, but the way 
the thing was done, which carried with it 
this impression of wholesale generosity of 
spirit. Delicately wrought articles, such 
as usually adorn the tables of Fairs, the 
work of ladies' hands, were not wanting; 
but flien the farmers from miles and miles 
around kept coming in with their wagons 
by twenties, and fifties, and hundreds. 



66 



TTie Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



loaded down -with their bulky farm prod- 
uce; others came leading horses, or 
driving before them eows, or oxen, or 
mules, which they contribiited instead of 
money, of which, perhaps, they had none; 
others brought live poultry which had been 
fed for months by the poor man's door; 
they brought this because they must bring 
something, and this was all they had. 
Some wagons were loaded from rich dairies, 
with butter and cheese by the ton. Then 
came great loads of hay from some distant 
farm, followed by others just as large from 
farms farther off. The mechanics brought 
their machines, and gave them, in, one 
after another; — mowing machines, reaper^ 
threshing machines, planters, pumps, fanA 
ning-miUs — ^until a new building, a great 
storehouse, had to be erected to receive 
them; and here were ploughs, and stoves, 
and furnaces, and miU-stones, and nails by 
the hundred kegs, and wagons, and car- 
riage springs,— and axes, and plate glass, 
and huge plates of wrought iron, (one the 
largest that was ever rolled from any roll- 
ing-mill in the world,) block tin and enam- 
eled leather, hides, boxes of stationery, and 
cases of boots, cologne by the barrel, native 
wine in casks, purified coal-oil by the thou-' 
sand gallons — a mountain howilzer, a steel 
breech-loading cannon, a steam-engine 
made by the working-men in one of the 
manufactories of engines in Chicago — and 
on it this inscription — " This engine is do- 
nated by the workmen of the Eagle Works 
Manufacturing Co., every man contributing 
something — not one Copperhead in the 
whole institiition. " There, too, were other 
machines which had been bwilt by em- 
ployes of various establishments, who had 
worked "after hours" to construct some- 
thing for the Soldiers' Fair. Such, with a 
thousand other gifts great and small, filled 
this new storehouse, where liberal pur- 
chasers were found waiting. Then, again, 
the carpenters and joiners, who, in the press 
of work upon unfinished buildings, could 
not leave their hammer and saw to go to 
the Pair, joined together by tens and twen- 
ties, and set apart a day of which they 
would give their earnings io the soldiers. 
In like manner, different firms would ad- 
vertise a sale for the benefit of the Fair. 
Thus, "To the Loyal Stone-Masons of 



Chicago:" "We propose to donate to the- 
Northwestern Sanitary Fair the entire pro- 
ceeds of the sale o;^ one eanal boat load 
(20 tons) of our first-pla'ss rubble stone. 
Bids for the same will be received at our 
office till Friday next." 

Signed , &c. 

Then loaded wagons came in long pro- 
cessions, toiling into the city, from far- 
off country places, bearing marks of fron- 
tier service, and the horses or mules, toge- 
ther with the drivers themselves, most of 
them told of wear. Many of them were 
sun-burnt men, with hard hands and rigid 
features; and a careless observer would 
have said that there was surely nothing in 
those wagons, as they passed, to awaken any 
sentiment. Yet something there was about 
it all which brought tears to the eyes of 
hundreds as the old farmers with their 
heavy loads toiled by. Among the crowd 
of spectators there was noticed a broad- 
shouldered Dutchman, with a face expres- 
sive of anything but thought or feeling; he 
gazed at this singular procession as it pass- 
ed, — the sun-burnt farmers, and the long, 
narrow wagons, and the endless variety of 
vegetables and farm produce, — he gazed 
there as these men with their sober faces 
and their homely gifts passed one by one, 
until when, finally, the last wagon had 
moved by, this stolid, lethargic-looking man 
" broke down'' with a fl,ood of tears, and 
could say nothing and do nothing but seize 
upon the little child whom he held by the 
hand, and hug her to his heart, trying ta 
hide his fiaanly tears belynd her floating 
curls. 

Among these wagons which had drawn 
up near the rooms of the Sanitary Com- 
mission to unload their stores, was one pe- 
culiar for its exceeding look of poverty; it 
was worn and mended, and was originally 
made merely of poles. It was drawn by 
three horses which had seen much of life, 
but little grain. The driver was a man 
past middle age, with the clothes and 
look of one who toiled hard, but he had 
a thoughtful and kindly face. He sat 
there quietly waiting his turn to unload. 
By his side, with feet over the front of the 
wagon, for it was filled very full, was hi» 
wife, a silent, worn-lookiAg woman, (niany 

of l»v^..=x»^i.r. V.a/1 tT.mv W,-;,^., -^yjtT. them OH 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



6i 



the loads;) near the rear of the wagon -was 
a girl of fifteen, perhaps, and her sister, 
dressed in black, carrying in her arms a 
little child. 

Spme one said to this man, (after asking 
the woman with the child if she would not 
go into the Commission rooms and get 
warm:) "My friend, you seem to have 
quite a load here of vegetables; now I am 
curious to know what good things you are 
bringing to the soldiers; will you tell me 
what you have?" "Yes," said he: "here 
ai'e potatoes, and here are three bags of 
onions, and there are some ruta-baga, and 
there a few turnips, and that is a small bag 
of meal, and you can see the cabbages fill 
in; and that box with slats has some ducks 
in it, which one of them brought in." 
" Oh! then, this isn't aU your load alone, 
is it ?" " Why no ! our region just where 
I live is rather a hard soil, and we haven't 
any of us much to spare any way, yet for 
this business we could have raked up as 
much again as this is, if we had had time; 
but we didn't get the notice that the wag- 
ons were going in tiU last night about eight 
o'clock, and it was dark and raining at that, 
so I and my wife and the girls could only 
go round to five or six of the neighbors 
within a mile or so, but we did the best we 
could; we worked pretty much all the night 
and loaded, so as to be ready to get out to the 
main road and start with the rest of them 
this morning; but I -can't help it if it is 
little, it's something for those soldiers." 
"Have you a son in the army?" "No," 
he answered slowly, after turning round 
and looking at his wife. ' 'No, I haven't now, 
but we had one there once ; he's buried 
down by Stone River: he was shot there; 
— and that isn't just so either — we called him 
our boy, but he was only our adopted son; 
we took him when he was Httle, so he was 
just the same as our own boy, and " (point- 
ing over his shoulder without looking 
back) "that's his wife there with the baby! 
But I shouldn't bring these things any 
quicker if he were alive now and in the 
army ; I don't know that I should think . 
so much as I do now about the boys away 
off there." It was in turn for his wagon 
to unload', so with his rough freight of 
produce, and his rich freight of human 



hearts^ 



IX, ^T.«:^ J... 



mugi^m 



he drove on— one wagon of a hundred in 
the train. 

As a proof of the interest felt by the 
people of Chicago in this Sanitary Fair, it 
may be mentioned that on the day the Fair 
opened, October 27th, the several courts 
of the city adjourned over the day, the 
post-ofSoe was closed, the Board of Trade 
adjourned, the public schools were not 
opened, the banks of the city closed, busi- 
ness of all kinds, whether in the oflSces, 
stores, shops, or manufactories, was sus- 
pended. , 

The following extract from the Ohicago 
Tribune, one of the leading papers of the 
West, gives a living pfcture of that pro- 
cession as it gathered up its forces and 
moved on, three miles in length: 

' ' Yesterday will never be forgotten either 
in the city of Chicag'o or in the West. 
Memorable it will remain both as history 
and as patriotism. Such a sight was never 
seen before in the West upon any occasion; 
and we doubt whether a more magnificent 
spectacle was ever presented in the streets 
of the Empire City itself, than that vast 
procession of chariots and horsemen, coun- 
try wagons and vehicles, civic orders and 
military companies, both horse and foot, 
which converted Chicago for the time being 
into a vast theatre of wonders. 

" From the earliest dawn of the day the 
heart of the mighty city was awake, and 
long before eight o'clock the streets were 
thronged with people — ^citizens hurried ex- 
citedly to and fro; and country women, with 
their children, came in early in the morning, 
with colors tied to their bridles and decorat- 
ing their wagons, and with miniature .flags 
and banners on their horses' heads. On the 
house-tops, on the public buildings, flaunt- 
ed the glorious flag of liberty. By nine 
o'clock the city was in a roar; the vast hum 
of multitudinous voices filled the atmos- 
phere. Drums beat in all parts of the city 
summoning the various processions, or ac- 
companying them to the grand central ren- 
dezvous. Bands of music playing patriotic 
tunes — bands of young men and women, 
singing patriotic songs, enlivened the 
streets. Every pathway was jammed rap 
with human bodies, so that it was witti 
extreme difficulty any headway could be 
made. 

" The procession was advertised to assem- 
ble at nine o'clock precisely, and was com- 
posed of nine divisions, formed in the fol- 
lowing order; 

The First Division formed on Michigan 
Avenue— "the right resting on Lake. 

The Second Diwion formed on Wabash 
Avenue — ^right resting on Lake. 



88 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



The Third Division on State Street — 
right resting on Lake. 

The Fourth Division formed on Dear- 
born Street — right resting on Lake. 

The Fifth Division formed on Clark 
Street — aright resting on Lake. 

The Sixth Division formed on Lasalle 
Street — right resting on Lake. 

The Seventh Division formed on Wells 
Street— right resting on Lake. 

The Eighth Division formed on Franklin 
Street, the right resting on Lake. 

The Ninth Division formed on Market 
Street, the right resting on Lake Street, 
extending to Madison Street Bridge. 

"As near ten o'clock as possible it start- 
ed, banners flying, drums rolling, and all 
manner of brazen instruments stirring the 
air, and the hearts of the vast multitudes of 
people, with thrilling, exciting music. On 
it came, that mighty pageant ! following 
the course laid down in the printed pro- 
gramme: 

"From Michigan Avenue west on Lake 
to Market Street; on Market Street south 
to "Washington Street; on Washington east 
to Clark Street; on Clark south to Harrison 
Street; on Harrison Street east to Michigan 
Avenue; north on Michigan Avenue to 
Lake Street; west on Lake Street to La- 
salle; south on Lasalle to the Court-House 
Square. 

" Such earnest enthusiasm as accom- 
panied the procession, from first to last, 
has rarely been witnessed on any occasion. 
It was a grand and sublime protest on be- 
half of the people against the poltroons and 
traitors who were enemies to the Govern- 
ment, and opposed to the war. Bursts of 
patriotic f eeliig came from many a loyal 
bosom on that memorable and never-to-be- 
forgotten day. The people seemed to over- 
flow with loyalty, and could not contain 
themselves. For a long time they had been 
silent, nursing their wrath, keeping alive 
their love for the old flag, keeping alive 
also their hatred of those that hated it — 
who had so long flred upon it in the rear — 
flnding nowhere, in no event, in no news- 
paper, any adequate utterance of their pas- 
sionate feelings. Now the mighty eloquence 
of that majestic and sublime procession 
spoke for them ! That was the thing which 
they all along wanted to say — ^but could 
not ! They were in themselves ciphers, 
mere imits of the nation; but there, in all 
tiiose thousands of men, they saw them- 
selves multiplied into an incalculable, irre- 
sistible host, and felt that their hour of 
triumphant speech had come at last I That 
was the answer which they thundered out 
in trumpet tones to the miserable traitors 
who had so long fom the bleeding heart of 
their country. 

" 'I always knew,' said one old man at 
our elbow, in the orowd, whilst we were 



watching the procession, ' that the heart of 
the people was all right. They didn't know 
their danger for a long while. Now they've 
found it out — and this is what they say 
about it !' 

' ' This procession was remarkable in many 
respects as a pageant, and particularly in 
the number of fine horses which accom- 
panied it. A larger number of well-mounted 
men has rarely been seen in a civic proces- 
sion. The police came at the head of it, 
under the command of Captain Nelson; a 
fine body of men, with capital horses, look- 
ing as bold and brave, as heroes. 

"After these followed, in stately march, 
the Michigan Sharpshooters; the 1st Regi- 
ment of Illinois State Militia, (Chicago City 
Guard,) a fine lot of fellows ! and the whole 
of the First Division,, with their bands, and 
flags, and panoply of war. 

"Amongst these, the carriage containing 
the captured rebel flags attracted much 
attention, and excited great enthusiasm. 
These were the flaunting rags which the 
rebels had borne on many a battle-field, 
and which our brave Illinois soldiers had 
torn from the hands of their standard- 
bearers. There they were, heUoruTn exuvice, 
spoils of war, flaunting no longer in haughty 
defiance at the head of rebel armies, but 
carried in triumph at the head of a civic 
procession in the peaceful streets of Chica- 
go. Many a tearful memory they must 
have conjured up in the minds of many a 
spectator there present, whose sons were in 
the battles where these flags were taken; 
and many of whom are, ere now, at rest for- . 
ever in their bloody soil. 

"The Second and Third Divisions fol- 
lowed; and it was a most picturesque and 
pleasing sight to behold the long lines of 
members of the various Lodges, societies, 
and associations of the city, in their many- 
colored regalias. Then came the benevolent 
societies, the religious orders making an 
imposing spectacle, which it would require 
the painter's art to represent, and to which 
no words could do anything like justice. 

" The Fifth Division, ushered by a fine 
band, and headed by J. Q. Hoyt, Esq., then 
came trampling by. There were scores of 
carriages, containing members of the press, 
the clergy, the municipal authorities, judges 
and officers of the courts, governors and ex- 
governors of States, &c., &c. 

" One of the most strikingly beautiful 
features of the procession was a superbly 
decorated four-horse car, bearing the em- 
ployes of the Uberal-hearted Wheeler & 
Wilson Manufacturing Company, repre- 
sented in this city by Geo. E. Chittenden, 
Esq., and suggestive, by the presence of 
working women aiid sewing machines at 
work upon soldiers' overcoats, of theutUity 
of the sewing machine in clothing armies. 

" Then the Sixth Division, consisting of 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



69 



Bong of ' John Brown's Body Lies Moulder- 
ing in the Grave !' 

" Then the Seventh Division of butchers, 
horse-shoers — of ponies and oxen, contrib- 
uted; and last, but not least — nay, greatest 
and mightiest of all — ^the sublime spectacle 
of the Lake County Delegation. 

" THE LAKE COUNTY DELEGATION. 

" A striking and noticeable feature of the 
procession was the long string of farmers' 
teams from Lake County. They came 
into the city at an early hour in the fore- 
noon, and suffifciently early to join the pro- 
cession. There were one hundred wagons, 
loaded to overflowing with vegetables, the 
staid old horses decorated with little flags, 
atld larger flags pendent from the wagons 
and held by the stout farmer hands. It was 
a great and beautiful free-will offering of 
the sturdy farmers, whose hearts ever beat 
true to freedom and the Union. No part 
of the procession attracted so many eyes, 
and no heartier cheers went up from the 
thousands who thronged the streets than 
those given, and thrice repeated, for the 
Lake County farmers and their splendid 
donation. There were no small loads. 
Every wagon was filled to overflowing with 
great heaps of potatoes and silver-skinned 
onions, mammoth squashes, huge beets and 
turnips, monster cabbages, barrels of cider 
and rosy apples, load after load, with many 
a gray-haired farmer driving, face weather- 
beaten, frame rugged, hands bronzed, his 
old eyes sparkling with the excitement of 
the project his big heart conceived. And 
back of the farmer, mounted on the vege- 
tables, were the boys, fiUed to repletion 
with fun. At the end of the route of the 
procession, the teams drove up to the Sani- 
tary Commission rooms, and unloaded their 
precious freights of stores into the garners, 
whence they will go to the boys in the field. 

" This harvest home was a sight to bring 
tears to the eyes of any man but a confirm- 
ed copperhead. There was an eloquence 
in it, a moral grandeur which spoke louder 
than any words. . It told that the farmers, 
the bone and sinew of the country, were 
yet confident of success, that despair or 
distrust has not entered into their calcula- 
tions, and that the boys in the field were 
worthy the best of their crops. There was 
no display, no advertisement lurking be- 
hind their contribution. It was a free-will 
offering from their great, generous hearts, 
for which they wiU. have no recompense, 
sa^e that best of all recompense, the bless- 
ings of the gallant fellows in camp and in 
hospital. God bless the Lake County 
farmers ! 

" The procession arrived at the Court- 
House about one o'clock, when the bands 
struck up some patriotic tunes; after which 
Thomas B. Bryan, Esq., addressed the peo-» 
pie. ***** 



******** 
"at the sanitabx commission. 

"The scene presented at the Sanitary 
Commission rooms was worth going a great 
distance to witness, and thousands improved 
the rare opportunity. Here more than 100 
wagons were drawn up before the Commist- 
sion, delivering their treasures to the agents 
who are to forward them to the boys in the 
field. The sidewalks and street were filled 
with boxes, barrels and sacks, and scores 
and hundreds of by-standers eagerly pat 
their shoulders to the work, and were proud 
to take part in handling some of this sol- 
diers' produce. Madison Street, for nearly 
a block, was blockaded for fully half an 
hour. Judge Puller came to see what was 
the matter — ^why the Madison Street oars 
were so long delayed; bijt when he saw tha 
cause, and the effect upon the people, ha 
concluded passengers could well afford -to 
walk around the 'blockade.' This grand 
donation was worth about $3,000 — an im- 
mense amount of farm products of every 
variety — ^better than gold for the Sanitary 
Commission, and through them, for the 
boys in the fleld and in hospitals." 

"The back room of the 'Commission' 
was fiUed with wheat; Mr. McVicker ten- 
dered them the use of his cellar, which was 
soon filled; next, B. W. Raymond offered 
storage room in one of his large cellars, 
which was gladly accepted, and promptly 
used. We regret that some photographist 
was not on hand to take a view of that 
crowd, and present duplicates of the Fair. 
They would have sold by thousands." 

" While unloading their golden treasure, 
a messenger approached the farmers with 
an invitation from the Lady Managers to 
come to Lower Bryan Hall, and partake of 
a dinner in waiting for them. These sturdy, 
warm-hearted yeomen, accompanied by the 
Marshals of the several divisions, moved to 
Bryan Hall, where they were warmly wel- 
comed by the ladies and all who were pres- 
ent." 

It is impossible to describe in detail the 
various hails occupied by the Fair. No 
one hall was large enough. Bryan Hall, 
beautifully decorated, was filled with arti- 
cles such as usually crowd the tables of 
fairs— only here the tables were burdened; 
and each morning after the sales of the pre- 
vious day, the abundance was renewed. 

This haU was brilliantly lighted in the 
evening, and crowded from nine in the 
morning until eleven at night. 

Among the articles in Bryan HaU which 
attracted attention, was the original manu- 
script of President- Lincoln's "Proclama- 
tion of Emancipation;" a gift of the Presi- 



70 



The Sanitary Commission. BvEetin. 



dent to the Fair. Some thousands of dol- 
lars ■will probably be realized from its sale. 

In the large hall below, in the same build- 
ing, were neatly arranged but richly loaded 
tables — each table seating some forty per- 
sons; and here, every day, some 1,600 or 
2j000 persons dined. A matron presided 
over each table, and the young ladies of 
the city, tastefully attired, were the "wait- 
ers " of the tables. It was a sight not to be 
forgotten. All these supplies were "sent 
in" from the homes of the city andvicinity. 
This was continued with unfailing abund- 
ance during the two weeks that the Fair 
continued. 

A third hall was the Supervisors' Hall — 
where the judge not only adjourned his 
court and gave up his room to the Fair, 
but gave himself to superintend that de- 
partment. The following notice of this 
ail is from the Chicago Tribune, as before: 

THE CUEIOSITT BEOF. 

That which will probably prove one of 
the most attractive features of the Fair is 
what we shall call the "Curiosity Shop,", 
which is located in the Supervisor's room, 
in the Court-House. We need not describe 
it in detail, but will say that about every- 
thing ever seen, or read of in modern 
books or newspapers, can be found there. 
First, there are the battle-torn flags of the 
1st, 2d, 6th, and 10th Wisconsin Regiments. 
On the first is inscribed, "Chaplain Hills;" 
on the second, "Fourteen Battles;" on the 
6th, " Five Battles ;" and on the 10th, 
' ' Chaplain Hills. " Then there are the bat- 
tered and torn flags of our own glorious 
Illinois 19th. On one is inscribed the un- 
dying words, " Who'U save the left ?" and 
on the other — "Stone River." Side by 
side with these, are the blood-soiled banners 
from Stone River, Arkansas Post, Hatchie, 
Shiloh, &o. Here are also flags captured 
from rebels in scores. One from the fa- . 
mous "Mississippi Devils,'' Wearing the 
motto, "Our rights;" a Virginia flag cap- 
tured at Gettysburg, on its folds "Dnlce et 
decorum patriamori;" a Virginia State flag, 
the Rock Rifleman's flag; the flag of the 
Summit (Miss.) Rifles— "We fight for our 
rights — presented by the ladies of Summit. " 
Another flag is suggestive of Floyd. It 
bears the motto, "We collect our own rev-' 
enue, " and it might have been added, others 
too. There are large numbers of others of 
this description pf trophies of the valor of 
our armies, which are worth a long voyage 
to see. Then there are sewing machines, 
photographs,rebel butcher knives,horse pis- 
tols, books, fancy chairs, paintings, minerals, 



vases, side saddles, bird-cages, flower-pots, 
scimetars, guns, flower vases, trophies by 
the hundred, &c., &c., almost every one pf 
which has a history which wiU interest the 
purchaser. 

A fourth haU was devoted to the exhibi- 
tion of works of art. Here were eonected> 
and admirably and tastefully arranged, 
some 400 or 500 oil paintings, many of 
them works of great merit; carried into 
the Western world from Eastern, or even 
transatlantic homes. Some days before the 
close of the Fair it was stated that twenty 
thousand persons had visited this gallery 
of paintings. Here, as in the other halls, 
was music, added to the presence of 
ladies. A fifth hall was the new building 
where the machinery was exhibited, before 
referred to. 

Besides the sales in the various halls there 
was, from time to time, an auction sale in 
the street, of hay and. grain, and horses, 
and colts, and cows, and such other gifts as 
were not fitly placed upon tables. 

Thus the Fair was continued until Satur- 
day of the second week, Nov. 7th, the 
tide of supplies and of people from the 
Northwest daily flowing in. As a necessary 
guard against an utterly overbearing 
crowd, different days were assigned to 
different sections of the country, when 
they were notified that it was most desir- 
able for them to come. 

Each evening there was some entertain- 
ment, which " paid," in Metropolitan HaU, 
(No. 6 in order.) One evening ladies and 
gentlemen came down from Detroit, bring- 
ing aU appliances with them, and present- 
ed a most charming set of tableaux. 
Another evening there were Shakespeare 
readings ; another evening. Miss Anna 
Dickinson claimed and chained a throng- 
ed house, and so on. 

Not from the "Northwest" only did 
friends and gifts appear. But there were 
persons and greetings from every loyal State 
and a glad quickening of patriotic sympa^ 
thy in a work which embraces in its minis* 
try of mercy a nation's army fighting in a 
nation's cause. 

Not'content with all of this work at the 
Fair, the ladies, as a fitting and beautiful 
close to their two weeks of toil, gave in the 
lower hall a bountiful dinner to aU the in- 



Th& Sanitary Oomnission BuUetin. 



71 



valid soldiers in, that vicinity who were able 
ta leave tent or hospital and gather there. 
It was a glad occasion, blessing and blessed;. 

Enough isj sflid of the marvelous energy 
and.wise business, talent displayed by the 
ladies who had the Fair in hand, when it is 
fitfited that from beginning to end, for two 
weeks, there was perfect system, and no 
break, no . jars in the machinery. 

Altogether, this Fair, independent of the 
money realized from it for sick m.A wound- » 
ed soldiers, has in its moral effect perform- 
ed a gravid work. States are connected 
closer, while the lines between them as 
States are less sharply drawn, and loyalty 
to the great.idea of " nationality " has to- 
day a deeper holdupon the whole North- 
west, and upon the nation itself, than it 
had one month ago. 

THE PRISONERS ON BOTH SIDES. 
Whatever the merits of the controversy 
between the two Commissioners of Ex- 
<!ha,nge may be, they have npt the smallest 
bearing upon the treatment of the pris- 
oners on either side. The claims of the 
latter to. food and shelter are in no way 
affected by the circumstances, let them be 
what they may, which have for the present 
put a stop, to their exchange. Even if our 
Government T^ere ever so much in the 
wrong, either in its construction of the 
cartel, or in its computation of numbers, 
the idea of coercing it into the concession 
of the rebel claims by penalties inflicted on 
the Union prisoners, would be, as novel, 
and as tinprecedented, a,s it is inhuman. 
By the strict rule of war, neither party has 
the right to have its prisoners exchanged. 
Spldiers captured by an enemy may law- 
fully be held in durance until the war is over. 
The custom of exchanging them owes its 
origin to the desire which happily usually 
prevails in civilized countries, to mitigate 
the rigors of a strict assertion of right, 
whenever it can be done without injury to 
either of the combatants. But if either of 
them could believe or show that an exchange 
would serve his enemy more than it would 
serve him, or that the refusal to exchange 
would damage his enemy more than it 
would damage him, there is no reason in 
the laws of war why he should not hold 
his prisoners until the peace. In fact, • 



prisoners, for whom the other side can offer 
no equivalent, are held, even when there is 
a carM, ancL nobody ■would ever think of 
accusing their captors of cruelty in doing 
it. Exchange is, in short, a mere conces- 
sion made for the sake of sparing brave 
men the burden of a long imprisonment in, 
a hostile country; and if a belligerent re- 
fuses for any cause to make it, nobody has 
a right to complain except its own prison- 
ers, and least of all the eneiny. It follows, 
therefore, that the treatment to which our 
unfortunate soldiers are subjected at Bich- 
mond ias not even the poor, excuse of 
having been resorted to for the enforcement 
of a well-founded claim. It is, in every 
sense of the word, wantonj^nd unjustifiable, 
and the violence of Mr. Quid's language, 
in his correspondence with General Mere- 
dith, naturally leads us to suspect tha.t he 
knows it to be so. Vituperation is rarely 
used by men as used to discussion as he is, 
except in defence of things which are not 
otherwise defensible. 

What renders the conduct of th^ Bich- 
mond authorities all the more heinous is, 
that their treatment of our prisoners stands: 
in marked contrast to that which they have 
experienced at our hands, and scarcity of 
either provisions or clothing at the South 
puts no new face on the matter, inasmuch 
as the Government at Washington, and the 
people of the North through the Sanitary 
Coinmission, would from the outset have, 
on the slightest hint Qf such a state of 
things, have been only too glad to take the 
task of supporting our men off their hands. 

We sent an agent to the hospital at An- 
napolip, Maryland, to examine the condi- 
tion of the fresh batch who came from 
Eiohmond by the flag of truce on the 29th 
Got. He says in his Eeport: 

Of the 185 who escaped with their lives 
from the prisons of the rebel capital, eight 
died on the passage from City Point; sev- 
. eral, a,lmo3t immediately after landing, ex- 
pired of inanition. Of 134 sent to the. 1st 
Division Hospital, 43 had died up. to San- 
day last; and many more, exhibiting fright- 
fiiL signs of starvation, though .stiU aK-ve, 
are destined not to survive. 

On their arrival at the landing, many 
wei'e in a dying condition; and were alivt 
with vermin, filthy, and almost entirely 



T2 



The Sanitary Commission BvEdin. 



destitute of clothing. Some had only nhreds 
of a single shirt remaining, others the 
remains only of an old blanket aroxmd the 
body; such, in fact, was their condition in 
this respect, that the Surgeon in charge of 
the Hospital who was receiying them, had 
to send his wife and a female nurse away 
from the landing for decency' nake, — so 
nearly nude were these half -famished men; 
and so like Uving skeletons, that among 
them "a mother would not have not known 
her son. " 

Most of them were footsore; 120 were 
without shoes; and so reduced, mamy of 
them, as to he beyond the reach of food or 
stimulants to restore them. 

On visiting them in the Hospital wards, 
I found many who were too feeble to relate 
their experience; from others I gathered 
that' they are all unclothed, unsheltered 
and unfed. Knapsacks are always taken 
from prisoners, and their contents stolen. 
The sick only are sometimes allowed to 
retain a blanket; other clothing, and boots 
and shoes, almost always are taken. Upon 
BeUe Island there is no shelter for the 
thousands there, most of whom are sick 
and half naked, lying upon the ground; 
sand is incrusted into the sore backs of 
some; and the unanimous testimony of all 
with whom I talked about the food was, 
that it was a "famine ration;" that men 
"starved upon it." 

The rations, meagre as they are, are not 
served regularly, — but, their distribution 
is dependent upon the mismanagement and 
caprice of officers who sell them — thus sacri- 
ficing the very lives of their helpless pris- 
oners for paltry gain. "I have known," 
said one officer, an intelligent Englishman, 
"I have known the Quartermaster to sell 
all the bread he could find sale /oj-.and send 
the rest to the prisoners. " 

Some describe their imprisonment as 
"a long struggle with hunger;" and say, 
that all who arrive "looking well and ro- 
bust; soon show signs of physical weakness 
and exhaustion. " In answer to questions 
as to clothing and shelter upon Belle Isl- 
and, one mto said, "the men mostly sleep 
in the sun in the daytime, and walk about 
all night, to keep warm." Among an accu- 
mulation of testimony, sufficient to fill a 
volume, I select the following, as bearing 



upon the treatment and rations given, and 
the general condition and prospects of our 
prisoners in Bichmond. 

George A. Kogers, 1st Tt. Cavalry, (late 
Captain of Cavalry in the British Army,) 
was wounded, and taken prisoner at Brandy 
Station, Va., Oct. 11th. "Soon as I was 
captured, "he said, "I was sent to the rear, 
where my wounds, (one a severe sabre' 
wound of the seaJp,) which bled furiously, 
were dressed. My boots were taken away, 
and I was sent to Eichmond to the Hos- 
pital, which I reached on the 14th." He 
remained there 17 days. "Prisoners, "'he 
says, "are always robbed of th-eir shoes, 
boots and clothing, often all except the cap 
and jacket, which they never siesS, for /ear 
they wendd be mstakenfor Yankees and bar- 
larously treated. " " The ration in Hospital 
is 1)4 ounces of meat, J^ pint of their bean 
soup, and 3 slices of bread daUy." "A few 
fone bandages were distributed among the 
badly wounded, but no Hnt, and no medi- 
cines." In answer to my inquiries whether 
food and clothing sent from the North to 
prisoners reached thenr, he said, "Sup- 
plies sent directly to individuals, to men 
and officers, are given to them, bui clothing' 
is not." He had " seen rebel officers wear- 
ing' clothing with the XJ. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission's mark upon them, and heard men 
boast of having stolen them." TMb was 
corroborated by another man, a prisoner 
from Richmond, who heard his statement. 
"I have seen," he added, "half-starved 
fellows from Belle Island search about for 
crumbs on the floor on reaching the Hos- 
pital, and devour their first scanty meal 
like hungry dogs; so nearly starved are 
they when sent to Hospital, that none of 
them live more than two days. They aU 
die." He described the destitution of sol- 
diers in Eichmond (rebel soldiers) as re- 
cently very great; "at one time they were 
on }£ rations." "I saw some of our poor 
fellows utterly crazy from want and iU- 
treatment." Others had forgotten their 
names, and the number and name of their 
regiment." "The antipathy the rebels in 
Eichmond feel for us is such as men feel 
for not dogs even, unless they are mad." 
"When entering Eichmond, our fellows 
were half dead with hunger and fatigue, 
and one of the rebel chivalry stuck a piece 



The Sanitary Commission BiMetin. 



73 



of pork upon his bayonet, and shouted 
" Come on, you dogs — follow me!" 

" On coming away, 185 of us •were packed 
lite herrings in a long, narro-w barge, ivith- 
out clothes and without shelter, and so 
filthy that I OTerheaxd one of their officers 
say, " Don't let our poor fellows go on that 
boat." Both Capt. Sogers and others con- 
firm the statement that the rule is to search 
all who arrive, and take money and other 
valuables; and books, even rings, are taken 
from the fingers. The Hospital ration is 
larger than it is on the Island, and at the 
Libby Prison, 3 slices of bread being given 
to the sick. The quantity furnished to offi- 
cers is also larger than is given to privates." 
Harrison Merchant, Private, Co. A, 
16th Eegiment, Maine Vols., taken prison- 
er at Gettysburg and sent to Belle Island, 
says, " They had some old tents there, but 
now nothing in the way of shelter is left 
but some old strips of canvas." The daily 
ration, he says, "was 10 lbs. of beef and 
bones for 100 men. It was sometimes bad; 
but we never minded that. One loaf of 
bread — often it was sour, and had Ume in 
it — was divided in 6 slices; two slices and 
about ^ pint of boiled dirty water with a 
teaspoonful of beans in it, was all we got; 
but sometimes we didn't get that. The 
loaf weighed about a pound. The guard 
got a whole loaf a day. We sometimes got 
3 or 4 spoonsful of rice, but it was not boiled 
enough." 

"The soup was made by adding IJ^ 
pails fuU of soup in which the meat and 
beans were boiled to 20 pails full of hot 
James Eiver water;" surely a rare work of 
art, to show how thin a Yankee soldier- 
could grow and not die ! One man said, 
"the soup, as they called it, was so thin, 
that except for the dirt in it, it would not 
stain a white- handkerchief." 

Oscar EcteU, Private, 24th Mich. Vols., 
was captured at Gettysburg, July 1st. On 
the 27th arrived at Eichmond, and was 
sent to Belle Island with 500 other prison- 
ers. "We all remained without any shel- 
ter, lying on the bare ground; my blanket, 
rubber blanket, and everything in my 
knapsack, was taken away. The meat that 
was served to us was often spoiled. There 
was such sufifering for want of clothes, that 
the men scrambled for the rags that canfe 



off the dead; sometimes the corpses were 
robbed of all they had on ; I saw a good 
many men on the island that were insane. 
The food we got wasn't enough to keep a 
baby alive." 

William Bead, Corporal, Co. K, 162d 
Ee^ment, N. Y. Vols., was taken prisoner 
at Springfield, near Port Hudson, July 2d. 
"We made long marches, all barefoot; 
many died on the marches from sun-stroke 
and exhaustion, for we had no food for 
3 days. '' He reached BeUe Island on the 
6th August, and describes the vermin as 
" so great a curse, that the men tear off 
their only remaining rags, cry like children 
and go about naked," so intolerable is their 
suffering from this caiise; the whole earth 
moves with them. Men could get paroled, 
first by paying $5 or $10; one squad of our 
men raised $280, and a valuable gold 
watch, which they gave to the rebel officers 
for a first chance to get away. The Island 
is very sickly, and is becoming a great 
grave-yard. We never got as much as two' 
ounces of meat at a time; sometimes we got 
about a table-spoonful of beans, or rice. " 

Martin Pennook, Corporal, Co. G, 4th 
Michigan, says: "'The dead are all buiied 
by our own men, most of them without boxes. 
Sometimes 6 or 8 are sent down, never 
enough for all the dead. The men are 
fairly worn out with the labor of burying 
the dead. There is no register of deaths 
kept. The sick, even those that have been 
paroled a second time, cannot get away, 
because they are too weak to walk. To find 
out whether men have money, that they 
may steal it, they allow peddlers to come 
about and go into the prisons and bring 
food and tobacco for sale, and a spy comes 
with them." 

J. W. .Tailor, who was both in the Libby 
Prison and in the Alabama Hospital, says: 
" There were sinks in the prison, but most 
of the men were too iU and weak to crawl to 
them." The ration, acccording to Tailor, 
is 1 ounce; or, as he added, "only one 
mouthful," about J^ lb. of bread, in the 
morning; at night, }4 pin-t oi soup; at the 
prison, clothing, blankets and clothes are 
often taken from our men. One witness 
said to me, ' ' Even tin cups were stolen from 
us, and then sold back to the owner for one 
doUar. " Tailor was in a room in the Hoa- 



74 



Th^ Sanitary Gmiwhdon BidlMn. 



pitai, " with, 284 others; aU -wounded, and 
many -yith,. fey ers^ all in one room, without 
beds, or blankets, or straw even to lie upon. " 

" Our ration was bread, and apint cup-full 
of rye, coffee, or the same quantity of ;Soup 
made of rice aiid: turnip leaves— /en- tfjuehe 
men. The b^ans we got were always musty. 
In one room in the hospital were 81 
patients with diarrhoea; 40 of them died. 
Sometimes offlosEs who were kept in a room 
above us bought fopdy-potatoes and bread 
— and passed it down through holes where 
chains f pr hauling up tobacco passed. They 
often poured soup down to the hungry 
fellows, but they had to knopk on theflpor, 
and when the guard fpund, us out we were 
deprived of our rations. " 

Jiames Harrison, quarterniaster's, clerk,' 
has, scurvy; was sent to hospital, and re- 
mained there. 6 weeks; was i-n charge of a 
rebel, doctor. " They had no lint nor, band- 
age?, except spme dirty strips like tent 
cloth. There were 300 cases, the doctor 
tojd, me, of scurvy much worse thain mine. 
For a few days they gave us raw potatoes 
— a few slices — an^d a little vinegar, and 
some tincture of iron, but they soon gave 
out. We then hj^d only about a quarteii of a , 
pint of ripe soup, with turnip-tops boiled 
in it, and a sMce ol bread and a little rye 
coffee once daily; that was all we got." He 
had np money \?hen taken, but "5, others 
captured at the same tinie had $100 robbed 
from thpm. One man had a $20 greenback 
exchanged by an ojEper for $20 in Oonfed. 
money; that, was taken charge of when we 
go^tin Eiohmond." Before going tp hos- 
pit^ he ■'^as in Libby prison, and says: 
"While I was there, the room I was in 
was washed out every day, so the floor was 
always wet and muddy. It was our only 
bed. Some of the sick kept their blankets. " 

One of the prisoners described the floors 
of the prison as being "sometimes ankle 
dffep in filth. " Several with whom I talked; 
describe the hospital ration as ba,rely suffi- 
cient foi" well nien " to keep alive upon; the 
sick were all too bad and weak to be bene- 
fited much by it." "At one time we were 
a week without salt, and then used to get 
only a little pinch of it, " " Nearly 900, of 
us were crowded in a room 8Q feet by 40, " 
" The water of the James River, whicli was 
made into soup, when it was taken for the 



use of our men on the island, was black : 
from the filth of sewers which empty into 
it.j The bread is often sour, and; the meat 
that we get, without salt, is disgusljingly 
fresh. The rebel officers, when they can 
get salt for us, se§it. Our rice is al^feys 
given to, us half boiled. The quartermas- 
ter, after the bread is balwdi sells: all he 
can get pay for, and gives us our ration out 
of what is left. Our rations were purposely 
served after dark, and pur meat — a mouth- 
ful apiece for 16 men — was thrown upon 
the, floor in all the filth, where we had to 
divide it, The authorities and officers in 
Eichrooild treated us worse than a Christian, 
would treat a mangy dog." 

Krom the accounts recently published^ 
there can be no doubt tha,t there is great 
scarcity of food in Richmond. But our 
prisoners had only 10 lbs. of meat for 100 
men; their guards had 25 lbs. Our men 
had their scanty ratio^i served twice a day; 
theirs, three times. For ours, a loaf is,- 
divided into six slices, and in some instances 
(when the rest is sold) only one slice i% 
given daily; at the same. time their mere had 
a loaf apiece, and a quantity of rice besides. 
No one could see the men in the hospitals 
at Annapolis a,nd doubt they were perishing 
from inanition. 1 spanned tlye thigh of a man 
just dead with iny thumb and middle finger. 
And the longing eyes with which those 
that reached the hospital watched the food, 
the eagerness with which they devoured it, 
all told of starvation. 

The Commission has caused a report to 
be mad,e upon the condition and treatment, 
of the rebel prisoners at Point Lookout, 
Maryland, one of the principal depots, and 
it IS worthy, of attention, if only for the sake 
of the cpntrast, Of the hospital the re- 
port says: 

The hospital was situated in the south- 
ern part of the encampment, and was com- 
posed of eighteen hospital tents complete, 
arranged two together end to end, and 
placed in two rows, a broad street inter- 
vening with the cook and dining tent, on 
the eastern end, and, facing the sti'eet. In 
these tents there were one hundred patients, 
and all, with the exception of five or six, 
were on raised bunks,, and all were lying 
on mattresses, with,at least one blanket fpr 



Hie Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



75, 



covering. Eight of their own men were 
detailfed to take care of them; arid, although 
they were enlisted men, yet six were grad- 
uates of sojQe medical school, and.tjhe other 
two had been students. Tour were grad- 
uates of the University of the City of New 
Yort; one of the School at New Orleans; 
one from the Eclectic School, Cincinnati; 
and the other two were students in the 
University of Pennsylvania — ' seceders;' 
still little or no attention did they give to 
their sick comrades, and, except in giving 
the necessary food and medicine, they 
scarcely ever visited them. There is either 
a lack of sympathy, or else indolence enters 
largely into their composition; and I am 
inclined to believe it is the latter, for, with 
the accommodations at their command, 
with good beds and shelter for the sick, if 
they had one particle of pride they could 
render them much more conifortable, es- 
pecially as regards cleanliness. 

Chronic diarrhoea is the most prevalent 
disease, yet they have mild oases of renxit- 
tant fever and some erysipelas. 

Mortality, none; for when any cases 
assume a dangerous character they are imr 
mediately removed to the General Hospital, 
and they generally remove from twenty to 
thirty per day on an average, leaving in 
Camp Hospital eighty sick." 

The rations are very good, both in 
quantity and quality amply sufficient for 
any sick man; but there are exceptional 
oases where they need something more 
delicate than the regular army ration. The 
majority are perfectly weU satisfied, and 
very little complaint is made in this par- 
ticular. I win here give the quantities 
they receive in full, half, a,nd low diet: 

FULIi DIET. HAliF DIBT. LOW DIET. 

Dinner. Dinner. Dinner. 

Beef or pork, 4 oz. Meat, 2 oz. No meat. 

Potatoes. 4 oz. Potatoes, 3 oz. Potatoes, 2 oz. 

Hard-f^ck, 3 oz. Hard-tack, 2 oz. Hard-tack, 1 oz. 

Breakfast and tea. Breakfast and tea. Breakfast and tea. 

Coffee or tea, 1 pt: Cofi'ee or tea, 1 pt. Coffee or tea, 1 pt. 

Eice, 2 gills. Eioe, 1 gill. Kice, Igill. 

Molasses, 1 oz. Molasses, X oz. Molasses, X oz. 

Hard-tack, 3 oz. Hard-tack, 2 oz. Hard-tack, 1 oz. 

Soup and soft bread is also given them 
at least once a week. 

Of their shelter there can be no possible 
complaint, for they all have good tents, 
such as wall, hospital, Sibley, wedge, shel- 
ter, hospital^ and waU tent-flies. The ma- 



jority are in the wedge tent. Average in 
a.hospital tent, from fifteen to eighteen 
men; in wall tent, from ten to twelve; in 
shelter tent, three; in Sibley tent, from 
thirteen to fourteen; in wedge tent, five; 
under hospital-fly, from ten to thirteen; 
under wall tent-fly, from three to eight. 
Of the shelter tents, only a very few are 
excavated and boarded at the sides, and al- 
most every tent throughout the camp has 
a fire:place and chimney, built of brick, 
made by them from the soil (which is clay) 
and sun-baked. In a few of the Sibleys 
holes are dug, fire built, and covered at 
the top; generally the tents are filled with 
smoke. 
The ration to the w^ men is: 



Pork, 3oz. 
Salt or Beef, 4 ozi 
Hard-tack, 10 oz. 
Coffee, 1 pt. 



- A day's ration. 



Soup ia also given once a week, potatoes 
and beans every five, days, soft bread once 
a week; and fresh meat had been issued to 
them once a week, up to two weeks ago, 
when, from some cause I could not.flndout,, 
it was stopped. 

The kitohenand dining-rooms are in the 
northwest corner of the camp, and eomposr 
ed of six wooden buildings one hjindred 
and sixty feet in length, with twenty feet 
off for the^tehen. Only five of the build- 
ings are ia use. The kitchen arran,gement8 
are very good, each one containing four cal: 
drons, and in one flye, each caldron capable 
of containing frora fifty to sixty gallons. 
Breakfast I and supper they relied, uppi^ 
hard-tack, tea or coffee, and there is no 
HkeHhood of their starving. The dining- 
room qontains three taibles, and each house 
feeds fifteen hundred and: twenty-nine men, 
five hiindred at a time. . Seem to be well 
supplied with all necessary articles both f 0.1^ 
kitchen and dining-room., 

I will make allowance for the condition of 
the kitchen, as they were just through 
serving dinner, and were making prepara,- 
tions for cleaning up; yet there was evidence 
of a want of care and cleanliness; still. I 
found them in much better condition than 
I expected; there was such a vast difference 
that I did not notice as much the number 
of bones thrown from kitchen on the out- 
side; still there were some. 



76 



The Sanitary Commission BvRetin. 



The sick in quarters average from one 
hundred and sixty to two hundred, prevail- 
ing disease scurvy, yet a great many are 
troubled with diarrhoea, and as they 
gradually grow worse, are admitted to the 
hospital to be sent to the General Hospital. 
Those men who are sick in quarters, and 
who are unable to eat the rations given 
them, have instead, vinegar 3 oz., potatoes 
5, rice 1 gill, molasses 1 gUl — one day's ra- 
tion; each man cooks for himself.. They 
are troubled greatly with the itch, and it 
is spreading throughout the camp ; and until 
sulphur was sent them by the Commission, 
they had nothing for it. 

They have abundance of water in the 
camp, notwithstanding that several of the 
wells are unfit for use. The waters of those 
not in use are strongly impregnated with 
iron, and will stain white clothing a yellow 
or light brown. Outside of these there is 
an abundance of good water, and no excuse 
whatever for being otherwise than cleanly; 
but they seem to abhor soap and water; at 
least their appearance so indicates. A 
great many are employing their time in 
making brick, and have now a great quan- 
tity on hand. Others employ themselves 
in making rings, chains, seals, &c., from 
bone and gutta percha — and notwithstand- 
ing the complaint that they do not get 
enough to eat, you'll find them on the main 
street, which they call the '"Change," 
gambling both for money and rations. 
They have games at cards, reno, sweat- 
cloth, &o. ; also, on this street they do their 
trading, hard-tack for tobacco, and tobacco 
for hard -tack. It is here that you wiQ find 
them in crowds, sitting or kneeling in the 
dirt, eagerly watching the different games, 
and see them arise dissatisfied at having 
lost their day's ration. While thus en- 
gaged they are unmindful of the cold. 

In the afternoon visited the Small-Pox 
Hospital, which is about a quarter of a mile 
north of the encampment, among the pine 
bushes, under the charge of Dr. A. Broad- 
bent, Acting Asst. Surgeon. This hospital 
was opened two weeks ago, and up to to- 
day have received therein one hundred 
and thirty-three patients, during which 
time thirty-three deaths have occurred. 
The sick are in wedge tents, three to a tent, 
lying on straw on the ground, with a blanket 



and a half to a man. Their ration is the 
same, and bean soup, is also given every 
day; to those not allowed it, coffee in its 
stead. The men are much more comforta- 
ble here than in the encampment, and 
those who are in attendance do not want 
to go back. I should also state that they 
occasionally get soft bread. No complaints 
at aU; were getting along as well as they 
could expect. 



THE SUPPLIES FOR THE RICH- 
MOND PRISONERS. 
The following letters explain themselves: 
FoBT MoNKOE, Nov. 20th, 1863. 
De. J. H. Douglas, 

Associate Seo'y San. Com. .- 

Mt Deab Snt — As I said in my last tele- 
gram, we were unable to send up all our 
stores from City Point, for want of sufficient 
transportation. As the Rebel boat could not 
return from Richmond until Saturday, the 
Colonel commanding the Union flag of 
truce boat deemed it advisable to return 
to Fort Monroe for another load; Capt. 
Hatch, of the rebel boat, having promised 
to bring down another lighter, which would 
enable him to take up aU the freight our 
boat could carry. The convoy, the same 
boat that I went up on, wiU return to City 
Point to-morrow, and will take up all our 
stores on hand at Fort Monroe. The 
hospital supplies, such as beef-soup, choco- 
late, condensed mUk, brandy, &c., I con- 
signed to Dr. Wilkin, Surgeon-in-Chief of 
the hospital for prisoners, he having as- 
sured Colonel Irvine — ^la.te of Libby Prison, 
and now commanding flag of truce boat 
Convoy — that everything sent in that way 
should be devoted to the exclusive use of 
our sick and wounded soldiers; and Capt. 
Hatch, of the rebel boat, gave me the 
fullest assurance that the stores would be 
safely delivered to Dr. Wilkin. 

In future, stores sent to the prisoners in 
Richmond should be divided into two 
classes — substantial food for the weU men, 
and delicacies for the sick. The first should 
be marked "Libby Prison," or "Belle 
Island" — the second, " Hospital for Prison- 
ers," Richmond, Va. The Sanitary Com,- 
mission Stamp should be marked on eac\ 
package, and the packages themselvej 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



77 



should be very substantially put together, 
as they are very apt to get broken with the 
many handlings which they undergo before 
reaching their destination. 

Triplicate invoices should be sent with 
each lot of stores — two to General Mere- 
dith and one to me. Give the contents of 
each package and the number of packages 
sent. As the New York does not go up to- 
morrow, I shall not go up again for several 
days, or until we send another lot of stores. 
My principal object in wishing to go up 
on the New York was to ascertain aU 
about her accommodations for making the 
returning prisoners comfortable. I believe 
they are quite ample, but X want to see for 
myself. Very truly yours, 

JAMES GALL, Jb. 



Mb. F. M. Knapp, 

Associate Sec'y San. Com.: 

Mt Deab Snt — The flag of truce New 
York goes up to City Point this A. M., tak- 
ing with her all the sanitary'stores intended 
for Bichmond, that have accumulated here 
during the week . General Mere- 
dith says he will send the flag of truce boat 
any time with a load of Sanitary supplies, 
and as the New York will be ready to go up 
again Tuesday, I would like to be able to 
send a large supply of substantial food — 
crackers, beef, potatoes, onions, &c., and 
of under-clothing, such as drawers, shirts, 
stockings, towels, handkerchiefs, &e. A 
supply of soap also is much needed, and 
would, I have no doubt, be gratefully re- 
ceived. 

General Meredith says that for the 
present the Government will not send any 
more stores to the prisoners, as the proper 
disposition of those already sent is very 
much doubted. -^ 

The General says, however, that he has 
every reason to believe that the supplies 
sent by the Commission have been properly 
distributed. I will make every eflbrt to 
gain information on this point. In the 
mean time, the Commission, with evidence 
before it that some of the goods sent have 
been received, should send forward large 
supplies of aU kinds of substantial food and 
comfortable under-clothing, blankets, &c. 
Very truly yours, 

JAMES GALL, Jb. 



LiBBY Pbison, Eiohmond, Va., ) 
November 12, 1863. J 
To the Agent of the Sanitary Commission, 

Norfolk, Va.: 
I have written you more than once through 
the regular channel, but fear the letters may 
not go. A private opportunity offers now. 
The goods received from you were of the 
utmost service to the oflScers here, a great 
many of whom were in very sad condition. 

We need about 200 more shirts, same 
number of drawers, and as many blankets, 
unless we are to be exchanged soon; also 
some socks. We have only corn bread (un- 
sifted), a little rice, and a few poor sweet 
potatoes and water for our rations. The 
bread is about half a p8und; the rice half a 
giU. I had to-day eight potatoes; only two 
were good for anything — medium size — ^the 
others not larger than one's finger ! ! 

We are annoyed and indignant that while 
we are treated in this manner the Confed. 
officers in our hands are furnished with 
abundant rations, excellent in quality and 
variety, with good quarters, beds and 
blankets; while we are turned into this 
building, to sleep on the floor without 
blankets. Only one room here has glass; 
all the other windows are open to the full 
sweep of the north wind. No fires. 

If perfectly convenient, I should like 
from the Commission a small box of pre- 
served meats, fruits, &c., &c. 

NEAL DOW, 
Brig. Gen., U. S. A. 



The Bichmond Examiner publishes the 
following in explanation of the alleged re- 
fusal of the Confederate authorities to per- 
mit Colonel Irvine, in charge of Govern- 
ment supplies for the Union prisoners, to 
proceed with them to Eichmond : 

General Meredith, on the 12th, inclosed 
to our Commissioner the following letter, 
addressed to " Captain Edward A. Fobes, 
Libby Prison:" 

" FoBT Monboe, November 12, 1863. 
" Captain Edward A. Fobes, Libby Prison, 

Eichmond, Virginia: 
' ' Sib — I send by flag truce, this day, 
twenty-four thousand rations, the distribu- 
tion of which I authorize you to superin- 
tend. You will please forward me receipts 
for the same. Should the Confederate au- 
thorities allow this course to be pursued in 
subsisting our prisoners, I will consider 



78 



The Sanitary Oomfnission BvUetin. 



your receipts as evidence of the fact, and 
win keep up the supply. 
"Very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant, 
[Signed] S. A. Mbbedith, 

"Brigadier-General and Agent of Ex- 
change." 

Judge Ould promptly returned it with 
the following endorsement: 

' ' Respectfully returned to Brigadier- Gen- 
eral Meredith. This letter Will not he de- 
livered to Captain Fobes. I have to-day, 
in a letter, informed you that the rations, 
including candles, will be served to your 
soldiers. The manner in which that is to 
be done will be governed by our regula- 
tions, not yours. If you are not satisfied 
with those regulations, you can take back 
your rations and withhold any in the fu- 
ture. [Signed] Eo. Ould, 

"Agent of Exchange." 

Another letter, written by our Commis- 
sioner on the 15th, assured General Mer- 
edith that whilst our authorities would not 
allow directions to issue from Fortress Mon- 
roe to a Federal prisoner in Richmond to 
attend to the distribution of rations, yet 
the provisions would be distributed in con- 
formity with such regulations as would be 
established by the prison authorities. 

The fact of the case is, that the identical 
provisions carried back to Fortress Monroe 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Irvine were imme- 
diately dispatched by the same hands to City 
Point, to be received upon the terms pro- 
posed by our Commissioner, and at th .^ vary 
time of the appearance of the Herald's edi- 
torial were helping to fill the greedy stom- 
achs of the Yankee prisoners. 



REPORT ON THE SANITARY STATE 
OF THE TROOPS AT CHARLES- 
TON. 

Gen. GiUmore landed on FoUy Island 
early in July, his army being composed 
mainly of the troops now on Morris 
Island. On the 10th of July he crossed 
over to Morris Island with a portion 
of his command. On or previous to the 
18th July, the day of the unsuccessful 
assault upon "Wagner," — of the — regi- 
ments now on the Island had come over 
from Folly. The remaining — regiments 
landed subsequently, after the evacuation 
by the enemy of "Wagner" and "Gregg." 
The labors and duties in connection with 
the siege have thus fallen not entirely 



equally upon the regiments now on Morris 
Island. 

Of the regiments, have entered 

the department since Januaiy 31st, 1863. 
Most of these came from North Carolina. 

The — regiments on FoUy Island reached 
the department between the Ist and 17th 
August last, all from Virginia, excepting 
the two colored regiments, the 1st North 
Carolina and the 55th Massachusetts. 

These troops have been subject to duties 
less severe and, exhausting than those which 
have constantly been required of the com- 
mand on Morris Island. I endeavored, 
but unsuccessfully,toobtain an official state- 
ment of the amount and character of the 
duties imposed upom the troops on Morris 
Island. The effect of these duties upon 
the physical and moral condition of the 
troops has been great, and I regret exceed- 
ingly the neces^ty of confining myself to 
merely general statements. 

An important circumstance in the history 
of this command is, that it arrived before 
Charleston at the most unhealthy, sickly 
season of the year, after a summer spent in 
Virginia, and after the health of the troops 
had beg^in to suffer from unsuitable rations 
and the hardships of field service. 

The sanitary condition of these troops 
immediately before they came to South 
CaroUna was bad. 

MoKBis Island. — Morris Island, or that 
part of it which is not covered by tide-wa- 
ter, is a ridge or rainbow of sand some four 
miles in length, with an average breadth of 
perhups one-fourth of a mile. 

It presents to the sea a broad, firm beach, 
varies in altitude from a few feet to neai'ly 
or quite sixty feet, and has a westward 
slope more or less rapid towards the marsh, 
which embraoes by far the larger portion 
of the Island, spreading out for miles to- 
wards the west and north, and intersected 
by innumerable creeks, and covered with 
a dense growth of coarse sea-grass. 

The few straggling and scraggy palmet- 
toes which once grew just above the west- 
ern limit of tide-water have been cut away, 
while elsewhere there is little or no vegeta- 
tion of any-kind. 

FoiiLX IsLAKD. — FoUy Island, in its gen- 
eral foismation, is siinilar to Morris. The 

3d 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



79 



away by the imceasing enoroaohmenta of 
the sea. The beach is narrower, so narro-w 
as to be unavailable for camp sites, -while 
'the western slope of the bluff either is, or 
has recently been, covered more or less 
densely withpines, palmettoes, myrtles and 
other indigenous trees. 

Malaria. — Morris Island I believe to be 
quite free from malaria. The absence of 
vegetation, the sandy character of that part 
of the island occupied by our troops, the 
free exposure of the whole island surface 
to the sun, and the almost unfailing breezes 
from the sea, are conditions which must at 
least modify its developments. 

Folly I cannot regard with the same 
favor. The part of the island above tide- 
water rolls in ridges towards the marsh on 
its western border, sinks to lower levels,and 
is more frequently swampy. The sand, over 
a consideable part of the island, is buried 
bensaih a stratum of rich vegetable mould. 

The ridges are covered with pines, and 
the slopes and ravines filled with palmettoes 
and a luxuriant semi-tropical vegetation. 

Watbb. — The water on Morris Island is 
slightly brackish and insipid, although I 
know of no reason to believe it positively 
unhealthful. 

The water on Folly Island is quite simi- 
lar, and in many places is unpleasantly im- 
pregnated with organic vegetable matter. 

I cannot think that the recent interments 
on Morris Island can much affect the health 
of the troops ; if so, it is not by poisoning 
the water, as has been occasionally reported. 
The burial-grounds, hemmed in by sand- 
hills, are more than a quarter of a mile 
from the nearest camps, while the dead 
buried elsewhere within the limits of our 
encampment are probably few in number. 
I believe the water to be at present pretty 
much in itsTiatural state. How long it may 
remain so depends much upon the cleanly 
habits of the troops and the attention given 
to camp policing. The water is generally 
but a "few feet below the surface, and the 
slops, refuse, and filth of our undrained 
and undrainable camps may be readily 
reached through the finfe silioious sand. 

TbiSts. — The wedge tent is generally 
iised. I saw no Sibleys. On Folly Island 
many regiments have been compelled ito 
make more or less use of their shelter tents. 



One regiment, the 41st N. X, is scarcely 
provided with any others. The tents in use 
on Morris Island are, for the most part, 
very good. The tents on Folly are by no 
means as good. Measures have already 
been taken, however, to furnish the whole 
command with new tents, so far as they 
may be needed. Several regiments have 
just been supplied. 

In a few camps attempts have been made 
to stockade the tents, but as a rule, they 
have been pitched directly upon the ground. 
Most of the tents are provided with burdks. 
In many, however, the earth is simply 
covered with straw, palmetto leaves, &c. 

Policing. — Policing is too miich neglect- 
ed, as I have observed is generally the case 
where regiments are encamped by the sea, 
and waste and filth are quickly trod into the 
ground, or covered by passing sand-drifts. 

The opportunities for policing are much 
better on Folly than on Morris Island. 
Still the work is too frequently but indif- 
ferently done. 

Bathing. — However much the troops, 
profiting by their proximity to the sea, 
may have been inclined to indulge in bath- 
ing during the summer months, it is 
very evident that at present they are not 
disposed to avail themselves of their oppor- 
tunities. During the fortnight I was with 
the army, I do not remember seeing but 
one person taking a bath on the beach. 
The men were generally represented as 
washing their hands and faces daily. But 
even this is by no means universal in 'any 
regiment. 

Oleahliness. — ^I do not tliiiik there is 
the same general regard for personal clean- 
liness in this army that I have usually ob- 
served in the Army of the Potomac. The 
term a'eerage, which I have frequently used 
in this connection in my tabular abstracts, 
must, therefore, be understood as referring 
to a local standard. 

In many regiments, the apparent want 
of cleanliness was excused on the ground 
of inability to get suitable water. The 
principal causes, however, are inattention 
to these matters on the part of officers, and 
indifference on the part of- the men — ^both 
occasioned by the excessive duties necessa- 
rily exacted Of the troops during an active 
but soiideiwhat protracted siegje. 



80 



The Sanitary Commission BvUetin. 



CLOTHiNa. — The whole command appears 
to be very well supplied mth clothing. In 
no regiment did I learn that there ■was 
suffering from the want of it. Perhaps the 
supplies were most limited in the 1st North 
Carolina (colored). In the hurry of leav- 
ing Newbem, a part of the regimental as 
well as personal baggage of this regiment 
was left behind. Occasional complaints 
were made concerning the quality of some 
of the new issues, and so far as they re- 
ferred to the blankets, certainly with much 
justice. 

Rations. — The almost uniform response 
made to my questions relating to the char- 
acter of the rations issued to the troops 
was, that they were now fair in both quan- 
tity and quality— that fresh meat was issued 
twice or three times each ten days — that 
soft bread was quite generally served to 
the men — that fresh vegetables, potatoes 
and onicns, were frequently issued. The 
troops who were sent from Virginia in 
August, very generally stated that they had 
no where been furnished with better rations. 
(In the tabular abstracts, I have uniformly 
represented fresh vegetables as "now is- 
sued more freely. ") This is a general state- 
ment. Vegetables have not been equally 
distributed to the ■Wtole command. Prob- 
ably no regiment has received less than 
two rations weekly — several have received 
as many as eight. They have been issued 
most freely when there appeared to be the 
greatest necessity for them. Fiye rations 
in ten days may approximate the average 
issues now made to each regiment. 

During the first fortnight following the 
landing of the expedition, the whole army 
appears to have been put upon rather short 
rations, the issues consisting principally of 
hard bread and salt meats of an inferior 
quality — ^particularly was this the case with 
the former; shortly after fresh meat began 
to be issued. It was not, however, until 
some time in September that the Commis- 
saries appear to have furnished the men 
with fresh vegetables. 

Nearly the whole of these issues were 
made to the army before Charleston. The 
first potatoes, however, received by the 
brigade or post division, during the months 
of June and July, were not issued, and 
were only obtainable by purchase. (The 



private soldiers were rarely able to obtain 
a ration in this way.) During a part of 
this time vegetables could be obtained in 
very limited quantities, and at very high 
prices, from the sutlers. But it was to the 
Sanitary Commission that the army was for 
two months almost entirely indebted for its 
antiscorbutic supplies. 

It may be remarked that the greatest 
want of fresh vegetables existed at a season 
when the Government agents found it most 
difScult to obtain their usual supplies in 
the markets, and that the want was by no 
means peculiar to the Department of the 
South. StiU the very general and imper- 
ative nature of the demand should stimu- 
late the Subsistence Department to either 
open new soiiroes of supply, or furnish 
some antiscorbutic equivalent. 

I cannot help thinking that the ration 
which has been issued to our armies during 
the past two years is one quite unsuitable 
for men who have been stationed, and are 
likely so long as the war may last, in warm 
latitudes. Meats are too freely used, veg- 
etables too sparingly. There is an excess 
of carbon in the food. 

A very considerable proportion of the 
diseases to which the natives of the North 
are subject within the tropics originates in 
a violation of one of the plainest physio- 
logical laws, that the quantity and quality 
of the food necessary to maintain the phys- 
ical system at a given fixed standard of 
health will vary as the mean temperature 
of the atmosphere varies. Now the scor- 
butic taint which is recognized in all our 
armies from Virginia to Texas, arises quite 
as much from an excess as from a defioien- 
cy of certain elements in the blood; a fact 
which we lose sight of too readily. 

Cooking. — Bad cooking is almost as great 
a cause of disease as bad rations. I do 
not know that the cooking of the soldiers in 
this Department has been worse than usual 
in camps; probably it has been about the 
same; still the Commanding General has 
thought the matter of sufficient importance 
to make it the subject of a recent general or- 
der, in which the surgeon, with one other 
officer of the regiment,is required to visit the 
cook-houses and inspect the cooking, giving 
directions to the cooks, if necessary, three 
times 4afl£._ When visiting the camps. I 



The Banltary ^Commission Bvlletin. 



n 



often found the surgeons engaged in this 
work, &nd I am convinced much good ■will 
result from it, not only from the advice of 
those who should be able to give it, but 
by causing the cooks themselves to feel 
that they have been placed under a more 
(rigid surveillance. 

Si-lBiTS 01' THE Men. — As a rule, the men 
■were cheerful and hopeful. This feeling 
"was most apparent among the old regiments 
•which came to the Department in 1861, and 
among the colored troops, with whom it 
rose to enthusiasm. Depression of spirits 
were acknowledged most frequently among 
the troops on Folly Island. 

Hospitals.— The sick in hospital were, 
without exception, treated in tents. These 
were generally floored, furnished witli 
frame bunks, tolerably supplied with bed- 
ding and clothing, and on the whole quite 
as neat and comfortable as I have ever 
seen regimental hospitals in our armies. 
The condition of the hospitals on Morris 
Island was perhaps something superior to 
that generally observed on FoUy. Sur- 
geons have at times been short of medical 
supplies of certain kinds, but at present 
there is no want. Some difiS.oulty is stiU. 
experienced in obtaining delicacies for the 
siokj a difficulty which would be most .se- 
riously felt, but for the large issues which 
are daily made to the hospitals from the 
storehouse of the Commission. 

Sickness Bates. — The following state- 
ment wiU show the amount and per oentage 
of sickness prevailing among the troops 
inspected on Morris Island and FoUy, The 
inspections were concluded during the 
week preceding the 17th October. 

Present strength, enlisted men 

"Whole number of sick 

No. sick in hospital, (regimental) .... 573 

Per cent, sick in hosp. & quarters. . . 17.8 

" " " ♦' (regimental).. 2.9 

" " " Morris Island 18.3 

« " " FoUy Island 17.2 

Highest sick rate, FoUy Island, ) ,, , 

144th K Y f *^-^ 

Loweljt " " " 107th Ohio 2.5 

Highest " " Morris, 10th Conn. 70.1 
Lowest " " " 3d B. I. . . 4.0 
Per cent, sick in colored regiments . . 19. 3 
I am not able to give the exact number qtf 
sick who have been sent from the army be- 



fore Charleston to the General Hospitals 
at Beaufort and Hilton Head. They can- 
not, however, increase the average rate of 
sickness more than two per cent. This 
Would give 20 per cent, as the sickness rate 
in the army before Charleston in October 
last. 

In estimating the percentage of sickness 
on Morris Island, I have excluded those 
under treatment for wounds, who, if in- 
cluded with the sick, would add 1. 1 per 
cent, to the rate of sickness. 

The great difference between the per 
centage in hospital and the per centage ex- 
cused from duty :wili be at once observed. 
In the regiment reportkig the largest num- 
ber of sick, the 10th Conn., only 4 per cent. 
Were in hospital, yet 70 per cent, of the 
present strength of the regiment were on 
the sick list. The reports from other reg- 
iments show an almost equal disparity be- 
tween the numbers sick in hospital and 
quarters. The only conclusion which can 
be drawn from such facts is, that the dis- 
eases prevailing among the troops are of 
a mild character. 

The severe service exacted of the troops 
on Morris Island may fully account for 
the higher rates of sickness obtaining 
among them, and yet, excepting two or 
three regiments, such as the 10th Conn, 
and the 30th N. H., there is less sickness 
than on FoUy Island. Thus, eight regi- 
ments, the oOth N. H., Indep't Battalion, 
N. Y., N. Y. Engineers, 100th N. Y., 52d 
Ohio, 47th N. Y., 104th Penn., 3d E. I., re- 
port not over 10 per cent, sick; while on 
Folly Island but four regiments: 107th 
Ohio, 41st N. Y., 74th Penn., 13th Indiana, 
report under 10 per cent. sick. 

I cannot satisfactorily account for the 
different sickness rates in the 107th Ohio, 
and the 144th N. Y., in the 3d E. I., and 
the 10th Conn. 

The 107th Ohio is a German regiment, 
and within the past year has suffered se. 
verely from disease. This fact has, no 
doubt, much to do with the present immu- 
nity. 

The 8d E. I. has always been a healthy 
regiment, and in all matters of cleanliness 
a model. Being an artillery regiment, its 
service has differed from that which has 
devolved upon the infantry. 



82 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



Peb Centagb of Sickness among Coloeed 
Tecops. — The per oentage of sickness among 
the colored troops was above the average. 
They have been heavily tasked, and al- 
though suffering much less from diarrhoea 
and dysentery than the white soldiers, are 
more subject to bronchitis and pulmonaiy 
difSoulties. Moreover, the number of men 
suffering from chronic disabilities, which 
^hou]d have excluded theni from the ser- 
vice, is unusually large; but especially is 
this the case with the regiments raised 
within the Department. 

Pbbvailing Diseases — Camp Diakbhosa. 
— The prevailing disease not only in the 
whole command, but in each regiment, is 
camp diarrJicea. Dysentery is also very 
common, often following an attack of 
diarrhoea, frequently preceding it, and 
unquestionably arising from the same 
causes. 

Camp diarrhoea is a disease probably 
more largely occasioned by general causes 
than most of those which the military sur- 
geon is called upon to treat. Let an army 
be fed upon improper or scanty rations, 
and an increase in the number of diarrhoea 
cases will soon follow. Place the troops 
on the march or in the trenches, and diar- 
rhoea will speedily make its appearance, and 
if the fatigue duties are burdensome and 
long continued, it wiU finally outrank all 
other diseases in the number of its victims. 
In a word, want — want of food, want of 
clothing, want of rest, want of spirits, every- 
thing which tends to break down the vital 
power of the soldier, is almost certain to 
occasion diarrhoea, and it is produced by' 
the same causes with equal certainty, if not 
equal severity, in all our armies, whether in 
Virginia, Carolina, or the States bordering 
on the Gulf. According to the report on 
sickness and mortality of the army during 
the first year of the war, "diarrhoea and 
dysentery caused about one-fourth of all 
the sickness reported. On the Atlantic 
border more than half the army suffered, 
and in the central region the number of 
oases almost equaled the mean strength." 

I believe the present tendency to diar- 
rhoea and dysentery among the troops in 
the Department of the South to be attribu- 
table, in no inconsiderable degree, to special 
causes, but to result from a combination of 



such general causes as have been observed 
to develop elsewhere a similar tendency. 
Perhaps the most efficient of these general 
causes has been the excessive duty which 
the character of the ^iege has exacted, an,d 
which, at times, has f ai|len heavily upon the 
whole army. Prom tl^e commencement of 
the Teche campaign untU the fall of Port 
Hudson, every new advance and every 
additional imposition of field duty fiUed 
our hospitals and our camps with nerveless, 
spiritless, exhausted men, sick with diar- 
rhoea. 

Another cause common to oxvc whole 
army is to be found in the unwholesonie 
and unsuitable ration issued by the Gov- 
ernment. This subject I have already al- 
luded to. 

But it may be asked, Why do these gen- 
eral causes, which must at times have op- 
erated with equal force iii other divisions of 
our army, occasion this very great preva- 
lence of diarrhoea among the troops before 
Charleston ? As may be inferred from pre- 
ceding remarks, I qiiestion whether the 
present prevalence of diarrhoea in the army 
of the South is unusual among troops 
whose general history has been the same. 
I believe diarrhcea to have prevailed in the 
army before Port Hudson in July last 
nearly, if not quite as extensively as it ever 
has on Morris Island. 

It would be interesting to compare the 
reports sent from the two armies to the 
Surgeon-General's office. 

Still, in whichsoever army this disease 
may have prevailed most extensively, spe- 
cial and local causes may have existed in 
both. 

The army before Charleston is subject to 
the effects of an insular and semi-tropical 
climate, the characteristic features of which 
are a hot sun and a humid atmosphere, 
moving in strong currents inland from the 
ocean. T'he days are hot, the nights cool 
and damp. Even during the day, although 
the direct and reflected heat of the sun may 
be most oppressive in the shade, the sea- 
breeze appears delightfully cool (ismd re- 
freshing. 

These differences of temperature of day 
and of night, in the sun and in the shade, 
cannot but unfavorably affect men who, 
engaged in laborious duties, are constantly 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



83 



exposed to them, and often -without the 
means of guarding against them. 

Again, it should be observed that the 
army landed before Charleston aad oon- 
■duoted its difficult and laiaorious siege op- 
erations at a season of the year generally 
regarded as most unfavorable to active 
campaigning. 

Fbvebs. — Fevers have occasioned some 
sickness and considerable mortality. 

The fever most frequently seen is that 
■called typhoid, or typho-malarial; the 
malarial features of the disease being 
marked, while the typhoid predominate. 
Well-marked cases of remittent and inter- 
mittent fever oocasiojially occur, but these 
■diseases can by no means be called preva- 
lent. Several regiments returned but a 
case or two, and one, the 40th Mass., re- 
ported not a case of either, and yet this 
regiment had over 37 per cent, of its pres- 
ent strength on the sick Ust. It is an in- 
teresting fact, that not a single case of per- 
nicious fever was reported to me as having 
occurred on Morris Island or onFoUy since 
the occupation by our forces in July last. 
There have been but few cases of this form 
of malarious fever reported during the past 
three months in the Department, and the^ 
have, for the most part, originated on Port 
Boyal Island. 

Diarrhoea, although prevailing exten- 
■sively, is neither a very severe nor a very 
fatal disease. It prevails rather in quarters 
than in hospitals. During the first year of 
the war, the mortality from diarrhoea varied 
in the several Departments from 0.9 to 9.6 
■deaths per thousand cases. Fevers, on the 
other hand, more generally send the patient 
to the hospital. While they constitute but 
a smaU. proportion of the whole number of 
cases, they exhibit a large per eentage 
among the sick in hospital, as weU as a 
large relative mortality. During the first 
year of the war the mortality from " camp 
fever" varied, in the several Departments, 
from 60.95 to 101.8 deaths per thousand 
cases. 

This relation is very well illustrated by 
the following abstract from the records of 
the General Hospital at Hilton Head, show- 
ing the number of cases and diseases ad- 
mitted into the General Hospital from July^ 
1st to Oct. 20th, 1863, together with the 



deaths occurring from each cause during 
the same period; 

July, 1863. Patients 

Diseases. Admitted. Died. 

Fevers 88 18 

Diarrhoea... 66 2 

Other Diseases 64 4 

Bowels 265 17 

Total 483 41 

August 

Fevers 70 7 

Diarrhoea 27 5 

Other Diseases 26 4 

Bowels 7 10 

Total 130 26 

SeptembeE. 

Fevers 41 4 

Diarrhoea 11 3 

Other Diseases 8 2 

Bowels 2 

Total 62 9 

October, 

Fevers 22 1 

Diarrhoea 15 7 

Other Diseases 19 1 

Bowels 2 

Not diagnosed -18 

Total 76 9 

Recapitulation. 

Fevers. 221 30 

Diarrhoea 119 17 

Other Diseases 117 11 

Bowels., 276 27 

Not diagnosed , 18 00 

Total 751 85 

The preceding table does not, however, 
fairly exhibit the relative prevalence of the 
diseases now under treatment in the gen- 
eral hospitals of Beaufort. On the 25th of 
October a very large proportion were cases 
of diarrhoea. The prevalence of diarrhoea 
has, however, only been remarkable since 
about the 1st of October, at which time a 
large number of convalescents were sent 
North, and the hospitals filled with subjects 
of chronic diarrhoea, who were gathered 
together from the different regimental hos- 
pitals. 

Scurvy. — ^I consulted the surgeons of 41 
regiments, including the surgeons of the 
3d B. I. and the 127th N. Y., with refer- 
ence to the existence of scurvy among the 
troops. Of these, six only reported one or 
more cases of scurvy then under treatment; 
eight others had seen one or more cases 
since landing before Charleston. Twenty- 



84 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



Beven surgeons had not seen a case in the re- 
giments to which they were attached. The 
only cases I saw were in the First North 
Carolina Regiment (colored. ) In this regi- 
ment there was probably more seorbutie 
disease than in all the rest of the command. 
The disease, however, originated in 
North Carolina, and had made it? appear- 
ance among the contrabands on Hatteras- 
Island, before they were enrolled as soldiers. 
The disease at present is almost entirely 
confined to the recruits from that island, 

The 11th Maine reported more cases of 
scurvy than any other white regiment. 
This regiment, just arrived on Morris Isl- 
and, had been stationed for a long time at 
Fernandina, where it appears to a con- 
siderable extent cut off from its supplies. 

Well-marJced cases of scurvy are extremely 
infrequent, and always Lave been. Indeed, 
the disease can hardly be said to exist at 
present; and, yet, there is a sub-seorbutic 
tendency, or cachexia, resulting from the 
use of improper, as well as insufficient ra- 
tions, which more or less modifies the type 
of all diseases. 

MoKTAiiTT. — ^I have not the data for es- 
timating the rates of mortality obtaining 
among our force at the time of my inspec- 
tion, or during any portion of the siege. 
The deaths reported to me in the tabular 
abstracts are probably much below the 
actual number occurring. This certainly is 
true of several regiments, and renders com- 
parative estimates impossible. 

CoNCLtJSiON. — From the facts brought to 
my knowledge, as well as from the obser- 
vations personally made while in the De- 
partment of the South, I am led to the fol- 
lowing conclusions: 

First. That the duties exacted of the 
army before Charleston, difficult and ex- 
hausting although they may have been, 
have not been heavier than those which at 
times have been required of oiir troops in 
other Departments. 

Second. That rations, clothingi medical 
stores and supplies of aU kinds, although 
QocasionaUy of an inferior quality and scan- 
tily issued, have yet been furnished to the 
troops, whether in caanp or in the fi-eld, as 
liberally as to any command under similar 
circumstances in any Department with 
which I am' a«quainted. 



Third. That no diseases either have pre- 
vailed or are now prevailing to an extent 
greater than has frequently been observed 
in our armies either during or subsequent 
to active campaigns; and that the prevail- 
ing diseases have originated to but a limit- 
ed degree in special or local causes. 

Fourth. That the hospitals, both general 
and regimental, are in a most creditable 
condition, and that our sick and wounded! 
soldiers are well cared for. 

Fifth. That the sanitary coadition of ther 
army has been slowly but steadily improv- 
ing for several weeks; the change. being 
not less marked in the reduced number of 
cases than in the milder forms which the 
prevailing diseapes have assumed. 

With supplies now more abundant as the 
requirements of the service grow less rigor- 
ous, as the unhealthy season has passed 
and the winter approaches, I have little rea- 
son to doubt but that the rates of sickness 
wiU continue to be reduced, until the sani- 
tary condition of the army of the South 
may become as satisfactory as usual. 

THE COMMISSION IN SOUTH 
CAROLINA. 

Heab-Quabtebs Thied Eeghtekt*' 
New Hampshire Volttnteeks, 
MoKEisIstAHD, S. C, Ott. 1, 1863, 
To the Sanitary Commission: 

It is with inexpressible, yet heartfelt thank- 
fulness, that we leak back upon the few weekas 
which have passed since our entering upon thi» 
island, and mark the bountiful and benevolent? 
labors of the Samitary Conmiission. 

In the midst of excessive labor, danger an3 
hardship, when, owing to unavoidable circum- 
atanoes always attending an active campaign, 
the wants of the troops' can at least be but im- 
perfectly supplied; just at this time of want, the- 
CcHnmission hailed us with open hands and a. 
liberal heart. The wants of our sick an* 
wounded were met, greatly to their comforts- 
while the entire regiment soon became iadebt- 
ed to the Commission for favors— in view of 
which, it is -wift great pleasure and unanimity 
that, as a regiment, we express to the Commis- 
sion the following, resolutions, our high appre- 
ciation of their work of benevolence, together 
with om- most sincere thanks for the many fa- 
vors received during the past: 



The Sanitary Commission B-uUetin. 



85 



as conducted in tMs Department, has our higb- 
«st respect and entire confidence. 

2. Resolved, That, as a regiment, we tender 
a unanimous vote of thanks to the Commission 
for its unprecedented wort of benevolence, and 
great amount of good already accomplished, 
and of which we are witnesses. 

J. HOMEK EDGEELY, 
2d Lieut and Aci'g Adft M N. H. Vohmteei-s. 

JAMES P. KANDLETT, 
Capt. 3d JV. S. Vols., Commanding Regiment 



THE COMMISSION AT CHATTA- 
NOOGA. 

As doubts have been expressed in some 
quarters touching the promptness with 
which the Sanitary Commission met the 
emergencies arising out of the battle of 
Chiokamauga, there cannot be a better way 
of removing them than the publication of 
the following testimonials: 

3d Division Hospttai, 
14th Aemt Coups, 
Chattauooga, Od. 26f/i, 1863. 

I have no hesitation in saying that the TJ. S. 
Sanitary Commission have done much towards 
relieving the suffering of the brave soldiers of 
the 3d Division of the 14th Army Corps. 

Immediately after the battle of Chiokamauga 
our men were thrown togeflier without the ne- 
cessary supplies to render them comfortable, 
and, as far as it was possible, the Sanitary Com- 
mission supplied their wants. 

What was done by them was done without 
any reference to iooahty; the wounded being 
cared for equally, whatever State they may have 
originally hailed from. The sick now in this 
Hospital have been kindly remembered by the 
Commission. Friends at home, speed on the 
good work so gloriously begun ! 

GEO. E. SLOAT, 
Burg. t» charge 3d Div. Hospital, lUh A. G, 

Hospitaij No. 3, 
Chattanooga, Oct 26lh, 1863. 

It is with feelings of the deepest gratitude 
and admiration that I recall to mind the dona- 
tions from the Sanitary Commission to this 
Hospital, immediately after its opening. 

After the battles of the 19th and 20th ult. out- 
side this city, the wounded were brought in in 
thousands, and this Hospital, in common with 
the rest, was filled to overflowing. Here was a 
state of affairs suddenly brought about, and to 
be immediately provided for — and here was the 
'Sanitary Commission— here the hour of need — 
here it was an oasis in a desert. Here we re- 



ceived from it dressings for our wounded men, 
wines, clothing, and several luxuries and neces- 
saries. Ko one who at this time witnessed the 
iimely and material aid of the TJ. S. Sanitary 
Commission but must say, "It is truly a heav- 
enly institution — may Heaven bless and pre- 
serve its supporters." 

PETER H. CLEAET, 
Surgeon U. 8. V., in charge. 



TJ. S. Genekal Hospital No. 2, 
Chattanooga, Oct. 26<A, 1863. 

It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge 
the great and substantial benefit the sick and 
wounded under my charge, since the late battle 
of Chiokamauga, have derived from the kind- 
ness and liberality of the TJ. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission at this place, undjt the charge of Mr. 
M. C. Read. Although their amount of sup- 
plies has necessarily been limited, owing to 
the great diflSculties in procuring transporta- 
tion, and the large number of wounded requir- 
ing assistance, yet the good results from what 
they have been able to. accomplish in supplying 
the wounded and sick with clothing, dressings, 
necessaries and delicacies, are almost incalcu- 
lable. A great deal of sufEering and destitution 
has been reUeved through their kindly minis- 
trations, that (under the circumstances) could 
not otherwise have been provided for. 

It is a glorious institution, and deserves the 
countenance and warm support of every Chris- 
tian and philanthropist 

FRANKLIN IRISH, 
Surgeon in charge General Hospital No. 2. 



Hospital No. 1, 1st Div. A. C, 
Chattanooga, Oct. 25th, 1863. 
It is with great pleasure that I avail myself of 
this opportunity to bear testimony to the great 
good aocomphshed by the TJ. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission. The benefits conferred upon the sick 
and wounded by this benevolent institution are 
far greater than our friends at home can imag- 
ine; and even laboring under the many difficul- 
ties by which they are surrounded, they still 
continue their good work. 

Friends of the soldier and the soldier himself 
should feel themselves as greatly benefited by 
this Commission; and I heartily recommend 
that all "friends of the soldier " co-operate with 
the Commission, and add their help to push on 
the good work. It is a certain medium through 
which the soldier receives many necessaries for 
his comfort, while sick or wounded. 

By order. E. H. DUNN, 

Surgeon in charge. 
Per Packaed, Clerk. 



86 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



Ftkt,t> Hosmtai,, R. C, 
Oct. 27ih, 1863. 
TT. 8. Commission, Chattanooga, Tenn.: 

In behalf of the sturgeons on duty in this hos- 
Ifttal, and of the sici and wounded, I take oc- 
casion to tender grateful aoknowledgmeats for 
the liberal contributions of sanitary stores 
which have upon various . occasions been fur- 
nished by the Commission to those sick and 
wounded not only at Chattanooga, but at other 
points in the sick of the Army of the Cumber- 
land. 

In view of the fact that we are cut off from 
railroad commxinication, and of the almost im- 
passable condition of the roads, we have been 
surprised that such liberal contributions could 
have been made. It is a fact, however, evinc- 
ing great energy on the part of the agents of 
the Commission, showing them to be living, 
feeling men, working at the right time and 
place, and thus have they been able to meet the 
wants of the sick and wounded. 
Very respectfully, 
JOSEPH G. McPHEETEKS, 
Smrgeon in charge Hospital B. C. 



Hospital No. 1, 
Chattanooga, Oct. 27th, 1863. 
I have had charge of Hospital No. 1 at this 
place since the late battle. Over a thousand of 
the wounded have been received and treated as 
well as our limited supply would allow. Ow- 
ing to the obstacles in the way of transporta- 
tion, the supplies of clothing, dressings, and 
suitable food was very inadequate, in conse- 
quence of which there were some that suffered. 
And I take special pleasure in stating that if it 
had not been for the timely donations of the 
Sanitary Commission, many more would have 
suffered. Their donations of delicacies, dress- 
ings, and clothing, were of incalculable benefit 
to our wounded. There was not enough on 
hand for the men to have a change; hence the 
supply of shirts furnished by the Commission 
was a gift that was much needed and deeply 
appreciated. The good deeds of the Sanitary 
Commission will be long remembered by the 
suffering wounded of this hospital, and will 
ever be appreciated by 

J. Y. FINLET, 
Surgeon 2d Ky. Cavalry, in charge. 



OrncEKs' HospiTAii, 
Chattanoooa, Oct. 2&ik, 1863. 
In the midst of the confusion and suffering 
immediately after the battle of Chickamauga, 



the Sanitary Commission came nobly to the 
rescue; nourished the wounded and famished 
soldier, pillowed his weary head, and by their 
timely aid saved many valuable lives. 

C. C. BYENE, 
AssistanC Surgeon XT. 8. Army, in charge. 

We commented in the second number of 
the BuiiLBTiN upon the difficulties -we had 
to contend with in the West in obtainipg 
transport, and' the almost as great and far 
more provoking difficulties arising out of 
the bad character of the teamsters, and the 
lamentable want of proper control over 
them on the part of the military authorities. 
The following letter wiU help to show the 
energetic nature of the measures taken by 
our Special Belief Agent at Chattanooga, 
Mr. Bead, to meet these difficulties: 

Chattanooga, Oef. 20th, 1863. 
F. E. Cbast, Esq., Stevenson: 

I telegraphed you last night in regard to our 
train, and write this morning more particularly. 

I have just seen Col. Hodges, who says you 
will need no further orders to secure the 20 
wagons sis soon as you are ready to load them, 
and can have them permanently until further 
specific orders; thai the Sanitary train can be 
attached to any train coming through, and that 
if there should be any difficulty in that respect, 
telegraph from Stevenson. 

An order was sent to Nashville last night, 
directing two (2) car-loads of Sanitary stores to 
be forwarded at once, and after that, all that 
could be, and never less than half a ear-load 
per day, that will keep us moving. For fear 
my letters may not have reached you, I would 
repeat my previous suggestions, that the whole 
twenty wagons be loaded at once with edibles, 
ten with vegetables if you have them, or with 
the amount of ten wagons, making each load as 
near 1,200 lbs. as you can,never over 1,400. This 
may be arranged by mixing the leading dried 
fruits and vegetables in the same wagon, adding 
to the vegetables and dried fruit all the butter, 
ale, stimulants, farinaceous delicacies, codfish, 
oysters, milk, beef, &c., &c., you can, taking 
an inventory 'of the contents of each wagon, its 
number, and the name of the driver; if you 
have them, give each driver a few vegetables. 
Secure, if you can, soldiers or enlisted men as 
drivers, not citizens, and tell Pocook, if neces- 
sary, to shoot the first man caught stealing. 

It is essential that he accompany the train 
through, never leaving it tiU it reaches our rorms. 
WheiLhe eets this side the mountains, let him 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



87 



send a message by the couriers who will be 
passing him, stating where he is, and when he 
will probably be in. Telegraph when the train 
starts, and keep them stirred up at the North, 
so that there shall never be a want of stores to 
load the train. 

If surgeons make requisitions from here, ei- 
ther in hospitals or with regiments, furnish 
them with clothing and hospital dressings as 
liberally as you can. 

***** • 

Dr. Newberry writes on the same sub- 
ject: 

We liad the entire and hearty co-operation of 
the military and medical authorities, and yet 
were, of course, compelled to share with them 
the ine-ritable necessities by which they were 
controlled. More than our share of transporta- 
tion was granted at once, and when our first 
train of seventeen loaded wagons were included 
in the destruction of the three hundred loaded 
with Grovermnent stores, another train of twenty 
wagons was ordered for us, and from that time 
to the opening of the river we fully shared all 
the resources of the military and medical au- 
thorities. On the first trip of the steamboat, by 
the authority of Gen. Meigs himself, who was 
there, we were allowed to make up a liberal 
share of its load, and from that time to this, by 
special and comprehensive orders, we have 
been furnished with a regular allotment of 
transportation of a car-load a day from Nash- 
ville to Chattanooga. From here we forwarded 
aU and more than could by any possibilUy reach the 
scene of suffering. In addition to the very lib- 
eral stock held in reserve at Nashville and be- 
low previous to the battle, we have since for- 
warded there over 5,000 packages. 



THE SANITARY COMMISSION AND 
THE CHRISTIAN COMMISSION. 
We have taken from the outset all pos- 
sible pains to prevent any misapprehension 
as to the relations existing between our- 
selves and the Christian Commission. 
What these relations are and ought to be, 
is clearly pointed out in the following- 
letter of instructions to our Inspectors, is- 
sued last December: 

Centeai Oeeice, Sanitakt Commission, 
Washington, Sec. 16Ui, 1862. 
To each Iru^peclor of the Sanitary (hmmission: 

The Christian Commission isabody designed 
to supplement and assist the chaplain service of 



the Army and Navy, as the Sanitary Commis- 
sion does the medical service. Its accredited 
agents in the field are termed "Delegates of 
the Christian Commission;" they distribute 
books and tracts, and also give spiritual coun- 
sel verbally. The Secretary of the Christian 
Commission has expressed the wish that their 
attention should not be distracted from this, 
their ordinary duty, by undertaking personally 
the distribution of supplies. It is not consid- 
ered best that they should attempt to perform 
their ordinary duty, however, during the tu- 
mult resulting from battles, and it is desired 
that they should be employed in giving such 
assistance as they can in the measures taken 
for the saving of life and mitigation of the suf- 
fering of the wounded on these occasions. It 
is proposed that they should, for this purpose, 
act at such times under the advice of the Medi- 
cal Of&cers of the Commission. 

You are therefore instructed, whenever the 
delegates of the Christian Commission offer to 
give you their aid for battle-field relief opera- 
tions, or in other emergencies, to accept it 
gratefully; and, for the time being, you wiU deal 
with them, as far as possible, in the same man- 
ner as you would if each individual had been 
sent to you for special battie-field duty by ofl- 
cers of the Commission. 

You are also instructed at all times to give 
special attention to the representations of the 
accredited agents of the Christian Commission 
with regard to the wants of the hospitals, and 
will meet those wants to the extent of the means 
at your control as far as possible, oonsistentiy 
with a just prospective regard for the wants of 
others. 

FEED. LAW OLMSTED, 

General Secretary. 

We know of nothing calculated to create 
an impression that the course here traced 
out has since been departed from either by 
the agents of the Christian Commission or 
by our own; nor do we know of anything 
that ought to lead anybody to suppose that 
'two such organizations cannot work usefully 
side by side; more usefully, in fact, side by 
side than singly or apart. It is not always 
necessary, however, that false impressions 
should have foundation in fact in order to 
obtain currency. We heard the other day 
that the salaries paid to the agents of the 
Sanitary Commission in California alone 
amounted to $40,000 annually; the fact 
being that we have never had an agent in 
California, and consequently no salaries 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



863.) 



have ever been drawn, though we have 
received immense donations from that State 
with little or no solicitation. Reports 
equally baseless axe frequently put in eir- 
eulation as to a conflict of interests and of 
aims between us and the Christian Com- 
mission, and we shall probably be compelled 
to recur to the subject occasionally for the 
purpose of correcting them. 

The following letter shows the nature of 
the feeling existing between the two bodies 
in the West: 

U. S. Christian Commession, 
Bbanch Offige, 
Nashvtt.t.t;, Jvly 23, 1863, 
De. J. S. Newbeket, 

Sec'y West'n Dep't XT. S. Saniian/ Gomndsskm, 
Zcuismlle: 

My Beab Sm — I desire, on behalf of the 
Christian Commission, to render grateful ac- 
knowledgment for the imiform, generous and 
cordial co-operation of yourself and the agents 
of your Commission in our wort of bringing 
spiritual comforts and blessings to the soldiers. 
But for your assistance at the first, and its 
continuance aU along, our work would have 
been greatly impeded in the ai-my of the Cum- 
berland. 

Also in my recent trip to Vicksburg, in the 
service of the Christian Commission, I was at all 
points kindly received and materially aided by 
the Sanitary Commission. My own feelings — 
that the work of both Commissions, though 
wrought in different departments, should be 
entirely co-operative — were fully reciprocated 
by your agents at Cairo, Memphis, and on the 
Barge on Yazoo Kiver. 

My observations of your work on that Barge 
were very pleasant. I saw stores dispensed to 
needy apphcants most freely, and in surprising 
quantity and variety; and when I got back to 
the Bluffs, where the sick and wounded were 
coming into the division hospitals, I found bed- 
ding with your mark, dried and canned fruit, 
and lemons and chickens, which could have 
been furnished from no other source. I knew / 
^at, without the timely help of the Sanitary 
Commission, there would have been destitution, 
and consequent suffering, in many of those hos- 
pitals. 

I want to bear testimony to the noble Chris- 
tian philanthropy of the men in charge of your 
Commission in that department. I am persuaded 
they could not do that work from unworthy 
motives. Money could not procure such services 
as you are receiving, for instance, from Dr. 
Warriner at Vicksburg. 



Every week's experience in my army work, 
bringing me among the camps and through the 
hospitals, and giving an opportunity, which I 
always improve, to look in at the different quar- 
ters of your Commission, leads me to a contin- 
ually higher estimate of the work you have on 
hand. I am satisfied that your system of dis- 
tributing hospital supplies is the correct one. 
Such large contributions as the people are mak- 
ing cannot be handed over to the army on any 
volunteer system, unless it be for a few days 
amid the emergencies of a severe battle. A 
business involving such expenditure would be 
intrusted by a business man only to permanent 
and responsible agents. 

That among all your employfe there should 
be no unworthy man, is more than a reasonable 
mind can ask. The Christian Commission and 
the Christian Church would go down under that 
test. 

Let me close this letter of thanks, my dear 
brother, with my daily prayer — a prayer which 
I learned in your Soldiers' Home in Louisville, 
and have often repeated since in the Soldiers' 
E,est at Memphis, on the Barge in Tazoo River, 
in the division hospitals under the guns of 
Vicksburg, in the Nashville Home and Store- 
room, and in the camps and hospitals at Mur- 
freesboro' ; a prayer fresh on my lips, as I have 
just come from seeing wounded and typhoid 
patients at Tullahoma and Winqhester lifted 
from rough blankets and undressed from the 
soiled clothes of march and battle, and laid in 
your clean sheets and shirts upon your comfort- 
able quilts and pilows— a prayer in which every 
Christian heart in the land wiU yet join — God 
bless the Sanitary Commission. 
Most cordially yours, 

EDW. P. SMITH, 
Field Agent, U. S. Christian Commissum. 

A stm fuller explanation of the relations 
of the two bodies is afforded by the follow- 
ing letter: 

U. S. Santtabt Commission, ) 
823 Bboadwat, [ 
New Yokk, November 19th, 1863. ) 
Eev. Db. Hawes: 

'Rev. and Deae Sir— A mutual acquaintance 
having informed me that you had made inquiry 
as to the relations existing between the U. S. 
Sanitary Commission and its colleague and co- 
worker, the U. S. Christian Commission, and as 
to the different modes of work of the two bodies, 
I venture to make to you the following state- 
ments: 

I speak first of the Sanitary Commission. Its 
functions are two-fold. First, in the discharge 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



89 



of the duty imposed by its charter from the 
' President of the United States, of inquiry and 
advice in respect to the sanitary interests of the 
United States forces, it, as the ground of its 
efforts to prevent disease in the army, inspects 
the condition of camps, barracks, transports, 
and hospitals, and makes report of deficiencies 
which are remediable to medical and military 
officers, and to Heads of the Governmental ad- 
ministration, when necessary. Being by its 
charter placed on a confidential footing with the 
official bureaux of the Government, it has thus 
been enabled to secure considerable reforms 
affecting the health and efficiency of the National 
Army. It also prints and circulates in the 
army, in large numbers, treatises, prepared for 
it by eminent medical men, on the chief sources 
of sickness in armies, and the means of avoiding 
and treating them. In these and in many other 
ways the Commission does much to prevent 
disease in the army — a better service than 
relieving it. Secondly — recognizing the fact 
that the most liberal and thoughtful Govern- 
ment must, in time of war, by the checks re- 
stricting its issues for the comfort of its troops 
— checks rendered necessary to prevent fraud 
and secure aocountability — still, whatever its 
liberality and prevision, leave unrelieved much 
suffering — it seeks to be the minister of the 
people's bounty to those who are the victims of 
this exceptional working of the Governmental 
machinery. It also aims to relieve, wherever 
. it can, the unavoidable suffering attendant on 
battles and the rapid movements of armies; 
(e. jr., at the sudden evacuation of the line from 
Falmouth to Aquia Creek, iij June, the Com- 
mission's agents at the latter place were called 
upon, within two or three days, to feed and 
otherwise comfort 8,000 sick in transit to the 
hospitals at Washington.) 

It also gathers into temporary "Homes" and 
" Lodges" the estrays of the army, discharged 
men, soldiers on furlough with defective papers 
which obstruct their movements, and affords 
to each the aid his necessity requires, taking 
good care that it harbors no deserters, or only 
for the purpose of returning them to service. 

These ends it accomplishes through the bounty 
of the public, wherever the National Armies go 
or the nation's sick are gathered. 
• It exercised its functions to-day in Kansas, 
in Arkansas, at Chattanooga, all along the Mis- 
sissippi, from Cairo to New Orleans, on the 
Eio Grande, amid the baleful swamps of Lou- 
isiana, in the trenches before Charleston, in 
Florida and North Carolina, on the peninsula 
of Virginia, on the margin of the Kapidan, witfti 



our recently starved and prison-marked, now 
paroled and dying brothers at Annapolis, and 
on the flag-of-truce boats, where first they 
realize the value of a friend in need — on every 
battle-field and in every hospital claiming its 
succor. It seeks not only to comfort the 
individual, but, by its union of preventive and 
alleviative efforts, it effects the invigoration of 
the national arm, and adds to the national 
strength. 

In its ministrations it knows no State lines, 
and recognizes in the national uniform only the 
soldier of the nation. 

It has thus far effected the objects above 
mentioned through an organization constantly 
improved by experience; and now, in the latter 
half of its third year, points to a great army of 
witnesses to its beneficence in proof that it has 
earned and justified the public confidence so 
generously granted to it. In the future, as in 
the past, it must depend for its power for use- 
fulness on the free-will contributions of money 
to its treasury, and of supplies of hospital food 
and clothing to its storehouse. 

Such is an imperfect sketch of the objects and 
methods of the U. S. Sanitary Commission. 

The U. S. Christian Commission is under- 
stood to be "a body designed to supplement 
the chaplain service of the Army and Navy, as 
the Sanitary Commission does the medical 
service." It brings to our troops in camp 
and hospital, in the persons of its Delegates, 
spiritual counsel and consolation, and seeks to 
promote in the army the religious life which 
struggles there against such fearful odds. Yet, 
in ministering to the soul, it does not despise 
its tabernacle, but accompanies its visits, and 
its gifts of religious books and papers, with the 
bestowal of food and raiment for the suffering 
body. 

This, however, is u, duty subsidiary to the 
prime one of religious ministration, and more 
than one officer of the Christian Commission 
has expressed his anxiety lest it should distract 
the mind of their delegates from their ordinary 
duties. It must be evident, however, that to 
some extent it all the better prepares the way 
for the cordial reception of their offices. 

It may thus be seen that, while each of the 
bodies above mentioned engages, to some de- 
gree, in the work especially characteristic of 
the other, (for the Sanitary Commission .dis- 
tributes annually tons of religious and miscel- 
laneous reading matter, and the army chaplains, 
of whatever denomination, will tell you that 
they have found it no languid auxiliary to their 
work, ) yet that it has, by virtue of its animating 



90 



The Sanitary Commission BuUetin. 



principle, an essentially distinct work. The 
■work of neither can be left tmdone. It cannot 
be given to another. Need we doubt that the 
Inspirer of all good thoughts and deeds has, by 
the ordering of His providence, allotted to each 
its proper work? Far be the thought that 
either would desire aught but blessing for the 
other ! 

And practically I do not find in the army any 
conflict in our respective spheres. There is 
more than enough for us all to do, each in his 
allotted place. Both in the armies on the 
coast and in the Mississippi Valley, the repre- 
sentatives of each have been in the habit of 
exchanging offices of courtesy, and maintain 
cordial personal relations. It is chiefly, I sus- 
pect, in the home field that there now and then 
appears to be a seeming rivalry. Until the 
millennium dawns we shall all, I doubt not, have 
more or less of partisan feeling enlisted for our 
especial work, magnifying its claims, and de- 
manding that they shall engross public atten- 
tion. The susceptibilities of our friends take 
alarm lest we hold not our proper rank in the 
public esteem, and hence what may be an 
honorable jealousy for our respective projects. 

I cannot believe that the governing boards of 
either the Sanitary or Christian Commission 
have any such unbecoming fear. The loyal 
public which supports the National Govern- 
ment will not neglect either while it discharges 
its work vrith zealj economy, and discretion. 
It will give to each its alms and its prayers, and 
stay not any effort to hasten the time when the 
need for each shall be done away. 

I send to you herewith, in support of what I 
have written,, and illustrative of the work of 
the Sanitary Commission, a collection of docu- 
ments, among which I would especially call 
your attention to the letter of instructions to the 
Inspectors of the Sanitary Commission, written 
in 1862, by Fred. Law Olmsted, Esq., General 
Secretary; and to the letter of Eev. Edw. P. 
Smith, Field Agent of the U. S. Christian Com- 
mission in the West. (BanUary Reporter, Aug. 
15, 1863, p. 54.) Mr. Olmsted's letter was writ- 
ten after a very cordial and mutually satisfac- 
(bry interchange of opinion between prominent 
ofSxiers of the two Commissions, and as the 
partial expression of a compact made between 
them as to their respective labors. 

The IT. S. Sanitary Commission considers the 
obligations it assumed as still binding, and so, 
from time to time, instructs those serving it. 

I could wish that what I have written might 
move you, and perchance others, to a still more 
systematic support of both of these organized 
expressions of the Christian philanthropy of our 



people; and in the hope that it can in no way 
diminish the wide-spread sympathy for either, 
I am, Eev. Sir, with high regard, 
KespectfuUy yours, 

J. FOSTER JENKINS, 
General Secretary. 



PROTECTIVE 

OF THE 

STATE OF NEW YOBK. 



OFFICE, 35 CHAMBERS STREET, 



President. 
Libtjt.-Gen. WINPIELD SCOTT. 

Vice-Presidents . 

Hon. HAMILTON FISH. 
JOHN J. CISCO, Esq. 
ADMIEAL DUPONT. 
BUDOLPH A. WITTHAUS, Esq. 

Treasurer. 
KOBT. B. MINTUBN, Esq. 

Directors. 

Hon. E. D. morgan. 

" GEORGE OPDYKE. 

" HIRAM BARNEY. 

" JAS. W. BEEKMAN. 

Eev. H. W. BELLOWS, D.D. 

Ma. JOHN JACOB ASTOE. 

" JAMES BEOWN. 

" WM. H. ASPINWALL. 

" JAS. GALLATIN. 

" HOWARD POTTER. 

" WM. E. DODGE, Jb. 

" THEODORE EOOSEYELT. 

" PETEE COOPER. 

" GEORGE BANCROFT. 

" DANIEL LORD. 

" WILSON G. HUNT. 

" EOBT. L. STUAET. 

« ALFRED PELL. 

Apply in person or by letter, to 
HENBY GEEENEIELD, Seo'y, 
35 Chambbbs Stebbt, 
New York. 



OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Isi. To secure the soldiers and sailors and 
their families, any claims for pensions, pay, 
or bo icnii/, etc. , without cost to the, claimant. 

2d. To protect soldiers or sailors andtheir 
families from imposture and fraud. 

3d. To prevent false claims from being 
made against the Government. 

4th. To give gratuitous advice and infor- 
mation to soldiers and sailors or their fami- 
lies needing it. 



The Sanitary Commission BvMetin. 



91 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 

Was constituted by the Secretary of War in 
June, 1861, in accordance wiih the recommen- 
dation of the Surgeon-General of the U. S. 
Army, and its appointment and plan of organi- 
zation, were approved by the President of the 
United States. Its present organization is as 
follows: 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., New York. 

A. D. Baohe, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

P. L. Olmsted. 

George T. Strong, Esq., New York. 

Elisha Harris, M.X)., New York. 

W. H. Van Buren, M.D., New York. 

G. W. Cullom, U. S. A. 

A. E. Shiras, U. S. A. 

B. C. Wood, Assistant Surg.-Gen'l V. S. A. 
Woloott Gibbs, M.D., New York. 

S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 

C. K. Agnew, M.D., New York. 

J. S. Newberry, M.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Bt. Rev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, E. I. 
Hon. B,. W. Burnett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, 111. 
Hon. Joseph Holt, Washington, D. C. 
Horace Binney, Jr., Philadelphia, Fenn. 
Eev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 
J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. Fairman Bogers, Philadelphia, Penn. 
officers: 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., President. 

A. D. Baohe, LL.D., Tice-President. 

George T. Strong, Treasurer. 

J. Foster Jenkins, M.D., General Secretary. 

J. S. Newberry, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

J. H. Douglas, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

F. N. Knapp, Associate Secretary. 



HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrange- 
ments for supplying information gratuitously, 
with regard to patients in all the United States 
General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the 
Hospitals in Eastern Virginia, Maryland, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Florida and Louisiana, address "Office of 
Sanitary Commission,' Washington, D. C. " 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address 
"Office of Sanitary Commission, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. " 

For the Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, 
and the New England States, address "Office 
Women's Central Union, No. 10 Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York." 

For the Hespitals in Western Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas, address 
"Office Sanitai-y Commission, Louisville, Ky." 

In all- cases the name, rank, company, and 
regiment of the person inquired for should be 
given, and where he was when last heard from. 
K the application is by letter, the 'answer will 
be sent by return of mail; if in person, it ■will 
be answered at once ; or if by telegraph, an an- 
swer will be returned immediately at the in- 
quirer's expense. 

_^^~ Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen; ed- 
itors, and others, can scarcely serve the cause 
of humanity more efi'ectually than by frequently 
and widely disseminating a knowledge of the 
above, among those who have friends in the army. 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Commission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive system of agencies for securing, the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in its charge for the sick and wounded at points 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points— at New Or- 
leans and at Washington, before Charleston and at 
Chattanooga— its. distributions being governed by a 
comparison of the wants of the patients in all oases. 
The following is a Ust of depots, to which auxiliary 
societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to States or looahties, 
but simply to their relative necessity for assist- 
ance, are mvited to send their offerings: 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Sanitary CommisBion, Branch Depot, No. 46 
South Sharp Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, comer Vine 
and Sixth Streets, Cincinnati, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 95 
Bank Street, Cleveland, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, Chicago, Ml. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 59 4th 
Street, Pittsburg, Penn. 

Samtary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 32 Lar- 
ned Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ofeio. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
Louisville, Ky. 

The Commission receives no pecuniary aid what- 
ever from the Government, and is wholly depend- 
ent on the voluntary contributions of the pubuc for 
the means of sustaming its operations. Contribu- 
tions to the Treasiu'y are solicited, and may be 
transmitted to George T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 
68 WaU Street, N. Y. 



RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 

General Supenntendent, Bev. F. K. Knapp, WasMng- 
ton, D. C. Chief Assistant, J. B". Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltimoi^e Bailroad Depot, Wash* 
ington, D. C. 

Lodge No. 4, H Street, between 13tli and 14th Streets. 

liOdge No. 5, Mainland Avenue, near Ballroad Station. 

Nurses' Home, Washington, T>, C. 

Soldiers' Home, Third Street, east of Broadway, Oin- 
cinnati, Ohio— Col. G. W. D. Andrews, Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cairo, HI. — C. N. Shipman, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers* Home, Louisville, Ky, — James Malona, Sup't. 
James Morton, Special Behef Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, NashviUe, Tenn. — ^L. Ci'ane, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Ohio , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cleveland, Ohio— Clark Warren, Sup't 
and Behef Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn.-^O.W. 
Christy, Sup't and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, Vicksburg, Miss. — T. Way, Sup't. 

AGENCY FOB PENSIONS. 

William. F. Bascom, Pension Agent, Washington, J>. C, 

HOSPITAL CABS. 

Between Washington and New York — Sol. Andrews, 
M. D., Surgeon in charge. 

Between Louisville and Murfreesboro'— Dr. J. P. Bar- 
num, Surgeon in charge. 

SANITABY STEAMEItS. 

Mississippi River— Clara Bell; Cumberland Elver — 
NewDunleith; Potomac Biver— Elizabeth. 



92 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



STEINWAY & SONS' 



GRAND, SQUARE AND UPRIGHT 












are now acknowledged the best instruments in • America, as well as in Europe, having 
taken 



Twenty-Six First Premiums, Gold and Silver Medals, 

lirs held in this country within the- last seven year; 
awarded a 

FIRST PRIZE MEDAL 



at the Principal Fairs held in this country within the- last seven years; and in addition 
thereto, they were awarded a 



AT THE 



%imi Iittriititial Eihiliti#i 

IN LONDON, 1862, 

POE 

Powerfnl, Clear, Brilliant and Sympathetic Tone, 

WITH EXCELLENCE OF WOEKMANSHIP AS SHOWN IN GRAND AND SQUAEB 

:]F» X ^fik 3CV O SI « 

There were 269 Pianos, from all parts of the world, entered for competition, and the 
special correspondent of the Times says: 

" Messrs. Steinways' endorsement by the Jurors is emphatic, and stronger, and more 
to the point, than that of any European maker. 

" This greatest triumph of American Pianofortes in England has caused a sensation in 
musical circles throughout the continent, and as a result the Messrs. SrEiNWAYare in con- 
stant receipt of orders from Europe, thus inaugurating a new phase in the history of 
American Pianofortes, by creating in them an article of export." 

Every Pianoforte Warranted for Five Years. 

"W^arerooras at present, 
Nos. 82 & 84 WALKER STREET. 

-A^fter Febriaary 1st, 1864, 

At 71 & 73 East 14th Street, 

A few doors Bast of Union Square, 



The Sanitary , Commission BuUetin. 



93 



OSBORN'S 

PREPARED 





Warranted Superior to any in the Market. 

ftim Bi Ctits fm Pwila 

Prepared and put up only by 

LEWIS A. OSBORN, 

69 "Warren Street, 

NEW YOKK. 

RECENT lySILITARY WORKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

D. VAN KOSTRAKD, 192 BROADWAY, New York. 



CAVALET— ITS HISTOEY, MAlTAGSMENT, ANB 
USES IN WAK. By J. EoeMEK, LL. D., late all Officer 
of Cavalry in the service of the Netherlands. Elegantly 
Illustrated with one hundred and twenty-seven fine wood 
engravings. In one large octavo "volume, beautifully 
printed on tinted paper. Prfce, $6, 

BEPOBT OF THE ENGINEER . AND AJRTILLERY 
OPERATIONS of the Army of the tatorhac, -from its 
Organization to the close of the PeilmBUlar Campaign. 
By Brig.-GeneraJs^BAKHABD and Bai^y. Illustrated by 
maps, plans'/ e1i6. Octavo, $3.60. 

HISTORY GW WEST POINT. With the Origin and 
Progress of the United States Military Academy. By 
EDWAjtD 0. BoTMTON', A. M., Adjutant of the Military 
Academy. Witii numerous maps and fine wood-cut illus' 
trations. In 1 vol., octavo, $5. ^ ' . I 

NOLAN'S SYSTEM FOR TRAINING CAVALRY HOR- 
SES. By Kenner GareaAU, Captain Fifth CaVairy, U. S. 
A. Ivoi., 12mo, twenty-four lithographed plates. $1.50. 

HINTS TO COMPANY OFFICERS. By Capt. C. 0. 
Antiiiews, 3d Regiment Minnesota Vols. 18mo, cloth, 60 
cents. ... 

HINTS ON THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH IN 
ABMIES. For the use of Volunteer Officers and Sol- 
diers. By John Okdhonaux, M. D. New edition, 18mo, 
cloth. 50 cents. 



MANUAL OF INSTEtJCTlONS FOR MILITARY StJE- 

GEONS, in the Examination of Recruits and Discharge 
of Soldiers. With an Appendix containing the Official 
Regulations of the Provost Marshal General's Bureau, 
atid those for the formation of the Invalid Corps, &c., 
&-c. Prepared at the request of the United States Sani- 
taiy Commission. By John OKOEONArx, M. D., Profes- 
sor of Medical Jurisprudence in Columbia College, New 
York. 13mo, half morocco. $1.60. 

MAKTT.iL FOR QUARTERMASTERS AND COMMIS- 
SABDi-b. Containing Instructions in the Preparation of 
Vouchers, Abstracts, Returhs, &Ci, embracing all the 
recent changes in the Army Regulations, together with 
instructions respecting Taxation of Salaries, etc. By 
Captain R« F. HubtSb, late of the U. S. Army. 12mOf 
cloth. $1.' 

THE WAR IN THE UNITED STATES. A Report to 
the Swiss Military Department. Preceded by a Dis- 
course to the Federal Military Society assembled at 
Berne.August 18, 1882. By Ferdinand I^comte, lieut.- 
Col. Swiss Confederation. Author of "Relation Histo- 
rique et Critique de la Campagne d'ltalie en 1869," 
"L'ltalie en I860,*' and "Le Gincral Jomini, saVie, et 
see Ecrits,'' etc., etc. Translated from the lE^'ench by a 
Staff Officer. 1 vol., 12mo. $1. 



^r A large stock of English, French, and Amemcan Mtlitaiit, Naval, and Scientific "Woeks 
fiOTntTnjliMy^^^rftoMBMMHiWW '^^^^'■° sent free by mail, on receipt of catalogue price* 



94 The Sanitary Commission BvEetin. 

im NEW AlHERICAllf CYClOPiEWA. 



D. APPLETON & CO., 

PUBLISH THE NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPJIDIA, 
A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge, 

Edited by G-EORG-E RIPLEY and CHARLES A. DANA. 

Aided by a numerous Select Corps of writers, in all Branches of Science, Art, and Literature, 

In 16 LARGE VOLUMES, 8vo, 750 double-oolumn Pages in each Volume. 

Among the large Ijist of Contributors who have furnished Articles, embracing several 
hundred names, we append the following : 



Hon. George Bancroft, New York. 

Hon. Edward Everett, LL. D., Boston. 

George Ticknor, LL. D., Boston. 

William Gilmore Simms, LL. D., Charleston, S. C. 

Prof. TheopMlus Parsons, LL. D., Harvard nniversity. 

Hon. E. G. Squier, New York. 

John Esten Cooke, Esq., Richmond, Va. 

John W. Draper, M. D., New York. 

W. H. Draper, M. D., New York. 

Balph Waldo Emerson, Esq., Boston. 

Prot Jas. D. Dana, LL. D., Yale College. 

C. C. Feltoa, LL. D. 

Charles L. Flint, Esq. 

M^or-G«neral William B, Franklin, U. S. A. 

John W. Francis, M. D. i 

Prof. Josiah W. Gibbs, LL. D., New Haven. 

Prof. Henry Goadby, M. D., Michigan Universify. 

Prof. Charles C. Haokley, D. D., Providence. 

lUchard Hildreth, Esq., U. S. Consul to Trieste. 

J. C. G. Kennedy, Esq., Washington, D. C. 

WUliam C. Prime, Esq., New York. 

Hon. William H. Seward, Washington. 



Prof. B. Silllman, Jr., New Haven. 

CoL T. B. Thorpe, New Orleans. 

Henry T. Tuckerman, Esq., New York. 

Richard Grant White, New York. 

Prof. E. L. Youmans, New York. 

Rev. J. W. Cummings, D. D. 

Chas. King, LL. D., President of Columbia College. 

Prof. A. D. Bache, Sup't U. S. Coast Survey, Wash. 

Edward Brown-Sequard, M. D., London. 

Prof. James RusseU Lowell, Cambridge. 

George Schedel, Esq. 

Prof Alexander J. Schem. 

Hon. Francis Schroeder, Astor Library. 

Prof. Henry B. Smith, D. D., New York. 

Rev. William B. Sprague, D. D., Albany. 

Hon. Wm. Kent. 

Hon. George S. HTUard, Boston. 

Heniy William Herbert, Esq., (Frank Forrester.) 

Rev. Samuel Osgood, B. D. 

Rov. Henry N. Hudson, Litchfield, Conn. 

Rev. Henry W. Bellows, D. D. 

Rev. Thomas O. Summers, Nashville. 



R-om Harper's MoniUy. 
"We consider that we are fully warranted in saying that, for all the practical purposes for 
which such a work is designed, the New Ameeican 0T0L0P.SDLi is, beyond all comparison the best 
in our language." ' 

From the New York Timfs. 
"It is a work written by Americans for Americans. It proffers them the knowledge thev 
most require, selected and arranged by those who are competent to the task, because they them- 
selves had experienced the want they now endeavor to supply." 

From the Boston TraveUer. 
" The New Ameeican Cyolop2edia is, indeed, a publication that speaks highly JFor the enter- 
prise, the skill and the learning of the men who planned it, and who have carried it through to 
completion in less than six years, in a manner which deserves much praise." 

From the Atlantic Monthly. 
"The promises of the editors on the score of impartiality have been weU kept" 

PRICE OF THE WORK. 

In Extra Cloth, per vol $3 SO 

In Library Leather, per vol '.'.'.".".*.".... 4 00 

In half Turkey Morocco, black, per vol ..'. . [ '. \ ....'.'..'. 4 50 

In Half Eussia, extra gilt, per vol. ...'....'.' 5 00 

In Full Morocco, antique, gilt edges, per vol ."......'." i [] | 6 00 

In Full Kussia ". 6 00 

The price of the work will, for the present, remain as above, but if there shall be anv ereat 
advance in paper and matenal the price must be increased. To prevent disappointment, orders 
should be at once forwarded to the publishers or to the agents of the work in different parts of th« 
oountry. 



The Sanitary Commission SuUetin. 



95 



Christmas and New Years Presents. 

THE LATEST AND NEWEST BOOKS. 

CARLETO]Sr, Piablislier, :^;rE\\r YORK, 

HAS READY THIS WEEK: 



I.— EENAN'S LIFE OF JESUS. 

A translation of M. Ernest Eenan's re- 
markable work, just issued in Paris, wliere 
the exoitemet and sensation is so great con- 
cerning its subject and author that already 
thousands of copies of the costly French 
edition have been sold. It is characterized 
by the Christian KmeS* as "Man's ablest 
effort." One handsome 12mo, tinted pa- 
per, cloth bound, price $1 50. 

n.— LOUIE'S LAST TEEM. 
A Christmas book by the popular author 
of "Eutledge," "The Sutherlands," and 
" Frank WarringtQU." 12mo, cloth bound, 
price ftl 25. *^t* This charming work was 
published anonymously a few years since, 
but is now re-published uniform with the 
author's other works. One of our best lit- 
erary women says: " Of all the pure, warm, 
beautiful, human books that I have read 
for years, ' Louie ' shall take the palm. 
The sweet, dewy, beneficent book! my eyes 
have streamed tears over it." 

m.— PECULIAE. 
Epes Sargent's new Novel, concerning 
which there has been more talk and specu- 
lation, -perhaps, than about any other book 
issued for years. The thrilling and extra- 
ordinary facts with which the author has 
become acquainted have been thrown into 
a plot and story so startUngly bold, and yet 
so truthful, so tender, and so gentle, that 
every reader who begins it must be fascin- 
ated with its unflagging interest. One 
handsome 12mo, cloth bound, price $1 50. 

rV.— ALICE OP -MONMOUTH. 
An Idyl of the war, by Edmund C. Sted- 
man. An elegant 12mo, beautifully print- 
ed by Houghton of Cambridge. Cloth 
bound, price $1. The story changes from 
love-scenes in Summer meadows of the 
North, to the gloom and glory of the 
Southern war, and abounds with idylic 
passion, melodious lyrics, and bugle-blasts 
of song. 



VI.— OLD MEECHANTS OF N. T. 
A Second Sebies of a very interesting 
and curious book, by Walter Barrett, Clerk. 
Eeplete with reminiscences, anecdotes, wit, 
humor, lively personal sketches, private 
and public gossip about the old and great 
merchant princes of New York City — a lit- 
tle bit of everything, and not too much of 
anything. The first volume had an im- 
mense sale last year, and the second sb- 
BiBS is now ready, one elegant cloth-bound 
volume, price $1 50. ' 

VII.— VIOTOE HUGO— A LIFE. 

By a Witness. A new edition of one of 
the most charming and entraticing volumes 
that has ever issued from the French press. 
Fre^i, dramatic, graphic and lively, it 
abounds with the game delightful interest 
that made "Les Miserables" so wonder- 
fully attractive. No reader of that marvel- 
ous romance can remain satisfied without 
its companion, " The Story of Victor Hu- 
go's Life." One handsome 8vo, cloth- 
bound, price $1 25. 

Vm.— MARIAN GEAY. 
A charming new domestic novel, by Mrs. 
Mary J. Holmes, author of "Lena Elvers," 
"Meadow Brook," "Homestead," "Dora 
Dean," " Cousin Maude," etc. The works 
of this delightful writer are read and re- 
read by thousands of families throughout 
the country. This hew volume is the au- 
thor's last and best. Price, $1 25. 



IX.— THE 



GOOD SO- 



HABITS OF 
CIETY. 

A hand-book for ladies and gentlemen; 
with hints and anecdotes concerning nice 
points of taste, good manners, and the art 
of making one's self agreeable. Eeprinted 
from the London edition, which is the best 
and most entertaining book on the subject 
ever published. 12mo, cloth bound, price 
$150. 

X.--VEEDANT GEEEN. 

The popular, roUioking, humorous story 
of coUege Ufe in Oxford University, Eng- 
land, with nearly 200 comic illustrations. 
Eeprinted from the London edition. 12mo, 



v.— THE EUSSIAN BALL; 
Or, The Adventures of Miss Clementina 
Shoddy. A new humorous and satirical 
Poem, by a New York Editor. Elegant 
12mo, with illuminated cover and engrav- 
ing. Price 25 cents. 

fl®" These Books are sold by all first-class booksellers, and are sent by mail, free, 
on receipt of price, by GEO. W. CAELBq:ON, Publisher, No. 418 Broadway, New York, 
corner of Lispenard Street. 



cloth bound, f 1 25. *j^* A book overflow- 
ing with wit, anecdote and ludicrous ad- 
venture. 



96 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



MASON & HAMLIN'S 




O ]SFE 

to 

TWELVE 



S85 

to 
S500 

Each.. 



Are to Smaller ChurGhes and Halls and Private Residences what the 
Larger Pipe Organs are to Larger Churches and Halls. 

Introduced about one year since, they have been 'received by the profession with the 
greatest favor, and are universally recognized as embodying very Important Im- 
provements over all other Instruments of their Class. Their value is en- 
■ hanced from the fact that they occupy little room, are elegant as pieces of furniture, and 
are not liable to get out of order. 



IVCJ^SON" & HAMLIN" 

CONTINUE THE 

IViANUFAOTURE OF I^ELOOEOE^S, 

for v?hich they have invariably taken the First Premium when exhibited m competi- 
tion with others. 



"I congratulate you on the introduction of a new musical instrument," long wanted, 
and sure to find its way into every household of taste and refinement which can possibly 
afford its moderate expense. " Your CABINET ORGAN is truly a charming instniment, 
worthy of the high praise it has received, and far superior to everything of its class I have 
seen. I take pleasure in commending it most heartily, as everywhere worthy a place be- 
side the Pianoforte, to which it is a fine complement, from its capacity for rendering much 
delightful music, sacred and secular, classic and popular, to which the Piano is not 
adapted. GOTTSCHALK. 

"New YoEK, Sept. 22, 1863." 

"We regard the Instruments of Mason & Hamlin as the best of their class of which we 
have any knowledge, and take pleasure in recommending their CABINET (JEGANS es- 
pecially, as very admirable and desirable for both private and public nse."^Signed by 
more than one hundred of the most eminent organists and artists in the country. 

m- FOR PARTICULARS, SEE ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. °^ 

Warerooffls, 274 WASHINGTON ST., Boston, and 5 & 7 MERCER ST,, New York. 
Address DIASOX & HAMLIN, Boston; or, MASON BROTHERS, New York. 



MaU, Clayton & Medole, Prin 



THE 

SANITARY COMMISSION 
BULLETIN. 



Vo£. I. 



NEW YORK, DECEMBER 15, 1863. 



No. 4. 



The Sanitabt Commission Btjli/Etin is 
published on the first and fifteenth of every 
month, and as it has a circulation, gratuitous 
•or other, of aftooe 12,000 copies, it offers an 
nnv^ually valuable inediumfor advertising. 

All communications must hi addressed to 
the Editor, at the office 823 Broadway, and 
must be authenticgfed by the names and ad- 
dresses of the writers. 

METKOPOLITAN FAIR AT NEW TOKK, 

WITH HINTS ITBOM THE CTKCCNNATI FAIB, TOB THE 
BENEPir OF THEIE BEiNCH OF THE V. S. SAUITABY 
COMMISSION. 

We have just seen Josiali Kirby, Esq., a 
respected and influential citizen of Cincin- 
nati, and secretary, if we mistake not, of 
tlie "National Union Association," a loyal 
political body, to wbose immense exertions 
is due the recent entire revolution in the 
Ohio vote. The well-known and respected 
judge, Edward Woodruff, is the president 
of this National Union Association, and 
lends it all the weight of his character. In 
this association originated the idea and the 
inception of a great fair for the benefit of 
the sick and wounded soldiers, in which 
Cincinnati, in a holy emulation, should 
endeavor to eclipse the splendid example 
set by Chicago, from whom, however, can- 
not be takes away the glory of being first 
in the field, and of having won the first 
victory with unfading laurels. 
The Cin^nnati Eair, on the model, some- 
. what enlarged, of the North- Western Eair, 
js to take place during the ten days from 
the 2l8t of December to the 1st of January; 
two great dates, the first being the anni- 
versary of the actual landing of the Pil- 
grim Fathers on Plymouth Bock, and the 
second the opening of a new year. Eumo:^s 
Vol. L— No. 4. 7 



reach us that the who]* City and State is 
astir with active sympathies, and that every- 
body is prepared, first, to give something; 
second, to buy something; third, to give 
back what they buy;^and fourth, to buy 
something more, and keep it ! All classes, 
occupations, trades — ^both sexes and all 
ages — are at work preparing for this great 
and humane occasion. And it is expected 
that the results will be as much greater in 
a pecuniaiy respect, (greater as a patriotic 
expression they cannot be,) as Cincinnati 
is older than Chicago, and Ohio, young 
and blooming mother of Western States, ia 
more wealthy than Illinois, or Wisconsin 
and Minnesota. We shall wait with deep 
interest to see this difficult feat of beating 
the North- West performed. 

We hear that the working man is Mr. Ed- 
gar Conklin, chairman of the Exec. Com- 
mittee of the "Sanitary Fair Association," 
(for this is the baptismal name which the 
National Union Association gave their 
child, which is now adopted by Ohio. 
John D. Caldwell, of Cincinnati, is the 
secretary. Gen. Eosecrans is the highly 
ornamental and eminently useful president 
of the Fair, lending his glorious name to 
the enterprise, the importance of which 
none but a great and humane commander, 
long in the field, can fitly estimate. It is 
the pride and boast of the U. S. Sanitary 
Commission, that its fast friends are the 
general officers in the army, and the soldiers 
themselves. They alone know its first 
works and its last works, and its works all 
the time; how ubiquitous it is; how small 
a part of its doings its great labors on battle- 
fields represent; how active and methodical, 
and in harmony with military rules and 
customs, its system. is; and how sure, when 
every thing else £aals, the Sanitary Com- 



98 



The Sanitary Commissum BvUebin. 



mission is to be on hand. We are not sur- 
prised to find Gen. Bosecrans using his 
honorable leisurej after the tremendous 
labors and responsibilities of his great cam- 
paigns, in fostering, by his countenance and 
sympathy, his experience and his zeal, an 
enterprise necessary to keep the channels 
of the U. S. Sanitary Commission open, and 
full with the beneficence of the nation, 
whose eons are in the camps and on the 
battle-flelds of Tennessee, the Cumberland, 
and Alabama. 

The Mayor of Cincinnati, Mr. Harris, is 
the first vice-president, and lends municipal 
authority and support to the Eair. 

We understand that the association have 
engaged the two largest and most con- 
venient edifices in Cincinnati for the central 
depot, or grand exposition: Mozart HaU, 
with its numerous and roomy apartments, 
and Mechanics' Institute, (Greenwood's 
Hall,) which is separated from it by an 
alley of twelve feet, which can be easily 
-spanned by a bridge from the second story. 
In these two buildings will be the chief 
salerooms for fancy and portable articles; 
■also the gallery of fine arts, towards which 
the citizens will lend all that is most beauti- 
ful in their private collections, or give what 
they may choose. It is proper to say, that 
for a city hardly yet as venerable in years 
as many of its own citizens, there is a re- 
markable taste for art in Cincinnati; and a 
surprising coUeotion of fine paintings and 
beautiful sculptures might, and doubtless 
will be made from the homes of that now 
rich and populous city. The most beauti- 
ful private collection of engravings it ever 
fell to our lot to see, belongs to an apothe- 
cary in Cincinnati, whose modest home 
becomes thus a casket for jewels of art 
which a prince might covet. 

One square off, is a building known as the 
Industrial Palace — ^perhaps 70 x 100 feet in 
\ dimensions, where the working machinery 
will be erected, and the engines and heavier 
articles sent in displayed as far as possible 
in their working order. 

A temporary restaurant is now erecting, we 
hear, on Market Square, which wiU be from 
60 feet wide to 300 long. What other ar- 
rangements are more recently made, our in- 
formant could not tell after ten days' ab- 
Bence. 



It is proposed to occupy each evening of 
the Fair with a lecture, concert, or other in- 
nocent entertainment, in the great lectur»- 
room of Mozart HalL 

Henry Ward Beecher, who, since his re- 
turn, has made himself a sort of patron- 
saint of the sick soldiers and the Sanitary 
Comm^sion, having spoken ■ already three 
times in their pecuniary behalf, with a re- 
sult of over $6,000, is earnestly invited to 
"visit Cincinnati and speak during the Fair. 
The great sacrifice of his time, and strength, 
thus demanded — after a six months' ab- 
sence — ^it is not wholly reasona.ble to ex- 
pect, yet his seU-denying patriotism may 
go to this length. It is commonly felt that 
he will not complete his magnificent round 
of duty, until he has in person reported in 
all our chief cities what he saw and felt in 
the high places of Great Britain, where be 
"came, saw and conquered." Other dis- 
tinguished orators are expected to lend 
their services. 

We understand that the Association are 
making arrangements with all the railroads 
centering at Cincinnati, to hire out to them 
a certain number of cars of each train daily, 
at about half rates. These they propose to 
fill along the route with passengers at full 
rates, 'and to put the profits into the treas- 
ury of the Fair. 

It is impossible that the great experience 
in Chicago, with the lessons to be acquired 
this month, first at Boston, where the Fair 
opens on the 14th instant, and next at Cin- 
cinnati, only a week later, should not give 
an enormous impulse to the Metropolitan 
Fair in New York, commencing on the 22d 
Feb'y. Emulation, patriotism, humanity, 
will all combine to make the MetropoUtan 
Fair one worthy of the commercial heart of 
the nation. Two hundred ladies, selected 
for their representative character, their 
taste, energy and talents, without regard to 
sect or party, are already enlisted in the con- , 
duct of the work. They have a Board of 
Managers of twenty-five ladies, "crSm6 de 
lacreme" in experience, administrative abil- 
ity, and social sway, over them. Twenty- 
nine committees of ladies are already <:»:- 
ganized over the different departments, and 
are at work. 

Their preliminary meetings have been 
business-like and thoronghly earnest, and 



The Samtary Oommiaeion BuHetm. 



99 



tprobably bythe appearance of this number 
of the BjjiiiiETiN their plans ■wiU be fully 
•before the public. 

A business meeting is called for Dec. 11th, 
consisting of three hundred gentlemen, ee- 
lected with great care, as representing the 
'business heads of all the various industrial, 
commercial, trading, locomotive, financial, 
«md charitable interests of the metropolis. 
By the time this article appears, the results 
of that important meeting may also appear 
in these columns. But writing now, on Deo. 
5th, we venture to predict that that meet- 
ing wUl enter heart and soul into this work; 
that an effective committee of the most 
living and gifted business men, say of 
twenty-five, will be selected to govern and 
direct the masculiae department of the fair; 
to solicit, secure and harvest the donations 
of all trades and benefactors willing to be- 
stow upon the sick and wounded some evi- 
dence in the line of their own trade and 
calling, of their devotion and affection. 
By a systematic and earnest oaU, backed 
by the universal approbation of all heads of 
the community, its bank and railroad presi- 
dents, the chiefs of great manufactories, 
the heads of trades, unions, and the leading 
spirits in commerce, art, pleasure and orna- 
ment, an amount of valuable contributions 
could be collected which would astonish the 
world; make it a duty and a fashion too, 
and the contagion of sympathy and human- 
ity, inspired by patriotism and pity, wiU 
.carry this whole community, as by a univer- 
sal impulse, a sea swept by a fragrant spicy 
wind, and turning its sparkling waves all 
one way, in the direction of a grand pubUc 
beneficence to the hospitals and battle- 
fields of the country. 

One of the first duties the gentlemen's 
committee will have to perform will be the 
selection of a place in which so great a mar- 
ket fair can be held. . We can't roof in the 
Central Park, nor cover Union Square with 
glass. If we could, they might be thought 
haardly too large for so vast an exhibition. 

Difficulties may present themselves, such 
as the lack of an appropriate place, the pre- 
occupations of a great city, the disintegra- 
Mon of our community into parties, sects, 
daases and interests. Such obstacles are 
feel and formidable. But all difficulties 
^OBld;give way before the -strength <ft 



-a whole and splendid populous metropo- 
lis, moving- with sublime unanimity in 
jone j)athway of ipfitriotic charity. Moun- 
tains would become mole-hills in the road 
of «ueh a -momentous progress. Things 
that look impossible would be done with 
ease — ^would do themselves. So great a 
force would take hold, of the ropes, that 
the vast engine would move without any 
single arm feeling its own strain. Iiet not 
the various obstacles now invisaged in the 
natural selfishness of proprietors of build- 
ings, look serious. Those who do not mean 
to yield, wUl presently beg the favor of hav- 
ing aU their facilities accepted by the Fair. 
Let the business energy, the civic pride, 
the industrial skill, tlte average patriotism 
of the men of New York, be added to the 
taste, invention, and disinterestedness, the 
humane affections, the tender pitj, the pa- 
triotic yearning of the women of New York, 
and nothing will be able to withstand their 
combined energy. The city wiU be theirs 
to sack for a fortnight, and the public might 
as well compound for half a million of dol- 
lars before hand. AU hail to the Metropo- 
litan Fair! We predict for it an entire and 
unexampled success. 



A WORD TO OUB READERS. 
In order that the BuijIjEtin may com- 
pletely answer its purpose, it is desirable 
that it should not contain simply such infor- 
mation as may be furnished to the Com- 
mission by its regular agents, but aU that can 
be collected from the friends of the work, 
official or non-official, all over the country. 
We can supply as fuU and particular ac- 
counts of the disposition made of the funds 
and stores intrusted to us as the country 
can require, by the aid of those whom we 
employ in their distribution. But there is 
of necessity an immense mass of facts 
bearing on our labors and their results, 
which we have no organized means of ob- 
taining, and for which we must therefore 
rely on volunteers. Nothing could serve 
better to quicken the zeal of the people 
in localities in which little has been done 
foi; us so far, oris being done now, than ac- 
counts of the exertions made by people in 
other places. Everybody knows the effect 
produced on one's spirits when in pMsuit 
of any enterprise, by the knowledge that 



100 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



there is a multitude engaged in the same 
•work. No zeal is proof in the long run 
against the sense of weakness or of isola- 
tion. 

There is, we well know, behind 
our armies and their aohieTements, extra- 
ordinary as these are, something still 
more extraordinary, and that is the spirit 
of the people at home. We shall say 
nothing now of the fortitude with which 
they have supported reverses, and delays, 
and disappointments. This has already 
commanded the admiration and aston- 
ishment of the world, and has led a dis- 
tinguished foreign writer to declare that 
there has been developed in the United 
States a type of character hitherto un- 
known, and generally deemed impossible — 
a combination of French lire, and excita- 
bility and enthusiasni, with the old Anglo- 
Saxon pertinacity and firmness. This is 
well, but this is not enough. Those who 
are interested in the war, as much for the 
revelation it affords of the moral qualities 
of the American people, as for the political 
results which it promises, have found in 
rich abundance better things than even 
courage and tenacity. What our people 
have done to save — done for humanity's 
sake, is even more wonderful and more 
interesting than what they have done for 
conquest. They have done it, too, without 
the intervention of legislature or tax- 
gather, upon DO compulsion whatever, with 
nothing to gain by it either in territory or 
glory. There may be many parallels found 
for our demeanor in the field, but we doubt 
if our voluntary efforts to mitigate the suf- 
fering arising out of the war have had any 
ex imple in history. 

It is desirable that the details of this 
work should be as far as possible placed on 
record, and the knowledge of them dif- 
fused. We should like to be able to say in 
the Bulletin as much as possible of the 
way in which the vast amount of stores 
and money which pass through our hands 
are collected. There is, probably, hardly 
a box which reaches us which has not a 
tale of its own well worth telling, and 
which is not the result of efforts or sacrifices, 
or enthusiasm, of which we should aU be 
the better of knowing something. There 
are incidents occurring every day all over 



the country within the knowledge of those 
who are working for us, which, if published, 
would throw valuable light upon the temper 

and spirit of our people. We have a 
pamphlet lying before us at this moment, 
entitled the " Philanthropic Besults of the 
War," which tells a marvellous story in 
round figures. The sum total of the vol- 
untary contributions of the public, made 
for purely philanthropic purposes since the 
beginning of the war, is, as we have already 
said," something very wonderful. But won- 
derful as it is, we are inclined to think that 
if we only knew the details of the process 
by which this grand result has been brought 
about, we should find in the efforts of sin- 
gle villages and hamlets and congregations 
things more wonderful still. 

Now this is a want which our friends be- 
longing to the branch associations, and aU 
others who are aU over the country inter- 
ested in what we are doing, can readily 
supply, if they will only forward us as oft- 
en as the occasion may arise, anything 
relating to the work in their own neighbor- 
hood, which wiU help to throw light on the 
temper with which the people of the North 
are facing this great crisis. There is not 
half enough known or ever will be half 
enough known of the fire and energy with 
which the men and women of the country 
districts have thrown themselves into the 
task of supporting and encouraging the 
army by kind deeds as well as cheering 
words. We cannot undertake to publish 
everything we receive, for our space is lim- 
ited, but we will promise to publish all that 
is most interesting. It would be impossi- 
ble to call forth such extraordinary exhibi- 
tions of enthusiasm as are now taking place 
in all the large cities in the shape of " San- 
itary Fairs," if there were not behind all 
this, and had not been previous to aU this, 
a great deal of work full as good, but done 
on a smaller scale and in smaller placesv 
We ought to learn more about it. 

We should wish also to make the Bulletd* 
the means of keeping the public informed, 
as far as our space and opportunity will 
allow, about the fate and prospects of the 
thousands of soldiers who every month 
wend their way wearily homeward, to car- 
ry on in obscurity a long struggle with 
wounds or disease, and too often to siuJc 



The Sanitary Commission BvEetin, 



101 



nnder them. The Sanitary Commission 
has already, as most of onr readers know, 
established organizations to assist the 
friends of these men to find them in the 
hospitals, and to assist the men themselves 
in reaching their homes. But it is desir- 
able that they should not aU sink completely 
out of the sight at this point. Many of 
them have to fight a harder fight after leav- 
ing the army than they ever fought while 
in it — a long silent struggle with suffering 
or disability — a struggle too, which is often 
hopdess, and which at best promises no 
glory on earth. There cannot be too much 
said or done to encourage and console those 
upon whom this fate has come, and there are 
amongst them thousands of cases display- 
ing the rarest patience and the rarest her- 
oism; and more than aU this, even thepro- 
foundest satisfaction at having been select- 
ed for the honors of this great martyrdom. 
God only knows how many such there are 
scattered through the farm-houses and vil- 
lages all over the Union. We shall never 
know of them aJl, but it might be well for 
them and well for the public, if we could 
follow at least some of them into the fur- 
nace, and keep the nation in mind of the 
vastneas of the sacrifices which so many 
gallant hearts have made for its salvation. 

Under the head of correspondence in the 
1st number of the Bukletin, in a letter from 
Dr. E. A. Crane, Inspector of the Com- 
mission,, the following statement occurs : 
" Scurvy does not now exist (Oct. 18th) in 
the command before Charleston, nor has 
it existed to any great extent among our 
troops since operations against Charleston 
have been commenced." 

Dr. C. in a subsequent report corrects the 
above statement, as he was clearly in error. 
The Commission has received from Dr. 
Marsh, its resident Inspector at Charles- 
ton, abundant proof not only of the prev- 
alence of cases of scurvy, but also of the 
scorbutic taint in other diseases. 



THE HOSPITALS AT NASHVILLE. 

Nashtiucje, Nov. 12tt, 186S. 
J. S. I7EWBSBBY, M.D. : 

Deab Snt — I have visited each and aU of 
the hospitals repeatedly, and have done so 
at aU times and seasons; occasionally i^th 



the surgeons, but generally alone and un- 
expected. And I have not only offered to 
all the surgeons of each hospital the ser- 
vices of the Sanitary Commission, for the 
health and comfort of their patients, but 
have gone from room to room, talking with 
the patients themselves, their nurses and 
ward-masters; observing closely and mak- 
ing inquiries as to food, diet, medicine, 
nursing, attendance, ventilation, sanitary 
supplies, etc. ; and I have been gratified to 
see the general good condition of all the 
hospitals here. My impression is, that with 
rare exceptions, every surgeon in charge, 
and every assistant-surgeon, is earnestly 
desirous of doing eveiything within his 
power for the healt^ and comfort of his 
patients. In some cases where I thought I 
had discovered mismanagement and care- 
lessness, I afterwards found that there had 
been obstacles which the surgeons them- 
selves were endeavoring to remove with as 
much anxiety as any one could have. And 
I perceive that almost every hospital is be- 
ing continually improved in its interior ar- 
rangements for ventilation, comfort or con- 
venience. The majority of the hospital 
buildings are light and cheerful. 

The general sanitary condition of the 
patients in the iospitals is good. As I have 
said, the surgeons with hardly an exception, 
do everything in their power for the im- 
provement of their patients, and are evi- 
dently very grateful for every aid and com- 
fort extended to them from the Sanitary 
stores. Not only are they willing that deli- 
cacies, such as wines, cordials, jellies, &c., 
should be given under their directions, but 
their expressions of gratitude are such as 
can come only from the heart. Sometimes 
they accompany me from cot to cot, when I 
have my basket of deUcacies, pointing out 
those who need this or that the most, giv- 
ing orders to the nurses how to dispense 
them, and sharing with me the pleasure 
such distribution gives.. In the distribu- 
tion of grapes from the ladies of Cleveland 
and Cincinnati, none more than the sur- 
geons partook of the little excitement and 
pleasure it afforded. 

Every article of clothing or food given to 
hospitals from the Sanitary Commission, is 
given, not upon the requisition of the stew- 
ards or nurses, but upon that of the surgeon 



102 



The Scmita/fy^ Commission BvUetin. 



in charge of the -vrhole hospital If they 
are delicacies, snch as 'wines, cordials, &c., 
he orders them to be kept for the -ward sur- 
geons to distribnte; and it is certainly the 
special interest of those surgeons to see 
that their o'vm patients receive them; and 
as they make their morning rounds they 
nsnaUy make such inquiries. If it is edibles 
that are given, such as potatoes, onions^ dried 
inat, berries, pickles, etc., they are given 
(the surgeon in charge having drawn them) 
into the steward's charge, with orders 
that they shall, if necessary, be cooked at 
snch times and in such a manner, and sent 
to or placed on the tables of such patients, 
as he directs; and he usually visits the tables 
or makes inquiries to see if his orders are 
carried out. The nurses are themsdves 
convalescent soldiers. 

There are, it is true, female nurses in ser- 
vice of the hospitals who do all that they 
can do. But those peculiar attentions 
which none but a wife, a mother, or sister 
could with propriety give, are bestowed by 
their brother convalescent soldiei-s, who are 
detailed for such duty. And when I have 
seen these poor fellows, themselves still 
needing nursing, (for as soon as they are 
strong they are sent to the " front, ") wearily 
dragging themselves up and down the two, 
tiiree or four long flights of stairs, carrying 
food, water, or medicines, and attending to 
their frequent and most necessary wants; 
oftentimes called from their own meals, 
waiting upon them in their turn day and 
night, and always so kind, so patient; my 
eyes have filled with tears of gratitude, 
and I have thought that if mothers and 
friends at home only knew how their sons 
and brothers were nursed by these noble 
feUows, there would be no more boxes 
sent to the Commission, marked "not /or 
the nurses," but sometimes, a full box marked 
"/or the nurses," with warm expressions of 
giatitude from those who, when a member 
of the family is sick at home, think that 
nothing is too good for the refreshment of 
the self-denying, weary " watcher," or even 
the watchful, anxious "Doctor" himself. 
Of course there are in every hospital some 
"grumblers" — those who had "never 
themselves received any good things from 
the Sanitary stores, and who were therefore 
firm believers in the surgeons and nurses 



eating everything all up." ButtheseiVBiy 
persons I have generally found clothed 
almost from head to foot in Sanitary under- 
(dothing, having just partaken of Sanitary< 
potatoes, onions, or dried fruit, and whose 
very sheets and pillow-cases, slings and 
crutches, came from the same source, all 
unbeknown to tiiem. But I have found 
that their only idea of Sanitary stores was, 
cans or jars of preserves. They seemed to 
think that because their own good moth- 
er's jar of preserves (which they imagined- 
she had put up) had not been sent straight)' 
to them, that neither they nor any one else, 
had ever received any benefit from the Sani- 
tary Commission. It was all a humbug. 
One of these grumblers, who had just eaten 
a quarter of a jar of peaches from the Sani- 
tary stores, complained to me that they had 
not enough of such things. He thought 
that they ought to have them about twice » 
week; I asked him to make a little calcu- 
lation as to the number of cans it would- 
require for the hospitals of Nashville alone, 
to give each patient a taste once a week. 
To his surprise he found "it would take 
56,160 cans — or at 25 cents each, at a cost 
of above $14,000. On the contrary, how- 
ever-, there is much true gratitude. 

I hardly need say to you that the import- 
ance and blessedness of this Commission 
grows upon me every day. I only wish that 
it could be seen as it is, in all its ramiflc»r 
tions. But God alone can see all this. Tha 
world can see the great Eiver of Benevo- 
lence bearing on its bosom the weU freight- 
ed baskets from the ten thousand little riv- 
ulets of Northern chariigr, — love. But none 
but the eye of our Heavenly Father can see 
the countless bodies and souls that are 
blessed by timely food, assistance, and care; 
by kind words spoken, by unwearied efforts 
made, and which are stamping with the 
very seal of Heaven the very same age and 
generation which witness this fearful civil' 
war. 

BespectfuUy and truly yours, 
J. P. T. Ingbaham, 

Bospital ritUor. 



[Iktracts from Jetters dated Louisville 
and Nashville E. R. train, up trip, Nov. 
27, 1863.] 

■»•»*•»# 

The Commission's hospital visitor at 



The Scmitar^ OormmsBioa BiMebin. 



103 



Kashville is a very modest g^itlemau. Any 
ineideot Trhich brings in himself as one of 
the actors, is a contraband topic of conver- 
sation. But " Yours Truly " isn't a bit mod- 
est, believing that in many cases brass is 
better than brains, and aetiqg upon the 
aforesaid principle, succeeded in drawing 
forth the living eloquence of which tiie 
following is but a lifeless, fleshless skeleton: 
Away up in the fourth story of Hospi- 
tal No. 3, and in a far corner of the ward, 
Ue noticed one day an old lady sitting by 
the side of a mere lad, who was reduced to 
the verge of death by chronic diarrhoea. 
She was a plain, honest-hearted farmer's 
wifa,.her face-all aglow with motherly love, 
and who, to judge from appearances, had 
likely never before traveled beyond the 
limits of her neighborhood,, but now had 
come many a long mile to do what might 
be done for her boy. In the course of a 
conversation, she informed Mr. Ingraham 
fliat if she " only could get something tiiat 
tasted like home — some good tea, for in- 
stance, which she could make herself, and 
which would be better than that of the 
liospital, she thought it might save her 
son's life." Of course it was sent to her, 
and on a subsequent visit she expressed 
her hearty thanks, in a simple, hearty way, 
quite itt keeping with her whole appear- 
ance. Still she seemed sad; something 
was on her mind that evidently troubled 
her, and, like Banquo's ghost, " would not 
diowtt." At length it came out, in a confid- 
ing, innocent way — more, evidently, be- 
cause it was uppermost in her thoughts 
i^an for the purpose of receiving sympa- 
thy — that her means were about exhausted. 
"I didn't think itwould take so much mon- 
esj; it is- so much further away from home 
than I had thought, and board here is so 
very high, that I have hardly enough left to 
take me back; and by another week I will 
have to leave him; I havebeen around to 
t&e stores to buy some little things that he 
would eat — for he can't eat this strong 
fcjod — ^but the prices are so high that I 
can't buy them, and 1 am afraid that if I 
■go arway, and if he doesn't get something 
Afferent to eat, that, maybe — " and the 
tears trioMed down her cheeks, "he- won't 
— ^be-so well.'" 
Mr. Brgrahaim; who is sen. EpiseopaLnin- 



ister of the warmest hearted kind, thought 
that difficulty might be overcome; and if 
she would put on her bonnet they would go 
to a store where atrtieles were cheap. Aor 
cordingly, they arrived in front of the large 
three-story buildingwhich government has 
assigned to the Oommission, and the old 
lady was soon running her eyes- over tha 
long rows of boxes, bales and barrels that 
stretched fou a hundred feet down th«r 
room, but was most fascinated, by the botr 
ties and caua on the shelves^ He ordered 
a supply of sugarj teay soft crackers and 
canned fruit ; then chicken and oysters; 
iiien jelly and winoy brandy, milk and un- 
der-clothing — ^antilthe basket was full Aa 
the earlier articles n^tled under ita Uda; 
hen face was glowing with satisfaction; but 
as the later lots arrived, she would draw 
Viim aside to whisper that it was too much; 
"really she hadn't enough money;" and 
when- the more expensive items came from. 
the shelves, the shadow of earnestness 
which gloomed her countenance grew in- 
to one of perplexity, her soul vibrating 
between motherly yearning for the lad on 
his bed, and the scant purse in her pocket, 
uatn, slowly andiwith great reluctance, Etoar, 
began to return the- costliest. 

"Hadn't you better ask the price?" said 
her guide. "Howmuohisit?" "Nothings" 
replied the storekeeper. "Sir?" queried 
she, in the utmost am^iizement, "nathiag^ 
for aU this?" 

"My good woman,"' asked the gaidsi 
"have you a Soldiers' Aid Society in youc 
neighborhood?" Yes, they had ; she be- 
longed to it herself. " Well, what, do you 
suppose becomes of the garments you make, 
and the fruits you put up?" She hadn't 
thought ; she supposed they went., to the 
army; but -waa evidently bothered to know 
what connection there could be' betwaMi 
their aid' society and that basket. " These 
gannents that you see came from your so- 
ciety, or other- societies just like yours ; eio 
did your boxes and baonrela; that milk camo 
fronj. New York ; those fruits from Bostoiu^ 
that wine was lively purchased with gold 
from OaUfomia ; and it is aU for sick sol- 
diers,, your, son ■ aa much as for any one else. 
This; ia. the, U. S. Sanitary OommissiQji 
store-house; you must come here whenever 
you wish, and call for everything you want; 



104 



The Sanitary Commission BuUdin. 



and you must stay -with your son until he 
is able to go home; never mind the money's 
giying out; you shall hare more, -which, 
■when you get back, you can refund for the 
use of other mothers and other, sons; -when 
you are ready to go I 'wiU put him in a 
berth where he "can lie down, and you 
shall save his life yet!" 

She did — God bless her innocent, mo- 
therly heart — when nothing but motherly 
care could have achieved it; and, when last 
seen, on a dismal, drizzly morning, was, 
with her face beaming out the radiance of 
hope, making a cup of tea on the stove of 
a caboose car for the convalescent, who 
was snugly tucked away in the caboose 
berth, waiting the final whistle of the loco- 
motive that would speed them both home- 
ward. 

The benefit of the Hospital Directory, 
with its facilities for learning through the 
agents who are at the front, the condition 
of the wounded, is illustrated by the follow- 
ing telegrams copied from the dispatch- 
book of the Nashville office U. 8. Sanitary 
Commission: 

On Oct. 29, Gen. Underwood, of Boston, 
received information that his son, Col. Un- 
derwood, was mortally wounded in Lookout 
Mountain. Mr. Walker, of the same city, 
received similar tidings concerning his son. 
The anxious fathers started for Chattanoo- 
ga, arriving at Nashville Tuesday night, 
Nov. 3d, and applied to the agents at that 
poipt for information. At 11 P. M. this 
message was sent to the front: 

Nashttli;e, Nov, 3. 
Db. M. C. Bsed^ 

U. 3. San. Ci>m., Chattanooga: 
Eeport immediately condition of A. B. Un- 
derwood, Colonel 33d Mass., severely wounded 
on 28th; also, Oapt. G. M. Walker, Co. "E," 
same regiment. General Underwood and Mr. 
Walker here. 

J. 0. HOBUT. 

•Wednesday morning at six o'clock the 
travellers took the train for Stevenson. At 
noon the foUovring was received at Nash- 
ville office: 

Chaotahooga, Nov. 4, 1863. 
J. C. HoBUi, 

Nashvine. 
33d Mass. —Capt. Walker is slightly wounded, 
getting better. Col. Underwood is comfortable, 
but in critical condition. 

M. C. BiasD. 



Two hours later. 

Chattahooga, Nov. 4, 2 P. M. 

J. C. HOBUT, 

Nasliville; 
Col. Underwood, 33d Mass., thigh fractmred; 
says he is contented and well cared for, but 
longs for his fiiends — wife, mother, fether. 

M. 0. Eeed. 

Immediately Nashville forwards this trio: 

Nashvuxe, Nov. 4. 
Joseph Wai^eeb k C!o., 
Boston; 
Dispatch just received from Chattanooga, says 
Col. Underwood comfortable, but in a critioal 
condition. Capt. Walker slightly wounded, 
getting well. Messrs. Underwood and Walker 
left here this morning for Chattanooga. 

J. C. HOBIIT. 

M. C. Reed, 

ChaUaTiooga: 

Underwood and Walker left here this morn- 
ing; have telegraphed Boston. 

J. 0. HoiiBTT. 
San. Com. Agent, Sletxnson: 

Underwood and Walker on road to Chatta- 
nooga. TeU them Col. Underwood comfortable, 
in critical condition. Capt. Walker shghtly 
wounded, getting well. 

J. C. HOBIilT. 

Thus, the first information received by 
the travelers after leaving Boston, was ob- 
tained late at night, on their arrival at Stev- 
enson, while their families were cognizant 
of affairs that afternoon, and the wounded 
sufferers made acquainted with the advent 
of their visitors that morning. 

Col. Underwood was brought to Nash- 
ville. His wife and father were with him; 
but probably they will, day after to-morrow, 
be on this same up-train, his corpse riding 
in the baggage-car. 

Just as Boston, by means of the nation- 
wide appliances of a Commission that is 
broader in its sweep than aU the States put 
together, heard speedily from far off Chat- 
tanooga, so did Wisconsin. 

A poor woman therefrom, whose husband 
and son were in the ranks, learning that the 
latter was wounded on Lookout, made her 
way to Louisville, from whence she was sent 
by your agents to Nashville. It was abso- 
lutely impossible to get her further front.and. 
the Nashville office again telegraphed Dr. 
Beed for information. The next day, Thurs- 
day, it was answered that her son was se- 
verely wounded, and had been placed in an 



The Scmitwry Commission BuUetvn, 



105 



hospital which was subsequently captured 
by the enemy, in whose hands he then was. 
Sad news, butbetter than none. It was com- 
municated to her as kindly and gently as pos- 
sible, yet drove her almost frantic. Several 
times on Friday she came in to hear more. 
There was nothing to hear; Saturday, noth- 
ing; Sunday, nothing. The suspense be- 
came terrible. Was he alive? "Were his 
wounds attended to by the rebels ? Was 
he dead? She prayed for some tidings, 
even the worst, rather than the agony of 
suspense. Late Sunday night it came, 
and she was informed "dead." It was a 
terrible stroke, and the writhings of her 
soul were horrible, even to behold, much 
more so to bear. Monday morning she 
returned to the office, wofully stricken 
in heart, but calmer than on the previous 
evening, and said, pointing to the flag over 
the door, with tears in her eyes, but smiles 
streaming through the tears, " That Flag 

IS DOTJBLT DEAE TO MB THIS MOBNINa It 
TTAR COST MB SOMETHING." 

Her means were exhausted, and the Com- 
mission defrayed her expenses home. 

Were those few dollars well spent upon 
such a mother, wife, martyr, and heroine? 

Sitting over the way, in the seat by the 
stove, is a stout farmer,from Danvers,Mass. , 
who is constant and heartfelt in the recital 
to those about him of the gratitude which 
he feels to the Commission for the assist- 
ance he received from it in getting to the 
front and back. He says no other power 
could have got him passes. He is right 
about that. Government refers all such 
applications to the liOuisvUle office, and has 
never yet refused one vouched for by Dr. 
Newberry. A sword and haversack are in 
his hands. They belonged to his son. 
There is a long white box in the baggage 
car, which the stout farmer goes out to look 
at when we stop. It is a very quiet box, 
too; and there can be no danger of its mov- 
ing. Yours truly. 



A DAT AT THE "NTIESES' HOME" AT 
WASHINGTON. 

Seven women and ten children received 
to-day. First, a mother of a soldier; next, 
a soldier's wife; three hospital nurses; then 
two wives of refugees, with the children. 

The soldier's mother showed me this tel-» 



egram to explain to me who she was, and 
why she was in the city ; it was from her 
son, "Mitohel's Station, Ya." "I am to 
be shot on Friday next — can you do any- 
thing for me? " With this telegram in her 
hand she had hastened on from her distant 
home by the first train to Washington, to 
appeal to the President to save her son. 
She gathered up and brought with her such 
testimonials as she could obtain ; also evi- 
dence of the circumstances connected with 
her son's enlistment. ■ She was a poor wo- 
man, but neatly clad, and with an honest 
and earnest face, about fifty years old. Her 
husband, it seems, was so much shocked by 
the telegram that he could not act, so she 
had to come on. As she came to the Nurs- 
es' Home, almost utterly exhausted, she 
looked like one who had been through a 
terrible night of darkness, watching by 
what seemed a death-bed, but had sudden- 
ly caught sight of a bright gleam of light, 
for she had already laid her case before the 
President, with such testimony as paUiated 
the act of " desertion " on the part of her 
boy, and the sentence of death had been 
revoked. It seems that some months ago 
her son had run away from home to enlist, 
(he was but 17 or 18 years old,) and his 
parents had gained no inteUigenoe of him 
until a letter came in his handwriting an- 
nouncing to his mother that he was in the 
army and^was to be tried as a "deserter," 
but that there was no danger but what he 
should get off. His mother had then writ- 
ten, asking him to tell her all the circum- 
stances of his enlistment. The letter which 
he sent in return his mother brought on to 
Washington with her, and as she allowed 
me to copy it, I insert it here. 

"Deab Father and Motheb — ^I now take 
the opportunity of writing you a few Unes, 
hoping to find you in good health. I had 
got your letter, and I read it; then I gave 
it to the Colonel, and I 'do not know what 
he will do with it, but I hope he wiU not 
go hard on me. He is a very severe man 
when he gets angry, and a very good one 
when he ain't angry. I have been very sick 
with the fever and ague, and I am out in 
the rain here ever since I have been caught, 
without even a tent. All the house we 
have is a few limbs of trees. I have the 
shakes every other day. Where we are in 



106 



The Samtcury CommisaOm BiMetin. 



camp is a very sickly place, and very lousy. 
The lice is taking away our clothes. It 
ain't safe to put down our crackers without 
we put a stone on them, as the lice would 
run away with it. I am now getting along 
first-rate. I just now got your letter from 
honle. While I was writing this letter I 
received your letter, dear mother, and read 
it. And now I wiU teU you how and where 
r enlisted. The day that^ left home 1 was 
made acquainted with a fellow named, as 
He called himself. Captain Cody, and he 
agreed to take me to Pennsylvania and get 
me three hundred dollars, and I asked him 
how, and he told me when I got there I 
would see. When I got there he took me 
to some house in South 2d Street, as he 
called it, in Philadelphia, and we stayed 
there that night, and in the morning we got 
our breakfast; then he gave me some liquor 
to drink, and I did not know where I was 
till r found myself in Norristown,.Pa., in 
the Marshall's office, talking to the doctor. 
I was asleep. When I awoke the doctor 
told me that I was an enlisted man, and 
I said I was not, and he showed me some 
papers that I signed when I was drunk; 
but I do not believe I ever signed" a paper; 
then I asked him where was the money, 
when he told me that the boarding-master 
took two hundred dollars, and said I owed 
tim twenty-flve more. The boarding-mas- 
ter was Captain Cody. He swore that I 
o-vyed' him the money, and:that is all I know 
about it. And there was a lieutenaiit who 
said' he would get me clear for ifwenty-flve 
dollars, and I gave it to him; but I did not 
see him any more. The place I enlisted 
was Norristown, Pa. That is aU at present. 

"I send my best love and respects to 
youaU. Goodbye. 

"If you have got one of John Peterson's 
pictures send it in the letter. That- is aU. 

"Direct to 



Such was the letteu which was followed. 
by the brief message sent to his mother^ 
"I am. to be shot next Eriday; can you do 
something fbr me?" Aa she handed m& 
the telegraamp, although her son was now 
safe, yet heu whole frame shook. She had 
fewo other sons, ahe said, one a. little- feUow 
of tea, and thet thirdi ati honie, disabled; 



from wounds received in the battle; ait" 
ChanoeUorsviUe. Her ] ourney and expenses' 
had used all the money she had been abliS' 
to bring from home with her, and it was* 
a real joy to us to be able to give her a- 
resting place aud kind care; and then to^ 
morrow we shall furnish her with a ticket 
to her home. 

The soldier's wife — ^very young aaid> 
frail— has journeyed alone over 500 jaUea 
in the last two days-, to see if possible her-- 
: husband alive. 

j She found him in- the hospital near by; 
has been with him aU day, and has now- 
come in to the "nurses' home" full of hope> 
that he will recover, and delightedfto &a& 
the admirable and kind care which is be- 
stowed by the General Hospitals upon 
those who are sick; she had heard such- 
terrible reports of neglect. She is grate- 
Ail, very, for the shelter and the hand of 
sympathy which the Home offers to her. 

One of the wives of the refugees with' 
the four children was brought to the 
office of the Sanitary Commission, by 
the Provost Ghiard, early this momingt 
She was miserably poor and destitute, 
and with her children sadly in need of 
warm garments. According to the papers 
which she carried with her, and her own 
story, she had come on all the way 
from Tennessee in order to find in Alexan- 
dtia some relatives- of' her husband who 
were said to live there; Her husband had 
been shot by guerrillas near his own\ouse; 
where he had gone on a sis days' furlough 
from the army, not very distant. As she' 
had nothing to live on, and feared for her- 
own life, she had fled, and came on here. 
In Alexandria she had searched in vain for- 
her husband's relatives. She brought all 
her goods -with her, namely, a bed, blankets-, 
and some clbthes, in four dirty bundles* 
She now wants to get back as far as Ken- 
tucky. She says she can't feel at home 
"way North;" that she had rather stai-ve 
"down South" than stay up here. She 
and her children -wiU be made comfortable, 
and then sent on their way. She is not 
entirely satisfied with her treatment at the 
Home. She thinks that she is not " waited 
upon" as a^ soldier's -wife from so far off 
ought to be, and that she has received-very, 
little attention; and that if this- bouse jH:e- 



Tim BamtaTf' Gommissam^ BiiUetiw. 



107? 



tenda to be a kind of hotel only, wliere they 
'don't take any pay, they ought to look a 
little more after the folks they emtertain; 
that at any rate, a black girl might be sent 
to taike care of her children; and that 
surely it is a great place where a body has 
im help sew upon the garments which are 
going to be a present to her 1 But stiLL upon 
tiie whole, she is glad- of the shelter and the 
gaimients, though hei^ pride is a^ little 
wounded; and most certainly the poor 
Uttle children are warmer for- the flannels. 
and shoes. It is str-ange how these "poor 
whites," who haven't energy enough ap- 
parently to harvest the crop which is to' 
keep them alive, can overcome all the dif- 
ficulties of such a ioumey as thisj with 
baggage and children^ travelling: athousaud' 
miles; 

The other woman, wife of ai refugee^ 
oaane from Culpepper with her- sia chil- 
dren; her husbsundi is with her. They 
were simply "starved out." Atone time 
ttie place was in the hands of the rebels, 
amd they couldn't get away; at another time 
in the. hands of the !Fedeials and< the;;:! 
hoped not to be obliged to go away — and 
so for two years they had lived on- — until 
at last, as the husband told me, they had 
but " half a gallon" of meal left. So ttiey 
bad to give up their home; they succeeded 
JA escaping the guerrillas^ amd after along 
amdi terribly wearisome journey-on f oot with 
tikese six ohildren>. they reached a place of 
protection. They had been at the Sanitary: 
Lodge, in Alexandria, resting for> a ; day or 
two before they came on to Washington. 
They were Methodists and persons with 
dfeep religious faith. Under aU their labor 
and sorrow (for they buried a little child 
shortly before they left their home in Vir- 
ginia), they were quiet and cheerful, aip- 
parently. having perfect confidence thart 
God would yet give them a home and, all 
the happiness which was best for them., 
The children, too, in their gentleness and 
^pression- of face, bore mark of the d^iljf 
prayer wMch had never failed ap the mother 
told me, to be offered at the poop man's 
altar. This family had seen better da^s, 
but there, was no complainti at theirr lot; 
They. aji!e< grateltitfo]; the kindnessr we< are 
able. to. show to. them,, thougih ttiey are 
somewhat' ofosefy packed- t^etheB- ia- two'' 



rooms. Arrangements are made to ticket' 
the whole family through to their old home- 
in Western Pennsylvania. 

Two of the hospital nurses are from the' 
General Hospital, one worn down by- excess 
i sive labor J needing a few days ' rest ; the other' 
has just returned from a visit to her home^ 
and is unable to go over to Alexandria to- 
night. The third. is from a regimental hos- 
pital, where she has served devotedly for 
near two years^-and she is ordered in by the 
surgeon of the regiment, whether she will 
] orino, to rest for at least one week; but it- 
; seems as if resting were to herthehardest- 
; form of labor. She will soon be really- siotei 
' if she cannot go to work. 



THE REPORTS OF THE FORTNIGHT. 

823 Broadway, Nuw Yore, Dec. 4A, ISSK 
To (he Standing Oommtltee of tine: Cr, S.SemUainj Commissiont 

Gbnthemen: — Since your last weekly- 
i meeting, tidings- have reached this' office 
from New Orleans; South OaroKna; Wash- 
I ington and Norfolk, in the Coast .District; 
and by telegraph and by letter of Eev^ J. 
H. Heywood, from Louisville and Chatta- 
nooga, in the Western District. 

Dr. Blaise wrote from New Orleans on the- 
20th of- November ; he had not- ventured; 
; in the absence of his co-workers, now^ 
doubtless with him, to absent himself from 
New Orleans, the oenttre of his field of* 
work. Ere this, he has-, I doubt not, either 
gone or sent to our forces- on the Eio 
Grande, conformably to his previously ex- 
pressed intentions. His five helpers, who 
sailed from New York on the 14th of Nc 
■ vember, must have joined him bythe 22d of- 
that month; 
Dr. Blake reports our relations- with the 
i agents- of the Christian Commission in New 
: Orleans to be cordial. Souarvy exists -with- 
in the department. The vegetables aboul? 
I to be forwarded to the department, tioim^ 
: Maine, in addition to those sent in suoces- 
; sive moderafte consignments from this port, 
I and- perhaps also a cargo or part of on© 
1 from up the Mlssissippii -will doubtless ef- 
: feet for our troops the same sanative result* 
: ais similar gifts have elsewhere done. 
I Dr. Marsh writes from Beaufort on the^ 
26th of November, that his own health ia 
improving, l^ough he- is- yet evidently l^ 
no-means--W«H. He-thinks that- to estebUaB: 



108 



The Banitary Gommission B^Metin. 



a vegetable garden for the army in South 
Carolina, more -would be reqtiired of the 
Commission than the cost of seed. The 
army can spare no labor to superintend or 
cultivate it. Negro help can probably be 
procured by detail, but skilled superinten- 
dence is not likely to be afforded by the 
army. 

Eev. Mr. Low, of Massachusetts, has, 
during the past week, called at this office 
on his return from the Department of the 
South, to express his strong sense of the 
great usefulness of the Commission's work, 
as administered by Dr. Marsh in that de- 
partment. He stated that his conviction 
was the result of extended application 
for facts to both medical and military offi- 
cers, as well as to privates, and that Dr. 
Marsh's statements as to the value of our 
work were borne out by the testimony of 
aJl these classes. 

Prom Dr. Page, in South Carolina, there 
is stiU nothing later than the last of Octo- 
ber. 

Prom the army of the Potomac we have 
no advices since our compactly stowed wag- 
ons, one for each corps, were, under the 
charge of their respective Relief Agents and 
the general superintehdence of Mr. John- 
son, cut loose from communication with 
their rear, about the time of the late gen- 
eral advance. The Elizabeth has been for 
some days lying with an assorted cargo of 
battle-field stores on board, ready to con- 
nect our work with the army at perhaps a 
new water base, while a considerable depot 
has been maintained at the B. B. station in 
Alexandria, if perchance communication 
might be resumed with the army by the 
Orange and Alexandria road. 

At Portress Monroe Mr. Gale has been 
active in pushing on, by flag-of-truce boat, 
the supplies of food and clothing sent to 
him by the Commission for that purpose. 
From the 17th of November, inclusive, the 
value of the suppUes sent to date is care- 
fully estimated at $28,000. General Mere- 
dith expresses the belief that our consign- 
ments mainly reach our men, and advises 
that we continue to forward. He cordially 
facilitates our plans, and offers at any time 
to send up the flag boat for the conveyance 
of our stores. Our Philadelphia associates 
have expended considerable sums to this 



end, and for zeal and promptitude in for- 
warding our goods our EeUef Agent at Bal- 
timore, Mr. J. T. Panooast, deserves great 
praise. 

Mr. Wm. H. Hadley has been entirely 
successful in the first work of his special 
mission to Maine. He has engaged the 
brig WUliam and Mary, of 2,200 bbls. capa- 
city, to sail for New Orleans on or before 
the 14th inst. , with ^ cargo of vegetables for 
our troops there. The value of the cargo 
at Portland is estimated at $3,800. Should 
not insurance be "effected? I enclose with 
this report Mr. Hadley's last letter and the 
charter-party, which seems to be arranged 
on terms favorable to the Commission. 

Another load can probably be obtained 
by gift from the people of Maine; shall it 
not be gathered for this or some other de- 
partment? 

In the Went, the attention of the Com- 
mission, as 6f the whole country, has been 
attracted by the engagements about Look- 
out Valley and Mountain, Tenn., and at 
Einggold, Ga. Dr. Newberry was with the 
army at the time of its encounters with the 
enemy. Bev. Mr. Heywood forwards tele- 
grams from Mr. Eno, at Bridgeport, dated 
November 28th, which state our loss to be 

wounded. Mr. Heywood also writes 

from Louisville, that large supplies were 
going forward, and Chicago had, 48 hours 
after being notified of the need, placed in 
Louisville 40 tons of hospital stores, and 
added in the next three days five car- 
loads more. 

EespectfuUy yours, 

J. FosTEE Jenkins, 

General Secretary. 



THE HOSPITAL DERECTORY. 

Mr. Brown, the Superintendent of the 
Hospital Directory, at Washingtonj fur- 
nishes us the following summing up of its 
labors: 

The 'Washington Bureau of the Hospital 
Directory of the U. S. Sanitary Commission 
was opened to the public on the 27th of Novem- 
ber, 1862. In the month of December follow- 
ing, I was ordered to Louisville, Ky., to 
orgsmize a Directory Bureau for the 'Western 
Department of the Sanitary Commission, and 
in January ended my labor in that department 
Betuming to Washington, and thence proceed- 



The Sawitary Commission BvMetim, 



109 



ing to Philadelphia and New York upon the 
same duty performed at the "West, I completed 
the entire organization of the four bureaus by 
the 5th of March, 1863. Since the Ist of June, 
at these several bureaus, the returns from every 
TJ. S. deneral Hospital of the Army, 233 in 
number have been regularly received. 

The total number of names on record is 
513,437. The total number of inquiries for 
information has been 12,884, and the number of 
successful answers rendered, 9,203, being 72 per 
cent, upon the number received. The remaining 
28 per cent., of whom no information could be 
obtained, are of those who perished in the 
Peninsvda campaign, on the field before Fred- 
ericksburg, Stone River, ChanoeUorsville, Vicks- 
burg, Gettysburg, &c. At the latter place the 
remains of those who fell in that great fight 
have been gathered together with tender care, 
and rest beneath the tombstone bearing the 
simple but expressive inscription, "The 
Unknown." 

'The purpose of the Hospital Directory 
originated in the humane desire, on the part of 
the U. S. Sanitary Commission, to supply a 
greatly needed want, viz. , an organized bureau 
for the record of the inmates of army hospitals, 
whether becoming such by disease or from 
wounds received in battle, in order to meet 
the inquiries of the friends of the soldier un- 
able to obtain any knowledge of the name or 
locality of his hospital— inquiries often painful 
to hear from the harrowing anxiety and per- 
sistency with which they are presented. But 
the benefit conferred by the Directory has not 
been merely to friends of the soldier, but also 
to the soldier himself, becoming as ' it has a 
medium of communication for wives and 
mothers searching for husbands and sons — a 
channel through which has flowfed those mes- 
sages of love, and cheer, and hope grateful to the 
fevered brain, soothing to the agony of wounds. 
How far it has accomplished its aim let the 
figures which have been given be the answer. 

In the nine thousand two hundred and three 
answers lies hidden a history which no human 
eye shall ever read. And the gratitude with 
which they are acknowledged is shown by the 
letters on file. Mothers write of their " undy- 
ing gratitude'' for the simple announcement 
that their boys are doing well in hospital; 
others "invoke the blessing of God upon the 
labors of the Commission," and sisters "will 
cherish the warmest gratitude while memory 
lasts." And then the eagerness with which 
inquiries are made; "By the love you bear your 
own mother tell me where my boy is ! " " Only 
give me some tidings I" "Is he dead, and how 



did he die?" "Is he alive, and how can I get 
to him?" "I pray you tell me of these two 
nephews I am seeking for. I have had four- 
teen nephews in the service, and these two are 
the only ones left." 

Of the many scenes witnessed in the bureau, 
I can only mention a few without attempting a 
description. A mother has not heard anything 
of her son since the last battle; she hopes he 
is safe, but would like to be assured — there is 
no escape — she must be told that he has fallen 
upon the "federal altar;" au agony of tears 
bursts forth which seem as if it would never 
cease; another less excitable does not tire of 
telling "how good a boy he was;" " no mother 
ever had such a son as he," sobs a third. A 
father presents 'himself, a strong man and yet 
young in years, to receivg the same announce- 
ment, and sinks with audible grief into a chair; 
another with pale face and tremulous voice, 
anxious to know, yet dreading to hear, is told 
that his boy is in the hospital a short distance 
off; he grasps the hand with both of his, while 
tears run down his cheeks, and without utter- 
ing another word leaves the room. "It is 
very hard, my friend," was said to one mute 
with grief, " but you are not alone." "I know 
it, sir," was the prompt reply, " but he was the 
only one I had." 

A woman of more than ordinary intelligence 
and appearance, with almost breathless voice, 
"I want to find my husband; I have not heard 
from him for several months. I have written 
to the officers of his regiment, but do not get 
any reply; can you teU me where he is ?" 

"WiU you please to give me his name 
and number of his regiment." "0, yes sir." 
"You win find him at Lincoln Hospital; 
the city cars pass near the building, and the 
conductor will point it out to you." A 
momentary shade of incredulity is perceptible; 
then turning her fuU deep eyes swollen with 
emotion, she gives one look— a full reward for 
a month of labor— and in an instant is in the 
street. A little, wiry, keen-eyed woman, in a 
tone between a demand and a request, wants to 
find her husband. He is not far ofi. She feirly 
screams with delight, and rushes wildly out of 
the office. Thus- the varied scene goes on. 
One inquirer leaves the room grateful, buoyant 
and happy, to be followed by another equally 
grateful, who will " tread softly" the remainder 
of his days, for the "light of his dweUing has 
gone out." As* each departs another figure is 
added to the Ustof "inquiries and answers," 
and the seemingly monotonotis work of the 
bureau is resumed. 
The Sanitary Cozumission has a history to 



110 



The Bamtavy Comirmssim BvMetin. 



which it may point with pride and gratitude, 
-and not the least of its beneTolrait features, 
not the least of its works of mercy and of com- 
fort, will be the record of its Hospital Directory. 



THE WOBK IN TENNESSEE. 

NiSHvni», Tbsh., Nov. 16a, 1868. 
Dr. J. S. Newberbt, 

Sra: — ^Eetuming to Nashville on the 21st 
of October, after near three weeks' absence 
by reason of sickness, I found that the work 
of the Commission ia NashviUe had made 
good progress — excepting the Soldiers' 
Home, which was not in as complete order 
as it had previondy been nnder the admin- 
istration of Mr. Crane. 

I found at Stpvenson and Bridgeport sni- 
ficient stores for distribution, but was pained 
to learn that aU. our efforts to obtain trans- 
portation to Chattanooga had been unsuc- 
cessful for at least two weeks. I should, 
perhaps, reoaU. to your mind that we had 
succeeded in getting eleven wagon-loads of 
stores into Chattanooga previous to the 
battle — stores which had been not only 
comfort, but life to the wounded. After 
the battle we had still every favor from the 
authorities, and our full share of the re- 
sources of the Government; but we were 
compelled to share, also, in the terrible 
straits and difficulties which the army suf- 
fered, and which, tiU the opening of the 
river, combined to render the maintainance 
of the position not only difficult but in the 
highest degree doubtful. 

At Chattanooga there were about 1,400 
in hospitals of the most severely wounded 
— and such as could not be removed. Our 
great anxiety was to send more stores to 
these, who, without a full supply and good 
variety of food and stimulants, must die. 
As the weU men must be fed, we promised, 
that during the existing pressure upon the 
transportation, we would only send edibles. 
For a week or more no stores of any kind 
were sent from Nashville, the cars being 
all used to transport Gen. Hooker's corps. 
When they began to carry commissary 
stores, Mr. Bobiason informed me that he 
could not obtain transportation, as the Q. 
M. was ordered by Gen. Thomas to ship 
only those stores. I at once called upon 
the Q . M. ia charge of transportation, show- 
ing him the following order from Gen. Bo- 



secrans, which I supposed provided for 
just such genersd orders as the one he had 
now received; he agreed with me that it 
did, and promised transportation: 

OKDER OF GEN. ROSECRANS. 

Head-Qitabtbbs Dhp't of THB CUMB'n, \ 
Stetbhson, AU., August 19tt, 1863. J 

Sib: — ^The General commandiiig authorizes 
the use of half a car daily for the shipment Of 
sanitary stores by the U. S. Sanitary Commis- 
sion, from NashviUe to such points South as 
may be desired. This letter, if exhibited to the 
Quarter-Master at Nashville, will procure you 
the transportation at all times, unless the exi- 
gencies of the service should make it necessa^ 
temporarily to suspend the permission. Gener- 
al directions to ship nothing but government 
stores, will not affect this permit Should it be 
necessary to suspend it, special directions will 
be given. 

I am, very respectfolly, 
your obedient servant, 

0. GrODDABD, 
Lieut. Col. and A. A. G. 
Dr. a. N. KreD, 
JT. S. Sanitary Commission. 

The next morning, fearing that he was 
wrong, he declined to send our stores. I 
in vain assured him we would only send 
something for the wounded men to eat, 
that would take the place of the stores he 
was sending, and would do just as much 
toward supplying the army, while it gave 
to the wounded a more palatable and nutri- 
cious diet. He admitted the force of all 
this, but feared he should be disobeying 
orders. Thus, several precious days were 
lost, no one, perhaps, censurable, but the 
wounded were suffering. At the same time 
we had a similar disappointment at Steven- 
son. Twenty teams were given to us — or- 
dered at Chattanooga to report for sanitary 
stores. After some delay they reported, 
but the mules were so poor, that it was ev- 
ident they could not return to Chattanooga 
even with empty wagons. At this time of 
discouragement came a dispatch to send 
stores to Bridgeport, that they might be 
ready for the iirst boat ; meantime, by a 
new order from General Thomas, I had re- 
ceived the use of one car a day from this place 
to Bridgeport. The boat would take stores 
only from Bridgeport to Eelley's Feny, 
some eight or ten miles from Chattanooga. 
Bev. Mr. Kennedy, who had tents, and the 
charge of the Lodge at the foot of the 
mountain, was informed that he was more 
needed at the Ferry— both that he might 
aid in taking oare of the goods as they weve 



The Sanitary Commission BuUeiin. 



Ill 



tinloaded from the boats, and also that he 
-might lodge and feed the sick brought to 
that place by the, ambulances, and 'who 
-must 'wait for the boat to return. 

Writing to Mr. F. E. CraiT', our store- 
keeper at Stevenson, he says, "I want you 
to be here -when the goods arrive, that you 
may enjoy 'with me the pleasure of seeing 
these hungry men receive their first supply. 
The want of food here is so pressing that I 
have often seen the soldiers gathering the 
grains of com which had fallen from the 
feed troughs of the mules, roasting and 
eating them." 

The pleasure alluded to they have ex- 
perienced, and now we are sending to 
Bridgeport, and have been since the 3d 
of this month, one car-load each day; and 
these stores are sent promptly from Bridge- 
port to Chattanooga. The amount of 'work 
to be done at Chattanooga 'was so great, 
that I felt compelled to provide additional 
help. In this emergency I applied to M. • 
D. Bartlett, State Agent from Wisconsin, 
to aid us in the general work. He prompt- 
ly consented to go, and is now rendering 
efficient service where help was most of aU 
needed. I also employed Mr. Wm. A. 
SutUff to take charge of the depot at Kel- 
ley's Ford, while Mr. Sill gave his entire 
attention to the care of the goods from 
the Ford to Chattanooga, accompanying 
.and staying 'with the teams. 

When the stores leave Bridgeport by 
boat, an agent goes ■with them to protect 
them on the way. Thus, with much labor, 
the way is now open for the speedy and 
safe transfer of stores to the extreme front 
of our army — and we are improving it 
faithfully. The Agents of the Commission 
in this department are located as follows: 
Bev. 8. C. Hoblet, Relief Agent, and Eev. 
J. P. T. Ingraham, Hospital Visitor, in 
NashviUe; Eev. M. F. lioomis. Hospital 
Visitor on the line of the railroad between 
this and Bridgeport; Capt. Brayton, in 
charge of Soldiers' Home; Mr. Charles 
Bobinson and Mrs. Hopkins, in charge of 
store room. At Bridgeport, E. H. Pooook 
and Dr. Coates, in charge of depot. At 
Kelley's Ford, Eev. Mr. Kennedy in change 
of Lodge; Wm. A. Sutliff in charge of 
Depot. At Chattanooga, M. 0. Eeed, M. 
*D. Bartlett, F. Jl. Graiy, M. Eeddin^. 



Ton are already informed the work each of 
these Agents is doing, by their reports 
made to you. To the best of my knowl- 
edge, they all labor kindly, faithfully and 
successfully. Eev. Mr. Hobit devotes much 
of his time to answering letters and tele- 
grams of inquiries sent both from Louis- 
viQe and from all parts of the States. 

In addition to this, he is particularly 
valuable in obtaining passes, transporta- 
tion, approval of requisitions, &c. 

Eev. Mr. Ingraham starts nearly every 
morning with a basket of delicacies — goes 
to some one of the 24 hospitals; and after 
obtaining permission of the Surgeon, ■visits 
all parts of the hospital; looking after the 
quantity of the food, and learning the 
wants of the sick, and if he finds any 
special cases of suffering, does aU that can 
be done for their relief. At the same time 
he informs the Surgeon that there are many 
articles at the sanitary rooms, ■which are 
sent expressly to aid him in the care of his 
sick, and that he can always have them for 
the asking. 

He leaves his delioafeies 'with those who 
are most sick or desponding, but never 
until he has obtained the approval of the 
Surgeon 'who has charge of the patient — 
thus respecting the rules and regulations of 
the service, and insuring the sympathy and 
hearty co-operation of each Surgeon in his 
work. 

Eev. Mr. Loomis is working in the same 
kind manner in aU the hospitals at Mur- 
freesboro', TuUahoma, Cowan, Winchester, 
Stevenson and Bridgeport; and at the same 
time visits as many as possible of the regi- 
mental hospitals at the different posts. 

Under the care of Capt. Brayton, the 
New Home in Nashville 'will not prove 
second to any in the Nation.' The building 
is well adapted for the purpose, and Capt. 
B. 'will now have it nicely fitted up. He is 
doing a glorious work. 

Mr. Eobinson's duties are most onerous; 
too much so for any one to do, and do 'weU 
— ^for any length of time. It is quite 
enough for one, even 'with the exceUeht 
business talent of Mr. E. , to keep the books, 
attend to recei'ving the goods, and the 
through or wholesale shipments. 

The many calls that come &6m so many 
quarters every day besides these, are'more 



112 



The Sanitary Commission BvEetin. 



than Mrs. Hopkins can attend to; I have 
therefore asked for them an assistant, so 
that -when Mr. E. is compelled to go to the 
depot, as he often is, then there may be 
some one always ready to receive applica- 
tions for stores, and to wait upon them 
promptly. I have informed you by letter 
Mr. Robinson feels able to do all this, but 
his friends feel that it is too much. Mrs. 
Hopkins gives the finishing touches of a 
woman's hand in the arrangement and dis- 
tribution of the many little articles pre- 
pared and sent by the ladies at home. And 
for every marked package, where the label 
is definite, at once sends a letter of ac- 
knowledgment. 

Mr. E. I. Eno, sent by the State of Illi- 
nois to look after the interests of her 
soldiers, is with us and of us, and ever ready 
to co-operate in the general work. All 
stores at his command, and they are many, 
are turned over to the Commission for 
general distribution. Mr. Eno also left his 
office and endured great personal exposure 
and hardships in organizing our depots at 
Bridgeport and Kelly's Ford — and the re- 
moval of the stores from Stevenson. We 
are under very great obligations to him 
for his timely and valuable assistance. His 
acts aU show that he regards the struggle 
in which we are now engaged as National; 
and that our sympathy and help should be 
given alike to all the sufferers. The only 
questions to be asked in the distribution of 
our stores being, Is he a soldier of the 
Nation? Is he in want? 

At Mui-freesboro' the hospitals are again 
enlarged, and a larger number of the sick 
and wdunded will be accumulated there 
than have been for many months. 

There is one general hospital at TaHaho- 
ma in charge of Dr. Woodward, otu- excel- 
lent friend because he is the true friend of 
his patients. As usual, his hospital is in 
' the best possible condition. At Cowan 
there is also at this time a large number of 
sick. The hospital at Stevenson is being 
removed. At Bridgeport there is a hospi- 
tal, where those brought from Chattanooga 
are to remain until taken on by rail. Here 
we have been feeding them on their ar- 
rival. Mr. Pocock telegraphed me that he 
fed 100 in one day, which he did with very 
little material to work with; had a toler- 



able supply of tin-cups, but had no spoons 
for his soup. He obtained volunteer help 
from one of the regiments stationed near. 

Mr. Kennedy is also doing the same work 
at KgUy's Perry, with better accommoda- 
tions. Mr. Eno informs me that he saw 
biTn feed about 100 as they lay in ambu- 
lances, too badly wounded to get out, but 
compelled to wait for the boat. The pas- 
sage from that point by boat to Bridgeport 
is made wiih little comfort and great expo- 
sure ; but it is luxurious when compared with 
the former dreadful ride in ambulances over 
the mountains, a distance of some sixly 
miles ; climbing the most rugged mountain 
sides with great difficulty, and then going 
down the other side as rocky, steep, and 
rugged; the rocks so large in the path that 
the patient who had become too exhausted 
to hold on to the sides of the ambulance, is 
from the motion dashed from side to side; 
or if there are two, they are thrown alter- 
nately one upon the other. 

Col. Paine, of the 124th O. V. I., shot 
through the thigh, was one of the thousands 
that took such a ride — and he assured me 
that he suflFered ten thousand deaths — ^that 
he would much prefer death to such a ride 
again; and he had no bones broken. 

The ride now by river occupies about 12 
hours, while by the ambulances over the 
mountains the average time, I have been 
informed, was five days, and sometimes 
much longer. 

I shall not attempt to give you any ac- 
count of the work at Chattanooga, relying 
whoUyupon your agents there, who I doubt 
not will report to you. 

The destitution of Chattanooga has been 
such that we have all felt more than usual 
responsibility, to do our utmost for its re- 
lief; and while we have met with a great 
deal of delay in shipping our stores, and not 
a little when we knew the decisions of the 
subordinates were not in accordance with 
the wishes of the General commanding, we 
have at aU times felt that all were disposed 
to go as far as possible, consistently with 
their understanding of their orders, to aid 
us in our work. I am informed that Dr. 
Perin, the Medical Director, whom I have 
ever found ready most heartily to aid in 
anything which he believed would enable 
him better to provide for the sick under his 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



113 



care — ^has given tis even more cordially than 
ever, every assistance in Ms power. While 
he does not believe that he can be helped 
permanently, except by those -who comply 
at all times with the rules and regulations 
of the service, he is decidedly opposed to 
duplicating the channels of supply for sani- 
tary stores, as well as to our sending for- 
ward any not designed for general distribu- 
tion. I cannot in justice close this report 
without expressing my thanks for the lib- 
eral help we have received from the Tele- 
graph Company in this place and in Chat- 
tanooga, and the kind manner in which 
that help has been given. 

We have used the telegraph largely — 
most of our communications have been sent 
free — and they have been sent from the of- 
fice with but little delay. 

I cannot better, illustrate the work of this 
'help than by the following incident. On 
the 12th of this month you telegraphed, 
" Sanitary Commission, NashviUe. Answer 
immediately; is Henry Ford, Co. F, 35th 
Ohio, aHve ? hospital 13— Father.— J. S. 
Newberry." 

Inquiry is at once made at the hospital; 
and I answer immediately— Henry "Ford, 
Co. F, 35th Ohio, is alive, slightly better; 
says — TeU father to come as soon as he 
can. " This soldier whispered in his feeble- 
ness, "I can't telegraph; it wiU cost too 
much. " He had given himself to his coun- 
try, but he had not money enough left to 
send such a message to his father. This 
message was one of the hundred sent free. 
I have found time to make but few care- 
ful inspections of the diflferent hospitals of 
the city — ^but have made inspection of a 
part of them. 

The large Field Hospital known as Cum- 
berland Hospital is located west of Nash- 
ville, about one mile from the State House. 
The patient* are furnished with tents. The 
cooking is done in wooden buildings erect- 
ed for this pmpose. The hospital is divid- 
ed into 4 divisions, each division into 4 sec- 
tions, each section is composed of 4 wards 
of 25 patients each. Each ward has a suffi- 
cient number of attendants. The washing 
is mostly done by contrabands. We made 
a donation to theni through "Sister An- 
thony, " of Cincinnati, of something Kke 150 
yards cotton cloth; they, like many others,* 
Voii. L— No. L 8 



have worked long without pay; and al- 
though they are used to it, I do not believe 
it is necessary. There are 60 of them in 
this hospital. The total number of patients 
treated the past month was 1,402 — 305 of 
which were surgical oases. No hospital 
gangrene, and but one case of erysipelas. 

Twenty-eight deaths have occurred dur- 
ing the month. 

Large shipments of stores are now being 
sent daily to Chattanooga and Bridgeport, 
and often to Murfreesboro' and Tallahoma. 
Very respectfully, A. N. Bbed. 

Dr. Newberry telegraphs: 

"I have just returned from Chattanooga. 
Our wounded were never so well cared for; our 
own work never better done, never more valua^ 
ble, or as highly appreciated. Every facility 
given us authoritatively, and especially by Gen- 
eral Meigs. Supplies were in abundance, and 
no hospital requisition left by us unfilled. Full 
stores still arriving in great quantities. Four 
thousand packages to Nashville, and over two 
thousand down flie Mississippi within ten days. 
I have sent large invoices over-land, and also 
by river to Chattanooga. AH our hands nearly 
worn out with hard work; shall write as soon 
as able. J. S. Neweebbt, 

^'Associate Sec. West'n Dep't U. S. Samtary Ccymmission. 
To Dr. Bkllows, Fresident." 



The following on the same subject has 
also been received: 

Genehai, Field Hospital, 1 
Stevenson, Nm. 3, 1863. J 
A. N. Eeed, M. D., 

IhspiKtfir IT. S. Sanitary Cnmrnv^sion: 
Snt — A low rate of mortahty and great immu- 
nity from suffering have attended the efforts of 
the Samtary Commission in supplying the sicli 
and wounded brought hither from Chattanooga, 
with vegetables, clothing and delicacies. I am 
happy to say that the various agents of the Com- 
mission have been unremitting in their atten- 
tions, and success has been their reward. 
I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient serv't, D. J. MoKiebin, 
Surg. U. S. Y. 



THE "HOMES" AT WASHINGTON AND 
LOUISVILLE. 

WASHINGTON, n. C. 

"The Home" is where sick and disabled 
soldiers, not otherwise provided for, are shel- 
tered, and fed, and cared for; where discharged 
men, waiting for their pay, can be protected, 
and those who have been paid, but are too 
feeble to go on, may rest; while others still, 
who, in reaching this point on their homeward 
journey, have exhausted all the hfe they had 
left in them, may quietly die, ministered to by 
the hand of kindness. These buildings are 
conveniently located near the railroad station. 



114r 



The Sanitary Commission BiiUetin. 



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Th^ Solitary Commission Bulletin. 



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The Sanitary Commission BvUetin. 



117 



well supplied with water, light and air, and 
contain accommodation for three hundred and 
thirty men, besides the buildings where the 
wives, mothers, and sisters of soldiers are pro- 
vided for when they come on to find their sick 
or wounded relatives in the hospitals, or in the 
army. Where there is now the "Home" which 
has given in the last year some 35,000 nights* 
lodging and some 85,000 meals, there was, two 
years and a half ago, the beginning made in the 
work of "Special Kelief" A single room was 
hired, with four beds, and a few soldiers, who 
were otherwise utterly unoared for, were here 
made comfortable until they could be sent to 
their homes, or hospitals, or regiments, as the 
case might be. Thus by degrees the place has 
grown into its present size. The " Home" is con- 
ducted upon principles of kind humanity, but 
with a strict regard for all rules of military dis- 
cipline. It never seeks to make pity an excuse 
for false tenderness, but rather to strengthen 
the muscles of war. For a report of the working 
of the "Home" during a given period, the 
reader is referred to Vol. L, No. 1, of Tta 
Sanhabt Commission BtrLLETm, pp. 12-16. 

lyOUISVUIiE, KY. 

The objects, methods, and workings of the 
Home at Louisville, are all explained by 
what IS said, above in regard to the Home 
at Washington. They are but parts of the same 
roof which would protect the soldier who faints 
by the way, and without weakening his energy, 
would still remind him of those who, even to 
the distant places, reach out a hand from home. 
At this Home, since January last, there have 
been over 25,000 nights' lodging given, and 
about 100,000 meals furnished. For more de- 
tailed account of its work see SiNiTiBY Commis- 
sion BxasJErni, Vol. I., No. 2, p. 51; also month- 
ly reports in the " Sanitary Beporter." 

The following is the report of the "Home"' 
for the month ending November 30th, 1863: 

Whole number admitted 416 

Whole number lodged 3012 

Whole number meals 7530 

From the following States: 

Maine 9 

New Hampshire 16 

Vermont 12 

Connecticut. 8 

Khode Island. 7 

Massachusetts * . 40 

NewXork 133 

Pennsylvania 41 

New Jersey 3 

Delaware 17 

Maryland 7 



Michigan 13 

niinois 3 

Indiana 4 

Wisconsin 25 

Ohio 17 

Invalid Corps. 39 

Eegular Army 9 

Missouri 2 

Minnesota 2 

Citizens 8 



THE AGENCY FOK THE PUECHASE OF 
FRESH HOSPITAL SUPPLIES. 

Six months ago the Sanitary Commission pro- 
posed to act as thfe unpaid agents of the hospi- 
tals in Washington, Georgetown and Alexandria, 
for the purchase of their fresh supplies. The 
proposition was seoondf d by maiiy of the sur- 
geons in charge, cordially endorsed by the Sur- 
geon-General, and immediately accepted by Dr. 
Abbott, Medical Director; and a general order 
was issued, directing all surgeons in charge of 
hospitals, at regular times, to send in their re- 
quisitions to an appointed agent of the Commis- 
sion, and to purchase only through him. 

The object of the Commission, in tmdertaking 
this work, was to secure to the soldiers in the 
hospitals a greater amount, with larger variety, 
and better quality of food than could otherwisa 
be purchased by the hospital fund; for pre- 
viously aU supplies had to be bought at the 
Washington markets, which are extravagantly 
high, and limited in variety. Most of the 
purchases had to be made on credit instead of 
afeoash prices; for the hospital fond by which 
supplies are bought is not credited to the hos- 
pital until the end of the mouth, when it is 
known how many of the rations due to that 
hospital have not been drawn from the Commis- 
sary. This new method defended the in- 
mates of the hospitals against such hospital 
stewards (of whom there were too many) as 
made their purchases in such a way that they 
gained money themselves at the expense of tha 
soldier. 

These ends were secured first by purchasing 
all supplies at wholesale prices at Philadelphia, 
where the whole State is a garden, by means of 
our agents, who had no single interest but to 
obtain the very best materials possible at the 
most reasonable cost, at cash prices; for the 
Commission advances the money day by da y, 
and at the end of the month collects it fcosLtha 
Commissary, by orders from the several hospi- 
tals. 

These supplies are brought to Washington by 
Adams Express Company, in arctic oars, which 



118 



the Sanitary Commission BvUetiri. 



mn daily. These cars are refrigerators, lined 
■with zinc, and carry ice. 

The supplies for the day, bought the afternoon 
preTions in Philadelphia, are ready for delivery 
at five o'clock in the morning, when the wagons 
are sent from the hospitals, each for its invoice, 
as ordered, leaving the order for the day follow- 
ing. Thus, with perfect system, aU wants are 
met, and every article in its season which the . 
best market in the country affords, is furnished 
to the soldiers in hospital. 

The hospitals say that their meajwere never 
before so well fed, with so good *»ariety, and 
at such reasonable cost The aifeage money- 
saving to the hospitals by this agency is esti- 
mated at about fifteen or eighteen per cent., 
with a corresponding increase of food for the 
soldiers. The accompanying report for Novem- 
ber will indicate somewhat the variety and 
amount of supplies purchased, and vriD give to 
the friends at home some assurance of the pro- 
vision which is made for the soldiers in hospi- 
tiJ, (especially when to this is added the fact 
the three great staples of nourishment, beef, 
bread and potatoes, are obtained direct from 
the Commissary.) This month of November 
has been the month of smallest orders during 
the six months. Some previous months, when 
the hospitals were fall, the amount purchased 
was nearly one-half greater than this. 



THE EICBMOND PKISONEES. 

The rebel authorities seem to be getting 
ashamed of their treatment of our prison- 
ers. If we are to judge from Mr. Foote's late 
speech in the Confederate Senate, their 
own public are shocked by it, as well as 
that of the North. But, in the meantime, 
there is little <^ubt that, let their will be 
ever so good, our men are not likely to be 
by any means well off, and the Commission 
continues the energetic despatch of sup- 
plies; but it is right to warn our readers 
that there is some reason to believe that no 
further distribution of them will be perm,it- 
ted by the Richmond government. Mr. 
Gall, our agent at Norfolk, reports, on the 
7th inst. : 

' ' The flag-of-tmce boat ' New York ' will start 
for City Pomt sometime this P. M. Enclosed 
please find an invoice of the supplies which we 
Bend by her. Maj. J. E. Mulford, commanding 
the flag-of-truce boat 'New York,' informed me 
this morning that substantial food would be more 
acceptable to our prisoners than so many deli- 
cacies. This was suggested to him by the rebel 
officers of exchange. No delicacies should be 
sent except those intended for hospital purpo- 



ses. I had an interview with Gen. Meredith 
this moning, who assured me that the arran^ 
ments for distributing the supplies to the pris- 
oners are very good, and that he has no doubt that 
most of the articles sent are distributed to our 
men. The General also informed that the offi- 
cials heretofore in charge of the Kichmond 
prisoners have been dismissed, and that other 
and more humane men have been appointed to 
take their places. This seems to augur well for 
the better treatment of our poor feUows. The 
General will continue to send supplies of food, 
&c., as often as twice a week. I received a let- 
ter from Gen. Dow, requesting me to send,for tho 
use of the officers in Inbby, about a dozen boxes 
of Seidlitz powders. I will write to Mr. Pan- 
coast, asking him to send them from Baltimore. 
The New York wUl probably not go up again 
before Wednesday or Thursday next" 

Lieutenant-Colonel Irvine, of the Tenth 
New York Cavalry, Special Agent of the 
Exchange Bureau, writes from City Point, 
Va., 23d ult., as follows: 

"For the last ten days I have been busily en- 
gaged in supplying clothing, commissary; hos- 
pital and medicsd stores to our prisoners, offi- 
c«rs and soldiers, and citizens of Bichmond. I 
do not doubt but a nominal degree of good faith 
will be observed by the rebel authorities in dis- 
tributing our supplies. Our intercourse in res- 
pect to furnishing and the distribution of sup- 
plies is amicable, and the rebel authorities 
manifest fair intentions. Our general govern- 
ment is supplying as much of everything need- 
ed as the rebel authorities can provide trans- 
portation for from this point, and enough, I 
think, to make our prisoners measurably com- 
fortable, so far as food and clothing are con- 
cerned. The Sanitary Coiomission and Relief 
Association in Baltimore. Philadelphia, and 
other cities, are also sending forward supplies 
of food, clothing and medicines. Hence 1 shall 
have no need to call on the New York State 
Agency, as I should certainly do if there was 
any occasion. 

Another letter says: 

' ' The government has sent up rations, blankets 
and closing, including caps, coats, pante, shoes', 
socks, drawers, and shirte. The Sanitary Com- 
mission is sending pillows, ticks, towels, cloth- 
ing, dried fruits, &c., beef stock and sugar. 
There should be sent vegetables and pickles. 
This can be done best from Baltimore. There 
axe not less than two thousand New York offi- 
cers among the prisoners. I think the best 
way will be to send one thousand dollars to 
Baltimore, to be used in the purchase of pota- 
toes, cabbages, onions, pickles, blacking and 
brushes, and fine combs. If monfey is srait to 
the men they cannot use it themselves. They 
have to send out by the guards to buy things, 
and the gaards make just such returns as they 
please. It is not recommended to send money 
to the men." 

' ' The first relief got through was from the San- 
itary Commission, consisting of fifteen large 
boxes of clothing and provisions. This was 
early in November. The Government are now 
supplying the regular allowance of rations, 
clothiug, &c." 



The Samlary Cbmrfdssion Bulletin. 



119 



THE FIELD KELIEP CORPS. 

Mr. Jolmson, the superintendent of the 
Field Belief Corps, writes: 

The movements of the Field Rehef Corps, 
Army of the Potomac, during the months of 
October and November, have been varied and 
interesting, embracing those operations of the 
army which began with the evacuation of Cul- 
pepper, and terminated in its retreat from near 
Orange Court House; of the military incidents 
during the retreat to CentreviUe; the subsequent 
advance to Warrenton; the attack at Rappahan- 
nock Station, and the recent advance across the 
Rapidan, by the lower fords; the papers of the 
day give full accounts. The Field Relief Corps 
■ during these movements has successfully car- 
ried out its purposes. 

Attached to the various corps ambtdance 
trains, it has been exposed to the dangers of the 
battle-field, but has escaped any losses from the 
bullets of the enemy, while its stores were freely 
offered to the unfortunate sufferers. This was 
particularly the case with the second corps 
agent, when the engagement near Auburn Mills , 
and later on the same day at Bristow Station, 
hazarded for' a time the safety of the army. 
The hurried evacuation of Culpepper was ac- 
complished without loss of importance, the 
stock in depot being placed in cars during the 
early hours of morning, and very shortly before 
the place was occupied by the rebel forces. 
During the various halts of the army and the 
establishment of hospitals in the field, our 
stock has been eagerly sought for and generally 
distributed with judgment, to gpod effect. Per- 
sonal intercourse of agents -tnth the sick in 
hospital and with the men in camp, can scarce- 
ly be carried to too great an extent. The more 
intimately we know the wants of the sick and 
of the healthy, the better qualified we become 
to apply remedies in the .one case, and preven- 
tives in the other. The series of questions to 
which the Chief Inspector has urgently called 
the attention of the ag'ents, is well designed to 
promote the good of the soldier. During the 
late campaign, the troops who were exposed to 
great inclemency of wet and cold weather, to 
rapid and fatiguing marches, bore up bravely 
against their trials, but will probably, after the 
excitement has passed aw6,y, suffer in sickness. 
The substitution of fresh beef, driven with the 
army and slaughtered, frequently relieved the 
soldiers from carrying considerable Weight of 
pork, and furnished a much" more desirable arti- 
cle of food. I regret to report that Geo. Longley, 
driver in the 5th corps, was captured vfith his 
wagon during the recent advance. The latter 



was recaptured, but Longley remains a prisoner, 
in whose behalf I ask the aid of our oflcers to 
effect his release. 



THE LODGES AT WASHINGTON. 

U. S. SaMTABT OOMMISSIOII, 

Adams' House, 244 I" Stbeet, 
Washihqtok, D. 0., Nov. ZOth, 1863. 
P. N. TUsiSF, 

Special Belief Agent, San. Cam.: 

Deae Sm — ^I have the honor to report the 
amount of labor performed at Lodge No. 4, 
Sanitary Commission, for the month ending 
Monday, November 30th, 1863. The first part 
of the month, the work was much diminished 
in consequence of the limited number of dis- 
charged men, but since the middle of the month 
we have been very busy. A large number of 
the men lately dischffl'ged are "conscript 
substitutes." The applications for assistance 
from females have been less than usual, but ap- 
plications for assistance from men on furlough 
have been numerous. 

Amount of money collected $13,820.64 

No. of cases in which pay was collected . 138 
No. of applications for assistance in col- 
lection of pay during month 136 

No. of cases where papers were returned 2 

Amount forwarded by draft $3,318.22 

No. of drafts sent 31 

No. of letters written , 218 

Cash received during month $182.41 

Expenditures $152.70 

Balance on hand $29.71 

Of the amoimt expended $65.55 has been 
loaned to persons with a promise to . refund, 
$9.75 incidental expenses and $77.40 expended 
on "special relief cases. $11.65 has been re- 
turned for money advanced prior to and during 
the present month. 

There has been an increased number of ap- 
plications for meals from members of the 
invalid corps who were down in the city on 
passes, but as there was evidence that some of 
the men were clearly not entitled to be admitted, 
the rule has been laid down to refuse them 
admittance, with exception of cases where there 
is evident need. 

No. of meals furnished 7,805 

No. of lodgings famished 1,099 

The work of procuring certificates for back 
pay, under charge of Mr. Brown, has been con- 
tinued, with some increased help, although from 
the short space of time the new men have 
been engaged upon it, tlveir work would not 
forward matters very much. Mi-. Roys wag 
assigned to duty November 14th, and relieved 
November 30th. F. X. Byrne was assigned to 



120 



The Sanitary Commission BvRetin. 



duty in the office November 19th, and to duty 
with Mr. Brown November 27th. Mr. Brown 
will report to you the amount of work done by 
him in detail, as by your order. The Special 
Relief Office has been papered this month, and 
with a t riflin g cost the comfort and cheerfulness 
of the same is much increased. 

It is desirable to have the inmates of 4Jie 
"clothing establishment," in the rear of the 
buildings occupied by the Commission, re- 
moved, with their goods which they have for 
sale. How this is to be done I am unable to 
Bnggest, not knowing how much authority the 
Commission has over the grounds, or how far 
down the line of buildings they have absolute 
control. 

The employees at this Lodge have generally 
shown themselves ready for all work assigned 
to them, and have done all in their power to 
forward the same. We have been caUed upon 
only once during the month for special help. 
On Sunday, November 22d, went to Alexan- 
dria with Mr. Kane and two colored men, and 
came up from there along with sick men on the 
cars, remained at Maryland Avenue Lodge 
until 2.30 A. M., and assisted in supplying at 
least 350 men with coffee, bread, &c. Hoping 
the management of affairs during the past 
month may meet with your approval, and ask- 
ing as a special favor to all the employees of 
of this lodge, .that Mr. Abbott may be speedily 
restored to the command, 

I remain, sir, your obedient servant, 

Wm. K. NEAi. 



HOMAGE DtTE FROM MAES TO HYGEIA. 
In July, 1861, orders were issued for the erec- 
tion of barracks in or near a certain city in a 
Northern State, to be used as a rendezvous for 
a new regiment of volunteers. Adjoining the 
city was a beautiful grove, a favorite place for 
occasional resort from the dust and heat of the 
town. It was desired that the barracks be 
erected in the grove. An Inspector of the Sani- 
tary Commission endeavored to show the unfit- 
uess of the site, urging reasons, the force of 
vi'hich afterward became sufficiently manifest, 
fhe barracks were erected on this thickly shaded 
plain. These were used some two months by 
this regiment, and it was then sent to meet in 
ihe field the enemy which its mission was to 
oonquer. But before leaving its camp of ren- 
.lezvous it had already met another foe, against 
nhich bayonets, bravery and patriotism were 
powerless. A protracted rainy season filled the 
camp with water and mud; for weeks the reek- 
ing atmosphere was saturated with poisonous 



exhalations; and before they had seen the faces 
of those in arms against their country, scores of 
brave men had yielded to an adversary which 
they never should have met. Ticerdy per cent of 
the effective force of that regiment was urmeces- 
sariiy lost before it had entered the field for 
active operations, and nearly thirty-five per cent 
before it had exchanged shots vnlh fhe enemy. 

This is given not as a solitary, but as a repre- 
sentative case. Other facts were given in the 
last number of- the Beporter, and we would com- 
mend a repemsal of the article from the Ameri- 
can Medical, Times to those who are influential 
in the formation of public opinion, especially to 
such as reside in the vicinity of recruiting sta- 
tions. A repetition of the miserable blunders 
of the past two and a half years would nowbe a 
crime offensive to God and 'disgracefcd to man. 
Medical men in civil life owe it to the service 
and to humanity, that^jhe best lights of sanitary 
science be made available in the preservation of 
the lives and health of those who are to fill up 
the depleted ranks of the old regiments, or form 
the complement of the new. 

Surgeon-General Hammond, in his great work 
on "Military Hygiene,'' gives us some figures 
relating to the money value of a soldier : "To 
put a soldier into the field costs the Go'vemment 
nearly four himdred dollars; should he die or 
become disabled in the service a pension is 
given." The cash value, then, of a regiment of 
a thousand men, before it has met the enemy, 
is nearly half a million of dollars, and by the 
same arithmetical calculation, each life in that 
regiment is worth more than one thousand dol- 
lars to the service, if that life can be preserved 
in full health and vigor to the end of the war, 
or until lost in battle. ' ' Looking at the matter, 
therefore, in a financial point of view, we per- 
ceive that it is a subject of serious importance 
that every means should be taken to preserve 
the lives and health of those who come forward 
to fight the battles of their country. " 

But the money value is the lowest value we 
can attach to the life of a soldier. Each member 
of a regiment is a citizen of the conntry; A man, 
occupying a place in the social organism which 
no other can fill. The proper care of these 
patriots becomes of incalculable importance, 
then, in view of the fact that by far the greatest 
portion of the loss to the service by death or 
sickness arises from causes which could and 
should have been prevented, by proper and 
constant attention to the conditions of health 
during the first few months of the existence of 
the military organization. 

The attention of the Sanitary Commission was 



The Sanitary Commission BvEeUn. 



121 



early directed to barracks and camps of rendez- 
vous as to fruitful sources <Si evil, and it has 
constantly called the attention of the authorities 
to the &ct. It has distributed in such manner 
as seemed to be most promising of good results, 
several hundred thousand pages of documents 
upon sanitary science, and tending to the pre- 
vention of such diseases as soldiers are most 
liable to in camp, field and hospital. It is always 
happy to famish such documents gratuitously 
to medical and military men in charge of the 
lives and health of troops. 

Human life is of priceless value; and in view 
of the fact that Sanitary Science bears the same 
relationship to so-called Sanitary Stores* that 
prevention bears to aJUempts at cure, we com- 
mend this subject to every well wisher of the 
soldier and of the country. We appeal to all 
whose voices are potential, and can reach those 
who are now crossing, or are about to cross, the 
perilous gulf which separates the civil from the 
military life, to give the note of warning, and 
point out how the danger may be escaped. 



AN OFFICER'S OPINIOIT, AOT) WHAT 
BECAME OF IT. 

" The Sanitaev Commission is a Humbug. 
It has done no good, and nevee wiu,." — This 
was the remark of an ofScer lately who had been 
in this hospital for some time sick; and perh^s 
I can serve the cause of humanity and the coun- 
try in no better way than by repeating the con- 
versation which then took place, and give the 
results: — "You think so, do you? What was 
the matter with you when you came here?" 
"Diarrhoea and scurvy." "What was the first 
thing done for you when you came here ?" "I 
had a warm bath and clean clothes; but what 
has that to do with the Sanitary Commission ?" 
" Never mind, we will see. Are you better than 
when you came in?" "Yes, nearly well." "What 
has cured you ?" " The vegetables, I believe." 
"Do you know where the vegetables came 
from ?" " iTo. " " You were in the Commissary- 
room to-day, and admired the stock of vegeta- 
bles, pickles, cabbage, cans of fruit, bottles of 
wine, and cordials, did you not?" "Yes, but 
why?" " No matter why. I want you to look 
at file shirt and drawers you have on, then go 
through the hospital and see one hundred and 
twenty-two men with clean shirts, drawers, 
sheets and "pillow cases; then go into the linen- 
room and I will show you enough more to 
change every man and every bed, and the whole 
of it came from the Sanitary Commission. All 
the pickled cabbage you and the rest have eaten 
have come from them, and they are ready to 
furnish as much more if I need it; and yet you 
say, without knowing what you talk about, that 
the Sanitary Commission is a humbug ! If it 
had not been for this Commission, you and the 
rest of those in this hospital from the Army of 

* Many of these are " Sanitary" that is promotive of 
health, or otherwise, according to the use that, is made 
of them. *> 



the Potomac, who have been suffering from 
scurvy, would be as badly off as you were when 
you came in. You have abused an association 
which has put comfortable clothes upon you, 
has provided the vegetables you needed to cure 
you, and has done the same for thousands be- 
sides you." "Doctor, I never knew these things 
before. I have heard that all they did was for the 
benefit of the surgeons about the hospitals; but, 
to tell you the truth, I never inquired. There is 
an Aid Society in our place, and I have dis- 
couraged my sisters from having anything to do 
with it; but no such word shaU come from me 
again." 

He was cured of his folly, humbled and sham^ 
ed, for it was at the dinner-table that the con- 
versation took place, and I was glad that others 
were present. This is not a solitary instance. 
I have had to contend with just such perverse 
ignorance for the past two years; but this was so 
striking a case that I thought it might do good 
to furnish it for publication in the Reporler. 
The Commission has aiAed and blessed me in 
my work ever since November, 1861; and I say 
again, as I have said before, "that no instru- 
mentality within my knowledge has done so 
much real good for the service as the United 
States Sanitary Conmiission." 

Benj. Woodwabd, 
Surgeon 22iJ III. Vol., in charge. 
V. S. Genekai. Hosfitai., 
TAI.LAHOUA, Tehh., Nov. 17, 1863. 



MISS NIGHTINGALE ON THE SANITARY 
STATE OF THE BRITISH ARMY IN INDIA. 

When the Eoyal Commission on the San- 
itary State of the Army in India disclosed 
in their Report the painful fact that in In- 
dia a regiment of 1,000 men loses by death 
100 men every twenty months, exclusive of 
those who f aU in the field, a feeling of hor- 
ror pervaded all classes. We knew, how- 
ever, that in busy, bustling England, emo- 
tions, even the strongest, are apt to fade 
away rapidly unless kept alive by contin- 
ual reminders. It is, therefore, with thank- 
fulness that we welcome the publication of 
the present pamphlet. 

Miss Nightingale's observations may be 
regarded as a combination of an epitome of 
and marginal notes on the Keport of the 
Eoyal Commission, and will be read by 
many who shrink from the ponderous dull- 
ness of a blue-book. The diseases among 
the troops in India are, she justly remarks, 
camp diseases; and the causes of them are — 
1. Bad water; 2. Bad drainage'; 3. Filthy 
bazaars; 4. want of ventUation; 5. surface 
overcrowding in barrack-huts and sick- 
wards. To begin with the first, Miss 
Nightingale exhibits a most melancholy 
picture of the supply of that great neces- 
sary, water. It is no fancy sketch, and 
is thoroughly borne out both by the " Sta- 
tional Reports " and the experience of those 
who have served in India. At Hyderabad 
(in Scinde) the water swarms with animal 
life. 

That terrible infliction, the "guinea- 



122 



The Sanitary Corrdtiissitm Bidkiin. 



worm " — a thread-like animal about a yard 
in length, -which gets into the legs and is 
wound out an inch or so daily — is one of 
the consequences of the bad water in Scin- 
de. "At Bangalore, the Ulsoor tank, used 
for drinking, is the outlet of the whole 
drainage of a most filthy bazaar (125,000 
inhabitants), for that of our cavalry, infan- 
try and horse artiUery barracks, and of the 
greater portion of the station. " The Com- 
inander-in-Chief testifies that he has for 
the last four years and a half frequently 
brought the subject to the notice of the 
authorities, but without result. At Secun- 
derabad a gallon of wat* contains 119 
grains of solid matter and 30 grains of 
organic matter; while at Surat "no one 
thinks of drinking the camp water." "At 
Asseerghur the same tank is used for drink- 
ing and bathing." 

Throiighout India the troops are sup- 
plied with water by water carriers, (bhees- 
tees,) who get it wherever they choose, 
and carry it to the barracks in leathern skin s, 
which are never cleaned out. No systematic 
attempt is ever made to iilter the drinking- 
water, though such is occasionally done by 
the soldiers, of their own accord, or some- 
times under the direction of the few regi- 
mental officers who are sufficiently enlight- 
ened to perceive the necessity of the act. 
Now for this neglect there is no excuse, as 
the process can be effected at the slightest 
possible expenditure of time, trouble and 
monejr. The more we reflect on the question 
of dnnking water, the more we are struck 
with its great importance, and the culpable 
apathy of those who are responsible for the 
terrible state of things disclosed by the Re- 
port. The impurity of the water consumed 
by the troops is of itself quite sufficient, 
and more than sufficient to account for the 
excessive mortality we have alluded to 
above. As ' a matter of direct economy 
even, money would be saved to Govern- 
ment by substituting for the uncontrolled 
water-carriers, with their dirty leathern 
bags — or as Miss Nightingale quaintly calls 
them, " water-pipes with a will,*' — a system 
of filtered water, conveyed by pipes. In 
Fort William, Calcutta, 134Z. per annum is 
paid to the water-carriers, with the most 
pernicious results. The argument is power- 
fully stated by Miss Nightingale in the fol- 
lowing passage: — "The reason usually as- 
signed for employing these human water- 
pipes in barracks, is, that they are indispeii- 
sable on field service. But so are tents; 
and yet nobody proposes to barrack men in 
tents in time of peace. " 

The subject of oleanUriess in so hot and 
dusty a country as India is scarcely less im- 
portant than that of drinking water ; and 
yet it will scarcely be believed that as 
yet the matter has been almost entirely ne- 
glected. Instead of offering every induce- 
ment to the soldier to keep the pores of his 



skin free from impurity, he is left almost 
entirely to his off n resources in this partiei- 
ular; or rather, from the deficieincy of ao^ 
commodation provided, he is positively dis- 
couraged from keeping himself clean. Ful- 
ly to appreciate the extent of the eyil, it 
must be borne in mind that even during 
quiescence, the skin is, in the hot season, ia 
a state of aetive perspiration throughout al* 
most the whole of the twenty-four hours ; 
while even in the cool season the sUghtesfe 
exertion produces profuse perspiration. lii 
the dry season, moreover, the soldier often 
arrives in barracks at the end of a march, or 
after a field-day, completely coated with 
the fine white dust which penetrates every- 
where. There are a few exceptions to these 
strictures, but so few are they as not to af- 
fect the general correctness of our stated 
ment. In one or two cases there are 
plunge-baths, but the stations where, with 
any regard to privacy and decency, the sol- 
dier can enjoy a good comfortable bath, are 
extremely rare. Even in hospif^ds, proper 
accommodation for washing is eiliier very 
insufficient or altogether deficient. 

Bad as is the water supply and washing 
accommodation, the drainage is even worse; 
and after reading the Report of the Com- 
mission and Miss Nightingale's remarks 
thereon, our astonishment is excitedj not 
at the amount of mortality, but at the fact 
that it is not greater. Let Miss Nightin- 
gale's facts speak for themselves: 

"At the capital of the Bombay Presi- 
dency, where civilization has introduced a 
'main drain,' two feet square, with 'a flat 
bottom,' this 'main drain' is a 'great nui- 
sance,' and the 'stench at times scarcely to 
be endured. ' At Fort George, in Bombay, 
the latrines are not drained except into an 
open ditch, * which is always in a foul state. ' 
At Madras, the main drain of the town is 
eighty yards distant from the European 
fort ; the effluvia from it is very offensive. 
* * At BeUary there is no drainage, except 
the fall of the ground. " 

The following paragraph discloses a stat6 
of affairs which is a disgrace to the nine- 
teenth century, and an argument unworthy 
of the feeblest intellects, even those belong- 
ing to people sunk in the intellectual apa^ 
thy of India: 

"At Secunderabad there is no drainage 
of any kind. The fluid refuse evaporates 
or sinks into the subsoil. A nullah, which 
intersects the cantonment, stinks. The ex- 
tent of the cantonment is so enormous, that 
it is said ' to preclude any general surface 
draining,'— a statement which j if true, 
would amount to this, that the occupation 
of gi-ound by human beings must inevitai' 
bly lead to disease; a statement as applicar 
ble, or rather much more applicable to the 
area of London than to that of Secundera- 
bad, and yet London is drained both ob 
the surface and below it." 



The SdmMry Commission Bulletin. 



123 



Poor humanity, not being of the quality 
of the Olympian gods and goddesses, im- 
peratiT«ly makes demands, for the satisfac- 
tion of which no arraJigement, or worse 
than none is made. But these details are 
too terrible for us. Let us pass to other 
matters. 

The ventilation of barracks is clearly a 
most important point, and One which in 
times past the authorities have shamefally 
neglected. Miss Nightingale tells us that a 
similar carelessness prevails in India. Here 
she somewhat exaggerates. The barracks 
in India are — ^whatever their other defects — 
as a rule, large, airy and well vehtUated. 
She relies for the truth of her statements on 
the Station Eeports given by medical offi- 
cers. It must, ho'^ever, be remembered 
that army surgeons are now, almost for the 
the first time — alas! that it should be so — 
consulted about other matters than pills 
and lancets. Their responsibility is no 
longer limited to doing the best they can 
for men actually sick; they are expected to 
pronounce on the best means for keeping 
them healthy. In short, their functions are 
preventive as well as curative, instead of, 
as formerly, purely curative. From this, 
perhaps, arises a little natural proneness to 
exaggeration, an insensible tendency to 
raise their profession at the expense of that 
impalpable load-bearer. Government. We 
must not in this be understood as depreci- 
ating their zeal, talent and conscientious- 
ness, or undervaluing the importance of 
their object; but it is well known that re- 
form long delayed is somewhat indiscrimi- 
nate in its attacks, and often seeks to cut 
away some of the sound timber together 
with that which is unmistakably rotten. 
In her remarks on "surface over-crowd- 
ing," Miss Nightingale is more accurate. 
The number of cubic feet of air allotted to 
each soldier in India is gelieraUy ample, but 
the quantity is too often made up of an un- 
due proportion of height. The flooring of 
the barracks is also extremely objectionable, 
being frequently either the ground bricked 
over or plastered with cow-dung. Dirt and 
vermin are the natural consequences of such 
a construction. Miss Nightingale's words 
in this place state the whole question of 
barrack accommodation so tersely and well, 
that we cannot refrain from extracting the 
passage: " To sum up: it is not economical 
for Government to make the soldiers as un- 
civilized as possible. Nature sends in her 
bill — a bill which has always to be paid — 
and at a pretty high rate of interest, too." 
Let us add, that if barracks were built on 
arches, a free current of air would circulate 
under the building, give facilities for venti- 
lation, and raise the occupants above the 
adasma which floats upon the surface of 
ite ground during a g£eat portion of the 
year. 

OvSt-indUlgenCe in iatoxioating liquors is 



the greatest bane of the British army all 
over the world, but particularly in India, 
where the circulation certainly does not re- 
quire to be quickened, nor the action of the 
Uver to be stimulated. We fancy that there 
is some mistake in the statement extracted 
from the report by Miss Nightingale, that the 
allowance of liquor permitted to be bought 
at the canteen is two drams of spirit, or a 
quart of porter in the place of each dram. 
We know that, at all events, in one regiment 
in the Bengal Presidency, it was understood 
to be the regulation of the service that one 
pint of porter was the equivalent of one 
dram of spirit. However that may be, it is 
certainly very important that tbe consump- 
tion of spirit should be diminished. The 
question is, would the prohibition to furn- 
ish spirits at the canteen * produce that 
effect? Would it not rather lead those 
men who had a hankering after spirits to a 
more active endeavor than at present to ob- 
tain the vile, poisonous arrack, even now 
frequently bought from the natives. That 
is the argument used by those who advo- 
cate the sale of spirits at the canteen. There 
are Kcensed native stills, — indeed, it would 
be impossible to prevent distiUing did we 
wish to do So — and who.could prevent a na- 
tive from depositing in some spot which 
might be agreed upon, the poisonous li- 
quor, which is even now furtively sold to 
the soldiers ? The reason why canteens 
have been established, was, that the dram- 
drinker might at all events be controlled, 
and obtain good arrack. To abolish dram- 
drinking at once would be impossible, for 
many men are so wedded, so long accus- 
tomed to it, that it has become more of a 
necessary of life than food. To the most 
confirmed drinkers the cornmissariat liquor 
is not a sufficient stimulus, and they have 
recourse to a mixture comirounded of na- 
tive arrack, chiUi-pepper, and other hot and 
stimulating ingredients. This stuff, which 
would take iiie skin 08 the throat of an un- 
seasoned man, is not inaptly called " hell- 
fire." No; dram-drinking cannot be stopped 
in a day, but it may gradually be extin- 
guished by raising the tone and intelligence 
of the soldier, and by always substituting 
beer for rum on the voyage out, and thus 
preventing him from contracting the habi^. 
Beer or porter is now generally to be met 
with in sufficient quantity at all stations, 
and a plentiful supply of excellent malt 
liquor can be obtained from the various 
hdl breweries. Pormerly the bulk, and 
consequent difficulty of transporting En- 
glish beer, formed one of the reasons for is- 
suing rum. This is no longer so much the 
case, though even now the supply of beer 
sometimes runs short. LethOlbeerbeused 
for the future, and all difficulties of this 
sort will vanish. Certainly the statistics of 
intemperance demand the serious considet- 
atiou of the authorities. The average of 



124 



The Sanitary Commission BiMetin. 



habitual druid^aTds in some European rep- 
ments is not less than 15 per cent. Again, 
it is said, "(at Hazareebaugli,] ' soldiers as 
a body temperate,' and one-third of disease 
and one-htdf of crime produced directly or 
indirectly by drink." Thirty-six cases of 
delirium tremens, five of which were fatal, 
occurred at Allahabad in one year; while at 
Chunar " the deaths were just twice, the 
crimes just ten times, as many among the 
intemperate as among the temperate ." Miss 
Nightingale teUs us, that "in Eurmah, 
when malt liquor could be had, health al- 
ways improved. A marked change for the 
worse took place when spirit was issued in- 
stead." 

Among other causes of disease in India, 
Miss Nightingale cites the cooking, which, 
she complains-, is conducted without Euro- 
pean appliances. Be that as it may, the 
result is excellent, and the soldiers take 
very good care to keep the cooks up to their 
work. As regards the question of an excess 
of animal food, there can be no doubt that 
the soldier in India does eat too much meat 
during the hot weather, and that extra 
bread and vegetables might be with advan- 
tage substituted. At present, the potatoes 
are often bad. This need not be the case: 
in the hills some of the best potatoes in the 
world are grown. 

We now come to a cause of disease and 
demoralization which yields to none in im- 
portance; and we are glad to find Miss 
Nightingale dwell on it with earnestness. 
This is, " want of occupation and exercise. ' ' 
During the hot season the soldier's life is 
positively a burden to him. Confined to 
his barrack-room from about 7 a.m. till 5 or 
6 P.M., during that interval he has posi- 
tively nothing in the world to do except 
smoke, lounge on his bed, sleep, grumble, 
play at cards, and read. Cards are, of 
course, not allowed; but under the circum- 
stances of a dearth of occupation, their use 
is often winked at, or, where ^ot, the pro- 
hibition is evaded. Everything which else- 
where he does for himsell is in India care- 
fully done for him. Native servants clean 
his room, cook his dinner, fetch his water, 
wash his clothes, and, in some instances, 
even clean his boots. Now, some of these 
things he could very well do for himself, at 
a great saving to Government, and a consid- 
erable physical and moral gain to himself. 
"\Vant of occupation not only directly pro- 
duces evU effects on the health of the man, 
but also indirectly, by inducing desponden- 
cy, predisposes to disease. Now, this maybe 
easily remedied. Covered gymnastic courts, 
covered fives courts, theatres, covered skit- 
tle-alleys and rifle galleries would afford at- 
tractive and wholesome occupation, which 
would be eagerly taken advantage of by the 
soldiers. The construction of such build- 
ings would, no doubt, cost money; but that 
money would be an excellent investment, 



for it would materially diminish the annual 
cost of replacing soldiers dead or invalided. 

The estabUsfinent of regimental work- 
shops is also a very desirable thing, and 
very properly urged by Miss Nightingale, 
as well as in the Station Reports. We think, 
however, that she pushes the matter rather 
too far, and that anything more than earnest 
encouragement and small loans woidd not 
be advantageous. It must be remembered 
that a complete and organized system of 
workshops is surrounded with practical 
difficulties; and it must never be forgotten 
that anything of this sort must be viewed 
as secondary to the principal object of 
making the men efficient soldiers. There- 
fore we would recommend that any im- 
provement in this respect should originate 
with the men, be conducted regimentally, 
and be merely fostered by the authorities. 
Were men to be struck off duty for the 
sake of pursuing their trades, the military 
work, such as guards, &o., would fall the 
more heavily on their comrades. A man, 
also, who was an industrious, skilled artisan 
would not long remain in the army, and 
would possess little zeal for his profession 
while he remained in it. 

Of course, in the matter of hospitals. 
Miss Nightingale may justly claim to be an 
authority ; consequently, that part of the 
book before us which relates to them, will 
be read with attentive interest. The state 
of things which she discloses is sad indeed. 
She says they "are, as a rule, exceedingly 
bad as regards points considered essential 
to health and administration, even in this 
country. What would be, e. ^., thought in 
this country of an hospital without a water- 
closet, or bath, or means of personal clean- 
liness? Such an hospital would be consid- 
ered as a mere makeshift, till accommoda- 
tion fitter for recovery could be provided." 

These are the chief objections made to 
the hospital accommodation and system in 
India ; but there are other minor points 
which we have not here room to touch on. 
At present, in severe oases of sickness, a 
man's comrade is told off to attend him. 
This we object to ; but not for the same 
reason as Miss Nightingale. She asserts 
that in such a case the nursing is bad; 
drink is introduced, and hospital discipline 
suffers. Now, under the supervision of the 
doctor's apothecary and hospital, sergeant, 
we do not see how such can be the case. 
As to nursing, a comrade, being the pa- 
tient's friend, is the kindest attendant he 
can have, and any unskilfulness can be 
easily remedied and removed by the in- 
structions of the hospital establishment. 
The true objection is, that it diminishes 
the effective strength of the regiment, and 
takes the men from their proper work. 
Miss Nightingale, in speaking of the native 
nurses, alludes to the difficulty the patients 
and nurses experience in communicating 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



125 



■with each other, and says that the native 
makes ' ' much more effort to learn the Brit- 
on's language, than does the Briton to learn 
the native's." Such may be true in Bom- 
bay and Madras. We believe it is ; but in 
Bengal it is- not the case. It has lately 
been urged that the number of hiU-stations 
should be increased to such an extent that 
a large portion of the army might be quar- 
tered in them by rotation. At present, we 
believe that in tiie Bengal Presidency only 
two regiments at a time can be so located, 
the remaining hill-stations being occupied 
by invalids. The Eoyal Commission re- 
commend that one-third of the European 
army, should be kept in the hills. Miss 
Nightingale's words on this subject deserve 
to be quoted: 

"It strikes one, however, that it would 
not be safe to depend for improvement of 
the health of troops solely on occupying 
hill-stations, with such an overwhelming 
amount of evidence as to the bad sanitary 
state of the stations on the plains, and even 
of not a few of the hill-stations themselves, 
such as Darjeeling, Landour, Nynee Tall." 

Sir Eanald Martin thinks that the best 
elevations have yet to be determined ; but 
he is of opinion that elevations of from 
2,000 to 4,000 feet above the level of the 
sea will be found the best. Those at pres- 
ent occupied are wet and changeable in cli- 
mate. The change from the plains, more- 
over, is too sudden for many constitutions. 
There can, however, be no doubt that it is 
very desirable to place a large portion of 
the army in such high stations as possess 
speedy communication with the important 
strategic positions in the plains. At the 
same time, too inuch must not be expected 
from the measure; the hiUs are preventive, 
but only very partially curative. 

What has been said concerning barracks 
may, in a wider and fuller sense, be repeat- 
ed of native towns, with whose sanitary 
state that of our i^rpops is also connect- 
ed, though in a less degree, because the 
barracks are generally at some distance 
from the towns. We have no room to say 
more than that small-pox and cholera are sel- 
dom absent from those of any size, and that 
the absence of all drainage and sanative ar- 
rangements is most disgraceful to otir cen- 
tury of absolute rule. The condition of 
married soldiers is much better in India 
than at home, but the accommodation grant- 
ed them is to confined for health. The 
plains during the hot season are not places 
where women and children can, generally 
speaking, flourish. The large mortality 
among them, compared with that among 
the soldiers, proves one or both of these 
facts. Miss Nightingale complains, and 
with justice, that when a regiment is sent 
on service, the women and children are not 
taken proper care of. It is impossiblip to 
exaggerate the evils and immor^ty wuch 



occur under the present system. She sug- 
gests that a picked married ofScer should 
be detailed to take charge of the families 
of those on service, and that arrangements 
should be made for a regular remittance of 
pay. To this there can be no possible ob- 
jection; indeed, to neglect it after the ex- 
perience of the past, would be criminal. 

We win not follow Miss Nightingale into 
considerations of the consequences of a vi- 
cious course of life in the Indian regiments. 
The Commission which invited her obser- 
vations on that as on other delicate ques- 
tions, probably thought she had no more 
sex than an angel. If so, she seems to us 
to have accepted the repulsive office with 
the sigh of a mortal woman, and to have 
performed it with the courage of an im- 
mortal angel. — AthenoRum. 



NOTteS ON NURSING. 

' ' The very first canon of nursing, the first 
and last thing upon which a nurse's atten- 
tion must be fixed, the first essential to a 
patient, without which all the rest you can 
do for him is as nothing, with which I had 
almost said you may leave all the rest alone, 
is this: To keep the aie he beeathes as 

PUBE AS THE BXTBENAL ATR, WITHOUT CHU/L- 

iNO TTTM. Yet what is so little attended to? 
Even where it is thought of at all, the most 
extraordinary misconceptions reign about 
it. Even in admitting air into the patient's 
room or ward, few people ever thiiJi where 
that air comes from. It may come from a 
corridor into which other wards are ventila- 
ted; from a hall, always unaired, always 
full of the fumes of gas, dinner, of various 
kinds of mustiness ; from an under-ground 
kitchen, sink, washhouse, water-closet, or 
even, as I myself have had sorrowful expe- 
rience, from open sewers loaded with filth; 
and with this the patient's room or ward is 
aired, as it is called — ^poisoned, it should 
rather be said. Always air from the air 
without, and that, _too, through those 
windows, through which the air comes fresh- 
est. From a closed court, especially if 
the wind do not blow that way, air may 
come as stagnant as any from a haU or cor- 
ridor. 

" With a proper supply of windows, and 
f, proper supply of fuel in open iSre places, 
fresh air is comparatively easy to secure 
when your patient or patients are in bed. 
Never be afraid of open windows then. 
People don't catch cold in bed. This is a 
popular fallacy. With proper bed-clothes 
and hot bottles, if necessary, you can always 
keep a patient warm in bed, and well ven- 
tilate him at the same time. 

" But a careless nurse, be her rank and 
education what it may, will stop up every 
cranny, and keep a hot-house heat when 
her patient is in bed, — and, if he is able to 
get up, leave him comparatively impro- 



126 



Th£ Sanitary Commission BvEetin. 



tected. Th"e time -when people take cold 
(and there are many ways of taking cold, 
besides a cold in the nose,) is when they 
first get up after the two-fold exhaustion of 
dressing and of having had the skin relaxed 
by many hours, perhaps days, in bed, and 
thereby rendered more incapable of re-ac- 
tion. Then the same temperature which 
refreshes the patient in bed may destroy 
the patient just risen. And common sense 
will point out, that, while purity of air is 
essential, a temperature must be secured 
which shall not chiU the patient. Other- 
wise the best that can be expected will be 
a feverish re-aotion. 

" To have the air within as pure as the 
air without, it is not necessary, as often 
appears to be thought, to make it as cold." 
— Mrs. NighHngale. 

PENSIONS, FUEIiOUGHS, AKDBACK PAY. 

TJnder the act of Congress approved July 14, 
1862, pensions are granted to the folio-wing 
classes of persons: 

I. luvAiiiDS, disabled since March 4, 1861, in 
the military or naval service of the United 
States, in the hne of duty. 

n. Wmows of officers, soldiers, or seamen 
dying of wounds received or of disease con- 
tracted in the military or naval service, as 
above. 

in. Ghudben, under sixteen years of age, of 
such deceased persons, if there is no widow 
surviving, or from the time of the widow's re- 
marriage. 

IV. MoTHEKS (who have no husband living) 
of officers, soldiers qr seamen, deceased as 
aforesaid, provided the latter have left neither 
widow nor children under sixteen years of age; 
and provided, also, that the mother was de- 
pendent, whoUy 5r in part, upon the Heoeased 
for support. 

V. Skstebs, under sixteen years of age, of 
such deceased persons, dependent on the lat- 
ter, whoUy or in part, for support, provided 
there are no rightful claimants of either of the 
three last preceding classes. 

The rates of pension to the several classes and 
grades are distinctly set forth in the, first seo- 
tion'of the act, viz. : ' 

Lieutenant Colonel, and all officers of a high- 
er rank, thirty dollars per month; Major, twen- 
ty-five dollars per month; Captain, twenty dol- 
lars per month; First Lieutenant, seventeen 
doUars per month; Second Lieutenant, fifteen 
dollars per month; and non-commissioned offi- 
cers, musicians and privates, eight dollars per 
jRonth. Only one fuU pension in any case 
will he allowed to the relatives of a deceas- 
ed officer, soldier or seaman, and in order of 
precedence as set forth above. When more 
than one minor child or orphan sister thus he- 
comes entitled to pension, the same must be 
divided equally between them. ^ 

InvaUd pensions, under this law, will oom- 
menoe from the date of the pensioner's dis- 
charge from service, provided application is 
made within one year thereafter. If the claim 
is not made until a later date, the pension will 
commence from the time of the appUcation, 



and will .contiQue for life, or until he is re-exa- 
mined. 

Pensions of widows and minors wiH commence 
from the death of the officer, soldier, or sea- 
man on whose service the claim is based, and 
continue for widows and dependent mothers 
until remarriage, and for children until they ar- 
rive at the age of sixteen years. 

I)edar(ttwms are required to be made before a 
court of record, or before some officer of such 
court duly authorized to administer oaths, and 
having custody of its seal. Testimony may be 
taken before a justice of the peace, or other 
officer having like authority to administer oaths, 
but in no case will any evidence be received 
that is verified before an officer who is concern- 
ed prosecuting the claim, or has a manifest in- 
terest therein. 

In support of the allegations made in the 
claimant's declaration, testimony will be re- 
quired in accordance with the following rules: 

1. The claimant's identity must be proved by 
two witnesses, certified by a judicial officer to 
be respectable and credible, who are present 
and ^tness the signature of the declarant, and 
who state, upon oath or affirmation, their behef,. 
either from personal acquaintance or for other 
reasons given, that he or she is the identical', 
person he or she represents himself or herself 
to be. 

2. Every appUcant for an invalid pension 
must, if in his power, produce the certificate of 
the captain, or of some other commissioned 
officer under whom he served, distinctly stating 
the time and place of the said applicant's hav- 
ing been wounded or otherwise disabled, and 
the nature of the disabihty; and that the said 
disabiUty arose while he was in the service of 
the United States and in the line of his duty. 

3. If it be impracticable to obtain such cer- 
tificate, by reason of the death or removal of 
said officers, it must be so stated under oath by 
the applicant, and his averment of the fact 
proved by persons of known respectabihty, ytho 
must state particularly all the knowledge they 
may possess in relation to such death or remov- 
£il; then secondary evidence can be received. 
In such case the appUcant must produce the 
testimony of at least two credible witnesses, 
(who were in a condition to know the facts about 
which they testify, ) whose good character must 
be vouched for by a judicial officer, or by some 
one knowQ to the department. The -natnesses 
must give a minute narrative of the facts in re- 
lation! to the matter, and must show how they 
obtained a knowledge of the facts to which 
they testify. . 

4. The surgeon's certificate for discharge 
should show the character and degree of the 
claimant's disability; but when that is wanting, 
and when the certificate of an army surgeon is 
not obtainable, the certificate of two respecta- 
ble civil surgeons will be received. These sur- 
geoUs must give in their certificate a particular 
description oi the woimd, injury, or disease, 
and specify how and in what manner his pres- 
ent condition and disabihty are connected there- 
with. The degree of disabihty for obtainiiig 
subsistence by manual labor must also be stated. 

5. The habits of the appUcant, and his occu- 
pation since he left the service, must be showtt 
by at least two credible witnesses. 

If the appUcant claims a pension as tike 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



127 



\ridow of a deceased officer or soldier, she must 
prove the legality of her marriage, the death of 
her husband, and that she is still a widow. She 
innst also famish the names and ages of her 
children under sixteen years of age at her hus- 
band's decease, and the place of their residence. 
On a subsequent marriage her pension ■will 
cease, and the minor child or children of the 
deceased officer or soldier, if any be living, un- 
der the age of sixteen years, will be entitled to 
the same in her stead, from the date of such 
marriage. > 

Proof of the marriage of the parents and of 
the age of claimants will, in like manner, be 
required in all applications in behalf of minor 
children. 

The legality of the marriage may be ascer- 
tained by the certificate of the clergyman who 
joined them in wedlock, or by Hie testimony of 
respectable persons having knowledge of the 
fact, in default of record evidence. The ages and 
number of children may be ascertained by the 
deposition of the mother, accompanied by the 
testimony of respectable persons having Imowl- 
edgeof them, or by transcripts from the parish 
or town registers duly authenticated. 

Similar proof will be required of the mar- 
riage of the claimant, if the mother of a deceased 
. officeE or soldier, and that she remains avodow. 
If the claimant be a dependent sister, Uke 
proof will be required of the marriage of her 
parents, and of her relationship to the deceased. 
Guardians of minor claimants must, in all 
cases, produce evidence .of their authority as 
such, under the seal of the court from which 
their appointment is obtained. 

Applicants of the last four classes above giv- 
en, who have in any manner aided or abetted 
the rebellion against the United States govern- 
ment, are not entitled to the benefits of this act. 
Attorneys for claimants must have proper au- 
thority from those in whose behalf they appear. 
Powers of attorney must be signed in the pres- 
ence of two witnesses, and acknowledged be- 
fore a duly qualified officer, whose official char- 
acter must be certified under seal. 

In all cases the post-office address of the 
claimant must be distinctly stated. 

Applications under this act will be numbered 
and acknowledged, to be acted on in their turn. 
In filing additional evidence, correspondents 
should Sways give the number of the claim as 
well as the name of the claimant. 

Applications for pensions are made to Son. 
Joseph 3. Bwnett, Commissioner of Pensions, 
Washington, D. C. and any claimant addressing 
him in person or by letter, vfill receive the ne- 
cessary printed forms and instructions. Appli- 
cations are QSHnmonly made through attorneys, 
or the agencies of the Sanitary Commission in 
Washington and Philadelphia, or other local 
agencies. The agency in Washington at 389 H 
Street is intended for applicants of every class, 
and from all parts of the country, and does all 
the business necessary to secure a claim in as 
prompt a manner as is possible, wWwnji any 
charge to the claimants. Persons wishing their 
el^iims to. be prosecuted by this office, should 
iad^ess Pension Agency of Sanitary Commis- 
sion; Washington, D. C.,and everything wiU be 
done for theiu in the promptest manner which 
&e nature of their evidence permits. 

Claimants who have recourse to local attor- 



neys ought tp be sure that they are dealing with 
men of known fidelity and honor. The fees of 
agents and attorneys are fixed by law, and are 
as follows: 

" For making out and causing to be duly ex- 
ecuted a declaration by the applicant, with the 
necessary affidavits, and forwarding the same to 
the pension office with the requisite correspon- 
dence, five dollars. In cases whenever addi- 
tional testimony is required by the Commission- 
er of Pensions, for each affidavit so required 
and executed and forwarded, (except the affida- 
vits of Surgeons, for which such agents and at- 
torneys shall not be entitled to any fees,) one 
dollar and fifty cents," (see Sec. 6, Oct. to Gen'l. 
Pensions of July 14, 186?.) The 7th Section 
of said act prescribes a penalty for illegal fees, 
and is in these words, viz. : " That any agent or 
attorney who shall, directly or indirectly, de- 
mand or receive any greater compensation for 
his services under fliis act than is prescribed in 
the preceding section of this act, or who shall 
contract or agree to prosecute any claim for a 
pension, bounty, or other allowance under this 
act, on condition that he shall receive a per 
centum upon, or any portion of the amount of 
such claim, or who shall wrongfully withhold 
from a pensioner or other claimant the whole 
or any part of the pension or claim allowed and 
due to each pensioner or claimant, shall be 
deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof shall for every such offence^be 
fined not exceeding three hundred dollars, or 
imprisoned at hard labor not exceeding two 
years, or both, according to the circumstances 
and aggravations of the offence. The require- 
ments of the law are often evaded notwith- 
standing the heavy penalties, and wiU probably 
continue to be evaded so long as invalids and 
other claimants are simple enough to put their 
trust in total strangers, of whose integrity and 
competency they have no knowledge. 

rUKLOTJGHS. ^ 

Applications for Furloughs should be made 
to the surgeon of the regiment or hospital. If 
sent to the Surgeon-General or War Depart- 
ment, or elsewhere, it is immediately referred to 
the surgeon in charge. 

The limitations to granting Furloughs are 
very stringent. 

Igt. None are given for any other cause than 
sickness or wounds. 

2d. In disability arising from sickness, the 
surgeon's certificate must show that the man 
cannot reasonably be expected to recover in 
General Hospital. 

3d. If in General Hospital, the certificate 
must be approved by the Medical Director. 

4. If in Begimental Hospital, certificate must 
be approved by Begimental, Brigade, Division, 
and Corps Commanders, as well as by the Medi- 
cal Director. 

BACK PAY. 

Our agent repoiis: 

The followifig statement shows what has been 
done during the month of November in procur- 
ing certificates for the back pay of invalid sol- 
diers iji the fiospitals of Washington, with the 
exception of the work at the Columhian Hos- 
pital, which cannot be shovm till I get a return 
of the list of certificates sent Hipx^, with the 
proper endorsement thereon. 



128 



The Sanitary Commission BtMetin. 



Whole number of cases taken in Nov 128 

Kumber jof cases completed by delivery I ^y 
of certificates, j 

" " by securing pay in full 17 

" " No. certificates granted 10 

Total number of cases complete 74 

Amount represented by tiie complete certifi- 
cates, S2813.82. Number of letters written dur- 
ing tiie month, 51. 

The first half of the month was spent in get- 
ting through some '• tough cases " which had 
Tain over from the previous month. 

The month of November not being a muster 
month, there has been no necessity for complet- 
ing the cases taken, and consequently the num- 
ber of completed cases do not represent the 
entire work of the month. 

There have been some applications by letter, 
for assistance in collecting back pay, by sol- 
diers outside of this department. 

Procured a certificate for over four months' 
pay, for a soldier in McDougal Hospital, Fort 
Schuyler, N. X I have assisted several cases 
of special hardship in the Invalid Corps. One 
man came to me having eighteen monihs' back 
pay' due, and as he told me of his service dur- 
ing this period, and of his poor old father and 
mother at home, writing to him for the assistance 
which he was unable to render, vaept at the in- 
justice of the regulation, which, while it com- 
pelled him to render service, still failed to make 
provision for his pay. I procured him a certi- 
ficate with considerable trouble, and he went 
on his way rejoicing. The Hospitals represent- 
ed in the work of the past month are Mt. Fleas- 
ant, Carver, Columbian, Des Man-es, Armory 
Square, Douglas, Stanton, Harewood, Con valet - 
cent Camp, and McDougal, N. Y. I am happy 
to say that arrangements have been made at the 
Paymaster-General's office by which those in 
the Invalid Corps will soon have their accounts 
settled. The work is now being systematically 
prosecuted. It is to be hoped that provision 
will soon be made for the prompt payment of 
all soldiers in the army. 



THE U. S. SANITAEY COMMISSION. A 
Sketch of its Purposes and its Work. Com- 
piled from documents and private papers. 
Published by permission. 
This book contains a rapid but accurate ac- 
count of the Sanitary Commission, of its organ- 
ization, of its branches, of its department of in- 
q)ection, of its fields of work, namely: 1st. 
General relief in the armies of Virginia, in the 
armies of the West, in the armies of the Gulf 
and Atlantic coast. 2d. Special relief in the 
Homes, Lodges, &c., &c., and the Hospital Di- 
rectory. It is written and published for the 
benefit of the U. S. Sanitary Commission. 

All persons desirous of knowing the truth 
about the Sanitary Commission are requested 
to read it. 

All persons desirous of aiding the Sanitary 
Commission are requested to buy it, for the en- 
tire profits of the book will be given to the 
Treasury of the TJ. S. Sanitary Commission. 

Price 75 cents. For sale by MessrS. Littie & 
Brown, Publishers, Boston, Mass. Orders can 
be sent by nuul The book will be ready for 
issue December 18, 1863. 



PROTECTIVE 

OP THE 

STATE OF NEW TOKK. 



OFFICE, 35 CHAMBERS STEEET, 



President. 
Ltbut.-Gen. WTNFIELD SCOTT. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Hon. HAMILTON FISH. 
JOHN J. CISCO, Esq. 
ADMIEAIi DUPONT. 
RUDOLPH A. WITTHAUS, Esq. 

Treasurer. 
EOBT. B. MINTURN, Esq. 

Directors. 

E. D. MOKGAN. 

GEOBGE OPDYKE. 

HIKAM BARNEY. 

JAS. W. BEEKMAN. 

H. W. BELLOWS, D.D. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOB. 

JAMES BBOWN. 
" WM. H. ASPINWALL. 
" JAS. GALLATIN. 
" HOWAED POTTER. 
" WM. B. DODGE, Je. 
" THEODORE ROOSEYELT. 
" PETER COOPER. 
" GEOBGE BANCBOFT. 
" DANIEL LORtt ■ 
" WILSON G. HUNT. 
" BOBT. L. STUAET. 
" ALEBED PELL. 

Apply in pereon or by letter, to 

HENRY GREENFIELD, Sec'y, 

35 Chambebs Street, 

New York. 



Hos. 



Rev. 
Mr. 



OBJECTS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

1st. To secure the soldiers and saihrs and 
(heir families, any claims for pensions, pay, 
or bounty, etc., withovi cost to the claimant. 

2d. To protect soldiers or sailors and their 
families from imposture and fraud. 

3d. To prevent false claims from being 
made against the Qovernmetd. 

ith. To give gratuitous advice and infor- 
mation to soldiers and sailors or their fami- 
lies needing it. 

ARTIFICIAL LEGS & ARMS. 

SBI^PHO'S PATBIVT, 316 BROADWAY. 

EeTABUSB£D 24 YeaBS. 

The most perfect aubsUtntcs for 
lost limbs the world of scieiioe has 
ever invented, can be had only of 
WM. SELPHO & SON, Patentoeb. 

N. B.— A Silver Medal awarded at 
the last Fair of the American Insti- 
tute and New Haven County Fairs. 




THE 

SANITARY COMMISSION 

bulleti:n^. 



Vol. I. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 1, 1864. 



No. 5. 



The Sahitaet Commission Bttlletin is 
published on the first and fifteeTdh of every 
moTvth, and as it has a circulation, gratuitous 
or other, of above 12,000 copies, it offers an 
unusually valuable rnediumfor advertising. 

AU communications must be addressed to 
the Editor, at the office 823 Broadway, and 
must be authenticated by the names and ad- 
dresses of the writers. 

THE BATTLE OP CHATTANOOGA. 

V. S. Samitabt Commission, 

LotnsTiLi^, Kt., Dec. Ith, 1863. 
Db- J. F. jEjTsnrs, 

GcTieral Secretary, New TorTc: 

Mt Dbab Doctoe — ^I have just returned 
from ChattaBOOga where I have passed the 
last two weeks, and from a tour of inspec- 
tion through the chain of agencies of the 
Commission which extend from Louisville 
to that point. It chanced, luckily enough, 
that I was at Chattanooga through all the 
exciting scenes of the recent battles, and 
was able to contribute something to the 
success which attended the efforts of the 
Agents of the Commission to relieve the 
wants and sufferings of the wounded. 

As you are doubtless impatient to learn 
more than you yet know of the recent im- 
portant events to which I have referred, and 
more particularly how fully the Commis- 
sion has sustained its responsibilities, I 
hasten to make my report as promptly 
as possible, and shall make it as full as 
the great pressure of other duties will 
permit. 

As a pre-requisite to a clear understand- 
ing of the military operations, the work 
of the Commission in and about Chatta- 
nooga, and a proper appreciation of the 
difficulties overcome, it is quite necessary 
that any one should have gone over the* 

Vol. L— No. 5. 9 



ground himseK; and I trust at no distant 
day you may be able to see with your own 
eyes some of the enemies, more formidable 
than rebel hosts, which our noble army 
have overcome in gainisg and holding the 
positions from which the recent battles 
were fought and victories won. Until I 
had been myself to Chattanooga, I had no 
just appreciation, even with description 
after description, of the daring and energy 
which had led General Eosecrans to follow 
to the very heart of its mountain fast- 
nesses, the retreating army of General 
Bragg; and after overcoming obstacles at 
first sight insurmountable, to seize and 
hold the key to all the lines of communica- 
tion through this great mountain-labyrinth. 

From near Tullahoma to Chattanooga, 
the whole interval is occupied with moun- 
tains of formidable height, terminating 
laterally in precipitous escapements, separ- 
ated by deep and narrow valleys, over 
which even a footman finds his way painful 
and perilous. In justice to those who 
planned and executed the military move- 
ments prior and preparatory to the late 
victories, I must say that our people of the 
Northern States have no just conception 
-of what our army has done and suffered in 
reaching and holding Chattanooga; and I 
am sure if all could see what I have seen, 
of difSoulties overcome, hardships en- 
dured, and privations so cheerfully suf- 
fered, there would be much' less than there 
has been of flippant criticism of the soldiers 
and the Generals of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. 

But if the country is more rough and 
difficult for military operations than any 
which our armies have before occupied, it 
is also picturesque and beautiftd beyond 
anything I have seen in the valley of the 



130 



The Sanitary Oommisaion BuUetin. 



Missiiisippi, and its climate, judging by the 
specimens we had of it, is in the highest 
degree delightful and salubrious. Chatta- 
nooga itself mWt have been, before cursed 
and blasted by rebellion, one of the most 



charming places on the continent. It 
stands in the valley of the Tennessee, shut 
in on all sides by picturesque mountains, 
from a thousand to two thousand feet in 
height, while the town itseU is in part 






W-«-WATEPiS'-SOH SC— 3^E 






%. SHERMANS DIVISlOW HOSPITALS 
A FORT WOOD 
B .■ NEGLEE 
C .r PALMER X 

E MOCCASIN POINT -. V* 

BATTERY 

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CUMBERLANIZ MT 

ffOO -/JSOO /^j^OV£ K/ySfS J ^ 




E)tPLANATlON 

REBEL CAMPS & PW5KETS 
^^ „ RIFLE PITS 
ii ,, '^ATTtmES 

Bi^ORa LATE RATTLI 



ThB Sanitary Oommiesion BvMetin. 



1 1 



perched on eminences of two or three hun- 
dred feet, from •which the lowlands, reach- 
ing to the base of the mountains, are all 
■clearly -rasible. When, therefore, I tell you 
"that the last battles were fought in a semi- 
circle around the points of view in the 
plain or on the mountain side, never more 
than three miles distant, you will concede 
that those of us who were present enjoyed 
an pjportunity of witnessing military 
evolutions — all the varied phases of attack 
and defence by artillery and infantry, of 
assault and repulse, of victory and defeat — 
•such as has fallen to the lot of few since 
IPriam watched the struggle between the 
Greeks and Trojans from the walls of 
Troy. 

Of the battles themselves, I do not now 
propose to say much, as it will be foreign to 
my purpose, and they have already been 
described to you in the letters of Army 
Correspondents and the admirable tele- 
graphic summary of General Meigs — so 
fully that it would scarcely be desirable if 
possible. I, however, enclose a topographi- 
cal map, which made at Chattanooga, more 
fully and accurate than any yet published. 
With this and the descriptions you have at 
command, you will be able clearly to com- 
prehend the successive steps by which our 
army secured its final victory, and appreci- 
ate, in some measure,«the daring bravery of 
our troops in scaling the heights of Lookout 
-Mountain and Mission Bidge. 

My business, however, is with the noble 
spirits -who /ell in these glorious charges, 
and it is with no ordinary satisfaction that 
I can say that, thanks to the proximity of 
the battle-fields to suitable receptacles for 
the wounded, and to the wisdom and energy 
displayed by the Medical. Officers, and last, 
not least, the prompt and potent aid that 
the Sanitary Commission with its abun- 
dant stores was able to render, none of 
those oases of neglect or protracted suffer- 
ing which have been considered as in- 
separable attendants npon the carnage and 
confusion of battle*flelds, so far as I know, 
were permitted "to occur. I am quite sure 
that I do not exaggerate when I say that 
'the wounded in no considerable battle since 
■the wai ^ began have been so well and 
promptly cared for; and I can say also-with 
equal confidence, "that the aidifendered 'by 



the Sanitary Commission has never been 
more prompt and efficient, more heartily 
welcomed, or more highly appreciated. 

Owing to the difficulties of transporta- 
tion — difficulties which had prevented the 
issue of full rations to the army since the 
battle of Chattanooga — our stock on hand 
previous to the battle was not as large as 
I could have wished; but we were accorded 
even more than our full share of suoh 
facilities for transport as were at command 
of the Quartermaster's Department, and 
fresh supplies of the most needed articles, 
including aU the staple battle-stores, con- 
tinued to arrive, so that our warehouse 
was constantly replenished, and every 
requisition was promptly. fiUed. Of con- 
centrated beef, mUk, stimulants of various 
kinds, compresses, bandages, dried fruit, 
vegetables, shirts and drawers, we -had a 
suffioient.supply to meet every demand. 

In order that you may see precisely how 
our work was done, permit me to take up, 
in the order of their succession, the princi- 
pal events connected with it during my stay 
at Chattanooga. 

Toward midnight of Saturday, the 20th 
of November, in company with Dr. Soule, 
I arrived at Kelly's Ferry, ten miles below 
Chattanooga. Here we were hospitaMy 
entertained by our agent, Mr. Sutliffe. As 
I shall have occasion to return to this point 
in the course of my narrative, I wiE for 
the present defer reference to the g^eat 
good which he has been doing here. On 
Sunday morning we started for Chattanoo- 
ga on foot. Kelly's Ferry was at this time 
the head of navigation-^the river being 
blockaded above by the rebels — ^and all sup- 
plies were transported from this point in 
wagons. As a consequence, we found the 
road blocked up for miles by trains going 
and returning, aU hurrying to accomplish 
their almost impossible duty of preventing 
the army above from perishing by aetuid 
starvation. Crossing Eaecoon Mountain, 
we came into Will's Valley, where we fotmd 
Hooker's forces occupying the vantage- 
ground gained by'their night-descent of the 
river, and came into fall view of the rebel 
encampments on the side, and rebel Ijst- 
teries on'thesummit of Lookout Mountain. 
From the latter, from tiiue'^to^time, jeame 
a. puff of <wkite smoke, and ihe «uUen -booia 



132 



The Sanitary Gommissfion Bulletin. 



of the forty pound Parrots, which had con- 
tinued day after day to throw shells, fortu- 
nately without practical result, sometimes 
into Chattanooga above, sometimes into 
Will's VaUey below their commanding 
position. Descending the valley, we crossed 
the river at Brown's Ferry, and traversing 
an isthmus some two miles in width, re- 
crossed the river to the town. At this 
time large detachments of Sherman's forces 
were leaving their encapment in Will's 
Valley and moving up the river, nobody 
knew whither. 

In Chattanooga I found our Agency in 
charge of Mr. C. Bead, occupying fine 
rooms which, with characteristic partiality, 
the authorities, had assigned to our use by 
displacing the CMef of Police who had 
previously occupied them. Soon after my 
arrival I called on the Medical Director, 
Dr. Perin, by whom I was most cordially 
received, and was gratified to hear him 
express not only a high respect and ap- 
preciation for the Commission, but bear 
strong testimony to the value of our Agency 
at this point, to him and to the army, as 
well as to the energy and discretion of our 
chief representative, Mr. Bead. The c,orps 
of agents on duty here were as follows: M. 
C. Bead in charge; Bev. W. F. Loomis, 
hospital visitor; P. B. Crarey, store-keeper, 
with two detailed men as assistants; M. D. 
Barilett, agent of hospital directory; A. 
H. Sill, transportation clerk. With Mr. 
Bead, I called at several of the headquar- 
ters, and from all the officials heard only 
kind words for the Commission, and as- 
surances of their readiness to co-operate 
with it by all means in their power. 

Chattanooga was formerly a town of 
about 4,000 inhabitants, containing some 
fine public buildings and many pleasant 
residences, with ornamented grounds and 
groves of beautiful trees; but it is now 
terribly desecrated and defaced, fences of 
all enclosures gone, fruit ajid ornamental 
trees alike cut down for fire-wood, all 
vacant spaces covered with huts an^ tents, 
the more prominent points crowned with 
strong fortifications, the whole surrounded 
by rifle-pits and lines of ciroumvaUation. 

On Sunday evening a large part of the 
11th Army Corps came up from belov, 
passed through the^town, with three days' 



rations in their haversacks, and took their 
position, without tents or baggage, in front 
of the fortifications. On Monday our 
forces moved out, formed in double line of 
battle, with a front several miles in length, 
posted reserves in, the rear, threw out 
skirmishers, and made a general advance, 
taking possession of the first line of the 
enemy's entrenchments, and occupied 
Orchard Enob in the centre of the valley, 
on which batteries were planted^ This 
advance was made in excellent order, and the 
ambulances following close in the rear aijd 
through the skirmishing, extended along 
the whole Une! The number of wounded 
was comparatively small, and they were im- 
mediately picked up and carried to the 
hospitals in time. On Tuesday, Gener^ 
Sherman having crossed the river three 
miles above, advanced, and without serious 
opposition took possession of the north 
end of Mission Bidge. 

On the morning of the same day General 
Hooker moved up from Will's Valley and 
attacked the rebel forces occupying Look- 
out Mountain, and by a most daring assault 
gained possession of all the northern 
portion, with the capture of many prisoners 
and the loss of 250 killed and wounded. 
The latter were immediately carried to the 
hospital established near his headquarters, 
where they were \yeU cared for by their 
own officers, supplies being sent to them 
from our depot at KeUy's Ferry near by. 
Early the next morning Mr. Bead and Mr. 
SiU went down and saw that all the aid 
which the Commission could render was^ 
furnished them. 

On Tuesday night the north ends of 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Eidge were 
aglow with the camp-fires of our forces, 
and we had the satisfaction of knowing that 
by the briUiant achievements of the morn- 
ing the blockade of the river was raised, 
and advantages had been gained which 
promised important results in the impend- 
ing struggle of the morrow. 

Wednesday morning our flag floated from 
the summit of Lookout, and our forces 
advanced on the rebel stronghold of Mission 
Bidge, from our right, left, and front. 
After much severe fighting on our left, in 
which Sherman's forces suffered very heavy 
loss, the rebel entrenchments along the 



The Sanitary Commission BtMetin. 



133 



base of Mission Eidge were stormed by our 
• advancing lines, and thten began that 
perilous but glorious ascent of its slope of 
1,000 feet at six different points, -wliicli so 
surprised and appalled the rebel garrison, 
and has covered with glory <fce brave men 
■who dared attempt it. ^ter an hour of 
suspense, inexpressibly painful to the thou- 
sands who were merely powerless specta- 
tors, the summit was gained and held, the 
roar of the forty pieces of artillery which 
crowned it was suddenly silenced, and 
we knew that a great victory had been 
won. 

Two wagcns had been secured before- 
hand, with which to transport stores to any 
point where they might be required; but 
no part of the battle-field being more than 
three miles distant from headquarters, and 
ample provision having been made by 
the Medical Director for the immediate 
removal of the Wounded to hospital, they 
were held in readiness to use, if needed, 
while Mr. 0. Bead and myself, with a small 
supply of stores, went over to the battle- 
field along the middle line of Mission Kidge, 
and Mr. Loomis went toward the northern 
end, to see if any help were required by 
the wounded of Sherman's Corps. By mid- 
night all the union wounded men on that 
part of the field which we visited had been 
transferred to hospital, and such of the 
rebels as remained in the houses to which 
they had been carried had received all the 
aid we could give them, and so at 1 o'clock 
we returned to the town. Just as we ar- 
rived, Mr. Loomis came in and reported 
that the wounded of the 15th Army Corps 
had all been gathered into the Division 
Hospitals, but that their expected supplies 
had not arrived, and they were greatly in 
need of our assistance. A wagon load of 
milk, beef, crackers, tea, sugar, stimulants, 
dressings, &o., was immediately dispatched 
to them, and was, as may be imagined, of 
priceless value. 

Early the next morning. Thanksgiving 
Day, Mr. Eead and myself visited the 
hospitals of the 2d, 3d and 4th Divisions 
of the 15 th Army Corps, situated three 
miles up the river. The 4th, containing 
the largest number of wounded, (399,) we 
found pretty well supplied, for the time 
being, with the stores we had sent up the 



night before; but these were rapidly disap- 
pearing, and, at our suggestion, another 
load was sent for and received during the 
day. The 2d and 3d Division hospitals, 
situated on the bank of the river, contain- 
ing respectively 75 and 230 patients, had 
received up to this time no other supplies 
than such as had been carried in their 
medicine wagons, sufBcient to meet the 
first wants of the wounded, but by this time 
almost entirely exhausted. Just as I was 
o£fering to Dr. Eogers, the Surgeon in 
charge of the 3d Division hospital, the 
resources of the Sanitary Commission, one 
of the assistant surgeons approached and 
said to him, "Doctor)! what shall we do? 
Our supplies have not arrived, oijr men are 
lying on the ground, with not blankets 
enough to make them comfortable. We've 
no stimulants, or dressings, or proper food. 
Now, if the Sanitary Commission only had 
an agent here, we should be all right." I 
was happy to inform him that the spirit he 
invoked had come at his call, and when I 
promised that in an hour's time he should 
have concentrated beef, milk, stimulants, 
dressings, fruit, vegetables, clothing, bed- 
ding and some "ticks stuffed with cotton, 
his satisfaction shown from every feature, 
and both he and the surgeon in charge 
spontaneously ejaculated, "Bless the Sani- 
tary Commission" — an institution of which 
they had abundant experience on the Mis- 
sissippi, where the kind and efficient minis- 
trations of Dr. Warriner were remembered 
with pleasure and gratitude. At the 2d 
Division hospital I met two old profes- 
sional friends, Dr. Potter, the Division 
surgeon, one of the most efficient medical 
men in the service, and Dr. Mesainger, 
formerly from Cleveland, Ohio. The meet- 
ing, I think, was mutually pleasant, and 
Dr. Potter, who was just mounting his horse 
to follow his division, expressed great satis- 
faction in leaving his men with some other 
resources than the light stock of supplies 
which they had brought in their wagons 
aU the way from the Mississippi, and most 
of which must be immediately hurried to 
the advance, for other battles were impend- 
ing. All these hospitals continued to be 
supplied from day to day with such things 
as were needed. 
In these remarks I would not be under- 



lU 



The Sanita/ty Commission BiMetin. 



stood as implying any neglect on the part 
.of the responsible medical authorities, for 
I have only to say that Gen. Sherman's 
Medical Director is Stirgeon Moore, U. S. 
A., to give all who know this oflScer assur- 
ance that his duty was done fuUy and weU; 
but as a consequence of the difficulties of 
transportation, to which I have referred, 
and which especially affected the newly-ar- 
rived troops, his supplies were delayed, 
and there was an opportunity for the Com- 
mission to render its assistance in the man- 
ner I have described. 

On Thanksgiving afternoon occurred the 
bloody fight at Binggold, in which we lost, 
ib kiUed and wounded, 500 men. Most of 
those wounded were soon brought into 
Chattanooga, but our stores, which were 
promptly sent, and iu abundance, reached 
them in good time, and became of great 
value to them. 

During the week succeeding these bat- 
ties, through which I remained at Chatta- 
nooga, large quantities of stores were daUy 
ii^ued from our rooms to all the hospitals in 
the vicinity; timely arrivals of the more im- 
portant articles compensating for the heavy 
drafts made on our stock. Of the kind 
and quantity of goods thus issued, you will, 
in due time, get a full account from the 
storekeeper, Mr. Crarey. 

The subsequent advance of our forces 
towards Knoiville was accompanied by two 
of the three steamers plying on the river, 
both loaded with supplies. By this means 
our transportation was again reduced to its 
minimum, and for a fevF days, in common 
with all departments of the army, we shall 
be able to get forward a smaller quantity of 
suppUes than could be advantageously used. 
We can calculate, however, upon a con- 
tinuance of the cordial co-operation of Gen. 
Meigs, Dr. Perin, and the other military 
and medical authorities, and the good work 
which we have been doing will not be al- 
lowed to languish. 

Before leaving Chattanooga, I must again 
express my high appreciation of the profes- 
sional and official merit of the responsible 
heads of the medical department. Dr. Perin, 
Medical Director of the Department of the 
Cumberland, and Dr. Finley, Post Medical 
Pirector, as also of the earnest and faithful 
corps of surgeons by whom their efforts in 



behalf oi. the wounded have been so abljr 
seconded. At the risk of seeming to sea 
all the workings of the medical department 
at this point en couleur de rose, I must say, 
that no instance of incompetence or un- 
faithfulness was revealed by my observa- 
tions; but, on the contrary, I found very 
much to admire in the zeal and success ex- 
hibited by all the corps of surgeons, who, 
with inadequate accommodations and Umit- 
ed materials, were able to make the wound- 
ed more immediately and entirely comfort- 
able than could have been expected or 
hoped. I am sure it would have quieted 
some of the fears entertained by our people 
in regard to the faithfulness of surgeons 
and nurses if they could have seen with 
what sincere gratitude they accepted at our 
hands the means of administering to the 
wants of the poor fellows in their charge; 
and frequent visits to the hospitals showed 
me that the wounded soldiers did actually 
receive and greatly profit by the gifts of 
our loyal women of the North. "Whatever 
may have occurred at other times ajid pla- 
ces, I am sure that after the battle of Chat- 
tanooga there was neither the opportunity 
nor inclination, on the part of surgeons oi 
nurses, to misappropriate stores furnished 
by the Sanitary Commission; and the Me- 
tropolitan Police, who enabled us to distri- 
bute to the sufferers the rare and much 
prized gifts of sound, fresh lemons. The 
loyal women who stitched the shirts and 
drawers, who rolled the bandages and made 
the arm-shngs; the Aid Societies and Branch 
Commissions who have sent us so liberally 
of dried and canned fruits, of milk and 
beef, wine, spirits, ale, butter, tea, sugar, 
farina, codfish, and other precious articles, 
which we were able to distribute in abun- 
dance — may rest assured that here, at least, 
they have accomplished aU the great good 
which they had hoped of them. 

As I expect that you wUl soon have a f uU 
report of the working of the Commission 
in this department, from the Rev. Dr. An- 
derson, it seems hardly necessary now for 
me to do anything more than merely allude 
to the other stations and agencies which I 
have just visited. 

Kelly's Ferry was, until recently, the 
head of navigation for our steamers on the 
Tenne ssee, and is still a ve ry important de- 



Thfi jBamtOtry. Commisaim BvEeUn. 



135 



BOt for the traas-shipment of Government 
stores. It is ten miles from Chattanooga 
by land, £(nd about forty by the river from 
Bridgeport. Immediately after the battles 
at CJhicaijaauga, the Rev. 0. Kennedy estalj- 
Jished a Lodge here for ps^sging soldiers, and 
pince he rea^oved to Bridgepoijt, the work of 
gupp^jring their wajitg, and of attending to 
the reception and shipment of goods, has 
been most faithfully and commendably per- 
fpimed by Mr. W. A. Sutliffe. He has 
been aided in his friendly of^ces for sick 
and -wounded soldiers, large numbers of 
whom haye at times been at this point, by 
Rev. Mr. Strong. I take great pleasure in 
acknowledging the hearty co-operation of 
Dr. Tailor, the zealous surgeon of the Post, 
and of Lieut. -Col. Cahill, of the 16th Uli- 
npis, commandant of the Post, who has 
been £|lways ready to aid the Agents of the 
Commission in every way possible, and has 
greatly helped us in forwarding goods, by 
detailing men to serve as guards for our 
wagons, and likewise for the accumulated 
gtores at the landing. 

Bridgeport is a very important point in 
our chain of Ageuoies — so much so, that we 
are compelled to keep a strong force, and 
they have been at times greatly pressed by 
their duties. There is here a large fleld- 
ho^pital, most adpiirably managed, by Dr. 
Wm. Varian, U. S. V. To him we are in- 
debted for the most valuable aid in establisli- 
ing our depot and lodge. The warehouse, 
formed of several large hospital tents, has 
been carefully arranged by Dr. Coates, Mr. 
Pierce, and Mr. Popoohe, conveniently near 
to the railroad station and the field-hospi- 
tal, while the lodge under the care of Mr. 
]Kennedy, assisted by two detailed men, is 
close upon the steaniboat landing. 

At Stevenson we have now no agency; 
but it is, expected that it will be advisable 
to re-establish one there soon. The "Ala- 
bama House " has been offered by the 
Quartermaster to the Oommissipn, to be 
used as a Soldiers' Home, and it is proba- 
ble that we shall avail ourselves of the op- 
. portunity of at the same time abating a 
nuisance and preating a blessing, by taking 
it. Stevenson is becoming an important 
location, and now has no suitable place for 
jthe aceommpdation of either officers or 
.men, well or sick. 



Murfreesboro' was, fpr a time, virtually 
abandpned when the army advauced; but 
large, uumbers of hospital patients are 
henceforth to be placed there. We have, 
therefore, re-established our agency', and 
occupy a spacious warehouSje, T^th Mr. E. 
L. Jones in charge. 

At Nashville, as you may suppose, there 
is great activity. Dr. !^ead superintends 
the midtiplied branches of the business; 
Mr. Eobinson, Mr. Hopkins, and Mr. Fpa 
attend to the large amount of stores pass- 
ing into and out of the warehouse ; Mr. 
HobUt and Mr. Ingraha,m respond to the 
many calls made upon them in the d.epart- 
ments of Hospital and Special Belief, while 
Capt. Brayton oversees the arrangements of 
the Home. I have the satisfaction of know- 
ing, from personal inspection and inter- 
course, that the varied and unceasing du- 
ties of these officers of the Commission are 
faithfully performed, often at the cost of 
much personal discomfort, annoyance and 
fatigue. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. S. Newbebet, 

Sec. West'nDep't. 



THE RELIEF AGENCY. 

Mr. Murray, Belief Agent with the Seq- 
ond Army Corps, writes: 

On the 4th of Sept. the undersigned re- 
turned from a short furlough, resumed his 
duties as Belief Agent with the 2d Army 
Corps, relieving the Rev. J. A. Anderson, 
who had been placed in charge of Sanitary 
affairs in the 12th Corps. The ordinary 
duties of special relief and of distribution 
of stores continue to be discharged by fre- 
quent visitations to regiments and inspec- 
tion of hospitals. On the 12th inst. the 
corps broke camp at Morrisville and moved 
toward the river, as a support to the cavahy 
who were then engaged with Stuart's forces 
on Mountain Bun. We halted for the 
night near Rappahannock Station, and re- 
sumed our march early the f oUpwing morn- 
ing, crossing the river on pontoons laid 
near the R. R. bridge. 

After we had passed three miles beyond 
the riyejr, the enemy were found strongly 
enkenched on the heights of Brandy Sta- 
tion, which the cavalry division pf Cren. 
Buford was hotly assailing. Tiie actiou 



136 



The Sanitary Commission BiMeiin. 



■was but of short duration, and resulted in 
the dri-ving of the Confederates to a point 
beyond Culpepper C. H. The ambulance 
train to -which my Tvagon was attached 
was very fortunately parted near the field 
hospital established by the cavalry, and I 
had the sitisfaotion of distributing a con- 
siderable quantity of stimulants and old 
linen to the surgeons in charge. The wag- 
ons containing their hospital stores and ap- 
pliances had been left beyond the river, and 
they were almost entirely destitute of the 
commonest hospital necessities. After re- 
maining at the hospital for an hour, my 
wagon rejoined the train and pressed on to 
Culpepper, which we reached the same 
evening, (13th.) 

I was thus enabled to reach ■ Culpepper 
and afford relief to the sick and wounded 
in hospital at that place, not only before 
the wagons of this or any other " Commis- 
sion " had reached it, but before even the 
supply "wagons of the Medical or Subsist- 
ence Depts. had entered the town. Our 
cavalry had already driven the rebels be- 
yond the Bapidan and the 2d Corps con- 
tinued their occupation of Culpepper and 
vicinity till the 16th, while the main army 
was being brought up from beyond the 
river. These days were spent in visitations 
to the various hospitals occupied by the 
cavalry' and 2d Corps, and the distribution 
of such stores as seemed necessary for the 
comfort of the men. This being the first 
test of the new relief system on the march 
and in action, it affords us pleasure to bear 
witness to the almost unanimous verdict in 
its favor, especially from the surgeons of 
the cavalry corps, who had been before cut 
off by the very nature of their movements 
from all assistance from us. On the 16th 
inst. we moved out from Culpepper, and on 
the following morning went into camp at 
*Sommerville Ford, on the Bapidon. Dur- 
ing the whole march my wagon, being on 
the immediate advance, was in such a po- 
sition as to reach cases which would per- 
haps otherwise have been neglected entire- 
ly. More than once has my wagon been 
stopped by a train of ambulances bringing 
the wounded from the front, and a requisi- 
tion supplied, or a call for a bandage, etc., 
made by some poor feUow, complied with. 
We remained in camp at the aforemention- 



ed point until the 4th of October, when 
the batteries opposite invited us to ske- 
daddle, which invitation the representative 
of Sanitary Commission was not the last to 
accept. During our stay upon the Bapidan, 
the divisions of our corps were so widely 
separated that it was found impossible to 
supply their requisitions from my wagon; 
I therefore requested the surgeons of each 
Brigade to notify the regiments of the ex- 
istence of our storehouse at the Court 
House, and requested them to make their 
requisitions upon it for supplies. This was 
generally complied with. During our camp 
here, the 3d Division, then lying upon the 
Slaughter Mountain battle-field, was visit- 
ed, thus completing my first round of reg- 
imental visitations. On the day immedi- 
ately following our bombardment, we were 
relieved by the 6th Corps, and fell back to 
the Court House; here we imagined we were 
about to make permanent quarters, and 
immediately began the establishment of 
division hospitals and the construction of 
camps. We remained in this position un- 
til the 9th, when we were ordered out upon 
the SperryviUe Pike to relieve the 3d Corps. 

The same night, about twelve, we were 
ordered to evacuate otir position, and com- 
menced our part of the celebrated run to 
Centreville. We removed all our sick from 
the Culpepper hospitals, and resuming our 
march, reached Brandy Station by day- 
light. Continuing our retreat, we made 
camp at Bealeton on the night of the 11th. 
The next morning we sent our sick to Wash- 
ington by rail, and during the afternoon 
moved again toward the Bappahannock. 
The troops reerossed and moved to Brandy 
Station, the ambulances and other trains 
remaining on the north side. Before day- 
light the following morning we were arous- 
ed, and again fell back this time on the road 
to Liberty Church. 

Passing the church, we reached 3 Mile 
Station on the Warrenton Branch B. B. 
the same evening. 

During the night we marched through a 
dense forest to Murray HiU. We remained 
there tiU 3 A. M. of the 14th, entirely sur- 
rounded, as we afterwards learned, by Hill 'a 
Corps, whose advance lay within a quarter 
of a mile of our lines. At about five in the 
mornin g, as we were pa ssing through a 



The Samtary Commission BuHetvn,. 



137 



ravine near Pox Run, our train of ambu- 
lances, ■wMch had passed out of our lines, 
■were opened upon by rebel batteries plant- 
ed on Auburn Hills, which rise beyond the 
Bun. Our position for a few moments was 
a very unpleasant one, between the bullets 
of those skirmishing on each side of the 
train and the shells falling around us. I 
had no doubt for a short time, that -wagon 
No. 14, its driver, and last, but not least to 
me, the agent, had purchased tickets for 
that popular route to Bichmond, via Gor- 
donsville. 

The cavalry succeeded in making a way 
for us to fall back, which we rapidly and 
immediately did. WJiUe the action was 
going on in front of us, I distributed sev- 
eral articles of stores to the ambulance sur- 
geons, there being no field hospitals estab- 
lished. We were able to resume our march 
in about two hours, when we continued our 
retreat, or rather run, as it now had become. 

Our fast gait enabled us to reach Centre- 
ville at 7 P. M. of the same day, where we 
went into camp. The fight at Bristow Sta- 
tion took place on this afternoon, lasting 
from 3 till 5 P. M. Our ambulances were 
considerably in advance of the troops when 
' the attack commenced, and as it was evi- 
dent that our troops would fall back, I sent 
my wagon forward with the majority. I 
however put a few articles in one of the de- 
tachment wagons sent to the front, and ac- 
companied them till I met Surgeon Myers, 
in charge of the wounded of the 2d Divi- 
sion, to whom I delivered them. The ac- 
tion at this time being nearly over, I re- 
turned to the train, which I reached as they 
were making a park beyond the Bull .Bun. 
During the whole of this night and the 
succeeding day, I remained distributing and 
relieving as best I might, the loads of suf- 
fering wounded men, which were every 
hour brought to the ambulance hospital. 

A large quantity of * blankets, shirts, 
drawers, wine, bandages, &c., were dis- 
tributed in the way of special relief. The 
Superintendent of Field Belief was very 
fortunately upon the gfround, and assisted 
me greatly by his advice and work. On 
the 15th the camps of our corps on the run 
were shelled by the rebels, who fell back 
the following morning, thus ending t^ 
stage of the fall campaign. 



Our five days of retreat, from the 10th to 
the 15th, were most severe in their character, 
wearing out both officers and men. The 
second corps were assigned to the duty of 
covering the retreat, which gave them much 
more severe marching, and led them into 
two actions which were avoided by the 
other corps. 

If I had been able to procure a new sup- 
ply of goods while at CentreviUe, such as 
were anti-scorbutic, they would have been 
of great use. As it was, I was compelled to 
economize my stores. On the 19th inst. 
we moved to Bristow Station; on the 20th 
to Gainesville; and the same night, over 
the worst road I ever traveled, we rejoined 
the main body of the corps at Auburn Hills. 
We changed our camp from this point to 
Turkey Bend, on the Warrenton Branch 
B. B., on the 23d. 

On the 28th inst. I went to Gainesville, 
at that time used as a depot by the Chief 
Quartermaster, but was unable to procure 
any stores, and returned to camp the fol- 
lowing day. On the 31st I started for 
Washington, and returned on November 
4th with quite a large.stock of goods. On 
the 7th camp was broken at Turkey Bend, 
and the hue of march taken for Kelly's 
Ford. During our stay at the former place 
a second visitation to the regiments was 
undertaken, and nearly gone through with. 
We crossed the Bappahannock on the 8th, 
with no serious fighting, and passing 
through the lately deserted encampments 
of the rebels, halted near Brandy Station. 
On the 10th we moved to Mountain Bun, 
and made camp on its banks. Here we 
remained for two weeks, and while here 
the ordinary duties of the Belief Agent 
were discharged. On the 23d we received 
orders to move, but, after passing a mile 
from camp, were recalled on account of the 
severe weather. 

On the 26th, Thanksgiving Day, we at 
last got off, and moved rapidly toward 
Germania Ford, on the Bapidan, which 
was crossed the same evening without 
opposition. On the next day we reached 
Bobertson's Tavern, on the Orange Pike, 
where we found the enemy in force. There 
was heavy skirmishing all day, but no 
general action was brought on. During 
the night the enemy fell back to Old Ver- 



138 



The Sanitary CoTfvip.issiim BvUeim. 



diersville and bekiiid the entrenchinents 
on Mine Eun, to the banks of ■which stream 
■we follo^wed him. On the morning of the 
29th, the 2d corps, two divisions of the 3d, 
and one of, the 6th corps, all under com- 
mand of Gen. Warren, were ordered to the 
Plankroad leading to Orange Court House. 
We reached Fairmont Church .in the even- 
ing, and nioved out before daylight to the 
front of the enemy's works. 

We remained on their front till December 
1st, when we were ordered back to Ctdpep- 
per Ford. We crossed the Ford by night, 
and re-entered our old camps on Mountain 
Eun the follo^wing day. The loss of the 
corps during the movement was about five 
hundred of all classes. The use and ad- 
vantage of the present system of field relief 
was more evident to me than ever during 
this short campaign. The weather was 
most intensely cold, and our supply of 
quUts and blankets relieved from suffering, 
or, perhaps, preserved the lives of many 
wounded. The wounded were all under 
tiie charge of Surgeon D-winalle, to whom 
many articles were furnished. I made it 
my business during the campaign to visit re- 
peatedly the field hospitals, which duty was 
particularly arduous after our movement to 
the right had left me the only representa- 
tive of the Commission ■with Warren's large 
command. I have the pleasure of reporting 
that my stock was adequate to the demand, 
and in no case was a proper call denied. 
During our movement the wounded were 
the major portion of the time in the am.bu- 
lance train. I was, therefore, able from my 
stores to furnish them daily soft crarkoes, 
tea, mOk, stimulants, &c. !|Every evening 
milk punch was made by the attendants, and 
distributed to those needing it. Through 
my observation of my O'wn as ■sy ell as other 
corps, and from the expression of medical 
officers, it is my impression that the Com- 
*mission brought itself most favorably before 
the army; and, what is better still, relieved 
a mass of suffering which would not have 
otherwise been reached, and gave many a 
poor fellow another sight of his pweet 
northern home who would else have slept- 
under the forest trees of the wilderness. On 
the 5th we moved our camp to Stevens- 
burgh, and on the 7th moved to Shephard's 
Grave, where the camp is a ];resent situat- 



ed. On the 6th the undersigned was relieved 
by Dr. G. E. Holbrook, and on the 10th 
returned to Washington. During the past 
quarter it has been his endeavor to keep 
himself as much as possible under the ^- 
rection of the medical staff of his corps, to 
whom he is indebted for many kindnesses 
and much valua,ble advice. In fact, as a 
representative of the Commission, he has 
met -with nothing but courtesy from aU the 
officers ■with whom his duties have thrp^wn 
him; apd his position has been rendered 
doubly pleasant from the uniform. kindi;te^ 
and sympathy of those under whom he has 
been acting. He has to return his thanks 
for the promptness ■with which all his de- 
mands upon their time were met, and for 
the amount of good he has been able to 
accomplish in his department. 

Mr. Kurtz ■writes: 

Having just returned from Brandy 
Station, I deem it a privilege no less ths^ 
a duty, to lay before you a few facts ■with 
reference to my field experience. Thurs- 
day, November 26, 1863, we received the 
order to move. It was jcay lot to be con- 
nected ■with one of the Field Eelief wagons, 
temporarily attached to the Ambulance 
train of the 1st Di-vision, 6th Corps. Left 
camp, accompanied by Captain Harris, 
Assistant Superintendent, and Mr. D. S. 
Pope, Eelief Agent, 6th Corps, at 6 o'clock, 
A. M. At 2 o'clock, A. M., (November 
27th,) the train came to a halt on the plank 
road leading to Germania Ford. An hoipr 
afterwards we commenced moving agq.in, 
coming by 8 o'clock in the morning within 
eight miles of the Ford. Though weary 
and. fagged out, we still preferred moying 
on to an uncertain halt, and felt no little 
indignation when hour after hour passed 
■without being able to put our teams in 
motion. At hist, at 8 o'clock in the even- 
ing, the wagon-master concluded to en- 
camp for the night, with the inten^iioE of 
crossing the pontoon bri4ge at dawn. This 
intention ■was carried out at 2 o'clock, A. 
M., (Nov. 28th,) and we reached Locust 
Grove at seven, where we fed our horses 
and breakfasted. 

Here the effects of the march upon the 
men began to be seen. Many foot-sore, 
hungry, sick and weary,lagged behind their 
regiments; andhere I had for the irsiticiJ 



The Samtary Commission BvUetm., 



139 



the satisfaction, as agent to the Sanitary 
Commission, to speak words of encourage- 
ment to the men,- and to administer to tbe 
needs of those who -were suffering from 
diarrhoea, &c., on the march. By. 4 
o'clock, P. M., the same day, we arrived 
at a -spot near the expected battle-field — 
moving by way of the Fredericksburg and 
Orange Turnpike. Hospitals were im- 
mediately extemporized for the various 
divisions of the army, and the men wound- 
ed in the engagement of the previous day 
were removed into them. During our stay 
here for two days, I visited frequently the 
hospital, 1st Division, 6th Corps, and find 
pleasure in stating that we were treated by 
the surgeons of the Corps with kindness 
and courtesy. Indeed every medical offi- 
cer whose acquaintance I made in my 
capacity as agent of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion, manifested the deepest concern, re- 
garding the comfort and needs of the men, 
and almost invariably inquired into the 
variety and amount of stores placed in my 
hands for distribution. 

December 1st, we started on our return 
to Brandy Station. About midnight the 
train stuck in the mud, and hundreds of the 
wounded were obliged to remain in the 
ambulances during the night. As soon as 
the impassibility of the roads was thus 
demonstrated, an order was given to camp, 
and the surgeons in charge of the wound- 
ed inquired with a loud voice for the 
agents of the Sanitary Commission. At 
once we repaired to the place, and in the 
darkness of the night delivered to the 
medical officers such stimulants, condensed 
milk and crackers as they needed to feed 
the wounded soldiers. We were moved to 
tears at the sight of the patient heroism of 
the sufferers, and our hearts were cheered 
■ beyond expression by the knowledge that, 
through the aid of the Sanitary Comniis- 
sion, the darkness and gloom of the night 
was lighted up for these wounded patients. 

At 8 o'clock in the morning we resumed 
the march. By order of the surgeon, 
another halt was made a short distance from 
Brandy Station. Here again the assistance 
of the Commission was called into requisi- 
tion, and the remainder of the beef extract 
and crackers in the wagon was distributed. 
Aitc r the wounded had been refreshed, we 



moved again until we reached the ground 
occupied by the division before the march. 
During the remainder of our stay with the 
army we were gratified at Ijeing able to 
furnish the medical officers with socks, 
drawers, &c., for the wounded, prior to their 
transportation to Washington. 

Allow me, in conclusion,, to state that 
my experience as pro tempore Field EeUef 
Agent of the Sanitary Commission, brief 
as it was, has satisfied me that the value of 
the Commission is appreciated by both men 
and officers ; so that I can well understand 
the truth of the remark made by Dr. Clark, 
(1st Division, 6th Corps,) after we had 
brought him socks and drawers for the 
hospital under his chaf ge : " I do not know 
what would hwe become of this army had 
it not been for the Sanitary Commission. " 
This remark simply echoed the sentiments 
of many officers and privates expressed to 
us at various times. It would be super- 
fluous in me to dwell upgn the importance 
of the field organization in the Army of the 
Potomac, under your successful supervis- 
ion. Thousands of sick and wounded 
soldiers throughout the land have spread 
the fame of the noble and self-denying 
worth of your agents in the field, sharing 
as they do many of the dangers and all the 
privations and inconveniences of camp life; 
and the day cannot be far distant when a 
grateful* nation, redeemed from the curse 
of treason, wiU pronounce the name of the 
U. S. Sanitary Commissio;i with a heart 
overflowing with gratitude. 

D. S. Pope, (Belief Agent, 6th A.rmy 
Corps,) speaking in his report of the move- 
ment, says, with reference to the 2d of 
December: * 

We started for Brandy Station, The 
roads were in a horrid condition. * * * About 
eleven o'clock in the evening we stuck, and 
remained thus until moniing. The sick in 
the ambulances suffered a great deal. The 
hard tack had given out, and also thejj? 
beef tea. We issued the crackers from Mr. 
Kurtz's wagon, and beef tea, rum and milk 
from mine. Captain Harris, our Assistant 
Superintendent, made some hot milk punch 
for them, which many declared did them 
more good than anything they could have 
had. 

Captain Isaac Harris, referring to the 



140 



The Samta/py Commission BuUeUn. 



same occasion in his report, says: It was 
here that the Commission was appreciated. 
The men had started with five days' rations, 
which were consumed on Monday night; 
consequently the sick and wounded in the 
ambulances would have been without food, 
had it not been that they were supplied 
with crackers, beef tea and mUk punch by 
the agents. The following morning they 
were served with beef-tea and crackers, 
and again at noon, when the army had 
reached its former camps. 



CLASSIFICATION OF WOUNDS. 

liETTEB FEOM DEPUTY INSPECTOB-OEN^BBAli T. 
LONGMGEE, PEOEESSOE OE MTT.TTABT' BUBGEET 
AT THE AEMY MEDICAZi SCHOOL, ENGLAHD, TO 
EBEDESICK Iii.W OIjMSTED, ESQ., SECEETAET OS 
THE SABITAEY 00MMI33I0N, WASHINGTON. 

Netlet, England, November, 1863. 
370 the Secretary of the Sanitary Commission, Washington: 

SiE — ^Inspector-General Dr. Muir,Princi- 
pal Medical Officer to the British forces in 
Canada, has forwarded to me copies of the 
valuable reports which the Sanitary Com- 
mission has issued from time to time, 
for the use of the army surgeons in the 
field. He has also sent me blank copies of 
the returns in use in the United States 
Army, among others the form of the 
monthly report of sick and wounded, in 
which occurs the tabttdab statement of 
GUNSHOT WOTTNDS, showLug the "seat and 
character" of each wound inflicted, the 
"side of the body wounded," "how re- 
ceived, " " nature of missile, " " treatment, ' ' 
and "result," with a column for short re- 
marks. 

There are some features in this tabular 
statement which, it appears to me, are 
likely to impair its utility for comparison 
with tabular returns of injuries of a Uke 
mature in other countries, and believing 
the subject to be one of great professional 
importance, I am anxious to call the atten- 
tion of the Sanitary Commission, and by 
its means, that of the surgeons of the 
American Army at large, to the classified 
form of return, or tabidar statement, of 
grunshot wounds which is now adopted in 
England. It is one which was arranged 
by an English surgeon of great experience 
in battle-fields, but who has lately retired 



from active service — Inspector-General 
Taylor, C. B. 

I trust that my professional colleagues 
across the Atlantic wUl pardon the liberty 
I am taking in sending this letter, for' the 
sake of the motive which has prompted me 
to write it. This is none other than an 
earnest desire that the sufiferings of your 
brave soldiers now in the field may, among 
other rewards, be attended with this good: 
that the additional experience in military 
surgery which their injuries are capable of 
giving to the stores of information already 
accumulated by the members of our noble 
profession, may be fuUy gathered, and that 
in this way the labors of army surgeons 
may be still better enabled to fulfil their 
high purpose of saving lives of the utmost 
value to their country in its hour of need, 
and of generally lessening the unavoidable 
miseries of war. 

It may appear to some surgeons, at first 
view, a matter of no great interest what 
kind of arrangement is adopted in army 
returns so long as a general nomenclature 
is used, and on the whole correctly applied; 
experience has, however, taught that so 
far from this being the case, the impor- 
tance of precision and accuracy in clasifi- 
cation is just as great as correctness in 
nomenclature, and that the nature of 
statistical and professional returns will 
bear exact relation to the degree in which 
this importance is appreciated. Such 
precision, indeed, is especially important in 
the army returns, with which military sur- 
geons have to deal, and in no department 
of the military surgeon's practice in which 
detailed returns are called for, is this im- 
portance more obvious than in the Depart- 
ment of Wounds, and especially of gun- 
shot wounds. In time of war these in- 
juries usually occur in large numbers to- 
gether; the occasions are such that sur- 
geons have no time to spare for entering 
into detailed reports of each particular 
case; and yet the nature of each case must 
be defined within fixed limits, if the re- 
cords furnished regarding them are to be 
turned to any practically useful resultis, 
whether as regards their surgical conse- 
quences, their ultimate results in disabling 
and invaliding soldiers, or in establishing 
compari sons betw een the effects of various 



The Sanitary Commission Btdletin. 



141 



modes of treatment. If wounds of different 
characters and gravity, -wounds complicated 
with serious lesions, and others simple and 
uncomplicated, are mixed together under 
one heading, then the deductions such as 
I have indicated, on being made, must be 
open to so many sources of error that no 
reliance can be placed upon them. 

I feel assured that the members of the 
Commission will fully join with me in esti- 
mating as extremely important, in a profes- 
sional point of view, the condition that, 
whatever form of classification be adopted, 
whatever form of tabular statement framed 
in our returns, these forms should be such- 
as will enable surgeons to compare with ex- 
actness injuries of like kinds and degrees 
of gravity as regards their statistical results, 
whether in respect to mortality, or the 
effects of operative interference, or other 
treatment. They will also agree, that these 
means of exact comparison should not be 
Umited to the tabular statements derived 
from different actions in which one and the 
same people may have been engaged, but 
should embrafte a far wider range; indeed, 
should be capable of being appHed univer- 
sally, so that the surgical results of warlike 
operations in all parts of the world might 
be placed side by side and compared. It 
would probably be attended with valuable 
practical results if an international congress 
of surgeons were formed for the purpose 
of agreeing upon a common classification 
and form of return of the mjuries of war; 
for until such a general arrangement be de- 
termined, there must remain a certain 
amount of needless imperfection in the 
statistical information derived from such 
sources. 

The tabular statement in the report of 
sick and wounde^ divides the seats and 
characters of the gunshot wounds into four 
principal sections, viz., flesh wounds, 
wounds of cavities, fractures of bones, and 
wounds of joints. These, again, are sub- 
divided into regions, or into particular 
bones or joints; but provision is not made 
for indicating such wounds as those of the 
larger arteries, nerves, organs of special 
sense, as the eye, and others. These inju- 
ries might be referred to in the accompany- 
ing remarks, but they would not be shown 
in the niimerical returns. A gunshot frac- 



ture of the cranium with depression, but 
without penetration of the dura mater, is a 
very different injury in its essential features 
than another injury with penetration of the 
dura mater, and the prospect of success 
from elevation or trephining in the one 
case as a remedial measure is widely dif- 
ferent from what it is in the other. But 
such special differences would not appear 
in the tabular statement, and without such 
limitations in the premises the conclusions 
shown in the column of results must neces- 
sarily be much impaired in scientific value. 
An examination of the tabular statement 
wiU. exhibit many other deficiences such as 
I- have alluded to: but I wiU not dwell on 
these, as they wiU njore readQy suggest 
themselves perhaps by an inspection of the 
'classification I am forwarding with these 
remarks. 

Before submitting Inspector-General 
Taylor's classification, permit me to take a 
brief review of what had been done in this 
country in the way of classifying polemical 
wounds previously to its appearance, and 
also to make a few remarks on the advan- 
tages of its arrangement. 

Strange as it may appear, until the year 
1855, and until several months after the 
opening battle of the Alma, there was no 
specific classification for gunshot wounds in 
this country. These injuries were shown 
numerically in the ordinary returns under 
the general term of "Vulnera Sclopito- 
rum," and a division of them was also made 
after each action, according to their sup- 
posed gravity, whether slight or danger- 
ous. The order which the English sur- 
geons received at the commencement of 
the Crimean War for the classification of 
the killed and wounded among the men of 
their regiments, and on which they acted, 
was the following: 

"As soon after an action as possible, 
medical officers in charge of corps will 
make out, and transmit to the Inspector- 
General of Hospitals, for the information 
of the General Commanding in Chief, re- 
turns of casualties, made out agreeably to 
the following form:" 



142 



The Sanitary Commission BiMetin. 



EETURN OP TnT.T.Tr.T) AND WOUNDED IN 
KEST., m ACTION OF 



Officers 

Non-conunission'd 
Officers and Men 



Wounded. 



s^ 



No other classified return of gunshot in- 
juries was furnished. This was the general 
form used during the Peninsular War, and 
during the 40 years which succeeded the 
closing scene of the Duke of Wellington's 
final success at Waterloo, no change in it 
was made. Such a form of return was 
scarcely in advance of the method of ar- 
rangement employed by Hippocrates and 
Celsus, into "mortal" and "non-mortal" 
wounds, of each class, of which they defined 
regular lists ; and scarcely so advanced as 
those employed by some of their succes- 
sors, who subdivided the mortal wounds 
according to the cavses of their fatality — 
such as wounds producing death by imped- 
ing respiration, by depriving the body of 
nutrition, by haemorrhage, and so on. 

In addition to the numerical and descrip- 
tive return above mentioned, it was ex- 
pected by the authorities ,that the histories 
of wounds of particular interest would be 
furnished in the monthly or annual pro- 
fessional reports of corps, but the regula- 
tions required nothing more. Sometimes 
surgeons of their own accord would tabu- 
late the cases which come under their care, 
for the sake of conciseness and order; but 
from the different views held by different 
surgeons, and the tendency that would 
naturally occur to put prominently forward 
some specially successful results, or features 
having a particular attraction for the sur- 
geons who reported them, no fair compari- 
sons could be instituted between the tables 
from different sources. Other zealous sur- 
geons, again,-would gather together groups 
of cases from a wider field of observation, 
for the purpose of investigating special 
questions, or illustrating particular doc- 
trines; but such summaries could only be 
made by an expenditure of much personal 
exertion, and they also too often contained 



the same elements of error as those I just 
now adverted to. 

The following is an example of individual 
arrangem£nt: The last year in which any 
considerable body of soldiers laboring un- 
der the effects of polemical injuries came 
to England, prior to the Crimean period, 
was the year 1848, when the nuUtaTy oper- 
ations in India, New Zealand, and the Cape 
of Good Hope furnished a number of 
cases of this class. The medical officer in 
charge 6f the hospital where these invalids 
were received, arranged their injuries in a 
special return, the first column of which 
was intended to show the nature and situa- 
tion of the wounds, and the remaining 
columns the yarious ways in which the 
patients were finally disposed of. On ex- 
amining the column of " Situation," in the 
first line, wounds of the head and face were 
returned together, and I need hardly men- 
tion what different considerations are in- 
volved in the wounds of these two regions. 
Then foUoWed wounds of the thorax: 
thirdly, of the abdomen: and fourthly, of 
the back; without any subdivisions to show 
whether parietes only, or the cavities con- 
nected with them, or any other complica- 
tions were involved in the injuries. Five 
headings then followed for wounds of the 
upper extremity, viz: Shoulder, arm, el- 
bow, forearm, and hand ; and six for 
wounds of the lower extremity, viz : Hip, 
thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot; without 
any indication to point to particular inju- 
ries of bones, nerves, or arteries, with which 
some of them were doubtless complicated. 
. The returns of a corresponding kind 
which have been handed down to us from 
the Peninsular campaigns, are, for the most 
part, of an equally unsatisfactory nature. 
Inspector-General Taylor referred to this 
fact, in proposing his classification, in the 
following remarks: " The necessity," he 
writes, "for some such classification as 
that now proposed, is obvious, from refer- 
ring to the returns drawn up during the 
Peninsular War. These will be found 
nearly uninteresting and uninstructive, in 
consequence of the want of due distinction 
amongst wounds of wholly different nature 
and quality. In the wounds of the head, 
chest and abdomen no distinction is made 
between simple flesh wounds of these re> 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



143 



gions and injuries of the more important 
■viscera. The returns do not even distin- 
guish between incised and gunshot -wounds, 
■which are of such totally different value 
even in the same parts ; all kinds of 
■wounds seem brought together simply as 
'surgical cases,' and in some of the returns 
of 'capital operations,' it is not clear 
whether fingers and toes have, or have not, 
been included under the terms upper and 
lower extremities." It is somewhat im- 
portant that the fact should be known of 
these uncertainties and serious imperfec- 
tions existing in the comparatively recent 
professional returns referred to, for in al- 
most all works of surgery they are quoted 
as standards of comparison, with a ■^^ariety 
of objects, to show the results of amputa- 
tion in dififerent.fegions, for example. 

Inspector-General Taylor commenced his 
classification of gunshot wounds in India 
at the time of the Sutlej campaign; but 
completed it in the present shape, while 
the principal medical officer at Chatham, 
before leaving for the Crimea. He sub- 
mitted it when in charge of the 3d Division, 
before Sebastopol, to the head of the medi- 
cal department in the Crimea, in July, 1855, 
and it was then ordered to be adopted for 
the army returns in general. A few months 
before that time Deputy Inspector-General 
Parry had employed it in classifying the 
wounded under his charge in the Surgical 
Di'vision of the Invalid Hospital at Port 
Pitt, duriug the period ending 31st March, 
1855 — the time whdn the first series of 
wounded invalids from the Crimea arrived 
in this country. This maybe safely said 
to be the first time that a general classifica- 
tion of gunshot wounds at all approaching 
to precision was employed in the army 
returns of any country. The purpose of 
the classification is' so well explained in the 
Deputy Inspector's Annual Beport'for the 
date just mentioned, that I cannot forbear 
quoting a few of his remarks on the sub- 
ject. 

"With a'vie^w- of forming something sp- 
proslching to a correct estimate, "he ■writes, 
"of these various wounds and injuries, I 
have, in the following table, claSsifiedthem 
aecoiding to different regions of the body 
in -whidih ■they were situated, and after- 
wards subdivided ' these ' under ■ «ach clsSsa 



into sevei^l species, according as they were 
either confined simply to the soft tissues, ■ 
or complicated with more or less injury of 
the osseous structures and articulations, 
or with lesion of important organs, vessels, 
or nerves; and these latter, again, according 
to the nature and degree of complication. 
This classification is framed according to a 
form of descriptive return of wounds which 
was drawn up by Deputy Inspector-General 
Taylor soon after the arrival of wounded 
into this establishment, but is extended 
more in detail." 

The extension to which Mr. Parry here 
refers, he adapted to the particular oases 
which happened to fall under his care. 
Thus, under Class 2, ""Gunshot wounds of 
the face," Mr. Parry extended the distinc- 
tions into those complicated with injury to 
bones and lesion of one eye, lesion of both 
eyes, lesion of one ear, lesion of eye, 
ear, and sense of taste, and so on. The 
classification readily admits of such sub- 
divisions as these, and this one of 'the great 
advantages of its arrangements. 

As will be seen by reference to the classi- 
fication, gunshot wounds are divided into 
12 classes. Inspector-General Taylor sidded 
three other classes — one for sword wounds, 
a second for lance and bayonet wounds, 
and a third for miscellaneous wounds not 
included in the foregoing; so that aU the 
injuries received in action might find a 
place in the returns. 

I will conclude this letter by appending 
Inspector-General Taylor's classification, 
arranged in form for a descriptive numeri- 
cal return. (See form A.) When required 
for a detailed description of particular 
cases, the headings of the return are simply 
printed over a wider space, so as to leave 
room for remarks under each heading. 
(See form B.) Finally, permit me to ex- 
press the hope that the subject may be 
thought not unworthy of the consideration 
of the members of the Sanitary Commis- 
sion, and that the remarks I have made 
may lead to discussion of the qu6gtioix 
'whether this classification is best' suited to 
ensure precision of tabulation, or requires 
"further improvement. 

I aiu, fir,, your obedient servant, 

Thomas -XjoimuoBE. 



144 



The Sanitary Commission Bullefm, 



LForm A.] Deeorlptive ]^Tiinerical*Betnm of Wounds and Ii^-nrieB recedved in Acflon, admitted into the 

, between t^ie of , and of ^ 186-. 

_ , the rof 186-. 



diASSIFICATION AND SPECIFICATION <jiF WOTINDS Am> INJTJEIES. 



1. 

Gun-shot 

Woxmds 

cHT the 

Hjead. 



Gun-shot 

Wonnds 

of the 

Fax;e. 

3. 

Gtm-shot 

Wounds 

of the 

Heck. 



4. 

Gnn-sliot 

Wonnds 

of the 

Chest. 



5. 

Gnu-shot 

Wounds 

of the 

Abdomea. 



Gun-shot 

Wounds 

of Back and 

Spine, 



1. Contusions and simple flesh wounds of Scalp | sTy^* 

2. With contusion or firacture of the craninm, without depres- 

sion 

3. Ditto, with depression . . 
4:. Penetrating the cranium 
5. Perforating do. 



1. Simple flesh contusions and woimds A oTy^ 

2. Paaetraiihg, perforating, or laceratiDg the bony structures, 

without lesion of important organs^ 

3. Ditto, with lesion ( 

of the 1 

i. With fracture of the lower jaw 

1. Simple flesh contusions and wounds | gT-f^e* 

2. With injury of the, . . 

1. Simple flesh contusions and wounds I grfg-g' 

2. 

3. 



With injury of bony or cartilaginous parietes, without lesion 

of contents 

With lesion of contents%y contusion, or with non-penetrating 

wound 

Penetrating, and ball lodged, or apparently lodged. 
Perforating contents | Superficially. 



. \Deeply- 

1. Simple flesh contusions and wounds j ^y^g 

2. Contusion or non-penetrating ( 

wound, with lesion of \ 

3. Penetrating or perforating, J 

with lesion of \ 

1. Simple flesh contusions and wounds I gg5^g 

2. With fracture of vertebra, -without lesion of spmal cord 

3. With lesion of spioal cord 



7. Gun-shot Contusions and Wounds of 
the Perineum and Genital and Uri- 
ziary Organs, not being at the same 
time Wounds of the Peritoneum. . 

1. Simple flesh contusions and wounds | SfS^* 

2. With contusion and partial fracture of long bones, induding 
fracture of the davicle and spapula , 

3. Simple fracture of long bones by contusion from round shot . . 

I Humerus 
Radius , 
TJlna" 
Ulna and Iladlus. 
All three bones . . 
6. Penetrating, perforating, or lacerating the several Btructures 

of tiie carpus and metocarpus 

6. Dividing or lacerating the structures of the fingers or tiiumbs 

1. Simple flesb contusions and wounds | °"S"t'- 

2. With contusion and partial fracture of long bones 

3. With simple fracture of long bones by contusion of round shot. 

i Femur 
Tibia only 
Fibula only 
Tibia and Fibula. 
All three bones.. 

5. penetrating, perforating, or lacerating the several structures 
of the tarsus and metatarsus 

6. Dividing or lacerating the structiures of the toes, 

10. Gun-shot Wounds, with direct injury of the large arteries, not being at the 

same time cases of compound fracture 

11. Gun-shot Wounds, with ^ect penetration or per- 1 Witii fracture of bone. 

foration of the larger joints \ Without fracture. 

12. Gun-shot Woimde, with direct injury of the large nerves, not being at the 

same time cases of ccnnpound fracture 

18. Sword, wounds of , 

14. Lwce and bayonet, wounds of , 

16. Miscellaneous Wounds and Injuries received inaction, 

Total Wounds and Injuries received in 8 



8'. 

Gun-ahot 

Wounds 

of the 

Dpper 

Extremities 



9. 

Gun-shot 

Wounds 

of the 

Lower 

Extremities. 



a 



If 



:S 5b ■si 
a a<« .is 



T&tSBeSBJLED 



o, . 



rrj © ■ O 

PI 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



145 



(Form B.) 

CLASS I. 

GtTNSHOT •WOUNDS OP THE HBAD. 
1. 

Oontnsions and simple flesli 
wounds of the scalp. 
SUght. 
Severe. 
2. 
With contusion oi* fracture 
of the cranium, without 
depression. 

3. 
With fracture of cranium, 
with depression. 

4. 
Gunshot wound penetrat- 
ing the cranium. 

5. 
Gunshot wound perforating 
the cranium. 

■ CLASS IL 

GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE FACE. 
1. 

Simple flesh wound. 

SUght. 
Severe. 
2. 
Lacerating the bony struc- 
tures, without lesion of im- 
portant organs. 

3. 
Laceration, with injury to 

the palate. 

4. 
Laceration of face, with 
injury to the tongue. 
5.. 
Gunshot fracture of lower 
jaw. 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 
is in urgent want of funds. Its operations 
for the relief of the Army were never more 
extensive and effective than now. Its de- 
pots and agents are at every military center, 
from Washington to the Eio Grande. The 
money value of the supplies it issued to the 
Army of the Potomac during and imme- 
diately after Gettysburg, exceeded seventy 
thousand dollars. Its issues at Chatta- 
nooga were on a like scale. Thousands of 
men needing " Special Belief," are daily, 
cared for in its " Homes." Its steamboats 



and wagon-trains foUow our soldiers every- 
where. Its other and equally important 
departments of work — sanitary inspection, 
hospital inspection, hospital directory, 
transportation of the sick and wounded, 
&c., are in fuU operation. The cost of all 
this life-saving work is not less than forty- 
five thousand dollars per month. 

Its funds are now much reduced, and im- 
mediate contributions are required to sus- 
tain it. 

The Fairs that have been got up with 
such admirable and unprecedented energy 
and success at Chicago, Cincinnati, . anc4 
Boston, though reported everywhere as 
" for the benefit of th^ Sanitary Commis- 
sion," have not as yet contributed a dollar to 
its treasury. The large sums thus raised 
have been received by the branches of the 
Commission, at those cities respectively. 
These branches apply them most usefully, 
mainly to the purchase of material to be 
made up into clothing, bedding, &c., and 
for like purposes. They thus relieve the 
treasury of the Commission from the neces- 
sity of purchasing supplies belonging to 
certain classes; but they render no aid to 
any other department of its work. 

Those who desire fuller information as to 
the organization, methods, and cost of the 
Commission, are referred to a statement of 
its system, and of the application of its 
funds, just published, copies of which may 
be had on application at the Office of the 
U. S. Sanitary Commission, No. 823 Broad- 
way, and at the book-store of A. D. F. Ran- 
dolph, No. 683 Broadway. 

It is submitted to aU humane and patri- 
otic men, that the Commission has saved, 
and is daily saving, lives the country can- 
not afford to lose. What it is doing to 
economize the life and health of the soldier, 
is worth to the country ten times the money 
the Commission has received, and is of 
direct practical importance to every one 
interested in diminishing the cost and the 
duration of the war. 

Contributions may be sent to the Treas- 
urer, at No. 68 Wall Street, or No. 823 
Broadway, New York. 
By order of the Standing Committee, 
GEO. T. STRONG, 
Treasurer U. S. San. Com. 
Dec. 28, 1863. 



146 



The Samtary Commission Bulletin. 



THE laCHMOND PRISONERS. 
T.Tim v Pkisoh, Bichmohd, Va., Dec. Ilh, 1863. 

Deab Sxb : This afternoon I had the 
pleasure of receiving your kind note of the 
23d of November. 

I hope the people ■will not make contri- 
butions for Libby Prison. By so doing, 
they -will be likely to send here far more 
supplies than wiU be needed. Whatever 
the people may choose to give, let it be to 
the United States Sanitary Commission, 
■which will send to us every thing that ■we 
shall require, and nothing will be lost or 
■wasted. The Sanitary Commission ■will 
distribute its benefactions inteUigenrtly, at 
the'poiuts where they will be most wanted. 

Will you please have the above pubUsh- 
ed in Boston, New ¥ork, and Portland ? 

. I am very well and in excellent spirits. 
Remember me kindly to aU my temper- 
ance friends. I am more earnest in the 
good cause than ever, if possible; and when 
the war is over, which will not be far off, I 
shall go to work as earnestly as ever. 
Truly yours, 

Nbai Dow, Brig. -Gen. TJ. S. A. 
H. K. MoEKELL, Esq., Gardiner, Me. 



THE CASE OF SURGEON-GENERAL 
HAMMOND. 

Editors Sanitary Commission Bulletin: 

Gentlemen : I am interested in every thing 
that affects the efficiency of the medical seryice 
of OUT army, inasmuch as I have kinsmen and 
friends in its ranks, and the loss or the preser- 
vation of their lives may at any moment turn 
on the question whether the Anny Medical 
Department is well or ill administered. I 
make no apology, therefore, for asking informa- 
tion on certain points connected with its ad- 
ministration, in which hundreds of thousands 
of the people feel as deep an interest as I do. 

I understand that the President and Senate, 
more than a year ago, appointed a certain Dr. 
\Vm. A Hammond to be Surgeon-General of 
the Army, or, in other words. General Superin- 
tendent of all that our Government does to 
protect our soldiers against disease, and to 
provide them well-ordered hospitals when 
eiok or wounded; that Dr. Hammond was soap- 
pointed because the President and Senate were 
satisfied that he was pre-eminently qualified for 
the duties of that high place — on the efficient 
performance of which duties the life and the 
health of hundreds of thousands of our sons and 
brothers so largely depend. I hear that his ad- 
ministration has been energetic and efficient. 
On this point I may, of oourse, be misinformed; 
but the lai^t report of the Secretary of War, as 
pul^lishedin the newspapers, states that only 



about eleven per cent, of our soldiers are in 
hospital, because of disease, and I know that 
this is iax below the average amount of sick- 
ness in the British army in the Crimea, and in 
any foreign army about which I have been ablei 
to inform myself ; and this certainly seems to 
show that Dr. Hammond has done his official 
duty ■with ability and with unusual success. 

It now appears from common report that he 
has incurred the displeasure of Mr. Stanton, 
the Secretary of War, and that the Secretary 
has felt himself authorized practically to nullify 
the action of the President and Senate in ap- 
pointing him Surgeon-General, and has ordered 
him off to Chattanooga or KnoxviHe, directing 
him to stay there until further orders, without 
any duty to perform, and lias in the mean time 
put some one else (I do not know whom) into 
his place as Acting Surgeon-GeneraL 

Now I have a great respect for the Secretary 
of War, (as every loyal American orght to have 
in these times,) and that respect retti mainly 
on the results he has produced and the general 
progress our armies have made siface he took 
office, in our war against rebellion. But I 
respect our lawful Surgeon- General for just the 
same reason. He seems to have been at least 
equally successful in fighting camp disease, and 
introducing method, economy, and efficiency 
into our militsiry hospitals. 

What I want you to tell me is — 

1. Can Mr. Stanton legally remove a high 
officer of the Government, like the Surgeon- 
General, and put some one else in his place ? 

2. Supposing Mr. Stauton to have no legal 
right to do so, but that in these criticsd and 
perilous days the public welfare requires him 
to assume it, should not the exercise of this ex- 
treme and almost revolutionaty power be at 
once followed up by a demand on his part for a 
Congressional Committee of Inquiry, or for the 
more direct and prompt process of a Court- 
Mortial or a Court of Inquiry to investigate the 
charges of misconduct on which he feels justi- 
fied in thus assuming to remove from his place 
an officer whom he did not put in it t 

His action seems unjustifiable unless the 
Surgeon-General's administration has been 
grossly and notoriously corrupt o r ineffieienti. 
Even if legal e^ridence of such corruption or 
inefficiency, such as would satisfy a court, can- 
not be obtained, there must be moral evidence 
of it that would satisfy a Congressional Com- 
mittee. If there is not, how did Mr. Stanton 
satisfy himself on the subject, and becomv 
convinced that it was his duty to override law- 
and usage by practical^ dismissing Dr. Heoo- 
nunui&om on office' tp-wMoh he^as appoiniedl 



The Sanitary Commission Bulhtin. 



14T 



Ds the best man for it, by just the Bame authority 
that made him, Mr. Stanton, Secretary of War ? 
3. Who is the present "Acting Surgeon- 
General" of the army ? Have the President and 
Senate, or either, ever assigned to him the most 
responsible duties of that great of&ce ? If not, 
under what color of title is he now executing 
them? What is the Surgeon-General doing at 
the Southwestern frontier post to which he is 
banished? Who had the right to send him 
there ? What good does the country get &om 
the soientilic acquirements and the administra- 
tive ability, the proof of which made him 
Surgeon-General, while he is thus virtually put 
under arrest, though under no charge of mis- 
conduct? 

I ask these questions only for information. 
I am no Copperhead. I stand by Government, 
right or wrong. I uphold the President and 
all his Secretaries jointly and severally, because 
they are Government officials, and because it is 
the duty of every loyal citizen to uphold them. 
But when they seem to be going wrong, and 
making blunders, I feel that I ought to lift 
my own insignificant voice in warning. Mr. 
Stanton seems to be going very wrong and 
making a suicidal blunder in these dealings of 
his vrith the Medical Bureau. Perhaps he does 
not fully appreciate the intense' interest of the 
people in the health of the army. The torrent 
of army relief supplies poured into the depots 
of your Commission ought to enlighten him on 
this point. If he appre&ate in any degree the 
intensity of public feeling on this subject, he 
will be very careful how he offends it If his 
sense of official duty compels him to any act 
which looks Uke thwarting the Surgeon-Gene- 
ral, or interfering with him in his efforts to 
preserve the health and lives of our sons and 
brothers, he ought for his own sake to let the 
people know what are the grounds on which he 
proceeds, and to let them know it at once. For 
if the people began to suspect that he is 
prompted by personal or political feeling, (and 
such things are whispered,) it will be a blow 
from which he will never recover. 

But I am wholly ignorant of the details of 
this business, and submit my inquiries to you 
in hope of a response. 

Very respectfully yours, 

SEFUEIilCAir. 

We have not space in this issue to answer 
fully the questions of our correspondent 
•f Bepublican. " There is a justneeB, eam- 
efstness, and pertinency about them, how- 
ever, that demand a reply, even thatjgb it 
vaas he bxief and imperfecti. 



The Surgeon-General is virtually exiled 
to Chattanooga, bereft of his legal preroga- 
tive, while ordered ostensibly upon a tour 
of special inspection. 

We cannot, although anxious to do so, 
find any apology for this action of Mr. 
Stanton; nor does our inability necessarily 
imply any want of unconditional loyalty to 
the "powers that be." If Dr. Hammond 
has not performed his high functions with 
honor and success, we agree with " Bepub- 
lican" in demanding that he be subjected 
to a lawful ordeal; if he has, we agree with 
him also, in insisting that no artificial, par- 
tisan, or unjust obstacle be placed in the 
way of the immediate reinstallment of the 
Surgeon-General as the head of that bureau 
which owes its regeneration and brilliant 
character to his scientific and honest ad- 
ministration. 

From every quarter we hear expressions 
of respect for Dr. Hammond and his bu- 
reau. Sir Henry Holland, on his recent 
visit to this country, remarked that he had 
seen nothing during his sojourn that so 
excited his wonder and admiration as tha 
vastness, completeness, and success of tho 
operations of the Medical Bureau, and the 
curative touch and administrative power of 
the Surgeon-General. The foreign journala 
are constantly giving utterance to spon- 
taneous tributes of* applause; and every- 
where in our own country, with singular 
unanimity of opinion, a marked approbation 
may be heard. 

The following, extracted from the London- 
Medical Times, October 12th, 1863, is ao 
appropriate, that we give it entire: 

"Verily our American cousins seem 9/ 
strange race. For a long time we have beeiji 
reading tiat Surgeon- General Hammond hatf 
been working wonders in the Army Medical 
Department, having restored it from thci 
chaotic and disgracefiil state in which hei 
found it, to one of admirable order — an ex- 
ample for that of all other counlxies. And 
making allowance for the usual transatlantia> 
exaggerations, he really seems to have don» 
his work well. Appointed by the Presi- 
dent, in spite of the old routine custom, over 
the heads of many seniors, he came to his task 
full of vigor, in tiie prime of life, and capable 
of great physical endurance. Wi& a bold 
hand, he surrounded himself with trustworthy 
subordinates, displacing^ many who he did not 
think equal to the ciisis, and proceeded ener- 
getically with his work. Large armies had tg 
be provided' for, a system of military^ hospit^ 
to be (ogaiiized, the'examinitigiboaFdkto Hwov^ 



148 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



constructed, and an army medical school and 
museum to be founded. With all these vast 
and useful works he seems to have succeeded 
oeyond all expectation, and the confidence of 
the public in tiie new system of medical organi- 
sation has been warmly expressed; and yet, by 
the last accounts, we learn that he has been 
easpended from his office, and ordered to a 
distant service, a commission having been 
appointed to inquire into the conditions and 
management of his office. No charge against 
hHO, or reason for the investigation has tran- 
gpred." 

Indeed, we heai of nothing wortiy of 
record, except calm, intelligent, thoughtful 
expressions of approval and satisfaction at 
the course of Dr. Hammond. . We presume 
that the procedure of Mr. Stanton, alluded 
to above, may he considered as a tentative 
one, marked by a cautious reading of the 
popular pulse. We have Uttle doubt that 
the record of those pulsations will be found 
of such a character as to lead to the admin- 
istration of justice. 

If we are not entirely and blindly in error, 
Dr. Hammond will experience no detriment 
from the secret decisions of ex parte inquisi- 
tors. The American people have a national 
fondness for light and justice, and vrill not 
willingly or tamely permit a faithful public 
officer, particularly one who has applied the 
highest results of professional skill and 
hixmanity to the relief of the wounds and 
diseases of their relatives stricken in battle, 
to be officially garroted. 



THE SOLDIEBS' HOME AT NASHYILLE. 
The reports from ' ' the Home" at Nashville, 
Tenn., for the four weeks ending November 
28, show that during that period, 351 discharged 
soldiers, and 408 furloughed, were admitted 
from 17 different states. The number of meals 
furnished was 3,819, and the number of lodg- 
ings 1,484. The average number cared for 
each day, was 170. The number of deaths was 
4. Transportation was procured for 17 ; 
papers were sent back for correction for 4; pay 
•^as drawn for 71. The total amount collected 
and paid over being $9,709.54. The reader 
•*ill find a plan of the "Home" in the last num- 
der of the Bui^letin, illustrating the arrange- 
ments by which this work is carried on. 



INTERNATIONAL SANITARY CONFER- 
ENCE. 

In the city of Geneva, Switzerland, there 
recently assembled an International Con- 
ference of delegates from 'several nations 



of Europe, for the purpose of considering 
the "means of providing for the insufficiency 
of the sanitary service of armies in the field. " 
Unlike most of the international congress- 
es that have been convened so frequently 
in years past, and which have become es- 
tablished institutions in Europe for dis- 
cussion of social as well as political ques- 
tions, the Sanitary Conference at Geneva 
seems to have been a spontaneous and 
hearty response to the suggestion of a 
single individual, and he an untitled and 
unpretending, but earnest-minded citizen. 
The nations of Europe were represented 
as follows : 

M. le docteur TJnger, from Austria, (Surgeon- 

in-Chief of the Austrian Army.) 
Surgeon-in-Chief Steiner, from Baden. 

" Theodore Dompierre, from 

Bavaria. 
" Dr. Lceffier, from Prussia. 

" Dr. Basting, from Holland. 

" Don. N. A. C. Landa, from 

Spain, 
" Boudier, from France. 

M. de Preval, from France. 
M. Chevalier, (Consul,) from France. 
Dr. Rutherford, (Inspector-General of Hosp.,) 

from England. 
Mr. Mackenzie, (Consul,) &om England. 
Dr. Oelker, from Hanover. 
Major Brodruck, from Hesse. 
M. Capello, (Consul, ) from Italy. 
Prince Hemy, XTTT. , from Prussia. 
Dr. G. HousseUe, from Prussia. 
Capt. Van de Velde, f^om Holland. 
Dr. Gunther, from Saxony. 
Capt. Alex. Kirriew, from Russia. 
M. E. Essakoff, from Russia. 
Dr. Skoeldberg, from Sweden. 
Dr. Edling, from Sweden. 
Dr. Hahn, from Wurtemberg. 
Dr. Wagner, from Wurtemberg. 
M. F. De Montmollin, from Switzerland. 
Dr. Lehmann, from Switzerland. 
Dr. Briere; from Switzerland. 
M. F. De G. Montmollin, fi-om Switzerland. 
Prof. Landoz, from Switzerland. 
M. Moratel, from Switzerland, 
Dr. Engelhardt, from Switzerland. 
M. M. General Dufour, President. 
Hemy Dunaiit, Secretary. 

After spending four days (October 26th, 
27th, 28th, and 29th) in very harmonious 
and earnest fliscussions upon the main 
questions that had called them together, 
they embodied the more definite conclu- 
sions of their conference in the following 
recommendations or resolutions: 

"The International Conference, desirous to 
render aid to the wounded in those oases where 
the army sanitary service is insufficient, adopt- 
ed the following resolutions : 

"1. That in each country there exist a com- 



The Sanitary Oommission BuUetin. 



149 



mittee whose mission is to assist in time of war, 
if it is required, in providing by all means in 
its power for the sanitary wants of the armies. 
The committee will organize itself inauoh man- 
ner £ts shall seem most useful and convenient. 

"2. Sections, without limit in number, may 
be formed for the purpose of aiding this com- 
mittee, and which shall act under its general di- 
rection. 

"3. It shall be the duty of the committee to 
place itself en rapport with the government of 
its own country, in order that its service may 
be received, if there is need. 

"4. In time of peace, the committees and the 
sections shall look for the best means for ren- 
dering themselves really useful in time of war, 
especially in preparing material help of all 
kinds (secours materiels de toui genre) and in en- 
deavoring to organize and instruct volunteer 
nurses, (infirmiers volotdaires. ) 

" S. In the event of war, the committees of the 
belligerent nations shall furnish, according to 
their means, relief (secours) to the respective 
armies; their particular duty is to organize and 
set at work the volunteer nurses, (infirmiers vol- 
ontaires,) and to prepare, in accordance with the 
•military authority, the places in which the 
wounded shall be attended. 

"They may solicit the co-operation of the 
committee of neutral nations. 

" 6. Upon application and with consent of 
the military authorities, the committees shall 
send the infirmiers volontaires upon the battle- 
field; they shaU, at such times, be under the di- 
rection of the chief military commander. 

" 7. The infirmiers volontaires who follow the 
army, must be provided by their respective com- 
mittees with aJl necessary means for their sus- 
tenance. 

"8. That in every country, they wear as uni- 
form a white band upon the arm, with a red 
eross. 

"9. The committees and sections of the va- 

. rious countries may assemble an International 

Congress to communicate the results of their 

experience, and to consult upon the measures 

to be pursued in the interest of the work. 

"10. The exchange of communications be- 
tween the committees of the several nations 
shall be provisionally made through the com- 
mittee at Geneva. 

" Jjesides the aboveresohdions, the Conference ex- 
presses the following wishes : 

" A. Let the governments grant their highest 
protection to the •committees of relief which 
shall be formed, and facilitate as much as pos- 
sible the fulfillment of their mission. 

"B. Let neutrality be proclaimed in time of 
war, by belligerent nations, for the ambulances 
and the hospitals, and let it be equally admit- 
ted, in the most complete manner, for the per- 
soreneJ of the sanitary staff, (personnel sanitaireoffi- 
ciel,) for the infirmiers volontaires, for the coun- 
try people who may go to assist the wounded, 
and for the wounded themselves. 

"0. Let a uniform distinctive badge (signs) 
be recognized for the sanitary corps of all ar- 
mies, or at least for the persons of the same 
army who are attached to that service. Let a 
uniform flag («re drapeau identique) be also adopt- 
ed for ambulances and hospitals in all countiiea?" 

It appears that it -yaa no part of the 



design of the Geneva Conference to take 
up any of the great questions relating to 
the Sanitary care of armies excepting those 
leading points that relate to the succor of 
the men who fall in battle-i-the humane and 
sanitary provision for the ambulance and 
fleld-hospital service; and upon the ques- 
tions that were raised respecting the neces- 
sity or duty of great improvements in that 
service, the delegates expressed most de- 
cided and harmonious sentiments. The 
presence of such veteran campaigners 
and, military surgeons as MM. Boudibb, 
Ungbr, BiSTiNa, and Lceflek, enabled 
the most experienced class of delegates to 
present in a strong, Iftit true light, aU the 
essential difficulties that stand in the way 
of successfully utilizing the offering— per- 
sonal and material — of voluntary aid for 
the relief and care of the wounded in active 
armies. The positions taken by the ablest 
and most experienced members of the 
Geneva Conference, strongly corroborate 
and sustain the established policy and 
works of the United States Sanitabt 
Commission. 

Henri Dctnant, a citizen of Geneva, who 
was traveling as a tourist in the regions 
occupied by the vast armies that met at 
Solferino and Magenta, had his soul so 
stirred by the scenes of carnage and war 
that he witnessed there immediately upon 
the cessation of the conflict, that he deemed 
it a duty to humanity to apply such volun- 
teered aid as he was able to organize and 
put into operation upon the spur of the 
occasion. The record of that timely and 
merciful work is in the hearts of the multi- 
tude of mutilated sufferers, who, but for the 
succor which that noble man and his obe- 
dient helpers rendered, would not now be 
able to recount the scenes of the terrible 
battle-field of Solferino. 

Thus naturally this noble-hearted and 
earnest man, M. Dtjnant, was led by his 
brief and thrilling experience to reflect upon 
the practicability of calling into existence 
an organized, national, and international 
scheme for applying the services of trained 
corps of voluntary nurses, so as to secure a 
uniform system, rendered by study and ex- 
perience superior, if possible, to the hastily 
extemporized band of voluntary attendants, 
organized and led by him at Solferiao. Thia 



150 



The Saniiary Commission BvUetin, 



gentleman's little book, entitled " Souvenw 
ie Solferino," embodied many of the resnlts 
of his study and experience. This unpre- 
tending little ' ' Souvenir, " accompanied by 
a circular from iihe " Society of Public Vse- 
/vlness," of Geneva, was transmitted to the 
various Sovereigns and Ministers of War in 
Europe, and, in response to the invitation 
of the ciroukor, the Conference assembled. 

Several of the questions which were sub- 
mitted to the Geneva Conference had al- 
ready been brought before the Statistical 
Congress at Berlin a month previously. 

Unanimous approval was given, in the 
deliberations of the Conference, to the pro- 
posed plan for encouraging the timely pre- 
paration of materiel for the succor of the 
wounded, and especially for effectually or- 
gmdzing the humane endeavors and charities 
of the people. Said the distinguished rep- 
resentative of the Government and Army 
of Prussia: "Behold, gentlemen, the great 
field of activity for permanent ' Societies of 
Belief,' organized in time of peace, and pre- 
pared beforehand with all suitable means 
to supply the work of official authorities, 
smd to satisfy the wishes of a truly religious 
philanthropy. " 

The medical delegates at the Geneva Con- 
ference joined heartily with the non-medi- 
eal delegates in aUthe debates and purposes 
ef the Conferences. Their sentiments in 
reference to such works of life-saving are 
happily expressed by a French physician. 
Dr. Henei Navbe, who, as a public jour- 
naliat, has earnestly advocated the objects 
of the Conference. He writes: "The phy- 
sician has science, let him confer with the 
benevolent and sympathetic; let him en- 
courage them with his approbation, and 
enlighten them with his counsels. Knowl- 
edge will thus heighten the value of benevo- 
lence, and the result will be beauiyful." And 
*uetly does that eloquent physician ask: 
" Is it not the highest mission of the true 
physician to aid with his professional knowl- 
edge the endeavors of the benevolent and 
self-sacrificing ?" Such appears to have 
been the spirit not only of the medical 
delegates at the International Conference, 
but of the various Sovereigns and Ministers 
of War who sent messages of counsel and 
encouragement. 

There is no difficulty in detecting in the 



spirit and discussions of the Geneva Con- 
ference the germs of great things for the 
science and art of battle-field relief. 

It is very interesting to find them taking 
up and discussing, de novo, a question which 
the U.S. Sanitary Commission solved nearly 
two years ago, viz. : How to organize the 
outside labors of the people for the rdief 
of their relatives and friends stricken upon 
the battle-field, in such a manner as to 
secure a commensurate application of aid 
and comfort, without invading the sphere 
of military discipline or ^weakening either 
the dependence of the soldier upon the 
military establishment or the sense of re- 
sponsibility of the medical officers. 

Difficulties that the Geneva Conference 
regarded as very serious and almost im- 
passable, we have met and readily sur- 
mounted. We have demonstrated how the 
spontaneous benevolence of the people may 
be organized in time of war, so as to carry 
the offerings of the homes upon the battle- 
fields, through moving armies, and into 
military hospitals, without conflicting with 
the rigid requirements of military discipline. 
While we feel great interest in again taking 
up, with our foreign friends, the rudiment- 
ary principles of the matter, we regret that 
the light of American experience did not 
shine upon the debates of the Geneva Con- 
ference. 



THE AMBULANCE CORPS IN THE ARMY 
OF THE POTOMAC. 
Although the necessity for an ambulance 
corps, or in other words a trained officered 
body of men, under military discipline, 
supplied with aU the necessary appliances 
for the conveyance of the wounded from the 
spot where they fall to the field hospital in 
the rear, has been felt ever since the war be- 
gan, it was not completely organized in the 
Army of the Potomac until August of laat 
year. It had, however, been previously ih 
process of formation, awaiting full growth 
and the approbation of the general com- 
manding. Dr. Letterman, the able Medical 
Director, has been steadily working at the 
ambiilanoe scheme for more than a year, 
striving to meet every requirement of hu- 
manity without confiicting with military 
discipline. In this work he has been aided 
ii.Tifl tiBR,rf.i1v anstpin ed bv Surgeon-Gfi nerflJ 



The Sanitary Gommission Bidldin. 



161 



Hammond, whose thorough knowledge of 
military hygiene and discipline, all who are 
at all familiar with the medical history of the 
war must know. This admirable scheme 
of organization, set forth in order No. 85, 
is one of the striking proofs of the pro- 
fessional wisdom and humanity of the 
medical corps of the Army of the Potomac. 
It only remains for the Government to 
adopt for the entire army of the nation a 
similar organisation. Indeed, we know 
that the Surgeon- General is desirous of 
carrying throughout the entire army some 
such uniform plaii, and it will not be long 
before the loud and irresistible expressions 
of professional and popular approbation 
for his official greatness and success in this 
imd other medical fields will relieve him 
from those unjust and odious restraints 
-which now seem to limit the range of his 
functions, though they cannot, in fact, en- 
tirely deprive the sick and wounded na- 
tional soldier on the field, in the camp, or 
in quarters, of the fruits of his wisdom and 
provisionary care. We shall have more to 
say on this subject. 

Order No. 85 is as follows: 

Genekal Okdebs, 1 

No. 85. j August 24, 1863. 

The followmg revised regulations for the or- 
ganization of the Ambulance Corps, and the 
management of the Ambulance Trains, are pub- 
lifihed for the government of all concerned, and 
will be strictly observed: 

1 . The Army Corps is the unit of organization 
for the ambulance corps, and the latter will be 
organized upon the basis of a Captain as the 
commandant of the corps, one 1st Lieutenant 
for each division, one 2d Lieutenant for each 
brigade, one Sergeant for each regiment. 

2. The privates of this corps will consist of 
two men and one driver to each ambulance, 
and one driver to each medicine wagon. 

3. The two-horse ambulances only will be 
used, and the allowance, until further orders, to 
each corps, will be upon the basis of three to 
each regiment of infantry, two to each regiment 
of cavalry, one to each battery of artillery, to 
which it -will be permanently attached, and two 
to the Head-Quarters of each Army Corps, and 
two army wagons to each Division. Each ambu- 
lance will be provided with two stretchers. 

i. The Captain is the commander of all the 
ambulances, medicine and other wagons in the 
corps, under the immediate direction of the 
Medical Dii-ector of the Army Coips to which 
the ambulance corps belongs. He will pay 
special attention to the condition of the ambu- 
lances, wagons, horses, harness, te., and see 
that they are at all times in readiness for ser- 
vice; that the officers and men are properly in- 
structed in their duties, and that these ^ties 
aie performed, and that the regulations for iHe 



corps are strictly adhered to by those under his 
eommand. He will institute a drill in his corps, 
instructing his men in the most easy and ex- 
peditious method of putting men in and tak- 
ing them out of the ambulances, lifting them 
from the ground, and placing and carrying them 
on stretchers, in the latter case observing that 
the front man 'steps off with the left foot and 
the rear man with the right, &B. ; that in ail 
cases his men treat the sick and wounded with 
gentleness and care; that the ambulances and 
wagons are at all times provided with attend- 
ants, drivers, horses, &c. ; that the vessels for 
carrying water are constantly kept clean and 
filled with fresh water; that the ambulances are 
not used for any other purpose than that for 
which they are designed and ordered. Previ- 
ous to a march he will receive from the MedS- 
cal Director of the Army Corps his orders for 
the distribution of the ambulances for gathering 
up the sick and wounded ; previous to, and in 
time of action, he will receive orders from the 
same officer where to send his ambulances, and 
to what point the wounded are to be carried. 
He will give his personal attention to the re- 
moval of the sick and wounded from the field in 
time of action, going from place to place to as- 
certain what may be wanted ; to see that his 
subordinates (for whose conduct he will be re- 
sponsible) attend faithfully to their duties in 
taking care of the wounded, and removing 
them as qmckly as may be found consistent 
with their safety to the field hospital, and see 
that the ambulances reach their destination. 
After every battle he will make a report, in de- 
tail, of the operations of his corps to the Medi- 
cal Director of the Army Corps to which he be- 
longs, who will transmit a copy, with such re- 
marks as he may deem proper, to the Medical 
Director of this Army. -He will give his per- 
sonal attention to the removal of the sick when 
they are required to be sent to general hospi- 
tals, or to such other points as may be ordered.' 
He will make a personal inspection, at least once 
a month, of every thing pertaining to the ambu- 
lance corps, a report of which will be made to 
the Medical Director of the Corps, who wiU 
transmit a copy to the Medical Director of this 
Army. This inspection will be minute and 
made with care, and will not supersede the con- 
stant supervision which he must at all times ex- 
ercise over his corps. He will also make a 
weekly report, according to the prescribed form-, 
to the same officer, who will forward a copy to 
the Medical Director of this .Army. 

5. The 1st Lieutenant assigned to the ambu- 
lance corps for a Division, will have complete 
control, under the Captain of his corps and the 
Medical Director of the Army Corps, of all the 
ambulances, medicine and other wagons, horseS) 
&o., and men in that portion of the ambu- 
lance corps. He will be the Acting Assistant 
Quartermaster for that portion of the'corps, and 
will receipt for and be responsible for all the 
property belonging to it, and be held re- 
sponsible for any deficiency in any thing ap- 
pertaining thereto. He will have a traveling 
cavaliy forge, a blacksmith and a saddler, who 
will be under his orders, to enable him to keep 
his train in order. His supplies will be drawn 
from the Depot Quartermaster, upon requisi- 
tions approved by the Captain of his corps, and 
the Commander of the Army Corps to which he 



152 



The Sardtary Commission BuUetm. 



is attached. He -will exercise a constant supervi- 
Bion over ids train in every particular, and keep 
it at all times ready for service. Especially be- 
fore a battle will he be careful that every tiling 
be in order. The responsible duties devolv- 
ing upon him in time of action, render,' it ne- 
cessaiy that he be active and vigilant, and spare 
no labor in their execution. He will make re- 
ports to the Captain of the corps, upon the 
forms prescribed, every Saturday morning. 

6. The 2d Lieutenant will have command of 
the portion of the ambulance corps for a bri- 
gade, and will be under the immediate orders of 
the commanded of the ambulances for a divi- 
sion, and the injunctions in regard to care and 
attention and supervision prescribed for the 
commander of the division he will exercise in 
that portion of his command. 

7. The sergeant will conduct the drills, in- 
spections, &c., under the orders and super- 
vision of the Commander of the ambulances for 
a brigade, be particular in enforcing all orders 
he may receive from his superior officer, and 
that the men are attentive to their duties. 

The officers and non-commissioned officers 
vrill be mounted. The noncommissioned offi- 
cers will be armed with revolvers. 

8. Two Medical Officers and two Hospital 
Stewards will be detailed, daily, by roster, by 
the Surgeon-in-Chief of Division, to accompany 
the ambulances for the Division, when on the 
march, whose duties will be to attend to the 
sick and wounded with the ambulances, and see 
that they are propferly cared for. No man will 
be ipermitted, by any line officer, to fall to the 
rear to ride in the ambulances, unless he has 
written permission from the senior Medical Of- 
ficer of his regiment to do so. These passes 
vriU be carefully preserved, and at the close of 
the march be transmitted by the senior Medi- 
cal Officer with the train, with such remarks as 
he may deem proper, to the Surgeon-in-Chief 
of his Division. A man who is sick or wound- 
ed, who requires to be carried in an ambulance, 
will not be rejected, should he not have the 
permission required ; the surgeon of the regi- 
ment who has neglected to give it, will be re- 
ported at the close of the march, by the senior 
surgeon with the train, to the Surgeon-iu-Chief 
of his Division. When on the march, one-half 
of the privates of the ambulance corps will ac- 
company, on foot, the ambulances to which 
they belong, to render such assistance as may 
be required. • The remainder will march in the 
rear of their respective commands, to conduct, 
under the order of the Medical Officer, such 
men as may be unable to proceed to the ambu- 
lances, or who may be incapable of taking 
proper care of themselves until the ambulances 
cqpae up. When the case is of so serious a na- 
ture as to require it, the surgeon of the regi- 
ment, or his assistant, will remain and deliver 
the man to one of the Medical Officers with the 
ambxilances. At all other times the privates 
will be with their respective trains. The med- 
icine wagons will, on the march, be in their 
proper places', in the rear of the ambulances for 
each Brigade. Upon ordinary marches, the am- 
bulances and wiigons belonging to the train will 
foUow immediately in the rear of the Division 
1.0 which it is attached. Officers connected 
v.ith the corps must be with the train "when on 
Che march, observing that no one rides in any 



of the ambulances except by the authority of 
the Medical Officers. Every necessary facility 
for taking care of the sick'and woimded upon 
the march, will be afforded the Medical Officers 
by the officers of the ambulance corps. 

9. When in camp, the ambulances will be 
parked by Divisions. The regular roll-calls, r^ 
veiUe, retreat and tattoo, will be held, at which 
at least one commissioned officer vriU be pres- 
ent and receive the reports. Stable duty will 
be at hom-s fixed by the Captain of the corps, 
and at this time, while the drivers are in at- 
tendance upon their animals, the privates wUl 
be employed in keeping the ambulances to 
which they belong in order, keeping the ves- 
sels for carrying water filled with fresh water, 
and in general police duties. Should it become 
necessary for a regimental Medical Officer to 
use one or more ambulances for transporting 
sick and . wounded, he will make a requisition 
upon the commander of the ambulances for a 
Division, who will comply with the requisition. 
In all cases when ambulances are used, the offi- 
cers,non-commis!:ioned officers and men belong- 
ing to them, will accompany them; should one 
ambulance only be required,anon-oommissioned 
officer as well as the men belonging to it, vrill 
accompany it. The officers of 5ie ambulance 
corps wiU see that ambulances are not used for 
any other purpose than that for which they are 
designed, viz., the transportation of sick and 
wounded, and in urgent cases only, for medical 
supplies. All officers are expressly forbidden 
to use them, or to require them to be used, 
for any other purpose. When ambulances are 
required for the transportation of sick or 
wounded at Division or Brigade Head-Quarters, 
they will be obtained, as they are needed for 
this purpose, from the Division train, but no 
ambulances belonging to this corps will be re- 
tained at such Head-Quarters. 

10. Good serviceable horses will be used for 
the ambulances and medicine wagons, and wiU 
not be taken for any other purpose except by 
orders from these Head-Quarters. 

11. This corps will be designated for ser- 
geants, by a green band li inches broad ai-ound 
the cap, and chevrons of the same material, 
with the point toward the shoulder, on each 
arm above the elbow. For privates, by a band 
the same as for sergeants around the cap, and 
a half chevron of the same material on each 
arm above the elbow. 

12. No person except the proper Medical Of- 
ficers, or the officers, non-commissioned officers 
and privates of this corps, will be permitted to 
take or accompany sick or wounded to the 
rear, either on the march or upon the field of 
battle. 

13. No officer or man will be selected for this 
service except those who are active and efficient, 
and they will be detailed and relieved by Coi-ps 
Commanders only. 

14. Corps Commanders will see that the fore- 
going regulations are carried into effect. 

By command op Majob Gbneeai Meade : 

S. Williams, Assistant Adjutani-GeneraL 

The following excellent comments on the 
above were addressed to the New York 
Times, and published a fortnight ago by 
" an army surgeon." 



Th£ Sanitary Commission BvEetirt. 



153 



The interest whicli professional men and 
others have lately shown in an ambulance 
system for the Union armies, renders it worth 
whUe to present to those who may have any 
share in devising a new scheme, the system 
now. existing in the Army of the Potomac. It 
is no design of the writer to present this with- 
out any defects — or to discourage the zealous 
and laudable efforts of the men who are desirous 
to mitigate the sufferings of the sick and wound- 
ed soldiers. The object is merely to show them 
what exists — in order to enable them to remedy 
its defects, if they observe any — to devise one 
upon it as a model — or to organize a scheme 
entirely new and better. 

I. — OBGiNIZiTION. 

The organization of the ambulance corps of 
this army, as given above in General Order, 
No. 85, Headquarters Army of the Potomac, is 
as follows: First, the corps is the unit, and the 
supreme control of the ambulances, as regards 
their use, is confided to the Medical Director 
of the army corps. 

The ambulances are in the proportion of 
three to a regiment. Three men are assigned 
to an ambulance — one driver and two stretcher- 
bearers. This gives nine men to a regiment, 
who are commanded by a non-commissioned 
officer, mounted. The above constitutes the 
regimental ambulance corps, whichj consoli- 
dated by brigades, are commanded by a 2d 
Lieutenant. The brigades are consolidated into 
divisions commanded by a 1st Lieutenant, who, 
consequently, has under his command two 2d 
Lieutenants, fifteen Sergeants, and one hnndi'ed 
and thirty-five men. The three divisions con- 
solidated make the corps commanded by a Cap- 
tain, under the immediate command of the 
Medical Director. Add to the above, one Hght 
medicine wagon, (Autenrieth's, ) and one four- 
horse supply wagon for each brigade, and you 
have the full ambulance armament independent 
of the regimental hospital wagons. 

H. — AMBULANCE CAMP AUD DISCEPLrNi;. 

The ambulances encamp or park by divisions, 
and where there are efficient officers, the cang) 
is formed equal to an artillery camp as to the 
order and discipline of the men, the grooming 
of the horses, and in all the appliances neces- 
sary to keep animals and wagons always effect- 
ive. Minute inspections by the proper officers 
are made weekly; negligence, slovenliness or 
unsoldierly conduct, are punished with the 
same rigor as iii any other arm of the service. 
The drilling practice of the men is, of course, 
conducted with a view to their efficiency in their 
own department. 

TTT . — MARCHING nr ACTIVE CAMPAIGNS. 

When a movement is ordered, the sick are 
taken up by the train of their respective divis- 
ions, the regimental hospital wagons are or- 
dered to join the trains, and thus the whole of 
the hospital appliances of each division, in one 
compact column, follows close upon its own 
division, under the command of the Ambulance 
Ofdoer. Two medical officers, with steward and 
nurses, are detailed to accompany the train and 
to take charge of the, sick in it. Upon halting, 
hospital tents to the number sufficient to ac- 
commodate the sick, are pitched, a hospital is 
rapidly established, all the aid necessary being* 
rendered by the ambulance corps. The train 



and hospital are close to the camp of the divis- 
ion. This plan is continued day after day in a 
protracted march. 

IV. — IN BATTLE. 

The train, as above stated, follows close upon 
its division. When a battle is expected, and 
the division deploys into line, the train halts in 
the rear. Now comes the most difficult and 
trying time of handling an ambulance corps 
effectively. Those who are interested in devis- 
ing a system of ambulances must not forget in 
their theories without experience, this critical 
time, must bear in mind that without compe- 
tent and tried officers, without men held under 
the strictest military rule, their finest scheme 
will prove a failure, at the time when the ser- 
vices of the ambulance, corps are most demand- 
ed. The plan of handling the ambulance corps 
in an action, I can present to them from expe- 
rience in all the battles fought since the present 
ambulance system was adopted. 

In the first place, the stfetcher-bearers march 
with the regiments to which they belong into 
the action. The Medical Director, wiSi the 
Captain of the ambulance corps, are with the 
General commanding the corps at the front. 
As soon as the positions into which the divis- 
ions in battle will be thrown are ascertained, 
the Medical pirector communicates with the 
Surgeon-in-Chief of Division, designating the 
places where the division hospitals are to be 
located. These hospitals are composed of the 
hospital tents in the division, together with a 
house or bam, if available. The ambulances 
are drawn up between hospitals and the division 
in front, awaiting orders. One officer of the 
ambulance train is with the Division Command- 
er, one non-bommissioned officer with each 
brigade. The Medical Officers who accompany 
the regiments into action take position by bri- 
gades, in some sheltered location contiguous to 
their respective brigades. This position is known 
to the Sergeant watching the brigade, who 
directs the wounded with stretcher-bearers 
thither. The ambulances are ordered up to 
the same place, to take the wounded to the 
division hospitals in the rear. 

The officer at division headquarters, as soon 
as the action begins, orders up the ambulances 
and designates the point to which they are to 
go. He learns from the Medical Director or 
corps officer, the various positions and shifting 
of the troops, and acts accordingly. In this 
maimer the operations of the ambulance corps 
are conducted throughout the action, and sub- 
sequent to it, until all the wounded are removed 
from the field t0;the division hospitals in the 
rear, where they receive professional and all 
other treatment necessary. I abstain from any 
description of the division hospitals in the field, 
my object being to exhibit the ambulance sys- 
tem as it is, and as it has worked in this army. 
Prom more than a year's experience in the hard- 
fought engagements of this army, I can affirm 
that I have not known wounded to lie on the 
battle-field two hours after their injuries were 
received. I must, of course, except the battles 
of last May, on the south side of the Kappa- 
hannock, where the field remained in possession 
of the enemy; but even there, in one engage- 
ment attended with success, I have seen over 
one thousand wounded within the hospitals of 
one corps two hours after the battle was over. 



154 



Tht Sanitary Gommhsion BuJMin. 



I beg to assure men now interested in devis- 
ing an ambulance system, that any scheme of 
theirs which will place men in an ambulance 
corps, not subservient to the strictest military 
rule, not bound to march as soldiers under fire, 
■with their regiments, will prove a failure. Re- 
move once from officers and men of this corps 
the conviction that they are soldiers, bound to 
share the dangers of their comrades in a fight, 
and the whole scheme— no matter how perfect 
in form and organization — will prove a disas- 
trous failure, at the very critical time of battle. 
Civilian nurses were once sent to the army and 
proved a nuisance; an ambulance corps with 
any of the civilian privileges and lighte about 
it, wiU prove a still greater. 

Senator Wilson will, ere this reaches oui 
readers, have introduoed a bill organizing 
the ambulance corps for the whole axmy. 

The following are its leading provisions: 

1. The supervision of all ambulances, medi- 
cine wagons, &c., is vested in the Medical Di- 
rector or chief medical officer of each army 

2. One Cf^tain, one First Lieutenant for each 
•division, one Second Lieutenant for each bri- 
igade, one Sergeant for each nBgiment, three 
■privates for each ambulance, and one private 
for each medicine wagon, shall be detached by 
each corps Commander, the officers and non- 
commissioned officers of such corps to be 
mounted. 

3 Three two-horse ambulances are granted to 
each regiment of infantry, two to each regiment 
of cavalry, one to each battery of artillery, two 
to the headquai-ters of each army corps, and 
two army wagons to each division. 

4. The fourth section prescribes the duties of 
■the Captain of the corps, and directs the 
establishment of a drill in service for removing 
eick and wounded, requiring the exercise of 
gentleness and care under strict and particular 
orders of the Medical Director and the Secretary 
of War. 

Sections five and six prescribes the duties of 
other officers of the Corps. 

7. The Surgeon-in-Chief of the division is 
required to detail two medical officers and two 
hospital stewards to accompany the ambulances 
when on the march. 

8. The use of ambulances is prohibited for 
any purpose except the conveyance of the sick 
and wounded, and for medical supplies only in 
urgent cases. 

9. No persons other than those connected 
with the ambulance corps are allowed to re- 

,move the sick and wounded. 



NOTES ON NURSING. 

VENTTLATION. 

Do you ever go into the bed-rooms of any 
persons of any class, whether they contain one, 
two, or twenty people, whether they hold sick or 
well, at night, or before the windows are open- 
ed in the morning, and ever find the air any 
thing but unwholesomely close and foul ? And 
why should it be so ? And of how much im- 
{)ortance it is that it should not be so ? During 
sleep, the human body, even when in health, is 



far more injured by the influence of foul air 
than when awake. Why can't you keep the 
air all night, then, as pure as the air without in 
the rooms you sleep in ? But for this you must 
have sufficient outlet for the impure air you make 
yourselves to go out; sufficient inlet for this 
pure air from without to come in. You must 
have open chimneys, open ■window or venfila- 
tor; no close curtains round your beds; no shut- 
ters or curtains to your windows, none of the 
contrivances by which you undermine your O'wn 
health or destroy the chances of recovery of 
your sick. 

A careful nurse ■wiH keep a constant -watch 
over her sick, especially weak, protracted, and 
collapsed cases, to guard against the effects of 
the loss of vital heat by Qie patient himself. 
La certain diseased states much less heat is pro- 
duced than in health, and there is a constant 
tendency to the decline and ultimate extinction 
of the vital powers by the call made upon them 
to sustain the heat of the body. Cases where 
this occurs should be watched -with the greatest 
care from hour to hour, I had almost said from 
minute to minute. The feet and legs should be 
examined by the hand from time to time, and 
whenever a tendency to chilling is discovered, 
hot bottles, hot bridis, or warm flannels, with 
some warm drink, should be made use of . until 
the temperature is restored. The fire should 
be, if necessary, replenished. Patients are fre- 
quently lost in the latter stages of disease from 
want of attention to such simple precautions. — 
The nurse may be trusting to the patient's diet^ 
or to his medicine, or to the occasional doses Of 
stimulant which she is directed to give him, 
while the patient is all the while sinking from 
want of a little external warmth. Such cases 
happen at all times, even during the height of 
summer. This fatal chill is most apt to occur 
toward early morning at the period of the low- 
est temperature of the t^wenty-four hours, and 
at the time when the effects of the preceding 
day's diets is exhausted. 

Generally speaking, you may expect that 
weak patients will suffer much more in the 
morning than in the evening. The ■vital pow- 
ers are much lower. If they are feverish at 
night, -srith burning hands and feet, (liey are 
almost sure to be chilly and shivering in the 
morning.' But nurses are very fond of heating 
the foot-warmer at night, and of neglecting it 
in the morning, when they are busy. I should 
reverse the matter. 

All these things require common sense and 
care. Yet perhaps in no one single thing is so 
litt|| common sense shown, in idl ranks, as in 
numng. With private sick, I think, but cer- 
tainly ■with hospital sick, the nurse should nev- 
er be satisfied as to the freshness of the at- 
mosphere, unless she can feel the air gently 
moving over her face, when stiU. 

But it is often observed that the nurses who 
make the greatest outcry against open windows) 
are those who take the least pains to prevent 
dangerous draughts. The door of the patients' 
room or ward must sometimes stand open to al- 
low of persons passing in and out, or heavy 
things being carried in and out The care- 
ful nurse •will keep the door shut while she 
shuts the windows, and then, and not before, 
set the door open, so that a patient may not be 
left sitting up in bed, perhaps in a profuse per- 



The Baniiary Commission BuMetm. 



1S5 



spiration, directly in .the dsrauglit between the 
open door and window. Neither, 6f course, 
should a paMent, while being washed or in any- 
way exposed, remain in the draught of an open 
window or door. 

The extraordinary confusion between cold and 
ventilation, even in the minds of well-educated 
people, illustrates this: To make a room cold 
it is by no means necessarily to ventilate it. Nor 
is it at all necessary, in order to ventilate a 
room, to chill it. Yet, if a nurse finds a room 
close, she will let out the fire, thereby making 
it closer, or ehe will open the door into a cold 
room, without a fire, or an open window in it, 
by way of improving the ventilation. The safest 
atmosphere of all for a patient is a good fire 
and an open window, excepting in extremes of 
temperature. (Yet no nurse can ever be made 
to understand this. ) To ventilate a small room 
without draughts, of course requires more care 
{han to ventilate a large one. Another extraor- 
dinary fallacy is the dread of ni^ht air. "What 
air can we breathe at night but night air ? The 
choice is between pure night air from without 
and foul night air from within. Most people 
prefer the latter. An unaccountable choice. 
What will they say if it is proved to be true 
that fully one-half of all the disease we suffer 
from is occasioned by people sleeping with their 
windows shut ? An open window most nights 
in the year can never hurt any one. This is 
not to say that light is not necessary for recov- 
ery. In great cities, night air is often the best 
and purest air to be had in the twenty-four 
hours. I could better understand in towns 
shutting the windows during the day than dur- 
ing the night, for the sake of the sick ; the ab- 
sence of smoke, the quiet, all tend to making 
night the best time for airing the patients. 
One of our highest medical authorities on Con- 
sumption and Climate has told me that the air 
in London is never so good as after ten o'clock 
at night. 

_ Always air your room, then, from the outside 
air, if possible. Windows are made to open; 
doors are made to shut — a truth which seems 
extremely difficult of apprehension. I have 
seen a careful nurse airing her patient's room 
through the door, near to which were two gas- 
lights, (each of which consumes as much air as 
eleven men,) a kitchen; a corridor, the compo- 
sition of the atmosphere in which consisted of 
gas.paint, foul air, never changed, full of efBuvia, 
including a current of sewer air from an ill- 
placed sink, ascending in a continual stream by 
a well-staircase, and discharging themselves 
constantly into the patient's room. The win- 
dow of the said room, if opened, was aU that 
was desirable to air it. Every room must be 
aired from without — every passage from with- 
out. But the fewer passages there are in a hos- 
pital the better. 

If we are' to preserve the air within as pure 
as the air without, it is needless to say that the 
. chimney must not smoke. Almost aU smoky 
chimneys can be cured — from the bottom, not 
from the top. Often it is only necessary to 
Jiave an inlet for air to supply the fire, which is 
feeding itself, for want of this, from its own 
chimney. On the other hand, almost aU chim- 
neys can be made to smoke by a careless niirse, 
who lets the fire get low and then overwhelms 
ji with coal; not, as we verily beUeve, in order 



to spare herself trouble, (for very rare is un- 
kindness to the sick,) but from not thinking 
what she is about. 

In laying down the principle that the first ob- 
ject of the nurse must be to keep the air breathed 
by her patient as pure as the air without, it 
must not be forgotten that every thing in the 
room which caa give off effluvia, besides the 
patient, evaporates itself into his air. And it 
follows that there ought to be nothing in the 
room excepting him, which can give off efflu- 
via or moisture. Out of all damp towels, &e., 
which become dry in the room, thedftanp, of. 
course, goes into the patient's air. Yet this 
" of course" seems as little tbought of, as if it 
were an obsolete fiction. How very seldom you 
see a nurse who acknowledges by her practice 
that nothing at aU ought to be aired in the pa- 
tient's room, that nothing at all ought to be 
cooked at the patient's fire ! Indeed the ar- 
rangements often make this nde inipessible to 
observe. • 

If the nurse be a very careful one, she wiU, 
when the patient leaves his bed, brat not his 
room, open the sheets wide, and throw the bed- 
clothes back, in order to air his bed. And she 
win spread the wet towels or flannels carefully 
out upon a horse, in order to dry them. Now, 
either these bed-clothes and towels are not 
dried and aired, or they dry and air themselves 
into the jjatient's air. And whether the damp 
and efflnvia do him most harm in his air or in 
his bed, I leave you to determine, for I cannot. 

Even in health, people cannot repeatedly 
breathe air in which they live with impunity, 
on account of its becoming charged with un- 
wholesome matter from the lungs and skin. In 
disease.where every thing given off from the body 
is highly noxious and dangerous, not only 
must there be plenty of ventiliation to carry off 
the effluvia, but every thing which the patient 
passes must be instantly removed away, as be- 
ing more noxious than even the emanations 
from the sick. 

Of the fatal effects of the effluvia from the ex- 
creta it would seem unnecessary to speak, were 
they not so constantly neglected. Concealing 
the utensils behind the vallance to the bed 
seems aU the precaution which is thought ne- 
cessary for safety in private nursing. Did you 
but think for one moment of the atmosphere 
under the bed, the saturation of the under side 
of the mattress with the warm evaporations, 
you would be startled and frightened too ! 

The use of any chamber utensil vjUhout a lid 
should be utterly abolished, whether among 
sick or well. You can easily convince yourself 
of the necessity of this absolute rule, by taking 
one with a lid, and examining the under side of 
that lid. It will be found always covered, when- 
ever the utensil is not empty, by condensed of- 
fensive matter. Where dtoes that go, when 
there is no Hd? 

Earthenvrare, or if there is any wood, highly 
polished and varnished wood, are the only ma- 
terials fit for patients' Utensils. The very lid of 
the old abominable close-stool is enough to 
breed a pestilence. It becomes saturated with 
•offensive matter, which scouring is only wanted 
to bring out. I prefer an earthenware lid as be- 
ing always cleaner. But there are various good 
new-fasMoned. arrangements. 

A slop-pail should never be brought into a 



156 



Tlie Samtary Commission Bulletin. 



sick room. It should be a nile invariable, ra- 
ther more important in the private house than 
elsewhere, that the utensil should be carried di- 
rectly to the water-closet; emptied there, rinsed 
there, and brought back. There should always 
be water ajid a cock in every water-closet for 
rinsing. But even if there is not, you must 
carry water there to rinse with. I have actual- 
ly seen, in the private sick room, the utensils 
emptied into the foot-pan, and put back nnrins- 
ed under the bed. I can hardly say which is 
most abomiuBble, whether to do this or to rinse 
the utensil in the sick room. In the best hos- 
pitals it is now a rule that no slop-pail shall ever 
be brought into the wards, but that the uten- 
sils shall be carried direct to be emptied and 
rinsed, at the proper place. I would it were so 
in the private house. 

Let no one ever depend upon fumigations, 
" disinfectants," and the like, for purifying the 
air. The offensive thing, not its smeU, must 
be removed. A celebrated medical lecturer be- ' 
gan one day, " Fumigations, gentlemen, are of 
essential importance. They make such an 
abominable smeU that they compel you to open 
the window." I wish aU the disinfecting fluids 
invented made such an "abominable smeU" 
that they forced you to admit fresh air. That 
would be a useful invention. — Miss Nighlingale. 

CKBONIC DIASBHCEA. 

The pathology of this disease — ulceration of 
both small and large intestines — points out the 
proper treatment. You must nourish the pa- 
tient with food that is easily assimilated. ' He 
should take plenty of eggs — tender beef steak, 
mutton chops — good skUe bread — sweet milk — 
and but very few if any vegetables; green tea 
(genuine) and no{ coffee. He should always lie 
dovm after eating ; walking would be injuri- 
ous, but riding in a carriage, or rail-car, bene- 
ficial. 

Thorough mastication of the food must be in- 
sisted on. The drink should be hot tea, not 
cold water ; whiskey or malt liquors only in 
case of extreme emaciation and weakness. He 
should lie down flat on his back while in doors 
— and ride in wheel carriages when in the open 
air. 

The best medicines are oil of turpentine ten 
drops every four hours, or J gr. niteate of sil- 
ver in one drachm of glycerine every four hours, 
or twenty five drops of laudanum at bed time, 
{when it does not nauseate, or nothing.) 



A writer in the London Medical Times and Ga- 
zette for Oct. 31st, 1863, speaking of the influ- 
ence of drainage and good water upon the 
•health of cities, says, that in the case of Salis- 
bury, Eng., the average annual number of 
deaths for the last eight (8) years preceding 
the completion of the drainage, (excluding the 
cholera year,) was 243, or 27 in 1,000. and for 
the same period since 193, or 21 in 1, 000, an act- 
ual reduction of dknost one-fourth of the whole 
nurrAer. 



.^@~ The price of the work on " The U. S. San- 
itary Commission," noticed in our last, and pub- 
lished by Messrs. Little & Brown, was erro- 
neously stated to be 75 cents. It should have 
been $1.25. 



PROTECTIVE 

OP THE 

STATE OP NEW YORK. 



OFFICE, 35 CHAMBERS STREET, 



3SXBTW -stork:. 



President. 
Lietjt.-Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Hon. HAMILTON FISH. 
JOHN J. CISCO, Esq. 
ADMIRAL DUPONT. 
EUDOLPH A. WITTHAUS, Esq. 

Treasurer. 
EOBT. B. MINTUEN, Esq. 

Directors. 

E. D. MORGAN. 

GEORGE OPDYKE. 

HIRAM BARNEY. 

JAS. W. BEEKMAN. 

H. W. BELLOWS, D.D. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOB. 
" JAMES BROWN. 
" WM. H. ASPINWALL. 
" JAS. GALLATIN. 
" HOWARD POTTER. 
" WM. E. DODGE, Jk. 
" THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 
" PETER COOPER. 
" GEORGE BANCBOET. 
" DANIEL LORD. 
" WILSON G. HUNT. 
" EOBT. L. STUART. 
" ALFRED PELL. 

Apply in person or by letter, to 

HENEY GEEENFIELD, Sec'y, 

35 Chambebs Street, 

New York. 



HOH. 



Eev. 

Mr. 



OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

1st. To secure the soldiers and sailors and 
their families, any claims for pensions, pay, 
or bounty, etc., without cost to the claimant. 

2d. To protect soldiers or sailors and their 
families fromAmposture and fraud. 

Sd. To prevent false claims from being 
made against the Government. 

4th. To give gratuitous advice and infor- 
mation to soldiers and sailors or their fami- 
lies needing it. 

ARTIFICIAL LEGS & ARMS. 

SE:i4pHO*S PATENT, 516, BROADWAY. 

EBTABIJ8HED 24 YEABS. 

The most perfect substitutes for 
lost limbs the world of science has 
ever invented, can be had only of 
WM. SELPHO & SON, Patentees. 

N. B. — A Silver Medal awarded at 
the last Fair of the American Insti- 
tute and New Haven County Fairs. 




The Sanitary Commission BiMdin. 



ISt 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 

Was constituted by the Secretary of War in 
June, 1861, in accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the Surgeon-General of the TJ. S. 
Army, and its appointment and plan of organi- 
sation were approved by the President of the 
United States. Its present organization is as 
follows: 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., New York. 

A. D. Bache, LL.D., Washington, D. 0. 

F. L. Olmsted, California. 
George T. Strong, Esq., New York. 
Elisha Harris, M.D., New York. 

W. H. Van Buren, M.D., New York. 

G. W. CuUom, TJ. S. A. 
A. E. Shiras, U. S. A. 

E. C. Wood, Assistant Surg.-Gen'l TJ. 8. A. 
Woloott Gibbs, M.!)., New York. 

S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 
C. E. Agnew, M.D., New York. 
J. S. Newberry, M.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Et. Eev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, E. I. 
Hon. E. W. Burnett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, HI. 
Hon. Joseph Holt, Washington, D. 0. 
Horace Binney, Jr., Philadelphia, Penn. 
Eev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 
J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. Fairman Eogers, Philadelphia, Pann. 

omcEEs: 
H. W. Bellows, D.D., President. 
A. D. Bache, LL.D., Tico-President. 
George T. Strong, Treasurer. 
J. Foster JenkinB, M.D., General Secretary. 
J S. Newberry, M.D., Assooiate Secretary. 
J. H. Douglas, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

F. N. Knapp, Associate Secretary. 

HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrange- 
ments for supplying information gratuitously, 
with regard to patients in all the United States 
General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the 
Hospitals in Eastern Virginia, Maryland, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, North Carolina, South Care- 
Una, Florida and Louisiana, address ," Office of 
Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. C." 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address 
"Oface of Sanitary Commission, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia." 

For the Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, 
and the New England States,, address "Office 
Women's Central Union, No. 10 Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York." . _ ^ ^. . . ^,. 

For the Hospitals in Western Virgima, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, MiBsissippi and Arkansas, address 
"Office Sanitary Commission, Louisville, Ky." 

In all cases the name, rank, company, and 
regiment of the person inquired for should be 
given, andwhere he was when last heard from. 
If the application is by letter, the answer vrill 
be sent by return of mail; if in person, it will 
be answered at once; or if by telegraph, an an- 
swer wiU be returned immediately at the in- 
quirer's expense. 

^- Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen, ed- 
itors, and others, can scarcely serve the cause 
of humanity more effectually than by frequentiy 
and widely disseminating a knowledge of the 
above, among those who have fiiends m the anny. 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Commission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive system of agencies for securing the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in its charge for the sick and wounded at points 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points — at New Or- 
leans and at Washington, before Charleston and at 
Chattanooga— its distributions being governed by a 
oompaiTson of the wants of the patients in all cases. 
The following is a hst of depots, to which auxihary 
societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to States or localities, 
but simply to their relative necessity fer assist- 
ance, are mvited to send their offerings: 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston^ Mass. 

Sanitai? Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 46 
%outh Sharp Street, Baltimore^ Md. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, comer Tine 
and Sixth Streets, Cincinnati, O. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 95 
Bank Street, Cleveland, 0. 

Sariitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, Chicago, 111. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 59 ith 
Street, Pittsburg, Penn. 

Samtary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 32 Ear- 
ned Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
Louisville, Ky. 

The Commission receives no pecuniary aid what- 
ever from the Government, and is wholly depend- 
ent on the voluntary contributions of the pubfic for 
the means of sustaining its operations. Contribu- 
tions to the Treasury are solicited, and may be 
transmitted to George T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 
68 WaU Street, N. Y. 

RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 

General Superintendeiit, Hev. E. N. Knapp, Trashing. 
ton, D. 0. Chief Assistant, J.- B. Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltimore Eailroad Depot, Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 

Lodge No. i, H Street, between 13th and Uth Streets. 

Lodge No. 6, Maiyland Avenue, near Bajlroad Station. 

Nuises' Home, Washington, D. 0. 

Soldiers' Home, Third Street, east of Broadway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio— Col. G. W. D. Andrews, Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, "Cairo, 111 C. N. Shipman, Sup't and 

Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Loulsvjlle, Ky.— James Malona, Sup't. 
James Morton, Special Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Nashville, Tenn.— L. Crane, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Ohio , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cleveland, Ohio— dark Warren, Sup't 
and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn. — O.W. 
Christy, Sup't and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, Yioksburg, Miss.— T. Way, Sup't. 

t-assct roB pehsioss. 
WUliam'T. bascom, Pension Agent, WashingtoB, D. 

HOSFITAIi GABS. 

Between Washington and New 7ork— Sol. Andrews, 
M. C, Surgeon in charge. 

Between Louisville and Mur&eesboro' — Dr. J. P. Ba» 
num. Surgeon in charge. 

■ASITABT BTUUEBS. 

lUBsisBlppi Blver— Clara Bell; CumbeiUnd Blrep— 
Hew Dunleith; Fotosuo River— SUzabetli. 



158 



Hue Sanitwry Commission BvEdia. 






RECEIVED 

TWO PRIZE MEDALS 





GPBOM JT7EIES 3 AOT) 4) 

AT THE 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 



Being Sole Awards gained by anything of the kind. It also received Superlative Beport of 
"EXCEEDING EXCELLENT FOR FOOD." 



MAIZENA, 

At the GEEAT INTEBNATIONAL EXHIBITION at HAMBUBG, July, 1863, received 
the highest Prize Medal for its great deUcacy as an article of food. 

MAIZENA, 

At the FAIE of the NEW TOEK STATE AGEICULTUBAL SOCIETY, at Utioa, N. T.,- 
September, 1863, received both Dieloma and Mbdaii. 

MAIZENA, 

AT THB 

Pennsylvania State Fair at Non'istown, 

Oct. 3, 1863, took Gold Medaii. 

" MAIZENA" has also taken the first premiiim at the Ambkioan Instetotb, New Tork 
City; New Jebset Statb Paib at Trenton, and at other places — ^in every instance where 
it has been exhibited. 

" MAIZENA" has never failed tojreoeive the highest award when placed in competi- 
tion with Corn Starch and aU articles of like character, after a thorough Microscopical 
and Analytical Examination of disinterested judges. It therefore stands commended to 
the public as the best article of its kind in the world without any comments of the manu- 
facturer, 

MAIZENA, 

For Puddings, Ckkesi Custards, Blanc Mange, &c., without isinglass, with few or no eggs, 
at a cost astonishing the most economical. It is also excellent for thickening sweet sauoesB, 
gravies for fish and meat, soups, &c. For Ice Cream, nothing can compare with it. A 
little boiled in milk wiU produce rich cream for Coffee, Chocolate, Tea, &o. 

Put up in one pound packages, under the trade mark "Mausejia," with direotioba 
for use. 

A most delicious article of food for children and invalids of all ages. For sale bj 
Grocers and Druggists everywhere. 

WHOLESALE DEPOT, 166 FULTON STREET. 

WM. DURYEAy General Assent. 



Tfi£ S^tary Commission BvEetin. 



15& 



EEGEJT MEDICAL ¥ORKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

BAILLIEEE BEOTHEES, 

440 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 



ON MILITAKY AND CAMP HOSPITALS, AND THE HEALTH OP TROOPS IN THE FIELD. By L. Battobns* 
Medical Director of the French Army, kc, &c. Translatocl and Annotated by Fbanklin B. Hough, M. D., late 
Sanitary Inspector in the Army of the Potomac. 12mo, 260 pages. Price %1 2&. 

*#* The above work is the result of a commiaeion sent by the French Government to the Crimea to report upon 
file condition of the Hospitals and troops of the French army, and incidentally of the English and Sardinian armies. 
it is written in the form of a nairative, and the great questions of the prevention and control of disease in camps and 
hotpita'M are thoroughly discussed. The hygienic conditions of the United States Army are similar to those of fha 
armies of the Crimea; the rules and prescriptions given in the book will, therefore, be found perfectly applicable. 
This work recommends itself to commanders of regiments as well as army surgeons. 

ON DIPHTHERIA. By Edwabd Headlam Greenhow. 1861. Pp. 160. Price $1.25. 

Our readers will find a very large amount of information in the twelve chapters of which the volume is made up. 
Perhaps, in the present state of our knowledge on the subject of this obscurely understood dlse^we, little more can bs 
saidbeyoud what may here be found written down. — London Medica' Times arid Gaaette. t 

We have only been able here to refer to certain of the more prominent facts concerning diphtheria; but we believe 
we have said enough to recommend this well-written treaties to the attention of the profession. — British Medical 
Journal. 
ADVICE TO A MOTHER ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HER OFFSPRING IN INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH. 

By P. Henbt ChaVasse, M. D. Price 60c. 
Kfth Edition. HAND-BOOK OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS. By Stephen Sbhth, M. P., Surgeon to Bellevue Hoi^ 

12mo, 380 pages, and 237 Woodcut HLustrations. Price $1 75. 
Just received, a Fresh Stock of "BERNARD & HUETTE'S OPERATIVE SURGERY." Colored Plates. Price $20. 

MESSRS. BAILLIERE BROTHERS beg to inform the MEDICAL PROFESSION and STUDENTS, that having 
purchaeed a Stock of the Pubbcations of Messrs. BLANCHARD & LEA, LIPPINCOTT & CO. , LINDSAY & BLAKTSTON, 
&c., tb.ey are prepared to sell all the pabhcatlona of these Houses at a veby libebal piscoukt foe cabh. Prices will 
be given on application uid orders are respectfully solicited. 

Any of the above sent free hy mail on receipt of the price. 




^' ^UMBAM^ 




%, 



<f. 



=%■ 



Adapted to every branch of business. 

MANUFACTURED ONLY BY THE ORIGINAL INVENTORS, 

R & T. FAIRBANKS & CO., St. Johnstoy, Vermant. 

PBmCTPAL WAREHOUSES : 
FAIRBAITKS & CO.. No. 252 Broadway, New Tork. 
FAIRS A.NKS & BROWN. No, 118 Milk Street Boston. 
FAIRBANKS, GRBENIiBAF & CO., No. 172 Lake Street, Chicago; 
FAIRBANKS & E'WING, Masonic HaU, Philadelphia. 
FAIRBANKS & CO., No. 246 Baltimore Street, Baltiwnore. 

BeseFiptn'fte eiretilars furnished or ma^ed to. any- address, i>n >a|)pncat)ioD to ^berof 
the abore. 



160 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



Franklin Squaee, New Yoek, Dec., 1863. 



HAEPER & BROTHERS' 

LIST OF NEW BOOKS, 



SS" MaiUnff Notice. — ^Habfeb & Bbothebs wiU send their Books by Mail, postage free, to any part of the United States. 

an receipt of the Price. 

gS" HARPER'S CATALOGUE and TRADE-LIST may he obtained gratuitously, on application to the PiMishert per- 
sonally, or by letter, enclosing Six Cents in Postage Stamps. 



DBAPER'S INTEUiECTOAI; DEVELOPMENT 01" ETJ- 
EOPE. A History of the Intelleotual Development of 
Europe. By John WmLiAjiDRAPEE, M.D., LL.D., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Physiology in the TJniversity 
ofNewTork; Author ofa " Treatise on Human Physi- 
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VATIX'S TELLAS AND COTTAGES. A Series of Designs 
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Enlarged. With nearly 400 Illustrations. 8vo, Cloth. 
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HISTOEY OF THE SIOUX WAR AND MASSACEES OF 
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FIVE TEABS OF PKAYBR, with the Answers. By Sam- 
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MISS MULOCK'S FAIET BOOK. The best Popular 
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DAILY WALK WITH WISE MEN. EELIGIOUS EXER- 
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BACHEL RAY. A Novel. By Anthohv Tbollope, Au- 
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BULWEE'S CAXTONIANA. Caitoniana : A Series of 
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THE 



SANITARY COMMISSION 

4 

BULLETIN. 



Vol,!. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 15, 1864. 



No. 6. 



The Santtabt Commission Bci.iiETiN (.*■ pub- 
lished on thejirst andjifkertih ef every month, and 
as U has a circuiaiion, gratvMous or other, (^ above 
14,000 copies, U offers an wmsuaUy valuable me- 
etiumfor advertising. 

All communicaiions must be addressed to tke 
Editor, at the qgice 823 Broadway, and must be 
authenticated by the names and addresses of the 
writers. 

We shall pvUMsh, in our next, exirads from 
the proceedings of the quarterly meding of the Com- 
mission, now being hM in Washington. 

" WHY DOES THE SANITARY COMMISSION 
NEED SO MUCH MONEY?" 

If the people furnish supplies liberally 
without cost, and if the storehouses and 
treasuries of the various Branches of supply 
are full, how is it that the Central Treasury 
of the Sanitary Commission calls for and 
disposes of so much money ? This is a 
plain question, honestly asked; and there is 
e, plain and honest answer. It is this: a 
large amount of money is needed, because 
the present machinery of the Commission, 
■which is supported by the Osntral Treasury, 
cannot be kept in motion without a very, 
large cash expenditure; and the judgment 
of sagacious, humane, and cai-efully calcu- 
lating men, to whom the whole matter has 
been submitted, decides, without quahfioa- 
tion, that all this machinery must be kept 
a-golng — that large as its cost is, the results 
for good which depend upon it are so much 
larger, that the Commission, as the trustees 
►of the people's bounty and representatives 
of their benevolence, the executors of their 
will, could not find a justification in allow- 
ing the expensiveness of the system to cause 
its discontinuance until a fair statement of 
tiheir intention to discontinue it, and the 
reason why they intended to do so, should 
have been laid before the people, and the 
question put. Shall the Sanitary Commis- 
sion,.or shall they tint, cm on with.this work 

Vo: 



in all its breadth, involving this annual 
expenditure ? Shall they drop all other 
branches of their work, and limit themselves 
to the charge of merely " distributing the 
supplies" which are sent to them; or shall 
they keep up their entire system, embracing, 
with this distribution of supplies, sanitary 
inspection by medical men, of camps and 
of field hospitals; sanitary inspection, by 
medical men, of general hospitals; special 
relief, with all its agencies, and in all its 
various departments; the hospital directory, 
with its register, and its 500,000 names ? 

The fact of the case is this, that the work 
of distributing supplies to the sick and 
wounded, while of course it involves much 
expense, is but one of five directions in 
which the Sanitary Commission are labor- 
ing to ward off disease and death*from the 
soldier, to insure speedy recovery, to re- 
lieve' the anxiety of relatives at home, to 
make the dear-bought experience of regi- 
ments already long in the war, available to 
regiments just entering the field.' Part of 
this work suggested itself and grew up as 
the Commission went on, but most of it 
entered into the original plan of the Com- 
mission, which was based upon the idea 
that what the ai'my needed from outside it- 
self, was not merely additional clothes, and 
food, and care in times of emergency, but 
a better understanding of the conditions for 
securing health, and morel urgent induce- 
ments with more constant constraints and 
influences to lead to a regard for every pos- 
sible law which would guard against or 
check disease. Hence the whole depart- 
ment of " Sanitary Inspection" was estab- 
lished in field and hospital, involving large 
expense, and to the casual observer pro- 
'' ducing no very important results, — in the 
whole of its work making less show of re- 



162 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



lief or aid to the soldier than would be 
made by the ■ distribution of one -wage a 
load of supplies to wounded or dying men — 
yet in its actual effects probably saving 
more lives to the army and to friends at 
home ilian has ever been done by the dis- 
tribution of any Ave hundred wagon loads 
of these same supplies. 

The Special Belief department also in- 
volving now in its constant enlargement a 
heavy and increasing outlay, is one of the 
branches of the Commission's work which 
has very little to do with supply distribu- 
tion, and was not indeed embraced in the 
original plan of organization. Yet this 
same Special Belief work with its ' ' Lodges" 
and "Homes" aU along the Atlantic coast, 
on the shores of the Mississippi, and inland, 
wherever an army is found, could not be 
given up to-day without to-morrow and 
each following day exposing to manifold 
evils, at least three thousand men who now 
are protected. 

So of the "Hospital Directory," with its 
agencies for giving prompt and accurate 
information to those at home concerning 
the sick and wounded throughout the army; 
this involves large expense, so nxuch so that 
a few months. since those who hold them- 
selves responsible for the right use of the 
money put into their hands by the peSple, 

■ almost decided that they had no right to 
continue this branch of the Commission's 
work, which after all was not for the aid of 
the soldiers so much as for the relief of the 
anxious solicitude of friends; but when the 
proposal to give it up was discussed, it was 
found that there was an immense press- 
ure from " the people," demanding the 
continuance of this servant, and friend, 
and comforter of theirs. This too had 
grown up, not as part of the original plan 
of the Commission, and surely in nowise 
connected with the distribution of needed 
,suppli s, but it had come out of an urgent 
call of the people that those who in thei;r 

'napie were helping the soldiers in the field, 
should now also help them at home — the 
fathers, wivee, and mothers — by answering 
their inquiries about the sick and wounded. 
Thus it WHS that this Hospital Directory, 
with uU its aids for securing and transmit- 
ting information, had sprung up out of the 
demands of the people, and the geople ask 



to be and are called upon to defray the ex- 
pease of its continuance. 

Such is the history, brought down to the 
present time, of those four departments of 
the Commission's labor, additional to the 
work of "Supply Distribution." The cost 
of maintaining these four departments with 
the largeness which the interests of half a 
million enlisted men, and half a million 
homes ask for, and with the thoroughness 
which wise economy unites with medieal 
science in demanding, cannot be less than 
thirty thousan4 dollars each month. And 
it is. with the express understanding that to 
such use this much of the money will be 
appropriated, that funds are asked for and 
contri buted to carry on " the work of the 
Commission." The detail of these expen- 
ditures in each one of these branches is 
open for examination, and the result of 
such examination by careful business men, 
who have themselves contributed largely to 
the very money thus used, and who measure 
also the work which is done, is this: Those 
men say, the Sanitary Commission would 
be false to duties assumed, and to duties 
providentially laid upon them — false also 
to the people, whose work this really is — 
false likewise to the age which gives the 
opportunity' for juat this work of filling up 
generously a great page of a nation's his- 
tory — an opportunity given at just this 
time, the one year out of a century — false 
to aU this, they say, would; the Commission 
be if it did not persevere and carry on all 
these agencies for good, confidently and 
unhesitatingly asking the people for what- 
ever money is really needed, with fit econ- 
omy, for the work. 

Thus it is that the " Central Treasury," 
from which all these departments of th» 
CommisMon's work draw their support, 
needs constant renewal, although the 
Branches of supply (lately so amply fur- 
nished by the proceeds of' the "Sanitary* 
Fairs" held in various sections of the coun- 
try) may be stored to overflowing with 
goods and money. 

But the whole ground is not covered by 
this statement. All persons employed by- 
the Commission in every part of the vas,t 
field draw their pay from the Central 
Treasury. Moreover, it has become th e set- 
tled poUoy of the Commission to employ 



J.ive immtary uormntssion jsuusttit. 



iH9 



paid agents. A large experience, witk a 
Jealous regard to a right and economical 
use of funds entrusted to their care, h&s 
convinced the Commission beyond question 
that in a work continuing thus for years, 
the only wise method is to employ the best 
miea that can be obtained, -with compensa- 
ting pay; that thus «nly can be secured 
continued and experienced labor, (one of 
the most important of all things in this 
work) — systematic effort — a sense of respon- 
sibility to those in authority — entire yield- 
ing up of time and strength to the service 
— and a right on the part of the officers of 
the Commission to remove any person from 
the service who may prove to be incompe- 
tent or ill suited to the work. Under the 
volunteer system of agency, which may an- 
swer well where a comparatively narrow 
field is covered, and for a work which is 
limited to weeks or months — none of these 
abscdutely essential ends can be secured. 
And although this work of the Sanitary 
■Commission is a benevolent work, and its 
benefits are gratuitous to those who receive 
them, yet it lias to be conducted in its large 
labors with thoro<agh business method. This, 
too, is to be borne in mind, that this sys- 
tem of paid agents does not exclude the ad- 
vantage of having in the work disinterest- 
edness and religious earnestness. On the 
contrary, many men of just those charac- 
teristics, and who because of the spirit 
which was in them entered into the work, 
are now retained among the paid agents; 
they were men who could give a few months 
to the cause, but were not justified in giv- 
ing years. And in selecting. persons addi- 
tional to be employed, the aim of the Com- 
mission is always to get men whose hearts 
ai'e there before their hands are called to 
take hold. 

But once more, the Central Treasury is 
drawn Jipon, not only for maintaining the 
various departments already named, and 
for the pay of all the persons employed by 
the Commission east and west — some two 
hundred men, including its corps of Medi- 
cal Inspectors-^but also for the purchase of 
such supplies as are needed in emergencies 
where there is no time to send to distant 
Branches and storehouses. In this way 
after a single battle, sometimes fifteen or 
twenty thousand dollars are used, e-^ry 



single dollar of which probably helps to 
meet some real want or to save a Ufa. 
From the Central Troasuiy also comes th» 
money which maintains in the field with 
each army corps independent means of 
transportation for carrying with the armjsr 
as it moves and distributing there sanitaigf 
supplies. This is the system now adopted 
by the Commission. There is also the es- 
pense incurred of purchasing horses and 
wagons with which to' transport suppUea 
from the nearest depots to battle-fields. 
This expense is often very large, but it has 
more than once proved of incaleulabl*' 
benefit, enabling us to reach the wounded 
with our stores on the field,! long in advan«a 
of the Government stores. For, as is waU 
known, according to existing laws, the 
Medical Department can draw supplies, but 
is utterly powerless as to ordering theio 
forward to the field, there being no inde- 
pendent transportation at the control of that 
Department . The Medical officer is oblig^ 
to make over his supplies to the Quarter- 
master's Department for transportsition, 
where, with the immense burden which ,ia 
heaped up there, there is often an unavoid- 
able delay which is death to the wounded 
' who are waiting upon the field. So lQM,g: 
as this law continues, by which the hands 
of the Medical Department are thus tied* 
" so long" — as one of the Medical Bureau 
' recently said, a member Oi the Eegulsr 
Army — " isthere an absolute necessity that 
the Sanitary Commission stand ready with 
its independent transportation to carry for- 
ward at the earliest moment suppUes to tha 
battle-fields." 

Such is an enumeration of some of th» 
principsil demands which the Central Treas- 
ury of the Sanitary Commission must al- 
ways be prepared to meet. In their aggre- 
gate these demands caU for a monthly de- 
posit in the Treasury of forty thousand 
dollars. 

Such is the record, and the record is the 
appeal. It asks whether the people wish 
this agency in behalf of the soldiers in tent 
and in hospital, and on the battle-field-^at 
the east, and at the west; and at the south 
— to cease ; or whether it is their wiU to 
have it continue in its largeness of plan, its 
scientific exactness, its thoroughness of de- 
tail, fs pron^ptness in meeting emergen- 



164 



7%e Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



•<iea, its abiMty to do all that the friends at 
home wotild themselves desire to do for our 
soldiers. If the people say it must stU] go 
on •with its •work, then must they contribule 
liberally not only to the Branches, and to 
the local sources of supply, but also to the 
Central Treasury of the Commission ; and 
as long aa'the 'wax continues, so long shall 
a full record be furnished to them. 



Ne7 tasKj Jsmuary 7, 1861. 

My Dhais Mb, Otis: I ackno-wledged by 
telegraph to-day, your great contribution 
of $50,000, being the January and Febru- 
aaty installments of California's support of 
the Sanitary Commission. 

I had the pleasure of opening your letter, 
With its now •well-known and welcome hand- 
■writing, in the presence of half a dozen 
leading merchants of ISew York, •who hap- 
pened to be in the ofSce at the time on 
other business ; and could you have heard 
their tributes to the loyalty and generosity 
of your noble State, it ■would have repaid 
you for your long and devoted attention to 
our interests, and partly paid the people of 
California for their magnificent behavior. 
The constancy and methodical liberality of 
the Pacific Coast to our Sanitary Commis- 
sion as their almoner, is our chief de- 
pendence. You •will hear a great deal of 
the vast Sanitary Fairs at Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, Boston, Buffalo, Albany, Washington, 
at •which very large sums of money are raised, 
and you may very naturally think that it 
must be high •water in our Central Ti'easury ! 
It is important that the people of California 
diould understand that all this money is 
fitly expended by the Branches themselves 
in the purchase of supplies — -which supplies 
are forwarded to our receiving depot for 
distribution. But the -whole cost of distri- 
bmtion, •with the men, •wagons, horses, and 
machinery of every kind ■which transports 
BuppUes and makes them useful and saving 
to the army, all these accumulated comforts 
and necessaries falls upon our Central Treas- 
ury ; -which has more to do, and is more indis- 
pensable, precisely according to the amount 
of supplies that are furnished to it. The 
more money the Branches have, the more 
supplies ■we have; and the more supplies ■we 
have, -the more it costs to forward them, dis- 



tribute and supply them to our ■tast army, 
scattered over our ■wide country. 

All the money and all the siipplies that 
could be raised and furnished ■would be as 
useless to the army without us, as the raina 
on the hill sides of the Croton Biver ■would 
be to the city of New York, if the city had 
not built an expensive aqueduct; which ac- 
cumulates, economizes, and distributes, by 
an intricate and costly system of mains, and 
gates, and trainers, and pipes, and stop- cocks, 
this water to every house, every kitchen and 
chamber, every wash-bowl and pitcher and 
mouth in New York! 

The United States Sanitary Commission 
is the aqueduct, with its enormous pipes of 
supply, and its diversified pipes of distri- 
bution, now laid do^wn over the whole field 
of wai-, and maintained, with all the neces- 
sary breakages and changes of position and 
spread of operations, from Texas to Ken- 
tucky; from Kansas to "Virginia; from the 
Potomac to the Eio Grande; from Portland 
to Charleston, and Femandina^ and Ship 
Island; from Chicago to Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, LouisviUe, Cairo, Memphis, Nashville, 
Chattanooga, and wherever the army stays 
or goes. Understand, then.that the wealth 
of the Branches is indispensable to the sol- 
dier's relief, but that their wealth only 
makes us poor — by giving us more to do 
and nothing to do it ■with! We are like a 
stage company, ■with an immense number 
of passengers, but left without forage for 
our horses, or horses for our coaches; or, 
rather, we should be so if California did not 
make herself the great motive power for 
the Central Machinery of the Sanitary 
Commission, and thus furnish horses and 
forage, by which our overflow of passengers 
(the supplies!) are all expeditiously trans- 
ported to their destination, (the sick and 
wounded, or the naked and hungry sol- 
diers!) Don't strain what I say too far. 
We are not so ungrateful as to say that the 
nation has left us without support for our 
Central Machinery; for we have received 
into our Treasury about a million of dol- 
lars: but of this million, the Pacific Coast 
has supplied us with nearly $700,000, leav- 
ing only $300,000 to come from the rest of 
the nation ! The Atlantic States are waking 
up to tliis disproportion, and a wholesome 
emulation is^ aroused They are now pre- 



The Scmitary Commission BvUdin. 



165 



panng a great National Metropolitan Fair 
at New Tort, for the benefit of tlie Central 
Treasury of the Commission, -which will 
come off late in March ; at which they hope, 
at one blow, to raise perhaps a half million of 
dollars, and so equalize the contribution of 
the Atlantic with the Pacific! I rejoice at 
this holy jealousy. I have told our able and 
rich men that if they wished the United 
States Sanitary Commission to throw itself 
into the arms of its devoted friends in Cali- 
fornia, and depend wlioUy on her liberality 
for the support of its Central Machinery, 
that we were not afraid of the result; that 
the newspapers from the interior of that 
State and from Oregon and Washington 
Territory, as well as private letters, were all 
assuring me of the devoted and unstinted 
eympathy and pride of the Pacific Coast in 
the unexampled work of mercy and love 
that they had made so largely their own; and 
that the nation this side the Eocky Moun- 
tains had only to give us one cold shoulder, 
or to indicate its fatigue at our dependence 
upon her, to make us very sure of having 
the whole heart, and as much of the golden 
and silver veins as we needed, of your 
young and generous wealth, put at our dis- 
posal! But our i>eople are too wise and 
shrewd to allow you to appropriate this 
privilege exclusively to yourselves! 

The United States Sanitary Commission, 
our Centrfl Board, originated, designed,and 
set in motion all this now vast machinery, 
both in the homes and peaceful States, 
where supplies are accumulated, and in the 
field, where they are distributed. Its 
operations are on too vast a scale, its re- 
lations to this war too momentous, its rec- 
ord too honorable, its work and i rinciples 
too deeply wrought into the tender experi- 
ences and grateful memori s of nearly a 
million of men, who in the field and in the 
hospital have at one time or another had 
their hunger and nakedness, their wounds 
and fatigues, their sore feet and bleeding 
limbs, ministered to by this Institution, 
not to make the sagacious and fore-looking 
think, that the time is coming, after the 
hurry of this war is over, when the ques- 
tion will be carefully asked, who planned, 
who worked, who supported this United 
States Sanitary Commission, who suppliM 
the brains, and who the heart and who the 



■money by which this the largest, most suc- 
cessful, and most beneficent charity which 
Christian history has ever seen, was set 
a-going and kept i-going? Ifhere are even 
people who begin to foresee that the x>olitical 
value of a good record in this^ommission, 
is worth careful consideration. Now, the . 
loyal North and West, numerous as the de- 
mands which the bounties and the supports 
of soldiers' families and aU the other local, 
expenses of the war make upon them, do 
not mean to be behindhand in their sup- . 
port of the Commission. They are begin- 
ning to see, too, that it is not enough to 
make their record perfectly clean to sup- 
port merely the home Branches generously, 
for they foresee that when a due considera- 
tion is given to the subject, it will appear 
to all that the Central Machinery, the San- 
itary Commission proper, recognized by 
the Government, co-ordinated with the 
medical department, welcomed a,nd trusted 
by the generals, loved and relied upon be- 
cause alone known and seen by the soldiers 
themselves in hospital and camp, is the 
final heir of whatever interest, or national 
glory, or gratitude this movement haa 
awakened, as it is the sole condition of 
the actual serviceableness of the branches 
themselves. Accordingly, the country here 
is beginning to say that California must 
not run away with all this gratitude of the 
soldiers, must not fasten on herself the 
eyes of the whole world and all future his- 
tory, as the head nurse of the great 
American army in its memorable and 
glorious war for the permanent establish- 
ment of our national liberties. We hope, 
at least, that this is the growing feeling. 
We earnestly and fondly desire to make our 
support national, to draw no more from 
the Pacific than from the Atlantic. We are 
anxious to see the account squared, and as 
much in the scale, the centre being the 
Eocky Mountains, which hangs on this side, 
as on yours when the war terminates. If, 
however, we are disappointed in this hope, 
we shall not be discouraged; for we shaQ 
not be without your enthusiastic, yowr 
ever growing and evermore gracious and 
cheerful support. If I were not properly 
and sincerely jealous of my own Atlantio 
region, and did not for her own sake, and 
for the sake of her future honor and dig>- 



The Sanitary Commission BuUetim. 



vikg, wish to see her abreast •sniih. the 
Pacific, in this truly national enterprise, 
J should not hesitate a moment to fling the 
Commission a^jd the soldiers, sick and 
•Wounded, on your exclusive nursing and 
care. I believe you ■would dq it; I know 
you would do it. But I will not consent to 
relinquish to California this imperishable 
bonor, which would give her a. political and 
moral pre-eminence above her sisters for 
•U times, without a struggle for New York 
«nd Massachusetts, and Ohio and Illinois, 
and Bhode Island and Pennsylvania, and 
every other loyal State in our cis-alpine 
region. But if the hour ever comes when 
the Central Machinery of the United States 
Banitary Commission loses energy and 
efficiency through the.neglect of its patrons 
ttid supporters here at home, you may be 
tare that we shall not see the beautiful and 
efiective system we have matured impaired 
CSC abandoned, on any scruple of local or 
Atlantic pride. No! we shall seize the tele- 
^aph wire, attached to the hearts and the 
coffers of California, and give it such a 
null as will be felt in every store, and 
bouse, and hut, and mine, and ranche, and 
heart, and hand in all your region; and at 
once, from the other end of that magic wire, 
■will begin to drop into our treasury those 
big, golden heart-drops, which so many 
times have raised our nearly exhausted 
reservoir — the rich blood of California's 
patriotism and humanity poured out hke 
water to assuage the wants and sufferings 
of om- noble army. With our hand on the 
telegraph wire that ends in your rich hearts 
and mines, we can patiently and calmly 
wait the decision of the loyal people of 
these Golden States. Let them say, " We 
are tired of your demands; turn to friends 
less drawn upon than we are," and we shall 
dick at once onr despair here and our hope 
in you, ■with a faith that will never be 
^aken, that aU the silver and the gold in 
your mountains must be exhausted before 
California denies one request of ours made 
In the name of our sick and wounded pa- 
triots. Bat that hour is not come, and I 
hope and believe it never will oome. I 
am, however, in any and all events, grate- 
f^ully and affebtionately yours, for the army 
and the homes and the cause and the Com- 
migeion, Henky W. Bellows, President. 



SANITABY MATTERS IN NORTH 
CAKOLINA. 

On arriving at NewberB, I sought the 
depot of the Commission, and was wdcom- 
ed by Dr. Page, the gentlemanly inspector 
of that district, whose services in the de- 
partment of the South have secured for him 
a reputation for probity ajid efSciency which 
is doubtless merited. 

The district allotted to the doctor covera 
a wide range, embracing in all sixteen gen- 
eral and post hospitals, including a conva- 
lescent camp. To aU of these stores have 
been supplied upon the requisitions of the 
surgeons, audi am happy to know that the 
most cordial relations exist between the 
surgeons and the Commission, and that 
they co-operate most earnestly to promote 
the well-being of our troops. During my 
visit it was my privilege to accompany Dr. 
Samuel McCormick, the Medical Director 
of the Department, whose inquiries into 
the condition of the hospitals were thor- 
ough and accurate. It was eqnaUy pleas- 
ing to notice the readiness with which the 
Medical Director of the post and his asso- 
ciates not only responded to the investiga- 
tions of their superior officers, but were 
anxious to make a full exhibit of all the af- 
fairs intrusted to them. Dr. Page accom- 
panied the Medical Corps, and the oc- 
casion presented a cheering evidence of the 
unity and fellowship existing between the 
surgeons and the Commission, and their 
joint efforts to aid each other in the great 
work of promoting the comfort of our sol- 
diers. 

The Stanley Hospital at Newbern, the 
Mansfield at Morehead City, and the Ham- 
mond at Beaufort; are the chief in size and 
importance. The two first are erected on 
the pavilion plan, and are well ordered ia 
all respects. Dr. McCormick directed the 
use of China table furniture where tin was 
used, because of its wholesome moral in- 
fluence upon the troops. It is more home- 
like, and promotes the reflection that the 
Goyernment is careful for the comfort and 
well-being of its defenders. 

During the siege at Washington, N. C, 
the agents of the Commission were on 
hand with their varied stores, and their use- 
fuln^^^M^^^^Mini 1 »r"->^ - 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



167 



pital transports were well supplied with the 
means for "aid and comfort" from the 
depot at Newbem. About forty regiments 
have been under inspection, and 1 judge, 
from an examination of many of their 
cfamps, that they are well policed in most 
regards. I was particularly impressed with 
the substantial and comfortable appearance 
of many of the camps. Log houses, with 
glazed windows and open fire-places, are 
common. The regimental hospitails are 
generally comfortable and well supplied. 

In the marshy district between Newbem 
and Morehead Gity, and on the line of the 
railroad between these two places, there 
are several encampments, in which there 
hoe been much sickness. At Newport bar- 
racks, especially, the men have suffered 
from intermittent fevers. It is unsafe to 
allow the same troops to remain long at a 
time at this point. Ifie quinine ration has 
been used fredy, and in some localities with 
marked advantage. If company officers 
were held to strict account as to the care of 
their men, and were required to inspect 
each one daily, with reference to under- 
clothing especially, cleanliness, the use of 
prescribed prophylactic means, the tempera- 
ture and ventilation of quarters, &c., I am 
satisfied much sickness would be prevented. 
It is not unfrequently remarked that some 
companies in the same camp are more 
sickly thflji others, and the difiierence is 
doubtless owing to the difference in the at- 
tention and care given to the men by their 
officers. 

Last year, the scurvy commenced among 
the troops in ihis district as early as July; 
and though it did not prevail to an alarm- 
ing extent, it was sufficiently prevalent to 
indicate the importance of adoptibg means 
for its prevention this year. If some of 
the land now vacant in the vicinity of New- 
burij could be granted by the Government 
for garden pui-poses, under the management 
of the Commission, I am satisfied it would 
be a great blessing to the army in that 
region. The land is a sandy loam, with an 
alluvial sub-soil, containing large quantities 
of shells and other marine deposits; which, 
if brought to the surface as a fertilizer, 
would greatly increase its productiveness, 
and insure iarge crops of early vegetables. 
The ground might now" be prepared for 



onions, which would be ready for use in 
April. Beans would ripen in May; toma- 
toes in June; and large sujiplies of carrots 
and potatoes might be gathered at various 
times during the growing seaspn, and a 
considerable crop stored for winter use. 
The expense and labor of conducting such 
small farms as would be necessary to sup- 
ply the several posts on the coast, would be 
very small, compared with the immense ad- 
vantage that would accrue to our troops. 

The prisoners of war, confined by rebel 
authorities, have also been the recipients 
of aid from our agents in this department ; 
and the cases of individual relief afforded 
refugees and to soldier^needing transporta- 
tion, &c., are not a few. Mr. Geo. B. Page 
acts as the relief agent, and is an earnest 
worker in the cause. 

I should be intruding upon the province 
of the intelligent representative of the Com- 
mission in North Carolina, if I attempted 
to furnish for your readers the incidents 
and details which were observed, as they 
will be presented, in his official report; but 
this hasty sketch is cheerfully submitted. — 
Dr. Parrish's Report. 



THE CrsrCINNATI FAIR. 
The Cincinnati Sanitary Fair having the 
experience of those of Boston and Chicago 
to profit by,, seems to have outdone them 
both in the variety of its devices for the rais- 
ing of money, and in the products of the 
sales. It was opened with speeches from 
General Eoseoranz, Bishop Mollvaine, 
General Carey, and other notables, na- 
tional and local. Thfe work fairly started, 
the number of things that were done to 
secure its success defy all description oir 
enumeration. . There was an Autograph 
Committee, whose business it was to hunt 
down celebrities all over the country, and 
extort from them something in their own 
handwriting that would satisfy the public 
craving . for this species of curiosity. Of 
Dr. Wendell Holmes, of Boston, they re- 
quired that he should be funny "over hifi 
own signature," for this special occasion; 
and difficult as it is to make people laugh 
to order, Le was funny accordingly. There 
has, we venture to say, been nothing in 
this walk of comicality equal to the follow- 
iag epistle since the list of • book-titles 



168 



The Sanitary Commission BtiEetin. 



■which Thomas Hood made out for the 
Duke of Devonshire : 

Boston, December, 14, 1863. 

Deae Sie : Ton ast me for a list of questions 
in Natnral History, -with answers subjoined, for 
the'use of the Instructor. I submit a few, 
which, I think, will serve your purpose for the 
proposed examination of the Scientific Class : 

"1. "What animal produces one of its own 
parents ? 

" Answer.;— The beaver, which is well known 
to construct its own dam. 

"2. Is the Dodo extinct? 

" Ans. It is not, as shown by the following 
bill in my possession : 

' ' ' 111-. to X . Dr. 

One mongrel goose $3 00 

One " " 3 00 

$6 00 

" 3. ."What is the largest quadruped ? 

" Anis. — The mole of Adrian. 

" 4. "What is the lightest quadruped ? 

"Ans. — The lynx. The lynx weighs less than 
ttn ounce. ' 

" 5. When does a horse stand on six legs ? 

"Ans. — When he stands on his/we legs and 
his two hind legs also. 

" 6. "What other insect is the bee afraid of? 

"Ans. — The beetle— (scare-a bee-us. ) 

" 7. Is the otter of roses obtained from that 
. animal when fed on other vegetables— cabbages 
for instance ? 

" Ans. — Probably. The musk deer furnishes 
his perfume when fed on vxifer melons. 

" 8. "What instance can you give of the cun- 
ning of serpents ? 

"Ans. — The simple fact that they secrete their 
venom where ftey can find it when wanted. 

" 9. Why do the above questions amuse you 
more than the answers ? 

"Ans. — Because the person who asks the 
question is the querist. 

" As to the other questions about which you 
ask my opinion, my answer must be brief. 

" Eighteen hours' study out of the twenty- four 
is too much, I think, for delicate young per- 
sons. It does not allow sufficient time for 
sleep, recreation, and meals. 

" I doubt about the introduction of capital 
punishment as a part 'of the oi-dinary college 
disoipUue. It will have a good effect on the 
survivors, no doubt. 

' ' Oliveb WendelIi Holmes. '' 

There was a "Committee on Trees," whose 
business it was to dress Christmas trees, 
and large numbers of them, we need hardly 
Ba,f, were disposed of. There -ftras a Horti- 
cultural Department, and it was filled with 
flowers and plants from various parts of the 
State. There was a Refreshment SAl, and 
it was supplied in lavish abundance with 
every variety of edible, from every place in 
the neigliborliood. The city and its vicin- 
ity was divided into districts, and each dis- 
trict covered tlie tables with cooked dishes 
of all kinds on a particulai- day assigned to 



it — coffee, oysters, turkeys, ducks, chick- 
ens, ham&, tongues, beefsteaks, cakes,, 
fruits — and a hundred ladieS waited on the 
guests. There was a Ladies' Bazaar, in 
■which almost evCTy thing that ladies can 
either devise or manufacture, or that they 
or gentlemen are at all likely to require, 
■was exposed for sale. There is hardly any 
art or manufacture that was not represented 
at it, and hardly any department of indus- 
try in the "West which did not contribute to 
it. And though last, not least, there ■was 
an Art Gallery, containing all the most valu- 
able pictures to be found in Cincinnati or 
its neighborhood, lent by their o^wners for 
the occasion. It must not be forgotten, 
too, that as we remarked in our last, Cincin- 
nati, young as it is, possesses a collection 
of pictures and engravings such as only one 
or two other cities in the Union can boast. 
The proceeds of the fair are already cal- 
culated in the rough at ^200.000. This is 
a large advance on that of Boston, and a 
still larger on that of Chicago, and is 
doubtless due to the experience gained by 
the example of these cities, as well as to 
the growth of the enthusiasm which the 
success of the earlier efforts in this direct 
tion have inspired. There is, of course, 
very little doubt that New York wiU pro- 
duce a result in money which will far sur- 
pass that of all the other fairs put together, 
and there is no reason why it should not. 

But our readers will find, on our .first 
page, a full, and it is to be hoped a con- 
vincing explanation of the fact, that all 
these fairs, so far from lightening the press- 
ure on the central fund of the commission, 
increase it. 



Dr. E. A. Crane, under date of Dec. 26,1803, 
says of the national forces at New Iberia: "The 
sanitary condition of the army is remarkable. 
I have never seen in any of our armies so little 
disease. But little ovev four per cent. (4.3) of the 
present force is on sick hst. Only 5.4 per cent, 
have been reported sick, inchiding^those sentto 
General Hospital since Oct. Ist. The highest 
rate obtains in the cavalry division, as most of 
the picketing now falls upon it. One division 
of the army reports only 1.4 per cent sick.'' 

Dr. Crane attributes this remarkable freedom 
from sickness to " light duties, /air raiiows, in- 
cluding sweet potatoes, and an abundance of fresh 
meal, and a liealthy climate." 



Tlie Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



169 



8HALL CALIF0KNL4.be ALLOWED TO SUP- 
POET THE SANITARY COMMISSION? 
Tliere seems a probability that if tl^ 
Atlantic States do not bestir themselves, 
they may find that California will take the 
■whole work of maintaining the Commission 
out of their hands. The question already 
seems to be, not whether she is ready to un- 
dertake the task, but whether our self-lqve, 
or sense of duty, will allow it to devolve 
upon her. At a large meeting held in San 
Francisco a few weeks ago, Mr. WiUiam T. 
Coleman said : 

I was somewhat surprised to see thfit a' public 
announcement wai made that a few individuals, 

•mentioned by name, including myself and 
"other distinguished speakers," should address 
this meeting. It is scarcely necessary for me 
to say, that public speaking is not my forte; and 
I little expected that my name would be an- 
nounced, as it was, when I consented to come 
here. Fortunately, the cause requires no elo- 
quence; and, if it did, the requirement would 
be satisfied by the circulars of the Committee, 
, and the reverend gentleman who is to make 
the closing speech. It was cheering to Cidi- 
forniana in the East, to witness the emulation 
and spirit caused by the contributions of our 

' state to the Sanitary Fundi Never did a people 
gain so much at so small a price. The dona- 
tions coming in a bulk, appeared to be large, 
but, really, this State has given very little, in 
comparison to others. The loyal States of the 
East have all been called upon for contributions 
in many ways not witnessed here. There 
were soldiers to be fitted out, wounded soldiers 
to be received on their return, help to be sent to 
the battle-field, and appeals were made at every 
corner. People have not stopped to inquire 
any thing; save whether. the sufferer was a sol- 
dier and in need. The Government provided 
arms and ammunition in abundance, but hospi- 
tal supplies were lacking; the cause was in 
danger of great loSs by neglecting wounded men 
in the field and in the hospitals. Then it was 
that California blazed up suddenly with a bril- 
liant, a golden light, and our State gained a name 
of which Californians, with all tEeir vanity, 
may well be proud. Though the Eastern States 
have given much more, their gifts were not in 
one large stream, but in numberless rivulets — 
by States, by cities, by villages, by societies. 
The treasurer of no eastern association has had 
the satisfaction of sending $100,0.)0 at one 
time. But if California should give $100,000 
per month, she would not give any more than 
her share. Congratulate yourselves that you 
have so httle to do, but take care to do it well. 
This State ought really to bear the entire ex- 
penses of the Sanitary Commission. Let us 
Bmd them more than theyask. We opuld do it 
and never miss it. The attention and favor of 
the Sanitary Commission are not limited to any 
class of soldiers. No lines are drawn of nativ- 
ity, or of shades of rehgious or pohtical opinion. 
Officers of the Commission do not turn their 
backs on wounded rebels, but supply theiff 
wants also, and God grant that they make bet- 



ter men. There were, not long, since, 2,500 
sick and wounded rebels at New York, and they 
were not neglected. The Sanitai-y Commission 
has saved more lives and spared.more suffering, 
than any other effort of that kind ever made. I 
now ask yon, fellow-citizens, to again come for- 
ward with your contributions and subscriptions. 
Your wealth is increasing at a rats unequalled 
in the world, and this great charity is ready to 
relieve you of part of the responsibility and 
burden. Send fifty bars of gold and a hundred 
of Silver, through Wells, Fargo & Co. , by way of 
steamer, to the Sanitary Commission, with the 
compliments of California, and you will strength- 
en the weU with confidence and renewed zeal, 
and the wounded will find their cup sweeter and 
their beds softer, while they bless the Golden 
State. [Applause.] 

The Sati Francisco News Letter and Min- 
ing Journal, commenting on this, says: 

Why should not CalifoAia assume the entire 
expenses of the Sanitary Commission ? She is 
able to do it— she should be willing. Why? 
Through the Sanitary Commission alone can 
our people adequately and effectively give ex- 
pression to their loyalty and generous patriot- 
ism. We .are not called upon to sacrifice our 
sons on the battle-field, in the swamps, and 
on the tables of the army surgeons. Our 
homes are not draped in mourning for their 
noble manhood turned to dust in the deadly 
conflict. We are favored of Heaven and of 
men. Why, then, as our flesh and blood are 
spared, our property secure, our hearts and 
heEirths safe from the desolation which has 
hung crape on neafly every door in the East- 
ern States; should we not -willingly, volun- 
tarily, reply to the appeal of the Sanitary Com- 
mission? Go on with your glorious work 
— we will furnish you the means. This shall 
be our contribution for nationality, hberty, and 
charity! Oar citizens have heretofore given' 
liberally, munificently. Sam. Brannan is re- 
ported to have given a thousand dollars recently. 
That was noblg. That was probably not equal 
♦to his income for two days, yet it was generous 
and worthy. Ah, how many at the East would 
gladly give their entire revenue for two months, 
could that buy for their property and homes the 
immunity and prosperity enjoyed by ourpeople ! 
Let our State then take up the support of the 
Sanitary Commission. Its forces shall be CaU- 
fornia's army. The sick and wounded saved 
through our gifts shall be the crown of our 
glory, the laurels of our victories. Let. us 
make the name of our State a synonym for gen- 
erosity, which every soldier's heart shall bless 
whenever he hears it uttered. 

It would certainly be a very noble thing 
for California to do, but it would not be a 
noble thing for us to allow her to do it. 
The expenses of the Commission, it must 
not be forgotten, have so far been regulated 
rather by its receipts, than by the extent of 
the work before it. It has never yet done 
half what it might have done, if it had 
more money; and if its income were double 
what it has ever yet been, it would stiU be 



170 



The /Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



compelled to stop far short of meeting all 
the demands on its stores and on its en- 
ergy. Consequently, no matter how much 
California may give, there will stDl be a vast 
amount of suflFering left unrelieved, if the 
East does not likewise do its part. 



HELP FROM ABEOAD. 

Everybody knows, although we possess no 
statistics on the subject, that there is hardly 
a city of any size or interest in Europe, 
which does not possess a colony of Ameri- 
cans, who have gone abroad either to study, 
themselves, or to educate their children, or 
to engage in business, or in quest of health, 
or simply to enjoy themselves. They are 
to be found in London and Paris by the 
hundred, in Florence, Rome, Munich, 
Dresden and Berlin, Baden and Pau, by 
the dozen, and are nearly all, especially 
those who are permanently resident in 
these places, persons of wealth, or, at all 
events, in very easy circumstances. They 
are, generally, remarkable for the facility 
with which they adapt themselves to for- 
eign manners and custonjs, but are equally 
remarkable for the tenacity with which they 
cling to their nationality, and the eager- 
ness, and almost ostentation, with which 
they proclaim it. Their love of their coun- 
try, and interest in its fortunes, in fact, as 
has been proven by their demeanor during 
the war, seem to gain intensity in the di- 
rect ratio of their distance from it. No 
Americans have been so zealous in their* 
support of the Government, so uncompro- 
mising in their loyalty to the Union, as those 
whose lot has, since our troubles com- 
menced', been cast in foreign lands ; and 
their zeal in its defence has probably been 
quickened by-the fact that they have found 
themselves for nearly three years, on the 
continent as Well as in England, incessantly 
eiigaged in repelling the attacks on the na- 
tional cause, which, strange to say, most 
foreigners, for some time past, seem to take 
special delight in making, whenever, either 
in steamboat, train, hotel, or even in or- 
dinary social intercourse, they find them- 
selves in the company of Americans. 

It has long been a subject of regret that 
this patriotic fervor of the Americans 
abroad could not be made to display itself 
in something more substantial and service- 



able than a wordy warfare at dinner tables 
and in cafes, and that some means could 
n*t bg provided that would enable them to 
share in that work of succoring and com- 
forting the armies in the field, in which 
everybody at home is in one way or other 
engaged. We are glad to say that this 
want has at last been supplied by the es- 
tabKshraent in Paris of an organization to 
be known as th^ "Edkopean Beanch ov 
THE United States Santtaey Commission." 
It has been started under the auspices, and 
in a great measure owing to the exertions of 
Dr. McClintock, the Minister of the Amer- 
ican Chapel in the Eue de Berri, aided by 
a number of active and patriotic Americans, 
either temporarily or permanently resident 
in the French capital — and there are a 
large number of such. They have ap- 
pointed a Secretary, hired offices, collected 
money, and are establishing bra;nches in 
all the places most frequented by Ameri- 
cans in other parts of Europe, and have 
placed themselves already in communica- 
tion with, and under the control of, the 
Sanitary Commission here. Money they 
hope to be able to send, us in considerable 
sums — ^that is, considerable for the number 
of persons from whom it will have to be 
collected ; and offer at the outset to con- 
tribute to our stores what it is difficult, if 
not impossible, to procure here, except at 
very high prices — a quantity of very fine 
and perfectly pure brandy. .We are in 
hopes that they may be able to do much in 
collecting and forwarding contributions to 
the New York Sanitary Fair from the vari- 
ous European countries. There is one ser- 
vice whiclr they will undoubtedly render, 
which though perhaps not so immediate in 
its results, may be of more permanent ben- 
efit to the country tlian any other, by the 
diffusion of information in Europe touch- 
ing the medical and sanitary aids which the 
nation has provided for its armies during 
this war. There is certainly nothing in our 
history, or in our actual social condition, 
entitling us to so high a place in the seal© 
of civilization, as our efforts to save life dur- 
ing the. last three years; and they only need^ 
we are quite satisfied, to be more widely 
known, in order to secure for us a wider 
and more lasting renown than will ever be 
won for us .by our armies. How little they 



The Sanitary Commisnon BvEetin. 



171 



are yet known in Europe is, however, re- 
vealed by the fact, that at the Sanitary Gon- 
ferenoe which recently met at Geneva, 
Switzeiiand, and -was attended by all the 
leading army surgeons and sanitary re- 
formers in Europe, and of the proceedings 
of which we gave a summaiy in the last 
number of the Bulletin, no mention what- 
ever was made, nor did any thing seem to 
have been heard by the members of it, of 
the fact that the United States Sanitary 
Commission had for over two years been 
engaged in the successful prosecution of 
the very work of which the Conference met 
to discuss the possibility ; no mention of 
the fact that we had rendered, through 
three campaigns, that very aid- to the largest 
army in the world, of which they spoke in 
all their discussions as a new, unfamiliar 
problem ; no mention of the vast, compli- 
cated, and yet perfectly successful organi- 
zation by which this aid has been afforded ; 
no mention of the great mass of facts of the 
highest interest, and of the compl&test 
novelty, bearing on this whole question of 
the sanitary condition of armies in the 
field, which we have collected and col- 
lated, and which are to be found in the 
documents which we have for the last three 
years been scattering broadcast over the 
country. Of course, this extraordinary 
omission, this strange spectacle of scientific 
men meeting to discuss, in the heart of Eu- 
rope, the possibility of constructing a ma- 
chine which had been for years in success- 
ful operation only a fortnight's distance 
from where they sat, was due simply to 
ignoi'ance. We owe it to the cause of sci- 
ence and humanity, therefore,- not less 
than to our own fame, to see that this igno- 
rance is removed by a wider diffusion in 
Europe of the printed records of our labors, 
and this the "European Branch" wUl aid 
us materially in doing. 

OUR DOINGS IN WASHINGTON. 
The agency established by the Commis- 
sion for the purchase of supplies for the 
hospitals in Washington, last summer, of 
the nature and object of which a full ex- 
planation will be given in No. 4 of the 
Bulletin, has now been in operation six 
months, and the report of the agent shows 
the t otal weight ofi the supplies p urchased 



in Philadelphia and delivered in Washing- 
ton during that period, as taken from the 
manifests of the Express Company, was 
1,738^331 lbs., or 869 tons 331 fts. This 
includes the weight of the boxes, barrels, 
&c., in which the supplies are packed for 
shipment. 

The cost of the above supplies in 
Philadelphia, delivered to the Ex- 
press Company, was $87,361.10 

Amount paid Express Company for ' 
Transportation 11,380 06 

Amount paid to purchasing agent in 
Philadelpliia, 2,192.82 

Amount paid for ofSce and expenses 
in Philadelphia 1,567.02 

Amount paid in Washington for in- 
suring, , 721.21 

Total amoxmt of cost when ready for 
delivery to the hospitals 113,222.21 

Although there was considerable com- 
plaint made at the first by the stewards as 
to various ^articles furnished, and also 
the prices of some of the supplies, we are 
convinced it was partly from the fact that 
it was a new work, and that we started be- 
fore we were fuUy ready, and before there 
was a definite understanding between the 
purchasing agent in Philadelphia and the 
agent in this city, who was assigned to this 
duty, as was supposed, onl^ temporarily. 

As a rule, the surgeons of the hospitals 
seem perfectly satisfied that the supplies 
which they receive through the Sanitary 
Commission are of better quality, and at a 
much less price, than they could have ob- 
tained the same in the markets of this city. 

Some of the stewards of the hospitals 
stiU get a large amount of their supplies in 
the Washington market ; and one of the 
reasons that led the Sanitary Commission 
to undertake this work was, to prevent' the 
. stewards from receiving a per cent from 
the dealers there. 

If the order issued by the Medical Di- 
rector to the surgeons of the hospitals, 
bearing date of June 23d, 1863, in which 
he says: "The Surgeon-General directs 
that the purchase of such supplies will be 
made by yom from no other source, except 
incases of emergency," was obeyed to the 
letter, there is little doubt that the men 
in the hospitals would get a larger amount 
of fresh food than they can if the stewardis 
are allowed to purchase elsewhere, and in 
this way reducing the hospital fund lower 



172 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



than it would have been had they "pur- 
chased through the Commission. 

If the hospitals were all fully supplied by 
the Commission, it would be no extj;a ex- 
pense, either in purchasing or in insuring, 
as the force which is necessary to do the 
amount of wort now done, could do what 
extra work there would be from the in- 
crease of orders. 

From the reports of other departments 

of ouJ labor at Washington, we find that 

the organization for procuring soldiers' 

pay, in connection with Lodge No. 4, has 

been at work during the quarter ending 

Deo. 31st, 1863, with the following results: 

Whole number of oases taken 457 

Number completed by seouiing certificates 

of pay 291 

Number completed in which no certificates 

were granted 80 

Total number of completed cases 371 

Total number of incompleted cases 86 

Amount represented by completed 

cases $12,201.00 

And the "Home," at the same place, 
,has, during the same period, given food, 
shelter, and assistance, in the following 
number of oases: 

Whole number admitted 1, 576 

" lodged .■ 9.954 

" of meals furnished 24,885 

Number admitted to the hospital 198 

Number of deaths in hospital 8 

Of the extent to which all parts of the 
Union are benefited by this department of 
our labors, and of the jealous and watchful 
indifference — if we may use the expression 
— to all distinctions of birthplace, status, 
or political creed, with which it is carried 
on, some idea may be formed from the fol- 
lowing table. There is but one valid claim 
on the assistance of "The Home" — that 
is, sicltness, or destitution, or friendless- 
ness, caused by the war: 



Maine 59 

New Hampshire. . . 46 

Vfermont 46 

Massachusetts 164 

Ehode Island 24 

Connecticut 40 

New York 102 

New Jersey 15 

Iowa 1 

Minnesota C 

Missomi 14 

Colorado 1 

Political prisoners 4 
Citizens 10 



Delaware 29 

.Pennsylvania 202 

Maryland 16 

Dist. of Columbia. 13 

Ohio 16 

Indiana 2i) 

Illinois 10 

Wisconsin 46 

Michigan 95 

Regular army 77 

Invalid corps 32 

Q. i\l. Department. . 25 
Nm-ses 2 



HOW THE EEBEL PRISONERS FARE. 

The subjoined communication from one 
of our inspectors on the condition of the 
rebel prisoners at Point Lookout, Md., 
is a very emphatic rejoinder to the counter 
charges of ill treatment and starvation with 
which the liichmond papers are now seek- 
ing to cover up the misconduct of their own 
officials with regard to our men. When we 
last wrote, on this subject, there was a good 
deal in the sanitary condition of the camp 
at Point Lookout that admitted of im- 
provement. In ether words, there was a 
want of thorough policeing, though not 
greater, than is occasionally seen in -our own 
camps, where officers are inattentive to one 
of their most important duties. This has 
now been remedied, and the fact ■with re- 
gard to the prisoners' increase in weight, 
which our inspector produces, proves be- 
yond question that physically the condi- ■ 
tion of a Confederate soldier in our custody 
is much better than it would be if serving 
in the ranks of any of his own armies. And 
this is something that nobody will regret. 
Nothing can aid better in breaking down 
the military power of the Confederacy, 
which is now, beyond question, all that re- 
mains of the rebellion, than the kind treat- 
ment of the men who fall into our hands. 
Any thing like retaliation for the cruelties 
infiicted on our prisoners at Richmond, 
would only be excusable on the ground 
that it was necessary to secure a mitigation 
of their sufferings. Eesort to it, for any 
other reason, woiild not only evince a want 
of self-respect on our part, but would be 
exceedingly bad policy. 

General Butler has, we believe, sought to 
fortify his position in the negotiatibns 
now pending for an exchaiige of prison- 
ers, by the affidavits of several rebel non- 
commissioned officers, touching the food 
and clothing of the prisoners, and we are 
informed their tenor is very similar, and on 
some points stronger, than that of the re- 
ports of our agents. 

I have the honor to enclose six hundred (600) 
reports of individual inspection of prisoners of 
war at this point. My work goes on well. On 
the whole, I think the prisoners are satisfied 
with their rations and the treatment they re- 
ceive from the officers having them in their 
charge. 

Some interesting facts are developed in the 



The Sanitary Commission BuUetin. 



173 



inspection here, I was struck by the fact, that 
nearly every man examined, expressed surprise 
at hi.f not weighing more ; it was quite usual 
for them to say, "I have lost twenty, thirty, or 
fifty pounds. " As an inducement to the men 
to be examined, I have permitted them (having 
been already examined) to use the scales, the 
dinamometer and spirometer, whenever they 
are not in use. The result is, I find they have 
almost uniformly increased in weight and 
Strength. This with the fare and comforts of 
a ' ' Yankee prison ! " Many of them appreciate 
the luxary of having plenty of "Uncle Sam's 
hard tack" and salt pork, and express them- 
selves determined never to go back to Eebel- 
dom and short rations. 

Under the excellent management of Surgeon 
Thompson, the camp hospital is very much im- 
proved, and the whole camp presents a much 
better appearance than that of a few weeks 
since. It is better arranged, better •policed— 
better in every respect. Scurvy has nearly 
"made its disappearance." I think the condi- 
tion of the rebels in the hands of the United 
States will compare very favorably with that of 
our men in Kichmond, allowing that the re-, 
ports received from there are foui-fifths exag- 
gerated. 

I hardly think our men in "Libby" and 
" Castle Thunder " are growing fal on rebel ra- 
tions. 



THE PROTECTIVE WAR-CLAIM AGENCY 
IN PHILXDELPHIAj 
The Protective War-Claim Agency of the U. S. 
Sanitary Commission had its origin in the de- 
sire to effect a prompt settlement of the claims 
of soldiers and their relatives upon the Govern- 
ment, and to afford protection against the ex- 
orbitant demands too often made by claim 
agents. The measure met with the cordial ap- 
proval of the departments at Washington, 
whose labors it tended to facilitate by dimin- 
ishing the opportunities for the prosecution of 
fraudulent claims. .A board of managers was 
organized, and an examining surgeon and soli- 
citor were appointed in May, 1863, and, in the 
same month, an office was opened in the build- 
ing occupied by the U. S. Sanitary Commission, 
at No. 1307 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. The 
result has fully (Jemonstrated the value of the 
enterprise. Without any special effort to call 
public attention to the work of the agency, 
nearly one thousand claims were presented to 
it in the first six months of its operation, and 
the business has shown each month a steady 
increase. Two-thirds of these claims were pre- 
ferred by soldiers coming from aU parts of the 
loyal States, who had been honorably dis- 
charged from the United States service by rea- 
son of wpunds or sickness incurred thereip, and, 
the remainder were made by the relatives of 
deceased soldiers. In addition to its regu^r 
work of prosecuting claims for pension and 



bounty, the agency has been instrumental in 
obtaining their descriptive lists for soldiers who 
had lain months in hospital without pay for 
want of those papers, and in correcting, through 
the aid of its correspondents at Washington, 
errors in the final statements of discharged 
soldiers, which would otherwise have occasion- 
ed them serious loss. By an arrangement with 
the paymaster, Major Taggart, and the United 
States District Attorney, the back pay due 
prisoners of war at Richmond is also procured 
for their wives or mothers upon sufficient proof 
being made of such captivity and of the claim- 
ant's identity. These matters are all adjusted 
and payments made without any cost to the ap- 
plicant, except a trifling fee paid to the magis- 
trate for executing the necessary affidavits. The 
saving thus effected to paiS^es who are, in near- 
ly every case, of very limited means, may be 
computed already at thousands of dollars. A 
few instances, selected at random, will effect- 
ually prove this : A woman, residing in Phil- 
adelphia, whose husband died in Ihe service 
about eighteen months ago, applied, shortly 
after his death, to a firm doing business as 
claim agents, who engaged to ijrocureher pen- 
sion and bounty for the sum of ten dollars; !it 
the end' jjf eighteen months they handed over 
to her the amount of her claim for bounty, less 
a charge of twenty-five dollars for their services, 
and then told her that they had overlooked her 
claim for pension altogether. Another lady, 
the widow of an officer, to whom large arrear- 
ages were due, but whose claim required very 
little prooii and that of the simplest sort, and 
was prom^ly adjusted by the department, was 
forced, to pay ten per cent, to a, claim agent, 
whom she had employed for its collection. Al- 
though a severe penalty is imposed by the act 
of July 14, 1862, where the charge by an attor- 
ney for prosecuting a pension claim exceeds the 
sum of five dollars, the provision is often evad- 
ed, by charges for additional papers, which 
are seldom requisite if the claim is originally 
properly prepared. 

One great hinderance to the satisfactory ad- 
justment of claims for the bounty and back pay 
of soldiers dying in the service, and it is feared, 
to the work of enlisting recruits, is found in the 
tedious process to which those claims are sub- 
jected before final action upon them is had at 
the Second Auditor's Department. At least a 
year usually elapses from the date of the soU 
dier's death before the bounty and back pay 
remaining unsettled can be secured to his 
widow or children. This period is usually the 
one in which his loss is most felt, pecuniarily, 
by his family. Legislation upon this point, 



174 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin^ 



eltlier iu the way of increasing the force of 
dlerks in tha dapavtm ::nta cUi.i'g3l with the set 
tiement of these claims, or in that of simplify- 
ing the aoooiiuts of tha army, is Imperatively 
needed. To alleviate, in soins degree, the disr 
tress occasioned by this delay, it is designed to 
set apart a sum from the funds of the Commis- 
rfbii, from which to advance small sums in very 
necessitous cases, upon claims oh iile at the 
agency; but the relief ithus afford'ed; it is mani- 
, fest, must be very meagre and inadequate. 

The value qf the Protective War-Clajm Agency 
must be evident from this statement of its pur- 
poses and principles. If any further evidence 
of its right to the confidence of thesoldier, and 
the friends of the soldier, were heeded, it would 
be found in the character of its oScers. Mr. 
Wm. H. Tilghmau is the Dhairman of the Com- 
mittee, and among its directors are Horace Bin- 
ney, Jr., Alexander Brown, William Welsh, Hon. 
J. J. Clarke Hare, Charles J. ijtiUe, iJenjaTuin 
Gerhard, VVm. L. Eehn, George Irott, Geoi'ge 
D. Parrish, George M. Conuarroe, U. Lennox 
Hodge, M. D., and Atherton ijlight. Mr. Wil- 
liam M. Ashmaii is the solicitor Of the Agency. 
Tha institution has been quietly doing a good 
wprk for some months, and wo think it right 
that the public should fiiUy know it 

Another branch of the same institution is at 
work in New York, as our readers Will see 
by reference to the advertisement in our 
columns.. 



DEE3S AND- HYGIENE IN THE BRITISH 
ABMY. 
Whatever errors are conspicuous in the dress 
of the army and the volunteer forflte, may be 
traced mainly to a neglect of those hygienic 
considerations suggested by the duties peculiar 
to the soldier and the volimteet. The foi-mer is 
sacrificed to decorate sartorial effects; the lat- 
ter has too commonly sacrificed himself by 
adopting an attire which i&but a mongrel ver- 
sion of the dress of ttie 8oldi«r of the line, lack- 
ing the relief derived from brilliahcy of color 
and ornamentation, and equally unsuited for 
active service in the field. What can he more 
lamentable, from an sesthetical point of view, 
than a volunteer regiment composed of the long 
and the short, the meagre and the stout, the an- 
gular and the rounded, clad in tight-fitting 
and straight>out trowseis? Fitted only for the 
well-formed, no dress more fully brings irtto 
prominence all the ugliness of the ill -formed; 
dependent upon the integrity of the stiff lines 
originally devised aind set up by the tailor, and 
not on easily and gracefully flowing folds, for 
such beauty as it possesses, none is more un- 



suited for the rough 'wear and tear of cam- 
paigning. 

That complete diffusion of body and liifibs on 
the- ground, which is a necessity of proper rest 
after marching or fighting, is an impossibility 
While the body and extremities are so tightly 
girthed; and comfort in squatting on the hams 
or kneeling is to be obtained only by r^kless in- 
difference to the original formation andintegrit^ 
of the inexpressibles. 

It needs but a glance at the condition of dress 
of the regular soldier off duty at nightfall, in 
in the field, in camp, or in barracks, to see that 
the tight-fitting tunic and straight-cut trowsers 
were devised only for the erect position. Every 
button unloosed, to secure some degree of free- 
dom to his limbs, he is the very antithesis of 
the -orderly, well-set locomotive uniform which 
most gratifies the eyes of the martinet. 

The loose jacket with which the soldier is 
permitted to indue himself in the intervals of 
duty is not merely a hygienic requisite, but it is 
also necessary as a preventive of mutiny. 

Previous to the Crimean war, the soldier, sar- 
torioally regarded, was simply looke^d upon as a 
tailor's block, and not as a living sentient being. 
It was anticipated that the inquiries of the 
Koyal Commission of 18&7 on the sanitary state 
•of the army,^ould give the cofup de grace to this 
perverted notion. Certainly they led to the ex- 
cision of that.portentous decoration and illimit- 
able expenditure of braid and gaudy worsteds, 
which had previously constituted the highest 
expression of military iesthetics. 

But the great piinciple by which the Com- 
mission sought to ballast the sartorial vagaries 
of the Horse-Guards has proved far less effect- 
ive than was to have been desired. " Too much 
importance," said the Commission, "cannot bo. 
attached to an easy adjusttnent of the clothing, 
so as to leave to 'the respiratory and other 
organs of the body, as well as to its muscular 
development, the utmost freedom." Six years 
have elapsed since this important opinion was 
eitUnoiated, yet we find a recent committee of 
officers formed for the purpose of simplifying 
the equipment of the soldier, occupied chiefly 
with the following questions: The substitution' 
of a loose serge-jacket for the tight-fit'ing and 
•uncomfortable shell-jacket, now in use for sum- 
mer and ordinary field days; the selection of a 
forage cap of presentable aspect and comfort^' 
able for wear, the Kilmarnock cap in use being 
aa difficult to "set up" and keep in order 
as starched linen, and when set up destructive 
of mental and cranial comfort; removing the 
useless hand-slash of the tunic, and giving a 
larger and more comfortable sleeve. Other al- 



The Sanitary Commission Bvttetin. 



175 



terations in dress and equipments are pro- 
posed, all tending to ease somewliat the bound- 
up limbs of the unhappy soldier. la there no 
military Teufeldrockh to show that ease and 
freedom, durability and military smartness and 
handsomeness, are not inconsistent -with each 
■Other, and may be combined in one attractive 
Whole? 

The recent Eoyal Commission on the Indian 
army approached the subject of dress with 
great diffidence. Admitting there had been 
great improvements of late years, it gave a 
qualified approval to the present driss of the 
European soldier in the tropics, and limited its 
suggestions to the under-olothing, the head- 
dress, and the boots. It urged that the use of 
a light flannel garment next the skin should be 
made imperative— an admirable suggestion, if 
the texture of the material be such as not to 
laake its adoption a torture. 

The form and structure of the boot were just- 
ly animadverted upon. The English gentle- 
men's broad-soled, broad-toed, flat-heeled wa>k- 
ing shoe or boot, is the perfection of a covering 
for the foot, in form, ease, and utility. 'Why, 
then, should our soldiers be condemned to the 
presentwretohed shapeless abortions of ammu- 
nition-boots ? The head-dress, murderously 
perverted too often at home, is of pre-eminent 
■ importance in India. It would be impossible, 
probably, to suggest any thing to surpass in 
ease, oomfort, or elegance, a modification of the 
r, turban; but the conventional sartoiial notions 
of the military mind seem to interpose an in- 
superable obstacle to its adoption. The wicker- 
work helmet now in use in India affords con- 
siderable protection to the head against the 
' san'srays; but several improvements are sug- 
gested by Mr. Julius Jeffreys, F. B. S., of the 
Bengal anny, to which the Commission directs 
particular attention. "He proposes to make 
the outer shell of the helmet double, with a ven- 
tilated space between the layers, and within the 
shell there is a lining to fit tight to the head, 
leaving another ventilated space between the 
inner surfaice of the shell and the wearer's head. 
The object of the contrivance is to insure the 
passage upwards of two distinct currents of 
heated air between the outer shell of the helmet 
and the head. In order to diminish the power 
of the outer shell to absorb the sun's rays, the 
inventor proposes to cover it with a thin, high- 
ly-polished metallic surface. The fatal objec- 
tion to this helmet is its ungainly aspect.^ 

It is a curious and somewhat inexplicable 
feet, tihat Mr. Merret's ingenious "YentilaHng 
Gusset" should not have received the attention 
of the Commission. The advantages proposed 



to be derived from this invention are best set 
forth in a report on an experimental trial made 
with it in the 7th Eoyal Fusiliers, stationed at 
Ferozepori. The commanding officer, in his 
official report, states that the gussets had the 
elfect of preventing an accumulation of perspi- 
ration ; they kept the parts they covered cool 
and clean, and they strengthened the garment. 
Few things are more obnoxious dming active 
or practical exercise in hot weather than pro- 
fuse perspiration in the arm- pits, overheating 
and irritation of the cleft of the buttocks, and 
chafing of the upper part of the thighs. The 
remedying of these evils must be a boon to the 
civilian as well as thi> soldier. Many of the for- 
mer, have already certified to the efficacy of Mr. 
Merret's invention in bringing about this desir- 
able result, and it is' 4o be trusted that the 
military authorities will subject it to' wide exper- 
iment with the latter. —Lancet. 



THE GREAT BKOOKLYN AND LONG 

ISLAND PAIE. 
We publish below a circular prepared by " 
the Corresponding Secretary of the Execu' 
tive Committfee of the great Sanitary rair, 
and also a lull list of the committees ap- 
pointed to carry its objects into effect : 

CmCULAE. 

Deae Sib: In the terrible conflict now being 
waged for the preservation of our Government 
and Nationality, every thing belonging to our 
personal, social, and political welfare is at stake, 
and the brave and gallant men in arms are 
perilling their lives, and giving up the comfort 
and joy of their homes iUj our stead. They 
fight these hard battles for us. They endure . 
severe exposure for us They are wasting away 
in the tilth and starvation of rebel prisons for 
us. And, when stricken down by the' diseases 
of the camp, or wounded and maimed in the 
field, they have a right, sanctioned by every 
patriotic and humane consideration, to expeot 
the nation to come to their succor. The United 
States Sanitary Commission, by its most disin- 
terested and gratuitous labors, has proved it- 
self the wise, prompt, laithful, rehable, and 
sufficient agent ol the nation in this regard; and, 
therefore, by a Fair, to be opened on the birth- 
day of the Father of his ■ Country, the 22d of 
Fsbruaiy next, at the Brooklyn Academy of 
Music, we purpose and confidently expect to 
secure from the city, and the entire island, a 
contribution of at least one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars to its treasui'y. The inspiring 
examples of. other cities, Chicago, Boston, Cin- 
cinnati, should excite among us an honorable 
emulation. Let it be seen that in this great 
national crisis we are at least as generous, self- 
sacrificing, and resolved, as the foremost of 
them. This enterprise has been undertaken at 
the instance of the Woman's Belief Association 
and the War Fund Committee of this city. As 
an earnest of the spirit which has prompted it 



176 



The Sanitary^ Commission Bulletin. 



and will carry it througli. we point to the fact 
that at a meeting of the General (Committee, on 
the 19th ult., twenty-five thousand five hundred 
dollars were subscribed on the spot — an amount 
already increased to forty thousand dollars. As 
a further pledge that the enterprise shall not 
fail, we subjoin the names of those, of either 
sex who have consented to share its manage- 
ment ; with those of the various sub-Commit- 
tees, who are responsible for the complete 
working of the several departments of the Fair. 
W.e appeal to our fellow-citizens and noble 
women here and throughout the island, and to 
those elsewhere who may fairly be expected to 
sympathize with us in our undertaking, to lend 
their aid by personal efforts and by the largest 
contributions of material and money, of agri- 
cultural produce, of the fi»iits of manufacturing 
and mechanical skill, of works of art, of any 
thing and every thing from their industry, in- 
genuity, or abundance, which may swell the 
grand resiilt for which we loek. 

Further particulars in relation to the arrange- 
ments for the Fair will be made known as early 
aspoBsible, by circulars from the several special 
committees, and by other documents from the 
Executive Committee. 

Meanwhile, any desired information in regard 
to the Fair may be had of the Corresponding 
Secretary, either by personal application at the 
rooms of the War Fund Committee, 16 Court 
street, daily, Sundays excepted, between the 
hoiirs of 9 and II, and 3 and 5 ; or by mail to 
his address ; or, for ladies, at the Depot of the 
Woman's Belief Association, 30 Court street. 
Fkkdebick a. FAEI.ET, D. D. , Cor. Sec. 

OmCEKS AND COMMITTEES. 

A. Abbott Low, Chairman of the General 
Committee. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Gentlemm. — Dwight Johnson, Chairman ; F. 
A. Farley, D. D., Cor. Sec. ; AV. S. Grifath, Eec. 
Sec; Jas. H. Frothingham, Treas ; lion. Jas. 
S. T. Stranahan, Messrs. Sam.uel B. Caldwell, 
Ambrose Snow, Thomas T. Buckley, A. A. Low, 
Henry Sheldon, Charles A. Meigs, William H. 
Jenkins, Joseph Wilde, H. B. Clafln, Elias 
Lewis, Jr., Hon. Edward A. Lambert, Messrs. 
Thomas Brooks, Ethelbert S. Mills, James D. 
Sparkman, Henry K. Pierrepont, Arthur W. 
Benson, Hon. John A. King, Messrs. S. B. 
Chittenden, John D. McKenzie, Hon. James 
Humphrey, Messrs. George S. Stevenson, Ar- 
chibald Baxter, Joseph llipley, Hon. John A. 
Lett, Messrs. Luther B. Wyman, W. W. Arm- 
field, Peter Bice, William M. Newell, William 
Burdon, S. Emerson Howard. 

Ladies. — Mrs. J. S. T. Stranahan, President ; 
Mrs. H. L. Packfcr, Cor. Sec. ; Miss Kate E. 
Waterbury, Eec. Sec. ; Mesdames G. B. Archer. 
E. Anthony, H. W. Beecher, H. Sheldon, A. W, 
Benson, C. J. Bergen, K. C. Brain ard, J. 0. 
Brevoort, T. T. Buckley, W. J. Buddington, N. 
Burchard, A. Bradshaw, S. B. Caldwell, S. B. 
Chittenden, W. J. Coggeshall, J. P. Duffin, J. 
W. Harper, I^. Harrington, — Huntsman, f . F. 
King, E S. Mills, — Mon-ell, W. W. Pell, H. E. 
Pierrepont, E. Shapter, J. C. Smith, J. D. 
Sparkman, G. S. Stephenson, J. S. Swan, A. 
Trask, J. Vanderbilt, H. Waters. 



FINANCE AND DONATIONS. 

John D. McKenzie, Chairman; Messrs. S. B. 
Chittenden, A A. Low, Abraham B. Baylis, 
Peter C. Cornell, Edward T. H. Gibson, Eich'd 
P. Buck, Charles E. Bill, Eeuben W. Eopes, 
Eufus E. Graves, George B. Archer, James D. 
Sparkman, (jharles A. Meigs, Theodore Polhe- 
mus, Jr., Josiah 0. Low, E. W. DeLameter, 
Edward W. Corlies, Charles W. Blossom, Joseph 
Eipley, Thomas Messenger. 

BUSINESS COMMITTEE. 

Mrs. E. Shapter, Chairman; Mesdames Geo. 

B. Archer. N. Bm-chard, W. I. Buddington, A. 
W. "Benson, C. J. Bergen, S B. Chittenden, J. 
P. puffin, T. E. King, E. S. MiUs, G. S. Ste. 
phenson, A. Trask, H. Waters. 

BIJILDINGS AND DECORATIONS. 

GenUemen. — Arthur M. Benson, Chairman ; 
Messrs. J. A. Degraw. John Bullard, Charles J. 
Lowry, William BuiTeU, James How, Corn. J. 
Bergen, E. L. Eoberts, George F. Thomae, 
Thomas Messenger, Wm. Hunter, Jr. , Thomas 
Brooks, Joseph L. Heath, George A. Bell, Wm. 
S. Herriman, Thomas Sullivan, Edwin Beers. 

ladies. — Mrs. T. F. King, Chairman ; Mes- 
dames A. W. Benson, H. Webster, J. Humphrey, 
H. B. Duryea, J. Bullard, H. B. Starr, Coe 
Adams, N. B. Kittell, W S. Griffith, J. W. Gil- 
bert, H. Laing, Misses Charlotte Coles, H. 
Hunter, E. B. Litchfield, Sarah Boynton, H. L. 
Waterbury, Phosbe Hagnor. 

INTEENAl ABBANGEMENTS AND EECEPTION OP 
GOODS. 

Gerdlemen. — George S. Stephenson, Chairman ; 
Messrs. Alexander M. White, I. H. Frothing- 
ham, L. S. Burnham, E H. Manning, George 
W. Hennings, J. O. Morse, James Myers, Ed- 
ward Anthony, George T. Hope, John L. Wor- 
'den, ( 'apt. Kadford, Theodore Hinsdale. 

Ladies. — Mrs. G. B. Archer, Chairman ; Mes- 
dames G. S. Stephenson, A. M. White, S. H. 
Low, J. P. Van Bergen, E. Shapter, J. D Spark- 
man, N. Burchard, A. Bradshaw, M. F. OdeU, 
J. S. Morrell, Miss 0. Thurston, Mesdames S. 
McLean, J. Maxwell, D. Fairbanks, J. Eells, J. 
W. Emery, J. C. Atwater, 0. 1 •. Loomis, T. F. 
King, A. 'jrask, W. J. Buddington, J. Vander- 
bilt, Miss Wyckoff, Mesdames — Huntsman, W. 
Coggeshal. 

BEPEESHMENTS. 

QenUemm. — Edward J. Lowber, Chairman; 
Messrs. Eufus Crook, John Crook, D. H. Gould, 
A. Dorlon, Amos Eobbins, Wm. A. Husted, 
Isaac B. Wellington, Seymour L. Husted, Alfred 
T^hompson, Wm. S. Dunham, John B. Wright, 
A. E. Sumner, Eobert G. Anderson, James A. 
Carman. 

Xadics.— Mrs. E. S. Mills, Chairman; Mes- 
dames H. Waters, L. H. Buckley, H. Marehant, 
E. P. Buck, A. W. Leggett, J. C.Hmlbut. W. 

C. Bowers, F. H. Trowbridge, W. J. McClune, 
C. Dinsmorp, S. B. Gregory, H. Blanohard, 
George Thrall, A. Burrows, W. Mai-Ston, C. H. 
Sands, E. Pish, S. C. Blake, L. M. Adams, L 
Badeau,lT. .W.Law,W. 0. Goddard,W. Lumby, 
L. Boyes, Wm. H. Jenkins, N. Putnam, N. E. 
Smith, John Greenwood, J. D. Cooks, Eli Mer- 
rill, F. E. Taylor, H. P. Messenger, Edward 



Th£ Sanitary Gommission BuUetin. 



177 



Toung, J. B. Hutchinson, J. W. Sanford, J. 
HalL 

iBT, KEIiICa, AND CUItlOSITrES. 

GenUemen. — ^E. S. Mills, Chairman; Messrs. 
Eegis Gignoui, Charles Condon, Gordon L. 
Ford, John Williamson, E. W. Hubbard, Chas. 
Parsons, M. F. H. De Haas, Samuel Coleman, 
Seymour J. Guy, Thomas Le Clear, W. H. 
Beard, & P. Avery, P. P. Eyder, L M. Falctmer, 
I. A. Parkeii Jr., H. Carmienclse, N. B. Kittell, 
Chas. Burt, James B. Blossom. F. A. Chapman, 
John W. Frothingham, E. S. Storrs, Jr., D. D., 
H. W. Beecher, T. L. Lutkins, Alonzo Chap- 
pell, J.- B. ■Whittaker, H. W. Henick, A. W. 
Warren, William McEwan, E. W. Hall, 0. L. 
Elliott, J. Cai'son Bennett. 

Ladies. — Mrs. S. B. Chittenden, Chairman; 
Mesdames E. S. Storrs, Jr., H. E. Pierrepont, 
Eegis Gignoux, J. C. Breevort, E. H. Gibson, 
John T, Howard, G. L. Ford, A. N. Littlejohn, 
J. O. Low, John Eaymond, Charles Congdon, 
A. W. Henshaw, E. Vanderbilt, C. Eosire, J. H. 
Frothingham. Alex. McCulluni, Helen Couant, 
W. H. Dudley, Francis Vinton, Miss K. Van 
Nostrand, Mesdames G. S. Stephenson, Thomas 
Messenger, Misses Rose Thomas, Alice B. 
Gary, Kate Eipley, Kate Treadway, Kate Tay- 
lor, — Fay, M. H. Chittenden, Fannie Gray,M. 
Stranahan, Cornelia King, S. Luqueer, C. M. 
Olcott, F. Bridges. 

MUSIC. 

L. B. Wyman, Chairman; Messrs. A. Cooke 
Hull, E. E. Eaymond, A. V. Blake, C. A. Town- 
^end, Willard M. Newell, George William War- 
ren, William Poole, A. V. E Van Dyck, J. P. 
Talmage, P. K. K. WeiseL 

ENTEKTAINMENTS. 

Mesdames E. Anthony, H. Famham,*Miss 
Alice B. Cary, Mesdames J. F. Herriman, N. P. 
Waring, Hosea Webster, S. E. Howard, Misses 
L. Oliver, Kate HiUard, S. 0. Anthony, A. An- 
thony, S. Farrington, Madame Napoleon, MUe. 
Millon, Miss Blunt, Mrs. McLean, Misses Col- 
ton — Marsh, Mrs. Lambert, Miss E. C. Victor, 
Mrs. Hoyt, Misses M. Dunning, C. Hoppin, L. 
Tnpper, M. Luqueer, Mesdames W. E. St. 
Jobn, A. 8. Barnes. 

OEATION AMD IiECTnEES. 

H. E. Kerrepont, Chairman; Messrs. James 
Humphrey,Benjamin D. Silliman, Judge -Green- 
wood, E. W. Eopes, Edward Whitehouse, Eev. 
Francis Vinton, D. D. 

POST. OFFICE AND NEWSPAPEBS. 

Mrs. J.' P. Duffin, Chairman; Mesdames L K 
St. John, T. J. Conant, J. Humphrey, T. Hins- 
dale, J. M. Diamond, William Brooks, S. W. 
Putnam, Misses H. Sladnin,— Bi-igham,— Har- 
rison,M. E. Thalheimer,A. L. Jones (Prushiug), 
Kate Hillard, C. Van Cott, M. Stranahan, Mes- 
dames George R Lincoln and William E. Eob- 
inson. 

BENEBTTS, ENTBETAINMENTS, AND EXHIBmONS. 

Edward A. Lambert, Chairman; Messrs. Ed- 
ward Anthony, Charles E. Marvin, Isaac Hen- 
derson, John D. Cocks, J. E. Southworth, Pro- 
fessor Plimpton, Henry A. Kent, Benson Van 
Vliet, Livingston K. Miller, Theodore Tilton, 
Elias Howe, Jr., John W. Hunter. 



HEW ENGI.AND 3EITCHEN. 

Mrs. Ambrose Snow, Chairman; Mesdames 
W. W. Goodrich. E. W. Potter, S. J. Peet, L. 
W. Serrell, W. B. Ackley, M. A. Bioknell, M. 
Moore, A. F. Stewart, Ealph" Cook, C. E. Adri- 
ance. Misses M. A. Eich, Sarah Watson, Mary 
Shepard, M Manning. 

LOOKS, PrrBUCATIONS, AND PBINTINO. 

OenUemen. — Samuel B. Caldwell, Chairman; 
Messrs. A. S. Barnes, J. H. Eaymond, LL.D., 
George B. Lincoln, Adrian Van Sinderen, J. M. 
Van Cott, Birdseye Blakeman, John C. Beale, 
W. H. Arthur, John N. Taylor, Geo. W. Parsons, 
W. T. Hatch, Charles Nordhoff, T. H. Messen- 
ger, D. Lansing Lambert, F. J. Hosford, — Me»- 
win. 

Ladies. — Mrs. W. L Buddington, Chairman; 
Mesdames J. W. Haroer, A S. Barnes, C. Nord- 
hoff, S. E Warner, S. N. Cutter, W. W. Eose, 
Isaac Henderson, Miss Laura Marsh, Mesdames 
Daniel Fairweather, S. ^. Caldwell, Wm. Moses, 
E. A. Lambert, Miss Gascoigne, Mesdames 
Dwight Johnson, Wm. W. Swayne, J. H. Eich- 
ards. 

BEMINftBTTCS AND SOHOOIS. 

Mrs. H. L. Parker, Chairman; Mesdames 0. 
J. Bergen, A. Crittenden, G. F. Dunning, M. 
E. Dunkley, Wm. Brooks, Professor Eaton, 
H. C. Osbom, J. D. MoKenzie, L. Miller, D. M. 
Stone, C. E. West, J. H. Eaymond, S. G. Tay- 
lor, Miss H. Garahan, Mrs. J. 0. Whitcomb. 

DBT-GOODS MEECHANTS' COMMITTEE. 

Thos. T. Buckley, Chairman ; Messrs. H. B. 
Claflin, Nehemiah Knight, J. B. Hutchinson, 
W. C Sheldon, K. J. Hunter, Samuel McLean, 
Jas. S. Noyes, Henry Collins, Thomas Achelis, 
S. Hutchinson, W. B. Kendall, D. H. ConMing, 
James Halschurst, J. C. Atwater, T. W. Prentice, 
Alexander D. Napier, W. B. Leonard, Charles S. 
Baylis, Eli Mygatt, Jr., George jfygatt, J. L. B. 
Willaird, H. P. Morgan, T. K. Horton, Samuel 
B. Stewart, Walter Lockwood, Elijah Lewis. 

PANCT GOODS. 

Genflsmen. — §. Emerson Howard, Chairman; 
Messrs. J. W.' Greene, Henry Sanger, D. C. 
Eobins, J. S. Shapter, Charles Storrs, D. S. Ar- 
nold, W. H. Lyon, , Abel Dennison, Alexander 
McCullum. J. (;harles Berard, James E. Taylor, 
G. H. Taylor, H. H. Dickinson, F. Hinchman, 
T. M. Spelman, A. P. Hayden, Enos Uichardson, 
George S. 'Moiilton, Carlos Bardwell, Benjamin 
Carter. 

Ladies. — Mrs. Henry Sheldon, Chairman; 
Mesdames E. C. Brainard, S. Gracie, Bryant 
Smith, Hugh AUen, Misses Mary S. Griffith, 
Agnes EusseU, Mesdames D. S. Mills, Henry 
Sanger, S. M. Beard, H. E. Hunter, J. S. Eock- 
well, ■ Miss Mary Jarvis; Mesdames W. G. Shel- 
don, J. Badeau, A. M. Earle, B. P. Luht, Miss E. 
Hone, Mesdames W. C. Perry, Alexander Purvis, 
T. Achelis, Miss Bertschinger, Mrs. Uukhart, 
Misses Susan Nelson, F. C. West, J. Buckmaster, 
Mary Miller, S. Jolmson, Helena Duokwitz, C. 
>J'ellows, Madame St. Amant, Miss Maria Mes- 
senger, Mesdames W. Godd&rd, H. W. Beecher, 
W. H. Beare. Horace Warren, S. W. Truslow, 
William Raymond, Misses Harriet Tucker, Ad- 
die Wright, Mrs Eobinson, Misses F. Creagh, 
C. Brush, A. J. Berry, G. Eichardson, Mrs. Jo- 
seph Taylor. 



178 



TM Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



BOOTS, SHOES, I^EATHEE, HATS, CAPS, AND CLOTHING. 

"W. M. Newell, Chairman ; Messrs. Aaron 
Claflin, JohnT. Martin, Isaac Hyde, Jr.. George^ 
Dickenson, Koswell S. Benedict, John Bullard," 
Edward A. Nichols, A. 0. Baldwin, Nathan 
gbuthwick, John F. McCoy, G. B. Caldwell, 
Alex. Sudwell, J'ona. Ogden, Alanson Trask, 
Aaron Healy, C. B. Camp, W. B. Button, John 
O. Whitehojise, J. C. Sonthwick, Granville 
Whittlesey, William Higbie, James M. Hurt, M. 
S. Kerrigan, James M. Griggs, A. D. Wheelook, 
John VV. Lewis, F. H. Biglow, John B. Wood- 
ward, WiUiam Evans. 

GliOCEES AUD HABBWABE MEECHANTS. 

Henry Sheldon, Chairman ; Messrs. John J. 
Van Nostrand, H. H. Warden. Frederick Lacey, 
George A. Jarvis. Theodore Viator. S. M. Beard, 
Francis Hathaway, Charles E. Hill. Henry K. 
Sheldon, Solon F. Goodridge, James L. Morgan, 
Kobert S. Bussing. J. S. KockweU, Alexander 
M. Earle, G. L. Hiieser, E. B. Place, Wm 0. 
Fowler, Eugene O'Snllivan, Edward B. Mead, A. 
S. Perry, Henry VV.- Banks, Henry Starr. Edwin 
Atkins, Franklin H. Lummus, Jas. C. Wilson. 

MANUEACTUBES AND MEOHANIO AETS. 

Western District. — William Burdon, Chair- 
man ; Messrs B. F. Delno, Eiehard Poillon, 
William Arthur. Henry Esler, Abram Inslee, D. 
D. Badger, Jacob Cutwater, David S. Quimby, 
J. S. Bunoe, Norman Hubbard, Charles Monis, 
John Firth, Bdbert Graves. C. Van Dusen, H. 
Jackson, Albert Bruen. Charles Howe, Jr., Jas. 
Wilcox, Thomas Brooks. Bryant Stevens, J W. 
McNamee, George S. Puffer, Samuel Vernon, 
William C. Dunton, A. H. Barnes, Birdsey Blake- 
man, William Wise, James H. Hart, Hem-y 
Waldron, John S. Maguiy, James Howe, 'Fisher 
Howe, W. M; Thomas, James Seville, John 
French, Samuel Booth, John Butler, J. Morri- 
son, S. E. Carll, Jonathan Stewart, G. M. Wood- 
wBird, James 0. Morse, James K. Wheatley, T. 
A. Havemeyer. T. E. Jewell, A. Greenleaf, Jr., 
J. S. Williams, Thomas T. Knight, Jas. L. 
Moore, Eobert R. Story, J. Johnston, J. A. Ful- 
ler, Samuel IngaHs, George Chappel, Thomas 
Rowe, A. Thayer, .James Shurky, 'John Shuster, 
D. S. Waring. George S. Harding, II. T. Ander-^ 
Bon, Joseph .\lumby, A. M. Vail, tdlvamis White, 
Patrick Cassidy, WiUiam Hagar, Charles E. 
Smith, R. H. Hand, Wright Ramsden, G. J. 
Mining, William Brasher, John C. Robbins, 
Charles B. 'latham, H. B. Whitty, 11. L. AUen, 
Hiram F. St. John, F. S. Otis, W. B. Uiggins, 
Thomas Carroll, David Fithian, John S Loomis. 
A. G. Hicks, G. W. Hubert, J. H MoVViUiams, 
John Philips, Richard R. Flanders 

Sastern Disliict. — ^WiUiam H. Jenldns, Chair- 
laan; Samuel W. Truslow, Cordage; Thomas 
Eowknd, Ship Builder; C. E, liertrand. Sugar; 
William W. Armfleld, Coal and Wood; James A. 
Taylor, Iron; l.harles W. Fellows, Qas Fixtures; 
Heiiry G. Richardson, Hardware ; Joseph L. 
Heath, ISuilder; Eokford Webb, Ship Builder; 
A Leininger, Glass Ware; WiUiam Tuttle, Brass; 
J. B. Wickercham, Iron Rails; Watson Sauford, 
Stoves; James Hall, Iron; J. A. Heath, Cooper; 
Joseph W ilde, Coffee ; G«orge Wildey, Ma- 
chinist; C Dorlinger, Glass Manufa«turer; W. 
Caljbla, Wireworks; GeOrge C. Bennett, G. W. 
Plimpton, Hiram M. Varren, Jose;^ Reaves, 
William Coles, Julius Ives, Jr., Christian Neidig. I 



MANUEAOTUEES. 

Mrs. A. Trask, Chairman; Mesdames TJuke 
Hasaington, Theo. Polhemus, Jr., Joha Pren- 
tice, Thomas Messenger, David Wesson, A. B. 
Baylis, Coe Adams, Jos. Kipley, W. J. .Miller, J. 
F. Whitney. A. F. Haaen, J. Curtis, J. P. Wick- 
ham, 0. Baylis, A. Oruikshanks, Nathan Beers, 

E. E. Estes, W. Spelman, D. Caven,- — Biden, 
Smith Fancher, A. Jewett, E. L. BushnellVPeter 
Rice, L B. Shaw, Wm. Libby, C. H. Mills, 

■ Theo. Ovington, Miss Mary Cosnel'f, Mesdaines 

F. H. Bigelow, N. Curtiss, E. J. Hoalett, L. 
Burnham, Miss L. P. Henchmq,n, MesdamfeS 
Charles Marvin, L, Thomas, P. Wyckctff, 14. H. 
Manning. 

PKOt)-DCE. 

Arch. Baxtei, Chairman; Messrs. James P. 
Wallace Sam. A. Sawyer. Smith J. Eastman, J, 
H. Holoomb, Curtis Noble, Seymour Bun-eU, 
George Douglas, Fred. Sherwood. Harvey E. 
Hicks. Alex. E. Orr. Smith Fancher. W. D. Man- 
gam, Hugh Allen, Stephen W. Cary. George 
Tucker, Coe Adams. Franklin Woodruff. 

KINGS COXJNTI TOWN CONTKIBTn;iONS. 

Flatbush. — Mrs. John Vanderbilt, Chairman; 
Mesdames J. A. Lott, J. V. B. Martense, J. D. 
Prince, J Lefferts, T. J. Bergen, Dr. Robinson, 
Wm. WaU, J. M. Hood, W. Murphy, Miss M. S. 
Schuyler. 

WlaMarids — Mesdames A. Hubbard, E. K. Kim- 
ball, P. Konenhoven, — Doolittle, Miss Annie 
Lott. 

Gravesend. — Mesdames M. G. Hanson, S. Gar- 
retson, Misses E. Lake, J. Cropsy. 

Bay EttZjre.— Mesdames J. 0. Perry, V. Tracy, 
J. .Van Brunt, — Fletcher, Miss M.^Musgrave, 
Mrs W. Sherman. 

East New York. — Mesdames C. R. MiUer, P. 
H. Keed A. H. W. Van Sicklen. 

Neio Utreohi. — Mesdames J. €raue, J. Van Brant, 
Jr. 

QreenfieM — Mrs. G. M. Close. 

Fort JIamUton — Miss Brown. 

Windsor Terrace. — Mrs. Hudson. 

CHAIEMBN OP IiADIEs' OANVASSINQ COUMITTEBEk 

Mesdames N. Burchard, W, W. PeU, H. Waters, 

A. Bradshaw. E. C. Brainerd, J. D. Spafkman, 
Dr. Morrell. ' 

LONO ISLAND OONTBIBUXtONS. 

Elias Lewis.Jr., Chairman; Messrs. C. H. Vic- 
tor Newtown; Wm. NicoU. Huntington; D Bo- 
gart, Jr., Eoslyn; Hon. Elias J. Beach. Gien 
Cove; Isaac H. Cocks, Westbuiry; S." U. Messe- 
reau, Hempstead; Jas. Rider. Jamaioa; C. ;S. 
Powell; Farmin^dale; W. W. and J. Hobbins, 
Babylon; Havens & Prince, Shelter Island; C. 
N. Brown, Sag Harbor; J. iVIadison Hunting. 
East Hampton; H. G. Eeeve,'Mi»ttituck, etc.; 
Goldsmith & Tuttle, Cutohegen. 

MELITAEY, FIB£ DEPABTMENT, POLICE, AND OBDEBEk 

Hon. J. S. T. Stranahan, Chairman; Gens. IL 

B. Duryea, Philip S. Crooke. J. C. Smith, Cola. 
Calvin E. Pratt, John B. Woodward, .Majors E. 

C. V\ ard, John S. Polk, Messrs. Eui'us E. Bel- 
knap, John Cunningham, John Doyle. ' 

AIIDITDJG. 

Ambrose Snow, Chairman; Messrs^ Hiram 
Beuner. Sidney Green, Wm. Everdell,Jr., James 
Gridley, Danl Godwin, Jojin J. Studwell, W. D. 
Gookin. Ferdinand A. Grooter, Henry E. Nes- 
mith, Charles' Dimdn. 



The SaMtary Commission Bulletin. 



179 



A meeting was held on Saturday evening 
last, at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, 
in aid of the Fair, at which Henry Ward 
Beecher said : 

I had hoped to meet several gentjeraen pres- 
ent whom I do not see, and who were to bear 
their welcome part of this tast, which is not a 
task, not even a duty, ;hut it may be said is a 
necessary pleasure. There are some things 
that it is painf al to do ; there are some things that, 
because they are painful, bring so much exer- 
tion to the doing of them, that men are thought 
to do -them with a will, whereas it is because 
they are painful that men bear up toward them 
with such earnest effort. But to stand in the 
midst of a Christian community, known and 
widely reported for its charity, whose example 
is quoted the world over— to stand in such a 
community to plead for such a charity as that 
we now meet to serve, that is not a ta'<k, or 
even a duty, but a necessary pleasure. - Allusion 
has been made already to the general topics of 
the day, the conflict which is waged and yet to 
be waged— that which gives occasion for such a 
meeting as this ; but it is not of these that I 
would or shall speak, but simply a word or two 
in regard to those that have gone forth" and are 
suffering in this codfliot. I was asked to-day. 
hy a friend, whom I see present tWs evening, 
whether I thought this Sanitary Oommission 
was really needed, and whether there was not 
some little humbug about it ; for, he said, he 
was told by a friend that an officer in the arn^ 
had informed him that there was no need of it, 
no occasion for it. I oannat say who that of5- 
cer was; I will not suppose but that he was sin- 
cerely mistaken ; but I have no doubt that he 
was mistaken, wholly and absolutely, for I do 
not speak merely in consequence of the enthu- 
siastic utterances which you as well as I heard 
here last year from that most laborious public 
servant. Dr. Bellows, nor merely from the re- 
ports in the papers. It has been my good for-' 
tune to have a brother-in-law ealled into this 
service, and for more than a year he has been 
laboring in behalf of the sick and wounded of 
our ariny in Washington, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, New York, and New Orleans, where he 
now is ; and it is through him that I learn of 
the interior reality of this great mission of 
mercy; and though I do not undertake to en- 
dorse that which needs none, yet J.say I have 
no more doubt of its necessity and mercy than 
of the sun that shines in the heavens, by day, 
or any other fact of my existence. If there 
lingers in any mind a doubt — and "he that 
dbubteth is damned already, " it is said— of the 
the great good of this association^ let the doubt 
be cleared away at once. I have oonfldence in 
the society and the men, who manage it, and 
there is no other channel through which you 
can better convey your help to those who need 
it than this. I have sometimes thought that 
we know very little of true patriotism. • It is 
not such as we, who are comfortable at home 
and pitch from the loaf of our abundance a 
crumb here and thereto large. crumb perhaps 
from the individual, but how smallin tiie; ag- 
gregate, when compared with our coprforts and 
the necessities of those to whom it is, given. I 
was conversing tp-day; ■jriih a, friend of former 



years, who in an jncident she related to me re- 
vealed the temper of her own kind heart. Her 
little boy, not able to speak plainly, seeing a 
pale soldier on the street before -her house, went 
up to him and asked him if he was sick. The 
soldier replied, No, that he was hungry. The 
boy lisped out in his broken prattle, " Ma keeps 
a soldiers' hotel; come in." He came in and 
got a cup of coffee, and the little fellow, en- 
couraged by the success which had attended his 
first endeavor, went out and brought in twenty- 
seven others. They had been on a boat travel- 
ing from Friday until Monday, with nothing-to 
eat but crackers and river water, and were quite 
ready to appreciate the excellent breakfast to 
which they soon sat down. As they sat at the 
table, the good lady noticed a resemblance bef- 
tween two of them — they were brothers. ' ' Ah; " 
said she, "how pleasant it must be to have a 
brother with you in the army." "Oh," he re- 
plied, "there are more* than two, there are five 
of us brothers here. " So there were; five stat 
wart, brave fellows had gone together from one 
family. There was another Who was a oripplS 
who could not go, and another who was too 
young, but it was all they could do to prevent 
the old man going too. That I call patriotism. 
Who of us have done any thing that can be men- 
tioUed in the same day as that ? I know of in- 
stances in which the only child has gone and 
not b&eu taken back; and when one and another 
falls, and every day brings nearer the prospect 
that this only child may fall. I know heroio 
mothers who stand firm to the offering they 
have made, and will not draw back their gift. 
Who of us is patriotic in this measure ? Let 
me read a line from a young woman, a woman 
of education and culture, belonging to a wealthy 
family in the West, who has given most of her 
time since the war began to the soldier's ser- 
vice, having gone out with the first regiment 
from that noble State, Indiana: 

" Nothing ever touched me so much as cheers 
from those hospitaf cots. When the fall of 
Vicksburg was announced in Jackson Hospital, 
at Memphis, the whole great building, filled 
with terribly wounded, rang for an hour with 
cheers and songs. Some sang and shouted who 
never had strength to speak again, and many 
who knew they should never hear of auothei' 
victory on earUi. 

' • I am Ijrying to be patient and stay at home 
without fretting ; but I can't see how people cau 
say, ' Well, you ought to rest and enjoy your- 
self awhile, you have done enough.' All the 
work! ever had in my hfe that gave me full 
heart-room and the best of rest and jcjy is that 
same hospital work, and nothing could induce 
me to endure this sort of ' rest' a minute but 
that father needs me, and my duty is at home 
for the present. I pray every hour for the 
9hauce of going back with a clear conscience^ 
and I know I shall. 

' ' I speak of it as ' work. ' It isn't work to me. 
I love everybody who has raised a hand for true 
love of the cause, and my .first enthusiasm 
never wore off. Ignorant, filthy, and coarse as 
some must be who need the services of hospital 
nurse, yet always the first sight of a wound or 
a pale face that is the price of a service to ata 
country, makes its owner a hero to me at once, 
andalll^bor for him. an honor and pleasnia.. I 



180 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



do get tired, but it is only the flesh, and that 
isn't real weariness." 

It is my pride to believe that, there is not a 
city or Tillage in the land that has not such 
patriots as these; and where such natural min- 
isters of peace are stirred up at once to such 
true patriotism — where they give not merely 
their possessions and their labor, but their own 
selves, their very spirit and body becoming a 
hovering and ministering presence in sickness 
and the camp— shall we doubt one single mo- 
ment? There is a zeal, a divine spirit of patriot- 
ism in the country, that shall bear us through, 
and we shall be true to every duty of humanity, 
erery instinct of pity and piety. 

I might add some considerations drawn from 
your position in this city ; but though I do not 
disregard or undervalue them, I base my ap- 
peal to you on higher grounds. I should be 
proud to have Brooklyn stand, if not first, at 
teast high up on the roll of honor; and still fur- 
ther should be proud to have my own people 
stand highest among you; but local pride, 
though it might have a subordinate place, is not 
that to which I woiild appeal. 

It is to that common to you and all the people 
of New York and the whole land; our common 
love of humanity, our common love of country, 
our common love of God, who, in the person oif 
his Son, our Saviour, went about doing good, 
healing the sick, and comforting the sunering. 
It is to these higher motives that I 'would ap- 
peal, and I know I would not appeal in vain; 
and when Brooklyn shall have accomplished 
her labor of love, I know there wiU not be one 
thing to be ashamed of, but much to be proud 
of, and that God shall be pleased with tiie of- 
fering we shall bring. [Applause.] 

And Mr. Moses F. Odell said: ' 
I was at the White House nearly two years 
ago, and I remember to-night very well my sail 
up the Pamnnkey River. I started with quite 
a company on the excursign, and we very soon 
came up to a vessel with the flag of the Sani- 
tary Commission flying at her mast-head, 
and soon another, a larger steamer, flying the 
game flag. The Daniel Webster, and Wilson 
G. Small, and the Wissahickon, a littie ten- 
der, and several others, were all there with 
the flags of this Commission flying from their 
mast-heads. I thought it a grand affair; very 
large it must be, to employ all these vessels, ftit 
probably very useless; but before I had been 
long at the White House there came down from 
Pair' Oaks some five or six hundred wounded 
soldiers on a train of cars, and then I discover- 
ed the. vast resources and usefulness of this 
Commission. I found on board those steam- 
boats numbers of ladies and gentlemen, ready 
to go to work with willing hearts and able hands 
to administer to the wants of those wounded 
and dying men. Now the Government, I have 
no hesitation in saying, from the beginning of 
the war have had a proper appreciation of the 
needs of the soldier, and have done all in their 
power, but under such circumstances as tbese 
the Commission was ahead of them — hours and 
days ahead of the Government in the supply of 
what was needed on that occasion. [Applause. ] 
I joined this Commission then at once, enrolled 
myself as a working and active member, and 
remained there four days and nights, during 



which time there were 3,465 wounded men re- 
ceived, their immediate wants supplied, andne- 
cessary medical assistance famished by the 
Commission, and they were then sent from 
there to the Washington and other hospitals. 
And. had not these vessels been there with their 
bountiful supplies to make the soldier comfort- 
able in- his wants and sickness, the suffering 
would have been untold. . I shall never forget 
one incident, occurring during my services there. 
I had talien in my hand a pail of iced lemonade, 
prepared ftom the stores of the Commission by 
some ladies from New York, who were with us, 
and went out to the cars to distribute it among 
the wounded. I never shall forget one poor 
fellow I saw there. He had been left for dead 
on the field, and the rebels had robbed him of 
everything — that is their profession; thfiy have 
done it ever since the beginning of the war; 
they had taken all his clothes, and he was wrap- 
ped in a blanket. He was scarcely able to 
speak, but he showed me his wounds, and I 
gave him a glass of lemonade, for which he re- 
turned a look of inexpressible gratitude. A 
ball had taken out his right eye and came out 
behind his ear, and he was not expected to live; 
but two or three weeks afterward, in a hospital 
where I jvent to find some of the Fourteenth 
Kegiment boys, I found him with a patch over ■ 
his eye, seemingly getting well, and he said to 
me : "Sir, I wish I had a house and lot to give 
you. '■ Now I was only the instrument of the 
Sanitary Commission; it was their ice and their 
lemonade, and I was simply the iastrument to 
carry it from their boat to the car, to this poor 
fellow. Yon may give many dollars, but cannot 
pay for or balance the comfort and good they did 
that man and thousands of others lik^ebim. And 
such scenes as this I witnessed constantly during 
the four days and nights I remained there. 

The agents and employees of the Commission 
(but few of them paid, I am happy to say) ren- 
dered most eiBcient and faithful service the whole 
time. I will tell you another instance of how 
good a thing this Sanitary Commission is. A 
young man came to me one evening, saying : 
" There is a young man in the second cabin whom 
I think you would like to see." " They are rebels 
there," I said. "Yes," he replied, "they are; 
but come and see the man." I went with him, 
and meeting on the stairs that good man and true 
philanthropist, Mr. Barclay, of Philadelphia, he 
went with us. Seeing the man's condition, I said 
to him : " They tell me you are-badly wounded." 
"Yes, sir," said he : '-J don't suppose I shall 
live long-; but I want to tell you that ever since 
I have been brought among you here I have 
been treated with so much kindness — all my 
wants have been satisfied, and eveu luxuries 
supplied me, so very different from what I had 
been led to expect, that I want to make one more 
request of you. I want you to write to my wife 
and four little children, and say I died penitent 
for ever raising my hand or gun against so good a 
people as you are." That rebel's heart was soft- 
ened by the kindness of this Sanitary Commis- 
sion. I saw the same things again at the battle 
of ftedericksburg. The Commission was there 
again, long ahead of the Government, with all 
their plenteous bounty, bestowing it with a 
libera) band on all who needed it. 

Again at Gettysburg I saw the same class 

of inp.Mpnta T thprp wyn nt tn ft hnnnital ivhora T 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



181 



was informed that some of the Fourteenth Regi- 
ment wounded were lying, and I found on the 
ground floor of a email house seventeen men 
connected with that regiment, every man with an 
arm or leg off, lying upon straw. The surgeon 
was Itind, and did all he could, but they were, as 
I have said, lying upon straw, and all as they 
were picked up off the field, grimy, bloody, and 
dirty. I went through the town trying to buy 
seventeen clean shirts for them.but could not get 
them for love or money. I at length went to the 
quarters of the association, and told Dr. Bellows, 
whom I found there, of my need of shirts, bed- 
ticks, and sheets. " Knock open that box, John,'' 
called the Doctor to an assistant, and in a few 
moments I had all I wanted. And it you had 
seen me then in Gettysburg, you would have seen 
a man not very fond of carfying bundles, by the 
testimony of his wife, perfectly happy in the pos- 
session of an immense bundle of all those poor 
fellows needed. How their countenances lit up 
with joy when they saw. what was then more 
to them thaft houses or lands ! Why, the 
$35-.000 you raised the other day did not pay for 
those seventeen shirts, bed-ticks, etc. Mr. Beeoher 
says he wants Brooklyn to be very near the head 
of the roll. I want her away up head, and I think 
we will get there if this same spirit lasts. 



THE WORK OF RELIEF IN EASTERN 
VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND. 

Dr. Steiner, Chief Inspector of Belief, 
has made the following very interesting 
report at the session of the Commission now 
being held in Washington, on the work 
of relief since July last, in the armies of 
Eastern Virginia and Maryland, excepting 
the troops in Washington, Baltimore, and 
Maryland :' 

• The Meld Belief Corps, placed in the 
Army of the Potomac July 18, 1863, has 
since that time steadily labored in that 
field, down to the date of the present Be- 
port, gaining the respec* and confidence of 
the officers of the army as well as the good 
\ml and gratitude of the tnen. It has become 
an ' Hnstituiion, " so to speak, in the army, and 
has adapted itself in such a way to meet the 
wants of the service, that the plan of the 
Commission, as a supplementary organiza- 
tion to the medical corps, acting with its 
approbation, and, where it is possible, un- 
der its. direction, has been strictly carried 
out. Experience has been gained by its 
members which' has wonderfully increased 
its efficiency; and I have no hesitation now 
in claipiing for it the right to be considered 
one of the best modes, if not the very best, 
of administering the bounties of the people 
to the soldiers, without interfering Vith the 



regular routine of military life and disci' 
pline in the slightest manner. 

The operations of this corps have bean 
conducted up to date in the manner indi- 
cated in document No. 72, viz. : the agents 
live in the respective corps to which they 
have been assigned by the superintendent, 
have their tents pitched along with the 
ambulance corps, where their wagons and 
stores are generally retained. They visit 
the hospitals, whether division, brigade,, or 
regimental, find out wants from the medical 
officers or from' personal inspection, and 
then see that these are supplied, the sur- 
geons generally dispatching ambulances, or 
wagons for them; or,in case of their inabil- 
ity to obtain this tmnsportation, the agent 
employs his o-wn wagon for the purpose. 
When the army moves the sanitary wagon 
moves with it. The agent looks out for 
cases where individual relief is needed, and 
furnishes it directly, because such cases ara 
sometimes so circumstanced that it would 
be impossible to get medical attention with- 
out long delay. By his acquaintance with 
the officers of the corps he is enabled to 
move along the marching column unhinder- 
ed by questions that would necessarily meet 
the stranger. The reports of the agents, 
referring to the movements of the army of 
the Potomac, will show how great were the 
opportunities afforded them from time to 
time of bringing kindly relief to the suf- 
fering and wayworn soldier. 

This work demands not only zeal and 
earnestness, but that the agent should ba 
possessed of a good judgment, enabling him 
to distinguish between an affectation of 
suffering and distress and that which is real 
and unaffected. The former can be assumed 
by th^ malingerer in so plausible a way 
that the novice to this wort of philanthropy 
is always liable to gross deception.- Ha 
gives because the demand is made. Ha 
does not investigate the nature of this de- 
mand, nor the probable truth on which it is 
based. He gives freely and without stint 
The undeserving are thus rewarded for 
their cunning and lies, and the stores which 
thg sympathizing women of the nation have 
forwarded for "the use of the suffering, are 
prostituted to satisfying the greed of the 
worthless. This is especially the case ■witix. 
lady visitors to our camps. With heart* 



182 



The- Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



full of generous syrcpathy, 'aiid spirits 
eager to relieve Buffering — their sole desire 
being to aid their brothers in the name not 
only of a common national cause, but in 
accordance with the Christian rule that 
meat should be given to the hungry, drink 
to the thirsty, lodging to the houseless, 
clothing to the naked, and consolation to 
those in prison. The idea of deception on 
the part of those requesting aid is never 
dreamed of by these ministers of charity. 
Their mission is a holy one, and all thought 
of untruth on the part of those claiming 
assistance is necessarily absent from their 
minds. There is another class of persons, 
also, unfitted for the -work of relief — those 
proceeding from State organizations, and 
eager to give publicity to the results of 
their operations in the army. They give 
to every one asking, give freely, and thus 
do injury also to the cause of relief. The 
principle underlying the work of the Relief 
Agents of the Sanitary Commission— that 
underlying the whole design of the Com- 
mission — is to work as far as possible with 
the approbation of the Medical Officers, 
furnishing supplies under their orders, or 
directly to individiuil cases after carefully 
examining into the real character of such. 
A sound judgment, unaffected by mere 
sentimentalism, or unsuspecting tenderness 
of heart, and most certainly free from all 
desire of parade and show — a sound judg- 
ment, I say, conjoined with an earnest sym- 
pathy with real suffering, and a holy love 
of the Union and aU its defenders — this is 
imperatively demanded from every one who 
wi hes to do satisfactory work in the way 
of Field Relief. 

One important feature in our operations 
is, to make every effort so that the soldier 
shall receive every thing to which he is 
entitled from Government. Whenever 
articles are properly obtainable- from the 
purveyor, quartermaster, or commissary, 
an effort is always made to aid him to secure 
such from the regular sources; and when 
this fails, then to come to the I'escue with 
the voluntary bounties of the people. If 
the want is so imminent as to demand im- 
mediate attention, the needed stores are 
furnished at once. 

In the month of November my attention 
was directed to a plan for the addition of a 



flying ambulance arrangement to the Field 
Relief Corps. After some weeks' considera- 
tion of this subject, on the 23d of the same 
month I approved a plan which was pro- 
posed by a Russian physician, Dr. Herman 
Baalen, who was represented as having had 
considerable experience during the Crimean 
war in the management of a flying ambu- 
lance depot. This plan was shortly after- 
wards put into operation, through the or- 
ders of the associate secretary in Washing- 
ton, Mr. Knapp. Finding on my return to 
duty, after a few weeks' leave of absence, 
necessitated by increasing indisposition, 
that this flying ambulance arrangement 
would not be required during the winter, 
and that very important changes would be 
necessary before it would adapt itself to 
the needs of the Commission, an or^er was 
issued dispensing with it on December 11, 
1863. 

The arrangements for the Field Relief 
Corps during the coming quarter will re- 
quire certain changes, which economy and 
the character of the needs of an army in 
winter quarters require. It is intended 
that the agents shall have the field store- 
house, which is generally situated at the 
quartermaster's depot of supplies, as their 
headquarters. The wagons wiU be brought 
in during the months of inactivity. The 
agents, with their saddle horses, will move 
through the corps as occasion shall require, 
ascertain what wants exist, and endeavor 
to have these supplied, either through the 
medical officers, or by personally carrying 
the stores and directly meeting individual 
want. The superintendent will have the 
opportunity of learning almost daily the 
condition of the work in each corps, and%f 
giving directions continually on the subject. 
The whole family will have frequent oppor- 
tunities of profiting by each other's expe- 
rience, and stimulating each other to con- 
tinuous good work. One or more wagons 
will be retained at the field store-house to 
meet such emergencies as may require the 
transfer suddenly of stores from, one point 
to another. When active operations are 
once more resumed in the army, the wagons 
wiU be replaced. It must be understood 
that in this arrangement it is not necessary 
that the agent should reach the field store- 
house every night— indeed, the natuie of 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



183 



his business may require him to remain 
away from the headquarters for days on a 
trip — the only change of the plan as re- 
gards the quarters of the agent being that 
these shall be now for the winter at the 
field store-house, and not separated from 
the rest in each corps. 

An earnest efifort has been made to keep 
the expenses of this corps within reasonable 
limits, and the compensation allowed the 
agents is barely enough to meet the ex- 
penses necessarily incurred; still there has 
been no complaint, because the service has 
been entered upon with a strong attach- 
ment to the Federal cause, and an anxious 
desire to aid those who are so nobly fighting 
in its defence. The ordinary life of the 
army when inaotiTe offers no attractions to 
most men, although the promptings of 
morbid curiosity will bring them in hosts 
to battle-fields; and it is during this inactive 
life that our relief agents are called upon to 
do yeoman's service. They must labor so 
that all obstacles to health shall be removed, 
and that the soldier shall be fitted for what- 
ever may be required of him. A strong 
sense of duty must be the ruling motive, or 
more attractive positions would draw them 
off. Again, the position is frequently one 
of danger. Some of the agents have been 
under the enemy's fire in the performance 
of their duty, and all of them are exposed 
to capture in their lonesome rides through 
the corps of the army. Our position as the 
almoners of a people's bounteous considera- 
tion for the sick and wounded, has as yet 
practically not been recognized by the 
authorities of the Confederate Government. 
One of our teamsters., attached to the 5th 
Corps, George W. Loagley, was seized by 
the rebels in a late attack on the army 
train, and is now believed to be a prisoner 
in Kiebmond. Considering that the in- 
variable rule of the Commission has been 
to supply the wants of all the wounded and 
suffering within thfe Federal Hues, and that 
the eyes of all Europe have been turned 
toward the general recognition of a corps' 
of Jnjirmiers Volontaires as free from cap- 
ture in time of war, (as specially shown in 
the late Congress held at Geneva,) it is 
mortifying to find that a similar recogni- 
tion wiU not be granted by the Southern 
contestants to persons holding similar 



positions in our own armies. It is shame- 
ful that the reward for bringing succor to 
the wounded should be incarceration within 
the walls of a loathsome prison, and expo- 
sure to want, hunger, and loathsome dis- 
ease. As the matter stands now, all this 
reaUy impends over every one who works 
in the Field Belief Corps, and the danger 
is freely and fearlessly braved. 

As a general thing, a weekly report has 
been made, through the Superintendent, on 
the work of relief in his corps by the 
agents. These reports are transmitted here- 
with, without correction, or alteration, so 
that the record may exist as it was made at 
the time, and may be placed in the Archives 
of the Commission f (Jr the use of the future 
historian of this war. 

I must state my candid opinion, that a 
more energetic, zealous body of young 
men I have never met with than those 
which constitute our corps in the Army of 
the Potomac. The pgsition calls out all 
the faculties of mind and body. The 
agent has frequently to play hostler, cook, 
tailor, shoemaker, teamstsr, and indeed 
must know how to help himself out of 
every dilemma in which a man can possibly 
fall who is in the field away from the aids 
as weU as the refining influences of civiliza- 
tion. He must be prepared for any and 
every form of accident that may meet him 
in his nomadic life— undergo all the hard- 
ships and much of the danger of a soldier's 
life, and yet be unaffected by the hope of 
preferment, the increase of rank or pay, or 
even by a notice in a general order. They 
labor on in their work quietly and unob- 
trusively, scattering the handiwork of the 
sewing circles of villages and country 
towns, as well as the larger stores of great 
cities-, and thus making available what the 
glorioas charities of our people are eager to 
extend to the suffering soldier. What a 
uoble work is thus done by the joint aid 
of the furnishers and distributors of sup- 
plies, is only to known to Him who knows 
all things ! 

In this connection I must make special 
mention of the untiring assiduity of Capt. 
Isaac Harris, the Assistant Superintendent 
of the Corps, who has had charge in the field 
during the temporary absence of Mr. J. W. 
Johnson. His vigilance and activity are 



184 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



only equaled by his jealous care for the 
good reputation of the Commission, and 
his. resolute determination that no quasi- 
philanthropist shall use it for his own per- 
sonal advantage or advancement. It is a 
fortunate occurrence that we have two men 
BO devoted to our work as Mr. Johnson and 
Capt. Harris in the Field Corps. At best, 
only general directions for this work can be 
issued by the Chief Inspector, and it is a 
fortunate circumstance that these gentle- 
men have taken such an enthusiastic hold 
of their duties. Like every one connected 
with this hard-working, patient army, the 
love of country and of doing good nerves 
them to meet all exigencies as they arise. 

Since the first formation of the Field Re- 
lief Corps at Boonsborough, Md., July 17, 
1863, in addition to the four wagon loads 
of stores first sent forth — of which no ac- 
count was made — the following articles 
have been issued through its agents up to 
the date of this report: 

Brandy, Rum, and Whiskey. 1,935 tottles. 
Foreign and Domestic Wine . 1,271 " 

Jamaica Ginger 840 " 

Exti-a'ct of Beef ^ 2,792 cana. 

Condensed Milk 4,400 " 

Com Starch, &c., &c 4,533 pounds. 

Soft Crackers 89^ barrels. 

Pickles 436 gallons. 

Jellies 610 jars. 

Dried Fruit 21 barrels. 

Tea 223 ponnds. 

Chocolate 1,012 " 

Sugar. 1,074 " 

Chloroform 81 " 

Tamarinds 110 gallons. 

Tomatoes 156 cans. 

Shirts, wool and coiton 6,301 

Drawers, " 5,513 



Socks, 



4,739 



Bed-ticks 1,522 

Blankets and Quilts 2,310 

Pillow Cases 1,712 

Handkerchiefs 1,414 

Tin Cups 1,204 

Towels 3,547 

Slippers 841 

Pillows 992 

Sheets 1,017 

Work Bags 200 

Tobacco 735 pounds. 

Buckets. 20 

i 

In concluding this general sketch of wliat 
the Meld Relief Corps has been, and what it 
has done, I must state that I consider my 
connection with it as one of the most satis- 
factory and extended opportunities of do- 
ing good that has ever faUen to my lot, and 
express my sense of thankfulness to Provi- 
dence for the great privilege I have enjoyed 
of superintending and directing its opera- 
tions. 



On the 8th of December, 1863, 1 was put 
in charge of a district, including not only 
the Army of the Potomac, but all the troops 
in " Eastern Virginia and Maryland, (east 
from Cumberland,) excepting those con- 
nected with the defences of Washington, 
and those stationed at Baltimore and An- 
napolis." As the troops in the western 
portion of this district are mostly station- 
ary, I did not deem it advisable to establish 
a depot of stores within its limits, or to 
keep a permanent relief agent wit^ the 
command, but concluded to work for the 
present through the reports which our 
Sanitary Inspectors would make, as to the 
needs of the troops, hospitals, &o., on their 
visitations, intending, in case there should 
arise any special need, hereafter to detail a 
relief ageat for this business. Acting in 
accordance with this plan, Dr. W. S. Swalm, 
Sanitary Inspector, was ordered (Decem- 
ber 7, 1863) "to proceed by the earliest 
train to Cumberland, Md., with the view 
of ascertaining the wants of the troops and 
hospitals located in and near that town ; 
thence to proceed to Martinsbuxg, Harper's 
Ferry, and Charlestown, for the same pur- 
pose," and if he d;.ould find hospitals at 
intermediate points, to visit them also. Dr. 
Swalm reported on the wants as he found 
them in his tour of inspection, and the 
needed stores were forwarded at once from 
the storehouse in Washington. From time 
to time similar visits for ascertaining wants 
in this portion of my district will be made 
by proper officers. 

The section of Norfolk, including so much 
of Major-General B. F. Butler's command 
(18th Army Corps) as is stationed in Vir- 
ginia, has been under the special care of 
James Gall, Jr. , Belief Agent, whose sound 
judgment, kind heart, and gentlemanly 
character have enabled him to render effi- 
cient aid to the needs of this section, to 
support and give additional strength to the 
reputation of the Commission, and to gain 
the respect and confidence of the military 
officers with whom he has come into con- 
tact. He has steadily and regularly visited 
aU the regiments and hospitals in his sec- 
tion with promptness, sent in his weekly 
reports of the nature of his work, furnished 
intelligible and accurate vouchers as regarda 
expenditures of stares and moneys, and, in 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



185 



a 'word, has shown himself to be a model 
Relief Agent. I have reason to believe that 
our work has been done most thoroughly 
and efficiently in this section. 

When there was an opportunity of for- 
warding stores to .Biohmond, he acted 
promptly in this matter ; and abundant 
proof has been afforded us of the accepta- 
bility of this work through the letters of 
Brigadier-General Neal Dow, and others, 
now incarcerated within the walls of Libby 
and Castle Thunder. 

The stores forwarded from the Washing- 
ton storehouse for use in Mr. Gall's section, 
(large quantities were also dispatched froni 
Baltimore,) will be shown by the abstract 
accompanying this report. 

I also ask attention to the Statement of 
Issues from the Norfolk storehouse during 
the year 1863, prepared by Samuel Bacon, 
the Commission's Storekeeper at that post. 

BEDDING AND HOSPITAl FUBNITUBE. 

Issued. 

Air Gusldons » 

Air Beds 

Bed Ticks 1089 

Bed Pans 31 

Blanjzets 758 

Brooms 80 

Chambers 28 

Candlesticks 40 

Combs, Coarse 140 

Hospital Cots 8 

Cushions ....•,.-. , 141 

Head Rests '. 1 

Lanterns 8 

Medicine Cups 

Medicine Tubes ; ^ 

Netting, Mosquito i pieces. 216 

OilSUk yards. 62 

Pillows 1632 

Pillow Cases , 5936 

Pillow Ticks 254 

Quilts 1579 

Rubber Sheeting / yards. ' 32 

Bowls 22 

Sheets 4573 

Tin Coffee Pots 2 

Tin Pails 17 

Sponges 124 

Soap lbs. 169 

Towels 7166 

Tin Cups 920 

Tin Basins 185 

Urinals 24 

Wood Palls. 3 

Tin Plates .,-. 329 

Knives and Forks 12 

Spoons 84 

WashBoards 10 

Clothespins. 352 

Shelter Tents 49 

WEAEING APPABBL. 

Issued. 

Coats — Cotton.. » .'.pairs. 150 

Woolen. " 

Dbawees— Cotton " 3201 

Woolen " 2604 

; , Canton Flannel " 1245 

E4r-Laps 124 

Haimel Bandages 174 

Hanheebchiefs — Pocket 4460 

Mittens pairs. 304 

<» NcokTies *, 12 

'Arin Shngs '....^ 50 



Panis— Cotton pairs. 165 

Woolen " 

Shibts — Cotton, Convalescent . , ' 

" Hospital 6168 

Woolen 3376 

Canton Flannel '. 324 

" " Hospital 

Fancy Caps 28 

Slippers pairs. 3104 

SpoKS— Cotton " 

Woolen " 4179 

Vests— Cotten and Woolen 116 

WuAPPEBS— Thin and Thick 641 

Mixed Vegetables bbls. ' 13 

Herring boxes. 8 

Apple Sauce -. gals. 53 

Eggs bbls. 1 

HOSPITAL FOOD AND DELICACIES. 

Issued. 

BiceFlour '. lbs. 113 

Toast bbls. 3 

Apples, dried " 105 

Arrow Boot lbs. 917 

BeefSoup " 668 

Beef, Cpnoentrated Extract " 1383 

Brandy bottles. 666 

Butter lbs. 311 

Coffee «. " 394 

Canned Meat, Tripe cans. 87 

Tamaiinds gals. 230 

Canned Vegetables cans. 277 

Cocoa lbs. 182 

Chocolate " 2673 

Coffee, Extract of " 62 

Condensed Milk ^ " 3955 

Crackers bbls. .35J^ 

Com Starch .• lbs. 1561 

Corn Meal bbls. 19 

Dried Fruit, assorted " 68 

Kxtract Jamaica Ginger bottles. 650 

Farina lbs. 1466 

Fruit Cordial bottles. 66 

Gelatine pkgs. 36 

Jellies and Preserves bottles. 861 

Flaxseed lbs. 24 

Maizena " 108 

Mustard ; " 19 

Lemons boxes. 2 

Oat Meal bbls.. 9 

Onions " 10 

Pickles gola. 745 

Pepper lbs, 41 

Potatoes bbls. 13 

Sugar, White , lbs. 1307 

Oranges box. 1 

Syrups.. bottles. 127 

'Spices lbs. 8 

Tea,Blacl£ " 265 

Tapioca " 121 

Tobacco " 48 

Vinegar ■ bottles. 90 

Vinegar, Easpberry ", 101 

Wlne.Foreigu " 632 

Wine, Foreign, in bulk gals. 84 

Wine, Domestic bottles. 293 

Wine, Domestic, in bulk gals. 7 

Whiskey bottles. 835 

Whiskey, in bulk gals. 16 

Bum " 12 

Bum bottles. 193 

Ale bbls." 10 

Porter gals. 279 

Brandy " 15 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Issued. 

Chloroform ■. bottles. 60 

Bay Bum " 146 

Catsup " 11 

Cologne.. " 10 

Camphor, Spirits of " .6 

Quinine " 22 

Crutches pairs. 23 

Apple Juice.. cans. 8 

Fans ....'.'. 461 

Ext.Fruit cans. 23 

Games 20 

Sago lbs. 32 

Lint ^.bblB. 5 

Candles „ lbs. 3 

Magazines, &o boxes. 9 

Old Linen .bbls. 13 



186 



The Sanitary Commission BnUetin. 



Pincushions and Needle BookB boxes. 3 

KollBandages bbls. 8 

Horse Badlsli bottles. 2 

Hatches boxes. 144 

CodHsh lbs. 830 

Chicken cans. 48 

LagerBeer , bbls. 1 



STATIONEBT. 



Issned. 

2875 

bottles. 25 



Envelopes 

Ink 

Ijetter Paper. 

^ote Paper quires. 173 

Pencils 

Pen Holders 105 

Pens .' 288 



As regards the troops in the defences of 
Washington, upon -whose condition Dr. 
Steiner does not tonch, a most satirfactorj 
statement is made in a report from Dr. 
Julius Nichols, one of our inspectors, 
■which has also been read at the present 
session of the Commission. He gives a 
consolidated report, showing the rate of 
sickness in each regiment, furnishing an 
exhibition of the most satisfactory state of 
health. He reports the prevalence of ex- 
cellent morals among the men, and says 
that there is no tendency to any form of 
epidemic disease. Scarcely any typhoid 
exists, and there is a universal absence 
of scurvy. Everywhere throughout the 
forces, the greatest satisfaction was expressed 
by the men as to the quality and quantity 
of the Government rations; and in every 
regiment the " company funds," well gath- 
ered and used, provided a variety in the 
dietary of such articles as butter, miUi, . 
eggs, vegetables, etc., etc. A very gene- 
ral inclination to re-enlist among the vete- 
rans is reported by Dr. N. , thus confirming 
the often-expressed belief of patriotic ob- 
servers of the national army, that its sol- 
diers are thoroughly in earnest in their de- 
votion to the good cause, and determined 
"to see the thing out,'' as some of them 
commonly call the rebellion, 
a What Dr. Nichols says of the high mor- 
als of the forces within the defences of 
Washington, is true of the entire Federal 
army, with scarcely an exception. The 
lapse of more than two years, and the trials 
of repeated and severe campaigns, have eli- 
minated from the army much of the poor 
material that clogged its ranks during the 
earlier period of their enlistment. We 
have now a rapidly increasing army of vet- 
erans. 



There is at present a great scarcity 
of warm mittens in the storehouses of the 
Commission, and the severity of the weather 
of course makes the want of them greatly 
felt in the army. It is earnestly requested 
that efforts may be made by our readers 
and aU friends of the cause to supply this 
want, by sending forward supplies of them 
ai once to the depots of the branch societies 
the addresses of which are all given on pag^ 
187 of this number of the BniiLETiN. 



PROTECTIVE 

op THE 

STATE OF NEW YORK. 



OFFICE, 35 CHAMBERS STREET, 



A.pply in person or by letter, to 
HENEY GBEENEIELD, Sec'y, 
SSChaiibebs Street, New York. 



OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Isi. To secure the soldiei-s and saUors and 
their famiUes, afiy claims for pensions, pay, 
or bounty, etc. , without cost to the ckdmant. 

id. To protect soldiers or sailors and their 
families from imposture and fraud. 

3d To prevent false claims from being 
made against the Government. 

4:ih. To give gratuitous advice and infor- 
mation to soldiers and sailors or tJieir fami- 
lies needing it. 

BROOKLYN AND LONG ISLAND FAIR. 

The LADIES who have been notified of their appoint- 
ment as Managers of the Fair in aid of the D. S. Sanitary 
Commission, to be opened at the Brooklyn Academy of 
Music on the 22d February next, are respecttoUy re- 
minded that they are expected to take immediate meas- 
ures, within their respective congregations, and social or 
fiunily circles, according to their own best judgment and 
discretion, for insuring ULe largest possible amount of 
aid to this great enterprise. 

Mrs. J. S. T. STRANAHAN, President 

January Gth, 1864. 

ARTIFICIAL LEGS & ARMS. 

SBIiPHO*S PATENT, 516 BROADWAY. 

Established 24: Yeahs. 

The most perfect substitatoa for 
lost linibs tho world of science has 
ever jjiventod, can be had only of 
WM:. SEU>H0 & SON, patentees. 

N. B.— A Silver Modal awarded at 
tho last Fair, of tlio American Insti- 
tute and Kew Haven Gountv Faira. 




The Sanitary Commission Bulldin: 



187 



THE U. S. SANITAry COMMISSION 
Was constituted by the Secretary of War ia 
June, 1861, in accordance ■with the reoommen- 
dation of the Sux^eon-General of the U. S. 
Ateiy, and its ap{)ointment and plan of oi^ani- 
zation •were apprdved by the President of the 
United States.' Its present organization is as 
follows: 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., New York. 

A. D. Baohe, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

F. L. Olmsted, California. 
George T. Strong, Esq., New York. 
Elisha Harris, M.D., New York. 

W. H. Van Buren, M.D., New York. 

G. W. CuUom, U. S. A. 
A. E. Shiras, U. S. A. 

E. 0. Wood, Assistant Surg.-Gen'l U. S. A. 
Wolcott Gibbs, M.D., New York. 

S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 
0. B. Agnew, M.D., New York. 
J. S. Newberry, M.D., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Et. Eev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, E. I. 
• Hon. E. W. Burnett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, 111. 
Hon. Joseph Holt, Washington, D. C. 
Horace Binney, Jr., Philadelphia, Penn. 
Eev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 
J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. Fairman'Eogers,, Philadelphia, Penru 

OFFICERS : 
H. W. Bellows, D.D., President. 
A. D. Bache, IJL-D., Vice-President. 
George T. Strong, Treasurer. 
J. Foster Jenkins, M.D., General Secretary. 
J. 8. Newberry, M.D., Associate Secretary. 
J. H. Douglas, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

F. N. Knapp, Associate Secretary. 



HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrange- 
ments for supplying information gratuitously, 
with regard to patients in aU the tlnited States 
General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the 
Hospitals in Eastern Virginia, Maryland, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Florida and Louisiana, address " Office of 
Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. 0." 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address 
"Office of Sanitary Commission, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia." 

For the Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, 
and the New England States, address "Office 
Women's Central Union, No. 10 Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York." 

For the Hospitals in Western Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illiiiois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Teimessee, tossissippi and Arkansas, address 
"Office Sanitary Commission, Louisville, Ky." 

In all cases the- naine, rank, company, and 
regiment of the person inquired for should be 
given, andwhere he was when last heard from. 
If the application is by letter, the answer will 
be sent by return of mail; if in person, it will 
be answered at once; or if by telegraph, an an- 
swer will be returned immediately at the in- 
quirer's expense. 

^"Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen, ed- 
itors, aijd others, can scarcely serve the cause 
of humanity mpre effectually than by frequently 
and widely disseminating a knowledge of the 
above, among those who have £i,ieuds in the army. 



SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Commission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive, system of agencies for securing the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in its charge for tlie sick and wounded at pomts 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points— at New Or- 
leans and at Washington, before Charleston and at 
Chattanooga— its distributions being governed by a 
comparison of the wants of the patients in aU cases. 
The following is a list of depots, to which auxiliary 
societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to States or localities, 
but simply to their relative necessity for assist- 
ance, are mvited to send their offerings: 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelx}hia. 

Sanitary ' Commission, Branch Depot, No. 46 
South Sharp Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, comer Vine 
and Sixtli Streets, Cincinnati, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch. Depot, No. 95 
Bank Street, Cleveland, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, Chicago, 111. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, NO; 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. , 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 59 4th 
Street, Pittsburg, Penn. 

' Samtary Commission, Branch Depojj, No. 32 Lar- 
ned Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanitaiy Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Samtary Commission, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
Louisville, Ky. 

The Commission receives no, pecuniary aid what- 
ever from the Government, and is wholly depend- 
ent on the voluntai'y contributions of the pubho for 
the means of sustaining its operations. Contribu- 
tions to the Treasmy are sohcited, and may be 
transmitted to Gfiorge T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 
68 Wall Street, N..Y. 



RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 

General Superintendent, Kev. r. N. Knapp, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Chief A'Bsistant, J. B. Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltmiore Bailroad Depot, Waah- 
mgton, D. C. 

Lodge No. 4, H Street, between 13th and Uth Streets. 

Lodge No. 6, Maryland Avenue, near Eailioad Station. 

Nurses' Home, Washington, D. C. 

Soldiers' Home, Third Street, east of Broadway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio— Col. Q. W. D. Andrews, Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cairo, HI.— 0. N. Shipman, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Louisville, Ky James Malona, Sup't 

James Morton, Special Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Nashville, Tenn.- L. Crane, Sup't and 
Relief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Ohio-; , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cleveland, Ohio — Clark Warren, Sup't 
and Behef Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn. — C.W, 
Christy, Sup't and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers." Lodge, Ticksburg, Miss.— T; Way, Sup't. 

AGESOT FOB PENSIONS. 

William F. Eascom, Pension Agent, Washington, D. 

HOSFITAIi.CABS. 

Between Washington and New York — Sol. Andrews, 
K. D., Sm-geou in charge. 

Between Louisville and Murfreesboro' — Dr. J. P. Bar- 
nnm. Surgeon in charge. 

eANITABT BTEAMEBS. 

Mississippi Biver— Clara Bell; Cumberland Biver— 
Kew imulelth; Potomac Biver— Elizabeth. 



188 The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 

NEW Y O E K 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, 

^ Da^y Evening !I^^e-wspaper5 
PubUshed at 1\, 2i, and 4 P. M., 

IM A SsAm^E F@2^S© ■SH^E'T, 

The COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, through its reorganization and. enlarged 
facilities, commands a position in advance of existing commercial papers, while it abate 
no claim to rank on terms of equality with the most popular literary and the most trust- 
worthy political journals. i 



The Price, Three Cents a Copy, 

: rate it is sold everywhere, or delivered in the city by Carriers. 
. Liberal Discount to Newsmen. 

Annual Mail Subscription Nine Dollars a Year, Strictly in Advance. 



NEW YORK SPECTATOR, 

SEMI-WEEKLY, 

THREE DOLLARS per annum, in advance, with reduced Rates to Clubs. 
Address, 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER ASSOCIATION, 

Cor. Piae and 'Virilliani Streets, New York. 



30 Cortlandt Strfeet, near Broadway, 

A. KNAPP. 1 

■."caS^Ir^I new YORK. 



JAMES A. KNAPP. 
GEO. S. 
JOHN T. 



PREMIUM BOSTON CRACKERS, 

SUPERIOR BOSTON WATER CRACKERS, 

Ship and Pilot Bread. All kinds of Biscuit and Crackers., 
Orders punduaUy attended to. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



189 



RECENT MEDICAL ¥ORKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

BAILLIEEE BEOTHEES, 

440 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 



ON MILITAET AKD CAMP HOSPITALS, AND THE HEALTH OF TROOPS IN THE FIELD. By L. Baudens, 
Medical Dixectbr of the French Army, &c., &c. Translated and Annotated by Euahklin B. Hough, M. D., late 
Sanitary Inspector in the Army of the Potomac. 12mo, 260 pages. Price $1 25. 

*** The above work is the result of a commission sent by the Fi'ench Government to the Crimea to report upon 
the condition of the Hospitals and troops of the French army, and incidentally of the English and Sardinian armies. 
It is written in the form of a narrative, and the great queBtions of the prevention and control of disease in camps arid 
hospitals are thoroughly discussed. The hygienic conditions of the United States Army are similar to those of the 
armies of the Crimea; the rules and •prescriptions given in the book will, therefore, be found perfectly applicable. 
This work recoramends itself to commanders of regiments as well as army surgeons. 

• ON DIPHTHERIA. By Etw^d Headlam Gbeenhow. 1861. Pp. 160. Price $1.25. 

Our readers will find a very large amount of information in the twelve chapters of which the volume is made up. 
Perhaps, in the present state of our knowledge on tlie subject of this obscurely undei^stood disease, little more can be 
Bald beyond what may here be found written down. — London Medical Times and Gazette. • 

We have on^ been able here to refer to certain of the more prominent facts concerning diphtheria; but we believe 
we have said enough to recommend this well-written treaties to the attention of the profession.— JJritoA Medical 
Journal. 
ADVICE TO A MOTHER ON THE MANAGEMENT OF HER OITSPRING IN INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH. 

By P. Hbnby Chavabse, M. D. Price 60c. 
Fifth Edition. HAND-BOOK OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS. By Stephen Smith, M. D., SurgeDn to Bellevue Hosp. 

12mo, 280 pages, and 237 Woodcut Illustrations. Price $1 75. 
Just received, a Fresh Stock of " BERNARD & HUETTE'S OPERATIVE SURGERY." Colored Plates. Price $20. 

MESSRS. BAILLIERE BROTHERS beg to inform the MEDICAL PROFESSION and STUDENTS, that having 
purchaaed a Stock of the PubUcations of Messrs. BLANCHARD & LEA, LIPPINCOTT & CO., LINDSAY & BLAKISTON, 
&c., they are prepared to sell all the pubhcations of these Houses at a veby libebal dibcoubt fob cash. Prices will 
be given on application and orders are respectfully solicited. 

Any of the above sent free by mail on receipt of the price. 






% 



^ 





Adapted to every branch of business. 

MANUFACTURED ONLY BY THE ORIGINAL INVENTORS, 

E. Sl T. FAIRBANKS & CO., St. Johnsburyj Vermont. 

PRINCIPAL WAREHOUSES: 
FAIRBANKS & CO., No. 2S2 Broadway, New York. 
FAIRBANKS & BROWN, No. 118 Milk Street, Boston. 
FAIRBANKS, GREBNLBAP & CO., No. 172 Lake Street, Chicaga 
FAIRBANKS & EW^ING, Masonic Hall, Philadelphia. 
, FAIRBANKS & CO., No. 246 Baltimore Street, Baltimore. 

Descriptive circulars famished or mailed to any address, on application to either of 
the abore. 



190 



2^ Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



RECEIVED 

TWO PRIZE MEDALS 





(PKOM JURIES 3 AND 4) 

AT THE 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 



B^g Sole Awards gained byanytting of the kind. It ako received Superlative Report of 
"EXCEEDIJVG EXCELLENT FOR FOOD." 



MAIZENA, 

At the GREAT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION at HAMBURG, July, 1863, received 
the highest Prize Medal for its great delicacy as an article of food. 

MAIZENA, 

At the FAIR of the NEW YORK STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, at Utica, N. Y., 
September, 1863, received both Diplosia and Medaii. 

MAIZENA, 

AT THE 

Pennsylvania State Fair at IVorristown, 

Oct. 3, 1863, took Gold Medal. 

" MAIZENA" has also taken the first premium at the Amerioan iNSTrrnTB, Nevr York 
City; New Jersey State Faib at Trenton, and at other places — ^in every instance where 
it has been exhibited. 

" MAIZENA" has never failed to receive the highest award when placed in competi- 
tion with Cora Starch and all articles of like character, after a thorough Microscopical 
and Analytical Examination of disinterested judges. It therefore stands commended to 
the public as the best article of its kind in the world without any comments of the manu- 
facturer. 

MAIZENA, 

For Puddings, Cakes, Custards, Blanc Mange, &c., without isinglass, with few or no egga, 
at a cost astonishing the most economical. It is also excellent for thickening sweet sauces, 
gravies for fish and meat, soups, &c. For Ice Cream, nothing can compare with it. A 
little boiled in milk wiU produce rich cream for Coffee, Chocolate, Tea, &c. 

Put up in one pound packages, under the trade mark "Maissena," with directions 
for use. 

A most delicious article of food for children and invalids of all ages. For sale by 
Grocers and Druggists everywhere. 

WHOLESALE DEPOT, 166 FULTON STREET. 

WM. DURYE A- «*»"«»»•«■ A o-o-.* 



The Sanitary Commission BuUeiin. 



191 



SANFORD'S CHALLENGE HEATERS 

TO SET IJ\ BRICK, OR PORTABLE. 




The most powerful Heatebs known for warming 

DWELLINGS, CHURCHES, 
Hospitals, Schools, Vessels, &c. 

Send or call for a rtrLii Descihption, and an 
unparalleled mass of testimony from some of our 
first citizens. 




TO SET IN BKICK. 



POBTABLE. 



SANFOUB'S MAMMOTH 

OB 

GLOBE HEATERS, 

Of great power and economy of fuel, for 
all places where great heat is wanted, as 

Stare«, Hotels, R. R. Depote, 
Vessels, &c. 

These Heaters are used by the 

Hudsoa Biver and other Bah/- 

EOADS, most of the Ferries, Fire 

Engine Houses, <&c. Beware of 

' imitations that are inferior. 

Extensively used in Hospitals 

and Barracks. 

GKT SANFORD'S MAMMOTH. 




THE 

KITCHEN RANGES, 

For Coal or Wood, set in fire-places without 

masonry, or out 

on feet ; have the 

^Largest Ovens of 

■ aiiyinmarket;bake 




perfieetly ;" never 
failing to brown at 

Ihe bottom. Boil, 

Boast and BroU.with great facility and dis- 
patch, and EooNOMT or Fuel. A most de- 
sirable Bangefor PrivcUe Houses, Hotels, 
Hospitals, Barracks, So. 



THE COSMOPOLITE 

PARLOR COAL STOVE, 

TVitli Radiator, Ventilator, and 
Gas Burning Attacbment. 

The Leading Stove for 

PARLORS, 

SITTING-BOOMS, 

And all places where a soft, 
PLEASANT HEAT is desired. Fires 
kept all winter with an aston- 
ishingly small supply of coal. 




mi 



SUMMER AND WINTER 

PORTABLE RANGE. 



A very popular Bange, 
with Six Boiler Holes, 
one Large Oven that 
bakes perfectly, with 
an arrangement for 
Boasting, or Heating 
Irons, at the end. 



A perfect Appa- 
ratui/or a/eie dollars. 




Also a ereat variety of COOKING AND HEATING APPABATUS, suited to every 
want. Also; the UNION STOVE POLISH. Get description of above, with references, 

'"'" SANFORD, TRUSLOW & CO., 

' 239 and 241 Water St., New YorU. 



192 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



STEINWAY & SONS' 
GRAND, SQUARE AND UPRIGHT 




are now acknowledged the best instruments in America, as well as in Europe, having 
taken 



Twenty-Six First Prenuums, G-old and Silver Medals, 

airs held in this country within the last seven year 
awarded a 

FIRST PRIZE MEDAL 



at the Principal Fairs held in this country within the last seven years; and in additioa, 
thereto, they were awarded a 



AT THE 

IN LONDON, 1862, 

FOR 

Powerfnl, Clear, Brilliant and Sympathetic Tone, 

WITH EXCELLENCE OF WORKMANSHIP AS SHOWN IN GRAND AND SQUARE 

3E=^ X j^ 3C«" O iS* 

There were 269 Pianos, from all parts of the world, entered for competition, and the 
special correspondent of the Times says: 

" Messrs. Steinways' endorsement by the Jurors is emphatic, and stronger, and more 
to the point, than that of any European maker. 

" This greatest triumph of American Pianofortes in England has caused a sensation in 
musical circles throughout the continent, and as a result the Messrs. Steinway are in 
constant receipt of orders from Europe, thus inaugurating a n,ew phase in the history of 
American Pianofortes, by creating in them an article of export." 

Every Pianoforte Warranted for Five Years. 

"Warerooms at present, 

Nos. 82 and 84 WALKER STREET. 

A.fter .April 1st, 1864, 

At 71 and 73 East 14th Street, 



A few doors East of Union Square, 



Bffi;x?«r -sron-DK. 



THE 



SANITARY COMMISSION 
BULLETIN. 



Vol. I. NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 1, 1864. No. 7. 



The Sanitaby Qommission BtrLLBTm is 
published on the first and fifteenth of every 
month, and as it has a cirotilation, gratuitous 
or other, of above 12,000 copies, it offers an 
unusuaUy valuable medium for advertising. 

All communications must be addressed to 
the Editor, at the office 823 Broadway, and 
must be authenticated by the names and ad- 
dresses of the writers. 

THE WOMEN'S COUNCIL. 

After tlie late session of tlie Board at 
Waskiagton, which terminated on Friday 
evening, January 15th, a Coiincil of Women, 
representing the various Branches of the 
TJ. S. Sanitary Commission, assembled at 
the Central Office, and were in session 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, Janu- 
ary 18th, 19th, and 20th. Maine, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Illi- 
nois, Maryland, were represented, and — ^to 
name some cities and towns — -Portland, 
Boston, Brattleboro', Middletown, (Conn.,) 
New Havenj Watertown, (N. Y.,) Buffalo, 
Rochester, New York city, Philadelphia, 
Pittsburgh, Elmira, (N. Y.,) Wilmington, 
(Del.,) Chicago, Troy, Sharon, (Conn.) 
In addition to the ladies, who were formal 
delegates from the Branches, the wives of 
some Senatbrs and Representatives most 
interested in the war were present, and a 
few ladies distinguished for their activity 
in the pubHc service, Miss Dix, Mrs. Sena- 
tor Harlan, Mrs. Gibbons, and the wives 
of two generals in the army. Besides the 
President, and the. General Secretary and 
Associate Secretaries, and other officers of 
the Commission, several medical and mili- 
tary gentlemen attended the council. 

Ijj was no part of the design qf the meet- 



■V^T. T tin T 



i.q ■ 



ing to discuss or effect any change in the 
organization of the Branches — ^which have 
long been working with commendable efflr 
cacy; nor to bring about any greater con- 
formity in the details of local work — ^there 
were no special embarrassments or obsta- 
cles to remove or overcome. The meeting 
of women held under Mr. Olmsted's super- 
intendence a year ago, had effected all that 
was desirable in that respect; and then not 
by force of any compulsory or binding 
regulations— but only by the comparison of 
views and the diffusion of light. One 
after another of the eastern Branches had 
voluntarily adopted the general method- 
first assunied by the Boston Branch, until 
there was little to choose in the order and 
success of their operations. Nor were the 
Branches in want of light upon the views* 
the plans, and the machinery of the Central 
Board. The numerous and thorough pub- 
lications of the Commission had furnished, 
to all attentive readers of them, sufficient 
illumination upon these points. , Yet it was 
not vainly thought, that the meeting of 
these representative women would bring 
out, by wholesome friction of opinions and 
exchange qf experience, much that would 
be both new and interesting to themselves, 
and valuable to the Commission itself ; that, 
the sight of each other would be gratify- 
ing and stimulating; and especially that 
the bringing of the experience and work of 
the Branches, and the experience and work 
of the Commission itself in the hospitals and 
the field, into direct contact and compari- 
son, or rather into their real relationship to 
each other, would present the whole work 
in its completeness, and give to the usually 
divided or discriminated halves of the com- 
mon enterprise, the feeling of -vrholeness, 
in which our nature so much reJQipes. 



194 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



The first thing, then, attempted in the 
meeting,' was to convey to the women in 
connoil a full and living conception of the 
work of the Commissiom, in the hospiteil, 
the field, and with the soldiers everywhere. 
This was effected in various ways : — 1st. 
By carefuUy laying out in words, the 
distinction between the objects, and meth- 
ods, and duties of the Branches — in their 
collection of supplies — and the, objects, 
methods, and- duties of the Commission in. 
their distribution of them. 2d. By lectur- 
ing from a gigantic diagram, in which each 
and every patt of the work of the Commis- 
sion is laid down in lines, (of different 
colors) — ^the medical, or preventive service, 
in green, the special relief service in red, 
and the general supply service in black; 
and by which diagram the system of re- 
sponsibility adopted in our Commission 
service is illustrated. 3d. By lecturing on 
the black board on the geographical posi- 
tion of our corps and on our relief stations, 
with illustrations of the difficulties of 
transportation and the distance of four 
armies from their base. 4th. By inviting 
questions and furnishing answers, or by 
asking questions and obtaining answers 
from the ladies present — ^iniany of whom 
had been in the field. 

The chief questions the Commission had 
to ask the Branches were : 

1. As to the efficiency of the new plan of 
associate managers. 

It was found that wherever faith and zeal 
had taken hold of the cause, the least 
patriotic towns and neighborhoods had 
yielded to the efforts of the single-handed 
ladies who had championed our plan. One 
lady had found that when three or four 
letters of inquiry and entreaty for some town 
orgajiizatiori had failed to effect it, the fifth, 
sixth, or seventh accomplished it. Another . 
(and this was a general testimony) had 
found, that where all letters had failed, 
personal visits succeeded. One manager 
had visited forty different towns. Another 
had quickened loyalty and humanity in the 
very nests of copperheadism, and made 
several towns, given over to hopeless hatred 
of the war and all its fruits, take to active 
exertions in behalf of our sick and suffering 
soldiers. Twenty-seven counties in New 
York, with associate managers, furnished 



three times the amount of suppHes of 
twenty-seven other equally favorably situat- 
ed counties vrithout associate managers. 
It was fotmd that the western re^on was 
more generally ircterested, though not 
so systematically at work as the east- 
ern; and the comparison of notes between 
the representations of different districts left 
an impression upon, some of the Branches, 
that the fields that they now tilled needed, " 
and would bear, much .deeper plowing 
and a wider sowing. 

2. The influence of canvassing agents 
was a point on which the Commission need- 
ed information from the Branches. It was 
generally allowed that the information 
communicated by the living voice, by well- 
informed and experienced canvassers, had 
done great good,, and that documentary, or 
even newspaper publications, would not 
take its place. Many communities dated 
their faith in, and zeal for, the' Com- 
mission, from the visit of some earnest and 
thorough canvasser. More of this work 
was asked for. 

3. The influence of the Bulletin and of 
our documents in general, jvas another 
question we had to ask. There seemed to 
be a divided judgment on this point. 
Those who were comparatively new to 
our work valued these publications, and 
thought them very essential, indeed indis- 
pensable. Those who knew it best, thought 
the Bulletin too heavy ; the articles not 
short enough ; not enough crowded with 
spicy and affecting incidents ; too much 
occupied with business reports and scien- 
tific matter. The ladies were informed 
that the Bulletin had several functions: — 1. 
To take the place of other and expensive 
printing, and preserve our official reports 
for circulation among our own corps' of 
workers. 2. To advance sanitary science. 

3. To communicate with the medical men 
in the army and the profession elsewhere. 

4. To keep the money-giving public posted 
as to the substantial nature and extent of our 
work. 5. To address the sensibilities and 
affections of the homes of the land. We 
could not sacrifice the other four objects 
whoUy to the last ; but we would endeavor 
to make the last more prominent. 

4 The iiifluence of Sanitary Fairs upon 
our future prospect of supplies, was an-. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



195 



other question of great interest. As ^'in' 
dry -weatlier all signa fail," ao it -waa com- 
Bionly thoTight, i*i a^sritioal and exceptional 
period of our national history like this, the 
■usual rules break down as to the unfaTor- 
ableness of spasmodic excitements upon 
the normal interest of the public in sani- 
tary work. It was stated that in Chicago 
arid in Boston the fairs, very unpopular 
among business men atthe start, had grown 
in favor as th«y came to tlie practical test ; 
that the business interest had foundthem 
their best advertising card; and that trade, 
instead of suffering by their competition, 
had actually thriven in a marked way un- 
der their stimulus. Chicago, it was repre- 
sented, was quite ready to have another, if 
meoessary. The amount of patriotism 
created by the fairs quite overbalance 
any loss of regular industry through the 
temporary exhaustion caused by them. 
There seemed to be little evidence that the 
usual returns of the receiving depots were 
lessened by the existence of the fairs, 
while the increase of numbers freshly in- 
terested in the work, by the attention thus 
called to th^ subject, largely exceeded, in 
its prospective results, all possible injury 
produced by these local excitements. 

The main questions which the Branches 
had to put to the Commission were these : 

1. There is a common impression,* in- 
dustriously increased by the rivals or ene- 
mies of the €lommission, that the cost of 
the Sanitary Commission is excessive — par- 
ticularly in salaries and in printing. • The 
ladies present had no misgivings on this 
point, but they wished to be able to answer 
the gainsayers with authority. It was 
shown, that the Sanitary Commission had 
received (by estimated value) about seven 
miUions of dollars in supplies, and about a 
mJillioh doUars in money ; that the money 
had been used, about half, in purchasing 
such kinds of supplies as the homes of 
the land do not furnish — medicines and 
food necessary for the sick and their relief ; 
and the oth^r half in distributing efficiently, 
by a thoroughly organized and necessarily 
costly system, the seven millions of sup- 
plies, or in maintaining Homes and Lodges 
and special Belief. It was shown that at a 
cost of $15,000 a month, two hundred ex- 
tents, 



TyvQi3j/^o1 1T1 oi-.^ji4-f\T.a ntnXAa^ 



clerks, and assistants were maintained in 
the field, distributed all over the country, 
from Texas to New York ; from Port Eoyal 
to Kansas ; that these men did not'average 
the wages of carpenters and masons, al- 
though most of them were men of educa- 
tion, taste, and skill, who could earn many 
times over their salaries in other fields of 
labor ; that, for instance, the Relief Corps 
of the whole army of the Potomac did not 
average $2.00 a day to each man, and that 
no volunteer service could take its place, or 
compare with it in efficiency. 

2. As to printing, everybody was 
amazed to learn that the whole cost of 
printing to the Commission, for its whole 
existence, three years nearly, had been 
about $10,000, including advertising, re- 
porter. Bulletin, medical tracts, and other 
documents. The Chicago Branch, by its 
eloquent and enlightened delegate, Mrs. 
Hoge, urged that advertisements, by news- 
paper, pulpit, and circular, was the very life 
of all success ; that in iheir Branch the 
matter had been reduced to an absolute 
system, and that they hesitated at no ex- 
pense found necessary in bringing their 
wants before the public. She urged the 
importance of frequent and of specific caUs 
by printed circulars, and explained the 
efficacy of an " Onion Circular," only 
eight lines long, which brought that whole- 
some anti-scorbutic on strings into their 
depots, till hundreds of barrels were de- 
spatched. This was followed, by "a Potato 
Circular," and thstt by " a Pickel Circular," 
with similar productiveness. The whole 
press, secular and religious — the whole 
clergy, by careful lists made out according 
to denomination, were made mediums of 
advertising in the West, with wonderful 
resTxlts. 

3. The question of security in the trans- 
portation of supplies, and of a prompt and 
just distribution of them among the sick, 
without ravage from surgeons, stewards, 
and nurses, was treated with great copious- 
ness. The Commission exchanged their 
testimony with those ladies who had been 
at the seat of war in quest of evidence on 
this vital point. The Comnaission has al- 
ways assumed the general trustworthiness 
of the Medical Department, the army sur- 
geons, and stewards, on ordinary grounds 



196 



The Sanitary Gmnmismm Bulletin. 



of confldence in the decency of persons 
holding responsible stations. It has ad- 
mitted a smajl per centage of loss and 
ravage. -But apart from this general trust, 
its positive watchfulness and direct observa- 
tion have warranted none of the suspicions 
so vulgarly prevalent against the honesty 
and ordinary humanity of the surgeons of 
the army. Mrs. Hoge testified that with 
the fullest opportunities of tracing sup- 
plies, she had not been able to see how 
they ooiild, or that they did get stolen, 
or lost on their way; or that after resich- 
ing the hospital, it was possible that 
they should be misa,ppropriated without 
producing universal scandal. She stated 
that in Memphis, where several large hos- 
jjitals existed, out of all the numerous 
wards she found but two in which the 
least complaint existed among the men 
that the supplies did not reach them, and 
that the ward-masters, in these two cases, 
were at once dismissed on her complaint 
to the surgeon in charge. 

She stated an a£fecting anecdote of a 
surgeon, worn down with many sleepless 
nights, whom she had exhorted to go tc 
bed — who said, "How dare I go to bed, 
with these rumors constantly circulating 
in the homes that we surgeons are a sloth- 
ful, self-indulgent set ;" and in another 
case, when she begged an exhausted sur- 
geon to take some white sugar in his tea, 
he exclaimed, "No, brown sugar for me; 
I must deny myself the ordinary comforts 
provided for other sick men, or I shall be 
set down among those worthless wretches 
called surgeons, who are eating up the 
poor soldiers' delicacies. " 

As to the washing.in the army, a vast im- 
provement was recognized, and the system 
appeared to be working well. It appeared 
to be even better in the hospitals near the 
fltld of war than nearer home, where pure 
sloth — ^which seemed t'o invade alike ward- 
masters and soldiers — kept them all alike 
often filthy and unwashed. 

Besides the President, Dr. Jenkins the 
General Secretary, Dr. Newberry the As- 
sociate Secretary for the West, Mr. Knapp 
the Associate Secretary for the East, partici- 
pated largely,, and each with some special 
contribution of experience. Dr. Newberry, 
whose personal experience has been as 



vast as his labors have been abundant and 
efficient, was specially instructive on the 
topography of our western operations — 
illustrating the vast difficulties of transpor- 
tation, and the length of the lines along 
which we forwarded our snppliess 

Miss Dix met the ladies by special ap- 
pointment after the adjournment, and gave 
them an address on Hospital Nursing of 
great interest and value. 

The ladies visited " the Home," the 
" Lodges," the Store-houses, the Conva- 
lescent Camp, the Hospitals, and other ob- 
jects of interest, including the President. 
Their visit appeared as eminently satisfac- 
tory to themselves as it was interesting 
and instructive to the Commission. Those 
who came together as strangers, parted as 
warm friends. The faith of the highly intel- 
ligent, practical, and useful women who thus 
came together — whose judgment, sound, 
sober, and experimental, would be no com- 
mon ordeal — was, if possible, fixed with 
firmer roots in the cause of that Commis- 
sion which they had trusted and labored 
for so long, and which they found bore 
the closest scrutiny and the most punctil- 
ious questioning. 

Expressions of regard for Mr. Olmsted — 
who had presided at the last meeting — 
were heartily united in by the Council be- 
fore they adjourned. 



An address was delivered by the Presi- 
dent of the Commission at the opening of 
the Council, of which the foUowing is the 
substance : 

The object of this meeting is to establish the 
most satisfactory and efficient relation between 
the Central Board of the Sanitary Commission 
and its Branches. 

The satisfactoriness and efficiency of this re- 
lation depends — 

I. Upon a clear understanding of what the 
distinctive functions of the Branches aiid of 
the Central Board are. 

1HE BBANOHES ABS DSSIQITEI} : 

1. To organize affiliated societies within their 
own geographical districts ; afford them, by cir- 
culars and oorrespondenee, by lectures and 
printed matter, aB needed information and in- 
citement to intelligent zeal and permanent 
effort. 



Th^ Sanitary Gommission Bulletin. 



191 



and forvrard supplies, to the order of the Cen- 
tral Board, through its General Secretary. 

3. They attend to such local relief, distribu- 
tion, and hospital care of sick or wounded 
soldiers, as may be needed in the Home-field, 
Ivy soldiers in transit, or ■while in process of 
preparation for the field of war, and supervise 
such local interests of the Commission as may 
arise in their special spheres. This is some- 
times under the separate organization of a 
committee of associates, and sometimes wholly 
without it The principle is in either cases the 
same. 

4. The Branches, having originated under 
different ciroumstandes, two at least even before 
the Commission itself, are not strictly analo- 
gous, either in form of title, or methods of ope- 
ration, and in this respect follow the genius of 
our institutions ; according to which the separate 
States, while all loyal to the Federal G-overn- 
ment, have certain special ehataoleristios and 
laws suited to their origin and circumstances. 
This difference in unity is a bond of strength, 
allowing the Branches to sway v?ith ease in the 
direction of the local winds that sweep them, 
without forsaking or endangering the common 
stock into which they are grafted. 

5. The Branches are independent in their 
local rule, their special methods, their by-laws, 
their treasury, the choice Of members, and ofS- 
cers. They are bound to the Central Board 
only in this : 

(1.) An engagement to distribute supplies 
exclusively through the Sanitary Commission 
and its authorized agents. 

(2. ) An obligation to receive and acknowledge 
the fundamental principles of the Commission, 
J. e. , (a) the great federal principle of. absolute 
ignoring of State or local claims, in favor of the 
National or United States soldier; and (&) the 
co-operation of the Commission with the Medi- 
cal Department and the Government, as a 
strengthener and supplementer of their plans, 
and rules, and method — not their rival, antago- 
nistic, or unfriendly critic. 

■ THE CENTEAIi BOAED 

has it for its duty, to study the wants of the army 
in the field : 

1. To see its dangers to health and life, and 
to prevent them, by diffusing information, 
warning, and anti-soorbutics, sometimes in the 
form of food — fresh vegetables or change of 
diej; — and sometimes in the form of prophylactic 
medicines, and sometimes in the dissemination 
of vaccine virus. This preventive service re- 
quires three different agencies : 

A. A Corps of Medical ■ Inspectors, whose 
time is passed with the armies in the, field, 



visiting camps, hospitals, and transports ; ex- 
perts, who watch the perils from climate, mala^ 
rious exposure, from hard marching or active 
campaigning, from inadequate food or .cloth- 
ing,' growing out of imperfect facilities of trans- 
portation, and report to the Associate Secretary 
in charge, or to Belief Agents under their con- 
trol, what is to be done in the way of supplies, 
cargoes of vegetable, or loads of clothing, for 
their protection. This preventive service, by 
its processes, collects the scientific materials for 
our Bureau of Statistics, by which we reach 
those generalisations that teach us how to do 
our work better and better. The comparisoil 
of climates, and circumstances, and discipline, 
and age of troops, and method of treating them, 
forms the basis of instraction which must influ- 
ence the whole future oi soldiers, in the field. 

B. A Corps of Special Hospital Inspectors, 
selected from the most learned physicians, 
make from time to time the circuit of all the 
general hospitals, and report upon their wants, 
condition, progress, personnel, and capacity for 
'improvement— the substance of which reports 
is confidentially made over to the Surgeon- 
General. 

C. The preparation and circulation of medi- 
cal tracts, and information important and in- 
dispensable to the officers. Soldiers, and especi- 
ally the medical men in &e field. 

II. We pass from the Preventive to the Belief 
Service. 

This is divided into two branches, General 
and Special Belief. 

GBNEEAI, EEUEP 

consisis in supplementing such ordinary and 
recognized wants of the soldiers in the field, as 
our Medical Inspectors and Belief Agents may 
discover to exist, or as experience has taught 
us necessarily must exist.' 

These wants are all theoretically met by the 
army system; and if it worked in vacuo without 
friction or disturbance, there would be no 
occasion for eking out its deficiencies, which 
would not then exist. But in the two first years 
of the war the machinery had not got into 
gear and fuU running order ; the army grew 
faster than the medical, or any other military 
department could ; and then we were necessary 
to take the place of great vacancies and 
acknowledged breaks in its true order. 

These grew out of ignorant and untrained 
quartermasters, unskilled surgeons, imperfect 
administration, fallible generals, colonels, and 
captains ; while the deficiencies in the strained 
commissary and transportation and medical 
stores, both in medicines and clothing, added 
frightfully to the embarrassment. 



198 



The Sanitary Oommiss-ion JBuUetin. 



Then, even general hospitals, the nearest 
home, were shabby, ill-designed buildings, -with 
poor kitchens and no fit arrangements for 
■washing, -without adequate hospital clothing 
or delicate food, and with too much ignorance 
to accumulate a hospital fund, or perhaps un- 
able to get it from our strained Treasury, when 
they knew better; This made for more than a 
year our work in furnishing clothes and sup- 
plies to general hospitals immense, even in 
Washington itself. What must it have been 
elsewhere ? 

But regimental hospitals, transports^ hospital 
cars, and sick in quaiters, cannot but be 
pressed for supplies, long affcra general hospi- 
tals are well off; and the further from their base, 
the worse off they are. There is no reason to 
doubt that but .for the millions of supplies, 
clothing, aiid delicacies distributed to these 
places during the first two years of the war, 
the suffering would have been too horrible to 
relate. 

Oftentimes our store and supplies have been 
the main dependence in some exigency of 
transportation, or change of base, or other 
military move. 

The meeting of these field necessities com- 
pels us to keep a corps of Belief Agents with 
every considerable body of troops in the field, 
and their duties are as regular and as urgent 
now as they ever were. 

But within the last year, we may concede 
that the military preparations of the Government 
are complete; that the Medical Department is 
working as nearly according to theory as is 
.possible, and is theoretically able to meet all 
demands. Now, we are discovering that a state 
of war, in a countay aS wide as ours and on so 
vast a scale, creates an amount of misery in 
the army which the most perfect machinery of 
the Government, working in the most perfect 
way, cannot diminish to a point to satisfy 
humanity. We find that the exceptions to rules, 
■ which must be broad and general to cover a 
million men, are suflBcient to require a special 
corps like ours (as large as a whole Medical 
Department in a moderate war) to meet them. 
And this is sufficiently proved by the feet, that 
humSnity requires us to call as loudly as ever 
for stores, and will not permit us to diminish 
our working force. 

Turning from General to 

BPECIAIi EEMEF, 

we have perhaps quite as large a department as 
the other. 

It is called special, not because adapted 
mostly to individual cases, but because it is 



not designed to eke out any thing which the 
Government undertakes to do at aU. It is a> 
pture invention of our own, and consists:. 

1. In providing Homes, with shelter and 
food and medical caie and general superintend- 
ence, at all the main points where soldiers are 
found in any considerable numbers, for those 
soldiers who are not yet under the care of the 
Government, or have just got out of their care, 
or have somehow lost their status and cannot 
immediately regain it, — recruits, or men on 
leave, sick-leave or furlou^, going to. and fro.; 
strays, men without skill to care for them^ 
selves, ignorant, under- witted, vicious.; men 
discharged prematurely from hospitals ; men 
found in the streets, or left behind by their 
regiments. It ia enough to say that we esti- 
mate that every day we have. 2,300 such men 
on our hands at night — ^in our beds, and at our 
tables at each meal of the day. To see one of 
these Homes is to see all ; and they are little 
military towns, with barracks, mess-rooms, hos- 
pitals, arsenals, ' baggage-rooms, acconvmoda- 
tions for visitors, reading-rooms,, places for 
soldiers' wives and children, &c. 

2. Besides the Hotae proper, come "Lodges," 
which are miniature Homes, supplementary to 
the larger one, and meeting wants of a local 
character. We have, scattered though Wash- 
ington, Paymaster, Pension, and Ticket-offices . 

3. Under the name of Special EeUef must 
come every thing done to secure pensions, or 
back pay, or transportation, to correct soldiers' 
papers, save them £i;om sharpers, and dispel 
their ignorance and their fears. 

To this is to be added our Battle Field work, 
too often described to make it necessary to say 
any thing here; then our Hospital Transports; 
then our Hospital Gars and Trains ; then our 
Hospital Directory. 

Now, to keep all this machinery in motion, 
there must be a power behind it to animate and 
direct it. This power is made up of men and 
money. The men are : The U. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission Board, the Standing Committee, the 
General Secretary, the three Associate Sec- 
retaries, the two great ctfSoes— one Washington, 
two Louisville — with the smaller office co-or- 
dinating them at New York. Then the Aledical 
Inspectors, Kelief Agents, Ordinary Clerks, 
Special Aids in time of battle— about 200 in 
ordinary times. The Board has no salary. 
Cost of Agents is $15,000 a month. 

Here Dr. B. described the office work in all 
its variety, by the diagram. 

MONET. 

This great work cannot go on without money. 



The Sanitary Commission BiMetin. 



199 



This money is got by keeping the public con- 
stantly informed of oui wants and methods. 
Henee our advertising, our documents, our 
Sanitary Eeporter and Bulletin, and the expense 
of printing. Hence our canvassing agents for 
money and supplies. California has been our 
principal resource for money. 

OBraOXS OP THE MEETING. 

Now, after this explanation of our work, it 
seems easier to come to the objects of this meet- 
ing : 

1. Our Branches want to difiuse a spirit of 
confidence and of information among our con- 
stituents in all parts of the country, as' to the 
■wisdom, energy, economy, and success with 
which their supplies are disposed ; and this 
they must acq^uire or strengthen hore. 

2. To interest the public in the principles 
and methods of the Commission, by what they 
leam, or add to their previous stock of learn- 
ing. 

3. To compare notes imth us, telling us from 
their own fields of sympathy and observation 
what we need for our better guidance, and le-, 
ceiving such information from us as may help 
them in their field. 

4. To compare methods, obstacles, and suc- 
cesses with each other, so that each may have 
the light of all ; not so much in the way of 
agreeing on any common plan, as of obtaining 
counsel, inspiration, and light upon their own 
chosen path. 

5. To give us the benefit of their experience 
as to the way the Fairs are going to affect our 
fatuie supplies. 

6. To tell us what our relations on the Home 
field are with other Commissions or State 



7. To give us their idea of what canvassing 
agents should be and how work, and what they 
think of those ihey know. 

8. To suggest any improvements in their 
working relations to the Commission. 

9. To report, as far as they are prepared, upon 
the number of Societies they represent, the 
amount of work they have done, their past, 
present, and future, and to make any special 
written or verbal oommunicatious. 



TRANSPORTATION IN TENNESSEE. 
The following report, addressed by Mr. Butler 
to Dr. Newberry, our Associate.Secretary in the 
West, December 26th, may serve to give our 
readers some idea of the difficulties with which 
the Commission has to contend in the trans- 
portation of supplies for the army in Tennessee : 



In compliance with instructions received 
on the eve of our departure for Chattanoo- 
ga, 6,000 pounds of the choicest stores were 
shipped from LouisviHe, and duly received 
and stored at Camp Nelson, to await trans- 
portation by the first train from KnoxviUe, 
Tenn. 

On my arrival at Camp Nelson I found 
that a large shipment of stores, much more 
varied in kind, had been sent to my care 
for the same destination by the Cincinnati 
Branch. Orders for transportation for both 
shipments having been received separately 
from General Burnside, would have been 
promptly honored by Capt. Hall, A. Q. M. 
at Camp Nelson, had not the presence of 
Longsfcreet's rebels and sundry guerrilla 
forces on the various routes forbidden 
transportation to Knoxville. Under these 
circumstances, seven or eight days were 
unavoidably lost ; but the great impedi- 
ments were finally Tbmoved on the second 
day of the present month. A train of 
seventy teams was, in the space of one 
day, prepared for the journey, six of which 
were ordered to transport our stores. 

Having previously calculated on loading 
2,000 lbs. to each team, the transportation 
furnished might have been sufficient, but 
the A. Q. M. being better advised of the 
condition of the roads, imperatively re- 
stricted each team to 1,200 lbs., thus mak- 
ing it necessary to leave for the next train 
some of the less important boxes and bar- 
rels. 

Leaving Camp Nelson on the 3d, we 
reached the foot of " Big Hill" at noon on 
the Yth without trouble or adventure; not- 
withstanding that the guerriUfis had appear- 
ed in Mount Sterling, Ky., and were fre- 
quently reported in the vicinity of our 
train, we did not see them. We had been 
so far favored with a good road that we 
made moderate progress, but now the Big 
Hill was before us. The ascent, though 
only one mile, occupied two of the hardest 
days' work that we had yet known, and in- 
volved considerable destruction of mules, 
harness, and teams. 

From the foot of Big Hill, we look in 
vain for any thing but rocks and ruts,, con- 
sequently a few miles, from three to fifteen, 
suffice for a day's travel. 

Stores are ruinously jolted ; boxes and 
barrels unavoidably break ; while rarely a 
day passes without a team being capsized 
into a creek, or river, or down a precipice. 

We reached Camp Pitman on the I3th, 
distant from Camp Nelson about eighty- 
five miles. 

Through the wagon-master of our train, 
I obtained an order from Captain Hall, 
which made our train independent Of the 
brigade train, and consequently put an end 
to the annoying delays to which we had 
been repeatedly subjected. 



200 



Th£ SanOary Commission Bulletin. 



At Camp Pitman, I found the 51st New 
York regiment guarding the post, and the 
Assistant Surgeon, Dr. Burd, was doing 
good among numberless obstacles. 

In nearly every house from the top of Big 
Hill, I found that soldiers in every degree 
of disease had been left upon the hospitali- 
ty and care of the people. In one house I 
found six soldiers occupying beds, and the 
constant attention of a -widow lady Sind her 
two daughters. The poor sick and weary 
men were unable to proceed any further, 
and these patriotic Samaritans, whose bro- 
thers were among OTir soldiers in the field, 
were, out of their scanty means, administer- 
ing to their relief and comfort. 

Having received information of such 
necessities before leaving Camp Nelson, I 
had provided a quantity of beef extract, 
milk, crackers, an assortment of woollen 
under- wear, and sundry other things, which 
I found were actually required by men, 
sick, hungry, and naked. 

I found Dr. Burd collecting these poor 
fellows, and affording all aid possible with- 
in his power. He had procured a building, 
which he had made as comfortable as his 
resources would allow, and he strove ardu- 
ously to make his miscellaneous hospital as 
effective as the emergency demanded. I 
was gratified in being able to furnish him 
with a variety of stores for his sick patients, 
for I know him to be one of the kindest 
and most faithful of men. 

During the forenoon of the 16th instant, 
I reached a house on Lincamp's Creek, 
and saw two men working at a coffin. 
After some inquiries,' I learned that 
twelve days previously a soldier had stop- 
ded at the house, complaining of chronic 
diarrhoea and rheumatism. The people 
shared their morsel with him, and employ- 
ed their limited knowledge of medicite for 
his relief. 

The poor fellow also suffered with colic, 
which finally set in as an adjunct to his 
complicated disorders, and tortured him 
until he threw his armor down for his long 
rest in a mountain grave. I desired the ser- 
geant of the guard to ascertain his effects, 
and finding only ninety cents, I threw the 
sum over to the poor family, as a very 
small remuneration for their attention to 
the soldier. 

Turning one day, a mile from the road, 
I foqfid a grave, which I was informed con- 
tained six soldiers who had died in the 
neighborhood ; but no human scribe was 
found to register their names ere death 
made them oblivious to aU but God. And 
so it has been with many others, how many 
God only knows. But in the case of him 
whose rude colfin was being made before 
my eyes, I especially realized my duty to 
the soldier, although dead, and also to his 
parents. 
I gleaned from the family aU the particu- 



lars necessary to advise his parents of his 
disease and death, and also the locality of 
his grave. ' I wrote at BarboursviUe to his 
father, Aaron Bachtie, Boanoke Post Office, 
Huntington county, Ind. The deceased 
soldier's address was Hiram Bachtie, Com- 
many C, 115th Ind. 

While so many soldiers, sick and debili- 
tated, were passing over the mountains to- 
ward Camp Nelson, in most cases totally 
dependent on the meagre hospitality of the 
people, I ardently wished that this rude sec- 
tion of the country had resources similar 
to those of more favored people ; for with 
all their poverty and abject indigence, 
which nearly every dwelling in some coun- 
ties presented, I never knew a soldier de- 
nied participation in their meal of corn 
bread and bacon — vegetables, milk, butter, 
sugar, and coffee being great rarities among 
them. 

Dwelling generally in what we would 
term miserable log houses, squalid women 
and children live month after month on 
their very scanty fare, and tell the stranger 
— soldier or citizen — of the fathers and sons 
in the TJnion army. 

The winter is now upon them, and they 
are ragged. Their corn is about eaten, and 
they have little or no money to buy more, 
if perchance one might be found to sell. 
The alarming alternative is only too visible, 
and they shrink from it with dread. The 
necessities of the Government service had 
aided very materially in the exhaustion of 
their staple product, so that now there 
is almost nothing along the route to Cum- 
berland Gap for either man or beast. 

That they wiU need much and suffer ex- 
tremely if unaided in their need during 
the winter, is indisputable; and as they are 
proverbial for their fidelity to the Govern- 
ment, and have invariably befriended our 
sick, straggling soldiers, they should re- 
ceive our practical sympathy to the extent 
of our ability and their necessity. A word 
to phOantlu'opists is sufficient. 

Before leaving Camp Pitman we obtain 
a new supply of mtdes, harness, and wagon 
tongues, also a large amount of forage. 
No event, except such as have become of 
common occurrence, transpired until we 
had passed through Cumberland Gap on 
the 20th inst., when a rumor was afloat 
that no train would be allowed to pass on 
the direct road to Knoxville, as the rebels 
were infesting that portion of the country. 
By the advice of the Post Commandant we 
took the Jaoksboro' road, though twenty 
miles further, as it was considered safe. 

Leaving Cumberland Gap on the even- 
ing of 21st, we made better progress, while 
the forty guards, who had heretofore been 
employed in assisting the teams, were or- 
dered by the officer in command to march 
in advance of the train, under arms. 

Several encounters had taken place in 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



201 



OTir vicinity between General Wilcox and 
Longstreet only a few days previously, and 
others were pending, while the caoinonad- 
ing was distinctly audible in our train. 

There was marked anxiety among the 
guard to protect the train to KnoxviUe, as 
they knew the great need which existed in 
the hospital there. 

On the evening of the 24th inst. we en- 
camped twenty-two mUes from Knoxville, 
and on the following morning I started on 
horseback, arriving in the recently besieged 
city before noon . 

I soon met with our agent Mr. R. N. 
Strong, who was expecting me, and had 
procured two store-rooms adjoining each 
other. The train arriving on the foUowing 
evening, the stores were transferred to the 
building on the morning of the 27th inst. 
I was surprised to find so little damage 
done to the stores, a few pounds of crack- 
ers and dried apples were the amount of 
the loss, after so long a journey over such 
miserable roads. 

There are in Knoxville five hospitals, 
having their branches, and containing near- 
ly 2,000 patients. While the Commissary 
has been recently well replenished, the sup- 
plies of the Medical Department were 
scanty. Our stores were anxiously expect- 
ed, and they were joyfully received. 

On Monday the 28th inst., Mr. Crary 
arrived from Chattanooga with three hun- 
dred packages of select stores. Other 
shipments have been arranged from and by 
way of Chattanooga. I am gratified with 
the intelligence tilat the -river is opened 
for transportation from Bridgeport to 
Knoxville, so that our stores may not be 
subjected again to such delay as on this 
journey, however unavoidable. 



"HOWAEETOU? SANITAET." 

ET F. B. HAETE. 

Down the picket-guarded lame, 
EoUed the comfort-laden wain, 
Cheered by shouts that shook tte plain. 
Soldier-like ^nd merry : 

Phrases such as camps may teach, 
Sabre cuts of Saxon speech, 
Such as "Bully! "Them's the peach!" 
. ' ' Wade in, Sanitary ! " 

Eight and left the caissons drew 
As the car went lumbering through,' 
Quick succeeding in review 

Squadrons miUtary; 

Sunburnt men, with beards like frieze, . 
Smooth-faced boys and cries like these— 
"TJ. S, San. Com." "That's the cheese!" 
" Pass in. Sanitary." * 



In such cheer it struggled on 
TIE the battle front was won, 
Then the oar, its journey done, 
Lo, was stationary; 

And where bullets whistling fly 

Came the sadder, fainter cry, 

" Help us, brothers, ere we die — 

* Save us, Sanitary!" 

Such the work. The phantom flies. 
Wrapped in battle-clouds that rise ; 
But the Brave, with dying eyes. 
Veiled and visionary. 

Sees the jasper gates swung wide. 
Sees the parted throng outside, 
Hears a voice to those that ride — 
"Pass in, Saidtajy!" 

— San M-ancisco 



THE METEOPOLITAN FATE. 

SCOPE Am) PI/AN OF THE FATE. 

The Metropolitan Fair is not designed to 
be a mere fancy fair on a large scale. In 
its plan, as well as in its scope, it is intend- 
ed to be worthy of the great city in which 
it is to be held, and of ihe great occasion 
to which it ministers. To that end, it must 
be universal in its attractions, enlisting all 
sympathies, pleasing all healthy tastes, and 
satisfying all honest needs. It must be 
democratic, but not vulgar; elegant, but 
not exclusive; fashionable, but not frivo- 
lous; popular, but not mediocre. There- 
fore, it is intended that this Fair shall 
afford, in its getting up, something for 
everybody to do; something, when it 
opens, for everybody to buy; something 
to gratify the sober and please the gay, to 
win the approval of the serious and the 
utilitarian, and at the same time to catch 
the eye and suit the taste of the young, 
the light-hearted, and even the trifling. 
The good, the rich, the well-to-do — ^those 
in humble life, the fashionable, the politi- 
cians, the. clergy, the Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Police, the Fire Department, 
the Trades' Unions, and all the great in- 
dustrial establishments, should be inter- 
ested in this Fair. 

Chicago, Cincinnati, and Boston have 
done nobly in this direction, and it be^ 
comes New York to do, at least, as well in 
proportion to her means and the advan- 
tages of her position. There is an espe- 



202 



The Sanitary Commisswn BiMelin. 



cial reason, too, wliy ■we of the Atlantic 
seaboard should make tmnsual exertions 
to fin the treasuiy of the Sanitary Com- 
mission; and this is, that of the money 
received by the Commission, considerably 
more than one-half has been contributed 
by our countrymen upon the shores of the 
Pacific — CaUfomia, alone, hawig sent more 
than five hundred and twenty-five thousand 
dollars. 

For such a Fair as this, those who have 
undertaken its management mil not heg 
contributions. They would not so insult 
the community of which they are a part, 
and of which, in this matter, they are but 
the servants and almoners, richly paid for 
the duties they perform by being made the 
channels through which its bounty passes. 
And, indeed, such is the alacrity and hearti- 
ness in this cause, that they have already 
received, even before the project was well 
brought before the public, such handsome 
and spontaneous offers from representa- 
tives of aU departments of industry and 
commerce, that it is plain that this Fair 
will be not only an adequate expression of 
the loyalty, love, aind devotion of the peo- 
ple of this city and State to their country 
and its defenders, but a grand and worthy 
Ijxposition of the Manufacturing, Agricul- 
tural, Commercial, Literary, and Artistic 
resources of New York. 

The Fair being planned for these purposes, 
and under these auspices, its Managers invite 
aU MEBCHAiiTS, MAinxcACTimEBS,. and Abtisai!s 
to contribute of their wares to its stores, giv- 
ing just such goods as they make or deal in — 
no matter what their character — just such goods 
as are made profitable to them by the power 
and prosperity of our country, which our 
soldiers and sailors are now fighting to main- 
tain^ 

They invite the FiiBMEBS from all the country 
round to visit the Fair, and bring with them 
gif^ from their barns, their stalls, their dairies, 
and their poultry yards. 

They ask the Paintebs and Sculptobs, who 
have done so much for the honor of our country, 
and all who are connected with the Funs Abts, 
either as creators, as dealers, or as amateurs 
fortunate in the possession of Art Treasures, to 
send their contributions, for exhibition or for 
sale. A proper gallery will be erected for the 
display and the due preservation of such works. 

The peculiar interest which attaches to Liter- 



ature, warrants the establishment of a special 
department, to supply which Pcblishees and 
BooKSEiJiEBS are confidently looked to. In this 
department will be a SECOKD-HiUD Book Stat.t., 
to which contribntions are asked from the 
shelves of those who are cumbered with dupli- 
cate copies, or who have books which they no 
longer use. 

Connected with the department of Xiiteratore 
will be a table for the e:^osition and sale of 
valuable Autogbaphs. 

On the MusiciAHS, Mttsicaii EisTEtrMENT 
Maxebs, and Music Dealees, the Managers 
confidently rely for a worthy representation in 
this Fair of the beautiful art of which they are 
the ministers, by the giving of Musical perform- 
ances, and of instruments and music for sale. 

The Managers and Artists of the various 
Theatees of the city are invited to follow the 
example already set by some of their number, 
in offering to set apart one evening during the 
Fair, the performances on which shall be for 
the benefit of its fund. 

It is hoped that our PuBiao Schooib, and 
PuBiiic Institutions of a benevolent character, 
may contribute in some fitting maimer to the 
interest of this Fair. 

To the public spirit and the patriotism of the 
Fiee Depaetment and the Pouce, the Managers 
feel that they may look for even more than that 
habitnaUy honorable and efScient discharge of 
duty on their part which would insure the pres- 
ervation of property consecrated to the use of 
those who are suffering in their country's cause. 
But it is also hoped that in some other manner, 
as may be most agreeable to themselves, they 
may bear a part in this patriotic undertaking. 

As appropriate to the occasion of this Fair a 
department of Arms and Tbophtes will be 
established, to which not only arms and flags 
captured in the present war, but all articles of 
this kind which have an historical or an intrin- 
sic interestf will be acceptable contributions, 
either for sale or for exhibition. 

An Ou) Cueiositt Shop wiU afford aU those 
persons who have interesting reUcs of the past 
in their possession to enable others to share 
the pleasure of examining them. Contribu- 
tions of noteworthy character and value Tiave 
aheadybeen received for this department. It 
should be particularly stated whether articles of 
this kind are for sale or only for exhibition. 

A Newspapee will be pubUshed daily, which, 
in addition to the latest telegraphic news up to 
the time of going to press, will contain short 
and piquant articles upon incidents of the day, 
and especially of the Fair. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



203 



A Post Office will be established, at the 
illegality "of which it is hoped that the Honor- 
able the Postmaster-General will wink, if 
official dignity be capable of such an act, and 
at the novel promptness and regularity of which 
it is believed the public will wonder. 

As people cannot see all these things, and do 
all these things, and buy all these things, with- 
out exhaustion of the vital forces, a Eestaubant 
of corresponding magnitude and completeness 
will be established, the arrangements of which, 
supervised by ladies and gentlemen of taste and 
discretion in such matters, will be in the imme- 
diate hands of an accomplished public caterer. 

The accomplishment of this grateful but 
multitudinous task has been placed in the 
hands of the undersigned Executive Commit- 
tees, who depend chiefly, however, upon the 
hearty co-operation of the General Committee 
of Managers, from which the body* of the 
various Special Committees are mainly re- 
cruited. 

A member of the Executive Committee will be 
at the head of each Special Committee, wheth- 
er of ladies or of gentlemen. It is expected 
that the members of the ladies' and gentle- 
men's Special Committees wiU be in constant 
communication and act together, reporting 
through the respective heads of their com- 
mittees to the respfective Executive Commit- 
tees. 

It is intended that, if praeticable, each city 
in the State which desires that its contributions 
shall be kept together, shall have a separate 
table or space specially set apart for them, and 
that each of these cities shaU be represented in 
the General Committee of Management. 

A certain number of each Executive Com- 
mittee win be at its Office — the Ladies' at No. 2 
Great Jones Street, the Gentlemen's at 842 
Broadway, every day, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Contributions to the Fair are to be sent to 
the Keceiving Depot, No. 2 Great Jones Street, 
where they will be credited to their givers, and 
their receipt acknowledged by the proper com- 
mittee. 

It is particularly requested that each contri- 
bution be plainly marked with the name of the 
contributor, for exposition during the Fair, and 
that each article be acwmpained by a memo- 
randum of its value. 

To carry out the design of the Fair in ac- 
cordance with the spirit in which it has been 
planned, it has been thought proper to adopt 
the following 

EBGtTLATIONS. 

1. ^Every application by note for contribu- 



tions shall be upon paper bearing the symbol 
of the Fair, and signed in writing by a member 
of the Executive Committee; and every mem- 
ber of a Special Committee shall be provided 
with a similar certificate of authority. 

2.— It is earnestly requested that all contribu- 
tions in money be sent to the Treasurer, to 
whose order aU checks should be made pay- 
able. 

3. — At the Fair every article shall be sold at 
its current market value, when that is deter- 
minable. 

4. — In all Taffies the number of tickets sold 
shaU not exceed the original valuation of the 
articles raffled for. 

5. — No person shall be importuned to buy 
articles or tickets for raffles. 

6. — ^In every department a cashier shall be 
appointed to receive money and make change. 

7. — ^No punch shall be sold. 

OFFICERS. 

lADEEs' ASS0C3IATI0N. 

President, Mrs. Hamilton Fish. 

First Vice-President, . . " David Lane. 

Second Vice-President, " A V. Stout. 

Treasurer, " EUen E. Strong. 

Secretary, " John Sherwood. 

Assistant Secretary, Miss Catherine Nash. 

EXECUTIVE COMMTTTEE. 

{Office Wo. 2 &reat Jones Street.] 

Mrs. Marshall 0. Roberts, Francis Lieber, 
William H. Van Buren, Richard M. Hunt, Jona- 
than Sturges, Alfred Sohermerhorn, David Dud- 
ley Field, Samuel G. Courtney, Daniel Le Roy, 
Benjamin Nathan, John Jacob Astor, Gurdon 
Buck, Qgden Hoffman, Josiah S. Colgate, Frank 
E. Howe, John A. Dix, Alexander Hamilton, 
Jr., Thomas F. Meagher, Philip Hamilton, 
Frederick Billings, Morris Ketohum, Miss 
Catherine Hone. 

gentlemen's association. 

President, Major-Gen. John A. Dix. 

First Vice-JPresident, . ..Mr. Jonathan Sturges. 
Second Vice-President,. " James T. Brady. 
Chairman of Gen. Com'ee " Wilson G. Hunt 

" Rich'd Grant White. 



executive committbe. 

[Office No. 842 Broadway.] 

Mr. George Griswold Gray, . •. Chairman. 
" Richard Giant White, . . . Secretary. 
Messrs. Marshall 0. Roberts, Arthur Leary, 
James L. Kennedy, Charles H. Marshall, Alex. 
Van Renssalaer, Nathaniel P. Hosack, Peter 
Marie, Abraham M. Cozzens, Lawrence R. 
Jerome, William T. Blodgett, Fletcher Harper, 
Lloyd AspinwaU, William Scharfenberg, Levi 
P. Morton, Christian E. Detmold, Heniy Chaun- 
cey, Charles Astor Bristed, Thomas Acton, C. 
Godfrey Gtmther, Henry S. Fearing, Augustus 
R. Macdonough, Francis A. Stout, James A. 
Roosevelt, Le Grand B. Cannoii, Edward 
Delano, John F. Kensett, James F. Euggles, 
Moses Lazarus, Joseph G. Heywood, Philetus 
T. Holt, Uriel A. Murdock, Elliott F. Shepaid, 
Edward Matthews, S. B. Janes. 



204 



The Sanitary Gommission BuUetin. 



HEADS OF SPECIAL COMMITTEES.* 

''Arrangements. — Mrs. B. M. Hunt. Mr. George 
Griswold Gray. 

Art — Induding Artists' Materials. — Mrs. Jona- 
than Stuges. Mr. John F. Kensett. 

Arms and Trophies, induding Sporting Mati- 
rials.— Ml. William T. Blodgett. 

AgrieuUural Products oniS Implements. — Mr. 
Nathaniel P. Hosack. 

Bakers. — ^Mrs. Kichard M. Hunt. Mr. Alex- 
ander Van Kenssalaer. 

Boots and Shoes. — Mrs.' D. Bridgham. Mr. 
Erancis A. Stout 
Building. — ^Mr. George Griswold Gray. 
Gonfectionery. — Mrs. H. Fay. Mr. Alexander 
Van Rensselaer. 

Cabinet Work, Upholstery, Carpets, and LooMng- 
Glasses. — Mrs. George M. Miller. Mr. James A. 
Eoosevelt. 

Charity. — ^Mrs. Ogden Hof&nan. 
ComirvnAbTs from, vnthaut the OUy. — ^Mr. Elliott 
T. Shephard- 

Drama and Pvblic Amusements. — Mrs. John 
Sherwood. Mr. Kichard Grant White. 
Dress Making. — Mrs. G. K. Forsyth. 
Drugs and Feifumery. — Mrs. Wm. H. Van 
Buren. Mr. James L. Kennedy. 

Furs, Hats and Caps, and Clothing. — Mrs. 
Jaudon. Mr. Henry S. Fearing. 
Fcorists. — Mrs. Frani B. Howe. 
Flour, Grain and Provisions. — Mrs. H. K. 
Bogert. Mr. Philetus H. Holt. 

Finance. — Mr. Leonard W. Jerome. Mr. 
John H. Gourlie. 

Hardware, House Famishing, and Metals. — Mrs. 
Mitchell. Mr. Uriel A. Murdook. 

India Rubber Goods. — Mrs. C. E. Degen. Mr. 
FraSicis A. Stout. 

Jewelry and Retail Fancy Goods. — Mrs. William 
Parker. Mr. Peter Marie. 

Lingeries and Trimmings. — Mrs. William T. 
Blodgett. 
MiMinery. — Mrs. Clymer. 
Music — Including Musical Instruments. — Mrs. 
H. W. Hills. Mr. William Soharfenberg. 

Newspaper. — Mrs. Charles Butler. Mr. Augus- 
tus E. Macdonough. 

Old Curiosity Shop. — Mrs. Wolcott Gibbs. 
Optical, Mathematical, and Surgical Instruments, 
Carriages and Saddlery. — Mr. Christian E. Det- 
znold. 

Plumbing, Gas-Fitting, Stoves and Heaters. — 
Mr. Edward Delano. 

Porcelain and Glass. — Mrs. Thomas F. Mea- 
gher. Mr. Abraham M. Cozzens. 
Police. — Mr. Thomas C. Acton. 
Post Office.— Ura. Charles E. Strong. Mr. 
Augustus E. Macdonough. 

Printing, Stationery, Photographs, and Playing 
Cfesr*. — Mr. James F. Euggles. 
Private Schools. — Mrs. Vincenzao Botta. 
Public Charities. — Mrs. D. Fearing. 
Public Conveyances and Transportation. — Mr. 
Le Grand B. Cannon. 

Piiblic Schools. — Mrs. George Vandenhoff. 
Mr. Eichard Grant White. 

Publishers and Booksellers. — Mrs. Francis Lie- 
ber. Mr. Fletcher Harper. 



* List of the members of the General Committee, and 
of the TariouB Special Committees, wiU be published as 
soon as they are completed. 



Receimng Committee. — ^Mrs. Alexander Hamil- 
ton. Mrs. Alfred Schermerhom. 

Restaurant. — Mrs. Marshall O. Eoberts. Mr. 
AbiE^m M. Cozzens. 

Retail Dry Goods. — ^Mrs. John Van Vechten. 

Retail w-oceries. — Mrs. De La Montaigne. 
Mr. Joseph C. Heywood. 

Ships and Shipbuilding. — ^Mr. Charles H. Mar- 

Stoneieork and Masonry. — ^Mrs. Henry A. Coit. 

Ihread and Needles. — Miss Oaiy. 

Tm/s and SmaU Wares.— Mis. Sidney Ashmore. 
Mr. James L. Kennedy. 

Visiting Committee. — ^Mrs. S. G, Courtney, 
Mrs. Gurdon Buck. 

Wholesale Dry Goods.— Mis. A. V. Stout. Mr. 
Levi P. Morton. 

Wholesale Fxncy Goods. — Mrs. Frank E. Howe. 

Wholesale Groceries. ^-Mia. William H. Aspin- 
wall. Mr. Lloyd AspinwaU. 

Wines, Liquors, Tobacco, Fruits, die. — Mr. 
Henry Chatmcey. 

ELIZABETH G. SHEEWOOD, 

Sec. Ladies' Msec. •Committee. 

KICH'D GRANT WHITE, 

Sec. Gentlemen's JEbxc. Committee. 



THE GEEAT WESTERN SANITARY FAIR. 

CrscrmiATi, January 14, 1864. 
Eev. De. H. W. BeU/Ows, 

Presideni U. S. Sanitary CammiliUm. 

My Dbab Sdb : Tour manuscript came duly 
to hand some days since, and was handed to the 
compiler of the history of our Fair. 

I am glad to see the movements for your Metro- 
politan Fair. It ought to have the character 
from our chief city, and greatly exceed all that 
any other city could do. We here feel that 
those who have contributed have done nobly; 
but there are many who have up to this time 
denied themselves the satisfaction of having 
contributed to the comfort of our national de- 
fenders, through this Fair, the greatest ever yet 
held on this continent. Such may yet, by act- 
ing promptly, find their names recorded in our 
history as friends of our soldiers. We expect to 
realize at least $200,000 net. Unavoidable cir- 
cumstances have operated against our realizing 
the sum we aimed at of $250,000. Those partici- 
pating in the Fair have reason to be grateful for 
being able to devote that sum to the help and 
comfort of men who deserve tenfold more at the 
hands of their feUow-citizens. 

It is a satisfaction to know that as yet Cin- 
cinnati is in advance of all others; but it would 
afford us more satisfaction to know that our 
Metropolitan city, so indebted to our Great West 
for its wealth and prosperity, would average at 
least one doUar to each of its population, and 
thus raise one million of dollars. The large 
population residing without the city limits, yet 
depending on the commerce of your city, ought 



The Samtm-y Commission Bulletin. 



205 



to contribute at least enough to make up any 
deficiency of your people to average one dollar 
each. Suppose they should thus do, how small 
a sum would that furnish, on an average, to 
each of our soldiers, sacrificing themselves 
that our and your lives and property should be 
sacred ? 

Some of your noble merchants and citizens, 
with a few of such in Boston and Philadelphia, 
have Uberally contributed to our efforts to sup- 
ply our soldiers without regard to their nativi- 
ty or residence. 

The moral power of the fairs that have been 
held is doing much to encourage re-enlisting, 
and to convince the South of the folly of per-, 
sisting in its madness against a united North. 
It is beginning to be seen in the Horth that 
voluntary offerings of the people are more 
economical in outlay of money and life, than to 
simply depend on legal requirements. One 
million of dollars furnished by your city as a 
voluntary offering, will carry more power in it 
than an outlay of one hundred millions in the 
usual form of appropriations that the people 
would have to pay at last. It will not only dis- 
courage the rebels in the South, but their allies 
in the North. As a people, we must act for our- 
selves, and thus strengthen our Government, 
and shorten and cheapen the war in treasure 
and blood. Sound humanity and economy de- 
mand this of us. 

Having the numbers, wealth, and interests to 
be. promoted, you have only to will that you 
may thus act justly toward those sacrificing 
their all for you, and the million of dollars will 
promptly come, and no one fisel the poorer for 
it. Less thaii that would not supply needed 
comforts for our soldiers, nor be a fit offering 
or example for the chief oily of this continent. 
All Europe would be forced to respect you for 
it, while our Great West would honor and be 
proud of you for sp doing. 
I trust that amount wiU. be your final report. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Edgab Conkung, 
Chairman of the Executive Committee 

of the Orecd Western Samiary Mir. 



BELIEF WOKK AT NEW ORLEANS. 

Our special relief agent at New Orleans, 
Mr. Bullard, writes: 

I herewiHi sent you a report of the Special 
Relief work in this department from the data of 
our organization to January 1st, 1864, 

My communication wiU be limited to a statis- 
tical report of the "Soldiers' Home, '^ as re- 
turned to me by the superintendent, Mr. Nute, 



since the transfer from the Western Sanitary 
Commission ; and a brief record of the work in 
the Special Relief Office. The necessity for this 
office, and the importance of this branch of the 
work, were apparent from the first. There was 
some delay in organizing while the negotiations 
for the Home were pending, since the question 
of locality was one of considerable importance. 
So far I have had the hearty co-operation of 
the several paymasters with whom. I have come 
in contact. Every facility is afforded for the 
prompt and favorable settlement of all claims 
of invalid discharged soldiers, and for the 
adjustment of aU imperfect papers which can 
be given in a department so far removed from 
Washington. 

As it becomes known that there is an office 
in New Orleans, where S)l sorts of inquiries are 
kindly and freely answered, there is a daily 
increase of applicants for various degrees of 
assistance. The minor cases are made up, in 
part, from discharged soldiers, by questions of 
transportation, their just dues in mileage and 
subsistence, and the never-failing subject of 
bounties. Furloaghed soldiers are constantly 
applying for information as to how they may 
draw the back pay on which Ihey depend for 
means to defray their expenses, as they find 
themselves bewildered in a large city, and uncer- 
tain about the matter of transportation. Both 
of these classes of soldiers are deriving a great 
benefit from the Home. Many of them, after 
reaching New Orleans, perhaps firom a distant 
part of the department, are obliged to wait here 
till a Government transport is, ready for New' 
York or Cairo. There have been times when 
"Military necessity" has called off all such 
boats for some expedition. Under such circum- 
stances, the poor feEows must stay in this city 
at their own expense, perhaps for two or three 
weeks. Without the "Home" for a resting- 
place, it will be readily understood that such 
delay would be most disastrous to them. 

When the cards and posters for this office 
were first issued, in which assistance was 
promised in the matter of arrears of pay, 
bounty, and pensions, it was supposed that 
very little could be done in this department 
other than on discharge papers, directly through 
the paymaster ; and by directing discharged 
soldiers going home to reliable agencies north. 
But it soon became apparent that a large mun- 
ber of applications would be made from claim- 
ants for the pay and bounty of deceased 
Louisiana soldiers, and for pension. These 
claimants are mostly widows and dependent 
relatives, really needing all that is' due fi:om 
Government, 



206 



The Sanitary Commission BiMetin. 



There are some diffictilties attending this 
■work here, not so common in other sections; 
some nncertainty as to what wonld be accepted 
in Washington ; what evidence would be re- 
quired of the loyalty of the claimants and 
witnesses. And in the present condition of the 
courts in this State, it was a question before 
whom to have the necessary acknowledgments 
made. I have arranged with the Judge of the 
First Justice Court, appointed by the Military 
Governor, who has very kindly offered to assist 
me in this work ; and Governor- Shepley will 
attach his official certificate to each application 
going to the Second Auditor's Office. The forms 
sent me do not indicate the necessity of such 
certificate on pension claims. 

I have forwarded applications for three widows 
to the Second Auditor's, and for the same parties 
for pensions. One of these was a free colored 
woman; her husband died while in the service. 
She brought a certified copy of marriage 
license, and record of marriage ; and one of the 
witnesses was the colored pastor who married 
them. We sent on this as a test Probably 
there will be some trouble in famishing satis- 
fikctory evidence of marriage relation in a 
majorify of cases among the colored people. 

Besides, I do not know what rule, if any, has 
been adopted relative to the Corps d'Afrique 
touching these matters. 

Some dozen or more cases are either waiting 
farther action, or have been dismissed as too 
questionable. 

No special efforts are being made to increase 
this branch of the work, nor is it thought 
expedient to do so till we learn how our experi- 
ments have been received. 

The office was opened about the 20th of 
November. But little was done during the 
first ten days. There was some delay in getting 
cards and posters printed and properly circu- 
lated, and considerable time necessarily con- 
sumed in completing the arrangements relative 
to the Home. 

Up to January 1st, 1864, the number of cases 
recorded in the joomal is forty-eight. Of 
these, *twenty-one have received personal aid in 
the collection of their pay. Amount collected 
$3,289.44. 

The Paymaster prefers that all soldiers who 
are able should present their own papers. He 
has shown great kindness in farthering my 
efforts in behalf of those needing assistance. 
I therefore make it a point to send to him such 
soldiers as can comfortably walk the short dis- 
tance to his office, providing their papers are 
correct. By this course the Major understands 
that my object is simply to help those unable 



to help themselves. I am seldom denied any 
reasonable favor for a sick or wounded soldier. 

The rule here with a discharged soldier is, 
for the Paymaster to give him an order for 
transportation, either to New York or to Cairo, 
and allow him mileage for the rest of the way 
to the place of enlistment, with the usual rate 
of subsistence for the whole distance. This 
order the Quartermaster endorses, giving the 
name of the transport on which it will be good for 
passage. The man gets by this simply steerage 
privileges, and takes along his own rations. 

The very feeble can hardly endure the hard- 
ships of such transportation. The Paymaster 
makes exceptions in favor of extreme cases; 
and when I have stated that a man whose pa- 
pers I hand in is not able to go by Government 
transport, he allows him mileage. I use 
this advantage cautiously, that I may not fail 
in the reaUy deserving cases. 

W. S. Billiard is acting as clerk in the office 
of the Home. The experience that he has ac- 
quired in Baltimore with soldiers' papers, en- 
ables him to be of considerable service to the 
Special Kelief office while doing his work for 
the Home. 

He is instructed to examine the papers of the 
discharged soldiers as they come in, and direct 
those who need no special aid to the Paymaster. 
This, of course, reduces the number of ap- 
plicants at my office ; but the work is done, 
and another object is attained. The soldier is 
put right at the start. If there is any thiiig 
vrrong about the papers, or the soldier under 
false impressions thinks there is, it is better 
that these things be looked after 4)efore a col- 
lision with officials. I have during the past 
month kept approximate notes of the calls at 
this office for advice or direction, when not of 
such importance as to require record in journal. 
The number so recorded is about two hundred, 

There is one noticeable point of difference 
between the Special Belief work in this de- 
partment and that in Washington. So far, we 
have had no cases of discharged soldiers with 
those troublesome records against them on the 
roUs, of absence without leave, desertion, &c. 
This department is comparatively isolated. 
The men, when sick or wounded, are not exposed 
to an indefinite round of transfer from hos- 
pital to hospital, vrith a final drifting into 
Convalescent Camp, to be discharged without 
descriptive Usts. The surgeon of a hospital, 
all of whose inmates are from the department, 
can generally, with proper effort, obtain the 
military history of each man before discharg- 
ing him. " 



The Sanitary Commissimi Bulletin. 



207 



tremely difficult to get such papers corrected 
and approved at this distance from Washington. 
Under the present arrangements of the Home 
great good is being done for the soldiers. Im- 
provements in the working will be introduced 
as £9.st as they can be judiciously suggested. 



A WOBD ABOUT SALARIES. 

Washington, Januaxy 13, 1864. 
Dr. C. E. Agnew, 

Mt Deab Sib : Ton ask me to give you some 
information as to our Field Relief Corps in the 
Army of the Potomac, which I shall now at- 
tempt in as few words as possible. 

At present we have one four-horse wagon and 
one cart, with twelve or fourteen team and sad- 
dle horses, mostly pretty thoroughly used up 
by hard work during the six months' service 
they have seen in the army. 

Our field supply store-house is at Brandy 
Station, where the agents have their headquar- 
ters, andwhere also the two Sanitary Inspectors, 
Drs. Gordon Winslow and Isaac Fairchild, have 
their headquarters. The agents move from 
this central point out to their respective fields 
of duty, on horseback. The agent of the Fifth 
Corps is at present an exception to this rule, 
because that corps — ^being employed as railroad 
guard — ^is scattered over a very wide field, and 
hence tjie necessity that he should live in it. 
Wien at headquarters, they are aU expected 
to help at all work required by the needs of the 
Sanitary Commission family — to build houses, 
cut wood, cook, issue goods, draw water, har- 
ness horses, feed and nurse wounded men — ^in 
short, to do good Samaritan work generally. 

The estimated expense for the maintenance 
of this corps in winter is about'$750 per month, 
which estimate wUl probably cover all the ex- 
pense of the machinery for distributing sup- 
plies in the Army of the Potomac. I give the 
names of the corps and the pay allowed each 
man, which pay will hardly cover the expenses 
of clothing and sundries that are needed by 
these gentlemen. It will be understood that 
this subsistence is furnished by the Commis- 
sion : 
S. Warner Johnson, Superintendent, Volunteer. 

Capt. Isaac Harris, Assist. Supt., $60 

Charles S. Clampitt, Field Storekeeper. .... 45 
Assist. " .... 45 

Wm. F. Dnbosq, Acting Belief Agent 45 

S. M. Blazier, ^ 

Charles 0. Harris, 45 

George E. Holbrook, Belief Agent 45 

David S. Pope, " " ^^ 

W. C. Whittelsey, Messenger 45 



Henry C. Freeman, Messenger. 

G. W. Norris, Teamster 

Thomas Mulkeam, " 

John Smith, " 

Charles Toft, " 

Oscar Little, " 

Three colored men, (temporarily) . 



... 30 
.... 30 

... 30 
.... 30 
.... 30 

... 30 

... 50 
Subsistence for family about 100 

$750 

The number of teamsters may seem large, but 
the men were each in charge of a team until the 
first instant; and rather than turn them adrift 
now in midr-winter, I propose to use them as 
cooks and general assistants — thus enabling us 
to get rid of our contraband assistants in the 
field. These teamsters also act occasionally as 
messengers, and lend some help at the central 
stables. As we had considerable trouble in 
securing reliable men for these positions, it was 
thought best to keep them in places where we 
would be obliged to secure other labor. 

It is proper to state, in order that you may 
understand the real nature of the pittance paid 
this corps, that laborers in Washington re- 
ceive from $1.25 to $1.50 per day; carpenters 
from $2.50 to $3.00; masons $3.00, and paint- 
ers $3.00. 

I should have stated, as the First Army Corps 
is quartered around Culpepper, that a sub-store- 
house has been established there, which is man- 
aged by Mr. Dubosq, aided by a teamster. 

The results of the work of this corps can best 
be told by conversation with the medical direct- 
ors of divisions and brigades, who have per- 
sonally been made acquainted with it. 
Tours, respectfully, 

Li^wis H. SnMEB, 

Chief Inspector IT. S. San. Cam., Army of Potomac, etc. 

It is sometimes said that the Oommission 
spends large sums of money for salaries. 
The above simple statement may be taken 
as indicative of the principles which influ- 
ence the..Commission and its employees in 
the matter of salaries. The sums paid to 
the latter are such as would not secure in 
any industrial field the services of persons 
actuated merely by the desire to obtain a 
pecuniary return for their labor. The sums 
paid by us are barely sufScient for the main- 
tenance of those whom we employ, most of 
whom carry to their duties a degree and 
character of self-denial and patriotic devo- 
tion, to which common delicacy forbids at 
this time prolonged allusion. 



208 



TM Sanitary Commission BvUetin. 



The following circular has been addressed to 
the Field EeKef Corps of the United States 
Sanitary Commission by the Chief Sanitary In- 
spector of the Potomac Army. It wiU give an 
idea of the care taken by the Commission in 
this part of their wort : 
■ It is desired that Tisits on the part of the 
agents be not only made to division hospitals, 
but also that regimental hospitals be Tisited; 
and above aU, that the agents become acquainted 
■with the wants of the Tncn. "While you should 
cultiTate the most intimate relations with the 
oflicers, you must recollect that the relief of suf- 
fering and want among the men is the end and 
design of the Field Belief Corps; that it is for 
this the liberal people of our land are freely 
spending their mOney, and to this object every 
relief agent in the Field Corps must consider 
himself devoted. "What has been known as 
special relief, that is, relief to individual cases, ^ 
must be frequently administered. Find out' 
where want and sttffering exist, try to alleviate 
them — through the surgeons, if possible — if not 
in this way, then with the surgeon's consent. 
Let instances of this kind fill your reports. 
They wiU tell in the way of stimulating the 
people to additional liberality. And, m'oreover, 
weekly reports, giving a journal of each day's 
work, must be sent in. This rule, as I have 
stated in my letter of 9th inst., is imperative. 

Your attention is asked to the following rules, 
which were issued July 30, 1863, for the govena- 
ance of the Field Corps : 

" The relief agente, after their assignment to 
corps by the superintendent, will remain in 
coimection with the same until relieved. 
Leaves of absence for twenty-four hours may be 
granted by the superintendent; when a longer 
furlough is required, it must be approved by 
the CMef Inspector, or some one representing 
him at his ofBce. In every case of a visit to 
"Washington, the agent must report at the o&ce 
of the Chief Inspector. 

"Although relief agents may have been as- 
signed to corps, it is not to be understood by 
them that their duties end with these. "Where- 
ever want in the army comes to their knowledge 
in field hospital, in regiment, or in the single 
soldier by the wayside, it is their duty to try 
and alleviate it. 

' ' The agents must look upon themselves as 
helpers, and not interferers with the routine of 
military duty. They have no time for what is 
known as indolent pleasure. So long as they 
remain in the field, energetic work is required. 
"When the system will not admit of this, they 
should ask at once to be relieved by other and 
fresher spirite. 

" As most of the acting relief agents are new 
to *he work, it has been deemed proper to give 
the views held as regulating and governing the 
corps by the Inspector in charge. 



"SOLDIEES' HOMES" IN TENNESSEE. 

The reports from the Soldiers' Lodge at Mem- 
phis, Tennessee, for the five weeks ending Jan- 
uary 2d, show that during that period the 
number admitted was 1,962, coming from seven- 
teen different States. The number of meals 
famished was 6,35i; the number of lodgings, 



1,849. The average number oared for each day 
was, the first week, 116; the second, 91; the 
third, 103; the fourth, 136; and tlie fifth, 99. 
Transportation was procured for 59; defective 
papers were corrected for 14; 13 were aided in 
drawing pay. At the Nashville Home there 
have been admitted, during the five weeks end- 
ing January 2d, 2,367, coming from seventeen 
different States. The number of meals famish- 
ed was 8,149; the number of lodgings, 3,735. 
The average number cared for each day was, 
the first week, 166; the second, 184; the third, 
155; the fourth, 201; the fifth, 159. Transpor- 
tation was procured for 1,228, and 107 were 
aided in drawing pay. The total amount of 
pay collected and paid over during the five 
weeks, was $15,215.45. 



COERESPONDENOE. 

Ievington, West Chester Co., ) 
January 20th. j 

To the Edibyt of the Sanitary BuUetin : 

In these days of monster city fairs, it may 
interest some of your readers to hear how a vil- 
lage fiiir, recently held in Irvington, N. T., was 
started and carried through, and what its re- 
sults have been:. 

This village, like so many others, began 
early in the war, with sewing circles contrib- 
uting to the comfort of our soldiers, tijrough 
the Sanitary Commission. As times went on, 
the interest in the meetings flagged; they grew 
smaller, and finally ceased — when last summer 
the ladies again took hold of the work in earn- 
est, and reorganized their society, adopting a 
plan circulated by the Woman's Central Asso- 
ciation of Eelief. 

The principal feature of this plan is, to make 
the young people connected with the society 
support it, by collecting a monthly subscription 
of not over twenty cents a head. By keeping 
strictly to the rules of the society, and enforc- 
ing them in a business-like manner, a matter 
which "Soldiers' Aid Societies" are too apt to 
neglect, the new society worked admirably. 
Its meetings were so well attended, that the 
funds proved inadequate to supply material for 
the ready workers. So a fair was proposed, 
was planned, and worked for with some hesita- 
tions and anticipations of small resulte. To the 
surprise of those engaged in it, they soon found 
the interest of the whole neighborhood gather- 
ed around their modest undertaking. The 
whole village took it up as their Fair. Every- 
body wished to have a hand in it. Some one 
stood ready to give the room; another to fur- 
nish a stove; others to clean the room and get 



The Sanitary Commission BvRetki. 



209 



it in order; and so on down to the very boards 
that made the tables. Labor, polioeing, all — 
■was freely given, with a heartiness and good 
Vrill which surprised and delighted the man- 
agers. The result was, that in a, village of 
t-ffelve years' growth, this Fair, open only for one 
day, seoui-edto the society, with all expenses 
paid, seventeen hundred dollars. 

Three hundred dollars of this were sent, by 
a unanimous vote of the ladies, to the Treasurer 
of the U. S. Sanitary Commission. It seemed 
but little to send, they thought, " but it might 
make three hundred men a little more comfort- 
able." 



To J. FOSTEB JSSEtHS, M.D. 

Qeneral Secretary. 

DeaeSib: AtElmira, N. T., the Commis- 
sion has a home. It lives in the hearts of the 
people of that enterprising town. The follow- 
ing are some of the evidences of it: On the 
15th of July, 1862, they established a Soldiers' 
Home, near to the Kailroad Depot, famished it 
with cots, beds, &o., and opened it for the 
jeoeption of soldiers -who pass over the great 
throughfare to the Capital from Central New 
York. The funds for its organization were con- 
tributed by a dramatic and musical associa- 
tion which was raised for the purpose. 

The Misses Tyler devote their time to the 
care of the sick and homeless, of whom five 
thousand and seven hundred have been cared 
for. It is conducted on the same principle and 
under the same inspiring genius that has ani- 
mated and sustained all the Homes and Lodges 
pf the Commission in other places. The State 
has recently appropriated two thousand dollars 
for its support, and thus the people are set free 
from any local hinderauce, to their laboring 
heartily for the general work. As the average 
expense of maintaining it is not more than 
seventy dollars per nionth the State appropria- 
tion will sustain it for a long time. 

On Sunday evening, the 10th inst., a large and 
enthusiastic meeting was held at Ely Hall, and 
it was my privilege to meet the various clergy, 
men and a multitude of citizens there in be- 
half of the Commission. The churches being 
generally closed by common consent, there was 
no interruption to a full attendance. The Eev. 
Dr. Lincoln of the Baptist church presided. 
At the close of the address the Kev. Br. Curtis 
offered a resolution endorsing the piinciples 
and plans of the Commission, and urging its 
iolaims upon tjie people by forcible remarks. 
Key. T. K. Beecher seconded the resolution, 
by an earnest speech. The resolution was 
adopted by the standing vote of the great oon- 
iT — t' xt« t ■ 1A. 



gregation. On Monday evening a conference 
of some iifty or more of the leading minds of 
the town was held to perfect a systematized 
plan of collecting stated subscriptions from the 
people; and the ministers of the different con- 
gregations agreed to keep the people educated 
to the work, by holding quarterly union meet- 
ings, one of their members to address the people 
on the current history of the war and the 
operations of the Commission. 

Mrs. A. Stuart, the associate manager, and 
her co-laborers in the cause, are most earnest 
and thorough, and much may be .expected of 
them in the future. The smaller places in the 
surrounding country are being awakened, and 
you wiU soon hear of the Southern Tier Sani- 
tary Fair in such a way as will do good to your 
honored Treasurer. lu.'mj next I will furnish 
you with an account of the Fair, if the good 
ladies of Chemung, will have it completed by 
that time. They are resolved to do a good 
work. 



HOBTH PiTOHEB, CHENANGO Co., N. T., 

January 16, 1861. 
Geobgb T. Stbono, Ksq : 

Deab Sib : Enclosed please find draft for 
$146.15— the result of a festival held for the 
benefit of our sick and wounded soldiers. We 
did not know whether it would be better to send 
the cash, or purchase goods and manufacture 
garments. Will you, in your receipt, please 
state which would be best, as it may govern us 
in the future. 

This contribution is :from a section of the 
country that is sparsely settled ; no village — > 
but a farming community. It is nothing more 
than what any neighborhood might raise by a 
little effort. All we did was to give notice that 
there would be a festival for the sick and 
wounded soldiers, and all that attended would 
be expected to bring in some refreshment?. 
Also, the young people got up a little entertain- 
ment, by the way of scenes, tableaux, &c., &c., 
at the conclusion, solicited donations, the re- 
sult of which, to our sarprise, amounted to 
over one hundred and fifty dollars. 

AU it wants in almost any community, is for 
a few active men and women to start, and the 
like result may be obtained. 

Yours, truly,, 

J. S. BliA.CEMA]7. 



BONSOtrr, IT. T. 

"It would give us great satisfaction to con- 
tribute to the BuUetin some information -^that 
would encourage and stimulate our fellov 
workers everywhere ; but unfortunately pur 



^10 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin. 



Society has had a 6trilggli»g existence, and owes 
its contimaanoe to a faithful few., We have 
received during the past week forty dollars from 
one of our young men, the amount realized 
from the sale of an old watch bequeathed him 
by his grandfather, and for many years an heir- 
loom. Perhaps this may remind some one of 
some like treasure hidden and useless except 
as an heir-loom, and suggest how greatly 
enhanced its~ value as such must be by being 
devoted to such a cause. " 



"WHY DOES THE COMMISSIOK PAY SAL- 
ARIES TO ITS AGENTS?" 

The Oommission, has from the first enjoy- 
ed a degree of public favor and confidence 
greater than it had any right to expect. 
Certain obieotions, however, are made to 
its system and methods which require a 
brief notice, though they have for the most 
part been already anticipated. - 

The objection that has been made to its 
employing permanent salaried officers, in- 
stead of unpaid volunteers, giving a fort- 
night or a month each to the work of Army 
Belief, is untenable and short-sighted. 
It has to distribute millions of ■ dollars 
worth of bulky stores over an area of many 
thousand square miles. This is, in a mere- 
ly business point of view, a work of seriou.s 
magnitude. It is, moreover, a work of spe- 
cial delicacy and diflSculty, because it must 
be so done as not to interfere with the ma- 
chinery of the army, or weaken the reliance 
of the men upon their officers. Without a 
corps of agents who understand their work, 
give their whole time to it, and are bound 
to perform definite service during a definite 
period, loss, waste, and misapplication of 
supplies are inevitable. This branch of the 
Commission's work may fairly be compared 
with that of our largest railroads and ex- 
press companies, and is at least as worthy 
of being well and economicSilly done. But 
how long would any railroad corporation 
keep out of the hands of a Receiver, if it 
confided its freight business to volunteers 
over whom it could exercise no real, con- 
trol, and who felt themselves at full liberty 
to leave its service whenever they tired of 
it, or whenever they thought themselves 
oferworked or unfairly criticized, instead 
of employing superintendents, clerks, and 
porters, engaged in the usual way and on 
the usual terms? The poetry of the Re- 
lief Agent's work may be spoiled if he re- 
ceive a salary ,_ but in ninety-nine cases out 
of a hundred its practical value to the army 
is doubled. It would be easy to name 
splendid exceptions to this rule, but they 
are only exceptions. 

The work of Army Relief, like every other 
practical and serious business, requires skill 
•which can be got only by experience, and 



men cannot, as a general rule, be secured 
for service long enough to acquire experi- 
ence and skill, unless they receive moder- 
ate pay. But the difference between a 
skilled and an unskilled agent is equal to 
a difference of at least fifty per cent, in the 
amount of practical good each can do the 
soldier with the stores entrusted to him; 
and it costs t]je Oommission less than two 
per cent, on the estimated value of its sup- 
plies to distribute them through skill- 
ed salaried agents, instead of unskilled 
volunteers. This is not all. The volun- 
teer is necessarily unacquainted with the 
complex regulations under which Govern- 
ment supplies the wants of the Army, for 
thorough familiarity with their practical 
working can be acquired only by months 
of actual contact and experience. He can- 
not tell, therefore, when called upon to re- 
lieve a regiment or a hospital, whether its 
officers have done or have neglected their 
duty, and whether they can or cannot 
promptly obtain what is needed through 
regular official channels. His impulses 
prompt him of course instantly to relieve 
the suffering he sees before him. He dis- 
tributes his supplies at once, asking no 
questions, and goes home thankful that 
he has been enabled to relieve so much 
destitution .and distress. But he has' too 
often been merely covering up the short- 
comings of some inefficient officer paid by 
Government to do precis ly the same thing, 
and has thus shielded him from «sposure 
and dismissal, and done the army in the 
long run more harm than good. 

The Commission avoids this danger. It 
reserves its supplies for the cases of acci- 
dental failure which must from time to 
time occur in the working of eveiy military 
system, and especially of one newly organ- 
ized on so vast a scale as ours, and seeks 
rather to strengthen the official agencies 
through which Government provides for 
the army, than to set itself up as a rival 
source of supply, and thus weaten the 
confidence of the men in their military 
superiors. 

The more general chai-ge that the Com- 
mission's system is a costly one, is believed 
to be wholly unfounded. Its salaries are 
on a most moderate scale. It may be prop- 
er here distinctly to state, that no membeor 
of the Commission receives, or ever has 
received, a dollar from its treasury, or from 
any other quarter, in the shape of salary, 
or compensation for his services as Com- 
missioner. Four of its members hold 
office, yiz. : its President, Vice-President 
and Treasurer, and its Associate Secretary 
at LouisviUe. Of these, the first three 
have been able to do their official work 
without absolutely sacrificing all their other 
duties, and they have done it without 
dreaming of "pay" from any auartev 



The Sanitary. Commission Bulletin. 



211 



SThe Associate Secretary, -who^as removed 
his home from Cleveland to Louisville, 
abandoned his profession, and devoted his 
■whole time and energies to his official work, 
receives a moderate salary. Thanks to the 
co-operation of Grovernment and the liber- 
ality of Railroad, Telegraph, and Express 
Companies, and other private agencies, its 
expenses for transportation and telegraph- 
ing are not one-tenth of what they would 
otherwise be. A reference to the statistics 
given in Document 69 of the cost of its 
special relief system at Washington, Alex- 
a,ndria, and ArinapoHs, show how much 
work it has done at comparatively trifling 
expense. The value pf the sappUes it has 
actually issued to the army from its numer- 
ous depots. East and West, can only be esti- 
mated, and these estimates vary largely, the 
lowest estimate being about four millions 
of doUaxs, and the highest exceeding 
■seven. 

These supplies have been carried all 
over the country, from Maina to Texas, 
and from Washington to Vioksburg, in 
■charge of special agents, and deposited in 
Helief Stations where store-keepers are 
ziecessarily engaged to protect them, and 
-Relief Agents to distribute them ; yet this 
great mass of bulky stores has been moved, 
stored at»the depots, moved to the front, 
stored again in temporary depots, and then 
distributed, at a total expense to the Cen- 
tral Treasury of less than one and' seven- 
eighths per cent on their lowest valuation. 

The Commission is of course the per- 
manent subject of a due proportion of the 
swarms of "authentic statements," "valu- 
able reports," which are daily put in circu- 
lation about the army and everybody con- 
nected with it; and that as regards the 
Commission many of them are disparaging, 
need excite no surprise. 

It must be remembered that the work of 
the Commission necessarily makes it 'ene- 
mies. Medical and other officers who 
know that their incapacity or indolence has 
been detected and noted by a relief agent 
or inspector, naturally think it a meddle- 
some and mischievous organization, and 
are always ready to report, and sometimes 
to embeUdsh and magnify, every case of 
failure in its work. Officers of the Medi- 
cal Staff who stood high on the list, and 
were expecting speed promotion and addi- 
tional rank and emoluments, when Govern- 
ment was prevailed on to iill the higher 
effices of the Medical Bureau according to 
ability, and not, as before, according to 
seniority, (or, in other words, by selecting 
the best man instead of the oldest,) cannot 
be expected to admire the Sanitary Com- 
mission. Some of them think (very natu- 
rally) that it has "ruined the service," and 
are not disinclined to believe and? to 
endorse any story that teUs against it. 
. XT- — -i-x^-i - ^ far- 






sighted people, misinformed as to its aim 
and policy, suppose it to seek nlerely the 
immediate relief of the sick or wounded 
soldier, at any cost to military self-reliance 
■and discipline, and distrust it accordingly. 
Thousands of warm-hearted and energetic 
men and women, diligently laboring for 
portions of the army through State agen- 
cies and local societies, find the Sanitary 
Commission throwing cold water on their 
work, because it is not (conformed to the 
system which the Commission holds to be 
the most economical, the most National, 
and altogether the best. They cannot 
help becoming more or less prejudiced 
against the Commission, which seems thus 
to discourage and discredit what they 
rightly feel to be the most unselfish and 
the most important »work of their lives, 
and they are thus unconsciously predis- 
posed to believe any thing they may hear 
against it. 

MISUSE OF SANITARY STORES, 

Many good people, and a still greater 
number of that class to whom censure and 
grumbling and the rumination of troubles 
are as the breath of life, have no little mis- 
giving as to the final disposition made of 
the overflowing bounties distributed to the 
army through the medium of the Sanitary 
Commission. Do the ones for whom they 
are meant receive them ? Do they get the 
larger part of them even ? Or does the 
lion's share filter out iif passing through the 
hands of various officials, between the 
donor and the. sick soldier in hospital? 
We have labored, and still labor, and shall 
so continue to do, to give the public aU the 
light we can, all we have and all we can 
obtain on the subject. None can feel more 
solicitous than we in regard to it. No 
insignificant part of the labors of our 
agents in the field, and of our own in the 
collection and publication of reports and 
statistical information,springs from this soli- 
citude. We are a part of that public whom 
we address, and share, we trust, in the full- 
ness of its anxiety respecting the welfare 
of our army and the triumph of our arms. 

But aside from this, our official relations 
to Khe sanitary work naturally enough give 
an added and special intensity to the inter- 
est we hold in common with others. > 

Let us look the question then squarely 
in the face. Oar means of knowledge 
respecting it are various, and not lacking in 
abundance. We have well-organized agen- 
cies, as everybody by this time is aware, in 
all parts of the grand army. These agen- 
cies are intrusted with a variety of duties. 
Prominent among these is hospital visiting. 
That is, an inspecting from day to day and 
time to time, of the personal condition of 
the patients — the food they eat, the cloth- 
ing they wear, the general comforts with 



212 



The Sanitary Commission BuTMin. 



■which they are surrounded or which they 
lack. Inquiring as to the sanitary supplies 
on hand or in demand is included in this 
inspection. And to this the number of 
casual visitors — persons in search of sons, 
brothers, husbands, or persons voluntarily 
spending a brief period of observation and 
of benevolent labor in aU the larger hospitals 
within and beyond army linfes, and one can 
see that it would be not a little surprising 
if any flagrant, persistent, or very consid- 
erable purloining of sanitary stores could 
escape detection. We can give unquali- 
fied assurance to those who are unaffectedly 
anxious on this subject, that there is no 
difficulty in procuring due punishment and 
adequate prevention where detection does 
occur. Army orders in regard to this and 
all other kinds of plundering from hospital 
stores are stringent, and extremely plain 
and definite. No ofiicial would venture to 
neglect the execution of them on others, 
where occasion required it, not though he 
should chance to be secretly a culprit of 
the same sort himself. And again, it must 
not be overlooked that Government has a 
corps of Medical Inspectors — sixteen in 
number — distributed throughout the mili- 
tary districts of the country, a part of 
whose duties is to look into this very mat- 
ter of the appropriation and consumption 
of hospital stores. In addition to this, 
nearly every army corps has one or more 
of its surgeons detailed to inspection duty, 
with functions every way similar to those 
of the regular inspectors. The reader will 
thus perceive that the means of detecting 
and correcting mal-practice of whatever 
kind on the part of hospital attendants are 
not wholly omitted, to say the least. And 
with the information furnished us from 
these several and important sources, we 
feel qualified to answer the question: " Is 
there any considerable or constant diver- 
sion of sanitary stores from their legitimate 
destination ?" And we are glad to be able 
to answer. There is not. Instances of plun- 
dering do certainly occur from time to 
time, both in hospital and whUe the stores 
are in transitu between donor and patient. 
Instances of the former kind cannot be 
many times repeated without detection, 
, whilst the amount of loss from plundering 
during transportation is, all things c5nsid- 
ai-isd, surprisingly small. "Where an abuse 
of the kind occurs in hospitals and is found 
out, the people at home are pretty sure to 
hear of it, whilst the correction of the 
aibuse, however prompt it may have been, 
is not so likely to trau spire; We have per^ 
sonaUy known instances of just this kind, 
vyhere corrected abuses have been pub- 
lished — all but the correction. And can 
readUy understand, therefore, howthe grav- 
ity of such cases gets overrated, and how 
the cases themselves awaken unnecessary 
Rpprehension amongst the friends and con- 



tributors of the Commission, and furnish 
an unfortunate resource to captious and 
inborn fault-findings. The reader will see 
that the way of the transgressor is hard in 
this stealing (to put it in square honest 
Saxon) of sanitary stores. But there is 
unquestionably a small per centage of loss 
to be abstracted as a constant sum from the 
noble bounties of the Commission. Tak- 
ing the whole army and the entire field of 
war into account at once, and an eye that 
could sweep the whole at a glance, would 
probably witness this (aost despicable spe- 
cies of theft somewhere _within those wido 
limits as a constant fact. But whilst a con- 
stant fact to the witness, it would be a 
variable one with any given offender and 
in any given locality. 

We have repeatedly had this experience 
— too often, in fact, to enable us to recall 
any signal examples — ^namely : We have 
asked some patient in a hospital if he ever 
received any thing from the Sanitary Com- 
mission, and received a prompt and empha-. 
tic "No" for an answer. Farther inquiry 
developes the fact that he has been foi: 
weeks the daily recipient of sanitarj stores 
^both food and clothing. We have known 
persons of irreproachable integrity perpe- 
trate just this absurdity, (for we cannot call 
it falsehood.) The patient, finding his own 
personal condition decidedly uncomforta- 
ble, and that he is only moderately weU off 
. for external comforts, not unnaturally con- 
cludes that he is indebted to Government 
for what little relief he does receive. Ho 
is not informed by nurse or surgeon where 
a given article administered to him may 
have come from. It is not practicable that 
he should be. Surgeons and nurses have 
enough to do with that omitted. And 
articles of diet are not likely to bear the 
Sanitary stamp, when cooked and ready 
for the palate. And if they did, many a 
patient, from lack of observing habits or 
from the gravity of his illness, would fail to 
see it. Thejr frequently fail to see it on 
the very clothing that invests their persons. 
Many a rumor, painful and mischievous in 
its effects, has had just this kind of origin. 
We have never when in the field neglected 
to trace up aU reports of the plundering of 
our stores, which gave the least promise of 
having a foundation, and we generally find 
them ending in some such smoke as this. 
And if otherwise, and an offense is eventu- 
ally discovered, we have never encountered 
difficulty or delay in having the offender 
punished, and the way blocked to the 
repetition of the offense. 

The actual percentage of loss to Sanitary 
stores in transit from donor to pati&t, 
"by flood and field," it is impossible to 
give "with any considerable accuracy. But 
we feel justified in saying with absolute 
certainty that it is small ; and whatever the 
amount is we should be spurred bv it 



The Sanitary Commission BuUetin. 



213 



rather than depressed. The means of pre- 
■vention being as nearly complete and as 
extensively applied as the nature of the 
case will admit of, we must put down the 
losses that occur in spite of these means, 
as a part of the inevitable course of things, 
an item in the inexorable statistics of 
crime. — Sanitary Reporter. 



The Obimeak Wab^The Beitish Asms and 
Miss Nightingale. By Charles Shrimp- 
ton, M. D. 

We regret that we have not space for a 
lengthened review of a pamphlet bearing the 
above title. The following quotations contain 
many principles and deductions applicable to 
our present national experience: 

Doctor Shrimpton says: "It is one of the 
greatest characteristics of the present age, that 
the cause of humanity is become identified with 
the strength of armies. The history, then, of a 
war can no longer be confined to bare details of 
the plans of battles, and of the manoeuvres of 
armies; we must refer to other elements, and 
principally to the sanitary condition of troops, as 
the causes of our victories, or the reasons for our 
disasters. The historian, in following soldiers 
in their campaigns, should note every thing 
that may be favorable or unfavorable to their 
sanitary condition; and, consequently, he should 
not neglect any opportunity of exposing every 
error that may be committed on this important 
point, from whatsoever source it may spring. 
There are particularly two important results to 
be obtained from this scrupulous care in com- 
piling the history of a war. The first is, that 
of reducing to less than half the mortality of 
those brave soldiers who so generously shed 
their blood for their country; the second,mere- 
ly a corollary of the first, that by reducing the 
mortality of soldiers the strength of armies will 
be proportionably increased, and thus very 
often the fortune of war decided." 

Dr. Shrimpton then alludes to some of the 
more prominent causes of the fearful sickness 
and mortality among the British forces during 
the first twelve months subsequent to their 
reaching the Crimea. He says the British army 
was deficient in "Military Administration;" that 
is, in a method of co-ordinating the dififerent 
branches of administration— such as victualling, 
clothing, forage, hospitals, campment, trans- 
port service, and corps of workmen. 
•"Even Malta, a British colony, was taken, by 
surprise by the arrival of the British troops; 
and at Gallipoli the same neglect was repeated, 
the British Consul there was not informed jjiat 
Enghsh troops were to arrive. " 



"When the British *roops arrived at Gallipoli, 
they were three days in landing, and had neither 
mattresses nor blankets for the men, nor medi- 
cines nor shelter for the sick." The French 
did not suflfer,because every thing had been pro- 
vided for them by the centralizing power of the 
" Intendant- General." While the French had 
plenty to eat, the wants of the English may be 
described by tie condition of the men of the 
Ninety-third Regiment, "who were obliged to 
kill the oxen which had brought their baggage 
on the ' arabas' or rough carts of the country, 
and thus deprived themselves of their only 
means of transportation." 

While our armies have not suffered as the 
English army did in the Oriinea, we have had 
abundant reason to regret the want of some 
such co-ordinating funofionary as the '• Inten- 
dant-G^n6ral" of the French army, an officer 
only subordinate to the commanding oflicer, 
and charged with the duty of having food, shel- 
ter, medicines, clothing, and means of trans- 
portation at the right place at the right mo- 
ment. 

Dr. Shrimpton attributes the fearful mortality 
among the British troops to the great want of 
prevision in the matters alluded to above. 

Dr. Shrimpton testifies as to the absolute ne- 
cessity of having female nurses in the General 
Hospitals, "for," says he, quoting from Mr. 
Sidney Herbert, " hospital orderlies must be 
very rough hands. " 



DIMINUTION OF DKUNKENNBSS IN THE 
BRITISH ARMY; ITS PROBABLE CAUSES. 
[Extracted from Lonaon I.ancet, Dec'r, 1863, p. 806.1 

It is difficult from a mere " return " to arrive 
at any just conclusion as to the causes which 
have influenced the increase or decrease of intem- 
perance in the several portions of the army lo- 
cated in different districts of the kingdom. 
Diunkennees is a vice dependent on such various 
causes apart from locality, that it would be sat- 
isfactory to have some farther particulars on the 
subject. All causes which have a tendency to 
depress the mental or physical condition of the 
soldier, have more or less power over his habits 
with respect to drink. 

We learn that the annual report on military 
prisons presents some curious statistics of the 
number of soldiers committed for being drunk. 
In the Ave years, 1848-'52, the annual commit- 
ments in England average seventy eight in ten 
thousand on the force stationed in England. la 
I.Scotland the average was one hundred and twen- 
ty-two in tea thousand in the force stationed 
there. In Ireland two hundred and one. la the 
next five years the average fell to seventy-three in 
England, sixty-four in Scotland, and one hundred 
and forty-four in Ireland. In the last five years 
it has been seventy-nine in England, only twenty* 
nine in Scotland, and but sixty-eight in Ireland. 



214 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



It will be seen that the declrae of the commitmentB 
is enormous, but still greater in Scotland. The re- 
turns are not according to nationality of the men, 
but locality of station. 

Is not this gratifying result due te the im- 
provement in the construction of soldiers' bar- 
racks, which has been brought about by the in- 
telligent labors of the first Sanitary Commission 
appointed by the British Government! There is 
no measure more likely to lessen the vice of 
drunkenness amongst soldiers than providing 
them with comfortable quarters, reading-rooms, 
and innocent amusements for their leisure hours. 

[Eds.} 



THE NEGRO TROOPS. 
The French Mexican expedition furnished as 
additional example of the freedom of the negro 
race from the diseases which, in hot climates, 
exert so devastating an effect upon whites. M., 
Eeynaud, Inspector-General of the Marine 
force in Mexico, addresses a letter to the 
Academy of Medicine, in which he states that 
the last epidemic of yeUow fever exemplifies 
the above fact, just as did that of 1862; while 
the yellow fever produced great numhers of 
victims amongst the Europeans employed at 
Vera Cruz and the fort St. Jean d'Ulloa, not a 
single death from this cause occurred among 
more than 600 soldiers and sailors from the 
West Indies, almost all of them yet undergoing 
the most trying labor. — American Medicai Times. 

A DINNER IN CAMP. 

Wagons accompanied by strong guards have 
been sent out, in the direction of saw-mills and 
houses, for boards and briclcs. Many have re- 
turned laden with these rich and valued spoils. 
Nothing is more sought after, better appre- 
ciated, or more ingeniously used in this army, 
than boards. With a few of these for his bed, 
table, chair, kc, and a few bricks for bis chim- 
ney, your soldier with his shelter-tent builds 
him a comfortable domicile, and lives well. 

When in a permanent camp, where supplies 
are readily sent to the army, the soldier gets his 
full rations and is satisfied with them. Within 
the last few days he has been drawing in the way 
of vegetables, potatoes, onions, and turnips. 

The other day I received a pressing invitation 
to^ne with some of the men. "They were 
nicely fixed, and wanted me to see how they 
liyed." Some dozen or fifteen of them had ob- 
tained permission to occupy a kind of barn, 
formerly used as a corn-house. It was divided 
into three apartments; the men divided into 
three messes. With one of these I dined. 
There were two other guests, and the prepara- 
tions were extensive. Early in the morning 
they began to clear up, &c. When I arrived all 
hands were busy; one cooking this and another 
fixing that, and so on. The most noticeable 
thing was the cook-stove; which, one of their 
number, remembering sufficient of the craft he 



used to practice when a civilian, extemporizes 
out of old camp-kettles, spades, and a part of a 
mowing machine, and an excellent thing it was 
both for warmth and utility. 

Our dinner was well-eooked, and in abun- 
dance. Bill of fare consisted of soup, beef- 
steak, fresh bread and butter, coffee, mashed po- 
tatoes, roasted ditto, fried onions, turnips, ifec, 
and peaches and milk. The latter luxury was 
obtained in this way: Mine host, the sergeant 
— formerly a squire — a man of good education 
and culture, the ruler in the company, the 
oracle, consulted on all affairs of general in- 
terest, very popular, a pleasant talker. The 
men laugh at his sayings, quote them, and love 
him. He is very generous and open-hearted. 
One of the men being siet,the squire purchased 
some peaches for him, at enormous prices, from 
the fleecers of the army, (the sutlers.) The 
friend recovered, and. the peaches were forgotten 
until to-day. After dinner we bad music — the 
banjo — the favorite instrument in the army — 
singing and dancing. They told me that they 
managed to live in camp right along in this 
way. None of them liked the life of a soldier, 
might perhaps re-enlist, would make the best of 
events that turn up, were sort of contented, and 
would live as joUy as they could. This mess 
represents a, fair average of what might be 
found throughout the corps. — Edrad from Be- 
port of Ediefidgent, Sisdh Corps, Arfm/ of JPotomote. 



AN OEPICER ON THE COMMISSION. 

I have referred to the Sanitary Commission; 
and no one could visit these hospitals without 
beoomins; a firm believer in the importance and 
value of this institution as supplementary to 
the regular surgical department. 

So extensive are the ramifications of this 
Commission, and so thoroughly have its agents 
been drilled in the good work, and so com- 
pletely has it the confidence and aid of the Gov- 
ernment officials, that one dollar expended 
through its channels is equal to three expended 
by private benevolence or State societies. It is 
natural that our kind-hearted women should 
desire that their offerings should go to their 
special friends, though if they rSfiect, they 
could hardly wish that one man should enjoy 
these delicacies, while his brothers in p'atriotio 
devotion, the men who stood shoulder to shoul- 
der with him in the hour of trial, are left with- 
out them. Surely, if there be a place in the 
world for impartiality in the distribution of ar- 
ticles of comfort and solace, it is the hospital of 
those who have been wounded in a common 
cause; besides, this private bounty is simply 
impossible. What we need is, to have these 
supplies ready at once, even before the battle is 
over, and this is the weU-peiformed office of the 
Sanitary Commission. 

I believe that this Commission is one of the 
first fruits of our most advanced Christian 
civilization, the first inroad into the domain of 
war of a practical Christianity which shall yet 
throttle and destroy this demon forever. When 
I seek to estimate its value and significance uP 
its various supervisory, reformatory, and scien- 
tific,, as well as benevolent operations, to say 
nothing of those exceedingly valuable statistical 
collections which are to be the corner-stones of 
future history, I confess I know of no onloulus. 



The Sanitary Commission Bulletin, 



215 



by whieli correctly to compute them. Could 
the tens of thousands of me blue uniformed 
sufferers it has relieved utter their testimony, 
we might reach some adequate expression. — 
Captain Noyes in the " Bivouac and the JiatUe-field." 



QUININE "AS A PKEVBOTIVE OF MALA- 
KIAL DISEASE. 
Dr. J. W. Page, Inspector for United States 
Sanitary Oommissiou in Department of North 
Carolina and Virginia, reports that the greatest 
benefit to the health of the forces stationed in 
the malarial regions about Newbern,has result- 
ed from the regular administration of a quinine 
ration to the men. It is gratifying to hear this 
statement from Dr. Page, whose long residence 
in the malarial regions of North Carolina makes 
him a critical observer. One of the earliest ef- 
forts of the Commission, in the direction of 
the prevention of disease in the army, was to 
impress upon commanding officers and the 
Government the prophylactic or preventive 
powers of quinine. All who are familiar with 
the Medical Documents of the Commission, 
will remember the able and exhaustive Mono- 
graph by Dr. Wm. H. Van Bureu on this sub- 
ject. From all the columns operating in ma- 
larial regions, we have heard nothing to impair 
our belief in the value of quinine as a prevent- 
ive of malarial-disease. It should be taken in 
doses of three grains at bed-time, and two or 
three in the morning, continuously, through 
the malarial season. Its value is enhanced 
when given in connection with coffee. It is 
scarcely necessary to state that the curative 
power of qviinine is greatly lessened in the case 
of tl^ose who have become saturated with fever 
and ague poison, by long residence in malarial 
regions ; of course, the experience of such per- 
sons cannot be taken as impairing one's belief 
in the preventive power of the agent. 



THE VENTILATION OP THE IRON-CLADS. 

The good fortune of meeting with intelligent 
medical officers of the Navy has enabled the 
writer to compare notes upon important ques- 
tions, that relate alike to military and to naval, 
hygiene, and to the relative status of medical 
officers in these two branches of national 
sei'vice. In this letter I will refer only to one 
or two of the hygienic questions. In a number 
of the Medical Times some time ago, • you 
rather sharply called attention to the saiitary 
condition of the Monitors and iron-clad gun- 
boats. 'The questions to which you then soli- 
cited official attention were at that time receiv- 
ing the earnest and intelligent consideration of 
the best men in the medical service of the 
navy. We hazard nothing in asserting that the 
savant or the mechanical engineer who will 
devise and put into successful operation a sys- 
tem of ventilation that will supply fresh air to 
the cabins, quarters, and berth-decks of the 
Monitors, at the rate of from five hundred to 
■ one thousand cubic feet per hour, to each man 
of the ship's company, will confer a priceless 
boon upon the crews and officers of those new 
war-Vessels, and at the same time will do his 
country a patriotic service scarcely inferibr to 



that rendered by the renowned Eeicsson him- 
self. 

Only think of the sanitary prospects of eighty 
or a hundred men shut up in a submerged iron 
encasement, with only about sixty-five cubic 
feet of air-space to each*" person, and that 
sepulchral atmosphere unchanged, except by 
the very imperfect process of "blowing" a fee- 
ble current from the "turret." According to 
bur own rough estimate, each man during 
battle, or in a sea at all rough, when scuttles 
and hatches must be closed, would receive less 
than two cubic feet per minute of fresh air for 
respiration. Add to this the inevitable humidity 
and the excessive heat and darkness of the 
Monitors, and you have the elemental and ineui- 
, table causes of a fearfully high invalid-rate. 

Is there no intro-meohanist who will immedi- 
ately device the means for remedying this evil ? 
We ventm-e to offer the clue to the desired 
invention by saying that the ventilation must 
be secured upon the ■aacuum principle, or by 
suction of the.foul air, and not by the present 
inoperative plenum or blowing method. Even 
for the ventilatyjn of ordinary transport ships, 
the problem of effective ventilation depends 
mainly upon the means p.hd certainty of egress 
of foul air. No plenum blowiag in a Monitor 
will ever accomplish the desired result, except 
. at the expense of the invalnerability of the war 
ship itself." Mr. EntcssoN has provided fans in 
the turrets, but it is not pure fresh air they blow; 
and even the broken current of the impure air 
they do control, is sent first down tothe hold, 
then, afte'r feeding the furnace fires, it slowly 
mixes with the yet impure air of the berth-deck 
alid officers' quarters. 

Nothing is plainer than that there must be a 
specific method and power of egress for th6 foul 
air, and this fact is so well stated in a brochure 
just placed in our hands by the Sanitary Com- 
mission [Medical Document S. Hints for the Con- 
trol of. Infectious Diseases in C'J,mps, Transpoiis, 
and Hospitals'], that we beg leave to quote a 
paragraph relating to this point : 

"The special improvements or works for 
ventilation in ordinary transports, consist 
mainly in greatly increasing the area and the 
-places of egress for foul air. 'This is best effected, 
temporarily, by increasing the area of the win- 
dovTS and air-shafts at the .stern, and, if admis- 
sible, elsewhere. The ingress of fresh air is 
easily provided for, after establishing the chan- 
nels and amount of outlet." 

After showing how egress may be given to 
the foul air. of a ship's decks, the author says 
that the methods he advises for employment in 
■crowded transports, '"will provide 1,000 cubic 
feet of fresh air per hour to each man, in a 
vessel sailing five knots an hour ; but, if no 
special outlets are provided, even twice the number 
of windrsails, all injecting, would fail even to supply • 
at the rate of 100 eubic'feet per Iiour." But tha 
inventor of the Monitors has attempted to venti- 
late those remarkable gunboats by the hopeless 
plan of blowing down through the turret, which 
is like blowing.into a bottle through its neck. 

In a future comniiinioation your readers shall 
have the results of some observations upon the 
ventilation of tents and barracks. 

— Medical limes. 



216 



The Sanitary Commission BvUetm. 



NOTES ON NURSING. 



PETTY MANAGEMEHT. 



. All the results of good nursing, as detailed in 
these notes, may be spoiled or utterly negatived 
by one defect, ■viz.: in petty management, or in 
other words, by not knowing how to manage 
that what you do when you are there, shall be 
done when you are not tiiere. The most devo- 
ted friend or nurse cannot be always there. Nor 
is it desirable that she should. And she may 
give up her health, all her other duties, and yet, 
for want of a little management,be-not one-half 
so eflScient as another who is not one-half so 
devoted, but who has this art of multiplying 
herself — that is to say, the patient of the first 
will not really be so well cared for as the patient 
of the second. 

It is as impossible in a book to teach a person 
in charge of sick how to manage, as" it is to 
teach her how to nurse. Circumstances must 
vary with each different case! But it is possible 
to press upon her to think for herself: Now 
what does happen during my absence ? I am 
obliged to be away on Tuesday. But fresh air, 
or punctuality, is not less important to my pa- 
tient on Tuesday than it was on Monday. Or: 
At 10 P. M. I am never with my patient; but 
quiet is of no less consequence to him at 10 
flian it was at 5 minutes to 10. 

Curious as it may seem, this very obvious 
consideration occurs comparatively to few, or, 
if it does occur, it is only to cause the devoted 
friend or nurse to be absent fewer hours or fewer 
minutes from her patient — not to arrange so as 
that no minute and no hour shall be for her 
patient without the essentials of her nursing. 

A very few instances will be sufficient, not as 
precepts, but as illustrations. 

A strange washerwoman, coming late at night 
for the "things," will burst in by mistake to 
the patient's sick-room, after he has fallen into 
his first doze, giving him a shock, the effects of 
which are irremediable, though he himself 
laughs at the cause, and probably never even 
mentions it. The nurse who is, and is quite 
right to be, at her supper, has not provided that 
the washerwoman shaU not lose her way and go 
into the wrong room. 

The patient's room may always have the win- 
dow open. But the passage outside the patient's 
room, though provided with several large win- 
dows, may never have one open : because it is 
not understood that the charge of the sick-room 
extends to the charge of the passage. And' thus, 
as often happens, the nurse makes it her busi- 
ness to turn the patient's room into a ventilating 
shaft for the foul air of the whole house. 

An uninhabited room, a newly- painted room, 
an unoleaned closet or cupboard, may often be- 
come the reservoir of foul air for the whole 
house, because the person in charge never 
thinks of arranging that these places shall be 
always aired, always cleaned; she merely opens 
the window herself "when she goes in." 

An agitating letter or message may be deliver- 
ed, or an imjjortant letter or message not de- 
livered; a visitor whom it was of consequence 
tosee, may be refused, or one whom it was of 
still more consequence to not see may be admit- 
ted — because the person in charge has never 
asked herself this question, What is done when 
I am not there ? 



At all events, one may safely say, a nurse can- 
not be with the patient, open the door, eat her 
meals, take a message, all at one and the same 
time. Nevertheless the person in charge never 
seems to look the impossibility in the face. 

Add to this that the attempting this impossi- 
bility does more to increase the poor patient's 
hurry and nervousness than any thing else. 

It is never thought that the patient remem- 
bers these things if you do not. He has not 
only to think whether the visit or letter may ar- 
rive, but whether you will be in the way at the 
particular day and hour when it may arrive. So 
that your partial measures for "being in the 
way" yourself, only increase the necessity for 
his thought. Whereas, if you could but arrange 
that the thing should always be done whether 
you are there or not, he need never think at aU 
about it. 

For the above reasons, whatever a patient can 
do for himself, it is better, i. e. less anxiety, for 
him to do for himself, unless the person in 
charge has the spirit of management. 

It is evidently much less exertion for a pa^ 
tient to answer a letter for himself by return of 
post, than to have four conversations, wait five 
days, have six anxieties before it is off his mind, 
before the personwho has to answerit has done so. 

Apprehension, uncertainty, waiting, expecta- 
tion, fear of surprise, do a patient more harm 
than any exertion. Remember, he is face to 
face with his enemy all the time, internally 
wrestling with him, having long imaginary 
conversations with him. You are thinking of 
something else. "Eid him of his adversary 
quickly," is a first rule with the sick. 

For the same reasons, always tell a patient 
and tell him beforehand when you are going out 
and when you will be back, whether it is for a 
day, an hour, or ten minutes. You fancy per- 
haps that it is better for him if he does not find 
out your going at all, better for him if you do 
not make yourself "of too much importance" 
to him; or else you cannot bear to give him the 
pain or the anxiety of the temporary separation. 

No such thing. You ovght to go, we will 
suppose. Health or duty requires it. Then say 
so to the patient openly. If you go without his 
knowing it, and he finds it out, he never will 
feel secure again that the things which depend 
upon you will be done when you are away, and 
in nine cases out of ten he will be right. If 
you go out without telling him when you will 
be back, he can take no measures nor precau- 
tions as to the things which concern you both, 
or which .you do for him. 

In institutions where many lives would be 
lost, and the effect of such a want of manage- 
ment would be terrible and patent, there is less 
of it ihau in the private house. 

But in both, let whoever is in charge keep 
this simple question in her head {not, how can 
I always do this ri^ht thing myself, but) bow 
can I provide for this right thing to be always 
done? 

Then, when any thing wrong has actually 
happened in consequence of her absence, which 
absence we will suppose to have been quite 
right, let her question still be {not, how 'can I 
provide against any more of such absences? 
"which is neither possible nor desirable, but) how 
can I provide against any thing wrong arising 
out of my absence ? 



The BcCnitary Oommismn BvMetirii 



2l1 



K0I3E. 

TJnneoessary noise, or noise that creates an 
expectation in the mind, is that which hurts a 
patient. R is rarely the loudness of the noise, 
the effect upon the organ of the ear itself, which 
ajipears to affect the sick. How well a jiaiient 
will generally bear, e. g., the putting up of a 
scaffolding close to the house, when he cannot 
bear the talking, still less the whispering, 
especially if it be of a familar voice, outside 
his door. 

Never to allow a patient to be waked, inten- 
tionally or accidentally, is a sine qua non of all 
goo|i nursing. If he is roused out of his first 
sleep, he is almost certain to have no more 
sleep. It is a curious but quite intelligible 
fact that, if a patient is waked after a few hours' 
instead of a few minutes' sleep, he is much 
more likely to sleep again. Because pain, like 
irritability of brain, perpetuates and intensifies 
itself. If you have gained a respite of either in 
sleep, you have gained more than the mere 
respite. Both the probability of recurrence and 
of the same intensity will be diminished ; 
whereas both will be terribly increased by want 
of sleep. This is the reason why sleep is so 
all-important. This is the reason why a patient 
waked in the early part of his sleep loses not 
only his sleep, but his power to sleep. A 
healthy person who allows himself to sleep 
during the day will lose his sleep at night. But 
it is exactly the reverse with the sick generally; 
the more they sleep, 'the laetter will they be 
able to sleep. 

I have often been surprised at the thoughtless- 
ness (resulting in cruelty, quite unintentionally) of 
friends or of doctors who will hold a long con- 
versation just in the room or passage adjoining 
to the room of the patient, who is either every 
moment expecting them to come in, or who has 
just seen them, and knows they are talking about 
him. If it is a whispered conversation in the 
same room, then it is absolutely cruel ; for it is 
impopsible that the patient's attention should not 
be involuntarily strained to hear. Walking on 
tip-toe, doing any thing in the room very slowly, 
are injurious, for exactly the same reasons. A 
firm, light" quick step, a steady, quick hand, are 
the desiderata ; not the slow, lingering, shuffling 
foot, the timid, uncertain touch. Slowness is not 
gentleness, though it is often mistaken for such: 
quickness, lightness, and gentleneps are quite 
compatible. Again, if friends and doctors did 
but watch, as nurses caU and should watch, the 
features sharpening, the eyes growing almost 
wild, of fever patients who are listeriing for the 
entrance from the corridor of the persons whose 
voices they are hearing there, these would never 
run the risk again of creati'ng such expectation, 
or irritation of mind. Such unnecessary noise 
has Undoubtedly induced or aggravated delirium 
in many cases. 

I need hardly say that the other common cause, 
namely, for a doctor or friend to leave the patient 
and communicate his opinion on the result of his 
visit to the friends just outside the patient's door, 
or in the adjoining room, after the visit, but 
within hearing or knowledge of the patient, is, if 
possible, worst of all. 

It is, I think, alarming, peculiarly at this time, 
when the female ink-botiles are perpetually im- 
pressing upon us " woman's " " particular worth 



aiid general missionarJness," to see that the dress 
of woman is daily more and more unfitting thenii 
for any " mission," or usefulness at all. It is 
equally unfitted for all poetic and all domestic 
purposes. A man is now a more handy and far 
less objectionable being in a sick room than a 
woman. Compelled by her dress, every woman 
now either shuffles or waddles— only a man can 
cross the floor of asiok-rootti without shaking it! 
What is beconie of woman's light step ? — the firm, 
ligt\t, quick step we have been asked for? 

The noiseless step of woman, th". noiseless 
drapery of woman, are mere figures of speech id 
this day. Her skirts (and well if they do not throw 
down some piece of furniture) will at least brush 
against every article in the room as she moves. 

Again, one nurse cannot open the door with- 
out making every thing rattle. Or she opeiis the 
door unnecessarily often, for want of remember- 
ing all the articles that migh t be brought in at once. 
A good nurse will always make sure that no 
door or window in her patient's room shall rattle 
or creak; that no blin* or curtain shall, by any 
change of wind through the open window, be 
made to flap — especially will she be careful of all 
this before she leaves her patients for the night. 
If you wait till your patients tell you, or remind 
you of these things,wliere is the use of their having 
a nurse ? There are more shy than exacting pa- 
tients, in all classes ; and many a patient passes 
a bad night, time after time, rather than remind 
his nurse every night of all the things she has 
forgotten. 

If there are blinds to your windows, always 
take care to have them well up, when they are 
not being used. A little piece slipping down, and 
flapping with every draught, will distract a patient. 
All hurry or bustle is peculiar'ly painful to the 
sick. And when a patient has compulsory occupa- 
tions to engage him, instead of having simply, to 
amuse himself, it becomes doubly injurious. The 
friend who remains standing and fidgeting about 
while a patient is talking business to him, or the 
friend who sits and proses, the one from an idea of 
not letting the patient talk, the other from an idea 
of amusing him — each is equally inconsiderate. 
Always sit down when a sick person is talking 
business to you, show no signs "of hurry, give 
complete attention and full consideration if your 
advice is wanted, and go away the moment the 
subject is ended. 

Always sit within the patient's view, so that 
when you speak to him he has not painfully td 
turn his head round in order to look at you. 
Everybody involuntarily looks at the person 
speaking. If you make this act a wearisome one 
on. the part of the patient, yon are doiflg him 
harm. So also if by continuing tcf stand you 
make him continuously raise his eyes to see you. 
Be as motionless as possible, and never gesticu- 
late in speaking to the sick. 

Never make a patient repeat a message or re- 
quest, especially if it be some time after. Occu- 
pied patients are often accused of doing too much 
of their own business. They are instinctively 
right. How often you hear the person, charged 
with the request 9f- giving the mes.sage or writ- 
ing the letter, say half an hour afterwards to the 
patient, "Did you appoint 12 o'clock?" or, 
"What did you say was the address?" or ask 
perhaps some much more agitating question- 
thus causing the patient the effort of memory, or 
worse still, of deoisioH, all over again. It ii 



218 



The Sanitary Commission BvEMn. 



really less exertion to him to write his letters 
himself. This is the almost universal experience 
of occupied invalids. 

This brings us to another caution. Never 
speak to an invalid from behind, nor from the 
door, nor from any distance from him, nor wh'en 
he is doing any thing. 

The official politeness of servants in these 
things is so grateful to invalids, that many pre- 
fer, without knowing why, having none but 
servants about them. 

These things are not fancy. If we consider 
that, with sick as with well, every thought de- 
composes some nervous matter — that decomposi- 
tion as well as re-composition of nervous matter 
is always going on, and more quickly with the 
sick than with the well — that, to obtrude abruptly 
another thought upon the brain while it is in the 
act of destroying nervous matter by thinking, is 
calling upon it to make a new exertion — if we con- 
sider these things, which are facts, not fancies, we 
shall remember that we are doing positive injury 
by interrupting, by " startling a fanciful " person, 
as it is called. Alas! it is no fancy. 

If the invalid is forced, by his avocations, to 
continue occupiitions requiring much thinking, 
the injury is doubly great. In feeding a patient 
suffering under delirium or stupor you may suf- 
focate him, by giving him his food suddenly, but 
if you rub his lips gently with a spoon and thus 
attract his attention, he will swallow the food 
unconsciously, but with perfect safety. Thus it 
is with the brain. If you offer it a thought, 
especially one requiring a decision, abruptly, you 
do it a real not fanciful injury. Never speak to 
a sick person suddenly ; but, at the same time, 
do not keep his expectation on the tip-toe. 

This rule, indeed, applies to the well quite as 
much as to the sick. I have never known per- 
sons who exposed themselves for years to con- 
Btant interruption who did not muddle away 
their intellects by it at last. The process with 
them may be accomplished without pain. With 
the sick, pain gives warning of the injury. 

Do not meet or overtake a patient who is mov- 
ing about in order to speak to him, or to give 
him any message or letter. You might just as 
well give him a box on the ear. I have seen a 
patient fall flat on the ground who was standing 
when his nurse came into the room. This was an 
accident which might have happened to the most 
careful nurse. But the other is done with inten- 
tion. A patient in such a state is not guiug to 
the East Indies. If you would wait ten seconds, 
or walk ten yards further, any promenade he 
could make would be over. Vou do not know 
the effort it is to a patient to remain standing for 
even a quarter of a minute to listen to you. If 
I had not seen the thing done by the kindest 
nurses and friends, I should have thought this 
cautiou'%[uite superfluous. 

It is absolutely essential that a nurse should 
lay this down as a positive rule to herself, never 
to speak to any patient who is standing or mov- 
ing, as long as she exercises so little observation 
as not to know when a patient cannot bear it. I 
am satisfied that many of the accidents which 
happen from feeble patients turiibliug down stairs, 
fainting after getting up, &c., happen solely from 
the nurse popping out of a door to speak to the 
patient just at that moment; or from his fearing 
that she will do so. And that if the patient were 
even left to himself, till he can sit down, such 



accidents would much seldomer occur. If the 
nurse accompanies the patient, let her not call 
upon him to speak. It is incredible that nnrses 
cannot picture to themselves the strain upon the 
heart, thf! lungs, and the brain, which the act of 
moving is to any feeble patient. 

Patients are often accused of being able to 
" do much more when nobody is by." It is quite 
true that they can. Unless nurses can be brought to 
attend to considerations of the kind of which we 
have given here but a few specimens, a very 
weak patient finds it really much less exertion to 
do things for himself than to ask for them. And 
he will, in order to do them, (very innocently and 
from instinct,) calculate the time bis nurse is lijie- 
ly to be absent, from a fear of her '• coming in 
upon" him or speaking to him, just at the mo- 
ment when he finds it quite as much as he can do 
to crawl from his bed to his chair, or from one 
room to another, or down stairs, or out of doors for 
a few minutes. — Miss JVightingale. 

PROTECTIVE 

OP THE 

STATE OP NEW YOEK. 



OFFICE, 35 CHAMBERS STREET, 



Libut.-Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Hon. HAMILTON FISH. 
JOHN J. CISCO, Esq. 
ADMIBAIi DUPONT. 
KUDOLPH A. WITTHAUS, Esq. 

Treasurer. 
EOBT. B. MINTUEN, Esq. 

Directors. 

HoNS. E. D. MORGAN, GEORGE OPDYKE, 
HIRAM BARNEY, JaS. W. BEEKMAN. Rev. 
H. W. BELLOWS, D.D. Mkssbs. JOHN JACOB 
ASTOR, JAMES BROWN, WM. H. ASPINWALL, 
JAS. GALLATIN, HOWARD POTTER, WM. E. 
DODGE, JE., THEODORE ROOSEVELT, PETER 
COOPER, GEORGE BANCROFT, DANIEL LORD, 
WILSON G. HUNT.ROBT. L. STUART, ALFRED 
PELL. 

Apply in person or by letter, to 
HENRY GEEENEIELD, Sec'y, 
35 Chambebs Sibeet, New York. 



OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Is*. To secure the soldiers and sailors and 
their families, any claims for pensions, pay, 
or bounty, etc., without cost to the daimant. 

2d. To protect soldiers or sailors and their 
families from imposture and fraud. 

3d. To prevent false claims from being 
made against the Oovernment. 

Ml. To give gratuitous advice and. infor- 
mation to soldiers and sailors or their fami- 
lies needing it. 



The 8anita/ry Commission Bulletin, 



219 



THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 
Was constituted by the Secretary of "War in 
June, 1861, in accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the Sur^eon-Gjeneral of the U. S. 
Army, and its appointment and iilan of organi- 
zation were approved by the President of tbe 
United States. Its present organization is as 
follows: 

H. "W. BeUows, D.D., New York. 

A. D. Bache, LL.D., "Washington, D. 0. 

F. L. Olmsted,' CaUfomia. 
George T. Strong, Esq., New York. 
Elisha; Harris, M.D.^ New York. 

"W. H. Van Buren, M.D., New York. 

G. "W. Oullom, U. s; A.. 
A, E. Shiras, U. S. A. 

K. C. "Wood, Assistant Surg.-Gen'l U. S. A. 
Woloott Gibbs, M.D., New York. 
S. G. Howe, M.D., Boston, Mass. 
C. B. Agnew, M.D. ,. New York. 
J. S. Newberry, M.I)., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Bt. Eev. T. M. Clarke, Providence, K. I. 
Hon. R. "W. Burnett, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Hon. Mark Skinner, Chicago, 111. 
Hon. Joseph Holt, "Washington, D. C. 
Horace Binney, Jr., Philadelphia, Penn. 
Eev. J. H. Heywood, Louisville, Ky. 
J. Huntington Wolcott, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. Fairman Eogers, Philadelphia, Penn. 

officers: 

H. W. Bellows, D.D., President. 

A.«D. Bache, LL.D., Tioe-President. 

George T. Strong, Treasurer. 

3. Poster Jenldns, M.D., General Secretary. 

J. S. NewbeiTy, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

J. H. Douglas, M.D., Associate Secretary. 

F. N. Knapp, Associate Secretary. 

BTANDIKG OOMMITTEB. 

Henry W. Bellows, D.D. 
George T. Strong. 
William H. "Van Buren, M.D. 
Woloott Gibbs, M.D. 
C. K. Agnew, M.D. 



HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 

The Sanitary Commission has made arrangements 
for supplying information gratuitously, with regard to 
patients iu aU the United States General Hospitals. 

For information relative to patients in the Hospitals in 
Eastern Virginia, Maryland, District of Columbia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana, address 
"Office of Sanitary Commission, Washington, D. C." 

For the Hospitals in Pennsylvania, address •* Office of 
Sanitary CommiBsion, No. 1,307 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia.".' 

For_th% Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, and the 
New Imgland States, address '* Office Women's Central 
Union, No. 10 Cooper Institute, New York." 

For the Hospitals in Western Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missis- 
sippi, and Arkansas, address "Office Sanitary Com- 
mission, Louisville, Ky." • . ' 

In all cases the name, rank, company, and regiment of 
the person inquired for shoiild be given,, and where he 
was when last heard from. If the application is by letter, 
the answer will be sent by return of mall ; if in person, 
it will be answered at once,; or if by telegraph, an 
answer will be returned immediately at the inquirer's 
expense. .« 

tS" Soldiers' Aid Societies, clergymen, editors, and 
others, can scarcely serve the cause of humanity more 
effectually than by frequently and widely disseminating 
a knowledge of the above, among those who h^ve friends 
in the army. 



> SUPPLY DEPARTMENT. 

The Sanitary Commission, under special author- 
ity of the President of the United States, maintains 
an extensive system of agencies for securing the 
safe conveyance to, and distribution of, goods put 
in its charge for the sick and wounded at points 
where they are most wanted. It operates with 
equal care and generosity at all points — at New Or- 
leans and at Washington, before Charleston and at 
Chattanooga — its distributions being governed by a 
comparison of the wants of the patients in aU cases. 
The following is a list of depots, to which auxiliary 
societies, and all disposed to aid the sick and 
wounded, without reference to Stat'-.s or localities, 
but simply to their relative necessity for assist- 
ance, are mvited to send their offerings: 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 22 Sum- 
mer Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 10 3d 
Avenue, New York. 

Sanltaiy Cominission, Branch Depot, No. 1,307 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. i6 
South Sharp Street, i^ltimore, Md. 

Sanitary CommissiOTi, Branch Depot, comer Vine 
and Sixth Streets, Cincinnati, 0. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No, 95 
Bank Street,, Cleveland, O. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 66 Mad- 
ison Street, Chicago, 111. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 2 Ad- 
am's Block, Buffalo, New York. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, No, 59 1th 
Street;, Pittsbjirg, Penn. 

Samtary Commission, Branch Depot, No. 32 Lar- 
ned Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Sanitary Commission, Branch Depot, Fifth Street, 
Louisville, Ky. 

The Commission receives no pecuniary aid what- 
ever from the Government, and is wholly depend- 
ent on the voluntary contributions of the public for 
the means of sustaining its operations. Contribu- 
tions to the Treasury are solicited, and may be 
transmitted to Gsorge T. Strong, Esq., Treasurer, 
68 WaE Street, N. Y. 



RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 

General Superintendent, Bev. F. K. Knappj 'Washing 
ton, D. C. Chief Assistant; J. B. Abbott. 

Soldiers' Home, near Baltimore Eailroad Depot, Wash'* 
ington, D. G. 

liOdge No. 4, H Street, between IStb. and llth Streets. 

Lodge Ko. 5, Maryland Avenue, near Railroad Station. 

Nurses' Home, Wasbington, D. 0. 

Soldiers' Home, Tbird Street, east of Broadway, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio — Col. G. W. D. Andrews, Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cairo, HI.— C. N. Sbipman, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Louisville, Ky.— James Malona, Sup't 
James Morton, Special BeHef Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Nasbville, Tenn. — ^L. Crane, Sup't and 
Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Home, Columbus, Obio , Sup't. 

Soldiers' Home, Cleveland, Ohio — Clark Warren, Sup't 
. and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, near landing, Memphis, Tenn. — C.W, 
Christy, Sup't and Belief Agent. 

Soldiers' Lodge, Vicksburg, Misa;— T. "Way, Sup't. 

AGENCY FOB PENSIONS, 

'William F. Bascom, Pension Agent, Washington, D. 

HOSPITAL OAnS. 

Between Washington and New York— Sol, Andrews, 
M. D., Surgeon in charge. ' 

Between Louisville and Mur&eesboro' — ^Dr. J. F. Baiv 
num. Surgeon in charge, 

BANITABY BTEAMEB6, 

Mississippi River- Clara Bell; Cumberland BlTfir— 
New Donleith; Potomac Biver— Elizabeth. 



220 The Sanitary Commiasidn BuUetm. 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, 

^ Daily Evening N'eTTVspaper, 
Published at IJ, 2i, and 4 P. M., 

IM A I.Am©® F@E.I© iHEETa 

The COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, through its reorganization and enlarged 
facilities, commands a position in advance of existing commercial papers, while it abates 
no claim to rank on terms of equality with the most popular literary and the most trust- 
worthy political journals. ' 

The Price, Three Cents a Copy, 

At which rate it is sold everywhere, or delivered in the city by Carriers. 
A Liberal Discount to Newsmen.- 



Annual Mail Subscription Nine Dollars a Year, Strictly in Advance.9 

NEW YORK SPECTATOR, 

SEMI-WEEKLY, 

THREE DOLLARS per annum, in advance, with reduced Rates to Clubs. 
Address, 

COMMERCIAl. ADVERTISER ASSOCIATION, 
' Cor. Pine and William streets, New York. 




Adapted to every branch of business. 

MANUFACTURED ONLY BY THE ORIGINAL INVENTORS, 

E. k T. FAIRBANKS & CO, St. Jolinsbury, Vermont. 

PRINCIPAL WAREHOUSES: 
FAIRBANKS & CO.. No. 252 Broadway, New Totk. 
FAIRBANKS & BROWN. No. 118 Milk Street. Boston. 
FAIRBANKS, GREENLBAP & CO., No. 173 Lake Street, Chicago. 
FAIRBANKS & EW^ING, Masonio HaU, Philadelphia. 
FAIRBANKS & CO., No. 246 Baltimore Street, Baltimore. 
Descriptive circulars furnighed or mailed to any address, on appMcation to either of 
the above. 



The JSanitary Commission jpuUefin. 



221 



SANFORD'S CHALLENGE HEATERS 

TO SET IN BRICK, OR PORTABLE. 




The most powerful Hbatees known for warming 

DWELLINGS, CHURCHES, 
Hospitals, Schools, Vessels, &c. 

Send or call for a Full Dbscjjiption, and an 
unparalleled mass of testimony from some of our 
grst citizens. 




TO SET IN BEICK. 



POKTABLE. 



SANFORB'S MAMMOTH 

OB 

G-LOBE HEATERS, 

Of great power and economy of fuel, for 
all places where great heat is wanted, as 

stores, Hotels, R. R. Depots, 
Vessels, &c. 

These Heaters are used hy the 
Hudson Eiver and other Eail- 
ROABS, most of the Ferries, Fire 
Engine Houses, &c. Beware of 
imitations that are inferior. 
Extensively used in Hospitals 
and Barracks. 

GUT SANFORD'S MAMMOTH. 




THB 



KITCHEN RANGES, 

For Coal or Wood, set in fire-places without 

masonry, or out 

on feet ; have the 

* Largest Ovens of 

anyinmarket; bake 




perfectly ; never 
failing to brown at 
the bottom. Boil, 
Boast and Broil with great faciKty and dis- 
patch, and EooNOMT as Fitel. A most de- 
sirable Range for Private Houses, Hotels, 
Hospitals, Barracks, «6c. 



THE COSMOPOLITE 

PARLOR COAL STQVE, 

With Radiator, Ventilator, and 
Gas Burning Attacbment- 

The Leading Stove for 

PARLORS, 

SITTING-EOOMS, 

And aU places where a soft, 
PLEASANT HEAT is desired. Fires 
kept all winter with an aston- 
ishingly small supply of coal. 




SUMMEB AND WTNTBB 

PORTABLE RANGE. 

A very, popular Bange, 
with Six Boiler Holes, 
one Large Oven that 
bakes perfectly, with 
an arrangement for 
Boasting, or Heating 
Lrons, at the end. 

,^~ .a perfect apparatus for a few dollart 
and well suited for families, restaurants, bai 
racks, Sfc. 




Also, a great variety of COOKENG AND HEATING APPAEATUS, suited to ever 
want. Also, the UNION STOVE POLISH. Get description of above, with referencei 

''°" SANFORD, TKUSLOW & CO., 

^3 and 241 Water St., New York. 



The Sanita/ry Commission BuUdin. 



RECEIVED 

TWO PRIZE MEDALS 





(FEOM JUEIES 3 AND 4) 

AT THE 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 



Being Sole Awards gained by anything &f the kind. It ako received Superlative Beport of 
"EXCEEDING EXCELLENT FOR FOOD." 



MAIZENA, 

At the GEEAT INTEENATIONAL EXHIBITION at HAMBUEG, Jtdy, 1883, received 
the highest Prize Medal for its great delioacy as an article of food. 

MAIZENA, 

At the FAIE of the NEW TOEK STATE AGEICULTUEAL SOCIETY, at Utica, N. T., 
September, 1863, received both Difloma. and Mia>Aii. 

MAIZEISTA, 

1 AT 'I' HM 

Pennsylvania State Fair at Norristown, 

Oct. 3, 1863, took Gold Medal. 

" MAIMENA" has also taken the first premium at the AitBRiOAir Institutb, New York 
City; Nkw Jebset State Eaeb at Trenton, and at other places — ^in every instance where 
it IiJais been exhibited. 

" MAIZENA" has never failed to receive the highest award when placed in competi- 
tion with Com Starch and all articles of like character, after a thorough Microscopical 
and Analytical Examination of disinterested judges. It therefore stands commended to 
the public as the best article of its kind in the world without any comments of the manu- 
facturer. 

MAIZENA, 

For Puddings, Cakes, Custards, Blanc Mange, &c., without isinglass, with few or no eggs, 
at a cost astonishing the most economical. It is also excellent for thickenin