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Full text of "Landmarks of Steuben County, New York"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME 
OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT 
FUND GIVEN IN 1891 BY 

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this bool< is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924095617415 



LANDMARKS 



OF 



STEUBEN COUNTY 



NEW YORK 



EDITED BY 

HON. HARLO HAKES 

ASSISTED BY 

L. C. ALDRICH AND OTHERS 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

p. 'MASON & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

1896 



PREFACE. 



In the preparation of this historical and biographical record earlier 
works bearing- on the history of this section of the State have been 
consulted, and also many original sources of information. A careful 
review of the work, from beginning to end, discloses the fact that 
more than two thousand persons have been interviewed in the quest of 
authentic data, hence it cannot be assumed that the present volume is 
a mere compilation from previous publications. The work is now 
placed before the people of the county, and the editor, writers and pub- 
lishers have no apology to make, believing none is needed. At the 
same time they have not the temerity to claim this to be a faultless 
volume, but assert for it reasonable and substantial accuracy. The 
arrangement of the subject of the county's history will be found 
novel, yet convenient and interesting. 

The editor and the writers take this opportunity to express thanks 
for generous assistance on the part of the best informed men of the 
region, and the publishers also acknowledge a debt of gratitude to the 
public spirited citizens of the county at large for the hearty support 
that has made the work possible. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 



County Organizations — Albany — Tryon — Montgomery — Ontario — Steuben — 
Claims to Pre-historic Occupation — Early Discoveries and Explorations — 
The French— The Dutch— The English. _ 1 

CHAPTER II. 

French and English Rivalry — The Indian Occupation — Iroquois Confederacy — 
The Senecas — The Jesuit Fathers among the Indians — Events Preceding and 
During the French and English Wars — Overthrow of French Power in Amer- 
ica — The Delaware Village near .Canisteo 6 

CHAPTER III. 

Events Preceding the Revolution — Pontiac's League — Action of the Senecas — 
The Revolutionary War — Sullivan's Campaign — Brief Reference to the Indian 
History and Antiquities of Steuben County 14 

CHAPTER IV 

After the Revolution — An Era of Peace — Controversy between Massachusetts 
and New York — The Hartford Convention — The Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase — -The Lessee Companies — Settlement of Difficulties — The Surveys — 
Sale to Robert Morris — The Pulteney Association — Charles Williamson — 
Foundation of Land Titles in Steuben County — The Anti-Rent Conflict 20 

' CHAPTER V • 

Division of Montgomery County — Creation of Ontario and Steuben Counties — 
Brief Allusion to Baron Steuben — His Life and Services — The Original Terri- 
tory of Steuben County Divided into Towns — First County Officers — County 
Buildings — Second Jury District — Steuben County Civil List 30 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 
The Civil Divisions of the County 39 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Civil Divisions of the County 82 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Civil Divisions of the County.,.. _. = 104 

CHi\PTER IX. 
The Civil Divisions of the County 130 

CHAPTER X. 
The Civil Divisions of the County 150 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Civil Divisions of the County 164 

CHAPTER XII. 

Events Preceding and During the War of 1813-15 — Companies Organized in 
Steuben County — Results of the "War — The Conflict with Mexico — The Steu- 
ben Company — Population of the County by Decades 185 

CHAPTER XII'I. 
Steuben County in the War of 1861-65 ,: 190 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Bench and Bar 205 

CHAPTER XV. 
The Press 226 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Medical Profession. 237 



CONTENTS. vii 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Cities, Villages and Hamlets 248 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Cities, Villages and Hamlets 308 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Cities, Villages and Hamlets 333 

CHAPTER XX. 
Cities, Villages and Hamlets... ._ 337 

chapter' XXI. 
Churches. 354 

PART II> . 

BIOGRAPHICAL 1-79 

I 

PART III. 

FAMILY SKETCHES '. 1-506 



INDEXES. 

Historical 507 

Biographies 514 

Family Sketches 515 

Portraits ..„.,.,,... ._ ....„ , 539 



LANDMARKS 



OF 



STEUBEN COUNTY. 



CHAPTER I. 

County Organizations— Albany— Tyron — Montgomery — Ontario — Steuben — Claims 
to Pre-historic Occupation — Early Discoveries and Explorations — The French — The 
Dutch— The English. 

The State of New York, for the purpose of more conveniently admin- 
istrating the affairs of local government, is divided by law into counties, 
and the latter are further subdivided into towns. Municipal govern- 
ments, likewise, are provided for cities and villages, securing to them 
separate officers and tribunals for the management of their peculiar 
affairs, and other privileges, varying with their respective charters. 
Under the Dutch dominion the only divisions were the city and towns. 
Counties were erected, for the first time, by the act of 1683, 3^"^ were 
twelve in number, Albany being farthest west in the colony of New 
York and in its jurisdiction extending over the region n6w of Steuben 
county, although no civilized occupancy was then known in this part of 
the province. 

Tryon county was erected in 1772, from Albany, and comprised the 
country west of a nprth and south line extending from St. Regis to the 
west bounds of the town of Schenectady; thence running irregularly 
southwest to the head of the Mohawk branch of the Delaware, and 
along the same to the southwest bounds of the present county of 
Broome ; thence in a northwesterly direction to Fort Bull, on Wood 
Creek, near the present village of Rome. All the region west of the 
1 



2 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

line last mentioned was Indian territorj', unoccupied by the whites, 
except incidentally, and not subject to county jurisdiction. 

On the 27th day of January, 1789 (after the close of the Revolution, 
and after the settlement of the controversy between the States of Massa- 
chusetts and New York, growing out of conflicting grants and charters 
by the crown), the county of Tyron, then known, however, as Mont- 
gomery, was divided, and that part of the State which had been ceded 
to Massachusetts, so far as the pre-emption right was concerned, was 
erected into a separate county by the name of Ontario; and from the 
latter, on March 8, 1796, the county of Steuben was formed and there- 
after duly organized. 

The history of Steuben county properly begins with the time of its 
creation, and a narrative of the events of the territory within its bound- 
aries, previous to such erection, must be associated with the history of 
the older counties of which it once formed a part. In fact the aboriginal 
occupation of this region is inseparably connected with that of the whole 
Phelps and Gorham purchase, and is auxiliary to though not co-ex- 
tensive with it. 

The claim has been made on the part of many well-informed persons 
that there have been found in various localities in Steuben county 
evidences of a pre- historic occupation ; that there have been discovered 
certain relics and implements of peculiar construction the like of which 
are now unknown, and that they must have been left by a race of peo- 
ple different from the red sons of the forest, the period of whose occu- 
pancy long antedated the coming of the ancestors of the famed Iroquois. 
This claim, in the writer's view, is a mistaken one. True, there have 
been unearthed tools and utensils which were never in common use 
among the Indians, but we must remember that the Jesuits and their 
followers traversed this region more than a century and a half before 
any civilized white settlement was made ; and we must also remember 
that the crude and to us unaccountable implements were then in the 
hands of comparative ancients, and were the product of a period in 
which was known but little of the mechanical arts as we see and under- 
stand and use them at the present time. None of the Indian tribes had 
a tradition that run to the time of the Mound- builders, and while there 
may be ill-defined outline possibilities of such a presence from which 
the student of archaeology may theorize on this subject, we see nothing 



EARLY DISCOVERIES. 3 

in the claim referred to which is inconsistent with the modern theory 
of continuous Indian occupation. 

Four hundred years ago the first Spanish adventurers landed on the 
shores of the American continent. Saihng under the patronage of 
Spain, Christopher Columbus, the Genoese, in 1492 made his wonderful 
discoveries, an event generally designated as the discovery of America, 
although the first Europeans to visit the western hemisphere were 
Scandinavians, who colonized Iceland in A. D. 875, Greenland in 983, 
and about the year 1000 had cruised southward as far as the Massachu- 
setts coast. 

During the ages that preceded these events, no grander country in 
every point of view ever waited the approach of civilization. With 
climate and soil diversified between the most remote extremes ; with 
thousands of miles of ocean shores indented by magnificent harbors to 
welcome the world's commerce ; with many of the largest rivers of the 
globe draining its territory and forming natural highways for commerce ; 
with a system of lakes so immense in area as to entitle them to the name 
of inland seas; with mountains, hills and valleys laden with the richest 
minerals and almost exhaustless fuel ; and with scenery unsurpassed for 
grandeur, it needed only the Caucasian to transform a wilderness in- 
habited only by savages into the free, enlightened republic, which is 
to day the wonder and glory of the civilized world. 

Following close upon the discoveries of Columbus and other early 
explorers, various foreign powers fitted out fleets and commissioned 
navigators to establish colonies in the vast but unknown continent. 
These events, however, will be briefly treated in this work, and only 
those will be mentioned which had at least an indirect bearing upon our 
subject. 

In 1508, Aubert discovered the St. Lawrence River, and 1524, Francis 
I, king of France, sent Jean Verrazzani on a voyage of exploration to 
the new world. He entered a harbor, supposed to have been that of 
New York, where he remained fifteen days ; and it is belieVed that his 
crew were the first Europeans to land on the soil of what is now the 
State of New York. The Gallic explorer cruised along the coast about 
2,100 miles, sailing as far north as Labrador, and giving to the whole 
region the name of "New France" — a name by which the French 
possessions in America were ever known during the dominion of that 



4 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

power. In 1534 the same king sent Jacques Cartier to the country, and 
he made two voyages, on the second being accompanied with a number 
of French nobiUty, all of whom were filled with high hopes and bearing 
the blessings of the church. This party was determined upon the col- 
onization of the country, but, after passing a severe winter at the Isle 
of Orleans, abandoned their scheme and returned to France. As a be- 
ginning of the long list of needless and shameful betrayals, treacheries 
and other abuses to which the too confiding natives were subjected, 
Cartier inveigled into his vessel an Indian chief who had been his gen- 
er'ous host, and bore him with several others into hopeless captivity 
and final death. 

Cartier again visited New France in 1540, but no further attempts 
in the same direction were made until about 1589, when the re- 
gion, particularly its Canadian portion, was made a place of banish- 
ment for French convicts; but even this scheme failed, and it remained 
for private enterprise to make the first successful effort toward the 
permanent occupation of the country. The real discoverer and founder 
of a permanent colony in New France was Samuel de Champjain, a 
man born with that uncontrollable instinct of investigation and desire 
for knowledge of distant regions which has always so strongly charac- 
terized all great explorers. His earlier adventures in this country have 
no connection with this work, and it is therefore sufficient to merely 
mention that in 1608 he was sent to the country and founded Quebec. 
To satisfy his love for exploration, Champlain united with the Cana- 
dian Indians and marched into the unknown country to the southward, 
and the result was the discovery of the lake that bears his name. The 
party also invaded the land of the Mohawks, in the country of the Iroquois, 
and a conflict followed between the Algonquins, aided by Champlain 
and a portion of the Iroquois, in which the latter were defeated with 
the loss of two of their chiefs, who fell by the hands of Champlain him- 
self. 

Thus was signalized the first hostile meeting between the white man 
and the Indian. Low as the latter was found in the scale of intelligence 
and humanity, and terrible as were many of the subsequent deeds of 
the Iroquois, it cannot be denied that their early treatment could foster 
in the savage breast any other feeling than that of bitterest hostility. 
It seems like a pathetic page of romance to read Champlain's statement 



CONFLICTING GRANTS. 5 

that " The Iroquois are greatly astonished, seeing two men killed so 
instantaneously," one of whom was their chief; while the ingenuous 
acknowledgment of the Frenchman, " I had put four balls into my 
arquebus," is a vivid testimony of how little mercy the Iroquois nation 
were to expect from their northern enemies and the pale-faced race 
which was eventually to drive them from their domain. It was an age, 
however, in which might was appealed to as right more frequently 
than in later years, and the planting of the lowly .banner of the Cross 
was frequently preceded by bloody conquests. It is in the hght of the 
prevailing custom of the old world in Champlain's time that we must 
view his ready hostility to the Indian. 

Let us also turn briefly to other events which have had an indirect 
bearing on the settlement of this part of the country. A few weeks 
after the battle between Champlain 'and the Indians, Henry Hudson, a 
navigator in the service of the Dutch East India Company, anchored 
his ship (The Half-moon) at the mouth of the river which now bears his 
name. This took place September 5, 1609. He met the savages and 
was hospitably received by them; but before his departure he sub- 
jected them to an experimental knowledge of the effects of intoxicating 
liquor — an experiment perhaps more baneful in its results than that in- 
flicted by Champlain with his new and murderous weapon, Hudson as- 
cended the river to a point within less than a hundred miles of that 
reached by Champlain, then returned to Europe, and, through the 
information he had gained, soon afterward established a Dutch colony, 
for which a charter was granted in 1614, naming the region "New 
Netherlands." 

The Dutch dominion, however, was of brief duration. Indian hos- 
tilities were provoked through the ill-advised action of Governor 
Kieft, whose official career continued for about ten years, being super- 
seded by Peter Stuyvesant in May, 1647. The latter was the last of 
the Dutch governors, and his firm and equitable policy had the effect of 
harmonizing the discontent existing among the Indians. On the 12th 
of March, 1664. however, Charles II of England granted by letters 
patent to his brother James, the Duke of York, all the country from 
the River St. Croix to the Kennebec in Maine, together with all the 
land from the west bank of the Connecticut River to the east side of 
Delaware Bay. The duke sent an English squadron to secure the 



6 LANDMARKS OE' STEUBEN COUNTY. 

gift, and on the 8th of September following, Governor Stuyvesant capit- 
ulated, being constrained to that course by the Dutch colonists, who 
preferred peace, with the same privileges and liberties accorded to the 
English colonists, rather than a prolonged and perhaps uncertain con- 
test. The English changed the name of New Amsterdam to New 
York, and thus ended the Dutch dominion in America. 

Meanwhile, in 1607, the English had made their first permanent 
settlement at Jamestown, Va., and in 1620 planted their historic colony 
at Plymouth Rock. These two colonies became the successful rivals 
of all others in that strife which finally left them masters of the country. 

On the discoveries and colonizations thus briefly noted, three great 
European powers based claims to a part of the territory embraced in 
the State of New York; first, England, by the reason of the discovery 
of John Cabot, who sailed under commission from Henry VII, and on 
the 24th of June, 1497, reached the coast of Labrador, also that made 
in the following year by his son Sebastian, who explored the same 
coast from New Foundland to Florida, claiming a territory eleven 
degrees in width and indefinitely extending westward; second, France, 
from the discoveries of Verrazzani, claiming a portion of the Atlantic 
coast, and also (under the title of New France) an almost boundless 
region westward; third, Holland, which based on Hudson's discoveries 
a claim to the entire country from Cape Cod to the southern shore of 
Delaware Bay. 



CHAPTER II. 

French and English Rivalry— The Indian Occupation— Iroquois Confederacy— The 
Senecas- The Jesuit Fathers Among the Indians — Events Preceding and During 
the French and English Wars— Overthrow of French Power in America — The Dela- 
ware Village near Canisteo. 

After the final overthrow of the Dutch in the New Netherlands, the 
region now included within the State of New York was still held and 
claimed by three powers — one native and two foreign. The main 
colonies of the French (one of the powers referred to) were in the 
Canadas, but through the zeal of the Jesuit missionaries their line -of 



INDIAN OCCUPATION. 7 

possessions had been extended south and west of the St. Lawrence, and 
some attempts at colonization had been made, but as yet with only- 
partial success. Indeed, as early as 1620, the Jesuit fathers labored 
among the Senecas in this region, and evidences are not wanting to 
show that missionaries carried the banner of the Cross into what is now 
Steuben county. In the southern and eastern portion of the province 
granted to the Duke of York were the English, who with steady yet 
sure advances were pressing settlement . and civilization westward, 
gradually nearing the French possessions. 

The French and English were at this time, and also for many years 
afterwards, conflicting powers, each studying for the mastery on both 
sides of the Atlantic ; and with each succeeding outbreak of war in the 
mother countries, so there were renewed hostilities between their 
American colonies. Directly between the possessions of the French 
and the territory of the English lay the lands of the famous Iroquois 
Confederacy, then more commonly known as the Five Nations. By 
the French they were called " Iroquois," but by the Dutch they were 
known as " Maqiias," while the English called them "Mingoes;" but 
however variously they may have been designated, they were a race of 
savages whose peculiar organization, prowess on the field of battle, 
loyalty to friends, as well as barbarous revenge upon enemies, together 
with eloquent speech and stoical endurance of torture, have surprised 
all who are conversant with their history. 

When, during the latter part of the fifteenth and early part of the 
sixteenth centur}', the foreign navigators visited the American con- 
tinent, they found it in possession of two formidable races of savages, 
between whom there was no unity ; and yet while open hostility was 
suppressed, they were nevertheless in a constant state of disquiet, each 
being jealous of the other and at the same time doubtful of its own 
strength and fearful of the results of a general war. One of the nations 
occupied the region of the larger rivers of Pennsylvania, and also that 
on the south and west To the Europeans they were known as the 
" Delawares," but styled themselves " Lenni Lenapes," meaning 
" Original People." The other nation occupied, principally, the terri- 
tory which afterwards formed the State of New York, and is known in 
history as the " Iroquois Confederacy," or the Five (and subsequently) 
the Six Nations. 



8 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The confederacy originally comprised five nations, which were located 
from east to west across the territory which now forms our State, be- 
ginning with the Mohawks on the extreme east, the Oneidas next, and 
the Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas following in the order named. 
Each of the nations was divided into five tribes, and all were united in 
common league. The Senecas occupied the territory west of the lake 
named from them, and were the guardians of the western door of the 
"Long House," from which we correctly infer that they were the most 
numerous and likewise most formidable in battle of any of the con- 
federates. 

The government of this remarkable confederacy was exercised through 
councils, and in the peculiar blending of their individual, tribal and 
national interests lay the secret of the immense power which for more 
than a century resisted the hostile eff"orts of the French, which caused 
them for nearly a century to be alike courted and feared by the con- 
tending French and English colonies, and which enabled them to sub- 
due the neighboring Indian tribes, until they became really the dictators 
of the continent, gaining indeed the title of "The Romans of the New 
World." There is, however, a difference in the opinions of writers as 
to the true military status of the Iroquois. In the forest they were a 
terrible foe, while in the open country they could not successfully con- 
tend with disciplined soldiery ; but they made up for this deficiency, in 
a large degree, by their self-confidence, vindictiveness and insaitable 
desire for ascendency and triumph. 

While the Iroquois were undoubtedly superior in mental capacity and 
more provident than their Canadian enemies, and other tribes, there is 
little indication that they were inclined to improve the condition in 
which they were found by the Europeans. They, and especially the 
Senecas, were closely attached to their warrior and hunter life, and 
devoted their energies to the lower, if not the lowest forms of enjoyment 
and gratification. Their dwellings, even among the more stationary 
tribes, were rude, their food coarse and poor, and their domestic habits 
and surroundings unclean and barbarous. Their women were degraded 
into mere beasts of burden, and while they believed in a Supreme Being, 
they were powerfully swayed by superstition, by incantations, hy medi- 
cine men, dreams and visions, and their feasts were exhibitions of 
debauchery and gluttony. 



THE JESUITS. . 9 

Such, according to the writer's sincere behef, were some of the more 
prominent characteristics of the race encountered by Champlain when 
he came into the Iroquois country nearly three centuries ago, and wel- 
comed them with the first volley of bullets, a policy that was pursued 
by all his civilized successors. It is not denied that the Indians possessed 
a few redeeming traits, but they were so strongly dominated by their 
barbarous manner of life, that years of faithful missionary labor by the 
Jesuits and others were productive of but very little real benefit. It 
may be added that whatever is true of any one of the Five Nations, or 
(as they became in 1712) the Six Nations, is equally true of all others. 
The Senecas occupied the region of Western New York, and it is with 
them that we have particularly to deal in this narrative. They were, 
perhaps, as peaceful and domestic as some others of the confederacy, 
yet all the early efforts for their civilization and conversion to Christian- 
ity were unsatisfactory and discouraging. No strong, controlling influ- 
ence for good was ever obtained among them previous to the time of 
Sir William Johnson, and even then it is doubtful whether they were 
not moved more by the power of purchase than by love of right. 

When Champlain opened the way for French dominion in America 
the task of planting Christianity among the Indians was assigned to the 
Jesuits, a name derived from the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius 
Loyola in 1539; but while their primary object was to spread the 
gospel, their secondary and scarcely less important purpose was to ex- 
tend the French dominion. In 1736 Canada was restored to France, 
and within three years from that date there were fifteen Jesuits in the 
province. They increased rapidly and extended their influence to a 
large number of Indian nations in the far west, but more particularly to 
the Mohawks and Senecas, they being the more powerful tribes of the 
Iroquois, and holding positions of influence in the confederacy. Still 
energetic as they were, the French carefully avoided for a longtime any 
close contact with the Senecas, and while the Jesuits came to the region 
about 1620, it was not until 1640 that Fathers Breboeuf and Chaumo- 
not succeeded in establishing a foothold among them. In 1667 Went- 
worth Greenhalgh, an Englishman, visited the Indians, counted their 
villages and inhabitants. He reported the Senecas as having one 
thousand warriors, and the confederacy 'about twenty-six hundred. 



10 LANDMARKS 01 STEUBEN COUNTY. 

However, in 1669, under the influence of La Salle, the Seneca cou 
was thoroughly explored, and in 1678 the same adventurous French 
was commissioned by Louis XIV to discover and occupy the wes 
part of New France, to build forts and defenses, though at his 
expense, being granted in return the right to trade in furs and si 
Under La Salle's authority. Father Hennepin, the famous priest 
historian, visited the Seneca country, and from his record has come 
greater portion of all that has been written by later authorities on 
subject of Seneca history and tradition. 

For a period of nearly half a century after the discoveries of La ' 
the French maintained a nominal though not substantial ascendenc 
this region of country. They gained favor with a few of the Sen« 
but the great body of the tribe, true to their league, were little incl 
to forget, much less to forgive, the wrongs done by Champlain, and e 
movement of the French was watched with suspicious interest. Du 
this period the Iroquois invaded Canada and plundered Montreal, 
in retaliation Denonville visited vengeance upon the Seneca countr 
1687, burned the villages and destroyed much property. This v.ic 
was a great achievement for the French, for it gave them a strong ( 
hold in the lake region and made them for the time masters ol 
country, and the Indians concentrated their population in the eas 
part of their domain. This advantage, however, was only tempor 
and upon the withdrawal of the French troops the Senecas reposse 
their former territory. 

Repeated invasions by the French and Canadian Indians at 
awakened the English colonists to the conviction that they must i 
in an effort against the enemy, and accordingly a convention was 
in New York in 1690, at which it was resolved to combine their strei 
for the subjugation of Canada ; but through lack of efficient orgar 
tion the expedition for the first year was a failure. During this pei 
known as the English revolution, the Iroquois continued their in 
sions against the French and were perhaps more dreaded than the I 
lish. The Jesuits were driven from the Seneca country and for n 
years abandoned the field through fear of the thoroughly maddi 
Indians. 

The war was terminated by the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, ^nd v 
it established a oeace between the French and Fnor1i<;h it- rM-o,-t-;, 



GROWTH OF FRENCH INFLTJENOE. 11 

left unsettled the status of the Iroquois, and there were no certain pro- 
visions concerning the land of the Senecas, which were directly in dis- 
pute between the contending nations. Both claimed sovereignty over 
the whole Iroquois country, and treaty indentures were offered in sup- 
port of the claims of each ; but the Iroquois themselves repudiated 
alike the claims of Yonondio and Corlear, as they denominated the 
respective governors of Canada and New York. When France disputed 
the claims of England and appealed to the council at Onondaga, a stern, 
savage orator exclaimed: "We have ceded our lands to no one ; we 
hold them of heaven alone." Thus the powers wrangled over the 
country which was but a little time before the undisputed domain of 
the Iroquois. 

Whether much importance should attach to the treaties in which 
these untutored savages were pitted against the intelligent Europeans, 
either French or English, is questionable, and especially so when we 
consider the methods often adopted in later years to induce the Indians 
to sign away their domain. Be this as it may, it is now generally be- 
lieved that in the intrusion of France upon the possessions of the Iro- 
quois, " at the sacrifice of so much blood and treasure, justice and the 
restraints and faith of the treaties were subordinate to the lust of power 
and expediency." (Watson.) 

On the accession of Anne to the British throne as successor to King 
William, in March, 1702, what was known as Queen Anne's War was 
soon begun. It continued until the treaty of Utrecht, April 11, 1713, 
but though felt in the colonies, the province of New York fortunately 
escaped its bloody consequences. During this conflict, the Iroquois 
maintained a strict neutrality, thus gaining the respect of the contend- 
ing governments. The French, however, profited by this neutrality, 
and were given an opportunity to strengthen their line of positions and 
fortifications. Moreover, being at peace with the Iroquois, their mis- 
sionaries and political leaders visited the Indians in safety, and the 
result was a friendly relation between them and the Senecas and a por- 
tion of the Cayugas. *So firmly indeed did the wily French emissaries 
ingratiate themselves into the Seneca confidence that the latter were 
nearly persuaded to take up arms against the English, and only the 
wonderful power of the bond of union existing in the confederacy re- 
strained them. 



12 Landmarks op stbuben county. 

The encroachments by the French upon the territory of the English 
and their allies (the Iroquois), was one of the chief causes of the so- 
called French and Indian War. As early as the year 1 73 1 , the surveyor- 
general of the Canadas made extensive surveys of the region claimed 
to be New France, and on the early French maps were shown some of 
the important streams and localities now within the county of Steuben. 
The territory was divided into vast tracts, and granted as "seigniories'" 
to various proprietors, as rewards for service to the crown, or for other 
consideration. 

While the French were in possession of New France their influence 
over all the Indians within its limits became paramount, and they at 
last disputed with the English the alliance of the latter with the Iro- 
quois. Whether due to the influence of Joncaire, or to some other 
cause, is not fully known, but the French succeeded in lodging them- 
selves firmly in the affections of the Senecas, and while they were poor 
colonizers their missionaries possessed the peculiar faculty of ready 
assimilation with the savage and half-civilized races, thus gaining an 
influence over them. The efTorts of J'oncaire were materially aided by 
his half-breed sons, Chabert and Clauzonne. 

Among the earlier Jesuits and French emissaries among the Iroquois, 
some of whom visited the Seneca country, were Fathers Breboeuf, 
Chaumonot, who have been mentioned, and also Fathers Bablon, Isaac 
Jogues, Simon Le Moyne, Francis Joseph Bressani, Julien Garnier, 
Jacques Fremin, Jean Perron, Francis Boniface, Father Hennepin and 
Francis Vaillant de Gueslis. These were followed in later years by such 
noble and wholly unselfish workers as Talbot, Henry Barclay, John 
Oglivie, Spencer, Timothy Woodbridge, Gideon Hawley, Eleazer 
Wheelock, Samuel Kirkland, Bishop Hobart, Eleazer Williams, Dan 
Barnes (Methodist), and others of less distinction, all of whom labored 
faithfully for the conversion of the Indians. All, however, were forced 
to admit that their efforts as a whole were unsatisfactory and discourag- 
ing ; and even subsequent efforts to establish education and Christianity 
among the Indians, while yielding perhaps sufficient results to justify 
their prosecution, have constantly met with discouraging obstacles. 

In March, 1744, war was again declared between Great Britain and 
France, and the former power at once prosecuted measures for the 
conquest of the French possessions. The Mohawks took up arms with 



EXTINCTION OF FRENCH POWER. 13 

the English, while the Senecas, notwithstanding their affection for the 
French, were unwilling to make war against their friends at the eastern 
extremity of the Long House. 

The contest from 1744 to 1748 had an important object in the pos- 
session of the Mississippi Valley, which the English claimed as an ex- 
tension of their coast discoveries, and the French by right of occupancy, 
their forts already extending from Canada to Louisiana, and forming 
"a bow, of which the English colonies were the string." At this time 
the English colonies contained more than a million inhabitants, while 
the French had only about sixty thousand. The Iroquois would not 
engage in the war until 1746, and were disappointed at its termination, 
as they had compromised themselves with the allies of the French (the 
Canadian Indians), and therefore the question of Iroquois supremacy 
was renewed and intensified. 

In April, 1748, was concluded the ineffective, if not actually shameful 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, and while it was a virtual renewal of the 
treaties of Ryswick and Utrecht, it left unsettled the disputed questions 
regarding the Iroquois territory. After two years of nominal peace the 
nations again had recourse to arms, and while the French were at first 
everywhere victorious, the tide of contest turned in favor of the English 
with Sir William Johnson's invasion of western New York, the result of 
which was the fall of Niagara and the evacuation of the entire region by 
the now humiliated French. 

The domination of France was ended by the fall of Quebec, Septem- 
ber 18, 1759, thus leaving the English masters of all Canada, for the 
surrender of Vaudreuil on the 8th of the next September was an inev- 
itable result. However, a formal peace was not established until 1763, 
when, on the lOth day of February, the treaty of Paris was signed, by 
which France ceded to Great Britain all her possessions in America. 

Applied locally, this war had but little importance except as the ter- 
ritory of Steuben county formed a part of the French possessions. The 
chief seat of operations was farther west and north and any pilgrimages 
to this locality were merely incidental. 

Records and tradition both inform us that during the period of the 
French and EngHsh wars, there came to dwell in the vicinity of Canisteo 
a fragment of one of the tribes of the Delawares, and that to their num- 
ber were added several deserters from the British army and other 



U LANDMARKS OF STBTJBBN COUNTY. 

renegades from the eastern colonies. They were the source of much 
annoyance to the colonists and especially to the Indian traders, for 
they maintained themselves chiefly by a system of outlawry and 
plunder, and did not hestitate at committing murder in accomplishing 
their nefarious work. In 1762 these brigands were charged with the 
murder of two traders, British subjects, which offense, with other an- 
noyances, so aroused the colonists that Sir William Johnson dispatched 
a force of one hundred and forty of his faithful Iroquois, and a few sol- 
diers, to punish the offenders, destroy their habitations and drive them 
from the region. 

In this connection the statement may be made that the Delawares 
were permitted to come among the Iroquois after they had been con- 
quered and completely subjugated. The conquest of the Delawares 
was made between 1640 and 1655, and from the latter year the Iroquois 
were masters and recognized as the owners of all the territory formerly 
held and occupied by the Delawares and their ancestors, the Lenni 
Lenapes. 



CHAPTER III. 

Events Preceding the Revolution — Pontiac's League— Action of the Senecas— The 
Revolutionary War — Sullivan's Campaign — Brief Reference to the Indian History 
and Antiquities of Steuben County. 

Notwithstanding the results of the war between the French and the 
English, and the disappearance of the former from the region, the west- 
ern Indians were still disposed to remember them with affection and 
were yet inclined to wage war upon the English. The celebrated 
Pontiac united nearly all these tribes in a league against the redcoats, 
immediately after the advent of the latter ; and as no such confederation 
had been formed against the French during their years of possession, 
the action of Pontiac must be attributed to some other cause than mere 
hatred of all civilized intruders. In May, 1763, the league surprised 
nine out of twelve English posts and massacred their garrisons, and 
there is no doubt that the Senecas were involved in the slaughter, and 



THE JOHNSONS. 15 

were also active in the fruitless attack upon Fort Niagara. They were 
unwilling to fight against their brothers of the Iroquois, but they had 
no hesitation in killing English soldiers when left unprotected, as was 
soon made manifest in the awful butchery at Devil's Hole in Septem- 
ber, 1763. 

Becoming at length convinced that the French had really yielded 
their possessions in this country, and that Fontiac's scheme was a 
failure, the Senecas agreed to abandon their Gallic friends and be at 
peace with the English, and in April, 1764, Sir William Johnson had 
little difficulty in concluding a peace treaty with eight of the refractory 
chiefs; and at the same time Sir William succeeded in winning the 
affections of all the Six Nations and enlisting them under the banner of 
the king. But the Senecas, true to their instincts, sullenly held aloof 
and only ratified the treaty under compulsion of threatened annihila- 
tion. However, the baronet proved the firm friend of the Senecas and 
di-d his utmost to redress their grievances, and besought them to remove 
their isolated villages to their chief seats in the province, that they 
might be more completely under his protection. Ere this could be 
done, however, public attention was attracted by unmistakable disturb- 
ances in the political sky, low at first, but growing rapidly louder and 
more angry until at length there burst upon the country that long and 
desolating storm known as the Revolutionary war. This contest had 
an important bearing on the early history and settlement of Steuben 
county, yet the events of that memorable period may be briefly nar- 
rated in this chapter 

The war in fact began with the battle of Lexington, in April, 1775, 
but before the actual outbreak, as the danger of hostilities increased, 
the Johnson influence showed itself clearly on the side of the king. 
Sir William loved America and was himself an important factor in its 
early and best history. Had he lived his interests and affiliations might 
have impelled him to espouse the American cause, but his sudden death 
ended an important career, and his position and influence descended to 
his. son and nephew. Sir John Johnson, and his brothers-in-law, Guy 
Johnson and Daniel Claus, were creatures of the king, having no senti- 
ment in common with the people, being evidently imbued with aristo- 
cratic notions Sir John succeeded to his father's military title and 
position among the Iroquois, though never to his popularity and influ- 



16 LANDMARKSS OP TEUBEN COUNTY. 

ence, and in his efforts was seconded by Colonel Guy and Claus, all of 
whom sought to completely alienate the Indians from the whig colon- 
ists, and also to bring into submission all of the settlers who might yield 
to their influence. Prominent among the latter were John and Walter 
Butler, and also Joseph Brant (the Mohawk chief), all of whom became 
infamous from their bloody deeds during the Revolution, and yet their 
pillage and slaughter were generally ascribed to the instigations of the 
Johnsons. 

The " Continental Congress," as it has ever been termed, was held at 
Philadelphia in September, 1774, and having adopted a declaration of 
rights, it added a petition to the king and an appeal to the people of 
Great Britain and Canada. The New York Assembly alone did not 
sanction these proceedings, and instead addressed a remonstrance to 
parliament, which was treated with disdain. 

In 1776 the war had become national instead of colonial, and on the 
4th of July Am.erican independence was formally declared. The policy 
of the Americans had been simply to secure the neutralitj' of the 
Indians, but their success was limited to the Oneidas, while the British 
made undisguised efforts to unite them in close alliance with the royal 
cause. One of their ofificers exclaimed, " We must let loose the savages 
upon the frontier of these scroundrels to inspire terror and make them 
submit." The Senecas held off for a while, but the prospect of both 
blood and British gold was too much for them to withstand, and in 1777 
they, with the Cayugas, Onondagas and Mohawks, made a treaty with 
the British at Oswego, agreeing to serve the king through the war. 
John Butler established himself at Fort Niagara and organized a regi- 
ment of tories known as Butler's Rangers, at the same time inciting the 
Indians to deeds of violence on the American frontier. 

The most prominent chief of the Iroquois during the war was Brant, 
or Thayendenaga, a Mohawk, who had received a moderate English 
education under the patronage of Sir William Johnson. The conspicu- 
ous Seneca chiefs during the same period were Farmer's Brother, Corn- 
planter and Governor Blacksnake. At the massacre at Wyoming the 
author of the " Life of Brant " says the chief in command of the Senecas 
was Guiengwahtoh, supposed to' mean the same as Guiyahgwahdoh, 
" the smoke- bearer." This was the title of the Seneca afterward known 
as " Young King," but the latter was then too young to have been at 



SULLIVAN'S EXPEDITION. 17 

Wyoming, yet his predecessor (maternal uncle) might have been there. 
Brant was certainly not there. At Cherry Valley the Senecas were 
present in force, together with a body of Mohawks under Brant, and 
also a parties of tories under Walter Butler. 

These sudden and unexpected attacks upon the frontier settlements 
and the merciless slaughter of their inhabitants, determined Congress 
and General Washington to set on foot an expedition, having for its ob- 
ject a retaliation upon the Indians, and especially the Senecas. The 
campaign of August and September, 1779, devolved upon General 
John Sullivan, who at that time was an officer in the American army. 
The'full force organized for the expedition amounted to 5,000 men, who 
were formed in three divisions. Sullivan commanded in person the 
division that marched through and laid waste the Indian villages in the 
Seneca region, and in the execution of his plans, sent a detachment of 
troops within the limits of the present county of Steuben and destroyed 
a small settlement supposed to have been located near the site of the 
present village of Painted Post. According to established authorities, 
other points within the county were visited, buildings burned and grow- 
ing crops and orchards destroyed. 

However, the invaders were determined to lay waste the larger and 
more populous Seneca villages, and soon passed on up Seneca Lake to 
Kanadesaga and thence westward into the heart of the Genesee country. 
No opposition was encountered except at Newtown, and as a result of 
the expedition forty villages were reduced to ashes, 160,000 bushels of 
corn destroyed, besides large quantities of vegetables of various kinds. 
Another and more beneficial result of the campaign was the temporary 
though entire evacuation by the Senecas of the eastern part of their 
domain, and they were compelled to seek protection from the British 
at Fort Niagara ; nor could they be persuaded to return to their former 
habitations during the remaining years of the war. The warriors, how- 
ever, were kept active by Butler and frequently marauded frontier 
settlements, though without the serious results of former years. 

The other events of the war had no important relation to this imme- 
diate vicinit)', other than to acquaint the eastern people with the value 
and general fertility of the whole Genesee country, and this materially 
hastened settlement and development in later years. The surrender of 
3 



18 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

Lord Cornwallis in October, 1781, was followed by a virtual cessat 
of hostilities, but not until the fall of 1783 was peace formally agr 
upon between Great Britain and the revolted colonies, the latter hen 
forth to be universally acknowledged as the United States of Amer 
By the terms of the treaty the boundary line between the British p 
sessions and the territory of the United States was established along 
center of Lake Erie and the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and the 
Lawrence, and thence northeastward to the Atlantic coast. For sevi 
years afterward, however, the British maintained armed posts on 
United States side of the line and their ofificers continued to exercise 
influence over the Indians which was both prejudicial and annoying 
the State and general government. 

Thus far in our narrative little has been said of the Indian occupa 
of the immediate territory now forming Steuben county. In truth 1 
locality was an unimportant portion of a vast country, located betw 
the possessipns of the Delawares and the Iroquois, and prior to the c- 
quest of about 1 650 was debatable ground. Mr. Minier, in his histori 
address, says the valley ofthe Cohocton, prior to the invasion of Sulliv 
was little known, but informs us that the Moravian missionaries pre 
cuted their labors in the vicinity as early as 1750; also that in 
locality of the present village of Painted Post was the Indian village 
Assinisink, where dwelt Jacobus, the Muncy chief, which fact confii 
our previous statement that the Delawares were suffered to live in 
valley after their subjugation. In the valley Zeisberger found 
" pyramids of stone which appeared to have been made with hun 
hands," the largest of which was about " three stories " in height. Th 
pyramids were at what is known as the Chimney Narrows, and are ; 
preserved. 

The county possesses few antiquities and has never been specii 
rich in aboriginal history. The valleys of the Chemung, Tioga, Conh 
ton and Canisteo Rivers, and also the vicinity of Lake Keuka, w 
favorite resorts of the Indians for fishing and hunting, and along 
banks of each, and elsewhere in the region, were well defined Ind 
trails. In a preceding paragraph we have noted the destruction of i 
ofthe villages ofthe region by Sir William Johnson's Mohawk warri( 
and reference has also been made to Sullivan's campaign in 1779, 



THE "PAINTED POST." 19 

esult of which was the devastation of all that was valuable to the Indian 
ccupants at that time. 

In this connection mention may also be made to the historic landmark 
^hich has been preserved in name and fact to the present day, the 
imous post from which the village of Painted Post received its name, 
'he " post by the river " was in the Indian tongue called Te-can-nes-to, 
nd concerning it Stone says : "The Painted Post was a noted landmark 
1 the early settlement of Western New York, and in the history of 
ndian affairs long before. It was literally a post of oak timber planted 
1 the ground upon the bank of Cohocton Creek, within the boundary 
f New York, but near the Pennsylvania line. It was painted in the 
ndian manner, and tradition avers that it was a monument of great 
ntiquity, erected to commemorate the death of some celebrated war 
hief whose name has been lost in the lapse of years." A second ac- 
ount has it that the post was erected by the Indians to designate a spot 
rhere councils were held, and was painted a bright red that it might 
e more easily discovered. This account, however, is regarded as 
urely mythical, as no councils of any importance were known to be 
eld in this locality. 

The investigations of Judge McMaster undoubtedly brought to light 
he true story of this historic landmark, but according to his narrative, 
he post was erected to mark the burial place of Captain Montour, the 
on of Queen Catharine, who was wounded during the summer of 1779, 
nd who died at this point while his party were returning from an ex- 
ledition to the settlements on the Susquehanna. The original post 
^as standing in 1792, though much decayed. The white settlers 
rected a new post in 1803, and at varioils times during later years the 
eople of the town have done some act of public spiritedness in pre- 
erving this interesting relic and its memories. 

In the vicinity of Avoca the early settlers found abundant evidences 
f the former occupation, among them fragments of weapons, utensils, 
nplements and other indications of the Indian period. It is also claimed 
lat a village was within the limits of the town, which is undeniably 
■ue although it must have been small and of little importance, 
^hen this town was first settled by the whites the Indians were quite 
umerous, and the same may also be said of many other localities in the 
aunty ; but wherever found they were of little or no benefit to the 



20 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

pioneers and are remembered as a generally shiftless, begging and a: 
noying class. The town of Canisteo abounds in Indian recollectior 
and the reminiscences of the Stephens family are well known by near 
all the older residents. The valley of the Canisteo was a resorting pla 
of some note among the Indians as fish and game are said to have be 
abundant in the locality. The vicinity of Hornellsville also has its I 
dian traditions and reminiscences though they were unimportant in hi 
tory. Here dwelt the noted chief Shongo, who took part in t 
massacre at Wyoming, and who was regarded with some fear about t 
time of the second war with Great Britain. In Greenwood was a s; 
spring of great value to the early settlers, while the Indians made u 
of its water many years before, and even after the advent of the white 
In the Indian language the Conhocton River was known as Ga-ha-f 
meaning "log in the water." The valley of this stream was call 
" Do-na-ta-gwen-da," and meaning "an opening within an opening 
Lake Keuka in the Seneca, was " Ogoyago," " a lake with an elbow.' 



CHAPTER IV. 



After the Revolution — An Era of Peace — Controversy between Massachusetts a 
New York — The Hartford Convention — The Phelps and Gorham Purchase — T 
Lessee Companies — Settlement of Difficulties — The Surveys — Sale to Robert Mor 
—The Pulteney Association— Charles Williamson— Foundation of Land Titles 
Steuben County— The Anti-Rent Conflict. 

The close of the Revolutionary war and the return of peace mark 
the beginning of a new era in the history of the vast Genesee counti 
for the Indian occupation soon afterward terminated, and the pione< 
from New Eng'land, Pennsylvania, with many others from the caste 
part of this State, and a few foreigners, became the possessors of t 
territory. They were a hardy and patriotic class, and under th- 
energetic efforts lands were cleared and the forests gave place to fan 
of rare fertility, thus developing the agricultural resources at least 
the extent which supplied domestic requirements. 

However, soon after the war was ended it was found that the trea 



CLAIMS OF MASSACHUSETTS AND NEW YORK. 21 

The English authorities offered them lands in Canada, but all the tribes 
except the Mohawks preferred to remain in New York. The United 
States treated them with great moderation. Although they had twice 
violated their pledges and without provocation had plunged into a war 
against the colonies, they were readily admitted to the benefits of 
peace, and were even recognized as the owners of all the lands in New 
York over which they had previously ranged. The property line, as it 
was called, previously drawn between the whites and the Indians, ran 
along the eastern border of Broome and Chenango counties, and thence 
to a point seven miles west of Rome. 

In October, 1784, after two other ineffectual attempts, a treaty was 
made at Fort Stanwix (Rome) between three commissioners of the 
United States and the sachems of the Six Nations. The Marquis de 
La Fayette was present and made an address, though not one of the 
commissioners. Red Jacket, the noted Seneca, was present, but did 
not really take part in the council. Brant was not present, though he 
had been active in a council with Governor Clinton a short time before. 
Cornplanter spoke for the Senecas, but Sayengeraghta or " Old King " 
was the recognized Seneca sachem. This treaty fixed the western 
boundary of the Iroquois territory, beginning at Lake Ontario, four 
miles east of the Niagara River, and running thence southerly across 
the lands of the State to the Pennsylvania line. The several councils 
held with the Indians resulted in the purchase of vast tracts of their 
land, but in each case the authorities made them just compensation 

In this manner matters progressed favorably for a time, but rather 
unexpectedly there arose a controversy involving questions of title and 
right to purchase from the Indians, all of which was due to the imper- 
fect understanding on the part of the crown regarding the situation or 
extent of the territory of America. The colonies of Massachusetts and 
New York had charters under which each could claim not only all cen- 
tral and western New York, but also a strip of land running from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The charter to the Plymouth colony of 
Massachusetts was made in 1627, while that to the Duke of York was 
made in 1664, and after the overthrow of the English dominion in the 
United States and the organization of the States themselves, the au- 
thorities of each naturally began an inquiry into the extent of their 
possessions, that definite and permanent boundaries might be estab- 



22 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

lished. The conflicting character of these grants was known even 
before the Revolution, but not until after the formation of the States did 
the matters in dispute become at all complicated. However, that a 
settlement might be reached both States ceded to the United States all 
claim to the territory west of a line drawn south from tlie western ex- 
tremity of Lake Ontario, being the present western boundary of Chau - 
tauqua county. 

After divers negotiations regarding the remaining part of the dis- 
puted territory, commissioners from the two States interested, and from 
the general government, met at Hartford in December, 1786, to en- 
deavor to harmonize their claims. It was then and there agreed that 
Massachusetts should yield all claim to the land east of the present east 
line of Ontario and Steuben counties, while west of that line New York 
should have the political jurisdiction and sovereignty, while Massachu- 
setts should have the title, or fee simple, of the land, subject only to the 
Indian right of occupancy. That is to say, the Indians could hold the 
lands as long as they pleased, but were only allowed to sell to the State 
of Massachusetts or her assigns. This title, thus encumbered, was called 
the pre-emption right, literally, the right of first purchase. 

While these events were taking place a combination (a "ring," it 
would now be called, or perhaps "a syndicate") was formed by 
capitalists in New York and Canada, to obtain control of the Indian 
lands in this State. Two companies were organized, the one known as 
the New York and Genesee Land Company, of which John Livingston 
was the manager, and the other the Niagara Genesee Land Company, 
composed largely of Canadians, with Col. John Butler at the head, and 
associated with him were Samuel Street, Captain Powell, William John- 
son and Benjamin Barton. 

As the State forbade the sale of Indian lands to individuals, these 
companies, working together, sought to evade the law by a lease, and 
so great was the influence of Butler and his associates that in 1787, the 
Six Nations, or some chiefs and sachems claiming to act for them, gave 
the New York and Genesee Company a lease of all their lands, except 
some small reservations, for a term of nine hundred and ninety nine 
years. The consideration was to be $20,000, and an annual rental of 
$2,000. At the next session of the Legislature the lessees applied for 



PHELPS AND GORHA.M PURCHASE. 23 

a confirmation of their lease, but the intent to evade the law was too 
plain ; the petition was promptly rejected and the lease declared void. 

The lease having been annulled, the promoters of the scheme next 
proposed to procure a conveyance by the Indians of all their lands in 
the State, provided the latter would reimburse Livingston and his asso- 
ciates for all their expenses, and to convey to them half the land ; 
which specimen of effrontery can seldom be surpassed in these pro- 
gressive days, considering that Livingston, Butler and company would 
have secured several million acres of the finest lands in America as a 
free gift. However, this proposition was also rejected. 

In 1788 Massachusetts sold all her land in New York, about six and 
one-half million acres, to Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham, acting 
on behalf of themselves and others, for $1,000,000, to be paid in three 
equal annual payments, the purchasers having the privilege of paying 
in Massachusetts currency, then worth about twenty cents on the dol- 
lar. The purchase was of course subject to the Indian right of occu- 
pancy. 

Oliver Phelps, the active manager of the " Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase " enterprise, made an arrangement with Livingston, who agreed, 
doubtless for consideration, to assist in negotiating a treaty with the 
Indians. But meanwhile there arose a disagreement between Living- 
ston's and Butler's companies, and when Phelps reached Geneva, or 
Kanadesaga, where the council was to have been held, he learned that 
Butler and his associates had assembled the Indians at Buffalo Creek, 
and had persuaded them not to meet with either Livingston or Phelps; 
and learning that Butler had greater influence with the savages than 
Livingston or himself, Phelps proceeded to Niagara, came to a satis- 
factory arrangement with them, and then procured a council at Buffalo 
Creek. 

Although in no manner pertinent to this narrative, the statement may 
be made incidentally that this council was in many respects a notable 
assemblage, and a meeting in which that shrewd Yankee, Oliver Phelps, 
found himself pitted against not only a number of the most cunning 
land sharpers of the whole country, but as well against the most crafty 
representatives of the Indian race. Among the notables present, whose 
names can be recalled, were Joseph Brant, the Mohawk chief, famed 
both for his cunning and inhuman ferocity; John Butler, the once active 



24 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

man of the lesser land company, and formerly colonel of Butler's Rang- 
ers ; Rev. Samuel Kirkland, the agent of Massachusetts, a man of 
noble character and varied experience. At this meeting he also acted 
as one of the interpreters. William Johnston was another of the inter- 
preters present. 

Oliver Phelps was a Connecticut Yankee by birth, a son of the Bay 
State by adoption, and a New Yorker by subsequent residence. He 
was an active participant in the Revolution, and was now, as the agent 
of an association of Massachusetts speculators, negotiating for the pur- 
chase of a principality. He was a shrewd, persistent, enterprising, 
politic, typical business man of the day, and to the time of his death was 
regarded with profound respect by the residents of the Phelps and Gor- 
ham Purchase. In his representative capacity, and associated with Na- 
thaniel Gorham, Mr. Phelps once owned all the territory now compris- 
ing Steuben county, and the titles established by him have been the 
foundation for all subsequent real estate transactions in the shire. Still, 
Steuben county was but a small part of the vast purchase negotiated by 
this remarkable proprietary. 

Among the Indian owners of the land were present Honayewus, the 
Seneca chief, who had then lately received the name of " Farmer's 
Brother." There, too, was also Sagoyewatha, "The Keeper Awake" (a 
tribute to his oratorical powers), the far-famed Red Jacket. Another 
was Capt. John O'Bail, or Abeel, more widely known as Cornplanter, 
half white by blood, yet thoroughly Indian by nature. Sayengeraghta, 
"Old King," or "Old Smoke," was also present but not active in the 
council. 

As is well known, the eastern boundary of the purchase began at the 
eighty-second milestone on the Pennsylvania hne, thence ran due north 
to Lake Ontario. The west Hne ran from the lake up the Genesee to 
the mouth of the Canaseraga, thence due south to the Pennsylvania line. 
This was the " Phelps and Gorham Purchase," and included about 
2,600,000 acres. The price was left by the complaisant aborigines to 
Colonel Butler, Joseph Brant and Elisha Lee (the latter Mr. Kirkland's 
assistant), and was fixed at $5,000 in hand, and $500 annually, forever. 
This was about equal to $12,000 in cash, or half a cent an acre. Within 
two weeks after the council Colonel Butler called on Mr. Phelps by 
letter for a conveyance of 20,000 acres of land, in accordance with a 




/V'/)^ ^» iO^^t^^ 



''yyvA.^*^^^ 



PHELPS AND GORHAM'S SURVEY. 25 

previous arrangement, to be deeded to persons designated by Butler ; 
from which it is fair to infer that as the colonel had been one of the com- 
missioners to fix the price of the main purchase, this transfer looks as if 
some of the Indian operations of that era would not bear more close 
investigation than those of later years. 

While Oliver Phelps was busily employed in his negotiations with 
the Indians, and in compromising with the annoying claimants in the 
lessee companies, Mr. Gorham was engaged in preparing for the sur- 
vey of the east and west boundary lines of the purchase as preliminary 
to the survey of the general tract. For this work the services of Col. 
Hugh Maxwell, an engineer of good repute, were engaged, and the 
work was done during the year 1788; not, however, by Colonel Max- 
well, or even under his immediate direction, for he was taken ill about 
the time the work was begun, and the line was in fact run by his, assist- 
ants and subordinates. The survey into townships was also begun in 
1788, and completed in 1789, and was made from the eastern boundary. 
So far as the character of the surface would permit, the townships were 
supposed to contain the contents of six miles square. Running from 
south to 'north, and six miles apart, were first surveyed the range lines, 
and throughout each of these, at the end of every six miles, monuments 
were placed, and by running lines at right angles with the range lines, 
at the designated points, there would be included six miles square, 
(thirty-six square miles) or a township. 

The statement may be made in this connection that the survey into 
townships in the southeast part of the Phelps and Gorham purchase was 
made by Augustus Porter, Frederick Saxton and their assistants. In 
explanation of the system of surveys adopted for the Phelps and Gor- 
ham purchase, which, by the way, was afterward employed generally in 
ihe Western States and Territories, it may be stated that the present 
town of Caton comprises, substantially, township i, range i ; Lindley, 
township I, range 2; Tuscarora, township i, range 3. The town of 
Corning comprises township 2, range i ; Erwin, township 2, range 2. 

In 1789 the Phelps and Gorham proprietary found themselves in a 
financially embarrassed condition. The Massachusetts currency, which, 
at the time the purchase was made was worth only about twenty cents 
on the dollar, had, through the organization of the affairs of the State 
and the assistance afforded by the general government, advanced in 



26 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

value to nearly par, and the proprietors themselves had made enormous 
outlays and expenditures in surveying and developing their lands. In 
addition was the unlooked for expense of the contingent of persons who 
claimed to have assisted in bringing about a peaceful settlement of diffi- 
culties, and who were persistent in their demands for money and lands. 
The result was that the proprietors were unable to meet their obliga- 
tions, although at this time they had disposed of nearly one-half of their 
vast estate. Many of the townships, however, had been conveyed to 
stockholders in the association in exchange for their interests in the 
company. 

In this emergency Phelps and Gorham petitioned the Massachusetts 
Legislature, asking that they be released from payment of the entire 
principal sum, and expressed a willingness to pay for that part of the 
land to which the Indian title had been extinguished, and surrender the 
tract west of the Genesee and the mill seat tract. This proposition was 
acceded to. Again, in the early part of 1790 our proprietors effected 
a sale to Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution and a man of 
large means and influence, of all the unsold portion of their purchase 
within the lines we have previously described. At this time Phelps and 
Gorham had disposed of about fifty townships, among those in what is 
now this county being Campbell, Canisteo, Corning, Erwin, Hornells- 
ville and Lindley. The lands transferred to Mr. Morris embraced about 
one million two hundred and sixty-four thousand acres, for which he 
paid ;£^30,000, New York money. 

After becoming fully possessed Mr. Morris proceeded to investigate 
the character and condition of his purchase, and soon discovered that a 
fraud had been practiced in running the eastern boundary line. For 
the purpose of accurate information, he engaged Adam Hoopes to ex- 
plore the country, and particularly to re survey the east boundary and 
determine upon the accuracy of the disputed line. However, before 
this could be done, Mr. Morris's agent in England negotiated a sale of 
the tract to a company of English capitalists, comprised of Sir William 
Pulteney, John Hornby, and Patrick Colquhoun. Charles Williamson 
acted in the capacity of agent for the purchasers and received the deeds 
in his own name, which the actual vendees, being aliens, could not 
hold. (This prohibition, however, was soon afterward removed.) The 
deed to Williamson was executed April 11, 1792, and in March, 1801, 



CHARLES WILLIAMSON. 27 

the then unsold lands were conveyed to the Pulteney Association. The 
titles to land in this county, other than in the towns specially mentioned 
in the preceding paragjraph, have generally descended from the Pulte- 
ney Association, Pulteney estate, the Pulteney heirs or the Hornby 
estate, as variously termed. 

Under the new proprietorship the eastern boundary line was resur- 
veyed, though at the expense of Mr. Morris. A material deflection 
from the correct course was discovered, more serious north than in this 
county, which, as is well known, is bounded by the line on the east. 
In the association the Pulteney interest was nine-twelfths of the whole, 
the Hornby two- twelfths, and the Colquhoun one- twelfth. 

Captain Williamson was a Scotchman by birth, and in 1792 became 
a citizen of the United State<. He had served in the British army and 
during the war then recently ended had gained a fair knowledge of 
America and the natural resources of the country. In connection with 
the trust reposed in him by the English capitalists, Captain Williamson 
came to the United States in December, 1791, remaining for some time 
in Pennsylvania, and locating for his business operations at Bath in the 
early part of 1793. We have no place in this chapter for the thousand 
and one enterprises set on foot and carried to a successful completion 
by Captain Williamson, but it may be said in this connection that the 
early settlement and development of what is now Steuben county was 
largely due to his efforts To be sure he had at his command almost 
unlimited resources and means, and he made generous use of both. In 
fact his principals soon complained of the seemingly prodigal expendi- 
tures made by their agent and were disposed to call him to account, but 
whatever was done in the way of improvement was of great benefit to 
the inhabitants of the region in general, and of the tow-nships owned 
by the association in particular. The town and village of Bath owed 
all their early prosperity to the generosity of Captain Williamson. 
However, this subject will be further mentioned in connection with our 
allusion to the several towns of the county, hence may be only casually 
treated in this chapter. 

An interesting and quite important element of local history was the 
outgrowth of the Pulteney and Hornby titles, although the period of its 
occurrence was more recent than that referred to in the preceding narra- 
tive. We refer to the event which has ever been known as the "Anti- 



28 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

rent Conflict," which was occasioned by the inability of the settlers to 
pay for their lands under the contracts of purchase made with the 
agents of the proprietors. And we may also add that the sentiment 
prevailing at the time was not confined wholly to Steuben and Allegany 
counties, but existed in the region known as the Holland Purchase, and 
also in other localities in the eastern part of the State. 

The causes which led to this unfortunate situation were numerous, 
and chief among them was the construction of the Erie Canal, thus 
affording to the settlers north of us superior facilities for the transporta- 
tion of agricultural products to market in which the inhabitants of this 
region could reap no benefit. The lands here were generally poorer in 
quality than those to the northward, and were cleared and fitted for 
cultivation only after much labor and expense. The price of all pro- 
ducts of the soil was much depreciated and the yield not abundant. 
The proprietary contributed to the distress of the struggling purchasers 
by the practice of adding to the principal sum to be paid all arrearages 
of interest and charging interest on the whole. In fact the inhabitants 
became discontented with their condition, and the sentiment became 
rampant throughout the region ; and being utterly disheartened, showed 
little disposition to effectually relieve themselves, but rather were given 
to the habit of commiserating one with the other until the situation be- 
came really serious. In their distress they assembled a convention, to 
meet at the court-house in Bath on the 19th of January, 1 830, " to take 
into consideration the condition of the settlers on the Pulteney and 
Hornby estates " in the counties of Steuben and Allegany. In the 
convention were delegates from many of the towns of this county, as 
follows: 

Addison. — William Wombough, Lemuel B. Searls, David Shumway, 
Eber Scofield and Daniel Burdick. 

Alfred. — Edward Green, Daniel Babcock, Spencer Sweet, Richard 
Hall and Clark Crandall. 

Bath. — William Woods, James Warden, John Corbitt, Peter Hunter, 
Melvin Schenck, Caleb P. Fulton and Elisha Hawks. 

Cameron. — Jacob Thayer, Joseph Loughry, Isaac Santee, Sheldon 
Porter and Hiram Averill. 

Cohocton. — Paul C. Cook, David Weed, Elnathan Wing, Peter Haight 
and Alfred Shattuck. 



THE ANTI-RENT CONVENTION. 29 

Canisteo — Henry D. Millard, William Stephens, Jeremiah Baker, 
George Santee and Moses Hallett. 

Dansville. — Thomas M Bourn, Peter Covert, Annis Newcomb, Leeds 
Allen and Martin Smith. 

Erwin. — John E. Evans, Samuel Erwin and John Cooper, jr. 

Greenwood. — Levi Davis, Thomas Johnson, Anson Cook, William J. 
Strong and Randall Pease. 

Hornby. — Isaac Goodsell, Samuel Oldfield, Josiah Wheat, Francis 
Northway and Levi Nash. 

Hornellsville. — Oliver Coon, Othniel Call, Oliver Pettibone, Jabez 
Lamphere and John J. Sharp. 

Howard. — Daniel U. Bennett, Byram L, Harlow, William Goff, John 
D. Collier and Jacob G. Winne. 

Jasper. — William Hunter, Benjamin Heliker, Ira Smith, Uzal M. 
Mynderse and Hinckley Spencer. 

Painted Post.- — Robert H. Hoyt, Joseph Gillett, Charles Wolcott, jr., 
William Webster and Henry D. Smith. 

Prattsburg. — Stephen Prentiss, Gameliel Loomis, Josiah Allis, Ira 
C. Clark and Joseph Potter. 

Pulteney. — David Hobart, William Sagar, Barnet Retan, Daniel Ben- 
nett and Seth Weed. 

Troupsburg. — Samuel Cady, Samuel Griggs, Joshua Slater, Jesse 
Wilden and Nathan S. Hayes. 

Urbatia. — Henry A. Townsend, John Sanford, jr., John Powers, Elias 
Ketchum and Dyer Cranmer. 

Wheeler. — Jonathan Barney, Nathan Rose 2d, Abram J. Quacken- 
bush, David Barney and John C. Overhiser. 

Wayne. — Latham Fitch, John H. Sherwood and Thornton F. Curry. 

Woodhull. — Caleb Smith, Samuel Stroud, Asher Johnson, Jeffrey 
Smith and Martin Harder. 

Representatives were also present from several towns in adjoining 
counties, and in many respects the assemblage was one of the largest 
and most noteworthy of any held in the county during its early history. 
The court-house was not large enough to hold the delegates and inter- 
ested spectators, hence the meeting was held in the Presbyterian church. 
An organization was effected by the selection of Henry A. Townsend, 
chairman, and Edward Howell and George C. Edwards, secretaries. 



30 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

After much deliberation and discussion and the adoption of a series of 
resolutions setting forth the unhappy condition of affairs, the convention 
caused to be sent to Col. Robert Troup, agent of the Pulteney estate, 
and to John Greig, agent of the Hornby estate, a memorial or petition 
asking that the proprietary take some action for their immediate and 
effectual relief 

The memorial was dated January 20, 1830, and on the 14th of March 
following Colonel Troup replied at length and suggested a plan of re- 
lief ; and while the latter tended to lessen the burdens of the settlers, it 
did not in fact satisfy their desires. Further meetings were held, some 
of them general and others local, and the ultimate result was generally 
beneficial to the suffering inhabitants, although the hoped for blessing 
was so long delayed by the detail of proceedings and formalities as to 
have lost much of its savor. The settlers succeeded in obtaining a 
moderate reduction in the price of their lands, and the product of 
their farms was accepted as payment of principal or interest at fair cash 
values. Still, there has ever been expressed a doubt as to the propriety 
of the proceeding or whether any substantial and lasting benefit was 
derived therefrom. 



CHAPTER V. 



Division of Montgomery County — Creation of Ontario and Steuben Counties — Brief 
Allusion to Baron Steuben — His Life and Services — The Original Territory of Steuben 
County divided into Towns — First County Officers — County Buildings — Second Jury 
District — Steuben County Civil List. 

On the 27th day of January, 1789, the Legislature passed an act 
dividing the mother county Montgomery, and out of its territory the 
region of country in this State west of Seneca Lake was erected into 
a separate county by the name of Ontario. This vast tract of rich and 
fertile land became known to the American colonists during the closing 
years of the French war, and the constant passage of troops along the 
frontiers during the Revolution likewise afforded an excellent opportu- 
nity for the observing New Englander to determine upon the general 
desirability of the whole region as a place of permanent residence and 



ERECTION OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 31 

profitable agricultural employment. Indeed, so well known was the 
character of the Genesee country, that within two years from the time 
Phelps and Gorham concluded their historic purchase, we find the hardy 
pioneer clearing the forests, developing the lands, and paving the way 
for future prosperity. So rapidly were the towns taken and settled, 
that the proper management of affairs made necessary the creation of a 
new county west of the lake, and the act mentioned was the result. 

After the lapse of seven short years the same necessity led to the 
erection of another county, and, therefore, through the energetic efforts 
of Charles Williamson, agent of the Pulteney association and others, 
Steuben county was formed from Ontario, the act therefor being passed 
and approved on the 8th day of March, 1796. At the census taken in 
1790 the districts comprising the new jurisdiction contained only two 
hundred inhabitants; in 1795 about one thousand, and in 1800 a total 
of two thousand. Within its present boundaries Steuben county con- 
tains about one thousand three hundred square miles of land, and is 
among the largest civil divisions of the State. 

The county was named in honor of Frederick William Augustus, 
Baron Steuben, who with several other titled and honored foreigners 
gave substantial aid to the American cause during the first war with 
Great Britain. The life and services of this distinguished and patriotic 
" Knight of the Order of Fidelity " are worthily recorded in the pages 
of history and need no reproduction here, yet, as a brief tribute to his 
memory, we may state that Baron Steuben, previous to his departure 
for America, was aid de camp to Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. 
Under Congress and General Washington he was major-general and 
inspector- general in the American army, serving during the Revolu- 
tionary war. " Esteemed, respected and supported by Washington, he 
gave military skill and discipline to the citizen soldiers, who (fulfilling 
the decrees of Heaven) achieved the independence of the United 
States." 

Baron Steuben was born in one of the German provinces about the 
year 1730. He came to the United States on the ist of December, 
1777, where he ever afterward lived. He died on the 25th of Novem- 
ber, 1795. 

Steuben county, as originally constituted, was materially larger in 
area than at the present time, having surrendered portions of its territory 



32 LANDMARKS OF STBTJBBN COUNTY. 

to other jurisdictions, which we may briefly note. On March ii, 1808, 
the seventh range of townships was set off to Allegany county, which 
was created April 7, 1806. The part in the fork of Lake Keuka was 
annexed to Ontario county, February 25, 1814. A part of Dansville 
was attached to Livingston county, February 15, 1822, and a part of 
Reading to Yates county in 1 824. Another part of Reading was set off 
to Schuyler county on the creation of the latter, April 17, 1854. When 
Steuben was erected its territory was divided into six towns or provi- 
sional districts, and known respectively as Bath, Canisteo, Dansville, 
Frederickstown, Middletown and Painted Post. Of these original divi- 
sions the names of only two are now preserved as towns of the county. 
Bath originally comprised the entire northern portion of the county, 
including the towns now known as Bath, Urbana, Wheeler, Prattsburg, 
Pulteney, Avoca, Howard, and a portion of Cohocton Dansville com- 
prised all that is now Dansville, Fremont, Wayland, and part of Howard 
and Cohocton. Frederickstown included Wayne and Bradford in this 
county, and also Barrington and Starkey in Yates county, and Tyrone, 
Reading and Orange in Schuyler county. Middletown comprised all 
that is now Addison, Rathbone, Thurston, Tuscarora, WoodhuU, and 
parts of Troupsburg and Jasper. Canisteo comprised the present town 
so named, also Greenwood, West Union, Huntsville, Hornellsville, and 
parts of Jasper and Troupsburg. 

After the erection of the county a complete organization was effected 
with little difficulty. The first officers were William Kersey, first judge ; 
Abraham Bradley and Eleazur Lindley, associate judges ; George D. 
Cooper, county clerk ; William Dunn, sheriff; Stephen Ross, surrogate. 
In accordance with the determination of the most influential element of 
the county, the village of Bath was designated as the seat of justice, 
and the agents of the proprietary made generous provision for the 
county buildings and other public purposes. 

The first court-house was completed and occupied for court purposes 
on the 1st of June, 1796. The building was of frame, one and one- 
half stories high, with two wings, and served the necessities of the 
county until 1828, then being superseded by a more substantial brick 
structure, the latter, however, being destroyed by fire in October, 1859. 
Following the disaster, iti i860, the present attractive court-house was 
erected. In 1796, also, the first county jail, a log building, was erected 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 33 

and stood in the rear of the subsequent stone jail, the latter standing at 
the northwest corner of the square. The next jail was built in 1845, 
and, in turn, was replaced with the present brick building, erected 
in 1882, at a total cost of nearly $30,000. The new clerk's office 
was built in 1872, at a cost of about $1 1,000, and the surrogate's office 
in 1886, at an expense of $8,707.77. 

As the county increased in population and commercial importance, 
the convenience of the inhabitants demanded a division into jury dis- 
tricts for court purposes. Consequently, on the 19th of July, 1853, an 
act was passed making the desired division, and designating the now 
city of Corning as the seat of justice of the second jury district of the 
county. From that time courts have been held alternately at Bath and 
Corning. However, during the legislative session of 1888-89 a" at- 
tempt was made to secure the passage of an act establishing a western 
jury district in the county, the proposed seat to be at Hornellsville, and 
although the act was passed by both houses of the Legislature, the bill 
failed to become a law through lack of the executive approval. The 
court-house at Corning, a sub.stantial and attractive brick building, was 
built during the years 1853 and '54, and cost $14,000. 

Having referred to the general buildings and properties, in this con- 
nection we may also properly make some brief allusion to another im- 
portant institution of the county, that in which are kept and supported 
the unfortunate poor. At the annual session of the Board of Super- 
visors held in November, 1833, it was "Resolved, that a poor-house 
shall be established in the county of Steuben for the reception of the 
' poor of said county, and that all distinction between the county poor 
and town poor be abolished, etc.;" also " that Messrs. Knox, Reynolds 
and Towsley be a committee to ascertain where a farm can be had for 
the use of the poor, etc." In December following the supervisors 
directed the superintendents of the poor to purchase the farm offered 
by Ephraim Barney, and also appropriated the sum of $4,000 for the 
purpose of paying for the farm and the erection of a poor-house build- 
ing. The county farm is located in the town of Bath, about two miles 
north of the village. From the humble beginning noted above the 
present excellent institution for the care of the county poor has grown. 

The property consists of a large and well tilled farm, while the build- 
5 



34 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

ings, of brick, stone and frame, are ample and comfortable. This de 
partment of the county government receives the same careful attentioi 
as do all others. 

Now, having referred to the various properties and interests of Steu 
ben county, it is proper that a record be made of the names of person 
who have been identified with the county in its civil and political his 
tory. In other words, it is fitting that we publish a complete list c 
officers who have represented this county in Federal, State or loca 
government; 

Presidential Electors — John Lloyd, 1828; Grattan H. Wheeler 
1840; John D. Higgins, 1844; Ferral C. Dininny, 1852; James Alley 
1864; Horace Bemis, 1868; John McDougall, 1876; Amory Hough 
ton, jr., 1880; Anthony L. Underbill, 1884; James B. Day, 1892. 

Representatives in Congress. — Daniel Cruger, 18 17-19; Willian 
Woods, 1823-25; John Magee, 1827-29, and 1829-31; Grattan H 
Wheeler, 1831-33; Edward Howell, 1833-35; John T. Andrews 
1837-39; Williams, Hubbell, 1843-45; David Rumsey, jr., 1847-49 
and 1849-51; Robert V. Van Valkenburgh, 1861-63, and 1863-65 
C. C. B.Walker, 1873-75; John N. Hungerford, 1875-77; David P 
Richardson, 1878-80, and 1880-82; John Arnot, 1882-84; Ira Daven- 
port, 1884-86, and 1886-88; John Raines, 1888-1890, and 1800-92 
Charles W. Gillett, 1892-96. 

Lieutenant- Governor. — Robert Campbell, of Bath, elected Novembei 
2, 1858. Mr. Campbell was also regent of the university, appointee 
February 2, 1846, vice John A. Dix, resigned. 

Canal Commissioner. — Stephen T. Hayt, of Corning, elected No- 
vember 6, 1866. 

Canal Appraiser. — Henry H.Hull, of Bath, appointed April 5, 1855 

Superintendent of Banks. — Daniel C. Howell, of Bath, appointee 
February 3, 1870. 

State Senators. — Vincent Matthews, 1 798-1 804; Henry A. Towns- 
end, 1811-15; Grattan H. Wheeler, 1829-32; George Huntington 
1836-40; William M. Hawley, 1848-49; William J. Gilbert, 185 1 
Andrew B. Dickinson, 1854-55 ; John K. Hale, 1856-57; Samuel H 
Hammond, i860 61 ; Stephen T. Hayt, 1 864-66 ;G. T. Harrower, 1872- 
71 ; George B. Bradley, 1874-76, and 1876-78 ; Ira Davenport, 1878- 



CIVIL LIST. 35 

Members of Assembly. — Charles Williamson, 1798— 1800; James 
Faulkner, 1804; John Wilson, 1805-07; George Hornell, 1808; Henry 

A. Townsend, 1809; John Knox, 1810-11; Jacob Teeple, 1812-13 ; 
Daniel Cruger, 1814-16; William B. Rochester, 1817-18; John Dow, 
1819-21 ; Grattan H.Wheeler, 1822; George McClure and William 
Woods, 1823 ; George McClure and Grattan H. Wheeler, 1824; John 
Kennedy and James McBurney, 1825 ; D. Cruger and G. H. Wheeler, 
1826 ; Paul C. Cook and George McClure, 1827 ; Dugalcl Cameron and 
William Woods, 1828; Randall Graves and Henry Phoenix, 1829; 
Andrew B. Dickinson and Josiah Dunlap, 1830; Paul C. Cook and 
Josiah Dunlap, 1831; Edward Howell and John McBurney, 1832; 
William Hunter and William Kernan, 1833 ; Joshua Healey and Will- 
iam Kernan, 1834; Jeremiah Baker and Joshua Healey, 1835 ; Lemuel 

B. Searles and Henry Switzer, 1836; Henry G. Cotton, John I. Pop- 
pins and Benjamin Smead, 1837 ; Samuel Griggs, David Hall and 
Manning Kelly, 1838; Andrew G. Chatfield, Abram M. Lybolt and 
Johnson N Reynolds, 1839; Richard Brower, Andrew G. Chatfield and 
Abram M. Lybolt, 1840; A. G. Chatfield, William S. Hubbell and 
Samuel A. Johnson, 1841 ; Aaron W. Beach, Francis E. Erwin and 
Ziba A. Leland, 1842 ; Morris Brown, Francis E. Erwin and Ziba A. 
A. Leland, 1843 ; John Jamison, Asa McConnell and Jeffrey Smith, 
1844; William C. Rogers, Ansel C. Smith and Jacob Van Valken- 
burgh, 1845 ; A. G. Chatfield, Otto F. Marshall and William C. Rogers, 
1846; Hiram Chapman, William Diven and William Hunter, 1847; 
Abel Kendall, John G Mercereau and Alex. H. Stephens, 1848; 
Abram J. Quackenboss, John G. Mercereau and John K. Hale, 1849; 
Edwin F. Church, Ferral C Dininny and James Alley, 1850; Charles 
G. Higby, James M. Miles and Joel Carrington, 1851 ; R. B. Van 
Valkenburgh, Benajah P. Bailey and Nathaniel M. Perry, 1852 ; Dryden 
Henderson, John McBurney and Henry H. Bouton, 1853 ; John F. 
Williams, B, P. Bailey and Obediah Stephens, 1854; Seth B. Cole, 
Sylvester Smith and Peter C. Ward, 1855; Goldsmith Denniston, 
Albert C. Morgan and Harlo Hakes, 1856; R. B. Van Valkenburgh, 
George T. Spencer and Solon O. Thacher, 1857; R. B. Van Valken- 
burgh, Washington Barnes and William B. Jones, 1858 ; Abel Eveland, 
Wickham R. Crocker and John T. Plato, 1859; David B. Bryan, 
Henry Sherwood and Samuel M. Alley, 1862 ; John W. Taggart, Henry 



36 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Sherwood and Horace Bemis, 1863; William E. Bonham, Alexander 
Olcott and J. Harvey Stephens, 1864; William E. Bonham, Alexander 
Olcott and Horace Bemis, 1865 ; William B. Boyd, Amaziah S. McKay 
and Frederick M. . Kreidler, 1866; William B. Boyd and Christian 
Minier, 1 867; John F. Little and Lyman Balcom, 1868; Monroe 
Brundage and Samuel Mitchell, 1869; James G. Bennett and John 
Davis, 1870; Thomas M. Fowler and James B. Murdock, 1871 ; 
Thomas M. Fowler and Stephen F. Gilbert, 1872 ; Stephen D. Shattuck 
and Charles F. Houghton, 1873; Stephen D. Shattuck and Lucius C. 
Pierson, 1874; William B. Ruggles and Jerry E. B. Santee, 1875; 
William B. Ruggles and Jerry E. B. Santee, 1876; Azariah C. Brundage 
and George R. Sutherland, 1877-79; John W. Davis and Russell M. 
Tuttle, 1880; Charles S. Longwell and Russell ,M. Tuttle, 1881 ; 
Orange S. Searle and Allen A. Van Arsdale, 1882 ; Orange S. Searle and 
Andrew B. Craig, 1883; George E. Whitman and Andrew B. Craig, 
1884; George E. Whiteman and Charles D. Baker, 1885; Franz S. 
Wolf and Charles D. Baker, 1886; Azariah C. Brundage and Charles 
D. Baker, 1887; Azariah C. Brundage and Milo M. Acker, 1888; 
Charles H. McMaster and Milo M. Acker, 1889; Peter B. Pealer and 
M. M. Acker, 1890 ; Grattan H. Brundage and M. M. Acker, 1891 ; Gor- 
don M. Patchin and Herman E. Buck, 1892-93; Willoughby W. Bab- 
cock and Merritt F. Smith, 1894-95. 

Justices of the Sicpreme Court. — Thomas A. Johnson, April 7, 1847, 
to November 7, 1865 ; David Rumsey, appointed January 7, 1873, vice 
Johnson, deceased; elected for full term in November, 1873; William 
Rumsey, elected November 2, 1880; re-elected; George B. Bradley, 
elected November 6, 1883 ; appointed judge Second Division, Court of 
Appeals, January 21, 1889; now on General Term bench. 

County Judges. — William Kersey, appointed March 31, 1796 ; James 
Faulkner, February 16, 1804; Samuel Baker, January 18, 1813 ; Thos. 
McBurney, April 15, 1816; James Norton, February 7, 1823 ; George 
~ C. Edwards, January 13, 1826; Ziba A. Leland, January 9, 1838; 
Jacob Larrowe, April 17, 1843 ; William M. Hawley, January 30, 1846; 
David McMaster, elected June, 1847 ; Jacob Larrowe, November, 185 i ; 
David McMaster, 1855 ; Washington Barnes, 1859 ; Guy H. McMaster, 
1867; George T. Spencer, 1871; Guy H. McMaster, 1877; Harlo 
Hakes, 1883 and 1889; Frank H. Robinson, 1892. 



CIVIL LIST. 37 

Surrogates. — Stephen Ross, appointed March 31, 1796; Henry A. 
Townsend, March 24, 1800; George McClure, March 25, 1805 ; John 
Metcalf, April 6, 1813; James Read, April 8, 1815 ; Samuel Baker, 
April 10, 1817 ; Wm. Read, March 20, 1821 ; James Brundage, March 
28, 1823; Wm Woods, January 8, 1827; Robert Campbell, January 
31, 1835: David Rumsey, jr., January 24, 1840; Ansel J. McCall, 
February 3, 1844, county judge from June, 1847, to January, 1884; 
Guy H. McMaster, elected November, 1885; John F. Little, appointed 
to fill vacancy, September 19, 1887 ; M. Rumsey Miller, elected No- 
vember, 1888, and November, 1894. 

County Clerks. — George D. Cooper, appointed March 31, 1796; 
Henry A. Townsend, February 1 1, 1799 ; John Wilson, March 21, 1807; 
Henry A. Townsend, February 8, 1808; Dugald Cameron, February 
16, 1810; Henry A. Townsnd, February 11, 181 1 ; John Wilson, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1815 ; Edward Howell, March 19, 1818; John Metcalf, Feb- 
urary 19, 1821 ; and elected in November, 1822; David Rumsey, 1829; 
Wm. H. Bull, 1832 ; Wm. Hamilton, 1838 ; Paul C. Cook, 1844; Philo 
R Hubbell, 1850; Chas. W. Campbell, 1853 ; Samuel M. Alley, 1856; 
Orson Moshier, 1859; Oscar J. Averell, 1862; Allen Van Orsdale, 
1865 ; Nironi M. Crane, 1868; Henry C. Faucett, 1871 ; Archie E. 
Baxter, 1874; Lucius A. Waldo, 1877; Wm. W. Wilson, 1880; Jacob 
H. Lansing, 1883; James A. Drake, appointed to fill vacancy, Novem- 
ber 12, 1885; Robert K. Faulkner, 1886; Edward P. Graves, 1889; 
James H. Giffin, 1892. 

Sheriffs. — William Dunn, appointed March 31, 1796; John Wilson, 
March 3, 1800; Dugald Cameron, February 22, 1804; Jacob Teeple, 
February 16, 1808; Howard Bull, March 22, 1810; Cornelius Young- 
love, March 25, 1811; Thomas McBurn>"y, March 7, 1812; Benjamin 
Wells, February 23, 1813; Lazarus Hammond, March 2, 1814; Geo. 
McClure, February 28, 181;; Henry Shriver, March 2, 1819; John 
Magee, February 19, 1821, and elected November, 1822; John Ken- 
nedy, 1825; Alva Ellas, 1828; Geo. Huntington, 1831; Jno. T. 
Andrews, 1834; Henry Brother, 1837; Hiram Potter, 1840; Hugh 
Magee, 1843; Henry Brother, 1846; Oliver Allen, 1849; Gabriel T. 
narrower, 1852; Lewis D Fay, 1855; Orange Seymour, 1858; Ed- 
win R. Kasson, 1861 ; Wm. N. Smith, 1864; Willis E. Craig, 1867; 
Wm. B. Boyd, 1870; Holland B. Williams, 1873; Frank D. Sherwood, 



38 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

1876; Erastus P. Higgins, 1879; Esek Page, 1882; Henry Baldwin, 
1885; Oscar B. Stratton, 1888; George Hollands, 1891; Leslie D. 
Whiting, 1894. 

District Attorneys. — This office was created April 4, i8oi,andthe 
State comprised seven districts (Steuben county being in No. 7). Each 
county was constituted a separate district in April, 18 18. Previous to 
this year the seventh district was represented as follows : Wm. Stewart, 
appointed March 2, 1802; Daniel W. Lewis, March 9, 1810: Wm. 
Stewart, February 12, 1811 ; Vincent Matthews, March 12, 1813 ; 
Daniel Cruger, April 17, 1815; Daniel Cruger, June 11, 1818; John 
Cook, February 19, 1821 ; Henry Welles, October 22, 1824; Edward 
Howell, February 7, 1829; B. W. Franklin, 1834; Edward Howell, 
June 21, 1836; Lazarus H. Read, March 4, 1840; Andrew G. Chat- 
field, December 2, 1845; Morris Brown, June 20, 1846; Alfred P. 
Ferris, elected June, 1847; Robert L, Brundage. November, 1850; 
Jos. Herron, 1853 ; John Maynard, 1856 • Chris. John McDowell, 1859 ; 
Harlo Hakes, 1862; John H. Butler, appointed 1865, elected Novem- 
ber, 1865 and 1868; Alphonso H. Burrell, 1871 ; Ellsworth D. Mills, 
1874 and 1877; Daniel L. Benton, 1880; Irving W. Near, 1883; 
Frank H. Robinson, 1886 and 1889; William W. Clark, 1892. 

County Treasurers — An act of the Legislature, passed December 16, 
1847, authorized the election of a county treasurer in each county of 
the State ; previous to that time the office was appointive by the super- 
visors. James R. Dudley, elected November, 1848 ; Perry S. Donahoe, 
1851; Alex. Hess, 1857; Peter Halsey, 1858 ; John T. Allen, 1861; Peter 
Halsey, 1864; Theodore A. Silsbee, 1873; Sebastian G. Lewis. 1876; 
Frederick L. French, 1882; S. Smith Fairchild, 1885; Zenas L. Parker, 
1888 ; Gameliel T. Conine, 1894. 

School Commissioners. — By an act passed April 17, 1843, supervisors 
were directed to appoint county superintendents of common schools, 
but the office was abolished in 1847. During its operation, Ralph K. 
Finch and Alanson S. Phillips filled the office in Steuben county. 
Previous to 1 85 7, school commissioners (an office which succeeded county 
superintendent) were appointed by the supervisors, but since that year 
have been elected. The incumbents of the office in the several districts 
of this county have been as follows: 

First District. — Geo. McLean, Stephen Vorhis, Eli H. Brown, R. R. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 39 

s, Jos. B. Westcott, Geo. P. Avery, Jno. C. Higbee 2d, Zenas L. 
r, Geo. H. Guinnip, Edgar A. Higgins, Loring H. Barnum, Albert 
nton, Clark W. Halliday and Edwin C. Smith, 
ond District. — P. J. Farrington, Noble H. Rising, Edmund A. 
am, Wm. M. Sherwood, Jacob H. Wolcott, Reuben H. Williams, 
■ Morrill, Wesley W. Smith and Howard B. Harrison, 
rd District. — (Created in 1859, abolished in 1874, and restored in 
Wm. S Hall, Horatio Pettingill, Rodney Dennis, Albert T. Park- 
Idwin Whiting, William P. Todd, Charles Moore, 1890; Charles 
tt, 1893. 

zing furnished a brief civil and political history of Steuben county, 
aving referred to each of its public buildings, properties and depart- 
of government, and also to its representatives in public offices, it is 
;d appropriate that succeeding pages be devoted to the several 
livisions of the county, that the reader may acquire some tangible 
f the settlement, organization, growth and development of each, 
ver, in treating of the towns only incidental reference will be made 
villages and hamlets, and in another department of this work will 
ind more extended histories of each. Churches, also, are made 
bject of a separate chapter in this volume, classification being 
lered desirable for purposes of reference. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

DISON. — Addison is not only one of the most progressive and 
:rous interior towns of Steuben county, but it is .one of the oldest 

civil divisions. It was formed under the name of " Middle- 
' in March, 1796, and was one of the original provisional dis- 

created at that time, that some form of authority might be 
sed over the sparsely settled region. The old name was 
ved until 1808, and then changed to Addison; and so called, we 
Id, in respectful allusion to Joseph Addison, the English author of 
n his time. 



tire southern portion of the county, chiefly hill lands, yet s^ 
d with valleys and elevated flats as to invite early settleme 
[uent subdivision. As now constituted, under the present 
xn contains 16,500 acres of land, small indeed, comparativ( 

resources and enterprise, hence one of the best divisions 
:n. 

luel Rice was the pioneer of what is now Addison. He 
cticut Yankee by birth, a farmer by occupation, a hero a: 
of the Revolution by patriotic instinct and love of count 
:hy pioneer in the Genesee country. Mr. Rice made his 
Dn Tuscarora Creek, near the so-called Wombaugh mills, i: 
uilt the first house in the town. Other pioneers soon fc 
ind among them we may mention Reuben and Lemuel i 
e Goodhue, Oliver Miller, John Martin, Jonathan Tracy, Is; 

Martin, Abel White, James Benham, Silas Morey, Asahel 
:1 Stiles, Elisha Gilbert, William Wombaugh and Martin 

pioneers were farmers and lumbermen, kindred pursuits 
/ilderness region. They came prepared to fell the forests, 
: lumber for domestic use, and also to ship to market, 1 
te purpose of the majority of them was to build up comi 
and homes in the new country. That they were succ< 
.ttested in the fine farms and beautiful homes that line the ; 

town of hills and valleys. Later generations, perhaps, h; 
i upon the condition of things left by the pioneers, yet the ) 
)r this after prosperity was laid by the first comers during 
of the eighteenth century. 

: beautiful Tuscarora valley extends south from Addison 1 
ually charming valley of the Canisteo stretches away to th 
to the northward is the lesser valley of Goodhue Creek 
)ody of water called Goodhue Lake lies in the extreme no 




NELSON COWAN. 



Id as lumbering and rafting were important and profitable mdusti 
Fthe time, this was a central locality, and one widely known to lumb 
len and speculators. Therefore we are not surprised at the very ea 
:ttlement of the town, nor at loss to account for early evidences 
irift and comfort which distinguished this from some other localities 1 
vored by nature. 

The inference that Addison, or Middletown, was comparatively v. 
;ttled at a very early day seems to be borne out by fact, for the cen 
:ports show that the population of the district in 1800 was 174, and 
S13 had increased to 369, and that despite the fact that a large part 
roupsburg was taken off in 1808. Although the records throw 
ght on the point, it is confidently believed that when this district \ 
irmed in 1796, there were one hundred inhabitants on the territo 
Lt all events there was population sufficient to perfect the town orga 
ition. 

The first town meeting was held on the first Tuesday in Februa 
797, at which time officers were elected as follows : Reuben Stii 
jpervisor; Oliver Miller, town clerk; Lemuel Searle, constab 
anathan Tracy and Asahel Stiles, poormasters ; John Martin, Geo: 
roodhue and Stephen Dolson, highway commissioners ; Lemuel Sea: 
allector; Abel White, Oliver Miller and Jonathan Tracy, school co 
lissioners ; Elisha Gilbert and Silas Morey, fence viewers, and Reul 
earles, poundmaster. 

From this it will be seen that the governmental affairs of the to 
ere placed in proper condition in the year next following the creat 
f the county, but it would appear that the first meeting of electors \ 
ither poorly attended, for there were not enough incumbents for 
iveral offices without " thrusting double honors " upon some of 
eemen present. 

Pioneer Reuben Searle held the office of supervisor until 1804, « 
lerk Miller had charge of the town records until 1800. However, 

done in each of the town chapters of this work, we may also in Addii 
irnish the succession of supervisors from the organization meeting 
le present time, viz.: Lemuel Searle, 1797-1803 ; George Martin, i8( 
pmiipl Searle. 1801;: George Martin. 1806-OQ: David DicWins 



42 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Colgrove, 1817-20; Wm. B.Jones, 1821-22; Samuel Colgrove, 1823 
-27; Edward Nichols, 1828; Wm. Wombaugh, 1829-30; John Loop, 
1831-32; Jas. Baldwin, 1833-35; Jno. H. Thompson, 1836-37; Wm 
Hamilton, 1838; Jno. H. Thompson, 1839-42; L. A.Jones, 1843-44; 
Frederick R. Wagner, 1845 ; Wm. Wombaugh, 1846; Rufus Baldwin, 
1847; W. W. Smith, 1848; Jas. H. Miles, 1849-50; H. Ross Jones, 
1851-52; E. D. Root, 1853; Geo. W. Carr, 1854; Abram Dudley, 
1855; Edwin J. Horn, 1856; O. Seymour, 1857-58; Thos. Paxton, 
1859; Henry Baldwin, i860; E. J. Horn, 1861-63; F. C. Dininny, 
1864-71 ; Henry Baldwin, 1872-73 ; S. V. Lattimer, 1874-77 ; Albert 
G. Crane, 1878-80; Henry Baldwin, 1881-85; D. C. Hagar, 1886; E. 
D. Root, 1887-93; James S. Harrison, 1894-95. 

The town officers for the year 1895 are: James S Harrison, super- 
visor ; Frank B. Orser, town clerk ; Philander C. Daniels, Eugene Wade, 
Charles Turnbull, W. A. Bartlett, justices ; J. J. Martin, F. H. Wheaton 
and C. O'Connor, assessors ; R. B. Orr, collector ; Oliver D. Stewart, 
overseer of the poor; Jos. Thompson, highway commis'sinner ; Frank 
Bliss, C. Connois and A. Allison, excise commissioners. 

The town of Addison, inclusive of the village, had a population in 
1890 of 2,908. In the history of the town there has ever been shown 
a gradual increase both in population and business interests, though the 
frequent reductions in areas, taken for other towns, makes it difficult to 
present any comparative tables showing actual progress in all directions. 
As we have mentioned, the inhabitants in 1800 numbered 174, and 369 
in 1 8 10. In 1820 the number was 652, and in 1830 was 944. It was 
1,920 in 1840, and the greatest number, 3,721, was reached in 1850. 
1856 Rathbone was taken off, and the census of i860 gave Addison a 
population of 1,715- From this time no further reductions in territory 
were made, and subsequent years have witnessed a constant increase as 
follows: 2,218 in 1870 ; 2,534 in 1880, and 2,908 in 1890.' 

In the early history of the town it appears that Addison had in its 
population a number of enterprising men, who were firm believers in 
improvement of the region as well as personal gain, and from well 
preserved records we learn that George Goodhue built the first saw mill 
in 1793, while William Wombaugh's saw mill was built in 1805, and his 
grist mill one year later. Samuel Smith was the first storekeeper. 
Stephen Rice, son of Samuel, was the first white child born in the town', 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY". 43 

while the first marriage was that of Brown Gillespie and the daughter of 
Elisha Gilbert. A post-office was established in 1804. Slavery was 
not an unknown institution of the town, although the number of slaves 
owned here was far less than noticeable in some other localities. The 
records show occasional entries of ownership and birth of slaves, yet 
this custom of the past was found not to be congenial to the interests of 
proprietors, and the bondmen were soon set free. 

The first settlers also found a few straggling Indian occupants still in 
the region, and the latter reluctantly withdrew before the steady ad- 
vance of civilization. Little trouble was occasioned by their presence 
and few indeed are the Indian traditions and stories of a century ago. 
A little later, during the war of 18 12-15, rnuch excitement prevailed in 
the region, growing out of the discussions of the events of the time, and 
there seemed to be a small though determined element of Federalism 
pervading this community. However, public feeling seldom went bp- 
yond animated controversy and the patriotic pioneers enrolled them- 
selves on the side of " home and country," joined the militia and made 
ready for war and the threatened possibilities of an invasion. 

About the 3'ear 1825, and from that time dn to 1855, Addison was 
the very center of a vast lumber region. Indeed, this was one of the 
most famous pine lumber localities in the State, and also a place of 
resort for all the lumbermen on the northern border of Pennsylvania 
and Southern New York. " In the spring of the year," says a cotem- 
porary writer, " the surface of the Canisteo was a complete sheet of 
rafts from Hornellsville io the ' Deadwater,' as Addison was t:hen called; 
and the story has often been told that during the rafting season that 
one could almost walk Irom Hornellsville to Addison on rafts, except 
where there were dams across the river." 

A few years before lumbering was at its height in this region, the 
settlers passed through the period remembered as the antiren't conflict, 
and all local interests were more or less affected by it ; and at one time, 
it is said, business was practically at a standstill. Many of the foremost 
men of the town were active participants in the events of the period, 
and in the Bath convention, in January, 1830, the local delegates were 
William Wombaugh, Lemuel B. Searles, David Shumway, EberScofield 
and Daniel Burdick. 

Another interesting subject for perusal and reference in the history 



44 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of this town is found in the record made by her contingent of volun- 
teers enUsted and sent into the service during the war of 1861-5, by 
which it is known that the early martial spirit of the ancestor was in- 
herited by the later generation of descendants. By the acts of the lat- 
ter the patriotic reputation for which this town has long been noted 
was upheld and elevated. A brief reference to the roster of volunteers 
from Addison discloses the fact that during the period of the war the 
town furnished two hundred men for the service, who were scattered 
through the several regiments recruited in the county and in this part 
of the State. In another chapter the reader will find a complete list of 
the several commands, and also a record of their service at the front, 
wherefore the subject may be briefly mentioned in this place. 

In matters pertaining to the spiritual and educational welfare of the 
youth of the town, the first settlers gave full heed, and their example 
has been accepted as a rule of action for the authorities during later 
years. The church and religious societies will be found mentioned in 
another department of this work, hence repetition here is unnecessary. 
Unfortunately, the early records afford but little reliable information 
concerning the first schools of the town, or the division of the territory 
into districts, yet well verified tradition informs us that the schools have 
kept even pace with progress in other directions. As at present con- 
stituted the town is divided into five districts, each of which is provided 
with a good school. In the town, including the village, sixteen teachers 
were employed during the last current year, and the whole number of 
children attending school was 646. The value of all school property is 
estimated at $33,715, and the assessed valuation of the districts is 
$879,870. There was apportioned to the town public moneys to the 
extent of $2,313.34, and the town raised by tax the sum of $8,387.38, 
all used for maintenance and support of schools. 

AVOCA. — On the 12th of April, 1843, the towns of Bath, Cohocton, 
Howard and Wheeler surrendered portions of their territory to a new 
formation by the name of Avoca ; and so called, it is said, in allusion 
either to Moore's poem " Sweet Vale of Avoca," or " Meeting of the 
Waters." However, to the pioneers this locality was known as Bu- 
chanan, from the fact that William Buchanan was the first settler in the 
region. The locality also bore the designation of " Eight Mile Tree," 
being eight miles distant west from the county seat, from which point 
all early reckonings were made. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 45 

Speaking briefly of the natural features of the town, the statement 
may be made that Avoca is to be numbered among the hilly divisions 
of the county, a few of the summits reaching a height of nearly 500 feet. 
Nearly north and south across the town runs the Conhocton, which, with 
its principal tributaries, Twelve-Mile, Ten-Mile and Niel's Creeks, form 
beautiful valleys and scenery unsurpassed in the county. Notwithstand- 
ing the rough and hilly character of the land surface, Avoca is regarded as 
one of the first towns in the entire Conhocton valley in point of general 
fertility and productiveness ; and during comparatively recent years an 
additional importance attaches to the town, for its villages and hamlets 
on the lines of railroad are shipping points of much note. Although 
very irregular in surface and boundary, the 21,300 acres of land which 
comprise the town are in favorable comparison with any similarly 
situated division of historic Steuben. 

Going back a hundred years and more the sole occupants of this part 
of the Conhocton valley were Indians, scattered fragments of the once 
powerful Iroquois tribes who were loth to leave their favorite resorts 
and fishing grounds, although the voice of the savage nation had spoken 
in favor of a sale of the land. Pioneers William and Michael Buchanan 
found a considerable Indian settlement in the valley in 1794, while as 
late as 1808, Abram Towner came and described from 50 to 100 lodges 
on the flat lands below his house. All settlers, early and late, referred 
to these occupants as a lazy, shiftless set, and occasionally inclined to 
create trouble, but about 181 8 they had departed for the reservations 
generously provided for them by the State. 

As we have stated, William Buchanan and his son Michael were the 
pioneers in this town, having been sent into this part of the then town 
of Bath in 1794 to open and maintain a public house for the entertain- 
ment of prospective settlers. These pioneers made various improve- 
ments, among them putting up a log inn and planting an orchard. 
From his settlement the locality became known as Buchanan's, although 
the name " Eight Mile Tree " was more suggestive of the distance from 
the settlement to the village at Bath. Following soon after the Buchan- 
ans, came James and Hugh McWhorter, James and George Moore, 
Gershom Townley and Finley McClure, all of whom were here previous 
to 1800, and who were active in clearing and improving the region in 
one direction and another. McClure was a farmer and opened a road 



46 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

from Kanona to his cabin home. Towner was an inn keeper and kept 
a resort of much fame in early days, and was noted for his generosity 
and hospitality. 

The other early settlers who came to this region between the years 
1801 and 1815, and were scattered over the entire district, were Abram 
Towner, Asa Phillips, James Babcock, Richard and John Van Buskirk, 
James Davis, Henry Smith, Daniel McKenzie, William Moody, Jon- 
athan Tilton, John Donahue, Allen Smith, Samuel Burnham, Oliver 
Rice atid Eleazor Tucker, all of whom settled in that part of the town 
which was set off from Bath. 

The Howard contribution comprised Isaac Baldwin, William Allen, 
Timothy Parkhill, Charles Robords, Henry Kennedy and William Goff. 
Still later comers, yet worthy to be mentioned among the pioneers, were 
Gershom Salmon, John B. Calkins, Joseph Matthewson, John Putnam, 
James Silsbee, Hugh Briggs, Van Heusen Hopkins and others. Being 
taken from older and prominent towns, Avoca has little to present in 
the way of important early events, yet it is said that William McWhor- 
ter and Michael Buchanan 2d, were the first children born ; that Michael 
Buchanan died in 18 11; that James McWhorter and the widow 
Buchanan were married in 1812 ; that in 1809 Henry Kennedy built 
the saw mill at the place called Goff's Mills, while Eleazur Tucker is 
credited with having built the first saw mill in the town, though at a 
now unknown date. William Goff built the first grist mill in 18 12. 
Alonzo Simmons kept the first store. Tucker, above mentioned, built 
a saw mill on the river in 1825. Previous to 18 12 there were but two 
teams of horses in the town. The first framed dwelling in Avoca was 
built by James McWhorter. Elders Buzzelland Elisha Brownson were 
the first preachers. 

Such were the early events of town history in Avoca, but they took 
place long years before the town itself was formed or even contem- 
plated. Settlement here was of much the same character as in other 
parts of Bath and Howard ; there were the same hardships and the 
same pleasures as attended pioneership elsewhere in the county. Dur- 
ing the war of 18 12-15, the same excitement existed here as lower 
down the valley, and the immediate presence of the Indians occasioned 
a feeling of fear and uncertainty not experienced in some other locali- 
ties. But the period passed without serious disturbance and the return 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY". 47 

of peace witnessed great strides in settlement and prosperity. A little 
later came the anti-rent conflict, but this was the cause of not m9re 
than temporary embarrassment to local interests. 

Settlement, growth and development in this part ofConhocton valley 
was so rapid that as years passed a new town was considered desirable, 
yet not until about 1 840 was the subject seriously discussed; and still 
three years more passed before the older towns were called upon to 
yield portions of their territory to the new formation. Thus, when the 
organization was in fact effected the affairs of the locality were all in 
order, the hamlets had been built up and established, and the simple 
act of election of town officers was the only necessary thing to be 
accomplished 

The records show that the first town meeting was held at the house 
of James G. Barto, on May 12, 1843, at which time these officers were 
elected : Henry A. Louck, supervisor ; Jesse Louck, town clerk ; 
Oliver Rice, Simeon Holmes, Luther Tilton, justices; John Donahe, 
John L. Robords. Marcus Peck, assessors; James Gorton, John Collier, 
John T. Allen, highway commissioners; Jonathan Silsbee and Abram 
Turner, overseers of the poor ; Perry S. Donahe, collector. 

In this connection it is also interesting to note the succession of 
supervisors from the time of organization to the present, viz.: Henry 
A. Loufks, 1843 ; George W. Burnham, 1844-48 ; Henry H. Bouton, 
1849-52; Jos. I. Burnham, 1853; H. H. Bouton, 1854; Henry Goft", 
1855 ; Salmon Waterbury, 1856-57; Joel Carrington, 1858-59; Henry 
A. Loucks, i860; A. M. Waterbury, 1861 ; J. H. Nicholson, 1862-63 ; 
Salmon H. Palmer, 1864-66; Joel Carrington, 1867-68; I. J. Haskin, 
1869; S. E. Haskin, 1870; I. J. Haskin, 1871; F. N. Barney, 1872; 
I J. Haskin, 1873; D. E. Hoadley, 1874; Thomas Cotton, 1875-76; 
N. B. Chase, 1877-80; Thomas Cotton, 1881-82; C.Patterson, 1883; 
Lawrence Saltsman, 1884; C. Patterson, 1885; Jerry Hall, 1886; A. 
J. Arnold, 1887-88; Lemuel Matthewson, 1889-90; A.J. Arnold, 
1891-92; A. L. Zielley, 1893-95. 

The town officers for the year 1895 are Alex. L. Zielley, supervisor ; 
J. L. Hunn, town clerk; George C. Silsbee, Thomas J. Redhead, 
George A. Fox and Ripley C. Oxx, justices ; A. C. Wagner, Martin 
Brown and James Robinson, assessors; Joseph Ells, collector; Lyman 
Arnold, overseer of the poor; John E. Olmsted, highway commis- 



48 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

sioner ; Orton Dye, Frank Shultz and Fred L. Peck (did not qualify) 
commissioners of excise. 

When set off and organized in 1843, the inhabitants of Avoca num- 
bered about 1,660, and, according to the enumeration of 1845, the 
number was 1,668. In 1850 it had fallen to i,S74, but during the suc- 
ceeding ten years increased to 1,885, the greatest population in the 
history of the town to that time. In 1870 the number was 1,740, and 
in 1880 was 1,843 I" 1890 Avoca contained 2,242 inhabitants, show- 
irtg a somewhat surprising growth in the pretty little village of Avoca, 
a historical sketch of which will be found elsewhere in this work. 

From what has been stated in this brief chapter it will be seen that 
the early and perhaps the most interesting history in this town was 
made while its territory formed a part of the older divisions from which 
it was created. Yet, notwithstanding this, it may truthfully be said 
that the greatest strides in advancement and prosperity have been 
made during the last half century, and many of them may be placed 
to the credit of the last twenty five years. The construction of the 
railroad (now the Erie) through Conhocton valley was the one event 
which above all others contributed to local welfare, and the more recent 
building of the D. L. & W. road only added to the progress then being 
made, and also stimulated the inhabitants to greater exertions. The 
result of local energy and thrift are apparent, for Avoca enjoys the 
pleasant reputation of being one of the best and most productive towns 
in all Steuben. It lies well within the "potato belt" and produces 
remarkably in that and also in general farm crops under careful atten- 
tion. This condition of things has built up and made Avoca village 
what it is, and the hamlets of the town have shared in the general pros- 
perity. 

The only event of general importance in the history of the town, 
outside of ordinary affairs, was the period of the war of 1861-65, dur- 
ing the terms of office of supervisors Waterbury, Nicholson and Palmer, 
all of whom were prominently identified with the "war measures" 
adopted and the hearty support accorded to all efforts of raising troops 
and creating bounty funds. During the war, Avoca sent into the 
service a total of one hundred and twenty- three men, and exceeded her 
quota by a fair number. Of a truth it may be said that no town in the 
region displayed more patriotism or public-spiritedness during that 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 49 

terrible four years than did Avoca, and none made more free and gen- 
erous provision for the payment of bounties to recruits. 

The early history of the schools of Avoca was a part of the record of 
the older towns and furnishes little of interest to this chapter. At the 
organization meeting, John B. Stevenson and John Conner were elected 
commissioners, and Charles W. C. Howard and Addison Niles inspec- 
tors of common schools. After the erection of the town its territory 
was regularly divided into new districts, formed to suit the convenience 
of the inhabitants, and these have been changed in later years as neces- 
sity required. As now constituted the town contains eleven school 
districts, and fifteen teachers are annually employed. During 1894, 
four hundred and sixty- nine children attended school. The value of 
school property is estimated at $9,445. The town received of public 
moneys, $1,852.14, and raised by local tax $3,582.09. Four trees 
were planted during the year. 

Bath. — On the 15th of April, 1793, Charles Cameron and a party 
of pioneer woodsmen landed from their flat boats and made a camp 
near where the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western station now stands 
in the village of Bath. This was the advance guard of civilization in an 
uninhabited and comparatively unknown region, and the adventurers 
themselves were sent hither at the direction of Charles Williamson, the 
latter the owner of almost a principality, though in fact he was only the 
representative of a syndicate of capitalists whose only aim was personal 
gain. Yet Charles Williamson was vested with almost extraordinary 
authority and power and lavishly did he expend his principals' money 
in improving and developing the country in which he afterward lived 
for several years. 

Captain Williamson reached Bath very soon after the arrival of 
Cameron and companions. They came from Northumberland, Penn- 
sylvania, by water and brought supplies and provisions for both sub- 
sistence and the founding of a settlement. At that time we are told 
this region was a vast, dense forest, inhabited only by wild animals and 
a few scattered fragments of the once powerful Seneca Indians. The 
latter had signed away their domain to the Phelps and Gorham proprie- 
tary, and through a series of transfers the lands had come into the 
ownership of the Pulteney associates, whose agent Williamson was and 

7 



50 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

under whose direction was now to be undertaken the development and 
sale of this vast estate. 

If we correctly interpret his character there was nothing of the nig- 
gard in Captain Williamson, nor did he enter half-heartedly into any of 
his many enterprises; and while he was ever mindful of the rights and 
interests of his principals, he also kept faith with his promises to settlers, 
thus gaining their respect and admiration. True, he was charged with 
prodigality and unnecessary expenditures in the use of the revenues of 
his principals, yet no person who knew the genial captain ever believed he 
acted or dealt solely for personal purposes or gain. The Pulteney as- 
sociates, being foreigners and non-residents, were never in a position to 
fully appreciate the situation of affairs on their territory in New York, 
nor the fact that their agent was engaged in an effort to settle quite un- 
desirable land in competition with some of the most fertile and beautiful 
tracts for which Western New York is and ever has been noted To 
accomplish this it became necessary for the agent to make outlays in 
building a principal thoroughfare of travel from far across the Pennsyl- 
vania border into the very center of the region sought to be disposed 
of at best advantage. And it became necessary, too, to found a new 
village in the region, and to this end the pioneers were sent up the 
Conhocton and pitched their camps on the site of the village of Bath. 
Captain Williamson had previously made headquarters at Northumber- 
land, from which point he did effective work, but the necessities of the 
occasion and the situation of the lands in New York demanded a change, 
hence his action in founding the settlement which soon afterward be- 
came the shire town of one of the largest and most important inland 
counties of this great State. 

"The first comers," says Mr. McCall's address.^ "were not roman- 
cers, but .'^tern workers who braced themselves for the toils and priva- 
tions before them. Thomas Rees, jr., the surveyor, with his corps of 
assistants, began at once to plot the village, locate the streets and 
squares, and number the lots, while Cameron and his helpers, after 
clearing the ground and making rustic cabins in which to shelter them- 
selves, proceeded to erect a log building on the south side of Pulteney 

1 Ansel J. McCall is conceded authority on all matters o£ local history, and the writer has 
made-free use of his valuable manuscripts and excellent memory in the preparation of this 
chapter. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 51 

Square, of sufficient capacity for the accommodation of Captain William- 
son's family and the transaction of his official business. On the north 
side of Morris street, about twenty rods west of the square, they erected 
a log structure for John Metcalf's hostelry. James Henderson, the 
mill-wright, sought a mill site on the Conhocton (now owned by John 
Baker and occupied by his flour mill) and with his crew began building 
a saw mill to furnish boards for floors, doors and roof for the new land 
office, hotel and other structures being put up. It was the first saw 
mill in the town, and was completed on the 25th of August. 
Captain Williamson in a few days was on the ground in person, super- 
intending operations and cheering the faint hearted by his presence and 
stirring words " 

In the Cameron party of pioneers and builders of a county town were 
these persons: Andrew Smith, familiarly called " Muckle " Andrew, 
in allusion to his remarkable size and strength, and grandfather to John 
L. Smith ; William McCartney, the pioneer of Dansville ; Hector Mc- 
Kenzie, who died in the West Indies and Henry Tower, an afterward 
prominent business man, all of whom came from the vicinity of Cap- 
tain Williamson's home near Balgray, Scotland. There were also 
Thomas Corbett, pioneer at Mud Creek ; Thomas Rees, jr., the sur- 
veyor who plotted the village and likewise made many surveys in the 
vicinity, all of which have ever been regarded as a standard ; Alexander 
Ewing, who afterward settled at Mt. Morris ; William Ewing, also a 
surveyor, who moved to Ohio ; John Metcalf, the pioneer tavern-keeper,- 
and one of the village worthies ; James Henderson, the millwright • 
Samuel Doyle, an old patriot of the Revolution, and whose descendants 
still live in the vicinity, and Joseph Arbour, Richard Armour, John 
Scott, Charles McClure, Peter Loop, Mr. Upton, Benjamin Patterson, 
the hunter, and Joseph Bivens, who kept the first tavern at Bloods, 
now Atlanta. Most of these were Scotch Irishmen from the West 
Branch, and came to the new settlement chiefly as laborers and me- 
chanics, yet many of them became permanent residents, developed into 
useful and capable men, and were in all respects worthy citizens and 
upright men. 

But these were not all, as well verified records, the results of untiring 
research, have preserved the name of still other pioneer town builders 
under the direction of the active agent of the Pulteney associates. In 



52 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

this connection may be named Hector McKay, William Lemon, Samuel 
Ewing, John and Samuel Ewart, George Moore, George Baittie, Francis 
Conway, William Carroll and Robert Biggars, the latter the tanner who 
in 1793 purchased thirteen acres on the south side of Morris street, 
west of the cemetery, whereon he built a tannery. Others of the same 
period were Obediah Osborn, the mill builder ; George McCullough, 
the blacksmith; Robert Hunter, the schoolmaster; Jacob Glendenning, 
Andrew Shearer, Dr. Schott, Gottleib Dougherty and one Paul. 

Henry McElvvee, " a stalwart young Scotch-Irishman," as described 
by Mr. McCall, " (always called Harry) made his entry into the new 
town on New Year's day, 1794," and thus describes the condition of 
municipal settlement as he found it: "I only found a few shanties in 
the wood. Williamson had his house near the site of the present land 
ofiSce, and the Metcalfs kept a log tavern on Morris street nearly oppo- 
site the (present) Mansion House. I went to the tavern and asked for 
supper and lodging; they said they would give me neither, for their 
house was full. I could get nothing to eat. An old Dutchman was 
sitting there, and he said to me: 'Young man, if you will go with me, 
you shall have some mush and milk and a deer-skin to lie on, with your 
feet to the fire, and another to cover yourself with.' We went up 
through the woods to where St. Patrick Square now is. There the 
Dutchman had a little log house." In the following spring this same 
McElwee made the first substantial clearing, being the Pulteney Square, 
• also four acres in rear of the agent's house for a garden. (For the culti- 
vation of this garden Williamson imported a gardener from England, 
named Dominic Quinn.) McElwee left a single pine tree in front of 
the agent's house for a " Liberty Tree." It was trimmed so as to leave 
a tuft at the top, and it "bid defiance to the elements until after 1820," 
and was soon afterward blown down. 

The pioneers who came to the settlement during 1794 maybe men- 
tioned about as follows: George McClure and James Moore, from 
Northumberland; Isaac Mullender, with his wife, three sons and three 
daughters, direct from Scotland ; Richard Cuyler, John Shearer, Rich- 
ard Carpenter, Dr. William Petrie (the surgeon of the settlement), John 
Wyman, William McElwee, Frank Scott, Gustavus and Brown Gilles- 
pie, Joseph and Robert Dunn, Robert Sterret, James McFarland, Sam- 
uel and John Mettler, Samuel Baker, Amos Stone William Barney, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 53 

William and Eli Read, and Samuel McKenzie. These settlers were 
both mechanics and farmers, the former seeking work in the little ham- 
let, and the latter selecting lands in the region on which they might 
establish houses and farms. All, however, before acquiring title, were 
of necessity compelled to repair to the land office and make their con- 
tracts, Williamson treated them with the greatest generosity, offering the 
land at reasonable prices and extending help to those not able to build 
for themselves. By his uniform kindness Williamson won the esteem 
of all who came to his settlement. 

When Charles Williamson began his work of improvement and settle- 
ment there was little civil organization or jurisdiction attempted in this 
remote part of Ontario county. In 1791 the provisional district of 
Painted Post was foimed, yet, being practically uninhabited, there was 
no need of the exercise of civil authority over the region. The district 
mentioned included all that is now Steuben county, and in 1793, jede- 
diah Stephens, of Canisteo, was elected supervisor. However, in 1794, 
at the January sessions, through Williamson's influence, a new district 
was created embracing all the territory west of the second range of 
townships, and was named Williamson. Bath was included in the new 
formation, but where or when the district meetings were held is not now 
known. 

The now growing settlement was much in need of post and stage ac- 
commodations, for down to this time Captain Williamson had employed 
his own post-riders to and from Northumberland, 140 miles distant; 
and the trips were made once in two weeks. A permanent post office, 
with all necessary facilities for transmission of mails, was established at 
Bath in 1800. This year, 1794, was eventful in still another direction, 
for the new yet now flourishing settlement was threatened with British 
invasion and subjection ; but through the energetic and determined 
action of Captain Williamson, suggested by the governor of the State, 
the proposed invasion was stayed until the federal government took 
charge of the affair and effected a speedy settlement of the dispute. 
However, in protecting his rights and interests, Captain Williamson 
caused a block house to be built in Bath, while young McClure raised a 
company of militia for defensive purposes. 

The succeeding year, 1795, "opened brightly," using Mr. McCall's 
words, for the Genesee country, the doughty agent vigorously 



54 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

pushed improvements, and settlers came pouring in from all quarters. 
Among them were Robert Campbell, Alexander McDonald, John Mor- 
rison, Dugald Cameron, Daniel Cruger, Dr. D. B. Stockton and William 
Kersey, all of whom were prominently identified with subsequent events 
of local history, and some of whom, as well as their descendants, occu- 
pied positions of trust and importance. 

In March, 1796, the county of Steuben was erected from the south 
part of Ontario, and was named in honor of Frederick William Au- 
gustus, Baron Steuben, through the influence of Col. Benjamin Walker, 
a close friend of Charles Williamson. The colonel had been the aide of 
Baron Steuben, who had just died, and Walker was residuary legatee 
under his will. 

Through the undisputed influence of Captain Williamson, Bath was 
designated as the shire-town of the new county, and forthwith provis- 
ion was made for the erection of county buildings. Fully mentioned 
elsewhere, no extended reference to them is necessary at this time. 
However, in accordance with the authority of the erecting act, the Court 
of Sessions divided the territory of the county into six towns, one of 
which was the town of Bath, the subject of this chapter. As constituted 
at that time, it was bounded on the north by the county line ; east by 
Lake Keuka and Fredericktown ; south by Painted Post and Middle- 
town, and west by Dansville. 

Bath was now the capital town of Steuben county, and was so named 
in token of respect for Lady Henrietta, Countess of Bath, the daughter 
of Sir William Pulteney, the chief owner in the land association, whose 
representative and agent was Capt. Charles Williamson. The first 
move of the land agent was to establish a newspaper, not only for the 
dissemination of news, but for the main purpose of properly advertising 
the new county and setting forth the desirable qualities of land and 
climate, in the hope of inducing settlement and increasing the revenues 
of his principals. (Even at this early day the owners were annoying 
their agent with demands for returns, and were indirectly charging him 
with unnecessary expenditures). William Kersey, the newly appointed 
judge, an attache of the land office, was sent to Pennsylvania to pur- 
chase the necessary equipment for a printing-office, and the result was 
the issue October 19, 1796, of the first number of the Bath Gazette and 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 55 

Genesee Advertiser, the first newspaper printed in this State west of 
Oneida county. 

In the same year, also, the colonel erected a frame building on the 
northwest corner of Pulteney Square for use as a public school, and so 
completed the race track that widely advertised fairs and races were 
held on the 20th of September. A public hall or theater was likewise 
built in due season and Bath was brought into prominence as a desira- 
ble place for all kinds of entertainments; and to the present day the 
county town of Steuben is noted for the excellence of its annual fairs. 
The chief object of these improvements was, as Mr. McCall says, "to 
attract attention to the purchase and its new metropolis." He was anx- 
ious to make rapid sales of the land in his charge, and he knew that it 
was necessary to create some excitement which would draw strangers 
to look at them. Weld, an English traveler, visited the town in 1796, 
and described Bath as the "principal town in the western part of the 
State, containing about thirty houses, and increasing very fast.'' 

Among the settlers in the town in 1796 were Dr. B. F Young, Dr. 
Shults, Philip Gilman, George D. Cooper, William Cook, Daniel Curtis, 
James Edie, James Miller, Fisher Whitney, John Woodward, Josiah 
Wright, David Jones, James Love, Leonard Beaty, George Dixon and 
Finla McClure. 

Organization and Officers. — The first town meeting in Bath was held 
at the house of John Metcalf on the 4th day of April, 1797, at which 
time these persons were elected to office: Charles Cameron, supervisor; 
James Edie, town clerk ; William Aulls. Patrick McKell, Hector Mc- 
Kenzie, commissioners of highways; Gustavus Gillispie, collector; 
Amos Stone, George Dixon and Abijah Peters, constables ; Daniel 
Cruger, and Patrick McKell, overseers of the poor ; Amos Eggleston, 
Joseph Inslie, William Read, John Woodward, Henry Bush, Henry 
McElwee and Jacob Phillips, overseers of highways ; Eli Read, Andrew 
Smith, James McKell and Thomas Streeter, fence viewers ; Robert 
Bigger, Samuel Miller and Samuel Baker, assessors ; Samuel Baker and 
Silas Beers, poundmasters ; George D. Cooper, John Sheather, Charles 
Williamson and Benjamin F. Yourig, commissioners of schools. 

However interesting for purposes of reference might be a complete 
succession of all town officers, such is deemed inadvisable in this work, 
and the reader will therefore be content with the list of supervisors 



56 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

clerks and justices of the peace, these being recognized as the chief 
offices in the town government. 

Supervisors. — Charles Cameron, 1797-98; George McClure, 1799- 
1801 ; Henry A. Townsend, 1802 ; Samuel Baker, 1803-5 ; George 
McClure, 1 806- 7 ; Howell Bull, 1808; Henry Kennedy, 1809; James 
Faulkner, 1810; Cornelius Younglove, 181 1 ; Thomas Aulls, 18 12-14; 
Howell Bull, 1815 ; Elisha Hanks, 1816-17; William Woods, 1818 ; 
Samuel Baker, 1819-20; Elisha Hanks, 1821-23 ; Henry Wells, 1824; 
John W. Fowler, 1825-26; James G. Higgins, 1827-28; George C. 
Edwards, 1829-30; Reuben Robie, 1831-32; William J. Neally, 1833- 
34; Henry W. Rogers, 1835; William Hamilton, 1836-38; D. Mc- 
Master, 1839 ! Robert Campbell, jr., 1840-44; Chester Whitaker, 1845 ! 
John W. Fowler, 1846-49; John Ostrander, 1850-51; Paul C. Cook, 
1852-54; David McMaster, 1855 ; William Howell, 1856-57; Alva E. 
Brown, 1858-60; H. H. Hull, 1861 ; William Howell, 1862; John L. 
Smith, 1863-64; David Ramsey, 1865-71; Samuel Balcom, 1872; 
William Rumsey, 1873; G. H. Brundage, 1874-75; Henry Faucett, 
1876; James Faucett, 1877; Orange Seymour, 1878-82; John F. 
Little, 1883-85 ; James Faucett, 1886; John F. Little, 1887; W. H. 
Nichols, 1888-90; J. F. Little, 1891 ; W. H. Nichols, 1892-95. 

Town Clerks. — James Edie, 1797-98; Charles McClure, 1799; Henry 
A. Townsend, 1 800-1 ; Charles McClure, 1 802-3 ; Henry A. Town- 
send, 1804; Howell Bull, 1805; Henry A. Townsend, i8o6; Howell 
Bull, 1807; Thomas Metcalf, 1808; Howell Bull, 1809-14; John Met- 
calf, 1815-18; William H. Bull, 1819-21 ; John W. Fowler, 1822-24; 
Reuben Robie, 1825-28; Lewis Biles, 1829; Reuben Robie, 1830; 
William S. Hubbell, 1831 ; William H. Bull, 1832; Franklin Metcalf,, 
1833; William Hamilton, 1834; Alex. Hess, 1835; N. W. Gardner, 
1836-37; George Edwards, 1838-42; Alex. Hess, 1843; Peter 
Swart, 1844; Perry S. Donahe, 1845-51; James R Dudley, 1852. 
John Palmer, 1853; Charles H. Howell, 1854; Peter Halsey, 1855' 
James Lindsay, 1856-57; James R. Dudley, 1858; James Lindsay' 
1859-1884; William W. Lindsay, 1885-95. 

Justices of the Peace. — Henry W. Rogers, 1830; Oliver Rice, 1831 ; 
William Hamilton and George Wheeler, 1832 ; George Wheeler, 1833 ; 
John D. Higgins, 1834; Oliver Rice, 1835 ; William Hamilton, 1836; 
George Wheeler and Henry Pier, 1838 ; Oliver Rice and A. D. Read, 




(^ ^ A^Vi^^^i 



■i^ crr?^. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 57 

1839; Ziba A. Leland, 1840; Chester Whitaker, 1841 ; George Hunt- 
ington and William S. Mulhollen, 1842 ; Nathan Barney, 1843 ; Will- 
iam S. Mulhollen, 1844; Chester Whitaker, 1845; James Shannon, 
1846; Arnold D. Read, 1847; William S. Mulhollen, 1848; Chester 
Whitaker and Luther R. Hopkins, 1849; Nathan Sawyer, 1850; 
Arnold D. Read, 1851 ; Henry Pier, 1852; Chester Whitaker, 1853; 
James Lindsay, 1854; Arnold D. Read, 1855; Henry Pier, 1856. 
Chester Whitaker, 1857; James Lindsay, 1858; Arnold D. Read, 
1859; Henry Pier, i860; E. W. Buck, 1861 ; James Lindsay, 1862; 
Joseph B. Westcott, 1863 ; Abram C. Bryan, 1864; Charles L. Bailey, 
1865; Dwight Ostrander and James Lindsay, 1866; Augustus F. 
Barnes, 1867 ; Frank Hardcnbrook and Abram C. Bryan, 1868; Frank 
Hardenbrook and Henry J. Norris, 1869 ; James Lindsay, 1870 ; Hiram 
R. Hess, 1871 ; Hamilton Lane, 1872 ; Frank Hardenbrook and Henry 
J. Norris, 1873; James Lindsay, 1874; Hiram R. Hess, 1875; Horace 
L. Lewis, 1876 ; Frank Hardenbrook and Henry J. Norris, 1877 ; James 
Lindsay, 1878; Hiram R. Hess, 1879; Frank Orcutt, 1880; Frank 
Hardenbrook, Frank Wayland and Frank Orcutt, 1881 ; James Lindsay, 
1882; Edwin R. Kasson, 1883 ; Otis H. Smith, Valentine Brother and 
Edgar Knight, 1884; Frank Hardenbrook, Edwin R. Fuller, William 
W. Lindsay and Daniel Brian, 1885 ; John S. Bosenbark, 1886; Otis H. 
Smith, 1887; William W. Lindsay, 1888 ; John K. Bancroft, Edwin R. 
Fuller and Frank Hardenbrook, 1889; John K. Bancroft, 1890; Clar- 
ence Willis, Frank Hardenbrook and Edwin R. Fuller, 1891 ; William 
W. Lindsay, 1892 ; Frank Hardenbrook and William H. Kearney, 1893 i 
John K. Bancroft, 1894; John A. Adams, 1895. 

Town Officers, 1895. — In the present connection may also properly 
be given the names of the town officers as the list stands at this time, 
viz.: William H. Nichols, supervisor ; William W. Lindsay, town 
clerk ; Frank Hardenbrook, of Savona, William W. Lindsay, of Bath, 
John Bancroft, of Sonora, William H. Kearney, of Kanona, and John 
A. Adams, of Bath, justices of the peace; John Hedges, Thomas Rob- 
inson, jr., and George K. Bowlby, assessors; Stephen Read, collector ; 
James M. Thomas, highway commissioner; James Faulkner and Joseph 
Kleckler, overseers of the poor ; William H. Davison, Jacob E. Bedell 
and Washington Sutherland, excise commissioners. 



58 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUxNTY 

Returning again to the events of early history, all authorities con- 
cede that the greatest growth and benefit accrued to the town through 
the designation of Bath as the seat of justice of the county, while the 
organization of the town itself was an important though auxiliary factor 
in promoting its early welfare. The name " County Seat" alone was 
a sufficient inducement to attract settlement, and professional men, 
merchants, mechanics and agriculturists alike hastened to the village 
hoping to be first in their class and thus became early established in 
general favor and popularity. 

The court-house was completed in 1797, and during the same year 
Captain Williamson organized a splendid regiment of militia, he being 
appointed its lieutenant- colonel, from which fact he was ever afterward 
styled "Colonel" Williamson. In 1798 the first bridge across the 
Conhocton was built at Bath, and in the same year a raft of lumber was 
safely sent down the river to Baltimore market. Among the settlers in 
this year were Henry A. Townsend, Joseph Grant, William Howe 
Cuyler, John Wilson, James Woodruff and Daniel Bennett. In March, 
1800, Swing & Patterson built an ark eighty feet long by twenty wide, 
loaded it with wheat and lumber and shipped it to market at Baltimore. 
Other similar ventures followed, with equal success, to the great satis- 
faction of Colonel Williamson and the entire towns people, and the re- 
sult was the construction of several storehouses at convenient points 
along the river. 

In 1 80 1 the Legislature having passed an act authorizing aliens for 
three years to take title to land in this State, Colonel Williamson con- 
veyed the unsold portions of the townships, previously held by him in 
trust, to his principals, and then resigned his agency position. In 1799 
he had begun the erection of a grand country seat on his so-called 
Springfield Farm, a mile and one half below the village, near Lake 
Salubria (now Lake Williamson). It was the largest private dwelling 
in Western New York, and when completed was placed in charge of 
Major Presley Thornton, a kinsman of General Washington and a former 
officer in the Revolution, who had just come from Virginia with a young 
wife of rare beauty and attainments. She was long known as " The 
Madam," from her graceful and commanding ways. The colonel made 
his home with them after he retired from the agency, and dispensed 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 59 

hospitality with a generous hand, and the place became famous for its 
brilliant assemblies. Major Thornton died in 1806, and Colonel Will- 
iamson soon afterward left for Europe and never returned. He died in 
1808. 

As we have stated, Major Thornton came to Bath in 1801, and was 
placed in charge of Colonel Williamson's mansion. He brought with 
him Virginia customs and many of the adjuncts of southern life and 
manners. Among the family belongings were several house slaves, 
servants rather than laborers, yet bondmen and women. This is be- 
lieved to have been the first formal introduction of slavery into Bath, 
although other and perhaps earlier settlers may have numbered a slave 
man or woman among their servants. And in this statement there is 
nothing surprising, not even unusual, for slaves were then the property 
of owners, the subjects of sale and traffic in the South and some other 
States, yet is understood as contrary to the statute laws of New Yoik. 
However, in the town of Bath slaves were treated as chattel property, 
and were bought and sold, occasionally under process of law and the 
apparent sanction of the courts. 1 his practice, too, was continued for 
several years. 

Capt. William Helm came to the town in 1801, from Prince William 
county, Va., with his family and a retinue of about forty slaves. He 
purchased a number of farms, and set his slaves cultivating them. He 
built a fine mansion on the site of the present First National Bank, and 
also rebuilt the old grist mill near the bridge. Captain Helm was un- 
fortunate in business, his property was seized by the sheriff and several 
of his slaves were sold to satisfy executions. One was purchased by 
Dugald Cameron for $50, and was set free in 1819. This slave was 
Daniel Cooper. 

This is only one of the many instances of slavery existing in this 
town during the early years of the century, and the fact reflects no dis- 
credit or stain upon any person or family. It was the recognized cus- 
tom of the period, and that there were more slaves owned in Bath 
than in many other localities only shows that a large number of the 
aristocratic and wealthy early residents of the town came from slave 
States, as commonly called. In the year t8oo there were twenty-two 
blacks in the county, and all were slaves. In 18 10 the colored in- 



60 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

habitants numbered il6, of whom 87 were slaves. The early town 
records, noticeably from 1800 to 1820, contain frequent reference to 
slave ownership, as births, sales and acts of manumission were required 
to be recorded. 

Among the other slave owners in Bath, there may be mentioned 
John Fitz Hugh, Samuel Hanson Baker, Howell Bull, Dugald Cam- 
eron, Henry McElwee, Capt. Samuel Erwin (of Painted Post), Ira Pratt, 
Daniel Cruger, Thomas McBurney and others. 

From all that is stated on preceding pages the reader will discover 
that the town of Bath was early and rapidly settled, and with a class of 
pioneers who were in all respects desirable to a new community. 
Under theinspiring influencesof Williamson the result was to be expected, 
and in the brief space of less than ten years he succeeded in building 
up a fine and substantial village, a county seat, while within its boun- 
daries, and those of the town surrounding it, were accumulated nearly 
five hundred inhabitants. As shown by census statistics, the town of 
Bath, in 1800, had a population of 452, the result of only seven years 
colonization. In 18 10 the number had increased to 1,036, and in 1820 
to 2,578. The inhabitants in 1830 numbered 3,387, and 4,915 in 1840. 
Ten years later there were 6,185 persons living in the town, and 5,129 
in i860. In 1870 the number was 6,236, and in 1880 was 7,396. The 
census of 1890 showed the town to contain 7,881 inhabitants, though 
the count of 1892 gave but 7,057 population. 

As now constituted Bath is by far the largest in area of the civil 
divisions of Steuben county, containing by actual survey 57,100 acres 
of land. The original town was even larger, but, like many others, 
has surrendered portions of her territory to later creations. Pulteney 
was taken off in 1808, and parts of Howard and Cohocton in 1812. A 
portion was set ofif to form Wheeler in 1820, and another part to Urbana 
in 1822. Still another reduction helped to form Avoca in 1843, and 
and in 1852 Cohocton received an annexation from the mother town. 
Savona was organized as a town, December 30, 1859, and was con- 
solidated with Bath, April 8, 1862. 

The early history of Bath was uneventful except as the usual mo- 
notony of pioneership was varied by the rapid strides which marked the 
settlement of the region. The settlers were peaceable and law-abiding, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 61 

yet fond of entertainment and pleasure. Public houses and places of resort 
were numerous, and in the year 1824 no less than twelve persons were 
licensed to keep tavern and sell " strong and spirituous liquors ;" the 
number of licensed places in the town in 1825 was fourteen. 

The war of 1812-15 was an event of much importance in local 
annals, and the occasion of some excitement and alarm. Bath was the 
rendezvous for the newly organized companies and regiments raised in 
the county, and several of her citizens played prominent parts on the 
frontier. General McClure, Majors Cruger and Gaylord, Captain Read 
and Lieutenant Kennedy rendered efficient service. Two companies 
were drafted on Pulteney Square in 1813. 

The town and village of Bath were also the chief seat of operations 
and discussion during that period in which took place the anti-rent con- 
troversy, and although the people of this immediate vicinity were but 
little affected by the tumult and excitement of the occasion, this was the 
central point and the place of meeting of the disaffected element. The 
town was represented in the convention of January, 1830, by William 
Woods, James Warden, John Corbitt, Peter Hunter, Melvin Schenck, 
Caleb P. Fulton and Elisha Hawkes. However, this embryo strife was 
soon passed into history and peace and general prosperity prevailed. 
Nothing further of importance occurred to disturb the serenity of domes- 
tic life until the outbreak of the war of 1861-5, and during that long 
and disastrous struggle the town of Bath made a record which stands 
through all time as one of the brightest pages in her history. Still we 
cannot in this place refer at length to the military records of the town, 
the subject being fully covered in another chapter of this work. Yet, 
the statement may be made that during the war the town furnished for 
the service a total of 500 men. 

Before closing this chapter it is appropriate that at least passing men- 
tion be made of the schools of the town at large, although much that 
might be said in a general way will be found in the history of ihe vil- 
lage of Bath in another part of this volume. However, on this im- 
portant subject the old records afford little reliable information, and of 
the character and condition of the districts previous to 1847 nothing is 
known. At the first town meeting in 1797 George D. Cooper, John 
Sheather, Charles Williamson and Benjamin F. Young were elected 



62 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

commissioners of common schools, yet, in 1793, the year in which the 
town was founded, a school was opened in Bath and Robert Hunter 
was the master. The first school house stood on the northwest corner 
of Pulteney Square, and was built previous to 1800. The first convey- 
ance of land for school purposes was that of October 4, 1803, by Sir 
William Pulteney to Samuel Baker, William Read and Eli Read, being 
fifty acres in Pleasant Valley. That region then formed a part of Bath. 
On February i, 1815, the Duke of Cumberland and others conveyed 
to the trustees of District No. 5 two acres of land in lot 33, now in the 
town of Wheeler. On December 29, 181 2, Henry A. Townsend con- 
veyed to the trustees of Bath school a lot on the north side of Steuben 
street, and here a school house was built in 1813. 

The territory of Bath was divided by the first board of commissioners 
into five school districts, and each district had three trustees. Later 
records are imperfect and defective, but from the results of Mr. Kings- 
ley's research we learn that a school was early established at Kanona, 
and that in the " White School house " in old district No. 2, William 
Howell taught in 1826. The first school house in the southeast part of 
the town was built of logs, near the four corners, where the Marshall 
Stewart house stands. John Wicks was one of the earliest teachers in 
that section. In 1847 the number of school districts in the town was 
twenty- seven, of which sixteen were entire and eleven joint with districts 
of other towns. As at present constituted the districts number twenty- 
five, located and known, respectively, as follows : No. i, Savona, 
organized 1891 ; No. 2, Harrisburgh Hollow; No. 3, Irish Hill; No. 4, 
Unionville ; No. S, Bath; No. 6, East Union; No. 7, Chamberlain's; 
No. 8, Kanona; No. 9, Mt. Washington; No. 10, Wolf Run; No. 11, 
Babcock Hollow; No. 12, Eagle Valley; No. 13, Spaulding's Bridge; 
No. 14, Sonora; No. 15, Freeman Hollow; No. 16, Veley District; 
No. 17, no distinguishing name; No. 18, Oak Hill; No. 19, Cossville ; 
No. 20, Campbell Creek; No. 21, West Union ; No. 22, Knight's Settle- 
ment ; No. 23, Buck's Settlement; No. 24, Moore Settlement; No. 25; 
Bowlby District. 

The total value of school property in the several districts is estimated 
at $56,745. During the last current year the town received public 
moneys to the amount of $5,660.51, and raised by local tax for school 
purposes $6,547.13. Sixty trees were planted by pupils in 1894. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 63 

The villages and hamlets of the town are subjects of special mention 
in another department of this work. However, we may state in this 
connection that the town has two incorporated villages, Bath and 
Savona, both conveniently situated on the line of the Erie and Delaware 
and Lackawanna Railroads, and well known among the municipalities 
of the county. Kanona is in the northwest part of the town, also on 
the railroads and a place of importance in the region. Unionville is a 
small hamlet situated about three miles southwest of Bath. 

In the department of this work devoted specially to ecclesiastical 
history, will be found a record of each of the church organizations of 
the town. 

Bradford. — On the eastern border of Steuben county, lying north 
of Campbell, south of Wayne, and east of Bath and Urbana, is a district 
known as Bradford, having an area of 14,500 acres of land. This town 
was created as a separate division of the county on the 20th of April, 
1836, and was formed from the old town of Jersey, now known as 
Orange in Schuyler county. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by 
the valley of Mud Creek. Mud Lake is a small though pretty little body 
of water situated in Schuyler county, near the Steuben line, and it was 
on the outlet of this lake that Philip Bartles and John Harvey made a 
settlement in 1793, and two years later, at the suggestion of Charles 
Williamson, built both saw and grist mills. These industries had 
much to do with the development of the region. During the early 
period of the history of the region the outlet was a navigable stream, 
and in 1798 Mr. Bartles rafted one hundred thousand feet of lumber to 
Baltimore. Benjamin Patterson and one Brocher were noted hunters in 
this locality and supplied many of the settlements with both bear and 
deer meat. They were said to have killed during a single season as 
many as two hundred deer and a dozen bears. 

Among the other pioneers and early settlers in this then wild and un- 
inviting region were John HemiOp, Samuel S. Camp, Abram Rosen- 
berg, Capt. John N. Hight, Henry Switzer, John Schrinner, Thomas 
Rolls, Michael Schott, Daniel Bartholmew, Henry Axtelle, Ezekiel 
Sackett, George Schnell, Stephen Edwards and a Mr. Smith, the 
christian name of the latter having been forgotten. These pioneers 
were chiefly lumbermen, though their ultimate purpose was the de- 



64 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

velopment of the land for farming purposes. Several of them built 
mills and became proprietors. Nearly all were from the lumber regions 
of Pennsylvania and came to the new region hoping to better their 
condition. They were chiefly Germans by birth or extraction, and 
were, withal^ a hardy, persevering and industrious class of men and 
women. The descendants of many of them still live in the county, but 
the pioneers are all gone. 

Another element of the early settlers were New Englanders, while 
still others were from New Jersey. Lacy Hurd, John Moore and Jesse 
Munson were Vermont Yankees ; Capt. John Phelps came from Con- 
necticut ; James Longwell was from New Jersey, though an Irishman 
by birth. Still other settlers were John Zimmerman, David Woodward, 
Caleb Wolcott, John Inscho, Abel Eveland, Elias Thomas, James D. 
Morris, Rumsey Miller, David Dennis, Evan F. Thomas, John Kish- 
paugh, Charles and Benjamin Whithead, Daniel Taylor, John Stilts, 
Caleb Roch, Philip Morse, and others perhaps equally worthy- of men- 
tion but whose names are lost with the lapse of years. 

The land being at length cleared of its valuable timber growth, good 
farms were developed, and this part of the old town of Jersey became 
an agricultural region, and while it produces well in return to the proper 
efforts of the husbandman, it has never been noted for superior excellence 
in this respect. However, the farmers are generally prosperous and 
many fine farms are found in the town. 

During the early history of the town, and while its lands formed a 
part of the older town of Jersey, the inhabitants felt the serious effects 
of the so-called anti-rent war. In the Bath convention Jersey was rep- 
resented by her strongest men, a portion of whom lived in the district 
afterward forming Bradford. They were Abraham M. Lybolt, Gilbert 
Reed, Caleb Wolcott, Peter Houck and Henry Switzer. 

Six years after this event, or in 1836, the town was set off and made 
a separate division of Steuben county, and was named in allusion to and 
in honor of General Robert Bradford. A portion of its territory was an- 
nexed to Orange, April 17, 1854. The first town meeting was held at 
the dwelling of John Zimmerman on the fourth Tuesday in Ma>, 1 836, 
at which time these officers were chosen : Supervisor, S. Snell ; town 
clerk, Charles McFane ; collector, Thomas Rowles ; justices, James 
Wolverton and James Bradley. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. • 65 

The supervisors of Bradford, from the time of its organization to the 
present, have been as follows: S. Snell, 1836-37; William H. Seybolt, 
1838-39; J. C. Cameron, 1840; Joseph S. Fenton, 1841 ; James 
Barkley, 1842-43, and 1849; Hosea Longwell, 1844; William Bovier, 
1845-46. and 1848 ; John Phelps. 1847 I Charles Hubban, 1850; Will- 
iam Phelps, 1851-52; John D. Seybolt, 1853-54, and 1860-61 ; John 
F. Havens, 1855-56; Lewis Bennett, 1857, '67, and '71 ; Jesse Mun- 
son, 1858-59, and 1863-66; Edgar Munson, 1862; B. B. Switser, 
1868; Frank Aulls, 1869-70; Therun Cole, 1872; Alonzo Eveland, 
1873-74, and 1881-86; J. M. Gilmore, 1875-76; Isaac Esterbrook^ 
1877; Ephraim Bennett, 1878-80; Frank Aulls, 1887 ; Philip Yawger, 
1888 and 1891 ; Frank Hedges, 1889-90; S. A Zimmerman, 1892-95. 

The officers of the town for the year 1895 are S. A. Zimmerman, 
supervisor ; David Whitehead, Albert W. Dodge, W. C. Stetler and L. 
E. Bartholmew, justices ; John C. Switzer, Arthur Gilmore and John 
O. Dennis, assessors. 

Bradford is one of the few towns of Steuben county in which there 
has been a noticeable decline in population, indicating clearly that the 
agriculturists of the region have suffered in common with those of the 
whole country. When first set off from Jersey in 1836 the inhabitants 
numbered about 1,500, and increased to 1,885 •" i860. From that 
time until the present there has been a general decline in population, 
hence in productiveness and value of property, and the population of 
the town in 1890 was only 765 ; a less number than any town in the 
county, save Hartsville. Notwithstanding all this, Bradford possesses 
natural resources equal to many other outlying towns, and her people 
are energetic, thrifty and persevering. The institutions of the town are 
as firmly rooted and as substantial as in other similar districts. During 
the period of its history there have been built up two small villages, 
Bradford, in the northeast part of the town, and South Bradford in the 
southeast, both of which are elsewhere mentioned in this volume. 

The early settlers were fully mindful of the educational and spiritual 
welfare of their families, and made generous provision for schools and 
the support of the public worship. A flourishing school was main- 
tained as early as 18 14, and after the separation of the town from Jersey 
the new territory was arranged in convenient districts and schools pro- 



66 . LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

vided for in each. From this beginning has grown the present system 
of the town, more complete in arrangement than ever before, yet possi- 
bly not as strong in point of number of pupils attending school. There 
are now five districts having school houses, and during the last current 
year six teachers were employed. Of public moneys the town received 
$720.70, and raised by local tax $1,00690. 

Cameron. — Within its present boundaries this town contains 27,700 
acres of land; as originally formed on April 16, 1822, it included all 
its present area, and also the 22,000 acres set off to Thurston, as well 
as a portion of Rathbone. The former was created in 1 844, and the 
latter in 1856. Geograpically, Cameron is located a little south of the 
center of the county, and its surface is high rolling upland, broken by 
the deep and quite narrow valley of the Canisteo, which stream crosses 
southeast through and near the center of the town. The soil is a clayey 
and gravelly loam, fertile and reasonably productive in many localities, 
but quite barren in others by reason of the stony and rocky character 
of the slopes. 

When created, Cameron was named in allusion to and honor of 
Dugald Cameron, an early settler of Bath, at one time agent of the 
Pulteney estate, and withal one of the foremost men of the county dur- 
ing the period of his active life. 

Directly, this town was formed from the original town of Addison, 
and its early settlement was made while the territory was a part of that 
jurisdiction. The pioneers of this locality were Richard Hadley, who 
afterward became known by the odd title of " The Second James," and 
Phones Green. Hadley first settled on the village site, near the rail- 
road crossing, and is said to have been ousted from his domicile by a 
landslide. He built the first saw mill, while the honor of building the 
first grist mill fell to Capt. Samuel Baker, who came to the town in 
1 8 1 6. Phones Green made his improvement about a mile below Baker's 
mill. Both these pioneers made their settlement in 1800, and it seems 
they must have been alone in this wild region for some time, for the 
next settlers, Joseph Butler, John Sauter and John HoUet did not reach 
here till several years later. Hollet kept the first tavern, while the 
first storekeeper was Andrew G. Erwin of still later settlement. James 
B. Wheeler was the grandchild of Mr. Baker, and was but seven years 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 67 

old when he came to the valley. He lived to witness wonderful 
changes in the town, and was himself afterward owner of the mill, which 
he rebuilt several times. ABout 1816 Amos Caldwell- built a carding 
mill which was later on operated by John Place. John Dean soon came 
in and also located near the mills, the latter being a center of trade and 
settlement. 

Still later settlers were Isaac Santee, in 1820, followed by the Hal- 
letts from the North of Ireland, originally, but hardy and enterprising 
men, whose descendants are still numerous in the valley. Silas Wheeler, 
a Scotchman, was here early, as also were Joel Clark, Amasa Downs, 
Isaac Jones, James Lawrence, Capt John White, William Moore, Skel- 
ton and Joseph Robinson, Nathaniel Bundy, and others. 

On South Hill Elisha Leach settled in 1825, and Reuben Drake in 
the Swale about the same time. James and Henry Knickerbocker set- 
tled on the north ridge in 1826 and Ellas Mason came about the same 
time. Thomas Allen came in 1827, Richard Smith in 1831, John W. 
Barrows in 1832, and so on until even early settlement ceased. Still, 
in the same connection, justice demands mention of Andrew Bates, 
John Shaw, Timothy Carpenter, Joseph Plaisted, N. Rouse (the fiddler 
and an important functionary on all public occasions), Samuel Pugsley, 
John Barber, Harley Sears, Hiram Averill, John French, David Ames 
and Amos White as early and worthy residents, all willing to brave the 
dangers and privations of pioneership in a new and then certainly un- 
inviting region. Some of these men were farmers while many others 
were lumbermen, and in fact the latter pursuit prevailed for many years. 
Indeed, this whole valley was primarily covered with a splendid forest 
growth and the lumber shipped down the Canisteo from Cameron and 
vicinity amounted to millions of feet annually. But as the lands were 
cleared the town became an agricultural region, while the water power 
of the river turned the wheels of many mills of various kinds. 

The advocates of a new town project became earnest in their discus- 
sion as early as 1820 although it was not until two years afterward that 
the matter took definite form. The act was passed April 16, 1822, 
and the first town meeting was held at the house of Samuel Pierson, a 
mile and a half north of Cameron village, in February, 1823, Unfortu- 
nately, the early town records have been lost or destroyed. However, 



68 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

it is known that Elias Mason was the first supervisor ; Moses L. Pierson 
town clerk and collector, and James Brownell, constable. At this time 
the local population could not have exceeded 400, as in 1825 the num- 
ber of inhabitants was but 553. As evidence of later rapid growth we 
may state that in 1830 the population had increased to 924, and in 1840 
to i)3S9- Ten years later the greatest population in the town's history 
was reached, being 1,701 in 1850. In i860 it had fallen to 1,569, and 
in 1870 to 1,334. The next ten years, however, showed an increase to 
1,611, but in 1890 had decreased to 1,564. In 1892 the population of 
the town was 1,455. 

The anti-rent conflict, as it has been commonly called, was not with- 
out its disastrous effects upon the people of this town, though local 
interests suffered no more seriously than did those of other localities 
whose settlers held their land under the Pulteney and Hornby titles. 
The delegates to the Bath convention from Cameron were Jacob Thayer, 
Joseph Loughry, Isaac Santee, Sheldon Porter and Hiram Averill, the 
latter serving on the committee which prepared the memorial presented 
to the agents of the proprietary. However, after the period of disturb- 
ance had passed, and after the settlers had become quieted in the posses- 
sion of their lands, all affairs resumed their natural channels, and thence- 
forth the history of the town was uneventful. 

During the period of the Rebellion the town of Cameron furnished 
eighty-three men for the service, who were scattered through the vari- 
ous companies and regiments recruited in the county, notably the 86th, 
23d, the 107th and the 189th regiments of infantry. 

The supervisors of Cameron, in succession, have been as follows : 
Elias Mason, 1823-27; Joseph Loughry, 1828-30; Moses L. Pierson, 
183 1 ; Andrew G. Pierson, 1832 ; Isaac Santee, 1833-36; C. P. Hub- 
bard, 1837; James H. Miles, 1838; Joseph Loughry, 1839-40; Moses 
De Pue, 1841 ; James Lawrence, 1842-44; H. L. Swift, 1845 ; Luther 
White, 1846-47; H. J. Hyatt, 1848; John Miles, 1849-50; H. J. 
Hyatt; 1851 ; William N. Smith, 1852-53 and 1856-59; Peter Chase, 
1854; John Mitchell, 1855 ; Samuel D. Sellick, 1860-61 ; Orange W. 
Hinds, 1862-64; Luther White, 1865; Heman S. Swift, 1866-67; 
Jesse Santee. 1868 and 1881 ; A. J. Lawrence, 1869-70; Charles A. 
Bateman, 1871 and 1877-78 ; Lucius C. Pierson, 1872-73 and 1882-85 ; 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 69 

Grattan H. Wheeler, 1874-75 ; S. A. Gardner, 1876; John E. Dicky, 
■1879-80; Royal S. White, 1886-88; Joel Clark, 1889-90; Almon 
Waters, 1891 ; Joel Clark, 1892-95. 

Half a century ago Cameron had more and greater industries than dur- 
ing recent years, for the lumbering operations were of great magnitude 
in this valley and brought to the town a class of people who possessed 
means and circulated it freely. Taverns and public houses were num- 
erous and each arriving stage coach brought its contingent of new- 
comers and buyers. In 1850 the New York and Erie railroad was 
built through the town, but even this great thoroughfare of travel had 
not the effect of keeping alive the interest of former years. Cameron 
village. West Cameron and North Cameron were places of note and 
importance at that time, yet only one has maintained its standing to 
the present day. West Cameron is now a hamlet of half a dozen dwell- 
ings, a church and a school, and its post-office was discontinued in 1874. 
Here was once the home of Isaac Santee, David Ames and Luther 
White. North Cameron now consists of a few dwellings, and other 
evidences of the days of stage travel, especially the old buildings once 
used as hotels, for there were four of them on the old Bath road. The 
post-office, however, has been maintained here, the present_ postmaster 
being Galen A. Clark. Cameron Mills is also a post station on the 
railroad, in the east part of the town. The postmaster is James Craw- 
ford. 

The town of Cameron has several organized church societies, being 
four Methodist Episcopal and located at Cameron, West Cameron, South 
Hill and North Hill ; also a Baptist church at Boyd's Corners, and a 
Christian church located in the Gardner district, so called. 

Cameron has thirteen school districts, with 355 children attending 
school. For their instruction fourteen teachers are employed annually. 
The public moneys apportioned to the town in 1893-4 was $1,628.53, 
and there was raised by town tax $3,533.88. 

The town officers of Cameron for the year 1895 are as follows : Joel 
Clark, supervisor ; J. D. Wheeler, town clerk ; James A. Smith, W. E. 
Ferguson, Mowry Stuart and G. M. Reese, justices of the peace ; P. P. 
Mason, M. G. Dickey and J. Halliman, assessors ; George Gunderman, 
highway commissioner ; R. K. Wilson, overseer of the poor ; F. E. 
McKenzie, C. E^. Stuart and Z. D. Stuart, excise commissioners. 



70 LANDMARKS OF STBTJBEN COUNTY. 

Campbell. — Adjoining the town of Bath on the southeast is a dis- 
trict of land containing 25,500 acres, known by the name of Campbell, 
though previous to white settlement and civil organization the same 
district was called township 3, range 2, Phelps and Gorham purchase. 
The proprietary just mentioned sold this township to Prince Bryant, a 
Pennsylvanian, and conveyed it by deed dated September 3, 1789, in 
consideration of i^i.OOO, New York currency. On October 2d, follow- 
ing, Bryant sold the township to Elijah Babcock, and the latter in turn 
sold in parcels, and at divers times, to Roger Clark (7,680 acres), 
Samuel Tooker, David Holmes and William Babcock. However, by 
some process of law the title to a large portion the township reverted to 
Oliver Phelps, who afterward sold Joshua Hathaway, Zalmon Tousey, 
Robert Campbell and Gideon Granger. Campbell purchased half the 
entire tract, his deed bearing date November 21, 1 801. Tousey had 
1,132 acres, under deed dated December 2, 1801. Hathaway became 
possessed of 2,037 acres, paying therefor $5,092.52', his deed bearing 
date October 2, 1801. Under these land operators the first settlements 
were made. 

The pioneers of this town were Joseph Wolcott, Elias Williams, 
Samuel Calkins and David McNutt, who came in 1801 or '82, Pre- 
vious to this, however, Abram and Isaac Thomas had built a cabin 
in the town, but they were hunters and trappers rather than pioneer 
settlers. James Pearsall and one Sailor are also said to have been 
among the earliest settlers. In addition to these, many of the pur- 
chasers mentioned in the preceding paragraph also became settlers in 
the town, and were among its most inflential and useful men. 

Conspicuous among the pioneers were the Campbell family, of whom 
Rev. Robert Campbell was the recognized head, and while the town 
was named after the fa^mily in general, he was regarded as the leaded of 
them all and was in the minds of the organizers of the town when that 
event took place. Robert Campbell and his nephew, Samuel Campbell, 
the latter having served with credit during the Revolution, came to the 
Conhocton valley from Saratoga county in 1803. Robert brought with 
him four sons, Robert, jr., Miner, Bradford and Philo. Bradford died 
in 1804, and was the first person buried in the Campbell cemetery. 
Joseph Stevens settled in the town in 1805, and his sons, Joseph and 
John, were also early settlers. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 71 

The Mead Creek colony, as it has been called, was brought to the 
town in i8i6, through the influence of David and William Holmes, 
who traded lands here for Vermont farms, thus inducing settlement 
by several sturdy sons of the Green Mountain State. They were Jonas 
and Jacob Woodward, Hinsdale Hammond and Stephen Corbin, all from 
Windham county. They were followed by Sampson and Amasa Bixby, 
and still later by others now forgotten. These Vermonters were chiefly 
Baptists, and as early as 1823 organized the " First Baptist Church of 
Painted Post," Rev. Jonathan Stone, pastor. Later on they were 
also instrumental in organizing the Baptist church at Cooper's Plains. 

Recalling briefly the names of some others of the early settlers in 
Campbell, we may mention Selah Hammond, who built an early saw 
mill on Mead's Creek ; also Samuel Besly, Reuben W. Millard, Capt. 
John P. Knox, an extensive lumberman ; John D. Hamilton, who with 
others built a tannery in 1854, and the Campbell tannery in 1857, '^"d 
was also an early storekeeper ; Daniel B. Curtis, also a tanner ; and 
Joel Orlando Comstock, Clark Bassett and others. The first birth in 
the town was that of Bradford Campbell ; the first marriage that of 
Asa Milliken and Rachel Campbell, and the first death tha! of Fred- 
erick Stewart, in 1806. Campbell & Stephens built the first saw mill, 
and Campbell & Knox the first grist mill. Robert Campbell kept the 
first tavern, and Frederick Stewart the first store. 

In local history in the county Campbell has always been regarded as 
one of the rough, mountainous towns, but notwithstanding this it was 
as early settled, and by a class of inhabitants as thrifty and determined 
as found in any town in the entire region. The first settlers here 
found the timber as good and as abundant as they could desire, hence 
gave their first attention to lumbering. The more important tribu- 
taries of the Conhocton, such as Wolf and McNutt Runs, Mead's Creek, 
Dry Run, and Stephens's and Michigan Creeks, together with the main 
stream, furnished abundant water power and rafting facilities, and dur- 
ing the first quarter of a century of the town's history the business in- 
terests were equal to those even of the present day. As the forests 
were cleared away fine farms were developed, for the bottom lands are 
a rich alluvium, while the elevations have a strong clay and gravelly 
soil. 



72 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

In 1830 this township, then and previously a part of Hornby, con- 
tained about 500 inhabitants, and measures were soon taken for the 
erection of a new town. The desired act was passed April 15, 1831, 
and Campbell was brought into existence. At the first town meeting 
held in the spring of 1832, these officers were elected: Daniel Clark, 
supervisor ; Milo Hurd, town clerk ; William Stewart, Samuel Cook, 
Daniel Horton, assessors ; Adin J. Pratt, collector. The- first justices 
were Parley Seamans and Alvin Corbin. 

The supervisors of Campbell have been as follows : Daniel Clark, 
1832 ; William D. Knox, 1833-34; Benjamin Farwell, 1835-37 ! Will- 
iam Stewart, 1838-39; S. A. Campbell, 1840-42 ; William Stewart, 
1843-44; Willis McNeil, 1845-46; J. P. Knox, 1847-48; S A. 
Campbell, 1849; W. P. Knox, 1850; Willis McNeil, 1851-52; Joseph 
Hammond, 1853; S. J. Teeple, 1854; Alson Pierce, 1855; Daniel 
Curtis, 1856; Samuel Balcom, 1857-60; George W. Campbell, 1861- 
65 ; Charles Cass, 1866-69; Charles H. Bemis, 1870-72 ; E. J. Arm- 
strong, 1873-74; G. R. Sutherland, 1875-77; Elias A. Overhiser, 
1878; John D. Hamilton, 1879-84; George R. Sutherland, 1885-87; 
N. H. Piatt, 1888; E. B. Ross, 1889-91; H. B. WiUard, 1892-93; 
John S. Curtis, 1894-95. 

The town officers for 1895 are John S. Curtis, supervisor ; Ira M. 
Piatt, town clerk ; Daniel A. Stark, Harmon Stevens, John Wilcox and 
and Obed Nute, justices of the peace ; Myron A. Beard, Miles J. Wood- 
ward and Benjamin Balcom, assessors ; W. Bradley McNeil, collector ; 
James Greek, overseer of the poor ; John King, highway commissioner ; 
Thomas A. Sawyer, Josiah T. Burrows, Floyd Fuller, excise commis- 
sioners. 

The population of Campbell, by decades, has been as follows : 1840, 
852; 1850, 1. 175; i860, 1,622; 1870, 1,989; 1880, 1,881, and in 
1890, 1,533. The population in 1892 was 1,539. 

In 1852 the Buffalo, Corning and New York Railroad was built 
through the Conhocton valley, and a station was established in this 
town, but it is doubtful if even this great thoroughfare of travel and 
transportation brought to the vicinity a more prosperous period than 
existed during the days of stage travel and river traffic. During the 
war of 1861-65, the town of Campbell sent into the service a total of 
175 men, twenty-three of whom were enlisted in other towns. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 73 

Well verified tradition informs us that the first school in this town 
was opened by Rhoda Simmons in i8 17, in what was known as the 
" hunter's cabin," also that the second school was kept in a barn, and 
that Betsey Woodward and Mrs. Davis were the earliest teachers there. 
The first school house was a log building. After being set off from 
Hornby, in 1831, the territory of Campbell was divided into school 
districts and provision made for the support of a school house in each. 
As now constituted, the town contains nine districts, each provided with 
a school house. During the current year, 1893-4, twelve teachers were 
employed. The number of children of school age was 309. The 
amount of public moneys received was $1,374.43, and the town raised 
by tax, $2,355.82. 

Canisteo. — The originial town of Canisteo, erected cotemporane- 
ously with Steuben county, contained the territory of the present town 
of that name, and also Greenwood, West Union, Hartsville, Hornells- 
ville, and portions of Troupsburg and Jasper. A part of Troup.sburg 
was taken off in 1808, and a second portion in 181 8. Hornellsville was 
set off in 1820, and portions of Jasper and Greenwood in 1827. Re- 
duced to its present area, Canisteo contains 32,200 acres of land, being 
sixth in size among the existing towns of the county. In the survey 
and subdivision of the vast Phelps and Gorham purchase, Canisteo was 
township 3, range 5, and was purchased conjointly with township 4 of 
range 6 (now Hornellsville), the early history of each being common in 
many respects, and also rich and interesting. 

Previous to the advent of the white man this town, and in fact the 
whole valley of the Canisteo, was the abiding place and favorite hunt- 
ing and fishing grounds of the American Indians. The region was 
originally the land of the Senecas, but by sufferance the Delawares 
were permitted to occupy portions of it. We are told that within the 
limits of this town was once the Indian village of " Kanestio," where 
also lived a number of deserters from the British army and other rene- 
gades from the white settlements. The murder of two Dutch traders 
by these outlaws brought upon them the vengeance of Sir William 
Johnson, and the result was the destruction of their settlement. 

According to the oft- repeated story, the valley of the Canisteo was 
discovered by the whites early in the year 1788, by Solomon Bennett, 
19 



74 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Capt. John Jamison, Uriah Stephens, Richard Crosby, and we may add 
possibly Eh'sha Brown, all of whom left their Pennsylvania homes on 
an exploring expedition into the southeastern part of the Phelps and 
Gorham purchase. After examining several localities in the Conhocton 
valley the party crossed the hills to the south and entered the Canisteo 
valley. Here they found land suited to their desires, and the result 
was the formation of a company and the purchase of township 3 of 
range 5, and township 4 of range 6, now known respectively as Canisteo 
and Hornellsville. Each of these townships was surveyed and divided 
into great lots, twelve in number, and were drawn for by lot. In 
Canisteo the lots were drawn in this order : Arthur Irwin, No. i ; 
Christian Kress, No. 2 ; Solomon Bennett, Nos. 3 and 4; Joel Thomas, 
No. 5 ; John Stephens, No. 6 ; John Jamison, No. 7 ; Uriah Stephens, 
No. 8; Uriah Stephens, jr., No. 9; William Wynkoop, No. 10; James 
Hadley, No. 11 ; Elisha Brown, No. 12. 

This disposition of the lands having been made the company sent a 
party of men to cut and stack the hay found growing on the extensive 
Canisteo flats. This was in 1789, and in the fall of that year Uriah 
Stephens, sen., and Benjamin Crosby, with portions of their families, 
came from Newtown (Elmira) and made the first permanent settlement. 
Their personal effects were brought up the river on fiatboats, while 
Elias, Elijah, Benjamin and William Stephens drove the cattle along the 
shore to the new settlement. These pioneers passed the following 
winter in the town, and in the spring of 1790 were joined by Solomon 
Bennett, Uriah Stephens, jr., Col. John Stephens and their families. 
Soon afterward there came Jedediah Stephens, John Redford and 
Andrew Bennett. 

Thus was made the pioneer settlement in the town of Canisteo. One 
of the most active and wealthy of the settlers was Solomon Bennett, 
who in 1793 built the first grist mill in the town, it being located on 
Bennett's Creek about half a mile above its mouth. The building was 
soon burned, after which the settlers were obliged to go to Hornell's 
Mills for their "grist." Mr. Bennett also opened the first store, while 
Jedediah Stephens kept the first tavern. The first birth was that of 
Olive Stephens, November 18, 1790; the first marriage that ot Richard 
Crosby and Hannah Baker, and the first death was that of Henry 
Stephens. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 75 

Referring still further to the subject of early settlement in this town, 
the statement maybe made that Solomon Bennett came from Wyoming, 
and that his wife was a sister of Col. John Stephens. Daniel Jamison 
was a native of Scotland. His wife was Mary M. Baxter, and in their 
family were eight children, a number of whom were intimately associ- 
ated with the early history of this locality. Col. John Stephens married 
Olive Franklin, and was for many years an important man in the new 
settlement. He and Rev. Jedediah Stephens were natives of Connecti- 
cut. Recalling the names of other prominent men and families in the 
town, we may mention Capt. Nathan Stephens, Joshua C. Stephens, 
Jeremiah Baker, sen., the Moore families, nicknamed respectively "Big 
John" and "Little Johnny," William S.Thomas, James McBurney, 
Uriah Upson, James Moore, John Stearns, Nathan Hallett and others, 
all worthy of mention among the substantial men of the town at an 
early day. 

Once fairly begun, settlement in this part of the valley increased 
rapidly, and in 1800 the town had a population of 510. Ten years 
later, Troupsburg having in the meantime been set off, the population 
of Canisteo was 656. In 1820, its territory being reduced to substan- 
tially its present limits, the town contained 891 inhabitants. In 1830 
the number was 619, and 941 in 1840. During the next decade the 
population was more than doubled, being in 1850, 2,030. In i860 it 
increased to 2,337, '" '870 to 2,435, and '" 1880, principally on account 
of the growth of Canisteo village, to 3,694. In 1890 the population of 
the town was 3,629, and in 1892 was 3,593. The population of the vil- 
lage of Canisteo in 1890 was 2,071. 

In 1812 Judge Hurlburt, of Arkport, wrote a descriptive history of 
Canisteo in which he said the town then contained 266 square miles, 
and was nineteen miles long, north and south, by fourteen miles wide. 
Speaking of the streams, he said that the Canisteo was " boatable" as far 
up as Arkport. He also described Canisteo village as having twenty 
houses and stores, a post office and considerable trade. 

As we have already stated the early settlement of the town was ac- 
complished rapidly, and indeed the organization was effected at the 
time of the creation of the county. But, unfortunately, the first records 
of this pioneer town are not to be found, nor any other reliable data 



76 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

from which we may learn the names of its first officers. This, however, 
cannot be regarded as important, for at that time the town was so large 
that the present Canisteo comprises comparatively little of its original 
territory. At the town meeting held in the spring of i8oi, at the house 
of Benjamin Crosby, (Hornellsville), these officers were elected : Uriah 
Stephens, supervisor; Joseph A. Rathbone, town clerk; Obediah 
Ayres, Richard Crosby and Nathan Hallett, assessors ; Samuel Hallett, 
jr., collector; James Hadley and Nathan Hallett, overseers of the poor. 

In this connection also it is interesting to note the succession of super- 
visors from the year 1801 to the present time, viz.: Uriah Stephens, 
1 801-10; William Hyde, 181 1; William Stephens, 18 12; Christopher 
Hurlbut, 1813-15 ; Uriah Stephens, 1815-19; Thomas Bennett, 1 820- 
22; William Stephens, 1823—26; Joshua Chapman, 1827; William 
Stephens, 1828-29; William Bennett, 1830-32; William Stephens, 
1833-34; Elias Stephens, 1835-37; Finley McClure, 1838; Daniel 
Jamison, 1839-40; H. C. Whitwood, 1841-42; Finley McClure, 1843- 
44; William H. Mead, 1845-46; Obediah Stephens, 1847-50; Hart 
Eason, 1851-52 ; W. B. Jones, 1853-54 ; Hart Eason, 1855-56 ; Joshua 
C. Stephens, 1857-58; Lucius C. Waldo, 1859-60; Nelson Hallett, 
1861-62; William H. Mead, 1863-64; N. C.Taylor, 1865-66; George 
Riddell, 1867-68; Thomas Hallett, 1869; John H. Brown, 1870-72; 
George Riddell, 1873-74 ; Miner Sammons, 1875-76 ; Albert J. Carter, 
1877; Smith Eason, 1878; Leroy Riddell, 1879-82; W. E. Stephens, 
1883-84; Nathan J. Stephens, 1885-86; H. E. Buck, 1887; M. D. 
Ellison, 1888; Harrison Crane, 1889-91; James Roblee, 1892-93; 
Julius M. Hitchcock, 1894-95. 

The town officers of Canisteo for the year 1895 'are as follows: 
Julius M. Hitchcock, supervisor; Jay Patchen, town clerk; Almon W. 
Burrell, Emmet Stephens, Adelbert Rosa, James Eben Wilson and 
Albert Sumner, justices of the peace; D. W. Comfort, D. C. Thomas 
and Ney Wilson, assessors ; Stearns Jamison, collector ; Daniel Ordway, 
overseer of the poor ; J. M. Peterson, highway commissioner ; Elijah 
Hallett, Jacob Vickers and W. P. Goff, commissioners of excise. 

The civil history of the town of Canisteo, although uneventful, has 
nevertheless been a continuous record of growth, development and pros- 
perity. Naturally, settlement began in the region of the Canisteo 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 77 

River, thence extended up the valleys of the lesser streams, Bennett's and 
Col. Bill's Creeks, and finally spread throughout the entire town. All, 
however, was practically accomplished during the first thirty-five years 
of the town's history, while pioneership ceased with the last century. 
The "Swale" region was settled before 1825, and most of the town 
lands were fully settled within the next half score of years. The war of 
18 1 2 had little effect on the people here, though the attitude and 
disposition of the Indians was carefully watched, for the inhabitants 
feared an outbreak from them. However, the whites had by this time 
thoroughly impressed the natives with their superiority, and although 
an occasional demonstration was made by the savages, they were at all 
times under reasonable control. 

The greater portion of the settlers were farmers, whose time and 
energies were devoted to clearing and tilling the land, paving the way 
for future successes by their descendants, and as a result of this early 
industry Canisteo is now regarded as one of the best agricultural towns 
of the valley. The soil generally is a clayey and gravelly loam, and not 
all the fertile lands are found in the valleys, but even on the hills are 
some of the most productive farms in the town. General agriculture has 
been the chief pursuit of the farming element of population, and the 
most profitable crops of the present day are hay, oats and potatoes. 

For their personal convenience the settlers at an early day built up 
several small villages, the principal one of which, Canisteo, has grown 
to importance in commercial and business circles, and has become an 
incorporated municipahty. However, this village is made the subject 
of special mention in another part of this work. The others we may 
briefly mention here. 

Bennett's Creek is a post-office (established 1845) and hamlet situate 
in the southeast part of the town, on the stream of the same name. A 
store has generally been maintained here, and the place now and for 
some years past has had an additional industry in the possession of a 
good cheese factory, the latter known as the Bassett cheese factory. 
The postmaster and merchant here is Elihu D. Conklin. 

Swale is located in the southeast part of the town, and has a post- 
office (established i860) and one or two business enterprises. This 
region is somewhat extensive and was settled between 1820 and 1825. 



78 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The office was established here for the convenience of the people of this 
part of the town. The postmaster is Orren I. Jones, and E. O. Downs 
is local tinsmith. In this locality is a Union Methodist and Universahst 
church, built by the people of the vicinity. 

South Canisteo is also a post office in the southeast part of the town, 
for local accommodation. The postmaster and storekeeper is Elmer D. 
Van Ormen. 

Spring Brook is the name of a locality in the vicinity of Col Bill's 
Creek. This is an agricuhural portion of the town and has no village 
settlement. However, here are two Methodist Protestant churches, 
each of which has a good' membership and a comfortable church home. 
Both of these societies, as well as that at Swale, are under the pastoral 
care of Rev. S. E. Matthews. 

Adrian and Crosbyville are the different names of a little hamlet on 
the Erie road, less than two miles east of Canisteo. The former is the 
post-office and railway designation, while the latter suggests the name 
of one of the old families of the town. Here are two stores, a black- 
smith shop and a wagon shop. The postmaster is Hiram Crosby, and 
the merchants are Messrs. Crosby and Delaney. 

Canisteo Center is between Canisteo and Adrian. Its only industry 
is the grist mill of J. V. Carman. 

The inhabitants of the town and village of Canisteo, ever mindful of 
the spiritual and educational welfare of their families and children, have 
made generous provision for the erection and maintenance of churches 
and schools throughout the town. Those of the former in the outlying 
districts we have already mentioned in this chapter, while those of the 
village will be found referred to in the church history in this work. Of 
the early schools little is known except in a general way, and even 
unreliable tradition furnishes us no data from which can be deter- 
mined the location of the first schools. Still, the fact is well known 
that about 1800 a primitive school was opened in the village, and as 
settlement advanced into the more remote localities, the town was 
divided into districts and good schools provided for each. According 
to the present disposition of school interests, there are thirteen 
districts, each of which is provided with a good school. The whole 
number of children attending during the school year 1893-94 was 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 79 

783, for whose instruction nineteen teachers were employed. There 
was received of public moneys from the State, $2,506.08, and the 
amount raised by local tax was $3,609.21. The value of school build- 
ings and sites in the town is estimated at $8,770. 

Caton. — On the 28th of March, 1839, the Legislature passed an act, 
by which "all that part of the town of Painted Post, in the county of 
Steuben, being township No. i, in the first range," etc., "shall con- 
stitute a new town of the name of Wormley." However, on the 3d of 
April, 1840, the erecting act was amended and the name of the town 
was changed to " Caton," in memory of Richard Caton, one of the orig- 
inal land proprietors in the region. The first name — Wormley — was 
given to the town in allusion to Samuel Wormley, the first postmaster 
at the office having his name. 

This town is situated in the extreme southeast corner of the county, 
and contains 22,700 acres of land. The surface is a rolling upland, yet 
more nearly level than most lands in the county. Its soil is a clayey 
and shaly loam, and the streams are small brooks flowing northward. 
At an early day lumbering was extensively carried on in the town, and 
the forests were not generally cleared away until a comparatively recent 
date. From that time the chief pursuit of the inhabitants has been 
farming and sugar making, and as an agricultural town Caton ranks 
well among the divisions of the county. The farms as a rule are well 
cultivated, the buildings neat and attractive, and the general appear- 
ance of things throughout the town indicates thrift, energy and prosperity 
on the part of its people. 

The pioneer of township i is said to have been one Ford, who built a 
log cabin and made a clearing a little east of the Center in 1 8 1 o, although 
during the same year other woodsmen made a clearing in the town, but 
no settlement. However, Ford left the vicinity after two years of hard- 
ships, and was succeeded by the first permanent settler, Isaac Rowley, 
a native and former resident of Bradford county. Pa., though previous 
to locating in Caton he had lived in Lindley. In 1819 this doughty 
pioneer cut a road from over the Pennsylvania line into the southwest 
part of Caton, to the point where he made his location. The next 
settlers were Stephen and Simeon Hurd, Uriah Wilmot, John Rowe and 
Erastus Kidder, all of whom came to the town in the spring of 1821. 



80 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Salmon Tarbox came in 1822, and about the same time Elias P. Bab- 
cock, E. Robbins and Abner Gilbert purchased 4,000 acres of land near 
the Center. Mr. Gilbert built a saw mill near where the Baptist church 
was afterward erected. The settlers in 1824 were Ephraim Hill, Levi, 
Willys and Eli Gridley and their families. In 162 5 Dr. Gregory located 
southeast of the Center. Isaac Thompson settled in 1827. In 1832 
Frederick and Gershom Bernard built a saw mill near the Corning line, 
and in the same year Bennett Breeze built the first grist mill in the 
town, and located on Barnard's Creek, about two miles north of the 
Center. The first steam mill was put in operation in 1842 by Dexter 
and Daniel Davis, and was located in the heavy pine woods above 
Barnard's Mills. James Davison was another of the early settlers of 
Caton, while among the many others may be mentioned Jonathan S. 
Hurd, Simeon Hurd, Joshua Russell, Titus Smith, Samuel F. Berry, 
Henry D. Smith, Benoni Johnson, John Gillette, Salmon Tarbox, 
Orlando Gregory, Ephraim Robbins, Rufus Howe, Horatio Gorton, 
George Bucher, Amos Lewis, and others of later date, but all of whom 
were devoted to the best interests of the town by building up substantial 
homes and farms for themselves and their families. 

In 1840, when first set off from Painted Post, Caton had only 797 
inhabitants, but during the next ten years, the population increased to 
1,214. I" i860 the inhabitants numbered 1,550, and 1,554 in 1870. 
In 1880 the number increased to 1,642, but during the next ten years 
fell off to 1,445- The population of Caton in 1892 was 1,388, or less 
than at any census enumeration since 1850 

The act creating the town provided that the first meeting for the 
election of officers should be held on the second Tuesday in February, 
1840. In fact, the new town itself did not have an organized existence 
previous to. the first Monday in February of the year mentioned. The 
first officers were Amos Lewis, supervisor ; Orlando Gregory, town 
clerk ; John Gillett, Russell Stanton and Zimri B. Robbins, asses- 
sors ; Israel Wood worth, Jacob Robbins, George Westcott and N. C. 
Babcock, justices of the peace. 

The town officers in 1895 are Alonzo Deyo, supervisor ; P. F. Grid- 
ley, clerk; Alonzo Deyo, F. W. Speer, John Wellman and Edgar 
Matteson, justices of the peace; J. S. Holmes, E. W. Barnard and E, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 81 

A. Hill, assessors ; B. S. Niver, collector ; Jonas Johnson, overseer of 
the poor ; H. D. Davis, highway commissioner ; H. J. Farran and 
Henry Russell, excise commissioners. 

The supervisors of Caton, in succession, have been as follows: Amos 
Lewis, 1840; John Gillett, 1841 and '43; Naboth C. Babcock, 1842; 
James L. Whitney, 1844-45 ; Amzi English, 1846; Orlando Gregory, 
1847-48; Henry D. Smith, 1849 '53 ; -Christian Minier, 1850, '54, 
1860-62, '66; James Lawry, 1851-52; D. Clinton Westcott, 1855-56; 
P. H. Brown, 1857, and 1864-65 ; William D. Gilbert, 1858-59, '63 
and '6^ \ J. B. Rathbun, 1869-71 ; Levi Force, 1872; Edwin C. Eng- 
lish, 1873-74; Alonzo Deyo, 1875-77 and 1893-95; Abram J. Whit- 
ney, 1878; W. O. Matteson, 1879-92. 

During the period of its history, there have been built up within the 
limits of the town two small hamlets or trading centres, each established 
for the convenience of the inhabitants. They are named, respectively, 
Caton and West Caton, the former located near the center of the town, 
and the latter near the northwest corner. However, both these ham- 
lets are specially mentioned in the department of the work devoted to 
municipal history. The same may also be said of the churches of the 
town, which are referred to in the chapter on ecclesiastical history. 

The town of Caton has a military record equal if not superior to any 
other civil division of the county, for if statistics be accurate there were 
sent into the service during the war of 1861-65 a total of 196 men, 
as reference to the official roster will disclose. In i860, a single year 
before the outbreak of the war, the town's population was only 1,550. 
Few towns in the county can equal this record. Also in this little town 
are twelve school districts, with twelve teachers employed annually. 
The value of school property is $6,415. During the school year 1893-4, 
the town received of public moneys $1,379.09, and raised by town tax 
the further sum of $1,613.05. 
n 



82 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

COHOCTON. — About the year 1794, that enterprising pioneer and 
colonizer, Charles Williamson, sent Joseph Biven to build a tavern and 
found a settlement at the " Twenty- two Mile Tree," on the Conhocton 
River. The result of this early effort was the establishment of a ham- 
let known to the early settlers as " Biven's Corners," and so designated 
until the settlement was made a post station under the name of North 
Cohocton. This was done in 1825. Richard Hooker is also credited 
with having been a pioneer of the same locality, but recollections of 
him are meagre. James and Aruna Woodward, Vermont Yankees, 
came to this part of the valley in 1802, the former settling on the after- 
ward called Waldron place, where he built a cabin. Obediah Wood- 
ward was a son (as also was Aruna) of James, and was a stalwart young 
man when the settlement was made. 

Another oi the pioneers, and one whose surname has been preserved 
by substantial landmarks until quite recently, was Frederick Blood, a 
native of Germany but who came here from the older settlement at 
Saratoga. Blood's Station was named from this family, for Frederick 
had several sons, all earnest and industrious men and of great assistance 
in developing the resources of the new country. Jonas and James 
Cleland, father and son, came into the region from old, historic Pom- 
pey, in Onondaga county, in 1805, and the Cleland cabin was the first 
dwelling between Cohocton and Avoca This pioneer built the first 
saw and grist mills in Cohocton, the former on the site of the Warner 
mill of later years, and the latter opposite the Cleland dwelling. The 
saw mill was built about 1808, and the grist mill at a later date. 

Alvin Talbot and Ezra Parker were early settlers, as also was Job 
Briggs, the cooper and otherwise useful man at that time. Other early 
settlers were Stephen Burrows and Ebenezer Keeler, the latter a man of 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNT T. 83 

means and influence. In the Loon Lake locality Joseph Jackson, Eleazer 
Tucker, John, George and Paul Wilson, and also Salmon Brownson and 
his sons, were the first comers. Joseph Chamberlin came from Herkimer 
county in 1805, and settled near Liberty (now Cohocton), and in the 
year following Levi Chamberlin, Joseph Shattuck and Deacon Horace 
Wheeler were added to the now rapidly increasing roll of pioneers. Still 
others worthy of mention were Timothy Sherman, James Bernard, 
Samuel Rhodes, Jesse Atwood, Isaac Morehouse, Charles Burlingham 
and Richard Hooper, all of whom were in some manner identified with 
the early and interesting history of the valley. Mr. Hooper's death is 
said to have been the first event of its kind in the town. 

Among the other principal first events may be noted the marriage of 
Joseph Biven and Sarah Hooker in 1798, and their child, Bethiah 
Hooker Biven, was the first born in town, in the year 1800. Sophia 
Trumbull taught the first school, about 18 10, in the house built by 
James Cleland. William Walker built the first tannery, about 18 j6, 
and Rudolphus Howe put in operation the first distillery. The latter 
was an industry of much note, if not of importance, in the region and 
many are the anecdotes connected with it. In 1823, Gabriel Dusenbury 
and his sons, Seth and John, built a saw mill on the site of the later 
Hoag mill, and run it nearly twenty years, when Stoning Sz: Brown con- 
verted the building into a paper mill. During the period of its history, 
Cohocton has been the home of many transient industries, several of 
them useful in the time of their erection, but afterward passing away 
and giving place to more profitable and enduring interests. 

In the North Cohocton locality were a number of substantial and 
prominent settlers, among whom was Richard Hooker, from Baltimore, 
Md., former owner of a plantation and imbued somewhat with southern 
ideas and notions. He brought several slaves to the town, but when he 
united with the Society of Friends he manumitted his blacks and made 
suitable provision for their welfare. Henry and Richard Crouch were 
also early settlers, and in the saqie connection may be mentioned the 
Moultons and Tylers, Daniel Raymond and sons, John and Duty Waite, 
John Bush, Chauncey Atwell, Elijah Wing, David and Abijah Fowler, 
John Nicholson, Samuel Salisbury, Dr. F. H. Blakeley, Solomon Hub- 
bard, an early storekeeper, Benoni Danks, Jerry W. Pierce, " Uncle " 
Reuben Clason, Caleb Boss, and others whose names are now lost. 



^4 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

As will be seen from this narrative, the settlement of this par 
Bath and Dansville was accomplished rapidly. Indeed, as early as 
year 1814 the newly formed town contained 746 inhabitants, hence 
little wonder that they sought the formation of a separate district 
public convenience demanded that they have the same town facilitie 
were possessed elsewhere in the county. The act erecting the t 
was passed June 18, 18 12, and the first town meeting was appointe 
be held at the house of Joseph Shattuck, jr. 

The electors met at the designated place on the 13th of April, i 
and chose these officers : Samuel Wells, supervisor ; Charles Bern 
town clerk ; Stephen Crawford, John Slack and William Bennett, as 
sors ; Jared Barr, John Woodward and Isaac Hill, highway comi 
sioners ; John Slack and Samuel D. Wills, poormasters; James Barn 
collector and constable. 

The town records in which were kept the proceedings of town m 
ings, between the years 18 1 3 and 1839, have been lost, thus makir 
impossible to furnish a complete succession of supervisors. Howe 
having recourse to other records extant, a reasonably accurate list 
be furnished from 1823, viz.: Paul C. Cook, 1823-26; David W 
1827-28; Paul C. Cook, 1829-30; David Weld, 1831; John Nic 
son, 1832 ; Paul C. Cook, 1833-35 ; Elias Stephens, 1836 ; Paul C. C 
1837-38; Calvin Blood, 1839; John Hess, 1840-41; Paul C. C^ 
1,842;. John Hess, 1843-44; Calvin Blood, 1845 I Zephman Flint, 18 
John Hess, 1847; Calvin Blood, 1848; Zephman Flint, 1849; C 
McDowell, 1850-52; David H. Wilcox, 1853; C. J. McDowell, li 
A. Larrowe, 1855-57; James Draper, 1858; Stephen D. Shatt 
1859 ; David Wilcox, 1860-62 ; F. N. Drake, 1863-64 ; D. H. Wil 
1865 ; John H. Butler, 1866-67 i C. E. Thorp, 1868 ; S. D. Shatt 
1869-70; J. M. Tripp. 1871 ; S. D. Shattuck, 1872; Thomas Wai 
1873-74; James P. Clark, 1875 ; O. S. Searie, 1876; Myron W. ] 
ris, 1877; Byron A. Tyler, 1878; Myron W. Harris, 1879-80; C 
Thorp, 1881 ; D wight Weld, 1882-83; James M. Reynolds, if 
Asa McDowell. 1885 ; W. T. Slattery, 1886; C. E. Thorp, 1887 
W. Hatch, 1888; Charles Oliver, 1889; Dwight Weld, 1890; A 
Wilcox, 1891-92; H. C. Hatch, 1893-95. 

The officers of the town for the year 1895 are as follows: Hydi 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTT. 85 

Hatch, supervisor ; W. K. Fowler, J. L. Waugh, J. J. Crouch, and E. 
A. Draper, justices of the peace; William Craig, William Hammond 
and Henry Schwingel, assessors ; Eugene Slayton, collector ; Martin 
M. Wilcox, highway commissioner; Melchoir Zeh, overseer of the poor; 
Murray Tripp, Philip Folts and George I. Shoultice, commissioners of 
excise. 

As we have before stated, Cohocton was formed from the still older 
towns of Bath and Dansville, and was, originally, much larger in area 
than as now constituted. A part was taken off in 1843 to form Avoca, 
and a considerable area was taken for Wayland in 1848. In 1874 a 
portion of Prattsburg was annexed to Cohocton. The town was named 
in allusion to the principal stream which crosses its territory in a rather 
tortuous course, but the framers of the town project, either for brevity 
or euphony, dropped the " n " in the first syllable, from which we have 
the name " Cohocton " instead of Conhocton. 

As at present constituted, this town has an area of 34,600 acres of 
land, as good, fertile and generally productive as can be found in Steu- 
ben county. In fact Cohocton has long been classsd among the best 
towns of the entire valley, and the volume of business, in all branches, 
exceeds that of some of the larger towns. Cohocton, Atlanta and North 
Cohocton are villages of some note and shipping points of more than 
ordinary importance. These villages, however, are made the subject 
of special mention in another department of this volume, to which the 
attention of the reader is directed. 

When this town was formed in 18 12, the public mind was consider- 
ably agitated by the events of the war then in progress ; and the inhab- 
itants of this particular region had an additional element of disturbance 
in their very midst, for the Indians were still in the valley and some 
attempts were made to incite them to deeds of violence against the set- 
tlers. A number of the men of the town joined the army and saw 
service on the frontier, and nearly all the able-bodied men were among 
the enrolled militia and prepared for military duty on call. However, 
the storm of war passed without disaster to local interests, and the In- 
dians were restrained by the determined attitude of the settlers. Soon 
after 18 15 the last remnant of them withdrew from the valley and went 
to the State reservations. 



86 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN- COUNTY. 

In 1 8 14, two years after the creation of the town, the inhabitants 
numbered 746, and in 1820 the number had increased to 1,560. Ten 
years later, (1830) the population was 2,544, the town then being the 
most populous in the county, with the single exception of Bath. In 
1840 the number had increased to 2,965, but the formation of Avoca 
and Wayland during the succeeding decade, reduced the number to 
1,993, ^s shown by the census of 1850. The next ten years witnessed a 
continued increase and the population in i860 was 2,535, and in 1870 
was 2,710 In 1880 the number was 3,346, and in 1890 was 3,444. 
Thus we note a constant increase in population from the formation of 
the town, a fact not noticeable in the majority of interior and agricul- 
tural towns in the State. Yet the statement must be made that much 
of this enlargement is found in the villages, with their ever-increasing 
interests, rather than in the town at large. 

An interesting and at the same time quite exciting period in local 
history was that known as the anti-rent conflict, mentioned at greater 
length in another chapter; and while of much importance to the settlers 
in this valley, those of Cohocton felt but little of the unfortunate effects 
of the event. We refer to this period as one of the incidents of local 
history, although the controversy with the land proprietors was rampant 
throughout the Genesee country. The active representatives of Cohoc- 
ton in the Bath convention of January, 1830, were Paul C. Cook, David 
Weld, Nathan Wing, Peter Haight and Alfred Shattuck, all " good men 
and true," and well qualified to represent the interests of our town. 

After the settlement of this controversy the inhabitants turned again 
to the work of clearing and developing their farm lands. At that time 
no railroads hadbeenbuilt and theConhocton was the principal thorough- 
fare of shipment to market of both lumber and farm produce. Lumber- 
ing, as a distinct feature of local history, began almost as early as 
settlement itself, but between the years 1830 and 1855 was carried on 
to a large extent. The older residents well remember the operations of 
the firm of H. D. Graves & Co., whose first mill was between Liberty 
and Loon Lake. The later firm of F. N. Drake & Co. were large lum- 
bermen, as also was Thomas Warner. However, soon after 1850 the 
railroad was constructed and with the increased facihties for shipping 
thus afforded, so, also, were lumbering interests enlarged until the de^ 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 87 

sirable forest growths were practically exhausted. These operations 
led to the founding of settlements, with stores, public houses, shops aad 
other adjuncts of villages, and while lumber making is virtually a thing 
of the past the settlements have remained, and grown, fostered and sup- 
ported by a rich producing agricultural region, and the latter cultivated 
by a thrifty and forehanded class of inhabitants. 

From somewhat incomplete records the fact appears that during the 
period of the war of 1861-65, the town of Cohocton sent into the ser- 
vice a total of two hundred men, who were scattered through the several 
commands recruited in the county. At that time the town population 
was about 2,500, from which it is clear that about ten pe"r cent, of the 
inhabitants were in the service. In another chapter will be found a 
record of the services of the companies represented by Cohocton vol- 
unteers, hence a brief mention is all that is required in this connection. 

Of the early schools of Cohocton little is known except the fact that 
Sophia Trumbull opened the first in the cabin built by pioneer Jonas 
Cleland, also the further fact that the first school house stood on the 
Dusenbury farm, near the river, and was built about 1 8 10. The loss of 
town records prevents us from furnishing the action of the early school 
authorities or referring accurately to the first apportionment of the ter- 
ritory into districts. However, speaking of the town at large, the state- 
ment may be made that in the matter of schools, those of Cohocton 
have kept even pace with others of the county, and to-day there are at 
least two organized union free schools within its boundaries. As now 
disposed the town contains twelve districts, each having a good school. 
During the last year, twenty teachers were employed in instructing 
the 731 pupils attending school. The value of school property is 
estimated at $21,095, and the total assessed valuation of the district is 
$994,943, During the same year (1894-5) the town received $2,592 59 
of public school moneys, and raised by local tax the additional sum of 

$5,436.43. 

Corning. — In the latter part of the year 1789 Frederick Calkins and 
Ephraim and Ichabod Patterson made the first settlement in the town 
of Corning. Frederick Calkins, a Vermonter, had, in the summer be- 
fore, made an improvement in what is now Erwin, but soon learned that 
he was on Colonel Erwin's lands, consequently he left that locality and 



88 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

built a new cabin opposite tlie Chimney Narrows, on the south side of 
the Chemung. Thus was made the pioneer settlement in the present 
town of Corning, although many years elapsed before this name was 
applied to the region. 

The town was originally a part of one of the provisional districts of 
Ontario county, and was organized in 1793 under the name of Painted 
Post. Three years later Steuben county was created, the old district 
name was retained, and its territory included all that is now Hornby, 
Campbell, Erwin, Corning, Caton and Lindley. By reason of important 
early events the present central portion of the township of Corning was 
a locality of much note, although no hamlet worthy the name was built 
up until nearly half a century afterward. The important events alluded 
to were in the nature of land operations and had a direct bearing on the 
early history of the town. 

In the spring of the year 1790 an association was formed for the pur- 
pose of purchasing from the Phelps and Gorham proprietary a large 
tract of land in this part of Ontario county. The members comprised 
Frederick Calkins, Caleb Gardner, Ephraim Patterson, Justus Wolcott, 
Peleg Gorton and Silas Wood, and their purchase, substantially, was 
the present town of Corning, or township 2, of range i. All of these 
purchasers, except Mr. Wood, settled on the land and began improve- 
ments as early as the year 1792. However, there appears to have been 
some dissatisfaction in the company, growing out of what was said to 
be an unequal division of the land, and on the 15th of March, 1792, a 
number of the members, with others who purchased from the company, 
reconveyed to Mr. Phelps 10,040 acres of land ; and on April 4, fol- 
lowing Peleg Gorton likewise deeded to Mr. Phelps 2,000 acres of land 
in the town. 

During their brief ownership, the proprietors caused a survey of the 
town to be made, after which the apportionment was effected, and when 
the feeling of disaffection arose the matter was referred for settlement 
to William Jenkins, Eleazer Lindley and John Hendy. The adjustment 
made by these arbiters proved satisfactory to the interested owners, and 
thereafter the question of land titles in Corning was permanently settled. 
Then improvements began, one of the first and most needed of which 
was the erection of a grist mill on Post Creek, near Ephraim Patterson's 




DWIGHT A. FULLER. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 89 

house, by Colonel Henderson and Mr. Payne. Two years later, 179S, 
Benjamin Eaton opened a store on the highway between Corning and 
Knoxville. The next year Charles Williamson, ever alert in the inter- 
est of his estates, purchased a tract of land on the north side of the 
Chemung and began the erection of a large and well-appointed public 
house, one which in appearance and size far outstripped any then in the 
Genesee country ; and one which has withstood the ravages of time for 
almost a century. This hostelry was long known as the " Jennings 
Tavern," John Jennings having been its owner and proprietor from 1813 
to 1834, but the original landlord was Benjamin Patterson, the famous 
hunter and guide of the region in after years. Patterson came to the 
house in June, 1797, and on his arrival found these residents in the 
vicinity : David Fuller, Stephen Ross, Eli and Eldad Mead, George 
McCuUough, Howell Bull, afterward prominent in Bath history; Benjamin 
Eaton, Mrs. Nehemiah Hubbell, widow of Ichabod Patterson ; Jared 
Irwin, Jonathan and Jeduthan Rowley, Abraham and Dr. Phineas Brad- 
ley, Eliakim Jones, Enos Calkins, Frederick Calkins, aijd the Grotons, 
Wolcotts, Rowleys, the latter three living farther east. Besides these 
settlers there were in the valley and elsewhere James Turner, William 
Knox, Hezekiah Thurber, Samuel Shannon, David Hayden, Joseph 
Grant, Jonathan Cook and David Trowbridge. 

Knoxville (now part of the city), says a cotemporary writer, " was 
founded and named after Hon. John Knox, who came to the place 
about 1795. He led a distinguished and active life, reflecting the high- 
est honor upon the community in which he lived. His residence, in 
which he kept public house, was located on the second lot below the 
Methodist church (1876) in Knoxville. It was in this house that the 
original Painted Post Lodge of Free and Accepted Mas&ns occupied 
rooms, and where it flourished till 1827." 

Ansel McCall moved into the town in 1804, and in the next year 
erected both saw and grist mills, on the south side of the river, near and 
below the canal dam. 

Centerville, according to the same authority as noted above, formed 

part of the large farm of Judge Thomas McBurney, who, in 1824 or '25, 

laid out village lots, and also set up a high post which he claimed to be 

on the site of the original Painted Post, Hon. Philo P. Hubbell kept a 

12 



90 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

large hotel, while other early business men were Fidelis Ferenbaugh, 
saddler and harnessmaker ; Z. F. Wilder, blacksmith ; John Arnot and 
H. H. Matthews, storekeepers ; Charles L. Mills and Charles E. Osborne 
were also prominent business men of the place. At Centerville Judge 
Thomas A. Johnson began his legal career, and Ansel J. McCall, now 
of Bath, taught the first school. The old " Mallory House " was built 
about 1824, and in one of its wings the "Bank of Corning" began 
business in 1839. The act authorizing the construction of the Chemung 
Canal was passed April 15, 1829, and the work of building was finished 
in 1833. -^ State dam was built across the river at the lower end of 
the village, and a " feeder ' was constructed to Horseheads, a distance 
of fifteen miles. 

Thus have we briefly narrated the events by which this town was 
brought into existence and subsequently developed and built up, until 
it became in all respects the most progressive and firmly established 
town in Steuben county ; not, perhaps, the most populous, but one 
which from every point of view may justly lay claim to the title of 
metropolis of the shire. In general fertility of soil, natural advantages, 
thrift, enterprise and general progressiveness, the town of Corning, in- 
cluding of course the chartered city within its limits, is one of the best 
civil divisions in this part of the State. 

However, retrospecting briefly, let us note some of the changes in 
the original territory of the town called Painted Post. The first reduc- 
tion in area was made in 1826, when Erwin and Hornby (including 
Campbell and Lindly) were set off, after which the town contained but 
two townships, numbers i and 2, range i, or, as now constituted, Corn- 
ing and Caton. The latter was separated from the mother town in 1839, 
leaving to Painted Post a single township, number 2, range i. The old 
name was continued until March 31, 1852, and then changed to Corn- 
ing, in honorable allusion to the enterprise of the " Corning Company," 
the acknowledged leader in which was Erastus Corning, of Albany, N. 
Y. This subject, however, will be more fully treated in the history of 
the city of Corning. 

Reduced to its present area. Corning contains (inclusive of the city) 
24,200 acres of land ; and land which agriculturists regard as rich and 
fertile as can be found in all Steuben county. Noting its physical char- 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 91 

acteristics, the wide valley of the Chemung, extending northwest and 
southeast through the center of the town, together with several lateral 
valleys, divide the uplands into rounded hills and narrow ridges. Its 
principal stream is the Chemung River, tributaries of which are Borden, 
Post, Narrows, Clump Foot and Winfield Creeks, as known a quarter 
of a century and more ago. The soil on the hills is a heavy, slaty 
loam, and in the valleys a fine quality of sandy and gravelly loam, occa- 
sionally intermixed with clay. These elements are desirable for suc- 
cessful agricultural pursuits, and in response to the proper efforts of the 
husbandman yield abundantly in general crops, and as well in vegeta- 
bles and tobacco. The assessed valuation of the town, in real and per- 
sonal property, is $761,760; in real, $719,260, and personal, $42,500. 

One of the most noticeable incidents of local history in Corning has 
been the constant and healthful increase in number of inhabitants in the 
town. In proof of this we may have recourse to the census tables, by 
which we learn that in 1800 the sparsely settled town of Painted Post 
had a population of 262, and during the next ten years the number had 
increased to 950. The census of 1820 gave Corning 2,088 inhabitants, 
but the reductions in territory which were made in 1826 also took 
many inhabitants, and the consequence was that in 1830 the town had 
974 population. However, during the succeeding ten years the num- 
ber was increased to 1,674, while the census of 1850. showed the popu- 
lation to be 4,372. In i860 it was 6,003, '" 1870 was 6,502, in 1880 
was 7,402, and in 1890, was 10,188. The city of Corning was created 
by act of the Legislature in 1890, and, according to the count of 1892, 
had a population of 10,025. In the same year the town had 1,838 in- 
habitants. 

As we have noted, the town was organized under the name of Painted 
Post, in the year 1793, then comprising one of the districts or towns of 
Ontario county. When Steuben county was erected, in 1796, and its 
towns formed. Painted Post was continued though somewhat reduced 
in area. In 1826 still other and greater portions of territory were 
taken in forming other towns. Previous to this time officers had been 
regularly elected and were chosen from the township at large. A com- 
plete succession of these early officers, or at least the supervisors, would 
be desirable, but it is impossible owing to the absence of reliable records. 



92 tANDMARTtS OF STBUBEN COUNTY. 

However, having recourse to published documents, and relying some- 
what upon verified recollections, we are able to furnish a reasonably 
accurate list of supervisors from the year 1823, as follows ; 

Thomas McBurney, 1823-24; John Knox, 1825; Thomas McBur- 
ney, 1826-27; Jobn Knox, 1828-29; Henry H. Matthews, 1830-32; 
Daniel Gorton, 1833-34; William Bonham ; 1835; Samuel K. Wol- 
cott, 1836; John McBurney, 1837-38; Henry H. Matthews, 1839; 
Thomas A. Johnson, 1840-41 ; John McBurney, 1842-43 ; John Sly, 
jr., 1844; Thomas A. Johnson, 1845-46; H. B. Noyes, 1847; Jona- 
than Brown, 1848; Benjamin P. Bailey, 1849-50; Daniel B. Cump- 
ston, 1851; William Irvin, 1852; Simeon Hammond, 1853 ; John May- 
nard, 1854; Charles Packer, 1855 ; Benjamin P. Bailey, 1856; Stephen 
T. Hayt, 1857; Charles C. B. Walker, 1858; Stephen T. Hayt, 1859- 
63; Nelson Cowan, 1864-66; Henry Goff, 1867-68; John Vischer, 
1869; Austin Lathrop.jr., 1870-77; Nelson Cowan, 1878; S. C. Robert- 
son, 1879-80; L. C. Kingsbury, 1881-83; Stephen T. Hayt, 1884; L. 
C. Kingsbury, 1885 ; H. C. Heermans, 1886-87 ; L. C. Kingsbury, 1888 ; 
B. W. Wellington, 1889 ; James L. Packer, 1890-92 ; R. F. Clark, 1893 ; 
Myron W. Robbins, 1894-95. 

The town offiers for the years 1895 are as follows : Myron W. Robbins, 
supervisor ; Frank H. Johnson, town clerk ; Egbert Shoemaker, W. H. 
Sweetland, H. W. Van Etten, and Wm. Goff, justices of the peace ; 
Henry Teak, commissioner of highways; P. A. Rouse, Peter Coven- 
hoven, and G. W. Barnard, assessors ; J. W. Calkins, overseer of the 
poor. 

About the time the town of Painted Post was divided (in 1826) the in- 
habitants of the county were much disturbed on account of the feehng of 
unrest and dissatisfaction occasioned by the attitude of the Pulteney As- 
sociation in the land controversy just beginning. However, in this par- 
ticular locality little of the prevailing distress was felt, for the lands of 
Painted Post generally were very desirable and much sought. Still, act- 
ing in common with the entire region, this town assembled in meeting 
and selected representatives to the historic Bath convention, as follows : 
Robert H. Hoyt, Joseph Gillett, Charles Wolcott, jr., William Webster 
and Henry D. Smith. 

From this time (about 1830) forth no disturbing event occurred to 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 93 

mar the harmony of local growth and progress. Soon after the settle- 
ment of the controversy the Corning Company was organized and laid 
the foundation for what is now a flourishing city, and on every hand 
were evidences of prosperity. All interests were enlarged, railroads, 
one following another, were constructed through the town and Corning 
became indeed an important community in the southern part of New 
York. 

The next period of importance in local and general history was that 
commonly mentioned as the war of 1861—65, during which the martial 
spirit of this town was put to the test and not found wanting. A reference 
to the military roster of the town discloses the fact that Corning, town and 
village, furnished for the service a total of 324 men, who were scattered 
through the several regiments raised in southern New York. During 
the war the village was an important seat of operations and its close 
proximity to Elmira gave an additional interest to rapidly occurring 
events. In another chapter particular reference is made to the several 
companies recruited in the town and to their service at the front. 

Record and tradition alike are almost silent regarding the early 
schools in this important town, and the unfortunate loss of town books 
leaves us quite in the dark as to the time when the town was first ap- 
portioned into school districts. Yet we know that the pioneers were 
not neglectful of the educational welfare of their youth, for as early as 
the year 1793 Samuel Colgrove opened a school in the town. In later 
years, as the town was divided and other jurisdictions created, it became 
necessary to as frequently redistrict the remaining portions of Painted 
Post, or Corning, and when the village assumed proportions of impor- 
tance excellent academic institutions were established. These naturally 
drew attendance from the town at large, a condition of things which ex- 
ists even to the present time, for the superior excellence of Coming's 
schools is known throughout the southern tier. 

As at present disposed, the town is divided into sixteen districts, and 
during the last school year 2,428 pupils attended school in both town 
and city. The value of school buildings and property is estimated at 
$108,230, and the assessed valuation of the town and city is $4,200,445. 
Forty-eight teachers are employed annually. The joint town and city 
received public moneys to the amount of $7,981.06, while there was 



94 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

raised by local tax the additional sum of $24,143.24 Eleven trees 
were planted in 1894. 

Dansville — Originally, this town composed all the territory that 
is now Dansville, Fremont, Wayland and portions of Howard and Co- 
hocton. It was one of the original towns of the county, formed in March, 
1796, and was named from Daniel P. Faulkner, an early and spirited 
citizen familiarly known as Captain Dan. Parts of Cohocton and How- 
ard were taken off in 18 12, a part of Wayland in 1848, and of Fremont 
in 1854. A portion was also annexed to Sparta in 1822, and a part of 
Cohocton was re-annexed April 26, 1834. Reduced to its present 
limits, Dansville contains 30,000 acres of land. The surface is chiefly 
upland divided into ridges by the narrow valleys of small streams. 
The declivities of the hills are steep and their summits are 300 to 400 
feet above the valleys. The streams are the head branches of Canas- 
eraga Creek, flowing north, and of Canisteo River, flowing south. The 
soil is a sandy and gravelly loam in the east and north, and gravel 
underlaid by hardpan in the southwest part of the town. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the early settlement of this town was 
much delayed by reason of the uninviting character of the land, it ap- 
pears that when once begun the population increased rapidly, and in 
1810 there were 666 inhabitants in the district. There seems also to 
have been made a mistake regarding the fertility of the land in this 
region as later years and persistent effort developed the fact that Dans- 
ville possessed natural resources almost equal to any portion of the 
county. To-day, as a potato producing section it leads all others in 
this part of the State; and William C. Healey is one of the most ex- 
tensive farmers and growers. 

In proof of this statement we may quote from the words of a writer 
of local history in 18 12, as follows: "This is an excellent tract of land, 
well and variously timbered, and the soil is various though commonly 
good for a rich farming country. There is a large marsh in thfe west 
part, and Loon Pond, near the center, is about one mile broad. There 
are three grain mills, four or five saw mills, an oil mill, paper mill, full- 
ing mill, and a carding machine." Speaking of the locality of Dans- 
ville village, the same writer says: " The valley embracing this settle- 
ment contains 3,000 acres of choice lands and the soil is warm and pro- 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 95 

ductive. There is a road from Bath to Dansville that leads diagonally 
across the center of this town, and another between Dansville and On- 
tario county leads across the northern part." At about this time there 
were lOO taxable inhabitants in the town. 

The pioneers of Dansville were Isaac Sterling and Samuel Gilson 
(some authorities say Gibson) who made a settlement about a half mile 
east of Burn's Station in the year 1804. These settlers were followed 
very soon afterward by James, John and Major Jones, Frederick Fry, 
William Young, Thomas and Nathaniel Brayton, Tisdale Haskin, 
Thomas and John Root, Joshua Healey, Charles Oliver, Joseph Phelps, 
Elisha Robinson, William C. Rogers, Jesse Bridge, Josiah Pond, Joseph 
Cobb, Martin Smith, Newman Bell, Putnam Rich, better known as Put. 
Rich, Judge David Demeree, Jehial, Gross and James Gates, Arad 
Sheldon, Silas Brookins, Isaiah Goodno and Venare Cook. The settlers 
were principally Vermonters from Addison and Rutland counties, from 
the old towns of Pittsford, Benson, Orwell, Shoreham, and Salisbury. 
They were descendants of Green Mountain stock and left their homes 
in that rich locality for an uncertain future in an undeveloped country. 
However, as Vermonters, they were men of great determination and by 
their efforts early succeeded in placing Dansville among the first towns 
in Steuben county. 

As early as 1806 pioneer Isaac Sterling opened a public house on 
the old Arkport and Dansville road, and as this was a much traveled 
highway it is said that within a very few years there was a tavern at 
every mile on the road, and the woods were alive with noisy oxteamsters 
who hauled staves to Arkport, from which point they were boated down 
the Canisteo to market. Indeed settlement must have been rapid for 
in 181 1 James Jones opened a school not far from Doty's Corners. 
Rufus Fuller built a saw mill in 18 16, and four years later built a grist- 
mill and another saw mill, taking the stones from Oak Hill. The grist 
mill was carried away by high water about 1823. The settlement by 
the Vermont colony was begun in 181 5 and continued for the next 
five years at which latter time pioneership ceased, as the population in 
1820 was 1,565. 

However, among the other pioneers and early settlers we may men- 
tion the names of Osgood Carleton, 1815, Jesse Churchill, tavern- 



96 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

keeper in 1816, Timothy Atwood, surveyor and school teacher, William 
S. Lemen, whose son James P., born March, 18 16, was the first white 
child born in the town. Chauncey Day settled in 18 16. The locality 
known as Sandy Hill was settled principally by Germans, among whom 
Alexander Leib, John Hayt, Alexander Green and Jacob Kurtz, sen. 
and jr., were the first comers. The patriarch of this locality was John 
Brail, whom every one knew as " Grandpap Brail." He came to Dans- 
ville in 18 17. Among the early German families in this locality were 
the surnames of Bolinger, Rider, Kersh and Schu. On Oak Hill a set- 
tlement was made in 1816-17 by Moses Hulbert, Joshua Williams, 
Daniel, George and Hubbard Griswold, William C. Rogers, Thomas 
Buck, George Butler and Joshua Woodward. One of the first mar- 
riages in the town, June 16, 1818, was that of Cyril Buck and Philena 
Hall. Dr. Thomas M. Bowen settled east of Beachville in 18 19 and 
was an early postmaster at South Dansville. Eli Carrington, Timothy, 
Nathaniel and Meyer Wallace, Vermonters, joined the settlement in 
1820. Here Arad Sheldon opened a tavern, and the place soon became 
a business center. It was named Beachville, after Aaron, Robert and 
John Beach, brothers, who were prominent tavern and store keepers. 

With settlement thus rapidly accomplished, Dansville early became 
an important division of the county. Its greatest population was at- 
tained in 1840, the inhabitants then numbering 2,725. However, by 
subsequent reductions in its territory, and the natural decline in popu- 
lation and interest noticeable in nearly all purely agricultural towns, 
Dansville has a population, according to the enumeration of 1892, of 
only 1,544- 

The organization of Dansville was effected on April 4, 1 797, at which 
time the town contained its original area, and before any reductions to 
its territory had been made. At that time the population could not 
have numbered more than 200 inhabitants. The meeting was held in 
the village of Dansville at the house of Samuel Faulkner, at which time 
James Faulkner and Isaac Van Deventer were elected overseers of high- 
ways, and David Fuller, collector. The first records of the town are 
somewhat obscure and imperfect, yet we know that in 1799 Daniel P. 
Faulkner was elected supervisor, James Hooker, town clerk, and Alex- 
ander Fullerton, William Porter and John Phoenix, assessors. The first 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 97 

justices, who of course at the time were appointed, were Isaac Van De- 
venter, 1807, Jonas Cleland, 1809, Stephen Haight, 1810, and John 
Metcalfe, i8ii. 

The town officers for the year 1895 are as follows: Lorenzo Hul- 
bert, supervisor; C. C. Wood, town clerk; L. K. Robinson, D. G. 
Haynes, Philip Webb and C. Byron Wallace, justices of the peace ; D. 
H. Griswold, Alexander Smart and Wendell Gessner, assessors ; Valen- 
tine Weber, collector; Daniel Eveland, highway commissioner ; John C. 
Grobe, overseer of the poor; John Haight, Peter Schubmehl and Charles 
O. Currey, excise commissioners. 

The supervisors of Dansville, in succession, have been as follows : 
Daniel P. Faulkner, 1799; Alexander FuUerton, 1799, to fill vacancy; 
Jacob Van Deventer, 1800; Amariah Hammond, 1800, to fill vacancy ; 
Samuel Faulkner, 1801 ; Amariah Hammond, 1 802-06 ; Richard W. 
Porter, 1807—08 ; Jared Irwin, 1808, to fill vacancy; Samuel Cuthbert- 
son, 1809; Jared Irwin, 1810; Jonathan Rowley, 1811-12; Wm. B. 
Rochester, 1813; Thomas McWhprton, 1813-15; James Faulkner, 
1816-18 ; Joshua Healey, 1819 and 182 1—26 ; James Faulkner, 1820; 
Charles Oliver, 1827-32; Nathaniel Brayton, 1833; Aaron W. Beach, 
1834-36; Joel Carrington, 1837-39 ; Timothy Wa'lace, 1840-42; Joshua 
Healey, 1843 i Charles Oliver, 1844 and 1847-48 ; Leeds Allen, 1845- 
46; Joel Carrington, 1849-50, and 1854; Luther White, 1851-53; 
Wm. W. Healey, 1855, '58 and '60; Eli Carrington, 1856-57 ; Wm. A. 
Woodard, 1859; Chas. S. Ackley, 1861-62; Wm. W. Healey, 1863; 
Dyer L. Kingsley, 1864-68 ; Benj F. Kershner, 1869 ; Warren Wallace, 
1870-71; Fred. M. Kreidler, 1872; Morgan H.Carney, 1873-74; 
Lewellyn S. Healey, 1875-76 ; Chas Oliver, 1877-80 ; D. Campbell, 
1881 ; J. McWoolever, 1882-83; Morgan L. Miller, 1884; Peter S. 
Pealer, 1885-86; C. M. Ackley, 1887-89; C. S. Kreidler. 1890-91; 
Lorenzo Hurlburt, 1892 ; Ira G. Day, 1893 ; Lorenzo Hurlburt, 1894-95. 

From first to last, the social and industrial history of Dansville has 
been rich and interesting, although during the last thirty years there 
has been witnessed a gradual decline in population in the town. The 
first important event in local annals was the anti-rent conflict, in which 
the people felt a deep anxiety, for their interests were greatly affected 
by the distress prevailing at th;it time throughout the region, In the 

13 



98 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

measures for relief the leading men were actively engaged, and in the 
Bath convention of January, 1830, the town was represented by Thomas 
M. Brown, Peter Covert, Annis Newcomb, Leeds Allen and Martin 
Smith. However, this disturbing period had hardly passed before there 
was visited upon the people here the dreadful cholera scourge of 1834, 
as a result, of which many persons in the town met premature death. 
Nothing further of a serious nature took place to disturb the serenity of 
town affairs and progress until the outbreak of the war of 1861-5, dur- 
ing which period the patriotism and loyalty of Dansville were tested 
and found true. Many of the brave sons of the town were enlisted 
among the volunteer regiments of the county, and several still sleep in 
southern graves. 

Due care and attention have also been given to the spiritual and edu- 
cational welfare of the youth of the town, and during the period of its 
history no less than five church societies have been organized and edi- 
fices provided for religious worship. In 181 1 James Jones opened a 
primitive school in the town, although several years passed before dis- 
tricts were formed and schools provided for each. However, at a much 
later period, two academic institutions were founded at Rogersville, the 
principal village of the town, and from that time Dansville occupied a 
front rank among the educational localities of the entire region. As at 
present disposed, the town is divided into fourteen districts, each of 
which is provided with a comfortable school house. During the school 
year 1893-4, fourteen teachers were employed, and 357 children wpre 
in attendance. The value of school property in the town is estimated 
at $6,000. The town received of pubHc moneys, $1,610.83, and raised 
by tax, $1,701.94. Fourteen trees were planted in 1893. 

Among the religious societies of this town which have passed out of 
active existence, we may mention the Evangelical church, organized in 
the German settlement on Oak Hill in 1863, and also the Catholic 
mission, established in the same locality as early as 1834. A Baptist 
society was also formed in Dansville about 1820, but this, too, is among 
the things of the past. 

Erwin.— On the 27th day of January, 1826, the town of Painted Post 
(formed March 18, 1796,) was divided and a portion of the territory set 
off" was erected into a new town by the name of Erwin ; and so called in 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNT r. 99 

allusion to Col. Arthur Erwin, formerly of Bucks county, Penn., who 
had been an officer in the Revolutionary army, and by whom the town 
was purchased from the Phelps and Gorham proprietary. However, 
from the original town of Erwin, Lindley was taken off in 1837, and a 
part of Corning was re annexed in 1856. As then constituted and now 
existing, this town contains 23,300 acres of land, of as good quality for 
general agricultural purposes as can be found in Steuben county. 

The physical features and natural characteristics are remarkable and 
quite different from those of the county at large. The land surface is 
nearly equally divided between high rolling uplands and the low valleys 
of streams. The more elevated lands are from 400 to 650 feet above 
the valleys. In the southern part of the town the waters of the Canisteo 
unite with the Tioga, and in the northeast part the latter stream unites 
with the Cohocton and forms the Chemung River. In all respects Er- 
win may justly be regarded the best watered division of this large 
county. The valleys of the streams vary in width from one to two miles, 
and the soil is a fine quality of alluvium. 

However, notwithstanding all the various advantages of location, and 
the general fertility of soil, both on hills and in the valleys, it is only 
within the last score of years that the forest growths have been removed, 
and there are still in the town a few desirable timbered tracts. 

This town contains, according to accredited authority, one of the most 
historic landmarks of Steuben county — the famous " Painted Post," the 
subject of rhyme and story ; and concerning which all students of arche- 
ology and the Indianologists as well, were at loss in satisfactorily basing 
and proving their theories. However, this subject is so fully treated in 
one of the early chapters of the present work that nothing more than a 
brief allusion to it is necessary at this time. The town abounds in In- 
dian history and traditions, well authenticated in many cases, and purely 
mythical in others, and all have been treated and frequently enlarged 
upon by past writers, wherefore in this narrative we propose to deal 
only with the civilized white settlement, tracing briefly the interesting 
record of growth and development to the present time. 

In the summer of 1789, Col. Arthur Erwin set out from his home in 
Bucks county, Pennsylvania, accompanied with a good number of help- 
ers, bound for Canandaigua, the seat of operations of the Phelps and 



too Landmarks of stbubeN county. 

Gorham proprietary. This adventurous pioneer came with a determi- 
nation to locate in the Genesee country, and brought with him a fair 
drove of cattle to be turned into cash or used as stock on his proposed 
purchase. At that time the fact was well known that Samuel Harris, 
trapper and Indian trader, had a cabin within the limits of the pres- 
ent village of Painted Post, and here Colonel Erwin stopped to rest 
his cattle. The location and general outlook pleased the colonel, and 
he immediately resumed his journey to Canandaigua, reaching which 
he at once enquired if township number two, range two, was in the 
market, and, if so, at what price. Phelps charged and Erwin paid the 
gross sum of ;£'i,400 New York money, for the township, turning his 
cattle in part payment and cash for the balance and thus became the 
owner of the town afterwards named for him, the subject of this 
chapter. 

Three years previous to this event, or in 1786, Samuel Harris built a 
cabin on the village site, and employed himself in trapping, curing and 
dealing in furs, and trading among the Indian occupants of the region. 
He was not in any sense a pioneer and made no attempt at clearing or 
improving the land. According to Judge McMaster, the Harris cabin 
was subsequently burned. In 1789 this pioneer adventurer moved to 
a point near the foot of Cayuga Lake. Augustus Porter, surveyor for 
Phelps and Gorham, made the Harris cabin his headquarters while lay- 
ing out the townships in this part of Ontario county. 

The settlement in fact of the town began in 1788, for account of 
which we have recourse to a previously published narrative, as follows : 
In 1788 came Eli Mead and George Goodhue and their families. In 
1789 came David Fuller and family; in 1790, Bradford Edgeton. Will- 
iam Hincher. James Shaw, with their families, and David Cook, whose 
family came in 1792. Col. Arthur Erwin, the owner of the township, 
came in the very early spring of 1791 with the intention of making it 
his permanent home. On his return to Bucks county for his family, he 
had reached his possessions then in Luzerne county, and while sitting 
in the house of his tenant, Daniel McDuffe, he was assassinated by a 
squatter, who immediately made his escape on a stolen horse. In 1791 
came John Wyman and family, Capt. Samuel Erwin, then unmarried, 
and Major Arthur Erwin, both sons of Colonel Erwin. In 1793 Eldad 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 101 

Mead became a settler, and in the following year John MulhoUen and 
several others were added to the settlement along the rivers. The year 
1796 witnessed the arrival of Hugh Erwin, another son of Colonel 
Erwin, while among the settlers of 1797 were Joseph Grant, Jacob 
Turner, Homer and Asher Lane and John Kemp, nearly all of whom 
brought farnilies. 

Among the other early settlers in our town were Benjamin Patterson, 
famed throughout the region for his hunting proclivities, and as well for 
his generous hospitality as a tavern-keeper ; and as a story teller and 
general entertainer he was without a peer in the town. Prominent also 
among the pioneers were John E. Evans, who taught the first school in 
the town, and was at one time postmaster, also George Young and 
Edward Cooper, all of whom were identified with the town in its early 
history. 

Referring briefly to some of the first events of local history, it may 
be stated that Samuel Erwin built the first saw mill, in 1820, and the 
the first grist mill in 1823, while David Fuller opened the first public 
house in 1792. John E. Evans began teaching school in 18 12, and 
among his pupils were Robert and John Patterson, Gen. F. E. Erwin, 
Gen. William D. Knox, John Erwin, Col. F. E. Young, Thomas Wheat, 
Arthur H. Erwin, John McBurney, Samuel Shannon, Philander Knox 
and others, each of whom occupied positions of trust and responsibility 
in after years. 

The war of 1812-15 was an important period in local history, and one 
not without interest to the people of the town. Among those drafted 
for service were Abner Trowbridge, Edmund C. Cooper, James Gillen 
and Thomas Wheat. Joseph Gillett held a lieutenant's commission, and 
was wounded in battle. Judge Thomas McBurney was another com- 
missioned officer. Edmund C. Cooper sent a substitute in his place. 
Daniel MuUhollen enlisted twice, and finally lost an arm in the service. 

The town of Erwin, having within its boundaries parts of four con- 
siderable rivers, has several times been subjected to serious inundation, 
and some of these occasions have passed into history as notable events, 
hence worthy of at least passing mention. In the fall of the year 18 17 
there came what has ever been known as the "pumpkin" flood, by 
which crops, cattle and many buildings were swept away. In 1833 the 



102 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

waters of both Conhocton and Tioga were swollen to an unusual de- 
gree, and some damage and still more excitement, was the result. Next 
came the great flood of 1857, which also proved disastrous, and finally 
that of St. Patrick's day, 1865. 

The interest of Colonel Erwin in this town was an entire one, and 
had that worthy pioneer lived to witness the execution of his plans here 
indeed would undoubtedly have been a municipality of considerable 
commercial importance; but his unfortunate and untimely taking off 
unsettled all plans for the future of the town, although his sons showed 
commendable ability and zeal in settling the affairs of the estate and 
holding intact its value. After Colonel Erwin's death the property was 
divided among his ten children, of whom Samuel, Francis, Arthur, 
Rebecca and Mrs. MulhoUen became residents of the town. The estate 
was divided by a commission comprising John Konkle, Eleazer Lud- 
ley and Henry McCormick. 

In this narrative thus far progressed we have generally alluded to the 
town under its present name — Erwin — although as a matter of fact the 
territory remained a part of Painted Post until 1826. After being set 
off, the first town meeting was held March 7, of the year mentioned, 
at the dwelling of Daniel" Rooks, jr. Ethan Pier presided on this occa- 
sion and Capt. Samuel Erwin was elected supervisor, and John E. Evans, 
town clerk. From that time it is interesting to note the succession of 
supervisors, the principal town office, viz.: 

Samuel Erwin, 1826-29; Abner Thurber, 1830-32; John Cooper, 
jr., 1833; Chauncey Hoffman, 1834-35; A.C.Morgan, 1836; Francis 
E. Erwin, 1837-38; Arthur Erwin, jr., 1839-42; William J. Gillett, 
1843-48; Arthur H. Erwin, 1849-50; Ira P. Bennett, 1851; Uri 
Balcom, 1852-53; Samuel Erwin, 1854; Arthur H. Erwin, 1855-62; 
William J. Gilbert, 1863 ; Wm. C. Bronson, 1864-67 ; Alanson J. Fox, 
1868; W. C. Bronson, 1869; Lyman Balcom, 1870; Ira P. Bennett, 
1871; Charles J. Fox, 1872-74; Francis Erwin, 1875; W. S. Hodg- 
man, 1876; Francis Erwin, 1877-80; Charles Iredell, 1881-33; Thomas 
R. Peck, 1884; W. S. Hodgman, 1885-88; F. E. Bronson, 1889-90; 
George W. Campbell, 1891-95. 

In this connection we may also properly furnish the list of town of- 
ficers for the present year, 1895 : George W. Campbell, supervisor; J. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 103 

D. Orcutt, town clerk ; J. S. Tobias, S B. Howell, W. C. Morse and 
George Dunklee, justices ; Hiram P. Badger, L. Kinsella and C. D. 
Rouse, assessors ; Frank Berry, collector and overseer of the poor ; F. 
C. Wilcox, highway commissioner ; E. D. Bonham, W. A. Allen and 

E. E. Erwin, excise commissioners. 

Soon after the separate organization of Erwin, the inhabitants of the 
entire region were much disturbed on account of the land controversy 
of about 1830, but as this town was entirely outside the interests of the 
Pultney Association, the serious effects of the conflict were not felt here. 
However, the event was the subject of much discussion in the accustomed 
resorts, and the town was represented by delegates in the famous Bath 
convention. This duty was delegated to John E. Evans, Samuel Erwin 
and John Cooper, jr. 

In i860 Erwin contained 1,859 inhabitants, yet, during the war of 
1861-65, the town is credited with having furnishing a total of two 
hundred and ten men for the service, or about ten and one-fourth per 
cent of the population. A history of the several companies in which 
were Erwin volunteers will be found in another chapter of this work. 

During the period of its history, there have been built up and estab- 
lished within the limits of this town several villages or hamlets, known, 
respectively, as Painted Post, an incorporated village and as well one of 
the most interesting and historic localities in the county ; Gang Mills, 
a hamlet southwest of the principal village and brought into existence 
about 1832 ; Cooper's Plains, a hamlet and post-office in the north 
part of the town ; and Erwin, a station on the Erie road and established 
about 1873. The village of Painted Post and also each of these ham- 
lets will be found mentioned in the chapter devoted to municipal his-tory. 

In concluding this chapter we may with propriety refer briefly to the 
census reports and from that source glean some facts relative to the 
population of Erwin at different periods. In 1830 the inhabitants in 
the town were 795 in number, while in 1840 it had decreased to 785. 
During the next ten years the increase was remarkable, the census 
showing the population to be 1,435. I" i860 the number increased 
to 1,859, and in 1870 to 1,977- The greatest number of inhabitants 
was reached in 1880, being 2,095, but a decrease followed, the number 
in 1890 being 1,884. According to the count of 1892, Erwin's popula- 
tion was 1,843. 



104 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Fremont. — In the year 1854, about the time of the organization of 
the Republican party, the creating powers were petitioned to form a 
new town in Steuben county, and in accordance with the request there 
was erected the present town of Fremont, so named in allusion to John 
C. Fremont, who at that particular time was a conspicuous figure in 
national politics. The town was erected on November 17, and the 
older divisions Hornellsville, Dansville, Wayland, and Howard surren- 
dered portions of their territory to the new formation. The new town 
contains 19,600 acres of land, and is located in the northwest part of 
the county. Its surface is a hilly upland and forms a part of the divid- 
ing ridge between the Canisteo and Conhocton Rivers. The soil is 
chiefly a shaly loam, derived from the disintegration of the surface 
rocks. 

The pioneer of this town was Job B Rathbun, a native of Connecticut, 
but a former resident of Dansville in this county. Mr. Rathbun moved 
into what is now Fremont in 18 12 and built the first dwelling house in 
the town, and from his settlement the locality soon became known as 
" Job's Corners." About the same time Abel H. Baldwin moved in 
from Otsego county, exchanging one hilly region for another. Next 
came Thomas Buck and family from Washington county. John A. 
Buck married Rebecca Baldwin, and their son, Charles E., born Novem- 
ber 12, 1 8 16, was the first birth in the town. The first death was that 
of the wife of Amos Baldwin, December 12, 1815. 

Among the other early settlers may be recalled the names of Ira 
Travis, in the valley of Big Creek ; Solomon and Jacob Conderman, 
from whom has descended several prominent men in the county; John 
Bartholomew, in the southeast part of the town ; Lemuel Harding, in 
1816; Oliver Hording, a patriot of the Revolution ; Samuel Sharp, who 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 105 

located west of Harding's. Harding's Hill was so named from the fam- 
ilies just referred to. Elisha Strait was the first settler in the north part 
of the town, coming here in 1815, and was followed in 1816 by Edward 
Markham and Francis Drake, who located south of him. In 18 19 
Jerry Kinney, George Nutting, Barnet Brayton, Henry Cotton, and 
Leonard Briggs made a colony settlement at the head of the west branch 
of Neil's Creek. Here they found a camp of about twenty Indians, who 
were engaged in hunting and fishing. Alexander Kelly made the first 
clearing where Haskinville is located. 

Other and later settlers, yet worthy to be mentioned in these annals, 
were James Rider and William Haskins, from Saratoga county, also 
William Holden, Gideon Maynard, Silas Benjamin, Stephen Holden 
(18 16), Lewis Canfield, Daniel Upson, Michael G. Helmer, Edward Pat- 
terson, Elisha G. Stephens, founder of the yillage called Stephen's 
Mills, Richard Timmerman, and others who were in some manner iden- 
tified with the history of the town while its territory formed a part of 
the older divisions. 

As we have noted the town was organized as a separate jurisdiction 
in 1854, then having a population of about 1,100 inhabitants. The first 
town meeting was held in Mr. Stephen's hotel at the Center, on Febru- 
ary 13, 1855, at which time these officers were elected: Elisha G. 
Stephens, supervisor ; Franklin Dart, town clerk ; Jason Ranger, Solo- 
mon Gates, Ebenezer H. Mason, justices of the peace; Randall F. 
Beecher, Isaac P. Haskins, Morrison Harding, assessors ; Hiram Culver, 
Norman Eldridge and William Haskin, highway commissioners ; James 
R. Babcock, collector; Cornelius Conderman, overseer of the poor. 

The town officers for the year 1895 are M. J. Harding, supervisor; 
E. R. Kilbury, town clerk ; J. M. Kelly, Seymour Jones, D. D. Wild and 
Melvin Nipher, justices of the peace; A. D. Huvener, assessor; E. H. 
Helmer, collector; R. C. White, overseer of the poor; Clark Haight, 
highway commissioner ; Smith E. Harding, .A. D. Osborn and Levi B. 
Evans, excise commissioners. 

The supervisors of Fremont have been as follows: Elisha G. Stephens, 
i8S5-s6; Lorenzo N. Rider, 1857-59; Jason Ranger, 1860-61 ; 0th- 
niel Preston, 1862-63 ; Samuel E. Haskin, 1864; William B. Stephens, 
1865-66; W. B. Rathbun, 1867; William B. Stephens, 1868; Esek 

14 



106 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Page, 1869-72; Ira Carrington, 1873-74; De Merville Page, 1875; 
Calvin Bullock, 1876; L. H. Benjamin, 1877-78; W. H. Bowen, 1879- 
80; S. S. Cotton, 1881-82; C. K. Mason, 1883; S. S. Cotton, 1884; 
M. J. Harding, 1885-86 ; Joel Killbury, 1887 ; G. S. Van Keuren, 1888- 
89; Harrison Russell, 1890-91; S. S. Cotton. 1892; M.J. Harding, 
1893-95. 

In 1855 F"remont had a population of 1,1 19, and in i860 had 1,117. 
In 1870 the number of inhabitants was again 1,119, and in 1880 had 
increased to 1,274, but in 1890 had fallen to 1,047. I" 1892 the popu- 
lation was 1,088. 

This is peculiarly an agricultural town, and as such compares favor- 
ably with other adjoining divisions ; and while there has been made 
some attempt at manufacture this pursuit has never added materially to 
local prosperity. In the growth of hay, grain, potatoes, apples, and 
dairy products lies the success of the people of Fremont. 

Unlike many towns of the county, Fremont has not suffered seriously 
from disturbing causes. To be sure the anti rent conflict had an effeet 
somewhat prejudicial to local interests, yet at that time settlement was 
not far advanced and the territory of the town belonged to the older 
divisions of the county. The sturdy agriculturists steadfastly ad- 
hered to their legitimate occupation in life and gave small heed to 
the annoyances of the period. However, during the war of 1861-65, 
a truly martial spirit pervaded the entire community, and Fremont sent 
into the service no less than one hundred and three men, who were 
scattered through the different companies organized in the county. 
This was certainly a remarkable record, especially when we consider the 
fact that in i860 the population of the town was but 1,117. 

Previous to 1855 the school interests of Fremont were a part of the 
history of older towns, but in the year mentioned, under the local com- 
missionership of George Collins, jr., the town was divided into districts, 
nine in number, while the children of school age numbered 457. From 
this beginning the present school system of Fremont has developed. 
The districts now number ten, and the children about 300. Ten teach- 
ers were employed during the last current year. The value of school 
property is $4,395. The town received of public moneys, $1,183.78, 
and raised by tax $1,431.61. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 107 

Among the several named hamlets or settled localities of Fremont, 
that known as Stephen's Mills or Fremont Center, is the largest. It is 
located near the center of the town. Haskinville is in the northeast 
part, Niel's Creek is in the southeast part, Big Creek in the south part, 
and Job's Corners in the east part of the town. Big Creek is a post- 
office station, D. D. Weld, postmaster. Neil's Creek is also a post- 
office, Matthew N. Silsbee, postmaster. Here also is the feed and cider 
mill of P. Pettis. Job's Creek has a grocery kept by B. R. Chubbuck. 
Haskinville and Stephen's Mills and also the churches of this town are 
elsewhere mentioned in this volume. 

Greenwood. — This town was formed from Troupsburg and Canis- 
teo, January 24, 1827, and included all that is now West Union as well 
as Greenwood. The former was taken off in 1845, '^"d a part of Jas- 
per was annexed in 1848. As at present constituted Greenwood con- 
tains 24,700 acres of land, the greater part of which is rolling upland. 
Bennett's Creek flows northerly through the east part of the town, in 
a valley from two to six hundred feet below some of the hilltops. The 
soil is a clayey and gravelly loam. 

When the land proprietors began to develop this region, for the pur- 
pose of inducing settlement in what was then supposed to be an unin- 
viting wilderness of forests, they cut a road up the creek through this 
town to the Pennsylvania line. However, no settlement was made im- 
mediately after the completion of the work, nor until after the construc- 
tion of the highway leading from the Thomas neighborhood to the 
then famous salt spring in the town we now call Greenwood. The In- 
dians made salt at this spring long before the advent of the whites and 
the locality was a favored spot in the aboriginal period ; and the spring 
was no less prized by the white-faced pioneers, and at an early day an 
attempt was made to manufacture salt here by Ezekiel Burger and, a 
Mr. Matthews. 

The second road was cut through in 1820, and in the spring of the 
next year we find Alexander H. Stephens and Anson Robinson clear- 
ing land and building a saw mill within the limits of the town. This 
was the pioneer settlement, though the family of our chief adventurer, 
Mr. Stephens, did not come till the mill was completed. Ezra and 
John H. Stephens next came up 'the valley to the town, after which 



168 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

settlement progressed rapidly, for the lands were cheap and well tim- 
bered, and the soil fertile. In 1823 the family of Deacon Daniel Man- 
ning came, and in the same year Eleazer Woodward became a settler, 
and built a small tannery near the Stephens mill. Both of them came 
from New Hampshire. 

The next settlers were Dennis Sanford, Seth Norton, Stephen Powell, 
all along the ridge, and Hiram Putnam, John H. Hayt, Joseph and 
Josephus Batchelder and Jacob Manning, along and near the creek. 
Guy Wardwell settled on the strip annexed from Jasper. Collating and 
noting briefly some of the other early families we may recall the names 
of Levi Davis, Ira and Randall Pease, Christian Cobey, John Holt, 
James Henshaw, Daniel Ward, Benjamin Chamberlain, Hugh Carr 
(whose wife taught the first school), Phineas Stephens,- Uriah F. 
Stephens, Col. John Stephens, Enoch Ordway, Ezra Lovejoy, Amos 
Lewis, Josiah Richardson, Stephen, Lyman, Amos and Jesse Wilmot. 
Lyman Wilmot built a grist mill at the place called Rough and Ready. 
Still later comers were George Updike, Benjamin Edwards, William 
Atkins, John Rogers, John J. Ducher, Enos Smith, John Balsby, Rich- 
ard Krusen ( a pioneer tavern-keeper and also land agent, and withal 
a man who did much to bring settlement into the town), Ezekiel and 
Hiram Burger, William Burrows, Joshua Goldsmith and others, all of 
whom were located in the town as early as 1830. 

So rapid indeed was early settlement in this extreme portion of the 
county that the convenience of the inhabitants demanded a separate 
organization and a new town, and the result was the division of Canis- 
teo and Troupsburg and the creation of Greenwood, comprising orig- 
inally the territory we have previously described. The population of 
the new formation at that time did not exceed 700, notwithstanding the 
extent of territory, about 55,000 acres. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Levi Davis, on 
March 6, 1827, and the following officers were elected: Levi Davis, 
supervisor; Anson Cook, town clerk; David Murray, Randall Pease, 
and Uriah F. Stephens, assessors ; Richard Kruzen, Uriah Ingley and 
Aden Lewis, commissioners of highways ; Jacob Manning and Jacob 
Bess, overseers of the poor ; Abram V. Olmsted, Joseph Batchelder, 
Thomas Johnson, commissioners of schools ; Francis Strong, Josiah 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Haywood and Moses Clausen, inspectors of schools ; John H. Steptiens, 
collector. The town was named by Alexander H. Stephens, one of its 
most influential early citizens, and through his efforts the strip from 
Jasper -was annexed to Greenwood. 

Referring briefly to some of the important early events of town his- 
tory, may be mentioned the first mill, built by Alexander Stephens in 
1821-23 ; Levi Davis built a log house in 1824, and opened tavern in 
1825. He also kept a small stock of goods, and dispensed good whis- 
key at twenty cents per gallon. The first post-office was in Mr. Davis's 
store, and mail was brought from Hornellsville on horseback. This 
was about 1828 or '29. Mr. Davis was for a time partner with Ira 
Davenport. In 1830 David Foote and Redmond Ferguson began the 
manufacture of furniture and coffins, and in the same year B. F. 
Brundage built a carding and fulling mill. This was burned in 1846, 
and was replaced with the flouring mill. In 1835 James (" High 
Jimmy ") McCormick shipped to market the first butter from Green- 
wood. Alvin Mead is said to have brought the first wagon into the 
western part of the town, in 1827. Daniel McCormick built a grist 
mill at Rough and Ready about 1832. The first birth was that of 
Charles' C. Stephens ; the first marriage that of Hiram Putnam and 
Lucinda Stephens ; the first death that of Ezra Cobey. 

The supervisors of Greenwood have been as follows: Levi Davis, 
1827-29 and 1831-32; Thomas Johnson, 1830; Randall Pease, 1833; 
Anson Cook, 1834-36; Jos. Davenport, 1837-38 ; John J. Holt, 1839- 
40; Alex. H. Stephens, 1841-47; Elijah Guyon, 1848-51; John 
Davis, 1852-54, 1856-59, 1864, 1869, 1872-73; Augustus Mallory, 
185s; Israel M. Brundage, i860, 1862-63, 1870; Daniel_ Manning, 
1861 ; H. H. Mallory, 1865-66, 1875-81 ; R. H. Sheffield, 1867-68; 
John S. Hartrum, 1871 ; Merrit F. Smith, 1874; P. A. Mead, 1882; 
Valentine Reiman, 1883-85; G. D. Woodward, 1886-87; N. E. 
Coston, 1888, 1890; M. F. Smith, 1889; John S. Young, 1890-91; 
L. G. Burton, 1893-95. 

Town officers, 1895: Lynn G. Burton, supervisor; Eugene Brun- 
dage, town clerk ; John S. Young, George M. Woodward, John K. 
Miller and Edward H. Ferris, justices; H.W.Young, J. D. Northrup 
and W. H. Taylor, assessors; Willis Scribner, collector; John N. 



110 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Hovey, overseer of the poor ; Dudley B. Ersley, highway commis- 
sioner ; Ira Clark, Reuben Stephens and Freeman Rogers, excise com- 
misioners. 

There has been little change in the population of Greenwood during 
the last half century, and the number of inhabitants has not increased 
or diminished to the extent of two hundred in the last thirty- five 
years. In 1830 the town had 899 inhabitants, and 1,138 in 1840. Ten 
years later the population was 1,185, ^"^ in i860 was 1,306. In 1870 
the number was 1,394, and 1,386 in 1880. It was 1,312 in 1890, and 
1,241 in 1892. 

Three years after the separate organization of Greenwood, the people 
of the region were much disturbed and directly affected by the anti- 
rent conflict and the discussions of its period. In the convention at 
Bath in January, 1830, we find as delegates from Greenwood a num- 
ber of her leading men, among them Levi Davis, Thomas Johnson, 
Anson Cook, William J. Strong and Randall Pease. Mr. Davis was 
one of the committee appointed to prepare and present to the agents 
of the proprietary the memorial for the relief of the distressed settlers. 

During the war of 1861-65, Greenwood furnished a total of seventy- 
five men for the service. A history of the various companies to which 
belonged volunteers from the town will be found in another department 
of this work. 

In the course of its history there has been built up and established 
one thriving and pretty little village, and also two hamlets of less note, 
known, respectively as West Greenwood and Rough and Ready. The 
first mentioned village, and its institutions, will be treated especially in 
the municipal history, in this volume. 

Hartsville. — On the 7th of February, 1844, the town of Hornells- 
ville was divided, and township No. 3, of range 6, Phelps and Gorham 
purchase, was erected into a separate town by the name of Hartsville. 
Either by design or mistake this township was originally sold by Oliver 
Phelps to the company of proprietors who purchased Canisteo and 
Hornellsville. These purchasers sought to secure Nos. 3 in the fifth 
and 4 in the sixth range, but through some cause the deed of convey- 
ance described townships three in the fifth and sixth ranges. However, 
before many improvements were made in this town the error was dis- 
covered and corrected. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. Ill 

Geographically, Hartsville is located on the western border of Steuben 
county and south of the center. It contains 23,200 acres of land and is 
regarded as one of the best dairy towns of the county. The land sur- 
face is generally hilly and somewhat broken, though there is compara- 
tively little waste or useless land in the town. Bennett's Creek flows 
northerly through the east part and Purdy Creek has its course from 
west to east across the north part and discharges into Bennett's Creek 
in the town of Canisteo. 

The first settler in this locality was Benjamin Brookins, who made an 
improvement in the year 1809, but, becoming discouraged, left for other 
parts before the pioneer in fact of the town made his beginning. Joseph 
Purdy, an earnest and hard working Irishman, located in the north 
part in 1810, and for a time occupied the cabin abandoned by his 
predecessor ; and records inform us that Purdy was the only settler 
in this then remote region until the year 1819. Still, during this period 
the pioneer made a good beginning and cleared a good farm. His 
name is worthily preserved in the town, by the name of the principal 
stream and also the name of the post office at the Center. In 18 19 
Jesse Palmater, Perry and Andrew Potter and William D. Burdick came 
to the town, settling in the northwest part. Daniel P. Carpenter came 
in 1822, driving with an ox team, and located half a mile south of the 
Center. Frank Powell came the same year and settled near the site of 
the cemetery as afterward established. The settlers in 1823, as near as 
can be determined, were William Hudson, John Granger and Ebenezer 
and Robert G. Martin, while in the next year came Joseph and James 
Thompson. John Hood came in 1826, and is remembered as having 
been and old " war of 1812 " survivor. He organized the town militia 
company and was its captain ; Nathaniel Williams was its lieutenant, 
and Oliver Coon ensign ; Ferris Clawson, sergeant. General training 
day was a notable occasion, and Carpenter's lot was the scene of many 
a hard fought battle against the common foe — Yankee ginger-bread 
and hard cider. 

In 1825 William Allison, the head of a numerous and prominent 
family in the county during later years, settled near the Carpenter place. 
James Howell and John Martin joined the settlement in 1828. Othniel 
Call came during the same year and located on what was named for 



112 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

him " Call Hill." He was followed later on by Joseph, David and 
Orlando Call, thus creating the Call settlement. Francis and Micah 
Kennedy came in 1829, and James Classen, John Henry, and David 
Whiting in 1830. Among the later settlers were Henry Acker, Reu- 
ben and Charles N. Hart, Simeon Baker and his sons James, Ephraim 
and Simeon, jr., Thomas Stout, Ralph Amidon, George L. Puffer, David 
Phelps and others, all coming in gradually and adding to the settlement 
until the lands were quite well taken up. Many of these settlers gave 
their first attention to clearing the lands, hence were engaged more or 
less extensively in. lumbering; and it has been claimed that between 
1825 and 1840 there were no less than fourteen saw and shingle mills 
in operation in the town. The forests were reasonably well cleared 
about 1850, after which Hartsville became an agricultural district. To 
this end nature has favored the people here, for the soil, a shale and 
clay loam, is good and yields well in return to proper cultivation. The 
lands are especially adapted to grazing and the growth of hay, hence 
here we have an important dairy town in this part of the county ; and 
the village of Canisteo and the city of Hornellsville are always good 
markets. 

According to conceded authority, the first events of town history in 
Hartsville were these: the first birth, that of Sarah A. Carpenter; the 
first marriage, that of Robert G. Martin and Mary A. Gleason ; the first 
death, that of an infant child of Ebenezer Martin, all in 1823. The first 
school was taught by the daughter of Joseph Purdy. Daniel P. Car- 
penter opened a store in 1825, and built the first saw mill in 1827. 
Robert G. Martin built a mill, where the recent Allison mill stood, in 
1832, and soon afterward William Allison built another. R. F. Allison 
put in the first steam power in the town. The first tavern keeper was 
Henry Frisbee, 1849; the second, Joseph Henry, in 1851. The town 
was organized in 1844, and in 1845 had a population 759, or just 
twenty- three less than the population as shown by the census of 1892. 
The greatest number of inhabitants was in i860, being 1 154. 

Hartsville was so named in honor of Charles N. Hart, for many years 
one of its foremost men and identified with its best history. The first 
town meeting was held in February, 1844, and the officers elected were 
Charles N. Hart, supervisor; Erastus S. Beard, town clerk; James 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 113 

Beard, Jonathan Pettibone and Elizur Sage, assessors ; Silas Palmater, 
Jonathan B. Purdy, Reuben W. Willard and Henry Acker, justices of 
the peace ; Israel Adams, Edmund Cook and Levi C. Henry, highway 
commissioners. 

The supervisors of Hartsville, in succession, have been as follows : 
Charles N. Hart. 1844-45; James Beard, 1846-47; Edmund Cook, 
1848-49; Erastus Beard, 1850; Francis Kennedy, 1850-51; James 
Beard, 1852-53; E. Cook, 1854; Jas Beard, 1855; C. C. Purdy, 
1856; Jas. M. Cook, 1857-58; Shepard Amidon, 1859-60; Richard 
F. Allison, 1861-66; Silas Palmer, 1867 ; R. F. Allison, 1868 ; Lyman 
A. Cook, 1869-70; R. F. Allison, 1871-72; James A Almy, 1873; 
Joseph Vickers, 1874-75; James B. Hendee, 1876-77; Langford 
Whitford, 1878; Milo M. Acker, 1879-80; James A. Almy, 1881-82; 
Charles Amidon, 1883 ; Jacob Vickers, 1884-85; S. B. Van Buskirk, 
1886; Wm. Clark, 1887-88; Wm. C. Acker, 1889-90; N. P. Flint, 
1891-92 ; Wm. C. Acker, 1893-95. 

The officers for the year 1895 are as follows: William C. Acker, 
supervisor ; Floyd E. Carney, town clerk ; Aaron Kennedy, R. Clark, 
Scott Van Buskirk and M. S. Amidon, justices of the peace; James A. 
Almy, Fremont Hendy and W. A. Vickers, assessors ; J. W. Norton, 
highway commissioner; M. D. Westcott, collector; Leroy Johnson, 
overseer of the poor ; Alexander Todd, Eli Woodworth and Charles 
Comstock, commissioners of excise. 

The martial spirit with which Captain John Hood inspired his citizen 
soldiers during the good old days of general training seems to have 
been enduring and to have awakened a spirit of patriotism truly com- 
mendable, for we find that during the war of 1861-65 the town of Harts- 
ville contributed a liberal quota of men. They were attached to several 
regiments formed in the county, and a more complete record of their 
services will be found in another chapter. 

When first formed from Hornellsville the schools of this town were a 
part of the system then in operation, but after the separation was re- 
arranged in districts to suit the convenience of the inhabitants. The 
districts were nine in number, each provided with a school. As at 
present arranged Hartsville has eight districts, and the total number of 
children in the town of school age is about 225. Eight teachers are 

15 



114 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

employed during the school year. The value of school property is 
$3,190, and the assessed valuation of the districts is $251,535. In 
1893-94 the town received from the public school funds the sum of 
$907.26, and raised by local tax $1,027.67. 

Hornby. — About the closing years of the war of 1812-15, a few 
families of limited means, yet filled with determination and energy, 
sought to make a settlement in the extreme eastern part of the town of 
Painted Post. Asa and Uriah Nash, former residents of Otsego county, 
came to this region in the year 18 14, and located in township number 
3, of the first range, thus founding what became known in later years 
as the " Nash settlement." This part of the town was then supposed to 
contain much undesirable land, for which reason sales were slow and 
few indeed were the pioneers who cared to undertake its settlement and 
improvement. However, the Nash families began their improvement 
in the north part of the township, and after testing the quality of the 
land it was found wholly desirable, although hilly and rolling. Other, 
settlers soon came in, among those of the year 18 15 being Edward 
Stubbs, Samuel Adams, Ezra Shaw and Jesse Underwood. In the 
same year the " Piatt settlement " was founded in the southwest part of 
the town, the settlers in which locality being Jesse Piatt, John Robbins 
and Amasa Stanton. In 18 16 the "Palmer settlement" was likewise 
established, its pioneers being Aden Palmeir, James Gardner and Ches- 
ter Knowlton. 

In this manner these pioneers, and their followers soon afterward, 
made not only a complete settlement of what is now Hornby, but also 
succeeded in developing the natural resources of a comparatively unde- 
sirable region, making many good farms and comfortable homes. 
This beginning had the effect to attract others to the vicinity, and dur- 
ing the next few years there came Benjamin and Hiram Gardner, Isaac 
Goodell, John St. John, Aaron Harwood, John Sayer and Jacob Good- 
sell with his two stalwart sons Daniel and Henry. Still, these determ- 
ined pioneers had to contend against many diflSculties. Theirs was a 
wild region, the habitation of wild animals of many kinds, some of 
which were particularly destructive to growing crops and yard fowls 
and occasionally to cattle. To exterminate them the settlers devoted 
much time to hunting and from this region has been handed down many 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTV. 115 

famous stories of wonderful achievements on the part of local nimrods. 
However, after the forests were cleared and farms opened the more an- 
noying animals disappeared and only the ordinary obstacles of pioneer 
life were to be overcome. 

Referring still further to the subject of early settlement, let us recall 
the name of pioneer Hodge in the eastern part of the town, and also in the 
same locaHty the later comers, Samuel Lilly, Wm. W. Cole, Martin Lane 
Benjamin Lewis, jr. Other early comers, equally worthy of mention, 
were Theodore Hendrick, John Harrison, Wendall Rhoda, Seneca 
Burnap, Thomas Jewett, Parnach Haradon, Marcus Gaylord, John 
Bixby, Josiah Wheat, Caleb Gardner, William Easterbrook, Jonas Ward, 
Andrew B. Dickinson, Henry Gardner, all of whom were settled 
previous to the division of Painted Post and the formation of Hornby. 
This was done in 1826, the original town comprising all that is now 
Hornby and Campbell, the latter being set off from the former in 1831, 
taking half its territory. As then and since constituted, Hornby con- 
taining 25,200 acres of land, an excess over the thirt)'-six square miles 
supposed to be included in township 3, range I. 

In 1830, four years after the organization of Hornby, the inhabitants 
of the district numbered 1,365, and in 1840, Campbell having been 
formed in the meantime, the population was 1,048. In 1850 the num- 
ber was 1,314; in i860 was 1,291; in 1870 was 1,202; in 1880 was 
1,209, and in 1890 was 1, 01 1. Thus we discover that in more recent 
years this town, in common with other similarly situated localities, has 
suffered a material reduction in population, owing to the same causes 
prevailing elsewhere — the decline in interest and profit in agricultural 
pursuits and the tendency of the young people of both sexes to seek 
employment in cities and large villages. 

The first election of town officers in Hornby was held at the tavern 
kept by Mr. Shaw, also at Knowlton's and Dickinson's stores, and is 
remembered as covering a period of about three days. This was in 
1826. The officers elected were Andrew B. Dickinson, supervisor; 
Josiah Wheat, town clerk ; Hiram Gardner, collector ; Alonzo Gaylord, 
Milo Hurd and Jonathan Fellows, justices of the peace ; Amasa Stan- 
ton, commissioner of highways ; Hiram Gardner, constable. A more 
complete list of first town officers is impossible owing to the imperfect 
condition of records. 



116 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The supervisors of Hornby, in succession, have been as follows: An- 
drew B. Dickinson, 1826; Rice Nash, 1827; A. B. Dickinson, 1828- 
29; Daniel Clark, 1830-31; A. B. Dickinson, 1832-37; W. H. Gay- 
lord, 1838; Amasa Stanton, 1839-41 ; David Smith, 1842-44; Flavel 
W. Morrow, 1845; Peter Rhoda, 1846-47; Willis H. Gaylord, 1848; 
F. W. Morrow, 1849; John T. Stanton, 1850; Peter Covenhoven, 
1851-52; John T. Stanton, 1853; F. W. Morrow, 1854; Wm. A. 
Armstrong, 1855; F.W.Morrow, 1856-58; George Adams, 1859-60; 
N. B. Stanton, 1861-64; J. H Ferenbaugh, 1865 ; Asem Eddy, 1866- 
6"] ; James B. Humphrey. 1868; Samuel Easterbrook, 1869-70; J. H. 
Ferenbaugh, 1871-73; Samuel Easterbrook, 1874-75; Samuel C 
Erwin, 1876-77; Alfred Roloson, 1878-81; Thomas Oldfield, 1882- 
83 ; Daniel Rogers, 1884-85 ; Albert Duvall, 1886-87; Thomas Old- 
field, 1888; J. H. Ferenbaugh, 1889; J. A. Stanton, 1890-92; E. J. 
Easterbrook, 1S93-95. 

The officers for the year 1895 are as follows: E. J. Easterbrooks, 
supervisor ; C. C. Roloson, town clerk ; W. J. Underwood, H. D. L. 
Adams, F. L. Rogers and W. S. Lilly, justices of the peace; Oren 
Roloson, W. J. Wasson and P. B. Humphrey, assessors ; James E. 
Armstrong, highway commissioner ; John D. Scott, overseer of the 
poor ; James McCarty, collector. 

During the first fifteen years of civilized white settlement and life in 
Hornby, the inhabitants had little else to distract attention than their 
constant efforts to exterminate the wild animals then infesting the 
region. This people were not subject to the embarrassing incidents of 
the war of 18 12-15, nor were there troublesome Indian neighbors to 
add to the difficulties attending pioneer life. However, only four short 
years after the organization was effected there came the anti-rent or land 
controversy, the first serious period in local history ; yet even this had 
not the distressing effect felt in many localities as the lands here were 
purchased at moderate prices, and only the difficulties of realizing ready 
cash on sales of crops confronted or annoyed the settlers. In all the 
events of the time local residents took a deep interest and some of them 
an active part. Meetings were held and the subject thoroughly dis- 
cussed, and its result was a delegation to the Bath convention in Janu- 
ary, 1830, attended by Isaac Goodsell, Samuel Oldfield, Josiah Wheat, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 117 

Francis Northway and Levi Nash. Delegate Goodsell served on the 
committee appointed to petition the agents of the Pulteney and Hornby 
estates, and in all respects was a worthy and competent representative. 
This town was named in respectful allusion to John Hornby, who was 
an extensive land owner in tfie Genesee country; in fact was the holder 
of a two twelfths interest in the noted Pulteney association. 

After this period had passed nothing noteworthy occurred to disturb 
the serenity of domestic life until the outbreak of the war of the Rebel- 
lion, during which period the town is credited with having furnished 
for the service a total of fifty- one men. These were scattered through 
the several commands recruited in the county, and a more full narration 
of their services will be found in another chapter of this work. 

The one event which more than all others has contributed to the 
welfare of Hornby was the construction and operation of the Syracuse, 
Geneva and Corning railroad, the line of which passes across the south- 
east part of the town. The company was chartered August 27, 1875, 
and was opened for traffic December 10, 1877. The entire town is 
benefited by this thoroughfare of trade, and to it the little hamlet called 
Ferenbaugh almost owes its existence. 

The mention of this post-office and station leads to the observation 
that Hornby has three settled hamlets, established for the convenience of 
the inhabitants of the town. They are designated by the names of 
Hornby, or Hornbj' Forks, Dyke, and Ferenbaugh. Of these Hornby 
Forks is perhaps the largest. Each has a post-office. The hamlet first 
mentioned has a good school and the Baptist and Presbyterian churches. 
Dyke has a school and a Wesleyan Methodist church. 

Speaking of schools recalls the fact that the first school in this town 
was taught by Jane C. Leach in the days of early history, while another 
early teacher was Alonzo Gaylord. Soon after the formation of the 
town in 1826, the territory was divided into districts, but five years 
later, after Campbell was set off, redistricting became necessary. Since 
that time only such changes have been made as the public convenience 
demanded. The districts are now twelve in number, and the school 
property is estimated to be worth $5,300. The school population is 
about23S. In 1894 the public moneys apportioned to Hornby amounted 
to $1,354.40, and there was raised by local tax the additional sum of 
$1,429.14. 



118 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

HoRNELLSVlLLE. — In the early part of the year 1789 Solomon 
Bennett, Capt. John Jamison, Benjamin Crosby, Uriah Stephens, and 
possibly Elisha Brown, left the Wyoming valley in Pennsylvania and 
proceeded by way of the Susquehanna and Chemung Rivers to visit the 
Phelps and Gorham purchase, for the purpose of investigating the 
character of the region, with the ultimate intention of making for them- 
selves and their families permanent homes in the new country. On 
reaching the historic locality known as Painted Post, the party journeyed 
up the Conhocton several miles, but not finding the lands suited to their 
desires, returned, and next proceeded up the valley of the Canisteo to 
the present town of Hornellsville. In this vicinity a careful examination 
of the lands was made, and here the party decided to purchase and es- 
tablish a settlement. 

Accordingly, a company was organized, comprising Solomon Bennett, 
Elisha Brown, James Hadley, John Jamison, Arthur Erwin, Uriah 
Stephens, jr., Joel Thomas, Christian Kress, John Stephens, William 
Bennett, Uriah Stephens, sr., and William Wynkoop. Solomon Bennett 
and Elisha Brown were delegated to visit Oliver Phelps at Canandaigua 
and purchase from the proprietary two townships — No. 3 in the Sth 
range and No. 4 in the 6th range, but through an error they in fact pur- 
chased townships numbers 3 in the 5th and 6th ranges, and the mistake 
was not discovered until after some improvements had been made in the 
township first mentioned; and when the company applied to Mr. Phelps 
for a correction of the error that shrewd proprietor made a new con- 
veyance onlj' after taking from the north side of number 4, range 6, 
a strip of land one mile in width. The corrected deed was executed on 
the 17th day of September, 1790. We may further state by way of ex- 
planation that township 3 of the 5th range comprises substantially the 
present town of Canisteo, while number 4 of the 6th range in the same 
manner constitutes the division of the county now known as Hornells- 
ville, although now within its boundaries are included portions of other 
townships. 

As constituted by this conveyance the town last mentioned was six 
miles from east to west, and five miles north and south. However, 
since its organization as a separate town (April i, 1820), Hornellsville 
has surrendered portions of her territory to other formations ; Harts- 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 119 

ville was taken off in 1844, and a part of Fremont in 1854, Hornells- 
ville, within its present boundaries, contains 26,200 acres of land. 

The new proprietors, immediately after their purchase, proceeded to 
draw lots for lands in the township, which for this purpose was divided 
into twelve parts. This disposition of the lands (which now would 
be quite novel, but was then common) resulted in James Hadley secur- 
ing Lot No. I ; John Jamison (or Jemingsen), No. 2 ; Arthur Er- 
win. No. 3; Christian Kress, No. 4; Joel Thomas, No. 5; Uriah 
Stephens, jr., No. 6; John Stephens, No. 7; William Wynkoop, No. 
8 ; Uriah Stephens, sr.. No. 9; Thomas Bennett, No. 10; Elisha Brown, 
No. II ; Solomon Bennett, No. 12. 

The pioneer and early settlement of this town was accomplished while 
the territory formed a part of the still older town of Canisteo, and for 
the purpose of designation, the region of which we write was known as 
"Upper Canisteo;" a name which was in fact continued until the 
separate organization of the town of Hornellsville. 

There has long existed a difference of opinion among writers of early 
local history as to the year in which the first permanent settlement was 
made in this town, and according to the reminiscences of Deacon 
Mowry Thatcher, of honored memory, the date may be recorded as 
1790 instead of 1793 ; and drawing information from all reliable sources, 
the present writer feels bound to accord the honor of pioneership to 
Benjamin Crosby, who, in the year 1790, located on the site of the 
present city of Hornellsville. His lands comprised 1,600 acres, and his 
dwelling is believed to have stood where now is built the Hotel Osborne. 
Richard Crosby, son of the pioneer, came at the same time, and his 
house was located near the creek, just north of the Mr. Hough's, on 
Maple avenue. 

Oliver Harding is believed to have been the second settler, following 
soon after pioneer Crosby, and located between Main and Genesee 
streets, near Hakes avenue. He was the nearest neighbor to Mr. 
Crosby. Later on he moved to Harding Hill, in Fremont. The 
Stephens family was also prominent among the pioneers, Uriah, sr., 
being the head, although Uriah, jr., attained greater prominence in local 
history. His name is still well preserved in the county. 

"On July 9th, 1793," says Mr. Near, "John Stephens, who drew 



120 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

great lot No. 7, conveyed this lot, containing 1,600 acres, to George 
Hornell, for a consideration of ;£'i 1 1." From the same authority we 
also learn that Judge Hornell built the first mill on the site afterward 
occupied by the Thacher mill, being the first grist mill west of Elmira, 
except the Bennett mill at Canisteo. According to the researches of 
Miles W. Hawley, Mr. Hornell had previously visited this region in the 
capacity of trader among the Indians, and thus became acquainted with 
the locality in which he permanently settled in 1792, although he did 
not purchase the Stephens lot until the next year. Judge Hornell, as 
afterward known, made a small clearing at the upper end of Main 
street, near the intersection with Washington street. In 1800 he built 
the first tavern in either town or village, and by his enterprise and 
public spiritedness almost at once became the leading man of the upper 
Canisteo region. He was identified with many measures which bene- 
fited the public rather than himself, hence the honors that were after- 
ward bestowed upon him were worthily deserved. The town, the 
village, and the present city of Hornellsville have been successively 
named in his honor. He was one of the early associate judges of the 
county, also one of the first postmasters, and was in the Legislature in 
1808. Judge Hornell died during the fever epidemic of 1813, which 
swept so disastrously throughout this region. 

These were the earliest settlers in the town, and in fact the Crosbys, 
Hardings, Stephens and Hornells were about the only settlers previous 
to 1 8 10 on what is now the city site. However, in the upper part of 
the valley the lands were taken quite early, and from Mr. Hawley's 
papers we learn that Judge Hurlbut and his son John located at Ark- 
port as early as 1797, and made improvements. Among the other 
settlers in the same locality were Nathan Corey, Stephen Webb, Joel 
Atherton, Joseph Corey, while later comers were William Hyde, Elias 
Van Scoter, Julius Cleveland, Captain Abbott, John P. Ryers, John 
Pitts, Silas Stephens, Willis Hyde, William Sharp, Capt. Andrew Morris 
and others. 

Arkport became a place of some note at an early day, due largely to 
the eff'orts of Judge Hurlbut, who built a public house in 1798, a saw- 
mill and storehouse in 1800, and in the same year launched the famous 
" ark " on the waters of the Canisteo, and transported the first cargo 




J. H. KEELER. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 121 

of grain from this region to Baltimore. Referring to the other early 
settlers in the town, we may mention Nathaniel Thacher, father of 
Deacon Mowry Thacher, who came from Troupsburg in 1810 and set- 
tled a mile below the village site, near the Arnot grist mill. He was 
also a strong man in the new region, and was frequently elected to 
positions of trust and honor. Deacon Thacher was only a boy when 
his father moved into the valley, and possessed the fortunate faculty of 
retaining early memories of the town, and from his reminiscences have 
come many of the most interesting facts of local history. Still other 
and perhaps later settlers, worthy, however, of mention were Dugald 
Cameron, John R. Stephens, Medad Bostwick, Andy L. Smith, James 
Dildine, Martin Adsit, William O'Connor, Jonathan Nicholson, Orson 
Sheldon, Abram Cadogan, Jesse Eddy, John Peak, Nathaniel Finch, 
Rufus Tuttle and Peter Labour, all of whom were in some manner 
identified with the development and growth of the town more than half 
a century ago. 

Settlement on the hills which abound in the town was naturally de- 
layed to a time later than the occupation of the valleys. In the locality 
known as Wellever Hill, near the Hartsville line, the first settler was 
Mr. Cahran, followed later pn by David Wellever,' Andrew Hender- 
shott, Samuel Hathaway, Peter Best, John Meeks and James Spencer. 
Alanson Stephens made a clearing on the hill overlooking the city. In 
the Crosby Creek neighborhood the first settlers were Leonard Drake, 
Jerry Davis, William D. Burdick, Richard Peterson, Samuel and Thomas 
Burnett, Asa Whitford, Isaiah Bartlett and Elisha Potter. Among the 
first occupants of the region of Pennsylvania Hill were James Dildine, 
James McMichael, William Emery, A. Sutton, Daniel Sutton, Ira Hyde 
and Gilbert Wright. The well known Webb district was settled by 
Col. John R. Stephens, Stephen Webb and Bazey Baker. Matthias 
Reed was the first settler in the Winfield neighborhood, where the Win- 
fields, Clevelands, Burches, Belts, Keefers and Newsons afterwards 
located. On the turnpike road between this town and Bath, Major 
Burnett made a settlement in 1808, and later on there came here John 
Beattie, Jonathan Nicholson, Dudley Robinson, WiUiam R, Stephens, 
Samuel Jones, Henry Chapman, Nathaniel Finch, Nathan Osborne and 
others. 

16 



122 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The first birth in the town is said to have been that of William 
Stephens, in December, 1792 ; the first marriage, that of Reuben Crosby 
and Jenny McQueen, in 1799; and the first death, that of a child of 
Judge Hornell. The judge built the first saw and grist mill, kept the 
first public house, and also the first store. The first school was taught 
by Abigail Hurlbut in 1796. 

Early settlement in this part of the Canisteo valley was somewhat 
slow, as the census reports inform us that in 1800 the entire town had 
only 510 inhabitants, in 1810 but 656, and in 1820 the number was 
891. However, the inhabitants of the Upper Canisteo country felt the 
necessity of a separate jurisdiction, and accordingly had recourse to the 
Legislature, and the result was the creation of a new town named Hor- 
nellsville, a tribute of respect to the memory of one of the foremost men 
of the region. The erecting act was passed April i, 1820, and within 
the limits of the new formation was all the territory of the present town 
of Hornellsville, together with Hartsville and a portion of premont. 
The former was separated from this town in 1844, and the latter ten 
years later. 

The full organization was completed at a meeting of the freemen held 
at the house of Martha Hornell, widow of the pioneer, on the first Tues- 
day in March, 1821, at which time these oflScers were elected: Ira 
Davenport, supervisor ; John R. Stephens, town clerk ; John Hurlbut, 
George Hornell and James Harding, assessors ; William B. Bostwick, 
collector; Elijah Stephens and Stephen Webb, overseers of the poor; 
Stephen Coon, Asa Upton and Samuel Harding, highway commis- 
sioners ; Christopher Hurlbut, Arvin Kennedy and George Hornell, in- 
spectors of schools ; James Taggart, William Stephens and Amos Graves, 
commissioners of common schools ; WiUiam B. Bostwick, David Whit- 
ney and William Webb, constables ; Amasa Thacher, Justus Harding 
and William Stephens, jr., fence viewers. 

Having become fully organized, the authorities of the town, acting in 
harmony with the leading inhabitants, at once set about the develop- 
ment of all local interests, establishing a prosperous condition of affairs 
on every hand as the best and strongest inducement to attract other 
settlers. The result was an immediate and thenceforth constant growth 
in population and business interests, and whereas the entire jurisdiction 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 123 

of Canisteo had a population of 891 in 1820, the town of Hornellsville 
contained 834 inhabitants in 1825. In 1830 the number had increased 
to 1.572, and ten years later to 2,121. In 1850 the population was 
2,637, and 4,230 in i860, despite the fact that during the last two dec- 
ades one full town and a portion of another had been formed from 
the territory of this town. Again, in 1870 the census gave Hornells- 
ville a population of 5,837, and in 1880 of 9,852. During the next 
decade, in 1888, the city was entirely separated from the mother town, 
taking therefrom nearly 10,000 of her inhabitants; still, in 1890, the 
town had a population of 1,939. Including the population of the city, 
which lies wholly within the geographical limits of the town, the num- 
ber of inhabitants now living in the joint districts is conservatively 
estimated at 14,000. 

The history of the city, from the time when pioneers Crosby, Hard- 
ing, Hornell and their early associates made the first improvement, 
forms an interesting element of the history of the town at large; yet, 
according to the plan of this work, they are separated and each is made 
the subject of a distinct chapter. The busy little hamlet of Arkport 
will also be found mentioned in another part of this volume. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the succession of leading 
officers of the town ; that is, the supervisors, town clerks and justices of 
the peace. 

Supervisors. — Ira Davenport, 1821-22 ; John R. Stephens, 1823-25 ; 
Thomas Bennett, 1826-27; James McBurney, 1828-31 ; James Dyke, 
1832-33; James McBurney, 1834-35; Ir^ Davenport, 1836-39; Hugh 
Magee, 1840-41 ; John R. Morris, 1842-44; Thomas Major, 1845-47; 
Martin Adsit, 1848 ; Aaron Morris, 1849-50; Elisha G. Stevens, 1851- 
52 ; Wm. Bennett, 1853-54; Lewis D. Benton, 1855 ; Marcus E. Brown, 
1856-57; Alanson Stephens, 1858-59; Philip Van Scoter, 1860-61 ; J. 
H. Stephens, jr., 1862-64; John A. Major, 1865-66; Chas. F. Smith, 
1867 ; J. W. Robinson, 1868; Arza P. Breeze, 1869; John McDougall, 
1870-72; Walter G. Rose, 1873-74; Miles W. Hawley, 1875-77; S. 
E. Shattuck, 1878; Samuel Mitchell, 1879; Esek Page, 1880-82; J. 
William Nicholson, 1883 ; M. W. Hawley, 1884; Walter G. Rose, 1885 ; 
George Holland, 1886; Avery McDougall, 1887; Miles W. Hawley, 
1888; Henry Colgrove, 1889; L. C. Healy, 1 890; Henry Colgrove, 
1891 ; L. C. Healy, 1892; William S. Hurlbut, 1893-95. 



124 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Town Clerks. — John R. Stephens, 1821-22 ; George Hornell, 1823 ; 
Samuel Thacher, 1824; WiUiam Stephens, jr., 1825; Otis Thacher, 
1826-28; Augustus Newell, 1829; Thomas Bennett, 1830; John 
Morris, 1831 ; Jno. R. Morris, 1832; Thomas J. Reynolds, 1833; 
Martin Adsit, 1834-39; Charles Lefferts, 1840; Andy L. Smith, jr., 
1841 ; Hiram Bennett, 1842-44; Rufus Tuttle, 1845 ; Andy L. Smith, 
jr., 1846 ; Rufus Tuttle, 1847 ; Daniel Bullard, 1848 ; William H. Doty, 
1849; Nath. Blakesley, 1850-52; Marcus E. Brown, 1853-55; Chas. 
E.Baldwin, 1856; Nathan Nichols, 1857; Miles W. Hawley, 1858; 
Theo. Badger, 1859; Nathan Nichols, i860; Joseph Lanphear, 1861 ; 
C. C. Reynolds, 1862; Elmon D. Smith, 1863; Peter P. Houck, 1864; 
M. W. Hawley, 1865-72; Wm. H. Greenhow, 1873-77; Joseph Cam- 
eron, 1880; Niles L. Harrison, 1881 ; Wm. H. Reynolds, 1882-83; 
Jos. Cameron, 1884-86; Harris C. Sawyer, 1887-88; Julius Weber, 
1889-90; Wm. Ford, 1891-92; James F. Deeter, 1893-95. 

Justices of the Peace, (elected). — John Pitts, Jabez Lanphear, 1830; 
Jno. R. Stephens, 1831 ; Ephraim Wood, 1832 ; Chas. N. Hart, 1833 and 
37; Jno. Baldwin, 1834 and 38 ; Stephen Abbott, 1835 ; Dexter Strait, 
1836; Jno. Pitts, 1838-39,1844; David Crandall, 1839 and 40; Chas. 
Lefferts, 1841 ; Elisha G. Stephens, 1842 ; Israel Adams, 1842 ; Sid- 
ney Frisbie, 1843; Nathaniel Finch, 1844, 1848 and 1849; Hiram 
Bennett, 1845, 1850, '54, '61 and '65; Benj. T. Hoyes, 1846; Ethan 
Coats, 1847; Andrew Morris, 1847-51 ; John Hurlbut, 1848, '56, '60: 
Wm. E. Haight, 1852; James Atley, 1853; Jno. M. Wisewell, 1857; 
Homer Holliday, 1855, '59, '63, '68 and '73 ; Richard C. Major, 1858 ; 
Wm. W. Osgoodby, 1862; James McWoolever, 1864; F. Colgrove, 
1865; S. M. Thacher, 1866; S. D. Pitts, 1866; Stephen F. Gilbert, 
1867; Rodney Dennis and Henry Howard, 1869; Chas. E. Beard, 
1870, '74; H. F. Howard, 1871, '75, '79, '83; Martin V. Doty, 1872; 
Orson Mosher, 1876; Edwin J. Cox, 1877; Henry L. Walker, 1878- 
79; Fay P. Rathbun, 1870; John Griffin, 1880; Wm. E. Haight, 
1882; Irving Paine, J884; James H. Clancy, 1885 ; Lot Reznor, 1886; 
Warren W. Oxx, 1887; Frank Kelley, 1888; Chas. P. Emery, 1889; 
M. A. Emery and D. C. Hopkins, 1890; W. E. Ellis and D. L. 
Dungan, 1891 ; J. L. Kellison, 1892; Norman Bennett, 1893; Chester 
Halbert and A. A. Sewell, 1894; W. E. Ellis, 1895. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 125 

Present Town Officers (1895). — William S. Hurlbut, supervisor; 
James F. Deeter, town clerk ; Wells E. Ellis, Chester Halbert, J. L. 
Kellison and Adelbert A. Sewell, justices; Nelson Ayres, Thomas 
Burris and Henry Colegrove, assessors ; Austin C. Hill, overseer of the 
poor; John W. Wood, collector; Lot Reznor, highway commissioner; 
Henry Lovee, Hiram Ellis and Frank Waddington, excise commission- 
ers. 

The civil history of the town of Hornellsville, from first to last, forms 
an interesting and instructive chapter in the annals of Steuben county. 
The pioneers of this special region had to contend with the same ob- 
stacles and the same discouragements as did those of other localities, 
and the lands here were not more inviting than in other parts of the 
Canisteo valley. The first comers found a few patches of cleared land 
and the Indians were still occupants of the soil. Within the present 
boundaries of the town were several places where stood the rude hab- 
itations of the red man, and while the latter were not hostile, they were 
never particularly friendly, and yielded to the advances of civilization 
with ill-disguised feelings of reluctance. During the war of 1812, the 
remaining Indians were regarded with distrust and apprehension by the 
settlers, as it was feared they might again return to their old alliance 
with the British. However, after the danger of an outbreak had passed, 
the arts of peace engaged the undivided attention of the inhabitants, 
farms were cleared, new lands were developed, and an era of pros- 
perity prevailed on every hand. 

Preceding and during the period of the so-called Anti-rent Con- 
flict, the public mind was much interested, but as the Pulteney and 
Hornby associations had no interests in this town the people here for- 
tunately escaped the embarrassments caused by it. In fact the dis- 
turbed condition of affairs elsewhere had the effect of attracting settle- 
ment to this town, and during the five years between 1825 and 1830, the 
population of Hornellsville was nearly doubled. 

The one great event which above all others contributed to the pro- 
motion of local interests, was the construction of the New York and 
Erie railroad. The preliminary surveys were made by De Witt Clin- 
ton in 1832, and the company was organized in 1833. The first work 
of construction in this town was done in 1841, though nearly ten years 



126 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

elapsed before the road was in operation. On Sunday, September i, 
1850, the first train of cars was run into Hornellsville. The road was 
completed to Dunkirk, May 14, 185 I, With this great consummation 
the prosperity of the town was assured, and later railway interests only 
added to the general welfare. With soil that yields profitably in return 
to proper cultivation, it is only in the natural course of events that 
Hornellsville ranks well among the agricultural towns of the county ; 
and in the production of potatoes, as a special interest, the locality is 
unsurpassed. 

The military record of the town is one in which the whole people feel 
just and pardonable pride. With a population of 4,230 in i860, we 
find credited to the town during the period of the war a total of almost 
425 men in all branches of the service. In a preceding chapter of this 
volume special reference is made to the various companies and regi- 
ments to which this town contributed, and the memory of the volun- 
teers is kept alive in the hearts of every patriotic citizen of the town by 
the monuments erected in their honor. 

Howard. — On the i8th of June, in the year 1 812, the towns of 
Bath and Dansville surrendered portions of their territory to a new 
formation called Howard. However, it was not long before the new 
creation was itself called upon to yield a part of its area to still later 
subdivisions, as it contributed to Avoca in 1843, '"^^ to Fremont in 
1854. Thus remaining, and as at pres.ent constituted, Howard contains 
34,900 acres of land, all devoted to the peaceful arts of agriculture and 
kindred pursuits. It is an interior town, lying west of the shire town, 
and its surface is chiefly a rolling upland, forming a part of the ridge 
which divides the Conhocton and Canisteo rivers. The streams are 
small, and in the northeast part are two small ponds. 

The claim has been made by recent and reliable authorities that the 
first settler in this town was one Hovey, who made a clearing of a few 
acres and then abandoned the field. His improvement, it is also said, 
was taken in 1805 by Mr. Travis and his family, and the latter were in 
fact the pioneers of the town. However, other authorities assert that 
the pioneer was Abraham Johnson, who located in the vicinity of 
Towlesville in 1806. Charles McConnell was about the next settler, 
and located on what afterwards became known as the Alkali Bennett 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 127 

farm. At that time Asa McConnell, son of Charles, was only seven 
years old, and he grew up in the town and afterward rose by his own 
efforts to a position of importance in Hornellsville and the county ; and 
his sons are among the foremost business men of that enterprising city. 

From this time on settlement increased rapidly, and within the next 
few years there came and located in various parts of the town Samuel 
Baker, Reuben and Abram Smith, Joel and Abel Bullard, Daniel N. 
and Jacob Bennett. Job Rathbun, and his three brothers, all, it is be- 
lieved, during the year 1809. In 1 810 William Allen, John Hoagland, 
and Daniel Smith joined the settlement, and Israel Baldwin came in 
181 1. Russell Burlison came in 1812. In this year the town was set 
off and given a separate organization, at which time pioneership had 
virtually ceased. Still, among the prominent later comers were Jonas 
and Seth Rice, Benjamin, Thomas and Isaac Bennett, Jonathan Ketchum 
Hamilton Parkhill, John Stephenson, David Walker, Andrew Baker, 
George and James Stewart, Richard Towle, Reuben Hammond, 
Isaac Brasted, Joseph Lam, Oliver Parkhill, R. F. Ferris, Simeon Baker, 
David Rathbun, Jabes Beebe, and others perhaps equally worthy of 
mention, but whose names are lost with the lapse of years. 

Jonathan Ketchum built the first framed hotel in the town, and soon 
afterward put up a small tannery. The first tavern was built of logs, 
by Isaac Bennett, and the second by Benjamin Bennett. Randall and 
Calvin Graves built the first store, and this was the only industry of its 
kind in Howard until Calvin Whitwood settled there, in 1831. He was 
succeeded by James and George Alley, and the latter became success- 
ful merchants and were also owners of a grist mill east of the village. 
They soon left the town and were succeeded by Aaron McConnell, 
also a successful merchant. 

From what has been noted it will be seen that the lands of Howard 
were settled at a comparatively early day, and by a class of men who 
were in every sense thrifty and progressive. In this respect we make 
no new disclosure, for this town has always been noted for the substan- 
tial character of its men as well as its institutions. Occupying a some- 
what remote locality from the established trading centers, and possess- 
ing no suitable facilities for manufacturing enterprises, the inhabitants 
of Howard have necessarily been farmers, and to this pursuit have bent 



128 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

their untiring energies ; and to-day the result of early thrift and indus- 
try is apparent, for here are found some of the best farmers in Steuben 
county. 

When set off in i8i2 the population of the new district was hardly 
more than 300, and in 1814 the exact number of inhabitants was 366. 
In 1820 it was 1,140, and in 1830 was 2,464. Ten years later the 
maximum population was reached, being 3,247 in 1840, and 3,244 in 
1850. In i860 the number was 2,746, and 2,122 in 1870. The num- 
ber in 1880 was 2,131, and in 1890 was 1,938. According to the count 
of 1892, Howard had 1,885 inhabitants. 

The first town meeting in Howard was held in April, 18 13, at the 
house of Simeon Bacon, at which time a complete board of officers was 
elected. However, the records of this town, previous to 1823, have 
been lost or destroyed, in consequence of which the list of first town 
officers cannot be furnished. The present officers (1895) are as follows : 
D. Ray Bennett, supervisor ; Frank H. Sharp, town clerk ; Joseph 
Miller, A. L. Cole and A. H. Baldwin, justices of the peace; L.J. 
Franklin, Thomas Coots and James Crozier, assessors ; A. W. Barton, 
collector; Calvin Bullock, highway commissioner; John A. Drake, 
overseer of the poor ; Alexander McChesney, Martin Higgins and J. 
W. Carr, excise commissioners. 

The supervisors of Howard since 1823, have been as follows: Israel 
Baldwin, 1823; Daniel N. Bennett, 1824-25; Wm. Goff", 1826-27; 
Green Hern, 1828-29; Daniel N. Bennett, 1830-31; H. N. Rathbun, 
1832; John VV. Whiting. 1833-34; William Goff", 1835-36; Issachar 
Goodrich, 1837; C. E. Belden, 1838-39; James Alley, 1840-42; Asa 
McConnell, 1843; John Hamilton, 1844-45; D.N.Bennett, 1846-47; 
Joseph I. Burnham, 1848; Ira Lane, 1849-50; Ansel House, 1851; 
Alkali Bennett, 1852-53; Ansel House, 1854; Moses S. Bennett, 
1855-56; Alonzo Graves, 1857-58; Ansel House, 1859; Alkali Ben- 
nett, 1860-61 ; A. T. Parkhill, 1862-63 ; John F. Shaver, 1864; Alkali 
Bennett, 1865-66; A. M.Cole, 1867; Alkali Bennett, 1868; Aaron 
McConnell, 1869-71 ; John G. Shaip, 1872-73 ; Josiah House, 1874-75; 
J. C. Hoagland, 1876-77; George Bennett, 1878; William H. Willis, 
1879-80; Andrew Sharp, 1881-82; O. F. Bennett, 188*3-84; Alonzo 
Van Wie, 1885-87; A, U. Brown, 1888; R. F. Parkhill, 1889-91; E. 
L. Stewart, 1892-93; D, Ray Bennett, 1894-95. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 15 

Among the early residents in the east and southeast part of this tow 
was a considerable colony of Irish Presbyterians ; good, strong, earnes 
and active men and women, who have devoted themselves to agricuj 
tural pursuits, and many of whom have built up fine farms. This tow 
and its people was peculiarly affected by the disturbances of the anti 
rent period, and, lying next west of the shire-town of the county, ther 
was perhaps a more active participation in public events than was show; 
in localities more remote. The delegates from Howard in the Batl 
convention were Daniel N. Bennett, who at the time was supervisoi 
Byram L. Harlow, William Goff, John D. Collier and Jacob G. Winne 

During the period of the war of 1861-65, this town raised for bounties 
and for the purpose of recruiting troops for theservice,a total of $3,021.72 
and in addition to this the county raised, upon the credit of the town 
the sum of $42,450. So near as can be ascertained the town furnishec 
about 160 men for service during the war. 

According to local tradition the first school in the town was openei 
about the year 181 5 in the little log school house standing near th 
residence of Aaron McConnell. About the same time another schoc 
was started at Howard Flats, and still a third in Towlesville. Abou 
1820 the town was first divided into districts and provision made for 
school in each. In the principal village an academy was founded an 
built in 1835. It was an excellent institution, well equipped and sup 
plied with an efficient corps of instructors. However worthy may hav 
been this enterprise it finally met the fate that fell upon many simila 
schools and it was therefore discontinued. 

As at present constituted Howard has seventeen school districts, eac! 
provided with a comfortable school house. . The total value of schoc 
property in the town is estimated at $9,420. During the school yea 
1893-4, the town received of public moneys $2,081, and raised b; 
local tax $1,929.58. Forty-two trees wo"? planted by pupils in 1894 
17 



130 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Jasper. — On the 24th of January, 1827, all that part of the towns of 
Canisteo and Troupsburg which were included in township 2, range 5, 
of the Phelps and Gorham purchase, were erected into a separate town, 
and named Jasper, in honorable allusion to Sergeant Jasper, whose 
courageous conduct at the battle of Fort Moultrie, S. C, June 28, 1776, 
received public commendation. However, in 1848 a strip of land half 
a mile in width was taken from this town and annexed to Greenwood. 

Geographically, Jasper is located in the southwest part of the county, 
and contains 31,300 acres of land. The surface is a hilly and broken 
upland, some of the elevations reaching more than 2,000 feet above 
tide water. The streams are small brooks, and the soil is slaty, gravelly 
and clayey loam. From the hills of Jasper, in years past, there has 
been taken a quality of stone specially adapted to the manufacture of 
grindstones, but remote from the railroads of the county, and from 
commercial centers, the natural resources of this town have never been 
fully developed. Its inhabitants are, and for all time during the period 
of its history have been farmers ; earnest, honest, steady and hardworking 
husbandmen, who, notwithstanding the disadvantages of location and 
the difficulty attending successful cultivation of the land, have succeeded 
in establishing for themselves a satisfactory and even comfortable con- 
dition of affairs, and the town to-day ranks well among the best farm- 
ing sections of the county. 

The settlement of Jasper was begun in 1807, while the territory 
formed a part of the original town of Canisteo. The pioneer seems to 
have been Nicholas Brotzman, sr., or Prutzman, as once known, who 
came from Tioga county. Pa., and penetrated the dense forests that 
bordered on Canisteo River and Tuscarora Creek, until he reached the 
spot where he afterward lived. This pioneer was a German, and was 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY". 131 

perhaps was one of the most persevering of the early settlers in this 
whole region. His cabin was built near Marlatt's Corners of later 
years. Adam Brotzman settled at the Five Corners in 1809, where a 
man named Morley had made an original clearing. The surname 
Brotzman is still represented in the town. 

Andrew Craig, sr., was a settler in this town as early as 18 10, coming 
from Philadelphia. He was land agent for the proprietary and other- 
wise influential and prominent in early local history. From him de- 
scended a large family, some of whom attained positions of trust in the 
county. Mrs. Craig made the first butter which was marketed from 
Jasper, but in much later years this town has become noted for the ex- 
cellence of its dairy product. 

Ebenezer Spencer was another pioneer, coming from Cayuga county, 
though a Connecticut Yankee by birth. He bought 400 acres of tim- 
bered land in Jasper at fourteen shillings an acre, and eighty-four acres 
of cleared land at twenty shillings per acre. Mr. Spencer was a man of 
means and also of prominence in the new community; was a great hun- 
ter and trapper, and with his memory are associated many interesting 
stories. 

Uzal McMindes and John Marlatt came to the town in i8io, both 
from New Jersey, and Gideon Marlatt came one year later. All were 
prominent in early times, and their names are still preserved in the 
town. Other early settlers were Andrew Simpson, in 18 12; Adam 
Wass in 1816; Henry Whitman in 1819; Rice Wentworth in 1820; 
Hial Wood in 1821 ; Elisha Peak, about 1821, also Ezra Banks, who is 
said to have chopped more than 500 acres of woods in the town, being 
assisted only by his sons. 

In the same connection may be mentioned the family of A. Fuller 
Whittemore, also John Deck and Solomon Deck, John Moore, Israel S. 
Osgood, George I. Shawl, Alva June, Moses Dennis, a Revolutionary 
soldier, Enoch Ordway, John Hadley and his family. Dr. WiUiam Hun- 
ter, the first physician, Samuel Dennis, Earl Stone, Henry Prentice, 
Deacon Joshua Sargent, Ephraim Lyons, carpenter, David Woodward, 
Charles Lamson. William Purdy, Peter Drake, Abraham Freeland, 
Thomas Waight, Christopher Dennis, Harvey Andrews, Daniel Purdy, 
and some others, all of whom were settlers in the town previous to 1835, 



13S LANDMARKS OF STBtJBBN COUNTY. 

and are entitled to be named among those who laid the foundation for 
later successes by their descendants. 

In 1830, and about that time, the settlers in Jasper were much dis- 
turbed over the events of the so-called anti-rent conflict, and as this 
town had come from the Pulteney or Hornby association, the inhabit- 
ants felt a direct interest in the result of the measures adopted at the 
time. The people held meetings and discussed the subject quite freely, 
and sent delegates to represent the town in the convention at Bath. 
These delegates were William Hunter, Benjamin Heliker, Ira Smith, 
Uzal McMynderse (or McMinders), and Hinckley Spencer. However, 
the events of this period, being general rather than local, are narrated 
in an earlier chapter. 

Referring briefly to the first events of town history, we may note the 
fact that the first settler was Nicholas Brotzman ; the first birth that of 
Sally Brotzman ; the first marriage that of Samuel Gray and Polly Simp- 
son ; the first inn or tavern was kept by Nicholas Brotzman, arid the 
first school was taught by Amanda Smith. 

However much delayed may have been the early settlement in this 
part of the county by the hilly and uninviting character of the region, 
we nevertheless find a population of 500 in township two of the fifth 
range as early as the year 1821;. We may also note the establishment 
of one small village and at least two minor settlements, for the people 
of this locality have ever been noted for their independence and self- 
reliance. Herein lies the great secret of their success in life, in the face 
of obstacles that would have completely discouraged the pioneers who 
settled on the rich plain lands of the Genesee country. 

As we have stated the tC)wn was set off" from Canisteo and Troups- 
burg in 1827, the local population then being nearly 600. The first 
town meeting was held at the dwelling of Andrew Simpson, on the first 
Tuesday in March, at which time these persons were elected to fill the 
several town offices, viz.: Andrew Craig, supervisor ; William Hunter, 
town clerk ; Uzal McMindes, Oliver Pease, sr., and Samuel Dennis, 
assessors ; Jonathan Schenck, collector ; John G. Marlatt, Elijah Peake, 
and Benjamin Helliker, highway commissioners; Ira Smith and Ste- 
phen Towsley, overseers of the poor ; Henry Phenix, Enoch Ordway, 
and Joseph Button, commissioners of schools ; Ira Simpson, Jonathan 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 133 

R. Prentice and William Hunter, inspectors of schools. At a general 
election held in November of the same year, Oliver Pease, Stephen 
Towsley and Ira Smith were chosen the first justices of the peace in the 
town. 

The succession of supervisors in Jasper has been as follows : Andrew 
Craig, 1827-32: Stephen Towsley, 1833-36; William Hunter, 1837- 
39; J. R. Prentice, 1840; John G. Marlatt, 1841 ; J. R. Prentice, 1842; 
William Hunter, 1843; Andrew Craig, 1844-45; William Hunter, 
1846; Alvah June, 1847-51 ; Darius Simpson, 1852; J. R. Prentice, 
1853 ; Jesse L. Bartow, 1854; J. R. Prentice, 1855 ; Jonathan Schenck, 
1856-57; Ira D. Hotchkiss, 1858-59; Henry C. Prentice, 1860-62; 
AmosT. Woodbury, 1863-65 ; Willis E. Craig, 1866; Samuel F. Den- 
nis, 1867-69; George D. Woodward, 1870-71; Samuel Dennis, jr., 
1872; Willis E. Craig, 1873; James S. Outman, 1874; W. E. Craig, 
1875-76; Asa Spencer, 1877-78; A. A. Van Arsdale, 1879-81 ; J. 
Sumner Sargent, 1882-87; S. B. Hardy, 1888-92; Nathaniel P. Hun- 
ter, 1893; Ezra Chatfield, 1894-95. 

The present town officers (1895) are Ezra Chatfield, supervisor ; C. E. 
Brown, town clerk ; A. A. Van Arsdale, Byron Crosby, J. M. Simpson, 
Arthur Lamson, justices ; C. G. Hutchinson, Collins Talbot and John 
T. Dunnigan, assessors; Dennis Williams, highway commissioner ; John 
Murphy, overseer of the poor ; John E. Schenck, collector ; James Tur- 
ner, J. B. Sargent and Adelbert Curtiss, excise commissioners. 

When first separated from the mother town Jasper had about 600 
inhabitants, and in 1830 the number was 657. In 1840 it increased to 
1,187, and in 1850 to 1,749. In i860 the maximum number was 
reached, 1,850, but in 1870 had decreased to 1,683. I" 1880 the pop- 
ulation was 1,806, but the next ten years showed a decrease, the 
census of 1890 giving the number of inhabitants as 1,690. 

Notwithstanding these several and somewhat noticeable fluctuations 
in population, the town of Jasper is as stable and substantial and relia- 
ble in its productions and institutions as any similarly situated civil 
division of the county. There is but little of the speculative in the 
characteristics of the people ; everything has been built " from the 
stump," and there are but few evidences of premature decay. 

During the years of early history the pioneers of Jasper were not un 



134 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

mindful of the spiritual welfare of their families, and even before the 
town itself was set off we find three full and complete church societies 
in existence. They were the Baptist, organized in 1817; the Presby- 
terian, in 18 18, and the Methodist Episcopal, the earliest meetings of 
which run to about the same time. In later years other societies have 
been formed and there are now five organizations, the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist and North Jasper Methodist in addition to those already noted. 
Also during these years there have been built up several hamlets in the 
town, though none has attained the corporate character. Jasper village 
is the chief center of business in the town, and will be found particularly 
mentioned in the municipal history in this work. The other hamlets 
are hardly more than cross-road settlements. Half a century ago the 
named hamlets were Jasper Four Corners, Jasper Five Corners, West 
Jasper and South Hill. The more recent names of post-offices have 
been Jasper, North Jasper, West Jasper and Hampshire, the latter so 
called from the fact that many of the early settlers in the locality of 
roads 17 and 18 were from New Hampshire; and the average New 
Englander naturally delights in preserving memories of his native 
State. 

As an agricultural town Jasper has for many years ranked well among 
the divisions of the county, but in point of manufactures it has gained 
no special prominence, the disadvantages of location operating adversely- 
Still, we may recall the once important steam flour mill built away 
back in 1848 by Nelson Johnson; the Knapp tannery, afterward Au- 
gustus Van Asrdale's ; the Savage tannery, run by Andrew Savage. 
The Craig mill was built and run by A. B. and W. A. Craig, in 1866. 
We may also mention the Walrath mills, built in 1881. 

LiNDLEY. — "Township i, range 2, Phelps and Gorham Purchase." 
This was a fair description of this town one hundred and five years ago, 
when Col. Eleazer Lindsley came from New Jersey and made an exten- 
sive purchase of land in the Genesee country. Still there has ever ex- 
isted a doubt as to the amount of land actually acquired by Colonel 
Lindsley from Oliver Phelps in 1790, some authorities asserting that his 
purchase included the entire township, while others claim that his title 
covered only the southern half of number one, range two, and that the , 
other proprietors took title directly from the proprietary, John Ryess 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTT. 135 

taking the northwest quarter, and Judge Garrettson the northeast. 
However, with all respect for the opinions of competent authorities, the 
present writer is inclined to accept the theory of Colonel Harrower, that 
the township was purchased from Oliver Phelps by Colonel Lindsley, 
John Ryess and Judge Garrettson ; that a commission made a fair and 
equitable division of the territory according to the respective interests 
of the vendees ; and that Colonel Lindsley was awarded the south half 
and the others the upper quarters as noted above. Other authorities 
contend that Lindsley bought the town at sixpence per acre, and sold 
the north half to the persons mentioned at one shilling per acre. 

In some respects Lindley differs in physical features from other towns 
of the county, and while these characteristics are not specially impor- 
tant, they are at least noteworthy. Extending north and south the en- 
tire length of the town is the charming and fertile valley of the Tioga, 
from any point in which the observer is at once attracted by the de- 
lightful view about him. The river valley averages about a mile in 
width, while on either side the hills rise to a height varying from five 
hundred to six hundred feet. When the doughty colonel made his 
first visit to the region he found evidence of cultivation along the bottom 
lands, and the general fertility of the soil was at once apparent. Small 
wonder, therefore, that he preferred the exhilarating atmosphere of the 
combined hills and valley rather than hazard the uncertanties of settlement 
in the lake region farther north in Ontario county. And if we may 
believe well verified tradition Colonel Lindsley found a clearly marked 
Indian trail running along the river through the township, indicating 
that this was a thoroughfare of travel between the Seneca country on 
the north and the land of the Delawares on the south ; and evidences 
are not wanting to show that the Moravian missionaries frequented the 
valley while traveling from their Pennsylvania homes to the villages of 
the Senecas and the subjugated tribes suffered to dwell within their vast 
domain. It is also a known fact that the Tioga valley was a favorite 
fishing and hunting resort of the red men, and that some of the small 
tribes had villages and cultivated fields scattered along the river. Such 
was the situation in this region one hundred and more years ago. 

Col. Eleazer Lindsley, the proprietor of township one, range two, was 
a native of Connecticut, born December 7, 1737. During the Revolu- 



136 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

tion, he was active in serving on the side of the Americans, and was an 
officer in the regiment commonly called the "Jersey Blues," for, before 
the war, he had moved to New Jersey. It is not known why Colonel 
Lindsley left his comfortable home in New Jersey to brave the trials 
and hardship of pioneer life in the new country, nor may we properly 
enquire into the motives which actuated his movements, and it is suffi- 
cient to say that his coming to the region was fortunate for local inter- 
ests, as he showed himself to be a worthy citizen, kind and generous in 
his nature, and public spirited in all measures for the welfare of the val- 
ley and its people. 

In the Lindley colony, as it has been called, were about forty persons, 
many of them relatives of the proprietor. They left New Jersey in the 
spring of 1790, making their journey in wagons and on horseback to 
the Susquehanna River at Wilkesbarre, thence came in boats to the 
purchase, arriving and landing at the Tioga Flats on the 7th of June. 
In the party were Colonel Lindsley and two sons, Samuel and Eleazer, 
also five son-in-laws, Dr. Mulford, Ebenezer Backus, Capt. John Seelye, 
Dr. Hopkins and David Payne. Nearly all brought famihes, while in the 
party were several slaves. This was unquestionably the first introduction 
of slavery into the south part of Ontario county, a novel though not un- 
known institution. It is said that Colonel Lindsley gave a slave to 
each of his children, and further, that only a few years passed before all 
were set free and provided for, for slavery was soon regarded as inim- 
ical to our State institutions and also forbidden by law. 

In the new settlement Colonel Lindsley was an important personage, 
an earnest Christian, and a worthy leader. In 1793 he was elected to 
the State Legislature, opening the way, it is said, to a career of useful- 
ness in public life, but, unfortunately on the 1st of June, 1794, he was 
stricken ill and died. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Miller, 
died November 20, 1806. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Linds- 
ley kept public house, the first in the valley between Bath and Will- 
iamsport. 

In addition to those whose names have been mentioned, we find the 
Lindsley colony to contain other persons, among them Joseph Miller, a 
substantial farmer of the valley and whose descendants still live in the 
county. David Cook also formed one of the pioneer party of 1790, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 137 

and, like the colonel, was an old Revolutionary soldier. He made a 
comfortable farm in the valley on the east side of the river, and, with 
Robert Patterson, another pioneer, is entitled to the honor of having 
planted the first apple tree in the town. Among the other early set- 
tlers, though possibly not pioneers, may be mentioned the names of 
Abner Thurber, another Revolutionary patriot, Benjamin Harrower, 
Simeon Rorapaugh, Thomas Clark, Ira Lyon, Elam Watson, James 
Sherwood, James Ford, Lyman Truman, Jared Butler, William Chilson, 
Parker B. Crandall, Henry and Ethan Pier, Russell and Julius Tremain, 
Joseph Upham, Elijah Knapp, Abram Kinney, Hezekiah Collins and 
others whose names are now forgotten. The Piers, the Tremains,Uphams, 
and several others, settled in the north part of the town, near Erwin Center, 
as it was for many years known, but now called Presho. Benjamin Har- 
rower became the owner of a 2,000 acre tract of timber land and 
built a " gang mill " at the Narrows. 

John P. Ryess came from the eastern part of this State about the 
year 18 10. He, too, was an extensive land owner, having some 3,000 
acres. Among other early residents in the town were Silas Cook, 
Frederick Heckert, Jeremiah Mulford, Joseph Miller, Michael R. Thorp, 
surveyor, Mr. Waller, and possibly others. 

All these came into township number i previous to the division o 
Erwin, and many of them while the territory was included within the 
still older town of Painted Post. They were an industrious and ener- 
getic set of men, and under their persevering efforts the lands were 
cleared, fine farms were developed and comfortable homes were built. 
For many years the chief occupation of the settlers was lumbering, and 
in this industry the locality long held a prominent position. At that 
time the Tioga valley was subject to frequent sudden inundation and on 
several occasions the settlers and lumbermen suffered serious damage. 
In the spring, and often in the fall, of each year came the rafting sea- 
son, events of importance and activity throughout the entire valley. 

As we have stated, Lindley, previous to its separate organization, 
formed a part of Erwin, and possibly was the more important portion of 
the town. The center of business was at the hamlet called Erwin Center 
(now Presho), for here was about the geographical center of the town. 
In 1836 the number of inhabitants in the south part was about 600, and 

18 



138 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

they generally favored a separation from the mother town. The result 
was that on the I2th of May, 1837, township i, range 2, was erected 
into a new town, and named " Lindsley " in compliment to Col Eleazer 
Lindsley, its acknowledged pioneer and founder. As then and still 
constituted the town contains 23,000 acres of land. 

The original name of this town was " Lindsley " but through an error 
in making the record the " s " was omitted, making the name " Lindley," 
which has since been accepted without question. The first meeting of 
freemen was held in the school house at the Center, on February 6, 
1835, ^'^'^ these officers were elected: Benjamin Harrower, supervisor ; 
Chauncey Hoffman, town clerk ; Silas Cook, William Seelye and Jonah 
Davis, justices of the peace; Ansel C. Smith William Lindsley, Jere- 
miah Upham, assessors ; G. A. Ryerss, Thomas Clark and Benjamin 
Patterson, commissioners of highways ; W. A. Lindsley, collector. 

In this connection may also be furnished the succession of supervisors 
of this town, viz.: Benj. Harrower, 1838; Wm. Lindsley, 1839-40; 
Silas Cook, 1841 ; Ansel C. Smith, 1842-43 ; G. T. Harrower, 1844; 
James G. Mercereau, 1845-46; Henry A. Miller, 1847; Samuel J. 
Mercereau, 1848-49; Gabriel T. Harrower, 1850-51 ; Ansel C. Smith, 
1852; Eber Scofield, 1853; Samuel Heckart, 1854; A. B. Lindsley, 
1855; G. T. Harrower, 1856-57; Henry G. Harrower, 1858; A. C. 
Morgan, 1859-60; Eber Scofield, 1861-63; Wm. Moore, 1864-65; 
Eber Scofield, 1866; S. M. Morgan, 1867; Eber Scofield, 1868; 
Wm. Moore, 1869-70; Mason Hammond, 1871; Wm. Moore, 
1872 ; Jas. C. Orr, jr., 1873 ; G. T. Harrower, 1874-75 ; Wm. Moore, 
1876; T. J. Presho, 1877; James A. Rogers, 1878; W. H. Hill, 
1879-80; T. J. Presho, 1881 ; Jas. C. Orr, jr., 1882-83; Marcus 
Stowell, 1884; Wm. Moore, 1885-87 ; Marcus Stowell, 1888-89; Wm. 
Moore, 1890; Marcus Stowell, 1891-95, 

With the same propriety we may also furnish the names of the town 
officers for the present year, 1895, viz.: Marcus Stowell, supervisor; 
Wm. Hutchinson, town clerk ; H. C. Hill, Henry Stowell, Ira Knapp 
and C. J, Starner, justices of the peace; Oliver Camp, J, Bnnnan and 
J. Starner, assessors; James L. Colder, overseer of the poor; John 
Brinnan, highway commissioner, George Snyder, James Harris and 
James Colder, commissioners of excise, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUJSTTy. 139 

The population of Lindley by decades has been as follows : 1 840, 
638; 1850,686; 1860,886; 1870,1,251; 1880,1,563; 1890,1,537; 
1892, 1,455. 

As Lindley was one of the towns purchased directly from the Phelps 
and Gorham proprietary, its inhabitants were less affected by the anti- 
rent controversy than in other localities. In fact at that time, while 
Lindley, or Erwin, had a number of settlers whose farms were encum- 
bered, and while the whole town suffered somewhat from the depressions 
of the period, there was less of actual distress here, in the Tioga valley, 
than was noticeable elsewhere in this part of the Genesee country. 
Erwin was represented in the Bath convention of January, 1830, but 
none of the delegates was from township number i, of range 2. 

With a population of 886 in i860 the town of Lindley is credited 
with having sent into the service a total of 125 men, a record equaled 
by few towns in this part of the State, and an indisputable evidence of 
patriotism and loyalty on the part of its inhabitants. 

Glancing back into the early history of this township, we may note 
the fact that the first white child born was Eliza Mulford, August 10, 
1792 ; the first marriage was that of David Cook, jr., and Elizabeth 
Cady ; the first school was taught by Joseph Miller, in 1793, near the 
State line ; the first tavernkeeper was the widow of Colonel Lindsley ; 
the first saw mill was built by Colonel Lindsley. The death of this 
pioneer was about the first event of its kind in the town. A writer of 
local history in i860 said: "There is no church, no hotel, nor place 
where liquor is sold in the town." 

Previous to the separation of Lindley from Erwin, the local schools 
were a part of the system then in operation in the latter town, but, at 
the organization meeting in 1838, the electors chose D. P. Harrower 
and T. L. Mercereau as inspectors of common schools. Soon after this 
the territory of this town was divided into school districts and provision 
made for a school in each. From that time this department of local 
government has received the same generous attention as have all others, 
and the schools of Lindley now rank well in the county. The districts 
now number ten, and during the last current year thirteen teachers 
were employed. The value of school property is estimated at $6,945. 
The amount of public school moneys received was $1,55 1.57, and the 
town raised by tax $1,868.83. 



140 tAl^DMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

That the reader may not be misled by a preceding statement to the 
effect that in i860 Lindley was without a church, we may here remark 
that several church organizations have had an active and useful exist- 
ence in the town, the Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Free Methodist and 
Independent, as respectively known. At the present time there are at 
least two societies, the Methodist and Free Methodist, both of which are 
mentioned in another department of this work. 

Prattsburg. — Captain Joel Pratt little thought that his original ex- 
tensive purchase of land in the Genesee county would some time become 
a part of one of the most progressive towns in the region. Tradition 
furnishes us little information as to the reason of Captain Pratt's first 
visit here in 1799, yet we know that this doughty pioneer was a man of 
firm determination, of strong character, and equally firm in his puritanic 
ideas of Christian propriety and observance. He had in mind the idea 
of establishing a settlement somewhat in the nature of a religious colony, 
yet without the fanatical elements which generally accompany such 
enterprises. 

Joel Pratt, so all writers agree, first visited this region on horseback 
in the year 1799, and in the year following came with his son Harvey, 
and other assistants, and cleared and sowed with wheat 1 10 acres of 
land. In the course of time the grain was harvested, threshed and 
shipped to market, via the Canisteo, Chemung and Susquehanna Rivers, 
where it brought the handsome return of $8,000 cash. Thus encour- 
aged by his first efforts. Captain Pratt made all necessary preparations, 
and in 1801 brought several members of his family to the region where 
all became permanent settlers and useful residents. However, the 
honor of being the first settler in what is now Prattsbuig must be ac- 
corded to Jared Pratt, who came with his young wife from Spencer- 
town, Columbia county, in February, 1801, traveling the entire distance 
on an ox sled. He settled on the road leading to Bath. Uriah Chapin 
also came from Columbia county, though not until 1802, and located on 
the Wheeler part of the territory. Rev. John Niles came in 1803, for 
the purpose of opening a farm, and in connection therewith to do such 
work of a missionary character as his enfeebled health would permit. 
He conducted the first religious services in the town and was treated 
with great consideration by the scattered inhabitants, and was presented 
with an eighty acre tract of land by Captain Pratt. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 141 

In 1802, June 16, Joel Pratt and William Root became the qualified 
owners, or agents, of a large tract of land, and took upon themselves 
the task of developing and settling township No. 6, of the 3d range. 
The agreement was made with Col. Robert Troup, the agent of the 
Pulteney estate in New York. Captain Pratt engaged in this enter- 
prise with the worthy intention of settling and improving the land, 
while his associate, Mr. Root, only sought to increase his wealth. 
Hence it was only natural that a disagreement should follow, and the 
final result was that Mr. Root retired from the partnership, if such it 
was. In 1806 the Pulteney proprietary made a new agreement for the 
land, the purchasers being Joel Pratt, Joel Pratt, jr., and Ira Pratt, who 
took the unsold portion of the township. However, notwithstanding 
his best efforts, Captain Pratt found himself unable to meet his obliga- 
tions to the Pulteney agents, hence in 181 1 was obliged to surrender the 
unsold lands to his vendors. 

During his proprietorship. Captain Pratt did much to improve and 
settle the town, and had he been less generous his venture would have 
been more successful from a speculative point of view. Through his in- 
fluence the town was settled with a class of pioneers not found in every 
community, and whose residence and society was very desirable from 
every standpoint. They were chiefly Congregationalists, and were 
devoted to religious observances in a noticeable degree. They were 
not bigots in any sense, but upright Christian men and women. How- 
ever, let us recall the names of some of the pioneers and learn to whom 
the present generation is indebted for the substantial foundation upon 
which this town and its institutions have been built and maintained. 

In 1804, so near as can be ascertained, the settlers were William P. 
Curtis, Pomeroy Hull, Samuel Tuthill and Salisbury Burton, while the 
year 1806 witnessed the arrival of a number of families, among them 
those of Enoch Niles, Rufus Blodgett, Jesse Waldo, Judge Hopkins, 
John Hopkins. Ebenezer Rice, Robert Porter, Gameliel Loomis, Samuel 
Hayes, Abiel Lindsley, Moses Lyon, Urial Chapin, Asher Bull, Roban 
Hillis and Stephen Prentiss Other early settlers were Warham Parsons, 
Aaron Cook, Michael Keith, Thomas Riker, William Drake, and others 
whose names have been lost with the lapse of years. 

Some of these settlers were identified with " first events " of town 



142 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

history, without a mention of which no record is deemed complete. In 
1804 Joel Pratt erected the first framed barn in the town, and Joel 
Pratt, jr., and Tra Pratt were the first merchants. Aaron Bull kept the 
first public house. The first white child born was Marietta, daughter 
of Jared Pratt. The first marriage was that of Isaac Pardee and the 
daughter of Deacon Waldo. The first male child born was Charles 
Waldo. A post route was established between Geneva and Bath, 
through Prattsburg, in 1808, and mails were carried on horseback once 
each week. In that year a post-office was established at Prattsburg, 
and Joel Pratt, jr., was the first postmaster. Judge Robert Porter built 
the first grist mill about 1807, and the second was built on the road to 
West Hill by Joel Pratt in 1818. Still later builders of mills were 
Horatio and Lewis Hopkins (the Cole mill), and they also built the 
fourth mill. The fifth mill was built by Henry and Ralph Hopkins, 
sons of Horatio, and was located in the village. It is a stone mill, and 
was built in 1887. Saw mills, too, have been numerous in the town in 
times past, located in various places, but chiefly on the main stream. 
Among the owners of such industries may be mentioned J. V. Stone, 
James Sturtevant, Wm. P. Curtis, J. H. Downs, Hopkins & Howe, 
H & L. Hopkins, A. and O. Waldo, H. Hodgkin, J. De Golier, J. 
Hervey Hodgkin and Messrs. Prentiss, Blodgett and Fay. As the 
forests were cleared these mills lost their usefulness and were abandoned, 
and the once heavily wooded tracts were turned into fine farms, and the 
result has been that Prattsburg became an agricultural town in the 
fullest sense, and one which has ever ranked well among the civil 
divisions of Steuben county. 

As now constituted Prattsburg has an area of 30,600 acres of land and 
is therefore among the larger towns of the county. As originally 
formed on the 12th of April, 1813, it was much larger in area, as nearly 
half of Wheeler was taken ofif in 1820. Within the original territory 
of Prattsburg in 1800 were 132 inhabitants, and as evidence of rapid 
growth under the direction of Captain Pratt the further statement may 
be made that in 18 14 the population was 615. Therefore it is not sur- 
prising that a new town formation was desirable, and not less surprising 
or desirable that the name of the new creation should be given in honor 
of its founder and promoter, Capt. Joel Pratt. The first town meeting 




WILLIAM M. FULKERSON. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 143 

was held on the 1st day of March, 1814, and Joel Pratt, jr., was elected 
supervisor. A full board of town officers was also chosen, but from the 
fact that an unfortunate fire burned the early records the names of all 
first officers cannot be ascertained. However, gleaning facts from other 
records, the supervisors from 1827 to the the present time are as 
follows : 

Supervisors: Robert Porter, 1827; Burrage Rice, 1828-34; Daniel 
Burroughs, 1835-36; Aaron Pinney, 1837-39; J. H. Hodgkin, jr., 
1840; John L. Higby, 1841-44; John F. Williams, 1845; John C. 
Higby, 1846-48; Aaron Pinney, 1849-50; Joseph Lewis, 185 1 ; John 
Anderson, 1852; John F.Williams, 1853; Joseph Lewis, 1854; G. 
Denniston, 1855-57; John F. Williams, 1858-63; Wm. B. Pratt, 
1864-69; H. B. Williams, 1870; D. W. Baldwin, 1871; Martin 
Pinney, 1872-75 ; Henry A. Hopkins, 1876-77 ; Martin Pinney, 1878- 
80; L L. Turner, 1881-82; J. A. Middleton, 1883; Martin Pinney, 
1884; W. W. Babcock, 1885 ; L L. Turner, 1886; W. W. Babcock, 
1887; G. W. Peck, 1888; W. M. Fulkerson, 1889-90; R. N. Van 
Tuyl, 1891-92; WilHam M. Fulkerson, 1893-95. 

To this succession we may properly add the present town officers, 
viz.: William M. Fulkerson, supervisor; R. E. Deighton, town clerk; 
Dr. James A. Bennett, Jay K. Smith, Henry E. Allis and Wm. E. 
Weld, justices of the peace; Robert A. Walker, M. V. Drake and 
Henry Horton assessors ; Aaron H. Putnam, commissioner of high- 
ways ; Philip Geiss and Freeman Avery, commissioners of highways ; 
Stewart Dillenbeck, collector. 

.Prattsburg has a substantial and fixed population, yet, in years past 
the town has suffered a decrease in number of inhabitants in common 
with the interior towns of the State. When set off and organized the 
local population was 615, and in 1820 the number had increased to 
1,387. In 1830 it was 2,402, and 2,455 '" 1840, while the year 1850 
witnessed a population in the town of 2,786. The maximum was 
reached in i860, the number then being 2,790, but in 1870 the popu- 
lation had decreased to 2,479. In 1880 it was 2,349, and in 1890 was 
2,170. 

The pioneers and early settlers in Prattsburg were noted for their 
piety and Christian example, and were fully mindful of the spiritual 



144 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

and educational welfare of their children. As early as the year 1803 
they organized a religious society which eventually became the Presby- 
terian church. However, a i-ecord of this and all other church organ- 
izations of the town will be found in another department of this work, 
hence needs no further mention here. Still, in the present connection 
the reader will pardon a brief allusion to one of the early residents of 
the town, Dr. and Preacher Marcus Whitman, whose life and works are 
still well remembered by our older inhabitants. Dr. Whitman lived 
for a time in Prattsburg and Wheeler. In 1835 he went as a mission- 
ary to what is now the State of Washington, and in Walla Walla valley 
he established a mission among the Indians. He made the journey 
across the continent on several occasions, and through his efforts the 
now State of Washington was saved from cession to Great Britain. Dr. 
Whitman and wife, also thirteen other whites, were massacred by the 
Indians in 1847. 

One of the most troublesome periods in the early history of Pratts- 
burg was that in which took place the anti rent conflict ; and although 
the inhabitants of this particular locality suffered less than many others, 
they were nevertheless much disturbed by the excitement of the time. 
The local delegates to the Bath convention were men in whom the 
whole townspeople had every confidence and who guarded well all 
Prattsburg interests. They were Stephen Prentiss, Gamehel Loomis, 
Josiah Allis, Ira C. Clark and Joseph Potter. 

The war of 1861-65 was another disturbed period for the people of 
our otherwise quiet and temperate townsfolk, but when the call for 
troops was made no town responded more nobly or generously th^in 
this. During the years of that great struggle Prattsburg is credited 
with having sent into the service a total of nearly two hundred men, 
170 of whom, enlisted directly from the town, while the others joined 
commands raised elsewhere than in this county. 

The educational interests of Prattsburg have ever received the 
thoughtful attention of local authorities, and in the village there was 
established at an early day an academic institution of more than ordin- 
ary importance. In the village chapter further allusion will be made 
to the academy, and it only remains for us to here mention the town at 
large. When set off and organized as a town, the electors made neces 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 145 

sary provision for the maintenance of schools and regularly divided the 
territory into convenient districts. These have been changed from time 
to time as necessity required, and a uniformly excellent standard has 
ever been demanded and upheld. As at present constituted, the town 
at large is divided into fifteen districts, in each of which a school is 
maintained. During the school year 1894-5, twenty teachers were 
employed and 535 children attended school. The school property of 
the town is valued at $18,500. In the year mentioned the town re- 
ceived public moneys to the extent of $2,390.62, while there was raised 
by local tax the further sum of $3,385.45. Twenty-four trees were 
planted by pupils during the year 1894. 

PULTENEY. — In the extreme northeast corner of Steuben county, on 
the west side of Lake Keuka, is situated the town of Pulteney ; so 
named in honor of Sir William Pulteney, the principal owner in the 
familiarly known Pulteney Association. The district of which this 
brief chapter treats contains 19,600 acres of land, and in some respects 
is one of the most interesting towns of Steuben county. Its people are 
engaged in diversified pursuits, those living west of the ridge being 
farmers, while the inhabitants and land owners on the east side of the 
town are almost exclusively engaged in the pleasant and profitable em- 
ployment of grape and fruit growing and wine making. These latter 
industries have given Pulteney an enviable prominence in this vast vine- 
yard region, which, together with the importance of the lake front and 
all its kindred attractions, have combined to make this town possess 
an unusual interest in the history of the county and its vicinity. 

However, Pulteney did not become a civil division of Steuben county 
until 1808, when Bath surrendered to the new creation all that is now 
this town, and also Prattsburg and a part at least of Urbana. The 
former was set off from Pulteney in 18 13, and the latter in 1848. 
Pioneership and settlement in this hilly and then uninviting locaHty 
began with the present century and increased rapidly until the popula- 
tion was sufficient to justify a separate organization. The story of early 
times is perhaps best told in the words of a reliable and well known 
local writer, from whom we quote as follows : 

This portion of Steuben county was a part of the original Phelps and 
Gorham Purchase; was sold to Robert Morris, and by him to the 

19 



146 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTT 

Pulteney associates. Pulteney was surveyed in 1793 by William Bull, 
and was on the market at that time at eighteen and twenty cents an 
acre. About the first settlers were Samuel Miller, John Van Camp and 
G. F. Fitz Simmons, who came in or about 1800, but who were soon 
afterward followed by James and George Simms, Henry Hoffman, 
Abraham Bennett and Shadrack Norris, all during the year 1805. The 
next year there came Samuel and Nathaniel Wallis, John Ells, William 
White, James Daily, Erastus Glass, Harmon Emmons and Seth Pierce. 
From this time on settlement became more rapid and pioneership was 
virtually at an end. Still, we may properly refer to some of the first 
events of town history as they stand recorded and understood. The 
first marriage was that of Christopher Tomer and Jane Miller, in 1809; 
the first death that of the child of James Daily, in 1806. The first saw 
mill was built in 18 10, and the first grist mill in 18 14, both by Melchoir 
Wagener, an early settler and a man of influence and importance in the 
region. In 1807 Shadrack Norris opened the first tavern, and in 
1808 Augustus Tyler began storekeeping, while Polly Wentworth 
opened a school in the settlement. The descendants of several of the 
old families still live in the town, and occasionally some relic of early 
times is observed, for only a few years ago the remains of the old 
Wagener mill-race were still visible ; also the scattered and decaying 
fragments of the saw mill itself But later generations of occupants live in a 
different and perhaps more progressive period, and have little reverence 
for the old and useless structures of three-quarters of a century ago, 
yet they love to see recollections of them on printed records. Pulteney 
of to-day is far different from the old town of 18 10, and along the lake 
front few indeed, if any, of the old farm lines and habitations have been 
preserved. Where once was a vast agricultural region, with desirable 
eastern slope, we now have almost numberless vineyards and fruit 
farms, in size varying from five to fifty acres. 

According to the reminiscences of Mr. Risenger, grape culture as a 
special industry was begun in 1854, when he and Samuel L. Wagener 
planted a vineyard in Pulteney, the ultimate outgrowth of which is the 
splendid grape and wine producing interest which ramifies throughout 
the lake regions, and in many places extends far back into the inland 
districts, However, at the time Wagener and Risenger planted their 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY". 147 

vines, J. W. Prentiss had a number of producing plants, yet was making 
no special effort in the direction of what might properly be termed 
grape culture. 

As is elsewhere noted, this town was formed and organized in' i8o8, 
and at that time the territory was comparatively well populated. In 
fact, in l8iO the inhabitants numbered 1,038, and 1,162 in 1820. In 
18 13 Prattsburg was created and took largely of both population and 
area, the inhabitants of the district set off numbering 615 in 1814. In 
the same region in 1800 there were 132 persons. 

The first town meeting in Pulteney was held at the dwelling of Jesse 
Waldo on the first Tuesday of March, 1808, at which time Urial Chapin 
was elected supervisor; Aaron Bell, town clerk; Aaron Cook, Elias Hop- 
kins and Nathan Wallis, assessors ; William Curtis, collector, together 
with a full complement of minor officers. Urial Chapin held the office 
of supervisor four years and was, with Robert Porter, Stephen and John 
Prentiss, John Hathaway, Josiah Dunlap and others, a leader in the 
affairs of the town at an early day. However, in this connection it is 
interesting to note the succession of supervisors in the old town of 
Pulteney, which has been as follows: 

Urial Chapin, 1808-09 ^^^ 1811-12; Robert Porter, 1810; Stephen 
Prentiss, 1813 ; John Hathaway, 18 14; John Prentiss, 1815-20; Josiah 
Dunlap, 1821-29; John N. Reynolds, 1830-38; Robert Miller, 1839- 
46; Jared T. Benton, 1847 ^^'^ 185 1 ; Ira Hyatt, 1849-50, 1852 and 
1856-57 ; John A. Prentiss, 1850 ; Robert Miller, 1853 ; Josiah Dunlap, 
1854; John N. Reynolds, 1855 ; Samuel Fitzsimmons, 1858; Josiah W. 
Eggleston, 1859; Wm. H. Clark, i860; Geo. Coward, 1861-63 ; Harry 
Godfrey, 1864; J. J. Reynolds, 1865-71, and 1873; Odel C. Cross, 
1872 ; S. B. Lyon, 1874 and 1876-77 ; John Gilson, 1875 ; A. H. Den- 
niston, 1878-80; J. D. Stone, 1881 ; S. B. Lyon, 1882-84; James H. 
Giffin, 1885-87; Philip Paddock, 1888-89; Edward D. Cross, 1890-95. 

The officers of Pulteney for the year 1895 are: Edward D. Cross, 
supervisor; Guy D. Finch, clerk: H. R. Hess, J. B. Hadden, J. H. Os- 
born and J. T. Bachman, justices; W. H. French, J. C. Barber and 
Darius Tyler, assessors ; S. E. Stone, overseer of the poor ; F. H. Ar- 
nold, collector. 

In 1892 this town had 1,693 inhabitants, and it is estimated that 



I4g LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

about one-half of this population are at least indirectly interested in 
grape growing or its associated industries. The people in the west part 
of the town are agriculturists, with no special product to attract more 
than ordinary interest. From the earliest generation of occupants here 
the region has produced farmers, all devoted to the arts of peace, and 
there have been built up many fine farms as the result of continued 
perseverance and industry. During the period of the war of 1812, the 
entire townspeople were somewhat alarmed for the safety of their 
families and property, but fortunately no untoward event took place to 
mar the tranquillity of domestic life. However, during the period com- 
monly known as the anti-rent conflict, at a time when the population 
reached 1,700 and more, and when the town was possessed of many 
strong men, public excitement ran high, and we find Pulteneyan active 
factor in the measures proposed for the common welfare. In the nota- 
ble Bath convention, in January, 1830, the town was represented by 
David Hobart, William Sagar, Barnet Retan, Daniel Bennett and Seth 
Weed. This period also passed without serious disturbance, other than 
temporary embarrassment, and until the outbreak of the war of 1861- 
65 the history of the town was uneventful, other than was disclosed by 
the general advancement of local interests. It was during the years 
following 1850, and from that until about 1880, that the special interest 
of grape, wine and fruit culture began to attract attention to the locality. 
This brought to Pulteney an enviable notoriety ; spread abroad the re- 
markable resources of the town ; increased the value of lands on the 
lake front, and was in all respects the source of much advantage to the 
whole people. One of the chief auxiliary interests connected with the 
grape product is the manufacture of wines of various grades and quali- 
ties. The chief seat of these operations is in the vicinity of Hammonds- 
port, yet the business established by J. S. Foster more than a quarter 
of a century ago is worthy of at least passing mention. It is a fact of 
local and general history that the product of the Pulteney cellars are 
"true to name, pure and unadulterated." 

Such is, in brief, a general historical view of the town at large. Still, 
in this connection it is proper to call attention to the general stability 
of all local interests and institutions. Even in population there has 
always been maintained a substantial degree of uniformity and gradual 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 149 

growth. The present population is estimated at 1,700; in 1840 the 
number of inhabitants was 1,724. In i860 the records disclose the fact 
that the population was only 1,470, and but 1,393 ten years later. How- 
ever, during the war of the Rebellion, Pulteney sent into the service a 
total of 1 10 men, a patriotic record, and one not frequently exceeded in 
similar towns. 

The history of the schools in this town are incomplete and somewhat 
defective. It is known, however, that the first school was opened and 
taught by Polly Wentworth, in the year 1808. From this humble be- 
ginning the present system and condition have grown and developed, 
and at this time Pulteney compares favorably with the towns of the 
county generally. As now disposed there are eleven districts, with a 
school house in each, in which fourteen teachers were employed during 
the last school year. The value of school property is estimated at 
$8,325. About $1,680 of public money is annually received for school 
maintenance, while the town raises by tax for like purpose about 
$2,300. 

The ecclesiastical history of Pulteney forms an interesting element of 
local annals, though the absence of reliable records embarrasses the 
efforts of the enquirer. It is said that the first religious services were 
held by Close-Communion Baptists, followed soon afterward by the 
Methodists ; and that there were also Seventh Day Baptists and Chris- 
tians in the field at an early day. The now called Second Baptist 
Church of Pulteney was organized in 18 14, the church home being 
located at South Pulteney. The church has a membership of 105 per- 
sons. At Pine Grove is another Baptist society. At Pulteney village 
is a Presbyterian and also a Methodist Episcopal church, each engaged 
in evangelical and praiseworthy work. 



150 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Rathbone. — William Benham and William Hadley were indeed 
brave pioneers of the Canisteo valley an hundred years ago when they 
made the first settlement in the wild and uninviting region now called 
Rathbone. If record and tradition be true, these men came to the 
valley in the year 1793, and had not even the companionship of one 
another, for Benham built his cabin on the east line of the town, while 
Hadley was on the west side. Notwithstanding this, each made a suc- 
cessful location, paving the way for other settlers and opening the 
land for cultivation. Of necessity the pioneers were lumbermen, for we 
are told that when Benham and Hadley first visited the locality nothing 
was in view except woods and rocks and the noiseless waters of the 
Canisteo. And we are also told that the stillness of night was almost 
invariably broken by the noises of wild animals, while rattlesnakes were 
frequently unwelcome visitors to the settler's log cabin. 

Such was the character of this region a century ago, but with steady 
advances the pioneers cleared the forests, cultivated the land, and finally 
destroyed all the objectionable elements of wilderness life. Yet all this 
was not accomplished by the single efforts of pioneers Benham and 
Hadley, for others soon came to the locality and gave material assist- 
ance in developing the resources of the town. As early as the year 
1804 Samuel Benham had built and opened a public house, and Abel 
White furnished the settlers with game and fish. In 1806 Solomon 
Tracy and Benjamin Biggs made an improvement on the site of Rath- 
bonville, and, among other things, built a large double log house. On 
the opposite side of the Canisteo, Isaac and Jonathan Tracy built the 
first saw mill in the town, and in 18 16 a grist mill was added to the 
industries of the vicinity. 

Among the other early settlers were Peleg Cole, Martin Young, 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 151 

Moses Powers, Jacob Cook, Zephaniah Townsend, Thomas Maybury, 
Zeno Sellick, John Sellick, John Helmer, from whom Helmer creek re- 
ceived its name, Jonathan Rowley, Benjamin Northrup, founder of the 
Northrup settlement, Thomas Allen, Jacob Cole, Harvey Fultz, Seth 
Cook and others whose names are now forgotten. These were the lead- 
ing men of this part of the valley previous to 1825, and at least thirty 
years before the town was set off and separately organized. 

Recalling briefly some of the more important first events of town 
history, we may note that the first white child born here was Luther 
White, that event taking place June 4, 1804. In the same year Luther 
Benham opened a tavern. The first marriage was that of Peleg Cole 
and Polly Tracy. Moses Powers taught the first school, and General 
Rathbone opened the first store in 1842, although previous to that time 
he was an extensive lumberman and land owner. Isaac Tracy built 
the first saw mill in 1806. The first school house was built of logs, and 
the second on the same site, was of frame, built in 1852. 

Previous to its separate organization, Rathbone formed a part of the 
older towns of Addison, Cameron and Woodhull. On the Phelps and 
Gorham purchase it includes portions of townships two in the third and 
fourth ranges, and being set off contains 20,600 acres of land. Geo- 
graphically, the town lies near and south of the center of the county. 
Its principal water course is Canisteo river, while the north branch of 
Tuscarora creek flows across the southwest corner. The uplands are 
from three hundred to four hundred feet above the valleys. The first 
settlers were attracted to this part of the valley by the magnificent 
growth of forest trees, and naturally lumbering was the chief occupation 
of the early inhabitants. This brought to the region an entirely desir- 
able class of residents and for many years peace and plenty were the 
lot of the people. So deeply indeed were the settlers engaged in clear- 
ing the forests and rafting timber to market that they gave little heed 
to the founding of villages or establishing trading places until about 
fifty years ago. At that time Addison was the common trading and 
marketing center for the whole region, and there, too, the lumbermen 
were wont to visit for the transaction of their business, and not until 
Ransom Rathbone opened a store in this town in 1845, also secured a 
post-office, that a hamlet was founded in what is now Rathbone. Still, 



152 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

for at least twenty- five years previous to 1845 this was a very busy 
locality, as mills lined the Canisteo on both sides. 

Through the efforts of General Rathbone and a few other leading ope- 
rators in this part of the valley a new town was created, on March 28, 
1850, and was named Rathbone in allusion to the person just mentioned. 
On the 6th of May following the electors assembled in town meeting and 
chose officers as follows: William R. Rathbone, supervisor; George W. 
Young, town clerk ; Israel Horton and Stephen Gloyd, justices of the 
peace; Edmund L. Peckham, superintendent of common schools; 
Lucius Parker, commissioner of highways ; George Northrup, Jonathan 
Bromley and William C. Cummins, assessors ; Abram Rogers and 
James Northrup, overseers of the poor ; Samuel Edmunds, collector. 

This first town town meeting appears to have been an event of great 
importance in local annals, for there were present 243 persons who cast 
votes. This would indicate a total population of about 1,000. There 
was no federal census of the town previous, to i860, at which time the 
population was 1,381. The subsequent fluctations in number of inhab- 
itants is best shown by quoting from the census reports. In 1870 the 
population was 1,357 J ■" 1880 was 1,371 ; in 1890 was 1,269, ^^d in 
1892 was 1,226. 

The supervisors of Rathbone since 1850 have been as follows : Wm. 
H. Rathbone, 1856; Cormander H. Cole, 1857; Wm. R. Rathbone, 
1858; George Northrup, 1859-60; A. H, Kinney, 1861 ; George C. 
Lloyd, 1862-64; John Miles, 1865; George W. Young, 1866-73; 
James Northrup, 1874; John Kenally, 1875-77; Moses Northrup, 
1878; Horace Mather, 1879-83; John Toles, 1884; Horace Mather, 
1885 ; N. Northrup, 1886; C. S. Whitmore, 1887; Norman Northrup, 
1888-91; G. S. Goff, 1892-93; John McWilliams, 1894-95. 

The present town officers are John McWilliams, supervisor ; Jesse F. 
Cole, town clerk ; N. P. Young, D. W. Gloyd, John Toles and William 
McCaig, justices of the peace ; George M. Lloyd, F. S. Chapel and 
George E. Meering, assessors; Wm. Bailey, collector; Richard Mc- 
Caig, overseer of the poor ; William Young, collector; Kitchell Lyon, 
Levi Perry and B. F. Chapel, excise commissioners. 

During the war of 1861-65, the town is credited with having furnished 
a total of one hundred and seventy-four m.en for the service. They 




WALTER L. MOORE. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 153 

were scattered through the several commands recruited in the county, 
noticeably in the 23d, 86th, and 107th regiments of infantry. A more 
full record of the services and composition of each of these regiments 
will be found in the military chapter in this volume. 

Previous to the formation of Rathbone the schools of the vicinity were 
a part of the system in use in the older towns from which this was 
erected. At the first town meeting in Rathbone Edmund L. Peckham 
was elected superintendent of common schools, and soon after the or- 
ganization the territory was divided into districts according to the re- 
quirements of the inhabitants. At present, the districts are twelve in 
number, each provided with a comfortable school. The town contains a 
school population of about 375. The value of school property is es- 
timated at $6,990, Thirteen teachers were employed during the last 
school year, and for maintenance the appropriation of public moneys 
amounted to $1417, .94, while the town raised by local tax the additional 
sum of $1,654.36. Twenty-six trees were planted by pupils in 1894, 

Rathboneville and Cameron Mills are the hamlets of this town. The 
former is located near aad east of the center, and the latter in the north- 
east part, near the Cameron line. Both are on the line of the Erie rail- 
road, to the construction of which in 1850 they owe their chief impor- 
tance. The road, too, is benefited by the villages, for they are shipping 
points for agricultural products and lumber of no mean importance. 
However, for further record of the hamlets of Rathbone, the reader is 
directed to the municipal department of this work. 

Thurston. — On the 28th of February, 1844, the Legislature divided 
the town of Cameron, and taking 22,000 acres off the east side created 
a new town, naming it Thurston, in honor of William B. Thurston, an 
extensive land owner in the region who did much to promote local im- 
provement and development. 

Geographically, this town occupies a central position in the county, 
and within its borders are observed several of nature's unusual dispen- 
sations. We refer particularly to the deep gulf, which is almost impass- 
able except at a single point at the south part, and here is found about 
six acres of rich flat land. In this locality was built the Yost saw mill. 
The gulf is 400 feet deep in places, and was originally filled with a 
dense growth of hertilock and hard timber. Another natural curiosity 
20 



154 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of Thurston was in the vicinity known as Cranberry or Friend's Pond, 
being a bottomless body of water, half a mile wide, and at one time 
adundantly supplied with fish. In the boggy lands around the pond 
there grew cranberries, to which the settlers helped themselves unstint- 
edly, and from this product the name Cranberry Pond was applied. 
Among the early settlers in this part of the town were many who were 
of the society of Friends, hence that name. 

On the high lands in the northwest part of the town Luke Bonny and 
William Smith made the first settlement in 1813, and from the pioneer 
first mentioned the locality was ever afterward known Bonny Hill. He 
also cut the road into the town from Bath, and was in many respects a 
leading man in the region. Anderson Carpenter settled on the hill in 
the same year, but was killed by a falling tree in 18 17. Other early 
settlers in the same locality were Amos Dickinson, 18 14, Joseph Fluent, 
18 17, David Smith, 1822, Harvey Halliday, Jacob Parker, John and 
Boanerges Fluent, John Stocking, Harlow Smith, Moses De Pue, and 
others whose names are lost with the lapse of time. 

Among the settlers in the south of the town we may mention Stephen 
Aldrich and his sons Warner, Thomas, Stephen and George, who came 
in 1822 and located near the pond. Still others were Stephenson 
Pugsley, William and James Jack, Samuel Fisk and also Amos, Ellas 
and Boralis Fisk. Seth Cook and Arnold Payne were also early set- 
tlers. In the same connection and worthy to be named among the older 
residents of what is now Thurston, were James Jerry, M. O. Keith, John 
Vandewarker, Henry Forburg, William Hawley, Fenner Eddy, tanner 
in the town in 1832, Paris Wheelock, Lifus Fish, John Corbett, Edwin 
Merchant, founder of the settlement called Merchantville, Josephus 
Turbell, Alva Carpenter, Harley Sears, O. P. Alderman and others, all 
of whom were identified with the growth of the town if they were not 
pioneers. 

Many of these old residents of Thurston were lumbermen, and were 
attracted to the locality by the remarkably fine timber that stood on 
the land. In olden times Stocking Creek and Michigan Creek enjoyed 
about the same relative importance as did the Canisteo and Conhocton 
River regions. But as the lands were stripped of their forest growths 
good farms were developed and Thurston became recognized among 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 155 

the agricultural towns of the county. However, to the present day 
lumbering has been recognized as one of the industries. These 
extensive 'interests led to the founding of several hamlets, and less 
than forty years ago the isolated town of Thurston had five small 
villages, known as Merchantville, Bonny Hill, Risingville, Thurston and 
South Thurston. Now the post offices of the town are Thurston and 
Risingville. 

The first child born in the town was Irma Smith in 1813 ; the first 
marriage was that of Joseph Fluent and Fanny Dickinson, in 1818; the 
first death was that of Anderson Carpenter, in 1817; the first school 
was that at Bonny Hill, taught by Caroline Vinan ; the first store was 
kept by Harlow Sears at Merchantville; the first saw mill was built by 
Paris Wheelock, on Otter Creek. 

The first meeting of electors of the town was held on April 2, 1844, 
and the following officers were chosen : Joseph Cross, supervisor ; 
Noble H. Rising, town clerk ; John S. Depew, Henry Briggs, Peter D. 
Edsell and Arnold Payne, justices of the peace ; Henry Rising, James 
Ostrander and Fenner Eddy, assessors ; William Jack, Amos Fluent 
and Jared Goodell, highway commissioners; John S. Eddy, collector; 
Stephen Waitman and Abijah Youmans, overseers of the poor. 

The supervisors of Thurston have been as follows: Joseph Cross, 
1844; Fenner Eddy, 1845-48; John S. De Pue, 1849-50 and 1856-65; 
Noble H. Rising, 1851; Cornelius Bouton, 1852-53; John Royce, 
1854-55 ; Oliver P. Alderman,. 1866; Alva Carpenter, 1867 and 1869- 
71; James Jerry, 1868 and 1875-76 and 1879-80; Lewis Masters, 
1872-73; Lyman H. Phillips, 1874, 1 881-85 and 1890; William Richt- 
myer, 1877-78 and 1888-89; E- J- Jerry, 1886; W. H. Rising, 1887 
and 1891 ; G D. Wilson, 1892; E. J.Jerry, 1893-95. 

The town officers for the year 1895 are as follows : Emeron J. Jerry, 
supervisor ; Lorenz Angst, town clerk ; W. H. Guernsey, T. C. Mor- 
row, A. H. Kennedy, J. F. Eddy, justices of the peace ; J. A. Eilkins, 
T. C. Morrow, and J. W. French, assessors; S. W. Jessup, collector; 
A. B. Merrill, overseer of the poor; William V. Creveling, highway 
commissioner; J. D. Parker, Joseph Shearer, jr., and R. B. Rising, 
excise commissioners. 

In 1845 the population of Thurston was 576, and in 1850 had in- 



i56 LAiSTDMARKS OF STEUBEN COtJNTY. 

creased to 726. Ten years later the inhabitants numbered 1,100 and 
1,215 in 1870. In 1880 the population was 1,336, but dropped to 
1,113 if^ 1890. In 1892 the town had 1,084 inhabitants. 

During the war of the Rebellion, Thurston sent ninety-eight men into 
the service. 

From early records we learn that the first school in this part of the 
town of Cameron was taught by Caroline Vinan on Bonny Hill in 18 18. 
However, previous to 1844 the general school history of Thurston was 
a part of the annals of the mother town, but still we may state that in 
1828 $100 was appropriated to build a frame school house, and that in 
December of that year the town voted " that all hardness and quarrel- 
ing in the district shall cease from this date, and we shall live in peace 
as neighbors ought to do." At the present time Thurston has eleven 
school districts, and eleven teachers are employed annually. The num- 
ber of children who attend school is 302. The value of school property 
is $5,550. In 1893-94 the town received of public moneys $1,286.33, 
and raised by local tax $1,121.66. 

TrouPSBURG. — In the southwestern part of Steuben county is 
located a civil division by the name of Troupsburg, so named in honor 
of Robert Troup, agent for the Pulteney Association. It was perhaps 
fortunate for Colonel Troup that this jurisdiction was created in 1808, 
for had that event been delayed twenty years it is doubtful whether the 
inhabitants would have been so well disposed to honor the former 
patron of their region. During the anti-rent conflict in 1830, and about 
that time, the agent, by reason of his trust capacity, was compelled to 
assume and maintain a somewhat determined attitude regarding the 
lands owned by his principals, and the settlers were not generally satis- 
fied with the measures of relief offered them. However, all things con- 
sidered, the town was worthily named. Moreover, it has always been 
regarded as one of the important towns of the county, notwithstanding 
its remote locality. 

Within its present boundaries Troupsburg contains 35,700 acres of 
land, being second in size in the county. As originally formed from 
Middletown and Canisteo, the town contained a vast area, eighteen 
miles long, east and west, and about ten miles wide. At that time it 
included half of township i, of range 4, also Nos. i in the 5th and 6th 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 157 

ranges, with the fourth part of No. 2 in the 4th range. An early 
writer of Troupsburg history says of the town in 181 1 : " No. i in the 
5th range is an excellent township, the hills low, and the timber maple, 
birch, basswood, walnut, &c. It has good mill sites on Tuscarora and 
Troup Creeks. No. 2 in the same range is also good, as is No. i in the 
6th range, the timber oak, walnut, elm, basswood, birch and maple. 
This town has been settled only since 1805, and is yet very wild. It 
has good iron ore." 

In the course of time, however, Troupsburg was called upon to sur- 
render portions of her territory to other formations. Parts of Green- 
wood and Jasper were taken off in 1827; part of Woodhull in 1828, 
while a portion of Canisteo was annexed to this town on April 4, 181 8. 
Therefore the original town of Troupsburg included at least portions of 
the present towns of Woodhull, Troupsburg, West Union, Greenwood 
and Jasper. 

It is a well known fact that in the town are some of the most elevated 
lands in the county, if not in the entire region, reaching at times the 
extreme height of 2,500 above tide. The settlement called High Up 
is indeed appropriately named. Troup's Creek is the principal water 
course. 

Among the earliest settlers in Troupsburg were Andrew Simpson, 
Ebenezer Spencer and Andrew Craig, all of whom raised families and 
were active and highly respected men in the region. Simpson did the 
the blacksmith work for his few neighbors, while pioneer Craig was en- 
ergetic in developing the early resources of the region, He made and 
marketed the first butter sent from the town, and it was his custom to 
take the season's products from the neighborhood and journey to Phila- 
delphia to make his sales. The Marlatt family was also prominent in 
the locality, some of its descendants, as well as those of the Craig 
family, gaining positions of importance in county affairs. Alanson 
Perry settled here in 1808, and Judge Mallory came about the same 
time. This, too, was a prominent family in the new region, and from 
them the locality known as Mallory's Settlement was named. We may 
also recall the name of Caleb Smith, Rev. Robert Hubbard, Nicholas 
Brutzman, Nathaniel Thacher, Jesse Lapham, Philip Cady, Elijah 
Hance, Reuben Stiles, Daniel Martin, Abner Thomas (the first school 



158 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

teacher, in 1809), Elihu Cady, Maj. Samuel Cady, Squire and Andy 
Reynolds, Lewis Hayes, Jonathan Rogers, Capt. George Martin (who 
built an early grist mill on Troup's Creek), Zadoc Bowen, Elder David 
Smith, Alanson Perry, Richard Phillips, James Carpenter, John Miller, 
and others now forgotten. All these were in some manner identified 
with early town history, many of them having descendants now living 
in the county, enjoying the fruits of the toil and example of their pio- 
neer ancestors A cotemporary writer has said : The early settlers of 
this region were drawn hither by all the variety of motives which in all 
parts of the country induce the pioneer to seek the frontier ; but the 
great prevailing motive was cheap land and long payments. The Pulte- 
ney and other estates were crowding their lands upon the market, and 
inducing settlement by low prices and long credit. Twenty shillings 
cash or three bushels of wheat per acre was the standard price of the 
land, with ten years, or longer if desired, for payment. After 1809 the 
migration was quite rapid and the lands were rapidly put under con- 
tract, the settlers finding it about all they could do to support their 
families and pay the taxes, and very few of them did more. 

However, the changes of four score years have indeed been wonder- 
ful. The old pioneers are all gone ; the troublesome times have passed 
away, and on all sides is seen the appearance of comfort and thrift; fine 
and well cultivated farms, and tasty dwellings, good out-buildings and 
splendid orchards, all unmistakably tell of the energy and perseverance 
of the sturdy pioneer and the equally industrious descendant. 

As we have stated, in 1808 the few inhabitants of this then extensive 
region founded a town, and named it Troupsburg. The first election 
of officers was held at the house of Daniel Johnson, in what is now 
Woodhull, in March, and these persons were chosen : Daniel Johnson, 
supervisor ; Samuel B. Rice, town clerk ; Stephen Dolson, Brown 
Gillespie and Elijah Cady, assessors; Uri Martin, Wm. Worley and 
Nathaniel Mallory, commissioner of highways ; Rezen Searse, collector 
and constable ; Daniel Johnson, overseer of the poor ; Elijah Cady, 
second poormaster; Caleb Smith, fence viewer. 

The supervisors of Troupsburg, in succession, have been as follows : 
Daniel Johnson, 1808-12; Charles Card, 1813-19; Samuel Cady, 1820- 
22; Adna B. Reynolds, 1823-25; Asher Johnson, 1826-27; Samuel 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 159 

Griggs, 1828-33 ; Wm. Card, 1834 ; Joshua Slayler, 1835 ; Win. Card, 
1836; Orange Perry, 1837-38; Alexander Tucker, 1839; Levi Grin - 
olds, 1840-42 Samuel Griggs, 1843 ; Bradshaw White, 1844 ; Nath- 
aniel Mallory, 1845 ! Alexander Tucker, 1846; Levi Grinolds, 1847-48; 
Wm. Ten Broeck, 1849-50; Levi Grinolds, 1851-52; Wm. Ten Broeck, 
1853-54; James B Murdock, 1855-58; Eleazer Fenton, 1859-60; 
Samuel Olmstead, 1861 ; Wm. Carpenter, 1862; Eleazer Fenton, 1863 
-64; James B. Murdock, 1865 ; Eleazer Fenton, 1866; John G. Lozier, 
1867-71 ; W. N. Griggs, 1872-73; Nathaniel M. Perry, 1874-75; 
Willis White, 1876-77 ; W. N. Griggs, 1878 ; Alfred Williams, 1879-80 ; 
Wm. H. Perry, 1881-82; W N. Griggs, 1883-84; Thomas R. Park, 
1885-86; Charles Marlatt, 1887-88; Hiram Olmsted, 1888-90; D, 
W. Hober, 1891-92; N. M. Brooks, 1893-95. 

In 1810, two years after its organization, this jurisdiction had a total 
population of only 292 inhabitants, but during the succeeding ten years 
the number increased to 650. In 1830, then being somewhat reduced 
in area by other town formations, the inhabitants numbered 666, and 
1,171 in 1840. In 1850 the population had still further increased to 
1,754, and in i860, to 2,096. Ten years later it had reached 2,281, 
and in 1880 was 2,494, the greatest number in its history. The popu- 
lation according to the census of 1890, was 2,174, and in 1892 was 
2171. 

During the period of local history known as the anti-rent conflict, 
the inhabitants of Troupsburg were not only much interested in occur- 
ring events, but were directly concerned for the safety of their lands, and 
iflocal tradition be reliable, here was a veritable hotbed of dissatisfaction 
and discontent, though the excitement of the time did not carry the peo- 
ple beyond a vigorous discussion of the several measures proposed for 
their reUef In the notable Bath convention the Troupsburg delegates 
were Samuel Cady, Samuel Griggs, Joshua Slayter, Jesse Wilden and 
Nathan S. Hayes. Mr. Griggs was one of the committee chosen to 
present to the proprietary the claims of the suffering settlers. 

Another noteworthy fact in connection with the history of this town, 
was the jecord made by its volunteers during the war of 1861-65. The 
roster discloses the fact that Troupsburg furnished for all branches of 
service a total of 222 men, who were chiefly distributed among the sev- 



160 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

eral regiments recruited in this county, wliile a number enlisted in other 
localities and a few in Pennsylvania. 

Gleaning from old records, we learn that the first child born in this 
town was Polly Young ; the first marriage that of Zebulon Tubbs and 
Sarah Rice, and the first death that of Jeremiah Martin. Lieut. Rey- 
nolds opened the first public house, four miles from the Center, and 
Ichabod Leach kept the first store two miles from the village. George 
Martin built the first grist mill at the village. Through the same chan- 
nel we also learn that the first school was taught by Abner Thomas, 
a little east of Troupsburg village. This mention naturally leads us to 
speak of the school system of the town at large, although imperfect 
records preclude the possibility of reliable information on this subject. 
Again, the several changes and reductions of territory necessitated fre- 
quent rearrangement of the old districts, no record of which seems to 
be preserved. As at present constituted, the town has eighteen school 
districts, including the academic school at Troupsburg village, in which 
were employed during the last current year, twenty teachers. The 
whole number of children attending school was 644. The value of all 
school property is $6,910. The town received pubHc moneys to the 
amount of $2,276.78, and raised by local tax $1,595.24. Forty trees 
were planted during the school year. 

Troupsburg has been called the town of many villages, but this is in 
no sense surprising when we consider the topographical features of the 
region. From the very earliest settlement the inhabitants established 
trading centers to suit their convenience, and in so large a town, and 
one so broken by valleys and ridges, the founding of frequent hamlets 
was but an act of prudence. Troupsburg village, or Center, is of first 
importance and is situate near the center ©f the town, while the West, 
South and East villages occupy the situations suggested by their re- 
spective names. High Up is the post-office name for West Troupsburg, 
and Young Hickory is in the southwest part of the town. 

TUSCARORA. — In many respects Tuscarora resembles Lindley in 
natural physical features, the one being crossed from south to north by 
Tuscarora Creek, while the Tioga River has the same course through 
Lindley. Both towns have the same character of hill ranges, the soil 
generally is much the same, and each has the advantages of a line of 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 161 

railroad intersecting its territory. Yet the early settlement of these 
towns was quite dissimilar, Lindley by a well equipped colony and 
Tuscarora by a pioneer with limited means and no companions, but an 
abundance of determination and energy that stood him in good stead in 
after years. 

According to conceded authority, the pioneer of township i, range 
2, was William Wombaugh, a former resident and native of New Jersey, 
who came to the Tuscarora valley in 1804 and purchased 187 acres of 
land. He engaged in lumbering quite extensively for the time, and 
also cleared a tract of land and raised grain. The latter commodity 
was much sought by later settlers, and the neighborhood of Wom- 
baugh's Mills early became a place of importance in local annals. In 
1806 pioneer Wombaugh built a grist mill on his land in the valley and 
this, in connection with his other enterprises, made him in all respects 
the leading man of the region ; a prominence well earned by an honest 
and industrious life, and all honors which came to him were worthily 
bestowed. In truth, the Wombaugh family were for many years 
millers and farmers, later generations succeeding the pioneer in his 
chosen pursuit. 

Among the early settlers in the valley of Tuscarora Creek were 
Amos Dolph, who located at the place called Carrtown, and still later 
as Addison Hill, in the southwest part of the town. Amos Towsley 
settled between Wombaugh's and the Hill in 18 16. Jesse Rowley came 
in 1804, a few months after Wombaugh, and settled at the "forks" of 
the creek. In the Rowley family were thirteen children, three of whom 
were natives of this valley. Jemima Rowley was the first child born in 
the town, the date being February, 1806. She became the wife of 
John Plimley. In 1816 Samuel Colgrove settled above Wombaugh's. 

About this time, from 1814 to 1818, settlement in this locality was 
quite rapid, and among the families who came during the period several 
may be mentioned. Still, a few came at an earlier date. Daniel Strait, 
an old Revolutionary soldier, came in 1809. Asabel Thomas came in 
1816; Joseph Gile settled on the Hill in 1824; John C. Orr located in 
the northeast part of the town about 18 16. Other members of the Orr 
family soon followed and from them the name " Orr Settlement" was 
given. They were an earnest and hard-working family and deserved 
21 



162 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

the position they held in the community. In the Mine Creek neigh- 
borhood Daniel Burdick and Andrew Crowl were early settlers. Rev. 
David Short, remembered for his zeal and earnest sincerity in endeavor- 
ing to promote the welfare of the Close Communion Baptist church, 
settled in 1823 near the State line, in the south part of the town. The 
Northrup settlement was made in 1825 by Warren and Benedict 
Northrup. Among the other early settlers in the south part were Rev. 
Aaron Baxter and family, also Alfred Nichols and Simeon Freeman, 
all members of one household. About 1830, Elder Baxter succeeded 
in gathering a number of settlers and forming the so-called Chenango 
county colony, and, still further, in forming a religious society with 
forty- six members. In his colony were James Sprague, MigemanTaft, 
David Hart, Samuel and Enoch Mack, Eliba Albee, David Hart and 
Samuel Smith, all of whom were welcome comers to the sparsely settled 
town and by whose labors the lands were cleared and good farms 
opened. The satpe statement may be made of Justus Wright, John 
Webster, Capt. Joseph Manley, and others whose names are lost with 
the lapse of years. 

These early inhabitants of the Tuscarora valley were a hardy and 
determined set of men, to whom the ordinary privations of pioneership 
were not a discouraging obstacle. At that time their township formed 
a part oi the older jurisdiction of Addison, the village being several 
miles distant, while the county seat was at least twenty-five miles 
away. However, glancing back into the early history of the mother 
town, we find frequent mention of residents in township i, range 3, 
some of whom attained positions of prominence in local affairs. A 
visit to the valley of Tuscarora Creek will at once convince the observ- 
ing traveler of the fact that the settlers here built " from the stump," 
and " builded firmly." Indeed, it was no small loss to Addison to be 
bereft of these lands as part of her jurisdiction, yet necessity and the 
public convenience demanded a division of the mother town. How- 
ever, before this was done Tuscarora passed through many periods of 
civil and political disturbance, notably the war of 181 2, and still later 
the anti rent controversy, though local interests were little affected by 
either event. 

The proposition for the new town came regularly before the Board of 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTT. 163 

Supervisors on the 13th of December, 1859, and, meeting with no 
serious objection, was carried, and the new creation was called 
" Orrville." This name, however, was soon changed to "Tuscarora," 
in allusion to the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy, who were 
received by Indian adoption in 1712. By designation, the first, meeting 
of electors in the new town was held on the 14th of February, i860, at 
the dwelling house of Oliver Moore, at which time officers were chosen 
as follows : 

Jesse W. Rowley, supervisor ; George W. Webb, town clerk ; Myron 
M. Manley, James Lemunyan and Charles W. Robinson, justices of the 
the peace ; Lorenzo Wettenhall, Joseph Oakden and Lansing Hand, 
assessors; Philip W. Perkins, commissioner of highways ; G. H. Free- 
man, collector. 

In i860, the year following that in which the town was formed, the 
inhabitants of Tuscarora numbered 1,566, the greatest number attained 
during the period of its history. In 1870 the population was 1,528 ; in 
1880 was 1,534 ; in 1890 was 1,438, and in 1892, as shown by the State 
count made that year, was 1,393. 

The succession of supervisors (chief town officers) in Tuscarora has 
been as follows: Jesse W. Rowley, i860; Nehemiah Manley, 1861 ; 
Jesse W. Rowley, 1862; William Wombaugh, 1863-74; Mordecai 
Casson, jr., 1875; Jesse W. Rowley, 1876; George Freeman, 1877-80; 
C. H. Rowley, 1881-82; Edward Young, 1883; A. S. Hamilton, 1884- 
85 ; J. E. Lemunyan, 1886 ; G. H. Freeman, 1887-89 ; Edward Young, 
1890-91 ; A. S. Hamilton, 1892-95. 

Tne officers of the town for the year 1895 are A. S. Hamilton, super- 
visor ; Atwood Weeks, town clerk ; Cornelius J. Smith, Jason McMinds, 
John Casson and Frank Baxter, justices of the peace; William Murray, 
Henry Smith and Charles Bottum, assessors ; James Simpson, collector ; 
Edward Young, overseer of the poor; Albert Lemunyan, commissioner 
of highways; Austin Benedict, A. Andrews and Hugh McTamany, 
commissioners of excise. 

The educational system of Tuscarora previous to the formation of a 
separate jurisdiction of course was a part of the system then employed 
in Addison from which this town was taken ; but after the separation 
the new town was divided into districts and a school maintained in each. 



164 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

As now constituted the districts are fourteen in number, and the whole 
number of children in the town is 323. Eleven teachers are annually 
employed. The total value of all school property is $4,440, and the 
assessed valuation of the districts in 1894 was $430,585. The town 
contains 22,400 acres of land. In the year last mentioned Tuscarora 
received of public school moneys $1,318, and raised by school tax 
$1,228. Seventeen trees were planted by pupils in 1894. 

During the period of the war of 1861-65, Nehemiah Manley, Jesse 
W. Rowley and William Wombaugh held the then very responsible and 
difficult position of supervisor, and, during their respective terms of 
office, were intimately identified with the war measures adopted by the 
town. Tuscarora was known as one of the loyal regions of the county, 
and responded freely and promptly to every call for volunteers, exhibit- 
ing a truly loyal and martial spirit. The town furnished for the service 
a total of 155 men, scattered through the several regiments recruited in 
the county, while a number joined Pennsylvania commands. 



CHAPTER XI. 
THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 

Urbana. — In the spring of the year 1793, William and Thomas 
Aulls left their former home in Lancaster, Penn., determined to establish 
for themselves and family a permanent abode in the new yet widely 
known Genesee country. They visited Geneva and Bath, both of which 
were primitive settlements, and finally made their way toward the head 
of famed Lake Keuka. This journey naturally led the travelers into the 
beautiful Pleasant Valley country where they found lands suited to their 
wishes, and here the senior Aulls located his purchase and built a cabin 
on what has been known as the Decker farm. This was the first civil- 
ized settlement within the present town of Urbana, although the country 
had been frequently traversed between Bath and other southern settle- 
ments, and Geneva and Canandaigua. Through the valley was the 
principal Indian trail leading to the head of the lake and thence down 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 165 

the same on both east and west sides After clearing and planting suf- 
ficient for the necessities of his family during the coming winter, the 
senior Aulls returned to Pennsylvania and brought the other members 
of his household to their new home. 

In the fall of the same year (1793), Samuel Baker also built a cabin 
and made an improvement in the locality, and in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year, brought his family to the valley, accompanied or closely 
followed by Richard Daniels and Amos Stone William Read came 
about the same time and has been mentioned as the third settler in the 
town. Other pioneers were Abram and Jonas Brundage, John Faulk- 
ner, Captain Shether and Eli Read. The Faulkner improvement was 
purahased in 1807, by Cornelius Younglove. Captain Shether pur- 
chased and located on the site of the present progressive village of 
Hammondsport, his deed bearing the date 1796, and his lands embrac- 
ing 146 acres. The property was afterward transferred to William 
Root and by the latter to Lazarus Hammond, and from the last men- 
tioned we have the name — Hammondsport. 

Recalling briefly the names of other early settlers and residents in 
this locality, may be mentioned Daniel Bennitt, Robert Harrison, Caleb 
Chapman, the proprietor of the first log tavern at North Urbana, 
Stephen Kingsley, Abram Depew, John Walters, Obediah Wheeler, 
Reuben Hall, Andrew Layton, Erastus Webster, David Hutches, 
Samuel Drew, John Daniels, Samuel Townsend, Joseph Rosencranz, and 
others whose names are now lost. Many of these early settlers were 
natives of New England and several of them had served during the 
Revolutionary war, a few as officers in the service. The first birth in 
the town was that of Samuel Baker, jr.; the first marriage that of 
Jonathan Barney and Polly Aulls in 1794; the first death that of John 
Phillips, 1794 ; Eliphalet Norris taught the first school in the valley in 
1795 ; Caleb Chapman kept the first tavern at North Urbana; Henry 
A. Townsend opened the first store at Cold Spring in 1815; John 
Shether built the first saw mill in 1795, and Gen. George McClure built 
the first grist mill in 1802. 

From what has been stated the reader will at once discover that the 
the early settlement of this part of the county was accomplished rapidly. 
In truth, in all the vast area of land in Steuben no portion possessed 



166 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

greater beauty or more natural advantages than did this locality at the 
head of the lake and extending thence up the fertile Pleasant Valley. 
This prominence has continued to the present day, although the character 
of the occupancy and the pursuits of the inhabitants have materially 
changed. Urbana has become a vineyard and fruit township, and as 
such enjoys a State-wide and enviable reputation. Even to the tops of 
her highest hills, some of which have an altitude of a thousand feet, the 
vineyards extend, and in all localities are fine farms and inviting places 
of abode and pleasure. These natural advantages have combined to 
make this town one of the most valuable and also one of the most 
interesting in the whole Genesee country. 

Indeed, so rapidly were the lands taken up by early settlers that in 
1825 there dwelt in the town no less than 966 inhabitants, and at that 
time the hamlet we now call Hammondsport was only a scattered settle- 
ment, while lake traffic was so limited as to be hardly a factor in local 
growth. On the 17th of April, 1822, the town of Urbana was set ofif 
from Bath and given a separate organization. In 1839 a part was re- 
annexed to Bath, while in the same year a portion of Wheeler was an- 
nexed to Urbana; also a small part from Pulteney on April 12, 1848. 
As now constituted this town contains 25,200 acres of land, and has a 
population (1890) of 2,590. 

The organization meeting was held in the school house in Pleasant 
Valley, on the first Tuesday in March, 1823, at which time officers were 
elected as follows : Henry A. Townsend, supervisor; Lazarus Hammond, 
town clerk ; Andrew Layton, Henry Griffin and Abram Brundage, 
assessors ; Obediah Wheeler, Reuben Hall and Abram Brundage, com- 
missioners of highways ; Samuel Baker and William Read, overseers of 
the poor; Caleb Rogers, Stephen Kingsley and William H. Ennis, 
constables 

In this connection it is also proper to furnish the succession of super- 
visors, as follows : Henry A. Townsend, 1823-31 ; John P. Popino, 1832 
and 1835-37; William Baker, 1833-34; Amasa Church, 1838; Jacob 
Larrowe, 1839; Obediah Wheeler, 1840-41 and 1844; Peter Houck, 
1842-43; Wm. Baker, 1845; Aaron Coggswell, 1846; J. J. Poppino, 
1847-48 and 1850; John W. Davis, 1849; John Randel, 1851-52; A. 
S. Brundage, 1853; M, Brown, 1854; Orlando Shepard, 1855-56; 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 167 

John Randel, 1857 ; John W. Taggert, 1858 and 1860-62 ; Joseph A. 
Crane, 1859; Benjamin Myrtle, 1863-65 and 1869-71; Absalom 
Hadden, 1866-68 and 1872; G.W.Nichols, 1873-75; R- Longwell, 
1876; Charles L. Bailey, 1877-78; B. F. Drew, 1879-80; Adsit Bailey. 
1881-85; H. J. Moore, 1886-87; J- H. Keeler, 1888; George H. 
Keeler, 1889-90; H.J. Moore, 1891-93; H. M. Champlin, 1894-95-. 

The town officers for the year 1895 ^""^ Harry M. Champlin, super- 
visor ; Lemuel J. Benham, town clerk ; Benjamin J. Wright, Frank H. 
Hunt, George W. Hubbs and David Longwell, justices of the peace ; 
Joseph Smith, collector; George Austin, overseer of the poor; Robert 
L. Snow, highway commissioners; Theodore Hamilton, George Vrooman 
and Eugene La Rue, excise commissioners. 

In the preceding portion of this chapter there has been narrated a 
brief account of the civil history of the town of Urbana. It began 
that history with the organization in 1823, and from that to the 
present time the record of the town has been one of almost con- 
tinuous and uninterrupted progress. Noting its gradual growth, we 
may state that in 1825 the population of the town was 966, and in 
1830 had increased to 1,288. During the next ten years the inhab- 
itants increased in number to 1,884, ''nd in 1850 to 2,079. I" i860 
the number was 1,983, and 2,082 in 1870. Ten years later the pop- 
ulation was 2,318, and still further increased to 2,590 in 1890 Ac- 
cording to the enumeration made in 1892, the town had a population 
of 2,542. 

During the famous anti-rent conflict in 1830, and about that time, 
the inhabitants of this town were quite seriously affected by the dis- 
cussion of the period, and some of the men of Urbana were prominently 
identified with the proposed measures for relief. The delegates to the 
Bath convention were Henry A. Townsend. John Sanford, jr., John 
Powers, Elias Ketchum and Dyer Cranmer. 

Again, during the war of 1861, the record of the volunteers from the 
town forms a bright page in local history, for no less than 200 men of 
Urbana were enlisted in all branches of the service. At that time the 
population was 1,983, and the records show that fully ten per cent, of 
the whole number were contributed to the town's quota. 

No less interesting is the history of the educational system of the 



168 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

town at large, for the fact is well authenticated that the inhabitants of 
Urbana have ever made generous provision for the support of public 
schools. As early as the year 1823 Edward Townsend, Franklin Baker 
and William Read, commissioners of common schools, divided the town 
into school districts, seven in number, and a school was at once es- 
tablished in each. In 1827 the town received of public moneys $59.76, 
and a like amount was raised by local tax. In this manner the 
system was established, and from it the present condition of schools has 
grown. As now constituted the town has twelve districts, and each 
has a suitable school house. During the last current year eighteen 
teachers were employed. The value of school property in the town is 
estimated at $19,450. The amount of public moneys received was 
$2,219.75, and the town raised by tax the additional sum of $5,440.83. 

Still further referring to the subject of early schools in Urbana, we 
may quote briefly from Mrs. Bennitt's narrative: "In 1795 the agent 
of the Pulteney estate gave to William Read, Amos Stone and Samuel 
Baker, and their heirs, fifty acres of land for school purposes. After- 
ward by an act of the Legislature, it was made over to the trustees and 
their successors in office, and at the present time is doing the work in- 
tended by Charles Williamson. The first school house was built in 
1795, and Eliphalet Norris was the first teacher. Mr. Williamson's 
offer of land for school purposes was made to other districts to induce 
settlement, but Pleasant Valley people were the only ones who took 
legal measures to secure the land." 

In this chapter not more than a passing allusion has been made to the 
pleasant and progressive village of Hammondsport, nor to any of the 
institutions of the corporation. In accordance with the plan of this 
work, such mention is reserved for another department, to which the 
attention of the reader is directed. (See Municipal History.) In the 
same manner, also, in the Ecclesiastical history will be found men- 
tion of the several church organizations of the village and town. 

Wayland. — This town is one of the younger civil divisions of the 
county, and was formed from Cohocton and Dansville. April 12, 1848. 
A part of Fremont was taken off in 1854, and as now constituted Way- 
land contains 23,400 acres of land. Its surface is an upland, rolhng in 
the north and moderately hilly in the south, yet possesses natural re- 




MARTIN PINNEY. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 169 

sources far superior to many of the interior towns of the county. The 
highest ridges approximate i,8oo feet above tide, and form a portion of 
the watershed between Lake Ontario and the Susquehanna. Loon and 
Mud Lakes are situated in the rich valley in the south part of the town, 
but thfir waters flow in opposite directions. Loon Lake has a sub- 
terranean outlet for half a mile and when it comes to the surface the 
volume of water is sufficient to form a valuable mill stream. The town 
was named not in honor of Rev. Dr. Francis Wayland of Rhode 
Island, as has been stated, but in allusion to the hymn called " Way- 
land," which Mr. Patchin sang at a fortunate moment. 

Many of the early settlers in this town were Germans, the pioneer 
being Adam Zimmerman, who in 1806 settled where the railroad depot 
now stands in the village. The other pioneers were Capt. Thomas 
Bowles, Mr. Bowen and John Hume, who came in the year 1808, also 
Mr. Hicks, in 1810, and Thomas Begole in 1814, all locating in the 
north part. The Loon Lake vicinity was settled in 1813 by Salmon, 
James and Elisha Brownson, Isaac Willie, Osgood Carleton and Solomon 
Draper. The central portion was settled at the same time, its pioneers 
being Demas Hess, John Hess, Samuel Draper, Benjamin Perkins (for 
whom Perkinsville is named), Walter Patchin, founder of the settlement 
known as Patchin's Mills ; and others whose names are now forgotten. 
Peter Shafer located on the road leading to Dansville, and for many 
years kept tavern and did blacksmithing. 

Among the early settlers, as we have intimated, was a strong con- 
tingent of Germans ; hardy, determined, and active men, not easily dis- 
mayed or discouraged by obstacles, for half-hearted pioneers could 
never have gained a substantial foothold in Wayland, as we are told 
that this region was hard to settle and develop. In the early popula- 
tion was also a fair proportion of New Englanders and a few Pennsyl- 
vanians, and all seem to have worked earnestly and unitedly, and to-day 
the results of well expended energy is apparent, for in point of resources 
and general productiveness Wayland ranks well up among the towns of 
the county. Circumstances, too, have done much for our town, as the 
railroads have afforded facilities for the shipment of products which the 
majority of towns do not possess. Small wonder is it, therefore, that 
in this extreme northwest corner of the county we find as early as 1825 
22 



170 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

a stable and progressive settlement, with mills and fine farms in 
active operation and an era of prosperity prevailing on every hand. 

Referring briefly to some of the early institutions of Wayland, we 
may state that the first saw mill was built by Benjamin Perkins ; the 
first grist mill by Dugald Cameron and Abijah Fowler, in 1816. 
Samuel Taggart kept one of the first taverns, in 1827 ; the first store- 
keeper was James L. Monier, in 1830; the first school was taught by 
Thomas Wilbur, in 181 1. Erastus Ames was the noted hunter of the 
region. Dr. Warren Patchin built a hotel at Patchin's Mills in 1824, 
and for him the hamlet was named. The grist and saw mills here he 
also built, and they were kept in operation by his son for many years. 
The saw mill was built in 1820; the grist mill two years later. The 
plank road from Patchinville to Dansville was constructed about 1842. 
Outside of these old industries Patchin's Mills, or Patchinville, has not 
attracted any considerable attention to the history of the town. The 
same may also be said of the locality known as Loon Lake, although in 
connection with the latter, during recent years, an attempt was made to 
establish a summer resort, but with indifferent success. Wayland in 
the north part, and Perkinsville near the center of the town, are 
thriving villages, and are the centers of rich agricultural regions. The 
town at large yields well in farm products, potatoes being the special 
crop grown and affording excellent returns. 

In pursuance of the act creating the town the meeting for the elec- 
tion of officers was held at the house of Cameron Patchin, May 2, 1848, 
and resulted as follows : John Hess, supervisor; Samuel W. Epley, town 
clerk ; M. M. Patchin, Amos Knowlton, Chauncey Moore and Gardner 
Pierce, justices; R. M. Patchin, David Poor and David Brownson, as- 
sessors. The statement may be made that Supervisor Hess and Justices 
Patchin and Knowlton were previous officers of the mother town, and 
were continued in the new creation under the erecting act. 

The succession of supervisors in Wayland is as follows : John Hess 
1848-50, 1852 and 1855-57; Daniel Poor, 1851 ; David Poor, 1853; 
M. M, Patchin, 1854; James G. Bennett, 1858-63, 1866 and 1875-76; 
James P. Clark, 1864-65 and 1867; James Redmond, 1868 and 1870- 
71 ; H. A. Avery, 1869; Martin Kimmel, 1872-73 and 1879-80 ; Jacob 
Morsch, 1874; F. E. Holliday, 1877 ; John M. Folts, 1878 ; G. E. Whit 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. ITI 

man, 1881-83; H. J. Rosenkrans, 1884-85; J. P. Morsch, 1886-87; 
Andrew Granger, 1888; W. W. Capron, 1889; J. B. Whitman, 1890- 
92; H. S. Rosenkrans, 1893; John P. Morsch, 1894-95. 

The officers for 1895 are John P. Morsch, supervisor; George Nold, 
town clerk ; Peter H. Zimmerman, H. S. Rosencrans, Peter Didas, jr., 
and Wm. Schuts, justices ; John E. Bennett, F. E. HolHday and Wm. 
Wolfanger, assessors ; Henry Schumaker, collector ; John A. Sehwingle, 
overseer of the poor ; Martin Kimmel, jr., highway commissioner ; G. 
D. Abrams, Sylvester Dodge and C. S. Fults, excise commissioners. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Wayland is regarded as one of the most 
progressive towns of the county, the truth remains that the population 
in 1892 was not so large as in i860. Then the inhabitants numbered 
2,809, ^^ against 2,375 ^^ the last enumeration. This somewhat un- 
natural condition is accounted for in the fact that the young men have 
left the farms for city life, and that all agricultural interests during the 
last twenty-five years have materially declined ; and whatever growth 
has been shown is confined chiefly to the villages of Wayland and 
Perkinsville, both enterprising municipalities within the limits of the 
town. 

During the war of 1861-65 Wayland contributed to the regiments 
of this State a total of 239 men, certainly a splendid record, though 
many of the volunteers enlisted in adjoining counties. 

Previous to 1848 the schools of Wayland were a part of the history 
of the towns from which it was formed, and when this town was organ- 
ized its territory was divided into nine districts, in each of which a 
school was provided. Then the school population was about 1,000 
children. There are now eleven districts, with 400 children attending 
school, outside Wayland village. There are also employed fourteen 
teachers. In 1893-4 the town raised by tax for school purposes the 
sum of $3,104.83, and received of public moneys the sum of $1,635.85. 

Wayne. — In 1793 Frederick Bartles, or Bartels, built a mill on the 
outlet of Mud Lake, and the grateful agent, Charles Williamson, in 
whose employ Bartles was, caused the original town of Frederickstown 
to be named in allusion to the industrious German pioneer. The town 
as formed March 18, 1796, comprised all that is now Wayne, Bradford, 
Barrington, Starkey, Tyrone, Reading and Orange. On the 6th of 



172 tAHDMARKS OF STEUBEN OOTTNTY. 

April, 1808, the name Frederickstown was dropped and Wayne adopted 
in its stead ; and so called in honor of General Wayne, better known, 
however, as " Mad Anthony " Wayne, the famous Indian fighter whose 
deeds of valor are recorded on the page of history. 

By frequent reductions in its territory, caused by the formation of 
various towns, Wayne now has an area of only 12,400 acres, and is the 
smallest in size of the civil divisions of Steuben county. Its location in 
the extreme northeast corner of the county, though somewhat remote 
from the county seat, is nevertheless favorable, as it has a desirable 
water front on Lake Keuka on the west and Lake Waneta on the east. 
The entire western slope forms almost one vast and entire vineyard, 
while the hill tops and eastern portions have excellent agricultural lands. 
The soil is a gravelly and slaty loam underlaid with hardpan. 

The pioneers of this locality made their improvements as early as the 
year 1791, the first settlers being Zepaniah Hoff, Henry Mapes, Widow 
Jennings and Solomon Wixson, while Enos, Jonas and James Silsbee, 
Abraham Hendricks, Joshua Smith, John Holdridge, Elijah Reynolds 
and Ephriam Tyler came at such an early day as to entitle them to 
mention as pioneers. Among the other early settlers we may recall 
Ephraim Sanford, from Pennsylvania, a former Revolutionary soldier, 
also Anthony Swarthout, Jabez Hopkins, Aaron Olmstead, the black- 
smith and tool- maker, Thomas Bennett, Thomas Margeson, Henry 
Houck, Isaac Northrup, Edward Baker, Israel R. Wood, Joseph Bailey 
(another old Revolutionary survivor), George Hunter, John Earnest, 
blacksmith, Simeon Hackett, John Teeples and others. 

Charles Williamson, agent for the Pulteney Association, expended 
considerable money in improving farms in this locality, and in the 
progress of his work gave employment to a number of men. He also 
placed tenants on several of the farms in the hope of ultimately effect- 
ing a sale of his lands, but the action of his proprietors in stopping his 
operations was the cause of much feeling, and the abandonment of the 
improvements, in many cases, to the great loss of merchants doing busi- 
ness in Bath who had " trusted " these tenants for goods sold them. 
But, notwithstanding the embarrassments and obstacles against which 
the early settlers of Wayne were obliged to contend, the town increased 
quite rapidly in population and the development of the resources of the 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 173 

region, and the year 1800 found the number of inhabitants in the 
district to be 258. Ten years later the number was 1,025, and in 1820 
wa^ 3,607. However, during years following, the frequent divisions of 
the original territory of Wayne reduced the population very materially, 
and in 1830 the number was only 1,172. In 1840 it was i,377; in 
1850 was 1,347 ; in i860 was 944; in 1870 was 891 ; in 1880 was 827, 
and in 1890 was 889. 

As has been stated the town was set off as a separate jurisdiction, 
March 18, 1796. although it appears that no organization was effected 
until 1 801 ; at least the records disclose no town meetings previous to 
that time. The first supervisor was Benjamin Wells, and the first clerk 
was Joshua Smith, the latter holding ofifice continuously for seven years. 

The succession of supervisors has been as follows : Benjamin Wells, 
1801-3 ; John Dow, 1804; Jacob Teeple, 1805-7; John Teeple, 1808- 
16; William Kernan, 1817-18; John Teeple, 1819-21 ; David Hall, 
1822; Wm. E. Wells, 1823-26; Geo. Hunter, 1827-29; Wm. Birdsall, 
1830-31 ; Geo. Hunter, 1832-33; Matthew McDowell, 1834-35; Or- 
lando Comstock, 1836-37 and 1840; Jno. P. Lozier, 1838; Jacob 
Teeple, 1841 ; Levi Knox, 1842; Daniel W. Sunderlin, 1843; Harvey 
Hill, 1844; Andrew D. Swarthout, 1845-47; Jno. B. Mitchell, 1848- 
49; Geo. Schuyler, 1850-51, 1854 and 1861 ; Joseph Eveland, 1852; 
Joseph Roat, 1853 and 1 867-68 ; Ansel H. Williams, 1854 ; Robert 
Biggars, 1855 ; Amos Wortman, 1856-57; Jno. B. Birdseye, 1858-59; 
Jno. J. Earnest, i860; Bela Bonny, 1862; Joel Wixson, 1863-64; 
Chas. D. Wells, 1865-66; Thos. E. Walsh, 1869-70; Chas. K. Miner, 
1871-74; James Wixson, 1875 and 1877; Solomon R, Wixson, 1876 
and 1878; Madison Cameron, 1879-82; D. Swarthout, 1883-84; Ly- 
man Aulls, 1885-93; Anson Wright, 1894-95. 

The officers of Wayne for the year 1895 are as follows : Anson 
Wright, supervisor ; James M. Washburn, town clerk ; D. Hover, 
Thomas Bailey, George P. Lord and James H. Pitcher, justices ; Chas. 
C. Campbell, Thomas Anderson and W. E. Swarthout, assessors ; Frank 
Covel, collector; Solomon R. Wixson, highway commissioner ; Thomas 
Best, overseer of the poor ; Hiram Rapplee, Arthur D. Graw and Almon 
Barrett, excise commissioners. 

As at present constituted Wayne is one of the most interesting and 



174 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

favorably situated towns of Steuben county, and in the development of 
its natural resources it has become one of the best vineyard districts in 
the region. Added to this is its value as an agricultural town, while 
the building up of large hotels and pleasure resorts along the Keuka 
front have combined to increase local prosperity. In the early history 
of the county the town was hardly more than a passive factor, yet the 
people of Wayne have ever enjoyed the reputation of making their 
presence felt in all measures tending to the public good. In the great 
anti-rent conflict of 1830, and about that time, the local inhabitants 
took a prominent part in the passing events, and they were worthily 
represented in the Bath convention by Latham Fitch, John H. Sher- 
wood and Thornton F. Curry. During the war of the Rebellion, as 
commonly known, where true patriotism as well as loyalty and states- 
manship were essential elements of success, the town proved equal to 
every demand made upon it and furnished for the service a total of 
eighty- five men; a record certainly praiseworthy when we consider the 
fact that in i860 the inhabitants numbered only 944. 

During the period of its history, there have been built up within the 
town two small hamlets, known as Wayne village and Wayne Four 
Corners, while the chief importance of Keuka is derived from its ship- 
ping advantages during the warm months. In winter it is an almost 
deserted locality. These villages, with their respective interests, are 
mentioned in another department of this work. 

West Union. — On the 2Sth day of April, 1845, the State Legisla- 
ture divided the town of Greenwood, and taking substantially township 
one, of range six, erected it into a separate jurisdiction under the name 
of West Union, Then, and now, the new creation contained 23,900 acres 
of land, being nearly as large as the mother township from which it was 
formed. It was the design of the promoters of the new town scheme to 
adopt the name Green, in allusion to the mother town, but as Chenango 
county had a town named Greene the petition was changed and the 
name of Union adopted. This also was found to be in conflict with the 
name of an existing town in Broome county, therefore West Union was 
accepted as the designation of the new formation. 

The town occupies a position in the extreme southwest corner of the 
county, Pennsylvania line being its south boundary with the Allegany 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 175 

county line on the west. Rexville, the only village of any note in the 
town, is distant thirty miles from Bath and nineteen miles from Hornells- 
ville. The land surface is hilly and broken, the highest summits being 
about 2,500 feet above tidewater. Bennett's Creek is the principal 
stream. The soil is a heavy, slaty loam. 

The pioneer settlement of the town of West Union, then, however, 
known as Troupsburg, was begun about the year 1821, when Abraham 
V. Olmstead came from Delaware county and made a clearing on the 
site of the present village of Rexville. Later on Mr. Olmstead erected 
the first tavern in the town, and his son Walter B. was born November 
4, 1823, also the first event of its kind in the town. About the same 
time, probably in 1821, came Jonathan and John Mattison and David 
Davis, and located in the east part. The other pioneers were William 
Burger, also from Delaware county, Frederick Hauber from Pennsyl- 
vania, Uriah and B. Ingley, Vencent Compton and his sons William 
and Vincent, Adam Young, William Bray, John Wiley, William Fisher, 
Benjamin Wilkes, William and Ephraim Young, Henry Young, Daniel 
Hamilton, David Baker, Stephen Boyd and others whose names are 
now forgotten. Henry Young settled at West Union Corners. John 
Wiley settled near where the hamlet of Wileysville was afterward 
built up. 

In the north part of West Union there settled about the year 1840 a 
number of hardworking Irishmen, from whose coming there eventually 
grew a strong settlement. Among the first of them were John Sheehan, 
Dennis Malone, Luke Fox and others. Some of the later settlers in the 
town at large were Philip Failing, Mr. Bigelow, Abel Mattison, David 
Sherman (the pioneer dairyman of West Union, and also first supervisor 
of the town) Alvin Chapin, Alexander Keenan, Daniel Hamilton, 
Charles and Daniel Rexford and others now forgotten. 

It is a well known fact that settlement in this particular locality was 
materially delayed, a large share of the land being owned in England 
and by heirs who were under age. The settlers in this township in 
1830 were somewhat affected by the distress prevailing among the occu- 
pants of the Pulteney and Hornby estates, but at that time this territory 
formed a part of Troupsburg, and the settlers in that town were the 
most active in all local proceedings. The delegates to the Bath con- 



176 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

vention were Samuel Cady, Samuel Griggs, Joshua Slayter, Jesse Wil- 
den and Nathan S. Hayes. 

Referring briefly to the first events of town history we may mention 
that Walter B. Olmstead was the first white child born ; Abram 01m- 
stead kept the first tavern in a log house on the village site ; the first 
marriage was that of John Hauber and Jane K. Hauber, May i8, 1832- 
Uriah Stephens taught the first school, about 1830; Jesse Jones and 
Dr. Cyrus Knight were about the first storekeepers ; John Wiley built 
the first saw and grist mill in 1849-50. 

The erection and organization of a new town in the southwestern part 
of Steuben county was an absolute necessity. In the old town of 
Greenwood, the center of population and business lay in the northern 
part of that jurisdiction, and nearly all the principal officers chosen for 
the town also lived in the same locality. The result was the inhabitants 
of what is now West Union were denied privileges and improvements 
to which they were justly entitled. This being the case, the residents 
in the neglected locality petitioned for the erection of a new town, and 
West Union was the result of that action. The first election of town 
officers was held at the house of John Hauber on May 6, 1845. The 
officers elected were David Sherman, supervisor ; Moses Forbes, town 
clerk ; Jeremiah B. Millard, Cornelius Rosa and William H. Olmstead, 
justices of the peace ; David Collins, Peter A. McLean and Marcina 
Cummings, assessors ; Jeremiah B. Millard, Jeremiah Ingley and Alvin 
Chapin, commissioners of highway ; Thomas F. Hubbard and Henry 
B. Baker, overseers of the poor; Walter B. Olmstead, collector. 

David Sherman held the office of supervisor twelve years, and Moses 
Forbes was town clerk for six years. A succession of the several town 
officers would be interesting in this connection, but unfortunately in 
188 1, at the time the cheese factory was burned, the town records were 
also destroyed. 

The officers for the year 1895 are as follows : W. P. Cary, supervisor; 
U. E. Vanfleet, town clerk; A. W. Barney, George Dennison and 
Andrew Boucher, justices of the peace; Palmer Warfield, Norman 
Haseltine and Josiah Sanders, assessors; Hiram Barney, collector; 
Philip R. Sanders, overseer of the poor ; Archie McAllister, highway 
commissioner ; David Smith, John Lewis and William Anderson, com- 
missioners of excise. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 177 

West Union had a population of 1,150 in 1892. When organized in 
1845 the inhabitants numbered 539. Five years later the number. was 
950, and in i860 had increased to 1,392, the greatest population in the 
town's history. In 1870 the number was reduced to 1,264, ^'^'^ '" 
1880 was 1,271. The population in 1890 was 1,167. 

Among the civil divisions of Steuben county, this town has not 
occupied a position of special prominence, nor have her inhabitants ever 
sought to establish a condition of things other than for their own gen- 
eral welfare and for the benefit of their descendants. Still, the region 
is the comfortable abiding- place of a hardy, thrifty and persevering 
class of people, whose chief pursuits in life is agriculture, while lumber- 
ing for many years has also engaged the attention of a strong con- 
tingent of the local population. In fact, in this part of the county set- 
tlement was much delayed and not until within a comparatively recent 
period have the lands been generally cleared ; and even now there still 
remains considerable areas of excellent timber lands. In farm crops 
the land yields well in return to proper cultivation, while the dairy pro- 
ducts of West Union are recognized as standard throughout the county. 
But notwithstanding the disadvantages of location and the many other 
obstacles which the inhabitants of West Union have had to contend 
against, they have ever shown themselves to be a loyal and patriotic 
people. During the period of the war of the Rebellion the loyalty of 
the people displayed itself, and we find that the town sent to the service 
a total of sixty men. They were divided among several regiments, 
principally the 86th, the 107th and the 141st. 

During the period of its history, there has been built up in the town 
one small yet progressive village, known as Rexville, and two other 
settlements of less note, and known respectively as West Union and 
Wileyville. West Union is but a post-office station in the northwest 
corner of the town, postmaster, Alvin C. Barney. Wileyville is in the 
southwest corner of the town, the postmaster, also merchant, being 
Frederick Stebbins. The village of Rexville, and also its churches, will 
be mentioned in another department of this work. 

Wheeler. — In 1820 a large portion of land was taken from Bath 
and Prattsburg and erected into a separate jurisdiction by the name of 
Wheeler ; and so named in honor of Capt Silas Wheeler, the pioneer 
23 



178 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

of the locality, and one of the most worthy men of his time. Captain 
Wheeler came from Albany county in 1799, and brought to the new 
region a splendid record of military service during the Revolutionary 
war. At the famous battle at Quebec he stood near the brave Mont- 
gomery when he fell. During the war Captain Wheeler was four times 
taken prisoner but generally managed to effect an escape with little 
difficulty. In this region, especially during the pioneer period, the 
Wheeler family occupied a position of importance and prominence, and 
was identified with many works of progress. Therefore the name of 
the new town was worthily bestowed. 

However, other worthy pioneers and families came into this region 
soon after Captain Wheeler, and the names of many of them can be re- 
called. Nathan Rose came in 1804 and married Ruth Wheeler, and 
about the same time came William Holmes, who married Sarah Wheeler. 
Levi Gray was another early settler and was the first postmaster in the 
town. Turner Gardiner settled in this part of the then town of Bath in 
1799, soon after the Wheeler family, while Col. Jonathan Barney and 
Thomas Aulls came in 1800. Philip Myrtle settled here in 1802, and 
Otto Marshall and others named Bear, Ferval and Rifle in 1803. 
Daniel Marshall, a Prussian, came to the locality in 18 10. Gen. Otto 
F. Marshall, for many years a prominent man in county affairs, was a 
son of Daniel Marshall. 

George Reuchan also came from Albany county and settled in the 
town. He died in the service during the second war with Great 
Britain. John Casper Overhiser came from Otsego county in 181 1, 
and settled on West Creek. He died in the town in 18 17, in his ninetieth 
year, and was specially noted for his large family, he having had 
eighteen children by his two marriages ; and all these sons and daugh- 
ters grew to maturity. Seth Wheeler settled in the town in 18 19. 
Furman Gardner came with Captain Wheeler, then being only seven 
years old. Albertus Larrowe was also an early settler. 

Among the other early residents of Wheeler may be recalled the 
names of Herman Lewis, William Rowley, Mr. Lakin, George Ray- 
mond, Jenks Youngs, Thomas Gumming, Philip Beemer, Uriel Chapin, 
Andrew Harris, Noah Stephens, John Clark, Reuben Montgomery and 
others. Among the early designated localities, in which some of these 
settlers lived, were " Mutton Hollow " and South Hill. 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTV. 179 

From this we may learn that Wheeler is a somewhat hilly town. In 
fact the entire land surface may be called a high rolling upland, broken 
by valleys and small creeks, and its soil a shaley and clayey loam, not 
much sought by farmers for agricultural purposes generally. This, at all 
events, was said of the town three-quarters of a century ago, but not- 
withstanding all that was said in discouragement of the quality or fer- 
tility of the soil, the successive generations of inhabitants have devel- 
oped the resources of the town, and to-day Wheeler stands in the front 
rank of potato producing regions in the State of New York, while in 
general agricultural products the town bears favorable comparison with 
any in Steuben county. The recent building of a railroad through the 
town has been of inestimable value to all local interests, affording ready 
access to good markets east and west. 

However, referring again to the subject of early history, we may note 
some of the more important first events. The first birth was that of, 
William, son of Jonathan Barney, and the date November i, 1801. The 
firgt death was that of Joseph Kinney. John Beals kept the first 
tavern, and Grattie Wheeler taught the first school. Captain Wheeler 
built the first saw mill, in 1802, and George W. Taylor the first grist 
mill, in 1803-4. The first store was opened by Cornelius Younglove, 
in 1835. 

In 1820 the district which afterward formed Wheeler had 798 inhab- 
itants, and it was but natural that they should seek a separate organiza- 
tion in the interest of public convenience. To this end the creating 
power was petitioned, and on the 25th of February the town was 
erected, territory therefor being taken from the older towns of Bath 
and Prattsburg. However, in 1839 a part of Wheeler was set off to 
Urbana, and in 1843 another part was set off to Avoca. The voters of 
Wheeler first met soon after the town was set off and elected Thomas 
AuUs supervisor, together with a complete board of officers, but on 
account of the imperfect condition of the records, we cannot furnish the 
names of all who were chosen at that time. It is understood, however, 
that Mr. Aulls was re-elected in 1822 and 1824, and probably held the 
office until succeeded by Mr. Barney in 1830. Grattan H. Wheeler was 
supervisor in 1823. The records of this town previous to 1830 are in- 
deed defective, but reasonably well preserved during later years. 



180 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The supervisors of Wheeler since 1830 hnve been as follows: Jon- 
athan Barney, 1830, '32, '35-38, and '46; Thomas Aulls, 1831; Seth 
Wheleer, 1833-34; S. H. Rose, 1839; Hosea Longwell, 1840-41 ; O. 
F. Marshall, 1842-44; H. N. Rose, 1845; H. H. Rose, 1847; J- E. 
Gunsalus, 1848-49; Benj. Myrtle, 1850-51; Grattan H Wheeler, 
1852; Dan D. Thompson, 1853-54; Ira P. Barney, 1855, ^"d 1857- 
58; Daniel Gray, 1856, '59, '61, and 1866-68; James Derrick, i860 
and 1862-64; S. H. Rose, 1865 ; J. H. Lewis, 1866; Julius Stickney, 
1870-71; Samuel H. Lewis, 1872; L. H. Wheeler, 1873; William 
Gardner, 1874-75; Thomas Aulls, 1876-78; Ira P. Barney, 1879-80; 
R. W. Thompson, 1881-82; F. J. Marshall, 1883-84; Jerome B. Ellis, 
1885-88; Julius Stickney, 1889; Jerome B. Ellis, 1890-91; O. F. 
Marshall, 1892-95. 

The officers of the town for the year 1895 are as follows: O. F. 
Marshall, supervisor ; Marshall Myrtle, town clerk ; Julius Stickney, 
Dennis S. Derrick, Oliver Fox and Cornelius Grants, justices of the 
peace ; O. D. Wheeler, O. D. Fox and S, S. Shant, assessors ; L. E. 
Cook, collector; Lemuel H. Lewis, overseer of the poor; Martin Clark, 
highway commissioner ; E. K. Clark, C. H. Butts and W. L. Rose, 
excise commissioners. 

The civil, social and political history of Wheeler, from first to last, 
has been uneventful, yet has been an almost continuous record of pro- 
gression. The town has furnished its full quota of strong men for pub- 
lic positions, and all have been competent, faithful and worthy. During 
that unfortunate period commonly called the anti-rent conflict local in- 
terests were represented by Jonathan Barney, Nathan Rose 2d, Abram 
J. Quackenbush, David Barney and John C. Overhiser. However, 
even this temporary disturbance had no serious effect upon the well- 
being of the town, and after it had passed the people returned to their 
accustomed pursuits; and by persistent and diligent effort they suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the relief they once sought at the hands of the land 
agents. In 1830 the population was 1,389, and in 1850 the greatest 
number of inhabitants ever attained in the town was reached, being 
1,471. The population in 1890 was 1,285. 

In i860 the population was 1,376, yet, during the war which fol- 
lowed, the patriotism of Wheeler was demonstrated in the fact that the 



THE CrVIL DIVISIONS OP THE COUNTY. 181 

town sent into the service a total of 1 26 men. These were scattered 
through the several commands recruited in the county and vicinity and 
the story of their experiences and hardships, successes and reverses, is 
told in another chapter of this volume. 

Wheeler has an area of 27,900 acres of land, nearly all of which is 
devoted to general agriculture. As a farming town it ranks well and 
as a potato producing region it is unsurpassed. During its history 
there have been built up two small hamlets or villages, but neither has 
gained sufficient population to justify incorporation. In another de- 
partment of this work will be found a reference to each of these hamlets. 
In still another chapter will be found a notice of the church history of 
the town, in which almost the entire population take just and pardon- 
able pride. Of the early schools little is known which may be con- 
sidered reliable, and the records bearing on this subject are incomplete 
and imperfect. We have already mentioned the first and early schools, 
and it is known that soon after the organization of the town the terri- 
tory was divided into districts to suit the convenience of the people, 
and a school was provided for each district. As at present arranged 
Wheeler has thirteen school districts, each of which is provided with a 
comfortable school house. During the last current year thirteen 
teachers were employed. The value of school property in the town is 
$6,325. The town receives of public moneys about $1,500 annually, 
and raises by local tax for school support about $1,700. 

WOODHULL. — In the extreme south part of Steuben county, border- 
ing on the Pennsylvania line, is a civil division containing 33,600 
acres of land, a good general agricultural region, known as Wood- 
hull. This town was created by act of the Legislature, February 18, 
1828, and was named in honor of General Nathaniel Woodhull, an 
officer and patriot of the Revolutionary war. To this formation the 
older towns of Troupsburg and Addison surrendered portions of their 
territory, and also their population to the number of about 500 hard 
working and determined inhabitants. 

The physical characteristics of Woodhull are quite similar to those of 
adjoining towns, the surface being generally hilly upland, the soil clayey 
and gravelly loam, fairly fertile even on the highlands and rich through- 
out the valleys. Tuscarora Creek is the chief stream, and courses east 



182 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

through the north part of the town, having in times now gone, furnished 
abundant water power for the many mills which were built along its 
banks. In fact, for many years Woodhull was quite noted as a lumber 
region ; milling was carried on extensively and profitably, and farming 
did not become the leading pursuit of the inhabitants till within a com- 
paratively recent date. Though now secondary in importance, lumber 
making is still going on and much good standing timber is found in the 
town. 

The first permanent settler in Woodhull, or rather township i of 
range 4, of the Phelps and Gorham purchase, was Daniel Johnson, who 
came in 1804 and made an improvement, although it is said that about 
that lime two other settlers were here, named Spears and Merlin, but 
after making a clearing left the region. Pioneer Johnson also became 
an active factor in early history, and was the first supervisor of Troups- 
burg, holding that office from 1808 to 18 12. The settlers in 1805 were 
Stephen Dolson, Bethuel Tubbs, Price Kilpatrick, Patrick Breakhill, 
Squire Wilkes, Amos Riffle, Samuel B. Rice and William Martin. In 
1806 Caleb Smith came in from Orange county, and after locating his 
family at once began the erection of both saw and grist mills, the latter 
being a log building, but nevertheless a great benefit. to the people of 
the whole region. In the same year Joshua Green, Asel Stiles and 
Henry Martin located in the north part of the town. Daniel Cortright, 
Lekins Clark, Mr. Mynear, or Manier, and one Layton settled on the 
south branch of the creek about the same time. In 1807 the Smith 
mills, and also the dam, were carried away by high water. The second 
mill was built by George Martin in 181 2. Among the other early 
settlers, though perhaps not pioneers, were Abner Thomas, John 
Latimer, Seth Pierce (who opened the road from Canisteo River to the 
village of Woodhull in 1821), Peter Smith, Bethel Gurnsey, Micajah 
Sherwood (whose descendants were prominent men in the county), John 
Stone, Hugh Boyd (from whose settlement the locality called Pulteney 
Hill was named), James Williams, Samuel Stroud, Mr. Hornecker, Seth 
Baxter, Worcester Perry, Thomas Hedges, Samuel Smith, Martin and 
Henry Harding, Andrew Colgrove, Joseph Tubbs, Sylvester Tousey, 
John Stone, Calvin Searle, all of whom, and others now forgotten, in 



THE CIVIL DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY. 183 

some manner contributed to the early building up of a thriving settle- 
ment. 

Noting briefly some of the first events, we may state that the first 
birth was that of Polly Spiith ; the first marriage that of Levi Rice and 
Cynthia Tubbs ; the first death that of Benjamin Tubbs. Caleb Smith 
built the first mills ; Ichobod Leach kept the first tavern ; Josiah Tubbs 
opened the first store, and Abner Thomas taught the first school. 

As early as 1826 and '27 the inhabitants began to discuss the subject 
of a separate town, but the matter did not culminate until 1828, when 
the Legislature passed the act creating the town. However, in 1856, 
a portion of Woodhull was set off to Rathbone. The first town meet- 
ing in Woodhull was held at the house of Asher Johnson, and he was 
elected supervisor; Jeffry Smith, town clerk, and Levi Tubbs, collector. 
The county records disclose these facts, but we may here state that in 
1866, and again in 1875, the village of Woodhull was visited with 
disastrous fires, by which the records were entirely destroyed ; also 
the business part of the village. However, the succession of supervis- 
ors of the town is known, and is as follows : 

Asher Johnson, 1828-30; David Edwards, 1831-37; Stephen Kent, 
1838-40; David Edwards, 1841-44; Christopher Marlatt, 1845-48; 
Stephen G. Tubbs, 1849-50; S. V. Lattinier, 1852; Jeffry Smith, 
1853; Asa Arnold, 1854; S. V. Lattimer, 1855; A. J. C. Edwards, 
1856-57; S. V. Lattimer, 1858-59; Nelson Perry, 1860-61; S. V. 
Lattimer, 1862-63 ; Halsey Swarts, 1864; J. R. Strock, 1865 ; D,. H. 
Wilhams, 1866; James Carpenter, jr., 1867; J. S. Warner, 1868-70; 
H. S. Williams, 1871-72; Wm. Carpenter, 1873-75; Silas G. Tubbs, 
1876-77 ; C. W. Morgan 1878 ; John Sullivan, 1879 ; Wm. S. Edwards, 
1880; Wm. M. Sherwood, 1881 ; H. S. Williams, 1882; Jerome S. 
Warner, 1883-84 ; John W. McPhee, 1885 ; Solomon L. Wildrick, 1886 
-87; Delany Colvin, 1888-89; Leonard Lamson, 1890-91; Charles 
W.' Tubbs, 1892-93 ; Jerome C. Husted, 1894-95. 

The officers of the town for the year 1895 are Jerome C Husted, 
supervisor; Samuel H. Barrett, town clerk ; R. C. Park, B. F. Gee, L. 
B. Walker and J. S. Andrews, justices ; Jent C. Brown, Leroy Hoglin 
and Eugene Hurd, assessors ; Charles S. Castle, collector ; M. P. Wilson, 
overseer of the poor; Earl Herrington, highway commissioner ; John 
M. Park, John Stroud and Bradley Husted, excise commissioners. 



184 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

WoodhuU is one of the comparatively few towns of Steuben county 
in which there has been a gradual increase in population. In 1830, two 
years after the erection of the town, the inhabitants numbered 501, and 
in 1840 had increased to 827. Ten years later the population was 
1,769, and by i860 had still further increased to the maximum number 
of 2,207, regardless of the fact that in 1856 a portion of the town was 
annexed to Rathbone. In 1870, however, the number had fallen to 
1,997, ^^^ '" 1880 to 1,963, but in 1890 increased to 2,oo6. The 
population in 1892 was 2,084. 

As one of the townships purchased by the Pulteney Association, so- 
called, from Robert Morris, Woodhull was materially affected by the 
anti rent disturbance ; and we find a number of the influential men of 
the town active participants in the events of that unfortunate period. In 
the convention held at Bath in 1830 the delegates from Woodhull were 
Caleb Smith, Samuel Stroud, Asher Johnson, Jeffrey Smith and Martin 
Harder. Asher Johnson served on the committee appointed to prepare 
the famous memorial presented to the agents of the proprietary, and the 
other delegates were also active in the affairs of the convention. 

During the war of 1861-65, this town furnished about one hundred 
and eighty men for the service, and a glance at the official roster of the 
several regiments to which they belonged will disclose the fact that a 
number of these brave volunteers never returned to the town, but lie 
buried on southern battle fields. The history of the companies in which 
were Woodhull men forms an interesting chapter in local annals, and the 
story of the war and of the various commands from this county is told 
in another department of this work. 

Within the geographical limits of this town are four hamlets or unin- 
corporated villages, each having a post-office and mercantile interests 
of greater or less importance. Among these the village of Wood- 
hull is largest and is a place of some note. Special reference to it 
will be found in the department of this work devoted to municipal 
history. 

Borden is the name of a hamlet containing a post-office, three stores 
and a church, situated about six miles south of Woodhull village. The 
postmaster is Gird Harrison. 

Hedgesville is a hamlet situated four miles north of the principal 




HIRAM PRITCHARD. 



THE WAR OF 1812. 185 

village of the town. It contains three stores, three blacksmith shops, a 
planing and saw mill, a barber shop and the M. E. church. The post- 
master is Elmer W. Hurd. 



CHAPTER XII. 



Events Preceding and During the War of 1812-15— Companies Organized in Steu- 
ben County— Results of the War— The Conflict with Mexico— The Steuben Company 
— Population of the County by Decades. 

For nearly a score of years following the first settlement in this county 
nothing occurred to interrupt or retard progress and development in 
the region. During this period the county was favored in an unusual 
degree ; towns were formed and settled, forests were cleared, fine farms 
were opened, highways were constructed, and substantial dwellings 
lined the thoroughfares of travel. The pioneers were a hardy and patri- 
otic class, and came to the region from New England, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey and Eastern New York, while still others were foreigners, 
from Ireland, Scotland, Germany and elsewhere, and all were united in 
a common hope of making for themselves and their families comfortable 
homes and fortunes in the new country. Through their energetic efforts 
the forests soon gave place to farms of rare fertility, thus developing 
agricultural resources at least to an extent which supplied domestic re- 
quirements. 

During the period referred to, this county acquired its greatest com- 
parative growth in population, and with this came power to sustain the 
nation during peril. Hence, when first murmurings of another war 
with Great Britain were heard, this part of the State was well prepared 
to endure its hardships and its taxation, and the part that it bore in the 
great conflict must be made the subject of special mention. In one re- 
spect at least the people of Steuben county were favored during the 
course of the war of 1812-15, for, while occasional discontent prevailed 
among the few Indian occupants of the region, there was no outbreak 
on the part of any of them, and the settlers had not to defend their 
24 



186 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

homes against their attacks ; and in the war like preparations which 
were made in the county no force was required to protect the rapidly- 
increasing settlements. However, let us briefly refer to the causes 
which led to the war, after which mention will be made of the services 
performed by the soldiers of the county. 

During the few years immediately preceding the war of 1812, the 
whole country was in a state of nominal peace, but still there was gath- 
ering in the political sky a dark cloud which increased until it boded 
another foreign war. During the Revolution, America contended for 
independence and won that precious boon; in 1812 she fought to 
maintain that independence on which British aggression had insolently 
trespassed. 

The United States had always honorably observed the provisions of 
the treaty made with Great Britain at the close of the Revolution. 
There had been maintained, too, a strict neutrality during the progress 
of the Napoleonic war, when perhaps every consideration of gratitude 
should have induced an alliance against the mother country. For 
several years the aggressive acts of the British had been a subject of 
anxiety and regret to all Americans, and indeed had created bitter in- 
dignation. The embargo laid by Congress upon our shipping (as a 
means of safety) was found so injurious to commercial interests that it 
was repealed, and the non -intercourse act was passed in its stead, In 
April, 1809, the British ambassador in Washington opened negotiations 
for the adjustment of difficulties, and consented to a withdrawal of the 
obnoxious British " orders in council," so far as they affected the United 
States, on condition that the non-intercourse act be repealed. This was 
agreed upon, and the president issued a proclamation announcing that 
on the loth of June trade with Great Britain might be resumed. The 
British government, however, refused to ratify the proceedings and re- 
called their minister, whereupon the president revoked his proclamation, 
and the non-intercourse act again went into operation. Then followed 
a succession of British aggressions to which no American could submit, 
and the only choice left to the nation was war or disgraceful humilia- 
tion. 

On the I2th day of June, 1812, President Madison sent a confidential 
message to Congress, in which he recapitulated the long list of British 



THE WAR OF 1812. 187 

aggressions, and declared it to be the duty of Congress to consider 
whether the American people should longer passively submit ; but at 
the same time he cautioned the House to avoid entanglements with 
other powers which were then hostile to Great Britain. 

The result of the message and the deliberation of Congress was a 
formal declaration of war on the 19th of June, 18 12, but the measure 
was not unanimously sustained or even approved in all parts of the 
Middle and New England States. The opposition element was em- 
braced in the Federal party, its chief ground of objection being that 
the country was not prepared for war. The Federalists constituted a 
large and influential minority of the political element of Congress and 
had a considerable following in the several States not active in politics. 
They asked for further negotiations and met the denunciations of the 
ruling party (the Democratic and Republican, for it went by both names) 
upon the English government with bitter attacks upon Napoleon, whom 
they accused the majority with favoring. 

It is a well known fact that during the period of the war, the great 
majority of the people of Steuben county were heartily interested in the 
American cause, and expressed themselves freely in public gatherings, 
at the polls, and in the measures proposed for prosecuting the war, 
Opposed to them were the Federalists, who, though strong in wealth 
and influence, were numerically weak. They took to themselves the 
dignified name of " Peace Party," and characterized the opposition as 
" Screaming War Hawks." However, having no newspaper mouth- 
piece in the county, they were not an important factor in occurring 
events. 

Three companies of Steuben county militia were ordered into service 
for three months during the first year of the war. Wayne furnished 
one of these, commanded by Captain James Sanford The second, the 
Urbana company, mustered fifty men and was commanded by Captain 
Abraham Brundage ; William White, first lieutenant, and Stephen Gar- 
ner, ensign. These companies united with two others of Allegany 
county, forming a battalion under command of Major Asa Gaylord, of 
Urbana. This excellent officer died upon the lines and was succeeded 
by Colonel Dobbins. The drafted company, organized at Bath, was in 
charge of Capt. Jonas Cleland, of Cohocton ; Samuel D. Wells and John 



188 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Gillet, lieutenants, and John Kennedy, ensign. The troops reached the 
frontier in time to take part against the British at Queenstown Heights, 
but they were unfortunate in battle owing to lack of proper discipline. 
In the second year of the war two militia companies were drafted from 
the county and Bath was a central seat of operations, although the 
companies, like those of the previous year, were from the north part of 
the county generally. The companies of this year's campaigns were 
commanded by Captains James Reed, of Urbana, and Jonathan Rowley, 
of Dansville. The lieutenants were George Teeples, Anthony Swarth- 
out, John Short and John E. Mulhollen, and the ensigns were O. Cook, 
Jabez Hopkins, George Knouse and Timothy Goodrich. 

A detail of the events of the war is not needed in these pages. The 
results of the struggle are written in the conflicts on Lake Erie, the re- 
pulse of the invaders on the Delaware, the painful and humiliating 
scenes of the Chesapeake, the invasion of New York and the attempt to 
control the Hudson River and Lake Champlain. The story is further 
told in the brilliant victory at Plattsburg, the capture of Niagara and 
Oswego, the battles at Black Rock, Lundy's Lane, Sackett's Harbor, 
closing with the glorious defense of New Orleans. Above all were the 
masterly exploits of our navy, whose victories over the British cruisers 
gave the enemy the most serious view of American prowess. Peace, 
however, came at last and the treaty was ratified February 15, 181 5. 

The outbreak of the war of 1 8 1 2 awoke a tremendous impulse through- 
out this region of the country, for many of the settlers had seen service 
in the Revolution, and their sons were now in the enrolled militia. The 
same martial spirit which came with the pioneers was manifested in later 
years on the old fashioned days of " general training," when the farmer, 
the mechanic and the woodsman abandoned toil and hied away to the 
" muster" for a season of jollification as well as for military discipline. 

This early miHtary organization and training served well in after 
times, for hardly more than a score and a half of years had passed be- 
fore the county was again called upon to /urnish men for another war. 
We refer to that period of national history in which occurred the con- 
flict at arms between the United States and Mexico, in which Steuben 
was required to raise one company, and William E. Shannon loyally 
offered to accomplish the work. It was done in a very short time, and 
the men were ready for service. 



POPULATION. 189 

The officers of Co. A were : Captain, William E. Shannon ; first 
lieutenant, Henry Magee ; second lieutenant, Palmer V. Hewlett ; ser- 
geants, J. C. Van Loon, H. D. Alden, Melvin Boch and J. E. Crandall. 
Among the privates were Warren S. Hodgman, John C. Emerson, 
John Magee, H. S. Biles, Finley M. Pauling, Elijah M. Smith, Henry 
M. Osgood, James Perrine, Benjamin Magee, Calvin Hitt, G. E. Mc- 
Allister and many others. 

The company left Bath August i, 1846, and proceeded at once to 
New York, where it was equipped and disciplined for active service. It 
then sailed a six months' voyage to San Francisco, landing on the site 
of the city in March, 1847, ^^^ ^^^ soon ordered to San Diego, where 
the men remained until mustered out of service in 1848. 

Between the events which we have narrated was another of greater 
importance to the inhabitants of the county than either of the early 
wars. We refer to that event in local history which has ever been 
known as the '' Anti rent Conflict," which covered a period of about 
three years and finally terminated in 1830. This conflict, however, is 
fully treated in an earlier chapter of this work, and there mentioned 
out of chronological order that the mind of the reader should be pre- 
pared for the events of town history which are contained in succeeding 
chapters. 

Turning briefly from the subject of strife and war, iet us note the 
march of progress and development in Steuben county throughout the 
hundred years of its history that are past. Glancing over the census 
reports, it is seen that the greatest comparative growth in population 
was between the years 1800 and 18 10, and again between 18 10 and 
1820. However, this growth is best presented by extracting from the 
census reports the number of inhabitants in the county at the beginning 
of each decade, as follows: 1800, 1,788; 1810,7,246; 1820, 21,989; 
1830, 33,975; 1840, 46,138; 1850, 66,938; i860, 66,690; 1870, 
67,717; 1880,77,586; 1890,81,473. The population of the county in 
1892 was 82,468. 



190 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

STEUBEN COUNTY IN THE WAR OF 1861-65. 

At half-past four o'clock on the morning of April 14, 1861, a shot 
was fired from a Confederate battery in Charleston harbor, and struck 
Fort Sumter, which was held by a Federal garrison. Three days 
after this outburst of treason President Lincoln issued a proclamation 
calling upon the Union States to send to the national capital 75,000 
militia for its defense. Qn the 1 6th the State Military Board of New 
York held a meeting, and Governor Morgan at once sent a message to 
the secretary of war assuring him that the quota required of this State 
would be immediately mustered into service. The governor also at 
once issued orders, acting in concert with the military board, and called 
upon the militia for seventeen regiments of 780 men each. The result 
was that in a very few days the State of New York sent 13,906 effective 
men to Washington ; and it is an historical fact that the opportune 
arrival of these troops saved the government buildings from attack and 
possible destruction. 

Under the several calls, general, special and by draft, both in army 
and navy, this State furnished an aggregate of 502,765 men, and Steu- 
ben county provided its full quota. It is to be regretted, however, 
that the exact number cannot be given, as the State authorities were so 
remiss that no complete roster has ever been published. 

The history of the volunteers of Steuben county from the first blaze 
of hostile cannon until secession was buried at Appomattox by the sur- 
render of Lee's sword, forms one of the most brilliant chapters in local 
annals. To picture their services it will be necessary to refer to the 
records of the regiments to which they were attached, which forms an 
unbroken chain of evidence to demonstrate the loyalty and patriotism 
of the country's soldiery ; and as other generations read the pages re- 
cording their services, from 1861 to 1865, it will inspire them to pre- 
serve sacred the patriotic sentiment of " country first, citizen afterward." 



THE CIVIL WAR. 191 

During the course of the war, Steuben county furnished men for 
twenty-nine different regiments, although in several of them the repre- 
sentation was quite small. They may be enumerated substantially as 
follows: Cavalry regiments, 6th, 22d, 2d Mounted Rifles,, and the ist 
and 2d Veteran Cavalry. Artillery, Batteries E and K, 1st, 4th, loth, 
13th, [4th, 1 6th, and the 28th Independent Battery. Engineers, isth 
(new) and 50th. Infantry, 23d, 34th, 35th, 78th, 86th, looth, io2d, 
104th, 107th, 141st, i6ist, i7Sth, 179th, i88th, and i8gth. 

In this work these regiments may be treated briefly, the writer being 
constrained to this course by reason qf the fact that nearly every com- 
mand has a published history, exhaustive and in detail, with complete 
roster both of officers and men. In view of this it is unnecessary to 
cumber the present chapter with repeated history, but rather to furnish 
an outline of the composition and organization of the several regiments 
recruited in whole or part in the county, with the official list of battles 
of those of greatest importance or having the strongest contingent of 
men from the county. 

Twenty-third Regiment of Infantry. — The synonyms of this com- 
mand were "Southern Tier Regiment," and " Southern Tier Rifles." It 
was accepted and numbered by the State, May 16, 1861 ; was organizedat 
Elmira, and there mustered into service for two years, July 2, 1861. The 
three years' men, and a few others, were transferred to the 80th N.Y. Vols. 
May 29, 1863. The companies were recruited about as follows: A at 
Bath, B at Cuba, C at Oswego, D at Corning, E at Waverly, F and K 
at Elmira, G at Hornellsville, H at Cortland, I at Watkins. The 
regiment left the State July 5, 1861, and served at and near Washing- 
ton from July 7, 1861, and afterward joined with the Army of the 
Potomac, to which it was attached until May, 1862, then transferred to 
the department of the Rappahannock. It next served with the Army 
of Virginia until January, 1863, and still later in Patrick's Provost 
Guard Brigade. It was stationed at Aquia Creek, Va., from April 29, 
1863, and was discharged and mustered out, under Colonel Hoffman, 
May 22, 1863, at Elmira. 

The losses of the regiment were ten killed in action ; seven died of 
wounds ; two officers and fifty- three enlisted men died of disease and 
other causes ; and five men, died in the hands of the enemy. 



192 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The battles in which the 23d took part were as follows : Near Fall's 
Church, Va., August 14, 1861 ; Ball's Cross Roads, August 27 ; Mun- 
son's Hill, August 31 ; Ball's Cross Roads, September 14; Bowling 
Green Road, May 18, 1862; Orange Court House, July 26; General 
Pope's Campaign, August 16; Rappahannock River, August 21-Sep- 
tember 2 ; Sulphur Springs, August 26 ; Gainesville, August 28 ; Grove- 
town, August 29; Bull Run, August 30; Fairfax C. H., August 31 ; 
South Mountain, Md., Septemper 14; Antietam, September 17; Fred- 
ericksburg, December 11-15. 

The town of Bath furnished Co. A, the officers of which were : Cap- 
tain, Theodore Schlick ; first lieutenant, Cornelius F. Mowers ; second 
lieutenant, George E. Biles. 

The town of Corning furnished Co. D, officered by Capt. Luzerne 
Todd ; first lieutenant, Newton T. Colby ; second lieutenant, William 
H. Jones. 

The officers of Co. G, the Hornellsville contribution to the regiment, 
were Captain Frank B. Doty ; first lieutenant, Ira Cone ; second lieu- 
tenant, John Prentiss. 

Thirty-fourth Regiment. — This command was recruited principally in 
Eastern New York and was commonly called the " Herkimer Regi- 
ment." However, Steuben county contributed two companies, E and 
I, raised at Addison and Hammondsport, respectively, though both 
Urbana and Pulteney contributed t© its strength. The officers of the 
Addison tompany were Captain Henry Baldwin ; first lieutenant, James 
R. Carr ; second lieutenant, Edwin F. Smith. The latter was promoted 
first lieutenant December 23, 1861, and Henry W. Sanford followed 
him in both positions. George W. Wildrich, of Woodhull, was pro- 
moted second lieutenant December 23, 1861, and resigned April 10, 
1862. In Co. I Capt. William H. King was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel of U. S. Vols., and Second Lieut. Monroe Brundage was pro- 
moted captain February 10, 1863. The other officers were first lieu- 
tenant, Alfred T. Atwood, and second lieutenant, Monroe Brundage. 

The 34th was mustered into service for two years, June 15, 1 861, and 
on June 8, 1863, its three years' men were transferred to the 82d In- 
fantry. It left the State July 3, 1861, and served in and about Wash- 
ington, in Gorman's Brigade, Stone's division, until October 16. Its 



THE CIVIL WAE. 193 

later service was with the Army of the Potomac until June 30, 1863, 
when the regiment was mustered out at Albany. 

During its service, the Thirty-fourth lost one officer and sixty-five 
men, killed in action ; two officers and twenty- six men died of wounds ; 
from disease and other causes, one officer and sixty- seven men ; aggre- 
gate losses, one hundred and sixty- two. The regiment took part in the 
following battles: Seneca Mills, Md., September i and 16, 1861 ; 
Dranesville, September 17; Goose Creek, Va., October 22 ; Siege of 
Yorktown, April 5, to May 4, 1862 ; Tyler House, May 24 ; Fair Oa,ks, 
May3i-June i ; White House, June 16; Seven Day's Battle, June 25— 
July 2 ; Peach Orchard, June 29 ; Savage Sta., June 29 ; White Oak 
Swamp, June 30; Glendale and Malvern Hill, July i ; Antietam, Md., 
September 17 ; Fredericksburg, Va., December 1 1-15 ; Marye's Heights 
and Salem Church, May 3, 4, 1863. 

Thirty- Fifth Regiment. — The towns of Corning and Urbana furnished 
Co. F for this command, which in the service was known a6 the Jeffer- 
son County Regiment. It was mustered into service June 11, 1861, 
and was mustered out at Elmira, June 5, 1863, having lost from all 
causes a total of one hundred men. The early part of its service was 
in the defenses of Washington, and afterward chiefly with the army of 
the Potomac. 

The battles in which the regiment participated were these : Hall's 
Hill, Va., August 27, 1861 ; Gen. Pope's campaign, August 16— Sep- 
tember 2, 1862: Rappahannock River, August 21 ; Sulphur Springs, 
August 26 ; Near Gainesville, August 28 ; Grovetown, August 29 ; 
Bull Run, August 30 ; Fairfax C. H., August 31 ; Near Fairfax C. H., 
September 4 ; South Mountain, Md., September 14; Antietam, Sep- 
tember 17; Fredericksburgh, Va., December 11- 15. 

Seventy-Eighth Regiment. — In the service this regiment was variously 
known as the " Seventy- eighth Highlanders," " Cameron Highlanders," 
and also " First Regiment, Eagle Brigade." It was organized in New 
York city April 26, 1862, by the consolidation of the men enHsted by 
Col. Samuel K. McEUiott for the Lochiel Cameron Highlanders, the 
original 78th regiment, and of those enlisted by Gen. G. A. Scroggs 
for his, or part of the, 4th Regiment, Eagle Brigade, with the men en- 
listed by Col. Daniel Ullman for the ist Regiment, Eagle Brigade, with 

?5 



194 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

the latter as colonel. It was mustered into service for three years be- 
tween October i, 1861, and April 12, 1862. Co. F of the 78th was 
recruited in Bath. Its service began at Washington in May, 1862, and 
was afterward with the army of Virginia and the army of the Cumber- 
land. The total losses of the regiment amounted to 133 men. 

The 78th took part in the following engagements : Charlestown, Va., 
May 28, 1862; Harper's Ferry, May 28-30 ; Cedar Mountain, August 
9; Pope's Campaign, August i6-September 2 : Sulphur Springs, Au- 
gust 23-24 ; Centerville, September I ; Antietam, September 17 ; Near 
Hillsboro, October 6 ; Near Ripon, November 9 ; Hillsboro, December 
i; Chancellorsville, May 1-3, 1863; Gettysburg, July 1-3; Wau- 
hatchie, October 28-29 ; Chattanooga and Rossville campaign, Tenn., 
November 23-27 ; Lookout Mountain, Noverqber 24 ; Missionary Ridge, 
November 25 ; Ringgold Gap, November 27 ; Atlanta campaign. May 
3-July 12, 1864; MiirCreek Gap, May 9 ; Resaca,May 14-15 ; Dallas, 
May 25-Juile 4; Kenesaw Mountain, June 9-July 2; Pine Mountain, 
June 14-15; Golgotha, June 16-17; Gulp's Farm, June 22; The As- 
sault, June 27. 

Eighty Sixth Regiment. (Steuben Rangers). — In many respects this 
was one of the most notable commands raised in this part of the State, 
and the fact that during its service at the front its losses aggregated 325 
men indicates that it was one of the hardest fighting regiments sent out 
by the State. Its history is best recalled by the accompanying list of 
battles, hence needs no detail in this place. 

The Eighty-Sixth infantry (Veteran), Col. B. P. Bailey, was orga- 
nized at Elmira, November 23, i86i, and was there mustered into ser- 
vice for three years November 20-23 On the 21st of June, 1864, a 
portion of the 70th N. Y. Vols., was transferred to this regiment. The 
companies comprising the 86th were recruited as fellows : A at Syra- 
cuse ; B at Addison; C at Corning; D at Hornellsville ; E at Elmira; 
F at Lindley ; G at Canisteo ; H at Troupsburg ; I in Steuben county 
generally, and K at WoodhuU. 

The field and staff" officers were as follows : Colonel, Benajah P. Bai- 
ley, Corning; Lieutenant Colonel, Barna J. Chapin, Dansville; Major, 
Seymour G. Rhinevault,Woodhull; Adjutant.Charles W.Gillet, Addison; 
Quartermaster, Byron Spence, Starkey, Yates county ; Surgeon, John 



THE CIVIL WAR. 195 

F. Jamison, Hornellsville ; Assistant Surgeon, Farand Wylie, Bath ; 
Chaplain, Jonathan Watts, Corning; Sergeant Major, Henry W. Fuller, 
Corning; Quartermaster Sergeant, Samuel Leavitt, Elmira ; Commis- 
sary sergeant, George P. Baker, Corning ; Hospital Steward, William 
Sayer. Band: Horatio G. K. Anderson, leader ; John J. Brown, Reuben 
E. Stetson, George E. Gray, Mortimer W. Rose, Isaac L. Kress, Walter 
W. Slingerland, John M. Tenny, James A. Wilkey, George Bridgeden, 
William G. Wright, Estes T. Sturtevant, George J. Benjamin, Rankin 
B. Rose. 

The company oflficers were as follows : Co. A. Captain, Benjamin L. 
Higgins; First Lieutenant, William H. Gault ; Second Lieutenant, 
Prentice Holmes, and eighty-three non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates. Co. B. Captain, William B. Angle ; First Lieutenant, Charles 
W. Gillett, promoted Adjutant by order of Col. Bailey ; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Hiram J. Blanchard, and ninety-five non- commissioned officers 
and privates. Co. C, Captain, Jacob H. Lansing ; P'irst Lieutenant, 
Leonard Scott ; Second Lietenant, Joseph H. Tull, and ninety-two non- 
commissioned officers and privates. Co. D, Captain, Daniel S. Ells- 
worth ; First Lieutenant, Arthur S. Baker ; Second Lieutenant, Lemi 
H. Crary, and eighty-nine non-commissioned officers and privates. Co. 
E, Captain, Thomas F. Shoemaker ; First Lieutenant, John G. Copley ; 
Second Lieutenant, George A. Packer, andninety-fivenon-commissioned 
officers .and privates. Co. F, Captain, Henry G. Harrower; First Lieu- 
tenant, Samuel M. Morgan ; Second Lieutenant, Michael B. Stafford, 
and ninety-one non-commissioned officers and privates. Co. G, Cap- 
tain, James Bennett ; First Lieutenant. Nathan S. Baker ; Second Lieu- 
tenant, John Fulton, and eighty-four non-commissioned officers and 
privates. Co. H, Captain, William Ten Broeck ; First Lieutenant, Will- 
iam G. Raymond ; Second Lieutenant, James Carpenter, jr., and ninety- 
five non-commissioned officers and privates. Co. I, Captain, Amos W. 
Sherwood ; First Lieutenant, Jackson A. Woodward ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Foster P. Wood, and eighty non-commissioned officers and privates. 
Co. K, Captain, Seymour G. Rhinevault, promoted major, November 
22, 1861 ; First Lieutenant, Charles H. Wombaugh, promoted captain 
November 22, 1861 ; Second Lieutenant, John N. Warner, and ninety- 
six non-commissioned officers and privates. 



196 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The Eighty-sixth left Elmira November 23, 1861, and proceeded to 
Washington, thence was attached to Casey's division, second brigade, 
army of the Potomac. In January, 1862, the regiment formed a part 
of Smith's division, third brigade, but in February was re- attached to 
Casey's command. The early part of the year 1862 was uneventful, 
but about the middle of August the 86th took part in Gen. Pope's Vir- 
ginia campaign, from which time on until final muster-out on June 27, 
1065, it was almost constantly engaged, and a reference to the appended 
list of engagements will disclose the fact that the regiment participated 
in some of the most severe battles of the war, and at times suffered 
serious losses. During its service the 86th lost by death, killed in action, 
six officers and ninety- two enlisted men ; of wounds received in action, 
seven officers and sixty- two enlisted men ; of disease and other causes, 
two officers and one hundred and fifty- one enlisted men; total, fifteen 
officers and three hundred and ten enlisted men. Of these seventeen 
died in the hands of the enemy. 

The battles and engagements in which the regiment took part were 
as follows : Gen. Pope's campaign, Va., Aug. 16— Sept. 2, 1862; Bull 
Run, Aug. 30 : Manassas Gap, Oct. 18, and Nov. 5-6 ; Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 11-15: Chancellorsville, May 1-3, 1863; Brandy Station, June 
9; Gettysburg, July 1-3; Wapping Heights, July 23; Auburn, Oct. 
13; Kelley's Ford, Nov. 7; Mine Run campaign, Nov. 26-Dec. 2; 
Locust Grove, Nov, 27; Wilderness, May 5-7, 1864; Spottsylvania 
C. H., May 8-21 ; Po River, May 9-10 ; Laurel Hill, May 10; Salient, 
May 12 ; North Anna, May 22-26; Tolopotomy, May 27-31 ; Cold 
Harbor, June 12 ; Before Petersburg, June 15 and April 2, 1865 ; As- 
sault on Petersburg, June 15-19, 1864 ; Weldon Railroad, June 21-23 ; 
Deep Bottom, July 27-29; Strawberry Plains, Aug. 14-18; Poplar 
Spr. Ch. Oct. 2 ; Boydton Plank road, Oct. 27-28 ; Hicksford Raid, 
Dec 6-1 1 ; Hatcher's Run, Feb. 5-7, 1865; Petersburg Works, Mar. 
25 ; Appomattox campaign, Mar. 28-Apr. 9 ; White Oak Ridge, Mar, 
29-31 ; Fall of Petersburg, Apr. 2 ; Deatonsville Road, Apr. 6 ; Farm- 
ville, Apr. 7 ; Appomattox C. H., Apr. 9. 

One Hundredth Regiment (Veteran). — The Steuben county contin- 
gent of recruits in this regiment was exceedingly small, comprising a 
few men from Greenwood who were members of B company. Between 



THE CIVIL WAR. 197 

September, 1861, and January, 1862, the regiment was mustered into 
service for three years, and at the front was known as " Second Regi- 
ment, Eagle Brigade," and also as "Third Buffalo Regiment." Its ser- 
vice began with the siege at Yorktown, in April and May, 1862, and 
closed with surrender at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. During the ser- 
vice this regiment lost 397 men. 

One Hundred and Second Regiment (Veteran). — The town of Avoca 
furnished a " corporars guard " for D company in this command. The 
regiment was familiarly known as the " Van Buren Light Infantry," 
under Col. Thomas Van Buren. It was a consolidated regiment, or- 
ganized January 27, 1862, and mustered in for three years. Its service 
was severe although the losses were not heavy. The regiment served 
in Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, Georgia and North and South Caro- 
lina. Aggregate losses, 156 men. 

One Hundred and Fourth Regiment (Veteran). — Co. E of this regi- 
ment was raised in Groveland, Cohocton and Burns. The command 
was otherwise known as the " Wadsvvorth Guards," ^ind also the " Liv- 
ingston County Regiment." The men were mustered into service be- 
tween September, 1861, and March, 1862. Service at the front began 
with Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862, and from that time to the mus- 
ter out, July 17, 1865, was arduous and at times severe. The total 
losses to the regiment, from all causes, was 237 men. 

One Hundred and Seventh Regiment (Campbell Guards) — On the 
1st of July, 1862, President Lincoln issued a call for 300,000 volunteers, 
and about the same time, in carrying out the wishes of the executive. 
Secretary Stanton requested Congressmen Pomeroy, of Cayuga, Diven, 
of Chemung, and Van- Valkenburg, of Steuben, to repair to their homes 
and recruit a regiment. Mr. Van Valkenburg was authorized as colonel 
on July 18, and on the 13th of August, following, the One Hundred 
and Seventh was mustered into service for three years, being the first 
regiment organized in this State under the call mentioned, for which it 
was honored by the State in being made the recipient of a handsome 
banner. The regiment was raised in the counties of Chemung, Schuyler 
and Steuben, A, B, C, D and E at Elmira ; F at Addison, Cameron 
and Campbell ; G at Elmira, Bath and Hammondsport ; H at Havana 
and Elmira ; I at Corning, Wayland and West Union ; and K at Hor- 



198 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

nellsville, Howard, Elmira and Canisteo. About two -fifths of the 
entire regiment came from towns of Steuben county, from which fact it 
is proper that we here furnish the names of its commissioned o_flRcers, 
viz.: 

Field and Staff. — Colonel, Robert B. Van Valkenburg; lieut. -colonel, 
Alexander S. Diven ; major, Gabriel L. Smith ; adjutant, Hull Fanton ; 
quartermaster, E. P. Graves; Q. M. sergt., L. B. Chidsay ; chaplain, 
Ezra F. Crane ; surgeon, Patrick H. Flood ; asst. surgeon, James D. 
Hewitt ; sergt. major, John R. Lindsay ; com. sergt, Henry Inscho ; 
hospital steward, John M. Ford. 

Officers Co. F. — Captain, James H. Miles ; first lieut, J. Milton Roe; 
second lieut., John F. Knox. Co. G: Captain, John J. Lamon ; first 
lieut, G. H. Brigham ; second lieut., Ezra Gleason. Co. I : Captain, 
Newton T. Colby ;. first lieut., Benjamin C. Wilson ; second lieut., Na- 
thaniel E. Rutler. Co. K : Captain, Allen M. Sill ; first lieut, John M. 
Goodrich ; second lieut., Alonzo B. Howard. 

The regiment left the State August 13, 1862, and served in Whipple's 
division, defenses of Washington, from August ; thence in 3d brigade, 
1st division, I2th corps. Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 
1862 ; in the 2d brigade from August, 1863 ; in the same brigade and 
division, 20th corps. Army of the Cumberland, from April, 1864; and 
it was honorably discharged and mustered out under Col. Nirom M. 
Crane, June 5, 1865, near Washington, D. C. 

During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, two 
officers and fifty men ; of wounds received in action, two officers and 
thirty-six men ; from disease and other causes, 131 men; an aggregate 
of 221, of whom five enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy. 

The One Hundred and Seventh took part in the following engage- 
ments, and suffered losses as indicated. Antietam, September 17, 1862, 
loss 63 ; Chancellorsvilie, May 1-3, 1863, loss 83 ; Gettysburg, July 2- 
4, loss 2 ; Jones Cross Roads. July 11-12; near Williamsport, Md., 
July 14; Atlanta Campaign, May 3-September 2, 1864; Resaca, May 
14-15, loss 7 ; near Cassville, May 19-20; Dallas, May 2S-June 4, loss 
165; Kenesaw Mt., June Q-July 2; Golgotha, June 16-17; Nozes 
Creek, June 19-20; Gulp's Farm, June 22,.(loss in last five battles, 10); 
Peach Tree Creek, July 20, loss 19; Atlanta, July 21-August 26, loss 



THE CIVIL WAR. 199 

9 ; Sherman's Savannah campaign, November 15— December 21 ; March 
to the Sea, November i 5-December 10; Montieth Swamp, December 
9; Savannah, December 10—20; Izzard's Mill, December 19 (loss in 
the campaign, 59) ; Campaign of the Carolinas, January 26-April 26, 
loss I ; Rockingham, N. C, March 8, loss 1 ; Fayetteville, March 15, 
loss 2; Averysboro, March 16, loss 46; Bentonville, March 19—20; 
Raleigh, April 23 ; Bennett House, Va., April 26. 

One Hundred and Forty- first Regiment — This was another of the 
important commands for which this county furnished a considerable 
contingent of troops, and was raised under the same urgent necessities 
which called for the 107th. It was recruited under authority granted to 
Col. Samuel G. Hathaway, August 14, 1862, in the then twenty- seventh 
senatorial district of the State. It was organized at Elmira, and there, 
on September 11, 1862, was mustered into service. The Steuben 
county contribution was scattered through several companies, about as 
follows: A portion of Co. B was from Hornby; D was raised at Corn- 
ing ; E at Bath, Corning, Erwjn, Thurston, Avoca, Campbell and 
Wheeler ; F at Hornelisville, Fremont and Dansville ; G at Rathbone, 
Addison, Tuscarora, WoodhuU and Elmira ; H at Canisteo, Howard, 
Greenwood, West Union and Bath. Among the field and staff officers 
were several from Steuben county, wherefore the personnel of that de- 
partment is appropriate, as follows : Colonel, Samuel G. Hathaway, jr. ; 
lieut.-col., James C, Beecher ; major, John W. Dininny ; adjutant, 
Robert M. McDowell ; surgeon, Joseph W. Robinson ; asst. surgeons, 
O. S. Greenman and M. T. Babcock. 

Officers Co. B. — Captain, Andrew D. Compton ; first lieut., Stephen 
F Griffith ; second lieut , Robert F. Hedges. Co. D : Captain, Charles 
A. Fuller; first lieut, William Merrill; second lieut., Joseph Townsend. 
Co. E : Captain, William K. Logie ; first lieut., John A. Shultz ; second 
lieut., E. J. Belding. Co. F: Captain, Andrew J. Russell; first lieut. , 
John Barton ; second lieut., William L. Collins. Co. G : Captain, Dan- 
iel N. Aldrich ; first heut, John W. Hammond; second lieut., John H. 
Rowley. Co. H : Captain, William A. Bronson ; first lieut, Stephen S. 
Roscoe; second lieut, James W. Smith. 

The regiment left the State September 15, 1862, and served at Laurel 
Hill, and in the defenses of Washington until December. Its active 



200 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

duty began at the siege of Suffolk, Va , and was afterward continued in 
Tennessee, Georgia, and the Carolinas until final muster out on June 8, 
1865. During the period of its services, the regiment lost six officers 
and 243 enlisted men, the most disastrous battles being Resaca, Dallas, 
Golgotha and Peach T'-ee Creek. 

The official list of battles of the 141st were as follows: Siege of Suf- 
folk, Va., April 16-Ma.y 4, 1863; Diascund Bridge, June 16; Crump's 
Cross Roads, July 2 ; Wauhatchie, Tenn., October 28-29 ; Chattanoo- 
ga and Rossville Campaign, November 23—27 ; Missionary Ridge, No- 
vember 25 ; London, December 5 ; Atlanta Campaign, May 3-Septem- 
ber 2, 1864; Resaca, May 14-15; Dallas, May 25-June 4; Ackworth, 
Junes; Kenesaw Mt., June 9-July 2 ; Golgotha, June 16-17; Nose's 
Creek, June 19-20 ; Gulp's Farm, June 22 ; Peach Tree Creek, July 20; 
Atlanta, July 21-August 26 ; Sherman's Savannah Campaign, Novem- 
ber 15— December 21 ; March to the Sea, November 15— December 10 ; 
Monteith Swamp, December 9; Savannah, December to-21 ; Cam- 
paign of the Carolinas, January 27-April 26, 1865 ; Chesterfield, March 
3; Averysboro, March 16; Bentonville, March 19-20 ; Aiken's Creek, 
April 10; Smithfield, April lo-ii ; Raleigh, April 13 ; Bennett House, 
April 26. 

One Hundred and Sixty first Regiment. — Notwithstanding the fact 
that previous to September, 1862, the patriotism and loyalty of Steuben 
county had been fully tested in raising troops for the service, it was 
destined to be still further taxed for the same cause. The 107th and 
141st were only recently organized and sent to the front when, on Sep- 
tember 6th, Col. Gabriel P. Harrower was authorized to recruit another 
regiment in the Twenty-seventh Senatorial District. So promptly in- 
deed did the recruiting officers apply themselves to their duty that on 
the 27th of October, the i6ist was mustered into service for three 
years, although the command did not leave the State until December 4, 
following. 

In" this regiment we find a strong contingent from Steuben county. 
Co. A was recruited at Urbana, Pulteney, Prattsburg and Wheeler ; D 
was recruited at Bath ; a small portion of E at Hornellsville ; F at 
Bath and Howard ; G in part at Corning ; H at WoodhuU, Jasper, 
Greenwood and Troupsburg ; I at Cohocton and Avoca. In organiz- 



THE CIVIL WAR. 201 

ing the regiment a number of field and staff officers were taken from 
this county, the personnel being as follows: 

Colonel, Gabriel T. Harrower ; lieutenant-colonel, Marvin D. Stil- 
well ; major, Charles Straun ; adjutant, William B. Kinsey ; quarter- 
master, Marcus E. Brown ; surgeon, Lewis Darling; assistant surgeons, 
Joseph iS. Dolson and Charles M. Pierce; chaplain, Thomas J. O. 
Wooden. 

The officers of the companies recruited chiefly in this county were as 
follows: Co A, captain, B. F. Van Tuyl ; first lieutenant, John Gibson; 
second lieutenant, S. S. Fairchild. Co. D, captain, George E. Biles ; 
first lieutenant, James M. Cadmus; second lieutenant, T. Scott De 
Wolf Co. F, captain, John Slocum ; first lieutenant, John F. Little ; 
second lieutenant, James Faucett. Co. G, captain, Edmund Fitz 
Patrick; first lieuteuant, John P. Worthing. Co. H, captain, Willis E. 
Craig ; first lieutenant. Nelson P. Weldrick ; second lieutenant, George 
B. Herrick. Co. I, captain, Samuel A. Walling; first lieutenant, Myron 
Powers ; second lieutenant, Edwin A. Draper. 

As we have stated, the l6ist left the State in December, 1862, and 
first served in Grover's division. Gulf department, being transferred 
thence to Augur's division, 19th Corps. In the extreme South, active 
service began at Clinton Plank Road, La., in March, 1863, and from 
that time until final muster out at Tallahassee, Fla., November 12, 1865, 
was one of the fighting commands of the division. The most severe 
losses were these:. Siege of Port Hudson, 17; Bayou la Fourche, 
53 ; Sabine Pass, 30; Sabine Cross Roads, 87. The total losses of the 
i6ist were 306 men. 

List of engagements: Clinton Plank Road, La., Marches, 1863; 
Plain Store, May 21 ; Siege of Port Hudson, May 23-June 17 ; Bayou 
la Fourche, July 13; Sabine Pass, September 8; Vermilion Bayou, 
October 9 and November 1 1 ; Carrion Crow Bayou, October 1 1 ; Red 
River Campaign, March lo-May 22, 1864; Sabine Cross Roads, April 
8 ; Pleasant Hill, April 9 ; Cane River Crossing, April 23 ; Mansura, 
May 16; Spanish Fort, Ala., March 27-30, 1865 ; Fort Blakely, April 
3-9; Mobile, April 10. 

One Hundred and Seventy fifth Regiment (5th Regiment, Corcoran 
Brigade). — To this commantl the town of Hornby contributed a few 

26 



202 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

recruits, members of Cos. D and E. The local contingent was very 
small, hardly sufficient to warrant more than a mere mention in this 
chapter. 

One Hundred and Seventy ninth Regiment. — This command was 
organized at Elmira, and its companies were mustered into service be- 
tween April and September, 1864. The Steuben county contribution 
to the regiment comprised less than one hundred men, recruited in 
Hornellsville, Cohocton, Bradford and Dansville, and scattered through 
Cos. C, F and H. The service of the 179th was confined wholly to 
Virginia, with the Army of the Potomac, and generally with the 9th 
Corps. However, during its brief service, from June, 1864, to April, 
1865, the regiment lost 191 men, twenty-five of whom died in the 
hands of the enemy. 

One Hundred and Eighty eighth Regiment. — This command was 
recruited with headquarters at Rochester, under authority given to 
Colonel Chamberlain, succeeded by Col. John E. McMahon, on Septem- 
ber 20, 1864. So far as it related to this county the regiment had no 
special prominence, yet a number of towns furnished recruits, notably 
Corning, Hornby and Tuscarora, the men being in Co. F. The i88th 
left the State October 13, 1864, and served in the 2d Brigade, first 
division, 5th Corps, losing an aggregate of ninety men. 

One Hundred and Eighty-ninth Regiment. — On September 26, 
1864, Col. WiUiam A. Olmstead, succeeded by Col. William W. Hayt, 
received authority to recruit this regiment, and in its composition we 
find a fair contingent of Steuben county volunteers. Co. A was re- 
cruited at Bath ; C at Wheeler, Bath, Avoca, Kanona and Urbana ; G 
at Cohocton, Avoca and Wayland ; H at Bath. 

Among the regimental officers were two from this county, viz.. Col. 
William W. Hayt, of Corning, and Quartermaster J. L. Brown, of 
Corning. In the same manner we may note the officers of local com- 
panies: Co. A, captain, John Stocum ; first lieutenant, B. N. Bennett; 
second lieutenant, John W. Brown. Co. C, captain, Burrage Rice ; 
first lieutenant, Dwight Warner ; second lieutenant, Mortimer W. Reed. 
Co. G, captain, William Washburn; first lieutenant, Edwin A. Draper. 
Co. H, captain, Nathan Crosby ; first lieutenant, Hiram F. Schofield ; 
second lieutenant, L. G. Rutheford. 



THE CIVIL WAR. 203 

Cos. D, E, G and K left the State September i8, and the others 
October 23, 1864. The regiment served in the 2d Brigade, 1st division, 
5th Corps, and, commanded by Allen L. Burr, was honorably dis- 
charged and mustered out June i, 1865, near Washington, D. C. Dur- 
ing its service the 189th lost a total of eighty officers and men. It took 
part in the following engagements : Before Petersburg, Va., November 
I, 1864, and April 2, 1865; Hicksford Raid, December 11, 1864; 
Hatcher's Run, February 5—7, 1865 ; Appomattox campaign, March 
2S-April 9; White Oak Ridge, March 29-31 ; Five Forks, April i ; 
Fall of Petersburg, April 2 ; Appomattox C. H., April 9. 

Sixth Regiment of Cavalry (" Ira Harris Cavalry," " Second Ira 
Harris Guards "). — This regiment was organized under special authority 
from the war department as the Ira Harris Guard, at New York city, 
and was, after having been turned over to the State, November 20, 
1 86 1, designated the Sixth Regiment of Cavalry, N. Y. Vols. In Co. 
C of the 6th were men from Cohocton, Hornellsville and Dansville ; in 
Co G men from Hornellsville, an aggregate of about forty men. 

Twenty-second Regiment of Cavalry ("Rochester Cavalry"). — In this 
regiment, which was raised largely in Monroe and counties east of it 
along the Central Railroad, were a few recruits from Steuben county, 
members of Co. G, and recruited in Bath, Urbana and Prattsburg. 
The local contingent, however, did not include more than about thirty 
men 

Second Regiment of Mounted Rifles (" Governor's Guards "). — This 
regiment was originally intended as an infantry command, but the 
order for its organization was modified and constituted a cavalry regi- 
ment. The local contribution was very light, comprising a few men 
from Prattsburg, who were members of Co. M. 

First Veteran Cavalry. — This regiment was organized at Geneva 
during the summer of 1863. Co. D contained a few recruits from 
Prattsburg, and L a few from Hornellsville. 

Second Veteran Cavalry (" Empire Light Cavalry "). — On June 23, 
1863, Colonel Chrysler was authorized to reorganize the 30th Infantry, 
then recently discharged, as a regiment of cavalry, to be called the 
Empire Light Cavalry. On July 20 it was changed to " 2d Regt, Vet. 
Cav." The regiment was raised almost wholly in the eastern part of 



204 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

the State, yet the towns of Addison and Bath furnished a few recruits 
for Co. G. 

First Regiment of Artillery (Light, Veteran). — Battery E, captain, 
John Stocum, principally recruited at Bath, Avon and Mitchellville, was 
mustered in the U. S. service September 13, 1861, at Elmira. It 
served in the 4th, 5th and 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac, until final 
muster out June 17, 1865, Battery K, Captain Lorenzo Crouse, had a 
few recruits from Jasper, and also served chiefly with the Army of the 
Potomac. It was mustered out June 20, 1865, at Elmira. 

Fourth Regiment of Artillery (Heavy ; Veteran). Hornellsville and 
Canisteo furnished men for Co. C of this command. This regiment also 
served with the army of the Potomac. 

In addition to the several regiments already specially mentioned 
Steuben county furnished still other volunteers, though the representa- 
tion in each was quite small. Among the commands to be noted in 
this connection was the Tenth Heavy Artillery, in which was a small 
contribution from the county ; also Thirteenth Heavy Artillery for 
which Greenwood furnished a few recruits, also the Fourteenth Heavy 
Artillery, in which Bath was represented; also the Twenty-eighth Inde- 
pendent Battery of Light Artillery, in which were men from Avoca, 
Campbell, Cohocton, Howard, Wayland and Urbana. In the Fifteenth 
Regiment of Engineers (Veteran), though better known as the " New 
York Sappers and Miners," were a few recruits credited to Dansville 
and Lindley. In the Fiftieth Regiment of Engineers (Veteran), other- 
wise variously known as " Stewart's Engineers ; " " Independent Engi- 
neers," and also " Sappers, Miners and Fontoniers," the Steuben locali- 
ties from which came recruits were Addison, Bath, Painted Post, Savona 
and Hornellsville. 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 205 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE BENCH AND BAR. 

In the early history of the colony of New York the governor was in 
effect the maker, interpreter and enforcer of the laws. He was the chief 
judge of the court of final resort, while his councillors were generally 
his obedient followers. The execution of the English and colonial 
statutes rested with him, as did also the exercise of royal authority in 
the province ; and it was not until the adoption of the first constitution, 
in 1777, that he ceased to contend for these prerogatives and to act as 
though the only functions of the court were to do his bidding as servants 
and helpers, while the Legislature should adopt only such laws as the 
executive should suggest and approve. By the first constitution the 
governor was entirely stripped of the judicial power which he possessed 
under the colonial rule, and that power was vested in the lieutenant- 
governor and Senate, also in the chancellor and justices of the Supreme 
Court ; the former to be elected by the people, and the latter to be ap- 
pointed by the council This was the first radical separation of the 
judicial and legislative powers, and the advancement of the judiciary to 
the position of a co ordinate department of government, subject only 
to the limitations consequent upon the appointment of its members by 
the council. The restriction, however, was soon felt to be improper, 
though it was not until the adoption of the constitution of 1846 that 
the last connection between the purely political and judicial parts of the 
State government was abolished, and with it disappeared the last re- 
maining relic of the colonial period. From this time the judiciary be- 
came more directly representative of the people. The development of 
the idea of responsibility of the courts to the people, from the time 
when all its members were at the beck and nod of an irresponsible 
master, to the time when all judges (even of the court of last resort) 
are voted for directly by the people, has been indeed remarkable. 



206 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Let us look briefly at the present arrangement and powers of the 
courts of the State, and then at the elements from which they have 
grown. The whole scheme embraces the idea of first a determination 
of the facts and the law by a trial court, then a review by a higher 
tribunal of the facts and law, and ultimately of the law by a court 
of last resort. To accomplish the purposes of this scheme there has 
been devised and established, first, the present Court of Appeals, the 
ultimate tribunal of the State, perfected in its present form by the 
convention of 1867 and 1868, and taking the place of the old court for 
the trial of impeachments and correction of errors. The Court of Ap- 
peals as first organized under the constitution of 1846 was composed of 
eight judges, four of whom were elected by the people, and the remain- 
der chosen from the justices of the Supreme Court having the shortest 
time to serve. As reorganized in 1869, and now existing, the court 
consists of a chief judge and six associate judges, who hold office for the 
term of fourteen years. 

This court is continually in session at the capitol in Albany, except 
as it takes a recess on its own motion. It has full power to review the 
decisions of the inferior courts when properly before it. Five judges 
constitute a quorum, and four must concur to render judgment. If four 
do not agree, the case must be reargued ; but not more than two rehear- 
ings can be had, and if then four judges do not agree the judgment of 
the court below stands affirmed. The Legislature has provided how 
and when decisions of inferior tribunals may be reviewed, and may in 
its discretion alter and amend the same. Under the revised constitution 
of 1894, the Legislature is authorized to further restrict the jurisdiction 
of this court, and the right of appeal thereto. By the same revision it 
has been specially provided that from and after the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1895, the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals, except when the 
judgment is of death, shall be limited to questions of law, and no unani- 
mous decision of the appellate division of the Supreme Court, unless in 
certain specified cases, shall be reviewable in the Court of Appeals. 

Upon the reorganization of this court in 1869, its work was far in 
arrears, and the law commonly known as the "judiciary act" provided 
for a Commission of Appeals to aid the Court of Appeals ; and still 
later there was organized a second division of the Court of Appeals to 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 207 

assist in the disposition of business of the general court. The limita- 
tions and restrictions placed upon appeals to this court by the consti- 
tution of 1894 and are in part designed to relieve it from future similar 
embarrassments. 

Second in rank and jurisdiction to the Court of Appeals stands the 
Supreme Court, which is made up of many and widely different ele- 
ments. It was created by the act of representative assembly in 1691, 
was to be established in the city of New York, and was composed of a 
chief justice and four assistant justices to be appointed by the governor, 
and was empowered to try all issues, civil and criminal, or mixed, to 
the same extent as the English courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas, 
and Exchequer (except in the exercise of equitypowers), and should 
have power to establish rules and ordinances and to regulate practice of 
the court. It had jurisdiction in actions involving one hundred dollars 
and over, and to revise and correct the decisions of the inferior courts. 
An appeal lay from it to the governor and council. The judges made 
an annual circuit of the State, under a commission issued by the governor, 
and giving them nisi prius, oyer and terminer and jail delivery powers. 
By act of 1691 the Court of Oyer and Terminer was abolished, but in 
conformity to the courts of Westminster, its name was retained to desig- 
nate the criminal term of the Supreme Court. At first the judges of 
the Supreme Court were appointed by the governor and held office 
during his pleasure. Under the first constitution the court was reorgan- 
ized, the judges being then named by the council of appointment, and 
all proceedings were directed to be entitled in the name of the people. 

By the constitution of 1821 many and important changes were made 
in the character and methods of the court. The judges were reduced 
to three and appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate, 
to hold office during good behavior, or until sixty years of age. They 
were removable by the Legislature on the vote of two- thirds of the 
Assembly and a majority of the Senate. Four times a year the full 
court sat in review of their decisions on questions of law. By the con- 
stitution of 1846 the Supreme Court was abolished, and a new court, of 
the same name and having general jurisdiction in law and equity, was 
established in its place. Its members were composed of thirty-three jus- 
tices, to be elected by the people By the judiciary act of 1847 general 



208 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

terms were to be held at least once in each year in counties having more 
than 40,000 inhabitants, and in other counties once in two years ; and at 
least two special terms and two circuits were to be held yearly in each 
county except Hamilton. By this act the court was authorized to name 
the times and places of holding its terms, and those of the Oyer and Termi- 
ner, the latter being a part of the Circuit Court and held by the justice, 
county judge and two justices of sessions. Since 1882 the Oyer and 
Terminer has consisted of a single justice of the Supreme Court. How- 
ever, under the sweeping changes made by the constitution of 1894, 
Circuit Courts and Courts of Oyer and Terminer are abolished from 
and after the last day of December, 1895, and all their jurisdiction shall 
thereafter be vested in the Supreme Court. Provision is also therein 
made for an appellate division of this court, to cousist of seven justices 
in the first, and five in each of the other three judicial departments into 
which the State is divided. The appellate division is invested with the 
jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme Court at general term, 
and the general terms of the New York County Common Pleas, the 
Superior Courts of the cities of New York, Brooklyn and Buffalo, and 
such other jurisdiction as the Legislature may confer. From the justices 
of the Supreme Court the governor shall designate those who shall con- 
stitute the appellate division, and also the presiding justice thereof, the 
latter to act during his term of office, the others for the term of five 
years. In this court four members shall constitute a quorum, and three 
must concur to render judgment. Legislative enactment in 1895 desig- 
nated the city of Rochester as the place in which the appellate division 
shall sit in the fourth department of the State (which includes Steuben 
county), the other department capitals being New York, Brooklyn and 
Albany. 

The judiciary article of the constitution of 1846 was amended in 1869, 
the Legislature being authorized to provide (not more often than once 
in five years) for the organization of general terms consisting of a pre- 
siding justice and not more than three associates, but by the laws of 
1870 the then organization of the general terms was abrogated, and the 
State was divided into four departments, and provision made for hold- 
ing general terms in eAch. By the same act the governor was directed 
to designate from the justices of the Supreme Court a presiding justice 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 209 

and two associates to constitute a general term in each department. 
Under the authority of the constitutional amendment adopted in 1882, 
the Legislature, in 1883, divided the State into five judicial depart- 
ments, and provided for the election of twelve additional justices to hold 
office from the first Monday in June, 1884. The constitution of 1894 
provided for the election of twelve more justices of the Supreme Court, 
three to reside in the first, three in the second, and one in each of the 
other six judicial districts of the State. 

The Court of Chancery of the State of New York was an heirloom of 
the colonial period, and had its origin in the Court of Assizes, the latter 
being vested with equity powers under the duke's laws. The court was 
established on February 16, 1683, and went out of existence by limita- 
tion in 1698 ; was revised by ordinance in 1701, suspended in 1703, and 
re-established in 1704. Previous to that time matters in equity were 
heard in any of the courts organized in conformity to the duke's laws. 
At first this court was unpopular in the province, the assembly and col- 
onists opposing it with the argument that the crown had no authority 
to establish an equity court in the colony. 

Their reasons were that quit-rents upon the sale of lands belonged to 
the crown as a prerogative ; that through the neglect of the governors 
these rents had been allowed to fall in arrears, and the Court of Chan- 
cery was resorted to for their collection. Furthermore, the governors, 
almost without exception, were adventurers, or men of impaired for- 
tunes, who accepted these appointments with the hope of enriching 
themselves. The methods they pursued in making their office profit- 
able consisted of granting patents of lands and receiving from the 
grantee a gratuity (or bribe) in proportion to the value of the land 
granted — a palpable fraud upon the rights of the crown. As a result 
the grantees were fearful that proceedings might be instituted in the 
Court of Chancery by the attorney- general to revoke the grants. And 
thus the Court of Chancery was a menace to the security of the land 
owners, and incurred their bitter opposition. 

Under the Constitution of 1777, the Chancery Court was reorganized, 
and by the reorganization of 1778 masters and examiners were desig- 
nated by the council of appointment, while registrars and clerks were 
appointed by the chancellor ; and the latter licensed all solicitors and 
27 



210 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

counsellors of the court. Appeals lay from the Chancery Court to the 
Court for the Correction of Errors. 

Under the constitution of 182 1 the chancellor was appointed by the 
governor, and held office during good behavior, or until sixty years of 
age. Under the second constitution equity powers were vested in the 
circuit judges, and their decisions were reviewable on appeal to the 
chancellor. The equity character, however, was soon taken from the 
circuit judges and vested in the chancellor alone, and the judges after- 
ward acted as vice-chancellors in their respective circuits. The Consti- 
tution of 1846 abolished the Court of Chancery, and its powers and 
duties were vested in the Supreme Court. 

By an act of the Legislature passed in 1848, and entitled the "Code 
of Procedure," all distinction between actions at law and suits in equity 
was abolished, so far as the manner of beginning and conducting the 
same were concerned, and one uniform method of practice in ail actions 
was adopted. In June, 1877, the Legislature enacted the "Code of 
Civil Proceedure," to take the place of the code of 1848, and by this 
many minor changes in the practice of the court were made. 

These are, in brief, the changes through which the Supreme Court has 
passed in i's growth from the prerogative of an irresponsible governor 
to one of the most independent and enlightened instrumentalities for 
the protection and attainment of rights of citizens of which any State 
or nation, ancient or modern, can rightfully boast. So well is this fact 
understood by the people that by far the greater amount of business 
which might be done in inferior courts at less expense is actually taken 
to this court for settlement. 

Next in rank to the Supreme Court is the County Court, held in and 
for each county in the State, at such times and places as its judges may 
direct. This court had its origin in the English Court of Sessions, and, 
like it, had, at one time, only criminal jurisdiction. In 1765 Andros 
granted a charter. The mayor with four aldermen was authorized to sit 
as a Court of Sessions. He did not, however, organize a separate crim- 
inal tribunal, but continued as before to discharge criminal and munici- 
pal business at the regular sittings of the court. By an act called an act 
to "settle courts of justice," which was passed in 1683, a Court of 
Sessions, having power to try both civil and criminal causes by jury, 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 211 

the former without limitation as to amount, was directed to be held by 
three justices of the peace in each of the counties of the province twice 
a year, with an additional term in Albany and two in New York. In 
the city of New York it was held by a mayor and four aldermen. By 
the act of 1691 and the decree of 1699, all civil jurisdiction was taken 
from this court and conferred on the Common Pleas. By the radical 
changes made by the constitution of 1846, provision was made for a 
County Court in each county of the State except New York, to be held 
by an officer designated the " county judge," and to have such jurisdic- 
tion as the Legisluture should prescribe. Under the authority of this 
constitution County Courts have been given jurisdiction in various 
classes of actions, and have also been invested with certain equity 
powers in the foreclosure of mortgages, the sale of infants' real estate, 
and also to partition lands, admeasure dower and care for the persons 
and estates of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The judiciary act of 
1869 continued the existing jurisdiction in all actions in which the de- 
fendant lived within the county and the damages claimed did not exceed 
$1,000. The constitution of 1894 likewise continues the court and 
increases its power in extending the amount of damages claimable 
to $2,000. 

Like the Supreme Court, the County Court has its civil and criminal 
sides. In criminal matters the county judge is assisted by two justices 
of sessions, elected by the people from among the justices of the peace 
of the county. It is in the criminal branch of this court, known as the 
"Sessions," that minor criminal offenses are disposed of, and all indict- 
mentSj except for murder or some very serious felony, are sent to it for 
trial from the Oyer and Terminer. The constitution of 1894 abolishes 
Courts of Sessions, except in New York county, after the 31st of De 
cember, 1895, ^^'^ '^^ powers and jurisdiction are thereafter to be vested 
in the County Court. By the codes of 1848 and 1877 the procedure 
and practice in this court are made to conform as nearly as possible to 
the practice of the Supreme Court. This was done with the evident 
design to attract litigation into these minor courts and thus relieve the 
Supreme Court. In this purpose, however, there has been a failure, as 
litigants much prefer the shield and broader powers of the higher courts. 
Under the code county judges perform some of the duties of a justice 



212 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of the Supreme Court at Chambers. The County Court has appellate 
jurisdiction over actions arising in Justices Courts and Courts of Special 
Sessions. Appeals lie from the County Court direct to the General 
Term. 

The old court of Common Pleas of the State of New York, the oldest 
tribunal of the State, which survived the changes of two constitutional 
revisions, was another heirloom of the colonial period^ and was estab- 
lished originally under the charters of 1686, for the counties of New 
York and Albany, and was made general to the State by the act of 
1 69 1. Under the first constitution the number of judges was various, 
there being as many as twelve in some counties, but the act of 18 18 
limited the judges to five in each county, including the first judge. The 
constitution of 1821 continued the court, and its judges were appointed 
by the governor and Senate and held office for the term of five years. 
This court, except in the county of New York, was abolished by the 
constitution of 1846. 

Surrogates' Courts, one of which exists in each county of the State, 
are now courts of record, having a seal, and their especial jurisdiction is 
the settlement and care of estates of infants and of deceased persons. 
The derivation of the powers and the practice of these courts is from 
the Ecclesiastical Court of England, also in part through the colonial 
council which existed during the rule of the Dutch, and exercised its 
authority in accordance with the Dutch Roman law, the custom of Am- 
sterdam, and the law of Aasdom, the Court of Burgomasters and Schep- 
pens, the Orphan Masters, the Mayor's, the Prerogative, and the Court 
of Probate. The settlement of estates and the guardianship of orphans 
was transferred to the Burgomasters in 1653, and soon after to the 
Orphan Masters. Under the colony the Prerogative Court controlled 
all matters relating to the probate of wills and settlement of estates, but 
in 1692, by act of the Legislature, all probates and granting of letters of 
administration were to be under the hand of the governor or his dele- 
gate, and two freeholders were to be appointed in each town to care for 
the estates of persons dying inestate. Under the duke's laws this duty 
had been performed by the constables, overseers and justices of each 
town. In 1778 the governor was divested of all of this power, except 
the appointment of surrogate, and it was conferred upon the judges of 
the Court of Probate. 



THE BENCH AND BAR 213 

Under the first constitution surrogates were appointed by the council of 
appointment, and under the second by the governer with the approval 
of the Senate. The constitution of 1846 abolished the office of surrogate 
in all counties having less than 40,000 population, and conferred its 
powers and duties on the county judge. By the code of civil procedure, 
surrogates were invested with all the necessary powers to carry out the 
equitable and incidental requirements of their office. In its present 
form, and sitting weekly, this court affords a cheap and expeditious 
medium for the care and settlement of estates and the guardianship of 
infants. 

The only remaining courts which are common to the whole State are 
the Special Sessions, held by justices of the peace for the trial of minor 
criminal offenses, and justices' courts with a limited civil jurisdiction. 
Previous to the constitution of 1821 (modified in 1828), justices of the 
peace were appointed, but since that time they have been elected. The 
office and its duties are descended from the English office of the same 
name, but are much less important, and under the laws of this State it 
is purely the creature of the statute. 

This brief survey of the courts of New York, which omits only those 
that are local in character, gives the reader some idea of the machinery 
provided for the use of the members of the bench and bar. 

The organization of the courts in Steuben county was accomplished 
with little ceremony and still less difficulty. The county itself was 
erected by act of the Legislature, passed March 8, 1796, and on the 21st 
day of June following, the first court of Common Pleas was held at 
Bath. The officers of the county at that time were William Kersey, 
first judge, and Abraham Bradley and Eleazer Lindsley, assistants ; 
Stephen Ross, surrogate ;. George D, Cooper, clerk; William Dunn, 
sheriff. In the same year in which the county was organized the court- 
house and jail were erected. On the 19th of July, 1859, an act of the 
Legislature divided Steuben county into two jury districts, the northern 
and southern, and the court house for the latter was erected at Corning, 
during the years 1853-54. Still further, for the convenience of the in- 
habitants generally of the west part of the county, an earnest effort was 
made to establish a third jury district with court buildings at the city of 
Hornellsville ; and while the act passed both houses of the Legislature it 



214 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

failed to become a law in not receiving the executive approval. This 
was manifest injustice to the people in this section, as a fair proportion 
of the business of the county, whether legal, commercial or industrial, 
is transacted in the locality of which Hornellsville is the center ; and 
the final result will undoubtedly be the erection of a new county from 
Steuben and Allegany with the seat of justice at the city mentioned. 

However, it is hardly within the province of this chapter to refer at 
any length to the several county buildings in which courts have been 
held, as that subject is more fully treated in another part of this work ; 
but it is our present purpose to mention the names of those persons who 
have been connected with the courts and the administration of law in 
the county from its earliest history to the present time. 

The bar of Steuben county has ever been noted for its strength. On 
the bench and at the bar of the courts have been men of the highest pro- 
fessional character and of great moral worth. Of the leading legal minds 
of this State Steuben has furnished a liberal proportion, many of whom 
have attained distinction and some have become eminent. They have 
been characterized by strict integrity as well as rare ability — qualities 
which have made for them a high place, not only in the courts, but also 
in the legislative halls both of the State and Nation. 

In this chapter the writer aims to avoid personal allusion to or corns 
ment on the abilities and characteristics of the lawyers of the county, 
pleading as an excuse the entire lack of space and the utter impossi- 
bility to do full justice to a subject so unlimited. It is fact well known 
that this county has produced some of the ablest lawyers of the State, 
but to separate the few from their fellows equally worthy of notice, per- 
haps, and eulogize them to the neglect of the many would lead to com- 
plications and consequent dissatisfaction. However, it is proper that 
we make same passing allusion to two members of the old bar who at- 
tained positions upon the Supreme Court Bench. We refer to Thomas 
A. Johnson and David Rumsey 

Thomas A. Johnson was a native of Massachusetts, born at Blanford, 
May 15, 1804, but during his childhood, his parents settled in Broome 
county, N. Y. Young Johnson was educated in the common schools, 
after which he read law with Judge Monell at Greene, Chenango county. 
After admission to practice, Mr. Johnson located at the hamlet years 



THJi BJiNCH AND BAR. 215 

ago called Centreville, near Corning, but some years later moved to the 
suburb of the city known as Knoxville, where he ever afterward resided. 
Early in his professional career our subject developed an active interest 
in public affairs, and this naturally drew him somewhat into politics, 
though never to the serious neglect of his practice. He loved the pro- 
fession and was devoted to it, hence was an able and successful lawyer, 
but in connection with his practice he engaged in several mercantile and 
and manufacturing enterprises. In 1847 Mr. Johnson was elected justice 
of the Supreme Court in the Seventh Judicial district, and was twice re- 
elected, holding this office, which he honored with his ability and graced 
with his quiet, native dignity. Jndge Johnson was appointed to a posi- 
tion on the Court of Appeals bench in 1847, ^^'^ again in 1856 and 
1864. He was appointed to the General Term bench in December, 
1870. Judge Johnson died December 5, 1872. 

David Rumsey was born in Salem, Washington county, December 
25, 1810, and was the son of David Rumsey, the latter a settler in Bath 
in 1 8 16. In the county seat David, jr., acquired his early education, 
and also studied law in the office of Henry Wells, a prominent Bath 
lawyer. Mr, Rumsey was admitted to practice in 1832, and soon after- 
ward formed a law partnership with William Woods, which continued 
until the death of the latter in 1837. Five years later he became part- 
ner with Robert B. Van Valkenburg. In 1846 Mr. Rumsey was elected 
to Congress, and was re elected in 1848. In January, 1873, he was 
appointed by Governor Dix justice of the Supreme Court, and was 
elected to the same office in the following fall. He continued to per- 
form the duties of that office until 1880, when he was disqualified by 
age, and was succeeded by his son, William Rumsey, who now occu- 
that high position. Of Judge Rumsey-a cotemporary has said : "With 
a thorough knowledge of law David Rumsey possessed the rare faculty 
of grasping the thoughts of jurors and leading them along by plain 
methods of logic and reasoning to the conclusion he desired." 

Besides Judge Johnson and David Rumsey, Steuben county has 
furnished two other incumbents of the office of justice of the Supreme 
Court. William Rumsey, of Bath, and George B. Bradley, of Corning, 
both of whom are now on the bench and with years, perhaps, of useful- 
ness before them. 



216 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Judge Rumsey was elected justice of the Supreme Court, November 
2, 1880. He was a native of Bath, and extensively known throughout 
Central and Western New York, Previous to his election to the bench 
Judge Rumsey was an active attorney of the county seat, well known 
in local political circles, though in no sense a seeker after political pre- 
ferment. On May 6, 1887, he was appointed by the governor one of 
the commissioners to examine the bill entitled "An act to establish a 
Code of Evidence," an appointment purely honorary, yet nevertheless 
gratifying because of the confidence expressed in the designation. 

George B. Bradley, who for more thon forty years has been an active 
factor in professional and public life, and who now retires from the bench 
by reason of the age limitation, was born in Greene, Chenango county, 
February J, 1825. His young life was spent on a farm, and his ele- 
mentary education was acquired in the district schools and also in 
Ithaca Academy. In 1845 he began reading law with Judge Monell, 
of Greene, but finished with James Crombie, of Fulton, Oswego county. 
He was admitted to practice in 1848, and in the same year located at 
Addison, remaining a single year, thence practicing four years in 
Woodhull, but locating permanently at Corning in 1852. Judge Brad- 
ley's life and public career are made the subject of special mention 
elsewhere in this work, and here we may only say that he was elected 
to the Supreme bench, November 6, 1883, ^"d is now a member of the 
General Term. 

In another chapter of this work the reader will find a complete suc- 
cession of the incumbents of the offices of justice of the Supreme 
Court, county judge, surrogate, sheriffs, district attorney and county 
clerk, all of whom were officers of the court during the term of their 
service. They are proper subjects of mention in this chapter, but being 
noted in the civil list need not be repeated here. 

Record and tradition alike have it that George D. Cooper was the 
pioneer lawyer of this county, having settled in Bath in 1895. He was 
the first county clerk. The first term of the Common Pleas was held 
on June 21, 1796, and it is said these lawyers were in attendance : 
Nathaniel W. Howell, of Canandaigua; Vincent Matthews, a lawyer oi 
much fame in Western New York, and an afterward resident of Bath ; 
William Stuart, who appeared in the capacity of deputy attorney- 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 217 

general, to perform the duties of the office we now call district attorney. 
There were also present lawyers William B. Ver Planck, David Jones, 
Peter Masterson, Thomas Morris, Stephen Ross and David Powers. 

This mention recalls the old bar of the county, in connection with 
which we may mention some of the prominent early practitioners in 
the courts, although, for reasons already given, this mention must 
necessarily be brief. 

Samuel S. Haight was an early lawyer at Bath, having an extensive 
practice, and taking an active part in public affairs. William Howe 
Cuyler, came to Bath from Albany, and is remembered as a scholarly 
and dignified lawyer, fashionable in attire and fascinating in manners. 
He was killed in service during the war of 1812. Gen. Daniel Cruger, 
also of Bath, was a leading lawyer and an influential politician. He, 
too, was in the war of 1812, and served with honor as major of in- 
fantry. In 1 8 16 he was elected to Congress, but in 1833 he moved to 
Virginia, where he died in 1843. William B. Rochester presided at the 
trial of Robert Douglass (charged with murder, convicted and hanged), 
and was an able exponent of the law. He practiced for a time as part- 
ner with William Woods. He was elected to Congress in 1822, and in 
1823 was appointed Circuit judge for the eighth district. Judge Roch- 
ester met a tragic death, being drowned while on a voyage to Florida. 
Ziba A. Leland was a graduate of Williams College, and a lawyer of 
much force and ability. He came to Bath in 1822, and in 1838 suc- 
ceeded Judge Edwards on the Common Pleas bench He died in 
Saratoga county about 1873. Edward Howell came to Bath from 
Delaware county in the early part of the year 181 1, and later read law 
with General Cruger. He was one of the factors in local political 
affairs, and, as a lawyer, "stood for many years at the head of his pro- 
fession in this part of the State." In 18 18 he was appointed county 
clerk, followed by an appointment as postmaster at Bath. In 1829 he 
was appointed district attorney; was member of assembly in 1832, and 
member of congress in 1833-35. Mr. Howell died in 1871. 

Schuyler Strong came to Bath from Orange county, and was partner 
with William Woods, and still later with Mr. Howell. He was the lead- 
ing lawyer for the defense at the famous Douglass murder trial, being 
then associated with Mr. Howell and Judge Leland. William Woods 
28 



218 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

was one of the early distinguished lawyers of the county seat ; a native 
of Washington county, and a graduate from the office of Judge Samuel 
Nelson. Mr. Woods was a successful and popular lawyer, and was 
honored with important political ofifices ; was in the State .Legislature 
in 1823 and 1828; member of Congress from 1823 to 1825 ; surrogate 
from 1827 to 1835. Mr. Woods died in 1837, ^t the age of thirty- 
seven years. 

David McMaster, one of the best known and popular lawyers and 
judges of his time, and for many years recognized authority on all 
questions of local history, was a native of Otsego county, born in 1804, 
and was graduated from Hamilton College in 1824. He began the 
practice of law in Bath with Henry M. Rogers, in 1827, and continued 
actively until 1847. Other partners were Judge Leland and L. H. 
Read. Mr. McMaster was the first county judge and surrogate elected 
under the Constitution of 1846, and was re-elected in 1856. Judge 
McMaster died May 6, 1888. Henry Welles was one of the oldest 
members of the old bar, and was also a patriot of the war of 181 2, he 
raising a company and serving with credit on the New York frontier. 
He was born on October 17, 1794, and came to Bath previous to his 
enlistment. He read law with Vincent Matthews, and after being ad- 
mitted to practice continued actively in professional life for many years. 
In 1824 he was appointed district attorney, and as such prosecuted 
Douglass. In 1829 he resigned the position, and after about ten years 
moved to Penn Yan. He was elected one of the justices of the Supreme 
Court for the seventh district under the constitution of 1847. 

Vincent Matthews, whom we have incidentally mentioned, was a 
native of Orange county, born June 29, 1766. He was the friend and 
associate of Col. Robert Troup, and afterward became intimate with 
some of the leading men of the State. Mr. Matthews became a lawyer 
in 1790, and in 1793 moved to Elmira, and at once became a promi- 
nent figure in professional and political life, holding a number of impor- 
tant offices. His residence in Bath began in 1 8 16 and continued until 
1 82 1, when he moved to Rochester, and continued his brilliant career. 
He died in i'846. 

Among the other early lawyers of the county seat were Dominick 
Theophilus Blake, a well educated young Irishman, full of native humor. 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 219 

in many respects the wag of the bar, on account of his rich brogue, yet 
a good lawyer. He remained here only a short ime. Cuthbert Harri- 
son was another of the pioneer lawyers, well educated and possessed of 
good sense, and withal, as General McClure said, " a good natured, 
clever fellow." 

Henry W. Rogers came to Bath about 1827, and for a time taught 
school, but afterward read law with Henry Welles. Later on he prac- 
ticed as partner with David McMaster, and afterward with Joseph G. 
Hasten. This latter firm moved to Buffalo about 1836. George C. 
Edwards came to the local bar in 1818, and in 1825 was appointed 
Common Pleas judge, holding that office until his death in 1837. He 
was author of the well known work, " A Treatise on the Powers and 
Duties of Justices of the Peace " 

Robert Campbell, jr., son of pioneer Robert Campbell, was born in 
1808, and received his early education at Hobart College. He read 
law with Cruger & Howell, and was admitted to practice in 1829. 
Among his law partners in later years were General Cruger, Samuel H. 
Hammond and Guy H. McMaster. Mr. Campbell is remembered as 
an earnest and conscientious lawyer, a man of education, and a polished 
gentleman. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1846, 
and was elected lieutenant-governor in 1858; and re-elected in i860. 
He became Regent of the University by appointment February 2, 1846. 

Samuel H. Hammond, for a time the law partner of Mr. Campbell, 
practiced in Bath from 1836 to 1842. He was a son of Lazarus Ham- 
mond, founder of the village of Hammondsport. Mr. Hammond was 
admitted to practice in 1831. In 1843 he moved to Albany, but re- 
turned to Bath in 1857 and became partner with A. P. Ferris. In 1859 
he was elected to the State Senate. In 1864 he moved to Watertown, 
and died there in 1878. L. H. Read, who practiced in Bath for several 
years, was a native of Pleasant Valley, and studied law with Edward 
and William Howell. In 1839 he was partner with Judge McMaster. 
In 1850 he was appointed chief justice of Utah, where he served upon 
the bench, then resigned and returned to Bath, where he soon after- 
ward died. William Howell, brother of Edward Howell, practiced law 
in Bath more than fifty years, and is remembered as a man of Culture 
and refinement, and a successful lawyer. Joseph G. Hasten was the 



220 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

son-in-law of Dugald Cameron, and a lawyer of prominence. He came 
to Bath about 1832, and for a time was partner with Mr. Rogers. He 
went to Buffalo about 1836, and died there in 1872. Washington 
Barnes was also a pioneer at Painted Post, whose election to the county 
judgeship brought him to Bath in i860. After his term expired he 
practiced in partnership with Mr. McCall. Alfred P. Ferris was edu- 
cated in the old Franklin Academy at Prattsburg, and studied law with 
Judge Leiand and S. H. Hammond. He was admitted to the bar in 
1843, ^^'^ practiced at Bath until the time of his death in 1888. Mr. 
Ferris was district attorney from 1847 to 185 i. 

Guy H. McMaster was born in Bath in 1829, and, like his father, 
David McMaster, always felt a deep interest in local annals, being 
author of two standard works, entitled respectively, " Old Continentals," 
and " Pioneer History of Steuben County." Mr. McMaster was liber- 
ally educated, and was a graduate of Hamilton College, with the class 
of '47. He became a member of the local bar in 1852. In 1863 he 
was elected county j-udge and surrogate, and was re-elected in 1867 and 
1877. In 1883 he was elected surrogate, that office being then separate 
from the county judgeship. He died September 13, 1887. 

William B. Ruggles was born in Bath in 1827, and graduated from 
Hamilton College in 1849. He was for many years one of the strongest 
lawyers in the county. He was elected to the assembly in 1876 and 
'yy, and in the latter year was appointed deputy attorney-general. On 
March 14, 1883, Mr. Ruggles was appointed state superintendent of 
public instruction, and also was appointed deputy superintendent of 
insurance. 

William E. Bonham read law with Washington Barnes, and for many 
years was a member of the county bar. In 1864 and '65 he was in the 
Legislature. Perry S. Donahe came from Avoca to Bath in the early 
forties. He read law with A. P. Ferris, and after being admitted to 
practice, was a member of the local bar until his death in 1879, He 
held the office of town clerk and county treasurer. 

Robert B. Van Valkenburg, born in 1821, was for many years a 
prominent lawyer, a valued and respected citizen, and also a brave 
officer in military service during the war of 1861-65. He read law with 
David Rumsey, and was admitted to practice in 1841, and he afterward 




Ml^ "t^^U 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 221 

married Mr. Rumsey's sister. He was prominently associated with 
nearly every public enterprise in the county ; was also a leading poli- 
tician, and was in Congress in 1861 and '62. He raised and commanded 
the 107th N. Y. Vols., but resigned his commission on account of the 
serious and fatal sickness of his wife. In 1867 our subject was appointed 
minister to Japan, and in 1872 was appointed justice of the Supreme 
Court in Florida, in which State he died in 1887. 

Vincent Matthews Coryell was admitted to practice in 1822, and was 
for a short time partner with Judge Welles. However, Mr. Coryell 
abandoned the profession for the clergy. Anson Gibbs practiced in 
Bath in 1821-22. John Cook was another member of the old bar, at 
the county seat, and was district attorney in 1821. William E. Bonham, 
a native of Erwin, read law with Washington Barnes at Bath and be- 
came his law partner later on. He also practiced in Hornellsville, and 
was in the Legislature in 1864-65. 

In mentioning the various members of the old bar of Steuben county, 
one other name is suggested as specially worthy of notice, although still 
in professfonal work to the extent at least of gratifying his own inclina- 
tion and the frequent importunities of former clients. Ansel J. McCall, 
of whom a suitable biography appears elsewhere in this work, was a 
native of Erwin, born January 14, 1816. He prepared for college at 
Prattsburg, entered Union, and was graduated in 1838. He read law 
ivith David McMaster and also with Hammond & Campbell, and, after 
admission in 1842, became law partner with Washington Barnes; sub- 
sequently with A. P. Ferris. In 1843 Mr. McCall was appointed sur- 
rogate, and held office until 1847. Notwithstanding Mr. McCall's asso- 
ciation with the old bar of the county, and he remembers nearly all of 
its members, the writer feels more disposed to mention him as one of 
the present rather than the old bar. 

Referring briefly to some of the members of the old bar in towns out- 
side of the county seat, mention may be made of Charles H. Thomson, 
who came to Corning in 1850 and read law in the office of George J. 
Spencer. He was admitted in 1883, and became partner to his instruc- 
tor. Mr. Thomson was a good lawyer and an active Republican ; was 
postmaster from 1 861 to 1872; for many years chairman of the Repub- 
lican county convention, also member of the State committee. 



222 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

George T. Spencer became a member of the county bar, and took up 
his residence in Corning in 1841. He was in the Legislature in 1857; 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1867, and county 
judge from 1872 to 1877. Other early members of the bar and in prac- 
tice in Corning were William Irvine, who came in 1849, ^^'^- who was 
elected to Congress in 1858. He was colonel of a cavalry regiment 
during the late war, and was made adjutant- general in 1865. Joseph 
Herron was an active lawyer at Corning from 1847 to 1856, and was 
district attorney two years, begining in 1854. John Maynard came to 
Corning about 1850, and practiced until his death in 1865. He was 
elected district attorney in 1856. Henry G. Cotton began his law prac- 
tice at Centerville but soon moved to the village, when he became part- 
ner with Thomas A. Johnson. Later on he moved to Illinois. John 
P. Shapley succeeded to Judge Johnson's practice when the latter was 
elected to the Supreme bench in 1847. Mr. Shapley died about 1850. 
Henry Sherwood lived and practiced law in Corning from i860 to 1870. 
He was in the Legislature in 1862. He died in 1875. Alvin F. Payne 
was partner to Mr. Sherwood, and practiced in Corning from 1863 to 
1868, when he moved to New York. Charles H. Berry came to Corn- 
ing and began law practice about 1850, but five years later went to 
Minnesota. C. N. Waterman, who eventually became judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Minnesota, practiced in Corning from 185 1 to 1853, 
being partner with Mr. Berry. Isaac C. Herridon became a member of 
the Corning bar about 1855 ; George N. Middlebrook came about 1850 ; 
Azariah Longuell in 1864; George R. Graves in i860. Other practic- 
ing attorneys of the same place, though of later date, were Jacob H. 
Wolcott, William K. Logie, A. Hadden, E. B. Ross, John W. Brown and 
C. D. Baker, none of whose names now appears on the court calender. 

Andrew G. Chatfield was one of the first lawyers at Addison ; was 
member of assembly four terms, 1839, '4°. 41 > ^"^ '46, and was elected 
district attorney in 1845. F". E. R. Cornell was also a former lawyer at 
the same village, and, like Mr. Chatfield, afterward removed to Minne- 
sota, where both became prominent. Ferral C. Dinihny, John W. 
Dininny, and James Durkin are also to be mentioned among the pioneer 
lawyers of Addison. 

In Hornellsville one of the earliest and most prominent members 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 223 

of the legal profession was William M. Hawley, a native of Delaware 
county, born February 13, 1802. Mr. Hawley acquired his legal edu- 
cation in the office of George Miles, of Allegany county, and in 1837 
came to Hornellsville to practice law. He is remembered as a strong, 
conscientious, and perfectly candid lawyer ; a formidable legal oppo- 
nent yet never boastful of his victories. In January, 1846, Mr. Hawley 
was appointed first judge of Steuben county, but was succeeded by 
David McMaster in 1847. ^'^ ^^^ ^^^^ of *^his year Judge Hawley was 
elected to the State Senate from this county, and served one year in 
that capacity. Returning to Hornellsville our subject resumed practice 
and continued till about the time of his death, February 9, 1869. 

John K. Hale was for more than twenty years the leader of the Hor- 
nellsville bar, and was, moreover, one of the pioneers of his profession 
in the western part of the county. Mr. Hale was a native of Maine, a 
typical down-easter, it is said, and was keen, bright, straightforward and 
reliable. Coming to this county, he located first at Addison, and from 
there came to Hornellsville in 1836. He was State Senator in 1856-57, 
but soon after his term expired he moved west. 

Thomas J. Reynolds came to Hornellsville in 18 19, and if his legal 
practice began at that time, he was the undoubted pioneer of the pro- 
fession in the town. Later on he was partner with Mr. Hale, and after- 
wards with R. L. Brundage. Mr. Reynolds is remembered as a natural 
rather than an educated lawyer, yet bright, interesting and a worthy foe 
in legal contest. With his legal practice Mr. Reynolds engaged in lum- 
bering and succeeded in accumulating a competency. 

R. L. Brundage became a member of the Hornellsville bar in 1846. 
He was born in New Jersey and came with his parents to Bath in 1824, 
thence moved to Greenwood in 1830. Mr. Brundage read law with 
John K. Hale, at Hornellsville, and was admitted to practice in 1846. 
In 1852 he was elected district attorney, and after the expiration of his 
term was employed by the Erie Railroad Company. 

John Baldwin was another of the early lawyers of Hornellsville. He 
read law and entered the legal profession in Livingston county, and 
came to Hornellsville in 1835. At one time he was partner with Will- 
iam M. Hawley, but an untimely death cut short a career of usefulness 
and undoubted honor in the profession. Mr. Baldwin died in 1843. 



224 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Harlo Hakes, senior member of the bar in Hornellsville, was a na- 
tive of Delaware county, born September 23, 1823. His elementary 
and legal education was acquired principally in Delaware county, yet 
he finished his law studies with Judge Harris, of Albany, and also in the 
Albany Law School. He was admitted to practice in 1853, and in the 
same year came to Hornellsville, where he has since resided. Among his 
political holdings, the first of note was a term in the Assembly in 1856; 
district attorney one term, beginning January i, 1863 ; appointment in 
1867 as registrar in bankruptcy for the 29th congressional district; 
elected county judge in 1883, and again in 1889, but retired in 1893 by 
reason of the age limitation. However, Judge Hakes still continues in 
active practice. 

Horace Bemis was for many years one of the most popular lawyers 
of Hornellsville, and who, outside of professional life, was an active figure 
in both State and county politics. Mr. Bemis was a native of Vermont 
and acquired his legal education in that State. He was admitted to 
practice in New York State in 1851, and in that year came to Hornells- 
ville. Politically, Horace Bemis was a strong Republican, and as such 
represented the third Steuben district in the Assembly in 1863 and 
1865. In 1868 he was presidential elector for this congressional dis- 
trict on the Republican ticket. 

James H. Stevens, who. for several years was the law partner of Judge 
Hakes, was born in Dansville in 1821, and was admitted to the bar in 
1852, after a thorough general and legal education. He came to Hor- 
nellsville in 1853. 

Among the other practicing attorneys of Hornellsville, who are 
worthy of mention as formerly members of the county bar, were Will- 
iam E. Bonham, of the old firm of Bonham, Near & Piatt, and who 
represented the third Steuben district in the Assembly in 1864 and '65 ; 
and who also practiced for a time in Bath. There was also Daniel L. 
Benton, who was district attorney from 1881 to 1884. There was also 
Rodney Dennis, strong, bright, capable and honest, and who served one 
term of county school commissioner, beginning in 1865. His untimely 
death ended a Useful and interesting career. Henry N. Piatt is also to 
be mentioned in the same connection, though he does not appear to 
have figured much outside of professional life. 





'j^ /T;Ji!^tc^^ (f>^ 



Allanl.C Publishing X Engraving Co NV 



THE BENCH AND BAR. 225 

The Present Bar. — In both personal character and professional ability 
the bench and bar of Steuben county always held distinction, and did 
our space permit the subject would be entitled to more extended notice. 
Under such limitation, however, our record will only include personal 
mention of the members of the present bar of the county ; in which de- 
termination we are supported by the profession in general, and its 
younger representatives in particular, who have yet to make their life 
records, and who fell that extended mention belongs more appropriately 
to- the close of labor than to its beginning. 

In Steuben county there is a great variety of business interests, and 
hence there is a fair prospect of success on the part of any energetic 
lawyer ; and while the legal business ordinarily centers at the county 
seat, in Steuben the seat of justice happens to be located in a compara- 
tively small municipality, which offers less inducement to a la.wyer than 
either Corning or Hornellsville, while, from a business point of view, 
Addison, Canisteo, Wayland and Hammondsport are rivals of Bath. 

The lawyers of the county seat at the present time are M. Rumsey 
Miller, Charles L. Kingsley, James R. Kingsley, C. F. Kingsley, John F. 
Little, Reuben R. Lyon, Robert M. Lyon, Ansel J. McCall, James 
McCall, L. D. Miller, Humphrey McMaster, W. H. Nichols, J. F. Park- 
hurst, R. E. Robie, Thomas Shannon, Clarence Willis, Lucius Waldo, 
Francis B. Wood. In Addison the attorneys are H. D. Baldwin, D. M. 
Darwin and H. W. Sanford. The Adrian attorney is J. D. Millard. 
At Atlanta are counsellors Isaac N. Baker and F. B. Beecher. In Avoca 
are Earle W. Bozard and A. M. Spooner. In Bradford the resident 
lawyer is Albert J. Wright. Emmet B. Rose practices at Campbell. 
Canisteo has five attorneys, A. H. Burrell, A. M. Burrell, A. W. Burrell, 
F. H. Robinson (county judge), and Eli Soule. The attorneys of Co- 
hocton are Samuel J. Depew and C. W. Sianton. 

Lawyers of Corning. — Daniel F. Brown, Warren J. Cheney, Edwin C. 
English, A. S. Kendall, Wm. F. McNamara, Ellsworth D. Mills, Egbert 
Shoemaker, George T. Spencer, Wm. J. TuUy, Francis A. Williams, 
Leslie W. Wellington, Francis C. Williams. 

In Greenwood Silas Kellogg is the only practicing -lawyer, while 
Hammondsport has three, Walter Drew, James G. Sebring and Monroe 
Wheeler. 

29 



226 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Hornellsville. — Milo M. Acker, Hiram A. Baker, Charles E. Beard, 
Wesley Brown, Shirley E. Brown, Wm. C. Bingham, Wm. S. Charles, 
Lewis H. Clark, Chas. J. Clark, James H. Clancy, Charles Conderman, 
Chas. A. Dolson, J. B. Finch, John M. Finch, Adelbert Ferry, John Griffin, 
Harlo Hakes, Homer Holliday, Miles W. Hawley, Frank Kelley, W. S. 
Newman, Irvin W. Near, George N. Orcutt, Warren W. Oxx, De Merville 
Page, Murray E. Page, James A. Parsons, Fay P. Rathbun, James H. 
Stevens, jr., C. W. Stevens, J. E. B. Santee, J. F. Wetmore, Elbert M. 
Worth. 

W. A. Dawson is in practice at Kanona; J. S. Tobias at Painted Post ; 
James Flaherty and J. K. Smith at Prattsburg ; E. T. Hollis and P. 
Masten at Woodhull, and C. C. Bill, W. W. Clark and Henry V. Pratt at 
Wayland. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE PRESS. 



It is surprising, when searching our libraries, to discover how little 
has been written of the "Art preservative of all Arts," and the educator 
of all educators. While printing has been the chronicler of all arts, profes- 
sions and learning, it has recorded so little of its own history as to leave 
even the story of its first invention and application wrapped in mystery 
and doubt ; and we only know that from the old " Ramage press," which 
Faust and Franklin used, capable of producing only a hundred impres- 
sions per hour, we have now the ponderous machine which turns out 
one thousand printed papers per minute. 

In glancing over the pages of history we discover the gradual devel- 
opment in the arts and sciences ; we notice they go hand in hand— one 
discovery points to another, one improvement in the arts leads to 
others continually, and the results of the last few centuries show that 
observations of no apparent use led to the most important discoveries 
and developments. The falling of an apple led Newton to unfold the 
theory of gravitation and its relation to the solar system ; the discovery 



THE PRESS. 227 

of the polarity of the loadstone led to the construction of the mariner's 
compass ; the observation of the muscular contraction of a frog led to 
the numerous applications of galvanic electricity; the observation of 
the expansive force of steam led to the construction and application of 
the steam engine; the observation of the influence of light on the 
chloride of silver led to the art of photography ; the observation of the 
communication of sound by the connected rails of a railroad led to the 
invention of the telephone; the impress'iotis cut in the smooth bark of 
the beech tree led to the art of printing — the art which transmits to 
posterity a record to all that is valuable to the world. 

Thus is progress discernible in every successive generation of man. 
Gradually has he advanced from a state of barbarism and ignorance to 
a degree of perfection which gives him almost absolute dominion over 
all elements, and in the pride of glorious and enlightened manhood he 
can exclaim with Cowper : 

i am monarcli of all I survey, 
My right there is none to dispute^ 
From the center all 'round to the sea 
I am lord of the fowl and the brute. 

The printing office has well been called the " Poor Boy's College,"' 
and has proven a better school to many; has graduated more intellect 
and turned it into useful, practical channels, awakened more active, de- 
voted thought, than almost any alma mater. Many a dunce has passed 
through the universities with no tangible proof of fitness other than his 
insensible piece of parchment, called the "sheepskin." There is some- 
thing in the very atmosphere of the printing office calculated to awaken 
the mind to activity and inspire a thirst for knowledge. Franklin, Stan- 
hope, Beranger, Thiers, Greeley, Taylor, and a host of other names 
illustrious in the world of letters and science, have been gems in the 
diadem of typography, and owe their success to the influence of a print- 
ing office. 

The newspaper has become one of the chief indexes of the intelli- 
gence, civilization and progress of the community in which it is pub- 
lished, and its files are the footprints of the advancement and refinement 
of the period of its publication ; and the printing office is now deemed 
as essential as the school house or church. In a great measure it has 



228 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

taken the place of the rostrum and the professor's chair, and become 
the great teacher. No party, organization, enterprise or calling is now 
considered perfect with its " organ " — the newspaper. 

The history of the press in Steuben county dates back to the year 
1796, the same in which the county itself was created and organized. 
Charles Williamson furnished the idea and the means by which the 
Bath Gazette and Genesee Advertiser first proclaimed the attractions of 
the region to the outside world, and William Kersey and James Edie 
managed the editorial and mechanical departments of the publication. 
However, this paper continued publication only about four years, and 
passed out of existence about the time Captain Williamson closed his 
relations with the Pulteney associates. 

The second newspaper of the county seat was the Steuben and Alle- 
gany Patriot, the first number of which appeared in December, 1816, 
under the control of Capt. Benjamin Smead. " The Patriot," says Mr. 
Richardson,! " remained in the Smead family up to April 4, 1849, when 
it passed into the hands of William C. Rhodes, who continued its pub- 
lication as the Steuben Farmers' Advocate." The office and plant were 
burned January 30, 1857. Mr. Rhodes sold the good will of the paper 
to P. S. Donahe, who, on May 31, 1857, resumed publication, Ansel J. 
McCall filling the editorial chair. However, in the summer of i860, 
A. L. Underhill became owner of the Advocate, and the office and 
paper were subjected to radical changes, resulting in a greatly improved 
condition. This paper is still owned and published by members of the 
Underhill family, although on the i6th of September, 1895, it Passed 
into the management of a corporate company, with a capital of $10,000. 
The Advocate is one of the truest exponents of Democratic principles 
in Steuben county, and is, as well, one of its strongest papers. 

In September, 18 19, the Western Republican made its first appear- 
ance in Bath, under the editorial control of Erastus Shepard. In No- 
vember, 1822, the name was changed to Steuben Republican, but after 
a struggling existence of less than three years (February, 1822) publi- 
cation was discontinued. 

1 The -writer acknowledges access to the compilations of George W. Richardson, of Bath, in 
preparing the history of the local press, Mr. Richardson is regarded as undoubted authority on 
the subject, and has corrected many errors made by earlier historians. 



THE PRESS. 229 

The next venture in the journalistic field was the Steuben Whig, a 
campaign paper published in 1828, by William M. Swaine, who after- 
ward published the Philadelphia Ledger. In the same year David 
Rumsey issued the first number of the Steuben Messenger, but in 1830 
sold out to S. M. Eddy, and the latter, in turn, disposed of the paper 
to W. P. Angel. He changed the name to Constitutionalist, and con- 
tinued it until 1834, when Charles Adams became proprietor. In 1841 
Adams sold to R. L. Underhill, but still later owners or persons inter- 
ested were M. F. Whittemore & Co., R. B. Van Valkenburgh, and George 
B. Richardson and John Dowe, the latter in 1843, and by whom the 
name was changed to Steuben Democrat. In 1844 publication was 
suspended, but the paper was revived in 1848 by L. J. Brush, who, in 
1849, sold to George H. Bidwell, and he continued it till 1852. Next 
came the Primitive Christian, a religious paper, edited by Rev. Jabez 
Chadwick and printed by Richardson & Dowe, and issued monthly. 
The Rose, a literary monthly, also made its appearance in 1844 J. C. 
Vincent, editor, and Richardson & Dowe, printers. Mr. Vincent en- 
listed as a soldier in the Mexican war, upon which publication ceased. 

The present Steuben Courier, the leading Republican organ of 
Northern Steuben county, had its origin in a newspaper founded under 
Whig influences, and for the special purpose of promoting the political 
aspirations of Henry Clay. For its conduct Henry H. Hull was called 
to Bath, and he associated with him M. F. Whittemore of the defunct 
Constitutionalist. After two years Mr. Whittemore retired, and Mr. 
Hull conducted the paper alone until 1856, when Charles G. Fairman 
took an interest and remained nine months. In 1854, when the Re- 
publican party was organized, the Courier advocated its principles and 
became its chief organ in the county. This standing it has ever since 
maintained, although frequent changes in ownership have been made 
du'ring its subsequent history. However, in 1890, the Courier Com- 
pany, Limited, was formed and has since owned and conducted the 
paper, employing a competent editor and a full corps of assistants. 

In 1854, Jennie and Caroline Rumsey founded and edited the Tem- 
perance Gem, procuring the assistance of the Advocate office in com- 
position and press work. This paper was afterward moved to Elmira. 
About two years afterward, on January i, 1856, the Steuben American 



230 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

was issued by A. L. Underhill. P. S. Donahe became its owner in 
1857 and merged the paper in the Farmers' Advocate. The Saturday 
News was estabhshed by Enos W. Barnes, who issued the first number 
April 25, 1868. It lived less than six months. The Tri-weekly Con- 
servative made its first appearance in August, 1868, under the editorial 
management of Charles Clute. It was a spicy little sheet, yet short 
lived, about equal to its cotemporary, the News. The Bath Echo was 
the undertaking of Clute & McCall, and was published four or five 
months during the year 1874. The same may also be said of the Bath 
Sunday News, which was published about six months, of the year 1881, 
by L. R. Smith & Co., the editor being A. Ellas McCall. 

The Bath Plaindealer, recognized to-day as one of the best weekly 
family newspapers published in Steuben county, was founded in 1883, 
the first number being issued May 5. Its owners were A. Ellas Mc- 
Call, Orson L. Drew and William Black. The Plaindealer soon found 
its way into popular favor, yet it never courted notoriety in any respect. 
It is conservatively yet liberally conducted and has a large circulation. 
Of the original firm. Drew and Black both withdrew in 1884, since 
which time Mr. McCall has been sole proprietor. 

The Savona Review, a bright, interesting and newsy weekly paper- 
published at Savona by T. C. Wall was established in 1888 (May 19) 
by S L. Ward, and then known as the Savona Rustler. 

Having referred at some length to the newspapers, past and present, 
of the county town, we may with propriety mention those which have 
had an existence in the other towns of the county. In the village and 
town of Addison are two good representative newspaper publications, 
known respectively, as the Advertiser and the Record, advocates of the 
two great political parties of the nation, and withal interesting and in- 
structive family journals. In March, 1858, after several previous ineffec- 
tual attempts, the Addison Advertiser was brought into permanent ex- 
istence, and while it freely discussed all political questions, it did so 
from a distinctly independent standpoint. However, before a year had 
passed the paper became as earnestly Democratic as it was previously 
independent During the war the Advertiser was perfectly loyal, and 
so zealous was it in support of the administration that it became essen- 
tially Republican. In 1872 it favored the Greeley movement, and four 



THE PRESS. 231 

years later supported Tilden. Again, in 1881, it returned to the Re- 
publican fold under the management of Amos Roberts, its present 
owner. Many indeed have been the changes in ownership of the Ad- 
vertiser, and we may note them about as follows : Henry M. Johnson, 
founder, assisted by Col. Henry Baldwin ; Johnson, Dow & Bates, July, 
1865, to January i, 1866; Johnson & Roberts; George H. Hollis, Jan- 
uary 30, 1873; Amos Roberts, 1881. The Addison Record was 
founded December 3, 1 881, by O. B. Ireland, who was succeeded by 
F. B, Orser and George Jones, and the latter in turn by M. Kinne. On 
the iith of June, 1886, C. B. Mowers, the present owner, purchased 
and has since conducted the paper; and has made it the organ of the 
Democratic party in this part of the county. 

On the 17th day of May, 1879, W. T. Coggswell issued the first 
number of the Avoca Advance, the first and only newspaper published 
in the town. It has continued to the present time and always received 
a fair share of the public patronage. Its successive owners have been 
W. T. Coggeshall, Martin A. Hoadley, Alvin Wood, Fred C. Dean, 
Coggeshall & Silsbee, and George C. Silsbee, the latter becoming sole 
owner in March, 1888. 

The Canisteo Times was established January 25, 1877, in the enter- 
prising village of Canisteo by S. H. Jennings, and almost at once met 
with popular favor and generous support. On April i, 1886, the plant 
was sold to F. B. Smith, who in turn disposed of it Frank A. Fay, 'the 
present editor and publisher. 

The Canisteo Tidings was originally a paper of Troupsburg, estab- 
lished in 1890, as Farmers' Weekly, by Elmer E. Reynolds. The 
paper was removed to Canisteo in 1894. Potter, Mulhollen & Co. 
were former proprietors, but it is now owned and successfully managed by 
James N. Osincup and Clarence C. Proctor. 

Away back in 1859 William Waite Warner started a little paper in 
Cohocton, the first venture of its kind in the town. It was called the 
Cohocton Journal, and was a good though short lived paper. No 
further attempt at starting a paper was made until 1872, when H. B. 
Newell brought the Cohocton Herald, but he soon sold out to James 
C. Hewitt and the latter changed the name of the paper to Cohocton 
Tribune. The next owner was William A. Carpenter (in 1875) by 



232 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

whom the name was changed to Cohocton Valley Times, as now known. 
In 1878 Edward A. Higgins became owner, and was, in November, 
1889, succeeded by S. D. Shattuck. The Times, under the careful and 
energetic management of editor Shattuck, is known as one of the best 
and most widely circulating weekly papers in the upper Conhocton 
region, and is in all respects an interesting family newspaper. 

The Cohocton Index was moved to Cohocton village from Atlanta in 
1893, but previous to that time had been published in the latter village 
under the name of Atlanta News. Hyatt C. Hatch was its founder and 
owner until 1892, when the present management was established. V. 
L. and R. M. Tripp are competent newspaper men, and under their 
united efforts the Index has taken a favorable position among the weekly 
publications of the county. 

The Corning and Blossburg Advocate was the first venture in jour- 
nalism in Corning, and was established in 1 840, soon after the opera- 
tions of the " Corning Company " had become an assured success. 
However, the Advocate had but a brief life in this locality, as in 1841 
it passed into the hands of Henry H. Hull, and by him was united with 
the Steuben Courier, a newspaper of the county seat. 

After the removal of the Advocate to Bath, in 1843, there was no 
newspaper published in Corning until 1847, when Thomas Messenger 
founded the Corning Journal, a paper which has been in continuous and 
active existence from that until the present time, and one which, 
throughout the long period of its history, has recorded as many public 
changes and events, and yet has experienced as few in its own man- 
agement and personnel, as any paper in the southern tier. Further- 
more, the Journal has been productive of as much good to every worthy 
interest as any newspaper of the region, and has ever been devoted to 
the advocacy of purity in home and public life. In July, 1851, A. W. 
McDowell and Dr. George W. Pratt purchased the Journal, and since 
April, 1853, the person last mentioned has had sole and almost con- 
stant charge of its conduct and management, and being practically re- 
lieved only within the present year. This experience and record in 
journalism has few equals; and to-day the newspaper guide and direc- 
tory retains the old pioneer name — '" Corning Journal, George W. Pratt, 
editor and publisher." The daily edition of the Journal was begun in 




GEORGE W. PRATT. 



THE PRESS. 233 

1891. From July, 1869, to November. 1874, T. S. De Wolf was inter- 
ested in the paper, and Harry H. Pratt soon afterward became as'-.oci- 
ate editor. The Journal, in both daily and weekly editions, is a Re- 
publican paper, representing and advocating true party principles; and 
is the recognized organ of the party in the county and State. 

The Corning Democrat has its origin in the Corning Semi- Weekly 
Sun, a paper established and published by M. M. Pomeroy and P. C. 
Van Gelder, beginning in 1853. Mr. Pomeroy, both in Corning and 
elsewhere, became a noted writer, and was for many years familiarly 
known as "Brick" Pomeroy. However, in 1854 the Sun passed into 
the hands of Rev. Ira Brown, who published it weekly as The Southern 
Tier Farmer. At later periods the paper was managed by C. T. Huson 
and Frank B. Brown, as partners, under whom the name Corning Dem- 
ocrat was adopted. From November, 1859, to June, 1885, the paper 
was owned by Mr. Brown, but since that time the firm name of F. B. 
Brown & Son as appeared as editors and publishers. The daily edition 
of the Democrat was first published in 1884. Both daily and weekly 
editions are Democratic in politics, emphatic, perhaps, in utterances, yet 
consistent and representing the best interests of the party in county. 
State and Nation. 

The Corning Independent made its appearance in local journalism in 
Corning in December, 1874, under control of P. S. De Wolf, but in 1876 
was sold to Dr. A. J. IngersoU who continued it as a Greenback paper, 
though under the editorial management of Uri Mulford. The paper 
suspended publication in 1879. 

The Evening Chronicle, a daily newspaper, independent in politics, 
was started in Corning on May 4, 1891, by Edward Mott, and enjoyed 
a brief season of public attention. 

Among the other temporary newspapers of the vicinity of Corning, 
we may mention the Painted Post Gazette, established in 1846, by Mr. 
Fairchild and continued a few months. The Painted Post Herald was 
founded by Ransom Bennett and B. M. Hawley in 1848, and continued 
a single year. The Painted Post Times was begun in October, 1870, 
by Wm. C. Bronson, H. C. Higman and S. H. Ferenbaugh, and was 
continued with indifferent success until 1877. 

The first attempt to start a newspaper in Hornellsville was successful, 

30 



234 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

and the paper then founded has been in continuous and successful ope- 
ration to the present time. On the 3d of November, 185 1, Edwin 
Hough established the Hornellsville Tribune, and it was, as Mr. Tuttle 
says " the faithful chronicler of the progress of the vicinity. At first an 
independent paper, it became Democratic for about two years, but es- 
poused the Republican cause with the organization of that party and 
remained so until its sale in 1869 to D. R. Shafer." From that until 
the present time the Tribune has been Democratic in politics, firm and 
undoubted in its utterances, yet consistent throughout, and to-day the 
paper, both daily and weekly, is regarded as the organ of the party 
in the county, and one of its strongest exponents in the southern 
tier. Says Mr. Tuttle : " The Tribune has been published, successively, 
by Edwin Hough, Hough & Kinney, Hough & Baker, E. Hough & 
Son, Hough & Beecher, E. H. Hough, D. R. Shafer, Greenhow & Son, 
and W. H. Greenhow, he now being sole owner and publisher," In 
1870 John and W. H. Greenhow purchased the paper, and in 1880 the 
first mentioned sold his interest to Charles F. Peck. W. H. Greenhow 
became owner of the Tribune in December, 1884. The daily edition of 
the Tribune was first issued February 4, 1878, as an afternoon paper. 

The National American was established February 13, 1856, by D. C. 
Pruner and C. M. Harmon, but in September, 1858, passed into the 
hands of Charles A. Kinney who changed its name to The Canisteo 
Valley Journal. Three years later, January, 1861, the paper was sold 
to R. S. Lewis, and he made it Republican in politics. However, in 
1862 its publication was discontinued. 

The Democratic Vidette was formed by Burdick Bros., September 
28, 1 865, and was thereafter published successively by Burdick & Cooper, 
John M. Riley & Co., A. J. Riley & Co., and William H Baldwin. 
The owner last mentioned, who was a writer of more than ordinary 
force and ability, sold the paper to Thacher & Tuttle, who changed its 
name to The Canisteo Valley Times, and made it Republican in politics 
from January lo, 1867. Concerning its subsequent history, Mr. Tuttle 
says, " Others connected with the editorial management of the Times 
were Johnson Brigham, H. S. Tomer, and John W. Mack." Following 
the retirement of Mr. Thacher, in 1877, the Times has been published, 
in turn, by R. M. Tuttle, Tuttle & Brigham, Johnson Brigham, Tomer, 




R. M. TUTTLE. 



THE PRESS. 235 

Dolson & Jacktnan, Dolson & Mack, J. S. Dolson, and the Times As- 
sociation, the latter now owners and publishers, with Russell M. Tuttle 
as editor, and A. H. Bunnell as business manager." The Times is the 
organ of the Republican party of the countj' at large, and not of any 
faction of the party ; holding firmly to Republican principles and not 
easily swayed by party prejudices and contentions. In all departments 
the paper, in both editions, is well edited and managed, and is received 
favorably throughout the southern tier. The daily edition began with 
the Daily News, published first by Benzinger & Osincup, Octo- 
ber 22, 1877. Tuttle & Brigham purchased it February 25, 1878, en- 
larged and materially improved it, and changed the name to Daily 
Times. Originally this was an evening daily, but became a morning 
paper in September, 1883. 

The Saturday Herald, one of Hornellsville's best weekly newspapers, 
had its origin in an advertising sheet issued by several prominent mer- 
chants of the then village, conspicuous among whom was M. A. Tuttle. 
The paper was called the Economist, and was published every week for 
about a year, being then purchased by Graham & Dawson and changed 
n name at least, to the Hornellsville Herald. It soon espoused the 
cause of Prohibition and was ably edited by Mr, Graham. However, 
in 1876, E. H. Hough purchased the paper, who, with his son, under 
the style of Herald Publishing Company, now conduct it. The change 
in name to Saturday Herald was made in March, 1893. 

The Reveille, a paper devoted to the interests of the Greenback party, 
began publication in Hornellsville on January 19, 1878, under the man- 
agement of J. Willett Smith, the press work, however, being done in 
the Tribune office. After two weeks James D. Adams bought the 
Reveille, brought a printing equipment from Andover, and continued 
the paper under the name of the Greenback Champion for a year when 
publication was suspended. Soon afterward Daniel Healey purchased 
the material and produced the Invincible, and the latter gave way in 
June, 1881, toThe Daily Independent, an evening paper under the 
management of Tolan Bros. & Shattuck. It suspended December 25, 

1881. 

The Steuben Signal, a Prohibition newspaper, was established April 
4, 1883, under the direction the "Signal Publishing Company," and 
was published five years before suspension. 



236 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The Era, a Labor party paper, was established in 1887, by S. H. 
Jennings, and continued one year. 

The Daily Press, another and in fact the last new venture in Horn- 
ellsville journalism, was established March 9, 1889, by the Press Pub- 
lishing Company, consisting of John Tolan and Leon Hough. The 
paper was printed on the Herald press. In February, 1890, Mr. Tolan 
purchased a printing outfit and continued the Press as sole proprietor. 
It was an independent eveningpaper, and remained in existence, though 
with many vicissitudes, until 1894 when publication ceased. 

The Prattsburgh News, a bright, lively and interesting weekly news- 
paper published by P. C. Howe's Sons, was established December 12, 
1872, by P. C. Howe & Sons, and was successor to the still older local 
paper known as the Prattsburgh Advertiser, which Caleb B. Hoke 
founded several years before. The News is an excellent family paper, 
devoted especially to the interests of the north part of the county. Its 
directory feature is valuable, while its market reports give it a large and 
deserved circulation. 

The Hammondsport Herald was established May i, 1874, by Mrs. 
Benjamin Bennitt and Mrs. E. B. Fairchild, ladies well known in local 
literary circles, and both interested in the welfare of the Pleasant Valley 
region. After a year of successful management Mrs. Bennitt retired 
from the paper, and at the end of another year (in December, 1876,) 
Llewelyn H. Brown purchased a half interest in the Herald. In 1876 Mr. 
Brown became and has since been sole owner and publisher of the 
paper. It is issued weekly and is an independent family journal, enjoy- 
ing a good circulation and advertising patronage. 

The Union Advertiser, published at Wayland by H. B. Newell, was 
established in the fall of 1863 by its present proprietor, although for a 
time the paper was owned by Newell Brothers. It is an independent 
family newspaper, devoted to general news and a thorough representa- 
tion of Wayland interests. 

The Wayland Register made^ its initial appearance in Wayland village 
on the 1st of May, 1889, under the editorial management of C. F. Dean. 
This, too, has been a successful venture in local affairs and received 
generous support. It is now edited and published by Bert Goodno. 

The Southern Steuben Republican was founded in 1879 by R. C. Park 




'^ ''^9-b^J^.i7us R.RCce * Soix^- 



phM^ 




^^^^^^^£^^?^^ 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 237 

under the name of Steuben Sentinel, having its office at Troupsburg, 
but in 1880 removed to Woodhull. It was formerly an independent 
paper, but now, as the name implies, advocates Republican principles. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

The medical profession of Steuben county has preserved but little of 
its history, and while there are a few meagre records by which we 
may learn the proceedings and membership of the medical societies 
that have been formed, there are no data upon which can be based a 
history of the development of the profession. The great advance in all 
branches of art and science during the last century has indeed been 
marvelous, but in none has there been greater progress than in medi- 
cine and surgery. 

This science which now sheds its light throughout the civilized world 
began with Hippocrates nearly twenty-three hundred years ago, and he 
first treated of medicine with the simplest remedies, relying chiefly on 
the healing power of nature. He wrote extensively, and many of his 
works were translated and served as a foundation for succeeding litera- 
ture of the profession. The greatest advance in medical science, how- 
ever, has been made during the last one hundred years, and chiefly dur- 
ing the last half century. 

Evolution and development are the watchwords of the nineteenth 
century, and it is no longer universally believed that this world was 
created by supernatural power, for many of our deepest thinkers, men 
of the most profound understanding, believe it has been gradually un- 
folded by the action of natural causes. But, not wishing to be accused 
of heresy, it may be stated that whether the theory be according to 
Darwin,' or Haekel, or Spencer, or some other philosopher, the law will 
be the same in any case, and away back, behind " protoplasm," " germ- 
inal matter" and "cellular germ," there still exists abundant proof of a 
"first great cause," of an "infinite wisdom," for the depth of which Ian- 



238 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

guage hath not expression. A flood of light on this question is now 
pouring forth upon the world, but its acceptation as a convincing truth 
rests with the individual. Physiologists no longer believe with the 
practitioners of the sixteenth century that the plants have a direct and 
controlling action on the body, the sun upon the heart, or the moon 
upon the brain ; nor do they now believe that the vital spirits are pre- 
pared in the brain by distillation. On the contrary, modern physiology 
teaches that the phenomena of the living body are the results of physi- 
cal and chemical changes ; the temperature of the blood is now ascer- 
tained by the thermometer, and the different fluids and gases of the 
body are analyzed by the chemists, giving to each its own properties 
and functions. 

There are now known to botanists more than 160,000 plants, of which 
a large proportion are constantly being added to the already appalling 
list of new remedies. Few of these drugs possess little, if any virtue, 
except as their sale adds to the profits of the dealer. The ancients 
were not so well supplied with drugs, and hence resorted to other meth- 
ods. It was a custom among the Babylonians to expose the sick to the 
view of passers-by in order to learn of them whether they had been 
afflicted with a like distemper and by what remedies they had been 
cured. It was also a custom of those days for all persons who had been 
sick to put up a tablet in the temple of Esculapius, whereon they gave 
an account of the remedies by which they had been restored. Prior to 
Hippocrates all medicines were in the hands of the priests, and were 
associated with numerous superstitions, such as charms, amulets, incan- 
tations, sympathetic ointments, and the like. And we may here add 
that all this credulous superstition of early ages, born of ignorance, has 
not been fully wiped out by the advanced education of the present day. 
One of the latest appeals to the credulity of the masses is the so-called 
" Christian Science," and also " Faith Cure," but so long as filth brings 
fever prayer will not interpose, and the persons seeking to popularize 
this means of cure are either deceived themselves or are deceiving 
others. 

It is not our purpose, however, to treat of ancient or more modern 
medical history, and though a review of the progress in this science, 
from the time of Greek or Roman medical mythology, would be inter- 




C. S. PARKHILL. 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 239 

esting and instructive, it is hardly pertinent to the medical history of 
Steuben county, and our introductory observations are merely to sug- 
gest to the reader the difference betwen the ancient and modern means 
of healing. 

Previous to the present century the State of New York, unlike Penn- 
sylvania and New England, had done very little to encourage science, 
and there were no schools of medicine worthy of the name nearer than 
Boston or Philadelphia. Few young men could then afford to go so far 
to qualify themselves for a profession which offered but little pecuniary 
inducement, hence the prevailing custom was for the medical aspirant 
to enter the office of some neighboring physician and read for two or 
three years, at the same time accompanying his tutor in his professional 
visits and learn his methods of practice. At the end of the term the 
young doctor would seek some promising field and begin practice. 

The legislation which then regulated the practice of physicians was 
so defective as to be really worthless. In 1806, however, an act was 
passed repealing all former laws in reference to the profession and at 
the same time authorizing a general State Medical Society, and also 
county societies 

Under the provisions of this law a medical society was organized in 
Steuben county, but at what precise date we are unable to determine, 
as the earliest records are not to be found. It is confidently believed, 
however, that the society was formed about the year 18 15, though this 
belief is founded almost wholly on tradition. 

Among the earlier members, previous to 1820, may be mentioned 
John D. Higgins, Willis F. Clark, Warren Patchin, Samuel Gorton, 
James Faulkner, Enos Barnes, John Warner, James Warden, Andrew 
Kingsbury, John P. Kennedy, Daniel Gilbert, Jacob Chatterton, Lyman 
N. Cook, Philo Andrews, Walter Wolcott, Thomas M. Brown, Noah 
Niles, Samuel Southworth, Simeon H. Goss and Joel Luther. The later 
members, yet all previous to 1830, were Robert F. Hoyt, Jonathan 
Lockwood, Samuel Scofield, Silas B. Hibbard, James Cutler, George W. 
Turner, Gustavus A. Rogers, Samuel B. Chidsey, Isaac L. Kidder, Milo 
Hurd, Levi S. Goodrich, David L. Wicks, Daniel H. Orcutt, M. C. Kel- 
logg, E. R. Pulling, Israel Chissom, Isaac Wixom, T. E. Ganesvoort, 
J. L. Livermore, F. E. Bateman, WiUiam Hunter, Samuel Olin, Levi 



240 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Fay, David Hotchkiss, Nathaniel Sheldon, Mannings Kelly, Zenas S. 
Jackson, Sampson Stoddard, Winthrop E. Booth and David Ward, the 
latter being admitted to membership in the society in 1830. 

The Steuben County Medical Society, in its early history, is remem- 
bered as having been an exceeding prosperous organization, and was at 
one time vested by law with seemingly extraordinary powers in the 
matter of receiving members, licensing practitioners and dismissing 
recalcitrants. It also had the power to establish fees and regulate, 
arbitrarily at times, the conduct of physicians and compel membership 
and obedience to its rules. Yet, during the long period of its existence, 
the society passed through many vicissitudes and has been threatened 
with complete disintegration, but an organization has ever been main- 
tained, and now its affairs are in a healthful condition (emblematic, per- 
haps, of the professional object of its members). However, even for the 
purposes of this record, the writer is embarrassed in not having access 
to the secretary's books, and is compelled to obtain the appended list 
of members from the published reports of the State Medical Society. 

The officers for the year 1895 ^^^ ^^ follows : President, Burtis R. 
Wakeman, Hornellsville ; vice-president, Willis S. Cobb, Corning ; sec- 
retary and treasurer, Chester K. Stewart, Bath. 

Members. — H. R. Ainsworth, Addison ; M. L. Allen, Hammonds- 
port; A. A. Aldrich, Addison; Eli Allison, Wayne; Henry A. Argue, 
Corning ; M. T. Babcock, Hammondsport ; J. A. Bennett, Prattsburg ; 
H. M. Bourne, Corning ; C. M. Brasted, Horrnellsville ; T. O. Bur- 
lison, Bath; Franklin Burr, Corning; George Conderman, Hornells- 
ville; Amelia A. Christie, Hornellsville ; Willis S. Cobb, Corning ; 
D. F. Cridler, Hornellsville ; A. H Cruttenden, Bath ; Mrs. A. A. Dol- 
son, Hornellsville; J. S. Dolson, Hornellsville; Lewis Fitzsimmons, 
South Pulteney; T. B. Fowler, Cohocton ; F. S.Gallagher, Naples; 
A. L. Gilbert, North Cohocton; H, Gilbert, Hornellsville; H. S. Gil- 
lett, Savona; I. L. Goff; Cohocton; W. T. Green, Hornellsville; W. 
W. Green, Prattsburg; Joseph Hoare, Corning; G. C. Hubbard, Hor- 
nellsville ; John S. Hubbs, Hammondsport ; M. B. Hubbs, Addison ; 
C. O. Jackson, Cameron; Ambrose Kasson, Bath; R. R. Kelly, Hor- 
nellsville; Arthur Kendall, Corning; George W. Lane, Corning; H. 
G. Mace, Wallace ; Thomas F. McNamara, Hornellsville ; J. D. Mitch- 





-^^-^"S^i^^^ 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 241 

ell, Hornellsville ; H. B. Nichols, Pulteney; S. B. H. Nichols, Corning; 
W. E. Palmer, Hornellsville ; C. S. Parkhill, Hornellsville ; Myron H. 
Parkhill, Howard ; R F. Parkhill, Howard ; C. Patterson, Avoca ; 
Thomas H. Pawling, Bath; M. M. Perry, Troupsburg; Charles R. 
Phillips, Corning; Benjamin Pickett, Canisteo ; A. D. Robbins, 
Corning ; C. B. Robertson, Towlesville ; Denton W. Rodgers, Hornells- 
ville ; Robert J. Scott, Prattsburg ; W. Sheffield, Jasper ; I. P. Smith, 
Bath; W. W. Smith, Avoca; B. M. Spencer, Hyrnellsville ; C. P. 
Stevens, Wallace ; Chester T. Stewart, Bath ; P. K. Stoddard, Pratts- 
burg; Stephen M. Switzer, Bradford; C. J. Tower, Savona ; J. H. 
Trumbull, Hornellsville ; Burtis R. Wakeman, Hornellsville ; Eugene 
E. Webster, Hornellsville; Seymour C. Williamson, Canisteo; E. 
Winne, Haskinsville ; F. A. Wygant, Cohocton. 

In the year 1867 the disciples of Similia Similibus CuranUir'xn Steu- 
ben county sought an organization for the general welfare of their 
school of medicine and its representatives. In the early history of the 
county nothing whatever was known of homeopathy, and when the first 
physicians of this school came into the region they were regarded with 
distrust and suspicion by friends of the old school of practice, while the 
allopathists themselves regarded the newcomers as intruders and 
quacks. Indeed, homeopathy has been compelled to work its way 
through hardships and difficulties almost equal to those encountered by 
our pioneers in gaining a substantial foothold in a country inhabited 
only by enemies. But by steady advances in the hands of careful and 
competent representatives, this method of treatment has come to be re- 
garded with popular favor, and is recognized as sound and rational. 

The organization referred to was effected on the 25th of May, 1861, 
and its result was the "Steuben County Homeopathic Medical Society," 
with these officers: A. De Wolfe, president; W. S. Purdy, vice presi- 
dent; James M. Cadmus, secretary; B. F. Grant, H. S. Benedict and 
P. S. Hollett, censors. 

The society maintained an active and successful existence for several 
years, and its members were chiefly from the eastern and northern por- 
tions of the county, with a few from the vicinity of Hornellsville ; but 
with the formation of the Southern Tier society there followed a decline 
in interest in the affairs of the local society, with ultimate disintegration. 

31 



242 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The Southern Tier Homeopathic Medical Association of the State of 
New York was organized at a largely attended meeting of homeopa- 
thists held in the city of Elmira on the 20th of January, 1874. Its 
members were chiefly from Chemung, Steuben and Schuyler counties, 
with a few from Tioga and Broome. This society has preserved intact 
its organization originally made, and built substantially upon a lasting 
foundation by procuring an incorporation on the i6th of April, 1878. 
However, the general rather than local character of this society makes 
it imprudent to furnish other than a mere outline of its history. 

The Hornellsville Academy of Medicine was organized December 17, 
1873, and continued in existence nearly ten years, and was dissolved 
through natural causes during the summer of 1883. The last meeting 
was held August 6, 1883. The objects of the society were worthy, the 
membership fairly good, but through imperfect organization and lack 
of interest, it was decided to terminate the existence of the body. 

However, the medical profession of Hornellsville and vicinity soon 
felt the need of a professional organization other than the county society ; 
the well being of the fraternity demanded such and the best medical 
practitioners were heartily in favor of the plan. The result was a meet- 
ing of the local physicians at the Page House in Hornellsville on the 3d 
of December, 1888, at which time the Hornellsville Medical and Surgi- 
cal Association was formed ; and this formal organization was soon 
afterward made complete by incorporation under the State laws, there- 
by giving the association a standing in the State Medical Society, and 
also in the American Medical Association. 

The first oflicers were Dr. Clare S. Parkhill, president; John G. Kelly, 
vice-president; Chauncey G. Hubbard, secretary and treasurer. The 
presidents, in succession, have been as follows : C. S. Parkhill, 1888; 
John S. Jamison, 1889; John G. Kelly, 1890; James E.Walker, 1891 ; 
Joseph S. Dolson, 1892 ; C. R. Bowen, 1893 ; Charles R. Phillips, 1894; 
Lyman B. Smith, 1895. 

The association has thirty- two members, regular practicing physicians 
in this and the adjoining county of Allegany. The officers for the 
year 1895 are as follows: Lyman B. Smith, president ; Charles Con- 
derman, vice-president : Roy Dunham, secretary and treasurer; Drs. 
Palmer, Brasted and Wakeman, censors, 




J. G. KELLY. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 243 



CHAPTER XVII. 

CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 

The Village of Bath. — In 1793, when Charles Cameron and his 
party of pioneers disembarked from their flat boats and canoes and 
began the first improvements near Pulteney Square, the village of Bath 
was founded in fact, although some time passed before the liamlet was 
given its name. Whether Captain Williamson at that time had in mind 
the establishment of this as a county seat is a subject of speculation, with 
the weight of opinion in favor of the idea, for his plans were complete, 
and Thomas Rees, jr., the surveyor of the party, evidently acted under 
direction to be thorough in his work, and when all was done no change 
of importance was required and only subsequent additions to the village 
plans were made. 

Williamson was possessed of excellent judgment and, moreover, was 
a man of large ideas, hence naturally gave heed to the possibilities of 
the future. His estate was a vast tract of land, extending in all direc- 
tions from this central point, and here he decided to make the seat of 
his extensive operations. He knew that the best results were to be ob- 
tained through organization of the territory into a separate county, and 
within three years from the time Cameron's men felled the first tree we 
find the little hanilet of Bath the seat of justice of Steuben county. The 
first court of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the peace was held 
at the land office on June 21, 1796, and in the same year a newspaper, 
that indispensable adjunct of municipal prosperity, was founded. A 
school house was also built, a place provided for informal religious gath- 
erings, and that outdoor amusements might be encouraged, a race- 
track was constructed. Weld, the English traveler, who visited the set- 
tlement in 1796, wrote : " Bath is a post and principal town in the west- 
ern part of the State of New York. Though laid out only three years 
ago, yet it contains about thirty houses ; it is increasing very fast. 



244 [LAJSTDMAEKS OF STBTJBEN COUNTY. 

Among the houses are several stores and shops, well furnished with 
goods, and a tavern that would not be thought meanly of in any part of 
America. The town [meaning the village settlement] stands on a plain, 
surrounded on three sides by hills of moderate height. The plain is 
almost wholly divested of trees, but the hills are still uncleared and have 
a very pleasing appearance from the town. At the foot of the hills runs 
a stream of pure water over a bed of gravel, which is called Conhocton 
Creek. There is a very considerable fall in the creek just above the 
town, which affords the finest seats for mills possible. Extensive saw 
and flour mills have already been erected upon it." 

Such was a superficial view of the surroundings of our pretty little 
hamlet a century ago, and to the familiar eye of an observer the present 
beautiful village of Bath is discernible, the scene in many respects being 
undisturbed. The magnificent and heavily wooded hills on the south 
are the same to the eye to-day as an hundred years ago, and a home 
and nature loving people have endeavored to spare and preserve as far 
as possible the landmarks and reminders of early life. Notwithstand- 
ing all this, Bath has been a progressive village and all desirable im- 
provements have been encouraged and promoted. Its people have 
been conservative, yet generous in all worthy undertakings. Circum- 
stances and location have in a measure combined to retard its progress 
during the last half century, yet all municipalities cannot become im- 
portant and large commercial centers, and there is little manifest desire 
to have Bath partake of such character. The residents are content with 
their surroundings and conditions, and there is an indescribable some- 
thing that always attracts the visitor to the place, makes him contented 
while there, and causes a pang of regret at departure. 

" In 1804," says Mr. McCall's address, "William H. Bull came, with 
his father, Howell Bull, from Painted Post, and has furnished the mem- 
oranda from which has been made a bird's-eye view of Bath in that year." 
Also, in 181 1, Edward Howell and his brother William came to Bath, 
and from the latter we have an accurate pen description of the village 
in that year, viz.: "In 181 1, the only streets in Bath were Morris, Lib- 
erty, and West Steuben from Pulteney Square to its junction with 
Morris street. There were nine dwelling houses on the north side of 
Morris street, extending from the square to Stewart's Hill. There was 




Village of Bath in 1804. 



1 — Log house, formerly printing office 
of the Bath Gazette. 

a— Bull's Tavern. 

3 — Log house. 

4 — Helm's residence. 

5 — Frame house, afterwards occupied by 
Rev. J. Niles. 

6 — Log house. 

7 — H. A. Townsend's house. 

8— McClure's house and store. 

9 — Grocery. 
10 — Court House. 
11 — Turner's house. 



12 — Jonathan T. Haight, lawyer. 

13 — Log house. 

14 — Pulteney Land Agent's residence. 

15 — Land office. 

16 — Liberty tree (blown down in 1825). 

17— Bath Jail. 

18 — School house. 

19— D. Cameron's house. 

20- Metcalf's Tavern. 
21 — Blacksmith shop. 
22— Theatre. 

23 — Helm's grist and saw mills. 



246 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

only one house on the south side of the street. On the south side of 
the square was the agency house and the land office, and back of them 
were several long low houses, built of logs and sided with clapboards, 
which had been used as servant's quarters. On the south side of West 
Morris street, from the land office to where the Erie depot stands, were 
four or five dwelling houses, and near the depot was a small frame 
dwelling and a blacksmith shop. On the north side of Morris street 
(west of the park) were six dwelling houses, viz.: Ira Pratt's, Metcalf's 
Tavern, John McCalla, D. Cruger, and on the corner, Spring's Tavern. 
On the opposite corner on Steuben street, was the stone jail building, 
and south of it a small store building. On the north side of the park, 
on the two opposite corners of Liberty street, were the Townsend 
house on the east, and the Captain Helm house on the west There 
were also some small buildings and a barn extending up to the old 
cemetery. East of the Townsend house was a row of small frame build- 
ings, occupied for stores and shops. On the east side of the park was 
the court-house and a frame building used for a school. The jail was 
the only building on the south side of Steuben street, while several were 
on the north side, among them being the ' Old Theater,' also a large 
square frame building. On the east side of Liberty street were a dwell- 
ing of frame, another of logs, and the Niles house, while opposite were 
the Gazette printing office, the Howell Bull tavern and a log house." 

Such was the municipal condition of Bath four score years previous 
to the centennial celebration, and from these primitive elements has the 
village grown. In another department of the work the reader will find 
a brief outline history of the town at large, in which mention is made 
of all the pioneer occupants of the village ; but that the situation during 
the days of settlement may be made clear, attention is directed to the 
accompanying map 'taken from the printed proceedings of the centen- 
nial celebration in 1893 

It appears that an attempt to incorporate the village was made as 
early as the year 18 16, and the measure was in fact adopted although 
the organization under it was not perfected. At this time Bath was a 
place of more than ordinary importance among the villages of the Gen- 
esee country while several of our now large cities were unknown even in 
name. During the twenty years following 18 16, many and various 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 247 

improvements were inaugurated and successfully established, and the 
village continued to grow and enlarge in every direction. A contem- 
porary writer has furnished a brief outline of some of the more impor- 
tant events of this period, and those of a local character are deemed 
worthy of reproduction here. On the 1st of October the County Medi- 
cal Society was organized, and in June, 1819, the first Agricultural 
Society was likewise brought into existence. In 1820 the Western 
Republican began publication, and in the same year Vincent Matthews 
and William B. Rochester formed a law partnership. Also in this year 
a semi- weekly stage line was established between Bath and Owego. In 
1824 Colonel Bull erected the first brick dwelling in the village On 
March 2, 1825, the Presbyterian church was dedicated, and on the 29th 
of April of the same year Robert Douglass was hanged on Gallows Hill. 
This first execution was a remarkable event in local history, beside 
which the visitation of the extreme penalty of law upon Ira Appo, about 
twelve years afterward, was of minor importance. In 1826, the Indians 
Sundown and Curlyeye were tried for murder, but acquitted, and in the 
same year the Episcopal church was organized. In 1827 the brick 
court-house was built to replace that originally erected by Captain 
Williamson. In 1828, the Steuben Messenger and the Steuben Whig 
were founded, the former an anti-Masonic, and the latter a cam- 
paign paper started to oppose General Jackson. In 1829 William S. 
Hubbell was appointed postmaster. In March, 1831, the Bath and 
Crooked Lake Railroad Company was organized, with a capital of $20,- 
000, but under this charter nothing was done, and rail communication 
between these terminal points was not secured until the construction of 
the Bath and Hammondsport Railroad in 1874. In March, 1832, the 
old Steuben County Bank opened its doors for business, and in the fol- 
lowing year William P. Angel issued the first number of the Constitu- 
tionalist, the office of which, together with several other business build- 
ings, was destroyed by fire in June, 1837. 

The village of Bath was regularly incorporated and completely or- 
ganized in 1836, the act of the Legislature being passed May 6 of 
that year. The first meeting for the election of officers was held at the 
Franklin House, June 7, and resulted as follows : John D. Higgins, 
Ten Eyck Gansevoort, Benjamin Smead, Moses H. Lyon and John T. 



248 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Andrews, trustees; Ziba A. Leland, John M. Campbell and Henry 
Brothers, assessors ; Robert Campbell, jr., treasurer ; Levi C. Whitney, 
clerk ; Elisha Hempstead, collector, and O. W. L. Warren, constable. 
The first village president, elected by the trustees, was Ten Eyck Gan- 
sevoort, and the last, so elected in 185 1, was R. B. Van Valkenburg. 

By an act of the Legislature passed January 20, 1851, our village 
changed its character quite radically, and by a charter became entitled 
to elect the village president, and was otherwise vested with broader 
powers than under the old regime. Under the charter the first officers 
were elected April 6, 1852, and were Robert Campbell, president; Joel 
H. Rice, George S. Ellas, Alfred P. Ferris, Lansing D. Hodgman, 
trustees ; John Bramble, Paul C. Cook and Moses H. Lyon, assessors ; 
Alva E. Brown, treasurer; Benjamin C. Ward, collector, and William 
E. Bonham, clerk. 

Such is the character of municipal organization in Bath at the present 
day, although the Legislature has so amended the village charter as to 
permit the election of officers other than noted above, and has granted 
greater powers than those conferred under the original act. 

The fire department, as a complete and' properly equipped branch of 
local goverment, was brought into existence by the trustees on Decem- 
ber 17, 1839, although previous to that year an informal organization 
was maintained by the villagers for the prevention of fire. At that time 
the old company was dissolved, and the trustees organized a fire- engine 
company, the personnel of which was as follows : Lewis Biles, foreman ; 
J. McBeath, assistant; R. L. Underhill, clerk, and members, Moses H. 
Lyon, William H. Bull, L. H. Read, Daniel Miller, John O. Goodsell, 
Charles Adams, Bernard Fox, W. Secor, Reuben Robie, James Shannon, 
Benjamin D, Lilly, A. F. Ellas, G. A. Rogers, William Hamilton, 
Thomas Metcalf, James Moore, A. Babcock, Lewis Shoemaker, William 
A. Biles, James R. Dudley, A. R. Gould, Nathan Stevens, R. H. Gra- 
ham, John R. Gansevoort and David McMaster. 

In later years the organization was radically modified, and as the 
growth and necessities of the village demanded, changes were made to 
conform to the existing condition of affairs. However, the present effi- 
cient volunteer fire department is the outgrowth of the primitive organ- 
izations mentioned above, and the construction of a water supply sys- 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 249 

tern has materially advanced the efficiency of the organization and less- 
ened its labors. As now constituted the department comprises three 
companies, known respectively as Edwin Cook Hose Co. No. i, Frank 
Campbell Hose Co. No. 2, and Rescue Hook and Ladder Co. No. i. 

The Bath Water Works Company was incorporated in 1887, with a 
capital of $72,000, owned chiefly by non-residents. The supply is 
obtained from a large reservoir on Magee Hill, and by a combined 
pumping and gravity system is distributed throughout the village. 
There are about eight miles of main pipes, seventy- eight fire hydrants, 
and about 275 taps. 

The village officers for the year 1895, (to whom, with their prede- 
cessors in office, is due great credit for the admirable government of the 
last score and more of years) are as follows : Hiram W. Brundage, pres- 
ident ; Bernard M. Wynkoop, clerk ; Orland W. Sutton, Edward E. 
Aber, William H. ScraffiDrd and Matthew E Shannon, trustees ; Will- 
iam A. Dutcher, treasurer ; Hoyt, Butler, collector ; Clarence Willis, 
police justice; Charles A. Ellas, Thomas Fogarty and Andrew Crook, 
assessors. 

Among the various institutions of the county seat, the schools have 
ever received the same careful attention and generous support that has 
characterized local interests in all directions. The subject, too, is one 
which has been extensively treated by local writers of known repute and 
standing, and it is impossible at this time to enlarge upon what is al- 
ready of record or to improve upon what has been said. The writer 
therefore acknowledges access to the sketches of Clarence Willis and 
Charles F. Kingsley, both recognized authority on the subject treated. 

Says Mr. Kingsley : In the very first year of the settlement of the 
town of Bath a school was established, and here Robert Hunter was the 
schoolmaster. The first school house was built on the northwest corner 
of Pulteney Square, where the furniture store stands, but when built 
records affisrd no accurate information. Mr. Dixon was the teacher in 
1805. Elam Bridges taught school in a little frame building near the 
old clerk's office as early as 181 1. In December, 18 12, Henry A. 
Townsend and wife conveyed to the trustees of the Bath school a lot on 
the north side of Steuben street, near the end of the Beekman sash 
factory of later years. In 18 1 3 a school house was built on this lot at 
32 



250 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

the expense of district No. 5. Tiiis building became known as the " Old 
Academy," and its upper portion was for a time used by the local Ma- 
sonic societies. This school was burned in 1824, and was replaced with 
the once well known " Red School-house," the latter being, it is said, 
the first school organized in the village under the district system. 
However, the Red School was burned in September, 1849, ^nd the lot 
on which it stood was afterward the subject of long and expensive liti- 
gation. 

On the 8th of July, 1846, a Union school was founded by the consol- 
idation of districts Nos. 2 and 5 in the village, and forms the present 
district No. 5. Adam Haverling donated to this district the site on 
which the present Haverling Union Free School stands. On April 13, 
1847, ^ contract was made between the district trustees and Sylvanus 
Stephens, by which the latter agreed to erect a school building on this 
lot, at a cost of $2,180.66. This was done and school was first opened 
in the building May 15, 1848. However, this structure was burned 
January 29, 1866, and in its place was erected the present substantial 
and attractive academy building, at a cost of about $25,000, including 
$900 paid for the lot in front of it on Liberty street. In 1887 Ira 
Davenport gave to the district a lease of an acre of land lying north of 
the old school grounds. 

The principals of the Union District School from 1848 to 1868, were 
Mr. Hathaway, Emerson J. Hamilton, Charles W. Gulick, James Buell, 
James A. Broadhead, William S. Hall, C. C. Wheeler, J. H. Strong, J. 
C. Higby, Henry A. Smith, Z. L. Parker and J. Horace Crum and 
Edward Wilson, joint principals. 

At a meeting of the qualified voters of the district held August 6, 
1868, the present Union Free School was formed, and G. H. McMaster, 
L. P. Hard, L. D. Hodgman, R, Hardenbrook, Abram Beekman and 
Samuel Ensign were duly elected members of the Board of Education. 

On the 7th of September, 1868, Haverling Union Free School with 
its academic department was opened to the public, and it at once took 
rank with the leading schools of the State ; a position which it has 
maintained to the present day. The principals since 1868 have been 
Zenas L. Parker, Lewis M. Johnson, E, H. Lattimer, and Levi D. 
Miller, 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 251 

The present Board of Education comprises L. D. Hodgman, Abram 
Beekman, Charles F. Kingsley, Clarence Willis, W. S. Burns and W. 
P. Sedgwick. Mr. Hodgman is chairman and Mr. Kingsley secretary 
of the board. 

Another of the established institutions of Bath is the Agricultural 
Society, a county rather than local organization, yet a fixed adjunct of 
the shire town, hence to be mentioned in this chapter. 

The present Steuben County Agricultural Society was organized in 
1853, although for a number of years previous to that time annual fairs 
and exhibitions had been held, and a formal organization may have 
been in existence. In fact Charles Williamson was the originator of 
fairs in old Steuben, yet his successors in ofSce and influence failed to 
awaken the same interest in such exhibitions as did that worthy pio- 
neer. In 1841 a county agricultural society was brought into existence 
at a public meeting held in Bath, and its first officers were Otto F. 
Marshall, president ; John Cooper, jr., Israel Wood and Erastus Skinner, 
vice presidents ; Wm. S. Hubbell and Ziba A. Leland, secretaries ; 
Henry Brother, treasurer. This society was continued for about four 
years, though with rather indifferent success from a financial point of 
view, and then dissolved. The last fair, that of 1844, was held on the 
river flat, southwest of the land office. 

On the iSth of May, 1853, a public notice was given, as required by 
law, to the effect that a meeting would be held in Bath on the 22d of 
June following, for the purpose of legally organizing a county agricul- 
tural society. At the time mentioned an organization was perfected and 
these officers chosen for the following year: Goldsmith Denniston, 
president; O. F. Marshall, J. B. Mitchell, J. B. Dickinson, Lyman Bal- 
com, R. S. Davis and John Van Wie, vice-presidents; Geo. Edwards, 
treasurer; R. B. Van Valkenburgh, corresponding secretary, and Geo. 
S. Ellas, recording secretary. The first fair was held at Bath on the 
I2th and 13th of October, 1853, in an open field on Robert Campbell's 
farm. 

In 1854 the society leased a portion of its present admirable grounds, 
and, depending largely upon annual exhibitions to build up a purchas- 
ing and improving fund, it was not until 1862 that the property was 
deeded to the trustees. It is deemed unnecessary in this place to note 



2o2 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

one and all of the many improvements made by the society, for almost 
every person in Steuben county is perfectly familiar with the grounds, 
the buildings, the famous log cabin, and every other noticeable building 
within the inclosure. The fair, also, needs no complimentary reference 
in this chapter, as the annual meeting at Bath is known throughout 
the entire State ; and it goes without saying that in this village is 
the best and most successful county", fair in Western or Central New 
York. This success has been due to the untiring efforts of the ofificers 
and managers annually elected, in view of which it is proper that we 
note the succession of presidents, viz : Goldsmith Denniston, Uri Bal- 
com, Lyman Balcom, Daniel Gray, John W. Taggart, Grattan H. 
Wheeler, Samuel Balcom, Robert B. Wilks, Frank J. Marshall, Chas. 
H. Robie, Samuel E. Haskin, Azariah C. Brundage, Nathaniel B. Stan- 
ton, Martin W. Noble, Joseph M. Hopkins, Daniel B. Curtis, Lemuel 
Mathewson, Lewis C. Kingsbury, Lyman Aulis, Amos Jewett, Sanford 
A. Gardiner, James L. Packer, Chas. A. Reynolds, Edward C. Cook. 

The present (1895) officers are Edward C. Cook, president; John C. 
Switzer, G. D. Wilbur, H. T. Connor, J. B. Giffin, George Wolcott, 
Robert Kellogg, David H. Ackerson and D. B. Bryan, vice-presidents ; 
Major A. C. Brundage, secretary ; Thos. N. Smith, treasurer, and John 
W. Moore, general superintendent. 

The New York State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Bath, although 
an institution of the State rather than local, is nevertheless a proper 
subject of mention in this chapter. In fact the location and erection of 
the buildings in our county town was the result of generosity and enter- 
prise on the part of the people of Bath and its immediate vicinity. 
After several futile attempts to found a soldiers' home in this State an 
effective act was passed by the Legislature in 1876, approved by Gov- 
ernor Tilden on May 15. An organization was perfected and the con- 
stituted committee received proposals or offers of land for a site. Of 
course the public-spirited citizens of various localities made generous 
ofifers to the commissioners, but of them all that at Bath was considered 
the most desirable. The land comprised the well known Rider farm, 
220 acres in extent, in addition to which was a cash offer of $6,000 to be 
used in the erection of buildings. 

On Wednesday, June 13, 1877, the corner-stone of the home build- 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 253 

ing was laid, and on the 23d day of January, 1879, the institution was 
opened for the reception of inmates. The formal transfer of the prop- 
erty from the commissioners or association to the State was completed 
in pursuance of an act of the Legislatnre, passed March 11, 1878. 

As is well known, the object and purpose of the home is to provide 
for the care, maintenance and relief of soldiers and sailors from the 
State of New York, who served in the Union army or navy during the 
war of i86i-5,and received an honorable discharge therefrom, and 
who from any cause stand in need of the care and benefits of a soldiers' 
home. 

The Board of Trustees is composed of nine members, exclusive of the 
governor and attorney- general, who are ex-officio members. The 
board establish rules and regulations for the management of the home, 
its officers and inmates, and they submit a detailed report of their pro- 
ceedings to the Legislature each year. The personnel of the present 
Board of Trustees is as follows: The governor and attorney-general, 
ex-officio, and Hosea H. Rockwell, John Palmer, Oliver B. Caldwell, O. 
H. Smith, Halbert S. Greenleaf, George H. Blackmah, Frank Campbell, 
Edwin S. Jenney and Horatio C. King. 

The officers of the home are Gen. Wm. F. Rogers, superintendent ; 
Maj. S. H. Leavitt, adjutant; Dr. T. O. Burleson, surgeon; Dr. E. C. 
Pixley, assistant surgeon ; Capt. Frank P. Frost, quartermaster. 

The Davenport Home for Female Orphan Children, one of the 
noblest charities of the State, is beautifully located in the south part of 
the village of Bath. It was the free and voluntary gift of Col. Ira Dav- 
enport, his own and original idea, the revelation of his generous heart 
and nature; and unaided and unadvised, except by those of his own 
family, he founded and built the home and endowed it abundantly so 
that is not in any manner a charge upon the generosity of the public. 
The building was begun in 1861, and two years later the association 
was organized. The first inmate was received July 19, 1864. The 
property was conveyed by Col. Davenport to the home association, and 
to the managers is assigned the pleasant duty of conducting its affairs. 
The endowment fund now aggregates more than $200,000, and the an- 
nual income is about $12,000. At present the home has sixty three 
inmates. The late John Davenport, who died May 5, 1895, was at that 



254 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

time president, and was succeeded by Ira Davenport. Both were sons 
of the founder of the institution. The trustees and managers are Ira 
Davenport, Mrs. Sherman S. Rogers, Mrs. John Davenport and James 
Lyon. Matron, Mrs, Jemima L. McPherson. 

The Bath Centennial Celebration, June 6 and 7, 1893, was one of the 
most notable events in local annals. The preliminary arrangements for 
this occasion began in January, and nothing was left undone to make 
perfect desirable features. At the first public meeting, General Averell 
was chosen chairman, and James R. Kingsley, secretary. For the pur- 
pose of carrying out the detail of arrangements a large general com- 
mittee was appointed, and also sub-committees, and, with complete 
unity in opinion and action, all things were done " decently and in order." 
On Sunday, June 4, in the several churches of the village were conducted 
appropriate religious services with historical sermons (from these ser- 
mons there has been compiled a history of each of the local churches. 
See Ecclesiastical history in another department of this work), followed 
in the evening by a union service in the Casino, and address by Prof 
Levi D. Miller. From the published proceedings we quote the order 
of exercises : 
Tuesday, June 6, Prayer, Rev. L. M, Miller, D.D., of Ogdensburgh, N Y. 

Address of Welcome, by President of the Day, Reuben E. Robie. 

Poem, Prof Zenas L. Parker. 

Captain Charles Williamson, a sketch, by James McCall. 

History of Bath for Fifty Years, Ansel J. McCall. 
Evening Exercises, Prayer. 

Reminiscences — by Wm. E. Howell, J. R. Whiting, Rev. L. M. 
Miller, D.D., Irving W. Near, Edward H. Butler and Clark Bell. 

Schools, Charles F. Kingsley, 

Physicians, Dr. Ira P. Smith. 

Lawyers, Charles H. McMaster. 

Editors, George B. Richardson. 

Soldiers, Major John Stocum. 
Wednesday, June 7. 

Sunrise Salute of Cannon and Bells. 

Parade of all the Schools of the Town to the Fair Grounds (about 
1,000 children, headed by five bands of music, participated in this novel 
and interesting event). 



CITIES, VILLAaES AND HAMLETS. 255 

On the Fair Grounds, 10.30 A. M. 

Prayer, M. N. Preston. 

Letters of Regret, read by Secretary R. R. Lyon. 

Address and Presentation of Portrait of Charles Williamson, by Jas. 
McCall. 

Acceptance on behalf of Trustees, Byron L. Smith. 

Oration, Sherman S. Rogers, of Buffalo. 

Change of Name of Lake Salubria to Lake Williamson. 

Benediction. 

2.00 P. M. Parade of Fire Department, Civic Societies and General 
Trades Display ; Capt. W. W. Lindsay, Marshal ; Messrs. L. H. Bal- 
com, Hoxie W. Smith, Wm. J. H. Richardson and S. J. Wilkes, Aides. 

8.00 P. M. Old Time Reception at the Casino. 

The following Hst shows the formation and the companies in the line 
of the parade : 

Capt. W. W. Lindsay, Marshal. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Band, sixteen men. 

Custer Post, G. A. R., eighty men. 

General Barry Post, G. A. R., No. 248, seventy-five men. 

Keeley Club of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, seventy men. 

L. H. Balcom Assistant Marshal. 

Hammondsport Cornet Band, sixteen men. 

Royal Arcanum, Chapter No. 344, of Bath, forty men. 

Knights of the Maccabees, No. 71, of Bath, forty men. 

Boy's Society, " Character Builders of St. Thomas church," forty-two 
in line, led by Rev. B. S. Sanderson. 

Wm. J. H. Richardson, Assistant Marshal. 

Prattsburgh Cornet Band, fourteen men. 

Bath Fire Department, Chief McNamara, First Assistant Cotton, 
Second Assistant Parker. 

Rescue Hook and Ladder Company, twenty six men, Foreman A. 
L. Lilley. 

Hook and Ladder truck gaily decorated and carrying a log hut with 
Indians, representing 1793 at one end, while at the other end was a boat 
containing four little girls representative of the year 1893. 

Samuel E. Wilkes, Assistant Marshal. 



256 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Cohocton Cornet Band, twenty men. 

Edwin Cook Hose Company, twenty-eight men, Foreman John 
Donahe. 

Hose Company's cart completely covered with flowers^ and two little 
children riding on top dressed in Continental costume. 

Hacks containing Mayor Gould, Trustees Smith, Phillips, Aber and 
Sutton, City Attorney Waldo and Clerk Shannon. 

Hoxie W. Smith, Assistant Marshal, followed by a'long division rep- 
resenting the business interests of the Town and Village. 

Personnel of the several committees under whose division the celebra- 
tion was arranged and most successfully managed: 
General Committee : 

Gen. W. W. Averell,W. W. Allen, R E. Robie, A. J. McCall, H. W. 
Bowes, J. Fv Little, O. H. Smith, Abram Beekman, W. E. Howell, J. F. 
Parkhurst, R. R. Lyon, James R. Kingsley, Rev. M. N. Preston, Rev. 
B. S. Sanderson, Rev M. C. Dean, Rev. V. P. Mather, Rev. J. J. Gleason , 
Rev. B. W. Swain. Gen. Averell was Chairman of the Committee, and 
James R. Kingsley, Secretary. 
Sub-committees : — 

Invitations — A. J. McCall. 

Reception of Guests — Augustus de Peyster. 

Entertainment — Abram Beekman. 

Literary Exercises — John F. Little. 

Finance — Reuben R. Lyon. 

Decorating Village — John McNamara. 

Schools — Clarence Willis. 

Procession and Bands — William H. Hallock. 

Evening Reception — Augustus de Peyster. 

Publication and^Printing — John Underbill. 

In their preparations the Committee were given most valued assist- 
ance by the Ladies' Committee, made up as follows : 

Executive Committee — Mrs. James Lyon, Chairman ; Mrs. Ansel J. 
McCall, Mrs. Wm. Rumsey, Mrs. George W. Hallock, Mrs. J. F. Park- 
hurst, Mrs. B. F. Young, Mrs. M. Rumsey Miller, Mrs. Agustus de 
Peyster, Mrs. John Davenport, Mrs. W. W. Averell ; Miss Jeanette M. 
Hodgman, Sec'y. 




.^^^ 



CITIES, VILLA&ES AND HAMLETS 257 

Invitations — Mrs. Thomas J. Whiting. 

Reception and Care of Guests — Mrs. William H. Nichols. 

Entertainment, Seats and Grounds — Miss Katharine Bowes. 

Literary Exercises — Miss Mamie McBeath. 

Finance — Mrs. Charles F. Kingsley. 

Decoration of Village and Grounds — Mrs. Abram Beekman. 

Schools — Miss Anna Freeman. 

Procession and Bands — Mrs. Alfred Case. 

Evening Reception — The Executive Committee. 

Publication and Printing-— Miss Cassie W. Hull. 

As a business and manufacturing center Bath has attracted little 
attention in commercial circles. True, mercantile interests are now and 
in the past, have been sufficiently represented, and there has always 
been enough of competition to prevent the possibilities of monopoly. 
In the early history of the town, General McClure and some of his asso- 
ciates were very active in starting and maintaining manufacturing enter- 
prises, yet indifferent results were the reward of their best efforts, and 
later generations have shown only a passive interest in building up 
Bath with factories. And it is also true that many of the present busi- 
ness men, bankers and capitalists have generously contributed money 
to various manufacturing industries, but the results generally have been 
discouraging rather than satisfactory. 

In this work it has not been thought advisable to mention by name 
the merchants of Bath ; they need no such advertisement to display 
their wares as nearly all are patrons of the local press. However, we 
may mention, among manufacturing interests, the harness and saddle 
factory, started about 1890 by Fred Morris, but now and since July, 
1893, operated by the Bath Harness Company. Another industry 
worthy of note is the Smith & Griegson Shoe Company, whose plant 
was destroyed by an unfortunate fire during the spring of 1895. The 
business of the company, however, was at once established and con- 
tinued. 

Among the fixed manufacturing industries of the village may be 

mentioned the planing mills and general wood working establishments 

of Abram Beekman, and also William H. and Robert J. Davison, the firm 

being also extensive contractors and builders. Joy's^steam flouring mill 

3? 



258 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

may also be mentioned in the same connection. Messrs. Hardenbrook 
& Co. formerly operated a large foundry and machine shop, among 
their specialties being stoves, plows and general castings. The old 
plant occupied by Loomis & McMath as a wagon factory is now owned 
by Willliam Allen. The Applebee Horse Collar factory has moved to 
Corning, and the Bath Jacket Can Manufacturing Company, after dis- 
asters, went out of business. 

The record of the banking institutions shows in more favorable light 
so far at least as substantial results and capable management is con- 
cerned. The pioneer financial concern of Bath was the old Steuben 
County Bank, incorporated by the Legislature March 9, 1832, the di- 
rectors being John Magee, president, and William W. McCoy, Reuben 
Robie, Edward Howell, Constant Cook, James Faulkner, Andrew B. 
Pickinson, Chauncey Hoffman, Charles Butler, Henry S. Williams, 
Henry B. Gibson, Ansel St. John, and William S. Hubbell, directors. The 
bank first opened for business, October 24, 1832, in the old Land Office 
building, but in 1833 moved to the new bank building erected for its 
use, and where it afterward continued throughout the period of its useful 
and successful career. The presidents, in succession, were John Magee, 
William W. McCoy, John Magee, D. C. Howell, Ambrose S. Howell, 
D. C. Howell, and William E. Howell. During the time of the last 
mentioned president, the bank went into voluntary liquidation and 
soon passed out of existence. 

George W. Hallock's bank was established January i, 1849, and for 
a period of nearly half a century has been known among the safe finan- 
cial institutions of the State. William H. Hallock became partner with 
the founder in 1879, a relation which was maintained to the death of 
the latter, February 10, 1895. The bank, however, is continued on the 
same safe basis established by Mr. Hallock many years ago. It is now 
owned by Mary H. and William H. Hallock. The latter is now cashier ; 
John M. Farr, assistant cashier, and C. E. Bennett, teller. . 

The present First National Bank of Bath was originally organized as 
The Bank of Bath, April 1 1, 1854, with a capital of $50,000. Constant 
Cook was its president, and H. H. Cook, cashier, by both of whom its 
affairs were managed, and successfully although frequent changes in 
location were made. However, in 1858, the business was removed to 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 259 

the new bank building at the corner of Steuben and Liberty streets. 
On the 14th of December, 1863, the State charter was dissolved and 
the bank at once reorganized under the name of First National Bank of 
Bath (No. 153) with a capital of $50,000 (soon afterward increased to 
$100,000). The first officers were Constant Cook, president; H. H. 
Cook, cashier, both of whom, with L. D. Hodgman, E. C. Cook and W. 
W. Allen composed the board of directors. Judge Cook died on the 
24th of February, 1874, and in April following Henry H. Cook was 
elected to the presidency. At this time, also, W. W. Allen was ap- 
pointed cashier, which offices they hold at the present time. The direc- 
tors are H. H. Cook, L. D. Hodgman, E. C. Cook, M. R. Miller and 
W. W. Alien. This bank has a surplus of nearly $45 ,000. No com- 
ment upon its management or business is required at the hands of the 
writer, for the First National Bank of Bath is too well known in bank- 
ing circles and in the business world to suggest even the desirability of 
compliment. 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Bath opened its doors for busi- 
ness January i, 1880, the owners and managers forming a partnership, 
comprising J. F Parkhurst, Abram Beekman, Thomas R. Rutherford, 
William M. Nichols, and Frank Campbell. The present partners and 
owners are Messrs. Beekman, Parkhurst, and Campbell. This is a 
private banking house, safe and reliable, and enjoys a full share of public 
confidence. 

The City OF Corning. — On the 26th day of October, 1825, that 
great thoroughfare of travel and traffic — the Erie canal — was completed 
and opened for its intended use, and great and immediate benefit ac- 
crued to the towns and villages along its route. During the ten years 
next following this event, the legislature was constantly besieged with 
applications for charters and for pecuniary assistance in the interest of 
other similar enterprises, nearly all of which were intended to be auxil- 
iary and tributary to the canal first mentioned, and to cross the State 
from north to south, penetrating the vast lumber tracts of Southern New 
York and the unlimited coal fields of Northern Pennsylvania. Capital- 
ists and merchants in Albany and New York, and also in the more 
prominent manufacturing centers of New England, were desirous that 
these lateral waterways should be established, for they eagerly sought 



&60 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

both coal and lumber for business and speculative purposes, which 
commodities were not provided by the main canal. In 1825 the Dela- 
ware and Hudson Canal company was chartered, and in 1828 the canal 
itself was opened. This brought southern products to Rondout, on the 
Hudson, affording partial relief, yet still another inlet was needed. 

While the canal last mentioned was in process of construction, a prop- 
osition was laid before the legislature contemplating another canal, ex- 
tending southward from the head of Seneca lake into the extensive coal 
and lumber fields of Northern Pennsylvania, by way of the Chemung 
and Tioga rivers, but the scheme nearly failed through the adverse posi- 
tion taken by Col. Samuel Young who seemed to have authority to pass 
upon the necessity or desirability of the enterprise. However, at this 
juncture. Captain Vincent Conklin took his team of horses and drew a 
fine load of Blossburg coal to Albany in order to satisfy the doubtful 
mind as to the value of the coal deposit of that region. In Albany the 
redoubtable Conklin found an interested listener in Edwin Cresswell, 
editor of the Argus, and the result was an earnest advocacy of the canal 
project on the part of that paper. Better yet, on the 15th of April, 
1829, a bill was passed authorizing the construction of the Chemung 
canal, extending from Watkins to Elmira, with a navigable feeder, or 
branch, between Horseheads and Knoxville. The work of construction 
was at once begun, and was completed in 1833, and by it, and other 
public enterprises soon afterward carried to successful completion, the 
village and city of Corning became a possibility. Without them it is 
doubtful if the original hamlet would ever have been more than a cross- 
roads settlement. 

This great consummation attained, public attention was soon attracted 
to the vicinity of the canal terminus on the southwest. The Conhocton, 
the Canisteo, the Tuscarora and the Tioga brought here their rafts of 
superior quality lumber, while the Tioga contributed in addition both 
lumber and coal, all of which found ready cash markets in the east. 
These things naturally drew attention to our locality, and it is not sur- 
prising that Albany capitalists sought investments in so promising a 
field. 

The operations of the Corning Company were no less important as 
factors in early municipal history than was the the canal, yet the com- 



CITIES, VILLA&ES AND HAMLETS. 261 

pany followed the canal and was dependent upon it just as later improv- 
ments were the outgrowth of the land operations. It was the combina- 
tion of all these elements that laid the foundation upon which the mu- 
nicipal structure was subsequently built, improved and enlarged ; and 
to-day we note the result in one of the most metropolitan yet cosmo- 
politan cities in interior New York, built up and firmly established, well 
ordered and situated, and containing all the requisites for future advanced 
prosperity. 

The Corning Company was formed in 1835, in Albany, and comprised 
in its membership Erastus Corning, Thomas W. Olcott, Joseph Fellows, 
Watts Sherman, Hiram Bostwick, Ansel Bascom, Bowen Whiting, 
William A. Bradley and Levin I. Gilliss, who associated for the purpose 
of acquiring and developing lands in this State, particularly in Steuben 
county, and for such other speculative purposes as were desirable. The 
company first purchased at Painted Post, but their title failed, and they 
next obtained 340 acres of land on the west side of the Chemung, with- 
in the present city limits. It was at first thought the selection of land 
made by the company was unfortunate, being on the west side of the 
river, but whether so or not the location proved most fortunate for sub- 
sequent interests as bridges were built and thus the whole town was 
benefited. 

Indeed these first years of village history witnessed many improve- 
ments and wonderful changes, and in 1836 there was sufficient impor- 
tance in the settlement to warrant a name for the hamlet. It was 
called Corning, in honorable allusion to Erastus Corning, founder in 
fact of the company and one of the chief promoters of the enterprise. 
The purchase tract was surveyed and laid out into lots, and all needful 
things were provided to build up a progressive settlement. However, 
one of the first acts of the company was to ascertain the possibility of a 
successful line of railroad between the canal terminus and the rich Bloss- 
btirg coalfields. To be sure, the Tioga river afforded moderate facili- 
ties for transportation at certain periods, yet it proved a somewhat slow 
and occasionally unreliable thoroughfare of traffic. To overcome the 
objections a survey was made to the State line, up the valley of the 
river, and being practicable the energetic company constructed the road 
to that point, and there joined with the road built by a similar company 



262 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of Pennsylvania operators. In 1839 the first locomotive traversed the 
Tioga valley, and the future success and growth of our little village 
became assured. 

Reference to the railroad statistics of the State discloses the fact that 
this road was built by the " Tioga Coal, Iron Mining and Manufactur- 
ing Company," connecting the bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania 
with the Chemung canal, but gives the year of organization as 1841. 
However, in 1852, the road was sold and the name changed to Corning 
and Biossburg railroad. It is the same more recently known as the 
Blossburg, Corning and Tioga railroad, the " Cowanesque Branch," 
and also as the Fall Brook road. In 1840 the preliminary surveys for 
the Erie railroad were made in this vicinity, yet ten years passed before 
the road was in fact completed. In the expectation that this line was 
to be immediately built local capital, invested largely, and the delay 
which followed worked disaster to all business interests. The road, 
however, was completed to Corning in January, 1850. Two years later 
the Buffalo, Corning and New York railroad (now Rochester division 
of the Erie) was completed to Corning, affording additional facilities 
through the Conhocton valley. Still later railway lines, which have 
added to the general advancement of local interests, were the Syracuse, 
Geneva and Corning, chartered in 1875, and opened in 1877 ; the Del- 
aware, Lackawanna and Western, opened in 1882; and the Addison 
and Pennsylvania, also opened in 1882. The old Corning and Olean 
Company was chartered in 1852, with a capital of $850,000, but the 
road was never built. 

Returning to purely local history, let us briefly note some of the 
prominent factors in the development of early interests. Col. H. W. 
Bostwick was of course active in the operations of the Corning company, 
and was its resident manager. Other enterprising residents were Dr. 
William Turbell, Lawyer Thomas A. Johnson, Laurin, P. J. and Wm. 
M. Mallory, Major S. B. Denton, Nelson L. Somers, H. G. Phelps, B. 
P. Bailey, John A. Parcell, B. W. Payne, Daniel G. Comstock, George 
T. Spencer, E. P. Rogers, S. T. Hayt, Hiram Pritchard, Wm. J. Arnold, 
Charles Clark and others. 

Previous to 1840 the hamlet had no post-office nearer than Center- 
ville, but in the year mentioned Postmaster Philo P. Hubbell kindly 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 263 

moved the Painted Post office to Corning. In 1841 the name of the 
office was changed to Corning and Major S. B. Denton was appointed 
postmaster. Also in 1840 Charles Adams contributed greatly to local 
interests in establishing a newspaper, called the Corning and Blossburg 
Advocate. The second paper was the Corning Sun, founded in 1853 
by Mark M. Pomeroy and P. C. Van Gelder. Churches were erected 
and religious societies were organized, the village Presbyterian in 1842, 
and the second of the same denomination three years later. The Prot- 
estant Episcopal church followed in 1854, while the Methodist Episco- 
pal workers were in the field as early as 1839. The Baptist and Cath- 
olics were here about the same time, 1842. 

In 1842, according to a reprinted article from the Corning and Bloss- 
burg Advocate, the village contained about 500 inhabitants, and was 
considered '' a smart town," but the failure of the first Erie railroad en- 
terprise had a depressing effect on all local interests and some of them 
suffered seriously. The road was completed to Corning from the east 
in December, 1849, but ^f Aat time, notwithstanding all adverse events, 
the local population had increased to 1,300, and the village had been 
regularly incorporated. 

Referring again to the article in the Advocate, we learn that the law- 
yers of the village in 1842 were Johnson & Covell, George T. Spencer, 
and also Col. H. W. Bostwick, the latter president and attorney of the 
Corning Company and constantly engaged in furthering the interests of 
his principals rather than occupied in general legal practice. Terbell & 
Brownell were physicians, the former being also proprietor of a drug 
store which has since been continued by some member of the family. 
S. B. Denton kept a shoe store, and was also at one time proprietor of 
the old Corning House, a well known hostelry standing on the site now 
occupied by the Dickinson House. H. H. Wyman was the village liv- 
eryman. 

The old Bank of Corning was then in successful operation, having be- 
gan business January 12, 1839, under a hundred-year charter, yet its 
existence covered a period of less than thirty years. However, it out- 
lived by more than a year the Corning Company which dissolved in 
1855. Jared A. Redfield was a dry goods merchant, and Loveland & 
Arnold were in the same line of trade. Bailey & Gray kept a stock of 



264 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

general merchandise, while L. Davenport was hatter, but later on 
opened a book store. Charles Clark was builder and contractor, and 
some of the structures built by him are still standing, though most of 
the frame business buildings have been removed by fire or the ever 
progressing hand of man. G. W. Hanmer kept general store, C. H. 
Powers was the jeweler, and Loomis, Fuller & Co. kept a large supply 
of boots, shoes and leather. James B. Lower was a manufacturer of 
cars and did an extensive business in the village. David Baker was the 
brickmaker, and his product is still discernible in many of the older 
buildings of the vicinity. 

Dr. James Cutler practiced medicine in Knoxville, which place then 
rivaled Corning. Later on, however, the village founded by Judge 
Knox became a suburb to rapidly growing and constantly extending 
Corning, and finally was absorbed by the city incorporation. It now 
constitutes the Fifth ward, and is, withal, the largest and most impor- 
tant outlying district of the municipality. However, for the purposes 
of this outline narrative Knoxville will be treated as a part of Corning. 

The old and well known firm of W. & F. Thornton dealt in dry 
goods; W. B. Scudder had a stock of general merchandise; W. & J. 
Treverton, and also J. F. Geen sold paints, oils and glazier's goods; D. 
R. Davis was the village barber ; M, J. Pace made and sold bakestufFs ; 
J. S. Jamison taught writing school ; Pew & Paddleford were livery- 
men ; N. L. Somer & Co. sold hardware ; W. L. Waller dealt in dry 
goods; and H. G. Phelps and H, Pritchard were proprietors of the local 
flour and grist mills. Over in Knoxville Dyer Ford sold groceries and 
patent medicines ; D. J. Shaw dealt in dry goods and Yankee notions, 
but later on built and opened the Corning Exchange. 

Such, substantially, was the condition of mercantile interests in the 
village half a century ago, but succeeding years worked wonderful 
changes. Within the next ten years, following 1842, the village suf- 
fered severe losses by fire and many of the best business places were 
completely destroyed. These disasters led to the formation of fire com- 
panies as a partial means of preventing still further conflagrations and 
their consequent loss, and the liberality of the business men was sorely 
taxed to provide fire apparatus, which could not be purchased at the 
expense of the town at large. Having a population of about 1,200 in 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS 365 

1848, many public improvements were necessary, and the town showed 
little inclination to pay an expense from which persons outside the vil- 
lage received no direct benefit. Therefore the interested citizens deter- 
mined to produre an order of incorporation. 

The petitioners were Horace G. Phelps, James C. Davis and Joseph 
Herron, who made application to the Court of Sessions on the 31st of 
August, 1848, and on the 6th of September, following. Judge McMaster 
granted the order of incorporation, subject to ratification by the electors 
of the incorporated district. The election for this purpose was held on 
the 25th of October, and the result showed 118 votes for and 5 against 
the proposition. 

The first election of village officers was held January 12, 1849, and 
resulted as follows: Horace, G. Phelps, Laurin Mallory, George T. 
Spencer, Aaron H, Foster and James S. Robinson, trustees. On the 
organization of the board, Mr. Mallory was chosen president, and 
Thomas Messenger, clerk. However, in 1858, the powers of the muni- 
cipal body were increased through charter enactment, after which time 
the office of president became elective instead of appointive. 

The village trustees, under the first order of incorporation, were nec- 
essarily compelled to inaugurate many public improvements. They were 
the legislative and executive power of a municipality of 1,300 inhabitants, 
and with mercantile and manufacturing interests of greater importance 
than is usual in such villages. The highways were in great need of 
attention, and sidewalks must be laid and lights provided. Soon after- 
ward the Erie railway was completed to the village and police protec- 
tion was imperative. About the same time the locality was visited with 
a series of disastrous fires, by which many of their prominent business 
blocks were destroyed. So seriously was the loss felt in the community 
that the trustees, on the fourth of January, 1851, adopted a resolution 
by which a regular fire department was organized ; and within one 
week from that time Rescue Fire Co. No. i, and Rescue Hose Co. No. 
I, also Rough and Ready Fire Co. No 2, and Rough and Ready Hose 
Co. No. 2, were brought into existence, and soon afterward equipped 
with the necessary apparatus for extinguishing fires. The name Rough 
and Ready was changed to Neptune, and in 1857, Alliance Hook and 
Ladder Co. was organized. This was the nucleus of the present fire 
34 



266 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

department of the city, an organization surpassed by none and equaled 
by few among the volunteer organizations of the State. 

In 1862 the department was incorporated under the State laws, and 
upon organization Alfred Jones was elected president, and George W. 
Pratt, secretary. As the village and subsequent city enlarged both in 
population and business importance, so, also, was the department in- 
creased in members and efficiency, until it was a distinct branch of mu- 
nicipal government, controlled by a full board of officers, as follows : 
Marvin Olcott, president ; G. D. Gorton, secretary ; W. L. McGeorge, 
treasurer. The chief engineer is F. L. Clute ; 1st asst., W. H. Christie; 
2d asst., J. Lazarus. The fire wardens are W. B. Walker, E. B. Sey- 
mour and D. F. Fero. 

In the same year in which the first village officers were elected the 
Erie Railroad was completed to Corning and opened for traffic This 
was by far the greatest acquisition in local interests and contributed 
largely to early prosperity. Within another year or two the road was 
completed to Hornellsville and points farther west, thus giving the vil- 
lage a trunk line of railroad with all its accompanying advantages. In 
1852 the Rochester branch was also opened, and the products of both 
Canisteo and Conhocton valleys poured into the village on their way to 
Eastern market?. The Chemung Canal was in full and successful 
operation at the same time. In less than another quarter of a century 
the Syracuse, Geneva & Corning Road was ready for business, afford- 
ing ready connection with the New York Central Road and also points 
in New England. In view of these things it is not surprising that Corn- 
ing was a business center of much importance previous to the outbreak 
of the late war, and when peace was restored renewed activity added 
still other interests to the village. In 1868 the now celebrated glass 
works were removed from Brooklyn to Corning, bringing to the village 
at least one hundred experienced workmen, many of them having fam- 
ilies. One industry led to another, each succeeding family increased 
the importance of the municipality, and we find as early as 1888 popu- 
lation and volume of business sufficient to warrant a city charter, with 
all its attendant prestige and advantage. Of this the people began to 
speak at least two years before the act in fact passed the Legislature, 
and among the more prominent factors in bringing about the desired 




WILLIAM W. ADAMS. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 267 

result were F. D. Kingsbury, Franklin N. Drake, Amory Houghton, jr., 
Harry C. Heermans, John Hoare, sen., E. D. Willis, F. R. Brown, 
Stephen T. Hayt, George W. Pratt, Q. W. Wellington, Dwight A. Ful- 
ler, George B. Bradley and others. The bill creating the city became a 
law and received the executive sanction on the 20th of March, 1890. 
Within the city limits were about 1,800 acres of land. 

The first election of city officers was held April 2, 1890, with result 
as follows: William E. Gorton, mayor; D.F.Browne, recorder; L. B. 
Robinson, chamberlain ; Thomas O'Brien, overseer of the poor ; George 
Hitchcock and Thomas Hififernan, justices of the peace ; William A. 
Foster, Peter Griffin and S. C. Robertson, supervisors. Aldermen : 
John Peart and William Hunt, First Ward ; John W. Fedderand Will- 
iam T. Brady, Second Ward; E. Clisdell and William T. Rubright, 
Third Ward; John Cogan and James McMahon, Fifth Ward; George 
Clark and Albert Pritchard, Fifth Ward. 

Mayor Gorton found the work of organizing the several departments 
of city government to be a rather arduous undertaking, yet he applied 
himself industriously to the duties of his office, and within a very short 
time all branches were working smoothly and well. Doctor Gorton's 
term of office covered two years, and his administration of affairs proved 
very acceptable to the people. 

In 1892 Benjamin W. Wellington was elected mayor, and showed 
himself to be an entirely capable and efficient public officer. His was 
the first Republican term in the mayoralty, the change contemplating 
several new appointments, yet all were satisfactory and worthy. Under 
Mayor Wellington the new city hall was built, in 1893, 3-t a-n expense 
of nearly $40,000. 

The present mayor, William W. Adams, was elected in the spring of 
1894, and although a new man in public office, his administration has 
been clean, careful and conservative, with an aim to promote the wel- 
fare of the city rather than for personal advantage. 

In all departments of city government Corning has been fortunate in 
the selection of officers, and to-day ranks among the best and most 
liberally conducted municipalities of the State. To a great extent poli- 
tics is subordinate to the public good, the heads of departments and 
commissioners being chosen with reference to fitness rather than party 



268 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COtJNTt 

affiliation. The popular plan of delegating the control of the several 
arms of city government to constituted commissions has shown bene- 
ficial results in the aptly called " Crystal City." However, let us here 
note the names of present officials connected with local government, 
and then refer briefly to some of the more important branches which 
have made for our city its excellent standing. 

Mayor, William W. Adams; city clerk, William L. McGeorge ; cham- 
berlain, John Greentrup ; city attorney, E. D. Mills ; street commis- 
sioner, Rufus C. Palmer; city engineer, Harry C. Heermans ; recorder, 
W. J. Tully; acting recorder, George Hitchcock; chief of police, James 
Ryan ; captain of police, John Brennan. Aldermen : C. H, Lovell, 
George Walsh, First Ward; Dr. H. A. Argue, C. H. Duerlin, Second 
Ward ; Valentine Rettig, W. J. Cheney, Third Ward ; Peter Farrell, 
T. F. Reilly, Fourth Ward ; Dr. G. W. Lane, A. A. King, Fifth Ward. 
Assessors, S. B. Nichols, N. D. Rowley, P. D. Haradon ; justices, George 
Hitchcock, B. F. Marriott; overseer of the poor, James Peart. 

Police commissioners — James A. Drake, Henry Beck, Edward P. 
Graves, C. G. Cole. 

Sewer commissioners — F. D. Kingsbury, president ; H. P. Sinclair, 
secretary ; Q. W. Wellington, treasurer ; Samuel T. Hayt and Thomas 
Dwyer. 

Excise Commissioners — W. T. Brady, Joseph F. Moore, Charles W. 
Hayt, W. J. Tully. 

Board of Health— C. A. Rubright, E. W. Bryan, M. D., John B. 
Dailey, H. M. Bourne, Charles W. Fassett, J. L. Miller. W. S. Cobb, 
health officer and clerk of the board. 

Fire Department Companies — Alliance Hook and Ladder Co , No. i ; 
Pritchard Hose Co., No. i ; Crystal City Hose Co., No. 2; Independ- 
ent Hose Co., No. 3; Corning Protectives, No. 4; Magee Hose Co., 
No. 5. 

The educational branch of city government in Corning is one in which 
every loyal citizen feels a just pride, and for the maintenance and sup- 
port of the public schools the local authorities make generous provision. 
In this action the board of education has ever received the approval of 
the taxpayers, as the appropriations are worthily applied, and there is 
no evidence whatever of prodigality. The present admirable school 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 269 

system is the outgrowth of a beginning made as early as the year 1839, 
when a public meeting was held at the house of S. B. Denton, at which 
time Judge Johnson, William L. Waller and Charles Clark were chosen 
trustees of old district No. 14, of the then town of Painted Post. A 
school house was thus provided, in fact two of them, but in later years 
a consolidation of school interests was effected. On April 13, 1859, a 
special act of Legislature constituted a board of education in district 
No. 9, which, of course, was the village school district. At that time 
the free school system was put in operation, although the academy build- 
ing was not completed and occupied until September i, 1873. This 
structure, known as the Corning Academy, or High School, needs no 
extended description in this place ; it stands to-day a monument to the 
generosity of an intelligent public. The building has been repaired 
and enlarged as occasion has required, and within the last year nearly 
$30,000 has been expended in enlargements and sanitary improvements. 

In district No. 9 are three good schools, one of which is the academy 
just mentioned. When the city was created it included within its lim- 
its district No. 13, town of Corning, or at least so much of that district 
as comprises the present Fifth Ward. This was formerly Knoxville, and 
by the acquisition Corning gained another excellent school. However, 
this district is separately supported, receiving no support from the city 
other than from its own territory. Its affairs are controlled by a sepa- 
rate board of education and at the expense of the district known as 
No. 13. 

The personnel of the board of education in district No. 9 is as follows : 
Amory Houghton, jr., George R. Brown, Edward Clisdell, O. P. Robin- 
son, David S. Drake and William E. Gorton. Officers of the board : 
Amory Houghton, jr., president; George Hitchcock, secretary; Q. W. 
Wellington, treasurer. Superintendent of schools, Leigh R. Hunt. 

The board of education in district No. 13 comprises Luman S. Con- 
over, Dr. George W. Lane, Charles Billinghurst, Frank H. Viele, Will- 
iam A. Pierce, John McBurney and T. H. Cole, jr. 

Corning is abundantly supplied with pure and wholesome water for 
domestic and public purposes. The system was established in 1871 and 
'72, at an expense of about $25,000, but for some reason it was a con- 
stant source of expense instead of profit to the village. Further im- 



270 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

provements entailed additional outlays o,f money until the public had 
invested nearly $40,000 in the plant, and yet the concern was con- 
tinually a source of expense. In order to be relieved of this burdjsn 
the trustees offered to lease the works, but without success for some 
time, and not until young Harry Heermans, law student, determined to 
establish it on a paying basis, He associated with T. L. Lawrence, and 
the two leased the plant and system for thirty years, beginning Janu- 
ary I, 1877. Their capital consisted chiefly of energy and good judg- 
ment, and within three years the works were on a self-sustaining basis. 
Soon afterward a profit was realized, and to-day, notwithstanding the 
large outlays for extensidns and maintenance, the firm are lessees of one 
of the best enterprises in Steuben county. The city is well supplied 
with excellent water from a large reservoir on the hill on the south side, 
while connected with the system is a pumping station of equal utility. 
From 500,000 to 800,000 gallons of water are pumped daily, and the 
number of taps is about 800. 

The Corning Gas Company was incorporated August i, 1862, to 
furnish the village with gas for illuminating purposes. This is an im- 
portant adjunct of municipal welfare although electric lighting has in a 
measure displaced gas. The officers of the company are C. S. Cole, 
president ; F. D. Kingsbury, treasurer and general manager ; E. B. 
Seymour, secretary. Superintendent, W. H. Christie. 

As a manufacturing atid mercantile city, Corning ranks exceedingly 
well among the industrial centers of the State. This fortunate con- 
dition of affairs is largely due to the railroad facilities, by which the 
local product is easily and quickly shipped to markets in any direction. 
Indeed our enterprising city has two recognized trunk lines of railroad 
— the Erie and the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, while the Fall 
Brook system is so complete and important to local interests as to be 
of equal value with the lines mentioned. In addition the Fall Brook 
Company have here their central offices for business management, 
while their construction and repair shops furnish employment to hun- 
dreds of workingmen. 

One of the most important industries of Southern New York is the 
Corning Glass Works, which, with its allied interests, furnishes em- 
ployment to about 1,000 persons, and also, through its pay rolls, 




HARRY C. HEERMANS. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 271 

provides the means of subsistence to at least 3,000 more. In Corning 
these works were established by the removal of the Brooklyn Flint 
Glass Works in the year 1868, being induced to such course through 
the representation of Elias Hungerford that coal, rents and employees 
could be procured in this village at less expense than in the former 
location. At that time the company comprised Amory Houghton, sr., 
Josiah Oakes, George P. Bradford and Amory Houghton, jr. As an 
inducement to the removal, the village, through individuals, took $50,- 
000 of stock, while the company took $75,000, and also brought to 
Corning 100 regular and skilled employees. A reorganization was 
effected at the time of the removal and the concern became known as 
the Corning Flint Glass Company. For three years at least the com- 
pany did business at a heavy loss, finding the Cumberland coal not 
suited to their purposes, and being brought into direct competition 
with the large Pittsburg factories; and in 1871 it became necessary to 
dispose of the local plant, which was purchased by Nathan Cushing, of 
Boston, and placed in charge of Amory Houghton, jr., as manager. 
With an exceedingly doubtful future before him, Mr. Houghton began 
the operation of the works, on borrowed capital, running economically, 
devising and introducing specialties, endeavoring in every way to place 
the works on a paying basis. Subsequent results showed the wisdom of 
his policy, for the end of the year showed a small profit. In 1872 Mr. 
Houghton purchased the works and became the sole proprietor. Three 
years later, in 1875, the "Corning Glass Works'' was incorporated 
with a capital of $50,000, Amory Houghton, jr., president and treas- 
urer ; Charles F. Houghton, vice president, and Henry P. Sinclair, sec- 
retary. From the time of the purchase in 1872, under the new man- 
agement, this enterprise has been successful from every point of view, 
and is now regarded a^ the leading industry of Corning and one of the 
most noted in the State of New York. As originally established in 
1868, the works covered two acres of ground, and employed about 150 
men, boys and girls ; as now constituted the works cover six acres, and 
employ regularly about 400 persons, and occasionally as many more. 
Connected with this splendid industry are the cutting shops, although 
under different ownership and management, but taking the raw product 
from the glass works and finishing it so beautifully that Corning is 
known throughout the land as the "Crystal City." 



272 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The well known glass cutting firm of J. Hoare & Co., whose wares 
are sold throughout the United States, and in many foreign countries 
as well, was the outgrowth of a business established in Corning in 1868, 
by John Hoare, he coming to the village with the Brooklyn Flint Glass 
works. Mr. Hoare began in a small way and increased the capacity of 
his shops as rapidly as the demand for his[products increased, and it is a 
fact well known that the output from the Hoare works is among the 
best in the world, while the proprietor himself was the pioneer manufac- 
turer of rich cut glass in this country ; and he was the first man who 
ever turned glass in a lathe, and also the first who ever made glass for 
store window sashes. At the noted exhibitions of fine goods at Boston, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, Mr. Hoare was awarded the first prize in 
each case, and generously turned over the exhibit to his principal cus- 
tomer in each city. At the Columbian Exposition he was awarded 
four medals for superiority, in design, finish and general beauty. The 
works of J. Hoare St Co. are an important industry in Corning and 
furnish employment for about 250 persons. 

In 1890 T. G. Hawkes & Co. was incorporated for the purpose of 
carrying on a general business in cutting and selling fine glassware. 
However, since 1880 the name of T. G. Hawkes has been known in 
local manufacturing circles, and during the period from that until the 
present, the product of the Hawkes factory have found their way into 
almost every civilized country where fine cut glass is appreciated and 
used. Previous to 1880 Mr. Hawkes was an employe of John Hoare, 
but in the year mentioned began business for himself in Corning, in a 
small way at first, but enlarging the capacity of his shops as demand for 
for his product has increased ; and in the short space of fifteen years he 
has built up a business that requires the employment of 245 workmen. 
As evidence of the superior excellence of his goods, we may state that 
at the Paris Exposition, in 1889, the Hawkes exhibit was awarded the 
grand prize in open competition against the entire world. Nearly all the 
articles comprising that exhibit were eagerly sought and taken by the 
nobility of Europe. 

Among the other substantial manufacturing industries of this pro- 
gressive city we may mention the Corning Brick and Terra Cotta 
Works, which, in its special product is a noted concern in the country. 




STEPHEN T. HAYT. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 273 

and one of great importance in local circles, employing many persons 
in its various departments. The officers of the company are C. A. 
Rubright, president ; H. O. Dorman, vice-president ; C. W. Rubright, 
general manager, and Morris E. Gregory, secretary. 

The Southern Tier Mills are also worthy of special mention, and were 
built in 1868 by Hayt & Olcott, the firm being succeeded by Mr. Hayt 
in 1869. The buildings were burned in 1879, and immediately rebuilt, 
with brick, far more substantial than the old building, and equipped 
with modern machinery for the manufacture of flour. The present 
capacity of the mills is 200 barrels of flour per day. 

The Preston and Heermans foundry and machine shops were estab- 
lished in 1867. 

The Corning Iron Works were founded in 1889 by William E. Gor- 
ton and manufactures all kinds of cast iron work and railway specialties. 
The officers of the company are William E. Gorton, president, and E. 
D. Mills, secretary and treasurer. The company was incorporated in 
1893; capital $100,000. The Corning Lumber Company is another 
substantial business enterprise of the city, officered as follows : Glode 
Requa, president ; George W. Foster, secretary ; W. H. Clark, treas- 
urer. The Corning Manufacturing Company are builders of the popu- 
lar "Victor Warm Air Furnace." The officers are E. P. Graves, presi- 
dent ; V. Haischer, secretary, and E. R. Stasch, superintendent. The 
Corning Stone Company, whose extensive works are southwest of the 
city, was organized many years ago, and is therefore one of the old in- 
dustries of the locality. They produce fine building and dimension 
stone. The officers are Jared Pratt, president ; E. C. English, secretary 
and treasurer. The Corning Stove Company manufactures the well 
known Garnet stoves and ranges, do a large business and employ many 
workmen. The officers are George W. Drake, president ; L. D, 
Streeter, vice-president; L. H. Drake, treasurer. The Hood Furnace 
and Supply Company, manufacturers of hot air furnaces, is another 
staple industry of the city. Its officers are C. S. Hood, president ; W. 
A. Adams, vice-president, and James C. Hood, secretary. 

In addition to the industries thus specially mentioned are many others 
of less magnitude, yet all combine to promote local growth. In mer- 
cantile pursuits all branches appear to be well represented, with compe- 
35 



274 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

tition in each line of trade sufficient to prevent monopoly. The stores, 
blocks, and public buildings of Corning surpass those of any other 
municipality in the county, and the number of commercial men who 
daily register at the principal hotels indicate a heavy volume of trade in 
retail as well as wholesale houses. Much of this prosperous condition 
is due to the energetic efforts of the Board of Trade, which comprises a 
number of the best and most liberal men of the city. The board is a 
large body in point of membership, and its object is td promote the 
growth and welfare of the city in every direction. The officers are 
Stephen T. Hayt, president ; Quincy W. Wellington, vice-president ; 
William Walker, treasurer; John L. Lewis, secretary; and O. W. 
Wellington, Amory Houghton, jr., S. T. Hayt, George J. Magee, Austin 
Lathrop, T. S. Pritchard, George W. Pratt, George Hitchcock, John 
Hoare, Thomas G. Hawkes, William Walker, John Peart and Justin M. 
Smith, trustees. 

The city is well supplied with hotels, in fact appears to have more 
public houses than the demand requires. The traveling patronage is 
distributed among the three principal houses, the Dickinson, the St. 
James, and the Wellington, the first mentioned being the largest and 
best equipped. 

The history of Coming's banks, past and present, may be briefly 
stated. The old Bank of Corning, the pioneer of the financial institu- 
tions of the village and city, was organized and began business June lO, 
1839, being then founded and supported chiefly by the Corning Com- 
pany. Its career covered a period of about twenty years, with varied 
successes and reverses, yet useful on the whole. It went into liquida- 
tion about 1856, and its currency was redeemed by stockholders, who 
also paid the depositors. Next came the George Washington Bank, 
organized under the State law by J. N. Hungerford and George W. 
Patterson, with $50,000 capital. This bank first began business in 
Concert block, and later on built and occupied the present First National 
Bank. The life of the George Washington Bank was comparatively 
brief. Mr. Hungerford withdrew from the concern in 1859, and organ- 
ized what was known as the "J.N. Hungerford Bank," which he continued 
until his death. His executor, Mr. Hadden, took the assets and un- 
dertook to pay the creditors, but his tragic death only served to further 






; '^/2?/^^^^^^ 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 275 

complicate the affairs of the bank, and it finally passed out of existence 
in 1883, and was soon forgotten. The Corning Savings Bank was 
organized by Cole & Thompson about 1856 or '57, and did business 
about five years. 

The banking house of Q. W. Wellington & Co., known throughout 
the entire State as an entirely safe and reliable private bank, was organ- 
ized under the laws of New York, on the ist of September, 1862, and 
issued currency until the arbitrary provisions of subsequent legislative 
enactments necessitated redemption and retirement of its bills. The 
members of the original firm were Quincy W. Wellington and Samuel 
Russell, jr. After four years Mr. Russell withdrew, and Mr. Welling- 
ton operated the bank as sole owner until 1884 when his son, Benjamin 
W. Wellington, acquired an interest and became partner. However, 
the old firm style of Q. W. Wellington & Co, has ever been the desig- 
nation of the bank's management, and its standing in financial circles is 
too well understood to require any comment in this chapter. Glancing 
over the last report of the condition of business in the bank, we notice 
a surplus of nearly $105,000 ; undivided profits, $38,000, and an aggre- 
gate of deposits, $690,000. Of a truth this bank needs no further com- 
ment at the hands of the present writer. 

The First Nantional Bank of Corning was organized in May, 1882, 
by the late Franklin N. Drake, assisted by Judge Bradley, C. C. B. 
Walker and others. However, Mr. Drake was the leading spirit of the 
enterprise," a large stockholder, and held the office of president from the 
organization until the time of his death, December 28, 1892. He was 
then succeeded by his son, James A. Drake, the present chief officer of 
the institution, and at the same time Judge Bradley was elected vice- 
president. The first board of directors comprised F. N. Drake, O. W. 
Bump, George B. Bradley, Edwin C. Cook, James A. Drake and C. C. 
B. Walker. The original capital was $50,000, later on increased to 
$100,000, but subsequently reduced to the amount first mentioned. 
The first cashier was O. W. Bump, who was .succeeded by James A. 
Drake, and on the election of the latter to the presidency, D. S. Drake 
was appointed in his place. This bank is an entirely safe, successful 
and well managed institution, enjoying the confidence of business men 
throughout the region. Its accumulated surplus amounts to $75,000. 



276 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COTTNTY. 

The present directors are James A. Drake, George B. Bradley, D. S. 
Drake, C. M. Hyde, C. E. Drake and G. W. Bump. 

By an act of the State Legislature, passed July 19, 1853, the village of 
Corning was designated as the seat of justice for the second jury dis- 
trict of Steuben county. This was a fortunate event in the early history 
of the place and one which contributed much to local growth and im- 
portance. The court-house was built during the years 1853-4, at an 
expense of $14,000, It stands on a commanding elevation of land just 
outside the business center, and is a comfortable structure though now 
quite old and hardly in keeping with the beautiful dwelling propertie"s in 
the vicinity. However, the supervisors of the county have authorized 
an appropriation of $10,000 for a new court-house in the district, to 
which the city will undoubtedly add a considerable amount for the 
same purpose. 

The First Presbyterian church of Corning, as now designated, was 
originally organized as the Presbyterian church of Painted Post, and lo- 
cated at Knoxville. The society was formed in 18 10, but not until 
1832 was a church home provided A second edifice was erected in 
Corning village in 1842, and in 1843 the name was changed to First 
Presbyterian church of Corning, and incorporated as such. The pres- 
ent substantial church edifice was built in 1867. A second Presbyte- 
rian church was organized in Corning in 1845, by withdrawing mem- 
bers from the mother society. The only pastor of the new church was 
Rev. Horatio Pettingill, D.D. The offshoot united with the parent 
church in 1 849. The succession of pastors of this church has been as 
follows: Clement Hickman, 1812-16; Thomas Lounsbury, 1821-23; 
Mr. Gilbert, 1823-25; Reuben Sanborn, 1826-27; David Harrower, 
1827-29; David Higgins, D.D. ,1829-31 ; John Barton, 1832-35 ; John 
Smith, 1835-38; F. W. Graves, 1838; Samuel M. Hopkins, D.D., 1840- 
42; Joshua B. Graves, 1842-47; Job Pierson, 1847-49; A.L.Brooks, 
1848-51 ; R. E.Wilson, 1851-55 ; Darwin Chichester, 1856-59; Will- 
iam A. Niles, D.D., 1858-72 ; Anson G. Chester, 1872-75 ; M. L. P. 
Hill, 1875-82; John S. Bacon, acting pastor from 1882 to 1893. Rev. 
Dr. Alfred J. Hutton, the present pastor, was installed in February, 
1895. This church has 300 members. Its elders are Uriah D. Hood, 
Cyrus S. Hood, Charles E. Benedict, Edward Chsdell, and Francis A. 



CITIES, VILLAOES AND HAMLETS. 277 

Williams.' The deacons are Rollin P. Perry. Noble Hill, and C. W. 
Ecker. Trustees, George B. Bradley, William W. Adams, John H. 
Lang, H. C. Heermans, David S, Drake, Alfred M. Gannon, Edward 
Clisdell, F. D. Kingsbury, and H. P. Sinclaire, jr. 

Christ church, Episcopal, and its parish, in Corning, were organized 
April 2, 1841, by Rev. Richard Smith. The Corning Company donated 
to the church a lot on West Market street, on which a chapel was built, 
and subsequently used until the erection of the stone edifice on the cor- 
ner of Walnut street and East avenue in 1854. However, the congre- 
gation and society at length outgrew the church home, and during the 
years 1893-94 the present beautiful church edifice was erected. This 
is without question one of the most elegant and complete church struc- 
tures in the southern tier, and was built at a total cost of about $75,000. 
The memorial windows are noticeable features of the interior, among 
them that privided by Mrs. Amory Houghton, jr., in memory of her 
father, Alanson Bigelow ; also that furnished by Marvin Olcott in mem- 
ory of his parents ; by William Bigelow in memory of his children ; by 
Charles F. and Mrs. Houghton in memory of their daughter ; together 
with three others in the chancel, furnished by the Chancel Guild. The 
rectors of Christ's church, in succession, have been as follows : Richard 
Smith, M. A. Nickerson, J. Field, James Eaton, G. M. Skinner, F. J. R. 
Lightbourn, N. Barrows, E. Z. Lewis, L. D. Ferguson, Lucius Sweet- 
land, William Montgomery, Joseph Hunter, E. S. Wilson, S. R. Fuller, 
Roy McGregor Converse, and Walter Coe Roberts, the latter the pres- 
ent rector, who came to the church in April, 1888. The communicat- 
ing members in Christ's church number 274. The wardens are John 
Hoare and Joseph J. TuUy ; vestrymen, Q. W. Wellington, Amory 
Houghton, jr., Charles F. Houghton, J. B. Maltby, Thomas G. Hawkes, 
R. H. Canfield, Austin Lathrop. E. A. Kreger. 

Methodism in Corning began as early as the years 1832, aUhough 
not until 1839 was the Corning circuit formed. The first house of wor- 
ship was built in 1839, the second in i860, and the third, the present 
large and beautiful church edifice, during the years 1893-94. It stands 
on the site of the old church, and cost $40,000. This church has more 
than 800 members, and is the oldest in Steuben county. The present 
pastor, Rev. Henry C. Woods, began his services here in 1891. 



278 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

St. Mary's church, Roman Catholic, of Corning, was the outgrowth 
of early missionary services conducted by Rev. Father Patrick Bradley 
about the year 1842. Seven years later a church edifice was built, but 
the larger church, the present edifice, was begun in 1866 and was in 
course of construction for several years before completion. In 1873 
the bishop of the diocese purchased the old State Arsenal on the hill, 
which was converted into a convent for use of the Sisters in charge of 
the parochial school connected with St. Mary's parish. In December, 
i860, Father Peter Colgan, present priest in charge, was appointed to 
St. Mary's. 

The Baptist church of Corning was organized August 24, 1841, with 
twenty-four original members. The church edifice was erected in 1849 
and 1850, and dedicated May 8th of the year last mentioned. The 
church numbers 242 active members, and is under the present pastorate 
of Rev. P. W. Crannell. 

A Free- Will Baptist church was organized in Corning in 1865, but is 
not now in existence. Other and more recent organizations in the city 
are the Congregational, Free Methodist, and German Lutheran. The 
First Congregational church of the Fifth ward was formed as a society 
in September, 1889, with thirty-seven members, but now numbers 
about 200. Rev. Nathaniel E. Fuller has been the pastor since organ- 
ization. The Free Methodist church was organized in 1894 and built 
a house of worship during the same year. The German Lutheran So- 
ciety, also recently formed, purchased and now occupy the old church 
edifice of Christ church. The pastor is Rev. W. Stern. 

Painted Post Lodge, No. 117, F. & A. M., was organized under dis- 
pensation from the Grand Lodge, in June, 1808, with John Knox, mas- 
ter. This lodge at one period in its history was known as No. 203, but 
in 1856 the number was changed to 117, which, it is understood, was 
the original designation. The membership numbers 196. The past 
masters have been as follows: John Knox, 1808-14; Joseph Gillett, 
1815-17; John Knox, 1818-21,; Henry Stearns, 1822; Laurin Mall- 
ory, 1823-25; Daniel E.Brown, 1826-31. No further record of the 
lodge is extant previous to 1846, and it is probable that there was a 
suspension of work during that period. The masters since 1846 were 
Samuel Boyer, 1846-48 ; B. P. Bailey, 1849-53 ', William A. Spencer, 




^SHEictr Kis^TiisjaiEKiQ) i}i>iai«^' c;oilii!G,^:wo 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 279 

1854; J. B. Lower, 1855-57; J- H. Lansing, 1858-59; C. May Gam- 
man, 1860-61; John Evers, 1862-65; F. E. Spaulding, 1866-67; C. 
H. Thomson, 1868-69; T. S. Pritchard, 1870-71 : H. A. Balcom, 1874 
W.J. Bryan, 1875-76; J. J. TuUy, 1877-78; J. S. Earle, 1879-80 
A. D. Robbins, 1881 ; C. E. Greenfield, 1882 ; James Hoare, 1883-84 
A. J. Etheridge, 1885-86; W. F. Sheehan, 1887-88; A.J. Etheridge 
1889; G. B. Hill, 1890; W. F. Sheenan, 1891; John Comosh, jr., 1892 
E. B. Seymour, 1893-94; W.J. Cheney, 1895. 

Corning Chapter, No. 190, R. A. M., was chartered February 7, 1866, 
and now numbers about 125 members. The past high priests have 
been as follows: Charles H. Erwin, 1866; C. S. Cole, 1867-70; Ed- 
ward Clisdell, 1871 ; G. W. Fuller, 1872-74; J. H. Hitchcock, 1875-76; 
T. S. Pritchard, 1877-82; C. E. Greenfield, 1883; A. D. Robbins, 1884; 
J. S. Earle, 1885 ; W. A. Wicks, 1886; G. B. Hill, 1887; W. E. Van- 
derhof, 1888; W. F. Sheehan, 1889; T. S. Pritchard, 1890; James 
Hoare, 1891 ; T. S. Pritchard, 1892-93 ; John Comosh, jr., 1894-95. 

Corning Council, No. 53, Royal and Select Masters, was instituted 
June 5, 1871. The Thrice Illustrious Masters have been as follows: 
H. A. Balcom, 1871-74; C. H. Thomson, 1875-77; A. D. Robbins, 
1878-81; T. S. Pritchard, 1882-84; G. B. Hill, 1885-86 ; W.A. Wicks, 
1887 ; J. S. Billington, 1888 ; C. V. Hutchins, 1889; John Comosh, jr., 
1890; H. C. Austin, 1891 ; C. E. Greenfield, 1892; Hugh H. Ken- 
dall, 1893-95. 

The Masonic bodies of Corning also include four Scottish Rite organ- 
izations, to which we may also briefly refer in the following order : 

Corning Consistory, S. P. R. S., 32', instituted September 14, 1866. 
Post Commanders — Charles H. Thomson, 33', 1866-78; Frank D. 
Kingsbury, 32°, 1879-81; George W. Fuller, 33°, 1882-84; Truman 
S. Pritchard, 32", 1885-87; A. D. Robbins, 32°, 1888-90; Charles E. 
Greenfield, 32°, 1891-93; Hugh H. Kendall, 33°, 1894-95. 

Corning Chapter, Rose Croix, A. A. S. Rite, was instituted Septem- 
ber 14, 1866. The past masters have been as follows : Austin Lathrop, 
32°, 1866-67; Frank D. Kingsbury, 32°, 1868-79; Charles H.Thom- 
son, 33°, 1880-82 ; Daniel F. Brown, 32°, 1883-85 ; George W. Fuller, 
33", 1886-89; Truman S. Pritchard, 32", 1890-95. 

Corning Council, Princes of Jerusalem, A. A. S Rite, was institnted 



280 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

September 14, 1866. The past M. E. Sov. P. G. M's. have been as fol- 
lows: George M. Smith, 32°, 1866-68; Robert J. Burnham, 32°, 1869- 
71 ; Frank D. Kingsbury, 32'', 1872-73; Daniel F. Brown, 32°, 1874- 
82; Charles H. Thomson, 33°, 1883-85 ; Frank D. Kingsbury, 32°, 
1886-89; Hugh H. Kendall, 33°, 1890-94; George B. Hill, 33°. 1895. 

Corning Lodge of Perfection. A. A. S. Rite, was instituted Septem- 
ber 14, 1866. The past T. P. G. M's. have been as follows: Henry A. 
Balcom, 32°, 1866-79; Joseph H. Hitchcock, 32°, 1880-82; Ahaz D. 
Robbins, 32", 1883-85; Daniel F. Brown, 32^, 1886-90; Joseph C. 
Moore, 33°, 1891-94; Egbert Shoemaker, 32^*, 1895. 

The City of Hornellsville — When pioneer Benjamin Crosby 
and his immediate followers came into the Upper Canisteo country 
they little thought the lands on which they settled would ever become 
the site of a prosperous village, and mufh less a thriving metropolitan 
city ; and it is equally doubtful if even those enterprising early settlers 
George Hornell, Dugald Cameron or Ira Davenport ever contemplated 
such a substantial growth and development as the locality enjoyed as 
the result of their first efforts. "Yeoman " Benjamin Crosby purchased 
from Solomon Bennett, " gentleman," great lot No. 8, for three hundred 
pounds, and George Hornell bought of John Stephens lot No. 7, for one 
hundred and eleven pounds, each tract containing 1,600 acres of land 
and lying, in part at least, within the present city limits. 

However, the earlier growth of this locality was by no means rapid, 
but rather by steady yet sure advances did the village succeed the 
hamlet and the city in turn supersede the village. The first beginning 
in this direction was made by Judge Hornell when he built the grist mill 
on the site of the now called Thacher mill, followed by the erection of 
the tavern which he maintained as a public house. Yet we are told 
that when Mr. Hornell came to the place there were about seven or 
eight dwellings on the village site. In 1809 the turnpike road from 
Ithaca to Olean was opened, thus giving an impetus to local growth ; 
and about the same time, possibly before, several flat boats and arks 
were built:; laden with grain and other products of the region, and trans- 
ported to Baltimore and other available markets. This led to the con- 
struction of several warehouses along the river front in the hamlet. In 
18 1 5 Col. Ira Davenport came to the settlement and opened store in a 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS 281 

building constructed by him for that purpose, and he has been men- 
tioned as the first merchant of the town, Soon afterward, in 1816, 
Dugald Cameron built a saw mill on the island, near the old stone quarry, 
just above the bridge, which locality, it is believed, became known as 
" Cameronia." The statement has also been made that a post-office was 
established here under that name with Mr. Cameron as postmaster, but 
much doubt exists regarding the accuracy of the name. So near as can 
be determined at this time the first post-office was established here soon 
after the completion of the turnpike, under the name of " Canisteo," and 
was so continued until February, 1823, and then changed to " Hor- 
nellsville." In confirmation of this assertion, we quote from Judge Hul- 
burt's description of the place in 1812, in which he says : "The settle- 
ments are of recent date and still retain their first local names. At 
Hornell's Mills, on the Canisteo, is a ferry and a road of pretty exten- 
sive travel ; here is located the Canisteo post office." (See Spaffbrd's 
Gazetteer, ed. 1813). In a later edition the same authority says : " There 
are two post offices, Hornellsville, as it will soon be called, but now Can- 
isteo post-office, and Ark Port post-office;" also "There is a small 
village at Ark Port of some fifteen or twenty houses, and another at 
Hornellsville of about the same number, a store, a grist mill and a saw 
mill." 

According to Deacon Thacher's reminiscences, the residents of the 
hamlet in 1823, were Amasa Thacher, Rufus or Bulrock Mason, Du- 
gald Cameron, Thomas Bennett (tavern keeper), Squire Livermore, 
Truman Bostwick (who kept a stage house), Ira Davenport (merchant), 
Andrew L. Smith (tanner), William B. Bostwick, and the Hornell prop- 
erty — the tavern and grist mill. At that time there were eleven houses, 
including the mill, on the village site. The Cameron mill was located 
farther north, about half a mile. Mr. Adsit's recollections are no less 
interesting, and he remembers the village when it contained only twenty- 
six houses. The first brick building was erected by Colonel Davenport 
in 1828, followed soon afterward by others. Mr. Adsit built a large 
brick building in 1841. 

The period of greatest growth and prosperity in the early history of 
the village was that between 1820 and 1840, although it is impossible 
to recall the one thousand and one events that contributed to local ad- 
36 



282 LANDMARKS OF STBTJBEN COUNTY. 

vancement during that time. The town authorities at this period 
showed a commendable zeal in helping to build up the village, and in 
1832 purchased from Major Thomas Bennett two and three-fourths 
acres of land on the south side of Main street, for the purpose of a 
public square. In 1834 the town voted $100 to improve the square, 
and in 1836 William Bostwick was paid $11 for digging the stumps out 
of the same tract. This was the origin and inception of Hornellsville's 
present beautiful park, the most attractive spot, perhaps, within the city 
limits. The later improvements, the pagoda, the fountain, and tasteful 
arrangements of walks, together with other adornments, are due to the 
generosity of local government and the liberality and public spiritedness 
of the citizens. 
I The most fortunate event in all the history of Hornellsville, and that 
I which has contributed most largely to both early and more recent pros- 
; perity, was the construction of the Erie railroad, with its attendant 
shops and business departments. Rumors that a railroad was in con- 
templation became current in this locality soon after 1830, and within 
the next year or two the surveyors appeared in the valley, though the 
people here were in much anxiety lest the road should be actually built 
through the Conhocton rather than the Canisteo valley ; and it was not 
until the coming of the famous old " pile driver " that the inhabitants 
of Hornellsville were fully assured that the line through this valley had 
been accepted by the company. The preliminary surveys were made 
in 1832, and in 1833 the company was organized. The work of con- 
struction was begun in this vicinity in 1841, but not until the first day 
of September, 1850, did the first locomotive appear in the village. 

The line of road then built was what is now locally termed the Sala- 
manca or Western division of the N. Y. L. E. & W. railroad. The At- 
tica and Hornellsville railroad, now known as the " Buffalo road," was 
incorporated May 14, 1845. Other companies were allowed to pur- 
chase its stock, and in April, 1851, the name was changed to Buffalo 
and New York City railroad. Still later, through various transfers and 
processes of law, this line, with the western branch, became merged in 
the present Erie system. The Attica and Hornellsville road was built 
in 1852. 

It was not the mere building of a railroad through the village that 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 283 

contributed so much to its early welfare, although that consummation was 
an important factor in advancing local interests ; but the greatest bene- 
fit was derived through the establishment of a division terminus at the 
place and the erection of shops for purposes of construction and repairs 
to railroad equipment. There is now paid out monthly in Hornellsville 
by the Erie company an aggregate of about $6o,000, three-fourths of 
which remains in the city ; and there are generally employed here in 
one capacity or another from 800 to 1,000 men, while the terminal fea- 
ture materially makes this place the temporary home of perhaps 200 
more men. 

Incidentally we may mention the fact that construction of the first 
railroad through the village was due largely to the persevering efforts 
of Judge Hawley, Rufus Tuttle, Martin Adsit, T. J. Reynolds, John K. 
Hale, T. J. Magee, Walter G. Rose, Charles N. Hart, and others asso- 
ciated with them in promoting local interests. Within the last half 
score of years the city has been given the advantage of still another line 
of railroad, from which the merchants and manufacturers of the locality 
are the greatest beneficiaries. We refer to the construction and opera- 
tion of the road built by the Rochester, Hornellsville and Lackawanna 
* Company, now known, however, as the Central New York and West- 
ern. This road proper runs from this city to Hornellsville Junction, 
thence over the line of another company to Wayland, where it connects 
with the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, thus affording direct 
connection with Rochester on the west, as well as important points 
east. The road was built and completed during the fall of 1887, and 
was brought about through the unselfish efforts of Judge Hakes, Benton 
McConnell, George N. Orcutt, Irving W. Near and Charles Adsit. 

Returning again to the subject of early history, the fact may be noted 
that in 1832 the Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal churches were 
organized, each of which, together with all other religious societies are 
more fully mentioned on later pages of this chapter. In 1833 the "little 
red school house " was built and stood near the site of the Tribune 
building. The Park School property was secured by the district in 
1844, and soon afterward a school was opened there. This subject, 
however, will be fully treated in a later portion of this chapter. 

Soon after the completion of the railroad the inhabitants began to 



284 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

discuss the subject of incorporation. In this matter Dr. John H. Lillie 
(was a leading spirit, and as he found a local population of 1,814, when a 
^short time before there were only 700, it was evident that the people 
were entitled to advance from the hamlet to the village character. 
James B. Finch made the necessary surveys, and on the 28th day of 
June, 1852, the "Village of Hornellsville " became a body corporate 
and politic, through the order of the court of sessions of Steuben 
county. 

The first -election of officers was held on August 30 following, at 
which time John H. Lillie, Thomas Snell, J. T. Wilbur, Richard Durbin 
and William R. McCormick were chosen trustees. The board elected 
Dr. Lillie president, and Horace Bemis, clerk, together with all other 
officers authorized by law. 

" The first board of trustees," says Mr. Tuttle's article, " was enter- 
prising and progressive. It legislated for a turbulent element and had 
to build everything ' from the stump.' Sidewalks were the first enter- 
prise undertaken, and on September 27, a special election was held, 
which voted to build walks on Main, Canisteo, Genesee, Cass, Taylor 
and Albion streets." 

However, in the course of the next fifteen years following the first in- 
corporation, the growth in population and the advancement of all local 
business interests demanded that broader powers be accorded the munici- 
pal government. Therefore, recourse was had to the Legislature, and 
on the 9th day of April, 1867, an act was passed, entitled "An act to 
amend and consolidate the several acts relating to the village of Hornells- 
ville." 

This charter fixed the village boundaries as they had previously ex- 
isted under the former government, and divided fhe territory into five 
wards. The officers provided under the act were a president, a trustee 
frofti each ward, police justice, three assessors, a collector, clerk, treas- 
urer, superintendent of streets and not more thati three policemen ; the 
clerk, superintendent of streets and policemen to be appointed by the 
board, and all other officers elected by the people. 

Under this charter government the affairs of the village were con- 
ducted for a period of about twenty years, when, in accordance with 
an express demand, the Legislature in 1888 passed an actincorporating 




E. F. WILLETS. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 285 

the " City of Hornellsville," thus advancing our once little hamlet to a 
municipality of the highest grade. Subsequent amendments have been 
made to the city charter, providing for contingencies and improvements 
not contemplated in the original act. 

At the first city election held in i8b8, these ofificers were chosen: 
Mayor, James B. Day ; aldermen, Patrick Broderick, Robert Carberry, 
George H. Dove, Edward F. Houser, E. H. Lanphear, Thomas C. 
McCarthy, Charles F. McGuire, Thomas Ryan, T. J. O. Thacher, 
Edward Tolan, Charles D. Walters, and Otto Walther ; city clerk, 
Harris C. Sawyer ; recorder, Wm. C. Bingham ; chamberlain, Wm. K. 
Smith ; overseer of poor, Aaron Ross ; commissioners of excise, Eda 
N. Alden, Frank Tanner and Wm. H. Reynolds ; sealer, Nicholas 
Schu. Mayor Day was re-elected in 1890, and was succeeded in 1892 
by Edward F. Willets, the latter being also re-elected in 1894. 

The city officers for the year 1 895 are as follows : Edward F. Willets, 
mayor ; Henry L. Nash, city clerk ; Winfield S. Newman, recorder ; 
E. L. Dolson, city attorney ; M. V. Sherwood, chamberlain ; J. W. 
Shelley, overseer of the poor; J. M. Harding, street commissioner; 
aldermen, T. H. Coleman, E. Y. Butler, First ward^; E. H. Lanphear, 
G. A. Waldorf, Second ward ; E. Powers, John McDougall, Third 
ward ; John Haire, E. H. Nelson, Fourth ward ; W. E. Curtiss, G. A. 
Prentiss, Fifth ward ; Charles Conderman, Frank A. Jones, Sixth 
ward ; supervisors, George B. Elwell, Alfred E. Bowen and Charles J. 
Clark ; justices of the peace, Frank Kelly, Lewis H. Clark and Frank 
J. Nelson ; assessors, David Wellever, Wm. B. Van Dusen, Hiram H. 
Carney. 

The Police Commission was'established under the charter and is one 
of the efficient departments of government. The present commissioners 
are Morris Smith, president; and G. H. Dore, Matthew Dewey and 
D. E. Fleming. Chief of police, Michael Hickey ; captain, Edward B. 
Shepard. 

The city Fire Department was first organized on September 25, 
1852, under the village government. Charles Mcllvaney was chief en- 
gineer, E. J. Richardson and Charles Strawn, assistants. From this 
primitive organization the present department has grown and developed, 
and at this time is better equipped and trained than ever before in its 



286 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

history. This branch of city government was placed on secure basis 
by the act of incorporation, passed April 29, 1875. The present de- 
partment consists of Maple City, Emerald, Prindle, and Erie Hose 
companies, each well housed and equipped ; also Babcock Hook and 
Ladder Company, who operate the " truck," and one good Silsby 
steamer. The latter, however, is not frequently called into service, as 
the excellent water supply system of the city affords all needed pressure 
for both fire and domestic purposes. The officers of the fire depart- 
ment are Frank L. Howard, chief engineer; John J. Baker, first assist- 
ant; and Henry Lundrigan, second assistant; F. A. Jones, secretary. 

The Sewer commission was created by special act of the Legislature, 
for the purpose of constructing and maintaining a complete system of 
sewers for the city. The commissioners are J. B. Kennelly, president ; 
G. P. Rishel, secretary ; and F. G Babcock, W. A. Stephens, S. E. 
Brown and F. T. McConnell. 

The Park commission was also constituted by special act of the 
legislature, and the electors voted for the park scheme on May 6, 
1 89 1. The first commissioners, F. G. Babcock, F. D. Sherwood, 
Patrick Enright, R. K. Faulkner, Benton McConnell, and Charles Adsit, 
purchased the Jones Driving Park property, some twenty- one acres, 
and subsequently added to its area by other purchases. This property 
is located on Seneca street, and is leased to the Farmers' Club. The 
present park commissioners are C. Cadogan, president ; J. W. Nichol- 
son, secretary ; E. S. Brown, P. Enright, M. E. Page and J. O. Adsit. 

The city excise commissioners, provided by statute, are W. H. Pran- 
gen, president ; H. R. Wagner, secretary, and P. Houck, treasurer. 

The City Hall was built in 1877, on Broad street, and here all the 
business of . the municipality is transacted. Hornellsville is bonded to 
the extent of $162,500, of which $100,000 is for sewers, $12,500 for 
pavements, and $50,000 for the park. The first pavement was laid in 

1893- 

St. James Mercy Hospital receives annually from the city excise 
funds the sum of one thousand dollars. This mention naturally leads 
us to refer at some length to this most praiseworthy institution, its origi- 
nator and founder, and the persons connected with its management. 

The Rev. Father James M. Early was appointed to the pastorate of 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 287 

St. Ann's church and parish in November, 1879, and from that time 
until his death was one of the most earnest and unselfish Christian 
workers in this field. Soon after his pastorate began Father Early 
often expressed a desire to establish a hospital in Hornellsville, and in 
his will made generous provision for that purpose. However, during 
the month of February, 1890, through the assistance of F. G. Babcock, 
Father Early purchased the once known Van Scoter property, on Can- 
isteo street, south, for which he paid $5,000 cash. The necessary im- 
provements and modifications were at once made to the building, and 
soon afterward the property was deeded to a board of trystees, consti- 
tuted and incorporated for that purpose, under the name of trustees of 
St. James' Mercy Hospital. According to the provision made by the 
founder, the board shall be composed of, ex officio, the bishop of this 
diocese of the Roman Catholic church, the rector of St. Ann's parish, 
two Sisters of Mercy, and the mayor of the city ; also four citizens of 
Hornellsville. The first trustees were designated by Father Early, and 
comprised the ex officio members and Harlo Hakes, Joseph Cameron, 
James M. Welsh, and Dr. J. G. Kelly. The trustees organized on 
March 3, 1890, and elected Judge Hakes, president; Sister Dolores, 
vice-president ; Joseph Cameron, secretary, and Mr. Welsh, treasurer. 
These officers, except the vice-president, have been continued in their 
respective positions to the present time. The first matron was Sister 
Mary Catherine ; the present matron is Sister Angela. 

The good work accomplished by this institution, the outgrowth of the 
generosity, and philanthropy of Father Early, needs no recital here. 
The rich and poor alike receive the same kind treatment and attention 
at the hands of the devoted sisters who have direct control of the hos- 
pital. The institution is supported by popular contribution and the 
city fund referred to. The annual expense of maintenance amounts to 
about $3,000. The staff of medical attendants has been organized 
through the efforts of Dr. Kelly, and comprises the physicians of the 
city. 

Another of the important and interesting departments of municipal 
government is the educational system, at present perfected to a degree 
that places it in favorable comparison with that of any city in the 
State, and far in advance of many of them. We are told that the first 



288 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

school of the then hamlet was opened through the efforts of Judge 
Hornell about 1810, and that Sarah Thacher was its first teacher. The 
building stood near the corner of Main and Arkport streets. The next 

\school was that of district No. 7, predecessor to the Central school, and 
was maintained in a log house on lower Canisteo street. 

The first building erected for school purposes was also a log struc- 
ture, and stood at the lower end of Main street. Here at one time 
George Hornell, jr., taught. The third school stood near the "Canisteo 
block," and among its early teachers were Rev. Samuel White, James 
Osborne, Mr. Case, Mary Morris, Pamelia Stephens, Deacon Thacher, 
and later John S. Livermore, Dr. Thomas, Orange McCay and others. 
In 1833 the " little red school" was built on the Tribune building site, 
and was burned in the gregt fire of 1868. The early pedagogues here 
were Washington Cruger, Samuel Porter, H. V. R. Lord, Samuel 
Street, Hiram Bennett and others of later date. 

In 1844 the district purchased the Park school site, and the first 
school house built there was also used for town hall and theatrical per- 
formances. But notwithstanding its various uses here were taught 
youths and misses who are now our best business men and most cul- 
tured women. Recalling a few of the many names possible of mention, 
let us note Judge Solon O., T. D wight, Safford M. and T. Scott Thacher ; 
also Col. Frank B, Doty, Martin and Levi Doty, Emmett and Charles 
Reynolds, Maxwell Cameron, Scott Belden, Matthew Hale, Russell M. 
Tuttle, the Prindle boys, and the Bennetts, Stephenses, Caldwells, Mor- 
rises, Browns, Popples, Hawleys and a host of others. The first teacher 
here was Rev. O. B. Clark who opened his school in February, 1845. 
The old building was modified, enlarged, and in fact replaced, but to- 

, day the site is occupied with one of the most modern, convenient and 
attractive school buildings in the southern tier. It is known as the 
Park School, and bears the year mark " 1886." 

The present educational system was adopted in 1872, and the affairs 
and management of schools is vested in a Board of Education, 
authorized to levy and raise a tax sufficient for all purposes of main- 
tenance, additions, repairs and equipments, independent of any other 
branch of city government. The plan of naming each school was 
adopted in 1888. The city now has five public schools, viz.: The Park 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 289 

School, built 1 886, having 213 pupils; the Lincoln School, on Canisteo 
street, attendance, 400; the Columbian School, built 1893, cost $20,000, 
located on Pearl street, 319 pupils; the Irving School, formerly First 
ward school, 265 pupils ; the Bryant School, formerly Sixth ward, 249 
pupils. 

The present Board of Education is comprised of J. E. B. Santee, 
president; Stephen Hollands, J. W. Nicholson, F. C. Prindle and Cass 
Richardson. The secretary of the board is Joseph Cameron. Members 
of the board are elected from the city at large, and hold office for a 
term of five years. The city schools are under the superintendence of 
W. R. Prentiss, appointed in 1887 as successor to Robert Simpson. 

In this connection we may also properly mention some of the past 
and present private schools which have been opened in the village and 
city ; among which were those of Rachel Bennett, Hannah Wilbur, 
Harriet Waldo, Mrs. Van Court. Mrs. Schuyler, Helen Thacher. In 
August, 1862, Mrs. B. A. McNall (Belva Lockwood) organized a young 
ladies' school in the M. E. church. She lived here several years and 
had a good school. Mary Dwight also had a good private school, and 
as well had Professor Ford. Dr. Jamison taught penmanship in the 
Park school, 

St. Ann's Union Academic School, parochial in its general character, 
and attached to and sustained by the parish of St. Ann's church, was 
founded during the pastorate of Father M. Creedon, which began Oc- 
tober II, 1863. This is a large school, numbering 435 pupils, and is 
under the State regency. The teachers are selected from the Sisters of 
Mercy, nine of whom devote themselves wholly to the work of educa- 
tion. The only other educational institutions of the city are the Busi- 
ness Colleges, of which there are two, both well conducted and afford- 
ing excellent opportuuities in their special branches. 

The ecclesiastical history of Hornellsville, town and city, is alike rich, 
interesting and instructive, and although the local churches are men- 
tioned in another department of this work, they are of sufficient im- 
portance to this chapter to demand more than a passing allusion to 
them in this place, even at the hazard of repetition. 

Gleaning information from all sources, we learn that as early as 1799 
religious services were held at the house of Judge Hornell by Robert 
37 



290 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Logan, a Presbyterian, and that about the same time Rev. John Durbin, 
Methodist, preached in a log house in Main street. From this lime 
forth occasional services were held in the little settlement by ministers of 
different denominations, but not until about the year 1830 does there 
appear to have been made any successful effort at church organization ; 
and as the Methodists and Presbyterians were originally in the mission- 
ary field about the same time, so, also, their society organizations were 
at about the same date, the former slightly in advance. 

The present Park Methodist Episcopal church had its inception in 
the little primitive meetings held during the early years of the century, 
and a society came into existence in the year 1830. The members met 
in dwellings and school houses until strong enough to erect a church 
home. This was accomplished in 1832-33. The second edifice was 
built in 1864-5 (cost $9,500), and the present structure in 1878-9. 
From first to last the church has ever increased, steadily and surely, 
and now it has a membership of 700, with 171 probationers. During 
the history of the mother society, two other churches have been formed 
in the city, each drawing a portion of its original membership from the 
Park organization. The pastors of the church have been Revs. Asa Story, 
1830; W. D. Gage, 1835; Robert Parker, Nelson Hoag, 1837; If'a 
Bronson, Nelson Hoag, 1838; Samuel Church, 1839; D. B. Lawton, 
1840; V. Brownell, 1841 ; Philo Tower, 1842; W. E. Prindar, 1843 ; 
Sheldon Doolittle, 1844; W. E. Prindar, 1846; John Knapp, John 
Spink, 1847-48; Carlos Gould, 1849; S. B. Rooney, 1850; James 
Wilson, 1851; A. S. Baker, 1852; James Ashworth, 1853; N. A. De 
Puy, 1854; H. N. Seaver, 1856; W. C. Huntington, 1857; J. R. 
Jacques, 1859 ; J. Walters, J. B. Knott, 1861 ; E. P. Huntington, 1862 ; 
C. M. Gardner, 1863-66; C. P. Hart, 1867; Thomas Stacy, 1868; W. 
C. Mattison, 1870; E. Wildman, 1872; C. C. Wilburn, 1873; K. P. 
Jervis, 1874; L. A. Stevens, 1877; C.W.Winchester, 1878-80; S.W. 
Lloyd, 1881-83; J. E. Williams, 1884-86; E. H. Lattimer, 1887-89; 
Ward D. Piatt, 1890-92 ; L. A. Stevens, 1883 ; Ward B. Picard, 1894. 
The trustees of this church are William O'Connor, Charles W. Kress, 
Joseph L. Schaumburg, F. G. Schutt, S. M. Townsend, James H. 
Stevens, George Hollands, John D. Mitchell. Superintendent of Sun- 
day school, L. B. Crandall. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 291 

The East Avenue Methodist Episcopal church society was organized 
and the edifice built during the year 1885, and though but ten years 
old is an entirely progressive body, having 190 full members, and 33 
probationers. The pastors have been Revs. F. S. Roland and F. H.- 
Van Kuren, the latter now officiating. 

The South Side M. E. church was organized about the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1895, by certain withdrawing members from the Park church ; not, 
however, with the approval of the mother society. The new organiza- 
tion has a small though neat edifice at the corner of Canisteo and Van 
Scoter streets. The members number about fifty persons, and are under 
the pastoral charge of Rev. George S. Spencer. 

The First Presbyterian church of Hornellsville was organized by 
Revs. Moses Ordway and Moses Hunter, on July 10, 1832. The 
original members were twelve persons who presented letters of dismis- 
sal from other churches, and sixteen received on confession of faith. 
The first trustees were James McBurney, Ira Davenport, Samuel Mul- 
hoUen, Truman Bostwick, Philander Hartshorn and Otis Thacher. After 
the church and society were organized attention was at once given to 
providing a church home. For this purpose Dugald Cameron donated 
two lots on Main street, each 4x8 rods in size, and here the edifice was 
built, at a cost of $3,000. The original building was 39x40 feet, with 
side and end galleries. The several subsequent enlargements to the 
building were made in 1862, 1871, 1875 and 1877, the latter being the 
lecture room addition. The manse was purchased during the pas- 
torate of Dr. Pettengill, and stood on Main street. This property was 
sold in 1862, and in the spring of 1873 the society purchased the prop- 
erty now occupied by the pastor. 

This church is among the strongest religious organizations of the city, 
both in influence for good and in membership. The members on the 
roll now number 472, and in the Sunday school are 267 attendants, and 
32 teachers. The ministers, supphes and pastors, in succession, have 
been as follows: Moses Ordway, July 10, 1832; George P. King, Sep- 
tember, 1832 ; Moses Hunter, March, 1834; vacant from March, 1835, 
to October, 1837 ; Benj. Russell, October, 1837; Samuel W. May, sup- 
ply, 1839 ; John W. Hopkins, first pastor, 1839-41 ; Charles B. Smythe, 
1841-42; Elias S. Peck, 1842-43; Thos. M. Hodgman, 1843-45; 



292 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Foster Lilly, 1845-48 ; Horatio Pettengill, second pastor, June lO, 
1849-September, 1857; F. W. Graves, 1857-58'; Ira O. De Long, 
1859-60; Milton Waldo, 186 1-7 1 ; W. A. Niles, April, 1872-April 7, 
1884 ; Edward. M. Deems, installed May 10, 1890, the present pastor. 
Elders, Nathan Piatt, T. Scott Thacher, Geo. W. Seymour, C. H. Hub- 
bard, Alex. Davidson, Geo. H. Miller, Wm. A. Tracey and C. H. 
Glady. Superintendent of Sunday school, Alex. Davidson. 

The Hartshorn Presbyterian church was organized February 26, 1891, 
and was the outgrowth of the mission Sunday school and chapel founded 
in 1883 through the generosity of Charles Hartshorn. About two 
months before his death Mr. Hartshorn deeded the chapel property to 
his wife, who, in turn, conveyed it, without consideration, to the trustees 
of the newly organized society. The present members number about 
sixty- five, and in the Sunday school are eighty attendents. The pastors 
have been Revs. William Veenscoten, George F. Danforth and Andrew 
Brown, the latter now officiating. 

St. Ann's church, Roman Catholic, was organized as a parish and 
a church home provided in 1849, under the pastoral charge of Father 
Michael O'Brien. However, masses were said in this region as early 
as 1843, by Father Benedict Bayer, followed in 1844 by Father 
McAvoy, the latter continuing his missionary labors in this field 
until 1849. Next came Father O'Brien, under whom the little chapel 
on Cass street was built, and the church placed upon a substantial 
footing in the village. Then, following through the successive pas- 
torates of Father McCabe, Daniel Moore, Joseph McKenna, Terrance 
Keenan, and James McGlew, under each of whom the church constantly 
increased in members, we reach the year 1863, during which four priests 
were in the parish. Fathers John Lawton, W^ A. Gregg, R. J. Story 
and M. Creedon. The latter came in October of that year, and during 
his earnest labors here the first portion of the large edifice on Erie 
avenue was erected and St. Ann's Academic school was founded. He 
died in 1870, and was followed by Father Wm. J. McNab. Francis 
Clark came in 1873, and was in turn succeeded, in November, 1879, by 
Rev. James M. Early, who, during his pastorate, enlarged the church 
and also founded St. James Mercy Hospital. Father Early died in 
February, 1 890, and was succeeded by James O'Loughlin, and the 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 293 

latter by Rev. Arthur Barlow, who came to the parish June lO, 1893. 
The parish of St. Ann's contains about 700 families, or a total of 3,500 
persons. 

The earliest missionary work of the Protestant Episcopal church in 
this field began about the year 1850, when Rev. Asa Griswold read 
services to the few adherents of the church then living in the locality. 
These informal services were continued for a year or two, the Metho- 
dist edifice being occupied for a time, and later the old Washington 
Hall which burned about 1859. On the 6th of March, 1854, a meeting 
was held for the organization of the parish of Christ's church, and the 
election of wardens and vestrymen, At this meeting were present 
Martin Adsit,John M. Wisenell, Truman Warner, Nirom M. Crane, John 
Jamison, Aaron Morris, Wm. H. Chandler, Chas. Strawn, Peter C. Ward, 
Thomas Snell, Russell Pardee, George Huckett, Charles L. Prindle and 
Charles E. W. Baldwin. On the 20th of March following, the church 
was duly incorporated under the name of " Rector, Church Wardens 
and Vestrymen of Christ's Church in the town of Hornellsville, County 
of Steuben." The first officers were Rev. James A. Robinson, rector; 
Aaron Morris and Charles L. Prindle, wardens ; and Peter C. Ward, 
Martin Adsit, William H. Chandler, Charles Strawn, George Huckett, 
T. Jefferson Magee, Thomas Snell and Nirom M. Crane, vestrymen. 
The corner stotie of the church edifice was laid in May, i860, and the 
church was consecrated by Bishop De Lancey, on April 10, 1862. The 
first service in the new church was on Christmas day, i860. The old 
edifice still stands and is kept in such excellent repair that to day it is 
one of the most attractive structures of its kind in the city. Rev. Lloyd 
Windsor became rector January i, 1859, and died in the performance 
of his duty during service, on June 30, 1889. His rectorate therefore 
covered a period of more than thirty years. - In another department of 
this work will be found a biographical sketch of the life of this beloved 
rector and esteemed friend, but here we may say that his memory is 
preserved in the beautiful memorial window in the chancel. The 
present rector. Rev. Edwin S. Hoffman, came to the city in March, 
1890. In the parish are about 160 families, and the communicating 
members number 262. The church raises annually between four and 
five thousand dollars. The present wardens are Martin Adsit and 



294 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Judge Harlo Hakes. The vestrymen are Dr. J. S. Jamison, Don L. 
Sharp, John K. Chapman, C. B. Windsor, L. W, Rockwell and Henry 
E. Gilpin. The parish societies are the Woman's Missionary Auxiliary, 
Ladies' Guild, The Unity, St. Agnes' Guild, Daughters of the King, and 
the Brotherhood of St. Andrew. 

The First Baptist church of Hornellsville was organized October 17, 
1852, with fifteen constituent members. For seven years the society 
held its meetings in Union Hall, and it was not until the pastorate of 
Henry A. Rose (1856-59) that the brick edifice on Church street was 
built. The church now numbers 430 members. The present trustees 
are J. W. Nicholson, W. E. Tuttle, Alfred E. Brown, Herbert M. Hor- 
ton, S. D. Pitts, E. M. Le Munyan. Deacons, S. D. Pitts, O. S. Palmer, 
Aaron Brown and M. Tuttle. The pastors, in succession, have been 
Thomas S. Sheardown, 1852; William Luke, 1854-55; Henry A. 
Rose, 1856-59; John B. Pittman, 1859-61 ; Jacob Gray, 1861-63; A. 
G. Bowles, 1863; Isaac C. Seeley, 1864-67 ; Joel Hendrick, 1867-72; 
D. Van Alstine, 1872-79, followed by T. J. Whittaker, A. Coit, Jesse A. 
Hungate, and Will C. Gates in the order named. Mr. Gates came to 
the pastorate about November i, 1894. 

The South Side Baptist church was established as a mission of the 
mother church in the year 1884, but was granted a separate organiza- 
tion and pastor on September 18, 1893. At that time the members 
numbered seventy-six; in 1895 the membership is 155, while the Sun- 
day school has 153 pupils. The first pastor was Elder G. W. Grimm, 
succeeded in May, 1894, by Rev. George H. Thompson. The deacons 
are Isaac Thomas, Jacob Hodge, Frank Towner and A. C. Boyce. 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's church was organized in 1885, 
and the edifice erected in 1886, and in its membership numbers about 
fifty families. In the Sunday school are ninety pupils. The parsonage 
was built in 1893. The church was organized by Mr. Miller, and under 
the pastorate of Carl Graf the house of worship was built. The later 
pastors have been Revs. Edward Schuelke, A. Brown, and M. O. 
Poole. 

Among the other religious societies which in the past have had an 
existence in the city, may be mentioned the First Universalist church, 
organized May 23, 1868, by Rev. A. G. Clark ; also we may recall the 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 29fi 

Jewish congregation, Aiiavat-Achim, organized in June, 1876, by 
Rabbi Israel Erlich, and which passed out of existence about 1892. 
The Seventh Day Baptist believers formed a society in the village, 
April II, 1877, but this, too, is among the things of the past. 

Tn 1849, when Martin Adsit was engaged in mercantile pursuits, he 
began in a small way to do a banking business in the rear of his store. 
This was the first attempt in this direction and met with such approval 
in business circles that it rapidly grew into importance. Mr. Adsit con- 
tinued this branch until 1863 and then organized the First National 
Bank. In the meantime Samuel Hallett opened a private bank in the 
village, which in March, 1856, developed into the Bank of Hornellsville, 
an incorporated concern with $100,000 capital, and authorized to issue 
currency. This bank did business several years, under the management 
of Mr. Hallett and Frank McDowell, and finally went into liquidation. 

The First National Bank of Hornellsville was organized in November, 
1863, by Martin Adsit, Ira Davenport, and others, with a capital of 
$50,000, authorized to issue $200,000 of stock. Business began May 
I, 1864, at the corner of Main, and Canisteo streets, and was subse- 
quently moved to the present building on Main street. The first offi- 
cers were Ira Davenport, president, and Martin Adsit, cashier. After 
two years Mr. Adsit succeeded to the presidency, and Charles Adsit was 
elected cashier. These respective offices they have continued to fill. 
The present capital of the bank is $100,000; surplus, $20,000. The 
officers are Martin Adsit and Charles Adsit, president and cashier, and 
Ira Davenport, vice-president; also Martin Adsit, Ira Davenport, E. J. 
Adsit, S. G. Adsit, Charles Adsit and F. A. Bull, directors. 

After the afifairs of the old Bank of Hornellsville were wound up, the 
firm of N. M. Crane & Co. began banking in the same building, and 
continued through a long period of years. Nirom Crane was the active 
man of the concern, and S. H. Crane was for a time its cashier. The 
firm failed July 31, 1893. 

The present Bank of Hornellsville was organized and opened its doors 
for business on February i, 1875. Its capital is $50,000; surplus, 
$20,000. The officers are F. G. Babcock, president; W. E. Pittenger, 
cashier ; C. C. Babcock, assistant cashier ; F. G. Babcock, C. C. Bab- 
cock and Mrs. Elizabeth Babcock, directors. This institution is organ- 
ized under the laws of this State. 



296 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

The Citizens' National Bank was organized and began business in 
1881, with a capital of $125,000, which, however, was subsequently 
reduced- to $100,000. The first president was John Santee, followed by 
Charles Hartshorn, and the latter succeeded (October 17, 1887) by 
Charles Cadogan. The surplus and undivided profits of the Citizens' 
Bank aggregate $25,000. The present officers are Charles Cadogan, 
president ; J. E. B. Santee, cashier ; Charles Cadogan, George N. Or- 
cutt, C. H. Hartshorn, John M. Finch, J. B. Woodbury, D. K. 
Belknap, C. F. Strack, F. D. Sherwood, George D. Terry and J. E. B. 
Santee, directors. 

Tradition (we have no positive record) informs us that Judge Hornell 
was the first postmaster at this place ; that the office was established 
soon after the opening of the old stage road in 1809, and that the name 
of the office previous to 1823 was Canisteo. In the year mentioned 
it was changed to Hornellsville. So near as local authorities can 
determine the postmasters in succession have been as follows : 
George Hornell, Ira Davenport Dr. Manning Kelly, John R. Morris, 
John K. Hale, Maj. Thomas J. Reynolds, Martin Adsit, Andy L Smith, 
Dr. Luman A. Ward, E. G. Durfey, J. W. Shelly, S. M. Thacher, Fran- 
cisco M. Cronkrite, William H. Greenhow, George L. Tubbs and Will- 
iam H. Murray. 

The Hornell Library, in which every patriotic person in the city feels 
a just pride, was the outgrowth of a series of lecture courses inaugur- 
ated for public edification and entertainment about the year 1866. 
The profits of a third course were saved and the young men having the 
matter in charge determined to establish a library in the village. These 
managers became also managers of the library association formed in 
1868, and were Miles W. Hawley, I. W. Near, Dr. E. J. Johnson, 
Stephen F. Gilbert, S. M. Thacher, N. P. T. Finch, J. W. Shelley ; 
Charles Adsit, president ; John M. Finch, vice-president, and N. M. 
Crane, treasurer. Horace Bemis secured the passage of an act author- 
izing the trustees to have the excise moneys of the village, amounting 
to about $1,500. This sum, however, was afterward reduced to 
$500. The association now receives annually about $1,500. On 
March 3, 1888, the Jewett Club building on Canisteo street was 
purchased at a cost of $8,000. The library now contains 10,000 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 297 

volumes. The free circulation system was adopted in 1889. The 
present officers are De M. Page, president ; Dr. C. S. Parkhill, vice- 
president ; James M. Welsh, secretary and treasurer. Managers, 
J. W, Burnham, Cass Richardson, C. W, Etz, E. D. L. Robertson, 
William H. Van Dusen, J. E. B. Santee, Dr. C. G. Hubbard, R. M. 
Tuttle. Librarian, Miss Isabella A. Charles, assisted by Miss Mary A. 
Windsor. 

The Steuben Sanitarium Association, although not a public institu- 
tion of the city, is nevertheless noteworthy as one of the factors in 
municipal and individual welfare. The building, situate in the north 
part of the city, is located on a commanding elevation, and is provided 
with every essential requisite to health and comfort. In November, 
1894, the Sanitarium passed under the care of Dr. J. E. Walker, as 
superintendent. Soon after he with others purchased the establishment, 
and have made it one of the most successful medical and surgical insti- 
tutions in the country. It has among its consulting staff some of the 
highest talent in Western New York. The most complicated medical 
and surgical cases are ^iven all the advantages known to science. 

The Forty-seventh Separate Company, N. G. S. N. Y., was organized 
September 30, 1891. The first officers were Avery McDougall, cap- 
tain ; T. G. Babcock, jr., first lieutenant, and Wm. S. Charles, second 
lieutenant. The company numbers seventy-five men, well uniformed 
and equipped and thoroughly drilled. In April, 1893, the State appro- 
priated $32,000 for the erection of an armory in the city, and added 
$12,000 a year later. The county also contributed $12,000 to the 
building. The armory, one of the largest and most attractive public 
buildings in the county, was begun October 19, 1894, and was com- 
pleted during the summer of 1895. 

The Hornellsville Co-operative Loan and Savings Association was 
incorporated and organized in 1888, and is under the supervision of the 
State banking department. As a purely local concern it is worthy of 
notice, and as an investment is far preferable to many of the outside 
companies which promise greater returns. 

The Hornellsville Water Company is a local improvement concern, 
though owned by foreign capital. The water system of the city 
38 



298 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

is exceptionally good, the supply abundant, and results satisfactory. 
The works were constructed in 1882, water being taken from springs 
(through a large reservoir) in the town of Fremont, six miles from the 
city, and elevated at least 250 feet above city base level. 

The Hornell Gas Company have about six miles of street mains in 
the city. Its capital stock is $40,000 The officers are Mrs. Jane A. 
McDougall, president; John McDougall, secretary, and F. G. Babcock, 
jr., treasurer. 

The American Illuminating Company was organized in 1886; capi- 
tal, $78,000. Officers: J. M. Finch, president; J. E. B. Santee, treas- 
urer ; L. T. Mason, secretary and manager. 

The manufacturing and mercantile interests of this city are measur- 
ably proportionate to its population and other adjuncts of the munici- 
pality. The statement has frequently been made that in manufactures 
Hornellsville is somewhat behind other similar cities, yet in the light of 
years of travel and observation, the writer is incliried to the belief that 
this city compares favorably with others of its population throughout 
the region, and, coupled with the vast railroad interests found here, ever 
in operation, stands in advance of many in the southern tier Among 
the important industries of the day may be mentioned the McConnell 
Company, whose extensive wood working establishment employs 200 
workmen. This was the outgrowth of an older business started many 
years ago by Morris Smith, and purchased by Asa McConnell and Ben- 
ton McConnell in 1868. After several changes in proprietorship the 
company was incorporated, and now, under the name above noted is 
the largest manufacturing enterprise of the city and one of the largest 
and best of its kind in the country. Benton McConnell is president ; 
Floyd T. McConnell, general manager ; Claude Hallett, secretary, and 
Claude Jones, treasurer. 

J. M. Deutsch & Co. are manufacturers of furniture, and in connec- 
tion with their works is also the Woodward Fence Wire Co., which to- 
gether form an e.xtensive plant and furnish employment to forty or fifty 
men. Mr. Deutsch began business here in 1866 as one of the firm of 
Deutsch & Tschachtli, and in 1871 occupied the Barclay factory build- 
ing of still older date. 

The O'Connor tannery was established in 1865 by William O'Connor, 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 299 

and since that time has been in successsul operation, and now employs 
about fifty men. The firm now consists of Mr. O'Connor and his son, 
George W. O'Connor. 

The well known Thacher Mills on Main street occupy the site where 
Judge Hornell started his primitive mill previous to 1800. The present 
mill was built by the late Judge Thacher and is now owned by J. T. O. 
Thacher, though leased by G. W. Morris. 

William Richardson's large boot and shoe factory is also one of the 
old industries of the place and was established in 1871. Here nearly 
175 employees are furnished with work. 

The Hollow Cable Manufacturing Co. began operations in 1873, and 
from that to the present time have been recognized as one of the leading 
business houses of the city. The company was organized in 1888 
with Othaniel Preston, sr., as president, Henry C. Preston, treasurer, 
and Othaniel Preston, jr., secretary. Since the death of O. Preston, sr., 
(March 27, 1893) the business has been conducted by the sons men- 
tioned. They employ about twenty-five men. 

The St. Julian Gear Co. was established in 1880, by Charles O. Rose 
for the manufacture of wagons and carriages. Here about thirty men 
are employed. 

A. T. Prindle & Son is a firm of tanners and the outgrowth of a 
business founded in this city in 1 861 by A. T. & M. Prindle. The 
present firm employs about thirty men. 

In the same connection we may also note the Underwear Manufac- 
turing Co., commonly known as the White Goods factory, at'the corner 
of Canisteo and Loder streets, which was established July i, 1888. At 
full capacity this factory employs one hundred hands, chiefly women 
and girls. The members of the firm are F. D. Sherwood, George D. 
Terry and W. F. Sherwood. The firm succeeded the company in 1891. 

The Rockland Silk Mills were started in 1887 by Edwin S. Brown 
who came to Hornellsville from Paterson, N. J. The present factory 
was built in 1894. Here are employed in all departments no persons, 
two-thirds of whom are young women. The product of these mills is 
" organzine " and " tram," or warp and filhng. 

In 1889 John O. Adsit established in the city a large general machine 
shop and foundry. This he conducted till about January i, 1895, when 



300 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

Daniel H. Rogers succeeded. Here are employed about twenty work- 
men. 

The Truss and Cable Fence Wire Co. was established in 1889, for 
the manufacture of fence wire, the patent of Dr. Lee Rishel. In the 
works are now employed about twelve men. The present proprietors 
are Charles O. Rose and George P. Rishel. 

The Merrill Fabric Glove Company, for the manufacture of silk gloves 
and mitts, was established during the winter of 1890-91, and is among 
the leading industries of the city. Employment is furnished here for 
about one hundred men. 

The Preston Brick Company was organized in 1890 by Othaniel Pres- 
ton and his sons for the manufacture of brick from the shale rock found 
in this vicinity. This firm furnishes employment to twenty-five men. 

It is estimated that the city of Hornellsville has a total of about 250 
merchants and persons otherwise interested in such mercantile pursuits 
as are incident to every well ordered municipality ; and while every 
branch of trade is well represented, neither public or private interests 
appear to have suffered through over-competition. In mercantile cir- 
cles the business men of this city are honorably regarded. Statistics 
prove that at least ninety per cent, of merchants fail at some time during 
their busines career, and while such disasters are not unknown in Horn- 
ellsville, it may be said that the general average of failures have not 
been increased by the experiences of local merchants. 

The city possesses the necessary elements of prosperity in almost 
every direction. It has a fine opera house, and several large halls for 
public assemblages. In the matter of hotels, too, the city is fortunate, 
having at least three public houses that are regarded as first class. 
These are the Osborne House, named for its original founder, though 
burned and rebuilt in 1874. It was the property of W. C. Brainerd, of 
Buffalo. The Page House, owned by Esek Page and sons, was built? 
about 1 87 1 or '72, on the site of the still older Hornellsville Hotel. 
The name Page House was adopted in 1887. The Sherwood House 
was formerly the Schu House, though now greatly enlarged and im- 
proved. It is owned by F. D. Sherwood and George N. Orcutt. 

The street railroad system of the city is worthy of special mention. 
The now known Hornellsville Electric Railroad was begun in May, 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 301 

1892, and the city branch was in operation on August 5th following, 
with five motor cars. The Canisteo division was begun on October 
23, 1892, and finished on December 30th thereafter. The equipment 
now consists of eight motors andfive trailers. Power is furnished by the 
American Illuminating Company. The railroad company employs 
twenty- five men. 

Evening Star Lodge, No. 44, F. & A. M., was chartered June 11, 

1816, although the history of the Masonic fraternity in this city ante- 
dates that time. Informal meetings were held and as early as January, 
1 8 14, and there may have been some work done here under dispensa- 
tion. So near as can be ascertained the first officers were Andrew 
Simpson, W. M.; Timothy Peltry, S. W., and John Stephens, J. W. 
Among the other early members were James Jones, Nathaniel Thacher 
and William Mulhollen, while visiting brethren were Andrew Morris, 
Uriah Stephens, William Hyde, Samuel O. Thacher, Elias Perry, Sam- 
uel Lenox and Samuel Darby. The lodge, it appears, was originally 
an institution of Canisteo proper, and first came to Upper Canisteo in 

1 8 17. Notwithstanding its vicissitudes, which have also been a part of 
the record of all pioneer Masonic societies, this lodge has been an endur- 
ing institution, its aggregate enrollment numbering several .hundred 
members. The present number is about 125. The past masters have been 
H. E. Buvinger, W. L. Collins, G. H. Dore, W. W. Howell, J Mounce, 
W. H. Sims, A. M. Lewis, C. E. Evans, jr., H. D. Leach, John Mc- 
Dougall. Present officers, H. T., Harris, W. M., I. S. Lanning, S. W., 
W. U. Rixford, J. W., H. H. Carney, treasurer, W. H. Sims, secretary, 
O. S. Palmer, chaplain, Joseph Mounce, S. D., Gee Becker, J. D., M. 
Hill, S. M. C, G. B. Daley, J. M. C, F. Donahue, tiler. 

Hornellsville Lodge, No. 331, F. and A. M., was chartered June 24, 
1854, and throughout the period of its history has enjoyed a constant 
and healthful growth. It has now nearly 225 members. The past 
masters have been E. G. Gilbert, H. P. Johnson, Robert Laughlin, J. I. 
Bentley, P. C. Hufstader, L. S. Boardman, George W. Griswold, S. Os- 
soski, P. M. Nast, jr., Don L. Sharp, F. A. Jones, William S. Charles, 
Avery McDougall. The officers for 1895 are: Joseph Schaul, W. M.; 
Samuel Erlich, S. W.; O. E. Elwell. J. W.; S. Ossoski, Treasurer; Don 
L. Sharp, Secretary; L. W. Rockwell, S. D.; William H. Prangen, 



302 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

J. W.; O. W. Pratt, S. M. C; G. I. Blackmer, J. I. C; W. E. Waldorf, 
Organist ; F. Donahue, Tiler. 

Steuben Chapter, No. loi, R. A. M., was chartered February 23, 
1825, and has since had an active organization in the city. Its members 
now number 141 Masons. The past high priests are : Morrison 
Harding, H. E. Buvinger, H. P. Johnson, G. W. Griswold, L. S. Board- 
man, H. O. Fay, D. L. Sharp, P. C. Hufstader, P. M. Nast, jr., S. Os- 
soski, W. H. Sims, F. A. Jones and S. Lang. The present officers are : 
W. H. Prangen, H. P.; C. E. Evans, jr., K ; John McDougall, S.; John 
I. Bentley, Treasurer; O. W. Pratt, Secretary; W. H. Van Dusen, 
Chaplain. 

Hornellsville Council, No. 35, R. and S. M., was chartered February 
I, 1870. The present membership is 72. The officers are W. H. Sims, 
T. 111. M.; O. E. EUwell, Dep. T. 111. M.; I. S. Lanning. P. C. ofWork ; 
W. E Waldorf, Recorder; W. H. Prangen, Treasurer; J. S. Norton, 
Captain of Guard ; J. I. Bentley, Con. of Council ; W. H. Van Dusen, 
Chaplain. 

De Molay Commandery, No. 22, K. T., is another of the higher 
Masonic organizations of the city, and in membership is one of the 
strongest, the number now being 150. The past eminent commanders 
have been H. E. Buvinger, A. H. Bunnell, W. L. Collins, H D. Leach, 
G. W. Griswold, W. H. Prangen, J. I. Bentley, S. F. Smith, F. H. 
Robinson, George T. Rehn, Louis S. Boardman. The present officers 
are : F. A. Jones, E. C; W. H. Sims, GenTo ; Avery McDougall, 
Capt. Gen.; J. I. Bentley, Ex-Prelate; G. A. Waldorf, Treasurer; W. 
E. Waldorf, Recorder ; F. A. Jones, Trustee. 

The other Masonic organizations having an abiding place in the city 
are Hornell Consistory, No. 40, S. P. R. S., 32°, attached to which are 
Rose Croix Chapter, 17-18°; the Council of Princes of Jerusalem, 
15-16°, and Lodge of Perfection, 4-14°. The Masonic Hall Associa- 
tion was incorporated in 1869, and is designed to care for the property 
and interests of the order in general in the city. 

Odd Fellowship in the city is well represented in four substantial 
organizations, being Oasis Lodge, No. 251, Steuben County Lodge, 
No, 331, Canacadea Encampment, No. 117, I. O. O. F., and Canton 
Loyal, No. 153, P. M. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 303 

The principal officers of Oasis Lodge are : W. J. Hallett, N. G.; 
Alfred Webb, V. G.; W. W. White, permanent secretary. This lodge 
has 1 50 member. 

Steuben County Lodge has a membership of 190, and is officered as 
follows : N. G., R. H. Foster ; V. G., A. L. Shannon ; recording sec- 
retary, A. L. Harrison ; permanent secretary, W. A. Tracy ; treasurer, 
F J. Hutchinson. 

Canacadea Encampment has about eighty members, and is governed 
by these officers : C P., F J. Abbott ; H. P., A. M. Webb ; S. W., A. 
Seal; J. W., G. F. Avery; scribe, R. H. Foster; permanent scribe, 
H. S. Pettibone ; treasurer, G. G. Wafer. 

Canton Loyal, P. M. No. 43, has thirty- five members. Its present 
officers are: Captain, W. H. Owm ; lieutenant, G. G. Walzer; en- 
sign, W. F. Simms ; clerk, R. H. Foster; accountant, J. M. Peterson. 



CHAPTER XVHL 

CITIESi VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 

The Village of Addison. — In the south part of the town of 
Addison, at the confluence of Tuscarora Creek with the Canisteo, is an 
enterprising and constantly growing incorporated village of about 2,200 
population, named after the town in which it is located. It has been 
said that Addison stands in much the same relation to Corning as Can- 
isteo bears to Hornellsville. In truth there may be some force in this 
remark, for Canisteo and Addison have long been regarded as sister 
villages, settled originally by the same sturdy stock, and whose de- 
scendants appear to have been imbued with similar traits and like 
worthy purposes. Both villages have the advantages of the Erie Rail- 
road ; both have the Canisteo River, and while the western village has 
Bennett's Creek, Addison has the Tuscarora. Still, beyond the fact 
that every friendliness exists between the inbabitants of these villages, 
there is nothing in common between them. 

William B. Jones was one of the pioneers of the town, also of the vil- _ 



304 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

lage, and kept one of the early hotels north of the river, on the 
" Pumpelly Lot," as commonly known. Solomon Curtis laid out a part 
of the village lots on this side, and William Wombaugh was another 
conspicuous factor in early history, though his lands lay south of the 
river. The latter was a man of means as well as enterprise. He built 
saw and grist mills, a log distillery, carding machine, and otherwise con- 
tributed largely to early village history. Yet, for several years the few 
mills and many public houses were about the only visible evidences of 
village settlement. However, Addison was a hamlet of much impor- 
tance in the region, and so great was the volume of business that a post- 
office was established here as early as 1804. Lumbering was for many 
years the leading industry, hence here was the rendezvous for buyers 
and dealers, while raftsmen were counted by hundreds. There were 
John Loop, Shumway & Glover, Wilcox, Birdsall & Wetherby, all lum- 
bermen and merchants, and all in active business as early as 1830. Later 
on came John and Peter P. Loop, Caleb Wetherby and Reed A. Will- 
iams, who were partners in business and large operators. These were 
followed by Thompson & French, who built a store at the corner of Wall 
and Railroad streets. This firm sold out to William R. Smith and Eli 
Fitch, Later business men and merchants were Ransom Rathbone, 
S L. and Joel D. Gillett, A. Cone, C. E. Gillett, George Wells, E. L. 
and E. R. Paine, George Graham, N. W Mallory, Thomas and Benja- 
min Phillips, Merriam & Haynes, Dr. Bradley Blakeslee, Ezra J. 
Brewer, Hiram Sleeper, and others, whose names are now lost, but all 
of whom were active figures in town and village life and by their efforts 
contributed not a little to early local prosperity. 

These men laid the foundation for the village and a later generation 
of inhabitants completed the municipal superstructure, and to day the 
joint efforts of both builders are rewarded in one of the most cosmo- 
politan villages of Steuben county ; and it is no idle or fulsome compli- 
ment to say of Addison that it is now regarded as the best village of the 
county, interest for interest and resource for resource. 

In 1854 the population and business interests of the village were so 
large and of such a character that it became necessary to partially sep- 
arate it from the town at large ; local improvements were necessary 
and the town, not being directly interested, was not willing to bear any 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 305 

part of the expense. Therefore the people of the hamlet availed them- 
selves of the general laws relating to village incorporations, and in Jan- 
uary, 1854, by an order of the Court of Sessions, Addison became a 
body politic and corporate, authorized to elect officers, inaugurate 
local improvements and levy and collect taxes to meet the expenses 
thereof. At the first election of officers the trustees chosen were 
Frederick R. Wagner, Bradley Blakeslee, Parley Guinnip, Stephen 

Lewis, White and Thomas Paxton. At the first meeting of the 

trustees Dr. Wagner was elected president, and I. V. L. Meigs, clerk. 

This limited municipal government was found sufficient for temporary 
purposes, but as the village grew in population and business importance, 
broader powers and more thorough government became necessary, and 
the result was a special act of the Legislature, passed April 12, 1873, 
granting a charter to the " Village of Addison," including within its 
boundaries specified territory, and dividing the latter into two wards. 
The Canisteo was the dividing line The first officers under the char- 
ter were J. V. Graham, president; John W. Clark, clerk; Chaun- 
cey D. Hill, treasurer ; Sanford Elmor, collector ; Daniel D. Hickey 
and E. S. Mead, trustees of First ward, and Lorin Aldrich and James 
D. Goodley, trustees of Second ward. 

In this connection it is also proper to note the names of the officers 
of the village for the year 1895, viz.: George Crane president; George 
J. Ameigh, George Wetherby, George Allison and S. M. La Grange, 
trustees ; E. E. Burdick, clerk ; George J. Truell, treasurer. 

According to the present disposition of business Addison is well 
provided with mercantile and manufacturing interests, with good 
churches, five in number, exceptionally excellent schools, two sound 
banking houses, and all other institutions which contribute to municipal 
welfare. There are also two good and representative newspapers, the 
Advertiser, a Republican paper, founded in 1858, and the Record, 
established in 1880, and the exponent of Democratic doctrines, general 
and local. 

The present fire department comprises Phoenix and Wells Hose 
Companies, and Baldwin Hook and Ladder Company, all well equipped 
with good apparatus, and liberally supported by the village and people. 

The Addison Water Works Company was establishes! in 1889, the 
39 



306 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

water supply being taken from a reservoir elevated above the village 
level. It is a private enterprise and owned by foreign capital. 

In the month of December, 1847, twelve prominent men of Addison 
formed an association for the purpose of founding and building an acad- 
emy. They purchased a four-acre tract of land north of the village, on 
which, in 1848, the building was erected. The promoters of this worthy 
enterprise were Henry Wombaugh, Rufus Baldwin, Joel D. Gillett, 
Elihu Wittenhall, Erastus Brooks, Orange Seymour, William H. Gray, 
Bradley Blakeslee, William Bradley, James Baldwin, William R Smith, 
and Arthur Erwin. The original academy was in all respects a worthy 
institution and was well supported, but the building was destroyed by 
an unfortunate fire in October, 1856. Subsequently another association 
of citizens established a private academic school, and the latter con- 
tinued in fairly successful operation until the organization of Union 
Free School District No. i, in the year 1878. The first Board of Edu- 
cation comprised Jesse K. Strode, John F. Turner, George Farnham, 
John W. Dininny, James M. Wood, John Mitchell, David Darrin, 
Henry S. Jones and William A. Smith. In connection with this school 
was an academic department, and upon a substantial and generously 
supported basis it has ever since been maintained. At the public 
expense an excellent school building was erected in 1888, and the 
Grammar School on Tuscarora street in 1889. 

The present Board of Education is comprised of William T. Moran, 
president ; Fred C. Tabor, W. O. Feenaughty, William A. Storey, Dr. 
George Crane, Daniel D. Hickey, Arthur P. Hill, H. W. Sanford, sec- 
retary, and S. V. Lattimer, treasurer. 

The financial institutions of the village are the Addison Bank and the 
Baldwin Bank. The former was established by incorporation. May 17, 
1856, with a capital of $50,000, and with William R. Smith and Charles 
H. Henderson as active owners and managers, the former president and 
the latter cashier. The corporation was dissolved about 1861, and 
fram that time the bank has been conducted as a private enterprise. 
The bank building w^s erected in 1873. The Baldwin Bank began busi- 
ness in January, 1874, under the ownership of James Baldwin and 
Charles D. Williams, which proprietors were succeeded in April, 1880, 
by Henry Baldwin and Mrs. Sarah Weatherby. This bank is now 




HENRY BALDWIN. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 307 

operated by James Baldwin, and, like its cotemporary in the village is 
a safe financial institution. 

The churches of Addison are also worthy of at least a mention in 
this chapter although a more detailed history of each will be found else- 
where in this work. Those at present existing are Protestant and 
Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Baptist and Roman Catholic, each 
holding regular services, well organized and instruments of good in the 
community. 

All branches of mercantile business appear to be well represented, 
but lack of space prevents us from an individual mention of each mer- 
chant. However, it is pardonable that the manufacturers should be 
specially noted, for Addison enjoys the pleasant notoriety of having 
several industries of importance. In this connection we may mention 
the sash, door and blind factory, lumber yard and general wood-work- 
ing establishment of Park, Winton & True ; the large foundry and ma- 
chine works of E. S. Chatfield ; the "A. & P." machine shops; John 
Schmitt's brewery ; the Owen planing mill, and the extensive roller 
flouring mill of Curtis & Paxton. F. H. Wheaton owns the electric 
light plant, furnishes light for the streets and buildings, and also operates 
the pump house. The principal hotels of the village are the "Ameri- 
can " and the "Wyckoff." 

Addison Hilt, is a small settlement in the southwest partofTus- 
carora, containing a post-office, a few dwellings, a store and a black- 
smith shop. The local storekeeper and postmaster is Fayette V. Howser ; 
the blacksmith, William Crowell. 

The Village of Arkport. — This pretty and busy little hamlet 
of about 400 population is located in the extreme northern part of the 
town of Hprnellsville, in the vicinity where Chistopher Hurlbut made 
his first settlement, and from which point the famous ark was sent down 
the Canisteo in 1800, laden with grain. Judge Hurlbut was the founder 
of the place, the builder of the first mill and hotel, and also proprie- 
tor of the ark. Although this village has never attained either popula- 
tion or business interests sufficient to justify incorporation, it is never- 
theless a place of some importance in the county, and as a shipping 
point for agricultural products it is quite noted. It is a station on the 
Buffalo division of the Erie, and also on the Central New York and 



308 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Western Railroad. Since the construction of the road last mentioned 
the business interests have materially increased. 

Arkport has two churches, Presbyterian and Methodist Protestant, 
and an excellent school. In 1894 the village, with some adjacent ter- 
ritory, was formed into a Union Free School district, superseding the 
old system formerly in operation. The members of the Board of Educa- 
tion are L. C. Healy, president, and N. O. Wheeler, Hiram Ellis, A. A. 
Sewell, Henry Colgrove, and Charles Lawrence. The school building 
is of brick and frame, substantially built, and is regarded as one of the 
best rural schools of the county. Three teachers are employed. 

The industries of Arkport comprise the large planing mill, the. feed 
and grist mill, the Stephens wagon factory. The business men are 
Taylor Brothers, general store ; Daniel Curry, store ; M. Weber, gun 
store; Willis Ellis, grocer; Hiram Ellis, hardware; Healy & Daven- 
port, produce dealers and feed mill; Colgrove & Son, produce dealers; 
William M. Hurlbut, lumber dealer ; A. M. Eiband, large planing mill ; 
Stephens' wagon factory ; James F. Deeters, harness shop ; Ira Haga- 
dorn, wagon shop; Marshall Emery, jeweler; H. L.Gillette, druggist; 
Calvin Hawkins, proprietor of Hawkins House, and J. D. Taylor, post- 
master. 

Atlanta. — Thirty- five years ago a writer of local history said: 
"Blood's, a hamlet, is a station on the railroad, one mile from North 
Cohocton. It is named from Calvin Blood. This is rendered an im- 
portant station on the railroad from its connection with the Canandai- 
gua Lake route. A daily line of stages runs to Naples, at the head of 
the lake, and a steamer plies daily between the latter place and Canan- 
daigua.." A still later writer describes Blood's Station as a thriving 
little hamlet on the railway and point of departure for the stage route 
to Naples and Canandaigua ; and further says a post- office was estab- 
lished at Blood's, April 21, 1871, through the instrumentality of Asa 
Adams, who was the first postmaster. From this we may correctly 
infer that the residents of this locality were compelled to repair to the 
north hamlet for their mail previous to 1 871, when the post-office was 
located at Blood's. However, long before this the hamlet was one of 
the recognized centers of the town, and one of importance in various 
directions. But from these elements there has grown a thriving village, 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 309 

and in the course of time, in fact at a quite recent date, the old name of 
" Blood's " or " Blood's Station," was discontinued and in its stead the 
more feuphonious designation of " Atlanta " was adopted. 

The railroad, and the diverging stage route to Naples, gave Atlanta an 
importance forty years ago, and from that time to the present there has 
been no retrograde movement, and to-day the hamlet stands prominent 
among the several villages of the town. However, a disaster came to 
local interests during the month of September, 1895, and by it several 
large buildings were burned to the ground. The principal sufferers 
from this fire were John Dunn, H. W, Hatch, L. D. Hodgman, L. R. 
Partridge, Henry Clark, and T. J. Cornish. 

The business interests of Atlanta at the present time are represented 
substantially as follows : D. C. Borden, T. J. Cornish, and J. C. Whit- 
more, grocers; J. Radish, drugs; W. E. Waite, hardware; Wheaton & 
Wells, meat market ; G. Kesler and Frank Davy, blacksmiths ; John 
Spencer and Byron Hayes, feed mills; F. Parks, clothing; John Langr 
don and John Dunn, hotel keepers. 

The Free Methodist church of the town is located in this village, and 
in the matter of schools there is an association with North Cohocton in 
a union free school and district. The school house is located between 
the villages, convenient to both. 

The Village of Avoca. — It is extremely doubtful whether pioneer 
Buchanan ever contemplated the possibility of an attractive and flour- 
ishing village near the point where he located in 1794 and opened a 
public house. Still this worthy frontiersman lived to see a post settle- 
ment where Avoca now stands, though the locality was then commonly 
known as "Buchanan's,^' also as " Eight«Mile Tree." It was the begin- 
ning made by the pioneer that led to the founding of the settlement and 
subsequent village, and the store opened by George and Alonzo Simons 
made the latter a fixed fact. Yet the Simons Brothers' stock of goods 
comprised only a small quantity, the whole amount being brought to 
the place on two pack horses. In 1818 the settlement had attained 
sufficient importance to justify a school, hence one was started at that 
time, and about nine years later the Methodists built a small meeting 
house in the hamlet. 

However, the name Avoca was not given the village until the latter 



310 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

was well founded, and was adopted, it is said, at the request of a young 
lady of the settlement, she at the time being on her death-bed. Among 
the hamlets of the valley this was for many years one of minor impor- 
tance; a convenient stopping place on the stage route, a post-office point 
of some little note, but previous to the construction and operation of 
the Buffalo, Corning and New York Railroad in 1852, Avoca enjoyed 
none of its present prominence. But even railway companies are capa- 
ble of ungenerous actions, and exorbitant freight charges sometimes 
have a tendency to delay municipal growth. Such was the case with 
Avoca for many years, but a competing line, as the D.,*L. & W. Rail- 
road proved to be, relieved the abuses of the past and gave additional 
impetus to all local enterprises. Manufactures were established, busi- 
ness interests were enlarged and increased, and even the farmer reaped 
a full share of the profits created by tjais new thoroughfare of travel and 
transportation. 

In 1883 the village was incorporated and its first officers at once made 
provision for such conveniences and protection as villages require. The 
ordinances provided for streets regularly laid out, for sidewalks, lights, 
and also the health of the inhabitants. A good supply of pure and 
wholesome water was obtained from a reservoir located about two miles 
northwest of the village, and with this assured increased fire protection 
was a natural consequence. Thus suitably provided with all the ele- 
ments of municipal convenience, and with a location in the most beau- 
tiful part of Cohocton valley, the observer is both pleased and sur- 
prised at the attractions and business thrift which seem to prevail on 
every hand. To-day Avoca has a population of about one thousand 
inhabitants, and is well supplied with business and manufacturing enter- 
prises. Of the milling interests we may note the Avoca Milling Com- 
pany, and the firm of Billings, Beals & Company, flour manufacturers, 
the saw mill of M. A. Hoadley, and the cigar factory of W. N. Clutchey. 

The mercantile interests are represented as follows : Smith & Hoad- 
ley, C. W. Marlatt, and W. R. Sutton, general merchants ; J. M. Willis, 
grocer; Robert Gay, grocer and baker; D. S. Jolly, restauranter ; W. 
H. Fultz and J. Hall, clothiers ; J. B. and M. A. Sturdevant, hardware 
dealers; J. W. Griswold and Frank Gilmore, jewelers; Baldwin & 
Mattice, furniture dealers; E. D. Hess, druggist; A. White, photog- 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 311 

rapher ; Charles Cropsey, druggist ; J. Towner and Gallup & Abbey, 
meat dealers ; B. Palmer, shoe shop ; A. L. Richards, D. Roberts, 
wagon makers; G. O.Noxon, broom maker; Milo Sharp and Henry 
Zignfuss, harnessmakers ; W. C. Loucks, L. S. Veeder and J. C. Hovey, 
hotel keepers. In the same connection may be mentioned the Avoca 
Advance, an enterprising weekly newspaper, established about 1878, 
and since March, 1888, owned and published by George C. Silsbee. 

The officers of the village for the year 1895, are as follows: J. B. 
Sturtevant, president ; Walter H. Wood, J. Hall and Oscar C. Billings, 
trustees ; William R. Sutton, treasurer ; J. H. Shaffer, collector. The 
Board of Water Commissioners comprises J. Hall, president ; Walter H. 
Wood, secretary ; Oscar C. Billings, treasurer, and J. B. Sturtevant, 
commissioner. 

The public institutions of the village comprise the graded school, also 
the Baptist, Evangelical Lutheran, and Methodist Episcopal churches. 
The history of Avoca religious societies will be found in a later chapter 
of this volume. 

Bradford Village. — This little hamlet is located in the northeast 
part of the town of the same name, and while it has never attracted any 
special attention as a business center, it is nevertheless a convenient 
trading point and sufficient for the needs of the inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding country. Frederick Bartles was the first settler in the village, 
the builder of the first mills, and proprietor of the first store. As at 
present constituted the business interests comprise three or four good 
stores, and also the hotel, mills, shops and other lesser industries inci- 
dent to rural villages. Here also are three churches and a good school. 
The churches are the Baptist, Methodist and Protestant Episcopal, each 
of which is mentioned elsewhere in this wock. 

BUENA Vista. — Buena Vista is a pleasantly situated hamlet located 
in the south part of the town of Howard, and was established as a post- 
office and trading center for the convenience of the inhabitants. Its 
business interests are few, comprising the general store of F. W. Spencer 
and the blacksmith shop of W. E. Drake. Here is located the Wesleyan 
Methodist church. 

Burns. — Burns is the name of a small hamlet and station on the line 
of the Erie and also the C. N. Y. & W. railroads, to the construction of 



312 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

which it owes its greatest importance. The merchant of this place is 
P S. Jones, who also holds the office of postmaster. 
> Cameron Village. — During the early history of the town, the vil- 
lage was the center of trade and population, and here for many years 
there assembled the worthies of the vicinity and the numerous lumber- 
men who operated in the region. In the town chapter we have re- 
ferred to the primitive industries which led to the founding of a village 
settlement, and also to its subsequent growth and final decline in im- 
portance. The first store was kept by Andrew Erwin, an Irishman, 
and Martin Rumsey was another early merchant at the Corners, as then 
known. Still later business men were Ebenezer Van Tuyl, John Cherry, 
S. M. Rogers, Herman Swift, Morgan & McKay, Peter Chase, Swarth- 
out & Pierson, and others. 

The village is built on a narrow strip of land in the Canisteo valley, 
and is surrounded by high hills. A main street runs through the ham- 
let, parallel with the river, and along this the buildings and principal 
residences are built. The present mercantile interests are the stores of 
J. D. Wheeler, Mrs. William Hallett, and F. L. Hawley. The later 
industries of this immediate vicinity are the Cameron flour, feed and 
custom mills and the Boyd saw and feed mills. The Adamson saw mill 
is located three miles north. 

Cameron Mills. — The original designation of this hamlet was 
" Hubbardville," and so named from Daniel Hubbard who came from 
Broome county half a century or more ago and built the first flour mill 
in the town. He also opened a store for the accommodation of his 
customers, and naturally a post-office was established there. This part 
of the town was in Cameron, and as the milling interests were impor- 
tant, the name of Cameron Mills was adopted. Furthermore another 
post-office by the name of " Hubbardsville" was in existence in Madi- 
son county. 

The present Cameron mills are owned and operated by J. T. Beck- 
with. The merchants here are Crawford Bros., and Watson Northrup. 
Dr. J. W. Blades has a drug store. Postmaster, James Crawford. 
The public institutions are the district school and Methodist Episcopal 
church. A Catholic chapel was built here several years ago. It is at- 
tended from Addison by Father Noonan. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS 313 

Campbell Village. — This little hamlet is located near the center 
of the town of the same name, and was brought into existence by the 
earliest settlers, who built mills on the Conhocton River. The first grist 
mill was built by Gen. John Knox and Archie Campbell in i8i2, and 
stood across the raceway from the present Bemis mill. In 1846 a com- 
bined saw and grist mill was built by Marcus Wheelock for Andrew 
Langdon. In 1855 the business interests of Campbelltown, for the vil- 
lage was once so called, comprised three saw mills, one flouring mill 
and two tanneries. At that time there were about twenty dwellings and 
one church in the hamlet proper. The present industries are the saw 
mills of John P. Clark and Floyd Fuller; the grist mill owned by the 
Bemis estate, established in i860 ; and the hay-press and hay and grain 
business carried on by R. P. Myhers, the latter established in 1885. The 
merchants of the village are Bowlby & Piatt, A. B. White, J. L. Van 
Kirk, George C. F. Sharp, John M. Clawson, George N. H. Piatt, Mrs. 
E. B. Williams, H. B. Willard, John Worden (barber), John Eggabroat, 
postmaster, Emmet B. Ross. The Bank of Campbell began business 
in July, 1877, with George R. Sutherland, president, and W. S. Clark, 
cashier. 

The Village of Canisteo. — In the general division of the lands 
of township 3, range 5, Col. Arthur Erwin drew lot number one, but 
soon afterward exchanged lots with Solomon Bennett, the latter being 
the first settler at the place afterward called Bennettsville. Lot No. i 
covered substantially the present village site, but previous to the white 
occupancy here stood the Delaware Indian town which had been dig- 
nified by some writers with the name of "Kanestio Castle." This an- 
cient village is said to have contained about sixty hewed log houses, 
with stone chimneys in each, and to have been the home or seat of 
operations of a noted "Delawaife King," known as At-weet-se-ra. The 
place was destroyed in 1765 by direction of Sir William Johnson. 

The honor of having been the pioneer on the village site may be ac- 
corded to Colonel Erwin or Solomon Bennett, probably the latter, as he 
opened the first store and kept the first hotel. The first blacksmith was 
Nicholas Doughty, a well educated German and worthy citizen. How- 
ever early may have been the founding of the village, it did not attain 
a standing of any importance among the municipalities of the county 
40 



314 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

previous to the year 1850, at which time the Erie Railroad was put in 
operation. This gave impulse to the growth of the place, but not until 
the year 1868 did it become a manufacturing center, when Lawrence 
Allison built the large boot and shoe factory, furnishing employment to 
nearly one hundred persons. This was followed by another similar fac- 
tory, a planing mill, sash, door and blind factory, bent wood works and 
a chair factory; and within the next five years the manufactured pro- 
duct was worth $1,000,000 a year. In 1868 the village proper had but 
350 inhabitants; ten years later the population reached 2,000. 

The Canisteo Academy was one of the most praiseworthy institutions 
ever founded in the village, and one which has endured and enjoyed a 
successful existence to the present day. It was built by popular sub- 
scription to the capital stock, at an entire cost of $17,500. The insti- 
tution was chartered March 15, 1868, and its first Board of Trustees 
who were also in fact its founders, were Lewis F. Laine, Henry Hamil- 
ton, Commodore P. Chamberlain, Nathaniel C. Taylor, George Riddell, 
John H. Consalus, Joshua C. Stephens, Edward P. Bartlett, Mortimer 
Allison, Lucius A. Waldo, John Davis and Richard Allison. The build- 
ing is of brick, three stories high and beautifully situated on an eminence 
overlooking the village. It was finished and opened in September, 
187 1. The present attendance at the academy averages about 125 
pupils annually, the patronage being drawn from the county at large 
and even beyond its borders. 

The present trustees and officers are : Lucius A. Waldo, president ; 
F. H. Robinson, vice-president; W. E.Stephens, secretary; George L. 
Davis, treasurer, and Herman E. Buck, Oran Lathrop, A. N Burrell, 
N. S. Baker, William H. Ordway, William G. Porter, Charles Mead, 
William P. Bailey, D. O. Laine, S. P. Marsh, Ira W. Hall, Enos Smith, 
Mortimer Allison and J. E. Shaut. The academy has an endowment 
fund of $2,000. 

As years passed and the population and business interests of the 
village increased, there was created a demand for improvements and 
expenditures in which the town at large were but little interested, and 
for which the outside taxpayers were not disposed to contribute. To 
provide the necessary revenues the village residents determined to pro- 
cure an order of incorporation under the laws of the State, therefore. 



CITIES, VILLAQES AND HAMLETS. 31f> 

in 1873, the Court of Sessions made an order incorporating the Village 
of Canisteo. Thus our interesting little place threw off the hamlet and 
adopted the municipal character. 

The first village election was held May 16, 1873, at which time these 
officers ,were chosen : Lucius A. Waldo, president ; Mortimer Allison, 
L. P. Weed, Smith Eason, trustees ; Daniel Upton, collector ; William 
H. Mead, treasurer. William E. Stephens was the first clerk ; Hiram 
J. Colgrove, police constable ; Hiram C. Whitwood, street commis- 
sioner. One of the first duties of the trustees was to provide sidewalks 
through the principal streets, which being done, a system of lighting 
was adopted and a fire department organized, the latter the nucleus of 
the present efficient body. The present department comprises Canisteo 
Hook and Ladder Co., No. i, Waldo Hose Co., No. i, Drake Hose 
Co., No. 2, Weed Hose Co, No. 3, and a company of fireprotectives. How- 
ever, the steamer seems to have lost its usefulness since the construction 
of the water supply system, hence its company disbanded, and the 
"Truck" was purchased in its stead. The steamer, a good La France 
engine, is held in reserve for any emergency. The fire department 
building was erected in 1880. 

The Canisteo Water Works system and company is another of the 
worthy institutions of the village, and another evidence of local thrift 
and progressiveness. The works were constructed in 1887, at a cost of 
about $45, 000 Water is obtained from a reservoir on one of the hills 
outside the corporation limits, while the source of supply is a series of 
springs in the vicinity of the reservoir. The company has laid seven 
miles of mains through the streets of the village and have 219 taps and 
fifty-one fire hydrants The officers of the company are: O. O. Lane, 
president ; De M. Page, secretary, and W. G. Porter, secretary. 

The Canisteo Electric Light and Gas Company, and the Fuel Gas 
Company, are also worthy of mention among the local improvement 
companies of the village, and though not yet fully developed, are prom- 
ising of good results in the future and will undoubtedly add materially 
to the business importance of Canisteo. 

The Union Free School of Canisteo enjoys the reputation of being 
one of the best and most thorough institutions of its kind in this part 
of the county. Many years ago the old district system was aban- 



316 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COTJNTT 

doned and in its stead the people voted for a Union Free School, 
with an academic department. Tne present Board of Education com- 
prises H. S. Beebe, Elijah Hallett, W. B. Taylor, A. H. Burrell, William 
D. Carter, Harrison Crane and I. E. Lyon. 

With these and other kindred institutions added to the ordinary local 
interests, it will be seen that Canisteo is a village of importance among 
the municipalities of the county. However, still further advances are 
expected in the near future, for on the roadbed of the old Canisteo and 
Whitesville Railroad Company there is promised to be built a line of 
railway from the village up Bennett's Creek to Oswayo, via Rexville 
and Whitesville. For this enterprise the people of Canisteo have pledged 
the sum of $20,000. 

As at present constituted Canisteo enjoys the reputation of beingone 
of the most pleasantly situated and best governed villages in the county. 
As a manufacturing center it has considerable importance and all mer- 
cantile interests are well represented. It is a temperance village in 
which there are no saloons. The principal manufacturing industries are 
the large tannery of Richardson, Crary & Co., formerly Richardson 
& Shaut, built in 1880; the tannery of Charles Flohr's Sons, established 
in 1875 by Charles Flohr. Flohr's custom and merchant mills were 
started about the same time but are now discontinued. The Canisteo 
Sash and Door Works is a large concern employing about one hundred 
men, and were originally known as the Vorhis Planing Mills, established 
in 1868. The present company is comprised largely of non-resident 
capitalists. W. D. Carter, successor to H. Carter & Sons, is proprietor 
of an extensive foundry and machine ^op. This industry was founded 
in 1873. 

The Canisteo Shoe Co. abandoned the village in May, 1895, thus 
taking from our little municipality one of its most important industries. 
L. Allison & Co. began the manufacture of boots and shoes in the vil- 
lage about fifteen years ago, the firm being succeeded in 1884 by the 
Allison Boot and Shoe Co. The Levi S. Davis shoe factory was one of 
the important local industries and was originally established by Isaac 
Allison. The Weed Saw and Stave mill was established by L. P. Weed 
in 1854. The Canisteo Spoke Works were started by Stephens Bros, 
about 1882. John Carroll, the present proprietor, succeeded -to the 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 317 

business in 1886. Among the other local industries may be mentioned 
the Hub and Spoke Works of Thomas Slosson; the wagon factory of 
Alfred Slosson ; the pearl button factory of D. A. Tucker & Son; the 
chair factory of Taylor Bros., and the planing mill of Shell I. Wilkins. 

The village has half a dozen hotels, prominent among which are the 
Canisteo House, the Commercial House and the Riverside House. The 
general merchants are E. Clarkson & Bro. and Felix D. Clossey. The 
dry- goods merchants are William Riddell, C. E. Smith and G. J. San- 
ders. The grocers are George Walker & Co., T. K. Brownell, James 
Roblie, L. Davison, L. P. Rice, Charles Mead, Ralph Dunham and 
Mrs. Baker. The druggists are J. W. Mitchell, E. L. Hess and George 
P. Reed & Co. Furniture dealers, Stephens & Hitchcock, and E, A. 
Carter & Son. Hardware dealers, O. O. Laine, W. P. Goff, and 
Burrell & Carroll. Jewellers, E. H. Miner & Co., Bate McKean, and 
William Dudley. Bakers, T. N. Wallace, Miner Merwin and Frank 
Hallett. Tinsmiths, F. J. Kearns and Wells Trowbridge. Boot and 
shoe dealers, H. E. Buck, John A. Wirt and T. K. Brownell. Meat 
markets, John Bailey and J. Bert Williams. 

The Bank of Canisteo was established in 1876, and did business in the 
building at the corner of Main and Depot streets. The officers were 
Mortimer Allison, president; Lawrence Allison, vice-president, and 
and W. \V. Ball, cashier. However, in 1883, the banking interests in 
the village suffered seriously through financial disaster, although the 
affairs of the bank were not wound up until the next year. The present 
substantial banking house of Porter & Davis, the members of which are 
William E. Porter and George L. Davis, began business in the early 
part of 1884. 

Among the fraternal and social organizations of the village may be 
mentioned Morning Star Lodge, No. 65, F. & A. M., which was char- 
tered about 1840, although it was the outgrowth of old Evening Star 
Lodge, the latter being established in this village as early as i8i4or '15. 
In this connection also, we may mention the Men's Association, a relig- 
ious organization, entirely informal in its character, yet one of the most 
deserving and praiseworthy institutions in the village. 

The officers of the village for the year 1895 are as follows : Herman 
E. Buck, president, and O. O. Lainc, L Edward Lyon, A. H. Bunell 



318 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

and William E, Flohr, trustees ; John Jackson, clerk ; George L. Davis, 
treasurer; Seymour B. King, collector. Population in 1890,2,071. 

Caton Village. — This pretty httle hamlet is attractively" set 
among the hills, near the center of the town, where hardly more than 
half a century ago was a dense growth of mixed hardwood timber. 
The first store was opened here in 1849 by W. D. Gilbert, while near 
the four corners was still earlier established the post- office called Worm- 
ley, Samuel Wormley, postmaster, and also tavern keeper. As a vil- 
lage Caton has little importance, yet for the convenience of the in- 
habitants of the vicinity a mill and one or two stores have been main- 
tained here for many years. The present merchants are C. B. Snyder 
and .A.. J. Whitney, the latter also being owner of the mill. The Caton 
Mill was built by Whitney & Deyo in 1880. The local postmaster is 
Osceola Gilbert. 

The Village of Cohocton. — On the 4th day of July, 1813, at a 
general celebration participated in by the inhabitants of the town of 
Cohocton, at their established trading center, a large liberty pole was 
raised, and from this event the settlement was named Liberty. This name 
was continued through all generations and years of progress and de- 
velopment until July, 1891, when an order of incorporation was pro- 
cured, by which 941.20 acres of land were declared to be a body cor- 
porate and politic and to be known by the name of the " Village of 
Cohocton." Having attained this dignified character the old name of 
" Liberty " was dropped. However, the new designation, Cohocton, 
has been the established post-office name from a time far back in local 
history. At the election at which the voters decided upon the question 
of incorporation, 141 votes were in favor of such action and eighty-nine 
against the proposition. 

Liberty, or Cohocton, has witnessed many changes during the period 
of its existence, from the time when Jonas and James Cleland came 
into the region and made their first improvement, but the real fact or 
event which led to the founding of the settlement is not disclosed by 
published record, and tradition (the historian's final resort) furnishes 
nothing definite upon the subject. However, it is believed that the 
necessity of a convenient trading center in the town led to the hamlet, 
and subsequent lumbering, milling and accompanying mercantile inter- 




ALBERTUS LARROWE. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 319 

ests, in fact established its permanency. Here, previous to the construc- 
tion of the railroad, was a central lumber point and the railway com- 
pany found profit in building a station at the place. One industry led 
to another and in the course of a few years a hamlet of importance had 
been built up. Forty years ago the place had half a dozen good gen- 
eral stores, three public houses, a good school, and several church 
societies. In 1859 William W. Warner established the Cohocton Jour- 
nal, through which paper the town and its advantages were widely ad- 
vertised throughout the county. Between 1840 and i860 the village 
enjoyed an excellent reputation as a lumbering and farming locality, 
hence subsequent growth was natural. In 1875 business interests were 
increased at least threefold beyond those of a quarter of a century be- 
fore, and at the present day they are greater than at any time in vil- 
lage or hamlet history. 

Let us note briefly the principal institutions and interests of Cohoc- 
ton, and otherwise obtain a fair pen view of this enterprising municipal- 
ity. There are six churches, viz.: St. Peter's Roman Catholic, St. Paul's 
Lutheran, Zion Lutheran, Universalist, Presbyterian, and Methodist 
Episcopal. The village has an excellent graded Union Free School, 
the affairs of which are under the direction of a Board of Education, 
comprised as follows: P. J. Rocker, president; C. W. Stanton, secre- 
tary ; and J. L. Goff, Asa McDonnell, A. H. Wilcox, James Fox and 
W. E. Adair. 

The water supply was secured and system completed in the fall of 
1893. This department is controlled by three commissioners, Charles 
Oliver, Merritt Dusenbury and A. Weld The officers of the village 
are W. E. Adair, president ; I. L. Goff clerk ; J.- L Bartheline, T. B. 
Fowler, Webster Edmunds, trustees ; E. B. Slayton, treasurer ; P. A. 
Seeley, collector. The trustees are the village assessors. 

Noting briefly the village interests of the village, we may mention the 
A. Larrowe Milling Company, and the Model Roller Flour Mill, both 
large and successful industries. Wilcox & Son are coal dealers, also 
proprietors of a saw mill. The local druggists are Hiram Wygant and 
Hill & Vorhees ; the dry gpods houses are those of F. R. Harris, Shults 
& Shiefen, and Foults Bros.; the grocers are W. J. Becker, E. L. Jenks, 
Henry Michael, A. Dewey, and J. L. Bottleman ; the hardware dealers, 



320 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

George W. Peck & Co., and M. Kimmel & Son ; boot and shoe dealers, 
R. J. Rocker (also clothier), Fults Bros, (also clothing), and Henry- 
Snyder ; jeweler, James M. Reynolds ; baker, Henry Smith ; furniture 
and undertaking, T. S. Crosby & Son ; produce dealer, Charles Keefer ; 
coal dealer, George E. Wagner ; music dealer, W. E. Adair ; cigar 
manufacturers, Frank Crew, J. S. Schubmehl & Co., and Frank B. 
Folts ; bottling works, Fred Lamb ; photographers, Messrs. Hoffman 
and Chubbuck ; meat markets, C. Sherman, and Henry Finch. There 
are also two barber shops, six blacksmiths, one wholesale liquor store 
(Casey & Lickey), and four hotels. 

The village also has one good private bank, an institution of years 
standing and known for the careful methods of its managers, W. J. 
Shults & Co. 

There are two good newspaper publications having a seat of opera- 
tions at Cohocton — the Times, owned by S. D. Shattuck, and the Index, 
Hyatt C. Hatch, proprietor. (See Press chapter for more extended 
mention of newspapers.) 

Thus it will be seen that Cohocton, the successor of the old hamlet of 
Liberty, is in all respects a well ordered village, supplied with all the 
requisites of flourishing municipalities. On every hand are evidences 
of thrift and enterprise, while within are the substantial elements of 
success. 

Cooper's Plains. — In the north part of the present town of Erwin, 
near the Campbell line, John Williams settled about the year 1795. 
Local tradition has it that Williams was a " Hessian " soldier in Bur- 
goyne's army and was included in the surrender at Saratoga in 1777. 
When the Genesee country was opened to settlement, Williams came 
to the region and made a residence in the then town of Painted Post. 
Among the later land owners or settlers in this locality were Judge 
McBurney, Alson Pierce and the Cobbs, all as early as 1814 and 1815. 
Finally a settlement was started and a post station established, the 
post-office being, it is said, a shmgle nailed to a tree, under which let- 
ters and papers were placed. 

Judge, or as otherwise known. Dr. Cooper, came to this part of the 
town in 1828, and was in fact the founder of the hamlet. In 1841 he 
built a large residence and laid out into lots a part of his farm. Albert 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 321 

Mulligan opened a store, Col. Uri Balcom built a saw mill, and Anson 
Buck opened public house. Thus the hamlet was founded, but after 
the timber lands had been cleared business began to wane, and only as 
a station in a fertile region on the line of the Erie and D. & W. Rail- 
roads has the place any importance. 

Curtis is a small settlement on the railroad, southeast of Campbell, 
where in 1835 Col. Balcom built a saw mill. The post-office was es- 
tablished here in 1875. The present postmaster is Jerome J. Quinby, 
who also has a general store. In 1854 the firm of Howell, Curtis & 
Co. built a large tannery at this place, and for one of the partners the 
post-office and village were named. The tannery was burned in 1858, 
and rebuilt by Curtis Bros. It was burned a second time in 1869, but 
immediately restored. The concern is now owned and operated by the 
U. S. Leather Company. At the post- office called East Campbell, 
Eugene Smith has a grocery. The postmaster is Harmon Stevens. 

Dyke is a post hamlet near the center of the town of Hornby, and 
was established August i, 1889, for the convenience of the people of 
the vicinity. Here is located the " Shady Grove " district school and 
the Wesleyan Methodist church. The merchant here is Manley L. 
Baker, who is also postmaster. 

East TroupsBURG is a post-office in the east part of the town 
where is a small settlement and one or two industries. In this locality, 
also, is the East Troupsburg Baptist church. The local postmaster is 
Stephen C. Brewer. This hamlet has a store and a few other interests 
of lesser importance. 

Erwin. — In the southwest part of the town of Erwin, on the line of 
the Erie Railroad, is a small hamlet known as Erwin. The station was 
built in 1873, and about that time E. E. Townsend was appointed post- 
master. The present postmaster is James W. Thompson. 

Ferenbaugh. — This hamlet, a post office and station on the line of 
the now called Fall Brook road, was named in allusion to one of the 
prominent families of Hornby. The hamlet itself is small, its industries 
few, yet as a shipping point for farm produce it has some prominence. 
The merchants here are Ferenbaugh Bros. The postmaster is John H. 
Ferenbaugh. 

Freeman. — This little hamlet is situated near" the center of the town 

41 



322 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of Tuscarora, and includes about thirty dwellings, a church, two stores, 
a district school, recently built, a saw and feed mill, and a few shops. 
The hamlet was named for one of the old and prominent settlers of the 
locality. The present merchants are Atwood Weeks and William H. 
Whitcomb ; blacksmiths, Martin Andrews and Levi Chase ; shoemaker, 
George Mullen. Postmaster, William H. Whitcomb. 

Gang Mills. — This hamlet was a place of much importance during 
the lumbering period of town history in Erwin. A firm comprised of 
Isaac Gray and Piatt and Dana purchased, about 1832, a 4,000 acre 
tract of timber from the William Erwin estate, and built and put in 
operation a large saw mill. The locality afterward became known as 
Gang Mills, but with the devastation of the forests the importance of the 
settlement also departed. 

Gibson's Landing (Catawba P. O.). — This is a pretty Httle hamlet 
on the lake front, and, during the period of canal-boating on the lake, 
was an important shipping point. It is now a summer resort, enjoying 
an excellent standing in that respect, and still possesses a certain prom- 
inence from a commercial standpoint. The Lake Keuka Wine Cellars 
are near the hamlet. The officers of the company are George H. Keeler, 
president; R. R. Soper, vice-president; Monroe Wheeler, treasurer,* 
and Charles G. Wheeler, secretary. 

Goodhue Lake is the name of a post hamlet situated in the north- 
west corner of the town of Addison, near the small body of water of 
the same name. A post-office was established here for the convenience 
of the inhabitants of this locality, and naturally a little trading center 
has been built up. William A. Jimmerson is the merchant and post- 
master at this place. Here also is a district school. 




GEORGE GIBSON. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 323 



CHAPTER XIX. 

CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 

The Village of Greenwood. — This little hamlet of about 250 in- 
habitants is situated in the southeast part of the town of Greenwood, on 
what is known as Bennett's Creek, and distant ten miles from Canisteo. 
It contains three churches (see church history), several stores and shops, 
and a number of manufacturing industries. Mail reaches here daily, 
from Canisteo. 

The merchants of the village are Georgte M. Webster & Co., large 
general stock; N. E. Coston, general store; Woodward & Young, gen- 
eral store; Shaw & Austin, and J. M. Cheesman, hardware; and S. A. 
Scribner, harness dealer. The manufacturing interests are the machine 
shops, foundry and planing mill owned by George M. Woodward ; the 
wagon and carriage shops of T. E. Mallory ; the wood-working factory 
of Byron Rugar, and the lumber business of G. D. Woodward. 

The town at large has eleven school districts, No. 2 comprising the 
village school. This is a school of advanced standing, a Union Free 
School, with an academic department. Here are employed a principal 
and two assistants. 

The Village of Hammondsport. — In the year 1802, Gen. George 
McClure purchased several hundred acres of land in Pleasant Valley 
near Cold Spring, on which he caused to be built a saw mill, fulling 
mill, flour mill and carding machine. About the same time he also 
opened a store on the site of Hammondsport, and by all his operations 
laid the foundation for what has now become one of the most progress- 
ive villages in Steuben county. General McClure also built the first 
vessel on the lake, the Sally, a small schoner of about thirty tons burden, 
and thus was the pioneer in opening Lake Keuka to navigation. The 
schooner is said to have been built in 1803. 

However, it remained for a later comer to found the village in fact. 



324 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Capt. John Shether was the original settler on the village tract, in 1796, 
and a portion at least of his lands afterward passed to Judge Lazarus Ham- 
mond. This was in 1807, and about the same time the purchaser came 
to reside on the land. He at once saw the possibilities of a village at 
the head of the lake, hence laid out a series of lots, and also donated a 
pleasantly located tract of land for a public park or square. Still many 
years passed before the settlement assumed the proportions or character 
of a settlement, and even as late as 1825 the lands in the vicinity were 
used chiefly for farming purposes. 

In the year last mentioned, William Hastings opened a well stocked 
store, and Lemuel D. Hastings acted in the capacity of clerk. In the 
following fall Ira G. Smith, of Prattsburg, built a store and soon after- 
ward a number of business interests were established about the public 
square. In 1830 the Crooked Lake canal was begun, and finished the 
next year, and from this time Hammondsport became a place of .con- 
siderable importance in the commercial world and the future success of 
the village was assured. Among the varied industries of early and even 
later days, was that of boat building. The Keuka was put upon the 
lake in 1835, a steamboat of good capacity. Others followed in suc- 
cession, as necessity required, or as competition suggested, until at 
length historic and beautiful Lake Keuka became known for the num- 
ber and quality of her steam craft. In 1831 General McClure built a 
saw and plaster mill in the village, also a good dwelling for his own 
use. John Randel came in 1833, and built a store, and was a prom- 
inent merchant and citizen for the next quarter of a century. The 
stone mill was built in 1835-6, by Meredith Mallory, and though the 
enterprise was not successful as a business venture, the old mill build- 
ings became one of the conspicuous landmarks of the region. 

Among the early business men of Hammondsport, in addition to 
those already mentioned, we may recall the names of A. M. Adsit, 
Delos Rose, William Hastings & Co., Adsit & Co., J. W. Davis, Lemuel 
D. Hastings, and G. W, Nichols. The first school house was built in 
1827, and stood where St. James' church was afterward erected. The 
large and attractive stone school house was erected for academic pur- 
poses in 1858. J. W. McLaurey was it principal for the first six or 
more years. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 325 

One of the most desirable public improvements, and one which has 
proven of the greatest material advantage to the village, was the con- 
struction of the Bath and Hammondspbrt railroad, begun in 1872 and 
opened for traffic in 1874. By the opening of this thoroughfare of 
travel and traffic the county seat and the interior of the county were 
given direct and rapid communication with the Erie Canal and the 
New York Central railroad, while the benefit to Hammondsport inter- 
ests were greatly increased. For this short road the town of Urbana 
bonded to the extent $40,000, and the village $30,000. In fact they 
built the road or at least furnished the means with which it was con- 
structed. 

As the hamlet grew and increased in population and importance, the 
inhabitants became desirous to make improvements and establish insti- 
tutions which were not directly beneficial to the town at large, and to 
which the people of the latter were not inclined to contributed There- 
fore it was determined that a corporation should be established, and to 
this end Delos Rose, S. B. Fairchild, William Hastings, S. Watrous, 
Henry Benham and Benjamin Bennitt petitioned the court for an order 
of incorporation under the provisions of the law. The order was granted 
and Hammondsport became a body corporate aud politic on the i6th 
of June, 1856. The area of the village at that time was about 172 
acres, and within its boundaries were 530 inhabitants. At an election 
held June 29, 1856, the electors ratified the corporation measure by a 
vote of forty- seven to thirty- four. Thus it is seen in this case, as in 
nearly all other similar movements, the opponents were a strong mi- 
nority of the voting element. However, the spirit of progress and en- 
terprise prevailed and the village of Hammondsport took a place among 
the municipalities of Steuben county. 

The first election of village officers was held November 22, 1856, and 
resulted as follows : Trustees, William Hastings, John Randel, J. N. 
Crane, J. W. Davis, Clark Bell ; assessors, Orlando Shepard, Benjamin 
Bennitt; collector, Lewis Wood; treasurer, John Watrous; clerk, B. 
Frank Drew. In January, 1871, a village charter was granted Ham- 
mondsport, and our little municipality increased and broadened her 
powers and advanced her corporate character. The first meeting for 
election of officers under the charter was held March 21, 1871, and 



326 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Absalom Hadden was elected president ; George W. Nichols, Allen 
Wood and Walter L. Moore, trustees; Benjamin F. Drew, treasurer, 
and George C. Wise, collector. The first clerk of the board of trustees 
was William W. Wright ; David Rurch, police constable, and J. B. Van 
Auken, chief engineer of the fire department. 

At this time the fire department was carefully reorganized and be- 
came an important adjunct of the village. In fact all departments 
of local government were then firmly established and Hammondsport 
advanced to the degree of a municipality of the second class. The 
present department, consists of a good horse power fire engine, a 
hook and ladder, and also a hose company. In 1894-5 a water works 
system was established, the source of supply being the abundant springs 
on the well known Scofield farm. Fire hydrants have been distributed 
throughout the streets, placed at convenient points, and with simple 
gravity pressure the village has excellent fire protection, and is, more- 
over, supplied with pure and wholesome water for all domestic pur- 
poses. The plant complete was constructed at a total cost of about 
$25,000, and is owned by the village. 

Hammondsport enjoys the pleasant notoriety of being one of the most 
attractive and desirable residence villages in Steuben county. Situated as 
it is in the very midst of a vast vineyard region and on the head waters 
• of charming Lake Keuka, added to which may also be mentioned a 
rich agricultural and fruit producing country, all elements combine to 
make this one of the most delightful localities in the Genesee country. 
The people, too, are known to be hospitable, entertaining and progres- 
sive. The manufactures are chiefly wine and other products- of the 
vine and fruit tree. 

The officers for the year 1895 ^"'^ ^s follows: Trevor Moore, presi- 
dent; Henry Frey, Milan H. Hall, Phineas H. Casterline, trustees; G. 
W. Hubbs, clerk, and Aaron G. Pratt, treasurer. The president and 
trustees constitute a board of village assessors. The estimated popula- 
tion of the village is 1,000; in 1890 the number was 934, and in 1880 
was 775. 

The manufacture of wines may be regarded as the staple industry of 
the village and its immediate locality, and in this production much cap- 
ital is employed, while directly and indirectly hundreds of workmen are 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 327 

engaged. So great indeed is this industry that we may briefly refer to 
some of the more important wine producing companies. The Urbana 
Wine Company was organized in 1865, having an original capital of 
$250,000. The present capital is $100,000. The extensive cellars are 
located on the west side of the lake, four miles below the village. 
Among the many and various grades of wine manufactured here may be 
specially mentioned the famed " Gold Seal," a purely dry wine much 
prized by epicures. The officers of the company are Harlo Hakes, 
president ; D. M. Hildreth, vice-president ; H. A. Switzer, secretary ; 
W. W. Allen, treasurer, and John W. Davis, general manager. It is 
only a just compliment to say that much of the success achieved by the 
Urbana Wine Company is due to the untiring efforts of Mr. Davis. 

The Pleasant Valley Wine Company may be sufficiently introduced 
to the reader by the mere mention that at its cellars is manufactured 
the noted " Great Western," an exceedingly choice dry wine. The 
works are located at Rheims, a small hamlet and station on the line of 
the Bath and Hammondsport railroad, and less than two miles south of 
the village. This company was organized in i860. Its officers are 
James Lyon, president ; De Witt Bauder, secretary and treasurer, and 
Jules Masson, superintendent. 

The Germania Wine Cellars are located between Hammondsport and 
Rheims, but, like the others, is regarded as a village industry. The 
proprietors here are Frey Brothers (John and GottHeb), who are own- 
ers of a large and well established plant Jacob Frey established the 
business of which this company is the outgrowth about thirty- five years 
ago. 

The cellars of the Columbia Wine Company are also located at 
Rheims, and are owned by Henry Frey and J. S. Hubbs. Here is con- 
ducted a large and successful business, though the industry itself is of 
more recent founding than some of those mentioned above. 

The Hammondsport Wine Company is distinctly an industry of the 
village, and was incorporated October 24, 1880. Its capital is $50,000, 
and the output is justly noted for purity and general excellence. The 
officers of the company are Edwin S. Underbill, president ; G. I. Allen, 
treasurer ; G. H. Wheeler, secretary, and H. G. Layton, superin- 
tendent. 



328 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTT 

The Port Glen Wine Company's cellars are also to be mentioned and 
are in all respects worthy of patronage. They are under the proprie- 
torship of A. F. Bricout. 

Auxiliary to these leading industries are several manufactories de- 
voted to box, package and basket making, all furnishing employment to 
workingmen and women, and contributing in some degree to the 
general welfare. H. M. Champlin has a good roller flouring mill, with 
a capacity for the manufacture of fifty barrels of flour per day. Another 
flourishing industry is a broom factory, located just outside the village 
limits. On the inlet are a number of busy enterprises, chiefly box or 
basket factories, while the latest acquisition up the stream is the State 
Fish Hatchery. For the convenience of the inhabitants living in the town 
south of the village post offices have been established at various places. 
One is at Rheims, with DeWitt Bauder postmaster, while a second, still 
further up the stream, is called Taggart ; John W. Kirkham, postmaster. 

In the village of Hammondsport is an excellent school, for the people 
of this town have ever been noted for generosity in the matter of afford- 
ing proper education to the youth of the locality. A reference to the 
town history will disclose the fact that as early as 179S, long before a 
village was thought of, Messrs. Reed, Stone and Baker were given by 
Charles Williamson fifty acres of land for the benefit of a public school. 
This tract was afterward deeded to trustees, this being one of the few 
towns in which the 'people received the full benefit of the donor's gen- 
erosity. The first village school stood where St. James' church was 
built, and was erected in 1827. The academy was built in 1858, and 
aud was afterward used by the district under the Union Free School 
system. The present members of the board are J. W. Keeler, Will S. 
Wood, J. S. Thorp, H. Y. Rose, H. J. Moore and Mrs. Matilda 
Bennett. 

All branches of mercantile business appear to be well represented in 
Hammondsport, artd there is little evidence of overcompetition. There 
are several hotels, the largest being the Fairchild House, near the land- 
ing. The others are the Steuben House, the Park Hotel and the Grand 
Central. At present the exc.ise commissioners have granted eight vil- 
lage licenses. The merchants are Rothschild & Oloskey, clothiers; 
C. A. Champlin, general merchandise ; George H. Keeler, hardware ; 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS 329 

Frank Crookston, grocer; George <Vroom, grocer; Orson Brundage, 
grocer ; John R. Brown, shoe dealer ; Mr. Brough, clothier ; James H. 
Smellie, druggist ; L. I. Rose & Son, dry goods ; F. W. Fawcett, furni- 
ture dealer. At Lakeside the business men are George M. Chapman, 
grocer ; H. J. Moore, druggist ; E. K. Chapman, baker. 

The Bank of Hammondsport, as now known, is the outgrowth of a 
banking business started in the village in 1876 by H. C. Ainsworth, as 
a branch of a still older business in Prattsburg. At one time the firm 
of bankers was Ainsworth & Co. The bank was continued unin- 
terruptedly until 1894, and was then purchased by John J. Frey and 
Aaron J. Pratt, by whom it is now conducted under the firm name of 
Frey & Pratt. The members of this firm are tried business men, 
prompt and reliable in all their transactions. Their office contains one 
of the best banking equipments in the county, and is provided with a 
remarkably secure safe and a correspondingly strong and firmly con- 
structed vault. 

The church history of Hammondsport is interesting and worthy of 
record, for a perusal of which the reader is directed to another depart- 
ment of this work, wherein will be found at least a brief sketch of each 
organized church society in the county. 

Harmonyville (Pulteney P. O.). — This little hamlet, severally 
known as indicated above, is pleasantly situated in the northeast part 
of the town, yet among the villages of the county possesses little im- 
portance It is on the main thoroughfare leading from Hammondsport 
to Branchport, and about a mile distant from the lake. A trading cen- 
ter was established here many years ago, and until lake traffic drew 
trade to the eastward was the most important hamlet of the town. The 
public buildings here are the Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal 
churches and tjie district school house. The merchants are G. W. Peck 
& Company, general store ; F. N. Goodrich & Company, general store ; 
Coryell & Connell, general store ; A. J. Nichols, drugs, etc. The man- 
ufacturing interests are few, chiefly basket and box factories to supply 
the demands of the grape and fruit growers. 

Hartsville Center (Purdy Creek Post-Office), is a small 
hamlet situate north of and near the center of the town, on the upper 
waters of Purdy Creek. The first business in this locality was done a 
42 



330 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

mile above the present hamlet, near where a cheese factory was built. 
Joseph Henry opened the Center House in 1851, and two years after- 
ward this became the business center. The post-office was located at 
Charles N. Hart's dwelling. J. D. Russell established a permanent 
store here in 1868, since which time two stores have generally been in 
operation. The present public buildings are the school house and the 
Baptist and Methodist Episcopal churches, both of which are mentioned 
elsewhere in this work. The merchants are F. E. Carney and F. W. 
Spencer, proprietors of general country stores. Here, also, is a saw 
and feed mill, owned by William Donaldson. The other local interests 
are the blacksmith shop of Mr. Fuller and the harness shop of James 
Goodno. D. A. Oaks is proprietor of the Call Hill cheese factory. 
Another similar industry in the town is in process of erection. The 
postmaster at Purdy Creek is Scott Van Buskirk. 

Haskinville. — This little hamlet is situate in the northeast part of 
the town of Fremont, and was named for William Haskin, early settler 
and progressive citizen. At this place William Holden had a shingle 
mill as early as 1834, and soon afterward sold out his improvement to 
Mr. Haskin ; and the latter built here the first tavern in the town in 
1836. Around this the village was built up. Its early interests com- 
prised the hotel, a store, cheese factory, shoe and blacksmith shop, to- 
gether with about twenty dwellings. The present business interests are 
the store of Silsbee & Bowen, the hotel of Eli Chase and a few small 
shops. The postmaster is Ziba C. Silsbee. The Wesleyan Methodist 
church at this village is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. 

HiGHUP is the somewhat characteristic post-office designation of a 
locality in the northeast part of the town of Troupsburg, which was 
formerly known as East Troupsburg. Other than enjoying an elevated 
situation, and being surrounded with thrifty farmers, this place pos- 
sesses little general importance. The present postmaster is Samuel S. 
WyckofT. 

Hornby. — This is perhaps the largest and greatest among the ham- 
lets of the town of the same name. Its public buildings comprise the 
Presbyterian and Baptist churches, the district school, and the town 
hall (for here the town business is transacted). The residences number 
about thirty. The leading industry comprises the flour, feed and saw 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 331 

mills of C. G. Wheat & Son. The merchants are M. A. Eddy, A. W. 
Howell, and C. L. Smith, proprietors of good, well stocked general 
stores. The local postmaster is Clark L. Smith. 

Howard. — This little hamlet is located in the south part of the 
town, and is perhaps the principal business center. The village begin- 
ning was made by the opening of a store and the erection of the saw 
and grist mill mentioned in the .history of the town. As settlement 
progressed other industries were established, an academy was founded, 
two churches were built, hotels were opened, and the so-called Howard 
Flats became a place of some importance in local annals. However, 
the population of the village proper has not at any time exeeded 250 
inhabitants, and now has less than that number. 

The present business interests of the village comprise the general 
stores of Goff & Swain and D. Ray Bennett ; the saw mill of J. W. & 
M. M. Bennett ; the cheese factory of Bennett & Glover, and the black- 
smith shops of Frank H. Sharp and Horace Bennett. There are also 
two hotels, the National, kept by Judson Wells and the Central House, 
William Burleson proprietor. 

Ingleside. — This pleasantly situated little hamlet was primarily 
known as Riker's Hollow, and so-called after an old family in that 
locality. The merchants here are John D. Avery and Wyman Drake, 
the latter being also postmaster. Dr. William M. Fulkerson, supervisor, 
is a resident at this place. Three miles south of this hamlet, in Lyon's 
Hollow, so-called, is the saw mill of Edward Drake. At Ingleside is an 
M. E. church. 

The Village of Jasper. — This pretty little hamlet of perhaps 350 
population, is the chief center of trade in the town, and the story of its 
early history is best told in the words of another : " The old business 
portion of Jasper known as the Five Corners, was centered around 
Adam Brotzman's tavern, and contained, besides the tavern, a saw niill, 
two stores and a post-office, the latter the first in town, and William 
Gardner postmaster. The office became an object of contention be- 
tween the rival corners, and during John G. Marlett's term, became 
" Marlatt's Corners." Near this place Harvey Phoenix opened the first 
store, and was succeeded in 1834 by Edward Craig, who moved the 
goods to Five Corners. Andrew Craig was soon afterward made post- 



332 LANDMARKS OF STEtJBEN COtTNTY 

master and brought the office to the store. Thus the village was 
founded, and later interests gradually increased the local population, to 
its present number. The merchants of to-day are D. C. Hunter, gen- 
eral store; J. W. Wallace, general store; Andrew Murphy, hardware; 
Charles B. Hilborn, general merchandise ; C. E. Brown, furniture and 
undertaking ; H. B. Andrews, market, F. S. Viele and M. N. Samett. 
The village also has a good school, three churches (elsewhere mentioned 
in this work) and the shops and lesser business enterprises incident to 
similar hamlets. 

Kanona. — According to the recollections of Irving W. Near, the 
pioneer in fact of the little village called Kanona was Col. Henry Ken- 
nedy, yet at this point as early as 1794 a tavern was kept by John 
Mahon. In 1795, the year in which Duke de Liancourt travelled 
through this region, a small settlement had been built up on the village 
site. Col. Kennedy, however, made a substantial improvement here, 
and from him the place became known as Kennedyville. Among 
the other early settlers here were Brigham, Elijah and John Hanks, in 
1804, and Jeremiah Wheeler in 1805. These settlers were Vermonters, 
drawn to the locality by the cheapness and fertility of the land. Erastus 
Glass came to Kanona about 1806, and built a sawmill about three- 
fourths of a mile below the village. Clinton Nixon built a saw mill and 
tannery in the village in 1830. Among the early prominent men of the 
locality were Russell Kellogg, George Dawson, Samuel Tyler, Zera 
Bradley, and Oliver Allen, all of whom are now dead. 

Mr. Near also informs us that about 1836, a new class of people came 
to the locality, many of them from the Mohawk Valley. Also from the 
same authority it may be stated that Ann Parker taught the first school 
in this district, in a school house built in 18 10, on the site now occupied 
by business blocks. The Universalists were the first rehgious denomi- 
nation in this part, followed by the Christians, and the two built a union 
meeting-house. The Presbyterian church was built in 183 1, but was 
afterward transferred to the M. E. Society, by whom services have ever 
since been maintained. 

The name of the post-office was changed from Kennedyville to Ka- 
nona in 1852, through the efforts of Brigham Hanks and Reuben Robie. 
The name then adopted was the Indian designation of Five Mile Creek, 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 333 

and means " rusty water." The first railroad, now the Erie, was built 
through the town in 1853, from which time everything relating to travel 
and transportation was changed. The D., L. & W. Road was opened 
for traffic in 1882, and the Kanona and Prattsburg road in 1889. 
These thoroughfares of travel have built up Kanona and made it a vil- 
lage of some note in the Conhocton Valley. Here are about seventy- 
five dwellings, several good stores, shops and all other industries found 
in similar villages. 

Keuka. — A hamlet on the lake of the same name derives whatever 
importance it possesses from its value as a shipping point for grapes 
and various other kinds of fruit grown in the region of which the hamlet 
is the center. The Keuka House and the Helvetia are prominent 
public hostelries, while the nearby resort known as Grove Spring, with 
its large hotel, adds to local prosperity. The general store at Keuka is 
owned by A. C. Waggoner, who is also postmaster. 

LiNDLEY. — When this town was erected from Erwin the center of 
business was transferred from Erwin Center, or as now known Presho, 
to Lindley, and the clerk's office has since been maintained there. This 
event, together with the fact that the hamlet is situated near the center 
of a rich agricultural region, and is a natural trading point, has given 
to it whatever importance it has. Here are two churches, Methodist 
Episcopal and Free Methodist, the town hall and district school. The 
merchants are H. F. Hill and Dr. J. McManus. Postmaster, Marvin 
Stowell ; William Hutchinson, blacksmith and town clerk. 

Lynn. — This place is hardly more than a post office station, and is 
located in the southwest part of the town. The postmaster is Aaron 
Porter Borden. Here is a store, school house, and a Methodist Episco- 
pal church. 

MiTCHELLSVlLLE is the name of a small hamlet and post-office 
situated in the southeast part of the town of Wheeler, near the Urbana 
line. The office was established here for the convenience of the inhab- 
itants of this part of the town, and naturally a trading center was soon 
built up. The hamlet contains one general store, a Methodist church, 
the district school and a few shops. Mail is received by stage from 
Bath. 

Neil's Creek is a post office and hamlet in the extreme western 



334 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

part of the town of Avoca ; a convenient center in the heart of a pro- 
ductive farming community, but of no considerable importance among 
the villages of the county. The postmaster at this point is Matthew 
N. Silsbee. 

North CohoctoN, the companion hamlet to Atlanta, distant 
north one mile from the latter, is a pleasant little burg on the lines of 
railroad which cross the town. Forty years ago the settlement con- 
tained one church, a store, a few shops, and about thirty dwellings. The 
first merchant was Solomon Hubbard, succeeded by William A. Gil- 
bert. At the present time the churches are the Methodist Episcopal 
and the Wesleyan Methodist, while the business interests comprise at 
least a dozen substantial stores, about as follows : Wetmore Bros., gen- 
eral merchandise ; E. S. Carpenter, druggist ; C. E. Moose ; W. L. 
McDorn & Co., general store; C. A. Greisa, furniture and undertaking; 
J. P. Wetmore, clothing ; John Wood and M. Peck, blacksmiths ; 
C. B. Stoddard, wagonmaker; H, Nye, flour and feed; Ira Wagner, 
hotel. 

The North Cohocton and Atlanta Union School and district, as now 
known, was established in 1872, and the academy building, south of 
the village, was erected in 1874, at a cost of $4,000. About 200 pupils 
are in constant attendance at this school. The present school board 
comprises H. W. Hatch, president; R. P. Moulton, secretary; A. R. 
Wetmore, treasurer ; and Beech Drake, W. C. Waite and S. M. Decker. 
Principal, M. C. Plough. 

North Urbana. — This small hamlet is situated in the eastern part 
of the town of Urbana, near the Wayne town line and about a mile 
distant from Lake Keuka. As a business center the place has little im- 
portance, yet its location in a rich vineyard and agricultural region, 
makes it a convenient post-office point for the people of both towns. 
Here are generally maintained two churches and a district school. The 
local postmaster is J. W. Wheeler. 

Painted Post. — This pretty little village was incorporated under 
the laws of the State on the i8th of July, i860, but away back in the 
early years of the present century a settlement was made on the site 
and some business was transacted. As early as the year 1801 a post- 
ofifice was established and Howell Bull was the first postmaster. He 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 33S 

was succeeded by Thomas McBurney, February i8, 1805, and the 
latter was in turn superseded by John E. Evans, February 4, 1817. 

According to Charles H. Erwin's history of the village, Francis 
Erwin erected a frame hotel on the village site in 1822, that being the 
first frame building in the village. During the same year Capt. Sam- 
uel Erwin built a framed store, and John Arnot, late of Elmira, was its 
first tenant. In 1812 the Erwin House was erected. "In 1824," 
says the same authority, " John Wygant cut the sheet-iron Indian," 
which long graced the village, perched upon a painted post. In 1848 
A. H. and E. F. Erwin, with I. P. Bennett and Henry S. Brooks, 
erected an extensive foundry and machine shop, also a large business 
block of three stores. This was perhaps the leading enterprise of the 
village for its time and had the effect to add materially to local growth. 
Indeed, so vast and varied were business interests at this time that a 
banking house became necessary, and Asa Foster and Cephas Piatt 
purchased and removed to the village the old Cayuga Lake Bank, of 
Ithaca. This was in 185 1. 

In 1850 the New York and Lake Erie Railroad was put in operation 
between Corning and Hornellsville, and two years later the Buffalo, 
Conhocton Valley and New York Railroad joined with the Erie at 
Painted Post. The Western Union Telegraph Company completed its 
line in 1855, and by this and the railroads the then little hamlet en- 
joyed commercial advantages equal to any municipality in the southern 
tier. The "Empire" block was built in 1841 ; a Masonic Lodge was 
installed in 1850, and the Corning, Painted Post, Cooper's Plains and 
Monterey Plank Road Company was organized in 1852. Eight years 
later, or in i860, the village became incorporated, officers were elected, 
improvements inaugurated and carried to completion, and the result was 
a permanent and attractive village, supplied with business and manu- 
facturing interests, and inhabited by a thrifty, energetic and public- 
spirited class of people. 

However, this prosperous condition has not been established without 
local misfortunes and disasters, for at least twice in its history has the 
village been visited with destructive fires ; the first in May, 186 1, and 
again in February, 1873. But the burned buildings were in due time 
restored and the loss was only temporary. 



336 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The Painted Post Gazette was the first newspaper of the village, es- 
tablished in 1846 by Mr. Fairchild. The second paper was the Herald, 
founded by Ransom Bennett and B. M. Hawley. The Times made its 
first appearance in 1870, under the management of W. C. Bronson, H. 
C. Higman and S. H. Ferenbaugh. 

The first school in the village, which was also the first in the town, 
was that taught by John E. Evans ; and the first school house was 
built of plank on land furnished by Capt. Samuel Erwin. About 1848 
or '49, Arthur Erwin built a large frame building on the south side of 
the river, and this was used for a district school until 1868, when the 
large and commodious brick school house was erected. About this 
time a union free district was organized, including the village tract and 
surrounding territory. The school has always been admirably managed 
and liberally supported, and now ranks among the best institutions 
of .its kind and grade in the county. The present Board of Education 
comprises Dr. J. G. Webster, president ; W. F. Bronson, secretary, and 
F. H. Loomis, T. F. Minier and W. A. Allen. 

Referring briefly to the business and mercantile interests of this 
thrifty little village, it may be stated that all branches appear to be well 
represented, with little evidence of over competition. However, we are 
forced to remark that Painted Post is too near the city of Corning for 
the best results to local merchants, but, notwithstanding all this, we 
find several substantial business houses here, which may be noted about 
asTollows: D, Fdrer & Son, and G. J. Blakeslee, large general stores; 
S. W. Gorton, grocer ; Orcutt & Loomis, druggists ; Ira Stiles, jewelry ; 
W. F. Bronson, hardware ; James Berlon and G. Wheadon, meat mar- 
kets ; B. C. Wood, gunsmith ; A. H. Wood, taxidermist ; Wm. Beebe 
and J. Johnson, shoe shops ; A. B. Hurd and William Hill, wagon 
shops ; E. A. Stout, G.' L. Mclntyre and C. Van Gelder, blacksmiths. 

The manufacturing interests comprise the widely known Weston En- 
gine Company, manufacturers of steam heaters and steam engines, 
without question the leading industry of the town. Stanton & Brew- 
ster and W. S. Hodgman have lumber mills, and Mr. Hodgman is also 
proprietor of a good flour and feed mill. F. J. Townsend manufac- 
tures a wire fence stretcher. The banking house of A. Weston & Co. 
is the only institution of its kind in the town. 



CITIES, TILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 337 

The village officers of Painted Post are A. E. Gokey, president ;• J. D. 
Orcutt, clerk ; L. B. Hodgman, treasurer ; A. E. Gokey, G. W. Fritts, 
J. W. Borst and D. H. Lee, trustees. 

Perkinsville was so named in compliment to Benjamin Perkins, an 
early settler and prominent man in the western central part of the town. 
He built the first saw mill in the town. , However, the hamlet did not 
attain to a position of more than passing importance previous to the 
opening of the D., L. & W. railroad, which naturally gave impetus to 
all local interests ; and the still more recent construction of the C. N. Y. 
& W. road, as now known, added to the prominence of the hamlet. The 
merchants here are Frank Bricks, Stephen Bricks and Peter Kuhn, gen- 
eral stores ; John Ritz and George A. Didas, boots and shoes ; Mrs. T. 
M. Fowler, grist mill. The hotels are the Steuben, the Miller, the Per- 
kinsville, and the Lackawanna. John Smith is a manufacturer of cigars ; 
Nicholas Mather has a market, and W. F. Schubmehl and Mr. Schoon- 
over are local blacksmiths. Postmaster, Peter Didas. One of the 
Wayland Portland Cement companies has its seat of manufacture at this 
place. The churches are the Catholic and Lutheran. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 

The Village of Prattsburg. — In the eastern central part of the 
town of Prattsburg, at the northern terminus of the Kanona and Pratts- 
burg railroad, is situated an incorporated village, named for the town, and 
both in honor of and allusion to the chief promoter and founder in fact 
of the original settlement, Capt. Joel Pratt. The village, in its hamlet 
character, antedates the town in name if not in history ; but it is doubt- 
ful if even Joel Pratt ever contemplated the founding of a village settle- 
ment, as a part of his chief enterprise, further than to establish a con- 
venient trading center for the accommodation of the scattered inhabi- 
tants. Joel Pratt, jr., and Ira Pratt first drew attention to the settlement 
by opening a store, and in 1806 or '7 Aaron Bull opened a tavern in a 
*3 



338 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

log house. Judge Porter also built a good mill. A public square was 
laid out and in 1808 three log houses were built around it. In the same 
year Prattsburg was designated as a post-office station, and post riders 
began regular trips betwen Geneva and Bath, passing through the set- 
tlement. However, through some political maneuvering, the route was 
afterward changed to the east side of Lake Keuka, to the great sorrow 
and inconvenience of residents of the village. Still, after a time a sys- 
tem was re-established and mails came regularly to Prattsburg. But the 
one event which, above all others, contributed to the welfare of our vil- 
lage was the construction and operation of the Kanona and Prattsburg 
railroad ; a recent consummation, to be sure, yet none the less welcome 
or desirable. The work of construction was begun July 29, t888, and 
the first train passed over the completed road October 9, 1889. Pratts- 
burg capital made the road possible, and Prattsburg enterprise pushed 
it to a successful completion ; and the whole of northern Steuben county 
reaps the benefit of its operation. 

Returning again, however, to the early history of the village, we find 
that in 1803 the inhabitants of the locality organized a religious society, 
and provision was also made for a primitive .school. The road to Bath 
was laid out in 1805, and two years later roads were built to Crooked 
or Keuka Lake and to West Hill. From this time Prattsburg became 
the principal trading point of the region and a future village was assured. 
A cemetery was also laid out in 1806. 

From these humble elements has grown the present village of about 
800 inhabitants, and we may say, as does its enterprising newspaper — 
The News, " it is one of the most beautiful villages of Steuben county, 
the northern terminus of the railroad, which, by connecting with the 
Erie and the D., L. & W. railways, renders the place easy of access. 
Daily communication is also maintained with the Northern Central, and 
the steamers on Lake Keuka." Still further the same paper continues: 
" The merchants and business men of Prattsburg are wide-awake and 
among the most enterprising business men of the State, and are finan- 
cially safe and reliable. . . . There are four regular church services 
— Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist and Catholic, while various young 
peoples' societies hold regular meetings.'' 

In 1 8 12 the most important of these four schools of the town was 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 



339 



that maintained in the village, following which others were opened and 
thereafter continuously supportd. However, the necessity of a school 
of more advanced standard became apparent, and as its result there was 
founded and incorporated, on February 23, 1824, the Franklin Academy. 
This school at once took rank among the successful academic institu- 
tions of Western New York and for a period of nearly half a century 
enjoyed a prosperous existence. In 1868, under the provisions of the 
Union Free School law, the institution changed its character and thence- 



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forth became known as the Franklin Academy and Union Free School ; 
still maintaining, however, its old standard of excellence and promi- 
nence. Its management and affairs passed from the trustees to the 
newly constituted Board of Education. The faculty comprises a prin- 
cipal, preceptress, and four assistants. The members of the present 
board are H. J. Pinneo, president; H. G. Skinner, jr., secretary, and 
Frank Hall, Byron Chisom, Henry Horton, Seymour Coggswell, W. G. 
Dean and William Howe. Treasurer, E. K. Smith. 



340 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

As the village grew in population and commercial importance the 
necessities of public improvement demanded that the hamlet character 
be laid aside and that the little berg take upon itself the more dignified 
title of corporation. To this end a petition was presented to the court 
of sessions, with result that on the 8th of November, 1848, Judge Mc- 
Master made an order of incorporation as required by law, subject to 
ratification by the electors of the described territory. This was done at 
a subsequently held election. 

Still later, on the 20th of February, 1877, at an election held for that 
special purpose, the freemen voted to procure a village charter, accord- 
ing to the provisions of the law. This being done, the powers and 
authority of the corporation were materially enlarged, and by it Pratts- 
burg became a municipality of the second class. .The first trustees and 
officers under the charter were E T. Watkins, president ; and Wm. S. 
Foster, A. H. Van Housen, Henry A. Ackerson ; Wm. W. Green, clerk ; 
A. K. Smith, treasurer. 

The village officers for the year 1895 are as follows: Frank Hall, 
president ; James Coryell, Frank Flaherty and Angelo Walker, trustees ; 
Charles H. H. Boyd, collector; W. F. McLean, treasurer ; Benjamin 
Castor, street commissioner ; W. G. Dean, police justice ; William F. 
Wilcox, clerk. 

The business and mercantile interests of Frattsburg have advanced 
and kept even step with progress in other directions, although as a 
manufacturing village circumstances and location have prevented any 
prominence beyond the supply of domestic demand, In trade circles 
all branches appear to be well represented, with sufficient competition 
to prevent the possibility of monopoly and its consequent exactions. 

The merchants and other business houses may be mentioned about as 
follows: Coggswell Bros., John Van Tuyl, W. A. Watkins and J. L. 
McCarrick, dealers in general merchandise ; G. F. Conine, mens' fur- 
nishings ; Wurth & Flaherty, and Jacob T. Smith, grocers ; Barnum 
Cole, flour and grist mill ; George W. Peck & Co., and Flynn & Walker, 
hardware ; C F. Hayes and W. G. Look, druggists ; Z. J. Terry and 
John A. Shea, furniture dealers and undertakers ; D. R. Edmond, jew- 
elers ; Charles L. Baker and Bailey & Knapp, meat dealers ; F. D. 
Gillett, baker ; Mrs. S. D. Cornell, Miss Lina C. Graves and Mahn & 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 341 

Stoddard, milliners ; M. C. Curran, restaurant and bakery; Philip Geiss, 
tailor ; C. L. Pullar, dentist ; Coryell & Clark and W. P. Dean, hay 
dealers ; Flint H. Lewis, coal dealer ; Frajjk Hall, general insurance ; 
H. B. Howe, market gardener ; John C. Clary, cooper ; H. J. Pinneo, 
painter ; F. H. Cook, wagonmaker ; Germain Clark, saw mill ; G. H. 
De Witt, photographer ; D. R. Myers, harnessmaker ; J, H. Keeler, 
harnessmaker ; B. P. Austin, painter; George Bancroft, livery; Frank 
Relyea, landlord. The Plattsburg Creamery, one of the most complete 
of its kind in the region, was built in the spring of 1895. It is managed 
by Charles H. Higbee and Frank Flaherty. The attorneys of the vil- 
lage are James Flaherty (also postmaster), J. K. Smith and Harvey D. 
Waldo. The banking house of C. P. Smith was originally established 
in 1 86 1, while that of W. F McLean has been in operation since 1880. 

The society organizations of the village are Prattsburg Lodge, No. 
583, F. & A. M.; Prattsburg Lodge, No. 598, L O. O. F.; Gregory 
Post, No. 649, G. A. R.; Prattsburg Grange, No. T12, P. of H.; K. O. 
T. M., Prattsburg Tent, No. 230; Banner Lodge, No. 533, I. O. ofG. T., 
and the Prattsburg Cornet Band, F. F. Neff, leader. Of Protective 
Fire Company, S. D. Cornell is foreman, and G. W. Howe, secretary. 

Presho. — This little hamlet was for many years known as Erwin 
Center, and previous to the division of the old town of Erwin, in 1848, 
was a place of considerable importance in local affairs. The town meet- 
ings were held here and other business was attracted to this central 
part of the town as then constituted. It was also a lumbering center of 
note forty and more years ago, and after the forest growths were cleared 
and agriculture became the chief pursuit of the inhabitants, it became a 
shipping point on the commonly called Blossburg railroad. The recent 
name — Presho — was given in allusion , to a prominent family of that 
part of the town. T. J. Presho is now the local storekeeper and post- 
master. Here is located the Methodist Episcopal church, the district 
school, and the saw mill of H. M. McCuUough. 

Rathboneville. — In the year 1842 Gen. Ransom Rathbone came 
to the Canisteo valley to engage in manufacturing and shipping lumber. 
Unquestionably he was a man of excellent judgment in business affairs, 
for his efforts here were fairly rewarded. Not a pioneer in the locality, 
he nevertheless opened the first store in the town, secured a post sta- 



342 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

tion, was active in organizing the town itself, and, in return for his ser- 
vices, the latter was named in his honor, as well as the hamlet. Half a 
century ago this was the center of an extensive lumber region, where 
many enterprising operators were engaged- in lucrative business. This 
led to the starting of other industries, and a little energy and push 
created a village settlement. Among the persons engaged in milling 
and kindred pursuits, were Orman S. and Keyes Whitmore, who began 
in 1845. Ten years later Henry Rathbone built a fair sized flour and 
grist mill. In the year first mentioned General Rathbone opened his 
store and secured the post-office. A meeting house for religious wor- 
ship was soon erected, a school house was opened, and by these insti- 
tutions the village was created. The operation of the railroad only 
added to local'prosperity, and Rathboneville became an established and 
permanent fact; and to-day it is the principal village of that town. 

The population of the " ville," as briefly called,- is hardly more than 
one hundred and fifty, yet here is a busy hamlet. The leading indus- 
tries are the saw and grist mills of F. J. Brady ; the hay press of E. M. 
Cafferty; large general stores of M. P. Young and J. F. Boyer ; tobacco 
store and barber shop of town clerk, Jesse F. Cole ; the blacksmith 
shop of W. S. Wilson, and the hotel (Magnolia House) kept by H. 
Bird. The public institutions are the district school and the M. E. 
church. 

The Village of Rexville. — In 1849 Charles and Daniel Rexford 
came into the valley of Bennett's Creek and built a saw mill on the site 
of the village named for them. They also erected the first frame build- 
ing in the town and opened a tavern which was called the " Eagle." 
These enterprising brothers were also instrumental in bringing about 
many improvements in the settlement and were in all respects useful 
and progressive citizens. However, they sold the tavern to James 
McCormick and soon afterward left the village. In 1855 Jesse Jones 
and Dr. Cyrus B. Knight opened a store in the village, and soon after- 
ward a mail route was established through this part of the valley. Thus 
the village settlement became a fact, and although never having more 
than 200 population it is a business center of some importance. The 
public buildings are the Methodist Episcopal and Roman Catholic 
churches and the district school. The merchants are Failing & Co., 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 343 

Mrs. Sarah P. Harden, Joseph McKeon, Bernard Harrigan and John ' 
McCormick. Postmaster, John P. Harden. The manufacturing indus- 
tries of the village are the combined saw and grist mill, built in 1872 
and 1876, owned by Mortimer Richey; the cheese factory owned by 
O. Snyder and operated by Edwin Carpenter, and a few other small 
shops. 

RISINGVILLE. — This hamlet is located in the southwest part of the town 
about three miles from Thurston village. It was named in allusion to 
Noble A. Rising and was brought into existence by the erection of a 
large mill in the year 1852. The mill was built by Josephus Turbell 
and was one of the most complete of its kind in the county at that time. 
Harley Sears opened a store near the mill in 1853, a school and church 
were established about the same time and Risingville soon became a 
settlement of some importance. The post-office was established in 1853, 
Noble H. Rising, postmaster. The only business interests of the village 
of the day are those carried on by E. J. Jerry. 

ROGERSVILLE. — Among the earliest settlers on the village site were 
Jonas Bridge, Prosper Booth and Daniel Handy, who with John Miller 
built a flour mill in 1822. The post-office, which down to about 1848, 
had been located at Beachville, was removed to this village, and at the 
same time William C, Rogers moved to the old store from Beachville 
and opened therein a select school which soon afterward became the 
academy. In 1850 a foundry was established by R. W. and D. Dans, 
near the store, for the manufacture of stoves and farming implements. 

The Rogersville Academy, a notable institution during its palmy days, 
was organized in 1849, ^"^ the buildings were erected in 1852. The 
Rogersville Union Seminary, an institution designed for the higher edu- 
tion of young ladies, was incorporated by the regents January 28, 1853. 
However, both of these institutions lost much of their old time impor- 
tance with the gradual enlargement of the public school system of the 
town. At its best Rogersville had a population of about 250 inhabi- 
tants. Twenty years ago its business interests comprised three or four 
stores, a good hotel, three blacksmith and two wagon shops, a broker's 
office and a flouring mill. There were also the academy and the semi- 
nary and the Methodist Episcopal and the Universalist churches. 

The present business interests of the village are the well stocked 



344 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COITNTT 

stores of Henry Weirmiller and Mundy & Root, general merchants ; the 
flour and feed mill of Byron Wallace, and the saw mill of Jacob Kurtz. 
The post-office designation of this village is South Dansville ; postmas- 
ter, Dyer L. Kingsley. 

Savona Village. — On the 30th of April, 1833, the village of Savona 
was incorporated, and thereafter became separated from the mother 
town of Bath so far at least as local government was concerned. The 
name of this little village is all that now remains of the once known 
town of Savona which was annexed to Bath in 1862. Had the town 
scheme been perpetual, our village would have been its principal trading 
center and metropolis, yet notwithstanding the annexation, the life of 
the place, both in hamlet and village character, has been one of con- 
tinued growth and prosperity. With the natural attractions of the 
county seat and the superior trading facilities offered by the enterpris- 
ing city of Corning, business interests in Savona have been compelled 
to establish themselves against opposing circumstances, yet they have 
grown with other branches of village life and are now firmly established. 
In fact Savona enjoys the same advantages of location as does Bath, and 
like it is in the center of a rich agricultural region. The Erie and 
D. L. & W. railroads are built through the village, affording excellent 
shipping facilities both east and west. The Conhocton also contributes 
its share in promoting the public welfare. It is not frequent that two 
incorporated villages are built up within the limits of one town, as in 
Bath, and both be prosperous, while the first established and incorporated 
happens to be a county seat. From this condition of things we may 
conclude that there is much of enterprise and progressiveness on the 
part of the younger village and its inhabitants ; at least the residents 
and business men of other localities claim this for Savona, and as the 
opinion is disinterested it carries the conviction of truth. 

From old records it is learned that this part of the town of Bath was 
for many years within the general region called Mud Creek, from the 
fact that that stream discharges into the Conhocton at the village site ; 
and in the early history of the town this point of junction was an im- 
portant center to lumbermen and boatmen on both streams. The pio- 
neer of this locality was Thomas Corbitt, 1793, followed by John Dole- 
son and Henry McElwee in 1794, and soon afterward by Henry Bush 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 345 

and others. A post-office and trading center was established here about 
i823,Elisha McCoy being of one the early postmasters. Amongthe other 
early settlers in the locality were John Moore, David Whitaker, Uriah 
Hughes and others now forgotten. 

The water privilege offered by Mud Creek and the Conhocton had 
much to do with the founding of a village in this part of the town, and 
it only remained for the industrious inhabitants of that time and of later 
years to enjoy railroad facilities when that popular thoroughfare of 
transportation and travel superseded the slow current of the streams. 
Within a stone's- throw of the the school house in the village can be 
found at least half a dozen substantial citizens who remember the infancy 
of Savona, and also the once wide popularity of Mud Creek. However, 
all is now changed by the the march of progress, and where only a few 
years ago was a struggling hamlet is now a flourishing village of six 
hundred inhabitants. The public buildings comprise the Baptist and 
Methodist churches, and the village school. A Union school district 
was organized in 1891, and the Savona school now compares favorably 
with any of like size in the county. The board of education is composed 
of Charles Peterson, Daniel Collier and A. Burt. 

The village officers are John P. Hedges, president, and Will Sanford, 
Jerome Freeman and George Stinson, trustees, T. C. Wall, clerk, and 
W. E. Joint, treasurer. 

The business interests comprise the grist mill of George Allen, the 
sash and blind factory of George Scripture, the planing-mill of Clarence 
Hubbard and the "patent sluice" factory of Charles Davis. The mercan- 
tile interests include two good general stores, Sanford & Stinson, and 
William Stevenson ; two drug stores, W. H. Ward and G. U. Sexton ; 
one hardware store W. E. Joint ; one furniture and undertaking store, 
A. Gushing; a jewelry store W. M. Shutts ; two hotels, three black- 
smiths, a carriage shop, a cigar factory (John Ward), a music store, 
meat market, barber shop, two milliners, and several shops, such as are 
usual to country villages. Savona has one good, live newspaper, the 
Savona Review, well edited, and published by T. C. Wall. 

SONORA, — This hamlet is a small post-office settlement in the north- 
east part of the town of Bath, and three miles north of Savona. Haifa 
a century ago Sonora and Savona were regarded as sister hamlets, the 

44 



346 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

advantage and location, however, being with the latter. The store of 
P. A. Bryant, a blacksmith and carpenter shop, comprise the business 
interests of the place. Here, also, is the school of district 14, and a 
Methodist church. 

South Addison. — In the early history of the north part of the 
present town of Tuscarora, Amos Carr made a settlement and improve- 
ment, and from him the locality was designated Carrtown. However, 
when a post- office was established in the little hamlet which was built 
up, the name South'Addison was adopted, and has since been continued. 
About a mile from this settlement was built in 1856 a large tannery, 
around which another cluster of dwellings was built. The present in- 
stitutions of South Addison comprise the nearby school and the M. E. 
church. 

The Addison tannery was built in 1856, by Robert Hammond, and 
although twice partly burned, it has been an important industry of the 
town. It was bought in 1865 by W. Stratton, from whom it became 
known as Stratton's tannery. In 1893 it became a part of of the large 
syndicate called the United Leather Company. 

South Bradford is a hamlet situate in the south part of the town 
of Bradford, and on the highest land in the town. Joel Hallock cleared 
the first land on the village site. Increase Cooley was the first store- 
keeper, and Moses Ellas the first hotel-keeper. The present interests 
comprise two stores, a few small shops, while the public buildings are 
the Baptist and Methodist churches and the district school. 

South Howard. — This is a post-office station located in the south- 
east part of the town. Postmaster, Samuel T. Hoagland. 

South Pulteney, or Bluffport, is a hamlet and post-office in 
the southeast part of the town of Pulteney. 

South Troupsburg is a post-office hamlet in the south part of the 
town of Troupsburg. The postmaster here is James B. Murdock. This 
place has a general store. 

Stephens Mills, — This little hamlet, otherwise known as Fremont 
Center, was named in allusion to Elisha G. Stephens, who for a period 
of more than half a century was identified with the best interests and 
history of the town. In 1833 Mr. Stephens purchased the Upson farm, 
near the center of the town, and engaged extensively in milling, lum- 




JAMES B. MURDOCK. 



CITIES, VILLAaES AND HAMLETS. 347 

Bering and farming, and as a result of his industry the village settle- 
ment was built up. He also established the hotel and secured the post- 
office for this place. The hotel he built in 1854, and in 1839, on the 
death of his daughter, caused the pretty cemetery to be laid out. In 
the village are three churches, the Methodist Episcopal, Advent and 
Evangelical, the latter just outside the village proper. 

The merchants at the center are N. Davis, E. R. Killbury, B. Pickle 
& Son and E. L. Welsh. The industries are the mill, established by 
Mr. Upson, and now owned by Jesse L. Spaulding; W. B. Stephens' 
saw mill and shoe last factory, and the blacksmith shops of J. A. Kester 
and L. Clark. The local postmaster is John Helmer. 

Thurston Village. — This hamlet is situated in the east part of 
the town on Michigan Creek, and until a comparatively recent day was 
known as Merchantville. In 1841 Edwin Merchant bought the village 
site and opened a blacksmith and wagon shop between Hawley's farm 
and Eddy's tannery. In 1845 he built a saw mill, and in 1854 Alva 
Carpenter and O. P. Alderman bought a stock of goods of Harley Sears 
and began doing business. From that time Merchantville has been a 
trading point and business center. Mail is received daily from Camp- 
bell station. However, Thurston village has lost much of its qldtime 
importance and now numbers hardly more than 100 inhabitants. Here 
is located the Methodist Episcopal and Christian churches, the district 
school house, two stores, a few shops and about twenty-five dwellings. 
The merchants are J. W. Colson and J. M. Alderman. Postmaster, 
Frank Allerton. 

ToWLESVlLLE.^This hamlet is located about a mile west from the 
town line, on the Turnpike road, and was named from Richard Towle, 
a prominent early settler in the vicinity. This place has two churches, 
the Baptist and Methodist Episcopal, a school, four stores and one or 
two shops. The merchants are H. Clark McChesney, Hollie Hoagland 
and Will Boughter, general stores ; G. R. De Groat, hardware. Black- 
smith, George Wyckoff. 

Troupsburg Village is a pleasantly situated hamlet, near the cen- 
ter of the town and on Troup Creek. Independent of the surrounding 
country, the hamlet has little history, for its founding and subsequent 
growth were almost wholly due to the necessities of the inhabitants of 



348 LAi^bMAEKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

the locality ; and not at any time during the period of its history has 
the local population exceeded 250. Pioneer George Martin, better 
known as "Captain" Martin, made the hamlet beginning here when he 
built the saw mill on the creek many years ago. This improvement 
was followed by the country store, then a public house, and finally the 
the small shops incident to such places completed the village settlement. 

However, as the hamlet grew in importance and the surrounding 
township became freely settled, an academy was founded which en- 
joyed for many years a prosperous existence, and afforded educational 
advantages not obtainable in all towns. After its destruction by fire the 
academy was followed by a graded district school of excellent standing 
among the institutions of the county. As at present constituted the 
business interests of Troupsburg comprise several well appointed gen- 
eral stores, saw and feed mills, several blacksmiths and wagon and repair 
shops, a good hotel and about forty dwellings. The Methodist Epis- 
copal and Baptist churches are also located here, and will be found more 
fully mentioned in another department. The postmaster at Troupsburg 
is Benjamin F. Ford. / 

Wallace. — This is a small hamlet situated northeast of Avoca, in 
the Conhocton Valley, and on the line of the Erie and Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western Railroads. To these lines of travel the hamlet owes 
its greatest prosperity and almost its very existence. The local post- 
master is J. H. Cotton. 

Wayland Village. — The town of Wayland was brought into ex- 
istence chiefly through the efforts of John Hess and Myron M. Patchin, 
and the village in an equal measure was brought into life by the energy 
of James G. Bennett, also one of the leading men of the town. He 
secured the consolidation of the previously existingpost-offices of Patch- 
inville and Begola, under the name of Wayland Depot, in 1848, by which 
designation the place was known until 1884, when the word "Depot" 
was dropped. As Mr. Jervis has said, "The building of the Erie Rail- 
road determined finally the location of the village and assisted in its 
growth. The nearest station to Dansville, all the traffic from thait en- 
terprising village passed through Wayland ; and the old stage coach, 
with its four horses and Captain McHenry in charge, is vividly re- 
membered by the older citizens — the four horses reduced to one and the 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 349 

old coach exchanged for a 'buck- board' made its last trip over this his- 
toric route on July 20, 1889." However, later railroad constructions 
added greatly to local advancement. The now known Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western road was built through the town and opened for 
traffic in 1882, and the Rochester, Hornellsville & Lackawanna began 
business January 25, 1888. By the latter the village was given direct 
communication with Hornellsville, and the three thoroughfares of travel 
and transportation combined to make this village one of the most im- 
portant railroad points in the county. The village, too, has profited by 
these roads, and if we may be guided by the prophecy of observing 
men the future of Wayland is to be one of continued prosperity and 
substantial growth. 

In 1877 the population and business interests were such as to create 
a demand for incorporation. Consequently in April of that year the 
Court of Sessions made an order by which the place advanced from the 
hamlet to the village character. The first officers were elected on May 
22, 1877, ^^'^ were as follows : H. S. Rosenkrans, president; N. N. St. 
John, Guy Bennett, Henry Schley, trustees ; Torrey S. Beeman, col- 
lector ; George Morehouse, treasurer. _C. C. Tinker was the first clerk. 
The present officers are : George C. Whitman, president ; B. Kusch, jr., 
Frank Kester and W. W. Capron, jr., trustees and assessors ; P. H. 
Zimmerman, clerk; Frank K. Smith, treasurer; S. B. Young, collector. 

The incorporation of the village was an absolute necessity, for at that 
time the population approximated 600, and improvements were needed 
vi^hich could not be secured at the general expense of the town. The 
trustees first caused suitable sidewalks to be laid, then secured a system 
of street lighting, and provided against some of the annoying elements 
'incident to hamlets. A small though efficient fire department was 
organized, the present apparatus being a good truck, Champion Hook 
and Ladder Co., comfortably housed in Music Hall. 

The Union School of the village is one of its best institutions, aca- 
demic in character, and standing in the front rank among the schools 
of the county. The present trustees are W. W. Clark, Julian A. Mor- 
ris, William Flory, George C. Beitzel and R. C. Niel. 

The business interests of Wayland are noted for their stability, and 
notwithstanding the disastrous fire of 1883, by which many buildings 



350 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

were destroyed, the present condition of affairs is an improvement 
upon the former. In truth, there is much progressiveness and public- 
spiritedness on the part of this German and American municipality and 
its people. There are a number of good hotels, among them the 
Bryant House, kept by O. F. Leiders ; the Commercial, by N. Schu, 
jr.; the Central, by Shepard Rowell ; the Wayland, by Thomas Cramer ; 
the Engel, by Frank Engel, and the Rauber, by J. N. Rauber. 

The mercantile interests are represented substantially as follows : Dry 
goods, J. I. Sterner, A. L. Morley, C. Gottschall & Son ; grocers, 
John C. Mehlenbacker, Weinhart Bros., Kausch Bros., T. K. Smith, 
W. N. Deitzel, Mrs. M. Rauver ; hardware, M. Kimmel & Son, Geo. E. 
Whiteman & Co.; druggists. Guile & Snyder; baker, Gunderman & 
Huppes ; furniture, J. A. Rosenkrans, agent ; boots and shoes, George 
Nold, G. Zeilbeer & Son ; meat markets, George Fox, Frank Reufern- 
barth ; jewelers, A. J. Pardee, J. M. Purcell ; undertakers, V. Kausch, 
jr., Rosenkrans & Tinker ; cigar dealers and makers, Sherman Bassler, 
A. M. Hartshorn ; wholesale liquors, Edward Tyler ; coal and produce, 
W. W. Capron, jr., H. W. Hatch & Son, B. J. Scott & Son; bankers, 
Morris & Morris, a private bank, established in 1887. 

The Wayland Register and the Union Advertiser, are enterprising 
weekly newspapers published in the village, the former by Bert Goodno, 
and the latter by H. B. Newell. 

Among the manufacturing industries of the village the cement com- 
panies demand first attention. The Wayland Portland Cement Com- 
pany began the manufacture of a superior grade of cement in 1891, 
and almost at once gained great popularity with their product in the 
market. The works were burned July 4, 1892, but were immediately 
rebuilt. This concern manufactures 300 barrels of cement daily. A 
second company under the same name is ready to begin business, and 
also promises to become an extensive industry in the village. The pro- 
prietors of the company first mentioned are T. Millin & Co. Messrs. 
Schaffer and Wolf are proprietors of a combined planing and saw mill, 
and are also contractors and builders. The second saw mill is owned 
by W. F. Kiel. The village blacksmiths are B. J. Scott, Frank Kester, 
J. M. Ryder, William Drumm, H. Teed and E. Harter. The flouring 
mill at Patchinville is owned by J. P. Morsch. 




MARTIN KIMMEL. 



CITIES, VILLAGES AND HAMLETS 351 

In addition to the business interests already enumerated, we may- 
mention as elements of niunicipal life four organized church societies, 
the Methodist Episcopal, Evangelical, Roman Catholic and Christian ; 
also the customary social and fraternal organizations, prominent among 
which is Lodge 176, I. O. O. F. The principal entertainment hall is 
Wienhart's Opera House. The population of Wayland village in 1880 
was 605, and 679 in 1890. \ 

Wayland Depot is a hamlet on the D., L. & W. Road. Here are 
two hotels and the station, but no business interests of any impor- 
tance. 

Wayne Village is a pretty little hamlet lying in the northeast por- 
tion and partly in the adjoining county of Schuyler. As a trading 
center the village possesses some commercial importance yet a fair pro- 
portion of business interests are outside the boundaries of this town. 
The more recent enterprises are embraced in three good general stores, 
two feed mills, a saw mill and basket factory, and a few shops. Here, 
also, are two hotels, a good school, and the Episcopal, Baptist and 
Methodist churches, the latter being referred to elsewhere in this work. 
The postmaster at Wayne is Edson Bailey. 

Wayne Four Corners is a settlement and trading center in the 
south part of Wayne, having a few business interests of various kinds. 
The postmaster here is C. A. Castner. 

West Caton. — A post-office was established at this point in 1888 
(May 29). The hamlet is situated in the northwest corner of the town. 
The merchant here is S. E. Quackenbush, and the mill proprietor C. D. 
Barnard. The mill was built in i860. Postmaster, S. E. Quacken- 
bush. 

Wheeler Village. — This little hamlet is pleasantly situated near 
the center of the town of the same name, and although it has never 
attained to a position of an)' special prominence among the villages of 
the county, it is nevertheless an important trading center and also an 
excellent shipping point on the line of the Kanona and Prattsburg Rail- 
road. The necessity of a trading post within the town led to the build- 
ing up of the hamlet and a post-office was established here many years 
ago. Levi Gray was the first postmaster, followed by Daniel Gray, 
O. F. Marshall and Ephraim Aulls in the order mentioned. The busi- 



352 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

ness interests of the hamlet are few, yet sufficient to supply all local 
demands. The merchants are E. K. Derick and Fred F. Lewis, while 
the other interests are embraced in the few small shops incident to 
country hamlets. However, the saw mill owned and operated by 
Charles M. Renchan, is one of the largest industries of its kind in all 
Steuben county. The village church and district school are the only 
public buildings worthy of note. 

The Village of Woodhull. — This is one of the most important 
of the unincorporated villages in the county, and is situated near the 
center of a large farming district, hence attracts trade of such character 
as to materially advance all local interests. Moreover, the village is 
noted for its delightful situation and beautiful surroundings. The first 
beginning on the village site was made in 1806 by Caleb Smith, builder 
of the first mills in the town. Micajah Sherwood was also an early 
settler here and largely instrumental in building up the hamlet. Jus- 
of the Peace Calvin Searles was an early comer here, as also were 
Joseph Tubbs, landlord ; Levi Tubbs, carpenter and shoemaker ; Lyman 
Rosier, blacksmith; Ichabod Leach, merchant and potash manufac 
turer ; Ira Smith, storekeeper, and others. In these primitive indus- 
tries was laid the foundation of the village, and after the separate or- 
ganization of the town the little hamlet became the chief center of 
trade. 

The village is on both sides of the Tuscarora, the stream being 
spanned by a substantial bridge. The public buildings of the village 
are the churches (elsewhere mentioned) and the public schools. The 
merchants are E. & D. Colvin, C. W. Tubbs, N. B. Payne, Gee & Stroud, 
general stores; J.'S. Warner and J. C. Husted, druggists; James A. 
Walker and George A. Candy, hardware ; E. & D. Colvin, and White 
Brothers, meat markets ; F. S. Prutzman and M. E. Colvin, jewelers; 
H. P. Smith & Son, furniture dealers. The local lawyer is E. T. Hollis;, 
the milliners are Mrs. Payne and Mrs. Hollis ; the blacksmiths are Ran- 
dall Prutzman, Jacob Salisbury, Samuel Colgrove, ; wagon shops, W. 
P. Perry, M. P. Wilson, and Frank Olin ; barber, S. H. Barrett, who is 
also town clerk. The hotels are kept by James R. Lautz and Edward 
Potter. 

Woodhull is also the seat of publication of a good family newspaper, 



CITIES, TILLAGES AND HAMLETS. 353 

the Southern Steuben Republican, edited and published by R. C. Park. 
This paper was founded in 1879 as the Steuben Sentinel and independ- 
ent in politics, but eventually becoming a Repubhcan paper, changed its 
name to Republican. 

In addition to the business interests noted, the village and its imme- 
diate vicinity is the seat of several manufacturing industries, also worthy 
of mention. They are the furniture factory of William Benjamin ; the 
saw mill and feed mill of Lamson & Bartle ; the saw; feed and cider 
mills of James W. Miller ; the saw and grist mills of Baldwin & Stryker, 
and the cheese factories of George Harris and William Wildrick. In 
addition to these are the lesser interests and industries, all of which 
combine to establish a prosperous suburban village. The postmaster of 
WoodhuU is S. L. Wildrick. 

The Woodhull Academy and Union School is the pride and glory of 
every loyal inhabitant of the town, and is indeed a worthy institution. 
It was built in 1868 and designed for academic purposes, the most 
prominent of its supporters being Hamilton Marlatt, and Orrin B. 
Baxter, the former donating the site on which the building was erected. 
The academy was incorporated under the statute, but was soon after- 
ward deeded to the district and established as a Union Free SchooI,> 
with an academic department. The first principal was Prof. Jeffreys. 
The present principal is Miss Belle Ingersoll. The members of the 
Board of Education are Delancy Colvin, S. L. Wildrick, N. P. Matson, 
Hiram Ten Broeck, and William Carpenter. 

Young Hickory is a post-office and trading hamlet in the south- 
west part of the town of Troupsburg, where is one or two industries. 
Postmaster, Nathan E. Wallace. 
45 



354 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTT. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

CHURCHES. 

The Presbyterian church at Arkport was organized in 1852, although 
services of this denomination had been held in the locality for many 
years previous. About the time of organization and building the 
church edifice this society was very strong in the south part of the town, 
and although the church has ever continued to work, during recent 
years there has been a noticeable decline in interest and membership, 
the number now being about 1 10. The Sunday school is large, having 
170 pupils under the superintendency of John Hurlbut. The present 
pastor. Rev. Erwin C. Hull, came to this church in April, 1885. The 
trustee are William S. Hurlbut, Lot Reznor, Norman O. Wheeler, Seth 
M. Huntly, Henry Sharp, Michael Webber, James P. Wolever, Henry 
Colgrove, Wright Newsom. 

The Methodist Protestant Church at Arkport was organized in July, 
1884, and was the outgrowth of a class formed many years ago on 
Pennsylvania Hill. In the same year also, the neat church edifice was 
built, at a cost of about $2,500. Rev. F. A. Snow was their pastor, 
and was followed by W. T. Edds and O. P. Wildey, the latter now offi- 
ciating. The membership is about loOj and the trustees are G. C. Syl- 
vester, Arthur Hathaway, M. A. Emery, Harrison Osborne, and Ira 
McMichael. 

The First Presbyterian church of Hornellsville was organized July 
10, 1832. (See history of city of Hornellsville.) 

The First Methodist Episcopal church (Park church) of Hornellsville 
was organized in 1830. (See history of city of Hornellsvillt.) 

St. Ann's Roman Catholic church of Hornellsville was organized in 
1843. (See city history.) 

The First Baptist church of Hornellsville was organized in 1852. (See 
city history.) 



CHURCHES. 355 

Christ's church, Episcopal, of Hornellsville was organized March 6, 
1854. (See city history.) 

The East Avenue M. E. church, Hornellsville, was organized in 1885. 
(See city history.) 

The South Side M. E. church, Hornellsville, was organized 1895. (See 
city history.) 

The Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's church, Hornellsville, was organ- 
ized in i860. (See city history.) 

The Hartshorn Presbyterian church, Hornellsville, was organized in 
1890. (See city history.) 

The South Side Baptist church, Hornellsville, was organized Septem- 
ber 18, 1893. (See city history.) 

The Jasper Baptist church was organized on the 9th of February, 
18 17, its original members being Nathaniel and Rebecca Seelye, Bed- 
ford, William and John George, Charles and Phebe Card, and Lurena 
Harrington. Fourteen were added to the church in June, 18 17. This 
organization was effected in Troupsburg, which then included this local- 
ity in part, and the society was first known as Troupsburg Baptist 
church, but later changed to Jasper Baptist church. The first church 
house was begun in 1834, and finished in 1841. The church at present 
is included in the Canisteo River Association, and is small, having but 
forty-two members. The church property is valued at $1,500. The 
pastor is Rev. A. W. Mettlar 

The First Presbyterian church of Jasper was organized October 29, 
1829, with twenty- five members, although as early as 1825 Enoch Ord- 
way formed a Presbyterian Sunday school, and in 1828 a society was 
organized to form Sunday schools throughout the town. The church 
was annexed to the Presbytery of Bath and afterward of Chemung, but 
was restored to the Bath Presbytery in 1847. As the first regularly in- 
corporated religious society in the town, this church received the " gos- 
pel lot " from the Pulteney Association. The first house of worship was 
built in 1844, but was burned in 1846. The second building, located in 
the Hampshire settlement, was erected and dedicated in 1847, but was 
abandoned in 1872, on the completion of the large and attractive edifice 
at Jasper village. This church now numbers 108 members, and is under 
the pastoral charge of Rev. Charles McCarthy. 



§56 LANDMAEKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

The First Methodist Episcopal church of Jasper was the outgrowth 
of early class meetings held by Mrs. S. A. Grinolds and Mrs. Smith, be- 
ginning about 1818, and soon afterward a church organization was 
effected, although a house of worship was not built until about 1834 or 
1835. The present edifice at Jasper village is an attractive and com- 
fortable building, and, with the parsonage, is valued at $7,';oo. The 
church has, 130 members, and the Sunday school 195 attendants. The 
pastor is Rev. John Wootton. The Talbot Creek or North Jasper M. E. 
church is an offshoot from the village church, and is a part of the same 
charge, under the same pastorate. The members number about forty 
persons. 

The First Wesleyan Methodist church at West Jasper was organized 
in March, 1 871, at the "Gully" school house, by Rev. Mr. Sinabaugh. 
There were less than half a dozen original members, but the number 
is now grown to sixty- one. The church house was built in 1874, and 
dedicated February 14, 1875. This society is now without a pastor. 

The Presbyterian church of Woodhull was organized October 15, 
1 83 1, by Rev. Isaac Flagler, with sixteen original members. The first 
pastor was Rev. Warren Day, followed by Rev. Mr. Pomeroy. This 
society received the " gospel lot " from the Pulteney Association for the 
first organized church in the town. In 1 861, in association with the 
Methodist society, this church erected an edifice at Hedgesville. 

The Union Baptist church of Woodhull was organized in March, 1858, 
and was the result of a union of two older societies, known as the 
Woodhull Baptist church, formed November 20, 1835, and the Newville 
Baptist church, organized in June, 1849. The united societies caused 
to be erected the church edifice at Woodhull in 1856. This is now and 
for many years has been one of the strorTgest churches of the town, the 
present members numbering 123. The pastor is Rev. G. W. Barnes. 
In the Sunday school are eighty pupils, under the superintendency of 
J. C. Husted. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Woodhull dates its history back 
to a little earlier than 1840, although an organization was not effected 
until 1846, when a church was built in Woodhull village. A second 
organization was effected in 1848, and in 1861 a church edifice built at 
Hedgesville, in union with the Presbyterian society. The M. E. 



CHURCHES. 357 

churches of Woodhull now number 148 members and nine probationers. 
The present pastor is Rev. J. L. King. 

The. Free Baptist church of Woodhull was organized about 1834, with 
seven original members. The second church was organized February 
18, 1852, at which time eleven persons constituted the membership. 
The house of worship was built at an expense of $2,000, and was dedi- 
cated in August, 1875. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Greenwood was organized in 
1827, under the class leadership of Enos Mead. Methodist services, 
however, were held in this vicinity as early as 1825-26, by Rev. Asa 
Orcutt. The society maintained an existence for nearly twenty- five 
years, meeting in convenient places, but in 185 i a reorganization was 
effected and the affairs of the church established upon a more secure 
basis. The edifice in the village was built by popular contribution, and 
cost $5,000. It was dedicated September 14, 1876. This church has 
an active membership of ninety-nine, with nineteen probationers. In 
the Sunday school are 108 pupils. The present pastor is Rev. D. E. 
Stiles. 

The Universalist church of Greenwood was organized in 1851, and 
the house of worship in the village was erected in 1852. The first 
meetings of this denomination were held in the old stone school house. 
The society is now without a pastor. 

The First Christian church of Greenwood was formed February 19, 
1876, by Rev. John H. Cheeseman, who began his work in the town 
about 1 87 1. The original members numbered seventeen persons, but 
materially increased. In 1878-9 the church edifice on Main street was 
erected. The pastor is Rev. E. D. Chapman. 

The Methodist Episcopal^ church at Rexville was not organized until 
within a quite recent date, although Methodist meetings and services 
were held in this locality as early as 1831, and were continued regularly 
until the society was formed. The church edifice in the village was 
built in 1870 and dedicated in August of that year. 

St. Mary's church, Roman Catholic at Rexville, was regularly organ- 
ized as a parish about the year 1869, although several priests had said 
masses and conducted services in this field regularly since 1845. Father 
McMuUen moved his residence from Greenwood to Rexville about 1870 



358 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

and within the next two years a church edifice was built. The structure 
was burned February 13, 1877, and immediately replaced with the 
present edifice. A parochial school was established in this parish in 
1889, but soon afterward discontinued. The present pastor of St. Mary's 
is Rev. Dr. H. J. McConnell. 

The Presbyterian church of Canisteo was formed in 1836, but after a 
few years of struggling existence the society dissolved. No special 
eflfort at reorganization was made previous to July, 1849, when Rev. 
Horatio Pettengiil began preaching in the village, and the result of his 
labors was a complete organization on March 20, 1852, with B, C. 
Richey, N. C. Taylor, W. B. Jones, Peter Myers, T. J. Magee and Wm. 
H. Mead as constituent members. A lot was purchased from the 
Pulteney estate on which to erect a church edifice. The cost was $1,360. 
The corner stone was laid in May, 1852, and the church was dedicated 
February 15, 1853. The edifi:ce was enlarged and remodeled in 1877. 
This is one of the large and influential religious societies of the town, 
the present membership numbering 308 ; the Sunday school has 361 
attendants, and is under the superintendence of Benjamin Stephens. The 
present pastor. Rev. Duncan Cameron, has been with this church nearly 
eight years. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Canisteo village, the mother of 
the M. E. churches in the vicinity, was formally organized about the 
year 1850, although Methodist meetings were held in the town about as 
early as 1800. and were continued with some degree of regularity 
through all the years down to the time of organization. The first trus- 
tees were Jeremiah Baker, Stephen Taylor, John H. Consalus, E. L. 
Gray, C. P. Chamberlain and Wm. B. Jones. The church edifice was 
built in 1856, dedicated in 1857, and rebuilt in 1875. The present 
members number 221, and in the Sunday school are 330 pupils. The 
pastor is Rev. O. S. Chamberlayne. 

The Baptist church of Canisteo was organized as a branch of the 
mother church at Hornellsville, November 30, 1876', although Baptist 
services in the town were held many years previously, and at Adrian a 
society had an existence. The original members of the new society 
numbered fifteen, and Rev. C. K, Bunnell was the first pastor. The 
fine brick edifice was was built in 1880. The first Baptist society in the 



CHURCHES. 359 

town was formed in 1866. The present membership is 134. Pastor, 
Rev. E. P. Brigham, settled in 1890. Clerk, T. K. Brownell. 

St. Joachim's church, Roman Catholic, at Canisteo, was organized 
about 1883, and the church edifice built at the same time, on a lot 
donated by Mr. Vorhis. This parish includes about forty families, and 
is attended from St. Ann's at Hornellsville, Rev. A. R. Barlow, pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Fremont was organized as a class 
in 1 83 1, although the first meetings of this denomination in the town 
were held as early as 1828 in various localities. Asa result of these 
early missionary labors three separate classes or societies were formed 
in the town and were located at Big Creek, Briar Hill and at Fremont 
Center. At the latter place a substantial church edifice was built in 
1873. The Methodist charges in Fremont are now supplied by Rev. 
E. S. Wilcox. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church of Fremont was organized as a class 
at the Gulf school house in 1831, and the Haskinville circuit was formed 
in 1855. The church edifice at the village was dedicated in December, 
1876. The present pastor is Rev. James Bowen. ' 

The Evangelical Lutheran church at Fremont Center was erected in 
i860, although missionary preachers came among the German element 
of population in this town as early ^s 1828; and their services were 
continued with some degree of regularity until the society was formed. 
The membership in this church is constantly growing. The last pastor 
was Rev. Mr. Dayton. 

The First Advent Christian church of Fremont was organized in 1870 
by Rev. William Fenn, of Rochester, who first preached in a tent on 
the flat south of the present meeting house. The present edifice was 
built in 1 87 1. The pastor is Rev. H. S. Jiskok. 

The Cameron Presbyterian church was built in the south end of 
Cameron village in 1853, and its society received the Pulteney donation 
of 100 acres of land to the first organized church of the town. The 
society passed out of existence many years ago and the Baptist organ- 
ization purchased its meeting house. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Cameron was founded in 181 2, 
when Rev. Abner Chase preached in the house of Phones Green in the 
Canisteo valley, and in the services conducted in after years by other 



360 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

missionary workers in the same field. The first regular organization 
was effected in 1834, by Rev. Ira Bronson. Isaac Santee was the first 
class leader. The first church building was constructed in 1842, being 
a store remodeled for the purpose of worship, and waS located at West 
Cameron. It was deeded to the society by Luther White in 1865. 
From this humble beginning the church in the town has been built up, 
and now, within the limits of Cameron are four organized Methodist 
societies, each with a tomfortable house of worship, and all under the 
charge of Rev. W. D. Allen. They are located, respectively, at Cam- 
eron, West Cameron, North Hill and South Hill. The village class was 
formed in 1851, with thirteen members. The South Hill church was 
built in 1872. The members of the church in the town number 100, 
with ten probationers. 

The Baptist church of Cameron was constituted in 1847, although 
meetings of the denomination were held in the town several years pre- 
viously. The society purchased the old meeting house formerly occu- 
pied by the dissolved Presbyterian church, the building being removed 
to a more suitable location and rededicated in October, 1871. In the 
south part of the town is located the East Cameron Baptist church, 
which was dedicated June 3, 1861. The association records give this 
church a membership of fifty- one persons, many of them residents of 
Woodhull. The Baptist clergymen in the town are Revs. C. E. Stuart 
and A. W. Mettlar. 

The Christian church of Cameron was organized about the year 1850, 
and the edifice in the east part of the town was built in 1854. 

The Roman Catholic church at Cameron is of recent organization, 
and is attended from Addison by Father M.-Noonan. 

A Presbyterian church and Sunday school were organized in the 
southeast part of the county, in the town now called Caton, about the 
year 1825. Meetings were held in Gilbert's mill, also in barns, for sev- 
eral years, and in 1833 a house of worship was completed. Rufus and 
William L. Howe and Stephen L. Gregory built the edifice. After a 
struggling and feeble existence of about thirty years this society dis- 
solved. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Caton had its inception in the 
class formed in 1833 by Thomas Wheat, a local preacher. The society 



CHURCHES. 361 

was formed soon afterward and meetings were held in school houses and 
dwellings until 1840, when the house of worship at the Center was com- 
pleted. It was dedicated in 1842. The second church edifice was 
dedicated January 16, 1868. The present pastor of this church is Rev. 
D. B. Kellogg. 

The Caton Baptist church was organized August 23, 1832, as the 
First Baptist church of Painted Post, and in 1840 became known under 
its present name. In 1842 the church was made a separate charge. 
The first edifice was erected on the hill, overlooking the village, near 
where the old cemetery is located. Th^ second house of worship was 
built in 1862. The present membership numbers fifty-one persons. 
Pastor, Rev. L. D. Ayers. 

The Free Methodist church of Caton was organized in 1865, and 
about the same time the house of worship was built in the northeast part 
of the town. Pastor, Rev. G. T. Labrum. 

The First Baptist church of Campbell was organized as a branch of 
the Savona society, in 1870. In 1873 the house of worship was built. 
At present this church is a joint charge with Erwin, the total member- 
ship being 153. Pastor, Rev. J. C. Stowell. 

The Catholic church at Campbell is a recent organization, and in its 
parish includes all the Catholic families of the vicinity. It is attended 
from- Bath. 

The First Presbyterian church of Campbell was organized February 
14, 1831, and was the outgrowth of the older society known as the 
Campbell and Mud Creek church, the history of which dated back to 
the year 1812. The church edifice was built in 1833, and was replaced 
with a more substantial structure in 1867; dedicated February 4, 1868. 
The society has a good parsonage. The present members number abont 
125 persons. Pastor, Rev. E. P. Salmon. 

The Methodist Episcopal church'of Campbell was formed as a class 
about 1827, and as a society soon afterward. However, it was not until 
1869 that the society purchased and occupied the old Presbyterian 
church building, which was remodeled and improved. It was dedicated 
January 21, 1869. This church has i I4members and probationers, and 
a Sunday school of ninety- five pupils. The pastor is Rev. D. L. Pitts. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Thurston has comprised three 
46 



362 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

sepatate charges. The first class was formed in the Bonny Hill district 
about the year 1825, and for many years was a part pf the Bath charge. 
A church edifice was built and dedicated in 1843. The Methodist 
Episcopal church of Risingville was organized about 1850, and its church 
edifice erected in 1864. The class at Merchantville was formed previ- 
ous to 1850 and its church edifice was built in 1861. The churches 
last mentioned are under the pastoral charge of Rev. D. L. Pitts. 

The Clinton church of Thurston was organized March 26, 1836, at 
Smith school house in Bath, but in 1842 was transferred to West Hill 
in Thurston. The church edifice was dedicated June 27, 1852. The 
members number about' seventy- five. This society is now without a 
pastor. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Wayland dates back in its history 
to the first years of settlement in the town by the pioneers, yet the 
absence of reliable data precludes the possibility of furnishing data of 
either organization or subsequent growth. Two sepaiate charges have 
been established, the one at Loon Lake and the other at Wayland vil- 
lage, the latter a large and growing church both in influence and numer- 
ical strength. The present members number ninety persons, with 100 
pupils in the Sunday-school. The present pastor is Rev. W. O. Peet. 

The German Evangelical church of ^ayland dates its organization 
back to about the year 1868, and a house of worship was built about 
the same time. The new edifice in the village is a substantial and com- 
fortable structure. The society is strong in members and influence. 
The present pastor is Rev. J. W. Thompson. 

The Christian church of Wayland was organized in 1864, and a chapel 
was built during the same year. This society is without a resident 
pastor. 

The German Lutheran church, St. Peter's at Perkinsville, was orga- 
nized in 1845, ^nd includes in its membership about 150 of the German 
families in this part of the town. The house of worship and the parson- 
age are valued at about $5,000. Pastor, Rev. R. Krause. 

The Church of the Sacred Heart, Roman Catholic, was organized in 
1850, its parish including the catholic families (many of them German) 
in that part of the town. Connected with church is a parochial school, 
having seventy pupils, under the instruction of three Sisters of Mercy. 
The priest in charge of the parish is Rev. Father A. L. Huber. 



CHURCHES. 363 

St. Joseph's church, Roman Catholic, at VVayland village, was orga- 
nized as a parish in 1880, and regularly incorporated the following year. 
The parochial school was organized in 1884. It has sixty-five pupils 
under the instruction of three Sisters of Mercy. Pastor, Rev. ,C. Kaelen. 

The Firsi Baptist church and society of Hartsville were organized on 
the second Sunday in November, 1838, the original members being ten 
in number. This is a comparatively large society and has a comfor- 
table meeting-ht)use at Hartsville Center. It numbers about ninety 
members but at present is without a pastor. In 1894 this church did 
not report to the association. 

The First Methodist Episcopal church in Hartsville was organized by 
Rev. James Hemingwey in June; 1825, with Lewis Clark and Robert 
Martin, stewards. The substantial church edifice at Hartsville Center 
was built and dedicated in 1870, and adjoining it is a comfortable par- 
sonage. The church numbers fifty-nine members and six probationers, 
and in the Sunday-school are forty-five pupils. The present pastor is 
Rev. George L. Spencer of Hornellsville South Side M. E. church. 

The Seventh Day Baptist church of Hartsville, was organized in 1836, 
by Hiram P. Burdick, and was the outgrowth of his early and boyhood 
christian teachings and life. The meeting-house in the west part of the 
town was built in 1856, and cost $2,800. 

The East Troupsburg Baptist church was organized in 1857, as- 
sociation minutes, although Baptist services were held in the locality as 
early as 1835, and early meetings were held in dwellings and school- 
houses. The " Chenango Settlement " church was built and dedicated 
in 1875. This church now numbers ninety-six members, and is under 
the pastoral care of Rev. J. W. Lyon. 

The Troupsburg Baptist church was organized in 1844, the result of 
the labors of Rev. Mr. Wade. The edifice at the Center was built in 
1874. The present membership in this church is 128, with fifty-two 
pupils in the Sunday-school. Pastor, Rev. I. H. Beman. 

The Troupsburg Free- Will Baptist church was organized in 1850, 
and numbered about forty persons. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Troupsburg dates its history 
back to the year 18 19, when pioneer Uzal McMindes formed and led a 
class at the houses of Mr. Douglass and Samuel Rice. Samuel Griggs 



364 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

and Samuel Cady were later class- leaders. This society was donated 
the " Gospel lot " by the Pulteney association, being lOO acres of land. 
The church edifice at the Center was built in 1872. The Methodist 
members in this town number 108, and in the Sunday-school are ninety 
attendants. The present paster is Rev. F. H. Rowley. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Dansville was the outgrowth of 
early meetings on Oak Hill as early as the year 1817. Parker Buell 
and James Bronson were the first preachers, and Robert Butler the first 
class leader. An organization was perfected about the same time and 
in 1819 the first log church in the town was built. This old building 
was abandoned for the new church edifice at Rogersville which was 
dedicated July 19, 1841. In 1862 a new church on Oak Hill was built 
and dedicated. This is one of the largest churches in the toyn the 
members numbering 230. The Sunday-school has 150 attendance. 
Pastor, A. R. Cheverton. 

TheFirst Baptist church of Dansville was organized about the year 
1820 with ten members but after a struggling existence of about half a 
century, during which the society suffered from factional differences, 
the organization was dissolved. 

The Universalist church of Dansville was organized about 1850, 
chiefly through the efforts of Rev. Asa Upson. The church edifice was 
built in the village in 1852. This society, like some others in the town, 
has experienced a life of vicissitudes and for a time no meetings were 
held. It was revived, however, and placed upon a more substantial 
basis. Its present pastor is Rev. H. P. Morrell. 

The Baptist church of Howard village was organized February 6, 
1826, with nine members, and Rev. B. B. Brigham, first pastor. The 
house of worship was erected in 1835, ^^'^ substantially repaired in 
1877. Present members, eighty-eight; pastor. Rev. D. J. Allen. 

The Baptist church at Towlesville, in the town of Howard, was orga- 
nized in 1844, and has since had a prosperous existence. The mem- 
bers number eighty-three, and the society is at present under the pas- 
toral charge of Rev. Mr. House, successor to Rev. C. Saulsbury. 

The Presbyterian church of Howard was organized in 1834, and dur- 
ing the same year built a comfortable house of worship. The church 
has a large membership and its services are well attended. The pastor 
is Rev. Mr. Webster. 



CHURCHES. 365 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Howard is among the older re- 
ligious organizations of the town, dating its history back to the pioneer 
days. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Piercy. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church at Buena Vista is also to be men- 
tioned among the substantial church organization of the town of How- 
ard. The pastor is Rev. F. S. Lee. 

The Wayne Baptist church was constituted in 1794, and is therefore 
one of the oldest religious organizations of the region. Rev. Ephraim 
Todd was the first pastor and served in that capacity for thirty years, 
until 1823. This church has been a member of several associations, 
the Chemung, Cayuga, Ontario and Steuben, in succession. The pres- 
ant members number fifty nine, and the church property is valued at 
$1,500. Present pastor, Rev. C. Townsend. 

St. John's church, Protestant Episcopal, of Wayne, was jorganized as 
a parish November 20, 1871, although the mission was established in 
1840. Services have been held here frequently, though not regularly. 
In 1872 the society purchased the Presbyterian church edifice, which 
was consecrated in September, 1875. St. John's now has twenty- two 
communicating members. 

The Presbyterian church of Wayne was organized December 21, 
1809, by Rev. John Lindsley, missionary, under the General Assembly. 
However, after an existence of about half a century the society was dis- 
solved in 1869, and the church edifie was sold to St. John's church. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Wayne was formed February 28, 
1837, although class meetings had been held in the town at a much 
earlier date. A church house was provided in 1839. 

The Baptist church of Bradford was organized in 1834, having sixty 
constituent members, and about the same year a church house was 
erected. In 1835 the church was admitted to membership in the Steu- 
ben Baptist Association. • The present members number 114, and the 
church property is valued at $3,500. 

The South Bradford Baptist church was organized July 29, 1848, and 
the church edifice was completed and dedicated during the following year. 
It is a member of the Steuben Association. The present membership 
is eighty- five. 

The First Methodist Episcopal church of South Bradford was organ- 



366 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

ized as a class in 1826, on Oak Hill, and the church organization was 
perfected on February 23, 1847. The original members numbered 
thirteen; the present members number 136, with thirty-two probation- 
ers. However, this number includes the members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church of Bradford, which was formed April 26, 1876. The 
houses of worship are at Bradford and South Bradford, respectively, 
and constitute a single charge. 

St. Andrew's church, Protestant Episcopal, was formally organized 
on the 8th of June, 1851, although previous to that time services had 
been held with some degree of regularity by clergymen from Ham- 
mondsport and elsewhere. A comfortable church edifice was erected 
and consecrated in 1866, during the rectorate of Rev. J. T. Gushing. 
The present rector of St. Andrews is Rev. Henry S. Dennis. 

St. James' Episcopal church at Hammondsport was formally organ- 
ized June 15, 1829, although as early as 1825 the Rev. W. W. Bostwick 
labored as a missionary in this field. He also became the first rector of 
the newly organized parish, and continued in that relation until 1842 ; 
and during his rectorship, in 1832-33, the first church edifice was built, 
and on August 28 of the latter year the church was consecrated by 
Bishop Onderdonk. The corner stone of a new church edifice was laid 
by Bishop Coxe, April 18, 1876, and the consecration services were held 
June 12, 1877. This latter structure fell a victim to the elements on 
August 2, 1894, and was at once replaced with the present edifice, a 
handsome building of Warsaw bluestone. The corner stone was laid 
June 8, 1895, ^"d the entire cost of the edifice was about $13,000. The 
first rector, Mr. Bostwick, was succeeded in 1842 by Rev. Philemon E. 
Coe, a deacon, and he in turn was followed by Rev. Erastus Spaulding, 
the latter serving from 1843 to 1849. Rev L. W. Russ came next, 
1849-50, followed by Rev. Charles Woodward, 1850-52. Rev. Robert 
N. Parke was rector from 1853 to 1855, succeeded by Rev. Daniel E. 
Loveridge, 1855-70. Rev. James Stoddard was rector from 1870 to 
1873, and Rev. John T. Gushing during 1875-74. Rev. H. B. Gardner 
came in 1875 and remained until 1880, then being followed by Rev. 
John V. Stryker, who died April 6, 1892. The present rector. Rev. 
Thomas Dirck, came to the parish in June, 1892, and under his pastoral 
direction the new and beautiful church edifice has been erected. St. 



CHURCHES. 367 

James' church is one of the most worthy institutions of northern Steuben 
county. The present communicating members number Ii6 persons. 
The wardens are John W. Davis and Charles C. Halsey ; and the ves- 
trymen, Henry O. Fairchild, Trevor Moore, H. J. Moon, D. C. Bauder, 
George B. Lyon, H. Y. Rose, Will S. Wood and F. C. Fawcett. 

The Presbyterian church of Hammondsport was organized September 
14, 183 1, and its first pastor was Rev. Mr. Flagler. The original mem- 
bers were seven in number. A lot was donated, and William Hastings 
built a church edifice for the society. A second church house was 
erected in 1847. This building still stands and is in good repair. The 
present membership in this church is large — about 200 — and the Sun- 
day school has about iio pupils. The present pastor, Rev. Charles L. 
Luther, came to Hammondsport in June, 1895. 

St. Gabriel's church, Roman Catholic, Hammondsport, dates its his- 
tory to about the year 1840, when missionary priests said occasional 
masses in the village. Three years later a parish and church were organ- 
ized, and in 1847 purchased and occupied the edifice formerly owned by 
the Presbyterian society. The present St. Gabriel's church was built in 
1886, and is certainly a substantial structure. This parish is quite 
extensive, including parts of several towns — Urbana, Pulteney, Wayne 
and Bradford. The present priest in charge of the parish is Rev. James 
O'Shea. 

The Baptist church in the town of Urbana includes two separate 
organizations, the one known as the Urbana Baptist church, formed in 
1835, with a present membership of fifty-seven persons, and the South 
Urbana church, formed in 1891, now having thirty-eight members. 
Pastor of the latter church, Rev. A. B. McConnell. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Urbana, ever increasing and 
growing both in strength and influence, comprises two society organi- 
zations and two charges, and a total membership of 232 and twenty- 
seven probationers. Two churches are maintained, at Hammondsport 
and North Urbana, respectively, and the fair value of the church prop- 
erty is $6,500. Pastor, Rev. John Segwalt. 

The Presbyterian church in Wheeler enjoyed its most successful 
period of history and progress during the first half of the present cen- 
tury. The early settlers were chiefly Presbyterians and they secured 



368 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

the services of a minister who preached for them as early as about the 
year 1810, although not before 1824 was there any regular organization 
effected. Among the first ministers were Revs. David Harrower, James 
Hotchkin and David Higgins. The church itself was organized August 
30, 1825, and was at once received by the Presbytery of Bath. How- 
ever, the after life of the society witnessed many vicissitudes and dis- 
couragements, although its membership included many of the most in- 
fluential families of the town. The legal organization was perfected in 
1832, under the name of the "First Presbyterian Society of Wheeler " 
The first church edifice was built in 1832, and the second in 1867, both 
at the Center. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Wheeler dates its history to about 
the year 1840, and had its beginning in a small class. But from this 
germ there has grown a very strong organization, now numbering in 
the town four separate charges and societies, and four church edifices. 
They are known, respectively, as the Wheeler Center church ; the 
Wheeler Hill, or First M. E. church of Wheeler; the Hemlock M. E. 
church, and the Mitchellville M. E. church. The total membership in 
these churches is large and the societies themselves are increasing in 
strength and usefulness. The members number more than 150 persons, 
and all the charges are under the pastoral care of Rev. G. R. Harvey. 
The Wheeler church was originally built in union with the Presbyterian 
society, but later the edifice passed into the ownership of the Metho- 
dists. 

The Presbyterian church of Prattsburg had its origin in the religious 
service held at the house of Jared Pratt in the year 1803, and on the 
4th of June, 1804, Timothy Field organized a Church of Christ in the 
district of Bath, at the house of John Niles. The original members 
were Joel Pratt, John Niles, Samuel Tuttle, Pomeroy Hull, Salisbury 
Burton, William P. Curtis, Martha Tuttle, Dorcas Niles, Mary Hull, 
Hannah Niles, Sarah Curtis, Lydia Beach, Mary Pratt, Olive Burton 
and Almira Tuttle. In 1806 the society determined to erect a house of 
worship, for which purpose a site was selected on the public square in 
the village. Here was built the first Congregational church of Pratts- 
burg, but as the edifice was soon found to be quite too small, enlarge- 
ments were subsequently made. On the i6th of November, 1807, the 



CHURCHES. 369 

church society was regularly and legally organized under the name of 
the Prattsburg Religious Society. Rev. James H. Hotchkiss was in- 
stalled pastor August i6, 1809. On October 12, 1812, the society 
voted to accept the doctrine of the Presbyterian church, and on the 
2 1 St of September, 18 13, was received into the Presbytery of Geneva. 
In 1825 a new church edifice was built, on land donated by Judge 
Porter. Rev. George R. Rudd became pastor in 1830, and two years 
later the parsonage was erected. This church is undoubtedly the 
strongest in the town and has a total membership of 200 persons. The 
pastor is Rev. G. W. Warren. 

The first Methodist Episcopal society in Prattsburg was organized in 
1829, at which time also a chapel was built. The organizers of the 
mother church were Dr. Noah Niles, Aaron Bull and Bishop Tuttle, 
who withdrew their membership from the Prattsburg Religious Society. 
However, the Methodist' organization was dissolved about 1840, and 
the meeting house was sold for debt, but the class remained, and in 
1847, through the efforts of Rev. James Hall, the society was revived, 
reorganized, and placed upon a substantial basis. A church edifice was 
built on the south side of the public square in 1847, but was destroyed 
by fire in 1853. After this the society again declined although occa- 
sional services were held. A third organization was effected in 1869 
and the present M. E. church of the village is its outgrowth. Moreover, 
Methodism has spread throughout the whole town, and in addition to 
the mother church, there are now two others, those at Ingleside and 
Lynn. The members of the village and Lynn churches number 150 
and are under the pastoral care of Rev. B. F. Hitchcock. The Ingle- 
side church is a joint charge with North Cohocton, under the pastorate 
of Rev. D. C. Nye. 

The Baptist church of Prattsburg was organized on West Hill, about 
the year 1821, and Elder Nehemiah Lamb was its first pastor. A log 
meeting house was built in 1822, but after its destruction by fire, in 
1833, was replaced with a substantial frame edifice and located a mile 
east of the old site. In 1842 the society divided, the members uniting 
with four separate organizations. There was formed the First and 
Second Baptist churches of Prattsburg, also the Prattsburg village Bap- 
47 



370 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

tist church. The house of wofship of the latter was built in 1845. Its 
members now number forty-two persons. Pastor, W. A. Huntington. 

The Roman Catholic church at Prattsburg has about seventy-five 
families in the parish. It is attended from Hammondsport by Father 
O'Shea. 

The Christian church at Ingleside is under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. 
Carr. 

The First Presbyterian church of Bath is one of oldest religious soci- 
eties in the whole Genesee country, and was organized as early as the 
year 1806, although previous to that time public worship had been held 
in the town. In 1802 Rev. Seth Williston conducted services in the 
old school house at the corner of Pulteney Square. On January 6, 
1806, an organization was perfected by Rev. John Niles, and was 
named "The Bath Religious Society." Still later, January 3, 1808, a 
modification of the former organization was made, and there was formed 
" The Church of Christ in Bath, Presbyterian Congregation," and four- 
teen persons entered into covenant and subscribed the constitution. The 
church adapted Congregational form of government, and appointed 
Joseph Inslee and Samuel S. Haight as deacons. Rev. John Niles was 
installed pastor on July 7, 1808, and on the i8th of September, 181 1, 
the church completed its presbyterial organization by electing five 
elders viz.: William Aulls, Elias Hopkins, Samuel S. Haight, Henry 
A. Townsend and Howell Bull ; and at the same time removed its con- 
nection from the Congregational association and united with the Presby- 
tery of Geneva. Mr. Niles died September 13, 1812, and was succeeded 
by Rev. David Higgins in January, 1813. During Mr. Higgins' pas- 
torate, the first church edifice was erected, and was dedicated March 2, 
1825 The third pastor, Rev, Isaac Piatt, began his service June 4, 
1 83 1, and resigned in 1844. He was followed by Rev. L. Merrill Miller, 
and the latter by Rev, George D. Stewart in 1851. Still later pastors 
were Revs. William E. Jones, James M. Harlow (stated supply), James 
M. Piatt, 1869; and M. N. Preston, the present pastor, whose labors 
began December i, 1884. The new church edifice on the south side of 
the " Square" was built during the year 1876, and was first occupied 
for service on February 22, 1877. 

It is proper to mention in this connection that in 1837 this church 



CHURCHES. 371 

was divided by the dissensions in the Presbyterian church at large, and 
the result, locally, was the withdrawal of certain members and the or- 
ganization of "The Presbyterian Church of Bath (Congregational)." In 
1 84 1 the new society erected a house of worship on Liberty street, 
where now stands the Purdy Opera House. The building was burned 
in 1 87 1. During its separate existence, the pastors of the church were 
Revs. William Strong, Orris Fraser, Hiram Gregg, Samuel Potter, Sabin 
McKinney, Loren W. Russ, George Hood, Edwin Benedict, H. E. 
Johnson, C. H. Belong and William Dewey. 

St. Thomas' Protestant Episcopal church at Bath was organized as a 
parish at a meeting held April 19, 1826, yet for several years previous 
to that time stated services were held by Rev. Caleb Hopkins, he being 
persuaded to visit this missionary field through the good ofiRces and in- 
tercession of Mrs. Elizabeth Hull Townsend. This worthy woman has 
ever been regarded as the founder of the church in the village and its 
vicinity. The early services of the church were held in the court-house, 
but in 1836 a lot was secured on the southeast of Pulteney Square, and 
here a church edifice was built. The first regularly appointed clergy- 
man in the parish was Rev. William W. Bostwick, who conducted his first 
services here May 23, 1825, and who continued the pastoral relation 
until 1840, when he resigned. Rev. Phineas L. Whipple became rector 
soon afterward, but an untimely death cut short his career of useful- 
ness in 1844. The succeeding rectors have been Revs. Wm. D. Wil- 
son, Levi H. Corson, Almon Gregory, Oran Reed Howard, Abner Piatt 
Brush and Benjamin S. Sanderson, the latter the present rector, who 
assumed, his duties on the ist of May, 1890. During Mr. Whipple's 
rectorship the "church plot" in the cemetery was secured, and during 
Mr. Gregory's term many improvements were made to the church prop- 
erty. The parsonage was provided in 1852. In 1854, and again in 
1859, the church edifice was materially improved, and in 1869 the new 
and beautiful edifice at the southeast corner of Washington Square was 
erected. , 

The first society of the Methodist Episcopal church in Bath was 
formed on the 3d of October, 1822, and on September 4 following the 
articles of incorporation were filed in the county clerk's office, naming 
John Whiting, Simpson Ellas, George Wheeler, -Jeremiah Baker and 



S72 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

Darius Reed as the first board of trustees. The frame of a church 
home was put up in 1823, and although not completed until 1826, this 
was the first church edifice projected in Bath, and was used by the 
Protestant Episcopal and Baptist societies. In 1865 it was found neces- 
sary to enlarge or rebuild the church, and the officers resolved upon 
the latter course. Prompt action was taken and on May 16, 1866, the 
corner stone was laid for the Centenary Methodist Episcopal church, 
by which name it has ever since been known. In 1835 Bath was made 
a separate charge, and Rev. J. G. Gulick was appointed pastor. The 
subsequent pastors, in succession, were Revs. Chandler Wheeler, Wm. 
Hosmer, E. Dowd, Daniel B. Lawton, Philander Powers, David Ferris, 
Earl B. Fuller, S. W. Alden, J. K. Tuttle, Augustus C. George, E. G. 
Townsend, Nathan Fellows, Andrew Sutherland, C. M. Gardiner, M. 
N. Beers, George E. Havens, W. C. Mattison, Wm. Manning, A. F. 
Morey, J. T. Brownell, S. McGerald, E. T. Green, R. D. Munger, 
George Stratton, James Moss, E. E. Chambers, D.D., K. P. Jervis, T. 
E. Bell, E. G. Piper, and M. C. Dean, the latter the present pastor. 

The Bath Village Baptist church was organized March 16, 1842, at a 
meeting held in the Methodist meeting house, together with an 
ecclesiastical council. The constituent members numbered thirty-one 
persons. The first pastor was Rev. M. Rowley, who remained from 
1842 to 1845. The later pastors have been as follows: Revs. H. 
Spencer, B. F. Balcom, B. R. Swick, J. Parker, E. C. Brown, P. Col- 
grove, E. F. Crane, D. B. OIney, E J. Scott, J. D. Barnes, E. Savage, 
H. H. Cochrane, J. W. Taylor, I. W. Emery, J. C. Cubberly, P. S. 
Vreeland. The present pastor, Rev. V. P. Mather, settled with the 
church in 1890.' The first edifice of this church was erected in 1844, 
and was enlarged in 1859. Extensive repairs were made in 1870. It 
was destroyed by fire in 1887, and rebuilt the same year at an expense 
of $12,000. 

St. Mary's church, Roman Catholic, at Bath, dates its history to about 
the year 1846, when Rev. Thomas McEvoy visited Bath and found 
about ten Catholic families in the vicinity. In the following year 
Father Sheridan was placed in charge of the Catholic families along 
the Conhocton as far west as Dansville. In 1850 Father O'Flaherty 
added Bath to his charge. The early services were usually held at the 



CHURCHES. 373 

house of James Manley, but in 1850 Bartholomew Wilks erected a 
building suitable for a church. In 1861 the parochial residence was 
built. In 1862 a Catholic school was established in the basement of the 
church, and was continued about five years, until the school building 
was completed. In August, 1886, the property adjoining the school 
estate at Bath was purchased by W. B. Ruggles, for $3,300, and on 
this site in the years 1891-2 and '93 an elegant church structure was 
erected. The corner stone was laid May 8, 1892, and on St. Patrick's 
day, 1893, the first services were celebrated within its walls. The suc- 
cession of pastors in charge of St. Mary's parish and church has been 
as follows: Thomas McEvoy, Father Sheridan, Edward O'Flaherty, 
Charles Tierhey, John Donnelly, Joseph McKenna, T. Cunningham, 
Patrick Burns, John Castaldi, Michael Steger, J. M. McGlew, P. Mazu- 
ret, L. Vanderpool, M Darcey, J. J. Baxter and J. J. Gleason. On the 
24th of February, 1889, Father Baxter was transferred to Buffalo, and 
Father Gleason was appointed to the Bath church. Father Gleason 
died during the spring of 1895, and the parish is now (June, 1895) 
without a priest. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Zion church of Bath was organized 
about the year 1838 or '39, by Rev. John Tapkin, whose custom it was 
to walk to Bath from Canandaigua, Elmira, Owego and Binghamton. 
Among the early pastors who preached to the colored people in Bath 
were Revs. J. A. Logan, J. P. Thompson, John Thomas, M. H. Ross 
and C. A. Smith. The present pastor. Rev. B. W. Swain, came to Bath 
in June, 1890, and found the affairs of the church in an unfortunate 
condition, but succeeded, after much labor, in re-establishing and build- 
ing up the society and placing it upon a secure and permanent basis. 
A large new church edifice is now in process of erection. 

The First Presbyterian church of Addison was organized in Septem- 
ber, 1832, by a committee of the Bath Presbytery, comprising Revs. 
A. Donaldson and E. D. Wills. There were seven original members, 
and Porter Phelps and Elihu Wittenhall were elected ruling elders. 
Meetings were held in the Curtis school house previous to the erection 
of the first church edifice, in 1838. The first pastor, as the records dis- 
close, was Rev. Daniel B. Butts, who served in that capacity from 1835 
to 1839, and was followed by Revs. Lewis Hamilton, Darius A. Will- 



374 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY 

iams, A. H. Parmalee and others, in the order named. The new 
church home of this society was built during 1881 and '82, and was 
dedicated in April of the year last mentioned. The present members 
number about one hundred and sixty-five. The pastor is Rev. David 
Mackay. 

The Church of the Redeemer, Protestant Episcopal, of Addison vil- 
lage, dates back in its history to about the year 1847, when Rev. 
Gardner M. Skinner came as missionary to the region. He was fol- 
lowed by other zealous laborers, among them Robert N. Parke, and he 
succeeded in organizing the parish in April, 1854. From this time the 
history of the church has been a record of continued success and 
growth, and the present healthful church is its outgrowth. A church 
edifice was completed, paid for in full, and consecrated by Bishop 
De Lancey on the Sth of April, i860. In this parish are about sixty- 
five Episcopal families The present rector is Rev. W. H. Hawkin. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Addison dates its origin back to 
the early history of the town, and when organization took place two 
societies were formed, the one in 1835 and the other in 1841. In the 
latter year a church home was provided, the earlier services being held 
in the Presbyterian church edifice which the M. E. society aided in 
erecting. By a disastrous fire the M. E. church was destroyed, and 
was replaced with the comfortable structure now occupied by the soci- 
ety. It was dedicated in 1876. The Methodist members in Addison 
number 284, with twenty- five probationers in addition. The present 
pastor is Rev. A. W. Decker. 

St. Catharine's church, Roman Catholic, at Addison, was organized 
in 1854, by Father Cunningham, the zealous priest at St. Mary's, at 
Corning. The parish included all the Catholic families of the vicinity, 
and from its earliest history this church has grown and enlarged. The 
church edifice was built in 1854, but not until 1866 was Addison made 
a separate charge. The elegant new edifice in Curtis Square was erected 
in 1887. This church and parish are under the pastoral care of Rev. 
Father M. Noonan. 

The First Baptist church of Addison was organized May 6, 1869, 
under the faithful efforts of Rev. C. W. Brooks. The first pastor, how- 
ever, was Rev. S. D. Merrick, who settled in October, 1869. During 



CHURCHES. 375 

his pastorate the "chapel" was built (in 1871). The total membership 
in this church is 146, and the church property is valued at about $3,500. 
The present pastor is Rev. W. A. Billings. 

The Evangelical Lutheran church of Avoca was originally organized 
April 9, 1842, and after a period of about twenty-five years was sub- 
stantially reorganized, adopting, on the latter occasion, a new constitu- 
tion. The church was regularly incorporated July 26, 1868, since which 
time it has been one of the permanent institutions of the Conhocton 
valley. The comfortable church edifice was dedicated January, 1870. 

The Baptist church of Avoca was organized January 13, 1847, with 
thirty-three constituent mrmbers Rev. Horace Spencer was the first 
pastor. The early meetings of the society were held in a school house 
and other convenient buildings, and not until the year 1852 was a 
church home erected. This church numbers eighty-eight members, 
and is attached to the Steuben Association. The pastor is Rev. J. E. 
Wilson. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Avoca is one of the largest socie- 
ties of the town and vicinity, and in its history dates back almost to the 
days of pioneership in the town, although a regular organization was 
not effected until a comparatively recent date. The church now num- 
bers 115 members and fifty-five probationers, including those of a joint 
charge in an adjoining town. The pastor of both churches is Rev. W. 
E. Searles. 

The Presbyterian church of Cohocton dates back in its history to the 
primitive and informal meetings held in the town as early as the year 
1802, although it was not until October 8, 1809, that an organization 
was effected, and then Congregational in form of government. On the 
lOth of April. 1823, the church became Presbyterian, On April 6, 
1 8 10, Elijah Parker was chosen deacon. Revs. Aaron C. Collins and 
Abijah Warren were among the first preachers engaged, and in 1818, 
Robert Hubbard was pastor, being followed in that capacity by Revs. 
William Stone, Aaron C. Collins, Statham Clary and others. On Feb- 
ruary 3, 1830, the first meeting house was erected, and the second was 
built during the summer and fall of the year 1872. This church is to- 
day one of the largest in the town. Its pastor is Rev. Mr. Swan. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in the town of Cohocton in its his- 



376 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

tory, from first to last, has comprised three distinct organizations and 
the same number of houses of worship. The mother church, known as 
the M. E. church of Cohocton, was organized in 1829 while the church 
at North Cohocton dates its earliest meetings as far back as 18 16, 
though not then fully organized. The class from which sprung the 
Lent Hill M. E. church was formed in 1831, and the meeting house 
was built in 1834. The society was known as the " First Union Soci- 
ety of Cohocton and Prattsburg." The church house for the society 
first mentioned was provided soon after 1 830, and the building was 
substantially remodeled in 1872. This church seems to have experi- 
enced many changes during the period of its history. It was reorgan- 
ized in 184s, and was made a separate charge ("Liberty charge "), in 
1873. According to the Conference report there are two Methodist 
charges in the town, at Cohocton and North Cohocton, respectively. 
Of the first the pastor is Rev. T. F. Parker, and of the latter. Rev. D. 
C. Nye. 

The First Universalist church of Cohocton was regularly organized in 
September, 1859, although for a number of years previous to that time 
those of this faith had held meetings in the town. A meeting house 
was begun in i860 and completed and dedicated in 1863. The pastor 
of this church is Rev. H. P. Morrell. 

The Catholic church (St. Peters) of Cohocton, was erected in 1861. 
Rev. Father M. Steger was the first missionary priest to read mass in 
the town. The present priest in charge is Rev. Father M. Krischel. 

St. Paul's church, German Lutheran, of Cohocton was organized in 
1 861, by former members of the Lutheran church at Perkinsville. The 
newly formed society at once erected a small house of worship, and also 
chose as trustees Philip Zimmer, Henry Schuriegel, Henry Hengle and 
Philip Bortz. The present pastor of this church is Rev. Mr. Pfieffer. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Zion church of Cohocton was an offshoot 
from St. Paul's church, formed in 1869 by members of the old society 
who severed their relations from it. The meeting house was built dur- 
ing the same year. The pastor is Rev. Mr. Rummell. 

The Free Methodist church at Atlanta is under the pastoral care of 
Rev. M. S. Babcock. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church at North Cohocton is under the pas- 
toral care of Rev. W. F. Dutcher. 



CHURCHES. 377 

The Presbyterian church of Painted Post was organized about 1835, 
and the church edifice was built in 1840. This was the first religious 
society in the village and has had a continuous existence to the present 
time. The pastor is Rev. J. Robinson. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Painted Post was organized about 
the year 1850 and at the same time a church home was built. This is 
now a large church numbering 200 full members and probationers, with 
a proportionally large Sunday school. The present pastor is Rev. 
Arthur Osborne. 

The Baptist church of Erwin, at Painted Post, was organized in 1854, 
and in i860 a chruch was erected. The present membership is eighty- 
eight. Pastor, Rev. C. G. Dilworth. 

The Baptist church of Hornby dates its history back to the year 1820, 
when Elder Beebe preached and labored in this missionary field, hold- 
ing services on Nash Hill. However, it was not until several years 
later that a formal organization was effected. The Baptist families in 
the society number about thirty-five members, and the church property 
is valued at $2,000. The present pastor of the local church and society 
is Rev. O. N. Fletcher. 

The Presbyterian church of Hornby was organized at the Knowlton 
school house, September 14, 183 1, by a committee from the Presbytery 
of Bath. The original members numbered twenty- one, who were re- 
ceived into the church by Rev. B. B. Smith. The first pastor, however, 
was Rev Mr. Barton. A substantial church edifice was built in 1852, 
located at Hornby village. 

The Wesleyan Methodist church at Dyke, in the town of Hornby, 
was organized in 1843, and for several held meetings in the Knowlton 
school house ; and still later in the Presbyterian meeting house. On 
March 4, 1877, the society dedicated a new church edifice near the lit- 
tle hamlet now called Dyke. , 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Hornby was organized as a class 
in 1843, by Rev. James Hall. The church was divided, a por- 
tion of its members withdrawing and forming the Wesleyan so- 
ciety. A Methodist Episcopal reorganization was effected about 
1863, under the leadership of Rev. A. H. Shurtliff and A. P. McCabe, 
the latter being class leader. Meetings were held in the church edifices 
48 



378 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

of other denominations for several years. This society does not now 
report to the annual conference. 

The First Baptist church of Lindley was organized June 13, 1841, 
under the missionary labors of that indefatigable worker, Rev. Thomas 
Sheardown, but despite of the efforts in its behalf the society existed 
less than a quarter of a century, and was dissolved about 1864, 

The Free Methodist church of Lindley was organized in 1866, and a 
church edifice was built at Lindleytown within the next two years. The 
present pastor is Rev. Mr. Kelly. 

The Independent church of Lindley was organized May 20, 1875, 
with about fifty constituent members. In 1877 the society became 
Baptist in religious doctrine. It does not now report to the association. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Lindley was organized at the 
Center in 1850, but did not become a separate charge until 1866, 
Still later another church of the same denomination was formed at 
Lindley, and two charges existed in the town. The church at Presho, 
and also that at Lindley, are under the pastorate of Rev. E. D. Compton. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Rathbone comprises two charges 
and two organized societies, the one at Rathboneville, under the care 
of Rev. J. W. Miller, and the other at Cameron Mills, an auxiliary 
charge. The first class in this vicinity was formed about 1831, and in 
1845 the "Town Line church" was erected. A class was formed in 
Rathboneville about the same time, and in 1850 a church edifice was 
built. 

The Roman Catholic church at Cameron Mills is an outmission from 
Addison and is attended by Father M. Noonan. 

The Methodist Episcopal church in Tuscarora dates its history back 
to about the year 1825, although not until 1833 was a class formed. 
The first meeting house was built in 1849, but was subsequently aban- 
doned. The chufch in the town now forms a part of four charges. 
South Addison, Addison Hill, Orr Hill, and one other. The total 
membership is 1 86, with forty-five probationers. The pastor is Rev. R. 
S. Clark. 

The Free- Will Baptist church of Tuscarora was organized in 1826, with 
nineteen members, as a Free- Communion church, but changed to Free- 
Will character in 1842. The church edifice in the valley was built in 



CHURCHES. 379 



1847, ^^^ was repaired in 1866, and again in 1886. The pastor is Rev. 
Mr. Streeter. Baptigt .meetings are also held in the southeast part of 
the town, and a society has been formed there. 

(For history of the churches of Corning, see city chapter.) 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



WILLIAM FINDLAY ROGERS. 

Gen. William Findlay Rogers, superintendent of the New York State Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Home at Bath, was born in the town of Forks, near Easton, Pa., March 
1, 1820, and is a son of Hon. Thomas J. Rogers, who came from Waterford, North of 
Ireland, to this country with his father, Joseph, in 1786, settling in Philadelphia, 
where the latter engaged in manufacturing. Thomas J. Rogers learned the printer's 
trade and subsequently compiled a Biographical Dictionary for use in public schools. 
He represented the old Tenth Pennsylvania Legion in Congress three terms and 
served as brigadier-general of the State militia in the war of 1812, marching with his 
command to a point near Baltimore to repulse a threatened attack of the British. He 
was a life-long Democrat, and died in 1832, aged fifty-two. His wife was Mary Win- 
ters, daughter of Christian Winters, of Easton, Pa. 

Gen. William F. Rogers, the subject of this sketch, was educated in the public schools 
and early learned the printer's trade at Easton, Pa., whence he removed to Phila- 
delphia. In 1846 he went to Buffalo, N. Y., and entered the office of the Buffalo 
Courier. There he became an active and prominent member of the local militia, 
which he joined in 1846, and rose through all the regular gradations from private 
to major-general, a position he held until the division system was abolished. At the 
breaking out of the Rebellion in 1861 he volunteered with his company (Co. C, 74th 
Regt.) in the Union cause for ninety days, but the secretary of war declined troops 
for that period, and he immediately enhsted in the 21st N. Y. Vol. Inf., which was 
composed of ten companies and organized at Elmira, and of which he was elected 
colonel. Leaving Elmira on June 8, 1861, the regiment with Colonel Rogers at its 
head proceeded to Washington and camped at Kalorama Heights, whence they 
crossed Long Bridge and took station at Fort Runyan. There the gallant colonel 
was placed in command and remained until after the battle of First Bull Run. The 
organization then moved to Arlington Heights, where it was brigaded with the 20th 
N. Y. Militia and 23d and 35th N. Y. Inf. under General Wadsworth. At the open- 
ing of the campaign in March, 1862, they marched to Centerville, which they found 
evacuated, and returned to Alexandria to take steamers for the Peninsula, but this 
plan was changed. While McClellan was advancing up the Peninsula Colonel 
Rogers's detachment returned toward Centerville under McDowell, but before the 
march was completed turned toward Washington, the rebels having made a dem- 
onstration on that city. Colonel Rogers participated with his command in the Mary- 



4 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

land and Virginia campaigns and was mustered out with the regiment in Buffalo in 
in May 1863. 

At about the same time he was appointed commissioner of enrollment for the 30th 
New York Congressional district and soon afterward received the appointment of 
provost-marshal with headquarters in Buffalo, from which he was relieved for politi- 
cal reasons at the close of the year 1863. In 1864 he was appointed auditor of the 
city ; in 1866 he was chosen comptroller ; and in 1868 he was elected mayor. While 
mayor of Buffalo he was instrumental in establishing the present beautiful park 
system, one of the finest in the United States, and in his official capacity appointed 
the first Board of Park Commissioners, thirteen in number, of which he was ex officio 
a member, and of which he was made the first president. At the close of his term 
as mayor he was elected secretary and treasurer of that board and held those posi- 
tions until he resigned in 1887. He was also secretary and treasurer of the Buffalo 
State Hospital while that institution was in process of construction and resigned 
those offices in the fall of 1885. In 1885 General Rogers was elected to the 48th Con- 
gress, and during his term was chairman of the Committee on Printing and a mem- 
ber of the Committee on War Claims. 

In October, 1887, he was elected by the board of trustees superintendent of the 
New York State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Bath, which position he still holds, 
and where he has since resided. He was one of the founders of that institution in 
1879, a member of the committee charged with selecting the site, a member of the 
building committee, and one of its trustees from its inception until 1887. The Home 
was originally started by the G. A. R. of the State. Voluntary subscriptions were 
solicited from the different G. A. R. Posts and the people, and about $80, 00 J were 
contributed. The town of Bath donated the farm upon which the institution is 
located and $10,000 additional to the building fund. A portion of the present hos- 
pital and barracks A, B, and C were partially completed when the funds were ex- 
hausted. The G. A. R. commissioners then went before the Legislature and pro- 
posed that the State complete the home and maintain it as a State institution, which 
proposition was accepted. Since then the State has maintained it, the U. S. govern- 
ment contributing §1 per capita for the average number of inmates in each year. 

General Rogers has been president of the State Military Association and is past 
department commander of the G. A. R. He was the organizer and charter member 
of Chapin Post, No. 2, G. A. R. of Buffalo, the second post organized in the State, 
and is a member of Bidwell-Wilkinson Post, No. 9, of Buffalo. He is a member and 
past master of Hiram and Demolay Lodges, F. & A. M. , past high priest of Buffalo 
Chapter, No. 73, R. A. M. , and past commander of Lake Erie Commandery, No. 20, 
K. T. He was married, first, to Miss Caroline M. Waldron, of Honesdale, Pa., who 
died in 1846. He married, second, in 1849, Miss Phebe Demoney, of Buffalo, who 
died at the Soldiers' Home in Bath in October, 1890. By his first marriage General 
Rogers had one son. Franklin, a printer of Washington. His second wife bore him 
three children: Mary W. (Mrs. WilHam C. Brown), of New York city; Florence N. 
(Mrs. Charles N. Armstrong), of Buffalo; and Thomas J., a prominent civil engineer 
of Buffalo, who was engineer In charge of the Soldiers' Home during the laying out 
of the grounds and construction of the reservoir and water works. 







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BIOGRAPHICAL. 5 

FRANKLIN J. MARSHAL. 

Franklin J. Marshal, only surviving son of the late Gen. Otto Frederick Mar^al 
(which see), was born on the Marshal homestead in Wheeler, Steuben county, where 
he has speiit his active life, on November 25, 1829, and received his education in the 
public schools of his native town and at Alfred University in Allegany county. He 
succeeded his distinguished father upon the paternal farm and worthily continued 
the laudable enterprises inaugurated by that pioneer. He became a progressive 
farmer, an extensive breeder of thoroughbred merino sheep, and latterly a heavy 
grower of tobacco, carrying on all these various interests with great sagacity and 
ability. He was one of the earliest tobacco growers in town, and established a busi- 
ness in this line which has more recently been largely increased by his only son. 
Otto F., the present supervisor of Wheeler. 

Mr. Marshal inherited the native characteristics of the German race. Enterpris- 
ing, public-spirited, and honest, liberally endowed with the attributes which marked 
his father's notable career, he chose the life of a husbandman with innate knowledge 
of its requirements, and succeeded beyond the average degree. He attained the dis- 
tinction of a representative farmer and won the approbation of all classes of citizens. 
He has long been an active and influential member of the Steuben County Agricul- 
tural Society, and for one year served as its president. His advice upon various mat- 
ters has been frequently sought and freely given, and his friends are numbered by 
the score. For many years he was an influential factor in politics, often a delegate 
to political conventions and for several years supervisor of his town, serving with 
credit and fidelity. 

October 17, 1854, Mr. Marshal was married to Miss Valora E. Smith, of Avoca, 
Steuben county, by whom he has two children : Dollie V. and Otto F. The latter 
was born on the Marshal homestead in Wheeler on August 5, 1860, and obtained his 
education at the Franklin Academy in Prattsburg. He has spent his life upon the 
original farm, where he is heavily interested in growing tobacco and breeding regis- 
tered merino sheep. He is a member of the Steuben County Agricultural Society, 
and is serving his fourth term as supervisor of Wheeler. 



JOHN G. KELLY, M. D. 

Dr. John G. Kelly was born in Bergen, Genesee county, N. Y., February 13, 
1857, the third son of a family of seven children of James Kelly, a farmer and stock 
breeder of Genesee county. He was educated in the common school, Bergen High 
School and Brockport State Normal School, where he taught school two terms in the 
academic department. He took up the study of medicine in tne fall of 1881, enter- 
ing the medical department of the University of Buffalo from the Normal School, 
and graduating from that institution February 26, 1884. He was interne in the Sis- 
ters' Hospital of Buffalo the last two years of his medical school attendance, and 
April, 1884, came to Hornellsville, where he has since been engaged in regular prac- 
tice of his profession, and has won the highest esteem and respect of his numerous 



6 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

friends and acquaintances. In 1888 he became identified with the drug firm of 
George T. Reed & Co. , now composed of G. T. Reed, Franklin D. Sherwood and 
Dr. J. G. Kelly. He is a member of the Hornellsville Medical and Surgical Asso- 
ciation, Steuben County Medical Association, the Erie Railway Surgeons' Associa- 
tion and the New York State Railway Surgeons' Association. He is the chancellor 
of Branch 33, C. M. B. A., and ex-president of the A. O. H., and was a delegate to 
the State Convention m 1894. June 1, 1887, he married Theresa Henneberg, of Port 
Jervis, N. Y., by whom he has five children. In politics the doctor is a Democrat, 
and represented the Third Ward in the Board of Alderman in 1891-92 ; was health 
officer in 1886-87. He is chairman of the Democratic City Committee at the present 
time. He has been president of the St. James Mercy Hospital staff of physicians 
since its organization ; also he is one of the trustees of the hospital. 



JOHN D. CONDERMAN. 

John D. Conderman was born in Warren, Herkimer county, N. Y., September 30, 
1820. He was the son of Adam J. and Elizabeth Conderman who were of Dutch 
Protestant descent. His forefathers were among a colony of Dutch who left their 
country on account of religious persecution. Their fleets became separated in their 
voyage to this country, some landing on the coast of New England, the others enter- 
ing New York harbor from whence they migrated up the Hudson and out the Mo- 
hawk locating in Herkimer county. 

In 1884 Adam J. Conderman together with his family consisting of his wife and 
ten children, five sons, Abraham, David, John D., Caleb and Hiram, and five daugh- 
ters, Mary, Margaret, Eliza, Rachel and Catherme, moved to what was known as 
Dutch street in the town of Fremont, Steuben county, N. Y., where his family grew 
up and where he spent the major portion of his remaining days, dying at the home 
of his son John D., at the age of eighty-six. He fought in the war of 1812 and his 
father, John Conderman, the namesake of John D., was an officer in the Revolu- 
tionary war. 

John D. Conderman, at the age of twenty-six, married Aseneth Spaulding, daugh- 
ter of George and Elizabeth Spaulding, then residents of the town of Howard, N. Y. , 
and purchasing a farm on the cross road from Dutch street to what was known as 
the Big Creek Post-office, erected a log house and began life in common with pioneers 
of that day. 

Here he lived and raised his family consisting of four sons. Frank Conderman, 
who is the present owner of a large farm on Dutch street which has never been owned 
out of the Conderman family, being settled by John Conderman in 1815. Lavurn D. 
Conderman who now resides in Fremont Center, and who also istheownerof alarge 
farm adjoining hisfather'sold homestead. Charles Conderman, a practicing attorney 
and counsellor at law in Hornellsville, and George Conderman, a practicing physi- 
cian and surgeon in Hornellsville. 

John D. Conderman was a man of exemplary habits, very energetic and industrious, 
possessed of a very keen intellect and extra good judgment and being blessed with a 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 7 

wife who proved herself a helpmate, always willing and capable of doing her share 
in their voyage through life and to whose foresight and good counsel a large share 
of their ultimate happiness and success was due, passed a life of almost continued 
success resulting in the accumulation of a goodly fortune as a result of their toil. 

He never sought political distinction but was always looked upon as one of the 
staunchest and representative men of the town, so much so that his home was made 
the headquarters of salesman and drovers who availed themselves of his judgment 
in buying all kinds of stock but more especially to horses, for horses being one of his 
hobbies of life, his farm was always well stocked with the finest horses that the coun- 
try afforded. This business, though obsolete now, was one of considerable moment 
in those days, and was a means of profit which together with good management and 
economy soon made him the owner of 1,000 acres of Fremont's choicest lands. 

During the Anti-Renter Insurrection his ideas of justice would not permit him to 
sympathize with them in their position taken, thus provoking their wrath which was 
aggravated by their appreciating the strength his influence might have exerted if 
directed in their interest, they threatened him with all kinds of bodily and personal 
injury, as the bjirning of buildings, etc., and even did go so far as to shoot his horses 
while running in the pastures. But right triumphed at last, for while they were 
spending their time and means fighting their 'claims he had paid for his home and 
several farms besides. 

In 1874 he removed to Hornellsville, N. Y., where his remaining days were pleas- 
antly spent in looking after his large property interests and educating his sons. He 
died July 17, 1890, leaving his widow and four sons to survive him. 



MARTIN PINNEY. 

Martin Pinney, a life-long leading citizen of northern Steuben and for more than 
half a century one of the foremost residents of Prattsburg, was born in that town on 
the farm now owned by Purlee Fisher on the 16th of April, 1826. His father, Aaron 
Pinney, son of Philander, was born in Galway, Saratoga county, N. Y. , August 28, 
1801, and came to Prattsburg in 1822, where he married Miss Sophronia, adopted 
daughter of Jeduthan Higby ; in 1854 he removed to the village, where his wife died 
in 1872, and where his death occurred m 1881. He was supervisor of the town sev- 
eral years. Martin Pinney was the eldest of their nine children, and was reared on 
the paternal farm, where as a youth he worked summers, teaching school winters. 
At the Franklin Academy, where he finished his education, he bore the reputation of 
a progressive and faithful student. At an early age he began his long and success- 
ful mercantile career as a clerk at Bath and Avon, and in the fall of 1853 he returned 
to Prattsburg, where he established himself in business in the old " Kremlin Block " 
in partnership with William B. Boyd and James J. Hotchkin under the firm name of 
W. B. Boyd & Co. Upon the death of Mr. Hotchkin and the retirement of Mr. Boyd 
two years later, Mr. Pinney formed a partnership with H. B. Williams, as Pinney & 
Williams, which continued a long time. In 1860-61 he built the handsome brick 
Pinney block and carried on a successful mercantile trade there from April 1, 1861, 
for twenty-eight years. 



8 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Mr. Pinney was especially prominent in the development of the village of Pratts- 
burg, to the cause of which he gave much time and untiring energy. His faith in its 
future was unswerving, and his zeal in promoting its material interests never faltered. 
In this respect he became the leading and influential citizen of the place. Being a 
heavy taxpayer, and intimately identified with its growth and prosperity, he was 
ever foremost among the representative inhabitants in fostering and encouraging 
every movement which had the welfare of the village at heart. He was the chief 
promoter of the Kanona and Prattsburg railroad, and to him more than to any other 
man is due the inception and construction of that line from Kanona northward. As 
the business of his village increased in volume he intuitively foresaw the necessity of 
such a road, and long before it was started he put forth every energy for its consum- 
mation, even to involving his entire fortune in the interests of the project. He was 
the prime mover in organizing the company, and upon its incorporation was elected 
its president, a position he held until shortly before his death. He lived to see the 
line completed and distributing its benefits to the town he honored with his residence 
and business ability. 

Mr. Pinney was also prominent in various other connections. A life-long Demo- 
crat he was for several 3'ears the supervisor of Prattsburg, and in local politics bore 
the distinction of a leader. In education he always took an active interest, particu- 
larly in planning for the prosperity of the academy, in which he personally looked 
after matters of detail. He was for a number of terms a member and president of 
the Board of Education, and for a long time a trustee of the Presbyterian church, of 
which he was a regular attendant and liberal supporter. A great reader of the Bible 
he was a devout christian, and in various ways fostered and encouraged the cause of 
religion. Dignified, courteous, and simple in manner, honest, kindhearted, and 
generous, he won hosts of friends and bore the respect, esteem, and confidence of 
every one. He was a devoted husband, and found in his home the height of enjoy- 
ment. He lived the life of an upright citizen, and left an indelible impression of his 
eventful and successful career upon the community. 

Mr. Pinney was married, first, on October 20, 1858, to Miss Electa Jane Gillett, 
who died in 1863. October 20, 1865, he married Mrs. Fannie Lewis Smith, whose 
death occurred September 18, 1892. On February 14, 1894, he was married to Mrs. 
Elsie J. Combs, who survives him and occupies the handsome homestead in Pratts- 
burg village, where he died on Sunday morning, July 1, 1894, at the age of a little 
more than sixty-eight years. 



GEORGE HOLLANDS. 

George Hollan'ds w,as born in Sussex county, England, on January 9, 1841. His 
parents, William and Charlotte Hollands, with a family of six children, came to this 
country in the year 1850. Soon after their arrival they found their way to Mansfield, 
Tioga county, Pa. , where they have since resided. Four more children were bom to 
them after their arrival to this country. They are still living and enjoying reason- 
ably good health and are in their eighty-fourth and eighty-first year of age respec- 
tively. George Hollands, the subject of this sketch, at the age of eleven years found 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 9 

a home with a respectable farmer, with whom he was to live until he was twenty-one 
years of age, with the understanding that he was to receive a common school educa- 
tion and when he became of age he was to have a good suit of clothes and $100 in 
money. Before arriving at the age of maturity, however, rhe war broke out, and in 
September, 1861, he left the farm and enlisted in Co. B, 101st Pa. Vols., and served 
in the army for the period of three years and ten months, during which time he was 
engaged in many important battles. He was wounded in the battle of Fair Oaks on 
May 31, 1862, and was taken prisoner at the surrender of Plymouth, N. C, April 20, 
1864. He was an inmate of Andersonville and Florence prisons until the following 
December, and has never recovered from the exposure and suffering of that terrible 
summer. He was shipwrecked in the Potomac River while on his way to join his 
regiment in April, 1865, and was only saved from a watery grave by clinging to the 
mast of the ship all night, where he was picked up in an exhausted condition by a 
United States gunboat, the following morning. He was discharged from the service 
in July, 1865, having risen from a private to the rank of first lieutenant. Soon after 
the close of the war he embarked in the grocery business at Hornellsville, under the 
firm name of Hollands & Fletcher, occupying what was then known as the old 
" Mamouth Store,'' opposite the Park. On January 2, 1866, he married Lydia Bailey 
of Mansfield, Pa. Five children were born to them, viz . Minnie, now the wife of 
Charles A. Smith of Middletown, N. Y. ; Eva and Robert, who died of diphtheria in 
October, 1876; George Hollands, jr., who was born in November, 1875, and who is 
now at the age of twenty years, carrying on an extensive grocery business in the 
village of Bath, under the firm name of Geo. Hollands, jr., & Co. ; and Burr R. Hol- 
lands, who was born in June, 1878, and is now being educated as a pharmacist. Mr. 
Hollands is an enterprising citizen, a man of sober and industrious habits and a 
prominent member of the First M. E. church of Hornellsville. He has always been 
a prominent and active member of the Republican party and has had the honor of 
representing his ward as village trustee for six years prior to the organization of 
the city. In 1879 he was elected to the important ofBce of county superintendent of 
the poor, in which capacity he served for three years. In 1886 he very abl\r repre- 
sented the town of Hornellsville on the Board of Supervisors. He was commander 
of Doty Post, No. 236, G. A. R., for two years, 1889 and '90. He was one of the in- 
corporators of the Hornell Sanitarium Co. and for several years a director and treas- 
urer of said company. In the fall of 1891 he was elected sheriff of Steuben county, 
which office he very satisfactorily filled for the term of three years. A few months 
after his retirement from the office of sheriff he, in company with Mr. O. L. Thomp- 
son, purchased the interest of J W. Bachman of Hornellsville, N. Y., in the drug 
trade, and at the present time are carrying on a very prosperous business under the 
firm name of Thompson & Hollands. 



FURMAN GARDNER. 

FuEMAN Gardner, one of the leading pioneers of the town of Wheeler, was born 
in Albany county, N. Y., November 7, 1793, being an only child and was left 
an orphan at a very early age. When seven years old he was brought to this then 
e 



10 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

wild and picturesque section by Capt. Silas Wheeler, from whom the town subse- 
quently received its name, and with whom he lived until he attained his majority. 
On June 17, 1817, he married Miss Elizabeth Myrtle, eldest child of Philip and Mar- 
garet Myrtle, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1799, and who came here with her 
parents in 1800, settling on the farm now owned by D. Z. Gibbs. The newly married 
couple located on the farm now owned and occupied by their son, Wilham Gardner, 
where they spent the remainder of their lives. He died June 6, 1856, and his wife 
on December 22, 1883. 

Mr. Gardner was one of the hardest working men in town. Endowed with 
a robust constitution he cleared his forest farm, mainly with his own hands, convert- 
ing it from an unbroken wilderness into a pleasant and fruitful home, and adding to 
it from time to time until he owned 170 acres. He was industrious and prosperous, 
and systematically followed the business of agriculture upon what might be termed 
modern methods. He was long regarded as one of the best farmers in town. His 
first house was a log cabin, rude and inconvenient, but suitable for those days. This 
was finally superseded by a more pretentious frame dwelling, and this in turn 
eventually gave place to the present house, built and occupied by their son William. 
Thus three habitations for the family have been erected on the same site, two of 
them by the subject of this sketch. 

In the common affairs of life Mr. Gardner always took a keen interest, and in fur- 
thering every worthy movement he gave both time and means. While a young man 
he served his country as a soldier in the war of 1812, and in later years he was active 
as a substantial citizen in public matters, particularly in the cause of religion. In 
politics he was a lifelong Whig, but never sought office nor official distinction. He 
was long a prominent member and liberal supporter of the Wheeler Presbyterian 
church, and throughout a useful life bore the respect, esteem and confidence of a 
wide circle of friends and acquaintances. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gardner had born to them six sons and four daughters, namely: 
Sarah (Mrs. Ezra Haire), widow, born May 9, 1818. of Wheeler ; Silas, born April 2, 
1820, deceased; Rebecca (Mrs. A. J. Raplee), born September 18, 1833, a widow, of 
Hillsdale, Mich. ; Polly, born March 31, 1825, died August 2, 1827; Henry, born Oc- 
tober 5, 1828, of Wheeler; Addison, born October 16, 1832, of Bath, Mich. ; William, 
born May 25, 1834, of Wheeler ; Benjamin, born March 2, 1837, died August 22. 1839 ; 
Thomas, born August 14, 1839, of Wheeler ; and Harriet (Mrs. William Rose), born 
August 16, 1843, of Bath, Mich. 

Mrs. Gardner practically spent her entire life in the town of Wheeler, and witnessed 
its transformation from dense forests to a prosperous community. She related in 
later vears many interesting stories of the Indians and pioneer times, when settlers 
did not enjoy the benefits of modern civilization. She was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian church in 1835, as was also her husband, and remained a 
communicant of that body until her death. Endowed with rare personal qualifica- 
tions she was a true woman, a consistent and devout Christian, and a worthy help- 
mate and mother. 




FURMAN GARDNER. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 11 

GEORGE C. McNETT, M. D. 

George C. McXett, M.D , of Bath, youngest child of the late Col. Andrew J. Mc- 
Nett, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., July 11, 1857. His paternal grandfather served as 
a commissioned officer at Sackett's Harbor during the war of 1813 and gallantly saved 
the garrison from capture by the British ; for this act he was subsequently placed in 
charge of the post and neighboring lighthouses. Col. Andrew J. McNett, a native of 
Henderson, Jefferson county, born in October, 1819, completed his education in 
Belleville Union Academy, studied law with Augustus Ford at Sackett's Harbor, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1847. Settling in Buffalo he formed a partnership with 
Hon. Hiram Barton, the mayor of the city. He became a recognized leader of the 
Democratic party there, and was elected alderman of the Seventh ward in 1855, dis- 
trict attorney in 1856-57, and member of assembly in 1858. In the Legislature he 
was made chairman of the Committee on Railroads. In 1859 he settled in Belmont, 
Allegany county, where he practiced his profession until 1861, when he enlisted in 
the 93d N. Y. Vols, as captain. June 12, 1863, he resigned that post and was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of the 141st Regt. Vols., and was mustered out June 25, 
1865. He participated in many of the principal battles of the war and lost an arm at 
Peach Tree Farm on July 20, 1864. In the fall of 1866 he was commissioned a cap- 
tain in the 44th U. S. Infantry, assisting in the reconstruction of Virginia and act- 
ing as mayor of the cities of Lynchburg and Suffolk. He was subsequently appointed 
judge-advocate of the Washington district, serving under Generals Emory, Canby, 
and Brooks. Pie was placed on the retired list with the rank of colonel on Decem- 
ber 10, 1873. Colonel McNett was repeatedly supervisor of Belmont, president of the 
village, -and was a candidate of his party in AUeganj' county for congressman, judge 
and surrogate, assemblyman, and district attorney, and never failed to reduce the 
majority of his opponent in a Republican stronghold. He died in Belmont on March 
8, 1895. He married Miss Abby Clark, daughter of John Clark, a wealthy citizen of 
Belleville, Jefferson county, who survives him, as do also their three children: 
Priscilla (Mrs. J. E. Norton), of Rutherford, N. J.; James H., of Hornellsville ; and 
Dr. George C. , of Bath. 

Dr. George C. McNett attended the Union School of Belmont and completed a four 
years' course at Alfred University in 1876. He received the degree of M. D. from 
the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1881, and im- 
mediately afterward began the practice of his profession at Belmont, where in the 
same year he joined the Allegany County Medical Society, of which he is still a mem- 
ber, and of which he was president. 

In the winter of 1883-84 he took a post-graduate and polyclinic course at the Post- 
graduate School in New York city, and in 1886 he removed to Bath, having received 
the appointment of surgeon to the Soldiers' Home. He filled that position with dis- 
tinguished ability until 1889, since which time he has been engaged in general prac- 
tice, making surgical operations and disease of the nervous system a specialty. 

Dr. McNett is one of the leading members of the medical profession in Western 
New York. As a citizen he has always taken a keen interest in public affairs and en- 
courages every project which promises benefit to the community. For the past two 
years he has been health officer of the village of Bath. He is a member of the New 



12 Landmarks of steuben county 

York State Association of Railwa)' Surgeons and is also a prominent Mason, being a 
member of Belmont Lodge, No. 474, F. & A. M., Wellsville Chapter, No. 143, R. A. 
M., Corning Consistory, 32° Scottish Rite, and Ismailia Temple, Nobles of the 
M3'stic Shrine. He has held all the chairs in the order and was past master of Bel- 
mont Lodge, and is also a member of the Elks, No. 63, Elmira. 

June 1, 1882, Dr. McNett married Mary Agnes Stewart, daughter of Dr. E. S. 
Stewart, a prominent physician and banker of EUicottville, Cattaraugus county. They 
have one child, Celia. 



HENRY W. FERINE. 

Henry W. Ferine, of Bath, the oldest merchant in Steuben county, was born in 
South Dansville, N. Y., July 2, 1821, and is the eldest of seven children born to Will- 
iam Ferine, jr. His grandfather, William Ferine, sr. , came to this country from 
France about 1750 and took an active part as a cavalryman in the Revolutionary war. 
He first settled in Washington county, N. Y., whence he moved at a very early day 
to Dansville, Livingston county, where he followed farming upon land now occupied 
by a large portion of the village, of which he was one of the founders. William 
Ferine, jr., was born February 25, 1792, in Livingston county, and settled in South 
Dansville; he subsequently returned to Dansville and died there in May, 1879. He 
was one of the founders, a prominent member and long a deacon of the Dansville Fres- 
byterian church, and married Miss Abigail K. Whiting, daughter of Col. John Whit- 
ing, of Bath. She was born August 29, 1801, and died February 11, 1858. Of their 
seven children Henry W., the eldest, and Clarence (born February B, 1842), the 
youngest, of New York city, are living. 

Henry W. Ferine was educated in the public schools of Dansville and the high 
school of Bath, where m 1835 he entered the employ of Hon. William S. Hubbell, a 
leading dry goods merchant, with whom he remained five years. He was then a 
clerk for four years in the same business for Timothy Whiting, with whom in 1844 he 
formed the partnership of Whiting & Ferine, which continued until 1847, when Mr. 
Whiting retired. In 1848 Mr. Ferine became associated with his brother, William 
W., under the firm name of H. W. Ferine & Co., and continued thus till 1860. In 
1862 he took in Moses Davison and William H. Nichols as partners under the style 
of H. W. Ferine & Co. , which continued for three years. He carried on the business 
alone until 1892, when he formed the present firm of Ferine & Davison by taking in 
his former partner, Moses Davison. Mr. Ferine has been in continuous trade in Bath 
since 1844, and is the oldest merchant in Steuben county. He commenced on a small 
scale and gradually increased his business until he became the most extensive mer- 
cantile dealer in that village, doing more at one time than all the other merchants 
combined. He built the Ferine block in 1861-62, and upon occupying it es- 
tablished the first department store in the county, which he has continued uninter- 
ruptedly to the present time. An establishment of that character in a place like Bath 
was then a novelty and many were the predictions of its failure, but Mr. Ferine has 
successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the enterprise and with great skill has 
made it a permanent and profitable concern. 




C^^^y^-^-*-?,/ 



BIOaEAPHICAL. 13 

Mf. Ferine has built more structures in Bath than any other one man. He has 
erected four imposing business blocks and three of the finest dwellings in town, and 
has always taken an active interest in local afEairs, particularly in public improve- 
ments. He is heavily interested in various enterprises of a general and private na- 
ture, and is one of the largest taxpayers m the village. He was one of the prime 
movers in securing the Erie railroad and the Soldier's Home, and to these and many 
other institutions he has given freely. No movement which promises benefit 
to the community is consummated without his aid and encouragement. He has 
always been a. Republican and somewhat active in politics, and for several years 
served as village trustee, two of which he was president. He is one of the represen- 
tative and influential citizens of the town and county, and and is ever ready to ad- 
vance the material interests of the people, especially in the cause of education and 
religion. 

August 28, 1847, he married Miss Elizabeth S. Read, daughter of Capt. James 
Read, of Bath, a lady of great refinement of beauty of character, who died March 27, 
1894. They had three sons; James R., born Augost 3, 1848, died November 5, 1864; 
Wilham H., born December 3, 1850, died May 10, 1874; and Clarence R., born March 
3, 1867, died September 16, 1869. 



ALANSON STEPHENS. 

AL.'iNSON Stephens, eldest son of Benjamin Stephens, was born in Hornellsville, 
on a farm on December 8, 1820, and is the oldest living native of the town. His 
great-grandfather, Uriah Stephens, born in 1724, came with his son Elijah from the 
Wyoming valley in Pennsylvania to what is now the town of Canisteo, Steuben 
county, in 1789, settling on lot 8 on the 35th of December of that year, and being 
one of the original seven owners of that township. Uriah Stephens died there Au- 
gust 14, 1800; his wife was born in 1731 and at the time of her death was ninety-four 
years old. Their son Elijah succeeded to the homestead and reared a large family 
of children, of whom Benjamin, the father of the subject of this sketch, died June 4, 
1837, aged thirty-eight, being born in Canisteo in 1799. The family is of English 
descent, and is one of the oldest and most respected in Steuben county. Its mem- 
bers have for one full century taken an active part in business, social, and official 
life and in various capacities have served their townsmen with fidelity and distinc- 
tion. 

Benjamin Stephens married Arathusa Hamilton and had born to him six children, 
all living, as follows: Alanson, Elijah, Daniel, Albert, Helen, and Cordelia. Mr. 
Stephens settled in the town of Hornellsville and died here, as did also his wife. 

Alanson Stephens received such meagre educational advantages as the public 
schools of his native town afforded. His early life was spent principally in hard 
work upon his father's farm, where he acquired the robust constitution and thrifty 
habits which later proved of inestimable value. 'While a youth he learned the trade 
of carpenter and joiner and followed that occupation about six years, when he decid- 
ed to embark in more promising fields of employment. He engaged extensively in 
lumbering in Hornellsville, and during several years cleared some 1,500 acres of 



14 LANDMARKS OP STEUBEN COUNTY. 

heavy pine timber in the town, manufacturing it into lumber on the premises ^nd 
shipping the products to distant markets. He had a large saw mill on the Canisteo 
river that was twice burned and twice rebuilt under his ownership, and there he met 
with two or three serious accidents which threatened his future activity. He con- 
tinued this business until his supply of timber was exhausted, when he turned his 
energies to agricultural pursuits, which have since largely engrossed his attention. 
He owns three farms, aggregating about 500 acres, all lying just south of the city, 
and upon the one he occupies he settled in 1852. In 1880 he started a meat market 
in Hornellsville which was continued about twelve years by his son, Walter A. 
Stephens. 

Mr. Stephens has been a life-long Democrat and is the oldest school official in point 
of service in the county. He served as school trustee of the villagfe of Hornellsville 
for eighteen consecutive years, or until the village board of education was organized, 
when he became a member and the first "president of that body. He held both of 
these positions for fifteen successive years, completing a continuous service of thirty- 
three years. During that period he had charge of the erection of the First ward and 
Lincoln school buildings and the reconstruction of the Sixth ward and Park school 
houses. No man has taken a deeper or a more active interest in the development 
of local education than h as Mr. Stephens, and no one has devoted more time and 
energy to the cause. He was loan commissioner for the State for three years, high- 
way commissioner of his town for eleven years, and supervisor of Hornellsville two 
terms. He was one of the organizers and first members of the Hornellsville Farmers' 
club, and as superintendent had charge of the grounds and construction of the 
buildings, etc., at the time of its inception. Ever since then he has been actively 
identified with that organization. In various other movements — in religious and 
social matters, in public affairs, and in numerous business relations — Mr. Stephens 
has been a foremost promoter. 

He was married in 1841 to Miss Catherine Doty, of Hornellsville. She died March 
7, 1863, aged forty-one, leaving five children, viz.; Christopher B., born April 19, 
1844, died in 1879; Thaddeus A., born September 1, 1845; Walter A., born March 6, 
1852; William D., born October 10, 1854; and Catherine E., born September 25, 
1856, who married September 7, 1876, Henry M. Bennett, who with Alanson Stephens 
conducts the meat market previously mentioned. Mr. Stephens married for his 
second wife, in July, 1881, Mrs. Philena Pickard, of Hornellsville, 



EDWARD F. WILLETS. 

Hon. Edward F. Willets, who has filled the office of mayor of the city of Hor- 
nellsville since March, 1892, was born in the town of Ledyard, Cayuga county, N. Y. , 
and is the youngest of three sons of Abram Willets, a native of Queens county, who 
spent the last years of his life on a farm upon which the subject of this sketch passed 
his infancy and youth. He completed his education at Poplar Ridge Seminary, and 
at an early age engaged in mechanical pursuits, which he followed for five years. He 
then entered mercantile business in Lake Ridge, Tompkins county, and later in 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 15 

Fleming, Cayuga county, and thence in 1857 removed to Angelica, Allegany county, 
where he was engaged in lumbering for a time. Leaving there he operated a saw 
and flouring mill in Belmont until 1877, when he went to Bradford, Pa., and engaged 
in the oil business, with which he has ever since been identified_, 

In 1883 Mr. Willetts removed to Hornellsville, where he has since resided. He has 
oeen a life-long Republican, and for many years an active and influential factor in 
political affairs. He was for four years supervisor of the town of Amity, Allegany 
county, and while a resident of that county served also as internal revenue collector 
four years. After coming to Hornellsville he represented the city for four years on 
the Board of Supervisors, and in 1892 was elected mayor, to which office he was re- 
elected in 1894. In all these positions he has served with satisfaction to his con- 
stituents. As mayor he has been instrumental in effecting many notable and sub- 
stantial improvements, which testify to his progressive spirit and enterprise. Dur- 
ing his occupancy of the office of mayor the present electric street railway system 
was placed in operation, the sewer system was constructed and two miles of brick 
pavement were laid in the city. Mr. Willets was the first Republican mayor of Hor- 
nellsville and the second elected since the city's incorporation. 

Mr. Willets was married in 1856 to Miss Amelia Smith, of Ledyard, Cayuga county. 
They have no children living. 



JOHN W. DAVIS. 

John W. Davis, the eldest child of Orlando Davis, and the grandson of a sol- 
dier of the war of 1812. was born in Sherburne, Chenango county, N. Y., Octo- 
ber 5, 1820, and received his education in the public schools and academy of his na- 
tive town. His father drove a team from Hartford to New Haven, Conn. , during 
the war of 1812, and late in life moved to Yates county, N. Y. , where he died in Jan- 
uary, 1880, aged eighty-six years." He married in 1819 Mrs. Fanny Adsit, widow of 
Leonard Adsit and daughter of Noah Davenport, a prominent farmer and merchant 
in Columbia county. She had five children by her first husband, viz. . Albert, 
Arunah M., James M., Martin and Alma; by her second marriage she had three sons: 
John W. Davis, the subject of this sketch; Charles D., of Yates county, and George, 
who died, aged thirteen. She died April 28, 1871, at the age of eighty-six. 

John W. Davis came to Hammondsport, Steuben county, in 1837, as clerk for his 
half-brother, A. M. Adsit, who was engaged in general merchandising and forward- 
ing. He remained in that capacity until 1842, when he was admitted to partnership 
under the firm name of Adsit & Davis, which continued till 1851, when Mr. Adsit 
moved to St. Lawrence county and Mr. Davis became sole owner of the business. 
He then increased the scope of his operations and carried on a large mercantile, pro- 
duce storage and forwarding trade alone until 1877, when he closed out one of 
the most extensive and successful concerns ever prosecuted in Hammondsport. He 
was a heavy dealer in lumber, grain and wool, which he shipped to eastern markets. 
He wa^'s the principal owner and manager for a considerable time of a line of some 
twelve freight boats that ran between Hammondsport and New York, which was in- 
stituted by A. M. Adsit at the opening of the Crooked Lake Canal, In this business 



16 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

Mr. Davis was remarkably successful, and acquired as wide a reputation as his vil- 
lage in days when it was noted as one of the leading and most important grain and 
lumber markets in the State. He was by all odds the heaviest operator in prodvice 
in the county, and discontinued the trade only when the grape industry superseded 
all other interests. 

In 1881 Mr. Davis became a director and general manager of the reorganized Ur- 
bana Wine Company, one of the largest corporations of the kind in this famous sec- 
tion, and these positions he has ever since held. He has been interested in farming 
and grape growing since 1865, and owns and occupies the place upon which the first 
grape vines in town were set. These were planted more than sixty years ago by 
Rev. W. W. Bostwick, and have continuously borne excellent fruit. Mr. Davis has 
long been one of the prominent and extensive viniculturists of this locality, and to 
him much of its fame as a grape section is due. He was largely instrumental in 
bringing about the construction of the Bath & Hammondsport Railroad, and upon 
the organization of the company was elected its first secretary and director, which 
latter office he still holds. He has also been a director inithe Lake Keuka Naviga- 
tion Company most of the time since its inception, and has always taken an active 
interest in the material prosperity of his village and town. 

Mr. Davis is a Republican and has been a prominent factor in local politics, though 
not in the sense of a politician. He was supervisor of Urbana in 1848, member of 
Assembly in 1880, and was one of the first board of trustees of the village of Ham- 
mondsport, an office he held several years. He has also been president of the vil- 
lage and was one of th« prime movers in effecting its incorporation. He has been a 
member of St. James's Protestant Episcopal church about forty-five years, and has 
served successively as vestrj-man, junior warden and senior warden much of that 
time. To this parish he has given valuable services, especially during the erection 
of the new edifice, which cost about §15,000, and which is one of the finest village 
structures of the kind in the country. As chairman of its building committee, com- 
posed of able and representative men, he has had the principal charge of its con- 
struction during the summer and fall of 1895, and to him is largely due the efficient 
management which has characterized the work. 

August 10, 1848, Mr. Davis was married to Miss Sarah Hunt, of Dansville, N. Y. , 
daughter of Richard Hunt, of Illinois. She died July 3, 1894, aged seventy-two. 



WALTER LULL MOORE. 

Walter Lull Moore, son of Nathaniel Moore, was born in the town of But- 
ternuts (now Morris), Otsego county, N. Y., November 1, 1815. He was reared a 
farmer, a business he followed there until 1863, and obtained his education in the 
public schools of the neighborhood. Endowed with the sterling characteristics of a 
worthy parentage, he imbibed the qualities which make the successful man and re- 
spected citizen, and from an early age pursued a career of quiet but marked useful- 
ness. On September 7, 1842, he was married to Miss Esther AdeHa Fairchild, of 
New Lisbon, Otsego county, who was born April 29, 1832. Before this, on February 




FARY B. BEECHER. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 17 

24, 1838, he was commissioned by Gov. William L. Marcy a lieutenant in the 251st 
Regt. , infantry, 2d Brigade, 6th Division, New \ ork State Militia, and on August 8 
of the same year was promoted captain, which position he resigned July 14, 1842. In 
1863 he came with his wife and four children to Hammondsport, Steuben county, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, dying January 7. 1893. His estimable wife 
preceded him on December 29, 1876, being killed in the memorable railroad accident 
at Ashtabula, Ohio, of that date. 

Arriving at Hammondsport, Mr. Moore engaged in viniculture, a businesshe prose- 
cuted with marked success until his death. He was one of the pioneer grape grow- 
ers in that now famous section, and for many years carried on an extensive vineyard. 
About 1865 he also engaged in the manufacture of cabinet ware and grape boxes in 
partnership with his brother-in-law, S. B. Fairchild, under the firm name of Fair- 
child & Moore, and continued about five j-ears, when the firm sold out to Fairchild 
Brothers. 

Mr. Moore was a man universally respected and esteemed, not only for his busi- 
ness qualifications, but also for his many social attributes. He was a life-long Demo- 
crat in politics, but never an officeseeker. Public-spirited and enterprising, he lib- 
erally encouraged and supfiorted all worthy movements of general benefit, and took 
a keen interest in the welfare of village and town, especially in religion and educa- 
tion, being for a time school trustee, and during nearly his entire residence in Ham- 
mondsport a vestryman of St. James's Protestant Episcopal church. 

His children were Anna (Mrs. Elbert McMinn), born March 3, 1845, died May 12, 
1884 ; Trevor, born April 13, 1846, president of the Central New York Grape Grow- 
ers' Union during its existence, and a heavy shipper of grapes, of Hammondsport ; 
Hobart J., born December 14, 1850, a prominent druggist of Hammondsport; and 
Clara A. (Mrs. J. C. Mitchell), born September 11, 1854, of Chicago. 



FARY B. BEECHER. 

Fary B. Beecher, of Atlanta, Steuben county, is a lineal descendant of one of the 
immortal band of Pilgrims who sailed for this country in the Mayflower in 1620. 
This paternal ancestor had three sons, Hezekiah, Lines, and Lyman, and from the 
latter descended Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Rev. '1 homas K. Beecher, and Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. To the posterity of Hezekiah Beecher belongs the subject 
■ of this sketch and his father, Randall F. Beecher. The latter came from Madison 
county, N. Y. , about 1840, and settled on a farm in the town of Fremont, Steuben 
county, where he also practiced as a licensed veterinarian, and where he died. He 
married, first, Miss Serepta Cass, who bore him three children: Andalusia, Nason, 
who died in the Union army in the Rebellion, and William Henry, deceased. His 
second wife was Wealthy Doneha, who was the mother of one son, John D., who 
served in the Civil war and afterward settled in Allegany county. For his third wife 
Mr. Beecher married Statira Sanford, by whom he had ten children who attained 
maturity: Wealthy, of Buffalo; Orrin H., a teacher at Lima. N. Y. ; Eunice (Mrs. 
Lewis B. Ward), of Fremont, Steuben county; Mark H., of Buffalo; Fary B., the 
C 



18 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

subject of this sketch; Luke A., a furniture dealer in Atlanta; Amenzo J., aeon- 
tractor and builder in Buffalo; Murray C, who died in Chicago in 1894; Scott M., of 
Buffalo ; and Gertrude C. 

Fary B. Beecher was born on his father's farm in Fremont, Steuben county, June 
2, 1856, and received his early education in the public schools of his native town. He 
attended the Rogersville Union Seminary for a time then taught school several 
years. Deciding upon a professional life he entered the office of O. S. Searl, of 
Cohocton, where he became a faithful disciple of Blackstone, and from whence he 
was admitted to the bar in 1891. He immediately settled in Atlanta, where he has 
very successfully practiced his chosen profession ever since. 

Mr. Beecher is a staunch Democrat and active in the councils of his party. He 
takes a keen interest in local affairs, in the advancement of his village and town, and 
is prominently identified with its material growth and prosperity. He is a member 
of and has held nearly every office in Kanawha Lodge," I. O. O. F., of Atlanta, and 
has taken the past official degree of the District Grand Commandery and also in 1893 
the Grand Lodge degree at Buffalo. He is also a prominent member of the Atlanta 
Presbyterian church. 

Mr. Beecher was married in 1881 to Miss Emma E. Johnson, of North Cohocton. 
They have four children: Don L., Dana C, Una M., and Marion. 



OTTO FREDERICK MARSHAL. 

Gen. Otto Frederick Marshal was born in the village of Zeisar, Prussian Saxony, 
Germany, August 14, 1791, being the only son of Daniel Mar.shal, field chaplain, who 
enjoyed the favor of Fredeiick the Great, the sovereign of that country.! Upon the 
death of his royal patron in May, 1799, father and son came to the United States, 
landing in Boston, whence they took a stage to New York city, where they arrived 
in June. There Daniel Marshal, beiug a talented linguist, opened a select school, 
and also invested his small means in German linen, ivory combs, and other notions, 
opening a modest store at the Bowery in Chatham street. In the spring of 1801 he 
gathered his effects together and started for the interior of the State, taking a sloop 
to Albany, where he procured transportation to fcchenectady. He there purchased 
a small boat, took aboard his baggage and supplies, and with his son poled his rude 
craft up the Mohawk River to Utica, then a frontier village. There was a German 
settlement about a mile from the village, and ten miles below another. The elder 
Marshal had taken orders, and was therefore qualified to preach, and for several 
years ministered to the spiritual wants of these settlements in their own language. 
About a year after their arrival in Utica he purchased a lot on Genesee street, 
erected a house, and opened a small store. In 1805 a German farmer persuaded him 
to visit with him the Genesee country. They came to Geneva and were advised by 
the agent of the Pulteney estate there to apply at the office m Bath. Marshal did so, 

1 Several autograph letters of Frederick the Great to Daniel jMarshal, as well as one from 
General Washington, are in the possession of the pioneer's great-grandson. Otto F. Marshal, of 
Wheeler, by whom they are highly prized. 




J. H. LEWIS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 19 

and found a lot on Five Mile Creek, in Wheeler, which suited him. Part of it was 
owned by Valentine Bear, a German, who sold his right and improvements to Mar- 
shal. He also purchased an additional forty acres adjoining, and then returned to 
his home in Utica. In 1809 he disposed of his house and lot and closed out his little 
store, preparatory to his removal to this county. He waited till the 16th of February, 
1810, for sleighing, and then engaged a party to bring him and his son, with his 
goods, to his lands in Wheeler, where they arrived on the 22d of that month where 
the general ever afterward resided, a period of more than eighty years. The 
father soon after his settlement here married a young widow. On the 37th of May, 
1813, he died. February 16, 1814, Gen. Otto F. Marshal married Miss Dolly Neally, 
a sister of the late Samuel Neally. There were born to them three sons and two 
daughters. One son, Frank J. Marshal, of Wheeler, survives him. He died January 
10, 1891. 

General Marshal was one of the most distinguished men the town of Wheeler ever 
honored as a resident. His first service in the State militia was as third corporal in 
1810, and he rose by regular gradation until his appointment as major-general of the 
30th Division on June 30, 1833, a position he held until he resigned in 1845. He 
took a becoming pride in that organization, was regarded as a model officer, and was 
present as a commissioned officer at the execution of Robert Douglass in Bath. By 
the gift of his townsmen he held every town office from pathmaster to supervisor 
except constable and collector. He was long a justice of the peace and about twelve 
years county superintendent of the poor, and in 1837 was appointed postmaster of 
Wheeler. In 1846 he was elected to the State Legislature and served creditably his 
term. He was also commissioner of deeds many years. He was a life-member of 
the Steuben County Agricultural Society and never failed to have an attractive exhibit 
at its annual fairs. He was literally the father of that society by virtue of great 
efforts for its organization and his unceasing anxiety for its welfare and continued 
usefulness. No other man ever did so much for that body or contributed so largely 
towards its permanent existence. At the time of his death he was its oldest and 
most honored member. In all the affairs of life his great desire was always to aid 
his fellow-citizens and promote their best interests in word and deed. He was plain 
and simple in his manners, as becomes an American by birth as well as by adoption. 
He was frank and cordial in his deportment, without roughness or bluster. Always 
hopeful, always cheerful, slight in form and spare in habit, his great age was due as 
much to his social qualities as to a vigorous constitution. His memory of men and 
events was wonderful. It is doubtful is he ever forgot a per.son he once knew, or 
was unable to recall some incident connected with him. He attained the great age 
of nearly ninety-nine years and five months, and died universally respected, esteemed, 
and beloved. 



JACOB H. LEWIS. 

Jacob H. Lewis, third son of Herman and Margaret (Thompson) Lewis, was born 
in Brunswick, Rensselaer county, N. Y., January 16, 1836, and came with his parents 
to the town of Wheeler, Steuben county, in 1828. His father was born of Holland 



So LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN OOtTNTY. 

Dutch parentage in the Mohawk valley on April 28, 1787, and served for a time in 
the war of 1812; he was a life-long farmer, and with the exception of a few )'ears 
spent in Yates county, Avoca, and Bath, lived in Wheeler from 1828 until his death 
on January 5, 1873 ; his wife, Margaret Thompson, daughter of Daniel Thompson, 
-.vho came to this town in 1840, was born July 12, 1797, and died August 19, 1860. 
Their children were Daniel D., born October 10, 1818, died December 23, 1893; Jane, 
born May 24, 1820, died October 20, 1860 ; Catherine, born February 9, 1832 ; John 
M., born February 9, 1824; Jacob H., the subject of this sketch; Barbara, bom Feb- 
ruary 16, 1828. died November 4, 1881 ; Emeline, born January 3, 1831, died March 
23, 1857 ; Lemuel, born March 7, 1834 ; Mary E. , born February 29, 1886 ; and George 
W., born November 7, 1839. 

Jacob H. Lewis was educated in the public schools of Wheeler, where he has lived 
since the age of two years. He was reared upon his father's farm, and early mani- 
fested an inclination for an active life. When fifteen he began farming for himself 
and at nineteen he learned the carpenter's trade, which he followed successfully for 
ten years. He then purchased a farm of 112 acres, wh'ch he sold twelve j'ears later, 
and he then bought a farm of 135 acres on Wheeler hill, a part of which he still owns. 
While farming he also bought sheep and shipped them to western markets. In 1885 
he moved to Wheeler village and engaged in general merchandising, which he con- 
tinued with marked success until 1894, when he turned the business over to his only 
son, F. F. Lewis, and retired permanently from active life. 

Mr. Lewis is a Democrat in politics and has always taken a prominent part in 
town affairs. Public spirited, enterprising, and sagacious he encourages every 
worthy movement with a degree of liberality that characterizes a progressive citizen. 
He was assessor nine years, town clerk two j'ears, and supervisor two terras, and in 
all these capacities distinguished himself for rare fidelity and uprightness. He was 
one of the chief promoters m Wheeler of the Kanona and Prattsburg railroad, to 
which he donated considerable land for right of way. In other minor enterprises of 
a private and pubhc nature he has been equally prominent, and in matters affect- 
ing the social and moral welfare of the community his influence is often felt for the 
good. 

February 12, 1854, Mr. Lewis was married to Miss Belinda Hankinson, second 
daughter of Joseph and Susan (Myrtle) Hankinson, of Wheeler. They have one son, 
Fred Francis Lewis, born December 1, 1855, who married Miss Kate Cook, daughter 
of Adam Cook, on April 5, 1882. 



JOHN H. KEELER. 

John H. Keeler was born at Mauch Chunk, Pa., January 1, 1822, and inherited 
the sturdy characteristics of a Holland Dutch ancestry. When a young man he 
came to Penn Yan, N. Y., where he acquired a common school education. He early 
learned the trade of tinsmith in Waterloo, Seneca county, and about 1848 removed to 
Hammondsport, N. Y. , where he entered the employ of Randall & Neil, stove foun- 
drymen and tinsmiths, whose business he very soon bought out. This was the prac- 
tical beginning of a long a useful career. He manufactured stoves, plows, tinware, 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 21 

and agricultural implements until about 1865, when he sold the foundry and devoted 
his attention to a vineyard near the village. In January, 1879, he purchased the 
hardware store of Allen & Brownell and placed his sons, John W. and George H. 
Keeler, in charge under the firm name of J. H. Keeler & Sons. Mr. Keeler died 
May 17 of that year, and about four years later the mercantile business was sold to 
Robie & McNamara, who a year afterward was succeeded by George H. Keeler and 
O. H. Younglove. This firm was followed by George H. Keeler, the present pro- 
prietor. 

John H. Keeler was a lifelong Republican and an ardent advocate of the princi- 
ples of his party, but he never became an office seeker nor a politician. He devoted 
his time and energies solely to business and acquired unusual success. He was one 
of the first vineyardists in this now famous grape section, and practically demon- 
strated his faith in its future by founding the valuable vineyard owned by his two 
sons. In social and business life Mr. Keeler was a man of strict integrity, endowed 
with the attributes of a respected and successful citizen, and esteemed for his many 
excellent qualities of head and heart. He took a keen interest in all movements 
conducive to the welfare of his town and village. 

In 1845 he was married to Miss Sarah E., daughter of William McConnell, of Sugar 
Hill, Schuyler county, who was the mother of his five children, three of whom died 
in infancy. She met a sudden death in the memorable railroad wreck at Jackson, 
Mich., on October 13, 1893, while on her way to the World's Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago. Their surviving children, born in Hammondsport, are John W., born June 
19, 1849, and George H., born September 17, 1853, both of whom are representative 
business men and leading citizens. 

John W. Keeler was educated in Hammondsport Academy, graduating in 1868, 
and became a clerk for K. Church & Co., hardware dealers, of Bath, with whom he 
remained until 1879, when he returned to Hammondsport, where he has since been 
engaged m viniculture. In 1894 he was appointed one of the original Board of Water 
Commissioners to establish the present water system for the village, and in Decem- 
ber of that year was made superintendent, which position he now holds. He was 
married in 1877 to Miss Lizzie P., daughter of Dr. John Read, of Bath. They have 
three children; John W., Daisy L., and Lois R. 

George H. Keeler was graduated from Hammondsport Academy in 1873, and en- 
gaged in viniculture until 1879, when he became a dealer in general hardware, which 
business he still continues. He was one of the originators of the Lake Keuka Wine 
company in 1886 and has served as its president ever since. He is also an extensive 
grape grower and farmer. A Republican in politics he has held nearly every town 
office, serving as town clerk, highway commissioner, and supervisor three terms, and 
president of the village four years. He has also been chief of the fire department 
for ten years, and has always taken an active interest in public affairs. He married 
in 1875 Miss Eva D. , daughter of John Quick, of Hammondsport. They have six 
daughters, viz.. Sarah E., Lottie J., Mary L., Bessie F., Georgia May, and Flor- 
ence D. 



22 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

MARTIN KIMMEL. 

Martin Kimmel was born in Bavaria, Germany, February 13, 1831, came to 
America in 1847, and settled in South Dansville, Steuben county, where he worked 
by the month for eight years. He inherited the progressive characteristics of his 
race, and in early youth obtained as thorough an education as the Hmited means of 
his parents permitted, but the knowledge with which he is endowed to-day 
was largely acquired in the practical affairs of life and in personal application to 
minutest details. Determining to start himself upon a business career he purchased 
a stump machine and profitably manipulated it two seasons. He then formed 
a partnership with William Cotton and bought a steam saw mill at Haskinsville, but 
one year later became sole owner. In 1860 he moved the mill to Wayland and con- 
tinued it with different partners until 18G5, when he purchased and moved on to a 
farm of 176 acres one-half mile west of the village. Later he bought 220 acres ad- 
joining and owns now in all about 400 acres of the best farming land in town. In 
1884 he bought the site and erected a brick block in Wayland, and in it opened a 
large hardware store, first under the name of Martin Kimmel & Co. This he still 
carries on, the present firm being Martin Kimmel & Son, which was formed in 1887. 
In 1890 he also started a hardware store in Cohocton under the same firm name and 
still continues it. This store is managed by Peter Kimmel, while the one in Wayland 
is in charge of John Kimmel. 

Mr. Kimmel has long been one of the representative men of the town, which he 
served four years as supervisor. He has always taken a keen interest m local affairs, 
and in various movements his aid and influence have been exerted for the general wel- 
fare. He was married in 1855 to Miss Catherins Gross, of Perkinsville, who died in 
1862, leaving three children, namely: Joseph, of Dakota, born in 1856, married Addie 
Steinhart, of Dansville, N. Y., and has two children, Joseph and Laura; Margaret, 
of Wayland, born in 1860, married Peter Yohon, and has four children, Clara, Mar- 
tin, Katie, and Peter ; and Mary, of Wayland, born in 1862, married John Quantz, 
and has five children, Mary, Martin, Peter, George, and Katie. Mr. Kimmel mar- 
ried for his second wife Mrs. Clara (Foot) Kirk, and they have ten children: Martin, 
born December 28, 1864, married Mary Shultz, and had three children, Josephine, 
Katie, and Agnes; John, born April 22, 1867, married Mary Engel, and has two chil- 
dren, Victor and Leo; Frank, born August 17, 1869, married Lizzie Munding; Peter, 
born November 24, 1871, married Catherine Mertz; Catherine, born November 24, 
1873; Anna, born February 1, 1876; Clara, born April 33, 1878; Jacob, born May 7, 
1880; Lizzie, born September 19, 1883; and Lena, born March 19, 1886. 



HARLO HAKES. 

Hon. Harlo Hakes was born in Harpersfield, Delaware county, N. Y., Septem- 
ber 33, 1833. He spent his time until about twenty-eight years of age upon his fath- 
er's farm, attending school wmters until he was seventeen, and was for eight suc- 
cessive terms a teacher. In the year 1851 he entered the office of Rufus King, of 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 23 

Davenport, Delaware county, as law student, where he remained two years,. He 
then became a student with Judge Harris, of Albany, and after attending one course 
of lectures at the Albany Law School, was admitted to the bar, in 1853, and in May 
of the same year settled in Hornellsville, where he has remained in the practice of 
his profession until the present time. 

In the year 1855 llr. Hakes married Mary, youngest daughter of J. D. Chandler, 
of Hornellsville. Their children are M. Evelyn, Hattie V., and Carrie M. 

Mr. Hakes was chosen to represent his assembly district in the State Legislature 
for the year 1856, and served on the judiciary committee during the term. In 1862 
he was elected district attorney of the count}', which he held for three years. Dur- 
ing the year 1865 he associated with him in the law business James H. Stevens, jr., 
a gentleman of fine legal ability. This firm enjoyed a very large law practice in this 
and surrounding counties during the term of partnership. 

In the year 1867 Mr. Hakes was appointed registrar in bankruptcy for the Twenty- 
ninth Congressional District. He has been somewhat active in political circles, and 
interested in questions affecting the changes in our nation's history. He was origi- 
nally a member of the Whig party, and was a delegate to the Baltimore Convention 
that nominated Bell and Everett for president and vice-president, since which time 
he has been a supporter of the Republican party, and its representative of the 
Twenty-ninth Congressional District of New York, as a member of the Cincinnati 
Convention in 1876 that made Hon. Rutherford B. Hayes the Republican nominee 
for the presidency of the United States. 

In addition to his professional and official duties, he has been thoroughly identified 
with the growing interests of the city of Hornellsville, and largely interested in 
real estate. In 1873 he opened " Hakes avenue,'' connecting Main and Genesee 
streets, and donated it to the then village, and since that time has purchased and 
improved that portion of the city known as " Riverside Place," connecting Main with 
Elm street, where he has built several substantial dwellings. 

In 1883 was elected to the (.flSce of county-judge for Steuben county, for the term 
of tix years, and in 1889 the confidence of the people was again expressed by re- 
electing him by an emphatic vote to the same office. His keen perception, sound 
judgment, strict integrity and fair dealing have secured to him a large measure of 
success and the confidence of the community. 



RUSSELL M. TUTTLE. 

Russell M. Tuttle was born in Almond, Allegany county, N. Y,, January 13, 
1840, and has been a resident of Hornellsville since 1842. He was a son of Rufus 
Tuttle, who was for more than thirty years a prominent business man and a re- 
spected citizen of Hornellsville. He was married November 7, 1867, to Ervilla, 
daughter of the late Dr. Levi S. Goodrich. He received his education at the Hornells- 
ville public schools, at Alfred Academy, and at the University of Rochester, where 
he was graduated in 1862. 

In August, 1862, he enlisted in the 107th Regiment, New York Volunteers, and 



24 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

served with the Army of the Potomac, in the Atlanta campaign, and in the "march 
to the sea." He was promoted to second and first lieutenant, and at the close of the 
war received an honorary commission as brevet captain United States Volunteers. 
He was on staff duty nearly two years, as topographical engineer and A. A. A. G., 
with Generals T. H. Ruger and W. T. Ward, of the Twentieth Army Corps. 

Mr. Tuttle was elected president of the village of Hornellsville in 1868, and repre- 
sented the Second Assembly district of Steuben in the Legislatures of 1880 and 1881. 
He has taken especial interest in the organization and management of the Hornell 
Library Association. 

His chief interests have been in the newspaper and printing business. He was an 
editor and proprietor of the Hornellsville Times from its establishment in 1867 to 
1879, and again from 1888 to the present time. 



CLAIR S. PARKHILL, M. D. 

Dr. Clair S. Parkhill was born in Howard, Steuben county, N, Y. , November 15, 
1842. The youngest son of David Parkhill, his boyhood was spenton the homestead 
farm and in attendance at the di.strict school. 

His father, David Parkhill, was born in Minden, Montgomery county, 1804, and 
came with his parents, Timothy and Anna (Rurey) Parkhill, to the town of Howard 
in 1818. In 1823 he married Eveline, daughter of Reuben Ferris. Their children 
were Delia, Willard, Albert (deceased), Dr. Reuben P., Ann and Dr. Clair S. 

In 1876, David Parkhill moved to Hornellsville, where he died November 8, 1892. 

The Parkhill family traces its ancestry to a French lad taken from the wreck of a 
vessel in the English Channel. The boy was adopted by an English gentleman, who 
had a country seat situated in a large park at Torquay, England, known as Park 
Hill. Being unable to make his name known to his rescuers, the boy was called 
Parkhill, after the name of this manor, where he was taken to reside. He grew to 
manhood, married, and lived at Havershaw, England. His two sons joined King 
William III. , Prince of Orange, in the war between Catholics and Protestants in Scot- 
land and Ireland, 1688-97. 

After the war one of these sons remained in Scotland, the other settled in Derry 
county, Ireland. During the early part of the seventeenth century four brothers of 
one of these families, of the Scotch branch, landed at Plymouth, Mass., one brother 
and sister remaining in Ireland. The names of those who immigrated to this country 
were Nathaniel, the father of Timothy Parkhill; David, James and Hugh. Two 
brothers and their families remained for some years in Massachusetts, but subse- 
quently Nathaniel moved to Vermont, thence to Springfield, Otsego county, N. Y. 
James and Hugh remained in the New England States. Descendants of these four 
brothers are widely scattered over the United States. Burk's History of Peers puts 
the Parkhill family down as of Scotch origin. 

At the age of fourteen Doctor Parkhill entered Haverling Union School at Bath. 
From there he returned to the farm and remained there until eighteen years of age. 
In the fall of 1862 he entered Michigan University, where he studied for two years, 
and then returned to his native town and entered Albany Medical College, from 




CALVIN E. THORP. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 25 

which he was graduated December 24, 1866. He began the practice of the profes- 
sion with his brother, Reuben F., in the town of Howard, and continued with him 
for seven years. September, 1873, he came to Hornellsville and took up the prac- 
tice of the profession in this city, where we now find him, one of the leading physi- 
cians of this county. 

The doctor is a member of the American Medical Association, the New York State 
Medical Association, the New York State Medical Society, president of the New 
York State Railway Surgeons' Association, member of the Association of Surgeons 
of the Erie system, the surgical section of the Medical Legal Society of New York 
city, the Steuben County Medical Society, and member and ex-president of the Hor- 
nellsville Medical and Surgical Association. He is also the company's surgeon at 
Hornellsville for the N. Y. , L. E. & W. Railway, and president of the medical and 
surgical staff of the St. James Mercy Hospital. He is a member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, Evening Star Lodge, No. 44, and one of the supporters of the R. R. Y. 
M. C. A., and a member of the Presbyterian church. In 1884 he served as presi- 
dent of the village and was a member of the Board of Education four years. 

March 20, 1867, he married Marjory P., daughter of William Rice of Howard. By 
this marriage he had four children: Louise, the wife of Blake B. Babcock; Carrie, 
who died at three years of age ; Walter, who died at seventeen years of age ; and 
one who died in infancy. 



CALVIN E. THORP. 

CAL^'I^■ E. Thorp was born in Otsego county, N. Y., May 27, J829, and is 
a son of Nelson Thorp, who took up a tract of land and settled on Potter 
Hill, in the town of Cohocton, Steuben county, in 1837. Nelson Thorp was a 
stirring man of considerable influence, and engaged extensively in lumbering, and 
later in farming. A Whig in politics, he took an active interest in local affairs, and 
held several important town offices. His wife was Lucy Snyder, and their children 
were Calvin E., James N. and George, Mary and Charles, deceased. 

Calvin E. Thorp was educated in the district schools of Cohocton, and at the age of 
twenty-one went out to work by the month. In 1852 he engaged in lumbering on his 
father's land, having a saw mill, which he successfully carried on for several years 
prior to leaving home. About 1865 he settled where he now resides, and since then 
he has been a heavy dealer in live stock, wool, carriages, agricultural implements, 
etc. He is one of the leading citizens of the town of Cohocton, and has always 
taken a lively interest in public afEairs, and especially in politics. A staunch and 
unswerving Republican, he has held several town offices, and was first elected super- 
visor in 1879, and served in all three terms. He was a charter member of the Cohoc- 
ton Lodge of Odd Fellows and has been a member of Liberty Lodge, No. 510, F. & 
A. M., about forty years. 

Mr. Thorp was married, first in 1853, to Miss Luna M. Carrington, who died April 
3, 1873, leaving five children; Oscar D. , of Buffalo; Charles M., a farmer of Cohoc- 
ton; Walter E., of Hartland, Mich. ; Jennie M. (Mrs. Frank M. Larrowe), of Cohoc- 
ton; and George A., a general dealer in Cohocton. He married, second, Jennie S. 
Myers, of Cohocton, in 1874. 
P 



26 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

HIRAM W. HATCH. 

HrRAM W. Hatch was born in the town of Cohocton, Steuben county, January 9, 
1846. His grandfather. Matthew Hatch, a man peculiarly fitted by nature for pio- 
neer life, left Whitehall, N. Y., in 1812, and settled in Bath, where he resided one 
year. In 1813 he settled on a farm on Lent Hill in the town of Cohocton, being the 
third to locate on that elevation, which was named from its first white settler, Abram 
Lent, whose daughter Matthew Hatch married. Mr. Hatch had five sons and one 
daughter, viz.: Sylvanus, Philip, Barnabas C, Matthew, jr., Hiram, and Cerisa 
(Mrs. "William Hyatt). Barnabais C. Hatch became a prominent and influential citi 
zen of Michigan, where he served as county judge, member of assembly, etc. The 
other sons settled on Lent Hill and were respected and thrifty farmers. Sylvanus 
Hatch was a captain in the old State militia, a life-long farmer, and a man of ster- 
■ ling character, whose aid and advice were often sought upon matters of importance, 
and who was universally esteemed for his many excellent qualities. He was born in 
Whitehall, N. Y., June 11, 1802, and died in Cohocton in 1874, and was buried in the 
Hatch burying ground on Lent Hill. He was married in 1839 to Miss Emily Peck, 
who survives him and resides in Atlanta. She was born July 11, 1819. Their only 
son was Hiram W. Hatch, the subject of this sketch. 

Hiram W. Hatch inherited all the ennobling and thrifty characteristics of his 
respected ancestors. Born and reared on the parental farm, where he formed those 
habits of integrity and practical labor which have marked his life, he early became 
imbued with the attributes of a. successful career and put forth every energy to 
secure the results of such advantages as his surroundings afforded. He finished his 
public school education in the old Naples Academy and remained on the homestead 
assisting his father until 1870, when he settled in the village of Atlanta and engaged 
in the hardware trade, which he successfully continued till 1881. In 1871 he also 
engaged in the produce business, dealing in grain, potatoes, wool, etc. In this he 
became an extensive operator, succeeding beyond the average dealer, and with it he 
has ever since been prominently identified. He is also extensively engaged in farm- 
ing, owning several farms in this and adjoining counties. In 1884 his son, Hyatt C. 
Hatch, became his associate and in 1893 the firm name of H. W. Hatch & Son was 
adopted. In September, 1895, his son-in-law, C. Gilbert Lyon, and cousin, William 
E. Otto, were admitted as partners and the firm became Hatch, Otto & Co. Their 
business extends aloing the lines of the Erie and D. L. & W. Railroads throughout 
Western New York and the firm is one of the most extensive operators of the kind in 
this part of the State. They handle immense quantities of potatoes, grain and wool 
annually, involving transactions aggregating hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Mr. Hatch commenced a business career before he had reached his majority. 
While still a farmer with his father he dealt quite heavily in live stock, in which he 
was remarkably successful. In his commercial life he has followed the strict rules of 
integrity which underlie all honorable dealing, and has won the respect and good 
will of every one with whom he has had business relations. His natural business 
qualifications and the confidence imposed in him by the community have brought 
him a large measure of success. He Is a man of unusual public spirit and his sub- 
stantial aid and generous support have always been freely given to any public im- 




HIRAM W. HATCH. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 27 

provement that merits his sanction. His career, both commercially and socially, 
has been marked by uninterrupted success. He is honest and truthful, kind, courte- 
ous, and popular, prudent and sagacious, trustworthy, vigilant, and upright, and his 
life has been founded upon those principles of integrity and fairness toward his fel- 
low men which invariably prove responsible for such success as he has attained. His 
counsel is esteemed by all who care to profit by it in practical affairs. In the several 
stations of life he has exhibited those sterling qualifications that contribute so much 
toward his own personal success, and by his genial way has won a warm place in the 
hearts of his associates that is equally gratifying to them and to himself. He was 
the first president of the Atlanta and North Cohocton Building and Loan Association, 
and since its organization has been president of Erie and Niagara Land Company of 
Bath, which owns valuable real estate in Buffalo. His interest in public affairs has 
led him to a considerable extent into politics. A Republican of the staunchest char- 
acter he served as highway commissioner several years, as supervisor two terms, and 
often as delegate to county, district, and State conventions, and also as a member of 
the Republican town and county committees many years. Although not a member 
he was long a trustee of the old Atlanta Baptist church and in 1894 became one of 
the first board of trustees of the new Presbyterian church, which he joined as a com- 
municant, and of which he was among the founders. To this worthy cause he has 
contributed generously and largely made possible the construction of the elegant 
new edifice, and as a trustee he was a member of the building committee during its 
erection in 1895. He has always been deeply interested in educational matters and 
locally he has served as a member of the Board of Education for fifteen years being 
president of that body most of the time He was largely instrumental in placing the 
present academical department of the Atlanta Union School under the Regents. In 
his home Mr. Hatch is especially fortunate. He has practically spent several win- 
ters iu the South, and in travel finds both recreation and knowledge, for he is a 
shrewd observer as well as a practical man. 

In 1866 Mr. Hatch was married to Miss Celestia Bush, daughter of John Bush, 
of Naples, N. Y. They have three children: Hyatt C. Minnie L. (Mrs. C. Gilbert 
Lyon), and Mary E. , all of Atlanta. 

Hyatt C. Hatch was born in the town of Cohocton in 1867, and received his educa- 
tion in the public schools and in the Atlanta Union School. At the age of seventeen 
he became associated with his father in business, and shortly afterward entered 
Eastman's Business College of Poughkeepsie, from which he was graduated, the 
highest in his class, in April, 1887. He continued his business relations with his 
father and in 1893 the firm name of H. W. H^tch & Son was adopted. Besides this 
he has personally carried on various business relations, principally in real estate, in 
which he has been very successful. He was elected one of the first elders of the At- 
lanta Presbyterian church in 1894 and has officiated as superintendent of its Sunday 
school since its organization. In politics he is a staunch Republican and a member 
of the Republican town and county committees. He was elected supervisor of Co- 
hocton in February, 1893, and re-elected in February, 1894, for two years — an office 
he filled with great satisfaction. He was married August 24, 1893, to Miss F. Edith 
Armstrong, daughter of Seth W. Armstrong, of Oaks Corners, Ontario county. 
They have one son, Bernis Warner Hatch, born September 19, 1894. 



28 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COtJNTY. 

LORENZO HULBERT. 

Moses Hulbert, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was bom in Hampshire 
county, Mass., August 7, 1770, and was of the fifth generation in direct descent from 
Sir Justice George Hulbert, who in 1632 was made a knight of the order of the gar- 
ter for bravery in battle, and who settled in New England early in the seventeenth 
century. Moses Hulbert, after a brief residence at Fort Ann, Washington county, 
N.Y., came to the town of Dansville, Steuben county, in 1816, and located on a farm 
on North Oak Hill, where he lived the remainder of his life, dying about 1846. He 
followed both farming and coopering. He married, first, Experience Birge, who 
was born April 25, 1776, and their children were Harriet, born April 8, 1796;' Almira, 
born April 28, 1800 ; and Cornelius, born March 6, 1802. His second wife was Esther 
Hannum, who was born January 17, 1775, and their children were Julius, born Octo- 
ber 26, 1805; Lester, born July 6, 1808; Justus, born November 13, 1810; Elmina, 
born October 23, 1812; and Joel Coleman, born November 12, 1815. Julius Hulbert, 
born m Fort Ann, came to Dansville with his parents, and on April 9, 1828, was 
married to Eliza Brown, who was born in New Hampshire in October, 1804, and 
died January 23, 1894. Immediately after his marriage he purchased the farm ad- 
joining his father on the south, upon which Lorenzo Hulbert now resides, and there 
he lived until his death on Sept. 14, 1874. He first built a log house in the pine 
forest and finally cleared the entire farm. He was a man of a retiring disposition, 
prominent in educational matters, for many years a. member of the M. E. church, 
and long a drummer in the old State militia. His children 'were Velina, born De- 
cember 16, 1829, married I. R. Trembly August 16, 1848, and died in Washington, 
D. C, January 4, 1892; Moses, born August 5, 1833, married Laura J. Boylan Sep- 
tember 10, 1856, enlisted in the 188th N. Y. Vols., and died in Richmond, Va., May 
17, 1865; Esther A., born December 11, 1835, married D. V. Sutfin January 1, 1856, 
and died in Dansville February 5, 1868 ; and Lorenzo, born February 18, 1843. 

Lorenzo Hulbert, the youngest and only surviving member of this pioneer family, 
was reared upon the parental farm and completed his education at Rogersville Union 
Seminary, which at that time was a flourishing institution. He succeeded his father 
upon the homestead and has always resided there. He was largely instrumental in 
organizing Oak Hill Grange, No. 574, P. of H., and served as its master for five 
years, declining a re-election, but accepting the office of secretary. He has been sec- 
retary of the Steuben' County Grange for five years and county deputy and inspector 
for three years. A staunch Republican he was elected supervisor of Dansville in 
1892 and again in 1894 for two years — a compliment for both himself and his party 
in that Democratic stronghold. In November, 1895, at the annual session of the 
Board of Supervisors, he was the prime mover in organizing the Steuben County 
Supervisors' Association, of which he was elected president. In all these positions 
Mr. Hulbert has served with great credit and ability, and with entire satisfaction to 
his constituents. 

September 23, 1869, Mr. Hulbert was married at Haskinsville, N. ¥., to Miss Abbie 
M. Burdett, daughter of P. S. Burdett and Mary Curry his wife. She was born at 
Rogersville, N. Y., in 1851. Their children are L. Clyde, born November 9, 1875, 
and Lena M. , born June 10, 1883. The family for three generations has manifested 
musical talent of a high order. 




A..^iy^ 




DAVID S. WAITE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 29 

DAVID S. WAITE. 

Duty Waite, one of the pioneers of Steuben county, was born in Rhode Island in 
1785, and with his wife Hannah and three children moved from Petersburgh, Rens- 
selaer county, N.Y., in the spring of 1814, into the north part of the town of Cohocton, 
settling on what was then called the Halfwaly place, between Bath and Dansville, 
which contained a tavern kept by Arunah Woodard, buildings consisting of an L 
shaped log house, log barn, and a frame lean-to shed for travelers' horses. The 
location is about three miles sovith of the north line of Steuben county, and about 
two miles south of the great water divide between Lake Ontario on the north and 
the Chesapeake Bay on the south. 

Then there was no nearer route between Bath and Dansville, and shaded, rough and 
muddy log paths made travel so difficult that the journey could not be made m one 
day. The tavern shed and signpost are preserved to the present day by David S. 
Waite, who lives on the place on which his father settled eighty-one years ago. One 
apple tree, which bore two apples the first year is still bearing fruit, and was the 
only one on the place at that time ; the trunk two feet above the ground is five and a 
half feet in circumference. 

The next farm on the north is supposed to be the first settled place in the town of 
Cohocton. Richard Hooker, a wealthy Marylander, came on to it, according to the 
statement of Thomas, a son, in 1792, with eight horses and a half of a bushel of gold 
and silver, thinking that feed could be bought; but nothing could be obtained for 
feed nearer than Painted Post, and four of the horses starved to death the first winter. 
Thomas said that at that time he was five years old, and that an Indian boy came 
from the woods and played with him. Mrs. Hooker soon died, and the family moved 
to Naples. 

One-half mile south, by the side of a brook, John Kirkwood first made a beginning, 
but sickness drove him away. The brook took his name. This town and vicinity 
was then called the Genesee country. There was an abundance of wolves, deer, 
opossums, hedgehogs, or porcupines, and some Indians. Sheep had to be yarded 
near the house every night. What little was cleared was brushy, and one could not 
see a fourth of a mile along this main river road. 

Eighty-one years ago was the beginning of highway surveys in Cohocton. The 
Arunah Woodard hotel was soon turned one part into a pioneer's dwelling, and the 
other into a neighborhood school room, supported by subscription; there were no 
school districts then. By a contract made in 1814 between Duty Waite and his 
neighbors, Mr. Waite agreed to teach the school and board himself for $12 per month. 
The maximum number of scholars was Sixteen. The supporters were Duty Waite, 
3 ; Abel Farrington, 3 ; Thomas Rogers, 3 ; Benjamin Rogers, 1 ; Arunah Woodard, 
3; William Woodard, 1; Daniel Raymond, 1; Daniel Raymond, jr., 1; Cornelius 
Crouch, 1 ; and Chauncy Atwell, 1. At that time no settlement had been made at 
what is now called Cohocton, but about five years later it was called " the Four Cor- 
ners," and in ten years more, Liberty. 

Eunice, the oldest child, is still living at South Jackson, Mich. ; William W. became 
inured to the severities of pioneer life, which developed his powers into a persevering 
successful business man as farmer and trader ; Wealthy was an accomplished school 



30 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

teacher. Two others, Ruth and Eliza, married farmers and spent most of their lives 
on farms. Sarah now lives in Horton, Mich. , as a physician's wife. David S. , whose 
portrait accompanies this narrative, lives on the old homestead where he was born, 
seventy years ago. An incessant and thorough laborer at farming and surveying, in 
middle life he devoted much time in teaching and superintending schools. Clark G. 
has from youth practiced civil engineering, first in building the Erie railroad, then in 
Pennsylvania, and later in Kansas, going there during the first border troubles, and 
has there constantly followed his profession as railroad or city engineer to the present 
time. Phoebe and Murray died while young. Mary resides near Grand Rapids, 
Mich., as a farmer's wife. A large, industrious, persevering family, acting well their 
parts in behavior, usefulness and in the responsibilities of pioneer life. 



GEORGE GIBSON. 

George Gibson was born near Ovid, Schuyler county, N. Y. , in 1817, and is a .son 
of Ira and Harriet (Coryell) Gibson, who came with their family to Pulteney, Steu- 
ben county, in 1825. Ira Gibson was born in Schuyler county in 1797, had eleven 
children, and died in 1886. His wife's death occurred in 1849. Coming to Pulteney 
he settled on a forest farm in an almost unbroken wilderness, and first erected a rude 
log cabin. He cleared his purchase, and lived to see the section become one of 
the most famous and prosperous in Western New York. 

George Gibson's education was limited to the common schools. At the age of 
fifteen he became a driver on the canal from Penn Yan to Albany, and soon 
afterward was employed on a boat as steersman or deck hand. A little later he 
was promoted to captain of the lake boat J. Price, of Geneva which ran between 
Hammondsport and New York, and which was owned by A. M. Adsit, of Hammonds- 
port. In these various capacities he continued for thirty years, when Mr. Adsit sold 
out. Meantime Mr. Gibson purchased the site of his present residence and hotel; 
at Gibson's Landing, and also 100 acres along the shore of Keuka Lake, paying §23 
per acre. He then took up his residence there. This tract was covered with heavy 
forests, which he converted into lumber, railrokd ties, and ship timber. Having 
cleared a large part of it he sowed it with wheat and nearly paid for the land the first 
year. Later he built a warehouse on the lake shore, bought grain and handled 
freight for the interior of the State, and in 1863 erected his present warehouse on the 
site of the first structure. In 1864 he built his present i-esidence and in 1887 the Gib- 
.son House, grading and beautifying the grounds, and making it one of the finest 
and most popular summer resorts on Keuka Lake. He also set out an excellent vine- 
yard and became a member of the Keuka Lake Wine Company, which in 1865 con- 
structed the famous Keuka Lake wine cellar, one of the largest in that celebrated 
grape section. In all these important enterprises Mr. Gibson has been invariably 
successful; his large business interests have contributed enormously to the material 
prosperity of both town and county. 

In politics he is an unswerving Republican ; he has held various town offices and 
for eleven years served as highway commissioner. He was a member of the com- 




FRANKLIN E. DAY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 31 

mission which laid out the road along the west shore of the lake, a road that has 
aided largely in developing that strip of fertile land. In 1S75 he was appointed 
agent of the United States Express Company at Gibson's Landing, and shortly after- 
ward was given the agencies of the Adams, the American, and the Wells, Fargo & 
Co., which he held until the spring of 1895, when he resigned in favor of his grand- 
son, Ira G. Gibson. In 1881. under the admmistration of President Garfield, Mr. 
Gibson was appointed postmaster at Catawba, the post-name of the office at Gibson's 
Landing, and continued in that position with great credit for fourteen consecutive 
years. 

Mr. Gibson was married in 1842 to Miss Ann Leary, who was born in New York 
city in 1812, and who died in 1870. They had two children, Edward and George F. 
In 1881 he married, second, Arvesta Bailey, daughter of John S. Bailey, and a native 
of Pulteney. 



FRANKLIN E. DAY. 

Franklin E. Day, eldest son of Paul E. and Polly (Blodgett) Day, was born in 
Bennington, Vt., in 1810, and came to the town of Wayland, Steuben county, in 
1821. Paul E. Day, who was born in Medfield, Mass., in 1785, moved with his wife 
and family to Genesee county, N. Y. , in the winter of 1814, settling two and one- 
half miles west of Leroy. In the spring of 1819 they removed to Seneca county and 
thence two years later to the town of Wayland (then Cohocton), Steuben county, 
where Mr. Day died in 1850. In the spring of 1824 the family settled on the farm 
now owned by Charles F. Day. Mr. Day's children were Franklin E., the subject 
of this sketch; Washington W., deceased, born in 1812; William P , deceased, born 
in 1814; Jackson J., born in 1816; Calphurnia, born in 1819; Mary J., born in 1821, 
died in 1894; Jonas B., born in 1833; Laura L., born in 1825; and Riley, born in 1828. 
Paul E. Day, the pioneer, built the first wool-carding and cloth-dressing mill in the 
town in 1826, the carding machinery being added in 1833, when it was rebuilt by his 
son Franklin E., who erected his first saw mill in town in 1841 and rebuilt it in 1853. 
The first named establishment was continued until 1846, when it was converted into 
a saw mill, which is now operated by the pioneer's grandson, Charles F. Day. The 
father of Paul E. Day was Joseph Day, who came from England with four brothers 
and settled on the Connecticut River near Hartford, Conn., where they followed the 
avocation of weavers and carders of wool; his grandsons, Washington W. and Will- 
iam P., mentioned above, were prominent physicians. 

FrankHn E. Day came into possession of the property at Patchinsville in the spring 
of 1838 and resided there until 1868, when he removed to Rochester, where he has 
since been engaged in dealing in real estate and in building, residing at 204 Frank 
street. He always manifested a keen though quiet interest in the affairs of the 
town, and for several years served efficiently as highway commissioner of Wayland. 
He was a charter member of the Cohocton Lodge of Odd Fellows, long a prominent 
member of the Wayland Methodist Episcopal church, and now a member of the 
Brick church of Rochester. He was a representative farmer, and was also exten- 
sively engaged in lumbering, in both of which he was remarkably successful. 



32 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY 

Mr. Day was married on January 3, 1836, to Miss Matilda Chase, daughter of 
Thomas Chase, of Cohocton, who died February 3, 1871, leaving two children: Or- 
leans W., born October 80, 1838, died March 21, 1887; and Mary M., born February 
5, 1841, who married Rev. D. M. Stuart, a Presbyterian clergyman now of National 
City, Cal. For his second wife Mr. Day married, in 1873, Mrs. Harriet A. Lee, of 
Rochester, who died July 10, 1890. Orleans W. Day married Miss Julia A. Mather, 
who was born in Geneseo, N. Y., January 38, 1836. He was engaged in mercantile 
business for several years, but finally moved on to the farm and took charge also of 
the saw mill. His children were Charles F. , born in 1862; William W. , born in 1869; 
May E. (Mrs. William J. Faulkner), born in 1872; Harry W. , born in 1875; and 
Amelia, born in 1878. 



LYMAN SHEPARD. 

Lyman Shepard, son of William and Sophia (Powers) Shepard, was born on a 
farm in the town of Cohocton, Steuben county, June 6, 1826, and died there April 11, 
1891. His grandfather, Ezra Shepard, son of Jonathan and Meriam (Strong) Shep- 
ard, came to that town with his family prior to the war of 1812 and settled on the 
farm now owned by Godfrey Marshall, building a log cabin on the site of the present 
orchard, and died there. Ezra Shepard married Mary Boyce and reared to maturity 
ten children, of whom William B. was born December 18, 1794; married Sophia 
Powers, and died June 23, 1865. The children of William and Sophia Shepard were 
Polly (Mrs. Silas Hurlburt), born June 38, 1818, deceased; Riley, born April 10, 1834, 
deceased; Lyman, the subject of this memoir; Jerome, born May 13, 1839, died in 
November, 1888; Sopliia, born December 8, 1833, died unmarried: Milton, born April 
9, 1885, deceased; Asahel, born March 4, 1888, of Atlanta; Maria E., born Decem- 
ber 31, 1843, married Franklin Scribner, and resides in North Cohocton; and three 
who died in infancy. 

Lyman Shepard was a lifelong farmer and was reared on his father's fartp in Co- 
hocton, in which town he always resided excepting three years in Dansville. He 
was educated in the public schools and first settled on the place now owned by Dr. 
A. L. Gilbert, formerly owned by his father-in-law, Reuben Clason, and in 1873 re- 
moved to the old William Waite homestead, where he died. In connection with his 
farming he also engaged quite extensively in buying and shipping live stock, which he 
continued until about 1S80, first with Lewis Layton and afterward with William Culver. 
In this as well as in all other occupations he was eminently successful, and won the 
respect and confidence of every one with whom he came in contact. He was a man 
of great perseverance and native energy, a steadfast believer in the principles of 
honesty, uprightness, and integrity, and a worthy and representative citizen. 
Although a Republican and later a Prohibitionist in politics, he never sought office, 
yet he always manifested a keen interest in local affairs and generously contributed 
towards every movement which promised benefit to the community. Alone and un- 
aided he carved out his own fortune and lived to enjoy the accumulations of a profit- 
able career. He traveled quite extensively, spending a winter in Florida and two 




LYMAN SHEPARD. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 33 

winters in California, and being a close observer acquired a large fund of general 
information. 

Mr. Shepard's firstwife was Harriet Clason, daughter of Reuben Clason, one of the 
early settlers of Cohocton. She was born March 13, 1832, and died July 39, 1872. 
Their children were Murray, born May 12, 1851, died October 26, 1873; Ann Eliza, 
born July 12, 1854, died August 9, 1863 ; Frankie, born March 13, 1860, died August 
35, 1865; and Ida E., born May 81, 1864. His second wife, whom he married Sep- 
tember 19, 1873, was Mrs. Fanny (Weld) Waite, widow of the late William Waite, 
who survives him and resides in Atlanta. Ida E. Shepard, the only surviving child 
of Lyman Shepard, was married on March 17, 1886, to Clarence G. Gray, who was 
born in the town of Dansville, December 17, 1857. They have four children : Jessie 
I., Franc H., W. Lyman, and Sadie V. 



J. E. WALKER, M. D. 

Dr. J. E. Walker, of Hornellsville, Steuben county, N. Y., is the only surviving 
son of H. L. Walker; was born in Nunda, Livingston county, N. Y. Received a 
common school education, subsequently attending the State Normal School at Gen- 
eseo, N. Y. ; commenced teaching at the age of sixteen, and by constant work and 
untiring energy succeeded in preparing himself for the study of his chosen profes- 
sion. 

He entered a medical ofSce at the age of eighteen, graduating from the Cincinnati 
Medical College in 1876, and commenced the practice of medicine immediately after 
at Arkport, N. Y. His business became extensive almost from the beginning. 

In 1883, desiring more knowledge of some of the specialties in medicine, he ar- 
ranged to leave his business and spent several months in postgraduate work in New 
York. He returned to his old field of labor and continued his practice, riding almost 
continually until he saw it would be necessary to seek an easier field of labor. Con- 
sequently in 1892 he sold his practice and drug business and removed to Buffalo, 
where he remained a few months. Although his practice seemed assured, yet, feel- 
ing the need of a closer association with patients than was possible in private practice, 
he left Buffalo, through the influence of friends going to the Sterlingworth Sanita- 
rium as chief of staff, where he remained for a year, caring for tubercular cases, 
making special and original investigations in relation to consumption. ' 

Desirmg a knowledge of the methods employed in Europe, he left for London in 
October, 1893, where he remained a couple of months at work in the Brompton Hos- 
pital for diseases of the chest, also taking a course in bacteriology and microscopy 
in King's College. 

After completing the desired amount of work in London, he visited the various 
hospitals of the French capital, also studying the methods employed in the Pasteur 
Institute. He visited several of the health resorts of the continent, among them the 
noted Honniff Sanitarium, the iinest institution in the world for the care of consump- 
tives. Spent some time in Berlin, more particularly in the Koch Institute, where he 
examined many cases of tuberculosis with the physicians in charge, having every 



34 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

opportunity to study the methods employed ; spent some months in Vienna in special 
work in the Polyclinic and General Hospital, afterward attended the International 
Medical Congress in Rome, being made a member of this great body. 

Returning to his native country, he made a tour of the United States from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, visiting the various health resorts, and studying the climatol- 
ogy of our own country in the interests of his profession. 

In November, 1894, he assumed the responsible position of Superintendent of the 
Steuben Sanitarium at Hornellsville, N. Y. , since which time he, with others, have 
purchased it and are making it one of the best medical and surgical institutes in 
America. The most intricate and delicate medical and surgical cases are here given 
the advantages of all that is known to science. The institution has among its con- 
sultants some of the best talent in Western New York. 

He is a member of the Hornellsville Medical and Surgical Association, of which 
he has been president, the Steuben County Medical Society, New York State Medical 
Association, also the American Medical Association. A member of Hornellsville 
Lodge, F. & A. M. , Steuben Chapter, Demolay Coramandery, and a noble of the 
Mystic Shrine of Ismalia Temple, Buffalo, N. Y. 



JAMES H. STEVENS. 

James Humphrey Stevens, a prominent attorney and well-known influential citi- 
zen of Hornellsville, was born in Dansville, Steuben county, N. Y., July 11, 1827, 
and has always resided in the county. 

His parents, James H. Stevens, sr., and Sally (Wilson) Stevens, natives of War- 
wick, Mass., and Shoreham, Vt., father and mother respectively, purchased and 
founded the Stevens homestead in the town of Dansville, which has ever since been 
in the possession of the family, and where James H. Stevens, sr., died, aged ninety- 
three years. 

Mr. Stevens was educated at the select neighborhood schools, Rogersville Union 
Seminary and Alfred University. He taught district and village schools during 
winter terms for seven years. During the last two years of that time he studied 
law, taking the regular course of a law student, when he was not teaching', by read- 
ing in the forenoon of each day at his father's house on the farm, and then working 
on the farm the balance of the day; thereby practically doing nearly two days' work 
each day, after which, in 1851, he entered the State and National Law School- at 
Ballston Spa, in the "San Souci" building, located at that place, where he continued, 
except about a month he was in the ofBce of Wm. T. Odell, then district attorney of 
Saratoga county, until he was admitted to the bar, on the 5th day of January, 1852, at 
a general term of the Supreme Court, held at that place by Judges Cady, Willard, 
Hand and Allen. Soon thereafter he entered the office as a clerk of the Hon. David 
Rumsey, of Bath, N. Y. , and in the fall of 1853 entered the office of Hon. John K. 
Hale, of Hornellsville, N. Y., where he continued until on the 13th day of April, 1854, 
when he formed a partnership with the late Hon. Horace Bemis, whose interest in 
the business and library he purchased in 1864. From 1864 to 1872 he was in part- 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 35 

nership with Hon. Harlo Hakes, under the firm name of Hakes & Stevens, until 
August, 1873, when Charles W. Stevens became a member of said firm, which con- 
tinued under the same name until 1879. At the latter date the present well-known 
firm of J. H. & C. W. Stevens was formed. 

He was superintendent of schools for his native town, and resigned when he came 
to Hornellsville. He has been chairman of the Board of Supervisors of Steuben 
county, and president of the village of Hornellsville. He has been three times the 
Democratic nominee for county judge and once for the Assembly, and each time 
succeeded materially in reducing the large Republican majority, but failed to over- 
come it. He has been too busily employed in the duties of his chosen profession to 
which he has been devotedly attached, having a large and generally successful prac- 
tice, to engage personally in party politics. 

He is renowned throughout Western New York as a trial lawyer of remarkable 
ability, is clear and frank in his statements, attractive and convincing in his de- 
livery. 

Since March 10, 1885, he has been the attorney for the N. Y., L. E. & W. R. R. 
Co., for business arising in the counties in Western New York in which the railroad 
runs, but chiefly in the counties of Steuben, Allegany, Cattaraugus, Livingston and 
Wyoming. During a considerable period of his professional work, more particularly 
prior to the time he became attorney for the Erie R. R. Co., he has had a large ex- 
perience in the counties above named as referee in cases pending in the Supreme 
Court. 

September 21, 1858, he married Amanda Artman of Sparta, Livingston county, 
N. Y., who died April 2, 1879. August 10, 1880. he married Mrs. AUie E. Collum, 
of West Union, Fayette county, la., with whom he is now living in the city of Hor- 
nellsville, N. Y. 



VERY REV. PETER COLGAN. 

Very Rev. Dean Peter Colgan was born in Ireland in 1825; studied in the private 
schools of Mount Nugent and Old Castle, and for two years was a student in the 
Diocesan Seminary at Navan. He afterwards entered the Missionary College of All 
Hallows at Dublin, where he completed his philosophical studies and began his 
course of theology. In 1848 he came to Buffalo, where he finished his preparatory 
studies for the priesthood. He was ordained in 1850 by Rt. Rev. John Timon, first 
bishop of the diocese of Buffalo. In the same year he erected a small church, and 
banding together a number of the then scattered Catholic families of that district, 
formed the nucleus of what is now the congregation of St. Joseph's Cathedral. In 
1851 he was placed in charge of the mission of Dunkirk, which then extended over 
all Chautauqua county and parts of Erie and Cattaraugus counties. Here he 
erected a temporary church, and organized a congregation. Two years later he laid 
the foundation of the present beautiful St. Mary's which adorns the city of Dunkirk, 
and which is one of the most handsome church edifices in Western New York. In 
1858 he established an orphan asylum and school in the same city, both of which were 
placed in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph. He also erected churches in the ad- 



36 LANt)MARS:S OF STEtJBSN COtHSTTY. 

joining missions of Jamestown and Westfield, which have since developed into flour- 
ishing parishes, with resident clergymen. He came to Corning in 1860, where he 
entered upon his duties as pastor of a poor, struggling mission, possessing neither 
church nor school, with the exception of a dilapidated frame building entirely inade- 
quate for the purposes of worship. The condition of the parish at that time was 
anything but prosperous, as the Catholic families, with very few exceptions, 
possessed nothing in the way of real estate, and were consequently without perma- 
nent homes. His first efforts were to encourage and educate the people to the duty 
of purchasing land and owning their homes. In this he met with gratifying suc- 
cess, and in ai short time the condition of the people was vastly improved. This plan 
of organizing rendered his labors so fruitful in his former mission at Dunkirk, 
Jamestown and Westfield. In 1865 he began preparations for the erection of a new 
house of worship for the then increasing Catholics of Corning, and in the following 
year was laid the corner-stone of the present handsome stone structure known as St. 
Mary's church. His next enterprise was to secure the State Arsenal, which he pur- 
chased in 1873, and which he converted into an orphan asylum, ^n charge of the 
Sisters of Mercy. In 1881 he erected a handsome school building, which has at 
present an attendance of over 400 children. For the accommodation of those living 
in the eastern part of the city he purchased, in 1886, the Salvation Army barracks, 
which he converted into a chapel, now known as St. Patrick's. During the many 
years of his pastorate in Corning he has always labored for the spiritual welfare of 
the people of Big Flats and Campbelltown, having in the former village erected a 
small church, and i i the latter selected the site and prepared the plans for the present 
place of worship. 

This briefly sums up the work Father Colgan has accomplished during the forty- 
five years of priestly life. The facts stand in themselves a fitting eulogy of the 
pioneer priest of Western New York, and testify, better than words can express, the 
devotion and self-sacrifice which have ever marked his labors. His career is nothing 
less than remarkable. Be it said to the lasting honor of this devoted priest that in 
all his undertakings he has been eminently successful. Gifted with an enterprise 
and business tact rarely to be found in one of his holy calling, he triumphed where 
others would fail. Wherever his charge, wherever his field of labor, the fruit of his 
priestly efforts serves as a monument to his name. 

His untiring energy, and his indomitable zeal have ever been exerted in the noble 
cause of educating the people, building up religion, and saving souls. He has shown 
himself, at all times, an exemplary priest, a pastor and friend to all who have been 
placed under his kindly care. Such is the record of nearly half a century in the 
priesthood — a record which can be pointed to with pride by both pastor and people. 
While ever an ardent lover of the Stars and Stripes of his adopted country. Father 
Colgan has never wavered in his devotion to the land of his birth. During all the 
years of his priestly career he has been an enthusiastic supporter of. Ireland's cause, 
and more than once has lent his generous aid towards the attainment of that longed 
for freedom from British oppression. Father Colgan has lost none of the energy 
which characterized his early days in the ministry. He is still as zealous as ever in 
the discharge of his pastoral duties, and although the snows of many winters have 
whitened his locks, time seems to have touched him lightly. Blessed as he is with 
remarkable vitality, the venerable dean has before him the prospect of many useful 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 37 

years.* It is the heartfelt wish of his countless friends, and especially of the devoted 
flock to whom he has endeared himself by thirty-five years of faithful service, that 
the beloved priest may live to witness, only a few years hence, the happy occasion of 
his golden jubilee in the ministry. 



JOHN S. JAMISON, M. D. 

John Stearns Jamison, Hornellsville, N. Y., was the eldest son of John D. and 
Elizabeth (Steams) Jamison, of Canisteo, N. Y., and grandson of Capt. John Jami- 
son, of Durham, Bucks county. Pa. He was born July 25, 1822, at Canisteo, where 
his father was a leading citizen, and for many years a magistrate. After leaving 
the common school he attended the academies at Clyde and Nunda, N.. Y. , but tem- 
porarily failing health compelled him to relinquish his coveted idea of a graduating 
course at XTnion College. He engaged in teaching and was for several years an in- 
structor in penmanship and book-keeping, thus obtaining the means of defraying the 
expense of his subsequent medical studies. Senator Donald Cameron, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and ex-Governor George W. Bigler, of California, were among his pupils. 

He began the study of medicine in 1847 with Dr. U. D. Davis, of Canisteo, and 
attended lectures at Buffalo Medical College and the University of Michigan. He 
was graduated M. D. from-the latter institution in April, 1852, and has since been a 
member of its alumni society. He at once began the practice of medicine in Canis- 
teo, but after one year removed to Hornellsville, where he has remained until the 
present time. 

Dr. Jamison's father was a volunteer in the war of 1812, while his grandfather was 
a captain in the army of the Revolution, equipping at his own expense the company 
he commanded in the patriot service. He but followed their example in responding 
to his country's call in 1861, entering the service of the United States on May 4th of 
that year as assistant surgeon at the recruiting rendezvous at Elmira. He was sub- 
sequently placed in charge as examining surgeon of the volunteer forces organizing 
and quartered at that place. In the fall of the same year he accompanied the Eighty- 
Sixth New York volunteers to the field as their surgeon, with commission dated Octo- 
ber 12, 1861. At the second battle of Bull Run he became a volunteer prisoner in 
the rebel lines for eleven days, during which time he established a field hospital at 
the Van Pelt House. Under a flag of truce he accompanied the last of the wounded 
from the field to the general hospitals at Alexandria and Washington. 

During much of his term of service Dr. Jamison was detached from his regiment 
on various details connected with the medical service. For his medical skill and 
efficiency he was appointed, by special orders of Major-General Meade, to the board 
of examiners for the purpose of examining medical officers of the army. As surgeon- 
in-chief of division in the Third army corps he was made a member of the medical 
board for the purpose of examining applicant's for leave of absence, discharge, or 
transfer to the Veteran Reserve Corps, by reason of physical disability. Other 
details were as examining surgeon at convalescent camp, Alexandria, and on the 
board appointed for the re-organization of the ambulance system of the Third Army 
corps. ' For these and other services he was officially complimented by the medical 



38 LANDMARKS OF STEUBEN COUNTY. 

director of the army of the Potomac, and especially for a detailed report giving 
everything occurring in his division which in a. remote degree affected the medical 
department. 

To Dr. Jamison belongs the credit of suggesting the institution at Washington 
subsequently known as the "Contraband Hospital," where the colored people, who 
had escaped from the rebel lines and were coming to Washington in large numbers, 
destitute of food and clothing, and many of them sick and suffering, could be treated 
and cared for. Noticing a block of empty buildings near the Capitol, called the 
"Duff Green Row," he suggested to General Wadsworth, then in command there, 
the plan of using it for a rendezvous and hospital for the strangers. With the aid of 
Vice-President Hamlin and the president of the Freedmen's Bureau, the general 
secured this block and ordered the doctor to put it in sanitary condition. This he 
did, and soon had the hospital department in effective operation. This institution 
was visited by the representatives of many English and European papers and received 
many favorable comments from the home and foreign press. 

On account of his large operative experience and skillful treatment of cases as 
surgeon-in-chief of division of the Third Army corps, Dr. Jamison, in June, 1866, was 
reqnested by George A. Otis, surgeon and brevet lieutenaht-colonel U. S. volunteers, 
to contribute to his oificial reports, of his operations and interesting cases during the 
war. In 1873 he was appointed U. S. pension examiner at Hornellsville, which posi- 
tion he still retains, and at present is president of the Hornellsville Board of Pension 
Examiners. 

The doctor is a. Republican in politics and has been a vestryman of Christ Epis- 
copal church, Hornellsville, for more than thirty years. He has devoted much time 
to the study of botany and has valuable botanical and geological cabinets. He was 
a member of the Ninth International Medical Congress held in Washington, D. C. ; 
also a delegate for the New York State Medical Association to the Tenth Interna- 
tional Medical Congress, held in Berlin, Prussia; is a member of the American 
Medical Association ; the New York State Medical Association ; and was the first 
president of the Hornellsville Medical and Surgical Association, working under the 
code of the American Medical Association. He has published two papers on "Chronic 
Intestinal Catarrh," (see Transactions New York State Medical Association, 1885,'86). 

Dr. Jamison was married May 36, 1846, to Miss Lavinia, daughter of Abijah New- 
man, of Schuyler county, N. Y., who died October 33, 1887. Their only child is 
Newman Catlin Jamison, agent of the Pullman Palace Car Company at Hornells- 
ville. 



CAPTAIN SILAS WHEELER. 

The first settlement in the town of Wheeler was made by Captain Silas Wheeler 
in the year 1800, and the town is named after him. He was a descendant of Captain 
Timothy Wheeler, wtio was born in England in 1604, and was a nephew of Governor 
Brooks of Massachuseets. 

The parents of Silas Wheeler, Jonas Wheeler and Percis Brooks, both natives of 
Concord, Mass., were married October 13, 1743, and Silas Wheeler was bom March 



BIOGRAPFICAL. 39 

7, 1752, at Concord, Mass. He was married in Providence county, R. I., to Sarah 
Gardner, and they remained there nearly a year with the bride's parents. Before 
the year was ended the famous fight at Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775, took 
place, in which battle many kinsmen of Silas Wheeler took part in defense of their 
homes. An "army of observation," consisting of three regiments, was at once 
organized in Rhode Island, and in a few weeks marched to Prospect Hill near Bos- 
ton. General Nathaniel Green was commander of one of the regiments raised in 
Providence, and Silas Wheeler was a private in that regiment. These three regi- 
ments formed what was known as the ' ' Rhode Island Brigade, " and were present at the 
battle of Bunker Hill. After Washington assumed command of the troops before Bos- 
ton, a body of eleven hundred men was selected from his army to make a descent upon 
Quebec. This bodj' was intended to co-operate with General Montgomery's army, 
which had set out for Quebec by the way of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence 
River. Washington selected Benedict Arnold to command the eleven hundred men, 
with the orders to march through the Maine woods. Among the first to volunteer in 
this body was Silas Wheeler, who was appointed 3d corporal in Captain Simeon 
Thayer's Company. On September 13, 1775, Arnold started with his men from 
Cambridge, and on November 3 they reached Sertigan in Canada, in a state of 
starvation. For several days this little army had been without provisions of any 
kind. 

Caleb Haskel, in his journal of the expedition recorded a.t the time, says: "No- 
vember 1, 1775, set out weak and faint, having nothing to eat; the ground covered 
with snow; traveled fifteen miles and encamped. Eat part of a hind quarter of a 
dog for supper ; we are in a pitiable condition. November 2, set out early this morn- 
ing very much discouraged, having nothing to eat or no pros