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Original Notes on the Book of Proverbs 

Vol. 1 




%t(atiitnQ ia i^t ^utj^orijei JJtrsiotr. 



Vol. I.— Ch. i.— x. 









178, STRAND. 


In the first Book of Kings [ch. iv. v. 29 — 33, Auth. Vers.], 
we read that the Wise king of Israel, " whose wisdom excelled 
the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the 
wisdom of Egypt, spake three thousand proverbs,* and that 
his songs were a thousand and five." The Septuagint, how- 
ever, renders 'proverbs' by "parables;' 'the children of the 
east country' [Vulg. Orientalium] by 'ancients' or 'men of 
old;' 'the wisdom of Egypt' by 'the wise men of Egypt;' 
and 'a thousand and five' by 'five thousand.' 

But U^Wt^, meshalim, the Hebrew title of the Book of 
Proverbs, means not only proverbs, properly so called, but in 
general also parables, fables with a rhoral ; apologues, couplets 
on moral subjects ; maxims, aphorisms, riddles, &c. And 
although that term in the Old Testament is said chiefly of 
proverbs and of parables,* yet, as the Book of Proverbs con- 

' The LXX. render that by " three thousand parables," and Josephus 
[Antiq. Jud. lib. viii. c. 2, 5] by "three thousand 'books,' irapafioKdv tnl 
(Itovuv, of parables and images, figures or similitudes." 'Eikuv, which has 
more than one. meaning, seems to answer to the Sanscrit ' drishtanta, 
example or model, the name given to a distich consisting of two lines, 
either explaining or contrasting each other. Such distichs or couplets 
constitute a large portion of the Book of Proverbs. 

' In the Auth. Version ^tt?*D, mashal, pi. D v^pP, meshalim, are rendered 
•proverb' or 'proverbs' in Deut. xxviii. 37; 1 Sam. x. 12, xxiv. 13; I Kings 
iv. 22, ix. 7 ; 2 Chron. vii. 20 ; Ps. Ixix. 1 1 ; Prov. i. I, 6, x. I, xxv. I ; Eccles. 
xii. 9; Is. xiv. 4; Jer. xxiv. 9; Ez. xii. 22, 23, xiv. 8, xviii. 2, 3 — 'parable' 
or 'parables' in Numb, xxiii. 7, 18, xxiv. 3, ij, 20, 21, 23; Job xxvii. i ; 
Ps. Ixxviii. 2, xlix. 4; Prov. xxvi. 7, 9; Ez. xvii. 2, xx. 49, xxiv. 3; Micah 
ii. 4; Hab. ii. 6 — 'by-word,' Ps. ifliv. 1 5—' remembrances,' Job xiii. 12. 




sists of only 941 verses, many of them not proverbs in any 
sense, we may take for granted that other forms of ' meshalim' 
were among the two thousand that are lost They were 
probably parables from nature which, Josephus says, king 
Solomon " composed [aTd'ero^aTo] about every tree separately, 
from the hyssop to the cedar ; and in like manner also 
about the beasts of the field and the birds of the air, whose 
nature he understood thoroughly, through the wisdom God 
had given him."* Or perhaps, were they apologues, allegories. 
Sec, to which the term Ukuiv would practically apply, as well 
as to distichs or 'examples.' 

For stories of that kind have been in favour with "the 
children of the east country" from the very beginning of 
time, according to Hindoo reckoning. 

Such as, for instance, that capital story [uttamam kat'hitam] 
of the Cat and the Rat, told by Narada to Sanjaya's father;* 
and that other story of the Owl, the Cat and the Rat under the 
sacred Fig-tree, told by Bhishma to Yudhishtira.* Then there 
is the legend [puravrittam itihasam] of a king who left his 
kingdom and came back a beggar, told by Arjuna ;* also 
another very old story [itihasam puratanam], told by Vrihas- 
pati at Indra's request, and mentioned by the Rishi Devast'- 
hani.* Then that other story of the two brothers Shanka and 
Likhita, told by Vyasa ;* the story of the Crow and the Swans, 

> Three thousand books of parables, &c., alleged to have been written 
by king Solomon, would be a mere trifle among all the wonders attributed 
to him by legendary tradition found in the Talmud, the Qoran, and deve- 
loped in the sixty folio volumes of the ' Suleyman Nameh' preserved in 
the Imperial Library at Constantinople. See Fiirst's Perlen Schniire, 
p. 42— 55, 119—121 ; Rosenol, vol. i. p. 147—257; Wagenseil, Entdecktes 
Judenthum, vol. 1. and ii., &c. 

» Maha Bh. Udyoga P. 5421 sq. ' Id. Shanti P. 4930— 5'30, and 

7155, 8217 sq. * Id. ibid. 536 sq. * Id. ibid. 615 sq. • Id. ibid. 
668 and 1293. 

told by Shalia to Kama ;* and another story of a conversa- 
tion between Manu and Prajapati,* &c. 

Then at a much later period [b.c. iooo?] we have Hesiod's 
fable of the Hawk and the Nightingale,' that may be com- 
pared with the much older one of Indra and Vishnu Kama as 
Kite and Dove, told in the Dsang-Lun.* Also the fable of the 
Bittern and the Mussel, told by Su-tai [b.c. 318], probably the 
oldest Chinese fable, and often mentioned in Chinese writings. 
Many also of the Indian tales that spread East and West 
under various names, found their way into China. We find 
even the fable of the Lion and the Mouse in demotic Egyp- 
tian, on a papyrus of the time of the Ptolemies.' 

Of wise sayings, maxims, proverbs or precepts, those of 
Kaqimna, who was prefect under Snefru of the 3rd or 4th 
Egyptian dynasty, and those of prince Ptah-hotep, son of 
king Assa of the 4th or 5th dynasty— who wrote his precepts 
when a hundred and ten years of age— are together, probably, 
the oldest book in the world. Many of those wise sayings 
agree almost word for word with others in the Book of Pro- 
verbs ; and they, as well as the precepts of the scribe Ani to 
his son Khons-hotep, of the 20th dynasty [b.c. 1250], together 
with some of the earliest chapters in the ' Ritual of the Dead,' 
may have formed part of "the wisdom of Egypt" known to 
king Solomon, who might have heard also of the wisdom of 
the Aryan "children of the east country," brought to Jerusalem 
together with " ivory, apes, peacocks and gold of Ophir."* 

Among those wise Aryans of old, Vidura figures well in his 
counsels to his elder brother Dhritarashtra, to whom he told 
his allegory or similitude [upama] on the course, or wheel, of 

• Id. Kama P. 1876—1946. » Id. Shanti P. 1395. » Op. et Di. aoo. 
• FoL 13. » Zeitschr. Egypt, 1878, No. 2. « 1 Kings ix. 11, 




this world' [sansarachakra ; comp. rpoxhv r^t y.^V.*,,, S. Jam. 
iii. 6]. We have also another similitude [upama] of the river 
Sita, a branch of the Ganges, told by Bhishma.« Then follow 
Jotham's parable of the Bramble ;» Nathan's parable of the 
Ewe-lamb ;♦ and later, Buddhaghosha's parables ; with many 
others frequently met with in Buddhistic writings ; such as 
that of the Lost Child, in the Padma-dkar-po ; in the Altan 
Gerel; in the Dsang-Lun, called Uliger-un Dalai, 'Ocean of 
Parables,' in the Mongolian version of it ; with which we may 
compare Somadeva's ' Kat'ha sarit Sagara,* 'Ocean (or recep- 
tacle) of Streams of Stories.' Such parables or similitudes 
occur also frequently in the Jatakas, or births of Buddha ; 
while in Greek we have a collection of similitudes by Demo- 
philus, called ^ijfuxfiiXov o^ota.' 

But of all such works, the one which on the whole, perhaps, 
Answers best to the Hebrew D'-'pyD, ' meshalim,' in its widest 
acceptation, is the popular Sanscrit Hitopadesa, ' friendly or 
proper advice," in prose and verse, by Vishnu Sarma, which 
has been translated into most Indian and many European 
languages, and is the groundwork of the so-called Fables of 
Pilpai or Bidpai, of the Anwar-i Sohaili, the Kkirud-ufroz, 
Humayoon Nameh, Lokopakaraya, Rajaniti, and other works 
of the kind. Nay, the translators of the Book pf Proverbs 
into Sanscrit verse could find no title more appropriate for 
their translation than * Hitopadesa,' after their Sanscrit model. 
Those and other like stories, fables, proverbs, maxims, &c., 
written ever since, would all be generally included in the 
Hebrew term Q"''?^, • meshalim,' which, when applied to the 
Book of Proverbs in particular, finds a counterpart in the 
several Nitishatakas, or centuries of moral couplets, by Cha- 

' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 1476 sq., and Udyoga P. 2 Id. ibid. 2099 

' Judg. i.x. 7. * 2 Sam. xii. ' Ed. Gale. 



nakya, Bhartrihari, Saskya-pandita, Zamaschari, KanlandakI' 
and a host of others ; in the collections of Drishtantas, or 
' examples' in distichs on good conduct, morals, &c. ; in the 
Dhammapada, 'footsteps to religion' or 'path of virtue;' in 
the Bahudorshon, Lokaniti, Subhashita, Subha Bilas, Vrinda 
Satasai, Rishta i juwahir, Pat'hya Wakyaya, Ming Sin paou 
kien, Ming hien dsi, Hien wen shoo, &c. 

Among the Jewish people, however, the Book of Proverbs 
served as a pattern for later works of the same kind, including 
fables, apologues, &c., such as the Proverbs of Joshua [Jesus] 
ben Sirach [B.C. 2CX3], known to us chiefly through the Greek 
translation called Ecclesiasticus [B.C. 151]; and the so-called 
Alphabets of Ben Sira, a presumed near relation of Jeremiah. 
Then among later works we have ' Mishle Asaph,' the Proverbs 
of Asaph, written in good Hebrew, with a commentary, in 
imitation of the Book of Proverbs ; ' Mashal haqqadmoni,' 
another book of moral stories; 'Mishle Shu'alim,' fables of 
foxes, a kind of moral rendering of the fables of Esop by 
Rabbi M. Niqdani ; and many other such works. 

But we find the title of the Book of Proverbs in other 
languages applied also to fables, apologues, &c. Thus in 
Aramean we have ' Mathle d' Sophos,' the fables of Sophos, 
the probable original of the Greek fables of Syntipa ; ' Mathle 
d' Yusephos,' the proverbs, parables or fables of Joseph, pro- 
bably meant for ' the Fables of Esop,' and included by Ebed 
Yesu among canonical books.' So also in Arabic, Turkish 
and Persian, in Georgian and in Armenian, the same term 
applies to the Book of Proverbs and to the fables of Esop, 
Vartan, Kosh, as well as to parables, maxims or proverbs. 

This manifold acceptation of the Hebrew term ^tf'l?, pi. 

* Assem. Bib. Or. vol. ii. p. 47. 



0""^^, ' mashal,' pi. ' meshalim,' may partly account for the 
two-fold meaning of ' similitude* and of 'rule or government,' 
of the verb bttJO, whence the noun bijfjp is derived ; and seems 
also to show which of these two different meanings is the 
original one. We all know what influence fables, allegories, 
proverbs and parables, maxims, &c., exercise over our whole 
life. The fables we learn for our amusement in childhood, 
guide us through life, and delight us even in old age. So do 
parables, with yet greater power and authority. But as to 
proverbs — familiarly defined as 'the experience of nations 
and the wit of one man' — we like to bear them in mind, and 
to quote them as rules and authorities sanctioned by all, from 
which there is no appeal. 

"They are unanswerable," say the Welsh.* " Most men will 
contradict everything ; but as regards proverbs, ou %is ai^-i- 
\iyttv, it is not lawful to do so," says the Greek.* If "common 
or vulgar sayings are not allowed in polite society," says one 
Arab,* another says that ' emthal,' proverbs and like quotations, 
" are lights (or lanterns) of conversation," and " a seal to a 
wise man's word."* For "wise men only speak parables or 
proverbs;"' and "a wise man confirms his word with a pro- 
verb ; but a fool does it with an oath," says again another 
Arab.* ; " Proverbs," say the Persians, " are an ornament to a 
discourse;"^ and " dwa$avaTi(ovTai,^ are aimed at immortality," 
says Synesius also. In short, they influence and rule us 
more or less through life. This firm hold, then, which fables, 

» ' Diarheb," or ' diareb,' the Welsh for ' proverb,' properly means ' un- 
answerable,' that cannot be contradicted. " Pob dihareb (diareb) gwir, 
pob cocl celwydd," " every proverb is truth, every omen a lie."— Pugh's 
Diet vol. L p. 577. 

* MorelL xopm/i. l/t/uTf. pref. ' Abu Ubeid, 88. • Meld. Arab. pr. 
» Mishna, Surh. Nidda, 5, and Avoth R. Nathan, c. 29, 27, 28. • Meid. 
Ar. pr. 2077. ' Pers. pr. » Synesius de Calvit. p. 85. 



parables, maxims and proverbs have on us, seems to show; 
that the original meaning of the verb bgjp, ' mashSV whence 
b^, 'mashal,' a parable or proverb, implied 'similitude,' 
■ speaking parables ;' from which the second meaning of 
'influence, rule or authority,' came into use. 

There is, however, another and a yet more probable cause 
for this two-fold meaning of the verb bljJp, • mashal.' The 
corresponding term in Arabic is ' mathala' [also pronounced 
' masala' in some parts], to be like, to speak parables, &c But 
there are also in Arabic the two verbs ' masala' and ' mashala,' 
to draw the sword [and hold it as a token of rule and power. 
Rom. xiii. 4 ; Coptic liturgies ; and Egyptian hieroglyphics, 
in which the sword or dagger is determinative of priority, 
chieftainship, rule, &c., and stands for ' first.'] These two verbs, 
' masala' and ' mashala,' to draw the sword, are not found in 
the other Semitic dialects, which have only 'mathal,' to be 
like, &c. But since the Hebrew btt^jp, ' mashal' — that stands 
nearest in order to the Arabic — represents the Arabic 'ma- 
thala,' and the Chaldee, Syriac and Samaritan 'mathal,' the 
'th' of these dialects being changed to 'sh' in Hebrew — it 
seems but natural that ' s' and ' sh' of the Arabic ' masala' and 
'mashala' should pass into the Hebrew 'sh'; and that the 
Hebrew verb bttJo, 'mashal,' should thus combine the three 
Arabic verbs, ' mathala,' ' masala ' and ' mashala,' verbs of 
similitude, and of authority and power. 

But if this one Hebrew term with several significations is 
sometimes liable to an arbitrary rendering, there is not the 
same excuse for it in Greek, that has two distinct terms, both 
essentially different in their etymology. IlopajSoX^ is, properly 
speaking, a comparison, a parable. But wapoin'ia, a proverb, 
according to such authorities as Didymus of Alexandria,* 
' In Prov. c. I. 


S. Chrysostom,' and S. Athanasius,* comes from iro/)o, 'by,' 
and oTfjLot, 'a pathway or road.' Didymus gives as example 
of a proverb, 

" PofJs ivBt\€\ovva KoiXaivfi irirpav," 

" a drop, by constantly dropping, hollows out a stone ;" and 
says that sentences of this kind were inscribed on stones set 
up to mark the distance on the road [mile-stones], for the 
benefit and instruction of wayfaring men as they went along. 
Such proverbs or maxims may have formed part of the yvat- 
IiovikSl o/xotu^ara, ' guiding or directing similitudes,' which Jam- 
blichus tells us Pythagoras used in teaching his disciples ;• as 
he also used (Tv/ij3oXa, 'symbols,' d7ro</>ocrtis, "definitions,' and 
iiro4>6fyfMra, ' apophthegms,' for the same purpose.* 

So that according to this probable etymology, vapoifxla, ' a 
proverb,' is properly ' a word by the way,' a ' by-word ;' though 
not in its present acceptation. And it shows that ' parable' 
and ■ proverb' may not be taken the one for the other, as it is 
frequently done. Thus S. Hilary says, in fact, that a ' proverb' 
is a ' parable.' " Proverbium non hoc quod verbis sonat ex- 
plicat ; sed dictorum virtutem ex usu verborum communiorum 
nuntiat."* So also says S. Epiphanius, that wapoifiU is the' 
same as n-apaPoKrj* So does Suidas, and Apostolius also in 
the preface to his Greek proverbs. 

This confusion of ideas may have originated in the use of 
the manifold Eastern term VwD, properly a parable or simili- 
tude — "a saying both short and frequently used, that has 
another meaning than the one words convey,"' say the Arabs ; 
applied not only to parables, but also to that kind of couplet, 
or distich, that consists of two hemistichs in apposition the 

' Synops. S. S. ad loc. * Synops. S. S. vol. ii. p. 91. ' Jamblich. 
ii. c. 2, and i. 18. * Id. Vit. Pyth. c. 22, 23. ' In Psalm cxxvii. 

vol. i. p. 368, ed. Ven. * Ancor. c xlii. ' Golius in Adag. Arab. 



one to the other, called in Sanscrit ' drishtanta,' or ' ffxaHnple/' 
and in Persian 'andaz.' It has been in great favour with 
Eastern authors from the first, and it makes up a large portion 
of the Book of Proverbs. From ''tj?^, a ' distich,' in the sense 
of c'koiv, an 'image,' or 'example,' came the use of one of its 
hemistichs, or of some word in it only, for a jrapot/iia, or ' pro- 
verb,' properly so called. The Latin ' proverbium,' ' pro verbo,' 
for a word, a maxim or sentence, said once for all — seems to 
point to the same origin as the Greek. 

This manifold meaning of the Book of Proverbs led me to 
think that kindred passages from the writings of some of "the 
children of the east country" — brought together, as it were, a 
tribute to the king "whose wisdom excelled them all" — might 
form a rnore useful and more appropriate commentary on the 
wisdom of his words, than adding one more to the many prac-. 
tical helps or critical works already published, in which pro- 
bably, I could have said little or nothing new.* The variety 
of opinions — not all of equal merit, assuredly — from uncon- 
nected and distant portions of the East, will not, I think, be 
void of all interest ; while, at the same time, it will establish 
a fair comparison between the wisdom " those children of the 
east country" borrowed from themselves, and the wisdom king 
Solomon received from above. We shall find, on the one 
hand, a general agreement in matters of daily life ; while, on 
the other hand, the yearnings of the best of those men of old 
after " an unknown God," though lacking the faith of the Wise 
king to whom that God had revealed Himself, yet prove how 

' The remarks I have made occasionally for the better understanding 
of the Hebrew text do not deserve the name of criticism. Neither do 
the few words of my own I have sometimes added, alter in any way the 
general character of the work, which is made up of detached sentences, 
for the most part unconnected except in their arrangement, which was 
arbitrary, and not always what I could wish. 



true is the saying of S. Paul to the Athenians, " that God is 
not far from every one of us."* 

No, indeed ; for we cannot study the best of those ancient 
children of the East, without feeling drawn towards them. 
We cannot help being either pleased with their wit, with their 
quaint common sense which they tell in their own way, or 
delighted with the freshness of their old ideas, and with the 
beauty and elegance of their own words, which, alas ! wither 
or die in the rendering. But, best of all, we often feel lost in 
admiration of the earnestness of some of them " in seeking 
after God if haply they might find Him." Wherein they, who 
were without Revelation, often put us Christians, who have 
it, to shame. How else can we interpret many a passage in 
Plato, Pindar, Cicero, &c., and some of the hymns in the Rig 
and Sama Vedas, sung in praise of " a Father in whom faith 
and trust raises us to Heaven" ?^ 

Surely if prophets of old " who were taught of God," were 

but " lights shining in a dark place,"' among the chosen nation 

of the Jews, such men as Manu, Lao-tsze, Confucius, Meng- 

tsze, Zoroaster, and others, must have been set for lamps in 

the deeper gloom of heathenism. For if " they who had not 

the law, did by nature the things contained in the law, these, 

having not the law, were a law unto themselves ; which show 

the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience 

also bearing witness — according to my Gospel," says S. Paul.* 

And thus they bring us — will we, nill we — to see that, not only 

" were they made of one blood with ourselves," but that, as 

S. Paul and their own poets told them, they are, as well as we, 

" the oflTspring of Him in whom we live, and move, and have 

our being."* 

' Acts xvii. 27. * Rig Veda, i. 6, xvii. 7 ; Sama, v. i. 2, 3, 4, 7, 8. 

' 2 Pet. i. 19. * Rom. ii. 14 — 16. ' Acts xvii. 28. 



And, further, they warn us that if we — who think ourselves 
so far in advance of them, and so much better and wiser than 
they — wish to help them in their search after the Truth which 
we claim as our own, it cannot be by benevolent indifference 
on our part as to what is true or false, in order to suit or 
please everybody ; still less by letting ignorance or prejudice 
relegate those 'heathen* to one common doom. As if "the 
authority to execute judgment"* over "those who sinned with- 
out the law, and those who sinned with the law,"* was not 
given to Him who is the just Judge of quick and dead ; 
"because He is the Son of Man ;"» "and needeth not that 
any should testify of man, for He knoweth what is in man:"* 

But those 'heathen' point to the example set us by S. Paul, 
and tell us to do as he did. First of all to acquaint ourselves 
with their own sacred writings, and with the good to be found 
in them ; for he was learned in Jewish and in Gentile lore 
also. Then to draw near to those members of God's family 
with deference and brotherly love, as he did at Athens — in 
order to see how far we may fairly and frankly agree with 
them. But when we must differ, then gently to try and bring 
them from their own ideas of " the unknown God whom they 
ignorantly worship,!' to the knowledge of Him as revealed to 
us in His Word. Remembering that they had grown old 
and hoary through centuries of culture and wisdom, when we 
were only just emerging from the gloom of barbarism. 

So did S. Paul at Athens. He did not offend his audience, 
neither did he run counter of their prejudices. But he met 
them on their own ground ; he took them by their weak side 

the worship of their gods — and convinced them out of their 

own poets. So that his Epicurean and Stoic hearers, who at 

> S. John V. 27. ' Rom. ii. 12. ' S. John v. 27. ♦ Id. ii. 25. 



first laughed at htm, and called him ' a babbler,' soon altered 
their mind and begged to hear him again.^ 

Still, with all due respect and liking for those worthies of 
olden time, one can only couple their sayings with those of 
Holy Writ, in the words of the Hindoo poet — "as glass 
brought in contact with gold, borrows from it the lustre of the 
topaz."* True. Yet glass, though it be but glass, is itself 
clear and bright, and lends brilliancy to the gold. If the gem 
honours the setting, the setting adorns the gem. And so, in 
sooth, do many of those wise sayings of " the children of the 
east country" adorn the gem of Holy Scripture, and receive 
additional lustre and merit from it. 

This feeling of reverence for those ancient writings, but of 
worship for the Word of God, led me, when an undergraduate 
at Oxford, to begin these Notes, and to continue them, through 
many vicissitudes, and at long intervals of time and place, as 
the rapfpyov, by-work, of other duties ;' looking forward, as 
I did, to the time when, free from the care of a large country 
parish. I should have leisure to revise and arrange my mate- 
rials. That time came at last ; but with it also came sickness^ 
and failing eye-sight ; and, worse, separation from my library, 
which is at Oxford. This left me almost entirely dependent 
on my Notes, as they were written at the time — unable to 
verify many of my references, and to finish my work, which is, 
I fear, but a rough pen-and-ink outline of what was intended 
to be a true picture of Eastern thought and wisdom. 

• Acts rrii, 16—34. » HitopL pret 81. 

» TTiese Notes, which exceed twelve thousand, and extend over the 
whole Book of Proverbs, were all taken from Eastern 'non-Christian' 
writings, except a few quotations from Ethiopic Didascalia, and occasional 
passages from Greek and Latin favourites, which could not be ignored 




These gleanings in the "east country," however, such as 
they are, may yet prove acceptable to some who feel inte- 
rested in lore of this kind— who, like the favourite swan of 
Hindoo poetry, will " pluck curds of wisdom from the whey" 
of what may seem perhaps childish or trivial. But as regards 
errors, all my own, which, under existing circumstances, will 
have crept unawares into this work, I can only hope that 
better scholars than myself will either excuse or kindly correct 
them. Horace said he would, when he wrote :^ 

" Sunt delicta tamen, quibus ignovisse velimus : 
Nam neque chorda sonum reddit, quod vult manus et mens. 
Poscentique gravem persaepe remittit acutum. 
Nee semper feriet, quodcunque minabitur, arcus. 
Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis 
OfTendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit 
Aut humaria parum cavit natura." 

> Ars. Poet 347— 3S3- 


West Cliff Hall, Bournemouth, 
Oct. i88g. 


P. 21, 22, for "Bikkhus" read "Bhikkhus." 
P. 182, for "heb ddin" read "heb ddim." 
P. 321, for "Nibbhanam" read "Nibbanam." 
P. 375, for ""'5iJH" read """SOM" 





/ TAe use of the Proverbs. 7 An exhortation to fear God, and believe his 
■word. 10 To avoid the enticings of sinners. 20 Wisdom complaineth 
of her contempt. 24 She threateneth her contemners. 

'T^HE proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king 
of Israel ; 

" The proverbs" &c. See Preface. 

" What is there lacking in the Law of the Lord, that thou- 
shouldest seek the teaching of the Gentiles? For, say the 
Apostles in their doctrine, if thou wishest to know the power 
and strength of the wise and their doctrine, thou hast at hand 
the Prophets, Job and Solomon. They are indeed full of 
wisdom, which thou canst learn of them."* And elsewhere, 
says the same authority, " Let all the books [of Holy Scrip- 
ture] be unto you both honourable and sacred — such as the 
Book of Psalms and the Proverbs of Solomon."* 

These are called novapcTos <ro^io, " Wisdom of every virtue," 
or " that embraces every virtue," by S. Clement of Rome,' and 
after him by Clement of Alexandria, Hegesippus, Irenaeus, and 
many of the Fathers. S. Gregory Nazianzen calls the Proverbs 
(7-o<^ta jratSoycoyjK^,* "educating wisdom," and Abijlpharaj, "prac- 

' Didascal. Apost. i€)th. c. 1. 
* Ep. Cor. i. Ivii. ' Or. xi. 

' Apostol. Const. Copt. c. viL 


[i. I 


tical wisdom, eminent among other books."* But the Apo- 
cryphal Book of Wisdom, or Wisdom of Solomon, is also called 
IlavdpeTot <To<f>ia by many ancient authors, who give to the Book 
of Proverbs the simple title of 2o<^to, "Wisdom."* "It is, in 
sooth, a gathering of virtues and of the teaching of wise men ; 
a treasury of virtues gathered together, as the sea, that great 
treasury of waters, gathers all rivers that flow into it"— said 
of Sa-skya's "Treasury of Good Sayings" by his Buddhist 
translator, who adds : " Even if thou canst not attain to wis- 
dom in this birth, it is a precious thing for thee to borrow 
and to take with thee as a recommendation for hereafter."* 
" For," says a higher and better authority, " the Word of God 
is a good provision by the way for our whole lifetime ;"* yea, 
" better than many treasures."' 

"Alas for old age I" says Ptah-hotep [prince and prefect 
under king Assa of the Sth Dynasty, and long anterior to 
Abraham] ; " could I, decrepit as I am at a hundred and ten 
years of age, tell others the words heard in the beginning, in 
olden time, from the gods themselves ?" His god Osiris 
answers him : " Teach the words of olden time ; they will be 
the food or support of children and of men."* Ptah-hotep then 
gives his precepts, often quoted in these pages, and at the end 
of them he says : " If thou hearkenest to what I have told 
thee, all thy plans and actions will tend to 'Ma' [first and 
divine principle of all that is true, beautiful and good]. These 
precepts are a treasure to those who keep them faithfully, and 
their memory will continue in the mouth of mankind by reason 
of their beautiful arrangement."' But before Ptah-hotep, 
Kakimna [who was also prefect under king Snefru of the 
3rd Dynasty] said of his own work " On Good Manners," the 
oldest writing on earth : " If all in this book is listened to as 
I have said it, to guide [others] to useful ways, some will lay 

» Dyn. Arab. p. jo. * Cotel. PP. Apost. vol. i. p. 179. ' Sain 

iighes, fol. 2. * S. Cyril Hier. ' Ascens. of Isaiah, at the end. 

• Pap. Prisse, pi. v. L 3—3. ' Id. pi. xv. I. 8—10. 



it in their bosom [learn it by heart], repeat (or recite) it as it 
is written [word for word], and that will do them more good 
than anything (or all) else in the world."* 

And Chu-tsze [a Chinese philosopher in high repute, author 
of the Siao-hio, "Little Study," for young people, as the Ta-hio, 
" Great Study," was for men] : " By dwelling on the sacred 
classics, by weighing the wise and worthy teaching handed 
down to us, and by using this book [Siao-hio], youth, yet un- 
taught, will be instructed."* " Looking up to the sages for a 
pattern, and to the worthies of old for a model, Chu-tsze 
rehearses this chapter-foj^ the instruction of the young who 
are still in the darkness of ignorance."* " For to be freed from 
such darkness," says~the Buddhist, " is one door to religious 
enlightenment ; it heals the plague of lack of knowledge."* 

" Hear, then, the words of wisdom," says Enoch, a yet older 
name than any of the preceding ones. "No one has yet 
received from the Lord of Spirits the wisdom that has been 
given me, a portion of eternal life, as it was contained in one 
hundred and three parables [or proverbs] which I was enabled 
to declare to the inhabitants of the earth."* Therefore "let 
not these parables [or proverbs] appear light in thine eyes," 
says a Rabbi, " for by means of a parable a man can stand 
firm in the words of the Law. It is like a king who, having 
lost a gold coin or a pearl of great price, looks for that pearl 
by means of the slender wick of a lamp worth one farthing, 
and finds it"* 

2 To know wisdom and instruction ; to perceive the 
words of understanding ; 

Wisdom, rnppn, is originally 'skill,' and DJI^ 'skilful' — 
" olov ^tiSiav XtOovpyov iro<f>6v," as we call Phidias a clever [wise] 
sculptor; only signifying thereby that "<ro<^io — apeni rt'xi^s 

' Id. c. iii. 
* Midrastt- 

• Pap. Prisse, pi. ii. L 4—7. 
♦ Rgya-tcher rol-pa, c. iv. 
Rab. in Cant. i. M. S. 

* Siao-hio, c. ii. 
' Bk. Enoch, c xxxvii. 

B 2 


itrri, wisdom is the virtue [or merit, excellence] of an art," says 
Aristotle.1 But " skill without wisdom in itself is not to be 
accounted skill," says the Spirit of Wisdom.* And the verb 
D3n, especially in Arabic, implies order, judgment, and also 
wisdom ; thus ' hookm,' order ; and ' hakeem,' a wise man who 
prescribes, a doctor. Hence masi^ expresses the various mean- 
ings of ' wisdom,' not only as Siavo.jTiK^ in its intellectual aspect, 
but also as Jfw, habit of mind,' the result of principle. Aristotle 
fails to give us this principle, which is not voi]tik6v, mental 
only, but is also spiritual and in the heart 

For wisdom, A.-S. ' wis-dom,' is ' wise or right judgment.' 
[Comp. A.-S. 'wita,' 'witan,' 'wis,' 'wisa,' G. 'wissen,' Sscr. 'vid,' 
to know or perceive ; Lat 'vid-eo,' Gr. <."Soi, or rather /ISu, ' wit,' 
•to wit;' witness, 'I see,' often said for 'I understand;' oZSa, 
•wot,' 'to wot,' 'I know' from hearsay or mental perception.] 
So that real wisdom seems to be the right judgment in all 
things of a ready mind, wrought in us by the one principle of 
the love and fear of God. " Sapientissimus est," says Cicero,* 
cui quod opus sit ; ipsi venit in mentem," " He is wisest who 
perceives at once what is required at the time." This ready 
perception and correct judgment between right and wrong is 
thus told in a Buddhist treatise on Wisdom : " I, Hjam-dpal, 
[Manju-Sri, the god or personification of Wisdom] am supreme, 
incomparable knowledge [or wisdom], that sees at a glance 
[lit. without deliberation]."* 

" To know wisdom" &c " In teaching men," says Confucius, 
" always inculcate these five virtues : jin, humanity, oyoTn; ; i, 
justice ; //, propriety ; chi, wisdom ; and j/«, faithfulness."' 

" To consider these three virtues, yVw^b, ^j and chi, humanity 
[doing to others as to oneself], justice and wisdom," say the 
Japanese, — "to decide aright between right and wrong, and 
not to look at evil any how, — that is wisdom."^ 

• Eth. r, 1 141, 10. 
* Pro Cluentio. 
^ Shi tei gun, p. 14. 

* Mainyo i kb. c. xi. 
• Hjam-dpal, fol. vii. 

' Id. a, 1 103 a. 21. 
• Medh. Dial. p. 153. 





"The strength (or virtue, aptnj)," say the Rabbis, "which 
God gives His servants to enable them to do His work, Is 
intelligence, wisdom, patience and hope, and the prospect of 
reward in eternity."* 

And in the Mainyo i khard [a treatise on the Spirit of 
Wisdom], we read that a sage, seeing how many religions were 
opposed to the true [Mazdayasnian] one, inquired of sundry 
high-priests, Which is the best thing for the preservation of 
the body on earth, and for the emancipation of the spirit? 
Then they answered through the revelation of religion : " Of 
all the good that comes to men, wisdom is best ; for by the 
power of wisdom they can guide themselves on earth, and by 
it also reach heaven. For it was by his own original wisdom 
that Hormuzd created the earth and all that is in it." 

The sage then took refuge in the Spirit of Wisdom [" the 
original, eternal, heavenly Wisdom, one with Hormuzd, who 
by it made the worlds""], to whom he offered more prayers 
than to any other Ameshaspands [inferior heavenly deities, 
archangels]. He then became aware that the true [or honest] 
way to perform for oneself all meritorious deeds and other 
actions is through the power of wisdom ; that therefore one 
ought to be diligent in pleasing the Spirit of Wisdom. Then 
that Spirit, seeing the sage's mind and desire, showed himself 
in a body, and said : " Friend, foremost in piety I receive in- 
struction [or revelation] from me, that I may be thy guide, 
and teach thee to please Yazd [God] and good men, for the 
preservation of thy body on earth, and for the emancipation 
of thy soul in heaven."* " For a wise man is not wise," say 
the Arabs, "until he has overcome his evil nature."* And 
Confucius ends his Dialogues with his disciples thus : " He 
who knows not the [will or] commands of Heaven, can never 
become a wise or superior man."' For that great and good 
man did yearn for a principle of action better than he found 

' Ep. Lod. 729. ' Mainyo i kh. c. Ivii. ' Id. i. yj — 61. 

* Ar. pr. ' Hea-Lun, c. xx. 



Within him when he said : "Virtue alone is not able to keep 
men from evil. Those who hear of righteousness are unable 
to follow it. and the wicked are not able to alter their course 
It IS a grief to me." » 

"instruction." '^^■a, Arab. adab. -education,' that implies 
chastening. LXX. .a.8«'<^ "which is. to learn to like good 
and to hate evil, and should begin early," says Aristotle.* 

"Doing good Improves the countenance (or complexion) " 
says Tsze-hea. " In serving one's father and mother, let a man 
exhaust his strength; in serving his prince, let him risk his 
life ; and in his intercourse with his friends, let him speak 
truthfully. Though men think such a one untaught, yet wise 
men call that good teaching [education]."* 

And Tseu-sze: "Heaven's order (or decree) is called ' nature:' 
to follow it is -Tao,' the way; and to establish (or instruct) 
this way, is called 'instruction' or teaching." On this the 
Japanese commentator says : " Man, having received the be- 
ginning of his existence from Heaven, is a being with a nature 
drawn from thence. His nature, therefore, is good, and not 
bad ; and to follow it is michi (or Tao) the way ; and to 
teach or promote this way, is by sages called education or 
instruction."* [Tao has many meanings. The mystic sense 
in which it is used by Lao-tsze and other Chinese philosophers, 
is probably the reason that led the Shanghae Delegates to 
choose it, very properly it seems, as a substitute for 6 A6yot in 
S. John i.] 

Meng-tsze teaches the same as regards man's natural heart. 
One of his most celebrated sayings, the text of one of Kiu O's 
Japanese sermons, \s, jin jin-sin yay, "Humanity is the heart 
of man ;" and i Jin-loo yay, "Justice is man's way to walk in."" 
"This benevolence," says the Buddhist," "is one of the doors 
to holiness, and is one of the attributes of the Bodhisatwa in 

' Shang-Lun. c vii. » Eth. p^, 1104 b. 12. ' Siaohio, c. i. 

Chung yg, Jap. ed, and Siao-hio, c. i. ' Hea-Meng, xi. 11. 

' Rgya-tcher rol-pa, t ii. and iv. 





Dgah-ltan, the abode of joy." "Who then practises human*? 
ity [jin] ? He who seeks the profit (or advantage) of others, 
as he would his own."* 

" to perceive," &c. T^v'V' ^^ understand, to 'discern' words 
of understanding, that is. of discrimination between right and 

3 To receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, and 

judgment, and equity ; 

" To receive," '?3?yn ^DIQ, a teaching, or training, ' to render one 
intelligent, to train the intellect.' Chald. W^-ITID, chastening, cor- 
'rection [eruditio. fe rudis]. 

" To receive instruction of wisdom." " Give your heart to in- 
struction," says the Burmese schoolmaster to his scholars ; 
" from the size of a hair it will grow to that of a river. By 
cleaving to it you will acquire great knowledge and wisdom, 
until you become 'an elephant with two tusks' [a very great 
man in learning]."* " This moral instruction," says V. Sarma, 
" will give skill and elegance of speech, and also wisdom and 
knowledge [vidyam]."' 

" Wise men of old," says Kiu O. " seeing how little mankind 
sought after their own [original] heart that had gone astray, 
showed them the way to it. And this showing (or signifying) 
is called instruction or moral study."* "But instruction should 
be short," says Maimonides. " The wise say that one should 
teach in a short way [much in few words] ; to say little in 
many words is indeed folly."* [A useful hint to many.] 

"justice, judgment and equity." "Determine." says the Greek. 
" to form thy judgment according to justice, and not for the 
sake of advantage."' As a help to this right judgment. 
" thought, wrapped in wisdom." says the Buddhist. " sets one 
free from corruptions, namely, lust, individuality [self], false 

> Phreng wa,p. n. ' Putt-ovada, p. 15. ' Hitopad. Pref. 

* Sennons, voL i. Serm. ii. p. 2. ' Halkut deh. ii. 4, foL 12. 



doctrine and ignorance."* " For men in general are partial ; 
but to see evil in those they love and good in those they hate, 
is indeed rare under heaven," says Ts'heng-tsze.* 

And Tseu-tsze : "Justice is equity."* "Justice is the power 
(or faculty) of discrimination (or award). It is the rule (or 
measure) oi jin, humanity. It agrees well with ability. He 
who has it is indeed strong."* 

" If a man," says Dr. Desima, " having made a promise, 
breaks it, instead of feeling displeased, think, ' That man has 
altered his first intention ; he cannot have broken his promise.' 
This is justice."* [Charity, rather than justice.] 

"Justice," says Husain Vaiz Kashifi, "is the governing 
officer of a state ; an ornament to it, and a ray that sheds 
abroad light, and scatters darkness. God assuredly com- 
manded this virtue to His servants when He said [in the 
Qoran] : God has ordered justice and kindness (or favour). 
Justice, then, is to award justice to those that are oppressed ; 
and favour [ihsan] is to apply the salve of repose to the 
wounds of the wounded."* "Justice is very great and un- 
changeable ; it has not passed away since the days of Osiris ; 
it is very strong. This is a father's saying."' 

"Justice is the mainstay of a kingdom," says Sadi.* "Because 
Nushirwan made choice of justice, his name is held in honour 
to this day. Uphold the world through justice [insaf] and 
equity, and with it rejoice the heart of thy subjects, O king ! 
Agree [be on good terms] with them, and sit at ease from fear 
of thine enemy; for the subjects of a just sovereign are a host 
around him."' " For what greater advantage canst thou reap 
than to bear the name of Shahanshah 'adil, " Sovereign the 

"equity" O'lnifp, lit. ' straight,' smooth and even, fair and 

' Mahaparanibbh, p. 8i, fol. nya. ' Comm. on Ta-hio, viii. 

' Chung yg, c xx. ♦ Li-Iin, Li-ki, viii. « Shi tei gun, p. 14. 

• Akhlaq-i m. xv. ' Ptah-hotep Pap. Pr. vi. 5. » Pend-nameh, p. 14. 

• Gulistan, st. 6. " Pend-nameh, p. 1 5. 



upright dealings. Chald. Mnnsn^i, • rectitude.' LXX.' *>(A»' 


" Equity is one half of religion."* " It is an ornament to 
the wise to incline to neither side, like a balance evenly 
weighted."* "What, then, is equity?" asks Ramajuna. "It 
is to deal even-handed justice to all classes."* 

4 To give subtilty to the simple ; to the young man 
knowledge and discretion, 
nipi:?, 'subtilty,' prudence; also 'craft,' cunning. LXX. iravov^yio. 

" To give subtilty" &c. " Good words spoken by the noble, 
god -loved, king's son, elder of his race, the civil ruler and 
scribe Ptah-hotep, to teach the ignorant the knowledge of the 
just measure [meaning] of a good word, as a warning to those 
who should transgress it, and for the benefit of those who hear 
it."* " Let the young man stand forth, who is right-thinking, 
right-speaking, right-doing, and who knows well [the law, 
hukasrem]."' "I will now rehearse the fundamental rules," says 
Chanakya, " whereby even a fool may become [pandita] well 
informed ;"* albeit — a/wi S'ou p6Z%ov vto-njTa i-iKfi' (<m — Xoyy,' " it 
is not easier to persuade a youth than to teach a deaf man by 
word of mouth only," says Menander. 

"discretion" [npta, taking counsel, 'considering,' 'reflec- 
tion'— thus, by inference, discernment, 'advisement' (Marg. 
reading), tact and propriety, in conduct and manners.] 

"Decorum, good manners, discretion [adab] consists in 
restraining oneself from every unpleasant word, and from 
every action that is not praiseworthy ; to show proper respect 
to oneself and others, and to put to shame neither oneself nor 
others. Decorum is good in all, especially in princes, who are 
to set an example to their subjects. We must ask God to 

1 Turkish prov. 
* Pap. Pr. c. V. 7. 
' Menander, avi^. 

2 Cural, 118. ' Comm. on Cural, xii. in sq. 

» Vispered, iii. 18. • Chanakya shat 2. 




teach us how to behave [decorum, self-respect], for without it 
we are shut out from His grace. Discretion [good manners] 
is better than the treasures of Qarun. Great men have never 
sought after riches, because they pass away ; but they have 
'held the reins at full speed' towards justice and good man- 
ners ; for through this they earned a great name."* 

" Manner maketh man." " Four things," says Attar, "show 
the excellence of a man : learning, showing respect without 
[creditor and debtor] account, good manners, and giving a 
straightforward answer. Whosoever has knowledge, intellect 
and discernment, holds all other such men in high esteem."* 

" discretion" " He that is moral and clever can discern truth 
from a lie, as the flamingo discerns curds from water."* [This 
is a favourite saying antong Indian writers. Thus in the Preface 
to the Pancha-Tantra, we read that " as the written Shastras 
are too [wide] extensive to be [crossed] read through — setting 
aside what is useless, the [juice] essence of them may be seized 
as a bit of curds in the water is by a goose."* Whence probably, 
in the Balabod, a book for Tamil children, they are told that 
the learned and the ignorant are as unlike as the swan and the 
heron [emblem cf stupidity] ; the swan being so far superior in 
knowledge that it can discern curds from the water with which 
it is mixed."* And " the part of a wise man is to know how to 
discern virtue from the defects of any one. Milk in water may be 
clearly seen through heat ; but one would prefer cow's milk."'] 
" Knowledge," says Vishnu Sarma, " gives discretion, and from 
discretion comes worth [or merit]."^ But " a young man of 
good family who comes at once into plenty of money, is not 
thereby made clever or well informed."* [That money gives 
him no real qualities.] 

"For the ignorant man who does not know the rules of 
propriety (or politeness) is a great fool ; and the sense of his 

> Akhlaq i m. c x. 

V. la 

* Balabod, 2. 

• Pendeh i at c. x. 

* Sain ugh. fol. v. 

« V. Satasai, 17*. 
' Hitop. Pref. 

• Kawi NitI Sh. p. 14- 


i. 4] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. -1.1. 

six senses [mind is the sixth] is blunted. He knows not tht i'f': 
taste of the betel-leaf and areka-nut ; and the prepared chunam 
is far from his lips [he is a stranger to good company or 

" Small country children prattle, and monkeys skip about, 
but he among men who is well taught is a great sage. But 
what about him who is untaught?"* said Gautama to his son. 

"The ways of wise men [disciples of wisdom]," say the 
Rabbis, " are modesty and a humble spirit, a retiring manner, 
and to be beloved of all."» "Wise men are agreeable in 
society ; but common, uneducated men are not"* 

Confucius said to one of his disciples : " Be respectful, and 
you will keep aloof from trouble ; be dutiful, and men will 
love you ; be faithful (or sincere), and men will support you. 
The wise and good man fears [respects] great men [his supe- 
riors], but the mean man is familiar with them."' 

Confucius himself, when in his native village, was very 
modest, gentle and silent, as if unable to speak.' 

" For a respectful behaviour [/;, propriety, in the original 
Chinese] makes the distinction between a well-bred man and 
a low individual."' And "a good run [after success in life] is 
[cadw moes] to observe good manners ; whereas the worse 
blemish is [drygfoes] bad manners,"' say the Welsh. "Acting 
contrary to established custom is to be scorned like the kimba 
fruit. For considering oneself and others, it is desirable to 
keep to the prevailing use [rule or custom]."' So says the 
Tibetan Lama [bla-ma] in his work, " put together with good 
intention from collections of old sayings for the teaching of 
faithful, respectable and fortunate youths ; thus written in a 
short summary for the use of this and of future generations."" 

" What is the root of discretion [consideration, respect, de- 

» Kawi Niti Sh. p. 14, ii. i, 2- ' Rahula thut. 16. 

» D. Erei 

Sutta, i. 1. * Ibid. iv. i. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. vii. 

• Shang- 

Lun. X. 1. ' Gun den s. i. mon, 305. • Welsh pr. 

» Bslav 

cha, 3. »• Id. ibid. 2. 




ference]? To refrain from asking about this or that"* 

" When in presence of thy better [elder]," says Ptah-hotep, 
" do not stare at him, but speak to him only when he addresses 
thee. He is hateful who does not act thus. Give place to thy 
elder, and greet [receive] him 'with thy nose to the earth' [in 
worship]." ' " And then order thy heart properly within thee. 
Drop thy arms, bend thy back, and do not feel angry if he is 
harsh towards thee ; for to oppose him would only show thy 
want of knowledge. Remember thy place and duty [lit. what 
thou hast to bear on thy arms], and let thy sense and prudence 
act towards him as thou oughtest to do."* 

" When thou art with uncongenial people," say the Cingalese, 
" keep silence ; the white lotus [kumuduwa] when looking on 
the red lotus [tamuru] closes itself blushing."* 

"A good sign in a man is that of shame,"* say the 
Rabbis. " A heart of shame is the beginning of righteousness 
(or mending)," says Kiu O ;' " whereas pride is a token of 
poverty of mind (silliness)."^ " But good people are courteous ; 
the low alone can be rude."* " And [sherivu] modesty, not to 
be first to speak among superiors [nanda] is a good [virtue]."' 
" He," says Confucius, " who knows how to blush, has advanced 
towards bravery (courage)." "And he who is in earnest about 
his daily walk in life, has advanced towards humanity [jin]."'* 

As bearing on the whole verse, Tsze-san said : " The way 
of the good and wise man is four-fold : his behaviour is with 
self-respect; his actions are especially respectful towards 
others ; he feeds the people with benevolence ; and deals with 
them in righteousness."*' 

And Tsze-chang having asked Confucius respecting one's 
conduct, Confucius answered : " Be respectful, and you will 

• Ratnamal. 19. ' Pap. Pr. vii. i, vi. 13. ' Ibid. v. I. 10 sq. 

* Subhashita, 53. ' Nedar. 20, M. S. • Sermon, vol. ii. i. 

' Sanhedr. 24, M. S. • Hill prov. 105. » Cural, 715. >» Chung 

yg, c. XX. la " Ming Sin P. K. c. xiii. 



J 3 

not repent of it; be generous, and you shall win the multitude^ 
be faithful and sincere, and men will trust you ; be active 
[dapper, clever], and you will gain merit ; and be benevolent, 
and find satisfaction in serving others."* 

" If a man, not knowing his place, gets into a passion, shall 
we laugh at him ? Nay, we will remember our own place (or 
position) and not do so. Assuredly that is discretion (or 
decorum, propriety). But to feel angry or annoyed would 
be to forget our own place."* "For a man, in that he is a 
man, is — propriety and justice [it, i] ; propriety is the prin- 
ciple of justice, and consists in regulating one's bearing and 



5 A wise man will hear, and will increase learning ' 

and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise 

counsels : 

"and will increase" — np7, 'learning,' 'doctrine' — wherewith 'to 
catch' or win others. But "wise counsels," niV^nri, Chald. 
NTlian^lIQ, means ' the careful steering of a ship,' not only with 
the helm, but through dangers and storms, by trimming the sails 
and the ropes. Vulg. rightly, " gubernacula possidebit." LXX. 
KvpipvritTiv KTijirtTai, 

"A wise man," &c. "An intelligent man's intellect, when he 
is deficient in knowledge, will acquire it with increasing energy. 
A lion, when hungry, feeds even on the brains of large ants."* 

"A disciple, after making his offering to the Patron of the 
world, will improve rapidly by reading and attending to his 
lama's instruction, though not so at the beginning. But by 
dwelling on perfect thoughts, he will greatly increase [his 
learning] through his own earnest efforts."" " He who says, 
'I don't know,' and wishes to learn, is better than he who 
knows and boasts [is proud] of it.'" For " the best men among 

' Ming Sin P. K. c. xiii. 
* Legs par b. p. pret fol. 2. 
" Arabic prov. 

' Shi tei gun, p. 14. ' Siao-hio, c. iiu 

' Byam chub lam gyi sgron ma, foL 3. 




the good are the learned ones ; as among friends the best are 
the old ones."* 

" Who then is wise ?" asks Rabbi Ben Zoma. " He who 
learns from everybody."* Thus " a learned man, endued with 
immense wisdom, will nevertheless take a little from another 
learned man, and by such continual practice will attain to 
universal knowledge."* So, •' n-oXv/io^^s urdi ^ a/ia0i)s, Either 
know much or nothing," says Cleobulus ; to whom Pittacus 
answers, " xaA^cirov to <v yvZvat, Well, but it is hard to know 
aught well."* For "learning is a wild animal, to be tamed 
only by practice."* " He, then, who loves study, advances 
towards wisdom."' 

" The way to acquire knowledge," says Meng-tsze, " is to 
study extensively, and to discuss clearly what one learns, 
aiming at a general result from it all."^ And Confucius : "To 
inquire into old things and to acquire new learning, is the way 
to become a master."* 

" To sit and meditate on what I have learnt, to study without 
feeling disgusted, and to teach others without weariness — how 
can I do it?" says again Confucius." To whom Solon the 
Athenian'" answers : " T-qpdaKot S'deJ ttoAXo SiSoo-ko/ici/os, I grow 
old, ever being taught [learning something new]." And Lao- 
tsze : "Study in earnest, and daily increase in knowledge."" 
" For the capacity of the mean man is small, and soon filled 
up ; but the insight [perception, intellect] of the superior man 
is deep, and difficult 'to flow over' [fill up.]"" 

And lastly, says the Malay : " A man of understanding is 
known by seven tokens, (l) He does good to those who do 
him harm, he rejoices their heart, and excuses or forgives their 
mistakes. (2) He bears himself lowly towards his inferiors, and 
honours his superiors for their own sake. (3) He follows 

• Eba Medin, 88. ' Pirqe Avoth, iv. i. ' Legs par b. p. 3. 

• Sept Sap. * Arabic prov. « Chung yg, c. xx. 10. ' Hea- 

Meng, viii. 15. ' Shang-Lun, i. 2, 11. • Shang-Lun, vii. 2. 

" Solon Ath. ix. ed B. " Tao-te-King, c xlviii. " Hien wen 

shoo, 104. 




earneslty after all good and worthy actions. (4) He abhora 
all evil doings. (5) He calls constantly on God's name, and 
prays for forgiveness, (6) He says what he has to say with 
propriety, in time and place. (7) In all difficulties he trusts 
in God and places his dependence on Him."* 

6 To understand a proverb, and the interpretation ; 

the words of the wise, and their dark sayings. 

ny^lpl, "and," either an "interpretation," 'foolish talk,' or an 
'intricate, involved saying, the meaning of which is not apparent' 
Here " interpretation" does not suit the context, which is best 
followed by Chald. MnB79i the Syriac term used in the Gospels for 
' parable,' and that differs from 7^9 when said of a more concise 
•proverb.' LXX. (TKoreivov Xoyov, that requires greater ingenuity 
than does a mere "interpretation." Dnil^ni and their (enigmas) 
riddles; 'intricate' rather than "dark" sayings. Swr<^oToc alviyitd- 
Tutv oi/iai* " the windings hard to tell [or unravel] of riddles." But 
see Habak. ii. 6 in Hebrew. 

" To understand." " What is there unattainable [asadhyam] 
by the intellect [buddhi] ? Understanding will achieve more 
than either books, elephants, horses or footmen can ever do."* 
" Understanding [buddhi] is [ad'hwakasayi] ascertaining."* 

" a proverb, and the interpretation" [a fable, allegory, proverb, 

wise saying, &c.]. " For it is better to understand poetry than 

to speak [or read] it."* "The words of Sadi are proverbs 

[emthal, similes, wise sayings, &c.] that will profit thee if thou 

attend to them. It would be a pity to turn away from them, 

for they are the way to thy wealth [good fortune]."* For 

" the counsel of the wise is the brightening of the mirror of 

the heart" [Compare Ming sin paou kien, " Mirror of a bright 

Heart," the title of a celebrated Chinese collection of wise 

sayings.] " The purpose of both worlds has its root in their 


• Bochari de Djohor, p. 171. • Lycophr. Cass. 10. ' Pancha 

Tantra, i. 140. * Tatwasamasa, 8. ' Pars. pr. ' Behar- 

ist iL 26. ' Akhlaq i muhs. iv. 




"A man acquires knowledge through good ability; what 
he hears increases through wisdom ; through wisdom he gathers 
the sense [of what he reads or hears], and the sense gives him 
pleasure."* And "a man who is firm in what may be known, 
is said 'to know' [to be learned]; and when that knowledge 
is according to right, he is said to be wise."* "And wise (or 
learned) men mend their own defects (or failings, faults) ; but 
it is not so with the foolish. Herodi [Garuda, on which Vishnu 
rides] is able to slay venomous snakes; not so the crow."* 
"A riddle or parable is a precious stone and sweetness in the 
hands of him who [has] tells it ; it will turn to whatever he 
wishes."* "And he who explains it is as if he gave two eyes 
to a blind man."* 

" the words of the wise." " What makes a wise man ? To 
divide [halve, discern] that which makes the difference [between 
the two]."* " Wise men of learning, then, choose the best by 
making out the difference. They take musk from the pouch 
of a scented animal."^ For " he is wise who, whatever the 
matter be, sees the [body, substance] real meaning of it"* 
" Therefore," says the Burmese teacher, " are people taught to 
distinguish the meanings of words, in order to receive intuitive 
knowledge, and to have wisdom poured into them."* "And 
one [the 7th] advantage of the ' Commentary on Sweet Words' 
[a Tibetan work] is that it reminds one clearly how wise men 
of old taught intelligent people to make a distinction between 
good and evil, virtue and vice," &c."* 

" The world will perish," says the Tamil proverb, " and the 
heavens will perish, but the word of the mighty will not perish." 
"A mettled horse," said Goba Sechen, " is not worthless be- 
cause he is thin, though not fattened and restored to good 
condition ; and a lion when old still watches the holes of the 

• Lnkaniti, 20. * Siun-tsze, i. c. xxii. ' Sain iigh. 3. 

« Mishle As. xlv. 17. * Id. ii. xxxvi. • Drislan phreng wa, 8. 

» Sain ugh. 7. » Cural, 355. » Putt-ovada, so. " Sfian- 

ngag me-long gi dgah, fol. 10. 




polecat So also good men, like steeds, when grown old, still 
have good words for other men."' "Those who hearken to 
the words of the wise, will escape sin (or guilt) ; but those 
who will not hearken to them will incur great guilt,"' say the 

" Look not for glory, in wishing to become wise all at once," 
says Cleanthes,* " neither care much for the reckless opinion of 
the many ; for the multitude has neither avverriv Kpitriv, intelli- 
gent discernment, oSt« Sucalav ovrt KaXijc, nor yet just and good 
judgment ; thou canst find all that only among very fcw men." 
Speaking of Maku [Meng-tsze] and Si Koi [Yu], the Japanese 
say : " Propagate their good maxims, for they have set you an 
example. Having first hearkened to the voice [of their teachers], 
they have made the right way plain to you."* "Follow [imi- 
tate] the example [of the wise kings Yu, &c., of old]," says 
Confucius, "and do not make a new way for thyself."' 

"A wise man reveres [lit fears] the words of good men ;"• 
"but a mean man despises them."^ "The counsel of men of 
old — of them it is said by the majesty of that god (Osiris) : 
Instruct men in the word (teaching) of olden time ; it is good 
for young and old alike," said Ptah-hotep.* " That word enters 
readily into every heart and creates no satiety."* " How great 
was the obedience of those men to God!"*" [Ptah-hotep 
the Egyptian, who was long anterior to Abraham, had his 
neteru, 'gods,' and also his neter, "god' Osiris ; as Cicero had 
'deos' and 'deum;' Socrates, Plato, &c., had Stow and Qiav; 
and as Abraham had cnbs and ^UI^ bft 'gods' and 'God 
Almighty.' While from India we hear : " What was that 
hymn which all the gods offered [sang] to the One god, 

" If holy men had not left us books, the good words and 

• Tchlnggis kh. p. 9. • Thudhamma Tsari, 3. • Fragm. of 

Gr. Phil. p. 132. * Gun den s. mon. 697 sq. 689. * Shang-Lun, vii. i. 
• Japan, pr. ' Ming Sin P. K. vii. ' Pap. Pr. v. 3, 5. » Ibid. 6. 
" Ibid. ib. " Rig V. mand. x. sk. cxxx. 3. 






the good deeds of virtuous men would have been lost."* " Con- 
sider former sages "as soup' and 'a wall' [food and fence, or 
support]. Their words may be laws for the world, and their 
deeds are for a pattern."* " In like manner as, unless you ascend 
a mountain, you cannot look into the deep mountain torrent 
below, nor judge of the size of the earth, so also unless you 
hear the precious sayings of the kings of old, you cannot know 
the greatness of learning."' 

" I have spent whole days without food," says Confucius,* 
" and whole nights without sleep, in order to meditate ; but it .] 
availed not There is nothing like the study [of ancient sages]." 

And Siiin-tsze : " I spent whole days in meditation. Well I 
but it was not like even the least thing acquired through study 
[of ancient writings]. I stood on tip-toe. Well I but it was 
not like asceiiding on high and seeing afar off."' "Spend, 
therefore, thy leisure hours in considering attentively thy merit 
[virtue] and learning,"' say the Mongols. 

" The words of the wise may be compared to a thunder-bolt ; 
to a sword cutting through a plantain-leaf; and to a strong 
wind shaking a tree."^ So are Kakimna's wise sayings com- 
pared to "words with knives;"' "to Hjam-dpal [the god of 
wisdom] brandishing his sharp-pointed sceptre, which he hurls 
from his own arm."* Or "one might say that wise sayings 
are 'a shaft shot from a bow;'""* "unless you prefer to call 
the words and stories heard from wise men of old ' a host from 
God's armies.'"" "The wise man therefore fears them [is in 
awe of them]." '^ As the Chinese say also elsewhere: "The 
gods respect the honourable words spoken by holy men, but 
devils dread them."*' 

So, then, " as the sea never has enough of water ; a king, of 
treasure; and desire, of enjoyment; so also have the wise never 

• Mongol, mor. max. ' Com. on Wen c'hang, Sh. s. 1. v. p. 69. 

» Siiin-tsze, i. c. i. p. I. ' Hea-Lun, xv. ' Siiin-tsze, i. c. i. p. 2. 

• Oyun tulle, p. 7. ' Thudhamma Tsarl, Introd. ' Pap. Prisse, i. I. 2. 

* Hjam-dpal, fol. i. '° Jami Behar. ii. " Ibid. i. " Ming 
Sin P. K. vii. " Chin. pr. 1088 s. 

enough of wise and elegant sayings."* " Go on speaking thy 
words full of sense and wisdom," said Dhritarashtra to the 
wise Vidura ; " I cannot have enough of listening to them."* 
" For the words of holy men," says Pwan-chung-mow, " framed 
to rectify the heart of man, and to dissipate the [dulness] dim- 
ness of ignorance, were at that time [of Yu and Shan] the ' line 
of demarcation ;' and have since been the 'square measure' 
of countless generations. And they are still the rule of these 
kingdoms. Their [root] origin is from heaven and cannot 
change ; but the bearing [cutting, or thrust] of them is to one- 
self, and cannot be escaped. Read their books and repeat 
their sayings ; for no one can order himself worthily who 
foregoes the advice of wise and holy men. Therefore do not 
despise them."' 

"But warm thyself," said Rabbi Eliezer, "at the fire of the 
wise : yet beware of their live coals, lest thou be burnt."* 
" Drink eagerly [with thirst] their words," adds R. Jose Ben 
Joezer, "dusting thyself with the dust of their feet [sitting at 
their feet]."» " But such hearers are four-fold. Some are like 
a sponge, and suck in everything ; others, like a funnel, let 
everything through ; others, again, are like a strainer that re- 
tains only dregs ; while others are like a sieve, that filters bran 
and retains flour."' 

"and their dark sayings." DjniTn, • twisted, tangled sayings ;' 
alviyfiara, riddles. "The secret of the wise."^ "The dark, 
hidden sayings of men whose words are full of blessing or of 
curse, will show their greatness [importance] to the world."' 
[And here compare the tes, or " woven, tangled," sayings of 
Ptah-hotep.*] " In short, as regards the words of the wise, it 
is well in good theory and practice to agree with the ways of 
the world, and in learning; and with a view to heaven, to 

' Legs par b. p. 23. > Maha Bhar. Udyoga P. 1182. » Com. 

on Wen c'hang, Sh. s. 1. iv. p. 49 sq. * Pirqe Av. ii. ' Ibid. i. 4. 

• Ibid. V. 16. » V. Sarma. Hitop. 128. » Cural, 28. 
» Pap. Pr. pi. V. 6. 

C 2 




teach according to this rule (or law). But where the law 
happens to be at variance with the ways of the world, a man 
must follow the opinion [mind] of wise and good men, and 
follow their example."' 

Lastly, " When at leisure, read books ; for a man ignorant 
of letters is brutish. And learning is said to be the knowledge 
of the propriety or rule of this or that thing. By reading the 
old books, one will know accurately justice [equity, righteous- 
ness] and study propriety."* For " in like manner as water 
drawn for the paddy-field finds its way to the meadow which 
it waters, so also from (or by means of) the good and wise of 
olden time, the rain of good falls on us all."' 

7 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of know- 
ledge : but fools despise wisdom and instruction. 

rvtlfvn, «the chief thing,' 'principle,' 'beginning.' Chald. BJMri, 
'the head.' LXX. apx;q, ' the beginning.' Marginal reading, 'The 
principal part' 

" T/ie fear of the Lord" &c. Here, properly speaking, does 
the wise King begin his book, by laying the only foundation 
of real knowledge and of true wisdom — the fear of the Lord. 
No other foundation will bear safely the structure of life ; for 
no other rock will stand the torrent of passions or brave the 
storm of trials and trouble, of dangers, cares, joys and sorrows, 
that make up the short span of human life. 

"The fear"— not the dread— "of the Lord" — of offending 
our Father in heaven, who hears and sees everything, and to 
whom we must all give an account of ourselves at the last — 
is the only principle that will make childhood obedient, youth 
moral, manhood patient, active and prosperous, and a serene 
old age happy. No other principle will avail than " the fear 
of the Lord," of " Him in whom we live and move and have 
our being ;" for we are all His offspring, toC yap koX ykvo% i<Tf>k\,^ 

• Bslavs cha, li, 12. ' Shi tei gun, p. 13. • Muthure, 8. 

* Cleanth. H. in Jov. 4, and S. Paul, Acts xvii. 28. 





and of whonv we stand in awe as of our Father in heaven. It 
holds the heart captive to good. It is " religion" [a religando],' 
and " is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life 
that now is, and of that which is to come."* Reft of this " fear 
of God," a man sails on the waters of life without compass or 
rudder. Where, then, will he land ? 

Even those who, the holy Apostle said, " sought the Lord, 
if haply they might feel after Him, though he be not far from 
every one of us,"' yearned after that principle, and went as far 
as the light of reason alone could lead them towards framing 
it for themselves. We need not here tarry by Greek or Latin 
philosophers known of all ; but hear what Confucius, who was 
in general reticent on the subject, says of Spirits [' kwei shin,' 
of the dead and of the living] : " Spirits, what virtue [power], 
and how great! You look, but you cannot see them ; you listen, 
but you do not hear them ; they are in the substance of things, 
and cannot be separated from it. They cause men apparelled 
everywhere to offer them sacrifices. Those spirits are a count- 
less host on the right hand and on the left. One knows not 
when they draw near. Were it better if they were treated 
slightly ? Their subtleness [invisibility] is evident ; the truth 
[perfection] of it cannot be hid."* " Therefore," adds Confucius 
elsewhere, " stand in awe, and worship the Spirit [shin] as if he 
were present" 

" Therefore is the wise man attentive and watchful as regards 
unseen [Spirits], and is in awe and afraid of what he cannot 
hear, and that is unseen because it is hidden, and not manifest 
because of their subtleness. Therefore does the wise man keep 
watch over himself."* " For Tao [rule of moral life] is not far 
from man ; if it were far from him, it would no longer be Tao. 
He who is sincere [who follows his conscience], and is careful 
not to do to others what he would not like to be done to him- 
self, is not far from Tao. What he does not wish to be done 

* Lactam, lib. iv. 28. 
* Chung yg, c. xvi. 

' I Tim. iv. 8. 
« Ibid. c. X. 

' Acts xvii. 27. 




to himself, he does not to other men."' So also Meng-tsze : 
" Humanity [jin] is man ; the two joined together may be 
called Tao."" 

And Lao-tsze, who seems to have felt more about Tao than 
he could understand or express, says : " He who knows Tao 
does not mention (or speak of) it ; he who speaks of it. knows 

'* "°*- Pof '■* « deep [spread out far and wide], and, when 

[used] acted upon, it is inexhaustible ; so profound as to seem 
to be the [patriarch] ancestor of all things."* " Up,<rp{naToy rCv 

SvT^v 0,6^- dyiyjjrov yif^-^h ^T. dpx¥ ^Xov, H" TcXtvT,j„ :» God 

IS oldest of all," says Thales ; "for He is a Being unborn, 
without beginning and without end." « Perfection and truth," 
says Confucius, " is the Tao of heaven ; and that which is of it, 
true, is the Tao of men."' "This perfection (or truth) is of 
itself perfect and true, and this Tao (or rule) is its own rule."» 
And to Fwan-chi, who inquired about knowledge, Confucius 
said : " To provide justice for the people, to worship the spirits 
and to stand in awe [fear] of them, may be called knowledge."' 

" To what purpose," says Tiruvalluvar, "has that man studied 
who does not worship at the feet of him who alone is endued 
with pure knowledge? The head that does not worship him 
who is endowed with eight attributes [Shiva] is of no use 
[profitless] ; being incapable of sensation, though gifted with 
senses."' [" These eight attributes are : i, self-existent ; 2, ever 
pure ; 3, possessing perfect knowledge in himself, intuitively 
wise ; 4, omniscient ; 5, immaterial, free from pleasure or pain ; 
6, merciful; 7, almighty; 8, infinitely happy." »«] "And the 
constant remembrance of the Most High [Supreme Lord]," 
says the Buddhist, "is a door [the 13th] to religious knowledge 
that greatly enlarges the mind."" 

" The knowledge of God is a foundation. What building 

« Chung yg, c. xiii. » Hea-Meng, c xiv. 16. » Tao-te-King, c. Ivi 
' Ibid, c iv. » Thales, sept. sp. • Chung yg, c. xx. ' Ibid. c. xxv 
" Shang-Lun, vi. 20. • Cural, i. 2, 9. w Ellis's Cural, p. 17. 

" Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 





was ever reared without a foundation ? It teaches obedieric& 
in the house, and it must bring treasure to it. He, therefore, 
who is without this knowledge, has before him a life [work] of 
trouble."' "And God has honoured knowledge as means of 
acquiring through it honour with God Most High."' 

"For the fear of God is the [head] principle of wisdom."* 
" Thus the ' kiiin-tsze,' wise man" [lit " prince's son,' superior, as 
distinct from the ' siao-jin,' little man, ignorant and low], " stays 
(or regulates) himself on the spirits and doubts not ; a hundred 
ages waiting without wavering [misgivings] for the holy man. 
By staying (or regulating) himself on the spirits, he comes to 
know heaven and earth ; and by [waiting] looking for the holy 
man [who is to come after] a hundred ages [at the end of the 
world ?], he wavers not [strays not from his purpose]."* [A 
very remarkable passage, explained in various ways, all of 
which, says A. Rdmusat," go to prove that in B.C. 500 the 
Chinese were looking for the coming of the saint (or holy 
man) at the end of the world, to reward or punish every man 
according to his works.] 

'' the fear of the Lord." "The Lord," o Ki5/..os, LXX., is no 
rendering of rTJrT^ "Jehovah," for which the best substitute 
probably is "TEternel," b'ilv, in the French Bible. A. Rdmusat* 
fancied he had discovered a trace of Je-ho-vah in I-HI-WEL 
Chinese terms for certain attributes of the Tao, mentioned 
by Lao-tsze, who says -J " You look for him (or it), but cannot 
see him — this is called (or, is meant by) I ; you listen for him, 
but cannot hear him — this is called HI ; you try to feel after 
[touch] him, but you cannot reach him — this is called WEI." 

These terms, however, are of frequent occurence in Chinese 
authors. Thus Confucius' mentions, as we have seen, the 
"subtleness" [WEI] of spirits, that makes the wise stand in 
awe of them. So that this fancy of the learned Frenchman is 

' Rishtah i juw. p. 147. • Borhan-ed-din, c. t. • Arab prov. 

* Chung yg, c. xxix. ' Ibid, note 106. • M^m. sur Lao-tseu, p. 42. 
' Tao-te King, c. xiv. ' Chung yg, c. i. and xvi. 







without real foundation. Moreover, Lao-tsre goes on to say 
" that these three attributes of the Tao cannot be reached by 
words, therefore do they all blend together and make One. 
His existence is uninterrupted ; he is said to have a form (or 
shape) without form, to be an image, without one."* So subtle 
is he, that "only after thousands of years of austerity did 
Narayana succeed in seeing the Lord of the Universe, smaller 
than an atom, yet greater than all."' " For he alone is the 
one," said Prahlada, " without name or form, who is attained 
only by adoration."* 

"but fools" &c. "Men," said Buddha, "from a long time 
are so imbued with falsehood, that it is very hard to improve 
them by teaching. My stay in this world is of no use ; I will 
enter Nirvanam."* And Pindar agrees with him : 

" — n«^X6v 8' i\u 
TfTop o/itXos avhp<ov b 7rA.t«jTos." 

And Cleobulus with Pindar, that " apowrU rh irXeov /*epo« «r 
PpoTota-iv, the greater portion of mankind is wanting in sense 
and slow of heart." "They despise knowledge even in the 
simplest form, which," Siiin-tsze tells us,* " is only to say ' Yea, 
yea,' and ' Nay, nay ;' for to say ' Nay' to 'Yea,* and ' Yea' to 
' Nay,' is called [yu] stupidity." 

" Fools, O, Bhagavan, despise me, feeding on false hope ;"'' 
for " foolish men are ashamed to learn."* " He does not read 
religious books nor yet the Vedas ; therefore the natural dis- 
position of the wicked prevails, as milk is by nature sweet."* 
For "men untaught have neither knowledge nor conduct."'" 
" The mean [ignorant, uncouth] man thinks nothing of over- 
stepping the mean ['chung,' "via media'] which the wise man 
observes carefully."" " What, then, is dulness (or stupidity) ? 
Want of application (or aptitude) even for reading."'' "For 

' Tao-te King, c xiv. * Maha Bh. Drona P. 9452. ' Vishnu 

Pur. i. 19, 52. • Dsang-Lun, c. v. fol. 2. ' Nem. vii. 34. 

• Blc ii. c. i. ' Maha Bh. Bhishma P. xxxiv. 1 180. ' Mongol, mor. m. 

• Hitopad. i. 2, 10. •" Avvey. Kondr. 91. " Chung yg, c. ii. 
" Ratnamalika, 25. 

hard as it Is to climb a steep hill, it Is yet harder to teach a; .'; t 5 


8 My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and 

forsake not the law of thy mother : 

"Afy son." This is only a mode of addressing a younger 
man, whether a son, disciple, pupil, or even a stranger, accor- 
ding to Eastern custom, which often uses the words father, 
mother, son, daughter, uncle, aunt, &c., in addressing persons 
in no wise connected with or related to the speaker. It does 
not therefore follow that this was addressed by the kmg to 
his own son, being intended for all young people. " My son," 
said Enoch to Mathuselah. "I will speak to thee; hear my 
word and incline thine ear to the vision of thy father's dream." 
So also Ptah-hotep to his son : "My son, let not thy heart be 

great (or high)."" . ,_ .. 

"hear the instruction:' Filial piety [hiao] and obedience 
take first rank in the Chinese code of virtues. "Humanity 
rjinl " says Confucius, " makes up the whole of man ; and [hiao] 
filial piety, is the [great] or chief part of it Filial reverence 
for parents, according to their degree of affinity, demands 
certain ceremonies."* So says Pythagoras of Samos- 

"Toi5s T€ yovtts Tt'/ia, Tovs T 5yx«^'- e'KyeyauTOS,"* 
" Honour thy parents and thy near relations." 

The Chinese, besides the Hiao-king [the 'king' or sacred 
classic devoted to filial piety alone], have many popular trea- 
tises on it ; one of which, consisting of twenty-four instances 
of filial piety among former generations, is reproduced with 
prints in most Japanese books for children. One of these 
worthies, Heung, is alluded to in the« _ When 
only nine years old, he warmed his father's mat [bed] ; upon 
which that classic remarks that " Duty to parents .s that which 
should always be observed ;" and the commentator adds, Ol 
. Hill prov. 94. • Bk. of Enoch, Ixxxv. .. * Pap- Pr. v. ., 8. 

4 Chung yg, c. XX. 5. ' Py'hag- S. XP- ^^- 4- ^ '7. «8- 




all actions, filial piety is chief and the very first beginning. 
The student who studies cannot but know that his duty is, 
when young, to practise filial piety ; though it be said to be 
inborn from Heaven [Heaven's nature], yet is it, nevertheless, 
the rule of conduct for children to follow."* Thus Confucius 
answering Meng-i, who wished to know what is meant by 
filial piety or duty, said only : " Do not act against instinct 
(or reason)."' But " let a son approach his parents as if looking 
with caution down a precipice, or as if treading on thin ice, 
having got up early in the morning to warm and to cool them."* 

" Illustrious kings of old treated their fathers with filial piety, 
and thus served brilliant Heaven [Father] ; they treated their 
mothers alike, and sacrificed to the earth [Mother of all]."* 
" For the father and the mother are the first visible [apparent] 
deity."' Therefore "behave thyself," said Veqiana, "so as to 
beware of these three sins : opposition to thy father, to thy 
mother, and to thy elder brother."' "For there is no advice 
superior to that of a father."' 

" Of the whole company of spiritual teachers [gurus]," said 
the Brahmans to Prahlada, "the father is the chiefest." "You 
are right," answered Prahlada ; " there is not the slightest 
doubt in my mind that unquestionably a father is a "guru,' 
and ought as such to be worshipped assiduously."' " For he 
who reproves another in the name of God," say the Rabbis, 
"will have his portion with the Blessed One, and they will 
bind a thread (or glory) on him."' " Continue, then, to love 
and honour thy father and thy mother, that thy service to 
them be repaid to thee in ten thousand benefits (or blessings)."" 
"O Gahapati my son, in five ways does a son honour and 
support his parents. He says : i, I will provide for them ; 
2, support their family ; 3, do their work ; 4, take care of their 

» San-tsze-KIng Com. • Shang-Lun, ii. 5, 6. ' Gun den s. m. 

257 sq. * Hiao-K. xvi. ' Avvey. Kondr. i. ' Vemana, iii. 12. 

' Awey. Kondr. 37. ' Vishnu P. i. 18, 11. • R. Jonathan, Tamid. 
28, M. S. '" Kudat ku B. xv. 21. 




- ^ 

inheritance ; 5, and perform funeral rites over them when' 
they die."i 

''the law of thy mother^ " If a child disobey his mother's 
word, there is no other word [for him]." " If the cow," says 
the Telugu proverb, " grazes in the field, will the calf graze on 
the bank?"' 

9 For they shall be an ornament of grace unto thy 

head, and chains about thy neck. 

irj nilV, ' a wreath of grace,' ' a graceful wreath.' Chald. ' beauty 
and grace.' LXX. trri^awv j^apirav. 

"For they shall be," &c. 

"'Afi<f)i Kofiauri /80A01 yXav- 
Koypoa Kocr^ov — i^rl \a[Tai(Ti — (rTt<f>avov. 

"In this book [Putt-ovada] Burmese fathers and mothers 
teach their children. These words, if they mark them and 
follow the teaching by word of mouth [min], will be to them 
a fresh [cool] wreath of flowers."* Just such a garland as the 
beautiful one Bhaimia placed on the shoulders of Nalas, who 
thus adorned was at once proclaimed king by the gods and 
Rishis assembled." For "a king is great in his country, but a 
good and virtuous man is respected everywhere. A flower is 
well for a high day, but a gem is everywhere preferred for a 
head ornament."' 

" Learning and dominion are in no wise alike (or equal) ; 
for a king is respected [honoured] in his own kingdom, but 
the [knowing] learned man is honoured everywhere."' "Get 
knowledge" [hunar, skill, wisdom, &c.], said a wise man to his 
son ; " for the learned or wise man is treated with respect 
wherever he goes, and takes the first seat ; but ignorant men 
fare badly. If thou desirest an inheritance from thy father, 
learn wisdom of him. For his wealth may soon be gone."* But, 

» Singhala V. Sutt. leaf no. ' Awey. Kondr. 38. » Find. 01. 

iii. 23, 10. * Putt-ovada, 2. » Nalopakh. v. 28, 89. • Legs 

par b. p. 37. ' Chanak. shat. i., and Hitopad. i. » Gulistan, bk. vii. 2. 




"o <ro<^o« tv ovry v€pt<)>ipti t^v owrfov :' The wise man carries 
about his wealth within him;" for "[vidya, wisdom] know- 
ledge is an ornament to all," says Chanakya.' " This chaplet 
[of wise sayings], then, when put upon the neck of those who 
have no other ornament, will cause them to shine in the 
assemblies of wise men."* " Instruction adorns more than 
[heavy] precious necklaces ; it honours the mean [lowly], and 
causes them to stand in the assembly of honourable men."* 

" What is an ornament ? Good behaviour [shilam, good 
morals and manners],"* the precious root of which is, Siun-tsze 
tells us, " the ornament of letters [wtn], [education and learn- 
ing], and the use [or practice] of it with rule and reason [li] ; 
whence the expression win-li has come to mean 'gentility.'"' 
" This perfect [lit faultless] garland of questions and answers 
about my neck," says the author of this ' Garland of wise say- 
ings,' "will be a real ornament to me, by making me [wise] 
acquainted with and skilled in things seen and things unseen."^ 
" Who is he that overcomes this world, this realm of death, 
and ever gathers verses of the law, well taught, like flowers [for 
his garland]?" "The disciple [sekho] overcomes this realm 
of Yama [death], and gathers, like flowers [for his garland], 
the well-told [or well-arranged] verses of this moral law."* 

" He who possesses qualities," said Gopi, the wife of Shakhya 
Muni, "is by them adorned; whosoever is without fault, is 
everywhere thought respectable and virtuous."* " The orna- 
ment of learning is what may truly be called a real ornament"'* 
" To the learned there is no need of any other ornament than 
the beauty [excellence] of learning,"" say the Tamils. 

"Inward ornament," says the Arabic proverb, "is better 
than outward." And another proverb says, " Education (or 
manners) is the ornament of man; gold, that of woman" — 

• yvttii. luv. ' Shat 6. » Ratnamal. epilogue. * Mats'haf 

PhalasC i. • Ratnamal. 36. • Siiin-tsze, ii. c. xiii. ' Dri med- 

phreng wa, Introd. • Dhammap. pupphav. 44, 45, sect. 4, p. 20, v. 45, 
Colombo ed. • Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiL "> Kalvi Oruk. 5. 

" Niti neri vilac. 13. 

i. 10] 



"that is," says the Turkish editor, "the gold coins [which 
Turkish and Arab women wear in their head-gear] and jewels 
of gold."i El Nawabig compares his wise sayings — for which 
he has mastered the learned volume of Loqman [son of Baur, 
son of Job's sister; schol.], and milked dry the wisdom of 
Asaph [Suleyman's vizir ; schol.] — to an embroidered dress, 
and to bracelets of goldsmith's work.' For " knowledge is a 
diadem to a young man, and understanding is a necklace of 
gold," says Abu Ubeid.' And " the ornament of knowledge 
is wisdom ; of wisdom, humility; of humility, the fear of God's 
commandment ; and of this — lowliness in working it out."* 
" For riches adorn the house, but virtue adorns the person," 
says Chu-hi.* 

"and chains about thy neck." Collars and chains of gold, 
such as Pharaoh put upon Joseph's neck, and Raskenen seven 
times upon Ahm^s, the admiral of his fleet ;' and such also as 
Amon-em-heb [oflficer of Tothmes III.] had put upon him by 
the king, " the [honour or] diploma of the collar of gold, for 
his valour."" These various golden ornaments are frequently 
seen in public and private collections of Egyptian, Etruscan 
and Greek antiquities. 

10 My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 

" if sinners entice thee." "For the companion of thieves is 
like one of them."* " Listen, then, to no bad advice."* For 
"he who companies with sinful men, does not enjoy much 
happiness."** "What ought the Buddha to avoid? Things 
which ought not to be done." '* " For so long as the Btkkhus 
[religious beggars] are neither friends, fellows nor companions 
of sinners, so long also is their increase [prosperity] and not 
their decrease [adversity] to be expected."" 

' Reishtah i juw. p. 154 and 142. ' El Nawabig, pref. ' Prov. 122. 

• Derek erw Sutta, v. 5. ' Ta hio Com. c. vi. ' De Roug^, Inscr. 
d'Ahmfes, I. 2. ' Inscr. of Abd-el-Qameh, Zeitschr. Jan. 1873. 

• Talmud Hier. Sanhed. c. i (B. F.). ' Nitimala, ii. 12. ••> Godhaj. 
141, p. 480. " Dris Ian p'hreng wa, 2. " Mahaparanibbh. If. khya. 



[i. II 

" sittTurs." "Incline not to sin."* "Eschew lying, murder 
and theft"* For, says Sadi, " if thou makest a covenant with 
[impure] wicked men and favourest them, they will commit 
sin with thy wealth [or help] in fellowship with thee."' 

" consent thou not." " Listen not to impudent, wicked words."* 
" If a man acts wickedly, leave him."* " Cling to no evil deed, 
and hinder no good [virtuous] one."' "Commit no sin, prac- 
tise all manner of virtues, and keep your thoughts under 
restraint ; this is the teaching of San-gyas [Buddha]."' " Look 
upon good with longing [lit. thirst] ; but hear evil like a deaf 
man."' And Pindar to Hiero :• 

" Friend, allow not thyself to be deceived by the lure of dis- 
honest gain2." " For as silence is the strength of fools, so is 
falsehood that of thieves."'* 

II If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for 
blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause: 

" 1/ they say" &c. So spake Timur to his associates who 
pledged him their faith : " A certain grandmother of mine, 
who was a witch, saw in a dream that I was to be Sultan. 
Swear to me that you will be to me both back, side and hand ; 
and that you will not play me false. And they covenanted 
so to do, and to be with him and not against him, both in 
prosperity and in adversity."*' Thus, according to the Osmanli 
proverb, "one robber became companion of another;" for, 
says the Georgian proverb, "A robber [kurdi, Kurd] is ready 
to swear," and "Two men will fight one;"'* for, according to 
the Arabic proverb," " Men are wolves who devour one ano- 

• Nitishat. 70. ' Avvey. Kondr. 63. » Gulist. bk. viii. 8. 

• Nitimala, ii. 56. ' Avvey. Kondr. 20. • Oyun tulk. p. 6. 

' Vasuband'hu, 14, and Dulva, vol. v. leaf 29. • Ming Sin P. K. c. i. 

» Pyth. i. 178. " Chanak. Shat. 60. " Ahmed Arabs, v. Tim. 

p. 10, II. " Georgian prov. ^ Meid. Ar. pr. 

i. II] 



ther ; and he who is not a wolf is devoured by the rest" So 
also Plautus :• 

" Lupus est homo homini, non homo, quum qualis sit, non novit." 

" If they say" &c. " Neither follow after those who thus 
advise thee, nor put any faith in them,'' says the Sahidic adage; 
"but trust in the Lord, and no evil shall happen to thee."* 
" Remember this," says Theognis,' " KaKouri S« fv>\ irpoa-oiilXti dvSpa- 
viv, hold no fellowship with wicked men ;" " neither let any 
one beguile thee with words into either saying or doing what 
is not best," adds Pythagoras.^ For some of the sins that 
shorten the life of man are, "to join carelessly men who club 
together for evil ;"* for, say the Osmanlis' [who are no fly- 
fishers], "it requires foul water to catch fish." Another great 
sin is, " to place one's power [set one's heart] in evil-doing ;" 
"to act with cruelty, brutality and evil intentions;" and "to 
injure in secret the virtuous and the good."' 

" For even if one's life were in jeopardy, yet ought one to 
do nothing that would deprive another of sweet life," says 
Tiruvalluvar ;' therefore " walk not with a man who is afraid 
of being known."* "What merit [or ability] is there in de- 
ceiving those who place confidence in us? Is manliness a 
name for the deed of him who steals by a man asleep, and 
there slays him ?"'* "No," says the Mandchu, "the man may 
not be then thinking of hurting the tiger, but the tiger's heart 
is to hurt the man."" For says Hesiod, in the iron age, 

" SiKTj 8 fv X V''> *'*' ntSuis, 
OVK ccTTOi pKayfiii KaKoi Tov aptiova ipnira, 

"justice will be in fight, and no shame left; but the wicked 
man will injure a better one than himself."'* 

■ Asin. ii. 4. • Ad. 54, 55, Rosellini, Or. Cpt p. 132. ' Hap. 31, 32. 
• Pythag. S. xp. lir. 25, 26. « Tai-shang kang i. p. « Emthal 

Othman. ' Tai-shang k. i. p. • Curat, 327. ' Ming 

hien dsi. 121. '» Hitopad. iv. 56. " Ming h. dsL 95. 

" Hesiod, ipy. «. fi/i. 190. 



[i. 12, 13 

1 2 Let us swallow them up alive as the grave ; and ' 
whole, as those that go down into the pit : 

biHtpS, as ' the grave,' ' the place of unseen spirits after death.' 
Perhaps from bisi^, « a hole,' ' a hollow.' 

" Koi Tol itiv j(ct|pt(r<riv inro — 8a/icvT(S 
Pijirav c$ cvpuci^a Sofiov Kpvfpov aiSao, 
vidirv/ioi — 

" Slain by hand, they went down, nameless, into the vast, cold 
abode of unseen spirits."' 

1 3 We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill 
our houses with spoil : 

« We shall findl' &c. 

"Iram atque animos e crimine sumunt."' 
" Desire not to plunder," says Aweyar in her aphorisms ; 
"avoid base actions" and "doing injury to others."* It is one 
of the many grievous sins denounced in the Qoran.* " Wicked 
men may do great injury to men who live at ease, owing to 
their position j"' " wherefore there is some advantage in being 
without fortune [Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator*], since 
one often comes to grief through one's possessions. The pre- 
cious pearl-oyster is deprived of life for the pearl it contains."^ 

"It is a sin," says Tai-shang,* "to profit by the loss of others;" 
as it is also " to devour their wealth in secret." " For the wise 
man," says Confucius, "considers justice of the highest impor- 
tance ; the superior man [kiiin-tsze] who has courage without 
justice, will be disorderly ; and the mean man who has valour 
without justice, will become a robber."" " For the heart, when 
greedy of gain and bent on one object, will turn his back to 
the right way (or virtue, Tao) ; and where private considerations 
sway a man, the public good is set aside [lit. extinguished]."'* 

> Hesiod, 1. r.ij. 151 sq. * Juv. Sat. vi. 285. » A. Soodi, 41, 35, 38. 
« Sur. iv. 30. » Sain ugh. 1 57- ' Juv. Sat. x. 22. ' Legs par b. 
p. 194. ' Kang i. p. • Hea-Lun, xvii. 22. •<• Hien wen shoo, 44. 




"And so it happens that the cheat (or fraudulent man) getj 
boiled rice and curds, while the trusty [honest] man only gets 
hot water and rice."* 
" our houses," &c. 

" Ubi flent nequam homines qui polentam pransitant."' 

14 Cast in thy lot among us; let us all have one 
purse : 

"Cast in thy lot," &c, lit. " There will be one purse to us all." 

Sophos» tells the fable of " the Men and the Snakes," the 

moral of which is, that "wicked men lean towards men of 

their own sort." 

" Fer debita — fraudum 

said Murrus.* " The wild goose when on the wing never 
alights where it ought not ; but man does so for the sake of a 
name and of gain.'" In Tso-foo it is said : " One intention (or 
purpose), and the men of Woo-keue are friends. If intentions 
(or purposes) are not united, flesh and bones are at enmity 
with each other."* Such motley confederates for evil purposes 
are compared in Javanese proverbs to "swarms of bees" and 
to " muddy water." 

In order to avoid all risk of this kind, the Osmanll says :^ 
" Be not third in the company of two persons." Their one 
purpose makes them " birds of one nest ;"* " they eat of one 
dish and sleep on one bed ;"' and they come together, not 
from friendly feeling one for another, but "because the man 
who himself is ruined likes one who, like him, is lost," say the 
Osmanlis." " Beware, then, of vice (or guilt) when it yields 
profit ; vice is hatred [lit hatefulness], bringing ruin," says 
Tiruvalluvar." For even as to "one purse," the Spaniards 
warn us that — 

' Telug. pr. 237a 
* Sil. Ital. 1. 484. 
' Emth. Othm. 
" Cural, 434. 

' Plaut. Asinar. i. i. ' Fab. 12. 

• Sain ugh. 10. * Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. 

• Javan pr. • Telug. pr. '" Emth. Othm* 



[i. 15 

" Dos amigos de una bolsa, 
El uno canta y el otro Uora:"' 
" Of two friends with one purse, the one sings and the other 

1 5 My son, walk not thou in the way with them ; 
refrain thy foot from their path : 

" walk not" " Do not [give thy word] associate with him 
who [walks] deals with thee deceitfully ; but put thy trust in 
God, for He is upright in His way."* " Let us therefore watch 
over ourselves ; and hold thou no intercourse with sinners and 
wicked men who act thus."* For " tigers and deer don't go 
together," say the Chinese. But — 

"evil communications corrupt good manners," says Menander,* 
and after him S. Paul." " For a good man is ruined by asso- 
ciating with the wicked," says Chanakya. "Water which is 
called clear is fouled by mud."" " Therefore make no fellow- 
ship with the wicked."' 

" Since evil brings forth evil fruit, fear evil as you would fire 
[with a play upon 'tiya,' 'evil' and 'fire']."" For "a wise 
man," says Confucius, "lives in harmony [at peace] with men, 
without associating with them;" whereas "the inferior man 
associates with them, without living in harmony with them."' 
For "the hatred of the good is better than the friendship of 
the wicked ;"'« and "solitude is better than sitting with evil 
men."" "Better alone than in bad company."'' For "he is 
a traitor who leads thee into evil."" " I, Enoch, say unto the 
righteous : Do not walk in the evil way and oppression, nor 
in the ways of death ; and do not draw near unto them, that 
ye be not destroyed."'* " Watch over your souls, and hold fast 

• Soan pr. ' Sahid. ad. 69, p. 133- ' D'dasc. Ap. (Eth), iii. p. 28. 
. Menand. «)«.«. ?. ' > Cor. xv. 33. ' Sha.ak. .52. 153- 

. Tdugu mor. max. 5. ' Cural, 202. • Hea-Lun, x.u. 23. 

10 Tamil pr. " Nathr elL 244. " Engl. pr. " Nathr elL 181. 

»« Bk. Enoch, xciv. 3- 

i. 15] 



by your service of Him ; and serve Him in righteousness, 
innocence, and in judgment."' 

" If you cannot get for your companion by the way one 
excellent man like yourself, then walk alone firmly : no fellow- 
ship can be made with a fool."' "With such unclean people, 
let no Brahman ever make any connection either by marriage 
or in worship ; nay, not even in adversity. Such is the law."* 
''Avoid all evil things, so called."* " Let the wise man make 
no friendship with, nor follow the same path as, drunkards,, 
froward men who incur blame, are ill-omened, &c."' " Half 
an instant is all the intercourse with such people allowed to a 
well-conducted man."* " Let no Brahman honour with even 
one word hypocrites, immoral men [cat-worshippers], useless 
ceremonies, sceptics, &c."' " For he who hinders thee from 
good, is the devil in the shape of a man."' 

The first of the five counsels Nur-ed-din, before his death, 
gave to his son, was : " Be not intimate (or familiar) with any 
one ; so shalt thou be safe from his wickedness ; for safety is 
in solitude [or retirement]. There is no one at present who 
would be faithful to thee in [faithless] evil times. Live there- 
fore apart, and lean on no one. I give thee good advice."' 
" Seeing the grave awaits us all, there is nothing for all degrees 
of men but to eschew evil and to do good."'" "Tsakkupala 
Mathera, who was blind, said to his nephew Palita, who was 
leading him, but who left him to go after a woman picking up 
sticks : ' He who commits a wicked action must not touch 
the end of my staff [wherewith to guide me].' Palita then 
became a layman, and then asked Tsakkupala to allow him 
once more to lead him. But Tsakkupala replied : ' I will not 
follow you. Even if you did it as a layman, it is not meet 
you should associate with me.'"" For "he whom the objects 

' Bk. of Adam and Eve, p. 141 
' Manu, ii. i, 40. * Away. Kondr. 68. 

• Ibid. ib. 12, 17. 
' Alef leil. xxi. p. 159. 
Parab. i. p. 45. 

D 2 

' Ibid. ib. 18, 53. 
" A way. Nalvani i 

' Dhammap. Balav. 2. 

' Vishnu P. iii. 12, 5. 

» E. Medin, 166. 

u Buddhagosha's 



[i. 16, 17 

of sense do not draw too much aside into the toils of greed 
(or covetousness), has, like a hero, conquered the three worlds."* 
" For things easily done are not good nor favourable to a 
man ; but things both good and wholesome are hard to do."* 
So Hesiod : 

" T^ 8 dp€Trji SSpioTa 0€ol wpoirdpotOtv IdrjKav 
aOavaroi, fioKpoi St Kai opOu>s oTfjLOi or oimjv, 
Koi Tptj^us TO jrpSrov :"' 

" For the way to virtue is both long and up-hill, nay, rough at 
first" " So let a man, from his birth upwards, never forget what 
[sin is] ; and not degrade himself like a brute ; but growing old 
in holy works, live happy and free from trouble."* For " those 
who think that that should be avoided that need not be, and 
that they need not avoid what is to be avoided, make a great 
mistake and come to grief. But those who know how to avoid 
what is to be avoided and the contrary, are addicted to good 
doctrine, and come to good."' Therefore "pass by what is 
abominable [or detestable], and thou shalt be respected."* And 
"refrain from a bad action, for it is not conducive to good. 
Even if men should counsel thee, have nothing to do with 
them ; their counsel is vain — nay, very bad."' 

16 For their feet run to evil, and make haste to 
shed blood. 

"For tJuirfeet" &c. 

appi}T appi^Tutv TcAeiraiTa ipoviauri -j^tpa-iv . 

" He is slow to good, but swift to evil," said of one such men.' 

1 7 Surely in vain the net is spread in the sight of 
any bird. 

• Nitishat. 76. • Dhammap. Attavag. 7. • ipy. x. ij/i, 287 sq. 

* Vemana, iii. 40. * Dhammap. Nirayavag. 13, 14. ' Ali b. 
Abu Taleb. 30. ' Sahid. Ad. 35, 36. • (Edip. Tyr. 465. 

* Eth-Theal. 302. 

i. 18] 



^?.? ^??, ' master,' ' owner of wing,' ' fowl.' Dan, ' in vain,' A. V. 
•without cause;' the birds have done nothing to deserve it. Same 
sense as in c. iiL 30. R. Yarchi explains it otherwise ; but Tevunat 
Mishle undersUnds DJO here as ■ without cause,' agreeing with the 

"Surely in vain," &c. 
Phcrmio. " Non rete accipitris tenditur neque milvo, 

Qui mal4 faciunt nobis; itiis qui nil faciunt, tenditur."' 

" Then the hunter strewed the ground with seeds of com, 
there spread his net, and then hid himself. The pigeons werp 
going to alight upon it, when Chitragriva, their king, warned 
them to consider how so much grain could possibly find 
itself in such a place. ' No good will come of it,' said he ; 

" The same bird which has escaped the bait many a time, 
when the hour is come, does not see the toil set for it"» by 
artful man, who — 

" KOV^OV^btK T« t^vAoC op- 

vWioy d/i<fiil3a\iiv, iyti 
.... ir(pi<l>paS^i dvrlp."* 

But Tai-shang calls it a sin " to shoot arrows at birds ; to 
frighten small birds ; to spoil their nests ; and to break their 

" Do not kill me, O prince," said the goose to Nalas, " and 
I will do thee a good turn. I will fly away to Bhima's daughter, 
and bring her tidings of thee."" 

1 8 And they lay wait for their own blood ; they 
lurk privily for their own lives. 

Din»53V, oaf?, 'for their blood,' 'for their souls,' or 'life.' " Own," 
here gives a wrong sense. It is the blood and life of those against 
whom others plot 

"(Aeir own blood." " The blood of all of us is red and pre- 

> Ter. Phorm. ii. i. » Hitop. i. fab. i. « Vararuchi Ashta R. 2 ; 
Hitop. i. 50. « Antigone, 342. ' Tai-shang k. i. p. • Nalo- 

pakh. i. 20 sq. 



[i. 1 8 

cious in God's eyes' [and is not to be shed for naught]." "It 
is the one blood of which God made His family on earth."* 
"The children of Adam are bones one of another,"' to which 
" He giveth life, breath and all things." For " after His own 
image created He man."* This image was blurred and defaced 
by sin ; still man's breath, or life, is not his own, but God's ; 
so that man has no power over his own life, which belongs to 
God. Suicide, therefore, is felony, and the suicide is felo de se ; 
he robs God of His own ; but murder is a double felony — it 
robs man of life, and God of that life which belongs to Him ; 
who thus ordered that the murderer's blood should be shed in 
ransom for his brother's blood which he shed.' " Our breath, 
or life, is given us," said the father, " for the practice of virtue, 
for wealth, love and final happiness. If life is lost, what, then, 
is not lost? But if life is saved, what is there that is not 
saved ?"• 

Sin, we know, brought death into the world, and with it 
all manner of evil. Hesiod, however, tells a different story. 
" Instead of my fire which thou hast stolen for mankind," said 
Zeus to Prometheus, " I will give them evil — 

— y Kiv aTravTCS 
Tfpirovrai Kara dv/uiv, iov kokov o/i<^oyoir<3vT<s,' 

in which they will take pleasure to their heart's content ; cherish- 
ing their own wickedness (or ruin)." " I do not see any one in 
the world," said Arjuna, " living without injury. Good men live 
on the good ; the stronger on the weaker ; the mangoose eats 
mice, and the cat eats the mangoose ; then the dog eats the 
cat, and the ' vyalamriga,' wild stag (?), kills the dog. Man eats 
them all, and time eats everything, whether durable or tran- 
sitory."* According to the Cingalese proverb: "The bull 
[suffers] from his wounds, and the crow from longing for his 
flesh."* " So will I compass the death of that elephant," 

• Meore enayim, Ps. pi. p. lo. ' Acts xvii. 27, 28. ' Gulist. i. 10. 

♦ Qen. i. 27. * Gen. ix. 6. ' Hitop. i. 44. ' Hesiod, i. t. t). 57. 

• Maha Bh. Shanti P. 442. • Athitha, p. 34. 

i. 19] 



said the jackal, through my superior intelligence (or know- 
ledge)." ^ 

" lurk privily." "Men who in secret lurk [for evil purpose] 
about good and true [men], incur the hatred of Heaven ; that 
soon overclouds them."' "My dear Rahans," said Phara 
Thaken, "he who is guilty of taking away life, when he dies 
out of this present life, will assuredly go to hell, and there be 
one of the animals of that place. And when he returns thence 
and is born a man, his life will be short [lit. only this life here, 
as a man]."* 

1 9 So are the ways of every one that Is greedy of 
gain ; which taketh away the life of the owners thereof. 

"So are the ways" &c. "When virtue is last," says Meng- 
tsze, " and love of gain is first, men will not rest satisfied except 
when full of rapine and violence."* "Yet it is a sin to wish 
others should suffer loss."* "For he," says Ajtoldi, "who 
causes loss (or pain) to others, is himself a brute [no man]."' 
And " he who seeks gain by unfair means, suffers for it The 
Chetas [inhabitants of the Chetya country] slew the Vidabbhas, 
and were all in turn destroyed."^ For 

" KtpSr) vovripa (rfftiav dtl <f>iptt,"^ 

"wicked gains always bring loss ;" nay, 

" KaKa KtpSia Ttr onjtrti/," " 

"evil gains are equal to curses." And "the end of every fox," 

say the Osmanlis, "is the furrier's shop."" 

See Esop's fable [153] of "the goose with the golden egg;" 

also told by Loqman [as a hen, f. 1 2] in the " Suvarnahansa 

Jataka," Buddha's birth as a golden goose ; in the Syriac fable 

of Sophos [{. 30] ; of " the Man with a hen that laid a golden 

egg every day ;" in Sintypa [f 27], probably borrowed from 

• Hitop. i. 853. * Uen ka cha wa, vol. iii. p. 21. ' Buddhagh. 

Par. p. 151. * Shang-Meng, i. c. i. ' Taishang k. i. p. 

• Kudat ku bilik, xvii. 47. ' Vidabbha Jataka, p. 256. • yvw/i. iiov. 

• Hesiod, i. c i 356. 

'» Emth. Osm. 




[i. 20 

the Aramaean of Sophos ; in Babrias [f. 123] ; in Avieni [f. 33], 
" anser erat cuidam," &c. For as Tai-kung says truly : "A 
greedy (or covetous) heart injures itself; as a [sharp or] cut- 
ting mouth injures him who has it'" Nevertheless — 

" — tu mihl vel vi, vel clkm, vel precario 
Fac tradas: mea nil refert, dum potior mode :"' 

" Let me have it, at any rate ; I care naught about the means, 
so that I may have it soon." 

" Si possis, recte, si non, quocumque modo rem."* 
" Kujjuttara, slave-girl to queen Samavati, used to spend on 
herself four of the eight [thapia] pieces of money the king 
gave her daily to buy flowers for the queen. One day Kuj- 
juttara, having gone with the flower-girl to hear Phara Thaken 
preach, spent the whole money given her on flowers. And 
when the queen, astonished at the quantity of flowers she 
brought, asked her the reason of it, Kujjuttara answered : 
Having heard the law from Phara Thaken, I am become a 
'thotapatti' [first step, or degree, towards aryaship] ; I no 
longer take the property of others."* 

" In self-defence, however," says Manu, "or in battle fought 
for a just cause, or to protect women or priests, he who kills 
justly commits no crime. Let a man kill without hesitation 
one who attacks him with intent to take away his life, whether 
he be a child or an old man, a guru or a Brahman well versed 
in the Shastras. He commits no crime at all who kills an 
assassin, whether in public or in private ; wrath is set against 
his wrath."" 

20 Wisdom crieth without; she uttereth her voice 
in the streets : 

Wisdom, niQ^n, is a singular, like ch. ix. i, xiv. i, &c. But 
if taken as a plural (xxiv. 7) of excellence, which is often con- 
strued with a sing, verb, we may compare with it the following 

' Ming Sin P. K. i. c. v. » Ter. Eun. ii. 3. ' Horat. Epist. i. i, 66. 
« Dhammap. Samavati st. p. 75. » Manu Sanh. viii. 349— 3S'- 


i. 21, 22] 



passage from the Avesta: "He who holds by [is friend of] 
Wisdoms [Armaitis, ace. pi.], inquires after heavenly man- 
sions."' There are not, however, two Ameshaspands of that 
name. But we have two Wisdoms, dfno khratus* ' heavenly 
wisdom,' and gaoshogruto khratus? 'wisdom [learnt] by hearing 
of the ear.' Also " a heavenly, original wisdom, a heavenly 
treasure, and the wisdom or treasure of this world, which are, 
the first, excellent, of Hormuzd ; the latter, worldly and defi- 
cient, through Ahriman's influence."* "Wisdom is one," says 
R. Lewi, " but it is seen in various ways abroad, in nature, in 
structures, &c."* 

2 1 She crieth in the chief place of concourse, in the 
Openings of the gates : in the city she uttereth her 
words, saying, 

ni^oh, ' places of concourse and noisy, like a market-place,' 
&c. The old versions seem to have taken ni''ph for niDin, 
' walls.' So Chald. and Syr. render it by ' on the top of the 
palace ;' and LXX. fV aKpiav St Tfl^imv. 

2 2 How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity? 
and the scorners delight in their scorning, and fools 
hate knowledge 1 

" How long" &c. " Long is the night to him who lies awake ; 
long is the journey to him who is weary ; and long is the 
revolution ['sansaro,' in transmigration] of fools."* "O ye gods," 
said Bchom-ldan-das [Buddha, the Victorious], "these sen- 
sible beings are altogether ruined by the evil of wickedness ; 
they only think of the good of this world, and do not under- 
stand wisdom [or the highest knowledge, 'shes rab']."' "The 
three worlds," said Buddha, "are consumed by the pain of old 
age, of disease, and by the fire of death ; and they have no 

• Ya^na, xxxi. 12. ' Yasht, x. 107. 

i kh. c. Ivii. ' Tvunat m. p. 4. 

' Dsang-Lun, fol. 2. 

' Id. ii. 6. * Mainyo 

* Dhammap. Balav. 6a 



[i. 33 

guide. All beings bom in the universe are for the most part 
foolish [in the dark and ignorant] ; they are like a swarm of 
bees inside a vase [turned over them— buzzing in darkness]." > 
" Since, then, all men are born to die, why will you, for the 
sake of pleasure, hearken to no warning against falling into a 
sea of trouble and sorrow ?"* 

"Wilt thou abide here," said the Brahman to Molon Toin 
[who had left his father's house in search of wisdom and 
happiness], "and here lead a useful life? Do so. He then 
pronounced these \yords : ' By the teaching of this treasure of 
sublime love [siluk], he will find the real truth ; how to dry 
up thd flowing stream of perpetual births ; and he will stay 
the sorrow of all creatures by persisting unrelentingly in this 
love of supreme knowledge.'"* " Now the words I have spoken 
to you before," said the Buddhist— " that is, sudden death, 
sudden destruction of the wicked, and hell— hear ye attentively 
without dissimulation. Are not your lungs, then, and your 
heart moved and trembling? Do you not fear, then? Do 
you not see that all is not everlasting? Then would you 
hearken to foolish men who have no sacred knowledge ? Will 
you not think, then, and cease to flatter yourselves with a vain 
hope? O jealous heart, ever deceiving! Wherefore, pene- 
trated with the four-fold thought of poison, hell, Pirit [monsters 
of hell], and the fear of the beasts [in transmigration], at once 
grope after doing virtuous deeds."* 

"Well," said Confucius, "you may teach the law [moral 
precepts], but they will not be followed. Change [conversion] 
is the main thing."* 

"and fools hate knowledge." "The folly of a man is his 
enemy ; but his intelligence is his friend."" "For a man with- 
out knowledge is altogether in evil (or diseased) ; know, then, 
that knowledge is powerful (or strong)."' But Hillel goes 

' Rgya-tcher r. pa, c. xiiL p. 155. » Dsang-Lun, ii. foL 18. 

» Molon Toin, foL 3. 4. • Boyan Sorgal, p. 14, 15. ' Shang-Lun, 

ix. 23. • Abu Ubeid, 163. ' Kudat ku Bil. ix. 5, 10. 





further. He says : " He who does not learn is worthy of death.'^ 
Yet in spite of such a sentence, " The fool," says the Osmanli, 
loves a fool ; the wise man, however, loves a wise one."' 

23 Turn you at my reproof: behold, I will pour out 
my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto 

" Turn you." " There is no safer advocate," says AH,' " than 
repentance." On which the Persian says : " O thou who hast 
committed sins without end, fearest not thou the advocate 
[i.e. exposure] of them ? Yea, rather repent until thou yieldest 
to the truth, for without repentance there is no intercessor [for 
sin]." " He who has done aught amiss, let him henceforth 
alter altogether," says the Georgian proverb.* " Let him turn 
within himself and mend his ways," say the Japanese.* " Dare 
think aright," says Horace, "and only begin. The work is 
half done." 

" Ditnidium facti qui coepit habet ; sapere aude ; 

Incipe ; qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 

Rusticus expectat dum defluat amnis :"* 

" If you put it off, you are no better than the clown who waits 
until the river has flowed past him." 

For " what remains of life is priceless" for amendment [since 
it may be cut short], says the Arabic proverb ; whereupon thfe 
Persian adds : " If thou hast blackened the record of thy past 
life, then repent of what thou hast done ; thy past life is but 
the root of this present moment, which is a mere breath. Then 
give it the water of repentance, if that root lacks moisture. 
Give to the five senses of thy life the water of life, until the 
tree of thy life has taken firm root All that is past will be 
well from this [moment of repentance] ; God has changed 
[transformed] thy 'blackness' [sins], until all the past is rec- 
koned to obedience."' "When a man has been especially 
wicked," says Kiu O in one of his sermons, " and returns to 

• Pirqe Av. 1. 13. • Emthal Osman. • Ali, 29. * Andazebi, 7. 
' Japan, pr. p. 208. • Hor. Epist. i. 2, 40. ' Rishtah i juw. p. 57 sq. 



[i. 23 

his original heart" [which Meng-tsze, from whom the text is 
taken, says is by nature good], " he comes forth especially clean 
and bright, like the rising moon, scoured" [alluding to the 
story of the rush-cutter [' sugina,' mare's-tail, Dutch reed for 
polishing] who, seeing the moon rising between his rushes, 
thought it was being scoured with them].^ " Dud, the devil, 
once came to Bchom-ldan-das [Buddha] and said to him, ' Thy 
converts are like the sand of the Ganges ; thou hast been long 
enough in the world ; it is time thou shouldst escape from 
sorrow.' Then Buddha put a little earth upon the nail of 
one of his fingers, and asked Dud which was the largest, that 
particle of mould or the earth. ' This is only a trifle,' answered 
Dud. Then said Buddha, ' My converts [liberated souls] are 
like the earth on my finger-nail, and the yet unconverted are 
like the earth.*"* 
"at my reproof." 

" oAXa TiOtirri koI viiiui, or«i irtWtvrat a/icivoc :"' 

" Hearken, it will be better for you." " When thou reprovest 

a bad man," says the philosopher, "take him with words of 

wisdom and a soft [kind] voice, lest he keep aloof from thee, 

and hide his sins from thee, and his sinful disposition become 

a habit in him, like eating and drinking."* 

True, Yet the above teaching is, of course, wide of the 

mark. " Repentance not to be repented of," or " conversion," 

is not to turn to one's own natural heart, which is sinful and 

the source of all evil in man i^ for " how can one bring clean out 

of what is unclean ?" But "conversion" is turning homewards, 

that is, heavenwards. It is to say : " I will arise and go to my 

Father" — reconciled and ready to forgive me through His Son 

and for His sake — "and say unto Him, I have sinned." This 

conversion is wrought, not by the heart within itself, but by 

the grace of God preventing the sinner, calling to him to turn, 

and meeting him half-way. 

' Kiu O do wa, vol. 1. s. 2, p. 14. ' Dsang-Lun, vi. c. 22, fol. 104. 

' II. i, 259, 274. • Matsbaf. Phal. ' S. Matt. xv. 18, 19 ; Job xiv. 4, xv. 14. 

i. 24, 25] 



24 Because I have called, and ye refused ; I have 
stretched out my hand, and no man regarded ; 

"Because I have called;' &c. "Alas I" said Confucius. "I 
have not yet seen any one love virtue as he loves pleasure."* 
" Those who speak wholesome words are few ; whence those 
who hearken to them are few also. It is difficult enough to 
find a clever physician ; yet few there are who do as he tells 
them."* "For there are ears," says El Nawabig, "which are 
closed against hearing the truth, and understandings which 
are turned away from her guidance."' " O you," said Piankhi 
to the inhabitants of Parakhem-kheper's city, "who live in death, 
do not close the gates of your lives, for the slaughter [block] of 
this day. Do not love death and hate life."* " Who, then, is 
deaf? He who will not listen to profitable words."' " Nalas 
will attend neither to the advice of his friends and relatives, 
nor yet to mine, O king ; but I don't blame him for it : he is 
mad."» "For albeit many there be who know religion and 
speak it, yet among those who thus receive it, it is hard to 
find one man who puts it in practice."^ 

Men only hearken to what they like. Witness the fable of 
"the blacksmith's dog," in Syntipa" and in the Aramaean ori- 
ginal of Sophos."» The dog slept all the time his master worked 
at the anvil, but always awoke at feeding-time. Whence the 
moral— Aramaean : "that men hear what they like, but never 
hear what they do not like ;"— Greek : " Men are always hard 
to persuade ; dilatory and careless as regards things they do 
not like" Loqman," however, understands the anvil to mean 
prayer, and meat, pleasure. 

25 But ye have set at nought all my counsel, and 
would none of my reproof : 

• Hea-Lun, xv. 12. 
« Piankhi stfele, 1. 78. 
» Legs par b. p. 27 '• 

« Sain ugh. 16S. ' El Nawab. pref. 

Ratnam. 42. • Nalopakh. vin. 16, 17. 

• Fab. 16. » Fab. 18. '» Fab. 29. 



[i. 26 

lynpn?, « but ye have torn asunder, neglected, set at nought my 
counsel.' Chald. ' ye have hated' LXX. <lKi5pov<! cVowiTc— /JovX<{s. 

"But ye have set at nought." &c. " The man," says Ali, « was 
asleep, and his vigilance died." "Talk as you like to men 
careless of the future, it all ends in talk ; but when they die, 
they will find the loss they suffer from their continued neglect," 
adds the Persian commentary.* According to the Greek 

" avrip afiov^Oi it Ktvov fioxOti rpixi^v :"* 
" that the man who takes not counsel [is senseless] labours in 
vain in his race through life." " When I saw you, O children, 
dreaming [not knowing which way to go], my heart was grieved. 
I advised you then, over and over again. But you set at nought 
my voice ; it is of no use teaching you. If I repeat my advice 
to you, you only turn against me. And you cannot pretend 
to say that I do not know — I who am in decrepit old age."' 
" There are few men learned [wise] and endowed with qualities ; 
few of understanding ; few who soothe [diminish or remove] 
sorrow ; but such men are the best in this passing world. All 
sin committed by one who knows [it to be sin] is heavy ; but 
sin in ignorance is small guilt ; expiation is provided alike in 
form [anurtipam] to the sin committed."* 

26 I also will laugh at your calamity ; I will mock 
when your fear cometh ; 

"at your calamity," &c. "A great calamity from the side of 
Heaven! No time now for mirth and joy. The old man 
teaches in all earnestness, but the young people are puffed up 
with pride. Yet I do not talk idly [as some do] ; but you 
make fun of sorrow [to come]. When a large fire [incendium] 
takes place, one may put a stop to mirth."'' " This I declare 
unto you," said Enoch, "that He who created you will over- 
whelm you, and there will be no mercy shown you in your 

' Ali, 2. « yvuii. ,10V. ' She King, vol. iii. bk. iii od. 2. 

< Maha Bh. Shanti P. 1285, 1283. « She King, vol. iii. bk. iii. od. 10. 

i. 2;] 



fall ; but your Creator will rejoice over your destruction."' 
"For I know," said Enoch to his son Methuselah, "that God 
intends to bring the waters of the Flood upon the earth, and 
to destroy our creation."* 

" I inquired of the Angel of Peace who was going about 
with me, 'For whom are the instruments I see prepared?' 
And he said, ' For the hosts of Azazeel, to be delivered to 
(or cast under) the lowest condemnation.' Michael, Gabriel, 
Raphael and Phanuel, shall be strengthened at that time — 
when the Lord of Spirits sends forth chastisement : then shall 
the stores of waters that are above the heavens burst open 
[and rain fall in drops the size of a plate'] on the fountains of 
water that are on the earth and under the earth. Then those 
waters will mix together, and shall blot out all that is in the 
earth, unto the borders of heaven. Thus shall they be made 
to know the iniquity they have committed in the earth ; and 
thus shall they be punished."* 

"And I saw another vision. As I was in the house of 
Mahalaleel, my father-in-law, I saw heaven fall upon the earth. 
I cried. The earth is destroyed ! Mahalaleel heard my cry. I 
told him the vision. 'My son,' said he, 'the earth will be 
destroyed in a great overthrow, because of the sins of men. 
Now, then, arise, and pray to the Lord that a remnant be left'"* 

27 When your fear cometh as desolation and your 

destruction cometh as a whirlwind ; when distress and 

anguish cometh upon you. 

nkjiOJp, ' like a tempest that works desolation or destruction.' 
Chald. ' when your fear cometh suddenly, and your breaking up like 
a tempest,' &c. 

"destruction." "As a dark whirlwind — 

• Bk. Enoch, c. xciii. 10, 11. • Bk. of Adam and Eve, bk. ii. c ?2. 

' Bundehesh, sect xvi. 5. ♦ Bk. Enoch, c lix. p. 30. » Ibid, 

c. Ixxxiii. pp. 59, 60. • U. X'. 746. 



[•'• 27 

with one fell swoop, avanurytrai oTjj, spreads desolation and 

uioT avt/toi Vfiftikat aJyfia Stf(rKiSa(Ttv 
rjpivof, Si wovTov jroXviciJ^ovos orpvyeToio 
wOfiiva Ktc^af — 
Toittvnj Zi^fof irikerai rfo-is' — 

so does calamity befal men. As suddenly as the stormy wind 
that shook the very depths of the. sea, scatters the spring 
clouds, so also does chastisement come down from Heaven." 
Then livid fear — xXmpov 8«os* — comes upon men in their deso- 
lation ; for " alas !" says Menander,' " rb yd.p a<^vw Svo-rvx"!' 
ftavtav wottt, a sudden calamity makes men mad," if they have 
set their heart wholly on this world. 

" The man," says the Buddhist, " who is wholly taken up 
with his sons and his cattle, and whose mind is thus pre-occu- 
pied, will be overtaken [seized] by death, as a torrent over- 
whelms a whole village asleep."* For, say the Finns, "one 
gets [emptiness] want without seeking, and misfortune without 
buying."' And then, add the Mandchus, "when things both 
excellent and great have passed away, and a change takes 
place in fortune, it is as if nothing had been."' "Abundance 
of all kinds!" say the Chinese; "then a thousand calamities 
and ten thousand misfortunes destroy it all at once."^ And 
the Welsh: "God is long in giving warning; but His ven- 
geance is in earnest when it comes." And again : " Distress 
comes without an attempt [at warning]."' 

" Nam dii irati laneos pedes habent."' For " the gods, when 
angry, wear woollen soles on their feet [tread without noise]." 
Then "anguish lays hold on thee, O man ; thy hair stands on 
end, and thy soul is in thy hand."" " Oh the unquenchable 
fire of hell, and the inevitable destruction of the wicked ! Man 
suddenly dies on the morrow ; by the high wind of an evil 

' Solon, V. 13 sq. 'II. v- 479- ' iJeX^. 14. * Dhammap. 

Maggav. 16. • Fin. prov. ' Ming hien dsi. 98. ' Ming 

Sin P. K. c. 3. ' Welsh pr. • Lat. pr. '» Pap. Anast. i. 24, 2. 

I. 2 




nature he is suddenly cast down. Understand this beforehand 
[in time], and lose no time in practising virtue."' 

In the Kin-sze-luh it is said: "To rise up to good is like 
being raised by the wind [easily] ; but to alter for the worse 
[transgress] is like being burnt up by thunder."* " When your 
transgressions are filled up, and the number [of your days]," 
says the author of the Dzu-gung, " is cut short, and with your 
face on your pillow you cry in the hour of sorrow that is come 
upon you, and you think of all the wicked conversation of your 
past life, when you wished to change for the better [to repent], 
but did not care to do .so, and think of all the opportunities 
for good in your life which you might have done, but could 
not find leisure to do — then, be the wealth you have amassed 
what it may, who will now take care of it ? But you must die, 
after eschewing to do the good you might have done, and doing 
evil instead of it, and also committing sin in secret. What 
man is he who would not grieve at this?" 

"Instead of which, if a man will embrace the good advice 
of wise men, and, repenting of his evil ways, rather walk after 
the manner of his original [former] heart, will he not eschew 
sorrow and court happiness? Seeing, then, how both good 
and evil are requited, how can one hesitate an instant in 'sink- 
ing the scale' of a change of life ? But he who, whatever his 
wealth may be, thinks he can obtain happiness without ful- 
filling his five duties and all righteousness towards all living 
things, is like one who would hope to haul a fish from the 
deep sea by embracing a tree of the forest."'" 

28 Then shall they call upon me, but 1 will not 
answer; they shall seek me early, but they shall not 
find me : 

" TAen shall they',' &c. " So long," says God, " as thou wilt 

continue in lust and wickedness, so long shalt thou receive 

' Boyan sorgal, p. 12. « Ming Sin P. K. i. c. 5. ^ Mandchu 

pref. to the Dzu-gung. 




['• 29— 3 » 

from me the message, ' Continue without support'"^ Thou 
mayest call, but in vain. The cry of such a man is, " lamenta- 
tions in a jungle," say the Telugus.* 

29 For that they hated knowledge, and did not 
choose the fear of the Lord : 

"For that they hated" &c. "A man," says Confucius, "with- 
out knowledge and without the wish to acquire it, can never 
become a wise [or educated, superior] man."* 

30 They would none of my counsel : they despised 
all my reproof. 

3 1 Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own 
way, and be filled with their own devices. 

" They would none',' &c. " When vanity," says El Nawabig, 
"whispers to thee, then thou art quicker of hearing than a 
hyaena's cub ; but when truth reproves thee, then thou art 
without ears."* " For he is wise who hearkens to good advice 
[wise men take good advice ; lucky ones follow it]," says 
Hesiod ;=* "but he who neither advises himself, nor hearkens 
to good advice from others — SS' out' a^Tiiot ovij/) — is altogether 
a worthless man." 

" Those attendants," said Phara Thaken, " cannot die with- 
out consequences of their former life ; but they have found the 
right way. Such as die under the influence of their moral 
duties [either done or not done, as it may happen], continue 
to experience either happiness or misery."* 

"It is thy fault," said Sanjaya to Dhritarashtra, "that this 
battle with the Pandavas has taken place. Eat thou, then, the 
fruit of to-day, after defiling thine own soul. Thou hast got 
thy deserts, O king."' "The deed done, will it go back?"' 

« Risbtah I juw. p. 161. ' Telugu pr. ' Shang-Lun, bk. i. 2. 

* El Nawab. 37. • i. ^ ij. 293 sq. • Dhammap. st. of Samav. p. 83. 
' Maba Bh. Bbishma P. 334©; and Hor. Od. i. iii. 25. • Telugu pr. 

'• 32] 



No ; and " long is the chewing of a bitter morsel [tamaid 
chweru]," say the Welsh.* 

" Every one who sows bad seed and looks for good fruit, 
rakes his brain to no purpose, and feeds on vain imaginations."* 
Thae-kea, speaking of himself to E-yun, said : " I, small indi- 
vidual as I am, was not clearly awake to virtue ; but through 
my passions, &c., I became degenerate, and I offended pro- 
priety, so as to bring a swift doom on this body of mine. 
When Heaven sends affliction, one may yet bear up against it; 
but when we bring down calamities upon ourselves, we cannot 
escape them [there is no looking back from them]."' " When 
a man," says Vishnu Sarma, " has got himself into trouble, he 
then blames his destiny, and from ignorance does not acknow- 
ledge the faults of his own actions."* "Man," said Vashishta 
to Parasara, " enjoys the fruit of what was done by him."' For 
" a man, whether honourable or mean, not to distinguish what 
is lawful [and right to say or do], is self-willed."' And "as a 
man's mind, so is his going; Bhagavati [the avenging goddess] 
is the 'plantain sauce' for him,"^ say the Bengalees. "So it 
is," says the Qoran ; " for men receive a portion [nabib] for 
what they have earned [for their works] ; and God is quick at 

32 For the turning away of the simple shall slay 

them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them. 

D^7P3 ri]?lp1, ' and the feeling of security, the careless indiffer- 
ence of fools.' Chald. ' and the error, going astray of fools.' LXX. 
is a paraphrase. 

"For the turning away" &c. 

" Stultum fecit fortuna, quem vult perdere."' 

"Hie, quem dii volunt perdere, priiis dementat"'* "He 

whom the gods will destroy, first of all loses his mind." 

' Gulistan, bk. i. st. 10. ' Shoo King, iii. 5. 

' Vishnu Pur. i. 21. • Onna ima kawa. 

» Sur. ii. 198. » Publ. Syr. '" Lat. pr. 

E 2 

' Welsh pr. 
• Hitop. iv. 2. 
' Beng. prov. 



['• 32 

"Men," says Lao-tsze,» "who [join themselves] are bent on 
their own perdition, perish in it [h't. get, obtain it]." Molon 
Toin, having determined to turn monk [or priest, toin], said 
[in verse]: "All living things, from their nature and deeds 
done in their restless passage through life [existence], trust to 
sundry evil deeds through their not giving their mind to vir- 
tuous actions."* "If a child," says the Putt-ovada, "is not 
well taught [and will not kearken], he will feel ashamed — 
repent of it — and, like a monkey of the woods, all legs and 
arms, he will go about a mean silly fellow, and be despised as 
low and worthless."' 

"Vivere si rect^ nescis," says Horace, "decede peritis; 
Lusisti satis, edisti satis, atque bibisti ; 
Tempus abire tibi est."* 

Firdusi also, in his account of Jemshid's turning away from 
God's commandments, and then happiness [or fortune] leaving 
him, says that " he attributed all God's gifts to himself, and 
taught the like to his people. But whosoever is ungrateful to 
God for His gifts, terror enters his heart from every side."' 
" For carelessness as regards things hateful," say the Arabs, 
" degrades a man ; " " his own goodness being his greatest 
capacity [for doing right]," adds the Persian commentator.^ 
And " to forsake obedience [to God], and to practise disobe- 
dience [to Him], is a sin," says Tai-shang.^ " Beings," says 
the Buddhist, " living in this universe are in a state of uncon- 
scious ignorance, and whirl and buzz about in it like bees inside 
a bottle. They are in a three-fold evil way of passion, igno- 
rance and their organs of sense, in which they revolve like the 
potter's wheel. Such are the evil snares of time with which 
beings are caught, as a young monkey is caught in the hunter's 
trap."' " For those," says Sophos,* "who will not place them- 
selves under the hand [obey authority] of others, suddenly 
come to naught" 

> Tao-te-K. c. xxiii. ' Molon Toin, fol. 15. ' Putt-ovada, 2 

< Epist. ii. 2. ' Shah Nam. p. 21. " Rishtah i. juw. p. 74. 

^ Kang i. p. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiii. » Fab. 3i, and Syntipa, 33. 

>• 33] 



" Noli successus indignos ferre moleste, 
Indulget fortuna malis, ut laedere possit:"' 

" Fret not at the prosperity of evil men ; fortune favours the 
wicked in order to injure them." 

33 But whoso hearkeneth unto me shall dwell safely, 
and shall be quiet from fear of evil. 

" But whoso," &c. " The comfort of life is in security," says 
the Arabic proverb. " Neither a cow, land nor honour, is the 
best gift ; wise men declare the greatest boon to be absence 
of fear [security]."' Bias being asked what, in life, could be 
free from fear, " opdrj (rwdSriiri's,' a good [upright] conscience," 
said he — which Periander said constitutes " freedom."* 

" Like the atmosphere, still, without wind, and like the great 
deep, unruffled, being thus unchangeable and unmoved, is 
freedom indeed for man."* And Ennius : 

" — adversus adversarios 
Ea libertas est, qui pectus purum et firmum gestitat"* 

" — vivam, an moriar, nulla in me est metus."' 
" A man," says Ennius, " who carries within him a clear and 
safe conscience, stands free from fear in presence of his adver- 
saries." " Whether in life or in death, I have no fear." " If a 
man can swim," says Vemana, " he need not trouble about the 
depth of the water. So also he who knows how to die, has 
neither fear nor danger in his life on earth."' "What strength 
is that of the wise man !" says Confucius ; " he is always at 
peace, and wavers not."* " He is serene, and has an enlarged 
mind ; while the common man is always distracted with anxi- 
eties."" " The man who knows, no longer doubts ; he who is 
virtuous, does not grieve at anything ; and he who is strong 
[brave or courageous], fears nothing."" For " albeit the sword 

' D. Cato, ii. 23. ' Pancha T. i. 322. ' Sept Sap. p. 40. 

' Ibid. p. 44. ' Vemana, iii. 7. • Ennii Phoenic. 680. ' Id. Inc. 
Carm. 795. ' Vemana, ii. 32. • Chung yg, c. x. •* Shang-Lun 
vii. 36. " Ibid, ix. 28. 



['• 33 

Of justice be swift, yet it will not behead a man who is guilt- 
less."* •* 

Lao-tsze says that he who has studied Tao is free from 
danger, m these words : " Heaven is Tao ; Tao is long life fno 
mere body] ; in death, no danger ;"« for " the holy man while 
on earth remains calm and at peace."' "Thorough fools and 
very wise men are happy in this world," said Vyasa ; "but he 
who IS neither a fool nor wise has trouble. And he who 
grieves for the misery of others will never be happy ; for there 
IS no end of troubles ; one grows out of another."" 

"When a man commits a sin, he is afraid of men [lit the 
fear of creatures is on him] ; but when he does good, the fear 
of h.m is on them.- "In enjoyment, there is the fear of 
disease; for a family, the fear of degradation ; for wealth, that 
of the king ; for respect, that of contempt ; for power, that of 
an enemy ; for beauty, that of fleeting youth ; for life, the fear 
of death. Everything on earth is thus subject to fear • relin- 
quishing desire alone is free from fear.»« "Thus the Brahman 
though despised, yet sleeps in peace; if renowned, he is at 
peace ; in peace he goes through this world ; but he who 
scorns him is destroyed."^ 

; i^pi-f,. ., ■ —- '■ -„. ,„: - -- 

• Vairagya Shat. 32. r Manu S. i. 163. 

ii. I] 




/ Wisdom promt seth godliness to her children, 10 and safety from evil 
company, go and direction in good ways. 

TV /T Y son, if thou wilt receive my words, and hide 
my commandments with thee ; 

" Mj/ son," &c. " My son, if thou wilt hearken to what I tell 
thee, all thy (plans) concerns will be forwarded [will prosper]," 
said Ptah-hotep to his son.' So CEdipus to the priest : 

— TO /t (av OtAjjS tmj 

" If only thou wouldst receive my words, thou shouldst with 
them receive help and relief from thy woes." " My son," says 
again Ptah-hotep, " if thou wilt find a good place by thee for 
my teaching, thy reputation will spread, and with it the fame 
of thy loving disposition among those thou lovest. The old 
man's teaching is a blessing to him [who receives it]. It makes 
him welcome among [or to the heart of] the people ; it is a 
gain to him who has it ; it gets him love for bread, and makes 
him appreciated for his own sake [his person, not his dress] ; 
therefore receive it for the life of thy house."' For "there is 
no [mantra] religious precept greater than the father's word."* 
"And as regards 'a son,' he is called in Sanscrit 'putra,' from 
' pun trayate,' because he, male, delivers his father from hell"' — 
as Abraham is said in the Talmud to have delivered Terah 
from the same place ; but not in the same way. 

"What ought the Bchom-ldan-das [victorious Buddha] to 

» Pap. Pr. c. XV. 1. 8. ^ CEdip. Tyr. 216. ' Pap. Pr. xii. 9— 12. 

« Tarn. pr. 3576. ' Maha Bh. Adi P. 3026. 



[H. I 

receive? The profitable words of his Lama." > "The foolish 
man when he hears a conversation [or word], is troubled until 
he brings it out ; but the wise man, when he hears it, holds 
his peace, hides within him what he heard, and keeps what is 
useful in it."' " But he who, having studied the law, does not 
further care about (or act on) it, is like one who only sows, 
but reaps nothing from it."' "And if he forgets what he had 
learnt, he is like a woman who, having brought forth a child, 
buries it."* "He who remembers," says Borhan-ed-din, "is 
said to fly [carrying his lore with him] ; whereas the man who 
writes, sits still."* " We learn from word of mouth what we 
should write down. Therefore, said the prophet [on whom 
be peace], O Helal I never part from thy inkstand, for it is 
useful unto the resurrection-day. And Husam-ed-din com- 
manded his son, Shams-ed-din, to learn by heart something, 
be it ever so little, every day, of sciences and wisdom. And 
Asam ibn Yusef gave a piece of gold [a dinar] for a 'qalam' 
[reed] in order to write at once what he heard. For life is 
short, biit science is long. Therefore let us waste no time, 
lest in old age we grieve over lost opportunities."' 

This reminds one of the Chinese youth who was so diligent 
a writer, that he wore his ink-slab into a hole by dint of 
rubbing his ink-tablet on it. "Only, in study," said Yue to 
Kaou-tsung, "cultivate a humble disposition; sustain thy 
efforts ; so will thy improvement continue."' " It is true," 
says the Buddhist, " that I have bestowed untold advantages 
on human beings. It is wonderful — therefore it is well to 
hearken to me, and to lay hold on my teaching with thy mind. 
I will explain to thee how those who have embraced the 
perfection [or term, degree] of Bodhisatwas, and have entered 
upon the purity thereof, can continue firm therein ; how they 
can fulfil it and lay hold on it."' 

' Dris Ian phr. wa, I. 

Matshaf Phal. 

* R. Joshuah, Sanhedr. 99, M. S. 

• Ibid. p. 130. ' Shoo King, ill. 14. 

' Sanhedr. 99, M. S. 
' Borhan-ed. ix. p. 128. 
• Thar-wa, p. 129. 



ii. 2] 



2 So that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and 

apply thine heart to understanding ; 

^y\^ 3"'llf(7n^, ' to give thine ear attentively ;' ' to listen attentively 
and earnestly.' 

"So that thou" &c. King Milinda said to Nagasena : " Well, 
Nagasena, does he who has acquired knowledge, possess 
wisdom also ? Assuredly, O King ; he who has knowledge has 
wisdom also."' [This is true, however, of only one kind of 
knowledge and of wisdom ; for all knowledge is not wisdom 
in its highest sense.] " Science," properly so called, however, 
"is glory ; there is no baseness in it," says Borhan-ed-din [in 
his ' Guide to Knowledge'] ; adding : " If thou art engaged 
in a study (or work), give thy mind to it."' 

" This firmness," says Lao-tsze,' " requires a determined will." 
And Choo-hi adds :* "A man must indeed study who wishes 
to investigate the principle of all things under heaven ; not 
satisfied with his own reason ; but exhausting the cause of 
the things he investigates, aiming at reaching the highest 
point he can in knowledge. Thus will he thoroughly [sincerely] 
understand [the real source of knowledge]." "'A-ypim-vos <<ro 
KOTO vovv. Keep thy mind awake," says Pythagoras in his 
'Golden words,'* "for the sleep of it is akin to the sleep of 
death." And D. Cato«— 

" Discere ne cesses ; cura sapientia crescit." 

" Whither ought our efforts to tend ? To knowledge, wisdom 
[vidya] ; to study ; to good instruction ; and to alms-giving."^ 
" My son, seek men of understanding above thine own, that 
thou mayest learn wisdom of them ; and comfort the afflicted, 
and find delight in it."* " Children," says the Burmese teacher, 
"prick up your ears and listen attentively, that father and 
mother may [establish] guide you safely. Good children do 
their duty ; they learn," &c.* 

' Milinda pano, iii. 41. ' Borhan-ed-d. x. p. 130. ' Tao-te-K. 

c. xxxiii. • Ta-hio, Com. v. ' Pythag. Sam. xc- '»• 2 M- tliles, 

not in Bekker's). ' Sent. iii. 27. ' Ratnamal. 47. • Mishle 

Asaph, i. 2, 28. • Putt-ovada, p. 19. 




['•••• 3 

"Apply your will [settled heart] in the right way [Tao]," ■ 
says Confucius.! Above ail, "desire knowledge.'" 

— (V yap Tif /JLaOfiv 
fvtimv i}uAaj8(ta riov iroiov/ieFUf,"* 

"for information makes matters easy." But "apply thine 
heart" — be "totus in illis." For as the Chinese say: "We 
lose easily what we acquire easily ; but what we acquire with 
difficulty is not easily lost."* 

3 Yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up 
thy voice for understanding ; 

IJ^ri, Heb. Chald. Marg. reading—' givest thy voice.' LXX. &3s 

ifMaVT^V <TOV. 

" Yea, i/i/um," &c. " Pray without ceasing, and knowledge 
[or wisdom, ' pafla'] will come in little at a time, to teach you ; 
and by never losing sight of it, you will at last acquire perfect 
virtue, like the fragrance of a bunch of flowers."" "Though 
one heap a thousand pieces of gold, it is not equal to one day 
of study : wherefore, never get weary of reading ; but study 
all day long."" "Study after study (continually)."^ "For these 
two are never satisfied : he who seeks knowledge (or wisdom), 
and he who seeks wealth."* "Without doubt," said Narada 
to Bhishma, " the devout study of the Vedas and Vedangas, 
and inquiry after subjects of knowledge, are best."* "For as 
doing good gives pleasure, so also do right principles make 
one great"*" Therefore "acquire understanding and knowledge 
as if at the point of death."" " Can we, inferior beings, or can 
we not acquire (or obtain) this supreme intelligence ? If we 
take pains, why should we not be able to attain to it ?"'' [This 
"buddhi khutuk" is the intelligence possessed by Buddhas, 

* Sbang-Lun, vii. 6. * Aw. Atthi sudi, loo. ' Soph. CEdip. Col. 115. 
• Chin. max. * Htsandau thinguttara, 2, 3. • Jits go kiyo. ' Jap. pr. 
» Arabic pr. Soc. • Maha Bh. Shanti P. 10573, 4. '» Tai-shang, in 
Ming Sin P. K. c. L " Legs p. b. p. ch. i. " Tonilkhu yin chimek, ii. 

ii. 4] 



Bodhisatwas, &c., which, on leaving the body at the Nirvana, 
merges into the original, eternal Intelligence, "belke Bilik"]. 

4 If thou seekest her as silver, and searches! for her 
isfor hid treasures ; 

"If thou seekest," &c. " Though a hundred years old, yet 
desire knowledge."* " Does not knowledge succeed with those 
who always seek for it ?"* " For there are very great advan- 
tages in profound study."' " Therefore acquire the habit of 
study night and day" [that is, with a glow-worm and snow ; 
alluding to the story of Che-ying and of Sun-hang, told in the 
San-tsze-king, v. 141, who studied by the light of a glow- 
worm in a bag and by the glare of snow].* For " three days 
without reading books, and one's spoken words are without 
flavour."' " Let the clever man think of wisdom and of wealth 
as if he were liable neither to decay nor death. But at the 
same time let him practise virtue as if death held him already 
by his hair."' " Yea, let him eschew bad men and associate 
with good ones, and thus get profit for both worlds : acquire 
great excellence (or power) with wealth, and practise wisdom 
as if he were seized by death."' 

" Seeing," said Parasara, " the many ills which afflict man 
from his birth to the hour of death, in hell and even in 
heaven, where he lives in constant dread of future births — 
therefore every effort should be made to obtain the acquisition 
of Bhagavat, 'the Lord ;' it is the only remedy [bheshajam] 
for all ills, being absolute and final."* " Make every effort on 
the side of virtue (or good)"* said Stchen-po to his parents, 
from heaven. " Prepare, provide good with all your might."'* 
•' Those who are bent on enjoyment and power," said Bhaga- 
van to Sanjaya, " whose thoughts are carried away by them, 

■ Avvey. K. Orhukkam, 51. ' Kobita Ratn. 202. ' Japan pr. p. 278. 
* Ibid. p. 471. » Chin. prov. p. 23. ' Hitop. Introd. 3. 

' Lokopokar. 226. ' Vishnu P. vi. 5, 58. » Dsang-L. c. ii. fol. i8> 

*" Uligher. dalai, c. ii. 



['■'• 4 

their active mind is not attached to perseverance."* True ; 
yet to such the Buddhist says : " If powerful princes should 
say. We cannot attain unto wisdom, and so thinking, turn 
back from their efforts to gain it, they yet will prosper by 
following the path we show them."* [In a Buddhist catechism 
on Salvation.] 

"If thou seekest," &c. "Like him who by digging with a 
spade finds water, so does the pupil who hearkens to his 
religious teacher [guru] come at the wisdom of his teacher."* 
" By searching and searching, a man is found who knows the 
Vedanta ; for he seeks the man who seeks him. Are there 
many in earnest [keen, clever] in looking for him ?"* " But 
he who studies in earnest must be moderate ; he must restrain 
himself in the matter of eating, of drinking and of sleep, and 
in much talk about things that profit' not," says Borhan- 

" Words and talk only," says Buddha, " and any amount of 
noise, cannot obtain the religious teaching of good [or virtue]. 
This is to be obtained only by the earnest efforts of the inner- 
most heart ; therefore never flag in your efforts."* For, as 
Sophocles says : 

" TO 8« (ijTOVfUVOV 

aXuToi'' iK(f>(vyft St TafitKov/itvov : ^ 

" We find what we look for ; what we overlook, escapes us." 
" If thou want a bit [of bread], say : Bread, bread ! If longing 
for a jewel, then [dig for] metal, metal ! In sum, hear from 
me this tradition [or rule] absolute : Whatever a man seeks — 
it comes, it comes !"* " For he who seeks a thing, will find it ; 
if not, it will fall near him."' 

"By making efforts, a jewel is gotten"'* [with a playon 'yotno,' 
' effort,' and ' rotno,' 'jewel']. " Do not relax your efforts," said 
Bchom-ldan-das to the gods on his leaving. " There is not a 

> Maha Bh. Bhishma P. xxvi. 922. ' Tonilkhu yin ch. ii. 

' Manu S. ii. 218. * Vemana, i. 113. • Borhan-ed-d. xi. p. 134. 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. p. 4°- ' CEdip. T. no. • Kishtah i juw. 

p. 176. • Meid. Arab. pr. " Bengalee pr. 

ii. 4] 



portion [boon] for every one ; but he who does not exert him- 
self will get nothing."' " If what thou seekest be ever so little, 
seek until thou find it [lit. twist not the reins of search] ; for, 
in the opinion of wise men, the pleasure of finding is greater 
than the thing found."' " And truth sprouts up through dig- 
ging (or searching for it)."' 

" So that wise men while learning suffer pain ; for no one 
becomes wise by sitting at ease."* " But he who seeks know- 
ledge must bear contention and contempt in his pursuit of it ; 
for flattery [caresses] is contemptible (or blameable) in the 
pursuit of knowledge. For knowledge is an honour." And, 
with a play on terms : " He who has acquired knowledge 
[knows what is to be known] has dusted his bloody nose [has 
toiled and met with contumely of some sort]."' Moreover, 
" the very learned man does not lie on a soft couch," say the 
Osmanlis.' " He must work hard." For " it is only by digging 
and digging that truth is ascertained [or known]."' "All con- 
tentment (or satisfaction) is good ; but satisfaction from study 
is bad"' [we ought never to rest satisfied with what we have 
acquired, but continue to dig for more]. " Nay, be spent like 
a taper, for the sake of knowledge."' For "where and how 
shall one get wisdom and wealth without effort? Can you 
even get wind from the pankha without moving it?"" 

"If there is intense application and study, of what use is 
talent? And where there is neither application nor study, 
what good does talent ?"" " Children, if you apply yourselves 
to study [knowledge, ' vitteye'], your knowledge will increase. 
How so? As often as you dig a well in sand, a spring of 
water gushes forth abundantly. So will it be : know it for cer- 
tain."*' Bearing on this, we read in the Vannupatajataka (2)" 
" that when the five hundred wagons and cattle in the desert 

' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Beharist. R. 6. ' Mishle Asaph, vi. 5. 

• Sain iigh. pi. vi. ' El Nawab. 126. • Emthal Osm. pr. 

' Telugu pr. ' Berachoth, ix. 8, M. S. » Pend Nameh, 10. 

'» Vrinda Satasai, 22. " Chanakya sh. 23, I. K. " Balabod. orup. 3. 
" Ed. Fausboll, p. 169. 



[ii. 4 

were perishing from want of water, the Bhodisat spied a clump 
of grass, where he dug fathoms deep, found a rock and split it 
open, when an abundant spring of water burst forth. Those 
who thus, without relaxing their efforts, dug deep in the sand- 
path, found a drinking station [trough] on the road they had 
gone. So also the wise man, endued with firm purpose, finds 
unremitting rest in his own heart." "Taking the greatest 
pains and making every effort to find the original wisdom of 
him who knows everything."* 

" An earnest desire for the law [religious knowledge] is of 
itself a door of entrance into that law, for it enables a man to 
find it," if he is in earnest ; " inasmuch as a pure (or single- 
minded) desire for it leads a man to that knowledge, by teach- 
ing him to make a pure [sincere] effort to get it"* So also 
D. Cato :« 

" Si Deus est animus, nobis ut carmina dicunt, 
Hie tibi praecipue sit pura mente cotendus :" 

" And such a pure effort is a door to religion ; it enables a 
man to reach the opposite shore [emancipation]."* "A man, 
then, is wise so long as he seeks wisdom ; but when he fancies 
he has found it, he is a fool."* " For the wiser a man is, the 
more he feels that wherein he is lacking."" "And to seek it in 
youth is like cutting it on a stone ; but in old age it is like 
writing it on sand."^ Therefore, "albeit one cannot swim [in 
the ocean of learning], yet show firmness in learning [learn 
constantly]." "For nothing lasts; learning alone abides." 
" Even when sailing on the sea, it is there with you." " And on 
earth, learning will give you riches and reputation." " Though 
you be a king, yet study the Vedas ;" and " though poor, yet 
learning (or reading) is necessary."* " For learning or know- 
ledge is said by the wise to be best, since it cannot be taken 
from thee, and never dies."" 

' Tonilkhu yin chim. 2. * Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Distich, lib. i. i. 
* Rgya-tcher r. p. ' Mifchar pen. B. Fl. • Abarbanel, id. id. ' Mifchai' 
pen. B. FL ' Kalvi oruk. 49, 48, 52, 62, 68, 74. • Hitop. Introd. 




" O my son," said Nabi Effendi in his counsels to his son, 
" take care never to fail in diligent study, but keep thine eye 
on both effort and study. Science cannot be acquired without 
diligent study. It is a divine property and is above all othei- 
qualities. Make every effort to acquire knowledge. The 
master of knowledge [Mahomet] gave this commandment : 
' From the cradle to the grave, seek after knowledge ; it is the 
way to honour and elevation. It is the deep without a shore 
But pearls lie not on the sea-shore. If thou desirest one, thou 
must dive for it.'"' And Abu '1 Tabib : " In proportion of his 
toil [effort] will a man obtain [eminence] excellent things : he 
must dive into the sea who wishes to get pearls."' And AH 
ibn Abu Taleb : " It is not possible to acquire knowledge 
without these six requisites : quickness, diligence, endurance, 
competency, direction by a master, and long time."* " Slowly, 
slowly learn, and walk accordingly."* 

"One needs diligence," says Borhan-ed-din," "assiduity, 
promptness, and clinging to the acquisition of knowledge. 
For it is said : He who seeks a thing shall assuredly find it ; 
and he who knocks will have the door opened to him ; for 
according to his determined will, shall he find what he wants." 
" Again, that which a man purposes to get [in knowledge], will 
be given him according to his exertions ; but he who wishes 
for that gift must rise by night."* " Yea, let him study, even 
at the risk of forgetting or not understanding what is said."' 
" But let no man say, I will read, in order that men may call 
me 'well-read,' 'wise' or 'Rabbi,' or in order to become an 
elder, and to sit in the assembly [or academy]. But let him 
read for the love of it, and in the end the credit (or glory) of 
it will come."' 

5 Then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, 
and find the knowledge of God. 

' Khair nameh. p. 13, 14. ' Borhan-ed-din, iv. p. 60. ' Ibid, 

ill. p. 38. * Kalvi oruk. 65. ' Borhan-ed-d. iv. p. 58. 

• Ibid. p. 64. ' Abodah Zarah, 19 M. S, • Nedarim, 62, M. S. 



[ii. 5 

" Then shall thou understand" &c. " The training [education, 
cultivation] of the soul," say the Arabs, " is preferable to the 
education that results from artificial (or scientific) training."' 
" Knowledge" — that is, what the limited mind of man at its 
best can grasp — "shall vanish away ;" "for we know in part" 
only. But " when that which is perfect is come" — when we 
know God as we are known of Him — "then that which is in 
part shall be done away," says the holy Apostle.* Yet, albeit 
we cannot know Him as He is in our present fallen estate, 
it is pleasant to see how the best instincts in man have always 
tended thitherward. 

" The ornament [or better, the wealth, treasure] of learning 
is a knowledge of the Scriptures [vedam]," says Aweyar.* 
And Manu: "Let the brahmachari [brahm. student], then, 
constantly study the Veda, which, sages have said, is the first 
virtue. All others are inferior to it."* " This Scripture is the 
refuge alike of the unlearned and of the learned, of those who 
long for heaven, and of those who sigh after infinity."' " In 
whatever occupation (or circumstances) a man may find him- 
self, if he acts according to the teaching of the Vedas, he 
prospers therein. Real knowledge floats [carries over to the 
other shore] every one who follows it. But a situation (or 
action) reft of that knowledge, destroys the men who are 
slain by a want of judgment, and are enveloped in darkness 
from lack of knowledge," said Kapila.* 

" Every man dispels darkness — the offspring of ignorance — 
with knowledge. Then Brahma, the Eternal, reveals himself."^ 
" Then human beings see through knowledge [or discernment], 
and then the Eternal Brahma appears, or reveals himself."* 
"Although Brahma the soul [of the universe] pervades every- 
thing, yet it does not shine everywhere. In understanding, 
however, it shines ; as an image reflected in a bright mirror."" 

> The Forty Vireers, isl night. » I Cor. xiii. 8 sq. ' Kalvi oruk. 1 1. 
« Manu Sanh. iv. 147. ' Ibid, vi 84. « Maha Bh. Shanti P. 9685 sq. 
» Ibid. id. io,ocxD. » Id. 10,054. • Atmabodha, 16. 

ii. 6] 



The proverb says : " Thou hast knowledge— what, then, lackest 
thou ? Thou lackest knowledge — what, then, hast.thou got ?"• 
But "standing firm in the fear of God — that is wisdom."* 

" You, then, brethren, children and kinsmen," are the Apostles 
made to say, "seek after that glorious wisdom which improves 
our dispositions and enlightens our hearts, and introduces us 
into the kingdom of heaven, into everlasting rest."* " Seek," 
says Meng-tsze, "and you will find it ; let it go, and you will 
lose it This seeking is advantageous towards obtaining [the 
gift]. But the seeking depends on ourselves."* "And the 
knowledge of the law [religion] is a door to being religious ; 
for it leads a man to follow earnestly that which is conformable 
to that law. And experience of this law is another door to 
religion ; because it makes a man believe in the use of it."* 

And as to understanding the fear of the Lord, and what 
He requires of us, Lao-tsze, speaking of Tao, says : " He 
who is always free from passion may discover his subtleness 
[smallness] ; but the man who is subject to his passions can 
only discover the border of Tao."' [The better a man is, the 
greater idea he has of the right way ; the worse a man is, the 
smaller his idea is of what he ought to do]. " He may well be 
called deep ; it is the door to all spiritual knowledge."' " To 
make use of a comparison : it is like a merchant from Jam- 
budwip [Ceylon], come to get a chintaviani [a fabulous jewel] 
from the sea — who, after great toil in troubled water, should 
after all be rewarded by some great magician with a city and 
great riches."* 

6 For the Lord giveth wisdom : out of his mouth 
Cometh knowledge and understanding. 

"For t/u Lord giveth" &c. Scripture teaches us that " wis- 
dom Cometh from above," and is the gift of God — to whom 

' Vajikra R. in Buxtorf Lex. fol. 164, 5. ' Ep. Led. 1259. 

• Didasc. Ap. (Eth.), ii. ♦ Hea-Meng, xiii. 3. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 

• Tao-te-K. i. ' Ibid. » Tonilkhu yin ch. 2. 




[ii. 6 

the best instincts in man, "seeking after Him," led him to 
look for it. So that Nagasena could hardly be in earnest 
when he answered king Milinda's question: "Where does 
wisdom reside ?" by, " Nowhere, O great king." " Well, then," 
said Milinda, "there is no wisdom." "Where does the wind 
reside, O king?" asked Nagasena. "Nowhere in particular," 
answered the king. "Then," replied Nagasena, "there is no 
wind."' He might have heard : " O Indra, thou pourest down 
knowledge [or understanding] like rain on men of learning 
[or of parts]."* " O Lord, thou alone knowest both the work- 
ing and real essence of that self-supporting, self-existent Being 
who can be grasped neither by thought nor by measure."* " O 
you, Indra and Parvata, "sharpen ye our intellects [make us 

" For he [Vishnu] is knowledge itself, without bounds or 
measure."* " He [Buddha] is endued with the full tide (or 
great flood) of intelligence — of that intelligence that sees 
clearly without dimness or passion."" And if by 'Lord' we 
understand 'Brahma,' and 'understanding' by 'Buddha,' the 
Brahman said to those men : " I am well versed in [voices] 
languages ; if it is the voice of Buddha, it must be like that 
of Brahma."^ "And thou, BrahmS, art that which is to be 
known, and thou art he who makes it known ; thou art the 
One Supreme, on whom we ought to meditate, and who 
enables us to do so."* "And thou, Buddha, art he who teaches 
the Law that has no equal ; who dispels darkness and teaches 
perfectly the best course or mode of conduct."' " So let us 
pray to Herjafader [Odin], who gives wealth and eloquence 
to the great, and mother wit [common sense or prudence] to 

And elsewhere: " I am Ahurao-Mazdao [Hormuzd], the lord 

' Milinda P. p. 77- ' R'g Veda, ii. s. 173, 8. ' Manu S. i. 3. 

• Rig V. ii. s. 122, 2. ' Vishnu P. i. 2, 6. • Rg)'a-tcher r. p. 
a iL and iv. ' Dsang-Lun, c. xxxv. fol. 182. ' Kumara Sambh. ii. 15. 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. & L " Hyndlulioth, p. 3. 

ii. 6] 



and giver of great and good gifts ; protector of the under- 
standing; the wisest of beings in both worlds.'" "I am 
Intelligence, O Zarathustra, and am gifted with it; I am 
Wisdom, and am endued with it ; I am Creator ; I am that I 
am— Mazda."" "And here is Spenta Armaiti [holy or divine 
Wisdom], my creation, O Zarathustra."' 

But wisdom, one of God's attributes, is, like Him, eternal 
[see Mainyo i khard, c. Ivii.] ; so ' creation' here must be under- 
stood as Vyasa did in his speech to Yudhishtira, when he 
told him of 'anadini dhana vidya,' the Wisdom whose pedigree 
has no beginning, created by being uttered from the mouth of 
the Self-existent."* "We, Ahurao-Mazdao and Vohumano 
[the good genius, sense or Spirit, who presided at the forma- 
tion of man, and who takes care of him], we give you to know 
holy and good wisdom. It is with us."' "Ask of me," said 
the Spirit of Wisdom, " that I be thy guide, to the satisfaction 
of the Yazds (gods) and of the good ; for the preservation of 
the body on earth, and for the deliverance of the spirit."* 

" From the gods," « 6€Cav, says Pindar, " men have received 
wisdom, handicraft and the wisdom of speech."^ But else- 
where, and more correctly, he tells us that all that came to 
them from God — 

E(c 010V 6 avr^p tro<l>aU dvOtt co-act irpojrtSetrcrii'."* 
Man always gets his good understanding of God. " O thou 
Giver out of the treasury of secrets, wisdom [and intelligence] 
is from thee ; thou art wise far above the wisest, and thy 
command binds [or seals) the speech of the tongue."' Ta-tsay, 
inquiring of Tsze-kung, said : " Is Hoo-tsze a holy man (or 
sage)?" Tsze-kung replied: "Certainly, Heaven has gifted 
him; he may be a holy man ; assuredly he has great ability."*' 
" For he," said Confucius elsewhere, " who does not know the 
will (or decree) of Heaven, cannot possibly become a superior 

' Va^na, xl. 2, and xli. 5. ' Hormuzd Yasht. 7. ' Id. id. 25. 

* Maha Bh. Shanti P. 8534. ' Ya^na, xxxii. 2. • Mainyo i kh. i. 6a 
' Pyth. i. 79. • 01. xi. 10. • Leila u Mejn. pref. '« Shang-Lun, ix. 5. 

F 2 



[li. 7 

man." [This is the closing sentence of the Hea-Lun, xx. 2]. 
And " knowledge of the Holy, which is understanding," " is the 
highest in rank of all" > 

7 He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous : he 
is a buckler to them that walk uprightly. 

lb^\ ' He layeth up, as in a treasury ;' whence, ' He draws wisdom 
suited to every case.' n^l&VI, 'advice, counsel, help' — in time of 
need, supplied from the treasury of wisdom. No two of the old 
versions render it alike. 

"He layeth up" &c. " Z.k S* Ipir^v aVSpto-o-.i- c5.AJXX« :" " The 
great god," said vEneas, "dispenses virtue to men as it plejises 
him ; for he is the most powerful of all."* "And the man," 
says Lao-tsze, " who is endued with the highest virtue [who 
is righteous] practises it, as it were without thought [or ' heart 
to it,' as the gloss reads] ; it is natural to him."* For "wisdom 
dwells in the heart of the good."* And the wisdom is sound 
' that Cometh from above," from the Father of lights, whose 
gift it is, through His Spirit ; "but," say the Rabbis, "only to 
him in whom is wisdom (to love it)."' " Wisdom without the 
fear of God, is contemptible : no wisdom and no fear of God 
make up a perfectly wicked man ; but wisdom and the fear of 
God make up a perfectly righteous man."* 

"a buckler^ "Zerdhurst asked : How can one make Hor- 
muzd, the Ameshaspand of the fragrant Paradise, more one's 
very own, and confound wicked Ahriman ?" " The Spirit of 
Wisdom answered: By making the 'Spirit of Wisdom' one's 
support for the back [a buttress] ; by wearing on the body the 
•spirit of contentment' like a coat of mail and valour; the 
'spirit of truth' like a shield ; the 'spirit of thankfulness' like 
a club; the 'spirit of devotedness" [or full-heartedness] like a 
bow ; and the 'spirit of liberality' like an arrow."' 

■ Ali, 92. ' IL V. 242. ' Tao-te-K. c. xxxviii. • Didasc. 

Ap. (Eth.), p. 7S- * Berachoth, B. Flor. • D. Erez Sutta, ix. 10. 

' Mainyo i kh. xliii. 1— IJ- 

ii. 8] 



8 He keepeth the paths of judgment, and preserveth 
the way of his saints. 

li???, 'to keep, preserve, the paths of judgment;' for 'he pre- 
serveth,' &c. 

" He preserveth:' " O justly-praised Indra, protect us from 
misfortune." > 

"his saints:" AV. V7''pq, LXX. ivKapovfiiv^v aMv, more 
correctly; unless 'saints' be taken in the sense of 'pious,' 
•given to do God's will and to please Him.' Rabbi M. Mai- 
monides says "that a man who examines himself strictly, aim- 
ing high, and who swerves only very little on either side of the 
middle way of morals, is called TOq, • pious,' ' God-fearing.' 
Like one who, being highminded and proud, reached the other 
extreme of great humility, he would be called TPI7 ; and that 
is the measure of 'piety.' If, however, that same man from 
one extreme returns only to the mean (or middle way), he is 
called a^:^, 'wise ;' and that is the measure of wisdom."* 

" the way." " How great is the way [Tao] of the holy man 
[saint, -shin-jin']; it is broad like the sea, and reaches up to 
heaven," says Confucius."' And Choo-he :♦ " Tao is explained 
by ' way' (or road), to which men in general compare it, and 
so express it ; but as regards Tao, it has no form that we may 
walk in, and then look at what is done. It is that in which 
men have walked for thousands of years ; it is the same for 
all." "It is 'conduct,' as regards man's practice, as 'li' is 
principle, and ' teh,' virtue put in practice."* "And the way 
(or rule) of the Great Study consists in explaining virtue 
clearly, and in taking one's stand in supreme good."" 

" But it is the most perfect Being, God, who shows the way to 
His kingdom, making the law [religion] the way to it Thus 
when the law becomes evident, then faith, then works and 
the fruit of them ; and truth being then made evident, belief 

' Rig V. ii. s. 129. ». Halkut de'oth. i. 5. J Chung yg, c. xxvir. 

Vol. xlvL » Id. p. 18. « Ta-hio, c. i. 



[ii. 9 

in God follows; then love, intelligence, &c."> "O Mazda, 
Lord over all, heavenly Friend for both worlds."' Making 
religion the way to everlasting happiness, if that way can be 
found and then followed — and thus practically " a path leading 
to judgment" that is to come, as understood by the Rabbis. 
" Here man does what he likes, but yonder is judgment and 
reckoning."' Yet what eye can span the gulf there is between, 
" Thou art the Way [gati] of all beings," as said by Brahma to 
Vishnu ;"* and " I am the Way, the Truth and the Life ; no 
man cometh unto the Father, but by me"?* 

9 Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and 
judgment, and equity ; yea, every good path. 

bayo 73, « every good way, even fit for a carriage ; conduct in life.' 
Chald. 'way, path.' LXX. a.^ova.%, 'axles' [wheels]. 

"Then — understand^ Wisdom "that cometh from above" 
can alone give us a right judgment in all things, according to 
the eternal laws of the kingdom of Him" to whom alone every 
one of us stands or falls." But as regards the opinion of the 
world " that passeth away," that sacrifices principle to expe- 
diency, and eternal life to a few short years of an uncertain 
existence on earth, it can be no sure guide in our intercourse 
with our fellow-men, except in matters that involve no prin- 
ciple ; in mere matters of opinion, custom or manners ; 
"wherein," says Confucius, "agreement is the chief advan- 

" Wisdom purifies [makes clean] one's thoughts ; wisdom 
also makes one learned [or well-informed]."' " It [teaches] 
leads in the beautiful way"' — " in the way of him [Mandju Sri, 
the incarnation of Wisdom] who, possessed of the real know- 
ledge that has no equal, is wise by intuition and not by 

• Dam chhos yid b. fol. i2. • Ya^na, xliii. 2. » Kohel. in Rab. 

Blum. 145- * Maha Bh. Bhishma P. 2963. * S. John xiv. 6. 

• Shang-Lun, i. 12. ' Bahudorsh, p. 37. • Hjam-dpal, fol. iv. 

ii. 9] 



reflection."' " Hjam-dpal appeared to the teacher Phogs-gyi- 
lang-po, and said to him : ' Don't do that, don't do that' 
* But,' said Phogs-gyi-land-po, ' it is hard to wander in trouble 
and ignorance; what does it profit that I should even sec 
thy face, if I am not inspired by thy blessing ?' Then Hjam- 
dpal [Wisdom] replied : ' Son, sorrow not ; I will deliver thee 
from all evil.'"' " Thou shalt traverse all defilement of sin 
on the raft of knowledge,"' said Sankara. " For instruction 
[' shastram,' in sacred writings] is ' the divider of many a doubt' 
[' el-furqan,' as Mahomet calls his Qoran, which, he says, God 
sent down from heaven to settle the doubts left in the Law 
and in the Gospel]."* "Instruction," continues Vishnu Sarma, 
" enables one to see what is invisible ; like an eye, it beholds 
everything ; he who is without it is blind."* 

"Very great knowledge, however, in one thing only, is 
seldom acquired ; it is, therefore, hard to be wise in all things. 
The eye, let it be ever so clear, cannot appreciate any sound."' 
Masuraksha, however, differs from Kunga Gyel-tsan ; for he 
says that "a man ought to know everything."' Yet according 
to Manu, "in so far only as a man studies holy Scripture does 
he acquire knowledge, and does his knowledge shine."' " For 
that is knowledge that leads to the knowledge of Hari, the 
soul of all things, the life of nature, the Lord.' • 

"when" — "then" "Things," says Confucius, "have a root 
and fruit ; business has an end and a beginning. To know 
what is first and last [how to begin and where to end], is, 
indeed, to be near [Tao] the right way.""* " So when a man," 
says Lao-tsze, " begins to know the beauty (or excellence) of 
good, then [evil appears] he feels (or understands) the hideous- 
ness of what is evil."" It gives 'judgment' [both Kp'urvi and 
(cpi/ia] of others; "judge them in the scale of innocence [with 

' Hjam-dpal, fol. v. ' Taranatha, p. 104, 1. 5, 10. ' In Swetas. 

introd. • Sur. iii. 2. ' Hitop. introd. 10. • Legs par b. 

p. 192. ' Niti shat. of Masuraksha, ed. Schiefn. • Manu S. 

iv. 20. ' Bhaghavat P. in Kobita Ratnak. 69. '* Ta-hio, c. i. 
" Tao-te-K. c. ii. 



[ii. 9 

ji. lo] 



charity towards them] ; and God will do the same to thee.' • 
Officially : " Blessed is the judge who allows his judgment ' to 
ferment* [takes time to consider it]."* "And let every judge 
administer judgment as if Gehenna were open for him under 
his feet"* " He also who taketh a gift to pervert judgment 
shall not die in old age,"* say the Rabbis. But, alas! "those 
who do not judge according to what God has let down from 
heaven [the Qoran] are [fasiqun] scoundrels,"* says Mahomet. 

"All honour, however, to the superior and good man [kiiin- 
tsze], and to his exalted virtue," says the Shi-King ; " he prac- 
tises equity, and gives to the people and to every man what 
is his due."' For, says Meng-tsze, "humanity [love of men, 
dydm}] is man's heart, and justice is the road for him to wialk 
in."' [See also notes, ch. i. 3.] "So then, as regards justice 
(or righteousness), it consists in not doing that which is unjust ; 
righteousness is the way we ought to walk in [the path of men]. 
A man who acts thus is beloved of all ; therefore did the 
ancients define righteousness to be " that which is proper or 
fitting in our intercourse with others,"* say the Japanese. 

''yea, every good path." After saying that, of all men, Brah- 
mans are the first, Bhrigu adds : " And among them the best 
are the wise and learned ; of these, the first are those who 
know their duty ; of these, the first are those who do it ; and 
among those who do their duty, those are foremost who ac- 
quaint themselves with God"" [know the religion of Brahma]. 
The words, "My son, if thou wilt," &c. (v. i), taken literally, 
down to "righteousness" (v. 9), Confucius sums up in : "Man 
stands firm (or upright) by righteousness ; and the root of it 
is filial piety."'" "Take wisdom," says Bias, " l<^o5iov, for thy 
provision by the way from youth to old age ; for it is the pos- 
session that lasts longest."" 

• Schabb. B. Fl. » Sanhedr. id. ibid. ' Ibid. « Maamad. 

id. ibid. • Sur. v. 51. ' Shi-King, quoted in the Chung yg, c. xvii. 
' Hea-Meng, xi. 1 1. ' Kiu O do wa. vol i. p. 6. • Manu S. i. 97. 

»» Ming Sin P. K. c. xii. " Bias Sept. Sap. 

\ 10 When wisdom entereth into thine heart, and 

knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul ; 

"knowledge is pleasant." "And Enoch arrived at the garden 
of righteousness where grew many trees, large and fragrant 
There was also the tree of wisdom (or knowledge), of which 
whosoever eats acquires great wisdom. It was like a kind of 
tamarind, bearing fruit like very beautiful grapes, whose fra- 
grance spread to a great distance. And I [Enoch] said : ' O 
how beautiful is that tree I and how beautiful and delightful 
is the appearance of it!'"' "Knowledge," say the Telugus, 
"gives pleasure;"' and "he who acquires wisdom (or know- 
ledge) gains happiness."' " Thou hast acquired knowledge," 
say the Rabbis ; " what, then, lackest thou ? Thou lackest 
knowledge; what, then, hast thou got?"* "'O Nagasena,' 
said Milinda, 'whither does folly, delusion or ignorance go, 
when wisdom is acquired [or springs up]?' 'Ignorance, O 
great king, is dispersed the moment knowledge comes in.' 
' Give an example.' ' It is just like a man who, going into a 
dark place, should light a lamp ; the darkness would then 
disappear, and everything would be made plain. So also, O 
great king, no sooner has knowledge arisen, than ignorance 
and folly disappear.'"' 

" The darkness of trouble and ignorance is scattered by the 
lamp of wisdom [perfect knowledge]."' " I, Wisdom, cleanse, 
with religion, the heart that does not abide in its original 
ignorance."' "Who is the wise and intelligent man? He 
who knows evil from good, and good from better."* "A man 
who understands his duty [nitinipun] discerns the wise from 
the foolish, as the loadstone discerns particles of iron from the 
dust"* and "true from false, as the flamingo [hansaraja] discerns 
curds from butter-milk'" [or other liquid]." ['Water' is the term 

» Bk. of Enoch, c. xxxi. 3—5. ' Nitimala, ii. 58. ' Telugu st. i. 

• Vajikra R. B. FI. 
' HJam-dpal, fol. v. 
'» Subha Bilas, 77- 

* Milinda P. p. 42- 
» Beharist. R. 4. 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 
' Legs par b. p. fol. 3. 



[ii. ID 

used in other writings in most Indian languages, even in 
Tibetan,' where it is said of a goose or swan [hansa] ; so little 
does the obloquy attached to the common goose [anser ferus] 
of the farm-yard, belong to the pretty Indian goose, which is 
clever and mnch petted.' The type of stupidity in Indian 
writings is the [vaka] squacco heron, to which a fool among 
wise men is compared, as ' a heron among geese.']' 

" What are the four ways of asking and receiving a bless- 
ing?" asks the Burmese teacher, "(i) Seeing a wise man; 
(2) hearing him speak ; (3) sitting on the grass with wise men ; 
(4) delighting in wise words."* "But," say the Chinese, "wis- 
dom 'desires' round, and practice 'desires' square; the liver 
•desires' great; but the heart 'desires' small."* "Yet the 
teaching of the aged is a blessing to those who receive it in 
their heart (or among them)."* And "knowledge is pleasant" 
— "suavitate scientiae nihil est homini jucundius."^ "Know- 
ledge, however, is happiness," says Confucius, " as low as water, 
whereas virtue is happiness as high as a mountain ; knowledge 
excites, but virtue gives rest. Knowledge, indeed, is pleasure, 
but virtue is long life."* Knowledge also " puffeth up ;" but 
when " pleasant to the soul" — that is, acquired for its own sake 
and not for display or vain glory — the more "optimus et 
gravissimus quisque confitetur se multa ignorare, et multa 
sibi etiam atque etiam esse discenda."' " Wisdom or know- 
ledge, then, gives him modesty ; modesty gives him dignity 
[or honour] ; honour gives him wealth ; and wealth, hap- 
piness."*' This, however, not always. " Wealth," says Solon, 
" creates surfeit, and surfeit — v/?pis oiro toC Kopov — creates inso- 

" io thy soul" " What is the soul ? The soul is [anadi, pur- 
anat] without a beginning, of old ; atomic [subtile] ; everywhere, 

• Naga Niti. 140, Schf. ' See, e.g., Nalus, c. i. &c. ' Vishnu S. 
Hitop. i. * Putsa pagn. Q. 786. ' Jin sze yew hio, iii. p. 5. 

• Ptah-hotep, Pap. Pr. xii. 1. 10. ' Cicero, de Oral. 3. ' Shang- 

Lun, vi. 21. • Cicero, 3, Tusc. '" Vishnu S. Hitop. introd. 

" Septem Sap. p. 16. 

ii. 10] 



thinking, &c."' The object matter to be known for certain is, 
that the soul [life] and BrahmS are one."* " Wise men," said 
Bhagavan [the Adorable One] to Arjuna, "do not mourn 
either the departed or the living. There was not a time when 
either I, thou or these princes were not, nor will there be a 
time when we shall cease to exist. Know that That by which 
the whole universe has been spread out is eternal. These frail, 
material bodies are joined to One imperishable and infinite ; 
therefore fight with a good heart, O Bharata. Like as a man 
who strips himself of his old garments, puts on new ones, so 
also does the spirit, having put off worn-out bodies, enter new 
ones."' " Is the soul, then, an agent ? If it were, it could not 
hold the triad of habits — virtue, anger and lust. The soul, 
therefore, is not an agent."* 

This is not the place to discuss the matter further than by 
quoting Phurnutus in agreement with the above : " As we 
are governed by our soul — outm koi 6 Ko<r/ios ^vx^iv tx" ''V^ 
(Tvvixowav avTOf, Kai ovt^ KoX«rToi Z«w — SO has also the world a 
soul that holds it together, and that soul is called Ztw, Jupiter, 
awb Tov fV. fro"™ 'living' or 'giving life'" [a wrong etymology, 
of course. Zo!s: 'deus,' 'dius,' Sansc. 'dyaus' (f.), 'dyus' (m.)]. 
Better than that : " There must be a first cause," says Sallus- 
tius, T« Svva/ui, "a certain power, second to owta [essence, 

existence] ^v^^S Si irpwnj, ixovaa fiiv CK TTJi ova-iai rh ftvai, 

Tikfiowra SJ rriv ^f'vx'ji', but anterior to the soul, that has its 
being from its own essence, that gives the soul faculties and 
energy. It is two -fold : oXoyos and XoyiK^ ^"X'?" irrational 
[passions] and rational ; the two are at variance, and make 
either virtue or vice, according to which of the two overcomes 
the other."* But better yet from that remarkable book of 
Tim^us Locrus, praised by Plato in his own Timaeus, by 
Cicero, and several of the Fathers : " rav 8J t$ Koirfiif ^x^" 

> Kapila Tatwa Sam. 34. ' Vedanta sara. p. 3. » Bhagav. 

Gita, ii. 11—24. • Kap. Tatwa S. 38. » Phumut. de Nat. Deor. 

p. 141, ed. G. • Sallusl. Ph. de diis et m. p. 258, ed. G. 



[ii. II 

IktvoBtv c^a^at iriyaytv i^at : God, having put a soul iti the 
midst of the universe, brought it out to embrace and cover it 
all ; the soul itself a mixture of the indivisible form and of 
the divisible essence."' [For more of beautiful reading on this 
subject, see the Timaeus and the Phaedrus of Plato. Of a 
truth, such men "sought after God if haply they might find 
Him," as S. Paul tells us in Acts xvii. His \tvxi<tos AvOfxairoi, 
I Cor. ii. 14, may settle many questions regarding the nature 
and agency of the soul.] 

1 1 Discretion shall preserve thee, understanding 
shall keep thee : 

" Discretion," T'?? "^blT*^, ' shall watch over thee,' * protect thee,' 
•be thy safeguard.' rnjTl?, /SovXri, LXX. /3ov\r) koXij — since the 
Hebrew term may be taken in a bad sense — properly, 'counsel,' 
' deliberation,' ' thought,' ' advice from self or from others.' " Dis- 
cretion," as discernment [dis-cerno, Kplvui] of what one ought to say 
or do at the time, that implies self-respect, thought, propriety, tact, 
prudence, &c., is a fair rendering of the original 

Chu-tsze says : " The [kiiin-tsze] superior man (or gentle- 
man) cannot but be respectful. He first of all respects himself; 
but as one's person is only a branch of one's parents, he who 
does not respect them cannot respect himself ; and if he afflicts 
them, he hurts his own root, and he, after that, decays"* — thus 
explained by the Japanese commentator. " The ' kun-si' [gen- 
tleman], full of self-respect [lit. with a deep heart] looks down 
with contempt upon the mean man, who acts from the love of 
gain (or greed)." " The way to regulate oneself," says Con- 
fucius, " is to keep oneself pure, clean, perfectly well dressed 
[adorned], and to allow oneself no gesture contrary to good 

" For the first duty of a man is to amend and correct him- 
self ; it is the root ; if that root [principle] is shaken (or dis- 
turbed), it is impossible that the fruit can be good." "And 
• Timaeus Locr. p. 548, ed. G. ' Siao-hio, c. iii. » Chung yg, c. xx. 

ii. II] 



the way to correct oneself [set oneself in order] is to establish 
(or settle) one's heart ; but he who wishes to establish his heart 
must settle his will [be determined]."' Thus when Tsze-ha 
inquired concerning the passage in the Shi-King about " paint- 
ing on a fair ground" as applied to the heart, Confucius ex- 
plained it : " Paint after having well smoothed the ground of 
the heart ; propriety then follows."' " Such a man," said he, 
" is well versed in letters ; it influences his manners."* " For 
if he is not grave (or stayed), his teaching will have no dignity 
and will not last."* 

"As you know from the water-lilies whether the water is 
deep or shallow, so also you can tell from the bearing [manners, 
actions] of a man if he is from an excellent or a bad stock."* 
" He who respects his own condition [himself] is respected by 
others ; but he who turns his condition (or position) into a 
dung-heap, even hens cackle at him."' " But even in the hour 
of danger, let not a man strip himself of his own dignity."^ 
For "dignity, good manners and moral deportment, belong to 
the well-born."' "An honourable man, 'kiiin-tsze' [gentle- 
man], with manly vigour, but without politeness, is a confusion 
[Iwan] ; while a mean man, 'siao-jin,' with strength and without 
politeness, becomes a thief."* 

"One third of religion," says Ali ben-abu-Taleb, "consists 
in shamefacedness [bashfulness, awe], one third in understand- 
ing, and one third in liberality."'" "A sense of shame is a most 
acceptable quality. The 'Refuge of Prophecy' calls it 'a 
branch of the tree of Faith.' It is a branch of religion, and 
one of the conditions of order in the world."" "As long," says 
Kunga Giel-tsan, " as modesty [colour of the face, blushing] 
continues, so long also do qualities possess their greatest orna- 
ment ; but when modesty is overcome, then good qualities 
are set aside, and ill-humour [or. evil reputation] increases."" 

> Ta-hio, c. I. ' Shang-Lun, iii. 8. ' Id. ibid. vi. 25. 

* Id. ibid. c. viii. ' Burm. hill prov. 149. • Arab. prov. Soc. 

' Sanhedr. M. S. « Naladiyar Kudip. 2. » Ming Sin P. K. c. xvi. 

'" Ali b. a. T. 34. " i. m. viii. " Legs par b. p. 1 18. 



[ii. II 

" Penance, patience, modesty, temperance, benevolence, &c., 
are by sages designated the seven doors into the world of 
Swarga,"* said Yayati to Ashtaka. And "so long as there is 
shamefacedness, what need is there of other ornaments?"* 

" The training [manners, bearing, ' adab'] of a man are pre- 
ferable to his gold," say the Arabs ;' on which the Persian 
adds : " It is for a man, by abstaining from disagreeable words, 
from [rash] inconsiderate actions, to show his respect both for 
himself and for others." " For he who is discreet from having 
learnt discretion, learnt it of God."* Thus paraphrased : " I 
seek discretion properly from God ; for he who is reft of it is 
deprived of the Lord's favour. What fortune has been ruined 
by brilliant manners? But by good manners [adab] even a 
kingdom is kept pure." 

" That discretion is worth more than silver and gold to a 
man, needs no demonstration. A woman's jewels are not to 
be compared to the ornament of modesty in her. Yea, polite- 
ness is better than the treasure of Karun, and more full than 
the realm of Feridun." " Great men never thought much of 
wealth, inasmuch as the nature of riches is to vanish away ; 
but they 'gave rein' to science and work, for they got their 
good name through their good bearing."* " Shame," says Ali, 
" is a man's safeguard."* " Shame (or bashfulness)," said Vai- 
shampayana, " when killed [overcome], kills virtue ; and virtue, 
when killed, ruins one's good fortune. He who is without 
shame or is crazed, whether man or woman, excellence in 
virtue is not his ; he is like a Sudra. But the bashful (or 
modest) worships the gods, honours his ancestors, and [namati] 
bows to himself [respects himself]."' "If thy qualities be great, 
humble thy heart ; for modesty brings one to honour more 
than other things, O my son."* "And remember that there 
are others who watch (or look at) thee."' 

» Maha Bh. Adi P. 3621- ' Pancha R. 5. » Ar. pr. 

* Persian prov. * Rishtah i juw. p. 10. • Ali b. a. T. 53. 

' Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 2600, 2618. • Kaoudat ku biiik, c. xii. 

» El Nawabig, 33. 

ii. II] 



"Let God's blessing rest on him who knows what he is 
worth (or capable)" — that is, says the commentator, "God 
bless the man who realizes that he is made of [salsal] clay 
and sand, and not of [salsal] limpid lymph ; of impure water, 
and not of a clear fountain [with a play on words, written 
with different letters, but pronounced nearly alike], and so 
behave arrogantly towards others ;" " but who knows his place, 
and does not overstep it," adds the Persian.' 

"Discretion" [discernment of what is proper] or propriety 
"comes from choosing the best, and good from bad ;" which 
the commentary explains by "leading to 'discretion,' which is 
perfected by letters [good education] and lost from disregard 
for it"' " Propriety," says the E-King, " is the fence of the 
good man ; but a code of punishments is the only fence of 
the mean man."' 

"But propriety [Ii] has three roots: (1) life from heaven 
and earth ; (2) excellence from one's ancestry ; (3) and rule 
by a prince — heaven above, the earth below, ancestors, and 
obedience to the ruler."* "Avoid, as you would the kimba 
fruit [bitter and poisonous], every action opposed to the laws 
of the country and to good manners," says the Tibetan lama. 
" But study carefully to provide according to rule for whatever 
relates to you and to others."* " Men in high position ought 
always to show respect to the aged ; friendly feeling towards 
their equals ; and a conciliatory manner towards all men." 
" Our duty is to treat them with kindness and benevolence, 
considering both the time, place and station of those we deal 
with." "Avoid giving way to joy or anger indiscriminately ; 
but rather imitate the good men of olden time in one uniform 
and steady course of conduct." "In one word, your disposi- 
tion should be to live in harmony with all men."* 

"As to propriety," says again Siiin-tsze, " it is of the utmost 
importance for the ruling of life and of death. Birth is the 

■ Ali, 35, ed. Fleisch. » Siiin-tsze, c. xiii. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. 
♦ Siiin-tsze, c xiii. ' Bslav cha, &c., p. 3. ° Id. p. 10, 5, 14. 



[ii. II 

beginning, and death is the end ; altogether, good is man's 
way to the end [the whole duty of man]." " Therefore is the 
wise man in earnest about the beginning, and sincere to the 
end. Consider the end and the beginning as one thing; and the 
wise man's way at its best is propriety and [justice] righteous- 
ness."' " For the passions of man are like water : when once 
water has flowed over, it cannot be brought back ; so also in 
order to govern our passions, we must do so by the laws of 

" Learning, however great, will still be useless without dis- 
cretion to use it in the proper place."' " For the perfection of 
learning is gentleness"* [with a play on the words]. "Con- 
centration — deep thought [faith] clothed in good manners (or 
conduct, silam) — bears good fruit and has great advantages."* 
" Have good manners, that thou mayest become great."' 
"And good manners (or decorum) consist in showing respect 
for one's own and other people's position, without defaming 
either oneself or others."' " But as there is neither friendship 
nor hatred among lewd and abandoned men, so also is there 
neither fear nor shame for those who have no discretion."' 
"Nay," says the Malay proverb, "if the tiger's cub could feel 
shame, it would turn kitten."' 

" Ubicunque pudor est, semper ibi sancta est fides."" 
" Shamefacedness," say the Georgians, " is a great support."" 
"And it is a beautiful sign in a man to blush and be modest."" 
" Look at a rat : it has a skin, teeth and bones ; but a mean 
man without deportment, discretion or politeness, if he dies 
not, how can he live?" "Thus explained by the Japanese 
commentator : " A rat is known for what it is by its skin, teeth 
and bones ; but if a man is a man, ought he not to be known 
«s such bj- his department .' If, being a man, he has no 

' Siun-tsie, c. xiii. * Hien wen shoo, 45. ' Niti neri vilacc. 17, 18. 

• All b. a. T. 34. ' Mahaparanibbh. fol. nya. • Persian prov. 

' Akhlaq I m. x. • Vettivekai, 37, 38. • Malay pr. '» Pub. Syr. 

" Georg. prov. " Nedarim Khar. xxii. 3. " Shi-King, i. iv. 8. 

ii. 11] 



manners, how will he be accounted wise in the world ?"' " Piii 
vale un giorno del discrete," says the Italian proverb, "che 
tutta la vita del sciocco." 

" What is propriety [Ii, manners, politeness, ceremony, music, 
outward accomplishments]?" asks Confucius. "It is to regulate 
everything. The superior man has many things to do, and 
he must needs know how to do them properly.'" " But to be 
satisfied with mere outward accomplishments, is but deception 
and hypocrisy ; it is not a true thought [estimate] of what is 
called politeness [Ii].'" " For innate politeness comes from 
the heart ; do not look for it from without."* "And the real 
essence of politeness consists in one word, [jang] yielding." 
" It is the fundamental rule of conduct."' " If I had to choose 
from among all advantages, what else should I choose than 
beauty of manners ?"* 

" Music comes from the workings of the Yang [male prin- 
ciple] ; but propriety is from the energy of the Yin [female 
principle]."' " Practise politeness ; behave courteously," says 
the old Tamil sage; "do nothing in which there is no beauty."* 
"[Tao], wisdom, virtue, humanity and justice, are not com- 
plete without politeness [urbanity, Ii]," say the Chinese ;' and 
the Italians: "Che non h discreto, non merita rispetto."** 
" Propriety of conduct and good manners is said by Ramanuja 
C. Rayar to be the practice of mutual respect of caste and 
position;"" and Tiruvalluvar : " The wise do not grow remiss 
in observing propriety of conduct, when they consider the 
result of impropriety."'^ "Those who do not know how to 
conduct themselves agreeably to the world, though they may 
have learnt many things, are still ignorant."" 

" Propriety is to a man what fermentation is to wine ; the 
wise man has much [propriety], but the mean man very little."" 

■ Japan. Comm. ibid. ' Li ki, c. xxiii. ' Yung ching, in 

Kang he's 9th maxim, p. i — 66. * Id. ibid. ' Wang kew po, on 

Kang he's 9th max. p. 1—66. • Eth Thealebi, 246. ' Li ki, c. x. 

' Avveyar, Att. S. 10, 28. • Hien wen shoo, 147. '" Ital. prov. 

" Cural, c xiv. 136. " Id. ibid. " Id. ibid. " Li-lin, Li ki, c. xiii. 




[ii. II 

"The wise man follows equity [propriety], and when he is 
abroad he conforms to the customs of the place."* " Gai-kung 
asked Confucius about [11] propriety [rites, &c.], and Confucius 
replied : Propriety is great indeed, and respect is what governs 
propriety. Respect ! there is nothing beyond it."' "'EXtvdtpov 
t^vAtunrc rbv auvrov rp&irov : Let thy bearing be that of a ' gentle- 
man,'" say the Greeks.* " Look at, listen to, speak and move, 
nothing improper [no improper gestures],"* say Confucius and 
Chu-tsze; and the Japanese: "The sage teaches that the 
first thing to be observed is the virtue of propriety, not to 
depart from it, and not to do aught against it." " When going 
out of doors, behave as if you were going to meet some great 
guest ; and what you do not wish for selfj do not to others."* 
"When the body [person] is well controlled [behaved], the 
speech is also as it ought to be. And when the heart is well 
ordered, then everything is in good order," says the Buddhist* 

" For politeness is the support of life," say the Arabs, •' and 
the prop of social intercourse."' It teaches to avoid evil ex- 
amples, according to the Osmanli proverb, "that the well- 
mannered man learns manners of the ill-mannered one."* 
" Good manners [discretion] distinguish [are a distinction to] 
race or kindred ; bad manners blur it."' "Good manners are 
the source (or seed) of good ; bad manners ever give pain."" 
"Live, then, according to propriety."" "Praising God will 
give discretion"*' — in speech as in everything else. " In order 
to keep one's person unblemished, it is well to speak discreetly 
and according to truth."" "Even an animal can remember 
words spoken ; but he is wise who, when speaking, not only 
remembers, but knows, what to say by thinking it over."" 

" Through such knowledge do wise men guard themselves, 
and overcome their enemies, be they ever so many.'"* " Those 

> Kin si, Li ki, c. 1. » Gai-kung wen, Li ki, c. xxii. » yvu/.. 

Iiov. Bninck. * Siao-hio, c. iv. » Jap. Comm. ad loc. • Dulva, 

vol. V. foL 29. ' Meid. Ar. pr. • Osm. pr. » Cural, 133, 138. 

«> Ibid. " Atthi Sudi, 34. " Kalvi olruk. 2. " Mainyo i kh. ii. 73. 
'• Sain ugh, foL v. " Ibid. iv. ; Legs par b. p. 5. 

ii. 11] 



who wish to preserve their life through discretion, restrain 
their passions ; but to pamper the body, is ' to hide one's 
name.' Now it is easy to live without indulgences, but it is 
hard to live without a name. He, then, who strives for a name 
keeps under [lit. kills] his body ; but he who only accumulates 
wealth 'kills' his posterity."* "By efforts, by vigilance, by 
restraint and by taming one's nature," says the Buddhist, " the 
wise [understanding or prudent] man makes for himself an 
island which the flood shall not overwhelm."' 

"Discretion," as moderation. " In order to govern men and 
to serve Heaven," says Lao-tsze, " there is nothing like mode- 
ration. Moderation therefore should be the earliest business 
of man.'" "The restraint of the body is the fifth door of 
entrance to religion ; it purifies altogether the three kinds of 
bodily vices."* 

" shall preserve thee." " Though a screen be torn, the frame 
of it still remains. So also the superior man, though he be- 
come poor, yet his propriety [discretion] and rectitude (or 
righteousness) still remain."' " Propriety guards the good 
man, but laws guard the mean man."* 

" understanding" &c. " NoCi' ijyf/iova irotoC."' " Man," said 
Vyasa, " has five senses ; but mind is called the sixth, intellect 
[understanding] the seventh, and the inward conscious soul is 
the eighth. The mind creates doubt to the seeing of the eyes 
[maya], and the soul is witness to the efforts of the under- 
standing. The mind bestows existence ; intellect acts ; and 
the heart knows what is agreeable or disagreeable. These are 
the three-fold governors [or rulers] of action. The objects 
[artha] are better than the senses, the mind is better than the 
objects, the intellect than the mind, and the soul than the 
intellect Intellect is the soul of man ; it is even soul in soul ; 
before the existence of the senses, intellect was distinct from 

' Ming Sin P. K. c. iii. ' Dhammap. Appam. 6. ' Tao-te-K. c. lix. 
* Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Hien wen shoo, 105. * Morrison's 

mor. max. p. 229. ' Solon Exerest. sept. S. 

G 2 



[ii. 12 

them in nature [essence] ; as it heard, it became ' hearing ;' as 
it touched, it became 'touch,' &c."> [No translation can give 
an adequate idea of the terseness and combination of the ori- 
ginal terms.] " Understanding," says the Tamil proverb, " is 
about caste, family [rank], manners, intercourse, and conduct."* 
" For if there is propriety among men, there will be rules of 
decorum [conduct] ; but if there is no propriety, there will be 
nothing but confusion and disorder among the multitude."' 

12 To deliver thee from the way of the evil man, 
from the man that speaketh froward things ; 

" To deliver thee," T) T?7*?> ' ^om an evil way, or course.' Chald. 
' from the evil way.' 

"BouAtTot dio'icurat y]}>-w aiia Aotyoi' d/avvai,"* 
" Better it is for the body to fall from a high rock into the 
valley below, and to be crushed among the stones thereof, or 
to thrust one's hand into a serpent's fangs, or even to fall into 
the fire, than to destroy (or lose) one's own good character."* 
" Look at a man's good actions," says Tai-kang, " and record 
them ; look at a man's evil doings, and reject them."' " In- 
struction [teaching or chastening] to that effect is better to 
thee than a pedigree ; for a pedigree cannot do without it, but 
it can well do without a pedigree."' "For he who has no 
nobleness of mind, his lineage helps him not," say the Rabbis.* 
"froward things" " Insult or reproach is three-fold : (i) to 
one's face ; (2) by insinuation ; (3) to one's family or race. So 
is the result (or fruit) of it three-fold also. This evil-speaking 
consists (i) in speaking evil openly to others ; (2) in speaking 
inconsiderately, as if it did not matter, from a vain, frivolous 
mind, some bad word or other, against some one else. The 
fruit of this, when fully ripe, is to be born in hell ; yet, for the 
same reason, if one be born a man, he will have a voice most 

« Maha Bh. Shanti P. 8990—9005. • Tamil pr. 3188. ' Do ji kio. 
* II. a. 67. ' Nitishataka, 77. • Ming Sin P. K. c. ii. ' Dukes 

Rabb. Blum. 33. ' Ben hammeiek, id. ibid. 

ii. 13—16] 



disagreeable to hear.'" " A bright mirror," says Lao-tsze, " is 
not blurred (or tarnished) by dust ; how then can a man of a 
pure mind cling to the pursuit of evil desires (or passions)?"* 
" For knowledge (or understanding) is an eye of the mind."» 

13 Who leave the paths of uprightness, to walk in 
the ways of darkness ; 

" Who leave," &c. "Justice (or righteousness) is the road 
for man to walk in. To lose one's way and not to walk in the 
right path, to lose one's heart and not to know how to look for 
it, how sad indeed !" says Meng-tsze.* [Meng-tsze [Mencius] 
taught that man's heart is naturally good ; and that when this 
goodness is lost, it is for man to look for it within himself 
Kiu O has an amusing sermon in Japanese (vol. ii. i) on this 

14 Who rejoice to do evil, and delight in the fro- 
wardness of the wicked ; 

" the wicked." " The wicked man is to be quieted by punish- 
ment, and not by help or assistance," said Indra to Brahma.' 

15 Whose ways are crooked, and iAey froward in 
their paths : 

crib?, ' perverse.' Chald. ' twisted,' ' tangled,' ' perverse.' 

" crooked." " How ever so many bends (or crooks) the river 

may have, it must at last fall into the sea ;"* and the wicked 

into his own net. 

16 To deliver thee from the strange woman, even 
from the stranger wAicA flattereth with her words ; 

' Whose words,' nf?"'Spn, • she makes slippery, soft and flowing.' 
Chald. 'whose words are sweet.' LXX. paraphrases the whole of 
this verse. 

■ Thar gyan, v. 43. 2 Ming Sin P. K. i. 5. » Nitimala (Tel.), iii. 22. 
* Hea-Meng, xi. 11. ' Kumara Sambh. iii. 40. ' Telugu pr. 2245. 



[ii. 1 6 

" Strange woman" any but the lawful wife in wedlock. " Is 
there in the world," say the Japanese, "anything more fearful 
than those foxes [women] who, being well acquainted with the 
disposition of men, transform themselves into human beings 
to deceive them."' "Woman with the mind, aXtrp^s aXumtKoi, 
of a cunning fox, a vixen, iravriav tSpis, up to anything, versed 
in all manner of wickedness, a fetter from which no one can 
free himself, is the greatest evil ever wrought on earth by 
Jove ; it has sent many men to hell."' "True, then, it is that 
trouble and disorder do not drop from heaven ; they come 
from those women."' " Men will buy him, or her, who lowers 
himself, or herself, to be bought. One may buy an elephant, 
with a thousand horses ; but a lion, never. Things easily got 
are not praised by everybody. Men will take strange women, 
to the injury (or insult) of their own wife."* "A flower from 
somewhere else looks well," said literally and figuratively of 
women, both bad and good ; as ' hana,' flower, is a favourite 
term in Japanese for a woman. Here it is explained "by a 
man being caught with a pretty face and agreeable manner, 
and likewise by the wife of another looking askance [eyeing] 
other men."* 

" Among the things that cause ruin in this world," say the 
Burmese, " are the shameful practices of harlots, and the loose 
morals of women of good family."' Fashion does not seem 
to have altered much since Hesiod warned men against being 
deceived by yuvr] rvyo<no\o%, alfivXa KiaTikkoxxra, with wheedling 
chatter, whom to trust is only to trust thieves."^ Apaturia, 
Paphia, dtro toC dira<^o>, i.q. oTroTui, to deceive. Therefore — 

1 vvaiKt /JLT] truTTivi Toi/ (rovrov piov. 

And 'AtppoSiTTi, Aphrodite, was so called, said Euripides, not 
from A<f>poi, foam, but from a<f>povai eTvai, their having lost their 

• Desima, Tamino nigiv. vol. ii. lo. * Simonides, 7, 115, ed. B. 

» Desima, Tarn. nig. ibid. * Drishtanta Shataka, 55, 57. ' Shin 

gaku soku go. p. 4- * Pu'sa pagD. Q. 74. ' i. nl i,p. 343. 

' yvuifl, fiov. 

ii. 16] 



senses who allow themselves to be thus enthralled.' " For he,',' 
said Sanasujata, " who frees himself from his lusts, shakes off 
some dust from himself."* " When the mirror is bright, dust 
will not tarnish it ; so also when wisdom is bright, licentious 
vices will not arise."' " Yet who is the man on earth who has 
not been deceived by women ?"♦ Nay, " he conquers the three 
worlds like a hero who has not been pierced in his thoughts 
(or heart) by the shafts of a woman's glances."* " In very 
deed the man may well be wondered at who escapes safe from 
the wiles of women," said one of them.* " Women," said Har- 
barz to Thor, " prepared a rope of sand for me ; but I alone 
was superior to them all in counsel."^ 

" Friend, tell me who has not been taken in by cheats, an4 
by the side-glances of deceitful women ?"* " Utanka, tempted 
by his guru's wives during the absence of their husband, said 
to them : The deed spoken of by these women is not to be 
done ; my master did not teach me, saying, That which ought 
not to be done, is to be done by thee."» " Beware," says Ani, 
" of the woman from without [strange woman], not known in 
the town ; away from her husband, she stands outside and 
spreads her net"" "Be well versed in the [olrunar] letters 
[spells or signs] of the ale-cup, if thou wilt that a strange 
woman [or another's wife] deceive thee not, or break faith if 
thou trust her," said the woman to Sigurd." " Confucius having 
seen Nam-tsze [the wife of a mandarin of the Wue country and 
a profligate woman], Tsze-loo expressed his disapprobation. 
To which Confucius replied : In what I have done wickedly, 
Heaven reprove me. Heaven reprove me!" [Heaven knows 
how far I have transgressed, and will act accordingly by me]." 

"Such women are of the generations before the Flood,"'* 

* Phumutus de nat. d. p. 197, 198. • Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1588. 

' Hien wen shoo, 59. ' Pancha R. 2, and Shad R. 2. ' Niti- 

shataka, 76. 
' Kobitamr. 16. 

• Alef leilah, Introd. 6. ' Harbarz lioth, 18. 

• Maha Bh. Adi P. 751. '• Maxims of Scribe 

Ani, Pap. p. xvi. I. 15. " Sigrdrifm. 7, ed. Liin. or Brynhild. qv. 7, 

ed. Cop. " Shang-Lun, vi. 26. " Kctub. Khar. P. vi. 13. 



[li. 17 

daughters of Cain, who dwelt in the plain below the Holy 
mountain. " Satan, finding that he could not curse the holy 
life and happiness of the children of Seth who dwelt on the' 
Holy mountain, wounded them through the beauty of the 
daughters of men, that is, of Cain,"' "who beguiled many to 
come down and commit abomination with them."' [They are 
said to be alluded to in Gen. vi. 4; "sons of God" being, not 
angels, but the children of Seth dwelling on the Holy mountain.] 

17 Which forsaketh the guide of her youth, and 

forgetteth the covenant of her God. 

n^^W^ HiVm, ' the intimate friend of her youth, joined to her by 
close fellowship;' 'husband or guide.' Chald. 'conductor,' 'guide.' 

" who forsaketh" &c. " Who broke the yoke of all precepts,"' 
says Rabbi S. Yarchi ;" "who broke the yoke of those who 
brought her up from her birth,'' says another commentator.* 
But women in the East marry so young, that these words 
may apply to a husband as well as to a father or guardian. 
Under no circumstances is a woman to be left unprotected or 
independent " Nothing," says Manu, " should be done by a 
girl, a young woman, or one advanced in years, on her own 
authority, not even in the household. In childhood, let a 
woman remain in subjection to her father ; in youth, to her 
husband ; after his death, to her sons ; but let her never enjoy 
self-control (or independence). Let not a woman ever seek to 
sever herself from her father, her husband or her sons ; for by 
separating herself from them, she makes both families ridicu- 
lous (or blameable)."* "Independence does not befit a woman."* 

" The best horse requires a bit ; the best of women, a hus- 
band ; and the most sagacious of men, the counsel of another."^ 
"A pandit, as well as a woman and a creeper, shine best under 

' Cedrenus, Hist. C. p. 17. ' Book of Adam and Eve, p. 133—140; 

Eutych. nazam el juw. p. 25, ed. Poc. ' Rashi, ad loc. * Tvunat 

Mishle, ad loc. ' Manu S. v. 187 — 189. • Id. ibid. ix. 3. 

' Ep. Lod. 714- 

ii. 17] 



protection [and support]. Does a valuable ruby lose its lustre 
by being set in gold ?"* 

As women marry very early in the East, the adulterous 
woman who " forsaketh the guide of her youth," is to be thus 
punished, according to Manu: "The woman who, proud of 
her qualities and family connections, despises her husband 
[in order to go after other men], let the king' cause her to be 
devoured by dogs, at some public place well frequented [like 
Jezebel.] And let him cause the wicked man who has com- 
mitted adultery with her, to be burnt alive, by being put upon 
an iron bedstead made hot by lighting logs of wood under it, 
until the sinner is consumed."* 

According to the Qoran, the man and the woman are each 
" to receive one hundred stripes."' " Who is that woman, Arda 
Viraf asked, who is tearing her breasts with an iron hook ? It 
is that wicked woman, answered Srosh, who, while on earth, 
lightly esteemed [despised] her husband and guardian, and 
continued bad, and committed impropriety with other men ;"* 
as supposed to be seen in the nether world. " Such women 
who are greedy of stolen loves hold the society of their hus- 
bands, with home comforts, as light as grass."* "How, then, 
can men of sense keep by them in their houses women who 
say that falsehood is truth, and truth is falsehood ?"• "The 
rich man's daughter who had forsaken her husband, said to 
the nobleman's daughter who had not done so: You, lady, 
are a woman, and so am I, and the nature of woman is like 
that of fruit on a tree ; and that tree is their husband. When 
the fruit is ripe, and falls from the tree, it is thrown away 
with other things on the rubbish-heap. How can the fruit- 
stalk that has been severed, be joined on again to the tree ; 
or the child, once born, enter again into his mother's womb ? 
So also as regards a wife who has left her husband."' [This 

> V. Satas. 480. ' Manu S. viii. 371, 372- 

• Viraf Nameh, Ixii. 1—6. ' Pancha Tant. i. 190. 

' Thudhamma Tsari, 6th st. 

' Sur. xxiv. I. 
• Id. ibid. 200. 



[ii. I 8 

took place in Raytoomatee, during the life of Thumaddha, the 
1 6th Buddha, who was 88 cubits high, and lived 90,000 years !] 
"The king sentenced to death the rich man's daughter for 
having left her husband ; but spared her life."* 

In the Dhamma That* — or Burmese Institutes of Manu — 
" such a woman as that is to pay twenty-five tickals of silver, 
and her paramour thirty, with the risk of having his head cut 
off. The two are to live apart from the rest, as having for- 
feited their rights and inheritance." Under such circum- 
stances of early marriage, the husband has to educate or train 
his wife, and, if need be, according to Mahomedan notions, " to 
punish her with stripes or solitary confinement"' Therefore 
" if through your own meanness of mind you have not ruled 
(or governed) your wife, to think of ruling her afterwards is 
madness. Will a tree, allowed to grow up, be moved with a 
pinch only ?"* 

18 For her house inclineth unto death, and her 
paths unto the dead. 

D^Mp?, ' Rephaim,' a tribe of Canaanites. Also ' the dead,' says 
A. Ezra, from being, CO??! *' ^s^» quiet and at rest. Chald. ' unto 
the men accustomed to her ways.' Syr. ' and to the going (custom) 
of her ways.' 

"For her house." " This kind of love, O Dhritarashtra," said 
Vidura, " is called low ; to forsake it is on the way to salva- 
tion."* "Women, while they keep thy heart in lust, hold thy 
nose fast in the dust"' [with a play on the last two words]. 
" If thy husband knows it, he will kill thee ; if the king hears 
of it, it will be a disgrace to thee. For a woman to go with 
another man [than her husband] is the sum of all infamy ; it 
is hell before her."' 

" Lydia, die, per omnes 

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 
> Thudhamma Tsari, 6th St. ' Book i. c. viii. » Qoran 

Sur. iv. 33. * Vemana, ii. 12. * Maha Bh. Udyog. 1649. 

• El Nawabig, 187. ' Vemana, ii. 11. • Hor. Od. i. 8. 

ii. 19, 20] 



"Malorum esca voluptas, qua homines capiuntur, ut hamo 
pisces." "Nulla capitalior pestis, quam corporis voluptas 
hominibus a natura data est."' Horrible is to be "the doom 
of the foolish men that are caught thereby — in the slough of 
hell in which worthless men sink to destruction."* 

19 None that go unto her return again, neither talce 
they hold of the paths of life. 

la-bi, 'touch,' 'reach,' or 'attain to,' the paths of life. 

"None — return again." See Sophos, fab. 45 ; Syntipa, 37 ; 
Loqman, 6; Babrias, 103 ; Esop, 91 ; and the fox's words to 
the lion feigning sickness. " Nulla vestigia retrorsum." See 
also the preceding verse. 

20 That thou mayest walk in the way of good men, 
and keep the paths of the righteous. * 

" That thou mayest," &c. " Let him walk in the path in 
which his fathers and men of old walked ; let him walk in that 
path of good men ; while he walks in it he will hurt no one."* 
" Follow the steps [heels] of the wise, and thou shalt tread the 
summit of the worlds."* " The way by which wise and good 
men go is the one to walk in ; no by-ways. The great man 
who follows it escapes death, and is not entangled in it," said 
Vidura to Dhritarashtra.' " Keep company with the good, so 
shalt thou be safe from the bad."' " The Vedas differ ; Smriti 
[tradition] too is not consistent ; the path of virtue seems hid 
in a cave ; the road trodden by great and good men is the one 
to walk in."' " Remember those gone before thee and follow 
their example ; and set before thee [thy heart] as the way to 
walk in, an upright conduct [righteousness]."' "He whose 
authority is not according to the Rishis of old, neither has 
this world nor the one to come. This is certain." "Virtue is 

' Cic. Cato maj. * Cural, xcii. 918, 919. » Manu S. iv. 178. 

* El Nawabig, 159. ' Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 2552. • Nuthar ell. 134- 
' Maha Bh. in Kobitamrak. 163. ' Ani. max. xvii. 12 — 14. 



[ii. 20 

the craft [boat or ship] itself; there is no other for those who 
go to Swarga It is the ship of the merchant tending to the 
other shore,'" said Yudhishtira to Draupada. 

[This expression, "sailing or passing to the other shore," 
from time to eternity, from this life to the next, which is 
common to Brahman, Egyptian and to Buddhist writings, and 
which was, to a certain extent, represented by the ' ban',' or 
bark on the Nile carrying the corpse of the departed to the 
tomb, or nether-world, and which Plato must have often 
witnessed during his stay in Egypt, probably suggested to 
him " the trxtSta [float] of the ' opinions of good men,' on which 
to risk our passage through life ; unless we could have a safer 
oxTffia [ship or conveyance], or some Ottov koyov, divine word 
on which to cross this life."' Some interpret Odoi Xdyos here 
by 'a divine recison ;' but tk forbids it. Others might fancy 
in it some inkling of the Adyos of S. John, c. i., inasmuch as 
this term came originally from Plato, through the Alexan- 
drian school and the Gnostics. But the rendering "divine 
word' suits best this remarkable passage. 

This "crossing over to the other side" occurs frequently. 
There is a whole treatise in theDulva' about "crossing, 'p'ha rol- 
tu,' to the other side or shore," "transmigration" and Nirvana, 
according to the writer. There is also an Egyptian treatise 
on transmigration, " Shai an sensen," Book of Breathings, with 
determinatives of 'breath' and "sailing," to show that the soul 
was living during her passage through her transmigrations in 
the nether world, until her return to the body she had left, 
and which was embalmed in order to preserve it for her 
return to it. This treatise was placed under the head of the 
defunct in his coffin, together with a roll of the Ritual of the 
Dead, in which all that the soul had to undergo in Amenti, is 

> Maha Bh. Vana P. 1181. * Phoedo, Ixxviii. ' "On the great 

crossing," Hphags-pa shes-rab-kyi p'ha-rol-tu p'hyin-pa, &c. Excellent, 
supreme wisdom [or teaching], to enable one to reach the other shore, 

ii. 20] 



told at length."* " I will." says the Buddhist Maha Satwa, 
"' make of this worthless body of mine, which is like foam on 
the water, a large ship to cross the sea of birth and of death."* 
" The law and teaching, which is a safe transport (or deliverer) 
over the flood,"' said the Brahman to Molon Toin. "The ship 
of the religious law, on which Buddha, having placed mankind 
and crossed [sansarasagaram] the ocean of transmigrations, 
entered Nirvanam."* "A man must [have] provided for him- 
self a ship, to cross over ; when once across, of what use is the 
ship to him?"" One of the Rishis said of Buddha: "This 
first (or excellent) ship has appeared on the still ocean of 
darkness and ignorance. By him will be found the law, wherer 
by all beings shall be borne across in safety."' 

" Looking upon the body in the light of a ship, how is one 
to traverse the sea of transmigrations ?"'' " The four ever- 
ceaseless [boundless, ever-to-be-crossed] seas of this world — 
(l) death, (2) disease, (3) old age, and (4) birth."* "Thus 
supported by the body of a man [i.e. while in that body], one 
crosses the great river of sorrow. But it is hard to find what 
comes after [follows] that ship ; for during darkness it sleeps 
not But if in the body of a horse, how is one to be freed 
from the valley of death and sorrow ? As a man mounted 
on a mettled horse, escapes on him from the valley. Or if in 
the body of a servant, he spares him work,"* &c. 

"And the ferry-man over that broad river is the religious 
teacher that saves thee from drowning."'" " Save us, O Krishna, 
and be to us a craft, sunk as we are in the sea of the Panduids, 
both deep and without a float on it," said Yudhishtira." " Hav- 
ing built for thyself a solid craft," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, 
"cross the difficult migrations of thy birth."" "Some make 

' Todtenbuch, ch. xv. xvii. &c., and Shai an sensen, throughout. 

* Attadham. 

' Altan Gerel, sect. x. p. 11 1. 

' Molon Toin, fol. v. 

Jat. p. 14. ' Ch&nakya, 43, J. R. • Rgya-tcher r. p. xi. p. 117. 

' Thar gyan, fol. 11. ' Boyan sorgal, p. 2, 20. ' Thar gyan, fol. 1 1. 
" Id. ibid. fol. IS, t6. " Maha Bh. Drona P. 2963. " Maha Bh. 

Udyog. P. 1554. 



[ii. 20 

for themselves a basket, a raft or a ship, for crossing that 
ocean, wherewith men in general [not wise ones] seek, up and 
down, to cross that sea" [but I alone am the safe conveyance 
across, &c.].' "I shall leave my body on this shore," said 
Buddha, " like a wretched, decayed ship that is water-logged, 
without bestowing one regret upon it."' " He who wishes to 
attain emancipation [moksha] otherwise than by the worship 
of Narayana [Vishnu], is like one who would attempt to cross 
the ocean without ship or craft of any kind."'] 

" The principle (or root) of religion and virtue," says Manu, 
" is, among other things, the conduct of good men."* " Under 
all circumstances, friendship (or companionship) with good 
men is best of all."* " To join oneself to virtuous men em- 
braces everj'thing ; for the virtuous man — from his love for 
men and from his virtue — is the dispeller of sorrow."* " The 
uncontrovertible law of Scripture and the ways of the best 
men, are these : To abstain from injuring living beings ; to 
keep one's hands from other people's goods ; to give in season 
according to one's ability ; when the young wives of other 
men are mentioned, to be dumb ; to keep one's senses under 
control ; to behave reverently to one's elders ; and to show 
kindness to all."' "Non est res ulla tanti, aut commodum 
ullum tam expetendum, ut viri boni et splendorem et nomen 
amittas — nam fas nee est nee unquam fuit, quicquam nisi pul- 
cherrimum, facere eum qui esset optimus."* 

" O my heart, take, at last, thy rest from the iron grasp of 
these objects of sense, and take refuge in the path of good 
men, wherein thou shait at once find relief in rest from infinite 
trouble."* "Draw near to virtuous people — it will help the 
practice of virtue by both body and heart. And flee from evil 
men — it will keep off misfortune and misery from your view.""* 

Mahaparanibbh. fol. gnl. 15. ' Durenidana Jat. p. $. ' Vidwan 
• Manu S. ii. i — 6. ' Vishnu Sarma, Hitopad. i. 

' Nitishataka, 60. • Cicero, de Offic. 3. 
'• Hien wen shoo, 84. 

Tarang. p. 30. 

I. 425. ' Id. ibid. iv. 28 

» Vairagya shat. 64. 

!i. 20] 



"Good and true men are born in the world like clouds,"* to 
shed abroad the dew of blessing. " Live, then (or stand), as 
becometh a good man.'" "Walk in the peace of the Most 
High, that thou mayest walk in a good way."* "As the bee 
knows the [track] way to the honeycomb, and as the humble- 
bee knows the juice of flowers, so also does the faithful know 
the way to the good man [great yogi]."* 

" Friendship with the good is never to cease ; for until we 
understand our nature, we can have no faith [sakti]."' "Walk 
so as to be a worthy man."* " The constant remembrance of 
the assembly of good men," says the Buddhist, " is one door 
to religion ; it leads one to enter the path of integrity [fault- 
lessness]."' " By all means set before thee the example of 
good men [set before thee the heart of good men] ; and think 
of the ability of the brave among men." " He who wishes to 
walk in the doctrine of Confucius, must be pure at least one 
day."» " Let him take the path taught by the Rishis."» " What 
is real profit (or gain) ? The society of men endued with good 

"Make acquaintance and be familiar with a worthy man 
and respect him ; stand in awe of him and love him ; love him 
and see his failings ; dislike [or hate] him, yet see his goodness. 
If he has amassed wealth, he knows how to bestow [scatter] it 
on others. Live at peace with him, and you will soon agree 
with him."" "And I," said Lak-we-yan-thawaka [Mogallan], 
" having become a great and good man, [saddhammam puremi] 
I shall fulfil the law of good men, the knowledge of the path 
of the fruit thereof, and at last become a disciple of the left 
hand — Mogallan"" [a frequent expression among Buddhists]. 

" The society of the good," said Savitri to Yama, " is always 
to be desired ; then is such a friend said to be a good thing ; 

■ Pancha T. i. 35. ' Avvey. A. Sudi, 102. ' Sahid. max. Rosellini, 
p. 130. * Vemana, i. 93. ' Id. ibid. 124. • Avvey. A. Sudi, 54. 
' Rgya-tcher r. p. c iv. p. 22. ' Ming hien dsi, 68, 49. ' Dhammap. 
Maggav. 8. " Pancha Ratna. 4. " Siao-hio, c. iii. " Lak-we- 
yan, 36. 



[ii. 20 

ii. 20] 



associating with the good never is without fruit ; let one then 
abide in close fellowship with them."' " The practice of virtue 
is constant with the good ; they neither sorrow nor perish (or 
decay) ; the society of the good with the good is never fruitless ; 
neither do the good fear aught from the good."* "Associating 
with the good," said the father of the Kuruids to Kana, " is 
the best of all relationship or connection."* "The society of 
the good is indeed desirable, for then that which ought to be, 
will follow. Intercourse with a good man cannot lead to 
transgression, therefore ought it to be sought after." " It is 
lasting (or firm) ; it always suggests profitable advice in diffi- 
culties ; it is the source of great advantage,"* said the Rishis. 
"When thou seest a good and worthy [hien] man," said 
Confucius, " think of adjusting [imitating] thyself to him ; but 
if thou seest one that is not so, then enter within thyself and 
examine thyself."' "Gather together [associate] with the 
good ; run along with them, and dwell in thought on true 
virtue ; it is best."* " He who desires greatness, let him not 
depart from the best men."^ "Omnes boni, beati ;"' for — 

" Atos TOt voos fJLtyai Kvf3€pv^ 
Satfiov av8piov <l>i\.ti>v '' 

" God's providence overrules the lot of those who love and fear 
Him." "With good men, then, must one dwell," said Leva- 
yani to Shukra ; "for it is called the best abode."*" Chom- 
Idan-das ends with these words his instruction into the meta- 
physics of the law, to Chan-re-si : " Inasmuch as thou reachest 
the other side of knowledge, through the teaching given thee, 
by thorough [constant, deep] practice, shalt thou thyself follow 
the Tathagatas [i.e. those gone thither] before thee to Nir- 

" The way of evil is broad ; as one treads it, it becomes 

« Maha Bh. Vana P. l6,777- ' Id- ibid. 16,794. » Id. ibid. 

Drona P. 127. * Id. ibid. Udyog. P. 314, 315. ' Shang-Lun, iv. 17. 
• Lokaniti, 40. ' Subha Bilas. 90. ' Cicero, de Finib. 3. » Pind. 
Pyih. V. 164. " Maha Bh. Adi P. 3329. " P'ha-rol-tu, &c. 


swampy ; but the way of goodness is true, if one walks In it 
without swerving; it is blameless."* "Bayazid was asked, 
What is 'sunna' and holy duty? He replied : 'Sunna' is, to 
forsake the world and the passions ; and duty is, to find one's 
way to a good man or teacher."* " The example of a teacher 
is like a guide to one who knows not the way through a fearful 
land — a ferryman crossing a river."' " He who makes another 
do right is greater than he who does it,"* say the Rabbis. 
"Let no man, then, [change] swerve from the [impression] 
footsteps of the wise."* " Nim-khew said : I do not dislike the 
way of Confucius, but my strength is not equal to it Confu- 
cius then answered : Thy strength not equal to it 1 thou hast 
reached the half [middle] of the way : wilt thou stop there, 
and leave off?"" Again: "Who can go out without going 
through the door ? How, then, not walk in this way i» Walk 
towards virtue."' 

" A holy man's example," says Lao-tsze, " consists in action, 
not in words only."* " Let the good man, then, stand in the 
eternal path (or way) ; that is the way chosen by householders 
[respectable men] ; he who walks in it consistently, finds both 
this world and the next"' "Go that way," said Subhadra to 
her son lying dead, " to the brilliant sphere where the most 
pious Munis walk who have forsaken all pride ; where women 
of one husband go."*' "For in the way in which a man will 
walk, in that way will men help him to go."" 

Ngan-tsze said : " The ancients called the dead ' returned 
home ;' if, then, the dead are called ' men returned home,' the 
living are 'wayfaring' men. But the wayfaring man who 
knows not how to return has lost his home."*' " Who is there," 
asks Chanakya, " that is not raised in dignity by associating 
with the good ? Grass is [carried] worn on the head by being 

' Altai prov. ' Beharist. R. I. ' Thar gyan, ii. fol, 14. 

' R. Bl. 36. • Berachoth, Khar. xi. 33. • Shang-Lun, vi. to. 

' Id. ibid. vi. 15, and vii. 6. • Tao-te-K. ii. » Kamand. Nlti- 

shat. ii. 37. " Maha Bh. Drona P. 2755. " Yalkut. R. Bl. 142. 

" Lee-tsze, i. p. 7. 




[ii. 21 

mingled with the flowers of a nosegay."» " He that [conforms 

to] the rules of great and good men, rises above ten thousand 

others."' " O Bikkhus, when the sun is about to rise, a sign— 

the dawn— precedes it; likewise when a Bikkhu enters the 

eight-fold way [to Nirvana], the preceding sign is, the love of 

virtue."' " Pleasing and beautiful is the sight of ' Aryas' [of 

good and honourable men] ; lustrous (or gladdening) is their 

society always ; and fortunate is he who never sets eyes on 

fools."* " The rule (or law) which Aryas who know the Shas- 

tras praise as 'the law to be kept," is the rule ; and what they 

reprove, is to be considered unlawful."* 

" Good meets good, and evil meets evil. When did one see 
good meet evil, or evil meet good ?"• " Indeed, send the mul- 
titude to the right-about, and hearken thou to the words of 
the aged (or great) ; strive against a word opposed to obedi- 
ence. Thy betters have trodden that way before thee, and so 
will thy children after thee."^ " Those who by learning [teach- 
ing] see [discover] the truth of things, enter a way they cannot 
retrace hitherward."* " Saineya," said Yudhishtira, "the reli- 
gious law [dharma] seen [established] by good and true men 
of old, is eternal."' " Let the righteous, then, awake from his 
sleep, and let him arise and proceed in the way of righteous- 
ness, in all the paths thereof."" 

2 1 For the upright shall dwell in the land, and the 
perfect shall remain in it. 

" For the upright;' &c. " The Lord and Master said, allud- 
ing to Maddhakundali, who had died in the Buddhist faith : 
Because he had a heart full of faith, with good works done 
to men, that man reached [spread] from the land of men to 
the world of Nats [intermediate spirits], like a soft, pleasant 

» Chanak. 154, J- K. ' Oyun tulkid. p. 7- ' Suriyya Peyyala, ed. F. 
4 Dham^^ XV o, ed. Col. ' Kamand. Nitis. vi. 7. ' Bengalee pr. 
\ SSTud .0 Papi. Pap. Sail. ii. pi. M, 1. .. ' Cural. 356. « Maha 
Bh. Drona P. 4 1 76. " Bk. of Enoch, xc. 3. 

ii. 22] 



shadow."* " If the excellence of the excellent were to fail, the ' 
wide earth could not bear its own weight."* " For the world 
rests on the virtuous."' 

2 2 But the wicked shall be cut off from the earth, 
and the transgressors shall be rooted out of it, 

" But the wicked," &c. " Unrighteousness committed in this 
world does not bring forth fruit at once, but, like the earth, in 
good time ; and advancing little by little, it cuts off by the 
roots the man who committed it. If not in himself, then in 
his sons ; if not in them, then in his grandsons, does the 
unrighteousness of the unrighteous man remain without fruit. 
He may prosper for a while by unrighteousness, and see good 
things, and even overcome his enemies at the time. Never- 
theless, in the end he perishes from his root upwards."* "When 
a king has finally taken up his residence in his kingdom, and 
his fortresses are finished and well armed, let him then con- 
centrate all his efforts in rooting up the thorns [the wicked]."' 
"Such and other like men who, like thorns, openly spread 
about the world, let him distinguish from the rest ; as well as 
those who do evil in secret ; and other worthless men who 
have the appearance of respectable ones."' 

" Yea, it is best," says Vishnu Sarma, " to root up a servant 

whose mind is poisoned towards his master, a loose tooth, and 

a wicked minister."' " Outcasts," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, 

" know no pleasure ; a fit word from them gives no pleasure ; 

they know not the law ; in short, no other state is possible for 

them than to be destroyed."' " For as fields are injured by 

weeds, so are men by their lusts, and kingdoms by wickedness, 

to be rooted up."' Thus Ennius : 

" — ubi vidit avenam, lolium crescere 
Inter triticum, secemit, seligit, aufert sedulo.""* 

' Buddhaghos. Par. ii. p. 51. ' Cural, 990. ' Id. 996. 

♦ Manu S. iv. 172—174. ' Id. ibid. ix. 252. ' Ibid. 260. 

' Hitopad. ii. 127. » Maha Bh. Udyog P. 1316. ' Dhammap. ii. 23. 
" Ennii prxcepta, 536. 

H 2 



[ii. 22 

" If there is in thee depravity," said Ajtoldi, " thy root and trunk 
will be cut short ; for thy wickedness ruins thy good deeds. 
Where there is depravity, wealth flees from it and destroys 
the govemment'" "When fortune is favourable to a man 
whose heart is not good, he assuredly comes to a miserable 
and untimely end."* "But when a man's fortune and his 
heart are both bad, then even to his old age he lives in poverty 
and wretchedness [trouble and sorrow]."' 

"For the Deity destroys the wicked utterly, and puts no 
obstacle in the way [of his ruin]." "And that man perishes 
root and branch."* "If a man commits a great fault," says 
Tai-shang,* " the Spirit cuts off twelve years of his life ; but 
for a small fault, only a hundred days." " To those who do 
well, a hundred good things happen ; but to those who do evil, 
come a hundred sorrows,"* "Blessing is for the good, but 
evil assuredly for the wicked," said the goddess Ben-zai-ten 
to KawamL^ Yet, according to the Rabbis, "God does not 
punish anyone until the measure of his sin be fulL"' "There 
is no success [lit victory] for unrighteousness," says Ali ben 
abu Taleb ; " for if it succeed awhile, it gives no profit ; and 
happiness departs from the path of the wicked."* 

> Kudat ku Bilik, xvii. 86, 87. * Ming hien dsi. 105. » Ibid. 106. 
* Vemana, i. 68, 162. * Kang i. p. • Mongol, mor. max. 

^ Nageki no kiri, p. 17. ' Ep. Lod. 126. • Ali b. a. T. 13. 

iii. l] 




I An exhortation to obedience, j to faith, 7 to mortification, g to devotion, 
II to patience. 13 The hapPy gain of wisdom, ig The power, ai and 
the benefits of wisdom, aj An exhortation to charitableness, 30 peace- 
ableness, 31 and contentedness. 33 The cursed state of the wicked. 

TV /T Y son, forget not my law ; but let thine heart 
keep my commandments : 

" My son" &c. "Nunc te, fili, carissime docebo quo pacto 
morem animi tui compones. Igitur mea praecepta ita legito, 
ut intelligas."* "A son," says Confucius, "who for three years 
[after his father's death] does not deviate from his father's 
way, may be called a dutiful son."* " Filial piety [hiao]," says 
Confucius, " consists in a son serving his parents. If he con- 
tinues to serve them, he thereby shows his great reverence ; if 
he maintains them, he shows his joy (or pleasure in it) ; when 
they are sick, his great sorrow ; in mourning over them, his 
grief ; in his sacrifices to their departed spirits, his distinguished 
and solemn bearing. These five duties complete his filial 
piety. Such a son, when in a high position, is not proud ; if 
in a low one, he is neither distressed nor disturbed."* 

" Forget not until death the words of a good friend who has 
exerted himself for the truth (or truly, earnestly)."* "The 
remembering [meditating on] religion (or the law), is one door 
[the 9th] of entrance to religious teaching ; it renders religious 
instruction very clear."' " Walk in the commandments [given 
thee] with a willing heart," says Ptah-hotep."* " Filial piety," 
said Ts'eng-tsze, " and love for men, go before everything else. 

■ Dion. Cato ad fil. 
• Oyun tulkid. p. 6. 

' Shang-Lun, i. 11. 
' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 

' Hiao-king, c. x. 
• Pap. Pr. c. V. I. 6. 



[iii. 2 

iii. 2] 



Filial piety as regards Heaven brings down wind and rain in 
due season ; as regards the earth, it makes it yield fruit in 
succession ; and as regards men, it brings them good fortune 
and happiness."* 

2 For length of days, and long life, and peace, shall 
they add to thee. 

Marg. reading. Heb. ' years of life.' 

"For length" &a "He never dies whom wisdom keeps 
alive," say the wise.' " God drops down dew upon the tomb 
of Ajnafi, who one day cried : Hold fast by the truth ; the 
result will surely follow,"' said El-jahith. " Bhrigu said of the 
code of Manu : This code of laws is the greatest blessing ; it 
gives glory and long life; it leads to supreme bliss."* "Let 
the Brahmachari ever look into the divine writings that soon 
give increase of understanding, of virtue, and of things whole- 
some to man."* "Ayushman bhaval Be long lived! is the 
way in which a Brahman and every good man should be 

The Chinese look upon filial piety as a cardinal virtue, and 
the foundation of all good government. One of their ' king' 
or sacred books — Hlao-king — treats of it only. It is also the 
first commandment on the second Table ; and " the first with 
a promise" of long life and prosperity. It has never been kept 
without bringing a blessing with it ; and it has never been 
broken without entailing misfortune or a curse. But as of old 
" it was often made of none effect by tradition," so it is now- 
a-days by fashion. The Stoic, however, has right on his side : 
" Duties depend on mutual relation ; in the case of a father, 
It is dictated that he should be taken care of, that the son 
should give way to him in all things, and that even if the 
father ill-treats the son, the son should bear it patiently. But 

• Ming Sin P. K. pt. !■ 3, 4- ' Mishle hakhacam. ' Eth- 

Thealebi, 283. * Manu S. i. 106. ' Ibid. iv. 19. ' Id. ibid. 

ii. I, 125. 

the father is a bad father ! M^n oZv wpit dyadbv iratipa ^tvait 
VKfiu^ijs; ouK- aXXa jrpos irarcjoa : What, then, art thou by 
nature related only to a good father? No ; but to a father."* 
"Honour [lit stand in awe of] thy father," say the Arabs, 
"and thy son will do the same by thee."' 

"long life." "The term of life granted by the gods is said 
by the scholiast to be from 116 to 120 years" [compare Gen. 
vi.]. At sukta 9, however, the text says : " These are a hun- 
dred years (or autumns) ;" and at sukta Ixxiii. 9, we read : 
"Be to us a hundred winters (or years)."' "Three things," 
say the Rabbis, "lengthen the life of man : (i) to be long in 
prayer [pray much and often] ; (2) at leisure ; and (3) in the 
house of congregation [synagogue]. And three things shorten 
life : (j) when one gives a man the book of the Law, that he 
should not be able to read it ; (2) or a cup of blessing, that 
there should be nothing in it to bless ; and (3) that one should 
say, Who shall show us the book of the Law, and there 
should be there no one to show it."* " For a good and vir- 
tuous man," say the Chinese, " must reach an advanced old age; 
but the bad man must soon be cut off."' "There are four 
things," says Rabbi Nathan, " which, if a man observe them, 
he will eat the fruit thereof in this world and in that which is 
to come : (i) to honour one's father and mother ; (2) perfect 
kindness ; (3) peace-making between a man and his brother ; 
(4) teaching the Law in public [to all]."' 

" Shang-Te favours children who honour their parents, and 
gives them a good reputation at the end of seventy- seven 
years." "Shang-Te loves a long life and hates killing; he 
has given commandment to bestow on you a long term of life ; 
he hates to shorten that long-established term of life."' "The 
son," says Ptah-hotep, " who receives his father's word [instruc- 

> Epictet. Enchirid. xxxvii. * Nuthar ellal. 92. ' Rig Veda, i. ; 

sukta Ixxxix. 8. * Dibre hakhacamim, p. 12, 13. ' Hien wen 

shoo, 195. • R- Nathan, xl. ' Comm. on Wen-shang-tan, in 

Shin-sin I. iv. p. 41, and v. p. 7. 




. 2 

tion], obtains old age through it."* " For it is a happiness to 
obtain the law (or teaching) of what is good."* "Since, what 
is life ? A life that is free from blame."* " Quia conscientia 
bene actae vitae multorumque benefactorum recordatio jucun- 
dissima est."* And the way to that is, "Well-doing in youth 
and wisdom in old age," said Bias,* who, when asked what in 
this life is free from fear, answered : "'OpOii (ruvuBritrn, a good 
conscience ; " which Periander says is f\tv6tpia, ' freedom,'' 
from " conscientiae grave pondus,"' the heavy weight of 'con- 
science' which attests its own divine origin ; the " abhimanta- 
ram Ishwaram," the ' inward sovereign mentor' given to man 
by Brahma, according to Manu ;* the echo of God's voice in 
Eden to the sinner : What is this that thou hast done? "the 
law written in every heart ;"' a handsel of judgment to come. 
" Men desire long life ; but when old age is come, they are 
afraid to look at it Yet to wish for a long life and to be 
afraid of old age is a wrong idea (or opinion)."'* " For we 
are but like spring leaves that wither in the summer sun, and 
— dXiyox/ioviov yiyvcroi, lainrtp ovap 
rjfirf T»/i^«r<ro, 

the bloom of prized youth, like a dream, lasts but a moment."" 
"All men [the whole world]," says Loqman," "love the life 
of this world, and do not feel disgusted with it even in weak- 
ness and misery."" To which the Turkish adds : " There 
is an old saying that ' it is better to endure misery than to 
die ;' for one day above ground is better than a thousand 
years below it." " Man's life," says the Mandchu adage, does 
not reach a hundred years ; yet man hides in his bosom the 
trouble of a thousand years. The life of a man is hardly 
seventy years ; and the time of that life is not all alike."" 
" The teaching of the old man [ancient], then," says Ptah- 

• Pap. Pr. xvi. I. 6. ' Thar gyan, fol 9. ' Ratnamalika, 24. 

« Cicero, Cato Maj. ad in. * Bias Taut. sept. sap. ed. Ant. 

• Id. ibid. ' Cicero, de Nat. Deor. iii 85. ' Manu S. i. 

• Rom. ii. 14. " Legs par b. p. 265. " Mimnerm. ii. v. ed. Bek. 
>» Fab. xiv. ; Esop. 50. " Fab. xx. " Ming hien dsi. 90, 149. 


"'• 3] 



hotep, " is a blessing to him who receives it, and makes him 
welcome (or acceptable) to others. If thou wilt take it for 
thyself, it will be for the life of thy house ; and the departed 
spirits of thy ancestors will yet live."' "For finding a wise 
man is like finding yellow gold."' " When Bias's son set off 
for Egypt, he asked his father what he could do that would 
please him most Bias then answered : i<f>6Siov, vphi y^jpat 
KTijo-o/iei'os, T^v oper^v SijXoS^ tJ e<^o8iov Xiyiav : that he should 
take with him provision for the way to old age ; meaning the 
provision of virtue."' All of which is summed up in these 
words of the Psalmist : " Keep innocency, and take heed unto 
the thing that is right ; for that shall bring a man peace at 
the last"* 

3 Let not mercy and truth forsake thee : bind them 
about thy neck ; write them upon the table of thine 
heart : 

"Let not mercy" &c. "Virtue," said the Bodhisatwa, "pro- 
tects him who guards himself. Virtue, indeed, protects him 
who walks accordingly [who practises it] ; virtue [religion, 
dhamma] well wrought out [practised] brings happiness with 
it. Such is the advantage of precepts well performed. The 
religious man goes not to perdition [the evil way].'" " Follow 
after truth, if thy mind is set on virtue," said Kaikeya to Dasa- 
ratha."' "For when one follows truth (or uprightness) in 
everything, accumulated happiness will fasten itself on him."^ 
"Let the Brahman," says Manu, "always take pleasure in 
truth, in justice, in wealth lawfully gotten, and in purity."' 
" For that is not religious duty where there is no truth," said 
the Brahman Vidura to Dhritarashtra.' 

"If thou askest," says Tiruvalluvar, "what is truth, I would 
answer, To speak that which is free from every fault" " Out- 

• Pap. Pr. xii. I. 10. » Rishtah i juw. p. 160. ' Bias Taut ed. Ant. 
♦ Ps. xxxvii. 38. » Mangalo, Jatak. p. 31. ' Ramayana, ii. 14, 8. 

' Ming hien dsi. 19. • Manu S. iv. i75- * Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1239, 



['"• 3 

ward cleanliness is wrought with water ; inward purity is 
shown in the truth [spoken]." "All kind of light is not the 
same to all ; but the light of truth is light"* But like light 
to sore eyes, " Truth is bitter," say the Arabs ;* and " Odium 
parit."' But also, as light bears witness of itself, so is the 
force of truth such that, in spite of all efforts to hide or stifle 
it, " facile se per se ipsam defendat"* " The Acharya teaches 
his pupil thus : Speak the truth and do thy duty. Truth is 
not to be neglected ; neither is duty."* " O Sumedha," said 
Dipankara, "the morning star, after appearing in season in 
God's heaven, does not swerve from its course ; so swerve thou 
not from the path of truth ; but fulfil the 'parami' of Truth."' 

[' Paramita,' ' paramit,' lit. ' crossing over to the other side,' 
is the name given by Buddhists to every one of the ten virtues 
which enable a man to pass safely through transmigrations, 
to final extinction in Nirvana. So far, the ancient Druidic or 
Bardic doctrine of transmigration is preferable to this. It 
teaches that man's existence begins in Annwn [abyss, hell], 
and continues through Cylch Abred [sansara] — so called in 
reference to the migration of the soul from one animal to 
another, until it reaches the state of humanity — to Cylch 
Gwynfyd, or circle of [happiness] white purity.' These cycles 
correspond partly to the 'sansara and sansarasagara' of Brah- 
mans and Buddhists. Thus Cylch Gwynfyd might perhaps 
answer to the 'swarga' of Brahmanism ; and Cylch Ceugant, 
the ' circle of infinity,' or ' of emptiness,' that surrounds and 
encloses the whole realm of existence, might perhaps bear 
some resemblance to the Nirvana of Buddhism.] 

" Let truth and righteousness, therefore, though they may 
give trouble, be preferable to you, rather than lying and fro- 
wardness that may bid profit or comfort."' " O my heart, if 

> Cural, XXX. 291, 298, 299. • Select Arabic prov. 19. 

» Cicero, in Lselio. * Id. ibid, pro M. Coelio. ' Taittireya 

Upan. anuv. xi. • Durenidh. Jatak. p. 23. ' Barddas, vol. i. 

p. 1 70 200, &c. • Rabbi M. Maimonides, in his last will. 

'"■• 3] 



thou makest choice of truth, people of this world will be thy 
friends."' [Not always.] "The wise man does not turn his 
head aside from the truth ; for thereby he raises his name on 
high." " Verily, truth is worthy of being followed, and [right- 
eousness, ' sidq'] truthfulness is the best thing to obey."* "And 
a godly man knows what is truth.'" " If his [decision] state- 
ment is true [just, accurate], he will make but few mistakes."* 
"For truth is brighter than the sun, and more certain than 
yesterday [that is past]."* "And error continues only one 
hour ; but truth continues unto ' the hour' [of the resurrec- 
tion]."" " By practising [good] virtue one day, though happi- 
ness do not come, misery will be kept at a distance ; but by 
doing evil one day, though misery do not come at once, yet 
happiness will be prevented."' 

''mercy and truth" TOD implies the feeling of genuine 
charity towards others that flows from the love of God, and 
thus it means piety, kindness, pity, mercy, almsgiving, grace, 
&c. It is often coupled with truth, as here, TO*?') TOO ' mercy 
and truth,' ' kind and true dealing,' said of God (Ex. xxxiv. 6f 
2 Sam. ii. 6, &c.) and of man (Gen. xxiv. 49, xlvii. 29 ; Josh, 
ii. 14, &c.) — a kindly feeling expressed not in words only, but 
also in look. 

"Of what use is the sound of the instrument," says Tiruval- 
luvar, " if it is not in tune [harmony] with the song ? Like- 
wise, of what use is the eye if there is no kindliness in it?"* 
" For," said Damanaka, " a man's innermost mind is seen in 
his eye, and in the various expressions of his countenance."' 
" What, then, is the use of the eyes, though in the forehead, 
without kindliness in them? Kindliness is the ornament of 
the eyes; without it, they are wounds [not eyes]." "The 
world rests on kindness ; men without it are but a weight on 

• Pend-nameh, p. 26. ' Hariri, ii. p. 84. 

* El Nawabig, 44. ' Select Arabic pr. 21. 
' Hien wen shoo, 196. • Cural, Iviii. 573. 

fab. iii. 

' Rumi Diw. 

• Nuthar ellal. 47. 

• Hitopad. iL 



[Hi. 3 "'• 3] 

the earth." » "But a kindly [genial] countenanfe is a two- 
fold gift."' "Speak the truth, and speak agreeably; do not 
tell an unpleasant truth. Even to one ill-disposed towards 
you and disagreeable, speak suitably, with kindness."' 

Bearing on this, Sadi tells the story of a man, about being 
put to death, who abused the king in his own language, which 
the king did not understand. " What does he say ?" asked 
the king. A vizeer, who stood by, answered : " He says, God 
loves generous men." " He does not say that," said another 
vizeer ; "he abuses the king." Whereat the king said he pre- 
ferred the other vizeer's falsehood, told out of kindness, to this 
one's truthfulness told out of spite. For the wise have said "that 
falsehood mixed with good advice is better than truth mingled 
with strife."* [The laws of Manu allow one to tell a lie under 
certain circumstances ; but God's law allows of no deliberate 
falsehood ; for " He is the God of truth." Elsewhere, however, 
Sadi seems to qualify this sentiment, when he says that : " If 
by telling the truth thou continuest in bondage, better it is so 
than to be set free by telling a lie.'"]. 

" O brother, never tell a lie as long as thou Hvest, for a lie 
is contemptible and disgraceful ; it dishonours a man, and 
brings shame upon him."* But "generosity is the produce 
[harvest, advantage] of life ; it gives true greatness." " There- 
fore be steadfast at all times in generosity [kindness, doing 
good to others] ; for the Creator of the soul (or of life) is Him- 
self generous (or beneficent)."' Yea, " let thy calling (or pro- 
fession) in life be greatness [magnanimity], forgiveness and 
generosity," said the wise man to Hajja ben Yussuf, the tyrant 
of Irak Arabi, under Abd-ul-Malek.' 

[As to IXtTjfuxrvvrj, almsgiving, charity, often called 'right- 
eousness' [Matt vi., and frequently in Rabbinical writings]. 

• Curat, Iviii. 574, 5, 572. • Nuthar ellal. 22. 
in Kobitaratnak. 97. * Gulistan, Bk. i. st. i. 

Ixxxiii. • Pend-nameh, p. 28, ed. Calc. 

• Bostan, c. i. p. 15, ed. Calc. 

' Maha Bh., quoted 

» Id. ibid. Bk. iv. 

' Ibid. p. 3. 





the term by which Tpn is rendered in the LXX., it will be so 
often treated in the following chapters, that we need not dwell 
on it here.] 

" let them not depart" " O my son," said Khosru to Shiroyah, 
" do not turn away thy back from wisdom [prudence, under- 
standing] and counsel."' "But gird about thy loins with 
sincerity [sidq] and faith," said the wise man to Tikla the 
Atabeg.' "As did those men, Senshi Kiyo, Hoku, &c, they 
bound letters in their girdles around their loins, and did not 
lose them."' 

" bind them about thy neck!' Like amulets or charms, as is 
generally the case in the East ; or as ornaments of gold or 
silver, and precious stones. "Thy letter," says the Mohar's 
secretary to his master, " is placed on my fingers as a writing 
hung on the neck of a sick man ;"* or also of the dead." " Is 
not this perfect collar of jewels [allusion to the book] an orna- 
ment, when hung around my neck, to give insight into both 
that which is visible and that which is invisible?"' Feridun 
said : " Days are pages of the writings of the years of life. 
Then write on them only that which is best — good words and 
good impressions."' "These my words," said Kakimna, "have 
been placed by some within them [in their bosom] — for the 
good of their hearts."' Of such respect for a father's admoni- 
tion, the Li Ki says : " The son who has filial piety and deep 
love for his parents, must also have an easy disposition, and 
with it, have a pleasing expression (or countenance) ; and 
withal a complying manner. He acts towards his father and 
mother like one who holds a precious gem ; or like one who 
carries a vessel of water, full to the brim, quietly and gently, 
lest he spill the water or lose the gem."' " Yea, duty to parents," 
says the Japanese commentary on the Siao-hio," "is above 

> Bostan, i. St. 3. * Ibid. id. st. 5. ' Go ji kiyo. ♦ Chabas, 

Voy. en Palest, p. 39; Anastasi, I. 20, 1. 6. ' Todtenbuch, 155, 156 sq. 

• Phreng wa, Introd. ' Beharist. R. 2. • Pap. Pr. ii. 1. 6. 

• Siao-hio, c. ii. " Ibid. 



[iii. 4 

iii. 4] 



dignity and majesty [there is nothing so dignified and majestic 
or respectable as duty to parents]." 

" on the table of thine heart!' Engraved on it, like the treaty 
between Ramses the Great and Kheta Sar, prince of the 
Khetas [Hittites], "engraved on a silver tablefi "Paint 
[virtue] after having prepared the ground of the heart ; pro- 
priety will follow."* " A man," say the Chinese, " should esta- 
blish his character. What we keep within our breast consti- 
tutes the thoughts of the heart ; but when brought outside, it 
makes up our character and conduct. Wise and good men 
have every one his characteristic difference of moral goodness ; 
in like manner as among mechanics and artificers, every one 
severally differs in his work. Human actions include the 
carrying out of every man's line of calling or duty. But to 
establish one's character is the business of a whole life. It is 
difficult to speak of it fully."* 

4 So shalt thou find favour and good understanding 
in the sight of God and man. 
M^\ 'and find;' imperative m. 

" So shalt thou," &c. " He that is loved here below, is loved 
above,"* say the Rabbis. "Good manners [morals]," wrote 
Theano to Nicostrate,* "are acceptable even to enemies ; but 
honour is the result only of nobleness and goodness." " I 
fear," said Ibycus of Rhegium," " lest having failed in my duty 
to the gods, I may lose the respect of my fellow-men." "If 
thou art good," said Ani, " people will look up to thee, whether 
in company or alone ; thou wilt find friends (or connections), 
and thy word will be attended to (or obeyed)."' " The son," 
said Ptah-hotep, " who hearkens to his father shall receive his 
blessing ; and his memory [writing or impression] shall be in 
the mouth of those who are living on the face of the earth."* 

• Brugsch, Insc. Monum. Egypt, vol. i. pi. 28, 1. 4. • Shang-L. iii. 8. 
» Dr. Medhurst's dial. p. 160. * Urus. Adag. B. Flor. ' Ed. G. 

• Ibid. ' Chabas, Scribe Ani, xxxl. ' Pap. Pr. xvi. 12, 13. 

"Who is worthy of honour? He who conducts himself 
properly."* " Desire freedom from sickness and a good portion,; 
good morals, and a fair reputation among the good and the 
wise ; then conformity to the law, and contentment of mind ; 
these are four doors of prosperity open to thee [go in and 
prosper].'" "How can a man," says Confucius, "have real 
urbanity of manner if he has not charity [iyiirq, jin] ? How 
can a man without charity possibly be happy?"' According 
to the goodness and sweetness of a man's tongue, is the num- 
ber of his [brethren] friends," says Ali, which the Persian thus 
renders : " If thy tongue is sweet, the whole of mankind will 
be to thee by way of brothers ; but if thy tongue is evil, the 
servants of thy house will be enemies of thy life."* "Keep," 
says Moawiyeh, "to the two high qualities, trustworthiness 
and righteousness."' And Tsheng-tsze quotes a passage from 
the She King, where it is said of a good king "that the world 
would never forget such a one."' 

The wise Yu, who was to the emperor Shun what Vidura 
was to Dhritarashtra, said to him: "Do not violate right 
principles in order to seek the applause of the multitude ; but 
do not oppose the people in order to gratify your own inclina- 
tion. Consider well that the virtue of a prince consists chiefly 
in good government; and good government in nourishing 
[protecting, caring for] the people. In cautioning, use good 
[excellent] words, but rebuke sternly. Who is to be loved, if 
not the prince ? or feared, if not the people ? Only, from the 
mouth proceeds good [feeling] ; but it also makes men take 
up arms."' "There is a connection between the upper world 
[heaven] and the lower [the earth]. Oh, how careful should 
be those who have [the charge or government of] countries 1" 
said Kaou-yaou.« "Then both gods and men will approve," 
said the emperor Shun" (b.c 2001). " Choose good obstinately," 

• Ratnamal. 52. • Kalakinna jat. (84), p. 367. ' Shang-L. iii 3. 

« Ali b. a. T. 8th max. ' Eth-Thealebi, 283. ' Ta-h.o, c. lu. com. 
' She-king, c. iii. • Id. ibid. c. iv. ' Id. ibid. c. ... 



[iii. 4 

said Si-chan [disciple of Choo-hi]; "only speak affectionately 
and deliberately ; listen only to good words, and do not fall 
into evil."* 

" For when Heaven is favourable to a man," says the Mand- 
chu moral maxim, " and his heart is at the same time good, 
he continues unto his old age in prosperity and esteem."* 
" The wise man is honoured, even though his family be de- 
spised ; and when in a foreign land he finds many friends."* 
" Excellent (or respectable) people, whether sitting, standing 
or walking, or even uncovered, are fair to behold, and still 
beautiful. A gem set on the top of a standard shines all the 
more. The excellent, whether they speak or hold their peace, 
are still beautiful and fair to behold."* " They are like the bird 
Kalavinka, which is always agreeable, whether heard or seen. 
For he who is endued with qualities, is adorned by them."* 
[This was said by the young woman of the Shakya race whom 
Champ-pa had chosen for his bride, when blamed for appear- 
ing before her relations with her face uncovered.] 

" For the qualities of a good man," says Tsheng-tsze, " are 
his ornament, since ' riches adorn the house, but virtue adorns 
the person.'"" " Wealth, kindred, age," says Manu, " and fifthly, 
divine knowledge (or wisdom, virtue), all entitle a man to 
respect. But the worthiest of them all is the last mentioned."^ 
" Wise men of old said " that the gods hold him to be venerable 
who is well read in divine lore."* And "learned men may 
prate, all of them, but virtue is the stronghold of the virtuous."* 

"Talk of laws," says Confucius, "yet they may be disobeyed. 
A change of conduct is the thing ;"'" and a modest demeanour. 
" For trees laden with fruit bend towards the earth ; and so 
do men endued with real qualities humble themselves. But a 
dry stick and an empty man break ; they do not bend."" " For 

' Ming Sin P. K. c I. * Ming hien dsi. 104. » Tahak. R. Bl. 108. 

« Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xii. • Id. ibid. « Ta-hio, c. i. p. 7. 

r Manu S. Bk. ii. 136, 137- ' 'bid. 156. • Kobitaratnak. 6. 
w Shang-L. c ix. 74- " Kobitaratnak. 153. 

iii. 4] 



the merit or beauty of the Kokilas [the Indian cuckoo (cuculus), 
a dingy-looking bird, like the nightingale, and as much prized 
for its song as the bulbul is in Persia] is in their song, as 
the beauty of plain people is in their wisdom."' " Persons 
gifted with beauty, youth and noble descent, do not shine if 
they are without wisdom. They are like the flower of the 
Kinshuka, showy, but with no fragrance at all. And as regards 
a foolish man, you may dress him as you like and put him 
in what company you please, he shines only in his dress, and 
as long as he holds his tongue."' 

"Wherever the disciple of Confucius resides or dwells only 
for a time, his demeanour is reserved and dignified. Whether 
sitting or standing, he looks most respectable ; his words 
always proceed from truth, and his actions always are equally 
upright, &c."' " For, indeed, a man is not thought wise for 
his much talking ; but he who is meek, free from anger and 
fear, is verily called wise."* "They alone are wise who rule 
and overcome themselves."' "The wise and good man keep- 
ing his heart under control, thinks of nine things : (l) to look 
bright ; (2) to hear with intelligence ; (3) to look genial ; (4) 
to demean himself reverently ; (5) to speak sincerely ; (6) to 
be respectful towards others ; (7) to inquire when in doubt ; 
(8) when in diflRculties, to reflect ; (9) and to show [look as] 
that it is profitable to think of what is good."* 

" If thou wilt be respected by others, study with diligence."^ 
"And seek after knowledge, as for wealth that wastes (or 
perishes) not."' " For the course of the wise and good man 
rises from the level of ordinary men and women, whence it 
reaches its eminence, and is then open to heaven and earth." 
" He is then said to unite heaven and earth [to partake of 
both]."* " Wherever he is seen, the people cannot but rever- 

' Hitop. i. 210. ' Ibid. pref. 39, 40. 

' Dhammapad. Panditavag. 80, 258. 
• Siao-hio, c. iii. ' Ming hien dsi. 121. 

' Chung y. c. xii. and xxiii. 


' Li-ki, c. xxix. p. 86. 

' Id. Dandav. 145. 

' Telugu Nitimala, iii. 57. 



[iii. S 

ence him ; when he speaks, they cannot but believe him ; and 
they cannot but approve whatever he does,"' and that too, 
whatever be his appearance."* "And he is respected every- 
where. For whether in the village or in the wood, by land or 
sea, wherever the best (or honourable) men dwell, there it is 
best to remain."' " For although the smell of a flower is not 
carried against the wind, yet the fragrance of good men travels 
against it, since the name of a good man pervades all countries; 
it is best even among the gods."* 

5 Trust in the Lord with all thine heart ; and lean 
not unto thine own understanding. 

" Trust in the Lord" &c. Whom else shall we trust, if we 
do not trust Him who sees at a glance the beginning and the 
end of our life, and who makes " all things work together for 
good to them that love Him"? 

" A good man must needs accomplish what he undertakes. 
Yet the finishing (or completing) of a man's work rests with 
the will [lit. heart] of Heaven. How, then, could man wish 
to oppose the will of Heaven ? The good man, therefore, 
accomplishes everything he undertakes : there is nothing in 
which he does not succeed ; for Heaven is with him."' "Trust 
in God will suffice thee ; for it is enough for a man to trust 
Him."' "A chi crede, Dio provede."^ " He who, having for- 
saken (or subdued) all things, desires happiness, stays [lit. pours] 
his faith (or trust) on thee in full reliance, that trust in thee is 
full happiness," says Vemana to his god Shiva."* 

T'shung-ni [Confucius] said : " Know ye not that a man 
of consummate faith [shin] can move things, influence Heaven 
and earth, move spirits, and traverse the six continents with- 
out opposition ? Remember this, my little ones [disciples]."' 

• Chung y. c. xxxi. ' She King, Blc Ta ya, in Chung y. c. xxxiii. 

» Dhammap. PandiUv. 98. * Ibid. Puppav. 58, 59. « Shin Sin 

luh. i. p. 98. • Rishtah I j. p. 69. ' Ital. prov. • Veniana, ii. 130. 
• Lee-tsie, bk. ii. p. 8. 



iii. 5] 



" The superior man [kyiin-tsze]," says Confucius, " stays himself 
on the Spirits, and doubts not. He waits a hundred ages for 
the saint, and is not perplexed ; he stays himself on the Spirits 
[kwey shin], and doubts not He knows Heaven."* [See 
above, p. 23.] Yet in the She King we are told that "his 
[Shang-Te's] decree is not sincere ;"' meaning, no doubt, that 
it is not to be relied upon, so as to presume upon it. As 
explained by Theognis :' "A man, when in difliculties, should 
make every eff"ort to free himself, but at the same time — 

vpoi T< OiSiv oiTcii/ iKKwriv aOavaTutv — 

pray for deliverance sent from the immortal gods." 

" Trust in God, that the good thou foreseest not may happen 
to thee."* " Bind thy heart to the Creator of the world, and 
that is enough."' It is " religion." " Hoc vinculo [sc. religione] 
pietatis obstricti Deo et religati sumus," says Lactantius,' "unde 
ipsa religio nomen accepit ; non ut Cicero interpretatus est a 
' relegendo,'' &c. Haec interpretatio quam inepta sit, ex re 
ipsa licet noscere. Quid ergo est ? Nimirum religio veri cultus 
est, superstitio falsi. Melius ergo id nomen Lucretius inter- 
pretatus est, qui ait :' 

Primum quod magnis doceo At rebus, et arctis 
Relligionum animos nodis exsolvere pergo." 

" For he who submits to Heaven is preserved ; but he who 
opposes Heaven perishes :"• inasmuch as, " If a man has good 
wishes. Heaven must [follow] promote them."'" " He by whom 
all these movable [mean regions] were made — he, the awful 
One, about whom men ask, Where is he ? He is not [seen]. 
Have faith in him, O men; he is Indra."" "Trust in God, 
and He will instruct you."" " He who is strong in faith but 
weak in wisdom, becomes clear-headed and prospers in the 

' Chung y. c. xxix. ' Vol. iii. bk. iii. ode i. ' irnfaw. 566. 

♦ Adag. Sahid. Rosell. p. 129. » Sadi, Gulist. st. i. • Lib. iv. 28. 

' De Nat. D. ii. 28. • Lib. i. 931, and iv. 7. • Ming hien dsi. 29. 

'» Hien w. shoo, 67. " Rig V. Mand. ii. skt. xl. 4, 5- " Qoran, 

sur. ii. 282. 

I 2 



[iii. s 




midst of this unclean world."' " Fear thou the Lord, and 
learn prudence in thy confidence in Him : then shalt thou be 

" In olden time," says the author of " Waga-tsuye,"» " there 
were great and rich men. They prayed to real gods, and, 
while working with all their might, said, looking up to Heaven : 
Grant all desirable things to the whole kingdom of Japan, and 
to me likewise. And if ever ruin should approach my business 
and my shop, ward it off, and let my business go on prosper- 
ously. And having thus well prayed, the gods of course granted 
them their desire." "Dwelling with a sincere faith on the 
[country] abode of the triune god ; and the god shows the 
way."* "Friends," said the Bhodhisatwa, "faith is indeed a 
door of entrance to the doctrine of morals ; it renders the 
mind undivided. The power of it is a door to religion ; it 
enables us to escape from the power of the devil."* We always 
read of 'faith* being strengthened by Buddha in his disciples 
before they undertake a religious work. Thus in the Dsang-lun* 
we find that when he granted life to the three sons of a widow, 
" he first of all confirmed their sense of faith ere he admitted 
them to the priesthood." " Faith [or trust in Buddha, piety, 
■siisok'] is three-fold: (i) pious trust (or faith) consists in 
taking pleasure in doing good works, and feeling sorry for sin ; 
(2) longing faith is from an earnest desire of the perfect intel- 
ligence of Buddha [bodhi khutuk] to walk in the path marked 
out by it ; and (3) to submit oneself entirely with devotion to 
the teaching of one's priestly adviser."' "But in all that," 
says another Tibetan Buddhist, " faith is necessary ; for with- 
out faith, say not that the rules of religion can be kept And 
faith is three-fold (or consists of three parts), thus : (i) belief, 
(2) love, (3) and sincerity ; such is faith. And as to sincere 

' Sudhammapalam. p. 121. • Mishle Asaph, i. 2, 32. ' Lit. 

"My Staff," the title of a Japanese work on morals, vol. ii. p. 10, 11. 
• Dam chhos yit bj. fol. 12. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' c. ii. fol. 7. 

' Tonilkhu yin chiin. iv. 


faith, it consists in devotion to the three deities of the land ;- 
in teaching the way of the most perfect holy God ; and in 
keeping company with good men who, worshipping God, are 
humble in their own thoughts [think little of themselves]. 
Thus religion becomes evident ; and faith results in works, 
like fruit ; in truth, belief in God, love, good thoughts, &c."* 

" Remember thy father. Alp Arslan," said the wise man to 
Kazl Arslan. " When he was hopeless and reft of everything, 
he put his trust in God's mercy, and that was enough."* 
" Nay, brother, break not thy heart when thou art in misfor- 
tune, for the Merciful One has hidden mercies (or gracious 
dealings)."' " For if God in wisdom shut one door, in mercy 
He opens another."* Here, however, the Buddhist gives ano- 
ther very different advice : " O Ananda, be a lamp to your- 
selves, refuges to yourselves, and take refuge in no one else. 
Lamps of virtue ! take refuge in yourselves, and in no one but 
your own selves. And such of my disciples, O Ananda, who 
have made themselves their own refuge shall be foremost 
among the rest. I go, I leave you, said the Tathagata, after 
having made myself my own refuge."' 

"King Milinda asked Nagasena, 'What is the distinctive 
attribute of faith [saddha] ?' ' The attribute of faith, O King, 
is to be both serene [quieting, tranquil] and springing (or 
leaping) forward.' 'How serene?' 'When faith ['saddha' is 
faith in the true sense of it, not mere belief, but with it ' trust 
and love'] arises in the heart, O King, it obstructs [overcomes] 
obstacles — lust, malice, sloth, pride and doubt : then the mind, 
being free from these obstacles, becomes clear, serene and 
calm.' 'And how is faith 'leaping forward'?' 'When a man, 
King, who is intent on his own salvation, sees with his mind 
set free, he springs forward to the fruits of devotion, Arahat- 
ship, &c. ; and he becomes united to that which he does not 
yet actually possess, to that which he has not yet reached, by 

• Thargyan, fol. 12, 15, 16. ' Bostan, p. 18, ed. Calc. ' Gulist. 

i. xvi. St. * Bostan, p. 31. ' Mahaparanibbh. fol. nyu, nyam. 



[Hi. 6 

iii. 6] 



reaching to it ; and to that which is not yet evident, by making 
it present to his eyes. Thus, O King, is faith said to be 
springing forward.'" "Yea, O King, faith crosses the flood on 
which the careless cannot sail ; energy overcomes misfortunes, 
and wisdom purifies the whole." > [Wonderful words, consi- 
dering who spoke them. Nagasena, like S. Paul, told the truth 
that " Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence 
of things not seen," Heb. xi. i.] 

'^lean not on thine own understanding!' [How can we Mean' 
on it? Do we know what is 'to be'— to-day or to-morrow? 
But God does.] 

"For in most cases man's understanding is wont to be 
troubled when difficulty or adversities arise."* "As to men, 
let neither merchandize, nor buying, nor selling, beguile them 
away from the remembrance of God and from almsgiving ; 
and let them fear the day when the hearts will be turned 
inside out, like the things that are seen."' " Intellect [or un- 
derstanding, nya, that corresponds only partly to 'buddhi'], 
in that it is ' ascertainment,' or ' resolute' in its action, is said 
to be eight-fold : virtue, knowledge, absence of passion, and 
superhuman power ; with their four opposites — vice, ignorance, 
&c."* "The following are synonyms (?), "paryayashabda :' 
alternate terms : mind, understanding, great principle, creator, 
wisdom, memory, &c."* 

6 In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall 
direct thy paths. 

" In all thy ways acknowledge Him" who sees the end from 
the beginning, and who orders all things for the best. 

" The wise man," says Archytas, " is he who looks at the 
order of all things as coming from God. Keeping this in view, 
he will attain his object ; ras apya.% rots iripao-i <rvvd\f'ai, connect- 
ing the result with the principle [the ends with the beginnings], 

' Milinda pauo, p. 35, 36. • Hitop. i. sL ii. 27. ' Qoran, 

snr. xxiv. 27. • Kapila, Tatwasam. 9. » Id. 16. 


he settles in his mind and experiences that God is the begin- 
ning and the end, and the middle of all things done according 
to justice and sound reason."' Pindar also teaches us in his 
own way — 

" n-oi^i fiiv Otov alnov inrcpTiOiiiiv^ — 

to ascribe the cause of all to God — 

iv 0t<f y€ ftav TcXos' — 
since the issue of all things rests with Him ; and all success 
and prosperity which He gives lasts longest of all."* " There- 
fore," says Rabbi M. Maimonides, " whatever a man does, let 
him settle in his heart to do it to the glory of the Blessed 
Name"' — "and always prevent trouble by prayer."' 

"And let thy prayers be 'llyfn,' polished [by use]," says 
the Welsh proverb, " and thy weapons rusty."' "For in like 
manner as the excellence of riches lies in almsgiving, so also 
does the greatest happiness lie in a mind at peace [by being 
stayed on Buddha]," says the Buddhist.' "What is thy 
name, O Ahura-Mazdao," asked Zarathustra. " My name, O 
pure Zarathustra, is first, ' He to whom prayer is to be made ;' 
and my other name [i6th] is, ' He who remembers actions in 
order to reward them."" " For whatever man prays ardently, 
to such is Buddha's footprint visible ; but to no other."" 

And the Brahman : "At the beginning, in the middle, and 
at the end, Hari is always to be sung."" Begin and end with 
God. And Rabbi Hillel said : " Separate not thyself from the 
congregation, and trust not to thyself until the day of thy 
death."'* And R Jose : " Dispose thyself to learn the law, 
for it does not come to thee by inheritance ; and let all thy 
works be done unto the God of heaven."" "Happiness is 
secured by obedience to God ; the heart is enlightened by it. 
If thou girdest thyself with obedience to Him, it will open to 

■ Archytas, in Jamblich. Protrept. c. iii. ed. G. ' Pyth. v. 33. 

' 01. xiii. 147. * Nem. viii. 28. ' Halkut de'ot. iii. 2. 

• Ep. Lod. 1379. ' Welsh prov. ' Legs par b. p. 248. 

• Hormuzd Yasht. 7. '" Dhammap. story of Q. Satavatti, p. 72, ed. 
Rangoon. " Bahudorsh. p. 3. " Pirke Av. ii. " Id. ibid. 



[iii. 7 

thee the door of eternal [wealth] happiness ; for there is no 
business higher than that. Worship the Creator, and settle in 
the palace of obedience to Him."' "For happiness comes 
of His mercy (or forgiveness), and does not depend on the 
strong arm of the warrior."' "Nothing can shield us from 
His decree ;"» " for if He shut the door, no one can open it."* 
" Seek God's face in whatever thou undertakest ; if not, thy 
labour will be in vain," says El Nawabig." By ' God's face,' 
understand ' His consent,' says Zamakhshari in his Commen- 
tary.* " Yet," says the Pythagorean, " ask not of God that 
which thou couldst not keep if it were granted. No gift of 
God can be taken away ; so that He will not give what one 
cannot hold [or keep, turn to good account]."' " Touching the 
religious worship of the gods," says the Stoic, " know thou 
that the principal thing is to have correct ideas concerning 
them, as existing [being] and ordering everything well and 
according to justice."* "O God,",says Pindar, "virtue, valour 
and good gifts come from thee to men — 

oX)8os 6iri(ofi.ivu)v — 

and the bliss of those who fear thee increases evermore."' 

7 Be not wise in thine own eyes : fear the Lord, 
and depart from evil. 

" Be not wise," &c. " Every man," says Confucius, " who 
says, ' I know,' is led astray into many toils [nets, traps], and 
fails into pits, whence he knows not how to extricate himself."*" 
Thus explained by the Japanese commentator : " Every man 
who says, ' I am a knowing one,' is foolish (or ignorant)."*' 
" Every one says, ' I am wise,' ' I know ;' but who knows the 
hen from the cock of crows?"" "When I knew only a little," 

' Sadi, Pend-nam. p. 20. ' Bostan, v. st. 2. ' Ibid. st. 3. 

* Ibid. St. IJ. * El Nawab. 184. • Ibid. ' Demophili sent. ed. G. 
' Epictet. Ench. c. xxxviii. • Isthm. iii. 7. "> Chung y. c. vii. 

" Ibid. Com. p. 5. " She King, pt. ii. bk. iv. ode 8. 

iii. 7] 




says Bhartrihari,' " I was like an elephant, blind with my own 
importance. ' I know everything,' whispered my mind plastered 
with conceit. When, however, I began to improve a very little, 
in company with the wise, then I said of myself: ' I am but a 
fool after all,' and my pride [self-conceit] left me, like a fever." 
" Evil be to him," says Abu Zeid of Serug, "who seeks the world 
and bends his affections towards it. He can no longer come to 
himself when once [entangled] overwhelmed by it. Yet if he 
knew it, a very little of what be longs for would suffice him."* 
Confucius, who was of a meek disposition, "was free from 
four things: he had no ' will,' no ' must,' no ' shall,' and no ' I.'"* 
" Self-sufficient, self-mistaken," says the Chinese proverb. On 
the other hand, Meng-tsze says truly : " If a respectable man 
despises himself [loses self-respect], men will, as a matter of 
course, despise him also."* [For self-sufficiency implies deaf- 
ness to argument and obstinacy against proof to the contrary.] 
"As the wind swells empty skins [oo-kow] so does also — tow 8* 
avoijTovs dvOpunrovi to otrjjiio — self-conceit swell foolish men,"* 
" who in their arrogance will insist on saying what they like, 
yet will listen to nothing."* " The kokila, when it has got a 
mango, fruit of the gods, is not proud of it ; but a frog, full of 
muddy water,, is proud to croak unceasingly."' "The fool," 
says the Buddhist, "who acknowledges his folly, is thereby 
reputed wise ; but the fool who thinks himself wise, is a fool 
indeed."' "And," say the Arabs, " he who [in his own opi- 
nion] places himself in the dwelling of [on a rank with] the 
wise, both God and men put him at once among fools."' " For 
to boast out of season," says Pindar, " iMvlauriv vnoKptKu, ac- 
cords with folly."'* " For the mind of men is beset with num- 
berless mistakes ;"" "and the wise man himself often has his 
own misgivings.'"* 

' Nitishat. 8. ' Hariri consess. i. ' Shang-Lun, ix. 3. * Hea 
Meng, vii. 8. ' Demophili similitud. p. 619, ed. G. * Democrat, 

sent. aur. id. p. 631. ' Kobitaratn. 31. ' Dhammap. Balav. 63. 

» Erpen. sent. 3. '• 01. ix. 58. " Ibid, vii, 43- " 'bid. vii. 55. 



[iii. 8 — ID 

iii. lo] 



" But first of all," says Pythagoras of Samos, " honour the 
immortal gods as ordered by law ; and do evil neither in 
company nor alone. Respect thyself most.'" 

8 It shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to thy 

^IpnJ, lit. ' moisture,' ' watering.' Chald. ' fat,' ' fattening.' 

" Health" " There is no finer garment for a man," says AH, 
"than good health,'" which the Persian Commentary renders 
thus : " If a man makes use of his common sense ['aql], he 
finds that his best covering is ' health ;' if he does not think 
so, there is nothing left for him but [contrition] regret, or 
repentance [for his folly]."' [The expression, "health to thy 
navel," occurs nowhere else in Scripture. 'Navel' here, like 
'heart' frequently, as centre, is meant for the 'whole body;' 
and is so rendered, o-u/ta, by the LXX., " health to their flesh," 
ch. iv. 22 ; " to the bones," ch. xvi. 24. " lechid i galon," 
" health to the heart," is a familiar expression in Welsh ; as in 
Arabic, "the Word of God is medicine [health] to the heart;"* 
vyiiirfpov KoX.oKvvTai — "more wholesome than colocynth."* 
" Goreu meddyg, the best physician," says the Welsh proverb, 
" is he of the soul." [Like ")»', d/i<^oXo's and umbilicus, are used 
in the same sense for 'centre.' Dodona, Delphi, the land of 
Israel, Jerusalem, &c, are frequently so mentioned]. " The 
words of men of old," says Ptah-hotep, " and their obedience 
to the gods, make them a pattern for thee to follow, to drive 
away infirmities from intelligent men (or spirits)."' 

9 Honour the Lord w^ith thy substance, and with 
the firstfruits of all thine increase : 

10 So shall thy barns be filled with plenty, and thy 
presses shall burst out with new wine. 

■ linj XP"»5- ', • «• «2- * All b. a. T. 30. ' Pers. Com. ad. loc. 

« All b. a. T. 208. » Sophron. Syrac. 37, ed. G. • Pap. Pr. v. 4. 


" Hoiiour the Lord," &c. 

" Zev irdvSiopt — Bhi Si Kvp^o-at yvu/ii;;, 
o<l>p' Av rifirjOivrti d/ictj3(u^«rda (r< T«fij :' 

" Bountiful Heaven, vouchsafe unto us such a mind as, being 
honoured of Thee, we also may honour Thee in return." [The 
best of our income belongs of right to Him from whom we freely 
receive all things ; and it is an honour to be allowed to offer 
it to Him. Alms sanctify our increase, and He blesses it.] 
On this subject, see ' Masseketh Terumoth,' in Mishna, vol. i., 
and the Didascalia Apost.' (Eth.), where this passage is thus 
quoted : " Solomon says to the people : Give to the Lord of 
thy labour in alms, in order that wheat may be heaped up in 
thy granaries, and that thy wine-press may gurgle up like a 
spring." " Blessing on our substance," say the Arabs, " comes 
from the payment of our alms."' 

" The salt of Mammon [riches] is the alms given out of it."* 
" He who wishes that his riches may last, must plant Adra in 
them.' [HmM, Adra, is the name of a cedar or of some other 
choice tree. Here is an allusion to Ps. xciii. 4, and means 
that the excellency of our goods is to be offered to Him who 
gives them.] Yet, 

"Puras Deus, non plenas adspicit manus:'" 
For " God gives indeed what He gives, but does not receive 
when receiving"' [since everything is His, and comes from 
Him to us]. Confucius, speaking of the good deeds of the 
emperors Woo-wang and Tcheou-kung, says " that the rites of 
the Kiao and She were those wherewith they served (or did 
homage to) Shang-Te."' [Kiao was a great offering to 
Heaven, made at the winter solstice, and She was a sacrifice 
to the earth, offered at the summer solstice. The Chinese 
term 'sze,' used here in the sense of ' serving' or ' offering to' the 
gods, answers to irowtv, facere, in their ritual meaning.] And 

> Cleanthes H. 32 sq. ' c. xx. ' Nuthar ellaJ. 13. < Ketubb. 
B. FI. » Betza, xv. b. Buxtorf Flor. and Lex. I.e. • PubL Syr. 

' Ep. Lod. 254. ' Chung y. c. xix. 



[iii. lO 

"Confucius himself, though his food was of the plainest, 
vegetables and broth, yet always poured some of it in sacrifice. 
Thus did he show his respect for the spirits [of his ancestors]."' 
So did also Nalas, "in whose house the gods were always 
pleased with the sacrifices due to them."* 

"O Kundgawo [Ananda], these poor people, after innumerable 
kalpas, are now in the abode of the gods for having brought to 
them offerings with a most devoted (or faithful) mind. There- 
fore, O Kundgawo, it is not right not to be addicted to deeds on 
the side of religious merit (or happiness)."' Nor, according 
to the Telugu proverb, " to offer them flour carried away by 
the wind."* As the Spaniards say : " El abad de Bamba, lo 
que no puede comer, da lo por su alma:"' "The Abbot of 
Bamba, who gives for his soul only what he cannot eat." 
" Let every wise and genial man, in whatever country he 
settles, worship the gods thereof, and they in return will 
worship and respect him. Let him offer them gifts. Then 
will the gods fondle him as a mother her only son ; and he 
who is thus favoured by them, always sees good things."' 

So says the Buddhist ; but the Rabbis, better : " If thou 
rememberest thy Creator in the days of thy prosperity, thou 
shalt find Him in the days of thy adversity."' And Hesiod, 
after denouncing the crimes that bring upon men the wrath 
of Jove, says : " But thou, make offerings to the immortals 
after thy power, chaste and pure, and spare no cost for them. 
But pour out to them drink-offerings when going to bed and 
also when rising from it, in order that they may foster a heart 
and mind favourable to thee."" "As a man's food is," says 
the Buddhist, " so let his offering be to his divinity. If he 
brings to it only a plain cake of rice [he says :] ' ma me 
bhagam,' &c., let not my good fortune be injured thereby."' 

» Shang-Lun, c. x. 8. ' Nalopakhy. vi. 9. » Dsang-Lun, c. v. 

fol. 101. * Tel. pr. 766. ' Span. pr. • Mahaparanibbh. fol. Bi. 

' Ep. Lod. 294. • i. «• ■»• 334- ' Kundaka jat. 109 (p. 423)- 

iii. II, 12] 



It My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord^ 
neither be weary of his correction : ' 

1 2 For whom the Lord loveth he correcteth ; even 
as a father the son in whom he delighteth. 

"ip^O, 'instruction,' always implying 'chastening.' KoXa<r«9 lorpttou, 
' chastenings are medicines,' says Aristotle.^ 

*' My son" &c. "It is no small thing," say the Rabbis, 
" that a man should be tried ; for in the trial he will either be 
valued or despised [thought lightly of]"' For " misfortunes 
sent by Heaven," say the Japanese, "must blossom [do good 
and bear fruit) ; but it is difficult to escape from those we 
bring upon ourselves."' "Take heed then," says the Bud- 
dhist ; " as cotton is light, so in this world is the inconstant, 
fickle man ; so also is he who minds the teaching of neither 
spiritual teacher nor parents, and is thus careless of the chas- 
tening or teaching of Buddha."* 

" Every one," says Rabbi Huna, " whom the most Holy and 
Blessed One loves. He purifies by chastening."' "God proves, 
but not all men ; only the righteous (or pious)."' "Qui aime 
bien, chitie bien."' "The Lord of mercies does not hurt 
against the souls of men, at the first [He is long-suffering]," 
says R. Eccah.' " He does not burden a soul above its 
strength," say the Arabs.* " He does not act with violence."** 
" But temporal chastenings are like a lighted torch in a man's 
hand, whereby to see his state [or good] towards his Creator."" 
" For the beginning of the righteous is in chastenings, and 
their end is in prosperity [peace] ; but the beginning of the 
wicked is happiness, and their end is chastisement."'" 

Truly, then, "y groes waethaf: the worst cross is to be 
without one," say the Welsh ; " and the Italians : " E cosa grave 

» Eth. 1104b, 16. » Ep. Lod. 1278. ' Do-ji-kiyo. * Lokan. 144. 
' Berach. 5, M. S. • Bava M. B. FL ' French pr. " Dukes, 

R. BI. 56. » Meid. Ar. pr. " Midr. Tanchum. in Dukes, R. Bl. 59. 

1' Baal Aked. B. Bl. " Sanhedr. B. FL " Welsh pr. 



[iii. II, 12 

non aver croce."» " No man," say the Rabbis, "is more to be 
pitied than he to whom no misfortune happens in his life."* 
For " a portion of misfortune is profitable," say the Georgians.' 
" Cold is often beneficial, and the pious (or righteous) endure 
adversity (or trouble) ; as lotuses close their petals as soon as 
the cold rays of the moon fall on them."* " The harsh [unfeel- 
ing] thoughts (or disposition) of a low man in prosperity are 
softened by adversity ; for it often happens that what is hard 
in cold water, becomes soft when boiled."' "Without trial 
the real merit (or ' stuff,' tatwam) of a man is not accurately 
known (or brought out) to advantage ; as the brilliancy of the 
fastenings of one's armour is not wrought without much 

"A chi Dio vuol bene, manda delle pene,"' say the Italians. 
"Calamities," say the Chinese, "come from high Heaven; 
but one must inquire of one's heart if it is not ashamed [of 
deserving them]."* "Prayer, O Kunti, troubles, joys, ever 
succeed one another here below ; take care that the chastening 
[example or reproof] sent thee be not repeated to thee."* 
" Wise men," said Arjuna, " know that ever/thing depends on 
chastening ; Swarga and this world also are attainable only 
through chastening [lit. lie in chastening, or punishment]."*" 
" The best men," says El Nawabig; " are tried by great adver- 
sities ; as if mourning [adversity and lamentation] were the 
sister [or nurse] of excellence."" For "he must be wicked, 
he on whom the hour [time] smiles."" 

But "the reward of affliction is silence," say the Rabbis" 
[and elsewhere "patience;" from the feeling that affliction is 
deserved and beneficial]. " For patience is the key of joy," 
say the Osmanlis ;" "and with patience, verjuice becomes 
sweet"'* "For he who submits himself to God, is raised 

• Ital. pr. ' Ep. Lodov. 1295. ' Georg. pr. • Drishtanta 

shat. 15. ' Id. ibid. 29. • Id. ibid. 43. ' Ital. pr. • Ming 

Sin P. K. and Prov. Chin. ed. P. 5. » Bahudorsh. p. 5. " Maha 

Bh. Shanti P. 466. " El Nawab. 139. " Ep. Lod. 1743 

" Berach B. Fl. id. 62. a. in Lexic. s. voce. " Osm. pr. " Ibid. 




II, 12] 



by Him,"> says Mahomet. "And he who does ft from love 
for God, is greater than he who does it from fear."* " For 
God," says Demophilus, " afflicts, not from anger, but because 
He is disregarded ; for wrath is a stranger to God. Wrath 
belongs only to inconsiderate men ; but in God there is nothing 
inconsiderate [apovkrirov]."* 

"Do not fight God [firi flto/tdx"]," says Menander, "neither 
bring other storms [troubles] on the matter in hand ; but bear 
what is thy lot to bear."* And " it behoves the [eiytir/p] well- 
born (or noble) man to bear readily [yvritrlm] the afflictions of 
his lot, when not the result of his own conduct"* "Wise 
men," replied Dimnah when in prison, "have said: Do not 
feel impatient of chastisement if it but keeps thee back from 
further sin ; for it is better for thee to be punished in this 
world, than hereafter in the fire of hell."* " Yea," says Ali, 
" impatience in adversity is the finishing [completion, perfec- 
tion] of trouble [or misery]."' Thus explained in the Arab 
Commentary : " Patience in adversity lures one to a reward ; 
but impatience in adversity brings on punishment Yet what 
greater misery can there be, than to lose one's everlasting 
reward, and receive a punishment that is to last for ever?" 
And the Persian Commentary : " Every man whom affliction 
or calamity befalls, who while in that trouble bemoans it, or 
gives way to anxiety, and who does not make patience and 
trust in God his stock and the ornament of his daily life, 
remains an outcast from everlasting bliss, and falls a prey to 
never-ending punishment And what misery can be greater 
than such a state ?" " In trouble, do not lament ; for to 
lament only makes thy heart sorer ; and no pain or sorrow 
can be greater than this — to be kept aloof from God's reward."* 

"It is best for thee, Hiero, to bear lightly the yoke put 
upon thy neck ; it turns out to be but a slippery way to kick 

' Muham. 59. 
* tivovx- P". 
' Ali b. a. T. 12. 

' Sotah 31, M. S. • Demophil. sent. Pythag. ed. G. 
' Id. fivtox- i. ' Calilah u Dimnah. p. 143. 

• Arab, and Pers. Com. ad 1. 



[ill. 12 

against the pricks." * And learn "that pride (or haughtiness) 

is corrected by sorrow (or trouble)."' " Yet," says Ani, the 

old Egyptian scribe, " lose not heart ; it is thy God who gives 

thee life [or existence]."' 

" as a father the son" &c. " O Indra, bring us [strength or] 

wisdom, as a father to his sons. O thou, often invoked, teach 

us in that path ; let us [while on earth] proceed towards that 

light"* "Cast us not away, for thou art our refuge, our help, 

and our kinsman."' " O Heaven, be thou our fostering friend ; 

for thou art akin to us."* "Thou who spreadest thyself like 

a covering to protect us."^ " Thou reignest over all."* " Faith 

in thee, O thou rich in blessings, exalts us to heaven."' " O 

ye gods, you are indeed our kinsmen. Alone, among you all, 

1 have committed many sins (or incurred great guilt) ; do not 

correct me like a father his wayward son ; seize me not as a 

fowler seizes a bird."" 

" O bee, bird of the air," said Lemminkainen's mother, " fly 

for the third time to the highest heaven, for there is plenty of 

honey ; plenty of sweetness, in abundance [lit. to the measure 

of thought or wish], which the Creator uses, on which the 

holy God breathes, and with which He anoints [soothes] His 

children when they are in trouble through some evil power."" 

"MadhuDiaurastuna: Pita!"" " Let Dius, Dies-piter, Zew 

leaTTip, Heaven- Father, be sweetness to us." 

"Adspice hoc sublime candens, 
Quem invocant omnes lovem."" 

" — irt yap wa.vT«T<Ti difxii Ovrjrouri ir/oocrotiSjiv, 

> ^ \ / t / tf 

€K crou yap ytvo'i (triuv. 

" For all of us mortals have right to address Thee, since we [as 
taught by S. Paul] are thy offspring."** " For mortals," says 
Xenophanes," " believe that gods have produced them ; and 

• Pindar, Pyth. ii. i/i- ' Thar gyan, fol. 8. » Ani, xxvi. p. i6g. 

« Sama V. i, 3, i, 7- ' Ibid. 8. ' Ibid. i. 2, 2, 8. ' Ibid. i. 2, 2, 4, 8. 
» Ibid. i. S, 2, 2, 10. » Ibid. i. 2, 3, 4, 7. 8. " Rig V. ii. skta. xxix. 4, 5. 
" Kalevala, xv. 473 sq. " Rig V. i. 6. " Ennius in Cicero, de N. D. ii. 
'« CIcanthes, Hymn in Jov. 4; Acts xvii. 26. " Xen. Coloph. 5, ed. G. 




that they [the mortals] wear their [the gods'] covering, that 
they have their voice, and also the same body as they." 

" Heaven is my father," says the Brahman, " my progenitor, 
and the Earth is my mother."' " From our origin, from our 
ancient father, we speak." "We are thine, of thy nature."* 
" I mind [dwell upon, consider] the eternal kindred [or sister- 
hood] with Thee [O Heaven] our great father and progenitor."' 
" I propitiate by my invocations the beneficent [not oppressing] 
mind of the father, and innate life [vigour, strength] of the 
mother :" [" Heaven is your father, and the earth is your 
mother," says Sayana in his Commentary ; but in the Nirukta 
the sky [or expanse, antariksha] is said to be the mother.* 
Compare this with the Egyptian heaven, which is feminine, 
and "mother ;' and the remarkable ceiling at Gournou, where 
the sun, as ' Cheper,' is coming out of his mother's [Heaven] 
womb ; and this, too, with the same idea [garbhe matu] in the 
Sama Veda,* and this again with Ps. ex. 3.] " Impenetrable, 
impenetrable [yuen] Heaven is rightly said to be our father 
and mother."' 

" JArjripa r aOavardiv, 'Ami' [Aditi ?] «al Mrjva kikX^ku, 
Oupaviriv T< $iAv."^ 

Woo-Kheu-yJn, in his Commentary on Wen-chang-tan, 
says : " He who wishes to understand clearly the [Ii] source 
or rule of happiness and of misfortune, must first see clearly 
the true and the false of each. To accumulate virtue is true 
happiness ; but to amass evil is real misfortune. For poverty 
or wealth, honour or contempt, sickness or long life and 
tranquillity, are not in themselves either happiness or misfor- 
tune. But this is happiness or misfortune, to consider the 
way one spends life. Is it for the spread of virtue? then 
happiness follows. Is it, however, for the spread of evil ? 

» Rig V. ii. skta. c Ixiv. 33. ' Id. ibid. i. skta. Ixxxvii. 5 ; id. skta. 

Ivii. 5. » Id. iii. skta. liv. • Id. ii. skta. clix. 2, 3, and skta. 

clxxxv. II. » Sama V. Hymn ii. 6, 7, 2. • She King, bk. iv. ode 4. 
' Orph. Hymn. i. 40. 




[iii. 12 

then of course misery is the result. If wealth is spent to the 
honour of Heaven and of men all round, it is happiness ; if 
for evil to others, then it is misfortune. If in poverty we 
fret against Heaven and covet other men's riches, it is mis- 
fortune ; but if poverty leads us to refrain from idleness, 
wickedness or sloth, then poverty is happiness indeed." 

" Holy and worthy men can only wish for true happiness, 
and seek that only. And this is their way. If they find 
themselves in difficulty, sickness or misery, or if they enjoy 
rest, wealth and cheerfulness, they dare not say, ' It comes 
by chance (or of necessity),' but they hearken to the order 
[ming] from Heaven ; if times accord with their wishes, they 
say, ' Heaven comforts and encourages me ;' but if times are 
contrary, they say, ' Heaven warns and corrects me.' It all 
tends one way — obedience to Heaven. Therefore it is said, 
that as regards those who love Heaven, whether it accord 
with their wishes or oppose them, it all contributes to their 
happiness. But as regards the bad, their prosperity does not 
lead them to good, nor does adversity reform them from their 
evil course. So that nothing tends to happiness for them."* 

" For the love of Mida [Amida, Buddha] is like that of a 
parent for his children ; but men act like undutiful children 
towards him [or them, gods]."* "It is a sin," says Tai-shang 
[in Kang-ing-pien], "to depreciate or neglect Heaven's people," 
so-called, says the Commentary, "because all we who teem 
with life are like new-bom babes [children] to Shang-Te, 
therefore are we, and the rest, called ' Heaven's people.' 
Therefore to depreciate or neglect Heaven's people, is to 
depreciate or neglect Shang-Te himself."* Chin-keuen says : 
"[Keen] Heaven is the great father, and [Kuan] the Earth is 
the great mother. They envelop all in one great membrane ; 
they pervade everything, and give to everything its own 
property ; they give form to everything, and, bestowing 

' Shin sin luh, iv. p. 23. 
sin luh, i. p. 105. 

* Kiu O do wa, vol. i. 3, p. 6. ' Shin 


iii. 13] 



reason on man, make him man. What a father and what a 

"I," says Bhagavan, "am father, mother, protector and 
ancestor of this world — the way, purveyor, lord and witness."* 
" O Arjuna, I am the Spirit dwelling in all beings ; I am the 
beginning, the middle and the end ; I am imperishable Time."* 
[Compare 'Zervana akarana,' illimitcd, endless Time, and 
' self-created firmament,' mentioned in Moses of Choren and 
Elisaeus, and in the Avesta.]* " Heaven," says the She King, 
"brought all things into existence; everything has its rule 
(or pattern) to follow."* "So, then, man is the heart of 
Heaven and Earth, from the virtue of them both ; but from 
an agreement [or union] of Yin and Yang [female and male 
principles in nature] for his body."« " I was born of father 
and mother," said Ky Yew's son, " but Heaven gave me life."^ 

Tseu-tsze says in the Chung-yung* [and is quoted in Siao- 
hio]» that Heaven's decree is called "nature," to which the 
Japanese Commentary adds : " However endless be the gene- 
rations of man, yet it is certain that he is a being endowed 
with a nature the origin of which is from Heaven." " Then 
the Lord [prabhu] made another body from dust -matter, 
endued with a soul ; then man came into existence ; and 
out of dust- matter. And the Lord having created man, 
created also a light [thin] expanse ; and it became light 
at the end of night and at the opening of day."'" "Thou," 
said Brahma to Vishnu, "art the father and mother of all 
worlds ; thou art also their teacher."" But " men," says Indra, 
"call me father."" 

13 Happy is the man i/ml findeth wisdom, and the 
man /Aai getteth understanding. 

' Wen chang hiao-king, c. i. ' Maha Bh. Bhishma P. xxxiv. 1137. 

' Id. ibid. 1224, 1237. * Vendid. xix. 44, &c. ' She King, vol. iii. 

bk. iii. ode 4. ' Li ki, Li lin, viii. ' She King, v. 3. ' ch. i. 

" ch. i. " Markand Pur. xlviii. II, 12. " Brahma Vaiv. Pur. si. 41. 
" Rig V. Mand. x. skta. 48, 1. 

K J 



[iii. 13 

Marg. reading, Heb. ' the man that draweth out understanding.' 

" Happy" &c. "'n /iaKop— Oh, blessed and happy is he," says 
Theognis, " to whom the gods have granted the best opinion 
[judgment] ; for it can achieve everything. Man has nothing 
in him better than that ; and nothing worse than a want of 
it"* " Understanding is the richest wealth," says AH ; and 
the Arabic commentary thereon : " Understanding ['aql] is the 
greatest riches ; for with it a man reaches his intention [gains 
his object]." "And the Persian adds : " Every one who has 
intellect [understanding or wisdom, 'khird'] is more powerful 
than one possessed of wealth ; for this reason, that wealth, 
when spent, disappears ; but understanding is strengthened 
by being used."* "O thou who seekest greatness through 
riches, seek rather greatness of intellect ; for there is nothing 
more powerful."' 

" Where there is true wisdom, what need is there of riches ?"* 
" For a small particle of knowledge is [often] better than much 
labour."' " What is the use of wealth if you have real wisdom ? 
Or what are riches compared with wisdom that cannot be 
gainsaid ?"« "Gwell pwyll— wits are better than gold ;" "and 
better is sense than riches,"' say the Welsh. " For those," says 
Manu, " who are not given to wealth and to the lusts of the 
flesh, the knowledge of religion and of virtue is set before them. 
And for those who wish to become acquainted with virtue, 
the revealed Vedas [sruti] are the highest authority."' "The 
[good and wise] educated man [kiun-tsze, ' gentleman,' in the 
Chinese acceptation of the term]," says Confucius, " cherishes 
virtue ; the [small, mean, little] inferior man cherishes this 
earth. The wise man cherishes one constant rule ; the vulgar 
man looks to gifts."' Yet "the long and round gem [the 
sceptre and diadem] are not so valuable as an inch of shadow 
on the sun-dial spent in pursuit of wisdom." >» " Everything in 

» Theogn. 1125, 1875. * 84th maxim, and Comm. ad 1. ' Id. ibid. 
« Shadratna. 6. ' Nuthar ellal. 126. • Nitishat. 18. ' Welsh pr. 
• Manu S. ii. i. * Shang-L. iv. 1 1. •• Gun den sen dzi mon. 233—240. 

iii. 13] 



plenty is thought less of [despised] except understanding, 
which, the more it abounds, the more it is prized."* 

" Rara juvant ; primis sic major gratia pomis ; 
Hybemae pretium sic meruere rosse."' 

" Since understanding [buddhi] is strength to him that has it, 
what, then, is the strength of him who is void of understand- 
ing?" "A lion maddened with rage was killed in his own 
jungle by a rabbit," said Vishnu Sarma to King Amarashakti.' 
[Happy, then, is he, who p^D^ obtains understanding, either by 
drawing it from God, the fountain-head, or from his own 
experience. Comp. ch. viii. 35, xii. 2, xviii. 22, &c.] "What 
is happiness?" however, asks the Brahman. "To be free from 
all attachment."* "And what is the greatest good ?" asks the 
Buddhist. "To take no pleasure in tumult (or clamour)."' 
" Sapientis animus nunquam est in vitio, nunquam turgescit, 
nunquam tumet : nunquam sapiens irascitur."' " Understand 
through wisdom, and be wise in understanding, to know every 
opportunity of doing the Lord's work."' Thseng-tsze quotes 
from the Khang-kao [a portion of the Shoo-king] to show that 
king Wan caused his brilliant understanding or virtue to shine, 
as also did Yao."' 

"The culture of a man is better than his gold ;" "it is a 
good inheritance." " The culture [training] of his soul is better 
than that of the school;" "it adorns the riches of the rich, 
and hides the poverty of the poor." " Culture is wealth, and 
the proper use of it is perfection," say the Arabs.' 

We read in the Maha Bharata"* the following story told by 
Bhima to Yudhishtira, in answer to his saying " that the Vedas 
praise virtue [dharmam], wealth and love." "A certain Brah- 
man greedy of wealth worshipped the gods for the sake of 
getting it, and addressed a Naga, Kundadara, who, speaking 

' Rabb. saying, in Ep. Lod. 1 136. ' Mart. Epig. li. ' Pancha T. 
pref. 245. < Ratnam. 31. ' Phreng wa, 32. • Cicero, Tusc. iii. 9. 
' Mishle Asaph, v. « Ta-hio, c. i. » Meid. Ar. pr. »» Shanti P. 
9756 sq. 



[iiL 14 

of him to Manibhadra, said : O giver of wealth, I do not ask 
for riches in behalf of this Brahman ; I crave quite another 
fruit of his worship. I do not ask for a land full of gems, or 
for a large heap of them, as fruit of his worship, but that he 
may be virtuous ; that his intellect may delight in virtue and 
maintain it ; and that he may excel in it. Such is the result 
[or fruit] of his worship which I crave for him.'' As regards 
that saying of the Vedas quoted by Yudhishtira, Manu seems 
to allude to it when he says :' "Virtue and wealth are said to 
be best (or supreme good) ; so also love [desire] and virtue ; 
and wealth alone is also said to be best. But it has been 
finally settled that these three are best for man." 

14 For the merchandise of it is better than the mer- 
chandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold. 

rnnP, ' the ' occupying' thereof until the Master come.' S. Luke 
xix. 13; and nnMiaTII, 'the gain or income from it:' "Well done, 
thou good and faithful servant," &c. 

" The law of virtue and wisdom surpasses infinitely every 
kind of knowledge and of understanding."' " The search after 
a good education is better than the search after gold."' " A 
man carries no better burden [byrthi] or provision by the way 
than much wisdom [or mother-sense, manvit] ; it is thought 
better than riches, and is withal the refuge of the indigent"* 
" Remember," say the Japanese, " that precious things are not 
enduring. Therefore make wisdom thy treasure."' "It is 
like merchants who, having gone to Jambudwip [Ceylon], in 
the southern sea, to fetch great and precious gems, on their 
return home, grow faint on passing through a wide desert, yet 
feel refreshed after hearing the sublime lore of Buddha ; and 
who, having thus experienced trouble, have thereby acquired 
wisdom."' " He who lives wisely in the world, with faith and 

* Sanhita, ii. 224. 
♦ Hdvamdl, x. 

* Hjam-dp. fol. vii, 
• Ku-kai, Jits gn kiyo. 

' Ebu Medin, 139. 
• Thar g)'an, fol. 5. 

iii. IS] 



sound learning [or true science], has the chief jewel. Every 
[thing] other jewel is inferior to it."' 

1 5 She ts more precious than rubies : and all the 
things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto 

' More precious than pearls or red corals,' 'DT??*?. LXX. rifi. 
kiOtov iroXvTtXliv, 'than precious stones' — probably red; and so, 

" The philosopher," say the Chinese, " does not reckon jade 
and gold as precious ; but rather sincerity and faith."' " What 
is the most precious thing in the world? The Spirit of 
Wisdom answered : Wisdom is the best of all the wealth 
on earth."' " Even when bereft of worldly goods, I [says 
Hjam-dpal, the personification of wisdom] am the mind of 
certain, undoubted, three-fold wealth."* "These five," said 
Chanakya, "are an imperishable treasure: the study of an 
art, diligence, learning, friendship, and wisdom that cannot 
be taken away."* " Knowledge and wealth are not both alike, 
for thieves cannot take away knowledge, which is a friend 
here below, and will be happiness hereafter."* " Knowledge 
(or learning) is a treasure ; it is wealth that cannot perish or 
be destroyed ;" "a treasure that wanes not."^ 

" Four things," say the Rabbis, " are priceless : wisdom, 
good health, liberality, and strength [or power, as o^«tij]"* 
" Remember," says Pythagoras of Samos, " that whereas most 
men agree that good sense [<f>povr)<rii] is the greatest good, but 
few of them strive to get it."' " Knowledge is the precious 
stone that preserves him who resorts to it ; it enables him to 
walk securely in adversity." '"In the 30th ch. of the Dsang-Lun, 
we read of Dschimpa-chempo's wanderings in search of the 

> Vasubandhu, 1 1. 
' Hjam-dp. fol. ix. 
kalvi Or. 19, 20. 
" Borhan-ed-din, v. 76. 

' Li ki, c. xxix. 
' Chanak. 39. 
' Ep. Lod. 355. 

' Mainyo i kh. xlvii. I — 5. 

• Lokaniti, 4. ' Av. 

' Pythag. Sam. iv. 7. 



[iii. IS 




chintamani ; and that when on his return he found that both 
his father and mother had wept themselves blind, in sorrow 
for his absence, he rubbed with the chintamani [a fabulous 
gem, emblem of wisdom, &c.] the eyes of both of them, who 
then saw clearly. "This precious gem," said Dandschila's 
wife, "gives light at night, like daylight [and makes one succeed 
in everything}"' "Whosoever," says Nizami, "has the gem of 
wisdom, is able to succeed in everything he does."* 

"A wise man knows the [extent] value of [knowledge] 
wisdom. The man of understanding knows that But how 
can an ignorant man feel respect for knowledge?"' "Envy 
the good of wisdom, rather than that of riches," said the 
Athenian Agathon.* " The wise carries his wealth with him ; 
for there is nothing more precious (or honourable) than 
wisdom."* "There is not in this earth a thing equal to 
instruction," said Sbauf to Papi." " Common sense [mieli] is 
better than money ; and prudent management is better than 
labour," say the Finns.^ "Tsze-kung, when saying that a 
man who has a precious gem (or jewel) keeps it safe until he 
can get a good price for it and sell it — Confucius replied : I 
will sell my jewel, I will ; but not until I get a price for it."* 

" Hear my true saying," said Vishnu Sarma to king Ama- 
rashakti : " I do not make a trade of wisdom [not a saleable 
article]. I do not sell it — no, not for a thousand grants (or 
presents) from thee."' However, one of the six things that 
give happiness in this world is, " wisdom that brings wealth 
with it."*" " But there is not a ruby in every rock, nor yet a 
pearl in the head of every elephant, nor yet a sandal-tree in 
every forest. So also are good men not found everywhere. 
But the vulgar know not the value of wisdom."'' "What is 
the value of a thing? That it suits us," say the Chinese, in 
the fable of the cock and the pearl." 

' Dsang-Lun, c. xli. fol. 225. ^ Nizami, ed. 1774. ' Kudat ku bil. 
xii. 9, II. * 5, ed. G. ' rvw/i. /lovovr. • Papyr. Sail. ii. 4, 6. 

' Finn. prov. * Shang-Lun, ix. 12. • Pancha T. pref. 5. 

" Hitop. i. 19. ?' Chanak. 55. " Mun Moy. p. 3. 


Yet, " What is wealth ? Wisdom."' And wisdom teaches us 
to choose the best ; unlike that foolish couple who preferred 
to see their house rifled of all it contained, than lose a 'mochi' 
[rice-cake, worth one farthing]. " I call those men foolish," 
says the Japanese Dr. Desima, " who lose their precious life 
for the sake of frivolous or degrading pleasures."' "But how 
good is knowledge to him who has it I for knowledge is dear 
[valuable], and cannot bg bought with money."' " Knowledge 
is a pearl without price ; ignorance is misery without remedy, 
that yields nought but anguish of soul ; while knowledge gives 
nought but happiness in life."* 

1 6 Length of days is in her right hand ; and in her 
left hand riches and honour. 

" Length of days" &c. " He who has wisdom (or knowledge) 
shall go on spending yugas [centuries] of life ; his [health] 
life shall not perish in the final dissolution ; but when he 
departs this life, he shall be united with the Great Spirit."* 
" Virtue produces eternal happiness and temporal good. What 
greater source of happiness, then, can there be for a man 
than virtue?"* Confucius, speaking of the emperor Shun, 
said : " In virtue, he was a holy man ; in wealth, he possessed 
all there is within the four seas."^ He also says the same of 
the emperor Woo-wang.* " Tao," says Lao-tsze, " is heaven ; 
Tao is long life."' " Wherefore, O my son, thy receiving the 
wise words of thy father Ptah-hotep is for the life of thy house 
(or family)."" 

" Give me, O Ahura Mazdao," said Zarathustra, " health and 
strength according to thy good pleasure ; and that I may 
attain to purity [or true virtue], give me this, O Armaiti [O 
Wisdom], wealth, blessing, and the life of Vohu-mano [a happy 

' Bhartrih. suppl. 10, and Panchar. 4. ' Atsme Gusa. vol. ii. pref. 

' A. Ubeid, 123. * Persian dist. on All's 31st maxim. ' Vemana, 

ill. 4. ' Cural, iv. 31. ' Chung y. c. xvii. ' Id. ibid. c. xviii. 

» Tao-te-K. c xvi. " Pap. Pr. xii. 1. 11, 12. 



[iii. 17 

life on earth, if Vohu-mano is taken as a proper noun ; If 
not, "a life of good, common sense, or right judgment"].* 
" The gold of Buddha's lore perishes not. He has riches, true 
riches and more perfect than all others ; and he enables him 
who has it to enjoy a most holy walk [conduct] above all 

others. Virtue and wealth follow in the train of but few 

men ; happy, indeed, is he who has them both."' 

"Yet the wealth of knowledge [wisdom] and riches is 
wealth indeed ; men who have them both bow their heads 
humbly, like the poor who stand before them."* "Mazzal 
[the star of good or evil fortune]," say the Rabbis, "gives 
wealth when it gives wisdom."* " For the honour of know- 
ledge is its greatest dignity (or reward)."' Choo-hi quotes the 
Chronicles of Thsoo, " in which kingdom nothing is reckoned 
as riches, but good alone is valued as such."' "Of all things, 
wisdom is said to be the best ; because it cannot be taken 
away, because it is without price, and because it cannot perish."' 
" But the loftiness of a man's disposition comes from his faith ;" 
" and the strength of his heart comes from his religion."' 

17 Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her 
paths are peace. 

" Her ways," &c. " The pleasure (or joy) of virtue is the 
greatest of all."" " When the natural disposition is tranquil, 
then the affections of the heart are at rest ; but if the heart is 
unsettled, the soul will weary itself"" " For where there is no 
peace, there is nothing at all."" "Great is peace, for even the 
dead cannot do without it"" "And it is the seal on all bless- 
ings."'* Gautama, however, said to Rahula his son, "There is 
no resting-place in this world, beset (or hindered) as it is by 
sin ; the fool alone thinks he finds rest in his own opinion.""* 

» Ya?na, xlii. i. ' Allan Gerel. c. ii. fol. 31, 32. ' Theogn. 913. 

* Niti neri vil. 16. * Shabbat in Khar. Pen. xii. 27. • Meid. Ar. pr. 
' Ta-hio Com. c. x. ' Hitopad. pref. 4. • Nuthar dial. 171 and 201. 
•• Dhammap. Tanhav. 21. " Gun den s. dii mon. 385. " B. Fl. 

" Midrash. id. " Id. ibid. " Rahula thut. 10. 






• " Still, great is peace," say the Rabbis ; " no vessel holds so 
much blessing as peace."' "When the Most High wished to 
bless Israel, He did not find a vessel to hold more blessings 
than peace."' "Great is peace ! It is in the earth like leaven 
in the dough."' "Great is peace! God has created nothing 
more beautiful than peace."* "Great is peace! For the 
name by which the Most High is called is — Peace."' "What 
is also the pleasantest thing ? To keep the law [of Buddha] 
without fault."' " For joy and sorrow [remorse and misery] 
are joined to well-doing and to evil-doing ;"' [that is, joy is 
joined to well-doing and sorrow to evil-doing.] 

18 She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon 
her : and happy is every one that retaineth her. 

' And those who lay hold on her, ""t'V?'?, are made happy [thereby].' 
Chald. ' those who occupy themselves with her,' &c. 

" She is a tree of life" &c. Form avails not, neither does 
one's family [or position]; neither is wisdom or assiduous 
worship of any great use ; but the good deeds formerly 
gathered by a man through devotion, alone bring forth fruit 
in time like a tree."' " Supreme knowledge [or wisdom, 
■ pragna paramita,' ' shes-rab,' ' belke bilik,' &c.] procures hap- 
piness in this world, and in births to come while crossing over 
to the other side [p'ha-rol-tu]."' " He who wishes to become 
a heavenly genius [t'heen seen], that is, to strip himself of his 
human dwelling [nature] and have life on high and not die, 
must perform 1 300 good actions," says Tai-shang [in Kang- 
ing-pien] ; " but in order to become a genius of the earth, 300 
good deeds will suffice. Deep [sincere and earnest] and 
bright well-doing, is the root of all order, equity and right."" 

The Rabbis, however, say more to the purpose : " The wise 

> Midrash Siphre. ' Midrash Rab. in Numb. ' Derek Er. M. S. 

* Midrash Rab. in Numb. ' Derek Er. M. S. • Phreng wa, 6. 

' EI Nawab. 72. ' Nitishat. 94. • Legs par b. p. 12. 
" Shin sin luh, i. p. 99. 



[iii. 1 8 

and prudent among the people will delight in the Lord ; for 
wisdom shall keep them in life' [cause them to live]." On 
the other hand, says the Buddhist, " What ought a wise man 
to learn ? Thoroughly to kill [cut off] the cause [or revolu- 
tions] of his transmigration."' " Thy father, O Ashi Vanhuhi 
[' blessing' personified] is Ahura Mazda, who is the greatest 
and best of the Yazatas [gods] ; and thy mother is Qpenta 
Armaiti [Holy Wisdom] ; and thy sister is the Law [Mazda- 
yasnian]."' " Thieves and robbers plunder treasure of here 
below ; but the treasure of eternal life cannot be taken away."* 
"A man's life," says Confucius, "depends on his integrity."* 
" People are more dependent on charity [jin, love of mankind] 
than on fire and water ; I have seen men go through fire and 
water and die of it ; but I never saw one practise charity and 
die of it No, never !"• 

"Of the riches one may call 'one's own' [as distinct from 
objective good] are humanity and honesty, to bestow and do 
good unto all men, out of an even fortune [competency]."' 
" Hold fast virtue," says Confucius ; '" do not yield in anything 
opposed to it — no, not even to your teacher."* " Taking fuel 
for an example," say the Japanese, " receive happiness. So 
peace and quiet follow, and lasting peace." The Chinese 
original reads : " Point to [virtue] as fuel to fire [of life], and 
cultivate happiness [from it]."' 

[An emblem of " the tree of life" might perhaps be found in 
the 'byang-chhub shing,'" the 'tree of perfection or wisdom,' 
name given to the sacred ' Ficus Indica' or banyan-tree, that 
seems to live for ever, by throwing out fresh shoots and roots 
into the ground from time to time. But it was not known to 
the sacred writers.] 

" When the Bhodhisatwa came to a certain place where the 

• Mishle Asaph, v. 6. 
* Mong. mor. sayings. 
' Thar gyan, fol. 9. 
and Chin. Tsian d. wen. 

' Phreng wa, 4. ' Ashi Yasht, 16. 

* Shang-Lun, vi. 17. • Hea-Lun, xv. 34. 

' Hea-Lun, xv. 35. » Gun den s. dzi mon, 

" Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xix. 

iii. 19] 



king came to meet him with offerings, he took his tooth-pick 
and stuck it into the ground. It then grew at once into a 
marvellous tree 500 miles in extent. When the wind stirred 
the fragrant branches and leaves thereof, it spread heart-stir- 
ring words of the law. The flowers of it were the size of a 
wheel, and the fruit filled five hampers," &c.^ "Kundgawo 
[Ananda] had a dream in which Buddha was compared to a 
tree overshadowing the earth, with flowers and fruit, &d. 
But it was suddenly cast down by a storm, indicating Buddha's 
departure from sorrow and death."' 

But we read in the Bundehesh of a very different " tree of 
life." " When Gaya Maretan [Kayomers, the first man] died, 
he left seed behind him. This seed, under the influence of 
light and of the sun, and partly under the care of Neriosengh 
[one of the Yazatas], and partly under that of Spendanmat 
[(^penta Armaiti, Wisdom], grew into a stalk of ' riwas' [rheum 
ribes] with fifteen branches and fifteen leaves, which being 
tended by Mashya and Mashyana, grew into beings, joined 
together in the middle, with the hands in one another's ears, 
&c., without any distinction of sex, or without sign that the 
soul of Ahura Mazda was in them. Then spake Ahura 
Mazda: Which is first in them, the soul or the body? The 
soul is first, and the body next ; the soul is in the body to 
make it act From that day they grew upwards and distinct, 
and from them sprang ten kinds of men."' 

[The rendering of this 18th verse by the LXX. would suggest 
that they took ' tree' in the sense of ' staff,' on which to lean 
for safety. Compare also the title 'ayushman' or 'chhdl-dan,' 
' possessed of life,' given to celebrated Buddhists ;* and the 
Tatar and Japanese cosmogonies.] 

19 The Lord by wisdom hath founded the earth ; 
by understanding hath he established the heavens. 

' Dsang-Lun, c. xiii. fol. 49. • Ibid. c. xxii. fol. 94. ' Bundehesh, 
p. 33, c. XV. * Rgya-tcher, 1. 



[iii. 19 

nin>, " The Lord which is, and which was, and which is to come, 
the Almighty" (Rev. i. 8), the One Eternal. nip^riS, 'in wisdom' 
(Ps. civ. 24 ; Exod. xxxi. 3, xxxv. 26, 31, &c.); ' by wisdom,' here and 
at Eccles. i. 13, vii. 23, where it has the article nMIlB, with a dif- 
ferent meaning in Hebrew, not easily rendered in English. The LXX. 
read here and elsewhere in this book rjf ao<f>i<f, with the article that 
savours of Alexandrian philosophy, and of the Gnostic personi- 
fication of wisdom. Thus, even in ch. viii. 1 2, where, as in similar 
constructions, the article is best omitted, in Hebrew and in Greek, 
TV^^rj '*3y, nj""? ^»1, ch. viii. 12, 14, iyi> <^ws, S. John xii. 46, the 
LXX. have lyu ij (ro<^ia, Didymus Alexandrinus, albeit he applies 
this verse to the Holy Ghost, yet seems elsewhere to understand 
it of God the Son. ' TPJ, ' founded,' i.e. created, " that it should 
not be moved," Ps. civ. 5 ; and it cannot be moved, though ' it 
moves' at His will. 73i3, 'establishing,' i.e. spread the heavens, and 
orders the »to<r/«>s, order, thereof in wonderful harmony. 

" Ex nihilo nihil fit" ovSiv U 8tvos ytvotro' — ttVep /i^ ivUxtfrdai 
yev«rdoi firjStv « ^JjStvos' — (k rov yap ftr) t'ocTos dfiiixf^vov etrri ytviir- 
Oai* &c. Nothing can come of itself out of nothing ; of course 
not But as there never was a time at which " He that filleth- 
all in all" did not exist, "through faith we understand that 
the worlds were framed by the word of God" — " for He spake 
and it was done; He commanded and it stood fast" (Ps. 
xxxiii. 9) ; " so that things which are seen were not made of 
things which do appear."' With the Church in heaven (Rev. 
iv. ID, II), therefore, and with the Church on earth, we say: 
" Worthy art Thou, O Lord, that we should praise Thee without 
ceasing for Thy great goodness ; for Thou art He who created 
the heavens and that which is in them ; the earth also and all 
that is in it In Thy wisdom hast Thou created all things."* 
And so also did the best men of old think and say in their 
own way, dark as it was; in which they "felt after Him, if 
haply they might find Him,"' with no better light than their 

> In Prov iii. 20; Did. Al. de Trin. p. 467, ed. M. ' Alcaei fr. 22, 

ed G ' Aristotle, De Melis. c. i. * Empedocl. lib. i., Phys. v. 102, 

ed". M. ' Heb. xi. 3. * Lit. S. Cyrill. Copt. p. 174, Rom. ed. 

r Acts xvii. 27. 

iii. 19] 



own common sense. So that "fools alone say, There is 
no God" (Ps. liii. i). "Quis,"asks Cicero,* "est tam vecors, 
qui cum suspexerit in coelum, deos esse non sentiat ?" " Nam 
omnibus innatum est, et quasi insculptum, esse deos."' 

" Indra is from everlasting, endures for ever ;"' " Ruler and 
king alike of heaven and earth."* " Thou, O Indra, firm in thy 
mind, dwellest [abidest] beyond the ethereal abode [sky, 
heaven] of this world. Thou hast made the earth for our 
support [or preservation]. Thou [art gone] reachest round 
unto the uttermost sky [beyond the heavens] and the earth."' 
" Thou art Lord of the vast abode of the gods ; thou fittest 
the whole heaven, and art of equal measure with the earth ; 
there is indeed no one like thee."' "Thou madest everything 
else in order [subservient or obedient to thee, Schol.]." " Thou 
hast expanded the surface of the earth ; and established (or 
stayed) the lower brightness [foundation] of heaven."' 

" O Indra, these creatures are thine, of thee. Thou art said 
to be the Lord of all creatures."* "The wide expanse of 
heaven has acknowledged thy power, O Indra."' "We call 
upon thee, the Lord of the world [of things living, Schol] and 
Master of things immovable."'" 

" Thou, O Indra, art far above this universe ; thou art from 
everlasting, without rival."" " Indra established the heavens."" 
" Indra established [supports] heaven for the good of four- 
footed beasts, men and bipeds [birds]."" "Indra, in order to 
give long sight [show things from afar], made the sun to rise 
in the sky."'* " Indra has filled this earthly world and the sky 
[with his glory] ; he has made fast the luminaries to the sky. 
There is no one like thee, O Indra, that ever was born, or that 
shall ever be born ; thou art greater [vaster] than any other."" 

' De resp. Anisp. * De Nat. D. ii. « Rig V. i. skta. Ixii. 13. 

* Mand. i. skt. c i. » Rig V. Asht. i. skta. liii. 12. ' Id. ibid. 13. 

' Ibid. skta. Ixii. 5. • Ibid. skta. Ixxxi. 9. » Ibid. skta. Ivii. 5. 

" Ibid. skta. bcxxvii. j. " Ibid. skta. cii. 8. " Ibid. skta. cxxi. 2. 

" Ibid. skta. cxxi. 3. " Ibid. skta. vii. 3 " Ibid. skta. htxxi. 5. 



[iiJ. 19 

"O thou great Indra, who, appearing through the drying 
up of the heavens and of the earth, didst sustain the earth in 
fear [of an Asura], when all things, mountains and other large 
and solid things did tremble like sunbeams [in vapour]."* 
[This remarkable passage seems to point to the drying up of 
the earth at the first — from the waters first created by Brahma* 
— or after the Flood. Sayana explains 'jagnana' of the text 
by • pradurbhut,' said here of Indra ; almost the same word 
[pradurasit] used by Manu to describe the appearing of Swa- 
yambhu the Self-existent, I'Eternel, when scattering abroad 
the darkness at the creation.'] " We cannot comprehend Indra, 
who pervades everything ; who is far off [from us men, small 
as we are, Scho!.] in his strength ; for in him the gods have 
placed power, riches and brightness (or brilliancy), praising 
forth his own sovereignty."* 

" It is he who has clothed the earth [all things in it] with 
divers forms."* "Thou, O Indra, art he who gives food and 
increase ; who milks the dry sweet grain out of the moist 
[haulm] ; who has made by law (or rule) flowering and fruitful 
plants to spread over the field."' " Indra and Vishnu made 
the world, the sun, the dawn, Agni," ftc.' " He sends forth 
rain."« " He lights up the sun ;"• "that has yoked his seven 
sure-footed mares [that run safely], and comes with them self- 
yoked."" [Compare the bull and the seven heifers in Rit. of 
the Dead, c. xvii., and Pharaoh's dream : Apis— Sun and Nile ; 
Hapimu— Nile and Earth ; Apollo, the seven Muses, &c.] 

" By his wisdom [skill], Indra established the sky [safe from 
falling] ; he was sufficient for it [for this universe], which he, 
father, made with his two arms for the sake of mankind."" 
" He brought forth the waters and the earth for man."" " The 

» Rig V. i. skta. Ixiii. I. ' Manu S. i. 8. ' Id. ibid. 6. 

♦ Rig V. i. skta. Ixxx. 15, 16. ' Id. skta. clx. 2, and Mand. vi. skta. 

xlvii. 18. * Id. Mand. ii. skta. xiii. 6; Mand. iii. skta. liv. 22, and Ivii. 3. 
» Mand. vii. skta. xcix. 4- ' 'd. skta. ci. 6. • Mand. viii. skta. iii. 6, 

iii. 19] 



cin. 1—3. 

" Id. skta. XX. 7. 

«» Asht. i. skta. I. 7. 

" Mand. ii. skta. xvii. 5, 6. 

Creator [Ruler, 'dhata'] made of old the sun, the moon, Jieavfii 
and the earth and the space [firmament, or sky]."' "A thou- 
sand earths and a thousand suns, O Indrti, could not contain 
thee. All hail ! [who fillest all]. What mortal protects me, 
O Indra, thou giver of wealth ? Faith in thee, O Maghavarg 
[carries one] beyond the heavens."* • 

" Thou art better to me, O Indra. than a brother, who docs 
not feed [provide for] me."' "O Maghavan, which of the 
Rishis of old understood [took in] all thy greatness? Thou, 
of whose whole body didst create our father [heaven] and 
mother [the earth],"* "who gavest light to the luminaries."* 
" That [his] name, form (or nature), mysterious and hidden, is 
far [from those who call upon him]. That great name, myste- 
rious and desired by many, is the progenitor of the past and 
of that which is to come;" "it fills [has filled] heaven and 
earth and the middle space."* 

" I am the origin of all [this universe], and by me all things 
consist,'' said Bhagavan to Arjuna.^ " Thou, O BrahmS, who 
wast without a womb [unborn] art the [womb] birth of the 
world ; thou art the end of the world, thou, who art without 
end ; thou art the beginning of the world, thou, who art with- 
out a beginning ; and thou art the Lord of the world, thou, 
over whom no one rules."' " He, Swayambhu the Self-exis- 
tent, in the beginning created the waters, and in them he 
created [a germ, seed] an egg, brilliant like gold, which he 
burst, and of the upper shell made heaven, and of the lower 
one he made the earth."' "That egg, like a bubble on the 
water, gradually increased, asleep [floating] on the water ; and 
in that egg of Prakriti [nature], the self-e:tisting soul called 
Brahma came to be known [appeared]."i2— ^ 

"The Eternal Maker of the world, Brahma, created the 

' Mand. x. skta. cxc. 3. ' Sama V. iii. ix. 6 — 8, and iv. ii. 10. 

' Id. ibid. x. ro. * Rig. V. Mand. x. skta. liv. 3. ' Id. ibid. 6. 

• Mand. x. skta. Iv. i, 2, 3. ' Maha Hh. Bhishma P. xxxiv. 1212. 

' Kumara Sambh. Kam. ii. 9 sq. ' Manu S. i. 3—6, and Maha Bh. 

Udyog. P. 3563. " Markand. Pur. xlv. 63 sq. 




['•if. '9 

in. 19] 

whole world that exists, and that passes away."* "The waters 
were called after him, Narayana:"* "he peopled them with 
fishes, turtles and other beings, and overspread the earth with 
creatures."' " They call thee ' One," O Krishna, Vishnu, &c. ; 
but sainted Brahmans praise thee under various names. Thou 
art Brahftia, nestling on the waters ; and they call thee Hiranya- 
garbha [golden womb], O Keshava. Hail, oh, hail!" said 

Then, after forty-six lines of salutations to Krishna as one 
with Vishnu and Brahma, we read : " He who is ' One,' without 
form or colour, who is and is not [visible in his works, though 
himself invisible], from him came heaven, then the air, light 
and water ; from water came forth the universe, and thence 
this world. He also created human beings of five kinds, with 
five senses, said Manu."* " Human beings were created with 
mind and action [work]."* " I am joined to [connected 
with] the God of gods [the Deity]," said Sthanu to Prajapati, 
"through thee, O Lord of lords."' 

Yudhishtira having asked Vyasa concerning the beginning 
and end of all things, Vyasa said : " Brahma, who has neither 
beginning nor end, existed first. Resplendent Brahma, whose 
offspring is this world, awoke at the dawn of day — he who is, 
— and created this world, and foremost in it the self-evident 
individual Mind [vyaktam mana:]. Then Mind expanded 
creation ; and then an active wish to create [Ki^ and n^y], 
first, the firmament (or sky), the air, light, water, and from the 
waters smell, and then the earth — thus said to be the first 
creation of all things. The first Maker is called Prajapati. 
He created things lasting and passing [solid and evanescent] ; 
and he as Brahma created devarshis [holy Rishis], seas, rivers, 
&c And the nature and qualities those things then received, 
they retained through successive creations."' 

■ Markand. Pur. xlvii. 2. ' Id. 5, and ch. xlviii. ' Id. ibid. 6. 

• Maha Bh. Shanti P. 1502, 1513, 1514, 1688. » Ibid. 7622. • Id. 7380; 
see also 7841, 7842, 7569. ' Ibid. Moksha, 9175. • Id. Ibid. 8478 sq. 



Han, Narayana, the Lord Eternal, Father of a family [of 
all creatures] creates immovable [stationary] and movable 
lor movmg] creatures [mountains and living things]" "And 
know." said Ushana to Vritra, "that the earth is his feet and 
heaven is his head."> "The divine earth is thy feet," said 
Brahmi to BrahmS [the One Spirit, personified in Brahmd as 
the Creatoi;]; the quarters are thy arms, and heaven fs thy 
head. I a(m thy form, the gods are thy body, and the sun and 
moon are \hy two eyes."« [As they are also called the two 
eyes of Osiris ; and "the sun, the eye of Ahura Mazda."'] 

"Avyakta [imperceptible, invisible] is the name of the first 
Producer. He is so called from his not being apprehensible 
by heanng or any other His other names are • The 
Supreme God, Brahma; Obscure; Bringing Forth; Brahma 
[aksharam] ; Body or Field [of the Earth] ; Eternal."* &c 
"True worshippers always meditate on and worship him, the 
Worshipful, Eternal, whom some call Brahma, others Nature • 
or the Beginning of all things; others, again, the Lord of 
I'ght." " But thou, father," said Shukra to Vyasa. "ever wor- 
ship Brahma. "» "The Creator who was, who is. who shall be." 
said Brahma to Vishnu.' 

"That soul [Brahm or] BrahmS existed as One and before 
all. Supreme. All-knowing, Almighty— he. the one Soul of 
the world, existed one and alone before the creation of the 
worid. That Spirit [or Soul], by existence [or nature] One, 
pervading everything [everywhere], then considered : Let me' 
[Met us,' Comm.] create the worids, waters, light, the earth 
and waters under it" [(i) The water above the sky. the sky 
.sits resting-place; (2) the atmosphere; (3) the earth; and 
(4) what is under the earth is— waters, Schol.] " He consi- 
dered again : These worids are created, but let me create pro- 
tectors of these worlds. Having then taken (or drawn) out of 

' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 10043 sq. ' Id. Bhishma P. 2955 sq 

Ya^na, .. 35. and vii. 40. . Sankhya, Tatwa samasa, 5, 6^ 

Pancha Ratr. 111. 43. . Maha Bh. Bhishma P. 3022. 

L 2 




[hi. 19 

the waters a • man-being' [purusham], he gave him shape 
[formed him]. He then gave him heat [warmth], and through 
that heat his mouth opened like an egg [oval],"' &c. 

" He then considered : These protectors of the world are 
created, but I must [let me] create food for them. He then 
heated the waters, and from the waters thus heated a sub- 
stance in form was produced which is verily food." " He then 
considered again : Without me, how would this [human body] 
be ? He then considered : If without me speech can be 
uttered, breath can be breathed ; if eyes can see and ears hear, 
&c., who, then, am I ? I will enter that body [at the frontal 
sinus, Schol.]. And there [that eternal soul] has three seats : 
(i) the mind, (2) the right eye, (3) the heart."' "Therefore 
do I worship the Excellent Spirit, who is the cause [origin] of 
worlds,"' &c 

"Jaimini having asked thebirds [winged Rishis,who inhabited 
the top of the Vindhya Mountains] about the origin of this 
world, time, generations, creations and destructions, referred 
him to Markandeya, who, after bowing to Brahma, unborn, 
imperishable, holder of all and Ruler of this world, said : The 
Supreme Being, an unseen, invisible active cause, which the 
great Rishis called Prakriti [nature], subtle, eternal, which is 
and is not — is the origin of all things ; without beginning or 
end, not dependent on anything, or any one, existed before 
Brahmi."^ [That is, Brahm or Brahma, the eternal Soul or 
Spirit that pervades all things, and that is called Brahmd when 
spoken of as Creator} " He [Brahma] desired : Let me be 
many [multiply] ; let me bring forth [or produce]. He then 
performed penance [in deep meditation] ; and he, after this 
meditation, created this whole universe ; and having created 
it, he entered it" [He creating, created all this world and 
animated beings in it, in regions, seasons and revolutions, &c. 

» Rig. V. Aitareya Upanish. 1. c. i. sect i, 2, 3. ' Id. ibid. i. ch. iii. 

sect. I, 2, II. » Aryabhata, introd. * Markand. Pur. xlv. 

J I, 2«. 32. 34, 4>- 

iii. 19] 



Schol.] "This Brahma made himself; therefore is he called 
Sukrita, holy [lit. well-made or well-done ; because all is pure 
in form, Schol.]." » 

" I, BrahmS, am father and mother, the soul of all," said 
Sanatsujah.* " Vishnu, who created the earthly regions, who 
made fast the uttermost spheres,"' &c. " Homage to Vishnu, 
who is the [root-born] self-existent [or primordial] architect of 
the world and author of the creation, destruction and revolutions 
of this world — homage to Vishnu, born of the Supreme Spirit"* 
" Vishnu is in reality [' tatwam,' by nature, in sooth] Narayana, 
Vishnu, Purusha, Golden -womb [golden egg]; in him and 
through him the world stands."* " This ancient 'AH' [universe] 
was [tamajam] born of darkness [chaotic night]. That Eternal 
One, Bhagavan, makes all this universe. His form is unlike 
anything else. No one ever saw him with the eye. The 
Yogis [ascetics] worship the eternal Bhagavan," said Sanasu- 
jata in his beautiful hymn.' 

"The ruler of worlds is Brahmd."' To this, however, the 
Shivatte answers : " There is One Supreme Lord of all, who 
rules over all. Are other Brahmas on a par with him ? An 
ape from the hills might as well govern the earth as they. The 
Lord of all is above all other gods."* When the sage asked 
the Spirit of Wisdom about the origin of the world, he 
answered : " Heaven and earth, the water and all the rest, are 
made like a hen's egg. Heaven above and the earth beneath 
are, like an egg, the handiwork of the Creator Hormazd. 
And the earth in it is like the yolk in the midst of the egg."» 
[A distorted tradition of the passages from Manu, &c., above 
given, told again differently in later times as follows : " Ka- 
mabhuti told Vararuchi what he had heard in Ujjein on 
Shiva's burying-place— how once Shiva's wife asked him why 

' Taittireya Upan. Valli, ii, Anuv. vi. vii. . ' Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 

■787—1790'-^ • Rig. V. ii. skta cliv. i. * Vishnu P. i. 2, 41, 35. 

» Padma Pur.Jii. 17, xvi. 76. • Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1738 sq. 

' Narada Partchar. ii. 54. » Veinana, ii. 192, 193. » Mainyo i kh. 

xliv. 1, 10. 



[iii. 19 

he delighted in skulls and grave-yards — to which Shiva 
replied : At the end of a kalpa this world was all water. I 
was wounded in the thigh, and a drop of my blood became an 
egg in the water, whence Purusha [the first mould of man] 
and Prakriti [nature] were born, and from them other beings, 
and Pitamaha, the first man, whose head I cut off for his pride. 
Therefore do I carry a skull ; and therefore also does the 
world rest on my hands ; for the two halves of that egg made 
the heavens and the earth."'] 

Better than that, let us hear Manu (B.C. 1000, 1200?) : " The 
Rishis [sages] of old having approached Manu, who was sitting 
in deep meditation, offered him their homage, and addressed 
him suitably as follows : O thou worshipful, it behoves thee to 
tell us exactly and in due order the nature and character of 
all kinds of things [or of all castes] and of their various exist- 
ence [or mode of production]. Thou alone, indeed, O Lord, 
art acquainted with the original work, the essence and the 
meaning of the Self-existent, Possessor [or Ruler] of all this 
[universe], who is beyond our thoughts and infinite (or im- 
mense). He [Manu] then, wrapped up in his own strength, 
being thus addressed by those lofty-minded [or magnanimous] 
men, bowed to them in return, and replied to them all as 
follows : Hear me 1 This [universe] was enveloped [being, 
existing] in gloom (or darkness), unknown, without a sign of 
life, incomprehensible by reason, undiscerned — as it were, 
altogether asleep." 

" Then the invisible, adorable Self-existent made it appear ; 
He, the Great Origin of all, and Mighty, showed himself forth, 
dispelling the gloom — He who, inappreciable by sense, subtle, 
imperceptible, eternal, pervading all things, beyond thought, 
shone forth of himself Through desire, he wished to create 
from his own body various creatures ; he therefore at the 
beginning created the waters, and in them he created a seed. 
This seed became an egg of gold, glistening with a thousand 
' Somadeva, Katha s. sag. ii. 10. 

iii. 19] 



rays. In that egg, Brahmi, the Great Father of all worlds; 
was himself bom. Those waters were called ' Nara' [primor* 
dial waters] ; for they are truly the [offspring] creation of 
'NSrS' [the Eternal Spirit pervading the universe]; and be- 
cause they were his first abode [or dwelling, resting-place], he 
is called Narayana [dwelling, 'moving' (Gen. i. 2) on the 
waters]. The Adorable One having entered that egg one 
year, by meditation of himself, broke that egg in two. And 
with those two shells he made [measured out] heaven and the 
earth ; in the midst the atmosphere, the eight quarters of 
waters, and a firm [enduring] place [firmament]. He then 
brought forth [as an expansion] of himself. Mind that is and 
is not [visible] ; and of Mind, individuality, and the counsellor- 
lord [conscience],"' &c 

"As to ' atheists,' the courtiers of Vikrama Sena said to the 
atheist who came to his court : Ah, that sinner and villain, 
where is he? Where does he come from? They said so 
openly to him, with a laugh. Where, then, is heaven ? said 
the atheist. Where is the family of gods ? and also. Where is 
■another birth'? The Vedas and Puranas show proof that 
they are the writings of deceivers, and deceive the whole 
world. This world is unreal, and everything is deception. 
To this the Vedanti answers : If, as you say, this world is 
indeed false, yet still there it is, and abides, existing through 
(or in) one true Brahm^ by whom this false appearance shines 
forth in truth (or reality). To this the theologian [tarkika] 
said : The Lord is measured by his supreme works and supreme 
power in creating. If, therefore, this Lord does not exist, how 
is this grand creation [universe] produced ? At the end the 
atheist was unanimously ridiculed and condemned."' 

The pjissages above quoted show plainly that, however gross 
and distorted the popular worship and religion of India may 
be, the educated Hindoo is taught to believe in one Eternal 

' Manu S. i. 1 — 25. 

' Vidwan Tarangini, p. 16 — 24. 



[iii. 19 

Spirit, Creator of the universe, and older than the names 
Indra, Agni, BrahmA, Vishnu, &c. 

So also in Egypt However degraded the popular religion 
of Egypt may have been, in the worship of innumerable 
gods suited to time and place, the Egyptian esoteric lore pro- 
claimed one God, uncreated, self-existent and eternal — per- 
sonified in the Sun as Ra, Kheper, and Turn or Atum, Sun of 
the night — who existed alone in Nu, the chaotic waters, ante- 
rior to the creation. He was worshipped under different 
names, as Ptah in Memphis, Amun at Thebes, Osiris, &c. " I 
am Tum, alone in Nu."* " I am Ra at his rising, Governor 
of his own work." "I am the great God who has created 
himself [in] the water that is in Nu." " Father of the gods, 
he made them out of his members,"* &c. 

"Amun who supports and maintains everything, Tum and 
Har-em-khuti worship thee in all their words I Worship to 
thee for thy dwelling [within] among us ! Prosternation to 
the earth for thy having created us T" " The gods say to him : 
Come to us in peace [welcome], thou who hast hung up the 
heavens and moulded the earth, Maker of all things and Lord 
of truth ; Father of the gods, Maker of men, and Creator of 
animals."* "One and alone, without a second [a peer], he 
created the earth, mountains, gold and silver,"* &c. " Heaven 
was not created, neither was the earth, and the waters did 
not flow. Thou hast formed [arranged] the earth, and hast 
gathered together thy members that were scattered about, O 
thou God, framer of the worlds."* 

" Watcher, self-begotten ; Creator, uncreated ! all the crea- 
tures [or creations] of the earth are according to the designs 
of his heart — of him, the bringer forth of everything."' " Thou 
smitest thy foes in thy name of First-bom."* " Men came out 
of his [Amun's] eyes ; it is he who gives life to that which is 

• Rit. of the Dead, c. xvii. 1. i. ' Id. 1. 3, 4. • Hymn to Am. 

c. vii. ). 2, 3. * Id. pi. viii. 2, 3. » Id. 1. 5, 7. • Hymn, 

Denkm. vi. 118 (aoth dyn.). ' id. ibid. • Pap. Har. ii. 11. 

iii. 19] 



within the egg;"* "who creates himself and possesses the 
earth from the beginning."' "Osiris made with his hand (or 
arm) this earth, the waters and winds, all the vegetables, the 
cattle, fowls, beasts, and all the creeping things thereof"* 
" He created all countries, the wide sea, the fields, &c., in his 
name of ' Creator of the earth.'"* "Amun abides in all things ; 
that god began the earth according to his designs, plans,"' &c. 
" O Amun, the first of time, warder of miserable man."* " He, 
the one, who makes [existences] beings, and all things that 


" O Amun, God of gods, Maker of things that are invisible, 
and of things that are visible, thou art the one who created at 
first."* "Adoration to thee, O Ra-Tum [Neben netjer]. Lord 
of all. Thou hast created things that exist ; thou hast made 
the heavens and the earth."' " Thou maker of things above 
and of things below."'" "Creator is his name. Lord of the 
other gods."*' "I, Creator, am he who creates himself on his 
mother's lap,"" " in the womb of his mother Nu."" [Compare, 
" O undecaying, shiner, father, and born in thy mother's womb," 
said of the Sun,'* as also of Indra : "As a heifer brings forth a 
calf, so Indra's mother brought him forth, full grown and 
invincible.""] "She conceived him as the good Osiris, her 
beloved [and her first-born],'* for all births are of her."'' " I am 
the great God, who created himself" " I am yesterday, and I 
know to-morrow."'* 

" Thy son [Shu, rays of light, brightness of the sun] worships 
thee in thy character of Creator of creations." " Thy son says 
to thee : I am come forth from the brightness of my father ; 

' Hymn Am. pi. vi. I. 3, 5. ' Pap. Har. iii. 10. ' Hymn to Osiris, 
st&le of Amenh. (dyn. Amen. I.). • Denkm. vi. ' Pap. Har. iv. 6. 

• Bologn. Pap. letter iv. Chab. M^I. ii. ' Hymn Am. I. 2, 7, &c. 

« Pap. Har. i. I. 1, 3, 4. » Id. pi. xxv. 1. 3, 5. '» Hymn Am. 1. 7. 

" Rit. of the Dead, c. xvii. (urtext). " Id. c. xxiv. i, and xvii. 4, 9. 

" Pap. Har. v. 2. '• Sama Veda, Hymns, ii. 6, 7, 2, and Brugsch 

Mon. Eg. vol. i. pi. xviii. " Rig. V. i. skta. xvii. 10, xx. 5. 

" Rit. of the D. Ixxvii. 4. " Id. Ixix. 3. " Id. ibid. xvii. 3,- 5: 



[iii. 19 

I have created the human race of Nun. I hung up heaven ; I 
raised the earth ; I go by the mysterious [hidden] paths he 
made for me." * " Amun, ruler from the creation of the world " — 
'* Lord of eternity."* The soul, in her passage through Amenti, 
on her way to the judgment-hall, says : " I tread the ground 
of Amru, which the Lord of boundless [or pathless) eternity 
gives me. I am a seed of eternity."* " Things that are, I 
hold in my fist ; things that are not, are within me."* " Men 
do not know his name." " He is yesterday. His name is : 
He who sees myriads of years."' 

[The Egyptians, then, believed in One God, Creator of all 
things, whom they worshipped under the various forms to 
which they attached some of his attributes. With them the 
world was not eternal ; it was created.] 

As regards the Chinese, we read in the Tao-te-King :• "He 
who hsis no name is the [beginning] origin of heaven and 
earth ; with a name [nature ?], he is the mother of all things." 
" Tching-tsze, in his Commentary on the Yih-king,^ says that 
Heaven [kheen or theen] is so called with regard to its form, 
supremacy [choo tih], spiritual energy [kwei shin], mysterious 
influence [of spirits, shin]; and that this 'yuen' is the origin 
of all things. It is the Yang [male] principle." " The way [or 
principle] of Heaven is eternal [yuen] ; and this way consists 
in being the first origin of all things ; in pervading them ; in 
reason or in agreement among them [harmony, the rule of 
the universe'] ; and lastly, in perfection and firmness. But 
•yuen' [first beginning, eternal] is the origin of all things."' 

We should, however, go back to the ancient records of 
China, to the edicts of Yaou, Shun (B.C. 2300?), Woo-wang, 
Wen-wang, &c., for a correct idea of what the religion of the 
Chinese was in those days. They spoke of 'Heaven' [as in 
Dan. iv. 17; S. Luke xv. 21, &c.] as 'high, imperial Heaven,' 

• Hymn to the Deity, Denkm. vi. 118. ' Zeitschr. June, 1867. 

' Kit. of the D. Ixii. 3. * Id. xxxi. 8. » Id. ibid. xlii. 12. • Ch. i. 
» th. i. (Keuen). ' Chung y. c. i. • Siao-hio, pref. 

iiL 19] 



" who sends blessings," " afflictions and calamities,"' according 
to men's deserts ;* respecting which the emperor T'hang 
" feared lest he had offended ' Heaven above and men below.'"' 
" When Heaven is pleased, men are not visited with calamities, 
and the ' kwey shin,' manes and spirits [inferior gods], keep 
quiet"* Woo-wang, of blessed memory in China, was re- 
spectful towards the dignity of Heaven, which was established 
by Chaou.* In such a Heaven, " Shang-Te is supreme ruler ; 
what he decrees, imperial Heaven accomplishes;"* "from 
him, the Emperor [the Son of Heaven] receives his credentials, 
office and dignity ;' and lastly, Shang-Te is above the spirits 
of Heaven and of the earth, and to his mind [or heart] men 
must submit."' 

Nowhere [to my knowledge, at least] is he alluded to as 
" Creator" of the world. Instead of which, we are told that 
"when Chaos [hwan tun, confused waters] were separated at 
the beginning. Heaven and Earth were first settled. ' Hwan 
tun' expresses the state of things ere the Yang [male] and the 
Yin [female] principles became separated [or distinct] and 
settled ; it is called the opening of Chaos. ' Keen ' then became 
Heaven, and 'Kwan' became the Earth."' "The light, airy 
matter that floated upwards became Heaven ; the heavy and 
muddy matter condensed and became Earth ; and the sun, 
moon and five planets, are called the seven regulators."*' " The 
deep and clear One, while Heaven and Earth were confused in 
a mass, is original and not made, and yet perfects all things, 
and is called the 'Great One.'" [This 'Great One,' says the 
Commentary, is the Eternal Spirit who unites (or combines) 
the whole.] " This whole proceeds from One who makes the 
difference which exists between one creature and another — 
birds, beasts, &c. And if we look into antiquity, we find that 

> Shoo King, bk. i. 5. • Id. bk. iii. i. ' Id. bk. iii. 3. 

• Id. bk. iv. I, 4. » Id. bk. v. 3. • Id. bk. vi. 4, iv. (i, &c., v. i. 

' Id. bk. 1. 5, iii. 3, iv. 5, &c. ' Id. bk. iii. 2. » Yew-hio, voL i. c. i. 
'» Id. ibid. 



[iii. 19 

at the first beginning man was produced from One without 
form [who produced one with a form, Comm.]."» 

" There is One who gives life [produces], but who himself is 
not produced [eternal] ; and there is One who changes [the 
form of things], but who himself is unchangeable. He who 
is not produced [bom] can himself produce ; and he who is 
unchangeable, yet changes what he will. The living One 
cannot not-produce ; and he who is not produced is One and 
alone."* " The unchangeable One moves to and fro ; there is 
no end to his limit [infinite]; he is well said to be 'alone' 
[One and alone] ; and his way cannot be brought to extremity 
[is unsearchable or inexhaustible]." [The four seasons, says the 
Commentary, change without end ; and there is no bringing 
to extremity the work of that Spirit in effecting changes, &c.]. 
The Book of the 'Yellow Lord' [Kwang-Te] says: "The 
Spirit of the Deep [unfilled] dies not ;" "therefore it is called 
the eternal [or primordial] Mother ; the door [or opening] of 
the eternal Mother." " Because he who produces is himself 
not produced, and because he who works changes is himself 
unchangeable; he, therefore, is himself life, change, form, 
appearance [nature], wisdom, strength, old age [decrease] and 
youth — and it is wrong to call these things such in themselves, 
as if they were inseparable from him."' 

" But since that which has a form is produced by One who 
has none, whence came forth Heaven and Earth ? Therefore 
it is said that there is One ' very great change,' ' beginning,' 
origin and thickening [condensation]. The great change is 
the original air of Heaven, principle, invisible. In the great 
Beginning is the beginning of the ' khe' [force, power, original 
Spirit, the first development of the 'khe']. When this 'khe' 
and matter united (or came) together, it was waves and ripples, 
waves and ripples [chaos]. If one listened, he heard nothing ; 
if he looked, he saw nothing ; and reached to nothing."* "Yet 

' Hm-ae-man-tsze, c. xiv. ' Lee-tsze, bk. i. p. i sq. * Id. ibid. p. 2. 
* Id. ibid. p. 2. 

iii. 19] 



Heaven is but a handful of the Yang, and the Earth is but a 
handful of the Yin. From Heaven hang the sun and the stars."* 

" How great and magnificent is Shang-Te, who is the Sove- 
reign of the people ! Heaven brought all people into exist- 
ence."* "Shin," say the Japanese, "dwells in the 'Taka ma 
no hara' [abode of the Kami, Lord] ; and the Lord God is in 
the imperial Heaven. Heaven and Earth were mingled toge- 
ther ; but the Earth sank to the bottom, and Heaven, being 
lighter, rose up. And the gods of Heaven, making it their 
abode. Heaven is the imperial (or ruling) kingdom. Heaven 
was first completed, and after that the Earth was established."* 
" Of old, the Yin and the Yang were not distinct. Nothing 
existed [lit. all things were not produced]. It was all con- 
fused, and Pwanko [the first fabulous man] was born in it, 
like a chick in an egg."* 

From all these passages, we do not gather that either the 
Chinese or the Japanese show in their writings a clear idea of a 
Creator, of a Creating Spirit, anterior to Chaos, from which 
Heaven and Earth seem to have evolved themselves by the 
simple process of gravitation. On this floating matter grew 
reeds which became gods, who continued for seven generations. 
After them, those reeds became men. The same legend re- 
appears in Tibetan and also in Mongolian writings. For 
more particulars, which would be out of place here, see Pfiz- 
mayer's selection of original Japanese texts on the subject, 
in his "Theogonie der Japaner" (Wien, 1864). 

"As regards Buddhists," says the Rev. D. Gogerly,* "they 
know of no creation. All Buddhas [samma sambhuddha] are 
equal ; not even the Adi Buddhas are superior to Gautama. 
Every one must go through a long training, during which he is 
a Bodhisatwa. He must then be born of a woman in the world 
of men." They only have legends and a variety of opinions 
about it Thus Gautama says : " There are Samanas and 

* Li ki, Li lin, c viii. 
' Ko ji ki, iii. i. * Id. ibid. 

• She King, vol. iii. bk. iii. ode i. 
' Friend of Ceylon, Jan. 1874. 



[iii. KJ 

Brahmans who hold that the world and the soul are eternal. 
Others teach that some things are eternal, and others are not. 
How so? There is a time, O Bikkhus, when after a long 
lapse of years this world is destroyed. Then from the Abbhas- 
sara Loka (the 6th, 9th and loth heavens) come ethereal 
beings living on air and in the sky. Then after a long time 
the world is reproduced and called ' Brahmavimanam,' or 
abode of Brahma, a being who, from lack of sufficient good- 
ness, com?s from the Abbhassara Loka. He wills, and another 
bemg, like himself spiritual, springs into existence by the side 
of him. Then the first says : I am Brahma, Great Brahma, 
Master, Invincible, who sees through with certainty [omni- 
scient] ; who brings everything into subjection ; Lord over 
all ; Maker ['I am Maker of the world'— 'aha lokassa katta.' 
Comm.]; the Creator ['the Earth, Himalaya, Mt. Meru, the 
Ocean, &c., were created by me,' Comm.] ; the Best and Chief 
if all ; the Disposer of all ; the Controller of all events ; the 
;xisting Father of all things that can exist"' 

" Others, called ' adhichchasamuppanika,' hold that there is 
no previous cause for the existence of the world, of the soul," 
&c.« Then in the Dhammathat» [a Burmese code of the Laws 
of Manu], we read as follows : " This present Buddha world 
came into existence after the one before it had been destroyed 
seven times by fire and once by water. Then the waters 
,issuaged, and the abode ' Bhimabundothee,' the abodes of 
ihe Brahmas, appeared [the superior celestial regions, of twenty 
stages or stories— sixteen material, and four immaterial and 
invisible]. The waters again decreased by reason of a great 
wind ; and then something of a delicious taste and smell, like 
unto the skin of rice boiled in milk ['like unto grease,' Jap.], 
rose on the surface in shape like a lotus-leaf Then the earth 
appeared, and with it the seat (or base) of the Bodhi-tree, the 
tree of knowledge or wisdom, under which Shakyamuni at- 

• Diga Nikaya, Brahmajala, sutt. fol. ke. 
' Vol. i. introd. 

' Id ibid. fol. km. 

iii. 19J 



tained Nirvana [Ficus Religiosa]. All such trees are objects of 
veneration. The Bymahas, living without food, but like birds 
enjoying themselves [in the air], were without distinction of 
male and female ; those rational beings were only called 
' thattava-thee,' 'beings.'' But when they had eaten of the 
well-flavoured earth, their strength vanished away ; then the 
sun rose in the east, and it was light ; and when it was set, the 
moon showed itself; and then for the first time did days, 
months, years and seasons begin. Then all the inhabitants of 
the earth who ate of the pleasant earth became, some hand- 
some, and others ugly. Then passions showed themselves 
[among them], and the earth again disappeared. Then the 
Padalatha creeper grew, and after it rice, delicious and like 
the flower of jasmine. But by-and-by, owing to this coarser 
food, the sexes appeared, and with them lust. And when 
wickedness had increased, they quarrelled among themselves, 
parted their rice-fields, and made Thamada king." 

Elsewhere we read that " the Bodhisatwa being at Ser-skyei- 
gjii [Kapila vastu], a number of Shakyas came to him, and 
asked him to tell them the origin of their race. He then 
desired Mangalya to do so, who said : Gautamas I this world 
was full of brilliant beings in the region of the gods ; they 
were endowed with perfection of mind and body, living in the 
enjoyment of the purest food for a length of time. Then this 
earth was only one sea of water ; and on this sea a thick 
covering cream was produced by reason of a wind that blew ; 
just as when one slowly heats milk and keeps it steady, a 
thick cream forms on the top. In moisture and colour, that 
earth was admirably suited to the mouth, smell and taste. It 
was like fresh butter in taste, appearance and substance ; here 
and there also it tasted like the honey of bees. Such was the 
world, and so was it brought forth, Gautamas ! Afterwards 
some of those beings, from some cause of less good and hap- 
piness, put on flesh, and became men, from the luminous 
' See Hesiod, op. and d. 108, 19. 



'[iif. 19 

region of the gods. They were endued with perfect qualities. 
They first got their upper hmbs, and being resplendent of 
their own light, they enjoyed soaring up to heaven and feed- 
ing on that food. Then there was neither sun, moon, nor 
constellations — only one star here and there — nor yet a woman. 
Those beings went about one towards another quite coldly. 
They had no passions ; they only ate of the cream as much 
as would cover the finger-top ; and as they ate more and 
more eagerly, they acquired a solid [stiflf] body. They were 
all of one colour ; but their original brilliancy being diminished, 
the world was obscured. Then appeared the sun, moon and 
stars, for signs of years and days. As the colour of some of 
those men altered, owing to their way of eating the ' cream,' 
they became proud ; and as their pride increased, the moisture 
of the earth decreased. Then they assembled themselves 
together, and said : ' Kyihut bro 1 Alas, the taste !' whence 
'kyihut' came to be the expression of pain and sorrow. He 
who ate a double portion of the cream became of two colours. 
And then these beings began despising and reviling one ano- 
ther : ' I am of a good colour, but thou art of a bad one.' Hence 
the origin of all evil passions, crime,"' &c. 

The above legend is thus told in the Mongolian annals of 
Sanang Setzen :* " In the very first beginning the outer sphere 
(or universe), so called, consisted of three gatherings (or heap- 
ings up) : aether, water and earth. Through the blowing of a 
mighty wind from all quarters of space, resulted the soft, blue, 
light element ; then the waters came from it and great clouds ; 
and lastly, the earth that was an aggregate of small particles 
gradually increasing by sevens, called 'altan djiriketu,' gold- 
hearted, that floated on the surface of the water like cream on 
the top of milk. [This is called in Japanese 'aragane tsuchi,' 
first coarse earth, from which men were formed.] As to 
animated beings in this world, a Tegri [god] came down from 
the Dijan world to be born among men. From him were 
' Dulva, vol. iii. p. 419 sq. ^ Ch. i. 

iii. 19] 



born by emanation beings that were immortal, and did not 
walk with their feet on the earth, but floated in the air. One 
of them, of a greedy disposition, found some food called 
• gecher on tusun,' ' earth butter,' of which he and the rest 
ate ; and then the heavenly food 'samadhi' [Sansc. 'samadhi,' 
profound meditation] disappeared. Then men fell into dark- 
ness ; they lost their cfwn light, and evil began to prevail ; 
and the sun, moon and stars then appeared to give light. 
Then they found another food, ' noghogan,' vegetable, of which 
all ate, and whence the sexes and lust appeared. Then came 
another food, ' ssalu,' rice, which men cultivated as their only 
food. And after much evil had prevailed on the earth, there 
appeared a man remarkable for his goodness, whom they all 
made king over them," &c. 

Among the Altai Tatars it is said that "before the earth 
was wrought out, all was water ; there was no earth, no 
heaven, no moon and no sun. God flew about, and also a 
being called ' Kishui,' like unto two 'qaraqaz,' black geese. 
That being raised the wind and spurted water in God's face, 
and tried to raise himself above God ; but he fell into the 
water, and cried to God to save him. Then God caused a 
rock to rise above the water, on which that being stood. Go4 
then commanded him to fetch from the bottom of the sea 
some earth, which God strewed over the water, and it became 
land,'" &c. [Then follows a distorted and irrelevant account 
of the fall, &c., that would be out of place here.] 

We get, however, clearer ideas of the creation of the world 
from the Avesta. Thus we read in the Ya^na :' " I praise 
and magnify (or extol) Ahura Mazda, the living Creator of 
all ; the luminous, brilliant, very greatest, most intelligent 
and most pure, &c. ' Yo no dadha,' who created us, who 
formed us, who provided for us [fed, protected us], who is 
the Holy Spirit" ["who created all cattle, waters,"' &c.]. 
Then follows an invocation to nine Amehaspands [immortal 

• Radloff, Altai legends, vol. iii. p. 159. * i. 1—3, iv. 12, &c. ' Id. v. i. 




[iii. 19 

saints, archangels] inferior to Ahura Mazda, 'their Creator.' 
" I offer in all purity to the stars, creatures (or creations) of 
(^penta Mainyus, the Holy Spirit."^ [But in vii. 50, the crea- 
tions of (^penta Mainyus are mentioned as distinct from the 
' uncreated lights.'] " Teach me from heaven, with thy mouth, 
O Ahura Mazda, [by whose word and good-will, &c.] the first 
world came to be."' " My name is : I am Protector and 
Creator [payuscha ahmi datascha]. Feeder and Reckoner [at 
the last]. Who dwells in 'eternal, uncreated light,' in the 
highest heavens, in the realms of a light which existed ere 
the luminaries were created to give light on earth."' "[Ahura 
Mazda] Anhuma, who is highest in all wisdom [knowledge] 
and goodness, ever existed in light. This light, the place and 
abode of Anhuma, is what is called 'athar roshan,' eternal 
light"* [said to be in the fourth heaven' and the abode of 

It might thus perhaps correspond to 'Cylch y Gwynfyd,' 
circle of white purity and bliss, beyond which is 'Cylch y 
ceugant,' or circle of infinity, that envelops the whole universe, 
where God alone dwells, according to Bardic theology," and 
that would thus seem to answer to the infinite, eternal light 
of Ahura Mazda. The Mongols, however, hold that "one of 
the heavens below that of Ishwara [Indra] is the heaven of 
infinite, immeasurable light."^ 

However, Ahura Mazda himself declared unto Zarathustra 
[that is, to his fravashi] what he had said " before heaven and 
earth were created, and ere the body of the sun was made : I 
who am Ahura Mazda bring souls thrice over the bridge" 
unto Paradise ['vahistem, P. bahisht'], unto the best place, 
best purity and best luminaries."' 

Light seems evidently to have been the first object of 

> Vagna, vii. 40. ' Id. xxviii. II. ' Hormuzd Yasht, 12. 

* Bundehesh, ch. i. I. 6, 7. ' Just! s. v. • Barddas, vol. i. p. 170, 

222 &c. ' Siim-tsew, fol. 10. ' Chinvat. Compare the 'ship' 

of transmigration. ' Yagna, xix. 1—3, 10, 1 r, 16. 





worship of the Aryans, Egyptians, Stc, who enjoyed the bless- 
ing of a clear sky and brilliant sun. " We praise the luminaries 
that have no beginning and control themselves."' [This must 
refer to the 'eternal, uncreated light ;' because at ch. xxxvii. 3, 
we find Ahura .Mazda praised as "Creator of light, of the 
earth, and of all good." 

And elsewhere : " We praise Ahura Mazda, the pure One, 
Lord of the pure, the wise One, the greatest God [maz. 
yazatem], the One most useful [to us] ; him who keeps the 
world [going] ; the Creator of good creatures."^ "Zarathustra 
asked Ahura Mazda : O most holy, heavenly [Spirit] Creator 
of all beings in existence [with earthly forms or bodies], what 
is the burden of thy speech, made ere heaven, the earth, men, 
&c., were made?"' [From Ya^na xxiii. 3, and Vendid. xix. 46, 
we find that Ahura Mazda has a ' fravashi,' ISia or type of a 
being anterior to its existence [iSIa, jropdS«iy/io roii/ ytwatfievtov]* 
styled in ch. xxvi. 3, ' paoiryanam fravashinam,' of former 
fravashis, with which the fravashi of Ahura Mazda is here 
coupled. What can it mean as regards him, if he is eternal 
and anterior to all other existence ?] 

In the Mainyo i khard' we repeatedly find "the all-good 
Creator Hormazd" [Ahura Mazda] addressed in such terms 
as, " Creator of the yazds of all creations of heaven and earth." 
" The Creator Hormazd, said the Spirit of Wisdom, wrought 
this creation and creations of Ameshaspands and the Spirit of 
Wisdom, out of his own splendour, and in the praise of 
unlimited time."" "And he created good government for the 
protection of creatures."' "And he created them in wisdom, 
with the original wisdom that was with him from everlasting."* 
And in the Bundehesh, " Ahura Mazda created lights between 
heaven and the earth, stars, planets, fixed stars, then the moon, 

' Ya<;na, xvii. 41. * Ibid. xvii. 1, 2, 12, 26, 34; Vendidad, xix. 51, 

58, &c. ' Ibid. xix. f, 2, 3. * Tinia;us Locr. i. ' Ch. i. i, &c. 

• Ch. viii. 7. ' Ch. xv. 14. » Ch. Ivii. 

M 2 

■ 64 


[iii. 19 

and after that the sun,^ which is immortal ;' but he first created 
the firmament."' 

And in the Shah-nameh we read, that "in the days of 
Gushtasp, Zerdusht [Zoroaster] came and was welcome, who 
addressed the king thus : I am a messenger to thee from 
Yazdan [God] to show the way. He then took a censer and 
said, I have brought this from Bahisht [Paradise] ; the ' Jahan 
Afreen,' Creator of the world, said to me : Take care of this. 
Look at these heavens and at the earth ; for I have brought 
them out without earth and water; and look at thy com- 
panions [men] whom I have made ; for no one can do as I 
do, who am 'Jahandar,' the holder [keeper] of the world, and 
no one else. If thou knowest that I have done all this, then 
proclaim me Creator of the world."* 

As to the Greeks, Hesiod tells us that '' irpuTurra x<io% iyivtTo, 
at the very first was Chaos ; after that, the earth ; from Chaos 
came P^rebus [the nether world, hell] and dark night ; and 
from night, aether [sky, atmosphere] and daylight, brought 
forth by Night from her union with Erebus. Then the Earth 
brought out Heaven of equal size with herself as a covering 
for her."* And Homer : " Ocean — 

— TTOTa/ioio pdOpa 

HKtaVOV, OOTTtp ycl/ftrtS VavTOTITl TfTVKTat,' 

was made the origin of all things." Aristotle, however, says 
that "there is an old [apxatoi] saying and [irdrpioi] hereditary 
among all men, that all things have come to us from God 
and through Him [« 0. koI Sia 0.], and that no nature [</>wrts] is 
of itself and by itself sufficient [ovTapKJ/s] to continue when 
deprived of his preserving [or saving care, a-Mrripias] ;"'' "who 
is the supreme Ruler, without whom not one thing in heaven 
or on earth can take place ;"' icmv apa 0(6i, for there is indeed 
a God.* 

• Bundeh. ch. ii. ' Qarshed Yasht. 6. ' Ya^na, xxii. 25, xxv. 15, &c. 
• Shah-nameh, iii. 1067. ' Hesiod, Deor. gen. 1 16 sq. • II. f 245. 
' De Mundo, vi. 2. • Cleanthes, Hymn in Jov. 12—16. » Id. fragm. 
Phil. Gr. ed. .\1. p. 153. 

iii. 19] 



"There are two causes of existing things," says Timaeus 
Locrus, " Mind and Necessity [or obedience to the laws set by 
the Mind], and this Mind, as origin and principle of all best 
things, 0(6v T< 6voiiaivt(T0at, is called God. Before heaven 
existed, then, there was [Aoycji] with [or in] Reason [i.e. God], 
ISia Kal vka, both "plan [design] and matter,' and God was 
Safiioupyos, the Maker of the best things. 'Ewot-qtrtv tSy rbv Si 
Toi' Kocr/iov, He therefore made up this world of all matters, 
perfect, and of the most perfect form in itself — that is, a sphere. 
For God wishing to make it apia-rov yei/kw/io, the best produc- 
tion, produced it from Himself, never to be destroyed or 
injured without the will of Him who made it. And God rH 
Kodfiif ^wX"" /^wo^t" i^d^ai, having kindled a soul in the 
midst of this world and within it, brings it out, in the multitude 
of forms and beings in it. 0e6v Si, rbv ftlv al<ivtov v6oi oprj 
/idvof, Tiav atrdvriav a.p\ayov Kal yev^Topa Tovribiv' rov Si yevvarov o\j/ti. 
opiofiti, Koo'/ioi' T< rovSt Kal ra iiepia ovToG : the mind alone, then, 
sees the eternal God, the Author and Originator of all these 
things ; for we see with our eyes the things come from (or 
brought forth by) Him [ytyraroi'], to wit, this world and the 
sundry portions thereof."' [Compare Rom. i. 20 ; 2 Pet. iii. 5 ; 
Ps. liii. I.] 

[" Haec igitur cum cernimus,'' " therefore when we consider 
these things," says Cicero, " possumus dubitare, quin iis praesit 
aliquis vel effector, si haec nata sunt, ut Platoni videtur, vel si 
semper fuerunt, ut Aristoteli placet, moderator tanti operis et 
muneris?" "can we entertain a doubt as to whether or not 
they have One to bring or work them out, if they were born, 
according to Plato, or if, according to Aristotle, they always 
existed, some Moderator or Ruler of so great a work of such 
functions?" "Sic mentem hominis, quamvis eam non videas, 
ut Deum non vides, tamen ut Deum agnoscis ex operibus 
ejus ; sic ex inventione etc. vim divinam mentis agnoscito."* 

' Timaeus Locr. de An. Mundi, p. 549, ed. G. 

Tusc. Quaest. i. 28. 

1 66 


[iii. 19 

"As thou acknowledgest God, whom thou seest not, through 

His works, see also the divine energy of the mind, in what it 

does." Better that than this of Lucretius : 

" Nullam rem a nihilo gigni divinitus unquam :'' 

" Nothing is ever brought out of nothing by divine agency. 
Some things, indeed, are thought to be wrought by a divine 
Being [numine], yet if we consider, we must conclude that, 
however wrought, it is without divine help."'] 

" And with this universe," continues Timaeus Locrus, " God 
made also Time, which is ruled by the sun, moon and 
stars, all of which did not exist before this created [yevvaroi] 
universe. But this Time is a figure [«i<t<5i'] tw dyevvaToi xpo>"^. 
of the unborn (or uncreated) Time, oi' aluva norayoptvofia, 

which we call Eternity."' " M^ ovros yap rov xpovov, ovrt xotr/iot 
icrrlv' Ik yap Trjs "PX^* ''''''' X/""""" ° f o<r/ios lyivtro. eois ov ^povos Kot 
Kwriio%. If there was no Time, there would be no universe ; 
for it was from the beginning of Time ; the two go together."* 
Now for Plato :* " That alone which moves [has life in] 
itself, and fails not, is the n-ijyij ical opxij, the source and prin- 
ciple [or beginning] of that life in all things that [move or] 
live through (or by) it." " Principii autem," as Cicero renders 
this passage, " nulla est origo ; nam e principio oriuntur omnia, 
ipsum autem nulla ex re alia nasci potest ; nee enim esset id 
principium, quod gigneretur aliunde. — Cum pateat igitur aeter- 
num id esse, quod se ipsum moveat, quis est, qui hanc 
naturam animis esse tributam neget ?"* " Let us then tell, 
first, the First Cause through which all this universe came 
into existence. He was good ; and being Himself outside it 
all, He wished to make it most like Himself. And this is the 
origin of this world most approved by the wisest men — God, 
willing to make everything good, and seeing that matter as it 
then appeared had no rest, but moved to and fro, irAjj/t/itA<3s 

" Lucret. i. 151. ' Tim. Locr. p. 551, 552. Compare Zervana aqarana, 
'unlimited Time,' Vend. xix. i, and Kala nitya, 'eternal Time,' Tarka 
Sangr. 11. ' Phumutus de N. D. p. 142. • Phfedr. 51. » Tusc. Q. i. 23. 

iii. 19] 



Ka\ droKTcw, at random and in disorder, tU rS^iv ainh r}yay€v Ik 
T^« (iTo^tM, brought it out of confusion into proper order, 
judging that this was the best of all."' [Compare K6<rp«v 
(>fvxov with the passages above quoted from Indian writings.] 
" lUud modo videto," says Cicero, "ut Deum noris, etsi ejus 
ignores et locum et faciem."' " Forget not," says Pindar to 
Arcesilas, on another occasion, 

" navTi piiv 0(ov aiTiov inrtpTiOiptv, 

"to refer to a God the cause of everything."' "EU flfSs iv 
ff<jKTC(r<r. :♦ there is one God in all things." [This may also 
mean, • one God in all the other gods,' that were looked upon 
as personifications of His various attributes. So that I may 
be allowed to repeat, that we ought not to take needless 
offence at the frequent mention of d^oi, dii, alternately with 
fleos, deus, in the mouth of such men as Plato, Pindar, Socrates, 
Cicero, &c. It was a mere idiom with them, as also with 
Ptah-hotep, who addresses his 'neteru,' gods, and worships 
his • neter,' god Osiris ; and as it was also with Moses and the 
prophets, who used wnbii, 'gods,' for God ; with this differ- 
ence, however, that D^nb^ is almost always construed with a 
verb in the singular, whereas in the other instances the v>erb 
is made to agree with its subject, whether singular or plural.] 

'"Eis to-T oiJToyei/^S, ecos Ixyova Travra TtTUKTai : There is One 

born of Himself [fons ipse sui] ; all things were made by that 
One"* [or originate from, or out of. Him.] 

" 6«os o vavra t(vx<^v — cis (CTTi, 

God, who makes (or does) all things, is One, 

IIoi'Ta 6tov TrXjjpjj, irdvTuiv iripai fO-Tt Kal apxrj, 
wdvTa <f>epiDV. 

All things are full of Him ; He is the end and the beginning 
of all things ; He who supports the whole universe." But it 

• Timffius, V. and vi. » Tusc. Q. i. 29. ' Py'h- v. 30-33- 

• Aglaoph. Orphica, ed. Lob. vol. i. p. 44o. ' Orphica, ibid. p. 439- 

• Quoted by Didym. Al., Dc Trinit. iii. c. i. and ii. 



[iii. 19 

would be useless to multiply quotations ; they are but drops 
from the ocean. Only one more : " Since then," says Plotinus, 
" this universe has an origin [ytKo/ievos], while thou beholdest 
it, only listen, and thou mayest hear it say to thee, ifu itcjtohjk* 
o tfeos, God made me."' 

According to the Kalevala, "the beautiful 'ilman tytto,' 
daughter of the air [sky], getting weary of her solitude in the 
wide waste, came down to the earth, conceived of the wind, 
but was not delivered for 700 years. At last she cried to 
' Ukko ylijumala,' Ukko, God on high, bearer of the whole 
air [sky], to come to her aid. Then came at once the bird 
Sotka [Anas clangula, L.] seeking a place for her nest. The 
sea-mother raised her knee above the water, and the bird, 
taking it for a moss-grown island, laid there six eggs of gold 
and one of iron, and sat on them. The sea-mother feeling 
the heat, withdrew her knee under water, into which the eggs 
rolled. But they were not wasted. They brake asunder ; 
the lower half became the earth, and the upper half heaven. 
The yolk became the light of the sun ; of the white [of the 
clear, walke aista] came the light of the moon [moonshine]; the 
pied part of the egg became stars, and clouds were formed of 
'troubled' portion of the egg. Then the daughter of the air 
went on making headlands, bights, &c., and at last the first 
man, ' Wainamoinen,' was born, who crawled ashore and stood 

Then in the second book,* we have an account of wheat- 
sowing for the food of man, &c. Elsewhere we read that 
" Ilmarinen made the expanse of heaven, and made the 
coverlid thereof so well as to leave no ' wasaran jalki,' mark 
of the hammer nor trace [mark] of the tongs."* ["Of old," 
says the Vala, "in the place where Ymir dwelt, there was 
neither sand nor sea, nor cold waves ; the earth was found 
nowhere, nor high heaven, ' gap var ginnunga ;' it was a yawn- 

> Plotin. Ennead. iii. lib. ii. c. 3. ' Kalevala, i. 103—344- 

> 1. 1—42, 287—330. * Id. vii. 337. 




ing [gap or] chasm [chaos], ere the sons of Byr had raised 
the vault of heaven. Then the yEsir [gods] met, built furnaces 
and forged tongs and made tools, to proceed to the formation 
of things in general," &c.'] Further on, however, in the 
Kalevala,* we find God Most High addressed as, " Himself, 
' ilman suuri luoja,' as the great Creator of heaven," &c. 

Amid these and other opinions about the origin of all 
things, it gives rest and peace to the mind to hear " the Scrip- 
ture of truth" (Dan. x. 21) declare that they were right who, 
following the lead of their own common sense only, taught 
that this universe was created out of nothing by an All-wise, 
All-good and Almighty Creator, who severed time from eter- 
nity when " He spake and it was done ; He commanded and 
it stood fast;" for "all things were created by Him, and in 
Him all things consist" (Ps. xxxiii. 9; Col. i. 17)- 

"That word," say the Bards, "was God's own name which 
He pronounced, and with it at once produced light and life. 
Menw [Menu] the son of Menwyd, *a weles dardd y goleuni/ 
saw the springing of the light, and the shape.and appearance 
of it ; it was no other than this /|\ in three columns. And in 
the rays of that light were heard sounds of words ; with these 
words was life, and with life the power of God the Father. 
Menw thus obtained three notes or letters, with which he 
formed the name of God, in likeness to the rays of that light ; 
and he perceived that they were the form and sign of life, and 
that their sound was O for the first ray, I for the second, and 
W (or U) for the third. So that OIW [OIU] is the name of 
God wherewith He created all things."' So far the Bards, as 
they received it from the Druids. 

" He willed. He made," says the Uighur ; " one single ' Be I' 
said He, and all that was made did exist. O mighty God 
[knowing Intelligence], Thou alone deservest the name."* " I 
bow," says the Buddhist, " to that transcendent [paramit] Intel- 

• Voluspa, 3, 4, 7, &c. » Ch. xlvii. 51. ' Barddas, vol. i. p. Iii, 

17, 28, 76, &c. « Kudat ku Bil. iii. 4, 6. 



[iii. 19 

ligence [wisdom or knowledge], the producing [or creating] 
Mother of all;" "the great Mother of all the Tathagatas" 
[Buddhist saints, who have reached the opposite shore into 
Nirvana.]' "That holy Spirit, Ahura Mazda," say the Parsees, 
"who has given us purity [holiness] and immortality, has 
wrought his works with the two hands of Armaiti [wisdom], and 
is, in his own wisdom, the father of purity." "Thus hast thou, 

holy Spirit, Ahura Mazda, created, with the power of Armaiti 
and of Asha [purity, holiness], who waits readily on those who 
wish it"' Omar ben Suleyman says "that David is reported 
to have asked God why He had created the world, to whom God 
replied : I was a hidden treasure ; but wishing to show myself, 

1 created the creation in order to make myself known."* 

" IIoi'vjrt^TOTt, SCiTop ia^ov, O Most High," exclaims Calli- 
machus, " Thou giver of good things, 

AbJTop aTTijfiovirfi, Tta 8 (py/JLara Ti's Ktv duSoi, 

Thou giver of peace and safety, who can rehearse and praise 
Thy works ?"* " Look up to heaven," says Asaph, " and down 
to the earth, and take their pledge, and delight thyself in the 
Lord who has given thee knowledge and understanding to 
look on His delightful works, and search His temple [of 
nature]. Know Him according to [from] His works, and thou 
wilt love Him more and more ; and if thy understanding 
attains unto some of His wisdom in that which He has formed, 
then tell His wisdom and sing aloud His praise."* "O Lord, 
my Lord," quoth Ezra,* " Thou tellest of Thy first government 
of this world, when Thou saidst, Let there be heaven and 
earth, and Thy word did the work. Thou art Spirit ; Thou 
didst overshadow it and fill it." 

" O Lord, how manifold are Thy works ! In wisdom hast 
Thou made them all ; the earth is full of Thy riches."' It 
is 'the Book' open to all, in which he that runneth may read, 

• Siim-chung, introd. and p. 12. ' Ya^na, xlvi. 1, 2, 6. ' Nujuhat 
erruw. pref. * Callim. iic A. 91. ' Mishle Asaph, v. 8. 

• IV. Ezra (Eth.) iv. 41. ' Ps. civ. 24. 

iii. 20] 



if he will. But many will not. Thus the poor Buddhist and 
his withering creed : " From what time, then, have we, living 
beings, been under the illusions of this world ? We have been 
in these illusions from a time without beginning."' So taught 
Hotoke [Buddha], "who was once a man,"' "born on the 
fourth day of the eighth month."' But we have the better 
faith that even this beautiful world will make room for " new 
heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness." 

20 By his knowledge the depths are broken up, and 
the clouds drop down the dew. 

" By his knowledge" &c. nSfJD?, ' are split,' ' cleft asunder.' 
" Four keys are in possession of the Lord of the whole earth : 
the key of rain, the key of food, the key of death, and the 
key of barrenness."* " And the Spirit of dew has his dwelling 
in the extremities of heaven ; he is in relation with the Spirit 
of rain. Yet if the Lord shuts up the windows of heaven, 
and prevents the rain and the dew from falling upon the earth 
for your sakes, what will you do?"* 

"Indra orders the Maruts [winds], and they, whose duty 
is to send rain, as quick as thought harness their spotted 
deer, and send rain from the radiant sun, and water [moisten] 
the earth like a hide."" " Sindhu [Indus, Indra], who hears 
us favourably, who fertilizes our fields with his waters."^ 
" Indra filled with sweet water the four rivers that ' meander' 
over the earth to fertilize it (Schol.)."« " O thou, showering 
Indra!"' " Thou didst open the receptacle of waters [clouds].""* 
" When as yet the waters had not come down upon the earth, 
then Indra took his thunder-bolt, and with its brightness 
milked from darkness clouds in the form of cows."" 

• Tonilkhu yin ch. 1. ' Heike Monag. i. p. 10. ' Nakegi no 

Kimi, p. 55. * Kharuz. Penin. i. 43- ' Bk. Enoch, Ix. 20, c. 2. 

• Rig. V. i. skta. Ixxxv. 4, 5. ' Id. ii. skta. cxxii. 6. ' Id. i. skta. Ixii. 6. 

• Id. ii. skta. cxxxix. 6. " Id. i. skta. li. 4. " '" '' '' "" 

10, and Ixxxiv. 10. 

>' Id. i. skta. xxMiii. 



[iii. 20 

"Yo vrisha— vrishabha : Who sprinkles the earth," &c. 
"According to some," says Phurnutus, "Jove is called A«u«, 
Ta^a airo tou Sci'«ii' t^v ■y7}»', probably for his watering (or wetting) 
the earth."* [We may compare 'vrishabha,' the bull, as hus- 
band of the earth, with Apis and his seven kine ; and Api-mu 
or Hapi-mu, Nile, as husband of Egypt. " Hail, O thou good 
god Hapi-mu, lover of Nun, and father of gods [crocodiles, 
fishes, frogs, ibises, &c.], thou givest food to all Egypt ; thou 
art he who creates himself; no one knows whence thou art."'] 
" Rain is the earth's husband."' "Tears from heaven on the 
dry ground."* " The Yinof itself cannot bring forth, and the 
Yang alone cannot bring up ; but the Yin and the Yang join- 
ing together rain down upon the earth ; as also man and wife 
rear up a family." [" This union of the Yin and Yang takes 
place in the space between heaven and the earth. The one 
[Yang] is active and the other [Yin] is quiet [passive, Comm]."* 

"The gathering together of the waters happened in this 
wise," says the Buddhist. " In the very beginning, the universe 
consisted of air [aether], water and the earth. The blowing of 
winds from all quarters brought out the clear blue sky ; and 
the waters were brought out by a large cloud, wrought by the 
motion of the atmosphere, which, by continually discharging 
rain, made the salt sea and also the boundless ocean;"' — '><ya 
a-6ivoi 'ilKtavoio, the mighty ocean, whence all the rivers, and 
all the sea, with the fountains and wells, are derived."' "The 
clouds once risen up, drop down rain ; and dew, being frozen, 
makes hoar-frost."* "And the dew in vales, o-TiAjrvoi Upaai^ 
is ' Meldropa,' the drops of foam from the horse Hrimfaxi."'" 

"I," said Indra to the Maruts, "created all these sparkling 
and flowing waters for the sake of man."" "I," says the 
Parsee, "worship (or bow to) the good waters, and all the 

' Phum. de N. D. 2. ' St. of Nile, Geb. Silsileh. Zeitschr. Dec. 1873. 
• R. Jehudah, Taanith B. Fl. Yalkut in Is. Iv. * Bostan, bk. ii. p. 35. 

' Ku-sze-tsin yuen, vol. iii. p. I, and Yew hio, vol. ii. p. 25. • Ssanang 
S«<2. p. I- ' II- f' 195- ' ('Un den s. mon. 33—40. » II. T 351. 

'0 Vafthrudrismal. xiv. " Rig. V. ii. skta. cx.\x. 5. 

iii. 20] 



waters given by Ahura Mazda."' "O Creator 1" said Zara- 
thustra, "dost thou bring about waters with wind and clouds? 
I, who am Ahura Mazda, bring the waters with wind and 
clouds to my trees of all sorts, and I cause (the clouds) to 
rain (on) food for the pure [holy, righteous] man, and on 
pasture-land for the well-made cow; corn for the food of 
man, and the grass of the field for the well-made cow."* 
According to the Bundehesh, Tistriya [Tistar, Sirius ?], who 
presides over the rain, caused it to rain upon the earth for the 
growth of plants that grew like 'hair on a man's head ;' when 
during the war waged by Angra Mainyu [the evil spirit], " rain 
fell upon the earth in drops the size of a plate or dish,"' &c. 
" What is the best of all things that drop down ?" asked the 
Yaksha of Yudhishtira. " Rain," answered Yudhishtira, " is the 
best of all things that fall ;"• " and Indra is the best of all 

The emperor Shun said to his ministers : " Well, the ground 
is now in order, but Heaven must perfect [the work, 'give 
the increase']."' This was said by the emperor Shun to the 
great Yu, in days when the religion of China was more pri- 
mitive and referred everything to the rule of Heaven, with 
Shang-Te as supreme Ruler there over inferior gods and 
spirits. In later times, however, we find all allusion to heaven 
left out in Kang-he's sacred edict, fourth maxim, about the 
tillage of the ground, paraphrased at length by Kang-he's son, 
Yung-Ching, and by Wang-yew-po. Still it is yet true that 
"the heavens rule" (Dan. iv. 26), whence "He that dwelleth 
therein gives us rain and fruitful seasons" (Lev. xxvi. 4; 
Acts xiv. 17), however much men may choose to forget it. 
"Who governs the earth?" asked king Milinda of Kassapa. 
" The earth, O great king, [protects or] governs the world," 
answered Kassapa.' Nay, but rather : " We will here worship 

» Yaqna, i. 39. ' Vendid. v. 50, 62 sq. ' Bundehesli, ch. vii. and \x. 
« Maha Bh. Vana P. 17341. ' Id. Virat P. 43- ° ^hoo King, iii. 7. 

' Milinda pan. p. 4. 



[iii. 21 

Ahura Mazda, who created cattle and purity, who created 
the waters and all good trees."' 

21 My son, let not them depart from thine eyes: 
keep sound wisdom and discretion : 

"Let not 'them' depart" 1T^^ Vh must refer to 'her ways,' 
V. 17, which is of com. gender; whereas 'commandments,' 
V. I, is fem. in Hebrew, and cannot agree with tt^J, masc. See 
above for "wisdom"' and "discretion;" and here add the 
following : 

"Observe," says Borhan-ed-din, "thy teachers and their 
advice, and continue instant in prayer. Pray to thy God, and 
He will keep thee and support thee ; He will keep thee by 
(or in) His favour, for God is a good keeper.'"' " Happy js 
he," says San-choo, "who overcomes disrespect by respect; 
but he whose want of respect gets the better of him, is indeed 
miserable (or odious)"' [meaning that self-respect is the root 
of discretion]. "A respectful disposition without discretion," 
says Confucius, "will become a labour ; a truthful disposition 
without discretion will become a source of uneasiness ; manly 
courage without discretion will turn to rebellion ; and sincerity 
without di.scretion will become self-strangulation."* " Gracious, 
friendly intercourse with men, is alms given to God," says the 
prophet. "One-third of life consists in friendly intercourse 
with others." " Deal kindly [decorously, discreetly] with them, 
and you will live at peace."' " Since propriety of conduct 
[discretion] gives excellence, hold it fast as if it were your life. 
Though a man may have many virtues and shine in them, 
yet let him cherish, hold and preserve discretion [good man- 
ners], for it will be a very great assistance to him. Propriety 
of conduct is real nobleness of birth ; but the want of it will 
lower a man to be one of very mean extraction. Through 
propriety of conduct men obtain greatness (or excellence) ; 

' Ya^na, vi. 1. 
* Shang-Lun, viii. 2. 

• Borhan-ed-din, xi. p. 140, 
» Eth-Thcalebi, 256. 

' Siao-hio, iii. 

iii. 22] 



but through a want of it they get intolerable disgrace. Pro- 
priety is the seed of virtue ; but impropriety brings shame 
and trouble.'" 

" not depart" &c. " Constantly bearing in remembrance the 
Law, is a door to religion, and the teaching thereof leads to 
entire purity.'" "And the weeping of a man out of love for 
God, is cooling to his eyes."' 

22 So shall they be life unto thy soul, and grace 
to thy neck. 

"5o shall they be lifer D^^n, though idiomatic, may yet 
mean ' lives.' both present and to come, since " godliness has 
the promise of both" (ch. viii. 35 ; i Tim. iv. 8). 

" Virtue, the greatest prize among men, K6.XKt.ar6v re <^ipuv 
ylyviTa.1 avhpl viif> shines most when worn by a young man."* 
" Good-nature is the ornament of power ; gentle speech, that 
of valour ; tranquillity, that of knowledge ; humility, that of 
contemplation ; judicious liberality, that of wealth ; freedom 
from anger, that of devotion ; patience, that of strength ; and 
sincerity [guilelessness], that of virtue ; in all these, the moral 
character that works it all is its chief ornament."' " Yet what 
need is there of ornaments where there is modesty [or bash- 
fulness]?"' "But let neither moderation [or economy] nor 
excellence, pure thoughts, and a retiring disposition, leave 
thee by degrees (or for) an instant."^ For " there is neither 
measure nor number of the blessings attached to the observ- 
ance of moral duties. In like manner as the sea is both 
without measure and without limit, so also is the happiness 
that results from moral duties well observed both immea- 
surable and unlimited."" "Virtues protect him indeed who 
practises them ; virtues well performed (or practised) bring 

» Cural, xiv. 131— 138. » Rgya-tcher r. p. iv. p. 22. > Nuthar 

ellal. 15. * Tyrtseus Ath. iii. 13- ' Nitishat. 80. • Id. 18. 

' Gun den s. mon. 377- ' Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. 



[iii. 23 

happiness with them."* "The Spirits defend (or protect) the 
good man," says Tai-shang in his 'Kang-ing-pien ;' they 
"defend and protect him spiritually" [or wonderfully, as ren- 
dered in Mandchu]. " The spirits follow him everywhere," says 
the Commentary, "who venerates 'Tao-Te'; who is sincere 
and honest, upright and equitable ; who is chaste ; who holds 
to [female or] deep virtue [yin-te] ; and who excels in doing 
good. The spirits cannot do otherwise than protect him."* 
[This is said in modern Chinese. In the Shoo King, ' Heaven' 
and Shang-Te would take the place of 'the Spirits' [shin], 
which are inferior to both and under their control]. "Obedi- 
ence is loved of God ; but He hates disobedience. He who 
hearkens [to Him] is loved of Him ; but he who does not 
hearken is hated of him," says Ptah-hotep.' 

23 Then shall thou walk in thy way safely, and thy 

foot shall not stumble. 

nwa^, 'safely,' lit. ' in confidence'; ^ian rib, 'thou shall not hurt 
thy foot' (against a stone, &c., as in Ps. xci. 12). 

" Then shalt thou" &c. " Make me acquainted, O you two, 
Mazda and Asha, with the two laws [Avesta and the Com- 
mentary], by means of which I may walk in company with 
Vohu-Mano [holy Spirit] ; and teach me the offering and 
praises you have given as a help to immortality and of fulness 
[in you]. Cleanse me, O Lord, and give me strength (or 
power) through Armaiti [wisdom]."* "O Indra, thou who 
knowest [the way], lead us to a place of bliss, of light and of 
safety."' " For he who is well informed of the place where 
thou [Shiva?] dwellest, will forsake every earthly path; his 
foot shall not stumble ; and he will soon attain his object."* 
" For it is impossible for those who are not joined by deep 

' Durenidh. Jataka, p. 31. ' Shin-sin luh. 1. p. 98. ' Pap. Pr. 

xvi. I. 6, 7. * Yaqna, xliii. 8, 12. ' Rig. V. Mand. vi. skta. ccccxix. 
• Vemana, iii. 88. 

iii. 23] 



meditation to the feet of Him who is the Sea of virtue, to 
swim the other sea [of transmigration]."' 

" I say this to thee," said Yudhishtira to Draupadi : " Doubt 
not virtue [dharmam, religion] ; he who doubts it [who does 
not trust it] follows the way of brutes. For he who does not 
obey religion (or virtue), finds authority in nothing else."* 
" By it men are saved from many errors, and by it the spirit 
within us is comforted."' It gives light. "The pearl which 
king Tchakravartin possessed — his treasure — when placed on 
the top of his standard gave light in darkness, and in thick 
darkness, for one 'yojana' [seven miles] around. Then every 
man could see his fellow, and knowing one another, said : 
Come, let us go up ; the sun is risen,"* &c. "As a cart cannot 
proceed if placed athwart, so also if reason and justice are 
turned aside [through want of wisdom], reasoning cannot be 
understood [and the walk is not upright and safe]."' 

Then begin well ; " for the beginning of a man's life is the 
title of his book [tells what he will be]."* " Wilt thou not be 
afraid of enemies and of dangers by the way," said Mitra Dzogi's 
parents to him when he left them to become an ascetic, " while 
thus wandering abroad?" "No, father," answered Mitra; "I will 
give way to them at once ; and I will patiently and earnestly 
follow the path of salvation."' "Teach the words of the 
past," said Osiris to Ptah-hotep ; "so shalt thou make them 
[moral] food for children and for men. He that hears (or 
hearkens to them) will walk in all uprightness of heart."' "As 
to what I have written," said Kaqimna, " if they lay it to heart 
it will do them more good than anything else in the whole 
earth, whether they walk or sit down [move about or stay at 

" Make provision for the way, when starting in life ; and 
piety is a good provision for that journey.""* " For even in a 

' Curat, i. 8. ' Maha Bh. Vana P. 1165, 1 175. ' Borhan-ed-d. p. 74. 
* Rgya-tcher, c. iii. 15. ' Jap. prov. Pag. p. 513. "El Nawab. 125. 
,' Mitra D?.nji, p. 3. • Pap. Pr. v. 1. 5. » Id. iii. I. 7. '" Qoran, ii. 198. 




[iii. 24 

man's walk it is seen if he is wise and understanding, or fro- 
ward and foolish."' " But he stumbles in his walk whose hope 
is not in God ; God alone is enough ; all else is only wandering 
about [desire for what we cannot have]."' "A heart that has 
no disorderly [loose] thoughts ; a foot that has not a froward 
gait ; a man who holds no bad intercourse ; and things that 
require no ill-treatment [are to be praised]."' 

24 When thou Hest down, thou shalt not be afraid : 
yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sleep shall be sweet. 

" WAen thou Hest down" &c. "N^Su/ios, /itiXixio? iln-i'o!."* 
" He who submits to his destiny [to the commands of Ishwara, 
si. 12021], sleeps in peace and free from anxious thoughts; 
but a foolish man melts away like an unbaked jar in water," 
said Yudhishtira to Draupadi.' " He sleeps according to what 
he has done," said Bhishma to Yudhishtira, speaking of a man's 
conduct' "Arise ; tarry not," said Gautama ; " practise virtue 
assiduously ; follow not evil ways. The Dhammachari [or 
virtuous, religious man] sleeps [rests] in peace in this world 
and in the next also."' " For anxiety of mind can only be 
removed from those who are united to the feet of Him who is 
without the like."' " It is by observing the early or late hour 
at which a man rises in the morning and retires to rest in the 
evening, that you may know his prosperity or his decline."* 
" For sleep is one-sixtieth of death"'" — " it is death unripe."" 

'YTrvos S« Tts 7rpo/teX€Tijo"ts TreXti : 

" Sleep is a practice beforehand of death;" "to. nixpa. tov Oavarov 
lixxrrrjpia :" it is 'the small mysteries of death.'" 

All very true ; for while asleep, we are dead to our own 
possessions, whatever these be, and to all around us. Thus a 

• Rabbi M. Maimon. Halkut Ue'ot. iv. 8. • Rishtah i. juw. p. 149. 

» She King in Ming Sin paou Kien, pt. i. c. 5. * II. * 9'. &<=. 

» Maha Bh. Vana P. 1215. • Id. Shanti P. 6752. ' Rajavanso Jat. p. 90. 
• Cural, V. 7. • Hien w. shoo, m8. " Berach. 57. " Midrash 

Rab. in Gen. 17, M. S. " ^<-f- !"»'■ 

ii. 24] 



great portion of our life is spent in utter oblivion of it, a daily 
reminder of the longer sleep in the grave. In the Golden Agej 
Ovrja-Kov 8' (OS virvif StS/irnxivoi,'^ " they died as if overcome with 
sleep." It is probably from the ominous or mysterious state 
of sleep that the 'daeva,' demon Bushyangta was supposed to 
preside over it, and to send it over the world awake. " Up, O 
ye mankind ; praise the best Purity [Ahura Mazda] ; the daevas 
are driven away. That long-handed female demon Bushyangta 
sends back again to sleep the living world that had risen at 
dawn. Long sleep does not become man."' 

It is from the utter helplessness in which we are while 
asleep, that "trust alone in Him who watches over us" can 
make it sweet. As such, sleep was praised as the gift of God, 
thus : " We praise the strength given to man from above, and 
we praise sleep given by Mazda, a joy for man and beast."' 
As such, sleep is a/ijSpoo-ios, [itX[<j>pb)v* ambrosial, sweet or deli- 
cious ; ijSu/tos,* pleasant ; PaOv^," deep ; Xva-UaKoi,' that puts an 
end to trouble ; vyUia piov, health of life ; o-w/iaTos a-unrjpia,^ 
health or saving of the body, &c. 

While, on the one hand, we read, 

" Stulte, quid est somnus, gelida; nisi mortis imago 
Longa quiescendi tempera fata dabunt ;"' 

on the other, we have, 

" Somne, quies rerum, placidissime, somne, deoruni, 
Pax animi, quem cura fugit, qui corpora, duris 
Fessa ministeriis mulces, reparasque labori !"'° 

"Peaceful sleep is for the good and gentle."" For others: 
" The eye sleeps, but the pillow wakes."" But " sleep at peace 
[in confidence] ; so Hest thou on the softest bed."" Therefore 
is "the sleep of the labouring man sweet," free from care. 
" Wealth is the rich man's god ; but sleep is the poor man's 
feast."'* "And Madhukundali, when dying of sickness, his 

' Hesiod, '. rai ij. 116. ' Vispered, xvlii. 37. ' Ibid. viii. 16. 

* II. fi' 19, 34. ' Simonid. 172. • Callim. ' Theogn. 468. 

• ri-iD/i. /lof. • Ovid, Amor. ii. 41. '" Id. Met. xi. 623. " Khar. 
Pen. xxii. 9. " Malay pr. " Nuthar ellal. 240. " Finnish pr. 

N 2 



[iii. 25, 26 

heart being full of faith, passed away like a man asleep to 
waking up, when he found himself in the Tavatinsa Nat 

25 Be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the deso- 
lation of the wicked, when it cometh. 

26 For the Lord shall be thy confidence, and shall 
keep thy foot from being taken. 

iboD?, rendered 'thy confidence,' is lit. 'at thy side.' Other 
interpretations are given ; but this seems best. 

" sudden fear" " TtOrjirorti iqvrt vt^pou"* 

" He who is really great is not afraid of death ; he who is 
afraid of death is not really great."' " Walk thou in the 
peace of the Most High, that thou mayest walk in a good 
way. No evil shall befall thee ; for by that very thing [walk- 
ing with God] shalt thou be saved."* "The heart that yields 
to [or agrees with] nothing crooked," say the Chinese, " and 
the ear that listens not to the wrong sayings of others ; the 
eye that looks not on the failings of others, and the mouth 
that does not tell their faults — make up a good man, who 
may abide quiet in a peal of thunder." "A man of staid 
heart and mind, who has laid a solid foundation" — "whose 
heart is well established."' 

"When prince Mitra Dzogi [son of the king of Magadha, 
950 years after the death of Shakyamuni] told his parents 
that he wished to become a monk, they tried to dissuade him, 
saying : Art thou not ashamed to go about like a beggar and 
to forsake thy treasures ? He replied : All the wealth and 
power of the kingdom, without contemplation, is only a going 
round to hell. — Art thou not afraid, young as thou art, to 
wander away alone, far from thy kindred, among wild beasts, 
&c.? He answered : Trying my young body, through going 

> Budhaghosh, Par. ii. ' 11. f 243. • Ming hien dsi. 97. * Sahid. 
Ad. 33, 34. » Ming S. p. Kien, i. c. 5. • Japan pr. p. 256, 732- 

iii. 25, 26] 



abroad — if full of faith and trust (or devotion), whence should 
I fear ? Nay, through deep and earnest devotion will I strive 
zealously after high (or religious) knowledge."* "For every 
place," said Epictetus, " is safe for him who lives righteously."* 
"And wisdom shall never suffer that those who have it be 
moved ; for it will not depart for ever from those who cling 
to it."' " Wisdom delivers from original sin those who are 
caught in the net of this age [world], and carries them through 
their transmigration."* "Therefore, O Indra, turn us before- 
hand from evil [pray the Aryas], as a cow turns away her 
calf [from bad pasture]."' " For what can an enemy do when 
the Friend is favourable and gracious?"' "Everything on 
earth is beset with fear ; freedom from earthly desires is alone 
exempt from fear."' "Though ten thousand afflictions befall 
them who have drawn near to the Deity, they will not fear. 
Does the 'madi-man,' moon-deer [deer (hare, man) in the 
moon], fear the earth-tiger?"' "The man whom the watch- 
ful [wise, careful gods, Varuna, &c.] protect, soon overcomes 
difficulties. The mortal whom they fill and protect from all 
harm, as it were with their arm, prospers [increases] when thus 
free from hurt."* "O father," said Satnakumara [Shukra, 
Vyasa's son] to Brahma, " thou hast told me of the profitless 
life of ignorance ; but the present birth is a happy life. He 
by whom swans are made white, parrots green, and peacocks 
of various hues, will protect me. He, Krishna, by whom all 
and innumerable deeds have been wrought, and who protects 
the world, he will take care of me. One dies neither in the 
sea, nor by fire or poison, neither by weapons, nor is he thrust 
through with a hundred arrows before his appointed time ; 
but when this time is come, he is killed if touched by a blade 
of grass."'" 

' Mitra Dzogi, Kowal. Mong. chr. ii. p. 160. ' Epictet. fragm. Anton. 
' Mishle As. v. 21. • Hjam-dpal. fol. vi. ' Rig. V. ii. skta. xvi. 8. 

' Gulist. i. sc. 5. ' Vararuchi Ashta R. 5. ' Nanneri, 29. 

• Rig. V. i. skta. xli. 1, 2. •» Pancha Ratr. iii. 14, and Hitop. ii. 14, 15. 



[iii. 25, 26 

" The dragon and the tiger are afraid of him whose ways 
are austere ; and the demons and the spirits stand in awe of 
him whose virtue is exalted. When the decree of Heaven is 
in favour of a man, he can frighten away both demons and 
spirits."* " Dhruva, intent on Vishnu alone, was not terrified 

by the Raksha, but only saw him. Heb Dduw, heb ddin— 

without God, without anything," say the Welsh.' "God is 
enough ;" under His keeping we are safe ; "and safety is the 
comfort of life," say the Arabs.* "And the well-doer, crv,i,idxov^ 
Tcvfi; ^eoi^, will have the gods fighting on his side."* The god 
Thot," says the Egyptian, " is like a shield behind me."» " O 
ye gods!" sang they of old at dawn, "with the rising of the 
sun, preserve us from degrading sin."' And the Sheikh from 
Herat says : " God walks in the way with those who seek Him, 
and takes them by the hand."* "Thou walkest where there 
is one who will ensnare [take] thee. Bind this girdle around 
thee that thou be safe. If so, thou shalt not experience any 
of the evils that would betake thee. The God of our fathers 
will guide thee in the way."" 

" What and whose protection could my soul wish for, who 
is indeed known as my Defender, other than Asha [purity], 
and thou also, O Ahura Mazda, who art desired and called 
upon by the best Spirit ? But I will sing your praises with my 
mouth, O Mazda and Asha, as long as I may. Let the 
Creator of the world grant through Vohu-Mano [good Spirit] 
that which is best suited to those who behave well openly."'" 
"Then Wainamoinen, looking up to heaven, said: Thence 
always cometh grace ; protection, we know, comes from the 
highest heaven : trust Him, then, the Almighty Creator."" 
And after Wainamoinen, also Pindar : 

" Atos Toi vdos /u<yas Kv^tpvj, 
Aaifiov avSpiiv <f>lKu)v :" ^^ 

> Ming h. dsi. 55, 60. » Vishnu P. i. 12, 21, 22. ' Welsh pr. 

< Nuthar ellal. 91. ' rvotfi. ftov. » Zeitschr. Jan. 1868. ' Rig. V. 

i. skta. cxv. 6. • Beharist. I. » Sahid. Ad. 47. •» Yajna, 
xlix. I, II. " Kalev. ix. 567. " Pyth. v. 164. 

iii. 27] 



"The great mind of Jove overrules the fate of those he loves 
[and who love him]." 

" Gwell, better," say the Welsh, " have God for a friend than 
the whole host of the earth."' "For," say the Chinese, "as 
when the screen is torn, the frame of it still holds good [stands], 
so also the superior man, though he become poor, his pro- 
priety and justice still remain."* " Such good disposition 
[morals] is better than a good companion ; and a consolation 
in adversity."* "And this is the greatest thing our Rabbis 
ever said : The Lord will be his help [a help to him]."* " For 
virtue alone is successful [overcomes] ; and God alone is a 
place to go to [refuge]."' Thus Baber, having escaped the 
sword and dagger of three Hindoo assassins, exclaimed: "If all 
the swords in the world moved from their place, they would 
not touch one of my veins without God's will."" 

27 Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, 

when it is in the power of thine hand to do ii. 

»3Qn bM, ' refuse not ;' V^J?!?, ' from (to) the owners of it ;' 
' those to whom it belongs' — either by contract, as wages, payment 
for goods received, &c., or as a moral dTity and obligation, such as 
almsgiving to others in want, tithes, &c., which even in the Qoran 
are called 'fard,*' an absolute and obligatory command of God, as it 
were engraved by Him, as indelible ; threatening with eternal punish- 
ment "all avaricious men who hide what God has of his liberality 
granted them" for the good of others.* 11^ ^W7, 'in the power of 
thy hand ib'^innb to withhold or deny it,' as R. S. Yarchi explains it 
— that makes the command more binding than if understood as ' in 
the power of thy hand to give it' He also gives another meaning to 
"the owners thereof" — that is, the poor. It is also the rendering of 
the LXX. fit] air6<r)^ii (v voitiv ivBffj. 

" When one says ' dehi,' give ; say not * nasti,' there is no- 
thing [to give]."* " Hospitality and compassion for the poor," 

> Welsh pr. ' Hien w. shoo, 105. ' Matshaf philos. 

* Succa, in Millin. de Rab. 344. ' Telugu pr. 2413. ' Baber nameh, 
p. 481. ' Sur. ix. 62, iv. > Id. iv. 35, 37. » Telug. pr. 2403. 



[iii. 27 

says Kamandaki, " is a duty of the householder."' " Who is a 
jewel ? He who gives at the right time."'' " Chi paga volen- 
tieri fe sempre ricco : He who pays readily is always rich."" 
"Conti spessi, amicizia longa : Short reckonings make long 
friends."* " First of all," said Ajtoldi to Ilik, "a man's word 
should be true; secondly, that man should be liberal, and 
give away something. No one comes to a stingy man to 
receive anything."* For liberality is the badge of the pious ; 
it is that of the elect."' " Do justice, and withhold not favour 
from the (poor) peasant."' "For the head with brains in it 
chooses generosity ; but the low-minded [who grudge others] 
have only a skin on the head [but no brains]." Since " noble- 
ness consists in manliness and the giving of bread, useless 
words are but an empty drum."' 

Among other stories of the kind, we read in the Japanese 
Den ka cha wa,» that "two honest 'cago' [a kind of litter] 
bearers, having found money left in the 'cago' by a samurai 
[officer] whom they had carried, returned it to him. A thing," 
continues the story, " so rare in the world, got talked about, 
and the house of those men, we have no reason to doubt, soon 
began to overflow with good things." And in the In shits 
mon :'" "A boy going to bathe in the river on a hot day, found 
a bag of gold left there by a man, whose wife came to look 
for it sorrowing. For having restored this gold to the owner, 
both that boy and his father were, through the mercy of 
Heaven, blessed with an official position and income," &c. 
" Another youth who had kept back the money he had found, 
died suddenly by accident. Let no one think, 'It will not 
happen to me;' for either good or evil follows [a good or a 
bad action] as the echo the voice, or the shadow [the body 
that casts it]."" " Be good," says Ben Syra, " and withhold 
not thy hand from goodness [good deeds]."" 

' Nitisara, ii. 26. » Phreng wa, 37. » Ital. pr. * Ital. and 

Engl. pr. » Kudat ku Bil. xvli. 116, 117. • Pend-nam. p. 4, 6. 

' Id. II, 12. « Bostan, bk. ii. p. 33, 34. • Vol. iii. p. 3. 

" Vol. i. p. 9. " Den ka cha wa, 1. p. 7. " Ben Syra, 5, 10. 

iii. 28] 



28 Say not unto thy neighbour. Go, and come again, 
and to-morrow I will give ; when thou hast it by thee. 

" Say not," 8ic. IlapoKOToC^Kjji' AoySui/, StKotus d^roSos. "Justly 

restore the deposit committed to thee," says Pittacus of Mity- 

lene.» " Who is that man, I asked, who is eating the skin and 

flesh of others? Srosh [(Jraosha, a Yazata, who is watcher 

over the world] answered : He is the wicked man who, while 

on earth, kept back the wages of hirelings and the shares of 

partners."' " It is a part of religion to pay one's debts ;" 

[with a play on din]."* " And it is a sin," says Tai-shang,* " to 

borrow a thing and not return it." " For one of the nine 

things," says Confucius, " a wise man does when he sees an 

opportunity of getting something for himself, is, to think of 

justice [to others]."* 

" Das nunquam, semper promittis, Galla, roganti. 
Si semper fallis, jam rogo, Galla, nega."' 

"If, when not convenient, you make gifts by words only, 
and raise hopes, saying, ' Here I there ! to-morrow at a given 
hour, trust me, I will give' — it is a dry fish."' " For it behoves 
noble [well-bred] men to abstain from this low word : ' I am 
poor, I have nothing ;' but one is to give."* " Do not throw 
at thy feet [do not neglect] the business of any one ; for it 
may so happen that thou mayest fall more than once at his 
feet."' " Say not, To-day for me, to-morrow for thee."" " He 
who by nature is dilatory, promises readily, but performs 
slowly."" " But delay in giving is not good ; it were even like 
a shower falling drop by drop."" 

" He keeps on saying, Narayana ! Nama Shiva 1 and the 
like, and men applaud him and say. Well ! admirable ! But 
he is in no hurry to open his purse and to give."" "Yet a 

' Pittac. sept. sap. 2. 
ellal. 5. * Kang ing pien. 

ii. 25. ' Vemana, iii. 28. 
" Arab. pr. Soc. 
" Vemana, i. 35. 

' Arda Viraf nameh, xxxix. 11, 5. ' Nuthar 

' Hea-Lung, xvi. 10. • Mart. Epigr. 

• Cural, xxvii. 223. ' Bostan, i. st. 16. 

" Bahudorshon, p. 19. " El Nawab. 177. 



[iii. 28 

gift delayed is but a cord with knots ;" " for it is not well, after 
a promise, to delay the fulfilment of it."' "Le parole son 
femmine, ed i fatti son maschi.'" "But," say the Chinese, 
"two 'trust' are not like one 'ready.'"* "If you say. Come 
to-morrow ; the gift is then but the hire for coming to fetch 
it"* " But a kala-berry eaten to-day is better than a jack-fruit 
eaten to-morrow."* "Gwell un hwele ; better one ' Here you 
are !' than two promises."* " Better a stickleback [or minnow] 
in the hand than a salmon swimming in the river."' Or, as 
the Arabs say, " A thousand cranes in the air are not worth a 
sparrow in the hand."* Or, as told by Meidani : "A sparrow 
in the hand is better than a crane on the wing."' Or by the 
Osmanlis : "To-day's hen is better than to-morrow's goose ;" 
or " The egg of to-day is better than the fowl of to-morrow."" 
" Like," say the Cingalese, " letting go a bird in the hand, to 
go and catch one in the bush."" And the Georgians: "An 
egg to-day is better than a fowl to-morrow ; and [gain] pos- 
session is better than promise."*' 

" Pay now ; paying later will not do." " For to-day to say 
'To-morroW,' is a sign (or token) of saying 'No!'"** "If you 
give, give at once ; if you trade — ready money." " Trust (or 
believe) no one, and give no credit to one who has enough to 



" Quod praestare potes, ne bis promiseris ulli, 
Ne sis ventosus, dun vis bonus esse videri.'"* 

" For if he says, ' Here it is,' it means that day six months."" 
" Yet a cucumber at once is better than a pumpkin later."" 
" Do not," says Ebu Medin, " cut off [deny] thy good from 
him who expects it of thee."** Since "A la par, es negar y 
tarde dar." It is the same thing to deny, or to give grudgingly." 

' El Nawab. 45, 51. ' Ital. pr. ' Mun Moy. p. 14. 

♦ Tamil pr. 4149. ' Id. 4224. • Welsh pr. ' Id. ibid. 

' Burkhardt, Arab. pr. 3. ' Meid. Ar. pr. "* Osman pr. 

" Athitha W. D. p. 52. " Georg. pr. 27. " Tamil pr. 542. 

" Burmese Hill pr. 263, 264. " Dion. Cato, i. 25. " Telugu pr. 

" Succa, B. Fl. 147. " Ebu Medin, 51. '• Span. pr. 

iii. 29, 30] 



But " irT<i>j(^ 8' ivOv SCSov, fir) S' avpiov eXBi/itv t"jr»j« — give at oncc 
to the poor, and say not to him, Come to-morrow."* For in 
the world at large, " kindness in men is a goal thou wilt not 
reach," say the Arabs.' " And, as the Chinese say quaintly, 
" As long as you ask for nothing, all men are kindly disposed ; 
and if you don't wish to drink, their wine is high-priced. It 
is easy to enter the hills to catch a tiger ; but to open one's 
mouth to get help from men — is difficult."' 

29 Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he 

dwelleth securely by thee. 

O'^n'!) ''N, 'do not plot,' 'work' or 'think,' evil, &c. n???*^, 'in 

" Devise not," &c. " A man is a fool who does an evil deed, 
though he hide it from his neighbour. Who would have him 
that mixed poison for others?"* "Do not behave frowardly 
[fraudulently] towards a simple man."' "By all means settle 
near a good neighbour ; by all means make friendship with a 
good man."' "And avoid doing an injury to any one."^ 
" Woe to the wicked and to his neighbour ; but well be to the 
righteous and to his neighbour."* " He who devises evil 
against his neighbour," says Eth-Thealebi, " God makes that 
neighbour inherit his house," or "God destroys his house."* 
"Which is the disease without remedy? He said, A bad 
neighbour. And another said, Why dost thou sell thy house ? 
Because, answered this one, I cannot sell my neighbour."** 

30 Strive not with a man without cause, if he have 
done thee no harm. 

^S^J rib DH, ' if he have not rendered thee evil (for good).' 

" Strive not," &c. " Do not estrange thyself from any good. 

' Phocyll. Alex. i. 
* Legs par b. p. 299. 
' Aw. atthi sudi, 38. 
" Id. 237- 

' Meid. Ar. pr. 
' Oyun tulk. p. 11. 
» Succa, R. Bl. 147. 

' Hein w. shoo, cxi. 
' Ming h. dsi. 28. 
» Eth-Theal. 219. 

1 88 


[iii. 31, 32 

worthy man, for the sake of a difference about trifles."* "Do 
violence to no man," says Theognis ; " there is nothing more 
worthy of a righteous man than beneficence."' "Let a man 
say. 'Well, well,' or 'Well' only; but let him not raise a 
groundless quarrel [a quarrel of dry enmity] with any one 
whatsoever."* "When there is cause, it is convenient to be 
a little angry, and there is also a cure for it. But who knows 
the way to appease a man who has got angry without cause?"* 
" Give way over and over again," says Tai-shang,' " [lose much] 
and take little for yourself." "But rather," says another 
Chinese, " cultivate a conciliating [harmonious] spirit, and yield 
to others in everything."" "He who is very angry with a 
cause for it, cools down as soon as that cause is removed. 
But how can a man be appeased (or pleased) who [is angry] 
hates another without cause?"' " He," say the Finns, "who 
is angry without a cause, gets quieted without a gift."' " He 
goes at thee," say the Arabs, " without cause ; for such is the 
nature of a biting dog."* " Yet every way [or course of action] 
that is not born out by reason, is a crooked way."" " But 
speak unkindly of no one, neither before his face nor behind 
his back, nor yet raise a groundless enmity with any one."" 

31 Envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none 
of his ways. 

32 For the froward is abomination to the Lord : 
but his secret is with the righteous. 

091^ U7''M, 'a violent man,' 'a man of violence.' 

"Envy not" &c. " To envy the high in rank, to strive with 
[emulate] one's equals, to think scornfully of one's inferiors, 
and to quarrel one with another, are all to be avoided."" 

' Oyun tulk. p. 11. » Theognis, 559. » Manu S. iv. 189. 

* Legs par b. p. 279. » Kang ing p. • Moral max. Dr. Medh. 

' Pancha Tant. i. 315. « Finn. pr. • Eth-Theal. 162. 

" El Nawab. 75- " Kobitamrita k. i. '» Bslav cha ches pa, 6. 

"'■ 33] 



" For there is sleep neither night nor day for those who are 
haughty towards others [who oppress them]."' Tai-shang* 
says, " It is a sin for a man to be a man, and yet to have 
neither sincerity nor probity.'' "A good-natured and steady 
man is sure to last out his time ; but the cunning and 
treacherous are sure to come to an untimely end [misfor- 
tune]."' " Those fallen men who walk frowardly and put on 
the appearance of Rudra, while they revile him, are like fair 
women living in adultery."* On the other hand, " those who 
are ashamed of sin and who are afraid of committing it ; who 
are given to pure [white] virtue ; who are good and pious, are 
in this world called "deva dhamma,' 'godly.'"' "By day, 
without thought [naturally] and without hindrance, they [enter 
into] commune with the Supreme Intelligence [or Wisdom, 
belke bilik]."" 

33 The curse of the Lord is in the house of the 
wicked : but he blesseth the habitation of the just. 

rrjn^ n"5Sp, ' the execration of the Lord.' LXX. Kardpa, ' impre- 
cation,' 'curse.' 

" TAe curse," &c. "Tang (B.C. 1765), when returning from 
punishing the rebels of Hea, said : The rule of Heaven, which 
blesses the good and curses the wicked, has brought down 
calamities upon Hea in order to set forth his sin."' "And 
E-yun (B.C. 1753), in his Instructions, says : The Supreme 
Ruler [Shang-Te] is not uniform in his awards. To those 
who do good he sends down a hundred blessings ; but to 
those who do what is not good he sends a hundred calamities."* 
" For misery and unlucky circumstances are the result of sin."' 
"But if there is no sin, where will be the curse?" say the 
Cingalese.'" " ' Sinning against Heaven' is ' like spitting while 

* Tamil pr. 952. ' Kang ing p. ' Ming h. dsi. 32. • Vemana, 
ii. 184. * Devadham. Jat. p. 129. ' Siiim chub. 20. ' Shoo King, iii. 3. 
• Ibid. iii. 4. » Gun den s. mon. 225. '" Athita W. D. p. 43. 

■ 90 


['•'• 33 

lying on one's back ;' it falls back on the face."' In Spanish : 
"Quien al cielo escupe, en la cara lo cae."» 

Alluding to a famine and pestilence in the days of the 
Shang dynasty, we read in the She King : " The clear Heaven 
Shang-Te has all but destroyed us. How may we not fear ? 
Our ancestors are already gone !"» " XaX«r^ SJ e,ov lore /i^v«,« 
for the wrath of God is hard to bear." "O Indra, thou who 
bringest low those who go from thee, in favour of those who 
follow thee ; who slayest those who absent themselves from 
thy sacrifices, in favour of those who attend them!"* "O 
thou, the destroyer of evil men !"« "Wickedness, indeed, 
takes away much from a man's good things."' "But if you 
practise virtue, it will procure heaven," say the Japanese ; " but 
if you do evil, you will fall into hell."* "The man who looks 
not to himself," said Kavya to Vrishnaparvan, "shall bring 
forth fruit [as result of his wickedness] in his sons and grand- 
sons ; it will be to him like undigested food in his stomach."' 
" Some call a man miserable who is reft of riches ; others say, 
he that is without qualities ; but he alone is wretched and vile 
who is bereft of the thought of Narayana [God]."" 

" For excellence lies not in race [birth or kindred], but it is 
said to lie in a man's qualities. One proceeds from quality 
to quality, as milk to curds, and from curds to butter." " Since, 
what will it profit a man who is void of wisdom, to be born of 
a noble family ? But a wise man of no family is honoured 
even by the gods."" "Well, then, says the doorkeeper to 
those who have neither understanding, favour, conduct nor 
opinion, 'No one at home!'"'' "If a wicked man wishes to 
make another man perish, Heaven will not let him. But if 
Heaven has resolved the ruin of a man [for his wickedness], 
how difficult it is to prevent it!"" "They shall have no 

« Telugu pr. 2622. « Span. pr. s she King, bk. iii. 4. 

* II. {. 178. ' Rig V. i. skta. li. 9. « Id. ii. skta. cxxix. 11. 

' Arab. ad. Erpen. • Rodrig. Gr. p. 92. • Maha Bh. Adi P. 3335. 

'• Bahudorsh. 5. " Chanakya, shat. 40, 42. " Gulistan, vii. 19. 
" Ming h. dsi. 132. 

'ii- 34] 




peace," said Enoch, " upon earth, nor remission of sins ; that 
they may not rejoice in their children. They will behold the 
war of their beloved ones, and moan in agony ; and offer 
supplications for ever over the destruction of their children. 
But they shall obtain neither pity nor peace."' "And it came 
to pass that after the children of Seth had come down from 
the Holy Mountain, and had defiled themselves with the 
daughters of Cain, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech and Noah 
were left there alone. Enoch continued in his ministry before 
the Lord three hundred and eighty-five years. He then said 
to his son : I know that God will bring the waters of the 
Flood upon the earth to destroy our race. Watch over your 
souls, and hold fast by the fear of God and by your service of 
Him, in true faith, and serve Him in righteousness and purity. 
Then because Enoch was in the light of God, God took him 
to Himself"' 

" For the just receives continually from Heaven [gifts and 
blessings]."' "God surrounds him with good luck [o-wrvx^j; 
dyaOy] who does good," says Solon, "and saves him from folly."* 
"Then, O Ahura Mazda, I see thee holy, from the first setting 
up of the world ; how thou workest out reward for praise and 
prayer ; evil to the evil, but best blessings to the good, through 
thy virtue [in thy wisdom] in the last dissolution of the 
world."' " O Ashi vanhuhi [good Blessing], health to him 
whom thou embracest ! Everything prospers with him. Em- 
brace me."' "He," says Wen-chang, "who keeps his heart 
from vice as I do, will assuredly have happiness bestowed 
upon him from Heaven."' 

34 Surely he scorneth the scorners : but he giveth 

grace unto the lowly. 

" Surely he scorneth" &c. " O Indra, thou art the lifter up 

' Bk. of Enoch, c. xii. 6. • Bk. of Adam and Eve, p. 140. ' She 
King, in Chung y. c. xvii. * Solon, v. 69. ' Ya^na, xlii. 5. 

• Ashi yasht, 7. ' Wen-chang yin Iseih, &c. in Shin sin luh. iv. p. 13. 



[•'■'• 35 

of the lowly!"* "No praise to the proud," says Ali ben 
Abu Taleb. The sense of which is in Arabic : " As to the 
proud man, no one will robe him with praises, nor will any 
one come across valleys of hope to him [come from far to ask 
him for anything]." In the Persian Commentary : " No one 
will praise the proud man, or come for his help. Whosoever 
bears himself proudly (or haughtily) will be mentioned with 
scorn in assemblies of people ; but he who walks on the high 
road of humility, the whole world will sing his praises."* [See 
notes on ch. xv.] " Shut thy mouth from scorn and mockery, 
that the mouth of thine accusers be shut from showing con- 
tempt for thee."' " Bear thyself lowly and humbly, and be 
not high [or excessive] in thy demands."* 

35 The wise shall inherit glory : but shame shall be 
the promotion of fools. 

" But shame, C"??, exalteth fools." Marg. reading. 

" The wise" &c. " The ornament of the world consists in 
the wise and learned men that are in it, as the ornament of 
heaven consists in the stars [that spangle it]."* "Glory will 
come, like the reed thou seest grow and swell joint by joint," 
said Timur." " For a wise man is honoured even though his 
family be despised ; and when, in a strange land, he finds 
there many friends."' "For deliverance [from danger or 
death] is before those who have wisdom (or knowledge)."* 
" If a child does not acquire knowledge, men will not make 
mention of him ; like water dropped on the ground. He will 
get shame ; people will despise him ; his countenance will be 
wan and downcast ; like one in a mountain glen, he will not 
know how to move about [get in or out], though he has a pair 
of legs. Without instruction he will be reckoned a fool, a 

> Rig. V. i. skta Ixxxi. 2, 3. ' Ali b. a. T. 14th max. ' Mishle 

As. i. 6. ' Tel. Nitimala, bk. ii. ' El Nawab. 124. " Ahmed 

Ar. V. Tim. p. 7- ' Ep. Lod. 709. ' Tel. pr. 2384. 

'"• 35] 



coxcomb, vain and empty ; and in appearance he will be con- 
fused, awkward, and look contemptible."* 

"But learning will procure a man greatness and riches."* 
" Rare learning will secure greatness."* " But he," says Babrias, 
" who rejoices in shameful things as if they were good and 
honourable, must be reckless and diseased in mind."' "And 
[shame] poverty and contempt is the 'panku' [planet Saturn], 
fate or reward, of a fool" — "which is of his own seeking."* 
"Le fou cherche son malheur;"' "like a man," say the 
Telugus, "who cutting a tree makes it fall upon himself."' 
" The Dgesnen [half priest] addressing the hideous god of the 
sea, who appeared to him and to five hundred merchants who 
were in jeopardy with him on board a ship, said : There are 
others in the world far more dreadful than thou." " Who are 
they?" asked the god. The Dgesnen replied, "The fools, the 
ignorant, who recklessly commit murder, theft," Sc' 

' Putt-ovada, p. 19, 20. * Avvey. Kalvi Or. 60, 68. ' Babrias, 10. 
* Tamil pr. ' French pr. • Tel. pr. ' Dsang-Lun, v, fol 24. 



[iv. I, 2 


/ Solomon, to persuade obedience, j showeth -what instruction ht had of 
his parents, 5 to study wisdom, 14 and to shun the path of the wicked. 
20 He exhorteth to faith, sj and sanctification. 

T T EAR, ye children, the instruction of a father, and 
■*■ ■*■ attend to know understanding. 

2 For I give you good doctrine, forsake ye not my 

nn*2, lit. • a thing or means wherewith to catch men ;' ' teaching,' 

" Hear ye children" &c. " Hear, O my children," said Enoch, 
" the words of your father, and attend diligently to the voice 
of my mouth ; for I make you hear and speak to you. My 
beloved, love righteousness and walk in it. But do not approach 
righteousness with a double heart ; neither associate with 
men of a double heart ; but walk ye in righteousness, O my 
children!"' "O Bikkhus," said Gautama, "I will teach you 
other precepts that will not decay ; hear them, and lay them 
well and deep in your minds."' Confucius used to address 
his disciples as, " My little children," a term of affection ; yet, 
according to the Mandchu saying, " among ten thousand dis- 
ciples, there are but six dozen good ones."' " Restraining his 
body, his speech, and his organs of sense and his mind, let 
the disciple [Brahmachari] stand before his teacher with his 
hands clasped together."* 

" To study only," says Confucius, " and not to meditate on 

' Bk. of Enoch, c. xc. i, 17. * Mahaparanibbh. fol. khya. ' Ming 
h. dsi. 82. ' Manu S. ii. 192. 

iv. I, 2] 



what one has learned, will profit nothing. To meditate only, 
and not to study as well, will leave the mind narrow."* "For 
an egg without the yolk is like learning without a teacher."* 
[Does this account for so many addled [eggs] brains among 
men ?] We learn by teaching. " In like manner as a small fire 
kindles big logs of wood, so also do young disciples sharpen 
[the wits of] old ones," says Rabbi Nachman.' " Hearken 
unto me, O ye wise," says Bochari-de-johor, "for in truth 
wisdom is the tree [origin] of good things [virtues], since 
virtue (or good) is the token of wisdom ; and the man who is 
wise is rich, but the unwise is full of trouble. If thou didst 
get the wealth of this world, and with it wast short of wisdom, 
thy name would be but poor, and thy state would be altogether 

Therefore attend. " For with such lore [verses] fathers and 
mothers teach their children ; and those who observe it 
[impress] give effect to their precepts."' Heu-li says : "-When 
the father calls, don't wait [to answer] ; only rise and stand 
up."' And in the Li ki it is said : " When the father calls, to 
say ' Yes,' and do nothing more ; when taking anything in 
hand, to drop it ; when having food in the mouth, to spue it ; 
and when parents [old people] go out, not to stand on one 
side to let them pass — are all contrary to the feelings [or prin- 
ciples] of a dutiful child."^ " Thy fear of [or respect for] thy 
father, will make thy sons also respect thee."' And remember 
that " he has no sense who does not obey,"* say the Arabs. 
"Tsze-loo having heard [his father or teacher], was not able 
to act upon it fully ; therefore was he afraid of having heard."'" 
" For children yet of tender age who have parents, friends 
and teachers, must practise good manners and rectitude."" 
" And they must attend, keeping quiet the three agents, eyes, 
ears and tongue."'^ 

' Shang-Lun, i. 2, 15. '■' Tamil pr. ^ Taanith, 7, M. S. 

* Bochari de Job. p. 177. ' Putt-ovada, p. 19. " Siao-hio, c. ii. 

' Ibid. ' Rishtah i j. p. 132. ' Meid. Ar. pr. '" Shang-Lun, v. 14. 
" San-tsze King, 15, 16. " Jap. id. p. 695. 

O 2 



[>V. 3 

" O ye children, you do not know good from evil. I do not 
only lead you by the hand in words, but I solemnly teach you 
how to do what. I tell you. I do not only give precepts in 
your presence, but I also raise your ears to them. No one 
can be [' ying,' full] satisfied [as having done well] who does 
not perform during the day what he knew in the morning. 
O ye children, I have taught you old doctrine [' che,' a firm 
course of action or conduct]. If ye will hearken to my voice, 
may be you will not have much to repent of. But Heaven's 
judgments are impending ; and Heaven does not go from 
what it has determined."' " Manasseh did not bear in mind 
the commandments of his father Hezekiah, but he forgot 
them. Then Samael [Satan] dwelt in Manasseh and stuck 
to him."' 

3 For I was my father's son, tender and only be- 
loved in the sight of my mother. 

For "'Sn'? "'rr'^n ^a, 'I was (a) son to my father;' a stronger ex- 
pression than A.V. 

" For I was'' &c. " Manasseh was to Hezekiah a son indeed, 
being his only one."' " Love for one's children," say the Arabs, 
" is money laid out at interest." " Well," adds the Commentary, 
" does the apostle of God say, that kindness for children and 
their respect for their parents assuredly leave traces behind 
[bring forth fruit], and that, too, in plenty."* "Amor descen- 
dit, non ascendit."' " The father's love is to his children ; but 
the love of his sons is to those who come from them."* " E 
pill facile," say the Italians, " che il padre faccia spese a dieci 
figluoli, che dieci figluoli ad un padre : It is easier for one 
father to spend on ten sons, than for ten sons to do so on 
their father." 

" My son is my son till he take him a wife, 
My daughter is my daughter all the days of her life."' 

• She King, vol. iii. bk. iii. ode 2. * Ascens. Is. c. ii. i. ' Ibid. c. i. 
* Rishtah i j. p. 29- ' Lat pr. ' Sota, fol. 49- ' Eng. pr. 

'V- 3] 



"There is no greater [stronger] love than that of children."* 
But as to the different bearing of the father and of the mother 
towards their children, " the father," say the Arabs, " is more 
knowing and more generous, but the mother is more loving 
and more lenient."* "Amor tenero delle madri," "the love of 
mothers," say the Italians, "is tender;" but "amor forte dei 
padri," "the love of fathers is solid (or strong)." For "chi 
non sa negare, non s4 regnare,"' " he who knows not how to 
deny, knows not how to govern ;" but mothers, from their 
nature, are more yielding. 

"As in a game the looker-on, by common consent, will side 
with one or other of the players, do not mothers show prefer- 
ence for one child above the rest, though all be good alike?"* 
Yet "let no man make a difference between one child and 
another," say the Rabbis." So that " it is not what thy mother 
says of thee that counts," say they again, "but what strangers 
say."' The owl's description of her owlets as the most lovely 
creatures, did not quite agree with the eagle's judgment of 
them. Yet the Tamil proverb says well, "that the child who 
never feels his mother's mouth [for a kiss] is like wheat in a, 
soil on which rain never falls." " For there is no affection," 
says Chanakya, " like that of one's offspring."' " Sweet is the 
office [duty] of a mother in the world ; hence, also, sweet are 
the duties of a father." [But the Commentary explains ' mat- 
teyyata' to mean, riot " the office of a mother," but " the duti- 
ful honour paid by a son to his mother."'] Loqman's fable' of 
" the Gardener" is intended to show the great difference to a 
child between his own mother and a stepmother. Syntipa's ' 
fable'* is also to the same effect. 

Yet the Spaniards have the proverb : " Madre pia, dafio 
cria," also true, that a too tender mother works harm to the 
child. But a mother both tender and judicious is God's bless- 

' Kawi Nitish. ' El Nawab. ' Ital. pr. ♦ Pazhmozhi, 20. 

' Sabbath, Millin, 135. • Ep. Lod. 1304. ' Chanak. 75. 

' Dhammap. Nagav. 13. • Fab. xv. w Fab. xxxii. 



t'V- 3 

ing personified. Of such a mother, take the daughter to wife. 
" I looked at the dam," say the Georgians, " and I broke in 
the colt."* "A child may be fondled until he is five years old ; 
chastised until he is ten ; but when he is sixteen years old, 
let a son be treated as a friend.'" "The shade of a tree is 
pleasant ; so is that of a father and mother to a child.'" " If 
a child goes a thousand 'ris' away [2500 miles], the mother's 
heart," say the Japanese, "follows him all that way." "There- 
fore learn," say they, " that while parents are alive, children 
ought not to abandon them or give them pain."* 

"tender and only beloved" T\-\, 'tender,' 'soft,' 'yielding' 
to mother's advice. Chald. ' the mother's delight' 

" It is thought, by all who wish to have a tree, that it must 
be [guided] trained at the beginning. A lion by humbling 
himself [crouching down] overcomes an elephant"' In all 
languages there are terms of endearment towards children. 
This is how a Burmese mother addresses her own offspring : 
" My dear children, attend ! In a former state your father 
and I swam on the water ; my husband, a drake, and I lived 
together like birds, and in the course of time pretty children 
were born, of which I took the greatest care, found food for 
them, and carried them on my back." " Stem of my liver, 
pupil of my eye [pupilla, pupula, ko/ji;, l?y"na, &c.], children 
of my womb, my breast-blood, my own dear ones, tender 
hearts are ye,"* &c. So we read in the Dsang-Lun that 
Chom-ldan-hdas spoke agreeable words, with great affection, 
and comforted the housekeeper Polchi, as parents do to the 
son who honours them ; and then admitted him to the degree 
of priest."' 

" What is there of greater weight than the earth and higher 
than the sky?" asked the Yaksha. Yudhishtira answered: 
"A mother is [heavier, 'gurutara'], more important than the 

' Georg. pr. 
• Kuwan ko hen, i. p. 18. 
' Dsang-Lun, c. xv. fol. 71. 

* Chanak. 9. 
' Drishtant. 7. 

' Lokaniti, 48. 
• Putt-ovada, 6, 10. 

•V. 3] 



earth, and a father is higher [more exalted] than the sky."' 
"Such a father," say the Burmese, "cannot be sufficiently 
spoken of for height and greatness ; like Mt Myemmo [Meru], 
he cannot be fully reached in words or by description."' " For 
the good deeds of a father and mother towards their children, 
like those of high Heaven, are immeasurable."' " Sleep on," 
said the Sultan to his infant princess — " sleep on, my child ; 
sleep, thou pupil of thy father's eyes ! I entrust thee to the 
Lord of all. Then the mother, weeping, washed her babe's 
body with her tears and said : Thy mother is wretched I thy 
father will forsake thee ; but thy mother is not of that way of 
thinking. I am three parts of my child, with it to perish or 
live. If perish thou must, life of my soul I then thy mother 
must also perish with thee."* " Come to thy mother's bosom, 
O babe !"" " Sweeter than ambrosia," say the Tamils, " is the 
rice cooled by the little hand of one's child passing through it ; 
and it is a ' golden' pleasure to hear him talk."" " For the man 
has not heard the most pleasing of all the sounds in the world, 
who has not heard the prattle of his own children."' 

To Meng-moo-pa, who inquired about filial piety, Confucius 
said "that when a child was ill, the father and the mother 
alone felt sorrow from it."* " While your parents are alive, do 
not go far from them ; but if you must go from them, have 
a fixed abode," said also Confucius."' " There are three ties 
among men : between prince and subject, justice ; between 
father and son, filial duty ; between husband and wife, obedi- 
ence." " Filial piety, affection between father and son, is 
one of the ten duties of mankind."'" 

cut. " SI unquam ullum fuit tempus mater cum ego voluptati tibi 
Fuerim — obsecro — ejus ut memineris."" 

> Maha Bh. Vana P. 17346. ' Putt-ovada, 6. » Mong. mor. max. 
♦ S. Bidasari, i. p. 5, 6. ' Beng. pr. « Cural, 64, 65, 69. 

' Lokopak. i8. * Shang-Lun, i. ii. 6. » Id. ibid. iv. 19. '» San-tsze 
King, 27, 28, 40, and Ming Sin P. K. c. xii. " Ter. Heaut. v. 4- 



[iv. 4 

4 He taught me also, and said unto me, Let thine 
heart retain my words : keep my commandments and 

" He taught me also'' &c. "A man, from being very wicked, 
suddenly became filial, through the example of his mother, 
who herself had been good and obedient For in like manner 
as one copies writing set by the master, so also does a child, 
who sees his parents dutiful, copy them, and learn filial piety. 
But the reverse is also the case."' " Keep thy mother's words, 
O my son," said old Groa, from the grave, to her son on his 
way to Menglod's castle, " and let them dwell in thy breast ; 
for thou shalt have enough happiness through thy age [life] 
if thou bear in mind my words."^ " If a son," says Confucius, 
" does not depart from his father's rule of conduct for three 
years, he may be called a dutiful son."' 

As regards teaching : " If a great and learned man is really 
patient [forbearing and indulgent] and sedate, he will help 
[teach] slowly and at length. For he who is versed in the 
Shastras, speaks always healthily, and gives pleasure to 
others."* " For conversing one night with a wise man is of 
more avail than reading books ten years."' "And a father 
can confer no greater benefit on his son than to enable him to 
rank first in the assembly of the learned."' "Take firm hold 
of my words," said Enoch, " in the thoughts of your heart ; 
and do not let them be effaced from your heart ; for I know 
that sinners counsel men to commit sin in secret."' " Every 
teacher of youth," says the San-tsze-King, "should explain 
fully, state the facts, define the words, explain the reasoning, 
and, when reading, define the periods distinctly."' " In teach- 
ing children," says Wang-keu-po,' "one should not be hasty 
or impatient ; for if you [bate] reject the iron, you cannot 

' Den ka cha wa, vol. i. i8, 19. ' Edda, Gr6ugaldr. xvi. 

' Shang-Lun, iv. 20. * Kawi Nitish. vi. 3, 4. ' Chin. pr. 29. 

• Cural, vii. 67. ' Bk. of Enoch, xciv. 5. ' San-tsze-King, 54. 

' Sacred ed. nth max. p. 4—87. 

iv. 5] 



make steel [which is made by repeated forging, to reduce 
the weight of iron, until it cannot be reduced any further]. 
If to-day you are urgent and to-morrow dilatory, your chil- 
dren cannot improve. You must bring them by degrees into 
the right way, and set them an example. The posterity of 
the holy man Confucius never got angry ; that of Tsang-tsze 
never scolded." 

" But," said Confucius, " I will not teach one who would not 
apply himself to knowledge."* "And there are many worthy 
men fit to give advice who do not live in the cold open air 
[not tuft-wearers, ascetics]. Sesamum-seeds bring the sweet 
scent of flowers ; but barley, never"' "The teacher who has 
at heart to instil virtue, should give instruction without hurting 
his pupil [Culluca says, ' without too much of the rope, cane, or 
other punishment']. He should use sweet and gentle speech."' 
"As a father teaches his son ; encouraging him who has little 
aptitude for instrtiction."* But " learn in youth."' " He who 
truly fills both of one's ears with divine knowledge, is to be 
looked upon as a father and a mother, and is never to be 
aggrieved."* " He [the Brahmachari] is taught that if the 
sacred ' gayatri,' • om,' ' bhu,' ' bhur,' and other mystic terms, 
are repeated every day without ceasing for three years, they 
will ensure supreme bliss in God, and an existence in the form 
of thin aether [spiritual, heavenly]."' 

5 Get wisdom, get understanding : forget ii not ; 
neither decline from the words of my mouth. 

"Get wisdom" &c. "My son," said Rabbi Barachiah 
Hanakdan, " get wisdom, love uprightness (or perfection) ; 
reckon a fool as a shadow of naught ; and turn aside from 
the counsel of the foolish."' " The acquisition of knowledge 
is best for [human] beings, as it appears to me," .said Narada. 

' Shang-Lun, vii. 8. ' Drishtanta, shat. 6. 

* Shang-Lun, i. ii. 20. '• Atthi Sudi, 29. 

' Id. ibid. 82. « Mishle Shu'alim, 59. 

' Manu S, ii. 159. 
' Manu S. ii. 144. 



[iv. 6 

" Let a man consider among men established [firm] in virtue, 
well versed in the Vedas, and devoted to their own self-im- 
provement, where the reciprocity of good is found among the 
four classes [or castes]."' "Forget not virtue, forget not 
excellence," said Avveyar.* " O Samedha pandita," said Dipan- 
kara, " having secured this fourth • paramita' [perfection], take 
in earnest this paramita of wisdom, if thou wishest to acquire 
truth [or supreme intelligence]."* But strive; "for a perfect 
man is not so from himself; no man is perfect (or accom- 
plished) from himself alone."* " For there are a thousand 
'kings' [sacred books] and ten thousand classics; but filial 
piety and justice (or goodness) come first."* 

" And despise not wisdom because it is but little [at a time ; 
it comes slowly]. One washing [cleansing] goes to support 
life."' But choose a good teacher. " For a false teacher 
impedes [binds] us in all our actions ; the middling teacher 
also hinders us by a multitude of mantras [spells]. But an 
excellent teacher combines the whole power of excellence."^ 
"My son," wrote Syed Abd-ul-Jaleel to his son, Meir Syed 
Muhammed, "you know how fond I am of my books; therefore 
take good care that no harm happen to them. And as regards 
yourself, make every effort in your studies. Do not limit 
yourself to one science through idleness ; but remember that 
the bee when feeding on any fruit, gathers from it for our use 
the two substances, wax and honey."' 

6 Forsake her not, and she shall preserve thee : 
love her, and she shall keep thee. 

"Forsake lur not" &c. "Love letters [instruction, leam- 
JngJ" wrote Sbauf to Pepi, "like thy mother."* "Wisdom," 
say the Arabs, "is a well-advising minister [vizeer] and a 
helper towards happiness, who saves the man that obeys him ; 

' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 10587. • Atthi Sudi, 30, 46. ' Durenidan. 
Jat. p. 21. * Chin. pr. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. i. • Lokaniti, 6. 

' Vemana, i. 8. • Pers. Reader, vol. ii. » Pap. Sail. ii. 4, 2. 

iv. 7] 



but he who disobeys him perishes." " Wisdom is a faithful 
counsellor, but wealth is a departing guest." " Wisdom leads 
to eminence." "Yet a wise, learned man without manners 
[adab] is like a champion without weapons."* 

7 Wisdom is the principal thing ; therefore get 
wisdom : and with all thy getting get understanding. 

' Wisdom is iT'ip'N'l, the chief or principal thing ;' ' the beginning.' 
Chald. trn, 'the head;' Syr. id. LXX. omit it. Arm. Copt, agree 
with Heb. 

" Wisdo7n is the principal thing," &c. " Wisdom [or virtue, 
religion,'dharmam']," said Bhishma to Yudhishtira, "is the birth 
[first thing, beginning] of men ; it is ambrosia to the gods in 
heaven. In the past [dead] estate, endless happiness is enjoyed 
through wisdom (or virtue) by those who have passed away."* 
" The Sage [dana] asked the Spirit of Wisdom, What is the 
most precious possession on earth ? And the Spirit of Wisdom 
answered. Wisdom is the best of all wealth on earth."' " To 
the wise and contented man, but little misfortune will happen."* 
" Who then is to be called rich and who poor ? asked the Sage. 
He is called rich, answered the Spirit, who is perfect in 
wisdom ; and he is called poor who lacks it."' " He in whom 
is all wisdom has everything. But he who has it not, what 
has he got?"' "Yet even the most learned are in need of 
counsel," say the Rabbis.' Still, " learn wisdom as if dying 
to-morrow."' " Faith is wealth ; morality is wealth ; modesty 
and a tender conscience [fear of sinning] are also a welcome 
treasure ; so are knowledge and liberality ; but wisdom is the 
principal wealth." " He who possesses that wealth, even if he 
has a wife and children, will be free all his life, and will spend 
it free from [error] folly."' 

' Meid. Ar. pr. " Maha Bh. Shanti P. 7065. 

' Id. ibid. c. xxxiv. 

' Id. c. XXXV. 

' Mainyo i Ich. c. xlvl. 6. 
« Millin de Rab. 346. 

' B. Fl. 

' Mong. max. R. 

° Suddhammapal. p. 145. 



[iv. 7 

"Buy wisdom and live."' "For there is no friend equal to 

" Virtus omnibus rebus anteit profecto. 
Virtus omnia in se habet ; omnia 
Assunt bona in quern pene est virtus."' 

" Hjam-dpal [wisdom] is the chief and best rule (or method) 
for the great vehicle [transmigration]."* "Wealth, kindred, 
life and work, and, fifthly, wisdom, are all respectable in their 
way ; but the fifth is by far the most important of all."' 
" The gift of virtue [and wisdom] is the best of gifts."* " And 
sweet is the acquisition of understanding."' " Of all things, 
wisdom is said to be the very best."* "Knowledge is the 
greatest happiness in the world ; knowledge is like itself, alone. 
Truth is knowledge."* "Consider, which is the one race of 
men that is first among the rest ? What does it profit to go 
about without knowledge [or understanding] ? A man of 
understanding may be born of any race whatever."'" "He 
who knows wisdom, knows all things."" 

" He," says Rabbi Nathan, " who keeps the words of the 
Law as the foundation, and looks upon the way of the world 
as accessory, gets a root [foundation] in the world ; but he 
who does the contrary, becomes [taphel] accessory [that is, 
only outward, without a foundation]."" " Son," said the Spirit 
to Shuka, " take, take to the worship of Hari [Krishna, Vishnu], 
that severs and cuts asunder the iron fetters and trammels of 
the world."" " Yudhishtira having asked his brothers which is 
best, wisdom [virtue, dharmam], wealth, desire, or worldly pos- 
sessions, Vidura said : By wisdom [practical wisdom, virtue, 
dharmam] the Rishis have crossed over [either to ' the other 
side,' or have excelled in virtue, wisdom, &c.] ; by it (or in it) 
are the worlds established ; by it, the gods have shone forth ; 

' Mishle As. xii. 53. 
• Hjam-dpal, fol. iv. 
» Id. ibid. Nagav. 14. 
•• Id. ibid. iii. 230. 
" Pancha Ratra. ii. 7. 

' Kobitar. 133. ' Plaut. Amphit. ii. 2. 

' Manu S. ii. 136. • Dhammap. Tanhav. 21. 

• Hitopad. introd. • Vemana, i. 171. 

" Kudat ku B. c. xii. " R. Nathan, c. xxviii. 

iv. 8] 



and wealth is included in wisdom." "To have wealth with 
wisdom, is the best lot of man," says Pindar.' 

" Wisdom, O King, is the best gift [quality], wealth is the 
mean, and desire comes last ; therefore ought one to devote 
himself with his whole soul to the excellence of wisdom and 
to the good of all beings."^ " Wisdom coming to a Brahman 
said : I am thy great treasure — keep me ; do not make me 
over to a scorner ; and then I shall become most powerful." 
" But if thou art acquainted with some Brahmachari who is 
pure, subdued and attentive, and a vigilant keeper of so great 
a treasure, then make me over to him."' [Here ' vidya' is the 
wisdom of knowledge or perception, while 'dharmam,' or virtue, 
is wisdom put in practice.] " Reckon wisdom a better [first 
cause] foundation than mere worship ; and the mind also 
better than mere words."* " The power of great knowledge 
[wisdom] is a door to religious enlightenment ; it gives the 
supreme knowledge of that which is thereby made clear."" 

"Among beings," says Bhrigu, "animated ones are the best ; 
and of these, those who have intelligence ; among these, men 
are the best ; and among men, Brahmans."" " Wisdom is set 
before us as the best thing," says Manu.' "Mater omnium 
bonarum artium est sapientia," says Cicero.* "Sapientia hominis 
est custos."» " Sapientia nihil est melius."'" " Understanding 
is the richest of all riches."" "A man's learning is his jewel, 
and his intelligence is an ornament in every company."" 
"The believer's prey [game] is — to find out wisdom.'"^ 

8 Exalt her, and she shall promote thee : she shall 
bring thee to honour, when thou dost embrace her. 

^aninril, 'and she shall raise thee on high.' LXX. n-cpixapaKdxj-oi/ 
avTrjv, ' fence her round with a mound or a palisade,' ' defend and 

' Pyth. ii. 101. « Maha Bh. Shanti P. 6215. ' Manu S. ii. 114, "S- 
• Vemana, iii. 224. » Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. « Manu S. i. 96. 

' Id. ibid. i. 16. ' De Legib. i. » Id. De Finib. iv. '» Id. De Nat 
D. ii. " A. Ubeid. 86. " E. Medin. 67. " Nuthar ellal. 184. 



[iv. 8 

fortify her ;' from one of the meanings of bVo. R. Yarchi renders 
5779^70 by nODn, ' lay hold on her,' or ' search into,' and brings Jer. 
vi. 8 to bear on ' searching as for grapes' stored in baskets, JT^bobD. 
But the rendering of the A. V. is quite correct. 

" Exalt lur," &c. " To wisdom," says Ajtoldi, " belongs [or 
is attached] honour for every one, whether he be high or low."' 
" I bow devoutly to Manju Sri [the young god of Wisdom]," 
says Saskya, " to him who is exalted above gods and above the 
knowledge of inferior deities ; who is all eyes from head to 
foot. I worship at his feet who is the [top] chief of all joy ; 
with my forehead on the ground, I adore him who is the one 
guide in every case."' "We worship that most upright, pure 
Wisdom created by Ahura Mazda, which Zarathustra wor- 
shipped, saying : ' Arise from thy throne and come forth from 
thine abode, O most righteous and pure Wisdom created by 
Ahura Mazda. If (or when) thou art in front of me, wait for 
me ; when thou art behind me, let me reach unto thee.'"' 
" Since knowledge stands on the highest [degree] rank, and 
great honour results from application to it, he who possesses 
ithas double honour, while fools remain dead under the earth."* 

"[Instruction or] wisdom gives a good name in the world, 
and when some great affliction befals one, it lends a hand."* 
" To whatever place you may go, learning is an honour,"* say 
the Tamils. " To all men [vaiida., education] learning is an 
honour,"' say the Greeks. " I, Wisdom, provide perfect wisdom 
for an ornament."' "And there is no friend equal to wisdom."* 
" If one were to fix the price (or value) of wise and good men, 
wisdom would be joy and pleasure after all things ended [that 
is, superior to all other things]." " Like the Chintamani, which 
when at the top of the Khan's horse-tail [standard] holds (or 
protects) its place and position, so also is the shining (or 
brilliancy) of the wise." " A king is great in his own country, 

' Kudatku Bil. xi. 34. ^ Sain iighes, fol. 1. ^ Din Yasht, 2. 

• Borhan-ed-d. ii. p. 72. " Niti nerivilac. 6, 7. " Av. Kalvi or. 30. 

IVm/«. liov. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. vi. » Lokaniti, 22. 

iv. 8] 



but the godly [wise] man is in honour in whatever country he 
may happen to be. A gay flower may do for an ornament 
on a feast-day ; but for a head ornament, a jewel is valued 
everywhere."' "Fear the Lord and gain understanding in 
His truth ; so shalt thou be exalted."" 

" Gain education [instruction]," say the Arabs, " and thou 
shalt have glory."' " Nam quidquid fit cum virtute," says 
Publius Syrus, "fit cum gloria."* "For the wise disciple is 
before the common people like a cloth of gold."' " But inas- 
much as the wife does not see the Brahman in her husband," 
although the "pandit is said to be respected and honoured 
everywhere,* yet," say the Arabs, " a man in his own house is 
neither honoured nor despised."' "A learned man, though 
he be of a low family, is yet of a high caste,"' say the Tamils. 
" Knowledge and wisdom give honour (or dignity)."' "Think 
not that superior rank comes from birth or wealth, and not 
from knowledge."'" " For learning is greatness."" "And the 
wise when they leave their abode and go to some other place, 
find honour there. The Chintamani is valued everywhere ; 
but of what use is it while it remains at the bottom of the 

" Let instruction come to thy bosom ; it has great power 
for all honours"" [leads to them.] "A king and a good man 
are not alike. The king is honoured in his own country ; the 
good man is honoured everywhere."'* "Kings shine only in 
their own country; but learned men coming to another country 
shine like the full moon.""* "Have lofty thoughts towards 
both God and man ; for thy respectability will be according 
to thy mind."" "For wisdom gives enjoyment, grace and 
glory."" "Tsze-chung asked Confucius how virtue might be 

' Sain iighes, fol. 7, 9. ^ Mishle As. ii. 32. ' Meid. Ar. pr 

' Publ. Syr. ' Millin, 300. • Chanak. shat. ' Meid. Ar. pr. 

' Tamil pr. 2566. " Id. 3518. '" Nanneri, 22. " Nitivemba, 14. 
" Sain iighes, fol. 5, and Legs par b. pa, 17, fol. 5. " Pap. Sail. ii. 4, 5. 
'* Naga Niti, 135, 227, Schf " Lokopakan. 195. " Akhlaq i muhs. xi. 
" Rajanitish. in Kobitaratna, 72. 



[iv. 9 

exalted ; he answered, Allow yourself to be governed by 
sincerity and good faith, and proceed uprightly ; thus shall you 
exalt virtue."' "When virtue is established, fame will be 
lasting."* " Let those with whom thou hast to do, respect 
thee rather than fear thee ; for worship attends respect, but 
hatred fear."' "There is no greatness," say the Arabs, "with 
a lack of education" [instruction and manners, 'adab.'] "The 
highest rank is not reached without a finished education" [lit. 
dignity, beauty of 'adab.'] This is thus explained in the 
Persian Commentary : " Every one who lacks education and 
manners continues shut out from greatness, and will never 
belong to the rank (or degree) of noble, great, remarkable and 
distinguished men. A man without education, how can he 
be great, albeit his birth be noble ? Be well educated ; so shalt 
thou become great : for greatness is the outcome [offspring] 
of education."* "The well-educated [wise and good] man," 
says Confucius, quoting the She King,' " he shines — honour to 
him ! — by goodness and virtue ; he continually receives his 
blessings from Heaven."' 

9 She shall give to thine head an ornament of grace : 

a crown of glory shall she deliver to thee. 

]n nilV, 'a wreath of grace;' 'a graceful wreath' or 'twist,' in 
allusion to head ornaments of gold, &c., or to wreaths of flowers worn 
at feasts, &c. LXX. (TTi<j>avov xapiriov, ' a crown,' ' garland of graces.' 
The text also means the sense given by the A.V., as understood by 
Tevunath Mishle, of ' graces,' or sundry gifts of wisdom ; and Chald. 
'beauty of grace.' 

'^ She shall give" &c. "The ornament of men lies in their 
education ; that of women in gold."^ "A good knowledge of 
Scripture is the ornament that pleases most in the mental 
superiority of a high-priest [pandit]."* "A man may have 

> Hea-Lung, xii. lo. ' Gun den s. mon. 209. ' Pythag. S. 48. 

* Ali b. A. T. 17, and Comm. ' Bk. Ta-hia p. Kia-Io. ' Chung y. 


Nuthar ellal. 52. 

' Kawi Nitish. 

iv. 9] 



birth, figure and youth, yet if he have no good qualities (or 
learning) he is not handsome. Peacocks' feathers, though 
beautiful to look at, are not a fit ornament for a great man."* 
" The moon is an ornament to the stars ; a husband is an 
ornament to a woman ; a king is an ornament to the earth ; 
and wisdom is an ornament to all."' "When that real great- 
ness exists in a man, what need is there of other ornaments ?"• 
"The ornament of learning is called an ornament indeed."* 
" I give thee," said Indra to Vasu, king of Tchedi, "a crown 
of victory that shall not wither, made of lotuses. It is called 
' Indramala,' the wreath of Indra. Let it be to thee thy 
wealth, thy fame, thy great Incomparable."'' 

"The man who is adorned with qualities and with the 
diadem of perfect virtue, mounts the of friendship, and 
with the sword of knowledge in hand, destroying his enemies, 
impurity and others — joyfully rides like a king to Nirvana."* 
" Study ; for knowledge is an ornament to those who have it ; 
it is grace, and a title to all things praiseworthy. Make pro- 
gress every day in learning, and then float in a sea of useful 
things [advantages]," says Muhammed Ben Hasan.' "The 
ornament of the wise is their understanding."* " Who is he 
that wears a beautiful ornament ? He that is accomplished 
in virtues (or moral law)."" "The disciple who is attentive, 
and has become like Hjam-dpal [the young god of wisdom], 
gets understanding in books [Scriptures], which is an ornament 
to him."'" " Learning is a crown to a young man and wisdom is 
a collar of gold, and truth and right (or justice) are a brilliant 
light ; but a lie is a burning fire."" " Precepts borrowed from 
the writings of old sages, give faith, reverence and piety, to 
the child who learns them."'* 

" My heart is thy place, and the crown of my head is the 

' Legs par b. pa, 272. ' Chanakya, sh. 6. ' Shadratna, 6. 

* Av. Kalvi Or. 5. « Maha Bh. Adi P. 2348. « Subhasita, 15. 

' Borhan-ed-d. c. i. ' Mishle As. ii. 11. ' Phreng wa, 3, Schf. add. 
'" By. ch. sgron ma, fol. ill. " Meid. Ar. pr. " Bslav cha gtsam pa. 




[iv. 9 

dust of thy feet," says the disciple to the teacher of wisdom.' 
" Kings who wear gold ornaments are not to be compared 
with learned men who do not wear them. Are the members 
of the body which are adorned with jewels to be compared 
with the eye that sees without them ?"' " For virtue protects 
the head."* " Wouldst thou, Mitra Dzogi," said the king, his 
father — " wouldst thou forego the crown set with fine Chinta- 
mani, the badge of the power thou hast, the necklace of pearls, 
the bracelets, anklets and earrings of gold which are thine, 
to go and wander about as a priest?" "Father," answered 
Mitra Dzogi, " all those ornaments and jewels that have 
cheated my body, I must leave at the graveyard. I go to 
seek ornaments of the vows I take in the mind that changes 
not"* " Wisdom," says Bhartrihari, " is indeed real beauty in 
a man ; it is his hidden treasure of precious wealth ; an orna- 
ment of grace to him, and a source of fame and glory. And 
since wisdom teaches him also who teaches it — since it is the 
dearest friend in distant travels, and is the most divine gift, 
worshipped even by kings — no wealth equals it ; but he who 
has it not is a brute"' "Virtue is the cause of prosperity 
[good fortune], and the root of application. The fruit of 
wealth is sensuality ; but the fruit of wisdom is a precious 
ornament."* "Confucius says that young people ought to 
learn filial piety, then to behave with propriety, be truthful, 
- &c., and then their education will be an ornament to them."' 
"Instruction (or education)," says Demophilus, "o/iot'a (<ttI 
Xpvery <rr€<}>dvif, is like ijnto a crown of gold ; for it brings both 
honour and profit."* "And the person [body] of those who 
are kind to others, shines through their good offices, and not 
from the sandal-wood they rub themselves withal."' Confu- 
cius says, in the Ta-hio,'" " that riches adorn the house, but 
virtue adorns the person." " The beauty of learning is beauty 

> Nizami, p. 102. ' Nanneri, 40. « Telugu pr. 2412. 

• Mitra Dzogi, p. 4> 5- ' Nitishat. 16. • Telugu stor. p. 7. 

' Siao-hio, i. ' Demophili Simil. ed. G. • Nitishat 63. *" Ch. vi. 




indeed, for it shows mental excellence."' "Wisdom consti- 
tutes thy crown ; discretion (or humility) is as shoes to thy 

feet. But, O Ahura, I, Zarathustra, mind heavenly things ; 

O Mazda, who art Most Holy ! let my embodied spirit attain 
to purity and strength of life through [thy] power ; let the 
sun shine, and Armaiti [Wisdom, the daughter and consort of 
Ahura Mazda, under whose charge the earth is placed by him] 
be in [his] kingdom, and give a blessing on works [wrought] 
through Vohu-Mano [the good Spirit]."' " There is no greater 
friend than the ornament of rich qualities."* 
" ornament of grace" " Of grace, 

XO'p'i o, airtp airacTa t(v- 
X<i TO n€i\i)^a OvarSii, 
f1^^ <f)ipot(ra rt/jdc,'' 

which," says Pindar, " works all things that are soothing or 
agreeable to mortals, and brings honour with it." " For man's 
person is more adorned by wisdom than by jewels ;" "and is 
an ornament that lasts."' "O Osiris [said to Aufanch the 
departed], thy father Tum [the evening sun] has [put on] 
bound thee with the wreath of justification ; with that frontlet 
of life. O beloved of the gods, thou livest for ever !"7 " Isaiah 
saw in the seventh heaven, where Adam, Abel and Enoch 
were, other saints with crowns of glory not yet on their 
heads;" "and other crowns and thrones of glory;" "and 
crowns of splendour."* 

10 Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; and 
the years of thy life shall be many. 

Q«n niaqJ, " years of life." 'Thy' is not in the text, though the 
LXX. have tnj fu^s o-ov. 'Thy' seems to restrict the sense to this 
present life only; whereas "the wisdom that cometh from &bove" 
ensures life everlasting also— implied in years of life, existence. 

' Naladiyar. Kalvi, i. « Yalkut Tanch. R. Bl. 480, 3 Yaqna, xlii. 16. 
* Kawi Nitish. » Ol. i. 48. ' Nutsidai ugh. 20. ' Rit. of the 

Dead, xix. 1. ' Ascens. Is. xi. 40, ix. 10, 12, &c. 

V 2 



[iv. lO 

" Hear, O my son" " Now will I tell thee, as unto a dear 
child, things that be for thy good," said Theognis ; " lay them 
in thy head and heart. Never do evil — no, not even when 
urged to do it ; but take counsel deep within thyself, with thy 
good mind."' " Tell me, father," said Shuka to Vyasa, " which 
is the best virtue ? The best virtue, answered Vyasa, is devo- 
tion [tapa:]. When thou hast concentrated thyself and thy 
senses, as under a cover, then shalt thou see with thy soul the 
best Soul — eternal, all-pervading, immense, like fire without 
smoke — Brahma, who is himself the origin of what has been 
and of what shall be. He who has become acquainted with 
him shall receive another existence, whether man or woman."* 
"He," says Confucius, "who is intent on acquiring perfect 
virtue [love of humanity], does not seek his life to the preju- 
dice of virtue. He would rather destroy his body for the 
sake of perfecting virtue."' "Men, however," says Syntipa, 
"will prefer their life to either gain or riches."* " Let a good 
son remember [think or mind] the gift [grace] of God that 
gives life [or increase] to that which his teacher tells him — to 
practise truth and to take to heart his transgressions. May 
thy life be as long as mine [no years]," said Ptah-hotep ; 
" acquired thus, and spent in the king's favour, and praised by 
the [elders] chief men in the land."' " The wise man," says 
Confucius, "does not trouble himself about eating and drink- 
ing, but about the right way. The husbandman may suffer 
hunger within [at his work]; but instruction !— it possesses 
wealth and happiness within itself"' "The Joo (or literates), 
disciples of Confucius, make efforts early and late, and never 
drop their books from their hands. This leads to talents and 
learning, to excellence and to intelligence, to complete merit 
and to perfect reputation."' 

"Where there is filial piety, Heaven grants happiness ; but 

' Theognis, 1015. ' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 9038. ' Hea-Lun, xv. 8. 
« Syntipa, fab. 12. ' Pap. Pr. xix. 5, 6. • Hea-Lun, xv. 31. 

' Chin. Mor. Max. Medh. dial. p. 190. 

iv. 11] 



when it is the reverse, happiness does not come."* Accord- 
ingly we are told that " a son of poor parents, but filial 
towards them, had no clothing for cold in winter, and gave all 
his food to his father and to his mother, but himself fed on 
coarse rice only. Once when his father's life was despaired of 
and no physician could be had, he made a vow to Heaven to 
exchange his life for the life of his father. The father suddenly 
recovered, and his house prospered abundantly. So, children, 
do the same."* " If thou hearkenest to [my instruction] what 
I have told thee," says Ptah-hotep, " thy plans (or affairs) will 

" Set up (or worship, honour) as a god the Lama who 
understands and teaches thee the meaning and sense of Scrip- 
ture."* " From obedience [to him, to authority] comes great- 
ness," say the Osmanlis.'' " I have spoken to thee, O my son," 
said Ajtoldi ; " I have given thee this my own counsel, O my 
son. Receive it from me, and hearken to me."* " My son," 
said Ptah-hotep, " it is a happy chance to keep the [breath] 
inspiration of good words, and to treasure them up in writing 
for others. He who brings them will never meet with mis- 
fortune in the earth, but will increase in good."' 

Ill have taught thee in the way of wisdom ; I have 

led thee in right paths. 

"ip^ ^73555 T'^PTin, ' I have made thee tread or (walk) in the 
ways (or ruts) of righteousness;' 'paths' would more properly be 
nia^nj, • tracts trodden by the feet of wayfaring men.' 

I have taught thee" &c. "Is virtue, then, to be taught or 
not? If one purposed to learn the virtue wherewith good 
men are made what they are, where had one better go to 
inquire? Why, to the good men themselves. Where else 
would you go ?"* " He that teaches what he does not himself 

' Koku ni naru no den shu, p. 3. 
3 Pap. Pr. XV. 8. • Oyun tulk, p. 11. 
Bil. X. 23, 24. ' Pap. Pr. xv. 8, 9. 

' In Shits mon, i. p. 3, 4. 
' Osman pr. • Kudat ku 
' Plato, Tfpi apiT. i. 2. 



[iv. II 

practise, is like a blind man who holds for others a lamp in his 
hand, but is himself in the dark."' "For teaching without 
practice is no teaching."' "As if one showed the way to a 
man gone astray, or as if one brought a lamp into a dark 
place for men with eyes to see the form of objects, so, O 
Gautama, has thy speech been to me ; my faith [trust] in 
[alara] crooked ways is like the chaff before a mighty wind, 
or like myself in a rushing stream. It is gone. Accept me 
as thy devoted disciple."' And Ennius — 

" Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam 
Quasi de sue lumine lumen accendat, facit 
Nihilominus ut ipsi luceat, quom illi accenderit."* 
" Hapaivia-ai <rot /iovkofiai to. (Tv/uf>opa : 
I will counsel thee for the best," said the Choragus to CEdipus.* 

"Confucius gave good advice to others by inducing them 
to follow him gradually. He grounded one well in literature, 
and bound one over to follow discretion." " If I wished to 
stop short, I could not ; I exerted my powers to the utter- 
most ; so that I got his teaching deeply fixed in my mind."' 
" Maku [Meng-tsze] and Si Koi [Yu] having listened to the 
voice of their teachers, made the way plain for others."' 
" Now," said Twang-kang to his people, " I have made plain 
to you the interior of my heart and reins. I have openly 
told you, my people, the nature of my intentions."* " It is, 
however, easy for everybody to give advice to others ; but 
one's own consistent practice of virtue is the part of great 
minds (or of large-hearted men)."' 

" If a man first of all settles himself according to right 
principles, and then teaches others, that man will not suffer 
for it. Let him first so influence [tame, curb] himself that he 
may influence others ; but the taming [subjugation] of self is 
difficult (or hard)."" "A good man gives instruction without 

• Sepher Ham. B. FL ' Drus. Ad. B. Fl. ^ Mahaparanib. fol. 11. p. 45. 

« Ennii incert carm. 770. ' CEdip. Col. 464. • Shang-Lun, ix. 10. 

' Gun den s. mon. 689. » Shoo King, iv. 1 1. ' Hitopad. i. 107. 
'" Dhammap. xii. 158. 

iv. 12] 



deception, honestly. The mean man gives it falsely when 
asked for it."' " He who is wise and intelligent, but crafty 
(or false) withal, is not fit to teach others, neither is he re- 
spected. But he whose nature is upright, and neither false 
nor crafty, is respected even by the gods."' 

"Mangala, overjoyed when he saw the dge-long [priest] 
Paltschi frightened at the sight of the heap of his own bones, 
left from former births, said to him : My godly [spiritual] son, 
I have put into thy heart everything necessary, and thou hast 
heard from me everything about successive births [transmi- 
grations]. Having said this, Mangala went up to heaven ; 
and the dge-long Paltschi followed his mother home, as a 
young colt follows his dam."' Likewise " did the Khan betake 
himself without delay to the pathway shown him by his 
teacher Naganchana, and went on happily in that way."* 

"As the potter does not try to break, but to adorn the 
water-pot, so also does a teacher try not to let his pupils go 
to perdition ; which is for their benefit."' But teachers vary. 
" He who really is a teacher," says Vemana, " speaks and 
shows all about Shiva. He will show clearly the way to 
Brahmaloka [heaven]. He examines well his pupils, and dis- 
pels the darkness of their ignorance."" 

1 2 When thou goest, thy steps shall not be straitened ; 
and when thou runnest, thou shall not stumble. 

" WAen thou goest," &c. As regards starting on the journey 
through life alone without wisdom, Vidura's advice to Dhri- 
tarashtra is good : " Let him not start alone on his journey."^ 
"The fruit of talent (or power) and worship is firmness (or 
constancy) in hearing, and no wavering in difficulty [Kawi], in 
understanding [Jav. Comm.]."' "As wisdom (or knowledge) 
is the only friend in a strange land, the learned son only took 

' Legs par b. pa, 1 19. ' Dsang-Lun, c. xv. fol. 73. ' Id. ibid, 

c. XV. fol. 80. * Siddhi Kur, xiv. ' Lokaniti, 38. • Vemana, iii. 5. 
' Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1016. • Kawi Nitish. 



[iv. 13 

with him a few books on his journey, and they made his for- 
tune."* "God," said Ptah-hotep, "will instruct thee in the 
words of old (or of the beginning). Make it good [teach them] 
for children and for old men. He that hearkens to it will 
walk in all uprightness of heart, and his words will not breed 
disgust (or surfeit)."* "No man," say the Rabbis, "stands 
firm in the words of the law unless he has stumbled against 

1 3 Take fast hold of instruction ; let her not go : 
keep her ; for she is thy life, 
won, ' embrace instruction,' and ^Tiri vM, 'flag or relax not' 

" Take fast hold of instruction" &c. Seeing that "ipia, in- 
struction, implies chastening, and that our trials or chastenings 
are proofs of God's fatherly wisdom and care of us, and thus 
often prove our greatest blessings, and are to be 'embraced' 
as such, this verse might be taken in connection with ch. iii. 
II, 12, 'instruction' here meaning 'chastening,' and 'life,' our 
existence, including " the life that now is, and that which is to 
come," to which our trials lead us. 1\]in, although idiomati- 
cally ' thy life,' is, nevertheless, a plural that means ' thy lives.' 
As the Arabs say in a way : 

"A man who has knowledge (or science) never ceases to 
live."* The Li-ki [Hio-ki], as quoted in the San-tsze King, 
says : "As a gem unwrought is not a perfect object, so a man 
who is not instructed cannot know justice [rectitude] ;" upon 
which Wang-pih-ko remarks " that here [e] justice, rectitude, 
means [Tao] 'the right way.' Though a man have a beautiful 
gem, if it be neither cut nor ground [polished], it is not a 
perfect object, and is useless. In like manner, although a 
man be endowed with excellent talents, if he is not diligent 
in inquiring, he cannot know reason, rectitude, the right way 
and virtue. Finally, he cannot be said to be a perfect man."" 

• Telugu St. p. 8. ' Pap. Pr. v. 4. 5 ; also quoted at p. 17. 

» Ep. Led. 77. * Meid. Ar. pr. » San-tsze King, 13, 14. 

iv. 13] 



" I have spent whole days without eating," says Confucius ; 
" I have gone through whole nights without sleep, in order to 
think. But it profited me nothing. There is nothing like 
instruction ['hio,' the study of ancient authors]."' 

The Buddhist, however, differs. " Profound meditation is 
one door to religious enlightenment ; it emancipates completely 
the mind." " The power of profound meditation removes all 
hesitation in judgment" " Profound meditation also renders 
the religion of Buddha more completely clear."^ " I teach thee," 
said Sbauf to his son Papi, "to love instruction [like] thy mother. 
He who attends to it from his childhood is honoured in life."* 
" I tell it thee, O Papi, the blessing of one day at school is for 
ever and aye. The works [result] of it are like mountains. 
They are what I wish to make thee love. They deliver from 
the enemy."* " Read, O my son," says Chanakya. " What 
comes of idleness ? He who is not read becomes a labourer ; 
but he who reads [studies] is sought out by the king. Read, 
O my son, day by day."' "Give thy heart to letters," said 
again Sbauf to his son Papi. " In truth, there is nothing supe- 
rior to letters ; they are, like waters, deep. He who is esta- 
blished [resides] in Hemhan [a college or sanctuary at Silsilis] 
is not easily put down."" "O man," said Buddha to his son, 
" all my wealth in gold, silver, precious stones, &c. [Buddha's 
lore], I wish to give to one who will hide it and keep it. [Take 
it] desire and love it as thine own."' "Instruction [learning] 
is a treasure that requires no guard (or watch) over it."' 

" Ho-ei [also called Tsze-yuan, a beloved disciple of Con- 
fucius, who died early] was a man indeed," said Confucius. "He 
chose the ' constant mean ' [between two extremes] ; gained 
one good [virtue], held it tight, pressed it to his bosom, and 
would not let it go."» " Instruction [education]," say the 

' Hea-Lun, xv. 30. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Pap. Sail. ii. 

pi. 4, 1. 5. ♦ Id. ibid. pi. 9, 1. 4. ' Chanak. 25, J. K. 

• Pap. Sail. ii. pi. 4, 1. 2. ' Dkar padma, fol. 23. • Matshaf Phal. 
" Chung y. c. viii. 



['V. 13 

Greeks, " is the staff of life ; it teaches the way to act."» " He 
who repeats his lesson (or task, exercise) a hundred times, is 
not like him who goes over it a hundred times and one." 
" Repeat and go over, and thou shalt require no balsam [over 
the weals of the rod, for not knowing thy lesson],"' say the 
Rabbis. As the people of Tsin said, speaking of the kingdom : 
" Strive to death to hold it ; do not give up."' 

" Learn (or study) wisdom as if dying to-morrow."< " Learn- 
ing suffers no damage."* "Learning is greater wealth (or 
riches) than other possessions."* " Instruction is wealth ; learn- 
ing is fame."' "The learned have hands."* "The learned 
man is greater than a king."* " When thou hast acquired that 
good thing [learning], thou must needs not let it go.""* " It is 
the part of perfection to choose the good and cling to it with 
all one's might," says Confucius." "And take fast hold of 
virtue."" "Hear the qualities of instruction," say the Telugus. 
" Learning gives increase [blesses] him who teaches, and him 
who receives instruction."" " He," says Confucius, "who has 
studied without [as he thinks] having acquired knowledge, let 
him nevertheless fear lest he lose what he has got"" " Hold 
fast what thou hast got."'" " Take fast hold on it [instruction]," 
says again Confucius, as quoted by Meng-tsze," " and you will 
keep it ; let it go, and you will lose it" 

Se-chang-ching says : " Choose the good and hold it firmly, 
and plan diligently for the day ; listen only to what is good, 
and talk not to no purpose [idle talk]. Man can but desire 
good, and Heaven must achieve it"'' "The man who observes 
his duty perfectly would rather part with his body and his life 
than not do his duty." '* " Kujuttara, one of queen Samavati's 
attendants, received from her daily eight pieces of money to 

• rvu/i. ftov. ' Hagigah R. Bl. 34. ' Shang Meng, ii. 1 5. 

♦ Sain ughes, fol. 3. » Tarn. pr. 2835. • Id. 2895. ' Id. 2880. 

» !d. 2885. • Id. 2985. '° Gun den s. mon. 173. " Chung y. c. xx. 
" Shang-Lun, vii. 6. " Telugu max. " Shang-Lun, viii. 17. 

'» Sahid. Ad. 41. '« Hea Meng, xi. 8. " Ming Sin P. K. ch. i. 

" Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. 

'V- 13] 



buy flowers, four of which she kept for herself But having 
heard Para Thaken preach, she gave up stealing; and having 
bought eight coins' worth of flowers, she said to the queen, who 
wondered at the quantity of flowers brought to her that day : 
Queen ! I have hearkened to Para Thaken preaching the law, 
and I have ceased taking up my queen's money." ' 

" If asked. What will prevail (or endure) ? answer, Know- 
ledge (or instruction) and kindred [family, rank]."' " For there 
is no decay for knowledge well acquired by practice."' "And 
there is no disease (or sickness) equal to a want of understand- 
ing," says Ali ben Abu Taleb.* " The lack of understanding 
is the greatest misery and the hardest [worst] sickness. There 
is no worse sickness than a lack of understanding [or sense] ; 
because the sure proof of a true man is, that upright deeds are 
done by him. As the man who lacks understanding [short of 
wits] cannot do that, it is clear that he is not a true man," 
says the Persian Commentary.* 

The provision made for education in China of old was : " for a 
house, a school-room ; for a village [' tang,' 500 — 600 families], 
a college ; for a quarter, almshouses ; and for the whole empire, 
education."* In the Sing-li, it is said: "This is the way to 
study : (i) study extensively, (2) inquire [question] accurately, 
(3) think diligently, (4) [divide] distinguish clearly, and (5) 
practise assiduously."' " He who studies for the returns it ' 
yields, will improve in discretion [being directed aright]. But, 
alas ! what loss they suffer who acquire science for the profit 
they may expect from the crowd !"' "I lay hold on all good 
thoughts, good words and deeds ; and I renounce all bad 
thoughts, words and deeds."' This passage forms part of a 
Parsee prayer. 

• Buddhagh. Par. 5th st. ' Tarn. pr. 2285. ' Id. 222. 

* All, 32. » Ibid. • Siao-hio, ch. i. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. ix. 

' Borhan-ed-d. 11. p. 24. • Yajna, xv. 



[iv. 14. 15 

14 Enter not into the path of the wicked, and go 
not in the way of evil men. 

15 Avoid it, pass not by it, turn from it, and pass 

"lU^Mip Vni, ' and (go) walk not, step by step, in.' 

" Enter not," &c. " O ye men, eat ye of the good and lawful 
yield of the land, and follow not in the footsteps of Satan ; 
for he is your open enemy."' "Go not over a bad man's 
bridge ; let the water [rather] carry thee away," say the Os- 
manlis.' "In company with the good, thou shalt accomplish 
thy object with ease ; in company with the bad, thou shalt be 
kept back from it with shame," say the Ozbegs.* " By rubbing 
against the kettle, one gets black ; and by rubbing against 
evil men, one gets misfortune."* " Suspicion will ever stick to 
a man who has once been mixed up with a bad thing.'" "Qui 
semel malus, semper praesumitur talis."" " Do not go and 
keep company with evil men,'" said the wife to her simple 

" The common [black] people have a disorderly disposition 
[lawless or wicked] ; their work [actions] is black [common] ; 
do not therefore blacken thyself, my son," said Ajtoldi ; " take 
good care of that."^ [Among the Djagatais, 'black leg' and 
'white leg' mean 'common' and 'noble' men respectively. In 
Bengal, common people are styled 'black-pots' or 'earthen- 
ware.'] " Enter not thou into the house of a bad man ; and 
trouble not thyself to no purpose."* " The householder, wish- 
ing to make a dge-long [priest] of his son, bethought himself 
thus : I must look out a good and wise teacher for him. If I 
commit him to a good and wise spiritual teacher, his good 
(or virtue) will increase ; but if I entrust him to a bad guide, 
the way (or law) of sin will be born in him. In like manner 

' Qoran, sur. ii. 163. 
» Mifkharh ap. B. Fl. 
• Kudat ku Bil. xviii. 4. 

' Osm. pr. » Ozb. pr. * Id. ib. 

» Lat. pr. ' Siddhi kur. xviii. p. 22. 

• Mong. max. R. 

iv. 14, IS] 



as the wind which has no peculiar smell in itself becomes 
fragrant when blowing over chandana [sandal] trees and 
champaka flowers, but is fouled by passing over unclean 
places, so also with a man and his associates.'" 

" The avoiding of all sin, the adopting of all good, and the 
purification of one's thoughts, is the doctrine of Buddha."* 
" Put away from thee any venomous or poisonous thing, but 
keep to that which is good and profitable to thee."' " Respect 
[frequent] not sinners and vile men, but respect virtuous and 
good men," said Bhagavat to Channa Thera, and spake these 
'gathas' [verses]: "Honour not sinners and low people, but 
honour the friends of virtue and the best of men."* "There 
is one thing [law]," said again Bhagavat, " which is the greatest 
in treading the eight-fold path. What thing ? The love of 
virtue.'" "Arise, be not slothful ; lead a good life. He who 
practises virtue lives at ease in this world and in the next :" 
quoted from the Dhammapadam, 168, by Kassapa.' 

" Great faults," says Tai-shang, " cut off twelve years from 
a man's life ; small ones, a hundred days. There are faults 
neither great nor small ; but all faults hurt a man. But to 
see evil and not avoid it, is the part of an ' idiot,' or real fool. 
He, therefore, who wishes to lead a long life, must avoid all 
faults, both small and great."' " If it is the right way," says 
again Tai-shang, " walk in it ; if it is not the right, eschew 
it." "And the right way [Tao]," says Confucius, "cannot 
waver a hair's-breadth."' " That way," says the Chinese Com- 
mentary, "is a highway, a level path, straight and smooth 
['square,' safe and well made in every way]." "Therefore," 
adds Tai-shang, " walk not in froward [corrupt] paths." " A 
path is a small roadway ; if corrupt [winding, unsafe], it is not 
straight, and whosoever walks in it does not walk straight- 
forwardly," adds the Mandchu Comm.' 

' Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. fol. 93. ' Dhammap. Buddhav. 6. ' Monjj. 
max. R. * Mahavag. Ch. Thera, v. ed. F. ' Ekadham. ed. F. 

* In Santikenidana Jat. p. 90. ' Comm. on Tai-shang in Shin 

sin luh, 1. p. 92. ' Chung y. c. i. ' Id. ibid. Comm. 



[iv. 14, 15 

And Mun Moy says, on Esop's fable of the 'Fowler, the 
Geese and the Stork' that fared as the geese did for being in 
their company : " Men of the world must see that they ought 
to act with great prudence ; for if they do business with 
wicked men, it may be difficult for them to escape the punish- 
ment of their sin. Beware ! Beware !"* " If a thing is not 
right, do not turn to it," says the Sahidic adage, " that [thy 
doing so] may in nowise appear."* 

" Forsake the company of the wicked," says Vishnu Sarma ; 
" enjoy the society of the good ; do good and virtuous actions 
both day and night, and always bear in mind falsehood [to 
avoid it]."' " Like as a merchant with a light escort and much 
wealth about him avoids a dangerous road, so also let a man 
who wishes to live, avoid sin as he would poison."* "Mas 
vale solo, que mal accompanado," say the Spaniards ; " better 
alone than in bad company (or badly escorted)."" " Intercourse 
(or friendship) with the wicked is like playing [familiarity] 
with snakes."' "Be known [be noticed] for thy eschewing of 
sin."' Thus "as the bee leaves unhurt a flower with colour 
and smell, carrying away its honey, so does the Muni [wise 
man, sage] walk through the village [not injured by the people, 
but only taking their alms]."* " He for whom Nibbhanam, 
empty and without form [mark] as it is, is yet the country 
he seeks, his way is like that of birds through the air [un- 
touched by things visible]."' 

" Virtue is the proper thing to practise, and sin is the one 
to avoid."'" Confucius says, however : "To work happiness is 
not like avoiding sin ; and to avoid a calamity is not like 
considering well what ought not to be done."" "Never, O 
Kyme," says Theognis, " consent to take counsel with a bad 
man ; no, not even if he proposed a good deed. But take any 
amount of trouble in working with a good one ; thou wilt go 

' Mun. Moy, fab. 36. ' Sahid. Ad. 38. ' Hilopad. iii. 24. 

« Dhammap. Papavag. 8. ' Span. pr. • Tarn. pr. 4633. 

' Nuthar ell. 31. * Dhammap. Pupphav. 49. " Id. Araliant. 90, 94. 
'" Ciiral, iv. 40. " Ming Sin P. K. i. 5. 

iv. 16] 



with him a long way."* " Never, never make friends with a 
bad man. Coal, if live, burns thy hand ; if cold, smuts it."' 
" Flee from the escort by the way of a bad man."' " Walk 
not in an evil path, and use no deceit in the house of a simple 
man," says Tai-shang.* " Come not near to ruinous (or destruc- 
tive) evils."* "Eschew whatever leads (or brings) thee into 
the hands [power] of transgression."' 

"As Yen Youan questioned Confucius about [jin] perfect 
virtue [humanity], the sage answered : Do not even look at 
anything that is opposed to propriety ; do not listen to it ; do 
not speak of it ; do not touch it."' " Let no man follow false 
doctrine, neither abide in idleness, nor cultivate [hold and 
teach] false doctrine (or principles) ; let him not be an ampli- 
ficator of the world [that is, follow the ways thereof] and 
commit grievous sins, common in it (according to the Cingalese 
paraphrase). But let him arise, be alert and vigilant ; cultivate 
good morals. For he who follows virtue [dhammachari] is 
happy in this world and also in the next."' 

"Avoid the companionship of evil men ; cultivate the [com- 
ing together] society of good men. Act virtuously day and 
night, and always keep in mind immortality."' "Avoid an 
elephant by a thousand cubits ; a horse by one hundred ; a 
horned animal by ten ; but an evil man by quitting the place."" 
" Let no man bring himself into the [power] hands of tempta- 
tion."" "And avoid a light sin, lest it draw thee into more 
sins [lit. heaped sin]."*'' For "sin, like a dangerous road, is by 
all means to be avoided."" "Two men on such a road are 
said to be 'speaking corpses.'"'* 

16 For they sleep not, except they have done mis- 
chief ; and their sleep is taken away, unless they cause 
some to fall. 

' Theognis, 69 — 72. ' Hitopad. 741. ' Menander, itov. • Mandchu 
transl. ' Av. Atthi Sudi, 73. ' Derek erez s. i. 1 1. ' Hea-Lun, xii. i. 
' Dhammap. Lokavag. I, 2. » Lokaniti, 41. '" Chanak. S. 28. 

" Sanhedr. MilHn, 912. " Derek erez. s ii. 9. " Javan. pr. " Id. ibid. 



[iv. 16—18 

1 7 For they eat the bread of wickedness, and drink 
the wine of violence. 

D^paq, lit. • repeated acts of violence,' 'violence.' 
•• For they sleep not',' &c. " There is not a sin that may not 
be committed by him who breaks the law [dhammam], who 
speaks falsely [musavadi, in ten words of whom, there is not 
one word true, Comm.]. and who thinks lightly of the world 
to come."» " The little bird, while pecking, looks around and 
eats ; and the swallow sleeps without an anxious heart Thus 
fulness of soul gives great happiness. But when schemes are 
deep, then misfortune also is deep."" "And Solomon also 
says : Go not near the place where evil men pitch their tents 
[LXX. encamp, (rrpoTOjrtStwraKn] ; depart from them and turn 
aside. For they sleep not if they have not done some evil ; 
their sleep is taken from them ; and they sleep not who 
devour iniquity."' 

18 But the path of the just is as the shining light, 
that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. 

TiW» -^Stt, lit. • going and shining unto the settled (or perfect) day.' 
" But the path;' &c. Tsia-sze explains a passage of the 
She King [Bk. Kwe-fung] thus : " The way of the wise man 
is first hidden, and then it shines forth day by day ; but the 
way of the vulgar man is at first apparent, but perished day 
by day."* Lao-tsze. speaking of this, says : "The man who 
walks well through life, leaves no trace" [his conduct is bright, 
faultless].* " It shines more and more unto the perfect day"— in 
heaven ; for " brightness and purity [whiteness] are in heaven."" 
•• This world is ' yes, yes,' ' no, no ;' but heaven is ' shine, shine,' 
'white, white.'"' "The wise and good man is excellent and 

• The reference to this passage in Pali was unfortunately omitted. It 
cannot now be verified, as I have not by me books to which I can refer. 
> Hien w. shoo, 55. ' Didasc. Ap. (Eth.), iii. « Chung y. c. xxxni. 

» Tao-te-King, c. xxvii. ' Chin. pr. ' Ibid. 

iv. 1 8] 



glad ; he shines, he shines in brilliant virtue."' Rabbi Yakub 
said : " This world is like the hall (or vestibule) of the world 
to come. Prepare thyself in this ante-room, so as to be fit to 
be admitted into the ['traclin,' triclinium] marriage-feast or 

" For the elect there will be light and joy and peace, and 
they shall inherit the earth"' " The righteous shall be in the 
light of the sun, and the elect in the light of eternal life, and 
their light shall never cease."* " The just shall walk in light 
everlasting, and sin shall be destroyed in darkness unto all 
ages, and shall not appear from that day for ever."* " Pas- 
sionate at first, and then less and less by degrees, like the 
morning shadows that shorten towards noon, so is the friend- 
ship of evil men ; but that of good men is at first moderate, 
then always increasing, like evening shadows that grow longer 
and longer until the sun of life has set."' 

" He, the sun [Adityo], is the acknowledged way made to 
heaven. Those who are free from soil [the defilement of the 
earth] go in at the gate of the sun."' "These are the rays 
(or sunbeams) by which our fathers reached heaven together ; 
let them be ours [shine on us]. For worshippers go to 
Brahmaloka [the realms of Brahma, heaven] by a path of 
flaming brilliancy [or flaming light; 'archi,' flame, Schol.]."* 

We may compare these and like passages respecting the 
sun, as worshipped or reverenced in India, Iran, Egypt and 
the East in general, with these scraps from Bardic lore : " Why 
is the face turned towards the sun in all plighting of faith, 
and swearing, and in prayer? Because God is in every light, 
and the sun is the chief of all lights. It is through fire that 
God brings back to Him all things that emanated from Him ; 
therefore it is not right to ally oneself to God but in the light." 

Upon which the Rev. J. Williams ab Ithiel adds the follow- 

' She King, Bk. Ta-hia, Chung y. c. xvii. 
' Bk. Enoch, v. 7. • Id. ibid. c. Iviii. 4, 6. 

' Nitishat. 50 ' Rig. V. i. skta. cv. 16. 


^ Pirqe Avoth, iv. 

" Id. ibid. c. xcii. 5. 

' Id. ibid. skta. cix. 7. 



[iv. 1 8 

ing, in a note from Howel ap Davydd ap Jeuan ap Rhys [a 
poet who flourished A.D. 1450 — 1480. 

Ai annedd yn y wennaul." 

"The l^e"{y''| in the course of the sun, 
And his habitation in the bright sun.** 
On which Jeuan Tir Jarll (A.D. 1760) says: "There was a 
general opinion in the age in which that was composed, that 
the sun was the abode or habitation of God ; in other words, 
that the sun was heaven. There are many words and sentences 
in other poems and odes which show that such was the view 
held by our ancestors respecting the sun. One of the names 
of God in primitive times was ' Hu,' and therefore the sun was 
designated ' Huan,' which means ' annedd Hu,' or the abode of 

So in Iran : " We approach thee, O Ahura Mazda, through 
the worship of fire, most holy — of the highest of high lumi- 
naries, that which is called the Sun."" And in India: "O 
Agni [fire, the sun], the mortal who worships thee is like the 
moon"' [either as reflecting the light of the sun, or as a bril- 
liant orb in heaven]. "What is like the soft moon-beams? 
The good [useful] influence of a good man."* " His (Hjam- 
dpal's, wisdom's) light is like the soft moon-beams, and beau- 
tiful like the glow of dawn."" " He is the chief illuminator of 
the world, who teaches (or shows) the beautiful way."" 

Here comes in the legend of Dhruva, "who, although he 
was only five years old, yet was by Vishnu raised to be the 
polar star, on account of his devotion."' That of Pulastya, 
" who went the ' great road,' the road of heroes, and died."' 
And "of Yayati, who was said to have fallen from heaven, 
the 'sun-way' [surya-patha = devamarga], 'the path of the 

» Barddas, vol. i. p. 262. ' Ya^na, xxxvi. 9, 16. ' Rig. V. li. 

skta. cii. 3. * Phreng wa, 30. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. viii. • Id. fol. iv. 
' Vishnu P. i. 12. ' 'bid. ii. i, 14. 

iv. 18] 



gods.'"' "Thy paths, O Savitri [Sun], are of old, well pre- 
pared, and free from dust in the firmament."* "Thou, the 
eye of Mithra, of Varuna, Agni, &c., the soul of things mov- 
able and immovable, who fillest the heavens, the earth and 
the sky."» "Aryaman, Maker, the first of the gods"* [see 
the Litany to the Sun, at that place], " the eye of the world, 
and the soul of all bodies."' Yet Savitri [the Sun] himself is 
reported to have told Yama [death], " that the good and the 
true guide [influence] the sun by their goodness."' But this 
might only be his way of speaking. " Strive to [rise on high] 
obtain greatness."^ 

"True virtue," says Meng-tsze, "consists in being mature 
[perfect], and that is indeed enough."* "Self-restraint and 
living only to do good, while making Nibbhan a reality [' seen 
with the eyes,' Comm.] as if it were present, is a very great 
blessing."* Always aiming at something better, "the perfect 
man is not satisfied with himself, and he who is satisfied with 
himself is not perfect." >•» " The way [conduct] of a good man— 
oh! how wonderful."" "It is the way to heaven which evil 
men know not"'2 "Such a man is the light of the state."" 
" O Lord," said Ananda to Bhagavat, " is half the life of a Brah- 
machari friendship with virtue ? No, Ananda. From this, my 
teaching, it results that it is a whole life as Brahmachari that 
may be called friendship for and devotedness to virtue.""* 

"Friend Yudhishtira," said Sanjaya, "he who makes virtue 
[or duty, dharmam] his first object, his great majesty, shines 
like the sun ; but the sinfully-minded who forsakes duty (or 
virtue) shall assuredly perish, though he gain the whole earth."'" 
So also Horace : 

' Maha I3h. Adi P. 3571. ' Rig. V. 1. skta. xxxv. 11. a Ibid, 

skta. cxv. I. * Maha Bh. Vana P. 146. ' Id. ibid. 166. 

• Id. ibid. 16795. ' Atthi Sudi, 79. « Hea Meng, xi. 19! 

» Mangala thut. 12. >» Ming Sin P. K. c. iii. " Nitimala, ii. 11. 

" Beobous, i. 7. " She King, bk. ii. od. 10. " Mahavag. Upad- 

ham. ed. F. " Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 772. 




[iv. 1 8 

" Virtus, repulsas nescia sordidae, 
Intaminatis fulget honoribus — 
Virtus, recludens immeritis mori 
Coelum, negata tentat iter via, 
Coetusque vulgares et udam 
Spemit humum fugiente penna."* 

" Men whose conduct is pure," said Bhishma to Yudhishtira, 
" go on rising step by step, from heaven to heaven, and from 
happiness to happiness."* " Going up, not down, in holiness."' 
" Light from light, and both lights from God."* " Because 
when a man's portion in life shines from heaven [with heavenly 
brightness], he may be said to excel others."' 

" For in like manner as a gold or silver plate, though covered 
with mud, yet shines brightly when well washed, so also does 
the embodied soul, having looked into the soul itself [Brahma], 
become one with it, and obtain its desire when set free from 
sorrow."* " He, my son," said Narada, " who is freed from 
all transgression, goes to the world of Krishna, the best of 
worlds, in a divine conveyance (or progress)."' "The Sekho 
[disciple] who looks upon his body as foam, endued with rays 
of light, having broken the darts of Evil tipped with flowers, 
shall go, unseen by the king of death."* "But few there 
are among men who reach the other shore ; the multitude 
only run to this one. The righteous alone will cross the 
dangerous coasts (or borders) of death. Let the wise man 
forsake the black law and take to the white ; and thus, freeing 
himself from defilement, become [jutima] luminous and live 
at peace."' And let men honour such a man, "who withal is 
intelligent and venerable, as the moon, the way of the stars."** 

" He," says Bhagavan, " who does not transgress the law 
(or virtue) through lust, fault, fear or delusion (or folly, moha), 
his honour (or glory) will shine like the moon at the full."** 

• Hor. Od. iii. 2. * Maha Bh. Shanti P. 6748. ' Berach. 28; 

Shabb. 21, M.S. ♦ Arab. pr. S. ' Siiin-tsze, c. xvii. ' Swetaswatara 
Upd. iii. 14. ' Narada Panchar. ii. 67. ' Dhammap. Pupphav. 46. 
» Id. Panditav. 85 sq. " Id. Sukhav. 208. " Sinhala V. suttam. 1. khi. 51. 

IV. 18] 




"But," say the Rabbis, "ere God causes the sun of a just man 
to set, He makes the sun of another just one to rise."' " OktUr- 
mish [Peaceful] had a dream of a ladder which he ascended 
when a Watcher gave him a drop of water to refresh him and 
he then went up to heaven. Oktulmish [Intelligent] explained 
the dream to mean success and weal. 'Going upwards' in a 
dream always means honour ; and reaching high means great- 
ness; always higher and higher, until God grant thee thy 
desire and thou reach heaven by flying upwards."' " But the 
heaven of the virtuous is below that of brilliant light, of infinite 
light, and the various heavens of Indra and Ishwara."* "And 
those Brahmans who have won their reward by their good 
conduct, when they die hence, are like luminaries in the world 
of Brahma."* 

"And I, Arda Viraf, saw the souls of the pious, whose 
[souls] shone like stars, whose brightness was ever increasing. 
And Srosh [graosha, the Yazata or deity who first taught the 
law, and who watches over this world] said to me : This is 
the pathway to the stars.'" "I call to my help ^raesha, 
greatest of all, to give us a long life in the kingdom of Vohu- 
Mano [good Spirit] through purity, in the straight paths, 
by which [we may go where] Ahura Mazda dwells'— the 
straightest path through purity to the Paradise of the pure ; 
the luminous and most brilliant path."' "We praise the 
brilliant deeds of purity, in which the souls of the dead, the 
fravashis of the pure, do rejoice."" " I draw nigh to you, Ahura 
Mazda, and the Ameshaspands, with a good mind. Grant 
me graces for this world and the next [bodily and spiritual], 
which through purity [holiness] may place me rejoicing in 
brilliant light."* 

" T«/tto!|/T<S S'dptTai 
Es <f>av€piv oSbv (px^ovTai. TfKnaipei 
Xp^/JL ?»ta<7T0V." •' 

. M^K '"pf T^f ■ ^Z'- ' '^'"'^' ''" ^"- '"""■^- '""'^- ' Sum-chuw, ,0. 
Maha Bh. Udyog P ,602. ' Viraf N. vii. 2. 6. • Ya^na, xxxiii. 5. 
Id. Ixv.i. 41. • Id. XVII. 42. » Id. xxviii. 2. » Find 01 vi 122 



[iv. 1 8 

"Good men who honour virtue enter a brilliant path. The 
work shows (or proves) the man." 

Although this i8th verse may be taken literally, both in 
the original and in the translation, yet it may also be taken 
figuratively, ' the perfect [lit. settled, fixed, lisj] day,' being 
said of the most perfect and brightest of days, ' the resurrection 
of the just' And it describes so exactly sundry passages in 
the religion of the Egyptians, as represented more especially 
in their Ritual of the Dead [the passage of the soul in the 
nether world, to the hall of justice, there to be accounted just, 
and to receive the crown of life in the bright light of heaven], 
that it is difficult not to think that the Wise King who wrote 
this verse, " and was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyp- 
tians," had not some of it present to his mind. And perhaps 
the seventeenth chapter of the Ritual of the Dead in particu- 
lar, which has this heading: "Chapter of the resurrection of 
departed spirits ; of the coming out in daylight from the 
divine nether region of Amenti ; of being one of the followers 
of Osiris ; of feeding on the bread of the Good Being ; of 
coming out in bright daylight and of undergoing all pleasant 
transformations. Let the soul of the defunct Osiris [the 
defunct is called by the name of the god, as being one with 
him] be reckoned among the followers of Osiris, near the great 
assembly of the gods, after his burial, in Amenti. Having 
been glorious in their deeds on earth, the words of men are 

The spirit of the departed, being one with Osiris, says of 
himself: " I am one of the spirits that belong to light, and that 
are luminous (or brilliant)."' At ch. cxxx. the soul [ba] is 
made to live for ever by making it sail in the bark of the Sun ; 
and at ch. cxxxiii., the departed spirit [khu] is made perfect 
in the heart of the Sun, &c. Thus " Men-kheper-ra, king of 
Upper and Lower Egypt, rose up justified to the Sun, became 
luminous, followed the god, and shed light on earth," &c.* 
' Rit. of the Dead, Ixxviii. 8. ' Inscript. Amun-em-heb. I. 38. 

iv. 19] 



"So also Ramsts Mei-Amun was gifted with life, like the 
Sun, for ever;"' and with him, other sovereigns of Egypt 
also. " In the ' Meskhen,' the birth-place [of the gods] in the 
land of God, where the blessed spirit [khu] eats and drinks 
and does whatever he likes, and rests in the warmth of the 
land of God."' "There on my head is the white crown of 
Turn Nahebka, in the fertile land of Aaru [or Aalu, Elysium ?] 
of Ra, where ears of corn are five cubits high," &c. 

Again from Iran we hear : " Ahura Mazda, rule thou at 
will over thy creatures, that our mind be glad and our souls 
be best, and our brilliant bodies be [of] for the best place 
[Paradise]."' " Ahura Mazda created perfection [fulness] and 
immortality, for the perfection (or satisfaction) of the pure 
man, who is the chief (or best thing) in His kingdom, and 
who [finds in immortality] the fulness which Vohu-Mano [the 
good Spirit] has provided for his friends."* "But [Vohu 
A^mano] good Heaven is far from those who do not mind 
purity [i.e. godliness, holiness]."' 

Those are better thoughts and loftier aspirations than 
these of Mahomet, who, when in Paradise, saw huris, every 
one of whom had seven thousand waiting-maids. And he 
asked : " Are all these the delights of Paradise ? And Gabriel 
said : Yes, O apostle of God, all these are the portion of thy 
people."* Or than these hopes of the lower Hindoo: "He 
that goes to heaven is joined to heavenly apsaras."' Or than 
these of the Buddhist : " What then shoiild you say is Nirvana? 
That too [as well as Sansar, the visible world and its revolu- 
tions] is essentially empty and vain ; and in form, it is the 
end of all illusion ; and as proof, it is the end of all sorrow."* 

19 The way of the wicked is as darkness; they 
know not at what they stumble. 

' Stfele of Bakhten. » Pap. Sutimfes, pi. xvi. I. 8. ' Ya^na, c. lix. 16. 
* Id. xxxi. 21. « Id. xxxiv. 8. • Miraj Nam. sth St. 

' Kawi N. sh. p. 31. » Tonilkhu y. ch. c. i. 



[iv. 19 

" The way of the wicked",' &c. " The eye of knowledge sees 
(or disfcerns) the Brahma Spirit that pervades all ; but the eye 
of ignorance sees nothing ; no more than a blind man sees 
the shining sun."' Therefore "lay not wickedness in thy 
heart, but lay in wisdom [virtue] and propriety, and protect 
living creatures ; so shalt thou obtain wealth in both worlds 
and the city of Nirvana."* " For transgression closes [obturat] 
the heart of man," says Rabbi Ishmael.' 

" The life of wicked men," says Confucius, " is owing to their 
being lucky and escaping unhurt."* "For men," says Choo- 
hi, "are blinded by their passions"* — "cannot distinguish 
black from white;"" "for the darkness of violence darkens 
the faith."' " The foolish [unwise] man is blind undoubtedly. 
O foolish man, take interest in wisdom !"* " For blindness of 
the heart is blindness indeed."' Such a man, "stepping out 
of the way, treads on a spike;"*" or "stumbling against a 
wooden fence, says : There is no way at all here for me to the 
village."'' " Enveloped as you are in darkness, why then not 
seek a lamp?"" 

" Let a man," says Manu, " consider as darkness that indis- 
tinct, inconceivable and unaccountable disposition of a mind 
sensual and joined to folly [infatuation, stupidity]. It is said 
by the wise that every action of which one is ashamed, either 
when done or doing or about to be done, is a sign of darkness 
[of mind]. The sign of which is lust ; while that of passion is 
wealth. But virtue is the sign of the good quality [in men], 
and it is best Good and true souls attain to the nature of 
the gods ; the souls that are under the thrall of passion only 
reach to human nature ; and those that are always in darkness 
become brutes ; and this is the three-fold course of transmigra- 

> Atmabodh. 64. ' Lokopak. 206. • Joma, 39, M. S. 

♦ Shang-Lun, vi. 17. * Comm. on the Ta-hio, c. ix. ' Jap. pr. p. 199. 
"> Nuthar ell. 164. * Kudat ku Bil. 41. • Shekel hakkod. 

10 javan. pr. " Georg. pr. " Dhammap. Jaravag.-i. 

" Manu S. xii. 29, 37, 4°. 

iv. 20—22] 



"A good man is like precious metal, always and everywhere 
invariable. But a wicked man is like the beam of a balance, 
always a little up or down."' "And if the good associate with 

the bad, they sink lower and lower. For wicked people 

gathered together, how would they respect wise ones ? The 
venomous snake hidden in his hole in the earth will not come 
out of it to the pretty light of a lamp."' " Those who believe 
wjU increase in faith, and will rejoice. But those in whose 
hearts is disease will go on from [wickedness] filth to filth, and 
will die ; for they are infidels."* And the great Yu warned 
his people that " to direct oneself and to advance in the path 
of benevolence and virtue is advantageous ; but that to follow 
the wicked [rebellious] brings on calamity. It is like the 
shadow and the echo [that follows or answers]."* 

20 My son, attend to my words ; incline thine ear 
unto my sayings. 

2 1 Let them not depart from thine eyes ; keep them 
in the midst of thine heart. 

22 For they are hfe unto those that find them, and 
health to all their flesh. 

HD-1Q ¥1^5 ^9^1, lit. ' to all his flesh-healing,' ' health,' or • healing 
to every man's flesh;' mM, 'man,' understood. LXX. jracrj; <ja.pK\ 
i'a(7is, ' healing to every flesh,' is not borne out by the Hebrew. 

" My son" &c. " If thou wilt hearken to me," said Hesiod 
to his son, " I will tell thee something more— well, with know- 
ledge, and in a few words ; and thou, lay it deep in thy mind."' 
"King Milinda asked Nagasena, 'What is the distinction 
between attention and understanding [pafia] ?' ' The mark of 
attention is, that it puts together (or arranges), whereas [intel- 
lect or] understanding [cuts asunder] decides.' ' Give me an 
example,' said the king. ' The king,' answered Nagasena, ' must 

> Legs par b. pa, 1 16. ' Chanak. 153. 

• Qoran, ix. 125. ' Shoo King, i. 3. 

' Sain iighes, fol. 16. 
• Hes. i. «. n- 106. 



[iV. 20 — 22 

have seen men reaping barley.' ' Yes.' ' Well, as they gather 
with the left hand, and cut their handful with the sickle, so 
also does intellect decide on what attention puts together.' "* 
" If thou lovest [wishest] the goodness of thy conscience," says 
Ptah-hotep, "safe [or saved] from every blot, beware of the 
[handle] beginning of deceit ; it is a dead corpse ; no good 
comes of its introduction ; it is the plague of fathers and 
mothers and of their kindred ; it separates man and wife ; it is 
a bundle [union] of all iniquities. But a man with an honest 
[true] breast [heart] prospers, and conducts his house free 
from fraud (or deceit)."* " Be thou, then," said Ptah-hotep to 
his son, " one to love obedience."' 

"As the moist moon-beams, like cooling salt, give at all times 
delicious scent and fragrance to the sandal-wood, so also is 
the good word of a father dropping into his son's ear : it 
refreshes it"* — that is, if the son hearkens ; otherwise it is very 
much as the Japanese father said to his friends, "like wind in 
a horse's ears."'' 

"Of the two, one who begets a child and one who gives 
him divine instruction, the more venerable of the two is this 
last one. For the divine (or second) birth of a Brahman is 
for hereafter, for here, and for ever. For his natural birth is 
little ; but the birth which he receives from his spiritual 
teacher learned in the Vedas, and which is wrought through 
the Gayatri [the most sacred verse in the Vishnu Puranam, on 
the spiritual Sun], is true, is free from decay, and is for ever."" 
" O thou youth, with a merry heart, do not set at naught my 
words, but calm thy mind. Fasten in thy heart the way of 
uprightness, and waste not thy youth ; for the value [use] of 
it is great Use it well ; for it flees from thee rapidly ; yea, 
thy life passes away, however fast thou triest to hold it."^ 
" The wise man [or man of education and of gentle manners]. 

« Milinda pano, p. 33- ' P^p. Pr. x. I. 1—5. 

* Lokopak. 11. * Kiu O do wa, vol. ii. serm. 1. 

ji_ 146—148. ' Kudat ku BiL xii. 9. 

' Id. xii. I. 13. 
• Manu S. 

iv. 23] 



as long as he lives, does not for one moment oppose virtue. 
If he is in adversity, he will turn to it ; if he is in an exalted 
station, he will still turn towards it."' "And if he takes always 
good care of the state of his body, he will meet death as 
a companion in good old age."' " Which is the best of all 
gains?" asked the Yaksha. "Freedom from disease is best," 
answered Yudhishtira.* " Choose, then, that which thou likest 
best, whether good or evil. So says to thee a man of expe- 
rience, who knows the ways of the people [world]."* 

23 Keep thy heart with all diligence ; for out of it 
are the issues of life. 

Tia*? -123 11}??Q bsp, lit. 'of all objects, or before any object, of 
care, keep thy heart, as more precious than all.' LXX. irdo-i; <l>v\aKy 
is not in the Hebrew. 

" Keep thy heart" " Tvw^i trtavrov, know thine own self,"" " is 
indeed a short saying," quoth Ion Chius ; " but Jove alone 
knows the whole of the work it implies."* And Chilon him- 
self, being asked what is the hardest thing, said : " To know 
oneself ; for many through self-love think more of themselves 
than they ought." "Be well set in your resolve," said Gau- 
tama to his disciples, just before his death, " and take good 
care of your own heart."' "Let the wise man who has re- 
nounced the world [who walks alone] watch over his mind as 
he would watch against an enemy coming upon him unawares, 
and as he would take care of a vessel brimful of oil,"' said 
the teacher. 

"Only keep in the right the heart within thee. It is of no 
use asking for promotion. Thou canst rely only on doing thy 
duty ; for it is useless to ask to be promoted. If thou 
to be promoted, do not long for it."' And Siiin-tsze: "The 
ears, eyes, mouth, &c., are said to be Heaven's ministers. But 

> Shang-Lun, iv. 5. ' Kawi Nitish. ' Maha Bh. Vana P. 17359. 
* Kudat ku Bil. xi. 15. ' Chilon. sept. sp. ' Ion Chius, 29, ed. G. 
' Mahaparanibbh. fol. gna. • Selapatta Jat. 96. » Ming Sin P. K. c L 



[iv. 23 

the heart that dwells within to rule those five ministers is said 
to be [Heaven's or] the heavenly ruler. If that heavenly 
ruler is obscured, then the five ministers get confused [or 
troubled ['lwan']."» "How careful ought a man to be who 
owns so great a jewel as the heart !"» "for sages declare that 
virtue resides there.'" 

" Aypvirvos (<To koto voZv, be wide awake as regards thy mind," 
says Demophilus ; " for the sleep thereof is akin to the sleep 
of death."* " There is no greater or more precious jewel than 
the heart (or mind)."» " So great a jewel as the heart ought 
to accord with the law [religion] ; it is a source of great joy to 
find such a jewel."* " If we wish to regulate our manners, we 
must first of all regulate our heart ; but in order to regulate 
our heart, we must first of all have right principles."' [But as 
these reside in the heart, whence are they to come first, if not, 
like li^ht, from Heaven ? S. Matt. xv. 16 — 20 ; Jerem. xvii. 9.] 

" But be always on your guard ; for the causes of evil are 
many."* " For this body is like an empty city occupied by 
troops of robbers. The eyes through their expression sway 
the body, as the ears do by sound, the nose by smell, the 
tongue by taste; and the mind [or heart, 'setgil'] is like a 
flame [or illusion], the leader of the whole"* " ' Is there, O 
Bhagavat,' said king Passenadi, 'a law that can secure the 
advantages of both this world and the next ?' 'There is one, 
O King," answered Bhagavat, 'and that law is vigilance.' "« 
"Wherefore, O Rama, my son, practise self-restraint," said 
Dasaratha to Rama." 

" Watchfulness is the road to immortality ; carelessness is 
the road to death ; men who are on the watch die not ; the 
careless ones are dead already. Aware of this, men who know 
what it is to take care and to watch, delight in so doing, 

' Siiin-tsze, c. xvii. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. vi. ' Mong. max. R. 

« Demophil. sent Pythag. * Thar gyan, fol. 11. • Dam chhos, fol. 9. 
' Yung Ching, 7th max. p. i— 47- ' Akhlaq nasseri, 5. • Allan Gerel, 
c. viii. fol. 98. " Mahavag. Appamad. ed. F. " Ramay. ii. 3, 44. 

iv. 23] 



rejoicing as they do in the portion of the Aryas [noble, excel- 
lent and respectable men]."' "Such valiant men, given to 
meditation, persevering, always endued with fresh strength, 
attain Nibbhanam and supreme happiness. And so is the 
glory of the vigilant man increased ; of him who leads a pure 
life and works righteousness."* " For there is nothing to fear 
for him who is awake and watches. And neither father nor 
mother can ever have done a man so much good as — thought 
well applied [to the way of salvation] ; this does a man most 
good."' " The taming of the mind (or thought), which is ever 
fickle and hard to direct and to restrain, ever ready to turn to 
what it likes, is a good thing. Thought thus tamed brings 
happiness. Let the wise and sensible man tame his thought, 
which is ever quick and fickle. Thought thus hidden [subdued] 
brings happiness."* " For those, then, who thus restrain 
thought hidden within them, the bands of death are loosened."* 
"If a man loves himself, let him then guard himself most 
carefully."* "Let him keep himself like a citadel on the 
border of his land, well guarded and well stored within and 
without Let him not omit it one moment ; for those who 
overlook it one moment, rue for it in hell."' "Though one 
lose one's life," says the Japanese mother to her daughters, 
" yet ought one to keep to what is right, and one's heart pure, 
like pure gold ;"' "having found one's profit in it, and having 
fought and overcome to the end everything, and at last this 
world also [sansar]."' Meng-tsze asks : "What is the greatest 
thing one has to keep ? To keep oneself is the greatest thing 
to keep."'* " Self-keeping is the root of all other keeping."" 
"And that in which the superior man differs from the mean 
man is, that he keeps his heart. He keeps his heart by bene- 
volence [jin] and by propriety."" 

' Dhammap. Appamad. vag. 21, 22. ' Id. ibid. 23, 24. ' Id. Chittav. 
39> 43- * Id. ibid. 44, 45. ' Id. ibid. 46. ' Id. Attavag. 157. 

' Id. Nirayav. 315. ' Onna tai gaku, p, 44. ' Siim-chuw, 3. 

'» Hea-Meng, vii. 19. " Ibid. " Ibid. viiL 28. 



[iv. 23 

" Man's heart lies in benevolence ; and justice is the way for 
him to walk in. To wander from that road and to lose that 
heart, how sad indeed I The whole of moral study consists 
in finding that lost heart ; and that would indeed be enough. 
In olden time many men did keep their heart ; for that reason 
their works were sincerity, filial piety, moderation (or economy) 
and justice, spreading their fragrance to a hundred generations. 
There are also men who do not keep their heart ; and for that 
reason their works are villany, theft, corruption and lasci- 
viousness, leaving their bad odour after them for thousands of 
years. Seeing these two sorts of men, and considering the 
matter well, how can the keeping of the heart be other than 
the first article of important business?"' 

There is a sermon by the Japanese Kiu O on the above 
text from Meng-tsze, from which the following passage may 
suffice : " Nothing can be said to be so important as the heart. 
When the heart is said to be the lord of the body, it is the 
same as to say, Mr. So-and-so is master of the house. And 
yet we neglect the disease of this master, but tend affection- 
ately the body, which is the servant, even in trifles ; but as 
regards the heart, we are utterly careless about it To be 
born without man's heart, but with that of a devil, of a fox, or 
of a crow, and not to feel ashamed of it — it must be an old 
error apparently." [Very old indeed.] " Good thoughts," say 
the Rabbis, " come to one at thirteen ; but one's evil nature 
(or evil composition) is from one's birth."' 

"Whatever be the matter, the heart is always foremost 
Whatever it feels or thinks, appears outwardly. If you do 
not tend a disease, it will increase, and no physician will avail. 
This being the case with the heart also, let me entreat you 
to study the science of the heart [morality]. When once one 
understands one's former [old] heart [conscience], it is a won- 
derful thing."* " Wherefore I pray you follow your natural 

' Hca-Meng, xi. 11, and p. 159. 
' Kiu O do wa, vol. ii. i. 

Ep. Lod. 1084. 

iv. 23] 



heart ; work, press hard to follow your original heart." " Be 
assured that your heart is perfect. As a proof of it, if you 
say what you ought not to say, or do what you ought not to 
do, suddenly inside you, your heart feels (or thinks) it evil ; 
so that when that perfect heart does evil, it is because it has 
been warped or bent" " By all means turn upon yourselves. 
To examine the affairs of others and to neglect one's own, is 
to let one's heart go astray. This does not mean that it 
actually leaps out of the body, but it means that one does not 
turn to oneself, to examine oneself For to trust to your 
talents, services, rank, cleverness, &c., is to make a very great 
mistake. Nothing is more important than self-examination."* 
" If a man loses a hen or a dog, he knows how to look for 
them ; and yet knows not how to find his heart that is gone 
astray ! Moral study is the way to find it All our evils come 
from not examining our own selves. Had we done so, the 
winds and the waves would have been lulled to sleep."' " Those 
■who for the sake of wealth, &c., allow themselves to be robbed 
of their heart, which is the lord and master of their person, 
are deaf to warning. Their parents' advice does not enter into 
their ears, and the teaching of their master is like the wind of 
heaven. It is like pouring water on a frog's head : it only 
blinks its eyes. They say, 'Yes, yes;' but as their heart is 
not in their side, seeing, they see not, and hearing, they hear 
not," " and do not give a thought to seeking their heart that 
is gone astray. That seeking is self-examination [lit turning 
upon oneself]."' 

These Japanese sermons enforce the doctrine, taught by 
Meng-tsze, of the original purity of man's heart "As to man's 
origin (or youth), his nature is originally good. Men are one 
like another in nature, but they widely differ in practice."* 
" The original nature [element] of the heart was correct, not 
depraved. If it be controlled, it will not of itself make a 

• Kiu O do wa, vol. 1. s. I. 
• San-tsze King, I. 

« Id. ibid. s. 2. 

s Id. ibid. s. 2. 



[iv. 23 

mistake. Since, then, it is impossible to please men in all 
things, let me only seek not to shame my own heart"* 

" Man's nature is not originally inclined to either good or 
evil," said Kaou-tsze, " like water which runs neither east nor 
west" To this, Meng-tsze replied : " True, water does not 
naturally incline to the east or to the west ; but does it not 
incline to flow downwards ? Man's nature is [originally] good, 
as water tends to run down. If man does not naturally tend 
to good, water does not naturally tend to flow downwards. 
But if you observe [man's nature], you will find that it is really 
inclined to be virtuous. That is what I say ; ' it is good.' If 
a man's practices are evil, it is not the fault of his natural 
powers. All men are benevolent, charitable, &c. ; and a heart 
that distinguishes between right and wrong is wise. Now 
benevolence, justice, discretion and wisdom, are not poured 
into us from outside. We possess them ourselves. But we 
do not think so. Therefore it is said : ' Seek, and obtain it ; 
give up [seeking], and lose it' Confucius said : ' Hold it fast, 
and then you will keep it ; let it go, and then you will lose it' 
There is no fixed time for its coming or going. No one knows 
how far it may go. This can only be said of the heart" 

Meng-tsze then goes on to show how one's heart should be 
kept He compares it to a 'new mountain,' once covered 
with beautiful woods, but now laid bare by cutting down the 
wood and want of care. "If man could only preserve his 
heart ! Has he not a righteous and benevolent heart ? But the 
way he loses his heart resembles cutting down a wood with 
the axe. If you cut it down day by day, how can it look 
beautiful ? The gentle breeze of dawn, and the cool of the 
night, and the hot wind of noon, bear some little resemblance 
to man's heart as regards good and evil. But his daily busi- 
ness [like the heat of noon] checks that cooling influence of 
the night If thus checked over and over and destroyed, then 
the cool breeze of night is not sufficient to keep the heart 
' Hien wen shoo, 155. 

iv. 23] 



When this is the case, then man is not far from the wayward 
nature of a brute."* 

We need not go to Scripture to show how far Meng-tsze 
is from it in his estimate of human nature. Siiin-tsze [b.c. 250], 
another philosopher, held only second to Meng-tsze [B.C. 350], 
says : " Meng-tsze holds that education is sufficient, because • 
man's nature is good. But I say, ' It is not so ; he says so 
only from an imperfect knowledge of man's nature, and from 
not ascertaining, as regards that nature, what portion of it is 
fictitious' [wrought, or put on afterwards]." " Meng-tsze says 
that ' man's nature is good, but that he lost it' But I say, 
' If it is so, then men of the present time were born with a 
nature bereft of greatness and wealth, which they must have 
lost.' Man's nature is evil ; and when good, it is [wei] put on, 
or fictitious."' 

So ' doctors do differ,' and Siiin-tsze wins. Meng-tsze, how- 
ever, does not give up his point, for elsewhere he says : " To 
keep one's heart and to cherish one's nature, is the way to 
serve Heaven."' "The straight road, however," says Rabbi 
M. Maimonides to his son, " is the path equally distant from 
either extreme of the moral affections of man. This middle 
path is called 'the way of the Lord,' since we serve Him by 
walking in it"* " If at the beginning of an action," says Tai- 
shang, " the heart is good, while that good action is not yet 
done, good spirits follow it But if at the beginning the 
heart is bad, while the evil action is not yet done, evil spirits 
follow it"" " The very first thing to be considered is ' to keep 
one's heart,' for hundreds of different matters are brought forth 
by the heart If the heart within devises anything good, it 
brings it out also good ; but if the heart within devises anything 
evil, it brings it out also evil. When the heart cherishes good 
thoughts, then it will do outwardly good works ; but if it 
cherishes evil thoughts, then it will also do evil works."* 

' Hea-Meng, xi. • Siiin-tsze, c. xxiii. ' Hea-Meng, c. xii. 15, or 
xiii. I, 2. * Halkut Deh. i. 4, in Yad hakhaz. vol. i. p. 12 of his Works. 
' Tai-shang, Mandch. vers. " Chin. mor. max., Dr. Medh. Dial 




[Jv. 23 

"Those of old," says Confucius,' "who wished lo order 
themselves, first of all settled their heart in the right way. 
What is the heart ? Choo-he answers : That which rules or 
governs the body. And what is intention? Choo-he again 
answers : It is- that which proceeds from the heart ; and in 
order to render this intention true, one must keep oneself 
satisfied [k'heen, with one's principles] and not deceive one- 
self." On this, the Japanese Commentary says : "In ordering 
one's body or person, the heart is the main thing (or root)* 
At the same time if the intention resident in the heart is not 
upright, the heart also cannot be right"* "One asks. Is the 
heart the seat of the soul [ling], or is 'sing' [nature] the seat 
of it ? The place of [ling] the soul, says Choo-he, is in the 
heart, and not in [sing] man's nature [life]."* The heart, then, 
haS an intelligent principle. Ching-tsze, quoted by T'heng-tsze,* 
says, "that the [ling] soul in the heart cannot but have know- 
ledge, or power of knowing." " But," says Confucius, " for 
this root [ordering of self from the heart] to be disturbed, and 
for the branches [good behaviour, &c.] to be straight, is impos- 

"He," says Wen-chang, "who wishes for great happiness, 
must rest [depend] on the ground of his heart. If the heart 
is wholly brought to act, happiness will grow and increase; 
For the heart is a mighty foundation ; it can associate with 
heaven and earth."* " Bald heads, matted locks, smearing 
with ashes, orations, postures and religious vestments ! He is 
no saint who is not pure within."' " Students do not know 
this, that the heart [madi, mind] is the only seat of [mukti] 
final emancipation.'" " Final emancipation emanates from 
the heart [madi] ; all men who cannot know their own heart, 
nor control their mind, vanish away in death."* "Final hap- 
piness is within the heart ; he is a fool who looks for it else- 

" Ta-hio, c. i. ' Jap- Comm. ad 1. ' Choo-he sing li, 3. 

« Ta-hio, c. V. Comm. * Ibid. c. i. ad fin. ' Shin sin luh, iv. p. 19. 
' Vemana, iii. 174- ' ^d. 197- ' 'd- i- '07- 

iv. 23] 



where. ' "Those who weary their body and call themselves 
'yogis' [ascetics], cannot cleanse away the filth of their own 
heart If you destroy only the outside of the white ant-hill, 
will the snake that lies inside die for all that ?"' 

" Bhrigu, the son of Manu, thus addressed the great Rishis : 
Hear ye the certain result of actions done in this world 
Every action, by thought, word or deed, bears fruit either 
. good or bad ; and the goings [transmigrations] of such 
whether high, low or mean, are the result of their actions 
Know, then, that the heart [<manas,' mind] is the cause [or 
instigator, 'pravartaka'] of all acts of the senses by the 
embodied spirit [or corporeal being]. He therefore who 
chastens [has power over] his speech, his heart [mind] and 
his body, with a well-trained (or restrained) understanding is- 
called a 'Tridandi' [one who has command over these three • 
his thoughts, words and deeds].'" « He whose speech and 
mind are both altogether pure and always protected [covered] 
receives the fruit of the study of the whole Vedas."* 

"But the mind, which by its nature partakes of both kinds 
[m the body, yet not of it], is reckoned the eleventh organ of 
sense [five of sense, five of action, and the mind [heart] as 
eleventh];* and when this is subdued, the other ten organs will 
also be under rule." " Forby attachment to his organs of sense 
a man undoubtedly incurs guilt But by keeping them under 
restraint, he attains happiness."" "The mind [heart] is the 
source of all virtues, and is itself the best part of them ; they 
result from it If a man speak or act with a foul heart [mind] 
then sorrow follows him, as the wheel-cart follows the ox that 
draws it The mind [heart] is the source of all virtues ; it is 
Itself the best part of them ; they result from it If a' man 
speak and act with a serene mind, then happiness follows him, 
as the shadow follows the body that casts it"' 

"But when the organ of sense fails [from restraint], then 

Md.„. 160. Md.„. ,,89. Md.ii.92. ' Dhammap. Yamakav. ,, 2: 

R 2 



[iv. 23 

the knowledge [of God, 'pragna'] oozes through it out of that 
man, as water does through a hole in a leathern bucket. He 
who has brought all his senses under subjection, and his mind 
[or heart] as well, may then attain unto all manner of good, 
even though he do not waste his body in austerities."^ " He 
who will keep himself [his body] in order, must not neglect 
his heart ; and he who will perfect his nature [make it com- 
plete] must not be confused as regards the right way [Tao]."* 
" As to the heart," says Choo-he, " it is difficult to tell what 
it is. Looking at it, it has motion and rest ; its nature [or 
body, 't'he'] varies; and its principle [li] may be said to be 
Tao, 'the right way;' and the use (or application) of it may 
be said to be spiritual [shin] ; but these are ways of speaking. 
Thus when Meng-tsze says that ' humanity [jin] is the heart 
of man, and that to practise it is that heart,' such an expres- 
sion is equal to that of ' li' [li chay, t'heen chi t'he ;' ' li' is the 
'body' of Heaven, that is, the principle whereby Heaven 
governs or influences men ; ' t'heen li,' is Providence]. When 
Yen-tsze says that ' for three months his heart did not turn 
from humanity,' it means, that his heart was lord over him 
and that it did not swerve from 'li' [its principle, or nature]."* 
And elsewhere Choo-he asks : "What is the heart? One 
word covers it — ' life and self Life is the great virtue [d/Jtr^, 
strength, power] from heaven and earth ; and man receives 
breath from heaven and lives; and Tao is the life of the" 

"But the strength of the heart," say the Arabs, "comes 
from soundness of faith."* " Every man," says Borhan-ed-din, 
"ought to inquire into that which belongs to his condition, as 
seller on selling, to be honest, &c. So also it is incumbent 
on every man to study the circumstances of his own heart, 
about confidence, intention, fear, pleasing others, &c."' "O 

' Manu S. ii. 99. * Hwae man-tsze, c xiv. 
vol. xliv. * Id. ibid. ' Id. ibid. 

' Borhan-ed-d. c. i. 

' Choo-he sing 11, 3, 
• Nuthar ell. 106. 

iv. 24] 



ye noble sons of the gods, the first thing wrought of old by 
the heart of the Mahasatwas [the good, virtuous, pure] was, to 
embrace and hold fast through meditation the teachings of 
truth left by holy men ; that there is reality in death ; then 
to gather the precious flowers of knowledge ; the perfection 
of intellect ; the lamp of divine knowledge, and to walk 
bravely. These, O noble sons, are the ways in which the 
heart of the Mahasatwas wrought."' Therefore, " O thou, the 
guardian of thy soul, or of thyself," say the Arabs' — "that 
great jewel is given thee for thine own ; but only to keep it 
safe ;" as said the bystanders to the dge-long [priest]."' 

" WttA all diligence" which is one of the attributes of Byang- 
tsum-sem-pah, of 'the Being joined to Intelligence,' of the 
Bodhisatwa, while he was in Dgah-ltan, the abode of joy."* 
" The wise and good man," says Confucius, " looks to himself ; 
the mean man, to others."* "Be careful then," says E-yun 
(B.C. 1753); "when the bowman draws the thimble of his 
bow-string, he turns to examine if his arrow is fixed properly, 
and then he lets fly. Be therefore cautious as to that upon 
which your mind is set."" Be careful then. "I have applied 
myself," said king Amen-em-ha to his son Usurtesen, "to 
save thee from thine own heart [deceitful as it is]."' 

24 Put away from thee a froward mouth, and per- 
verse lips put far from thee. 

Marg. reading : Heb. ' frowardness of mouth, and perverseness of 

" Put away" &c. " Thy tongue," says Ali, " will exact from 
thee that to which thou hast accustomed it" " Accustom thy 
tongue," says the Commentary, " to the fairest speech and to 
the best words ; otherwise, if thou accustomest it to speak 
evil, thou mayest never be sure that it will not speak, against 

' Allan Gerel, c. iv. fol. 92. 
fol. 252. * Rgya-tcher, c. ii. 
' Pap. Sail. ii. pi. i. 1. 4. 

* Meid. Ar. pr. 
' Hea-Lun, xv. 20. 

' Dsang-Lun, c. 1. 
' Shoo King, iii. 5. 



[iv. 25 

thy will, some bad words that may trouble thy cup [of life], 
or let thy head fly from thee [be cut oflTj." " Accustom thy 
tongue," adds the Persian, " to what is good ; for that to which 
it is used comes on the tip of it. If it is used to bad [words], 
it will some day give thee a black face [ashamed] before 
people."^ "Do not speak low words."* "He who watches 
over his words, whose mind is under control, and who does 
no wickedness with his body, let him keep those three paths 

clean, and walk in the path taught by Rishis of old. He 

who from childhood learns to distinguish between truth and a 
lie, how can he be but truthful and accurate ?"* 

" If thy tongue speak [straight] upright words, it will move 
aright [and subsist] ; but if thy words are froward, thou must 
hide thyself," said Ajtoldi to his son.' "Foolish, senseless 
men follow listlessness ; but wise, sensible men keep up watch- 
fulness as they would keep valuable treasure."* " When telling 
a thing," says Ebu Medin, " be truthful ; and when making a 
promise, keep it."' "Cast away from thee frowardness [cun- 
ning] and wrath." " And do not raise [favour, incite] a licen- 
tious, disordered mind [or heart]."' " It is a blessing for a 
son to practise truth and to eschew lying," said Ptah-hotep.* 
" Therefore does the wise man watch carefully over his own 
secret [thoughts orfeelings]," says Confucius." "Kwey-wen-tsze 
used to reflect three times and then act. Confucius heard of 
it and said: 'Over and over again; that answers best.'"" 
" Samano Gautama, when he gave up lies and falsehood, 
became a speaker of truth, and truthful, firm to be depended 
on, and trustworthy. And he gave up harsh language."'* 

25 Let thine eyes look right on, and let thine eye- 
lids look straight before thee. 

• AH b. a. T. 33, and Comm. ' Av. Atthi. Sudi, 74. ' Dhammap. 
Maggavag. 9. * Maha Bh. Kama P. 3437. ' Kudat ku Bil. xiv. 8. 

• Dhammap. Appam. 26. ' Ebu Med. 9. • Oyun Tulk. p. 11. 

• Pap. Pr. xvi. 2. "* Chung y. c. I, and Ta-hio, c. vi. " Shang- 
Lun, i. 20. " Silakkhanda, fol. 3. 

iv. 25] 



" Let thine eyes" &c. " Reverence for those who go straight 
[ujjagatesu], who are upright in the way, is best."' "The 
heart and the eyes are touters for the body, and they draw 
the body into sin."' The heart and the eyes are the two 
touters for sin."* 

" Ni peccent oculi, si oculis animus imperet"* 
" Dice il core agli occhi : per voi moro. 
Gli occhi dicono al cor : Tu m'hai disfatto."' 

" It is neither by cries, nor words, nor talk of any kind, that 
one can acquire virtue [the laws, rules of virtue]. It is only 
by [the very marrow of] intense application that one can 
acquire it. As you speak, so do."" "The footprint [form of 
the foot, the tread] is heavy ; that of the hand is reverential, 
therefore handle nothing inconsiderately. But the print of 
the eye is straight ; look not askant or with a leer."' " He 
who is in the habit of looking at other people's errors to laugh 
at them, whatever kind of individual he be, his misfortunes 
are not far from him."' "Look not at other people's rough 
[cross-grained] words [lit. against the setting of the hair ; Fr. 
i rebrousse poil], nor yet at what they do or do not. But look 
at your own doings ; at what you do, and leave undone."* 

"Always gentle and free from deceit, strive to tread the 
way to Nirvana [passage to yonder shore] ; study to examine 
the way thither ; and [cleanse] scatter the darkness of igno- 
rance with the lamp of intelligence [or understanding]."'* 
"And do not twist reason."" "Nobody is for one state (or 
purpose) only, answers the Lord of life [Death]. Keep thy 
eye on thy life [or existence]."''' " Put on thy hat, and do thy 
best to walk straight on."" "Look with eyes wide open at 
him who does not know thee."'* "And mind thine own eye. 
for it betrays thee more than thy tongue."'^ "But," says 

» Dhammap. Sahassav. 108. ' Midrash Rab. in Numb. M. S. 

» Berach. M. S. * Publ. Syr. « G. Guinizelli, M. S. ' Rgya-tcher 
r. p. iv. p. 40. ' Shiteigun, p. 11. ' Rahula thut. 15. • Dhammap. 
Pupphav. 7. •• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. p. 41. " Jap. pr. " Ani, 41. 
'^ Georg. pr. '* Meid. Ar. pr. ii. " Id. ibid. vi. 



[iv. 26, 27 

Theognis, " the eyes, the tongue, the ears and the mind, com- 
mon to all men, are in the [breast] heart of the intelligent 
[wise] ones."' And Lao-tsze says, "that outward objects 
distract the holy man from the contemplation of Tao [the 
right way]. Therefore does the holy man fill himself [his 
heart] and not his eyes, and for that reason also does he 
choose this and eschew that"' " From the emperor down to 
the common people [multitude], the duty of every man is- to 
amend or correct himself, attending to it as to the principal 
thing."* "The wise man," says again Confucius, "considers 
attentively the root (or principle) of his actions ; the root once 
established, and the right way of acting once produced, filial 
piety and brotherly love follow ; and such is the root of 
humanity [virtue]."* " Ts'heng-tsze quotes the Shoo King [Tai 
kia], where it is said of king Ching-tang that he kept his 
eyes constantly fixed on the bright commands of Heaven." 

26 Ponder the path of thy feet, and let all thy ways 
be established. 

27 Turn not to the right hand nor to the left: 
remove thy foot from evil. 

Or, ' all thy ways shall be ordered aright.' Marg. reading. 

" Ponder the path," &c. " To keep steady in the middle 
path [of virtue] and not to swerve from it, what strength 
indeed !"* " How upright was Sze-yii," said Confucius ; " when 
the country was well governed, he was as straight as an arrow ; 
and when the country was ill governed, he was still like an 
arrow."' "O my son, consider well what provision to take 
for the journey, and then gather this or that by the way [thou 
goest]."* " When a man is firm [established] in his own 
counsel [is proved and trusted], others bind their actions to 

' Theogn. iii7- 
♦ Shang-Lun, i. 2. 
' Hea-Lun, xv. 6. 

' Tao-te-K. c. xii. 
' Ta-hio, c. i. Comm. 
• Pend i attar, ix. 

' Ta-hio, c. i. 
• Chung y. c. x. 

iv. 26, 27] 



his advice."' " Blessing on purity, and on virtue, and on the 
kingdom of Vohu-Mano ; with these I press forward towards 
the bridge Chinvat [that souls have to cross on the way 
yonder]."' " If, therefore, this deceitful [empty, vain] world 
falls to thy lot, my son, do all the good [in thy power] and 
order thyself aright."' 

"The wise man [directs] makes his mind that luxuriates, 
that is fickle and hard to govern aright [or straight], as 
an arrow-maker straightens a bamboo [for his arrows]."* 
" Ts'heng-tsze» quotes the She King [Ode ' mien man'] to show 
that if a bird knows how to settle in a nook of the mountain, 
man ought to know how to settle in the greatest good." To 
which the Japanese Commentary adds: "That man, being- 
reasonable, ought to know it better than the bird." And the 
Ji-kiang [Commentary on the Ta-hio] further says: "That 
man has that in him which will lead him to settle in that 
which is good ; but that holy men alone attain to it." For 
many men settle in evil. Timur, for instance, is said "to have 
set up wickedness upon its legs."' 

"It is the heart," says Meng-tsze, "that rules and thinks; 
if it reflects, it can find the right way ; if it does not reflect, 
it does not find it"' " Let moralists blame or praise ; let 
fortune come or go; let death come to-day, or a 'yojana' 
[four or nine miles] hence— wise men never swerve from the 
path of truth."* " If the country has good principles [is well 
governed], let your good principles follow you to the grave, 
&c. I have never heard that good principles should be accom- 
modated to [the level of fancy of] men." " For if good prin- 
ciple varies one hair's-breadth," says Confucius, " it is no longer 
good principle, or the • right way.'"" " The mountain torrent 
easily rises and falls ; but the man also who easily^ moves 
backwards and forwards, is a man of mean purpose."" " In 

. Pend i attar, xxi. ' Ya^na, xlv. .0. » '^t^'^^^'j^ i' 

• Dhammap. Chittavag. ' Ta-hio, ch. iii. Comm. • Arabs. V.T.mur.c.. 
'Hea-Meng,xi. 15. • Nitishat. 10. • Chung y. c. .. '• Chin. pr. G. 



[iv. 26, 27 

the face of obstacles, &c., it is not well to enter the way first. 
But tread the way back."> 

" Y6u have two ways before you," said Pianchi to the men 
of Mertum ; " choose the one you like best. Open and live ; 
shut and you die."« "Move thy foot [walk] circumspectly, 
and drink filtered water."" " Felice che misura ogni passo," 
say the Italians, and " Che misura i sui passi cammina sicuro."» 
" Keep to the mean," say the Arabs, " and walk on one side." 
"Mix among men, but keep aloof from them." "The mean 
[middle] is best in all things."* 

" Nee preme, nee summum molire per xthera cursum. 
— medio tutissimus ibis. 
Inter utrumque tene."' 

" It is indeed a great blessing (or great good fortune) for a 
Rahan or a Paggul [mendicant priest, priest in charge of a 
monastery, one who teaches others] in his intercourse with 
things of the world [daily life], not to have his mind moved ; 
but to be without sorrow, without passion and enduring."^ 
" But keep aloof from men ; and forming thy judgment with a 
free soul [disengaged], decide on everything, with the best 
opinion, sitting up as charioteer [of thy life] ; and when thou 
leavest thy body to soar up on high, thou shalt then become 
immortal, and a god."* 

" It is hard (or difficult)," says Pythagoras, " to tread many 
ways at once in life."* " But tread the straight road, if thou 
wilt be righteous."" And follow this advice : " When thou 
enterest upon a journey, first take counsel with thy Creator, 
and then go forth."" " Do as I do, Kyrnus ; tread the middle 
path in peace."" "And beware how thou goest; and," said 
Kaou-tsung, " be not like a man who, walking bare-foot, does 
not look on the ground, and hurts his foot"" "Thus think of 

' Ani, xlii. max. • Stfele of Piaaichi, 1. 82. » Kotbitaratn. 4. 

• Ital. pr. * Ar. pr. ' Ovid, Met. ii. 135. ' Mangala thut. 13. 

• Pythagor. XP- '■ 67. • Pythag. Sam. 10, ed. G. '» rVu/i. iiov. 
" Berach, B. Fl. " Theognis, 321. " Shoo King, iii. 12. 

iv. 26, 27] 




correcting thyself" [lit. what is near], says Tsze-Hea, "for 
virtue lies in that"* "But we fix on an object or action 
according to our moral habit, for we deliberate on that which 
we desire, as says Aristotle ; for there can be no deliberate 
choice without a right purpose [thoughtfulness]."* 

" Spend your life in trying to lay hold on truth and pro- 
priety; and yield not an inch to any one for the sake of 
yellow gold."* "The ornament of wise (or excellent) men lies 
in their inclining to neither side, and in their preserving an 
equable mind, like even weight in a balance."* "That which 
wavers not is said to be 'mean' or middle ; that which alters 
not is called constant"' Heou-Chu says : " Do nothing that 
tends to evil, because it is a mere trifle ; and omit nothing 
that tends to good, because it is but little."* "It behoves 
thee, O King," said Kaikeya to Dasaratha, " to abide firm in 
the right way. For men who know what is right say that 
faithfulness [constancy] is the highest virtue. I took refuge 
with thee on the strength of thy faith ; and now I warn thee 
to do what is right by keeping that faith."' " In a field of 
cucumbers tie not thy shoe,"* say the Arabs ; and the Japanese, 
" Under a pear-tree arrange not thy hat"* [to avoid suspicion, 
but walk on, and tarry not]. 

The whole of Confucius's Chung-Yung treats of the ' Inva- 
riable Mean,' or middle path of virtue, which, he says in the 
first chapter, is not to swerve by a hair's-breadth. Most of 
that treatise might be quoted in illustration of this verse. For, 
as the Japanese say, " No one can serve as master two different 
persons."'" "Mou-Ka [Meng-tsze] was kind and upright; Si- 
Kio [the scholar Yu] laid hold on the straight course : they 
kept close to the middle path, which lies in being diligent, 
humble, careful and docile."" "The benefit of excellent laws 

• Hea-Lun, xix. 6. ' Archytas Ter. 2, ed. G. » Ming h. dsi. 129. 

* Cural, xii. 118. ' Tsze-ching-tsze, in pref. to Chung- Yung. 

• Ming Sin P. K. c. i. ' Ramay. ii. xiv. 2, 3. » Arab. pr. 
' Japan, pr. "• Ibid. " Gun den s. men. 673. 



[iv. 26, 27 

to the people, lies in the strict observance of them. In that 
we must look for their worth."» « For it is only because of a 
smgle move that the chess-board is 'conquered' [that the 
, game is lost]."" "He who has done no harm to others, nor 
bowed to the low and mean, and who has not swerved from 
the right way, [though it may appear little, yet] it is much "» 
" For with great effort one can roll up a block of stone to the 
top of a mountain, where the least thing may upset it Such 
IS one's virtue and one's faults [hard to acquire and easily 

" Which is the right way a man ought to choose for himself? 
All that is an honour to him who does it, and that brings 
credit from others."* "The right road is the middle way."' 
[We may compare the Chung-Yung [Invariable Mean] of 
Confucius with the 'Middle Way' ['dbu mai lam'], as taught 
. by Gautama, and the philosophy of the Middle Way taught 
by Nagarjuna one hundred years after Gautama.] "Go by 
the king's highway ; wander neither to the right nor to the 
leff'T "The sages have declared," says Rabbi M. Maimonides, 
"that he whose habits (or principles, ways) are 'intermediate' 
[verging to neither extreme], is called wise. Therefore have 
they advised men to direct their steps in the middle way, as 
being the safest"^ "Know ye," says Tiruvalluvar, "that he 
is safe from destruction who, turning to neither side, commits 
no evil deed."* 

"I walk," said Theognis, "in a way as straight as a rule, 
leaning to neither side ; for I must think the best, and for the 
best, how to benefit my country, without pandering to the 
mob or trusting to unjust men."" [Would God that other 
men did the same!] "Do not, O Kyrnus, vex thyself too 
much because of troublesome men ; but do as I do, 'walk the 

" Hien w. shoo, 131. » Id. ibid. 199. 

* Id. ibid. 68. » Ep. Lod. 70. • Id. 624. 

' Halkut deh. i. 4. • Cural, xxi. 210. 

» Naga Niti, 42, Schf. 
' Mishle As. xviii. 3. 
" Theognis, 923. 

Jv. 26, 27] 



middle way.' "> "If a man," $ays Confucius, "will bend his 
will towards virtue, he will abstain from evil."* " The invariable 
middle way is virtue ; few people, alas I can walk long in it"* 
"A wise, well-educated or superior man [kiiin-tsze]," says 
again Confucius, "settles himself in his station in life, and 
acts accordingly; wishing for nothing outside it" " He regu- 
lates (or rectifies) himself, and (asks or) expects nothing from 
others." "Always at peace and tranquil within himself, he 
awaits the commands (or decree) of Heaven. Like an archer 
who misses his aim [and tries to hit better], the wise man, 
when he errs, considers within himself that wherein he has 
failed, and strives to set it right."* 

' Theognis, 219. 
• Chung y. c. xiv. 

' Shang-Lun, iv. 4. 

» Ibid. vi. 27. 



[v. I. 2 


/ Solomon txhorteth to the study of wisdom. 3 He showeth the mischief 
of whoredom and riot, /y He exhorteth to contentedness, liberality 
and chastity. « The wicked are overtaken with their own sins. 

jyj Y son, attend unto my wisdom, and bow thine 
ear to my understanding : 
2 That thou mayest regard discretion, and ihai thy 
hps may keep knowledge. 

"My son, attend," &c. " Children, attend to us your teachers 
at the monastery-who pour wisdom into you, and not useless 
things, as among fools— and then your wisdom will be like 
Mt Myemmo [Mt. Meru]."> « In reading books, you must pay 
attention ; one [Chinese] character is worth a thousand gold 
pieces."* "For what good is there in a hearer who does not 
practise virtue ?"» " Firmness [or constancy] firmly seated in 
the heart, and holy texts well received in both ears, is the 
ornament of really great men, though they be poor."* 

So, then, "the office of a disciple is, when the teacher gives 
him a model, to strive and copy it ; when he sees good, to 
follow it; when he sees good, to practise it Thus easily 
correcting himself, he will learn to do right of himself, and 
without effort or opposition on his part."' "When he pur- 
poses anything, he will not flag, and when he practises, he will 
keep straight ; and thus continuing in this way, he will soon 
draw towards virtue."' "Rahula," said Gautama to his son. 

• Putt-ovada, 20. 
• Nitishat. 55. 

' Chin. pr. P. 28. 
• Siao-hio, c. i. 

' Vararuchi shadratn. 7. 
• Id. ibid. 

V- 3. 4] 



" abandon the six properties of lust, come forth from the so- 
called prison of passion, and put an end to sorrow, as a 
Buddha."* " Let a man know and have many virtues, and 
even shine in them, still must he cherish, preserve and hold 
fast propriety of conduct [discretion] ; it will be a great assist- 
ance to him."' K'heuh-li says : " Propriety [discretion] does 
not transgress due limits, does not demean itself in mockery, 
does not like familiarity, orders itself, keeps its word ; such is 
called good conversation [or practice]."* " Neither look at, 
hear, speak nor move in anything that is not in accordance 
with propriety."* 

3 For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey- 
comb, and her mouth is smoother than oil : 

4 But her end is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a 
two-edged sword. 

njpbri n?!), 'drop pure honey from the comb.' rnT, 'strange 
woman' — any other than the lawful wife. 

"For the lips," &c. " Honey in the comb on a precipice 
protected by snakes — the Kiratas perished through it Thy 
son, O King," said Vidura, " sees the honey, but from infatua- 
tion sees not the precipice."' " Graceful child of the forest, 
honey-mouthed daughter of Tapio," said Lemmikainen, "blow 
sweetly thy reed-pipe and lull others to sleep with the honey- 
sounds of it."' "Like the voice of old Nestor, from whose 
mouth it flowed /xIXitos ykvKlmv, sweeter than honey."' "But 
if one endued with some qualities is by nature wicked, leave 
him (or her).'" 

" The mouth of crafty [nefarious] people is charming, cool 
as sandal ; but the wicked nature of their heart cuts through 
like a saw."' " They speak fair, with a pleasing face ; they 

' Rahula thut. 4. • Cural, xiv. 182. ' Siao-hio, c. iii. 

♦ Chin max., Diet, at 'wo.' ' Maha Bh. Udyog. p. 2474. ' Kalevala, 
xiv. 68. ' II. a. 249. • Sain iighes, fol. 28. ' Mas. v. 6, Schf. 




[V- 3. 4 

ravish, with a subtle mind. Honey lies on the tongue of women ; 
but in their heart rankles virulent poison, and that only."' 
" Women are said to be within like poison, though outwardly 
charming, like the fruit of the 'gunja' [abrus precatorius]."* 
"By whom was woman created? Women are, like poison 
with ambrosia, for the ruin of virtue."' 

" oxtSat 8' ipawrt Kvir/)is 
/icAt TO yXvicv) Xa/Sowro." 

Stings smeared with honey. " Sweeter are the words of such 
a woman than the core of the jack-fruit, than refined sugar, 
than virgin honey."" "But a smiling woman and a weeping 
man are not to be trusted," says the Tamil proverb.* 

" Look not at a bad woman ; for from the lips of the adul- 
terous woman there flows honey, which at the time tastes 
like honey to thy throat, but which thou shalt afterwards find 
more bitter than gall, and sharper than a two-edged sword."^ 
"She covers poison with honey."' "I counsel thee, Lodd- 
fafnir," says Odin ; " I saw a wicked woman's words bite a 
man right through [up and down] ; her deceitful tongue 
caused his death." " Of such a maiden let no one trust the 
words, nor yet what a woman says. For their heart was made 
like a revolving wheel, and fickleness was put in their breast"' 
"A man does not understand (or feel) his eye-ball, polished 
with the finest lustre, as it drinks in the objects at which it 
looks. Go on, then, drinking in sinful looks with thine eyes ; 
by and by thy sight will be bitter enough for thee."" 

" Hard, indeed, are some women," said Rama's wife." Even 
she whom the gods had endowed with every gift. Pandora, 
Hcsiod tells us, proved n-^// dvSpda-tv a.k4>r]<TT-ga-iv, " a misfortune 
[calamity] to industrious men," and caused them troubles 
enough."'* "Yet if a bad woman is worst, a good one is the 

• Pancha Tant i. 202. • Ibid. 211. ' Shantishat. ii. 3. 

* Anacr. od. 45. ' Vemana, ii. 30. « Tain. pr. 437. ' Uidasc. 

Ap. (Eth.), c. i. » Jap. pr. p. 5SO- ' Havamal, 119, 83. 

'• Litta jatak. p. 380. " Kumara Sambh. iv. 5. " Hesiod, *. «. i 83, 95. 




best thing on earth."' "The fool, however, reckons [his evil 
deeds] honey, so long as his sin is not ripe ; but when it is 
ripe, then the fool suffers pain."' " He goes on, senseless as 
he is, an enemy to himself, doing sinful work that yields bitter 
fruit"' "The pleasure of sin is but trifling, compared with 
the pain it brings, which is great"* " For the mud into which 
the sinner sinks is in the lowest depth of hell."" 

5 Her feet go down to death ; her steps take hold 
on hell. 

6 Lest thou shouldest ponder the path of life, her 
ways are movable, that thou canst not know them. 

obop ]9, third pers. sing, fem., and not second pers. masc. " Lest 
she should weigh the path of life, her ways are movable" — that is, 
•as she has no wish to weigh right against wrong, her ways,' &c. 
LXX. oSovs yap fw^s ovk iiripxtTai. So also Chald. and Syr., Copt, 
and Arab., taking )5 as bw or >fh, and with them Midrash Mishle 
also ; all of which take Sjjri as fem. But Arm. and RR. Aben Ezra, 
Yarchi, andTvunath Mishle, understand this verse in the sense of A.V. 

"Her feet go down," &c. " Quid levius pluma ? Ventus. 
Vento quid ? Aer. Acre quid ? Mulier. Muliere quid ? 
Nihil," say the Rabbis.* " What is an endless, impenetrable 
thicket? The mind, ways, and heart of women."' "What is 
an impenetrable thicket ? The way of woman. Who is a 
clever, able man ? He who is not lost therein [thereby]."' 
"What is as passing as a flash of lightning? Intercourse with 
bad men and young women."* "A roving woman only goes 
after roving men."'" "Even though her husband be all she 
can desire, and her home agreeable, yet how will the slippery 
woman curb her innate instinct? If a dog is fed with milk, 
will he not rove about for all that?"" "A daughter of the 

' Hesiod, i. «. ij. 700, and Simonid. M. ed. Br. ' Dhammap. 

Balav. 10. ' Id. ibid. 66. * Niti neri vil. 11, 12. ^ Cural, 919. 

' Ep. Lod. 1573. ' Phreng wa, 21. ' Sansc. original, 23. ' Id. 59. 
'" Vemana, ii. 10. " Id. ibid. 31. 





[v. 5. 6 

Shimnus [demons],"' "whose windings are not known."' "Lust 
is like the autumn cloud of rain, inconstant ; it moves about 
with the wind, and deceives, while destroying all virtues in 

" Restlessness [being movable] is natural to women," said 
Vidura to Dhritarashtra.* "Covet not the actions of those 
women who go about from place to place to do unlawful 
deeds."' " But guard women as you will, by keeping them 
still and unseen, it is like planting a hedge around a field just 
sown with wheat in order to keep birds from it, and do no 
more (or sit still)."* " Let a man eschew strange women and 
changeableness [in his station]."' "People of bad character 
are like the tongue of the balance — the least thing moves them 
up or down."* " But the good, like precious stones, never, 
i^vcr change."* "Thou art changeable (or movable)," said 
Hiranyaka to the crow ; " and no friendship can be made with 
such a person." 1' 

" No confidence is to be placed in cats, buffalos, rams, 
crows and mean individuals ; they are all excluded from it"" 
" Women are always fickle and inconstant ; even the gods 
say so. The husbands whose wives are well guarded are 
indeed lucky."" "Neither shame nor decency, but the want 
of an opportunity, is the only safeguard of a woman's virtue;"" 
"whose heart is as light as a crane's feather."'* [In all this, 
allowance must be made for a degraded state of society, and 
with it, the low estimate of woman, outside the pale of Chris- 

" Even the gods cannot see the bottom of the sea, a white 
crow, and into the mind of woman."" "Women, thieves, 
full as they are of wits, intelligence, wisdom and craft, can 
yet hardly acquire the knowledge of truth. The nature [ways] 

• Mong. Max. R. ' Ani, xvi. 14. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xv. 

• Maha Bh. Udyog P. 1317- ' Lokopak. 51. • Id. 54. 

' Chanak. shat. 20. " Naga Niti, 175 ; Var. 53, Schf. • Legs 

par b. p. 116. " Hitopad. i. 454. " Id. ibid. 88. " Id. ibid. 124. 
»' Id. ibid. 125. " Jap. pr. p. 209. >' Nidivempa, 53. 



v. 7. 8] 



of such women is as difficult to know as the goings of fish in 
the water. Falsehood is to them like truth, and truth like 
falsehood."* "In truth, the way of woman is not very plain 
[not easily ascertained]," say the Japanese.'' "The heart of 
women cannot be understood, like the face in a mirror ; their 
nature, like a difficult track among mountain-passes, cannot 
be ascertained." " Their mind is declared by wise men to be, 
like water on a lotus-leaf, inconstant."' " Half of the words 
they speak are said to some one else, and at the time they eye 
some other man, and think of something else than what they 
say. Who is really loved by women ?"* 

7 Hear me now therefore, O ye children, and depart 
not from the words of my mouth. 

D^33, 'O ye sons' is surely more appropriate here. 

"Hear me now" &c. "Son," said Gautama to Rahula, 
" eschew women who, with their feet and hands, their person, 
their smiles and laughing ways, raise passion in others. In all 
thy existences [sansara] keep thy mind under restraint."' 

Ch. " Venim ubi animus setnel se cupiditati obstrinxit mala. 
Necesse est, Clitipho, consilia consequi consimilia : hoc 
Scitum est : periculum ex aliis facere tibi quod ex usu siet."* 

" But thou, walk in the perfection of morals [moral perfection], 
if thou wishest to attain to Buddhahood. Take always care 
of thy morals, as the yak-ox does of his tail."^ "Say not, 
' We are young, we will do right by-and-by,' but do well while 
you have the means. Not ripe fruit only falls ; but good, 
unripe fruit must fall by a strong wind."* 

8 Remove thy way far from her, and come not nigh 
the door of her house : 

' Andhabhut. Jat. (62), p. 295. ' Onna ima kawa. p. 17. 

' Bhartrih. suppl. 6. • Pancha T. i. 151. ' Rahula Thut. 6. 

• Ter. Heaut. i. 2. ' Silaparami Jat. p. 20, 21. • Naladiyar, 9. 

S 2 



[v. 8— ID 

9 Lest thou give thine honour unto others, and thy 
years unto the cruel : 

^-niSW*?, « to the cruel.' Chald. ' to the strangers.* 

"Remove thy way," &c. "As long as thou livest," said 
Osmotar, Kaleva's daughter, to her younger sister, " so long as 
the moon shines, go not near a house without morals ; a house 
is to be inquired after as to its character; for it rests on a good 
[name]."* "My fourth advice to thee," said Sigrdrifa to 
Sigurd, " is, that if thou fall in by the way with a witch [a 
wicked woman], better it is to go on thy way than to go in to 
her, even though night overtake thee."' "Keep aloof," says 
Ani, "from the gadding woman, who is not known in the 
town. Go not near her ; have nothing to do with her."' " For 
when a way is known to be evil, the best thing is to forsake 
it"* " Even the mind of good men is made to waver by the 
words of the base. He that places confidence in them dies."* 

" Do not commit adultery," said Ajtoldi to Ilik, " and keep 
well to that If thou wishest to be respected [held in honour], 
come not near to vice, O thou with a well-ordered [upright] 
mind. For well has the upright said : ' When vice touches 
thee, stay not, step not towards it ; for where there is sin, con- 
tempt follows it.'"* " But walk on," says Avveyar, "and let go 
the hand of such a woman."' " For the adulterer, or sensual 
man, gets a mark [or name ; is branded]."* " Come not near 
to whoredom," says Mahomet; " it is a foul deed, an evil path."* 
"And hold no intercourse with sensual people [evil livers]."*" 
" Idleness brings one into the hands [power] of vice and of 
evil thoughts."" " Otia dant vicia." " L'oisivetd est la m^re 
des vices." " L'ozio h il padre del vizio.'"' 

ID Lest strangers be filled with thy wealth ; and thy 
labours be in the house of a stranger ; 

• Kalev. xxiii. 79. ' Sigrdrifumfil, 26. ' Ani, xvi. 13. 

« Pancha T. i. 341. * Hitop. iv. 58. ' Kudat ku Bilik, xx. 10—14. 

' Kondreiv. 78. ' Vararuchi Nava R. 2. ° Qoran, xvii. 34. 

" Jap. pr. p. 196. " Ep. Lod. 647. " Lat. It. Fr. pr. 

V. 10, It] 




1 1 And thou mourn at the last, when thy flesh and 
thy body are consumed. 
ir>''T'nM3, • at thy latter end.' Chald. ' at thine end, extremity.' 

"Lest strangers," &c. " Sweet sins end in sore expiations ; 

and trouble always follows pleasure."* "And repentance of a 

fault is the confession of it."' " That which produces sorrow 

is — let men know it — a bad action,"' says the Buddhist. 

" Quod merito pateris, patienter ferre memento 
Quumque reus tibi sis ipsum te judice damna."* 

"A fault returns thither from whence it comes [in punish- 
ment]. The blister of a burn is finally cured by fire."* " Old 
age pounces upon him who indulges in excesses."* "Pour 
vivre longtemps il faut etre vieux de bonne heure :' Old young 
— young old." 

" Immodicis brevis est retas, et rara senectus. 
Quidquid amas, cupias non placuisse nimis."' 
" Non est vivere, sed valere, vita."' 

"If pleasure is the end of man," said Cleanthes, "then the 
gods gave him common sense for his hurt."*" 

" He who has tried (or proved) knows ; but woe to him who 
proves everything."** "Repentance is a great thing, since it 
reaches the throne of glory.""' "Like ardent fire on gold, so 
is light shed on those who are penitent under sore affliction. 
The reason why there are so many worthless men [men no- 
men] is, that the penitent are so few and the impenitent so 
many."" " Of vice and death, vice is said to be the worst ; for 
when dead, the vicious man sinks lower and lower in hell ; 
whereas the man free from vice mounts up to heaven."** "A 
man receives in his mind the reward of mental [moral] acts ; 
in his organs of speech, those of the tongue ; and in his body, 

• Solarlipth, 68. " Ebu Med. 305. ' Dam ch'hos, fol. 40. 

' Dio. Cato, iii. 18. « Drishtant. 66. « Shabbat. 152, M. S. 

' Fr. pr. ' Mart. Epig. vi. 29. • Id. ibid. 70. *" Fragm. Phil. 

Gr. p. 153. " Fin. pr. >2 Ep. Lod. 568. » Cural, 267, 270. 

" Manu S. vii. 53. 



[v. 10, II 

those done by it, whether good or bad."» "There is no fire 
like that of passion."' " Sorrow is born of pleasure, and plea- 
sure also gives fear ; therefore is there no sorrow for him who 
has renounced pleasure; whence, then, can he have fear?"» 
" Passions," said Udpala to the nuns, " are like fire ; they set 
on fire hill and dale, and spread like fire among the grass ; 
one man destroying another."* " But neither the Vedas, libe- 
rality, sacrifices, abstinence, nor austerities, will ever profit a 
man deteriorated in his nature."* 

" No rose without thorns ; no pleasure without pain. He 
who will have the rose must be prepared to have also the 
thorn," say the Turks.' " Passions," says the Buddhist, " have 
little sweet, but are full of sorrow ; and wise is he who thinks 
so."' " It is, however, better thou shouldst not sin, than sin and 
have to repent of it."8 " Repentance beforehand is real gain," 
say the Malays; "but after-repentance— what merit is there 
in it ?" " It is one's own judgment of oneself."* 

" — justa doloris 
Njevole, causa tui."'" 

" — At atj hoc illud est, 
Hinc illae lacrymae."" 

" Tardy repentance is thine own enemy" [one of thine own 

making], say the Ozbegs.'^ " Still," says Pythagoras of Samos, 

" reckon that the trouble that follows pleasure is to lead thee 

to virtue."" " For wickedness is a fire, a fire that burns ; there 

is no escape on either side from the way thereof"'* "Thy 

nights of debauch serve thy lust ; but at last they consume 

thee whole"'*— "and also degrade thee; for therein lies the 

degradation of man."" " He who loses shame reaps for his 

soul [himself] repentance more burning than the burning heat 

of the sun," said Ibn Doreid." " What fruit [harvest] of sin 

' Manu S. xii. 8. ' Dhammap. Sukhav. 6. ' Id. Piyavag. 6. 

« Dsang-Lun, fol. iji. « Manu S. ii. i, 97. « Osman. pr. 

' Uhammap. Buddhav. 186. ' Berach. B. Fl. » rviuft. /lov. 

" Juven. Sat. ix. 20. " Ter. And. i. i. 12 Ozbeg pr. " Pythag. 

Sam. 9, ed. G. 
'• Nuthar ell. 85 

" Ter. And. i. i. 
'• Kudat ku Bil. xi. 19. 
" Hariri, iv. p. 45. 

'» EI Nawab. 144. 


V. 10, 11] 



is there but to weep ? said Nushirwan, when rebuked by his 
vizeer; and he then bit his finger in his violence;"' "his 
soft finger-tips in despair;"* or like Atthai, who is said 
by Arabsiad "to have eaten his hand in regret" at what he 
had done." " For the snares of Satan bring trouble and sorrow 
to man."* 

" Blessed is he who repents while still in the prime of man- 
hood,"* "and who stands firm in temptation."" " For the fool 
repents when he comes to himself," said Vasudeva, " as water 
puts out fire."' " Through pardon and repentance thou mayest 
escape the wrath of God ; but thou canst not escape from the 
tongue of men"* — "but until thou beat thyself with both 
hands, for alas I thou sayest, ' I would not hearken to wise 
counsel.'"' "And although the claw of rebellion is cut short 
by repentance, and the wing of obedience speed one to eternal 
glory,"'" "yet there remains a scar on the conscience," says 
Publius Syrus : 

" Cicatrix conscientiae pro vulnere est." 

" He," said Vaishampaka to Dhritarashtra, " who only sees 
the honey and does not see the precipice, he being [broken] 
undone by greed of the honey, repents of it at leisure, as thou 
doest."" The Bodhisatwa said thus to the gods : "Avoid every 
immodest intention. Divine joys, whatever they be, proceed 
from the source of a good action, and are the fruit of good 
actions. Therefore remember your actions ; for from having 
neglected to gather good actions, you go where sorrow dwells."'* 
" He," said Hod-srung to the Bodhisatwa, "who after reflec- 
tion repents, will not again do unseemly [improper] things."'* 
There was in China a saying copied by the road-side [jropot/ii'a] :'* 
" Seldom speak, and thy name will be mentioned. Restrain 
thy passions, and thou shalt preserve thy body."" And Lao- 

• Nizami, M. ul-asrar, p. 49. ' Hariri, ii. p. 106. ' Vita Tim. c. 29. 
♦ Ebu Med. 202. » Yalkut Tehil. R. Bl. 128. « Shemoth R. id. 126. 
' Prem Sagur, ch. ii. ' Sadi Gulist. ii. 23. " Id. ibid. vii. 5. 

>» EI Nawab. 48. " Maha Bh. .Stri P. 38. '^ Rgya-tcher r. p. iv. 

'^ Dkon segs, i. fol. 18. " See Preface. " Ming Sin P. K. c. iii 



[v. 12—14 

tsze says: "Too much self-indulgence injures the spirit; and 
too much wealth holds the body captive.'" "For all desire 
does not last long ; it is like a dream, like the mirage, like an 
illusion, like lightning, like foam."* 

12 And say, How have I hated instruction, and my 
heart despised reproof ; 

13 And have not obeyed the voice of my teachers, 
nor inclined mine ear to them that instructed me ! 

14 I was almost in all evil in the midst of the con- 
gregation and assembly. 

"I was tayp? little short of being in all evil," &c. 'Peu s'en 
fallut que,' Fr. 

"And say," &c. In the Keuh-li it is said : "It is the duty 
of a son to serve his parents. If he is reproved three times 
and will not hearken, he will have to howl and weep in secret, 
and himself will follow [fare alike in his sons]."' In the Khara- 
diya-jataka* we read of the deer that was killed from want of 
hearkening to advice. "Give no further advice to him who 
has transgressed seven times." But in the Tipullattha-miga- 
jataka, we have the storyr of the deer that escaped from the 
snare in which it was caught by remembering good advice 
and following it That deer was Rahula, Gautama's son." 
" But he who does not reverence the word of his mother, and 
IS an obstinate, stubborn man, will not respect the words of his 
•guru" [spiritual teacher]."" 

"For no guru will change a man's nature [disposition or 
temperament]."T " Yet such a teacher should be treated with 
the utmost reverence and respect ; in short, a good teacher of 
that sort should be looked upon [give the idea of] as Buddha 
himself "8 " He who does not follow the instruction [advice] 

' Tao-te King, in Ming Sin P. K. c. iii. « Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 

» Siao-hio, c. ii. « P. 160. » Id. p. 160, i6i. • Tarn. pr. 2713 

' Id. 3619. » Thar gyan, ii. fol. 18. 

V. 12 — 14] 



of one who wishes him well, falls into the hand of his foes."* 
"In five ways, O son Gahapati. does a compassionate 'guru' 
teach his pupils: (i) he teaches him good behaviour; (2) 
delivers to him good instruction [gives him what is worth 
taking] ; (3) teaches him every trade ; (4) speaks well of him 
to friends and acquaintances ; and (5) succours [or protects] 
him in misfortune. The pupil also, on his part, honours his 
teacher in five ways : (i) by rising before him ; (2) by waiting 
on him ; (3) by listening to him attentively ; (4) by going 
about with him [" but at seven feet distance behind him, for 
fear of treading upon his shadow"'] ; and (5) by receiving his 
instruction attentively."^ 

" Next to the desire to learn, comes the choice of a religious 
teacher, to be supported, served and honoured for three reasons : 
advice, manners [propriety] and example. He is to be chosen 
from among Lamas of the best order, who combine all per- 
fections."* " What, then, is the bitterest poison ? To despise 
one's spiritual teacher."' Tai-shang reckons among the sins 
that bring their own punishment, "to be wanting in proper 
respect for one's teachers" [explained in the Mandchu transla- 
tion by "those who have gone, or who were born before — 
elders." This, however, is only a literal rendering of the 
Chinese original ' sien sang,' ' born before,' or teacher]. Another 
sin, says Tai-shang, is "to rebel against [resist] those one 
serves," and "to cherish hatred (or rancour) towards one's 
moral teacher;" as also "to rebel against the orders of one's 

" The good and wise man stands in awe of three things : 
he fears Heaven, he honours great men, and he respects the 
words of the wise."^ " For the good advice given by good 
men is to be followed ; for when they speak from themselves, 
it is like the Shastras."^ " Treat me." says a man up in years, 

■ Kapota Jat. p. 244. • Do ji kio, Jap. pr. ' Sigal V. Sutta. 

fol. No. 52. * Thar gyan, ii. fol. 14. ' Drislan p'hr. wa. 9. 

• Tai-shang k. i. p. Mandch. tr. p. 31. ' Rodriguez, Jap. Gr. p. 4. 

' Bhartrih. suppl. 22. 



[v. 12 — 14 

"as your elder brother" [with affectionate respect]. "You 
must honour your teacher because he reforms (or directs) you. 
There are three persons without whom one cannot do : parents, 
a master an'd a teacher. A young man, therefore, ought to 
be circumspect, and to keep attentively to the advice given 
him ; and also to abide in friendship and fellowship with him 
who gives him good advice."> "Venerate thy father and 
mother from morning till evening, and wait on thy teacher day 
and night." "A teacher." says Kukai, "is friendship for this 
one world, but he is an alliance for the three worlds." "And 
for filial piety towards a teacher, Kuwansen [goddess of mercy] 
retributes Buddhistic happiness."* 

"But alas!" says Vemana, "to a teacher they will not even 
give a mess of broken victuals, while they spend their substance 
on loose women."' "who, when once they have caught a man, 
keep his nose in the dust."* "Is a teacher, then, more de- 
graded than such women?"* "But passion makes teaching 
and rule of none efl-ecL"" "Yet. O men. I tell you the truth 
without partiality." says Bhartrihari. "a fact which is proved 
m all countries : There is nothing to captivate the heart like 
woman ; neither is there any other source of misery."^ "Alas, 
fie on me!" said Kandu to Pramlocha, "my devotions are 
destroyed, and my prayers [or inward life], the treasure of 
the wise, are killed by this woman created by some one to 
beguile me."" " Seeing the danger of temptation, and how 
soon it takes possession of one, those who give way to it 
follow the law of unrighteous [improper] actions. For he 
who does not observe the law of perfection, shall not be able 
to overcome temptation."* "The unwise among men," says 
again the Buddhist, "wander in five ways, in like manner as 
the potters wheel revolves on itself. These five ways are: 
beauty of form, melodious sounds, delicious smells, exquisite 
' Shi tei gun, p. 8. » Do ji kiyo. 3 Vemana. ii. 28. 

El Nawab. 187. « Vemana, ii. 28. • Sanhedr. Millin de Rabb 15 
' Shrmgara .Shat. 57. » Vishnu Pur. i. 15, 27. » Sdom pa sum pai. 
kon sags. i. fol. 22. 

V. 12 — 14] 



tastes, and the softest touch. These are the evil snares of 
time, by which living beings are caught, as a young ape^ is 
caught in a snare set for it."* 

" But what blessed [fruit] result there is in beholding those, 
whoever they be, who for a long time have abandoned vicious 
companions, and have attached themselves devotedly to the 
precious intercourse of virtuous teachers ; and who, having 
forsaken all vice, walk in the faith of Buddha!"' "For it is 
only when temptation ceases that there is peace."' " Hear, 
O great Fortune," said the birds to the Rishis, " how this world 
is deceived. The body is a city with nine gates. There the 
sentient Purusha [man] sits as king ; his two counsellors, 
Mind and Intellect [or understanding], seek to destroy each 
other. Four enemies, lust, anger, avarice and delusion, sur- 
round him. When he shuts his gates he is safe ; if not, lust 
comes in with his other foes. Then the ruin of the intellect 
follows ; and when that is gone, he perishes altogether."* 
" He, then, who will not hearken to the advice given him by 
friends who wish him well, when misfortune befalls him his 
enemies rejoice at it.""* 

"If you will not hearken to advice, you shall suffer loss,"* 
says Avveyar. "A teacher is the clearing nut [strychnos] 
with which the inside of a vessel is rubbed to purify the water 
poured into it. Man's body is that vessel."' "The king asked 
the wise tamer of elephants, how he had managed to tame so 
fine a one. ' I was one day hunting with him,' answered the 
man, " and although he ran about wildly through passion, yet 
with my hidden charms I brought him into subjection to my 
power. And when he tries to break his fetters, a kind word 
quiets him.' Thus one can tame a stifl"-necked elephant, but 
not stiff"-necked passion, which is either raised by one evil 
example, or set at rest by another good one."' " Hast thou 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiii. ' Ibid. c. xii. p. 141. ' Nata kith. Jat. 

p. 61. * Markand. Pur. iii. " Hitopad. 1. 76. • Kondreiv. 79. 

' Vemana, i. 178. ' Dulva, vol. ii. p. 492. 



[v. 12—14 

then seen one set free from passion ? asked the king. Such 
a one ,s an angel [Iha-Ius], a Buddha. Freedom from passion 
IS not found in woods, nor is it achieved by blood [that flows 
•n one s veins] ; many have tried it and failed. But the desire 
of emancipation comes from somewhere else than this world 
where all are swayed by mirth and pleasure ; gods, as well as 
heroes, men. hons. tigers, insects of the dust, butterflies-all 
however small, are shackled by passion."' 

"Fools who do not lay up riches [of wisdom] when young 
waste away like an old heron in a pool without fish ; or like a 
[useless] bow without arrows, lying on the ground, bemoaning 
thmgs of the past."* 

" altl S' irkoTtpw dySpSv ^pivts ^tpiOovrai." 

"For the mind of youth is always flighty." said the good 

" Cereus in vitium flecti. monitoribus asper, 
Utilium tardus provisor:"* 

•'Easily led into sin, impatient of reproof, and slow at provid- 
ing [for days to come]." " For the action of the soul (or mind 
• sems-pa') is the action of the heart. And that which is pro- 
duced from the mind is the result of thought, wrought out by 
the body or by speech, and thus made evident, as an action 
of the heart and soul."» " I knew it all." said Prometheus- 

" Uiiv, fKtav, ■qp.aprov, ovk apv^" 
" I will not deny it, I sinned of deliberate will."« 
Chr. "At te id nullo modo facere puduit? 
CI. Eheu qu^m ego nunc totus displiceo mihi. 
Quim pudetl"' 

"For those who do what is not seemly [becoming], suffer 
what is unbearable."" [See Sophos's Aramean fable. 60. pro- 
bably the original of Syntipa's Greek fable, 58— of the " Fowler 
and the Bird," which is made to exclaim when about being 

■ DuWa, vol. ii. p. 493. . Dhammap. Jaravag. 155. » II y- ,08 

Hor. Ep. P.S. .63. • Dam ch'hos, fol. 40. • 'ischyl. P 'v.* [f,. 

' Ter. Heaut. v. 4. > Tam. pr. 94. ' " 

V. 12 — 14] 




killed : " Alas me ! wretched as I am. who have been lured to 
my death through a tempting bait !"] "Therefore it is easier 
not to sin. than to have to repent." say the Arabs,' " and better 
than to learn wisdom by a foolish action."' Yea, "although 
so great is repentance, that it lengthens the days of man," 
"and brings healing to this world."' "For it makes prayer 
reach up to the throne of glory,"* " and tears up the sentence 
of condemnation against man."' "Happy then is the man • 
who repents while he is yet a man [strong and well],"' say 
the Rabbis. " A kingdom (or multitude) governed by a 
woman is despised ; and so are those who place themselves 
in subjection to women — they too are despised," said the 

" For as regards the transgressions of men," says Confucius, 
" it depends very much on the company a man keeps. And 
that shows the quality of his virtue."' "Thus spake also the 
youngest son of Yeke Toge : I have been going the round of 
births long enough ! How many, innumerable, times have 
I injured my life and my body ? How often through passionate 
love ? How often through anger have I not brought on my- 
self endless troubles?"' "When thou art in an assembly of 
men," said king Hing-luh, "one word may cause thy counte- 
nance to fall and make thee blush ; words cannot therefore be 
too carefully guarded."'* " For young people, though of good 
family, yet bereft of wisdom, do not shine in company. They 
are like the blossoms of the kinshuka [Butea frondosa], showy, 
but without fragrance."" " One such person in a polite assem- 
bly ruins the merit of it. It is like a tank of rose-water 
defiled by the visit of a dog."" " However, he who is ashamed 
before others is not like him who is ashamed of himself"" 
" For he who is ashamed before others only, and is not ashamed 

> Meid. Ar. pr. iv. 7. » Athitha W. D. p. 54. ' Joma, 86. 

* Midr. Yalk. in Hos. M. S. * Rosh asshan, 17, M. S. • Aboda rara, 
M. S. ' Khandinoj. Jat. p. 154. ' Shang-Lun, iv. 7. • Uliger iin 
Dalai, c. ii., and Dsang-Lun, fol. 17. '" Ming Sin P. K. c. xviii. 

» Hitop. intr. " V. Satasai, 229. " Taanith. R. Bl. 86. 



[v. IS 

of himself, does not value his own soul."' "For he who is 
ashamed of himself does not sin readily."* "And one uplift- 
ing of the heart [to God, compunction] is better than a hundred 
stripes."' "Chi i stolto nella colpa sia saggio nella pena."* 
" Let him who was a fool for doing what he did, at least learn 
wisdom when suffering for it" For " he who falls by his own 
fault may not cry,"" say the Osmanlis. Therefore, "Guardatevi 
dal : ' Se io avessi saputo !'"• " Beware of — ' If I had known 
it!'" "The great rule is to exhort men to three things: to 
avoid wine, to keep aloof from women, and not to gamble." 
" By wine one is led to talk too much, and thus to trespass 
with the tongue ; then for the sake of money, justice and right 
are warped, and kinsmen are estranged one from another."^ 

15 Drink waters out of thine own cistern, and run- 
ning waters out of thine own well. 

" Drtnk waters" &c. "One's home is the pleasantest, and 
she is handsomest whom one loves."* " Having built a house, 
[look at it] enjoy it, and then see to thy taking a wife."' " But 
first of all dig thy well, after its own depth" [be prudent and 
moderate].'* [A house here means a dwelling of mud walls, 
with bamboo rafters, and a covering of thatch ; the whole 
costing very little, or even nothing.] "Sensible men," says 
Rabbi M. Maimonides, "teach that a man ought first to embrace 
a profession for his living ; then get a house and marry. But 
foolish men teach the reverse."*' "Then let a man ever eat 
his own morsels, wear his own clothes, and prize his wife and 
children above all other goods." '^ "For even a bald man is 
master in his own house;" albeit "a head without hair is a 
head without honour."" 

" Since food and the power to eat, the power of enjoyment 

" Musire haphil. id. R. BI. » Nedarim. R. Bl. ' Beracoth. R. BI. id. 
« Ital. pr. * Osm. pr. • Ital pr. ' Ming h. dsi. 151, 152. 

" Burin, pr. » Tam. pr. "' Osm. pr. " Halk. Deh. iv. w. 

" Sabbat. Millin. 909. " Ep. Lod. 331, 356. 

V. IS] 


2; I 

and a comely wife, with liberality and the means to practise 

it, are the fruit of no small devotion.'" "What thou eatest, 

cat it, and let not thy tooth hurt against a stone ; what thou 

* puttest on, wear it, and let not the sun burn thy back ; what 

thou mountest, ride it, and let thy foot never touch the ground."* 

"Enjoy thy possessions with satisfaction."' "A man takes 

greater pleasure in one measure his own, for which he has 

worked, than in ten measures belonging to others."* "The 

goods of another, his coat, his chattels, his wife, and dwelling 

in another man's house, bring down the greatness and glory 

even of Indra.'"* " It is better to live by begging, than to live 

at the expense of others."* 

"What is misery [hell]? Being dependent on another."' 
"He who suffers from sickness, who remains a long time 
abroad, or lives at the expense of another [who eats another 
man's food], or who sleeps in another man's house— it is death 
to him, and when he dies he is at rest.'" [It is but seldom 
•Take' only, but oftener 'Give and take,' and still oftener 
■Nothing for nothing.'] "He," say the Arabs, "who brings 
thee anything, also brings away something from thee."» " Die 
veel inbrengt, brengt veel uit,"'» "He who brings in much, takes 
away much also" " Love your neighbour, yet pull not down 
your hedge."" [See Esop's fable 174, and Babrias, 38, of the 
Pine-tree, the Hatchet and the Hornets.] Also that of the ' Axe 
in want of a Handle' [fab. 50, Chinese tr.] to which Mun Moy 
adds these proverbs : " Help the tiger by giving him wings,j| 
and "Give a man a knife, and then beg your life at his hands." 
" Let every man, then, carefully keep his own, and not yield a 
bit, not an inch of his right to others."" [This does not, of 
course, touch the duty of giving and liberality ; it only regu- 
lates it] 

iChanak.52. ' Altai pr. » Nitimala, iii. * ^^''^ ^^'^'^J^f ,J 
6 Chanak. viii. 4, Schf. ' Hitop. i. .44- ' if,'?TtloT 

- Hitop. i. .48. • Erpen. ad. .3. '« Dutch pr. " J er. Taylor, 

Jacula prudent. " Mun Moy, fab. 50. 



[v. l6, 17 

For Meng-tsze says well : " Sometimes you may give ; at 
other times giving would be inexpedient ; for giving might 
injure benevolence."' "But let every man dip in his own 
waters."* "Then live," says Avveyar, "in a house with one 
water"' [cistern, spring or well. One must have travelled in 
hot countries to appreciate the full value of water, and also 
the full meaning of many passages of Scripture. A well, a 
spring, or even a cistern, ranks among the most valuable heir- 
looms ; and the man who builds a tank is reckoned a public 
benefactor.] " There is nectar [ambrosia] in the waters ; in 
the waters are healing properties [medicinal herbs] ; therefore, 
O ye priests, be loud in your praises of them."* " We praise 
the good waters created by Ahura Mazda,"* "the zaothra 
[holy water, for ceremonies] wrought out of that good water;"' 
"and I praise Ahura Mazda for having created the waters," 
&c, and so on repeatedly. 

" ApUTTOV lifV vSlop, ' 

"Water is best, after all," so says Pindar ;^ and Ovid — 

"Quo plus sunt potae, plus sitiuntur aquae."' 
" Like as a cistern gathers waters to water a thirsty land withal, 
so will the Lord also gather His good blessing to refresh thy 
fainting soul."* [As regards the imagery of this verse, parallel 
passages, which I need not quote, will occur to any one at all 
read in Persian and other Eastern poets.] 

16 Let thy fountains be dispersed abroad, and rivers 
of waters in the streets. 

1 7 Let them be only thine own, and not strangers' 

with thee. 

ni3fTi3, lit. 'in large places ;' not 'streets.' LXX. «is — 7rXaT«os. 
It seems to be an allusion to the way of watering meadows, and to the 
growth of a family. 

' Hea Meng, viii. 23. • Telug. pr. ' Kondreiv. 51. • Rig. V. 
i. skta. xxiil. 19. ' Yagna, xvii. 21, 70. • Id. xxii. 5, 17, xxv. 5, 6, 

xxxvii. I. ' 01. i. I. ' Fast. i. 215. » Mishle As. i. i, 18. 

V. 18, 19] 



"Let thy fountains," &c. "May you prosper," say the 
Tamils, " like the banyan-tree, that shoots forth its supporting 
roots ; and may you spread abroad your own roots like the 
aruga-grass, and live among friends like the slender bamboo."' 
" Propitiate the gods at dawn and at even, with libations and 
sacrifices," says Hesiod, "that they may be favourable to thee, 
and thou buy the lot of others, and not they thine own."* 
" For a man takes more pleasure in one [qab] measure his 
own, than in nine measures belonging to others."" "As the 
child a mother does not bring forth is not her own, so what is 
not one's own to wear, is no garment."* " And learning [arts, 
knowledge] which is in books, like money in other hands, 
when the want of either arises, it is neither the kind of know- 
ledge nor the sort of money one requires."' " He, also, who 
mounts a hired horse [or one lent him] soon comes down from 
it."* " Let every man see to have a chunam and betel-box of 
his own, and not another's."' [Carried about, as formerly a 
snuff-box, to chew occasionally chunam and betel-leaf] 

18 Let thy fountain be blessed: and rejoice with 
the wife of thy youth. 

19 Let her be as the loving hind and pleasant roe ; 
let her breasts satisfy thee at all times ; and be thou 
ravished always with her love. 

" Let thy fountain': &c. " Let thy lot be blessed, and have 
a good eye and a contented soul."" " Bide thy time," says 
Hesiod. " Everything in season is always best. Arrived at 
manhood, at about thirty, not much more or less, take to thy- 
self a wife, a maid [Js k tfi^o. Kt^vh. 8c8d!^D«. »" tea<=h her good 
habits], in the fifth year from her being marriageable ; looking 
well to thy circumstances, lest thou be a laughing-stock to 
thy neighbours. No greater boon to a man than a good wife ; 

• ' Hes. J. .. ^. 338. » Khar. Pen. i. 47- \T'lug. pr- 
» Lokaniti, 29. • Osmanl. pr. ' Nitimala, .u. .3. . Der. ere. 

Sutta, iii. 4- 




[v. 1 8, 19 

no greater calamity than a bad one."' "A horse made; a 
wife to make."* "A child from early age [to form], a wife 
from the beginning," say the Ozbegs.' " Take not to thyself 
for wife the daughter of a bad mother, neither go into a house 
with a bad door."* " De.bon plan plante ta vigne ; de bonne 
m^re prends la fille."' 

" Of the seven kinds of wives, the one best is she who, 
though her husband's wife, yet is to him like a sister. From 
her feeling of modesty she will not use words that are not 
proper [good] ; she will neither laugh nor smile in presence 
of her husband ; she will see that her dress is not carelessly 
put on ; that his food is well done ; and she will behave with 
politeness and courtesy even in her bed-chamber."* "If 
the married life possesses both love and virtue," says Tiruval- 
luvar, " that which is its duty becomes its reward." " The mar- 
ried state is rightly called virtue [virtuous] ; the other state 
[celibacy] is also good, if those who profess it do not give 
others occasion to complain of their vices." " He who in this 
world receives duly merited praise for his domestic virtues, 
will in the world to come rank among the gods of heaven."' 

"If thou art wise," says Ptah-hotep to his son, "look well 
after thy house, and love thy wife according to knowledge, 
nourishing her body, and dressing her as she requires, with 
her perfumes, as long as thou livest. It is worthy of thee 
as her lord. Kind treatment does more than sternness, and 
encourages her to do her household work,"' &c. "Take to 
thyself a young wife," says Ani ; "she will give thee a son like 
thee."* " Every man who has not got a wife is not a man, 
for it is written, ' He created them male and female.'"" " But 
all who take to other women [than their wife] only dig up 
evil."" "A man without a wife is without blessing or good."** 

• HesioH, *. K. 1). 692. ' Eng. pr. » Ozbeg pr. * Altai pr. 

» Fr. pr. * Dhammath. V. 11. ' Cural, v. 45, 49, 50. ' Pap. Pr. c. xxi. 

• Ani, xvi. I, 3. '" R. Eleazar in Jebamoth millin, 680. " Qiddush. 
millin, 584. " R. Khanil. Jebam. 62, id. 63, M. S. 

V. 18, 19] 




" It is as if he had shed blood." " All that comes from virtiie 
is agreeable (or charming),all else is the contrary and blameablto ; 
What is becoming to do, is virtuous ; what one ought to 
avoid, is vice."' 

" Fresh butter, new milk and rice, fresh meat, a young wife, 
the shade of a tree, and a warm bath — these six add to one's 
life.'" " But one of the ten openings to decay is, when a mart 
is long past his youth, to marry a young girl."' "An old 
man who is infirm, and poor also, with a young wife, is indeed 
a pitiable sight."* " For a young wife is captivated with love."* 
" But," say the Arabs, " it is a shame for a man with grey 
hairs to marry."* "I require," says the Parsee priest, "a 
young man with a good mind, who speaks well, who is clever 
at his work. I demand one who says his prayers, and who 
has married his next of kin"' [according to Parsee custom]. 
" To take pleasure in other people's qualities [virtues], to be 
earnest in the pursuit of wisdom, and fondness for one's wife, 
are pure qualities which are honoured by every one in those 
who have them."* 

"There is a compensation for everything, except for the 
wife of one's youth. The only one to give a man refresh- 
ment of mind [or spirit]."' " Woman is a lump [of clay], and 
she strikes no covenant but with him who makes her into a 
vase."'* "And a woman dies only to her husband, as a husband 
dies only to his wife" [the loss is to each as to no one else]." 

" But life is like the tossing of the waves, and how many 
days do the favours of youth last ? Riches are like a thought, 
and all enjoyment is passing. Therefore, O ye good men, 
give your thoughts to the study of Brahml" All pleasures 
are like high waves, unstable and moving to and fro ; our 
days are few, and the happiness of youth rests on ' palpitations 

« Cural, 39, 40. » Varar. 63; Chanak. vii. 18. ' Parabhava, s. loth. 
' Vararuchi nava R. 6. » Id. ibid. 1. « Socin. Ar. pr. ' Vispered, 
iii. 18. » Varar. sapta R. i. » Sanhedr. B. FI. «» Id. ibid. 

"Id. ibid. " Vairagya shat. 37. 

T 2 



[v. 1 8, 19 

of the heart.'* All enjoyment is like lightning, hidden in the 
cloud, flitting and for an instant only ; life is like a drop of 
water scattered by the wind ; the prerogatives of youth, falsely 
said to be the [support] strength of the body, are inconstant. 
O ye intelligent men, centre your thoughts on the understand- 
ing which is attainable by devotion.'" " Say then, O ye men, 
that the happiness of this world [of revolutions, 'sansara'] is 
little enough." " Decay stands there like a tiger, threatening 
all round ; and diseases, like foes, are ready to pounce upon 
the body ; life ebbs out like water oozing from a broken jar ; 
and yet men will only follow that which is after their own 
heart. Is it not wonderful ?"* 

" In giving a daughter in marriage, a father," say the Chinese, 
"should give her to a man superior to her in rank. So that 
the service that wife renders to her husband will be both 
respectful and careful. But when a man takes to himself a 
wife, let him choose one inferior in rank to his own family ; 
for in that case his wife will pay proper respect to her father 
and mother-in-law."* "According to Prahlada, however, as 
many connections a man makes pleasant to himself, so many 
thorns of sorrow does he dig into his heart."* "Yet according 
to sayings of old," said Sultan Djuhari to his queen Lila Sari, 
" the wife to be chosen should be comely, wise in word and 
deed, and be devoted to her husband, unto the funeral-pile."* 
"She should be of middle height, pleasing, and of loving 

"Let the Brahman," says Manu, "always be fond of his 
wife alone." "When the husband is pleased with his wife, 
and the wife is pleased with her husband, everything goes well 
with the family, and the prosperity of it is assured."' "The 
son of Atreus has a consort he likes ; let him be satisfied. 
Are the Atreidse the only men who love their wives ? But 

> Valragya shat. 35. ' Id. 36. ' Id. 38, 39. « Hien wen 

shoo, 121. ' Vishnu P. i. 17, 38. • S. Bidasari, iii. iJ. ' Kawi 

Nili sh. ' Manu S. iii. 45, 60. 

V. 20, 21] 



every good and sensible man loves his wife and cares for her, 
as I do for mine," said Achilles.* " The dames Mou-sai and 
Sei-si had an elegant figure; the one smiled artfully, the 
other had a graceful laugh, that beautified their countenance."* 
" The father wishes to give his daughter in marriage to a man 
accomplished in learning ; the mother, to a rich one ; the 
family, to a good one ; but the girl herself wishes to get a 
handsome one," say the Tamils." " But one of a good family, 
even if he were clad in matting," say the Arabs.* 

But here is the other side. " The fool," said Arishtanemi 
[in Bhishma's story], " who is entangled in the toils of love 
can never gain final emancipation. But thou, knowing the 
things that are profitable to life, go thou forth, free and happily ; 
and at the proper time, after due provision made for thy 
belongings, forsake thy wife, young and fond of her children," 
&c.' [Much else, that I will not quote, is found in the Qoran, 
Khair Nameh, and other Mahomedan writings. And as regards 
early marriage, as it is practised in India, " it is forbidden [in 
the Law] to a man to betroth his daughter while she is yet 

20 And why wilt thou, my son, be ravished with a 
strange woman, and embrace the bosom of a stranger ? 

2 1 For the ways of man are before the eyes of the 

Lord, and he pondereth all his goings. 

n^tjJri, V. 19, 20, lit. 'wander, go astray, be lost,' after the manner 
of a drunken man. Rabbi S. Yarchi quotes another interpretation, 
taking nauJ in its other sense of ' increasing, multiplying,' &c. Rab. 
pDV ; and the LXX. /n^ jroXvs urOi, seems to understand it thus. 
But the above rendering is best. Ar. ' embrace.' 

"And why wilt thou," &c. " It is like embracing a corpse." ^ 
" Even if a snake had a gem in its head, what wise man would 

' II. (. 336, and Nalopakh. v. 93. 
' Nidivempa. 30. * See. Ar. pr. 

' Gun den s. mon. 937. 
» Maha Bh. Shanti P. 10,621 

• Qiddushin millin, 174. 

Cural, 913. 



[v. 20, 21 

press it close to his bosom ?"* "Take my advice," said Odin 
to Loddfafnir, " for it will profit thee. Thou shalt not [ska- 
lattu] sleep on the bosom of a knowing woman [or enchantress] 
so that she lock thee in her arms [limbs]. She will make thee 
disregard the sayings of the counsel-chamber and of the prince; 
thou wilt renounce food and human joys, and sleep full of 
care. Take my advice, Loddfafnir, for thou shalt profit there- 
by. Never entice another man's wife into close intercourse."* 
" Speme voluptates : nocet emta dolore voluptas."' 

"Chastity," say the Arabs, "is a host not easily routed."* 
"Avoid evil," said Sigrdrifa to Sigurd ; "entice thou neither a 
maiden nor another man's wife, nor incite them to do evil."' 
" Hold no sinful intercourse [adultery, &c.] with women."' 
" Live with thine own wife," says one of them.'' "At the 
western gate there are clouds of women ; but what is that to 
me ? My wife, with her white dress and green veil, is pleasant 
enough for me"* [the Japanese Comm. adds, ' and poor']. [The 
Ozbegs have the same expression as the Hebrews. With them, 
'yat' is 'strange,' and 'yataligh' is 'a strange woman, a 
mistress.'] " Mustapha saw in hell women hanging from a 
hook over the fire. Who were they? said he. And the 
angel answered : These are women of thy people, who, having 
got children in adultery, said to their husbands : ' These chil- 
dren are your own.' By marriage, God makes the woman's 
person the man's own, and the man's person the woman's 
own. And such is the punishment of those who break that 

As to children born in adultery — that is, not in wedlock — 
"Most bastards," says the Talmud, "are crafty or violent"** 
"Jamais batard ne fit bien."" "He, then, is wise who looks 
upon another man's wife as upon his mother."'^ "For I swear 

' Sain iigh. fol. 28. ' Havamal, 114, 15, 16. 

* Meid. Ar. pr. ' Sigrdrif. 32. • Niti shat. 70. 

' Hor. Ep. i. 2. 
' Avveyar Atthi 
Sudi, 93. • She King, bk. vii. ode 19. • Miradj Nam. iii. 

" Qiddushin, iv. II, M. S. " Ft. pr. " Chanak. shat. 3. 

20, 21] 



unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy and Great One, that ell your; 
evil deeds are revealed in heaven, and that not one of your acts- 
of oppression is either hidden or covered. And do not imagine ^ 
in your minds, nor yet say in your hearts, that any sin is 
neither known nor seen. It is written down day by day in 
heaven before the Most High. Know, therefore, that all the 
oppression and wickedness ye have committed is and shall be 
written down every day until the day of your judgment [the 
Flood]."* "Men endued with wisdom inquire about the man- 
sions yonder [above]. Some, O Mazda, inquire openly ; some 
in secret, who try to cleanse themselves of small sins by com- 
mitting greater ones. But thou, O Lord, seest it all with thy 
two eyes."'' " Both Zeus and Apollo, mind you, are quick of 
perception, and know all that men do."' "And actions cleave 
to those who do them."* 

" Therefore," says Confucius, " worship the spirits [shin] as 
if they stood before thee ; worship them as if they were pre- 
sent to thee."' "For unless I give myself wholly to my 
worship, it is as if I did not worship at all."' "All things are 
severally determined. While floating through life, we trouble 
ourselves in vain. Nothing happens through the schemes of 
man. Our whole life is arranged by an order from Heaven," 
say the Chinese.'' " Pious people believe that all things are 
ordered by God's providence."* "A bird is not lost without 
Heaven's will, much less a man."' " Nothing comes by chance ; 
but everything comes by the intention of the Intending One."** 
"All that concerns us is ordered from Heaven ; not half a dot 
comes from man."" 

"What a man says within himself, Heaven hears it like 
thunder; and what is done in the dark chamber, and deep 
down in the heart. Heaven, the Spirit's [divine] Eye, sees like 

» Bk. Enoch, xcviii. 6. « Yagna, xxxi. 12, 13. ' Soph. CEdip. 

Tyr. 498. * Tarn. pr. 3417. ' Shang-L. iii. 12. * Ibid. 

» Hien w. shoo, 69. ' Metzia B. Fl. » Talmud Hier B. Fl. 

'0 R. D. Kimchi, Ps. 104, B. Fl. " Chin. pr. P. 6. 



[v. 22 

lightning. But Grandfather Heaven bears with man, not man 
with Heaven,"* says Heuen-ti-chin. "The people are in dis- 
tress, and Heaven looks upon it 'with eyes half open' [mung]. 
Yet He can order everything, and there is no one He cannot 
overcome. Shang-Te is imperial ; who can say that he hates 
[disdains or overlooks] anyone?"* [Choo-he quotes Ching- 
tszc, who here says that " Shang-Te is the [shin] god or 
spirit of Heaven, who as to substance [appearance] is called 
' Heaven ;' and as regards sovereignty [or as being Lord] is 
called 'Te,' supreme." [Expressions of this kind show clearly 
to every unprejudiced mind that Shang-Te is the proper equi- 
valent for ' God ' in Chinese.] 

" The sun, moon and stars," says Vishnu Sarma, " heaven 
and earth, waters, the heart itself and death, day and night, 
the morning and evening twilights, and virtue, know the con- 
duct of men."' "The good you do," said Mahomet, "you will 
find with God ; for God looks upon what you do."* At the 
same time, " No one," says Theognis, " who is guilty of fraud 
or of other crimes, aOavdrovs (\a9e, does it unseen of the im- 
mortal gods."* "Stand in awe of the anger of Heaven, and 
venture not on a gay and reckless life. Fear the punishments 
[reverses] of Heaven, and walk not in thine own way. Clear 
Heaven is called bright. He goes with thee whithersoever thou 
goest. He is a pure [clear] Spirit ; if thou [art satisfied] hast 
a good conscience, he communes with thee." "When thou 
art at home [in thy house], take heed not to be ashamed in 
thy room, or closet. Say not, ' It will not come out [appear] ; 
no one will tell.' The Spirit [shin] will appear suddenly and 
be present. Who can think or tell when ? And can he be 
deceived ?"* 

22 His own iniquities shall take the wicked himself, 
and he shall be holden with the cords of his sins. 

' Ming Sin P. K. c. 2. ' She King, bk. iv. od. 8. * Hitop. li. i lo. 
* Qoran, sur. ii. 104. ' Theognis, 145. « She King, vol. iv. 

bk. ii. od. 10. 

V. 22] 



" His own iniquities," &c. "And Enoch, passing by, said to 
Azazel : Thou shalt have no peace ; a heavy judgment has 
just gone forth against thee. Thou shalt be bound ; and thou 
shalt have no pity nor mercy shown thee, because thou hast 
taught violence, and because of all the acts of blasphemy, of 
oppression and of sin, which thou hast made known to the 
sons of men."» Babrias, in his fable of the Weasel, makes 
it speak thus to the man who had caught it by artifice, and 
who was about to throttle it : " Poor return this for all the 
good I did thee in killing lizards and mice !" " True," said the 
man, " but what about all the birds thou hast strangled, doing 
more harm than good ?"" Sophos," too, and Syntipa, have 
the fable of the monkey that was itself caught in the net it 
tried to spread for others. 

"As flies," says Vemana, " are drawn to honey by their love 
for it, and when once caught cannot get out, being intoxicated 
by it, so also a man who is sunk in a multitude of passions 
[or follies] cannot get out of them."* " For there is no remedy 
for what a man does to himself."* "And what are a man's 
fetters? His folly [or stupidity] and ignorance."' "For we 
are [by nature] in the [dark house] prison of original sin."» 
"Sin committed by a man shall be expiated by himself; 
whereas sin not committed by him will be recompensed to 
him. The righteous and the wicked severally ; one man does 
not cleanse (or purify) another."^ What man ever came to 
good who fell among wicked people?'" "A wicked man has 
another wicked one to grind for him."" "And the coiled cen- 
tipede entangles [embraces] its tail in its own coils."" 

" He who, meeting a bad man, does not sever himself from 
him, is like a dog tied by the neck to a stake, going round it. 
But' he who never leaves off holding intercourse with a good 

• Bk. Enoch, xiii. I, 2. » Babrias, fab. 27, fab. 26. » Fab. 49- 

♦ Vemana, ii. 100. ' Pers. pr. • Phreng wa, 36. ' Thar gyan. fo'- '6. 
« Dhammap. Attavag. 9- » Vararuchi, shad R. 2. Chin pr. 

" Javan pr. 



[v. 23 

one, is like a man sailing on the sea in a large ship."* " The 
fool," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, " who is in no distress for 
the sin he has already committed, continues in it, and is 
destroyed in a deep, rough slough of lime."« "For a man is 
drawn by a light sin into a heavy one, until he perishes out of 
the world."' " There are ten properties belonging to vice," say 
the Burmese: "(i) greed, (2) fault, (3) folly, (4) fury, (5) false 
opinion, (6) doubt, (7) want of respect, (8) dissipation, (9) 
shamelessness, (10) indifference to sin."* 

" Brother, do not display the qualities of two-footed brutes. 
Four-footed ones are led with a cord ; but these [gnaw through 
the cord] destroy the qualities that do not improve them"* 
[with a play on ' guna,' rope and quality]. " When an evil- 
intentioned man acts in his own interest, he thinks within 
himself: ' Here is a find for me.' The old dog who swallows 
the blood of his own palate, relishes it and says : ' This is the 
juice of a marrow-bone.'"' "For the wickedness of a man is 
wrought by his own actions."^ And " every one who is devoid 
of virtue," said the Brahman Sandutscha, " is not himself, has 
no master."' 

23 He shall die without instruction ; and in the 
greatness of his folly he shall go astray. 

"^O TH?, ' without,' that is, ' from want of correction,' which he 
would not receive. Arab. ' from want of instnictioa' 

" He shall die" &c. " The sinner sorrows here below and 
hereafter also ; in both places he grieves. He grieves, he 
sorrows, when he sees the foulness of his own deeds."* "Al- 
though such knowledge as the fool possesses never is of any 
use to him (or comes to anything), it nevertheless ruins his 
prospects (or happiness), breaking his head."'" " Men of the 

» Doji kiyo. • Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1481. ' Ep. Lod. 1489. 

* Putsha Pag. Q. 461. ' Kobitamrit, 15. • Sain iighes, fol. 27. 

' Mainyo i kh. xxxviii. 6. • Dsang-Lun, c. i. fol. 8. • Dhammap. 

Yamak. 15. " Id. ibid. 13. 

V. 23} 



world [of this earth] trust in themselves, and will Hot hearken 
to virtue. But Yama's [Death's] messengers come and fill 
them with terror, rushing upon them to destroy them. Alas ! 
how shall they escape?"' "Weep not for the dead," say the 
Osmanlis, "but weep for the fools."' " For," say the Chinese, 
" there are but few who, at home, have not a father and elder 
brother, and abroad, careful teachers and friends, to perfect 
themselves if they will."' 

"A son," says Ptah-hotep, " who is obstinate and disobedient, 
comes to no good [does nothing] ; he sees knowledge in igno- 
rance, and virtues in vices ; he commits all manner of wicked 
actions ; they appear [in him] every day ; his life is [in] death, 
and his bread is in lies ; [the elders] his betters know him to 
be as dying day by day ; and he wanders astray in his paths 
through the multitude of sins he commits every day."* " When 
one is led away violently by former [evil] deeds, he is wont to 
wander and go astray far away [in sin]."' "For error is [in- 
creases] ever more and more," say the Rabbis."' "And the fool 
shall go astray, like a spider, in his wanderings."' " He is like 
the bat, that makes light darkness [sleeps by day], and dark- 
ness light [flies at night].'" " Understanding is a man's friend ; 
but folly is his enemy."* 

" A debt of gold," say the Malays, " may be paid, but a debt 
of wisdom smells of death." And " a lost wife may be sought 
for, but lost wisdom makes an unfortunate man [body]."" 
"Those Brahmans are wise," said the rich man's daughter, 
"but we poor Put'hujans [who perform the duties of priests of 
Buddha], are by nature slaves to covetousness, anger and folly. 
The ear hears, and induces the eye to look, and then desire 
rises in the heart. And when wisdom is lost from the mind 
(or heart), a man commits evil deeds that drown him in end- 

* Vemana, ii. 158. 
' Pap. Pr. c. xli. 
' Mishle As. vi. 5. 
'" Malay pr. 

' Osm. pr. 
' Legs par b. p. 282. 
« Id. ibid. 21. 

' Hien w. shoo, 52. 

" B. Fl. p. 92. 

»■ Mifkh. Pen. B. Fl. 



[v. 23 

less transmigrations."' "The fool who does foolish things 
does not repent of them, foolish (or evil-minded) as he is ; but 
he is consumed as by fire through his own actions.'" "Four 
are the signs (or tokens) of misfortune. Folly and sloth, 
destitution and meanness [unmanliness], all four. But he who 
is given to the service of God is, without doubt, among the 
blessed ones."* " It is not well that a fool should be strong, 
or he will take by force. And when his body is destroyed, he 
shall perish in hell."* 

' Thoo Dhamma Tsari, story 5. 
' Pend i Attar, xiv. * Lokaniti, 70. 

• Dhammap. Dandavag. 136. 

vi. I, 2] 




/ Against suretyship, 6 idleness, ii and mischievousness. 16 Seven things 
hateful to God. 30 The blessings of obedience. 3S ^'^ mischiefs of 

TV yT Y son, if thou be surety for thy friend, ^thou hast 
stricken thy hand with a stranger, 
2 Thou art snared with the words of thy mouth, 
thou art taken with the words of thy mouth. 

"My son, if thou" &c. "Believe not everybody," says 
Pittacus of Mitylene ; " tyyvi;, to/jo 8' on;, pledge thyself, and 
trouble is at hand."' "And be not a horse to thy friends, lest 
thou fall, nor a dog either," says Abu Ubeid.' " Avoid contracts ; 
they are the source of enmity (or of estrangement)."* "Woe 
be to him who is surety for a stranger," say the Welsh.* " My 
advice to thee," said Sigrdrifa to Sigurd, " is to swear no oath 
but what is certain and true. The threads of the Parcae 
[grimmar sfmar] follow a broken pledge (or faith)."' "For a 
promise is the cause of being bound by it."' "By which a 
man is bound," say the Osmanlis, "as a beast with a halter."^ 

" Yield anything to prince or parent, save thine own free- 
dom," says Pythagoras.* " For he who is asked," says Ali, " is 
free until he has promised." " When a man is asked for any- 
thing, he is free to grant it or not, at once or by-and-by, so 
long as he does not promise ; but when he has made a pro- 
mise, the fulfilment of it is incumbent on him as a matter of 

• Pittac. Sept Sap. 

• Welsh pr. ' Brynhild. xxiii 

• Pythag. 13, ed. G. 

» A. Ubeid, 194. 

, .-,,. ' E. Medin. 73. 

• Legs par b. p. 214. ' Osm. pr 



[vi. I, 2 

honour and duty," says the Arabic paraphrase. And the 
Persian : " A man who is asked, so long as he does not pro- 
mise, and has not pledged his word, is still a free man, and 
holds in hand the snaffle of choice [to grant or not] and the 
rein of giving [or not the promise] ; if he will, he does it ; if not, 
he withholds it But when he has given a promise, and has 
pledged his word, he is bound to the fulfilment of his promise, 
and in the eyes [face] of men, the reins of choice and of grant- 
ing [the request] are fallen from his hands." 

" But there is another way of looking at it. It is this. A 
man who is asked, so long as he does not promise, and does 
not pledge his word, he who begs of him considers him free, 
and treats him as such. But when once he has promised and 
pledged his word, the man who made the request is uncertain 
as to his liberty [how he will use it], and is in suspense as to 
the use he will make of it. If he fulfils his promise, he is said 
to be free and unfettered ; but if he does not fulfil it, the man 
who begged says of him : He is not free but bound."> "Chi 
promette per altri," say the Italians, "paga per se :" "he who 
promises through others, pays for (or through) himself"' 
"Anyhow, he that is surety for thee," say the Rabbis, "needs 
another for himself"' 

"A false step may be recovered, but a stumble in words 
cannot be repaired."* "Thus was I caught by such a slip, 
though inclined to silence, because I could not put my finger 
on the word 'silence.'"* "And so it often happens that one's 
merit or fault brings trouble to the person. It is for its sweet 
voice that the parrot is shut up in a cage."* " Make an agree- 
ment with a good man ; a low one is not savoury."' "And 
remember that ' No' is an oath [that binds thee], and that so 
is ' Yes,'" says Rabbi Eliezer.* " I am bound with the bond 
of religion," said Dasaratha in despair, " to Kaikeya, and my 

» Pers. paraphr. ad. I. • Ital pr. ' Talm. Succa, B. FI. 

* Hill prov. (Burm.), 147. " Rishtah i juw. p. 47. « Subha Bil. 75. 
' V. Safasai, 124. » Shebuoth, 36, M. S. 

vi. 3] 



understanding is gone."* [In one's intercourse with the world, 
the common saying, "No trust, no mistrust," sounds harsh; 
yet it gives prudent advice.] " Place no confidence in either 
friend or foe. For it often happens that a friend when angry 
does one great injury."* " Put not thy foot in it, by trusting 
any one, either by oath or agreement ; no, not even if he 
made the great Jupiter his surety," said Theognis.' 

3 Do this now, my son, and deliver thyself, when 

thou art come into the hand of thy friend ; go, humble 

thyself, and make sure thy friend. 

?I'«51 3rrp!\ D^nnn "if;?. ' Go, lay thyself prostrate [as if to be 
trodden upon], and [press, urge] insist on thy friends [to let thee oflf].' 
The LXX. give the paraphrase ijkcis yap <>$ y^eipas KaKiav Sia croi/ 
<t>tkov, ' thou art fallen into the hands of wicked men, through thy 
friend,' 'thou art not to be let off; urge (or exhort) thy friend whom 
thou hast bailed.' And Arab.: 'Go, be earnest and insist on thy 
friend ;' neither of which is clear. But inasmuch as "Si as well as 'saheb' 
means ' a companion, fellow, any one but one's self,' 'ISHi v. i, refers 
probably to the ' friend' who is bailed, and T51, v. 3, to the creditor 
into whose hand (or snare) the surety has fallen. Then 1^51, which 
is plural, may refer to the surety's friends, whose help he is to solicit 
on his own behalf, in the way of money to pay the bail, or of inter- 
cession with the creditor to let him off. 

" Do this now" &c. "If you walk in company with another 
man, yet be not surety for him."* " For money passed iijto 
other hands, like a plan (or secret) in possession of women, is 
of no avail."' "And of what avail is an abundance of words 
[in excuse] of offence, from imputation, or from false report?" 
say the Arabs.* Agamemnon's way, however, is best. " Come 
now, Ulysses ; we shall make it all right by-and-by ; and if 
we have now said aught for which we are sorry, let the gods 
bring it to naught."' 

" For after all, venerable Nestor, if I was led astray by dis- 

' Ramay. ii. xiv. 24. ' Lokaniti, 82. ' Theogn. 277. * Tam. pr. 
« Chanak. 94. • El Nawab. 14. ' II. f. 363. 



[vi. 4. 5 

mal thoughts, I am ready to make satisfaction and to pay the 
utmost penalty."' "In proportion," says Manu, "that a man 
confesses a fault he has committed, is he released from that 
sin, as a snake is from its slough."' "And," says Ibn Nobata, 
"if thou art weaker than thine adversary, go round about 
him, and talk him over. For water, though opposed to fire, 
will but boil when put upon it ; but when poured upon it, will 
by its nature put it out And so they destroy each other."* 

4 Give not sleep to thine eyes, nor slumber to thine 

5 Deliver thyself as a roe from the hand of the 
Jiunter, and as a bird from the hand of the fowler. 

" Give not sleep" &c. " Lose no time. For time drinks up 
the [juice, 'rasam'] merit of a noble act, and of a deed that 
should be done at once and is delayed."* "No thoughtless 
man attains to eminence. But see the fruit (or result) of him 
who reflects. Behold, I am free from the toils of the hunter."* 
"Better a great deal, however, to be wounded, than to be 
security for any one," say the Cingalese.^ " The roe, it is true, 
escapes from the snare, but the nature (or object) of the snare 
is not to let it go."' However, in this case, " that which has 
got out of the hand does not return to it."' " Be then a wild 
ass when hunters are after him."" " For life is only so far 
profitable (or enjoyable) as it is spent in freedom and inde- 
pendence. If those who are slaves of others are said to live, 
who then are the dead?"*" "Therefore, having contracted a 
debt, free thyself by paying it ;"»i "like a hart (or roe) fleeing 
from his [shading] hiding-place."" 

"As a bird from tlu snared Vartan has two fables, one of 
• The Fox and the Partridge,' and another of ' The Fox and 

1 II ( ,,g • Manu S. xi. 227. ' Eth. Theal. 154. 

« Hitop ii. fab. 4- ' Vattaka jat. p. 435- ' Athitha W. D. p. 18. 

' Malay pr. ' Osman pr. » A. Ubeid. 12. '» Hitop. 11. 20. 

" Nilimala, bk. 2. " El ahmar and Abu Zaid. 

vi. 6—8] 



the Sparrow,' the moral of which is, "Be not ensnared by 

specious or senseless words."' "Be not caught as a bird by 

the fowler."* " This world," says the Buddhist, " is living in 

blindness ; but few in it see clearly. Few, few rise from it to 

heaven, like birds escaped from the net."' " Be up, then, and 

on the watch. Cherish a truthful mind ; for hardly shalt thou 

deliver thyself from this world, like an elephant from a slough."* 

" Free thyself, then, as through a sieve, from the net of sinful 

lusts."' In all such contracts, however, as Plautus says : 

" Si quis mutuum quid dederit, fit pro proprio perditum. 
Quum jam repetas, inimicum amicum beneficio invenis tuo. 
Si mage exigere cupias, duarum rerum exoritur optio : 
Vel illud quod credideris perdas, vel ilium amicum amiseris." 

"If one lends anything to another, it is as good as lost to him. 
If he claims it, he makes an enemy of his friend through his 
own kindness. If he presses him for payment, then of two 
things one : either he will lose what he had lent, or he will 
lose his friend."' " If you lend, lend hoping for nothing 
again."' But rather give and be free. 

6 Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; consider her ways, 
and be wise : 

7 Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, 

8 Provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth 
her food in the harvest. 

" Go to tite ant" &c. The LXX. add the following words 
to the original Hebrew of v. 8, ij wopevOr^n irpus t^v fii\.ia-<rav k.t.X.., 
" or go thou to the bee, and learn how busy she is, and how 
praiseworthy is her work, whose labours both kings and com- 
mon people use for health. She is desired by all and illus- 
trious ; and although weak as regards strength, she has been 
and is singled out for her doing honour to wisdom." 

" Vartan, fab. 12 and 13. ' Rig. V. ii. skta. xxix. 5. ' Dhammap. 
Lokavag. 8. * Id. Nagavag. 8. ' Rgya-tcher, iv. p. 41, 

• Trinum. act iv. sc. 3. ' S. Luke vi. 35. 




[vi. 6—8 

This paragraph forms the text of one of S. Basil's Homilies;' 
it is also quoted by Clement of Alexandria ;' by S. Cyril of 
Jerusalem ;' in the Apostolic Constitutions ;* in the same in 
Syriac ;' in the Coptic* and Armenian versions ;'' and in 'The 
Teaching of the Fathers,' or Apostolic Constitutions in Ethio- 
pic, that run as follows : " Turn to the ant, O sluggard, and 
imitate what thou seest of her ways, and learn wisdom from 
it. For she, having no field, no one to make her work and 
no master, prepares her food in the summer, and labours hard 
in the harvest. Or go to the bee, and learn how she labours, 
and how good is her work. Both kings and people take of 
her work for health ; she is desired .and honoured by all, 
although of little strength. She has become entitled to con- 
sideration, by the honour she pays to wisdom. How long, O 
thou sluggard, wilt thou sleep?"* 

Some men have tried to impugn the truth of this eighth 
verse, declaring that because, in England, as in colder latitudes, 
ants do not gather stores of grain in summer, therefore the 
statement that other than English ants do so elsewhere, is not 
to be believed. But like many such attempts to throw discredit 
on Holy Scripture, better knowledge of facts only proves that 
it is ' the Scripture of truth.' To the fund of learning found in 
'Bocharti Hierozoicon' on this subject, on which he quotes 
classical and other authorities to show that in warmer climes 
ants " do gather their food in the harvest," we may add the 
following. .(Elian,* like Herodotus, Lucian,'" Plutarch, Niclas" 
and others, mentions the fabled ants of India, frequently met 
with in Indian writings, that gathered stores of gold, watched 
over by snakes or dragons ; a legend that still survives in the 
common opinion that white-ant hills are the usual abode of 
some snake or other. 

' Monum. Eccl. Graec vol. i. ed. Cotel. and S. Basilii, opp. ed. Migne. 

• Strom, i. p. 280. ' Cat. ix. * Lib. ii. c. Ixiii. ' c. xiii. 

• Ed. Rome, 1886. ' Ed. Venice, 1816. » c. xi. p. 104, ed. P. 

• Lib. xvi. 15. " Ep. Saturn. 24. " Geop. ii. 29, xiii. 10. 

vi. 6—8] 



But as regards storing corn, ^iian says, "^luSairol tAs iavrw 
X'los opvTTov<riv, the ants of our country bore their own holes ; 
making a wall around with the soil thrown out in making 
the passages under ground. When going in companies for 
food to the standing corn, the youngest remain at the bottom 
of the corn, while [iJye/wVes] the leaders creep up to the top, and 
nip the grains off the ear, which they throw down to the crowd 
[Sij,iv] of ants below. These get the corn out of the chaff, 
and thus, without the trouble of threshing and winnowing, 
they gather their food from what men have tilled and sown. 
They use the chaff as coffins for their dead." And elsewhere :» 
" In summer, after harvest, while threshing goes on, ants come 
to the floor singly, choose the best grains of wheat and of 
barley, and go back to their holes with it the way they came. 
When brought hither [oJ ycwaioi], the noble (or thorough-bred) 
among them store it up carefully in the hole, boring every 
grain through the middle ; what falls of it is for their dinner, 
and the grain itself, thus made fruitless, is kept in store for 
food. So do the bettermost and the stewards among them ; 
and <f}v<rtm /jiv tvrvxvo-av, they have received this wisdom by 

" Some animals," says Aristotle,' " are woXitikol, live in com- 
munities, such as bees, cranes, &c. Of these, some are v<t>' ijytp5i/a, 
under a chief or leader ; others, like ants, are avap^a, are under 
no government, 'have no guide, overseer or ruler." 'Yet their 
activity is known of all, Kal rriv diroetaiv t^s Tpo<^^s koI ra/itttoi/, as 
well as their storing of food and their management.'"* 

" It would be impossible," says Plutarch,* " to describe fully 
the household management of ants, and it would be silly to 
omit it altogether ; for no being so small presents a picture of 
the best and greatest gifts, as if it were iv o-raydyt KaOapf: wd<rt,i 
dpfTrjs, the essence of every virtue in one clear drop. [Com- 
pare with this ' one drop of thrift, providence and persistent 

' Lib. ii. 25, vi. 50. 
• De Solert. Anim. 22. 

' De Anim. i. i, 25. 

U 2 

' Id. ix. 38. 



[vi. 6-8 

work,' the Chinese term for 'ant,' V,' pronounced as 'ee' in 
"sheep," and made up of 'insect, right or good, and I' — 'I am 
a good insect,' or ' an insect of innate goodness.'] The mani- 
fold passages of their holes are wonderful — in three store- 
chambers, for dwelling, for storing the food, and for burying 
their dead." 

In the Mishna we read of D''bo3n '>mn, of the holes of ants, 
/ivp/iTjKio, stored with corn, and "to whom they belong when 
found in harvest time;"' and elsewhere,' "that labtP D^bnan ""nin 
ra^'>nn ons rrnta, ant-stores that [pass] remain a night by the 
side of a sheaf liable to tithe, are also liable to it." Canon 
Tristram tells us, in his accurate and interesting work on the 
' Natural History of the Bible,'' that " there are three species of 
harvesting ants common in the countries around the Mediter- 
ranean, two Attas and one Pheidole" so called from her saving 
habits [(^€i8(»>A^, saving, thrifty housewife ; ort t* rSpts (rinpov 
iftaTai,* and also provident] ; thus prettily told in Latin : 

"— sicut 
Parvola, nam exemplo est, magni formica laboris 
Ore trahit quodcunque potest atque addit acervo, 
Quern struit, baud ignara ac non incauta futuri 
Quae, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum 
Non usquam prorepit et illis utitur ante 
Qusesitis sapiens" — ' 

" MvpfiixKOiv art irXouTos ad Ki\vTai fioytovTiav." 

" Veluti ingentem formicae farris acervum, 
Quum populant, hiemis memores, tectaque reponunt : 
It nigrum campis agmen praedamque per herbas 
Convectant calle angusto, pars grandia tradunt 
Obnixae frumenta humeris."' 

"Be thou an ant at leasing [harvesting] time," says Abu 
Ubeid.' " Learn of me," says the ant, " the merit (or power) 
of preparation [providence, getting ready], and the acquisition 
of abundance for the day to come."* " The field-cricket," say 

• Peah. c. iv. 1 1. 
« Hes. I. K ii. 723- 
^ Virg. ytneid. iv. 402. 

' Maaseroth, c. v. 7. ' p. 496. 

' Hor. Sat. i. i. • Theocr. Idyl. xvii. 107. 

' Pr. 30. • El Moqadessi, Alleg. 36. 

vi. 6—8] 



the Mandchus, "knows beforehand when the cold wind will 
blow ; but man knows not the day of his death."' " The ant," 
says Sadi, "brings together [stores up] in summer, that it 
may rest at peace in winter."' "Strength," say the Abys- 
sinnians, "belongs to the lion ; composure, to the bull ; to the 
pelican, wisdom ; skilful work, to the spider ; excellence of 
work, to the bee ; and to the ant, gathering up treasuries."* 
" Running hither and hither in wood and field gathering their 
food," say the Georgians.* " You see them," say the Cingalese, 
" near their [houses] ant-hills, carrying their food."' [In the 
'Ceylon Friend,'" there is an account of all the ants found in 
Ceylon, harvesting and others.] 

"Some insects die in winter," says El-Kazwini,^ "but others 
store up what may sufiice them for the winter, as do the bee 
and the ant. The ant builds itself wonderful storehouses 
under ground, and stores up food for two years as if it were 
to live, whereas the ant only lives one year.'' " Work," says 
[pseudo] Phocylides, "that thou mayest live by thine own 
labour ; for every idle man lives by stealth. Look at the ants, 
how they leave their holes under ground in search of their 
food as soon as the fields, shorn of their produce, begin to fill 
the threshing-floors. See how every one takes up its own 
burden of wheat or of barley recently threshed, Ik diptoi votI 
XC(/ia Popfiv <r<t>(Tipr]v trayovTe^, every one laying up in store 
its own food in summer against the coming winter, working 
unceasingly, indefatigable troop of little things. So also the 

Likewise in Syria and in Iran : "The ant gathers for itself 
provision in the summer," said Bardesanes to Avida, " that it 
may feed on it in the winter. So do all ants."' And in the 
Vendidad'" we read "that a man shall kill ten thousand ants 

' Mingh. dsi. 141. • Gulist. ch. vii. st. 19. ' Matsh. Phil. 53. 

' Bunebis kari, p. 278. » Cing. Read. bk. ii. ' Feb. 1877. 

' Ajaib, i. p. 444. * iroiVi vov9(t. 1 42— 1 59. ' Spicileg. Syr. 
ed. Cur. p. 7. " Farg. xiv. 14, 15. 



[vi. 6—8 

that steal the corn ;" while a woman under certain circum- 
stances " shall kill hurtful creatures and two hundred ants 
that steal the corn."* " So meritorious is it to kill ants on that 
account, that Viraf, when in hell, saw a man being boiled alive 
in a cauldron, with his right foot hanging outside. He asked 
what it meant. And Srosh answered : That man, while on 
earth, committed adultery and all manner of wickedness. But 
because that right foot killed frogs, ants, serpents, scorpions, 
and other hurtful beasts, it is not punished."* Then in the 
Bundehesh we are told "that the hedgehog is appointed to 
[fight] bring down ants that steal corn, as it is said. It intro- 
duces itself into a hole of ants and kills a thousand of them. 
When the corn-stealing ants go into the earth and make holes 
there, the hedgehog comes, disturbs those holes, and levels 
the earth in their place."' " But the way to prevent corn-steal- 
ing ants from getting at the heap of corn on the threshing- 
floor, is," says Niclas,* and before him Aristotle,* "to draw a 
circle around it with chalk." 

" Neu formica rapax populari semina possit.'" 

In the Bostan, Sadi tells us again " not to molest the ant 
that draws [steals] the grain ; for it has life, sweet life is hls."^ 
And lastly, there are Esop's fables of ' The Cricket and the 
Ant," of ' The Ants and the Cricket,'* re-told by Babrias,'* by 
Syntipa," by Sophos,'' by Avienus ;*' fables translated into 
every European and many Eastern languages, telling the 
same truth, which men believe in the fable, but discredit in 
the Word of God ! Strange perversion of man's reason ! 

We may add the Syrian witness to the three qualities of 
the ant " (i) Every ant works at the ingathering of corn for 
itself. (2) When they go to a field ready for harvest to gather 
corn, they smell the haulm, in order to ascertain whether it is 

• Farg. xvi. 28. * Arda Viraf, n. ch. Ix. ' Bundehesh, p. 47, 48. 

• Geop. ii. 29, xiii. 10. ' De Anim. iv. 8, 27. ' Colum. x. 322. 

» Bostan, ii. 13 st. » Fab. 165 and 84. » Fab. 167. '• Fab. 137. 
" Fab. 43- " Fab. 35. " Fab. 34. 

vi. 6—8] 



wheat or barley. If it is wheat, they creep up to the ear, and 
nip off the corn thereof; then they bite every grain in two, 
lest it should get moistened in winter, then germinate, and 
they die of hunger. For barley is food for cattle."* S. Epi- 
phanius says much the same in his Physiologus ;' as does 
the Ethiopic' And also these pretty lines of Ovid :* 

" Neve graves cuhis, Cerialia dona, cavete, 
Agmine laesuro depopulentur aves. 
Vos quoque, formicae, subjectis parcite granis, 
Post messem prsedie copia major erit." 

The ant is a favourite subject with sacred and profane 
writers, who each draw from it their own moral. As a sample 
of the former, S. Cyril of Jerusalem writes on this verse :» " Go 
to the ant, thou sluggard, and stir up thyself, seeing her ways, 
and be the wiser for it. For seeing her treasuring up food for 
herself in due season, imitate her, and treasure up for thyself 
fruits of good works for ages to come, koI irdX.iv' UapevdrjTi rphi 
TTiv ii(\i<T<Tav." And again : " Go to the bee and learn what 
a busy worker she is, how, flying about from flower to flower, 
she makes up honey for thine own use. So that thou also, 
going round the Holy Scriptures, mayest hold fast thine own 
salvation, and being filled with sacred lore, say: 'Oh, how 
sweet are thy words unto my throat ; yea, sweeter than honey 
unto my mouth.'"" 

Vartan also has a fable of ' The Insects, the Bee and the 
Ant,' evidently adapted to this eighth verse in the Armenian 
Bible. He says : " The insects came to the bee and to the 
ant in winter-time and said : Give us something to eat, for we 
are dying of hunger. But the bee and the ant replied : What 
were you doing in summer ? These answered : We took our 
ease under the thick foliage of the trees, and sped [lit. beat 
time] the traveller on his way with our sweet song. To this 
the bee and the ant replied : Then it is meet you should die of 

> Physiol. Syr. c. xiii. ' Vol. ii. c. 3. ' Physiol. Eth. ed. Pr. 

« Fastor. i. 683. ' Catech. ix. 13. " Ps. cxix. 103. 



[vi. 6 — 8 

hunger, and we ought not to show any pity for you. This 
fable shows that the foolish virgins [S. Matt, xxv.] come to 
beg, but that the wise ones do not give ; for then it is not 
time to show pity, but to do justice. We must now in this 
present life, which is summer, gather by wisdom and labour 
the spiritual meat, that in the day of judgment we may not 
die of hunger in hell."* 

Let us now hear the son of Brahma. " Let a man gather 
together virtue by degrees for the sake of having a companion 
in the next world, as the white ant makes her nest. For in 
the next life there will be neither father nor mother to keep 
him company ; nor yet his son, his servants, nor his friends ; 
his virtue alone shall stand by him. Man is born alone, and 
alone also disappears ; and alone also receives the reward of 
his good works ; but alone also that of his evil deeds. When 
he leaves his dead body on the ground, like a log of wood or 
a lump of clay, his friends turn away from him ; his virtue 
alone follows him. Let him, therefore, continually gather to- 
gether virtue by degrees, that he may have it for his com- 
panion ; for with it at his side he will cross a gloom, alas ! 
how difficult to span."* 

And the Turkish translator of Esop's fable gives for moral, 
"that the sensible man is not so much occupied with this 
present world as with the next."' "Seeing how gradually 
'kohol' [black antimony for the eyelids, used very sparingly 
with a small ivory stick] diminishes, and also how gradually 
an ant-hill increases, let no man spend one day barren of good 
works and of study."* " Let him who knows what he ought 
to do, diligently gather from here and there, and let the 
result be according to the decrees of fate."* " By gathering, 
the ant-hill increases ; and by use, kohol decreases." 

See also Sadi's fable of ' The Bulbul and the Ant,' evidently 
borrowed from Esop's fable, and with a like moral ;'' and 

' Vartan, fab. 5. • Manu S. iv. 238—242. ' Fab. Turq. 6. * Hitop. ii. 9. 
» Id. 12. • Nnga Niti, 28 schf. ' De Sacy's Chrest. Ar. ill. p. 502. 

vj. 6-8] 



Djami's fable of the ant that was sent to carry a locust much 
heavier than itself It said to those who wondered at it i 
" Make a powerful effort with the help of God [lit. having Him 
for a loving fellow-traveller], for with His help thy effort will 
bear that weight ;"' for without such help "the ant does not 
pass on from the foot of the locust," says Nizami.* 

" When king Phonez showed his son to his vizeer Shedrak, 
the vizeer wished the child blessings for evermore ; together 
with the prudence of the ass, that would not go over ground 
when dry in which it had stuck fast when it was wet and miry ; 
the faithfulness of the dog that belonged to a poor man who 
starved it to death, and yet returned to him when well fed by 
a rich man ; and, thirdly, the strength of the ant.'" "Among 
animals with (four) feet, the lion is powerful ; but the worm is 
more powerful ; and more powerful (or stronger) than this is 
the ant."« 

"Many animals (or people) joined together and of one 
mind, though they have small power, bring about great results. 
It is said that a lion's whelp was killed by a quantity of ants."* 
" The mountain Tai-Shang [a high mountain in the province 
of Shang-tung] does not repel the smallest particle of dust ; 
so also while gathering little by little, the heap increases by 
constant addition to it."* " By gathering together small things, 
one gradually builds up a high fabric.'" " The union of small 
things produces great things."' "Scattered bits brought to- 
gether become a mountain."* " In autumn, we gather ; in 
winter, we hoard up."" " For if thou addest a little to a little," 
says Hesiod, "and doest that frequently, it will soon come to 
much. For he who adds to what he has already, 08' aXv^trai 
aiOoira Ki/jlov, will thereby escape from dire want [famine]. And 
it is not what is stored at home that hurts a man. Better 

• Beharist. viii. p. 112. ' Makhzan ul-asr. p. 54. ' Orbelian 

sibrzne sitsr. i. p. 6. ' Dham. Niti. 154. ' Legs par b. p. 201. 

• Ming h. dsi. 122. ' Mong. mor. max. R. ' Hitop. i. si. 35- 

• Jap. prov. p. 836. " Gun den s. mon. 21. 



[vi. 6—8 

have it there than risk it out of doors."* "Praise food when 
digested, a woman when she is no longer young, a warrior 
when he returns from battle, and corn when it is brought 

" If there was no law, we should have to learn cleanliness of 
the cat ; [taking] gathering together from the ant ; and purity 
(of kindred) from the dove."* " The thoughtful and prudent 
man who, reflecting far ahead, gathers for hereafter, diligently 
and with patience, shows that he is a provident man."* "And 
one endued with great knowledge, though moving round in 
darkness, yet does not leave any part of his work [dark] un- 
finished. Like the ant that has no eyes, and yet speeds better 
than other animals with eyes."' "The wise man, who is 
accomplished, having gathered his property, as the white ant 
gathers her nest, until he has enough for himself and his 
family, divides it into four parts. One for friendly hospitality ; 
one for his own use at home ; one for business ; and one to be 
laid aside for times of adversity."' 

And I may quote here Origen when refuting Celsus, who 
said " that God cares as much for ants as for men, praises the 
ants for their commonwealth, their provision of food against 
the bad season, which they foreknow,"' &c., and so provide for 
it In other words : " He that on a clear day [in fine weather] 
cleans his gutters and sets them in order, will be ready when 
the stormy season sets in."' "Repair your water-pipes on a 
fine day," say the Mandchus, " that they may be in good order 
against a pouring rain."° 

"Ants," say the Chinese, " have the justice (or good govern- 
ment] of prince and officers; therefore do they receive justice in 
return. Teou-she of the Sung dynasty was told by his teacher, 
an old priest, that he would be great One day he was told 
by his elder brother that a colony of ants that were under the 

' Hes. I. c. ij. 359. * Lokaniti, 97. ' Khar. Pen. i. 45. 

« Sain ughes, fol. 8. ' Legs par b. p. fol. 2. • Sigal. V. Sutt. fol. no. 
I Contra Cels. lib. iv. p. 217. ' Niitsidai ughed. 12. » Minfh. e-- -" 

vi. 6—8] 



hall would be destroyed by a flood of rain. ' I will save them,' 
said he. Upon which he tied a stick of bamboo across the 
stream, on which they crossed it and were saved. For this 
action he attained to the first place among the first three ranks 
of literates."* "E-yun (B.C. 1753), in his conversation with 
Tae-khea, said : Practise assiduously the virtue of economy, 
while you think of distant plans."* "And Pwan-kang said to 
his ministers : You do not plot high [form plans ahead] to 
provide against your calamity. You deceive yourselves, and 
add much to your sorrow. Now you rest satisfied with pos- 
sessing for the present and do not think of the future ; how, 
then, can you hope for life in the realms above?"' 

" In walking, the ant goes thousands of yojanas ; but with- 
out (the exertion of) walking, Garuda himself does not go one 
step."* " Even rocks are hollowed out by the constant tread 
of ants."' " Everything is mixed up with labour ; there is 
nothing free from it"' " Therefore if a man has to do a thing, 
let him do it and finish it with perseverance and firmness."' 

"Do not then, incline to sleep and ease until thou hast 
examined thyself on these three points : (i) Have I this day 
committed sin ? (2) Have I acquired fresh learning ? (3) Have I 
neglected (or come short in) any work ?"' In the Qoran' we 
read the following legend, one of many of the same sort : 
" Suleyman inherited of Daood, and he said : O ye people, 
we have been taught the language of birds, and have been in- 
formed of everything ; and this is indeed a manifest advantage. 
Then Suleyman brought together his host made up of ' jinns' 
[genii], men and birds, and marched them separately. But 
when they came to Wadi-en-naml [valley of the ant], the 
[queen] ant said [to her people] : O ye ants, hasten to your 
dwellings [holes], lest Suleyman and his troop trample you 
down unawares. And Suleyman laughed," &c. [This legend 

> Wen chang t. Comm. in Shin s. luh. iv. p. 18. ' Shoo King, iii. 5. 
3 Id. iii. 10. * Chanak. 34, J. K. « Nanneri, 23. « V. Satasai, 189. 
' Dham. Nirayav. 8. « Akhlaq. Nasseri, 9. " Sur. xxvii. 18. 



[vl. 9 — 1 1 

found its way from the Talmud into the Qoran. It is published 
separately under the title of Nemalah, the Ant] 

9 How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard ? when wilt 
thou arise out of thy sleep ? 

10 Vet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding 
of the hands to sleep : 

1 1 So shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth, 
and thy want as an armed man. 

"How long wilt thou sleep" &c. 

Ey^fo, TuStos v\i' ri irdvvv)(Ov vtti'oi' abircif ;* 

Wake up, then, O son of Tydeus ; what, sleep all night ' like a 
top,' while the Trojans are at hand 1" said Nestor to Diomedes. 
" Now then, dear children, be on the watch ; let no one be 
overcome by sleep, lest we be made the laughing-stock of our 

" Mane piger, stertis. Surge ! inquit av.tritia : eja 
Surge ! Negas ? instat. Surge I inquit. Non queo. Surge I 
Et quid agam."* 

" He who puts off the hour of getting up [wastes his morning 

in sleep] will find that the hour, in turn, will drive him [to 

make up for lost time]."' "Sleep at dawn is like steel to 

iron" [hard and cuts up the day].* 

" Plus vigila semper, nee somno deditus esto : 
Nam diutuma quies, vitiis alimenta ministrat."' 

" The night," said Bhrigu, " is for sleep, and the day is for 
work."* " When once awake from sleep," said Aurva, " let not 
the Brahman indulge in lying in bed."' "At sleeping time," 
says Nagarjuna in his letter to his friend king Udayana, 
" sleep ; but withal, remembering the rules of the law which 
thou hast repeated during the day and during the first and 

' II. r. 159. * Pers. Sat. v. 132. ' Ep. Lod. 659. ♦ Khar. 

Pen. XX. 15. ' D. Cato, i. 2. • Manu S. i. 65. ' Vishnu Pur. 

ill. 12, 13. 

vi. 9 — 11] 



last watches of the night, lest thy sleep be without benefit to 

thee."' "Confucius himself, when asleep, did not lie like one 

dead" [a corpse].* "A quien madruga, Dios le ayuda: God 

helps him who rises early."' "The sun is already high 

above the horizon, and the priests of the mountain shrine are 

not yet out of bed."* " Every day," say the Chinese, " must 

one by all means get up early ; for every day has its own 

business to be attended to."' 

"The plans of a whole life depend on diligence. The 

prospects of the whole year depend on the spring ; and the 

plans of the whole day depend on [the ' yn,' hour, five o'clock] 

the early morning."' "Therefore diligent and active people 

get up early. But the idle and lazy do not get up early. 

Learn, therefore, to be active and diligent, and not idle and 

lazy."' " Early to bed and early to rise,'' &c.; and 

" He that will thrive must rise at five ; 
He that has thriven may rise at seven."' 

" Levati, get up," say the Italians, " e vedrai, and thou shalt 
see ; lavora, ed averai, work, and thou shalt have."' " For 
Ushas the fair [Aurora, the dawn] is ushered like a matron. 
At her coming, whatever has feet begins to move, and she 
flushes the birds. She sends forth the diligent, bids beggars 
go, and she bedews the earth."** "Arise! moving life has come 
to us ; darkness is gone, light is come ; let us go where food 
is given for work, and be made happy with it."" 

"O Indra, thou honourest the dawn!"" "As there are 
twenty-four hours to the day," says Rabbi M. Maimonides, 
"it is enough for a man to sleep the third part of it, and to 
rise from his bed before sunrise."" " Rise from sleep at day- 
break !"" " For it is a shame for a man to lie idle."" " And 

■ Nagarjuna's Letter to K. Udayana, ed. Wenzel, 39. ' Shang-L. x. 1 5. 
' Span. pr. * Ming h. dsi. 147. ' Chin. max. Dr. Medh. dial. p. 187. 
• Chin. prov. P. 94. ' Ibid. » Eng. pr. » Ital. pr. " Rig V. 
i. skta. xlviii. 5, 6, and skta. xlix. 3. " Id. skta. cxiii. 16. " Id. iii. 
skta. xliv. 2. " Halk. Deh. iv. 4. " Aw. Atthi Sudi, 106. 

" Nitimala, ii. 35. 



[vi. 9 — 1 1 

the morn brings good luck." "Matin porte bonheur."" "God's 
wealth and bountiful gifts are made to man without [tongue] 
warning. Be not careless, therefore ; for we know that such 
gifts are found at once [when unexpected].'" "And the morn- 
ing hour," say the Germans, " has gold in its mouth.'" 

"Of whatever grade be the Brahmachari, let not the sun, 
either rising or setting, find him asleep. If in either case the 
sun find him asleep, let him do penance for it a whole day. 
But let him, after having washed his mouth with water, say 
his private prayers devoutly and with a composed mind, in 
some purified spot, according to commandment."* " Let him 
give up going about at night, sleeping by day, sloth, evil- 
speaking and drink, and either too much or too little attach- 
ment to comfort," said Narada." " No good comes from long 
sleep."" "Wise and clever men," said the Baital to king 
Bikram, " spend their time in reading the Shastras ; but fools 
and simpletons spend their days in ease and sleep."' "Give 
not way to sloth [drowsiness, slumber], lest thy work and 
meritorious deeds remain undone."* "A sleepy fellow, one 
who is careless, or pleased with himself [at ease], one who is 
sick, a sluggard, a covetous man, and one who delights in 
fresh work [restless, or fickle]— these seven have no business 
with religious books."' 

" There are six faults to be eschewed by him who wishes 
for superiority (or dignity) : sleep, laziness, fear, wrath, idleness 
and dilatoriness.""' "The slothful man says : 'My trust is in 
the Lord ; I will sit alone and hold my peace ; and He will 
do it' But does the Lord behold his idleness for naught? 
Nay. He never will give good things to the slothful, neither 
will He fulfil his desire."" "He that does not rise at dawn," 
say the Chinese, "must sleep a long time." But they say 

' Eng. and Fr. pr. * TurkishCom. on Rishtah ijuw. p. 40. ' Germ. pr. 
* Manu S. ii. 219. ' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 10575. « Welsh pr. 

' Baital Pach. introd. ' Mainyo i Kh. ii. 29. • Lokaniti, 141. 

" Kobitamr. 56. " Mishle As. ii. 8 sq. 

vi. 12—15] 



also : " Were it not for fame or gain, who would be willing to 
rise early?"' 

"A man," says a Japanese story, "mistaking the hour, got 
up earlier than he meant to do, and then went back to bed, 
blaming the clock for not knowing the right time. But the 
clock replied : Thou seest it is morning, about five o'clock, 
and yet goest back to bed ? Knowcst thou not that the result 
[arrangement] of the whole day depends on the early morn, 
and that through laziness men waste the precious time of 
life?"* "By eating too much, men get weary of study ; and 
by keeping the body warm, one indulges in sleep : and by 
indulging in ease, one becomes slothful."' " He who goes to 
sleep while on his journey through life, either loses his head 
or his cap."* "Sleeping after sunrise, idleness, peevi.shness, 
dilatoriness (or sleeping long), these even in a Brahman tend 
to no good."" "And he who, without providing beforehand, 
lives carelessly [at ease, in idleness], will afterwards weep over 
his folly."® " No praise for the slothful."' " There is no strong- 
hold for the timid, and no good for lazy ones."* 

1 2 A naughty person, a wicked man, walketh with 
a froward mouth. 

13 He winketh with his eyes, he speaketh with his 
feet, he teacheth with his fingers ; 

14 Frowardness is in his heart, he deviseth mischief 
continually ; he soweth discord. 

1 5 Therefore shall his calamity come suddenly ; 
suddenly shall he be broken without remedy, 

Ver. 14. is*?? niD^nn. LXX.8u<TTpatiiievijKapSui; Arab. '(with) 
lies in his heart;' neither of which renders the Hebrew. niS^.H'? pro- 
perly means Fr. ' renversements,' overturning everything, putting 

' Chin. pr. G. ' Atsme Gusa. iii. 2. ' Do ji kiyo. * Nizami 
Makhz. ul asr. p. 72. ' Dhammaniti, 228. ' Cural, 535. ' Id. 533. 
• Id. 534. 



[vi. 12 — 15 

everything topsy-turvy, whether it be custom, right, law, or order, 
Trom selfish and wicked motives, which lead a man, 5T "??n, to 
plough, plot and devise evil at all times. Such a man, oWl D''3"''I13, 
LXX. o TotoGros Tapa\ai <rvvt(TTi)(rt voka, sends about quarrels, 
raises party feuds and causes disturbances in the state, with his fair 
speech and evil intent, to suit his own ends, however selfish and wicked 
they be. 

" A naughty person" &c. " He whose tongue is froward," 
say the Georgians, "has nevertheless a fair speech."' "He, 
however, who speaks false words is lost to all sense of shame 
[of self-respect]."* " Is not the sense of shame an ornament 
to excellent men ? But is it not painful to see those who lack 
it, walk about puffed up and self-satisfied ?"• " Such a man 
is no better than a puppet worked with a string, to represent 
life."* "For manliness [manhood] is destroyed in him who 
indulges evil designs."* " For men who have the feeling of 
shame [self-respect] will part with life for the sake of self- 
respect ; but will never sacrifice shame [or self-respect] to 

On the other hand, "A man who multiplies occasions of 
insolence and arrogance by his conduct, multiplies haters of 
him," "and multiplies the chances of evil happening to him."^ 
" But, like the shrimp, a froward man hops backwards."* "A 
man of such vile disposition notices the faults of others, when 
small as a grain of sesamum ; but he does not see his own 
faults, as large as a cocoa-nut* 

"He winketh" &c. As the woodman did who, having pro- 
mised to the fox not to betray it to the hunters, denied with 
his voice knowing where the fox lay, but with his hand pointed 
to the place ;'* to which the Chinese translator adds : "When 
a man loves to speak lying words, it is not with the mouth 
only that he speaks."" " For the meaning of words spoken is 
seized even by brute beasts, and horses and elephants carry 

' Georg. pr. * Vemana, ii. 122. ' Cural, 1014. * Id. 1020. 

» Var. Nava R. 5. * Cural, 1017. ' Joma, Millin, 666. " Beng. pr. 
• Lokaniti, 73. '" Esop, fab. 10, and Babrias, 50. " Mun moy, ibid. 

vi. 12 — IS] 



burdens when ordered to do so. But a wise man understands 
what is not said, and one advantage of wits is, to understand 
signs made by others."' "For the inward thoughts [mind or 
heart] are descried in signs, gestures, in the gait, the move- 
ments, the language, and the altered features of the eyes and 
mouth."* " He comes in with mincing step, and an altered 
complexion ; his forehead moist with perspiration, muttering 
indistinctly to the ground. For the man who has committed 
sin always feels uneasy and looks down to the earth, and by 
these unfailing signs he may be known to wise men."' 

Therefore " let the Bramachari beware of having nimble 
hands and movable feet, a winking eye, of being crooked [in 
his ways], of having a voluble tongue, and of being clever at 
doing mischief to others."* " For he is not alone thine enemy 
who injures thee, but he also who devises mischief to thee."" 
" For the silence of such a man, like that of a vicious dog, is 
more to be feared than his voice."' " His eye for his tooth," 
say the Arabs' [that is, a man's eye shows what he is, as the 
tooth shows the age of a horse]. " You can tell a bad man 
by the cast of his eye."* " From signs and from a man's 
appearance, you can pretty well tell the object of his visit 

" The thoughts, the words and the actions of wicked men 
are not 'one,' as they are among righteous men."" ".Deceit, 
called 'the black art,' is shunned by men who know how to 
behave [keep the mean]."" " They will soon perish who prac- 
tise it."'* "One need not fear enemies that are [open] like a 
.sword ; but fear them who have the appearance of friends.'"* 
Syntipa's fable of ' The Dog and the Hare' teaches that certain 
men pretend hypocritical friendship outwardly, who are within 

' Hitop. ii. 46; PanchaT. i. 49. ' Hitop. ii. 45, and PanchaT. i. sa 
' Pancha T. i. 213. * Manu S. iv. 177. ' Democrat. Sentent. p. 630. 
• Demophili Simil. p. 614. ' Meld. Ar. pr. ^ Beng. pr. 

» V. Satasai, 386. »» Kobita Ratn. 187. " Cural, 287. " Id. 289. 
" Id. 882. 



[vi. 12 — IS 

vi. 16 — 19] 



full of all manner of wickedness and of evil intent' " For there 
is no need of serpents where there are bad men."* 

" Brethren of the present day," say the Arabs, " are only 
spies of [other people's] faults." " This means," according to 
the Turkish Commentator, " that men look like brothers, but, 
owing to their neglecting 'hadis' [sayings of Mahomet], they 
are generally finding fault ; and every fault they notice in 
others, they repeat to their companions."' " Wickedness (or 
violence)," quoth Ibn-or-Rumi, " is always low [mean or detest- 
able], but especially when it is deliberate."* "Assuredly," say 
the Mandchus, "he who goes about troubling and deceiving 
others, will inevitably become poor. From the beginning. 
Heaven has not granted pardon to such men." " The wicked 
man thinks of deception, because his heart is bad."' "Yet if 
thy heart suggests to thee a shameful action, do it not ; for in 
the past or present world, who has ever forgiven anything?"' 
" For many mouths open only for the sake of contradiction, 
and to be first to create [raise] hatred and animosity."' " But 
the best man is always gentle ; the worst man is he who goes 
about quarrelling."* 

" Woe," said Enoch, " to those who lay the foundation of 
fraud and build up iniquity and oppression, for they shall be 
suddenly cast down, and shall have no peace."' "And now, 
children, I tell you, love righteousness and walk in it ; for the 
paths of righteousness are worth taking. But the ways of 
iniquity shall suddenly be destroyed and come to naught."'" 
" Dimnah having been put in prison by the lion through the 
leopard's accusations, Calilah came to see him, and said : 
Alas ! did I not advise thee ? Did I not tell thee that there is a 
way of speaking suited to every station, and to every place a 
limit ? Did I not remind thee of what wise men have said, 
'that the treacherous man who plots against another shall die 

' Fab. 50. ' Pancha Ratna. 5th ed. ' Rishtah i juw. p. 7. 

* Eth. Thcnlcbi, 50. ' Ming h. dsi. 167, 170. " Ibid. 146. 

' Ibid. 136. » Ebu Medin, 94. » Bk. Enoch, xciii. 6. " Id. xciv. 1. 

before his time'? I know all that, replied Dimnah ; thou art 
right. But wise men have said also ' that one ought not to 
feel impatient of punishment' But thy tail is long and the 
lion's sentence is hard.'" 

Epjii Otouriv T ix^P^ "'"' O'VOpiiirouTiv oirtoTt, 
''¥v)^pov OS Iv koAtt^ irotKiAy tr^cs o<f>iv."* 

"The ravens eat thee, thou false hypocrite, alike hateful to 
gods and suspect to men, who hidest in thy shifty bosom the 
cold venomous reptile of an evil heart" " Do not," said 
Sekhrud to Papi, "speak covered words of dissimulation, 
hardening against thyself the [lord or] good principle of life. 
He who deals thus covertly (or falsely) acts against himself"' 

16 These six things doth the Lord hate : yea, seven 
are an abomination unto him : 

17 A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that 
shed innocent blood, 

18 An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet 
that be swift in running to mischief, 

19 A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that 
soweth discord among brethren. 

'^ A proud look" &c. "The lion's pride becomes a lion 
only."* " Speak not words of [violence] haughtiness or self- 
conceit, not even when thou art alone," said Sekhrud to his 
son." " If a man," says Ptah-hotep, "exalts himself [or carries 
himself haughtily], there is humiliation in store for him from 
God, who gave him his high position, and will reject him 

when fallen."* 

" Zfus yolp fiiyaXtfi y\ii(T(Tr]i Kofnrovt 
inr(p(\6atp(i. :' 

For Zeus has in detestation the boastings of a lofty tongue." 

' Calilah u Dimn. p. 143. ' Thcogn. 609. ' Pap. Sail. pi. ix. 1. 9. 
• Oyun Tulk. p. 8. ' Pap. Sail. pi. ix. 1. 10. • Pap. Pr. pi. vii. I. 8, 9. 
' Soph. Antig. 126. 

-\ 2 



[vJ. i6 — 19 


vi. 16—19] 



" And he looks down with hatred on him who, imipavxa Pa5i(ti, 
walks with a high stomach." » "Thou art far from the proud," 
said Yudhishtira to Krishna.' 

"He," say the Rabbis, "that has a high look (or mind) 
[who is haughty and proud] shall not prevail for ever."' 
" Pride among brothers divides them ; it destroys men ; but 
the taller it grows, the less it is felt."* " A wise man, however, 
is not proud, nor covert, nor blind, but he is cautious and in 
accord with himself."* "Yet it is easier," said Abu Hashim, 
" to dig up a mountain with the point of a needle, than to dig 
worthless pride [haughtiness] out of a man's heart."* 

"A lying tongue," &c " Telling lies is of three kinds," accord- 
ing to the Tibetan work Thar-gyan. " (i) From a false teacher ; 
(2) to one's own advantage or to that of others ; (3) to the 
injury of others only. And the [fruit] result of these lies, great 
and small, is three-fold. When fully ripe, the liar shall be born 
a devil ; or if he is born a man, he shall for the same cause [in 
a less degree] always be exposed to calumnies and slander. 
But the result of success from telling a lie will be that he shall 
be born with an offensive smell in his mouth. The Tathagata, 
however, says, that the greatest of all crimes is for a Lama to 
tell a lie."' " Killing a Brahman is a sin equal to killing a 
hundred heads of cattle ; killing a woman is equal to killing 
a hundred Brahmans ; killing one infant is equal to killing a 
hundred women ; but telling a lie is equal to killing a hundred 

" In like manner as the raven of the wilderness sweeps 
round in the air in search of carrion, so also it is the nature 
[sign] of a bad man to seek to see the misfortune of others."* 
"For where inclination lies, thither does the heart lead."" 
"And evil-doing is indeed easy among men," says Theognis." 

' /Eschyl. Sept. Th. 485. ' Prem. Sagur. c. Ixxiii. ' Joma, 

Millin, 668. ♦ Ep. Lod. 652. » Siun-tsze, i, p. 8. « Djami Behar. G. i. 
' Tliar-g>'an, v. fol. 42. ' Nidivemba, 12. • Kawi Niti Sh. p. 27. 

"0 Mcid. Ar. pr. " Theogn. 995. 

" He, however, who thinks of opposing virtuous deeds, is walk- 
ing in an evil path, and will surely be pushed into ruin."^ 
" For the heart alone knows if it is inclined to one froward 
action or to many."^ 

"A wicked man thinks all men are like himself" "And he 
who hates another sees nothing good in him, and does not 
allow that he can do aught aright."' "When the beasts found 
fault with the virtuous jackal that would neither eat flesh nor 
drink blood, &c., he said to them : Do as you please ; your 
company will not hurt me [lead me to follow your example] ; 
for guilt comes not from places or from companions, but from 
the heart and from actions. For if a man, be he where he 
will, is honest, his actions will be such ; but if he be wicked, 
his actions also will be evil."* "The thoughts (or devices) of 
sin are heavier than sin itself,"' say the Rabbis ; while others 
teach "that God does not reckon the thought of sin as He 
reckons the deed"* [He says, however, " that the very thought 
of foolishness is sin," ch. xxiv. 9] 

Ver. 19. "Among the ten evil actions in a man's conduct 
are reckoned, killing living beings, giving what does not 
belong to us, and telling lies," &c.' "If I lie," said the Dge- 
long [candidate for the priesthood], " not only will the punish- 
ment of the deception practised on my teacher follow me 
throughout my future births, but my teacher also will find it 
out through his clear-sightedness."* "But Krishna said to 
Arjuna : A good man is a speaker of truth ; nothing is known 
on earth better than truth ; truth that lies in that which is 
difficult to ascertain fully." " However, although truth should 
be told, yet may untruth be spoken in five cases : at a wedding ; 
in love ; on giving up the ghost ; when losing money ; and 

' Vetnana, ill. 33. ' Talm. Hier. Shebuth, iv. i, M. S. ' Sulkhan 
Orbel. in sibrzne sitsr. p. 160, 167. * Calilah u D. p. 237. * Joma 
in B. Fl. • Talmud. Kidd. ibid. ' Tsa-gnay J. Thera, 18. 

• Dsang-Lun (reference omitted). 



[vi. l6 — 19 

vi. 16 — 19] 



for the sake of a Brahman." " And they are called the five 
untruths free from sin."* 

" To avyytvii rot Sctfoe, ij o/tiXia."* 

" The ties of kindred have a mighty power," said Vulcan to 
KpoTos. "Aunts, uncles and nieces," say the Japanese, "are 
on the same footing as sons ; and between brothers the 
strongest tie of affection exists. They are united together 
like the breath to the body, and like the branches of a tree."* 
" Brothers, eggs of one nest "* [some addled]. "A stock, clump 
root of the sugar-cane"* [members of one family.] See Log- 
man's fable of the ' Members and the Stomach.'* " Do not, 
therefore, because of private enmity, cause people, father and 
son, to disagree. Do not, for the sake of a small profit, cause 
men, elder and younger brothers, not to harmonize," say 
the Chinese;^ "who are branches of the same tree," say the 

For albeit "common things," say the Tibetans, "are the 
origin of quarrels;"' yet "brothers must not fall out upon 
some selfish difference of opinion,"'" "nor yet fathers and 
sons about a small profit," adds the Mandchu translator. 
" Let brothers be brothers," say the Arabs ; " but let them keep 
the accounts of merchants."" "Among men, the first requisite 
is that elder and younger brothers should live in harmony. 
Being born of the same father and mother, they are called 
' own brothers.' They must not wrangle about 'high '[or 'long'] 
stature, nor strive about 'short' [age or precedence]. If they 
grow rich, do not annoy them. If they get into business, 
assist them. If they are in distress, help them. If they 
behave ill, do not cherish a remembrance of their conduct."" 

> Maha Bh. Kama P. 3434—3437- ' Prom. Vinct. 39. » Gun 

den s. mon, 345- * Javan pr. ' Ibid. ' Fab. 32, and 

Esop's, 286. ' Hien w. shoo, 83. » Japan pr. p. 660. » Legs 

par b. p. 214. " Wen chang in Shin sin 1. v. p. 46. " Egypt, pr. 548. 
" Chin. max. in D. Medh. Dial. p. 208. 

" For separation, dissension among brothers, is the consuming 
of the soul [or life]."' 

" How may we subsist ?" ask the Tamulians. " If we agree 
[join] together, we may. Even a monkey will go from a village 
divided against itself" " He is a fool, then, who, hearkening 
to his wife, outrages his elder and younger brothers and takes 
to others. Can a man cross the Godaveri holding by the tail 
of a dog?"' " P'or a stone in the shoe, a gadfly in the ear, a 
mote in the eye, and a quarrel in a family, are all tormenting."* 
" How beautiful, then, to see relations dwelling together in 
unity [all round]."' "Therefore, O my children," said the 
father, " so long as you agree among yourselves, no one will 
be able to injure you."* " But if you disagree, you will soon 
be caught [coriie to ruin]."' On which the Chinese translator 
comments thus : " The lips and the front teeth mutually rely 
on each other. If united, they will not fail in any one instance. 
But if you divide them and the lips die, then the front teeth 
will be exposed and be cold. There is not an instance [on 
record] in which both do not suffer, and lose by it. Be on 
your guard then. It is said : ' When calamities arise within 
the inner walls [among relations], how lamentable, indeed !'"' 

Sulkhan Orbelian gives a like fable with the same moral, 
but in which the father gave his thirty sons thirty arrows 
instead of a bundle of sticks." " For violence and disunion in 
a house is like a worm in a grain of sesamum," said Rabbi 
Chisda.'* [The same is said of immorality, or of a violent 
woman in a family.]'* " It is like a fire in a bamboo jungle ; 
it originates in the jungle itself."'^ "A wise man, therefore, 
tries to preserve union in the village."'* "So long," said 
Buddha to Ananda, "as the Vajjis come together united, and 
rise together united, and do, united together, things that are 

1 Rishtah i juw. p. 164. * Tarn. pr. 1555, 1990. » Vemana, ii. 133. 
* Id. ibid. 175. ' Aw. Kondreiv. 30. • Babrias, fab. 47. 

' Esop, fab. 52. • Mun moy, ad. loc. » Sibrzne sitsr. " Sotah, 3. 
" Buxtorf, Lex. s. v. " Athitha w. d. p. 12. ' " Nitimala, iii. 3. 



[vi. 1 6 — 19 

to be done, so long also may their prosperity be expected, and 
not their decay."* 

Thus also " the quails which, while agreed, lifted up the net 
and escaped. The fowler then said : United, they carry away the 
net ; but if they quarrel they will fall into my hands."' See 
also the story of 'Chitragriva and the Pigeons,'' and: "We 
have heard," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, " that a fowler once 
caught two birds in his toils. They both flew away, and he 
followed them on foot. A man asked him what he meant. 
He answered : ' They both came to me together ; but let a 
quarrel happen and they both will be in my power.' They 
quarrelled, and he caught them. So with relations. War 
makes them over to their foes."* 

"Come division in a family, come division in the world."* 
"God, then, preserve me from the enmity of near relations!" 
said Ibn Hobaira.* " For an ill-disposed brother is an enemy."' 
■ " Men, therefore, ought not to come together to bite one 
another," said Goba Setchen to Tchinggis-khan.' " For what 
is there on earth better than union in a family?" said Devi 
Gondari, the mother of king Astina, to her son." And Devi 
Kunti-Bodya to her son : " Son, join thy brother in the war of 
Broto Yudo. It is the way to success (or happiness)."*" " For 
when brothers disagree [are not at one], people round about 
mock them."" "The lioness then, when at the point of death, 
said to her two children, her own whelp and a calf she had 
adopted : ' You two continue to live well and happy together. 
If an enemy should happen to come and through deceit (or 
enmity) try to find out your strength, do not listen to him.' 
Having said this, she died. But they were parted and de- 
stroyed through the wiles of a fox.'"* 

So also Loqman's fable of the two bulls" that defied the 

' Mahaparanibbh. fol. tsyo. ' Sammo-damana, Jat. p. 209. 

' In Hitopad. 1. * Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 2455. « Khar. Pen. i. 4. 

• Eth. Theal. 331. ' Oyun Tulk. p. 11. « Tchinggis-kh. p. 8. 

• liroloyudo, vi. 27. '" Id. viii. 16. " Chin pr. C. " Siddhi 
Kur. St. XX. " Fab. i. 

vi. 16 — 19] 



lion while united against him, but each of which he slew 
when he had succeeded in parting them. Likewise Esop's 
fable* [and Sophos, fab. 16] of 'The Two Bulls and the Lion,' 
with this moral : "Agreement is safety" for individuals, and, 
as Loqman says, for states also. Babrias gives it also more irt 
detail.* " For the strength of a family, as of a state, is in 

" Do not therefore create a disturbance [aversion, horror] 
among men ; God forbids it," said Ptah-hotep.* " I and thou 
are brethren ; thy father and I are brethren ; thy mother and 
I are brethren," say the Rabbis.'* "And faithful and trusty 
brethren are the best of possessions ; they are an ornament in 
prosperity, and a buckler in adversity."' " He, therefore, who 
sows dissension in a house shall be cuffed to death."' And a 
house, according to the Chinese, embraces nine degrees of 
kindred, "(i) Self, (2) father, (3) grandfather, (4) great-grand- 
father, (5) great-great-grandfather, (6) son, (7) grandson, (8) 
great-grandson, (9) great-great-grandson. Once, nine genera- 
tions of Chang- Kung-e lived together in one house; and one 
Chin of Keang-chou had seven hundred mouths that ate at 
his table. He also had one hundred and ten dogs that lived 
at peace together in one kennel. If one dog was absent, the 
rest would not eat. The harmony of his family extended to 
the dogs."* 

" For love of kindred is like blood in one's arteries ; like 
fingers of one hand ; like pain in one limb, which the whole 
body feels."' " For slaves may be purchased, not so brothers."" 
" In your intercourse with others, then, use no abusive lan- 
guage ; neither say anything that may create disunion," say 
the Japanese." " For if disunion takes place among ties of 
kindred, they will hardly escape misfortune." "And a house 

> Fab. 207. ' Fab. 44. ' Vararuchi Nava R. 7. * Pap. Pr. 

pi. vi. 8. » Jebamoth, Millin, 168. • Ep. Lod. 652. ' Tarn. pr. 

' Shin yii, yung shin, 2 max. p. 1 1. • Wang kew po, id. id. 

'» Mong. max. R. " Do ji Kiyo. 



[vi. 20 — 23 

divided against itself [as well as a state also], though it be 
closed and fitted like a box, is nevertheless disjoined." " But 
to live in one house with people who have no family love, is 
like dwelling together with a snake ;" so say the Tamulians.* 
" He, therefore, who sows dissension in a family, when his sin 
is fully ripe, shall be born in hell."' 

20 My son, keep thy father's commandment, and 
forsake not the law of thy mother : 

21 Bind them continually upon thine heart, and tie 
them about thy neck. 

22 When thou goest, it shall lead thee ; when thou 
sleepest, it shall keep thee ; and wAen thou awakest, it 
shall talk with thee. 

23 For the commandment is a lamp ; and the law is 
light ; and reproofs of instruction are the way of life.. 

"3fy son, keep" &c. We may compare these verses with 
the advice of prince Ptah-hotep, who wrote it when 1 10 years 
old, towards the end of the fourth or fifth dynasty, under king 
Assa (b.C. 35CO?), probably the oldest book extant, which 
Abraham may have heard read during his sojourn in Egypt. 

" Obedience is blessed to an obedient son ; an obedient son 
distinguishes himself by his obedience. He becomes obedient 
by hearkening to me. It is well to hearken to good advice. 
Happy is every obedient [son], for obedience is a blessing to 
the obedient It is good to obey, for it makes every one love 
[you] ; good, twice good [it is] for a son to receive his father's 
word ; with it, he reaches old age. God loves obedience ; but 
He hates disobedience. It is the heart in him who has one, 
that makes him obey or disobey. Life, health and strength 
of a man are in his heart [disposition]. As regards obedience, 
it should be willing. It consists in doing what one is told 

» Cural, 886, 887, 890. 

' Dam chhos, fol. 42. 

vi. 20—23] 



[to do]. It is doubly good [or beautiful] for a son to obey his 
father [as showing the friendly relation of the one to the otherji 
It is a joy [to the father] to hear that his son pleases him in 
hearkening to all [he says]." 

" He who honours his father, mention of him will be in the 
mouth of all men living on the face of the earth, now and 
hereafter. The son who receives his father's word [command 
or instruction], fails not in any of his ways. Thy teaching 
[O father !] to an obedient son, gives him greater importance 
[weight] among [his] elders [or seniors]. A token of a son's 
obedience is his merit. 

" His errors come from his not obeying early. He then 
grows stubborn and disobedient ; he does naught [of what he 
is told to do] ; he sees knowledge in ignorance, and virtue in 
misdeeds. He commits all manner of wickednesses that come 
out in his daily life, and make him known among the notables 
as a man living in death day by day. But an obedient son 
becomes a servant of Horus [the son of Osiris, the only god 
mentioned in this writing as ' God,' the rest being alluded to 
as 'gods']. After having obeyed [his father], he enjoys a 
happy old age ; he attains rank (or dignity) ; and his instruc- 
tion [word] to his children is but the repetition of what his 
father had taught him," &c.* 

We may also compare with this teaching of Ptah-hotep, the 
admonition of Vishwamitra to Rama, after his bathing in the 
river Saryu. 

" Rama, my child, it behoves thee [to touch or] to sprinkle 
thyself with this water, for thy good, as I will show thee. Do 
not throw away this opportunity. Take hold of this list of 
precepts fraught with vigour and excellence ; and then thou 
shalt never feel weary, never decay, never alter in thy person ; 
neither shall evil spirits ever get the better of thee, neither 
when asleep nor unawares ; neither will there be any one on 
earth equal to thee in the strength it will give thy arms. Not 
• Pap. Pr. pi. xvi. ch. 39—42- 



[vi. 20 — 23 

yet in the three worlds will any one be the like of thee, when 
thou recitest these mighty ' bolam-atibolam,' 'vigour and ex- 
cellence ;' neither in appearance, in handiness, in knowledge, 
nor in judgment When thou hast acquired this two-fold 
wisdom, thou shalt gain glory and immortality; for "vigour 
and excellence' are the two mothers of knowledge and of 
discernment. Thou shalt never suffer hunger or thirst, O 
thou son of Raghu ; but with it thou shalt attain the best of 
everything in the three worlds. For these, 'Wisdom surrounded 
with Splendour,' are two daughters of the Father of all, and 
thou, O Kakutstha, art a vessel well fitted to hold them. 

"Then, Rama, having sprinkled himself with water, stood 
with his hands clasped together, and, bowing his head, he 
received from Vishwamitra these two excellent gifts of wisdom, 
and the code of precepts which the sage gave him, standing 
with his face turned to the east."* 

We may also mention the precepts of Theognis to his son ; 
those of Hesiod, &c. 

" Nd/iifc travTif TOiis yoi'trs ercot dtois. 
Look upon thy parents as thy familiar [own] gods," say the 
Greeks ; "for thou shalt prosper by honouring them."' "For 
to obey one's father, and to serve the prince, is said to be 
dutiful and proper [correct, strict].'" " Father and mother," 
say the Japanese, " are like heaven and earth, and a teacher is 
like the sun and moon."* "As the atmosphere without the 
sun, shines not," said king Dhammasodakho, " nor night with- 
out the moon, so also my kingdom shines not without the law. 
I will therefore attend to the law [of Buddha] ; my mind will 
delight in the law ; there is no greater boon than the law ; for 
the law is the root of all bliss." ' 

" Humanity," said Confucius, " is man ; but to love one's 
parents is the principal thing."* Elsewhere he says also : 
" Respect for one's elders is the rule of heaven, is justice on 

■ Ramayana, i. xxiv. 10—20, and xxix. 20. ' rvw/i. /mi/. ' Gun 

den s. mon. 241. * Kukai. ' Rasavahini, cd. Sp. ' Chung yg, c. xx. 

vi. 20 — 23] 



earth, is the duty of the people, and is the rule of heaven and 
earth."' " Tsheng-tsze asked : What is the virtue of the saint ? 
To excel in reverence for one's parents" ['hiao,' filial piety].* 

Besides the Hiao-King, or sacred classic on filial piety, there 
are in China other popular books on this cardinal virtue. One 
of the most common, both in Chinese and Japanese books 
for children, is the book called " Twenty-four Pictures of Filial 

The first "shows that filial piety influences and moves 
Heaven," in the case of Shun, who, born of poor parents, was 
so virtuous that elephants came to till his ground, and birds 
picked the weeds. He became emperor B.C. 2i6g. 2. Han- 
wan-te, who during three years tasted every medicine for his 
sick mother. 3. Tsin, a disciple of Confucius, felt a pain in 
his heart when his mother, who was away from him, happened 
to bite her finger. 4. Min-kuen behaved well towards his 
step-mother, who ill-treated him. 5. Chung-yew fed on coarse 
herbs, in order to carry rice to his mother, who was a hundred 
li [thirty miles] from him. 

6. Laou-tai-tsze, who, when seventy years old, acted plays 
to amuse his parents. 7. Yen-tsze, who supplied his blind 
parents with deer's milk, which he procured by dressing him- 
self in a deerskin, and nearly got killed by hunters. 8. Tung- 
yung, who sold himself to defray the expenses of his father's 
funeral. 9. Keang-hi, who hired himself as a common labourer 
to feed his mother. 10. Hwang-heang, who was only nine 
years old when his mother died, fanned his father's pillow, and 
warmed his coverlet. 1 1. Hean-she's wife brought him water 
from the Yang-tzse-kiang, and Heaven caused water and fish 
to spring close to her door. 12. Ting-Ian, a mere child when 
his parents died, made figures of them, and served them as if 
they were living. 

13. Ko-keu, too poor to maintain his mother and his own 
child, would bury the child to save his mother, and found a 
' Hiao King, c. vii. * Id. c. ix. 



[vi. 20 — 23 ' vi. 20 — 23] 

purse of gold in the grave he was digging. 14. Yang-heang, 
when fourteen years old, rescued his father from the jaws of a 
tiger. 1 5. Tae-hun fed his poor mother with ripe mulberries, 
and ate the unripe ones himself. 16. Luh-tseih, who took to 
his mother two keuh oranges given him by Yuen-shuh, a 
great general. 17. Wang-fow, whose mother was afraid of 
thunder. After her death, he went to her grave whenever it 
thundered, and said : " Mother, fear not ; Fow is here !" 

18. Mang-toung fed his mother with tender bamboo shoots, 
that sprung up from his tears on her account. 19, 20. Woo- 
mang, so poor that he could not buy bed-curtains, fed the 
musquitoes on his own body, lest they should worry his father. 
21. Yu-keen-low ate filth to save his father's life. 22. Tang- 
foo-jin suckled her great-grandmother. 23, 24 Hwang-ting- 
keen, who, though high in office, performed the most menial 
services to his mother. 

But paternity is not of one kind only. " For the Brahman 
who works the divine birth of a man, and who trains him in 
virtue, though he [the Brahman] be a child, yet does he law- 
fully become father to an older man than himself"* 

Ver. 21. " Good words are like pearls strung together one by 
one." " Write them on the walls of your house, and morning 
and evening look at them as words of wholesome counsel."* 
"Tsze-chang inquired about the proper course of conduct. 
Confucius then answered: 'Speak with sincerity and good 
faith ; act with reality and respect When you stand, look at 
those precepts before you ; when in your carriage, look at 
them while resting on the cross-beam. Thus shall you follow 
up your actions' [be consistent and prosper]. And Tsze-chang 
wrote these words on his girdle."' 

The constant remembrance of words "that seem to talk 
with one," is said in Tibetan to be "memory brought [or 
placed] near," and is one of the attributes of the Bodhisatwa 

I Manu S. ii. 150. ' Ming Sin P. K., quoted in Hien w. shoo, 

title-page. ' Hea-Lun, xv. 5. 



as regards religious knowledge. " Memory gone into religion 
[the remembrance of holy things] is one door [the 65th] to 
religion itself; for it leads to superior (or supreme) knowledge, 
entirely free from darkness." • " Who is the watchful (or wak- 
ing) man? He who has discernment."* But in the Tibetan 
version it reads thus : " Who is not led astray by sleep ? He 
who, not being stupid, knows how to make a difference, to 
discern. What is being led astray by sleep ? Being a very 
stupid man."' 

" If thou wilt hearken to what I have told thee," said Ptah- 
hotep to his son, " all thy affairs (or plans) will prosper. My 
words rest on a foundation of truth that shows their worth. 
The remembrance of them is in the mouth of the people, on 
account of the excellence of their sentences" [or arrangement, 
texture].* " The disciple who is well instructed gets on well 
everywhere ; but he who is not well taught goes about hither 
and thither" [in his learning].' "Yet," say the Osmanlis, 
"it is only by making mistakes that a man becomes well 

Ver. 33. "Among the ten benefactors of mankind, and after 
the Buddhas, Rahans, &c., come father and mother, who show 
what to know, and correct by their instruction."' "Out of 
doors, [boys] receive instruction from teachers ; in doors, [boys 
and girls] have the benefit of their mother's example."* " By 
learning and hearing the recitations of Lamas, king," said 
Buddha to king Zasgtsang-ma, " shalt thou learn the way to 
' Mt'ho-ris,' heaven. As a lamp is seen when in another man's 
hand ; as the face is seen in the glass ; as the impression 
comes from the seal, and fire through a glass lens ; also, as 
a plant, stalk, root and all, comes from the seed ; so also, O 
king, shalt thou learn from wise men what thou oughtest to 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. ii. and iv. • Ratnamal. 26. ' Ibid. Tib. tr. 
• Pap. Pr. c. XV. ' Ozbeg. pr. * Osm. pr. ' Tsa-gnay Jay. 

Thera, 26. • Gun den s. mon, 337. • Ts'he-hpho-va, &c. fol. 22. 



[vi. 20—23 4 ^'" ^°~^3] 

" Teaching the law is like giving a brilliant light to one who 
is ignorant, or a precious jewel, full of sweet-smelling oil, that 
sheds abroad a brilliant light."* " For the law," say the Rabbis, 
"is 'aroma vitae et aroma mortis.'"* "And such knowledge 
gives light to [stimulates, helps] motion, blindness and sound."* 
" From the law free from dust and stain, thou shalt find the 
eye of the law [the understanding of it]," said Bidon Yabukht- 
chi, a wandering Brahman, to Molon-toin [priest]; "but all 
this through the brilliant light of Indra."* 

" Bayasgulang Saduktchi, a poor woman who gave all she 
had — a small lamp and a ' sogos' [a Chinese penny made of 
earthenware, with a square hole in the centre] worth of oil — to 
the • suma' [Buddhist temple] as an offering to Buddha, was 
rewarded by him for this virtuous action by being gifted with 
the [lamp] and oil of wisdom. 'This lamp,' said he, "will set 
thee free from all the darkness of life.' The next day at day- 
break, Motgelwam [one of Shakyamuni's disciples] went to the 
offering and found all the lamps gone out except Bayasgulang 
Saduktchi's lamp, that was still fresh and burning bright. He 
tried to put it out with his hand and with his cloak, but he 
could not. Buddha said to him : ' Dost thou think thou canst 
put out that lamp ? Thou art not able to put out that lamp — 
no, not with the water of the four seas and of mighty rivers.' 
Buddha, having said this, went into the presence of God," &c.^ 
"The moon is a lamp by night among the stars, and the 
sun is a lamp by day for the earth. But the lamp of know- 
ledge (or wisdom) and of the good law done in verse, shines 
brighter [than either of them], and illumines the three worlds."' 
" For wisdom is a brilliant, clear flame of knowledge."^ "And 
the words of the wise are words of [nectar] and sweetness."* 
" For understanding is • another light,' and has clear eyes."' 
" Reproof (or instruction) is the life of the house. Mind it, 

• Dmar khrid, fol. 17. ' Ep. Lod. 893. » Pancha ratr. i. 43- 

• Molon-toin, fol. 5. » Uliger-un Dalai, 4. " Kawi NitI Sh. p. 28. 

' Hjam-dpa), fol. viii. * Aw. Kondreiv. 53. ' Abu Ubeid, 134. 




and thou wilt be the better for it."' "For a fixed rule of 
conduct brings forth virtue [righteousness] and wealth ; it 
yields fruit, it saves from ill omens."' "And there is no friend 
or relation like wisdom."' "The most excellent Lord of all 
[Gautama], greatest and also free from ignorance, who sees 
Nibbhanam and the end of this world, and who, brilliant of his 
own light, has lighted the lamp of that which is said to be — the 
law of good."* 

" Clear away completely all the darkness of confused igno- 
rance with the lamp of superior knowledge (or perfect wisdom)," 
said Buddha to the gods.' " What joy is there in this world ? 
Enveloped as you are in darkness, why do you not seek a 
lamp?"* "When Buddha was born, it was said: This lamp 
having now appeared in this world darkened by ignorance, the 
law whereby all beings shall be enlightened, will be found in 
him."' In the Dsang-Lun' there is a legend "of two brilliant 
beings who came down from heaven ; and of the king's minis- 
ter who, threatened with death, went to his old father, who 
said to him : ' In our house there is a pillar whence light issues. 
Split it, and see what it is.' The son did as his father told 
him, and found inside that pillar the volume of the 'code of 
duties,' and how to fulfil them. It was taken to the king, who, 
by observing them, was afterwards born among the gods, &c., 
having thus obtained the result of a continual observance of 
those precepts." " Hear," says Vemana, " if with the strange 
[wonderful] axe of so-called discernment, thou cut down the 
tree of ignorance, then, taking in hand the lamp of under- 
standing, thou shalt [see] attain to happiness."' " Light shows 
itself when shed abroad on anything ; but wisdom lightens up 
all darkness, yet itself remains hidden."'" 

" I light in worship this burning lamp to the most excellent 
Buddha, destroyer of the darkness of ignorance in the three 

' Ani, XX. p. 144. ' Chanak. 93, J. K. ' Id. 75. • Dhammap. 

Buddhagosh. Par. i. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Dhammap. Jarav. 

' Id. c. xi. • Fol. 21, 22. 9 Vemana, i. 164. "■ Mishle Asaph. vL 34. 



[vi. 20 — 23 

worlds. Be it to me a help (or conveyance) on the happy 
road to Nibbhanam," said by the Sarana while lighting the 
lamps, and also while pouring water on the flowers."' "Of all 
food," said P'hara Thaken, " the food of the law is best ; of 
all enjoyments, that of the law is best. And Nibbhanam, 
which is rest from misery and from the fruit of lust, is by far 
best of all."* " The Lamp of the most Perfect Way" is the title 
of a Tibetan book, " to endue good disciples with perfect light."* 
" Wisdom alone gives lustre to works done by men living 
on earth."* " For," say the Greeks, "they have a double sight 
who have learnt letters."' "Abide safe under the influence of 
a holy mind [judgment]. As long as there is oil in the lamp, 
it will give light"* "The man who continues in the meri- 
torious duties contained in the revealed Scriptures, acquires 
fame here on earth and the greatest happiness hereafter."' 
" Those, then, who are earnest in observing their moral duties, 
would sooner part with life than fail in them. For in moral 
duties is the root of all our efforts to attain to perfection ; 
they are the road for us to walk in towards the bliss of final 
emancipation from all evil — Nirvana."* "Who will conquer 
this earth and this world, now under the dominion of Yama 
[death]? Who is the fortunate man who will gather, like 
flowers, the well-arranged verses of good moral virtue ? The 
disciple who attends to what he is taught will gather such 
flowers and conquer this earth and death." ' 

" All the bonds wherewith our past actions have bound us," 
says Vemana, "shall be removed by means of a teacher of 
truth, [according to the proverb], 'To the potter one year, to 
the cudgel one day.'" [The cudgel can destroy in a moment 
a year's work of the potter]."" "The learned man," say the 
Arabs, "who teaches men what is good and forgets himself, is 

' Tsa-gtiay. J. Thera, 23. • Buddhagh. Par. xxiv. ' Byang 

cbhum lam gyi, &c. * Hjam-dpal, fol. iv. ' Tvw/i. /jov. 

• V. Satasai. 273. ' Manu S. ii. i, 9. • Dsang-Lun, c. vi. 

• Dhammap. Pupphav. I, 2. " Vemana, ii. 127. 

vi. 24] 



like a candle that consumes itself while giving light."* "Gau- 
tama, most excellent and full of benevolence and in repose, 
addressed his disciples, and set up the lamp of knowledge 
J burning bright."* " And after causing men and gods to drink 
the juice of the law for forty years, he and his disciples were 
extinguished [entered Nibbhanam]."' "Let him [Zarathustra] 
have the best of all things, who taught the straight path to 
[profit] salvation, both for this visible [bodily] world and for 
that spiritual one, where Ahura delights to dwell."* "For 
the law [rule of conduct]," says Archytas of Tarentum, "is to 
the soul and to the life of man what harmony is to the ear 
and to the voice. When, therefore, the [moral] law trains the 
soul, iruvurrrjtri rhv piov, it frames the life for good."" " Three 
things," says Ali, "destroy a man: self-love (or conceit), 
avarice, and lust."« 

24 To keep thee from the evil woman, from the 
flattery of the tongue of a strange woman. 

]iU77 np'pOl?, ' from the slipperiness, wheedling, or coaxing of the 
tongue of a strange woman.' 

"To keep thee;* &c. "Why should we practise austerities 
on the banks of the Ganges? Let us rather cultivate the 
acquaintance of modest and virtuous women ; let us rather 
drink of the treasures of sacred books, and of those poetical 
works that savour of ambrosia. For we know not what to do 
in this life that lasts only a few twinklings of the eye."' " No 
confidence is to be placed in rivers, in armed men, in beasts 
with claws or horns, nor yet in women or in princes."* "Do 
not listen to a woman's words," says one of them,' " nor yet 
to your wife." " One may trust a messenger of Yama [death], 
a thief, a horde of savages and a murderer ; but he who trusts 

' Meid. Ar. pr. ' Htsandau thinguttara, i. ' Ajjhatta Jaja 

Mang. 8. « Va9na, xlii. 3. ' Archytas T. 4, Trfpt vofi. 

• Nuthar. ell. 33. ' Vairagya shat. 77. » Hitopad. i. fab. 2. 

• Aw. Atthi Sudi vemba. 

Y 2 



[vi. 25 

a woman in her weapons, will assuredly wander about in the 
streets like a beggar."* " The mouth of a woman is a nest of 
evil."' " And he who hearkens to a woman's advice is a fool."* 
" To begin a thing one cannot do, to strive with the mighty, 
and to trust a woman, are "death-gods' sitting at the door."* 
" De la mala te guarda, y de la bona no fies nada." " Beware 
of the bad woman, and trust not the good one." " As a log of 
wood athwart the stream is not to be trusted in the rainy 
season, so have nothing to do [no dealings] with a ruined 
woman."' "Listening to licentious words," say the Chinese, 
"destroys all disposition to virtue ; and giving way to it, saps 
the very root of life."" "When the [dge-tshul] novice was 
sent by his superior [dge-long] to his house for food, and his 
daughter, who was very beautiful, was there alone, the monk 
warned the novice to keep watch over himself The maid 
used all her artifices to ensnare him ; but he bravely went 
into an inner chamber, and there, having rehearsed to himself 
all that good monks had done under such circumstances, he- 
put an end to himself, rather than fall a victim to the wiles of 
that woman." ^ 

" In the same book we also read of Midgunwa, who was left 
alone to keep the house of his teacher during his absence. 
The Brahman's wife behaved as Potiphar's wife did. But 
Midgunwa replied : I am a Brahman, and by the rules of my 
order I am forbidden to touch my teacher's wife. She then 
scratched herself, and told her husband when he returned that 
Midgunwa had insulted her."« [It is the old story [not 'legend,' 
as Mr. Maspero calls it] of Joseph in Potiphar's house, and of 
the ' Two Brothers,' an Egyptian novel of the time of Seti II.»] 

25 Lust not after her beauty in thine heart ; neither 
let her take thee with her eyelids. 

1 Niti chintamani, in Sugden's notes, p. 74- ' Mong. max R. 

» Tarn pr. * Naga Niti, 21, Schf. » Hill pr. 107. Ming 

Sin P. K. c. 3. ' Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. fol. 96. ' Id. c. xxxvi. fol. 190. 
» Pap. U'Orbiney. 

vi. 25, 26] 



26 For by means of a whorish woman a man is 
brought to a piece of bread : and the adulteress will 
hunt for the precious life. 

tr^M ni^M, ' the woman or wife of a man, a husband ;' ■ an adul- 
terous woman,' marg. reading. Chald. id LXX. ywi-^ 8« avhputv, that 
does not imply a married woman living in adultery, but a common 

" Lust not" &c. " It is a sin," says Tai-shang, " to look at 
the beauty and complexion of another [woman], and to raise 
one's heart to make her one's own [' to think about it,' in the 
Mandchu version]. Man's feelings and passions are hard to 
restrain ; yet sins that arise from them are heavy. We may 
deceive ourselves ; but deceive Heaven, alas ! The law says : 
He who debauches women, in return begets dissolute sons 
and grandsons ; but he who commits adultery, in return cuts 
off his inheritance [or heirs]."* "And sons who do not riot 
with women, Shang-Te enables them assuredly to pass their 
examinations, to excel and to be among the first wranglers."* 
" But as to those who do such things, Shang-Te deprives them 
of their emoluments and of their happiness."' On^ of the 
five rules or commandments of Gautama is : " The deceit of 
passion." This law is broken by looking lustfully on another 
man's wife. The other four are : " Destroying life." This law 
is broken by killing even the smallest insect " Taking what 
is not given." This law is broken by taking even a single 
thread which is not given. " Speaking falsely." This law is 
broken by saying, even in fun, a falsehood that may injure 
others. "Intoxication." This law is broken by tasting as 
much of intoxicating liquor as would drop from a blade of 

"Kommara Kathaba said to the rich man Poo-ngya, on 
whose daughter he had cast his eyes : O Daraka [layman], it 

> Shin Sin luh. ii. p. 29. 
' Buddhagh. Par. p. 50. 

' Id. p. 34- 

' Id. p. 30. 



[vi. 25, 26 • vi. 25, 26] 

is in the nature of ' Put'hujans' [who have not attained to 
Aryaship, or ' regeneration'] that the very smallest particle of 
' soul of the eye' [lust of the eye] is enough to cause them 
trouble and distress. If they look at any one with this feeling, 
it leads them astray. Then the Nat [inferior god or spirit, 
inhabiting the intermediate space between heaven and earth, 
and dwelling in trees, &c.] advised Kommara Kathaba to 
meditate on the law of fear. He did so, and became a 
Rahanda"* [one raised above the common passions of human 
nature by some miraculous operation]. 

" Lust," say the Arabs, " is the toy of a vile (or low) nature 

or disposition ; and a fall through it is a blow given by that 

low disposition."' " He will be praised as a wise man who 

does not covet another man's wife," says Tiruvalluvar. " And 

the manly virtue of not looking on another man's wife, is both 

the virtue and the dignity of a truly great man.'" "The 

qualities of desire are pain and much misery ; much fear also, 

hatred and miseries of all kinds. It is like the edge of a 

sword ; like the leaf of a poisonous tree. Excellent men 

recoil from it as from a vessel full of vomit. It is like a sword 

smeared over with poison ; like a deep slough ; a swamp ; 

moonlight on the water," &c.* " He who is swayed [enthralled] 

by his passions, which go on increasing, multiplies his sorrows ; 

but he who has overcome them, hard as it is, sorrow leaves 

him as water drops from the leaf of the lotus."" They grow 

apace like a creeper around him. As soon as it appears above 

ground, root it up."» 

"Put away lust."^ "For at first it is fine like a spider's 
web, but in the end it is like a cable."* " Like leaven in the 
lump." said Rabbi Alexander."' "For the season of youth 
and beauty often is like venom in the end."'" "If a man, on 

> Thoo Dhamma Tsari, st. iv. p. 6. » Borhaned. iii. p. 36- 

' Cura! xv. 147. * Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiii. and c. xvi. ' Dhammap. 
Tanhav. 335—340. • Id. ibid. ' Aw. Atthi S. 97. ' Succah. B. Fl. 
» Id. ibid. '" Kawi Niti Sh. 



beholding another man's wife, conceives a passion for her, all 
his former good deeds, however many, are lost to him, like 
butter in the fire."' "And yet what man is there who does 
not err in this way?"' "Who then is a hero? He who has 
not been hit by darts from the eyes of a handsome woman."' 
" Amor, ut lacryma, in oculis oritur, in pectus cadit."* 

"I," said Hjam-dpal [Wisdom], "have the language of the 
eye without passion."' "The eye dwelling on beauty begets 
passion, the source of trouble and vain regrets. Therefore 
flee from it," said Gautama to his son Rahula.* " But," he 
also said, " the perfection of the eye as an organ of sense frees 
one from lust, and gives one great advantage. Therefore let 
us watch over it."' 

"For a man continues in the right path, and keeps his 
senses under control, so long as he has not been smitten with 
arrows shot from the eyebrows ['beauty's archers,'' crooked 
and wicked eyebrows],' and black eyelashes of Silavati.""* " O 
Fatima, do not pierce with thy two arrows my heart already 
slain."" "Open not thy windows [eyes] before the bows of 
angels [women's eyebrows];"" "whose eyes, like those of 
Yid-phrog-ma, are those of a roe."" "For a woman has her 
armour [or weapons] with her [or on her]."'* 

" 2vi' pk€<f>dp<i)v 8 aKTUTiv, ai^fTO wvficroi (piiriov 
KaXAos yap — o^vrepov TTTipotvTO^ o'icttov :" 

"With the rays [or beams] of her eyelids — for beauty is 
sharper and swifter than the winged arrow." " For the eyes 
are the outlet ; thence proceed the shafts that inflict wounds.'"' 
"Damayanti was ' ayatalochana,' long-eyed."" The bright- 
ness of her eyes was enhanced, as is the custom in the East, 
by the use of 'kohol' or black antimony, with which women 

' Vemana, iii. 214. ' Hitopad. ii. 129. ' Phreng wa, 18. 

* Pub. Syrus. » Hjam-dpal, fol. 5. • Rahula Thut. 12. ' Id. 13. 
» Husn-u-Dil. p. 11. • Cural, 1086. "> Hitopad. i. 207. 

" Amrallc Moallak. 22. " Abu Ubeid, 42. •' Kandjur. ii. fol. 403. 
" Jebamoth, M.S. •* Musasi, Hero and Leand. " Nalopakhy. v. 27. 



[vL 25, 26 

paint the inside of their eyelids, to give them a dark hue that 
sets off the white of the eyes and the deep black of the pupil. 
They have a saying in Ethiopia, ' Eyes like kohol,' for the 
finest eyes. But in a poem in honour of the Blessed Virgin, 
they say : ' Thine eyes are beautiful, though not died with 
kohol.' This custom was first introduced by the wicked angel 
Azazael [Azael], " who taught the daughters of Cain, before 
the Flood, thus to dye their eyelids in order to beautify their 
eyes. It was one of his devices for the corruption of the earth, 
which brought on the waters of the Flood, and sealed the 
doom of Azazael himself"' 

" Ever since, as the crow said to the king, few indeed have 
been the men who, when ensnared by women, do not suffer 
shame for it ; as there are few also who, when they eat too 
much, do not suffer for it."' "A man, however, who continues 
in the right path and keeps his senses under control, feels 
shame, and behaves himself decorously so long only as he has 
not been smitten by the look and eyelids of a fair woman."* 
" So long, then, as the least particle of lust remains, is a man 
held captive in mind [kept bound] by it, like a sucking-calf to 
its mother. Therefore root it out, O man!"* "Beauty of 
form, sweetness of voice, &c., are some of the evil snares of 
this existence [time] by which men are caught, as a monkey 
is caught in the toils of the hunter." "And fallen men [as 
well as fallen women]* are killed [lost] to society."* 

Ver. 26. " In the Kali age," said Parasara, " women shall be 
adulteresses, given to their own inclinations, fond of flirting ; 
shall wear false hair, forsake their husbands," &c.' [A remark- 
able passage, prophetic of the present time.] " It is of the 
nature of women," says Manu, "to vitiate or seduce men; 
therefore do wise men avoid familiar intercourse with them. 

' Bk. of Enoch, c. viii. ; Bk. of Adam and Eve, pt ii. c. xx. &c 

» Calitah u Dimn. p. 202. ' Shringara shat. 62. * Dhammap. 

Maggav. i. 284. * Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiii. • Chanakya, 99. 
' Vishnu Pur. vi. 1, 21. 

vi. 27, 28] 



For a woman will entice away from the right path not a 
fool only, but also a wise man, and will make him follow her 
through lust, temper, or her influence over him."' "Non vi h 
uomo si giusto, che la donna non infami," say the Italians.' 
Theano, who had reason to complain of her husband's conduct, 
writing to her friend Nicostrate, says, speaking of such women: 
" Men, it appears [Orjptvovrai], are hunted down by those women, 
and held captive by them, until they have no mind of their 


" Is it from affection that such women address men ?" asks 
Vemana, " When once they have formed a fellowship with 
them, they rob them of their wealth. When the goddess of 
Death has rushed into your house, will she again depart?"* 
" Is it Yama [death], or an eye, or is it a doe ? For these three 
are all in a young woman's eye."' " Marrying, elbowing with 
her eyes."* "A woman like me," said Hotoke-go-zen to Giwan 
[both concubines], is not fit to be spoken of [not worth men- 
tioning]."^ Like Berserker's brides, "who did their worst in 
seducing the whole people. They were she-wolves; hardly 
women."* " I have been told," said a father to his son, " that 
thou goest after pleasure. But turn not aside from my words. 
Givest thou not thy heart to the words of men of pleasure ? 
Thou art sacrificed, knocked down like a beast, and thou dis- 
honourest God."' 

27 Can a man take fire in his bosom, and his clothes 
not be burned ? 

28 Can one go upon hot coals, and his feet not be 
burned ? 

" Can a man," &c. "In the society of women — many a 
glance like the flashing of a scimitar, like a blowthat strikes 

• Manu S. ii. 213. ' Ital. pr. ' Theano to Nicostr. ed. G. 

* Vemana, ii. 176. * Cural, 1085. * Javan. pr. ' Hei-ke 

Monogatari, i. p. 11. • Harbardsliod, 37, 39. • Pap. Anast. v. 17, 3. 



[vi. 29 

vi. 30, 31] 



fire — woe to those who fall on that battle-field !"> "Can fire 
be in tow without setting it on fire?"' " Like the slender fila- 
ments of the ' ar^n-tree' [a kind of palm] close to fire."' " El 
hombre es fuego, y la muger estopa ; viene il diablo y sopla."* 
" The woman is like a pot of butter, and the man like a live 
coal ; thererefore let no sensible man place fire and butter 
together."' On the other hand: "Withdraw thyself from a 
handsome woman as from a live coal,"' " lest thou be caught in 
her net."^ " So it will be with those who shall walk by ways 
strewed with burning coals."* " If one goes near the fire, he 
is burnt ; if he stands too far off, he is not warmed" [forsaking 
one's lawful wife for other women].' 

" The sea, fire, and woman," says the Turkish proverb, " are 
three bad things." " Fire, waters, woman, a fool, a snake, 
should be avoided and not touched, as they may kill out of 
hand."'* "Like treading on fire covered with ashes."" "Ne 
stoppa con tizzoni, nh donna con uomini."** "The senseless 
man at the sight of women is like the grasshopper that looks 
with delight at the fire into which it falls and dies."" " Excel- 
lent men look with terror upon desire as upon a deep ditch 
full of burning fire. It is like a large bog ; like the edge of 
the sword sticking in the wound," &c." "The fire being 
kindled in Sakitzi's heart, he gave Misawo several opportunities, 
and at last got into conversation with her."" " Quick as pas- 
sion arises, O Bikhshus, do not remain a moment in the society 
of a woman."" 

29 So he that goeth in to his neighbour's wife ; who- 
soever toucheth her shall not be innocent. 

" Stt he that goeth" &c. Gautama said : " Wise men do not 
praise (or countenance) lying, &c., and going to another man's 

> Subhasita, 71. ' Sanhedr. M. S. ' Javan. pr. < Span. pr. 

» Hitopad. i. 126. • Ben Syra. Daleth. ' Id. He. • Solarlioth. 31. 
» Mongol, max. R. •" Lokaniti, 123. " Javan. pr. " Ital. pr. 

«' Vemana, c. i. " Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xiii. « Biyobus, p. 8. 

" Sdom pa sum pai mdo, kong segs i. fol. 8. 

wife."* " It is a sin," says Tai-shang, " to take to oneself what 
another man loves."' "What are the things to be avoided? 
Those that lead to low women, to another man's wife, and to 
another man's property."' 

" I, Arda Viraf, when in the nether-world, saw the soul of a 
man who was made to stand upright in a cauldron of brass, in 
which they continually roasted him. But he kept his right 
foot outside it. Then I asked : What sin did that man 
commit ? Upon this, the venerable [or pious] Srosh and the 
worshipful [angel] Ataro said : That man was given to sin 
and to commit adultery frequently with married women. But 
that right foot of his [which is not being roasted like his body] 
crushed and destroyed many frogs, ants, snakes and scorpions, 
and other hurtful creatures" [and on that account it is not 

30 Men do not despise a thief, if he steal to satisfy 
his soul when he is hungry ; 

31 But z/he be found, he shall restore seven-fold: 
he shall give all the substance of his house. 

" Men do not despise^' &c. " What sin is there that a famished 
man will not commit?"* "Honour, caste, learning, valour, 
knowledge, liberality [almsgiving], penance, honey-mouthed 
women, and desire — these ten will flee when hunger comes."* 
Yet " to die of hunger is a small matter," say the Chinese ; 
" but it is a great matter to lose one's character (or restraint, 
moderation)."' " The stomach of a hungry man may be satis- 
fied, but not his eye.'" " Do not work with a hungry man, 
nor walk with one who is full."* "Argument does not avail 
with a hungry stomach," say the Greeks ; " but hunger teaches 
many a turn."" " Ventre affam^ n'a point d'oreilles."" "For 

' Sigala V. Suttam. fol. nft. ' Kang in p. and Shin sin luh. 

' Ratnam. 48. * Arda Viraf Nam. c. Ix. ' Bahudorsh, 46. 

• Nalvarli, 26. ' Chin. prov. in Wang kew po's Imper. ed. p. S — 64- 

' Osman. pr. 

• Id. ibid. 

yv. /xov. 

" Fr. pr. 



[vi. 30. 3» 

when very hungry, a man will bite a brick ;"' for " in necessity 
[want, disease] there is no rule.'" " Necessity knows no law."* 

" Necessitas dat legem, non ipsa accipit 
— quod poscit, nisi das, eripit."* 

" Every religious precept is transgressed by a man who is 
hungry."' "A hungry man," said Vidura, " is one of the ten 
who do not mind (or acknowledge) the law ; like the covetous, 
wrathful, lecherous," &c.* 

" My dear Rahans," said P'hara Thaken, " he who steals pro- 
perty not given him, shall fall into the Preta hell ; and when 
he comes out thence, he will have no lasting possessions ; but 
they will perish."' "An ancient custom among the Georgians 
was, that thieves, robbers, and men who plundered others, should 
restore seven-fold."* "And the thief of a camel, and the thief 
of a needle, are both thieves."' " Punishments for thieves vary 
according to the offence," says Manu, " from twice to eleven 
times the value of the property stolen, or to the loss of one 
limb or of life."" " The first decision of the Cowherd [the first 
lawgiver, according to the ' Dhammathat,' or Burmese Laws 
of Manu] in the reign of Mahathamada, was concerning a man 
who had stolen a sheaf of rice, who had to restore twice as 
much and one sheaf, that is five sheaves."" "If a man is 
attacked by robbers, in Java, let him at once ask for help 
from the people of the place where he was robbed. If they 
fail to track the thief, they must restore two-thirds of that 
man's loss. But if the people refuse to give him help, they 
shall be fined twenty-five riyals to the public treasury."" But, 
said king Chakravartin to his vassals, " Do not take what is 
not given you ; and let not your passion lead you to commit 

' Bengal, pr. * Bahudorsh, 4 ' Eng. pr. 

» Vemana, ii. 196. • Maha Bh. Udyog. P. 1071. 

Par. p. 96, ed. Latter. ' Wakhoucht Geogr. p. 18. 

«• Manu S. viii. 314, 334- " 'Twice two and one.' 

" Nawolo Pradh. art iv. " Rgya-tcher r. p. c. 111. 

• Publ. Syr. 
' Buddhaghosh. 

• Georg. pr. 
Dhanunath. i. 3. 

p. 14- 

vi. 32, 33] 



32 But whoso committeth adultery with a woman 
lacketh understanding : he that doeth it destroyeth his 
own soul. 

33 A wound and dishonour shall he get ; and his 
reproach shall not be wiped away. 

in753 rV'nit'5, 'destroying,' or 'the destroyer of,' his soul [spiritually 
speaking], or of himself [socially]. 

" But whoso committeth adultery" &c. " For even Chanakya 
says that fallen men are (lost or) killed." "Ah, villain ! He 
who, taking the form of a man, ruins a woman's character (or 
virtue), shall fall into hell from birth to birth," said queen 
Pavanrekha to the Yaksha Drumalik.* " For the king's wife, 
his minister's wife, one's friend's wife, one's own brother's wife, 
and one's own mother — these five are to be looked upon as 
' mother' [in point of respect], and be treated as such."* " My 
dear Rahans," said P'hara Thaken, "he who commits adultery 
with another man's wife, shall suffer in the iron cauldron of 
hell when he leaves this present state ; and when he comes 
out of hell, he shall be born a woman."* 

" O vile fellow ! let thy knowledge (or sense) be degraded 
[' bhrashtam,' broken], and thou thyself be subject to women," 
said Brahma to Narada."* "The lack of propriety," says 
Tiruvalluvar, " in wishing for another man's wife, is not found 
among those in the world who consider well the meaning of 
'virtue' and of 'property.'" "But among those who stand 
aloof from virtue, there are none so ignorant as those who 
stand outside their neighbour's door" [with adulterous intent, 
Comm.].' " But the adulterer knows no shame."' " Mustapha, 
seeing women hanging by a hook over the fire in hell, asked 
Gabriel what they were. 'Adulteresses,' said he. God Al- 
mighty has given the husband's person to the wife, and the 
wife's person to the husband ; and they are both, by marriage, 

• Prem. Sagur, ch. i. » Naga Niti, 238, Schf. ' Buddhaghosh, 

Par. p. 97. ♦ Pancha Ratra. x. 24. ' Cural, 141, 142. • Tairi. pr. 



[vi. 32. 33 

given in trust the one to the other. The faithful are they who 
do not break their faith ; but those who do, commit sin. They 
are despised in the world, and punished by God."' 

"Two sorts of children," says Manu, "are born of other 
women than the lawful wife ; namely, 'kundas' and 'golakas.' 
The 'kunda' [child born of adultery], while her husband is 
living ; and the ' golaka,' if she is a widow. But these two 
creatures, born in a strange field, make all offerings to the 
gods and to deceased ancestors of none effect whatever, either 
here or hereafter."' " King Pasenadikothala, having planned 
adultery with the wife of one of his attendants, went to hear 
P'hara Thaken preach on the pains of hell that await adul- 
terers. He then was much alarmed : To sin [transgress] 
against another man's wife and children, thought he, is a very 
heavy burden to bear ; to continue in Aviji, hell, from the 
appearance of one P'hara [Buddha] to another ; and then, 
when come out thence, to spend another six thousand years 
roasting in the Lokakumbi, lake of fire, sixty yojanas in 
extent [a 'yojana' is about twelve miles], in hell! And yet 
I spent a whole night planning such an abomination. Never 

" He who goes to his neighbour's wife," say the Rabbis, 
"his soul migrates into a camel."* " Let no man,'' says Manu, 
" pay undue attentions to another man's wife ; for nothing in 
the world is known so detrimental to a long life as the atten- 
tions a man pays to another man's wife."* " He who keeps 
aloof from another man's wife, and who does not covet another 
man's property, is a wise man, O Vemana !"• "A man given to 
the love of money, considers neither religious teacher nor 
kindred [lit branches around one]; a poet has neither rest 
nor sleep ; and a man given to the love of women has neither 
fear nor shame."' " Abstain from other men's wives ; for thou 

• Miradj nameh, st 3. ' Manu S. iii. 174. ' Buddhagh. Par. xv. 
p. 104, 105, ed. L. ♦ Sola, B. Fl., and El. Tishbit, s. vi ' Manu S. 

iv. 134. • Vemana,!. 51. ' Nitivemba, 72. 

vi. 32. 33] 



oughtest to be mindful of these three : like wealth, like person, 
and like soul [in a wife]."* 

"And commit no lewd action, lest thou suffer damage and 
repentance for thine own deeds."' " If a man have intercourse 
with another married woman than his wife, with a widow, 
with or without children, and with a maid, let him pay fifty 
riyals fine. But if he cannot pay it, he shall receive two 
hundred lashes, and be expelled from the place," says the 
Javanese law." "Adultery brings poverty; but chastity 
brings blessing and honour."* "Passions are like filth and 

" Nihil est miserius quam ubi pudet quod feceris." • 

" He," said Samano Gotamo, " who transgresses through lust, 
sin, fear or folly — his honour and glory will wane like the 
moon in the dark quarter."' "If so be," said Tsikutsai to 
Sakitsi, "that merely looking at this woman on the screen 
reminds me of Komatsu, then it will be a bad strophe [double 
line in poetry] that will leave a bad name unto all genera- 

" He," says Tiruvalluvar, "who thinks lightly of going to his 
neighbour's wife, incurs guilt that will cling to him imperish- 
ably for ever." " Hatred, sin, fear, disgrace (or guilt), these 
four will never leave the man who goes to his neighbour's 
wife."' "The foolish man who goes to another man's wife 
falls into four states : misery ; illicit intercourse [and the result 
of it]; thirdly, blame from others; and fourthly, hell." "There- 
fore let no man go to another man's wife."*" " If you tell it — 
shame ; if you hide it — sorrow."" Yet " break (or bruise) thy 
bones rather than break (or bruise) thy name."" " For the 
licentious man gets a mark of reproach.""" 

"There are three distinctions in falsehood and in adultery. 

' Mainyo i Kh. ii. 50. ' Id. ibid. 23. ' Nawolo Pradhoto. xxxviii. 
* Matshaf. Phal. « Mong. m. R. • Publ. Syr. ' Sigala V. 

Suttam, fol. nj. ' Riutei Tanefiko, Biyobus, ii. 2. ' Cural, 145, 146. 
'" Dhammap. Nirayavag. 4, 5. " Telug pr. " Mong. max. R, 

" Nava Ratna. 2. 



[vi. 34. 35 

But when the fruit of them all is ripe, it makes a man to be 
born in hell. Yet if, in accordance with the cause of his sin, 
he is born a man, it makes him a passionate one."' "In this 
world," say the Chinese, " the wives and daughters of those 
who defile other men's wives and daughters shall also be 
defiled. Of all vices, adultery [in all its meanings] is the worst ; 
and of all virtues, filial piety is the first. Every man likes a 
pretty face ; but Heaven cannot be deceived. Therefore, having 
seen women, think no more of them."' 

But Manu's laws reach yet farther. "As to those who 
habitually commit adultery with the wives of other men, let 
the king banish them from his kingdom, after branding them 
with marks to create disgust (or aversion). He who talks to 
another man's wife at a place of pilgrimage, in a forest or a 
wood, or at the confluence of rivers, must be considered as 
having committed adultery with her. To give her flowers or 
perfumes, to play with her, to touch her dress or ornaments, 
and to sit with her on the same couch, is all reckoned adul- 
terous. He who touches a woman where he ought not, or 
who being touched by her bears it complacently, all this is 
called adulterous with mutual consent."' " One touch from a 
thunderbolt, from a fool, from a woman, from a monkey, and 
from low people, is like a spot of indigo dye."* 

34 For jealousy is the rage of a man : therefore he 
will not spare in the day of vengeance. 

35 He will not regard any ransom ; neither will he 
rest content, though thou givest many gifts. 

n ^3 njM^ hJb"). This construction, which is well rendered in the 
A. v., occurs only in this place. Otherwise naH is 'to agree to.' 

" For jealousy," &c. "Jealousy is [causes] the rage of a 
man, and of a woman also." " I hate thee right well, said 

' Dam ch'hos, fol. 44. ' Chin. mor. max. ; Dr. Medhurst, D. p. 195, 
» Manu S. viii. 352—358. * Pancha T. i. 291. 

vi- 34, 35] 



queen Lila Sari to Bindasari [whom she envied for her 
beauty]. Say no more ! She then twisted her by her hair 
and, calling Ratna Wali [one of her maids], said : Help me 
quick; I am determined to kill her."» "Art thou jealous of 
him [her husband]?" wrote Theano to Nicostrate. "Tragedy 
has taught us to keep under our jealousy. Hold on, and thy 
passion will soon die out. There are five sorts of punish- 
ment by mutilation applied to men ; but to women by divorce, 
for seven different reasons, which are the result of jealousy 
and envy, both reckoned crimes in women ; as settled by 
wise men of old. Therefore the duty of a woman is, the 
moment an evil intention comes into her heart, to thrust it 
out ; to be amiable and kind, and to busy herself with house- 
hold matters, and not to put herself forward in any way dis- 
agreeable," say the Japanese."' 

" Amor non ha sapienza, ed ira non ha consiglio," say the 
Italians."* And "for the man whom women have killed 
[ruined], there is neither right nor judge."' Thus Horace — 

" — dominoque furenti 
Committes rem omnem, et vitam et cum corpore famam."* 

" For hyaenas do not listen to caresses."' 

"When Anepu heard his wife's story, he became like a 
panther. He took his sharp knife, and stood behind the door 
of the stable, ready to kill his younger brother when he 
returned in the evening."' " Wakhoucht, in his Geography of 
Georgia, tells of a valley in the Caucasus [Pharsmzis in 
Tukhet], whose inhabitants know neither illicit intercourse nor 
adultery between married couples. If a man violates a woman, 
she kills herself, and the man is put to death by his fellow- 
citizens and acquaintances. He cannot escape into another 
country. And in Imereth they burn such sinners."* "You 

' S. Bindasari, ii. 590, 658. • Theano to Nicostr. ed. G. ' Onna 
ko kiyo, ch. xi. * Ital. pr. » Millin de Rab. 209. ' Hor. Sat. 

ii. 7i 66. ' Pap. Anast. i. 23, 3 ; Chabas, p. 226. • Pap. D'Orbiney, 
pi. V. 5. » Geogr. p. 330, 408. 




[vi. 34. 35 

vii. 1—3] 



shall beat every one, man and woman, of such sinners with a 
hundred stripes ; and be not taken with a feeling of pity for 
them in God's judgment," says Mahomet, " if you believe in 
God and in the last day ; and let some of the faithful be wit- 
nesses of their chastisement."* 

And in the Dhammathat it is said : " If a man kill one 
caught in adultery and he die, no guilt attaches to the mur- 
derer. And if a man is found guilty of adultery, it is right he 
should die."* " From lust, sorrow is born ; from it, fear also 
comes. But there is neither fear nor sorrow for him who has 
freed himself from it."' "A man, however, should be jealous 
of his wife, that he may continue attached to her."* And as to 
ransom — <x^P« ^< /«" ■^°" ^'''/"» — " I loathe his gifts," said 
Achilles ; " I rate him at a hair's worth." " If Agamemnon 
were to give me ten, twenty times as much as he has or may 
have, as much as the sand of the sea or as the dust of the 
earth, he could not soften my anger, until he makes amends 
to me for an outrage that wrings my very heart."' 

' Qoran, Sur. xxiv. 2. • Dhammath. vi. 31. ' Dhammap. Piyav. 214. 
« Zohar. B. FL • II. I. 378. 


/ Solomon persuadeth to a sincere and kind familiarity with wisdom. 
6 In an example of his own experience, he showeth 10 the cunning of 
an whore, 32 and the desperate simplicity of a young wanton. 24 He 
dehortethfrom such wickedness. 

lyr Y son, keep my words, and lay up my command- 
ments with thee. 

2 Keep my commandments, and live ; and my law 
as the apple of thine eye. 

3 Bind them upon thy fingers, write them upon the 
table of thine heart. 

"Myson,keepr %LC. "Despise not small beginnings. Fix 
in your mind what you have heard. Water failing drop by 
drop in an ant-hill fills it at last."" " Learning comes by little 
at a time.'" 

Ver. 2. "A man from Kdsi, Sonako by name, having seen 
Danaka [a disciple of Upali,]f a disciple of Buddha] 
with his pupils, was overjoyed, and asked him to admit him 
into the priesthood. ' First of all, ask thy superiors,' answered 
Danaka."' "And Siggawo, son of a minister at Patili, with 
his friend Chandawajjo, came to the Thera Sonako, and asked 
him, ' Teach us to enjoy what thou hast [samapatti], the result 
of intense meditation.' ' When thou art one of us,' replied 
Sonako. Then Siggawo and Chandawajjo acquainted their 
father and mother with it, and were admitted by the Thera 
Sonako. together with five hundred disciples."* " I think of 

' Lokaniti, 5. » Id. 9. s Mahawansa V. Moggali P. 

* Id. ibid. 

Z 2 



[vii. 4. 5 

the men of old," says the Chinese, " that I may not commit 
sin (or an error), and that I may possess [rule] my own heart."^ 

" The apple of thine eye!' lltP-'M, ' the little man of thine eye.' 
Arab. ' the man of thine eye,' &c. See ch. iv. v. 4. 

Ver. 3. "Bind them" &c. " The word of a king is a king of 
words, and is always to be regarded. That the contrary be 
not made public (or common), it should be written on the 
table of one's heart."' "O my son, who art thy father's life," 
said Nabi EfTendi to his son Abul Khair, " my advice to thee, 
dressed in verse which I call ' Khair Nameh,' Good Book, is — 
that thou bind my words on thy heart with respect and care, 
like a talisman to preserve life, and that they may ever remain 
in thy ears. Take it carefully for thy life, and let it not depart 
one moment from thy mind."* 

4 Say unto wisdom, Thou art my sister ; and call 
understanding thy kinswoman : 

5 That they may keep thee from the strange woman, 
from the stranger which flattereth with her words. 

nj'"37 3'JqI, 'and call to understanding (as to thine) acquaintance.' 
R. S. Yarchi remarks that 3?io, lit. ' acquaintance,' is also taken for 
' kinsman,' as in the case of Boaz and Ruth (ch. iii.). 

"Say" imp. 'at once, delay not' "Say not. We will think 
about virtue, but be virtuous now, at once ; for in the hour of 
death it will be an undying help to thee."* " How can one 
say that virtue is far off? I sought it," says Confucius, "and 
I found it."' "O my children, let us hear and lay to heart 
the holy word, that saith, ' Keep my commandments.' Say 
to wisdom, Thou art my own sister, and make understanding 
thy kinswoman."* "The salutation to a woman not related 
by blood is ' Subhag^ Bhagini,' "well-favoured or pleasing 
sister,' " said Manu.' " I choose the good (^penta Armaiti 

' She King, bk. iii. ode s. ' Akhlaq i Muhs. xiv. ' Khair 

nameh, p. 5. * Cural, iv. 36. ' Shang-Lun, vii. 29. • Didasc. 

Ap. Ethiop. c. i. ' Many S. ii. i, 129. 

vii. 6 — 10] 



[divine, holy wisdom personified] ; let her be mine (or belong 
to me)."> " Let her, the giver of wealth, let Armaiti come to 
me at my call, to rejoice me,"' said Zarathustra. 

Ver. 5. " Take care, for ' love's armies' are made up of tricks 
and falsehood (or cheating)."' " By all means yield not to the 
words of such a woman."* " For her advice is worse."' 
" Nam tuae blanditise mihi sunt, quod dici solet, 
Gerras germanae, atque eedepol, X^poi XijpiDv."' 

"A woman's word, a bundle of water ;" and " If a woman lies, 
it is like building a wall [thick and solid] ; but if a man lies, 
it is like putting up a mat [is seen through]."^ 

6 For at the window of my house I looked through 
my casement, 

7 And beheld among the simple ones, I discerned 
among the youths, a young man void of understanding, 

8 Passing through the street near her corner ; and 
he went the way to her house, 

9 In the twilight, in the evening, in the black and 
dark night : 

10 And, behold, there met him a woman with the 
attire of an harlot, and subtil of heart. 

Ver. 7. " The simple ones," &c. " To Ip^v liria-KOTtt airaaiv, &s 
«oi(c(, passion seems to blind everybody," says Menander, "both 
reasonable and unreasonable men"' — "and when thus pos- 
sessed, a man seems to others to have lost his senses."' " There 
are three things against which a wise man is on his guard," 
says Confucius. " In youth, when the blood and his animal 
spirits are not yet regulated, he guards against sensual plea- 
sures. In mature age, when his blood and spirits are settled, 
he guards against wrangling ; and when he is come to old age, 

■ Yaqna, xiii. 6. ' Id. xviii. 3. 

* Oyun tulk, p. 5. » Telug. pr. 2179. 

' Telugu pr. ' Menand. Andr. a. 

' Husn u Dil. p. 16. 
• Plaut. Poenul. act i. sc i. 
• Id. Aphrod. ". 



[vii. 9 

and his blood and spirits are ebbing fast, he guards against 
covetousness."* " Giving to the poor, religious restraint in 
young men, and in learned ones silence, all lead to the three 
heavens."* "A man who becomes the slave of women, and 
who, giving up his delight in the law, yields himself to his 
passions, remains very far indeed from true wisdom."* " He 
who goes after women is worthless [lit. a basilisk, deadly 
snake],"* say the Arabs. 

" His common sense is all but lost — 

whose brains [passion] are beaten about, ut acc/iof xar opo9 
Spwlv fnirt<Tiiv, like a mighty wind rushing among the oaks on 
the mountain."' "When passion thus takes possession of a 
man, he sees nothing else in the whole world."' 

Ver. 8. " In Kieuh-li [Li-ki] it is said : Let young people 
always See well that they are not taken in. They must stand 
in a proper place, and not listen sideways, but openly, face to 
face ; and beware of listening in secret lest they be deceived,"* 
as explained in the Japanese Commentary. 

Ver. 9. "/« the black and dark night," nbgSJ nVb ]itP''M?, lit ' in 
the pupil of the night and thick darkness.' Comment. / DS53, in 
the ' bone,' body of night itself. 

" The six evil consequences of wandering about the streets 
at unseasonable hours [late] are, O Gahapati, my son," said 
Gautama, "(i) that oneself is unprotected ; (2) that one's wife 
and children are so also ; (3) that one's property is also un- 
protected ; (4) that one is suspected of going to sinful places ; 
(5) that evil report spreads about one ; (6) and that one is 
dogged by many evil circumstances."' " The day has passed 
without accident, but the night is pregnant to bring forth [mis- 
fortune or evil]."" "The way is lost in the twilight, and fallen 

• Hea-Lun, xvi. 7. ' Banarayasht. 4. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xxi. 

* Meid. Ar. pr. » II. «'.-226. • Sappho, 73, ed. G. ' Shringara 
shat. 101. ' Siao-hio, c i. • Singhala V. Sut. fol. ni. " Georg. pr. 

vii. 10] 



women are also lost in it."* " The disposition being in general 
perverse, a woman's way is not clear and open ;"' "going by- 
night in order not to be known,'" say the Japanese; "when 
the dark black night has spread her veil,"* says the Arab.. 

" Crooked ways at night are poison," " says Chanakya ; 
"night hides (or covers) woe,"' says A. Ubeid ; "for purity of 
thought disappears (or transgresses) in the dark,"' adds the 

— iron pevOta vwktos epcfivai ' 
In the depth of the darkest night, when 

" in altisono 
Coeli dupeo temo superat 
Stellas, cogens sublime etiam 
Atque etiam noctis itiner."' 

"'AXX ^ Toi vvv H(V ireiOiafieOa vvktI ii(\aivg, 
" Let US then trust this dark night,'"" said Hector. 
" But," quoth Terence"— 
"£>e. Non est flagitium facere haec adolescentulum? Mi. Ah! 
Persuasit nox, amor, vitium." 

And in the words of Hesiod : " Night, 

— (T(Kt VTvyepov rt Mopov Kal K^/>a fuXaivav, 
brought forth cruel Doom and black Destruction, xal Odvarov 
and Death.'"* "For night," say the Rabbis, "is the time for 
devils." » 

Ver. ID. " 'OvSevoO' «Totpo Tou KoAoC irt-^povTiKt."** " Never did 
such a woman think of thy good," says Menander. " Let not 
a woman in such attire [irvyooroXos] take thee in with her 
wheedling talk," says again Hesiod ; " for he who trusts the 
like of her, only does so to thieves."** " For it becomes a 
woman," wrote Melissa to Clareta, "as regards her dress, to 
be clean and plain. As to flaring colours, purple and gold 

» Chanak. 90. • Onna ima kawa. ' Jap. pr. « Hariri, v. p. 72. 
' Chanak. 97. • A. Ubeid, 156. ' Vemana, ii. 196. » Stesichor. 
Him. 3. » Ennius, Iphig. 557. "> II. ». S°^- " Ter. Ad. i. 2, 

and iii. 4. " Theogon. 211. " Ep. Lod. 1350; " Menand. 

Andr. 14. •» Hes. I. «. ij. 371. 



[vii. lo 

ornaments about the dress, that belongs to harlots and suits 
their trade."* As the Italians say truly regarding dress, 
" Guasta la iigura di Dio chi se troppo orna," " she spoils the 
form God made, who adorns herself too much."* 
" Coccina famosae donas, et ianthina moechae. 
Vis dare, quae meruit munera? Mitte togam."' 

" The low (or vile) attires herself for sale ; but who can make 
over to others the one real ornament [purity]?"* "It was 
Azazael who taught those who lived before the Flood to make 
weapons of all sorts, bracelets and other ornaments, and ' kohol' 
to dye their eyelids ; to wear precious stones and dyes of all 
kinds. The world was thus completely changed ; wickedness 
increased ; they committed adultery to a great extent, and their 
ways became corrupt."' "In the nether world ArdaViraf saw 
the souls of women undergoing the most loathsome punish- 
ments. 'Who are they?' asked he. Srosh answered, 'They 
are the souls of women who, while on earth, painted and 
adorned their faces, and wore false hair [mfld-i-khadlhan, the 
hair of others], to captivate the eye of the men of God (or, as 
some read, ' the men of the world')."* " Elsewhere he saw the 
soul of a woman gnawed and stung by scorpions and other 
hurtful creatures. ' That,' said Srosh, ' is the soul of a woman 
who, when on earth, dressed her hair-curls over the fire ;' and 
that other one, so tortured, is the soul of a woman who com- 
mitted adultery.'"* [In the Vishnu Purana, there is a remark- 
ably prophetic passage, quoted above, p. 328, about such prac- 
tices in the Kali-yuga, the present time.] 

" The dress and head-ornaments of women, girls and females 
in general," say the Chinese, "should be moderate, sparing, 
plain and simple ; not in any way extravagant, flowery, fine 
or exquisite."' "But what of thee, O woman, with thy hair 
attired in gold and pearls ? Thou lookest like a mountain of 

• Melissa to Clar. ed. G. * Ital. pr. ' Mart. Epig. ii. 39. 

♦ Drishtanta shat. 58. ' Bk. Enoch, ii. c. 8. • Viraf nam. c. 73, 

ed. Haug. ' Id. c. 34. ' Id. c. 24, 26, 62, 63, &c. » Chin max. ; 
Dr. Medh. Dial. p. 193. 


vii. II, 12] 



clothes [Hesiod's irvyoWoXos, and the present fashion], a river 
in bulk. A becoming dress is proper. But say, what about 
thee, O woman, who art improper?"* "And as to thy talk, 
all that Usana [Shakra, Indra] knows, and all that VrihashpatI 
knows also, all that put together is planted by nature in a 
woman's [subtle] head."' 

In the Rgya-tcher rol pa,' we find an account of the daughters 
of Papiyan [papiyan, ' very wicked,' his name in the Sanscrit 
original of Lalita Vistara], whom he sent to tempt the Bodht- 
satwa with their thirty -two magical arts. They are called 
' daughters of the devil.' But the Bodhisatwa changed them 
into decrepit old women.* 

1 1 She is loud and stubborn ; her feet abide not in 
her house ; 

12 Now is she without, now in the streets, and lieth 
in wait at every corner. 

Ver. II. "'Ex6alpa Si ywalKa TrfpiSpofiov," "1 hate," said 
Theognis, "a woman who gads about"" "O woman," says 
Menander, "stubbornness makes thee transgress the boun- 
daries set to a wife ; that is, the front door, which is given to 
a free woman as the boundary of her house. For to pursue, 
to run about, and get a bad name for it, Rhoda, it is the 
doing of a dog."» "For it is a sin," says Tai-shang, "for 
a woman to have neither docility nor obedience;"' "and a 
vicious wife and a stubborn son, no laws will govern."* 
" Believe me," said Theano to Nicostrate, " it will avail thee 
but little to avenge thyself of the woman of whom thou art 
jealous ; for a woman who has no shame is ever ready to fight.'" 

" Drink," says Manu, " associating with bad people, absence 
from her husband, rambling about, sleeping at odd hours, 
staying at other people's houses, are six things that deteriorate 

' She King, bk. iv. ode 5. " Hitop. i. 129. » ch. xxi. 

* Id. ch. xxiv. ' Theognis, 595. " Menander, Hier. 2. 

■> Kang ing p. • Hien wen shoo, 70- * Theano to Nic. ed. G. 



[vii. 13— IS 

a woman (or bring discredit upon her). Such women do not 
look at the appearance, nor yet at the age or position of a 
man, whether he be handsome or not ; he is a man ; that is 
enough for them. Through their passion, their restless dis- 
position, their innate want of affection, let them be ever so 
well guarded by their husbands, they soon become debauched." 
Manu allots to such women as their portion, " a bed, a seat, 
ornaments, passion, wrath, crooked ways, an evil disposition 
and bad conduct" He further adds : " Women have no 
business with ' mantras' [religious teaching] ; this is a settled 
thing. Being therefore imperfectly qualified in this respect, 
and being without holy texts, women are falsehood itself; 
this too is settled"' — by Manu and in India. 

" The chief delight of such women is, on dull [cool] days, 
to come out in the dark, in out-of-the-way thoroughfares of 
the city, when their husbands are from home in some other 
country."* [In India, where children are married in the 
cradle, there is hardly such a thing as an unmarried female ; 
that is, one without a husband, unless she is a widow.] " The 
sons of men, then, require spying eyes when they go to fight, 
for oft do sly, deceitful women stand by the wayside, who 
ruin both sword and soul,"' said Sigrdrifa to Sigurd. 

1 3 So she caught him, and kissed him, and with an 
impudent face said unto him, 

14 I have peace offerings with me; this day have 
I payed my vows. 

15 Therefore came I forth to meet thee, diligently 
to seek thy face, and I have found thee. 

Ver. 13. 13 ni7''fnrJ?, 'and she fastened herself on him, seized 
him.' n"'35 njyn, ' she hardened her £ace(s).' Arab. ' she hardened 
her face impudently.' 

" Certe, captus es."* " Those women,'' said Gopa, Shakya's 

• Manu S. ii. 13—18. ' Pancha T. i. 189. ' Sigrdrifumal, 27- 

* Ter. Andr. i. sc i ; Hot. Od. i. 13, iSi Anacr. Od. 28, 29. 

vii. 13—15] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 


bride, "whose mind is reft of propriety, who are impudent, 
without modesty, and who withal use deceitful words, go 
about the world more bare than if they were uncovered, 
though they deck themselves with a thousand dresses."* 
" Having cast off modesty, no honour is left."* 

"Alcumena. — exquisivi simul 
Mi vir, et manum prehendi, et osculum tetuli tibi."' 

"An impudent face is wicked."* "An impudent face to 
Gehenna," say the Rabbis.* "A man by putting on an impu- 
dent face, gains his object as he wishes. But he cares very 
little for what he does."' "Kings, women and creepers 
entwine themselves around those who stand by them."' "But 
women flee from grey hairs, the sign of old age, as one would 
from the bucket of a Chandala [an outcast] with a bone in 
it."* "In like manner as creepers entwine themselves from 
one tree to another by embracing them with the tendrils they 
put forth, so do bad women put forth their tendrils and go 
about entwining themselves around those they meet"' 

" So also the priest's daughter to the novice GetsiiL But he 
repelled her. She bowed before him, and joining her hands in 
a praying attitude, said to him : I have long desired to have 
an opportunity of meeting thee," &c.," although they were 
strangers each to the other. So Damayanti to Nalus. " But," 
said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, " the man who is well spoken of 
[praised] by gamesters, dancers and harlots, does not live."" 
For "untruth, deceit, boldness, malice, excessive greed, lack 
of good qualities and impurity, are faults innate in such 
women."" " But there are wives who do not know how to be 
careful. They only think of rambling and roving about, and 
care not that, at home, there is neither food nor clothes to be 
had. Such are called lazy women,"" say the Chinese. 

* Rgya-tcher r. p. c. xii. ' Tarn. pr. 3059. ' Plaut. AmphiL ii. i. 
* Talm. Gittin, 10. » P. Avoth. v. B. FL • Eth-Thealebi, 282. 

' Pancha T. i. 41. ' Vairagyash. 75. ' Lokopakaniti, 70. 

'° Dsang-Lun, c. xvi. " Maha Bh. Udyog P. 1443. " Hitop. i. 208. 
" Chin, max.; Dr. Medh. Dial. p. 211. 



[vii. 1 6 — 21 

i6 I have decked my bed with coverings of tapestry, 
with carved works, with fine linen of Eg^ypt. 

1 7 I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and 

1 8 Come, let us take our fill of love until the morn- 
ing ; let us solace ourselves with loves. 

19 For the goodman is not at home, he is gone a 
long journey : 

20 He hath taken a bag of money with him, and 
will come home at the day appointed. 

21 With her much fair speech she caused him to 
yield, with the flattering of her lips she forced him. 

Ver. 16. " At S' einwdOofifvai. (TTopiirav Xf^ot, is (k(Xrixr(i> 
Kuca T« prjyoi rt XiVoto Tt Aorroi' Slidtov'" 

" They made the bed as Patroclus bade them, with a soft fleece 
a rug and the finest linen." 

Ver. 18. " Trust not the love of women, as only for the sake 
of children. The gem that glitters on the snake's head only 
plays with his venom."' 

Ver. 19. Anepu, the eldest brother who was married, sent 
his younger brother Satu to the house to fetch some com. 
Satu found Anepu's wife doing her hair. She sent him to the 
granary for the corn, and when he returned, she addressed 
him as Potiphar's wife addressed Joseph, " for her heart knew 
him." But he would not She grew alarmed, and when her 
husband returned she accused his younger brother, who was 
innocent Then follows the tale.' 

That happened in Egypt in the days of Seti II. But as 
the world is the same everywhere, we read in the Tibetan 
Dsang-Lun,* "that one of king Saljal's ministers placed his 
son Midung with a Brahman whose wife fell in love with him. 

« 11. I. 660. » Alcasi fr. 8, ed. G; Hesiod, i. r. ij. 580; II. y. 441 ; 

Lokopak. 50. ' Pap. D'Orbiney, iii. 7. • Fol. 190. 

vii. 19] 



The Brahman having been invited by a friend for three months, 
with his five hundred disciples, he asked his wife which of his 
disciples he should leave behind to guard the house. She 
said, ' Midung ; no one is so wise as he.' The Brahman once 
out of the way, she made overtures to Midung. But he 
answered, ' It is against the rules of my order to do so great a 
wickedness. If I did it, I should no longer be a Brahman. I 
would rather die than do it.' Then she flew into a rage, tore 
her dress, scratched her face, and told her husband on his 
return that Midung had insulted her." But " Sarp'hag, a 
merchant, having to go a long journey by sea, took with him 
his wife whom he had married for her beauty; when a huge 
turtle having struck the ship, the five hundred passengers were 
drowned. And as the rule of the sea is that it cannot hold a 
corpse more than one day, that woman's body was thrown up. 
But as she had spent all her time in looking at herself in the 
glass, she was born again a serpent,"* says the Buddhist 

"Tell him," said the adulteress to her servant, "that my 
husband is gone to drink with some of his friends, so that he 
may come to me."= [So the Arabic. But the Greek version 
reads : " She sent word to her paramour : Come to me pre- 
sently, for my husband is gone to some distant place on some 
business (or service); he then came to her"' See also the 
eighth story in the Toti Nameh.] " A bad wife also loves a 
bad friend ; and a bad king relies on those in authority under 
him. As wild beasts do ; they lie down with their kin ; lions 
with lions," &c.* " But a woman who goes from her husband 
and commits adultery with another man, is despised here on 
earth, and hereafter she enters the womb of a jackal, and is 
tormented with diseases which arise from sin."" 

However, the wife is not alone to blame ; but " adultery (or 
disorderly conduct) is learned of the husband."* " Se la moglie 
pecce," say the Italians, "non h il marito innocente."' "Yet 

• Dsang-Lun, fol. 75. • Calilah u. D. p. 95. ' Yrt^av. k. Ixi>v>^. p. 288. 
• Sain ugh. fol. 29. » Manu, v. 162. • Telugu pr. ' Ital pr. 

3 so 


[vii. 21 

it IS a sin in her not to show him proper respect," says Tai- 
shang.' And as regards his going from home, " seeking wealth 
often causes death, when trafficking and sailing from home for 
gain."* " Therefore," says Hesiod, "put not thy whole sub- 
stance in one ship, but leave most of it behind, and ship only 
a little ; for it is a woeful thing to be shipwrecked."' " And 
he who increases his traffic shall not grow wise."* " For the 
glory of the merchant is in his purse ; but the glory of the 
learned man is in sheets [writings or books]." "The timid 
merchant, however, makes no profit."' " But the warrior who 
went forth eager for victory shall return back ; for home is 
the desire of all moving things."* 

Ver. 21. "Do not converse long with a woman who draws 
thee into sin," say the Rabbis.' " Let not the Brahmachari 
sit apart with a woman ; for so close a fellowship is powerful, 
and leads astray even wise men."' " The fisherman kills the 
fish by deceiving it with the flavour of the bait So also does 
the bad man (or woman) begin to allure with words and then 
to ruin through deceit."* " The countenance of a froward (or 
cunning) man is soft, with oily (or clammy) words ; but when 
you search you find him very different. The peacock is 
handsome in appearance, but it swallows much foul matter."*' 
"Now," said Pwan-kang to his ministers, "I command you 
this one thing : Do not allow impure thoughts to arise within 
you, to your own evil odour [shame, discredit]. Fear lest 
others should draw aside your bodies and seduce your hearts. 
I thus try by my advice, to forward the order from Heaven for 
your prosperity."** 

" Pleasure, however, does not lead astray the prince ; but 
the prince leads himself astray," say the Japanese.'^ " Do not 
yield to the words of a woman."" For "womankind are 

' Kang ing p. ' Kawi niti S. ' Hesiod, I. k. ij. 687. 

* Ep. Lod. 2520. * Osm. pr. • Rig V. ii. skta. xxxviii. 6. 

^ Nedar. Millin, 128. • Manu S. ii. 25. ' Sain iigh. 141. 

'• Ibid. 147. " Shoo King, iii. 10. '• Tamino nigiwai, Atsme G. 

ii. p. $. " Mong. max. R. 

vii. 21] 



innately sinful and wicked," says the Buddhist.' "And he 
who hearkens to the words of such women is reckoned a 
worthless man."* "Such a man is caught and ensnared in 
the toils of a woman."' " Then came in a woman, Wofana 
by name, who said : I am the witch, Katsuga Ushitsudei, from 
the street of 'the palace of the King of Heaven.'"* "Such, 
however, show a lying love, and perfidy, and stuff their cloth- 
ing," said one of them to king Shahzeman.' " They laugh and 
they weep, and persuade the man whom they do not trust ; 
all for the sake of their object : wherefore such women are to 
be eschewed by men of good family [respectable men], as they 
avoid dead men's bones in a burial-ground."' "They are like 
darts ; like a creeper growing around one with evil doings."' 
"Thus the unsteady woman [bedrinks] intoxicates the firm 
and resolute man."' 

It is the same in all countries. In Ethiopic they have the 
saying : " Fire overcomes hard iron ; water overcomes a great 
[violent] fire ; the hot sun overcomes water ; a cloud overcomes 
the hot sun ; the wind overcomes a heavy [strong] cloud ; the 
earth overcomes such a cloud ; the son of man [man] over- 
comes the hard earth ; sorrow [or trouble] overcomes the 
strong man ; wine overcomes great sorrow ; sleep overcomes 
strong wine ; but the strongest of them all is woman."* " For 
a man," says Menander, " is easily led astray when under the 
influence of passion."'" "Life is sweet; yet gold is sweeter 
than many lives," says Vemana ; " but the words of a maiden 
are sweeter still."** 

" Oratione vinnula, venustula."" 

" Then one of the Apsaras, called Vapu, said : I will go to 
Durvasas to-day, and make him a miserable driver of his own 
chariot-like body, drawn by his senses as by horses, whose 

• Devadham. Jat. p. 128. ' Tarn. pr. 314. ' Jap. pr. p. 149. 

* Riutei Tanefiko, Biyobus, ii. p. 27. ' Alef leil. introd. p. 3. 

• Pancha T. i. 206. ' Bhartrih. Suppl. 15. ' Rig V. ii. skta. clxxix. 
» Ethiopic prov. in Mukdassi. " Menand. Nauder. a. " Vemana, 
ii. 29. " Plaut. Asin. i. 3. 



[vii. 22, 23 

vii. 22] 



reins he will drop through passion for me. If he were Brahma 
or Djanarduna, yet will I wound him to-day with the arrows 
of love. But she was cursed by the Rishi, and turned into a 
bird on the Vindhya mountains."* 

" For to be (clever) able to let virtue have the upper hand 
and overcome, makes a man wise and good ; but being clever 
at overcoming virtue makes the bad man," say the Chinese.* 
"Thus when the Brahman offered his daughter to P'hara 
Thaken, this one said : I will tell .thee one thing ; hearken. 
'The Man-nat [demon of pride, &c.] fought with me all the way 
from my hermitage in the sacred forest to the foot of the 
Ajjapala bo-t^ee [sacred fig-tree], but as he was not able to 
prevail against me, he fled. Then his daughter tried to seduce 
me with her wiles and ' Nat-tish' form, but she could not shake 
my mind. Thy daughter shall not touch the soles of my feet'"* 
" For although woman's person was created by Maha Brahma, 
like a golden creeper that overcomes everything — yet, setting 
aside such qualities as she has, her heart reveals (or contains) 
a big stone."* "Trust no go-between; but do thine own 
business thyself; for know this, that man's [and woman's] 
nature is made up of craft, imposture and fraud."* "Whence 
can morals come to a man who is entangled with a woman ?"• 
" Through njnpV inji, the abundance of her captivating talk ;" 
Arab. ' through the multitude of her arts.' 

22 He goeth after her straightway, as an ox goeth 
to the slaughter, or as a fool to the correction of the 
stocks ; 

23 Till a dart strike through his liver ; as a bird 

hasteth to the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his 


b">"!H "IMO blj DSJP-t, lit • and like stocks (fetters, &c.) to the 
punishment of a fool' — an inversion of words, probably for the sake 

> Markand. Pur. i. 5. • Ming Sin P. K. c. 3. » Buddhagh. par. v. 
* Lolcopak. 49. • Ahmed V. Tiiouri, c. xx. • Lokaniti, 136. 

of rhjrthm. A difficult passage, for which various interpretations 
are offered ; as by Gesenius, who takes 0553-1 with nJ^M, understood — 
" and as a man (who deserves the) stocks, to the chastisement of the 
fool" [for 'of folly']. But this is far-fetched and unsatisfactory. 
The literal rendering seems best. As " money ' goes' to pay a bill," 
and "cloth 'goes' to make a garment" &c., so also do "the stocks 
•go' to the punishment of a fool." The inversion in A.V. is clear 
enough. Arab. • or like the silly [foolish] man to the stocks (fetters, 
&c.) of retribution [punishment].' 

Ver. 23. il3? VO n'??^ ny, ■ until an arrow [rend] split his liver.' 
This clause properly belongs to the preceding verse, with which it is 
connected, and is thus rendered by the LXX. : 'As a dog to the collar, 
and as a hart shot through the liver with an arrow.' 

Ver. 22. " As an ox ... . as a fool to the stocks," &c " He 
follows her, Uiiv HkovtI yt Ov/iif,'^ ' will he, nill he.'" " He who 
follows his own desire (or inclination) commits a sinful action," 
said Gautama to Gahapati.' " And so it is that every man 
among mortals, one and all, is led like an ox to the slaughter."* 
"The man who has heard [learned] little of Buddha's law, 
grows old like an ox. His flesh increases, but not his intellect 
(or knowledge)."* " Whither are you going, then, Mrs. Fate ?" 
asks the man. "I'll follow you," answers Fate; "go on."* 
[Every man being for the most part the author of his own 
'fate,' fortune or misfortune in life.] "Follow the owl," say 
they in Egypt, "and it will bring you to ruinous places."' 
"Take the raven for thy guide," say the Arabs, "and he will 
soon bring thee to carcases of dead dogs."' " Yielding to the 
advice of one of the pigeons, the whole flock flew down upon 
the grain into the net, and were caught"* 

"The fool who in his folly thinks, 'This woman loves me ;' 
from that moment becomes her plaything, like a tame blue- 
jay. Such a man is always thought little of in the world, 
whatever he may say or do ; for such a man is a slave of 
women who will have him on no other terms. For they care 

• II. i*. 43. • Singhala V. Sutta, p. nh. ' Sulla Suttam, 7. 

* Dhammap. Jarav. 152. ' Telugu pr. • Egypt, pr. ' Meid, Ar. pr. 

• Hitop. i. 206. 

2 A 



[vii. 22, 23 

vii. 22] 



reins he will drop through passion for me. If he were Brahma 
or Djanarduna, yet will I wound him to-day with the arrows 
of love. But she was cursed by the Rishi, and turned into a 
bird on the Vindhya mountains."* 

" For to be (clever) able to let virtue have the upper hand 
and overcome, makes a man wise and good ; but being clever 
at overcoming virtue makes the bad man," say the Chinese.* 
"Thus when the Brahman offered his daughter to P'hara 
Thaken, this one said : I will tell ,thee one thing ; hearken. 
'The Man-nat [demon of pride, &c.] fought with me all the way 
from my hermitage in the sacred forest to the foot of the 
Ajjapala bo-tfee [sacred fig-tree], but as he was not able to 
prevail against me, he fled. Then his daughter tried to seduce 
me with her wiles and ' Nat-tish' form, but she could not shake 
my mind. Thy daughter shall not touch the soles of my feet'"' 
" For although woman's person was created by Maha Brahma, 
like a golden creeper that overcomes everything — yet, setting 
aside such qualities as she has, her heart reveals (or contains) 
a big stone."* "Trust no go-between; but do thine own 
business thyself; for know this, that man's [and woman's] 
nature is made up of craft, imposture and fraud."* "Whence 
can morals come to a man who is entangled with a woman ?"' 
" Through Dtip^ b-i3, the abundance of her captivating talk ;" 
Arab. ' through the multitude of her arts.' 

22 He goeth after her straightway, as an ox goeth 
to the slaughter, or as a fool to the correction of the 
stocks ; 

23 Till a dart strike through his liver; as a bird 
hasteth to the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his 

Vl.H">D-"«3 bs ro^P-l, lit 'and like stocks (fetters, &c.) to the 
punishment of a fool' — an inversion of words, probably for the sake 

• Markand. Pur. i. 5. • Ming Sin P. K. c. 3. ' Buddhagh. par. v. 
• Lolcopak. 49. » Ahmed V. Tin»uri, c. xx. • Lokaniti, 136. 

of rhythm. A difficult passage, for which various interpretations 
are offered ; as by Gesenius, who takes D3y>1 with OJ^H, understood — 
" and as a man (who deserves the) stocks, to the chastisement of the 
fool" [for 'of folly']. But this is far-fetched and unsatisfactory. 
The literal rendering seems best As "money 'goes' to pay a bill," 
and "cloth 'goes' to make a garment" &c, so also do "the stocks 
'go' to the punishment of a fool." The inversion in A.V, is clear 
enough. Arab. ' or like the silly [foolish] man to the stocks (fetters, 
&c.) of retribution [punishment].' 

Ver. 23. ins? VO n'??^ ny, • until an arrow [rend] split his liver.' 
This clause properly belongs to the preceding verse, with which it is 
connected, and is thus rendered by the LXX. : 'As a dog to the collar, 
and as a hart shot through the liver with an arrow.' 

Ver. 22. "As an ox.. .. as a fool to the stocks" &c " He 
follows her, «a.v aiKovrl yi Oviuf} ' will he, nill he.'" " He who 
follows his own desire (or inclination) commits a sinful action," 
said Gautama to Gahapati.' " And so it is that every man 
among mortals, one and all, is led like an ox to the slaughter."* 
"The man who has heard [learned] little of Buddha's law, 
grows old like an ox. His flesh increases, but not his intellect 
(or knowledge)."* " Whither are you going, then, Mrs. Fate ?" 
asks the man. "I'll follow you," answers Fate; "go on."* 
[Every man being for the most part the author of his own 
' fate,' fortune or misfortune in life.] " Follow the owl," say 
they in Egypt, "and it will bring you to ruinous places."* 
" Take the raven for thy guide," say the Arabs, " and he will 
soon bring thee to carcases of dead dogs."' "Yielding to the 
advice of one of the pigeons, the whole flock flew down upon 
the grain into the net, and were caught"* 

" The fool who in his folly thinks, ' This woman loves me ;' 
from that moment becomes her plaything, like a tame blue- 
jay. Such a man is always thought little of in the world, 
whatever he may say or do ; for such a man is a slave of 
women who will have him on no other terms. For they care 

" II. y. 43. • Singhala V. Sutta, p. nfe. • Sulla Suttam, 7. 

* Dhammap. Jarav. 152. » Telugu pr. • Egypt pr. ' Meid. Ar. pr. 
' Hitop. I. 206. 

2 A 



[vii. 23 

vn. 23] 



very little whether he be young or old, good-looking or plain ; 
he is a man, that is enough. For passion is innate in them ; 
and the fool who seeks their company falls at their feet, like a 
wet rag wrung of all its lacquer-dye." ' "And the beginning 
of such fellowship ends in bitter sorrow."* " He therefore is 
wise," said Sanatsuda to Bharata, "who stifles or destroys his 
passions. But he who serves [follows] them, perishes through 

them. By day or by night, then, go not after strange 

women and thieves. If thou goest, thy journey will be to thy 
loss."* " There is, O Mitradzoghi, a bride for thee, as fair as a 
daughter of the gods, lotus-like, with a sweet voice, &c. She 
may be so, answered Mitradzoghi, yet is she but the daughter 
of a bewitching and lying devil, a rope to bind me to this 
world. Let me go from her."* 

" For men who are driven by their passions, wander about 
like a hare pursued by hunters. Those who follow their pas- 
sions, rush along a torrent of their own making ; they are 
entangled in a spider's web." " Wise men will break through 
it and walk free from lust, and then free from sorrow."* " If 
not, and if he follows it, he sticks in it when caught as a fly 
by its feet in honey, or like a fool with his feet in the stocks."' 
" Therefore go not after a woman who has taken hold of thy 

heart,"' until ^ , ^ , 

" — <f>a<ryav<f o*Ta KaO rprap, 

" she pierce thy liver through with a dagger." " I will thrust 
him through the heart and through the liver," said Joukahai- 
nen to Wainamoinen.*' 

Ver. 23. " Drawn from afar, and coming by degrees, lured 
by the hunter's song, the deer seeks (or hunts) the hunter 
[death]." "As the maddened elephant is led by the female 
to the post to be tied to it, so also does the moth, lured by the 

• Pancba T. L ISS- * Kawi niti S. 
•* Lokopak. 112. * Mitradzoghi, p. 6. 

343. 347- ' Gulistan, ii. 33. 

- Kalevala, il 113. 

• MahaBh. Udyog P. 1588. 

• Dhammap. Tanhav. 

• Ani, Iv. max. » H- /. 469. 

light of the lamp, fall readily into it."» "So also the fish 
swimming in deep water sees from afar the baited hook [and 
is caught with it]."' " Likewise the grasshopper [or mothj 
unconscious of the pain of being burnt, goes into the lighted 
lamp, as the fish swallows the baited hook. Yet we who are 
aware of these tangled snares of misery do not eschew them, 
alas I — blind [lit. thick], enormous folly !"' " Yea, the greatest 
folly of all is to follow one's passions recklessly."* 

" He, then, who, presuming on his own power, goes heed- 
lessly to meet another man's wife, goes straight to ruin, like a 
moth into the fire."* " Smitten, he falls into the fire of desire," 
said Shaunaka to Yudhishtira, " as a moth does from greed for 
the light"* " By such women is a man ensnared and caught,"' 
"and perishes like a rat under a cart-wheel of stone,"' "or like 
gum-lac melted in the fire of destruction."' "As a moth in 
the fire, lured by the light," said Yudhishtira to Krishna" " Or 
like a kutuk [a large fish, good to eat] leaping towards the 
spit [on which it is roasted]." " Or like " the dove and the pail 
of water painted ; the dove flew down upon it and was killed."" 
"It has happened to me," said the bull to Dimnah, "as it 
happens to senseless bees, which, being delighted at finding 
themselves inside a flower, remain there until they are smo- 

"The foolish man is like the [summer insect] moth that 
comes to the fire and dies in it ;"" " bewildered by the light ;" 
" with a fancy for its own corpse." " So is a silly youth also 
more ignorant even than a moth."^* [See also El Mocadessi, 
'The Taper and the Moth,' p. 74, and the Bostan of Sadi, 
story I, and 28, 'Conversation between the Candle and the 
Moth ;' also in the Dulva** the story of Norbzangs, and of 

> Kamand. niti S. i. 41. * Id. ibid. 44. ' Shanti shat 8, and 

Vairagya shat. 19. , * Cural, 832. ' Pancha T, i. 266. • Maha 
Bh. VanaP. 115. ' Vemana, ii. 174. ' Id. loi. » Id. 149, 

" Maha Bh. Bhishma P. 4905. " Javan, pr. " Syntipa, fab. viii., 
and Sophos, ibid. " Sn^av. r. IxvnK. p. loo. " Japan, pr. p. 405, 

and p. 21, 38. " Meid. Ar. pr. " Vol. iii. p. 390, 

2 A 2 



[vii. 24 — 26 

vH. 26, 27] 



27 Her house w the way to hell, going down to the 
chambers of death. 

Ver. 24. Q^!l?, ' sons,' seems more appropriate than ' children.' 
Ver. a6. n-Jliq V? D'piSJ?!, lit. 'and (or -yea') strong (or 
'mighty') are (or 'were') all her killed,' which is not strictly true, 
inasmuch as many foolish and weak men fall a prey to her. WSy, 
however, is said to mean 'strong in number,' numerous, although 
none of the passages given in support of it are at all conclusive. Thus 
in Joel i. 5, where mention is made of a nation, "ippo VH? D^lSy, 
it may be rendered as in A.V. ' strong and without number,' quite as 
well as ' numerous and without number.' This 26th verse, however, 
seems most in favour of ' numerous,' that makes the meaning quite 
clear: 'Yea, all (the men) she has killed (or 'kills') are many in 
number.' So the LXX. Kal dvapWfirjroi turiv ow irt<f>6vevK(v. But 
the Arabic has, ' and all her killed [were] strong.' 

Ver. 24. " Then Buddha, coming to the abode of joy 
[Tushita], said to the gods : ' Abstain from all unchastity ; 
divine joys, as many as there be, are the noble offspring of the 
heart and mind ; they result from the cause of good works, 
and are the fruit of doing good ; therefore think of your 
actions.'" 1 " Having heard, O Bodhisatwa, that the prediction 
of the perfection of Buddha applies to the hearers of the law 
as well, we are filled with wonder and astonishment."' 

Ver. 25. "What is it that is, until death, like a dart (or 
arrow)? That done deceitfully which ought not to be done."' 
" Woe," say the Welsh, " woe be to him who gets a bad repu- 
tation when young!"* And the Greeks — 

" #(vy« ijSov^v <f>epowrav vartpov /3X.dpriv,"^ 
" Flee the pleasure that ends in misery." Then Horace — 

" Desine matronas sectarier, unde laboris. 
Plus haurire mali est, quam ex re decerpere fructus."* 

Ver. 26, " If," says Ptah-hotep, " thou goest into the women's 
apartments of a master or of a brother, beware of touching the 

' Rgya-tcher r. p. c iv. p. 36. ' Dam pai ch'hos padma, &c fol. v. 

' Ratnamal. 46. * Welsh pr. ' rvu/i. itov. • Hor. Sat. i. 2, 78. 

women : it is not well to do so : thousand men have been 
carried away by pleasure that lasts an instant, a wink only, 
but that reaches unto death. Let thy heart be against it But 
if carried away by passion, no advice will avail."* "No one 
will touch, even with a stick, the man who, leaving the right 
road, walks in the wrong one."' " For restraint of the body is 
one door of entrance to the law ; it purifies wholly the three 
defects (or vices) of the body."* " How many thousands of 
brave men of valour have perished from the root [root and 
branch] through women ! How many men, healthy-looking, 
honourable, and of a beaming countenance, have themselves 
become earth through women I How many thousands of cele- 
brated, noble tenants [of the state] have women laid down 
alive upon the dust I Let God, the Protector, protect them 
with His help!"* 

"Alas ! alas I my strength, that was dreaded by my enemies 
on the battle-field, has been [broken] overcome by that fair 
forehead,"' says Tiruvalluvar. 

" IIoXXcls S' l<t)0iiJU)Vi ^«x"S 'AiSi irpotarj/tv."* 
" For he that goes to another woman [or to another man's wife] 
shall, when dead, go to hell ; and here his life will be short- 
ened ; either way will he fare thus."' " Too long have I held 
thee on my bosom, thou venomous snake," said Dasaratha to 
Kaikeya ; "therefore do I now perish through my own folly."' 
" For kings and princes, and men of sense and mind, as well 
as heroes, become craven in company with women."* " It was 
through them," says Ibn Batrik in his Annals, "that king 
Solomon lost his gift of prophecy."'" 

Ver. 27. •' All my studies," said Kandu, (or all steps taken) 
for the knowledge of the Vedas, are all destroyed within me 
by union [with Premlocha], which is the road to hell."" " What 

• Pap. Pr. ix. 7. ' Beng. pr. » Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. p. 22. 

* Kudat-ku Bilik. xxviii. 19—23. ' Cural, 1088. • II. k 3. 

' Vishnu Pur. iii. 11, 73. ' Ramay. ii. xii. loi. » PanchaT. L 207. 
" Nazam juw. p. iSi. " Vishnu P. i. xv. 28. 



[vii. 27 

viii. 1—3] 



[calamity or] perfidy more injurious to man do I leave after 
me than woman?"' said Mahomet [as reported in Hadis, tra- 
ditions of him] ; he who did more than any one else to debase 
and degrade woman wherever Islam prevails. It was not so 
in primitive times among the Aryas, whether in 'Airyana 
vafija,' in beautiful, well-watered Iran, or in Bharata-varsha 
[Hindostan]. "See," says the Tamil proverb, "that you 
escape the misery of the deep, miry abyss into which bad, 
fascinating women, who talk like parrots, try to lure you"* — 
" plunged into that awful [tormenting] hell, into that deep, 
immense slough."' " Therefore shun the harlot's house."* " A 
woman with a long tongue, and quick steps leading to confu- 
sion ; no advice will avail with her so long as she lives."* 
"When thou, Kaikeya, hast thrown Causalia, Sumitra, with 
me and my two sons, into hell, live happy," said Dasaratha.* 

" — <f/v)(al 8' 'AiSoa-St KaTrjKdov," 

" where 'Ai8>js xopU uKurdai 0€<ov, people live in Hades without 
gods."' "Nulla vestigia retrorsum." 

• The 40 Vizeers, p. 22. • Rattler's Diet. p. iv. p. 130. 

' Naloday. vi. 13. ♦ Aw. Atthi Sudi, 95. ' She King, bk. v. 10. 

• Ramay. ii. xii. 86. ' II. 4. 33a • Euripid. Hecub. 2. 



/ The fame, 6 and evidency of wisdom, to The excellency, I3 the nature, 
15 the power, 18 the riches, 23 and the eternity of wisdom. J2 Wisdom 
is to be desired for the blessedness it bringeth. 

T^OTH not wisdom cry? and understanding put 
"^ forth her voice ? 

2 She standeth in the top of high places, by the 
way in the places of the paths. 

3 She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at 
the coming in at the doors. 

Ver. 2. TTTJ ^^S> ' heights of road, high places trodden by people, 
high roads.' nis^nj n^5, lit. 'a house of paths,' which is understood 
by some to mean 'an inn,' or 'caravanserai.' But, according to the 
Syriac idiom, the rendering of A. V. is good, ' among paths, in places 
where paths cross one another, cross-paths, Wisdom stands everywhere, 
from the highest place to the lowest.' The LXX. omit iT^jJ ^9^, ' at 
the [opening] entrance of the city,' and read, yap iriXan 
rZv waptSptva, ' takes her position by the gates of the chief men,' 
which the Coptic and the recent Arabic translation follow, although 
the older Arabic follows the Hebrew. 

Ver. 3. " King ' Mig-hbyed' [opener of eyes] said to his min- 
isters : Draw out all my treasures, and heap them up at the 
gate, in the ways and streets of the city, where the multitude 
congregates and dwells, and say unto them : O ye Brahmans, 
poor, sick and destitute, &c., come and receive whatever you 
like, &c."* " One once asked a Sultan why he did not fasten 
his doors, but left his gate open, instead of keeping a cham- 
berlain. Because, said he, I protect my people ; not they me."* 
' Dsang-Lun, c. xxxv. fol. 183. ' Eth. Thealebi, 19. 



(viii. 4 — 6 

4 Unto you, O men, I call ; and my voice is to the 
sons of man. 

5 O ye simple, understand wisdom : and, ye fools, 
be ye of an understanding heart. 

6 Hear ; for I will speak of excellent things ; and 
the opening of my lips sAa// be right things. 

Ver. 6. D^7'*3P, LXX. trtjiva, ' honourable, chief, principal things,' 

• sayings to guide and take the lead.' Arab. ' words of excellence,' or 

• nobleness.' Chald. rPn^nt?J, ' rectitude,' ' truth,' and in some copies 
fVn>"ntp, ' princely leading or ruling.' 

Ver. 4- " Unto you I call" &c. Pwan-kang [B.C. 1400] in his 
Instructions said : "Come, ye multitudes ! I will give you good 
advice. Give up your selfish feelings ; be not arrogant, neither 
be of slothful habits, nor follow after [ease and] comfortable 
living."* "When the five hundred beggars came to Buddha 
and asked him to teach them his doctrine, he replied : The 
law I teach is very pure ; it is alike for great and small, rich 
and poor. Like water, it washes and cleanses all alike, high 
and low, rich and poor ; or it is like fire, that burns everything 
on hill and dale, and between earth and heaven. Or it is like 
heaven, where there is room for all, whether men or women, 
boys or girls, rich and poor. Come, I will teach you accordirig 
to your heart"* "When I saw you, O children, dreaming [in 
uncertainty as to right or wrong]," says the Chinese Book of 
Odes, " my heart was grieved, and I advised you over and over 
again ; but ye despised my voice."* 

Ver. 5. Thseng-tsze^ quotes another ode from the She King, 
where it says that "the "mien man,' the yellow bird, seeks 
refuge in a nook on the mountain-side;" which the Ji-kiang 
[Commentary on the Ta-hio] explains thus : " Even a bird 
knows where to take refuge and to remain ; yet man, who is 
the soul of all things, cannot choose supreme good and abide 

« Shoo King, iii. 9, la ' Dsang-Lun, c. xxxiv. foL 178. 

' She King, bk. iii. ode 2. • Comm. on the Ta-hio, c. i. 



viii. 7 — 9] 



in it ; he is not even as intelligent as a bird ;" " although," said 
Enoch, "the Most High has given to men a mouth to speak 
and an understanding heart, and has given men who under- 
stand a voice to speak."' And Confucius, speaking on self- 
government according to wisdom, says that "by following that 
rule the simple must acquire intelligence."* 

Ver. 6. "Hear," &c. "These precepts," says Ptah-hotep, 
"are of the very first [most excellent]."' "[Come] hear with 
[your] ears the best words, and see [consider] with a clear 
mind, to decide on what is most desirable for us, every man 
for his own [body] person, before the great [business] event 
[happens, the resurrection of the dead] ; those who know about 
it should be ready to teach us [for the teaching of us]."* 
" Hear ! Hjam-dpal [Mandju Sri, Wisdom personified] having 
presented himself before Buddha with joined hands, said thus • 
O ye gods, I have a remedy, through love for me ; a treasury 
which I have found for the perfect etilightenment of illusion 
[in which mortals live] ; a remedy for all who are in natural 
corruption, being in spiritual trouble [disturbance], and sunk 
in the slough of ignorance."* 

7 For my mouth shall speak truth ; and wickedness 
is an abomination to my lips. 

8 All the words of my mouth are in righteousness ; 
there is nothing froward or perverse in them, 

9 They are all plain to him that understandeth, and 
right to them that find knowledge. 

Ver. 7. " The mark (or token) of the Most Blessed One,'' say 
the Rabbis, "is— truth."« "The wise man," says Confucius, 
" [thinks] bears in mind nine things, one of which is that in 
his words he thinks of sincerity [truth]." ^ Lao-tsze also says 

» Bk. Enoch, riv. 2, 3. ' Chung y. c xx. » Pap. Pr. v. 3. 

* Yatna, xxx. 2. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. 2. • Joma, 69, M. S., and 

Ep. Lod. 950. ' Hea-Lun, xvi. 10. 



[viii, 8, 9 • viii. 10, ll] 

that "the holy man speaks good [truth] and faithfulness."* 
" Do not resort to false words," says Aweyar.* " Truth and 
sincerity," said Confucius, " is Heaven's way ; and truth is the 
rule of [for] men."' " Truth is clear," say the Arabs ; " false- 
hood is foul."* Ajatashatru said to Balaka's son : " Speak not 
proudly. I worship him [Brahma] as the Spirit of Truth ; 
and he who worships him thus, becomes Spirit of Truth."* 
" Noon is father of the gods, and Ma [Truth] is the daughter of 
the Sun,"' says the Egyptian ; and Menander, " dtl Kpirurrov 
«<m to\tj5^ Xiytiv :' it is always best to speak the truth." 
Ver. 8. " — rdvT €<rT» T<f KaKif Xoyif 

Upbtr' 6 vovs yap ioTiv 6 AaA^tiii' 6tif."^ 

" Everything," says he again, " is sacred for the word [mouth, 
speech] of a good man [he weighs all his words] ; the mind 
alone converses with God." " I have," says Hjam-dpal, " the 
great knowledge of pure words (or speech) ; my words are 
true ; I have the speech of foreknowledge and of perfection."* 
" The value of a word tells who is right and who is wrong [in 
judgment] ; some will call a blind man a hero, and others will 
call him [what he is] a blind man."'* 

Ver. 9. " TAey are all plain" &c. " To him whose heart is 
not darkened, all things are plain."*' "The clearness of per- 
ception [intelligence] that comes from natural [innate] perfec- 
tion is called innate light [or talent]. And the perfection that 
results from intelligence is called instruction [or acquired 
light]."" And Lao-tsze says: "My words are very easy to 
know [understand], and very easy to practise." " " For the vir- 
tuous understand virtue, but a man destitute of it does not 
Just as an elephant can estimate the strength of a lion, but a 
rat cannot"" "Every good and evil is plain to a man of 
understanding, as white and black are plain in the light of the 

' Tao-te-KIng, viii. ' Atthi Sudi, 52. ' Chung y. c. xx. 

• Meid. Ar. pr. * Kaushit Brahmana Upan. iv. 5. ' Rit. of Dead, 
c. cxli. 4. ' Menand. Hypobol. ed. Brk. ' Ibid. Arrheph. f. ed. G. 

• Hjam-dpal, fol. ii. and v. " V. Satasai, 465. " Ming h. dsi. 35. 
" Chung y. c. xxi. " Tao-te-King, c Ixx. " Kobitaratna. 128. 



sun," said king Purwiz to his son Chosru.* " Time is come," 
said the Brahman to the king, " to teach him who was blinded 
by ignorance, by ' dividing' the word of the law to him [ex- 
plaining it]."' 

"'Well, Nagasena,' said king Milinda, 'what is the charac- 
teristic of wisdom ?' ' As I said before, O King, the attribute 
of wisdom is to divide [cut] and also to emit light [to lighten 
up, enlighten].' ' How so ?' ' When wisdom has arisen [in the 
heart], it overcomes the gloom of ignorance ; it gives birth to 
wise (or knowing) speech ; and it shows forth the bright lustre 
of knowledge. It makes plain [aryan] noble truths, so that 
the meditative man [devotee] is able to see in the clearness of 
his wisdom what is transient and worth- (or meaning-) less.' 
' Give an example, Nagasena,' said the king. ' It is, O King, 
as if some one brought in a lamp into a dark place. That 
lamp would at once scatter the darkness,'" &c.' "And as to 
the fruit of wisdom, Bchom-ldan-das [Buddha] spake these 
great and pure words [the attributes of Hjam-dpal], for the 
sake of their bringing forth immeasurable abundance of fruit 
[of wisdom]."* 

10 Receive my instruction, and not silver; and 
knowledge rather than choice gold. 

1 1 For wisdom is better than rubies ; and all the 

things that may be desired are not to be compared to it. 

D"'3"'59P, see note on ch. iii. i S- R. Yarchi renders it by nvVnO, 
■ pearls,' as the Arabic also renders it. But the LXX. has ' precious 
stones.' The Coptic follows it, and Chald. also. 

Ver. 10. "And not silver," &c. "Gold and silver perish, 
but," said the father to his son, "knowledge [skill, talent, 
'husn'] is a living spring, and enduring wealth. If thou 
wishest for an inheritance from thy father, learn his learning ; 
for his wealth may be squandered in ten days."' " He who 

' Bochari Dejohor, p. 172. 

• Dsang-Lun, fol. 4. 

' Milinda 

pane, p. 39. • Hjam-dpal, mts'han brjod. fol. iii. » Gulist viL 2. 



[viii. lO 

imparts knowledge is a teacher, who knows and therefore 
teaches ; and young people who are wise wish to learn and 
therefore study."* " [Behold] consider (or value) a good word," 
says Ptah-hotep, "like an emerald which slaves find in the 
earth, on stones [in mines, or among other stones] on the 
arm of queens."* [Here we may notice on this somewhat 
difficult passage of the Egyptian papyrus, that we find in the 
Talmud on Job i. 15, that the queen of Saba, or of the 
Sabaeans, is called 'queen of innt, 'smaragd,' of emeralds, or 
emerald mines (?) at Berenice, on the coast of the Red Sea. 
Those mines were not worked by female slaves. So that the 
passage must refer to the slaves of queens. It may refer to 
an emerald set among other stones of inferior value. See on 
the subject Pliny, Steph. Byz. ; and Kharuze peninim, p. 119.] 

" Desire wealth, freedom from disease, and the highest and 
greatest gain — good morals, an obedient son, conformity to 
the law [of man and of God], and freedom from desire ; these 
are six doors [facing] open to thee to happiness."* "For the 
gem of knowledge is great wealth."* " And wise men have 
said that riches consist in knowledge [skill, talent], not in 
money, as greatness depends on mind [intellect], not on years."* 
" And the education of a man is worth more than his gold."* 
" For learning," says Aweyar, " is more real riches than even 
ready money."T And "the children of Adam get perfection 
through knowledge, and not through splendour, wealth or 
possessions,"' "since the gem of knowledge is a great jewel 
that can neither be lost nor stolen."' 

" O ye gods," said Hjam-dpal [Wisdom], " I am in possession 
of clear knowledge and of pure speech."" " The ornament of 
learned men is in their learning ; they require no other orna- 
ment. How could you adorn beauty itself?"" "ORadjor, if 

> Siao-hio, c. I. * Pap. Pr v. 10. ' Atthassadw. Jat. p. 366. 

♦ Bahudorsh, p. 10. * Gulist. i. st. 5. • Meid. Ar. pr. 

' Kondreiv. 22. • Pend nameh, p. 10. • Kobita Rat 197. 

'• Hjam-dpal, fol. vi. " Nitinerivilacc. 13. 



viif. II, 12] 



there were as many Ganges as there are grains of sand on the 
bank, and as many heaps of jewels and other precious things 
as there are grains of sand on the banks of all those Ganges, 
their joint value would not equal the value of one four-line 
verse of this lore. What then is the name of this invaluable 
knowledge? asked Radjor. The name of it is, ' Pragna para- 
mita' [perfect knowledge, acquired during a period of one's 
existence]."* "Knowledge (or science)," said the 'sun of 
doctors,' the [lord or] chief Khasi, " is light, and washing one- 
self clean is light, and the light of knowledge is increased 
thereby." " All honour to a teacher of the law ; one thousand 
drachmas for teaching one letter."* 

Ver II. " Not compared to it," &c. "As the Vrinda forest 
is above others, and Bharata [India] is above other 'varshas' 
[countries], as Kashi [Benares] is above other cities, as the 
tree of Paradise is among other flowers and trees, as the sun 
is among luminaries, as amrita [ambrosia] is among other 
drinks, so are Krishna's praises above others, and so is wisdom 
above riches," said Vyasa to his son Shakra.' "No sooner 
did we hear the commanding voice of our governor [guide, 
Buddha], voice that goes to the heart, than we were filled with 
joy and amazement. Then all of a sudden we all found we 
had gotten for ourselves a great, inexhaustible treasure (or 
riches)," said Hod-srans-chhen-po [Mahakashiapa].* "Intel- 
ligence is ' capital ' for a man," say the Osmanlis.' " I, Wisdom, 
am the highest priced wealth, and the judge of holiness."* 
" I am my own knowledge and intelligence and that of others ; 
the 'chief mind' [inward man, consciousness, and also 'con- 
science'] profitable to all, and which exceeds all other things 
compared to it."^ 

12 I wisdom dwell with prtidence, and find out 
knowledge of witty inventions. 

' Ther-wa chhen po, p. 148. ' Borhan-ed-din, p. 50 and 42. 

' Narada, Pancha R. i. 6, 7. ' Dkar padma, iv. fol. 31. ' Osin. pr. 
• Hjam-dpal, fol. ix. ' Id. fol. x. 



[viii. 12 

viii. 13, 14] 



HSOy niotp m-y), • and find knowledge of counsels,' that is, 
' find to know how to give good and prudent counsel, according to 
circumstances.' ' Witty' here must be taken in the sense of ' quick 
and ready,' and 'inventions' in that of 'finding at once the right 
thing to say or do.' The Arabic reads : ' the knowledge of counsels.' 
But nptn, as remarked above, ch. i. 4, and iiL 21, and there rendered 
' discretion,' implies more than ' counsel.' It expresses ' revolving in 
mind what to do, with a good [but often] with a bad motive;' 'tact, 
prudence, discretion,' &c. 

"/wisdom," &c. "Wisdom is said to have a hundred hands 
to do everything, moved by a body free from all trouble."* 
"Wise men, when reduced in circumstances with exhausted 
means of living, do not resort to the ways in which foolish 
men labour [in vain] and perish. Small birds that drink the 
drops of rain, do not, when thirsty, go to the great rivers to 
drink."' " Yea, though their head swim [is bewildered], yet 
their work is not impaired thereby. The ant, though without 
eyes, yet soon grows richer than other [insects] that have 
eyes." ' " Hjam-dpal [Wisdom] is of the greatest use (or 
advantage) to all beings, from the means (or contrivances, 
'inventions') he has, through his great power and through his 
great knowledge."* 

" Damage," says Odin, " seldom happens to the prudent ; 
for no man ever gets a firmer friend than 'mann-vit' ['inborn 
wit,' or perception ; common sense, or sagacity].'" " Every 
man who possesses the gem of wisdom knows how to manage 
all his affairs."' For " wisdom," said the Spirit of Wisdom, 
"which is not joined with good, is not to be looked upon as 
wisdom ; and skill that is not joined to wisdom, cannot be 
considered skill at all.'" " I am," says Hjam-dpal (Wisdom), 
"the other side [or end] of perfect knowledge for having 
crossed it; and I give that perfect knowledge."^ "But for- 
sooth, iTiV«rw, understanding (or intelligence)," says Menander,» 

' Hjam-dpal, fol. viii. ' Sain iigh. fol. 4 » Id. ibid. 

« Hjam-dpal, fol. i. and fol. x. » Hdvamdl. 6. • Nizami, p. 99. 

» Mainyo i kh. xi. 4- ' Hjam-dpal, fol. x. • Sto^op-^. 

"is the cause of an infinity of good things, if it be wisely 
applied to the best purposes." " It teaches, koto jhv Stvr€pov 
vkovv, to take to the oars when we cannot sail."' 

13 The fear of the Lord is to hate evil : pride, and 
arrogancy, and the evil way, and the froward mouth, 
do I hate. 

14 Counsel ?> mine, and sound wisdom : I aw under- 
standing ; I have strength. 

ni!|3a, 'manly vigour, valour.' n^tP^ni, and counsel, help or 'wis-, 
dom,' as in this place. The Arabic understands it in the sense of 
' counsel, or opinions.' LXX. uo-<^aActa, ' safety,' that may come from 

Ver. 13. "T/te/ear of the Lord" &c. "Obedience to the 
gods," says Ptah-hotep, " what [is it] ? Make it (or let it be) 
to thee a pattern [wherewith] to do away with evils among 
[intelligent] men."* " A good and wise man," says Confucius, 
" fears three things : the decrees (or order of) from Heaven ; 
great men ; and the sayings of wise men.'" " O my friends, 
why do we not worship at the shrine of our God ? It will give, 
us virtue, riches, pleasure and heaven."^ " He who fears. 
God has a curb [in his mouth]," say the Arabs.' " Let none 
of those who propitiate the gods commit any degrading sin."* 

" I have not yet seen that truly virtuous [good] man," said 
Confucius, " who hates what is not virtuous. The really good 
man is without equal. To hate that which is not virtuous is 
virtue indeed ! Such a man has no dealings with those that 
are not virtuous, lest he be injured by them."' " For," exclaims 
Lao-tsze, "how great is the distance from good to evil."* 
[How far apart!] "And, o/kt^s omIiov luri KaKiav fiurdv, it is 
of the nature of virtue to hate vice," says Cleobulus.* " Beloved 
son," said Gautama to Rahula, " throughout all estates [exist- 

• Id. Opam!. p. » Pap. Pr. v. 3, 4. » Ming Sin P. K. c vii. 

♦ Niti neri vilacc. 4, 5. ' Meid. Ar. pr. ' Rig V. ii. skta.fcxxv. 7. 

' Shang-Lun, iv. 6. • Tao-tc-King, c. xx. » Sept. Sap. ed. Antv. 

2 B 



[viii. 13, 14 


ences] leave off senseless pride ; when that is subdued, then 
thou shalt walk [quietly] at peace."' "When the Bodhisatwa 
was in the fourth heaven, before he became a perfect Buddha, 
he was entirely free from pride and from [setting up] haughti- 
ness."* [' Pride,' in Tibetan ' nga-rgyal,' means properly, ' I 
conquer,' or ' I am king.' Compare the Sanscrit ' ahankara.'] 
"And the overcoming of this 'I am king' or pride, is one of 
the doors of entrance to religious brightness, for it leads to 
the perfection of supreme knowledge."' 

" Forsake pride, haughtiness and arrogance," said Buddha 
to the gods.* " Through arrogancy, good qualities and shame- 
facedness are diminished."' "The prophet said : I never saw 
anything so soon punished as arrogancy." " And," said Ben- 
ul-hakm, "arrogancy throws down the arrogant."' " Arrogancy 
is hateful in a wise man." " It ruined Azazil [Satan]. It is 
the habit of ignorant men, and is a sin."^ 

Ver. 14. " Counsel is mine" &c. " Knowledge, mercy and 
valour," says Confucius, " are the three things that constitute 
universal virtue."* " Foreknowledge [prejudice, ts'heen shih]," 
says Lao-tsze, "is but the bloom [outward appearance] of 
Tao, and the foundation [beginning] of ignorance (or stupidity). 
Therefore does the great man cling to its depth, and does not 
adhere to its surface;"' "for there is naught safer than [straight] 
honest counsel," say the Greeks ;'" " than Wisdom [Hjam-dpal], 
in whose hands infinite power [sceptre] resides," " whose power 
is above that of Indra and Ishwara ; who wields hither and 
thither the sceptre he holds in his own hand, and who over- 
comes the three worlds."" " O Sumedha pandita," said Dipan- 
kara, "fulfil the fifth 'paramita' of energy; like a lion, which 
is strong in every posture ; so also be thou strong and free 
from desire in every circumstance and estate, and thou shalt 
then become a Buddha."** 

» Rahula thut. 39. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. ii. ' Ibid. c. iv. 

« Id. ibid. ' Legs par b. p. 164. • Eth Thealebi, 199. 

» Pend nameh, p. 8, 10. ' Chung y, c xx. • Tao-te-King, c. xxxviii. 
M ryuji. itov. " Hjam-dpal, fol. i. " Durenidh. Jat. p. 22. 

viii. IS, 16] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 371 

" What is the characteristic of strength ? asked king Milinda. 
It IS, O King, to support ; those who are supported by energy 
never lose the [primary] best virtues." 1 " Hjam-dpal [Wisdom] 
possesses the strength (or power) of all powerful things; the 
fortitude of all so endued; and all the good a powerful king 

*^^" ^°- "^ possesses also supreme perfection of wisdom 

enlightening with all intelligence and goodness;"" "has per- 
fect holiness ; and is the very form (or nature) of all holiness "* 
"Who is strong? asked the Sage ; and the Spirit of Wisdom 
answered : He is strong [a hero] who can fight his own 
demoness, and keep far from him these five demonesses: 
avarice, wrath, lust, shame and discontent."' 

"Knowledge," says Sankara, "[spreads] arranges the sacri- 
fices and all other actions. Therefore every capability for 
[good] action is through knowledge [vijnanam]; whosoever 
knows Brahma [for himself] and does not swerve from it 
enjoys all desiits after forsaking sin. Love is the head ; joyi 
the right side; enjoyment, the left side; bliss, 'the self;' and 
Brahma, the foundation of it all."» "'Tell me, O serpent,' said 
Yudhishtira, 'the chief distinction between the mind and 
understanding ; for this is reckoned of the utmost importance 
by those who seek the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit.' 
'Understanding [buddhi, intellect] follows the soul, and belongs 
to its wonderful origin. Know, then, that intellect lies in the 
soul, and yearns towards it Intellect arises from action ; but 
the mind was there already. This, my friend,' said the serpent 
to Yudhishtira, 'is the great difference between mind and 

15 By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. 

16 By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges 
of the earth. 

• Milinda pafio, p. 37. » Hjam-dpal, fol. v. » Id. fol. viii. 

• Id. fol. ix. » Mainyo i kh. c. xli. « Taittireya Upd. Vail. ii. 

' Maha Bh. Vana P. 12,512. 

2 B 2 



[viii. 15. J 6 

" By me kings:' &c. " The duty of a prince is to be just ; 
of a subject, to be obedient ; of a father, to love ; of a son, to 
be reverential ; of an elder brother, to love his younger brother ; 
and the duty of this one is to respect his elder brother. These 
are called the six kinds of obedience." » "Justice," says Con- 
fucius, " consists in [just] retribution ; the principal part of 
which is to give due honour to wise men. The prince, there- 
fore, cannot but think of reforming himself; while meditating 
on that, he cannot but render to his parents the honour due 
to them ; and while intent on this duty he must become 
acquainted with men ; and in order to know men, he cannot 
but learn to know Heaven. 

"There are nine invariable rules," says Confucius, "to be 
followed by those who govern kingdoms or houses, namely : 
to regulate himself; to honour the wise; to honour his 
parents ; to pay proper respect to high functionaries ; to treat 
inferior officers with affability ; to look upon the people as 
his own children ; to gather around him the best tradesmen ; 
to show hospitality to strangers ; and to cherish his vassals."« 
•• And in governing an extensive kingdom— one of a thousand 
war-chariots— to respect business and good faith, moderate 
expenditure; to love men, and to give employment to the 
people at the proper time."' " The prince whose equity does 
not fail, will direct the four kingdoms."* " He," says Lao-tsze, 
"who knows how to be constant, has a liberal mind. A 
liberal-minded man is equitable ; and an equitable man is 


In the Shoo King« we read that "the emperor Yaou [B.C. 2356) 
was a pattern of all virtues, and made proof of his superior 
virtue by uniting in ties of relationship the nine degrees of 
kindred. These being harmonized, he pacified [smoothed 
down] and adorned the people [of the imperial estate]. His 

» Siao-hio, c. iv. ' Chung y, c. xx. 

• She King, i. M, 3. '" Ta-hio Com. c. ix. 

• Bk. i. sect. i. 

' Shang-Lun, i. 5. 
' Tao-te-King, c. xii. 

viii. 17; 18] 



own people having become intelligent, he established concord 
among the many districts of the empire. Then the black- 
haired people [Chinese] — Oh ! how they were changed by that 
harmonious understanding!" So also was Yu or Shun (B.C. 
2286) "profoundly wise, accomplished, intelligent, cordial, 
respectful, honest and sincere. Although he was the son of a 
blind man, and of low parentage, his virtuous conduct having 
attracted the notice of his predecessor Yaou, he was by him 
called to mount the throne of the empire."' "Speaking to 
Kaou-yaou, Yu said : To know men, one should be intelligent ; 
and to govern men and to quiet the people, one should be 
kindly disposed."' "And Kaou-yaou said: When the supreme 
chief is intelligent, the ministers of state also virtuous, then 
how public business prospers!"' "The first order that I 
instituted in my court and reign," said Timur, "is that I 
favoured the worship of God."* " For although there be many 
kings, yet there are but few that rule righteously." "And 
with an intelligent minister both master and people derive 
benefit An arrow shot by a good archer hits the object 
aimed at,"' 

1 7 I love them that love me ; and those that seek 
me early shall find me. 

1 8 Riches and honour are with me ; yea, durable 

riches and righteousness. 

\)iy^ ^in, either 'durable riches,' 'splendid wealth,' or 'ancient 
possessions,' that have lasted from all eternity, and will last for ever. 
LXX. KTrfTis )roXA.fc!i» incorrectly. Ar. 'splendid, honourable pos- 
session (or acquisition) and prosperity.' The Chaldee renders pJliy 
by N^l^, properly ' the influence of the stars,' but popularly, ' fortune, 
riches and good luck, or prosperity.' 

" f love them, &c. " Wisdom chooses for her friends [who 
will cling, adhere to her] men of a pure heart ; but she wards 

• Shoo King, bk. i. sect. 2. ' Id. sect. 4. ' ' Id. sect. $■ 

• Institut. of Timur. ' Legs par b. p. 197, 199. 



[viii. 17, 1 8 


off every proud and wicked man from touching or approach- 
ing her."^ "Wisdom is the ruler that teaches the world good 
knowledge — a ruler that is not dreaded."' " In thy present 
life it will be to thee a help that will never fail."* "The 
' Teguntchilan ireksen,' or ' Tathagata' [one who is gone like 
his predecessor ; the last degree before becoming a Buddha ; 
sometimes used for one, as in this place] appeared. Seeing 
the beings passing from this word through the deception in 
which they perished, [and feeling] that if they adopted his 
conduct [or walk in life] it would be the riches of all creatures, 
and seeing them thus destitute, he, in his infinite pity, con- 
ferred upon them a leader (or guide) on earth through [or in] 
the mind."* 

" When Omar was asked how a man could make himself 
respected or despised, he replied : A man makes himself 
respected who follows pursuits (or actions) which agree with 
wisdom, and whose words also agree with it But he makes 
himself contemptible when he forgets to do so."* " Glory (or 
honour) is in the hand of him who confers it, not in him who 
receives it." [Wisdom confers honour on man ; it is not 
man's own ; he receives it] "Wise men, then, possess every- 
thing [in having wisdom] ; men destitute of wisdom, whatever 
they may seem to have, yet have nothing."' But as regards 
appearance this also is true : " He who pitches his tent for a 
fast and worldly life, will have fortune to fasten his pegs ; but he 
who journeys with virtue, will have poverty for his com- 

" If," says Vemana, " we love him [Shiva, god, or good], he 
loves us ; if we do not love him, he will never love us. Then 
all our display, all our delusions on earth, will have profited 
us nothing."* " Those," says Byam-chub-sems-pa [Bodhi- 
satwa] "who have faith in me, whoever they be, are my 

• Mlshle As. vi. 19. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. vi. » Cural, 36. 

* Allan Gerel, ch. i. fol. 22. ' Bochari Dejohor, p. 163. • Cural, 430. 
' El Nawab. 38. » Vemana, i. 114. 

viii. 19—21] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 375 

friends."' "What is wealth? Wisdom."' " For Hjam-dpal 
[Wisdom] is the excellent chief who works for the good of men, 
by means full of knowledge and of great mercy."' 

19 My fruit is better than gold, yea, than fine gold ; 
and my revenue than choice silver. 

20 I lead in the way of righteousness, in the midst 
of the paths of judgment : 

2 1 That I may cause those that love me to inherit 
substance ; and I will fill their treasures. 

Ver. a I. V}> iprfM ''''njn^, 'to cause those who love me to inherit 
that which ' is,' everlasting, real, without decay of any kind' tt^, 
• with me is a large (or great) inheritance,' says R. Yarchi. Arab. 
■ wealth, riches, gain.' 

Ver. 19. " My fruit," &c. " ' What then of all thy treasures, 
Mitra Dzoghi ? What of all the enjoyment and fruit of thy 
wealth ? Is it to go in alms to the first comer ?' ' Let all that 
be ever so great,' answered Mitra Dzoghi, 'it is wealth for hell, 
that satisfies not the heart. Almsgiving of itself satisfies the 
heart I go to renounce all desire of wealth.'"* "O Master, 
after having observed our religious duties a long time, as 
taught to us carefully by one who knew the world, we have 
already reaped the fruit thereof"* "For wisdom dwells in 
the fruit of [the precepts] of the law."« " These are the five 
steps to wisdom : silence, listening, memory, action, and love 
of study."' " Cast not pearls before swine, nor offer wisdom 
to those who do not value it. For wisdom is above pearls, 
and he who does not wish for it is more degraded than swine."* 
" Though cows be of various colours, yet is milk always white. 
So also is the path of wisdom (or virtue) one, though virtues 

' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. vii. p. 86. ' Pancha Ratna. 4. ' Hjam-dpal, 
fol. i. • Mitra Dzoghi, fol. 6. ' Dkar padma, iv. fol. 45. 

' Hjam-dpal, fol. viii. ' Mifkh. hapen, B. Fl. » Id. ibid. 

' Naladiyar, 8. 



[viii. 22 

Ver. 20. " / lead in the way" &c. " Those who see well can 
lead the blind by the way."' "I," says Hjam-dpal, "teach 
the beautiful way."'' "Wisdom is that which, not allowing 
one to follow one's own inclination, recalls one from evil and 
leads in the right way.'" " By holding firmly my mind," said 
Hjam-dpal to the gods, " men will be purified from natural 
corruption and ignorance."* " I worship the Guide, the Leader, 
the Refuge immaculate, who supports — the most excellent 
l''hara,who frees men, Nats andBrahmans from the least stain — 
I worship him !"^ 

Ver. 21. "There will be light to the elect, and they shall 
inherit the earth."' " This is my son, said the De-bjin-shegs-pa 
[Tathagata] ; all I have, all my wealth, all my riches — I give 
it all to him"' {to man, as being recalled from his wayward- 
ness by Buddha] ; " and all the jewels and riches I have within, 
all, such as it is, is now his property. Then the son said : I 
was poor and destitute ; but now I am all at once made rich 
and possessor of immense wealth."* [From the beautiful 
parable of the ' Lost Child.'] 

22 The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his 
way, before his works of old. 

iS^T rC'Xpvn "-aap^ njrl^, 'Jehovah,' says the Wisdom of God 
[S. Matt, xxiii. 34; S. Luke xi. 44; Ep. Heb. i. 2, &c.], 'possessed 
(or acquired) me [as] principle, beginning, or principal agent of His 
way [course of creation].' LXX. o Ki'pios iKTio-e /£« "PXV'' '''^^ oSujc 
ai'Toii, ' the Lord created me [as] beginning (or principle) of His 
ways.' Aquila, tKrvjcraro /if, ' possessed or acquired me,' &c. Chald. 
Syr. Copt. Arab, 'created me at the beginning of His creation.' 
Armcn. 'established, confirmed me.' Vulg. agrees with the Hebrew 
and Aquila : ' Dominus possedit me in initio viarum suarum ;' when 
says Ibn Aben Ezra, 'there was only Wisdom in the world [Wisdom 
«as alone in it], and with Her did God create the whole [world].' 

' Mong. max. R. 
' I liam-diial, fol. ii. 
c. \. ;. " Ukar padma, fol. 25 

2 Hjam-dpal, fol. iv. 
^ Namakara pat. J. Tlicra, 10. 

" Id. ibid. 

' Cural, 422. 
« Dk. Enoch, 

VJii. 22] 



'Ektio-c savours so strongly of the growing Gnosticism of the 
Alexandrian school, that we cannot wonder at the hot con- 
troversies caused among Arians and other heretics, by the 
rival readings of the Greek Vulgate, (Kruri nc, ' He created me,' 
and fKT^(raTo fit, ' He possessed me.' As regards the Hebrew, 
I will only remark that nji? never has the meaning of ' creat- 
ing,' carelessly given in some lexicons. Not one of the pas- 
sages given in favour of it will bear that interpretation. Thus, 
" Blessed be Abraham of the most High God, V.^^J D^Qtt? nj.p, 
possessing, or possessor of heaven and earth," not ' creating' 
assuredly (Gen. xiv. 19, 22) ; and notwithstanding the LXX. 
OS (KTto-t Tov ovp. K. Tfjv yrjv. Deut. xxxii. 6, " Is He not thy 
father, 13f7, who bought [LXX. and Copt. iKTi'ia-aTo o-t] thee," 
as in Ps. Ixxiv. 2, " Remember thy congregation whom, 
Dip. n""?!?, thou hast purchased of old ;" LXX. {kt^o-w dw' 
apx^i ; so also Copt, and Arab. Ps. cxxxix. 1 3, ^ip''^? ^''?i?. 
"thou hast possessed my reins ;" LXX. (rv Urrja-u> rois ve<f)povi 
fiov ; Copt. Arab. id. Anyhow, it could not be ' created me,' in 
the strict sense of the word, but rather ' formed me,' according 
to His own law. ' Possessed,' however, is best there, as well as 
in this verse. 

The following references on this subject may, perhaps, be of use to 
some student. Philo Jud. iKTia-aro, De Temul, p. 244 ; tou Beov 
6vya.Trjp,De Profug. p. 458 : "God theFatherand Wisdom the Mother, 
through whom He made the whole universe," p. 165 ; "the fountain 
of life," id. p. 479 ; " and the wise reminder, because often forgotten, 
that philosophy is wisdom's handmaid," De Congr. p. 435. S. Epi- 
phan. Ancoratus, xlii. xliii., fKTunv, said iv wapoifuy., Iv wapa/SoX-iJ, id. 
adv. Ar. vol. i. p. 745, iKTiat iv y. Maptos, and p. 743. Euseb. 
Prcrp. Ev. lib. vii. 12, xi. 14. Demonstr. Ev. lib. v. c. i, «ktio-< — 
■npta-roTOKov, &c. Justin M. adv. Tryph. p. 284, 287, eVno-e /it apx^'' 
o5. S. Ambros. De Fide, c. iv., 'creavit me, de incarnatione diet, 
niyst.' &c. S. Athanas. adv. Arian, vol. i. q. v. S. Basil, adv. 
Eutwm. vol. i. p. 256, 293. Didymus Alex, de Trinitate, lib. iii. 
c. 3, but especially at 2 Cor. v. 17, p. 1706, ed. M. and in Com. in 
Pro-,: p. 1630. S. Ephrem, vol. iii. p. 100, (j. v. S. Irenaeus, adv. 



[viii. 22 

Hares, lib. iv. c. 37. Origen in Johan. p. n, 17, 18, 33, 36, 37. 
S. Ignat. Ep. ad Tars, and Philip, q. v. S. Cyprian, ad Quirin. lib. 
ii. c. I. S. Hilar, 0pp. i. p. 18, 324, 335, ii. 341- S. Gregory 
Naz. Or. xxxvi. 4. S. Jerome on this verse, and on Ep. to Eph. c. ii. &c. 

Ver. 22. " The Lord possessed me:' &c. " The Spirit of Wis- 
dom was asked : Why is it that the knowledge and skill of 
heaven and earth are united in thee ? And the Supreme Intel- 
ligence (or Spirit of Wisdom) answered : Because from the 
very first, I, who am the Original Intelligence [or Wisdom] 
was with Hormuzd, from [the creation of] the heavens and 
of the earth."' "And the Creator Hormuzd created, preserves 
and overrules the Yazads [heavenly beings, tutelary angels ?] 
of the creations of heaven and earth, and of all that therein is 
and is produced, by the strength, power, wisdom [or know- 
ledge] and skill of me. Original Intelligence [or Wisdom, ' Asn 
khard,' called ' paraloklya buddhi,' or ' wisdom of the other 
world,' in the Sanscrit translation], and it is through wisdom 
that Sao.shyansh and Kai-kosru will be assisted at the resur- 
rection, and in the forming of the new body,"" &c. " I con- 
sider thee, O Mazda," said Zarathustra, "as the first (or 
greatest) to be praised with the mind — thee the father of 
Vohu Mano [Good Spirit] which I saw with my eyes — thee 
the [clear] evident Creator of purity, the son of the world in 
[thy] works. Armaiti [wisdom] was with thee [in thee, or 
thine] ; with thee was the creating [or creator] spirit that 
created the cow, when thou, Ahura Mazda, the Spirit of heaven, 
madest a way for her — thou who comest forth [as seen] in 
the [effective or] energetic operation of thy works, though 
thyself invisible,"' — "in realms where Armaiti [Wisdom] is 
joined to Asha [blessing], where are the desirable (or desired) 
kingdoms of Vohu Mano, where Ahura Mazda inhabits the 
place of his own choice."* 

[Manu, after relating the creation of the world, says that in 

• Mainyo i kh. c. Ivii. 1,2. 'Id. ibid. 7—20. ' Ya^na, xxxi. 8, 9, 
« Id. xlv. 16. 

viii. 22] 



the Krita age of the gods, all religion and virtue had four feet 
[walked on all fours], but that in the Treta and succeeding 
ages virtue lost one foot, then another. Culluca understands 
it of the bull and primordial cow, often mentioned in Indian 
writings. An interesting myth, but foreign to our present 
object.] "Mazda, the creator of good, whose daughter is 
Armaiti (wisdom), she who does good."* "She was with 
him when (^pento Mainyus [Holy Spirit] created his works in 
unlimited time [eternity]."* [In the Rivaiets, however, we 
find this old doctrine thus mistaken : " In an old Pehlevi book 
it is stated that the world was created, for it is clear that 
everything was created except Time. And they say that Time 
is the creator."' Moses of Chorene, Esnig and other Armenian 
writers, mention 'Zervana akarana,' unlimited or 'uncreated 
Time,' as parent of all things. But this, again, does not con- 
cern us at present] "O Amun," says the Egyptian, "who 
didst exist from the beginning, I worship thee, eternal god, 
creator of beings, lord of the gods,"* &c. 

Taking, however, ' Tao' as Wisdom [in this sense at least], 
Lao-tsze says that "it is so profound [deep, indiscernible] 
that it seems to be the patriarch of all things"^ — " ever flowing 
as if ever existent."* " How deep and pure, it seems to subsist 
from all eternity!" "I know not whose offspring it is. It 
seems to have existed before the Lord."' And if we take Tao 
to be 6 Adyos as well as 17 2o<^io, Lao-tsze says further : " How 
deep, how unsearchable is Tao I He possesses 'essence' in 
himself [' I am that I am' — ' I am' is my name]. His essence 
is Truth itself. In him is faithfulness [or certainty of his own 
existence]. From olden times until now his name has not 
passed away. He gives birth to all things ; he counts, one 
by one, all the origins of things. How do I know that the 
origin of all things is thus? I know it is in Tao."* 

' Ya^na, xliv. 4. 
Trad. Lit. p. 161. 
King, c. iv. ' Id. c. vi. 

' Vendidad, xix. 53. ' Rivaiet, in Spiegel, 

* Zeitschr. Aug. 1873, Hymn to Amun. ' Tao-te- 

' Id. c. iv. ' Id. c. xxi. 



[viii. 23 

"Quam earn antiquissimam cum videamus, nomen tamen 
esse confitcmur recens. Nam sapientiam quidem ipsam quis 
ncgare potest non modo re esse antiquam, verum etiam 
nomine? quas divinarum humanarumque rerum, turn initiorum 
causarumque cujusque rei cognitione hoc pulcherrimum nomen 
apud antiques assequebatur," says Cicero.' 

" The original and supreme InteUigence or Wisdom [belke 
bilik] is distinguished from the wisdom given to inferior beings, 
wliich returns to the Supreme Intelligence at Nirvana."* 
"Wisdom, then, which [is empty and yet is not emptiness] 
has no visible form is called 'Tao,'" says Kwan-tsze ; "when 
influencing [converting] and nurturing men, it is called 'virtue ;' 
when deciding between man and man, it is called 'justice;' 
when regulating men, it is called 'propriety.' Yet since it 
can neither be seen nor accurately described, how can men on 
earth know the fashion of it ? It is everywhere [subtile] and, 
as it were, diffused. It is silent ; the valiant cannot overreach 
it; and [man's] wisdom cannot search it out."' [Such passages, 
showing an earnest search after truth, are full of interest.] 
"In Him dwelleth the Spirit of Wisdom, and the Spirit of 
Intelligence, and the Spirit of Doctrine and Power, and the 
Spirit of those who are asleep in righteousness, and He will 
judge hidden things." "Blessed art Thou, Lord, O King; 
great and powerful art thou in thy greatness. Lord of all the 
hosts of Heaven! there is not anything too difficult for 
thee ; there is no wisdom Thou hast not traversed ; and Thou 
knowest, scest and hearest all things ; and there is nothing 
hidden from Thee."* 

23 I was set up from everlasting, from the begin- 
ning, or ever the earth was. 

Vv'f ''^luP, ' from the antecedents of the earth.' LXX. irph tou t^i' 
yrjv jroijjcjat. Arab. ' from the first beginnings of the earth.' 

■ Tusc. Quxst. V. 3. » Tonilku yin ch. c. i. ' Kwan-tsze, c. xxxvi. 
* Dk. Enoch, c. xlix. and Ixxxiv. 

viii. 23] 



"From everlasting" &c. ''And the name of the Son of Man, 
who is above all, 'the Ancient of Days' was called before the 
Lord of Spirits. Before the sun was created, ere the signs 
and the stars of heaven were created. His name was called 
in presence of the Lord of Spirits."* For "before the earth 
and countries were created — before the revolutions of the uni- 
verse were settled — before the wind blew — before the sound 
of thunder was heard — before the flash of lightning had shone 
forth — before the soil of Paradise was laid down — before the 
beauty of flowers appeared — before the hour of an earthquake 
was settled — before the host of angels was numbered — before 
the height (?) of the highest heavens appeared — before the 
measure of heaven was named — before the very traces of the 
world became known — and before the sealed ones who have 
treasured up their faith were sealed — then I considered that I 
alone did exist, and that besides me there was no other."' 

" There is a Being," says Lao-tsze, indiscernible and unde- 
fined, who was born [existed] before heaven and earth. Oh, 
how calm, how subtile ! He alone stands for evermore and 
changes not. He pervades all things and is in no danger. 
He may be said to be the Mother of the world. I do not 
know his name ; I call him Tao [seeing all things come through 
him, I therefore call him Tao or ' way,' Comm.] In endeavour- 
ing to find a name, I call him Great. From 'Great,' I call him 
'Imperceptible' [lost in expanse]; from this, I call him 'Dis- 
tant' [beyond my reach] ; yet although beyond my reach, I 
should say, nevertheless, that he returns [to me, is about me], 
and that Tao is eternal."' "No one gave to Tao his dignity 
nor to Virtue her honour ; they are such in themselves from 
all eternity. Tao therefore gives life to all things ; he supports 
them ; he brings them up ; perfects them, ripens them, 
nourishes them and protects them."* 

" When the whole universe was still in darkness unseen and 

» Bk. Enoch, c. xlvii. « Ezra (Eth.) iv. i — 13. ' Tao-te-King, 

c. xxv. ' Id. c. li. 



[viii. 23 

imperceptible, as it were buried in sleep, then the Eternal, 
Himself indiscernible, brought it all into being."* "Then 
was Brahma [the creator] born of the uncreated, eternal 
Brahma."* " In thy body," said Rama to Vishnu, " I see the 
whole of this world, O Lord I thou who art indiscernible and 
without beginning, in whom I take refuge."' "There never 
was a time when I was not," said Bhagavan to Sanjaya, " or 
when thou and they were not But know that that by which 
this universe was spread is imperishable ; whose spirit passes 
from one body to another, like a man taking off old clothes 
and putting on new ones. Yet that He is unborn [eternal] ; 
most ancient [first of all]."* " For the first of the four requi- 
sites for a competent Vedantist is, to distinguish what is eternal 
from that which is passing."' " And it does not behove any 
one to make out that he is not imperishable."* 

" UpetrlSvTaTov riHv ovrtov Otoi' dyivr/Tov yip" " God is the most 

ancient of all beings, for he is unborn," said Thales ; who, being 
asked what is to ddov, the Godhead, answered : " That which 
has neither beginning nor end."' " In Holy Scripture [Zend 
Avesta] we learn that Ahura Mazda was always [eternally] in 
light. That light, where Ahura Mazda dwells, is called 
'eternal light.' As to Ahura Mazda, this 'always' means 
unlimited Time. Moreover, we know that Ahura Mazda's 
absolute (or complete) rule [dominion, or creation of good] 
will endure in the coming life, and that it will proceed un- 
limited to everlasting. Whereas Angra Mainyu's creation [of 
evil, dominion] will end with Time, when the next life begins. 
And that is eternity."* " We praise unlimited Time, and long- 
ruling Time [9000 — 12000 years], and the sky (or firmament) 
which is self-governed [qadathem]."" 

"I am heaven-born," says Hjam-dpal [Wisdom], "from 

' Manu S. 1. ^ Id. ibid., and Ramayana, i. Ixx. 19. ' Ramayana, 
i. xxxi. 12. * Maha Bh. Hhishma P. xxvi. igo. ' Vedanta Sara, p. 2. 

• Maha Bh. Bhishnia P. xxvi. 195. ' Thales Mil. Sept. Sap. ed. Antv. 

• Bundchcsh, c. i. " Kurshid Nyaish, 8. 

viii. 23] 



heaven itself; I am the great lamp of intrinsic knowledge 
that sheds abroad a brilliant light, and the awful brilliancy of 
[intuitive or] foreknowledge ; I am the lamp of men as ' lamp 
of knowledge."" "I wear the diadem of knowledge; I free 
from sorrow ; I cleanse altogether from all defilement ; I dwell 
in heaven as an equal ; and being free from all intellectual 
darkness, I reckon the three times [past, present and to come] 
as no time [eternal] ; I am the head of all headed beings 
endued with qualities ; and I dwell chiefly in the way to 
heaven."^ " I am Prince of the most perfect, and am chief 
among the pure and holy.'" 

" The Lord," says Dioscorus, " exists in His kingdom, world 
without end. Before the dawn and the morning, before the 
day and the night, and before the angels were created, the 
Lord existed in His kingdom. Before the sun and moon, 
and the stars, when as yet no heavenly bodies revolved in 
their courses, the Lord existed in His kingdom. Before the 
heavens were created, when as yet no verdure had sprung 
from the earth, the Lord existed in His kingdom. Before the 
beasts that move and the birds that fly, and before the beasts 
that are in the sea, the Lord was in His kingdom. Before 
He had created man in His image and similitude, and ere 
man transgressed His commandment, the Lord existed in 
His kingdom."* " I believe," says Claudius, king of Ethiopia, 
"in one God, and in His only Son Jesus Christ, who is His 
Word, His Power, His Counsel, and who is His Wisdom, who 
was with Him before the creation of the world."* 

Regarding the creation of man to till the earth, we read in 
the Ya9na that " Geus Urva, the soul of the cow [or the 
genius of the earth], calls upon you two, Ahura Mazda and 
Armaiti [Wisdom], and asks : Wherefore have you formed me, 
and who created me ? Then the Creator of the cow asked 
the pure [Armaiti] : Where hast thou a lord of the earth [to till 

1 Hjam-dpal, fol. v. ^ Id. fol. vi. » Id. fol. v. * Lit. (Eth.) 

S. Dioscori Hat. ' Confes. Fid. Claud, reg. ceth. 



[viii. 24 — 26 

it]? Then Ahura Mazda, who knows the end [of all things] 
in his wisdom, said [to Geus Urva] : There was no lord known, 
nor any ruler in holiness ; but I created thee for the [benefit 
of the] hard-working husbandman."* 

24 When there were no depths, I was brought forth ; 
when there were no fountains abounding with water. 

25 Before the mountains were settled, before the 
hills was I brought forth : 

26 While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the 
fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world. 

Ver. 26. niSini, 'wide, open, uncultivated places.' LXX. 001x7)701.?, 
•uninhabited places.' Arab, 'open country, wildernesses.' l£?t^-|'! 
bari ni-iDJ?, -and the head of clods of earth' [beginning of cultiva- 
tion, as in Job. xxviii. 6. ant nil??. Mumps, or ingots of gold.'] 
ban is here poetically for V^^- 

Ver. 24. " At the time of the origin of heaven and earth," 
say the Japanese, "there was in the high waste expanse of 
heaven a god by name ' Ame-no mi-naka nushi-no mikoto," 
the supreme middle Lord of heaven, and two other gods with 
him. The 'land' was then young, and the surface was like a 
fatty substance floating about like a star-fish. By-and-by this 
became the earth, and the sky rose above ; and from this sweet 
fatty substance came forth reed-like beings, whence grew gods, 
and in time also men and women, &c., whose progenitors were 
Izanani and Izanagi his sister." In another work (evidently 
borrowed from the Chinese) we read that "at the time of crea- 
tion heaven and earth were light ; the thin part rose and 
formed heaven, and the thick and muddy portion sank and 
became the earth. Heaven then became the Yo [male prin- 
ciple], and the earth the In [female principle]," &c.= " Heaven 
and earth being finally severed from each other, there sprang 
up a thing like a rush that became the god 'Kuni-toko-datsi-no 
, Yaqna, xxix. i, 2, 6. ^ Motsu i, p. 1 ; and Pfizmaier, Theogonic 

d. Jap. 

viii. 24—26] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 


mikoto,' 'the god of the unchanging establishment of the 
kingdom.' This god was the parent [origin] of men ; ancT 
Nippon [Japan] was also called ' Ashi-wara-goku.'"* [Vot 
more of this, see Pfizmayer's 'Theogonie der Japaner,' Wien.] 
" When there were no depths," &c. 

•No — — TTOTOynoio pUdpa 

Q,Kiavov, OS Trip ylvto-i? wdvT(a-(Ti rirvKTai;"^ 

" none of the floods and currents of Ocean, the origin of all 
things." " Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda, What word was 
it that thou spakest to me, thou who wast before heaven was, 
before the waters, fire, and the pure man [gaya maretan], 
mankind, and all embodied creatures were made?"' [This is 
the beginning of the Ahuno-vairyo, v. 27 — 53, one of the most 
solemn prayers offered by the Parsee.s.] " As to Tao," says 
Hwae-nan-tsze, "his height is unlimited, not attainable; his 
depth is unfathomable ; he envelops heaven and earth as a 
child in the womb. He bestows everything, though he has no 
form ; for all things are born [proceed] from Tao."* 

" The earth, once freed from the waters by Brahma, floated 
like a great ship ; but owing to its bulk, it could not float 
about. Then having levelled it, he created mountains upon 
it. First [or formerly] by a burning process [or creation], and 
then by a submarine one, fire. By means of this submarine 
fire, the mountains were dried on the surface of the earth ; 
and the rocks submerged in the ocean became compact by 
the effect of the air, and trees began to grow," &c. "And 
wherever mountains were established, there they became im- 
movable. After that, the earth was divided, and the seven 
' Dwipas' [lit. 'islands,' the seven divisions of the world into 
islands, every one separated from the next by an ocean] were 
all marked out."* " Heaven made a high mountain, and a 
great king tilled it." 

Ver. 26. " T/ie earth, &c. "The [black -skin] covering of 

' Motsu I, p. 2. ' II. r. 245. ' Ya?na, xix. 3. * Hwae- 

nan-tsze, c. i. • Markand. Pur. c. xlvii. 11 — 13. 

2 C 



[viii. 24 — 26 

the earth is the table to which God calls all people alike."* 
" Brahma developed in and out of the ^gg floating on the 
chaotic waters, like one who under water, when coming out 
of the water, is said to be born of the water. Brahma threw 
aside the [nature-lord] water ; and because he showed forth 
the field of the earth he is called Kshetrajna [Kyetrogyo], 
'clever husbandman.""' "Tell me, O Alvis, the name of the 
earth, heaven," &c., said Vingthor. "The earth," answered 
Alvis, "is called 'jorth' [yorth] among men, but 'fold' (field), 
land among the JEsh [gods]. And heaven is called ' Himinn' 
[covering] by men, but 'hlyrnir' [a shed] by the gods; 
'upphcimr,' upper [home] world, by the Jotuns [giants, first 
created]."' "At that time there was no 'non-e.xi.stence' and 
no 'existence.' There was no firmament, expanse, nor aught 
else. Where was that which enveloped it ? Where, in whose 
receptacle, were the waters ? What was that profound mystery? 
There was no death, no immortality. He alone drew no 
breath [lived, existed without breathing] in his own nature 
self [self-possessed, self-c.xistcnt]. Reside him [or it] there 
was no one. All that was one darkness on darkness."^ 

" NrKTa Otiov yd'CTtipav, lificrufiai ^jSi Kal di'Spioi', ^ 

" I will sing Night," said Orpiicus (?), " the mother of gods and 
of men." 

"Then Iliranyagarbha [Brahma] appeared: he was the 
first-born of all; he was Lord."" "To whom those of old 
offered sacrifices, seeing him with the mind [as with] the eye."' 
"Once there was no day, no night, no sky, no earth, no dark- 
ness, no light — but only that ]?rahma [[jradhanikam — I'uman]: 
male supreme Spirit and Lord, wiio is not obtainable by 
hearing or intellect."' "And the [mystic] syllable OM is 
defined to be the immutable monosyllable Brahm [or Brfdima]. 
This word Brahma is derived from 'vriha,' to increase, and 

' Hostan, prcf. ' Markand. Pur. cxlv. ' Alvism.1l, 10 — 12. 

• Ri<; V. viii. skta. cxxix. ^ Orphic Hyim:. iii. » Ri<j V. viii. 

skta. cxxi. I. ' Id- skta. cxxx. 6. * \'Liinu Pur. i. 2, 23. 

viii. 27, 28] 



from the power of giving increase to all things."* "At that 
time this earth was free from sin, without a [bubble] speck of 
it, and pure. Beings endued with a soul moved about in the 
heavens ; they were in general like brilliant gods ; sin, how- 
ever, came in through theft, that drew out [burst] the bubble. 
Then beings with upper limbs [arms and hands, or wings] and 
beaming of their own light, went about the sky — lived whole 
'kal pas' [thousands of years], and ate of the earth that tasted 
like honey," &c. " At that time there was neither sun, moon, 
nor stars ; no day and no night ; all was sea, and a wind blew 
over it, and on the surface was [matter] formed like cream on 
hot milk," say the Buddhist,s, &c.^ 

"I," says the god of Egypt, "am Turn, alone in Nu" — "he 
who [hung] raised heaven for the march [progress, or sailing] 
of his two eyes [the sun and moon]."' " But Thoth is also 
said to have lighted up darkness, when as yet there was no 
solar orb."* " O, Ahura Mazda," says the Parsee, "we extol 
in the highest praises thy body, the most beautiful of all bodies, 
the greatest of the great of these lights, which we call the 
sun."° "They [the righteous] ascertain all that is done in 
heaven ; how the luminaries that are in heaven are invariable 
in their courses ; how every one rises and sets as appointed, 
each at its own time, without any one transgressing the com- 
mand given them."* 

27 When he prepared the heavens, I was there : 
when he set a compass upon the face of the depth. 

28 When he established the clouds above : when 

he strengthened the fountains of the deep : 

Ver. 27. a=in irr^S, "when he described a circle (or circumference) 
over the face of the deep.' a:in, ' a circle,' is by some taken as the 
root of (ixtai-os, ' ocean,' as surrounding the habitable earth. Accord- 

» Vishnu Pur. iii. 3, 11. ^ Dulva, v. fol. 158. ' Pap. Sutimis, pi. ii. 
1. 6, 7, 8, and Dublin Pap. iv. * Hym. Mus. Tur. Zeitschr. Dec. 1864. 

' Yaqna, Ivii. 22. " Bk. Enoch, c. ii. 

2 C 2 



[viii. 27 

ing to Hesiod, Gaia (the earth) that came out of Chaos, produced 
high mountains, the sea, the high seas (TrtAa-yo?), and in union with 
heaven brought forth tiKeavov padvSivijv, 'deep eddying ocean.'' The 
Arabic renders the Hebrew exactly, but the LXX. read : ' when He 
estabhshed His throne upon the winds.' 

Ver. 27. " I/e set a compass" &c. " Tao," says Hwae-nan- 
tsze, " covers [embraces] heaven and earth. He envelops the 
four quarters, and is divided into the eight points. He over- 
spreads the three lights [sun, moon and stars] ; mountains 
for his height ; whirlpools for his depth ; the beasts of the field 
for his going [moves them] ; birds for his flying. The sun 
and moon for his brightness ! The planets for his march ! 
Immense ! Infinite ! He gives birth [existence] to all things, 
and yet himself has nothing [apparent]. He changes and 
perfects the form of everything, and yet is not [seen] — lord 
over all" ["and through all," adds Cleanthes, 

— OS oia Troi'Tcui' 
^oiTp — uiroTOS /?acriXeiis 810 TrovTos'"^] 

" He bestows abundantly, and yet is never exhausted [lacks 
nothing]. He contains the Yin and the Yang within himself."' 
"It is Indra," says the Brahman, "who supports the earth, 
and by his innate power [suppmls also] the sky like a cover- 
ing."* "He, the One to whom heaven and earth bow."' "When 
thou, O hero [Indra], didst fill the ocean [pouring in the water 
gradually]."* " He, the upholder of heaven and earth, over- 
spread them with his brilliancy, scattering the malignant 
darkness[es], he pervaded [all things]."^ " Supreme over all, 
and sufficient for the protection of this world, which he, the 
Father [or preserver], made with his two arms for the sake of 
men," &c.' " He caused the sun to be born [e.xist]."' " Lord 
[overcomer] of all, lord of wealth and of men, of all," &c.** 
"O ye men, Indra is he in whom to have faith. Indra is he 

' Hesiod, Tlieogon. 131— 134. ^ Cleanth. Hymn in J. 4, 12 sq. 

' Ilwac-nnn-tsze, c. i. ' Rig V. md. i. skla. clxxiii. 6. ' Id. md. ii. 

skta. xii. 13. ' Id. ibid, skt.i. clxxv. 9. ' Id. ibid. skla. xvii. 

« Id. ibid. skta. xvii. 6. ' Id. ibid. skta. xix. 3. "> Id. ibid. skta. xxi. I. 

viii. 27] 



who brought forth the sun and the dawn, who commands the 
waters."' " He, the upholder of heaven and earth." "There 
in the deep, slumbers Keshava [well-haired, a name of Vishnu] 
and the host of like enemies. There also lie, for refuge, 
winged mountains and subterranean fires. Oh ! how wide, 
how immense I and what burden the body of Sindhu [the 
ocean] has to bear !"' Since "Vishnu, in the shape of a huge 
boar, brought out the earth from the depths below on his 
tusks," &c. ; " and placed it upon the waters, on which it 
floats like a large ship," &c.* 

" But the seven spheres with the Patalas [hells] are of equal 
dimensions with the egg of Brahma"' [that floated on the 
chaotic waters of Nara, in which Vishnu dwelt as Brahma or 
Narayana*]. " The two shells of this egg contain all that is 
above and below. Beyond is Mind, Pradhano [the supreme], 
Vishnu;"' "who is a personification of Time;" "who is 
before the finite spirit [of man], and is himself the Supreme 
Soul."' " But Vrihaspati, with Indra, did send down the ocean 
of waters, enveloped in darkness."" "He [Ahura Mazda] 
came as first designer when he endowed the luminaries of 
heaven with brilliancy. He who in his wisdom created purity, 
wherein he rules (or holds) the best Spirit. Thou, O Mazda, 
gavest them [the two creations of heaven and earth] increase 
after a heavenly manner; thou, Ahura, who art Lord."'" "Wis- 
dom is like Shiva among the deities of heaven, and is the 
holder of the four corners of the globe."" 

" KaXXio-TOi/ Koir/ios, Troirjfia yap 6(ov :" ^ 

" The universe is a most beautiful thing," said Thales ; " for 
it is God's workmanship." "Some deluded bards say that 
one's own nature, others that Time [is the origin of all things]. 

' Rig V. md. ii. skta. xii. 5. ' Id. md. iii. skta. xlix. 4. 

' Nitishataka, 68. ' Vishnu Pur. i. 4, 25, 45- ' ^anu, i. 

• Vishnu Pur. i. 2, 53, 54, and Maha 13h. Vana P. 15,819. ' Vishnu 

Pur. ii. 6, 19, 20. « Id. i. 3, 5, 9- 34- ' R'g V. ii. skta. xxvi. 18. 

'" Yaqna, xxxi. 7. " Hjam-dpal, fol. viii. '^ Thales Mil. Sept. 

Sap. ed. Antv. 



[viii. 28, 29 

But it is the glory of God in this world, wherein the wheel of 
Brahma revolves. [Comp. rpoxoi ytvla-fu's.] For he is the 
beginning, and the cause whereby soul and body are united. 
I le is seen beyond the three divisions of Time [past, present 
and to come], himself without Time [eternal]."' 

Ver. 28. " iV/icn he established" &c. " Indra was making a 
covering [clouds?] in the sky.'"'' "If," says Anhuma [Hor- 
muzd], "clouds arc by me made to carry about rain on this earth, 
and to move at [my] pleasure, cannot I work the resurrec- 
tion ?"* " Wisdom, the joy of the three worlds, is as white as 
white clouds, and light as the good light of autumn months."* 
" O Lord, who abidest for ever, at whose command fire and 
wind appear. Thy voice is strong, Thy words endure, and 
Thy decree is powerful. Thy commandment is terrible ; it 
dries up the deep, and Thine anger melts down the moun- 

29 When he gave to the sea his decree, that the 
waters should not pass his commandment : when he 
appointed the foundations of the earth : 

" Wlicn he gave," &c. "Indra," says the Brahman, "gave 
the earth and heaven, the sun, also the cow that feeds many, 
plants, days, trees, the air, and divides the cloud [for rain]."' 
Yet " Heaven, thy progenitor [O Indra], thought — [he is] a 
valiant hero I The maker of Indra is a finished workman."^ 
" Then powerful Armaiti [Wisdom] gave firmness to the body; 
let her be to thee (or ' let thy having her' — a difficult passage), 
be as when thou first camest forth to create [all things]."* 
" The father of rivers [the ocean] having been once restrained 
within narrow bounds, never surges beyond the limit of his 
own shore [or strand], out of regard for the pledge he gave."' 

' Swetasw. Upd. vi. i. ' Sama V. Prapat. ii. 1, 3, 7. ' Bundehesh, 
c. x.xxi. * Hjam-dpal, fol. viii. » i Ezra (Eth.), c. viii. 26, 27. 

' Rig V. md. ill. skta. xxxiv. 8. ' Id. md. iv. skta. xviii. 4, 12, and 

md. vii. skta. xx. 5. ' Ya^na, xxx. 17. • Ramayana, ii. xiv. 6, and xii. 41. 

viii. 29] 



"For Brahma made heaven and earth, and the permanent 
abode of the waters."' 

" Tell me, Alvis, what is the name of this ' marr' [mare, 
mere]? Men, said Alvis, call it 'sac' [sea], but gods call it 
'silaegia,' ever-flowing [or 'ever settled down,' or 'laid for 
ever']."* " He who maHo firm the moving earth, who quieted 
the angry mountains, who spread far and wide the space under 
heaven [antariksham], and established the firmament of heaven 
[dyam], he, O ye men, is Indra."' " He is One to whom heaven 
and earth do bow."* "Indra is he who supports heaven, and 
pours forth water for the food and support of man."' " Vishnu, 
however, is that supreme Brahma, eternal. He then existed 
in the form of Purusha [the soul, man, the Supreme Being]. 
'Purusha' is the form of the supreme Brrihrna."*" "This 
immortal, imperishable Brahm is neither in the earth nor in 
the sky, nor yet in the sea ; yet it support.? the water of it. 
The form of it is not seen in the stars, nor in the clouds, nor 
yet in the gods ; not in the moon, nor yet in the sun, nor in the 
four Vedas. Let the brahinachari contemplate [dhruvan tat] 
that everlasting, eternal One in himself," said Sanatsujata.' 

" That soul [perfect soul] by virtue of the law of immortality, 
as Ruler over the whole universe, over what has been, and over 
what is to be : I know him, undecaying, ancient, of old ; the 
soul of all, all-pervading by virtue of his power — whom those 
who know Brahma call unborn, eternal."'* " It is Indra who 
established the sky [in the space] without beams, who filled 
the wide heaven and earth. He upheld the earth and spread 
it out."" " He, the bull Indra, filled the earth [and sky] with 
his own brilliancy, and after dissipating evil darkness[es] 
occupied [pervaded all things]. He stayed the wavering 
mountains, directed the downward flow of the waters. He 

1 Manu S. i. 13. ' AlvismAl. 23, 24. ' R'g V. ii. skta. xii. 2. 

< Id. ibid. 13. ' Id. i. skta. cxxi. 2. « Vishnu Pur. I. 2, 23. 

' Maha Bh. Udyog P. 17 10. » Swetaswat. Upd. iv. 15, 2j. 
» Rig. V. ii. skta. xv. 2. 



[viii. 30, 31 

established the earth, and by his wisdom he established the 
heavens."' "As the waters of the deep sea into which all 
rivers, streams and brooks flow, do not pass the strand, so also 
the great and good man, had he all the wealth of Jambudwip, 
would not transgress in his conduct through pride."' "As the 
water of the sea does not transgress the shore, so Menilksami 
never grew proud," &c.' 

[See the account of the Flood foretold to Manu by the fish, 
that told him to make for himself a great ship, into which he 
was to go, with seven Rishis, and take with him seeds, &c. 
The highest peak of the Himalaya is so called from the Rishis 
making fast the ship there].* 

30 Then I was by him, as one brought up wt'^A 
him : and I was daily his deHght, rejoicing always 
before him ; 

31 Rejoicing in the habitable part of his earth ; and 
my delights were with the sons of men. 

lins ibst? n:;.nm, from the root ION, which implies both ' firmness, 
faitli, workmanship, nursing,' &c. liON is rendered 'nursling,' 'brought 
up,' as by A.V. But this clearly does not suit the context, with 
wliich I'OM, the same as IQ^, ' workman, architect, builder,' agrees 
better; 'a trusty, faithful assessor, architect and helper,' inasmuch 
as 'the Wisdom of God' is He who from all eternity was one with 
the Father, who 'by Him [and with Him] made the worlds.' Heb. 
i. 2, Col. i. 16, &c. This passage may then be rendered : ' I was at 
His side [as] trusty and faithful artificer, working with Him [' in wisdom 
hast thou made them all,' Ps. civ. 24] and for Him' ['who by wisdom 
made the heavens,' Ps. cxxxvi. 5]. The Chaldee renders it well : ' I 
was at his side, ►'Jn30''np, faithful and trustworthy' [fern, agreeing 
with ' Wisdom,' fem. also]. Syr. ' I was possessed by him [with him].' 
Aral). 'I was with [or by] him working' [or 'as maker']. Vulg. 'cum 
CO cram cuncta componens.' Copt. ' I [Wisdom] arranged, formed all 
those things with him.' Another Arabic copy reads : ' I was by him, 

' Rig V. ii. skta. xviii. 4, 5. ' Subhashita, 85. ' Kusajat. 15, 37. 

< .Maha Bh. Vana P. 12,751, '2.772, 12,795- 

viii. 30, 31] THE BOOK OF PROVERB.S. 


arranging for him.' Armen. ' I was with him adapting, arranging.' 
All these follow, more or less, the LXX. op/adfoixro, ' arranging.' 

This rendering may bear on D'JIJ nlpSJ, ' let us make man,' 
Gen. i. 26 ; and on xyypt TC^T^, xi. 7, &c. And though ]iQM is 
masc, it may be said of nippn, fem., as well as ' Sapientia 
hominis custos et procreatrix,'' or as 'Artifex omnium natura;'* 
or as the Greek Qi6% (To<f>ia, Wisdom, '(^penta Armaiti,' pure, 
supreme holy Wisdom, is said in the Ya^na to be " the beau- 
tiful daughter of Ahura Mazda;"' "with or through whose 
arms He works mighty deeds."* [With her as 'nursling' 
]iD^, tyKoXrios. Comp. S. John i. 18.] 

" The Sage asked the Spirit of Wisdom, saying : Why is it 
that the knowledge and skilful workmanship of the heavens 
and of the earths [worlds] are both coupled with thee ? Then 
the Spirit of Wisdom answered : It is because from the very 
first I, the original Wisdom, was with Hormuzd, before the 
heavens and the worlds, and ere he. Creator, created the 
yazads [presiding deities] creations in heaven and earth, and 
all other creations, through the power, energy, wisdom and 
skill of me, original Wisdom, by whom He holds and keeps 
them going."" 

Ver. 31. DIM ^33 Hb* "'Jt^StD'l, 'and my delights were with the sons 
of men,' cannot apply to the time spoken of, before the earth was 
made. But it must be said prospectively and prophetically of the 
day when, ' in the fulness of time,' He, who is ' the Wisdom of God,' 
the ' Lamb' also, ' fore-ordained before the foundation of the world,' 
should come to our earth, be born, dwell, suffer, die and rise again, 
in love for the lost sinners He delighted to save. 

" When the Lord," says the author of Mishle Asaph, "had 
in his heart to found the heavens and the earth. He called 
Wisdom to his side and said to her : ' Daughter, I have it in 
my heart to build a dwelling-place ; now therefore walk at my 
feet and continue with me that I may take sweet counsel with 

• Cic. de Finib. 4- ^ P''ny, •'• '• ' Vendid. xix. 45, 56; 

Yagna, xliv. 4. • Id. xlvi. 2. ' Mainyo i kh. c. Ivii. 



[viii. 30, 31 

thee. For I will do nothing without thee ; I will do all thou 
sayest ; not one of thy words shall fall to the ground.' Wis- 
dom worshipped Him and said : 'Behold thy maid-servant, to 
fulfil all thy pleasure.' From that time Wisdom was with the 
King in all his works. She counselled about the heavenly 
bodies that they should not 'entangle' their courses," &c.* 
" Mandju Sri [Hjam-dpal], Wisdom, is patron of the works 
done by Buddha [and teaches to do them perfectly],"* " and 
is parent of all perfections,"' "and chief of things incorporeal 
and corporeal, of bodies, and, in the end, Judge of the body."* 

" The order [command, decree] of Heaven,'' says Confucius, 
" is called ' Nature.' Tao [the way] is to follow that nature, 
and 'teaching' consists in conformity to that decree from 
Heaven." On this opening chapter of the Chung-Yung, Kiu O 
says: "These three sentences are three luminaries. What 
then is Heaven ? Kufu-tsi [Confucius] says it is Heaven that 
makes the four seasons and causes all things to be. And the 
'Invariable Mean' (or Mid-way) is this decree from Heaven."^ 

Ver. 31. "O Mazda, thou at first create us, and the 
body of the world [bodily world], and intelligences, by thy 
Spirit, and by it gavest power of life to beings with bodies."® 
"What is 'shitugen?' asks the Buddhist. Answer: It is the 
high (or divine) body of precious man." " This body consists 
of two parts, and the mind of three ; five parts in all. And 
the precious body of man is of two different qualities. Either 
'troubled' [disordered] and liable to obstacles [in the way of 
final happiness]; or it is of 'good form and appearance,' and 
nearer to final emancipation [purified by transmigration]."' 
" I, Hjam-dpal [Wisdom], am he who gives thoughts of joy 
and of delight" [to the sons of men]."* 

> Mishle Asaph, viii. 5—8. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. ii. ' Id. fol. v. 

* Id. fol. ix. ' Kiu O do wa, vol. i. scrm. 2. • Yaqna, xxxi. II. 

' Tonilkhu yin chim. iii. ' Hjam-dpal, fol. i. 



32 Now therefore hearken unto me, O ye children : 
for blessed are they that keep my ways. 

33 Hear instruction, and be wise, and refuse it not. 

"Now therefore" &c. " An ignorant man," says Manu, "is 
a child, and he who teaches him is a father. Therefore do men 
thus address a simple one as 'child' and his teacher as 'father.' 
For greatness is not in years, in grey hairs, wealth or kindred ; 
but, said the Rishis, he is reckoned great among us who has 
read the Vedas and their Angas [lit. ' members,' explanatory 
literature]. The merit and excellence of Brahmans then is in 
their learning; of 'kshatrias' [military caste], in valour; of 
merchants, in their wealth ; and of 'sudras' [lowest caste], in 
their birth."' " Since you have shown respect for me," said 
Buddha to the gods, " make assiduous efforts to practise this 
law which you have heard ; and you will really receive endless 

Ver. 33. " Hear what is good, however little it be ; it will 
yield true greatness."' " What support a staff is in a slippery 
place, such is a word [of advice] from one who walks orderly." 
" If thou art ignorant, hearken ; it will be a help to thee in 
difficulty."* Tsze-hea [Confucius's younger brother] said : 
" Study extensively, and with a fixed purpose ; inquire ear- 
nestly and give your mind to it, and good motives will of them- 
selves settle within you."" " Read [study] the dead [ancient] 
authors."* "There is nothing like it," said Confucius."' 
"Wherever a pandit endued with knowledge is heard of, 
thither let all who are eager to learn, make every effort to 
go."* " Take warning for the present, and learn for informa- 
tion [or correction]."' " If not skilled, learn ; if dirty, wash ; 
if you do not know, inquire."" " But do not answer before you 

' Manu S. ii. 152. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. ' Cural, 416. 

* Id. 414, 415. » Ming Sin P. K. c. ix. • Nitimala, ii. 19. 

' Quoted at greater length above, p. 18. ' Lokaniti, 8. ' Finnish pr. 
'» Hill prov. 34. 



[viii. 34—36 

are spoken to ; and when in presence of your teacher, listen 
with humility."' 

34 Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching 
daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors. 

35 For whoso findeth me findeth life, and shall 
obtain favour of the Lord. 

36 But he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own 

soul : all they that hate me love death. 

Ver. 36. '*MQhl, lit ' and he who misses me,' who fails to ' hit,' to 
find me and to hearken to me. LXX. 01 a/iapTdvovTf^ tis l/j-i. 
^Niah, 'he who misses me' (like aixapTavia, said of an archer who 
misses his object, and of the arrow that does not hit it), is here in 
antithesis to ''nVo, ' he who finds me.' The Arabic reads it much in 
this sense : ' and he who errs from me.' 

Ver. 34. " Watching" &c. " If thou art about the palace," says 
Ptah-hotep, " standing or sitting is better than running about. 
Stray not ; it would be thy dismissal. Be ready when called 
[watch for the coming of an order], for wide is the place of 
calling [the courts of the palace]."' [' Watching ' and 'a watch- 
man' in Ethiopic is "a man of eyes,' an 'eye-man.' Thus the 
Lord said to Ezekiel : " I have made thee [a man of eyes] a 
watchman over the house of Israel," Ezek. iii. 17, xxxiii. 7]. 
" Say not disparagingly, What good have we received [seen] 
from our fruitless waiting at the king's [Wisdom's] gate ? 
Wait, and you will be raised to royal favour."' " Wise men go 
in at the door of the houses of their friends ; but of their ene- 
mies, elsewhere," said Krishna to Jarasandha.* "Self-restraint 
liberality and watchfulness," said Vidurato Dhritarashtra, "are 
the three horses of the Brahman, who stands in his mental 
chariot, holding in hand the reins of a good disposition; and 
free from the fear of death, he thus goes to BrahmalSka 
[heaven]. This gives fearlessness to all beings."' "And the 

' Japan, pr. Rodr. p. 95. ' Pap. Prisse, viii. 2, 3. ' Niti neri 

vilac. 49. • Maha Bh. Sabh. P. 852. 

viii. 34 — 36] THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 


' Maha Bh. Stri P. 186. 

love of generous virtue is better than that of father and mother 
for their children, for it only ceases in death," said the tortoise 
to the deer.' 

Ver. 35. "Findeth life," &c. Confucius said: "If I heard 
the right way in the morning, and died in the evening, that 
would be enough."' And Lao-tsze : " Heaven is Tao, and Tao 
is long life ; for until death the man [who has Tao] will not be 
exposed to danger."' " He who [follows me] is obedient here 
below, shall yonder [in the next life] be joined to [or dwell with] 
Wisdom."* " Wisdom [serves well] works to the advantage of 
all intelligent men ; does not restrain [or deny] the use of the 
best knowledge, and possesses the rule of the heart of all sen- 
sible beings, and is the understanding of the heart of them all, 
and resides in the heart of them all ; makes them all live in 
harmony together ; rejoices them all, and pleases them all."' 
" Deign, O exalted Lord," said Ananda to Buddha, "to teach 
us the good word of ' the water of life,' for the wealth of all 
living things."* 

Ver. 36. There is no greater happiness [source of prosperity] 
than virtue ; there is no greater source of loss [destruction] 
than to forget its teaching."' "And if a man loves himself, let 
him not commit an evil action, however small."' " Laying 
aside good [virtue] and not practising it, may be called self- 
robbery."" "The mortal," said Nalus to Damayanti, "who 
does anything disagreeable to the gods, goes to the death.""* 
"The intelligent being who commits sin shall fall into hell." 
" So spake Sems-chan-chhen-po [Being of great sense, intellect] 
after his second birth in Dgah-ltan [the abode of joy]."" 
"And he who commits his soul [himself] to his passions, falls 
into the deepest abyss."" " It is not Creon who is the cause of 
thy woe," said Teiresias to CEdipus, " aW o«tos uv o-oC, but thou 
art the cause of it to thyself"" 

' Calilah u Dimn. p. 177. * Shang-L. iv. 8. ' Tao-te-King, c. xvi. 
* Ya9na, xxxi. 9. ' Hjam-dpal, fo). ix. ' Altan Gerel, sect. x. fol. 207. 
' Cural, iv. 2. ' Id. xxi. 209. ' Hicn w. shoo, 62. •» Maha Bh. Vana 
P. 1266. " Dsang-Lun, fol. 18. " El Nawab. 83. " Oidip.Tyr. 379. 



[ix. I, 2 


/ The discipline^ 4 and doctrine of wisdom, ij The custom, 1 6 and error 


A^T'ISDOM hath builded her house, she hath hewn 
out her seven pillars : 
2 She hath killed her beasts ; she hath mingled her 
wine ; she hath also furnished her table. 

" Wisdom hath builded, &c. nn^D, 'her house.' 'With (or 
by) wisdom the Holy and Blessed One built the universe,"^ 
her house. "'O Kd<r/ios, so called from its perfect order and 
beauty, irdrtpov »)v aft, ^ ykyoviv ; did it always exist, or did it 
come into being ? Tfyoif. It was brought into being ; the 
Maker of this universe, which is the perfection of beauty, is 
good ; and in making it He had regard to an everlasting 
(ufSiov) model," says Platc^' vr^-2Xp n-'lTO?, ' her seven pillars'— 
"the seven days of the beginning"^ — "the six days of work 
and one of rest at the creation ; seven days of the week insti- 
tuted for ever."* 

" The good that wisdom does is compared, in a Buddhist 
work, to a man of mean antecedents, whose ancestors and 
parents were poor and despised, but who, when under the 
influence of wisdom, would, as it were, dwell at ease, without 
anxiety or trouble, in a lofty house of gold, with seven joists 
[or rafters] well fitted together, and there live happy," Sc."* 

I R s. Y.irclii. ' Plato. Tim. 28. ' R. S. Yarchi. « Tevunath 
Mishle, ad 1. ' Tsagnay J. Thcra, 27. 

ix. I, 2] 



In more than one sense Wisdom may say of her house : 

" Aureum 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar, 
(Et) tr.nbes Hymettiae 

Premunt columnas ultima recisas 

" Let thy house," say the Rabbis, " be for an assembly of wise 

[S. August. De Civit. Dei, lib. xvii. c. 20. S. Cyprian, ad Qiiirin. 
lib. i. c. 20, ii. 2 ; Ep. Ixiii. S. Isidorus Pelus. Ep. lib. ii. 3 ; about 
iKfpaa-t, and i. 68.] 

Ver. 2. "She hath killed her ni^^ia [beasts for] meat." 
" Tioi/o Povv jrei/TatTijpoi',' a fat OX five-year old." " Tae-kung 
says : There ought to be no difference among guests, between 
relations and acquaintances ; all who come should be well 
received,"* and all feasted alike, "a feast of fat things full of 
marrow, of wine on the lees well refined ;" 

"t(r^oi'T€s Kpea iroXXa [ioiav 6p6oKpaipdu>v, 
7rti'oi'T€s Kpi]Tylpa<; cViorei^fas otvoio. ' 

ny"; nDpa, '"she hath mingled her wine," as explained by 
R. S. Yarchi, "'H mniob "'IS") irstt? ptn t«'' las d'^kq rata, "she 

mixed it with water, as wine is so strong that it is not desir- 
able (or convenient) to drink it pure,"" in accordance with the 
custom prevalent in all countries that grow generous wines ; in 
order to favour drinking. Good wine alone was thus treated ; 
for " tanquam Icvia qUcxdam vina nihil valent in aqua, sic — 
magis gustata quam potata delectant," says Cicero.' In any 
case, however, the quantity of water was mi.xed with the wine 
according to certain rules, some of which arc given by Athenaeus 
and others ; the wine being reckoned better or worse, as it 
was mixed with less or more water [S. John ii. 10]. 

So that 3Tn, like Kcpilvvvfii, to mix water with wine, was used 
for 'pouring wine into the cup;' and riJTP 3T.^, like Kpafia, 

> Hor. Od. ii. 18. 2 V. Avoth, 1$. Fl. ' 11. /3. 403. 

• Hicn w. shoo, 124. ' 11. 0'. 231. « R. S. Yarclii, ad. 1. 

' Tusc. Q. V. 5. 



[ix. 2 

'mixture,' became the common term for wine drunk at meals. 

The custom was, as Xenophanes tells us — 

ovSt Ktv Iv KvXtKt irpoTtpov Ktpd<rtU tw orvov 
tyXtai, oAX vSmp, Kal KaOvirtpOf p.i6v" — ' 

" to pour the water first into the cup and then wine on the top 
of it" — when left to every guest to temper his wine after his 
own taste. 

Wine thus treated, however, was b^n^p, 'cut or killed,' aivn 
wra, ' mixed with water' [Targ. Is. i. 22], to distinguish it from 
Tn l^i 'live, or living wine,' pure wine. 'ATruXto-os toi- 0*1-01' 
€jrix<as v^p, ' thou hast lost (or ruined) thy wine by pouring 
water into it,' says the adage.* So also in Arabic, wine is 
said to be " strangled with cold,"' that is, says the Commentary, 
•• mixed with water." Arabs also use the terms 'to kill' wine 
for mixing water with it In Ethiopic, it is said ' to defile wine.' 
And the LXX. render Is. i. 22, "01 KamjXol a-ov ulu-yova-i tov 
oTvov vSoTi, thy tavern-keepers mix thy wine with water." 
[Compare 2 Cor. ii. 17, "We are not Kairr]XtvovTK, in the habit 
of adulterating the word of God," as tavern-keepers adulterate 
their wine.] 

This mixture of wine and water was so thoroughly depre- 
ciated, although in common use, that one of the features of 
fJSekvpia, abominable or disgusting conduct, was, according to 
Theophrastes, either to sell K(Kpap.ivov rbv oTvov, wine thus 
mixed with water, or to offer it to a friend."* Nay, "when 
Arda Viraf went into the nether world, he saw there the soul 
of a man who was ever measuring dust and ashes with a 
bushel. What had he done? asked Arda Viraf Srosh 
answered : When on earth he sold short weight, and mingled 
water with his wine.'" " In the ' Words of the Wise,' however, 
it is said : In the days of harvest [in summer] wine should be 
mixed with water, but [in winter] in the rainy season, strong 
wine is [praised] proper."* " When the thistle blossoms, when 

' Xcnoph. col. 23. ' Adag. p. 97. ' Caab. B. Zoheir. 4. 

* Theophr. Char. 12. ' Arda Viraf. nam. xxvii. " Dibre hakh. p. 13. 

ix. 2] 



brook," says Hesiod, ' ^^ ^ ■■"""'"& 

"rpU S- iSaro, ^poy^i,,,, ri> Si rirparov lip.,, ot.ov "1 

IT-' '"Fol "' ''"' ''''' °' ^'''' '"' '^^'ounk Of 

wme. For the say that wine which is not mixed with 

water .s 'a violent king;' but wine mixed with wateMs a 

righteous king.' "2 ^'■^'^ '^ * 

"Wine and honey are bad for children, but good for old 
eTand 7?^''r"''^^ = """^ '" ''^ '^^ -soTo el , 
" te "3 It " ' : 'f " ''' ''-'-''''''' "^ ''^ -- in 
to be old ,„ h r'^ "'^^' "'■^'^ ''''" --^ -^ ^"owed 

mixed bv thoT K T '" '^ ''''' P"^^- -^ ^hen to be 
m.xcd by those who bought it. for their own use.* And as to 

he mode « drinking, "he who drinks his glass at one gu Jil 

three .s a clown, '» according to the Rabbis 

Such being the case as regards wine mingled with water 
only pure wme was allowed for offerings in the TemnI ^ 
arnong the heathens to their gods. R. Salol in Z b ^ 
teaches that the wine offered in libations was never m.^^dw'h 
water neuher was any of it poured upon the fire, but it w s 
poured at the foot of the a,tar."o How. then, are we' to accol 
for the angels who, according to R. Jehudah Ben Bethir 
'mm.stered to Adam in the Garden of Eden, roasted his me t 
and m,„,ed his wineP''^ Was it with water., or more iLly 

sons of Fer.dun, he scattered Jewels before them, and mingled 
musk their wine."' "As Zohak drank it a whole year - Hafiz.- who " made happy [pleased] with musked wine 
[mishkeen] the smelling organs of his life." Or "[mull] wine, or 

' Hes. /. < i 594. J Matshaf. Phal. (Eth.). 3 Hnlkuf T)nh - 

Baba metzia, xi. p. 128. s Pp„rl,in . • • r. u ^- ""• 

P 667 • M iK-j t^esacliin, c. vu. ,n Othonis Lex. Rab 

no!. K ^- P- "7- ' Avoth R. Nathan, fol 2 e clI' 

"ameh.p.s4. Md. p. 24. " Hafiz. Diw. Dal. .0,: 

2 D 



[ix. 2 

spirituous liquor well mixed up [or tightly] with sugar."* Wines 
also of different sorts were mixed together. Thus Martial— 
" Nos bibimus vitro, tu myrrha, Pontice, quare I 
Prodat perspicuus ne duo vina calix."* 
But it was offered aKparov, unmixed, pure, to the gods, a cask 
of old wine being considered Otlov iroTOf,' drink fit for the gods, 
or • divine drink,' and to them were oTroi-Soi t* aKpijrai koI 8«£io/,* 
pure and acceptable libations offered. " It was thus offered 
pure, in order to show," says Eustathius, " the sincerity of a 
mind free from fraud and guile." "Sic contri, vino aqua 
mixto doli atque superstitiones in sacris adumbrabantur. Hinc 
• spurcum' vinum dicebatur quod sacris adhiberi non poterat,"' 
&c. So that when Homer speaks of the preparations Aga- 
memnon and Ulysses made for the sacrifice to Zeus, when 
they KprjTijpi 8( olvov fita-yov.'^ mingled the wine in the bowl for 
the libation, it could not have been mixed with water. 

So also at the Passover, R. M. Maimonides says that "when 
blessing the cup, the father of the family, or the head of the 
company (i-parpia), shall fill a cup with [living] pure wine; and 
when he comes to the blessing of the earth, he shall pour into 
the cup a little water, as much as to make the wine fit to 
drink."' " R. Eliezer said that at a feast the wine is not to be 
blest until it has been mingled with water. But R. R. Barte- 
nora and also R. M. Maimonides say, that this applies only to 
wine so sour that it is not fit to drink without water. [To this 
refers : " Wine [sour vinegar] man, that is not mingled with a 
third part of water, is not man, wine that is drinkable."* This, 
however, differs from r] But the decision of the law is against 
R. Eliezer, and wine was blessed pure."' 

Likewise among the Egyptians, on almost every funeral 
stone [stele], on almost every papyrus, mention is made of 
wine as an offering to the gods, of wine from the choice vine- 

1 Niiami Makhz. p. 8i. ' Mart. Epig. iv. 86. ' Odyss. /T. 341. 

4 J, fl- ,^, » Stuckii Sacror. et Sacris. Gentil. descr. p. 200. 

• II r 269, 295, and Lucian, Deor. Dial, xviii. ' Halkut Berach. 

fol 121 » lip. Lod. 1203. • Mishna Massek. Berach. c. vi. i, 6, c vii. 5. 

ix. 3-5] 



yards of Kokome and of " Ut South and of Ut North" 
[Maraeotis],' as well as from Phoenicia,' and from Ouan, west 
of Aleppo.' On one occasion we hear of 1 500 mins of wine, 
and 50 of 'shet'hu,' hydromel.* And on the walls of tombs 
that date from the time of the Pyramids, as in that of Khufu, 
we have representations of the vintage, of the boiling of wine, 
&c. And yet, until not many years ago, certain critics called 
in question the history of Joseph, because they, having only 
read Herodotus, who, sailing up the Nile, could not see vine- 
yards planted, of course, beyond the reach of the inundation 
says that there are no vineyards in Egypt. [And on such testi- 
mony the Word of God was to be discredited !] 

But the wine drunk at the Passover is to be red ; it must 
have the appearance and flavour of wine,' which the gloss 
explains DnM HrT'Q?, that it must be red" — 
" y€pov<Tiov atdotra oTvqv,' * 
" deep or dark red wine, worthy of the oldest among men." 

From these few passages we may gather that Wisdom, who 
gives us the best of everything, does not adulterate the wine 
she gives to her guests, but mingles it with her gifts. Her 
wine is that spiritual wine " which is, indeed, pure ; wine that 
maketh glad the heart "of poor sinful man, and that sends life 
into his withered frame. Her bread also is the Bread of Life 
"that strengtheneth his heart," and her oil is the unction "that 
cometh from where she dwells — from above." 

3 She hath sent forth her maidens : she crieth upon 
the highest places of the city. 

4 Whoso is simple, let him turn in hither : as for 
him that wanteth understanding, she saith to him, 

5 Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine 
whuh I have mingled. 

> Pap. Harris, pi. 7 ; also pi. 27, 29, 32, 33, 42. 53. 54, 60, 67, &c. 
' Etudes Egypt, ii. p. 23. ' Pap. Barges. ♦ Pap. Anast. iv. 7, 4. 

' Hieros. Pesach. fol. 37, 2 ; Otho. Lex. Rab. p. 452. • IL «*. 259. 

2 D 2 



[ix. 3—6 

6 Forsake the foolish, and live ; and go in the way 
of understanding. 

Ver. 3. " Her maidens" are " either Adam and Eve, or Moses 
and Aaron," according to R. S. Yarchi. [But rather— visible 
proofs of God's wisdom and love.] 

Ver. 4. " Whoso is simple" &c. Confucius being in the Chin 
country, said to his disciples : " Return home, O ye my company 
of little children. You are ambitious and still ill-informed 
[rude, clownish], though well taught. You do not yet know 
how to decide [between what you ought to choose and to 
avoid]."* "The wise man frames the sincerity of his demea- 
nour according to justice [to what is just and right] ; he 
practises it with propriety ; he carries it out with modesty 
[humility] ; and he perfects it with good faith. Such is the 
[kiun-tsze] wise and superior man."' 

Ver 5. " He who says. What shall I eat with my bread ? 
take his bread from him."' [Bread is the best food, but he is 
not hungry.] So say the Rabbis ; and they add quaintly : 
but when thou eatest, chew with thy hind teeth, and thou shalt 
feel it down to thy heels."* 

Ver. 6. " Forsake the foolish;' &c. " Sumedhu pandita," said 
Dipankara. " practises the virtue of abandonment of the world, 
of self, &c., like one who, having long been shut up in prison, 
does not set his affection upon it, but is glad to escape."' 
"Give up a man for a family, and a family for a district ; but 
let a man give up the world for his soul," said Vidura to 
Dhritarashtra; " let him preserve his soul [himself] at all times, 
whether it be at the price of his wealth or of his wife."* " The 
best thing to do, is to forsake an evil way as soon as it is 
known to be bad." ' " For real talent, or cleverness, consists in 
being always given to virtuous deeds."" "Yea, do nothing im- 
proper or unbecoming."' 

I Shang-Lun, v. 22. ' Hea-Lun, xv. 17. » Sanhedr. 100, M. S 

• Shabbat. R. Bl. 212. * Durenidan. Jat. p. 21. 

Udyog P. 1350. '351- ' Pa"«=*>» T. i. 341- 

Aw. Atthi Sudi, 211. 

ix. 7—g] 



« Maha Bh. 
• Pancha Rat. 4- 

7 He that reproveth a scorner getteth to himself 
shame : and he that rebuketh a wicked man getteth 
himself a blot. 

8 Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee : rebuke 
a wise man, and he will love thee. 

9 Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be 
yet wiser : teach a just man, and he will increase in 

Ver. 7. ''He that reproveth" %ic. " Sincerum est nisi vas, quod- 
cunque infundis acescit."' "There is no denial and no lying, 
but from those who know not how to feel shame or to blush."* 
" Do not talk much of teaching a bad man ; it will only give 
trouble afterwards."* " He that scatters about his advice, 
makes many enemies."* " Hatred has clung to me, O Vishnu," 
said Prahlada, " because I made known [for making known] 
thy praise. But let this sin of my father be done away."* 
" For a draught of milk to a serpent only increases his venom. 
So also advice given to fools tends to wrath rather than to 
peace."* "And the crow found it true to his cost, when advised 
by another crow not to waste his advice on monkeys. He 
would not hearken, however, but went to them and gave them 
advice, for which they tore him in pieces. Therefore, neither 
undertake to straighten the crooked nor to teach wisdom to 
the foolish."' " For the very best instruction often yields 
the worst results, according to him who receives it."' 

"Any one is able to teach a man of understanding, but it is 
not in the power of any one to teach an evil man. Can any 
one straighten the bend of a river?"' On the other hand, 
" Propagate good instruction," say the Chinese, " in order to 
correct men's vices."'* Then we are told by the Mongolians : 

• Hor. Ep. i. 2. » Ep. Lod. 118. ' Oyun Tulk, p. 8. ♦ Legs 
par b. p. 168. ' Vishnu P. i. 20, 28. • Hitop. Hi. 4. ' Sre^. c. Ix^riK. 
p. 130, and Calilah u D. p. 129. ' Kawi Niti S. • Vemana, i. 29. 

'» Hien w. shoo, 86. 



[ix. 7—9 

" Support [or rear] not a man of evil conduct. Bad people, 
when raised to good circumstances afterwards incur guilt 
through their riches."' Under any circumstances, however, 
" it is far easier to advise," say the Greeks, " than for the sufferer 
to bear it patiently." 

Ver. 8. Some wise man said : "iifj iXfy^t fitapov, iva /x^ crt iiur^cry* 
Reprove not a fool lest he hate thee." " In King-hing-luh, it 
is said : Blaming a man only, does not complete one's inter- 
course [with him ; is not all that is required] ; and always 
excusing does not correct faults."* "Advice given to the 
foolish only ruffles them ; it does not quiet them. Feeding a 
snake with milk, only increases its venom."* " That which is 
fallen into the sea is lost," said Vidura; " so also is a word in 
[the ears of] one who hears it not."* " It is like spitting to the 
wind ; it falls back upon one's face."' "A wise man's advice 
to a fool is like talking to trees and singing to stones."' 

Not so, however, to a wise man. " I look upon him who, 
pitying my ignorance, sprinkles my ears with the ambrosia of 
learning, as upon my father and mother. All such as do not 
pay proper respect to the teacher from whom they have 
received the treasure of knowledge, go to the world of sinners, 
without let or hindrance," said Katcha to his guru."' " One 
may bind silk threads about a soft and flexible tree. A good- 
hearted, genial and gentle man is the pillar of virtue. If I 
give one word of advice to a wise man, he follows it in the way 
of virtue. But if I repeat it to a stupid man, he only calls 
me [tsiin] interfering ! Everybody has a [heart] way of 
thinking of his own."' " But before giving advice, first take 
the splinter out of thine own eye."" 

Ver. 9. " IVi/l be yet wiser" &c. "An intelligent man 
understands a thing thoroughly, and his mind is strengthened 

• Oyun Tulk, p. 12. * Srf^. r. I'xwiX. p. 1 28. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. vii. 
* Naga Niti, 239 Schf. ' Maha Bh. Udyog P. i486. « Osm. pr. 

' Mishle Asaph, xxxi. 27. ' Maha 13h. Adi P. 3246, 3247. » She 

King, bk. ill. ode 2. '» Yalkut Ruth R. Bl. 309. 

ix. 9] 



thereby. The king of beasts, when hungry, scatters a whole 
herd of elephants."' " For sense [wits, understanding] is the 
sword, but [trial] experience is the whetstone [to give a keen 
edge]," say the Arabs.* " For sense and [practice or] training 
are like soul and body."' " Whoever speaks, give ear ; then 
having heard and considered, thou mayest understand the, .state, 
of things [discover the truth]. And go to, thou shalt become 
a lover of wisdom on the earth."* "A good and worthy man 
teaches the ignorant, and sets right their mistakes [or faults], 
but bad men reckon as faults the good of wise ones.'" " For 
in like manner as butter is made from milk, can human beings 
also become Buddhas through teaching and practice."' 

Thus "one day spent in friendly intercourse with good 
men, is like seed sown in good ground that strikes root in it"^ 
For "a man though he be [ignoble] 'nobody' by birth, may 
yet acquire wisdom and virtue by study and practice."' "But 
give advice beforehand, and at the time also."* " For the wise 
and good man,'' says Confucius, " rises gradually in knowledge, 
but the inferior man sinks lower and lower in ignorance."" 
That growth in knowledge, however, creates jealousy. " For," 
say the Arabs, " increase in learning, and thy enemy's grief 
will increase also."" But never mind that. " For he," say the 
Rabbis, " who does not add to his learning, loses what he has 
got already."" 

" What, then, are the five benefits of hearing the preaching 
of the law ? (i) To hear what one had not heard before ; (2) 
to make clear or impressive what one had heard before ; (3) 
to remove doubts ; (4) to rectify one's opinions ; (5) to purify 
the mind (or soul)."'* "A man, though he be extremely stupid," 
say the Chinese, " is yet intelligent enough to find fault with 
others. And if he be ever so clever, he is yet dull enough 

' Sain iigh. fol. 3. ' Meld. Ar. pr. ' Id. ibid. * Vemana, i. 143. 
» Id. iii. 130. • Tonilkhu yin ch. 2. ' Vettivetkai, 25. « j)o ji kiyo. 
• Ep. Lod. 1426. '» Hea-Lun, xiv. 23. " Ebu Medin, 134. 

" Echa Rab. B. Fl. " Putsa pagn. 805. 



[ix. 9 — II 

about excusing his own faults. You need only reprove (or 
correct) yourself with the same heart with which you reprove 
others, and excuse others as you excuse your own self."^ 
" Praise and extol places of learning," says Yung-ching,* " in 
order to promote the advancement of scholars ; for scholars 
are the first of the four classes of the people." 

" Doctor Kang-tsee remarks : The man of superior order is 
good without teaching ; the man of middle order is good with 
teaching ; but the low fellow is not good, even with teaching. 
What is the first, but a saint? What is the second, but 
respectable ? And what is the last, but a fool ?"» " Ja-jin [as 
Indra] said to the king of Jambudwip : Even if I inform thee 
by teaching, and thou get thyself a teacher, yet is knowledge 
difficult to acquire; a mere wish for it is not sufficient."* 
" Therefore say not. When I am at leisure I will mend. May 
be thou Shalt never be at leisure."' [Therefore mend at once 
and learn.] 

10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom : 
and the knowledge of the holy is understanding. 

1 1 For by me thy days shall be multiplied, and the 
years of thy life shall be increased. 

Ver. I o. A. V. inverts the order of the Hebrew words, " the beginning 
of wisdom is the fear of the Lord." This is preferable, because the 
subject-matter is Wisdom personified, that speaks, and " the fear of 
the Lord," which here is not the subject-matter, is only mentioned 
as the beginning or foundation of wisdom. 

D"'tDrii7 rnyy, 'and knowledge of holies,' or 'saints,' as A.V. 
renders it in Ps. Ixxxix. 6, 8, &c. It is, however, said of God as 
D-rlbS, pi. construed with a sing, pron., as in Josh. xxiv. 19: "Ye 
cannot serve Jehovah," said Joshua, M^n D^lPnn D>Hb)f >?, for he [is] 
holy gods [holy God] ; in contradistinction to -i?3n ^tP\^, ' gods of 
a strange land, strange gods,' "which your fathers served in Egypt 
or beyond the river"— that are still, QSaiH?, among you (v. 23). 

« Hien w shoo, 40. » On Kang-he's 6th maxim. ' Ming Sin 

P. K. c. i. * Dsang-Lun, fol. 9- ' R- Hillel, Pirke Av. u. 4- 

ix. 10] 



Either choose one of them, or serve Jehovah. And the people said : 
"We will serve Jehovah, Wrt^H Min-^?, for He [is] our gods" (v. 18, 
24). The LXX. reads wrongly, rj Povkfj tIov iyiiov, 'the counsel of 
the saints is understanding.' The Arabic reads, 'holy,' sing.; and 
A.V. is the right rendering here, as said of God. 

Ver. 10. Confucius says "there are three things of which 
the wise man stands in awe. He fears the commands [or 
decree] of Heaven ; he fears great men ; and he stands in awe 
of the words of holy men. But the mean man does not 
acknowledge the will of Heaven, and does not fear it, but 
slights great men."' Meng-tsze, however, taught that man 
has not to look out of himself for goodness, but only to look 
for and to find his ' lost heart' — his original heart that was good, 
but was 'lost' through carelessness, bad habits, &c. And in 
Shang-Meng' he says that " as a feeling of compassion is the 
origin of [jin] the love of man [charity, dydwt]] ; as a feeling of 
shame and hatred is the origin of justice ; as the feeling of 
modesty is the origin of propriety — so also is the feeling of 
what ought or ought not to be the origin of wisdom." [But 
not of "the wisdom that cometh from above;'' for of this the 
Arabs say " that the fear of God is the beginning [head] of it"* 
As to the feeling of shame, " it is a door to religion," says the 
Buddhist, "for it tends to inward repose, as the feeling of 
modesty also tends to create outward repose."*] 

" The highest honour," says Ali, " is the fear of God."' " The 
man who fears God," says Watwat, " is honoured of God and 
respected of men." " If you are honoured by God," says the 
Qoran,' " it is because you fear Him." But this has another 
meaning. " Honour [among men] is two-fold. One is, not 
to injure others ; and the other, that a man will impart of his 
goods to others. The first is called fear of God [piety] and 
devotion ; the latter, kindness and doing good. But the first 
is superior to the last by reason of its greater gain and more 

' Hea-Lun, xvi. 8. ' c. iii. 6. ' Erpen. adag. Gr. p. 276 

• Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. » Ali b. a. P. 26. • Sur. xlix. 13. 



[ix. ID 

general advantages." "Art thou an honourable man," says 
the Persian distich, "then walk in the fear of God; for the 
fear of God is the [head] chief honour."' " There is no know- 
ledge like the knowledge of the Lord." "A scent of the 
knowledge of God is better than much labour."' R. Eleazar 
ben Azaria said : " If there was no law, there would be no con- 
duct among men ; if so, there would be no wisdom ; and then 
there would be no fear of God ; and if there was no fear of 
God, there would assuredly be no wisdom either."' 

" What is the highest of all duties here on earth ? asked 
Manu. To this Bhrigu replied : The best and most excellent 
of these is the knowledge of the Spirit, God. This is the most 
exalted of all sciences, because through it immortality is 
gained. For it embraces the whole duty of man."* " If thou 
knowest God, thy wisdom will shine. When light has arisen, 
darkness has disappeared."' " By looking at Thee is truth 
[tatwamu] perfected (or ascertained); but by looking at our- 
selves, delusion only follows."- "By looking at God through 
the proper means, one finds the distinct way. If one looks at 
it steadily, it becomes straight ; but if looked at as by a fool, 
all light departs."' "When a man has understanding, his 
mind does not waver ; if he knows God, wisdom will be joined 
to him [befit, adorn him]."^ "Supreme knowledge is the 
knowledge of Brahm5,"» " and Vishnu is this Supreme [Spirit] 
BrShma, whence all this world has come into existence."' 

[We must carefully distinguish the two Brahmas. By Brahmi, 
neut, is understood the soul of the universe, the One, Eternal, from 
whom are all things, and who is also in all things. But Brihma, 
masc, is the first of the Hindoo triad, Brihma, Vishnu and Shiva, 
and is called the Creator. Then there is the adj. • brShma : mi, man,' 
m f. n .' that pertains to Brahma,' a brahman. Brahma is also the 
name of the great Rishi, Narada, son of Brahma, and Brahmi is one 

I All 26th max., Pers. Com. and Arab. ' Rishta i j. p. 147- 

» PirkeAv iii 13. * Manu S. xii. 84-87. [Atmajnanam param 

smritam.] ' ' » Vemana, i. 79- ' Id- ibid. . I, 123- ' W- iii- 43- 

• Vishnu P. ii. 6, 44- * ^^- 7i 36. 

ix. 10] 



of the mothers of created beings ; energies or efficacies of Brihrni 
and Brahma personified. 

Brahma comes nearest to our idea of God, and might, perhaps, be 
a better substitute for it than 'ddva,' one of a host of inhabitants of 
the Hindoo Swarga, called 'ddva' from 'div,' 'to play, to be mad,' &c., 
an epithet sometimes applied to a fool ; and in Zend, to evil spirits ; 
whence it has passed into other idioms, and might do for the root of 
' devil.' ' Dev' is the Armenian for ' devil.' The difficulty of finding 
equivalents for Scripture terms in the cultivated languages of the East 
is very great. Thus ' Borkhan,' a name of Buddha, was chosen for 
' God' in the Mongolian Bible. But then S. Paul called ' the unknown 
but true God' by his name at Athens, 'O 9«os. 

" Let alone the former practices of sacrifice, the Vedas," &c., 
said Yayati to Ashtaka ; " they only clog the mind. This is a 
better way for you. Men once come into union with that 
One, acquire supreme peace ['shanti,' repose] both here and 
hereafter."' "He who knows Brahma, becomes BrahmS ; 
this is Scripture" "And he passes beyond [the reach of] 
sorrow who knows what [Brahtna], the ' soul,' is ; this is also 
Scripture."* "And the knowledge of the Vedas [of Holy 
Scripture] is the riches of learning" [the best].' " Such last- 
ing [constant] knowledge is unattainable by thought alone," 
says the Buddhist ; " but it is incomparable."* " But those who 
are enslaved by objects of sense and are given to them, cannot 
break off with them so well by self-restraint, as they can by 
constant search after the knowledge [of God]," says Manu.* 
" And this knowledge gives the highest rank."' "As theology," 
said Aristotle, " ranks first among sciences.'' 

" He who knows BrahmS, acquires excellence [that, beyond 
which is nothing]," said Sankara.' " Brahma is real, unending 
[true, everlasting] knowledge. What is real, in whatever form, 
never alters.'" "Those who know him become immortal."' 

' Maha Bh. Adi P. 3626. ' Vedanta Sara, p. 4. * Aw. Kalvi 

Oruk. II. ' Tsagnay J. Thera, 15. ' Manu S. ii. 1, 96. 

' Rishtah i j. p. 132. ' Taittirey. Upd. valli ii. anuv. 1. ' Id. ibid. 
• Swetasw. Upd. iv. 17. 



[ix. ID 

"And of all things, the knowledge of BrShma is said to be 
best" [Quoted by Sankara.] "It is also the end of all 
sciences, whereby one obtains immortality.'" "This obtaining 
the knowledge [of Bhagavat, lit. of that which is to be wor- 
shipped], O great Muni, comes by means of knowledge 
and of works. And this knowledge is two-fold ; it is derived 
from reflection and from Scripture. The word Brahma comes 
through knowledge of Scripture ; supreme Brahma comes 
through [reflection or] discernment."* [Discernment, Kp«r«, 
separating Brahma from the visible world and seeing him 
alone in it ; and that he alone is eternal.'] " It is thus said 
by Manu," said Parasara, "that there are two kinds of 
Brahma — Brahma, the word ; and Brahma, the Supreme. 
He who is thoroughly imbued with the word Brahma, obtains 
the Supreme Brahma" [rises up to him through contempla- 

" O my son," said Vyasa to Shuka, " this knowledge of the 
all-pervading Spirit is a corrective [teaching or discipline]. 
It is secret and most mysterious. As I said, it is a quick, ready 
witness of 'self.'"* " In like manner as fire consumes stubble, 
so also does the fire of the knowledge of Brahma consume all 
pure and impure actions. And as the lotus-leaf is not stained 
by the water on which it floats, so also he who knows Brihnii 
is not defiled by the waters of sound and of objects of sense."' 
" A man with few plans [cares]," says Lao-tsze, " obtains the 
Tao ; a man with many cares gets puzzled [blinded]. For 
that reason the holy man preserves unity [of purpose or con- 
templation], and thus becomes a pattern to the world."^ " But 
the wretched man who, in this busy world, does not practise 
devotion, only cooks weeds in a saucepan adorned with jewels ; 
or ploughs his field with a golden plough, only to sow tares ; 
or fences his land with a hedge after cutting down his cam- 

' In Swetasw. Upd. introd. • Vishnu P. vi. 5, 58. ' Vedanta 

Sara, p. 2. * Vishnu P. vi. 5, 62. » Maha Bh. Shanti P. 9057. 

• Swetasw. Upd. introd. ' Tao-te-King, c. xxii. 


ix. 12] 



phor-trees, only to grow 'kaudrava' crops"' [crops of kodrava, 
'paspalum kora,' and ' frumentaceum,' inferior grain, found 
wild in some places, and eaten by the poor people]. " For as 
long as this world appears real, like the silvery lining of a shell, 
so long also is Brahma not known as best, supreme and indi- 
visible."' [In the Kumara Sambhava, Brahma is said to 
divide himself into male and female, in order to bring forth 

" For the root of all knowledge is acquaintance with God," 
say the Arabs.' " And the knowledge of Him is understand- 
ing." "In a book called 'The Properties of Understanding 
Men,' it is said that when God created the understanding. He 
said : ' O Understanding, I have created nothing greater than 
thpu, for thou art a being greater and more honourable than 
any other.' Understanding makes the difference between 
man and beast And, in truth, understanding distinguishes a 
man ; for he alone is a man who has understanding. P'or a 
man without it has only the appearance of a man, but his 
state is that of a beast"* " Nam est homini cum Deo rationis 
societas," says Cicero; "quapropter nemo est dignus nomine 
hominis, qui unum diem velit esse in voluptate," says he again. 
" Whatever, then, is done apart from the Supreme Intelligence 
[lit 'heart of God'»] is sin," said Mitra Dzoghi. "I go to 
devote myself to Him for my own salvation."' "For," says 
the Tibetan, "one may possess diligence, firmness, courage, 
strength, and surpassing prudence and perseverance, these six 
virtues ; yet the fear of God is best of all."' 

12 If thou be wise, thou shalt be wise for thyself: 
but i/thou scornest, thou alone shalt bear it. 

Jjippil DM. Here the past seems to have a special meaning, as 
Tevunath Mishle takes it : ' If in thy last days thou hast been wise in 

> Nitishat. 98. • Atmabodha, 7. ' Meid. Ar. pr. * Bochari 

Dejohor. p. 170. ' Tonilkhu y. ch. ii. ' Mitra Dr. p. 9. 

' Naga Niti, 96 Schf. 



[I'x. I a 

life, thou alone shalt find the value of having been wise ; if, however, 
thou shalt have been foolish during life, thou shalt feel it then.* The 
LXX. have the future conditional, iav o'o</>o« tVp, yiiru ; but although 
the Hebrew preterit may be rendered thus, yet the past tense seems 
to lend special force to this passage. It may also apply, of course, to 
the result of any wise action. 

" If thou he wise," &c. " He who cherishes [cultivates] Tao 
for himself, his virtue becomes sincere," ' says Lao-tsze. 
"Although the same benefits be conferred on the good and on 
the vulgar, yet the returns are not the same. Though there 
was no difference in the seed sown in the fields, yet the differ- 
ence in the crops is immense."' " The righteousness of the 
righteous is for himself; and whosoever shall commit lawless 
offences, his iniquity shall return upon his own head."' 

" The tokens of a wise man are fifteen : (i) Becoming in his 
gait ; (2) pious in his dealings ; (3) prudent in fear [or caution] ; 
(4) understanding in knowledge ; (5) wise in his ways ; (6) 
gathering [saving] ; (7) thoughtful ; (8) abundant in answer- 
ing ; (9) questioning relevantly to the subject and answering 
accordingly ; (10) adding information ; (11) walking with the 
wise; (12) learning according to his capacity [or measure] ; 
(13) and acting accordingly,"* &c. "A pious man," says Con- 
fucius, "desires to establish himself [in virtue], and to establish 
others in it also. He tries to promote himself and others as 
well."* "He who cultivates virtue, profits himself; adding 
daily to wisdom and reflection."* " For the report of good 
deeds," say the Chinese, " goes not out of the door ; whereas 
evil deeds are bruited to a thousand miles."' 

" For the best nobility [or pedigree] is from oneself, and not 
from one's kindred."* " Let every one practise virtue for him- 
self," said Bhishma to Yudhishtira; " there is no partnership in 
virtue. If a man fulfils what it enjoins, of what use is a 

• Tao-te-King, c. liv. ' Legs par b. p. 21. « Didasc. Ap. 

(Eth.), iii. 28. • Derek erez Sutta, iii. 14. ' Shang-Lun, vi. 28. 

• Hien w. shoo, 103. ' Id. ibid. 123. • Ep. Lod. 724. 

ix. 13] 



fellow [in it] ?"• " What is cleverness ? To delight oneself in 
the reality^of virtue."' For, after all, " my obedience is to father 
and mother, but what I learn is for my own self"' " For the 
father's and mother's merit will not avail him who has no 
worth or merit of his own."* 

" Let knowledge be thy wares [merchandise]," said Ptah- 
hotep to his son ; " when thou art in adversity, thine own worth 
[or merit] is more to thee than thy belongings whose coffers (?) 
are full ; it is greater than their pageant, for those are things 
that pass from one man to another. But a son's merit is worth 
much to him ; it is of good report."' " There is no son to the 
Lord Treasurer, nor to the Lord Privy Seal [their office does 
not descend to their son]. The scribe who has a skilled hand 
does not give it to his children ; those of them who are poor, it 
is his business ; those of them who are great, it is his care."* 
Odin, however, gives the following advice, hardly worthy of 
him : " Let every man be moderately wise, and never be too 
wise. For the heart of a wise man is seldom glad if he be too 
wise."' [' Righteous over much,' Eccl. vii. 16. Impossible in 
this world to set everything right ; and " he," says the Turkish 
proverb, "who weeps over everything, will lose his eyesight"] 

1 3 A foolish woman is clamorous : she is simple, and 

knoweth nothing. 

n^ain, 'restless, always about, noisy.' LXX. Opaxrtla, 'bold.' 
At. ' clamours, has a loud voice.' She is rwty^, ' fatuity, silliness 
[itself].' LXX. ivSixi-i ^lafuov y'lverai, 'comes to be in want of bread.' 
Ar. ' she is folly, stupidity [itself],' a better and more terse rendering 
of the Hebrew than ' is simple, no n^i; b?^, and does not [care to] 
know what [may come of it].' LXX. koI ouk «7rtoTOTai aloxvvrjv, 
'and knows no shame.' Ar. 'and knows not a thing.' 

" A foolish woman, &c. " She is mischievous," says Simon- 

» Maha Bh. Shanti P. 7064. » Bhartrih. Suppl. 10. ' Altai pr. 

« Ep. Lod. 1436. « Pap. Pr. pi. xv. 2. • Ani, xxxii. vol. ii. p. 13. 

' Havamal, 54. 



[ix. 14—18 

ides, and mother of herself [independent] ; she wishes to hear 
and to know everything; she peeps into every corner, and 
wanders about, and calls aloud, even if she sees not a man."^ 
"Such conduct is a blot on a woman."' "Careless of pro- 
priety, of birth [rank] and order, what is there too strange for 
the folly of women ? It must be the consequence of some 
great sin in [a former] birth."' "A woman," say the Japanese, 
" who is a talker, who prates at random and without minding 
what she says, who scolds and creates feuds in the family, is to 
be divorced."* "Ten measures of talk," say the Rabbis, " fell 
upon the earth ; women took nine measures for themselves, 
and left one for the rest"* " I heard," said the parrot, "that 
most women are wanting in sense ; therefore do wise men 
keep their secrets from them."* 

" Tvi^ yap ovSiv otSt, irX^i- o /3owXeTat,"^ 
" for a woman," say the Greeks, " knows nothing but what she 

14 For she sitteth at the door of her house, on a seat 
in the high places of the city, 

1 5 To call passengers who go right on their ways : 

16 Whoso is simple, let him turn in hither: and as 
for him that wanteth understanding, she saith to him, 

1 7 Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret 
is pleasant. 

1 8 But he knoweth not that the dead are there ; and 
that her guests are in the depths of hell. 

Ver. 18. '7''Mnr7, 'those to whom she called, whom she invited.' 
The LXX. adds a long paraphrase to this verse. Ar. reads, ' her 
visitors or guests.' Chald. ' invited,' or who come to her by appoint- 

> Simonid. ii. 12. 
< Onna del gaku, p. 48. 

• Dhammap. Malav. 8. 
* £p. Lod. 164 1. 

» Niti neri viL 84. 
• Tooti nameh, st. i. 


ix. 14 — 18] 




" Independence in the father's house, frequenting festivals 
and public ceremonies and assemblies of men, improper 
loitering in by-ways and retired places, and associating with 
women who frequent them, is at once the ruin of personal 
character. To take a dislike to one's husband when he is old, 
is also the cause of a woman's ruin."* "This is my fifth 
counsel to thee," said Sigrdrifa to Sigurd; "although thou see 
fair women sitting on benches, let not their silver ornaments 
['sifia siifr,' kindred or family silver; silver ornaments, lent 
or borrowed for the occasion ?] have power over thy sleep."* 
" This good book [magical papyrus] closes the mouth of women 
who look about, and of women who lead a high [loose] life."' 
Women who, like others in Homer, 

" lOTO/iti'at Oavfia^ov Irrl wpodvpouriv tKaorrj,"* 

"stood, every one, at the porch of her house gazing at the 
crowd ;" albeit in such circumstances, 

" oiKoi piX-Ttpov tlvai iwtl /SXajStpoe to 6vpt]<j}i," 

" it would be best to stay indoors, for going out of them tends 
to no good," says Hesiod.' 

" Men," says Chu-tsze, " do not talk indoors, and women do 
not talk out of doors [in public]. When young women go out 
at night, they must take a lantern ; and if by day, they must 
hide their faces. If they have no lantern, then stay at home."* 
In the Kheue-li, it is said : " Male and female, men and women, 
boys and girls, must not mix together ; nor receive presents 
from one another ; nor hold intercourse together, and form no 
friendships." And in Niuh-tsi, it says : " One should begin 
early with propriety, as regards men and women. It reaches 
far into the house itself, and is observed out of doors. Men 
liveout of doors, women live indoors, well guarded.'" "Vahikas 
[women from a province of the Punjab] alone dance uncovered 
and maddened in houses, and on the ramparts of the city, out 

' Hitop. i. 120. ' Sigrdrifumil, 28. ' Magic Pap. Harris, B. 6. 

* II. »'. 496. * Hesiod, I. k. ij. 363. • Siao-hio, c. ii. [ Id. ibid. 

2 E 



[ix. 14 — 18 

of doors, adorned with garlands and ointments," said Shalya 
to Karna."» 

" Impropriety in a woman as regards men is, among other 
tokens," says the Burmese code, "to call to men in order to make 
friends of them ; and to make those who pass by, stop and come 
and sit by her ; and to be looking about from her door. Such 
a wife may be chastised by her husband with a rattan or a split 
bamboo, but she is not to be put away."? "The wise disciple," 
says R. M. Maimonides, "will not converse with a woman in 
public, not even if she is his wife, sister or daughter."' " Let a 
woman's eyes be blind towards strangers ; and when she goes 
out, let her be as if she were in her grave "* [with a play on 
' koor,' blind, and ' gor,' grave, generally both written alike]. 
"As fire is not satisfied with fuel, nor the ocean with the rivers 
that flow into it, nor yet death with living things, so also are 
the passions of some women never satisfied."' "The food of 
women is two-fold ; their understanding is four-fold ; their 
devices are six-fold ; and their passions are eight-fold."' 

Ver. 16. "Whoso is simple," &c. " Lakshmi [fortune] de- 
lights in a common man ; Saraswati [eloquence] in a man of 
no family ; and woman, in a worthless one."' In this case, the 
saying is true " that counsel among [from] women is death,"' 
and that " the counsel of a woman causes ruin."' " ' O Tatha- 
gata, how are we to conduct ourselves towards women ?' said 
Ananda to him. 'Ananda,' said the Tathagata, 'you must 
not see them ; but if you see them, you must not speak to them.' 
' But if they speak to us, what then ?' 'You must have your 
wits about you [presence of mind].'""* 

Ver. 17. "Man sees the gold and sees not the trouble that 
is close to it. The fish sees the bait, but sees not the hook 
hidden in it."" Loqman, according to some of his editors, ap- 



pHes his twenty-eighth fable, of the Cat and the File,> " to those 

at first dehghted, but know not that it is taking away their^ife." 

Eveo' forbidden thing \, sweet,"^ say the Arabs. " The rose 

grows with the thorn, and the thorn with the rose.- "But 

he sword thirsts for the blood of him who stole and drank 

strange waters."* He is doomed as- 

Victima nil miserantis Orci."« 
"A forbidden apple is sweetest,"* says the proverb ; for- 
"Nitimur in vetitum semper, cupimusque negata.'"' 

f.h^r '^ " ^'*' '^"'''^ ""' ""'''" ^'- [S°P*^°^' ^^^- 41 ; Esop. 
fab. 64 ; Loqman, fab. 8, of the stag which, when pursued by 

hunters, fled mto a cave where a lion devoured him.] " While 

lookmg at women." says Vemana, "a man knows not 

whither .t W.11 lead him. By reason of women, men do not 

T-Z u"n ""'^ "'" ^"'"^ ''^•" "^'' ^'^"'terers go to the 
Tat ha hell In all those hells, men are with their heads down 
and their feet up], to see the gods that are above, whence they 
00k down upon these men."« "Who, then, are the blind of 
the bhnd? Those who are possessed or led about by their 
bewildering passions."- Not so the wise. "Abu Mirza having 
been caught by the word of a woman, wrenched himself away 
and left her— with a good name."" 

• Weasel. Esop. 49; Sophos, 6. « Erpen. Ad. 557. » Osm or 

O 'h 7^' '" ''"'"• """■ "• ' «- Od. ii. 3."' . Hung Er 

' Ovid. Am. III. 4, 17. I Vemana ii i« » v u tT- f' ^ 

'» Phreng wa, .7." n BablZeh,V 99. ' "• '' ^'^ 

> Maha Bh. Kama P. 2035. « Dhammathat. xii. 42. » Halkut 

Deh. iv. 7. ' Bostan, vii. st. 25. ' Hitop. ii. 113. • Id. 117. 

' Chanak. 182, J. K. • Pers. pr. » Bahudorsh, p. 75. •• Maha- 
paranibbh. p. 51. " Ming h. dsi. 135. 

2 E 2 



[X. I 


From this chapter to the five-and-twentieth are sundry observations of 
moral virtues, and their contrary vices. 

THE proverbs of Solomon. A wise son maketh a 
glad father : but a foolish son is the heaviness of 
his mother. 

IbH row, 'the heaviness, sorrow, or worry of his mother, because,' 
says Rabbi S. Yarchi, ' he is always with her at home, so that she sees 
his folly and is worried with it.' Chald. ' makes her ferment, exas- 
perates her.' 

"This," says the Hebrew commentator, "is the second 
Division in the Book of Proverbs. The first Division, just 
ended, consists in argumentative statements and principles, 
just as a father, when teaching his son, would first of all place 
a pattern before him. The following sections consist in 
proverbs stating truths well ascertained, respecting wisdom 
and folly, mostly in single or detached sentences." The LXX. 
omits the words, ' The proverbs of Solomon.' The Arabic 
retains them, and the Chaldee likewise. 

"A wise son," &c. "Happy the father and mother," says 
Confucius, "who can rejoice in their children !"' 

"EuSoi^vios rovT la-rw vtos voui' t\<^v."* 

"It is indeed a source of happiness [to have] a prudent or 
wise son [who has sense]." " Of these three sons— one unborn, 
one dead or one a fool— the two first are the best; for they give 
pain only once, whereas the last is a constant sorrow"' [gives 
pain as long as he lives]. "But Rama and Lakshmana, 

1 Chung y. c. xv. • Menand. ivi^^i. a. ' Pancha T. pref. 4. 

X. I] 



Bharata and Shatrughna, the four sons of Dasaratha, caused 
great delight to their father, by their virtues, their modesty 
and their valour."* "For he is a son indeed who delights his 
father by his good conduct."' "And a reverent son," says 
Kwan-yuen-shih, "[makes large] expands his father's heart."* 
" One gifted son is better than a hundred fools. One moon 
scatters the gloom ; not so a number of stars."* [This is thus 
paraphrased in the Subhashita : " A woman with ill-favoured 
[or foolish] sons is yet barren. But the son who is much 
respected for his qualities and wisdom, is a son indeed. For it 
is not a multitude of stars, but the full moon that dispels thick 
darkness."' Loqman also :« " One blessed [gifted] son is better 
than many deficient ones." So also Sophos -J " One good son 
is better than many useless ones."] 

" When the son is dutiful and obedient, the father's heart is 
at rest."* "Of all the benefits [blessings] to be got, there is 
none greater than to have intelligent children."' And all 
children are not alike. " Gold and silver come out of stone, 
yet are not found in every stone."" " He is a son," say the 
Chinese, " who serves his parents, hides their faults, and does 
not offend them on the right hand and on the left, but 
supports them unstintedly until death, and then wears mourn- 
ing for them three years."" "A dutiful son," says Tsang-tsze, 
"does not oppose his father's will, but 'maketh glad' his heart, 
his eyes and his ears."'* And Confucius says that "a son 
who for three years has not gone against his father's will, may 
be called dutiful."" 

" Sometimes good parents have a bad son, and bad parents 
have a good one. The light in the lamp is evident [comes 
from thick oil, yet is bright], as the lotus-flower grows from 
the mud."" " The trouble and the peace of parents," say the 

* Ramay. i. xix. 25. ' Nitishat. 58. 

* Hitop. 8. ' Subhashita, 20. • Fab. 11. 

• Ming h. dsi. 85. » Cural, vii. 61. " Gulist. vii. 6. » Liki, 
T'ang kung, c. iii. " Siao-hio, c. ii. " Id. ibid. " V. Satasiu, 365. 

' Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. 
' Fab. 57 ; Esop, fab. 106 



[x. 2 

Japanese, " depend on their children's conduct. If the children 
are good, their parents are [Hotoke, Buddhas] gods or saints 
in heaven ; but if the children are wicked, their parents are 
[as if] in hell."' " For the burning care [or anxiety] is scorch- 
ing of the liver," say the Arabs.* 

"What is the first and most disagreeable thing on earth?" 
asked Zarathustra of Ahura Mazda. " It is this," answered 
Ahura Mazdc^ " to see the wife and the son of a good man 
walking in perverse ways, and holding a [weepful] woeful dis- 
course"' [making use of bad language]. " Ignorant [stupid] 
children," say the Tamils, " are no better than calves."* "And 
the woman who has brought forth a son with an ugly face, 
has brought forth a tiger."* " I brought him up as a puppy," 
says the Turkish mother, " and when he grew up a dog, he bit 
my leg." " For it has been said that the two natural adver- 
saries a man has are his wealth and his children."' "And a 
son," say the Japanese, "who is always on his mother's lap, 
turns out good for nothing."^ " The three things God requires 
of a man, and that are most becoming to him, are justice, 
mercy and obedience."* 

2 Treasures of wickedness profit nothing : but right- 
eousness delivereth from death. 
" Treasures of wickedness" &c 

" — TO yap hokif 
tQ /ii) StKoi^) KT^fiar oux' criiftToi. 

"Wealth," said Theseus to CEdipus, "gotten unjustly by 
fraud, never lasts."» "niTrvvo-o, mind, then," says Theognis, 
" and beware of drawing thy honours, thy character for good- 
ness [merit], and thy wealth, from shameful doings."" " That 
which is gotten by iniquity [or cruelty]," says Loqman, " shall 

» Kiu O do wa, vol. i. serm. 2, p. i8. * Nuthar ell. 55. 

» Vendidad, iii. 36. * Tain. pr. • Kawi Niti S. xiv. 4. • The 

40 Vireers, ist night ' Jap. pr. • Barddas, vol. i. p. 3>6 and 314. 
• CEdip. Col. 1026. "" Theogn. 29. 




not continue with its owner ; but if it does, it will not be to his 
profit [or happiness]."' "As to the unbelievers, neither their 
riches nor their children will profit them in the least, though 
come from God ; but they will light the fire of hell.'" 

" Woe unto you who have gotten yourselves silver and gold 
without right, and who say, 'We are exceedingly rich, and 
have possessions, and have all we wish. And now we will do 
whatever we like, for we have heaped up silver, and have re- 
plenished our treasuries ; the labourers on our estates are in 
abundance [lit. like great waters].' But your false appearance 
will pass away [flow] from you like water, and will not remain 
with you, but will suddenly depart from you, because ye have 
possessed it all by violence, and ye yourselves shall be given 
up to everlasting [great] curse."' For it is said, " Riches shall 
be taken away from him who gathers them by violence."* 
" Wealth unfairly gotten does not enrich its possessor," say the 
Chinese; " but Heaven [his fate] dooms him to poverty."" " For 
it is not because a man has a thousand gold pieces that he is 
happy ; for he may be very miserable with them."* 

" Gold and silver make a man lose both this world and that 
which is to come. But the study of God's law brings a man 
into the world to come."^ "The dependents of him who is 
always grasping, deteriorate ; being afraid of him as of an 
enemy. And he who takes property given to the gods,'' said 
Vyasa, "shall never be happy with that money."' "Wealth 
gotten without justice is like water poured upon snow. Fields 
and lands that are gotten by wicked devices, are like sand 
heaped up by water. If you make craft and deceit the rule 
of your life, you will be like a flower that opens at dawn, and 
drops down at even," say the Chinese.' " When in the way of 
wealth, therefore, do not acquire it improperly. And when 

• Loqm. fab. 31. • Qoran Sur. iii. 8. ' Bk. Enoch, c. xcvii. 8. 

* Didasc. Ap. Eth. c. xviii. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. • Id. ibid. 

' Siphre in Numb, xviii. 20, M. S. ' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 790. 

' Hien w. shoo, 90. 




difficulties come, do not improperly avoid them."» "The 
wealth of a man without knowledge, for the most part disap- 
points expectation in the profit it yields to its owner."* 

" KipSoi aliTXpov xaKMrrov," 
"shameful profit is worst," says Periander ; it is a charge 
brought against nature, and a [heavy] burdensome treasure."* 
"If there be ever so much information among the wicked, yet 
good men will not go near ; as if there be ever so many gems 
among serpents' [heads], but few will go to fetch them."* 
"Benjamin the Just," says R. Nathan, "spent his wealth in 
helping the poor. One day a poor woman came to him and 
said, ' Support me !' He then said to her, ' The service of God 
that does not rest on weekly almsgiving is nothing ;' and he 
helped her. When he was on his death-bed, the angels told it 
to God, who tore up His sentence of judgment [against him] 
and added days to his life."" " Hope is but a river, and trea- 
sures are the water of it ; thirst for gain is but the morning 
waves ; passions are the crocodiles in it ; and destruction is 
the birds thereof. It carries away the tree of constancy ; it is 
most difficult to cross, because of the whirlpools of folly. It 
is edged with lofty thoughts for its banks. Good and holy 
men who come to it, rejoice at the sight of it."' 

3 The Lord will not suffer the soul of the righteous 
to famish : but he casteth away the substance of the 

" TAe Lord will not suffer^ &c. "T'ang (B.C. cc. 1765) on 
his return from conquering the rebel ruler of Hea, said : The 
rule of Heaven, that blesses the good and afflicts the wicked, 
has brought down calamities on Hea to show forth his sin."' 
" Let no man bestow too much thought on the acquisition of 
property ; for it is meted out by the Creator himself. No 

I Hien w. shoo, 197- ' Sain ugh. 83. » Periand. Sept. Sap. 

4 Nidivempa, 70. » R- Nathan, iii. fol. 6. • Vairagya Shat. 11. 

' Shoo King, iii. 3- 

X. 4] 



sooner is the offspring born, than the mother's breasts distil 
the milk." " He by whom swans are made white, parrots 
green, and peacocks of various hues, will also give thee thy 
daily food [or substance]."^ "To every one to whom God 
has given eyes to see, has He also sewn drawers to fit his 
body," said the old man to the bird.* 

" For," says Confucius, "virtue cannot remain [orphan] help- 
less ; it must have friends."' " Let him then live for ever, in 
whom many find support. Do not birds with their beak work 
to fill their maw ?"* " For that which is unprotected, neverthe- 
less abides if protected by God ; but if protected by man 
and deserted by God, it will come to naught."* " For as the 
sandal-wood does not lose its smell when dry, nor sugar its 
sweetness by passing through the press, so also the wise 
[righteous] man when afflicted, does not part with his virtue."* 
" In the golden age, the offspring of the gods lived like them 
free from care, and died as if in sleep ; but in the iron age, 
black death seized on men, however splendid they might be."^ 

4 He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand : 

but the hand of the diligent maketh rich. 

njP7 f)?, ' hand relaxed, down ;' ' of a lazy man who neither likes 
work nor will do it' 

"Fortune [Lakshmi] follows the lion-hearted man who 
never flags in his efforts ; while craven men say, ' Luck [or 
fate] must give it.' Beat down luck, then, by doing all in thy 
power; if, after all, it does not succeed, whose fault is it?' 
[Not thine own ; and surely that is enough as regards thyself]." 
" In like manner as a cart cannot go on one wheel only, so 
also without man's efforts destiny will not succeed."* "For 
the gifts of Heaven are valuable ; but efforts and perseverance 
gain the prize,"" say the Chinese. " For riches come from 

• Hltop. i. 188, 189. ' Nizami. loij. ' Shang-Lun, iv. 25. 

* Pancha T. i. 18. » Hitop. ii. 16. • Lokaniti, 44. 

' Hesiod, I. «. i}. 108, 153. ' Hitop. introd. 31. • Id. ibid. 32. 
*' Hien w. shoo, 3. 



[x. 4 

drops to pints ; but poverty comes from not summing up 

carefully."! "Yes ; riches come from economy."* " For good 

order in outlay is half a sufficiency."' " Since he who spends 

and does not reckon, loses and knows nothing about it," say 

the Arabs.* 

" But cut short thy expenses, even if thou wert king of 


" Utere quxsitis modice, quum sumtus abundat. 
Labitur exiguo quod partum est tempore lungo," 

says D. Cato." " Wealth is not to be spent without due delibe- 
ration."' " Do not scatter [spend] recklessly," says Ani, "with 
thy hand towards an unknown man ; he comes to thee for no 
good. It is spending the goods of thy children ; and he will 
come to thee again."* " He who wishes to run through his 
inheritance," say the Rabbis, "has only to live in luxury, 
clothed in fine linen, and to hire workmen to work for him 
and not look after them."' " In the morning, O gold, thou 
art a guest ; in the evening, thou art turned into silver ; but if 
thou tarriest until the next day, thou wilt be inquired after in 
copper," say the Georgians.** " Cheap, makes a spendthrift," 
say the Telugus.** "Quod non opus est," says the Latin 
proverb, " asse carum est" " For he," say the Arabs, " who 
buys what he does not want, shall have to sell what he cannot 


" Omnia, Castor, emis ; sic fiet ut omnia vendas."" 

" O Upasakas, there are five disadvantages connected with 
a careless householder, through ruin caused by evil conduct 
and bad principle. First, through his carelessness he suffers 
great loss of property ; secondly, his evil reputation is spread 
abroad aloud ; thirdly, into whatever society or company he 
may come, whether merchants, samanas [lit. hearers, Buddhist 
monks], &c., he feels shy, ill at ease and troubled ; fourthly, 

• Chin. pr. P. * Hien w. shoo, 77. • Mifkhar Pen. B. FI. 

* Meid. Ar. pr. ' Ebu Medin, 8. ' ii. 17. ' Nitimala, iii. 62. 

• Ani, xvii. p. 135. * R- Jochan Baba Metz. 29, M. S. " Andar. 46. 
" Tel. pr. 858. " Ar. pr. " Mart. Epig. vii. 98. 

X. 4] 



he is afraid of death ; and fifthly, after death he goes to hell,"* 
"Every patrimony suffers from idleness, and must prosper 
through diligence."* 

" For the best part of science [or of knowledge] is when it is 
joined to work," say the Arabs.' Thus Confucius says that "the 
wise man who is diligent in business is sufficiently learned."* 
"Practise economy," say the Chinese, "and fill what is empty, 
and you will know [the result] from the state of the house. 
There is a cause for evil fortune as well as for good fortune. 
Every man works it out for himself, and then receives the 
reward of his work."' " Ups and downs are determined ; yet 
there is much wealth bound up in action [diligence]."' "With 
diligence and economy the vessel is always full ; and when old 
age comes, there will be no want. One cannot show hospi- 
tality without plenty ; and a house is not well governed with- 
out economy." " With diligence and economy the house will 
fill gradually and [throughout]," say again the Chinese.' And 
Yung-ching : " Every business grows rank [' hwang,' does not 
ripen, or gets overgrown with weeds] through dulness ; but it 
ripens [prospers] through diligence. It requires a firm, honest 
will at the first, and unremitting exertion unto the end."' 
" Labour consists in making an effort to do what we wish, and 
diligence [perseverance] is to endure trouble in the pursuit of 
what we have determined to do. This quality follows [belongs 
to] a lofty mind ; for the loftier is the disposition, the greater 
also will be the labour wrought in the attainment of our object 
I labour for my object ; if I succeed, well ; if I fail, men of 
large heart (or mind) will excuse me."" 

"Even he who gains his living by carrying burdens on his 
back or bearing them on his shoulders only, if he be but honest 
and diligent, will get food and clothing without lack. The 
common saying is : ' Every grass root has a grass root's share 

' Mahaparanibbh. fol. na. ' Hien w. shoo, 146. ' Meid. Ar. pr. 
* Shang-Lun, i. 14. » Ming Sin P. K. c. i. • Id. c. ii. ' Id. c. xiv. 
' Kang-he's loth max. p. 1 — 75. • Akhiaq I m. xiii. 



[x. 4 

of dew to feed it* Again it is said : ' The small birds of the 
forest have no store of grain, and heaven and earth are 
broad" ' [they have the world before them, and live]. " People," 
say the Chinese again, " must be diligent and laborious, not 
idle or lazy. No matter whether a man be rich and honour- 
able, or mean and poor ; still ought diligence and labour to 
hold the first place.'" " And he who gets his living by reckon- 
ing [order and economy], eats until he licks [his platter]," say 
the Finns.' " But," say the Burmese, " for riches that diminish 
[or waste] not, in answer to one's efforts, both hands and feet 
must go round [move about]."* " Be diligent, and God will 
send the profit"* " Lakshmi [fortune] never forsakes the brave 
king who looks upon twenty 'cowries' [one farthing] found 
unexpectedly, as he would look upon a thousand ' nishkas ' 
[pieces of gold] ; and at other times bestows large sums of 
gold with a free hand "* [who is both careful and liberal]. 

" As frogs go to the pool, and birds to a tank full of water, 
so also do successes of all sorts come to the man who exerts 
himself."' "For Lakshmi follows of herself, in order to make 
her abode with the man who is earnest in his efforts, and not 
dilatory ; a good judge of business, not given to vice, brave, 
a good judge of merit [in others], and firm in friendship."' 
" Persevere to the last in a good work,' for even in adversity 
diligence will gather wealth."'" "And although you be a man 
of property, eat and spend according to measure [within your 
income]."" " Work is to be done with diligence ; exertion will 
show the way. For in all undertakings energy is the most 
important consideration."" "Acquire diligence," says Ebu 
Medin, "for it is a great treasure."" [See the fable of the 
" Hare and the Tortoise," in Sophos, 38 ; Loqman, 20 ; Esop, 


" Hien w. shoo, 147. ' Chin, max.. Dr. Medh. p. 187. ' Finn pr. 

* Burm. prov. * Egypt, pr. • Hitop. iii. 26. ' Id. i. 183. 

» Id. ibid. 184. » Atthi Sudi, 65. " Kondreiv. 21. " Id. 81. 
»i Maha Bh. Vana P. 2155. " Ebu Medin, 127. 

X. 4] 



" The proverb, that ' poverty cannot overcome the diligent,' 
is a difficult [rare or excellent] saying. For whosoever prac- 
tises diligence, whether he be a country or a towns-man, to 
say that his property will be good, admits of no mistake," 
say the Japanese.* " Wise men are [defiled] injured by want 
of reading [repetition], as houses are injured by carelessness." 
" The wealth of faint-hearted [mean] men goes ; that of brave 
ones abides. Mean men say there is a first cause for every- 
thing ; but brave men do not say so ; they work."* " He," 
say the Tamils, " who not knowing his own measure, lives with 
a certain show, shall assuredly come to grief."' " Think highly 
of moderation [economy], so as to avoid lavish expenditure," 
said the emperor Kang-he.* "Not a day passes without 
having to spend ; therefore in order to have something to 
spare for occasional expenses, think highly of economy. For 
with diligence without economy, the labour of ten men would 
not suffice for the maintenance of one, and the in-gatherings 
of one year would not suffice for the necessities of one day. 
People run into debt to gratify their wishes, and then hunger 
in harvest and starve in dearth, all from want of economy." 
The E-King says : " He who will not endure the pain of 
moderation, shall endure the pain of misery."' 

" Do not put off till to-morrow what you can do to-day ; 
for," says Rabbi Simeon, " the day is short, and the work is 
much ; but the workmen are idle, though the reward be great, 
and the householder pressing.'" "By welcoming contempt 
[from others], and putting behind him all idea of respect [from 
them], let the wise man accomplish his work. For failure in 
work is — stupidity."' "Yea, the duties of to-morrow must be 
done to-day, and those of the afternoon in the morning ; for 
death does not inquire if the work is done or if it is not."* 
" And it is by weaving on firmly [continually] that the weaver 

• Den ka cha wa, i. p. 4. ' Lokan. 162, 163. ' Cural, 479. 

• Sacred edict, 5th max. "• Yun-chang Com. p. 32. • Pirke Avoth, c. ii. 
' Nitishastra in Kobitaratnak. 21. ' Maha Bh. in Kobitarat. 131. 







at last completes his weft." • " For diligence is a merchandise 
that yields large profits," say the Arabs.* 

5 He that gathereth in summer is a wise son : but 
he that sleepeth in harvest is a son that causeth 

" He that gathereth" &c. " The common saying, is," quoth 
Wang-keu-po,' "During the day when you can take, think of the 
day when you will not have aught to take. Do not wait for the 
time when you will have nothing, in order to think of the time 
when you had." " He," says Confucius, "who does not trouble 
himself about what is afar off, will soon have sorrow near at 
hand."* " Save your clothes," says the proverb, " and you will 
have some to wear ; save your food, and you will have some to 
eat. In childhood and in old age you will have enough."* 
" And he who, when he can take, takes not, must not com- 
plain when his chance is gone."" " The Brahman householder 
may gather grain either in a granary, in a jar, or for three 
days, or even have nothing for the morrow [because he may 
beg]."^ " Some provision should always be made, but never 
too much. The jackal was killed with a bow for having 
gathered together too much food."* 

"'EXirtft (US dvifToi, ijitiSov (OS aOdvaroi, • 
" Hope as mortal," says Periander, " and save as if immortal." 
" He is foolish," says the Georgian proverb, " who scatters [his 
property], but he is not foolish who gathers."*" 

"'E<f>6Sujv <($ TO yijpas, at£i KarairWov, 

"Always lay by as provision by the way for old age."" [See, as 
bearing on this, Esop. fab. 195, 198, &c., and notes thereon at 
ch. vi. 10.] But the epilogue of the Turkish translator of that : 

' Bengal pr. ' Meid. Ar. pr. ' Kang-he's 5th max. p. 34- 

* Hea-Lun, xv. 11, and Ming h. dsi. 34. ' Chin pr. • Id. ibid. 

I Manu S. iv. 7. ' Hitop. i. 174. ' Periand. Sept. Sap. 
"> Geor;;, pr. " Vvufi. /lov. 

fable is this : " The wise man is not wholly taken up with this 
world, but rather gives his attention to the time to come. 
Thus, while we do not give our whole thoughts to the affairs 
of this world, let us see to our preparations for the next"* 
" Quamobrem omnes, cum secundae res sunt maxume, turn maxume, 
Meditari secum oportet, quo pacto advorsam aerumnam ferant"' 

"Therefore, O my son, bestir thyself in the days of thy 
youth. Awake, O my son, from thy sleep, and give thyself 
unto wisdom and instruction," said Rabbi J. A Tibbop" to 
his son. 

" For that is true watchfulness that provides not only for 
the present time, but also for that which is to come."* " If you 
have money, lay by some for the day of ' no money;' and when 
at rest and in comfort, [make a dyke] guard against disease 
and sorrow."' So, " Tread on thorns while thy sandals are on 
thy feet."* " Cut the pumpkin and cook it while the fire is 
burning."' " For when the day is passed, the offering [for that 
day] is vain."' " When it is fine, carry your umbrella," say the 
Chinese; "when full, still take provisions with you." "And 
when you are in abundance, think of the days of reverses ; but 
in the days of adversity, rely not on better ones."' " There- 
fore," says Hesiod, 

OvK alt\ 6ipo% i(r(T(iTai, woiiurOt KaXidls,"" 
" Show thy servants, while in the middle of summer, that it 
will not always be summer ; then make you storehouses, for 
Januaty is coming, a bad month, of frost and biting wind ; 
beware of it." And Theocritus, 

S^tyytT, (i/iaXAoScrat, ra. SpdyfiaTa, [ifj Trapidv Tts 
EtTnj, <rvK(i/ot avS^cs, d,irio\(TO )^ ouros o /iicrOoi," 

" O ye reapers, bind fast the sheaves, lest a passer-by say, ' Oh, 

' Esop's fab., Turk. tr. ' Ter. Phorm. i. 5. » In his 

last will. • Kobitaratn. 136. ' Ming Sin P. K. c xiv. 

• Yalkut, B. Fl. ' Sanhedr. id. ' Pesach. id. • Chin. pr. 

'" I. K. r/. 500. 



[x. 6, 7 

the lazy fellows, they have been paid for doing nothing.'"* 
" For," say the Japanese, "in the autumn we gather ; in winter 
we hoard up."* " Let every one, then, work without delay," 
said Usurtasen to the workmen building a temple at On. 
" Every one who uses his two arms finishes his work ; and thy 
[the present] hour is the time to do it." [To-morrow is not 

6 Blessings are upon the head of the just : but 
violence covereth the mouth of the wicked. 

" Blessings are," &c " If thy son's mouth pour forth evil 
words," says Ptah-hotep, "strike him on the mouth."* "The 
violence of the violent [or cruel man] leads him to destruc- 
tion,"* say the Arabs. " In whatever house the step of a good 
man is heard, there comes good fortune to the owner. The 
tread of a good man is like the water of a shrine ; it cleanses 
[sanctifies] every spot on which it falls," said Krishna to 
Narada.' " As venom does not belong to Garuda, so also do 
good men give no pain. But like as coolness does not belong 
to fire, so also do evil men give [no pleasure, but only] trouble 
and pain."" "The likes and dislikes of men and of sensible 
beings are very various ; and it is hard for any one to please 
all. But he is near doing that who acts most in accordance 
with his good qualities."* " There are three different kinds of 
men : the man of man, who renders good for good, and evil for 
evil ; a man of God, who does good for evil ; and a man of 
the devil, who does evil for good."' 

7 The memory of the just is blessed : but the name 
of the wicked shall rot. 

" The memory," &c. " They raise no monuments to the 

' Idyl. X. 44. ' Gun den s. mon. 37. ' Hier. Inscr. Mus. Berl. 

Zeitschr. Aug. 1874. ♦ Pap. Pr. vii. 12. ' Nuthar ell. 165. 

• Pretn. Sag. c. Ixx. ' Nitivempa, 47. • Legs par b. p. 303. 
» Barddas, vol. i. p. 310. 




righteous; their words are their memorial."' "Likewise the 
smell of a sweet-scented flower does not spread against the 
wind ; but the sweet smell of the morals of him who has sub- 
dued his passions, spreads through the ten quarters [four 
cardmal, four intermediate, zenith and nadir]."» "And his 
excellence spreads abroad when he is dead, as the fragrance 
of a splinter of aloes [agallochum] spreads abroad when it is 
burnt."' "When a man's virtue is established, his name 
[reputation] also rests on a firm footing. The empty valley 
[the grave] will propagate his praise, and his name will re- 
sound in the empty hall [the tomb]."* And again : « The 
remembrance of a man's merits establishes the truth of them. 
They are engraved on stone, in inscriptions as a lasting 
memorial."' "If thou desirest life and imnjortality, O wise 
man, let thy words set forth goodness.'" " The memory of 
my words," says Ptah-hotep, "remains [abides, according to one 
reading] or circulates [according to another] among men 
through the goodness of their sentences ['tesu,' wise, knotty 
or well-arranged sayings]."" 

" For virtue is the only friend that follows a man in death ; 

since when the body perishes, everything else goes with it."« 

" Practise virtuous actions with all your power ; you will thus 

acquire a good reputation in this world, and in that which is 

to come perpetual joy."" Therefore Meng-tsze is wrong when 

he says that "the influence of a wise man disappears after five 

generations," although he is right in saying that "it is the case 

with a mean man.">» " Kesri [Nushirwan] is no more, but his 

name and the history of his time abide. When life is gone 

and nothing more remains, a good name is best ; for it abides 

as a memorial."" In the She-King [Ode Lie-wen], quoted 

by Ts'heng-Tseu," we read : "Oh how the ancient kings Wen 

' Bereschit R. B. Fl. ; Khar. Pen. xxii. .3, R. Bl. 71. • Lokopak. 180. 

Drishtant. 8. « Gun den s. li mon. 209. » Id ibid 521 

• Kudat ku B. X. 20. r p^p. p, ^^ ^ , ^^^^ g ^... ; 

Boyan Sorgal. p. 25. 10 Hea Meng, viii. 22. » Akhlaq i m. xx, 

" Com. Ta-hio, c. iii. 

2 F 



[x. 7 


and Woo are not forgotten ! The wise men who came after 

them imitated their noble deeds. Their love for the people ! 

The common people rejoiced under their reign ; and that is 

why they will not be forgotten for ages to come. Wen Wang 

as prince rested on humanity [love for man] ; as subject, on 

respect ; as son, on reverence ; and as father, on his love for 

his children." "Those kings," says Confucius, "wishing to 

govern well, first endeavoured to rule their own establishment ; 

and in order to do that, they cultivated (or adorned) their own 

person with virtue ; and to that end they set straight their 

own heart."' For, as he says elsewhere, "a good name [or 

real fame, good reputation] rests on a man's virtue alone." 

One of his disciples, Tsze-kang, asked him one day about the 

fame a scholar enjoys among men. Confucius then asked 

him what he understood by ' fame.' Tsze-kang replied : " It 

is to be heard of in the country, and to be talked of at home." 

Then the Master answered : " That is only report ; it is not 

fame. Real fame consists in true, sincere and sound justice ; 

in words well considered ; in a noble demeanour ; and in being 

considerate towards inferiors."^ 

" It is always by good men that good qualities are most 
praised. The sweet smell of the sandal-wood of Malaya is 
diffused [by the wind] to the ten quarters of the earth."' 
And "good qualities, though they be hidden, yet are spread 
everywhere in the world. The flower of the nutmeg, though 
dry, yet scatters a sweet scent all round. "^ " Every one who 
is born must die ; but when a good man dies, his name abides 
[lives after him]."* "The means (or opportunity) of enjoying 
an honourable name [reputation] in this life, goes together with 
virtue, to rejoice in the world to come. Unless these two go 
together, wise men do not call it 'joy' for a man."* "Thought 
(or mind) is fickle ; knowledge also is uncertain ; youth and 
life also are passing : everything on earth is inconstant for 

> Ta-hio, c. i. • Hea-Lun, c. xii. ' Legs par b. p. 25. 

* Id. ibid. 36. * Kudat ku B. xi. 3. • Sain ugh. fol. 8. 



43 S 

hm whose reputation does not live.- "Chi hi buona fama. 

He, say the Itahans. "who has a good reputation, has what 
he most des.res ; but he who has lost i, is dead to the woHd" 

He, s^^y the Tamils, "who is not desired (or regretted) by 
any one, what will he, pray, leave to his posterity ?"» "Z 
who fears God keeps His feasts; he raises his spir^ upwards 
a d h.s worsh.p is in his actions. And God will make his 
name great, above that of the drunkard [or sensual man}"^ 
Thy good countenance [said to one dead, in transmigration] 
•s on thy children , thy divine name grows [sprouts up] every 
day; and thy sweet smell [reputation] is in the abode of the 
blessed. « "Great and righteous men are greater when dead 
than they were when alive.'" "The help of him who help, 
others IS celebrated all over the world, like the perfume of the 
[sandal] trees growing on the Malaya hills.'" 

" Non omnis moriar. multaque pars mei 
Vitabit Libitinam,"' 

said Horace, of the best part of him— his pure Latin. 

" But fame is acquired by effort ; if it perishes, it cannot be 
regained."' " If there be no fault (or defect) in a great and good 
man [pandit], his name is, 'Good man perfect in wisdom.'"" 
" Thiwali, great Thera. will be a great gain through his help 
(or influence) ; let all happen to me that I wish." The Burmese 
adds to this invocation for good luck : " These ten verses of 
Thiwali. when repeated all day long without intermission, will 
bring all manner of good luck ; will bring love ; give authority, 
a good address, appearance, &c.; will drive away bad dreams 
and give good ones." &c." 

"But the name;' &c. " But the wicked," says Hesiod— 

" Os Se (C€ — ^fWTfTat — SiXTji/ ^A,a^as vr)KicrTOv ddcrdr), 
TovSf T d/tavpOTipri yeve^, fUToirurOtv XtAtiTreTat,"" 

' Bahudorsh, 34, and Kobitaratnak. 2$. » Ital. pr. ' Cural, 1004. 
♦ Pap. Boulaq, Egyptolog. p. 46. ' Schai n Sin S. ii. 6. « Millin, 314. 
' V. Satasai, 30. • Hor. iii. 30. • Bahudorsh, p. 20. w Kawi 

Niti S. xlii. I. " Shing Thiwali gatha, " I. «. i 281. 

2 F 2 



[x. 8 

" is irretrivably doomed, and his posterity is even worse than 
he. Not so that of the faithful man ; his children after him 
are even better than he." " For no good sprout will grow out 
of rotten seed," say the Mongols.' " And he who has a bad 
reputation is dead while he lives," say the Hindoos.* 

" Nam olet homo quidam, malo suo," 
says Plautus.' " If a bird, be it ever so insignificant, is called 
'a crow' by name, it is thereby considered a four-fold rogue 
[crows have a very bad reputation in the East] ; in like man- 
ner, if a wild beast is called a tiger, it gets that character."* 
" And a complaint thus made [against a man's character] 
does not leave him in death."' " But if a man has the reputa- 
tion of being wicked [good for nothing], one must inquire if it 
is so. And let the officer make him swear that he will repent 
and amend," according to Javanese law.' 

8 The wise in heart will receive commandments : 

but a prating fool shall fall. 

1337^ D;>fipto ^^.1W, ' but a fool of lips shall be cast down, or pre- 
cipitated by himself.' 

" The wise" &c. " If an intelligent man sits by a wise one, 
for an instant only, he quickly understands the law [or 
wisdom] ; as the tongue appreciates the flavour of broth."^ 
" An ignorant man is easily led ; a man of infinite knowledge 
is still more easily conciliated [managed] ; but Brahma him- 
self could not manage a man imbued with only a little know- 
ledge."* "Men whose tongue is adorned with learning and 
knowledge, eschew evil-speaking ; others do not so. The dry 
leaves [flabella, *olas'] of the tAl-palm are ever rustling in 
the wind ; but they give no sound."* " People who know 
little, talk incessantly ; but men who know much, talk little. 
Those resound like a plate of bell-metal ; but these, like a 

• Mong. m. R. * Kobitar, 25. ' Amphit. i. I. * Kawi Niti S. xlii. 

• Telugu pr. • Nawolo Pradh. xxxv. ' Dhammap. Balav. 65. 

• Nitishat. 2. • Naladiyar Arav. 6. 

X. 9] 



plate of gold, give little sound."' Abu Zarjambar said, " When 
thou seesta man talk much, make sure of his folly."» "Words 
too lofty, too hard, and spoken out of season, din like the 

ceaseless cry of the partridge, and kill [the talker] like the 

foolish, reckless francolin, that is found out by its incessant 
cry, and killed."* 

" F6r_ many words are a sign of wandering folly."* " The 
company in which a man utters senseless words will say of 
him. He has no virtue."' " He who goes about prating against 
the law [virtue, religion, 'chhos '], is like a smith's bellows, that 
blows, but does not live."^ " There is no greater ' mantra ' 
[religious spell, saying] than a father's advice ; but the words 
of a young man should be written on water."* "So then, as 
the Ganges falls from the head of Shiva into the sky, thence 
to the earth, and from high mountains down, down into the 
sea, so also does the downfall of a man without discretion 
happen a hundred different ways."* 

9 He that walketh uprightly walketh surely: but 
he that perverteth his ways shall be known. 
OJ^a 1!?^', ' he that walketh in integrity, uprightness.' 
" He that walketh" &c. " Not to injure (others) one's equals, 
is a far stronger position than suddenly, through certain risks, 
to appear to possess more than they do," said the Corinthians.'" 
"Walk straight, uprightly."" "Walk thou in the way 'to 
hand,' before thee [given thee to walk in]; thus shalt thou 
tread the way back."" "Be thou a man without screen 
[disguise] or covering,"" say the Javanese. E-yun said to 
T'hae-kea: "When a man's virtue is 'one' [single-minded], 
his movements [actions] cannot but be blessed. But if his 
virtue is 'two,' 'three' [equivocal], his plans cannot but be 

■ Nitivemp. 34. « Borhan-ed. xlii. 158. ' Tittir. jataka, 117. 

♦ Ibid. p. 432. « Zohar. 93, M. S. • Cural, 193. ' Naga Niti, 

99 Schf. • Tarn. pr. 3576, 82. • Nitishat. 10. " Thucyd. i. 42. 
" Nitimala, bk. il. " Ani, xxxix. " Javan pr. 



[x. to 

unfortunate [miscarry]. But good fortune and misfortune 
are not sent at random. Heaven sends down blessings or 
calamities according to a man's virtue."^ "Therefore keep 
aloof from frowardness and perfidy, that bravery [boldness] 
may stick to thy face."* "Four things make a man known 
for what he is : his faults, his qualities, his family, and his 
work."' [The work shows the workman]. "Know that all 
foulness [evil actions] is the cause of shame ; and that truth 
[that which is real, and to be done] originates in one's mind."* 
" He therefore who seeks safety [salvation] must act with 
integrity."* "For the faithful [or trustworthy] is secure ; but 
the perfidious [faithless] perishes."' " If a man seems to 
prosper by fraud, it is only for a moment He is like that 
lying ass that put on a leopard's skin, and ate the corn in the 
field, but was soon put to death."^ " Honourable virtue that 
has gathered wealth [happiness] is by that placed above 
others. Just as the lion-king Chakrawardi is not in need of a 
fellow [because he is peerless]. "^ " For if a man endure labour 
(or toil), he will get wealth." • 

lo He that winketh with the eye causeth sorrow : 
but a prating fool shall fall. 

"He that winketh;' &c. "There is that owl," said the rat, 
" hooting and glancing at me with his wily eye," in the fable 
told by Bhishma." " Wise men have said that he whose left 
eye is smaller than his right one, and ceases not to wink — and 
whose nose inclines to the right side — is a rogue, a cheat, a 
bundle of guile and deceit."" "He who, unasked, talks too 
much, is demented, and the meanest of men," said Vidura to 
Dhritarashtra." " Low people are like a drum when beaten, 
that proclaim to others the secret given them to keep."'* 

• Shoo King, iii. 8. 

' Pend i Att. 39. 

' Kawi Niti S. 

♦ Vemana, i. 90. * Ebu Medin, 188. • El Nawab. 15. ' Sain 

ijgh. 145. • Ibid. fol. 5. » Telugu pr. "• Maha Bh. Shanti P. 4966. 
•' Calilah u U. p. 148. " Maha Bh. Udyog P. 1096. " Cural, 1076. 


X. II, 12] 



1 1 The mouth of a righteous man is a well of life : 
but violence covereth the mouth of the wicked. 

n^!D "lipP, *a spring or fountain of life,' of water ever flowing fresh 
and pure. LXX. mjy^ fu^s. Ar. ' a fountain, springing water of life.' 

"The mouth," &c. "When Bchom-ldan-hdas [Buddha] 
came to the '^feast king Shum-ching-ma had prepared for 
him, after washing his mouth, he spat from his mouth the 
water, which became a tank two thousand miles long, sur- 
rounded with walls of precious stones. The water of that tank 
became endued with every quality, and the bottom of it was 
laid with sand made up of seven kinds of gems."* "Be not 
too perverse, and use no violent language. For the more 
jaundice [perspires] the worse it is."' " For to ask for any 
thing with violence, and to take it by force, is a sin,"» says 

1 2 Hatred stirreth up strifes : but love covereth all 

b? TOpijI, 'but love putteth a covering over all transgressions.' The 
force of by, ' on, upon, over,' &c., is lost in the translation. Chald. 
follows the Hebrew. 

"Hatred," &c. " Both hatred and love overstep the line."* 
" For love makes thee blind and deaf."' Still, " When Heaven 
wishes to save man,"' says Lao-tsze, " He gradually leads him 
to love." Also, " Do not divulge the faults of others," says 
Tai-shang.' " Greatness, recollect, covers the faults of others ; 
meanness uncovers them."* " It shows a good disposition in 
a man that he should cover his brother's faults ; and if he 
minds his own shortcomings, his conduct is altogether praise- 
worthy."' Confucius, praising the actions of Shun^ said 
that " he liked to ask questions, to consider attentively the 

> Dsang-Lun, fol. 50. • Subha Bil. 105. ' Kang-ing p. 

« Sanhedr. B. Fl. ' Musur. aphil. id. • Tao-te-King, c. bcvii. 

' Kang ing p. ' Cural, 900. • El Nawab. 66. 



[x. 13. 14 


answers given, then to hide the bad and to make known the 
good ones."' 

Shaou-tsze says : " Feel for the faults of others as if thou 
wast resting on a thorn [act tenderly towards them]. He who 
loves men like himself, acts thus."' " For there is no sin like 
hatred"" " And where love is thin," say the Welsh, " the 
faults [of others] are thick."* " If I say ' Yes,' it is a mistake ; 
and if I say ' Narayana,' it is foul language."* [Narayana, the 
sacred name of Brahma, Vishnu, &c. " He who makes men- 
tion of Narayana, in the morning and at night, at even and at 
midday, shall be quickly cleansed from all [guilt] sin.""] " Hate 
not thy fellow," says the Georgian proverb, "and be not 
envious of his profits."^ Rabbi M. Maimonides, however, 
speaking of hatred in his treatise on Manners, says : " He 
who hates another Israelite, transgresses only a negative com- 
mandment. Therefore a man is not punished for it, because 
it involves no actual deed."' [He is guilty, nevertheless ; 
S. John iii. 1 5. J 

13 In the lips of him that hath understanding 
wisdom is found : but a rod is for the back of him 
that is void of understanding. 

14 Wise men lay up knowledge: but the mouth of 
the foolish is near destruction. 

Ver. 14. ' The mouth of the foolish (is) vdhj) TM^TV^, a near 
destruction ; the ruin, at hand, of those who hear a man's folly.* 
And this is the sense given in the Arabic version, ' the mouth of the 
foolish is a near destruction.' Chald. id. 

"In the lips" &c. "A wise man," says Confucius, "studies 
extensively, inquires carefully, thinks diligently, discusses 
clearly, and acts with decision."* " Knowledge, austerity, alms- 
giving, humility, children, distinction, and digging water-tanks 

' Chung y. c- vi. • Shin sin 1. 1. p. 90. ' Dhammap. Sukhav. 6. 
« Welsh pr. * Telugu pr. • Vishnu P. ii. 6, 35. ' Georg. pr. 

» Halk. Deh. vi. 5. » Chung y. c. xx. 

X. 13, 14] 



[for the benefit of others], are tokens of pious actions in men," 
said the Rishis.* " As the rain and the rivers run to the sea, 
so do intellect and learning to the head of the wise. Kings 
gather men and money ; heat and moisture make woods [Tib.] 
grow [' flowers,' Mong. version]."* " Propriety restrains the 
wise ; laws alone restrain the foolish [or mean] man."' " Men 
endued with good qualities rejoice in learning ; not so the 
ignorant. The bee gathers honey from flowers ; not so the 

" Speak a word of wisdom," says Ajtoldi. " Wisdom alone 
is praised. A word spoken without wisdom may cut off" thy 
head."' "I-kung inquired about Confucius. Tsze-loo did not 
answer him. Confucius said to Tsze-loo, Why didst thou 
not answer him ? ' Confucius is a man who, in his eagerness 
for knowledge, forgets his food ; who, amid the pleasures 
knowledge gives him, forgets his sorrow, and thus reaches 
unawares a good old age.'"' "It is a great merit in a man," 
says Lao-tsze, " to possess knowledge without pretension ; 
whereas to pretend to know what he does not know, is a great 
infirmity. A holy man, however, does not suffer from this 
malady, because he knows it to be such."' " A wise man gives 
his mind to Tao, and not to eating. He is broad, even, and 
magnificent ; but the mean man 'is long' [stretches himself]^ 
is lazy and pretentious and [fretful] pettish."' "Whereas he 
who is endued with a great mind [or knowledge, wisdom] has 
great means [or method] of using his power [for the good of 

" The wise, then, lay up knowledge, like the ruby in its own 
setting or casket."" " Fools, however, bring themselves into 
trouble by their ceaseless talking. The frog brings destruc- 
tion upon itself through croaking, though it lies hidden in the 
mud (or sand)."" "And the 'tekik' (or gekko) dies through 

« KobitaraL 56. ' Legs par b. p. 215. ' Morris, Diet. p. 229. 

* Legs par b. p. Iia ' Kudat-ku B. x. 8. • Shang-Lun, vii. 18. 

' Tao-te-King, c. Ixxi. • Ming Sin P. K. c. vii » Hjam-dpal, foL iii. 
w Malay pr. " Pazha mozhi, 22. 



[x. 15 

its own cry."> "For the prating of men wanting in sense 
and knowledge (or wisdom), is like [riders on] wild horses 
not broken in. When they rush into action, one does not in 
the least know [who is foe or friend]."* " He whose lips are 
like poison, accustom him to feel often very much ashamed."* 
" For he does not get good things who speaks bad ones."* 
Therefore — 

" ovfU •yi'U/iijs yap ou fit xprj Xiytiv," 

" I must not speak without reflection," said Theseus.* 

" — Davus sum, non CEdipus. 
Verberibus caesum te in pistrinutn, Dave, dedam usque ad necem."* 

" I am a fool, not a wise man. . Well, then, thy back shall pay 
dear at the mill for thy folly, till thou die for it." "The man 
void of understanding is known by seven tokens, (i) He 
oppresses his underlings ; (2) he extols himself above all his 
inferiors, looks [cheaply] with indifference on all poor people, 
raising himself above everybody ; (3) he says without grace 
what he has to say ; (4) he does not try to prevent wickedness 
when he sees it practised ; (5) he is slow of good works, and 
quick at evil ones ; (6) he loves wicked things and wicked 
men ; (7) he has no patience in the difficulties of this life, and 
thereby ruins himself."' 

1 5 The rich man's wealth is his strong city : the 
destruction of the poor is their poverty. 

" TAi rich maris wealth" &c. " Every man is powerful 
through his money. Money makes him learned ; but when 
reft of money, then his intelligence is thought but small ; and 
all he does goes for nothing. Just like a stream that dries up 
in the heat of summer."* " A wife is for the purpose of off- 
spring ; a son, to offer funeral cakes ; a friend is for friendship ; 
but wealth is for everything."' "It is not for nothing, O 

' Javan pr. • Sain ugh. 81. » Kawi Niti .S. • Ani, 28th max. 

» fEdip. Col. 594. • Ter. Andr. i. 2. ' Bochari De djohor, p. 171. 

• Hitop. i. 132. • Chanak. 53. 

X. IS] 



wealth, that mortals honour thee most, as they do," says 
Theognis. " It is so easy for thee to bear the ills of life I To 
be rich seems to befit only the good, but poverty is the lot of 
the bad. For the greater portion of mankind there is only 
one virtue — to be rich. The rest goes for little or nothing." 
" Let us all then settle in our own minds that wealth, in the 
opinion of all, exercises most power."' 

" Let race go to hell beneath, and the long list of virtuous 
deeds along with it ; let merit (or good disposition) fall from 
the rocks, and the house be consumed by fire ; let the thunder- 
bolt fall at once on bravery and heroism ; but let us have 
money and that only, for without it all imaginable qualities 
are counted as grass."' " Nothing, in sooth, is known not to 
succeed with money ; therefore let every sensible man strive 
for it alone with all his might."' "Men with money are said 
to be young when advanced in years ; but men without money 
are thought old when young."* "Seeing, he sees not; and 
hearing, he hears not, and moves not his lips, through arro- 
gance (or bewilderment). Such is the plague of wealth."* 
"Whosoever has wealth is [reckoned] noble, learned, worth 
listening to and endowed with qualities. He is eloquent also, 
and fair to behold. All qualities, I tell you, are Included in 

"O Vaishampaka," said Arjuna, "all that men call virtue 
comes from wealth ; for he who loses his wealth loses his 
virtue. What is there that we do not endure when wealth is 
taken from us ? They look with disdain or disgust upon a 
poor man tilling by their side. It will not do in the world to 
praise poverty, the cause of degradation [fall] ; for the fallen, 
O King, grieves as he also who has no money. I need say no 
more. But where wealth increases and comes in, everything 
runs smoothly, like streams from the hills. The virtue (or 
merit) that depends on gentility, marriage, even Swarga, 

• Theognis, 515—520, 537. ' Nitishat. 32. • Pancha T. i. 2. 

* Id. ibid. II. ' Vemana, i. 39. • Bhartrih. cent ii. ly. 



[x. IS 

X. IS] 



O King, and existence in this world, do not prosper without 
money. But if a man is bereft of that rank [wealth], and is 
withal of small understanding, all his affairs come to naught, 
like shallow streams in hot weather. But he who has wealth 
has friends, has birth, has relations. He who has wealth is a 
man in the world ; he is also learned and wise. ' Yet he who 
has no money, cannot become rich by merely longing for it ; 
but money comes through money, as large wild elephants are 
led by smaller ones. Money gives virtue, connections by 
marriage, pleasure, valour, fame, amusement, a family, and 
increases virtue, O King."' 

" Through riches, mean men are reckoned noble ; men 
escape from difficulties. There is nothing more delightful 
than riches. Therefore get wealth! get wealth !"* "Devotion 
[austerity], youth, family, qualities, knowledge and strength — 
all profit But in this world, riches excel them all."' " Thus 
when the low are in prosperity, it is for them an occasion of 
pride ; but the great, when in prosperity, find it a source of 
humility."* " But, O ye children, when in prosperity, because 
it exalts one, our duty is to be humble (or lowly) ; and in 
poverty, because it lowers one, we must bear it cheerfully 
[in high spirits]."' "For this is a degenerate age; money is 
the principal thing."* 

The salutation of one merchant to another, as enjoined by 
Manu is, " Is thy wealth secure (or assured) ?' " O Aswins, 
lengthen the life of the merchant who longs for it."* For a 
man without wealth is lightly esteemed," said the merchant to 
his wife, who entreated him in affectionate terms not to sail to 
distant parts in search of wealth."' For as things are in the 
world, men think, " If a man lives in wealth and opulence, he 
will be said to be long-lived, even if his days be few ; but if he 
is poor, in straitened circumstances, and if his grave shows 

' Maha Bh. Shanti P. 215—225. ' Kobitatnr. 47. ' Lokopak. 208. 

* Sain iigh. 134. ' Balaljod. 9. • Lokaniti, 164. ' Manu ii. i. 127. 

• Rig V. ii. skta. 182, 3. ' Thoo dhatnma Tsari, 6th story. 

how hard had been his lot in life, then he is reckoned among 
the brutes "» {jxivwOdSioi, short-lived*]. "When MahakSla, 
the female warder of the burial-ground, was asked how the 
funeral rites were performed, she answered : My lord, the rich 
are put into a coffin wound round with red cloth or blanket 
[' kambala,' of Chinese manufacture], and burnt. But as 
regards those who have no money [the poor], they are put 
upon the wood of the pile, and cut in pieces with the edge of 
the shovel, that they may be more readily consumed."' 

" Money cleanses bastards of their ignominy," " and gives 
rank to him that has none."* " The riches of a man who is 
reported to have heaped up too much wealth become his 
executioner. Ruin generally comes upon the rich, but a 
beggar's birth is often a boon to him [he is not afraid of 
loss]."* " Therefore be not proud (or vain) of wealth or of 
beauty ; for both may be taken away in one night ; "• " how- 
ever much the features of a rich man may betray the secret of 
his wealth." 'f 

" But the destruction of the poor]' &c. " In order to injure 
the great, men must call others to their aid ; but the mean [or 
poor] are already destroyed through poverty. The same wind 
that fans a forest into flame, puts out the light of a hand- 
lamp."' " And I found," said the mouse, " that what is praised 
in a rich man, is blamed in a poor one. For if a poor man is 
stalwart, he will be called lubberly ; if he is liberal, they will 
blame him for being prodigal ; if he is meek, they will say he 
is weak ; and if he is grave, they will think him a fool. Death 
is preferable."* " Yea, it is better to depart this life than to 
have for witnesses of one's shame both the sun and the man 
who taunts us with it.""> "Yea, a happy Ooyf"!] death is 
lighter [to bear] than open poverty."" "A poor man's quali- 

' Calilah u D. p. 83. » Srtf «. I'xv. i. p. 16. • Dhammap. st. iv. 

* Kiddusch, B. Fl. 404. » Legs par b. p. 287. • E. Chosru Akhlaq 
Jell. p. 96. ' Hariri, iii. p. 150. • Sain ugh. 109. • Calilah u D. 
p. 171. " Xrt^av. r. I'xv. p. 2i6. " Ebu Mcdin, 170. 



[x. 15 




ties," said Kalidasa to king Vikramaditya, "are like fire 
covered with ashes ; and the thought about daily food is most 
distressing."' "To a Jew, however, poverty is becoming, like 
a red spot on a white horse,"* " or like a ring."' 

" Who," asks the Buddhist teacher, " are the men that are 
reckoned dead while they live ? He who is very poor ; he 
who is laid low by disease ; he who is in debt," &c.* " A 
house without a son is empty ; a kingdom without a king is 
empty ; the countenance of him who is without intelligence is 
empty; but poverty is empty of everything."' " Life is empty 
without knowledge," says Chanakya ; " a country [district] is 
empty without friends ; a house is empty without a son, but 
poverty is empty of everything."' " For he who has nothing 
is wicked " [in the eyes of the world].^ " And these four are 
as good as dead : the poor, the blind, the leper, and he who 
has no provision of any kind."' " For the poor hungers, and 
he knows it not"* " Truly, then, it is not easy to bear firmly 
the loss of money."" "Since there is not in the world a 
physician who can cure poverty," said Toki-nusi, " whatever a 
poor man may think, he is helpless." " 

" Well then, since good and bad men alike die," said the 
heretic Yang-chu, " and since their bones when dead are all 
alike, who can tell the difference ? So then let us hasten to 
live, and why trouble ourselves about what is to come after ?"" 
" Of poverty and of death, poverty is said to be the worst ; for 
death gives but little trouble ; poverty, however, is hard to 
bear."" "This man's faculties are not impared, you say — 'Tis 
but talk. His intellect, too, is not deficient ? — Nonsense. For 
no sooner is a man deprived of the real warmth of wealth, 
than he becomes quite another being. Is it not singular ? "" 
" Men beset with the five plagues of poverty, disease, folly, 

> Kobitarat. 112, and Chanak. 41. » Yalkut, B. Fl. • Vajikra, 

id. ibid. * Putsa pagn. Q. 70. » Lokan. 113. • Chanak. 46.. 

» Tarn. pr. ' Millin, 91. • Megilla, B. Fl. " Kawi Niti S. 

" Nageki-no-kiri, p. 8. " Lao-tsze, bk. vii. p. 3. " Hitop. i. 135- 

" Id. 136. 

exile and slavery, are dead while they live."i "You may have 
every good quality inwardly, but if you wear a bad coat you 
are despised by everybody. Although the bat is a wise bird 
yet because it has no feathers, they say it is shunned by all 
other winged creatures."* 

" For he who, though endued with good qualities, is bereft 
of appearance, ranks with bad [poor] men."' "The mother 
blames the son without money, and so does the father; his 
brother will not company with him ; his own son does not 
obey him ; his wife does not love him ; and his friends avoid 
him lest he should beg of them. Therefore seek wealth. 
Through riches, all will be subject unto you. So great men 
have said."* « For the one fault of poverty destroys a heap 
of good qualities," say the Bengalees.' " Bad is the bite of a 
mad dog ; worse is an inward complaint ; worse is a bad wife ; 
but worse than all is emptiness of the purse."' " When this' 
is the case, a man has little to spend on ornaments."' « Without 
money, without feathers (or wings)."' "The lamp of the poor 
gives no light, but the lamp of the rich man never goes out."' 
"The store-room of the poor," say the Finns, "is full of open • 
doors, and open behind."" 

"But the strong city of the rich man is like Salm's 'falcon's 
eyrie,' or fort; the falcon's eyrie is his castle and place of rest."" 
[A common man, become rich, was heard to say, " Nothing 
can shake me !" He died soon after.] " A rich man draws a 
heavy wagon after him ; but after the poor comes poverty." »* 
"And poverty in the house is harder to endure than fifty 
stripes."" " There is nothing in the worid harder than poverty, 
which is the hardest of all punishments."" " It is the greatest 
evil."" "He who comes down from his fortune, it is as if 
he died."" "And if he returns to prosperity, he is like a dead 

' Pancha T. i. 298. > Legs par b. p. 215. » Kawi Niti S. 

' Kobita R. 20. « Beng. pr. • Ep. Lod. 397. ' Kawi Niti S. vii. i 

» w'f;. P'- * ''^- '*'''*• " ^'""- P'- " Shah nameh, p. 86. 

" M.lhn, 303. " Yalkut Hijob, M. S. •« Yalkut Ruth, M. S 

" Midr. Tanch. M. S. " Midr. Exod. M. S. 



[x. 15 

X. 15J 

man coming back to life."' " Since four men are reckoned as 
dead : the poor, the leper, the blind, and he who has no 
children."* "Yet, even then, between the midwife and the 
lying-in woman," say the Rabbis, "the child of poverty or 
misery comes to naught"' 

" Pitchers go to the river [rich men live], but broken ones 
[the poor] whither ?"* " So then, when a rich man glorifies him- 
self, there is something in it ; but when a poor man praises 
himself, it is the ruin of him," say the Ozbegs."* "For when 
his wealth is exhausted, his condition is gone."' And "when 
poverty befalls a rich man, it causes his lustre to depart from 
him," said the rich broker when he became poor ; " for when 
absent [dead], no one mentions him ; and when present [in 
life], he has no enjoyment of it"' " If the high [or great] 
are free from faults, the low [or poor], on the other hand, have 
every fault, in the eyes of those who come near them. If under 
a palm-tree you drink green milk [palm juice], they will say 
it is milk [pat]."* [But better, " If under a palm-tree you 
drink cow's milk, they will say it is palm wine, or toddy."'] 
" Whether a stone fall upon the pitcher, or the pitcher upon 
the stone, however it be, woe to the pitcher!"'" [Woe to the 
poor and to the weak !] Yet, 

" Fabritium — et incomptis Curium capillis 
Utilem bello tulit, et Camillum 
Saeva paupertas et avitus arto 
Cum lare fundus," 

says Horace." And Martial : 

"Semper eris pauper, si pauper es, jtmiliane. 
Dantur opes nulli nunc, nisi divitibus."" 

" One may not find money to borrow for the necessaries of 
life [by a poor man], but one may find it to buy a pearl [by a 

" Javan pr. ' Nedarim, M. S. ' Yalkut Shophet. R. Bl. 156. 

• Berach. B. FL » Ozbeg pr. • EI Nawab. 74. ' Alef leileh, 2Sth 
night, p. 213- ' Nitivempa, 78. • Rottler's Diet s. voce. 

'• Midr. Rab. in Esther iii. 6, M. S. " Od. i. 12. " Mart 

Epigr. V. 81. 



its skin on the road' fh / '7- '" "°''''' '°'' ^^"'' '^ ^'» '«-« 

comes fro. th^ve b Larl L H r."'/" ''°"'' '''^^^^ ' 

with a burden. Tnd theTo'or in r ''"''' ''°"^ °' 

. • ... ine poor m Greece were rallo^ ' \ 

■■ poorer than . water oual ") " '^ "'"*"■■ 

» [short] tho„:rof ',;E "^ "' "'•"''■"■ ""'» o^™"" 

" A poor soil," say the Chinese, • produces flowers late • and 
poverty gives happiness but slowly"" ... l'„,, ' 
minuta .ente , To poor people, poo^ wits ■" " Th" f" ' 

"••"" °''"" " "-. "--.e poor j: thin j:;:tr 

' Niti ,.ri ,il,c ,,36 '*• . „. '";•"'' « •■ ', Tdugu pr 

• Hi.„ ,. ,,,„„, fj, ''■ „ ,^"p7 "■ "»• : and Monsol. „„,^ f^ 

2 a 



[x. 1 6 

X. 1 6] 

before him."» "Chi noii ha nulla, non fc nulla: He who has 
nothing, is nothing."' " The barber [surgeon] learns his trade 
on the orphan's head,"' say the Arabs ; and the Spaniards: 
"A barba de necio aprenden todos a rapar : All learn shaving 
on the beard of a simpleton."* " For the misery of poverty is 
known of the Lord alone."' " From want of money the family 
becomes degraded ; from want of money, fame also departs 
[is wiped out]." " Where there is no money, even a man's son 
finds fault with him, his wife upbraids him, and to others he 
is unbearable."" 

" Apvds ir€(rov(rr)i iros dvrip ^vXfvtrai," 
" Everybody hacks at the fallen oak," say the Greeks.^ 

" Nit habet infelix paupertas durius in se 
Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. Exeat, inquit, 
Si pudor est — cujus res non sufficit."' 

" For a man without money is of no use."* 

" X/'^/*"''" ^^P ir€vi\p6i yap ovScis 
iriX.€T co-Xos oiSi Tt/iios,"'* 

" For a man who is destitute of means is neither gentle nor 
respectable." So said Alcaeus — yet, in sooth, "handsome is 
that handsome does." " What then is thine own, ri oZv i<rri 
a-ov?" asks Epictetus of the rich man. "xprjat^ if)avTa(rtiav, the 
use of a vain show."" " So that I have not yet been able," says 
a Rabbi, " to see which is the better of the two, the death of 
a rich man, or the life of a poor one."'' [See, as bearing on 
this subject, Sophos, fab. 21 ; Syntipa, fab. 20, 'of the Sick 
Deer;' and Loqman, fab. 3.] "None happier than the desti- 
tute," says Diphilus, "since he cannot expect to be worse off."" 

1 6 The labour of the righteous tendetk to life : the 
fruit of the wicked to sin. 

* Hien w. shoo, 152. • Ital pr. » Arab. pr. * Span. pr. 

•Vemana, ii. 152. • Id. iii. 116, 117. » ivw/i. /lov. ' Juven. 

Sat. iii. 152, 155; S. Jam. Ep. ii. » Telugu pr. 2168. " Alcaei fr. 11. 
" Epict. Enchir. 11. " Ep. Lod. 1284. " Diphil. iii. ed. B. p. 261. 



J^^rI^y' T '^ ''''""' °' '^^ ''''''"'■' Arab. < profit, 

gam interest. It expresses more than ' fruit,' which is, in a degree 
a natu , „„ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ idea of the rS 

of the labour of the w.cked man. as contrasted with the labour of the 
fa. lure, to the object of life-salvation.' The labour (life) 

" TA.Ja6ourr &c. "Of a good action through self-control 
say : This .s an arrow in Satan's eye."t "What is worthless 
fruit? An undisciplined mind."* "Abstain from what may 
lead thee to evil," say the Japanese, "and then the little evil 
done unwittingly will be readily forgiven. And when hearing 
ev.l, be hke one deaf."» Confucius says: "Consider a man 

and see whither he tends. The good man," says Tai-shang 

«s good in his words, in his looks, in his actions. If in the 
same day he is good in all these three. Heaven must bestow 
on him happiness for three years. But the wicked man is 
bad m his words, in his looks and in his actions ; if he makes 
proof of these three in one and the same day. Heaven will 
assuredly send him three years of misfortune." " How, then, 
ought not a man to strive to his utmost in order to be g^od ?"' 
is the closing sentence of Tai-shang's Kang-ing-pien. a treatise 
on Rewards and Punishments.' 

"An action done in faith and earnestness, leads to a ten- 
fold happy result, to the Nat world in after-births [to the six 
inferior celestial regions]," say the Buddhists. "But an action 
done through covetousness, sin or folly, leads to ten-fold 
miseiy in after-births, and when ripe, to thick darkness."' 
"But this is also true: An action mixed up with good and 
evil— as by one who calls greed and lust faith, and faith 
evil— leads through a miserable way to births from brutes, as 
from a quiet elephant, and so to final happiness."' "The 

• Succah, B. Fl. 215. . Ratnam. 28. » Atsme Gusa, i. iii. p..2 

Shang-Lan, .. ,1. ,a • Rang ing p. • Saddhamma phalam, p. „8 

' Ibid. p. 12a >f •""• 

2 G 2 



[x. 1 6 

holy man," says Lao-tsze, "always delights in saving [doing 
good to] men ; therefore does he not abandon them. He 
also delights in saving things ; therefore also does he not 
abandon them."* "Virtue which a man has gathered during 
his lifetime, to be his companion after death, quickly takes 
him, thus purified of his taint by religious observances, to the 
other world, resplendent in a body of an ethereal nature."* 

" The righteous is pleased both here and hereafter ; in both 
these states does he rejoice at the thought of the good he has 
done. He rejoices especially when gone [the good way] to 
bliss."* "Therefore ought a good man to gather together 
good works ; for good works are themselves the source [cause] 
of riches. When a man is prosperous, it shows that he has 
gathered together [done] good works."* "So it was that 
Kun-dgah-wo [Ananda] asked Bchom-ldan-hdas [Buddha] 
what the two goddesses which appeared to him could have 
done [in a former existence] that they should appear to him in 
such bright light ?"" " The grain shows the difference between 
rice and long grass"* [so also the fruit of one's actions]. " For 
as the deed, so also the fruit [result] of it."' "A sinful action, 
however, does not, like milk, turn sour at once ; but, like embers 
covered with ashes, it burns and follows the fool [until he is 

"O King," said Kavya to Vrishaparva, "an unjust deed 
does not, like a cow, yield a result at once, but it comes 
gradually, and cuts off the roots of the evil-doer."' "Thus 
fools go on [or go about] without sense, enemies of themselves, 
doing sinful work that yields bitter fruit."'* "He who com- 
mits sin," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra, " gets the reputation 
of it, and eats the fruit of sin. But he who practises virtue 
gets the reputation of it, and enjoys endless felicity. Then 

' Tao-te-King, c. xxvii. ' Manu S. iv. 243. ' Dhamm. 

Yamakav. 18. * Legs par b. p. 294. » Dsang-Lun, fol. 19. 

• Kobita Rat. 14. ' Athitha, W. D. p. 21. • Dhammap. Balav. 71. 

» Maha Bh. Adi P. 3333. " Dhammap. Balav. 60. 

X. 17] 



let not a man of decided virtuous conduct commit sin: for 

Z'TTTu /'^''''"^ ^"''■°y^ '^"°^'^'^g-- Then sense 
[knowledge] bemg lost, a man sins deliberately. Whereas he 
who practises virtue increases his merit again and again."* 
As water poured at the root of the cocoa-nut tree benefits 
the root and through it the fruit, so also does a good man 
benefit others doubly, for this life and for the life to come, "» 

1 7 He w t„ the way of life that keepeth instruction : 
but he that refuseth reproof erreth. 

^^ " ffe is in the way," &c. " Good advice jars on the ear."« 
A ch. non si lascia consigliare, non si pu6 ajutare : One can- 
not help him who will not take advice." For "A buon 
consiglio non si trova prezzo : Good advice is without price"* 
Smce there is no return from death," says Siun-tsze.» "the 
wise man places great importance in his actions. Thus for a 
man to live without being either sincere, generous, or respected 
for bemg adorned with learning, is a waste. And to follow to 
the grave [the funeral obsequies of] one who was neither 
smcere, generous,nor adorned with knowledge,is vain " "Siddhi 
Kur tells a story of the king's son having gone to Golconda 
with the mmister's son for learning ; the first profited so much 
as to understand what a crow said which they met on their 
way. 'ikerek,' that pointed to some water, and thus saved his 
life. • 

We have also another simple story from the Telugus to 
show the benefits of instruction. " There was a wise man at 
Benares who had two sons. To the eldest he gave all his 
property, but he educated the youngest most carefully The 
first spent all he had and came to poverty; the youngest 
acquired much wealth through his education. Good instruction 
then, leads to happiness."' "It is of the utmost importance 
for a man to read books." say the Chinese ; " no matter whether 
• Maha Bh. Udyog P. 1241. » Subhasita. 44. 

Ital pr. 

c. xiii. « Siddhi Kur. xv. 

' Jap. pr. p. 780. 
' Telugu, St. i. 



[x. I8 

a man be rich and honourable, or poor and despised, clever 
and intelligent, or stupid and dull, all should read books. If a 
clever and intelligent man does not read, he must become 
empty, frothy, weak and diffuse [or evasive] ; and the stupid 
and dull, if they do not read books, will become still more 
obstinate, deficient, violent and perverse."' The soul of the 
departed in the hall of justice, where it pleads in favour of all 
the good it did in life, says : " I did not turn a deaf ear to the 
words of truth."' [See also Pap. Sail, ii., for Sekhru's 
admonitions to his son Papi when he went to school at Khennu 
(Silsilis), and Maspero, Style Epistolaire, p. 48.] 

18 He that hideth hatred with lying lips, and he 

that uttereth a slander, is a fool. 

naT M^?1lM, ' and he that causes a creeping report to go forth,' 
' an evil report spread underhand, as if creeping among people.' 

" He that hideth" &c. " * O fox,' said the lion, • why eatest 
thou not of this flesh ?' ' How could I ?' answered the fox 
[that was plotting the death of the two foster-brothers, the lion 
and the calf]. ' How could I ? Thou hast an enemy, and this 
grieves the heart of me, thine uncle.' 'An enemy,' replied the 
lion, ' I can scarcely have.' ' If,' answered the fox, ' thou wilt 
not hearken to my words, who am thy uncle, thou shalt be 
sorry for it' So saying, the fox lay down. Afterwards it 
went to the calf, and spoke to it the same words as against the 
lion. In consequence, the two destroyed each other. Then 
came a soft voice from Heaven, 'Never trust a false friend ; see 
how the fox severed the lion from the calf and destroyed 
both.' "» 

"We must do something to get rid of this man from 
Dworowati," said the king of Astino ; " he hides deceit [or a 
fiendish object] under a cloak of sweetness [or friendliness]."* 
Tai-kung says : " Let him who injures others with words, turn 

> Chin, max.. Dr. Medh. Dial. p. 171. » Rit. of the Dead, c. cxxv. 19. 
s Siddhi kur, st. xx. p. 33. * Broto Yudo, iv. 21. 




it upon himself and injure himself And let him who sputters 
blood upon others, keep his mouth closed."' "To accuse [or 
slander] anyone," say the Japanese, "is like spitting upon him 
with the mouth full of blood."* "Though a man hean thee, 
he may yet hate thee for all that."" " But cunning is a dis- 
grace in a good man."* " For there is no such thing as 
unconscious guile [or fraud]."* And " fuoco coperto," say the 
Italians, " h piu caldo dell altro : covered fire is hotter than any 
other."' " The mind free from hatred is a door to religion; it 
makes a man watchful over himself and others also."' " Do 
not ruin a man's reputation and profit," says Wen-chang ; " for 
both these do men love, and seek after them."' 

" Neither kings nor subjects, none except Rahans [Buddhist 
priests], ought to blame others for their faults ; for the sun and 
moon, great and powerful though they be, yet cannot shine 
into the joint of a bamboo. And the moon, great as it is, 
disappears when in company with the sun ; and the constella- 
tions and stars revolve around Myemmo [Mt. Meru]."* 
"One sees other people's faults who does not see his own."'* 
" The hateful snake of a bad man who pours forth envenomed 
words, and discloses what he ought not, the secrets of good 
men, holds the language of a double tongue."" "A slanderer," 
say the Tamils, " never holds his tongue ;" and the proverb, 
" He has slandered me," means literally, " Having put a wet 
cloth, with a wet knife, with a wet reaping-hook, he has 
cut my throat."'* 

" Let no one speak blame of others, nor yet listen to it ; but 
remain silent when it arises, or even leave the place."" "A 
soldier," says Manu, "who insults a Brahman shall be fined a 
hundred panas [a pana is eighty cowries] ; but a Brahman 
who insults a soldier shall be fined five hundred panas. And 

' Ming Sin P. K. i. c. 5. • Jap. pr. p. 283. ' Oyun Tulk. p. 10. 

• Vemana, ii. 63. • Kondreiv. 54. • Ital. pr. ' Rgya-tcher r. p. 
iv. p. 24. • Shin sin luh. v. p. 44. • Thoo dhamma ts. st. iii. 

'» Subha Bil. 118. " Kamand. Niti S. ii. 20. >* Tarn. pr. 

" Bahudorshon, p. 39. 



[x. 19 

a once-born man [Sudra] who gives tongue to a twice-born 
[Brahman], shall have his tongue slit asunder."' " Intercourse 
with another mgn's wife, the use of another man's goods, 
slandering others, and making fun of one's religious teacher, 
with unsteadiness in one's station, are one and all to be 
avoided."* " Do not consider the pitcher, but what is in it."* 
"And reckon him who spefiks falsely [slanders] a scorpion, 
whose mouth is like fire in the wind."* 

19 In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin ; 
but he that refraineth his lips is wise. 

Stt>5 ^ITC ^, 'there lacketh not fault, tripping, mistake or 
transgression.' Arab. ' is not free from fault or transgression.' LXX. 
(K iroXvXoytat ovk fK<f>fv^f] aftapriav, ' through much talking thou 
shall not escape sin (or mistake).' 

" In the multitude of words" &c. 

— tv o« Ty Acyfiv 
Kox af Aapoii ra TrAciOf fj (rmrripia. 

" Plain speaking," said CEdipus to Creon, " will give thee more 
trouble than profit."' " He who multiplies his words," says 
Kbu Medin, " shall not be free from guilt."* " When thou 
speakest," said Noor-ed-din to his son, " do not talk nonsense ; 
for if thou repentest once of thy silence, thou mayest repent 
many a time of having spoken."' " If to talk much, fast and 
ever, were the same as having common sense, then swallows," 
says Nicostratus, " would be wiser than we."* " For talka- 
tiveness is intemperance in speech. The tongue of the talker," 
says Theophrastus, " is iv vypif, moist and ever on the move ; 
he would rather chatter like a swallow than hold his peace."* 
" But such men," says Demophilus, " by their incessant chatter 
like swallows, lose all the pleasure of social intercourse,"*" 

• Manu S. viii. 277. ' Chanak. 3a • Ep. Lod. 275. * Tarn. pr. 
» CEdip. CoL 795- * Ebu Med. 187. ' Alef leil. 21st night, p. 159. 
' Nicostrat. ed. B. p. 275. ' Theophr. Char. 8. •* Demoph. 

Similit. p. 614. 

X. 19] 



"A man who does not speak at all is called dumb ; but he 
who talks much is one that makes many mistakes."* "No 
pool without frogs, no talking much witfiout slips of the 
tongue."* "I must try to keep in check my tongue," says 
Crates ; " for it becomes both young and old to know how to 

hold one's tongue in season. For either hold thy tongue." 

says Pythagoras, "or let thy say be worth more than silence 
[which is gold]." " But to speak truth is better than silence "* 
says Manu. "Yet it is better to hold one's tongue than to 
speak an untruth."' "Moderation' in speech, O King, is most 
difficult to acquire," said Vidura to Dhritarashtra ; "for it is 
impossible to talk much and sensibly too."« " For long words 
[much talking] are fulsome, and long sticks are weak.'" 

" In an abundance of words, some must be hurtful ; when a 
man eats too much, he suffers for it afterwards."' " Therefore 
do not talk too much." • " For trifling words injure reason."" 
" It is ' bringing something out of nothing," empty talk." "And 
to employ a hundred words where one would be enough is 
' big talk ;• and to admire or praise oneself is ' boastful talk,'"" 
say the Chinese. « Then practise [seek for thyself] silence."" 
" Do not speak evil to every comer ; let thy idle talk remain at 
home " [or, " Do not speak evil talk at random ; wherever thou 
goest, thy idle talk will return home to thee"]. " Thou shalt be 
the better for it in days of adversity."" « Take care of thy 
words [speech], lest it bring thee to destruction."" " For there 
is nothing on earth more deserving of a long prison than the 
tongue."'" "And he who multiplies talk, multiplies lying."" 
" For if thou do not rule the excess of thy tongue, Satan will 
curb thee therewith."" "Inasmuch as he who multiplies his 
words, multiplies his chances of correction."" 

' Kudat ku B. xiv. 9. » Osman. pr. » Crates, p. 275. 

, Manu S. n. ,. 83. • Hitop. i. ,44. • Maha Bh. Udyog Pi ,70. 

Hill pr. 201. « Ming h. dsi. 22. » Aw. Atthi S. 89. " Hien 
w. shoo, 127. » Dr. Medh. Dial. p. 166. " Ani, 59th max. 

" Id. xyxi p. ,99. " Ebu Medin, 55. "• Meid Ar. pr. 

Ep. Lod. 1523. " E! Nawab. 64. " Nuthar ell. 221. 



[x. 19 

" It is the way with talk, that it goes on increasing. Anger 
arises from one word, and with one word it goes.'" " So then," 
said Rabbi Akiba, "as the Masora is a fence to the Law, as 
tithes are a fence to wealth, as vows are a fence to a holy life, 
so also is silence a fence to wisdom."' " Whether with great 
men or with one's equals, one must have regard to rank and 
dignity and to self-respect in one's words ; otherwise evil will 
ensue, and one will lose one's respectability."" " Chi molto s4 
poco parla : the man who knows much, talks little."* "Much 
talking diminishes wisdom."" " Therefore do not talk much ; 
but hold your tongue, that your words may live [endure]. The 
words of him who talks much, receive little respect."* " They 
are a tree with leaves only, and little or no fruit." say the 
Rabbis."^ "Much talking, I think, will bring a man evil (or 
trouble)," said Gagnrid [Odin] to the giant Vafthrudnir." " By 
day look round when you speak, and at night it is best not to 
speak at all."» Walls have ears. " Restraint of the body is 
[sweet] good, so is restraint in words and also in thought ; in 
everything restraint is good," said Nagasena to king Milinda." 
"Mind your words," said Wei to himself. "A flaw in a 
white stone may yet be repaired [ground or worn off] ; not so 
a flaw in words."" " By all means," adds the Japanese Com- 
mentaxy, "do not lightly let words come out of your mouth ; 
say not. 'A word is a trifle.' No one can keep your mouth 
for you; keep it yourself."" « Words upon words spoil speech, 
as weeds spoil water."" "Guard against much speaking; 
many words do harm," says Chocvtsze." "Every word of 
thine, whether good or bad, said by mistake or from pride, is 
written in the book of ' the Written Ones' [the Book of Life]."» 
Confucius says: "One cannot always judge of a man by his 
talk. A virtuous man has words [to express himself] ; but a 
. V. Satasai, .05. ' Pirke Av. iii. ' Vemana, iii. .08 

« ItaL VT ' Kudat ku B. x. 12. • Id. xvin. 13. B Flor. 

. Vafthnidn. .0. • Telugu pr. 2456. " Milinda P. p .67. " She 
King. iii^^J. " ^^ 'bid. » Telugu pr. " Kea kih yen. 

u Mi'drash Tanch. M. S. 

X. 19] 



man may have words and yet no virtue."* " For a man smart 
[artful] in his talk, is slow at keeping silence."' 

"Yet every word should be sincere. In uttering a word, 
one ought to consider what it may lead to, so that it may not 
be an empty word."' Thus it often happens that "di grand' 
eloquenza picciola coscienza :* there is little conscience in 
great eloquence." And again : " Dovh grand' eloquenza, vi h 
poca coscienza : where there is great eloquence there is little 
conscience."* "Generally speaking," says the Japanese Dr. 
Desima, " a man at once upright (or honest) and a great talker 
[eloquent], and withal diligent in business, is a rare article. 
Very good and honest men have not great intellect. But [great 
talkers] eloquent men have little uprightness and honesty. 
And as unprincipled men easily go astray, when such men 
gather the multitude around them, they [distort] disturb 
existing customs ; whereas good and honest men consolidate 
them."' [In Japan, it seems, as well as in England]. 

" There are men," says Wang-kew-po,^ " who have a certain 
talent for speaking (or talking) ; they are not to be trusted." 
" For abundance of words brings about misfortune, just as 
many doctors are certain death."' " So long, O Bhikkhus, as 
you shall not be addicted to, or take pleasure in, talk [for talk- 
ing sake], so long also will your increase and not your decay 
take place."' "The Samano [monk] therefore, O Gautama, 
gives up frivolous talk and avoids it."" " It is said : Art thou 
overcome by another man's talk ? Be not overcome by his 
silence [talk less than he] ; for if his talk is silver, his silence 
is gold. For he who multiplies his words, multiplies his lying ; 
as he who increases his goods, increases also his sins."'* "Be 
careful of your words, then," says the Japanese ' Moral Instruc- 
tion for Women;' "let them not be many. And let not a 
woman either reproach one or tell a lie."'' 

' Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. » Id. ibid. ' Id. c. xii. « Ital. pr. 

• Id. • Gomitori, i. p. 16. ' On Kang-he's 6th max. • Hill pr. 60. 

• Mahaparanibbh. fol. khya. " Silakhanda, fol. ki. " Matshat Phal. 
" Onna dai gaku, p. 67. 



[x. 20 

" Be wise, then, both in words and in deeds ; for the wisdom 
of words is for this world only ; but the wisdom of deeds 
reaches to the next world and there abides.'" "For where 
there are many people, there is much : 'It is sol It is notl' 
[difference of opinion]," say the Chinese. " Discussions [quar- 
rels also] only come from too much opening of the mouth. 
Vexations, annoyances [headaches], only come from encounter- 
ing others too vehemently."* " And he who does not multiply 
his words, does not confuse his talk. And he who does not 
talk big of what he does, does not confuse his actions."' " Too 
much glue does not stick," say again the Chinese ; " and too 
many words are not [sweet] welcome."* " For many words 
injure conversation, as too much eating hurts a man."* " Folly 
mostly prevails among men," says Cleobulus, "and abundance 
of talk."' " A word," say the Georgians, " is often best when 
not spoken ; for one word will often undo thee."^ " But a man 
of a placid disposition says but little. Water when tranquil 
flows but slowly."' " I have not multiplied the speaking of 
my words, nor let my tongue wander astray,"' says the soul 
of the departed in Amenti. 

20 The tongue of the just is as choice silver : the 
heart of the wicked is little vi^orth. 

' The heart of the wicked (is) Of Q?, as little as a thing of naught.' 
" The tongue" &c " The good are wholly made up of 
qualities, but fools have nothing but faults. From a gem arises 
the desire of making it useful and valued ; but from a serpent's 
venom nothing comes but evil."'" "As when the terrible Rahu 
seizes one-half of the moon [eclipses it], the moon lightens the 
earth with the other bright portion, so also the excellent man, 
whatever be the trouble that besets him, dispels sorrow that 

• Akhlaq nasiri, 25. ' Chin. pr. p. 74, 76. ' Ming Sin P. K. c. iii. 

* Chin. pr. G. ' Id. ibid. • Cleobul. Sept. Sap. ' Georg. pr. 

• Ming h. dsi. 12. • Rit. of the Dead, c. cxxv. 25, 33. " Legs par 
b. p. 102. 

X. 21] 



rests in the heart of the dwellers on earth."' " Like the jack- 
fruit which, when ripe, is thorny without, but full of ambrosia 
within, so is the heart of a good man."« " Good men are like 
the cocoa-nut, rough and hard outside, but white, sweet and 
fresh within. But wicked men are like a plum, soft outside, 
with a heart of stone within."' "And the udumba [fig-tree], 
whose fruit when ripe is red outside, but inside is full of 
vermin, so is the heart of a bad man."* "The sinner," said 
Kaushika, "is always full of wind, like a large pair of bellows."* 
" Inasmuch as the knowledge a fool may have is given him 
to no purpose, it kills his good fortune, breaking his head."' 
" For there is no greater enemy of man than wickedness in 
the heart."' 

21 The lips of the righteous feed many : but fools 
die for want of wisdom. 

W-pi, • shall feed,' pascent Chald. id. 

" The lips," &c. " How great is the way of the saint ! He 
[or it] feeds ten thousand [all] things,'" says Confucius. " One 
learns from one man, and one uses that knowledge over ten 
thousand men."» "A good man, by his gentleness, preserves 
himself and others ; but an evil man, by his roughness, injures 
himself and others also. A fruit-tree protects itself and other 
trees as well ; but a dry tree consumes both itself and other 
trefes also."" Meng-tsze says that "a good man has five dif- 
ferent ways of doing good by giving instruction : (i) by giving 
advice, which has the effect of a shower of rain at the proper 
season ; (2) by perfecting men's virtue ; (3) by drawing out 
their talents ; (4) by answering questions ; (5) by privately 
influencing [correcting] others."" "A true word spoken by the 
mouth, shows the usual way of that mouth [or of the speaker]."'* 

' Subhasita, 19. » Lokaniti, 43. • Hitop. i. 95. « Lokaniti, 42. 
• Maha Bh. Vana P. 13,748. • Dhammap. Balav. 72. ' Kawi Niti S. 
' Chung y, c. xxvii. » Chin. pr. p. 27. " Legs par b. p. loj 

" Hea Meng, c. xiii. 39. " V. Satasai, 343. 



[x. 22 

"The So's [ancestors] were great men who, having dwelt 
attentively on the first principles, spread abroad their thoughts 
[the result of their meditations], and thus pleased other men."* 
" Industry," said the father, " is better than self-reliance, 
because whereas reliance benefits him only who has it, industry 
benefits others. Now, to bring good to others is a proof of 
goodness, for ' he is a good man who does good to men.' It 
would be fearful that a man who can bring good to others 
should be slow to do it, and thus deprive them of the benefit 
of it"' " For he is said to live, he in [and through] whom 
many live. May he have a long life!"' On the other hand, 
" Mean men receive education, but never are the better for it"* 
" For is it not a joke to suppose that knowledge will occupy 
[pervade] a man of middle age, if he was not born so gifted ?"* 
" And ignorance is the death of the living,"* say the Arabs. 
Esop has a fable of 'the Ass and the Cricket,'' but better told 
by Syntipa,' and in the Aramean original of Sophos.* " The 
ass asked the cricket what it ate, to give it such a sweet voice. 
' I live on air,' said the cricket. The ass then lay on his back 
with his mouth open, and died of it" Loqman, too, has a fable** 
of the Wolves and the Ox-hide. The wolves died of it, from 
want of sense. 

2 2 The blessing of the Lord, it maketh rich, and he 
addeth no sorrow with it 

" The blessing" &c. " There is none beside thee, O Indra, 
to give joy [blessing or happiness] ; therefore do I seek thy 
praise [word], O thou friend of man."" " For he, to whom thou, 
[liberal] Lord of power, givest food, enjoyment and support, 
enjoys it fully in his home."" " Om ! true, O my son, I will 
give thee a boon ; choose what thou likest ; nothing is impossible 

' Gun den s. mon, 741. * Anwar i Soh. St. iii. p. 65. ' Hitop. ii. 35. 
« Chin. max. ' Vemana, iii. 90. • Meid. Ar. pr. ' Fab. 137. 

» Fab. I. * Fab. 2. " Fab. 36. " Rig V. i. skta. bcxxiv. 19, 20. 
"Id. iii- skta. xxx. 7. 

X. 22] 



with me. I am Giver of all good gifts," said Narayana to 
Subhadra.1 « O Indra, Liberator, those who offer thee their 
hymn of praise with longing [hearts, with devotion] soon become 
great"" " I [says Indra] am the first [original] lord of wealth. 
I procure wealth always [or eternally] ; men call me Father ; I 
give ease [enjoyment] to my worshipper.'" " In olden times," 
said the Japanes'e Dr. Desima, " rich and great men prayed to 
Heaven for a blessing on their affairs, and they, receiving it, 
prospered. Thus small means suffice to one's well-being ; 
and being received with gratitude, must turn to good, and 
fearful things be warded off."* 

" O Ashi [blessing], thou art beautiful, thou art radiant, thou 
comest forth from [thy] beams with joy [or joyous} O Ashi, 
giver of brilliant gifts to the men whom thou followest [or to 
whom thou cleavest], thou sweet-smelling ! The house in which 
thou settest thy foot firmly, for a long abode in it [fellowship 
with it], is fragrant [with thy blessing]."* " God is He who 
gives thee wealth," says Ptah-hotep." "For the working 
[management] of the earth is jointly by God and man," said 
Arjuna to Djanarddana"' " Thy duty, O man, is to bestir 
thyself, and from God comes blessing."* " God's help," say the 
Spaniards, "is worth a great deal more than much early rising."* 

" Let him [Indra] be favourable to us [for the attainment of 
our wishes] and come to us with wealth, a blessing and the 
food which he gives."" " For false is the purpose of those who 
say that we ought to renounce the pleasant fruits of life here 
below," says the Shivaite ; " do they not see that everlasting 
life begins here below ?"" " Life and death are an order from 
Heaven, and so are riches also," say the Japanese.** For— 

"iroXXai 8 oSoi 
<ruv 0<o(t eiirfM^iai, '* 

' Pancha Ratra. iv. 26. » Rig V. ii. skta. xi. 16. * Id. x, 

skta. xlviii. 2. * Waga tsuye, ii. p. 10, 11. ' Ashi Yasht, 6. 

• Pap. Pr. xiii. 8. ' Maha Bh. Udyog P. 2826. • Pers. pr. 

• Span. pr. " Rig V. i. skta. ii. 3. " Vemana, iii. 204. 
" Jap. pr. p. 142. " Find. 01. viii. 17. 



[x. 22 

" the gods have many ways of doing good," says Pindar ; while 
he adds elsewhere that " no one among men appears to 
prosper without effort on his part."* " God helps those who 
help themselves." " Therefore, O my son, be thankful for what 
God has apportioned to thee, and thou wilt be the richest of 
men."* " To be able to live and live [to have enough during 
life] is a blessing from Heaven ; to be able to die and die [a 
happy death] is also a blessing from Heaven. But not to be 
able to live and yet live, and not to be able [ready] to die and 
yet die, are both punishments from Heaven."' 

"But the blessing of the Most High is peace."* For "Heaven 
does not produce the non-happiness of man, as the earth does 
not produce the non-growing of plants. Great riches come 
from Heaven ; small riches from diligence."' "A man endures 
much for the sake of his wife, his son, and his father and 
mother ; but these would be no trouble if he looked up to 
Brahma."* " For the blessing bestowed by Bchom-ldan-hdas 
[Buddha] is not to be apprehended with the mind " [so great 
it is].^ " Every profit gained in this world without God's 
blessing, is as if taken from Him by force," says Rabbi Chanina.' 
" Blessing on the daily life is seen in the beauty of the work 
done. The service of God is a provision of happiness in this 
world, and also of honour in the world to come. The service 
of God is a good means of salvation. If not, of what use is a 
brainless skin ? [life without God]. The purpose of making 
for salvation at the last, is a good mark [or stamp] on a man. 
And let not a clapper [conscience] be ever beating in one's 

"The fruit of virtue," said Manibhadra to Kundadara, 
"always is superiority [influence] and happiness of various 
kinds. Let the Brahman eat these fruits free from bodily 
suffering."" " TsuUubandaka was so stupid that he could not 

» Pyth. xii. 49. * Matshaf Phal. ' Lee-tsie, bk. vi. p. 5. 

• Megillah, 18, M. S. • Ming Sin P. K. c. xi. • Vemana, ii. 55. 

T Rgya-tcher r. p. c. iv. 'In Berach, B. FL • Risbtah i juw, p. 29. 
>» Maha Bh. Sbanti P. 9781. 

X. 23] 



learn anything, but he was kind to his teacher, who took him 
to the jungle and taught him this -mantra' [spell]: <Thou 
weariest thyself! thou weariest thyself! But what for? I 
know thy work.' "» " Pray to the gods whose power is great " 
says Theognis; "for nothing either good or bad happens to 
men without them [their will]."« "And to him whose conduct 
IS good," says Sok)n. "God grants good fortune in all things 
and saves him from folly."* « IHk praised God and said • O 
my God, thou art most noble. All my good has come to me 
from Thee. I am thy worthless servant, and have sinned 
agamst Thee. And yet thou hast granted me all my desire "« 
"As regards this life," says the Buddhist, "a wise man 
eschews sin and impurity, is liberal, moderate, &c. In like 
manner as the bee sucks honey from a flower without derang- 
ing the blossom, so also does a wise man pass through this 
world, doing what good he can, and deriving from it what 
good he may, but without attaching himself to it."» " By the 
blessing of Sangs-rgyas [most perfect Buddha], and by the 
goodness of the Triune God, let a man be free from disease 
until he dies in his old age ; and be gifted with a soft voice, a 
mild countenance, and great strength."" Thus "a fair wind 
will raise no waves,"^ say the Chinese ; and Pindar, 

Aaifiov dvSpiav ^tAwi/,"* 

"God's overruling wisdom governs the (lot or) circumstances 
of those who love Him and whom He loves." 

23 // w as sport to a fool to do mischief: but a man 
of understanding hath wisdom. 

nm is worse than ' mischief in its general acceptation. It means 
rather 'crime, guilt.' Ar. 'vice, wickedness.' 'It is pinfers, as a 
laughing matter to the fool to commit wickedness, or to incur guilt." 

' Buddhagh. Par. vi. p. 92. t Theogn. 173. » Solon Ath. 

ed. B. V. 69. ' Kudat ku B. xiv. 12. « Hdul-wa, vol. cha, fol. 29. 

Smon-lam bchu-tham. ' Chin. pr. • Pyth. v. 164. 

2 H 



[x. 24 

"It is as sport" &c "A small sin is a great misfortune to 
the pure-minded; but what are a hundred sins to the sinful 
soul ? "* " One of the frogs that were pelted with stones said 
to the boys who did it : O boys, to pelt us is sport to you, but 
it is death to us."* " When everything is wounded and spoilt, 
he only smiles at it" "It is so indeed," says the Chinese 
translator of that same story. "Leave off sinful sport."' "Great 
wisdom does not proceed from small virtue [or goodness]."* 
" Wise men, however, are never held in honour by fools. The 
beautiful light of the sun when shining is nevertheless obscured 
by vultures flying across it"* " If a man, though weak and 
small, is intelligent, what can an enemy, even powerful, do to 
him ? A lion, though king of beasts, was slain by an intelligent 
hare."* " He that has understanding can read a letter back- 

24 The fear of the wicked, it shall come upon him : 

but the desire of the righteous shall be granted. 

\l^,, understand mh\ Chald. ' shall be given (or granted) to the 

" Tlie fear" &c. " It often happens," says Callinus of 


" IIoXXaKt 8t;iot>;to <f>vy<j>v not Bovtrov aKovnav 
tp^cTai, (V o oiKtf fioipa kI\€v Oavarov, 

" that a man escaped from the battle and from the din of war, 
meets death in his own home." " The fear of the wicked," 
may also mean " remorse of conscience and the fear of death." 
" He who has done evil, is punished by it," say the Arabs.* "If 
you stamp on the ground," say the Bengalees, " the guilty 
tremble ;" and "the rat flees, though it knows not that the cat is 
blind."" "For if one does harm to another in the morning, 
evil is sure to come to him in the afternoon."" 

> Kobita R. 51. * Telugu st 2. ' Atthi Sudi, 42. * Tonilkhu y. 
ch. ii. ' Sain iigh. 84. • Legs par b. p. 19. ' Osman. pr. 

• 14, '5i ed- S- ' ^^^*^- ^"^ P^- " l^eng. pr. " Cural, 319. 

X. 25] 



cruel d.«h come, ,„d „„ ^l^ ,hl, ^ J "'""' '" 
clothing need not f«, ,k m " """"''" <•'»■""> 


J.'-tut'th "''^"' '""^^' ^" " ^h^ --'^^d no 
As the whirlwind" Rrr " p .•„!, . . 

away." says Abu Ubdd -but .0 . " "I T """ ^''^" ^^^^ 

■> f -^"uuDcia, t>ut good works shall remain " "Tk„ 

advantage of goodness is for ever • buf th.. l^"]' ^^^ 

first "« " If «„- I ' ^'^^^ °^ ^vil is only at 

ledge, and the thorgM^r^irl:^ T °"^ ^''^ '""^- 
.^^ss among me„^„:Ltt:;tTp[l:-^^^^^ 
The everlastmg foundation" mentioned here is of course 

t::hrrL::r;^::'r ^^ ^""' p-;ed"brc:: 

when he h" "" "^""^ '"^ ^"^ ^"-^'^ .■ but mTst 

done"' 'LT *° ''''r' ''^'■"^^ °^ ''' ^-^ '^^^ 
ArL. « . . ^""'^'^^' ^°^'^^'" ^-'d Bhagavan to 

Arjuna, are sa.d to be [parts] of an eternal, embodied Soir t 
.mpenshable, infinite; therefore, fight thou, O Bh5ra a ?.' A 
good man .s the pillar [mainstay or foundation] of the stat^ 
He hves ten thousand years, and [his light] does not wa^e - 

King, bk. ii. od. 3. ^ ^^- ^'"*'"»'' P- 896. to She 

2 H 2 



[x. 25 

"Perfection in a perfect man." says Tseu-sze. " never ceases 
but continues ; and as it continues, it shows itself outwardly. 

And of the holy man, Lao-tsze says that "after he has 
spent his strength in doing good, he does not dwell on his 
merits ; but although he does not rest on his merits, yet h.s • 
merits do not leave him."' "When he dies, he ceases not to 
exist, but is indeed long-lived. And he who knows how to 
lay a good foundation shall not be destroyed."' " Those who 
devote themselves to the [moral] law well taught to them, pass 
over to yonder shore [nibbanam]. which is under the thrall of 
death, and very hard to cross."* "The superior man," says 
Meng-tsze "lays deep the foundation of his own principles, 
wishing to' possess them for himself. When he has acquired 
them, he dwells at rest [composed]. While thus under their 
quieting influence, he values the depth of them ; and applymg 
them right and left, he finds out the source from which they 
flow Therefore does the superior man strive to possess those 
principles for himself."' " My dear Rahans." said P'hara 
Thaken, " do you think Mahakala-thera and Tsullakala are 
alike? Why, Tsullakala is like a tree floating adrift that has 
reached the bank, whereas Mahakala is like a mountain of 
solid rock, against which nothing can prevail to shake it'|« 

Of this "everlasting foundation of the righteous," the 
Buddhist has but small hope. "Gautama said in his discourse : 
•Ayam antima jati : this is my last birth ; there is not now 
any other existence.' Thus affirming cessation of existence, 
which is found only in 'kamaloko, rupaloko, and arupaloko, 
sensual existence, corporeal existence, and formless existence, 
the realm of beings with form, and of beings without form ; so 
that when he says, 'natthi bhuti puna bhava,' he means that he 
shall cease to exist"^ " These my five component parts," says 
the Buddhist, " form, sensation, perception, discrimination and 

. Chung Yung, c xxvi. ' Tao-te-King c. ii. ' Id- iWd. 

. Dha„,Ip. 86, Panditav. » Hea Meng. vn. ,4 , « Buddhagh. 

Par. V. p. 4S- ' ^^^- G°S«'''y> Ceylon Friend, Feb. 1864- 

X. 26, 27] 



consciousness, are not enduring because they are not perma- 
nent ; they will die ; and my body when dead will be cast away 
like a slough in the coffin."' While other materialists warn 
" him who is endued with virtue, that the innate qualities of 
the virtuous do not procure lasting [dhruvam] existence. 
The ashes of sandal-wood burnt with fire are no longer 

26 As vinegar to the teeth, and as smoke to the 
eyes, so is the sluggard to them that send him. 

Vphs, ' as vinegar,' or sour, fermented matter. Thus the LXX. 
render it by o/itfia^, 'sour grapes, verjuice,' and are followed by one 
Arabic version,' with the Coptic and the Syriac — 'As verjuice to the 
teeth, so does the sluggard (idle, lazy man) injure his own works,* 
whose lazy, irresolute ways are well rendered by jUV, a-Tpaytvtiv. 

" As smoke,'' &c. " The same thing which looks like abuse 
from a stranger, may be welcome from a friend ; just as smoke 
from grass differs from the smoke of incense."' "The slug- 
gard," say the Arabs, "has not two legs."* " Laziness," say 
the Turks, " walks slowly, slowly, and meets poverty on the 

27 The fear of the Lord prolongeth days : but the 
years of the wicked shall be shortened. 

^' The fear of the Lord" &c. Tsoo-ke, one of Kaou-tsung's 
ministers, said to him : " Heaven looks down on the people, 
and according to the righteousness [of each individual] sends 
upon him length of days or shortness of life. It is not Heaven 
that destroys the people ; it is the people themselves who cut 
short their own destiny in the middle of it."* " For a good man 
must reach an advanced old age, but a wicked man must die 
early."^ "The man who leads a bad life," says Manu,« "is 

' Khanda-gna-pa, J. Thera, and Rahula Thut. 18. ' Drishtanta 

Shat. 41. ' Kobitamr. 26. ♦ Egypt, pr. 45. ' Osm. pr. 

» Shoo King, ill. 14. ' Hien w. shoo, 195. • Manu S. Iv. 157, 158. 



[x. 27 

blamed in this world ; always fares wretchedly ; is afflicted 
with disease, and is short-lived." " But he who, though not 
favoured by fortune, yet leads a good life, is faithful and 
not envious, lives a hundred years." " There are the stars of 
the [Great Bear] Bushel of the North, the prince of spirits, 
which are placed over the head of men. They write down in 
a book the sins and faults of men ; and they lop off twelve 
years from the reckoning [sum of years] of a man [according 
to his conduct]," says Tai-shang.' And the Commentary 
quotes Tsang-tsze, who says, speaking of this cutting off of 
man's days : " Ten eyes that pry [from above], and ten hands 
that carry off, how awful it is I " 

" The office of Shang-Te is to be the Ruler (or court) of 
Heaven ; which is lord of man's life, of his death, and of his 
long life."' " All his sins are sought out by the [Sze-ming] 
officer of [God's order] destiny ; and if at death there remains 
one sin [yet unpunished], it reaches down to the children's 
children."' " Therefore," said Enoch to the wicked, " your days 
shall be cursed, and the years of your life shall perish; eternal 
curse on you shall be multiplied, and there will be no peace 
for you."* " They shall perish ; there will be no length of days 
for them."' "The duration of a tyrant's life is short," say the 
Arabs ; " but the duration of a generous [good] man's life is 
long [spread out]."* "When a child is born," say the Rabbis, 
" it is decreed how many years he is to live on earth. If he is 
innocent [pure, virtuous], he shall fulfil the years [decreed to 
him] ; if not, his years shall be shortened, as it is written in 
Prov. X. 27."^ 

Shang-Te says : " If you are bad [do evil], you cut short 
yourself your own happiness. You die morning or evening 
['the two rats, white and black, gnaw the root of your days'];* 
how can you hope for a high rank?"* "When the heart is 

• Kang ing p. ' Shin sin luh. i. p. 79, 81. 

♦ Bk. Enoch, c. v. 6. ' Id. x. 10. • Nuth. ellal. 163. 

in Koheleth, iii. 2, M. S. • Jap. pr. p. 115. • Shin sin luh. ii. p. 81 

' Id. ii. p. 85. 
' Midr. Rab. 

X. 28] 



good," say again the Chinese, " and his destiny [ming, order 
from Heaven] is also good, then glory and renown come early. 
If the heart is good and the destiny is not good, then this life 
is warm and filled ; when destiny is good and the heart is bad, 
promotion, it is feared, can hardly come ; but when both the 
heart and destiny are not good, then for poverty and misery 
straight on to old age."» "Good morals, they say, are a 
blessing, and virtue is best in this world ; for behold, a frightful 
dragon does not slay good people."' "A good-tempered and 
quiet man is sure to live out his days ; but the plotting and 
deceitful man comes to no good end."' 

28 The hope of the righteous shall be gladness ; but 
the expectation of the wicked shall perish. 

" The hope" &c. " When Bias was asked, What is ' sweet ' to 
man, k\ir\%, ?</>i, ? he said ' Hope.'"* " For," says Ovid,» 

" Spem juvat amplecti, quae hon juvet irrita semper." 
"And Thales being asked. What is the most common thing? 
answered ' Hope,' for it is all that is left to those who have 
nothing else."* 

"Jam mala finissem letho, sed credula vitam 
Spes fovet, et melius eras fore semper erit, 
Spes etiam valida solatur compede vinctum : 
Crura sonant ferro, sed canit inter opus."' 

" Then «Xrrif< <ls finjT<5s, hope thou as being mortal," says 

Periander.* For, 

" 'Ev tkir'urw )(pr] tovs <ro(^ov9 e\(iv /Sioi'," 

The wise live in hopes, " the hope of the righteous," which is 
to them " as an anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast, and 
which entereth into that within the veil," fastened to the cable 
of faith, that will bear the strain of the storm, and never fail ; 
for " He is faithful that promised." 

> Ming Sin P. K. i. p. 3. ' Silavim. Jat. p. 371. ' Ming h. dsi. 32. 
* Sept. Sap. p. 42. • Ex Ponto, iii. 7, 21. ' Sept. Sap. p. 36; 

Babrias, fab. 58. ' Tibull. eleg. ult. • Sept. Sap. p. 48. • rvu/t. luv. 



[x. 28 

This hope — 

"Tenet in tempus, semel est si credita, longum,'" 
endures until it ends in the possession of the " gladness " 
promised. But hope itself is gladness so long as it lasts ; as 
the Syriac renders it well : " The hope of righteous men is 
in (or with) joy ;" while looking forward to " the promised 
inheritance of the saints in light." It is well rendered in 
n^Oin, * longa spes,' as contrasted with nipn, the expectation, 
' by taking measures,' of the wicked. " For all that I have 
seen of the wicked," said Bileklik kishi the wise, " he came to 

" ' O thou Creator of corporeal beings,' said Zarathustra to 
Ahura Mazda, 'where is the judgment-seat, and where are 
the rewards which men put off while living ?' ' O Zarathustra,' 
answered Ahura Mazda, 'on the third night, when the sun 
rises, the daeva, Vizeresha by name, carries away the sinful 
soul bound to the bridge Chinvat, where the question is put 
to the soul touching its conduct through life. But as regards 
the pure (good), on the third morning, a beautiful maid takes 
the soul over Hara-berezaiti [Elbors, the highest peak of the 
Caucasus] into the presence of Vohu-mano [Good or Holy 
Spirit], who asks it, Whence comest thou ? Then the soul of 
the pure goes rejoicing to Ahura Mazda, to the golden throne 
of Amesha-spentas [immortal saints, archangels?]'"' "The 
righteous rejoices here and hereafter," says the Buddhist ; 
" in both states does he rejoice. He rejoices greatly when he 
sees the purity of his actions."* "Hope," says Theognis, "is 
fjiovT) Oeoi i<r6Krj, is the only good goddess left among men ; all 
the rest, with Faith, Temperance, have gone back to Olympus ; 
even the Graces have left this earth. But if any among the 
pious wishes to live and to see the light of the sun about 
(with) the gods, then iXwlSa wpoa-iKviro, let him await (abide by) 
what he hopes for, and worship them first and last in hope."* 

' Ovid, Art. Am. i. 445. ' Kudat ku B. xi. 17. ' Vendid. xix. 89, 
and Yasht, xxii. * Dhatnmap. Yamak. 16. ' Theogn. 1091. 

X. 28] 



"But as to those vain 'pratikbudh' [self-constituted Buddhasl 
when they come to die. they are like the 'kadali-tree' [kadali, 
plantain-tree], without heart [or marrow] ; they rejoice in their 
wealth and pleasures ; but when they come to the end, they 
are found naked, with the empty palm of their hand grasping 
a shadow.'" Yet, in any case, the hope of the Buddhist is 
nought For Nirvana [to be treated at length in another 
chapter] is ' extinction.' Now a drop of water falling into the 
sea is not annihilated ; it becomes a part of the whole. But 
the blowing out of a candle [nirvanam] is complete extinc