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3 1924 096 339 464 

Cornell University 

The original of this bool< is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 












.J r.o,, Calcutta! 


fHE Santali language is spoken by almost a million and a half of people, 
who are mainly found distributed over a strip of Bengal extending for 
about 350 miles from the Ganges to the Baitarni, bisected by the meridian 
of Bhagalpur, or 87° east longitude, and comprising the following districts : — 
Bhagalpur, Monghyr, the Santal Pargannas, Birbhum, Bankura, Hazaribagh, 
Manbhum, Midnapur, Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj and Balasore. 

Santali belongs to the Munda or Kolarlan family of languages, and has 
reached a much higher stage of development than any other language or dia- 
lect of the family to which it belongs. It is spoken with little variation in 
pronunciation or idiom over the greater part of the above-mentioned area. 

Northern Santali, or that spoken in Bhagalpur, Monghyr, the Santal 
Pargannas, Birbhum, Bankura, Hazaribagh and Manbhum, is the lan- 
guage of an overwhelming majority of the tribe, and is more polished, than 
Southern Santali. The former is, therefore, regarded as the Standard, and 
Southern Santali, or that spoken in the remaining districts, as a dialect, 
or, possibly, a group of dialects of it. 

There being at present no Dictionary of the Santali language, while 
many Government Officers, Missionaries and Planters feel the want of one, 
there would seem to be a need for the present work, even although it be 
very imperfect. Puxley's Vocabulary, which was a useful help to the 
knowledge of Santali, has been long out of print 

Most Dictionaries indicate what parts of speech the words are, but in 
Santali it is impossible to do this in the case of the great bulk of the words. 
Consequently, in the few instances in which it might have been done, it has 
not been thought worth while doing so in this Dictionary. The form in which 
the words appear is the Root, and only the Root idea is, in most instances, 
•given. A slight knowledge of the Grammar of Santali will enable those 
consulting the Dictionary to deduce the meanings of the different forms in 
which the.root appears, whether noun, adjective, verb, adverb, &e. Greater 
fulness of detail could have been given only in a very bulky volume, and, as 
Santali is regular in its method of dealing with the Root, no real advantage 
would have been gained. 

( n ) 

The Examples given are intended to shew the more common use of the 
words, and have been selected with great care. A few of them illustrate 
the use of words in proverbs, saws, maxims, &c. These have been given, 
as affording some insight into the mental characteristics of the Santals, 
and it is hoped that, by their means, students of Santali may become better 
acquainted with the people whose language they are studying. In some 
instances, rather lengthy references to customs, festivals, &c., have been 
made, but, as the work was intended as a help, not merely to a knowledge of 
the language, but also to a knowledge of the people, such references were 
unavoidable. In the case of particles, in which Santali is very rich, and 
which often baffle translation, it is hoped that the illustrative examples 
will be appreciated. 

In the present work no attempt has been made to distinguish between 
words of Kolarian origin and those adopted from other sources. With our 
present knowledge of the non-Aryan languages of India, living or dead, 
which have influenced the present Snatali vocabulary, any such attempt 
would have been mere guess work, and would have served no practical 
purpose. The source of words of Aryan origin might have been indicated, 
but uniformity forbad it. All words, whencesoever derived, that are in 
common use among Santals, have been, as far as possible, included. 

Santali has been affected more or less by all the languages with which 
it has come into contact, and possesses a remarkable power of naturalising 
words of foreign origin. Next to the Bihari dialects, Bengali has of late 
years had most influence upon it. So strongly, indeed, do Bihari and 
Bengali affect Santali at present that there is produced a slight dia- 
lectic difference between the Santali of Bihari and the Santali of Bengali 
districts. Words with the short inherent vowel, adopted by Santali from 
Bihari, retain the short a sound, those adopted from Bengali retain the 
short sound. This dialectic difference accounts for the different ways 
of spelling the same word which often occur. 

Santali not possessing an alphabet of its own, the Roman character has 
been adapted to it. This, with signs over, or under, certain letters, to denote 
soLmds differing from those which these letters have in English, suits the 
language extremely well. There are two different modes of representing 
two sounds which are current in Santali printed books, and, as users' of the 
Dictionary may read books of both kinds, an explanation seems necessary. 
These two sounds are represented in the present work by Ic and c. They 
are otherwise represented by ', and : . Thus amaJc = ama', and amic = ami:. 
For the sounds of the letters used in Romanised Santali, Skrefsrud's San- 
tali Grammar may be consulted. It may, however, be noted that c is 
soft as rji in change. 

( iii ) 

The order of the letters in the English Alphabet luvs been adhered to 
in this Dictionary. To avoid confusion, no distinction, so far as order is 
concerned, has been made between letters having signs under or over them, 
and the corresponding unmarked letters. The letter n is, however, an 
exception to this rule. It is regarded as equivalent to ng, and always 
occupies the same place in the sequence of letters as ng in an English 

This work does not profess to contain a complete list of the words used 
in Santali, but it is believed that the most of them have been recorded. 

Thanks are due to the Government of Bengal, which, through the Direc- 
tor of Public Instruction, has assisted the publication of this Dictionary 
by a generous grant towards the expense of printing. 

The Compiler gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance rendered 
in the work of preparing the Dictionary by the following gentlemen — his 
colleagues in the Free Church of Scotland Santal Mission — Dr. J. A. Dyer, 
Dr. J. M. Macphail, and the Rev. W. E. White. The time and labour 
devoted to the work by Mr. White, (who, besides help given all through, 
placed a large quantity of valubale MSS. at the disposal of the compiler,) 
demand special recognition and thanks, which are hereby heartily accorded. 














A. A privative prefix much used in 
Sant;ili, signifying not, without. 

A-dhorom, a-lekha 

A. A prefix vnth causative significa- 

A-liu, a-jo, a-S6n. 

1. Yes. 

A a. Grunt of buffalo. 

Abad. Cultivation, harvest. 

Abad dare. Troo yielding produce. 

Abar. To cry peevishlj' for some thing, 
as a child. 

Geie abafkedaP What does he wantP 

Abe tabe. Just at the time of 

Abe tabe aimral! . Juat about oock-crow 
Abe tabeakanae. He is at the point of death. 

Aben. You two. 

There is also a ourious use of the dual, when 
only one person is in question. A man and his 
"wife use the dual to their respective fathers-in- 
law, mothers-in-law, elder brothere-inlaw, and 
sisters-in-law, and vice versa, e.g. A man will say 
to his father-in-law CalaEben, instead of CalaK- 
me. Cf. abo for curious use of the plural. 

Aber. Out of season, late, behind hand. 
Abga. Almost all, the greater part, 
with few exceptions. 

Nunal^iii kamikefireho abga pel^ei odohena. Al- 
though I have laboured so much little else 
than chaff is the result. 

Noa oaole do abga dhurigea. This rice is near- 
ly all dust. 

Noko hor abga kombro kanako. The majority 
of them are thieves. 

Abga taka menaUtaea. He has more rupees 
(than pioo). 

Abga horge menaKkoa. Santals are in the ma- 
jority (in this village). 

Abge. (1) Sacred to the males of the 
household. (2) Stingy, selfish. 

Abge boiiga. One of the Santal family deities, 
virtually the deity of the males of the family, 
as they only can partake of what has been 
oiieredtoitin sacrifice . 

Nui bhedaA abgeakadea. I have set this ram 
apart as a sacrifice for the males of the house- 

Amem jom abgekeda. Ton ate most of it your- 
self, (as if it had been an abge ofiering.) 

Abgun. To injure oneself by over- 

Jom abgunenae. He injured himself by eating 
too much. 

Abhagia. Unfortunate, unlucky. 
Abher. A moment of time. 

Mit' abhefili calao liogoka. I will go for a 

Abhra. A natural pond or tank. 
Abhran. An ornament, jewelry, to be 

decked with jewelry, &c. 
Abhu cabhu. Perplexed, confused, not 

knov/ing what to do. 
Abjos. Unfortunate, unlucky, ill for- 
tune, bad luck. 
Abjos alo bare hoyoKma. jos baye hoyolhna. 
Abjos do alom h^^ra, jos biife h^rme. 

Ablakha. Spotted. 
Abo, abon. We, including person ad- 
dressed, I and you, we and you. 
opp. to ale — I and they. 
There is also a curious use of the plural when 
only one person is in question. Fathers-in-law 
and mothers-in-law use the plural to each other, 
though addressing only one person. 
e. g. Thehusband's father says to wife'sfather 
calalfale, instead of oalaRaJi, and calak'pe in- 
stead of calr^k'me, also calaKale, orcalakabo, al- 
though only the speaker is going away. This 
usage is also observed among certain relations 
of the parents-in-law. 

Abod. Young, ignorant. 

Abol. V/eak, without strength. 

Abola. Dumb, unable to speak for one- 
self, as a child. 

Abosta. To waste, to be injured, or 

Horobeleena, Bamtaohodkhanem,ohoabostalena. 
The dha.n is ripe if you house it quickly it will 
not be injured. 

Abot. Not broken to work, untamed. 
Abuk, (abukok)\to wash hands and feet, 
Abuii, (abudok)J also hands and mouth 
after eating. 

Abiili cabuK 

[ 2 ] 


Diatinguiah between — 

Ap (abok') to wash whole face. 

Abuk (abukoS) to wash hands and feet, 

Ti jahgaabukolinie. Wash your hands andfeet. 

Bin abuk tite. With unwashen hands. 

Abuli cabuU. Here and there. 
Abuti. Cf. abuk. 
Ac. himself. 

Acak, ajaK, ajah, acren. His own. 

Ac kathae. Namely, that is, as they say. 

Akoge ad kathae khub akilan lekako badaeoka. 

They are wise in their own conceits. 

Ac kathaeye dargodleka. As if he were to flee. 

Ac. Heat, flame, stifling heat. 

Bhatha reak' ac do eyae dobor dahhgao ju- 
iijpe. Increase the heat of the furnace 
seven times. 

5.caK Jie. Increase the heat (by stirring the fire, 
or putting on more fuel.) 

Noa orakre adi horko tahelenkhan ac bako 
aahaoa. If men are crowded into this house, 
they will be stifled with the heat. 

Acar. Usage, customs, rites. 
AcaroU. To make rules of conduct for 

oneself regardmg defilement in 

Acar beohar. Customs, usages, conduct. 

Bohgak hor adi ut^r acar beohar menaktakoa. 

Acar bicar. To institute customs, rules 
of conduct, &c., to legislate, to. 

Abo ge tho bhai nunal^bo acarke6 bicarkeda, noa 

reah sat cekatebo fielap 
We have passed all these laws how shall we know 

that they have the divine sanction P 

Acbic. To despise, to loathe (on ac- 
count of ceremonial, or other defile- 

Cele ho babo acbicakoa. We regard none as 
unclean (ceremonially.) 

Ac bole. Cf ac kathae. 

. ^ ,' , Wealth, abundance, splen- 
Acel pacel. r i . 

Acer pacer. J 

Ehubekisara, acel pacel jomal^ menal^taea. He 
is very rich, and has abundance of food. 

Acet. Unconscious. 

Achal garijal. To rain heavily, to pour. 

TeheA do achal gaiijale dakatbona. It rained 
very heavily to-day. 

Achar. A heavy shower of rain. 
Mil; achare daKkeda. There was one good 
shower of rain. 

Achia. Opening on top of chulha for pot. 

Mit achia. Chulha with one opening. 
Bar achia. Two openings. 

Achim. To sneeze. 

Achimkedae. He sneezed. 

Acir pacir. ] A large homestead sur- 

r. lA 

3r. J ro 

Acer pacer, j rounded by a wall. 
Acir pacir orak menaktaea. He has a large 
homestead surrounded by a wall. 

Achok. Unclean feeding, low, eating 

Achok j9.t kanae. He is of low caste. 
Achra. To sow rice for transplanting 
in low moist land, which has been 
ploughed and harrowed. 

Achra aphor — is seed sown thick on surface 

after having been steeped till it germinates. 
Dhuri aphor — is seed sown on high lands, which 

have been ploughed, but not harrowed. 
The seedlings when in the ground are called 

aphor, when pulled up for transplanting 


Acka \ Suddenly, without warn- 
Ackamar J ing. 

Acok. Suddenly, without warning. 
Acraeli bodga. A spirit supposed to 
preside over the interests of the 

parents of a maLrried woman. If she surrep- 
titiously carries away any thing from the 
house of her parents to her own home the 
Acraeli boiga accompanies the goods, what- 
ever they may be, and makes his presence 
and displeasure felt by bringing sickness, 
death, &c. upon the household. To propitiate 
him and induce him to return to his own 
domain is a work of some difficulty, involv- 
ing, at times, rather costly sacrifices. 

Acu. To hire, to engage, to employ. 

Acu hor. One hired 
Akcu hor. An employer. 
Acukoali. I will hire them. 

Acur. To turn, to return, to tiu'n round, 
to go round, to revolve. acurok lekaii aikaueda. I feel dizzy. 
A4i acur hor. A very winding path. 
Acurol^ dinte. This time next year. 
AcurokBudh. Next Wednesday. 

Acur bihur. Backwards and forwards, 
hither and thither, over and over 

Noakore acur bihur baraekanae. He is wander- 
ing about here. 

Acur bihure roreda ina kathage. He is al- 
ways coming over the same subject. 

Ad. Cf adh. 

Admarua half-dead. 

Ad. The beginning. 

Ad call. Original customs. 

Ad. \To give shelter, protection, to 
Od. /take refuge. 

Adok lagife nir calaoena. He ran for shelter. 
Diuhe a5kate aguime — protecting it from wind . 
Sate adre. Under shelter of the eaves. 
Siair odre. Shelter from the dew. 

Ada. \Undried ginger, {Zingiber offici- 
Adhe. f nale Roscoe. 


[ 3 ] 


Ada. To season, especially with salt, 
diffuse throughout, impi'egnate 
with safiiciently, to suffice. 

TJture buluii adaakona se bail P Is the relish 
properly salteil. 

Biihin bah adalena. The salt did not snifioe, 
(waa not in sufficient quantity.) 

Snnnm bail adalentilia. There waa not enough 
oil for my piu-pose. 

Noa dorhare hap bail adalente hako bako arma- 
raolena. This pool has not been sufficient- 
ly poisoned, and so the iish were not over- 

Ada. To take cattle to mid-day resting 
place, the place where cattle rest 
at mid-day, a group, a herd. 

A(Ja t^ndi. The place were the a^a is situated, 
generally a level piece of ground outside of 
the village where shelter from the sun can 
be obtained. 

AiJakoaA. I will take them to the resting 

Mit acjako dukana. They went in one detach- 

Adakateko calak'a. They will go as one herd. 

Ada. Tassar silkworms. 
Ada adi. Not on speaking terms, at 

Ada a(}iakanakui. They are not on speaking 

Ada bari. The place where Tassar silk 

•^yornis {Anther CE(( myliita) arere- 

ared, generally a grove of Atnak 

tTees{Termin nl ia tomen to><a Lin -ih.) 

Ada barire menaea. 

Ada bariedae. He is tending tassar silk worms. 

Adagathia. A common grass, Pani- 

cum repens, Linn. 
Adai badai. To be proud, arrogant, 

Ad?.l badgiiefkanae. He is fastidious, (will not 

take what is offered him.) 

Adai. (1) To give back, repay, to re- 
(2) To collect money &c due, to exact. 

(1) UniaJ rin takai'i adaikatitaea. I discharged 

my debt to him. 

(2) Ein taka uni then Ichon ill adaia. I will 
realize from him the money lent. 

Adalot, (adalat). Court, kacahari. 
Maraii adalot. High court (Haekot) 
Bewani ,, Civil court. 
iJaddari , , Criminal court. 

Adar, (adar danra). A Brahmini bull, a 
bull kept for breeding purposes, 
and not put to work. 

Adar odor. Fat and naked, overgrown, 

Adar odore calaoena. He waddled away. 

Adar udur. C£ ailar odor, 
Adat\Under age, unfit for vvoik, aiii- 
UdatJ mais not begun to lose their 

milk teeth. 
Adauri. A prepai-ati(m made from pulse 

and condiments. 
Adawa. Cf adwa. 
Adepase. Neighbo\u-hood, near. 

Acjepase renko. Neighbours. 

Ader. To put in, to bring in, to intro- 

Ka(}a aderkom. House the buffaloes. 
Kathaye aderadea. He introduced the subject 
to him. 

Ade tola. Neighbourhood, vicinage. 

Ade tolarenko. Neighbours. 

Aclger. To go off, to disappear, to keep 
out of sight, to keeji out of the way. 

Okate coe adgerakana. He has disappeared 

Sen a<Jgerakanako kami hor do, bako aktaoE- 

kana. The workmen have cleaa-ed off, they 

are not in a hurry. 

Adh. 1 A prefix, used largely in Santali 
Ad. J signifying half. 

Adh bg.isu. Of middle age. 
Adh marwa. Half-dead. 

Adha. Half 

Adha ndhi. Half and half. 

Kami adha adhilenkhan. When the work is half 

Adha adhiko rohooaVada. They have got half 

through with their planting. 

Adha padha. Unfinished, to scamp 

Adha padhape kamiakada. Ton have not done 
the work thoroughly. 

Adhaia. Two and a half 
Adhar. Fodder, food, (seldom used of 
man) ; to be satisfied. 

Adhar banulttakoa. They (animals) have no 

TJni hor unake jomeiJreho, bae adharokkana. 
The man although he eats so much is not satisfied 

Adhe. Cf ada. 
Adhek. Cf adha. 
Adhela. A half pice. 

Barea adhelare mit' poesa hoyoka. Two half 
pice make one pice. 

Adher. Past prime, getting old. 

Bae adherentaea, nui gai do. This cow is get- 
ting old. 
Adher kicrio. Old cloth. 

Adhi. To lessen, to shorten, to reduce. 

Adhiket'leae. He lessened our numbers. 
i)iil g.dhime. ^ Pour out half. 
Meromko goo g-dhientaea. Many of his goats 
have died. 


[ 4 ] 


Adhkhecra. Imperfect, carelessly per- 
formed, scamped. 

Adhorom. Unrighteous, unholy, impure. 

Adhon madhon. To sell at a sacrifice, 
below value, for anything. 

Seare swjion ina(Jhoii iii akriii gidiksda. At last 
I sold it for what I could get. 

Adhuli. An 8 anna piece. 

Adi (ari, udi, adi utar, aema, adi adi, 
adi okoc), much, many, very, a long 

A4i Jhorko. Many men. 

4-^i ho jo. Iiluoh rice. 

Adi nig.ila. Very dii-ty. 

Aijireya oalaoena. He went away a long while ago 

Ai?i diureyo oalaoena. He went away many 

days ago. 
M}i aetaKro. Very early in the morning. 
Adi gh^ri enea, Only after a very long time. 

Ad Kisku. A sub-sept of the sept 

Adin. Out of season, out of date, late. 

Adin din rem metadiiia. Tou spoke to me out 
01 season. 

Adkar. One half. 

Adnakha. One half. 
Ado. Moreover, and, so, then. 
Ado. To urinate. 

Adoli. To disregard an order, to slight 
a command. 
Hukum adolikedae. He disregarded the order. 

Adorn. Some, some... others. 

Adorn doko oalaoena, ar adom dobo taheena. 
Some went away, and others stayed. 

Adop. To be contumacious, to be recal- 
citrant, to be recusant, 

Uni dol^ dalledereh50 adopet kana, arh5 jarurgel^. 
dalea. Although I have beaten him, "he is 
still contumaoious, I shall certainly beat 
him again. 

Adopia. Contumacious, recalcitrant, 
unsubmissive, recusant, blustering. 

Ador. Pride ; to sulk. 

Uni do krsar i?.fce 9.di adorotgeae. He is proud 

because he is rich. 
Uni gidi;a bail hewekante adoro^kanae. The 

child is sulking because I do not take it up. 

AdoroK. To put off, to put off under 
vain pretences, to procrastinate, to 
be unsatisfied, as one who refuses 
to work for a certain wage. 

Adpakolia. Weak, feeble, fusionless, of 
premature birth. 
Adpakolia,geae, bamire bae dheja. He is feeble 
and can't do his work. 

Adrao, (arrao). To bellow. 

Ifada a ako arraoa. 

Adwa. To huisk without boiling, husked 
vi^ithout being previously boiled, 
not tattooed. 

Adwa horo. 

Adwa cfiole. 

Adwa hor. Not tattooed. 

Nui hor doe adwo^gea This man is not tattooed. 

Adwati. Ill will, enmity. 
Ae. Measure ; to calculate. 

Beaeteye jomeda. Ho eats without stint. 

Dak a^i haraena, ninaU ae menaSa, dani^at^ 
hotolite. The water has risen greatly, it 
reaches to the waist and to the neck. 

As lUnaccustomed, raw, stupid, 
AebahaJ unpractised, untrained, un- 
inured, sensitive to touch. 

Cele nui aebahaya ; fchg-ri agiiiii metaekan khan, 
chipiye aguadkan. What a stupid he is ! If 
I tell him to bring a plate, be brings me a, 

Aedari. C£ aidari. 

Aedhon. Not full grown, as bullock, 
cow, &c., promising profit, in- 
creasing in value. 

Nui do aedhon mal kanae. This is property that 
will increase in value. 

Aedhor. A system of cultivation in 

which the cultivator supplies only 

the labour, and receives one third 

share of the produce. 

Aedhori. The person who cultivates 

on the aedhor system. 
Aege. An exclamation of surprise, fear, 
or pain. 
Aege ! bejae ul joabana. O ! what a quantity 

of mangoes (on the tree.) 
Aege ! 9.di a^teii liurena. Dear me ! I have fall- 
en heavily. 

Aekom. InefiScient, inexperienced. 
Aelo gaelo. To keep out of the way, 
to hide, 

Kami botorte aelo gaelo baraeae. He hides here 
and there to avoid work. 

Aema. many. 

Aenom. Lamp black applied to the 


Aenom kajar. Box and aenoTn 
Kajraoti. Box for holding aenom. 

Aesan. \To attempt (often with reitera- 
Aisan, J tion of verb.) 

OndeA sen sen aesankada. I repeatedly attemp- 
ted to go there. 

Ce^ oet' aesankadaii, baA aei dareada. I repeat- 
edly tried to learn, but could not. 

Laga laga aesankadeail. I tried to drive him off. 


[ 5 ] 


Aet (ayat). Verse. 

Aeui. To whine, as a whelp. 

Ae upai. Result, gain. 

TinaKom ae xip^iiaCkan, ona leka khoroome. 
Spend aooording to your income. 

Aga. To exaggerate, to magnify, to 
over colour. 

Alom agawatia, baiikhan tayomtei5 ruheCkeina 
Do not exag-gerate to me, or else I shall scold 
you afterwards. 

Agad. To add to, change the size, 
increase the size. 

Sim^o agadkhan ku(Jite po paromae. If he 
enlarges the boundary, he will hoe across 
(the old line.) 
Taiga, agad marah lioggeae kutamkate. He will 

beat the axe oat a little larger. 
Noa ohnri agad oooeme. Make this knife bigger. 
Ehetko agada. They will enlarge the field. 
Agam. ") T^ , 
A|ami.l ^"*''"^- 

Agamgar. Given up for the nonce to 
feasting and merriment. 
Teheri dole agamggirakana. We are given up for 
the nonce to feasting and merriment. 

Agardigar. To violate, set at naught, 

Tayom daram alope agar <Iigartabona. Do not 
violate this (arrangement) in the future. 

Agar ogor. Fat and short, dumpy. 

Uni sukri agar ogore d^iya. 

Agast. The month August. 
Agdhao"! To delay, to put off, to tem- 
Aghrao 1- porise, to postpone, to de- 
AkdhaoJ fer, to dally, to be stub- 
born, to be obstinate. 

Alom agdhaoEa, calfiokate agu hodme. 
Don't dally, go and bring it at once. 
Mahajon ^diko aghraoKa,5bako emoKa. 
The money lenders keep putting you off, they 
won't give. 

Ager. \ One row of thatch round the 
Agre. J roof 

AghaM. To be satiated, to be satisfied. 
Aghar. The eighth Hindu month, 

Aghan, November — December. 
Aghi. Interest in kind, generally paid 

in Aghan. C£ Aghar. 

Horo belelenkhan more p^tila aighi emaiiam. 
When the dhan ripens you will give me five 
pailas of dhan as interest. 

Aghorni. A pool of water, a deep pool 
at a bend in a river, or stream. 

Aghrao. Ct. agdhao. 

Agil. To load heavily in front, heavy 
in the fore quarters. 

Agil bh^ri sadom. A horse high in the withers. 

Aglagwa banduk. Gun fired by a fuse. 
Aglaha. A leader, one who goes before. 
Agni manda. Indigestion. 
Agnisar. A variety of the rice plant. 
Agotar. Rent, or pay given in advance. 
Agra. Blighted, as an ear of dhan. 

Nui do hoj ren agra kanae. He is the off- 

scouring of mankind. 
Horo reaK agj-a. Blighted dhan. 

Agre. Cf ager. 

Agu. To bring, exact, charge, deprive. 

(very common in conjunction with other verbs, 

giving idea of motion, up to a certain time or 

Pea tafeaii aguke^koa. I charged them three 

Jiwiko agukef taea. They murdered him. 
Manjhi nonka aguiet' tahekanae. The manjhi 

_u8ed to act thus up to that time. 
EaK raKto rof agukedae. He came on crying 

and speaking. 

Aguadar. A forerunner, those who 
prijeodc a marriage party to the 
bride's village. 

Agyo. A common plant, (Spidagathis 
cristata, Willd.) 
The ashes of the plant are appKod to heal sores 
of the disease agyo. 

Agyo. A skin disease, generally appear- 
ing on the legs, at first like blis- 
ters, then becoming: sores. 

Ah i 

A hah [Interjection of pleasure. 


Aha. Alas. 

Aha. To bewitch by looking at one 
while eating, cast evil spell on, 
ahak', to be bewitched. 

Ill ahakedeaii, bae hajama. I looked at him while 
eating, be wiU not digest hds food. 

Ahan. To break a prolonged fast. 

NeKe ut?irgeii ahahoEkana. 

AhajS cabap. Quickly, hurriedly. 

Henda ja, gi;li ahap cahapiA lielefme do. 
Soho ! I see you'r in a hurry. 

Ahar. Dhan land made by damming 

up a water course, a small pond. 
Aher. Prey ; to lie in wait for prey. 

Ahh uhh. Cry of pain. 

Joiigare bajaoente a4iye ahh uhhkeda. 

Ahibahi. Busy, busy season. 

Ahi bahi dinre pera horoK alope calaKa. 
Do not go a visiting in the busy season. 


[ 6 ] 


Ahil mahil. To delay, to put off time. 
Ahirkuhir\To stare all round intently 
ArilJkurii! J looking for something, 

to fix the eyes upon, to stare one 

in the face. 

CedaK onka ahii-kulur dom beiigefae kana ? Why 
do you stare so at him ! Unak aliirkuhir lA 
bengefteda, menek bali Aamledea. I looked 
very intently but did not And him. 

Ahkaok. To pant through thirst. 
Ahla. Emanation, presence, radiation, 

Hante ber giUg. AeloUkana. An emanation 
from the sun appears over there, i. e. sun- 

Da5 reak ablg, hoe aguiefte adi rabah kana. 
An emanation from the water, (or rain) 
being brought by the wind makes it yery 
cold. . ., 

Sengel ablate ?.di Aut AeloKkana, sangitite. 
Through the emanation from the fire (light) 
it appears very dark in the distance. 

Ale ato do burn 9.hlate liut godoka. It gets 
very soon dark in our village owing to the 
presence of the hills. 

Burn ahla i?,te ape then do jaati ot lolokkana. 
wing to the radiation from the hills the 
soil with you gets hotter (than with us.) 

Burn ahlate 9.di rear kana. The presence of 
the hills makes it very cold. 

Hoedak jalapuri are sed ahla gidikeikoa. The 
storm stranded them on the sea shore 

Ahla. ) A small sheaf of grain 

Ahla binda. j &c. 

Ahluh. Sad, low-spirited, weak from 

Ahnaok. To go bad, of meat. 

Jel ahnaoena. The meat has gone bad. 

Ahra. An edible root. 

Ahra. A reservoir for collecting rain 

Ahri. A silk worm charm-doctor. 
Ahrom pahrom. Hurriedly, quickly. 
Ahum tahum.\To eat greedily, to eat 
Harum tarumj too fast. 

Ahup cahup (ahap cahap). hurriedly, 

to look round. 
Ahuy tahur. To gobble. 
Aidari. Inheritance, authority, p )Rse,- 


Uniak aidarire menakkoa. They are under his 

authority. _ 
Nuige aKaidg-riio do, delabon gojea. 
This is the heir, come let us kill him. 

Aigu. An interjection of annoyance, 
used by women only. 

Aika. But, only, but certainly, with 
this proviso. 

4ik9. gegerae dina haralenkhan. Only it will 
bite, when it grows up, (though it does not 
bite now.) 

Ma sabeme, ?ika gegerae — only it will bite. 

Aikau. To feel, to perceive, to be sen- 
sible of. 

Chat ohate ^ikaueda He feels very thirsty. 
Akilan leka bari. aikanledea. I did not take 
him to be a wise man. 

Aimai. A woman. 

Ainthao. ") To twist tightly, bring pres- 
Althau. 3 sure to bear on. [fish. 

Als. A bad smell, as that of the scales of 
Aisamol. ") Forbidden food, to a sick 
is amol. 5 person, or dyspeptic. 
Aisan. Cf aesan. [ous. 

Altaha. Bitter, acrid, surly, acrimoni- 
Aitau. To sift rice, &c. in a peculiar 
way with hatak. 
Gum jokhec aifau todpe dhirido. 

Aitau paitau. A game played by child- 
Aitha. Vessel one has eaten or drunk 

from, leavings of food. 
Althau. Cf ainthao. 
Aja. Grand-father. 

Ajako pitalco. 

Aja purkha. Ancestors. 

Ajak. Cf. ac. 

Ajakkedae. He claimed it as his own. 

Ajak \To importune, to beseech, 

Ajak ajak. J to beg hard, to clamour for. 

Uni liitab lagif ajak ajagok kanae. He impor- 
tunes for the book. 

Ajakbujak. Irregular, without system, 

here and there. 
Ajan. Ignorant, without knowledge. 
Ajan. A powder applied to the eyelids 

for ophthalmia, &c. 
Ajante. By mistake. 
Ajar. Trouble, bother ; heavy. 
Ajare. To visit, go about gossipping. 

Maejiuko aj areako . Women go about gossipping. 
Ajare senoK. To go out for a chat with a neigh- 

Ajauri \Empty, unoccupied, unem- 
Ajwari J. ployed. 

BaA ajauria. I am not at leisure. 

Ajbaj. Cf ajbuj. 
^j;^^J^^°|lnvolved, entangled. 

Ajbaj "vva | " 

Noa nariteii ajbaihaoena. 

this creeper. 
Kamireli ajbajhaoakana. 

I am entangled with 


[ 7 ] 



Ajbuj lUniiitelligent. ravelled, 
Ajbaj.J topsy-turvy. 

Ajbujko roja. "What they aay is unintelligible. 

Ajgar. Improper, impertinent, iasult- 
."^?- . 

Uni do gi^i ajgargeye rorora sahao khon ho bah- 
regetaea. He speaks so impertinently as 
to be beyond endurance. 

^(Ji ajgargem ror gofkeda, alo se nonka dom 
rora, rastete do bam rora ? 

Ajgar. Strait, pinch, burden, great.vast. 
A(Ji ajgarrell paraoena. I am in a great strait 
Ajgar dare. A huge tree. 

Ajgut. Used to express surprise at any 
thing, or any one, as unusual or 

Aisrut hor kanae, rabaii ho bae bataoa. Ho is a 
wonderful man, he does not heed the cold. 

Ajgut moilj lieloK kanae. O! how beautiful she 

Ajgut reh3 bae heoakana nit ho. Dear me, even 
now he has not come. 

Ajgut bae heclena. It is strange he has not come. 

Ajhal pajhallAmple, more than en- 
Ujhalpajhalj ough, unlimited. 

trjhal pajhale jom oookelikoa. He gave them 

more than enough to eat. 
Ajhal pajhale daKkeda. It poured like a deluge. 

Ajhat. Violence, force; loudly, stren- 
uously, diligently, difficult. 

Jiwijakte ajhatoSpe. Strive with might and 

Ajhnar. Wife's elder sisters. 
Aji. Grand-mother. 
Ajia. Sisters. 

' Unkin do 9.ji*kin tahekana. They were sisters. 

Ajib. True, just. 

Ajij. To entreat, to beseech, to implore. 

Adi ajijoKkanae. He earnestly entreats. 

Ajim. Thy] 

Ajin. My Y Elder sister. 
Ajit, His J 

Ajlatia. Aimlessly, purposelessly, with- 
out any valid reason. 

Ajl^tiage nonijem heoakana. Tou have come 
here without any valid reason. 

Ajlot. Very many, very much. 

Ajlot utar horko jaoralena. Very many peo- 
ple assembled. 

Ajmao. jrp^ examine, to test ; inured. 

Ajmas. J 

Ajo. To feed another, put to his mouth. 

Actegeye joma, alom ajoaea. 
Knlhure akko ajoeda. 

Ajua. The Bishop's weed, Carum cop- 
ticuiii, Benth. An annual umbel- 
liferous plant the seeds of which 
fomi an ingredient in the prepara- 
tion known as paji. 

Ajwari. C£ ajauri. 

Ak. Sugar cane, {Saccharum offici- 
naru'in, Linn.) 

Ak. A figure, a numeral. 

Ak. A bow. 

AKsar. Bow and arrows 
Lit^ aK. Rainbow. 

Aka. To hang, to suspend. 
Akabaka. Very quickly, rapidly. 
Aka baka\Distressed, restless from 
Ak bak J heat, perplexed. 
Akaj. Useless. 
Akal. 1 

Akal pakal. j- Famine, dearth, scarcity. 
Akal sukal.J 
Nes do bae akala. There will be no scarcity 
this year. 

Akalia. Greedy, famishing, glutton- 
ous, one whi.) is always famishing 
let him eat ever so much. 

Akal pakal. C£ akal. 

Akal sakal. Ri'stless. 

Akal sakale ru^likana. His fever is so high he 
cannot rest. 

Akal sukal. Cf akal. 

Akaona. A shrub, Calotropis gigantea, 

Akar. Free, exempt, scot free. 

Akare araKeda. He gives it free. 

Akar baha. A plant found in moist 
situations, Lininophila Roxhur- 
ghiana, G. Don. 

Akardhak. Quickly, excessive, more 
than is right. 

AkardhakiA hedena. I came hurriedly. 
Akardhakko bojhaakafa. They have loaded 

too heavily. 
CedaK nonkajakardhakpe kamikana? Why do yon 

work so hard ? 

Akar kukar. Troubled in mind, fatigued 

in body. 
Akar okor. Said of a child tumbling 


Akar okor barae kanae, nui gidra do. The 
child tumbles about (in its efforts to walk). 

Akasok. Met. to bring to an end, to 

conclude, to go to heaven. 
Akat. Dense, primeval. 

Akat bir. Dense forest. 

Ak bak 

[ 8 ] 

Akut bakut 

Ak bak. Cf. aka baka. 
Akbakao. Confused, put out, troubled. 
Akel. Cf. akil 

Akhaini. Hooked bamboo used as a 
pitch fork. 

Akh?.inite horoko ho^aga. They turn over the 
dhan with a pitch fork. 

Akhaji. To contend, to bet, to agree 

to a forfeit, to vow. 
Akham dukham. Distressed, anxious, 

perplexed, through trouble or 

Akhar bakhar. At random, without 


Akhar bakhaye rofeda. He speaks without 

Akhat. To dispute, to bear ill-vnll, to 

be at daggers drawn. 
Akhat bakhat\To speak as one who is 
Bhasa bharra J delirious, or insane ; 

at random, carelessly. 
Akhir. End, finally, in clauses to ex- 
press courage and independence. 

Ahkir dama. At last. 

Akhirge ban akhir. Happen what may. 

Akhirge bane ruhe^akadiilge, menkhan in dale- 

gea. He haa actually abused me, but I will 

beat him yet. 

Akhor. A letter of the alphabet. 

Saheb ror rsak akhorko. The English alphabet. 

Akhor. A verse of a song ; a short aong. 

Mit akhor serelime. Sing a stanza. 

Akhra (akhor). One of a course, a 
dancing stance ; the place where 
an ojha sits with his pupils. 

Bar akhrako enedkeda. They danced two 

Akhrako laga, ar onde pak donko ceda. They 

will smooth the a/./u-.t, and there they will 

learn the war dance. 

Akhrid. Cf akriri. 

Akhrot. The walnut, fruit of Juglans 

regia, Linn. 
Akil. Wisdom, wise. 

Akilam kanaii . I am making you wise (teaching 
you wisdom.) 

Akil gawar ]p^^^-^^ ^^ -^^ 

Akil khawarj ^ 

Akin. They two, they themselves. 

Akinren, akinak, akin reak, akin reau. Theirs, 

Ra5ak.}s— ly'tigh% 

Khub akjak silpiii do silikam, pase kombroko 
bolo jahanoK. Shut the door securely, 
perhaps thicTes may enter. 

Aklaha. Greedy, gluttonous. 

Ako. They, they themselves. 

Akoren, akoak, akoreak, akoreah. Theiro, their. 
Akoakoak oyatteko calaoenge. They went to 
their several homes. 

Akoda. Undisturbed, as soil. 

Akoda hasa. "Virgin soil. 

o a. I j^QQuipetent, inefiicient. 

Ako kathae. As they themselves say, 

or think. 
Akorma. Dunce, blockhead ; worthless. 

Akoi-ma kat;. "Worthless timber. 

Akot ] To obstruct, to hinder, to iru- 
Atkao V pede, to delay, to prevent, to 
Atok J stop. 

Akot ako^teye hijukkana. He is often being 

stopped on his way. 
Kami akotlenkhan bud todok'a. Necessity is 

the mother of invention. 

Akrid. To sell, to dispose of 

Aksak 1111 at ease, uncomfortable, 

Aksakao j flustered. 

Eua ehoboK jokhen aksakiii bujhaueda. I feel 
ill at ease when fever is beginning. 

Aksakao is employed to describe the feeling at 
the beginning of an attack of fever, and 
akal sakal when the fever is at its height. 

Akta akti. To persist, to insist, to be 

Aktau. To be in a hurry, to be im- 
patient, to fret. 

Calak lagit'e aktaukkana. He is impatient to 

Aktobor. The English month October 
Akul bakTil. Confounded, perplexed, 

confused, distressed. 
Akul bakul. An uneasy feeling in the 

stomach, generally followed by 

vomiting. (Scottice, rumulgurtip- 


Lao akul bakulolikana. An uneasy feeling in 
the stomach. 

Akulanl Insufficient, inadequate, not 
Okulan > fully provided with, incom- 
j plete. 

Noa bochor do iomaktcko akulangea. Thoy 
have an insufficient supply of food this year. 

Akut. \To be in a hurry, to be 

Akutjahutj impatient ; urgency. 

Alope harepharea; oet akut? Do not hurry, 

where is the urgency. 
Jom lagit akutokkanae. He is impatient to 

begin to eat. 

Akut "j Winding to avoid obstruc- 

Akut bakut I- tions, crooked, disor- 
J derly. 

Akut bakut tor. A winding path. 

Akut bir 


Akut bir. Dense, primeval forest. 
Akut jahut. Cf. akut. 

Ala. \To half roast peas &c. before re- 

Ata.J moving the husk to make dal. 

Ata is to fully roast grain for food. 

Alakateko d^la. They roast the peas, and then 

make dal. 
AKta ohoo. The earthen vessel in which grain 

is roasted over the fire. . 

Ala ali. Tired, wearied, run down men- 
tally and physically. 

Alacar. Helpless. 
Alac olod. Stupid. 

Alae. To give up, to hand over, to 

Aotoge jiwiye alaeke^taea. He gave np his life. 
SanamaSe alaoadiila. He entrnstod all to my 

Alae phulae.l To meddle, to trifle, to 
Irid cikid. / fritter away time, to 
dilly dally. 

Alae phulaoto din do alom khemooa, menek sill 
Batupge kami joiime. Do not fritter away 
your time, but work the whole day. 

Alag. Friendless, separated. 

Alag nt^renae. He is altogether friendless. 

Alag balag. Straggling, wide apart, 

Ma€ do alag balag dareKa. The bamboo grows 

with B^agglrag branches. 
Fhnlbafi^re alag balag baha menaKa. There 

are many kinds of flowers in the garden. 

Alagjari. Two parasitic plants have 
this name, Guscuta chinensis, 
Lavik., and Cassytha filiforonis, 

Alajhala. Distress, agony. 

Alak balak. At random, aimlessly. 

Alak balake dSfa baf a joiikana. He wanders 
aimlessly about. 

Alak chotak. Half and half, imperfect- 
ly, to leave out part. 

Alak chotak kathae metadilia. He did not give 
me a full account. 

Alak didi. Purposeless, without aim, 

Alak jhalak. Conceited, dandified, put- 
ting on airs to attract the notice of 
the other sex, lascivious, lecherous. 

Alam galam. \ Indistinctly, to catch a 

Galam galam. J glimpse of, at random, 
without discrimination; to mumble. 

Alam galam AutiA calaoena. I went as night 

Alan. Wo two, you a,nd I, including 
persdu addrofisod. Used in threats 
although only one person speaks. 

For curious use of dual see aben. 
Nelmealau. I shall see you, (make you pay for 

Alaii. The tongue. 

Alan obor. Tongue tied, dumb. 

Alan pholan 1 Aimlessly, without valid 
Alan poleii J- reason, to wander about 
Olod pholoii j aimlessly. 

Alaii pholah baraekanae. He goes wandering 
aimlessly about. 

Alan potak. An unhealthy condition of 
the tongue, raw, fissured, or furred. 

Alao. \To give in, to be beaten, to 
Ala ali. J have enough, to be wearied, 
to be tired. 

Jom jomteii alaoena. I am tired eating, (have 

had sufficient.) 
Illiil alaokedea. I wearied him out. 

Alaondha. Cf alaundha. 

Alap alap. "1 To be fatigued, to be ex- 
Alap halap.J hausted, to be worn out, 

Setonre daran dayantell alap alap ut Jrena. 

I am completely exhausted by walking in the son. 

Alarok. To wish to be fondled, or petted. 

Gidrgi alarolckanae. The child wishes to be 

Alati baka(^|Bewildered, confused, silly, 
Alat; ololi. /dull witted. 

Alat* oloiJebehgetbaraea. He looks bewildered. 
Uni kora doe ala^ olofgea. That lad is dull 

Alatoka. Poor, to become reduced in 

Alatokalenae, bae darelena. He had become 
poor, and was unable to do it, (meet some 

Alaundha. The sensation of intense 
darkness after leaving a lamp, &c. 
till the eyes become accustomed 
to the change. 

Diuhe if iolenkhan al9.undh?iKalah. If the lamp 
goes out we will be in utter darkness. 

Albakaha. Dull-witted, stupid, unin- 
telligent, inept, raw, unaccustomed, 

Ill doA albakahagea, onate okate h5 sangiilto 
daran do baA calaSa. I am not inured, 
therefore I do not walk far. 

Albat salbat 

[ 10 ] 


Albat salbat. Contradictory, confused. 

Albat salba^iA kukmuleda. I bad a confuBed 

Albudaha. Senseless, puerile, simple, 

Aldhundha. Awkward, incompetent, 

stupid, blundering. 

Nui bor do aldbundbageae, cet ho bae kami 
darealta, Tbia man is stupid, be can do 

Aldliom.\To suppress the truth, tell 
Aldom. /only half. 

Ale. Wo, they and I, excluding the 
person addressed. 

Ale ren, aleak, ale reak, ale reaii. Ouis, our. 
Aleio. Our one (animate). 

I To scold. 


Khub lekae aleJkediria. He scolded me severely 

Alec tasec.\Spilling, scattering; to was- 
Asec tasec. j te through having too 

much, superabundance, more than 

can be taken care of. 

Aseo tasece dakkeda. It rained so as to flood 

the country 
AseG taaec cas boeentaea. He bas a larger 

crop than be can look after, (it will spoil 

before be can gather it all in.) 

Alekha. Without number, that cannot 

be numbered. 
Alei. Cf. alec. 

Alga. \ Easy, simple, soft, loose, 

Alga saiga. J light. 

Algate. Easily. 

Alga. \To assist, to make lighter for 
Algao. /another, to raise, to think 
lightly of 

AlgaoaAme. Assist me, i. e. make it lighter 

for me. 
Isor alope algaoea. Do not trifle with God. 
Bhandar algao. Prolapsus ani. 

Alga saiga. Cf alga. 

Algasi. Contemptuously, disrespect- 
fully, superfluous. 

Tu9.r gidr?. algasikatoko rorekana. 

They speak contemptuously to the orphan ohild. 

Algel. Strange, alien, exceeding the 
estimate, unexpected, not of the 
family, company, &c., disinterested. 

Noa katha do nlgel bor tbenbokulibujbau joha. 

We will consult some disinterested person 

on this matter, 
Ehuble dakalet'reho bale antaolem, ente dber 

algel borko beclona. Although we cooked 

a largo quantity of rice, it did rot suffice as 

many unexpected guests came. 

Alhua. Ignorant, stupid, blundering, 

Alin. We two, he and I, excluding the 

person addressed. 
Alkatra sunum. Woodtar, coal tar. 

Alk au. To bother, to annoy, to disturb. 

" Cedak gbane gbanem ?ilkauedi/ia? Why do you 
keep bothering me every minute. 

Almal. Confused, at a loss to know 
what to do, without order, uncer- 
tain, from all directions. 

Almale boeeda. It blows from all directions, 
iiuatele almalena. Our household Ik in disor- 
der through fever, 

Aln6. Insufficiently salted, idle, spirit- 

Alo, (alo alo, aloge, alotet', alo bare.) 
Not, in prohibitions, final clauses, 
and unfulfilled conditions. 

Hijukte aloii galmaraoakokhan kai oho tabe- 
lentakoa. If i had not come and spoken unto 
them they had not had sin. 

Alo atlenkhan. K only it is not lost. 

Aloe paloc. Wearied, worn out, exhaus- 

Alok bakok. To speak as an insane 
person, to gabble. 

Alpalua. (1). Phaseolus aconiti/olius, 
Jacq., a garden crop sown along 
with cotton. (2) Slightly. 

(2) Togo3 alpaluakateko uda jel do, bail labit' 
iate. They slightly masticate the megit, 
and then bolt it, because it is tough. 

Alpin. (pin.) Hairpin. 

Alse. To leave, finish. Used only in 
combination with other verbs. 

AmaK itsilJ alsele jomtama. We will eat your 

leavings (of food.) 
Ape dope alao alsekediiia. Ton have left all the 

burden to me. 
Bhagete ruhet alsefcediliae. He overcame me 

by scolding. 

Alua "j Dunce, ignoramus, sim- 

Alua basua. [pleton, greenhorn, ; stu- 
J pid, blundering. 
41ua basuageae. He is a dunce. 

Am. Thou. 

Amren, amaK, amreal^, amaii. Thine. 


Amla. j- Authority, office, title. 

Amoli. ) 

Ape joto bor amlape riawana, aliii oka amla ho 
bam emat'lina. You have all received offices, 
bat you have not given us any office what- 


[ 11 ] 


Amanot. To deposit money in court, to 
give in trust, to set aside for future 
use; existent, unspent, unused. 

Khajna dole amanotabada. We have deposi- 
ted our rent in court. 

Anianotgea, bail khorooakaCa. It is still lying 
past, I have not spent it. 

Amar. Cf tuar. 

Amar oraor. Diligently, attempting 

again and again, as a child trying 

to walk. 

Miyo ohut^aakana, amaf omof. 

Amba. A veiled name for feet, used at 
marriages and other ceremonies. 

More moka amba bat^haoena. Our feet have 
grown five cubits. 

Ambabasia, C£ ambas. 

Ambaitar bid, A large poisonous snake. 

Ambak ombok, To go hither and thi- 
ther aimlessly, to go from one side 
to another. 
Jel ambaK: omboKko Air baraekana, seudra hor 
botorte. The deer are running hither and 
thither through fear of the hunters. 

Ambaro. "I The Roselle plant (Hibiscus 
Bambaro. / Sabdariffa, Linn.) 
Ambar ombor. ) To take up anything 
Amar omor. / lying about, as a child 
does, to busy about ; diligently. 

Amar omoy baraeedae tula mente. 

Ambas. The conjunction of the sun and 
moon, the first day of the first quar- 
ter on which the moon is invisible, 
the last day of the dark fortnight. 

Ambas riind?.. The night on which there is 
no moon. 

Amber. A tree so called. 
Amda 1 To be in possession, to have 
Amdani / right, title, claim to; posses- 
sion, property ; within one's own 

TinaK habid amda menaKtaea ? How much does 
he lay claim to ? 

. , ■- [-Very many, very much, much. 

Amda saset otreA bhulijauet'kan do. I suffer 
much in this world. 
. Amdgtniye jomkeda. He ate very much. 

Amdaj. To guess, to conjecture, to 
make a rough calculation ; meas- 
ure, degree ; approximately. 

Amdajte. By guess, approximately. 

AmdajaK khonbjrtiye jomkeda. He ate beyond 

Amdajakafaii. I hare made a guess. 

Amdani. Cf amda. 

Amela. Abundant, unlimited, great in 

quantity, or number. 

Sedaere do oor3( amela tahekantalea. In the 
olden time we had abundant pasture for 
our cattle. 

Amet \To betray trust, to retain what 
Hamet j has been given for distribu- 
tion to others. 

Sanam horaU kana, cedaKem ame^a ? It belongs 
to all, why do you retain it? 

Amiii. Separately, one by one, from 
all sides. 

Amidko dgirkeda. They fled in all directions. 

Amid. To sift, to separate. 

Gum amili. To sift with the ha^aK (q. T.) 

Amin. A land surveyor, or measurer. 

Amin. Amen, so let it be. 

Amka. M. "1 The veiled name by which 
Amki. F. J a child is referred to 

in the Chatiar (cleansing after 

child-birth) ceremony. 

Amla. The writers in the court of a 
magistrate, or the office (kachahari) 
of a zemindar. C£ amali. 

Amla mosodi. The writers and messengers. 
These latter (mosodi) carry messages bet- 
ween the zemindar in his private office 
and the writers in the outer office. 

Amla kapla. The writers, piadas, and other 
hangers-on at a zemindar's kachahari. 

Amol. (1) Time. (2) Acidity of stomach, 
dyspepsia, to eructate through a- 
ciditj- of stomach. (3) Possession. 

As amol. Forbidden food, unclean food. 

(1) Car baja amolre. At four o' clock. 

(2) Amolakanae. He is suffering from acid- 

ity of stomach. 

(3) Pe serma khon ill amolaka^a. I have been 

in possession three years. 

4i3 amol bako joma bhogot hor do. Persons 
who aspire to sanctity do not eat forbidden 
(or unclean) food, (fleah or fish.) 

Amot. Hard hearted, thick skinned, 
unwieldy, coi-pulent, sluggish. 

Amot hor kanae, He is a corpulent person. 

Ampa ompo. Hurriedly, fussily, excit- 

Amra. The Hog plum, Spondias man- 

gifera, Pers, 

Amrud\The guava, Psidium Guyava. 
Amrut J Raddi. 


[ 12 ] 

AndaK tawaK 

Amsam. (1) A crystal. (2) Chronic 

The Amaam crystals are of three colours, clear, 
reldish, and greenish. The first is given 
for sul (q. T.) the second for amaam 
{q. V.,) and the third when the patient's 
evacuations resemble the colour of the stone. 

The method of administering the Amaam is to 
rub it on a stone in water. The water, 
which contains small particles of the crys- 
tal, is then drunk by the patient, and what 
remains of the crystal after having been 
rubbed on the stone is tied round his waist 
by a string. 

Amsi. A method of preserving unripe 
mangoes by drying in the sun. 

Amsophori. 1 The bullock's heart fruity 
Saphriam. J Anona reticulata, L. 

Amtha. A method of preserving man- 
goes, malhan, (q. v.) and ramra 
(q. v.). 
An. A law, an enactment. 

An ari. Laws and ceremonies. 
An t^iriente. Being under the law. 

An. An affix indicating possession. 

Apatan. Having a father. 

Tarwafean hor. A man having a sword. 

A^ saranko. Those having bows and arrows. 
Sawanko. Those who have found. 

An. A privative prefix equivalent to 
the English in, and un. 

An-oin. An-hoa. 

An ] 

Anaj (-Grain, wheat, rice, &c,. 

On J 

OnjoloS. To partake of food. 
No.T diaomre on a(Ji menaKgea. There ia much 
grain in this country. 

Ana. An anna, the sixteenth of a rupee. 

Ana is uaed to denote l-16th, thua a man who 
has a l-4th share in anything is aaid to 
have a 4 anna share, and so on. 

Solo ana. 20 shillings to the pound, all, the whole. 

Ato ren solo anako jaoralena. All the villagers 

Anacur. Winding, tortiious, round a- 
bout. From acur (q. v.) 

Noa hor do a<Ji anaourgea. This is a very win- 
ding path. 

Ana gona. Coming and going. 
Anaj. Cf an. 

TeheA ut9.rin anajoKkana. This ia the firat day 
after a long time that I have had a meal of 

Anak. "|_ A bamboo HJisponded horizon- 

Anaka. J tally on which clothes are 

himg when not in use. From aka 

(q, V.) 

Anakup. Confused, mixed up, involved, 

inaTXak.}^-.-PP— ^^• 
Onolbonol } Striped, as a cloth, &c. 

Tor anal onolgeae. The squirrel is striped. 

Ananas. ") The pine apple. (Ananaaaa 

Anaras. J sativa, I/inn.) 

Anar. The pomegranate, Punica Ora- 
natum, Linn. 

Anaras. Cf. ananas. 

Anargo. A descent, a declivity, an 
incline. From argo (q. v.) 

Anari. Strange, unknown, new, inex- 
perienced, raw. 

An^ifigeii lieUedea. I saw that he was a stranger. 
An^ri ^°V- -A- stranger. 

Anas. C£ ansa. 

A tVi 11 Unconscious, stupified. 

Hudia hudiste ginthulenae. He Is stnpifled by 

Anbid. Immeasurable, very many. 

Teheii do ^nbid hofko hetSena. Very many people. 
have come to-day. 

Aiicar. Edge of cloth breadth-wise, 
ojDp. to mnce, edge of cloth length- 

Parlak. Coloured border running length-wise. 
Solior, that>unning breadth-wise. 

Anchal. C£ aiicar. 

Ancin. Unknown, strange, new. 

Ancot. Suddenly, unannounced. 

Ancote had gotena. He appeared suddenly. 

Andak. A method of cooking by roast- 

Matkom (q. v.) and rioo are sometimes prepared 
in this way. To prepare matkom it is first 
well washed in water, and then roasted in 
an earthen vessel. The water in which it 
was washed is boiled down till of the consis- 
tence of gur. The roasted matkom ia mixed 
with this sugary residuum, and then eaten. 

Andak. Without reason, or cause. 
Andakal. Loudly, noisily, strongly. 

Andakalko raSkeda. They wept loudly. 
Andakal so kana. It smeUs strongly. 

Andak tawalj. Troubled, hopeless, ex- 
cited ; seriously, quickly, hurriedly. 

Ehgatte1;c Ael a^kedete gidrgi do andaR tawaK 
baraokanae. The child is troubled beoauae 
it has lost sight of its mother. 

Anila manda 

[ 13 ] 

And hup 

Anda manda. To go about aimlessly, 
to wander about, to be confused, 
to be perplexed. 

An<Ja maniila bafaekanao. Ho wanders about 
without any thing to do. 

Andakul. ") Loud,noisy, uproarious, deaf- 
Andkul J ening. 

Andakole raKeda. Ho weeps loudly. 

Anda^. Without reason, or cause. 

Andaptegeye raKeda. He ones before he is hurt. 

Andar ondor. To stare with wide open 
eyes, as in convulsions, to stare 

B^lte an(}ar on^ore behge{e£kana. His stare 
is fixed by reason of ^e convulsion. 

Andare pandare. At random, any where 
out of doors, about the door out- 
side, in the coui-t-yard, scattered 

Andafe pandafe gi4ikaKme. Throw It away any 

Hof ma adg9r din do andaf e panda f eko giti(Skota . 
People sleep out of doors in the hot weather. 

Andela. Rich, wealthy, great. 

Ona atore mil! go^en a^i marah an(}ela Deko 
menaea. In that village there is a very 
wealthy Hindu. 

Andel mandel.l In large numbers, fil- 
Ander mander.J ling a large space, 
very many. 

Hof an(}er man^erko jaoraakana. The people 
are assembled in large numbers. 

Ande sale. To be distressed, anxious, 
solicitous, astonished. 

Bin l^itell senlena, 9^iA ande saleke£pea. By 
leaving without informing you, I caused 
you to be anxious. 

Andge. Testicle. 

Andha. To deceive, to gull, to be mis- 
taken, to blunder ; by mistake, 
through ignorance. 

Ili doll andhalena. I was mistaken. 

Tafok do ilellelkoaK mef ko andhae£takoa. The 
conjurers deceive the eyes of the spec- 

Amdha potam. The blind-folded decoy dove. 

Andha dhund. Exceedingly, immoder- 
ately, furiously, severely, with all 
one's force. This word possesses 
intensifying force. 

Andha dhunde dalkedea. He beat him severely. 
Cei bah se, uni hor do andha dhunde dar idike- 

da. That man ran away with all his 

Andha dhunde hoee6kana. It is blowing ajgale. 

Andhakul. Cf andkul. 

Andhar. Darkness. 

M»oi andharona. Night has fallen. 

Andhflrgand. ") ti ■ i v 
Andhar|ar.' |P^"neal abscess. 

Andharia bata. Bamboos tied one 
above and one below the rafters, 
along the middle of the sloping 
side of the roof. 

Andhe mandhe. "j At random, anyhow, 
Andhe mundhe. Vwithout caring for the 
J consequences. 

Andhe mundhe^e dalkedea. He struck him 
without canng where the blows fell. 

Andhe pathauri. Unintelligible, mixed, 
confused, at random, carelessly, 

Andhe pathanfiye rofeda. He speaks at ran- 

Andhe path^uf iye dalkedea. He struck him not 
caring were the blows fell. 

Andher. Unjustly, ■wrongfully, ille- 
gally ; to do injustice. 

AndEergeko bic^rkeda. They decided unjustly. 

Andhet dundhet. Imperfect vision ; to 
see imperfectly, half-blind, able to 
see in the day but not in the 
night, night-blind. 

Andhet dundhe€gem Aeiielte bam pajhao dafe- 
aSa, se ceta ? Is it because you do not see 
well that you cannot read, or what is it P 

Andhi candhi. To be flustered, flur- 
ried, excited, overwhelmed ; hur- 
riedly, quickly. 

Euhefi »adhi ojndhikediiiae. He flurried me 
by scolding. 

CalaK jokhei ^ndhi c»ndhilenae. He was flur- 
ried at the time of leaving. 

Andhi dak. A storm of wind and rain. 

An dhidrik. Lawless, unsubmissive to 
law, or custom, not recognising 
law or custom as binding. 

Andhkup. To incommode, to incon- 

Andhra. M.^j Blind. Employed only me- 
Andhri. F. 1- taphorically when scol- 
I ding, &c. 

Andhua (rat-kana.) Night-blind, half- 
blind, nearly blind. 

Nui hor do kara hor doe bah kana, ^ndhua hoj 
kaiiae. This is not a blind man, he is 

Andhup. Bewildered, confused, flus- 
tered, distressed in mind. 


[ 14 ] 

Angap angap 

Aadia. Male, of animals, birds, and 
trees. Met. rich. 

A^li maraii andia kanae, He is very rich. 

Andia dhurup araU. A wild pot-herb, 
Leucas cephalotes, S^jreng. 

Andic. To deceive, to lead astray, to 
dupe, to victimize. 
XTni liof doe gindidljediiJa. That man deceived 

Andir kundir. To stare, to gaze in- 

Cele coe ilelakadete nonka andir kundir doo 
beu^e<:aekana? Wliat has he seen to make 
him stare so at it ? 

Andka andki. A strong smell, either 

pleasant, or unpleasant. 
Andka andki. To make a noise, to create 

a disturbance, make a row, a din. 

Apisgeko andka g-adkietkana. They are making 
a distressing din. 

Andkao. To be permeated, to be full 
of, to be scented. 

Gota orak baric sote andkaoena. The whole 
house is permeated with a loathsome smell_ 

Andkul. Cf andakul. 

Andkul. \To become a tiger, or 

Andkul bandkul. J leopard. 

The Santals believe that certain human beings 
possess the power of becoming tigers at will. 

Andmand. "j To be perplexed, to be con- 

Andmandao. Vfused, to be at a loss, to 

j be at one's wits' end 

through the multiplicity of things 

requiring to be attended to. 

Andor ondor. Ct. andar ondor. 

Andor. To make a noise, an uproar, 
a tumult, a row, a disturbance. 

TeheA do mit liinda don enecteko andorkeda. 

They kept up a disturbance during the whole of 

last night by dancing the Dong dance. 

Andra. Not effectually castrated. 

Andrac ondroc. The noise made by a 
buffalo when excited ; also that 
made by the bird known to the 
Santals as artagorn. 

Andrak. Hydrocele, or tumour of tes- 

Androk sandrok. Hither and thither, 

here and there, every where. 

Androi san(Jrol5;e Jiir baraekana. He is running 
hither and thither. 

Andu. In original state or condition, 

Andute gikiii rohoekeda, begor jawate. 
Andute horoli aphorkeda, bin lohot'te. 

Anduteli benaolaka, arar. I made the yoke 
from a whole piece of wood (without split- 
ting it.) 

An^u kaf. Sapwood, as opposed to marij kaf 

Anduk canduk. Disconsolate, forlorn, 
gloomy, sad. 

Anduk manduk. To be perplexed, con- 
fused, bewildered. 

Anduh. To plead an excuse, to exten- 
uate, to palliate, to vindicate one- 

Nui doe auduhkeda, rug.ltkanali mente. He 
escused himself by saying he has fever. 

Andur mandur. To stand idling about, 

to loaf 
Andur pandur. To stand idling about, 

to loaf 

Andwar. Udder. 

Dudh9.ri. A cow with a large udder. 
Camt;ahi. ,, ,, small. ,, 

Aneao. Injustice, unjust. 

Anec. An intensive particle, unless, 
not until. 
He baba, noa do lap^ilen cepetlen anecbo bapa- 
daea. Yes sir, not until we speak and hear 
can we know (about each other.) 

Anec dhanec. Exceedingly, abounding, 
a Wealth of, rich, wealthy. 

Onko anec dhanec jomak menaktakoa. They 
possess a wealth of food. 

An. Understanding, mind, strength. 

Ahlagaokate kamipe. Apply your mind to your 
work. ^_ 

Adga. Dawn. 

Beiiget aii^akedali. I kept awake till morning. 
Ahga hg-tiJ^enae. He has seen the day dawn 
(did not die during the night.) 

Aiiga hatiAlen n?.hi ill calaka. I must first see 
the morning, and then I will go. (I must sur- 
vive the night before I can go.) 

Hormo do ol ahgaetape, nondie. Pass the night 

Ahga. A long quilted coat, having 
points instead of buttons. 

Ahga ahgi. Each his own, what be- 
longs to each. 

Auga ^.ngiko hataokeda. Each took his own. 

Angap. Cf ahgop. 

Angap ahgapl At the point of death ; 
Letep letep. j to gasp as when dying. 


[ 15 ] 


Aiigao. To keep for a purpose, to set 
aside for a certain use, to design, 

Nui merom irt angaoakadea. I have set this 
goat aside for a certain purpose. 

Aiigari. A disease which affects the 
Tassar silk worm ; also applied to 
human beings when the colour 
darkens through disease. 

Aiige. ") To take, to keep a portion 

Aiiget. J for one self 

SanamaKpe aiige oabaeda, ili do sac mahajon 
oet'ted halakoa ? You are taking all, with 
what shall I repay the money lender ? 

Adgen. To disappear, to be spirited 
away by water sprites. 

Noa pukhrireye ahgenena. He was spirited 
away while in this tank. 

Anget'. Cf ange. 

Adgikar. To agree, to accept, to take 

Angikarakadam, ?.£gu hoyoKtama. Ton took 
the responsibility, so yon must bring it. 

Aiigir. To elope. 

Ahgra. A male who has eloped. 

Ahgri. A female ,, 

Ahgra ^iigrienakin. They are a pair who have 

^hgirakadeae. He ran away with her (eloped.) 

Angoc. To admit, confess, acknowledge, 
give assent to. 

Ifi ho unifi ahgocea ili ren sermare menae apuA 
samahre. I also will confess him before 
my father who is in heaven. ' 

Angom. Generally, at random, roughly 
speaking ; to call to a person whose 
name you know, but may have for- 
got, as if he were a stranger. 

Aiigomge ruhet'et kanae. She scolds without 
naming any one. 

Bir birte ahgomgeli heaakana. I came at ran- 
dom through the jungle. 

Angop. To yawn. 

Tot' go6ena ahgop. A yawn escaped me. 

Angot batigotl Anyhow, aimlessly, 
Angot pangotj carelessly, at randopi. 

Aiigot baiigote roreda. He speaks at random. 

. . ° ( -^ li"^6 coal, embers. 
aItT I ^^^' s^^'^i^®' utility. 

Nui hor do bae kamia, eken jom ahrageae. 
This man does not work, eating ia all he is good 

Ce£ aura ren hom bail kana. Tou are of no use 

Cei; ho bae ahgraea kurhigi mara hojr. 

Atigra. M.'j 

Aiigri. F. I Flirtation, gallantry, coquot- 

Jhalka. M. j ry. 

Jhalki. F.J 

Augra aiigri. Cf, angir. 

Atigraji. The English language. 

Anrau. To undertake, to contract, to 
acct'pt, to profess. 

CaKera aiir^uakawaua, bam kgimi dareaK khan ? 
If you can't do the work, why did you under- 
take it ? 

Angrej. The English people. 
Adgrop. A jacket with long sleeves. 
Angur. A vine, a grape. 
Angur birhi. A insect found in tanks. 


Angwar. A method of cultivation 
in which a man who has no bul- 
locks ploughs two days for another 
in return for the loan of his bul- 
locks for one day. 

Ansasua. ~) t 

Asadcua J^^^y^ ^'"^^f^l' 

Anhos. Unconscious. 

Anhut. "I Independent, self-willed, 
Anhuth. y opinionative, to persist in 
Anhutha.J opposing. 

^nhuthe calalfkana. He takes his own way in 
spite of all. 

Get' bah ^ihutha dom roretkana? Sg-rige i^ do 
nuifi lielakadea. Why do you still say the 
opposite ? I certainly have seen him. 

Ani. C£ hard. 

Anijok. To wish for, to desire, to be 
attracted to, to attract. 

Am lagit'e g-nijokkana. He wishes to attract 

Anja. Grain. 

Anjan. An ointment applied to the 

eyelashes with a view to blacken 

and improve them. 

Anjel To dry up, to run dry, to die. 

Dale ailjet'ena, noa gafjare. The water in this 

river is dried up. 
XTniye aAjefena. His spark of life is quenched. 

Anjhlud. Forlorn, dejected, depressed, 

Anju-. The pear shaped guava. {Psi- 

dium Guyava, Raddi., Var. py- 

riferum Linn.) 


[ 16 ] 


Anjir. A fig, Ficus carica. 

Anjle. To join the hands together so 

as to receive and retain something ; 

as much as can be held by putting 

the hands together. Scottice, gou- 


Babar anjlele emakoa. We will give them two 

handfula each. 
Ma se anjleme, tabeniil emama. Come, put your 

hands together, and I'll give you parched 


Adjom. To hear, to give heed to, to 


Ape aAjomre. In your hearing. 

Ailjom hapetadae. He listened in silence. 

Pherem adjomadii^a. You told me of many 

AAjom nie^aome. Listen attentively. 

Arijom gaore. To answer when an- 
other is called. 

Arijora gaoyeenali, ball aiijom ^hikleda. I an- 
swered when I was not called, I did not 
hear distinctly, 

Ankarwa.\Unable to control, or restrain 
Ankaura. /the temper, passionate, short 

tempered, irascible ; to give way to 

temper, &c. 

Ankafwaonae. He got angry (gave way to his 

Ankarwate edreSnae. 

Ankatha anbetha.l Misleading, unintel- 
Ankotha anbetha.J ligible, inaccurate, 


Ankatha anbethalon rofa. They will speak 

Adkha ankhi. 1 Overcome, faint, dis- 
Jaljalaolj. J tressed, impatient, dis- 
turbed in mind. 

Ili do daS tetahteii ahkha ^nkhiena. I am dis- 
tressed through thirst. 

Adkher. To play truant, to absent 
oneself, to be out of sight. C£ adger. 

Okate bae sen ahkherakana. Where can he have 
gone to out of sight. 

Ank orak. ") Marks cut in wood to mark 
Ak oraU. J time, the notches represen- 
ting weights on a balance. 

Ankotha anbetha. Cf. ankatha an- 

Ankur. To germinate, to sprout. 

Adkus. A hook, an elephant goad ; to 
be willing, to agree to, to be per- 
suaded, to consent. 

Bam ahkusoKaP Will you not be persuaded? 
Hathi aji dareankanrehoe, enrehoe aiikusoKa. 
Although the elephant is very powerful he can 

be persuaded (by the application of the 

goad — ahkuB.) 

Zigzag, various. Cf. 

Ankut bankut. 
akut bakut. 

Anman. Guess, inference, appraise- 
ment, measure, estimation ; taking 
careful notice. 

Anman bengetalfme, pase jahan khanda hoe- 
kange. Measure it with your eye, perhaps 
it will make some useful implement. 

OfaR duar anman beiigetatakope. Take a 

careful survey of their belongings. 
Nni hor anman Deko lekae rteloSkana. To all 

appearances (taking a good look at him) he 

resembles a Hindu. 
Anmane lieiielkana. He is having a good look 

(taking it all in.) 

Anman. "1 Temporarily, for the pres- 
Anmanao.J ent, meanwhile; to cause 
to forget, (used with verbs imply- 
ing diversion, solace, refreshment, 

DaKiil liu hatafa anman reiigeiedilikana. I 

will drink water in the meantime aa I am 

Terel tarop jomte anman menaegea. He is 

pacified for the time being by eating terel 

and tarop. 
Taben emaeme, in^tege anmanao hatafoltEie. 

Give him some parched rice, that will occupy 

his attention for the present. 

Anole. ") A 1 
Anoli. ) ^^lepm. 

Ansa. 1 To make a noise, create a 
Ansa ansi. j- disturbance; to worry, trou- 
Ansao. j ble, annoy. 

Nui gidr* ma asokaote liind^geye ansaoa, thirgo 
bae thiroka. This child creates a disturbance 
particularly at night, he will not keep quiet. 

K9.mi kg.initeii ansaena. I am worried with 

Antao. To suffice, to be sufficient. 

Noa dakate okoe h5 ohoko anfaolena. This food 

will not suffice for any one. 
AntaoK leka emoKme. Give as much as will 


Anthari. Out of place, anywhere, with- 
out care ; friendless, homeless. 

Antharigeye tahonteye gooena. He died be- 
cause he had no one to befriend him. 

Thari lota anthari do alom doho baraea. Do 
not throw the tharis and lotas down any- 
where (put them in their proper place.) 

Anthul. Cf anbhul. 

Antil. A punch used to make holes in 

Adu. To cause to drink by putting to 
the mouth, to give to drink, to 
water cattle. 

Nunu. To suckle, to give the breast. 


[ 17 ] 


Adu. To gild, to overlay with the pre- 
cious metals. 

Eup^teko giilnakafa. They have gilded it with 

Anu ^nu. Of many kinds, diverse, 

Ann »iiu hor mcnaKkoa. Thoro arc many kinds 
of men. 

^u Jnu cgili disomre menalfa. There are di- 
verse customs in the country. 

Aoal. Best, principal, 1st class. 

Aoal jumi. First class dhan land. 

lo ao. The croak of the bull frog (ba- 
rudan,) cry of tiger, &c. 

Kul doe ao aoa. The tiger calls ao ao. 

Aodhan. To pay attention to, to be 
ready, to be prepared, to be disen- 

Bae aodhan hodotkana, nit do. He is not being 
disengaged quickly, i. e. he is not ready. 

Aoda. To design, to purpose, to intend, 
to claim, to appropriate, to agree to, 
to take responsibility, to take pos- 
session of. 

CalaKlaii aoda jon kana. We intend to go. 
Jormot rua re lagit; ko aodalaKa. Thoy intended 

to turn him back by force. 
Noa baf ge doll aodaakat'a. I am in possession 

of tms garden. 

Aodao. To pei-plex. 

Aolao. Cf. aulau. 

Aonda aundi. Every where, all round. 

Aonda aundi gotaTi llam barakedea, okare hO 
ball llamledea. I searched for him all 
round, but nowhere found him. 

Aora has. Girlhood. 

Aosa baosa. \ 

Aos baos. I Descendants, posterity. 

Aunsa baunsa. j 

Bos. " j 

Pilchu haram ren aosa baosa kangeabo. 
We are the descendants of Pilchu hafam. 

Aosan. Relief, respite, ease; to lighten, 
to give relief, &c. 

Aosankediilae. He afforded me relief. 

Noa bir do malf aosanme. Clear this jungle and 

give relief (from wild animals.) 
Kami^ aosanakat'a. I have lightened the work, 

i. o. done a part of it. 

Aotan. Place of safety, refuge, shelter, 
retreat, den, lair, hiding place, cov- 

Noa jhur do kul reat aotan kana. This low 
jungle is the lair of tigers. 

Aotha. A ring worn on the great toe. 

Aowar. ■) After-birth, placenta, of ani- 
Awar. ) mals. 





Cf abuk. 

To alight as a bird, on tree, house, 

Eo apwadeako. Flies alighted on him. 

Kurii; do nl darorcye apena. Tbe vulture alight- 
ed on the mango tree. 

P^rre apkalime. Place me on a branch, i. e. find 
a home and husband for me. 

Apa. Father. 

Apuil. My father. 

Apum. Thy father. 

Apat. His father. 

Apa hou. Father and child. 

Apabare. A woman's father and brothers. 

Enga apa. Parents. 

Apa baria. \ Irregular, out of line, inac- 
Aprar. j curate, aberrant, rough, 
badly matched; to separate, to 
miss on road, not uniform. 

Mifte calaK tuluo apa b^jigionako. 

Apa bariape rorleda, bah pantelentapca. 

You spoke inaccurately, your stories did not 

Okarelai apraj-lena? Whore did we miss each 

other ? (Where wore we out of line with each 

other ?) 

Apai. Fault, transgression, sin. 

Apaj. To concede precedence, to con- 
tend as to who will not have to do 
anything, to urge each other to do 
a thing, and thus waste time. 

Apajtogepe tahena. (You won't do the work) 
you are each telling the other to do it. 

Apalhet. Indistinctly, dimly, faint, low, 
indefinite ; by glimpses. 

Apalhei apalheCifi liel fioltledea. I only 

caught a glimpse of him. 
Mase arhu rorme, apalhet geil atijomleda. Say 

it again, I heard indistinctly. 

Apnao. To come to oneself, to cool 
down after a fit of anger, to submit 
to the inevitable. 

Apan apin. Severally, mutually, to take 
each his own way, to separate ; of, or 
relating to self 

Apan apinko calaoena. They took each liia 
own way, i. e. dispersed to their several 

Apan apinaRko halaiikoda. Each took up his 

Apaiigir arak. A pot herb so called. 
Aparigir. Cf angir. 
Aparak. C£ arak. 


[ 1« ] 

Arau oroe 

Aparec. Cf. arec. 

AparuM. To be separate, away from 
each other. 

XJnkiii gatedotisrehobalcinapareUkaiia. These 
two companions are never separate from 
each other. 

Apari. Iron arrow head. 

HesaU sakani apariKkana. The buds of the 
HesaK tree (q. v.) are becoming pointed 
(like an iron arrow head.) 

Apat. Cf. at. 
Apat. His father. 

Apat toi. The father. 
Eng^at apat. Parents. 

Apasul. Cf awnl. 

Apco. Waste, fault, accident. 

A^i apcokedae. He committed a great fault 

(was the means of a great accident.) 
Noa apco do oet lagi€ p Wherefore this waste ? 

Ape. Ye, you. 

Aphil. The English legal term appeal. 

Apliim. Opium. 

Aphor. To sow seed in beds for trans- 
plantation, used more particularly 
of rice. 

Aohra aphor. Cf. aohra. 
Dhuri aphor. Cf . aohra. 

Aphoti. Calamity, distress ; to raise 
objections, to lay claim to. 

Noa darere aphotiedae. He lays claim to this 

Noa atore aphoti hoeakana. A calamity has be- 
fallen this village. 

p. ^ ' [ Leisure, opportunity. 

Apil. Cf aphil. 

A.pLr. Sideways, obliquely ; to squint, to 
ascend and descend as some birds 
do while flying, to incline gradually 

Apir etpire beiiget'eda. He looks squintingly. 
Cefe apir rakap godolfkanako.. The birds rise 

with a swoop. 
4^pir me6 do, bam Ael Aameda ? Do not you see 

it, you great squint ? 

Aple. To shin up a tree, to climb by 
clasping with the arms and knees. 

Harup BumuhaK darereli apleKkana. I am climb- 
ing a tree which I can encircle with my 

Apna apni. Cf ajjanapin. 

Apnar. Self, "i^ieself ; own. 
Apnar lekaii dularkoa. I will love them as myself. 

Aprrp;. Cf. ri]')a li;jria. 

Apre. I, the speaker, myself, ourselves, 

Uni hor apre lokaugeae. He is like myself. 
Bahupo Aeiledea? He, apfe loka geae. Did yon 

see the bride ? Yes, she is just like ourselves. 

Aprel. The English month April. 

Aprug. (1) Rare, unique, choice, excel- 
lent, incomparable, unequalled, of 
rare value. 

(2) You, yourself, your Honour, your 

(1) Aprug dhon menaktaea, bae emoKa. His 

wealth is of rare value, he will not part with 

(2) Aprugre amge herel do menama, disomre 
banuKkoa ? Is your honour the only man, are 
there no others in the country ? 

Aptha apthi. To dispute, wrangle, al- 

Noa barge lagit adikin aptha apfhiakana. 
They wrangle fiercely over this garden. 

Apthao. To challenge, to contend, to 
dispute, to contest, to compete, 
to wager. 

Onka onka tinaK ghari cohkin apfhaoena. They 
disputed thus for some time. 

Apum. Thy father. 

Apuri, My father. 

Apus. Relations, kindred. 

Ar. And, also, other, more, last. 

Ararko tahekana. There were others also. 
Ar bochor. Last year. 

Ar. The whine of a child from ill tem- 
per, or peevishness. 

Nui gidra do ni6 babice araka^gea. This child 
has whined till now. 

Ara. Met. fruit of Eugenia jambo- 

lana, Lavik. 
Ara. A flock, an army, a crowd, a 

detachment. Cf ada. 

Ara. A measure of 2| seers. 
Ai'a. A pit saw. 
Ara. Spoke of wheel. 

Mulara. Spokes of greatest thickness. 

Demi ara. ") -,. 

Manihlaara.l " ™'"^™'" '■ 
Gaj ara. ,, least ,, 

! Arae oroe. Scalding, burning. The sen- 
sation produced by eating or drink- 
ing anything too hot, as chillies, 

hot tea., &c. 
Arao nroeenail marie jomte. My mouth burns 

through eating pep\)er. 
Lolo ca arae oroeii ilukeda. I scalded my 

mouth by drinking hot tea. 




Aral?. Red, scarlet. 

Jo araltakana. The fruit has begun to ripon. 

(is becoming reddish) . 
Arali ponij beiigef . To look daggers. 

AraU. To loose, to set free, to let go, to 
allow, to give waj', to make way for. 

Uni niaraii hor baijaekate horili araKadea. 

Knowing him to be a great man I made way 

for him. 
Tikin aparaKa. Thoy will unclasp hands. 
AragoKako. They will be set free. 

• ' ,,' • f Pot herbs, vegetables. 
Arak saKam.) ° 

AraK teKkeko. House wives. 

Arak jhawar. UtricviLaria bifida Linn. 

Foundin moist situations, and used as a medicine. 

Arak kudrum. The Roselle plant, Hi- 
hiscvbs Sabdariffa, Linn. 

Cultivated as an article of food, and also for its 

Arak jhar. HsBmaturia. 

Arak orok. To stare vacantly about. 

AraK oroKe behgefeda. He stares vacantly 
about him. 

Ai-ak pordhol. "1 Blood from womb pas- 
Arak pordol. J sages. 
Arak sakam. Plants and leaves, cul- 
tivated and wild, used as pot-herbs. 
Arak sul. Bloody dysentery. 

Aral koral. To be stupified through 
inhaling smoke, smoking ganja,&c., 
to be stupified, perplexed, confoun- 
ded; the eyes to nip with smoke. 

NunaK afte galljae orleda, oet bah ae, mi6 dhao 
orregeye aral koral utarena. He pulled so 
strongly at the ganja, that with one pull he 
was quite stupified. 

Aran. Voice, cry. 

Arahlan aiijom thike£taea. We recognize his 

Khange serma khon mi£ ^ei arah hecena. Then 

a voice came from heaven. 

Aranga. Large, enormous. 

Noa do adi araiiga ka( kana. This is an enor- 
mous log. 

Arani dan. A measuring rod. 

Arao. To clothe, to put on the person. 

Mit goteo mala uni kuriaK hotoKreKo arao 

Arap. \Slightly, to glance off, to miss 
Arop. J by a hair's breadth, to shave, 
to graze. 

TuAledeali, arop go^kedeaii. I shot at him, 

but only grazed him. 
Note do aropgeye dalJkeda. There was only 

slight rain here. 
ThoraA aropkedea. I just grazed him (with 

my arrow.) 

Arar. A 3'oke, to accept responsibility. 

Mi£ araj daiira. A yoke of oxen. 

TJrid aray. Cattle. 

Bao ararlena. Ho declined tlie responsibility. 

IilaU arar lade johpe. Take my yoke upon you. 

Arar. The Yoke constellation, being 
the three stars in Orion's belt. 

Arar ipilko rakapakana. The Yoke constella- 
tion has risen. 

Araraok. (1) Ripening, mellowing as 
fruit. (2) Officious. 

(1) BeleK lagi£ araraoKkana. The fruit is ri- 

(2) Uni do 9.diye ararao baraekana. He is 
acting very officiously. 

Aras. A pole placed on the top of a 
cart loaded with sheaves, and tied 
down to keep load from shifting. 

iVrasi parasi. Cf. arosi parosi. 

Arba. "i Indian Scaly ant-eater, Manis 

Harba. / fcviadncfyhi. 

The Santala believe that gundli (q. v.) sown by tt 
person wearing a ringmad^ from a soalo of 
the Harba will not be attacked by flies. The 
ring must be cut by a flint, if iron is used it 
loses its virtue. 

Arda. In a state oi nature, fallow, un- 
broken to work, uninured. 

Arda bir. Primeval forest. 
Arda kuri. A virgin. 

Arda (Jaiira. An ox unacoustomed to the yoke. 
Arda jel. A deer that has not been shot (a hun- 
ting term.) 
Arda ot. Land that has never been cultivated. 

Ardas. To complain, to lay a charge 
against, to accuse. 

Uni then duk suk realc dobo ardas dareaKa. 

We can lay our grievances before him, 
Ardasadi/iae. He complained against me. 

Ardhangi. Hemiplegia. 

Ardu. \ Of enormous size, applied 

Silodha. J only to tigers. 

Are. Nine. 

Are. Edge, margin, side. 

Hor arere. By the side of the road. 
Gaija are areteko calaKkana. They are mar- 
ching along the river bank. 

Are. To dam up, to erect a dam ; rid- 
ges round rice fields to prevent the 
water running off. 

Gadale areakata. We have thrown a dam 

across the stream. 
Are laW . To trim the ridges round the rioe 


Areo. To bale out water, to throw 
water at. 

Aree aTljedme. Bale it dry. 
DaR bhageteko arei johkana. They are throw- 
ing water on each other (with the hands.) 

Areci garei 


[ 20 ] 

Aiir kuiir 

Ared garec. Easy, simple, of no im- 

Areo garoo alom bujhana. Do not regard it as 

Noa Icatha ared garedem bujhaueda ? Do you 

think tliis a thing to be trifled with ? 

Arogel. Ninety. 
Arel. Hail ; to hail. 

Arelte (ufi goekedeas, nui toyo do. This 
jackal was killed by hail atones hitting him. 

Argarha. Difficulty, entanglement, 

Argat. Proper time, favourable mo- 
ment, in good time, morning, early. 

Afgatre bape hedlente bape liamlaKa. Ton 

did not come at the proper time, and so 

did not receive. 
Argatrem setercna, dakaakaCale. Ton have 

arrived at the right time, we have done the 


Argo. \To descend, to lower, to be 
Argon. J with young. 

5.rgo hodoUm*. Come down quickly. 

Cot khonko argokedea. They lowered him 

down from above. 
Nui ggii do argoakadae. This cow is in calf. 

Argon. Cf. argo. 

ArgoQgar. To obfuscate, to lead away 
from the scent, to confuse by dis- 
putation, DO mislead, to defraud 
justice, to prove thatblackis white. 

Argohgare kuliea. He will ask misleading 

Arharo barharo. "( Old man and wife, 
Adharo budharo. J old bachelor, or 
old maid. 

Afharo barharo menaKkinge. The old couple 
are still alive. 

Argom. A clod crusher, a harrow 
without teeth ; to harrow. 

Argom bhuli. The hole into which the shaft, 
to which the cattle are yoked, is inserted 
into the harrow. 

Argom. A constellation so named. It 
is part of the constellation Scorino, 
and is composed of 4 stars, three 
of which are in line, and the other 
at the apex of the triangle. The 
star at the apex is Antares, or cor 
scorpii, a star of 1st. magnitude. 

Argom laga. To decide without full 
investigation, to ride rough shod 

Avgompe lagaeda, bah ^hikpe bio?.reda. 

Arhaia. (1) Two and a half. (2) Cho- 
lera, also scouring in cattle, which 
terminates fatally in two days and 
a half. (.3) Rice that ripens in two 
months and a half from being sown. 
(4) A weight or measure of 2^ 

Arho. Again, more. 

Ari. "I To implore, to beseech, to beg 

Jari. J eai-nestly. 

Ari. A hand saw. 

Ari. A law, a rule, an institution. 

An ^ri. Laws and ceremonies. 

Ari. A measure. 

Ari bandhi. To look carefully, to con- 
sider carefully, to examine care- 
fully, to note carefully. 

Ari b?.ndhile ilelkeda, bodoltepe omalekanft. 

We noted her carefully, you are giving us 

another in exchange. 
Sikiom bahako 9.ri hgindhipe, oofloka haraK- 

kana. Consider the lillies how they grow. 

Arid. Much, many. 

Arid. ■) (1) To pour off liquid so as to 

Arid. J retain the solid particles. 

(2) To persecute, to defraud. 

Afid dal^ manfji. Eice water that has been 
poured off after the rice has been boiled. 

(1) DaU mantjiko arija. They pour off the rice 

water (from the boiled rice.) 

(2) Kisar do ?i.diye aridediilkana. The master 

persecutes me very much. 

Mahajon do g.'Jiye ariukodiiia. The money len- 
der defrauded me (bled me.) 

Ari dhari. Carelessly, thoughtlessly. 

4fi (Jbgiritem calaoena, onatem bajaoena. You 
struck against it because you went care- 

Arik parik. Clean, spotless, unsoiled, 

Arik parik gibunoKme. Wash your bands very 

Arika. Rice beer. 

Aril kuril. To stare, as when smoke 

nips the eyes. 
Arir kurir. \ 

Kirir kirir. ^Loudly, noisily. 
Karur barur.J 

Uni gidr?. ma g.rir kuriro raraRkana. That child 

yells while crying. 
Kg,rur b?i,ruro hohoadea. He called loudly to 



[ 21 ] 


\ To trouble, worry, annoy, 
Aris. bore, bother, disquiet, 

Arisi. I disturb, plague, bad- 

A.ris paris. ger ; disgusting, shock- 

J ing. 

Alom ^fisa. Do not annoy. 

K^miro bako ^jrisoKa. Thoy do not find work 

a burden, 
^rieigeye lleloKkana. Ho is disgusting (dis- 

guata ono to ace him.) 

Arisia. Easily annoyed, or troubled. 

Nui do ^risia hoj- kanae. This is a person who 
is easily annoyed. 

Aris paris. Cf. aris. 
Arit'. To see, to look. 

^it liamkedeail. :^el liamkodeali. I looked 
and found him. 

Arit' kuril To stare round about, to 
look intently, to look carefully. 

Oo%a. mela t»n(Jire ^.rii kuri£ ili betigo€ko€rehB 
ban rtel liamledea. Although I looked 
carefully through all the fair ground I did 
not find him. 

Arjan. A buffalo goad tipped with 
iron ; to incite, to goad. 

Arjanem. Incite him. 

Arjao. To gain, acquire, earn ; to ob- 
tain a good harvest, or crop. 

Nes go khubko arjaoakafa. They have had a 

good hoTTeat this year. 
Bale arjaoleda. We had a oad harveat. 

-Ajja ^rji. Request, excuse, plaint, pe- 

Arjha arjhi. Ravelled. 

Arjhau. To ravel, entangle, hinder, 

Baber alom af jb^u ocoea. Do not ravel the 

Arjo. To put oil in the ear. 


Arjon birjon. 


Arjonia. A producer, one on whom 
one trusts or relies. Employed 
generally by a mother when com- 
mending or rebuking a daughter. 

Nui do arjoni? kantiiiae. She is the ono on 

whom I rely. 
Arjoni? kanae. She is ono to bo relied on 


Arkathia \ 

Arkati. J- A cooly recruiter. 

Arkatia. J 

Agi-icultural produce, 

Arkha. "» To covet, long for what 

Arkha arkhi. j another has. 

Arkhao. To disappoint, to deceive, to 

break word, promise, faith. 
Arki. Perhaps. 

OhoA men darelca, arki bako idiaka£koa. I 
cannot aay, perhaps they have not taken 
them away. 

Arkuc. The amount of oil obtained 
from one full press. 

Tin arkuo menalftapea? How often have you 
filled the oil preaa {and drawn off the oil P) 

Armarao. To struggle in the death 
throes, or through suffocation, to 
be overpowered, flustered. 

Uni gujuK I»gi£ armaraoK kanae. Ho is strug- 
gling in the throes of death. 

Armn. Biursera serraia, Colehr. A 
large forest tree, yielding valuable 

Arna. In a state of nature, primeval, 
wild, untamed, unbroken, barbar- 
ous, uncivilized. 

Ama bir. Primeval forest. 

Arna ka<la. Wild buffalo. 

Arna hor. A barbarian, a mis-anthropo 

Aro. To cook, to prepare food. 

Matkom aroabonme. Cook some matkom (q. v.) 
for ourselvee. 

Iain aro. To cook. 

Iain aroena. It is cooked. 

Aro. In composition has the same 
meaning as re in English, repeti- 
tion, again. 

Benao aro. To re-make. 

Dal aro. To beat again. 

Jut aro. To repair. 

Iain aro. To cook over again. 

Kuli aro. To re-question, re-examine. 

Aroj. Request, petition, plaint, ex- 

Aroj joii kanaii. I am petitioning. 

Aroj menal^tilia. I have a request to make. 

Aront. A warrant. 

Aront jari. To execute a warrant. 

Arop. Cf. arap. 

Arosi parosi. \ Neighbours ; neighbour- 
Arasi parfisi. j ing. 

Ar6t. Dense. 

Arot bir. Dense forest. 

Arot. Meaning, (Bengali ortho.) 




Ar6t. (1) Hard, unsympathetic, con- 
fident, fearless, regardless of con- 

(2) Disgusting, filthy, dirty. 

(1.) Uni do a4i arOt hoy kanae. He is a very 

unsympathetic man. 
(2) Cetlekan arot hor kanae, tiarehD bae umoUa. 

What a filthy fellow he ie, he never bathes. 

Arpa. A fathom ; the distance be- 
tween the tips of the fingers when 
both arms are stretched to full 

Arpa. To gather together by littles, 
to collect perquisites, as daughters 
do while at home. 

Ir arpa. A sheaf given daily during harvest to 
labourers — men or women — who are hired 
by the year. 

TJnkin do more serma habio on(Jekin tahena, ar 
kuri doe arpa joiia. They remain there five 
years, and the girl collects her perquisites. 

Arr. Used to attract attention when 
the person's name is unknown. 

Arr ! Okaren kanam p Hey ! where do you be- 
long to? 
Arradifiae. He called out 9irr to me. 

Arra arri. "j Short-tempered ; to be exci- 
Adra adri. j-ted, as buffaloes when they 
Adrao. J scent blood, (Sic, to bellow, 
to howl, to growl. 

Mo£ todoK leka haaokedea, giiji b^rii^e aryn 
g.rriena, kul do. 

Arrao. To bellow. 

Arrao. To fix a banghy load, to make 
the banghy and load ready for car- 

Bhariij arraome. Get the banghy and load 

Kan(Ja arraome sikug-rre. Put the pot in the 

sling (of the banghy.) 

Arsa. Excuse, plea, pretence, ground 
or reason assigned ; to fret to get 

Coio araaefkaua ? "What excuse does he plead ? 

Matkom andalf arsateko dohokediria. They de- 
tained me on the plea of giving me matkom 
andaK (q. v.) 

Arsa arsi. To plead an excuse, to 
throw the onus on each other, to 
contend as to who shall not do 
anything that is to be done. 

Dakao£kin arsa qirsiUkana. They are con- 
tending as to who shall not cook the rice. 

Arsal. A temporary light. 

Cere araal. To throw a light for an instant on 
a bird at night for the purpose of catching 

Arsalkate tiamme. Light something and look for 
it (and then extinguish the light.) 

Arsa pitha. A kind of sweet bread 
made from rice flour and raw sugar. 

Arse. Of. itat. 

Arsen torsed.l Uncomfortable feeling 

Ersen torsed.j of a person after having 
eaten too much, or of a person 
suffering from dropsy ; to be unable 
to rest at night owing to the heat. 

Arse taha. Certainly, truly, of a truth, 
in fact. 

Arse taha, setoiite dhip^uakana. Of a truth 
it is heated by the sun's rays. 

Arsi. A mirror, a looking glass. 

Arsiii barsiri. \A day or two, a short 
Musiri barsiri. J period. 

4Lrsiii bgirsili lagit uoncjebo heeakana. We are 
here only for a short time (in this world). 

Arta. A red pigment applied to the 
feet by women at a marrige ; to 
apply arta to the feet. 

Artagom. A large migratory bird, 
which passes over Santalia in a 
south-east direction at the begin- 
ning of the cold weather. 

Ar 1 

. ■ , [-More, in addition to. 

Arti. To help a second time to food, 
or liquor. 

Aruc taruc. To go smash at a thing, 
to smash dash ; impetuously, head- 
long. _ 

Nui do giruo tg/fuoe k^mikana. He smashes 
at his work. 

Aruk dharuk. Here and there, every- 
where ; to bully, to dragoon. 

Soetan aruK dharuKe calalikana. The devil 
roams every where. 

Aruii paruri. To sulk, to be in the 
dumps, doldrums, sulks, to be in 
bad humour, glum, sulky. 
CedaKe g.ruli pg.ruii bajaekana ? Why is he in 
the doldrums ? 

Arup. To cleanse, to wash off stains, &c. 

.^rup napae. To cleanse thoroughly. 

Arwaidha. ') rr i 

Arwhaidha. j ^°° "^^"^h' excessive. 

Arw3.idham ladeakawadea. Tou have loaded 
him too heavily (laid too much on him.) 

As. Proper quantity, j ust as much as 
is good for one, a little. 

As leka/i emadea. I gave him just as much as 

was good for him. 
AskedoaA. I gave him a little food. 

L -i-^ J 


As. 1 

As bhorsa. J-To hope, expect, trust, to 

Asra. j rely on. 

As chut^u. To lose hope, to despair. 
UniaK as llelkateli mokodena. I am tired wait- 
ing for him. 

Okoe asrare non^ope heoakanap Trusting in 
whom have you come hero ? 

Isorre as bhorsa dohoakan tahonpo. Continue 

trustin|f in God. 
K^mi llamili asolckana. 


I am hoping to get 

|- Aim ; to take aim. 



Bail (hikem aslatta, onatem c^fickedea. You 

missed him because you did not take a 

proper aim. 
Bejie tnikem aslaKa, liurhj ut9irkedeam. You 

aimed splendidly, and brought him right 


As, Scales of fish. 

Asa6 usuc. 

Asat usuc. To weep, to sob and cry, 
Asa^ usiil to weep for a lengthen- 

Kasat kusut.J ed time. 

Hit liind^ aea,i nsuCe raKkeda. He sobbed and 
cried the whole night. 

Asae. Eggs of the green fly which 
become maggots. 

Boko asaeaka£a. The green flies have deposited 
eggs on it. 

Asae sawile. Good fortune, object of 
desire, aim, opportunity, oppor- 
tune moment, first opportunity, 
first time, after a long time. 

OhoA emlema, asae sawae neMe ut^riii liam- 
akawana. 1 cannot give you any, now only 
has fortune favoured me. 

Asaha dusaha. Of evil omen, ill 

Noa calcem roreda, asaha dusaha? Why do you 
say this of evil omen? (to the sick man.) 

Asa jawa. Coming and going. 

As amol. Food forbidden to a sick 
person, or to one aspiring to sanc- 
tity after Hindu ideas. Cf amol. 

Asambher. Abundant, beyond mea- 
s\ire, unlimited, beyond endurance. 

Isoraf daya do asambhergetaea. God's mercy 

is infinite. 
Asambher kathae metadea. He spoke words 

to him that were beyond endurance. 

Asami. A tenant, a defendant, an 
accused, a debtor, a client. 

Uni doe asami kana, noa mamblare. He is de- 
fendant in this case. 

Asam usum. Half-awake, drowzy, 

Asam usume boret'akana. Ho has risen before 
being properly awake. 

Asam usum. Leisurely, without fear, 
said of the larger wild nocturnal 

Bana asam usume calattkana. The bear is 
walking leisurely along. 

As.ania. Lazy, procrastinating, slothful. 

Asan mandao. (1) To sit tailor- wise 
for a long time, to sit about with 
nothing to do ; lazy. (2) To lie 
down, as an animal in its lair. 

(1) Asan manglaoakanae, hoKrhokan leka. He 
has taken up his position, as if he were a 

Asan poda. \Lazy, strong but useless, 
Sawan pocja. / fusionless. 
Asan usun. Cf asam usum. 
Asapati hormo. To be enciente. 

Asap^ti hormoenae She is eizciente. 

Asar. The fourth Hindu month, June- 

Asaria. Belonging to the month of 

Nui bar asg.rif> ren damkom kanae. This steer 
is in its second year, (calved in Asar). 

Asaria. A climbing plant so called. 

Buru asg^n^. Oappari^ hovHda, Linn. 

Asarphi. A gold coin, known only by 
report to the Santals. 

Osot h'^'' '^'^*^'^^-. 
Asat osot. Lazily, leisurely. 

CedaK onka asat osot dom k9.mikana ? Why do 
you work so leisurely ? 

Asat os6t. Bulky, unwieldy, full ; to 
.waddle through fatness or obesity. 

Asathi.\p.^jgg untrue, unreliable. 
Asoto. J 

Nui do asathi hor konae. He is an unreliable 

Asat USUC. Cf asad usuc. 

Asali usul Cf asae usuc. 

Asbasao. \ Tired, wearied, aonfused, 

Esto besto.J perplexed. 

Durup durupteli asbasaocna, Saheb bae odokoK 
kana.' I am wearied with sitting (waiting), 
the Saheb does not come out. 

Darore dec man deocn, oka lekateii argona as- 
basaoged aikauoda. I have got up the tree 
all right, but am perplexed as to how I shall 
get down. 

Pithg.teli jom asbasaoena. 

Asec tase6 

[ 24 ] 


Asec tasec."! Abounding, a wealth of, 
Alec tasec. y rich, possessed of so much 
Tarn tase. j as to be careless of it ; to 
scatter, to squander. 

Horo caole aaoo taseo menaKtakoa. They have 
a wealth of dhan and rice. 

AoaR dhone ased tasec cabakeda. He has squan- 
dered his wealth. 

Ased maran. ") -.t ^ 
. , . > Very large, enormous. 

Aset maran. j j & ' 

Ased maraii ka( kana. It is an enormous log. 

Ased maraii daU hijuRkana. A heavy shower 
is approaching. 

Asen. To lead about, to carry about, 
to conduct, to tend. 

Gidra alom asen baraeea. Do not take the 
child about. 

Aseri taseii. Spread out, lying about, 
scattered here and there. 

Aseii tageiige menaUa, do hgtr samtaokate agu- 
kam. The (things) are lying about, go and 
gather them together and bring them here. 

Asepase. Cf adepase. 

As ghur ghur. ") A call to cattle, or oxen 
As gur gur. J at the plough to cause 
them to turn. 

Asiar. To inconvenience, to encum- 
ber, to plague. 

Asiar hormo. To be pregnant. 

Bad asiarkoa. I will not inconvenioncG them. 

Nui ?i3iar cucha menaea, nui i^togcii asig-rakana. 

He is a nuisance, and I am plagued on hie 


Asin. The seventh Hindu month, 
September — October. 

A.sintara. Belonging to the month 

Asintara kat. Timber cut in Asin. 
.^sintaya goda bitha. High lands ploughed in 

Asintara kul. A huge tiger. 

Asirbad. Blessing, to bless. 

Asirbadaleme. Bless us. 

Asis. To curse. 

AsisarikSnae. He is our.sing me. 

Asil To unstring a bow. 

AR asitkakme. Unstring the bow. 

Asil A running knot ; to tie a running 
knot, to tie with double loops, so 
that by pulling one end the knot 
will come loose. 

[■ Large, huge. 

Asit. To die down, as plants in winter, 
to be exhausted, to unwind. 

Jomattte asiCenale. Our food is exhausted. 
Setoii dinre nari ^.sidoRa. Climbing plants die 

down in the hot weather. 
j9isi£enae. He has lost his wealth. 

Askal. A jungle bird. 

Askandni. F. \ Peevish, crying for 

Askandnu. M. j little, fretful. 

Gidr? ?(Ji askanduigeae.' The girl cries for 

Askandua. Fever that begins with- 
out premonitory symptoms, and 
lasts only a short time. 

Asket. To be lazy, indolent, sluggish, 
languid after over exertion. 

Alom asketoRa, k^mitalaiime. Do not be lazy, 
do the work for us. 

Asketia. ILazy, sluggish, slothful, in- 
Askotia. J dolent, do-nothing. 

Nui do g.di asketi^ hof kanae. This is a very 

lazy man. 

As mandao. "1 To squat, to sit in one 
Asan mandao. /posture without change, 
to sit about a long time. 

Dufup as mancjaoakanae. He has seated him- 
self as if he never intended to get up. 

Asok tayok. \To wander, to go about 
Ayok tayok. j aimlessly. 

AsoR tayoR bafaekanao. 

He goes wandering 

Asokaete. Particularly, especially, as 
a rule, generally, most certainly, 


Asol. Chief, fundamental, real, true, 

Asol katha. The matter of tact. 
Asol Bona. Genuine gold. 
Asol jinis. The real thing. 
MesalaR kangea, asolak do bah kana. It is a 
mixture, not the genuine article. 

Asor. To cease raining, to clear up 
after rain. 
Asorkedae. It has ceased raining. 

DaR iii asor ocoaRa, enkhaetert calaRa. I will 
let it clear, then I shall go. 

Asor tambor. Tottering, weak on the 
legs, as a fat child learning to walk. 

Asorphe. Cf. asarphi. 

Asot. Cf asat. 

Aspas. Neighbourhood. 

Asra. Cf as. 



Asrac. Refuge, shelter. 

Ona oraKreii asraelena. I took shelter in that 

Asrat. Old and large, corpulent, 
wealthy, great. 

Nui bill do *(Jie ?.aratgea. This is a very large 

Nui do aiji ^srai^ hor kanae. This is a very 

wealthy man. 

Astabal. A stable. 

Astan, Unfortunate, lazy, incapable, 

not equal to. 
Astin. A sleeve. 

^Tsa$J'' }^l^ays, all the day long. 
Asuk. Uncomfortable in mind or body, 
Asul. To support, to maintain, to 

nourish, to supply the necessaries 

of life, to domesticate. 

Asul janwar. A domesticated animal. 
Asul ba<Jha Adopted. 
Asul haralcedeali. I brought him up. 
Potamiii a.suledekana. I am keeping a wild 

Asur. Greedy, gluttonous. 

As us. To move uneasily while asleep- 
to reply sullenly, as a person awak- 
ing from sleep. 

Aswar. Riding on any thing, as a 
horse, a palki, &c. 

Aswari.lThe act of riding on anything. 
Sowari. J 

Aswaria. (1) A palki. (2) A rider. 

Aswariateye calaKkana. He is travelling by 

Khub aswaria kanae. He is a good rider. 

At. To lose. 

Nel a£. To lose sight of. 

At' apat'. The very image of each other. 

AC to€. To make mistakes. 

Sap a,i. To lose hold of. 

At. The edible root of a common 
climbing plant, Zehneria uvihel- 
lata, Tkw. The plant itself is 
called Kundri. 

At. ^Opportunity, expedient, op- 

At ghat. J ening, suitable time, fa- 
vourable opportunity. 

Sasap at bail liameda. I can't get a chance to 

Oka at ho bah calal^kantalea. No expedient is 

possible for us. 
Atreii Jlammea, tobeil metama. I shall find you 

at a suitable time, and shall then speak to 


At. Zealous, vehement, forcible, strong, 
intense, vigorims, loud, difficult, 
fast ; t(i insist, to incite, to persist. 

Niinijlt ate liohokeda. Ho called so loudly. 

Aiji at araiite. With a loud voice. 

Atteye dalkedea. He struck him with great 

Ata. A raised platform from which 

wild animals are shot, an ambush. 

Sukrire afako durupa. They shoot pigs from a 

raised ambush. 
Atako duruplena, menkhan tg.rup bae argolena. 
They sat in the raised ambush, but the 'leopard 

did not appear. 

Ata. Flour, meal. 

Ata. To roast grain over fire in a 

pecuhar way, generally in sand ; 

to fire. 

Ataohoc. The potsherd in which the grain is 

Jondra ata. Roasted Indian corn. 
But ata. Boasted gram. 
Cha ataeme. Fire the tea (in manufacturing.) 

Ata ati. To dispute, to wrangle, to 
contend, quarrel. 

Nukin dokin ata afigea, delabon phan(Jaokata- 
kina. These two are wrangling, come we 
wiD settle the matter for them. 

Ata carec. A few stalks of grass or 
split bamboos about a foot in 
length tied together with which 
the grain is moved about when 
being roasted on the ata sy,steni. 

Atak utuk. 1 /-I/. ■ , , , 

Atac utuc. I '^f- ^*^P "^"P- 

Atal. A layer, story ; row upon row. 

Atal atalteko durupakana. They are sitting in 
rows (one behind the other.) 

Atal baha. A flower so named. 

Atal gondal. A large assortment of 

cloth of various ages, qualities 

and colours. 

Atal gondal kiorid menaKtaea. He is rich in cloth 
of all kinds. 

Atal phuruM. A cup made with double 

Atan. To receive, to take, to hold out 
the hand to receive anj'thing, to 
spread out to receive, to set the 
head as a horned animal when 
about to gore, or butt. 

Ataii dak. Water caught in a ves.^iel. 

Bhalte sariA a.tafi darama. I will receive the 

arrow on my shield. 
EogcA lagife atauedilia. He sets his head to 

butt mo. 
Iliak romal atafiakatail. I have spread out mj 

handkerchief (to receive it). 

Atap jarap 

[ 26 ] 


Atap jarap. Parched with thirst or 

Atap utup. To be raised up as a car- 
pet, &c, by something under it. 
Honyako atap utup baraeeda, maya phutkate- 
ye dairkeda. Halloo 1 lats are moving 
about (under the straw), look out ! lie has 
darted out and escaped. 

Atap utup. \A rumbling sound ; wind 
Utup utup./ on the stomach. 

Lao atap utuboKkana. Wind rising in the 

Atar. In composition, used mainly by 
women, like " dapor" which see. 

Sen ataroEmae. Let him take himself off. 
I)?.r atarke£geae. He has run away (and a good 

Kul ho bae jom atarekan. The tiger even does 

not devour him. 

Atar. To set fire to ; to burn. 

OraKko atarkeftaea. They set fire to his house. 
Atarediii leta hasoedili kana. It pains me as if 

it were burning. 
Seiigelte mooae atartaea. He applies fire to his 

Noa birko atar potaUkeda. They have set fire 

to and burned up this jungle. 

Ata sata. Food, victuals. 

Ata sata cefhS bg-nukantaea. He has no food 

Ata sata. Cf. atha satha. 

Ata talsa. Food, such as taben (q. v.) 
khajari, (q. v.). satu (q. v.) &o. 

Atasi patasi. A spell used by mothers 
when their children are slightly 
hurt and cry. 

A child hurts its finger, for instance, and runs 
crying to its mother, who after examining 
the finger says " at?si patasi" and blows 
upon it. 

Aten. GoTiibretum decandrum Roxb. 

A gregarious soandent shrub, the twigs of which 
are used to make baskets. 

Aten. To listen, to eaves-drop. 

Aten babrakanae. He is eaves-dropping. 

Atet. To spread ; a bed. 

Ate£te calaKme. Go to bed. 

Noa do oyon lagif, ar noa do ated l^gif. This 
is for a covering, and this to spread (under- 
neath you at night.) 

Ate£ sii. \ To fore-ordain ; pre- 

Oisit atel; sil J arranged. 

Isor do nni hor gujulf realfe olsi^ a.teisita.'k&ia,. 
God has ordained this man's death, 

Atgate. Strait, narrow, contracted, 

small in space, cramped. 
Bejae noa do atgate hor kana. This is a very 

narrow path. 
Am do bejae atgateregem dnrupakana. Tou 

are sitting in very small space (i.e. you have 

crushed yourself in.) 

Deep, great, very, enor- 
mously, unfathom- 
able, bottomless. 

Atha. ^ 




Athan thar. 


Athan marah hathi menaetaea. He has an 
enormously large elephant. 

Athaha dak. Very deep water (unfathomable.) 

Atha satha. Strength, energy. 

Id do atha satha bail aikaueda. I feel no stren- 
gth (or energy.) 

Atha sathail ^ikau lioKeda. I feel a little 

Ath cala. A house having the veran- 
dah roof lower than that of the 

Athe athon. 
Athe athwan. 

■) Very close together, 
J thick, very many. 

Athe athwaiie ghaoakana. He is covered with 

Athel. A jungle bush, Murraya exo- 
tica, Willd 
Atho sitho. Pithless, weak, vainly. 

Baiiem tul dareaKkhan atho sitho cedaKem 
tntulkana ? 

Athrg. To lean against, to rest on, to 
prop, to put in wedge, to place 
under for purpose of raising. 

Dhirire bohoKe athreeda. He piUows his head 

on a stone. 
SilpiA jhiokate athrekam, alo siAoKa mente. 

Open the door and place something against 

it to prevent it closing. 

Ati. A bundle, a small sheaf 

Gachi atiakat'ako. They have bound the seed- 
lings into small bundles. 

Atin. To graze, to browse, to feed, to 
spread as a sore, or skin disease, &c. 

Lumamko S'tii idiakat'a. The caterpillers have 

eaten all up. 
Gaiko g.tiii johkana. The cows are grazing. 

Atis kutis. Innumerable, very many, 
very often. 

Atit. \To leave home and family as a 
Utit. J wandering jogi, or phakir; an 
ascetic, a devotee. 

Atit jngi. An ascetic who has left house and 

Atit lekae calaoena. He has gone off like a 

phakir (without saying where he was going 


Atkao.lTo prevent, hinder, check, ob- 
Atok. J obstruct. 

Cala^ill atkaoea. I will prevent him going. 


[ 27 ] 


Atkar. To feel, to think, to be conscious 
of; to impress one. 

GujuK lekafi ajkareda. I feel like dying. 
Hape nahaKlah atkar ooomea. Wait a little, I 

shall make you feel. 
Bail thik a^karoKkana. It doea not impress 

one as being right. 
AKatkaraS. The oonsoionoe. 
Marah i»te atkaroKgea. Being large it will be 

noticed, (or felt.) 

Atkir. Smilax ovalifoUa, Roxb. 

A common jnngle olimbing plant. 

Atkir. To snatch away, to run away 
with, to steal. 
Bine ^tkira. He will run away without pay- 
ing his debts. 

Atkura. Childless, barren, without 
an heir born of his own body. 

Owaris bah toflenkhan bat^ha hoponge a^knr^ 
dhohko hataoa. Failing an heir adopted 
sons inherit the unclaimed wealth. 

Atkura. A forest tree, Wrightia to- 

mentosa, JR. &. S. 
Atkura arak. The fresh leaves of 

Wrightia tomentosa used as a 

pot herb. 

Atkuti. Argemone Mexicana, Linn. 

A prickly annual the seeds of which yield an 

Atnak. A large forest tree, Termina- 
lia toinentosa, W. and A. 

The tassar silk worm {Antheraea mylitta) is 
reared almost entirely on this tree in the 
Santal country. 

Atnasat.\ Unintelligible, confused, 
At sat. J weak, unintelligently, 

At n9 a^tsm galmaraokana. Yon speak unintel- 

At s^tili ^ik^ueda, cei sat h3 bah. I feel very 

weak, no strength whatever. 

Ato. In composition like "oto" which see. 

Bagi atoadeae. He left liim altogether. 
Em atoadeae. He gave it up to him. 
D^ndhire oko atokate oraSte calaoenae. Hav- 
ing hidden it in a bush he went home. 

Ato. A village. 

Bir maK t^ndikatele atoakafa. We cleared the 

jungle and have made a village. 
Ato maSjhi. The village chief. 
Ato hoyko. The villagers. 

Atok. Cf. atkao. 

Atom. 1 In order, one after the 

Mii atomte. J other, all, every one. 

Ona atorenko mi€ atomteko hecena. All the 
people from that village have come. 

Mif atomteko calaoena, oralire okoebo bg.nulf- 
koa. They have all gone, there is no one at 

Atpa etpe. Skin rough from pimples, 
or from lying on anything, ;is a 
charpae, which leaves marks on 
the body. 
At pat. "I Flustered, without resource, 
At patao.J perplexed, troubled, dis- 
tressed, restless. 

Eehgeote »tp*tle 9.ik»ueda. We are greatly 

distressed through poverty. 
Alo sem at patao baraea, thirkoSme. Do not 

be so restless, remain still. 

Atra. Half ; to fail, to come short, to 
fall short, "to miss. 

Atra hor. 7 -o- ir 

IsoraK mohimako atraakada. They have come 
short of the glory of God. 

Atra matra."! Imperfectly ; imperfect 
Atra patra. I work ; to half do a thing, 
Adhapadha. j to leave some out, to 
Tara tapra. j pass over some, to scamp 

Atra patra. Cf. atra matra. 

Atre. After a lapse of, after, period, 

Mi£ din b^rsili atre. After a day or two. 
Pepe cando atre. Quarterly. 

Atre. To plough a field in sections. 
Scottice, a double rig. 

Atrom. To miss, to pass over, to ex- 

CaEem atromkaekana ? Why do yon pass him 
over (give to the others and not to him ?) 

Atrom atrom. Half, incompletely. 

Hana mundu do atrom atromgeko jhorakeda. 
They only halt beat that jungle. 

Atrui5. Depressed, ailing, sad, faint, 
dejected, sulky, disinclined, dis- 
pleased, disgusted, lazy. 

Atruliili atkareda. I feel depressed (in mind.) 
jondra daka jom jomtell g-truAena. I am 

disgusted with always eating boiled Indian 

Onate mon ^truiientiiia. Therefore my heart 

failed me. 

At sat. Contradictory, confused, care- 
lessly, at random. 

Al; to£. Without certainty, at random, 
overlooked, mislaid. 

A^ to^le hecena. We came at random. 
A.i totaR halan jaoraeme. Pick up what has 
been overlooked. 

Atu. To flow, to glide, to run, to 
shed, to float. 

DaR 3.tu cabaena. The water has all run away. 
Atu go^kam. Float it away (throw it in to the 
water and let it float away.) 

Atuk jharuM 

[ 28 ] 

A war 

Atu\t jharulj. Dense, thick, as a 
jungle with undergrowth. 

Atur. To hang down, to trail, to hang 
over, to lag behind. 

Partomre durupkate kiorie aturkedae. He sat 
on the bed-stead, and allowed his cloth to 
hang down over the edge. 

Kanthar jo aturakana. The jack fruit hangs 
down (from. the branch,) 

Atut. Many, very numerous, in crowds. 

Atut horko jarwaakana. The people are assem- 
bled in crowds. 

Atut bir. Dense, primeval forest. 
Atwasi patwasi. Famishing, hungry. 

An. Of inferior quality, worthless. 

Noa bnrnre do eken au kat menalfa, Sarjom do 
banulfan. There is oiily timber of an in- 
ferior qnaUty on this hill, there is no 

Au katha. 

-A.U- An interjection of surprize, used 
only by women among themselves. 

Am '■ nun din khon bae gidr?. joiikana. 

Auapapa. Cf awapapa. 
Au au. Cf. ao ao. 
Auda. Cf. aoda. 

Aujhar. To entangle, to hinder, to 
ravel ; busy, occupied. 

Sv\tam aujharakana. The thread is ravelled. 
Sutam aujhsiroKa. The thread will ravel. 

Aukhau. Dangerous, as an infected 
village, or a jungle infested with 
wild animals, helpless through 
want of food. 

Ona bir do aidi aukhaua, adi kule oaiikeakana. 

That jungle is very dangerous, a tiger lies 
in wait there. 

Aula auli. 

Aula ka.uli. I Disordered, confused, per- 

Aula saula. i plexed. 

Aula sauli. J 

Aula aidikecUriae. He confused me. 
4ula auliye hoeeda. It blows from all direc- 

Aulau. To bewilder, to confuse, to 

muddle, to perplex, to mix up. 
Aunsa baunsa. Cf aosa biiosa. 
AUntauk. Commotion in the stomach. 

Lac auntauffkantiiia. 

Aura auri. j^^^^^'y- thoughtlessly. 
Auri. Not yet, before ; until. 

Auriye hijulcre. Before he comes. 

Aurikore. Before they come. 

4uri liogekhan. If she, or he, is not ready yet. 

Uni aurica. 

TJni auri yea. 

; He is not yet. 

Aurid hiju]< dhabic. Until I come. 

Auri. 1 False, in vain, carelessly, 

Auriak. V indefinitely, ordinary, un- 
Aurinak. j qualified, unfixed, un- 
specified, ineffective. 

Aurigeii emadea, tinalc coil tinaK. I gave him 
without taking note, and can't say how 

AuriagoKa. Will become ineffective. 

Isorak kathape a,uriakkeda. Te trifled with 
God's word. 

Etwar chaclakate auri din hilok caole bail lia- 
moRa. Eice can only be had on Sunday (the 
fixed day) and not on other days. 

Auri hor. An unqualified person. 

Auri din. A day not fixed. 

Auri. \Straw from which the grain has 
Ar. j been thrashed by beating it 
against a piece of wood. 

Busup is straw the grain from which has been 

trodden out by oxen. 
Gruchi is busup so drawn out as to lay the straw 

lengthwise, and then tied up in bundles for 

thatching, &c. 

Auriak. Cf auri. 
Aurinak. Cf auri. 

Auri pathauri.l Thoughtlessly, in vain, 
Auri sauri. J irreverently, need- 
lessly, serving no purpose. 

Probhu am ren Isor reak liutum auri pathauri 
alom liumtaea. Thou shalt not take the 
name of the Lord thy God in vain. 

Ausan. Cf aosan. 

Auta auti. Pain in the stomach. 
Autan. Cf aotan. 

Aiitauk. Cf auntauk. 
Avi'l.' Cf awil.' 

Awa. A potter's kiln. 

Gelbar awa bhitri khon t^hukia bajia bachao 
tol^kedam. You selected it out of twelve 
kilns, by tapping and sounding it (com- 
paring the choosing of a bride to the selec- 
tion of an earthen pot.) 

Awa. \The string which holds the 
Awali.J spokes of a charkha (spin- 
ning wheel) in order. 

This string goes round the extremities of each 
radius of each side alternately. 

Awaj. Sound, noise, report. 

Banduk reak awajiil aiijomleda. I heard the 
report of a gun 

Awal. Good, large, 1st class dhan land. 

Awali. Cf awa. 

Awansacua. Lazy, idle, slothful. 

Awapapa. Piteously, bitterly, vehe- 

Awar. Cf aowar. 


[ 29 ] 

Awasi. An heir. 

Awatapa. Destitute, friendless, dis- 
tressed, confounded. 

AwatapaKmako. Let them be confounded. 

Awil.\To raise the arm, to stretch out 
Avil. J the arms, to dart out the 
head, as a snake when it strikes. 

Awil tiogme, Stretch the arm and reach it. 
Ayah bill awil baraekanae. The cobra darts 

its head to strike. 
Gidr?. doe awiloKkana, ma heoeme. The child 

stretches out its arms, take it up. 

Ay;i. Really, truly, without mistake; 
of a truth. 
Ay a, liel kombrokedeali ; enreho bae go^ao 
ocoal^a. Of a truth I saw him steal, still 
he will not admit it. 

Ayalc oyok. 

Ayak uyuk. 

Ayok tayok. 

Ayuk tayuk.J out resource. 

A3'an bid. The cobra. 

Dudhi? ayah. ~^ 
Pomba ayah. 
Kara ayah. 
Jerell ayah. 
Jola ayah. 
Hende ayah. 
Kabra ayah. 

Ayan oyon. 

Do se, ayah oyoh behgefi baraeme, llel iiamam. 
Ayat. A verse, a sentence. 
Ayo. Mother, much used in interjec- 
Ayoge. ■) jjgg^j, jj^g , qJj mother ! 
Ayogo. ) 

Ayo lekan sohag do okareli Aamkoa ? Where 
can 1 find love such as my mother's was. 

Ayok tayok. Cf. ayak oyok. 
Ayuguh. An interjection of surprize, 

sorrow, or pain. 
Ayuk tayuk. Cf. ayak oyok. 
Ayup. Evening, nightfall. 

' Nondeko ayuboKa. They will spend the even- 
ing here. 

Ayup aumuh. Fully evening. 

i)aK ayupkedae. It rained till evening. 

SetaK khonle ayupkeda. We remained from 
morning till evening. 

Ayup payar. Eventide. 
Ayur. To lead, to conduct. 

AKyurie. A leader. 

Janum sen alom ayurkoa. Do not lead them 
towards the thorns (into difficulties.) 

Bewildered, at a loss, en- 
grossed, overcome, with- 

■Varieties of cobras distinguish- 
ed by Santals. 

To stoop down and peer 

S. }' 


In that way he mates 
The village chief exacts 


T> '■ !-No, not. 
Ban. J 

Bale calalfa. Wo will not go. 

Bab. A cess imposed by Zemindars 
on their ryots. 

Bab. To demand, to exact, to ask for, 
to request, to impose a contribu- 

Onkae bab bajaakoa. 

his demand. 
Malijhi toae babakoa. 

milk from them. 
Taka emolc lagit'e babakawaljlea. He has asked 

us to give money. 

Baba. (1) Father ; (2) A term of respect 
applied to elders, a term of endear- 
ment applied to infants. 

Babare. ) An interjection implying pain or 

Baba go. ) sorrow. 

E baba. Respectful address. 

Henda baba. EospectfuUy calling attention. 

Babac. Cf bae. 

Babad. Cf bad. 
Babaj. Cf baj. 

Babaji. A class of Hindu fakirs, a 

Hindu sadhu. 
Babak. Cf. bak. 
Babar. Cf bar. 

Babar goten eugatkin tahenkhan kakit ehgat 
do bar taka iral anae liama. If there are 
two mothers the step mother, (or co-wife) 
receives two rupees eight annas. 

Babat. To itch. 

Adi kalkal babatedilikana. It is painfully 

Babatedeteye ggiduroKkana. He scratches him- 
self because he feels itchy. 

Baber. Twine, string, principally that 

made from backom. (q. v.) 

JoKkha baber. A line for sounding. 
Sosoii baber. A string used as a measuring 

Babilond. To be scattered to the winds, 
to be utterly lost, ruined, or des- 

Tundi burn dhasaoen, 

Disom do babilonden, 

Kuindi mirueraKleda, 

Disom do ropha rugiren. 

Babla. The name of a tree. Acacia 
arcobicn, Willd. 

This tree yields the gum arable of commerce. 


[ 30 ] 


Babotre. On account of, regarding, 
respecting, about, in the matter 
of, in behalf of. 

Am babotre unaK iA haronlena. I was put to 
60 much trouble on your account. 

Babra. Cf bara. 

Noako joto do bonga horgeko Jiam babrakana. 
After all these t.binga do the heathen seek. 

Babrao. Cf bhabrao. 

Babrg. A Brahman. 

Babreic. The best ma::_ at a marriage, 
who remains with the bridegroom 
until all the ceremonies and fes- 
tivities connected with the mar- 
riage are over. 

Babric. The Intensive form of baric 
■ (q.v.) 
B^bricio. One who injures, &c. 

Babu. A boy, a son ; used in addressing 
a boy of inferior age, or position. 

Used always by en elder sister when addressing 

a younger sister's husband. 
Bgtbu se mg-i ? Is it a boy or a girl ? 
Babuttet'. His son, or the son. 
Babure. Dear me ! 

Babu janga nari. A climbing plant so 
called from the resemblance the 
leaf bears to the human foot. 

Babur. A tree, Acacia arabica, 

Babu rae. The young lord, or chief, 
used banteringly to a peevish boy. 

Babu rae do hona noae hursokana. The young 
chief must have this and that. 

Bac. To separate, to pick out, to refuse, 
to reject, to leave out nothing, to 
pass over nothing, to deliver. 

Get' ho bae baca. He rejects nothing. 
SanamaKgeye joma, Qei ho bae baca. He eats 
all, and leaves nothing. 

Baca. To decide upon, to prove, to 
receive an answer from a witch 
doctor, to find out. 

Co^pe baca agukeda? Hoe hisit'le bacakeda. 
What have you found? We have found 
that the witch is an outsider. 

Bacao. To choose, to select, to reject, 
to refuse. 

Bacha. A bull calf, a term of endear- 
ment applied to a child, or younger 


Bacha dhontiii. 

My little treasure (to a child.) 

Bachao. To choose, to pick out, to select 

to single out. 
Bachao gidi. To reject. 
Bachao cei. To select. 

Bachao tot'. To pick out, to choose out of many. 
Bachao bH. To select carefully. 
Bachao joh. To choose for oneself. 
Bachao liam. To find. 

Bachi. A female calf. 
Bachra. Half grown, young. 

Bachra sadom. A colt. 

Bachra dare. A sapling. 

Bachra kora. A lad, a hobbledehoy. 

Bachri bachri. Yearly, annually, every 

Backar. A prostitute, a harlot. 
Backo. Cf. bhacko. 
Backom. A jungle grass, Pollinia 

eriopoda, Hance. 

A useful grass from which twine and paper are 

Backom baber. Twine made from backom 


Baclao. To preserve, to save, to escape, 
to depend on. 

Noa kioriete rabaiiil5 baclaoena. By means 
of this cloth I escaped the cold. 

Bacol. Escape, salvation, rest, respite ; 
to be saved, to remain. 

Bacol banuktiJia. There is no escape for me. 
Eken sahetge bacolakan tahekantakina. Only 
their breath remained to them. 

Bacon. Cf. bacol. 

Bad. To name, to guess, to accuse, to 
suspect, to accuse from ill will, or 
a desire to injure. 

Almarire cef menaka? Kicriciii badeda. What 
is in the almirah ? I guess it is cloth. 

Danko badkoa. They accuse them of being 

Bad badkadea, menkhan bako sap dareadea. 
They often accused (or suspected) him, but 
have not been able to catch him. 

Badteko metalikana. They accuse me through 
ill wiU. 

Bad. To separate, to subtract, to omit, 
to reject. 
Khoroc badkate. Subtracting the payments. 
Noa hisab badkalcme. Omit this bill. 

Bad. 3rd class rice land, which is high 
and only enjoys a precarious supply 
of water. 

Bad horo. Eice grown on third class land. 
B^dras. A variety of rice grown on third class 

Bad. (1) To multiply, to increase. 
(2) A flood. 

(1) 44iko b9.iJoRa. They will increase greatly. 

(2) B9.1} argonkana, noa gaijare. This river is 

coming down in flood. 


[ 31 ] 


Bada. A loan of seed given at sow- 
ing time for which a double quan- 
tity is returned at harvest. 

Noa ita badateli flrguakat'a. 

Badabadi. To accuse each other, to be 
at enmity, to contend, to emulate ; 
enmity, rivah-y. 

Badabadieuako. They are at enmity with each 

Badac budu6. To bubble, as boiling 
water, bubbles rising to the sur- 
face of water. 

Badae. To know, to be cognizant of, 
to have knowledge of, to recognize. 

Badae thik. To know of a certainty. 
Ba^lae orom. To reoognize, 

Badagiri. To be conceited, arrogant, 
rude in presence of superiors, 
swagger, give oneself airs. 

Ba^agiriefkanae. He is giving himself airs. 

Badai. "J To be proud, to be vain- 
Adai badai J glorious, to be bumptious, 

to be fastidious,to play the fine 


A^iye b^4^ia, ad kathae tinaKe baijlae leka. 

Badak. "| Coarse, overgrown, big and 
BadgaU. j- unsightly, stout and coarse 
Badgoi. J featured. 

4risge lleloEkana, baijgo^ . 

Badak. ") Broken up into holes, as a 
Budak. J mud floor, or courtyard. 

ApeaE raca beb?irid budjKakantapea. Tour 
conrfcyard is all broken into holes. 

Badak badak. Unseemly, vigourously. 

BadaS badaSe egerkedilla. 

Badak buduk. ") To move the lips as if 
Buduk buduk. / speaking. 

Lufciye ba^alf buduReda. 

Badalte. On suspicion, on account of, 
with a desire to injure, through 

Badalte doko metaAkana. They accuse me 
through ill-will. 

Badao. To choose, to appoint to be told 

Chunka Pargana do Sarkar sece badaoakana. 
Chunka Pargana has been appointed by the 

TinaS salis horko badaoakana? How many ar- 
bitrators have been appointed ? 

Badao. Ill-will, hatred, strife, variance. 

Badao gekin tahekana. They were at strife with 
each other. , . .„ .„ 

Uni tulucko badaolena. They bore him lU-wiH. 

Mon badao. Admirable, exciting admiration, 
captivating the senses. 

Mon badaokateli dalkedea. I beat him to my 
heart's content. 

Badar. Very dense low jungle, a 

Sarjom badafre. In a thicket of Sarjom trees. 

Badar. A receptacle in which the Pa- 
harias of the Rajmahal hills store 
Indian corn. 

Badar budur. To rattle, a rattling 

Baijar bu^nr liurena, charra do. The shot 
rattled as it fell (into the gun.) 

Badaria. \ Proud, fastidious, dainty, 
Badgaria. J particular. 

Am do 9dim b^^^ri^ kana, am \^gii okare daka 
utuii liama ? Ton are very dainty, where 
can I get rice and relish for you. 

Badarot. Enmity. 

Badar runda. A species of wild cat. 

Badar selep. The buck of the ravine 

deer, Gazella Bennettii. 
Bad bad. Cf. bhad bhad. 

Bade. The heddles of a weaver's loom, 
which alternately raise or depress 
the thread of the warp. 

Badgae bodgoe. Stout, plump ; stou t 
and coarse, applied only to girls. 
Badgae boijgoe kuriko haraakana. The girls 
have grown stout. 

Badgak. Cf badak. 
Badgak. \The sharp painful 

Badgak badgak. J sensation produ- 
ced by a prick with a pin or the 
bite of an insect. 

BadgaR marte ormodko gerkediia. 

Badgarak. Litter lying about the door, 

or in the court yard. 
Badgaria. Proud, fastidious, dainty, 

Badgocak. Hairy-faced, bristly hair 

on face. 
Badgocak. A common fern, Lygodium 

JiexuosuTn. Sw. 
Badgok badgok. "(Unequal in thickness. 
Badgol; badgot. J as a thread ; rough, 
as a sculpture ; heavy, broad featured, 

Badgot. Cf badak. 
Badha. Wooden sandals. 

^*??*- , , ..- ] The toe post of the sandal. 

Badha khunti. ) ^ 

Sadom khura badha. 1 

Mundra badha. I 

Dhapi badha. r 

Khunfi badha I 

Pachilg. khur* badha.-' 

Varieties of wooden 

Bad ha 

[ 32 ] 


Badlia. To adopt, to pick up what 
has been left, to appropriate, to 
do odd jobs for a living. 

4sul badha. To adopt. 

B.ehgei ored hor dolco badha asuloKa. 


people pick up a living any where 
Eeiiged oredko do khsiraire hirid paairalfko bad- 
ha joiia. Poor people appropriate what 
has been left on the threshing floor. 

Badha. Obstacle, hindrance, drag. 

Chindau do bam menet'kana, badhagem lagaoeda. 
You do not wish a settlement, you are 
throwing obstacles in the way. 

Badha. "1 Occult adverse influ- 

fiadha bidhi. J ence, hindrance, inter- 
ruption of a supernatural kind. 

Badha bidhi lagaoadea, gujuKko ehopena. 

Badha badhi. To increase, to get hot- 
ter, as a quarrel. 

Katha kathate badha badhienakin. Their quar- 
rel got worse as they talked. 

Badha bidhi. Cf badha. 

Badhao. To increase, to multiply, to 
enlarge, to grow, to advance, to 

Din barhaoena. An advanced date has been 

Nui hor do mihu merom besko barhaoakantaea. 
This man's cattle have increased' well. 

Badhi. To bandage, to splice, to join 
by successive rolls of a ligature, 
to ligature. 

Badhi. A Kgature made by cutting the cocoon 
of the tassar silk worm into a long narrow 

Badhi. To give, or take a large quan- 
tity, to heap up ; a pile, a heap. 

Daka badhime. • Give a large quantity of rice. 
Mit' b?iclhi daka. A heaped plate of rice. 

Badhi. A caste who work both in iron 
and wood. 

Badhia. A castrated boar, a hog. 
Badhoe. A carpenter, a worker in wood. 

Badhor. A S23ecies of fish with many 

Badhor. ~l Crooked, cross grained 
Badhoria. j kr 


Noa kat do adi badhora. This wood is cross 

Badhori?. hor cet'e kamiama? An incapable 

man, what work will he do for you ? 

Badhoria. Expert in working in wood. 
Badi. Enmity, ill-will, hostility, ani- 
mosity, malevolence. 

Nui uparre badiye lagaoeda. He has ill-will 
against him. 

knotty, useless, incapable. 

Badi. Plaintiff, accuser, complainant, 
Pratibadi. Defendant, accused. 

Badisti. Enmity, ill-will, hostility, ani- 
mosity, malevolence, dislike. 

Adi bjrid badisti lagaoakawadea. He is the 
object of much ill-will. 

Bad kolma. A variety of the rice plant 

Badla. ") Exchange, recompence, reven- 
Bodla. J ge, requital. 

Badla alom halaea. Do not take revenge. 
Kalomreho satomreho ona badlaA acura. 

Badli. A substitute ; to exchange, to 
substitute ; instead of, in exchange. 

Badohi. A worker in wood, a village 

Badohi. To gossip, to exaggerate, 
to yarn, to deceive by verbosity ; 

Katha badohi hor. A story monger, a fluent 

Nui do katha adiye baolohia. He spins yarns. 

Bador satok. Short neck and projec- 
ting chin, ugly, disgusting. 

Badosti. C£ badisti. 

Badot. To be at enmity, to bear a 
grudge against one, to bear ill- 
will towards one. 

Nukin 9.dikin badotakana. These two are at 
great enmity with each other. 

Badra. C£ badar. 

Badra. To refuse, to leave untouched, 
to cast aside, to use what is second 
hand, to waste in using, to waste, 
to pass over ; refuse, residuum. 

Badra sunum. Oil extracted from refuse. 
Nui gai do noa ghase badraakat'a. This cow 
has wasted this grass (refused to eat it.) 

Badralj. With great force, or momen- 

Badralf marteye bind9.rena. He fell to the 

ground with great force. 
BadraU marteye tawak go(;kadea. He dashed 

him down with great force. 

Badrak badrak. At random, though- 

lessly, nonsensically. 

Badrak badrak. | The sound made bv a 

Bardak bardak. j buffalo, or other 

heavy animal running on moist 

soil, or by a herd of cattle feeding. 

Badras. A variety of rice grown on 
high lands. 


[ 33 ] 


Bae. To store, to lay by, to keep shut 
up, to put in a safe place, 

Bolo baeakanae 

le. \ 
ni-e. / 

He is hiding inside. 


Bae roylaKa. He did not speak. 
Baiie hataoleda. He did not take. 

Baelao. To wander about, to drive 
cattle to their grazing ground from 
ada (q. v.) to conduct water for 

Baena. Earnest money, advance, han- 

Dor damakadeaii,menkhan taka banuRtiAte 
mi€ {aka baenali em ofoakawadea. I have 
settled the price, but as I have no money 
just now I have given him one rupee as ear- 
nest money. 

Baephol. A small common plant, Des- 
modium polycarpum D. G. 

Bag. A bridle, bit for a horse. 

Bag aenom. A variety of the rice 

Bagahi. Dangerous, infested with wild 

4i^i bagaihiakana, noa bir do. This jungle is 

dangerous (through being infested with wild 

Noa ato do bagjhigea, guti rogte ^diko gujulf- 

kana. This village is dangerous, many 

people are dying of small pox. 

Bagan. A garden, a grove of planted 

T> ° •■ !■ Mixed, impure, confused. 

Koa ita bagaf gea. This seed is mixed. 

Noa mamla bagragea. This case ia confused. 

' Bagar gathia. ") Undersized, of juvenile 
Bajar gathia. J appearance, not look- 
ing one's age. 

Bagdao. To destroy, to go wrong, to 
be spoiled, to rout. 

Gh9.ri bagdaoena. The watoh is wrong. 

Bagdao. To lose, to miss, to be lost. 

Dhobi mi€ ten kiorioe bagdaokeda. The wash- 
erman lost a cloth. 

Non^ell bagdao o^okadea. It was here I lost 

J^tri akoaK horko bagdaotakoa. The pilgrims 
will miss their way. 

Bag dhinuk. A large bow which is set 
in the path of large wild animals. 

Baghel. Cf bagahi. 

Bagher. Dangerous through being 

infested with wild animals. 
Baghin janum. ■) A common thorny 
Baghinjhawa. J climbing shrub, 

Mezoneurum cucullatum, W. & A, 
Baghler. Cf bagher. 
Bagi. A tumtum, a light bamboo cart. 
Bagi. To leave, to abandon, to forsake, 
to dismiss, to quit. 
B?.iiK do bako bagia. They will not quit sum- 

Bagi oto. To leave outright. 
Nir bjgiadeae. He ran and left him. bjgite. By fits and starts. 

Bagica. '\ A garden, a tea garden, a 

Bagoeca. I grove of planted trees, a 

Bagwan. j mango grove. 

Bagan J 

Baglotte. By mistake, unintention- 

Baglot'teii idikeda. I took it without intend- 
ing it 

Bagluca. A very troublesome annual, 
Martynia diandra, Gloxin. 

An oil is extiuoted from the seeds by a method 
of distillation. 

Bag paiijar. A variety of the rice plant. 

Bagra. Fibre extracted from the leaf 
of the Palmyra palm. 

Bagra. Cf bagar. 

Bagrum. Fat, corpulent. 

Bagwan. Cf bagica. 

Ul bagwan. A grove of mango trees. 

Bah. To encourage, to incite ; help, 
resource, opportunity. 

Bah bafi liam dafeakkana. I cannot get an 

Isore bahabona. God will help us. 
Ma, ma, seta bahaeme. Incite the dog. 

r, , 'i , J- Bravo! well done! 

Bah ! am do ce^lekan her. 

Baha. A flower ; to flower. 

Baha. The monthly '' courses" of wo- 
men, the menses, the placenta. 

Baha. To deck with flowers, put flow- 
ers in the hair. 

Bahakartme. Put a flower in my hair. 
Kufiko bahaakana. The girls are decked with 

Baha bahi 

[ 34 ] 


Baha balii. Heaped, piled up, a pile, 
running over, a heap. 

Baha balijye emadilla. He filled it up for me. 

Baha bahi. Cf. ahi bahi. 

Bahal. To engage, to appoint to an 
office, to begin, to allow too much 
liberty to a child or young person. 

EtaK aahebe bahalakana. Another gentleman 

has got the appointment. 
Bahalem araKakawadea. You gave him too 

much liberty. 

Bahal, "I Happy, contented, light 
Bahali. J hearted. 

Bahala. ") Barren, as an animal, some- 
Bahla. J times applied in anger to 
women by women. 

Nui bahala do bae gidra joiikana. 

Bahalao. To ease, to lighten, to com- 
fort, to soothe, to make happy. 

Mon bahalaoKa. The heart will be made happy. 

Bahali. An office, a position, an ap- 

Bahjli khoniii ohu^au ooomea. I shall cause 
you to be dismissed from your appointment. 

Bahali. Arrogant, impertinent, presum- 
ing upon one's office, presumptuous. 

Hape, thiroKme, adim bahaliakana, Aelmealah. 
Be silent, you are very arrogant, I shall do 
for yoxi yet. 

Bahao. To exist, to live. 

Nui hor do adiye bahaoakana. This man has 
lived a long time. 

Baha porob. The flower festival of the 
Santals, observed about the middle 
of Fhagun, or the end of February. 

Bahar \Out side, without, beyond ; to 
Bahre j eject. 

Baha saoha. A ceremony legalising an 
irregular marriage. 

Baha saohakakinabo. 

Bah bah. Free, at liberty, without 
Kora kuriko bah bah baraekana. 

Bahbahia. Left to the freedom of one's 
own will, too much liberty allow- 
ed to a child, or a young person ; 
independent, unrestrained, wealthy. 

Bahbahigie liamakalJte nonka banglhej Icanae. 
He has become so mischievous through hav- 
ing too much of his own way. 

Kora knri bah bahia alope araliakoa. Do not 
leave the young men and maidens unres- 

Bah bahig-ko kisarakana. They are so wealthy 
as to be independent. 

Bahca. "( To hire bullocks or buffaloes 
Caro. J for agricultural purposes by 
the year. 

OroKko bahoako liam dareakoa. They can hire 
plough cattle by the year. 

Baher. 1 Out side, beyond, out-lying ; 
Bahre. J to put outside, to eject. 

Baher barge. An out-lying barge (q. T.) 
Baher ohajan. Household utensils that re- 
main outside of the house. 

Baher. Broken, defiled by out-siders. 



3ahi. ■) 
5uhi. J" 

An account book. 

Bahi. A heap, a pile, large quantity. 

Mit' bahi dakae emadiiia. He gave me a pile 
of rice. 


l Flowing, running, as opposed 
J to stagnant. 

Bg,hi daK sanam maila atu idia. Running water 
carries away all impurity. 

Bahi. The upper arm, the elbow. 
Bahi duar. \ Names mentioned in the 
Baih duar. j traditions of the Santals. 

The Bahi door is probably an opening in some 
mountain range through which the Santals 
passed to their present habitat in Chofa 

Bahlj. A method of catching fish. 

Bahila. Cf bahla. 

Bahir bai. Convulsions during which 
the patient loses the power of 
hearing; deafness. 

Bahkao. To stray, to wander away, to 
deceive, to tempt, to allure, to de- 
lude, cause to stray, to drive cattle. 

Oka sec con uni g9,i doe bahkaoena. The cow 

has strayed somewhere. 
Tin9.K menalfkotama, non^e khon bahkao idi- 

kom. Drive all you have (cattle) away 

from here. 
Bitie bahkaokediritegiii jomkeda. The serpent 

tempted me and I ate. 

Bahla. Barren, of animals only, though 
sometimes applied in anger to 

Bahna. To name, to nickname, to 

Mul Autum bagikate etaK liutumko bahnaaka- 
dea. They have dropped his real name, 
and given him a nickname. 

Bahni. (1) A whirl pool. (2) A large 
round jar. 
Bahni gada. A river the bed of which is full of 
pools caused by the swirling of the water. 


[ 35 ] 



BahiioK. *) m . r ^ 

Bshiiul? t encourage, to comfort. 

Bahoilhar. Brother-in-law. 

Baholihartef. His brother-in-law. 
Baholiharili. My brother-in-law. 
Baholiharme. Thy brother-in-law. 

Bahra. Deaf, dull of hearing. 

Bahre. External, outward, out side, 

beyond, outlying ; to eject, to put 

out, to exclude. 

lekha khon bahre. Innuliierable. 
Sahao khon bahre. Beyond endurance. 
Bujh^u khon bahre. Beyond understanding. 
Bahre gof.kaeme. Eject him. 
BahreRa. Will be excluded. 

Bahu. A bride, a wife. 

BaihuKio. The bride (about to be.) 

B^hu jou. To take to oneself a wife. 

Bahu agu. To bring a bride from her father's 

Bahuio. A wedded bride. 
B^hu jawae. Bride and bridegroom. 
Bahnadeaii. I got him a wife. (I wifed him.) 
Bahuanio. A married man. 

Bahumut. Diabetes. 

Bahu tuturi. A small plant common 
about villages, Vernonica cinerea, 

Bahware. Bravo, well done, excellent- 
ly well played. 

Bahware ! bejaeye d^r darealSa. Bravo ! he 
rnna well. 

Bai. A fit, convulsions, spasms, the 
falling sickness, epilepsy, deliri- 
um, insanity, madness, uncon- 

Haram ba,i. A form of insanity. 

Bai karon sapakadea. He has been seized with 

Menkhanko buihaukeda, haram baiakanae 

mente. But they thoughthehad gone mad. 

Bai mara. Involuntary twitching of 

Bai bai. Slowly, gi'adually, low, noise- 

B9.ib9,ite kamime. Work slowly. 
B^ibaite haraKa. It will grow gradually. 
Baibiite rorme. Speak low. 
B^ib^ite cal'aKme. Go noiselessly. 

Baibi. Miscellaneous expenses. 

"Baida. A doctor who follows the na- 
tive Indian system of medicine. 

Baiha. A ceremony of brotherhood 
observed at a marriage by a mem- 
ber of the bridegroom's party and 
the Jog Maiijhi (q. v.) of the bride's 
village, solatium, present. 

Baiha. An ornament worn on the 
left arm by women. 

Baihar. 1st Class rice land, low, moist 
fields with a good supply of water. 

Baih duar. Cf bahl duar. 
Baini gai. Up country cows, cows 
having curved horns. 

The cow of Santalia has straight horns, the 
b?.ini gai has a " crumpled horn." 

Bairi. Enemy, enmity, illwill, ani- 
mosity, hostility. 

Bene bgiiri. An enemy. 

Jahae tulud bairi alom dohoea. Bear ill will to 
no one. 

Am tulnde b?iiril£a. He will become your ene- 

Baisak. The first solar month of the 
Hindus, April-May. 

Baisau. To establish, to settle, to 
found, to fix, to let out on hire, to 
put out to usury, to lend, to be 
accustomed to, to fit in, to fit. 

Baisau dhiri. Pavement. 

Bgiisau h»n<Ji. Liquor given at the establish- 
ment of a homestead. 

Lebe^ b^isaukedali. I tramped it down. 

Khapre bail baisaukkana. It does not fit into 
the notch, i. e. is not to the point. 

Takail baisauakafa. I have lent money on in- 

Ti ?uri baisauKtilia. My hand has not yet 
become accnstomod. 

Ot iii b*is9.uaka€a. I have let out land. 

Toleko^uaka^a. They have laid the founda- 

Kurtg- hormore bail b^isaukkana. The coat 
does not fit the person. 

Baisi. A panchayat, a meeting for the 
discussion and settlement of mat- 
ters, a council. 

B^isiren mukhig.. President of the council. 

Lo bir b^isi. A meeting convened at the an- 
nual hunt. This hunt takes place after the 
undergrowth of the jungle has been burnt 
up, hence the name "lo bir sendra." 'q. v.) 

Caur^isi baisi. A conference of near neigh- 

Marijhi b9.isi. A meeting called by the village 

E9.isi kufum. 1 A conference of relatives 

Kutum b»isi. j on family matters. 

Baj. To interlace, to cross, to plait^to 
entangle, to set a fish trap; a 
trap, difficulty ; ravelled, confused. 

Jaiigae bajkeda. He crossed his legs. 

Hako bajreko jh^iliefkoa. They catch fish in a 

Tilrin bajaka€a. They have linked their arms. 

Baj a. Straw, or fibre of the Palmyra 
palm cut into short lengths, and 
mixed with clay for plastering 


[ 36 ] 


Baja. A musical instrument. 

Baja. To sound, to strike as a clock. 

Dos bajaena . It has struck ten. 

Ill hijulcte garo bajaena. It struck eleven as 

I came. 
Athbaiakatebisminitparomena. 8-20. o'clock. 
Panoh bajak lagU; dos minit baki menaka. 

4-50. o'clock. 

Baja. The fibre of the pericarp of the 
fruit of the cocoanut and palmy- 
ra palms ; stringy, as a fruit. 
Noa ul do bajagea. This mango ia stringy. 

Bajal. A variety of the rice plant. 

Bajao. To strike against, to knock, to 
hit, to impinge, to impress upon. 

Mare ghaoreye bajaokedilia. He knocked me 

on an old sore. 
Sar bajaoadea. The arrow hit him. 

Bajar. A market, the portion of a 
town where the shops are located. 

f Xr bt^ar! } ^ ^^""^ '^^g" ^^^^'^'^- 

Bajar kuri din. All day long, the whole day. 

Bajar gathia. Undersized, of juvenile 
appearance, not looking one's age. 

Baje. Some... others, sometimes. 

Bajeko badaea, ar bajeko do bah. Some know, 
and others don't. 

ItebelT-} Sometimes. 
Baje birla. Sometimes, now and again. 
Bajek birla. In some parts, in some places. 
Bajek birlae sawaeakata. There has been a 
good harvest in some parts. 


Bajek khane. I Sometimes, at times 

Bajek khanek. i only, 

Bajek sajek. 

Bajek khaneli jorao baraea. I yoke him at 

Bajhao. To ensnare, to inveigle, to 
entrap, to decoy, to seduce, to en- 
tangle, to be over head and ears, 
to bear tales. 
Bal^jhao hor. A tale bearing man. 

Bajha bajhi. To contend, to be entang- 
■ led, to get into difficulties. 

Bajha b^-jhienakin, akintegekin liapamena. 

Bajhani. A tale bearer, a sower of 

4iji hor Icanae. She is a great sower 
of discord. 

Bajhar. Crooked, involved, mixed, 

Noa katha do a,(Ji bajhargea. This story is 
very mixed. 

Bajia. To sound. 

Thukia bajigikate bachao to-fikedam. You 
chose it by tapping and sounding (as an 
earthen vessel.) 

Bajhua. To hamper, to hinder, to im- 
pede, to incommode, to entangle, 
to involve. 

Bajhuatakadiilae. He put me in a difficulty. 
Nui gidrai ig-teA bajhuaakana. I am hampered 
by this child. 

Baji. To turn a summer-sault, to 
turn head over heels. 

Bajik do bako bagia. They will not quit 

Thu bajikedeakin. They shot and knocked 

him over. 
Phaka baji gof kedillae. He knocked me head 

over heels. 

Baji. A wager, to bet. 

Ma bajibon lagaoa, tinakbo d9.r dareal£a. 
Come, let us lay a wager as to who will 
run fastest. 

Bajna, To beat a drum, to make a 
noise by striking one thing against 
another, drum music, musical ins- 
truments that are played by beat- 
ing, as a drum, cymbals &c. 

-r, -J -■ [a drummer, a musician. 
Bajnia. J ' 

Bajnia. A tale bearer, a gossipping 

Nui maejiu katha bajnig. kanae. This woman 
is a tale bearer. 

Bajondar. A drummer, a musician. 

Bajra. A grain. Sorghum vulgar e, 

Bajra loboK. Flour made from " bajra." 
Bajra ata. Boasted "bajra." 

Bajra bajri. To stagger, to sway to 
and fro as a drunken man. 

Bajrahi.l Slovenly, slatternly, grimy, 
Bejrahi.j dirty. 

Baju. An armlet worn above the el- 

The baju worn by men differs from that worn 
by women. 

Bak. To hook on, to hang on a hook, 
to catch on a thorn, &c. 

Jgmumte bakenae. He is caught by a thorn. 
Menem bagoka. Look out, you'll be caught 
(by a thorn.) 

Bak. The white paddy bird. 

Loboe bak. "1 

Bitkil bak. > Varieties of the white paddy 

Cauriaibak. ) bird distinguished by Santals. 


[ 37 ] 


Bak. An anklet worn by women and 

Khila bak. A ' bak ' with a joint. 

Baka. ") Crooked, twisted, bent, 
Baka. J curved. 

Bakao. To beguile, to mislead, to in- 
spire, to be spirited away, to speaJi 
as an insane person. 

XJniye bakaokedida. He mialed me. 

Bakarna. Fit to be weaned. 

Bakat bakat;. T To move here and 

Bakal; bukul J there, as maggots; 

to keep turning from one side 

to another, to tell what should 

have been kept secret. 

Ce£ ban bakaC bnkufpe royeda ? 

Bakbak. Without meaning, nonsensical. 

Bakbak ror. To chatter, to prate, to jabber, 
to talk at randon, to talk idly. 

Bakbakaok. To chatter, to prate, to 
gabble, to talk idly, talk at ran- 

Bakbakur. The noise made by pi- 
geons ; to coo, as a pigeon. 

Bakea. A trumpet. 

Bakorna. ) pi^ to be weaned. 
Bakron. ) 

Bakbhenkor.. Crooked, zigzag, winding, 
mixed, unintelligible. 

BaUbheakore roreda. He talks unintelligibly. 

Bakdulu. A species of dragon fly. 
Bakhac. Or else, otherwise. 
Bakha. \ 

Bhakha. [ To boast, to brag. 
Bhakka. j 

BhakhaeS kanam, pase baoom dareaK. Ton are 
boasting, perhaps you may not be able. 

Bakhar. To wrangle, to dispute. 
Bakharia. Wrangling, disputatious. 
Bakhara. l A report, boasting, bragg- 
Bhakhara.) ing, talk. 

Ona bakharateko aenlena. They went on the 

strength of that report. 
Eken bakharatae, kami do bae kairai dafeaffa. 

He only boasts, he can't work. 

Bakhen. Cf. bakhgr. 
Bakher."! A homestead, a collection 
Bakhol. I of houses belonging to one 
Bakhri.J family. 
. Beae bakherakata. He has made a fine home- 

Bakhgr. To invoke, to pray, to beg, 
to petition". 

jjiiji ruhet'kateko bakheya. They severely scold 
(their gods) in their prayers. 

Bakhera. Wrangling, vain disputa- 
tion, a war of words, a row, brag- 
ging, boasting, quarrelling. 

Cei bakherape lagaoetkana P "What vain dis- 
putation are you engaged in ? 

Bakhna bakhni. To prate, to jabber, 

to talk idly. 
Bakhnao. To talk idly, to prate, to 

babble, to jaw. 

iiuriaKgebo bakhnaoKkana. We are wasting 

Bokhol. Cf bakher. 

Bakhor An instrument, with which 

tassar cocoons are cut into narrow 

strips (badhi) for splicing purposes; 

teeth of a comb. 

Bakhor. ") To altercate, to dis- 

Bakhra bakhri. J pute angrily. 

Bakhra. Share, portion ; to apportion, 
to share, to divide. 

Bat bakhra. Portion of inheritance. 
Kgimibakhraaleme. Give us each our set work . 

Bakhri. Cf bakher. 

Okate senakanae ? B^khrite senakanae. Where 
has he gone? He has gone to the bakhri 
(his employer's house.) 

Bald. "} An insect pest which injures 
Buki. J the young rice plant. 

Baki. Balance, deficiency, arrears. 

Okoe ho bako bakia. There is no one remain- 

ItkiSr-} Balance, remainder. 

De, raebario, b?iki bekoea ceSko legcar 


Baiki dhike sanam cabaentilia. My arrears are 
all cleared off. 

Bakjunu. The firefly. 
Baklak. The bark of a tree, rind of 
certain fruits. 

Kulniji baklaU . The rind of the unripa fruit 

of the ' Matkom.' (q. v.) 
Terel baklalf. The rind of the unripe fruit of 

the 'Terel.' (q. v.) 

Bakoli. A poetical name for the white 

paddy bird. 
Bakre. Rind of kulndi. (q. v.) 
Bakra. To thin out dhan that has 

been sown where it has come up 

too thickly. 


[ 88 ] 


-r, , ■ >A male lamb. 
Bakri. A ewe lamb. 

Bakron. Cf. bakorna. 

•p 1^ ' J- An agricultural implement. 

Baksis. A gratuity, a prize. 

Bakuk. A whorl in an animal's horn, 
a crook, a buckle, clasp of belt. 

Bakiilfkam. Clasp it. 

Catom takuKte batareri baKakafa. I have 

hooked the umbrella on the bata by the 

crook (of the handle.) 

Bal. To bore a hole, or to puncture, 
with a red hot iron. 

Ojo baltilime. Puncture the boil for me with 

a red hot needle. 
Tirioli balkeda. I bored the finger holes in my 

flute with a red hot iron. 

Bala. \The relationship between the 

Balaea. J respective parents, uncles 

and aunts of a married couple. 

Nij bala herel. The fathers-in-law. 
Ni] bala era. The mothera-in-law. 
Kaka bala herel. "^ 
Gohgo bala herel 
Mamo bala herel. 
Kuma bala herel. 
Kaka bala era. 
Gohgo bala era. 
Mamo bala era, 
Kuma bala era. J 
BalajJ. My bala. 
Balam. Thy bala. 
Balat. His bala. 

Balaealfako. Their relationship to each other 
will be that of bala. 

Balai. Abundant, so very much as to 
cause surprize ; wonderful, sur- 

Balai cij menaKtaea. He is very wealthy. 
Eg-Iaigeye rorket do. He spoke a great deal. 
Balai jome jomkeda He ate an amazing quan- 
Balaikedae, nit ho bae hijuKkana. 

Balam. Cf. bala. 
Balari. Cf bala. 
Balat. Cf bala. 

Balbal. Perspiration, sweat. 

Balbal bhumburi. The rash of prickly heat. 
Balbal jiri jiri joroKkana. The sweat trickles 

Balbal dak. Perspiration, sweat. 

XJnial^ balbal dalt do otre joroKkan mayam 
thopko leka hoeentaea. His sweat became 
as it were drops of blood falling upon the 

Balbalao. To perspire, to sweat. 

BalbalaoKkanae. He is perspiring. 



Bale. Young, tender, fresh. 

Bale belteii. A tender infant. 

Bale betkec. An infaut. 

Bale gidrji. A young child. 

Bale moloK. The new moon. 

Bale dabi. The ridges of the scapula, or shoul- 
der blade. 

Mii bale befkeo khon. Prom earliest childhood. 

Bale moloKre senakanae. He went at the time 
of the new moon. 

Bale. 1 -NT i 
Ban-le. | N^*"^^- 

Bale calaK^. We will not go. 

Balgada. Sand carried down by a 
flow of water. 

Saname b?lgadake£talea. Our (field) has all 
been covered with sand. 

Balgar. Strong, vigorous, mighty. 
Bali. Iron stone sand, iron ore. 

The Kol iron smelters wash the ore from the 
sand in the river beds. 

gLi g'ur. } Crystalized raw sugar. 

Balis. A pillow. 

Balkati. The fee paid to the officiating 
priest who offers his own blood. 
C£ bul mayam. 

The fee generally amounts to one rupee font 

Balok. Young, immature. 
Balti. A bucket. 
Balut dare. The oak tree. 
Bam. Shaft of a carriage. 
Bambal. Cf bomal. 
Barnbaro. Cf ambaro. 
Bamber. A torch. 
Bambi. An eel. 

Bambkao. \ To bubble as boiling water, 
Bamkao. j to flare up, as a flame, to 

increase, to pervade, to spread. 

Sehgel adi bamkaoena. The fire has increas- 
ed greatly. 
So bamkaoena. A smell pervades the place. 

Bambkol. A pump. 
Ban. Sorcery. 

Ban pathri. An affection said to be produced 
by sorcery, in which the exudation of the 
skin becomes like sand. 

Ban. A flood. 

Bana horkin calaoena. They both went away. 
Banar do thikgea. Both are correct. 

Bana. The black bear, Ursus labia- 


Parkom bana. The Indian badger, MelUvora 

Bana c6rg 

[ 39 ] 

Banc It ' 

Bana cSvS. A bird so named. 

Bana etka. A common plant, Ipomcea 
turpethum, R. Br. 

Bana hatak. A small tree with seed 
pods like sword blades, Oroxylon 
indicum, Benfh. 

Banalc. A hook, (from bak, q. v.) 

Banalc (Jan. A pole with a hook on one end 
used to pull down fruit, dry branches, &o. 
from trees . 

A variety of the rice 

Bana koram, 

Banal. To appoint, to choose. 

Lg.iako lagitJko banalkedea. They appointed 

him to teaoh them. 
Jahaeyem banalakadea? He, nui horili l^iadea. 

Have you appointed any one ? Yes, I told 

this man. 

Banam. A fiddle, to play the fiddle. 

Huk?. banam. A fiddle made from the shell of 

a cocoaimt, with one string. 
Kindiri banam. Made of wood, has several 

strings, and wire underneath the strings. 
Kat banam. A fiddle made of wood. 
AK. A fiddle bow. 
Tat. Fiddle string. 
Tar. Brass string stretched underneath the 

gut string. The brass string sounds in 

unison with the gut string which is played 


Banan. To spell. 

Judai lekate bananolia. It is differently spelt. 

Banao. ~| To make, to fashion, to prepare. 
Benao. J to agree, to live in harmony. 

Bah banaoE. To disagree, to be at variance 

with each other. 
Besko banaokkana. They live in harmony. 

Banar. Both. Cf bana. 

Banbasi. \A flood, to be carried 

Banbhasi. J away by a flood. 

Banbaeike^koa. The flood carried them away. 
Gadare banbasi dak calalckana. The river is 
in flood. 

Bancao."! To save, to keep alive, to es- 
Baclao. [ cape, to recover, to remain 



Goo balicaoenae. He recovered from a severe 

Teheii ilindabo god baiicaolengegapabocalaka. 
If we are permitted to see the morning we 
will go. 

BalicaoE coe ce{ ooe. He may recover. 

Balioaolf coe bah coil. His recovery is doubt- 

Band. A tank, a water reservoir, an 

Bandme. Excavate a tank. 

Banda. To disgrace. 

Nutum saname bandakei^tiAa. He brought dis- 
grace on me. 

Banda. Parasitical plants, air plants- 
Dare banda. Parasitical plants mainly belong- 
ing to the Natural Orders Loranthaceaj 
and Orohidacess which grow on trees. The 
names of the ' bandas' are taken from the 
trees on which they are found. 
Ul banda. Pound on the mango tree. 
Sarjom banda. Found on a Sarjom tree (q. v.) 
Matkom banda. Found on a Matkom tree (q. v. 
Terel banda. Found on a Terel tree (q. v.) 
Jgmum banda. Found on a Janum tree (q. v.) 

Banda. M. ^ Docked, part of the tail cut 
Bandi. F. J off, stumpy. 

Nutum ban^akettilia. He behttled me. 

Banda. ~| A young man. 
Bandi. J A young woman. 

Ban^a bsinijikin calaEkana. The lad and lass 
are going together. 

Banda bandi. Stumpy, short. 

Horo do ?.di ban^a b?.n(Ji geleena. The ears of 
the rice are short. 

Banda pon. Presents of money given by 
the guests at a wedding for the 

Banda ponko em jaoralal^a, neKe niagi6 kirili- 
keda. I have bought this with the money 
contributed by the wedding guests. 

Bande. To dress, of women binding 

HoroK bandenaK. Clothing in general, of men 
and women. 

Putli bande. > A girl who only wea rs a piece of 

Sidup bande. 5 cloth round the loins ; a girl from 
.3 to 6 years of age. 

Parici bande. A girl who wears a piece of cloth 
round the loins, one end of which is caried 
over the shoulder ; a girl from 6 to 12 
years of age. 

Bentar bande. A method of wearing the sari 
which is wound several times round the 
waist, and then carried over the left shoulder, 

Kaso bande. 1 Several pleats are made in the 

Khandi bande. ) portion bound round the waist 
at the front, and the end thrown over the 
right shoulder from behind falls over the 
breast, and the edges are tucked iu on ei- 
ther side into the portion round the middle. 

Parhan bande. ) A piece of cloth of the usual 

Parhand bande. ) width is bound round the 

Gogok. Apiece of cloth thrown over the shoul- 
der, and falling over the breast, the com- 
plement of Parhan bande. 

Kantha bande. Kantha cloth (q. v.) is bound 
round the waist, and the dress is completed 
by a piece of cloth (gogoK) thrown over the 
shoulder and covering the breast. 

Lebda gogok . 7 The cloth is bound round the 
Lebda rakap. ) waist as in Kaso bande, but 
instead of being brought over the shoulder 
from behind, is passed over the left shoulder 
in front, and the end hangs down the back. 
GogoK japak. The action of bringing the cloth 
over the shoulder from behind and tucking 
it, on both sides, into the portion round the 


[ 40 ] 


Bandh. An iron band round the nave 
of a cart wheel to prevent it from 

Bandhao. To establish, to fix, to ar- 

Nawa atoko bandhaoa. They will establish a 
new village. 

Sohkate jamako bandhaoeda, nahaK do. Now- 
a-days they fix rents after measurement. 

Bandhar. Tied up. 

Bandhar sadom. Ahorsekept'in the stall, and 
not turned loose when not in use. 

Bandhej. Mischievous, self willed, fid- 

Nui gidra a^iye bandheja. This child is very 

Bandhec. Expedient, means, appli- 
ance, contrivance, device, strata- 

Kicrie banukanah, ma bandhej johme liama 
mente. There is no cloth, hit upon some 
expedient to get it 

Bandhi. A cog placed before a cart 
wheel to prevent its moving, a 

Cak bandhiena. The wheel has met with an 
obstacle, (a hitch has occurred in the arran- 

01 b9.ndhi. To mark out the pattern before 
beginning to tatoo. 

Bandhok. To pledge, to pawn, to mort- 
gage, to contract ; security, pledge. 

Noa jinia bandhokiii dohoeda. I pledge this 

Thgirill bandhok otolaKa. I pledged my brass 

Sudh bandhok. Usufruct in lieu of interest. 

Bandhoki. Pledged, pawned, mortga- 

Bandhoki jaegali hataokeda. I leased mortga- 
ged land. 

Bandhon. To exorcise, to charm, to tie, 
to bind ; a bond, a contract. 
Nui horili bandhonakadea. I have got this 

man under a contract. 
HoroK cikhna mil; lekan bandhon. Betrothal 
is a kind of contract. 

Bandi. A method of storing grain, &c. in 
straw, bound tightly round with 
straw ropes. 

Doa baro katkatele bandia. We put ten or 
twelve hats (q. v.) in one bandi. 

Bandi. A female animal with a docked 

Bandia. ") A male animal with a docked 
Banda. J tail, to cut off a piece. 

Ona maK ban(}i$ledaR bheja ho banar kulfr* 
hoko idi toraea. They take with them both 
pieces of the target which has been cut in 

Bandki. Mortgage. 

Sud b?mdki. Money lent on the security of 
land, the usufruct of which pays the in- 

Bandkia. A person with a gun. 

Bandna. A Hindu festival, observed 
in Kartik. 

Bando. The fruit of a large jungle 
climbing plant called Cihat (q. v.) 
Spatholobus Roxburghii, Benth. 

The seeds yield a valuable oil. 

Bandok. "(Big headed, and big 

Bandok satok. ) eyed. 

Bandor bai. Convulsions, during which 
the patient grinds his teeth, rest- 
lessness, St. Vitus dance, spasmo- 
dic contraction of muscles. 

Bandor gali. Cancrum oris, cancer of 

Bandor jhuti. 
Bandor kokhi. 

Bandor lauri. 

The fruit 'of the 
iula, Linn., 
is called the 

A medicinal herb. 

The monkey's shillalah. 

Indian laburnam, Cassia Ms- 

which resembles a short atick 

monkey's lauri (q. v.), or shill- 

Bandphora bin. A spotted snake 
which damages embankments by 
boring into them. 

Bandra. Notched, rough, pock-pit- 

Noa kat; bandragea. This wood ia rough. 

Bandud banduc. Having the upper 
part of the body unclothed. 

Okatem mohn^aena b^^nduc b^n^uc ? 

Banduk. A gun. 

Bar nali banduk. A double barrelled gun. 
Tota bg-nduk. A breech-loading gun. 
Aglagwa banduk. Gun fired by a fuse. 
C?.ku banduk. A weapon with a pistol at one 

end, and a knife at the other, 
fhehga bSnduk. A fuse gun resembling a 

walking stick, used to make a noise, not to 

Barcha banduk. Gun with bayonet. 

Ban. Not, no (asserting) ; to deny, 
to refuse. 

Hijukme, alom baiia. Come, don't say no. 
CeiCem disaakata, roram sem bail t Won't yon 

tell what you remember ? 
CedaK bam edrenkan ? Why are you angry p 
He khan hege, baiikhan baiige. If yes, yes, if 

no, no. (it is all the same.) 


[ 4.1 ] 


Wide, gaping ; a rent, a wide 

Bad ban. 


Rail bane oahapakana. Ho gapes widoly. 
Bail bail oreoaluuia. It is torn into a large hole. 

Ban do. . .bad do. Whether. . .or. 

Bail do noa katba ente, bail do ofagalc. Whether 

this story or another. 
Bail doe calaoena, bail do menaea, balS batjaea. 

I can't say whetht'r he has gone, or is here. 
Bail do rupen, bail do bail. 

Bangam. To finish, to do for, to make 
an end of, to become soft. 

Jel bahgamena, se bail ? Is the meat all eaten 

or not P 
Unile baiigamkedea. We did for him. 
Dal baigamkediiiae. He struck and iloorod me. 
Bahgam s9.tena. It is settled effectually. 

Bangaura. The seed of the cotton 

Bangorae. \ Black ; broad faced and 
Badgorak. J black. 

Bad-honec. Had... would not. 

B.>ii honej Habil lekae bhagekoKa ? 
Amem senlenkhan bail honed iA senkolta? If 
you had gone would not I also have gone. 

Badkhan. "j Or else, if not, otherwise, 
Badkhac. j- except, certainly, of 
Badkhan do. J course. 

CalaKaii baiikhan oct'iii oekaea. I will go, if 

not what wiU I do. 
Kante bahkhad pharia!? real? at banulianaii. 

Without medicine there is no chance of 

Mit gteri bahkhace hiiuRa. 
Ruar, bahkhan do ce£ iii cekaea ? I shall cer- 
• tainly return. 

Banki. An anklet worn by women 
and girls. 

Dare bahki. An orchid, Va^ida Roxbut-glUi, the 
leaf of which resembles in shape the anklet, 
and is split up the middle and worn by girls 
as an anklet. 

Bad ma. Employed in comp. to intro- 
duce a statement, that, that is to 
say, namely. 

Ondegeko metaea, baiima, sadom hoponko ba- 

Kukmue laiadea, bahma, nuf:ten dak nariii 

Kulikedeae, cekaKkanam biti mente, baiima, 

bah thiklA aikaueda. 

Badse.\Is it not so, assuredly, actually. 
Base. J really. 

Get' baiise babu, horee dale dalkedirta. Actually 
he struck me as you'thresh grain. 

4cli dinben bagi giijiatlea, base ? Is it not so, 
that you have left us for a long time ? 

Badsifl. A medicinal herb, Artetnisia 
parvijlora, Roxh. 

Badtel An emphatic form of l)ad 
(q. v.), certainly not, by no means. 

Paiitotuoii calaKa. I shall certainly not ko. 
Raiiti.t',io alom baiia, rebenme bare. Do not 
refuse out I'i^'ht, agree. 

Bania potole. A small pannier, a .small 
round bundle, anything of the shape 
of a small pannier. 

Banij. To trade, to obtain with some 
trouble, to search for, to pt^Tson- 
ally invite a daughter, or sister ; 
to personally call one to attend a 

Bani. Payment for services made in 
kind to oilmen, goldsmiths, &c. 

Banij bepar. To buy goods at one 
f)lace to sell at Liuother, to trade. 

Ado batiij beparko do phalnako kanako. 

Barjjha. M. ) ^ ,•,■,, 

T> Wu- Tji !• Barren, childless. 
Banjhi, 1. j ' 

Banki. Match, fellow, counterjoart , 
Scottice, miirroti'. 

Uni bgiukiii udnKapea, niki leka. I will shew 
you her fellow (whom she resembles in age), 
she is like this one. 

Banot. ]_ To agree, to be of one mind, 

Bonot. J to l)(,'. friendly. 

Uni tulud do k:ithabaii banotokkantiiia. P I do 
not agree with him. 

Banu. "I Not to be, not to exist, no- 



Banukkoa. They are not. 

Isorbanugea. God is not, (there is no God.)- 

Banukanah. There is none. 

Banugeiia hor do. I am done for, 

Banugican nondo do. He ie not here. 

Banua. Unsocial, solitary, hermit like. 

Banwar. A tree rat. 

Banwas. To go out of the way, to 
disappear, to be lost, to be spirit- 
ed away, separated from one's fa- 
mily, to live in the forest. 

Okate coe banwasena? Where can he have 
gone to ? 

Bonwat'}"^" ^''^''^P^® ''^*° j™^^''- 
Bao, Wind, breath, cholera. 

Bao bail calaKkantaea. He does not pass wind. 

Bao. Calamity, distress, fear. 

Bao basat. Calamity, trouble^ anxiety. 
Katiu gidra do cet' bao basat ho bah lagaoakoa. 

Little children have no anxiety. 
Bao basat boloakana, A calamity has befallen. 


[ 42 ] 


Baora. M.\j^^^^,j ^^^^jj ^^ stature. 
Bauri. b. j 

Baore. Cf. baiirl. 

Baosa. Cf. aosa baosa. * 

Baosao. \To persuade, coax, wheedle, 

Bhaosao.J cajole. 

Bap. 1 

Bapa. vFather. 

Bapu. J 

Bap dhon. A form of address to elders or supe- 
Nolcoe bap dhon, goden, gurenale. 
Bapoti dhon. Paternal estate, patrimony, heri- 
Bap dada. Forefathers, ancestors, progenitors. 
Bapa purkha. Ancestors. 

Bapadae. The reciprocal form of ba- 

dae. (q. v.) 
Bapag. The reciprocal form of bagi 

(q. v.); to separate as a husband 

and wife, to divorce. 
Bapagenakin. They are separated. 

Bapha. Advantage, fruit, return, be- 

Arjaoefrehole baphage bahle Tiameda. Al- 
though we get good crops we arc not bene- 
fited ( it all goes to the money lender.) 

Baphao. To steam, to cook by steam- 
Bapla. Marriage, wedlock ; to marry. 

Bapla biha. Marriage. 

Onkoko baplaKkan, arko goiie^ko tahekana. 
They were marrying, and giving in marri- 

Atoregeye baplaena. Hia bride was of hia own 

Forms of Marriage. 

Kirili balm bapla. 

Itui: bapla. 

Apaiigirko reaK bapla. 

Kora kuri kunijel Aapamkate bapla. 

]Sir bololi bapla. 

Jawae kirilioK bapla. 
Hirom eetan bapla. 
Tuhki dipil bapla. 

i)are bapla "J A marriage ceremony performed 
Band bapla 3 by the person who planted the tree, 
or dug the tank. 

Bapo. Father, an exclamation of sur- 
prize, used deprecatingly. 

Bapo bail doe calaoen, bail do menaegea, bapo. 
Hao bapo. An exclamation of sorrow ; alas ! 
B9.A calaRa bapo. 

Bapoti dhon. Patrimony, paternal in- 
heritance, heritage. 

Baptis. jrp^ baptize ; baptism, 
la. J '■ ' r 


Bapuric. Poor, miserable, modest, 
submissive, good natiired. 

Bapu thakur. God my father, an ad- 
dress in prayer, 

g^'"- JTwo. 
Barea. J 

Bar gel. Twenty. 
Bar isi. Forty. 
Bar jiwi. Pregnant. 

Mit' moca khon bar mocaena. It is no longer a 

Bar. To fast, to refrain from taking 
food, applied generally with re- 
gard to dogs. 

Up9.s barakat'ae. 

Bara. In comp. expresses frequency, 
continuance, habit. 

Nir barae kanae. He runs about. 

Dara bara dareaKae. He is able to go about. 

Apepe men baraeeda. Ton are in the habit of 

Ace liel baraUa, arsire. He will look at himself 

in the mirror. 

Bara. A pigsty. 

Sukri bara. Eingworm. 

Barabar. \Even, level, equal, regular, 
Barabari. J invariably, without change, 
always, incessantly, continually. 

Barabg^riko hijuKkana. They come continually. 
Barabar gotkam. Level it down. 
Barabarigeako. They are equal. 
Jiwi barabari tahentaea. Hia mind W4II be at 

p. '. }, ' "' [To gabble, to chatter. 

Barabari. Cf. barabar. 

Barae buru6. To rise in bubbles, to 
sparkle, as when the sun shines 
on water ; here and there. 

Bara6 burud. To go about, to run 
here and there, to go in and out, 
from place to place, to scatter ; 

Kami botorteye barad burue baraekana. He 
goes about from place to place through fear 
of having to work. 

Apan barae burudko oalaoena. They scat- 
tered each his own way. 

Barae. \ To know, to be cognizant of, 
Badae. / to estimate. 

Kst-} To know for certain. 

Barae daram. To foreknow, to fore see. 
Badaekate bae baridleda. Ho did not waste it 


[ 4:; 


Barag. Like, resembling. 

Iii do kakaA oyalfre guti baragili khataolena. 

I worked like a servant in my unole'a house. 
Noa dale do toa barag AeloKkana. This water 

looks like milk. 

Barahi. A thick rope. 

Baran baran. \ Brilliant, refulgent, as 
Barari burun"./ the sun's light before 
he appears above the horizon ; pale 
yellow, like the colour of a China- 

Baran burun. Gently, to sob, to draw 
long breaths when weeping, to 

Barahgi. Tang of arrow head, spear- 
head, &c. inserted into the shaft. 

Barangom. Two plants receive this 
name, one Vernonia cineria, 
Less., the other Glossogyne pin- 
natifida, D. C. 

Barao. To fast, to slake, or decom- 
pose, as hot lime ; to fall down, as 
earth in water. 

Naekeye baraoaka£a. The priest is fasting. 
Cun baraoKa. The lime will slake. 
Bunnm hasa lohoflenkhan barao godoK a. 

Bara pathol. A rather uncommon an- 
nual plant, Vernonia divergens, 

Baras baris. 1 Now and again, at inter- 
Baris baris. / vals. 
Barat. ") With great force, heavily, to 
Barat. J pelt, as large rain drops. 

Barat menteye dalkedea. He struck him a 

heavy blow. 
Barat barate daRkeda. The rain simply pelted. 

Baraudha. Gleanings of fish. 

After the water has been baled out the fish 
caught are divided equally among those 
concerned, after which each catches at his 
own hand. The fish thus caught are 'ba- 
r9.u(Jha' fish. 

Barbar. Cf. bara bara. 

Barbar. Said to a buffalo to make it 
lie down. 

Barchi. A spear. 

Bardak. With great force, or momen- 

Bafdak menteye liur go6ena. He fell with great 


Bardak bardak. 

Cf badrak badrak. 

A common grass, 
Panicum colon- 

Bardui-a6. A bat. 

Kahu bardnrud. The flying fox, the large fox 
bat, Pteropus Edwardei. 

Hon ,,' 

Bare. May, oh that ! please, do. 

Emallme bare. Do give it please. 

Ma bare calalfme. Do please go. 

Alo baye hoyoKma. May it not be. 

Uni bareye hijuK. Oh! that he would come. 

Bare. Cf bare dare. 

Barea. Two. 

Bare badwarak. ") 
Bari badwak. J 

um, Linn. 

Bare baha. A flowering plant found 
in the gardens ot the Santals, 
Pentapetes phasnicea, Linn. 

Bare bare. Often, time after time, 

Bare bare ariseditikanae. He is continually 
annoying me. 

Bare dare, The Banyan tree, Fious 
bengcdensis, Roxb. 

Barem. Thy brother. 
Bareii. My brother. 

Baret. His brother. 

Apa bare. A woman's father and brothers. 
ApuA bared. My father and brothers. 

Baretok. To be one of the party to ac- 
company a bride to her new home. 

Bargao. To suborn, to egg on, to set 
on, to put out of the way, as a wit- 
ness, or stolen property ; to put 
one on the alert, to give a hint 
on the quiet. 

Bargao goftadeae. He put him on the alert. 
Nui sipahi bargaoakawadeae, uni horre. He 
has this eipahi on the track of that man. 

Barge. A garden, a field. 

OraK barge. The garden or field in which the 

cultivator's house stands. 
Baher barge. An out-lying garden, or field. 
Barge potam. Cf . potam. 

Bargi. JTheMahrattas. 
Burgi. j 

Burgi biraj. Mahratta raiders. 

Barhao. To increase. Cf badhao. 

Barhet. A name of Abge bonga, (q. v.) 

Barhiao. ") To increase, to multiply, to 
Badhiao J grow. 

Bin ijhcr barhiaoen. The debt has greatly in- 


[ 44 ] 


Farm and stock. 

Barhon. Well grown, well developed, 
full grown. 

Barhonta. Growth. 

Barhonta khub hoyoKkantaea. He is growing 

Barhontar. Well grown, fully devel- 
oped, good conditioned. 

Onko khubbarhontarako. They are well grown. 

■o'' •' > House, household. 
Ban. j ' 

Cas bari. 
Cas bari 

Bari badwali ) A common grass, Pa- 
'Barehadwa.raM.fnicmn Colonum, Ln. 

The grain is eaten in times of famine and scar- 

Baria. The Bania caste, a shopkeeper 
or pedlar who sells salt, spices, to- 
bacco, &c. 

Baria. With difficulty, with very 
great difficulty, with extreme dif- 

Bari9,reko bohalena. They 'got work with dif- 
■ Acuity. 

Baria kandhum. A small bush, Phyl- 
lanthus lanceolarius, MiM-Arg. 

So called from the resemblance the frnit bears 
to the pads pedlars put on their heads under the 
baskets they carry. 

Baria kohnda. A species of jDumpkin. 

Bariao. Rich, affluent, wull-to-do. 

Bariat. Marriage procession from the 
bridegroom's house to that of the 

Barigitko. Those who compose the marriage 

Bariau. Rich, great, powerful, arro- 

Baric. Bad, wicked, ruined, destroyed, 
wasted ; to commit evil, to ruin 
destroy, waste. 

AmaKle bariiakat'a. 

Barieena. It is ruiued. 

Men barijeail. 

Adi baric. Very bad, very, extremely. 

Adi baric. Very many, very numerous. 

Adi b^rie joakana. There is much fruit. 

Baric. Almost, possibly. 

Dal barickedeali. I almost struck him. 
Sen bariioKaii. I may possibly go. 

Baric. An adjective or adverb pos- 
sessing intensifying force. 

Baric dal^ menal^a, noa pukhrire do. - There is 
much water in this tank. 

Baricem dareena. Tou are very strong. 
Bg-rid merom khg-si menaKkoa gada paromre. 

There are very many goats on the other 

side of the river. 

Baris baris. Now and again, at inter- 
vals, either longer or shorter. 

TD '^'^l'^' [-Crowded, populous. 
Barjao. J > r r . 

Noa atore adi barjao menakkoa. 
Noa ato do adi barjaoa. 

d'' ■J-, ■ >K bet, a washer, a forfeit. 
Barjit. J ° 

De b9,riitbon lagaoa. Come let us lay a forfeit. 

Barkac. Wittingly, knowingly, of set 
purpose, pretence ; to test, to prove, 
to feign. 

Barkadte bail laiiatmea. I did not tell you on 

Euarkate barkaoteye ru9.Rkan tahekana. She 
returned and feigned illness. 

Barkao. To hatch, as eggs of insects 
and reptiles. 

Tejo barkaoKa bele khon. Caterpillars hatch 
from eggs. 

Barket. \ Blessing, to be blessed, to in- 
Borket. J crease, or succeed through 
being blessed. 

Noudebon dakaea, nonde khub barketolca. We 
will cook here, there will be a blessing. 

Noam kamilekhan amak barket khub hoyoKa. 
If yon do this your blessing (profit) will 

be great. 

Barkhas. To dismiss. 
Nui gutiA barkhaskedea. I dismissed this 

Barkhet. C£ barket. 

Barki. A shawl or wrap made by sew- 
ing two widths of cotton cloth to- 

Barki. \ The first, or chief wife when 
Batki. J there are two or more. 
Barlanga mat. A species of bamboo. 

The nodes are far apart, and the hollow with- 
in the bamboo large. It is used to make 

Barlar mala. A double necklace of 

Barmaiigao. To desire, to determine, 
to set one's heart on a thing, to 
call, or send for a person, to pro- 
cure any thing by means of ano- 

CalaU l9.gii;i]i barmahgaoakawaua. I intend 

to go. 
Uni horili barmahgaoakawadea, jahan lisindi/i 

damlekhaniil. god utare. 


[ 45 ] 


Barmon. Double-minded, fickle. 

-n' , 'i' }■ A double-barrelled gnn. 

Barnan. 1 rn i • , , , 

T) > io explam, to relate. 

Bornon. J ^ ' 

Barnao. To recognize, to examine, to 

Uni hor bamaoem, oka karon kantaea. 
Examine the man, and see what disease he is 

Buffering from. 
Bali liel barnaoledea. I did not recognize him. 

Barni. ") A gregarious shrub growing to 
Varni. J a height of 3 or 4 feet, Gle- 
rodendron infortunatum, Linn. 

B^imi gajar. A thicket of ' Bgirni' bushes. 

Barni ghat. ") A ford on the Damuda 
Telkupi giiat. J river in Manbhum 
district, of Chutia Nagpur, where 
there are extensive ruins attribu- 
ted to the Jains. 

It is the custom of the Santals to take the ' jaii 
baha' (q. v.V of those who in life have been 
characterised by a fondness for music and 
jollity, to the Damuda at ' Barni ghat' and 
there consign them to a watery grave. 

Barni mela. ~) A largely attended year- 
Barni porob. J ly fair or mela held 
at Barni ghat. 

Baro bakhan. ^ To nag, to abuse, to 
Baro hunar. |- call names, to vili- 

Bisbakhan. J fy ; endlessly, '• by 

the dozen," all kinds. 

Baro bakhane egerkedilia. He gave me all 
kinds of abuse. 

Baromas. The whole twelve months, 
used to signify continuance, al- 

Baromas daK tahena, noa pukhrire. Water 
remains all the year round in this tank. 

Baromasia. All the year round. Cf 

Baromasia. The Green Bulbul, Phyl- 

lornis Jerdoni. 

Its oaU is said to resemole those of twelve differ- 
ent kinds of birds. 

Baron. To forbid, to taboo. 

HijuK iA baronakadea. I forbad him to come. 

Baro sotro. Lit. twelve and seventeen, 
at random, thoughtlessly, uncon- 

Baro sotro alom rora. Do not apeak like twel- 
ve and seventeen. (12 and 17 agree only so 
far as they ca^be divided by one.) 

Barphai. Pi-ofit, gain, benefit. 

Noa kfimiro bes barphai menaRa. There is good 
profit in this work. 

Barphara sakom. A double bracelet. 

Barsa pakor. 1 « ^.i i j. 

Barsapako. ] '^ '''''*1^*^^' ««i^mon plant, 

Grewia Campbellii, Watt. 

Barsi. A fish hook ; to catch fish with 
a hook and bait. 

Barsid orsiri. For the present. 

Bartan. Hideous, repulsive, ill-favour- 
ed, ill proportioned, monstrous. 

Bartan. A plate. 

Barte. To fix or agree to the date 
and place of a hunt, fishing ex- 
pedition, mushroom collecting ex- 
cursion, &c. 

Noa bir sondra lagiiJko barteakat'a. 

Barti. 1 More, exceeding ; to do more, to 
Barti. J exceed. 

Ape ce1;pe b^irtieda ? What do ye more (than 
others ?) 

Baru. A large tree, Schleichera tri- 
juga, Willd. 

The seeds yield an oil useful for cutaneous 

r. • • ' [• Gunpowder, blasting powder. 

Barudan. A large bullfrog. 

Baruj. C£ barud. 

Bas. Smell, odour, scent ; to smell, to 

Basaeme. Give him a smell of it. 

Bhoj basteye heuakana. He has scented out 

the feast. 
Baseilkana. I smell it. 

Bas. Age, the female breast. 

Bas. Dwelling place ; to place, to settle 

Noa atoreko basakat'a. They have settled in 
this village. 

Basa. Lodging, residence. 
Basan. To heat water. 

Basah daK. Hot water. 
Susum daR. Warm water. 
Basai) god. Water become cold after having 
been boiled. 

Basbas. Said to a dog to make it lie 

Base. Cf banse. 


46 ] 


Basgadi. To fix bamboos upright in 
the ground for ihe purpose of giv- 
ing possession of, or attaching 
land in pursuance of a decree of 
the civil court. 

Bas g?.Jiadii1ako. They put me in posaession. 

Basgadi. To settle permanently, to 
take up one's residence. 

Non^ele basgadiakana. We haye taken up our 
residence here. 

Basi. Stale, fusty. 

Basia. Dirty, as a pot in which rice 
has been boiled, not cleaned till 
next time it is used ; unimpregna- 
ted, as a Tassar silk moth. 
Tuktio alo^ dope dohoea, patniko basialf- 
kana. Do not leave your cooking pots dirty, 
the Tassar silk moths are not pairing. 

Basiam. Ten o'clock in the morning, 
when a light refreshment is par- 
taken of. 

Khara bg-ai^m. Half past ten, or eleven, when 

hunger begins to be felt. 
The name of this morning refreshment is from 

b?.si, (q. v.). Very often rice left from the 

previous day is partaken of. 

Baskari. To play a flute well. 

4-Ai bask?'TiKkanam. Ton are becoming a good 
flute player. 

Baskaria. An adept at the flute. 

Okoe baskgtriako oroh idietkana ? Who are the 
flute players who play as they go ? 

Baske. Left over from the previous 
meal, fusty, stale, unfinished. 

BaakeaK bar. 9 a. m. 

Baske daka. Rice left over from the previous 

Baske dakare loK hor. A modest confession 

of ignorance. 
Baske mara hor. A person who dies just as he 

ia about to enjoy the fruits of his labour. 
Ado noKoe baske mara do baiipe doholetlea. 
Baske man^a. A banner placed at a Hindu 

K?.mipe baskekeda. You have left your work 

Baske. One of the twelve Santal tribes 
or septs. 

Baste hoy. A person belonging to the Baske 

It is said that the progenitors of the Baske 
tribe when out on a hunting expedition 
cooked along with their supper sufficient 
tor next morning's meal, and on account 
of their eating stale rice, they were called 
Baske hor, " the men of stale rice." 

Baskhapao. Past middle age, used of 
women only. 

I To settle permanently in 
I a place; an inhabitant. 

He is an old resi- 


Mare boskotig. hor kanae. 

Basla. A small adze, a species offish, 
Basmati. A variety of the rice plant. 
Basna. A cup. 

Basna daJf . A cup of water ; met. hope'of receiv- 
ing some benefit or another. 

Mi{ basna daK reaK asre. In hope of getting a 
cup of water, (some benefit or other.) 

Busndi } A small fly, a midge. 

Basti. A village, a Paharia village, 

Bg.ati ato. A populous village. 

Easi b?isti. Wealthy and populous (as a village.) 

Basut. To think well of, to respect, 
to like, to approve of one, to care 
for, to take to, to bear love to, to 
attract, to obey. 

Bako bg-sutadiiia. They did not take to me. 
A(Jiye b?.sutaekana. He thinks well of him. 

Basut. Property. 

Ci] basut! ) ^""^^ ^"'^ chattels. 

Bat. Rheumatism. 

Ga^ihig. bat. Rheumatism of the jouita. 
Sir bat. Muscular rheumatism, 
fan bat. Sciatica. 

Bat. To share, to divide ; share, por- 

Bat bakhra. Share, particularly of ancestral 
property, or patrimony. 

Gruli baf. To cast lots. 

Khiori baf. A method of dividing the lands of 
a village in which no person gets two con- 
tiguous fields. 

Bat. A road, time. 

Bat liel. To look for, to expect. 
Dobatia. Where two roads meet. 
Baten bereua. It is late. 

XJniaK bafiii Ael horef kana. I am looking for 
his coming. 

Bata. ■) Exchange, discount, commis- 
Batta. J sion. 

Bata lagaoKa. Discount will be charged. 

Bata. A bamboo lath, a thin slip of 
bamboo, a piece of bamboo, &c. 
tied or nailed across to strength- 
en ; lattice work, interlacing. 

Andhari?. bata. A bamboo tied lengthwise 
half way between the eaves and ridge, to 
strengthen the rafters. 


[ 47 ] 

Biitui' satur 

Bata. A musical instrument of bell 
metal played by being struck 
with a small stick. 

Bata. A quail. 

DaK bata. A snipe. 

Bata. To blab, to blunder, to throw 
a stone in one's own garden, to 
put one's foot in it. 

Alom rora, tliirkottme. jahanalEem rof bata 

tanaft joiia. 
Sata lekau katha kana. 
Amtegem ror ba^aante kombroem hoeena, 

baiikhan hutkam ohoko menlema. If you 

had not blabbed you would not have been 

called a thief. 

Bataic. To be at the last gasp, to 
breathe heavily, as a person at 
the point of death. 

Batali bataerolckanae. He is breathing hia last. 
Batak batak lorao cabalenae. 

Eatan batan. ") To snap at, to reply 
Becer becer. J testily. 
Batao. To respect, to give heed to, to 
obey, to be effective, to heed. 

DalkederehS bae bataolaRa. Although he beat 

him he did not obey. 
Uni menteko bataokedea. They respected 

him as a prophet. 

Batar. Season, the proper time, state 
or condition ; seasonable. 

Batarre. In season. 

Tak batar lielte. Watching for a favourable 
time (for sowing.) 

Bebatar. Unseasonable, unfavourable condit- 

Batar. T Unwholesome, inducing ill- 

Batara. J" ness, injurious, sowing 

discord, breeding dissension. 

Batara katha. Talk fitted to cause dissension. 
Bheij'a jel am€ batafagea. Bam'a flesh is 
injurious to you, 

Bataric. Immature ; match, fellow. 
Bate. "I Court-yard of a house. 

Ale batere alom hnyeta. Do not enter our 
court-yard, i. e. do not come near us. 

Bathan. A temporary enclosure for 
cattle when taken to a distance 
to graze, a sheep fold. 

Bati. A metal cup or basin. 

Bati. A lamp wick, a lamp of Euro- 
pean manufacture. 

Batil. Excess, surplus, overplus, to 
exceed present need, not required 
for present use. 

Noa nahel batilgetamkhan den iii emalime. If 
this plough is not required for present use 
lend it to me. 

Batkara. 1 . ■ ■, , , • i •, , 
Batkhara. ) ^ ^^^'§^^*^ *^° ^^^^^ ^^*^- 
Bat katao. To mislead, to mistify by 
much speaking. 

Batkati. \Obstinate,self willed, fluent 
Batkatua. J in speech, talkative. 

Marah batkatug. hoy kanae. He is a very 
obstinate man. 

Batkhara. Cf batkara. 


cia. J 

The first wife. 

tic tumour. 

Batkia. The first wife > rt „„i„ *„., 
Chutki. The second wife, j " """^y *^°- 
Batkia. The first wife ~) 
MaAjhli. The second wife. >• If three. 
Chutki. The third wife. 3 

Batkunda. One who exaggerates, or 
draws the long bow, one who 
spins yarns. 

Marah batkunda hof kanae. He exaggerates 

Batlao. To shew, to point out, to in- 

K^mi batlaoalime. Shew me my work. 

Batol. "> Susceptible to injury from 
Bator. J eating certain foods, un- 
wholesome, inducing illness, or 

Am l^gii aiji batorgea. It is very unwhole- 
some for you. 
Am l^git bail batofa. It will not injure you. 

Batori. "1/^, ,- 
Baturi. ry^''' 
Batra. The pea. 

Batra dal. Split peas. 

Batrao. To germinate, to germinate 

Bail batraolena, aphor do. The seed dhan did 
not germinate well. 

Batri. A ornament worn by women 
on the second toe. 

Thisi. The guard of the ' b»tri.' 

Batu. ") A small bag used to carry 
Batua. / small articles in, such as 
money, tobacco, &c. 

Batua. M. 
Batwi. T. 

iig,^u^, b?itwikin calaoena. 

Baturi. Cystic tumour. 
Batur satur. "j Food left by others, re- 
Satur gatur. j- fuse from a feast, dirty ; 
Satur batur. J incomplete, as a narra- 

Batur s^tur alom joma. Do not eat leavings. 

Wanton, unchaste. 


[ 48 ] 


Batwi. Cf. batua. 

Bau. Used by children when playing 
the game of hide and seek, also 
by women to women to call atten- 
tion, also used in some instances, 
b}' a ' bala era' (q. v.) when saluting 
her ' bala herel.' 

Bauha. To be in season, said of ani- 

G^-iye bauhalckana. 

Bauhari. In season, of animals ; wan- 

Baula. The toe peg of a ' badha '(<!• v.) 
Baula bauli. Insane, off one's head, 

Baulaha. M. ") Mad, insane, cracked 
Baulahi. F. j pate, crazy. 

Nui maejiu baulahieute emanteaK baro sotroe 
ror halaiieda. This woman talks all kinds 
of nonsense because she is crazy. 

Baulau. Insane, mad, cracked, crazy. 
Bauli. To deceive, to blind, to pretend. 

Bauli calaoenae. 
E?ralikateye calaoena. 

Baundi. The second day of the Sakrat 
porob (q. v.) ; a crajffish. 

■p'' ■ . i^ ?• Foolish, stupid, ignorant. 

Baurl. To wind thread, as on the 
thumb and fore finger, in the form 
of the figure 8. 

Baurl. Cf baora. A female dwarf 

Bauii. A caste of semi-Hinduised a- 

Bayaban. A flood, a deluge ; to be lost, 
to disapj^ear. 
Bayabanenae. He baa disappeared. 

Bayan. To explain, to relate. 

Bayan. A jungle climbing plant, the 
root of which is eaten. 

Bayar. A male buffalo kept for brood- 
ing purposes, a rogue buffalo ; to 

Bayar sandi. A cock kept for breeding 

Baya^ buyut. To let out a secret, to 
let the cat out of the bag, to blab, 
to peach. 

Bayati buyut'e ror baraeeda. Ho is blabbing. 

Bayok. Cf bai. To be seized with 

Bayul. ] 

Bayul bayul. -Long, sweeping. 

Soyol boyol. J 

Bayul marteye donkeda, kul do. The tiger 

made a long spring. 
Bayul marte udauenae, j)inoar maraK do. The 

peacock flew sweeping away. 
Bayul bayule don idikeda, kul do. The tiger 

took a series of long jumps. 

Bazar. Cf bajar. 

Be. A privative particle denoting, 
v/ithout, not. 
Be-basut, be-batar, be-bhorsa. 

Beabron. ) Stripped, disgraced, asham- 
Beabruk. / ed, modesty outraged. 

Beabruk katha. Disparaging words. 

Kisar doe beabrukakana. The wealthy man is 

stripped of all his wealth. 
Beabrukkedeako. They treated him shamefully. 

Be-ad. Refugeless. without shelter, 

Be-ae. Without measure, or stint. 

Beaj. Interest. 

Beakul. Agitated in mind, perplexed. 

Beamda. Without any one to look to, 

or apjDly to. 
Bean. To explain, to narrate, to relate. 
Be-an. Without law. Cf an. 
Be-as. Without hope, hopeless. Cf as. 
Be-at. Without opportunity. Cf at. 

Bebak. All, the whole, wholly, with 
out exception. 

Bebaric. Many, much ; an adjective 
or an adverb with intensifying 

Bebg^riii horbo jarwalena. Many people were 

Bebariee dalkedea. He beat him severely. dak oalaKbana. Much water is flowing. 
Bebariee edrelena. He was very angry. 
Beb^rioe ral^keda. He wept bitterly. 
Bebarije darkeda. He ran very swiftly. 
Bob?.rio noa kat maJijana. This log has a 

large amount of heart wood. 
Bebarioko tapamlena. They fought fiercely. 
Bebariokin galftea. They are fast friends. 
Bebaric takako emkeda. They gave a vast sum 

of money. 
Bobaride kisara. He is enormously rich. 
Bebariiie rehgecena. He is extremely poor. 
Bebai-icko ^andomkedea. They fined him 

Bebariee .setoheda. It is excessively hot. 
Bebai-ide dam^^f kana. Ho prices it very high. 


[ 49 ] 


Be-basut To be displeased with, to 
disapprove, to reject, to dislilie ; 

Bebe. To croak, as a frog in the rains. 

Be-batar. Unseasonable, out of season. 

Bebe rote. A species of frog. 

Be-batao. To disregard, to disobey. 

Bebha. Cf. bembha. 

Be-bhagan. Unfortunate, unlucky. 

Bebhaok. To bleat. 

Bebhar. To disgrace, to cause shame. 

PeraVo gignadillae, bebharkediliae. He brou- 
ght friends to me, ajid disgraced me (as I 
had no food to give them.) 

Bebhorom. To outrage one's modesty, 

Be-bhorsa. Disappointed, hopeless. 

Bebosa. To divide, to share, to appor- 

Ma daka bebosaepe. Come, divide the rice. 

Be-bostor. Without clothing, scantily 
clad, clothing worn out. 

Bebrel C£ berei 

Be-buj. Without understanding, fool- 
ish, simple. 

Be6. To vomit, to be sick, used main- 
ly of children. 

Toa beokedae. He vomited milk. 

Becara. Poor, unfortunate ; to be pitied. 

Be-cas. Landless, having no land to 

Becbedrec. ") . • e i. r i 

T> 'Y^ j t' 1 species 01 water fowl. 

Becbedrec. ) Small, of no inportance, 
Becbedrel / insignificant. 

Noko beobeijreo hor ce^ko oeka dareaKa ? What 
can these insignificant people do ? 

Becer becer. Cf batan batan. 

Bed. The Vedas, the Hindu sacred 

Bed. Adverse influence or hindrance 
of a supernatural kind. 

Bed lagaoena. A supernatural adverse influ- 
ence is at work. 
Bed katao. \ To remove the adverse influence. 
Bed guog.u. 3 or hindrance. 

Bed bidhi. Cf bed. 

Be<Ja. Level ground along the bank of 
a river, lower than the surroun- 
ding country. 

Beda. To deceive, to mislead, to pre- 
Hoy bedae ror bajaeeda. He speaks deceiving 

Bedan. To travail in child biith. 
Bed bede. Broad faced. 

Bedea. The name given to those San- 
tals who refused to accompany 
the rest of the tribe when they 
fled from Campa through fear of 
Madho Sin. 

Bedec bedec. Cf bidic bidic. 

Bedha. Cross giained, 

Bedhao. To wrap round, as a girdle, 

or a bandage. 
Bedharak. An adjective or an adverb 

possessing intensifying force. 

Bedharak horko jarwalena. There was a vast 

concourse of people. 
Bedharake arelkeda. A fierce hail storm. 
Bedharak joakana. Heavily laden with fruit. 

Be-dhob. Shapeless, ugly, inartistic. 

Bedhor. Knotty, crossgiained, unso- 
cial, unsympathetic, hard, tedious, 

Bedhor hor kanae, efaK hor saote bao gatelfa. 
He is an unsocial person, he makes friends 
with none. 

Noa kat do bedhorgea. This log is cross- 

Bedin. peathen. 

Bedha. Pain, grief 

Bedod. To make a slip, to mistake, 
to overlook. 

Eor bedookedali. I made a slip of the tongue. 
Oka then con bedoo hoeen, teheA do cele ho 
babon goeletkoa. 

Be-dokhol. To dispossess, to evict. 

Bedokholkediiiam. You have dispossessed me. 

Bedon. Pain, grief distress. 
Bedred. Small, insignificant. 
Beg. A bag, a portmanteau. 
Beg. To stretch forward the body or 
arm, to lean upon. 

Begkate tiogme. Stretch out and reach it. 

Be-gadnao. To show disrespect to 
elders or superiors. Of gadnao. 


[ 5t) ] 


Begar. Separate, different ; to Separate, 
to divide the paternal inheritance, 
after which the sons set up on 
their own account. 

Begarenale. We have separated. (We have 

no longer things in common.) 
Begarge lieloKkana. It looks different. 

Begar. "j Forced labour without pay 
Begari. |- exacted by the Zemindars 
Bithi. j from their ryots. 

Beg?iriye kgimi ocoefkoa. He compels them to 
work without pay. 

Bithiko senakana . 

Mil} kos calak begare gapmekhan. If he com- 
pels you to go one kos. 

Begbege. Wide apart. 

Begbege tengoakanae. He is standing with 

his feet far apart. 
Mooa or begbegetaeme. Pull his mouth wide. 

(said to one who speaks too much.) 

Begor. Without, except, besides, in- 
dependent of. 

Begor sikate. Without ploughing. 
Iii begor ce-C ho bape ceka dareaKa. Without 
me ye can do nothing. 

Behaj."! Expressive of wonder, or as- 
Bejae. J- tonishment ; much, astonish- 
Behal.J ing, amazing. 

Adiii haharakkana, behai bam ilel oromakade. 
Behaj nixeiban hor kanali cele. 

Be-hal. To be ruined, destroyed, dis- 
tressed, unfortunate, to become 
poor, to lose all one's property ; 
unserviceable, damaged, worn out, 
used up. 

Behal. Cf. behaj. 

Be-hephajot. To neglect, not to take 
care of ; uncared for. 

Nui gidr?i do behephajotenae. This child is un- 
cared for. 

Be-hirla. To have no one to trust, or 
look to for help. 

Behirlalenako. They had no one to whom they 
could look for help. 

Behod. Dull, slow, thick-headed. 
Behoj. Cf behaj. 

BehojkeU dom ! 

Be-hok. Unjust, partial. 
Behol. Cf behaj. 
Behor. Hard, difficult. 

Ar okoekoak p9.rsi ^.nari ar behorgea, onko then 
do bah, onkoali p9.rsi do ente ohom bujh^iu 

Be-hor. Unmarried, without a wife. 

Behoran hor kanae. He has not got a wife. 

Be-hor. Pathless, a tedious, difficult 

T>- 1 ' > Unconscious, forgetful. 

Be-hudis. Thoughtlessly, carelessly. 

Behurmat. ") To outrage one's modesty, 
Bemurwat. ) to treat one shame- 
fully, to disgrace. 

Behurmatkedete eken tiko laga got'kadea. 
They shamefully treated him and sent him 
away empty-handed. 

Be-hus. C£ behos. 

Be-husnak. Ugly, unadorned, plain, 
Be-hut. \Submissive, gentle, unasser- 
BehHth. J tive, obedient, oppressive. 

Bejae. An adjective or an adverb pos- 
sessing intensifying force ; very, 
excessive, exceedingly, &c. &c. 

Bejae thonok ar adi moilj sade gotena. It 

sounded sweetly and harmoniously. 
Bejae atetkanae. He strives vigorously. 

Be-jaega. To evict one from his land, 
or house, to take one's land from 
him, to be landless. 

Jaega khon bejaegakediJiae. He evicted me 
from my farm. 

Be-jan. "Without knowing, ignorantly, 
unintentionally, accidentally. 

Bejanill tuiiledea. I shot him accidentally. 

Bejar. To suffer from an attack of 
fever, to be ill. 

Bejarenae. He has fever. 

Beje beje. Loquacious, garrulous. 

Beje buijhi. A garrulous old woman. 

Bejek bejek. Foul, as a suppurating 
sore ; liquid filth. 

Bejelgak. Disgusting, unpleasant to 
the sight, as a sore. 

Bejha. Target, mark to shoot at ; to 
shoot at a target. 

Ma bejhaepe. Shoot at the target. 
Bejha tuilpe. Shoot at the target. 

Bejha. To put another forward, to lay 
the blame on another, to shield 
oneself at the expense of another, 
to blame. 

Sanam hortele galmarao miUkeda, ili geko 
bejhakedilia. We all agreed to it, and they 
have put all the blame on me. 

Be-juri. ") Odd, unequal, not in unison, 
Be-juri. J as two flutes. 


[ 51 ] 

Bendai ) 

Be-kam. Useless, inefficient. 

Bekar. Uncomfortable, malodorous, 

Beke beke. ") Said of children quarrel- 
Tere tere, J ling, to squabble. 

Beker bendan. Swollen, puffed up, 
bursting, as a seed begun to ger- 

Bel. To establish, to place a bed, stool, 
&c. for use, to spread a mat, &c. 

Parkom belme. Place the bed on its feet. 
F9.ti9,ko belafkoa. They spread mats for them. 

Bel. Level. 

Bel ot. Level ground. 

Bela. Time, the sun. 

Kubelaena. It is late. 

Selabela. Time after time, continually, often. 

Belaorija. A common weed, Gcesulia 

axiUari.s, Roxb. 
Belaur. The onyx. 
Beldar. A semi-Hinduized caste of 

earth diggers, a navvy. 

Bele. An egg ; to lay eggs ;. testicles. 

Ghorao bele. Egg turned with sitting. 
PhokoK bele. An addled egg. 
Bele bu8?.K. To hatch. 

Potambele. Two small stars very close to each 
other, near Vega, in constellation Lyra. 

Bele. To ripen. 

Bele jail. Klpe grain. 

Gelelc beleK din. Harvest drawing near. 

l^l^H^Zna, ]0-"'P- 

Bele lahaena. "1 

Bele lambaoeua. > Over ripe, so as to be useless. 

Bele boramena. J 

Goso bele. 1 To ripen after having been pluck- 

Borea bele > ed. 

Bele. To gather, as an abscess, to sup- 
purate, to mortify, to fester ; pus, 
matter, discharge. 

Toa bele. Suppurating breast, milk abscess. 
Balke€khan bele to^ena. When it had been 

punctured the matter escaped. 
B3le kombroio. The egg stealer, a star so 

called, probably Vega. 

Bele botke. The yolk of an egg ; met. 
a small, young, insignificant crea- 

Bele botke ce€e Ijiama? What can this child 
say to you ? 
, Bele botke dom agiiakadea. You have brought 
a small insignificant thing, (as a very small 
chicken for sacrifice). 

Beleii beled ? Skin tender in appearance 
and soft to touch. 

Be-lctuc. Impossible. 

Belkec. Strong, healthy, lusty, applied 
to infants. 

Khub belkod gidr?. kanae. He is a very heal- 
thy child. 

Belkeil. Young, fresh, as leaves ; an in- 

Belna. To roll dough into thin cakes. 

Belok. To separate ; different. 

Belok beloke sirjauketkoa. He created them 
species by species. 

Belted. A child of a month or six 
week's old, callow, unfledged. 

Bale belteii. An infant. 

Bemal. Useless, spoilt, ruined. 

Mai dom bemalkedetaea. Ton have ruined his 
property (bullock). 

Beman. ") To shew disrespect to, to re- 
Bemani. J proach, 

Alem bemaneBlea. Ton show disrespect to us. 

Be-manot. Disrespect, dishonour. 

Bemar. Without relatives, without 

Bembha. A simpleton, a muff. 

Bemblaha. A fool, an ignoramus. 

Bemurad. Without relatives, without 

Bemurwad. To disgrace, to outrage 

one's modesty. 
Bena. A common grass found near tanks 

and other moist situations, Anclro- 

pogon muricatus. 

Benahak."! Uselessly, causelessly, fruit- 
Benohok. V lessly, vainly, for no 
Benhak. J purpose. 

Benahakifi heaakana. I have come in vain. 

Benao. To make, to prepare, to fully 
develop, to be of good behaviour. 
Cf, banao. 

Gidra bae benaolena. The child has not deve- 
loped well (in body or mind). 

Benaphul. A variety of the rice plant. 
Bed bed. Peevishly ; to blubber. 

Gidrg. do bell be<ieralfeda. 

Bene. A bench, a form. 
Bendao. To destroy, to waste, to kill 
to die, to depart this life. 

Benijaoenae. Ho is dead. 
Katem maK ben(|laokeda. You have cut and 
wasted the log. 


[ 52 ] 


Bended. To fasten garment round 

waist of children. 

BendeJi kamali. I will fasten your cloth round 
your waist. 

Bender. Not completely husked, not 
well cleaned, as rice of husk. 

Bender. To slightly abrade but with- 
out fetching blood. 

TuA benderalcadeail, nui kulai do. I shot at 
and abraded the skin of this hare. 

Bendrec, C£ betret'. 
Bendret. Small, insignificant. 

Bendret' mara gidrgi. Bothersome little thing. 

ene. ) ^^ enemy ; to be at enmity. 
Jtsenea. J 

Bene b?.iri. An enemy, enemies. 

Benei A stopper, a lid, the accrescent 
calyx of certain fruits as that of 
Diospyros tomentosa, the terel. 
From bet! (q. v.) 

Bengar. The Egg plant, or brinjah 
Solanum Melongena, Linn. 

Hende bengar. ^ 

Pon<J (Ji'Jpls?' beiigar 1 

Soelabehgar. r Varieties of the Egg 

Koroe beiigar. I plant. 

Kajri beiigar. 

Bengal- betahef. A wild plant resem- 
bling the Egg jjlant, Solanum 
stramonifolium, Jacq. 

Bengel To open the eyes, to awake, 
to gaze, to look, to stare. 

Alom beiigeiJakoa. Don't look at them. 

Eipit japite beiigefeda. He blinks. 

Mi£ beiige^ge menaiia. I ha¥e not closed my 

Benge« phariaenae. 7 jj ; f^■^■^ ^^^^^_ 
Benget pharnaoenae. ) ■' 

Befjgo narl. A common climbing 

plant, Dioscorea bulbifera, Linn. 

The roots and aerial tubers of this plant are 
eaten as a food, especially in times of 

Benparsi. To desert one side for an- 
other, to run with the hare and 
hunt with the hounds ; a turncoat. 

Beiiparsi got'enae. He changed sides. 

Benhok. C£ benahak. 
Benjak. Small, unimportant, insig- 
nificant ; a small piece, a scrap. 

Mi€ beiijaK ill emadea. I gave him a scrap. 
Berijalf mara hor. An insignificant person. 
BerijaK aeraK gidrg. g^iji teo ^eoKkanae. 
BeiijaK seret' gidra cei non(Je dom liamkana ? 

Benjak. Rheum from the eyes. 

Berijan biiijiri. Neither one thing nor 
the other, confused, a jumble. 

Berijan bifijiliko ruieda. What they are play- 
ing on the drum is a mere jumble. 

Berijaii birijilie laiadiria, bail bnjhg.ulet'taea. 

She jumbled it up so in telling me I could not 
make out her meaning. 

Benjlan. Small, unimportant, insigni- 
ficant. Cf. benjak. 

Bentar. A method of wearing the sari. 
Cf. bande. 

Beocao. To displease, to cause to sulk. 

Beohar. Usage, practice, custom, con- 
duct, behaviour ; to comport one- 
self, to behave, to conduct one- 
self; to use. 

Beora. A hitch, mishap, calamity, 
accidental delay, press of business, 

Noa beorareil paraoena. This hitch has occur- 
red to me. 

Ce^ beora kantapea ? Narta (q. t.) What are 
you engaged in ! A christening. 

Bepar. To trade, to traffic, to buy 
and sell. 

Pher bepar. Buying and selling. 

-D " •' [■ A merchant, a trader. 
Beparia J 

Be-phaeda. Unprofitable, useless, pro- 

Noa k^mi do bephaedagetapea. This work 
will bring you no profit. 

Beporbhae. Fearless, obstinate, self- 

Beporloe. An adjective or an adverb 
possessing intensifying force ; many, 
a large number, &c. 

Beporloe hor menaKkoa. A large number of 

Beporloeye daKkeda. It poured a deluge. 
Beporloe joakana. Heavily laden with fruit. 
Beporloeye dalkedea . He beat him mercilessly. 
Beporloe oas hoeakana. A bountiful harvest. 

Ber. Time, the sun, opportunity, the 
distance between the -sun and 
the horizon. 

Ber rioKkate. When the morning advances 
a little. 

Eimil iate ber bam riel liamea. Tou will not 
see the sun for clouds. 

Ber hasurenae. The sun has set. 

Ber ma henaege. The sun has not yet set. 

Bsr rakap see. The East. 

Mit (Jail berreko seferena. They arrived when 
the sun was one dang's length from the hori- 
zon (daii a pole 10 or 12 feet long.) 


t 53 ] 


Ber. Some occult adverse influence, 
super-natural hindrance. 

Bey lagaoena. Some oooult adverse influenoe 

is at work. 
Ber katsome. Cause the adverse influenoe to 

be removed, (by oharm or spell.) 

Eer. A method of catching fish by 
throwing nets from all sides, or 
surrounding them by stake nets. 

Adi ut»r hakoko berket'koa. They netted very 
many fish. 

Ber. Distance between the thumb and 
little finger when stretched. 

Bound timber is measured by the ber. 

Bera. Cf. bela. 

Bera biri. Round about, in all direc- 

Bera biri beiigef baraeedae. He is looking 
round about, (as a startled deer.) 

Beraji.") Displeased, unkind, not well 
Beroj. J affected towards another, 

Beran. Colourless. 
Be-rar. Out of time, out of tune, as 

a musical instrument. 

Berbad. Throivn away, destroyed, laid 
waste, ruined, squandered. 

SanamaK berbadena. All is thrown away. 
Caltem berbadkeftiAa P Why did you destroy 
my (work, &c.)? 

Bgrbak. Incorrect, mispronounced, un- 
idiomatic, faulty, mis-used. 

Berband. To seize cattle, or other 
property to pay debt, or money due. 

Berband. A saddle girth. 

Berdor. ~) A small bush, Combretuvi 

Bhursa. j nana. 

Bgrg bgrg. Out of tune, tune incorrect- 
ly sung, or played ; shrill. 

Alom here bereKa. Don't sing out of tune. 
Noko do sid' satup here bereko kaphari9.uK- 

Berel. Raw, unripe, uncooked, fresh, 

Berel daK. Cold water. 

Ghao berelolf kana. The wound is becoming raw. 

Berel ghao. A raw sore. 

Cabake^ali kathaarhSko berel rug.rkeda. They 

opened up the subject afresh. 
Kiorioko berel dagtakoa. They wash their 

clothes in cold water. 
Berel dagoRiii oalalfkana. I am going to bathe. 

Berel. To dwell, to take up abode. 

Berel thao. Dwelling place. 
De, alethen bereloKpe. Come, take up your 
residence in our village. 

Berejijo. A hedge plant, Thevitia 
neriifolia, Juss. 

Berei!) phul. A pretty flowering plant, 
Gyathocline lyrata, Cass. 

Beret. To rise, or stand up, to arise 
from sleep, to get up, to raise any- 
thing to an upright position. 

Beretme. Get up. 

T?.mbu beredme. Pitch the tent. 

Jiwei beredoK. The resurrection. 

Bgrg tirio. A kind of bamboo flute. 
Berga. Small of stature, under-sized, 
as an ox &c. 

Berga ijahra okaenae. Where is the under- 
sized ox P 

Berhae. \Round about, all round ; to 
Berhaete. J encircle. 

Berhaeteko dara acurkeda. They went all 
round it. 

Berhon. Daily wages paid in kind to 
agricultural labourers. 

Berkeii. Lounging, loafing, standing 
about without any thing to do. 

Bejrkeiie tehgoakana. He is standing looking 
idly on. 

Bernbak. Cf bgrbak. 
Berod. Out of temper, sulky. 

Uni gidrgi doe borodgea. That child is sulky. 

Beroj. Cf beraji. 

Beron. Unseasoned, without season- 
ing, or condiments, as food. 

Utu do beroiigea. There is no seasoning in the 
relish (utu, q. v.) 

Be-ron. Colourless. 
Beros. Vexed, displeased, indisposed, 
not of one mind. 

Uni tnlue berosgeae. He is displeased with 

Teheri do berosgeli afkareda hormore. I feel 

indisposed in body to-day. 

BerSt duk. Any disease, or illness the 
name of which is not known; 

Ber5ti. Cramp in the stomach, gener- 
ally said of domesticated animals. 

Bertha. Vainly, fruitlessly, futile, 
bootless, unprofitable, to no pur- 

Bali berthalcna. I was not baffled. 

Bertha do ball calaKa. I will not go on a tool's 

Bertha do alom araga. Don't fire until you are 
certain of your aim. 



Be-rup. To change, or alter appearance> 
or form ; to disfigure ; shapeless. 

Bes. Good, well ; to improve, to reco- 
ver from illness, to heal, to cure. 

BeaoKgeJi Aamtana. I wish to get well. 
Beakamali. I will cure you. 

Bes do ball metama. I will not commend you, 

Bes otoete. Efficiently, effectively, thoroughly. 

Bes barakatkoale. We healed their divisions. 

Be-sabab. Without a reason. 
Be-sagun. Ill-omened, an evil omen. 
Besaha. To traffic, to sell, to dispose 

Turi besahae aenakana. He has gone to sell 
mustard seed. 

Be-sajon. \ Ugly, unadorned, unfinish- 
Be-sajonta.J ed, unsuitable. 

Be-sak. C£ be-sok. 

Besao. 1 To mimic, to mock, to follow 

Bhesao. J suit. 

Besok. Displeased. 

Be-sok. \ Assuredly, without doubt, 

Be-sak. J certainly. 

BsBok iJi calaKa. I shall most certainly go. 

Besra. One of the twelve tribes or 
septs into which the Santals are 

Besra bayar. Cf . bayar. The Besra have the 
reputation of having been at one time very 
licentious. Tradition has it that they were 
separated from the others owing to the im- 
moral behaviour of their eponym, who was 
called Besra, the licentious one. Besra 
bayar is apparently a gloss on the original 

Besrom. Stubborn, self-willed, disobe- 

Cele besrom kan coe roraK ho bae alijoma. 

Bestok. To importune, to entreat, to 
clamour for. 


ithaon. 1 
3thon. j 

To wind bobbins. 

Bothoniil calaUkana, jolha orakte. I am going 
to wind bobbins at the weaver's house. 

Beth begar. Forced labour. 
Bethikan. Without certainty, unlimit- 

Besumar. Countless, unlimited, that 
cannot be described. 

Besumare dgirkeda. He ran like the wind. 

^ery deep, bottomless. 

Bet'. To blind fold, to cover the eyes, 
to put on a lid, or cover ; to cover. 

Kicricteye bet' esetena. He has covered his 

eyes with his cloth. 
Tite bedoKme. Put your hand over your eyes. 
Tukucreko beda. They cover up (the article) 

in the pot. 
Tukuoe betkat'ge. He closed the opening of 

the pot, i. e. put on the lid. 

BSt. A cane, a rattan. Calamus Ro- 
tang, Linn ; to flog with a cane, 
stroke of a cane. 

Bar iai bete liawaua. He received 40 strokes 

with a cane. 
Betkedeako. They flogged him with a cane. 

Beta. Son, an affectionate form of 

Jawae beta. A bridegroom. 

Be-tabe. Free, independent. 

Bet bel A game played by children, 

Betha. Inflamation of lungs, or mem- 
branes thereof 

Betha. Pain ; to pain one in body, 

or mind. 
Be-thah. ") ,t 
Be-than. j 

Bethar. To sit ; employed generally 
in conjunction with dump (q. v.) 
Celate cat;i9.te durupen befharen. 

Bethaura. To watch, to superintend. 

TJsed mainly of a person who has made over 
thread to a weaver to be made into cloth, 
and who sits beside him until the cloth is 
woven, to see that his thread is] not made 
away with. 

Be-thik. ~| Incorrect, faulty, uncomfor- 
Ban. thik.j table. 
Be-thir. Restless ; unrest. 
Betiar. Drawn up, unstretched. 

Betkec. Weak, tender, young, callow. 

Bale betked. An infant. 

Nui betkede arisakat'a. This infant is annoying. 

Beton. Pay, wages. 
Betrel Small, insignificant. 

Betre^ mara gidra. A bothersome, insignifi- 
cant child. 

Beyakaran. Grammar. 

Beyan. \ Explanation, relation ; to ex- 
Bean, j plain, to relate. 

Bhab. Friendship, love, sorrow, anxiety. 

XJnkin do aiji bhabtakin. They are very friendly. 
BhaboKkanakin. They are enjoying each other's 

Uni do ?(Ji bhab boloadea. He had very great 


[ 55 J 


Bhabi. To grieve, sorrow. 

Guni hhabiK . To grievo over, to sorrow over, 

to brood over. 
Nonka gunibhabi gunibligibitoyo laha idiena. 

Bhabna. To sorrow, to grieve ; sorrow, 

Bebarieili bhabnaena. I am exceedingly sor- 

Maejiu do gidr^ joiire bhabna menaKtaea. A wo- 
man wnen in travail hath sorrow. 

Bhabrao. To induce, to instigate, to 
lead away by false pretences, to 

TJniaK bhabraoteli senena. I went at his ins- 

Bhabrao idikediilae, takaii emama. He be- 
guiled me by offering me money. 

HoraR bhabraoteri hedena. 

Bhabri. A small bush, Evihelia 
robusta, Roxh. 

Bhacam bhucum. Idle, lazy. 

Bhaoam bhucumem dara baraekana. You go 
loafing about. 

Bhacad bhucud. Restless, always on 
the move, unable to remain still. 

Bhac bhac. To chatter, to prate, to 

Bhacbhace roreda. He chatters. 

Bhac bhacao. \To chatter, to prate, 
Bhoc bhocao. J to gabble, to speak 
at random ; loquacious. 

Bhac bhuc. To go here and there, to 
keep out of the way. 

Bhac bhuc baraekanae. She goes about goasip- 

Bhackao. To chatter, to prate, to talk 
nonsense, to speak at random, to 
speak as an insane person. 

Bhacka bhacki. Tot alk idly, or obscene- 
ly, as an insane person. 

Bhacka bhg.ckiye rora. 

Bhacko. Talkative, glib, used mainly 
of girls and young women. 

Marah bhacko kanae. She is a great talker. 

Bhad. ■) To make a pattering noise, 

Bhad bhad. J as a shower of fruit from 

a tree ; to patter, as hail stones ; to 


Bhad bhadkin darkeda. They ran pattering 

Bhad bhade arelkeda. The hail pattered. 
Bhad mente liurena. It fell pattering. 

Bhad bhud. ) To fall with a thud, to 
Bhad bhud. J thud. 

Bhad bhud riuroKkana. They fall with a thud. 

Bhades. To be haughty, or supercil- 
ious, to spurn, to depreciate, tc» 
look down on, to revile. 

Tu^r gidra alom bhadeskoa. 

Kaimi realie bhadosedi^kana. 

Bbados katbae rofadiria. He reviled me. 

Horko samahro 9i<Jiyo bhodeskediAa. Ho revil- 
ed me before all the people. 

Bhadet bhadet. Knock-kneed, to 
walk as one weak in the knees. 

Nui hoy do bha(Je£ bha^ete tafamefkana. Thia 
man knocks his knees when be walks. 

Bhadial. Knock-kneed. 

Bhadi9,l bha4i*le calaK kana. 

Bhado. Cf bhador. 
Bhadoo hero. Rice that ripens in the 
month Bhador, Augst-Sept. 

Bhador. The fifth solar month, August- 

Bhador khoroo. A veiled name for & wild 
pigeon, or a quail. 

Bhador jhapni. A very small sensitive 
plant, common during the rains, 
Biophitutn sensiiivum. 

Bhadra. Loquacious, talkative, tongue 

never at rest. 
Bhadra. Crops ripening in Bhador 

(q. V.) 
Bhadu. A forest tree, Vitex alata, 

Bhadu. A idol made by the Hindus 

in the month of Bhador (q. v.) 

Bhag. To divide, to share, to appor- 
tion ; a share, a portion. 

Bhagkoaii. I will divide them into parties. 
Mit bhag emadme. Give me one share. 

Bhag. Fate, fortune, chance. 

Bhagte. By chance, scarcely, no sooner than. 
AmaK bhagte nui gidra doe hoeakana. 
Oka bhagiii calaKa. What chance have I to go. 
Sehgel oka bh^gpe iric dareaKa ? What chance 

have you of putting the fire out ? 
Bhagteye jomkeda, adoe calao gotena. 

T,, -^ ■ >■ Blessed, fortunate, lucky. 
Bhagman. J > j 

Dayakko geko bhg.gan, ente onbo do dayaakoa. 
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive 

Bhagao. To overcome, to conquer, to 
gain victory. 

Bhagaokodeail , I conquered him. 
Dareenali, uniye bhagaoena. 

Bhagao. To divide, to divide into 
shares, or pieces. 

Nui merombon bhagaoea. We will divide this 
goat into pieces (for convenience of sale.) 


[ 58 


Bhagat. A vegetarian. 
Bhage. Good, well. 

Bhage hor. A good man. 
Bhagegeye rorlaKa. He said well. 

Bhagete. An adverb or an adjective pos- 
sessing intensifying force. 

Bliageteye dalkedea. He beat him severely. 
Bhagetekin k^plig.ri9,uena. They quarrelled 

Bhageteye egerkedea. He abused him violently. 

Bhage sahltte. Carefully, well, dili- 
gently, effectually, minutely, give 
one's mind to. 

Bhage sahitte disgi dohoeme. Treasure it up 
in your mind. 

Bhafidar. } ^ '^^'^®^' ^ P^^*^^^' 
Bhag jat. A system of cultivation in 
which the cultivator supplies the 
cattle, implements and labour, and 
receives one half of the produce. 
Bhagin. Niece. 

Deo bhg.giQ. A man's sisters and their children. 

Bhagna. Sisters' children, nephews 
or nieces. 

Bh^gnad. My nephew, or niece. 

Bhagnaii kora. My nephew. 

Bh^gn^ii kuri. My niece. 

Bhagnam. Thy nephew, or niece. 

Bhagnam kora. Thy nephew. 

Bh9.gn9.m kuri. Thy niece. 

Bh^gnat, bhg.gn9itte£. Hia nephew, or niece. 

Bhagnitkora. His nephew. 

Bhg,gnat kuri. His niece. 

Bh?.gniii. My niece. 

Bhagnim. Thy niece. 

Bhgignitte^. His niece. 

Bhagni. To be overcome, to withdraw. 

Bhagnienae. He is overcome. 

Bhagwa. A narrow strip of cloth pas- 
sed between the thighs, and tuck- 
ed into a waist string (doi'a q. v.) 
before and behind, to conceal the 
privy parts ; a piece of male attire. 

Bhai. (1) Brother. (2) Or, whether. 

CalaUam, ki bbg-iem tahenreho. 

Bhaiadi. Brothers, near relatives. 
Bhaica. Elder brother's children, ne- 
phews, or nieces. 

Bh^ioaliko. My elder brother's chidren. 
Bhg.ic9iii kora. My nephew. 

„ kuri. My niece. 
Bhgiic?.m. Thy nephew, or niece. 
Bhgiicamko. Thy nephews, or nieces. 
Bhaioam kora. Thy nephew. 

,, kuri. Thyneice. 
Bhaicat. 1 tt- t. 

Bhaic?,ttet. 5 H'« nephew, or niece. 
Bhaic?.tko. His nephews, or nieces. 
Bh?.ioat kora. His nephew. 

,, kuri. His niece. 

Bhaisa. A rather uncommon plant 
only found at high elevations, 
Golebroolcia oppositifolia, Linn. 

Bhajan. A pot, a basket, a vessel. 

Kuhk?l bhajan. Earthenware, pottery. 
Mahle bhajan. Basket ware, bamboo ware. 

Bhaira. M. ") y 
Bhajri, F. j^^l" 

Adi bh^^jri maejiulkanae. 
tive woman. 


Bhakar bhakar. 
Bhakar bhukur, 
Bhak bhak. 
Bhukur bhukur.. 

acious, talkative. 

She ia a very talka- 

To bubble, as a spring 
of water or as boil- 
ing water ; to issue 
in puffs, as steam ; 
to spurt, as blood 

from an artery ; to rise as a smell, 

to issue forth. 

Bhak marte so rakap go^ena. 

Bhak bhak dhua todoKkana. The smoke issues 

in puffs. 
Bhukur bhukur heiJejoKkaua. The water boils 

and bubbles. 

Bhaka. Language, dialect, speech. 

Bhakhaefkanae, menkhan bae darelena. He 
boasts, but cannot do it. 

Bhakara. ") A report, a 

rumour, a 
false report, boasting ; 

Bhakhara. J 

Jahudiko talare bhakaraakana teheii dh^bioge. 
And this report continueth to this day among 
the Jews. 

Bhakar bhakar. Cf, bhak. 

Bhakar bhukur. Cf, bhak, 

Bhak bhak. Cf, bhak. 

Bhaknao. To chatter. 

Bhak bhok. To speak nonsensicallj^ 
as a drunken man. 

Bhakcu. Stupid, witless. 
Bhakha. Speech, language. 

Eken bhakha teCge taharese£ bae kami dareaka. 

Bhakha. To boast. Cf bhaka. 

Bhakhara. Cf, bhakara. 

Bhakti. Religious, pious. 

Bhakh bhakao. To issue freely, to 
spring, as water. 

Bhakhna bhakhni. Idle, obscene talk. 

Cetko 00 bhakhna bhgikhniye rorleda. 

Bhakndao. To stray, to err, to be 


[ 57 J 


Bhakum. 1 qu ^ i j ^ ^ 

Bhakum bhak. IShort-necked, stout 
Bhakurbhak. J and short necked. 

Bhakwau. Cf. bhutau. 

Bhal. Good, respectable. 

Bhala. Well, good, well then,, you 
don't say so, let mo see then, it 
does not signify, it matters little. 

Jom geloali bhala, oet'leka sebela. I will try 

it and see how it tastes. 
Bhalali, iSelinea. Good, I shall catch you yet. 

Bhalai. Benefit, service, gain, profit, 
Bhgilg.i oookoali. I will benefit them. 

Bhal bhal. Great, good, rich. 

Bhal bhal horko dat rahgaoKkana, ar am do 
uni sohgem lagaoKkana? (Better men than 
you can't do it). 

Bhale bhale. Good, rich, wealthy, great, 

Bhale bhale hor. Rich men, gentlemen. 
Bhale m9.nus. A respectable man, a gentleman, 
a courteous humane person. 

Bhalki rua. Fever beginning with 
violent ague, but of short duration. 

Bhalok. Mad, suffering from rabies, 
violent, frenzied. 

Bhalol^ seta. A mad dog. 

Seta doe bhalogoKa. The dog wiU become 

BhalolEenae. He is mad. (said of a violent man.) 

Bhalua. A swallow, a sand martin. 

Bhalua kapi. A battle axe, so named from its 
resemblance to a swallow with outstretched 

Bhalwa. Used by blacksmiths when 
punching holes in iron. 

The punch passes through the iron into a hole 
in the bhalwa. 

Bhand. The vessel into which cows 
are milked. 

CukaK bhan^. A small milking pot. 

Bhand. ") To defile, to corrupt, to defile 
Bhond. J ceremonially, to break a 
holy day. 

Bhand. M. "j Adulterer, adultress, those 
Bhandin. F. y who marry within the 
Bhundin. J prohibited relationships, 

Bhanda bhandi. A man and woman 
coming together without the sanct- 
ion of the Santal laws. 

Bhanda bhandienakin. 

Bhandan. Ceremonies after the last 
rites for the dead have been per- 

Nai khonru^j-kateko bhancJanoKa. The Bhan- 
dan ceremonies are observed after return- 
ing from the Damuda river (where the jah 
baha (q. v.) of the deceased has been deposi- 

Bhandan dahri. A cloth passed across 
the forehead and tied behind. 

Bhandan bhundun. To decimate, play 
havoc, diminish. 

Bhandan bhnn(Juiiko godena. Death has played 
havoG with them. 
Netarle bhancjaii bhun(Juiien i9.te bale sendraeda. 
Through our being at present greatly di- 
minished in number we do not hunt. 
Sanam parkom bhandan bhunijun topakena. 

Bhandao. To defile, to deflower. 

Nui hor do saname bhan^aoet'koa. 

Bhandar. A granary, a store. 

Bhandar. The anus. 

Bhan(.lar algao. Prolapsus ani. 

Bhandari. A house steward. 

Bhand disom. The portion of the San- 
tal pargannas north and east of 
the Adjoe river. 

Bhandu dare. A large forest tree, so 

Bhandur. To become worthless, fruit- 
less, to lender ineffective. 

ISToa kg-mi bhanfjurena. This work is fruitless. 

Lg-ndur bhg-udur dinko khemaoeda. They go 
through life lazily (never exerting them- 

TinaK kami bhandurentilia. How much of my 
work has been rendered fruitless. 

Bhandur. To change clothes, of wo- 
men ; clothes of women to become 
disarranged so as to be immodest. 

Noa kicric bhandur gidikam, bail bes ileioK- 
kana. Change this garment it does not 
look well. 

Bhan. Hemp. 

Bhandao. To destroy, to lead astray, 
to pervert ; to stray. 

Bhanga. To break, tamper with, per- 
vert, spoil, mar, undo, to be dis- 
contented, to break harmony. 

Bahuko bhaugakkantakoa, oetlekatep Karchu- 
te laJroko maketkoa. How is it that the 
sons' wives are becoming discontented? 
They are striking them on their stomachs 
with the ladle (don't give them sufficient 

Jiwiho hulais bhaiigaentakina. 


[ 58 ] 


Bhangabhat. To break, to destroy. 

Gadi sanam bhangabhatena. The cart is all 
broken to pieces. 

Bhanga muri. Half a bigha. 

Bhangao. To break, to open up, to 
change money, to spend, to tamper 
with, pervert, to break up, disperse. 

Ehed bhangao. To explain. 

Bhir bhaiigaoena. The crowd has dispersed 

(the assembly has broken up.) 
Gohako bhahgaokeljkotiiia. They tampered 

with my witnesses. 
Nawa otko bhahgaoa. They will break up new 

Taka poesa bhanganiko. Money changers. 

Bhanga puja. ReHgious ceremonies 
performed after the tassar silk 
worms (Antheraea mylitta) have 
all spun their cocoons. 
Bhanga suli. "( To become poor, to lose 
Bhanga sulia. / wealth and position, 
broken in fortune. 

Bhanga sulia ato. A decayed village. 

Bhangat. To destroy, to be destroyed, or 
broken, to become a water course, 
generally applied to the ridges 
round rice fields when broken or 
carried away by a rush of water. 
Bhaugafareme. Repair the breaches in the rid- 
ges of the rice fields. 

Bhangor. To go to ruin, to become de- 
solate and forsaken. 
Bhantao. To destroy, to lead astray, 
to pervert ; to stray, to be broken 
in estate. 
Mela ren horem bhahtaoetkoa. You are perver- 
ting the people of tlie fair. 
Bhahtaoenale nes do. We are broken this year 

Bhangua. Idle, lazy, slothful. 
Bhadka bhakur. Cloth worn thin and 

at the point of tearing. 
Bhfinkur. The sound emitted by any 

thing struck when drawn tight ; a 

strhig, &c. drawn tight, knocked 

off the straight. 
Bhanlabhat. To destroy, to break 

down ; dilapidated, in disrepair. 
Bhaaj. To enquire into, clear up, to 


Katha bail bhailjlekhan orge noa reak bail ca- 

Bharijao. To exercise, as an athlete ; 
to be inured to, to spend time, to 
cash a cheque, or currency note,&c. 

Let bhalijao agiiime. Get the note cashed. 
Kami bhalijaoKme. Accustom yourself to work. 

Bharij dhiri. A stone with which an 
athlete practices. 

Bhao. Rate, price. 

Thik bhao ar ojonte. Correct rate and weight. 

Bhao. To prophesy, to explain, to 
divine, to speak as a person posses- 
sed with a spirit of divination. 

Mase bhaoaleme. Prophesy unto us. 

Bhaoar. To exercise, as an athlete ; to 
practice, to train, to break in, to 
accustom ; expert, skilled, smart. 

Dal bhaoar. To beat into shapie. 

Nui daiira do bae bhaoarakana. This bullock 

is unbroken. 
Bhaoar hor kanae. He is an expert. 

Bhaondao.l m ,. .l i i ^ 

Bhaorao. / ^° disappear, to be lost. 

G^i okate con bhaonijaoentiila. My cow is lost 

Bhaora. Of the male sex, a veiled term. 

Ado one bako mena, abo do herel bhaora . 

Bhaora, Small round opening in a 
wall to admit light, a receptacle 
in a wall. 

Bhaora bhugaK, or bhuli. A window opening. 

Bhaora. A boring instrument I'esem- 
bling a brace. 

Bhaorao. Cf. bhaondao. 

Bhaori. Vertigo, a dizziness to which 
cattle are subject. 

Bhaoria. One who peddles salt, tobacco, 
spices, &c, and carries his wares 
in a basket on his head. 

Bhaori mala. A kind of necklace. 

Bhaosao. To coax, to persuade, to pre- 
vail upon by entreaty. 
Uniye bhaosao ruarena . She has been persuad- 
ed to return. 

Bhaotia. A species of antelope. 
Bhaowar. Cf. bhaoar. 
Bhaph. Steam, vapour. 

Bhaphao. To steam, to cook by steam- 

Bhar. Load, weight, charge, responsi- 
bility ; difficult. 

Bhar do noare paraoakana. The weight rests 

on this. 
Adi bhabna, bujhau bhargeii atkareda. 

Bhara. Rent, fare ; to hire, to rent. 

Bhara orak. A hired house. 
Eel bbara. Railway fare. 


[ 59 ] 

Bhasa bharra 

Bharabhat. To destroy, to waste, to 
spend, to squander. 

Talcae bharabhatkeda. He squandered the 

Jemon cet' ho alo bharabhatoK. So that no- 

thinfr may be wasted. 

Bhara bhuru. Easily powdered, loose, 
as earth ; soft, as roasted grain in 
the rains. 

On(jlenaK hasa bhara bhuru i9.teko dhasao goo- 

Bharan bhurun. To sob. 

Bharan bhuruiie raKeda. He is sobbing. 

Bharao. To swell, to puff out, to be- 
come distended, to be inspired, to 
be possessed with a spirit of divi- 
nation ; dropsical swelling. 

A.iji hor jaiigako bharaoKa. The feet of many 

people swell. 
Biunokice bharaoSa. 
Janko bharaolca. 
Jan bharaokedeae. 

Bharao. To be frightened, startled. 
Bharar. ") Continuously, with- 

Bharar bharar. J out hitch, or halt ; 

Nui hor bharar bharar kaoah?rire gohae gujran- 
keda. This man gave his evidence in the 
court without a hitch. 

Bharat. Ct. bhorat. 
Bharar bharar. Cf bhar bhar. 
Bharar bharar. Cf bharar. 
Bhar bhar. ~) To issue uninterrup- 

Bharar bharar. J tedly, to come a- 
way continuously, to unwind easily. 

UlidaK setelioKkana bharar bharar. Saliva 

flows continually. 
Sut?im bhar bhar raralikana. The thread reels 

off uninterruptedly. 

Bhar bhar. 1 Softened, easily pow- 
Bhara bhuru. J dered, loose. 

But ataere bhara bhuru otejoKa. 

Bhar bharao. To revolve, to spin 

round, to whirl. 
Bharbhari. Two plants go under this 

name, Ocimum basilicwm, Linn. 

and Ocimum canum, Sims. 
Bhar bhur. A crashing noise. 
Bhari. To load ; a burden, a load ; heavy, 


Sagarreko bharia. They load it on a cart. 
Hajar bhari bes hasa. A thousand loads of 

good soil. 
Bhari hormo. Pregnant, enciente. 

Bhari. Cf bhori. 

Bharia. A stick with slings at either 
end, in which any thing to be car- 
ried is placed, carried over one 

Bh^irig- idieli tahekanae. 

Bharjuan. Arrived at maturity. 
Bharkhar. In full swing, excessive. 

Netar ale sen bharkharko roKhoekana. Plan- 
ting is in full swing over our way just now. 

Bharna. The name given to the woof 
by weavers. 

Otor bharna. Warp and weft. 

Bharna. To give property in repay- 
ment of a debt. 

Paiirali bharnakedea, mahajon then. I gave a 
buUook in payment of my debt to 

Bharndo. A whirlwind. 
Bharo. To be astonished, amazed, 
to wonder. 

Bharoenali. I am amazed. 

Bharor bharor. Cf. bharar bharar. 
Bharosa. Hope, expectation. 
Bharotborsa. India, Hindusthan. 
Bharsa. Hope, exepectation, reliance. 
Bhnrsak. Full force, or ability. 
Bharta. A method of cooking fish, 

mushrooms, and vegetables by 

wrapping up in leaves and roasting 

in ashes. 
Bharti To enlist, to be enrolled ; to 

engage, to recruit. 

Iskulre bh9.rtikom. Enrol them as scholars. 

Bharti hormo. Pregnant. 

Bharua. Large caterpillars, principally 
those oi Attacus atlas, and Atta- 
ciis Selene; an insignificant person. 

Bharua kanae, cet ho bael badaea. He is a 
caterpillar and knows nothing. 

Bharur. \To untwist, to open out again 
Bharur. J as twine, to recover flesh and 
strength after an illness. 

Baber bharurena. The twine has untwisted. 

Bhas. Knowledge, ability. 

NuiaK lur bhas b?.nulctaea. He has no know- 

Bhasa. Language, speech. 

Eaj bhasa. The imperial language, English. 

Bhasa. A variety of the rice plant. 
Bhasa bharra. At random, though- 
lessly, to rave as an insane persont. 

Bhasa bharrae roreda. H speaks at random. 


[ 60 ] 

Bhejer bhejer 

Bhasam. To reduce to ashes by fire. 

Sanam sengelte bliasamena. It is all reduced 
to ashes. 

Bhasan. To launch, to set afloat, to 
throw into water. 

Bhasankoako dibiko. They throw the idols 
into water. 

Bhasao. To be carried away by water, 
or a flood. 

Ona munijhat do bhasao oalaoena. The log 
has been carried away by a flood. 

Bhas bhus. Suddenly, unexpectedly ; 
excitedly ; in all directions, one 
this way and another that. 

Bliasi. Nature, custom, habit, dispos- 

.Tonom bhasite. By nature, naturally. 
Bh9.sige oukautaea. His nature is such. 

Bhaskao. "1 To burst out, to burst open, 
Bhoskao. J to burst and the contents 
to scatter, to collapse. 

Bhat. A religious beggar, Hindu or 
Mohammedan ; to beg. 

BhafoKiii dukana. I went a begging. 

Bhata. A furnace, a kiln. 

Bhatau bliutua. Naked, scantily clad. 

Bhatao. To fill up, to level up. 

Noa gada bhataome. Fill up this pit. 

Bhatau. To go about, to go here and 

there, as a dog in heat. 
Bhatha. A kiln, a furnace. 

It* bhatha. A brick kiln. 

Bhathi. A still, a boiler, a cojjper. 

Paura bhathi. A liquor still. 

Dhobi bhathi. A washerman's boiler. 

Jhuli bhathi. A trench in the ground used as 

a fireplace when cooking has to be done for 

a large number of people. 

Bhati. The kernel of certain fruits 

when half ripe. 
Bhati. A veiled name for paura. (q. v.) 
Bhatic. "j Of course, to be sure, now 
Bhatkec. [• that I remember, how stu- 
Bhatkoc.J pid of me. 
Bhatic am horn metadiA tahekangea. Of course, 

you did tell me. 
Durhalf I bhatio ill idiletige. Dear mo ! of course, 

I did take it. 
He ; bh9.tke6 uniye metadiA tahekana. Yes ; 

of course, he did tell me. 
Bh9'tke6 ill hoii tahekangea. Of course, I was 

also there. 
Unrege bhatke'^em rorlekhan jutkeail honaii. 
Had you spoken then, of course, I should 
have put it right. 
Ho bbatkoc ifi ilelletme tahekangea. Tes ; 
of course, I did see you. 

Bhatija. Nephew. 

Bhatkec. Cf. bhatic. 

Bhatkoc. Cf. bhatic. 

Bhatkura. Fat, corpulent, said of men. 

Bhatok. Cf. bhat. 

Bhator sukri. A huge wild boar with 
large tusks. 

Bhatua arak. A wild pot herb, Cheno- 
podiuon album, Moq. 

Bhautic. A leaf cup, a cup made of 
leaves pinned together. 

Bhear. To test by comparison, to exam- 

Pailale bheara tinaK sahopa. We will test the 
measure to see how much it holds. 

Bhebhao. To bleat, as a goat or sheep. 

Bhg bhg. To bleat, as a sheep. 

Bhed. Interpretation, meaning, occu- 

Bhed alom bhahgaoaea. Do not tell the inter- 
pretation to him. 

Kami bhedre bare tahenme. Keep up at your 

Bhecla. A ram. 

Bheda dereri. "Ram's horn," a common 
annual. Cassia Tora, Linn., the 
leaves of which are eaten as a pot 

Bhecla hako. A species of fish. 

Bhede bhed. Accurately, in detail. 

Bhede bhed kuliem. Question him in detail. 

Bheder bheder. To talk at random, 
to chatter, to prate. 

Cedakem bheder bhederoKkana P "Why are you 
chattering ? 

Bhedwa. A wild plant. Hibiscus 
cancellatus, Roscoe., var. fiisi- 
forinis, Willd. 

Bheja. To send. 

, Bhejakedi^ae. He sent me. 

Bheja. Additional assessment on rent. 

Eaj bheja. Tribute. 

Bhejao. To send. 

Bhejao go€kakome. Send them to me. 

Bhejer bhejer. To prattle, to prate, to 
jabber, to chatter. 

Bhejer bhejerko galmaraokana. They are chat- 


[ 61 ] 

Bhidi j:uiatoti 

BheU. To cut off the head of a goat, 
used by children or when address- 
ing children ; the cry of a goat 
whose neck has not been severed 
at the first blow. 

BlioU bheljko maKkedea. Thoy did not cut 
off the head at one blow. 

Bhek bhek. To talk idly, to gabble, 
to persist in speaking after being 
told to be quiet. 

Bhek bhek. To bleat, as a goat when 

Bhek bhekao. To speak much and 

loudly, to continue speaking loud- 


Bhekbhok. "ISaid of a drunken man 
Bhak bhok / who has lost control of 
his mental and bodily faculties. 

Bhekua. The petiole of a leaf. 
Bhelaundi. Goat's droppings. 
Bhelguda. A game. 

Bhelwa tap tup. "| A game played by 
Bhelwa tup tup, J children. 

Bhembha. M. \ Foolish, stupid, igno- 
Ehembhi. F. ) rant. 

Bhen bhen. "i To whirl whizzing 

Bhen bhenao. J round, to spin round 

with a noise, to be attacked by a fit. 

P?thri bhen bhenaokedeako, nuihor. 

Bherijan. To mix, to adulterate, to 

Harhaf sisir bhelljanakan dak rasa. Wine 
mingled with gall. 

Sunum dherko bheiljana. Oil is oftenest adul- 

Bhenta. A word, or phrase with a 
double hidden meaning. 

Bheona. A vision, an apparition. 

Nel bheonaenad. I saw an apparition. 

Bhgt. A visit paid by women to a 
house where a member of the 
family has died ; a visit of condol- 
ence, an interview, a meeting. 

Bhetra. Mourning, lamentation. 

Bherbher. To whirl round, to revolve, 
to rotate. 

Kuhbal oak bherbher acuroKa. The potter's 
wheel goes whirling round. 

Enaii khon bher bhere sioKkana, baskeaK ho 
bape idiaekana. He has been ploughing 
round and round since morning and you are 
not even taking him his breakfast. 

Bherbherao. To whirl, to revolve. 

Met' bherbherao acuroK lokalS ?.ik?.ueda. I feel 

Bhgrcak. \To flinch, to shy. Scottice, 
Bhgrcok. j to jouk 

Kulai bheroaK rug.renae. The hare doubled. 

Bherot. Stiff necked, stubborn, fro- 

ward, self-willed. 
Bhernda. A common hedge plant 

Jatropha curcus, Linn. 

Bhertan. To whirl round, to turn 
sharp round. 

Bherwan. To turn round, as a shuttle- 
cock in falling ; to wheel round. 

Bhes. Form, appearance. 

Diku lekae bhesena. Disguised himself as a 

Bill bheste heolenae. He came in the form of 

a serpent. 
Bhes sap. To assume a form. 

Bhesa bhisi. To mimic each other, one 
to do what the other does. 

Bhesao. To mock, to mimic, to follow 

BheKsao enc'j, A dance in which the dancers 
mimic certain phases of Santal village life, 
as the bride going to her new home, &c., 
peculiarities in gait &c. of village celebri- 
ties, &-0., &c. 

Bhetro. Blunted, accustomed to, famili- 
arized with. 

Bhage sombat artjom bhefroenae. He is gospel 
^ hardened. 

Nel bhetroakan hor. A man accustomed to the 
sight (of blood, &c.) 

Bhetuak. An ornamental band for 

the hair. 
Bhidata. The Hindu deity Brahma, 

Bhidi. A sheep, a ewe. 

Bhidi hopon. A lamb. 

Bhidi. To keep secret, to keep one's 
own counsel, to spy, to pry into, 
to reconnoitre, to search for a clue, 
to act secretly. 

Bhidikate jahanaKe hataoa. He will buy some- 
thing to enable him to spy. 

Bhidia. A spy. 

Bhidi achim. A common cold weather 
plant, Centijida orbicularis, Lour. 

Bhidi janatet. Two plants are known 
by this name : — 

Mota bhi^i janatet. JJrena sinuata, lAnn. 
' Nanha bhi^i janatet'. Triumfetta rhomboidea, 


[ 62 ] 


Bhiduk. A spy, a pretender. 

Bhidukkateye heoena. He came as a spy. 

Bhijau. To steep, to saturate, to soak 
in, to impress, to operate, to affect. 

Otre mayam bhi^g-uena. The blood soaked into 

the ground. 
Botor bfiiiauatikoa. Pear took hold of them. 

Bhikhari. A beggar. 

Bhilki. To be startled, afraid. 

Nel bhilkienari. The sight frightened me. 

Bhili. The distance between two fur- 
rows, about a cubit, in which 
sugarcane, and root crops are 

Bhili gur. A large lump of raw sugar. 

Bhim. A cor. of beam. 


Bhina bhini 

I To separate, to disagree, 

V . . 

j to divide. 

Bhind. A bale, a faggot, a mass, a lump 
of anything. 

Bhinda. A lump, applied specially to 
the mass of iron taken from the 
smelting furnace. 

Bhindar. To fall down, to knock down, 
to collapse. 

Bhindia. A faggot, a bundle of any- 

Bhindia. The finishing thatch put on 
the ridge of a roof 

Bhindran. To fall to the ground, to 
knock down. 

Bhingau. To separate, to be separa- 
ted, to be scattered. 

pj, ? . ° • ■ [-To break up, to cancel. 

OntenaK katha bhiiigorena. The negotiations 
over there have come to an end. 

Bhihgora. A deceiver. 

Bhingrau. To pervert, to lead astray, 
to cause to err, cause to break up, 
as an assembly. 

Bhir. A crowd, an assembly. 

Bhirrege menaAa. I am engaged along with 

Bhir bhaiigaoenako. The assembly has dis- 

Bhir. To be busy, fully occupied, with- 
out leisure. 

4-dili bhirakana, ohoA alijomletama. I am very 
busy and so cannot listen to you. 

Bhirau. To go close to, to press close, 
to put close to. 

Paiirabako bhir?iu dareakkana. The bullocks 

cannot go close to edge. 
Lutire auriil bhiraua. I hare not yet put any 

thing to my lips, i. e. have not broken my 


Bhirik. Loathsome, disgusting. 

A(Ji bhirik aik?.uKkana. Sensible of a loath- 
some feeling. 
Bhirikge lieloKkana. It is disgusting. 

Bhirka bhirkhi. To be scared or ter- 
Bhirka enec. A children's game. 

Bhirkai bhirkai. A game played by 

Bhirkau. To be frightened, scared. 

Bhirobhoro. To crack, to burst, to 

open ; under-baked, as an earthen 

Bhirsaha. Suffering from indigestion, 

to suffer from indigestion from 

over eating. 

Nui hor jomte bhirsahaakanae. 

Bhirsau. To suffer from indigestion 
from over eating. 

Jom bhirsauakanae. 

Bhiso bhoso. Slack, carelessly tied or 

Okoe bhiso bhosoko bandiakalia? Who has 
bound up the b?indi (q. v.) so loosely ? 

Bhisor. A mistake, an error, a fault, an 
omission of duty. 

Bhul bhisorte baA heclena. I did not come 
owing to a mistake. 

Bhit. A wall, to build a wall. 

Nonde bhitkam. Erect a wall here. 

Bhitha. An outlying piece of culti- 
vated high land. 

Bhitar. The inner apartment of a 
Santal house. 

OraE bhitarteye bolo baeakana. He is hiding 

in the inner apartment. 
Bhitar bahar hor. Relatives (who have access 

to the inner apartment) and acquaintances 

(who have not.) 

Bhitar. ") Inside, within, in doors, to be 
Bhitri. J inside, to put inside, to 

Bhitri mone bor kanae. He is a reserved man. 

Maran bhitar gaijig. hor kanae. He is a very 
reserved person. 

Noa do bhitriKa. This will be included. 

Bhitar bahar hor. A person whose duties in- 
clude work within, and without doors. 


[ 63 ] 


Bhitara. To separate the threads of 
the warp when they iidhere to- 
gether on the peg while being 

Bhitkur. Fat, corpulent, applied to 

Bhekua.' } '^^'^ P^*i°l^ "^^ * ^^''^f- 

BhobhS. The sound of a trumpet or 
like instrument, to trumpet. 

Bhobhoe raKeda. 

Bhocbhoc. To chatter, to prate, to jab- 
ber ; talkative, loquacious. 

Bhocbhocao. To chatter, to prate, 
to speak at random. 

Bhocbhocao. Liberally, plentifully. 

Bhoobhocaoe ema^lea. He gave us a large 

Bhoco. Stupid, foolish, ignorant. 

Bhoco mara hor. A consummate fool. 

Bhocor bhocor. To gabble, to prate, to 
talk nonsense, like a person drunk. 

Bh5da. Fat, corpulent, unwieldy, large ; 
thickheaded, dull witted. 

Bhoija k9,hu. The Bow Billed oorby, Corrus 

Levaillantii, Less. 
Blioda rairu. A large paroquet. 
Bhoda kisni. The large starling, Gracula reli- 


Bhodor. To fall into disrepair, to be 
abandoned, to be pulled down, to 
to be refuted, to be unsubstan- 
tiated, to be rejected. 

Ona oraK bhodorena. That house is abandoned. 
Uni do rajkoe bhodoref koa, ar etakkoe rajet'koa. 
He deposes kings and raises others to thrones. 

Bhodor bhodor. Without meaning, 
continuously, without intermission. 

Arisge bhodor bhodore rore€kana. He annoys 
by continually speaking. 

Bhodran. Worthy, virtuous, respec- 

Bhodran hor. A worthy, respectable man. 
Ehodranko. Worthy, respectable men. 

Bhodro. Respectable, worthy. 
Bhoe. Fear. 

Bhoe bnjhauKkana. To be afraid. 

Bhoelo.M. "I Slightly clothed, scantily 
Bhuili. F. / clad ; a girl not yet wear- 
ing clothes. 

Bhoelo. Loosely, loosely twisted. 

Baber bhoeloakana. The twine is loosely 

Bhog. The centre;, the middle. 

Bhogteta-e ubpe. Empty it in the centre. 

Bhog. To enjoy, to feel pleasure, to 
bear, to suffer, to endure. 

Nui hor do (Jher dine suk bhogkeda. This man 
has enjoyed life for many years. 

Bhoga kaskom. Gossypium neglect- 
uvi, Tod., a cotton plant exten- 
sively cultivated. 

Bhogao. To be corpulent, fat, un- 

Bhogaoenae. He has become corpulent. 

Bhogdo. Fat, rich. 

Bhogjii-a. A medicinal root sold in the 

Bhogot. A vegetarian, a man who as- 
pires to sanctity after Hindu ideas, 
and denies himself flesh and fish. 

Bhoj. A feast, to give a feast. 

Bara dinreko bhojkeda . They had a feast on 
Christmas day. 

Bhojokoto. Troublesome, difBcult. 

Bhojokcto barigire seteroUkana. He reached 
with the utmost difficulty. 

Bhojpuria. Gluttonous, gi-eedy, one 
who eats much at a feast, (bhoj) ; 
belonging to Bhoj pur. 

Bholi. To bark, as a dog. 

Cele Aelteye bhoKkeda? What does be see to 
bark at ? 

Bhok bhok. To gurgle. 
Bhokbhokao. To gurgle. 
Bhokrao. To low, to bellow. 

Bhokrao Jgukedae, mihu niharte. 

Bhokta. ) The deity in whose 

Bhokta bonga. J honour the pata, or 
hook swinging festival is observed. 
Bhokto. Cf bhogot. 

Bh5nda. To pollute ceremonially, to 
cause to be ceremonially unclean, 
to violate ; unclean, polluted, defil- 

Bhond, Cf bhoda. 

Bhondol. To labour heavily, as in 

Bhondol bhondole dare^kana. 

Bhondor. Cf. bondor. 

Bhondra. To wear away and become 
wide, as a bush on which an axle 


[ U4 ] 

Bhot bali 

Bhon. To explain, to decipher, to in- 
terpret, to give the gist of. 

Bhed bhohalime. Interpret the meaning to me. 

Bhohgar. To be torn, as flesh by a 

thorn, a deep scratch or cut, to 

have the skin rubbed off. 

Bhondor.l To scratch, to knock, or rub 

Bhender. j off the skin, to graze, to 

slightly wound. 

Naaenalfem bhondorkedea. Ton just knocked 

o£f a little akin. 
Bajao bhonijorenaii. I have had a little skin 

rnbbed off by coming against something. 

Bhor. In comp. full, all, whole, up to, 
as much as, a far as. 

or. J 

". _ w: 

:aK bh 

' I Blessing. 

Din bhor. All day. 

Dare bhor. Whole strength. 

Jiwet bhor. "1 

Jonom bhor. )■ Whole Ufe time. 

Tniidaii bhor. 

Tahen bhor. Whole time of residence. 

Tahen dareaK bhor. As long as he could remain. 


Bljor saote bidalem. Diaroiss us with a blessing. 
Am do borem, emale nabi tbo. 

BhS:} To fill in, to put in. 

Kjdreko bhoraokedea. They put him in jail. 
Bhoraf^kedae. He filled it up. 

Bhori.l One tola, or the weight of one 
Bhari.j sicca rupee. 

Bhorkond. A large forest tree, Hy- 
menodictyon excelsum, Wall. 

The bark yields a useful febrifuge. 

Bh<jrma. ") Secretly, without dis- 

Bhorma bhormi J play, privily. 

Bhorma bhormate )_ Secretly, quietly, 
Bhorme bhormete. J without any de- 
monstration, delicately, privily. 

Bhorme bhormete emkatiiime. Give it to me pri- 

Bhorme bhormete bagiye Igigite moneana. He 
was minded to put her privily away. 

Bhorma bhormi. Cf bhorma. 
Bhorna. Cf bharna. 

Bhornga. | a small forest bird. Cf. 

Burorin. h , 

T, , ■ - _ boronn. 

Boula cere. J 

Bhorok. Apprehensive of danger, 
toTor, fear. 

Bhorok heoadifiteii oalao gotena. 
Nel bborokenali. 

Bhorom. Shame, the parts of the 
body which modesty requires to 
be concealed. 

Bhorom bhangaoentiria. I was put to shame. 
Ar one bhoromko dapal hatarkae kicrie or ocog- 

taea, ar ona bodol matkom.<Jhaur9.Kte bhoro- 

me dapalkadege. 
Ehgam apum reaK bhorom bam dobolaKa. 

You did not mantain the honour of your 


Bhorosa.\ Hope, dependence, expecta- 
Bhorsa. j cion, confidence, trust, faith. 

Thenga sapkaKkhan bhorsa buihauKa. You 
feel confidence when you grasp a black 

CaKem bhorsa idialikana ? Why do you continue 
to cause me to hope ? 

Noa thenga do bh?.i bhorosa kantilia. 

Bud bhorsa. Encouragement, confidence. 

Bhorsak. \ With all one's strength, or 

Bharsak. J ability. 

Bhos bhos. ) Thriftlessly, recklessly, 

los. ■) 
i5s. J 

Bh6s bh5s. / thoughtlessly. 

Bhos bhos bandiko bogoja. They recklessly 
open their bandi (q. v.), i. e. use up their 
store of grain. 

Bhosa. To pierce through, to stab. 

Aetegeye bhosa goeena. He stabbed himself 
to death. 


The first stomach. 

Bhoskao. ) To open, to rip up, to make 
Bhaskao. J a hole in, to burst, to 

Bhosko potam. A species of wild pi- 
geon. Cf potam. 
Bhosndo. Slovenly, dirty, slatternly. 

Bhoso. Dusty, dirty, no idea of clean- 
liness, dusty, as a miller. 

Bhosor. A fault, a mistake, an omis- 
sion of duty, an error. 

Bhosto.\To destroy, reject, to be ruin- 
Bosto. j ed or destroyed; to defile, 
to profane. 

Bhot. Rejected, thrown overboard, 
destroyed, disproved. 

Judi iliaK katham bhot dareatiii khan. 

Bhota. To besmear oneself with ashes 
as some Hindu ascetics do ; dusty, 
as children playing among ashes. 

Bhot bali. Iron stone, nodules of iron 

Bhot bhot 

[ 05 ] 


Bhot bhot. 1 T, , ^ . 

Bhad bhad. j^'^"^™g ^°™^- 

Bhot bhot saijebana, arel do ootre. Tho hail 
patters on the roof. 

Bhotko. ") To blunt, to lose its odgo, as 
Bhotro. J a knife ; to lose appetite, 

to be wearied. 
Bhoto. Stupidly ignorant, dunder- 

Bhotok. Eeady to exjiand, as a flower 
bud or a mushroom. 

Ona <J?irro do bhotoKkate bahaena. 

Bhotro. Cf. bhotko. 

BhoYon. Fear, frightful, fearful, dread- 

Adi bhoyone lieloKkana. He looks frightful. 
4di bhoyonid afkareda. I am very much afraid. 

Bhua. Idle, false. 

Noa katha bhu9«ntama. Your story is falsified. 

Bhubhau.lTo spill, to splash, or spill 
Bubhau. J over the side of a vessel, 
as water. 
Koa toa bhubhau hiricena . 

Bhubhuk. Cf. bhuk. 

Bhuc. 1 Stupid, ignorant, foolish ; stu- 
Bhucun.J pidity, ignorance ; an igno- 
ramus, a fool. 

Maraii bhuc kanae. He is a great ignoramus. 
Bhuote kat dhiriko doboKaUkana. They bow- 
down to idols through ignorance. 

Bhucampa. An earthquake. 

Bhucar. ") a u ^ u 

Bhuc bhuci. Pride, obduracy, contum- 
acy, dogged resolution, headstrong- 

CalaS reaK bhuc bhuoiii maraotama. 

Bhucer. ) m t 

-n, , ■ >- io excess, over much. 

Nu bhuoerakanae. He has drunk to excess. 

Bhucun. Ignorant, stupid, loafing 

Di y ■ ' f -A. hole, an opening, a cave. 

Bhaora bhugaK. A -window opening, an open- 
ing to admit light. 

Bhuger. Plump, fat, large. 

Gidra toa riuliute bhugerakanae. The child has 
grown plump through drinking milk. 

Lum^mko bhugerakana. Said of tassar silk 
worms when -they have passed their fourth 
moult, and grow rapidly. 

Bhugol. Geography. 

Bhui cal. An sarthquake, a tremor in 
tho earth. 

Bhuicampa. A kind of fire works. 
Bhuidol. 1 

Bhucampa. >An earthquake. 
Ot laraok. | 

Bhuila. Having body of one breadtli 
from head to fei't, without a dora, 
(q. V.) 

Bhuili. Cf bhoelo. 

Bhuiphor. ' A chasm, a large rent in 
the earth's surface. 

Bhujali. A large stabbing knife. 

Bhuk. Cf. bhugak. 

Bhuk duk. Distress, sorrow, affliction. 

Bhuku. A species of termite, the white 
ant that rears the ant hills so 
common in the Santal country. 

Bhukur bhukur. To bubble up, as 
water in a spring. 

Bhukur bhukur. Cf bhak. 

Bhul. "j To make a mistake, to 

Bhul cuk. j- forget, to over look any- 
Bhul bhisor.j thing, to neglect, to 
commit a fault. 
Adi bhulre menakkoa. They are greatly mis- 
Bbuliri sapket'taea. I saw the mistake be made. 
Bhul ouk ikakatilime. 

Bhulania. DecejDtive, misleading, false. 
Bhulau. To deceive, to cozen. 

Bhulaukateko koeketkoa. 

Bhulauni. DecejDtive, causing error, 
misleading, erroneous. 

Bhul cuk. Cf. bhul. 

Bhulkau. To gush out, to flow out, to 
rise up, to spring, as water. 
Dak otkhon bhulkau todoKkana . Water rises 

up from the earth. 
Dali do adi at bhulkau rakapkan tahekana. 
The water was rising rapidly, 

Bhumbri. Small pimples. 

Balbal bhumbri. The rash of prickly heat. 

Bhumbuk. To issue, as water in a 
fountain ; to bubble up, as watei-. 

DaK bhumbukoKkana. Water springs up. 
Jaejug jiwei; dhabid bhumbukok dak reah mit; 

tec jharna. A well of water springing up 

unto eternal life. 


[ 66 ] 


Bhumcampa. An earthquake. 
Bhumi. Land. 
Bhuricampa. A sj)inning top. 
Bhunda. Fat, large, corpulent. 
Bhunda jel. The flesh lying along 
both sides of the back bone. 

Bhundi kolma. A variety of the rice 

Bhundin. A lazy, good for nothing, fat 

young woman. 

Bhungar. A piece, a piece^ cut off. 

Mif bhuhgg-r kat ema^me. Give me a piece of 

Bhungrau. To cut through, as a piece 

of wood with an axe. 

Bhurijau. To live, to spend time, to 
suffer, endure, enjoy. 

Pher dinbin bhuAiauaka^a. iThey have lived a 
long time. 

Nukin bahu jawae tirejngekin bhulijaua, sekin 
bapagoka p Will this bride and bridegroom 
live always together, or will they separate P 

Amda saset otreii bhuiijanetkan do. 

Bhurak. To fill in, to dip a vessel in 
water to fill it. 
Bhurak odokkedako. 
Kandage bail bhuragoKkan. 

Bhurbhurau. ") To bubble ; to rise, as 
Bhurbhurau. / bubbles to the surface 
of water. 

Bhurbhuri. To rain sparks, as from 
certain kinds of fire works, or when 
a blacksmith draws red hot iron 
from the fire. 

Bhuri. To take off clothes that are fas- 
tened round the waist, said of wo- 
men ; to untwist, to uncoil. 

Bhurka. Venus, as the morning star, 

Sukar. Venus as the evening star. 

Bhurkak. To raise up earth, as earth- 
worms or beetles do. 

Otko bhurkaga, lended do. 

Bhurni. Socket in which a native door 
(siljjin, q. v.) works in opening and 

Bhurni khunti. Post on which door swings. 

Bhurti. To fill up, to be satisfied. 
Bhurti. Whole. 

Bhurti gada dalf calaKkana, The whole river 
is filled with water. 

Bhiiriic. ") To strip off clothes from 
Bhuru6. J the waist, to divest one- 
self of clothes fastened from the 
waist, said of men. 

Pgihil palii t ^.uriye bhiiriid gidi khongeko or 
bhiiriijea. Before he divests himself of the 
first' garment, they try to pull it off him. 

Bhus. The bandicoot rat, Mus Mala- 
baricus, Shaw, Mus giganteus, 

Bhusun } Suddenly, unexpectedly. 

Bhus marte of^okenae. He darted out, 
Bhusuh marte tarupe toi goflena, gajar khon. 
The leopard rushed out of the thicket. 

Bhusa. Chaff. 

Bhuska. A species of termite, or white- 

Bhuska. M. ) Greedy, always thinking 
Bhuski. F. J of his or her belly. 

Bhusku. To stir up, to disturb, to shake 
up, as grain on a threshing floor. 

Bhuskulekhanem gegergeae. If you disturb it 
it will bite. 

Bhusndi. A small fly ;. applied to girls 
when scolding, or finding fault. 

Bhusri. Applied to girls when scolding. 
Cf bhusndi. 

Nui bhSsri do nondege aour baraekanae, kami- 

te bae calaka. 
Bae daka hoda nui bhusri do. 

Bhusun. C£ bhus. 

Bhut. A demon, a ghost, a goblin. 

Bhut oapario. One possessed. 

Bhutaha. Haunted, occupied by, or 
the residence of, a bhut. (q. v.) 

Noa do bhutaha dare kana, alope maga. This 
tree is the residence of a bhut, do not cut 
it down. 

Bhutau. To be angry, beside onself, 
with anger. 

Bhutel. Fat, corpulent. 

Bhu^elakanae. He has become fat. 

Bhutel. 1 T ., T , 

Bh ter ( ^^"^^ '='' demon, demoniac. 

Nu bhutelakanae, sen ocoaepe. 

Bhutela. Cf bhutaha. 
Bhutela. Rich, wealthy. 

A.^i bhutela hor kanae. He is a very rich man. 

Bhuter. To excess, over much. 
Bhutia. Fat, big bellied. 


i 67 ] 


Bhutka. \Small of stature, stunted, 
Bhutki. J dwarfish. 

Bhutra. Dumpj'. 

Bhutua bhutuu. Empty-handed, naked. 

T>-'i> j-To be satisfied, to be satiated. 

Bae bilena. He was not satisfied. 
Jombi enae. He is satisfied. 
Jom bi ocokedea A. I gave him sufficient to eat. 
Inalite do bae bilfa. That will not be sufficient 
for him. 

Bian. 1 Birth, act of parturition, to 
Bihar J be delivered of young, of 
brute animals only ; productive. 

Tin^K bi9.n gai kanae ? How many times has the 

cow calved ? 
Bar bihar gai. A cow that has calved twice. 
Horo bail bigmlena, nes. The rice was not 

productive this year. 

Bibad. Enmity, ill will, dispute ; to 
wrangle, to quarrel, to litigate, 
to dispute. 

Nukin dokin bibadgea. These two are at vari- 
ance with each other. 

Bibhorom. To disgrace, to outrage 
one's modesty. 

Bibi. Anything living that frightens 
or hurts, said to and by children 

Onte alom calaKa bibi menaea. 

Bibi era. A Mem saheb. 

Bicar. To judge, to consider, to reflect, 
to comtemplate, to deliberate, to 
ponder, to devote the mind, thoug 
hts, or attention to. 

BiKc?.rid. A judge. 
Bic^irkatalem. Judge between na. 

Bichia. A ring worn on the second 
toe by women. 

Attached to the ring is a small hollow ball of 
bell metal with two or three small pieces of 
the same metal inside, which rattle as the 
wearer walks. 

Bichnau. To recognize, to distinguish, 
to discern. 

Bichnau bichnauteli lielkeda. 
Jemon boge bariciii bichn?ia dareaK. So that 
I may distinguish good and evil. 

Bichri. Bird-limed twigs. 
Bichri. To split, to separate, split 
into pieces, like straws. 

JonoK lagi^ ma£ko bichrieda. They split bam- 
boos to make brooms. 

Bickau. To sprain. 

Bickom. Rather, but, but rather. 

Marsal Ichon bickom riutko dul^rkeda. Loved 
darkness rather than light. 

Biclau. To sprain, as an ankle. 

Jaiigae bicl^uakana. His foot is sprained. 

Bida. To give one permission t(j de- 
part, to dismiss, to say, or bid 
adieu, to bid fiirewell. 

Bhor saote bidalem. Dismiss us with a 

Bidal. Generation, time. 

Pilatus bid^lrenko. The contemporaries of 

Noako jotoge noa bidgilren horkore paraoKa. 
All these things shall come upon this gen- 

Bidaraha. "I Wandered, strayed, lost, as 
Bidraha. J a sheep from the flock. 

Bidraha gg-i kanae. She is a strayed cow. 

Bidas. 'I Foreign, belonging to another 
Bides. J country, or district. 
Bidau. To test, to tempt, to examine, 
to prove. 

Onko bilt{J?uifi calaRkana. I go to prove them. 
Soetan then biqlauK l^gii. To be tempted of 
the devil. 

Bides. Cf bidas. 

Bidesia. Foreign, belonging to another 
country, or district, a foreigner. 

Bidgoe bodgoe. Fat, corpulent, un- 
wieldy, applied to women. 

■R^dli^ [Custom, usage, manner, mode. 

Bidhanta. A large forest climbing 
plant, common on the Rajmahal 
hills, Entada scandens, Benth. 



UniaJf bidhanta oe{ lekatae coii. 

Bidhaura. To delay, to hinder, to im- 
pede, to put an obstacle in the 

Alom bidhauraiia. Do not hinder me. _ 

Nui gidr?. i9.tebaii k9.mi dareattkana, biijhaurg.- 

enad. I can get no work done on account 

of this child, I am hindered. 

Bidhua. \Born out of wedlock, abas- 
Bidhwa.J tard. 

Nui gidr?' bidhu9.tem janamkedea. You gave 
birth to this child out of wedlock. 

To turn a somersault. 



life} '^-»>'«"5«- 


[ 68 ] 


Bidia. \Hindrance, adverse influ- 
Bed bidiaj ence of a supernatural order. 
Bidic bidic. To ferment, to rise in 
bubbles, as anything fermenting, 
to keep moving, as a mass of mag- 
gots. Scottice, hotching. 

Tejo betag.ricko bi(Jie bi<Jijol£kaiia. 

Bidic bidic. Without stint, more than 

Bi^lio bidiae jomoda. He eats without stint. 
lA ia.te bidic bi^icem jomeda ? 

Bidir bidir. Well cooked rice, each 
grain intact, not boiled into a pulp. 

Bidlai. To be scattered in all direc- 
tions, all at once, without inter- 
vening interval. 

Bidlgii marteko barlsao got'ena. They all hat- 
ched at one time. 

Gele bidlaiena. Burst into ear at the same time. 

Onte note up do bidlai bidlaioKkantakoa. Their 
hair is all flying loose. 

Bidnalc. Instantaneously, all at once, 
with a jerk. 

BidnaK menteye teiigo goiena. He came to a 
stand still all at once. 

Bidot. To cause suffering or shame, 
to suiifer, suffering. 

Alan dolah bidotena, bill i?.te. We suffer 
through the serpent. 

Bidra bidri. ") Not to come together as 
Bidrau. / husband and wife, the 

husband not to bring home his 


Bidraaakatjmeae, amaK o9.1i gunte. He has left 
yon at your father's house on account of 
your conduct. 

Bidra bidri. Streaming gaily along. 

Bit^lra bidri i^eJ^el tan(^ilco calaUkana. 

They stream gaiyly along on their way to the fair 

Bidrau. To be frightened, to be start- 
led, scared. 

Cele lielte con gaiko bidranenaP What has. 

frightened the cows? 
Campa gar khon Madho Siile bi<Jrauketbona. 
Madho Sing soared ua away from fort Champa. 

Bidya. Knowledge, learning. 

Bigaboge. Fat, plump. 

Bigha. A measure of land, which var- 
ies from :| to "I of an acre. 
Bighin. Sickness. 

Hog bighin. Disease and sickness. 

Bigobngo. Fat and unwieldy, corpulent, 
lazy, because fat. 

Mm bigobogoe kamidarcaka? Can this 'fatty' 
work P 

Bigra bigri. \ To cause misunderstand- 
Bigrau. J ing between friends, to 

set friends at variance, to lead 

astray, to pervert. 

Blpla biha.}^-™g^- 

Bihar. C£ bian. 

Bihet bihet. Used by herdsmen to call 

their cattle. 
Bihri. ") To appoi'tion to each his share 
Biuri. J in a sum ot money to be 

raised conjointly. 

Tin tiritkateko bihri joiia ? How much will they 

apportion to each ? 
Bihrikateko ufhaua. They apportion to each 

his share, and then collect the money. 

Bihri bata. \Over and above the am- 
Biuri bata. J ount settled to be paid 

by each. C£ bihri 
Bihur. To revolve, come round again, 

as the seasons. Cf acur bihur. 

Des con bihuren ja gosae gutruf dos saheda. 

Bijau. 1 To be steeped, to be saturat- 
Bhijaii. J ed, to be drunk in ; to 
strongly impress one, to recognize 
the force of an argument, to be 

Jomak hormore bah biig.ukkantaea. He does 

not assimilate hie food. 
Noa katha bijauadiiia. I feel the force of this 


Bijhauk. To travail in birth. 

Bijir bijir. To be separated into very 
small particles, to fly as sparks from 
an anvil, to scatter, as rain drop.s 
falling on a hard surface ; to 
separate mto small globules, as 
mercury ; very fine, as spray. 

Bijir bijir pasii'oKkana. It is scattering in spray. 

Bijli. Lightning, wildfire. 

BiM mente bijlikedae. The lightning flashed 

Bijo bojo. 1 Slovenly, carelessly, scan- 
Bijoc bojoc. J tily. 

Bijoo bojode dhutiakana. He wears his dhuti 
in a slovenly manner. 

Bikau. To be named, to be called, to 
be current. 

As chut9.u liutumteye bikaultkana. Ho goes by 
the name of "Despond." 

Bikau. To be sold, or disposed of for 
a price. 

Tinakte bik^uKa p For how much will it be 


[ 69 ] 


Bikhar. To be angry, to be at enmi- 
ty, not to be on speaking terms, 
to be scattered. 

Ale dole bikhg.rakana, uni soiige bale ror jon- 

Bikir bikir. ") A wriggling mass, as mag- 


Bikitbikit. / gots. ScottmtL\ hatching. 

Bikit' bikitiko tejokedea, are gooena. 

Bikla bikli. ")^ To be disturbed, to be 
Biklau. j uneasy, to be agitated, 
to be restless. 

OraKte oalaK l^git' bitl» blkli baraekanae. He 
is impatient to go home. 

Bikol. 1 To be restless, uneasy, troub- 
Bikoli. j led, uneasy, disturbed, grieved. 

Mon bikolika. The mind will be troubled. 

Bikol bokol. "1 Unfit for use, as water ; 
Bokol bokol. J watery and therefore 

unpalatable, as utu (q. v.) 
Bikor bokor. To be pulled out, as a 

coiled up rope ; to run out, as an 

anchor chain. 

Bil. A bill, an account. 

GurukoaK tolope bila. He draws up a bill for 
the teachers' salaries. 

Bilan. A wide expanse, a plain. 

Biland. ^ . ■ i i • 

-p-1 ■ , ■ > A wide expanse, a plam. 

Biland t*n(Ji. An extensive plain. 
BiJat dak. A wide expanse of water. 

Bilat. To advance money or grain 
on the security of cidp.s, to lend 
on interest. 

HoroA .bilatakada gota t^-ni?!. I have advan- 
ced money on the dhan all round. 

Bilat. England. 

Bilati. English, belonging to England, 

Bilbilau. ") To be seized with panic, to 
Chilbilau. J be in terror, to be frighten- 
ed, to be .startled ; to be excited 
through fear or joy. 

Horkoko bilbilau cabaena. The people are 
panic stricken. 

Bilbilau. \Soft, as a ripe fruit ; spongy, 
Liblibau,/ as wet soil. 

Ot liblibauena dakte. The soil is spongy owing 
to the rain. 

Bilhau. On all sides, round about. 
Bilhau. To hand round, distribute, to 
serve out. 

Daka bilhg.ume. Serve out the food. 

Bilia bitii. Heads and tails, in a jumble, 
one above another, in h(!a))s. 

Noa horo do sanam bili^i bitio gurena hoete. 
This doan is 'laid' in all directions. 

Bilik balari. \ To glisten, to flash, to 
Bilit balan. J sparkle, to swagger; res- 

Bili^ balah dara baraekanae. He goes swagger- 
ing about. 

Hako bilit balaiioKako. The fishes flash (in 

the sun light. ) 

Tarware biUt balah jhalkaoHkana. The sword 

Bilit'. ^To flash, to sparkle, to 

Bilit bilit. J twinkle, to swagger, to 
put on airs. 
BiUt' meuteii lielkedea. I caught a glimpse 

of him. 
Bilit' biliC bijlikedae. A bright flash of light- 

Bilit bilitkin calalckana, alahlekan kuribanuk- 
koa. They go about giving themselves 
such airs, as if there were no girls to com- 
pare with them. 

Bilit balan. Cf bilik balah. 

Bilom. To delay, to put off time, to 
tarry, to loiter, to saunter. 
Alom biloma, ruar hec godokme. Do not delay, 
but return immediately. 

Biltau. To disappear, to go off secret- 
ly, to stray, to be lost, to be mis- 

Okato coe biltauena, mit tec mihii do. A calf 
has strayed somewhere. 

Bin. "j_ In comp. without, devoid of, 
Bina. j exclusive of, except, save, 

Bin badaete. Without knowing. 
Bin jielte. Without seeing. 
Bina hukumte. Without orders. 

Bin. A snake. 

Bina. Cf bin. 

Bin cere. A small bird. 

Bin kancur. The slough of a snake. 

Bin kidiri. Snakes and scorpions. 

Bin ot. Poisonous mushrooms. 

Bind. A pin of wood, used instead of 

a nail. 
Bind bahki. A anklet with a joint and fastened 

with a pin of wood. 
Eindbak. Cf. khila bak. 
Bind sakom. A bracelet fastened with a pin of 


Binda, A sheaf a bundle ; to make 
into sheaves, or bundles. 

Mit' bindg. horo. A sheaf of dhan. 


[ 70 ] 

Bir but 

Bindar, To fall down, to collapse. 

Horo bind^rena. The dhan lias fallen to tlie 

Bindhar. To fix in a horizontal position, 
as the bars of a gate or railing ; a 
fence or raihng made of wooden 

Gorako bindh^raka^a. They have fenced the 

cow shed with horizonal bars. 
Mitten ma^le bindhJirlaKa. We fixed a bamboo 


Bindi. A spider. 

Kul bindi. A largfe poisonous spider. 
Bindi ganalf. A spider's web. 

Bindi. A straw stand for earthen pots, 
the rim round the bottom of any 
vessel to make it stand steadily. 

Bindi lota. A lo^a (q. v.) with a rim on which 
to stand. 

Bindi mutha. A common garden weed> 
Fitnbristylis monostachya, Hassk. 

The root of this plant is used medicinally by the 
Santal ojhas. 

Bindran. To fall, or tumble down back- 
wards from a standing or sitting 

Dal bindraii go^kedeae, He felled him to the 

Binduc. To sneer, to thrust out the 
under lip mockingly. 

Binducaeako They will thrust out the under 
lip mockingly at him. 

Binduc satok. To pout, to frown, to 
scowl, to mock. 

Binduc sa^oke Aelokkana. She is scowling. 

Binhak ~) Falsely, illegally, without 
Binhakte. J cause. 

Binhakte dg-brikediAae. 

Bini. A bamboo fan which takes 
the place of bellows in a Santal 

Seiigel binite ewerme. Fan the fire with the 

Binthi. A curved knife for household 


The binthi is held in position by the foot and the 
material to be cut is pressed against the 

Binti. To proclaim, to discuss, preach, 
relate, exhort ; teaching, exhorta- 

Bintika raj. The "uncrowned king," 
i. e. the Pargana (q. v.) 

This is an allusion to an ancient custom which 
once existed in Chutia Nagpur and ad- 
ioiniug districts. The king acknowledged 
the accession of a feudatory prince by put- 

ting a mark on his forehead with the great 
toe of his right foot, which had been smeared 
with vermilion. The title which exists up till 
the present, was that of Tikait. The Santal 
chief of a district has the authority, al- 
though he has never received the tika. 

Bipod. \ Misfortune, trouble, distress, 
Bipot. J suffering. 

Bir. 1 Jungle, forest ; wild, undo- 

Bir pakar. J mesticated. 

4(Ji birakana, saltatabo. There is much jungle, 
we will clear it and give relief from wild 


Ur^ bi^: 1 ^^''^^' primeval forest. 

Afut bir. ") 

Akut bir. > Large, dense forest. 

Akat bir. J 

Bir janwar. Wild animals. 

Biraj. To be frightened, to be worried ; 

to harass. 

Bougae birajketkoa, dgirkedako. The bohga 
frightened them and they fled. 

Bir alpalua. The wild form oiJPhaseo- 
lus aconitifolius, Jacq. Cf al- 
Birampat. ") To keep looldng back as 
Birampat. J one flees, to flee away at 
full speed. 

Birampa,te dgirkeda. He fled looking back 
every now and again as he ran. 

Biran. ~) Foreign, distant place or 
Birana. J country. 

Biran ren hof doe bah kana. He is not a stran- 

Birana ren hor kanae. He belongs to a distant 

Bu'asali. To sulk, to be discontented, 

Birasaliakanae teheA do. He is sulking to-day. 

Birbanta. A giant, a mighty man of 

Birbao. A hurricane, a cyclone ; Like a 


Birbao hore hoeena. He is a hurricane-like 
man. (The idea prevalent is that persons 
exceptionally strong in body or mind first 
saw the light during a hurricane, and so 
are named hurricane men.) 

Birbhui. The district of Birbhum, the 
first syllable bir, Santali, mean- 
ing forest, and the second bhui, 
Sanscrit, and meaning land, i. e. 
" forest land". 

Bir but. A plant common in the jungles, 
Flemingia congesta, Linn. 

The name ' wild gram' is given because the fruit, 
which is also eaten, resembles that of the 
cultivated hut or gram. 

Bir disom 

[ 71 ] 

Bir sim 

Bir disom. The forest country. The 
name given by the Santals to the 
country lying between the Ganges 
and the Adjoe River. Cf. birbhiii. 

Bir ghangra. A common jungle plant, 
a broad leaved form of Vigna 
vexillata, Benth. 

Birhau. To take root, to begin to grow, 
as a plant that has been transplan- 
ted ; to settle down. 

Cef lekam liel 9.gukeda, birh^iuakana se ban p 
He, birhgiuakaiia. How did you find it ? has it 
begun to grow? Yes, it is growing. 

Birhi-angur. C£ angur birhi. 

Bir hor. " Jungle man." A small Dra- 
vidian tribe, mainly located in 
Chutia Nagpur, who live in the 
jungles, and eke out a scanty sub- 
sistence by hunting and selling 
jungle produce, especially the bark 
of Bauhinia Vahlii, which they 
make into ropes, sikuars (q. v.), &c. 

Bii- horec. A common jungle plant, 

Atylosia scarabcedois, Benth. 
Biri. A fetter ; to fetter. 

Hgiri biri. Manaolea and fetters. ^ 
Biri hor. A fettered person, a prisoner. 

Birij birij. To harass, to worry. 

Birij birijkedeae, bae thir ocoaekana. He 
harassed him, would not leave him alone. 

Birid. " Bearing," unstamped, as a 

Birid birid. Watery substance oozing 

from a mass ; to run as a sore. 

Biriil biriri daHtef hiiijif gidime. 
Birid birili daka. Boiled rioe from which wa- 
ter oozes out. 

Birid birid. \To continue weeping 
Burun burun./ and sobbing for a long 
time ; the eyes to fill with tears. 

Birili birixie raKeda. 

Birit. Trade, calling, profession. 

Birjhunka. A common wild plant, 
Crotalaria ealycina, Shrank. 

Bir kana arak. A common plant dur- 
ing the rains, Comvielyna salici- 
folia, Linn. 

Birkau. \To be frightened, to be start- 

Bliirkau.J led, to be scared. 

Kul reaU raK aAjomte g9.iko birkauena. The 
cows were frightened by hearing the tiger 

Birki. To be frightened, scared ; night- 

Bir kubet. A common wild plant, An- 
drographis echioides, Nees. 

Birla. ") Some, here and there, some 

Birla birli. J . . .other. 

Baje birlgi. Here and there. 

Birla birli sawaekedae, birlg. birli do ban, In 

some places there is a good crop and not in 


Birlan. ") To keep a sharp look 

Birlan birlid. J out on all sides, to be 

on the alert against enemies from 

any quarter, to prick up the ears, 

to smell danger. 

Birlan birlilikobeiigeda, jel do. The deer keep 

a sharp look out on all sides. 
Sadom birl?ih birliilolfkanae, botoroK leka. 

The horse pricks up his ears as if be were 


Bir lopon araH. A wild pot herb, Ver- 

nonia cinerea, Less. 
Bir malhan. A climbing plant found 
in the jungles, Atyllosia mollis,Bth. 

Bimaha. Wild, undomesticated ; of 
solitary habits, strange. 

Bir narcha. A common wayside plant, 

Cor chorus, nov. sp. 
Birnju.lA small forest tree, Bauhinia 
Bunju.J retusa. 
Bii-od. Out of temper, sulky. 

Birodakanae. He is sulking. 

Birodhi. Angry, at variance. 
Birot. At variance, at enmity with each 

Birotiakanakin. They are at variance with each 

Birpakar. Cf bir. 

Birsan. A common wild plant, PJtaseo- 

lus mungo, var. radiatus, Linn. 
Bir miru baha. Sida carpinifolia, a 

common wild plant which yields 

a good fibre. 
Birsaha. "| Suffering from indigestion 
Bhirsaha. J or overeating. 
Birsau. ")To suffer from indigestion 
Bhirsau. J or over eating. 
Bir sauraj . A j ungle plant. 
Bir sim. The jungle fowl, Gallus 



[ 72 ] 


Birsindic. A species of monkey, or 

Bir sukri. The wild pig, Sus indicus. 

Bir suraj mukhi. The wild sun flower, 
lonidium suffruticosmn, Ging. 

Bir surgn^aALaggera flava, Benth., a 
Bir turi. j plant with yellow flowers 
common during the cold season. 

Birtant. Tidings, rumour, intelligence, 

Birti. Cf. biiit. 
Birud. Opposition, contrariety ; against, 

Am birudre. In opposition to tliee. 

Birturi. Heels uppermost, feet in the 
air ; head down. 

BirtuA birtuAko unumoKlcana. Tliey are diying 
in the water heels in tbe air. 

Biryon boryon. To wriggle as a snake 
when moving ; to move as a snake. 

Biryoii boryoiie calalikana. 

Bis. Poison. 

Bisan. Poisonous. 

-p,- ■ V Twenty seers weight. 

Bisaha. Poisonous, as a snake ; easily 

Bisal. Poisoned, as an arrow. 

Bisg-l apayi. A poisoned arrow. 

Bisbakhan. To abuse, to vilify, to say 
all sorts of things against one in 
his hearing, literally, " poisonous 

Biabakbane egerkediAa. 

Bisbiswas. Certainly, without doubt, 
without fail. 

Bisbiswas bare hiinlime. Come without fail. 
Bisbiawaaiii dalea. I shall certainly beat him. 

T, • >- More, to increase. 
Besi. j 

Khajna bisiakana. The rent is increased. 
Bisi emoK hoyoktama. You must give more. 

Bisi Jan. The spine, the back bone. 

Bisi muti. Diligently. 
Bisi sutuc. ") Carefully, diligently, un- 
Bisic sutuc J remittingly 
Bisic sutuoiil liam barakeda. I sought care- 
fully for it. 

Bisoe. Regarding, concerning. 
Bisor. A mistake 

Bhul bisor. Mistakes, errors, faiilts. 

Bisphor 1 Eczema, boils. 
Bisphotka. J 

Eispitaha. Easily angered, short tem- 
Bistor. Many, much. 

Bister horko jaoraakana. Many people have 

■ assembled. 
Bistorko jomkeda. Theyate a large quantity. 

Bistur. To waste, to destroy, to spend, 

to harm. 
Daka alom bistur gidia. Do not waste the 

Nia khon do cet ho bae bisturkeda. He did 

no more harm than this. 

Biswas. Faith, belief. 

NitiA biswgisena. Now I believe. 

Bid. To plant, to fix upright in the 
ground, to set in a hole, to cock 
the ears. 

Lutur bit'. To listen attentively. 
Lutur bitkateye darkeda, kul^ii do. The hare 
fled with its ears raised. 

Bita. A span ; the distance between 
the tijDs of the thumb and little 
finger when stretched out ; to mea- 
sure by spanning. 

Bitaime. Measure it by spanning. 

Bitau. To pass, to elapse, as time. 

Mi€ hapta bitauena. A week has passed. 

Bil} bikoc. Looking round about, swing- 
ing arms, as a person in high 

Bit' bikoo oet bail daU lom calakkan ruho£ 

Biii diiruc. To limp by walking on 
the toes with the knee joint flex- 

Bi6 diiruoe tarametkana. 

Bitha. High cultivated land. 
Bithak. As soon as, whenever. 

Heo bithakge dakae jomkeda. He took his 
food as soon as be arrived. 

B'tl k f-^s soon as, immediately after. 

Heo bithakge dakae jomkeda. 
Uni do tuii bithg-g gockoae. 

Bithi. Forced labour. 

Bithiko senakana, raj orakte. They have gone 
to do forced labour at the raja's house. 

Bithiahi. Like forced labour, half 

Bithiahipe k^imikana, an lagaokate kamipe. 
Tou are working as if you were forced to 
it, put some vigour into your work. 


[ 73 ] 


Biti. Dau gliter, an affectionate form 
of address to young women and 

Bitkil. A female buffalo. 

May bitkU. A good milking buffalo cow. 

Bitkil dh5nd, A large snaku so called. 
Bitla bitli. To be impatient, to fret. 

Nukin do bankin biti?. bitUKkaua. These two 
are not impatient. 

Bitlaha. ") To out-caste, out-casted, os- 
Bitol. J tracised. 

Bitolkedeako. They out-casted him. 
Onkan hof jiwei janam l9.grit'le bit;l?.hakoa. We 
out-caste such people for life. 

Bitlaii. To be impatient, to chafe, as 
at delay. 

Tin^iR bam bitl?.ulfkana, oalaKgeale. 

Bitol. Cf. bitlijha. 

Bitol Murmu. A sub division of the 

Murmu tribe or sept of the San- 


Bitoti biton. Separate, distinct, be- 
longing to different castes, or loca- 

Bitoh bitoh horko jarwalena. People from 
many different localities were assembled. 

Biuri. Cf. bihri. 

Biyol boyol. \Long, tall, sweeping, with 
Boyol boyol. J grand display. 

B^bukko do biyol boyolko dhutiKa. The ba- 

boos wear fine flowing dhutis. 
Gidr^ko khub boyol boyolko hara got'ena. The 

children have grown tali. 

Boak. A huge big healed tiger or 
tomcat ; broad full faced. 

BoaK aisane lieloKkana. He looks like a huge 
big headed tomcat. 

Boar. A species of fish. 

■p ■ - ■ ■ j- Varieties of the rice plant. 

Boas. The cry of a cei-tain species of 
wild cat. 

Boas runda. The large wild cat whose 
cry is " boas boas." 

Bobe. To stutter, to stammer. 

Boc. To take off garment, or shoes ; to 
draw, from sheath, as a sword ; to 
unsheath, to extract, as teeth ; to 
pull off, to slip off. 

Hako kanari iate bahko bojoKa. The fish do 
not slip off owing to the barb on the hook. 

Boc. A medicinal root sold in the baz- 
Bochor. A year. 

Boohorke bochor. Annually, yearly. 
Bod. Bad, evil. 
Maraii bod hor kanao. Ho is a very bad man. 

Boda. A ram, the male of certain 
graminivorous animals, as goats, 
deer &c. 

Boda jel. A stag. 

Boda merom. A he-goat. 

Boda bin. A brown rock snake. 
Boda ghangra. A garden crop, a variety 

of Vigna catiang, Endl. 
Bode. Muddy, thick, turbid, dirty. 

Bo(Je dalf alom Jluia. Do not drink rapddy 
water. ^ 

Bodea sodea. An inferior kind of han- 
di (q. V.) Cf. bodoc mela. 

Bodgak bodgak. Deep, as a blow with 
a hoe in earth, or with an axe in wood. 

BodgaK bodgalf hasae u^kgiu idikeda, kul do. 

The tiger made deep holes in the earth 

(with his feet). 
Bodgalc bodgak magme se. Cut deeply. 
BodgaK bodgaUe jomet' do. He thrusts big 

handfuls of food into his mouth. 

Bodgoe. A fat, plump woman. 

Bodgoe mara budhiye arisetbona. This fat old 
wife annoys us. 

Bodh. An inoculator, or \-accinator. 

Bodh johpe. Send for a vaccinator. 
Bodh %i]i^. Inoculation mark. 

Bodhao. To soothe, pacify. 

Bodhao otokaea mentell sen liogoKa. I shall 
go for a little to soothe it. 

Bod khasi. A goat not effectually 

Bodla.\To change, to exchange, to sub- 
Bodol.J stitute, to recompense ; in- 
stead of, in exchange, in room and 

XTni bodolte. Instead of him. 
Bodla/i halaea. I will be revenged. 
Met' bodol me(;. An eye for an eye. 

Bodla budli. In turns. 

Bodla budlilah kamia. We will work by turns. 

Bodlar nari. ") A common jungle clira- 
Bod nari. J ber, Vitis adnata, Roxb. 

Bodmas. A rascal, a scoundrel. 

Bodnam. To disgrace, to give a bad- 
name to. 

Nui hor do adiye bodnamketlea. This man 
brought great disgrace upon us. 



[ 74 ] 


Bodo, StujDid, and unable to speak 

Bodo mara hor. A stuttering, stammering fool. 

Bodoc. To rinse out, to squeeze or 
wring out. 

Bodoc handi. Liquor obtained by 
pouring water on the malted grain 
and squeezing it. It is of infe- 
rior quality. 

Bodoc mela. ~) The liquor obtained by 
Bodoc sodoc. J squeezing the malted 

grain, and being refuse is of an 

inferior quality. 

Bodol. Cf. bodla. 

Bodor bodor. Muddy, dirty, as water. 
Bodor bodor AeloUkana, daK do. The water 
looks dirty. 

Bodre. Old, and careless in attire. 
Bodro. Stuttering, stammering. 

Nui bodro mara hor oka ho ban bujhauEtaea. 

Boe. Used in addressing girls and 
young women when scolding, or 
fault finding. 

China boe, cet lagiiJem calakkana? Fie, you 
huzzy, what are you going tor ? 

Boe is also employed in addressing the village 
priest at a certain stage of the ceremonies 
observed during the Baha porob (q. v.), 
as he is supposed to be possessed by Jaher 
era, the Goddess of the Sarjom grove. 
(Jaherthan, q. v.) 

Boeha. Brother, or sister, near relative. 

Tinalf boehaRape? How many brothers and 

sisters are there of you ? 
Boeha misera. Brothers and sisters. 

Boela. Long, tall. 

Boela cgrS. The Hornbill. Cf. camacako. 

BoSto boyol. Very long, as a long rail- 
way train, or a peacock's tail. 

Bogda. A large stabbing knife, a shi- 
kari knife. 

Boge. Good, well ; to heal, to do good, 
to do well. 

Joto lekan rog bighine bogekettakoa. He heal- 
ed all kinds of diseases among them. 

Boge juda. News, health and condition. 

NotenaK sanam boge juda besgoa. All tho 

news of this place is good. 
Boge .itida reaKfco kupulia. They will ask each 

other regarding their health and condition. 

Bogete. A word possessing intensify- 
ing force. 

Bogeteye darkeda. He ran like tho wind. 

Bogeteye dakkeda. It poured a deluge. 
Bogeteye jomkeda. He ate an immense quan- 
Bogeteye raKkeda. He wept bitterly. 
Bogeteye laiigaena. He was tired out. 
Bogeteye kamikana. He works very hard. 

Bogoc. To make a hole in, to open, 
to slit. 

Bandiko bogoja. They open the bandi (q. v.) 

Bogot. Cf. bhogot. 

Boha casa. A non-resident cultivator. 

Halboha. A ploughman. 

Bohal. 1st Class rice land in which 
there is always a sufficiency of 

Bohao. To be floated away ; to blow, as 
wind ; to run, as the king's writ. 

Hoe bohaolfkana, oka seo khon? From what 
point blows the wind ? 

Bohao. To curry on the shoulder ; to 

Pakwalla cithiye bohaoeda. 

Bohi. Flowing. 

Bohi dak. Running water. 

Bohoe. To swill clothes in water, to 
wash off, to rinse. 

Noa kicric bohoeme. Rinse this cloth. 

Bohok. Head. 

Bohok paragoR leka hasoedidkana. I have a 

splitting headache. 
Tinak bohoR menaKkotapea, kada bitkilp How 

many head have you counting buffaloes and 

buffalo cows ? 
BohoR bohoR ren kora kuri. Boys and girla 

of the same family stock. 

Bohok. To accuse, to lay blame on, 
to throw responsibility upon. 

BohogeaA. I will accuse him. 

Boehako ren boKhoRid. The accuser of the 

Larhaire ho ill ge& bohoRena. The responsib- 
ility of fighting was also laid on me. 

Boh5k. Portrait, shape, representation, 
"dim outline. 

Nui do okoe bohoke lieloRkana ? Whose por- 
trait is this ? 

Mii; bohok geldn JieloRa. They look very much 

Bohol bohol. In ever widening circles, 
as caused by a stone thrown into 

B?ibaite bohol bohol oalaoena. It moved away 
slowly in ever widening circles. 

Bohon. Broken in, accustomed to, in- 
ured to work, second hand. 

Nui hor kg,mire bae bohonakana. This man is 
not accustomed to work. 

Ijohor boh( 

[ 7r, ] 


Bohor bohor. Rippling sound of water. 

DaR bohor bohor sa(}okana. 

Bohor bohor. Muddy, thick, as water. 

Darha realf dalf leo(Jate bohor bohorena. The 
water in the pool is muddy through having 
been stirred up. 

Bohor bohor.] 

Lohor bohor. I Sticky, mixed into a 

Leher bohor. j soft mass. 

Leper leper, j 

Leber bohor losot'akana. 

Leper lepere daK m?n(Jia. She boils the rice 
into a sticky mass. 

Boi bindi. A common small thorny 
tree, Randia dumetoruvi, Lamk. 
Boi bindi jel. A mythical deer. 
Boj. Load, burden. 

Bojao. To load, to load or charge a 
gun or hole for blasting. 

Banduk Jbojao dohokam. Load the gun to be 

Bojge. Slovenly in dress, shameless 
in attire. 

Hamal bojhako toleda, ar horko realf tarenreko 
ladea. They bind heavy burdens and lay 
them on men's shoulders. 

Bojhao. To load, to pile up, to put in. 

Bojra. M. 'I Carelessly dressed, cloth 
Bujri. F. J round waist too low down, 

BDJrae dhutiakana. 
Bujriye bandeakana. 

B6k. The pedicle of the cocoon of 
the tassar silk worm. 

Lnmam reaK bok. 
Mandoli bokaKme. 

Boka. Foolish, stupid, ignorant, raw. 

Boka Saotar. Unsophisticated Santals. 

Bokak. A tadle made of a pumkin 
split into two up the middle 

Bokao. ■) To jabber, to talk nonsense, 

Bakao. J to prate, to rave. 

Bokboko. To stretch, as twine from a 

Or bokboko kedae sutam do. He pulled and stret- 
ched out the thread. 

Bokhar. A sheath, of sword, &c. 
Boko. The lungs. 

Bokobhbnd. To disgrace, to bring con- 
tumely upon. 

Bokobhou(J cabakefleae. He has completely 
disgraced us. 

Boko boeha. ") Brothers, elder and 
Boko bokoeha. J younger. 
Bokol bokol. Muddy, dirty, bad as 
stagnant water in the hot weather. 
Bokom. Thy younger brother or sister. 

Bokom kora. Thy younger brother 
Bokom kuri. Thy younger sister. 

Bokom baha. An ornamental tree, the 
Persian lilac, Melia Azadarach, 

Bokon. My younger brother or sister 

Bokoii kora. My younger brother. 
BokoA kuri. My younger sister. 

Bokos. A witch. 

Daingeam, bokosgeam. You are a witch, and a 

Bokot. ~| His younger brother or 
Bokottell. J sister. 

Bokot kora . His younger brother. 
Bokot kuri. His younger sister. 

Bokot bokot. To chatter, to jabber, al- 
ways speakingj to scold. 

Boko£ bokodoKkanae. He is chattering. 

Bokram. ") To apply medicine of the 
Bokran. / consistence of paste exter- 
nally to the body. 

Bokro. To tickle. 

A.A\A bokroKgoa. I am very tickly. 
Gutlukedeali, acjiyo bokroena. 

Bokro. Short weight, short measure, 
mean, hard, stingy, scanty. 

Bokrogeye emoEkana. He is giving short mea- 
Bokroge lleloKkana. It looks scanty. 

Thorageye emadiila, bokroKkanae. He gave 
me a very little, he is becoming stingy. 

Bokroge bujh^ukkana. It seems short mea- 

Boksa. A warlock. 

Nui do boksa kanae. He is a warlock. 

Boktaok. To chatter, to say off a rig- 
marole of prayers, to speak a great 

Koejonre do alope boktaoKa, bedin horko leko . 
Do not say off a rigmarole of prayers like 
the heathen. 

Bolo. } To enter, to go in. 

OraKte bolme. Enter the house. 

OraSte alom boloKa. Do not enter the house. 

Bahue bolatlea. 


[ 76 ] 

Bonga barclii 

Bol. Strength, might. 

Bolaeme. Help him, encourage him. 

Bol bali riameda. I am not regaining strength. 

Bolao. To stir up, to interfere with, 
to train animals or birds. 

XJni bid alom bolaoea. Do not stir up the 

Khub bolao dahra kanae. He is a well train- 
ed ox. 

Bole. So they say, people say. 

Ale do bolels calalfa. 
Cefjko lagit bolepe heoakana ? 
liuaKkante bole senakanae. 
Bahma boleko gocakana. 

Bolahat."! . n • •, 

■D 11 ., ■ I A call, a summons, an mvita- 
xSolhat. >- ,. 


Bolahat hoeakanti/ia, cei ISj^it con. I have 
been called, but why I can't say 

Bolgaria.'l Strong, well grown, well 
Bolgor. y developed, strong and heal- 
Bolgoria.J thy, fertile, as Soil. 

Bese bolgarig. kana. He is a strong man. 

Bolhat. Cf bolahat. 

Boli. Language, speech, dialect. 

Bolidan. A sacrifice, an offering. 

Bolidanko carhaoa. They offer sacrifices. 

Bolman. Strong, well developed, well 
grown, strcjng and vigorous, strong 
and healthy, fertile, as soil. 

Bolman hasa. Fertile soil. 
Bolman gidra. A strong healthy child. 
Khub bolman dareakana. It is a strong vigor- 
rous tree. 

Bolo. To enter, to go in. 

OraKreko bolo baekoKa. They keep within 

the house. 
Dhasao boloena. It fell inwards. 
Eohoe boloaUabo. We will fill iip vacancies. 
Aboal? horteko boloKa. They will adopt our 

Mr bolok bapla. A form of marriage. Cf. liir 


Bolom. A spear. 

Bom. A bomb, used for fireworks. 

Bora. Carriage shafts. 

Bomal. A clue, part or whole of sto- 
len property. 

Bomal odokena. Part (or whole) of the stolen 
property has been found. 

Bombo. Stupid, ignorant, unsophisti- 

Bombo Saotar. Applied contemptuously to 
Santals by their Hindu neighbours. 

Bombon. To go about from house to 
house, as a dog in search of food. 

>Seta lekae bombon baraekana. He goes from 
house to house like a dog. 

Bomboryot. Small mouthed, keeping 
the mouth open a little. 

Bonbayar. A species of waterfowl. 

Bonbon. At full length, extended to 
full length ; long. 

BoAboii gitioakanae. He lies at full length. 

BoAboA tieakanae, bid do. .J'he snake is ex- 
tended to its full length. 

Bo/iboli katiA makakafa. 1 have cut a long 
piece of wood. 

Bond. To shut up, to incarcerate, to 
be stopped, to be closed, to cease. 

Ghari bondena. Tfc o clock has stopped. 
Sahet' bondolca. The breath will cease. 

Bondhekte. ) ti jy ^.-i 

Bondhete. j 1^7 craft, craftily. 

Bondheteye erekediAa khabher baA ba(JaelaKa. 

Bondis. Cf bundis. 

Bondo. Foolish, stupid, naked. 

Bondobos. \ To organize, to regulate, 
Bondobosto. / to arrange, to settle ; a 

lease, or settlement of land, affairs, 


Uni hor reak oraK duar bes bondobos calakkan- 
taea . That man' s household affairs are well 
regulated, (or he is well off.) 

Bondobostoakana. Arrangements have been 

Bondor. ") To be peeled or rubbed 
Bhondor. J off, as the upper cuticle. 

Harta bonijorakana. The skin has been rubbed 
off, (but no blood came.) 

Bone badare 1 Every where, all round, 
Tandi tikur. / bon-|-badra(q. v.) 

Ale see ot* bone badare omonakana. Our way 

mushrooms are springing up everywhere. 
Bone badare dakkedae. It rained all over. 

Bonbon. Cf banban. 

Bonga. The name given by Santals to 
the spirits whom they worship, a 
demon ; to sacrifice to a " bonga." 

Boiiga capar. Possessed with a demon. 
Boiigako deoakawalikoa. They are inspired by 

"boiigas." * 

Simko boiigakedea. They sacrificed a fowl. 
Bonga buruKkanae. 
Orakbotiga. A wife. 

Oral? bonga menaetaea, se baiiaP Is he married 
SiA bonga. The sun. [or not ? 

Bonga. A lunar month, a month. 

Bhador bonga. The month cf Bhador (q. v.) 

Bonga betha. Intercostal neuralgia. 
Boiiga barchi. "j A common annual 
Dare clhompo. V plant, used medi- 
Janum dhompo. j cinally, Leonates 
nepetcefolia, R. Br. 

Bonga caro(i 

[ 77 ] 


Bonga care6. A common grass on ri- 
ver banks, Fogmatherwm sacch- 
aroideuvi, Beauv, 

Bonga ghanti. A plant only found at 
considerable elevations, Clematis 
nutans, Boyle, 

Bonga khoda. A sore which occurs on 
the fingers, and affects the arm 

np to the shoulder. Owing to the eeverity 
of the pain it is attributed to supernatural 
agency. Cf. khoda. 

Bonga kora. M. "> Bongas or spirits 
Bonga kuri. F. J which take the form 

of young men or young women for the pur- 
pose of visiting at night human beings of 
the opposite sex. The result of this con- 
nection is that the young man or young 
woman falls into ill health, and the visits 
of his or her 'bonga' lover can only be pre- 
vented by charms and spells. 

Bonga Aei. Cf bonga sobok. 

Bonga saranjam. T The materials of 
Boiiga soromjam. J sacrifice and offer- 
Bonga sarjom. A common scandent 
shrub, Ventilago calyculata, 

The bark yields a strong fibre, and the seeds an 
oil used for cooking purposes. 

Bonga sobok. ") A disease which affects 

Bonga net!. J cattle. 

Bonga taeni. " The bonga's walking 

cane," Tacca pinnattjida, Linn., 

a common jungle plant. 

Bonkapsi. A plant with a large brilliant 
yellow flower, Tkespasia Lampas, 
Daly. & Gibs. 

Bonkhura. The supernumerary di- 
gits of the horse, cow, &c. 

Bonkor. Cess levied for the use of 
forest products. 

^onot. 1 Peace, harmony, agreement. 

Bail bonototttakina. They do not agree. 


Tan?lilena, arho bonwatena. It was cleared, 
but has again relapsed into jungle. 

Bonwat. To be lost sight of, to dis- 
appear ; restless. 

Okate ooe sen bonwatena. 
4^i bonwat gidra kanae. 

r 1 

tor. f ^®^'"' dread. 

■ Cf boron. 

Bontobotod. A long line or strip^ long, 
extending in one direction. 

4<}ibfJfioem bontobotooket'koa, tinrom sam^ao- 
kotamaP You have extended them (your 
cattle) into a long line, when will you bring 
them together again P 



Bor botor ar muhim khon balicaolem. Save 

US from fear and distress. 
Alom bora, (borolfa.) (botoroKa). Do not fear. 
Borge botor hoege rabati. Fear is fear, and 

the wind is cold. 

Bor. Thick straw rope, used principally 

to bind rice bandis. (q. v.) 
Uli bor. -) 

Pa(e6 bor. (Ropes made by different me- 
Lebet' bor. f thods. 
Gralah boy. ) 
Sikol. A thin straw rope. 

Bora. A bag. 
Boram. Over ripe. 

Bele boramena. It is over ripe. 

Borao. To dry up, to wither, to lose 
vitality ; said of fruits that dry up 
and fall from the tree. 

Noa jo do boraocna. This fruit is dried up. 
Borco. ") 
Borcon. J 
Borga. A rafter. 
Borkao. To frighten, to startle. 

BorkaoKae. He will be startled. 
Iri. hoben borkao ocokediAa. You have also 
frightened me. 

Borket. ") Blessing, good fortune, pro- 
Barket. / sperity, increase, abun- 
dance, plenty. Cf barket. 

Borketaktaleme. Bless it to us. 

Borlom. A spear. 

Bornon. To explain, to relate, to recite. 

Bomonaleme. Explain it to us. 

Boro. To fear, to be afraid. Cf botor. 

Boro. The heart. 

Boroc. Withered, paralyzed, arrested 

Ti boroeentaea. His hand is withered. 

Borodan. Over satiety, torpid through 
over eating. 

Jom boroijahenan. I have eaten too much. 
Jomkate borocjahe gitidakana. He is lying 
torpid after a meal. 

Boro horo. A variety of the rice plant. 

Boron. Colour. 
Oka boron, hende se pon^l ? What colour, black 
or white ? 


[ 78 


Rather, but, but rather. 



Borod con 

Bor con. 

Borop. Ice, frost. • 

Boror. Having a soft oily feeling to 
the touch, as soap stone ; possessing 
cleansing properties, as soap, cer- 
tain kinds of earth, ashes, &c. 

Noa torod guji borora. These ashes cleanse 

4^i boror hasa. Earth possessing cleansing 

properties in a high degree. 

Bororin. The common Indian Tree-pie, 

Bendrocitta rufa, (Scop.) 
Borof borot. White, clean, tidy, shining. 

Borot' borof sajakanae. He is clean and tidy. 
Nipilko rakapen, boro€ borot'. The stars rose 

B6s. Children, descendants, race, stock, 

Bos buda. Genealogy. 

Pilou Haram ren bos kanabo. We are the des- 
cendants of Pilcu Haram (q. T.) 

Bos. Power, command, guidance, di- 
rection, authority. 

Eiiga apa reak bosre bako hijnlia. They do not 
submit themselves to the authority of their 

B6s buda. Genealogy. 

Bosertak. Incapable, incapacitated or 
unequal to ; bungling, clumsy, in- 

Bosertak lekam sieda, siiisatupem etomeda. 

Bosertak lekam kamikana. 

Bosertak lekan hor kanam. 

Bosertak lekae caiaKkana nui dahra do dare 

henaktaea se bail ? 
Bosertakko bicarlettama. 
Bosertak lekam makedekana, i/i khan mii maK- 

regeA topaRkea. 
Bosertak ill calaka holage, bohoK haso janam- 

adiiite ball sen darelena. 
Bosertak murukoktiJia ti do, tirogeA ghaoakan- 

khan bhala. 

Boskao. To break, to give way, the 
bottom to fall out of a vessel, to 

Bandi boskaoena. The bandi (q. v.) has burst. 

Boskot. '\ Habitation, dwelling place ; 
Boskoti. y to take up one's residence, 
Boskotia. J to inhabit. 

Jodhaijilire bar isi serma khon iiiak boskot 

Bosok. To become detached, easily 
separated, to come away in hand- 

BoBok marte liurena, man^a horo do. Grain 
on the threshing floor separated easily (from 
the straw.) 

BosoR bosoR up liuroRkana. The hair comes 
out in handiuls. 

Bosonto. Cholera ; a disease attacking 
cattle in which the intestines be- 
come ulcerated. 

Bosri. A prostitute. 

Bosta. A sack, a bag. 

Bosti. Populous, large. 

Khub bosti ato kana. It is a very populous 
(or large) Tillage. 

Bosto. 1 To destroy, to injure, to ruin, 
Bhosto. J to reject, to defile, to pro- 

Amak Autum tahen thaoko bosfokeda. They 
have defiled the place where thy name 

Bostor. Clothes, clothing. 

Bebostorenae. He is badly off in the matter of 

5ot. Mire, deep mud. 
Botaria. Cf. hal botaria. 

Bote. Certainly, correct, true, as you 


Bote kangea. It is true. 

Botec. In comp. perhaps, lest, or else. 

ThirkoKme, dal boteckemali. 

Botke. Yolk of an egg, young. 

Bele botke h3 thamakhurko joma. Children 
also chew tobacco. 

Kahu botke. A common hedge plant, Bryo- 
nia lacinosa, Linn. 

Botkoc. A low hill, a large mound. 

Burn botkoe. Mountains and hills. 

Botoc. End of turban, or any part of 
cloth hanging down behind, re- 
sembling a tail. 

Botodko atur ocoea. They cause the end to 
hang loosely behind. 

Botor. Fearful ; to be frightened, fear- 
some, terrible, frightful. 

Botor 000. To cause to fear, to frighten. 
Botorge AeloRkanae. He is frightful. 

Alom botorakoa. Do not fear them. 
Botor bao. A panic. 

Boyo bana. A species of bear smaller 
than Ursus labiatus. 

Boyol boyol. Cf biyol boyol. 

Buan. A musical instrument ; to play 
on the buan. 

Euan rar 

I. 79 ] 


Buati rar. The air or tune to which 
the buaa songs are sung. Cf. buan 

The bu^h is made by fastening a thin bamboo 
((Janijif) about three feet long on the half 
of a hollow gonvd. The open end of the 
gourd is held to the stomach and the strings 
struck with a small stick. The note is 
varied by pressing the gourd to, or raising 
it from the person. 

The strings are made from the sinews of cattle. 

Buad sereri. A class of songs sung to 
a peculiar air known as Buan rar. 

The Bu?.ii songs are sung during the Dasao 

(<J- v.), generally to the accompaniment of 

the bu?h (q. v.) 
Hae hae, tokare do ho, Guru ho, hotof janam- 

Guru ho, tokare do ho. Guru ho, 4*n<Jit' buser- 

Hae hae, gurio mandere. Guru ho, hotof janam- 

Guruho, karam butare, Guru ho, ij9n(Jif bu- 

serlen. Buaii song. 

Bubhau. To spill, to pour, as liquid. 
Scottice, to jaup. 

DaKem bubhau oookeda. Ton spilled the 

Khub leka dul bubhauaeme. Pour a gjod 

quantity of water over him. 

Bubrum.l c-,,- 

Burum. 1^^"^"^ °" ^SS^' 

Belekate bubrum kanae. She has laid eggs 
and is now sitting on them. 

Bubu. A scratch, a hurt, or anything 
that hurts, said to or by children 

Buca. M. T To nick off a part, to crop 
Buci. F. J the ears, crop-eared. 

Luturko bueg-ke^taea, ar can^bolko bandaket'- 
taea. They cropped his ears, and docked 
his tail 

Buci seta. A crop-eared slut. 

Bug dare. A small forest tree, Gor- 

dia Myxa, Linn. 
Buc buc. Nimbly, quickly. 

Matkom bud buoe halaiieda. He picks up the 
matkom (q. v.) very nimbly. 

Bucbucu. Sharp pointed, peaked, 

Ojo buobucuakana. 


Buda, Stock, root, clump, stalk. 

Mi£ buda khonbo heeakana. We all come from 
the one stock. 

Buda. Grandfather. 

Bu^?' baba. Grandfather. 



Budak. To break up ground with the 
plough, to be broken up, as a mud 
or pnkka floor into holes. 

Bali bu(}g,Kl6lthan oot'lekatert g,sulolfaf If I do 
not plough how can I live ? 

Baranda ot bu(Jalfena. The floor of the ver- 
andah is broken in places. 

B.udakil. Understanding. 

Budan. Wise. 

Budau. ") To spend, to squarider, i(j 
Burau. J waste. 

Sanam tij duribe bn^laukeftaea. 
He squandered all his property. 

Budbhorsa. Advice, encouragement. 

Budgaria. Wise, clever. 

Budha. An old man. 

Bud hara. Pei-plexed, at one's wits' end. 

Id doA budharaena. I am at my wits' end. 

Budhi. Wisdom. 

Budhiabonme cetlekatebo gisulolfa. Suggest 
some way in which we can get a living. 

Budhi bam khataolekhan ohom asuUena. If 
you do not use your wits you will not get a 

Budhi. An old woman. 
Budhia. Mother. 

Buijhi?. hor. Mother. 

Budhi ayo. Grandmother. 

Budhi ghasid Two plants go by this 

name, Pavetta Indica, L., var. 

tomcntosa, Roxb., and Gallicarpa 

macrophylla, Vahl. 

Budhi kaskom. A species of the cotton 

plant, Gossypium arboreum, 

Bud hilok. Wednesday, the fourth 

day of the week. 
Budhi parkom ipil. The four chief stars 

in the body of the " Great Bear." 

Budhi tilai. A common shrub, Pavetta 
indica, Linn., var. tomentosa, 

Budi. Old, aged, applied to women. 

Budi ayo. Grandmother. 
Bn^i era. A old woman. 

Budrag. "» Unrestrained, left to the 
Budrak. J freedom of one's own will, 
arrogant, self-willed. 

Jom bu^lrgikenaG. He has waxed fat and kicks. 

OkoeaKumuktenonkadom budr9.gkana? Whom 
do yqu rely on that you have become eo ar- 
rogant ? 


[ 80 ] 


Budru6. To rinse out the mouth, to 
squirt out of the mouth. 

Da8 buijruo gi(Jiako. They squirt the water 
out of their mouths. 

Budud buduc. To bubble up, as water 

Budur. To rot off, to eject the stone of a 
fruit from the mouth. 

Papita reaK jahtet;ko buijur gi^ikalia. They 

eject the stone of the papita from the 

Harta jel sea buglurlenkhan eken jah tahena. 

When the skin and flesh rot off only the 

bones remain. 

Bugi. Cf. boge. 

Bugli. A small bag, a purse. 

Bugur bugur.l Soft, as earth or quick 
Bagar bugur. J sand into which the 
feet sink. 

Bugur bugur jahga boloKa. 

Bugur bugur. The sound produced by 
the blowing of a blacksmith's bel- 

Buhel. To flow, to float away. 

Qah ngiite Sifi sadom torae buhelen do, Soya 
samudte ho, SiA sadom. 

Buhi. A book not stitched at the side 
but at the end, an account book, 
a register, a ledger. 

Buhi dak. Running water. 

Buhi khet. A rice field through which 
there is a flow of water. 

Buhni. The first sale of the day which 
must be a cash one. 

AuriA buhnia dharte oholi emlema. I have not 
made my first sale yet, so cannot give you 

Baihar. Benevolence, good-will, kind- 

Okoealf buiharte k?.mi dom riamkeda? Through 
whose good offices did you obtain work ? 

Buj. ") Wisdom, understanding, 

Buj suj. J sense ; to understand. 

Okage bae buj suja. He understands nothing. 
Oka ho buj sujkate bae rora. He speaks without 

Buj bujhau. To understand what is 
right and what is wrong. 

Bujhantar. Wise, clever, sharp. 

Buj ha buj hi. To consult together, 
to take counsel together. 

OraKrele bujha bujhilenge jaha^aKle kha^iama. 
We will first consult those at home, then we 
will say something definite. 

Bujhau. To understand, to consult, to 
take counsel with, to explain, to 
cause to understand, to convince, 
to satisfy, to persuade. 

Bujhau bharenaA. I am unable to iinderstand. 
Moneregeli bujhg,u baralege. I must first 

think it over. 
Car pawa monere bujhau tliil^kate rorme ma. 

Make up your mind on the matter and then 

Lai bujhauaeme. Explain it to him. 

Bujri. F. 1 Slovenly in dress, cloth round 
Bojra. M.J waist too low down, un- 
shapely in waist. 
Bujri alom bandeKa. Wear your s9.ri higher 
up your waist. 

Bujuk bujuk. "> In crowds, in swarms, 
Bujuk bujuk. J numerous. 

Bujuk bujuk hof menaKkoa. There are crowds 
of people. 

Bujur. To spill, as gr-ain out of a hole 
in a bag, basket, &c. 

Gei leka bam ghetaka^ bujuroK kana ? How 
haye you tied it up (grain) ? It is running out. 

Buk. To encourage, to assist, to give 

Isore bukakawafkoa. God gave them courage. 
Buk bandhaoaeme. Encourage him. 

Buka. The navel, the unfertilized part 
on the top of a cob of Indian corn, 
a peaked bag in a fish or hare net 
into which the fish or game drop. 

Buka topa. Birthplace. 

Ona ato do buka topa ato kantiria. That village 
is my birthplace. 

Buka bharur. Umbilical hernia. 

Buka cur cutuc. A child's game. 

Buka curruc. A child's game. 

Buka seresere. Ulcerated navel of 

Buka sobok bin. A large green and 
yellow snake. 

Buki. A worm that destroys the roots 
of the young dhan plant. 

Buktan. ") Hard to pull, as a hooka ; 

Buktana. J not to sound as a flute 
when blown into; to speak from the 
throat, close, reserved, hoaree. 

Buktangeye roreda, okoe badae baiioaoK coe 
baoo. He speaks from his throat, his recovery is 

Noa tirio do bukt;angea, bail sa^ea. 

Buku. A white ant. 

Bukui' Bukur 

[ 81 ] 


Bukur bukur. To bubble, to rise in 

Bakuf bukuy daK sotefioKkaiia. The water 

bubbles out from the earth. 
Bukur bukur heijejolf kana, daU do. The water 

boils and bubbles. 

Bukul; bukul The motion of maggots 
in foul sores, or that of earth 
worms or moles raising up earth 
from underneath by jerks. 

Bukuf buku6 len(Jet'e oiJokoKkana. 
Pat;wako bukuf bukudokkana. 

Bul. To be intoxicated, to be drunk, 
stupified by a narcotic, or drug ; to 

Aijipe An buloUa. You often drink till you 

are drunk. 
Bolenae. He is drunk, (or stupified by the use 

of a drug. ) 
Em bulkedead. I administered chloroform to 


Bulahat. Summons, calling, bidding, 

iJSak bulaha^ hoeena. I have been summoned. 

Bulau. To deceive, to lead astray, to 
practice deception, to divert, to 

Unial^ kathatege non^e doll bulau hecakana. 

I came here through being deceived by his 

Gidra jahanalS emkate bul^uem. Give the child 

something to divert him. 

Bulau. A method of exorcism. 

This method of exorcism is applied in three 
ways : — 

1st. — .Aiter a corpse has been placed on the fun- 
eral pyre a man takes a fowl in his left 
hand and holding it aloft goes three times 
round the pyre, moving to the left. Having 
completed the circuit thrice he nails the fowl 
through the neck to one of the four posts 
(torre khun^i) fixed one at each corner of 
the pyre. 

2nd. — When -it is desired to exorcise an evil 
spirit out of a sick man a fowl is taken and 
its bill held close to a few grains of rice on a 
sarjom (q. v.) leaf, and when it picks a little 
the exorcist takes it in his right hand and 
holding it out at arm' s length brings it round 
with a sweep and passes it underneath the 
left thigh to the left hand. With a similar 
movement of the left hand it is passed un- 
derneath the right thigh, to the right hand 
and again carried with a sweep of the right 
hand underneath the left thigh to the left 
hand and brought in front where it is sized 
with both hands. This completes the oper- 
ation which is repeated three times, after 
which the fowl is made to pick a few grains 
of rice off the sick man's hand as a proof 
that the spirit has been driven out. 

3rd. — When the person to be operated on has 
had the evil eye cast on him while eating, a 
piece of a broom (jonoK), the stone of a 
fruit of Semicarpus anacardium (soso jan) 

and a piece of a pod of Bauliinia VahUi 
(lamaS hefe) are wrapped up in a sarjom 
Cq. V.) leaf. The operation now resembles 
that described above the parcel taking the 
place of the fowl. 

Buli. Language, speech, dialect. 

Bul mayam. An offering of human 

The method is as follows: — 

A puncture is made with a thorn and then pres- 
sed till blood issues. A grain of husked 
rice is then applied and when discoloured 
with the blood it is presented as an offering 
to the deity who is to be appeased. The 
number of parts of the human body from, 
which blood is extracted varies from four 
or five to thirty three. 

Balk^fi. The fee paid to the officiating priest 
who offers his own blood. This generally 
amounts to one rupe four annas. 

Bh It i "^ form of emphatic denial. 

Balte ho taka banuKtiiia. I have not a single 
rupee, (i. e. even if I were drunk I could 
not say I had any money.) 

Ili do noa katha bhulte ho baJi rorakat'a. I 
never said any such thing, (i. e., even by 
mistake, or when unconscious.) 

Bulu. The thigh. 
Bulun. To salt ; salt. 

Ni?.tele buIuhoKa. We will procure salt with 

BuluiiaKme. Salt it. 

Bumbai. Bombay. 

Bumbud hako. A species of fish. 

Bumburyut}. Cf. bomboryol 

Bud campa. A kind of spinning top. 

Bund. A drop. 

-p. ,. •■ I^Fee paid to a jan, dikli, (q. v.) 

or witch finder. 

Bundi. To put the red mark on the 
bride's forehead at marriage, which 
is done by the bridegroom. 

More tikaK sindurteko bundikedea. 

Bundis. To think, to meditate, to 
turn a thing over in the mind, to 

Noae bundiakef te artefgeye bhabnaena. Think- 
ing of this increased his sorrow. 

Buniad. Origin, foundation. 

Ale do buniad khon menaKlea. We are here 
since the foundation (of the village.) 

Butiiadi. Original, first, aboriginal. 

Buniadi horko. Founders (of a village), descen- 
dants of the founder or founders (of a 
village;) original residents, aborigines. 




[ 82 ] 

Burn katkom carec 

Buniim. A white ant hill. 

Biinum ehga. The queen white ant. 

Bunum bararin. A species of wasp 
which haunts the shops of sweet- 
meat sellers during the hot 

Bunum ot. An edible mushroom found 
growing on, or near, white ant hills. 

Bupujhau. Reciprocal form of bujhau 

(q. V.) 
Burau. To waste, to squander, to 


NunaK takail buraukeda. I squandered so much 

Burbudluk. Many at a time, all at 
one time, simultaneously. 

BurbudluK omonakana. Germinated simul- 

Burbuduc. To bubble, air bubbles to 
rise to the surface of water when 
some creature is breathing below. 

Burgi. The Mahrattas. 

Burgi bir?.]. Mahratta raiders, applied also to 
those who are feared as the Mahrattas were. 

Burha. M. 1 ^i , , 

Burhi. F. I O^^' ^g^*^- 
Burhia. An old woman. 
Burhu. To wind twine into a hank 
so as to be easily pulled off. 

Baber bnrhuime . Make the twine into a hank . 

Bursi. Part of a broken earthenware 
vessel when put to the following 
uses : — 

Sim bursi. A hen's nest. 

Sehgel bursi. A fire pan. Cf . sehgel bursi. 

Bursi seiigel leka jiwi lokkantiJia. 

Burti. Cf. barti. 
Buru. A mountain. 

Buru kunami. Full moon, the sun being on the 
horizon, and the moon appearing over the 
hill tox3S. 

Marari buru. Pareshnath, the highest moun- 
tain in the Santal country. 

Buru. A spirit, an object of worship. 
C£ bonga. 

The primary meaning of iuru is the same as 
that of bonga (q. t.). The two words are 
often joined together, as boiiga buru, bonga 
being a gloss on huru. The modem word 
bonga has so entirely superseded the more 
ancient buru, that the present generation 
of Santals are ignorant of its real significa- 

Marah buru. The chief of the burns, or boiigas. 

Marah buru, or mount Pareshnath ia often con- 
founded with the Maraii buru of the Santal 
traditions and worship. 

Buru daiira. The jambro or python. 

Buru. A religious festival and fair of 
the semi-Hinduized Bhulyas. 

One of these Buru fairs is held yearly, in 
December, at a small village in the District 
of Hazaribagh named Gande. and is called 
Gan(Je buru, another is held at Lalgarh, 
just across the boundary, in the District 
of the Santal Pargannas, and is known as 
Lalgarh buru. 

Buru beret Kisku. A sub. sept of the 

sept Kisku (q. v.). 
Buru beret Marndi. A sub. sept of 

the sept Marndi (q. v.) 

Buru beret porob. A festival observed 
by a sub. sept of the sept Kisku 
(q. v.), and also by a sub. sept of 
the sept Marndi (q. v.) 

Buru bhalua. A swallow that frequents 
hills and builds its nest on a 

Buruc. To slip through the fingers, 
as a fish ; to slip out of, to slip off, 
as a fish from a hook ; to slip from 
under, as a bullock from under 
the yoke ; to withdraw, to desert 
comrades, to go about here and 

Buruokedaii. I have allowed it to slip out, (or 
fall out.) 

CedaKpe burujoKlcana, onte note P "Why do you 
go about here and there (and don't attend 
to your work ?) 

Buruc buruc. To rise as small bubbles 
in water ; many, numerous. 

Buruo boruoko oalalfkana, muc do. The ants 
are swarming. 

DaK buruc burujokkana. The water is boiling. 

Buru ekasira narl. A plant found at 
high elevations, Flemingia con- 
gesta, Roxb. type form. 

Burui burui. To drizzle. 

Burui buruiye daKeda It is drizzling. 

Burui burui. Soft, moist, free, as earth 
in a good condition for ploughing, 
or digging. 



Buru katkom c&vec. Equisetuvi debile, 
Roxb., a common plant. 


[ 83 ] 


Burum. To lie down, of animals in 

Bubrum aim. A hen sitting on eggs. 

Burn mackunda._ A forest tree, 

Wright ia tomeiitosa, R c6 ^'. 
Buruiij. A tower. 
Buru pajhar. Cf pijhar. 

Buru raher. A cultivated leguminous 
plant, Cyamopsis psoralioides, 
D. G. 

Buru sim. A white cock offered to 
Marad buru (q. v.) 

There are no restrictions as to who shall partake 
of the flesh of the buru sim. 

Buru tiron. Cf. tiron. 
Buryud. To slip out of a hole, as a 
snake, or a fish. 

Buyj-on marte ix>( gofenae. 

Busalc. To produce young, of animals ; 
to hatch as eggs of fowls, and 

BusaKenae mihu do. 
Busalfkedae. Gare birth to it. 
Busaigokkana. Is being bom, or given birth to. 
Sim bele khon bnsfigoKa. Fowls are produced 

from eggs. 
Tanak busaK. Very many, numerous. 
TanaK busalcko godena. They have died in 

large numbers. 

Busar.lTo be born, to be brought into 
Bus§r.J the world. 

Boete amki do hoe busarlen. 
Hae hae, busarakanakin, 
Hae hae, nnkin manewa. 

Buska. A species of termite which is 
very destructive to the rice plant 
where there is an insufficiency of 

Busku. To rouse, to exasperate. 

Snaurbau alope buskukoa. Do not rouse the 

Durre ! bejae marah asintara kulya terejhaKe 

giticakana, aloyape buskuea, ger botedke- 


Busndi. A small fly resembling a 

mosquito, a midge. 
Busup. Straw, the grain of which has 

been trodden out by cattle. 

Janhe busup. The straw of janhe (q. v.) 

Busur busur. ") Soft, as earth or roas- 

Bhusur bhusur. J ted gi'ain ; applied to 

describe scratching or scraping 

when the substance is soft or loose. 

But. Chana, gram, Cicer arietinum, 



A child. 

Buta. The trunk of a ti'eo up to 
whure the branches begin, the 
area covered by the branches of 
a tree ; origin, root, beginning. 

Dare bufarele durupakan tahekana. We were 

sitting under a tree. 
Noa katha realf but?, oka then kana ? Where 

is the beginning of this matter ? " 

Butel. Power, effort, by means of 

Am butelte oho hoelena. 

Butlak. I Power, ability, effort, by 
Butlek. / means of. 

Am butlakte ohom idi darelea, un^E dare 

Butra. M.\ Short in stature, dumpy, 
Butri. F. j dwarfish. 


Gid^r butur. Children. 

Butuc. *) Short, applied to the 

Butu6 butuc. J ears of rice, oats, 
wheat, &c. 

Butud butuc geleena. The ears are short. 

Butuii butud. To throb, as an abscess 
when gathering. 

Butttii butuil hasoedirikana. It throbs pain- 

Buya. The female organ. 

Buyol boyol. C£ boyo boyol. 

Buyut buyul'. To piick, to pain, to 

Buyuf bnyu£ hasoiikana. 

Buyut' mente. To blab, to let out a 

Buyut' menteye lai gofkeda, bae jiwi dareada. 
He let out the secret, he could not restrain 

8l } T- 

Ca dare. The tea plant. Camellia theifera. 

Ca daK . Decoction of the leaves ; tea prepared 

for drinking. 

Cabagan. 7 * . j 

Cabaloeca.l A tea garden. 

Caba. To finish, to complete, to die ; 
all, the whole. 

Nel cabaket'koaii. I have seen them all. 
Hatao cabake£ae. He has taken the whole. 
Kami cabakate oraKteye senena. He finished 

the work and went home. 
Noa katha abore cabaRa. Thi.? matter will end 

with us (is private.) 
Cabaenae. He is dead. 

Cal)iic cubuc 

[ 84 ] 


Cabad cubuc. Pricking or tingling 

Ca,bae ciibuo pgiKtia. It prides. 

Cabao cubuc hasolikana. I feel a pricking pain. 

Cabhar cabhur. Rushing, swishing or 
splashing sound of water. 

Cabhar cabhur dalfreli aAjomkeda. I heard a 
sound of splashing in the water. 

Muou daKre cabhar cabhurko ota idia. They 
press the iish trap swishing into the water. 

Cabhrulc. At once, instantly, without 

CabhruK marteye donkeda. 

Cabhur. Splashing, plumping into 

C9.bhur marteye donkeda. 

Cablau. To bite, to fix the teeth into, 
to eat, to tear, as a tiger does an 
animal when eating it. 

Pher okooe cabl^iu gotkedea. He tore him 

CabuM. To dip into ; to dip the tips of 
the fingers into and transfer what 
adheres to them on to something 

Cabugme alo se hirijoli lagif . Dip something in 
to prevent it (the pot) boiling over. 

Sunum cabugme. Dip your fingers into the 
oil (and transfer what adheres to them to the 
palm of the other hand, preparatory to an- 
ointing the person.) 

Dal? cabugme. Dip your fingers into water, 
(and transfer what adheres to them to the 
lime in your hand.) 

Cacalc. Broken, tattered, pierced all 
over, wormeaten. 

Lum^mko jom cacaKkeda, sakam do. The silk 

worms have eaten the leaves to tatters. 
Sakam cacagoka. The leaves will be torn. 

Cacao. To force joayment on one in 
advance so as to secure his servi- 
ces, or a bargain. 
Cacaokate uniye agu otoadiiia, am then ohoil 
senlena. He pressed wages on me in ad- 
vance, I cannot go to you. 

Cacarhal Rough, dirty, scaly and 
ugly, as a lizard, or a person suffer- 
ing from a skin disease. 

TJni ho bae umoKa, arisge cacarhatie Aelolfa. 
He will not even bathe, he looks disgust- 
ingly dirty. 

Cacki. To cozen, wile, beguile, per- 
suade, lure. 

Onko doko caokiketlea, metatieako, noncje 
oedak reiigeotepe tahena ? They cozened us, 
they said to us, Why do yon remain here 
famishing ? 

Caco. To toddle, the first walking of 
a child. 

Caco gidra. A child just able to walk alone. 
Caoo kefec gidra. A child able to walk well. 
Caoo (Jiiji. To accustom a child to stand or 
walk alone. 

Caco chatiar. Cf chatiar. 

Cacur macur. ) Hurriedly, carelessly, 
Kacur macur. j imperfectly, irregu- 
larly, anyhow. 
Noa jaega cacur macurko siakat'a. They have 
ploughed this part very carelessly. 

Noa araK do cacur m^icurko isinakafa. They 
have imperfectly cooked these greens. 

Cadak cuduk.l Noise of plumping into 
Caduk caduk. f water. 

Ca^aK cuduK dalcre sadea dhiri capa&ekhan. 
If a stone be thrown into water it sounds plump. 

Cader. A cotton cloth worn as a shawl, 
or covering ; a sheet. 

Cadi. A goat for sacrifice, rice and li- 
quor given by the bridegroom to 
the bride's party. 

A goat, rice and liquor given by 
the bridegroom to the bridde's 

Cado. To put into water, to immerse, 
to plunge. 

Dakreye don cacloena. He plunged into the 

Dak man^ire roe cado go^ena. The fly fell into 

C^-di merom 
Ca^i caole 
Cidi hand: 


the rice water. 

1 A puppet worked with 
li. J the fingers. 

Cador bador. 
Cador badomi. 

Cadra. Bald on the crown of the head, 
applied only to males. 

Cadra. Galvanized corrugated iron 


Cadra. A cotton cloth worn as a shawl, 
a sheet. 

Cadri. Bald on the crown of the head, 
of females only. 

Caduk caduk. Sound of a body plum- 
ping into water. 

Cae. Hard, scrimpy, miserly, niggardly, 

4iji cae hor kanae, bae emoKa. He is a great 
niggard, he won't give. 

Cae. Quarrelsome. 

Cele cae jg.t kanako ! tin dhaoem hijuka, un 
dhao doko kaph^riauKa. What a quarrel- 
some set they are, whenever yon come they 


[ 85 ] 


gypsies given to 

Cae. "I A name mentioned in the 

Cae disom. J traditions of the Santals. 

Cae. A caste so called. 

Cae campa. Two names, Chae and 
Champa, mentioned in the Santal 
traditions, and often joined to- 

Cae capor.l ^„ , 

ri '^^ • rCi. cagae darae. 

Car capor. J ° 

Cae colon. Conduct, behaviour, charac- 
ter, life and conversation. 

Caecor. A tribe of 

The popular belief with regard to thia tribe is 
that they are so expert as to be able to 
possess themselves of any article they may 
covet by simply looking at it. 

Cac cue. Still, quiet. 

Cad cudko thirena. They were perfectly still. 
Perako heolena, cac cucket'leako, jomak banuK- 

Cae cui. The sound produced when a 
cow is milked into a pail. 

Cae disom. Cf. cae. 

Caego. Flippant, pert, said of little 

Nui caego do okoe sohge ho bae anaria. This 
pert little thing feels strange with no one. 

Caehtp.' F. } ^^^^ mouthed, gaping. 

Caekop. 1 Shrivelled, scantily supplied 
Caikup. j with raiment, as a beggar 
in hard times. 

Bohor caekopakana. It is shrivelled by drying. 

Cagae. \ Quickly ; loud voiced, 

Cagae cagae. j stentorian. 

Cagae cagae nni doe roreda. This person 
speaks very loudly. 

Cagae cagoe. Unpleasant feeling caus- 
ed by sand, husk, or some such 
foreign substance in food, grating. 

Cagae darae. Loudly, loud and harsh, 

Bogete cagae daraeye egerkedilia. She scolded 
me in aloud voice. 

Cagam cugum. To move slowly and 

Kombroko heeena, cagam cugumiil alijomlef- 
koa. Thieves have come, I heard them 
moving stealthily. 

Cagar. To break off, to detach, to 
tear off. 

Or oagaf. To detach by pulling. 

Dal cagar. To detach by striking. 

Adomko do dareko khon (}haur?.l{ko dal cagar- 

keda. Some broke off branches by striking 

them (with sticks.) 

Cagat. To detach, to split, to tear 
or break off. Cf. cagar. 

Cag caga. To straddle, to open out, 
as a pair of compasses. 

Jaiiga cag cagakedae. He straddled. 
Cag cagae tehgoakana. He is standing with his 
feet wide apart. 

Cagoe cagoe. Grating, the feeling 
when husk or sand is in the rice 
when being eaten. 

Cagoe oagoe^ jomkeda, na parok. 

Caha. A snipe. 

Cahal cahal. Quickly, hurriedly. 

Okate calaKkanae cahal cahal ? Where is he 
going in such a hurry ? 

Cahao. To desire, to wish. 

Cele ce^kom cahaokana ? What is it you want ? 

Cahap. To open the mouth, to open 
as the mouth ; to gape. 

4^1 haprak cahaboktakoa. Their months open 

very wide. 
Bah bahko cahapakada, toro^ah leka. They 

open their mouths as wide as a fish trap, 
Uniak moca cahabtaete mii ^ec t^kam llama. 

When you open its mouth you will find a 


Cahap catur. Flustered, excited, bewil- 

Oka khon cahap cg-turem heeena P From where 
have you come in such a flustered condition? 

Cahar cahar. ") ^ • i , , ■,, 
Lahar cahar. j Q'^^'^'y' '^"^^^l^^^- 

Cahar cahare tarameda. He is walking quickly. 
Cahatao.^ m i , 

Cahtao I approach, to come near, 

/~i~i,I ' I to enter. 

Cahtao. J 

Kul do bae cahtao d^reaKa. The tiger will not 

come near (to the village through fear.) 
Cahfiao ho bae cah^aolia. He will not even come 

Raj garre emon hoy do ohom cahtaolena. A 

person like you could not enter a king's 


Cahe. Perhaps. 
Cahc.cahe. Whether. ..or. 

Cahem calaK, cahem tahen. Whether you go 

or stay. 
Cahem doholi cahe bam dohoii. Whether you 

keep me or not. 

Caher. Shadow, reflected image, ap- 

UniaK caher girsire lleloKa. His image will 
appear in the mirror. 


[ 86 ] 


Caher. Acb-oitness, proficiency, skill. 

Uni do oahere uduKatbona, abo ho uni khon 
biai caherbon uduKaea. He shewed us his 
profloienoy (in dancing,) we will shew him 
greater proiioienoy. 

C^h' fNecessary, needful, wanted. 

Note daK ogihi%. Water is wanted here. 

Cahiye. Necessary, proper, right. 

Cahtao. Cf. cahatao. 

Cai cai. \Used when driving an 

Cai dhal; dhalj elephant. 

Caini. A ladder. 

Cak. A wheel. 

Kuhk?.l oak. A potter's wheel. 

Cak dahri. A big turban resembling a wheel 
in shape. 

Cak bandhi. A cog put before a wheel to pre- 
vent it moving. 

Sagar cak. A cart wheel. 

p , ■ [To take aim, as with a gun. 

Adi fhikem cak dareaKa. You can aim well. 

Cak. A representation of a flower, or 
some other design, made with rice 
flour on the ground near the 
mandwa khunti (q. v.) at a mar- 

Cak purauni. A present given to the girl who 
makes the cak to induce her to finish it. 

Cg.k khunti. A post fixed in the centre of a 
tank when the ceremony of marrying the 
tank is performed. The manclwa khimti 
(q. V.) is sometimes called cak khunti. 

Cak. Why, wherefore. 

Cakem laikeda ? Why did you tell. 

Cakaoda. A common annual met with 
about villages, Cassia Tora, Linn. 

Cakaoda araR. The fresh leaves of Cassia Tora 
'used as a pot-herb. 

Cakap cakap.] Noise made when eat- 
Cakup cakup. Ung with gusto ; smack- 
Cakap cukupj ing the lips. 

Cakap cukupko jomeda. They smack the lips 
while eating. 

Cakar. To exercise a horse by mak- 
ing it run round in a circle 

Cak bandhi. A cog put before a wheel 
to prevent it moving, an obstacle, 
a hitch. 

Cak bandhi ma lagaoaK me. Put a cog before 

the weel. 
Cetre cak bandhiena. What bitch has occurred. 

Cak cak. ) Guzzling or gobbling 
Chak chak. J sound, as by a pig when 

Cake. A rick ; to pile up one thing 

above another in order, 
Horo cake. A rick of dhan. 
Busup cake. A rick of straw. 
Sarako benaoa, nirdhokko cakea. They make 

the funeral pyre piling up (the firewood.) 

Cakendar. Broad. 

Nui horaK (Jeke cakendar osargetaea. 

Cakha. To taste. 

Ma cakhaeme, buluii adaa.kana se bah. Taste 
it and see if it is properly salted or not. 

Caki. A flat cake of anything, to cut 
into thin slices. 

Cgiki gur. A flat cake of raw sugar. 

Caki. The patella or knee cap. 

Cakla coklo. Dodging through fear 
or shame, shy, keeping out of sight 
as much as possible through shy- 

Lajaote cakla coklo baraekanae. She is dod- 
ging here and there through shame. 

Cakmak. ") Shining, admirable, excit- 
Chakmak. j ing admiration, beautiful. 

Bhit cakmakko cikara. 

Chakmakao. To shine, to rejoice, to 
be in high spirits. 

^(Ji chakmakaoenae. 

Cakop. A bite, a mouthful. 

Mi6 cakop hoyoKa. It will only be a mouthful. 

Cakop cakop. The sound of guzzling 
or gobbling when eating, as a pig 

Cakop cakope jomeda sukri do. The pig is 
gobbling its food. 

Cakor. A servant, other than agri- 

Nokor cakor. Servants in general. 
Acli nokor cakor menakkotaea. He has many 
servants of all kinds. 

Cakra. A eunuch. 

Cakrao. To possess oneself of, to in- 
crease at other's expense, to enlarge. 

Hasa cakraome. Increase your field (by taking 
apiece from some one else.) 

Cakri. Service, other than agricul- 
Cakri ghum. T Dizzy, confounded, 
Cakri ghumao. J head to swim, con- 
fused and unable to comprehend or 

Cgikri ghum geli a^kara. 

Kami kamite cakri ghumauKtalea. 

Cakta. Large and flat, as a flagstone 
or plank. 

Dhiri cakta. A large flat atone. 


[ 87 ] 


Gakti. Small and flat, a thin slice, a 

C»kti gnp. A oake of raw sugar. 
Pisk?. c^ktikateko tekea. They slice the pisk?i 
(q. v.) and then cook it. 

Caku. A kind of clasp knife, with han- 
dle resembling that of a razor. 

C?.ku b?.nduk. A weapon, one end of which is 
a pistol, and the other a knife. 

Cal. A roof. 

Jeteleii cal. The front and back portions of a 

Khnpi cal. The roof of the end portions. 

Cal. To put into the hand, to give. 

Tak?.ii caladea. I gave the money into his hand. 

Cal. "(Conduct, behaviour, life and 

Cal colon./ conversation, character. 

Ii?.i calaK. Tradition. 

Cal ban bestaea. His conduct is not good. 

L?.i cal katha, ar areo cal dalf haKsogea. Slan- 
derous tales and water thrown on one causes 

Cala. A sieve ; to sift. 

Cala. "^To go, to move, to walk, to 
Calais. J pass away. 

Jiwi calakkantaea. He is dying, 

Cala cula. Occupied with preparations 

for a journey, about to set out on a 

Cala cula. To divide what is left over. 

after a share has been given to 


Ma niakore cala cula gofkaKme. 

Calak. Clever, expert, deceitful, frau- 
dulent, over reaching. 

Khub calak hor kanae. He ia a very clever man. 

Calaki. Fraud, trick, deception, knav- 

Alom calakia. Do not be guilty of knavery. 
Cal?iki kantaea. It is his trickery. 

Calan. Clearance, remittance, an an- 
nouncement of despatch, a pass, 
an invoice ; to send to prison, to 
send up for trial ; a batch, consign- 

Daroga doe calanke£kina. The daroga sent 

them up for trial. 
Ale do paihil calantele hecena. We came with 

the first batch. 

Calao. (1) To set in motion, set agoing. 

(2) To impel, drive, direct, urge. 

(3) To conduct, manage, admin- 


(4) To forward, advance, hasten, 


(5) To prosecute, carry on. 

(6) To meet a demand, pay. 

i\} H°' oalao oooeme. Setthe machine in motion- 
Drive on the bul. 

(2) Ma (Jaiira calaokinme. 

(3) Disom caKlaoid. The governor, or admin- 
istrator of a country or province. 

Eaj calflaoid, Dewan or Prime minister of a 

(4) G?.iji calao liogme. Hasten the cart a little. 

(5) Am uparre mokordomali calaoa. I shall 

prosecute, or bring a suit against you. 

(6) Barea merom ^kriiikate khajnali calaokeda. 

I sold two goats and met the demand for 

Ti calao. To lay hands on. 
Em calao. To help by giving. 
Tarwaye calao. To use a sword. 

Gnrio calao. To manure ; to take manure to 

the fields. 
Am bam le calaoediria. I am not dependent on 

Okoe ho babon le oalaoefkoa. "We give to no one. 

Calao. The 4th ploughing of a field. 

Calao guti. A game played by chil- 

Calcalwa. Perplexed, occupied, dis- 
traught, occupied with preparations 
for a journey. 

Calcalwa jokhe:em ehopkeda, oho alljomlen- 
tama. You have raised this matter when 
other matters are occupying the attention, 
it can't be listened to. 

Calcolon. Way of life, conduct, habits, 

NuiaK calcolon cetlekantaea ? What is^ his way 
of Ufe like ? 

Onka do alom calcolona . Do not conduct your- 
self in that way. 

Calcul. Separating, breaking up, as an 

C^lcul somoe hoeena. The time to separate has 

Ctili. Custom, wont, usage. 

Ar acaK ceili leka arho3 lai ceta^koa. And as he 
was wont he taught them again. 

Calia. A game played by children. 
Calit. Customary, ordinary, current. 

Noa pg.ila c^litgea. This measure is current. 

Calka. A species of fish inhabiting 






The Black and white 
Hornbill, and the Grey 
Hornbill. (For scien- 
tific names see Dhand- 

Camac. A spoon. 


[ 88 ] 

Cand bagar 

^* ^ ■ ' i A sti'ap or strip of raw hide. 
Campta. j r r 

Cainar. A Hindu caste who deal in 
hides, and make shoes. 

Camar. Cf. cama. 

s- Quickly, hurriedly. 

Cam cam. 
Cham cham j 

Camda. ") A booth, a temporary erect- 
Chamda. J ion to accommodate guests, 
or for any other purpose. 

Perako heeena, ma cam^a AoKakome. The guests 
have come erect a little shelter for them. 

• To float on the surface. 

Camdhul. ") 
Camdul. J 

Sanam kat c9.mdulena All the timber is floating. 
Utu dherpe oamdulkeda. You have put too 

much water in the utu (you have drowned 

the miller.) 
Pgini (Juba o|.m(Jul baraekanae. The pani dub^ 

(q. V.) is floating about on the water. 

Camek bai. ") Spasms with uncon- 
Comok bai. ) sciousness, convulsive 

Uni do comok bai Ilamkedea. He has been seiz- 
ed with spasms. (Said to young people 
when sooldmg.) 

Camkao. To flash, gleam, shine, glitter ; 
to be startled, to start from fear 
or surprize. 

Camkao beret'enae. He rose with a start. 

Camkar. Cf cama. 
Camkau. C£ camkao. 

Camke. To lie in wait, as a beast of 
prey ; to be infested with wild 
beasts. Cf. canke. 

^ ■ , ■ Y The cow tick. 
Camokan. J 

Campa. A name mentioned in the tra- 
ditions of the Santals. 

Campa baha. A common perennial 
small shrub having large yellow 
or red flowers, Ockiia squarosa, 

Camphel. ") Level and broad, as a stretch 

Campel. J of ground on the bank 
of a river ; smooth, unruffled, as 
shallow water. 

Campta. A strap, or strip of raw hide- 
Camptahi. Having an insufficient sup- 
ply of milk for her offspring. 

Campur. Made up, concocted ; yarn- 
ing, joking. 

Campur katha alom rora. Do not tell a con- 
cocted story. 

A(Ji campur hor kanae. He is a great yarning 
fellow (or a great joker.) 

Camria. A skin disease, in which the 

cuticle peels off". 
Camta. A strap of raw hide. 
Camuk. A whip, a scourge. 
Cadcir. The Titlark, Corrydalla 


Ga^a cgilicir. The wagtail, Motacilla luzon- 

Cand. Necessary, urgent, hurriedly, 

quickly, firmly. 
A(Ji can^akawadiiia. It was very necessary to 

Aiji cand kami lagaoadiAa. I have a piece of 

very urgent work on hand. 
441 canijteye oalaoena. He left very hurriedly. 
Teiigo caniJoKme, alom pacoKa. Keep your 

ground, do not give way. 
4.di can^okkanae. He is hurrying. 
Lebei can<J Aogme. Put your foot down a little 

more firmly. 

Can cun. ") To complete, to exhaust ; 
Chad chun. J completely, altogether. 

Caii cuiiko thir gofona. They became com- 
pletely still. 

Laiju do oaii cuiiko jomkeda. They eat up all 
the sweetmeats. 

Call cniikedale. We finished it completely. 

Cauda. A subscription, a contribution. 

Cauda uthau. To collect subscriptions. 

Cauda candi. To hurry, to expedite ; 
hurriedly, quickly, flustered. 

Canda C9.n4i hodme. Be quick, be expeditious. 
44i canija candi menaklea. We are in a great 

Candaki. To be in a hurry, to haste ; 
quickly, hurriedly, rapidly, expe- 

4di can^akire menaKlea. We are in a great 

Candal. Vicious, licentious, wicked, 

A(Ji canijal hor kanae. He is a very vicious 

A(Ji candal gidra kanae. He is a very mischiev- 
ous child. 

Candan.) Sandal wood; the heart wood 
Condon.J of a small evergreen tree, 
Santalum album, Linn., in use all 
over India for religious purposes. 

Candar gahi. A variety of the rice 

Cand bagar. Many coloured, variegated. 

Bogeteko aiudurkedea, cand bagar. 


[ 89 ] 

Capae cupui 

■ A tail. 

Candbol. ") 
Candlom. j 

Canijlbol ipil. A oomet. 

Candi. The forehead. 

Candiau. To tether an animal, fix a 
word in witing, lodge a complaint' 
give information to a police officer; 
to tether, to tie. 

Nui g9,i darere o»ndi?iukaeiiie. Tether this cow 
to the tree. 

Candkilom. The tail of a pig or goat 
given to the herd boy ; pice given 
to the herd boy in lieu Of the tail. 

Besokodte gupikom oan^kilomle emama. 

Candla. M.\ Having a white spot on 
Candli. F. J forehead, as a cow, horse, 

Candlom. A tail. 

Candni. A cultivated pot-herb. 

Candoro. "1 Licentious, flirting, applied 
Candro. J only to women. 

Cando. The sun or moon ; a month. 

Siii cando. The sun. 

Nind^ cando. The mOon. 

Cando gahnaKkanae. There is an eclipse of the 

sun in process. 
Bar cando tayom. Two moons hence, or two 

months hence. 

Canduc. ") Quickly, instantly, 

Canduc canduc. j hurriedly, rapidly ; 

C^n(Ju6 c?indu6 okatepe oalaKkana? Where are 

you going so hurriedly. 
C^n^luc menteye donkeda. ' He sprang up. 

Can. Why, wherefore. C£ calj. 

Can can. Wide apart, straddling, wide, 
as an open door. 

Can cane tan<Jaaka£a. He is standing with his 
feet wide apart. 

P ■ I Forked, branching off, bifur- 

n .°^ 'I cated. 

Hor do ona Diku ato then caiigaakana. The 
road bifurcates at that Hindu village. 

Ona katha do adi cangaRtalea. That matter 
will lead to many others. 

Cahgre {henem jir^uKa. You can rest at the 
fork (of the tree.) 

Cauga cangi. Forked, branching off. 

Cahga caiigiedape, noa katha do. 
Caiiga cahgi kathako roretgia. 

Cangra. M.lHaving more than the us- 
Cahgri. F. j ual number of fingers. 


Canke.l To raven, lying in wait for prey, 
Canke.J as a tiger; infested with 
wild beasts, as a jungle ; always 
on the alert for prey, as a tiger ; . 
ravenous, fierce, furious. 

Kul do oankeakanae. The tiger is on the alert 

for prey. 
Ona atote alope calalfa, duk cahkoakaua. Do 

not go to that village, disease is prevalent. 

Canmahgao. Impatient, rustless, ex- 
cited ; on pins and needles, fid- 

Caoao. To ferment. 

Hg.n(^i caoaoUa, hormohS caoaoKgea. 

Caoar. The long hairs in the tail of 
a horse or cow. 

Nui sadom do khube caoarana. This horse has 

a very long tail. 
K?.pil gai caoar. A fly flisk. 

Candher. Luxuriantly ; to grow lux- 
uriantly, as grass, grain, &c. 

Ghas candherakana, onte do. The grass is 

luxui'iant there. 
Bes candherakana. Has grown luxuriantly. 

Candro. Wanton, applied to young 

Caole. Husked grain of several kinds, 
but more particularly that of rice ' 
to husk grain. 

Horo caole. Husked rice. 

Bajra caole. 
Jauhe caole. 
Jondra caole. 
Gundli caole. 
Iri caole. 
Erba caole. 
Layo caole. 
Jao caole. 
Gohum caole. 
Mat caole. 

bajra (q. v.) 

janhe (q. v.) 

Indian corn. 

gundli (q. v.) 

iri (q. v.) 

erba (q. v.) 

layo (q. v.) 



seed of the bamboo. 

Caole ghure. 

Caole ghuraea. [-A species of fish. 

Caole ghura. 

Caom^rao. To spread quickly, as news. 

Oaomaraoena, oho oko darelena. The new 
has spread it can't be hushed up. 

Cao marte. \ Quickly in very short 
Cao mente.j time. 

Cao marte pasnaoena. The news spread at once. 

Caowar. The long hairs of the tail of 
the cow or horse. 

Capae cupui. Pressing the feet down 
alternately, as when working a 

Capakia bare 

[ 90 ] 

Cara dann 

Capakia bare. A species of fig tree, 
Ficu8 tomentosa, mentioned in 
the traditions of the Santala. 

Capal. Reciprocal form of cal (q. v.) 

Capao. To place one thing above an- 
other, to pile up, to increase, to 
encroach upon. 

Bar to-Is^ako capaoaUlea. They increased the 
demand on us by two rupees. 

A(ili sahginte simali capao aderkeda. I advan- 
ced my boundary to a great distance 

Capar. To be possessed, as by a spirit. 

Boii^^a capar. To be possessed of a devil. 

B?ii capar. To be seized with convulsions, to be 

Pit capar. To be angry. 

Ca^^adok ^'^° ^^-^row; to be thrown. 

Capa£ riam. To hit by throwing something. 
Poesao capa£adina. He threw pice to me. 
Jahgaii capat' rapui^kedea. I threw (a stone) 

and broke his leg. 
Dhiriteii capa^ liamkedea. I threw a stone and 

hit him. 

Capcapa. Wide spreading, extended. 

Dereii capcapagetakoa. 

Capchamda. \ A booth, a temporary 
Chapchamda. J shelter. 

Cap cup. Quiet, lulled, still. 

Cape. \ To float, to flood, to over- 
Caple. J whelm. 

Botorteii capeena. I am overwhelmed by fear. 


Cape cupekoKpo. Bo secret (do not blab.) 

Capel. 1 To rise and fall, as water 
Cepol. / without breaking into wa- 
ves ; moving, as a large exjjanse of 

Caple. To float on the surface. 

Sunum daK cetanre capleKa. Oil floats on the 
surface of water. 

Capo. To lay the hand on, to touch, to 

lean on the hand. 
Johae capoakana. He rests his cheek on his 

Gidr9.e capoket'koa. He laid his hands on the 


Capo capo. To move by usmg the 
hands as a suj^port. 

Capo capote odokoKkanae. He comes out us- 
ing his hands as a support, (on all fours.) 

Cajjo capo. Ciy of the HajDuk, or Night 
jar, Gd'primtdgus monticolus. 

Capo joro. An extra share given to 
the jaerson who kills an animal at 
a hunt, which he gives to those 
of his own village who were de- 
tained at home, or a share given to 
one who comes up when the animal 
is being cut up. 

Capos capos. Unpalatable, badly cooked. 

Capos capos atkaroKkana. It is unpalatable. 

Capos capos. Sound of bellows when 
being blown. 

Capos capos sadekana. 

Capol To seize prey by springing on 
it, as a tiger ; to seize and devour. 

Kul doe capot'kedea. The tiger sprang upon 
and seized him. 

Capol A small jungle plant so named. 

Capot cajDot. "j The sound produced by 

Capot capot. j- the left hand stroke 

Copot copot. j on a drum, which is 

softer than that produced by the 

right ; alternately soft and loud. 

Capot siris. A large forest timber tree, 
Dalhergia lanceolaria, Linn. 

Capra. Flat, broad. 
Cajjra. A cockroach. 
Capras. A badge. 

Caprasi. A person wearing a capras, 
a messenger, a peon. 

Capri. A small beetle. 

Capua. Bellows used by blacksmiths 
and iron smelters. 

Car. Time. 

Mit carko ^cura, mif gidrg.khan. 

Car. A custom, customary, use and 
wont ; to institute. 

Musae carakat leka amalr sapha reaK samaiime. 
Offer for thy cleansing according as Moses 

Car. Four, employed to signify all, 
the whole. 

Cgir pirthimi. The whole round earth. 

Cara. A young plant, a seedling. 

Ca cara. A seedling of the tea plant. 

Cara. ") -r-, 
Cari. 1^°^'^ 

Cara danra. j Cattle taken to a distance 
Cari gai. j to graze and not brought 
home at night. 

rage, fodder, food, bait. 

Carap cavap 

[ 91 ] 


snapping, or 

Carap carap. To reply testily or snap- 
j)ishly, to speak back. 

Carap oafape rofeda. He is apealdng back. 

Carat. \ Sound of 

Carat carat. J slapping. 

Jote carat oaratkin topalS got'keda. They broke 

the yoke thong with a snap. 
Carat mentepe dalkedea. 

Carat^ carat. ") Scorching, burning, 
Carat' capat'. J smarting. 

Aii eetoiikana, oara£ capat'. The sun's rays are 

Carcao. To go and investigate, to en- 
quire into, to spread, as a rumour 
or news. 

Caicao 9<!urakadal5. I went and investigated 
it all round. 

Auritege carcao g,curkedae. He spread the rum- 
our without cause. 

Carcapar. lox- • 

" " -^ • buinguig, smartmg, aggra- 
vating, exasperating, in- 
sulting, violent. 

Carcare setoheda. The heat is unbearable. 
Car care roreda. He speaks aggravatingly. 

Carcar. "1 Noise of scratching, as by 
■Car carao. / a pen on paper ; tearing 

of cloth, rending of a branch, &c. 
Carcari. A_ scourge. 

This scourge is made of baokom (q. v.) and is 
employed to drive the spirit out of one who 
has been possessed for divining purposes. 
A blow is given on each wrist, and if that 
does not suffice he is struck again heavily 
on each ankle. 

Cardak burdak. 

Their quarrel is 

stir up, ex- 

Car car. 

In patches, here and 
there, some parts thick and others 
thin, a.s grain unequally germina- 
ted ; rough, uneven, 

Gofa hormore cardaR burdaK ghao menaKtaea. 

He has sores here and there all over his body. 
Cardatt burdaK fufi gadaakata, arel do. The 

hail has dented the ground here and there. 

Carec. A pin of wood, or a thorn, with 
which leaves are pinned together 
to make plates, cups, &c., any piece 
of wood resembling a pin ; a tooth 

Ata caree. 7 ri* j. 
AKtacare6. j Cf. ata. 

Cared peteekedale. We brought the marriage 
negotiations to an end. 

Carec susurban. A species of wasp. 

Care kisni. The pied starling, Sturno- 

pastor contra. 
Cargudia. A kind of fishing net. 
Carha. More. 

Carha carhi. Increasingly, to get hotter 
or more bittei- ns a quarrel. 

Carha carliikin ropoykana. ' 

getting hotter. 

Carhao. To ii-ritate, vex, 

Sohraero darira khnntl.ukateko carhaokoa, ro- 
roKa mente. During the Sohrae (q. v.) 
they tie bullocks to posts, and then irritate 
them to make them ohai'ge. 

Carhao. To raise, to advance, to cock, 
as a gun ; to brace, as a drum ; to 
make an offering, or sacrifice. 

AK oarhaome. String the bow. 

Setohre cayhaokalime tamak do. Brace the 

drum by putting it in the sun. 
Alom jotet; baraea, noa banduk doko carhao- 

akat'a. Do not handle the gun it is cocked. 
Horre carhao got'kaeme. Put him on the right 

Karam dahare 9.(Ji hofko carhaoa. Very many 

people present offerings at Karamdaha (a 

Hindu shrine). 
Carhaote laga acurem. 

Botor carhaoafkoa. Fear took hold of them. 
Bis carhao gofona. The poison spread (thro' 

the body) at once. 

Carhat! corhot'. \ To shuffle, to drag 
Cirhot corhot'. J the feet ; sound of 

Carhaf corhot'em tarameda. Tou go shufiBing 

Carhi. A mane. 

Carhi. To twist a third strand into a 


Baberko carhia. They twist a third strand into 
the rope. 

p„ • , .' ^To abound, to increase ; more. 

Okare kgii carhiena, ondege s?ihai asambherge 
<Jherena. Where sin abounded, there did 
grace abound more exceedingly. 

Carhiau. To incite, instigate, set on, 
egg on, hound on. 

L9.i carhiauakadeako, ruhef oooii lagii. 

Cari. "1 Cattle taken to a distance to 
Cara. J graze, and not brought home 
at night. C£ cara danra. 

Okoe ren c?ri gaiko hedakana. 

Cari. Food, fodder, bait. 

Cereko carikoa. They lay bait for birds. 
Iii eskar geko cari otoakadi/ia. They have left 
me here alone (as if bait for a tiger. 

Cari. A " lean to" roof a verandah, a 
small house made by resting the 
roof on the wall of another house ; 
a temporary shelter when engaged 
watching crops. 

Uniye c?riakat'a mili cal. 


[ 92 ] 


Cariau. "| To incite, instigate, egg on, 
Carhiau.J set on, hound on. 

Siblau o9.rianket'l£oako. They put them up to it. 

Caric. ITo graze, to shave, to 

Caric caric. J glance off. 

Cariokedeari. I just gfrazed it. 
Caria caridteli tuA riamkedea. I shot at but 
just grazed it (with an arrow.) 

Cario dig. 

Cario kon. 
Cario kond. 
Cario k5r. 

The four quarters of the 
heavens ; all round, 

Carkha. A spinning wheel. 

Carkha lekan sikric. A mosquito like a spin- 
ning- wheel. 

Amalt carkha sunumatam. Oil your own spin- 
ning wheel (mind your own business.) 

Carkhi. A machine used to separate 
the seeds from the cotton. 

Carnao. To flog, to whip, to lash. 

Carnao ol. A wale. ' 

XJnialc carnao oltegepe bogeena. By his stripes 
ye are healed. 

Caro. A system of hiring cattle for ag- 
ricultural purposes by the year. 

Carote daiiraA hataoakadea. I have hired a 
bullock for the (agricultural) year. 

Caroko baisaukoa. They let them on hire 
(plough cattle) by the year. 

Carorin. A red and black beetle which 

eats flowers. 
Car5t. "I 

Corat. }- Pasture for cattle. 
Cor5t. j 
Sedaere amela carottahekantalea. In the olden 

times we had abundant pasture for our 


A large forest tree. 

Car sira. 

Caruk caruk. Sound of plumping in- 
to water. 

Eote caruk caruJiko dona. 

Carwahi. Pay of a shepherd. 

Cas 1 

Casbas. f CJ^ltivation ; growing crops. 

Casedale. We cultivate (for a living.) 
Cas bari. A farm, an agricultural holding. 
Cacasic. A husbandman. 

Casa. A husbandman, a farmer. 

Cat. ) The tw-elfth Hindu month. 
Chat. / March-April. 

Cata. A bamboo mat, used as a cov- 
ering for a cart, also spread on 
the bottom of cart when manure 
is being carted to the fields. 

- A massive flat stone or rock. 

Catiji. A panchayat, a meeting. 

Barpe cataireli duruplena. 

Catak. "I A measure, both liquid and 
Cotak. J dry, about two ounces. 

Cafan. ") 
Catani. j ' 

Catak mente. Quickly, instantly. 

Catao. To lick, to eat. 

Bam kgimilekban, oetem oafaoa P If you do not 

work what will you eat P 
Hecakanam nit do, cet'em cataoa ? Tou have 

only now come, what will you get to eat ? 

Cat cat. Dry, jDarched, as the lips of 
a person suffering from fever ; 

Sunum ban ojolflekhan do hormo oat oat 

Cat catao. Cracking or wrenching 
soi;nd, as when a branch is being 

Catia. A disciple, a pupil. 

Catiar. C£ chatiar. 

Catic. To scale off, to come off in 
flakes ; to open as the pods of 
leguminous plants when ripe, and 
the seed fall out. 

Catiau. To imitate, to have authority 
over, to discipline, to accustom, 
as bullocks to carry a load; to 
break in. 

Boiigakori catiaukoa. 

PanraA catiaukoa. I will break in the bullocks 
to carry a load. 

Catkan. " \ 

Catkani. iQuick, industrious, hard 

Chatkan. j working. 

Chatkani j 

Catkanite kamime. Work fast. 

Khub c9.tkani menaea. He is very industrious. 

Catkao. To break half through, to 
crack, to sjjlinter. 

Gaiil dalledete theiiga catkaoentilia. My stick 
is cracked by striking the oow. 

Catki. A kind of sandal. 

Caitki panahi. Slippers. 

Cat marte. • Instantly, immediately, 

Catna. M. \ Living at the expense of 
Catni. F. / others, going about from 
house to house in search of food. 

Cele catna kanam. 


[ 93 ] 


Cato. To be startled, stunned, faint, 

Nelte cato lioKenao. Ho was somewhat start- 
led by the sight. 
Hormo oatoentina botorte. 

Catoli catol?. Sound as of a dog lap- 

Catom. A bamboo umbrella, an um- 

Catom oral? . A house with a pavilion roof, 
which resembles a cliatom in outline. 

Catom arak. A small plant common 
everywhere, Marsilia quadrifo- 

The leaves of this plant are used as a pot herb. 

Catpat. Quickly, without delay. 

Catpat isin hodme. Get the cooliing done 

Catpatao. ")To be restless, fidgetty, 
Chatpatao. J agitated, flustered ; to 

Ente noa joloR sehgelreli catpataoKkana. For 
I am tormented in this flame. 

Catra, M. ") Horns projecting at a right 
Catri. F. J angle from the head. 

Catti. A stage on a road where there 

is a bazaar, where travellers pass 

Catua. ^ the night. 

Catui. T • . , ,, e 

-r,- ■ , Living at the expense oi 
Jb'or cata. ^ . i ° ^ 

-r, ; others. 

For catua. 

For catui. 

Per cata hor kanae. He is always dining out. 

Catur. Clever, shrewd, scheming. 
Catur. The whole, all, all round. 

C?.tur sima. The whole boimdary. 
Cg-tur dig. In all directions. 

Cauchal. A babbler. 
Cauchalia. Acrimonious, caustic, ven- 
omous, malicious. 

Nui do adi o9.uchali9.e rofa. This person speaks 

Caudal. A kind of palankin, or sedan 

Adi moilj caudal leka dareakana. It has grown 
very prettily, in shape like a caudal. 

Caudal. To outcaste for social delin- 
quencies ; a mock ' caudal ' with 
two leaves jDinned into peculiar 
shapes representing a bride and 
bridegroom carried in procession 
to notify that certain persons have 
been outcasted. 

Sohrae caudal. An ornamental mimic roof 
resemblinpf that of a ' crucial' (q. v.) [ilaeod 
on the top of the post to which a bullock is 
tied at a certain stage of the celebration of 
the Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Cauhari. The check. 

Ca.uh9.ri baiiaauentaea. He has, lockjaw. 

Cauka. A measure of earthwork. 

The ' a' is generally a square containing 
one hundred cubic feet. 

Caukan. A plain, a maidan. 
Caukatha. A door or window frame. 

Caukau. Terrified off, frightened away, 
to stray, to wander. 

Oka birte con uni g^i doe caukauena. The cow 
has strayed away to some jungle or ano- 

Caulia. A common flowering plant, 
Riiellia suffruticosa, Roxb. 

The root of this plant is one of the ingredients 
employed to cause fermentation in the 
manufacture of handi (q. v.) or rice beer. 

Caupala. A kind of palankin. 
Caupohor. The four watches. 

Caupohor din. All day, the live long day. 
Caupohor rat. All night, the whole night. 

Cauri F [.^^"^''"g th® long hairs in the 
f^: ■ ■ I tail more or less white. 
Cauria. J 

Cauri g^i kanae. The cow has white hairs in 

its tail. 
Caura dahra kanae. The ox has white hairs in 

its tail. 

Cauria bak. A species of paddy bird. 
Cauria hon. A species of field rat. 

This species of rat has long white hairs on the 
end of the tail hke a cow. 


Cauric arak. A common plant. Lobelia 
trigona, Roxb. 

The leaves of this plant are used as a pot-herb. 

Cauthol. Level, even. 

Cawaok. To ferment, to be distressed, 
to froth. 

Paur?. cawaoena. The liquor has fermented. 

NahaK do disom ren hor rehgecteko cawaoena. 
At present the people of the land are distres- 
sed through want of food. 

Cawar. Hairy, hirsute. 

Adi cawar hor kanae. He is a very hairy man. 

Caya. A stinking, flying bug, said to 
leave a smell on grain on which 
it may alight. 

Disom do cayaen hutiena, alope darana. Evil 
is abroad, do not go about. 

^6. \ A plait of the long hairs from 
id. J the tail of the horse or cow 


[ 94 ] 


Cec. Squeal of some animals, or call 
of some kinds of birds. 

Cecg. Squeaking, of animals, birds, or 
CedaK nitoK do gidrape ce ce oeoedekana? 

Cecha. A torch, employed principally 
to catch birds or fish at night. 

^1 1 ■ ■ Disobedient, unruly, mis- 
Ohechor. y , ■ ' ■ , •'' 

p ■ chievous, tricky. 

Cg c5. Squeaking, of both children 
and young animals. 

Cedak. To do, used generally when 
fault finding. 

Ce^em cedalckan tahekana? What were you 
doing? Dakail jojomkan tahekana. What 
were you doing" P I was eating my rice. 

Cedak. Why, wherefore. 

Cedalipe heeakanap Why have you come? 

Cedakje. Because, fir. 

Badaegeali, cedal^je uni oralcteil senlena. I 
know because I went to his house. 

Cede. 1 

Cedea. ' Bald on the crown of the head, 

Cedga. I of men. 

Cedra. _ 

Cedre. To turn up, as the edge of a 

knife made of soft steel, or as the 

end of a walking stick. 

Eama cedreKa. The nail (of the toe) will be 
reflexed (by coming in contact with some- 

Binthi cedreena. The edge of the knife has tur- 
ned back. 

Cedro. "I 

Cedro bedro. -o i • ^ iv 

fi -I 1 ^Kough, uneven, m tuits. 

Cedro cedro. | 

Cedro pedro. j 

Noa ghas cedroena. This grass is of unequal 
height (having been unequally eaten by 

Cedro oedroye hoyoena. He has not been 
shaved clean. 

Cehao. To warn, to be conscious, to 
be circumspect, to be cautious, to 
be on the alert. 
Kukmute Isor thene cehaoente. Being warned 
of God in a dream. 

Cehel cepel. Flowing in full flood, a 
large expanse of flowing water ; 
brimful, overflowing. 

Ceher bedec. "1 Noise made when sift- 
Ceher petec. J ing with the hatali (q. v.) 

Ceher poted caolcko rcl o(Joka. 

Cehra. 1 Countenance, expression of 
CeheraJ face, good healthy looking, heal- 
thy body or mind, as indicated by 
the expression of the face. 

Cehra bginuKtaea, mulinenae. He has lost his 

good looks, he is sad. 
Cehra do bae lielolf kana. He is not looking well. 

(he may be suffering in mind or body.) 

CSlc. ") Squeal of some animals, or call 
Cgc. J of some kinds of birds. 

Ceka. What to do, what to happen. 

Cetem cekaiia P What will you do to me ? 
Cetill cekaKap What will happen to me ? 
Cekakkan coe. What is ailing him. 
Cet ho bako cekaea. They will do nothing. 
Cele cekakkanae ? What is happening to some 

Okoeye cekaKkanaP What is happening to 


Ceka leka. Like what, like how, in 
what way. 
Ceka lekaii oohko. I do not know what they 
may do to me. 

Cekan. What sort. 

Cekan disom con. 
Cekange con. 

Cekan lekan. Of what sort, like what. 

Cekan lekan hor kau coe. I do not know what 
kind of a man he is. 

Cekate. How, in what manner, why. 

Cekate unkin manwalili asulkina ? How shall 
we supply the necessaries of life to these 
two human beings P 

Cekate hale ban ologoKa P Why wUl it not 
write (or be written P ) 

Cela. A disciple, a pupil. 

Celaketkoaii. I made them disciples. 

Celan. An earthen cooking pot. 

Tukuo celaii. Pots and pans. 

Celcekec.\Shallow, flat ; land formed 

Celcetec. J by silt. 

Cele. Who, what (animate) ; perhaps, 

possibly; I presume (asking a 

question), is it so ? 

CeleaeaP Who is hep What is his name? 

Cele banae ? Kul. What is it ? A tiger. 

Cele, arho pase tayom daram botor menaK p Is 

it so, perhaps there is fear for the future ? 
Ill do inalc dinge cele ser tahekantdlla. Possibly 

food was allotted to me for that number of 

days, (duration of Ufa fixed.) 
Cele, daka utu hoeena, se bah P Is the food 

cooked, or is it not yet (cooked) P 
CelelibenaokoaP What beings shall I make pen 
Cele cebatem cekaenaP How did what hap? 

to you ? 
CeleK coe hapen bail badaeoKkana. It is not 

known what it may turn out (whether a 

cock or a hen.) 

Celec. Who, what. 

Ill celee hor metrege bail sahoplena onatiii goo- 
ena. I could not be contained in the eyes 
of some one, and so I died. 


[ 95 ] 

Ciika bhorka 

Celhe. To cast longing eyos on, to 
look at covetingly. 

Men, hiin(J^re oelheefpea. Look out, the wolf 
has his eye upon you. 

Celko melko. Wanton, flirting, smart, 
putting on airs to attract the at- 
tention of the opposite sex ; ap- 
lied only to females. 

Nui kuri do cedaKe celko melko baraokanae? 
Why does this girl go flirting about P 

Cemal To be proficient, to master 
anything, such as carpentery, dan- 
cing, &c. 

Khub cematakafae. He has mastered it (dan- 
cing) very well. 

Cemcerem. Full, brimful. 

Dak do gota pukhii cemoerem pered go^ena. 
The tank was at once filled to the brim with 

Cemdeil. Cf cended. 
Cemen. A mongoose. 
Cemer cemer. Quickly. 
Cemkec. Tidy, clean, trim, preposses- 
sing, of young women only. 

Cemor. "J Applied to timbers that 
Cimor. j do not readily split ; hard, 

Noa kat Scli cemora. This timber is difficult 
to split. 

Cempot. A miser, a hoarder. 

Maraii cempot kanae. He is a great miser. 

Cedced. Over salted. 

Cefleka bape utuke<? bg.ridpe ceAoeiikef do. 

How have you cooked the utn? (q. t.) you 

have made it very salt. 
JahakhoniA hijuKa, adoe eger dararaiila ceii cen. 

Come from where I may she meets one with 

her over salted tongue. 

Cedcenaok. C£ chenchenaok. 

Cendakora. A lad about fifteen or six- 
teen years of age, a hobbledehoy. 

Cenden. Bare, as a foot path, or as 
ban-en soil on which nothing grows. 

Cen bai. 

Cenge bai. 

Cenghi bai. 

Chengha bai. 

Chenghe bai. 

Cenga patha. 


Colicky pain in the 

Cengel ~(Cf. nam cengel;, and rium 
Cengol J cengel 
Ceoceo. Cf. ceren. 

Ccpa. A piocc of turf. 
Cepe. Flat, flattened. 

Cepe mu. Plat-nosed. 

Cejied. ) To suck, as one does an or- 
Copod. J ange. 

Gidr?i,ri cepedadea. I gave it to the child to 

Chuchi theiigarc gutukateye cepedadea. He 

put it on a reed and put it to his lips. 

Ceperec. Cf cored. 

Cepra. ") 

Cepre. J-Flat, flattened. 

Ceprot. J 

Ten cepreena. It is crushed flat. 
LaK cepraeme. Cut it flat. 

Cepre. A kind of earring. 
Cepre. Flat-nosed, flat flattened. 
Ceprec. Pug-nosed, flat-nosed. 
Cepre muc. A species of ant. 
Ceprot. Flat, flatteued. 

Ceprot mu. Pug-nosed. 

Cera cera. Hard, firm, in large masses. 

Jontiira cera cerako dakaea. They cook the In- 
dian com into lumps. 

Cerca. Undersized, stunted, small. 

Cerceted. Sparks to fly, as when thorus 
are burning, or when iron at 
white heat is hammered. 

Terel sahan tihgilekhan cercetejoKa. If terel 
(q. V.) is put on the fire sparks will fly out. 
Cercotec. A lizard. 

Cerda cerda. Hard, firm, in large 

Kuila cerda cerda liuroKkana. The coal falls 
down in large masses (having been under- 

CSrg.. A bird. 

Cere ciprnt. Birds in general. 

Cored. To amuse a child. 

CerejoE kanae. He is amusing himself. 

Cerem cerem. Brimful. 

Cered. ") Shrill, discordant scor- 

Ceren ceren.- J ching, as the sun's rays. 

Eereli (q. v.) cereri cerelie raKeda. The call of 

the rereli is shrill. 
Cereli oereAe setoiieda. The sun's rays are 


Cerka bherka. Idling, not attending 
to one's duty (applied to children) ; 

Ceiem cerka bherka baraekana ? What are you 
doing when you should be minding your 


[ 96 ] 



To dress the hair. 


Nakic cerkotienae. Sliehas dressed her hair by 

Cerkot cerkol The call of the Kokoi', 
Ephialtes pennatiis, the Scops 

Cciro. Sun grass, Imperata arun- 
dinacea, Cyr. 

Cerobero. To twitter, as birds ; applied 
also to the chatter of children. 

Cerobero kisniko raga. 

Certha.1 Refreshed, to be in good con- 
Cetha. J dition physically ; convales- 

Pahra doe cethaena. The ox has recovered his 

Cesta. ") To attempt, endeavour, apply 


Testa. / oneself to, search, seek. 

Cei ho bam cestaabon kana, jomalc banuKanaii. 
Tou are making no endeavoiirs for us, there 
is no food. 

Cei. To learn, to teach. 

Cepe^. To consixlt together. 

Cet._ What. 

Ce^ ho bah. Nothing at all. 
Get cet'. Whether or. 

Ci^r. } ^is^^'^y^ niggardly. 
Cetalc. To slap. 

Cetalcmeail nahaK. I shall give you a slap 

Cetame, What, how. 

Cetame emoKae, banuKtaekhan P What will he 
give you if he has nothing ? 

Cetan. Upjoer, above, on, concerning. 

Cetan liutum. A nickname, a by name. 

Noa kathacetanregemenaKtakoa. They are al- 
ways speaking about this matter. 

Daka cetanreii asulkedea. I brought him up 
plentifully supplying all his wants, (he was 
reared on the top of boiled rice, i. e. he 
had not to seek it.) 

Taka poesa cetanreko senakana. They have 
gone to where money can oe had. 

Cetao. To warn, to regain conscious- 

Unkinkin cetaoenkhan lahta laiitikin oromente 
ai^i lajaokin ^-ik^-ukeda. When they regain- 
ed consciousness and knew that they were 
naked they were greatly ashamed. 

Cetaona. Warning. 
Citlr'l'^^^^®^*^^' ^'^^^^^' niggardly. 

Cetat' 1 ^^^* *^'^^^ something. 

Cetat'e liamkana, nui doe liururi tiuruiioKkan ? 
Cetal; ho bail. Nothing at all, beneath one's 

Noa kami ceta€ ho ban kana. This work is not 

Cetat ho bail jut^uadilia. I got nothing at all. 

Get ceret ceprel Call of the black 
partridge, Mundhati citri (q. v.) 

Get cet. Sound of cracking, or rend- 

Get cetalfkana. It is cracking. 

Cete cete. ") Talkative, always putting 
Ete cete, J in one's word. 

Alo sem ce^e cete baraea. Do not keep putting 
in your word. 

Cete. Sparks, as from thorns when 

Cete ce^e ofec pasiroKkana, terel sahan do. 
Sparks fly about from terel (q. v.) firewood. 

Cete. A lizard. 

Ceter. A thunder bolt. 

Ce^er dhiri. An aerolite. 

Dare but^ire alope umuloKa, oetere Aura. Do 

not take shelter underneath a tree, it may 

be struck by lightning. 

Cete rote. ") mi ^ r 
ri : ■ ^ ihe tree irog. 
Ceter rote. J ° 


A rag. 

4di cefargeae, bae emoKa. 
he won't give. 

He is very miserly 

How, as, in what manner. 

f ?.niji realf sikiom baha aribandhipe, cetleka 
harakkana. Consider the lillies of the field 
how they grow. 

Kul cet lekae dareana, hor onka do bail. Men 
have not the strength of tigers. 

Get lekan. What kind ; what sort. 

Nui do ce1:lekan hor kan coe, ona do ohoA men 
darolea. I cannot say what sort of a man 
this is. 

Cet lekan ita coe aguadiil, erkedaii, ado bail 
omonlena. I can't say what sort of seed 
he brought, I sowed it, and it did not germin- 

Get lekate. How, in what manner. 

Cetlekatem paromena, ma se laiaA me. Tell 

me how you crossed. 
Hi do bail bujLau dareakkana, ce{ lekate com 


Gewak. To chop or break, to cut 
through by chopping. 
Cewak gotkam. Chop it oif . 

Gewak. "I To do, used when finding 
Cedak. J fault. 

Cetem cewakkana? What are you doing? 
Okarem cewakkan tahekana? Where, and in 
what mischief were you ? 


[ 97 V 


Cewe6. To break, to snap. 

P^r ooweo got'ena. The branch snapped. 

Kathako oovveokeda. They put an end to the 
Cha. Tea. Cf. ca. 
Chaba. To print, to stamp. 
Chabha. A small earthen ware pot. 
Chabi. A picture, a likeness. 

tear ; to tear into 


ChachaU.\To break 
Chackak. J shreds, or tatters 

Noa dare reatt sakam ohachaK cabaena. 

leaves of this tree are in tatters. 
Sakam ijati ohaohalfkedae arelte. The hail 

struck and broke the leaves into pieces. 
Kiorioem chachakeda. You are tearing the 


Chad. \ Allowable, permissable, not for- 
Char. J bidden, free, exempt. 

Enijekhan hoponko doko ohadgea. Then are 

the children exempt. 
OnkoaK chaij ho cabaena. Their license also 

has expired. 
Eu^icre ohadgea. There is an exemption 

during illness. 

Chada. \ Exempting, omitting, be- 
Chadakate. J side. 

Noako joto chada. Besiiie all these. 
Elak oha^la. Free, exempt. 

Chada chadi. To separate, as a hus- 
band and wife. 

Chadu^. A husband separated from his wife. 
Chadwi. A wife separated from her husband. 

Chadakate. Exempting, omitting, be- 

Chada mela. Sometimes, at times, 
by fits and starts, now and then. 

Chada melaii parhaoKa. I go sometimes to 

Chadao. To deliver, set free, let go, 
separate, remove. 

ChaK d ao dam . A ransom . 
Bae chadaoKa. He will not let go (will not be 
shaken off.) 

Chadaodi. Solatium, or damages paid 
by the party in fault to the other 
on a divorce. 

Chadbid. Sometimes, at times, now 
and then. 

Chadbidiri joraoea. I yoke him now and 

Chadic. Instead of, in place of 

Jaiiga cha^io rehefe geraka£a. Instead of the 
foot he has bitten the root. 

Chadua. ") A husband separated from 
Chadwa. / his wife. 

Chadui.\A wife separated from her 
Chadwi. f husband. 


Chae marte ailjo€ go^ena. It dried up quickly 

Chae.lA place mentioned in the tra- 
Cae. J ditions of the Santals. 
Chae. Bad luck, unlucky, ill-starred. 

Chae paraoadea. He is ill-starred. 

UnaKe jomefroho bae motalikana ohaege pa- 
raoaeKana. Although he eats so much he 
does not get fat, he puts it into an ill skin. 

Chae. Mischievous, tricky. 

Chae mara gidr*. An imp of mischief. 

Chae balae. ) ,,. ,, 

Chai balai. | Miscellaneous. 

Sarjom dobali maga, chae balaei6 maga. 
I will not cut ' sarjom' trees, I will cut of all 
other kinds. 

Chae chae."! Hissing sound, as of escap- 
Sae sae. J ing steam ; to sing, as a 
kettle before boiling. 

Chae chae. Quickly, rapidly. Cf chae. 

Chaa chae aAjefgot'ena. It dried up quickly. 

Chaela juan. A strong, well grown, 
healthy youth. 

Salo Matijhi, Salo Madihl, kaesana m^nus. 
Salo Mg,lihi, Salo Mipnjhi chaela ju9.n. 

Chai. 1 A-' i. r ^ J.- 

pi ■ ■ J- JN ot ; a scoriilul negative. 

Cbailedaii ilelledail. I did not see it. 

Chaila. C£ chalia. 

Chailak. A chip of wood, or shaving. 

Baondae jokhec chatil^l^ chadauKa. When one 
planes the shavings fly. 

Chaili. A small tree, Morinda tinc- 
toria, Roxb., the roots of which 
yield a red dye. 
Chakacun. ") To shatter to pieces, to 
Chakacur. j shiver to atoms, to pul- 
verise, to break. 

Lebet ohakacimke^taeako. They trampled it 

to pieces. 
Eaput' chakacunena, noa bafi do. This ba^i 

(q. v.) is broken into fragments. 
Dal chakacxmkedae. He shivered it to atoms. 

Chaka chun. ") In pieces, shivers, atoms; 
Chiki chun. J to pulverise, to reduce 
to powder. Cf chakacun. 

Dal chakachunkedae. He shivered it to at- 
Chaka chnnena. It is pulverised. 

Chakao. To separate by straining, or 
Ape kara aljyurko do sikrio chakao giRdiko, 
menkhan ut hoKhgorko. Ye blind guides 
which strain out a gnat, but swallow a 


Chali chaU 

[ 98 ] 


Chalt chaM. Guzzling, or gobbling 
sound, as of a pig when eating. 

Chakmaki. j ^ Ai^t. 

Chakmakia. Spruce, well developed 
in person, and good looking ; pre- 

Chakop. ") The noise made by smacking 
Cakop. J the lips. 

Chal. Skin, bark ; to skin. 

Chala. Panniers. 

Banrako chalaakoa. They put panniers on 

Chala badla. A pack bullock. 
Chalak chalak. Quickly, industriously. 

Chalak chalake calal^kana. 
Chalak chalake kamikana. 

Chalak chandori. A lascivious woman ; 
employing artifices to attract the 
notice of the male sex. 

Chalak chandori baraekanae, 

Chalchalao. To be parted, as water by 
the prow of a ship ; to skim along 
the surface to, sweep on, as a river 
in flood ; to go about without 
purpose ; to cut through the water, 
as fish. 

Chalchalia. Strong, plump, healthy 
looking child. 

Gidra khub ohalchaliae lieloKa. The child looks 
fine and healthy. 

Chale. Scum rising to the surface of 
any liquid. 

Toa chale. Cream. 

Chale. Cataract ; also applied to blind- 
ness from corneal opacity. 
Chale bais^uakawadea. He has cataract. 

Chalia. A game played by children. 

Thari daKre chalchalao chalkao calaKa. The 
brass plate cuts the water aa it skims along. 

Noa darhare hako chal chalao baraltako. 

Tinalf dali? A^i chalchalao calaUkana. How 
much water ? There is a flood. 

Nui hor doe chalchalao baraea. This man goes 
wandering about. 

Chalkao. To pare, to skim ; obliquely. 

Chalkaokateli dalea. I will strike him ob- 
Dak oetanre thari chalkao calao godoKa. The 

thari (q. v.) will skim along the water. 

Chamak. I To shew off, to 

Chamakchamak. /attract notice. 

Chamak. Tinkle, sound made by toe 
rings when the wearer walks. 

Chamak chamak khub sadea. 

Chamar. A semi- Aboriginal caste who 
deal in hides and make shoes. 

Cham cham. Sound produced by toe 
rings when the wearer walks. 

Cham cham. Quickly, industriously. 

Cham chame kamikana. He works well. 

Chamda. A temporary erection made 

to accommodate guests. 
Chan. To vanish, to disap2Dear. 

Unkin ^hen khone chan goiJena. He vanished 
out of their sight. 

Chan chan. ") Burning, stinging, 
Chan chanao. J smarting, as pain. 

Ghao chanchanaokkantaea. His wound smarts. 
Chan chan haso. A stinging, or burning pain. 

Chanda. To hobble a horse or cow. 
Sadom laha jahgako chandakoa. They hobble 
the fore legs of horses. 

Chanda baber. A hobble. 
Chan. A large sized cymbal. 

Kortal. A small cymbal. 

Chan chan. Tinkling ; to tinkle. 

Chan charioKkan kortal lekaakanari. I am as 
a tinkling cymbal. 

Chani. To strain out, to intercept by 

Gurtei; do phatiaKre chani tahena. The gur 
will be intercepted and remain in the sieye. 

Kicri6te*i chaniket'koa, hako do. I caught the 
fish with cloth (the water strained through 
and left the fish.) 

Cha?a.}'^° P™*' *° '^'''- 
Chapar dak. Saline water, of which 
cattle are fond. 

Chapar daK. Liquor, of which the Santals are 

Chapilman. To flow, to overflow, to 
flood, inundate. 

Gai gofa ohapilmanako. The cows will spread 

all over (the field.) 
Chapilmanketlea. Attacked us all (fever, &c.) 

Chapkao. To crouch, to keep out of 


Chapkaote. Secretly, stealthily. 
Kule chapkaoakana. The tiger is crouching. 
Oka seo khon coil chapkao chapkaoteye heeena. 
He came crouching from somewhere. 

Chaplau. To overflow, to flood, to in- 

Pohoko chaplau agueda. The locusts are flood- 
ing (the country.) 


[ 99 ] 


Chapri. A hut, a roof. 
Chai". Suddenly, at once. 

Char mente gefenaJd. I was out instantly. 

Char. A cattle pen, a sheep fold. 

Mimit' gotedko ohara g?.i dohoko lagiC. They 
each make a fold for the cattle. 

pi ' ■ ' > Leave, license, a permit. 

Soner maK lg,git'ko ohf!.raflea. They gave us a 
permit to cut rafters. 

Chara. Cf chada. 

Charao. To spread, to increase, to 
grow larger. 

D?d gota hormore oharaoena. The skin disease 
has spread over all the body. 

Charkat. To waste, to squander. Cf. 

Charra. Shot for gun. 
Chat. A Hindu festival observed in 

Chat. To separate, to pare, clip, lop. 
Chat. A roof. 

Chat. 1 

Chat chat. [Quickly, suddenly, easily. 
Chat marte.J 
Noa chnrite chat chat gedoEkana. It cuts easUy 
■with this knife. 

Chata. A honey comb. 

Chata. To separate, to wander or leave 
home under the influence of a spir- 
it or demon, to be influenced by 
a spirit or demon. 

Nui baulaha chata calaoenae, okate con. 
Birre pongel mahae chata ocoKkan tahekana. 

Chata. A Hindu festival observed on 
the last day of Bhador (q. v.) said 
to have been originated by Kamars 
(q. v.), and observed by some 

Chatak.l A measure, both liquid and 

Chotak.J dry, about two ounces. 

Chatao. To prune, plane, pare, level. 

par chatao gidikam. Prune away the branches. 

Chatar. An umbrella. 

Chatar. A framework attached to the 

rafters on which the thatch is 

Chat chat. Cf chat. 
Chat chat. \ Suffering greatly, parched; 
Chat pat. j diligent. 

Chat chat daK totaiiedilikana. 
Chat chat aikauKkana. 

Chati. The breast. 

Chatiar. A ceremony observed as a 
cleansing from ceremonial defile- 

Janam oh9.tiar. A ceremony by which the 
members of a village and house in which a 
child has been born are rendered cere- 
monially clean. In the case of a male child 
it is observed five days after birth, and of 
a female three days. The child is named 
and admitted to the privileges of the society 
of its relatives. 

Caco chgiti^r. A ceremony which is observed 
any time before marriage. It seems to be 
the admission of the child to full privileges 
as a member of the Santal community. At 
the same time there is the idea of purifica- 
tion connected with it. At the close of the 
ceremony the following formula is repeated, 
" We appeal to you five men, we were 
black like crows, now we are white as the 
white paddy birds, you five men are our 
witnesses." Marriage cannot take place 
before the observance of this ceremony, 
and any one dying before its observance is 
not accorded the privilege of having his 
" jahbaha" taken to the Damudariver. 

Oh^tiSr h^ncji. Eice beer given by the Jog 
Mafiihi (q. v.) to the villagers at the close 
of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival. This is a sign 
that the lioense allowed to the young men 
and maidens during the festival has termi- 
nated, and that any ceremonial defilement 
they may have contracted is removed. 

Chatik. Of all kinds. 

Is^i hor do oh^tik jat jote£ reaKko joma. The 
Christians eat what all castes have touched 

Chatka. \ Door from the court yard 

Chatka duar.J into the street. 

Chatkan. \ Quick, industrious, hard 
Chatkani.J working. 
Chatna.\Top, highest point, pinnacle, 
Chatni. J used most frequently of trees. 

Burn chgitnire. On the highest point of the. 

Mat ch^tnire. On the top of the bamboo. 

Chatni. A timber tree, Alstonia 

scholaris, R. Br. 
Chatpat. Restless ; quickly. 

^di chatpat gidra kanae. He is a restless child 

(always getting into mischief.) 
44iye us9.raea chatpat. 

Chatpatao. To be restless, toss about, 
writhe, to be disquieted. 

Nui do reiigeote ohatpataoKkanae. He is rest- 
less through hunger. 

Kidilikatkome torkedeteye chatpataoK kana. 
He is writhing through having been stung 
by a scorpion. 

Chatpatia. Restless ; always in mischief 
Chatri. A caste of Hindus. 


[ 100 ] 


Chatri. A caste. 

leabiko hecakana, mi£ chatribon lagii:. The 
Christians have come to make us all of the 
same caste. 

Chau chau. In crowds, numerous, much, 
many, a great deal ; a confused 
noise as when many people are 

Chau cli?.u hor menaKkoa. They are in crowds. ' 
Onte note khubko rorkediria, chau ch9.u. They 

hadsered me from all sides. 
Ch?.u chgiuko arisakada. 

Chauni. Encampment, resting place 
when on a journey, lodgings, a tent, 
a roof. 

Chec bee. To the full, to satiety. 

Chec becko jomkeda. They ate to satiety. 

Checha. A torch. Cf. cecha. 

^ , ■ ■ Disobedient, um-uly, tricky, 

Cechor. V • u ■ 

r^ • mischievous. 

Cecor. J 

Ched. The first day of the Hindu fes- 
tival Dasae on which buffaloes 
are sacrificed. 

Chedam. One fourth of a pice. 

Chek. Smarting, burning, nipping. 

Chek marte lo ^o^enaA. 

UnaK atteye rorkediiia chek marteA aikabukeda. 

Chedchao. To flog, chastise. 

Alom halbaloKa, cheAchaomeaii nahalr. Do 
not be naughty, I shall ilog you presently. 

Cherichen. Hissing sound produced 
by dipping hot iron in water ; tink- 
ling sound, as that of cracked 
cymbals, or steel struck by steel. 

Chen chenaoli.\To scold in a high shrill 
Cericenaok. j voice, said only of 

CedaRem cheJicheiiaoKkana? 

^Wli^°-1 To separate. 
Chmgau. J '- 

Cheo. To slice, to graze, to scotch, to 
wound, to bruise. 

MaK cheo otokaiia. They cut and wound me. 


I Low, small of stature, defici- 
ent in height. 




Chepra kumba. 

A low booth. 

Cher. To melt. 

N^-inu oherteko gotoma. By melting butter 
they make ghi. 

Chi. \ Shame ! fie ! indicates scorn, 
Chi chi. J disgust, disapprobation, 

shock, reprehension, scandalized. 

Chi chi ! lajao ho bam aikauef , kuri hopon ho 
darekorem coga baraekan. Fie ! ile ! are 
you not ashamed ? girls also are climbing 
into trees. 

Chiat'tiAae daka do. 

Chia. ~) Ough ! ugh ! indicates loathing' 

lia. ~) ' 
liare. J 

Duar dom chepko AoKkeda. Tou have made 

the door a little low. 
Nonde chopkogea, onde ueulgea. It is low here, 
and high there 

Chiare. / abomination, nausea. 

Chia chia ! noa do alom jo^eda. 
Chig-re ! Nui gidra io sene calaltkana. 

Chiak. Low, mean, despicable, contemp- 

' tible. 

Uni do chiaKgeye metakoa. He despises them. 

Chi ban. To deny, to feel disgust, or 
contempt for. 

Iliiii chibaiikedea. I feel comtempt for her. 

(I have denied her.) 
Aee chi bahoKma. Let him deny himself. 

Chik chok. Bright, plump, looking 
glossy as the skin of a well fed 
and well groomed horse. 

Chik chok motaakanae, sadom do. The horse 

is fat and glossy skinned. 
Chik chok serma. The bright heavens. 

Chikican. ^ To break into pieces, to 
Chikicun. J- scatter ; to be strewn a- 
Chitican. J bout. 

Botol do chikicunena. The bottle is shivered 
to pieces. 

Chilbilau. To rush hither and thither, 
to be excited ; panic struck. 

Hako botorteko ohilbilauena. The fish dart 

about thz'ough fright. 
Arhoko arijomketteko chilbilau got'ena. When 

they again heard it they became excited. 

Chilkau. To spill, splash, wash over. 

Pheoko laukare chilkau bololfkana. The 
waves are washing over into the boat. 

Chimbri. Applied to the unripe pods 
of horec (q. v.), ghangra (q. v.) and 

muhg (q. V.) which do not shed their seeds 
under the flail ; to the pieces, called cloves, 
into which a bulb of garlic separates ; to 
pieces of the following vegetables when cut 
up lengthwise : beiigar (q. v.), kundri (q. v.), 
karla (q. v.) taher (q. v.) and kohn(ja 
(q. V.) ; to the pieces of the rind of tlie 
kiiidi (q. v.) when cut tip for cooking ; also to 
individual fruits of the muhga (q. v.) (muh- 
ga suti) tree ; one of a bunch or cluster, as 
one fruit of a bunch of plantains, or on© 
pod of a cluster of pods. 

Chin. China. 

Chin disom. The country of China. 
Chin sim' Guinea fowl. 



[ 101 ] 


Chin. Appearance, shape, form, bodily 
representation, disguise, semblance, 

Manwa ohinenae. He has the form of a man. 

(He is in human form.) 
Hoj ohinteye heolena. He oame in the likeness 

of a man. 

Chinar. A harlot, a prostitute." 

Ado noKoe mal do ape satate karalt coil, thoy- 
haK coil, d9.riK ooii,'li ooii, ona do 

Chinci punci.\ All, everything, every 
Cinci punci. J vestige, in pieces. 

Chiaoi punci riam i5amteye idi cabakeda. He 
carried away every thing. 

Chindau. To unravel, arbitrate, judge, 

Khapkhap chin(j9.utakome. Judge them right- 

Chuidel. ■> To pass over, to leave un- 
Cindel. J touched, to scamp work; 
carelessly, inefficiently. 
TuKmalii ohinijelaepe. Leave a few ears for the 

Jom chin<ilelliedeako. They gave him nothing 

to eat while they ate themselves. 
It chindelkedako, They have reaped aJl round 

and left this. 
Chindel ohinglelteko kamikeda. They have 
scamped the work. 

Chingau. To separate, to stray, to 
wander, to be lost. 

M.ii gotede ohingg.nlenkhan. If one be lost. 
Chrng^iuenakin. They have strayed. 

Chingi bai. Cf. cen. bai. 

Chini. A cold chisel. 

Chio choko. Slowly, deliberately. 

Chic chokoe calakkana. He goes slowly. 

Chip. Highest point, top pinnacle, as 
of a tree or steeple. 

Chipi. A shallow brass dish. 
Chirchatur. To scatter. 
Chirha chirhi. Increasing ; violently. 
Chir hako. Small fish, small fry. 

Chir hakole gocke^koa. We caught small fry. 

Chiriau. To disperse, to scatter. 

G^i g.diko chiri^uena. The cows are widely 

Chiri biri. "1 Into small pieces, to split 
Ciri biti. /into thin slips. 

Chiri biri aralcko geda. They cut greens into 
small pieces (before cooking.) 

Chit. Spotted, variegated, coloured, 

Chit kioric. Chintz. 

Chitau. To spread sheaves on the 
threshing floor for the grain to be 
trodden out by cattle. 

Chi tho. To feel disgust or scorn. 

Onko oraKiii ohi thoakat'a. 

Chitia bitiq. To scatter, to strew, to 
throw about. 

Chitiau.^ To scatter, to strew, to spread. 

lA tuluo bail sasamfaoii doe He that 
gathereth not with me soattereth. 

Chiti chan. To pulverise, break to 

pieces, shiver to atoms. 
Chitir bitir. To be scattered, strewn 

about, dispersed. 

Horko chitir bitirena. The people are scattered. 

Chitkau. To sprinkle. 

Chut metaoa mente holoh daKko chitkauakoa, 
nartare. For the purpose of cleansing they 
sprinkle flour and water on the people 
when observing the narta (q. v.) 

Chikisa. Careful attendance or nurs- 

Chikisaem tobe khane bartcaoBa. Nurse him 
carefully and he will recover. 

Chitklric. A switch. 
Chitra phutau. To break into pieces, 
to smash up, to clear, as forest. 

iSam liamtege birko chitrg. phutaukeda. They 
have cleared all the jungle. 

Sanam chitra phut^uena. It is broken to 

Nam /iamte Dikuko dobo chitra phut9.ukoa. "We 
will sweep the Hindus from oil the face of 
the earth (said by the Santals in the rebel- 

Chitta. Shot for gun. 

Choc. To smear, daub, to plaster. 

Gurio is to smear with the hand, and choc is to 
do so by means of a wisp of straw or piece 
of cloth. 

Ch6c gobor. To smear with cow dung. 

Ohole I Fraud, deception, knave- 

Choi kopot./ ^y- ^^'^i^"^' subterfuge. 

Choleteko sapkedea. The caught him by artifice. 

Chonda. A boy. 

Chondatia. A boy of from 12 to 14 
years of age. 

Chond kora. M. ") A boy of from 10 to 
Chond kuri. F. J 
8 to 10. 

Chondro. ") A lad, stripling, from 14 to 
Chandru. J 16 years of age. 

12, a girl of from 

Chon godo godo 

[ 102 ]. 


Chon godo godo. Sound of frizzling, 

Chont. Band to bind a sheaf. 
Chontal. To fly off, to spring back, to 
rebound, to leave. 

ChailaK pharakte chontal go^ena. The chips 
flew to a distance. 

Aitege chonfal gotena. She (young wife) left 
(her husband's house) of her own free will. 

Chorkate. Excepting, omitting, beside. 
Chorkot. To spend, waste, squander. 

Sanam cij bg-sutem chorko^keda. 
dered all your property. 

You squan- 

Chorwad. To pain, to cause mental 
pain, to hurt one's feelings by 
bitter, spiteful words. (Used 
mainly by women.) 

Eger ohorwaheali. 

Chot. Time. 

Mit chot. Once. 
Bar chot. Twice. 
Pe chot. Thrice. 

Chot. Bands to bind sheaves when 

Chotak. A chittak, one sixteenth of 

a seer. 
Cliotor. A cloth umbrella. 
Chuc. A needle. 
Chuc. To burn, burning, piping hot ; 

to smart, as from the sting of a 


Seijgelteye chudkediria. 
Chuc mente. Pricking. 

Chuchandar. Hancre ; specific sore. 

Chuchkcir. To speak kindly to to al- 
lay fear or suspicion, to coax. C£ 
Gidra hoko chuohkarkoa. They coax children 

Chuchukut. Used as a kind of spell 
when children choke through some- 
thing going down the wrong way. 

If a boy the mother pats him on the head and 
says "chuchuku(, sendra t?.hgiyepe" (chu- 
cukut', wait to take bim to the hunt) ; and 
if a girl, while patting her on the head she 
says " chuchuku^, araK si6 tahgiyepe (chu- 
chuknf, wait for her to go pot herb picking), 
or '■ daU lo tahgiyepe" (or waitfor her to go 
to bring water.) 

Chuci. A reed, a bobbin made from a 
reed on which thread is wound for 
the weaver. 

Chuda. "j To beat, or drive game in the 
Chudar. I direction of an ambush, or 
Chular. j where the sportsmen are 
Churar. j waiting. 

Nui kul chular idiepe, b9.ndkigi sen. Drive this 
tiger towards the man with the gun. 

Chuk chuk. Bright, glossy, clean, 
smooth, beautiful. 

Nui sadom chuk chnke cikara. This horse is 

smooth and glossy. 
Bill reaK bhuK do chuk chuk cikara. The 

snake's hole is (worn) smooth. 

Chular. Cf chudar. 
Chundi. A girl. 

Chupi. A large hat made of leaves 
pinned together, to protect the 
head and shoulders during rain. 

Chur. To choke. Cf chuchukut. 

When anything goes down the wrong way they 
say, some one is either scolding me, or say- 
ing something against me. 

Chur. A track in the jungle, as of 
wild animals or cattle. 

Churar. C£ chuda. 
Churi. A knife. 

Churuc. ~| To put down or give in small 
Curuc. J quantity. 

Chut. Ceremonial uncleanness. 

Chut paraoadiiia. I have become unclean. 

Chut metao. To cleanse ceremonially. 

AmaK dhorom mondirko chutakata. They 
have defiled thy holy temple. 

Chut mukutenale. We are clean from ceremo- 
nial defilement. 

Chuta. Free, disengaged, unemploj'ed, 
superfluous, not in use, unbetro- 

Nui kuri doe chutagea. This girl is not betro- 

^ thed. 
Nui hor doe chutagea, kg-mi b9.nuKfcaea. 

Chuta chuti. Separated, divorced. 

Chuta chntienakin. They are divorced. 

Chutau. To escape, to be let loose, to 
begin, leave, cease ; to get loose, to 
be dismissed, to be lost, to be ex- 

As chutau. To despair, to lose hope. 
Euj ohutauentaea. His fever has left him. 
Dadale chutauena. He began to strike. 
Disom hor do Parganako chut9.ukedea. The 

people of the country (Santals) dismissed 

the Pargana (q. v.) 

Ka^a okare cole chutau oookedea. We have 

lost the buffalo somewhere. 
Kg.mire adiye chut9iuKa. He is an expert (or 

hard) worker. 


[ 103 ] 


Chuti. Leave, permission, dismissal. 

Iskul pri<Jr?.koe chutikeEkoa. He diamiasod the 

school children. 
L9.i chutienall. I have had my say (and am not 

now responsible.) 
Cefko katha menaKtama, ma lg.i chutiKme. 

Make a cleon breast of what you have to 

Lgi chutialime, rujf joiiali. Tell me to go and 

I shall return. 

Chutki. A second wife. 

B9.tki. The first, or chief wife. 
Chutkiakawanae. He has married a second 

Cia. To spy, to search for. 

Nel ci^kom, menaEkoa, seko baiia. Go and 

spy and see if there are any. 
Cia ^gulekome. Go find them and come and 

teU us. 

Ciap ciap. Cheeping of chickens. 
Cicuri cipi curi. Call of the Uric (q. 

V.) and certain other small birds. 
Cidir. Diarrhoea, piiro;ing. 

Bed cidir. Vomiting and purging. 

Ciga cage. Straddling. 

Clga cageye darankana. He goes straddling. 

Cigari. To mock. 

Cigariadeako. They mocked him. 

Cigi. To be impaled through the fun- 
dament, to force up the funda- 

Don go£kedae, cigi gofenae. 

Cigi Tudu. A sub-sept of the Santal 
sept Tudu (q. v.) 

The origin of the Sub-sept Chigi is said to have 
been as follows : — Two brothers worked in 
the fields and their two sisters brought them 
their mid-day meal. On the way home the 
girls were in the habit of divesting them- 
selves of their clothes and jumping into a 
tank to bathe. The brothers were so scan- 
dalised that they fixed stakes in the water, 
and when the next day the girls jumped in 
as usual, they were impaled on the stakes. 

Ciguri. An apparatus for raising heavy 
beams, when beyond the height 
to which men can reach, consist- 
ing of two polos crossed at the top 
and securely tied ; used also as a 
support for beams. 

Ciharao. Cf cihrau. 

Cihau. Cf cehao. 

Cihik. To start suddenly. 

Cihik cihike cihkgiuKkana. He strarts now 
and again. 

Cihik bai. ") Nervous spasms, twitch- 
Cihki bai. J ing, starting suddenly, 

Cihirau. To be startled, to wince, to 
start through fear. 

Cihiri dan. A pole used to propel a 

Cihkau. To be startled, to wince, to 
start through fear, to start from 
sleep scared. 

Cihkau berefenae. Ho started up. , 

Cihrau. To shudder, to start, one's 
hair to stand on end through fear, 
to feel disgust. Scottice, scunner. 

Cihri lamak. A variety of the large 
jungle climber, Bauhinia Vahlli, 
W.& A. 

Cihri lamaK is the small seeded variety. 
Phajka lamalc the large seeded variety. 

Cij. Agricultural produce, things in 

Cij basut. Agricultural produce and property. 
Khubiil cijakat'a. I have had a good harvest. 
Cij b^suta^. I will acquire property. 

Cikan. 1 Smooth, glossy, shiny. Cf 
Cokon. J cikar. 

Cikar. "l Oily, greasy, polished, glazed, 
Cikon. j shiny, slimy, silky, smooth , 
clean, perfect. 

Hor then cikar cikaro rora. He is silvery 

Bhit jolom cikarakat'ae. He has plastered the 

wall smooth. 
Cikar cikarko joma. They live on the best. 
Hormo do cikargetakoa. Their bodies are glossy. 
Arup cikaronae. He is washed clean. 

Cikhna. A sign, a mark, a remem- 
brance, a memento. 

Horok cikhn*. To betroth. Cf. horoK. 
Cikhn?.walfme. Mark it. 

Uni hor do noa khanda cikhnae doho ctoadirta. 
He left this thing with me as a memento. 

Cikic. Backwards, to turn back, to 
come into contact v.ith something 

Cikid laha goEena. I missed by stroke and 

struck ahead (through my elbow coming in 

contact with something.) 
Cikio birdarkedeae. 
Cikic ru9.renae. He turned suddenly and fled 

back the way he came. 
Cikiete liurena. He fell back in a sitting 


Cikisa. Careful attendance, or nursing. 
Cikkur. A warning call to barndnor 

fowls when a hawk or vulture is 


The fowls know the call and run for shelter 
immediately on hearing it. 


t 104 ] 


Cikno. The flax plant, Linuon usi- 
tatisshnum, Linn. 

The flax plant does not in India yield fibre, it 
is cultivated purely for the oil it yields. 

Cikon. Cf. cikar. 

Cikon cokon. Sprig, spruce, dressed 
up, prepossessing, good looking. 
Scottice, weel faur'd. 

'Cil bindha. A sub-sept of the Santal 
sept Hasdak. 

Cilim. (1) The bowl of the huka in 
which the fire and tobacco are 
placed. (2) A pig's snout. 

The cilim is often smoked without being placed 
in the huka. 

Cima cate. Hobbling, raising the whole 
side with each step when walking, 
as a tortoise. 

Cimor. Cf cemor. 

Cimro. Cf cemor. 
Cimta. Pincers ; to seize with pincer.s. 
Ciricic. Just forming, as fruit ; appear- 
ing above ground, as a mushroom. 

Cilicicakana. The fruit is just beginning to form. 

Cindal. ^^ A little here and a lit- 

Cindal cindal. j tie there, careless- 
ly, imperfectly ; to overlook. 

Em cindal. To give a little here and there. 
Er cindal. To sow a little here and there. 
Cindal cindale kamikana. He is doing his 
work imperfectly. 

Cindar candar. Artifice to attract the 
notice of the male sex ; long, sweep- 

Cindar candare calaKkana. She goes about 

giving herself airs. 
Cindar candare bandeakana. She is wearing 

her ' sari' down to her feet to attract notice. 

Cindel. To pass over, to do a thing im- 
perfectly, to scamp ; carelessly, 

Ir cindel barakedako. They have left some 
when reaping, they have scamped the 

Tulfmalko ]?.gitko cindel idikeda. They have 
left some for the gleaners. 

Cindka. A small area of jungle sur- 
rounded by open country. 
Cindka nolc birre senkateye okoena. 

Cingul. A variety of the rice plant. 
Cinha. C£ cikhna. 


Cinhap. VTo recognize, to discriminate. 


Cinha munda."! 

Cinhe munhe. Ut , • ^ 

Cin mund. [Vestige, proof 

Cin man. J 

A portion, a horn, a hoof, &c., of an animal, 
which has been devoured by wild beasts 
rescued and shewn to the owner as proof 

Cinman ho ban liamoKkana. Not a vestige 
even is forthcoming (to shew that the 
animal has been devoured by wild beasts.) 

Cinparco. To establish relationship 
by declaring name and lineage. 

Cinca. Thought, anxiety, concern. 

Cipa bata. The lath by which each 

row of thatch is fastened to the 

framework of the roof 

Cipa cape. ") To walk gingerly with 
Cipo copo. J" short steps. 

Hg-ui tora calaoenae, cipg. cape. 

Cipciriix 1 A common annual found in 
Cipivit. J waste ground near villa- 
ges, Achyranthes aspera, Linn. 
Cipciryop. \ Said by a female to a 
Cipciryup. I younger person when re- 
Ciryop. | turning his or her saluta- 
Ciryup. j tion. 

Cipoc copoc. Getting old, advanced in 

Cir. A flag. 

Cir dan. A flagstaff. 

Ciro' } '^^ *^*''' ^'^°^' ®P^^* ' ^ ^^'n-'9- 
Mi£ oira barge emafime. Give me a strip of 

garden ground. 
Khura cirggetakoa. They have cloven hoofs. 
Barab^rite ciro got'kam. Tear it equally. 

Cir caudal. A caudal (q. v.) with a 
tassel at each corner. 

Cirgal. Cautious, timid, wary, watch- 

Seta do a^i cirggilko gitioa. 

Cirha cirhi. Violently, exasperatingly. 

Cirha cirhikin roporena. 

Cirhau. To scoff at, deride, to provoke; 
to exasperate, to irritate, to mock. 

TJni ruarea mente adorn doko oirhai.nkedea . 
Some scoffed at him to induce him to 

Cirhot; corhol! 

[ 105 ] 


Cirhot corhot'. Shuffling, dragging feet 
in walking. 

Cirhot oorlio(;e oala1<kana.He goes sliuffling 

Ciri biri. l Into small pieces, to atoms ; 
Ciri biti. J to mince ; thin, scattered; 
spread out, split into thin strips. 

AraK ciri biriko geda. They out the greens in- 
to small pieces. 

Ciric ciric. Chirp of sparrow. 
Ci h6 h6. Neighing of horses, also the 
cry of the Bengal kite. 

Ciri cunthi.\To tear, or rend, as a tiger 
Ciri huri. J or vulture its prey ; scram- 
bling and pulling. 

Ciri huriko repeckana. 

Ciri huri. Of ciri cunthi. 

Cifi huriko idi gotkeda. They quickly snatched 
it aU away. 

Cirion cirion. Chirp of birds. 

Nui cere doe oirioii cirioheda. This bird calls 
'cirion cirion.' 

Cirkau. To split, to crack. 

Bhit oirkauena. The wall is cracked. 

Cirit Narrow, strait, difficult. 
Cirif dugirte boloKpe. • Enter in at the strait gate. 
Ar cetlekali ciridoKkana, ona auri muoedok ; And how am I straitened till it be 

Cirmok. ") Sad, depressed, downheart- 
Jirmok. J ed, disconsolate. 

Bhabnakte oirmoKe durupakana. 

Giro. To tear, rend, split, divide. Cf 

Ciroc ciroc. "j Dripping, dribbling, water 
Ciroc coroc. V issuing in small jets, 
Coroc coroc.J or drops ; sound of drip- 

ing or falling water. 

Ciroc ciroce darkeda. 

Ciroc coro6. Cf ciroc ciroc. 
Cit. Paste, gum. 

Cloitalc. The gum brush. 

Cit urioena. The paste sticks fast. 

Citar. Miserly, niggardly. 

Citar kabar. Spotted, variegated. 

Citel; catet. The joints of the ankles 
or knees to crack when walking, 
. the clicking sound made by wood- 
en sandals when walking. 

Citet patei To cross the feet when 

Citi bin. A species of spotted snake. 

Cithi. A letter, an epistle. 

Cito. Unripe, said of leguminous fruits, 
and of the fruit of the Matkoiu 
tree. (q. v.) 

Citar kathi. ~| A plant largely used me- 

Jog kathi. J dicinally. Plumbago 
Zelanica, Linn. 

Citol. A species of fish. 

Citri. The grey partridge, Tipon torod- 
Ortygornis Ponticerriu'nas. 

Mundh^it oitri. The black partridge, Fran- 
colinus vulgaris. 

^JJJPJChirp of birds. 

Sud cere hopon ciup ciupko raga. The young 
of the Sue bird (q. T.) cry ciup ciup. 

Ciuti. An ant. 

Ciufi pipri. Ants and butterflies, insects in 

Ciwak cawak. Spilling, as a vessel 
full of water if carried carelessly. 

Cetlekam idiedap ciwaK cawagoKkana. How 
are you carrying it ? it is spilling. 

Co. I Perhaps, expresses doubt or im- 
Con. J certainty ; used to emphasise 
an affirmative statement. Cf coii. 

Coak. To break, to snap, to break into 
two, to break off, to break a part off. 

Kanda real? knnkha coaKena. The rim o£ the 
water pot is broken off. 

Jondra do coaKena pheqlre. The stalk of In- 
dian corn is broken near the root. 

Coar. "I Rascally, disobedient, ill-con- 
Ciiaria. J ditioned. 
Am do coar mara hor. Tou are a rascal. 

Coatia. Not having sufficient milk for 
her offspring, having a small udder. 
C5c c5c. Squeaking of young rats or 

Coc6. Squeaking of rats. 
Cocongof. "(To sit on the heels, to 
Cucungul J hunker. 
Cocraha. Rough. 

Coeraha kat kana. It is a rough log. 
Alom dejoKa, acji oocrahagea. Do not climb 
(the tree), it is very rough. 

Coda hako. A species of fish. 

Codak. ] 

Codao. I To separate, to detach, to 
Chondao. i' pick off, to peel off. 
Cotak. J . ,, ,. 

Jondra coijaome. Detach the grains of Indian 
corn from the cob. 



[ 106 ] 


> Sharp, pointed. 

Codgoc. A species of fish found in riv- 
ers and tanks. 

Code codo. "(Sound of water fall- 
Codoc codoc. / ing in a stream. 

Sate daK codo code iluroKkana. The rain falls 
splashing from the eayes. 

Codor. To pour out a libation. 

Maran burn ar MaAjhi harame oodorabina. 
He offers a libation to Marah burn (q. v.), and 
to the deceased village chief. 

Coe. Part of female private member. 

Coenda. Ill-natured, passionate, easily 

angered, bad tempered. 

Adi ooendageae. He is very ill-natured. 


Lalt coelokedail. I cut it to apoint, 
Jom coeloenae. He has eaten to satiety. 

Coga. To climb up, into, or on any- 

OkoG bae seta]< liindareye cogaena. Some one 
has been up (in the tree) before dawn. 

Cogor. '^ Quickly ,fast, active, flu- 

Cogor cogor. J ent. 

Cogor cogore tarameda. He walks quickly. 
Cogor cogore rofeda. He speaks fast. 

CohSk. Prepossessing, pleasant looking, 
beautiful, graceful, well. 

Kuriko bes cohoko eneokana. The girls are 

dancing gracefully. 
Dibi adi cohokko benaokoa. They deck the 

idols, or make the idols beautiful. 

Sadom a(^i cohoKe calaKkana. The horse goes 

Biswadih Maliihi coh5ke iSeloEkana. The 

Manjhi of Biswadih looks well. 

Cohol bohol. Flowing, overflowing, a 
large quantity. 

Cohol bohol ntum duladitia. You have given 

me a large quantity of utu. 
Khub cohol bohole daKatlea, ale do. 

Coh5t. Pressing, urgent. 

Notar do kami adi cohotakana. At present 
work is very pressing. 

Cojaha. J ^^^'^^^J' ^^^''^' niggardly. 

Adi cojaha hor kanae. He is very miserly. 

Coli. To kiss. 

CopoK. To kiss each other. 

Jawae (Jjhrikateye coUaea. After binding the 

turban on the bridegroom's head he kisses 


Cok. A division or part of a village. 

Cokak. 1 A shell, scale, skin or rind 
Coklak. / of fruit. 

Eokoc ookaK. A snail's shell. 

Cokak. Irritating, insulting. 

Nui 9.imai cokaMgeye ror goda. This woman 
speaks irritatingly. 

Cokak baklak. Irritating, vexing, in- 

Cokao. To become speechless, through 
fright &c. ; to be benumbed with 
fear, &o. 
UniaK ror aAjomte cokao utarenali. I became 
speechless through hearing what he said. 

Cokcanda. To steal from, to relieve 
one of property. 

Okoe coko cokcandakediAa. Some one has 
stolen from me. 

Cokhlao. To pare, to break the skia or 

Cetan cetante cokhlao gofkam. Pare it near 
the surface, (take off a thin paring.) 

Cokhna. To bring up old errors, to bear 
tales, to upbraid. 

Napam pichem cokhnawaiikana. Every time 
we meet you upbraid me. 

Cokkati. A division of a village. 

Cokka^i ato. A village made by dividing an- 
other into two or more parts. 

Coklak. Rind, shell. 

Cokmaki. Flint. 

Coko. The female organ. 

Coko. To hide, to crouch, as a tiger 

lying in wait for prey. 
Cokod. \ To pull the beard as an 

Cokoc cokoc. J insult, to strilce the 
mouth with the fist, as an insult ; 
to wash clothes, by striking gent- 
ly on a stone or board. 

Noa thotnatem roreda, cokodmeari. This is the 
mouth you speak with, I will hit yon on it. 

Cokorhal A small cup made from a 
single leaf pinned with its own 

Cola. Body, life. 

Cola oabaentaea. He is dead. 

Cola taheu bhor kami jarurtabona. We must 
work so long as we remain in the body. 

Colit. \ 

Colon. VCustom, wont, use, current. 

Bes colon pai. An honest measure. 
Bah colon ojon. An unfair weight. 

Colkhao. Obliquely, slantingly ; to pare. 

Male colkhao got'kedeaii. I cut him (with u, 
sword) slantingly. 

Coloe boloc 

[ 107 ] 


Coloe boloe. Wander about as a vag- 

Coloe toloeye daya baraca. He goes about like 
a vagrant. 

Colon. Cf. colit. 
Colonti. Cf. colit. 

Colonti. Clever, exjDert, fluent, efficient, 

A^iye colontia. He is very fluent. 

Combe. Point. 

Cot combereye durupakana, cere. The bird is 
sitting on the highest point. 

Com coroli. To sit on the hind legs, as 
a monkey on a branch. 

^"^ , ■ {- To be startled, to flash. 
Camkao. J 

Bijli camkao goCenteA comkao go^ena. I was 
startled by the lightning flash. 

Comkoroc. Slightly acid. 

Noa utu do comkoroc jojogea. This relish is 
slightly acid. 

Comol. "I Apprehensive of dan- 

Comol comol. J- ger, in a state of 
Camal comol. J trepidation. 

Noa birhorte calaKre a^i comol comol atkaroKa. 
When passing along this jungle road one 
is in a state of great trepidation. 

Comol maraoentiAa. I was all in a tremble. 

Concol. Fickle, restless, excited, dis- 
turbed in mind, impatient. 

CalaK reaSili colioolgea. 

Cond. \ Pattern, sample, form, like- 
Chond.) ness; like. 

Noa oond banaome. Make it like this. 

Conda. To pile up, to put on fire to 
boil, as a pot. 

Tukud do cnlhareko condaea. They put the 
pot on the fire. 

Conda pore. 1 q^^ ^^^^^ another. 
Condoporo. J 

Conda porekaKme. 

Pile them up one above 

Conda taka. The price paid for a 

Condho. A form of abuse, scoundrel. 

Condho mara hor. Scoundrel. 

Condka. Anything put up as a sign 
of prohibition or interdict. 

The method usnaUy employed is, if the object 
to be interdicted admits of it, as a tree for 
instance, to fix a small bunch of dried grass 
to it in a conspicuous position, and if other- 
wise, as land for instance, the grass is tied 
to a pole and fixed in the ground. 

OonijkaA tolakaf a nl darere. I have tied a sign 
of prohibition on the mango tree (so that no 
one may touch the fruit.) 

Bandre oon(;lkali bi{aka£a. I have fixed a sign 
of prohibition in the tank (to warn all 
against flailing.) 

Cond kopot. Stingy, miserly, hard, 

Condo. To pile up one above another, 

as rupees. Cf. cond pore. 
Condok. To stand on tiptoe, to be 


ConJoK tiogme. Stand on tiptoe and reach it. 

Condon. Cf candon. 
Con. \ Perhaps, expresses doubt or 
Co. j uncertainty, also emphasises 
an affirmative statement. 

Okoe coe idiket. Some one has taken it away. 
Cet coiiko k9.inikan. What may they be doing, 

(they are doing something but I do not 

know what it is.) 
CalaK coe bah coe. I cannot say whether he 

will go or not. 
NnKui coil ? Is not this he ? 
Amge oouem idiket. \ It was you surely who 
Amge com idikeiJ. ) took it away, 
Okoe ba(Jae con. Who knows, who can say, it 

is uncertain. 

Con bai. Short-tempered, passionate, 

Mit' gh^ritegeye con b9.ioKa. He gets angry at 

Conga. A bamboo pipe, or tube ; a 

bamboo bottle filler. 
Conthao. To peck, tear, grab at. 

Upe conthao gofkedea. He pulled his hair. 

Contha cunthi. To pull each other's 
hail- ; met. to quarrel, to altercate. 

Baream eraana, bakin contha cunthimea f You 
have two wives, will they not pull out your 
hair ? 

Contha ounthienako tehefi onko do. They had 
a violent quarrel to-day. 

Copa. ~| Shrivelled, blasted, diseased, 
Copra. J unfilled, as ears of grain ; 

Copa ren gun^a kanae. He is the offscourings 
of all that is base. 

Copa cnpi. Some small and others 
shrivelled, as ears of grain. 

Dare ma darelen, menek copa cupigea. It 
has grown well, but some of the grain ia 
small and some shrivelled. 

Copa kuta. Disobedient, deceitful ; 
rascally, scoundrelly. 

Copakul;?' hor jabatinalfem metaerehS ban haso- 
ea. Whatever you may say to a scoun- 
drel he never feels it. 

Copao. Addicted, accustomed to. 

Mimifi hoy khub hg.n(}i p^urare copao monaK- 
koa. They are all greatly addicted to beer 
and spirits. 


[ 108 ] 


Copia. Lean, small in the hind quarters, 

as a bullock. 
Copiar Murmu. A sub. sept of the 

Santal sept Murmu. 

Cepe cope Copier eyae catom bohgatato. 

Copo6. To suck, as one does an or- 
Copot. Low, hollow. 

Usui copoij. Up and down. 
Mit'ke rait burn ar botkoc copodoKa. Every 
mountain and hill shall be brought low. 

Copoti londoc. High and low, rutty, 
as a road ; fallen in, a part lower 
than the surrounding surface. 

Copra. Cf. copa. 

Copsa. Gathering sores that multi- 
ply themselves. 

Copsaha. Flabby ; unpalatable, as pot 
herbs that are too mature. 

Coran. To overflow, to be turned a- 
side by coming into contact with 
some obstacle, to glance off. 

Dor dor do bam sindurlaKa, ti do corah goten- 
tama. You did not apply the siudur down 
the centre, your hand went to one side. 

Baudukteli ^bukedea, ado corah goiena.. 

I fired at him with a gun, but the bullet was 
turned aside. 

Corah paromkette, noKoe phorket'tama. 

By overflowing, you see it burst your embank- 

Gail nai do pereden, Sora nai do corahen. The 
Gang river is full, and Sora river overflow- 

Coran. Chorus to a song. 

Coranti. To increase, to rise, as prices. 

Corco. A common forest tree, Casi- 
ared tomentosa, Linn. 

This tree yields medicine, and also a fish in- 

Corcota. \ Passionate, cruel, short 
Corc(jtaha.j tempered. 

' Corcotaha hor kanae acren gidra h5e dalef:koa. 
He is an ill-tempered man, he beats even 
his own children. 

Corcotah. Anger, passion, ill-temper ; 
to speak angrily or gruffly; to 

Jahanakko metakore corcotahakko rora. 
"Whatever they may say to them they receive an 
ill-natured reply. 

Cordah. ") Of irregular, un- 

CSrdah murdah. J even surface; 

some parts high and others low, 
applied especially to rice fields. 
Noa khet do cordangea, dale banuKanah. 
This field is not level, there is no water in it. 

C5rS. One of the twelve septs into 
which the Santals are divided. 

C5rS cacarhaf. A nickname given to 
the Santal sept C6rS. 

Corhof . To drag the feet when walk- 
in, to shuffle, to step lightly to 
avoid making a noise. 

Corhot' corhof^geye tarameda. He shuffles as 
he walks. 

Cor kheda. 1 

Cor khedwa. i-The planet Jupiter. 

Eat calawa. J 

The rising of this planet wama thieves that 
the night is almost past and dawn at hand. 

Coro6 coroc. Sound of dripping wa- 
ter, pattering, dropping. Cf. ciroc 

Coro coro. Sound of pouring, or run- 
ning of water, as from a pipe. 

Coro coro dak /lurokkana. Water is falling in 
a continuous stream. 

Coroc mokoc. Stingy, niggardly, mis- 

Cored mokod emoKkanae. He gives stingily. 

Coroetho. Blasted, blighted, shrivel- 
led, puny, stunted. 

CoroU corok. To move by leaps and 
bounds, as a squirrel, a frog, a hare. 

Coromokoc. The fresh leaves of Arak 
kudrum. Hibiscus, Sabdariffa, L., 
used as a pot-herb. 

Corontho. Cf coroetho. 
CorSt. Pasture. 

Corpot. Corrupt, rascally, scound- 

Corpot mara hor. A consummate scoundrel. 

Cortha. M. \Bad behaved, disobedient, 
Curthi. F. J bad, cruel. 

Akinren cortha curthi gidraiatekin mondukena . 
They grieved on account of their ill-behaved 

Cot. Above, high ; the firmament. 

Got ar ot. Earth and sky. 

Cot utarid. The highest one. 

Cot *r phed bujhau hor Itanale. We are men 

of high intelligence. 
Cot^te udauktenko. Birds. 
Cot dhoj. The top of a tree. 

Cotaha. Unlucky, ill-fated, ill-omened. 

Ona ato co^ahagea. That village is unlucky 
(many have died in it.) 

Pokhurig. pahil do ootahage tahekana. The 
village of Pokhuria was at one time un- 
lucky (the people all died.) 


[ 109 ] 


Cotali. To peel off, to be rubbed off, 
to be splintered, to become detached. 

CotaK ur. To peel off (the skin.) 
Sg.rim cotaKena. The thatch of the roo£ has 
been blown off. 

Cot; coi codor. ") ^ ~ tt / \ 

Cothra. '\ Puny, ill-conditioned, 

Cothra potra. V half-starved, shrivel- 
Cothro. J led; exhausted, un- 

fertile soil. 

Noa dare cothroena. This tree is stunted. 

Goto. A small field mouse. 
Goto j el. The calf of the leg. 

pi]/ >■ Soon, quickly, immediately. 

Cofokge langa godolfae. He gets soon tired. 

Cotok. To dress up, to embellish, 

Murhutko cotokkeCkoa. They embellished the 

Goto lutur. A common climbing plant, 
a weed of garden cultivation, J- 
pomaea pes-tigridis, Linn., (the 
tiger's foot bindweed,) children 
eat the seeds of this plant. 

Goto muc. A species of ant. 

Gowak. To break, to snap, a piece to 
be broken off. 

Data oowaKentaea. His teeth are broken. 

Cua. To distil. 

Cua daK . Distilled water. 
Oko okote paurjko cuaia. Th6y_distil liquor 

Gua. A spring. 

Cubalc. To have a mote in the eye. 

Alom koyoK baraea, cubagoKam. Do not look 

up, you will get something in your eye. 
Cubal^akanali. I hare a mote in my eye. 

Gubuc. To prick, as with a thorn or 

p, •■ VA term of disparagement. 

uc cue. 1 gqyga,king of young rats or 

ri^, ^ ,' I mice. 
Ooc coc. J 

Cumcumba. A game played by child- 

Cuchundar ghao. Ghancre; specific 

p I. [The female organ. 

Gucungut'. To sit on the heels, to hun- 

Gucuk. The female organ. 

Gudi. Used mainly by women when 
giving abuse, or disparaging. 

Gudi. To go backwards, to keep to 
the side, squeezing . into as little 
space as possible ; as if ashamed ; 

Okare bam cudien, sodorre do bam hijuKa? 
Where are you sidling to, won't you come 
in view ? 

Gudrud. To pour out a little, as from 
a cup, or a ladle ; to pour out a 

Gidrg. dalcreye unumea, bahkhane cu^rucaea. 

She either drowns the child in water, or 

else pours a cupful over him. 
DaK man^l cu<?rucaeme. Give him a little 

rice water with a ladle. 

Gudrud cudruc. Call of the striped 
squirrel, Tor {Sciurus jKtlmarunri.) 

Cudu cudu. Sound of pouring or drip- 
ping of water. 

Cuduk kod. A common jungle fruit 

tree, Eugenia, sp. 
Gudur. To pour a little out of a cup, 

leaf, &r. Cf cudruc. 

Katie ka(ic cuduraeme. Pour him out a little. 

Cugli. To tell tales, to inform, to back- 

Cukgliio. A tell-tale, informer, tale bearer, 

Cuglia. Tale-bearing, backbiting, in- 

Cuglia hor kanae. He is a tale bearing person. 
Cuialc. Scales of fish. 

Cuicui. Pointed, tapering to a point, 
in form of a cone. 

Bunumko rakaba. cui cui. The ants raise their 
hill in the form of a cone. 

Cui cui. Feeling of a superstitious 
person as when passing a grave 
yard, &c. at night. Scottice, E'erie. 

p-'^^^^ [Squeaking of young rats or 

m^ , ~ ," I mice. 
Coc coc.J 

Cuihor. \ To sharpen, to put a point 
Cuihur. J on anything, as a stake, 
peg, &c. 

LaU cuihurkedae. He pointed it with an axe. 
Nui cuihur mara hor kanae. 


[ 110 ] 


Cuikup. ") Shrivelled shrunk, rolled up, 
Cuikut'. J said of leaves ; emaciated. 

Sakam rohor cnikutena. The leaf is rolled up 
by drying-. 

Cuila. Sharp, pointed. Cf, coelo. 
Cuk. An error, inadvertency, blunder, 

Bhul cuk. Errors, mistakes, omissions. 

Cukak. A small earthen vessel, used 
mainly to hold oil. 

Cukau. To have finished or completed. 

Cukau. To blunder, fail, commit a 

Kathareil cukauena. 

Cukruc. A folded leaf used a spoon, 
drinking cup, &c. 


Culha. A fire-place. 

Mi^ aohia culha. A fire-place with one opening. 

Uar achia culha, A fire-place with two openings. 

Culha jaraoni. A present given to those who 

do the cooking for the guests at a marriage 


CuluQ. ) A small piece, or quan- 

Katid culun.j tity. 

Culun. "1 At once, without delay, 

Culuri culuii. J instantly, heartily. 

Culuh mente beret' calao gotenae. He instantly 

rose and went away. 
Culuii ouluii dale lo g-guedae. She brings water 

from the well without delaying. 

CuluQ bhutun. T Restless, to wander 
Culur bhutur. J about, to go aim- 

Onte note culuii bhntan baraekanae. He goes 
wandering about from place to place. 

Cumaura. A ceremony observed at 
marriage, at the Sohrae festival 
(q. V.) and sometimes on the first 
day of rice transplanting. 

Cumditi. An ill-natured, quarrelsome, 
abusive woman. 

A(Ji Gumdiilae, adi eKgerkana. She is very ill- 
natured, she scolds fearfully. 

Cumkak. To assemble, to be gathered 

Cumkal^ ato. A compact village. 
CumkaU dare. A clump of trees. 
Teheil do kulhibon durupa, sebon cumk^K lio- 

goKa. To-day we shall meet in council, or 

we shall assemble together. 
Alope cumkagoKa. Do not crowd together. 

Cun. Lime. 

Gafi oun. Lime prepared from nodular lime- 

Jhinuk cun. Lime made from shells, used to 
chew along with tobacco. 

On cun. Farm produce, agricultural property. 

Cunaiti. A small round brass box to 

hold lime. 
Curici. Pap, dug, nipple. 
Cund. The musk rat, Sorex cceridescens. 
Cunduc. A small wooden ladle or spoon. 

Cun^udtege utuko loea. They lift the relish by 
means of a wooden ladle. 

Cunduti. Quickly, instantly, without 
Cunduh menteye reben gofona. He agreed at 

il beta, cunduh mente calao godoKme. Oh my 
son, go without^parleying. 

Cuni. Small, stunted, smaller than 
others, said of fruit, grain, &c. 

Cnni cuni joakana. The fruit is small. 

Cunka. A pinch given by the seller 

to the buyer over and above the 

weight or measure. 
Cun thonga. A piece of hollow bamboo 

used to carry lime to chew along 

with tobacco. 
Cun thuiak. A small brass box to hold 

lime, closed with a lid. 

Cungur mungur. To be restless, moving 
here and there ; never still. 

Gadel horko ouiigur mungur baraeako. The 
crowd sways to and fro. 

Cunu munu. Dainty, trig, neat and 

4di moil]' cunu mnnue benaoaka^a. He has 

made it very neat and pretty. 

Cupi. Tail of bird or fish. 

Cupul;. The fist, to close the fist, to 
receive as much as can be held in 
the hand when closed ; to close the 
hand upon. 

Mit' cnput'. A handful. 
Caput pasarme. Open your hand. 
Ghuae ciipufokaia. He has been bribed. 
Isor cuput khon bae pasarlekhan dh?,rti do oho 

Cuput khon bah pasaroKkantilia. I have not 
- got the means to do it. 

Cura. A pinnacle, spire, crest. 

Curau. To flog, to chastise, discipline, 

Curau pondpeati. I shall chastise you severely. 
Moca bail curauakantama. Tour mouth is not 

disciplined (you have not caught the proper 

Kamire khube curauena. He is well disciplined. 

Curcutuc. Stunted, under-sized. 

Noa dare ourcutuoena. This tree is stunted. 
Nui dahra doe curcutuogea. This ox is under- 

Cure mare 

[ 111 ] 


:u6. Ic-i- -1 
^^ jStmgily. 

Curmar!^'^^" J Q'^i^'^ly' diligently, fast. 

Curmarkedeal?. I hurried him np. 
Cure mareye kamikeda. He worked fast. 

Curi. A bracelet, a bangle. 
Curialj. A small earthen vessel. 

Curin. The ghost of a woman who has 

died pregnant, 
Curkud bhurkud. 
Curkud burkuc, 

Curkuo burkuoe emoKkana. He gives stingily. 

Curmar. Quickly, fast. C£ cure mare. 
Curti. To increase, to develope, as a 
disease ; much, very much. 

Eua ^di curtiakantaea. His fever has greatly 

Guru buru. Brimful, full. 

Curn buruko dul pereoakafa. They have filled 

it to overflowing. 
Khnbko dularkediHa curu buruko emadilia. 

They received me well, they gave me all 

that was nice. 

Curuc. To give, or put down in small 
quantity, or quantities, anything, 
excepting liquids ; to give in pick- 

Ponon konijre khunti khuntiko cnrudaKa. They 
drop a small quantity at the post at each of 
the four comers. 

Curuo caole. Contributions of rice levied on 
each household in a village, on the occasion 
of a festival. The rice thus collected is 
cooked and eaten along with the flesh of the 
sacriflced animal, as a part of the religious 

Guru curu. A call to peaforol. 
Guthar. \A carpenter, a Hindu 
Ghuthar. J caste. 
Gut cat. Graving, longing for, impa- 
tient, ravenous, greedy. 

Cut cut ?.di baric jojom sanaedea. He is craving 

for food. 
Paura liu hewa hor bae nulekhan out cupe 9i- 

kaua. A persoin accustomed to drink liquor 

if he does not drink feels craving for it. 
CalaK lagiee out outoK kaua. He is impatient 

to go. 

Guti. A cigar, cigarette, cheroot. 

Cutiko Auieda. They smoke cigars. 
Cutiako. They make cigars. 

Cutia. A mouse. 

Cutia barduruo. A species of small bat. 

Cutia candbol. A common, but not 
' easily noticed, small flowering 
plant, Iphegenia indica, R. Br. 
Cuwa. To distil. 


Da. Bulb, root tuber. 

Dalfa hapen. Tubers will form yet. 

Dab. An accident, mi.sfortune, mis- 
hap, jeopardy, dangor. 

4LiJi marah dgib calaoentiiia. I escaped a severe 
accident (or a great misfortune.) 

4-H marah dab liuradilia. A great misfortune 
befell me. 

Dabad dubud. To sink and rise again 
and again. 

Daba dubu. Noise made with feet 
and hands when swimming. 

Daba ijubu daKreko paeraSa. 

Dabae dundrai. To demand with 
bluster and threats. 

Dabak dubuk. To shake the head or 
body, as an old man through weak- 

DabaK iJubuKe calalfkana. He goes shaking 

his liead. 
Pabak (JubuK hor liamifi senlena. I went to 

find men who shake the head, (rumoKko.) 

(q. V.) 

Dabal poesa. A double pice. 

Daba mara. To halt, to rest, to en- 

Kulhi muc9.foeko ^aba maraKa. They call a 
halt at the entrance to the village street. 

Moulbirele 4aba maralca. We will halt for a 
little at Moulbi village. 

Dabao. To press down, to snub, chide, 
keep under, check, curb, restrain. 

Seta dabaoetam aloe gegerma. Chide your dog 
so that he may not bite. 

Dabao. To keep, as one does a dog, 
horse, &c. to be covered, to be 
obscured, to spread. 

Eimilte sermae dabaoakata. The sky is ob- 
scured with clouds. 

Biste gota hormoe (Jabaoakadea. The poison 
has pervaded his whole body. 

Euate nui doe (Jabaokedea. He is hot all over 

from fever. 
Bar era nui do bese dabaoakat'kina. He keeps 

two wives in comfort. 
Setaii ^abaokoa. I wiU keep dogs. 

Dabai'. A large, moist rice field. 

Dabdaba. 1 B^oad, wide. 
Dabdaba. J 

' Dabdabape benaokeda. Tou have made it broad. 

Dabdabao. The eyes to fill with tears. 
MoC dal? daVidabaoKkantae. His eyes are fill- 
ing with tears. 


[ 112 } 


Dabdub. To sink at once, as of a 
boat's crew, or a number of per- 

Dabdubko unumena. They sank to rise no 

Dabe. "> Large horns, with a sweep- 
Dabea. J ing upward curve, applied 

to buffaloes. 
Daber. A large, moist rice field. 
Dabha. A pummelo. 
Dabi. The scapula, or shoulder blade. 

Bale A^hi. The ridges of the scapula, or shoul- 
der blade. 

Dabi. A claim ; to claim, to lay a 
claim for damages, or dues. 

More t^kae datbieda. He makes a claim for 

five rupees. 
Dabiaeako. They wUl claim from him. 

Dabi bebels. Abscess over the scapula. 

Dabkao. To crouch down, to lie in 
wait for prey, to be awed ; to 
sculk, to lurk. 

Noa porre kule dabkaoakana. The tiger ia 

crouching in this bush. 
Hape thiroKme, adoe dabkaoena. Be quiet, 

and he gave in. 

Dabkao. To be at the boiling point, 
to boil. 

DaK (JabkaoKkana, ma caole khadlepe. The 
water is boiling, put in the rice. 

Dabla. M.l Ugly, ill-formed, mis-shaj)- 
Dabli. F. j en, unprepossessing ; worn 
out of shape. 
Dablgi mara herel. An ugly man. 
Dg-bli mara aim^i. An unprepossessing wo- 
Dabi?. kndi. An ill-shaped hoe, a hoe worn out 
of shape. 

Dabot. To restrain, to forbid, to keep 

under ; to interdict. 
M?.iijhi do porja bae ijaboteikotaea. The head 

man does not keep his tenants in hand. 
Noa 111 dare dabotme. Forbid this tree, i. o. 

allow no one to take the fruit. 

Dabla kutam. 1 The Hoopoe, Upwpa 
Kutam dabla. J eijops. 

Dabra. A pool of water, a dub. 

Noa bhataome bahkhan dalt ^abraKa. Fill up 
this (hollow), else water will collect. 

Horre daK (Jabraakana. There is a pool of 
water on the road. 

Dabra. A large, moist rice field. 
Dabra. To splash about in water. 

Delabo da.br9.Kb0 oalaKa. Come, we will have 
a splash in the water. 

Dabrao. To stoop, to crouch, to lie in 
wait, to hide. 

Onde kule dabfaoakana. The tiger is crouch- 
ing over there. 

Dabri. To despise, threaten, keep 
under, check, scold, oppress. 

Okoe ho alom dabrikoa. Do not act harshly 

towards any one. 
XJni hor do sanamkogeye dabri maiigaletkoa. 

That man despises every one. 

Dabri. A small earthenware dish, used 

as a lid. 
Dabruc, To put down, to quiet, to 


D^brudenae nitoK do. He is cowed now. 

Dabu. A iron spoon, used sometimes 
to cook small quantities of vege- 
tables, &o. 

Dabua. Grown to stem and leaves, 
no fruit. 

Pabuauena. The plant has all grow to [stem, 
branches and leaves, and has no frnit. 

Dabud dabun. To shake or nod the 
head when walking. 

P^buii dabuhe oalalckana hgithi do. The ele- 
phant shakes his head as he goes. 

Dac due. Small, young. 

Dae due. To fine, to impose a penalty ; 
to leave one without anj'thing. 

Dac (Juckediriako. They fined me. 

Perako dao dudkediiia. My friends left me 

without anything (ate up all I had.) 
Mahajoue dac duokedea. The moneylender 

took all he had. (sucked him dry.) 

Dad. Ringworm, certain skin diseas- 
es that do not break out into sores. 

Dacad dacah. Quickly, flying from 
place to place ; ubiquitous. 

Dacah dacahe calaka uni hor do. That man 
moves about very rapidly. 

Dada. Elder brother. 

Dadat. His elder brother. 

Dadam. Thy ,, ,, 

Dadali. My ,, ,, 

Dadattet. The „ „ 

Dada haso. 1 t , .... 

Pfmda haso. jLumbago, pamm loms. 

Dadha dumbar. Personal effects, be- 
longings, chattels, impedimenta, 

Tinak noa ^adha dumbgrem asen baj-aea ? 

Dadhit. Milk adhering to the side of 
the vessel in which it has been 

Pgi^hifteli hurif akome. 


'[ 113 ] 


Dadahul Still, motionless, and look- 
ing larger than in reality. 

Dadahiit'a cliirup:ilcana bana do. The bear ia 
sitting still. 

Dadahnt duduhul). Still, motionless, 

the plural of dadahut (q. v.) 

Gidi dsidahut' duduhu^ko dur'jpakaua. Tlio 
the vultures are sitting motionless (after 
having gorged themselves with food.) 

Dadi. A spring of water, a natural 

Dadni. ~) An advance of money, as 
Dadon. J pay, or part of contract 

Dadu. A flattish wooden spoon, used to 
stir with when cooking ; an oar. 

V^iu ghan^a. To pull an oar. 

Dadup. To touch or hit slightly un- 

padxip tioKkodeae. > He touched him slightly 
Dadup ilamkedeae. ) (with a stick.) 

Dadur. Much, many, a large quan- 

D9.durgem namkana. Tou want a large quan- 

Dadurham. 1 -o i. i ■ 
■p. • J • , > liushy hair. 

Dadurham. J -^ 

Dae. "(_ Misfortune, cause, responsi- 
Daete. J bility ;, on account of. 

Kami daeteye ruhetkodiiia. He scolded mo 
on account of my work. 

Dae paraoadirla. A misforbune has befallen 

Dae khalasenali. I am free from responsi- 

Dae dae. To proclaim, to rnake pub- 
lic, to call ont. 

Lai baraeedae daedae. He proclaims it from 

the house top. 
Auriakem dae daekeda. Tou cried before you 

were hurt. 

Dae dae. Rising above the surround- 
ing surface, prominent, protuber- 

Dae daeii jombiakana. 

Dae daele rakapa. We will raise it high above 
the surrounding surface. 

Daela. Tall, as a man ; long, as a horn, 

Dae mudoe. Plaintiff and defendant. 

Daeyok daeyolc. Taking long steps 
and lifting the feet high, as a cam- 
el does when walking. 

Daeyok daeyoke tarama. He takes long steps 
and lifts his feet high. 

Dag. lo cremate, to burn the dead, 
used generally of the coiij|ilcted 

Nolfoe uondole dagkodoa. It was here we cre- 
mated him. 

D<ig. To mark, stain, brand, cauterize ; 
a bli.'mish, spot, stigma, mark. 

Pahrae dagea. Hi v.'ill brand the ox. 
Get dag kantamap Phera dag. What is your 
mark ? A hand spindle. 

Daga. A misfortune, mishap, hindrance; 
to deceive,to impose upon, to disap- 

Dagaii liamkeda, ouato bail senlena. I met 

with a mishap, and so did not go. 
Dagakediiiae. He imposed upon me. 

p,' ° 1 •'■'■ Traitorous, deceitful, knav- 
Dagabaji.'- .^j^ 

Dagaboj. J^ 

Adi dagabaj hor kanae. He is a great knave. 

Dagak dagaU. By jerks, by twitches. 

Dag-ak dagak orms. Pull by jerks. 

Dagao. To bespeak, to arrange for. 

Noa jinia mit' horc dagao dohoakat'a. Some one 
has bespoken this article. 

Dagar. ~) Quickly and vrith force, 

D.igar dagar. J to tug, used generally 
with ' ur' to pull. 

Dagar martaye or got' Icoda. Ha gave it a tug. 

Lobar dagar dagar bhathiye oreda, The black- 
smith pulls quickly and strongly at the bel- 

Dagar dugur. Toddling, said of a 
child learning to walk. 

Gidi'ako daj;;'.ar dugur liir baracako. 
Bos dagar dugure taram darealta. 

Dagar dugur. 1 Flickering, appearing 
Dugur dugur. J for a second and then 
disiippearing, as a light. 

Bohg-a joloKkiinae, dagar dugur. 

Dag dag. V/ell, luxuriantly, flourishing, 
Dare do dag dagharakkana. The tree is grow- 
ing luxuriantly. 

S_iil cando rakapkana dag dag adi setohediiia, 
l^inda cando rakapkana pirio piriu adi rabah- 

Dag dagao. To grow well, to grow 
luxuriantly, to flourish. 

Dagdor. A medical practitioner, a 

Dagi. Spotted, stained, marked, ble- 
mished, branded, blemished in 
character or reputation. 
Dagiakanae. Hia reputation is blemished. 


Dagi mara 

[ 114 ] 


Noa pg-hilre jahatise dg-gi iahanakana? Has 
there been auy blemish on his character 
previous to this P 

Dagi mara. To be blemished in charac- 
ter or reputation. 

Dagi maraenae. 

Dagmagao. To shake, to confuse ; to 
be dizzy. 

Eu^te (Jagmagaoenae. He is suffering from 

Dagni. An iron with which an owner 

brands his mark upon his cattle. 
Dagor. Large. 
Dagrin. A mid-wife. 

Dagumcak. Hairy, shaggy, tufts or 
patches of grass, or weeds in a field 
that has been ploughed. 

Bana dagumcaKko upana. Bears have shaggy 

Dah. Enmity, ill-will, envy. 

Pahteye metarikana. He says (this) about me 
through envy. 

Daha. The tazia of the Mohamedans. 

TeheA dahako bhasana. To-day they will bury 
(or throw into water) the tazia, 

•p. , ■ > A deep pool in a river. 

Karam daha. The pool with the Karam (q. v.) 
tree growing on the bank. 

Daha6 duhuc. Walking feebly, or care- 
fully. ^ 

Dahad oaooKkana. He toddles. 

Dahadahi. To flow, to saturate, to 
spread abroad. 

Daha d?.hi mayam atuentaea. Blood streamed 
from him. 

Dahades. All roundabout, to be scat- 
tered, in the villages and country ; 
no one knows where. 

Dahades onte noteko senakana. 

Daha dehe. ") Knotty, having knots or 
Daha doho. J excrescences. 

Paha doho dare. A tree having excrescences on 
its surface. 

Dahal. A species of wild dog differing 
from Cuon rutilans. 

Dahalao. ~|^ To wet, to saturate, to be- 
Dahlao. j come waterlogged, to soften, 

to jjersuade, to make way ; to boil, 

as water. 

Dahal seta. A large hound. 

Dahao. To burn up, scorch ; to be hot 
or feverish. 

Oralc dahaoentakoa. Their house is burnt 

Hormo do (JahaoRa, ru?.te, ar setoite ho. The 
' body is heated by fever, and scorched by 
the sun's rays. 

Sanam oaa ^ahaoentiiia. My crops are aU burn- 
ed up. 

Dahao. To test, to prove. 

Sonako dahaoa. They test gold. 
Jan hoko (Jahaokoa. They also test witch- 

Dahap dahap. Heavy thudding sound, 
of heavy footsteps. 

Dahap dahapko tarama. They walk good heel 
and toe. 

Dahar. A cart track, a road made by 

Dahar dahar. l Quickly, with long 
Dahar dehor. 1- steps, applied to large 
Duhur duhur. j heavy-bodied subjects. 

Dahar dahare calaKkana .He is walking quickly. 

Dahar enec. A dance danced by girls 
and women. 

Dahar rar. The tune or air to which 
the Dahar Seren (q. v.) are sung. 

Dahar seren. A class of songs sung 
when dancing the Dahar dance. 

Bad tandire kuindi miru, jhao jhao, 
Grupi kora tirioteko lebdalede, jhao jhao. 

Dahar serefi. 

Dahdahao. Hot, feverish. 

Hormo ^ahiJahaoKkantaea. His body is hot. 
iki^i ote dahalaokeda. The soil is saturated 

and soft. 
Enkan kathate bae dahalao hodoKa. He wUl 

not be readily persuaded with arguments 

like these. 
Nui kuri do mit achar dalcte bae dahalaolca. 

One shower of rain will not wet this girl. 

(one telling will not suffice) 

Dahe. Curds, curded milk. 

Joran emkate dahe jamaoka. 

Dahgi. Race, tribe, family, stock. 

Onko dahgi kanae. He is of their stock. 

Dahgoria. Revengeful, vindictive, 

Jahae dahgoriat here nonkaaka^a. Some re- 
vengeful person has done this. 

Dahi. Ashes of anything burnt on the 
ground for manure. 

Dahi. Responsibility, liability. 

Jawab dahi. T The responsibility of reply, or of 
Jobab diiii. j- giving account. 
Jobab dahi. 3 

Dahin. The right hand, to pass over. 

Onae dahinkeda. He left it on his right. 

Dahin. To accede to request, to help,to 
assist ; to be pleased, to be friendly. 


[ 115 ] 


Bako d9,hinoKa. They do not accede to a re- 
quest for help. 

D?.hinakan tahenpe. Eemain friendly. 

Bh9.i9,diko besge dahinre menaltkoa. The rela- 
tives are on friendly terms with oaoh other 
(or live at peace with each other.) 

Dahin. A row of oxen tied together 
treacling out grain. 

Ag d»hin. The leading ox on the outside of 
the circle. 

Meh (Jaura. The ox on the inside, or the pivot 
on which the row of bullocks turns. 
Doga. The rope by which the bullocks 
in a row or '' d^^hin are tied together. 

Dahinau. To leave to the right hand. 

Dahinau. Cf. dahnao. 

Dahlao. To agitate, to moisten; to 
become water logged, to cause one 
to exert oneself. 

Nes do ot 9.uri dahlaoka. 

Bae dahlao dareaekana. 

Mit' bar kathate bae dahlaoSa. 

Dahna. ") A small quantity of 

Arpa dahna. J ,^grain'given daily to 

an agricultural labourer during 

harvest, over and above his wages. 

Dahnao. To pray, to honour, to wor- 
ship, to appease, to propitiate. 

Dgirhnao keteckotam. Propitiate your (deities.) 
Bhitar ren baher renili d^hnaokoa, boiiga do. 

Dahhga dahngi. Blazing, flaring. 

Dahhga dahngi jolpe. Make it (the fire) blaze. 

Dahngao. To blaze, to flare up ; to 

4-^i jol dahngao godme. Make it blaze quickly 
Santals when tending tassar silk worms use 
'dahngao' instead of 'joF (q. v.) when they 
have in any way to refer to lighting a fire. 
To use 'jol' ia considered unlucky. 

Daholi. Envy, spite, malice. 

PahoK dahoKte ho laiafime. 

PahoK 4ahoKte ho hirikaleme. Suppressing 

your anger for the time being, pay us a 

PahoK dahoKte ho poesari emaege. I will give 

him the money grudgingly. 

Dahon. To bum a corpse, to be burnt 

Pahonkedeale. We cremated him. 

Dahrao. To walk, to move, to take 
the road. Cf dahar. 

Delabon (JahraoKpe. Come, let us take the road. 

Dahri. A turban. 

Cak daihri. A large round wheel-like turban. 

Dahu. A large forest tree, Artocarpus 
Lakoocha, Roxb. 

The flowers and fruit of this tree are eaten. 

Dahur bulau. To fix a date and give 
invitations to join a hunting party, 
fishing meet, &c. 

Bako hakolenkhadko mena, giurialfko (Jahur 
bulgiukeda. If they do not get fish they say 
they invited ua in vain. 

Dai. Elder sister. 

Dai teliari. My elder sister and her husband. 
Dg-i is used more especially when calling atten- 

Dak. Water, rain, climate ; to rain. 

DaK man^i. Eice water, a modest expression 
for boiled rice, or food in general. 

Ni^ sahantele daK m?.n(ji joiia. We will cook 
our food with this fuel. 

lll^im. } A mid-wife. 

fhili dalf . A girl who can carry a small water 

pot full of water on her head. 
Marah dak lo ber. About 4 p. m. 
Hudili daK lo ber. About 5 p. m. 
Noa khet ban dakakana. There is not sufficient 

water in this field (to plant rice.) 
Dale bodoloka mente. For a change of air. 

Dak. To string a bow, to tighten up 
the mattress of woven twine of a 
bed ; to tighten, or make taut. 

Sendra ehobokre akko daga, ar sendra mokoii- 
kateko 9<sida. They string their bows when 
they begin to hunt, and when they stop 
hunting they unstring them. 

Ma parkom dakkam 4hilakana. Tighten up 
the mattress, it has become slack. 

Dak. Heat. 

A4i dak paraokkana. The sun's rays are very 

Dak. Call, summons. 

AleaK dakte ohoe heilena. He will not come 
at our summons. 

Dak. A post for the conveyance of 
letters, also relays of horses or palki 

Dak orak. Post office. 
Pakwalla. A post runner. 
Pak c9.uki. A stage on a road where travellers 
rest or change horses. 

Dak. A species of crane. 

Dak. ] 
Dakh. VA vine. 

Dak jo. Grapes. 

Dak bagwan. A vineyard. 

Dak nari. A vine. 

Dak kakmanio. A vine dresser. 

Dak thopa. A cluster of grapes. 

Daka. Boiled or cooked caole fq. v.), 
more especially boiled rice ; to cook 
husked rice, Indian corn, and all 
other grains which are husked 
before cooking. 


I 116 ] 


- Eoro daka. Boiled rice. 

Joncli-a „ „ Indian corn. 

Ja,nhe „ ,, jaulie (q. v.) 

Gundli „ „ gundli (q. v.) 

Kodo „ „ kode (q. t.) 

Iri ,, „ iri (q- y.) 

Erba ,, ,, erba (q. v.) 

Bajra „ ,, bajra (q. t.) 

Lenclha ,, „ lendha (q. T.) 

layo „ „ layo (q. v.) 

Iilat eacle ,, ,, seed of the bamboo. 

Mul! daka. Tbe chrysalida of cortain ants 
which resemble grains of cooked rice. (The 
chrysalids of Chutuii mno are eaten by the 

Daka dak. A wooden trough used for 
feeding pigs, watering cattle, and 
at times for bathing. 

Daka daki. "j To push, first to one 
Dhaka dhaki. V side and then to ano- 
Dhaka dhaki. J ther, as a person clear- 
ing a way for himself in a crovv'd. 

Dakal dakal. To move the body, as 
Santal girls do when dancing ; to 
shake, as when sitting in a fast 
train; to move, as the adipose 
tissue on the bodies of some fat 
Dakal dakal lagreko eneekana. 

Dakao. To invoke, to call upon, to call 
or send for, to summon. 

BnhiloK ho boiigako ^lakaofcoa. On that day 
also they invoke the deities. 

Dakar dukur. ) To shake, to jolt, to 
Dakar dukur. / waddle. 
Dakar dnkure calak Iraua. He waddles along-. 

Dak batta. The Greensli;i.nks, Tota aus 

Dak cita. A species of snake. 

Dak dak. ~| Avery distant relative, 
Dak dak pera. J very remutely related 

to ; to treat one as a very remote 


Asol pera doko bah kana, dalidali jjera kanalro. 
They are not near relative;-^ (-^vho «iv6 yon a 
good meal,) but only distant relatives (or 
acquaintances) (who give yon only water 
to drink.) 

Dale dalcko perakedilia. They were not very 

Dak daka. Food 


DaK dakae liai; 

and water ; susten- 

TikaiJa. He has ceased to take 

Dokdoka }^°^S, tall, high, projecting. 
Dale dakram cere. The swallow. 

Dak dalh-amak. Thatching grass. 

Dakedak. To j)ass anything on from 
stage to stage, or from village to 

Daks dakc koUei! tahekana. He had sent from 
village to village (on to its destination.) 

Dakhil. To pay, to arrive, to enter; 
on the Lhreshhold ; about to. 

GnjnK dakhil. Abont to die. 
Dakhilciiae. He has a,rrived. 
Haj'ani dakhilenae. He iy on thethreshhold of 

old a::;c. 
Khajnali dakhilkeda. I paid down my rent. 

Dakhila. A receipt for money paid. 

Pharkati. A receipt in full, a quittance. 

Dakhilau. To arrive, to deliver. 

Dakhilau otokate ru^r hijuk me. Deliver it 
&n,J return. 

Dak icak. A small plant found in 
moist sittiations, Jtt/Saicea suffruti- 
cGsu, Linn. 

Dak kudur. A plant common during 
the ]-ains, Soijuhia delphinifolia, 
G. Dun. 

Dakhnahi. From the south, southerly. 

Dak horo. A tortoise that lives in 

Dak mandi ot. A species of mushroom. 

Dakra. The poison put on an arrow 
when set in the path of some wild 

Dakrao. To invoke, to call upon. 

Hakrao dakraoefpeale. We are calling upon 

Dak sadom. The Hippopotamus. 

Dak sim. The little Cormorant, Gra- 
culus Javat't icus. 

Dak sosrijc. An insect resembling a 
graswliopper that lives in water. 

Daktar. A medical practitioner who 
follows the European system of 

Daku. A robber, a highwayman. 

DaL To split into tv/o or more pieces, 
applied generally to dicotyledon- 
ous fruits, when the cotyledons 
are separated, and more especially 
to the fruit of leguminous plants, 
as split p)eas, &c., used as food. 


[ 117 ] 


Baheydal. Split fruit of Cajanua Indious, 

Muiid?!. „ PhasooluH Mnngo var. 

Max, L. 
Horeo dflil. ,, Doliubos biflorus, L. 

Eamrad?.!. „ Pliascolus Mungo var. 

radiatua, L. 
. Ghaiira d^l. „ Vigua Catiang, Endl. 

Disom horeo d*l ,, Glycine Sojii, Siebr, & 

M9.sri d9.1 „ Ervum lens, L. 

Kesari d?.l ,, Lathyrus sativus, L. 

Alpalwadal „ Phaseolua aooutifolias, 

But dal „ Cicer arietintim, L. 

MaJhan dal ,, DoliohoB Lablab, L. 

Buru raiier djl ,, Cyamopsia psorialioi- 

des, D. G. 
Moo dg.! „ Phaseolua oaloaratus. 

Mafor dal. Split peas, Pisum arvense, L. 
Kui(Ji dal. Split kernals of the fruit of the Mat- 

kom tree (q. v.) 
Noa kat do pon d*l hoeena. This log has been 
cut into fonrplanka. 

Dal. Deep mud, a quagmire. 

Dal. Wild rice. 

Dal. To strike, to thresh grain with 
a flail. 

Dal olkedeali. I hit and waled him. 

Dal ihgulkedeaA. I struck him slightly with 

my open hand. 
Janhe dadaliil calaKkana. I am going to thresh 

janhe (q. v.) 
Ce£ bail se babu, janhe dale dalkedi/ia. Would 

you believe it, he struck me as one does 

janhe with a flail. 
Dalgahkedeae. He struck him, and caused a 

contused wound. 

Dala. A large basket. 

Dalae dalae. Shaking, hair flying 
about one's shoulders. 

Noa dare dalae dalae hilg.uKkana. 
Dalae dalaeye rumoKkana. 

Dalahi. A marsh, a quagmire. 

Dalak dalak. Cf. dakal dakal. 

Dalai. A broker, a tout. 

Dalali. Brokerage, commission. 

Dalari dulun. To toddle, to walk as a 
very little child. 

Palah duluh parlja baraedirt kanae. He tod- 
dles here and there after me. 

Dalao. To issue or promulgate an 
order, to make over to, to commit to. 
Hukume dalaokeda. He issued an order. 
Am id dalaoafmea. I have committed this mat- 
ter to you. 

Dalcan. M. "I Slovenly, with dishevelled 
Dulcun. F. J hair. 

- Duloune AeloKkana. She looks slovenly. 

Daldalahi. A marsh, a quagmire. 

Daldalao. To shake, to quiver, to be 

panic stricken. 
Gota ato horko daldalaoena. The people of the 

whole village are panio stricken, 
^ndhite oral? daldalaoena. The bouse shook 

with the storm. 

Daldalao. To grow luxuriantly. 

Horo bhage bhage daldalaoena. The dhan has 
grown luxuriantly. 

Dalel. Documentary proof. 
Dalhi. A marsh, a quagmire. 
Dalic. A small, flat, round basket. 
Dalidar. A glutton. 

Pali dhaurak. A method of trial by 
Two branches, one for each party to the dispute, 
are placed upright in a ta nk and allowed to 
remain in that position over night. The 
person, whose branch withers, la adjudged 
the guilty party. 

Dalil. A document, any legal instru- 
ment, documentary proof. 

Dalil. Extra work, as punishment, 
(a tea garden term.) 
D9.Ulkedoako. They punished him by giving 
him extra work. 

Dalim. The fruit of the Pomegranate, 

Punica ranaturii, Linn. 

Pali phuli. A method of trial by or- 

Two small parcels of rice, one for each party to 
the difipute, are buried overnight in an ant 
hill. The person whose parcel has been 
attacked by the white ants during the night 
is condemned as guilty. 

Dalis. A bond. 

Dalkao. To shake, to quiver, to be 


DLarti dalkaoU. An earthquake. 
Orak dalkaoena. The house shook. 

Dallali. ~) t, i • • 

Kpfl I'i (■ -DroKerage, commission. 

Dalmal. 1 To shake, to reverberate, to 
Dalmalao.J excite or agitate, to dis- 

Gota, disomko da,Imalaokeda. 
the whole country. 

Daioe daloe. Cf dalae dalae. 

Dalop. To put on thatch without ty- 
ing it down to the roof frame ; to 
cover, to obscure. 

Rimilte sermae dalop cabaaka^a. The sky is all 
obscured with clouds. 

Dalpaii. Clothed with a garment short- 
erthan that usually worn. 

They agitated 


[ 118 ] 


Dalpun. A short quilted cloth worn 
round the loins, worn sometimes 
by women. 

Dalwalj. A large flat basket. 

Dalwak. Scales of a balance, generally 
of bamboo. 

Dam. Price, rate, wages, value. 

Bar annae damkeda. He priced itattwoannaa. 

Tin^lcem damkoa!? What price do you put on 

DamanaE dhiri. A precious stone. 

Dama. Asthma. 

Akhir dama, 


Cf. dima. 

Damadol. Distressed, disorganized, a- 


K^mi bgtnulttalea, ^amatjolenale. We are out 

of employment and are in great distress. 
Noa ato do glama^olena. 

Dama domo. Very much swollen, as a 
person suffering from dropsy ; big, 

Dama domo jaaga moentaea. His foot is very 

much swollen. 
Dal dama domokedeae. He beat him till he 

swelled. (He struck him and produced 

much swelling.) 

Damae dundrai. To ask for with blus- 
ter and threats. 

Dambrao. To obscure, to cover, to in- 
crease, to pervade. 

TumdaKe dambraoaka£a. He has covered the 

drum (put leather on the open ends.) 
Eua dambraoakantaea. His f eyer has increased. 

Dambrao. To become less, to decline 
in intensity. 

Engi dambraoakantaea, His fever has declined. 
Edre dambraoakantaea. His wrath has cooled. 

Dambri. One eighth of a pice. 
Damcalc. Stunted, undersized. 

Damoalf ena. It is stunted. 

Damcak. M. "i Dishevelled, untidy, un- 
Damci. F. / kempt. 

Damoalf kora. A lad with unkempt hair. 
Damci knri. A girl with unkempt looks. 

Damdahe. To proclaim, to spread 
abroad, to be notorious. 

Go^a disomre uniaS: damdaheena. His fame 
went abroad into all the country. 

Damdam. Thick, as a clump of bam- 
boos, or head of hair. 

Damdam up. Thick, coarse head of hair. 
Damdam dareakau ma£ dandhi. The clump 
of bamboos has grown very thick. 

■ [To fix a price, to bargain. 

Dam dari. 
Dam duri. 

Ondeko dam dufieda. They are bargaining 
over there. 

Damgi. A mound, a hillock. 

Damka dumka. Big and little, unequal. 

Pamka dumka joakana nea. This year the fruit 
is of unequal size. 

Damka dura. Big and little, unequal, 
applied to root tubers and fruits. 

Damka (Jur?. daakana. The tubers are of un- 
equal size. 

Damkam. Dues, out-standings. 

DamkamiA ad|i lagifi. I (am come) for tha 
purpose of collecting my dues. 

Damkam menaKtiila, ona sidi lagi^id calalfkana. 
I have out-standings which I am going to 

Damkom. A bull calf 

Dampol dampol. Sound produced by 
one end of the dhitiki striking the 
ground. Cf dhampol dhampol. 

Damra. M. ") A steer. 
Damri. F. J A heifer. 

Damri. The eighth part of a paesa or 

Damsao. ") To shake, to relapse, as an 

Dhamsao. J illness. 

Ph?iri?.len tahekanae, are lt?.mike£te ma arho 
damsao ruarentaea. He got well and by 
going to work suffered a relapse. 

Nondem dallekhan onte damsaoKa. If you strike 
here it shakes over there. 

Damnl. To transport convicts. 

Damulkedeako. They transported him. 

Dan. To gift ; a gift, largess ; freely, 

Danpun. To obtain merit by giving. 
Danpunalekanae. He is very free with his 

gifts to us, (as if be were laying up a store 

of merit.) 
Dantegepe liamkeda, dantege emoKpe. Freely 

ye have received, freely give. 

Dan. A witch ; witchcraft. 

Nui do 4*necefeda. She is learning witchcraft. 

Dana. Grain, food, gram. 

Danji pani. Food and drink, sustenance. 
Jaharege danapani liamoK, on(Jegeli tahena. 

I will remain wherever I can get a living. 
Danap9,ni purauentaea. His allotment of 

food is exhausted, (his end has come.) 

Danai. To judge, to consider, to decide; 
fate, fortune. 

Dan?.iUatilime. Judge for me. 
Jage iiiaK dan?,ire hoyoK. Whatever may be 
my fate. 


I 119 ] 


Danad. To conceal, to hide, to disappear, 
to depart this life ; to trust to, to 

Dare danahre mono ea. Hois hidden by the tree . 
Danahenae. He has passed from view, i. e. is 

Danan pera. Hidden friends, i. e. the bongas 

(q. v.) 

Danapal. Three pieces of wood placed 
above a corpse on the funeral pile 
to keep it in position ; a covering. 

Dana pani. Food and water; sustenance. 

Dand. \ To take thought, to be anx- 
Dandi.J ious. 

Onate gapa lagif alope dandoSa. Therefore 
take no thought for the morrow. 

Ape motore okoe hor dandkate aoaK din mi^ 
ghnfi gane badhao darekea P Which of you 
by being anxious can prolong hia life by 
one hour ? 

Dand. Part of a tank at each of the 
embankment where it is prolonged 
into a narrow channel, often leading 
to the overflow channel. 

T)^^t 1 '^° impose a fine ; a fine. 

Gel taka ^an^ko »gukedifia. They fined me 

ten rupees. 
Dandomedili kanako. They are fining me. 

Danda. The loins, waist. 

Panda dora. A cord worn by males round the 
loins and by girls before being invested 
with a garment. 

Dandagiri. To consider ; thought, anx- 
iety, diligence, forethought, pains. 

441 dandagirite noko mihu merom doe jumao- 
akafkoa. It has been with great pains 
that he has gathered all these cattle. 

Dandanao. Quickly, furiously, rushing 

Daliii lagi6 dandanao hedenae. He rushed at 

mo to strike me. 
Dandanao g,curoK. To revolve rapidly. 

Dander. A cave, a den. 

Kul dander, tiger's den. 
Bana dander. A bear's den. 

Dandha. To consider, to think, to be 
in anxiety, to search for anxiously, 
to labour ; anxiety, care. 

Dandha bafajohkanae. He is seeking anxiously 

Dandha dandhi. Cf dandhao. 
Dandha mandha. Uncertain, vaguely, 
doubtfully, ambiguously ; perhaps. 

Dandha mandhae rorkeda, calaK coe ban con. 
He spoke doubtfully, whether he will go or 
not (I can't say.) 

Pan^hao. "I To grow luxuriantly, 

Dandha dandhi. J as dhan, &c. 

Pan^haoakana. It has grown luxuriantly, 
fian^ha dandhi dareakana. It has grown luxu- 

Dandhi. A clump. 

Janum d?.ndhi. A clump of thorns. 
Mat dandhi. A clump of bamboos. 
Cero dandhi. A clump of sun grass. 

Dandi. A stalk. 

Ak 4^n4i. A stalk of sugarcane. 

Dandi. Cf. dand. 
Dandi Boundary. 

Pih 4*n(}i. Hamlets and boundaries. 
Simg. 4*niji ren boiiga. The spirit of the boun- 

Dandid. The arm of a balance. 
Dandit. Line, stem, handle, shaft. 

Tula 4^ndi6. The arm of a balance. 
Srgom d9.ndi£. The shaft of a clod crusher. 
Catom d*ndi4. The shank of an umbrella. 
0£ d9n4i£te£. The stem of a mushroom. 

Pj^J^^'JA species offish. 

Dandle. Hair hanging loose, hair un- 
fastened and unkempt. 

Up dandlegetaea. Her hair is flying loose. 

Dandoli. A string worn round the 
waist (dora, q. v.) with a large 
tassel attached to it. 

Dandom. To impose a fine ; a fine. 

Dandom. A handle, shaft. 

Kn(Ji dandom. A hoe handle. 
Tehgod dand om. An axe handle. 
TamaK dandom. A drum stick. 
Buru Random. End of a hill. 
Burn dandomrepe oraKakafa. Ton have built 
your house at the end of the hill. 

Dandra dandri. \ Anxiously, though- 
Dandra dandri. J fully, diligently. 

^pum ar iri do dandra dandrilili liambaraefme 
tahekana. Thy father and I sought thee 

Dandrau. To look for anxiously. 

Gidrg. eiigat lagit dandrau baraekanae. The 
child is looking anxiously for its mother. 

Dane sane. Glutted, gorged with food 

Dane saneye jom biena. He has gorged him- 
self with food. 

Dane sane gitio barae kanae. He is lying 
torpid after having gorged himseK. 

Dan. A pole. 

' BanaK dan. A pole with a hook at one end used 
to pull down dried branches or fruit from 
Pah thelaakoako. They will blame others. 


[ 120 ] 


Dati. A heap, a jjile ; to pile up, to 

Nondepe hec d^hakana. Tou have crowded 
together here. 

Danga. "I To fight, or strike each 
Mar danga. j other ; a free fight ; 

to assault. 
Danga. High land unsuitable for rice 

Dangal. High lands unsuitable for 

rice cultivation. 

Pahgal ocotedam khet do. Tou have allowed 
the rice field to become hig-h land, (allowed 
it to be silted up with sand.) 

Dangaura. A rubbish heap, a heap of 

Dangi. ■ A part of the slope of a hill. 

Buru dhasna. The foot of the hill. 

Buru beda. The part higher up than the 

*' dhasna." 
Buru d9.ngi. Above the "beda." 

DaiigoM. 1 T-r -1 

T\ ■ ± J- Humorous, i ocular. 
Dangot. J •' 

Dahgot mara hor. 

Dangua. Ummarried, bachelorhood or 
spinsterhood ; barren, as a tree ; 
unfertilized, as Indian corn. 

Ding?, ^^liigua. Unmarried, bachelorhood or 

Pahgua kora. A bachelor. 
Pglbgua Icuri. A spinster. 

Danra. An ox, a bullock. 

Mxini^ra, dahra. A polled ox ; a tiger. 
Eahgia dahra. A red ox ; fire ; a tiger 

Danra janum. A rather uncommon 
plant, one of the very few prickly 
thistles found in Santalia, Echi- 
no2JS echinahis, D. G. 

Danra sea. A common bush, Premna 

latifolia, var caneata, Ra.i-b. 
Danri Cattle in general ; a cow. 

Danpun. Cf dan. 
Danta. A thick stick, a club. 
Danta enec. A dance by men, danced 
during the Sohrae. (q. v. ) 

Dantao. To rebuke, to chide. 

Bes okoete dantaokotape. Rebuke them 

Cedalfpe danfaoedekana p Why do you chide 

him ? 

Dantha dontho. Warty, knotty, haying- 
knobs or excrescences, as a tree ; 
in lumps, or clusters. 

Noa kanthar do adi (Jantha dontho joakana. 
This jack tree has many clusters of fruit. 

Dao. Opportunity, a hole in the harness. 

Dao hoeen khan. When a convenient season 

Dao dao. Noise produced by the spin- 
ing wheel (carkha), and by a well 
braced tannak (q. v.), or by a pair 
o{ tuTiidaTcs (q. v.) 
Tumdak besko jutakat'a dao dao sadekana. 

Dao dao. In crowds, in swarms ; buz- 

Pao daoko hijuKa. They come buzzing in 

T-v^ "i ■ |- Opportunity ,a good chance. 

Dao ghaoiil iSamketteli bhagaokedea. I took 

him at a disadvantage and so conquered 

Dao ghaoiii ilamkeda, onate dher iloKiii kirili- 

keda. I got a good chance and so bought a 

considerable quantity. 

Dap. To cover, to thatch. 

OraKiii dab Igigit'. I am about to thatch my 

TumdaK dabme. Coyer the drum, (the open 

ends with skin.) 

Dapa dapi. Threatening to assault 
each other when quarrelling. 

Dapa dg,piko kaphariaul^kana. They are quar- 
relling and seem as if about to proceed to 

Dapal. To cover, to conceal. 

Rabahedekana, ma dapalkaeme. He is cold, 
cover him up. 

Dapal. To strike each other, to fight. 
Cf dal. 

Dapal siro soroakanakin. They have fought 
and wounded each other, to the effusion of 

Daj)an dapan. Wearing the sari very 
short, above the knees. 

Netar horo rohoere dapah dapahko bandeka 
losot botorte. At this time of the year 
when planting rice many wear the sari 
very short for fear of the mud. 

Dapafi. \ Dirty, discoloured, as 

Dapat dapat. J food burnt in cooking. 

Jondra daka dapa^ dapaf rohgoakana. The 
boiled Indian corn is burnt to discolour- 

Dap dapa. Very wide, broad. 

A^i dap dapam dohokeda dug-r do. Tou have 
made the door very wide. 

Dap duf). ~) To tilt up, to alternately 
Dip dap. J rise and descend, as the 
arm of a balance. 

Mit'tegebon gidima, bahkhanbo dap dupkolca. 
Let us all throw at once else it may tilt 
up and give ua a knock. 

Dap dup 

[ 121 ] 


Dap dup. Soui\d produced by light 
objects falling in succession. 

Jo do (Jap (Ju p (iur go£ena . The fruit fell patter- 
ing down. 

Diripkao. To boil, to cook. 

DaU (Japkaome. Boil some water. 
Caole ^apbaome. Cook the rieo. 

Dapkao. To forbid, to subdue, to set 

Ruhef dapVaokedeae. He aoolded and pnt him 

Dapkao. To ci'ouch down, lying in 
wait for prey. 

Dapor. ^ In comp. gives the idea of in- 

Napor. y difference, outright, there is 

Nepor.J an end of it, end it, be done 

with it, in the end, eventually. 

Goc daporoltmae. Let him die (it is a matter 

of no moment to me). 
Adoe jaha daporoKge noare doA nirdoaigea. 

What ever may erentually become of him 

I am without blame. 
Dumur rielkope bhala, gofa raban dinko dufup 

dapor johkana. Look at the honey bees, 

they remain idle the winter through. 
Bea daporltoKa. It might eventually be best. 
Em daporaeme. Gire to her and get done with 

NaseaKiii capat'lede doe goa dapor got'en. I 

only struck him lightly (with a stone) and 

he died outright. 
Doho daporkam, tinjlc bam tulkal? ? Put it 

down (don't trouble yourself further with 

it), how long will you hold it up P 

Dapram. To meet. Cf darani. 

Oka thenpe dapramena? Barakarre. Where 
did you meet each other? At the Barakar. 

Dapthu. Large, big. 

' Dapthu bohoK. A big head. 

Dar. Inflamed, area of inflammation of 
a boil. 

NinaUte darakana. The inflammation extends 
thus far. 

Ojo leka dareuako. They have an inflamed .area 
like a boil. (Said of an upstart who has 
a great idea of his own importance.) 

Dar. A fissure, a rent, a trench. 

Dargada. Excavation for a foundation, or for 

a " deadset " hedge. 
Mi£ kudi darte laeme. Dig the trench the 

breadth of one kudali. 

Dar. To run, to flee, to change resi- 

Dar tapkedae. He ran off. „. , , , 
B(al{ atoteko darkeda. They flitted to another 

P^r. A branch of a tree. 
Dara. \ g^ ^gans of, through. 

Uni darateli jiamkeda. I got it through him. 

Daril. To walk, to go. 

Dara darateil laiigaena. I am tired with walk- 
Dara dareakae. He is able to walk. 
Dara barae. To walk about. 

Dara. To come. 

Darakin kana. They two are roming. 

Hanko darakokana. Thej' are coming. 

Agu dara. To bring along with. 

Bolo dara. To enter on the way coming. 

Nel dara. To view on the way coming. 

Sap dara. To bring, along witli. 

.Tom dara. To eat and come. 

Hobo dara. To call one when coming. 

Dal dara. To beat coming. 

Laga dara. To bring driving. 

Dara. Cf darao. 

Darac duruc. Of unequal height, great 

and small. 
Dara dar. Instantly, immediately. 

Dara dg.rko palijakedea. They followed her 

Dara duru. So made as not to stand 
steadily, or upright ; to sway. 

Dara durum kiriA ^.guket. Touhave bought 
a thing that won't stand steadily. 

Darae darae. Sound of thumping, 
slamming, clanking. 

SilpiA sadckana dafae dayae. The door is being 

Jog Mgirijhi do bhagete darae darae silpirte so- 


Darae dhampae /IBusy, many things 
Darae dhapae. /requiring attention; 
diligently, hastily, without delay. 

Darae dhampae liele l^gite calakkana. He is 
hurrying to see him. 

Darahara. \Fine, large, substantial, 
Dharahara. J applied to houses. 

Darahara oraK. A splendid mansion. 

Darak darak. Frequently, often, with- 
out ceasing. 

Darak darak tinakem hijn'kana. How long 
will you keep coming. 

Darak darakiii hohokeda, enh3 bam heilena. I 
called several times, still you did not come. 

Daram. To meet, to oppose ; to show 

Bes okoeteye daramke(!koa. He entertained 

them hospitably. 
Ruhe£ daramkediriae. He met me with angry 

Idi daram. To take to one coming. 
Ba(Jae daram. To know before hand, to fore- 
;Sel daramem, bahkhas daram ?-guem. Look 

out for him, or else go to meet him and bring 

Peraii daramkefkoa. I went to meet my 

' friends, or I entertained my friends. 
Bar bore daramkefikina. He met two men. 
Ataii daram. To welcome, to shew hospitality, 

to receive, to hold out to meet, as the handa. 
Phalre sariil atah darama. I will intercept the 

arrows with my shield. 


Daram dali 

[ 122 1 

Dare dhatuali 

Daram dal<. A ceremony observed at 
The bridegroom and Mb party halt at the 
entrance to the bride's village and the per- 
son who negotiated the marriage goes for- 
ward and informs them of the arrival of the 
bridegroom. The Jog Maiiihi of the bride's 
village carrying a brass lota, and the village 
messenger (Go(Jet) carrying a waterpot 
full of water go to meet them, saying, 
"Here friends is water to drink." 

Daran. To walk, to journey, to travel. 

Ened enedte kulhiko darana. They go about the 

street dancing. 
Dhairti daranre. During the earthly pilgrimage 

or journey. 
Is?-! jatri reaK daran. The Christian Pilgrim's 


Daran. Steep, precipitous. 

Darah. A break in the line of a precipice, a 

cave in the face of a precipice. 
Ekalte sidup darah. Almost perpendicular. 

Daran. "1 White hot, blazing hot; 

Daran daran. /glowing. 

Merhej: darah darah dhipauatana. The iron is 

heated to a white heat. 
Oh darahme. Blow it (fire) into a glow. 

Daran durun. Dowdy, out of sorts, 
seedy, not fully awake, applied also 
to the condition of one suffering 
from coryza or low fever. 

Darao. ~) To prove, to bring evidence, 
Dara. J to disprove, to traverse, to 

Noa katha amem darao dareaKa? Can you dis- 
prove this statement? 

Ado dara oae portonkateko menkeda . And they 
began to accuse him saying. 

Abenalf katha daraoS lekanaK kangea. Tour 
statement is like one that can be proved. 

-p. P' |- Metal, excluding iron. 

Dara soro. 
Doro soro, 

Dara soroe ru^likana. He has alight fever 

Darau. ") Loudly, at the top of 

Darau darau. J one's voice, loud 

Euhet'edae darau dar9.u. She scolds at the top 
of her voice. 

Darban. A door keeper. 

Darbar. ") A conclave, a meeting for the 
Dorbar. J discussion and settlement of 

mr Iters. 
Dardaha. A glutton, gluttonous. 

VTo roll, as a stone or ball. 

;} Slightly. 

Dhardharao.J ' 

Dardarao. To split, to crack, as a wall 
or an embankment. 

Ahar are do dardaraolfkana ma hasawaKme. 
The embankment of the ahar(q. v.) is crack- 
ing, put earth on it. 

Dar dhup. To run hither and thither, 
to work or labour hard ; toil and 

4(Jile dar dhupkeda bae tikauleda. We did all 
that we could (went here and there for 
medicine and doctors) but he did not pull 

Dare. A tree, a plant ; to grow, to 
grow well. 

Bah darelena. It did not grow well. 
Toa dare. Mother, the support of life. 

Dare. Strength, power, might, ability ; 
to over-come, to vanquish, to con- 

Dare hor. An able bodied man. 

Uni tulu'o bae darelena. He was no match for 

Amem dareena. Ton conquered. 
Bako dareaea. They can't vanquish him. 
Ghas daretako. Grass is their strength. 
Parkomre ota darekate berefme. Strengthen 

yourself by pressing (your hands) on the 

bed and get up. 
Dare bhor. Full strength. 

Daregeli i^el otoledea. I left him strengthened 

Dare Anrentiiia. I have become old, or poor, 

or weak. 

DarS. A sacrifice, a victim ; to devote to 
sacrificial purposes. 

Dare samah. To offer sacrifice. 

Ohoii akriAlekoa noko do bohga dare kanako. 

1 cannot sell them, they are devoted to the 

Marah Burn dareko samahaea. They offer 

sacrifice to Marang Burn. (q. v.) 

Noko dareii samahkoa hapen. T will offer these 
victims in the future. 

Dare tehgen. To sever the head from an animal 
when aacrifloing it by pressing the neck 
against a sharp blade. 

Dare banki. A very common orchid, 
Vanda Roxburghii, R. Br. Cf 

Dare dhatuak. \ Not to put forth one's 
Dare dhatuat. J strength, not to exert 
one's self; slothful, lazy. 

Nui do dare dhatuaK kanae, bahkhan noa jaega- 
reye asulkoBa. He is slothful, otherwise 
he could get a living out of this land. 

Dare dhgitualckhanemioma? If you reserve your 
strength (if you do not exert yourself) will 
you get food P 

Darepe dhatuada. You did not spend your 

Dare ^hompo 

[ 123 ] 


Dare dhompo. An annual plant grow- 
ing to a height of eight or ten 
feet, found near villages, Leonatis 
nepetcefolia, R. Br. Cf. bonga bar- 

Dare huter. A common plant, Indi- 
gofera pulchella, Roxb. 

Dare japalj. A large jungle climbing 
plant, Scindapsus officinalis, 

Dare kudrum. Cultivated for its iibre, 
Hibiscus cannabintis, Linn. 

Dare orsa. A small plant common during 
the rains, Gommelyna suff^rut- 
icosa, Bl. 

Darga. A precipice. 

Marah utar darga menalca. There is animmense 
precipice (there.) 

Dargu dargu. Large, big. 

i)g.rgu dgirgn joaVana. The fruit la very large. 

Darha. A pool or deep place in a river. 

DaK darhaakafae. The water has scooped out 
a pool. 

4^1 maraii darhap bohoK . An immensely large 

Dari. A small cotton carpet or floor 
cloth ; a cotton rug for sleeping 

J^^"- , . I A prostitute. 
Dan chmar.J ^ 

Daria. Thick, obstinate, sluggish, thick 
skinned, impervious. 

Adi daria montae bae ghamaoKa. He is very 

sluggish; he won't fire up. 
4.(Ji dari9,pe erkeda . Tou have sown the seed 

very thickly. 

Dariap. To investigate, to enquire 
into, to consider. 

Cele, monere dom d?iri3ipkeda ? Hare you con- 
sidered it ? 
Dariaptabonpe. Investigate for us. 

Dariau. \ The sea, ocean, large river, 
Doreao. J like an inland sea. 

Dalidarem tapena? Have you emerged a glutton? 

Darja. Property, house and stock. 

Khub darja menaKtaea. He is very will-to-do. 

Darja. Degree, rank, station. 
Darji. A tailor. 

Darka. A species of fish. Cf dandka. 

Darka dale. With dishevelled hair. 
Said of women who throw their 
hair loose, as a sign of sori'ow, 
shame, or anger, or to excite pity 
or compassion. 

Darka daleye raKeda. She weeps with her hair 
loose and in disorder. 

Darkak dorkok. Rough and uneven, 
as a road ; to jolt over a rough 
road. Cf dharkak dhorkok. 

Darkal uiarkal. "1 With dishevelled hair, 
Darkul markul. J applied to men as 

" darkadale " (q. v.) is applied to 


Darkao. To crack, to break. 

Bhit darkaoena. The wall is cracked. 

Darkhas. A petition, a plaint. 
Darkul markul. C£ darkal markal. 

Darmaha. Wages, pay. 
Darmal. To go bail, to become surety ; 
respectable, well-to-do. 

D9.rmalakanam, ma h?ijirem. You went bail 
for him, make him appear. 

Nui doe d9.rmalakadea. He made him his surety. 

Dermal hor kanae. He is a well-to-do, res- 
pectable man. 

Darman. Bullet-headed. 

Maran darmane haraakana. 

Darmot. Obstinate, thick-skinned, 
stout, sturdy, wealthy. 

Khub darmot hor kanae. He is a stout fellow. 

Darnga. Steep. 

Darpot. 1 Applied to the tumdak (q. v.) 
Dorpot. J drum when the lacquer or 
varnish is worn off the ends by 
beating ; flawed, blemished, defec- 

Noa khunti do darpotgea, oaKpe lagaokeda? 
This post has a flaw in it why did you put it 

Darrao. To slip, as by treading on 
something slippery; to stumble, 
as by treading on something that 
rolls from underneath the feet. 

Mutkuri dhirirem lebetlekhan darrao gofkolf- 
am. If you tread on a round stone it will 
roll from under your feet and .jou will 

Darrao. To roll, to husk, as by grinding 
with ;i, curry stone. 

Darrao d*l. D91I made by grinding with a 
curry stone. 


[ 124 ] 


I |S1«P« 

of a hill. 



Darsau. To look to, to hope in, to 
claim protection or justice. 

Adim d?irsauedekana, bae ganoKa. You trust 
greatly in him, he is a broken reed. 

Daru. Large, big. bohoK. A big head. 

Dg-ru nl. ■ A mango tree that bears fruit of a 

large size. 
Daru daru joakana, nes. This year it has 

borne large fruit. 

Daru. Gunpowder. 
Daru. Distilled liquor, from matkom 
(q. V.) flowers. 

Daruk dacuk. Quickly, untidy, stained 
with travel or work. 

Adi davuK daoultem heo goijen do. You have 

come in great haste. 
Nito]^ do kami khon d^ruU dacuke hijul^kana. 

Daruoidhak. Very much, greatly, 
applied to swellings. 

Daramdhake moakana. He is very much 

Darum sarum. Very hairy, shaggy. 

■ Bana darum sarumko upana. Bears have shag- 
gy hair. 

Darun. Concerning. 

Get; darunteko giripdarkedea? For what reason 
did they apprehend him? 

Damn. Painful, excruciating. 

Darwan. A door keeper. 

Darya dapak. ■) Used by a wife when 
Darya rapak. J scolding her husband. 

■pj ' > Condition, state, luck. 

Iliak dasa Jiurentiiia. My condition has fallen 
(I have become poor or "wretched.) 

Uniak dasa onkangelaea. That is just his luck. 

Dasae. The month Asin, September- 

Dasae porob. A festival observed in the month 
of Dasae (q. v.). 

Dasao. ") To fall, to crumble down, to 
Dhasao. J collapse, as a wall. 

Bhit dasaoena. The wall has collapsed. 

Da.saona. A .small ladle used to lift oil. 

Mit dasaona sunnm. A small ladlefuU of oil. 

Dasi. A fringe. 

Dasi. A female sorvant, a maid servant. 

Gutiko dasiko. Male and female servants. 

TM, r Slope of a hill. 

Dastur. Custom, usage. 

Dastur leka. According to Suatom. 

Dasturi. Discount, commission, bro- 
Dat. A tooth. 

Dat. A pick, a mattock. 

Data. A tooth, the teeth. 

Togoc (Jata. To gnash the teeth. 

Data dati. To rebuke both parties to 
a quarrel. 

Data (J?itikakope, aloko nonk?. barae. 

y. ,; ' I A twig used as a tooth 

T-s , •" I brush : to clean the teeth. 
Dataum. J ' 

Auriii dataunika. I have not yet cleaned my 
teeth, i. e. I have not yet broken my fast. 
Santals as a rule do not eat before cleaning 
their teeth in the morning. 

Datela. A large wild boar with huge 

Datha duthu. Adult, grown up. 

Eken datha duthu horko tahekana. There 
were only grown np people there. 

Datha duthu. Having no family. 

Dathi. 1 The petioles and mid-ribs of a 

Dati. y compound leaf after the leaf- 

DhathiJ lets have been plucked off, 

stalks of certain plants, as Indian 

corn, after the grain has been taken 


Munga arak dathi. Petioles and mid-ribs of 
the leaves of Monnga pterygosperma, 
Gxrtn., after the leaves have been plucked 
off for cooking. 

Dhathi. Pattern, sample. 

Nia dhathi benaome. Make it like this pattern. 

Dathi. Importunate, clamant. 

Nui do adie dathia. He is very importunate. 

Dathu. 1 

Datkap. iBig headed, bullet headed. 

Datu. J 

Marah datkap kul. A tiger with a very large 

Datka orak. ) . 1 -j. 1 1 

Dakka orak. J^ ''i*°^^'^> '' cookroom. 
Datli. Cf datri. 

Datmot. Stout, strong, robust, stout 
and vigorous. 

Khub ijatmot kora kanae. He is a strong 
vigorous young man. 

Date. The claws or pincers (chelse) of 
crabs, &c. 

Datom. ") To seize with the claws or pin- 
Ditom. J cers, as crabs, scorpions, &c. 

Katkom ditomkediilae. 
with ita pincers. 

The ofab seized me 


[ 125 ] 

Debo (Irbe 

Datra. Vrwo plants go by this name 
Dhatra.5 Dl uit a ra alba, and Dhatura 

Datre. A small sickle. 

Datri \Used sometimes by one wo- 

Datli. J man when scolding another. 

JoloKem fleloKkana datri do. 

Datri. Eice and kode (q. v.) flour cook- 
ed together. 
Datrisa. Bleeding from the gums. 
Datrom. A toothed sickle. 

Laiit^' datrom. A sickle without a handle. 

Sambhe datrom. A sickle with a ferrule, or 
iron ring on the handle where the tang 
enters to keep it from splitting. 

Datu. Cf. dathi. 

Dauladauli. ~| rn 4. „„„„„ 

T-. ■ , • • )■ To cut up a carcase. 
Daulau. J ^ 

Ma hakopako daula daulipe. 
the carcase qmokly. 

Come, cut up 

Daulat. Wealth, property. 

Daulatan. Wealthy, possessed of pro 

Daulau. Ct. dauladauli. 

Daura. A large round shallow flat- 
bottomed basket. 

Baku d?.ura. A specially large basketin which 
a bride is raised shoulder high at the time 
the bridegroom applies the red paint to 
her forehead. 

Daura dauri. Quickly, in haste. 

Daura dauriye calao gofena. He left in haste. 

Dauraha. A village runner, guide or 

Daura soprot. Punishment in which 

the criminal is moved from place 

to place. 
Daurau. To go quickly. 

Ma dauraume. Go quickly. 

Dauric. A round shallow flat bottomed 
basket, smaller than a ' duvra.' (q. v.) 
Dawa. To lay claim to, to insist. 

Dawa dokhol banuKtaea. He has no right 

whatever. . 

CalaK lajitem dawaeda? You insist on going? 

Dawahi. Importunate, clamorous. 

A-Ji dawahi hor kanae. He is a very importunate 

Dawaa dawan. "I Suspended, depending, 
Diari dian. / hanging, dangling. 

r)iari rii9he sapakata. He holds it suspended 
from his hand. 

Cei; dian diaham asen baraedekana? Why ao 
you take hira about dangling after you? (a 
mother taking her child about with her.) 

Dowat j^^i^ink bottle. 
Daya. Mercy, pity; piteously, plain- 
tively ; to shew mercy or pity. 

Daya maya. Pity and sympathy. 

Daya banulitakoa. They are merciless. 

Dayawadegeae. He had pity on him. 

Rici oefe daya^eye raga. The Eichi bird {Oiixuu 

Swainsonii) calls plaintively. 
Dayageli lielekana. I feel pity for him. 
Dayaff lekae emoUkana. He gives grudgingly. 
Bae dayawadea. Ho did not spare him. 
Daya hathea raraUkanae. He weeps piteously. 

Dayak dayak. Wearisome, tedious, 
disheartening, as a large extent of 
bare uninhabited country or a 
large forest to a traveller. 

Dayalc dayak noa tandi do adi maraiia. This 

is a large wearisome plain. 
DayaK dayak mun^u. A wearisome jungle. 

Dayik. Responsible, liable to, in dan- 
ger of 
De. An interjection of entreaty. 

De hijuKme. Do come. 
De emaiime. Do give to me. 
De alijomkatifime. Do listen to my prayer. 
Debon kami hoda. Come, let us work hard. 
De na usara hodme. Now my girl, do be quick. 
De ja dar hodme. Come my boy, run fast. 
De se ailjomtilSme. Do listen to me. 
Dege bicarkatilime. Do please decide it for 

Dea. The back ; to turn the back to. 

Dea gidikedi^ae. He forgot me, or refused to 

help me. 
Dea gidiat'meail. I neglected thee, or thrust 

thee aside. 
Dea dea midokben. Stand back to back. 

Deao. To become surety fur a loan, 
or goods supplied on credit. 

Uniye deaoat'lea. He became surety for the 
loan given to us. 

Mahajon then khon deaoaome. Get the money- 
lender to give him a loan and become secur- 
ity for the repayment of it. 

Deaoki. Surety for goods or money 
given to another. 

Deaoki teiigoakanae. He has become surety. 

Deasi. The Hindu priest in charge 
of a shrine at which " hook swing- 
ing " used to be observed. 

Deb. ] 

Dev. L 


Dibi. j 

Debe debe. Small, tiny, short, tripping 
short steps, applied to children 
and dwarfs. 

Debe (Jebe cacoKkanae. He toddles taking 

short steps. 
Debe debe lieloKkanae. He is a nice little ' ' tot. 

hAn idol. 

Debe debe 

[ 126 

Deleni delem 

Debe debe. Applied to the swimming 

of one who is over fatigued. 

Pebe 4ebe paeraKkanae, lahgaeuae. 

Pebe debe. A ' rattat ' played on the 

drum at a hunt. 

Debedebe. To stagger, as one carrying 

a very heavy load, to waddle. 
Deble ") Small, little, tiny and 

Deble deble. J neat, applied to very 
small girls. 
Nin maran deble. A ' tot ' so big. 
Peble ^eble lielol^kanae. . She ia a pretty Uttle 

Dec. To mount, to climb, to embark, 
to enter a carriage, railway train, 
&c., to increase. 

Deckedida. He put me up. 

Sen ato dec dare. The future cannot be 

Bahako deja. They climb for flowera. 
Deo gelaUali, I will mount and try him. 

Dec. The second ploughing of a field 
which is across the first. 

ParaK. The firat ploughing. 
Dec. The second ,, 
Uthau. The third 

Dec dec. Blazing. 

Pec dec joloKkana, It is blazing. 
Alope Qleo ijeja. Do not make it blaze. 

Dedhaore.) The tree which yields the 
Didhauri. j jujubes or Chinese dates, 

Zizyphus jujuha, Lamlc. 
Dedger. A small drum, beaten with 

the hands. 
Dedhet. With much entreaty, impor- 
tunity or pleading. 
Mot mariae det^hei: idikedea. 
Ma kurumutukate dedhei: a2:uipe. 
Pedhefikateli aguakafa. 

Degha. ^A place outside the 

Degha gadi. V threshing floor where 

Degha kharai. j the grain carts stand 

when unloading. It is smoothed 

so that the grain which falls can 

easily be swept up. 

Deh. The body. 

Anre dehre. 

Dehe. ) A lump, or swelling; any pro- 
Jo. J tuberant deformity. 

DehSk dehek. A 'rattat' played on the 
drum by Dom drummers. 

Dehet; dundun. To put off time, to 

Me delabon, cet (Jehet' ijun(juh bafaekanae? 

Debet dundljet. Begging, praying, en- 

Deke. The hip. 

Deket'. To loosen by shaking, as a 
post fixed in the ground. 

Khunti dekedme bah todoKkana. The post 
can't be pulled up, loosen it by shaking it. 

Deket deket. Trembling, vibrating, 

Khunti bah urioa, dekef dekedoKkana. The 
post ia not firm, it oacillatea. 

Tin^lfem darean (Jeke^ deke€. 
Nuipe gupi oooaekana deket (Jekef. 

Dekhaok. To be seen, to appear, to 
come into view. 

Dekhense. Let me see, 

Dekheseli Aeltama. 
DekhenaeA jom legaktama. 

Dekhit. Deliberately, with eyes open. 

M.e{ dekhit geye guroKkana. He falls with 
his eyea open. 

Dekja. ") An exlamation of surprize, 
Dekhja. J or admiration. 

Dekja Jielepe ! ahare tolakafa 

Deko. A Hindu 

Deko pusi. A Hindu cat ; a term of 
contempt applied to Hindus. 

Deko pera. A courteous term applied 

to Hindus. 

Deko pera janum jhanti roroKgea. A Hindu 
and a thorn fence prick. 

Deko sindur. A medicinal herb, Buett- 
neria herbacea, Roxh. 

Dela. To invite to accompany, come. 

Dela dara. To bring along with. 
Uniye delaakawatlea. He brought us. 
Dela lioKadeaii. I gave him a Kttle encourage- 
Delabon calaka. Come, we will go. 

Dela dili. Just before, on the point of 

Kakap dela dili. Just before ascending. 
Tikin dela dili. Just before mid-day. 
GujuK dela dili. Just before dying. 

Delao. G£ deao. 

Del del. Stockstill, a dead calm. 

Nui maejiu del (Jele tehgoakana. This woman 

stands stockstill. 
Khange onakin do thirena, ar nijhum delijelena. 

And they ceased and there was a great 


Delem delem. Kx ,.,,, ,. , . 

[ V ery little, applied to 

Dulum dulum. . 
Diilun dulun. J 

Pelera (Jelem cacoK gidrj 



[ 127 ] 

Dera diri 

Demaria. Inconsiderately, without 
reason, unreasonably. 

Demarig,e ruhefkedi/Sa. He scolded me without 

Bem9.riai oalaK laga£e. 

Dem9.ri?.ko dalkedea. They beat him unreason- 

Demba. Half ripe, harvested before 
properly ripe, flat, as beer. 

Pemba jon^ra. Indian corn that has been 

harvested before being fully ripe. 
Pemba h^ncji. Flat rice beer. 

Dembe. Half ripe, as grain or fruit. 

Demcok. Erect, applied to persons of 
short stature. 

PemooKe tehgoakana. He is sttinding erect. 
Hopon hopon (JemooKe lieloKkana. 

Demda. Under-sized. 

Pem^a hor kanae. He is short of stature. 

Dem dem. Stockstill, standing idle. 
Said of females. 
Pern ^eme tehgoakana. She is standing stock- 

Demer demer. Quickly, hastily. 

Demer demere hed go£ena. He came very 

Demer potom. Cf. dever potom. 

Demka. Green, unripe, as fruit, 

Demka. The leaf of the palmyra palm. 

Demkhem. Idling, hesitating, said 
of girls. 

Cefem demkhem baraekana? Why are you 
idling about ? 

Demkok. The leaf of the Palmyra 
palm, and also the fruit when 

Den. Give, give to me, or to us ; used 
with all inanimate objects, and 
animate when in the dual or plural. 

Cef em den denoKkana? Why are you continually 

asking P 
Den daK . Give me water. 
Den 9«gnime. Bring to me. 
Deuya. Used by males of equal age when asking 

any inanimate object to be given. 

Denya fheiiga. Give me the stick. 

Denya thamakhur. Give me some tobacco. 

Denho. Eeapeotful form of request, please 
give to me or to us. 

Denho daR. Please give me water. 

Den se. Entreating form of request, do give to 
me or to us. 

Den se mit keoaK. Give me a piece. 

Den na . Give to me, or to us ; used when asking 
any thing from a female younger than the 
speaker, but never employed when address- 
ing a niece. 

Don ^o. A respectful form of request; Mother, 
give to me, or to us, used when aeking any- 
thing from one's mother, also when the per- 
son addressed, being a female, is much 
older than the speaker, or when she is a 

Den go sehgel. Please give rne fire. 

Den ]'a. Give to me, or to us ; used when ad- 
dressing males younger than the speaker. 

Dende. Tailless, as a fowl ; in need of 

Nui sim sapkate ijen^ekaeme. Catch this fowl 
and pull out her tail feathers (or clip the 
the wings and tail. 

Pen^e oabaenale. We are almost naked. 

Dendka. A variety of the barndoor 
fowl with scanty feathers. 

Dendkeli. Tailless, as a fowl. 

Dene banar. Both. 

Dene banar dharana. Two edged. 
Dene banar mocaanae. Has a mouth at both 
ends (said-of a species of snake.) 

Denga. Toput on clothes, said of men. 

Rhagwa 4ehga. Cf . bhagwa. 

Pafhe dehga. To bind round waist, or loins. 

Dhuti (Jehga. To put on the dhoti. 

Sedae re pathe ^chga tahekana, dhuti"4ehga 
bah tahekana. In the olden time garments 
fastened round the loins were worn, thft 
dhuti was not worn. 

Dengha. ] 

Dengha gadi. [Cf degha. 

Dengha kharai.j 

Denya. Give, used by boys of equal age 
to each other, and by older to 
younger men. 

Deo bhagin. Nephews and nieces, chil- 
dren of a sister. 

Deona diuni. To sulk, to be in the 

Cetem deona diuni baraekana. Why are you 
sulking about. Said of girls. 

Dep dep. Wind on the stomach, tight 
feeling after a full meal. 

Pep 4epiJ5 g-ikaueda. 

Deper. Cf. der. 

Der. To copulate, to have sexual inter- 

Der. To stretch oneself, as one who 
has sat in one position foi- a long 

Dera. A camp, a lodging. 

Peralf. To encamp. 

Dera diri. To put off time, saunter, 
to delay, to be late. 

Adi dera diriefkanae. He is very late. 

T>P,\-S depe 

[ 128 ] 


■ One and a half. 

Dgre depe, Cf. dhSrg dhepe. 

Dere dere. Angrily. 

Derec derec. To shiver, as on the ap- 
proach of an attack of fever. 

Dereo dered iii aikaueda. 

Deren. A horn. 

DereJianko. Creatures having horns. 

Deren kokor. Collared Scops owl, 

(Scojps hakkamoena. 
Derel Small, little. 
Deret. A small bird so called. 

DSrSt dgpgt'. Worn to skin and bone, 
lean, emaciated. 

Uni hor do ka(^ec leka derei3 depe£e osoKakana, 
That man has become as lean as a switch. 

Per hi. 

Perhi sud. Fifty per cent, interest. 

Des. Country, native country. 

Des Mailjhi. An over-chief. 

Desapati raj. The king of the country, 

a great king. 
Des bides. One country after another. 

Dese. Conveys the idea of entreaty. 

Dese aiijom tilime. Do listen to me, or grant 
my request. 

Despoda. A wanderer, a vagrant, one 
who does not work, but spends^ his 
time visiting friends and living 
on them. 

Nui do cele despoda con. 

Detdet. Small. 

Pef detie gidra. A very small child. 
bet def kioride emadiiia. He gave me a very 
small piece of cloth. 

Dever j)otom. ) Child by a former hus- 
Demer potom. j band. 

!>, ■ J To worship, to serve. 

Dewa sewa. j ■' 

Probhu amren Isorem sewawae, ar uni eskarem 
dewawae. Thou shalt worship the Lord 
thy God and him only shalt thou serve. 

Dewan. Prime minister, manager, fac- 

Baj ren dewan. The king's manager. 
Kacah?.ri ren dewan. The Head clerk of the 

Pewari. | To shake. 

Pewet dewet. J 

Khuntiye dewet'keda. He shook the post. 
jSeta do candbole (Jewei , glewefoda. 

Dewani. Civil, as opposed to criminal. 

Dewani adalot. Civil court. 
Dewani mokordoma. A Civil suit. 

Dewer potom. Child by a former hus- 

Dewet. Cf. dewan. 

Dhab. A hollow, a large moist rice 

Phab then daK (Jabraakana. Water has col- 
lected in the hollow. 

Nondem glhab ocokeda, bara rcAi saolaKa. You 
have not levelled it, you have made a hollow 

Phab dhabe oalaoena. He followed up the 

Pliaba. A verandah, the eaves of a 
house with a large projection. 

Phabaakatali. I have added a verandah (to 
my house.) 

Dhaba lumam. Good, 1st Class uni- 

voltine tassar cocoons. 
Dhabao. To put away a vessel after 

having eaten from it without first 

having cleaned it. 

Cedaltem doho (Jhabaoakat'aP Why did you 
put it away dirty. 

Dhabar dhubur. Plump, big. 
Dhabic. Till, until, as far as, as long as. 

Jiwefiii tahen dhabid. As long as I live. 
Ato dhaibidle palija idikedea. We tracked him 
up to the village. 

Dhabra. ~) Broad footed, clay adhering 

Dhabre. J to feet. 

Dhabre denga. A method of wearing 

the bhagwa (q. v.) 
Dhablu. Broad. 

Dhablu jahga. Broad feet, 

Dhabru. Broad and thick. 

Dhabru ku(Ji. A broad hoe. 

Dhabun. A pit or hollow full of water. 

Noa then ^haburigea. There is a water hole 

Phabuskak. Large heavy bodied. 

Maraii dhabuekaK kada kanae. It is a large 
heavy bodied buffalo. 

Dhabuskut. The swishing sound made 
when raising water for irrigation. 

Phabuskut' ijhabuskuf dakkoakredkana. 

Dhaca. A way of dressing the hair in 
which a few inches are allowed to 
stand up or hang down behind. 

This was the universal custom among Santals 
till within recent years, when hairpins ' of 
local manufacture have come into use among 
women. The ' dhaca ' of the men was na- 
tural, but that of the women was artificial 
made from the long hairs taken from the 
tails of cows. Cf. caurid. 

Toya dhaca. A plume made from the feathers 
of the blue jay (toya), and worn by girls 
stuck in their back hair on gala days. 

Dhacal dhacal 

[ 129 1 

Dhakar pakar 

Dhacal dhacal. Cf. dhacal dhucul. 
Dhacal dhucul. \To shake, to bob up 
Dhucul dhucul. J and down, or back- 
wards and forwards. 

Dhacrar. Self-willed, restive, as an 
imperfectly broken-in bullock. 

Dhacri. A forelock, hair hanging down 
over the brow. 

Dhaiori kul. A lion. 

Dhadnas. Bravado, pretence, ostenta- 
tion, bunkum. 

Phai^uasedae, phasi gujuKaii. She is only pre- 
tending to hang herself. 

Dhados. | Brave, plucky, fearless, 
Dhadosia. j sturdy, cheerful. 

Bes ^ha^os hor kanae. He is a fine plucky 

Dhadosall bali nahgosa. I will be plucky and 

won't malinger. 

Dhadra. Worn out, old. 

Dhadra hatalc. A worn out hataK, (q v.) 
Moca dhadraentaea. Hia mouth is worn out, 

(Said of those who let the rice full out of 

their mouth while eating.) 

Dhadra. A skeleton. 

ra. M.I 

Iri. F. I 

Netar do nui ijhaijri cabaenae. At present she 
ia a perfect skeleton. 

Dhadra. M. \ Slovenly, slatternly, hair 
Dhadri. F. J in disorder, used only 

when quarrelling. 
Dhadrao. \ To drag along the 
Dhar dharao. J ground. 

Dhadraokediiiae. He dragged me along. 
Or dhar dhaiaokedeako. They dragged him 
roughly along. 

Dhai. A common plant during the 

The leaves are eaten as a pot herb, and the 
stalks raw. The stalks are first peeled 
and then well rubbed with sand, after 
which they are eaten. 

Dhai. "1 

Dhai budhi. J 

Dhae. "j Sound of thumping, or 

Dhae dhui. |- report of a gun, bang- 

Thae thui. j ing ; in large numbers. 

Ph,,e dhuikin dapalkana. They strike each 

other thump thump. 
Phae mente araK gotkedae b9.nduk do 

off the gun with a bang. 
Adiko jerel^keda (Jhae (Jhui. They banged away, 
Nes do dhae ijhuiko gooena '^^" ""— '•^"' 

died in large numbers. 

Dhadra. M.] 

Dhadri. F. vLean, Worn to a skeleton. 

^A mid-wife. 

He let 

This year they 

Dhae. State, proclivity, bent of mind. 

Nia ^hae go calaUtaea. Ho will continue in 

this condition. 
Am bam aiijomkhan nig. ijhaege calalitama. If 

you do not obey you will always be in this 


Dhae khae. Over-weighted with care, 
filled with anxiety ; exceedingly. 

Dhae khae baraekanae. He is attending to one 
^matter after another without intermission. 
Dhae khae rengeckana. A time of great scar- 
city (and of much anxiety.) 

Dhak. A kind of kettle drum played 
Av^ith one thick drum stick and ona 
thin, to vary the note. 

Dhak. Heat, flame of fire. 

Dhak. Quickly, immediately, instantly, 
at once. 

Dhakem llamkana p You want it instantly. 

(scolding an impatient man.) 
Adi dhakiA hecena. I came very quickly. 
Adim dhakol^kana. Tou are very impatient. 
Ce{ dhak kantama ? cedaEem calalca ? What is 

pressing you? Why should you go? 

Dhak. C£ dhak dhak. 

Dhak. Interest, concern, necessity, 

Amalc dhakgeli calaSa ? Shall I go to suit your 
occasion ? 

DhakLt. }t°P^^^'*°*'^™^*- 

Dhgiklau toi gofkaeme. Thrust him out at 

Dhaka dhaki. To push again and again, 
to jostle, as in a crowd ; to push 
so as to clear a way in a crowd ; 
shoving and jostling. 

Dhaka dhaki To push each other 
again and again during a quarrel. 
Cf. dhaka dhaki 

Dhaka dhoko. \ Jostling, pushing, as 
Dhaka dhoko. J in a crowd to clear a 
way for oneself. 

Dhakao. To cover, to obscure. 

Sill cando rimilte ijhakaokedeae. The sun is 
obscured by clouds. 

Dhakar dhokor. 1 To wobble, to roll or 
Dakar dokor. J heave when walk- 
ing, to lift up the whole side 
with foot. 

Hathiko calaKa cjhakar ^hokor. Elephants roll 
when walking. 

Dhakar pakar. Hurriedly, hastily, to 
be startled. 

Nu gotkedail dhakar pakar. I drsink it off. 



[ 130 ] 


Dhakcakao. To be paralyzed with fear. 

Aijiys dhakoakaoleua. He was terribly fright- 
Dhak cakaokediliam. Tou startled me. 

Dhak dhak. "i m i -j. x ■± 

Dhak dhakao. F ° Pf Pit^te, go pita- 

Dhakdhakok. f r*' flutter throb, 

Dhukdhuk. j to be in trouble. 

Buru mako bere^keC eken daiige. 
Taben mako jomket' eken potomge. 
Haere ! bapre ! noa jiwiA do. 
Koramili, koramilige dhak dhakaoK kan. 

Phaki. A large basket. 

Dhak jiba. At random, without taking 
aim; without certainty, on the 
chance of. 

Dhak jibg-li dalkedea. I struck him at random 
(struck on the chance of hitting him.) 

Dhak jibale rohoekeda. We planted it but have 
small hope (of a crop.) 

Dhakla dhakli. To push again and 
again, to jostle, as in a crowd. 

Dhaklau. To push, to thrust, Of. dha- 

Dhakna. An earthenware lid for a 
tukuc, (q. V.) 

Dhakni. ") An earthenware lid for a 
Dhaknic. J kanda (q. v.) smaller than 
a ' dhakna ' (q. v.) 

Dhura dh9.kni6. A small earthenware vessel 
in which odoriferous rezin is burned as 

Dhakor dhakor. The sound produced by 
shaking anything, as a door, &c. ; 

Dher dhaoe dhakor ijhakorkeda. Herattled- 

many times. 

Dhakuc. To have sexual intercourse 
with, to copulate ; to shake the 

Dhal. A shield, a buckler ; to obtain 
goods on credit in the name of 
another and keep them oneself 

Kokhro (Jhal. A targe of hide studded with 
brass nails. 

Dhal sikria. An attendant who carries a sports- 
man's gun. 

Trie dhalkediiia. He obtained goods in my 

Phalkate horoe idikeda. He got dhan on credit 

by saying it was for another person whom 

he named. 

Dhalac dhaluc. Big and little^ of all 

Dhalgum. *) Shaggy, long 

Dhalgum dhalgum. J haired. 

Dhalgum bana. A shaggy bear. 
I)h?.lgum dhalgumko d*ra. They flee with hair 

Bhalka. Broad. 

Dhalka sakam. A broad leaf. 
Dhalka lutur. Broad ears. 

Dhalpa. Broad. 

Dhalpa pal. A broad ploughshare. 

Dhal sikaria. An armour bearer, an 
attendant who carries a gun for 
a sportsman. 

Dhaluc dhakuc. Walking as one with 
a stiff hip joint. 

Dhgiluc dhakuoe calakkana. 

Dhalui dhalui. To shake, as anything 
hanging, or suspended ; to dangle. 

Besokoete bharime, dh9.1ui dhaluite alo liuroK- 
ma. Load (the sheaves on the cart) care- 
fully, that (the grain) may not fall through 
(the ears) dangling down. 

Dham. ") Noise, tumult ; hollow 

Dham dhum. J sound. 

Dham dhum sa(Jekana. Emits a hollow sound. 

Dhamae dhurai. To threaten, to bluster. 

Dhamae dhur?.ikateye hataokeda. He took it 
by threats. 

Dhama dhura. Cf, dham dhur. 

Dhaman phucia. Cf dhamon phucia. 

Dhamaa. /Influence, power exerted 
Dhamaste. \ on men or things, force, 

forcefulness, impression produced, 

influence exerted. 

Horko reaU gujuK dhamaste ondekhonle dar 

johkana. Influenced by the people dying 

we are leaving that place. 
Kul reak arraoK dhamastege horomo do ca- 

toKa. The roar of the tiger startles one. 
Hakim hor reak dhamaste disom horko botor 

joiia. Owing to the impression produced 

by the English the people of the country 

are afraid. 
Ojo reaU dhamaste rua rabaiigeii aikaueda. 

Owing to the influence exerted by the boil 

I feel feverish. 
Eimil reaR sade dhamaste oraK real? bhit ho 

parakena. By the force' of the thunder 

clap even the wall of the house is cracked. 
Uniak dhamaa alijomlekhanko botor godoKa. 

If they hear of his forcefulness they will 

at once take alarm. 
NondenaK dhamaste sar sipahi bako jaejnlum 

dareaka. Omng to the 'influence exerted 

by this place the raja's underKngs cannot 

oppress the people. 

Dhamcul. ") on i ■ • , • 

Dhamcul dhamcul. ) Shaking, joltmg. 

Dhg,moul dhgimcule dara. 


[ 131 ] 

Dhafigal s&ngal 

Dhamdhaser. Quickly, diligently, all 
Dhamdhaserle liam barakeda. 

Dham dhur. \ To demand with thre- 
Dhama dhura. J ats, to demand with 

Dhamdhusar. Corpulent. 
Dhame dhure. Cf. dham dhur. 
Dhamka dhamki. To rebuke, to chide ; 


Bhamka dh9.mkikakinme. Bebuke them. 
Dhamka dhamkiye k^mikana. He is working 

Dhamkao. \ To rebuke, to chide, to set 
Dhomkao. J down. 

Dhamkau. Diligently, sedulously. 

4^1 dh^mksiue k^mikana. He works very 
sedulously, he has no spare time. 

Phampa dhompo. ") Knotty, gnarled, 
Thampa thompo. J pimpled, covered 

with excrescences. 
Dhampa dhure. Diligently, sedulously, 


Dhampa dhnre g^iko 6am barakedea. 

Dhampol. To jolt, to bump, as a cart 
over stones. 

Dhampol liur go^enae sagarkhon. He was 
jolted oif the cart. 

Dhampur dhampur. The sound pro- 
duced by the dhenki (q. v.) when 
worked rapidly. 

Dhampur dhampurko huruiieda. 

Dhainri. A maid servant. 

K^mriko dh9.mriko. 

Dhamonphucia. 1 Thicker or wider at 
Dhamanphucia. j" one end than the 

other ; heavy in the forequarters, 

as a tiger, or an ox, &c. 

Noa dhamonphuoia theiiga okarem riamlaRa ? 

Dhamrokot. To toil, to labour, to 
labour and toil. 

DhamrokotkateTi oral? duaraka^a. With much 
labour I hare beoome possessed of pro- 

Dhamsao. To walk, to go. 

Berhaete dhamsao aourenale, bale liamledea. 

Dhamsao. To be influenced, to be 
affected, to be acted upon. Cf. 


Hamal kafiii goKle£ iate rua do arho dhamsao 
ruarentina. Owing to my ha-ring carried 
a heavy log of timber my fever has again 
attacked me. 

Nes oalaoen dinre dharti laraoente gota taniji 
reaK ot do dhamsaoena. The whole coun- 
try felt the effects of last year's earthquake. 

Dhamsaoentiiia. I have suffered a relapse. 

Non^enaK dharasaote sar Bipg.hi do bako jae- 
juluma. Owing to the inflnenoe of this 
place the raja's underlings do not oppress 
the people. 

Dhamuk bai.\ A convulsive fit in which 
Dhanuk bai. / the patient draws up 

his limbs. 
Dhandha. Cf. dandha. 

Dhandha. To blaze ; flaming, blazing. 

Seiigel »iji dhaudhaena. The fire blazes fiercely. 

Ma dhandhaeme. Make it blaze. 

Dhandha cabalenkhan joncjrako rapaga. When 
the fiames burn themselves out they roast 
Indian com (on the glowing embers.) 

Dhandhanao. To buzz round about, 
as a fly ; applied also to those 
who go here and there to pick up 
a living ; a tramp. 

Am dom i}han4hanao baraekana ar setam ^sul- 
koa? Tou a tramp keep dogs? 

Dhandhania. Penniless, destitute, 

Phan(Jhg.niageae, oraKre ce^ ho b^nuKtaea. 
He is utterly destitute, there is nothing in 
his house. 

Dhandka. "1 Stalks of certain crops left 
Dhandkak. J- in the ground at time of 
Darkak. J reaping ; stubble, a stalk. 
Dhandka. A species of fish. Cf 

Dhandra dhundra. To search every 


A.^i dhandra dhundra barakedeali, bad liam- 
ledea. I sought him every where but did 
not find him. 

Dhandrau. To seek, to search or look 

Dhandri. Lean, worn to a skeleton, 

with elfiin locks ; said of females. 

Dhaii. To be obstructed, impeded, to 
meet with an obstacle, to stick, 
to be aground, to be entangled. 

Jahaj oatS'nire ^Ihahena. The ship struck, and 

remained fast on a rock. 
Thehga darere ^hahena. The stick stuck in 

the tree. 

Dhandhaser. To destroy, or ruin, to 
be over thrown. 

Mondiriii dhahdhasera. I will overthrow the 

Pf^jg-^-}Tall, long Shanked. 

Marah ijh^hgi ^imai kauae. She is a big tall 

Dhahga hor. A tall man. 

Dhangal sangal. Cf. dhingal singal. 


[ 1-32 ] 


Dhangla dhangli. To cut or dig quickly 
or hastily. 

Dhangla dh9,iigliko lateda. They dug with all 

their might. 
Dhangla dh9,hgliko ge^ idikeda. They hastily 

cut it up and carried it away. 

Dhangladhas. Fallen into disrepair, 
dilapidated ; broken, ruined. 

NuiaK oral? do dhahgladhasentaea. This man's 

house hag fallen into disrepair. 
Dhahgladhaskedako. They ruined it. 

Dhanglao. To cut deeply into, to cut 
large pieces. 

Mii dholmae dhahglaoteda. He cut off a large 

Dhahglaokateye idikeda. He cut and carried 

away a large piece. 
Ote la dhaiiglaokeda. He dug deeply into the 


Dhanghar. l 

Dhanghari. |-Rich, wealthy. 


Khub dhanghar hor kanae. He is a very rich 

Dhani. A interjection of surprize; 
rich, precious ; a term of endear- 

Dhaniye sen dareaKa ? What ! can he go ? 
Dhani hor kanae. He is a rich man. 
Henda, dhani, okatem calaK kana ? Where are 
you going to, dearie p 

Dhania. Coriander seed. (Goriandruvi 

sativum, L.) 
Phanman. ITo totter, to stagger, to 
Dhanmanao. J sway to and fro; feeble, 


Eengeete dhanmanaoena. He is enfeebled 

through want. 
Bulkate 4hanmanao barae kanae. He is drunk 

and staggering. 

phanman. \To go buzzing here and 

Phanmanao. ) there, as a fly ; also 
applied to those whom hunger 
forces to go from place to place ; 
a tramp. 

Dhans.lTo go here and there in search 

Dhas. J of, to search for. 

Gotali dhaslaKa, baii liamlaKa. I searched 

every where but did not find. 
Gotali dhas acurleda. I searched all round 


Dhanuk bai. Opisthotonos. 

Dhanuk batta. The snipe, Oallinago 

scold pacinus. 
Dhao. Time. 

Mif'dhao. Once. 

Bai- dhao. Twice. 

Po dhao. Thrice. 

Adi dhao. Many times, very often. 

P?.hil dhao. 1st time. 

Dosar dhao. 2nd time. 

Dhaoa. ^ A garland of plaited stalks of 

Dhawa. I dhan which with certain 

Dhaoa. j cattle are adorned at the 

Dhawa. j Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Dhaoa bin<Ja. A sheaf of dhan taken from the 
threshing floor from which the stalks are 
taken to make garlands for. the cattle. 
What remains of the sheaf after sufficient 
to make the garlands has been extracted is 
taken to the house of the Jog M^nljhi (q. t.) 
As each household observes the ceremony 
a considerable quantity of rice is thus col- 
lected. It is cooked and divided among the 

Dhao dhao. Buzzing, as mosquitoes do. 

Sikrioko udauKkana dhao dhao. Mosquitoes 
fly buzzing about. 

Dhaora dhauri. Anxiously, diligently, 
quickly, without loss of time. 

Dhaora dhaurile liambarakedea. 
Dhaora dhaurikin Ilir rakap got'ena. They ran 
up quickly. 

Dhaosa dhausi. To search for eagerly 
or anxiously. Cf dhaora dhauri. 

Dhaosa dhausile liam barakeda. We sought 
for it anxiously. 

Phapa dhopo. Heaps, mounds ; hillocky, 
uneven. Scottice, hech's an' how's. 

Dhap dhap. ") To stamp the foot, sound 

Dhap dhup. j" of tramp tramp, or the 

thud on the ground of a blind 

man's stick. 

Baibaite calaKme alom dhap dha pa . Go quietly, 

do not stamp your feet. 
When netting hares at night the hunters drive 
them in the direction of the nets by simply 
stamping on the ground with the feet. 

Phap dhap. Sound of flapping, or 
clapping of wings. 

Dhap dhap sadetakoa phakrak do. They are 
clapping their wings. 

phap dhup. Sound of knocking or 
rapping on the ground. 

Ul riuroftkana dhap dhup. The mangoes fall 
with a thud. 

Dhaper. Hurriedly, quickly ; to hurry. 

Adi dhaperoK hoyoktapea, baiikhan oh ope seter- 
lena. Tou must hurry, or else you will not 
arrive (in time.) 

4.di dhaperle heoena. We came very quickly. 

Dhapi. The part of a flute from where 
the finger holes cease to the end. 

Dhapi badha. A kind of wooden sandal. Cf. 

Dhapka. Lazy, shirking work, as a 
bullock that lies down at the plough. 

Dhapkao. To put down, to set down. 

Lo birre bako dhapkao darealea. At the burnt 
jungle they will not be able to silence us. 


[ 133 1 

Dharo dhiu 


Dhapua. Deformed, unshapely. 

Dhapug, mara hoy. 

Dhar. Edge, line. 

Churi dliarana. A knife lias an edge. 
Dene banar dharana . Two edged. 
Dhar bhotroena. The edge is iDluiited. 

Dhar. To buy on credit, to run 

Dharteye ^gukeda. He bought it on credit. 
^ Ein dharkate. Borrowing and getting on credit. 

Dhara. The side, from the armpit to 
the thigh, the lower side of the 

Dhara. A measure of 10 seers ; 10 
seers in weight or in measure. 

Dhara. Section. 

Oka dharate bioar hoeena ? Under what section 
was he tried? 

Dhara. To collect outstandings, to 

Dharae lagit'em hedena? Have you come to 

dun us? 

Dhara bandha. Against one's will, for- 
cibly, nolens volens. 

Dhara bandhako sap idikediila. They seized 
and took me away against my will. 

Dhara dhari. \ Neighbourhood, vicinity, 
Dhara dhure.J edge. 

Nia dhara dharikore b9.nuKan. There is none 
in this neighbourhood. 

Dhara dhari. Quickly. 

Adi dhara dharile k9.mikeda, cababedale. We 
worked very quickly, we have finished it. 

Dhara dhari. To pull, to offer violence. 

Adi dhara dharikediriae, mahajon do. The 
money lender knocked me about. 

Dharae. I Thudding, bumping, or 
Dhaias. J thumping sound. 

Dharae mente saije got'ena. It sounded thud. 

Dharas menue liurena. It fell with a thud. 

Dharae dhapae. Quickly, hastily, hur- 

Dharae dhapaeye calao gotena,. He left hastily. 

Dharahara. Fine, large, substantial; 
splendid mansion-like housa 

Dharahara menaUtakoa catom oraK. 
possess a fine paviHon-roofed house. 

Dharahi. Steep-roofed, slope of roof 

at a high angle. 
Dharak dhorok, Tender in the feet ; 

'to step gingerly owing to feet 

being tender. 

Jiihga dharaK dhofoKentaea. His feet are 
DharS dioroKe tarama. He steps gingerly. 


Dharan dharan. Ding dong of a bell. 

Dharan dhurun. ") Applied to the so- 
Dhuruii dhurun. J unci prcjduced 
when two bells of different tones 
are struck one after the other. 

Dharan (Jhuruh sa(^ekana. They sound ding dong, 
ding dong. 

Dharao. To owe, to be in debt. 

Iii ren kisar real? tinaKem dharaotaea ? How 
much owest thou my master ? 

Dharao. To reside. 

Okarepe <Jharaolena? Where did you reside? 
Okare gunpalanpe (JharaolaKa ? Where do you 
reside ? 

Dharao, "1 To pour, to pour into a 

Dhardharao. J mould. 

Sona realt sakomifi t^haraoa. 

Met dak (Jhardharoentaea. His tears flowed. 

Dharap. A trap ; to be caught as by 
a trap falling on one. 

Ka^te dharapenae. Apiece of timber fell on 
him (and crushed him.) 

Dharar. \ Sound of creaking, or 

Dharar dharar. j of cracking. 

Dharar dharar jhijokkana sUpili do. The door 
creaks when being opened. 

Dharar dharar mat' paragokkana. The bam- 
boos split with a crack. 

Dharas. Cf dharae 

Dharas mente rapuf ena. It broke with a crack. 

Dhar dhar. Streaming, trickling, eyes 
to till with tears. 
Dhar (Jhar met' dak joroKkana. Tears trickle 

Dhardhar. \To slide or roll down a 
Dhardharao. J steep place, to roll down, 
as a stone. 

Dhardharao argonkanae. He comes sliding 

Dhardhari. l A slope, an incline ; 
Dhardharia. j sloping, steep. 

Dhardharia hor kana. It is a steep road. 

Dhar dhur. Quickl}^ 
Dhar dhur. To conciliate, to influence 
by importunity. 

Ma noKoe bogetepe ruaKkana, ado noko bohga 
dhar (Jhurkope. See how your family is 
suffering from fever, offer a libation to the 

Dhar dhur. At the edge, on the outside. 

Dhar dhuriA Aamkeda. I got (fields) on the 
out side. 

Dhar dhur. Noise of rushing footsteps 
Dhar dhure darkeda. 

Dhare dhure. Neighbouring, near, on 
the margin. 


[ 134 ] 


Dharen. A beam which supports the 
ridge pole of a house. 

Dhargoc. 1 To fall into disrepair, ruin- 
Jhargoc. j ous. 

Dhargul?. T To jolt or stumble 

DharguM dharguk. J owing to hollows 
in the road. 

Khet pincjhe {henem dhargugoKa, liind?ire. 

Dhargu dhargu. Large, big. 
Dhargu sargu. Large, big. 

Dhargu s^rgu joakana. The fruit is of large 


Dhari. 1^1 
Dhar. j^^S^- 

Pinija dh^ri. The edge of the verandha. 
Kiorio real? dhg.ri. The edge of the cloth. 

Dharid. Until, up to, so long as. 

Nondele tahen dh^irio. So long aa we remain 

GnjiiK dharid. Until death. 

DharkaM dhorkok.lRough and uneven, 
DharkaK dhorkok.j as a road crossed 
by many unbridged water courses ; 
full of holes, over which a cart jolts; 
to descend with a jolt, as one step- 
ping into a hollow unwittingly. 

Noa horte babo calaKa, sidi dharkak dhorkoK- 
gea. We will not go this way as it is full 
of hollows. 

G9.iji 9.di dharkaK dhorkogoKa. The cart will 
go into the hollows with a fearful jolt. 

DharkaK dhorkoK ^^i haronted oalaoena. I 
went with very great difficulty climbing up 
and going down. 

Dharkao. To finish, to complete, to 


Car pane moniA dharkaoakaf a. I hare finished 

four or fivemaunds (of seed.) 
K^mi doii dharkaoakat'a. I have completed 

the work. 

Dharkao. To take water out of one 
vessel by tipping it up and al- 
lowing it to run into another 

Pherena daK, ma dharkao 9.dhime. There is too 
much water (in the pot), lessen it by tipping 
it up and allowing some to run out. 

Dharkat. Quarrelsome, violent, oppres- 
sive, disobedient. 

Marah dharka( hor kanae. 

Dharkau. To impress, as into service ; 
to force. 

Bogarko dh^irkaukedea. They impressed him 

to work. 
Ma dharkau idiem. Force him to go. 

Dharkuc. To jerk, to jolt, to bump. 

Dharkuk. Cf dharguk. 

Dharkul markul. Hair on end, or loose 
and flying about. 

Okate ho mamo dharkul m^rkulem day kanaF 

Dharle. 'I 

Dharlege. [Certainly, doubtless. 


Dharlege non(Je menaea. He is certainly here. 

Dharma korma. "{Without assurance, 
Dhorma korma. / without much hope 
or expectation, on chance. 

Dhorma korma monteli senlena. I went with 
little expectation. 

Dharmus. ") An instrument used to 
Dhurmus. J beat down earth. 

Dhama. A mode of extorting payment 
of a debt or compliance with any 
demand by making the person sit 
in the sun, or in any other way 
making him uncomfortable ; to sit 
till prayer is granted. 

Dhamakedeako. They made him ait in the sun 
till he acceded to their demand. 

Dharna ahgakediiiae. He kept me a prisoner 
the whole night. 

Pharos. Firmness of mind, encourage- 
ment, bravery, presence of mind. 

Bae dharos dareada. He could not brave it. 

Dharra. M. \ Under side of the body 
Dharri. F. J more or less white, the 

rest black ; applied to goats and 


Dharra boda. A black and white he-goat. 
Dharri ehga. A black and white she-goat. 
Kabra dharra. Speckled, spotted with white. 

Dharsar. Steep, as an incline. 

Dharti. The world, the universe. 

Dharua. A debtor, a borrower ; to be 
in debt. 

A^iye dharug.ena. He is deeply indebted. 

Dharuk dhacuk. Hair loose and hang- 
ing down ; to search for with 
labour or diligence. 

Dharuk dharuk. To limp or walk as 
a man with a crutch. 

Dharumdhak. Very much, greatly, ap- 
plied to swellings. 

Dh?irumdhaEe moakana. He ia very much 

Dharun. To cease, to clear up after 
rain ; dry weather, 
Dh^rnnakafae. It has ceased] raining. 


[ 135 ] 


Dharwali. ") A small branch with the 
Dhauralc. J leaves on ; a twig of the 
Sarjom (q. v.) tree with the leaves 
on sent from village to village 
advertising a hunt or any other 
gathering ; the Santal " Fiery 

Matkom (Jh^urg.!!. A small branch of the 
Matbom (q. v.) tree. 

Sarjom (Jh9.ur9.R. A small branch of the Sarjom 
(q. V.) tree. 

Ado onte note sedra <Jh9iur9.U ato atoe kola, arko 
kulikoa, "Oka realf dhaur?iK baba P ' ' Adoe 
l9,iakoa, "KubriBirreaK," " Tiabo boloKa ? 
BudhiloK," He sends the branch adverti- 
sing the hunt to the villages round about, 
and they ask, &c. 

Dhas. To go in search of, to search for. 

Gotaii dhas giourlaKa, enh5 Ijaii liamlaKa. I 
searched aU round, still I did not find. 

Dhasao. To collapse, as a wall; to 
fall in, as a river bank undermined 
by the water ; to slip down, as a 

Bnm dhasaoena. There has been a landslip 
on the hill. 

Dhaskao. To fall down, to collapse, 
to tumble down. 
Bum dhaskaoena. There has been a landslip 
on the hill. 

Dhasna. The part nearest the foot of 
the slope of a hill, or other incline. 

Dhat. An exclamation of vexation. 

•pj, , ■ >.A mineral, a metal. 
Dhat. Likeness, resemblance. 

TJni dh^tgeii lielkedea. I saw he bore a resem- 
blance to him. 

Dhat. The pulse at the wrists. 

Mase dhat atkartaeme. Feel his pulse. 

Dhat dhat. Cf, cai dhat dhat. 
Dhatha duthu. Huge, adult, grown up. 

Eken datha ^uthu hof menaKkoa. There are 
only adults. 

Dhathi. Hereditary qualities or dis- 

Apat reaK dhgithigeye sapaka^a. He has 
inherited his father's disposition 

Dhathi. Persistent, inexorable. 
Dhathi. The stubble or stumps of 

certain crops left in the gi-ound at 

reaping time. 
Dhatka. To deny, to repudiate, to 

unsay, to disavow. 
Dhatkaha. A deliverer, a saviour. 

I shall boat you pre- 


DhatiA. To beat, 

Dhatill niealeah nahalt. 

Dhatiiitiii. A rattat played on 
drum to gather the dancers. 

Oteko dhatiAtirtkeda. Listen, they have 
beaten the " dh9,tilitili" rattat. 

Dhatir. To strike, to hit, to slap. 

Dhatireme. Give him a slap. 

Dhatpat. Quickly, withotit delay. 

Dhatu. A mineral, a metal. 

Dhatuak. Cf dare dhatuak. 

Dhawa dhawi. Separated only by a 
little distance or time, on the 
heels of 

Dhawa dhq,wiko palijafcedilia. They followed 

at my heels. 
Dhawa dh9.wiko heoena. They came one closely 

following another. 

Dhau. ~> Blazing, flaming, bright- 

Dhau dhau. J ly. 

Dhau dhau sehgel jololf kana. The fire blazes. 

Dhaurak. Cf, dharwak. 

Dhawa. ] r^j. ,, „ 
Dhawa. |Cf.dhaoa. 

Dhean. To fast, to stop feeding, as 
caterpillars do before moulting. 

Lum^mko dheanakana uroS l^gidoKkanako. 
The silk worms have stopped feeding, they 
are about to slough. 

Dheba. M. \ 

Dhiba. 1 M. [-Short of stature. 

Dhibi. /F.J 

Dhebdhebe. M. "It,- v it- a 

Dhib dhibi. F. r^g-^^"^^*^- 

Dhecok. To limp, as a man with legs 
of unequal length. 

Dhecok dhecok. Limping. 
PheooK iJheooKe calaKkana. He goes limping. 

■p,„ ■ [ To lounge, to loaf about. 

Horko theo dedher baraekanac. He lounges 
about other people's houses. 

Dhebra. M. } ghort of stature. 
Dhibri. b. ) 

Ona atoren kora kuriko do sanam dhebra dhi- 
brigeako. The young men and maids of 
that village are all short in stature. 

Phebra dhibri dareakana. The plants are all 

Dhedrg. To lounge or loaf about. Cf 


[ 136 ] 


Dhedre. 1 Worn out, disreput- 

Dhedre dhedre. J able looking, dis- 
graceful, dilapidated. 

Dhedre dhedre oraKtae. His house is a dila- 
pidated hovel. 
Dhedre mara aimai. A slattern. 

Dhej. To succeed, to accomplish, able 
to do ; stamina, ability. 

Oka dhej ho bae kamikana. 

Dhej dhon. "(Improper, the reverse 
Dhejna dhon. J of what ought to be. 

Dhejna dhonem iJ.elolikaiia. You do not look 

Dhejna (|lhoii tilokakanae. 

Dhejraha. M.\ Slovenly, slatternly, 
Dhejrahi. F. J dirty in habits. 

Dhekar. To belch. 

Dhgkjora. } ^ "P^'^^®" °^ ^^*^^ f°^^l- 
Dhela. A common forest tree, Alati- 
giiun Lamurchii, T/uvs. 

-p., .. ■ v A clod of earth. 

Dhemali. 7 tji i i 

■p., •,. >idle, lazy, careless. 

Adi dhemali kanam. You are very careless. 

Dhena. A disease affecting cattle. 
Dhena. 1 „ n 

Dhena gidrg.. A small child. 
Dhena cere. A small bird. 

Dhencak dhencak. Limpingly, limping. 

Dhelicak dheilcake calakkana. He is limping. 

Dhencok. To limp, to go lame. 

Dheiiook (JhelSooKe oalaUkana. He is limping. 
Dhendra. Having thin scanty hair, 

bare, as a tree. 
Dhenka. A species of crane. 

Dhenka. Tall, long shanked. 

Dhehka sosroo. A species of grasshopper. 

Dhenha. Cf. dhena. 
DhSore. Cf. dedher. 
Dheo. A wave. 

Gada argonkhan iJheoBa. If the river be- 
comes flooded waves will be formed. 

Dhep dhep. Sound produced by 

Dhep dhepe (Jhekareda. 

Dher. Many, much, excessive, the 
majority; to increase, to become 

Kin 4herentil5a. My debt has become large. 

Dhera. A hand spindle. 

DhSrg dhepe. It j. i i ^ 

f._ ^ ,■ ^ y Lean, worn to a skeleton. 
Dere depe. j ' 

DhgrS clhgrS. Buzzing, to go here and 
there, as a fly. 

Jel baste ro dhere dhereko udau baraekana. 
The smell of the flesh brings the flies buzzing 

NahaK do akoge ro lekako dhere dhere barae- 
kana. They themselves now go buzzing 
about like flies (seeking food. Said of those 
who were arrogant when rich, but who 
becoming poor go about seeking something 
to eat.) 

Dhere dhere. Whirring, as a fly wheel 
off the perpendicular. 

Carkha dhere dhere sadekkana. The spinning 
wheel whirrs. 

Dhere dhere. Lazy and disinclined 
to move through having eaten too 

Jom dhere dhereenae. He has eaten so much 
that he objects to move. 

Dhere dhere. 'Eyes fixed, staring as 
when dying, or dead. 

Dhere dhereye beriget urickeda. 

Dhgrgpete. Lean, emaciated, worn to 
a shadow. 

Dherkaete. Especially, as a rule, gen- 
DhSs. To make excuse ; excuse. 

Dhes alom lagaoa. Do not make an excuse. 

Dhgsa dhlsi. To excuse oneself and 

blame another. 
Dhia puta. The entire family. 

Joto dhia pntako oalaoena. The entire family 
is gone. 

Dhibri F. \ Having a voracious appe- 
Dhebra M. J tite and a big round 

belly, applied to children ; small of 

Dhibri jondra. A stunted variety of 

Indian corn which ripens earlier 

than the common variety. 
Dhibua. A pice. 

Dhi damad. Daughter and her hus- 

Dhidhi. An exclamation of vexation 
or displeasure. 

Dhidr'k. Bold, fearless. 

Dhiko dhoro. Cf. dhiso dhoro. 
DhilTur. Sound of tiiumping, as that 
made by the dhinki (q. v.) 


[ 137 ] 


Phil. Careless, slack ; to neglect, to lose 
heart, as a person in sickness. 

Barg,hi ijhilkam. Slacken the rope. 
Hormoe <lhilakat'a. He haa lost heart, or given 
way to his illness. 

Dhilau. To neglect, to slacken atten- 

Philiiii goekedeali. I killed him by neglect. 
Alope (Jhilauea. Do not neglect him. 

Phil dhoko6. Loose, slack. 

Phil (Jhokocko bit'aka€a. They have not fixed 

_ the post firmly 
Phil dhokodko tolakat'a. They have bound (the 
_ bundle of firewood) loosely. 

Phili sili. Careless, lazy ; to be care- 
less or lazy. 
Phili sili hor kanae. He is a lazy fellow. 
Alom ^hili silia. Do not put off your time. 

Philod dholon. Loosely, slack, the 
opposite of firmly or tightly. 

Philoii ^holoii oka doko joraokoa. Sometimes 
they yoke them (the buffaloes) slaokly. 

Sanam (Jhilon dholonena, orali haramente. 
Every thing has become alack owing to the 
house being old. 

Dhilpur. Cf. dhirpur. 

Philua. A bamboo or piece of wood 
on which men swing at the Dasae 
(q. V.) festival. 

Philwan. To hang suspended by the 

hands, or as bats by their claws. 
Dhima. Mild, good tempered. 
Phimalia. Cf. dhemali. 

Dhimba. ") , , 
Dhimsi. Slightly, opposite of tight. 
Dhimsi punsi.") Untidy, scattered ab- 
Dhunsi punsi. J out, higgledy piggledy, 

Samtiaoalfpe dhimsi punsikeda. You have 
scattered what had been put together. 

OraK sarim do sanam dhimsi pnnsikedako sim 
do. The fowls have disarranged the 
thatch on the roof. 

Dhimsi pnnsikedae. 

Dhinan. After-part of the day, after- 
noon, later on in the afternoon. 

Dhingur. Span between the thumb 
and fore finger. 

Bit?.. Span between the thumb and little fin- 


Bey. Span between the thumb and little fin- 

Dhinki. Wooden machine for husking 
and cleaning grain. 


Dhinkia. A crack shot with a bow 
and arrow. 

Phinku. To tilt up; mot. to harm 

Ror (Jhihkuanae. He was convicted out of his 

own mouth. 
Nondert otalokhan hauije dhiiilculja. If I press 

down here the other end will tilt up. 

Dhinkur. Sound of thumping, as that 
made when the dhinki is being 

Dhinwar. A jingle with dhlru (q. v.) 
Dhip. Coast, shore, valley, bank of 
river ; an island. 

Barakar (Jhip. The valley of the Barakar river. 
Darah dhip. A precipice. 

Dhipau. To heat solids; to be hot, 
as in fever ; to be zealous, to be 

Hormo dhip^uakantaea. His body is hot. 
Merhet' dhipaukateko pitaua. They heat the 
iron and then hammer it. 

Dhipcui. The King Crow, Dicrurus 

Dhipi. 1 A mark where boundaries of 
Phipu. J three villages meet. 


Dhit ( ^^ exclamation of vexation. 

Dhira dhiri. Quarrelling and threat- 
ening each other. 

Dhir^ dhirikin kaphjriauKkana. 

Dhirau. To threaten future harm or 


Dhirau dohokediiiae, delmealah nahak. 

Dhire suste. Slowly, by degrees, grad- 

Dhire austeteli emkatama. I shall pay you 

Dhirhak. An exclamation of vexation, 
or annoyance. 

DhirhaK ! bape kamikana. 

Dhiri. A stone. 

Dhiri ot. Stoney ground. 

Dhiri katkom. A species of crab which is often 

found under stones. 
Dhiri banda. Orchids which grow on rocks. 

Dhiri japak. A small flowering plant, 
Begonia picta, Sm. 

Dhirik. "i Loathsome, nauseating, dis- 
Bhirik. j gusting, sickening. 

Jiwi dhirikentiAa. I am nauseated. 


[ 138 ] 


Dhirja. 1 Self-denial, contentment, 
Dhirjau. / temperance, patience, self- 

Dhirja do b?mnKtama? Ha¥Q you no self- 
restraint ? 


Dhirkarahak. J tion, or annoyance. 

■p., • . . ! Neglected, worn out, 

Diiiron soron. >■ ° \ ■u^ 

Til . . unpresentable. 

JUnoron porou. J ^ 

DhiroiisoroixiiimandaKkana. lam unpresent- 
able from a cold. 
Dhiroii soroh gota pe sakriakafa. 

Dhirpur. To be contented, to be 
Ere rorte bae dhirpurlenteye dib got'ena. 
Not being satisfied with a lie he must needs 
swear to it. 

Dhirii. To bring forth young, said of 
a cow. C£ dhinwar. 

Dhir& gg-i. A cow with a calf, 

Dhismis.lCor. of the English legal 
Dismis. / term " dismiss." 
Dhisodhoro. \ Bowels loose, slight diarr- 
Dhikodhoro.J hcea. 

Dhisodhoro lioKakanali. I have a slight attack 

of diarrhoea. 
Phisodhoroii a^kareda. I feel a touch of 


Dhiso dhoro. Dirty, unwashed, un- 

Dhlt. Forward, froward, wilful, obs- 
tinate, impudent. 

Dhit. An interjection of annoyance. 

Dhit ! alom onkawalla. 
Dhii ! ili hiriiikeda. 

Dhltao. "I Quarrelsome, seeking oppor- 
DhSthao./ tunity to pick a quarrel. 

Sill satup ^'^^thaogeye iSamkana. He la always 
on the look out for an opportunity to pick 
a quarrel. 



Katha reaR dhitho banuKtaea. 

Dhiusi. 7 Tacked on, slightly attached 
i)himsi. J to, flimsily tied. 

Tolre nasenakgeil (Jhiusialcada. I did not tie it 

with a strong thread. 
Sadom do khuntire (Jhiuaiakadeae. He has not 

tied the horse securely to the post. 
Barslii ganem (Jhiusi AoKlena. Tou only stayed 

a few days. 

Dhoao. To carry. 

Am do nia katha ijhoao otoaeme. Ili do oholi 
dhoao darelea. Carry this me8ei».ge to him. 
i cannot carry it. 

NunaK do ohoii (Jhoao darelea. I will not be 
able to carry so much. " 

ho. ") /-, , • , 
I" Certainty. 

Dhob. Form, shape, pattern ; comely, 
artistic, elaborate, as a carving. 

Noa do adi (Jhobko benaoaka£a. This is beauti- 
fully made. 

Dhob dhobo. ") Big bellied, like a snake 
Dob dobo. J that has just swal- 
lowed a meal. 
Dhobea. ") Applied to a person wasted 
Dobea. J by illness who has a protu- 
berant stomach, as one suffering 
from enlarged spleen. 

Dhobeaenae mate. 

Dhobok. Cf. dhombak. 

Dhocol dhocol. Cf dhucul dhucul, 

Dhocor. Proud, froward, self-willed. 

Adi dhocorae. He is very self-willed. 

Ac dhocor lekae oalaka. He will go his own way. 

Dhodhia sauri. "l A tall hill grass used 
Dhudhia sauri. >- for thatching pur- 
Dhudhi sauri. J poses Apluda aris- 
tata, Linn. 

Dhodia. ") A withered leaf of the 
Dhoia. j Palmyra palm. 

Dhodlo. ") Wide, loosely [fitting, as a 
Dhodo. J garment ; corpulent. 

Dhodo dhodo. Sound of drumming. 

Pholko ruia dhodo dho^o. 

Dhodor dhodor. Sound produced by a 
cracked drum, 

Gherako ruia dhodor dhodor. 

Dhodor podor. '\ In disrepair, dilapi- 
Dhodor pador. J- dated, filthy, clum- 
Dhoron poron.j sily executed. 

Dhoroii poron jh^mtiko etetakat'a. The fence 
has been clumsily put up. 

Dhodra. ") tt n • , 

Dhodro. Worn out, worn into holes. 

Dhodro khacl9.K. A basket with holes in the 

Dhodya. M. ") Fault-finding, scolding, 
Dhodyo. F. J complaining. 

Dhodya mara haram. A complaining old fellow. 
Dhodyo mara bu'^hi. An old scold. 

Dhodyo. Hollow, as a pipe, etc. 

Dhoena dalj. Water which has been 

allowed to stand in a cooking pot 

over night. 
Plioena dafi ho ohom Jiamlea, Tou will not even 

get the water which hag been in the 

cooking pot over night. 


[ 139 ] 


Dhoia. Of. dhodia. 

Dhoj. Highest point of a tree. 


Dhok. [-Weariness, fatigue. 


Dhokbo maraoa. "We will rest 

Nirdhok. Uuwenriedly, severe, exoeasive. 

Dhok. Convenience, call. 

AmaK dhoktegeii oalaKa ? Shall 1 go to suit 
your oonTenienoe ? 

Dh6k. The asthma ; phthisis. 

K»si dhok. Bronchitis. 

Dokh ' f ^° doubt, to deceive. 

Get' Igigifem dhokalena? Wherefore didst thou 
doubt P 

Dhok dhok. ■) Gulping sound, or that 
Dhok dhokao. J made by water poured 

out of a bottle, or by a bear when 

it charges. 

Phok dhokao gofkedae bana do. 

Phok dhokifi liukeda. I gulped it down. 

Dhok dhok. Gurgling sound, as water 
poured out of a bottle. Of. dhok 

DaKko duleda (JhoK (JhoK. The water gurgles 
as they pour it out. 

Dhok jiba. At random, on chance, in 
sheer despair. 

Dare baA aik^ueda dhok jib^ili kg-mikana. 

Dhokha. To doubt, to deceive, to make 

Dhokok dhokok. The sound produced 

when water is shaken in a bottle, 

or a rotten egg held to the ear 

and shaken. 


[ No, not, a scornful negative. 

Dhokor satir bam calaolen. 

Dhokor bae heolenkhan babon kami dareaEa , 

DhokorlaEae agulaSae. 

Dhokor pokor.-) jj^j,^.g^l j^^^til 
Dhakar pakar. ) 

Dhokor pokore jomkeda. He took his food m 

a hurry. 
Kirifi go^kedall dhokor pokor. I made my 

purchases hurriedly. 

Dhokra Dom. ") A section of the semi- 
bhapra Dom. J Hinduised caste of 

Dhokran. ^How provoking; how 
Dhokranak. \ annoying ; used main- 
Dhokrani6. J ly by women. 

Dhok'ranaKge ?.4ili ru9.Kkana. How proTokuig, 
I have taken strong fever. 

A species of waterfowl. 

Dhokyanakgell hif ili otokada. How provoking, 
I have forgotten it. (left it behind.) 

Dhokfanio bae sonlena. How provoking, she 
has not gone. 

Dhokre. "J Crooked, bent, curled up ; 

Dhokret. J to jerk the hip when 

walking as one with a stiff hip 


Panahi dhokrefentilia. My shoes are worn 

away on one side. 
Noa theiiga dhokrellgea. This walking stick 

is crooked. 

Dhol. A drum beaten on one end by a 
stick and on the other by the 


Dholma. A large piece of raw meat, 
generally without bones. 

Mi£ dholmako emadiila. They gave me a large 
piece of raw meat. 

Dholo. Fat and lazy, applied to women. 
Dholomolo. Out of sorts, depressed, 

looking or feeling seedy, sickly or 

drowsy looking. 

Dholomolom rieloKkana. You look depressed. 

Dhoma. A lump, a large piece, gener- 
ally of meat. 

Mi£ dhoma jele cha<Jao dohokeftiri lekaii aikau- 
keda. I felt as if he had torn away a lump 
of my flesh. 

Dhombok. ] 

bhumbak. j-To be curled up. 
Dhobok. j 

Dhomkao. To rebuke, to chide, to 
set down. 

Dhomkao go^kefkoae. He rebuked them sharply 

Dhomok. Arrogance, haughtiness^ 

Dhomok comok. Threat, 

Dhomok oomok uduKakome. Threaten them. 

Dhomokia. Haughty, arrogant, proud, 

Dhomos. \ Influence, effect, prestige ; 
Dhomoste. J by force of, by means 

of, through. Cf. dhamas. 

Kul taraa reaK dhomos alijom teko bind9.rena. 

Hoe dhomostege orak dalkaoena. 

BohoK haso dhomoste gota hormo hasoediaa. 

Euhei dhomosteko thirena. 

Bijli reaK dhomosteii dalkao gofena. 

DaK dhomoste oraK jarkaoena. 


[ 140 ] 


Dhompo. Lump, knot, mound. 

Gira dhompo. The knots tied on a, string to 

keep accounts with. 
Dare ^hompo. A common annual plant found 

about villages, Leonatis nepetcefoUa, B. Br. 

Ot dhompo. Lepidagathis cristata, Willd., a 
plant found on elevated dry situations, with 
inflorescence resembling a ball. 

Non^lege/i are glhompo lioga. I shall raise a 
ridge (or an embankment) here. 

Dhomsol. Fat and unwieldy, bulky, 
over-stout, applied only to women. 

Am do dhomsol mara aimai. 

Dhon. Wealth, goods, property. 

Dhon durib. fioods and chatties. 

Dhona. A term of endearment applied 
to children ; my treasure, my sweet, 
my precious one. 

Dhond. A species of snake found in 

Ea-^dhond"^' | Varieties of the "dhond" dis- 
Ayai^honcl. ) tinguished by Santals. 

Phondra phuruk. A large leaf cup. 

Dhondra khalak. A large leaf cup. 

Dhon. Ugly, ill looking, used generally 
in fault finding. Cf. dhej dhon. 

Phoiie lieloKkana. She is not good looking. 

phonga. A dugout, a boat made from 
a hollowed out tree, a wooden 

Dhongol phosol. Carelessly, anyhow, 
taking no interest in the work one 

Dhongol phosolko sioKkana. They are plough- 
ing carelessly. 

DhSnj . Necessity, pressure of business, 

Cei dhonj lagaoamkanaP What urgency is 
impelling you ? 

Dhontho. 1 . i , 

j., ■ >A knot, an excrescence. 

Dare realf dhont;o. An excrescence on a tree. 

Phop dhop. Sound of rapping or 
knocking ; to knock. 

Phop dhoppe ado jhioapea. Knock and it shall 
be opened unto you. 

phop dhop. Sound emitted by a 
drum with a hole in it, or one that 
requires lacing. 

Dhopo. A hillock. 

Bi\num dhopo. An ant hill. 
Hane han(^e dhopo lielol^kan. Look, there is 
a mound over there. 

Phopsa. M. 1 Suffering slightly 

Dhopsaha. M. > from dropsy, body 
Dhupsi. F. J swollen. 

Dhopyo. Old and weak. 

Dhopyo mara hor. An old dry stick. 

Dholabat. I ^^^X^^' "'''^^' °^^ 
Dhorage. J ^' 

Huijuredae, dhorage liindae daga. It is thun- 
dering, it will certainly rain during the 

Dhora bandha. Forcibly, to take no 

AmaK kusi leka, dhora bandha ohofi idilema. 

As you please, I will not take you forcibly. 
Dhora bandhako jom ocokedea. They insisted 

on his eating. 

Dhora dhori. Blusteringly, threaten- 
ingly, forcibly. 

Dhora dhoriko idikedea . They took him away 
with a certain amount of force. 

Dhorao. To seize, to emply force. 

Dhorao idikedeako. They seized and took him 

Dhorao. To begin, to set to, engage in. 
Cf. dhurau. 

Ma sehgel dhoraome, dalf mandiabon. 
Kamireli dhoraolenkhan oholi ruarlena. 
Dakare dhoraoakanae, oboe cekalena nui gidrg. 

Dhorat. \ A premium on a loan of 
Dhorati. J money or grain. 

The amoiant of premium given is generally one 
anna in the rupee, and is returned to the 
money lender, out of the amount given on 
loan, at the time the loan is made. 

Mit; taka emaiime, mit ana dhoratiA emama. 
Give me one rupee, I shall return you one 
anna as premium. 

Phordhosaha. Without sufficient 
cause or reason ; feignedly, preten- 

Phordhosaha nonde khone calaoena, atra dhur 
ho thgitie bae senlena. He feigned going 
away, but he did not even go half-way. 

Phordhosahae kokoekana. He begs without 
reason (as he has plenty.) 

Phordhosahae raK baraeda. He cries with- 
out cause. 

Dhorma korma. Without assurance, 
with little expectation, on chance. 

Phoro dhoro. To gaze intently, to 

Dhoro dhoso. Untidy, en dcshabilM, 
dirty, messy. 

Dhorok. To limp ; lame. 

PhoroU dhoroKe calaUkana. He is limping. 


[ 1^1 ] 

Dhuku cuku 

Dhorom. Truth, justice ; right, holy ; 
religion ; to consecrate, to sanctify. 

Dhorom Korom. Reputation. 

Dhorom korom b^niiRtaea. He has no reputa- 

Neo dhorom. Ceremonial sanotifioation. 

Naeke doe dhoromoKa. The priest sanctifies 

DhorOn poron. ") 

Out of sorts, indis- 
posed, filthy, dila- 

Dhoron soron 

Mandate dhoron sorohid afkareda. I am very 
uncomfortable owing to a cold in the head. 

Dhorori. ") A small horn made of brass 

Dhoruri. J or copper. 

Dhoro^ dhopot. \ Applied to the sound 

Dhoro£ dhoroi J emitted by the tum- 
dak (q. v.) drum when the varnish 
has been worn off. Cf dhorot; 

Dhorot dhorot'. Worn and cracked, as 
feet with much walking ; much 
worn, as a shoe ; cracked, as a 
plank, earthenware vessel, drum, 
&c. ; footsore. 

Tamak dhorot' dhorot' sa^elcana. The tamak 
(drum) emits a cracked sound. 

JatrikoaK jatiga senoK senokte dhorot' dhoro- 
doKkantakoa. The pilgrims with continued 
walking are becoming footsore. 

Dhorpo. Cf dhopyo. 

Dhorsa. Applied to both species of 
the Hornbill {Hydrocissa cor- 
onata, and Meniceros hicornis) 
found in the Santal country when 
speaking of them in the presence 
of women, chamachako (q. v.) being 

Dhorsot morsol Ugly, unpreposses- 
sing and dirty. 

Dhosma dhusmi. Going from house 
to house. 

Ona oraK noa oraK ^hosma qlhusmi baraeae. 
He keeps going from one house to another. 

Dhosodhoro. Dirty, unkempt. 
Dhowa bhowa.\Doubtful, uncertain, he- 
Dowa bowa. J sitating. 

Dhowa bhowae atkareda ; calak coe bah co. 
He is uncertain ; he may not go. 

Dhoyo^ dhopot. ~) With faltering steps, 
Dhoyol! dhoyol;. J slowly, as an old 

Korae metaekana, baiima, haram her leka 
dhoyo6 dhoyoCem calaKkana. He says to 
the young man, you move with faltering 
steps like an old man. 

Dhua. Smoke ; to smoke. 

Dhuakos. A steam ship. 

Dhua rata. To place in smoke, to 
smoke, as hams are smoked. 

Dhua ratalenkhan huti bako joma. If it is 

smoked insects will not eat it. 
Dhua rata baj'aadiliako. They roasted it for me 

(Indian com.) 

Dhubi. A caste of Hindus, many of 
whom are washermen. 

Dhubi. To wash clothes. 
N?.uke£ dhubiket'. 

Dhubi ghas. A common grass, Cynodon 
Lactylon, Pers. 

Dhubi tasak. The name by which 
Cynodon Dactylon Pers. 
(dhubi ghas. q. v.) is referred to 
when employed in the ceremony 
known as cumaura. (q. v.) 

Dhucul dhucul. Shaking the body. 

Dhucul dhucule calakkana. He walks shaking 
his body. 

Dhudhua. A small earthenware pot, 
the di-ied scrotum of a bull, used 
to carry oil in. 

Dhui. A boundary mark. 

Dhui marte. \With a thud, or thump, 

Dhui inente.J as a fruit falls from a 
palmj'ra tree. 

Dhui mente liurenae. Fell with a thud. 
Dhui marte dalkedeae. He thumped him. 

Dhuka. Hot ; to be hot. 

Dhukgi din. The hot weather. 

Dhuka dhuki. To altercate, to dispute 

Adi dhuka dhukikin kaph?iri?ulena. They had 
an angry altercation. 

Dhuk dhuk. \ To pant, to palpitate, 
Dhuk dhukao. / go pita-pat, to throb, 

to flutter, to be frightened. Cf 

dhak dhak. 
Dhukau. To blow bellows. 
Dhukni. An unmarried woman who 

enters the house of the man of 

her choice, and thus compels him 

to marry her. 
Dhukri. A beggar's wallet. 
Dhuku cuku. ") To be uncertain, to be 
Dhaku puku. J in a quandary, to be 

unable to decide as to what to do 

or say. Scottice, swither. 

CalaK lagit' dhuku cukuKkanae. He cannot 
make up his mind to go. 


[, 142 ] 

Dhunsi punsi 

Dhulki. A kind of drum beaten with 

the fingers. 
Dhulki. Fat, stout, applied to girls. 
Dhula. An erection on which grain is 


The method of constructing the "dhula " is as 
follows: — Posts — two or more — are fixed in 
the ground at intervals in a straight line. 
Fixed on the top of each post horizontally 
is a piece of wood about two feet long with a 
notch on the upper surface at each extremity. 
A piece of wood running the whole length 
is placed in the notches on either side. On 
the top of this, which is about two feet high, 
the bandis (q. v.) containing the grain are 

Phulgi khunfi. The centre posts. 

Dhulg, pirhi. The horizontal bars. 

Dhula paron. The two pieces of wood running 
the whole length. 

Dhuluc dhupuc. "1 The head and body 

DhuluM dhupuK. J to shake, as of 

very old people when walking. 

Dhuluc dhupuc. Of all sizes, big and 

Dhuluc dhupucko haraakana. They are of all 

Dhuluc dhupuc geleakana. The ears (of grain) 

are not equal. 

Dhuluk dhupuk. Cf. dhuluc dhupuc. 

Dhum. ) To bluster, to threaten ; 

Dhum dham. J tumult, tamasha. 

Dhum dhamket'leae. He forced us by his blus- 

Dhuma. M.lStout, fat, corpulent; lazy 
Dhumi. F. J because fat. 

Dhumbak. A ball, a clump ; to hud- 
dle together, to collect in lumps. 

Sire or dhumb^iKkoitiiia. I had cramp. 

Sap dhumbaKkedeali. I seized and held him 

Tol dhumbaKkatkoari. I tied their hands and 

feet together. 
Sadomiii or dhumbaKkedea. I reined the horse 

in tightly. 

Dhum dharkat. \Dilapidated, untidy, 
Dhum dharkand. j neglected. 

Dhum dhapot. Litter blown in by 
the wind. 

Aiji dhum dhapotketleae hoete. Our court-yard 
was littered by the wind, (blew in straws, 
leaves, &c.) 

Dhum dharkar. Littered, dirty and 
untidy, as a house that has not 
been swept ; disorderly, dilapida- 

Noa oraK dhum dharkar lieloKkana, This 
house looks very untidy (as if no one lived 
in it.) 

•lumrr JF. }^*out, fat, corpulent. 



Dhuna dhuni. To butt each other, as 
cattle ; to quarrel. 

Dhunau. To stiike by jerking up the 
head, to lift the head ; to bump 
with the nose, to push ; to effect. 

Uni gai doe dhunaukedea. The cow jerked up 

her head and struck him. 
Mihu do a^i atteko dhunaua nunure. Calves 

when sucking bump (the udder) with their 

noses with great force. 
Cefem What can you effect ? 

Dhund. Dim, indistinctly. 

DhtmdgeA bengeda. I see indistinctly. 
Adi dhunda. Very thick dark (forest.) 
Lar dhundteye ?itkir aderkedea. He ran with 
into a tlucKet of lar. (q. v.) 

Dhundha. M. | Foolish, awkward, igno- 
Dhundhi. F. j rant. 
Dhundha ghanti.') A large bell tied 
Dunda ghanti. J round the neck of a 

cow, or bullock. 
Dhundharbhet'. A rat tat played on 

the drum always when beginning 

to dance the Lagrg dances; to 

begin, to start. 

NoKoeko dhundhg.rbhet'keda. Now they have 

Dhundra dhundri. To search for here 
and there. 

Dhun dhun. Sound produced by strik- 
ing anything hollow; ringing, 
as metal when struck. 

Dhungia. Smoke, smoky. 

Adi dhuiigia k.ana. There is much smoke. 
A4i dhuhgialca lohot sahan. Damp firewood 
smokes much. 

Dhuiigra dhutigri. To revile or call 
names when quarrelling, to quar- 
rel fiercely with each other. 

Dhungrau. To scold, rebuke, speak 
angrily, to put down. 
Dhuhgrg.u sukkedeafi. 

Dhunia. Semi-Mahomedanized aborigi- 
nes who card cotton ; a Jolha, or 
Mahomedan weaver. 

Jolha oral? , Dhunia oraK. 

Dhunin. Rich, wealthy. 

Khub dhunin hor kanae. He is a very wealthy 

Dhunsi punsi. Ruffled, disordered, 


Hoe do sanam oraKe dhunsi punsi otokada. 
The wind has disordered all the (thatch) on 
the house. 


[ 143 ] 

Dhuiuri dhururi 

Dhup. A kind of rapier, a two edged 

Dhup. Incense ; to burn incense. 

Dhup dhuman. 1 ~ „ . 
Dhup dhuu?.n. $ ^° °^'^'^ inoense. 
Dhudhup. To burn inoenae. 
Dhup dan. Inoense holder. 

Dhup. Sunshine. 
Dhup oraK. Withering house, (a tea garden 

Dhup dhuman. *) m a- ■ 

Dhu J dhunan. j ^° "^^"^ '^''^'^'^- 

Bohgako dhup dhnmanakoa. 

A rapping sound. 

There is a sound of 

They burn in- 
oense to the gods. 

Dhup marte. 
Dhup mente. 
Dhup dhup 
Dhup (Jhup saglekana. 

Dhupu6. ■) Fear, to be frightened, to 
Dhupujok J dread. 

Adifi diiupujoKkana. I am greatly alarmed. 

Dhupuc. ■) Fear, to be frightened, to 
Dhupucolc. j dread. 
Dhupuc dhupucols. To be in fear ; to 
lose one's breath through fear. 

Dhur. Draught cattle, either oxen or 

Dhur menalf kotaea, se bail f Has he got plough 
cattle or not ? 

Dhur a, Rezin. 

Dhura dhup. A small earthen ware vessel in 

which rezin is burned as incense. 
Dhura dhupkedae. 

Dhurau. To begin, to set to, to engage 

K?.mi dhur?.uenae. He engaged in work. 
Jojome dhur9.uena. He set to to eat. 
Kamiko dhuraukedea. They set him to work. 

Dhuraha. Ill-conditioned, worthless, 

Dhurbaj. A rascal, rascally. 

Dhur dhur. Begone, get you gone, off 

with you. 
DhurhaU.1 An exclamation of annoy- 
DurhaM. ) ance or vexation. 

DhurhaiK hirilikedall. 

Dhuri. Dust. 

Dhuri digl^u aguedae. He raises a cloud of 
dust as ho comes. 

Dhuria. 1 Individuals of the tassar silk 
Dhurialij moth that are uni-voltine. 

Dhurigi lum9,m. First class tassar cocoons. 
These cocoons contain much more silk 
than the multi-yoltine. 

Dhuriali lumam. The tassar silk worms 
that hatch in June and July. Cf 

Dhui-iau. A method of curing sores 
infested by maggots in cattle, 
also of rendering the poison of 
snakes harmless. 

Incantations are employed and a little dust 
thrown at the sore, or at the snoke. 

Dhur jharaoni. Cf jharaoni. 

Dhurkara. An exclamation of annoy- 
ance or vexation. 

Dhurp^u. \ Mid-harvest, busiest season, 
Dhurup. / abounding, in full swing, 

at the greatest height, as work in 


Cha sakam dhurp^uakana. Tea leaf plucking 

is in full swing. 
Matkom dhurpauakana. It is mid-harvest of 

the matkom (q. v.) 

Dhurmar. \ To drive away, to keep at a 
Durmar, J distance, to put down, to 
set down. 

DhnrmarkediAako bako ror ocoadilia. They 
put me down, would not allow me to speak. 

Dhurri. A kind of trumpet. 
Dhursau. To singe the hair off an 

animal before flaying by placing 

it on a fire. 

Dhuruc. Stunted, as grain ; under- 
sized, or puny, as a child. 

Sanam janhe dhurucentiJia. 
all stunted. 

My janhe (q. v.) is 

Dhurumjak. A rat tat played on the 
drum at the end of the village 
street at certain stages of the 
proceedings during the celebration 
of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Kulhi mucgb^reko dhurnmjaga. They beat the 
dhurumjaE rattat on the drum at the end of 
the street. 

Dhurup. C£ dhurpau. 

Ha^i* dhurupakana. The market is in full 

Dhurup arak. Two plants have this 
name: — 

An4ia dhurup arak. "Leucas cephalotes, Spreng. 

Eiiga dhurup arak. Leitcas Clarhei, Hook. 

Both plants are eaten as pot-herbs, but 
Leucas cephalotes only in times of scarcity 

Dhururi. A kind of trumpet. 

Dhururi dhururi. Sound produced by 
the " dhururi. " (q. v.) 


[ 144 1 


Dhusa. J for cold weather wrappers. 

Dhusau. 1 To depreciate, to desparage, 
Dusau. J to find fault with, to pick 

holes in, to blame, to censure, to 

be unjust to. 

Koako dusaukeiitifia. They disparaged these 
things of mine. 

Dhuti. A cloth worn round the waist 
passing betwen the legs and fas- 
tened behind ; to put on the dhuti. 

Herel doko dhutilca. Men wear dhotis. 

Dhusat. 1 A caste of semi-Hinduized 
Dusat. I aborigines ; the Dosads. 

Dhut. An exclamation of annoyance 
or vexation. 
Dhut '■ barickedam. 

Dhusra. The pestle of a dhinki (q. v.) 
without the iron ring. 

Pi. ] 

Dih. VA village, a hamlet. 

i)hi.J ^ 

Dih dandi. The whole area within the 
village boundary. 

pian dian. Hanging down, suspended, 
depending. Cf dawan dawah. 

Dhuthalt. An exclamation of annoy- 

Diara. A lamp stand. 

Dia salai. Lucifer matches. 

Dib. To take an oath, to swear. 

Dib oco. To administer an oath. 
Dibtet'ge alom diboKa. Swear not at all. 

Dibi. A Hindu idol, particularly Kali 
or Durga. 

Die. To choke. 

Janteye diolena. He was choked with a bone. 
KathareA die go£ena. I choked over a word 

(something which could not be told with 


Pida. To stand, applied when speak- 
ing to male children just learning 
to walk. 

Ma 4i4^1^nie. Come, stand up. 

Pidi. To stand, said to girls who are 
learning to stand alone. 

Ma bi^i, diclikme. Come my daughter, stand 

Pldhauri. The tree which yields the 
jujubes or Chinese dates, Zizyphus 
jujuba, Roxh. 

Pidhi. To be indisposed. 

Jomreye ijidbiena. He is indisposed through 

having eaten too much. 
Hormoreli didhiakana, ohofi senlena. I am 

indisposed in body, and so can't go. 
Hormo do diiJhientiJia. 

Didhi. C£ didhi badhi. 

T-k • 11, • [One half more. 
Pidhia. J 

Didhiari hataoa sud do. I will charge interest 

at 50 per cent. 
Kicrio dicjhikate bandekme. 
Ek ohinwa alom bandea, di^hikate bandekme^ 
Do not wear the cloth single, fold a part of it 


pidhi badhi. Unmatched, unequal; 
to disagree, to altercate. 

Jahae tuludem diijbi badhiena? Had you a 
quarrel with any one ? 

pig dig. Bright, resplendent, to run 

Dig dig terdee. Very bright moonlight. 
Pig digko marsala bati. They make a bright 
light with the lamp. 

Pig digauk. To shine, to flash. 

Jol dig digauena. It has burned up brightly. 
Dig 4igau baraekana. 

Laga dig diggiukedeako liele do. The bees chased 
(and he fled like a flash.) 

Piga enec. ") . 
Piiatati. I^ga^e. 


Digailc menteye orkeda. He pulled by jerks. 
Kathako digak lioKakat'a. 

Digak menteye tengo got'ena. He stopped all 
at once. 

Digak. To be in doubt; doubtful, 

Unial? monere digalf hoeadea. A doubt entered 
his mind. 

4<Ji horko digagoKkana Isai dhoromre. Many 
people are suspicious as regards the Chris- 
tian religion. 

Digalfgeii bujhaueda. I feel doubtful. 

Digak digak. \ 

Dagak dagak.J-By jerks, jerkingly. 

Dagar dagar. j 

Sadom digaiK diggiKifi orea. I will rein in the 

horse by jerks. 
Dig^K diggike roreda. He speaks hesitatingly 

(does not tell his story right off.) 
Nari hijuKkana diggiK digak. The pulse is 


Pigau. To fail, to be rendered in- 

AmaK huknm oho (Jig^nlena. Thy command 

shall not be superseded. 
Amem menjoukanaK oho (Jigaulena. Thy will 

shall not be frustrated. 


[ 145 ] 


Digdha. Doubt, suspicion, uncertainty. 
Digdha go€enae. He became doubtful. 
Digdhg, do.b^nuKau. There is no doubt about it. 

Digic. To misgive, to doubt, to bode 
ill, to suspect ; to offend. 

Toyoen(Jal{ gofkediiia onatell digic rugirena. 
A jackal crossed my path, and for that 
reason I felt misgivings and returned. 

Digioenaii. I am doubtful. 

AlomdigijoKa. Harbour no suspicion. 

Gogeore guguriore, doKen digioen, sahaokaK 

Digi migi. Jubilant; pomp, state, 

NitoK dope (Jigi migi go£ena. Now you have 
become jubilant. 

H9.thi hoko sajakadea, (Jigi migi. They have 
put showy trappings on the elephant. 

iJi doli menkeda ijigi migiko hijuKa, Rajan 
bajanteko nidiria. I thought they will come 
with much pomp, and take me away with 
drums beating and colours flying. 

Digir. \ Very fine, small, dust, 

Digir digir./ ashes. 

Digir digir lo oabaena. It is burnt to ashes. 
Digir digir dhuri otahoRkana. The duet ia 

carried before the wind. 
Digir digirkedae. He made it into dust. 
Digir ^igir ot lieloKkana. The floor is dusty. 
Disom do lo ^igiren. The country is ruined. 

Digir digir. Quickly, rapidly. 

Hathi digir digir calaKkanae. The elephant 
moves rapidly. 

Digla dig. Quickly, rapidly, with a 
cloud of dust. 

Pigl^ dig liir hijuRkanae. He comes racing. 
Sadom digla cligko dara. Horses run quickly. 

Diglau. To grind, to make into dust, 
to become dust, to be carried away 
as dust ; to chase. 

Gahga paromtele laga digl^'Ukoa hapen. We 
will drive them across the Ganges yet. 

Hoe jokhee dhuri diglauKa. Dust is driven 
before the wind. 

Dhuriye digl^ne^kana. He raises a cloud of 
dust as he comes. 

Digo dogo. Lazy, slothful ; a sluggard. 

Digo dogo nit ho bam pharnao hodoKkana p 
Tou sluggard, are you not yet fully awake ? 

Digo dogo. Skaky, 

Khimtii digo dogoko bi£aka<a. They have not 
fixed the post firmly. 

Digri. Cor. of the English legal term 
" decree." 

Pigriadiiiae. He gave a decree in my favour. 
!&£ bare ^igrikatilime. Decide in my favour. 

Digwar. Rural police maintained by 
those Zemindars who hold Ghat- 
wali or Service tenures. 

Digwari. Of, or belonging to " digwar" 
(q. V.) 
Digwg,riye oalaoeda. He does the work of a 
rural policeman. 

Dih. A hamlet. 

Dih d*n(Ji. Hamlet and boundaries. 

Dihali. \ The small villages or country 

Dihat. / surrounding a populous village 

or city; the hamlet or hamlets 

within the village boundary. 

Ona dihjtteli sehlena. I went to that small 

Dih9,t ren hor kanae. He belongs to the country. 

Dihil dihil. Quivering, trembling as 
a swamp, or as the flesh of a fat 
animal when walking. 

Dihri. The Superintendent of an an- 
nual hunt (lo bir sendra, q. v.), 
and President of the Supreme 
court of the Santals of the district 
(lo bir baisi, q. v.) for the settle- 
ment of social matters. 

The hjlls ftud forests in the Santal country are 
divided into Sections for hunting piirposes. 
Each section is in charge of a Dihri whose 
duty it is to offer sacrifices to the Hunting 
and local deities to ensure success and to 
ward off harm from the huiiteve. He is 
also President of the Supreme court of 
the Santals which assembles in the even- 
ing, to hear appeals from the Lower courts, 
and to decide such questions as can only 
be finally adjudicated upon by the Supreme 

Dik. 1 Annoyance, trouble, bother; 

Dikdik. |- to annoy, to trouble, to 
Dik dikauj bother. 
Dik dikg.nediiikanae. He ia bothering me. 

Dika dake.\Unstable, shaky, loose; 
Diko doko. [ tossing, staggering. 

Dika dakem ta^ameda. Tou are staggering. 
Khunti do dika dakeKkana. The post ia shaking. 
Oka ban urioa ona do ^ika (Jake. 

Dikhitte. With eyes open, knowingly, 
before one's eyes ; in a vision. 

Met dikhittem guroUkana. You are falling 
with your eyes open. 
Dikhitte amem ere gotkedilia. You deceived 
me before my eyes. 

Dikiau. To tease, trouble, annoy, pes- 
ter, worry, torment. 

Uni kora do diki9.ukate ondekhone ru?.renffi. 
The young man returned from there an- 

Dikli. A witch finder. 

A dikli is supposed to be able to point out 
■ witches, and also the evil spirit through 
whose influence a person may be ill, or his 
cattle dying, or his household suffering. 



[ 146 ] 

IDingi datigua 

Hia sides sliake with 

Diksik. To annoy, trouble, bother. 

Diksikkediiiae. He gave me annoyance. 

Dil. Courage, pluck, bravery; to be 
plucky, brave. 

Dilakan tahenpe. Be courageous. 

Dile Jiamkeda. He reoeifed'encouragement. 

Dil legalSa^. I will risk it. 

Dildal. Rock about, sway, waddle, body 
to tremble with fatness when mov- 
ing, as a fat ox. 

Dil dale mo^aakana. 

Dildale oalalf kana. He sways as he walks. 

Dil dil. \ Concussion, reverberation ; 
Dil dilau.J to reverberate, to shake, 
to sound loudly. 

Khub dildilauedako tamak. They cause the 
drum to sound loudly. 

■p},° ■ ^ '■ [Brave, bold, sturdy, plucky. 

Dili. A large basket in which grain 

is stored. 
Dilman. Brave, plucky. 

Dima. Implies a future probability. - 

Gapa dimgili calaka. I may go to-morrow. 
On^le bali sukena menkhan gikhir dimareA iSam 

rus.ra. If I do not succeed there, I will 

receive it (land) back again, 

DiSaki V^^^' "^^illiiig' '^^'^^^ 

Dimbi. A protuberance on anything 
fixed into a handle or a shaft to 
prevent the tang going further in- 
to the handle than is necessary. 

Dimbu baha. A plant in great repute 
among Santals, Ocim'win Basili- 
cum, var. thrysifioruni, Linn. 

Dimci. A crupper. 

Dimki. A large basket in which grain 
is stored. 

Dimsi punsi. Cf. dhimsi punsi. 

Din kalom. Last year. 
JDin bhor. The whole day.- 
Dintare pe ohotkate. Thrice daily. 
Dinke din. Day by day. 

Din. Religion. 

Be-din. Heathen. 

Dina. ") Implies a future possibility ; 
Dine. J by and by. 

Am onrjem berel thirlenkhan dina mil din doli 
senamgea. If you remain resident there 
I shall one day visit you. 

Hape so dina hara ocoam, ar lielme joSa se bah. 
Wait and allow it to grow and see if it will 
bear fruit or not. 

-Non^em tahenkhan mii din do dinam kisaroKa. 
if you remain here you will oncday become 

Nui gidra do dinae seralenkhan do khube hu- 

si?wo]ca . When tins boy grows up be will 

be very clever. 
Nui kora do din?. haTamoK jokheo do ohoe kbb- 

jolena. This boy will not stoop when he 

•grows old. 
Noa ul do ding, haralenkhan khub joKa. When 

.this mango tree grows it will bear much 

Iiiili goelenkhan dina, nui doe sukoKa, When 

I am dead he wii get relief. 

Dinam. \ Daily, every day, contin- 
Dinamge.j uously. 

Dinjm hiloK. Every day. 

Dinda. Site of a house. 

Eken ^in^gitef menaKtaea. He owns only the 
ground on whioh his house stands. 

Pin^?. paJija^hikme. Select a good site for youi 

Din dabur. To moisten, soak, saturate, 
stream down. 

Merom maklekhan mayam dili (Jg.bur atuka. 
When a goat's head is struck off the blood 
streams (and dyes all around.) 

Dindawali. To suspend. 

Aotegeye ph?.si ^illdawakena. He hanged him- 

Oka leka nui do diAdawaKe tulaeda? Howdoea 
this man hold the balance ? 

Apnar bela pai bucbucukana, hamar bela tula 
4ili(JawaK. When it is his own time (buying) 
he heaps up the measure, but when it is my 
time (selling) he weighs it. 

Dindi. Pod of the cotton plant ; a co- 
Lnmam mit' bar ^indiko toloUkana. A few 

silk worms are spianing cocoons. 

Dindir sil Untidy, slatternly, careless 
of attire, hair in disorder. 

Dindir sit' up menaktaea. Her hair is in disor- 

Nihij.t dindir sit'ge tieloSKanae. She looks ex- 
tremely untidy. 

Dine6.}^f- ^^^^- 

Dinga dangua M. \ Bachelorhood. 
Dingi dangua. F. J Spinsterhood. 

Pihgi ^ghguaireye baigiallea. She died unmar- 

Dingar. \ Poor, weak, miserable, disre- 
Dingra. J putable, low, lazy. 

A.diye cliiigrgiwa. He is a very bad character. 

Dingi dangua. Spinsterhood. 


E 147 T 


Dini. \Give, give to me or to us, used 
Dani./ witH' animate objects only. 

Dinitale^hititale, dinitale dnl»ri. Give toue 
our daughter, give to us our dear one. 

Dim tho. > ™, . . 

Dini thor. i ^™" giyeto me. 

Dini tho 9.gmem iligeli hapeea. Give him to 
me then, I will quiet him. 

Dini thor iii t;hen giguiem. Then bring her to me. 

D?.ni se aguiem. feing him to me. 

Dini ayo iii geli heoea. Give him to me, mother, 
1 will hold him (child.) 

DiSdar. JGenerous, Uberal. 

4iji dini hor kanae. He ia a liberal mam 
^^i diniae. He gives generously. 

Dihmas. The end of the agricultural 
year, the month of Magh, (Jan. 
Feb..), when engagements termin- 
ate, and accounts are made up. 

Dipil. To carry- on the head, to under- 
take responsibility. 

Nawa pera^ hecakawaflea. Gele kanae R DiK- 
pilio. We have had a new arrival. What 
is itJ. A carrier on the head, (a female. 
Dipilalime. Lift it on to my head. 

piptuc.. The King Crow Cf. dhip- 

Dipu. A depot for emigrant coolies. 
Dir. To remain firm. 

DiPakan d^hinakan tahcnpe. 

Dira mundte."! Heartily, earnestly, with 
Dire mundte. V heart and soul, lii'm- 
Dire mur. J ly. 

Dira mundte mi^ ho bae kamikana. He does 
no work heartily. 

Dir dir. \ Rushing, quickly, as a per- 
Dii- dirau.J son acts when in a rage. 

Dir dire lagakedeae. He rushed at him and 
chased him away. 

Dirhet. To take up one's quarters. 

Okatem sen dirhe^ena. 

Dirhi. One and a half. Of clerhi. 

Dirhi barhi. Of unequal length, to 
disagree, as two reports of the same 

Dirho. Strong, substantial ; to estab- 
lish, to strengthen. 

Bea dirho oraKkan. It ia a good substantial 

Diri. To be late, behind time ; to delay, 
to put off time, to be detained. 

Alom diria heo godolime. Do not delay, come 

EfaK kathateii diriena. I was detained by some- 
thing else. 

Diridan. Swollen, aa a corpse; pot- 
bellied, lethargic through having 
eaten too much. 

Diyidaiie gitioakana. He lies with a full 

Jom diridahenae. He is lethargic through 

having eaten too much. 

Dirim'dirim. jB^nging, thudding. 

B?.nduk dirim mente saglfeKa. The gun goes off 
with a bang. 

Dir dir^u.l Quickly, rapidly, as a person 
Dili diri. J acts when angry, 

Dirdirau barae kanae. He rushes about. 

Dirmi. |A large bamboo basket in 
Dirmi. J which grain, &c. is stored. 
Disa. To remember, to have in mind, 
to be conscious of, to be aware of 

Cef disg, hudis ban tahentalea. We shall bo 

Disa hedadea. He remembered. 
Disa-dohokaltme. Keep it in mind till required. 
Kombroko bololena,, mankhan bale disgiletkoa.. 

Thieves entered,, but we were not aware of 

Bae dis?iadi(ia. He did not remind me. 

Disi. Native, of the country. 

Disi kicrio. Country cloth. Of home manu- 
facture aa opposed to foreign. 

Dismis.. "ICor. of the English legal 

Dismis. J term " dismiss." 

Disom. A country, particularly the 

country or district in which the 

Santals live.. 

Disom hor. The Santals of the country-side. 
Disom gipitid sendra. Annual hunt which lasts 

a part of two days, when the hunters pass 

the night in camp together. 

Disom hored. A common cultivated 
leguminous plant. Glycine soja, 
Lieb and Zucc. 

Dista. 1 

Dit dit. |-A quire of paper. 

Jista. j 

Ditom. The claws or pincers (chelae) 
of crabs, &c., to grip by pressing 

Diuhe. A lamp. 

Bati. Wick. 

M?li. Earthenware vessel for holding the oil. 

Diuhe jeredme. Light the lamp. 

Do. A very common particle giving 
emphasis or clearness. 

Ona real? bhed do- noa- kana. The purport of 
that ia this. 


[ 148 ] 


Tayom utg.rte do jawae kofako ojogea. At the 

very last they anoint the bridegroom. 
Inakate do bana hor b9.t;i daKkin saba. After 

that they both take hold of a brass vessel 

of water. 
Uni do bah, nui kangeae. It la not he, but this 


Do. An emphatic or persuasive par- 
ticle, used with the Inperative. 

Do oalakme. Go. 

Do g.giiitalahme. Go bring ours. 

Do nahalc hijuKme. Come in a little. 

Doal To invite, to call, to say ' come'. 

Doa€ delaatpeako. They invited yon to come. 
Doat'koako. They will invite them, or call them 
to come. 

Deal. A sari striped red and white. 
Doasla. j-Mixed. 
Dorasa. J 

Doasala kioris. Cloth made of silk and cotton. 

Doat. An ink stand. 

Dob. "I To prohibit, to lay an embar- 
Dobon. J go on, interdict. 

DobkaKme jahae aloko jom. Prohibit any one 

eating them, (frint.) 
Dob hoeena. It is interdicted. 

Dobatia. Cross roads, the junction of 
two roads. 

Dobdobo. The feeling after a rather 
full meal. 

Jom (Jobijoboenali. 

Dobol poesa. A double pice. 

DobhaK. ") A pool of water, a puddle, to 
Doblak. J collect, as water in a hollow. 

DaK do bah dobhaklena. The water did not 

Dobka. ") A basket used to lift water 
Dopka. J for irrigation. 

Pobka. The pattern made by Mahlis (q. v.) 
Sere. ,, ,, Doms, (q. v. 

Doblak. C£ dobhak. 

Dobo. Big, large. 

Dobok. To bow, to salute by bowing 
down, to worship. 

DoboKadeae. He bowed down to him. 

Dobon. To subdue, to check, Cf dob. 

Dobonet'ko kanakin. 

Dobor. Double, fold. 

More dobor. Five fold. 

Dobor dand. Twice over. 

Dobof dand arh5 emoK hoyoKtitia. I will have 

to pay it over again. 
Dobor (Jangle agukedilia. He charged me twice 

for it. 

Dobra. Fold. 

Bar dobra l?.tumkate. Fold it twice. 

Do6 miru. A species of parrakeet, 

Falceornis torquatus. 
D6d, Intense internal pain. 
Docot'. Comb of a cock, &c. 
Doda muc. ") A species of large black 
Donda muc. / ant. 

Dodao. To deny, to repudiate, to 
disavow, to unsay. 

Kathage dodao baraeedae. He repudiates his 


Dode. To call, to invite to accompany. 

Ale ho Jode idilepe. Call us so that we may 
accompany you. 

Dode agukom se. Bring them along with you. 

Onko doK^e calalhne. Go and tell them to 

Dode torakedeale. We called to him to accom- 
pany us as we were passing. 

Dodhari. A common fern, Acliantwai 
lunulatwm. Burm. 

Nanha dodhari. Uheilanthus tenuifolia, 8iv. 

iS jv • ■ ■ ■ >A species of Parrakeet) 
Dodharia miruj '■ 

Palceornis Alexandri. 

Dodhio. "1 Hollow, and therefore unser- 
Dhodro. / viceable, as an old tree ; 
worn out, old. 

Po^hio mara budhi. > An old worn out hag. 
Dhocjro mara buglhi. ) (Applied sometimes by 

a graceless daughter-in-law to her old 


Dodo. M. ") Old, worn out, dried up, 

Phadri. F. J applied to the ripe fruits 

of certain species of Cucurbitacese 

which are succulent when gi'een, 

but a mass of fibre when ripe. 

Noa jhihga dodoena. This ihihga. (q. v.) is a 

mass of fibre. 
Poijo mara haram. An old dry stick. 

Dodom dodom. A rat tat played on 
the drum by Dom drummers. 

Dodormod. C£ dormoc. 

Dodrosot'l^°<^^fP°f^'^' "'^* °^ '°'*'' '"' 
Dodroso. / pulled down. 

Dodroso lieloKkanae. He looks indisposed. 
Nui 4aiira do dodoroso fieloEkanae, alope jo- 

jaoea. This bullock looks ill, do not yoke 


Teheli do dorosoroli a^kareda, gitioakanaJi. I 
feel out of sorts to day, and am lying down. 


[ 149 ] 


Poelao. To apprehend, to seize, goods or 
cattle for debt, &c. ; to throw into 

Sipahiko iJoelaoke6koako. The police appre- 
hended and took them away. 

Okareko rapakkedea? Poelaokedeako. Where 
did they burn his body ? They threw it into 
the river. 

I)oema duimi. Going about from place 
to place. 
Am do (Joema ^uimi bayae kanam. You go 
wandering about from place to place. 

Doemon. Ill-shaped forehead, ugly, 
having a sore between the eyes. 

Doemon bohoK. An ill-shaped head. 
Doemon o?ndi. AH ill-shaped forehead. 
Gurente noSoe doemoiienae. He has a wound 
on his forehead through falling. 

Dog. A leaf bud, point of a twig, 
stalk of sugar-cane, fee, Cf. dhoj. 

Mihn bes dogko 6eloKkantaea. His cattle look 

Doga. TA cutting of sugar- cane for 
Pugi. J planting. 
Dogdog. ■) A feeling of want of elasti- 
Dogdogo. J city in the body, languid, 
inert, as one gorged with food. 

Dogdogo baraekanae. He is lounging about. 
Dogdogoli afkareda. I feel languid. 

Pogdogao. To grow luxuriantly, to 

Onte idikope ghaakhub ijogijogaoakana. Take 
them (cattle) over tbat way the pasture is 
luxuriant there. 

-Dogdogo. Heavy, indisposed to move, 
as one who has gorged himself 
with food. 

- Dogdogo atkaroKa jasti jel jomlekhan. After 
being gorged with flesh an indisposition to 
move is felt. 

Dogdogo. C£ dogdog. 

Dogodhon. ") To be worried, troubled, 

Dokodhon. J pestered, 

CaKpe dogodhonelikana ? Why do you pester 

Dogor. Likelihood, appearance, pro- 

Noa reaR dogor do cef leka ^ikaulikana, ale sen- 
ko digria se bail ? What do you think pro- 
bable, will we get a decree in our favour, or 

Dogorre ball buih9.u Hameda. 

Doha boha. Cf. dhowa bhowa. 
Dohae. To cry out for justice, to appeal 
for justice ; a plaint. 

Dohae ! dohae ! Kumpgiui reaR dohae. A cry for 
justice to the defunct Honourable East 
India Company, who is still regarded by the 
oomrmon people as controlling their destiny. 

Kaesarem dohaeakawadea, Kaesar thengem 
oalaHa. Thou hast appealed to Cesar, to 
Cesar shalt thou go. 

Dohar. Double cloth. 

Dohara. A stout, well-grown young 
Hojmo ar usulte bes dohara. Stout and taU. 

Dohlao. To break out afresh, as a fire 
that was apparently extinguished, 
or a sore that has been healed ; to 
relapse after partial recovery, as 
in illness. 

Eog dohlaoena. The disease has broken out 

Dohmot. To falsely accuse, to slander. 

Dohmotadiliako. They slandered me. 

Doho. To put down, to place, keep, 

Holaii heo dohoakana. I came yesterday and 

stayed on. 
M9l5ihi then lai dohokaKmo. Inform the village 

Chief, (the information to be made use of 

afterwards if necessary.) 
Chu^ki batfciye dohoakaf k'ina. He has married 

two wives. 
Han4i dohoepe, ninakte do gir?ibo tola, 

OraKreye doho baeakaf a. He has treasured it 
up, or he has concealed it in his house. 

Kicric doho hatarkatilime. Keep my cloth 
for me for the present. 

Nni _ gai doe dohoakada alope aiaea. This cow 
is in calf, do not plough with her. 

NuiaK bhorombo dohoakat'a. We have savd her 

Am do eiigam apum reaR bhorom bam doholaEa. 

You did not preserve the honour of your 


Disom hor apetheniA jorhatoKkana, dohokalipe. 
Ado disom horgeko dohokaea. country- 
men ! I beseech you to pardon me. And 
the country-men will pardon him. 

Doho. A tumour, wart, excrescence, 
a camel's hump. 

Non^o dohogea. There are excrescences here. 

Dohra. To double, to do a second time 
or over again. 

Jondrako dohraeda. They are hoeing the In- 
dian corn a second time. 

Kami dohraepe. Do the work over again. 

Bar dohrale pokeda. We hoed it twice after 
the first time. 

Dak dohra dohrate hijuKkana. The rain comes 
time after time. 

Dohra dohrae kokoekana. He asks over and 
over again. 

Dohta. Having two houses in different 
places ; a town and country resid- 

Nui doe dohtaaka€a. He has built himself 
another house in a different village (and has 
now two houses.) 


[ 150 ]! 

Doloe dbloe 

Doja. Second growth, second brew. 

Doja. A second growth of rice after tHe first 

has been reaped. 
Doja ghas. An after math. 
Doja jon^ra. A second growth of Indian corn 

from the stumps of the first crop. 
Doja kora. A widower or divorced uan. 
Doja kuri. A widow or diroroed woman. 
Doja han^i. A second brew of rice beer from 

the same grain. 

Dojnap. Unmatched, irrregular, long 
and short. 

Dojnapteii la^mnkeda kicrie do. I did not fold 

the cloth evenly. 
Katup dojnapgea. The fingers are not all of 

the same length. 
Dojnapgeakin, ohokin jurilena. They are of 

unequal height, they will not match. 

Dojok. The belly, livelihood, the 

necessaries of life. 

Cefleka oalaKkantakoa dojok do? How are they 
off for the necessaries of life ? 

DoM. To shelter, save, protect, rescue, 
preserve, shield. 

Oholi doKlebena. I will not stand between you 

(and your punishment.) 
Uniye ror doltkediiia. He spoke on my behaK 

and saved me. 
B^jid khon doKlem. Deliver us from evil. 

Doka. A small deciduous forest tree, 

Odina Wodier, Roxb. 
Dokan. A shop. 

DoKkanio. A shopkeeper. 

Dokandar. A shopkeeper. 
Dokdoko. Long, projecting. 

Pok^okoe goKakafa. He carries it projecting 

over his shoulder. 

Dokha. "I Doubt, hesitation, uncertain- 
Dhokha. J ty, deceit, disappointment. 

Dokhali bujhg,u'eda, bah doA oalaK, bah do bah. 

I feel uncertain as to whether I shall go or 

Dokhakediilae. He deceived me. 

Dok cgrg. The Painted Snipe, Ros- 
tratula capensis. 

Dokhol. To occupy, or be in posses- 
sion ; occuj)ancy, possession. 

Gah n?ti on parom no parom dokhol tahekan- 

taiea. We were in possession of both 

banks of the Gang river. 
M^Ajhi do noa jasgae dokholakawadilia. The 

village chief put me in possession of this 

Noa bafge iA dokholre menaKa. This garden 

is in my possession. 

Dokra. A coin of the value of one 

fourth of a pice. 
Del. A company, party, detachment, 

group, band, sect. 

Mi£ dolko calaKkana. They are going in a 

Bar dol menaKlea. There are two parties of us. 

Dol. y A Hindu festival observed 

Dol gundi. > on th<e 14th Phalgun. 

Dol. An iron bucket for drawing 
water from a well. 

Dol. "I A long trailing grass foiind in 
Dal, j the beds of tanks and other 

moist situations, Panicum stag- 

ninum, Linn. 
Dola. A kind of palki. 

Dolan. A large house built of brick 
or stone having a flat terraced 

Dolao. Damp, limp, lean, poor, lost 

Noa do^olaogea, bape taselaKa. This is damp- 
ish, you did not spread it. in the sun. 

Nui sadom doe ijolaoena. This horse has be- 
come lean. 

Nes do uni hor u^i^ ^olaoakana. That man is 
veiy hard up this year. 

Dol doli. ") A swamp. Scottice, moss 
Dal dali. J hctgg. 

DoIdoL A lullaby sung to babies by 
Santal mothers. 

Dole. To bob up and down on the 
surface of the water, to sway from 
side to side, as a lighly laden boat. 

Dolel.| A document, any legal instru- 
Dalil. 3 ment, documentary proof 

Dolkha. A large leaf cup or basin. 

Dolmolao. ") To shake, to harass, to be 
Tolmolao. J in straits. 

Eehgecteko (Jolmolaoena. They are in straits 

for want of food. 
Ot ^olmolaoena. The earth shook. 

Dolodan. 1 The small, poisonless, green 
Horhoran.J grass-snake. 

Dolodolo. Slowly, gently, carefully. 

CeiJlekam hijuKkana dolodolo ! Atte hijulcme. 
How slowly you are coming ! Come quickly. 

Dolomolo. ")Sad looking, dejected, 
Dholomolo. J depressed, untidy. 

Beret tora dholo mologe a^karoKa. On first 

getting up one feels dazed. 
Cefileka dholomolom llelolkana. How dejected 

you look. 

Doloe doloe. Shaking gently, swaying, 
nodding, dangling. 

Doloe doloeem dipil agueda horodo. The dhan 

dangles as you bring it on your head. 
Doloe doloe hil^uEkana. It sways gently. 

Dolcp dolop 

[ 151 ] 

Dondho iiiomlho 

Dolop dolop. Thick, crowded, dense. 
Dolop dolop rimilo rakapakat'a. Dense clouds 

have arisen, 
Dolop dolop sakamakana dare do. The tree ia 

very leafy. 
Dolop dolopko bahaakana kuri do. The girla 

have large bunches of flowera in their hair. 

Dolop dolop. Swaying, shaking. 
Dolop dolopko eneoa. They away' to and fro as 
they dauoe. 
Dom. A semi-Hinduised caste of 
aborigines, many of whom are 
Pomateko calatta. They go with a band of 
Dom musioiana. 
Dom. To delay. 
Domkediiiako. They delayed me. 

Dom. ") To rest, to be invigora- 

Dom maro. J ted. 

Jir^n liogoKkanae dom maraoa mente. He ia 
resting to overcome his wearineaa. 

Domao. To strike, to beat. 

Domaomeali nahaK. I shall beat you presently. 

Domba dombe. "| Uneven, knotty, hav- 
i)ombe. J ing knobs, or ex- 

crescences on the surface. 
Baber <lombeakana. The twine ia knotted. 

Domba "i 1 Wheedling, deceiving. 

44i dombaj hor kanae. He ia an arch deceiver. 
Dombal dombol. \ Rising and falling, 
i)ombol dombol. J as a boat on the 

MundheC (Jombol 4ombol gituKkana. The log 

riaes and falls aa it floats. 
Dombol <Jombol baraekana. It goes on riaing 

and falling. 

Dombe. A knot, an excrescence on a 

Baberpe tol dombeaka^a. Tou have tied the 
twine into knots. 

Dombohok. The Dom's head, a rat tat 

played by drummers accompanying 

a man-iage party for the purpose 

of keeping the various groups in 

touch with each other, 

Dombok. Little balls of bread, gene- 
rally made at harvest time from 
the flour of new rice. 

Dombol dombol. Heaving up and down 
as a boat on a rough sea. 

Dombrao.l To set down, to subdue, to 

Dambrao.j prevent, to over come. 
DaEe'dombraokedilia bahkhan iArohoecaba- 
kea. The rain prevented me or I should 
have finiahed planting. 

Domcok. ") A 1. 1 J 

Domcot. j^^""^l''P*^*''''"°^"^- 

Utko domooKana. Camela have humps. 
DomcoK burn. A hill, or large mound stand- 
ing in a plain. 

Domedom. Out of breath, to breathe 
heavily; repeatedly, heavily. 

4di domedomiri atkareda. I feel out of breath, 
^gli domedome dalkedea. He struck him repeat- 
Pomedome sahet'eda. He breathes heavily . 

Dom ene6. A kind of dance. 

Domge. A small mound or hillock. 

Cf. damgi. 
Domkao. To become less, to decline, 

to cease, to be still, to rebuke, 

to chide. 

Eu9. domkaoentaea. His fever has declined. 
Botorteko domkaoKa. They will lie low through 

DaK hoe domkaokeda. The rain has ceased, or 

has passed over. 

Domkodokod. A tree so named. 
Domkol. Floating and stationary, as 

a buoy. 
Domes. Cf dhamas. 
Dom tunki. A species of waterfowl. 
Domuhani. The j unction of two rivers. 
Don. To leap, to jump, to frisk. 

Don baraekanae. He is frisking about. 
Katba dom don paromkeftifia. Tou did not 

obey me. 
P9.k don. A dance danced by men only. 

Don. A wooden trough. Cf daka^ak. 
Dondgot, Having the head shaved, a 

Dondha. A mass, a mass of foam, a 

collection of foam, sticks, leaves, 

&c. gathered together in the 

eddy of a river. 

Moca dondhaentae sukri do. The pig's mouth 

is a mass of foam. 
Hakoko dondhaakaua. The fish are all in one 

MuoKo dondhaakana. The ants are masaed 


Dondho. Cloudy, hazy. 

Kuhyate dondhoakat'a. It is hazy owing to 

the miat. 
Eimilte dondhoakafae. It is cloudy. 

Dondho mondho. Indisposed, out of 

Dondho mondhoe lieloKkana teheA. He looka 
out of aorta to-day. 


[ 152 ] 

Dora daga 

Dondhor. A hole, a hollow. 

Dare dondhor. A hollow in a tree. 
Dhiri ijonijhor. A hole in a stone, a cave. 
Dondhor cet'em solSeda ? Why are you thrusting 
your hand into the hole ? 

Dondlon. To shave the head. 

A(Ji se menaKkotaea ^ondlohkaeme. 

Pondo. Polled, as an ox or buffalo. 

Dondorcoi | pi^^^, still. 
Dundurcut. J 

Dondorco^e durupatana. He aita ae if he were 

a fixture. 
Dondorcof burn. An immovable mountain. 

Dondor puli.\Used by women when 
Dordor puli. J scolding girls. 

pondroU. Cloudy, dull. 

Teheii do (JondroKakadae. To-day is cloudy. 

Dongada. A small pit or hole; any 
water course, etc. that cannot be 
stepped over, but must be jumped. 
Cf. don, and gada. 

Koa horte adi don gada menaKa, etaK hortebon 
calalia. There are many places that re- 
quire to be jumped on this way, we will 
go another way. 

Dongam. Cf. engam dongam. 
Dondon. Erect, applied to tall persons. 

Pohdoh uont^eye tehgoakanae. He standa erect 

Don enec. A certain kind of dance. 
Dorigali. To be carried, as a bride to 
her home. 

Doiiga ocoKe liamkana! Does she wish to be 
carried P (Said of a bride who is reluctant 
to go to her husband's house.) 

Donger. A dance by men only on the 
evening of the first day of an 
annual hunt. 

Don rar. The time beaten on the 
drums and the air sung when the 
djOn dance (q. v.) is being danced. 

Don sereii. The songs sung during 
the dancing of the don dance 
(q. V.) 

Doagoe. _ ] In puffs, puffiing. 
Dongoe dongoe. _> ^ ' ^ » 

Dohgoe dongoe dhuakkana. The smoke issues 

in puffs. 
Docgoe marte dhua goiena. The smoke rose 

in a puff. 
Dohgoe dohgoe dhua odokokkana. The smoke 

issues in puffs. 

Dongol. Company, detachment, party, 
group, crowd, sect. 
Barpe dohgoiko ealaoena. Two or three parties 
have gone. 

Dongol. A large house, a palace. 

Dongol phosol. {carelessly. 
Dhongol phosol. ) ■' 

Dongol phosole kamikana. He ia doing his 
work oareleaaly. 

Ponka. ") To publish slanderous state- 
Donkao. J ments, to out-caste. 

Diaomre kathae dohkao go^keda. He spread 
slanderous statements over the oonntry. - 

Kulhi durupreko dohkakedea. They out-oasted 
him at a meeting of Santa Is. 

Dontho. A knot. 

Dopca. 1 Badly executed, as a piece 
Dopcaha. ) of work ; flawed, as an 
earthenware pot, agricultural im- 
plement, &c., unserviceable. 

Churi do dopcagea. 

Pop dop. Cloudy. 
Dophar. Layer above layer. 

Dophar dophare mail9,akana. There is layer 

upon layer of dirt on him. 
Dophar dophare dohoakat'a. He has put them 

one above the other. 

Dopka. A basket with which water is 
raised for irrigating purposes. 

Popo. A very small mound or hillock. 

Popol Hollow, flaw, as in an earthen 
pot ; the shell can be pressed in be- 
cause hollow, as an india rubber 

Guli dopof dopodoKkana. The ball can be 

depressed because it is hollow. 
Tuknd (Jopol; dopo^gea. The pot has a flaw in it. 
Alope kirilia dopotgea. Do not buy it, there is 

a flaw in it. 

Poptho. Bones projecting at the joints 
like knobs, a knob or excrescence 
on a tree, &c. 

Dor. I 

Dor bhao. [-Rate, price. 
Dor dam. J 

Adiye dordamkeda. He priced it very high. 

Pora. A string round the waist with 
which ever Santal child is provided 
immediately after birth. 

Pora bohok. A red flowering plant 
found abundantly in the jungles 
during the cold weather, Verno- 
nia Roxburghii, Less. 

Dora daga. Misfortune, anything that 
hinders, as illness, &c. 

DoradagaA Jiamkeda onate ban arjao dareada. 
I met with a misfortune (bullocks died,) 
and could not therefore get a good harvest. 

Dorae dome 

[ 15:3 ] 



>■ Acall to goats. 

to call evidence. Qi. 

Dorae dorae 

Dorao.jTo prove 
Darao.J darao. 

Dorasa. Jlixed. 

Dorasa. Slightly. 

Cetilekae rn»kbaua ? Dorasae ruaKbana, khub 
do ban. How is hia fever? Slight, not at 
all severe. 

Dorbar. An assembly, a meeting, a 

Dorbaria. One in the habit of attending 

Dorbhao. Cf. dor. 

Dordag. 1 Misfortune, anything that 
" a. j" ' • ' '^" • ' 

Dorobotolo. Full to overllowing. 

The river Sora in full 

Sora nai do doi-obotolo 
to overflowing. 

Doro doro. 

hinders. Cf doradaga. 
Price, rate. Cf dor. 

Dordar. To barg-ain, to agree to a price. 

Border otokatele hedena. We fixed the price 
and came away. 

Dordor. A long straight sindur mark ; 
long and straight. 

Bonga dhiri dordorko sinduraKa. They put 
red lines upon the spirits' stones. 

Dordore sindurakana. She has a long sindur 
mark on her. 

Dordor tae mil. She has a long straight nose. 

Bahu do dordore muana. The bride has a long 
straight nose. 

Dorho. Strong. 

Dorloe. Famine, scarcity, distress. 

■ Adi dorloe calaoena. A great scarcity has pas- 
4-di dorloe calaKkana. The present is a time 
of great scarcity. 

Dormad. 1 . -i- -n 
Dormadi.;^i^™g^' ^"- 
Dal dormadikedeako. They beat and hurt him. 

Dormoc. Ill, ailing, out-of-sorts, any 
thing wrong with any part of the 
body ; painful 

Kur dormojenae. "" 

Sir dormojentaea. 

Dal dormooakadcako. They beat and disabled 

Tire dormoeakanae. His hand is painful. 

Dormod. Cf dormoc. 
Dorob. Metal, excluding iron. 
Dorobos. All the necessai-ies of life 

Dorobos tahen tuluo kacharteko senena. They 

have gone to Cachar although they wanted 

lot nothing. 
Dorobos sanamak menal^taeb., enhS bae tahena. 

She has every thing she needs, still she will 

not stay. 

He fell and hurt himself. 

Quickly, without delay. 

Doro doro idi got'aemo. Take it to him witliout 

Doroga. A Head constable. 
Dorok. jln comp. be done with it, 
Dorogok.J have it over, let it take itJ 
way, it can't be helped. 

Dayakate aiijom doroK tirime. Kindly hear 
what I have to say and have it over. 

Daka jom doroKkaKme. Eat up the rice and 
be done with it (do not be fastidious ) 

Sahao doroKkaKme. Bear it, it can't be helped. 

Dorok dorok. "1 ,- • 
Dhorok dhorok./^™Pin&- 

Dorok doroKe tarameda. He is limping. 

Dorokia. Fearful, timid, afraid. 

Dorom. To set on end, to set up verti- 

Pili leka hormobo doroma. 
Kan(Ja doromkam. ' Set the water pot ud 

Dorop. Metal, excluding iron. 

Dorosoro. Ailing, out-of-sorts, indis- 

Dordor puli. Cf dondor puli. 

Dorpha dorpha. In rows, one after 


Dorpha dorphafco godena. They died one after the 

D5rse6. To tilt up, to upset, to tilt 
over to one side ; to die. 

Dal dorsedkaeme. Knock him over. 
Dorsedenae. He is dead. 

Khunti dorsedakana. The post is off the per- 

Dorson. To see, to look, to visit a sac^ 
red shrine, to see a vision. 

Okatem senlena? Dorsoniil senlena. Where 
did you go ? I went to visit a sacred shrine, 
i. e. the liquor shop. 

Ce(;em dorsoneti tahekana? What were vou 
looking at P 

Dos. Council, panchayat. 

DosiA jarwakoa. I will call the panchayat 

Nonije dosbo durupakana. The . council is 

sitting here. 

Dos. Crime, fault. 

Cetem doskeda ? What fault did you commit p 

Dosa. Condition, state, welfare, well- 



[ 154 ] 

DubuU dubuk 

Dosar. \ 

Dosri_. [Second, next, another. 


Dosar hiloK. Next day. 
DoSra hor. Another man. 

Dosima. Boundary between two villa- 
ges, or two estates. 

Dosimare alom oraga. Do not build yonr house 
on the boundary line. 

Doskhot. ") Signature; to adhibit 
Dostokhot. J one's signature or mark. 

Dowal. Of. doal. 

Doya dape. Tired, worn out with 
labour or travel ; staggering like a 
tired or drunk person. 

Doya ijape darankanae. He is staggering. 
Poya ^apeenae. His strength is completely 

Doyo. Slightly. 

Kulai doyoakanae. 
. Noa dare do nasenaKge doyoakana. 
Phalna hor then nui doe doyo ereakana. 

Doyok. To loathe food, stomach to 
turn, to retch ; vomiting, 

DoyoK doyoKA atkareda. 

Doyol doyol. Rising and falling, ascend- 
ing and descending, heaving. 

Mun^ha^ daKre ijoyol (Joyol atuKkana. The 
log rises and falls &a it floats on the water. 

poyoli. "I Used up, worn out with 

Doyot; dopot. V travel or hard work ; 
Doyot doyot. J knocked up. 

Si ^oyot'kedeae. He ploughed with it until he 
kaooked it up. 

Dru dru. \ , ,, , 

Druhet! druhet. A call to sheep. 
prui clrui. A call to buffaloes. 

Duar. An opening for ingress and 

Silpili. A door. 
Caukatha. A door frame. 
Kapat. A wooden door. 

Duara. A house th rough which acces 
is had from the street to the court- 
yard of a house. 

Duarsini. A malignant spirit, so 

5*^^ , "I Sink once for all. 
i)uD marte. J 

Dub marte unum gocenae. He sank and never 
rose again. 

Duba. To flood, to engulph, to cover 
with water ; a flood. 

Ahar reaK hero daKte ijub&aka^a. The dhan 
in the ahar (q. v.) is under water. 

Auri daK <Juba beokate sanamUoe jhati^uko 
dhabio. Until the flood came and carried 
them all away, 

Duba cSrS.IA common waterfowl, the 
Pani duba.J Coot, the Diver. 

JDubau. To flood, io engulph, to cover 
with water, to be lost, as a debt 
not paid. 

AcurkatamaA ohoft ]om dubauletama. I will 
return it, I will not defraud you. 

Dub dhan. ") To give a piece of dp.b 
Dub ghas. ) grass, (Gynodon Dacty- 

lon), as a proof that a bargain has 

been completed. 

Dub dhan epemenakin. The have each given 
the other a piece of dub grass. 

Dubdubi. ISwollen or tight feeling 
Dub dubia. J in the stomach, costive. 

Begor jomte lad ^ubdubiaRkantiiia. Although I 
have not eaten I fefel a tightness across the 

Dubdubu. C£ dubdubi. 
Dub ghas. A very common fodder 
grass, Gynoden Dactylon, Pers. 

Dubha. A large metal bowl without 
a rim. 

Dubhau. To spring, to issue, as water 
from a spring. 

Pubhi. I ^ g^^jj ^^g^gg ^^^j 
Jiati. J 

Dubhi The hip joint. 

Dubraj. A variety of the rice plant. 

Dubuc. "1 To pop the head under 

Dubuc dubuc. I water, head to go 
Uduc dubuc. J under water again 
and again, as a person drowning. 

Dubue dubude unumoKkana. He is sinking 
and rising to the surface of the water again 
and again. 

Dubu dubu. A rat tat played on the 

drum at a hunt. 
Dubu dubu. Big bellied, feeling of 

full stomach. 

Dubuk dubuli. To nod the head, to 
bow the head, as when making 

D'abun dubun 

[ 155 ]1 

Dull duk. 

Dubud dubun. Shaking the head, as 
an old man through weakn'ess; 
Pubuh ^ubuiie oalaKkana. His head shakes 
as he walks. 

f» 'J ' I- Small, dwarfish. 
IJucduc. J ' 

Puo mara gidra. A little imp. 

Pao hoi do 9<liko bhathaea. Little folks speak 

Dud (Jade deloKkana. He looks small. 

Duci. Tuft of feathers on head of bird, 

Due kikir. The common king-fisher, 

Alcedo ispidoi. 
P uda. To publish slanderous reports, 

to spread from one to another. 

Pu<Jaena ona katha do. That story is now 
public property. 

Duda. Short. 

Sate 4ud9.kedape. You ha-re out the eaves too 

Dudhia ayan. A species of snake 
thought by the Santals to be a 
variety of the cobra. Cf ayan. 

Dudhia boda. A species of snake. 

This snake ia said to attsujk cows by coiling 
itself round their legs, and then sucking 
their milk. It is believed that cows thus 
treated by iihis snake give large quantities 
of milk, and the snake for that reason la 
never killed. 

Dudhi lota. A common jungle clim- 
bing plant, Ichnocarpus frntes- 
cens, R. Br. 

Dudhma."! p^^. rolling in fat and lazy. 
Dhuma. J 

Daira khub dhumg. motaakanae. The bullook 
is as fat as a butter ball. 

Dudhwa. Cf dhudhwa. 

bud katua. Not reared on its mother's 

milk, and as a consequence weak 

and puny. 

Dud katu?.enae nui gidra do. This child has 
lost its mother's milk. 

Dudrau-I To deny, to prevaricate, to lay 
Dudri., I the blame on another, to 
Dodao. J shield oneselfat the expense 
of another. 

Adfreye b?.ricakata ar acgeye dudnkana He 
committed the f a.ult himself and he blames 
Dudrum. Drowsy, sleepy. 

44i dudrumedilikana. I am very drowsy. 

Duduhup. Still, motionless. _ 
Hanihan^e baaa do duduhupe durupakana. 
Look over there the bear is sitting stiU. 

Dudumdhukak. ") An earthenware ves- 

Dumdhukak. J sel which before 

the introduction of the glass bottle 

was employed to hold or carry 

liquor ; round, globular. . 

Dudurgud. To draw oneself together 
through being cold. 

DaK (Judurgudkefkoa. The rain (being cold) 
made them, draw themselvestogether. 

Dugi. The young shoots of the to- 
bacco plant. 

Pugi tuhgg-u. To prune the tobacco plant. 
Pugi tuhgg.akedae. He nipped off the young 
shoots of the tobaeoo. 

Dugur dugur. Tripping, taking short 
stepsj as a child, or a dwarf 

Gidr?! do dugur Qlugurko liirbaraea. Children 
run tripping about. 

Dugur dugur. Brightly, flaring. 

Dugur dhgur ioloJfkana. It blazes brightly. 
Hani han^e bohgae jolokkana dugur dugur. 

Dubau. To milk. 

Gg^iko duhaukoa. They milk cows. 

Jalua. The milking pot. 

Khubko duh?.a l$bi£kedea. They milked him 
flaccid, (they cozened him out of all he 
possessed, and left him like an emptjr; 

Duhli. Liquor made from matkom, 
the flower of Basia latifolia, 
without distillation. 

Duhmot. To accuse falsely. Cf doh- 

Duhri. ■) 
Duhuri. } ' 

Duhri. Double, two plies. 

Duhupduhup. Cry of a common forest 
bird called Mahkal, the Indian 
crow pheasant, Centropus rufi- 

Duhup duhup. Heavy thumping soundi 

Duhuri. A kind of basket. 
D^kh 1 'I'^o"^^^' sorrow. 

Dukan. Togo. Is only found in Santali 
in the past tenses. 

Oral? sediii dukana. I went home. 

Ontefi dnb^inte noKSe noaii liamkeda. By going 

there I receivd this. 
Hatiateil duk3.n tahekana. I had gone to 

the market. 
Melatele duk^nlena. We went to the fair. 

Duk duk. ■) To go pit-a-pat, to throb. 
Dukdukau. J Cf. dhuk dhuk. 

■ A kind of basket. 


[ 156 ] 


Duku. Hip. 
Dukh. Trouble, sorrow. 
Dukliali. Suffering. 
Dukhi. Suffering people. 

K^n^i dukhi. Wido-ws and poor people. 

Dukhri. A small bag, a beggar's 
wallet, a pocket. 

Duki. Wooden oil measures of one 

quarter seer and less. 
Dukniic. A pinch, a very small piece 

or quantity. 

Mi£ dukniice emadilia. He gave me just a 

Mit' duknud dakale emama, bam kamikana. 
We will only give you a very small quatity 
of boiled rice, you are not working. 

Dul. To pour, to cast metal in a mould. 

Bui rnerhefi. Cast iron. 

Noa gada jalapurire dul midoKa. This river 
flows into the sea. 

Dular. To caress, to fondle, to love. 

Dupularpe. Love one another. 
A^iye dularoKkana nui seta do. The dog 
fawns upon one. 



TV 1 I'x. {• Beloved, dear. 
Dularo. J ' 

TV /'■•' • ' ^Beloved, dear. 
Uularini. J 

Dularia. Loved, beloved. 

Dularo. C£ dular. 

Dulau. To lop, to prune, to squander. 

Hana dare dulElukam. Lop the top off that 

Duldul. Globular, in form like an air 
bubble, globular and hollow ; swim 
of fish. 

Duldule ojoakana. He is suffering from large 

round boils. 
Hako reaK duldul. The swim of a fish. 

Duldul. \ Sound of far off thunder, 
Duldulau. J or the roar of a tiger ; 
to reverberate, to rumble. 

Bimil duldulauKkana. Thunder is rumbling-. 
■ Dulduletkanae. The thunder rumbles. 
Adi knle duldulaukedae. The tiger roared like 

Dull. A primitive kind of palki. 
Duluc dupuc. Stunted, small, short, 

Duluj dupuJ geleakantiila. My crop is short in 

the oars. 
Diilu! dulu3le liamkeda. What we got was of 

interior quality. 

Duludan. ") . ■ p i 

i)uluduh.j^^P^°^'^'^°f ^^'^^^^ 

Duluh dulun. To toddle, walk as a 
little child. 

Puluu dulun palija barakedeae. She toddled af- 
ter him here and there. 

Dulup dulup. To flash, flicker, rise 
and fall, to flap. 

Dulup dulupe bijlielJkana. The lightening is 

Dulup dulup argo rakapa bati do. The lamp 

Hoe ghuri noa oraR dulup duluboBa. When it 

blows (the thatch on) this house flaps up 

and down. 

Dum dum 

. Pumakanae. She is enceinte. 

Dumcak. ") A clump, in clumps, 

mounds, or tufts. 


I To be with child. 


Dumcak dumcak. J 


Backom dumcaK dumcak tahena. 
(q. V.) grows in tufts. 

Dumchi. A crupper. 

Dumdum. Cf dum. 


Dumerae motaakanae. He is as fat as he can be. 

Dumhe. To heap, to collect together, 
to assemble. 

Adi horko dumheakana. Many people are 

Baburae do nondepe dumheakana, sanarn 
khondpe jom ocoeda. You young chiefs are 
assembled here and the crops are being 
eaten all round, (to cow herds found neglect- 
ing their duty.) 

Dumil. The black patch of feathers 
on the throat of the female quail, 
(gundri q. v.) 

Dumka. Round, globular. 

Adom do clumkage joKa. Some have round 


Dumka. Small, stunted. 
Dumkuc dumkuc. Small. 

Dumkud dumkucge joakana. The fruit is small. 

Dumur. A species of wild honey bee. 
Duna. Two fold. 

Dinkalom khon nes do duna hoeakana. This 
year's crop is double that of last year, 

Dunda. To cut the hair as short as 

Puuda got'kedeae. He cropped his hair. 

Dundak. The length of a furrow. 


[ 157 1 


punde. The pieces of flesh of an 
animal killed in the chase given 
to the Mafijhi (q. v.) and Paranik 
(q. v.) 
M^Ajhi <JuniJe. The M9.i1ilii's piece. 
Paranik (Juncje. The Paranik' s piece. 

Dundga. Cropped bare, short haired. 

Mak 5nniJgakedako dare do. They haye lopped 
all the branches off the tree. 

i)imd|i. F. } ^^^^' °^' ^^^^^"^ '^^^'^• 
Pundgut. To shave the head. 

Hoyo glun^gu£kedeae. He shaved his head. 

Dundha. A bell attached to a cow's neck 
to denote her whereabouts. 

Dundha. M. ") i^, i- u ■ <- 

Dundhi". F. j Foolish, Ignorant. 

Dundha. ") 

Ghor dundha J-To search a house under 

Ghor dundhi. J a search warrant. 

Pundhau. To seek, to search for. 

Pundi. 1 

Dundla. VBald, or shaven head. 
Dundli. J 

Dundlau. To tease, to spread, to shake 

Noa katha alope dundlau ocoaka. Do not allow 

this story to spread. 
iSele alope dundlaukoa totorako. Do not tease 

the bees they will sting. 
Ma tulam dundlaume. Tease out the cotton. 
Buaup dundlaukakpe rohoroKa. Shake out the 

straw it will dry. 

Dundrau. To speak back, to scold, to 

Dundrau daram gofikediiiae. He began to scold 
me as I arrived, (he met me with scolding.) 

Diindu. An owl. 
Pundu. To shave the head. 
Punduk. "1 To wave a fire brand to 
Dundul^. j give light. 

Seiigel thuthkntteko dun(Juka arsala mente. 
They take a fire brand from the Are and 
wave it to give a temporary light. 

Pundukil A small tree common in 

the jungles, Gardenia turgida, 

Pundun baha. A favourite flower 

with Santal girls, Gomphrena 

globosa, Linn. 
Dundun. With bristles or hair on end, 

as wild boar or bear ; puffed out, 

as a peacock with tail expanded 
and feathers on end ; large, loom- 
ing large in the distance or dark- 

H9.thiko tehgokoKa dundun. 
Maralf do ile dundunakaiia. The peacock has 
spread out his tail feathers. 

Dundun. To rise and fall, like waves ; 
to be piled up. 

Dundun baa argonkana. The flood sweeps on 
like a wall. 

Dundur. Unsubmissive, recusant, 
obstinate, strong-headed, self- 

Dundurcul To sit on the haunches. 

Dundurout'e durupakana. 

Dundur muha. Given to denying, 
never admitting having been in 

Dundur musak. Quiet, reserved, sel- 
dom speaking, even when spoken 

Dundur musak hor bae ror hoda. He is a very 
quiet man, he seldom speaks. 

Pun dun. Hollow sounding, as a drum. 

Pun dun sadekana. It sounds hollow. 

Phuii dhuh. 

i>huh 4huh sadekana. 

Dungel. ") In vast numbers, in crowds; 
Dunger. J a party, a group. 

A(Ji dunger hor. A vast crowd of people. 

Dunger. A dance danced at the place 
where the night is spent when 
out at one of the annual hunts. 

Duugi. A small boat. 

Dungi dhiri. A stone trough. 

Dungut dungut. In crowds, in swarms. 

Mudko, miiiiko mako duiiguf duhgudoB, 
Kayo, Capakia bare latar (Jarreko duiigul; 

Punri. A knoll, a small hill. 

Duni. A trough lever for lifting water 

for irrigation. 
Dunia. Coimtry, the world. 

Dunia reaK nokoe iii bicareda, apeaK cak bah- 
iA bioar dareatapea ? I judge for the whole 
country, and wherefore can I not judge 
for you ? 

Dunul. The junction of two rivers or 

streams. Cf dul. 
Dupai. "( To tremble, to shake, 

Dupai dupai. j to be in a tremor. 

Dup^i dup^iti botoroKkana. I am trembling 
with fear. 


[ 158 ] 

Dtarya aralt 

pupka. A small, isolated patch of 

pupkare kulai boloakabae. The hare has gone 
into that little patch of jungle. 

Dupul. The Reciprocal form of " dul" 

(q. V.) 
Dupular. The Eeciprocal form of 

" dular " (q. v.) 
Dupurup. The Reciprocal form of 

" durup " (q. v.) 
Dur. ") Avaunt ! Be gone ! Get you 
Durdur. J gone ! 

Dur. "> To put from one, to reject, 

Dur dur. J drive off, to warn off, to 

put to a distance. 

Eatha doe durkeda. He rejected the proposal. 
Setaii durdurkedea. I drove off the dog. 

Duraha. Tell-tale, fomenting quarrels, 
causing dissention. 

Duran. \ To sing, to praise in 

Seren dur an. J song. 

Duranta. Distant, far off. 

4di duranta atotepe senena. You hare gone 
to a very distant Tillage. 

Dura san. A wild edible root. 
Durathan. To destroy, to spoil, 

Lebe^ durathankedako. They tramped over it 
and spoiled it. 

Durbin. Any optical instrument. 
Durdosa. Adversity, misfortune, evil 

Durdur. A call to pigs. 
Durdurau. To blaze brightly. 
Dure. The scrotum of a boar. 
Dure. ") An exclamation of surprise, 
Durre. J grief &c. 

Durre ? ohoii senlena. Alas ! I cannot go. 
Durre ! ased marait kule parom oalaoena. 

Halloo ! an immense tiger has passed this 

Durre ! aiji bipot hoeakantina. Woe is me ! 

I have fallen on evil days. 

Durhak. An exclamation of grief or 

DurhaK ! Am do ce£lekan hor kan bam: 
DurhaK ! Alom onka barael^a. 

Durhelj durhet'. A cry to sheep. 

Durl. A species of fish resembling 
an eel, and very slippery. 

Dtiri hako leka lelijera. As slippery as an eel. 

Duria. A tassel, a fringe, a bunch of 
silk or cotton worn like a chignon 
by young women. 

Duriau. To take along with. 

Gidar pida,re ^uriau idikef koa. He took the 
whole family along with him. 

Durib. Property, agricultural produce.. 

Bese dnribakaia. He is very well off. 

Dhon durib.. Wealth, in money and property. 

Dur karahak. How foolish 1 dear me I 

DurkarahaK ! rearaK calcpe jomeda? How fool- 
ish of you, Why do you eat it cold ? 

Durmar. Quickly, violently, to drive 
away, to keep at a distance ; to 
put or set down. 

Dnrmarkediiiako, bako roy ocoadiiia. They 
put me down and did not allow me to 

Durmarko lagakedea. They drove him away 
witii feelings of aversion. 

Dursut. "j To finish, to complete, to 
Durusut. J put in order. 

Sanamalf dursutena, ma hijuKpe. All is ready, 
now come. 

Durubus. C£ dorobos. 
Duruc. To be upset and contents to 
spill, to die. 

Duriioenae, a(Ji bhage hore tahekana. He 
is dead, he was a very good man. 

Nukinem, asul duriiclekin khan noa cij baantem 
liama. If you take care of these two till 
they die all this property will become 

DaK hiric cabaena, okoe noa doe duruc keda? 
The water is all spilled, who upset it? 
(the water pot.) 

Durukia. Frightened, suspicious, ti- 

AiJi ^nrukia hor kanae. He is a very timid 

Durum durum. In crowds, in large 

Hor durum durumko jaoraakana. The people 
acre assembled in large numbers. 

Durup. To sit down, to be idle. 

DurupaK. A seat. 

Kulhi durup. A council. 

Durup samtaoUpe. Sit close together. 

Bam kamilekhan okoe durnpkate jomaliko em- 

ama ?^ If you do not work who wiU feed 

you sitting idle ? 
OnijeA dukana, durup tengonhobako metadiiSa. 

I went there bnt was not welcomed. 
Durup din tioKentaea. The time of her 

confinement has arrived. 
Tin marah gidra kanae ? neKe durupa. 

Durusuru. C£ dorosoro. 

Durust. Cf. dursut. 

Durya. An interjection of annoyance ; 
Get out ! 

Durya arak. A plant the fresh leaves 
of which are used as a pot herb, 
Veryionia cinerea, Less. 


[ 359 ] 


Dusad. A semi-Hinduised caste of 
aborigines, the Dosads. 

Dusau. "J To blame, to find fault with, 
Dhusau. J depreciate, to belittle. 

Onkako dusaukoa. Tliey thua find fault with 

Dusi. Blameworthy, guilty; applied 
to a bulloclj with a white spot on 
its forehead. 

Cei bam kiri^kedea, dusigeae. Why did you 
buy her, she has a white spot on her fore- 
head (and therefore unlucky) 

Dusko. Distress, trouble, affliction. 

OroKko gooentilite a^ifi dus toena. I am in 
great distress owing to the death of my 
plough cattle. 

A^i duskore menaea. He is sorely afflicted. 

Dusman. A enemy, an ill wisher. 
Dustama. Hatred, wickedness, evil. 
Dustur. Cf. dastur, 
Dut dut. "J An exlamation of annoy- 
Dhu1; dhui. ) ance or vexation. 

Duf duf, bail kana. 

Du^ukul 1^°*'^ si*^®^' ^°*^ parties. 

Duyukul reaK kathako aTijoma. They hear 
what both parties have to say. 

Duyud duyun. To follow, to go after, 
one to follow the other. 

Duyuh 4uyuhe asen baraeedekana. She takes 
it about with her following at her heela. 


E. A vocative particle. 

Ebaba. Oh! father. 
Ego. Oh! mother. 

E. The abbreviated form of the 3rd 
Personal pronoun, he, she, him, 

Ea. Used in addressing inferiors, or 
when rebuking. 

Eae. Seven. 

Eae gel. Seventy. 

Gel eae. Seventeen. 

Eae khon gel. Seventeen. 

Eae dobor. Seven fold. 

Eae dhao. Seven times. 

Eae dhao eae gel. Seventy times seven. 

Ead. To remember, to commit to 

memory ; to punish. 
' Bad eadakat'a. I have not Qommitted it to 

memory. . 

Hape, eadmealaii nahaK. Hold, I shall punish 

you presently. 

Ebe tebe. 1 More than sufficient, used 
Ebe tube. J always with ' jom ' to eat. 

Ebe tebeye lojomkana. He is eating more than 
he requires. 

Ebhen. To awake from sleep. 

Gitio ebhenenae. He slept, but is now awake. 
4uriye ebhenoUa. He is not awake yet. 
Ebhen ocokedeaii. I awoke him. 

E6. To take glowing embers from 
the fire and put them in a vessel, 
to carry away glowing embers in 
a vessel, or to place them under- 
neath the bed on which some one 
is lying, to bring or cause trouble 
or misfortune. 

Parkom latarreko ed joha. They are in the 

habit of putting pots filled with glowing 

«mbers underneath their beds. 
Dukbon ecakawana. We have brought this 

distress upon ourselves. 
Okoe bail noa duk doe edwadifi ? Who can have 

sent this distress on me ? 

E6 6c". } ^'^^ °^ * ^°^^^ buffalo. 

EcepSce. To twist and turn, as one 
trying to get out of a difficulty 
or an uncomfortable position ; 
to put on the screw, to put one 
in a strait or difficulty ; obstreper- 
ous. Cf Ecpgce. 

E6k66. Beyond one's means. 

EckSdko Mukedea. They fined him heavily 

(beyond his power to pay conveniently.) 
EokOde aikaukeda. It was beyond his means. 

Ed66. Indistinctly, inarticulately, as 
a child learning to speak. 

Edooe roreda, oka ho bah bujhauKkantaea. 
He speaks iadistinotly, nothing (that he 
says) can be understood. 

filcpgc. To twist and turn as one trying 
to get out of a difficult or an 
uncomfortable position, to put on 
the screw, to put one in a strait 
or difficulty ; obstreperous. 

^diko eopeokedilia. They put me in a great 
strait, (or applied the screw on me.) 

Nui sadom do a4i ecpeo baraekanae. This 
horse is very obstreperous, (keeps twisting 
and turning hiinpelf about.) 

Nui 4aiira do a(jii ecpeo baraekanae, aray bae 
goga. This bullock keeps twisting his 
head about, he will not allow the yoke to 
be on his neck. 

Edebede. Intricate, involved, com- 
plicated, thick, indistinctly. 
Bdebedeye royeda. He speaks indistinctly. 
Noa katha do ^i edebede bujh^uUkana. This 
case seems very intricate. 


[ 160 ] 


Edede. To watch, applied oftenest 
to children who hang about where 
cooking, &c„ is going on, (used by 

Eijede baraelsanam, gupi tanaK ho bam calaKa. 
You are watcliing about here, you won't 
even go to herd. 

Edel. The cotton tree, Bombax inala- 
haricuin, D. C. 

Ede thompe. Clump, cluster, bunch ; 
applied to fruits that grow im- 
mediately on the trunk, thicker 
branches, or aerial roots of trees, 
as the jack fruit, papaya or papita 
and certain figs. 

E^e thompe joakan. The fruit is in clusters. 

Edhe. To sit on the ground with the 
knees drawn up to the the cheso. 

Enan khonili llelekana, ondege eijheakanae. 
I have seen him for sometime, he is sitting 
there still. 

Edhe. bedhe. | Intricate, comjolicated, 
Ede bede. ) involved. 

Noa katha edhebedheena, bail chindaulena. 

This matter has become complicated, it is 

not settled. 
Edhebedheye tolaka£a, bah rara hodoKkana, 

He has tied- it intricately, it will not 

readily loose. 
Edliebedhe tolkate ado kamitey-e calaoena. She 

tied (the door) intricately, and then went 

to her work. 

Edhe janum. The small bush form of 
Zizyphus Jujubci, Lam. 

The fruit of this although much inferior to that 
of the other form (Dedhaori janum, q. v.) 
is also eaten. The bush is used largely for 
fencing growing crops, &c. 

Edhe rangaini. A common thorny 
plant, Solanum xanthocarpum, 
Schrad et Wendl. 

Edhor bedhor. Cross grained, as wood 
or a man. C£ bedhor. 

Edre. To be angry ; anger, spite. 

Alom edre .gahgilialia. Do no t put me away 

from you in anger. 
Nui edrete setae dal goekedetaea. He killed 

his dog because he was angry with him (the 

dog's master.) 
Edre ocokediriae. He made me angry. 
Bdren ia sometimes used for edreK in the future 

and the special incomplete present tenses. 
Tis ho bae edrena. He never gets angry. 
Ikakaepe edrenkanae. Leave it alone it is 

getting angry (as a wounded tiger.) 

E S. To groan ; the sound emitted by 
one when groaning ; a groan. 

Eken e e edae, ror ge bae rora. He only groans 
he won't apeak. 

Egar. To begin, to put one's hand to 
a thing, to undertake. 

EgarkateiS tegarakata. I put my hand to it 
but brought loss upon myself (trying to 
make it better I made it worse.) 
Egarakawanali. I have put my hand to it. 

Eger. To scold, to abuse ; used by 
women always, and by men only 
when referring to women. 

EKger aim^i. A scold. 

Epeger. To recriminate (women.) 

Acjiye egerkedilia. He (or she) scolded me 
severely, (the speaker a woman.) 

Eh. An interjection of surprise, Oj 
what ; indeed ! really ! 

Eh ! ao eskargeye jomkeda ? What ! ate it all 
himseK ? 

Ehe. Such as this, like this ; the ideai^ 
is conveyed by signs. 

Ehe mutak. A club as thick as this (the speaker 
here conveys an idea of the thickness of the 
club by pretending not to be able to 
encircle it with both hands.) 

Ehe mutakanteye lagakefilea. He chased us 
with a club as thick as this (the thickness 
is shewn by signs.) 

Ehe marah. So big. 

Ehe. Hist ! Hey ! look here ! halloo ; 
used to call attention. 

Ehe! lielet'mead. Halloo! I see you. 

Ehe ! alom dalea. Hey you ! don't hit him. 

Ehe ! onte do okatem calaKkana ? Look here ! 
where are you going to in that direction ? 

Eheya ! cetem cekaeda? Hey you ! what are 
you up to P 

Ehe ehe. So much, so large a quanti- 
ty ; the idea being completed by 

Ehe eheko emailea. They gave us ao large a 
quantity of food (shews by signs how large 
the quantity was.) 

Ehe ge. Used in calling attention 
to girls. 
Ehe ge ! oet'em cekaeda P Ho! my girl, what 
are you doing ? 

Ehek. Whine of a peevish child. 

Get bam ehelf ehekkanp hapekme. 

Ehel betkei. An infant three or four 
months old, before it is able to 
turn itself. 

Ehel ehel. Fat, plump, in prime con- 

Ehel ehel hormo lieloKkantaea. He looks in 
prime condition. 

Ehem. To cough, to ahem. 

Ehefide guhend 

[ 161 ] 


Ehend guhend. To dirty, to disarrange, 
to spoil. 

EheiKj gulienijlko gaAjaobeda. They have tram- 
pled on and spoiled (the growing grain.) 

Ehen<J guhen(Jko eneolsana. They are dancing 
and ooTering themaelTes with dust. 

Alo beta, kioridem ehen<jl guhenijtilia. Don't 
my son, you will dirty my cloth. 

Eher. To sit on the ground with the 
knees up to the breast. 

Cefem eherakana ? kgimite oalaKme. Why are 

you sitting? go to your work. 
Dal eher gofkedeako. They struck him and 

made him plump down on the ground in a 

sitting posture. 
Eher jiki. So move while in a sitting posture 

without raising the person from the ground. 
Eher jiki durup baraekanae. He moves about 

while sitting by dragging himself along the 


Ehe re. Used when calling attention 
to boys ; Hey ! hey you ! 

Ehe re ! cetkom halbalkana P Hey ! what mis- 
chief are you up to ? 

Ehe talan. So much, so large, so thick. 
The full idea is conveyed by signs. 

Ehe talati bulu mo^ataea. His thigh ia ao thick 

(the speaker completes the description by 

Ehe talau dakako emadiiia. They gave me so 

much boiled rice (the quantity is shewn by 


Ehe to. So, thus. 

Ehe tom lielelikangea, oeftii emamaP Tou see 
me thus (how I am), what will I give you p 

Ehop. To begin. 

Etohop. The beginning. 

Ru?. ehopkedea, hola. He had an attack of 
fever yesterday, (or the fever began yester- 

Etohopre kathatef e tahekana. In the beginning 
was the word. 

Ei. Employed to call attention. 

Ei, ei, nonde hijuKme. 

Ejahar. A statement made before a 
magistrate, police officer, or a 
panchayat ; evidence, deposition 
of a witness. 

Noa mamblare amaK ejaharko hataoa. They 
will take your evidence in this case. 

^J/^^-Ia court of justice. 
J.J las. J 
Ejlaare tehgon hoyoKtama. Tou must appear 

before the court. 
Ejlasro teugokateye rorkeda. He stood up m 

the court and spoke. 
Okaejlasre 4igrim AamakataP In what court 
did you get a decree ? 

Ejmali. Conjointly, belonging to two 
or more shareholders. 

Noa do ejmali ato kana. This village is owned 
conjointly (by two or more perSDna.) 

Eka. One, alone. 

Eka gh^riai. One household. 

Eka ghg.rig.geali oholi sonlena. I have no neigh- 

bour.s, I will not be able to go, i. e. there 

is no one in whose charge 1 could leave my 

Eka jiwi. 1 ,, 
Ekaj'ib5i. 1A1°'1«- 
Eka jiwiA paromena, noa bir. I crossed this 

jungle alone. 

Eka china. One, alone, single, singly. 

Nui do eka ohin?ire oraKakatae. Thia person 
has built his house by itself (has no neigh- 

Eka china, got'enae. 

Eka ohinaenteko gockedea. They killed him 
through his being alone. 

Eka chinateye bandeakana. She is wearing her 
cloth single. 

Eka duka. One or two ; a few. 

Eka duka noa horte alope calalfa, bagahigea. 
Do not go that way as there are only a few 
of you, it is dangerous. 

Eka eki. One by one. 

Eka e Uiko calaoena. They left one by one. 

Eka guria. A one-legged demon who 

is said to devour human beings. 
Ekaha. Alone, odd, without a mate. 

Ekahageae. He is alone. 

Eka haria. 1 r\ i r 

Fk h '•■ ' i"'^^ yoke ot oxen, once. 

Eka hg,ria argom. A clod crusher drawn by 

one yoke of oxen. 
Eka harig-e tolkeda. He put it once round. 

(a rope) and then tied it. 

Eka jiba. Having no relatives, no 
one to care for but oneself, alone. 

Am do cefiem dandoKa eka jib?b hor. 

Ekalte. At once, instantly, completely. 

Ekalteye ror gotkeda. He spoke outinstantly. 

Ekalteye jobabadea. He instantly dismissed 

Ekalteye jom oabakeda. He ate it up com- 

Ekam dukam. One, two ; one or two. 

Ekam duk^m hoy onte alope calaKa, bagahigea. 
One or two people do not go that way, it is 
infested with wild beasts. 

Ekamoe. United, of one mind. 

Ekamoeenato. They are all united. 

Ekaput. Only child. 

Ekarha. Alone, odd, mateless. 

Ekarhage jolena. It bore only one fruit. 
Ekarhage merome buB^Kkedea. The goat had 
only one kid. 

Ekasira. Hydrocele ; having only one 


Ekatreli laiama, hor aamahre do bah. I shall 
tel 1 you when we are alone, not before others . 

,' [Privately, alone. 



[ 162 ] 

Ek taria 

Ekbaenar. Cf. eknar. 

Ekbar. \ All at once, completely, en- 

Ekbargi. J tirely. 

Ekbhakia. Only one word, no parley. 

Ek bli?tki?.geae, argo rakap do bae badaea. 

He has only one price, he never raises or 

redRoea his prices. 
Ek bhakiae calaoena. He did not parley but 

went right away. 
Bali aiijomlettaea, ek bhakia heo idienalS. 

I did not listen to him, I came straight 



Ekdame calaoena. He left instantly. 

Ekdhar. One side, aside ; edge. 

Ekdhare ealao paromena. He passed by on 
one side. 

Ekdhara. An adverb possessing inten- 
sifying force ; unusual, peculiar. 

Ekdharae motaakana. He is immensely fat. 
Ekdharae Jielolrkana. He looks peculiar. 
Ekdharae sereiiefkana. He sings with great 

Ekdharae calaKkana. He walks rapidly. 
Ekdharae ruhetkeda. He scolded fiercely. 
Ekdharae darkeda. He fled swiftly. 
Ekdhara joakana. Laden with fruit. 

Eke. Ho ! used in calling attention 
to girls. 

Eke, hape thiroKpo. Ho, be quiet. 

Eke eke. One by one, singly. 

Eke ekeko calao idiena. They left one by one, 

(or they went singly.) 
Eke ekebo heoena, ekeekebo calaKa. We came 

singly and we will go singly. 
Eke eketebo joma. We will eat one after the 


Ekel sekel. Getting into mischief. 

Ekel sekel baraekanae, nui gidra do. This 
child is up to mischief. 

Eken. Empty, only. 

Eken hormo. Naked. 

Eken oraKiii sen Jiamkeda. I found an empty 

house when I went. 
BkenaK geii heoena. I have come empty handed. 
Eken tiye heolena, eken tiye calaoena. He 

came but got nothing. 
Eken dakako emadiiia. They only gavo me 

boiled rice. 
Eken Diku ona atore menaKkoa. There are 

only Hindus in that village. 

Ekep sekep. Enthusiastically ; eagerly, 
quickly, without delay. 

Ekep sekepko eneokana, setoii ho bako bataoeda. 

They are dancing enthusiastically, they do 

not mind even the heat. 
Okate ekep sekepem hedakana? Where have 

yon come so quickly ? 

Ek ghatia. One swing round the head, 
as one about to strike with a stick. 

Ekghatig. doe dalkedilia. He gave his stick 
one swing and then struck me, i. e. he 
struck without warning. 

Ekhan. Liquor as it comes from thfe 
still, overproof Cf phuli. 
Ekhan gai. A cow that gives a small quantity 
of mUk. 

Ek jiba. Fearless. 

Baric ek jiba hor kanae. He does not know 

what fear is. 

Ek jiba. Having no relatives, only 
oneself to care for ; unsympathetic. 

Ekjontor. Of a like disposition, or 
nature, alike, astonishing, wonder- 

Ek jontor oraRko benaoakata. They have built 
a i wonderful house. 

Eklaic f-^loQ^j to become alone. 

Alope cala8a, bankhanifl eklalfa. Do not go, 

if you do I shall be alone. 
Eklageye tahekana. He was alone. 

Eklaeek. Equal, even, on a par, neck 

and neck. 

Eklaeekko liiraEkana. They are running neck 

and neck. 
Eklaeekko kisara. They are equally wealthy. 

Eknar. \To yoke cattle with unequal 
Ekbaenar. /length of yoke; alone. 

Eknarkedeako. They all went against him. 
Nui daiira do ekbaenarte siaeme bae darealf 

kana. Plough with this bullock so that the 

greater part of the weight may be on the 

other, he is weak. 
Sanam horteko eknarkedea. They all avoided 

him, or all sided against him. 

Ek5t. Privately, alone, solitary. 

Uni hor do ekotre raenaea. That man is in 

Ekrar. To promise, to agree to, to 

Ekrar nama. A written agreement or promise. 
Efcrarenae. He has promised. 
Ekrar ocokediriae. He caused me to come to 
the agreement. 

Eksatha.}u°i*'^'i'°f onemind. 

Ek sathaenako gota atoren hor. All the people 
of _ the village are of one mind (or, are 
united on some point.) 

Ek sirri. Self-willed, obstinate. 

Adi ek sirri hor kanae. He is a very obstinate 

Ek sirtal. At the edge or side, out of 
the way ; to out-caste. 

Ek airtalre dohokam. Put it down at one side. 
Am ek sirtalre tahenme. Stay you to one side" 
Ek sirtalkedeako. They out-casted him. 

Ek taria.. Quickly, hastily, 

Ektariae jomkeda, onate ruagotenae. He ate 
hie food hastily, and ao took ill. 


[ 163 1 


Ektiar. \ Authority, choice ; obstinate, 
Ektiari. J self-willed, determined, 
Ek torphi. Ex-parte. 
Ek torphiko ^igrialikoa. They got an ex -parte 

Ek turia. Of equal age. 
Nukin do ek turi?. kanakin. These two are of 
equal age. 

Elaka. Province. 

Elak chada.\ Free, free from responsi- 

Elek chada.j bility. 

Elak chadaenail etali her tireli jimakeda. I am 
free from reaponsibility I gave it into the 
chajTge of another man. 

Elan. Heat, flame. 

Seiigel elahiiikana. I feel the heat of the fire. 

Elao. To give in, be beaten, to have 
enough, to be wearied or tired. 

Eleka. Cf elaka. 

Elek chada. Cf. elak chada. 

Elelgok. Cf. englngul 

Elglgon. Cf enSlngul 

Elem celem. Watching for an oppor- 
tunity, waiting till the coast is 
clear ; used generally of children 
watching for an opportunity to 
take something, and at times of 
wild amimals, such as jackals, 
waiting for a favourable oppor- 
tunity to seize something. 

TaraKkanae elem celem. He is lying in wait 
' watching for a favourable opportunity. 

Elen bekec. l An infant about 3 or 4 

Eted bekec. J months old. 

Elbe celhe. To watch for an oppor- 
tunity to surreptitiously possess 
oneself of anything, to cast longing 
eyes on, to covet. 

Elhe celhe baraekanae. He is on the look out 
for an opportunity (to seize the fowl, as a 

Em. Weak form of ' am thou. 

Am-em calaKkana. Tou are going. 

Em. To give. 

Em sohofi. To help by giting. 

Em hala. To repay. 

Em chadao. To redeem. 

Em labnK. To give to secure the affections, or 

to appease, or win favour. 
Emlega. To offer. ... ,, .„, +„ 
Em agu. To continue giving from the past to 

the present. 
Emdoho. To lend. . 

Em hatar. To lend, to give for the present 
Em oapai. To borrow and lend (reciprocal.) 
Em calao. To assist by giving or lending. 
Em idi. To continue giving, to go on giving. 
Epem. The reciprocal form of em . 

Eman. Sundry, such like. 

UniaK edre eman do b9.nuKtaea. 

Ale then Diku eman do hecge baiiko hijuEa. 

Bu9i emanol^khan muskilgea. 

Joton emauem. Take every care of him. 

Sen emanlenam ? 

Cithi eman do bako emadilia. 

Emanteali. Various, all manner or 
sorts of, many kinds of, et ccetera ; 
applied to inanimate objects only. 

Behgec hor do emanteaK araK sakamko joma. 

Poor people eat many kinds of pot herbs. 
Birre emanteaK hungirko calaKa maejiukq do. 

Women go to the jungle to collect various 

kinds of things. 
Pirthimire emanteaK jinis menaKa. All manner 

of things are in the world, 
Uni do emanteaKe egerkedilia. 
Uni do emanteaK serelie ba^laea. He knows 

many kinds of songs. 

Emanten. Various, diverse, all manner 
or sorts of, many kinds of, et ccetera; 
applied to animate objects only. 

DaKre hako emantenkoko tahena. Fishes and 

various other kinds of living creatures live 

in water. 
Dhairtire do emanten jst menaKkoa. There are 

many various castes of people in the world. 
Birre kul emanten janwarko tahena. Tigers 

and all sorts of animals live in the jungle._ 
A^li okodle sendra gooketkoa, sgil saram, kul3i- 

ko, torko, cereko, emantenko. We killed 

much game in the chase, deer, hares, 

squirrels, birds, &c. &o. 

Emnesemne. 1 cf emon semon. 
Emne temne. J 

Emon. So, such, like, such as, such like. 

Eaj garre emon hor do ohom cahtaolena. A 
person like you could not enter a king's 

Emon ruhefiili ruhefledea thir utarenae. I gave 
him such a scolding that he utterly col- 

Emonlah dalmea se nahaK atkar ut?ram. I 
shall give you such a beating presently as 
to make you feel it. 

Emon hor do ohoe behgeilema. He would not 
look at a person such as you. 

Emon daUli dalkedea jaiiga r9.put gotentaea. 
I struck such a blow that I broke his leg. 

Emon semon. \ Indifferently, so and so, 
Emon temon. J such Hke, having any 
particular failing or frailty. 

Emon temon hor doe bahkana. He is not like 
the average run of men. . i.i.- i 

Emon temon hor alom ba^laeea. Do not think 
him a person who would do that. 

En. That, that particular. 

En serma. That particular year, used only of 

past years. 
En sermati dukan tahekana. 
En serma khonle ru?.Kkana. 
En sermaren maran naekeye tahekana. He 

was high priest that year. 
En hiloK. That day, that partioular day. 


[ 164 ] 


En. To transfer dust, &c. from the 
person to a cloth, &c., by lying or 
treading on it. 

Kicrioein en jaukelitiiia. You have dirtied 
my cloth. 

En. To thresh grain. 

paiiratebo en jaha. 7 They thresh out the 
Panrateko en lahnda. > grain by means of 

Enan. ") A little while ago, a previous 


Enan. J part of the same day. 

Enaareli Jielledea. I saw him a little while 

Enanreye oalaoena. He left some time ago. 

Enbend. Intricately, complicated. 

Endbende tolkeda. He knotted it intricately. 

En betar. Then, at that time. 

Encar manclo. Half-threshed, as grain. 

Bnoar mandokate bagiaKpe, gapabon en lahut' 
utgirkaRa. Half thresh it and leave it, we 
will thresh it out tomorrow. 

End. The male organ of generation. 
Endak. To cross in front of 

Eor endaUkediiiae. 

Toyoe enfjakket'lea. A jackal crossed in front 
of us. 

If a jackal crosses in front of a party on their 
way to " view a bride" it is considered as 
an omen presaging evil. The party immed- 
iately returns home and negotiations are at 
an end. 

Ende. There, in that place. 

Ende bare tahe hataroKme. Remain there for 

the present. 
Henda na, en^e eskargem guri-; barakeda? 

Ho my girl, have you only smeared that 

place ? 

Ende. Then. 

IfiiA senoK, ende utare hijuB. 

Ende bapo. Then only. 

Iiiili nehorente ende bapoe araJfkade. I beseech- 
ed, then only did he release him. 

Alele rui ende bapoko enec. 

BiA reak bohoKko gejerkeftaete, enije bapoe 
gujuR. They pounded the head of the 
snake, not till then did he die. 

Ende enec. Then. 

EacakoA jog, endeened daKiii aguia. When I 
have swept the courtyard then I will bring 

Ende khac. 1 mi 
an. 3 


Unim dallekhan endekhauiiii l9.1isaraa. If j^ou 
beat him then I shall complain against you. 

Endel. Not to give to another who is 
present, when eating or drinking, 
to pass over. 
Jom endelkediiiako. They ate themselves but 
did not give me anythirig. 

Ende nahl. Then. 

DaRleng-hi endenahim arjao joiia. It must 
first rain, then you will secure good crops. 

Ende nahi to. Then, not till then. 

CalaRpe, encle nahi toko emapea. Go, not till 

then will they give to you. 
Eanaepe, ende nahi toe besoKa. Give him 

medicine, not till then will he recover. 

Ende pende. | Here and there, unreli- 
End pend. ) able, slippery. 

Alom ende pende baralea. 
Ende pendeye kamikana. 
Endpend hor kanae. He is a slippery fellow. 

Enderege. It was thought, it was 
said, it was understood. 

Uni mae laie^ enderege ape sen do bae dakleda. 

He says it was thought there was no rain 

with ycu. 
Bam ma enderegeye goeen. It was thought that 

Earn was dead. 

Enderema. Then, in that case. 

Bape ranaekhan enderemae giijuK. If you do 

not give him medicine then he will die, 

(or may die.) 
Barakar bam parom dareakkhan enderemam 

ruarenge. If you cannot cross the Barakar 

river, then you will return. 

Ende reset. Then. 

lA thene oalaka, ende resetili emaea. He will 
come to me, then I shall give it to him. 

Arjao johme, ende resetem jom suk jona_. Get 
good crops then you will live in comfort. 

Kurumutute Vamime, ende reset poesako 
emama. Work diligently then they will 
give you money. 

Endete. Then. 

Durnplenme, en^etem calaKa. Sit down first 

and then you can go. 
Nonde Ian jirauange, eudetelah ehoboEa. "We 

will rest here a little then we will begin. 

Endete enec. Then onls. 

Khub leka calaRme, endete enedem tioga. Go 
quickly then you will arrive in time. 

Eacakoli jog, enijete ened daKiA aguia. "When 
I have swept the courtyard then I will 

bring water. 

Endrae. Three days hence. 

Pher endrae. Four days hence. 

Endre. To shew the thumb, a scornful 
way of saying no. 

Endre. To be angry. C£ edre. 

Miye endre ocokedilia. He made me very 

Enc. Now. 

Enem thireua. Now you are still. 
Eneko calaKkana. Now they are going. 

Enec. Not until. 

Tikin cnede hedena. He did not arrive till noon. 
DaR lober enede jomlaRa. He had no food before 
4 p. m. 


[ 165 ] 


Enec. To dance, to play a game, to 
play, to drill, to dandle, to pacify, 
to fondle. 

Bill eSeneoid. A snake oharmer. 

Sir ened. To run about and play. 

Enejekanali. I am dandling him. 

Paret eneoj Parade, drill. 

Lagre eneo. The Lagre danoe, the most com- 
mon dance of all. 

Doii ened. The Dong danoe, a marriage dance. 

Dahar ened. The Dahar danoe, a sequel to the 
Lagre dance. 

Golwari ened. The Golwari danoe, like the 
Dahar dance it follows the Lagre danoe. 

Kiuj^ ened. The Einja dance, danced at the 

Karam (q. v.) festival. 
Sohrae ened. The Sohrae dance, danced at the 

Sohiae (q. v.) or Harvest festival. 
Baha ened . The Flower dance, danced at the 

Baha (q. v.) or Flower festival. 
Guiijar ened. The Gunjar dance, danced da- 
ring the Sohrae or Harvest festival. 
Matwar ened. The Matwar dance, a Harvest 

festival dance. 
Jhik^ ened. The Jhika dance, danced on all 

Bhins9.r ened. The Bhinaar dance, is a Karam 

(q. V.) festival dance. 
Duiiger ened. The Danger dance, is performed 

by men only when passing the night in 

camp daring an annual hunt. 
Jale ened. The Jale dance, is danced on the 

last day of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival. 

Loboe ened. The Loboe dance, danced by men 
only at the Daeae festival. 

Taini ened. The Walking stick dance, all the 
performers of which carry a stick. They 
form a circle and beat time with their 

Pom ened. The Dom dance, ia a marriage 

P^k don ened. The Sword and Shield danoe. 
The performers used to carry swords and 
shields, biit since they have been disarmed 
a stout stick has taken thb place of the 

Enelngol. \ To transfer dust, &c. from 
EnSlngut./ the person to a cloth, &c., 
by lying or treading on it. 

Sanam kicridem enelngufkeda. Tou have made 
all the cloth dusty (by lying or treading 
on it.) 

Enetet'. A partition. Cf etet'. 

Tala enetefi. A partition across the centre. 

Enga. Female, mother. 

Ehga hopon. Mother and child, or children. 
Ehgahon. Mother and child. 
Ehga hopon. Mother and young (animnls.) 
Gidra eugat hor. A mother, (employed usually 

to roughly indicate age.) 
Ehga katup. The thumb, or big toe. 

Ehga katupiii uduKadea. I shewed him my 

thumb, i. e. I defied him. 

Ehga khet. A productive rice field. 

Ehga aadom. l ^ ^^^^_ 

Sadom enga. ) 


A term of abuse, 


Enga Cross lines running from corner 
to corner in the woven mattress of 
a parkom, or bed. 

Eiigatei; alom phoraoa. Do not separate the 
twine of the ehga. 

Enga itat. Cloth given to bride's 
mother by bridegroom 

Enga jopor. Grown to the size of the 
mother, applied to animals and 

Ehga joporenakin. They are as big as their 

Edgam. Thy mother. 


Engam dongam. 


E agate. 

Engafi. My mother. 
Engat. His mother. 
Edgat'tet'. The mother. 

Hopontef ma menaege, ehgaiieie godena. The 
child is a live, the mother is dead. 

Engel pedgel. Perplexed, confused; 
the feeling of one tired with many 
things still to do. 

K^mi kamiteii ohgel pehgelena. I am tired 
and perplexed with continued working. 

Engot. To stoop. 

Ehgo^kateko poea. They atoop to hoc. 

Edgrad. A term of abuse. 

Enhiloli. That day, the same day. 

Enho. Never-the-less. 

Enka. ") Thus, in such a way, like that, 
Enkan. J as that. 

Enkageye tahekana. He was in the same condi- 

Ale enka hoe daka^lea. It rained like that 
with us. 

Ape sec ce€leka enkage ale sec ho. It was the 
same with us as with yon. 

Enka bare tahe ocoam. Let it remain as it is 
(Let it remain thus.) 

Enka lekaeme. Do like that. 

Onko doko enkangea. They are like that. 

Enka enka. A little, trifling. 

Enka enkae daKa^lea. We had a very little 

Enka enkate. By degrees, .^y that 
way, in that direction, in that way, 

Enkaenkateko sardikeda. Little by little they 

became furioua. 
Enka enkate daK calaoena. The rain passed 

in that direction. 


[ 166 ] 


Enkathae. Used to introduce a state- 
ment, that is to say, namely, as 
they say, that is. 

Enkhad. "j 

Enkhacte. f-Then. 

Enkhan. j 

Perako jomlege enlihante am dom joma. let 
the strangers first eat, then yon will eat. 

TJniye hedlenkhan enkhante am dom calaRa. 
When hejcomes then yeu can go. 

Enko. These, those. 

Enkoge sapkom. Seize hold of these. 

Enparom. On the other side, on that 
side, on the far side. 

Ne parom. On this side, 

Enreho. Never-the-less, although, still. 

EmadeaA enreho bae biUkana. I gave to him, 

still ho is not satisfied. 
JahatinaKko metam, enreho alom rebena. 

Whatever they may say to you, still don't 

you assent. 

Ente. For, because. 

Ente. In that way, in that direction. 

Ente liogoKme. Move a little over that way. 
Euteye calaoena. He went in that direction. 

Entere. In that place, there, over there. 

EntereJl tielledea. I saw him over there. 
Entere ho besoKgea. 

Eora. The length of thread spun at 
one time, as long as the arm can 

Mit bar eorali takoekeda. I spun two or three 
lengths of thread. 

Epel. To raise or lift up to strike, as 
a stick ; to brandish threateningly. 
Thengae epeladilia. He raised a stick to me. 

Eper hende. \To be at variance, to 
Eper hendec.J habour ill feeling, to 

dispute as to who should do a 

thing first. 
Eperhen(Jekkanakin. They bear ill-feeling 

towards each other, or, each urges the 

other to do it first. 

Epre. Out of line, cross-wise, uneven, 

Katha do epreentakoa. Their statements do 
not agree. 

^^' |, I To sow, to scatter ; to be 

TI-, ■ ,. I sown or scattered, 
iirogok. j 

Er horo. Dhan that has not been transplanted. 
Horoka. erakoa sim do. They scatter dhan for 

the fowls. 
Eroliio do eroKe o^oh calaoena. A sower went 

forth to sow. 
Otre ita erogoKa. Seed is sown in the earth. 
IroKtet do jug reaK mucaf , ar iroK ko do serma 

ren dutko. The harvest is the end of the 

world, and the reapers are the angels. 

Era. \Wife; female, applied to women 
Erat. J only, and generally as a mark 
of respect. 


Bra hopon. A man's family. 

Sahebera. The wife of an EngHshman. 

Mgilljhi era. The village chief's wife. 

Paranik era. ,, ,, Paranik's ,, (q. v.) 

Naeke era „ ,, Priest's ,, 

Go^e^ era. ,, ,, Messenger's wife, 

Jog Mailjhi era. „ Jog Maiiihi's „ (q. v.) 

Jaher era. The goddess of the Sal grove. 

Grosae era. A female Santal deity. 

Kisar era. The master's wife. 

Budi ora. An old woman, (respectful.) 

Era uru. A wife. 

Nabi era. A prophetess. 

Diku era. A Hindu woman. 

Era iri. To be at enmity with each 

Era iriakauakin. They are at enmity with each 

iSin erak. }^ ^^"'"^ P^^* mid-day. 

Eran. To turn aside, to parry, to avoid, 
to dodge, to give the go by to. 

Erandom dare. The castor oil tree, 
Ricinus communis, Linn. 

Eranijom sunum. Castor oil. 

Erao. To withhold food for some time 
as a punishment, to children. 

Hape lah, eraomea. Wait a bit I shall delay 
giving you food. 

Erba. A cultivated grain, Setaria 
Italica, Kunth, used metaphori- 
cally for girls. 

TinaK iri (q. V.) ar tinaK erbaf How many boys 
and how many girls p 

Erce perce. To twist and twine, fid- 
getty, restive. 

Cirifoe menaea ar oncle khon o^okoK lagif adiye 
erce perce baraekana. He is in a strait 
and to get out of it he is twisting and twin- 
ing in aU directions. 

Adili erce perce legata, bad dareada, I tried 
every way but was not successful. 

4di boj menaKte 4ahra do adikin erce perce 
baraekana, Owing to the heavy load the 
bullocks are twisting about (fidgetting to 
rid themselves of the yoke.) 

Ere. A species of bird, a wood pecker 

Bho(Ja ere. The large Wood pecker, Picus 

Kabra ere. The striped Wood pecker, Brachyp- 

temus aurantius. 

Ere. To deceive, to lie, to pretend. 

Ere eye kin k?.phariaulikana. They are chaff- 
ing each other. 
Ere moiij. \ To deceive, to put off for the present 
Ere suk. j with a promise, to pacify. 

Ered ere6 

[ 167 ] 


EKre hoy. A deceiver. 

Meromere ej-eko duhauea. They pretend to 

milk the goat. 
Ered rorlekhan kule jomelima. If I lie may a 

tiger eat me. 

Ered ere6. ") To smart, to scorch, to 
Ered pered. J burn ; smarting or burn- 
ing sensation. 

Ereo pared hasoedilikana. I feel a smarting 

Setoh paraoakkhan efed erejoSa ghao. If the 

sun's rays beat on the sore it -will smart. 

Ere erete. Pretendingly, not in ear- 

Ere oreteye dalekana. He is pretending to 

steike him. 
Ere ereteye ruaKkana. He pretends to be ill. 

Ere kisni. The Pied starling, Sturno- 
pastor contra. 

Ere limiU ' f '^^ deceive, to take one in. 

Ere lipul^ke1}meall, I have taken you in. 

Ere mo6j. To deceive, to take one in. 

Erev. To turn aside, to parry, to avoid, 
to dodge, to give the go by to. 

Kathae ererkeda, bae liur ocoada. He parried 

the statement preventing it having effect. 
Erer barakedifiae. He dodged me. 

Ere suk. To take one in, to put off with 
a promise. 

Ere surud. To take one in, to cheat, 
as at a game. 

Ere suru6ke6meaii. I have taken yon in. 

Erga. ") Contrarious, counter, con- 

Erga §rga. J trary. 

BujhauKkana nni do erga mara hor kanae. 
Oka leka erga ergam roreda, oka h5 bah bu- 

Erga ergako bicairkeda. 

ErgaKtege tahenkanae. 

Ergejak. To slight, to trample on, to 
put upon, to pass over, to des- 

Sanam hortegeko ergejaKakadea. They have 

all slighted him. 
Sanamko arjaoana, ill geli ergeia;Kena. They 

have all had good crops while I have been 

passed over, or slighted. 
ErgejaKketoeako. They all left yon severely 


■p" vA species of field rat. 

Ergo sesa. The track or road of the Ergo. 



Erka. To pretend not to know or to 
deny having known a person, to 

Nel erkaenae. 

Erka mara hor kanae. 

Bejaeem erkalikan do ho. 

Ero. ") To tantalise, as a child holding 
Iru. J out a piece of sweetmeat to 
another, and when he puts out 
his hand to take it, puts it in his 
own mouth. Always used with 
"jom," to eat. 

Jom erokedeae. He held out a (cherry) to him 
and when he put out his hand to take it, 
instead of giving it to him he pnt it into his 
own mouth and laughed at him. 

Eron. You yourself, you yourselves, 
just so, exactly so, on account of 

Am eroiiem agukedilia, ado nitoK dom jobabaii 

kana. Tou yourself brought me, and now 

you are dismissing me. 
Ape eronpe nonkaakat'a. Tou yourselves have 

done this, 
Ona eroh amem ror ocolckana. On account of 

that you are being found fault with. 

Erpher. To exchange, to alternate. 

Kicridkin erpherkeda. They exchanged cloths. 

Erseii torsed. ") To tumble or roll about 
Ersed torseii. / when lying down. 

Ersefi torgefi baraekanae. He is rolling from 
one side to another. 

Erwel. In-law, as sister-in-law. 

Erwelill kora. My brother-in-law, my wife's 

younger brother. 
Erweliii kuri. My sister-in-law, my wife's 

younger sister. 
ErwelmelJora. Thy brother in-law, thy wife's 

younger brother. 
Erwelrae kuri. Thy sister-in-law, thy wife's 

younger sister. 

Esel. Fair, light coloured. 

Esel kuri. A fair girl. 

Eser. To shake, to shake previous to 
being possessed, to be possessed 
or inspired. 

Boiiga esei'akade leka. He shook as if a bonga 
(q. v.) had possessed him. 

Eu?. eseriiikana. I have an attack of ague. 

Eser orali. An abandoned house taken possess- 
ion of by another family. 

Eset. To block the way, to hinder, to 

Ese6 acur. To surround. 

Bpeset. To meet each other in argument. 

Eskar. Alone, only, except. 

Eskarre. Privately. 

Eskar janam. Only begotten. 

Eskar toskar. Alone, one or two, a few. 

Eskar toskar alope dafana; Don't go about in 
ones and twos. 


[ 168 ] 


Esk5s. Reluctantly, with aversion, 
disinclination, with difficulty, 

Eskoshamalalfedipilidieda. He reluctantly car- 
ries the heavy "weight. 

Jomkate eskosiA aikaueda. Having eaten I am 
disinclined to move. 

A.di eneo eskose rorkeda. After a long time he 
reluctantly spoke. 

Esto besto. To be wearied, perplexed, 

Durup durupte esto bestoenali. I am wearied 

with sitting. 
Esto besto a^karedafi. I feel perplexed. 

Etalf. Another. 

rt^ alf s ■^''°t^®'^> the other (inanimate.) 
Etarid i Another one, the other one (animate.) 

Etau. Thin, sparse, scarce, slight. 

Adi etaiigeaUo. The population is very sparse, 
jondra adi etan omonakana. The Indian corn 
has germinated very sparsely. 

Etbar. Trustworthiness. 

AmaK etbar banuKanan. You are not trust- 

Ete. There, listen,hark. 

Ete ! aJijommese. There! listen. 

Ete ! cere ralcedae. Hark ! the bird sings, 

Ete ! egereCbonae. Hark ! she is scolding ua. 

Etec. To begin, to put one's hand to, 
make an attempt, to try. 

Ahariii etedakawana. I have begun to make 

an ahar (q. v.) 
Nui hor do bahue eteeakadea. This man is 

trying to get a wife. 
Bahue eteaakawaClea. Oar (sou) has set his 

heart oa a bride. 

Ete cete. ") To attempt, to do one's best, 
Ete cote. J to make a show, to show 

Etet. To make a fence, to fence, to en- 
close with a fence of branches. 

Jhaiitite etedme. Fence it with branches. 

Etet acurakat tahekana. It was fenced all 

Et ete. 1 Uncomfortable feeling in 
Jom et ete. j stomach after having eat- 
en too much. 

Jom ete^eenaii . I have eaten too much and 
feel uncomfortable. 

Ethem, To cough to call attention, to 

Ethem sadeedae. He is coughing, as a signal 
of his approach. 

Ether pother. Tired, uncomfortable, 
wearied, used generally with 'du 
rup ' to sit. 

Durup durupteii e^her po^herena. I am tired 
with sitting so long. 

Etkec. A common plant. Euphorbia 

antiquorum, Linn. 

Etke tor§. ] Insufficient space, as for 
Etke toroc.J two persons sitting on one 
stool, lying in one bed, &c. 

A(|li etke torege atkarokkana. 

Etko hasa. The burned clay from the 
inside of the culha (q. v.), used as 
a medicine. 

Eto. To break in, to accustom to work. 

Nesiil etoea nui dahra. I will break in this 
bullock to the plough this year. 

Eto. So much, so, such. 

Ill do etoge lelham riamkediria ? Did you find 
me so stupid ? 

Eto boro. So large, such a great. 

Eto boro matwarem hoeena? Have you become 

such a great man ? 
Eto boro gorobia am ! Tou, such a high and 

mighty one ! 

Etoc potoc. Heavily, severely. 

Etod potodko (Janijomkedea. They fined him 

Etoo potodko dalkedea. They beat him severely. 

Etohop. Beginning. From ehop (q. v.) 

Etohop khon do ball tahekana. I was not pre- 
sent from the beginning. 

Etom, The right, as opposed to the 
left ; to pass over or by, to miss. 

Eton; ti. The right hand. 

Etom sene calao paromena. He passed to the 

right side. 
Etom nakhareye dujrupakana. He is sitting 

to the right. 
Aboe etomketbona dak do. The rain passed 

by us. 
Alom etom otokalea. Do not pass us by, 

(visit us.) 
Etom etomko sikeda, oka then babo rohoeP 

They have missed much in ploughing, where 

can we plant the seedlings ? 

Etrah. "> To speak angrily, to get 

Etran etran, J angry. 

Adiye etrah etranoUa. 

Etrah etraue rorkeda. He spoke angrily. 

Etwar. Sunday, the first day of the 

Ewer. To fan. 

Horoko ewera hatalite. They fan the rice with 

a hatak (q. v.) (to separate the good grain 

on the threshing floor.) 
Seiigelko ewera binite. They fan the fire with 

a bamboo fan. 
Udgarlenreko eweroKa. They fan themselves 

when it is hot. 

Eya. Use to call attention to males 
younger than the speaker. 

Eya! beret'me. Hey! get up. 
Eya ! beta, calao godoKme. 

Eyad. 1 To commit to memory, to 
Ead. J remember, to punish. 

Monere eyad dohoeme. Keep this in mind. 
Hape ! nahaKlaii eyadmea. Hold, I shall punish 
you presently. 

Eyae. Of eae. 


[ 169 ] 


Ga. A village. 

Jalialeka ga goncjape darana. 

Gabad. To got mixed up with, to join, 

to stray. 
Okoe palronko tnluce gaba(J oalaoetia. She has 

got mixed with and gone with some person's 

Abo thene gabadena. It has joined our herd. 
Gabad calaoenako ggtiko. The cows have got 

mixed up with another herd and gone with 


Gaban. To plant rice in vacancies ; to 
interlace horizontally ; horizontal 

Do calakpe gaban baraape etan Jiolcgea. Go 

and plant rice plants in the vacancies, it is 

a little thin. 
Ma darigi gaban lagaoalSme ih9.nti e^efre. Put 

in a thick horizontal interlacing in the 

jhanti (q. v.) fence. 

Gabao. To stain, to colour, to immerse 
in colouring matter during the 
process of dyeing ; to fill, to take 
up space. 

Baberko gabaoa, rah uthaua mente. They bury 
the twine in clay to bring out the colour. 

Gabar. Mixed. 

MiC itad erleda, gabarena. I sowed one kind 
of seed, it has got mixed. 

r<u 1 ■ ' • rDin, noise, disturbance. 

Ghabar gunj.J ' ' 

AuriaKko gabar gn/ijakafia. They have created 
a disturbance without cause. 

Gabdha gabdhi. Bringing forth dead 

Sanamko gabdha gabdhientilia. They all 
brought forth dead (or prematurely born) 

Gabdhao. To bring forth dead offspring, 
applied to animals only. 

Gabdhaoenae gai do. The calf was bom dead. 
Dal gabdhaokedeako. They struck her with 

the result that her calf was born dead. 
Gabdhao calaoenae gai do. The cow has gone 

with another ierd. 

Gabdi. A game played by children. 
Gabdulan. Fat, big and very fat, heavy 
with child, said only of females. 

Marah gabdulan maejiu kanae, okaren kan ooe ? 
She is k tremendously fat woman, where 
does she belong to ? 

Gabduyak. Fat, stout, great with child. 

Nui gab^uyaK do bae isin hoda. This ' ' fatty ' ' 
does not cook qiiickly. 

Gabe. The pulp of fruit. 

- Jo reaK gabetefko joma. The pulp of fruit is 

(Jab gab. Deeply, to sink deeply, t^ 

insert dc_'c])ly. 
Hoko do gab gabko jomana. Those eat murb 

and good food, 
OnkoaK jahga bololfa gab gab. Their feet sink 

Pahra gabgab jahga boloKkantakoa. The feet 

of the bullocks sink deeply (in the mud.) 

Gabha. The middle, the centre. 

Pukhri reak gabhatetrego cak khnntiko bit'- 
aka(!a. They have fixed the ' cak ' post 
in the centre of the tank. 

Gabhand. The ear formed within the 
sheath, and beginning to protiude, 
applied to all graminea3. 

Gabhin. With young, pregnant ; of 
animals only. 

G9.bbin g^i kanae. It is a cow with young. 

Gabhri. A fool, a term of abuse. 

Gabis. Colouring matter jDut on water 

pots by potters before putting 

them into the kiln. 

Gabla. ~l To tuck up dress so as to form 

Gablao. j a bag, to hold in the lap, as 

children do flowers. 

Khajariil gablaakawana. I have «. lapful of 
parched rice. 

Gabla. The gum arable tree, Acaci% 
arabica, Willd. 

Gaboc. To take for oneself, to keep to 
oneself what should have been 
divided with others. 

Ac oskargeye gabodana. He took it all for 

Gaboc gaboc. Long, having a super- 
fluity of clothing. 

Gaboc gaboce dhutiakana. He wears a long 

Gaboo gaboce lieloKkana. He is a heavy swell. 

Gabre. To take stealthily, to help 
oneself, as a person in charge of 
another's property. 

Gabre johkanae. He is helping himself stealth- 
Disaepe bahkhane g-abre idia. Keep your eye 

on him, ptberwiae he will help himself. 
Acge saname gabreakawana, bae hatiJietJkana. 
He kas kept it all to himself, he does not 
divide it. 

Gabuc sabuc. To confuse, to mix up. 

Sanampe g'abuc eg-buckeda okat^alc bujhau ho 
bail ilamolfkana. You have confused the 
whole matter, there is no understanding it. 

Gabur. A common sweet scented Mi- 
mosa tree, Acacia Farnesiana, 

The root of this tree is a yalufible antiseptic. 



I 170 1 


Gacao. To agree, to confess, promise, 

CedaKem gaoaoatawana ? Wliy did you agree 
to itf 

Gaohao. To acknowledge, to admit. 

Noa katlia do bae gachaoeiibaiia. He does not 
admit the statement. 

Gachi. A seedling aiFter it has been 
pulled up for transplantation. 

Gachiau. To remove dhan plants that 
have been sown, where they have 
come up too thick to where the 
plants are thinner. 

Er horoko gaohiaua losot sala5 kuijite. 

Gad. The receptacle into which the 
rice to be husked by the dhenki 
is placed. 

Sngad. I^'^^P^^'^^'^^*- 

Bupiteii rin gaijena. I am deep in debt. 
4di utari6 gadena. My debt is very heavy. 

Gad. Crowd. 

Hot gad. A crowd of people. 

■Gad. \Deeply, deep, as a cut made 

Gad marte.j with an axe. 

Gad marteii mak goljkeda. I made a deep cut. 

Gad. The scum which rises to the 
top of sugar cane juice when being 

Gada. A heap ; to make into a heap. 

Ma sahan gadaeme. Put the firewood into a 

Ita gada. A heap of seed. 
Koela gada. A heap of coals. 
Dhiri gada. A heap of stones, a cairn. 
JCicrie gada. A pile of cloth. 
Aema fhenko gadaakata. They have made 
heaps in many places. 

Gada. A dejjression or hollow, a pit, a 
trench, a hole, a river, a stream. 

Nahel gaija. A furrow. 

Khunti gada. A hole in the ground in which 

to fix a post. 
Kolhe gada. A hollow in the jungle in which 

Kols (q. V.) have burned ohajrcoal. 

Bali gada. An iron .stone mine, a pit from 
which iron stone is dug. 

Koela gada. An open coal mine. 

Dhiri gaijla. A quarry. 

Dar gada. A trench in which to fix a fence of 
branches, or that intended for the founda- 
tion of a house. 

Duni gada. The channel from which water is 

raised by a ' duni' (q.T.) 
TelioK gada. The pit in which a weaver works 

the treddles of hisloom. 
Nali gada. A water channel, a drain. 
Kabar gacla. A grave. 

Bisi gada. The depression running along each 

side of the spine. 
Totka gada. The hollow below the skull at 

the back of the head. 
' Lebet gada. A foot mark. 
Don gada, A fissure or stream that can*t be 

stepped over but must be jumped over, 
Gambrgi. gada. The hollow in which the fire is 

placed when boiling the juice of the sugar 

Jliili gada. A trench in th^ ground used as a 

fire place when cooking has to be done for 

a large number. 
Maran gada. The belly, which is never fnU. 
Khaiijo gat^a, A pit into which one may fall. 

Gada bifi. A river snake. 

Gada caricir. The Wagtail, Motacilla 

Gadae gudui. Long flowing garments, 

superfluity of cloth, as in the 

raiment of a Kubuli. 

Gadae guduiye bandeakana. She is wearing 

her sari very long. 
Nui maejiu do gadae guduie kamikana. This 

woman is working with her clothes about 

her feet. 

Gada gad. In crowds, numerous. 

Gada gad hor menakkoa. There are crowds of 

Gada godo. A species of water rat. 

Gada gud. "1 Very many, in large num- 
Gad gud. j bers.^ 

Gad gudko jaoraena. They are assembled in 

large numbers. 
Tumdak gad gud sadekana. The drums are 

sounding from all sides. 

Gada himd baha. A small bush, Jasmi- 
nwrn arborescens. 

Gada kalha. 1 A plant found flowering 
Harna]Dakor.J in shady places during 

the cold weather, Strobilanthus 

auriciolatus, Nees. 

Gada khasi ghas. "1 A species of grass 
Gada kasi ghas. J found on river 

Gadao. To press down, to ram down. 

Khunti gadao urijme. Ram the earth round 
the post to fix it tightly. 

Baudukre barnd gadaome gajte. Ram the 
powder into the gun with the ramrod, 
Gakdaoak. A rammer, a ramrod. 

Gadao. To make impression on the 
mind, to lose. 

Noa katha iiiak monere gadaoena. I feel the 

force of this argument. 
Mon bah ga^laolentiiia. It did not recommend 

itself to me (I was not pleased with it.) 
Met gadaoadoa iAak jinis rielte. A fit of oovet- 

ousnssa came over him when he saw my 


Gada paowani 

[ m 1 


CedaK noa katham gaijao dohokeda? Why did 
you keep this matter to yourself ? 

Citlu ga(Jaoena okare coh. The letter has gone 
astray somewhere. 

Sanam rin ga(JaoentiIia. All my debts are ir- 

Gada pacwani. A common flowering 
plant, Blumea lacera, D. G. 

Gada paujon. A small tree found near 

Gadap gudup. Sound of thumping. 

Gaijap gn^iipko kupuh9.uena. They thumped 
each other. 

Gada podo. A species of fig tree found 

on the banks of rivers. 
Gadar. Nearly ripe, applied to agricul- 
tural crops. 
Gadar. ") Children, mainly used 

Gidar gadar. J by " balaeako " (q. v.) 
Gadar gudur. Small, as children and 
dwarfs ; small and smaller. 

Noko do i^trege gaijar gudur in tirit'geako. 
They belong to a race of dwarfs, they are 
no bigger than that. 

Gadar gudur. Sound produced by 

bellows, or when milking into a 

Gada sigriU. A small bush found in 

the beds of rivers, Sahx tetras- 

perma, Roxb. 
Gada terel. A small tree, Diospyros 

montana, Roxb. 
Gadbad. ") Confused, mixed; to be 
Gadbadao. J confused, in disorder. 

Ona ato do gadbaclakana. That village is in 
great disorder. 

Gadbe sadbe. To muddle. 

DaE gadbe sadbeko bodekeda. They have 

muddled and dirtied the water. 
Noa katha dope gadbe sa^tbekeda. Ton have 

muddled this business. 

Gadea gudia. Holding each other by 
the hand or clothes, in a band. 

Gg4ea gudia baraekanako. They have joined 

Gidrai. do g?.de?. gudiako tjLr hijukkana. The 

children come running in a band. 

Gadea gudia. \ Said of children fawn- 
Gudia gudia. J ing to get something. 
Gadel. A crowd, a flock, crowded, nu- 

Hor gadel. A crowd of people. 
Gai' gadel. A large drove of cows. 
Gadel ato. A populous village. 
A^li gadel jaega menaktaea. He has a very 
large farm. 

Nonije gadel dare menaKa. The trees are very. 

close together hero. 
^Kji gadel hako menaRkoa. The fish are very 

plentiful, i. e. a shoal of fish. 

Gad gad. Many, in crowds. 

Noa liorto gad gad horko calaoena. Crowds of 
people have passed this way. 

Gad gad. Sound of falling water, as 
over a waterfall. 

Gad gad daR ?ituKkana. 
Gad gad daKko duleda. 

Gad gad. Frizzling, hissing, as when 
a piece of hot iron is put into water. 

Gad gaijko pithgieda. 

Gad gad.. Miry. 

Ga(J ga(J losot'ena. It is very miry.^ 

Gad gadao. To crowd together. 

Heo gadgadaoenako. They have come in 

Gad gadao. Noise of water flowing or 

rushing, to laugh. 
Ale sen ^^i gad gadao calaoena daS ga^a mun- 
Gad gadaokkanako. They are laughing and 


Gad gadao. To frizzle, to hiss. Cf gad 

KhoK ga4 gadaok kantiila koram bhitrire. 

Gad gud. Sound of milk streaming 
into the pail during the process 
of milking. 

BitkUko dnhg.uetIkoa gad gud. 

Gadha. A donkey, a he-ass. 

Gadha godho. Uneven, ground 

or a road broken up by pits and 

water courses. 

Gadha godho. Heavy, clumsy, as a 
piece of joiner work. 

Gadha sot. ~| Ravines and hollows ; to 
Garha sot. ) be lost. 

Gadha sot tolkatele khetakaCa. By damming 
up ravines and hollows we have made rice 

Gadha sotenako merom do. The goats are lost. 

Gadhi. A she-ass. 

Gadhnao. To honour, to pay respect 

Bae gadhnaoledilia. He did not honour me. 

Gadhra. Thick, as rice water ; thick 
and unwholesome, as some waters. 
Cf. gadra. 

Gadi. A cart, a carriage, anything 
that runs on wheels ; a wheel. 

Eat gadi. A chariot. 

Eel g?.!?!- -A- railway train. 


I 172 1 

Gadrum sadrum 

Gadi. Lair of certain animals, as 

of a hare, pig, &c. 
Bir sukriko gadia, kulai hoko gadia. Wild 

pigs have lairs, so also have hares. 
Ggidi khon sukrie toi gotena,. The pig rushed 

out from its lair. 

Gadi. Marks or lines in a children's 

Eneo gadiko benaoa. They make lines for the 

Gadi. Populous, as a village. 

Gadi Tundi, The capital of Tnndi. 
■ Gadi Sirampur. The capital of Serampore. 

Gadi. A cushion ; a shop. 

Hathi reaK gadi. An elephant cushion. 
Eaj gadi. A king's cushion, a throne. 
Paura gaidi. A liquor shop. 
Eaj gadireye durupena. He has been installed 

Gadia. A small reservoir in which 
water does not remain all the year. 

^f?,^^- ,. JRcservod, close. 
Bhitar gaclia.J 

Maraii bhitar gadia hor kanae. He is a very 
reserved man. 

Gadiau. To sink, to bnry, to fix one's 
residence, to settle down, as shij) 
on a sand bank. 

LoBoEre gadiauakanao. He has sunk in the 

Horo losot're gadiau tahcnae. The tortoise 

lives buried in the mud. 
Gaiji gadjg,u)la loso£re, gitilre. A cart sinks 

in mud and sand. 
' Huti a'oko jomtilia mento tbcii:-',a losotreA 

gadiaua. I shall bury my stick in mud 

so that insects may not oat it. 
Tahe gadiauenae, bae ruarol; l;ana. Ho is 

fixed there, he does not return. 
Mon ga,diau. To please. 

Gadiau. To carry a sword, &c. to be 
armed with a sword, &c. 

Tarware gadiauakawanae. He is carrying a 

The sword is usually carried under the left arm. 

Gadi ghao. An ulcer on the front of 
the leg between the knee and the 

Gadjal. A species of fish. 

Gadjal.l The three or four quick strokes 

Gojol. J which follow the striking of 
the hour on the gong. 

Gadjalko dalkeda. After striking the hour on 
the gong they gave a few blows in quick 

Gadia. Thick and muddy, as water. 

Noa dak do gadlagea, babon Ania. This water 
is thick and muddy, we will not drink it. 

Gadlak. A hole or pit in the ground, 
a ravine. 

Has gadlaJf. The pit from which clay has been 
dug to build or plaster a house or houses. 

GadlaK godlok. Rough, uneven, having 
holes or hollows here and there. 

Noa hor do adi gadlalf godloKgea. This road 
is very rough (full of pits and hollows.) 

Gadle. A garment worn round the 
waist reaching to below the knees 
made up of pieces of old cloth 
sewn together; tattered, shaggy. 
Cf. kantha 

Gadle mara budhi. The old wife in a patchwork 

Gadle bhi^i. A fleecy sheep. 

Gadoe. A ceremony observed at the 
Sohrae festival by the youth of 
the village. 

On the forenoon of the second day of the Sohrafe 
(q. V ) festival young men and boys with 
drums and various musical instruments pay 
a visit to each house in the village. Some 
of the party go as phakirs, others may 
have straw monkeys which they make per- 
form, others pretend to be pedlars and 
offer to sell bits of straw, or wood, &c., 
the object being to amuse. At every house 
they receive some rice which they leave 
with the Jog manjhi. Afterwards it i.s 
cooked along with the Dhaoa binija (q. v.) 
and the Jale rice. 

Gador. Disobedient obstinate. 

A(Ji gador hor kanae mit ho bae arijoma. He 
is very obstinate, he will listen to nothing 
Nui gador mara hor. This mule of a man. 

Gador bhidi. An up-country sheep. 
Gadra. \ Thick, as the first milk of an 
Grttlhra.J animal after having given 

birth to young ; thick and unwhol- 

some, as water. 

Daft mandi phariagea, se gadrageap Is the rice 
water clear or thick ? Gadhragea. It is thick . 

Gadroc. Torn, tattered. 

Sanam gadrod cabaentiiia kicric do. My 
clothes are all in tatters, 

Gadroc sadroc. Dirty and ragged. 

Gadrod sadrode lieloKkana. He looks ragged 
and dirty. 

Gadrum. Torn, tattered, ragged, haiiy, 
rough, as a sheep; dirt, filth. 

Ga,drum kicrid oaKem ladeakawana ? besaK baro 
horogme. Why are you wearing tattered 
clothes ? put on good ones. 

Bhidi harta do gadrumgea. A sheep's skin is 

Gadrum sadrum. Hirsute, shaggy, 
rough ; litter, rubbish ; dirty as a 
ploughed field in which the grass 


[ 173 ] 


&nd weeds have not been buried 

by the plough; 
G9.di-uin g9.drumko upana. They are very hairy 

or shaggy. 
G9.drum s?.drum ghasge AeloKbana. The grass 

has not been buried by the plough. 

Gadrum sadrumge lieloKkana, ma joK gi^ikam. 
It looks a tangle (cobwebs on the roof) 
sweep them away. 

Gadu6. To touch one to call attention, 
to scratch, as a bear, tiger, &c. ; 
to scrape towards oneself. 

Ma gjdujem. Touch him to call his attention. 
Banae gaduoakadea. The bear scratched him. 
Kul do dg.r jokheo g9.duitioKkedeae. The tiger 
clawed him as he fled. 

Gadur. To scratch, to scrape with the 

claws or nails. 
Ma deare gadurilime. Come, scratch me on 

the back. 
Banae gadur baraakafa nongle. A bear has 

been scratching here. 

Gadut. iDisobedient, self-willed, obsti- 
nate, lazy. 

Gadut horko bako alijom hoda. Obstinate 
people do not obey at once. 

Gaegam. Sensation produced by some- 
thing touching the skin; to scratch. 

Cefte coniii gaegamena. Something has touch- 
ed me. 

Cele ooe gaegamkedifia. Some living creature 
touched me. 

Gaela gaela. Indistinct, as speech. 

Q^ela gaelae rore€kana. He speaks indistinct- 

Gaelogaelo. Muffled . up, wrapt up in 

Gaelo saelo. To disarrange, to con- 

fuse^ to disorder. 

Kathape gaelo saelokeda. You confused the 

Hoete sanam gaelo saelokedae. The wind has 

disordered all (the thatch.) 

Gaemae. Gentle, quiet, peaceable. 

Nui do adi gaemae hor banae. This is a very 
peaceable man. 

Gae makhao. To accept responsibility, 
to take upon oneself. 

TlniyG gae makhaoena. He has taken the res- 
ponsibility upon himself. 

UniaK jaega nuiye gaemakhaoakawana. This 
man makes himself responsible for that 
man's rent. 

'Gaenaha. A good singer, one who 
sings well and knows a large num- 
ber of songs and tunes. 

Gagoj. Desire, necessity. 

Acaii lad peKrede gagojoltkan tahekana. He 
would fain have filled his belly. 

p, "1 ■ j- A brass water pot. 

Mii ghagra ^akae topaakat'a. He has buried 
(for safety) a brass water pot full of rupees. 

GagG. Speaking through the nose 
and very indistinctly. 

Nui do gague rora. 

Gah. A disease which attacks chil- 

Gidrg.ko gahoka. Children are subject to the 

disease known as ' gah ' . 
Gah sapabadea. He is suffering from ' gah '. 

Gahagad. ") Crowded, teeming, popu- 
Gahagud. J lous, thick. 

Gahagu^ rimile rakapakada, ?.(3i lluta. Dense 
clouds have arisen, it is very dark. 

Gahagu^ko eneckana. There are a large num- 
ber of parties dancing. 

Gahagu^ko tapamkana. 

Gahagu^ko ruieda. Drums sounding on all 

Hantelah calaKa, non^e gahagudte bah alljo- 
moKkana. We will go over there, here on 
account of the crowd and turmoil nothing 
can be heard. 

Gahagoho. Wrapt up in cloth so as to 
appear large. 

K^mi jokhec gahagoho baraekanae. He is 
working wrapt up in his cloth. 

Gahak. 1 

Gahak. I A would-be-purchaser, a 

Gahki. j buyer. 


Gohrakko lagaolenkhan uni (Jaiiraii akriliea. 
If I found a buyer I would sell that ox. 

Gahamgad. In crowds. 

Gahamgadko jaoraakana. They are assembled 
in crowds. 

Gahana. An eclipse of either sun or 

After an eclipse of the sun a nephew goes to 
bis maternal uncle and says to him, I have 
come to release the "gahana" The uncle 
makes him a present of anything from a 
fowl to a cow. After an eclipse of the moon 
the uncle goes to his nephew and is presen- 
ted with something of a like nature by him. 

Gahandi. Flock, herd, crowd, family, 

Gahan guhun. Cf gahar guhur. 

Goharak. -A purchaser, a buyer. 
Gohara. J 

Adi gaharakko hiiul<kana iJiaK dokaute. Very 
many pnrphasers come to my shop. 

Gahfir guhur 

[ IH ] 


Gahar giihfir. In low tones, low, used 
generally with " ror " to speak. 

Gahar guhurko roreda. They are speaking in 
a low tone. 

Gahat gehSi. Slow speaking, seldom 
speaking, slow in movement. 

Gahat' gehei; baraekanae. 

Gahat guhiii Cf. gahali gehg£. 

Gahda. ") Moist dhan land in which 
Gahra. / there is always a sufficiency, 
of water. 

Gahi. A decoy, a leader; to attract, 
to decoy. 

Potam gahi. A decoy dove. 
Gundri gahi. A decoy quail. 
Gahi la;,4t'i6 asulea. I will keep it for a decoy. 
AJi horko g?ihiona. Many people have been 
decoyed away. 

Gahia. Cf. gahi. 
Gahir. Deep. 

Gahir kui. A deep well. 
Gahir katha. A deep word. 

Gahki. A purchaser, a buyer. 
Gahla. Pitched on a low key. 

Noa tirio do gahlagea, saiifjilito do eade ban 
oalalckana. This flute lias a low pitch, the 
sound does not go far 

Gahna. T An eclipse of either sun or 
Gahana. / moon. C£ gahana. 

Cando gahnaKkanae. There is an eclipse in 

Gahndi. A herd, a flock, family, com- 

Gai gahnditeli senlena. I went to the herd of 

Ale gahndiren kanae. He belongs to our com- 

Gahnju. Pendulous belly. 

Gahri. Long continued and severe, as 
fever, chronic, difficidt. 

Eua do adi g?.hrientaea. His fever has assum- 
ed a very dangerous form. 

Noa katha do adi g9.hrigea. This is a very 
difficult matter. 

Gahul. To delay, press of work or 

Kaj do a^li g^hulena. The business is greatly 

A^i gg.hulre meua6a. I have a press of work 

on hand. 

Gai. A COW. 
Gai danra. Cattle. 
Ggii pal. A herd of cattle. 
Pal gai. A cow with calf. 
K?i.pil gai. The yak, Bos grvnnietis. 

Gai cancir. A small bird. 

Gai ghura. A small common plant. 

Poly gala chinensis, Linn. 
Gai uric. Cattle, the cattle of a village 
which are, as a rule, numerous. 

Gai uric lekako odokena jel do. The deer 
came out (numerous) as cattle. 

Gai urid leka horko pasnabena. The people 
spread like cattle. 

Gai urid leka menaEkoa. They are (as numer- 
ous) as cattle. 

Gaj. A measuring rod of two cubits, 
a foot rule. 

Bandukgaj. Eamrod of a gun. 
Huka gaj, A thin rod for cleaning the huk? 

Gaja guju. Numerous, in crowds. 

Gaja gnjuko jaoraakana. They have assembled 
in crowds. 

Gajal. ") A species of fish found in 
Gadjal.j" "jhils". 

Gajar. Dense, close together. 

Gajar moca. A Musalman, one having beard 

whiskers, and moustache. 
Noa bir do gidi gajargea. This jungle is very 


Gajar. Noise, turmoil, tumult, din. 

Adiko gajarakata, hapeU metakom. They are 
making a great din, tell them to be quiet. 

Gajer. Dense, close together. Cf. 

Gajgajao. To crowd together. 

Taka gajgajaoKkantaea, enreho bae emoKa. He 
has piles of money still he won't give. 

Kacahari hiloK adi hor bed gajgajaokoKafco-. 
On court day very many people come and 
crowd together. 

Gaji. A narrow piece of cloth about 
one cubit in breadth, and any 

It used to be customary to make "saris" of 
two strips sewn together. This was called 
"gS'ji s^ri. " 

Gajilal. A traditional hero, applied 

Bahware Gajilal ! Kule soboKakadea. Bravo ! 
Gajilal, he has stabbed a tiger. 

Gajlak marte. "|^ Piercing deeply, as an 
GajlaU mente. j arrow or a spear. 

GajlaK maraokedeaA. I pierced him deeply 

(with an arrow.) 
GajlaR marteli soboKkedea. I pierced him 

deeply (with a spear.) 

Gajwak. To go bad, as cooked rice if 
kepit too long ; to be over cooked. 

Sanampe gajwak ocokeda. You have allowed 

oil the rice to go bad. 
Sea gajwaK. To putrify. 


t 1?5 ] 

Galo(5 saloi 


Gal?. To stretch twine, thvead, 
fi-om one point to anotlu'i'. 

Bindi ganaM. A spider's web. 

Bmdi siit9,mko gaga. Spiders stretch threads 

trom one point to another. 
Kathageye gaK baraoiida. He weaves tales. 

Gakhur. Clever, proficient, efficient, 
well trained, as a bullock to the 

Kamire g»khurakanae. He is proficient in his 

Bes gakhur (Jaiira kanae. He is a well trained 


Gal. To boast, to brag, to speak. 

Eken galtae in9,ge, bae dareaHa. He only boasts, 

he can't do it. 
Ma se, galme. Come, speak out. 
Ma se, giltam, duUte£ cetlekantama. Come, 

tell what sort of troubles you have. 

Gala. Voice. 

Gala pheraoentaea. His voice has changed 

(from a child's to a man's.) 
Bes gala kantaea, bese sereJi dareaKkana. His 

voice is good, he can sing well. 

Galae. 1 Small, diminutive, as in- 

Galae galae. J sects. 

Galae galaeko barkaoena. 

Galae galaeko deloEkana. They look very 

Galak galak. ") Dirty, ill-looking, appli- 
Galat galati. J ed to large sores. 

ITni galaf gala£e ghaoakana. He has offensive 

Galak salaK. ") Stupid, dull-witted, un- 
Galat' solat. J intelligible. 

Lelha iloK hor galaK salakko metakoa. 
Oka lekam roref kana galaf solat'. 

GalaS galam. ]^^^^' indistinctly. 

Galam galam <iut oele ho baiiko Jiel liamoka. 

It is very dark no living creature will be 

Galam marte kulii lieUedea. I caught a glimpse 

of the tiger. 
Cedali noa jiinda galam galamem dara barae- 

kana ? Why are you going about to-night in 

the dark f 

Galau. To plait, to braid. 

Up galan. To braid the hair. 
Baha gntn galaii. To weave a garland. 
Caurio galaii. To plait a ribbon for the hair. 
Baber galah. To twist strands into twine. 
JonoK galah. To plait (grass for a) broom. 
Bor galaii. To plait straw into a rope. 
Kathako gutu galaiikeda. They have concocted 
the matter. 

Galan gulun. Slowly, deliberately.* 

Galaii guluiie calakkana. He moves along 

Galao. To melt, to decompose. 

Ona kathate ball galaokkana. I am not being 
affected by that story (it has no force 
with me.) 

Phula kli?sig,tert galaoodirikana. You are over- 

coming me with humonr. 
Galao got'ena. It all melted. 

Oalasan. Unconscious. 

Nuihordo galasahegitinakana. Tliis man is 

_ in a heavy sleejt. 
A(Ji ate rualfltana, galasafae gitieakana. He is 
very ill with fever, ho is lying in an uncon- 
scious state. 

Galat' solali Stupid, dull witted ; dull 
heavy looking. Cf. galak salak. 

Gal bajoria. A great talker, a wind- 
bag, one who prefers talking to 

Maraii gal bajorigi kanae. He is a great wind- 

Galbajri. Pert, talkative, loquacious. 

Galfalak. 1 ^^°' tum"lt> loud murmur- 
Galgul. J i"g' ^« of a crowd. 

Adiko galgalaEa ce£ ho bam alijom dareaKa. 
They make such a din, you can hear nothing. 

Gal galao. To be moist, damp, to run, 
as a sore. 

SI f$:}™e tattle. 

Gal gul. Speaking, row, din, noise. 

Celeko gal gule£ tahekana ? Who wore making 

a noise P 
Okoe hor con galgulko ror idikeda. Some people 

passed speaking loudly. 

Gali. A loop, a method of tying. 

Sukri gg,li. A method employed to tie the feet 
of a pig when it is desired to carry it on a 
pole between two men when alive. 

Jora gali. A knot on one end and a loop on 
the other, used to tie cattle, goats, &c. gali. A running noose. 

Galid. Mash, mush, mashy, mushy. 

Dakape isin gaUdkedape. Tou have cooked 
the rice into a mash. 

Galkatua. Boasting, bragging ; a boas- 
ter, a braggart. 

Marahgalk?.tf^ hor kanae. He is a great boas- 

Galmarao. To converse, to speak. 

Galmaraoet' tahekanaliii. We were conversing 

Ona kathae gahnaraoadifiae. He told me that 


Galoc cSrS. The Hawk cuckoo, Hiero- 
coccyx varius. 

Galo6 salo6. Higgledy piggledy, in 
confusion. Scottice, heeds an' 

Horo eanam galod salodena. The dhau is all 
lying different ways. 


[ 3^6 ] 


Galsal. To consult, to converse, to 
speak ; to keep company, to ac- 

Ayup nahaKle galaala. We will consult in the 

Galsalkedape, calfpe thirenaP Ton talked it 

oTer and settled it, why are you inactive ? 
Alope galsala thirte kamipe. Do not converse, 

work quietly. 
Galsal bar horlaii tahena. We two will keep 

each other company. 

Galta golat. Dull, vacancy of mind, 
stolidity, want of intelligence. 

A6 eakar galta golat'e dara baraekana. 
Adomko bhabnateko galta goladoKa. 

Galti. A slip, a fault. 

Eorreri galtikeda. I made a slip in speaking. 

Galua. A boaster, a braggart, a deceiver. 

Mui do adi galua kanae, adi hore galaokoa. 
This is a great boaster, he takes many 
people in. 

Galua cerg. iThe Hawk cuckoo, ffi- 
Galoc cgr§, J erococcyx varius. 
Gam. A story, a folk tale ; folk lore. 

Gam sereli. A part of a story which is sung. 

Gamao, To recognize, to diagnose, to 

Bali gamao thikledea. I did not recognize him. 
Sen ma^ sen hecakan, bali gamaoakat'a. I have 

gone and come, but I do not remember it 

(the road.) 

Gambhir. Serious, sedate, good natur- 
ed, quiet, without vice, as a horse 
or bullock. 

Gambhra gada. The pit in which the fire 
is placed when boiling gur (q. v.^i 

Gamcha. A piece of cloth from li to 
to 2 yards in length, used mainly 
to put on when bathing to keep 
the ordinary garment dry. It is 
often worn round the neck when 
not in use. 

Gamcha hasa. A kind of earth with 
which cloth is dyed a light reddish 
brown colour. This is the Hindu 
and Buddhist sacred colour. 

Gam gam. | To be sultry, close. 
Gam gamao. J "^ 

Gumgamaolckana daK hijuli cohce^coh. It is 

very sultry, will it rain or not. 
4di gamgam atkaroKkana. It feels very sultry. 

Gamgondar.") Muttering in a low tone 
Gamgondor. j of voice. 

Cef pe gam gondoreda ? What aie you mutter- 
ing away at there. 

Gam gum. Stillness, perfect quietnesis. 

Gam giimko thirena. They became perfectly 

Gamgum barakoKpe. Be stiU, or be quiet. 

Gam gum. Cf. gum. 

Nia gamgum barakam. Sift this. 

Gam gundur. Quiet, reserved. 

Maran gamgundurhor kanae. He is a very re- 
served person. 

Gamgunduran hofko edre godoEa. Reserved 
people easily take ofPence. 

Gamhand. Cf. gabhad. 
Gampatak. ") To hear when called to 
Gampatao. J but not to reply, as one 
wishing to shirk duty. 

Dak jokha gupi gidrako gampatal^a. In the 
rains the herd boys pretend not to hear 
when called to, (turning out being uncom- 

Gampatao. To sulk, to be in the dol- 
drums, to feign death, as some in- 
sects do. 

Gampataoakanae. She is sulking. 
Gampataoenae uru do. The beetle is feigning 

Gampis. To talk privately. 

Cet'pe gampis johkan tahekana. What were 
you speaking about privately. 

Gan. About, nearly. 

Tikin gan. About mid-day. 

Inal^ gan. About as much as that. 

Mnak gan. About as much as this. 

Thora gan. A small quantity, a few. 

NunaK gan. About as much as this. 

Unas gan. About as much as that. 

Hunalfgan. So much as that. 

TJnaK gan sahgiilre. At about that distance. 

More moka gan. About five cubits. 

Bele ganena se bah? Is it about ripe, or not. 

Gan. Properly, fully, suitable. 

.^uriii cet gana. I have not yet learned it pro- 

Arhoii oet' ganlege. 
EmoTk ohoko ganlena. They will not agree to 

Mase, gan ocokom. Make them agree to it. 
Auri hara ganoKae. She has not yet gro^vn 

Bah ganokaKem gan ocoleda. You are making 

proper what is improper. 
Bah ganoKaKgeye roreda. He is saying what 

he ought not to say. 
Mon bail ganaflea. We were not pleased. 
Kami ganme. Do a little more, or a little bet- 
ter work. 
Bah ganoSaK. An impropriety. 
Oho ganlentama. It will not succeed. (It will 

not become what you wish.) 
Oho kami ganlena teheri do. It is not suitable 

for this work to day. 

Ganao. To respect, honour. 

Ehgam apum ganaoklnme. Honour thy father 

and thy mother, 
Disom horko do parganako bako ganaoef ko 

netar do. The people of the country do 

not respect the pargannas. 


[ 177 I 


Ganade. Bars running cross-wise in 
opposition to those running length- 
wis-e (jeleti, q. v.) ; the cross bars 
at the two ends of a bed : the 
short opposite ends of a paral- 

Ganak. "J A spider's web, from 

Bindi ganaU. J gaU (q. v.) 

Ganao. To respect, to honour, to heed, 
pay attention to, obey. 

Ato lior do mg-fiilii bako ganaoedekana. 
The villagers do not pay respect to tlio head 

Gqpari. A small fishing net with a 
handle like a butterfly net. 

Gand A cross ridge, or embank- 
ment, a division crosswise. 

Barpe gan^em arelekhan insttem besolfa. 
If you throw two or three embankments 
across it will be well. 

Gand. A swelling in the groin or in 
the armpit which sometimes ga- 
thers ; enlarged gland. 

Ganda. A set of four. 

Bar gan^a poesa. Two annas. 
Pon ganda aphar monalta. There are 16 bunch- 
es of rice seedlings. 

Gandac gunduc.'* 

Forgetful, as old peo- 
ple sometimes are. 

or as one very busy 
or in deep sorrow. 

Lumpy, large and 

Gandac gusuc. 
Gadak gasuk. 
Ganduc gasuc. 
Ganduk sanduk 
Ganduk gasuk. 
Gandac gunduc. 
small lumps, 

Jondra daka gan^ad gunijuogea. 

Ganda gunda. To be broken into pieces 
or fragments ; to be ground into 
powder; fragments. 
Ganija gun(j9.ena busup do. The straw is re- 
duced to very small pieces. 
Gaai^a gun^ako joma. They eat the fragments. 

Ganda guti. To divide, to make up 
an account. 

Iii do olioli ganija guti dayelea. I cannot divide 

Gangla gutikedale. We divided it. 

The system of "ganda guti" is to put down a 
pebble, or any other small object, as the 
name of each person entitled to share is 
mentioned. Then a share is placed alongside 
of each pebble, or whatever else was laid 

"Gandar. Larvae of certain beetles. 

Kat gan^lar. Found in wood. 

Guri6 gandar. Found in middens of oow dung. 

Dhiri ganijar. Said to feed on stones. 

Gandar cerg. A species of waterfowl. 

Gandar gundur. Muttering, speaking 
in low tones. 

Gandar gundur oei coo rorefkan. Ho is mut- 
tering something to himself. 

Gandar gundvirkin galmaraokana. They are 
conversing in low tones. 

Gandaura. Rubbish, rubbish in a heap. 

Gandbhur. A wooden water pipe ; a 
hollow piece of wood used as a 
water pipe. 

Gande. To place at a right angles to 
something else, cross, transverse. 

Biiie gan(Jo esoCkedilia. A snake was stretched 
across my path. 

Gande munde. An adverb possessing 
intensifying force. 

Gande mundeko dalkedea. They beat him 

Gando mundaye jomkeda. He ate amazingly. 
Gande muncleko agukediiia. They fined me (or 

charged me) heavily, 
Gande munde joakana. A very large quantity 

of fruit (on the tree.) 

Gandet bin. A species of poisonous 

Gand gand. Across, at right angles, 


Gam} gand areme. Throw embankments across 
at several places. 

Gand garur. The Rhinoceros. 
Gandha gandhi. Strong, applied to 

Adi bes gandha gandhi so kana. This a strong 

pleasant smell. 
A(Ji baric gandha gjndhi so kana. A strong 

unpleasant smell. 

Gandhak. Sulphur, brimstone. 

Gandhari arak. A cultivated pot-herb, 

Amarantus gangeticus, var, an- 

gustifolia, Linn. 
Gandhbhur. A wooden water pipe, a 

hollow piece of wood used as a 

water pipe. 
Gandhel Lazy, sluggish. 

Marau ganijhefi hor kanae. He is a very slug- 
gish man. 

Gandhel; mundhel Naked, scrimply 

Kiorio b9.nuKtaea gan^hefi munijhelje dara ba- 
raekana. He has no clothes, he is going 
about nearly naked. 

Nui ijanra do g.ijiye g?.n<Jhig.wa. This bullock 
is very sli 



■-i: 1T8 ] 


Gandi. \I 
Gandic. J 

Gandlrua. Listless. 

Nui gan^iiii^ mara hor. 

[A term of abuse or depreci- 
ation, used by women only. 

Nui haram g^ndire ball kusiKa. 

Gandiari. A kind of grass found 

mostly in rice fields. 
Gaudke. ") A term of abuse, used 

Gandke rapaH. j by women only. 
Gandke. A log of wood. 

Khub marau gandke onde nienal5;a, i5el oto- 
akafali. There is a big log over there, I 
have seen it. 

Sarjom gandke. A logof sarjom wood. 

Tale gancjke. A log of the Palmyra palm. 

tri gan(Jke. A log of mango wood. 

Gando. A small piece of wood from 6 
to 12 inches long and 3 or 4 high, 
used as a stool to sit on. 

Ganijo belakome. Set stools for them. 

Gando guru. One of the lesser deities 
of the Santal pantheon. 

Gandon. To think, to jjonder, to con- 

Gandon baralege, tobeA laiama. I must first 
think over it, then I shall tell yon. 

Ma noa gandonpe, thika, se baiia. Think over 
this as to whether it ia right or wrong. 

Gandra \Full of niclts or notches, to 
Gandrao. j be nicked, or notched. 
Gandra gundra. To cut or break into 

pieces, lying loose, not tied into 

bunches (jhomble.) 

"Oandra gundr-g-bo jom hatara. We will for 
the present eat the loose cobs (of Indian 
corn, and not those tied into bunches and 

put past.) 

Gandrao. Chapped, notched cracked, 
eaten or rotted away. 

Gandrao llurolf. To rot off, as tbe toes or 

fingers of a person suffering from leprosy. 
Noa kat do jom gan(}raoakatako. This piece of 

wood has been eaten through. 
Jaiiga katup latarre daK jokha gan(JraoKa. 

Cracks appear underneath the toes during 

the rainy season. 
Oka do gai cuAci ho gandraoKa. Sometimes 

cows' duga become chapped. 

Ganduk sanduk. Slovenly, slatternly, 
careless of appearance through 
■Borrow, garments soiled, tarnished 
or disordered with working. 

Kg-mi kamitele ganduK sanduKena. Our gar- 
ments are soUeu and tarnished with work- 

Gandur gapur. Very scrimply clad. 

Kicrioteko gandur gapuroKa. They are in want 

of clothes. 
Gandur gapure bandeakana. She is scantily 

clad, (and what she has is old and tattered.) 

Gano garib. 

Gani gurib. }-Very poor people. 

Guni gurib. 

Nui v&i do gnni gurib-adiye haroneikoa. This 
king (or Zemindar) is very hard on poor 

Gan. A contused wound ; to cause a 
contused wound ; a blind boil 

Dal gahkedea. He struck him and caused a 
contused wound. 

Gangan. Populous and prosperous, 

Noa ato adi gangan tahekana. 'This was a 
populous and prosperous village. 

Adi gangan a^karoKkana. It feels veryheart- 
'Some. (Santals being remarkably gregar- 
ious this is their idea of felicity.) 

Ganganao. To crowd, to be numerous. 

Hed ganganaoenako. They have continued to 
come till they are now crowding. 

Ganganea. Rich, well-to-do. 
Gangania. Numerous and prosperous, 
prosperous, well-to-do. 

NuiaiK oraK adi gangania^aikaulfkana. This 
man's house seems very prosperous. 

Nui do mihute, meromte, horte, cijte a(Jj 
gangania aikauKkanae. This man in cattle, 
goats, people and property seems to be very 

Gangante. Carefully, vigilantly, pru- 
dently, deliberately, having all 
one's wits about one. 

Gangante calaKme. Go carefully. 
Gangante k?.mi_me. Do your work carefully. 
Gangante boloKme. Feel your way in. 
Gangante bujhaume. Think it over bit by bit. 

Ganga. The river Ganges. 
Ganga gaya. To perform the last rites 
for the -dead. 

Ganga gayakedeale. We performed all the 
last rites for him. 

Ganga tulsi. A common plant with a 
pleasant smell, Hyptis suaveolens, 

Ganghar. Sore, applied to the throat, 

HotoS gahgharentilia, dais h5 ball u^ dareaE- 
kana. My throat is sore, I am not able to 
swallow even water. 

Ganghar gonghar. Full of holes. 

Alope umuloKa non(le ganghar gohghor then. Do 
not take shelter here, a place where there 
are so many holes, (from which scorpions 
and snakes may emerge.) 

Gangit. Nodular limestone. 
Gaiigun. Having an impediment in 
speech, dumb. 

Gahgungeye rora. Ho speaks indistinctly (has 
an impediment in his speech.) 

Gaii nai 

[ 179 ] 


Gan nai. The Ganges river, mentioned 
in the oldest traditions of the 
Gani gurib. Very poor people, 
Gani sani. Forgetful, flustered. 

Cekange bail s?.ni. 
HafamiA doli dadawade. 

Gaiija. Ganja, the Hemp plant; Can- 
nahinis sativa. 

Ganja gadji. Crowded, to crowd"; over- 
crowded. Cfl gha6ja ghaiiji. 

GaAja gariji. To mix up,- to break up 
and mix. 

Hasako gaiija ggHijikeda; 

Kathako gaiija ggiiijikeda. Tliey have mixed 

up the matter (confused it. 
Aijiko gaiija ggilijikodilia. They badgered me 


Ganja guAji. To throw, or place things 
any where, or anyhow.. 

Dohoakafae, gaiija guliji. He has put the 

things down any where. 
Gaiija gulijiko dohoakafa. They hava laid 

them-'down anyhow.- 

Garijan. \To annoy, to render lifemiser- 
Ganjon.J able; trouble-, annoyance, 

4di gaiijonre menaiia. I am in a great worry. 
Nonkan galijonreko gohkediiia. They married 

me into misery like this. 
Nondenko adiko galijonediiikana. The people 

here make my life miserable. 
Nui gidra doe gafijonkedilla. This child caused 

ma endless misery. 

Gaiij'ao. To mix up, to disan-ange and 
break into pieces. 

Sipi gaiijao. To mix, to knead, as dough-. 

Tjehet gaiijao. To break and- mix up by tread- 

Dal gaiijao. To break and mii'x up by beating. 

Daiii-ateko gafijaokeda. They trod it out by 
means of bullocks. 

.4k bargeko gaiijaokeda. They have ploughed 
and mixed up the soil in the sugar cane 

Gaiijer. YThick, close together, dense. 
GaAjher.J Cf. gajar. 
Ganjeri. Addicted to gafija. 
Ganjha ganjhi. Trampled, disordered. 

Ganj her. A large forest tree, Sterculia 

villosa, Roxb. 
Ga6jhu. A Hindu caste. 

Gadjia. A netted purse carried tied 

round the loins. 
Ganj on. To slight, to ill-treat, to i-ender 

life miserable. 

.^(jti bail jutko galijonkediiia~ They treated me 
-rery badly. 

Ganthar. The inner skin of ftuits, th© 
film, underneath the shell of 
an egg, the placenta of animals ; 
an inner wrapper of a filmy nature. 

Ganti. To count. 

G9.ntiabonme. . Count them for us. 

Gaoali. Belonging to-a village, or the 

Gaore. . ") Indistinctly, to keep out. 

Gaore gaore. J. of the way. 

Sen gaorecnae. Ho keeps out of the way. 
Ajom gaoreenaii. . I heard indistinctly .. 

Gaose. Cf ghaose. 
Gaowao. To lose, to injure. 

AJtego jiwiye gaowaokeftaea. He lost his life 
by. his own act. 

Gaowar. Foolish, stupid, raw. 

Gaowar mara hor. A stupid fellow. 

Gaowari buli. The dialect of the Bihari, 
language spoken in villages. 

Gap. Talking; verbiage, prolixity, story 

Qaptegem ud?.ueda. Tou are obscuring the 
point by mere talk. 

Gapa. To-morrow. 

Teheli gapa. N"ow-a-days, about the present 

Gapa mearikotele calaKa. We will go within 

the next two or- three days. 

GapanoVc. To-morrow. 

GapanoKlaii calaRa. We will go to-morrow. 

Gaphlat. Carelessness, negligence, in- 
advertency, neglect, fault. 

Iii'aK' gaphlat kana. It is my fault. 

Gaphlati. Carelessly, negligently. 

Adi gaphl?.tim kamikana. You are working 
very carelessly. 

Gaphil. Negligent, indolent, impru- 
dent, careless, off one's guard, 

; thoughtless, 

Alope-gaphiltabona. Do not be negligent. 

Gapi. A great talker, one who tries by 
much speaking to obscure the 
point at issue. 

KTaran gapi kanao. He is a great talker. 

Giipuc. ~) Slanting inwards, or under- 
Garpuc. / neath, as a dog's tail when 
he puts it between his legs ; slan- 

Gapuokateye calaoena. He went off with his 

tail between hia legs. 
LaK' gapuokedam. You have cut it with a 
slant underneath. 


[ 180 ] 


Gar. A fort, a palace. 

Gar. Difficulty, strait, danger. 

G9.r rauhim. Danger and distress. 

Garte. Time ; forcibly, loudly, heavily. 

Doaar garte. A second time. 
EtaK garte. Again, another time. 
Behaj gart^ye daKkeda. It rained heavily. 
A(Ji garte hohokeda. He called out lustily. 
4iji garteye raKkeda. He wept loudly. 

Gara. 1 Clay made inta the consistence 
Garah. J of and used instead of mortar. 
Gara. Responsibility, trouble, danger. 

Agu bali garakode, nitoK do haroniAkanae. 

Noa gara do bafi dohoea. I will not accept this 

Ilitege garaii ladcana. I have assumed respon- 

Gara. Shoot springing from root of 

a plant. 
Garad. Prison, cor. of the English 

" guard." 

Garad oraKteye boloena. He has been put into 

the guard house. 
Garadkedeako. They put him into prison. 

Garad. \Over head and ears in 

Rin garad. J debt ; swamped in debt. 

Ein garadenae. He is over head and ears in 

Garaj. ") Interest, concern, necessity, 
Goroj. j occasion, want, need. 

KiKriri here garojlenkhau alckriAko alike da- 
ma. If a thing is urgently required by the 
purchaser the price asked by the seller is 

Goroj banuKtiiikhan caKili hataoa ? I have no 
, ' need for it, why should I take it ? 

Nonde oetkantama goroj do? What interest 
have you here ? 

Gara jala. Black and heavy, as clouds ; 
difficulty, strait. 

Eimii garaj ala so bele leka un?iukedae. 

Adi garajalareA paraoena. I am in a great 


GaraM garali.l Continuously, time after 
Gorols gorolj. j time. 

GaraK garaKe g.risedillkana. He keeps annoy- 
ing me time after time. 

4ris ge garaK garaKe hohoelJkana. Ho annoys 
by continually calling out. 

Garal garal. Red, raw, applied to sores. 

Ghaoakanae garal garal. 

Garad dalj. Discharge from a sore, 

other than pus. 
Garao. To wither and die, melt away, 

to rot off, as the toes and fingers 

of a leper. 

Cot khon garao oabaena. It has withered and 

died from the top. 
A?i utarlo aphorlefire ho, sanam garaoona. Wo 

sowed much seed, but it has all withered 

and dropt off. 

Garbar. Higgledy piggledy, confused. 

Garbarao. To confuse, to mix, to put 
into disorder. C£ gadbadao. 

Garbha gojha. A small forest tree^ 
Ganthium didymum, Roxh. 

Garcha. To string hanks of thread 
on two pieces of twine previous 
to dyeing. 

Sut9.mko garoha-ea. 

Garda. Rubbish, dust. 

Cot khon garda iiiirokkana. Dust is falling 
from above. 

Garda gardi. Forcibly, putting the 
hand on the back of the neck and 

Gurda gardikin idikedea. 

Garda gurda. Scrambling, rolling on 
the ground one above the other. 

Garda gurdakin tapamkana. They are fighting 
on the ground, one now above, and then 
the other. 

Gardan. "1 The neck, the back of th e 
Gordon. / neck. 

Gardani. ■) To seize by the back of the 
Gardao. / neck and push. 

Sipahi kombroko gardani idikoa. Tiie police 
take away thieves by seizing them by tho 
back of the neck and pushing them forward. 

Gared. To trifle with, to despise, to 
make light of 

Alope bujhijua, je noa gared katha kana. Do 

not think this a matter to be trifled with, 
laor alope garejea. Do not trifle with God. 

Gargadi. ") Job's tears, Coix lachrynui, 

Jargadi. J a grass the fruit of which 
is strung into necklaces, &c. 

Gargadi. A kind of blister which be- 
comes a sore. 

Gargadlalj. Thick, thickly, abundant. 

Matkom gargadlalt jiurena, bako halaheda. 
The matkom (q. v.) has fallen very thickly', 
they are not picking it up. 

Gargar. Sound of gurgling or bub- 

Huka liui jokhee gargarko sade oooeda. When 
they smoke the huka they make a bubbling 

Gargar. C£ gargarao. 

Gargarak. A huka (q. v.) with a long 
flexible tube. 

Gargarao. To cause a gurgling bub- 
bling sound ; to gargle. 

KoyoKkate dak gargaraome. 
Eel ga(Ji gargarao oalalikana. The railway 
train goes rumbling along. 


t 181 1 


Gargarao. To roll, as a ball ; to trundle, 
to revolve, as a cart wheel in 

Gargarao aygonlsana. It eomea rolling down. 

Gargarao. \To hiss, as oil poured into a 
Gargar. / hot iron vessel ; to rumble, 
as thunder or as a river in flood. 

Nui gidrg, arisge gargaro raKeda. 
DHpan gargaraoena. 
Diiip9.u gargaraope. 

Gargarao. To take a deep hold of the 
earth, as in deep ploughing. 

CedaK ota gargaraoakin kauam ? 

Gargal Causing itchiness, irritating, 
stinging, burning, bitter, of the 

Sarn jomlcro garga£ atkaroKa. When tho e^ru 

(q. V.) is eaten it irritates the throat. 
Berel ul mundhni roaK rasa gargat'a. 

Gar ghuri. Emergency, time of diffi- 

G9.r ghuriye goroadilia. He helped me in my 
time of diiSoiilty. 

KShor.}^°^°'^ «f P""-^'^^- 

Pusiko gargorko sa(Je ocoea. Cats make a 
purring sound. 

m ■ i, '■ f To fence round securely. 

Gar gurhe. J •' 

Gargurha pon kondteko eseda. They fence it se- 
curely on the four sides (all round.) 

Garh. A fort ; residence of a Zemindar. 

Garha. A hole, a pit, a hollow, bed of 

a water course. 
Garha. \ 

SiyS'lii adi garhaUa setohte. The ink becomes 
thick owing to tho heat. 

Garha gurhe. To roll up, or gather 
together, as twine, cloth, &c. 

Garha gnrhe aamtaome. Iloll it up into a 
round ball. 

Garha gorho. Full of holes or pits, 
Scottice, heichs an' howes. 

Noa hor do garha gorhogea. This road is full of 
ups apd downs. 

Garhao. To make, to fashion, to carve ; 
to take shape ; as the foetus in 
the womb, or a bird &c. in the egg 
with incubation. 

Onko murhut base garhaoaka£koa. He has 
fashioned the idols very well. 

Kuhkal bhajanko garhaoa. Potters make ves- 
' Eele bhitrire hoponko garhaoena. The chicks 
have taken shape within the egg. 


Gaj'haoena bele do. The chick has begun to 

take shape within this egg. 
Dhorom Jiu hototeye garhaolon. 

Garhani. Chronic dysentery. 

Sakam gari. A small species of monkey. 

Gari. To push from or towards, as a 
fish net with a handle, to di-aw 
towards, as with a rake. 

Hako garikom. Catch fish by means of a net 
with a handle. 

GaKriaK. A rake or any implement similarly 

Garia. In comp. pussoasod of; doer 
or agent. 

Budgarig-, Wise. 
Bal-garig.. Strong. 

Pahgaria. Envious. 

Eojgaria. One who provides for daily wants. 

Garib. Poor. 

Guni garib, Poor people. 

Garib mara, ") To cheat, to kill the 
Gurib mara. J poor, oppress. 

Porja g9.rib maraefkoae nui maAjhi do. This 
head man oppresses tho ryots. 

Bariako adi horko garib maraetkoa. Banias 
cheat people very much. 

Mahajan hoko g9.rib maraetkoa. Money len- 
ders take advantage of people. 

Garja barja. To call for assistance 
while howling through pain or 

Nonkate garja barjae raK idikoda. 
Garja barjaateyo liir hecena. He came run- 
ning calling out for help. 

Garja garji- To howl. 

Garja garjie rak idikeda, He went away 

Garjao. To growl, to hov/1, to weep. 

Kul adiye garjaoet tahekana. The tiger was 
growling fiercely. 

Dal garjao oeokedea. They struck and made 
him howl. 

Garke. Cf gandke. 

Garkugar. Strait, difficulty, emergency. 

Adi garkugg.rreii paraoena. 1 am in a diifioult 
position at present. 

Garlae. Fair, with a tinge of red, not 
unlike the hue of a Chinaman. 

Onko doko garlae gea. 

Garlan gurlun. Dirty, untidy. 
Garlah gurluhe lieloKkana. He looks dirty. 

Garlun. Dirty, insufficiently clad and 

Nui garluii mara 9.imai. This dirty drab. 


[ 182 ] 


Garmalc. 1 Difference in dia- 

Garmali garmaU. Y lect, in pronoun- 
Garma^. j ciation, accent &c. 

Koles, Mahlis, Kodaa, Birhors, Kamars, &o. 
speak a dialect of Santall and their mode 
of speaking, with differences in grammatical 
construction,, pronoimoiation, and accent 
are termed by the Sairtals " garmaR. " 

Kolheko do gajmaK gajmalfko rora. The 
Koles speak Santali with a twang. 

Garma gar mi. To become: heated^ to 
perspire thremgh exertion. 

4<Ji garma gaTmiko k?.mikana. They are per- 
spiring greatly at, their work^ 

Garmao. To become heated, to per- 
spire, to' warm to- one's' work, to 
exert oneself, to wake up-, as a 
lazy man to work. 

Nitle garinaoakadea. Nowwe have wake Jhim 
up to his work. 

Bali gammo- dafeaekana. I can't make him 
exert himself. 

Merhe^J setofrte garmaoKa, Iron becomes heat- 
ed with the sun's rays; 

.Garmi. Gonorrhoea, or any urethral 

Gar munnu. A sub sept of the San- 

tal sept Murmu (q,. v.)' 
Garo. Eleven. 

Garoc gapo^. "l Scantily clad in old 
Garoc saro6. ) tattered garments. 

Nui do garoo gapode heoakana. She has come 
scantily clad in old tattered clothes. 

Garosti. Household, family. 

Mit garoeti hor kanako. They belong to- the 
same household. 

Garpac gurpuc. To dodge about, to 
hang about at a little distance 
through shame. 

Lajaote garpac gurpuc baraekana. She is 
keeping at a little distance through shame. 

Garpuc. Cf gapuc. 

Ut hoko garpudgea. 
Hadgarko gappucgea. 

Garra gorro. Hoarse, as when the 
throat becomes dry through fear. 

Garra gorroe hohoet'kana. He is calling hoar- 

Garsa gale. To become tarnished, 
draggled, smirched, soiled ; dowdy; 
careless as to propriety. 

EaK raUteii garsa galeena. I am become tar- 
nished by continued weeping. 
Garsa galeye gitidakana. 

Garsande. A stand for water pots. 
Gorsor.' } J^^ergency, difficulty. 

Nui ijahra do garsare khuIauKa. This bullock 
will see ua through an emergency. 

Jahaeye g?.rsairkhan uniye emaea. Should any 
one be in difficulty he will help him. 

Garsaj dohokatiAme. See me through my diffi- 
culty . 

Garsilom. Dirty, impure, as water ; 
scum, as on water ; indistinctly, 

Noa daK- do garsilomi ileloKkaua baboll iluia. 

This water looks impure we will not drink 

Garsilom geye_beiigeda.^ He sees indistinctly. 
Garsilom garsilomge lienelkana ?.rsi b9.ridente. 

The image is indistinctly-seen owing to the 

mirror being injured. 
Garsilom ieloKkanae. He looks dirty. 

Garsusar. Difficulty, emergency; neces- 

Garsusar calax). > Tt> render assistance in a 
Garsusar doho. j time of difficulty or 

Nui do garsusare calaoeftiiia uin This 

man has up till now seen me through my 


Garui tapui. Hanging down in tatters 

or shreds. 
Garui {apuiye bandeakana. The lower edge 

of her cloth is ragged, 
-flidi jholakana gairui tapui. The soot is. hanging 

in straggling masses. 

Garundi araE. A common plant found 
plentifully in rice fields, Acter- 
nanthera sessilis, H. Br. 

Garur. The Adjutant bird, Ardea 

riutea are made from the bonea of the lower 
part of the leg of the garur. The feathers 
of the Adjutant are considered a powerful 
remedy in the cure of snake bite. The name 
of the bird uttei-od as a charm and the 
waving over the patient of one of its fea- 
thers is also resorted to in snake bite. 

Tiie Adjutant being one of the greatest enem- 
ies that snakes have to fear has given rise 
to the idea that its name and feathers are 
potent in the cure of snake bite. 

Dheiika garnr. A species of stork smaller 
than the garxir. 

Gasac gusuc. Solitary, of solitary 
habits, reserved, silent; 

Gasad gusudgeae. He is reserved and of soli- 
tary habits. 


Gasao saphaakadeae. He has scrubbed him 

Nonkateye gasao idikedida. 

me in this way. 



To rub, to scrub. 

He rubbed past 

Ghasen.} Amidst, amongst. 

Adi hor gasen nui hor do bae sahaoa. This man 
can't bear the presence of many people. 

Hor gasenre tahengo besa. It is best to live 
along with other people. 


[ 183 ] 


Gasgas. Many, very many, applied 
' generally to diminutive creatures. 

Simko busaKalcana gassas. Many ohiokens 

have liatohed. 
Gasgas gidrako jaoraakana. Many children are 


Gasi6. To make or pass wind. 

Gaske. The wrapping, in which tlie 
material, from which oil is to press- 
ed, is wrapt up, previous to being 
put in the oil press; a scrubber 
for buffaloes. 

The " gaske" is made of baolcom (q. v.) or the 
leaf of the palmyra palm ont into very thin 
strips. The material to be pressed is wrapt 
up in this and bound tightly round with 

Gasmandao. jTo bruise, to break into 
Ghasmandao. 3 small pieces, to disorder 
or break into small pieces by tram- 
pling, rolling, or sitting on. 

NoKoe non(Jeko duruplena nokoe nonijeko gas- 
manijaoakat'a. They sat here, here they 
have left their mark, 

Lobe^ gasmandao. To mix up or disorder by 

Durup gasmandao. To disorder by sitting on. 

Dal gasmandao. To beat into small pieces. 

Gasrao. 7 To drag or push along the 
Ghasrao. J ground, to rub against any- 

Jahga gasrao idiedae. He drags his feet along 
the ground. 

Bhitre gasrao potaKenae. He has got himself 
chafed by rubbing against the wall. 

Durupkate gasrao calaKako. They drag them- 
selves along in a sitting posture. 

Gat. A knot, a nob, a node. 

Tol gatkadae, bah rara godoRkana. He has 
knotted it, it does not easily loose. 

Gat. Branchings from the root of 
sasan. Curcuma longa, Roxb., 
Turmeric or Haldi. 

Pe gat saaah emakom. Give them three bran- 
ches of the root of turmeric. 

Gata. A small stream or watercourse. 

Gatae. ") An itching or irritating 

Gatae gatae. J sensation in the throat, 
or month. 

Kholcte gatae gatae atkaredali. When I cough 
I feel an irritating sensation in the throat. 

Gatagam. Perfectly still, hushed. 

Gatagamko thirena. They were hushed into 

Gatagamenako. They are perfectly still. 

Gatao."! To begin, to start, to deliver, 
"Gotao. J or make over to, to accept, to 

Nia kamid gotaoena, I have begun this work. 

Uni hor theno gataoena. Ho has begun to work 

for that man. 
Gataokadeako. They have made her over to 


Gatao. \ To plait, to set bricks or 
Gathao.J stones in mortar to accept, 
to take. 

Olonte gathaoabai; bhit. A wall built with the 
aid of a plummet. 

Ill do gota ato ren g»i gupi ill gataoakawana. 

I have taken the work of grazing all the 

cows of the village. 
Ill do noa k^miri gatao johkaua. I wish to get 

this work. 

Ma noa kami do jahae then gathaokam. Ar- 

^ range with some one to do this work. 
Aotege noa kathae gathaoakawana. Ho took 

the matter up on his own responsibility. 
B?.hu jor bojorko gataoadea. They compelled 

him to marry. 

Gate. A companion, a friend, to keep 
company, to be friendly. 

Eako gateletmea. They did not make a com- 
panion of you (did not take you with them.) 

Gate idilem. Take ns with yon. 

Nukin 9(Jikin gateka. These two are close com- 

Gate kora. Boy companion, boy companions. 
Gate kuri. Girl companion, girl companions. 

Gate ora uri. In company, along with 

Okoe ba(Jae dhej ooe bacoe, gate ora uriye 
calaoena. Who knows whether he will be 
able or not, he has gone off with his com- 
panions (to seek work.) 

Gathia. \ Short of stature and of 

Bajar gathia. J youthful appearance. 

Gathia J ^""^^t^y) ^^ ^ piece of wood. 

Aiji gathiagea noa kat do. This log is full of 

Gati. Nodular limestone. 

Gati cun. Lime made from nodular 

Gawao. To lose. Of khuau. 
Aotege jiwiye gawaoket'taea. He took his own 


Gawao. To know, to be familiar with. 

Ni^kore aboko sanambo gawaoaka£a. We are 
familiar with all round about here. 


Adim gawargea am do. Ton are very stupid. 

Gawar gawar.l Tangled, hanging in a 
Giwer gawar. J tangle, trailing, hanging. 
Gawic. To beckon by drawing the 
points of the fingers to oneself. 
Gawidadeae. He beckoned to him. 

Gawi6 godalc 

[ 184 ] : 


Gawic godali. To nudge or touch ano- 
ther ; to playfully touch each other. 

Gawio goiJaK baraekanae. He is nudging the 
others all round. 

Gaya. A capon. 

Gaya ganga. To perform the last rites 
for the dead. 

Gayam gayam. Sensation caused by an 
insect, &c. crawling on the person ; 
irritating sensation in the throat. 

Gayam gayam aik^iuKa. I feel an irritating 
sensation in the throat. 

Gayan guyun. Restless, slinking here 
and there, as a dog putting its 
nose into every thing. 

Seta gayah gnyuh baraekana. The dog goes 
sniffing about. 

Gayar guyur. One after the other, 
one to foUov/ another. 

Hanko tora odolc calaoenako ehga hopon gayar 
guyur. Yonder they have set-out, the mo- 
ther and the children following one after 
the other. 

Gaye ghore. Within ourselves, among 
the villagers, privately. 

Gaye ghorebon cabalekhan beskoKa. If we 
settle this among ourselves it will be well. 

Gayo gapo. Feckless, fusionless, list- 

Balea do gayo gapo baraegeae. 

Gayuk. To touch with the point, as 
of a sword. 
GayuK tiyoKkediiiam, nelSe mayam. You touch- 
ed me, see the blood. 

GjyuKkedcam. You touched him, (with the 
point of your sword.) 

Gayum. To finish, all, the whole, 
stump and rump. 

Gayume jomkeda. He ate it all up. 
Ggtyum cabakedae. He finished the whole. 

Gayur gapur. Poor, badly clad, clad 
in rags. C£ gandur gapur. 

Gayur tapur. Hanging in tatters or 
shreds, as ragged cloth, or as 
thatch from the roof Cf garui 

p?' |- In comp. emphatic. 

Onko do bah nokoge. Not they but these. 

Calalisoan, 1 shall certainly go. 

Unigeye dalkedea. It was he who struck him. 

Unige tho. It was even he. 

Calal<ge bah sanaedekaua. He does not wish 

to go. 
Bologo bae boloKa. He will not go in. 
He ge. It is even so, certainly. 
He ge con ? Is it not so p 

Gee. To scrape out, to scrape off. 

Geo geoteii jomkeda. I scraped it ofl and ate 
as I did so. 

Gee gayum. Scrapings and all, the 
whole, every particle. 

Geo gayume idikeda. It (water) carried away 
every particle (of the embankment.) 

Gee gaiyume jomkeda. He ate every thing, 
scrapings and all. 

Gee gayup. Cf gee gayum. 
Gee gxu-ic. To smear the floor, or a 
spot of ground with cow dung. , 

Oral? gee guriokateko bohgaKa. They smear 
the floor with cow dung, and then offer 

Ge|a. M. | gj^ort, stunted, undersized. 
Gidi. i. 3 

Geija dahra. An undersized ox. 
Ge^a hor. A little man. 
Gidi aimai. A little woman. 

Gede. A duck. 

Ge^ra. M. J g^^jj ^^ ^^^^^^.^^ 

Gidri. 1. 3 

Nui gidri mara aimai adi eligerae. 

Gedok. Short, undersized. 

GedoK mara hor. 

Gege teren. A species of insect that 
moves in crowds. 

Gegran. Cf geran. 
Gehgt gehgt. Hoarsely, speaking from 
the throat. 

GeheC gehet'e rora. He speaks hoarsely. 

Gehgt. ">Slow of speech, slow 

Gehgt'gehgli. J and mild of speech, 
and reserved. 

SenadiJiae, a^i geheC hor kanae. He came to 
me, he is very reserved, and slow and mild 
hi speech. 

Gehgt gundur. Speaking continually. 

GeheC gundure eKgerkana. She keeps nagging 
the whole day. 

Geje pete. Heads and tails, topsy 
turvey, as fish in a basket; crammed 

Aema geje petem sambaoaka^koa. You have 
filled them in topsy turvey. 
• Sanamko mit oraKre menaKlea geje pe^e, hor, 
kada, mihu merom. We are all in the same 
house, people, buffaloes and cattle topsy 

_ J , ? J ," !■ Wet, damp, moist. 
Jegecjegec. J ^ 

Balbaltegejeogejeo atkaroKkana. It feels damp 

owing to perspiration. 
OraK gejed gejed jarkaoentalea. Our house is 

damp through the soil being water-logged. 


[ 185 1 

tieiied genoi 

Gujer. To break, crush, or smash into 

Oejer cabaena. It is crushed to pieoas. 

Dal gejer. To break into pieces by striking. 

Lebot gejer. To trample to pieces. 

Nur gejer. To break into pieces by falling. 

Capat gejer. To thow at and break into pieces. 

Tuti gejer. To break to pieces, as by hailstones. 

SoboK gejer. To break to pieces by a thrust. 

Kutam gejer. To break to pieces by blows, as 

from a hammer. 
Tili gejer. To break to pieces by throwing 

stones at. 

Gejet. Cor. of Gazette ; a newspaper. 
Gel. Ten. 

Gel mit. Eleven. 
Gel barea. Twelve. 
Gel pea. Thirteen. 
Gel ponea. Fourteen. 
Gel more. Fifteen. 
Gel turui. Sixteen. 
Gel eyae. Seventeen. 
Gel irgil. Eighteen. 
Gel are. Nineteen. 
Pe gel. Thirty. 
Pon gel. Forty. 
More gel. Fifty. 
Turui gel. Sixty. 
Eyae gel. Seventy. 
Iral gel. Eighty. 
Are gel. Ninety. 
Gel khon pea. Thirteen. 

Gela. To try, to attempt. 

Jom gelaK. To taste by eating. 

Dec gelaK. To try to mount, or climb. 

Capaf gelaK. To try to hit by throwing at. 

Sen gelaK. To go and try. 

iSam gelaK. To try to find, to search for. 

Don gelal?. To try to jump across. 

Koe gelaK. To ask to see if it can be had. 

ifju gelaK. To taste by drinking. 

Em gelaK. To offer. 

Sereii gelaK. To try to sing a tune. 

Get' gelaK. To try to learn. 

Gele. An ear of grain, as of rice, wheat 
&c ; to form, as ear of grain ; to 
flower, applied only to Indian corn 
and the Matkom tree (d. v.) 

Gele beleR. To ripen. 

Horo gele. An ear of rice. 

Gohum gele. An ear of wheat. 

Bar gele gidra ehgat. Mother of two children. 

Nes do matkom bail gelelena. The matkom 

(q. V.) did not flower this year. 
Horo gele liwef ena. The ears of rice are bent. 
Horo neKe geleRa. The rice is about to shoot 

into ear. 

Gele bale. Ripe grain, children. 

Nukin do gele bale banuKkotakina. These 

two have no children. 
Gele bale tioKena, ohoA senlena. I cannot go 

as the ripe. 

Gelec. To scratch in earth, as a bear, 
&c, &c.; to excavate, as a tank. 

Gelec bhugaK. To scratch a hole. 
Geled gada. To scratch out a hollow. 
Seta doe geled ga4aaka£a. A dog has scratched 
out the hollow. 

Gi'ineA gemen. Softly, gently, steadily. 

DaK atnKkana gemo<i gemeii. The water flow^ 

Gcnior. To carry, to take away. 

Men, besokodte Badakar paromoKpe, bankhane 
gemorpea. Gross the Barakar river with 
caution, or else you may be carried away 
by it. 

Gemerkedeako. They took him away. 

Guricko gemera. They carry away the manure 
(to the field.) 

Nonde sahaniri doholeda, okoe cohko gemerkeC- 
tiila. I placed firewood here some one has 
taken it away. 

Gend. A ball. 

Gendher. To move while in a sitting 

posture the hands being employed 

to propel the body; to run, to 

scuttle, applied to birds of weak 

flight, as the peacock, partridge, 

quail, &c. that after a short flight 

run ; to change residence. 

Gen(Jher gen(Jhertegeye oalaKkana. He is 
moving along in a sitting posture propell- 
ing himself with his hands. 

Genijherte adisaiigilSteyed9.rkedacitrido. The 
partridge ran a long way after its flight. 

Non(Jo khon hanteye geniilher ocoKena. He has 
moved his house from here to over there. 

Gendlan. A species of small fish. 
Gcndlan. Small. 

Gendlaii aim. A chicken. 

Nui gendlan do ceijpe asen baraedekana? Why 

are you carrying this little child about 

with you P 

Gendrak. A rag; cloth. 

Hapele gendrak baralenge. Wait till we make 
(or procure) some cloth. 

Gendrali cethrak. Rags, tattered gar- 

Gendrec. A rag, a piece of old cloth. 

Gendreo em daporaeme. Give her a piece of 
old cloth and let her go. 

Genduar. ) . r v ^--u a 

p- j ,', f A slmg tor throwmg stones. 

Genec genec. Natty, neat, trim, pretty 
and little. 

Noko merom hoponko lieloKkana geneo genec. 

These kids are pretty little things. 
A(Ji besem oleda gened gened fieloKkana. Tou 

write very well, it looks neat. 

Genec genec. Numerous, applied to 
children, and the young of goats, 
sheep, &c.; applied also to the 
movement of insects having many 
feet, as centipedes, &c. 

Gened gened merom hopon menalfkoa. 
Gegetereli gened genedko calaKa. 


Gene gene 

[ 186 ] 


Uene gene. 1 With a nasal twang, 
Ghene ghene. J through the nose, us- 
ed only with " ror" to speak. 

Gene geneye rora. He speaka through his nose 
(with a nasal twang.) 

Gengahi. To turn towards the right, 
to pass round at a distance. 

Gehgahiteye paromena. 

Dali gehj^ahite paromena hinbatege. The rain 

passed over in that direction. 
Gengahite ^curo'Eme. Turn to the right. 

Genjlan. Small. Cf. gendlan. 
Genjor. Small, young. 

Eken ge/ijorko heaakana, onko Bohge do cet'era 
galmaraoa ? Only young people have come, 
what talk can you have with them P 

Ce^lekankom aapkeCkoa? eken geiijor ho. What 
kind have you caught ? they are only small 

Genthe. Knotty, 

Genthegea oho hoelena. It is knotty (wood) it 
will not do. 

Geper. Reciprocal form of ger (cj. v.) 

Ape do siA satup gepertegepe tahena. You 
keep biting each other the whole day (quar- 

Ger. To bite. 

Ger bit ( '^° take a firm hold with the teeth. 
Ger bit'cnae, bae chadaoKkana. He has taken 

so firm a hold with bis teeth that he can't be 

mads to let go. 
Ger goukedeae. He bit and killed him. 
Ger oree. To tear with the teeth. 
Ger mayamkedeae. He bit him and drew blood. 

•Geran. To groan. 

Geranedae. He groans. 

Geran hurun.lTo groan, moan, bewail ; 
<3eraa haruii. J piteously. 

Geraii huruii rua baralfkanalo, ohole kami 
darelea. We are suffering grievously from 
fever, we will not be able to do our work. 

Geran hurune rakeda. He is groaning and 

Gerec gerec. Unfolding, as a leaf from 
the bud, applied generally to lea- 
ves which are used as pot-herbs. 

Siii araE gerec gerec aagenokkana. The leaves 
of the Sil5 araK (q. v.) are unfolding from 
the bud. 

Gereyom.lSmooth, to smooth down, 
Geryom. j as the hair. 

Up do nalcid gereyomme. Comb your hair 

■Geyeyom rielokkantaea. 
Jal gereyouikedeae. She licked it smooth (a 

cow her calf.) 

Gersan girsiri. To keep out of the way, 
to loaf about where there is no 
fear of getting any work to do. 

K9i.mi botorte gersaii girsiii baraekanae. 

Gerwel. A ring round the underside 
of the neck, said of birds such 
as the Ring dove, the Quail, &c. 

Gundri doko gerwelana. Quails have a ring 
round the neck. 

Geser geser. Quickly, rapidly. 

Gesermente. ) ^y^tj, ^ .^gh. 
Geser marte. j 

Sukri geser marte bed goCenae. The 'boar 
came with a rush. 

Gestahi. Slovenly, of dirty habit.s. 

Nui gestahi mara hor dale h5 bail jutauaea. 

Get To cut. 

Gei kutra. To cut into pieces. 

Gef gidi.' To cutoff. 

Sukriko gedekana. They are cutting up the 

carcase of a pig. 
Noa ho gedoKa. This will also be cut. 
Tolop khon barea ^akako getket'tilia. Two 

rupees were cut from my pay. 
Up get gidikataeme. Cut off his hair. 
Geget'aK bauulianaii. There is no cutting 


Getgete. In a line. 

Getgeteko tehgoakana. 

Getg-eteko panteakana. 

one side. 

They are standing in a 
They are in a line on 

Gethia. Cf. gathia. 

Gewel'gewel. }'^^ ^^"^™' as leeches. 

Gewel marteri iSel gotkedea. I caught a glimpse 
of him. 

Ghac ghacao. To drag, to force to go. 

Or ghacghacaokedeako. They dragged him 

Ghac ghaoaokedeako. They dragged hira along. 
Eohoe ghacghacaokedae. He has finished bis 

(rice) planting. 

^1 ^' ■ >- Close together, thick. 
Uhacpacao. J '^ 

Ghacpacaokedako horo do. They planted the 
dhan thickly. 

Ghae ghae. 1 rte , _• , ^. 

Ghag. Centre of a river or tank, 
p ° ■ >• A brass water pot. 
Ghagor. Shrewd, smart, scheming. 

Uni do aiji ghagor hor kanae. He is a very 
scheming person. 

Ghai. Opportunity, convenient time 
or place, at a disadvantage. 

Ghairem taraRlenkhan onte note sukri ar kulko 
hoko ai'gona. If you lie in ambush at a 
convenient place pigs and tigers also will 
come from all sides. 

Ghai ghai 

[ 187 ] 


Ghai ghai. ] 

Ghao ghao. J-To snarl, as a dog, 

GhUe ghae. J 

Ghai ghaiyoKkanae, seta do. Tho dog is snar- 

Ghai. To wound, to subdue. 

Ghalghalao. To mortify, to spread as 
a malignant sore, to waste, as 

Get; batoi^ ooe jomkeiS arh? ghai ghalaoentaea. 
What has he eaten that has disagreed with 
him, to make his sore increase ? 

Bhitri imboro ghai ghalaoentaea. His lungs 
have wasted away. 

GhaloK^. \ Including, reckoning, enu- 
Ghalolbe. J merating. 
Ni» ghaloKte doe pe tekharkeda. Including 
this he did it thrice. 

Ghama ghami. Perspiring, sweating. 

Ghama ghjmili kgimikana. I am working in 

Ghamand. Worry, multiplicity of 
things to attend to. 

^di ghamandre menaRkoa. They are in a state 

of worry. 
4di ghamandred paraoakana. I have many 

things to attend to. 

Ghamao. To exert oneself; to cause 
to exert oneself ; to stir one up. 

Euhedereho bae ghamaoTfa. Although you 
scold him be won't exert himself. 

Mi6 bar kathate bae ghamaoKa. A word or two 

makes no impression on him. 
Abo ohobon ghamao darelea. We cannot cause 

him to exert himself. 
Nui doe ghamao godoKa. This one is easily 

induced to erert himself. 

Ghamaota. Labour, exertion, toil. 

AoaK ghamf-ctateye cijakaEa. He has become 
possessed of property by his own labour. 

Ghamrokot.\To toil, to labour, to labour 
Dhamrokot.j and toil. 

Adi ghamrokotte noa jaegali banaoakafa. I 
reclaimed this land with great labour. 

Ghane ghane. Repeatedly, time after 
time ; every now and again. 

Ghane ghane dakae khojkana. He is always 

asking for food. 
Ghane ghane iii thenem hijuKkana. You come 

to me time after time. 

Ghan ghun. Indistinct in speech, 
nasal twang. C£ gangun. 

Ghau ghuhe roreda, nak^a hor do. 
Ghane doe sereiia, ghane doe raga. She sings 
and weepi alternately. 

Ghanra. A cultivated leguminous plant, 
Vigna Gatiwiig. 

Bocja ghanra. ■) 

Pah ghanra. > Varieties of Vigna Catiang, 

Cihri ghaiira. ) 

Ghanri. A variety of Vig^ia Catiang 
C£ ghanra. 

Tliis variety ripens in August-September. 

Ghangri. A loosely woven cloth, thin, 

as cloth. 
Ghangri. A skirt worn by little girls. 

Ghani. The amount of rice put into 
the dheiiki at one time; the 
amount of raw material put at 
one time into an oil press ; the 
amount of gi'ain put on the fire at 
one time to roast. 

Ghani. An oil press as used by Hindu 

Ghania. Perversely silent, perverse. 

Uni do ghania, hor kanae. He is a perverse 
fellow . 

laiija ghaiiji. 1 
laiija ghuDJuj 

Crowded, to be crow- 
ded, over crowded. 

Pher raerom aderleko khanko ghalija gh^nji'- 
ako. If too many goats are kept in one 
house there will be over crowding. 

4-diko ghafija ghaAjigea, obobon bolo darelena. 
Wo will not be able to enter, the crowd is 
so dense. 
Ghaiijer. Of. ganjer. 

Ghanjlon.") To bag in the centre, as 

GhaDJua. J a woven mattress; to 

hang loosely as the wrappings of a 

bandi (q. v.) when the grain has 

been abstracted. 

Jom ghalijloiikedale noa bg-ndi do. We have 
eaten tho bandi loose. 

Parkomreali uphand dhillenkhanpavkom ghaA- 
jualia. If the bracing of the mattress be- 
comes loose tho mattress will bag in th^ 

Glianta. An hour, a large bell. 
Ghanta. To stir ; to row with an oar. 

OgoKa, ghautae me. It will stick to the pot, 

stir it. 
Ghanta algaome, Mix it by stirring (the heavy 

part with the liquid.) 

Ghanta ghanti. To sbir about, to swirl, 
as water. 

Bae saphgiieda, ghanta ghanfiefbona. He does 
not settle it, he keeps us going and coming. 

Ghanti. A small bell. 

Bohga gh9.nti. A small bell tied round the 
nook of a bullock. 


[ 188 ] 


Ghao. A wound, a sore ; to become a 

GhawoLj It will break into a sore. 

Dal ghaokedeae. He struck and wounded him. 

Ghao. A cut or stroke with the 
broad sword or cudgel of which 
there are twelve. 

Behor ghao. A difficult stroke. 
Dao ghao. Opportunity. 

Qhao ghao. To snarl, as a dog. 

Ghao jogao. To protect oneself, as, 

with a shield. 
Ghause. To coax, to induce, to cajole, 

to entice, to persuade. 

Ghaose calaoeiiaa. He was cajoled into goin^. 
Nui do okakore coiie ghaose liawana. 

Ghaoae idikedeako. They coaxed him away. 

Ghawar. ) To fence, as croj^s, 

Paean ghawar. j &c. ; to fence in 


Ghawarakrae. Fence it. 

Paean ghawar. A fence erected to prevent 

hares escaping when being driven to the 

Delabou paean ghawara. 

Ghar. Strait, difficulty ; a vital spot ; 
at a disadvantage. 

Gharreli liammea. I shall get you at a disadvan- 
tage sometime. 

Khub ghaiTeli tuliledea, I shot it in a very 
vital spot. 

Ghara gharl. Sickening, strong and 
offensive, used only of smells. 

Ghara ghari aokkana. It emits a sickening 

Gharaia. Belonging to one household 

or family. 
Gharana. Household; members of the 


Gbaranako besgeako, sebaii? Are the members 

of the household well, or not? 
Bhage gharana ren hopon kanae. She is a. 

member of a well-to-do (or good) family. 

Ghardidi. A small Tailor bird, Ortho- 
tomus sutorius. 

Ghardi jawae.lA son-in-law who goes 
Ghar jawae. j at his marriage to 
live in his father-in-law's house. 

Ghargharaia. ") To unite two 

Ghar gharaia jorao. J families by 


Okakore gh?.r ghgiraia menaUtapea? Where 
are the families with which you are united 
by marriage ? 

Ninalf kora ninak knri ghar gharaiaA jorao- 

Ghargharao. To roll, as a ball ; to 
revolve, as a wheel, or as a spindle ; 
to whir. 

Gharriko ghargharaoa. 

Ghar ghari. A pulley wheel. 

Ghar gharia. A very steep incline, 
steep ; slipping, rolling. 

Sagar gaclido ghar ghari?, theo besokootepa- 
rompe. Take the cart carefully down the 

Ghar gusti. Household, family ; all 
the members of the household or 

Ghar gustiko gooena. The family has died (with 
one or two exceptions.) 

Ghargustiko rualikana. The whole family is ill. 

Ghari. A space of time ; a time piece . 

MitJ g:hari. A moment, a very short space of 

time, a little while. 
Mit; gharito. Instantly, in a moment, without 

Iti ghari. This moment, instantly. 
Jeb ghari. A watch. 

Dhorom ghari. A clock that strikes the hours. 
Hape, mil; ghari. Wait a minute. 
Mit ghariteye hedeua. He came in a very 

short time. 
Iti gharite haute idiepe. Take him over there 


Gharic. C£ ghari. 
Gharmao. Cf. garmao. 

Gharna. Mistress of the house, a wife. 
Gharnai. A raft supported on empty 
earthenware waterpots. 

r\\ /•• >- Household, family. 
Gharonji J ' •' 

Gharra. An instrument for boring used 
principally to bore holes in arrow 
shafts to admit the arrow heads ; to 
bore holes. 

Gharrateko bhugaUkeda. It was bored by means 
of a " gharra. " 

Seiigel gharrateko toda. They produce fire by 

Gharri. A machine for twisting twine. 

Young men do not make the holes in the machine 
in which the spindles work, as it is thought 
they will thereafter be subject to dizzi- 
ness. Old men do the work. 

Gharwa. The sparrow. Passer Indi- 

Ghas. Grass, all the smaller species 
of GyperaceoB, as well as nearly all 
Graiiiineas are called " ghas." 

Dhobi glias. 
Sanri ghas. 
Sama ghas. 

Ghasa ghasi 

[ 189 ] 


Ghasa ghasi. Rubbing one against the 

other, as people in a crowd. 
Ghasao. To rub, to scrape. 

Th9.ri ghaaao saphaepe. Scrub the "th?iri" 

Cot ootfce tul parompe, alope ghaaao ocoea. 

Lift it well over the top, do not let it rub 

against it (in passing over.) 

Ghasar. "j _ , 

Ghasar ghasar. /^° '■^^' *° ^^i"*^?"^- 

Ghasar ghasare gg.duroKkaua. He is scratching 
himself with considerable force. 

Ghasar ghasar saijekana. There is a scraping 
(or scratching) sound. 

Ghasen. Among, in the midst of. Cf. 

Ghaser. ") Anything and everything, 
Har ghaser. / all kinds of people or 
things, indiscriminately. 

H^rghasere jomkeda onateye ruaena. He was 

not careful as to what ho ate, and so took 

Paiira aralSkate har ghaserko atiila. When 

the bullocks are loosed from the yoke they 

eat everything. 
H?-r ghasere idike^koa. He took away all 

kinds (of people.) 

Ghasi. A caste of Hindu shoemakers 
and hide curers. 

Ghasiara. A grass cutter. 
Ghasic. To break wind. 

Ghasghasao. To rub or slide along in 
a sitting posture, as down a steep 
rock, or as the wheels of a break 
van when the break is put on. 

Ghasghasao argoenae. He slid down in a sitting 

Ghaskao. To push or move along the 
ground, to drag along the ground. 

GhaskaoKae. He will push himself along the 

Ghaskao. To skulk off, from work, etc. 

Ghasmandao. Cf gasmandao. 

Gharao. To drag or push along the 

Ghat. A way down to a river, tan k 
or spring of water ; a ford, a ferry ; 
a difficult pass through hills ; a 
narrow way of access from one 
place to another ; opportunity, 
way of exit. 
Phoiiga ghat. The place where the dhohga (a 
dug-out) plies to ferry passengers across 
the river. 

Dalf lo ghat. The way by which water is brought 
up from a river, tank or spring. 

Laha ghatre jelko paromolfa, onde tayaKpe. 
The doer will cross at the crossing farther 
ahead, lie in wait there. 

More ghat khonle sap aguakafimea. 

Ghate liam baraeda. He is looking for an oppor- 
tunity (or way.) 

Ghat banuKtilia. I have no resource. 

Ghat. Fault, crime, sin. 

AmaK iri ghg,takat'a. I have sinned against 

Gh^t gungi. Faults, short-comings, crimes. 

Ghatac ghutuc.\ Many ascents and 
Ghata ghutu. j descents, as at un- 
bridged rivers, &c. 

Ghatal barhal. Decrease and increase, 
more or less. 

Ghatal sanj. Food exhausted, emer- 
gency, as when food is done and 
more can't be bought till the 
market day. 

Ghatal sa^jle hedakana. We have come when 

there is no food. 
Ghatal sadjre kami ema. It will be of use in 

an emergency. 

Ghatamar. Furiously, a highwayman. 

Ghatam9.rkin tapamkana. They aro fighting 

Ghatao. To diminish, to become 
less, to lessen, to decrease. 

Ghatao liinda. 1 a. ra, 

Kulko ghatao idiKkana. Tigers are decreasing 

in number. 
Dare ghataoentaea. His strength is diminished. 

Ghatdar. A person in charge of a toll, 
or a way by which timber, &c. 
are taken from a forest. 

Ghate ghat. At each pass, or way of 


Ghate ghat hor monalckoa. There are men at 

each pass. 
Kombroko ghate trhatko ese(:koa. They 

close all the passes against the robbers. 

Ghatghatao. To aim, design ; to be 
ready, as raising a stick ready to 

Ghat ghut. Rough; with many unbridg- 
ed rivers. 

Ghati. A fault, a shortcoming ; to 
commit a fault, or sin. 

AmaKifi ghatiakat'a. I am guilty of a fault 

against thee. 
Gh9.ti hor. A person who has committed a 


Ghati. Wily. 

AJi gh?.tie baijaea. He is very wily. 


[ 190 

Ghi kuar 

Ghati. Deficiency, diminution, abate- 
ment, loss, decrease. 

A(^i ghatiko emoK kana. They give short (weight 

or measure.) 
Alom ghati ilia, em tiol^ailme. Do not give mo 

less, give me a little more. 

Ghati. The cross bars which keep a 
fish trap in position. 

Ghati barhi. Decrease and increase, 
more or less. 

Ghatra. From the side, sideways, ob- 
liquely, to one side ; slanting. 

Ghatrateil dal llamkedea. I hit him by a side 

Dale do ghatra ghatra hante oalaoena. The 

rain has passed over to one side. 
Pindhe ghatra idikettiilae dale do. The water 

carried away my embankment beginning at 

one end. 

Ghatwal. 1 A section of the large semi- 
Ghatwar. j Hinduisod aboriginal caste 

of the Bhilia, who in some places 

are the hereditary guardians of the 

Ghauda. Many, as people ; thick, as 

fruit on a tree. 

Ghauda then capat go^kalcme. Throw (your 
stick) where the fruit is thickest. 

Adi ghauda ghauda joakana. The fruit is very 
thick on the tree. 

Ghaunja ghaui!iji. ") Thick, as fruit on 
Ghaunjau. J a tree ; to mud- 

dle or mix up ; muddled, as a state- 

Giauliig. ghanliji khub joakana. The tree is 
laden with fruit. 

Ghanlii* gbauiijikedako katha do. They mud- 
dled the matter. 

Adi gbaufij^ gbaniijige buihg-uKkana. It seems 
very much mixed up. 

Ghece ghece. To drag, or pull when 
one holds back or is unwilling to go. 

Ghece gheceko or idikedea. They pulled him 
away (ho holding back all the time.) 

Gheje beje. Without symmetry, any- 

Mit' t^ee gheje bejoko durupakana. They arc 

sitting together anyhow. 
Gheje bejeko dohoalcat'a. They have put them 

down anyhow (without order.) 

GhSj mej. To confuse, to mix. 

Kathako ghejmejkeda. They confused the 

Gheiij meAj. To confuse, to mix up. 

Kathape gheiij meiijkeda. You have confused 
the matter. 

p, ■ ..' (Speaking through the nose, 

^n . ' ( nasal, 
(lihenne. / 

Gheola. Movement of the waves on 
the sea shore ; ebb and flow, as of 
the tide ; to carry along with when 
receding, as the tide ; to cause 
movement in water. 

Arerem tahenkhan am hoe gheola adermea. If 
you remain at the edge you will be carried 
away with the receding tide. 

AtuR daR do gitil ho gheola idia. Plowing 
water carries .sand also along with it. 

DaR alope gheola baraea, ale daRle lolege. Do 
not cause a movement in the water until 
we draw our water. 

Gheora. A swirl in the hair on the 
body of an animal or on the crown 
of the head of a human being. 

DaK gheora gicuroKkana. The water is swirling 

Ghera. A rude kind of tambourine. 

This kind of tambourine is played only during 
the cold weather. 

Gherao. To encircle, to surround, to 
hem in. 

Phadko gherao ^ourkeda. The army surroun- 
ded it. 

Eimil gherao aourakata. The clouds have en- 
circled it. 

Dale do gotae gheraoalcafa. The water has 
surrounded it. 

Gherao eset'. To close the avenues of exit all 

Edreteko gheraoena. They were filled with 

Ghesa. | . 

Hera ghesa. j 

Amem hera ghesaakana onko tulue. 
on friendly terms with them. 

Ghesrok ghesroH. To move forward 
when in a sitting position on the 
ground. C£ gendher. 

Ghestaha. Cf. gestahi. 

GhSt. To tie up anything in a cloth ; 
a knot on a string, &c. 

Taka poesa ghetVate bale heeakana. We have 
not come with money tied up in our 

Ghigrid. A species of lizard. 
Ghigya. \ 

Ghigya ghigyi. VTo importune, to dun. 
Ghjgyau. J 

Ona l^giCe ghigy9,ulikaua. For that reason 

he is dunning. 
Ghigy* ghigyi baraekanao. Ho is importuning. 

Ghi kuar. A species of cactus with a 
variegated leaf, Viicca (jloriosa. 

■ Friendly, familiar. 

You are 


[ 191 ] 


Ghin. -j „. ^ ,. 

Ghin ghin. jlJisgust; disgusting. 

Ghin ghin ^.ikauKkana. It ia diagusting. 

■Ghiria. With a swing of the arm, with 
the arm stretched out, to swing 
round, as one (^oes a sling. 

GHiiri9.t6 A dal liarakedea . I hit him by stretch- 
ing out my arm.. 

Ginijuar ghiriaVateko oapada. They swing 
the sling round and round, and then throw 
the stone. 

Ghirna. Disgust. 

Girni ( ^^^®' *^^ house-wife. 

Ghirni menaetaea , Be bail ? Has he a wife or not ? 

Ghiro ghoco. To push or pull a person 
who is unwilling to go. 

Ghiro ghocokediliako. They pushed and pulled 
me along. 

Ghitli. Short in stature, little, applied 
to females only. 

Ghiu chimbri. A common jungle clim- 
bing plant. 

Ghetma. M. ~( Short in stature, under- 
Ghetmi. F. J sized. 

A4i do bae usula, ghe^mageae, 

Ghoce. Awry, wry, off the straight. 

Ghoce hotoK. Wry neck. 

Ghoce ghoeem ro8ke£ do. You have made the 
hols off the straight. 

Ghogo. Big, strong voiced, applied to 

Ghogo gho. The note of a big loud- 
voiced cock. 

Gholao. To be cloudy, sun obscured 
by clouds, 

A(Ji din khone gholaoaka€a. There have been 
clouds about for many days. 

Gholta. To lie down in the dust, as 
one earnestly entreating another ; 
to roll in the dust. 

GholtaKkanae, ikakaeme, nia dhaobo dohoea. 
He haa laid the dust, forgire 
him, we will overlook his fault this time. 

Gholta ghulti. To roll in the dust, as 
children do. 

Noko gidra do gholta ghulti baraekanako. 
These children are rolling about in the 

Gholtao. To roll or tumble about on 
the ground, as a child. 

Sadom ghoItaoKako otre. Horses roll them- 
selves on the. ground. 

Ghonghor. A hole in the ground, in a 
rock, in a tree, &c. 

Ghonrao. To mix by stirring; to 

disintegrate ; to break down, as 

by flowing water. 
Pindhe ghonrao idi oabakedae, daHte. The 

water di.sintegrated and carried away the 

whole of the embankment. 
Gurko ghohraoa. They stir the raw sugar. 

Ghor. Butter milk, milk from which 
butter has been taken. 

GhSra. To carry a person sitting a- 
stride on the shoulder. 

Ma ghoraem. Come, carry him on your shoul- 

Gidraii ghorakedea. I carried the child sitting 
astride my shoulder. 

Ghora lidi. A jungle climbing plant 
resembling a vine, Vitis tomen- 
tosa, Heyne. 

Ghorao. To mix, to mix by stirring. 

Ghorao mit'. To mingle. 

Ghorao. The change produced in an 
egg by incubation. 

Ghorao bele. An egj which has undergone the 
change produced by incubation. 

Ghor bagi. A gig or any wheeled 
conveyance drawn by a horse. 

Gh5rce. Crooked, bent. 

Ghor cutia. ") One who stays in the 

Ghor ghusia. J" house, an idler. 

Ghor duar. Cf orak duar. 

Ghore ghore. Among themselves, our- 

Qhore ghoreko Iarh.T.i kana. They are fighting 
among themselves. 

Ghori. Time. 

Mif ghori tayomte. After a little while. 

Ghorkorna. Goods, property, chattels. 

NuuaK hoyolfkantaereho enreho bae ghorkorna 
dareafta. Although he gets so much still 
he can't collect any property. 

Ghormucau. Cf. ghurmucau. 

Ghorna, \A fence ; to erect a fence, tc 
Ghorna.J fence in argument. 

A(Ji ghornam lagaoet'kana. You are fencing 
(in argument.) 

Ghorna berna. A fence, to fence round. 

Besteye ghorna bernaakat'a. He haa put up 
a good fence all round. 

Ghotao. To be fulfilled, to be proved, 

ta be accused. 

Ghotna. ") . , 

p, ; SAn event, an occurrence. 

Bhage ghofona menaKa, ar barie ghotona hS 
menalca. There are pleasant events and 
unpleasant events also. 

QliotreiJ jel 

[ 192 ] 


GhotretJ jel. The hind of the Indian 
gazelle, or ravine deer, Oazella 
Bennettii. Cf. badar selep. 

Ghugra. Morris bells, a band of small 
bells tied round the ankles when 

Ghugri. A kind of insect. 

Ghugri ghao. A sore with a sinus. 

G hul ghul. ") Close, oppressively close, 
Ghul ghulau. J air or breeze excluded ; 
to suffer for want of air. 

Nonde oedalipe dohoakadea ghulghulauK kanaeP 

Why have you put him here, be ia suffering 

from the closenegs of the place. 
Ghul ghul atbarolfkaua. It feels very hot and 

Potomlekhan jel ho ghul ghulaulca. If flesh 

meat be wrapped up it will suffer from want 

of air. 

Ghumghor. To be in a deep sleep. 

Ghumghorlenali baA atijomleda. I was in a 
heavy sleep and did not hear. 

GhGra. A bow string made of hemp, 
&c. ; a piece of wood fixed on the 
neck of a young bullock to accus- 
tom him before the yoke is put on. 

Porcha. A bow string made of bamboo. 
AUko ghurawalta. They put a string on a bow. 

Ghura. The female of the " gundri " 
or quail, Turnix Sykesii. 

Ghura ghuri. Going here and there, 
coming and going, wandering about. 

Ghur^ ghuri baraekanae. He is going about 
here and there. 

Ghurai ultai. To bring up again, again 
and again, over and over again. 

TinaKem Aela ghurai ulfai ? How often would 

you see it ? 
Caba katha nui hor do ghurai ult^iye roreda. 

This man keeps bringing up a matter that 

has been settled. 

Ghurant. Circuitous. 

Noa hor do aidi ghuran^a. This way is circuitous. 

Ghuraulc. Call of the gundri (q. v.) or 
quail, and the noise made by the 

Gundriye ghurauKkana onte do. The quail ia 

calling over there. 
Ay a A biAko ghurauKa. 
It is believed by the Santals that the cobra 

imitates the cry of the quail to attract it 

to its destruction. 

GhE. } ^'^ °°'^ ^^^' ^'^ ^"'■"^ ^P' 

Baber ghuroiena. The rope ia coiled up. 
Sukri oan<jbol do ghuroigea. A pig's tail is 

Ghur ghur. A call to cattle to cause 
them to turn at the plough. 

Ghur ghurau. To stir, to swing round, 
to whirr, to revolve ; to cause to 
whirr or revolve. 

Ghanta ghurghuraume. Stir it round and round. 

Hurla ghurghurauedae. He ie swinging it 
round and round with his arm at full 

Ghuri. The next, returning. 

Ghuri boohor. Next year. 
Ghuri hapta. Next week. 
Ghuri hat. Next market day. 

Ghuri. Time. 

Iti ghuri. Instantly. 

Tun ghurite. In a moment. 

Mii ghuri. A moment, a short time. 

Ina ghurite. At that moment. 

Sanam ghuri. Always. 

fun ghuri. The present time. 

CalaE ghiiri. Time of sotting out. 

Thora ghuri. A little while. 

Riiar ghuri. Time of returning. 

Behgeo ghuri. Time when hunger ia felt. 

Ghuria. Again, next. 

Ado ghuria alom hijuUa. Do not come again. 
Ghuria din. This time next year. 

Ghuria ghuria. Again and again, time 
after time. 
Ghuria ghuriae khojkana. He asks time after 

Ghuria kaete. Again. 

Ghuri ghuri. Time after time. 

Ghuri ghurim hijulikana. You keep always 

Ghurikaete. Again, another time. 

Ghurikiete hijuK hoyoK tama. You must come 

Ghuri phiri. To go and come again 
and again, to repeat, again and 

Ghuri phiri nonde acurbarae kanae. He keeps 
coming and going here. 

Ghuritek. A little, a little while. 

Ghuritek thiroKme. Be still for a little. 

Ghurkaete. Again. 

Ghurmucau. ITo seize by the neck 
Ghormucau.. J and shake, to seize an 

ox by the mouth and twist round 

his head to his shoulder. 

Ghurmuoaukedeae. He seized it by the nostrils 
and turned its head round . 

Ghurni. \ An insect which lives 
Dak ghurni J in water. 

This insect keeps whirling round continuously, 
and it is said that when it warts to rest it 
has to hold on to something with its mouth. 


[ 193 ] 


Ghurni. A whirlpool. 
Ghurni. Incubati>d, as an egg. 
Ghxirni dano bonga. Name of a certain 
malignant spirit. 

Ghurpak. To raise again a matter 
that has been set^tled, to swing 
round, to tAvist. 

Ghus. A bribe. 

Ghuse jomoda. He takes bribes. 

Ghusa. To prod with the thumb passed 
between the fore and midclle fin- 

Ghus^i ghusi. To prod with the thumb 
passed between the fore and mid- 
dle fingers, 

Ghusa ghusikedeae. He prodded him. 

Ghusa ghusienakiu. They prodded each other. 

Ghusau. \To go out of the way; to 
Gusau. J hide with a wish to shun or 
shirk work, &c.; to pass, as time. 

Kor ghusau. To make a slip in speaking. 

Dao ghusg.u. To miss an opportunity. 

Okate ooe ghusauena. He has gone somewhere 

out of the way. 
Kamiii ghus?iukeda. I have missed my chance 

to work (to day.) 
DaK ghus3.aena, note ban heclena. The rain 

has passed by, it did not come this way. 

Ghus ghus. Internally. 

Ghus ghuse rugiEkana. He has fever internally. 

Ghus ghusau. |To go here and there 
Ghus ghas. ) ^^ anger. 

Ghus ghusau baraekanae. 
Ghus ghusau aouroKbanae. 
Ghus ghaa barae kanae. 

Ghusiau. To enter humbly. 

Bolo ghusiauenae abo theo. She crept into the 
house and keeps quiet. 

Ghusun ghusun. Quietly, without 

Ghusun. iQuickly, with a rush. 

Ghusun marte. j ^ •' 

Ghusun marte odok gofenae. He rushed out. 
Ghut. ) . 


Bea (hik ghat oraKko benaoakate. They have 

built a good average house. 
Ghii( dare. An average sized plant. 

Ghut ghut. Restless, to trip, as a child 
or dwarf 

Ghut ghut liir ketee gidr?i. 

Ghut ghut. Middle-sized. 

■Children, little children. 

Ghutla. M 

a. M. \ 
i. F. I 

Short in stature, a dwarf 

Ghut mutia. Of middle size and stout. 

Khub ghut mutia )U9.n. A well built, sturdy, 
middle sized young man. 

Ghutni. A dal (q. v.) masher. 

Utuko ghutnia. Tiuy apply the 'ghutni 'to 
the dal ( to mash it. ) 

Ghutu. A mound, rising ground, bank 
Gi. C£ ge. [of river. 

Gian. Knowledge. 

Gicho rani. Queen Gicho, a name 
given to the earthworm who accor- 
ding to the traditions of the Sftitals 
raised the earth above the water. 

Gidar bandar. " 

Gidar butur. 

Gidar gadar. 

Gidar pidar, 

Gidra pidra. } [angry. 

Gidgidau. To move quickly as one 

Gidgid^u heeenae. He came striding up. 

Gidi. A vulture. 

Sehgel gidi. The Indian King- Vulture, Olo- 

gyps calvHf;. 
Sone gidi. Cf . sehgel gidi. 
E^ila gidi. The female of Ologyps calvus. 

Gidi. To throw away, to cast off, to 

Jeret gidi. To burn to get rid off. 

Cado gidi. To throw into water to get rid off. 

Areu gidi. To bale out-tn get rid of. 

Up gidi. To throw, or pour away. 

Narka gi<?i. To cleanse the hair. 

Bohoe L^ To rinse off. 

Jom gidi. To waste by eating, or to eat to get 

rid of. 
Goo giiji. To kill to get out of the way, to 

kill and throw away. 
Ti jahgare gidi'? ■ To throw oneself at another's 

feet; to beseech. 

Gidi ore. Rejected, laid aside as un- 
serviceable, as cloth ; neglected, as 

De gidi ore emalipe, ladejohail. Do give me a 
piece of old cloth, I will wear it. 

Nui gidi ore tahekanae, ill geA joton saoha- 
kedea, tiapurio ! This child was neglected, 
I took him in and cared for him, poor little 
thing ! 

Gidi tot. Thrown away as useless, to 
lay anything aside as unservice- 

Gidra. A child. 

Gidrfii. joh. To beget a child, or children. 
Gidr9.ko benaokediAa. They did not respect me 

(treated me as if I were a child.) 
Adi diuren gidra kanae. This child is older 

than he looks (said of backward children.) 

Gidri. Short, little, dwarfish, apphed 
to females only. 



[ 194 ] 



species of lizard. 


Gijgij. Close, oppressively close, hot 
and steamy, sweltering; moist, 
wet body, perspiring and dirty. 

T^dgairte Rijgij atkaroKkans.. It feels Jcloae 
owing to the heat. 

Dare butare tahente besoKa, noa orali do gij- 
gij ^ikaiuKa. It would be better to Uve 
jinder a tree, this house feels so damp, 

Gijri. Curdled, sour, as milk. 

Gijiitoa. Curdled milk. 

Noa toa gijriena. This milk is curdled. 

Oila. Moist, damp, humid, mushy. 

Daka gilaKa isin lahalenkhan. The rice will 
become mushy if oTer cooked. 

■Gilapdar. C£ giriptar. 

Gilas. A brass drinking vessel in shape 

of a tumbler ; a tumbler. 
Gilthi. A swelling in the groin. 

Gindra. A piece ; to cut or break 
into pieces. 
M&i gindraime. Cut the bamboo into lengths. 

Crinduar bata. The jack snipe. 

Oindwar. A sling for throwing stones. 

Ginghri. A lizard. Cf ghigriii, 


Ma se gintikom. Come, count them. 

Gipitic. The reciprocal form of gitic 

'<3ipitic sendra. A hunt which lasts a part of: 
two days in which the hunters camp and 
pass the -night together in the open from 
which fact the hunt gets its name. 

Gipitic ^hen. The place where the hunters 
pass theTiight together. Cf. gipitio sendra. 

Gira. A knot. 

Bapla gira. The marriage knots, or the Santal 
method of intimating date of a marriage. 

-Seven or eight days before the da'.:c fixed for 
the marriage, seven, or eight as the case 
may be, knots are tied on a larc'e number 
of strings, one of ^vhieh, is sent to each 
family ^/ho i^: invited to be present at tlje 
marriage. One knot is loised cs,ch night, 
and wjeu all have been loosed tne time for 
the marriage has arrived. 

Knots on a string are also employed to keep 
accounts, each knot representing so much. 

Gira basi. To settle down. 

Noa disomrele gira basiakana. Ws have«ettled 

down in this country. 
B?ihu doe gira b^isiena. The young wife lias 

settled down (she no longer runs away.) 

Girgirau. To g-o round about, to move 
quickly, as one angi-y. 

ti. J 

To count. 

To arrest, to apprehend, as 

Girgir9.uateye heoena. He came rushing up. 
Hakoko girgirau baraekana. Th fish are swim- 
ming round about. 

Gir girau. To roll along the ground. 

Gir girau calaKkana. It goes rolling along. 

Girhar. Trust, guidance, benevolence. 

Okoe girharte nonde dom berelakana? Under 
whose wing have yon settled down here ? 

Giri. To cut through, as with an axe, 
saw, &c. 

Barab?.rite giri got'kalfme. _ Cut it equally. 

■Giriakatko leka mit geko lieloKkana, sipahiko 
do. The soldiers look all alike (in height), 
just as if they had been cut (to the same 

Giria. Obliquely, from the side. Cf. 
Giriateii maKkedea. I out him down with a 
side stroke (fromthe left or right.) 


Gilapdar. r i i i - - , 

Geraptar.j by legal warrant. 

Giriptarkateko idikedea. They arrested and 

took him away. 
GiriptaroKae. He wiU he arrested. 

Girja. To join in a religious service, 
to conduct a religious service. 

Girja oral?. A church. 

Tehenle girj9,Ka. We will to-day join in a reli- 
gious service, or we will observe public 

XJni doe girjaabona. He will conduct the 
service for us. 

Girmit. Cor. of " agreement " a tea gar- 
den term. 

Ale dole girmitena. We are under an agreement 
for a certain number of years. 

Girni. Wife, mistress of the house. 
Giroe goroe. ] Following each other in 
Giyor goyor. I a line, trailing-, hang- 
Goroe goroe. / ing masses, hanging 
Goyor goyor. j down or ever, as a piece 
of twine, &c. 

lilit'tege giroe goroeko •oalakkana. They are 

going in a line one following the other. 
Giroe goroe eitnrakana baber i^. The string 

is; hanging down. 
Goyor goyorko pii'iio. idiedekana. They are 

following her in ^ long line. 
Dakre giroe goroe sealom'menaRa. There are 

long trailing lines of sealom (q. v.) in the 


Girosto. ") A cultivator, a well-to-do far- 

;to. ") . 
ti. J 

Giristi. j mer. 

Nitok do girostoenam ado nonkam badjii bara- 
eda. You have become well-to-do now, and 
you are putting on airs. 

NitoK dom girostoen khan aujim dabaoeEko. 
Now that you are well-to-do you are op- 
pressing them. 


[ 195 1 


Giru. A kind of red ochre. 

Giru dliiri. A red stone from which the 'girn' 
is produced hy rubbing. Houses are de- 
corated with this ochre for the DasSe (q.T.) 
The fruit of the Mira baha (q.T.) ia employed 
as a block to stamp figures on the wall's. 

Gisicgisic. Always, continually. 

Gisio giside ggiduroSJiana. He is continually 

scratching himself. 
Gisio gisio rorortege tahenao. He is always 


Ge'ser^Ser. 1 Q'^^^^^'^' ^.' ^\^" ^^ ^ 

Geser marte hed gofenaet He came quickly. 
Geser geser barae kanae ka^a do, The buffalo 
goes stamping about. 

Gita. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gita. Cf. gital^. 

Gitali. A thin film believed to be on 
the tongue, generally on the 
under side, of a child at birth, 
which if not removed affects his 
power of speaking ; an impedi- 
ment in the speech. 

Gitalt dope dohokaKkana bape cabaeda. Tou 
are leaving a part of the subject in obs- 

QitaK gitaKgeye sere Aa. He does not enunciate 
his words when singing. 

Uni gidra reaK gitalf chadn,okataome. Remove 
the film (gitaK) from that child's tongue. 

Git git. Itchy, irritating sensation. 

Git git aikauKkana. An itching sensation, 

Gitic. To lie down, to sleep. 

Dal gitic. To knock down by a blow, as with 
a stick. 

Capa£ gitiij. To knock down by throwing some- 
thing at. 

Gitiu bere£. To rise from sleep. 

Gitic thir. To Ke still, or quietly. 

Gitic herop. | ^^^ ^j^^^ ^11 have retired for the 

giSdtre?:! "^^''*- 

Alom gitijea. Do not lay it (child) down. 

Mi^ then gitidkatele tioga. "We will pass one 

night on the way. 
Nondele gitic aiigalfa. We will pass the night 

Gitid sarasg.tili. When all have retired for the 


Gitil. Sand. 

Gada gitil. Eiver sand. 

Dhiiri gitil. Mixture of dust and sand. 

Lemeli gitil. Fius sand. 

Bali gitil. 7 Grains of magnetic iron resembling 

Gitil baU. 3 sand. 

Gitil. To scour with sand, ashes, &c. 

Thari lota gitiltabonme. Scour our brats 
plates and cups. 

Gitil. An invisible insect said to burrow 
into the skin under the toes during 
the rains. 

Gitil aralc. A wild- pot-herb, Leucas 
tnollissima, Bth. 

Gitil garl. An insect that burrows in 
the sand in river beds. 

Gitil ran. A common plant, Aniao- 
chilus carvMsus, Wall. 

Gitlaha.. Sandy. 

Gitl3.ha ot. Sandy soil. 

Giwar gawar. Tangled, hanging in a 
tangle, trailing. 

Men, kierid giwar gawarem oret do. Look 
out, you are trailing the cloth along. 

Giwg.r gawar sealom. Trailing tangled sea? 

Go.. Mother,, woman. 

Maraiiid go. Wife's elder brother or brothers. 
Jawae go. Son-in-law. 

Goala.\ The Hindu caste Goala ; a cow 
Goar. / keeper, a cowherd. 

G5a5. To lose. C£ gaoao. 

AcaK jiwiye goaolekhau C6(; porho hoyoKtaaaf 
What shall it profit him (if he gain the 
whole world) and lose his own soul ? 

Gobol. To subject, to be subject to.. 

Ehga apa then bako goboloKa. They are not 

Bubjeot to their parents. 
Ac gobolketkoae. He brought them under 

subjection to himself. 
Okoe ho bako gobol dareakoa. No one is abla 

to bring them to subjection. 

Goboria. Stout, but effeminate, well fed 
and pampered. 
Gobori? hor kanae. He is stout, but soft. 

Gobor mati. To finish, to destroy, to 
obliterate by smearing with cow 

TeheJi khon gobor matikedabon, teheti khon 
alope ror baraea. From to-day we have 
buried it, from to-day do not mention it. 

Gobrao. To manure, especially with 
cattle manure 


Nel god. To see die or killed. 

Dal god. To kill by striking with aatick, ko. 

Ten god. To crush to death. 

Turi god. To kill by shooting an arrow. 
KutS-m god. To kill by a blow or blows, with 

a hammer, &o. 
Phasigod. To kill by hanging. 
iSui- god. To kill or be killed by a fall. 
MaK god. To kill by slashing with a sword„ 

axe &c. 
Unum god. To drown. 
Peter god, To kill by twisting the neck. 
Lin god. To strangle. 
Jom god. To kill and devour. 


[ 196 ] 

God or 

Ger goo. To kill by biting, aa asnalse. 

Lo g03. To be burned to death. 

Capat goo . To kill by throwing something at. 

.^ttt goo. To be drowned, carried away by a 

stream and drowned. 
G-opoc. To kill each other. 
Goiroo bor. A killer, a murderer. 
Goo gocteri baAcaoena. I was at death's door. 
Goe balicaoenaA. I was very nearly dead. 
Goo bagiaiileae. He died and left us. 
Goo gur. To die. 
Goo sareo. To survive. 
Goo calao. To depart this life. 
God adhi. To lessen by death. 

Gocha. To hold in the lap, as a child 
carries flowers in its pinnafore by 
making it a bag. 

Gccha pereolenthan khacl^Kreko aambao hor- 
aea. When the lap is full they put them 
(leaves from the tea bushes) into a basket. 

Gocha jaoraeme. Collect them in your pinna- 

Goco. A beard; the pistils of the 
flowers of Indian corn, Zeaniays. 

Eaebar goco. A go-between ; a negotiator of 
a marriage. 

Mooa goco. The hair on the upper lip. 

Kewa goco. A beard, hair on cbin. 

Jon^lra goeoena. The ilower pistils of the In- 
dian corn are protruding. 

Hako goco. Hairs on the mouth of a fish. 

Merom goco. A goat's beard. 

Sakwa leka goco haraentalea. We are greatly 

God. A climbing plant. 

Cand^ god j Varieties of the God plant. 
Suru] god. J 

Goda. A piece of cultivated high land 

at a distance from the house. 
Goda. Elephantiasis ; swollen, sluggish. 

Goda godage lieloKkana. It looks clumsy, 

(said of the leg of a bedstead that has not 

been turned in a lath.) 
Bejae godae atkarol^kana, hohoak ho bae ati- 

joma. Hois very sluggish, he won't ana^vtr 

when called to. 

Goda horo. Highland rice, a variety 
of tire rice plant which is grown 
on high lands. 

Godali. To touch one to call his 

Okoe gocjakkediriae. Who touched me ? 

Godao. To confess, acknowledge, ad- 

Pg-hil doe godaokeda, nit do bae got^ao ocoalc- 

kana. He acknowledged it at first, but 

wiU not admit it row. 
IKditi Aelledea, menkhan nit do bae goijao 

ocoaKkana. I saw him take it away, but 

now he will not admit it. 
Nunali horko talareye rorkeda, menkhan nit do 

,bae go^ao ocoaUkana. He said it among so 

many people, but will not now admit that 

he did so. 

Godet. One of the officials of a San- 

tal village. 
Godetar. A call to oxen at the plough 

when it is required that they 

should turn in small space. 
God god. Sound of water falling or 

being poured from a height into 

Godhe. To fondle the legs or feet of a 

person, as children and dogs do ; 

to beseech. 

Nui setajahgareye goiJheKkana. This dog is 

fawning on my feet. 
Am do otem bagikeda, nitoR dom godhe barae- 

kana. You relinquished the land and now 

you are begging to get it back. 

Godhra. Thick, dull, listless. 

Bhale hore tahekana, nahak do cekate coe 
godhraena. He was a good man once, he 
now for some reason or another has become 

Noko hor reaK mon do godhraentakoa. This 
people's heart is waxed gross. 

Godhro. Cf. godhra, 
Godo. A species of rat. 

Ehus godo. The bandicoot rat. Cf. bhus. 
Murup godo. A small light grey coloured 

field rat. 
Dander godo. "J This rat fre';|uents the rice 
Khet godo. > fields and betore the crop is 
fandi godo. ) reaped lays up a store for 

himself in some convenient hole. A maund 

of rice has at times betn dug out of his 


Godo godo. Sound of water falling 
from a height into water ; a splash- 
ing sound. 
Godoe godae. 1 At the heels of, follow- 
Godoe godoe. J ing closel)^ 

Godoe godoe parija baraedekanae. He is follow- 
ing at her heels. 

Godoe godoe. Cf gadae gudui. 
Godop godop. Rhythmical, measured, 
as the sound produced when danc- 
ing to music ; or as the beating of 
a drum. 
Godop godopko eneokana. 
Godop go(jopko ruieda. 

Godor. ^ Long, flowing, applied 

Godor godor. ;- to a beard and whis- 
Godro. J kers. 

Godroe AeloKkana, okoe ren merom boda con. 
Ho has a very long beard, whose billy-goat 
is it? 

Godor godor goco menalctaea. He has a very 
long beard. 

Godor godor goooe haraaka{a. He has grown 
a long beard. 

E ken godor geko hp,ta,okeda. Only long bear- 
ded men have taken thom. 

God pari 

[ 197 1 


God pari. To beseech, to entreat, to 
throw oneself down at another's 
feet to excite his pity. 

Am then go^l p^iiK do baA oalaKa. I will not 
go to tlirow myself down at your feet. 

God parikateii agukedea. I beeeeohod him to 
come with me. 

Godro. Cf. godor. 

Goetha. Dried cow dung. 

G5etha lipi. The Ashy-crowned Finch 
Lark, Pyrrhulaudagrisea. 

Goethasar. A variety of the rice plant. 

Goga. To spread a rumour. 

AuriaKtcko gogakeda. They spread a false 

Gota disom gogalena. The rumour spread over 

the whole country. 

Gogok. To wear a piece of cloth hanging 
from the shoulder covering the 
breast, by women. Cf bande. 

GogoK japaK. To wear the sari orer the shoulder 

and hanging aovru in front. 
Anriye gogoK japagoKa. She does not as yet 

wearapiece of cloth over her breast, i. e. is 

of tender years. 

Gogol<. Cf gok. 

Goha. A witness ; to bear witness. 

Goha sakhi. ) 
SakM goha. ) 

A witness. 

[ To testify, to bear witness, to 
1 depose. 

Goha gujrau. 

Goha em. 


Cet lagi£em heeakana P GohaKiii heoakana. 
Why have you come ? I have come to give 

Gohako bhahgaokeSkotilia. They have tam- 
pered with my witnesses. 

Gohako puraukeda. They have given their 

Goha emoK bako tehgona. They do not agree 
to give evidence. 

Gohal puja. The Byre or Cow-house 
worship. It is observed on the 
second day of the Sohrae (q. v.) 
festival, and seems to be an ac- 
knowledgement of the services 
rendered by the cattle during the 
year's cultivation. 

Goher. Cf guher. 

Gohla guhli. Breaking out in one 
place after another ; as an epide- 
mic ; on all sides. 

Ale dih do g.di gohla guhliye daKkeda. It 

rained in our village from all sides. 
Noakorege rog gohla guhli acur baraekana. 
. Disease is breaking out in all directions 
round about here. 


Gohlao. To obscure, to spread, difficult, 

Ale then duk do gohlaoakana. Sickness is all 

round us. 
Noa katha do 9,di Kohlao bujh^uKkana. This 

matter is obscure. 

Gohle. 1 n • .1. 

Gohle gohle. j^'^^^*' ^"^ 

Gohle hor do (Jher do bako rora. Reserved 

people do not speak much. 
Nui maejiu gohlegeye rora. This woman speaks 

very quietly. 

Gohnao. \To follow, to trace, to 

Gohna ghuhni [ track. 

Kule gohnaijjfcaraetkoa. The tiger is following 

them. » 
Bugi ocoK l^git uniko gohnaoedekau tahekana. 

They were following him to be healed of 

their diseases,. 
Gohnao idiedekan tahekanako, sabea mente. 

They were tracking him to catch him. 
Sordar kuliko gohnao idikoa. The sardar 

follows up the coolies. 

Goho goho. Wrapt up so as to appear 
large, bulky. 

Goho goho oyoakanae. 

Adi maraij goho goho cerekanae. 

Gohor. To drag, to draw along the 

Paiirako Icafko gohor idia. Bullocks drag timber 
(from the forest.) 

Goja. A mixture, such as a Santal 
marrying a Kol, or Indian corn 
and rice cooked together, &c. 

Diku ar horkin gojaena. 

Goja. A stick sharpened at one end 
with which holes are made in the 
ground, striking the sharp end into 
the ground. 

Goja gockedeae. He stabbed and killed him. 

Goja. To insert or push into intertices, 
as when loading a cart with tim- 
bed, smaller pieces being thrust 
into the spaces between the lar- 
ger pieces. 

Gojra. Sleepy-headed, obdurate. 

Maraii gojra hor kanae. He is a great sleepy 

Kui gojra mara hor. This consummate slug- 

Gok. To carry on the shoulder; to 


GoR idi. To carry away on the shoulder. 
Golt ?.gu. To bring carrying on the shoulder. 
QraKtebo goR ?.guj£o,dea. They brought him 
home on their shoulders. 


[ 1&8 ] 


Gokhla. To speak against one. Cf. 

Ce^ uniaK dom gokhlaet tahekana P What were 
you saying against himp 

Gokhla janum. ") A plant furnished 
Gokhula janum. J with spines, Hy- 

grophila spinosa, T. Anders. 
Gokhna. To give a by-name to, give 

a name to, make fun of. 

Gokhnakedeako. They hare given him a nick- 
Hapramko oeClekako gokhnakeibona. 

Gok sahan. A veiled term meaning to 
burn a corpse. t 

Delabon ho goK sahan Harmae gooakana. Come 
to assist at the cremation, Harma is dead. 

Gol. Round, spherical. 
Gol. To whistle. 
Gol._ Cf. got'. 

Heo golenae. Ho camo at once, 

Kor golakome. Speak to them plainly. 

/-,,'■ i> }■ A store-house. 
Gola orak. J 

Gola. M.\ Brown, reddish brown, applied 
Guli. F. J only to cattle and goats. 

Gola bocla. A brown he-goat. 
Guli merom. A brown she-goat. 

Gola. The neck, the throat. 
Gola. Employer, master, owner. 

Nui dahra ren gola okoe kanae? Who is the 

owner of this bullock P 
111 ren gola kantilSae. He is my employer. 

Gola gamcha. To assume a humble 
attitude of entreaty or submisson. 

Gola, the neck and gamcha, a piece of cloth two 
or three yards long. The cloth is put 
round the neck and the suppliant holds it 
in front between his hands joined in suppli- 

Gola jambra. To explode, an explosion 

Gola kanta. Malignant sore throat or 
swollen throat, a disease which 
affects cattle ; tonsillitis, &c. 

Gg.iko gola kantaka. Cows are subject to 
malignant sore throat. 

Golak solak. Of galai solaf. 

Gola orak. A store house. 

Golat. \ An exchange of daught- 

Golat bapla. J ers for marriage to sons. 

Golati. A kind of marriage. 

Two families each having a marriageable son 
and daughter, each marries his daughter to 
the other's son. This is a convenient form 
of marriage as, as a rule, presents are 
dispensed with. 

Golki marie. Cf. gol marie. 
Golmal. ") Disturbance, tumult, con- 
Gulmal. j fusion ; to make a distur- 
bance, tumult, &c. 

A(Ji golmalakafako. They have made great con- 

Kathako golmalkeda. They confused the 

Ona atote alope calaKa adi golmalakana, a(Ji 
horko gujuKkana. Do not go to that village 
things are out of the usual, many people 
are dying. 

Gol marie. 1 gj^^j^ ^^ ^^^^^^ pepper. 
Golki mane. J r ic 

The pepper-vine, which yields gol mario Fiper 
nigrum, is largely cultivatedin South India. 

Golokpuri poesa. \ Gorakhpur pice, a 
Golopuri poesa. } dumpy pice. 

This is the old Indian pioe which is simply a 
piece of copper a certain weight but of any 

Golpo. A story, prattle, tattle, chit 
chat, small talk. 

Hor horte calaK tulucko golpo joiikana. They 
indulge in small talk as they walk along 
the road. 

Golwari. A kind of dance. 
Golwari rar. The air sung when danc- 
ing the Golwari dance. 

Golwari sereri. The songs sung when 
dancing the Golwari dance. 

Gom. A cultivated fruit tree, the 
Bullock's heart, Anona reticulata 

The fruit which resembles a bullock's heart in 
shape ripens dui'ing the latter part of the 
rainy season. It is eaten by the natives, 
but rarely by Europeans. 

Gomao. Cf gamao. 
Go medak. A gem or precious stone 
brought from the Himmalayas. 

Gomke. "1 A wife, mistress of the 
Gomket. J house. 

Jawae gomket. Son-in-law. 
Orak gomket. Wife, mistress of the the house. 
Nui do okoe hoyoKaeP Iii gomkeli kanae. Who 
is this P She is my wife. 

Gomosta. An agent. 
Gonda. A set of 4. 

Bar gon^a poesa. Two annaa. 

Gonda. Out-lying hamlets of a village, 
suburbs of a town ; out-lying frelds 
of a village. 

Ga gondape darana. You visit villages and 
their out-lying hamlets. 


[ 199 ] 

Gopal bhog 

Gondal. Cf. atal gondal. 
Gondogol. Din, tumult, disturbance, 

Gon^ogolko lagaokeda. They are making a din. 
Kathako gonijogolkeda. They have confused 
the matter. 

Gondhok. Sulphur, brimstone. 
Gondor gondor. To mutter, to speak 

in low tones ; low growling, as of a 


Gondor gondore eKgerkana. She is soolding 

under her breath. 
Gondor gondoroKbanako oraE bhitrire. They 

are talking inside the house. (Sound heard 

but not the words.) 

Gondrao. To growl or snarl, as a tiger, 
leopard, dog or cat. 

Kulko, tarupko, setako ar pusiko gondraoltako. 
Tigers, leopards, dogs and cats snarl. 

Gon. To answer when called to. 

Hohoadeali, bae goiiledifia. I called to him, he 

did not answer. 
Goiikedeari. I answered him. 

Gon. To give a daughter in marriage. 

GoJikedeale Mafijhi oraKre. We gave her in 

marriage to a member of the Maliihi's 

Bale kiisilente bale gohledea. We were not 

satisfied and therefore did not give her in 

Onkoko baplaUban arko goheibo^ tahekana. 

They were marrying and giving in marriage. 

Gonga. Dumb. 

Gongha. The shell of a water snail, a 
v/ater snail. 
Tand j goiigha. A dry land snail. 

Godghor. A hole, a cavity. 

BhugaK. A small hole. 
Ghoiighor. Larger than bhugaiK. 
Dander. Larger than all, a cave, a den. 

Gongo. Father's elder brother or bro- 
thers ; younger brother's or bro- 
thers' children. 

Goiigoli theniA oalaKa. I wiU go to my father's 

elder brother's house. 
Noako gohgoli tekoJi idiakokana. I am taking 

these to my younger brother's children. 
Gohgod kora. Son of my younger brother or 

Gohgoli kuri. Daughter of my younger bro- 
ther or sister. 
Gohffot kora. Son of his'younger brother or 

Gohgot kuri. Daughter of his younger bro- 
ther or sister. 

Gohgom kora. Son of thy younger brother 
or sister. 

Gohgom kuri. Daughter of thy younger bro- 
ther or sister. 

Gongo salaka. A doal (q. v.) cloth 
given by the bridegroom to the 
bride's (aunt) gongo (q. v.) 

GongrolJ. Hoarse ; to become hoarse. 

Serel5 serellteil gohgroCena. I have become 
hoarse with singing. 

GoiSja^udji. Cf. gaiija gudji. 

Goi4jao. Cf ga6jao. 

Goiijao. To lay past, to store up, to 

Doho goiijao. To heard. 

Rebel; goiijao. To stick into something, as 
thatch, to keep safely. 

Bolo goiijao. To hide inside. 

Bae goiijao. To put past. 

Topa goiijao. To bury for safety (treasure.) 

Sen goiijao. To go and remain. 

Okarem liamleda ? Doho gorijaole^ tahekana^. 
Where did yon get it ? I had laid it past. 

Non^eli bae goiijaolef tahekana okoe coe idiko£. 

I laid it past here, some one has taken it 

Sarimre rebet' goJijaokaKme. Stick it into the 

(thatch of tile) roof to keep it safely. 
Sen golijaoakanae. He has gone and is staying 

there (as if he had been put in store.) 

GonoM. A piece of cloth thrown over 
the shoulder and falling down 
over the breast and tucked in on 
both sides to a piece round the 
waist. Worn by women. From 
golj (q. v.). Cf gogok under bande. 

Gonok. An astronomer, an astrologer. 

^° . ■ >The price paid for a bride. 
Gonoa pon. j r i:- 

The amoxmt paid as gonoh varies from three 
rupees to twelve rupees, the hi|;her sum, 
however, being very seldom given. Eeturn 
presents are made in proportion to the sum 
paid as gonoii. 

Gonon toraoni. Return presents made 
by the bride's father to the bride- 
groom's party. 

These presents vary in valne according to the 
price paid for the bride (gonoii, q. v.) but 
when the lowest rate of gonoh, three rupees 
is paid no return presents are given by 
the bride's father to the bridegroom's 

Gonto goto. "1 
Gonto gotor. j 
Gonto goyo. | 
Gonto goyorj 

Calaoena'to gonto goto, 
in Indian file. 

One after the other, in 
Indian file. 

They have gone off 

Gopal. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gopal bhog. A variety of the rice 


[ 200 ] 


Gopca. A method of carrying small 
articles tied up in a cloth and 
swung over the shoulder. 

The articles to be carried, which are generally 
such as will be required on a ghort journey 
or food when out on a hunting expedition, 
are tied up in one end of a cloth, which is 
thrown over the left shoulder hanging down 
behind. The other end of the cloth is pas- 
Bed under the left arm, over 'the bundle, to 
keep it in position, and brought round under 
the right arm to the front and tied there. 

Gopha ot. A species of edible mush- 
Gopon. Reciprocal form of gon (q. v.) 
Goporo. Reciprocal form of goro (q. v.) 
Gor. Difficulty, strait. 

Gorreii paraoakana, I am in a difficulty. 

rt ' u >• A European soldier. 
Gora palton. J ^ 

Gora. The refuse of matkom (q. v.) 
from which liquor has been distil- 

Gorako gidiakafa, kada emako lagiiJ aguime. 

Gora. A cow-shed, a cattle-shed. 

Gai gora. A cow-shed. 

Goras. To receive and supply what is 
necessary to one in want or in 
distress ; to coax. 

Goras saohakom. Eeoeive and care for them. 

Gorasetkoae. She thinks of and provides for 

Do goras aguiope. Go and coax her to come. 

Gordon. C£ gardan. 

Gordon. Thick-necked. 

G6rS. A pannier, a bag slung across 

a bullock's back, one on either 

G6re. A common forest tree, Stephe- 

gyiie parvifolia, Korth. 

Gorhon. To carve, to engrave on wood 
or metal. 
Gorhon muthan. A graven image. 
Bese gorhonakat'a. He has carved it well. 

Gorhoni. Chronic dysentery. 

Gorkha guli. Ball or pellet of dried 
or burnt clay about the size of a 
marble, to discharge from a bow. 

Gorkha ale. The bow by which the gorkha 
(pellets) are propelled. 

Gorla. M. loi • i i- 

Gurli. F. j^ti'iP*^^' ^^ ^ *ig*3^- 

Gorla setae heo baraKa, 

Gurli merom. A striped or streaked she-goat. 

A striped dog comes 

Gormi. Gonorrhoea, or any other 

urethral discharge. 
Goro, To assist, to. accompany. 

Kami goro. To assist in work. 

Tul goro. To assist to lift. 

Em goro. To assist by giving. 

Gitio goro. To sleep in company with. 

Goro goro soiigeaeme. Go along with him. 
Jom goroalime. Eat along with me. 
Khube kami goroadiiia. He assisted me great- 
ly in my work. 

Gorob. Proud, conceited, fastidious. 

Nui do adiye goroba. He is very proud. 

Am dom goroboKkana. You are becoming 

Jom gorobenae. He has no desire to eat (having 

had a surfeit) Scottice, He is stawed. 

Gorobia. Proud, conceited, fastidious. 

Aiji gorobia hor kanae. He is a very conceited 

Gorob. The foetus. 

Gorobe gidikeda. She miscarried. 

Gorob hormo. Pregnant. 

Gorob hormo menaea. She is pregnant. 

Goroeya. The divinity who is supposed 
to jDreside over the cattle shed. 

On the second day of the Sohi-ae (q. v.) festival 
oiforings are presented to Goroeya in the 
cow-shed by each family. 

Goroj. Need, occasion, want, necessity, 
wish, intention, interest. 

Ogoroj. Having no want or necessity. 

AmaK goroj menakkhan oalakme. If your 

necessity requires you to go, go. * 
Jom real? goroj banufttilia . I have no desire 

to eat. 
Cei goroj ho bail lagaoaekana. It is no interest 

of his. 
Mit' taka reak goroj menaktiiia. I have 

need of one hundred rupees. 

Goro goro. Cf goro. 

Goroli gorol?. Incessantly. 
Gorol^ goro]<e hohcaiikana. He keeps continu- 
ally calling to me. 

Gorom. Grand, as in grandfather, 
grandmother ; grandson, a name- 

Gorom ayo. Grandmother. 
Gorom kora. Grandson. 
Gorom knri. Granddaughter. 
Goromtet haram. The grandfather. 
Goromtet budhi. The grandmother. 

Goromiri. My "grand" (either son or dau- 

GoromiA kora. My grandson. 

Goromi/i kuri. My granddaughter. 

Gorom. Warm, hot. 

Adi goroma. It is very hot (the weather.) 

Goroilj goroiij 

[ 201 ] 


Gorodj goro6j. Intense, applied to dense 
dark clouds, and also to the bright 
afterglow of sunset and the efful- 
gence of sunrise. 

Gorolij goroili daKe tmauakafa. 
Gorolij goroAj araU rimile rakapakalla. Inten- 
sely bright clouds have risen. 

Gorsor. Emergency, difficulty. Cf. gar 

GortorSd. To add to, to introduce 
extraneous subjects into a discus- 

Katha alope gortoroja. Do not introduce ex- 
traneous subjeotB into the discussion. 

Gosae. A religious sect of Hindus. 
Gosae. A general name given to "bod- 
gas " ((J. V.) 
Teheli ill gosae gosaeoSkana. I am engaged in 

sacrificing to-day. 
Jugi Gosae. A caste of Hindus who make and 
seil doras (q. T.). The doras are of tassar 
silk thread. 

Gosae era. The goddess of the Sal 

Gosec. To pick vermin from the head. 
Goposeo. To perform the service for each 


Goso. To wither, to dry. 

Kaen<Jealf goClekhan goao beleako. If they 
pluck unripe fruit they keep them till they 

Goso AnroK. To wither and fall off. 

Nui doe gosoena. He has become withered. 

Gosoc. Of dirty habits, dirty, slovenly. 

Nui gosoa mara hor hormo ho bae heiigaKa. This 
dirty rascal will not clean his person. 

Goso isin. To cook over a slow fire. 

Goso isinme. Cook it over a slow fire. 

Goson. » "I To follow after. 
Goson goson. J 
Cef lagit'em gosohbaraedekana? Why do you 
follow after him ? 

Gholre.}^"^^' sluggish, careless. 

Maran gosfe horkanae. He is a great sluggard. 

Gosre. Of dirty habits, slovenly. 
Goi To gather or pluck fruit. 

Ghaiigra godme. Pluck ghahgra (q. v.) 

TJl gof aguime. Pluck and bring some mangoes. 

p ?■ \ Instantly, quickly suddenly. 

Heo godoKme. Come without delay. 
Sen go^enae. He went at once. 

Got. \Another name for the Soh- 

Got puja. J rae festival (q. v.) 

Got oaole. Contributions of rice collected from 
each family in a Tillage for the purpose of 
manufacturing rice beer with which to cel- 
ebrate the got puja or Sohrae. (q. v.) It is 
^uuk on the day on which they bathe. 

Got R»i. On the first day of the got pnja or 
Sohrae {q. v.) in the evening all the cattle 
of the village are driven over an eptg and 
the animal which treads on it or smells it is 
called the got gai. • 

Got han<Ji. Eice beer manufactured from got 
caole (q. v.) and consumed on the first of 
the got puja or Sohrae {q. v.) festival. 

Got sim. Fowls collected from the villagers 
one from each family for sacrifice at the 
got puja or Sohrae (q. v.) festival. These 
are sacrificed on the 1st day of the festival. 

Got. The place where cattle are 
collected at mid-day, Of. ada. 

Gota. The whole. 

Gota oralf. The whole house. 

Gota atoren hor. The people of the whole 

Gota talako boloena. They went in to the 

very centre. 

Gota. To decide, to settle, to prove. 

Bale gota dafeaKa. We cannot come to a 

GotaK leka do bah ^ik^iuHkana. It does not 
seem as if it could be proved. 

Gota guti. Principal, adult, full grown. 

Gota gnti katha olakana. The principal tacts 
are recorded. 

Gidrako do alope emakoa, gota guti horko 
joma, onkoko pg.ndul{a. Do not give to 
children, grown up people will eat it, they 
(the children) wiU become grey haired. 

Gotanalc. A whole one. 

GotanaKe idikeda. Ho took away a whole one. 

Gotan.] Used with numerals, also with 
Gotec. J- 2, 3, and 4, when 
Goten.J reduplicated. 

Mi£ gotaiie emadiiia. He gave me one. 

More goteo horko tahekana. There were five 

Babar gotafa. Two each. 

Pepe gotaii . Three each . 

Popon gotah. Four each. 

Gel goten do bape saphalena ? are goteo doko 
oUaena ? Were there not ten of you cleans- 
ed ? where are the nine ? 

Gotao. To thread, to string, to put 
into, as a sword into a sheath ; to 
insert, as an axle into a wheel ; 
to thrust into, as the tang of an 
arrow head into the shaft. 

Suire sutamko gotaoa. They thread needles. 
Tarware bokharre gotaotam. Put up thy 

sword into its sheath. 
Churi reaH barjhgi (Janijomreko gotaoa. They 

insert the tan of the knife into the handle. 

Gotao.lTo begin, to start, to engage 

GataoJ in. 
XJni saoteii gotaoakana. I am engaged along 
with him. 



[ 202 ] 

Gild an 

Gotao. \ To collect cattle at mid-day 
Gothao.J resting place. Cf. goth, and 

Gaiye gotaoakSEkoa. He has collected the 
cattle into their mid-day resting place. 

Go^hao jarwaenako. They are collected at the 
mid-day resting place (cattle.) 

C i \i f Whole, unsplit, as a pea, &c. 

Dal do banuKan, gotaraK menaKa. There are no 
split peas, there are whole ones. 

Gota tandi. Every "\vhere, all round 

Gota tandiye sioKkanreho enreho bae asuloK- 
kana. Although he ploughs all round 
about still he does not make a living. 

Goto. Wry, out of line, as holes made 
from two sides not meeting exactly 
in the centre. 

OekaEali? Moca goteUa. What will happen 
to me ? Tout mouth will become wry. 

Cetleka bam roKket? gotegea. How have you 
bored it? It is wry. 

Gote. A gregarious bush or small tree, 
Croton oblongifolius, Roxh. 

Gote. ") To twist the mouth and 

Gote gore. J turn away the face in 
sulky ill-humour. 

OaKem gote barae kana? Why do you turn 
your face away sulkily ? 

Goth. The place where the village 
cattle rest at mid-day. Cf. ada. 

Cutht?.ndi. Cf. ada tandi. 

Gotiiao. To collect cattle together 
for their mid-day rest. Cf. goth, 
and gotao. 

Gotl-e. Wry, oblique. 

Noa orak do gotleena. This house is off the 

Gotlegem katkeda. You have built the wall 


Goto. Past. 

Goto boohor. Last year. 

Gotoc. To add to, to increase in length, 
as a rope. 

Noa katha dope goto6a£ do. You have added 
to this matter. 

Gotom. Clarified butter, ghi. 
Gotor. To spread, applied to fire. 

Men, serigelpe gotor ocoea. Look out, you will 

allow the Are to spread. 
Bir loK jokhee seiigel gotor calaka. When a 

forest is on fire the circle of it widens. 

Goyalj. To be daubed with soot, soot 
on the face or clothes when hand- 
ling cooking pots. 

Ceka goyaken bae ? How has she got those 
black daubs of soot on her face P 

Goyon. A track made by rats ; a track. 

Candbolko or idia, ar onate goyonoka dhurire. 
They drag their tails on the ground and so 
■malce a track in the dust (rats.) 

Amak goyonteko heo idiena. They have 
followed in your tracks. 

Goyon. 1 To follow after. 

Goyon goyon. J 

Tayom tayorate goyon panja baraedekanae. 
He follows her whereever she goes (a child 
its mother.) 

Grostali. Household, family. 

Gua. The Areca nut, or Betel Palm, 

Areca catechu, Linn. 
Gua Hembrom. A sub-sept of the 

Santal sept Hembrom 

Gua C5rg. A sub-sept of the Santal 

sept C5rS. 
Gua guli. A small forest tree, Erio- 

Icena Hoakeriana, Roxh. 

Gubli. A small bag, a beggar's wallet. 

Gubri. The contents of the stomach 
of a sheep or goat. " 

Gubud gubud. Sound of beating of 

Gubud gubudko lagaoakada. 
Gubu4 gubud sadekana. 

Gucau. To finish, to dispel, to destroy. 

Kami gucau go^kakme. Finish off the work. 
Dakafi jom guoaukeda. I have eaten all the 

Saname gucaukettabona. He brought it all 

to an end. 
Eine gucaukeda. He cleared off the debt. 
Gucaukedeake nito'k do ohobon iiamlea. They 

liave put him out of the way, we will not 

find him now. i^ 

Eimil gukcau oando. The cloud dispelling 

Guchi. Straw from which the grain 

has been trodden out by cattle, 

and afterwards so drawn out as to 

lay it lengthwise. It is then 

tied up into small bundles; a 

small bundle. 

Mit' guchi sakam. A small bundle of leaves. 

Guda gudi. To strike each other with 
the heel of the fist. 

Gnda gu^i enakin. 

Gudau. To strike with the heel of 
the fist, to thump. 

Bandiko gud^ua gucjnate. They thump the 
bandis (q. v.) witli a guijna or club. 

Gudau. To hop, used in the children's 
game of kati. 

Kati enecreko gu^9.ukoa. 

Gudaii eiiij 

[ 203 ] 


Gudau enec. A game played by chil- 

Gud gud. \ To rumble, as distant 
Gui gudau. J thunder or as a rail- 
way train in motion, roaring of a 

Eel g^i gui gai sacjekana- The railway 

train makes a rumbling noise. 
Rimil gugl gu^auBkana. Thunder is rumbling. 

Gud gud. \The noise made by a 
Gud gudauk. } strong wind, the roar- 
ing of a tempest. 

Hoe gud gndg.ul<ltana. The wind is roaring. 
Oralire gud gudau boloena. The wind came 
roaring into the house. 

Gudi, A kite. 

Gudia gudyi. Together, in company, 
with fun and frolic. 

Gudia guglyiko calaSkana. They are going in 

Gel; coil noko gu(Jia gu^yiko calalikana ? Why 

are they going together. 
Nukin do gucjigi gudyiii 6elleCkina. I saw these 

two going together. 

Gudia kapi. A battle axe with a broad 
cutting face. 

Gudia tehgoc. An axe with a long 
and broad cutting face. 

Gudiauk. To fondle, to fawn, as chil- 
dren do by touching and rolling 
on one whom they know. 

Iiireko gu^i^uena. They are fondling me. 

Gudi orak. A house without gables, 
and the roof sloping all round. 

Gudmu6 gudmuc Round, spherical 
and small. 

Ul guijmue guijmuo joakana. The mangoesare 
small and round. 

Gudna. A club with which rice bandis 
(q. V.) ai-e beaten when tightening 
the ropes with which they are 

Gu^r^. M. I gj^^j,^ .j^ stature ; a dwarf. 
Gudn. 1. J 

Gudra gudri ajgute raebar thikkefi. He made 
a very good match of two pigmies together. 

Gudrau. To roll along the ground. 

Bes okocte lekhaeme, gudrau at ocoeam. Count 
(the money) carefully, you will allow some 
to roll away and be lost. 

Gudrau. To pass, as time ; to happen. 

Horte cetko gndrgiuafipeaP What happened to 

you on the way ? 
Sara din dom gudrauaka^a ar cei ho bam kgjni- 

aJsat'a. Tou have passed the whole day 

and haye not done any work. 

Gudri. A house in which goats, sheep, 
or calves arc kept. 

Noko do alom tolkoa, pndrite aderkom. Do 
not tie up these (for the night) put them 
into the goats' house. 

Gudri. Short in stature, a dwarf; 
applied to females only. Cf. gudra. 
Gudrud gudruc. Cf gudur gudur. 
Gudru ghumi Cf gudur ghum. 

Gudu6. Trippingly, with short steps, 
as a child or pigmy. 

Gu4u6 guijuoe liir hijuKkana. She comes trip- 

Gudui gudui. Long, shaggy, loose, 
baggy, a.s clothes. 
Bhitji eudui guduiko upana. Sheep have long 

G^du^' gudup. } ^^"^^^ of thumping. 

Gudup marteTl kuhaukedea. 
with my fist. 

I hit him thump 

Gudur ghum.) The Imperial Pigeon, 

Gudru ghum. I Garpophaga sylvatica. 

Gudur gudur. The roaring sound 

produced by a blast furnace. 

Gudur gudurko dhukaua. 

Gudur gudur. ") Applied to the mo- 
Gudruc gudruc. J tion of anything 
small, as a wheel, kid, &c. 

Sagar gudur gudur gu4raul{a. 
Gidra guijur gudurko liir baraekana. 

Gugri. Cf ghugri. 

Gugu. To carry on the back. 

Gidrg. gugu idiedekana. He is carrying the 

child on his back. 
Lade gugu. To load on the back, to place one 

above another. 
Teheli do 9.di asukle giticena lade gugu. We 

slept very uncomfortably last night one 

above the other (i. e. orer crowded.) 

Guhar. 1 A shout for help, or to give 
Guher. / an alarai. 

Cet real? guher kana. What is the call ? (for 

help or is it an alarm ?) 
Guher guher gnher rehi. The call for help. 

Guhi. Chronic. 

Nui doe guhiena. It has become chronic with 

Eu3.te (Iher dine guhiena. His fever is chronic. 

Guhma. A variety of the ricp plant. 
Guhria. A rat tat played on the drum, 

as an alarm or as an intimation of 

an accident at a hunt. 

Guhria tamak. Drum beaten as an alarm, 
Guhri9.ko ruigea. They beat the alarm rat tat 
on the drum. 


[ 204 ] 

Gulu mulu 

Guhum. Wheat, Triticun sativum, 

Guhur guhur. ") Sound of voices but 
GuhQr guhflr. 5 words inaudible. 

Guhur guhufko roreda. The sound of their 
voices is heard. 

Guipha rangi. A variety of the rice 

Guja. A wedge. Cf guji. 

Guja. One of two brothers, Kara and 
Guja, whose names occur in the 
early traditions of the Santals. 

Gujar. Livelihood, means of sub- 
sistence ; to pass one's time. 

Cetleka gujar calaKkantakoa? Ako moto do 
besge calakkantakoa. How are they off for 
the necessaries of life P They have ample 
for themselves. 

Noakamite dinko gujg-relikana. They gain a 
living by this work. 

Cfuj guj. Crowded. 

Guj guj atkaroKkana. It feels crowded. 

Guj hi. A small space partitioned off in 
which to keep goats, sheep, or 
calves at night. The gujki is very 
often in the verandah of the dwel- 
ling house. 

GujhiakaCako merom dohoko l^igi^. They have 
partitioned off a small space in which to 
beep the goats. 

Gujhi. Cf kulkhi. 
Guji. ■) A wedge, a piece of wood driven 
Guja. J into a jack fruit and left for 
a day to cause it to ripen quickly. 

Mota kat bana, guji lagao idialckhan algate 
paragoKa. It is a thick log, if wedges are 
used it will split easily. 

Guji kudi. A kodali or hoe worked 
by taking hold of both ends of the 

Gujrau. To pass, as time ; to pass the 
time, to exist. 

Jahare dmko gujraua, ado jom okte oraKteko 
hijuKa. They spend the day anywhere and 
come home at meal times. 

4iji phajette dinle gujraueda, matkom, sarjom 
jomkatele gujraueda. "We are passing the 
time with great diBcomfort, we are sub- 
sisting on matkom (q. v.) and the fruit of 
the sal tree. 

Goha gujr?.u. To give evidence, to depose. 

Sf jj; /"• «• «»'• 

Gujui dlkMi: 1 ^* t'^" P°'"* °* death. 

Gujulf n9.pjt. Nearly dead. 

Gujal n?pitiii /ioUedeaea, baiioaoK cooba ooe. 

Hanalf gujuS. ) „ ., 

HanafelnjuK. j Epilepsy. 

GnjuK napite dalbedilia. He beat me till I was 

nearly dead. 
GujuK napitili aikaueda. I feel nearly dead. 
Gujulc maraeye ruaKkana. He is at the point 

of death with fever. 
Gujul? dakhilakanae, abe tabe. He is on the 

point of death, it may come any time. 

Gujur gujur. One after the other. 

Gujur gujur ko calaKbana. They are going one 

after the other (in Indian file.) 
Hon gujur gujur. A game played by children. 

Gukhla janum. A plant common in 
moist situations, Hygrophila 
spinosa, T. Andrea. 

Gul. To make a noise, tumult, din, 

CedaK unsjEpe guleda? Why do you make such 
a din? 

Gulam. A slave. 

Guland. Round, spherical. 

Gulanj baha. A common ornamental 
flowering shrub, Plumeria acuti- 
folia, Poiret. 


Gul gulia. A wandering non-Arian 
tribe, who live by hunting, teaching 
monkeys to dance, selling indi- 
genous drugs, begging, and petty 

Guli. A ball. 

Guli ran. A pill. 

Guli. Brown, reddish brown. Cf gola, 

Guli gai. A brown cow. 

Guli merom. A brown she-goat. 

Gulibat. A method of casting lots. 

The method of gulibaf is as follows : The 
property to be divided is made up into the 
proper number of shares. Each sharer 
then makes a ball, inside of which he puts 
something by which to recognize it when 
it is broken up. The balls are then 
mixed up together and one laid beside each 
share. They are then broken and each 
person takes the share opposite to which 
his ball was laid. 

Gulmal. Disturbance, tumult, con- 
fusion; to make a disturbance, 
tumult, din, confusion, &c. Cf. 

Gulu mulu. To make into a ball by 
rubbing between the palms of the 
hands ; round, spherical. 

NitoK bathale gulumulukeda. Now we have 

got the matter into shape. 
Gulumulue gulieda. He is making it into a ball 

by rubbing it between the palms of his 



[ 205 1 

Gundli araU 

Gum. To sift by means of the hataU 
(q. V.) 
Gumbegar. To sif t by means of the hafatt (q. v.) 

GumauU. To heat, as anything stored 
Loho{al< alope oakea gumauSa. Do not staok 
wet (straw) it will heat. 

Gumasta. An agent. 

Guman. To ponder, to think over. 

Sane guman, \ To ponder orer as one does an 
Sene gnman. 5 afBiotion, loss, &o. 
Ce£ coe sane gumg.nakat'a ? What is it he is 
pondering oyer. 

Gumur gumur. Painful and itchy, as 
a gathering boil, &c. 

Gnmnr gumur hasoedekana ojo. 

Gum bai. Flatulence. 

Gumur. 1 Pleasant sensation, as 

Gumur gumur. J when an iching 

place, such as a sore, is rubbed or 


.4^1 gumur gumur aikauKkana. 

Gun. Quality, merit, virtue, magic 

Gun manao. "I To acknowledge gratefully, to 

Gun doho. ) requite. 

Nun gun manao. To requite, to acknowledge 

Get ho bae gunadiiia. He did not requite me, 

or ho shewed no gratitude. 
Noa ran bail gunlaka. This medicine had no 


Guna. Fold. 

Bar guna. Two fold, twice. 
Pon guna. Four fold. 

Noa khon bar guna maraiigea. It is twice as 
large as this. 

Guna. Fault, crime, sin. 

Ghat; guna. Fault, faults ; to commit a fault. 
Cetem ghat gunakeda ? What fault did you 

commit ? 
Cei ho ba« gunalef; tahekana. He was guilty 

of no fault whatever. 

Gunagar. Crime, the penalty of crime, 
loss, penalty. 

Gunagarid emkeda. I paid a fine. 
Gunagar lagaoadiria. I was mulcted. 
Gunagar paraoaea. He will meet with a loss 
(sell for'less than he bought for.) 

Gunalc. Merit, demerit, desert, virtue, 

AmaU call gunal?tem reiigejoKkana. Tour 

poverty is the result of your conduct. 
AmaK ror gunaKtem ruhei ocoena. Ton were 

scolded as the desert of your speech. 
AmaK moea gun?.Ktem (Jan^lom ocoena. Tou 

were fined owing to the demerit of your 

Hasa gunaKte arjaoedae. He _ secures crops 

owing to the virtue of the soil. 
Jom gunaKte mo^aakanae. He is fat owing to 

the virtue of his food. 

Gunan. To multiply. 

Gunan. To ponder, to think over, to 
mourn over. 

AiJi gunanedae. Ho is thinking deeply. 

Gund. Trunk of body without head, 
applied principally to the bodies 
of animals which have been killed 
in sacrifice by beheadiug. 

Gund. To ponder, to think over, to 
grieve over. 

Cei! reaii coe gnn^eCkana ? What is it he is 
thinking about, or grieving over ? 

Gunda. To make small, to make into 
small pieces ; to grind. 

Lebef gunda. To trample to pieces. 
Dal gunda. To beat into pieces. 
Haruii gunda. To pound fine. 
Eif gun(Ja. To grind fine. 

Durup gun^a. To make into dust, or break by 
Bitting on. 

Gunda gundi. \ 
ia. j 

To make into small 
Ganda gunda. / pieces, to make small 
crumbs, broken pieces. 

Dal gunda gundi. To beat into small pieces. 

En gunda gundi. To trample by oxen into 
small pieces on the thi-eshing floor. 

Gunda gunditet' gumpe. Sift the small partic- 
les (or dust of the threshing floor.) 

Gundhi bandhi. |Cows broken in to 
Gundhi mandhi. ) the plough. 


Gundhi banijhile sioKkana. We are ploughing 
with cows. 

Ganda gund 

Cow broken to the 

Ganda gunditeii sioMkana, bi^hi ohoii senlena. 
I am ploughing with cows, I can not go to 
forced labour. 

Hindus, with the exception of some of the semi- 
Hinduised aborigines, will not plough with 
cows, but Santals have no such scruples. 


Nandi gundi. V mind, to consider, to 
Nundi khundij think deeply over, to 
reason in one's mind. 

Uni reaK ko nandi gnndiK kan tahekana. They 
reasoned concerning him in their minds. 

Gundiari muc. A species of ant. 
Gundli. A cultivated millet, Panicum 

Layo gundli. A cultivated millet, Panicum 
antidotale, Retz, 

Gundli arak. A plant common during 
the rains, Aneilema nana, Benth. 

This plant is used as a pot-herb. 


[ 206 ] 

Gupti khanda 

Gundra. To cut into pieces, to make 
fine or small. 

Kat gun^rg-kam. Cut the log into pieces. 
Hui)?iE gu.n(Jr9i gun^rakate sarabo benaoa. 

They out (the wood) into pieces and make 

the funeral pyre. 

Gundrau. Cf. gu6jrau. 

Gundri. The Quail, Turnix Sykesii. 

Gundri kurse. A leguminous plant so 

Gundri sar. A kind of grass the 
culms of which are used as arrow 

Gunduc. Excreta passed in small 
Sim gunduo. Excreta of fowls. 

Gundu6 gusuc."| 

Gandak gasuk. I Feckless, listless, lazy, 
Ganduc gasuc. j fusionless. 
Gandac gasuc. j 

Ce6kom cekaeda gatnduG gasuc, usara hodme P 

Gunduc gunduc. Cf. ganduc gunduc. 

Gundur gundur. Sound of voices but 
words inaudible. 

Gundur guudurko galmaraoeda. 

Gundur musak, Listless, silent, me- 

Gundur musaKe lieloKkana. He looks melan- 

Gunga. M. ") T^ u 

Gunli'. F. 1^^™^- 

Gungu. A covering for the head and 
back of leaves pinned togther, 
worn principally by women when 
planting rice. 

Horo rohoe jokhedko guhguKa. 

Gungui;. To cover, with cloth, with 
the wings, with the body. 

Sim ehga aoren hopone gungu(;aka€koa. The 

hen has covered her ohiokena with her 

Kuldoe guiigulslGde tahekana. The tiger had 

coTored the man with his body. 
Thirkokme, neke iii guhguUkeSrae. Be still, 

see I have covered you with my cloth. 

Ciungwaok. Low pitched, as a fiddle, 
flute, &c. ; an echo. 

Bhitrirege guhgw9.olcbana. 

Gunha. Fault, crime, sin. 
Guni. Sorcery. 

Guni bhabik. To be anxious, careful, 

Alope guni bhabiKa. Be not over anxious. 

Gunidar. A sorcerer. 

Gu6j. Darkness preceding a storm. 

Dak gufij hijuK kana. The darkness preced- 
ing a storm is coming on. 

Gunjarenec. A kind of dance danced 
during the Sohrae (q. v.), and 
Karam festivals. Classes for the 
teaching of this dance are held 
during September and a part of 

Guliiar rar. The air to which the Gu^jar songs 
(guili?.'r aereli, q. v.) are sung, and beaten 
on the drums when the guiijsir dance is 
being danced. 
Gurijar sereA. A song aung during the dancing 
of the Gudjar dance. 
H^ri hari Ram raja ho Guiljari. 
Katha jo kahabo daia ho Guiijarire gudj. 
Chutki saetini bole, daia ho, hamaribre one- 

Barki saetini bole, daia ho, bamariore purus. 
GmSjar Song. 

Gunjrau. To roar, growl, as a tiger, &c. 

Hantere kul gufijrauKiii afijomledea. I heard 
the tiger roar over there. 

Gunpalan. Panniers and pannier sad- 
dle cloth. 

Gunsi. A chain of silver or other 
metal worn as an ornament round 
the waist or on the head. 

Gunthi. The knee. 

Jahga gunthi. The knee. 

Gunfhi gunthikin sataoakaija. They (are sitting) 
with their knees touching. 

Gunti. To count, to number. 

Mase guntibonme. Come, count us. 

Gunu gunu. Used in calling a cat. 

GupallTo conceal, to hide, put out of 
Gupet.j sight. 

Sen gupatenae. He has gone out of sight. 
Kule jom gupa^kedea. The tiger ate him, and 

put' him ant of sight. 
God gup5i£enae. He is dead and lost to sight. 

Gupi. To tend cattle, sheep, goats, &c. 

Gupiio. A tender of cattle, sheep, &c. 

Bhidi gupiio. A shepherd. 

Gupi bora. A herd boy, but applied to all who 

tend cattle, whether young or old. 
Gupi kuri. A girl tender of cattle, applied to 

old and young alike. 
Sukri gupiye kolkedea. He sent him to feed 


Gupti. To conceal, to hide, to keep 


Noa kathako guptikeda. They concealed this 

Gupti khanda. Cf gupti thenga. 

Gupti mar 

[ 207 ] 


Gupti mar. "\ tt i.i • 

Gupti marte. I Unawares, secretly, in 

Gupti mar. f ^^«^"<=^ '>^' ^y ^"'^- 
Gupti marte. J _ P"^®" 

Gupti marteko sap go£kedea. They seized him 

before he was aware. [in my absence. 

Gnpti marko (Jan(ilomkedilia. They fined me 

Gupti thenga. A sword stick, a stick 

with a sword concealed within it. 
Gur. The produce of the first inspis- 

sation of the juice of the sugar 

cane, molasses, treacle. 
Gur. To fall from a standing, sitting, 

or kneeling position, to die. 

God gur. To die. 

Dal gur. To knock down. 

Ota gur. To press down to the ground. 

Phaka gur. To push and cause to fall to the 

Tohofi gur. To stumble and tall. 
Hoete gurena dare do. The tree was blown 

down by the wind. 
DareaK janhe guroKkana netar do. The well 

grown janhe (q. T.) at this season is falling 

to the ground. 
Horo daKte gurakana. The dhan is laid by 

' the rain. [killed. 

Poaao^oko gurakana. The fatted animals are 

Gurakhul.1 Tobacco mixed with gur 
Gurakhur 3 (q. v.) to be smoked in the 
huka (q. v.) 

Sau.}To P-h one along. 

A4iko gurdaukedifia. They pushed me viol- 
ently along. 

Bae calaKkhan gurd^u idiepe. K he does not 
go push him along. _ 

G urda gurdi. Scrambling, or tumblmg 
on the ground one above the other. 
Cf. garda gurda. 

Gurda gurdikin tapamkana. They are fighting 
' on the' ground rolling over each other. 

Gurdali. To feed a bride and bridegroom 
with raw sugar, 

Gurgau. To roll. Cf. gudrau. 

Gurgu. A round stone with which 
curry stuffs are ground on another 
stone ; a stone with which the 
seminal ducts of quadrupeds are 
ruptured instead of castration. 

Gurgur. ^ rji^ restrain to intercept, to 
Gurgurau. I ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^f ^is freedom, 
Gurgur. ( ^'^ ^^ ^ ti 

Gurgurau. J 

Sap gurgur9.nkedeako. They seized and prevent- 
ed Mm leaving. 

Dump gurgur?,uke^koako. They caused them 
' to sit down and would not allow them to 

Gurgurau. To roll on the ground. 

Ot otteli gur guf?iukedea. I rolled him along 
on the ground. 

Gur guri, A huka (q. v.) with a long 

stem. [boys. 

Gurguri, A game played by men and 
Gurhak. To be costive, the bowels. 
Gurhak. To become a chrysalis. 

Lum3.m tolkateye gurhaKa. After spinning 
its cocoon a silk worm becomes a chrys- 

Gurhe. To roll up, as a roll of parch- 
ment ; to wind, as a ball of twine. 

Noa baber gurheme. Wind up this twine. 

Gurib. Poor. [dung. 

Guric. Cow-dung, to smear with cow- 

Gnrio mande. A midden, a dunghill. 

Gurji. A boundary pillar. 

Gurji tehara. A boundary pillar mark- 
ing the spot where the boundaries 
of three villages meet. 

Gurkau. To roll on the ground. 

Notege gurkg,u hijuKkana. It comes rolling 
this way. 

Gurla gurli. Swirling. 

Gurlgi gurli onte note khon hoeetkanae. The 
wind is swirling from all sides. 

Gurlau. To swirl. 

Hoe gurlauKkana. The wind is swirling. 
OraUte hoe gurl?.u boloena. The wind swirled 

into the house. 
Ladre gurlaulf kantaea. There is a commotion 

in his stomach. Scottice, Bumal gwmption. 

Gur lotom. The side on which an 
animal, which is killed during the 
" Bhandan" (q. v.) ceremonies falls. 

The animal, which may be an ox, a cow, a pig, 
or even a fowl, is felled to the ground and 
the side on which it falls is the portion of 
him who provided it, the upper side being the 
portion of the villagers. 

Gurmuria. Round, spherical. 

Tol gurmuriakedeae mofra do. He tied his 
bundle into a round. 

Gurpa. A variety of the rice plant. 

Gurpana. Sugar cane juice mixed 
with water in the proportion of 
one of sugar cane juice to four ot 

Gur tawak. A game played by children. 

Gflrtu6. To twist or twirl any thing 
in the ear, as a quill, &c. to clean it. 

Lutur gurtujtam ilte. Twirl a feather round 
in your ear. -,„ , • ii. 

Lutur real? daR gurtuo oglokena. Water in the 
ear has been expelled by twirling something 
in it. 

Guru. A teacher, a leader. 

Guru bachur 

[ 208 ] 

Guyuri marte 

Guru bachur. Cows and calves, cattle 

in general. 
Gurum. Calm, silent, still. 

Noa katha gurnmakana. This matter ia in 

Teheli do bae hoeakafc*a gurumakana. There is 

no mnd blowing- to day, it is calm. 

Gusa. Cf. ghusa. 
Gusau. Cf. ghusau. 
Gusti. Family, tribe. 

Noko do gnatiko dg-ngea. The whole fa-mily 
are witches. 

Gusuc. ~) To push oneself in between, 
Ghusuc. J to force a way in, to make 

a way for oneself by pushing into 

or aside. 

Hone gusud boloena busiipre. The rat made a 
way for himself into the straw (went in amonget 

the straw.) 
Hor g9.dre gnsue boloenae. He forced his way 

into the crowd of people. 

Gusun gusun. Alone and silent. 

Gusuh gusnhe calaKkana. He goes along quietly 
by himself. 

Gusur gusur. Cf. gusun gusun. 
Gut. Total. 

Lekha gutenabo. We are totalled up. 
Gut; taka. The total money. 

Gutek.") An adjective or an adverb 
Gutke. J possessing intensifying force, 
very much, many, &c. 

Gu^ek horko {ro'iena nes. Very many people 

haTT-e died this year. 
Guteke dakkeda. It rained heavily. 
Gutekko dandomkedea. They imposed a heavy 

fine on him. [greatly increased. 

Gutekko badhaoentaea gaiko do. His cows have 
Kes gutek khilge taheena. This year much 

(land) remains fallow, 
Nes gutek hoeakana? This year there have 

been bumper crops. [disclosed. 

Gutek katha liam tot'ena. Many things were 
Gutek joakana. There is much fruit, [flood. 
Gutek dak calalrkana gadare. The river is in 
Gutekko dalkedea. They beat him severely. 

Gutek utar. An immense number, 
very much, very manj^ 

Gutek utar takaA khorockeda. I spent a large 
sum of money. 
Guthla. M.l ci, i. • J- J- J r 

f til'' F 1""°^*^ m stature, a dwarf 

Guti. An agricultural male servant' 

a farm labourer. 
Guti. Cf ganda guti. 
Guti. \Small pox, the pustules of 
Guti rog. J small pox. 

Guti rakapakawadea. Small pox pustules have 
broken out on him. 

Gutia. Belonging to the same sub- 
sept or " khond." 

Pera guti?.. Friends. 

Guti?i pera. Belonging to the same sub-sept 

or " khoncj." 
PanduteliU gutia bhg-i kanalili, mif khon4 ren 

Cil bindha Hasdalf. 
Gutia naya. Belonging to the same sub-sept. 

Gutiau. To keep to oneself, to arrange 
in order. 

Gutiankedae, ao moto. He kept it all to him- 
self (did not share it.) 

Gutiau idikedae. He took it all and went away 
with it. 

Guteke gutiauana. He kept a large proportion 
to himself. 

Bapoti dhon aogeye gutig.ukeda. He kept all 
the paternal wealth to himself. 

Guti dare. A tree or trees on which 
tassar silk worms (Antheraea mi- 
lytta) are reared, generally Termi- 
nalia to'inentosa.. 

Guti enec. A game played mostly by 
herd boys. 

Guti thenga. A forked stick with 
which tassar silk worms are put 
on to high trees. 

Tho worms are collected on a branch previously 
broken off, and this branch is stuck into 
the fork of the stick and by means of it 
hung on the tree. 

Gutik. State, condition. 

Gutik cet'Iekantaea, bes so baric? What is his 
condition, is it good or bad, P 

Gutke. Cf gutek. 
Gutlu. To tickle. 

GutluiA khanem adiii bokroBa. 

GutriF ' f Short in stature, little. 

Nui gutri mara aimai ^.qliye eKgera. This wret- 
ched little huzzy is a great scold. 

Gutri. Family, stock. 
Gutrut. Fit to be taken from the 
mother, as a puppy. 

Seta hoponiJi lielakadea, bese gutru£akana. 
I have seen the puppy, he is well grown. 

Gutruli. A deer that has lost his horns. 

GutruC saramle goeakadea. We have killed a 
saram (q. v.) that had shed Ms horns. 

Gutrut. The name given to two 
species of Barbets or Woodpeck- 
ers, Megalaima caniceps, and 
XantholcBtna Indica. 

Gutu. To insert, to push in, to thread, 
as a needle ; to string, as beads. 

Malako gutuia. They string beads. 
Suire sut9.m gutuime. Thread the needle. 

GuyuQ marte. \ Without warning, 
Guyua mente. J unexpectedly. 

Guyuu mente berei; got'enae. He sprang up. 
Guyuii marteye o(Joh got'eua. He rushed out. 


[ 209 ] 

Hadam hudum 


Habadia. A glutton ; to eat greedily, 
applied to a person or animal who 
eats well but is never in good 

Nui (Jahra habadiageae. This bullook puts his 
food into an ill skin. 

Haba duba. To rebuke, to reprove, 
to threaten, to frighten. 
Haba dub^ baf akedeali. I rebuked him. 

HabaK. To take aim with a bow and 
arrow, as at something that re- 
quires a frequent change of posi- 
tion ; to offer, to aim at. 

AS sarte habaSaeme. Aim at it with a bow 

and arrow. 
Eabali mako habalf lioKadiligea, ado ball 

t^iigilaSa. They did indeed offer me food 

and I did not wait for it. 

Habak cubali. Disconnectedly, indis- 
tinctly, carelessly. 

HabaK cubajf em rof eda. You speak disconnect- 

HabaK cubalfem kamikana. Ton are leaving 
one piece of work before you have finished 
it and taking up another. 

Habak dabak. To rise and fall, like 
the waves of the sea ; to heave, as 
the water of a river in flood, to 
swell, as the sea ; applied also to a 
crowd moving gleefully along with 
drums beating. 

Habak (Jabak daK calaKkana. There is a swell 
on the water. 

Habela. Very large, big and stout. 

HabelaoyaK menaktakoa. Their house is very 

Habela jufn. A big, stout young man. 

Habhab. l Heartily, gleefully, with 
Habhabao. 3 zest. 

G?.iko biena menkhan ha.bhabaoko oalalfa. 

"When the cows are satisfied they move 

DaUkedae menkhan habhabaoko sioRa. When 

rain falls they plough with zest. 

Habic. Till, until, up to, as far as. 

TishabioP Till when? (not to-day,) till what 

Tin habie? Till when? (to-day,) till what hour ? 
Nln hibio. As much as this. 


Nun habie. As much as this. 

Sahkhan non^le habic ohoii sejerlena. 

Other wise I should not have reached to here 

(this place.) 
Uni do nit h?,bio h5 bae aosanakana. Up till 

now he has not obtained relief. 

.^urikin paromoK h9.bi6. Until they had crossed 

over, or until they cross over. 
Panija h»bid dalf tahekana. The water was 

up to the waist. 
Tis h»bio tahen hoyoKtilia ? Till when shall I 

have to stay ? 

Habka. A young sal (q. v.) tree about 
12 to 18 inches in circumference at 
the root, cut as a rafter. 
Habka dubka. \To dragoon, to fright- 
Hamka dumka.J en by threats, &c. 

Alom habka dubk9.ea. Do not dragoon hhn. 
Hamka dnmkjkakome. Threaten them with 

Habka dubka. Applied to the sound 
produced by a swimmer striking 
the water with his hands and feet. 

Nui gidra do habka dubk^e paerakkana. 

Habrao. To come near, to come up 
to, to reach, to anive ; to cause 
to come near, &c ; to escort. 

Habfaoge bae habraolena. He would not even 
come near. 

Monomukhle habraolen tahekana. "We had 
reached Monomukh. 

Habruk. To suck softish food into the 
mouth with a noise. 

Daka jom jokheo utuko habruga. 

Habuk dabuk. Applied to the sound 
produced by a fatigued swimmer. 

Uni seta h^buk (JabuKe paeralf kana. 

Hacar hacar. Hurriedly, quickly. 

Hacaj- haoare oalaKkana. He is hurrying along. 

Hadhud. Quietly, without saying any- 

Hacpacao. To hurry, to dragoon, to 
harass, to ill-use. 

Had. A wine press. 
Had. Extraordinary, unusual, strange, 

Had katha. A strange story. 
Hadgeli a^kareda. It seems to me to be extra- 

Had. A bone. 

Hadac hudud. To walk as if lame or 
Ha<Ja6 hn^uie tajameda. He is limping. 

Hadae hadae. Noise made by a mod- 
erately strong wind. 

Hadae hudui. Rustling of clothes, 
when the wearer walks. Cf. ha- 
dui hadui. 

Hadam hudum. Early in the morning, 
before day light, before sun xise. 



[ 210 ] 

Haelac liaelao 

Hadap. To take peas, &c. out of the 
pod, or grain out of the husk with 
the teeth ; to nibble. 

Honko do suruo bolokate go^ako ha^apada 
kheder be'der. 

Hadar hadar. Rustling or grating 
sound, as that produced by drag- 
ging a dry hide, or Palmyra palm 
leaf along the ground. 

Ce6 gturige ha^ar ha^aremorei:kana? 

Hadar hadar. Sound produced by a 
stiff gale. 

Hadar hadare hoeeda. 

Hadar thapar. Eustling sound as when 
a dry hide is being carried, to rattle. 

Hadar hadar. Sound of scratching, 
as by a rat. 

Hadbad. "{Knocking, or smashing 
Hadbadao. J sound, to rattle. 

Gada mundu haijbade oalaKa. He goes smash- 
ing through stream and jungle. 

Hader. To thro.i:;-, to crowd together, 
to have one't> mind set on a thing. 

Senoli lagi^e haderolikana. He is very anxious 

to go. 
Uni thenkohaderoKkantahekana. They were 

thronging him. 

Hader katha. A mild oath. 
Hadgar. The striped hyena, Hyaena 

Hadgur. Sound produced by stirring 
in an earthenware vessel. 

Hadgur hadgure ghantaeda. 

Had had. \ Sound of rushing or fall- 
Had hadao. J ing water, boisterous 

Jharna leka hadhad daR atu toEena. Water 

gushed out as from a spring. 
Khan J3 tho daK had hadao o;lon go£ena. Then 

the water gushed out. 

Had hamus. Anaemia, a large pro- 
portion of white corpuscles in the 
blood, pain in the bones. 

Had hud. Rumbling sound, as of 

Teheii do rimil haij hu^e^kana. The thunder 
ifl rumbling to day. 

Had hud. Rustling, as of clothes when 
the wearer walks, or of wind. 

Hadi. A caste of semi-Hinduized abo- 

Hadi. An accumulation of drift wood, 
&e., carried by a river in flood. 

Hadi. Aching pains in the neck or 


Hadiakanaii. I haye an aching pain in the 

Had jora. A perennial scandent shrub, 
Gissus quad/rangularis, Willd, of 
supposed efficacy in fractures. 

Hadkur. Relatives on father's side. 

Mamkur. Relatives on mother's side. 

Hados. Anxiety, solicitude, sorrow ; 
to be in anxiety, &c. 

Nes do horo goeentakote giijiko hadosoKkana. 
They are in great anxiety owing to their 
rice having died this year. 

Hadra hadri. The skin or bark to be 
abraded or rubbed off, to strip off 
grain from the stalk by the hand. 
Cf. hadrao. 

Hadrao. The skin or bark to be abra- 
ded or rubbed off; to strip off, as 
grain from the stalk by the hand. 

Hadrao potorenail. I got the skin scraped off. 
Onko gidra do raherko hadrao cabake^a. 

These children have stripped off all the 

raher (q. v.) 

Hadui hadui. Shaggy, bushy, as hair. 
Toyo oandbol hadui hg.duigetakoa. Jackals 
have bushy tails. 

Hadui hadui. Rustling sound, as of 
clothes when the wearer walks. 

Hadur hadur. Scraping, or scratching 
sound, roaring of wild beast. 

H^dur hadurko geleja. 

Hae. ") An exclamation of sorrow 

Hae hae. J or pain, alas ! 

Hae ! cefiem cekakeda ? Alas ! what have you 

Oh hae ! eanam horo gocentilia. Alas ! all my 

rice has died. 

Haecok. To lament, bewail, mourn. 

Adiye haecoRena. He mourns deeply. 
Acjiye haeooKeda. He is bitterly bewailing 

Hae dhae. To bewail, mourn, lament. 

Uni do siii s9.tup hae <Jhaegeye tahena. He 
bewails the whole day. 

Hae hae. An exclamation of sorrow, 
pain, or commiseration, alas ! dear 
me ! oh dear ! Cf. hae. 

Hae hiatin. To lament, bewail, mourn 
over, weep for, bemoan, grieve. 

Jjjiye hae hiatiiloKkana hopone goeentae i^te. 
She is mourning because her son is dead. 

Haelac haelad. To mourn, bewail, 
bemoan ; to be anxious. 

Jom reak tingi,li haelao haeladem bhabnaKkana? 

Hae moe 

[ 211 ] 


Hac moe. To be sorrowful or amazed. 

Haemoekat. Paralysed through sudden 
fear or dread, of impending evil, 
speechless, unnervodj astoniod., 

HaemoekatcuaoiomaKbamilfte. Hois unnerved 
through hia haying no food. 

Hae nisas. Hopeless, despairing, disap- 

Hae nisaskateli ru*rena. I returned disap- 

Hae phee-.. To be im continuous 
mourning, continuously groaning 
owing to poverty or distress.. 

Hae phoe. As if under a curse^ malison, 
or ban. 

Hae phoetege otanoKkajia. It is being blown 

av;a.y as by a curse.. 

aere. i ^^ exclamation of sor- 

Haere hae. Y i i • i 

„ , • row, alas ! woe is me ! 

Haere haere. J 

Haere n^sibtiA, haero kopal, IlSaS jiwi do ande- 

Haesoe. To pity oneself, to mourn. 
Haeta cod joeta cod. Without knowing 
what the result may be. 

NoKoe iii calaKkana haeta ooii joeta con. I am 
going but I do not know whether my er- 
rand will be successful or not. 

Haeta hoeto. | Lonely, isolated. 
Hoeta hoeto-. } •' 

Haeta hoeto afkaroEkana. To feel lonely. 

Hagaeals. Immodestly. 
Hagae hugui. Rustling of clothes, as 
when the wearer walks. 

Hagae huguiko heeena. They came rustling 
in their garments.. 

Hagal gandia. A term of abuse, dirty, 

offensively dirty. 
Hagao. Threatening to cause another 

to be punished or fined, 

More (akall hagaonrea. I shall cause yon to 
be fined five rupees-. 

Haha. Stop, Stop ; hold, don't ; an ex- 
clamation of prohibition. 

Haha, alope dapala. Hold! don't fight. 
Ale dole hahakeda. We caUed out haha 
(stop, stop.) 

Hahadan. Big, tall, pot-bellied. 

Hahadahe hara gofiena. He has shot up very 
tall. . . , „ 

Jom hahadahenae. He has eaten till his belly 
bulges out. 

Haha haha. Boisterously, heartily, of 

Haha hahae landaea. He laughs heartily. 

Hrihal{. Beware ! take care ! have a 
care ! look out ! 

GuroK jokhoiiko hahaliakoa. When one stum- 
bles they call out "have a care !" 

DaK ar sciigel hahaU do bae alljoma. Fire and 
flood don't obey "take care !" 

Hahakar. Consternation, lamentation, 
wilderness-, desert. 

Ar pon gel maha haha Irarreye tahekana. Atad 
he was forty days in the wilderness. 

Hahalpali. Shrunken stomach through 
want of food; emaciated. 

Hahalpa£e gitioakana rehgedte. He is lying 
with a shrunken stomach through not hav^ 
ing had any food. 

Lau do liahalpa(;getakoa. Their stomachs are 

Hahar. To reap, used by old people 
(almost obsolete.) 

Khet khon casko hahar rakaba.. 

Hahar. Cf. bar. 

Noa kurtgu do ?4-i hahara. This jacket chafes 
me badly. 

Hahara. To wonder, to be astonished ; 
wonderful, astonishing. 

^elkateko haharaena. They saw it and won- 
Hahara k9.mi. A wonderful work, a miracle. 

Hahas. To hurt, to pain. Cf. haso^ 

.^^i hahasa. very painful. 

Hahe6. To cool, as hoi. food. 

Hiipe; hnpe, hahei ocoaKine. Wait, wait, let 
it cool. 

Hahi du'H. To overreach or impose 
upon one, to cheat, to oppre.?s. 

Hahi dudikefleae, bale darelena. He ovet- 

reached us, we were no match for him. 
Hahi dudikediliae. He imposed upon me. 

H^hi dudikateye paromea. He will impose 

upon him and cheat him. 
4<Ji hahi dudigeae. He is very overreaching. 

Hahut. A glutton. 

Maraii hahut Kanae. He is a great glutton. 

Hai. Won't you, yes, used also to call 

Hai, note alljomme, hantjebokamia. Ho, listen 

here, we will work over there. 
CalaKam, hai? Hgii, calalfkanali. You will go, 

won't yon ? Tes, I am going. 

Haiar. A pointed piece of wood or 
bamboo, used to dig up roots 
tubers, &c. 

Haike bote. Certainly, without doubt. 

Haike bo^e thikko kamikeda. They certainly 
did their work correctly. 

Haimuikat. Unnerved, speechless^ 
astonied. Cf haemoekat. 

Haja hojo 

[ 212 ] 

Hakup caktip 

Haja hojo. To hang about, to loaf or 
lounge about ; sluggish, feckless. 

Ce£ noakore haja hojo baraekauamf Why are 
you loafing about here ? 

Hajam. To digest, to defraud, not to 
repay money, or grain, &c. which 
has been borrowed. 

Uni do bese hajamleda, haso ho ban hasoledea. 

He digested it well, he was in no way 

Khatofc- do mahajon reaK tS'kae hajamke£taea. 

The debtor did not repay the money 

lender his money. 

Hajir. '1 To be present, to be in atten- 
Hajirok. J dance, to give, to deliver. 

Bae h^jirlente mokordoma khg-rijentaea. 

Through his non-appearance his suit was 

Nui do idikate Malijhi then hgtjirem. Take 

him and deliver him to the village chief. 
Gapa hajiroKpe. Appear (or be in attendance) 


Hajot. Imprisonment pending enquiry 
or trial, to put in prison. 

Hajotenae. He is in prison pending trial. 

Hajrao. \To confront, to bring face 
Hala hajrao J to face. 

Hala hajraokate kulikinpe. Bring them face 
to face and question them. 

Hajri. Attendance. 

H9.jri bgihi. An attendance register, a muster 

Hajur. ") A respectful form of address, 

Hujur. j Sir. 

Hajur. To be present, to be in atten- 
dance, to deliver, make over to. Cf. 

TT T." >• Just, right, true ; equity, right. 

Hak katha. A true statement. 

l^am realf hak menaKtaea. He has a right to 

receive it. 
Hakalf geya meneda. He speaks justly. 

Hak. Surety, security, to guarantee. 

Jahae hake em gotlekhan uniko aralcfcaea. If 
any one will become guarantee they will 
set him at liberty. 

Hak, To call to cattle when driving 

Haka caka. To be surprized, taken 

aback, troubled. 

Haka caka gof enaii. I was taken aback. 
Haka cakaefleako khajna babotre. They are 
bothering us about our rent. 

Haka haki. To bid against each 
other, as at an auction, to shout 
at and threaten each other while 
Haka hjkikin k9.ph9.ri»uKkaua. They are quar- 
relling and threatening each other. 

Hakao. To boast, to challenge. 

Hakaokateye meukeda, ma okoa herel goo 
darekeiiae ? He challenged them and said, 
Who is the man that can kill me P 

Hakao. To call or shout out, to bid 
at an auction ; to apprise, as 
dacoits are said sometimes to do 
those whom they intend robbing ; 

Hakaokateko heoena d^ku do. The dacoits 

sent intimation and came. 
Hakaokateye idikeda. He took it openly. 

Hakar hakar. Applied to a peculiar 
sound made by the pariah dog 
when chasing anything. 

Seta hakar hakare khudau idikedea, 

Hakar hakar. Applied to the call of 
the leopard at a certain season of 
the year, also to the wheezing of a 
person suffering from bronchitis. 

Hakar hakar^oKako po^ea tarup. 
Hakar hakare sahe£eda. He wheezes. 

Hakar tokar. To call to each other 
when watching crops, &c. at night. 

Hakar tokar baraepe. Keep shouting to each 

Hak hak. To laugh, to guffaw. 

HaK haMe landaeda. He guffaws. 

Hukifol } Tidings, intelligence, news. 

Boge hukigo€. The Gospel. 

Hakim. A magistrate. 
Hak nahak. Without cause or reason, 

Hak nahake ruhe£kediiia. He scolded me 

without reason. 
Hak nahakgeye bodnamedekana. He gives 

him a bad name groundlessly. 

Hako. A fish. 
Hakopako. Quickly. 

NitoSe hakopakoeda. Now he is exerting 

Hakopakoe tarameda. He walks quickly. 

Hakopako. The call of the Karl bird 

(q. V.) 
Hako phare. Quickly, expeditiously. 
Hakrao. \ To invoke, or call upon 

Hakrao dakrao. J a deity. 

Hakup cakup. Quickly, to bother, 
to dun, to insist on getting a 

H?.kup cakupin jomkeda. I ate quickly. 

Sao mahajon adiyehgiknp cg,knpedilikana. The 

money lender keeps dunning me. 
Mahajone hakup cakupkedeteye darkeda. He 

left owing to the money lender 'giving him 

no peace. 

Hakur hakur 

[ 213 ] 


Hakur hakur. Applied to the call of 
tigers at the rutting season. 

Onte alope oalaUa t?irup hakur haknredao. 

HahurpaU;}^^'°^^' full-faced, chubby. 
Hal. Moisture, sap. 

Noa jaegaro hal bae or hoda. The moisture in 

this place does not soon dry up. 
Halgeye atkareda. He is not hungry. 

Hal. Condition, circumstances, case, 
posture of one's affairs, state. 

Cei halenaeP What are his oiroumstanoes ? 
Oka lekan hah:eye paraoakanaP What has 
happened to him ? 

Hal. The tire of a wheel. 

Hala. To repay, to return anything 
borrowed, as money, grain &c ; to 
return, as blow for blow, &c. 

Badla hala. "1 

Bodla hala. > To take revenge. 
Pailja hala. J 

Dal hala. To return a blow. 
Euhe€ hala. To aoold in return. 
Em hala. To repay, to return. 
Jom hala. To give a meal in return for a meal. 
Nes do ball hala daf eatama. I cannot repay 
you this year. 

Hala. C£ halla. 

Halae halae. Sound produced by a 
strong wind blowing. 

Halae halaeye hoeeda. 

Halae halae. Rain accompanied 

with wind from the east. 
Hala hajrao. C£ hajrao. 
Hala hali. Equal, equalized. 

Hala hali hoeentabena, besena. Ton are now 
equalised, all is well. 

Hala hali. In exchange for ; to recom- 
pense ; a recompense, retribution. 

Hala haliko liama, ako, bahkhan gidr^t pidrako. 
They will receive a recompense, either they 
or their children. 

Halak. To be ruined, to be destitute, 
to be in want of the necessaries 
of life ; destruction, ruin, difficulty. 

Adi halakenae. He is very destitute. 

Nit hoko halakakana. They are even now desti- 
tute of the necessaries of life. 

Kicridteko halakoKa. They also get into a bad 
case through want of clothing. 

Halak cabaenako. They are ruined. 

Halak dalak. \ Shaking, swaying, rol- 
Hilak dalak. J ling along. 

Nui maejiu do okate halak dalake calakkanaf 

Halad. To pick or lift up, to amass. 

Boy halati. To say all kind of things — "- 

Homor halan. 


To wail and come over again 
and again the good qualities of the person 
being mourned for. 

Halan sari. A kind of sari with an 
elaborate pattern at each end inred. 
Hala lililalf. To wander about, as one 

TT ) ' > An oath, solemn affirmation. 

Halap oooeal). I will put him on his oath. 

Halat. Condition, state, circumstances, 

posture of one's affairs. 
Halat halat'. ISIightly, indistinctly, 
l^alali rialalf. J partially. 

Hala£ halaU iA art jomakafa. I heard indistinctly. 
Halati halat'i^ ba^aea. I know a little about it. 

Halbal. Restless, fidgetty, mischiev- 
ous, applied to children. 

Alom halbala. Do not be restless. 

Halbal bayaea. He is fidgetty. 

Alo sem halbala nitoK do, nondeko galmarao- 

kana. Do not be restless now, they are 

conversing here. 

Halbalia. Restless, fidgetty, mischiev- 
ous. Cf. halbal. 

Hal batoria. A system of cultivation 
in which a man gives his services 
for two days as ploughman in re- 
turn for the bullocks and plough 
for one day for his own use. 

Hal boha. A ploughman. 

Hal cal. News, intelligence. 

Hale. It this state, under the cir- 
cumstances, thus. 

Cedalf hale bam durupa? Wherefore will yon 
not fit down ? [you do not beKeve ? 

Cekate hale bape pg.tiauKkana? How is it that 
CedaK hale bajfi dieamete? Wherefore shoultj 

I not remember you P 
Ce£ halom lieltep What would you seep 
Okoe hale nonkaket P Who could have done 
thisP [lovely. 

Cei; hale 9.Qli moAjili Iielkeda. It was perfectly 

Hale bhac. Call to a dog when hound- 
ing it on. 

Hale dale. To be destitute, to be in 
want, to be needy, necessitous, 
pinched, straitened, perplexed. 

Nes horo godentakote hor do i^i baricko hale 
daleena. Owing to the rice having died 
this year the people are in very straitened 

Hale Jan. Cf hale dale. 

Haler. To ruin or destroy, applied 
mainly to the destruction of crops, 
&c. by animals grazing on them. 

Sanam baha meromko jom halerkeda. The 
goats ate and destroyed all the flowers. 

;^^i haleroKkana, jom ocoedako. (The growing 
crop) is being destroyed, they are allowing 
(cattle) to graze on it. 


[ 214 J 


Halhal. Urgent, pressing, as agricul- 
tural operations at certain seasons 
of the year ; actively. 

Halhal kami jokhee nui do dara loaraekanae, tia 
adoe kamia ? He goes about when work is 
urgent, then when will he worK ? 

Halhalao. To press, to be urgent, to 

Halhalao idikeditiae. He hurried me away with 

Hal hawal. State, condition, circum- 
stance. Cf. hal. 

Hali. \Modem, new, recent, present, 
Hali hali. J now. 

Nia h^lire. At the present time, just now. 
Hgili realt ghofona kangea. It ia a recent 

Hali khoroc. Current expenses. 

Hali. A set of four. Cf ganda. 

Halim. Cress, Lepidiuin sativum., 
Linn., cultivated mainly for its 
medicinal properties. 

Hali sali. A short time ago, a few days 

Jiwi hijli sgili ^tkir hodabon. 

Halka. Slight, of little weight ; to 
disdain, to dis-esteem, +o think 
lightly of 

Halka. An iron ring and hook con- 
nected by a link used to yoke 
cattle to a karha (q. v.) 

Hal kahil. To subdue, to overcome, 

to convict. 

Kacaharireko hal bg-hilkoa. They subdue them 
at the court (convict them.) 

Halkal. To subdue, to overcome. 

H9.1k9.1kef;kinae. He subdued them. 

Halkhao. ") To covet, to long for what 
Harkhao. J another has, applied 
mainly to children. 

Halla. 1 


Hall^ bhai, jit^iuakanam. Bravo I you have 

Haljnal. Confused, conflicting, from all 
directions. Cf almal. 

Halo. To lift with a swoop, as a hawk 
its prey ; to scoop out with the 
hand or some implement fish out 
of water, &c. 

Kufiti doe halo go^kedea. The vulture carried 
it (chicken) oi¥ with a swoop. 

^ Bravo ! Well done ! aha ! 

Hako sa3a;{)le dukana, oetan renkole halo bars- 
ket'koa. "We went to catch fish, we scooped 
with the hand those on the surifaoe of the 

Halobalo. ") To keep- moving the arms 
Halobato. J about, to touch everything 
as a restless child. C£ halbal. 

Halo bato baraekanae uo?iroK lagi^. He ia 
moving his arms (a child) to go to some one 
else's arms. 

Hal sal. Within the year, the present 

Hal salgeye heeena.. He came diiring the 

present year. 

Halua haran. In evil case, hard pushed, 
distressed, harassed. 

Il^ doli halu^i haranena mokordoma bah caba 
hodokkana. I am harassed through the delay 
(of the court) in deciding my law suit. 

Kehgectele hg-lua haranena. We are distressed 
through hunger. 

Halwae. A Hindu caste, a sweet- 
meat seller. 

Halwancador. }^1°*^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^''^^^- 
Halwani. With the purpose of caus- 
ing annoyance or trouble. 

Noa do halw9.nipe metaiikana, noa ohoA leteo- 
lea. Tou are lelling me to do this for the 
purpose of annoying me, I am not equal 
to it. 

Hama homo. To rebuke, to frighten. 

Hama homoem-. Rebuke him. 

Kulg-i tofc' gotenae hama homokedeako. A hare 

was raised, and they frightened him (to 

make him run into the net.) 

Hamal. ") Heavy, ponderous, burden- 
Hambal. J some. 

Sen hamaloR . To be responsible, to bear the 

Hamal katha. A serious, or important matter. 
Calak realf hamalgeli afkareda. I feel going 

to be very burdensome (or distasteful.) 
Am do ente oalaKem hamalaf; khao bahkhanem 

i5amkea. Ton considered it a burden to 

go, otherwise you would have got it. 

Hamal khun. 7 m i , • 

Hemal khun.j^*^ ^^"^'^ abortion. 

Hamal khunkedae. He caused abortion. 

Hamar. A granary, a store house for 

Hambuc. "i To draw an arrow to 

Tiali hambuc. j the head. 

Bali tieilf hambud dareaKkana. I cannot draw 
the arrow to its head. 

Lipsa alite sar tialf hambujoKa. With a yield- 
ing bow the arrow can be drawn to its 


[ 215 ] 

Handrud handruii 

Hambur. To bite with the front teeth. 

Gidr?, ko httpambnya. Children bite each other. 
EapaK ion(Jrako h?,mbura. They bite ofE (or 

detach) roasted Indian corn (from tUo oob) 

with the front teeth. 

Hambut}. "l To lie down with the arms 
Hamut. J round, to nestle, as a 
child in its mother's bosom ; ap- 
plied also to a tiger, &c., cover- 
ring its victim with its body. 

HapambudoK. I To lie in each others arms, 
Hapam bundoK . j as two children. 
H^mbntedekanae. She is lying down with 
(the child) him in her bosom. 

Hamer. A granary, a store house. 

Hamet. To take all, to keep, to keep to 
oneself what belongs to others. 

Acgeye hametana. He kept it to himself. 
Ona hamet joii{ liiraKpe. Enn to secure it. 

Hamor. A granary, a grain store 

Hamram. Abundant, copious, lacking 

Hamram sawae serma. A year of plenty. 
Hamram bes okocteko beoharadiila. There 

was nothing lacking in their treatment of 

Hamrame oraKakawana. He has built himself 

a house complete in every detail. 
Hamram jonako. They will enjoy thetnselTes 

to the full (nothing wanting.) 
Hamramko ataa daramkedea. Their reception 

of him left nothing to be desired. 

Hamtulc. Cf humtalj. 
Hamus. Anaemia. 
Hamut. Cf hambuli. 

TT*°". j-Loss, injury, deficiency, harm. 

H^n hoyoRa^ | ^^^^^^ ^jH ^^ j^.g 

I have met with a great loss. 

Hani hoyoS 

.^(Jiil h^nena 
or injury. 

H9.n darama mente. For the purpose of provid- 
ing against a casualty. 

Hana. Beyond, other,' that. 

HanataK. The one beyond. 

Hana puri. The other world. 

Hana sa. The other aide. 

Hana darere. In that tree over there. 

Hana^alcre dohoeme. Place it in the one yonder. 

Hanali gujuk. J " " "' 

Uni do duk henatttaea hauaK gujuS . He is 
suffering from epilepsy. 

Hana nha. This and that. 

Hana nha oraKte alope near baraKa. Do not 

go from house to house. 
Cef lekam roreda, hana nha ? mi£ leka bare ror- 

me. How are you speaking, this thing and 

that thing P Say one thing. 

Hanam. Old. Cf haram. 

Hanao. To cause loss, injury or defici- 
ency to another, to thwart. 

Hanaokedead. I thwarted him. 
Alom hasi hanaokoa. Do not pain them by 

Hanap gujuU. Cf hanalc. 

Hanar hanar. Sound produced by 

morris bells attached to a band 

round the ankles. 

Hanar j hanar. Sound produced by 
morris bells attached to an anklet 
paengan (q. v.) 

TT J- io be painful, sore. 

Hanaso. J ^ ' 

HaaoaK hanasaK uridke norom keam. 
Alom hasi hanaskoa. Do not cause them pain 
by mocking. 

Hande. There, yonder. han(Jeye burumakana. He is lying down 
over there. 

Han^e oalaKme. Go there. 

Hane hanije henaka. It is away over yonder. 

Handha. A large earthenware jar. 
Handi. The Santal national liquor pre- 
pared from rice, &c. 

Tan h^niji. The liquor first drawn off. 

Doja h*n(Ji. The liquor obtained by putting 
water a second time on the malted grain. 

Bo(Joo han(Ji. The liquor obtained by a third 
application of water to the malted grain 
wMch is squeezed. 

Siair h^niji. Liquor given by the Maiijhi on the 
first evening of the Sohrae (q. v.), also to 
the young people after the bride has left for 
her husband's houge. 

Poooe h?n4i. Paohwae, the rice beer manu- 
factured by Hindus and sold in the Govern- 
ment licensed liquor shops. 

H^n^i dohoe. To manufacture rice beer. 

Handi kundi. A common plant, Phys- 

alis minima, Linn. 
Handkao. To annoy. 
Handkur. \To stir rapidly, 

Handkur handkur. J call of the leopard. 

Cf hadgur hadgur. 

H?.n4kur handkiire ghan{aeda. He is stirring 
it rapidly. 

Handrao. I^^^^^j.^g^^.j ^ ^^_ 
Handrau. ) '=' 

Handrulc. A wooden rat trap. 

H^ncJruK marte liurena. It (the lid) fell with a 

Handrun handrun. Sound of stirring 
in an earthenware vessel with an 
iron ladle or spoon. 
Hg.n(Jruh hgin^ruh dakako ghantaea. 

Handrua handrun 

[ 216 1 


Handrun handruA. Applied to the call 
of leopards at a certain season of 
the year. 

Potea t^rup do h9.n4ruh hjnglruiiko laga, 

Handrun. A hollow, gap, fissure. 

Maran iit?.re atu handrunkeda. The water has 
worn a great gap. 

Hane. There, yonder, away over there. 

Hane.\Loss, injury, harm, deficiency. 
Hani. J Of. han. 

Handua. An article of food prepared 
from the young shoots (helta q. v.) 
of the bamboo. 

When the ahoota of the bamboo are a foot or so 
above the ground they are gathered and 
taken home. They are then out into thin 
alices and ground in the dhehki (q. v.) into 
a kind of flour. Thia flour is put into a 
pot and the air excluded, and allowed to 
atand for three daya. It ia then taken out 
aJid spread upon a flat stone and dried. It 
is then hg-ndu?., and is used to make utu 
(relish) and bhgirt?. (ohutni.) 

Hane mar. \To oppress, to act cru- 
Hane mare. J elly or unfeelingly towards 

CedaK gidram hanemare£koa ? "Why do you 
treat the children cruelly P 

Had. Short of, short, not to the full, 
employed in comp. with verbs. 
Lebet' hg-fienae. He missed hia footing. 
Jom hahenae. He has not eaten to aatiaf action, 
^u hahenae. He haa not quenched hia thirst. 

Hahgam. |^^ ^, ^^ ^^^^^_ 

Hangam. Cf baagam. 

Hange. To take. Gf. hatao. 

Hanhanao. To neigh, as a horse. 

Sikria sadom maiye hanhanaoKkana. 

Hanhar. Wife's mother. 

Hanhariii. My wife's mother. 
Hanharme. Thy wife's mother. 

Hanharea. Mother-in-law and da- 

Hani. Loss, injury, harm, deficiency. 
Cf han. 

tt' -1 p [That one (animate.) 

Hani daraekana. Yonder he cornea. 
H^nitaE daleme. Strike that one. 
Ma rieleme, hg-ni hancleye burumakana. Look 
at him, he ia lying down over yonder. 


Hankate ?,curoKme. Go round that way. 
Hankanankakogalmaraokana. They oonverae 
about this and that. 

Hankin. The two over there, or yonder. 
Hanko. Those over there, or yonder, 

Hanko tora enecko helaoena. 

Hantao. To rebuke, to chide, to put 
one down. 

Hantao ru9,rkedi]iako. They put me down 
(would not listen to me.) 

Hantao. To annoy, to bother. 

Nui gidrai siiisafupe hantaoediti kana. This 
child bothers me continually. 

Hantere Inhere, over there, yonder. 

Hantekme. Move along a little. 
Hante Aogeme. Cause him to move along a 

Hao. A species of large red ant. 

Hao potom. A nest of red ants. 
These ants are eaten by the Santala. 

Haobhao. Harmony, friendship, good- 
Haora. Distress, scarcity, famine. 

Noa haorarebo baficaolen nahi, tobe nahibon 
caaa. We must firat survive thia famine 
then we will raise crops. 

Haora. Obstinate, rebellious, stupid. 
Hap. To eat, to take a bite, to eat a 

little, to pick, as a person without 


Hap iiigul. To pretend to eat. 

AmaK it^i arse jomale habale. We will eat 

thy leavings of food (said after a food 

Hap legaadeali bae jomlaKa. I put it to hia 

mouth, but he did not eat. 
Hap baraledak, bae ^.tiiilaKa. She (cow) 

nipped the top ofl:, she did not graze on it. 

Hapa. A light staff, or walking stick. 
Hapac hupud. Quietly, without a word, 

Hapac hupudkin bere^ calaoena. They rose 
and left without a word. 

Hapak hapak. ") Shrunken or empty 
Hapak hupuk. J stomach, weak 
through hunger. 

Hapak hupuk lad lielokkantaea, Hia belly 
looks shrunken. 

Hapambudok. 1 -d • , f. ^ 

XT "^ 1 11. Keciprocal forms of 
Hapambundok. y i ^ i ,. / s 
TT ^ i ,, hambut (q. v.) 

Hapammundok.J • ^^ ■' 

Hapamun. ") Of full growth or 

Hara hapamun. J age, mature, ap- 
plied to females only. 

Hara hapamunenae. She is of full age. 


[ 217 ] 


Haparao. To contest, to strive for 

JVir haparao. To run a race. 
Tapam haparao. To compete in wrestling. 
Eneo haparao. To compete in dancing. 
Kjmi haparao. To work against each other. 

Haparup. Reciprocal form of harup 

Hapatid. Reciprocal form of hatiii 


Hapca. 1 

Hapca hapci. j-To pursue and seize 

Hapcao. J hold of 

Hapcao tioK gofikedeae. He pursued and 

caught it. 
Hapoa hgipci lagakedeae. He ran after it and 

bit it now and again (as a dog chasing a 

Hapcao gotkedeae. He pursued and caught it. 

XT n [■ To be silent, to be hushed. 

Hapekoifpe. Hush, be silent. 
Hape thirkoKpe. Be still and silent. 
Alijom hapekedali. I listened and made no 

Hapen. By and by, in the future. 

Sanam horbon gujuKa hapen. We must all die 

sooner or later. 
BeleKa hapen. It will ripen by and by. 
SaboKae hapen. He will be caught yet. 

Haphni. Panting after exertion, or 
through disease. 

Haphni sahe^edae. 

Hapho.l To pant, to breathe heavily as 
Sepho. J one breathless with exertion. 

Hap ikrum. To bite the under lip 
when in a temper. 

Hapka dupka. To frighten by threats, 
to dragoon. 

Hapka dupka barakefkoali. I frightened them 
with threats. 

Hapo. To be silent, to be hushed. 

Hapo thiroKpe. Be silent. 
Hapote tahenpe. Kemain silent. 
Hapoenail. I am silent. 

HapraK. Large, big, great. 

Adi hapraKgea. It is very large. 
HapragoRa. It will become big. 

Hapramko. Ancestors, forbears. 

Mare hapramko. The ancients. 

Hapsi. To joke, to ridicule. 

Hapsiedilikanako. They are ridiculing me. 

Hapsi duk. The asthma. 
Hapta. A week, a week's wages. 

Hapta atahe senakana. He has gone to get 
his week's wages. 

Having thick, protrud- 
ing lips. 

Haptao. To contend as to who shall 
win, to compete. 

Uni tuluo a^m hap(aoakana. 

Hapulf. The Night-jar, Gaprimulgus 


Hapuk hara. 

Hapuk moca. 

Hapuk thotna. 

H9.puK moca mara hor. A thick-lipped rascal. 

Har. The " haur ", bhil, marsh. 

Har. To overcome, to throw animals 
by pulling their legs from under- 
neath them. 

Hare Isigif. To overcome him. 

Dhg.rtili h?.rakaia. I have overcome the world. 

Jahga hareme. Seize and puU his legs from 

under him. 
Har gitiokedeali. I threw him by pulling his 

legs from under him. 
Har kundlaii. To throw down, to vanquish. 

Har, To draw towards oneself by the 
hand or any implement, to collect 
together, to lift and take away. 

Hjr saoha. To care for, as for an orphan or 

destitute person. 
Har aamfao. To gather together. 
Har giiji. To collect and throw away. 
Har »gu. To collect and bring. 
Har idi. To gather up and take away, 
ifiiitum h*r joii. To make a reputation for 

oneself, whether good or bad. 

Har. The name by which all fish in- 
toxicants are known. 

Har. To rub or chafe, as tight, coarse, 
or wet clothes ; rough or rasping 
feeling as when the hand is licked 

by a calf 
KurtateA harena. My jacket has chafed me. 
Hara. To grow, to increase. 

Hara bnruR . To grow to maturity. 

Hara jarjo. ■) 

Hara jhaka. fOf fuU age, an adult, either 

Hara jhuku. I male or female. 

Hara jhamat. ) 

Hara juan. Full grown youth, male or female. 

Hara rata. "\ 

Hara sat. ( Arrived at fuU growth, either 

Hara thul. f male or female. 

Hara thur. J 

Harahapamun. Female arrived at full growth. 

Hara mora. Anything that has died a natural 

death, applied to animals and crops alike. 
Hara mora ili do bali joma. I will not eat the 

flesh of animals that have died of them- 

Buru leka jiwi haraena, sakwa leka goco hara- 
entalea. Our spirits have risen as high as 
ahiU, our moustaches have grown like 
ram's horns, i. e. we are greatly elated. 

Hara. A hill. 
Hara latar latarte oalaKkanae. He is going 

along the foot of the hill. 
MaraKkoko heyokeda burure, mana, harare. 



[ 218 ] 


Haradata. Name of a place found in 
the oldest traditions of the Santals. 

Khojkamanreii khojlen, 
HaradatareA haralen. 
I was sought for in Khojkaman, 
I grew up in Haradata. Old song. 

Hara hari. Competition, rivalry, jea- 
lousy ; to compete, to rival. 

Hara harikin kamikana. They are working in 

Haralj. To trip, to stumble. 

Haralf gurenae. He tripped and fell. 
Jaiiga haragoKkantakoa. They are tripping. 


Harkat. j-Loss, delay, injury. 
Harket. j 
Bam hec5 hotlente kami harkatentiiia. My 

work has suffered through your delay in 


Hara latar. To overtop, to outgrow. 

Iiipe hara latarkedilia. You have out grown me, 
you are taller than I am. 

Haralc patalc.lTo cross the legs when 
Hare£ patet. ) walking through weak- 
ness, or a heavy load. 

HayaK pataKe oalaKkana. 

Haram. Old, to become old. 


Haram budhi. Man and wife no longer young. 

Hajram (Janra. An old bullock. 

Hajam dare. An old tree. [couple. 

Pherkin haram budhiena. They are a very old 

Haram jokheo. Old age. 

Haramena. It has become old. 

Ha ram okare menaea? Where is the old man? 

Haran. 1 Confusion or distress of mind, 
Haron. J trouble, annoyance, bother. 

Haran chuoha. Unmitigated trouble. 
Aguharanenall. I brought it with great trouble. 

Haran. ") Disagreeable taste in 

Haran haran. ) the throat and mouth 
when suffering from a cold, unpal- 

Mooare haraii harahiA a^kareda. I feel a dis- 
agreeable taste in my mouth. 

lain lahawaK gur haran aik9,l^Ka. Over-boiled 
sugar cane juice has a disagreeable taste. 

Matkom gur haraiigea. The stigar extracted 
from matkom (q. v.) is unpalatable. 

Haran hurun. Quickly, hastily as a 
person enraged. 

Edre ente, haraii huruiie oalaogoCena. He be- 
came angry and rushed away. 

Harao. To conquer, to defeat, to beat, 
to weary, tire out. 

Haraoenae. He is beaten. 
Haraokedeam. You conquered him. 

Haraf). "1 To be accomplished, efficient, 
Harrap. J capable. 

OloK pajrhaoKreye harapakana. He is efficient 
in reading and writing. 

Harar. To slip on, over, or through, a3 
a ring on the finger, beads on a 
sting, &c., to pierce, as with an ar- 
row ; to transfix. 

Gan^garur do dereliteye harar idikedea. The 
rhinoceros carried him away transfixed on 
his horn. 

Sarteii tuii harar gofkedea. I shot and trans- 
fixed him with an arrow. 

Mit ten dhena cere mit harare jela. 

Sound of cracking, as of 
a branch; of rumb- 
ling, as of thunder; 
bang, crash ; suddenly, 

Haras haras. 
Haras mente. 
Haras marte. ^ 
in a clap. 
Haras marteye gocena. He died suddenly. 
Haras mente liurena. It fell with a thud. 
Eimil haras haras saijekaua. The thunder 

Haratal. To become of full age, adult. 

Haratalenako. They are full grown. 

Harba. The Indian Scaly Ant-eater, 

Manis pentadactyla. 
Harban harbun.lTo move in a straight 
Harbun harbun. J line, to go straight 


Harban hurban. To move in a zigzag, 
to wriggle along, as a snake; crook- 
ed, bent. 

Harban hurbaii biAko leifioKa. Snakes wrig- 
gle along. 

Harcat horcoli. Rough, uneven, ups 
and downs. 

Harca^ horcot hor. An uneven pathway. 

Hardund. "j Self-willed,head-strong,in- 
Hardundi. J- dependent, over-bearing, 
Hardundia. j violent, oppressive. 

Nui do hardundkate hataokettiliae. He took 
it from rae by violence. 

4di hardund hor kanae. He is very overbear- 

Porja alom hardundikoa. Do not oppress the 

A(Ji hgirdundia hor kanae. He acts oppressively. 

Harea garea. To loiter, cringe, loaf 
about ; bashful, shame-faced, a- 

Lajaote harea garea barae kanae. She ia 

loitering through bashfulness. 
Okoe kami banuKtaea uni ho harea garea bara- 

ea. A person out of work goes loitering 


Harek. Every one, all. 

Harek rokom menaKa. There are all kinds of 

Harephare. Quickly, rapidly, without 


Harephare saprao hodoKpe. Get ready quickly. 

Haret patet; 

[ 219 ] 


Hare<i patel Crossing the feet when 
^¥alkmg. Cf. harali patal<. 

Harghari. Always, incessantly. 

Harghaser. Anything and everything, 
every sort and variety of people 
or things, indiscriminately. 

Har gliaaere jomeda. He eats anything and 

Har hamus. Anaemia. Cf had hamus. 
Harhao. To covet, to long for, to be 

tantalized at seeing something one 

can't get. 

Efalf horaB jinia lielte alom harhaoRa. Do not 
covet what you see other people have. 

Harhar. Sound produced by a moder- 
ately strong wind. 

Harhare hoeeda. 

Harhar. ") To rumble or roll, as thun- 
Harharao. j der, railway train, cart ; 
to roar, as a tempest. 

Eimil harharaoKkana. The thunder rolls. 
Burure harharaoKa ^ndhi jokhec. "During a 

storm the hills resound with the roar of 

the tempest. 
Harhar sa^ekana hoe do. The wind roars. 

XT. '.L j i; [■ Bitter, to become bitter. 

Harhat sisir. Gall. [ing. 

Harhe. To break, to destroy by break- 

Dairko sakamko sanamko harhe cabakeda. 
They broke all the branches and leaves. 

Harhur. Thudding sound, as when a 
tree falls, or a house collapses. 

Harhur. Whizzing sound, as that pro- 
duced by a body moving rapidly 
through the air. 

Hari. Fetters. 

Hari biri. Fetters and manacles. 
Hari biri hor. A prisoner. 

Hari. To cross a thread, rope, &c, when 
tying or plaiting ; two or more 
pieces of rope or twine crossing 
each other at right angles. 

Baberko hgiriakafa. They have crossed the 

Barahi harikateko bandia. They lay ropes cross- 
wise on the ground before beginning to 
put rice in the bandi. (q. v.) 

Hari tol. \A method of fixing feathers 

Sikri tol. J on arrows. 

Hari. ^ 

Hari jui. [-Hunting calls. 

Hari joe.J 

When an animal has been wounded the person 
who wounded it and the members of his 
village present shout the name of their vil- 
lage to which hariis added, thus, " Ghosal- 
4ih hari, Gosalijih h^ri, " so that all may 

know that the animal belongs to an inhabi- 
tant of Ghoaalijih. Hari is also used to 
collect the members of a village at the break 
up of a hunt, thus the villagers of Gho- 
salcjih call " Ghosalijih h?.ri Ghosal(Jih 
h^ri, " as a warning to all belonging to that 
village to gather together for the homeward 
H?iri jui, and hari joe are used in the same sense 
as h9>ri. 

TT„ ' •'. [-Shout when driving away a dog. 

Haria. ") One fold of cloth, or once 

Ek haria. J round as in tying a rope, 

&c., a harrow or clod crusher drawn 

by one pair of oxen or buffaloes. Cf 


Do hgiria. A harrow or clod crusher drawn by 

two pairs of oxen or buffaloes. 
Ek hariate tolme. Tie it by putting the rope 

once round. 

Haria busia. Ashamed after defeat, 
silent and sullen after defeat. 

Haria busiae durupakana. He sits ashamed 
after his defeat. 

Haria garia. Cf harea garea. 

Hariak.1 A shout to buffaloes when 
Harioli.J driving them. 
Hariar. Green. 

HariaroKa hapen. It will become green. 

Hariar sim. A festival observed after 
the rice has been planted. Fowls 
are sacrificed to all the tribal and 
village gods and godlets, and 
prayers offered for a bounteous 

Hari bhari. To give property of vari- 
ous kinds in payment of a debt. 

Hari bhari emoKme, bahkhan ohoii bagilema. 
Give property in payment of your debt, if not, 
I will not leave you alone. 

Hari bhon. In comprehensible, inexpli- 
cable, stupid. 

Noko hor real? do hari bhonge ?.ik?uia. These 
people are incomprehensible. 

Haribol. A ghout given at a marriage 
when the red lead (sindur, q. v.) 
has been applied by the bride- 
groom to the bride's forehead. 

Baplareko haribola. They shout " h9.ribol " 
at marriages. 

Haric. Until, up till, up to. Cf dharic. 

Harit. To be wearied out, vanquished, 

Eof rortem hjrittoKa al5jom ^e bae aj5joma. 
You will be wearied oat telling him, he will 
not obey. 

Harjak harjak 

[ 220 ] 


Harjak harjak. A call to buffaloes. 
Harka. A large bamboo basket or 
hamper with a lid. 

Harka harki. At cross purposes, at 
variance with each other, quarrel- 
ling, altercating. 


Harkha harkhi. To tantalize, to irritate. 

Nui doe harkha hjrkhi baraekana. He wishes 

to tantalize. 
Harkha h?irkhi l^giiem g,guaka€a. Tou have 

brought it just to tantalize. 

Harkhao. To covet, to wish for what 
another is seen to have, to dis- 
appoint, to refuse to fulfil a pro- 

Harkhet. Trouble, misery, hardship, 

Harkhet saaet. Trouble and affliction. 
4.41 bgirioiA harkhetoKkana. I am in great 

Harkhetia. Miserable, afflicted, troubl- 
ed, wretched. 

Ohae, ili harkheti? hor do. Oh I wretched 
man that I am. 

Harmad. "| 

Harmadia. VScoundrelly, rascally, base. 

Harmand. J 

Harmar. \ Hastily, quickly, rapidly, 

Hurmur. J industriously. 

Am do h9.rm9irem k9.mikana onatem bajaoena. 
Tou struck yourself because you are work- 
ing hastily. 

Sanam t?.ndi harmariii dara agukeda. I walk- 
ed over the' "whole ground quickly. 

Harna. A deer. 

Harna. To fail, to be conquered. 

Harna bai. Convulsions of a peculiar 

nature to which human beings and 

animals are subject. 
Harna bharna. To give property of 

various kinds in payment of a debt. 

Harna bharnatele em cabaadea. We paid him 
all by giving him goods (or stock.) 

Harna morna. To die, to die a natural 

Harna hiloE morna hUoK. ) Day of death, time 

Harna morna hiloK. ) of dying, 

Harna morna bae joma uni do. He will not eat 

the flesh of animals which have died a 

natural death. 

Haron. Confusion or distress of mind, 
trouble, annoyance, distress. Cf. 

Harop. A letter of the alphabet. 

Harop. To fit into, to join closely, as 
one piece of wood into another ; to 
fit into, as one cog wheel into an- 
other ; to place in or on anything 
forked ; to vanquish, to overcome. 

Par khub haropakana. The beams an fitted 

' closely. ' . [other. 

Haropakana. Of two wheels fitting into each 
Cangare harop kam. Rest it on, or in the fork. 
Uni hor doko haropkedea. They have vanr 
quished that man. 

Harop. Time, used of time from sunset 
to nearly midnight. 

KedoK jom harop. Suppertime, about 10 p. m. 
G^i ader harop. Time to house the cows, 

about 6-30 p.m. 
Kaija ader harop. Time to house the baffaloes, 

about 10 p. m. 
Kisar kedoK jom harop. The rich man's supper 

time, about 11 p. m. 

Harpat. "| Sound of an animal 

Harpat harpat. >■ running, as a horse, 
Harpat marte. J deer, &c., trampling. 

Lnturtele a/ijomledea harpat harpafe d?.rkeda. 

We heard him go trottiug past. 
Harpat marte tot' go);enae. It rushed out and 

Sadom harpat harpatko dara. Horses make a 

trampling noise when running. 

^^''^S'l Gills of fishes. 
Harrat. J 

Harrap, ") Fraudulent, over reaching, as 

Hadrap. 3 a dishonest money lender 

cheating his debtors ; overbearing, 


Nui mahajon do adiye harrapa. This money 
lender is very over reaching. 

Harrap. To be accomplished, efiicient, 

capable. C£ harap. 
Harsur. To become low, as a fire, to 

become reduced in circumstances. 

Seiigel harsuroKkana. The fire is burning low. 
NahaKe harsurena, sedaere khub ganganeae ta- 

hekana. He is reduced now, in the olden 

days he was very well-to-do. 

Harta. Skin, leather, a hide. 

Kada harta. A buffaloe hide. 

Paiira harta. An ox hide. 

Harta mooa. 'I A mouth or lips of skin, not to be 

Harta luti. ) depended on to speak the trutli. 

Harta luti reaU thik banuKanaii. Word of 

mouth is not to be depended on. 
Harta pal, jah nahel. A pig's snout. 
Hormo harta bes okocte tahenkhan. If the 

body is in health. 
Jiwi jati hormo harta boge baragetabona? Are 

we all well in every respect ? 

Harta. ") To serve out food, to place 
Hartao. J food before one. 

Dakako hartaakoa. They place cooked rice 
before them. 


[ 221 ] 

Has gadlaW 

HartaakawadealS bae iomleda. I placed food 

before him, but he did not eat. 
Hartaapea^ko bape jompe. Eat what is set 

before you. 

Halru. The Langur or Hanuman mon- 
key of Bengal and Central India, 
Presbytis entellus. 
Harum tarum. ") tt xi • 1 1 


A(Ji h?.f um t9.rume lagaefkoa. He is driving 

them (cattle) very quickly. 
Hgirum tarumko joma. They eat hastily. 

Harun. ") To be in a sorry plight, 

Gerad harun. J to be in a condition 

in which mourning and weeping 

are natural, to weep and groan, 

to moan and weep. 

Geraii haruhko raga. They weep and moan. 
A^i gerah haruiile ruaSkana. We are in a 

sorry plight through fever. 
Jao hiloK gerahge hg-ruuge. Every day distress 

and weeping. 

Harud patun. Quickly, hastily, ap- 
plied to the movements of tall 
Harun patuhe oalaoena. He (some tall person) 
left hastily. 

Harup. To cover, as food Avith a dish 
cover, or fowl under a basket, &c. 

Daka harupkaKme. Put a cover over the rice. 
Pusi khaclalfteko harupkadea. They put a 

basket over the cat. 
Ar diuhe jerefkate khaolalf te do bako haruba. 

Neither do men light a candle and put it 

under a bushel. 

Harup. To embrace, to throw the 
arms round, to encircle with the 

Harup tombreakanae. (His arms are folded 

tightly across his breast. 
Dare orgo porgoli ha,rup barakeda. menek bail 

harup auinnu dareada. I tried my best to 

encircle the tree with my arms but I could 

not encircle it all. ' 
Haparup. To clasp each other in the arms. 

Harur. Refractory, perverse, stubborn, 
self-willed ; languid, apathetic ; to 

Calalfe haruroRkana. He refuses to go. 
Jojome haruroKkanae. She is refractory. 
Kamiye ha.ruft)Kkana. He shirks his work. 

Harwaha. A ploughman, a person who 

Harwani. "1 Troublesome, causing trou- 
Harwania./ ble, annoyance or distress ; 

causing defeat or failure. 

Harwani lekae kami oooeflea. He causes us 
to'work so as to distress us, (or to cause us 

to fail.) 

Harya garya. 

Cf. harea garea. 

Has. Earth, soil, land. Cf hasa. 

Has ga^lalt. A pit from which earth has been 

Has. Pleasure, delight, joy, glee. 

Hg.age liololf kana. It looks beautiful. 
Okoeko hataoa? .Tahae h^san horko. Who 

will take (or buy) them ? any person who 

is pleased with them. 
NuiaU h9.sgl{ din do calaoentaea. His day of 

pleasure is past, i. e. he is old. 

S!®'. . 1 The collar bone. 
Has Jan. j 

Has. A neck ornament of brass or 


Has. A goose. 

Hasa. "I Earth, soil, land, to bury, to be 

Has. J destroyed, to become soil. 

Hasa horrao. Mortal body. 

la^ has*' } ^^"^ ^^^^ ^^ *^® Zemindar. 

Sebel hasa. Good, fertile soil. 

Gitil hasa. Sandy soil. 

Arel hasa. White silt mixed with the water 

from melted hailstones, and supposed to 

possess medicinal properties. 
Eehda hasa. Stiff, clayey soil. 
Banum hasa. Earth from an ant hill, used for 

plastering purposes as it is very fine and 

free from grit. 
Dhiri hasa. Stoney soil. 
Ja^ah hasa. Red clay. 
Pond hasa. White silt, used as whitewash for 

fiiom hasa. A kind of extremely friable soil, 

which produces nothing. It receives its 

name from being the kind, of soil in which a 

species of Martin (tirom) burrows to make 

its nest. 
Gamoha hasa. A kind of soil sometimes used 

to give cloth a reddish clour. 
Kahkay hasa. Earth mixed with nodules of 

limestone, gravelly soil. 
Hende hasa. Black soil. 
AraK hasa. Bed soU. 
Llpindio hasa. SoU mixed with decomposed 

Bali hasa. Earth containing iron stone sand. 
Pak hasa. Silt. 
Narkan hasa. A kind of fuller's earth used to 

wash the hair with. 
Hasa o^. A kind of edible mushroom. 
Hasaadeako. They buried him. 
Gurio has. Soil manured with cattle dung. 

Hasae khelae. Fun, frolic ; gleeful. 

Hasae khelaeko k?.mia. They do their work 

Hasae khelaeko joma. They eat with glee. 

Hasae khelae horobon ira. We reap the rice 

Hasae khelae menaKkoa. They are in high spir- 

HasdaU. One of the twelve tribes or 
septs into whioh the Santals are 

Has gadlak. A pit from which earth 
has been dug. 

Has hasil 

[ 222 ] 

Hat bacha 

Has hasil. 1 Two mythical birds, a male 

Has hasin. ) and a female, who, accor- 
ding to Santal tradition, were the 
progenitors of the human race, the 
first man and woman being pro- 
duced from their eggs. 

Hasi. 1 

Hasi hasi. I Fun, frolic, jesting, jok- 

Hasi tamasa. j ing. 

Hasi thatha. j 

j$LuriaKi^ metadea, hasi hasi, are sgtrikeda, I 
said to him jestingly, and lie took it in 

Hasi hanao. To be in an evil state, to 
meet with loss, injury, damage, &c. 

Uni hasi hanaoena. An injury has befallen him 
(got a bad name, &c.) 

Uniye hasi hanaoke£bona. He has caused in- 
jury to us. 

Hasi khelae. Fun, frolic. 

Hasi khelaeteye dineda. He spends the day in 
making fun. 

Hasil. Produce ; to get, to come into 
possession of 

Haail bail hoelena. There was no crop. 

Hasi tamasa. Fun, frolic, joking. 
Hasi thatha. Joking, fun, jesting. 
Has Jan. The collar bone. C£ jati baha. 

Hasli. A metal ornament worn round 
the neck. 

Hasli ghao. A sore on the neck or 
collar bone resembling the hasli 
neck ornament (q. v.) in shape and 
contour; suppurating glands of 
the neck. 

Hasna. To joke, to make fun with. 

Hasnak. C£ husnak. 

Hasnua. To joke, to poke fun, to 
make fun with. 

Haso. Pain, bodily or mental. 

BohoK haso. Head ache. 

lao haso. Belly ache, any bowel complaint. 

Aiji haso. It is very painful. 

Hasur. To set, as the heavenly bodies. 

Ber hasurenae. The sun has set. 
Ghosnagarre bere hasuratlea. The sun set 
when we were at Ghosnagar. 

Hat. "I A moveable market, a market 
Hatia. J held at intervals, generally 
of a week. 

Kaerako hata. They offer plantains for sale at 

the market. 
Uni koejohe hatoKKana. He has gone to the 

market to beg. 
Hat bara mokoiikateri. ruar jonkana. Having 

finished marketing I am returning home. 

Hatbajar. Market and bazaar with 


Hat. To lay hands on, to arrest. 

Hatkedeteko hajotkedea. They laid hold of 
him a,nd put him in prison. 

Hata. Hair on the pubes. 
Hata. A compound, a piece of ground 
surrounded by a ditch. 

Hata badi. To vie, to contend, to con- " 
test ; rivalry. 
Unkin dokin hata badiakana. They are 
competing against each other. 

Hata baji. Cf hata badi. 
Hata bati. C£ hata badi. 
Hatahut. One beyond another,clustered. 

Hatahutko durupakana. They are sitting 

clustered together. 
Hatahut burn menaka. There are hills beyond 


Hatak. A winnowing sieve, used also 
for sifting gTain. 

The liatalc^ is oblong in shape, and has a raised 
rim round three sides. 

Hatam hutum. To waddle like a fat 

Hatah. The brain. 

Hatao. ^ rp 

Rath an i'^^ take, to receive, to accept. 

Ne, hataope. Here, take it. 
Bhage bhageake hataoana. He has taken the 

Hatao. To push back or away, to over- 
Hataori. A hammer. 

Hatar. Meanwhile, for the present, 
used only in combination with 
other verbs. 

Taka banulf hatartiiia. I am at present with- 
out money. 

Dakali jom hatara. I shall meanwhile eat my 

XJnie sen hatarena. He has gone on ahead. 

Jiwi hatarme. Have patience. 

Non^e tabe hataroKme. Stay here for the 

Menalf hatargea. ISTot yet exhausted, there is 
some still. s 

Hatar. To scrape the tongue to clean 

Alan hataroKme, dataoni oir9.kat6. HatarenaA. 
Split the twig tooth brush and scrape and 
clean your tongue. I have cleaned my 

Hatar. To reap, to cut off. 

Ir rakap hatar rakap. 

Hat bacha. To select, to choose. 

Amge bare hat bachakate hataome. Do you 
select for yourself. 

Hat bat 

[ 223 ] 


Hat bat To buy at a market. 

Hat batiii dukana. I went to do my marketing. 

Hat capra. To aclcnowledge acceptance 
of a gift by placing the hand on it. 

Used generally with regard to presents of live 
animals given in connection with marriages. 

Hat cut -A-ctive, energetic, skilful, 

Hat chuti. r ^'^*^'*- q^^^^ ^"^ "^°^*^- 
Hatcuti: J °i^°*- 

Hat ou^i hor kanae. He is an active man. 

Hat dahar. 1 mi Ti*-n 
Pa6jar dahar. j The Milky- way. 

Hate. Hear, listen. 

Hate, tale Auren. Hear, a fruit of the Palmyra 
palm has fallen. 

Hatea. A moveable market. Cf. hat. 
Hatear. Cf. hathiar. 
Hatepate. It u i. j.- 
Hatkepat. /^^ ^ ^^°''^ *i^^' ^* o^"^®" 

Hatkepat oaba gofkalSpe. Finish it at once. 

Hatha. A large earthenware cup 
with a handle, used to lift gur from 
the boiling pan. 

Hatha badi. To vie, contend, compete, 

Hatha baji. To vie, contend, compete. 

Hathao. Cf hatao. 

Hathauri. A hammer. 

Hath chuti. "[Active, energetic, skilful, 
Hath cuti. J smart, quick in move- 
ment, especially of the hands. 

Hath cuti hor kanae. He is an active man. 

Daya'hathea. jPi^ously, pitifully. 

Em daporaeme daya hathea doe roj:eda. Let it 
be given to him, he pleads piteously, 

Hathi. An elephant. 

Hathi sonda. An elephant's tusu, ivory. 
Hathi aund. A elephant's trunk. 
Hathi leka porob d^i na odok calaoen. 

Hathi. Importunate, clamorous, per- 
sistent, self-willed headstrong. 

Nui gidr?. do adi ha^higeae, denkhon parom 
do bae mena. This child is very impor- 
tunate, he never gets beyond saying " give." 

Jadopatia do ?diko h^tlua. Conjurers are very 

Hathia japul;. Seasonable, as rain. 
Hathia kakra. A spieces of lizard. 

Hathiar. An instrument, implement, 
arms, also draught cattle, oxen, 
buffaloes, &c. 

Hathiarge b9'nuEkotilia. I have no plough 


Hathiau, Cf hatiau. 

Hathi oi. A very large mushroom 

which only old people eat. 
Hathi uri6. A small bird. 
Hathua. A large earthen pot or jar in 

which gur is kept. 

Hati. To importune, clamour for, to 

persist in begging. 
Hatia. Cf hat. 
Hatiar chucha. ") p., 
Hatear chucha. J 

Hatiare. To beseech humbly and pres- 
singly; pitiously, pitifully. Cf 
daya hatiare. 

Hatiau. \To take, to lay hands on, to 
Hathiau.J help oneself to. 

Bhage jaegaii h9.thi^uakat'a. I have taken 

some good land. 
Grufek jele h^tianakafa. He laid his hands on 

a big piece of meat. 
Khube hatiauana. He has helped himself well. 

Hatid. To share, to divide ; a division, 
a chapter. 

Hafiilenale. We are divided into companies. 
Hitill hor kanae. She is a widow, or he is a 

Goo h^tWi. ) To be separated by death, as 
Goo hap^tili. J husband and wife. 
Aurilan goo hapa^iilolf habid. Until we are 

separated by death . 
Nui do bae bailcaoifa, sahe£ ha^iiioMkantaea. 

He will not recover, he is breathing at long 

Be{a h^tiliaetillme. Share it with my son. 

Hatkan. A common plant during the 
rains, Leea macrophylla. 

Puria hatkan. Leea hirtn. 

Hatkao. To be repulsed, to be driven 
back, to retire, to be defeated. 

Oka lekateho bae ha^kaoKkan tahekana. He 
would in no respect give way. 

J, .1 ' > To lessen, to hinder. 

Alope hatkaoilia, sen ocoadpe. Do not hinder 

me, let me go. 
Eaniii jomket'khan hatkao got'kedae. I took 

medioine and was immediately relieved. 

Hatkari. Handcuffs, manacles. 

Hatkhari. A method of divination 
resorted to during illness, or when 
there has been a theft, or cattle, 
&c. strayed. 

When the question is whether a sick person 
will recover or die the diviner sitting on 
the ground marks three circles in the sand, 
one for recovery, one for a fatal termination, 
and one for a protracted recovery. Then 


[ 224 1 


taking a piece of wood about the size of a 
lead pencil in hia hand he holds it perpendi- 
cularly and strikea it gently on the ground, 
at the same time invoking supernatural 
direction. His hand is believed to be direc- 
ted by the deity or deities whose aid has 
been sought, and the circle to which it 
moves supplies the answer. 
Noko ce^ko cekaeda ? Hatkhariedako. What 
are they doing ? They are divining by means 
of a stick. 
Hatlak. ") rni. -J. 

Hathlak.) The armpit. 

Hatok. "j Suddenly, without warn- 

Hatok marte. V ing, quickly, imme- 
Hatok mente.J diately. 

Hatokgeye god go£ena. He died suddenly. 

Hajokgeye hed gofena. He came without warn- 

Adjom tora hatok marte odok goiiena. As soon 
aa he heard it he rushed out. 

Ili ren munis do ha^ok mente kathage bae aTi- 
joma. My servant does not immediately 
attend to my orders. 

Hatolc. To go to the market. Cf. hat. 

Koejoii lagilie hatoKkana. He ia going to the 
market to beg. 

Hatokaete. ] ttt-^i, , • j.- 

IT i 1 It f Without circumspection, 

TT j. UK J. I carelessly, without con- 

TT • , i ,-,■ j sideration, at once,easily. 

Hat;okkaete alom emo^a. Do not give without 

Ha^okkarte alom soroKa bana (hen. Do not go 

carelessly near the bear. 

Hatok kuria. Cf. hatokaete. 

Hatom. Aunt, father's sister. 

Hatomifi. My aunt. 
Hatomme. Thy aunt. 

Hatpat. Sound of rustling, or of the 
feet of some one passing ; quickly, 

Hatpafiii aiijomledea. I heard him passing 
(making a sound resembling hatpaf.) 

Hatra hatri. \Searching with the hands, 
Hatra hutra.J groping or feeling here 
and there to find something. 

Hatra hatri tamijao baraedae. He is groping 
here and there. 

Hatrao. ") To grope, to feel for, to search 
Hatrau. j for with the hands. 

Hakokoe hatraoe£koa. He ia groping for fish. 

Scottice. Guddlin. 
Theliga bali hatrao liamleda. I groped for my 

stick but did not find it. 

Hat suhga. An insect so called. 

Hatwa. To lay hold of, catch, grasp any 
moving object. 
Hatwa godeme ae. Lay hold of him. 

Hatwa. A piece of wood used as a 

handle for the carkha (q. v.) and 

carkhi (q. v.) 
Hatwa hatwi. To grasp repeatedly at 

any moving object. 
Hatwek. A person who exposes goods 

for sale in a hat (q. v.) or market. 

Hatya. Weak, emaciated, restless, 

Hatya seta kaikaiye garjaoeda. The lean dog 

Hatyar. C£ hathiar. 

Hau hau. To make a noise, or din ; 
noise of a crowd when heard at a 
distance, bark of dog, bow-wow. 

Hau hauko ruheda. 

Aijipe hg,uhauKkana. Tou are making a great 

Haula. Belonging to the Santal rebel- 
lion. Cf. hul. 

Haula bapla. A marriage contracted during 
the rebellion. 

H9.ula bahu. A woman married during the 

The idea was current during the pacification of 
the country that man-ied people would not 
be deported by the British Government, 
and as a result marriages of convenience 
were very popular. 

Haulat. A loan, an advance without 

H?.ulat takali hataoa. I will take a loan of 

Haundi. To defraud, to oppress. 
Haurau. To make a disturbance, din, 

Adihauratu ai^jomolckana. There is a great din. 
Alosepe hauraua. Do not make a din. 

Hawa duk. Cholera. 

Hawal. "[News, condition, state. 

Hal hawal. J Cf. hal. 

NotenaK hal hawal cedleka. ? What is'the news 

of this part ? 
Aleali hal hawal laiakome. Tell them how we 


Hawal murum. A species of snake. 

Hawan. The flank. 

Hawarawa. To make a noise or din. 

Onte cet'ko hawarawaieda ? What din are they 
making over there. 

Hawet. To dry, to dry up. 

Jo^ hawe^. To wipe, to dry, as by a towel. 
HaKwet'ali kagat. Blotting paper. 
HawedoKa nahaK. It will dry presently. 

Haya. To feel a desire for, to long for. 

A^i dinili baigiakata, a,diii hayaakana. I have 
left it off for many days, and am now longing 
for it. 

Bar hapta khonili hayaakana. I have wished 
for it during two weeks. 


[ 225 ] 


Hayam, "1 Indistinctly, partially, 

Hayam hayara. J under salted. 

Buluii jutioaKpe hajram adaakana. Put in a 
nttlo more salt, it is only partially salted. 

Hayam hayamili aAjomkeda. I heard partially 
(or indistinctly.) 

Utu hayam »ikauRkana. The relish is under- 

Hg. Yes ; to admit, to agree, to as- 
sent ; true. 
He ente. Yes, o£ course. 
He se coil. Tea, surely. 
He Kangea. It is a fact. 
He™e bare. Do agree to it. 
HeSkedae. He admitted it. 
He khan do he ge, bail khan do bail ge. 

Heben. Unpalatable, as some kinds of 
wild pot herbs. 

Hiiulc f^° come, to approach. 

Heo hijuKpe. Come quickly. 

Perako heoadea. Friends visited him. 

Disa hecadea. He remembered. 

Nel hejeape. You will see him come. 

Saheb hee ocoaepe. Wait till the saheb comes. 

Hec. To pluck leaves. 

Sakam hod aguipe. Pluck and bring leaves. 
Sakamle heja. We will pluck leaves. 
Tejo alope salaKkoa, sakam sakam hejpe. Do 
not include caterpillars pluck leaf by leaf. 

Hedec. "J To boil, to bubble, as boil- 
Hedejoli. J ing water. 

Bhakar bhakar he<jejoJ{kana. It is boiling and 

Jiwi hei^ejoikantiAa. I am in high spirits. 
DaK heijeo ocoeme. Boil some water. 

Hede gode. One after another, on the 
heels of each other, together, in a 
He^le go4eko jom liukeda. They ate one after 

the other. 
Ape do nonde hegle go^e han^ipe Anieda. You 
are collected here drinking beer. 

Hedel guda. \ A game played by chil- 

Hedel gudia.J dren. 

Heder heder. Sound produced by the 

carkha or spinning wheel when 

Carkha heder he<iler sa^ea. 

Heder heder. To come again and a- 
gain, to keep coming, as a cow 
whose young calf is tied up at 
Heder hedere hijuKkana. He persists in coming. 

Hedok."! A cry to goats, pigs, &c. when 

Hedok.J driving them. 

Hedrec. Tattered and holed, ragged. 

Hedr^c hedrede bandeakana. She is dressed in 

ragged cloth. 
Hedred mara maejiu. A slut. 

H6he._ Yes, yes. 
He he, royme. Yes, yos, say no more. 

Hehel. "ITo wear away ; to wash or 

Hehelok. f float away, as dirt, dust, 

froth, &c. on, or mixed with water. 

Hon menaKkoa, neKe non<^eko hehelakata. 
There are rats here, see they have worn 
this place smooth. 

DaKte mjila hehel calaSkana. The dirt is 

being carried away by the water. 
Torod dalt neKe hehel calalfkana. 

Hghgl. A large jungle scandent plant, 
Millettia duriculata, Baker. 

Hgho. Used to call attention, look 
here, hey. 

Heho. Used to call attention, hey ; 
Heho, note alijome. Hey ! listen here. 

H6h6. Yes, exactly so. 
Heho iii hoii lielledea. Exactly so, I also saw 

Heholok. \ To stand idly about, to idle, 
Heholot. j sad, down hearted. 

Ceipe oekaeda P heholoU baraekanape. What are 
you up to P Yon are idling when you should 
be working. 

HeholoKko dnfupakana. The are sitting and 
looking sad. 

Hghfi. To express assent, to hum and 

Ma noa do hekaK hilkaK, alope gusautabona. 
Hehupe. Express your assent by saying heh%. 

Hej. Disrespectfully, tauntingly, de- 

tractingly, disparagingly. 

TJni hor do hejge rof ae. He speaks disrespect- 

Heje beje. Indistinctly. 

Heje bejeye roreda. He speaks indistinctly. 

Heje peje. Wet, slushy. 

Beh(^a hasa then daSte hor heje peje lellje^ %i- 

Hejer. \ To roll the skin back from off 
Hujur.J the prepuce. 
Hejer. To cut off, as the head of a 
goat, to pull off leaves. 

MaS hejer go^kaeme. Behead him. 

Hej heje. M.)To stand with the feet 

Hij hiji. F. j apart, to straddle. 

Hi] hijiye teiigoakana. She is standing with her 
feet wide apart. 

Hej led. Dii-ty, untidy. 
Oratt hejledge lieloKkantakoa. Their house 

looks untidy. 
Kui hejled mara gidr$. This dirty scamp of a 




[ 226 ] 


H6k. 1 To cut the wind or breath 

H6k mente. >■ from one, as by a blow 
HSk marte. J between the shoulders. 

Nunalf atteye rorkeda hekmenteli atkarkeda. 
He spoke so loud as to quite take away my 

Heke. Right, just. 

Noa do heke kangea. llamgeae. This is jnst, he 
will get it. 

HSko. To brag, to boast, to chatter. 

Adiye hekoet'kana. He is very boastful. 

TT 1 ■ , 1 I To belch, 
Hekoc hekoc. J 

Hekoc baL A fit of belching. 

HSkohSko. To sob as a child after a 

fit of crying. 
Hel. Time. 

Nia helid liijuUkana, ar do ball hijuKa. I am 
coining this onoe, but won't come again. 

Nia lagaete bar hele hecena. Counting this 
time he has come twice. 

Ar mi6 hel doii llelgea. I will try it once more. 

Hela. To neglect ; negligently, care- 

Kamiye helakeda. He neglected his work. 

Hela. A large area covered thickly 
with cut brushwood ; abundant. 

Hela sahanko maga. They will cut a very large 

quantity of firewood. 
Hela sahan lekako g'ocke£koa. They killed 

them like brushwood. (walena. 

Burn diaom reri tahekana, hela sahanteri he- 
Tan<^i disomtem ng^gukediii. I was in a hilly 

counfcry, where I was accustomed to 

abundant firewood, You brought me to a 

country cleared of wood. 

Hela hili. To neglect, to slur over, to 
be remiss. 

Cedalf nonkape hela hilie^koaP Why do you 
neglect them (cattle) like this ? 

Helao. To move on, to drive in. 

Okatepe helaoenap Where are you off to? 
Eneako helaoena. They have begun to dance. 
Kgimireye helaoakalikoa. He has put them to 

Ona khetrege dahrae helaoke^koa. He drove 

the cattle into that field. 


Helaphela. jCarelessly. 

Get' lekape gupia hela pelaP. (lessly. 

Helapelako kamikana. They are working care- 

Hele6. To cut through or off with a 
stroke, to snip off end. 

Merom heleo gofeaeme. Cut off the goat's head. 

Helem. | A bad taste in the 

Helem helem. ) mouth, as of one in 

Moca helem helemifi atkareda. There is a bad 
taste in my mouth. 

Helmel. Friendly, affectionate. 

^<Ji helmel menakkina. They are very friendly 
with each other. 

Helta. A young bamboo shoot. Cf 

Noa do helta do bah kana, ma£ena. This is not 
a bamboo shoot, it has become a bamboo 
■(become hard.) 

Helta. A clod. 

Hasa reaK helfa. A clod of earth. 

Hemal. Damp, moist, as soil, cloth, &c. 
Hemal khun. Ta cause abortion. 
Hembrom, ") One of the twelve 

Hembrom Kftar. J tribes or septs 

into which the Santals are divided. 

Cf hemrom. 
Heme. Poor, indigent. 

Bandi era heme era. "Widows and poor women. 

Hemery5k. ") Disappointed, sad, 

HemermeySk. J downcast. 

HemeryoKe ruar calaoena. He went away disap- 

HemermeyoKiA durupakana, oethobahko pu- 
chauediria, I am sitting downcast no one 
takes any notice of me. 

Hemhem. Unpalatable, as some kinds 

of wild pot herbs. 
Hemkhem. To delay, to loiter, to 

waste time. 

Cefpe hemkhem baraekana ? hakopako kami 
hodpe. What are you wasting time for? 
do the work at once. 

Hemrom. ") One of the twelve 

Hembrom Kiiar. J tribes or septs 
into which the Santals are divid- 
ed. C£ hembrom. 
Hena. Doubtless, more than likely, a 
moral certainty. 

Do se lielepe jomkedae hena. Go and see him 
he has most likely had his food. 

Uni saram doe gurena hena, ente khub thu(i 
tihuakadea. That deer has most likely 
fallen, for I shot him effectively. 

H€na. ") To exist, be in existence, to 
Henalj, J be. C£ mena. 

OraKre menaea p He ; henaegea. la he at 
home? Yes ; he is at home. 

Hena. Hark ! an address to females. 

Henat. 1 m ■ 

Henak. j^" ^"^P^"^^^ o^^- 

Monre henatadiila. I felt the force of it. 
Noa kathaii henalf liolfada. I partly believe 

Henda. lUsed to call attention, hark ! 
Hendaho.J look here ! hey ! 

Hendaho! gidrape Aelkedetiiiap Look here! 
did you see my child ? 

Hend Mndi 

[ 227 ] 


Henda hindi. To concede precedence, 
to urge each other to do anything, 
to transfer responsibility or prece- 
dence to another. 
Henda hindi baraekanako. They are each 
telling the other to do (something.) 

Hende. Black. 

Nale nato hende knyi Vajar lekae lieloK , Baye 
nato talateko nidiedekan. 

Hende bengar. A variety of the egg 
plant, Solanum melongena, 
Linn., having a black fruit. 

Hendec. "jNot fully taught, 

Hende<i pendec. J learning, inefficient. 

Gidra leka hendeo pendeoe k?unikana. He is 

bungling at his work like a child, 
Uni gidr?i hendeo pendeoe k9.mi baraeda. 

Hende pende. Putting off time. 

Hende pende baraekanae, bae kamikana. He is 
putting off his time and n0t working, 

Hender. Worn bare, bare, smooth. 

Dnjrup hen(Jerkedako noa kambra. This 
blanket has been worn bare (all the nap 
•worn ofE) by people sitting on it. 

Noa ghas doko hen4eraka£a. They have worn 
away this grass. 

Hender hender. Parts smooth and 
parts rough, parts bare and parts 
with grass, &c. 
Hender hender hor. A road parts of which are 
smooth and parts rough. 

Hende ritha. Dirty, filthy. 

Hende ritha kiorio menaEtaea. She ha,B dirty 

Hendo- Lounging about. 

Hendo baraekanae noakore. He is lounging 
about here. 

Hendor hendor. Sound produced by 

spinning wheel. 
Hendra. Worn bare, threadbare, as 

cloth ; bare, smooth. 

T&e{ hendra cabaentaea. He has lost his eye 

Hendra.M.\Hair fallen off and left the 
Hindri. F. J skin bare or only thinly 

^ur hen<lraentaea. His hair has fallen from his 

Hendron hendron. Sound produced by 

wooden axle working in a wide 


Sagaj do Ba(Jea hen^lroij hendron. 

Henem. Sweet. Cf herem. 

Heneo. In arms, as an infant. Cf heo. 

Heneo gidrgb A child in arms. 

Hene phene. Weeping and speaking at 

the same time. 
Henel!. Cf henat. 

Noa katha do monere banhenefaftoa. This 
statement had no force with them. 

Henla. Poor, ignorant. 

Hehla mara hof. A benighted creature. 

Hefijel To dry up, to become empty, 
to run dry. 

Jom hellje^akadeako. They have eaten him 

Arei5' helije^kedaiko. They have baled it dry. 

Helijet! heiijet;. Numerous, in crowds. 

Heiljot heilie£ko hijuKkana. They are coming 
in crowds'. 

Heilijian pe6jlan. Dirty, imperfectly 
cleaned, half-washed, slovenly. 

Noa th^ri heiijlah peiijlaiiko gitilakaiJa. They 
have scoured this brass plate very imper- 

DaK m9.n(Ji heAjlah pei^jlahko emadiria. They 
gave me food in a very slovenly manner. 

Henosta. To rail at, to despise, to 
contemn, to scout, to scoff at. 

A^i henostae rofa. He speaks contemptuously. 

Henra. 1 M. T Bare, or thin as an ani- 
Hinri. J T. J mal or person whose 

bair has fallen out. 
Hensta. Cf henosta. 
Hente. There, over there. 

Hente liogoRme. Move away a little. 

Henteenae. He is dead. 

Hente torali calalfa. I will go from there. 

Hentere. Over there. 

Hentere durupakanae. He is sitting over there. 

Heo. To carry astride the hip, as is cus- 
tomary in India to carry children. 

Heheoio. A nurse. 

Heojoh. To beget children. 

Bae heoakawana. She has had no children. 

H6o hSo. Call of peafowl. 
Heoda. To stir, to mix up, as water in 
a tank or pool. 

Cetanre dhipauakana daK do, heo<Jakate liuime. 
The water is hot on the surface, mix it up 
before drinking. 

Heola. To disturb, to mix by stirring, 
of liquids. 

Heolaleened mil^uKa. It must be stirred before 

it will mix. 
Heola milg.uako. They mix it by stirring. 

Hepajot. To take care of, to nurse. 

Nui do bape hepajotledea. Ton did not take 
care of him. 

Hepel'hepel. } A man, men. _ 

Hepelko mi£ see maejiuko mii sed. 
one side women on the other. 

Men on 


[ 228 1 


Heper hende. To hang about. 

Noko do heperhende barae kanako. Theae people 
are hanging about. 

Her. To wear away, to trim, prune. 

Churi alom hertilia. Do not wear away (the 

edge of) my knife. 
Ku^i do her khatoena. The hoe has worn short. 
P?.r herme. Lop the branches. 

Hera ghesa. To be intimate, familiar 
with, on terms of intimacy. 

ITni teliA do g.^! heja ghesalifi tahekana. He 
and I were on terms of close intimacy. 

Herak. Brown, applied to fowls only. 

Heralf sim. A brown hen. 
HejaK kalot. A brown pullet. 

Heran. An exclamation of surprise, 
surprisingly, extremely, intensely. 

Heran nit ho bae heoakana. It is surprising 

' that he h as not yet come. 
Hefan maraiigea. It is surprisingly great. 

Heran petan. Perfunctorily, care- 
lessly, imperfectly, 

Heran petahe jomkeda. He let food fall while 

eating. (funotorily. 

Heraii petaiie arupbarakeda. He washed it per- 

Herca. M.\Having a stiff thigh or knee 
Hirci. F. Jjoint, to walk as one suffering 

from talipes equinus. 
Hercan. \ Applied to the gait of 

Hercan hercan. J one with a stiff thigh 

or knee joint. 
Here. Husk after removal from grain. 

Horo here. The husks of ri e. 
Hojo heye leka taka menaKtakoa. Money is as 
plentiful with them as rice husks. 

Berec turec. One after the other. 

Ce^lekape hijuKkana hereo tureo? How are 
you coming one after the other ? 

Here gese. Continually, always. 

Nonije here gese durup baraekana. He is con- 
tinually sitting about here (expecting to get 

Here jiat. Wife's grandmother. 

Here'ji^t Iriorii. A cloth given to the bride's 
grandmother at a marriage. 

Herel. A man, a husband. 

Ale herel herelre. Among us men. 

Herel hopon. A male. 

Herel doe gooentaea. Her husband is dead. 

Herem. Sweet, delicious. 
Herep. Used only in combination 
with other verbs, a little, a little 

Gitio hefep gofakanae. He has just fallen 

Jom herop godolfkane tahekana. He was just 

bog'inning to his food (when he had to 

leave it.) 

:^el herep gofkedeali. I just caught a glimpse 
of him for a moment. 

Here phere. "» Time after time, fre- 
Ghuri phiri. J quently, always. 

Non<Je here phereye ?.cur baraekana. He is 
always loafing round here. 

Hergoe hergoe. Constantly, every 

Hergoe hergoe pafija bafaea. He constantly 

follows her about. 
Hergoe hergoe hijuKkanae. He comes every 


Herhet. To weed, to pull up weeds. 

Herhet' tandipe. Weed it clean. 
Hei-hefaK besge dareia. Weeded crops 
grow well. 

Herhinjan.\The trunk of a high tree 
HirhiAjan./ which has no branches 

till near the top, .as a palmyra 

palm, &c. 
Hermet. To put or hold under the 


Kitjpe herme£aka£a. He has the book under 
his arm. 

Herpat. To sit for a long time in one 

Non(Je nun gh^rim herpa€akana? Have you 
been sitting here all this time ? 

H6sa hlsi. Each telling the other to 
to do something. 

Hesak. The Pipal tree, a species of 
fig which grows to a very large 
size, Ficus religiosus, Willd. 

The petioles of the leaves of the Hesalf are 
very long and slender, whence the constant 
trembling of the leaves arising from the 
most gentle air of wind as in the aspen tree 
(Popnlus tremula.) 

Adom adom hor hesaK sakam lekangeako. Some 
men are like the leaves of the hesaK tree. 

I^ ho, bare jom hesaK jomkhon ruar hecena kin. 
Hark ! the two who eloped (and have lived 
on the fruit of the Banyan and Pipal trees) 
have come back. 

Hese. To cut through, to snip off, to 

Sahanko hese Jiurhg.iako. They out oif (branches) 
for firewood. 

Orgako hesepea. Those who offer human sac- 
rifices win cut off your head. 

Hesec sekrei. To be merry, to enjoy 

oneself; merrily, gleefully, with 

^^i heaed sekreo casko aamtaoa. They gather 

in the harvest gleefully. 
Jomtebou heseo sekrejoKma. Let us eat and 

make merry. 

Hesel. A common forest tree, Ano- 
geissius latifolia, Wall. 


[ 229 ] 

Hidan thapan 

HSsrao. To pant, to breathe heavily, 
as one suffering from bronchitis. 

H6t. To overcome, to vanquish, to 

Unill hetakadea, ili Bonee kamiro oboe daf elena. 

I have beaten him, he cannot work along 

with me. 
Uni do dadatte^e hetkedea. He did better 

than his elder brother. 

Hgt. Skill, aptitude. 
Het banuStaea. He has no skill. 

H6t. Low, low down, lower. 
Hef kulhi. The lower Btreet, down the street. 

Hetao. To heed, to regard, to pay 
attention to, to obey. 

IroK jokhoo gele cha(Ja oet ho bako hetaoa. At 
the time of harvest they will pay regard to 
nothing save ears of grain. . 

Il5aR raK hctaoatidme. Pay attention to my 

Hfitao. To over come, to vanquish. 
■ Cf. hgt. 

Heter. \ To cut through, or off, by a 
Hetrao.j stroke with a sword, &c. 

MaK heter gotkam. Slash it off. 

Alom calaKa, heter tanalfkemako. Do not go, 

they may ont off your head. 
Hetef go£ kaeme. Behead him. 

Hetel \To provoke, annoy, irritate; 

Hethet. J means of provoking, &c. 

Hete^ geye dam babarakana, hor arereye sioK- 
kana. He is seeking a means of provocation 
ploughing so near the road. 

Htte£ lekathelaoKtegeyetahena. He is contin- 
ually trying to provoke. 

Hete£ geye liamkan tahekana. He was seeking 
a means of provocation. 

Meto. I j'g^jQiija.r, acquainted, known. 

Am do hitn hor kanam, maso o^lokalime. Ton 
are a known person, get a loan for me. 

Hetrao. To cut through or off by a 
stroke of a sword, &c. Cf. heter. 

Hewa. To accustom, to practice, to 
break in cattle, to inure, to ha- 
bituate, to season, to familiarize. 

]5el hewaenae. He is accustomed to the sight. 

Kami hewa. To accustom to work. 

Cara hewa. To accustom to walk. 

Jom hewa. „ eat. 

Nu hewa. „ drink. 

Tol hewa. „ to being tied np. 

Hewa gi(Ji. To be confirmed, inveterate. 

Komro komrote hewa gidiakanae. By contin- 
ued stealing he has become a confirmed 

Sahao hewa hor kanae. He is a man accustom' 
ed to fast. 

P?.ura alom Am howaKa. Do not accustom your- 
self to drink liquor. 

Hewa bahtaea, onate bae jir^u daroaKa, pbaf- 
kar gi^liedae. He has not been accustomed 
to it, and for that reason he cannot retain 
it on his stomach, he vomits it. 

Hewel bekel. Muddy, thick and dirty, 
as water ; rippling, as water. 

Hewel bekel dale kana. It is dirty water. 
Hewel bekel daS mwjiko llu baraeda. They 

drink rice water which is just muddy like 

water (very thin.) 
Hewel bekel laoreA atkareda. There is a ripple 

in my stomach, (commotion.) 
Hewel bekel enale teheli do. We had only thin 

rice water for food to-day. 

Hewer. Over-salted. 
Hewer harha£. Bitter, as some unripe fruits. 

Hgyo. Call of peacock. 

Hia. Love, solicitude, fondness, liking, 

Hi^ jalare maya jala. 
Okakore com dafa bafae. 

Hia khalas. Unreservedly, keeping 
back nothing. 

Hia khalas bare rorme. Speak out freely. 
Hia khalaste tahenme. Keep your mind easy. 

Hiati6. To sigh for, to mourn, to lament. 

Hana disomko hi9.tifiattkana. They are sighing 
for that other country. 

Hicha. Wish, desire, lust. 
Hickau. To fear, to dread. 

Kacah^rite calaK do hick^ugele a(kareda. We 

are afraid to go to court. 
Bale cekamea, caKem hiokauKkanaP We will 

not harm you, why are you afraid ? 
HickS'U hick^utegeli paromena. 1 was in dread 

all the time while passing. 

Hicki. Hiccup. 

Hicki sapgotkedea. 

Hicki bai. Convulsions beginning wit h 

Hicki bai sapledea. 

Hico hoco. To jerk the body up and 
down. Scottice, hotch. 

Noa daraiire bhariako hico hocoko rakapkana. 
On this ascent the banghywallas jerk them- 
selves all the way up. 

CedaR nonije hico hocom aour baraekanaP Why 
are you hulking about here? 

Eiigotkate hico hoco eneo enecteko calaRa. 
Bending down they go dancing jerking 
their bodies as they go. 

Hida hade. Walking with the feet 
wide apart and swaying the body. 

S^m tora calaoenae hi^?' haijle. 

Hidad thapan. lEmaciated and weak, 
Hindan thapan. J tottering, weary with 

Hi^an {hapah tinaKem ealaRa P How far can 
you go emaciated and weak as you are ? 

Hidan thapaa 

[ 230 ] 


Hidan thapan. Thin, sparse, in patches, 
as badly germinated seed. 

Hi4an thapaii janamakana. It has come up 

Tery sparse (seed.) 

„..-,. .: ■ I To stand with the feet wide 

TT-i •' I apart. 

Hejheje. J ^ 

Hijhiji tengoakanae. He ia standing with his 
feet wide apart. 

Hidic dikir. Uneven, ups and downs, 
swaying, quickly. 

Hidio dikirko eneckana. They are swaying to 

and fro while dancing. 
Hidio dikiyUo oalaUkana. They are going very 

Noa hor do hidio dikirgea. This road ia very 

much broken up (by river beds, &c.) 
Go^ae liir baraekana ludio dikir. She ia going 
here and there swaying. 

Hidir hidir. Copiously, often, time 
after time, to trickle or flow, as 
tears, or blood from a wound. 

Hi(Jir hi(^ir gttukkana mayam do. The blood 

trickles down. 
Hiijir mente met daK joroentaea. The tears 

ran down her face. 

Hidir hidir. To come again and again, 
applied mainly to a cow whose 
calf is tied up at home. 

4iji hidir hidire hijuKkana. He cornea time 
after time, 

Hido hodo. All over, in many places. 

Hiijlo ho^o sanam paf a]£ cabaena. It is cracked 

(or split) all over. 
Kiorio a4i orejoKkantil5a hiijo ho<Jo. My cloth 

is tearing in many places. 

Hidra gisra. Dirty, untidy, slatternly, 
applied to women only. 

Hidra gisr^geae. She ia untidy. 

Higa hage. With feet wide apart, to 

Hig^hageye oalaKkana. He is walking with 
his feet wide apart. 

HlhJau. To neigh, as a horse. 

Hihi koko. Flirting, laughing and 
sjieaking with men. 

Ce€ bail am dom hihi koko baraekan, 
Hihi kokote din do calal^kantama. You spend 
your days in frivolity. 

Hihiri Pipiri. ") The traditional home 
Hihihri Pipihri. J of the Santals 

where the first man and woman 


TT.-J j> I A call to cattle when driving 

Hija haje. 1 To straddle, to walk slightr 
Hiji hiji. J ly bent owing to inability 

to move the hip joints without 

Hijhiji. Cf hidhidi. 
Hike. Right, just, equitable. 

Hike do bako bic^ra. They do not judge justly. 

Hikmat. Wisdom, knowledge, clever- 
ness, skill. 
Hilak dalak. ") Swaying, shaking. Cf 
Halak dalak. J dalak dalak. 

Hurniiedae hilak dalak. 

Hilau. To move, to shake, to tremble, 

to sway. 

BabahtehilauEkanae. Heia shaking with cold. 
Ened jokheoko hil^uffa. They sway while dan- 
Dgir do alom hil?.ua. Do not shake the branch. 

Hili. Elder brother's wife 

HiliA. My elder brother's wife. 

Hilim. Thy „ 

Hilit. Hia „ ,, „ 

Hilia. ") Relation borne to an elder 
Hili hali. J brother's wife by a broth- 
er or sister. 

Hiligi kanakin. > They are sisters-in-law, or 
Hili h9.1i kanakin. ) brother and siater-in-law. 

Hilmil. Friendly, affectionate, on good 
terms with each other. Cf helinel. 
Hilok. Day. 

En hiloK. That day. 

Jao hiloK. 7 -ni j 


Mahnder hilolf. The day before yesterday. 

On mahnder hiloK. Three days ago. 

Sombar hiloK. Monday. 

GujuK hiloR. Day of death. 

Hilwet. Unpalatable, as certain unripe 
leguminous fruits, malhan (q. v.), 
horec (q. v.) &c., also as milk at 
times ; sour. 

Hilwe£ ge aikauKkana. It is unpalatable. 
Noa toa do hilwe£gea. This milk is sour. 

Him. Snow. 

Himan. To confess, to admit. Cf hu- 

Hin. Low, deficient, weak, abated, 

UniaE dare hinentaea. His strength haa be- 
come less. 

Nui sadom do tayom sen doe hingea. This 
horse is low in the hind quarters. 

Mon do hingetaea. He is dejected. 

Noa kat do noKoe nonije hingea. This log is 
deficient in this part. 

Hinatak. }T^^*'*h^t«ne. 

Hindaili thapan 

[ 231 ] 

Hiikha parkha 

Hindan thapaA. Emaciated and weak, 
tottering, weak and tired with 
exertion. Cf. hidad thapan. 

Hindo. To hang about, as a child 
where work is going on, or where 
there is something to be seen. 

Hindol. A kind of " Merry-go-round " 
or revolving swing. 

The Hindu Mndol is provided with wooden hor- 
Bes or elephants on which the riders sit, that 
of the Santals with stools in which people sit 
and are whirled round with g^eat velocity. 
This sport is indulged in on the last day of 
the Sakrat (q. v.) festival. 

Hindron hondron. Sound produced 
by a wooden axle working in a 
worn wooden wheel; worn wide, 
as the hole in which an axle works 

Sagar hini}roii hon(Jroii acurolikana. 

Hingu. Colouring produced from the 

lac insect. 
Hirihau. 'j 

Hinhinau. 1-Neigh of horses. 
HShgyao. J 
Hi6jil Diy, empty, of liquids. 

Dalf dul hiiijifkedae. He poured all the water 

out (and left the vessel empty.) 
Atu hilSjidoKa. It will run dry. 
Ared hiiijM. To pour off all the liquid. 
Eohor hilijidoR. To dry up. 

Hinjor. A large forest tree, Barring- 
tonia acvlangula. 

Hi6jrau. To mourn, to lament, to sor- 
row over. 
Nui do hiiijr?.uKtege tahenae. She mourns 

Hinkate acuroEme. Go round by that way. 

Hinrihic. F. ") Tall, as a human being; 
Hirhifijan M. / long as the trunk of a 

high tree with branches only near 

the top. 
Hipir hipir Trembling, tremulous. 

HesaK sakam hipir hipir. 

Bare sakam liohor iiohor. 

The trembling leaves of the Pipal tree. 

The glossy leaves of the Banyan tree. 

Hipiska. Reciprocal form of hiska 

Hir. Rice land reclaimed by throwing 
a dam across a stream or a nalla. 

Hira. A diamond, a term of endear- 
ment, a veiled term for a young 
marriageable girl. 

HiraU hiral?. ") Scattered, disunited, 
Hirak harak. J separated. 
Kamiako hifgiK hafaKena, jomkao do bah. 

The work people are scattered, they are not 

all in one place. 

Hirakos. Sulphate of iron. 

Hirad petan. ") Untidy, dirty slovenly, 
Hcran petad. J inefficiently. 

Nui gidr* do dakae jomeda herah petah. This 
child eats his food in a slovenly manner, 
(lets a part of it fall.) 

Hirar garer. 1 Dirty, soiled, as by liquid 
Hirir garir. J trickling down from 

something being carried on the 


Hirir garir joroamkana, bario gem lieloKkana. 
it is running down and soiling you, you 
look disgusting. 

Hirdani. Sorrow, grief, mourning. 


Hirdau. |-To sorrow, to grieve, to mourn. 


^(Jiii hird?uKkana. 1 am very sorrowful. 

Hirhali. Exhausted, as soil, soured. 

Noa goija do hirha^ena, cet h3 bail hoyoffa. 
This field is exhausted it produces nothing. 

Hirhii5jad.\Trunk of a high tree with 
Hirhir. J branches only near the 
top ; tall, as a man. 

Hirhiiljaii dareakana. The tree has grown high. 

Hirhir. Steep, as a hill side. 
Hiri. To visit, to make a call on. 

Hiri torakedeali. I looked in on him as I was 
coming. • 

Jahatis bare hirikaleme. Pay us a visit some- 

Hirid. To spill, to run over. 

He^ec hiricena. It has boiled over. 

Hirio p^siroSa. It will spill and be scattered. 

Hirlc. A spasm of pain. 

Hlrid mente haso gofkedilia. 

Hiric paric. ") To spill and scatter as 
Hiric pasir. J water, grain, &c. 

Hirlhlc. Cf. hirhinjad. 

Hirin. To forget. 

Hirilikedad. I forgot. 

Hirili saekedeae. He utterly forgot him. 

Hirir garir. Cf hirar garer. 

Hirkha. \To hate, to abhor, to have 

Hirkhau. j an aversion to, to dispise. 

Hirkha parkha. T Abhorrent, disgust- 
Hirkha pirkha. J ing, despicable. 
Hirkha parkhae egerkedilia. She scolded me 
in a disgusting manner. 


[ 232 ] 


Hirla. To trust in or to, to rely on, to 
confide in, to look to for protection 
and cherishing. 

UniaK hirlareli tahena. I will remain trusting 

in him. 
Hirlg.kaiime. Put me in a position to have 

some one to look to for protection and 


Hoponerariko sanamiifi hirl?. cabake&oa. I 

have married all my daughters. 
TJni thenid hirl9.Ka. I will rely on him. 

Hirom. Co-wife, the second wife, 

Hiromadiiiae. He gave me a oo-wife. 

Kaphariau bam aiijomakatkhan hirom era 
johme. If you have never heard quarrel- 
ling take to yourself a second wife. 

Hirom b9.iha. Solatium given to a first wite 
when a second is brought home. 

Hiromea. Co-wives. 

Nukin do hiromea kauakin. These two are co- 

His. Share, portion, part, division. 

Mi£ his nui doe llama. He will get one share. 

Hisa. Part, portion, division, share. 

'Cf. his. 
Hisab. Account, calculation, estimate. 

Behisa^b. Without stint, very much. 
His^ibte. In accordance with. 

Hisalia. Revengeful, envious, mischiev- 

Nui hisaligi hor do bae liel sahaoa. This 
envious man could not bear to see it (an- 
other's welfare.) 

Hisi cSrg. The Weaver bird, Ploceus 

Hisi raj. The weaver bird, so named in song on 
account of its beautiful nest. 

Hisir. ") Crystal, a white trans- 

Dhiri hisir. J parent pebble. 

Dhiri hisir malla. A necklace of crystal beads. 

Hisir hisir. Always, continually. 

Hisil Cf hoe hisit. 

Hisit hisit. Gently, applied to the 
Hisit hisife hoeeda. There is a gentle breeze 

Hiska. Envy. 
Hiskgi huluu. Envy. 

Hit. "j Friendship, love, affection. 

Hit pirit. J- pleasure, friendly, affect- 
Hit mitar. j ionate. 

Hit pirit menaKkoa. They are on affectionate 
terms with each other. 

Hitad jharau. Sparse, scattered. 

^^i hifan jharaii janamakana. It has germin- 
ated very sparsely. 

Hitau. Familiar with, accustomed to. 

Kg-mi hitau hor. A man accustomed to work. 
Noali hit^uakafa. I am inured to this. 
Noa disomreye hit^uakat'a. He has become 

Hithitau. To snigger, to laugh. 
Hitihiti. To laugh. 

Alom hiti hitiKa. Do not laugh. 

Sifi satup hiti hiti land getae, kaimire bae kaja- 

koRa. He is laughing the whole day, he 

will never be a good workman. 

Hit mitar. 1 A friend, a visitor, to whom 
Hit mitor.J uncooked food is given. 
Hit pirit. Cf hit. 
Hitu. Familiar, acquainted, known. 

Cf heto. 
Ho. Used in calling attention. 
H5. Applied to the sound of the man- 

danbhed (q. v.) 
H5. Also, even, too, besides. 

Iii hoA calaSa . I also will go. 

Get ho bah. It is nothing. 

Sor ho bae sorol^a. He will not even come near. 

H5bad...h6ban. Neither. . .nor. 
Hobon hobod. Going here and there 


TinaJi hoboh hobohem darana. 
Okate con hoboii hoboiie darana. 
Nui gai do hoboii hobohe liir baraea. 

Hobor. Bosom, embrace. 

Gidra doe hoborakadea . She has the child in 

her bosom. 
Uni hoborre menaea. He is in her arms . 
Hobor gotkedeae. He threw his arms round 


H6c h6c. The call of a certain owl. 
Hoclo. To be near, well nigh, all but 

Kamibo hocloakat'a. We have nearly finished 

the work. 
Din hoclo aioKakantalea. The day (some day 

fixed) is now near. 
Hocloenae. He is near. 

Hod. Difficult, unintelligible. 

Noko hor soiige hodgeA ^ik9,ueda. It is diffi- 
cult to understand these people (or to deal 
with them.) 

Hodgo. Hairy, shaggy. 

Marah ut^r hodgo seta. A very large shaggy 

Hodgo hodgo can^lbolanako. They have very 

shaggy tails. 
Turuk lekako hodgolikana. Growing beards 

like Turks. 

Hodgor. A piece of wood attached 
to an animal's neck and trailing 
among its feet to prevent it run- 
ning away. 
Hodgor tolaeme aicliye dg.rkana. Tie a log to his 
neck, he is giyen to running away. 

Hodo hodo 

[ 233 ] 


Hodo hodo. Cf. hodgo. 

Hodo dodo. Quickly and indistinctly, 
applied to speaking. 

4cli liodo dodoe roya. 

He speaks fast and 

Hodor hodor. Sound produced by a 
large volume of running water. 

Barakar sa^ea hodor hodor. 

Hodor hodor. 1 Sound produced by 
Hodgor. J dragging a piece of 

wood, &c. along the ground, to 


Tlieiiga ho(}or hocjore or idieda. He drags his 
stick with a grating sound along the ground. 

Hodor hodor. Sound of gulping. 

Paura hodor hodore rtukeda. He gulped down 

the liquor. 
Nui pituk do hodor hodore hoiigorkeda, ar non- 

^e laser lasere galmaraoa. 

Hoe. "j 1. To be, to become ; 2. to 
Hoyol?. >• be born, to come into exis- 
Hoyuk. j tence ; 3. to suffice ; 4. to be 

fall, to happen ; to come to pass ; 

5. to be over, to come to an end, to 


1. Marahe hoyoKa. He will be great. 

2. Horo rohoe jokhece hoelena. He was born 
at the time of the rice planting. 

3. Gel mokateli hoyoKa. Ten cubits (of cloth) 
win suffice for me. 

Pe ser oaolete bale hoyoKksna. Three seers of 
rice are not sufficient for us. 

4. Bali emamkhan cet hoyoka ? If I do not 
give to you what will happen ? 

HoelenaK. What has happened in the past. 
HoyoKak. What will happen in the future. 

5. Kaoahari do hoeena. The court is over 
(has risen.) 

Hoekedape ? He ; hoekedale. Haye you finish- 
ed the (work) ? Yes ; we have finished it. 

Sedae khon hoe hijuKkana. It has been thus 
from olden times. 

Hoe. Wind, air, climate. 

Hoee£kanae. The wind is blowing. 
Hoe duk. Cholera. 

Hoe hoe. Thick-waist. 

Hoe dal{. Storm, of wind and rain. 

Hoe daK unaukeda. A storm is coming on. 

Hoe duk. Cholera. 

Hoe hisil The spell of the evil eye. 

Hoe hisii lagaoakawafmea. Tou are under 
the spell of the evil eye. 

Hoe hoe. Immodestly, without train- 

Ceftekae durupabana nui do hoe hoe. 

Kui do kami bae ba^aea hoe hoeye haraakana. 

He does not know how to work, he has 

grown up untrained. 

Hoe... hoe. Either... or. 


Hoja beta, am ho oalakme. 

Hoe ke bote. Yes, certainly, right, 

Hoele hoe. Instantly, hurriedly. 

Hoele hoegeye ^amkana. He wants it in- 

Hoeto ...hoeto. Either ...or ; perhaps. 

Hoeto amem saboRa, hoeto ili geli saboK. Either 

you or I will be caught. 
Hoeto hijukae, hoeto bae hijulJa. Perhaps he 

may come and perhaps he may not come. 

Hohae. An exclamation of surprise, 

used by women. 
Hohalc. Ignorant, unlearned. 

Nui doe hohaKgea, cet ho bae badaea. He ia 
ignorant, and knows nothing at all. 

Hoho. To call, to shout. 

Hoho aguiem. Call him to come. 
Onkoe hoho sorketkoa. He called them near. 
K9rur barur hohotegeye taheena. He contin- 
ued to shout loudly. 

Hohot. Cf. hoi 

„°V , . l Will you, won't you. 

Hijukme nahaK, hoi? Come in a little, will you? 

Hoi, hoi. Yes. 

Hoi, hoi, ona geli kuliket'mea. Tes, yes ; I 
asked you about that. 

Hoja. Hey ! Boy ! Cf hoeja. 
Hojahoja. A shout in a boys' game. 
Hojo hojo. To move quickly, as when 
carrying a heavy weight. 

Bam dar dareakkana, hojo hojom daretkana. 
Toil can't run, you run as if your feet were 

'' . ' . rOuicklv 
INire hojore. )^ •'' 

^ire hojore calakkanae. He is hurrying, 
l^ire hojoreA hed ruarena. I hare ■ returned 

Hok. Just, right, true; justice, right, 

Hokao. Grunt of a pig when enraged 

or frightened. 
Hokhok. Grunt of a pig. Cf hokao. 
Hokigol News, intelligence. 
Hoknak. Causelessly, without reason. 

Hoknake metatikana. He blames me without 

H5kor h6k6r. Cry of leopard (potea 

Hola. Yesterday. 



[ 284 ] 

Hon hon 

Holanolj. Yesterday. 
Holal A razor. 

Holec. To snip off -with tlie fingers, as 
an ear of grain, &c. ■ 

Holkaloin. Two years ago, the year 

before last. 
Hole. Cf. hale. 
Hole hole. Constantly, repeatedly, 

every day. 

Hole holeye HjuKkana. He keeps ceming. 

Holo holo. Constantly, repeatedly, 
every day, always. ■ 

. Holo holo nui doe hijuKkana. He comes con- 

Holod. Flour, meal; to grind into 
flour or meal ; to grind to powder. 

Gnhumko holoiia. They make wheat into flour. 

Holoa lopoa. To reduce to powder. 

Holoh lopon gejer oabaena. It is smashed to 

Holoh lopoiikediiiako. They handled me se- 

Holop. An oath. 

Holop emaeme. Administer an oath to him. 
Holop oooem. Cause Mm to take oath. 
Holop jom. To take oath. 

Horaba homba.l Applied to the sound 

Hombe hombe.J produced by Indian 

cattle which differs from the lowing 

of European cattle. 

Gaiko homba hombaea. 

Hombo. To hide, to esconce. 

Kocare homboakanae. He is esoonoed in the 
corner of the koca (q. v.) 

Homon. Elder brother's children. 

Homonili. My nephew. 

Homon goro6. Sulking and refusing 
to speak, dissatisfied. 

Cedakem homoA guroli baraekanap Why are 
you sulking. 

Homor. To mourn, to mourn and speat, 
to wail. 

Homor halaii. To wail and relate the good 
qualities of the person mourned for. 

Otre homor tapiiioK kanae. She is wailing and 
throwing herself on the ground. 

Hon. A rat. 

Urid hon ") 

l=tn" Species of rats. 

OraK hon. ) 

Ciurig. hon. The Indian Jerboa-rat, Gerbillus 

Hon bardurud. A species of bat. 

Hon. A son, a child, the young of any 
Apa hon. Father and child. 

Ehga han. Mother and child, dam and young. 

Hon hopon. Children. 

Hon ren bopon. Posterity. 

Hon kimin. Son and daughter-in-law. 


Honad. Used in conditional sentences 
in which the protasis (condition) 
is supposed not to have been real- 
ised, and, therefore, the apodosis 
(consequent) has not taken place- 
Of. hutkam. 

Alo tahenkhaniJl laikepea honah. If it were 

not so I would have told you. 
Nonclem tahelenkhan bareii oho honahe godlen. 

If thou hadst been here my brother had 

not died. 

Hondalc. A method of cooking vege- 
tables or mushrooms. 

They are first washed in water and then put 
over the fire in a dry earthen pot. Salt and 
oil are then added and the whole covered up 
for a time to steam ; after which they are 
stirred until properly cooked. Spices are 
also added to mushrooms. 

Hondak. To stir meat or vegetables 
when cooTiiag. 

Hondeal. To throw -one side forward 
when walking, to look to one side 
when walking or running, crooked. 

Hondeal hondeale darei;kana. 

Hondor. iTo carry away, as a 

Hondoryon. J tiger a goat. 

Hondoryoiikedeae merom do. 
Hondoryohkedeae, noKoe lielme cinhate^. 

Hondrok. Noise made by a pig; to 

Hondrod. Noise made by a wooden 
axle working in a wide hole, also 
of any heavy body falling into a 
well; wide, as a hole in which an 
axle works. 
EoK homjronkedam. Ton gauged out the hole 
too wide. 

Hondwan. To injure, to cause much 

Saname atu hondwahkeda. The water carried 
it all away and damaged it very much. 

Hone. That, that one. 
Honec. Cf honan. 
Hon hon. Wide. 

Hon hoii phof idikedae pin(Jhe do. The water 
the embankment and made a wide gap. 

burst tl 
Hon hail landnrena, bhit do. 
the wall has ■fallen. 

A large piece of 

Hon hod 

[ 235 ] 

Hor hara: 

Hod hod. Immodestly. 

Cef lokape durnpakana hon hoh ? 
Kicrio ofeoentaea hoii hon. 

Hongor. To drink, to drink to excess, 
to swallow liquor. 

Pgiur9.te alope hongor buloKa. Do not get 

drunk by drinking hquor. 
Sokor Bokofe hon^oreda. He is gulping. 

Hon gujur. A game played by chil- 

Hodjad. To meet with hurt, injury, 
or disaster. 

Nur holijanenae. He fell and hurt himself. 

TT , ■ [There, over there, yonder. 

Honte bare idiyetam. Take your (horse) over 

Hopo. A forest tree, GocTilosperma 
gossypium. D. G. 

Hopoho. Cf. hoho. 

Hopon. Child, young, ofifepring,. to bring 
forth young, to breed, to beget. 

Kora hopon^ A son, a male. 

Kuri hopon. A daughter, a female. 

Hopon era. A daughter. 

Era hopon. Family. 

Hor hopon. A Santal. 

Herel hopon. A male. 

Bana hopon. A young bear. 

Sim hopon. A chicken. 

Manwa hopon. Mankind, the Sbnof Man. 

Diku hopon. A Hindu. 

Hopon oraK. A small house. 

Hopon hopon dhiri. A very small stone. 

Hon do bhug^ireko hoponkoa. Eats bring 

forth young in holes. 
Noa lagitiA hoponletmea? Did I give you 

birth for this. 

Hopoyo. The Reciprocal form of hoyo 
(q. v.) ; to shave each other. 

Hopyo. The hair on the portion of 
the head which some men shave 

Hopyo haraentaea. The hair on the portion of 
the head whiohhe usually shares has grown. 

Hor. A man, a human being, a San- 
tal, a wife. 

Hor ror. The Santal language. 

Dis'om hor. The Santals of the country side. 

Sanam hortele kamia. We will all work. 

Hor hara. ) To grow, to increase in family 

Hoy harta. 3 or estate. 

Hoponmemhoradea? Have you got your son 
married ? 

HoroK coe bah coil. His recovery is doubtful. 

Mit hor doli Aelledea, bah doe Hor kan, ban 
doe Diku kan. I saw one man, but I can't 
say whether he was a Santal or a Hindu. 

Tin^lt hor dh^rtire menaKbona sanam do Pilcu 
liaram ar Pilou bucjhiren bos kanabo. All 

the people in the world are the descendants 
of Adam and Eve. 
TuS.r amar alope posrakoa, paso mi6 kalreko 
hoj* kange. Do not despise the orphan and 
destitute, perhaps one day they may be- 
come well-to-do. 

Hor. A path, a way, a road. 

Khafo hor. A short cut. 

Hor arakailme. Make way for me. 

Noa hor Tun(}ite senakana. This road leads 

to Toondee. 
Hor idipe. Make a road as you go. 

Hora. A lino, a section. 

Noa birle sendrakeda, hora borate. We hunted 
this jungle in sections. 

Hora borate. In sections, gradually, consec- 

Hora. To finish, to make a clean 

Gaiko jom horakeda. The cows ate it all up. 
Alom dg.h ocoaUa, gi(Ji horaeme. Do not allow 

it to accumulate, throw it all away. 
Raniii 30m horakeda. I took all the medicine. 

Hora,se. ]; Parting of hair down the 
Horasi. j middle, of females. 

Hor beda. To deceive, to pretend, to 
throw dust, in the ej-es. 

Hor beda baraefkoae, menkhan menalfgetaea, 
' He is pret iuding (that he has nothing) but 
he has. 

Hor bedae hijuKkana. His coming is only a 

Here. An exclamation of surprise. 

Hore ! nonkabo ola? Dear met do they write 

like that P 
Hore ! nonkako mena ? Dear me T do they say 


Horec. A leguminous plant largely 
cultivated, Dolichos bifiorus, Linn. 

Hored gadar. A veiled name for a 

Nui hor dohofed gadar i^eliel lek hor kangeae. 
This man is worthy of death. 

Horec gadar. A worm found in the 
stomachs of cattle, an insect that 
sucks the moisture from the bodies 
of young tassar silk-worms. 

Hore hore. Gradually. 

Em jarwaeaii hore horete. I will repay it 

Hore horeteli emama. I will pay yon gradually. 

Hor gad. A crowd of people, a mul- 

Horgosmarte. Cf hurgusmarte. 

Hor hara. To grow, to increase in fam- 
ily and estate. 

Di tli6^®™ horharaena, arnonkam metailkanaP 
Ton have increased in family and estate in 
my service and do you speak thus to me P 

Hor horan 

[ 236 ] 


The grass snake, not poi- 

to increase ni 


Hor horan. 

Hor harta. To grow, 

family and estate. 

Sanam lekateli hor hartaeiia . My family and 
estate have increased in every way. 

Horho. To watch, to guard. 

Noko gidrg.ko horho jangekoam 
over and protect these children. 

Horho beskedeale. "We nursed him back to 

Horole horhoeda. We are guarding our dhan. 

HoriSr. ") To trickle down the cheekd, 

HoriySr. J the side of a vessel, a beam, 

&c. ; to glide over the surface. 

Horior argonkaname^ daK do. The tears trickle 

Cet; leka bam dnlei horiyor oooedam. How 

are you pouring it ? Tou are allowing it to 

trickle down the aide. 
Nahelem horiyor baraet; do. Tou are ploughing 

on the surface. 

Horjan. T To limp, as with a 

Horjad horjan. J badly set fractured 

Horjan horjaiie oalalfkana. 

Horjan hurjan. From side to side. 

Bifi horjan hurjahko calalca. Snakes move 
from side to side when progressing. 

Sar horjan hurjah calaoena. The arrow swer- 
ved from side to side. 

Horlo lolo. A lullaby sung by Santal 
mothers to their children, to sway 
as a mother hushing a child. 

Horlo lolo, horlo lolo, beta doe japii; talea. 
Tirio orohme se horlo lolo. Sway yourself when 
playing the flute. 

Hormo. Body, to be pregnant. 

Hormo hatili. The members of the body, limbs. 
Khubo hormoana. He is well grown. 
Hormoakanae. She is enceinte. 
Hormo algao. Prolapsus uteri. 
Hormo algaoentaea. She is suffering from 
prolapsus uteri, 

Hormo ol. To lie down for the night. 

Horo. The rice plant, Oryza sativa, 
Linn., unhusked rice. 

Horo caole. Husked rice. 
TJri horo. Wild rice. 

Nea do ban horolena. There was not much 
grain in the ears of rice this year. 

Horo. A tortoise. 

DaK horo.^ 
Taniji ,, 

^Varieties of the tortoise destin- 
guished by Santals. 

Burn „ n 

Lapra , , ( 
Tukuc ,, 

ToklaK,, J 

orok. \To pay a visit friends, 

3ra horok. J to visit. 

Horo horo. To carry food, &c., holding 
it to the stomach ; carefully. 

Uni hor do horo horo dakae hobor idieda. 

Horo horo. Man by man, each man. 

Horo horo sadom menaKkotakoa. Each man 

has horses. 

Horo horoko hataoana. Bach man has taken. 

Horols. To sink or become hollow, as 
the eyes. 

Met' horoKentaea. Hia eyes have become 

Pera horoK khoniii ruarena. I have returned 

' from a visit to friends. 
Bes okootele pera horoKlena. We were wel- 
comed and treated hospitably. 
Pera horoRili calaKkana. I am going on a visit 

to friends. 
Pera hor. A visitor. 

Horoli. To put on the person, as a 
coat, ring, earrings, bracelets, a 
hat, &c. &c. 

HoroK cikhna. Betrothal ceremony. 


Tupriko horoKadea. They put a hat on his head. 
Hor kuri bank bahkiko horoga. Santal girls 

wear anklets. 
Nui kuri do adi molij kurtae horoKakawana. 

This girl has on a very pretty jacket. 

Hor podo. A forest fruit tree, Ficus 
cunia, Buck. 

Hor putka. A species of edible mush- 

Horsec. | Obliquely, to one side, 

Horsed horsec. j sideways. 

Horsec horsede bengeda. He is looking side- 

Hos. Consciousness, sense. 

Be-hos. Unconscious. 

Hos banuKtaea. He has no sense. 

Hosec. To get out of the way, to re- 
move, to sift. 

Hosec liogoKme. Move a little out of the way. 
Hosec todme. Sift it out. 

Hoshosao. To slip down, as with arms 
round a tree ; to run out, as rice, 
&c. from a bandi (q. v.) with a hole 
near the bottom. 

Noa dare khon hoshosao ilurenae. 
Hoshosao argoenae dare khon. He slid down 
the tree (with his arms round it.) 

Hosor. To slip gradually. 

Jin hosor riurena. The saddle slipt and fell. 

Hosor gidi. To miscarry. 

Hosor iiurhg.ena. Slipt and fell down. 

Hosoli. To move while sitting on the 
ground without rising up. 

HosoId liogoKme. Move along a little with- 
oixt getting up. 


[ 237 ] 


Hoi. To strip off by running the hand 
up the stalk. 

Sakam hoi giijime. Strip off the leaTea. 
Hofo gele6 hoda. I will strip off the grain 
from the ears of rioe. 

Hot;. In comp. implies suddenly, in- 
stantly, quickly, without delay. 

Dal hodeme. Hit him at once. 
Heo ruar hodoKme. Eoturn quickly. 
Dal ho bae dalhohotja. He does not strike read- 
ily (is not given to striking.) 

Hotak. To stir up, to toss up, as hay ; 
to remove by means of a stick, 
&c., as something one does not 
wish to touch ; to rip, with the 
tusks, as a wild boar. 

Mandare horoko hotaga. They toss up, (or turn 
over) the dhan on the threshing floor. 

Nui do bir sukri thene hotak ored ocoakana. 
This man has been ripped by a wild boar. 

Hoktak 4ah, A bamboo used. to turn the straw 
on the threshing flooor. Cf . akhaini. 

Hotak khodrak. Shakings, as of a bag 
which has contained grain, scrap- 
ings, sweepings. 

Ho(ak khodrak ill darn barakeda. I searched 

for the shakings of the bags, and scrapings 

and sweepings. 
Ho^alc khodrak sanam s^ule emafa. Shakings, 

scrapings, sweepings, we gave all to the 

money lender. 

Hotak picak. Everything, all kinds, 
everywhere, the whole ; fast. 

HotaK picg.K ko jomkeda. They ate up every- 

Horole souadea ho^ak picgiK cei ho bah sa- 
reclena. We measured out all the dhan to 
him (money lender) nothing was left over. 

Hotak pic9.Ke kamikana. He is worlcing fast. 

Hot hoto. Very long, of great height, 

Hot hoto benaoaka^ae orak do. He has made 

the house very long. 
A^i jeleria hot hoto rel gacji do. The railway 

train is very long. 

Hot; husit;. For ever, altogether, com- 

TeheA khon do luturili peterkeda, ado hot hu- 
sifili bagi utg.ra. I have .twisted my ear 
and from to-day I will give it up entirely and 
for ever. 

Hotkor. To pull or take out of fire, 
water, &c., by means of a stick, &c. 

Seugel khon jel hotkor odokme. Pish the meat 

out of the fire (with a stick.) 
Mase 4aute hotkor odokem, ileleabo. Pish it 

out (of the water) with a stick, we will see 

what it is. 

Hoto budhi. Foolish, senseless. 

Nui do hoto budhi hor kanae. This is a fool- 
ish man. 

Hotok. The neck. 

HotoK limbof. To throttle. 

Hotokkaete."! ^i^'^out circumspection, 
Hotokkarte. J- without consideration, 
Hotok kuri. j carelessly, at once, easily. 

C£ hatokaete. 
Hotor. To pick, to pick out, to push 

out, to poke out, with a stick, &c. 

Data hoKtorak. A tooth pick. 
Jojom mei ill hotor todtapea. I will probo 
out your right eyes. 

Hotofi. A species of pumpkin, Cu- 

curbita lagenaria. 
Hoyam. 1 Indistinctly, parti- 

Hoyam hoyam. J ally. 

Nel hoyamkedeali. I saw him indistinctly. 
Aiijom hoyamkedaji. I heard indistinctly. 

Hoyad. \ Off the straight, at an 

Hoyaii hoyan. 3 angle, glancing off, 

twirling in the air, as a falling leaf 

Etakte hoyahena. It went off at an angle. 
II hoyaii hoyahte Aurokkana. The feather is 
twirling round in falling. 

Hoyon.}^^ ^^^^^- 

Hoyo mun(Jrakodeako. They shaved his head. 

Hoyoii. Breeze, wind, air, draught. 

HoyohoKa mentele oijokena. We have coma 

out to get the air. 
Delabon hoyohte, adi udgq,r kana. Come, let us 

^o out to the air, it is very hot. 
Nonde hoyohge bolokkana. It is here where 

the draught comes in. 
Nonde ^di hoyoii gea, adokabo. There is much 

wind here, we will take shelter. 

TT '),]■' [-Call of the jackal. 

Huan. To injure, to damage, to cause 
detriment, scath, or havoc. 

Dal huah. To cause injury by striking. 

Mak huaiii. To cause injury by a out with 
sword, &c. 

Takic huah. To be injured by coming in con- 
tact with something. 

Bae tiokledea, bankhane maS 'huaiikea. He 
did not reach it, or else he would have injur- 
ed it severely with a blow (with his axe.) 

Huak. To eat. 

Jomale, huagale. We will eat, we wiU eat. 

Hub. Pleasure, enjoyment, freedom 

from care. 
Nea do hub banuKanah. There is no freedom 

from care this year. 
Enec l?tgit' ^di hubaekana. He greatly enjoys 

Nes do hub bhahgaena. This year onr freedom 

from care has been broken (we are down 



[ 238 1 

Hudu huduc 

Hubai' ( "^^ *^^^* ^'^*° ^'^^^' °^°P' slash. 

HubaKaeme mif; dhao. Give him one slash. 
Hubg.K; gookedeako. They slashed and killed 

Sahan hubg.KaK me. Chop firewood. 

Hucak. To break off, to snip off. 

Mone hnoaKentaea. He is disappointed, or 

Par hucal? go(;kam. Break off the branch. 
Horo adi huoalc JiiiroKkana. The ears of dhan 
are snapping and falling down. 

Hue bir. A small bird, the Indian Pitta, 
Pitta hrachyiira. 

Hucec. To cull, to break ofif, to snip 

off, to break off, as an engagement ; 

to be disappointed, as a hope or 

Hue hue. Quickly, again and again, 

often and quickly. 

HuQ hud dake loeda. She draws water quickly. 

Huchucu. Lofty, high. 

Burn huchucu lieloKkana. The hill appears 

Huchucu. To sit on the heels. 

Huchucue durupakana. He is sitting on his 

Hucku eukur. Restless, going here 
and there, wavering, doubting. 

Hucku eukur baraekanae, mif t^hen do bae ta- 
hena. He is going here and there, he will 
not remain in one place. 

Alope hucku eukur monoKa. And be not of 
doubtful mind. 

Hucmarte. ) Quickly, without warning, 
Hucmente.J in a moment, suddenly. 

Hue marte atkir got'kedea kuri6 do. The vul- 
ture suddenly snatched and carried it away. 

Hue mente bere£ calaoenae. He rose and left 
without saying anything. 

Hucuk. Necessity, compulsion. 

Hucuk lagaoakawadea. Necessity was laid upon 

Huoufc lekae oalaoena. He left as if under com- 

Hucuk heoadea. He was constrained. 

Huda. A title, a cognomen, office, class. 

Hud^ hudae rakapena He rose step by step. 
Hor hndare gidrako emoKkana parhaolc lagifi. 
Santals send their children to be educated. 
Hudawan hor. A titled person. 

Huda. To forward anything to its des- 
tination by passing in on from 
village to village. 

Hudate kolgotjkam. Send it to its destination 

by having it passad on from village to village . 

Huda hedakawadea. Something has come to 

him which he has to pass on to another 


Hudar. Shaft of a cart. 
Hudgel." } To stir, to agitate. 

Dalf alom hudg^ra. Do not stir the water. 
Huqlgar hufJgSrteko loeautudo. They stir up 
the relish before taking it out of the pot. 

Hu'dgu dugur. To annoy, to trouble. 

Nui do adiye hudgu dugurkedilia. He caused 

me much trouble. 
Gidra doko hudgu dugurkoa. Children annoy 


Hudgu dugur. To blaze, as a fire. 

Hudgu dugnr joloKkana. Itis blazing. 
Seiigel hudgu dugurotckana. The fire is blazing. 

Hudhud. Roaring, as of a large fire 
or a river in flood. 
Hudhud sa<Jekana seiigel do. The fire is roar- 

Hudhud daK ^tuKa. The flood rushes roaring 

Hudhudau. To roar as a river in flood, 
or a large fire. 

Hudhudau. To hurry. 

Nui do oral? khone hudhudau odokkef koa. He 
hurried them out of the house. 

Ii5 do khanakha hudhudau agukedidae. He hur- 
ried me here without cause. 

Hudhudau. To roar, as a wild boar 
or bear. 

Hud hudi. A waterfall, a cascade. 

Hud hudi then calaKpe. Go to the waterfall. 

Hudin. Small, young. 

Hudiri hudiri. . Very small. 
Huditi saheb. Assistant manager. 
Hudiii utarid. The youngest. 

Hudis. To think, to ponder. 

Hudis bundis. To think out. 

Hud marte. \ Suddenly, with a rush. 
Hud mente.J with a sudden rustle 
or gust. 

DaK hud marte argo got'ena. Water come down 
with a rush. 

Hudra. Steps on a ladder. 

Hudra. A compartment, an apart- 
ment, a room. 

Hudrit. Scratched, abraded, slightly 

Hiidrif ghao. An abrasion of the skin. 
God 4arte hudri(; go^enali. I was scratched by 
a dead branch. 

Huduc huduc. Lame, or leg stiff. 

Hu(;lud huijud taramedae. He limps. 

Hudu hudu6. A very small quantity 
or piece. 

Hudiik huduk 

[ 239 ] 

Huk raarte 

Huduk huduk. Loud, the sound produ- 
ced by beating a drum. 

TumdaK tamak hu^uk hu<Juk 8a(j6a. 
Tamak hii(Juk hviijuk arijomoKkana. 

Hudul raj. \The angel of death, the 

Hudur raj. J governor of the nether 


Hudurak. Huge, big, large. 

HuduraKelieloKkanakuTdo. The tiger looks 

Hudur hudur. Rolling of thunder, any 
deep rolling sound. 

Hudur hu(Jur rimil eaijekaiia. The thunder 

Hudur hudur. The lowing of a cow in 
quest of her calf; the sound pro- 
duced by a deep toned flute, deep 
growl of tiger. 

Gai hudur hudur dar hijulckasae. The cow 

comes running and lowing. 
Tirio sadea hudur hudur. The flute emits a 

deep tone. 
Kule garjao^ kana "hudur huduf. The tiger 

growls hoarsely. 

Hudur marte. With a plump, plumping 
into deep water, a deep sound. 

Hudur mente Am goiena. It fell with a plump. 
Hudur mente sa^eena. It sounded plump. 

Huluihugui.}^^^''*' gentle, as wind. 

Hugui hugui hoeedae. A gentle breeze is blow- 
Hugui hugnii non^e hoe bololf kana. 

Hugui hugui. Before daylight. 
Hugui marte. Quickly, instantly, sud- 

Hugui marte calaoenae. He left suddenly. 

Huhar. The Green pigeon, Grocopns 

Huh huh- Call of bear when enraged. 
Huhi. A hunting term, to proclaim 

the carcase of an animal killed in 

the chase public when it cannot 

be proved who killed it. 
Huhkau. To make a noise like a bear 

when enraged- 

Banako huhkaua. 

Geger lagif; huhkaulikan tahekanae. 

Huhu. An imitative word, weeping. 

Huhue raBkeda. 

Huhu. Imitating crying. 

Ce€ bail huhu dom raraKkan ? 

Huhu. The hooting of the owl. 
Hujat. "1 To oppress, trouble, annoy, 
Hujut. j bother. 

Khajna reaK ?.^iko hujuteflekana. They are 
bothering us about our rent. 

Hujlak'hujlak.}^'^ ^^''S^ quantity. 

HUJI9.K hujljK mayam joroentaea. He bled 

Hujlak marte. ~) With great force and 
HujlaU mente. J quickly, in large 
quantity and quickly. 
Hujlg,1f marte upadil5ae. He poured me out a 

large quantity. 
Hujlajf marteA tuflikedea. I shot and wounded 
him severely. 

Huju duria. An ornament worn by 
women and girls attached to the 
coiled hair at the back of the head. 

Hoe piohe huju (Juria hilau'Ktili. !My ohaplet 
waves with every breath of wind. 

Hujuk hujuk. In crowds, in swarms, 
from all sides. 

Hujuk hujuk horko jaoratkana. Crowds of 
people are assembling. 

Hujur. A term of respect. Sir. 
Hujur. To trickle, as grain out of a 
hole in a bag. 

NoKoe non^eye hujurolikana. See, it is trick- 
ling out here. 

Hujur. Cf hajir. 

Huk \^^^ ^° *^e loins, lumbago. 

Jahan hamalalf tullekhan huhuka. 
Huk leka cjan(ja hasoediilkana. 

Huka. The hooka, the bubble bubble. 

Huka bardar. An attendant whose 
duty it is to attend to his master's 
pipe, an attendant or assistant who 
accompanies a Pargana when at- 
tending to his official duties. 

Huka, To snort, as a bull when exci- 

Sar hnk^, paskaeako. Bulls snort and spurn 

the ground. 
Hor hoko hukaia edrete. People also snort 

when angry. 

Huke huke."| Imitative of the call of 
Hua huke. / a jackal 

Huker gundri. A species of quail. 
Hukes. A bird so called. 
Hukhuk. Imitative of weeping, bit- 

Huk huke raKkeda. He wept bitterly. 

Hukigot. News, intelligence. 

Huk marte. With a slapping or smack- 
ing sound. 

HuK marte A dalmea nahaK. I shall give you a 
smart slap presently. 


[ 240 ] 

Hunar kisim 

Hukum. An order, a command. 

Ale do hukum ba-nuKtalea jahae goje lagit'. It 
is not lawful for us to put any one to death. 

Kombroe realf hukum b^'nukanah. It is un- 
lawful to steal. 

Hukuli hukul Sobbing. 

Huku£ hukut'e ralfksda. He sobbed and wept. 

Hul. To riot, to rebel, to mutiny, 
applied more especially to the 
Santal rebellion of 1853-54. 

Huhulic. An exciter to riot, or rebellion. 
Hul bapla. A marriage contracted at the 
rebelUou. Cf. haulai. 

Hulalc. To break off, to snip off, with 
the fingers. 

Hero geleto hulaga. They snip off the ears 
of rice. 

Hular. ") To lay waste, to destroy, to 
Hular. ) consume. 

Gota disomko hularkeda. They laid waste the 
whole country. 

Acti hular oooedape. Ton are allowing (the cat- 
tle) to destroy (the crops.) 

Hulas. Joy, gladness. 

Hulg.3ol?pe. Rejoice. 

Hulas bhanga. The spirits to be depres- 
sed, to be dejected. 

Horo gooentalete mon do hulas bhaugaentalea. 
Our spirits are depressed owing to our rice 
having died. 

Hulec. To snip or break off with the 

Cha dare real? ijogko huleja, They pluck off 

the buds of the tea bushes. 
Pacrahgi baha dose miru huleo ?guime. 

Huli. 1 Hue and cry, to send informa- 
Hulia.j tion here and there, mostly 
regarding persons or animals who 
have been lost, or escaped prison- 

Hulkam. Cf. hutkam. 

Hulkau. To peep, to look and then 
draw back as a person who does 
not wish to be seen ; to sneak about. 

Cet'em hulkaultkanaP ma odokoKme. Why are 
you peeping ? come out. 

Hulmal. Riot, disturbance, mutiny. 

Hulsii. To sharpen implements by 
heating and hammering, as black- 
smiths do ; used also in threats, to 

Hulsifi kateko uruda. They sharpen by hammer- 
ing and grinding. 

Hapo, nahalclah hulsirimea. Wait a bit, I shall 
Ijresently hammer you. 

Huluc huluc. Again and again, vio- 
lently, in large quantity. 

Hulud hulude hijuEkana. He is coming again 

and again. 
Hulud hulud dhiia odokoKkana. The smoke 

issues in large volume. 

Huluk huluk.l Idling, loafing, loung- 
Huluk buluk.J ing about, often, time 
after time. 

Huluk huluk sili sa^iup nondem aour baraekana. 
Ton are always loafing about here. 

HuluQ. ■) -r, , 

Hiskahulun. | Envy, to envy. 

Sanam horko hiska huluhallkana, adili arjao- 
akafte. All the people are envying me be- 
cause I have had good crops. 

Hulwel Cf. hilwet. 
Hum. A shout to cattle when plough- 
ing to cause them to stop, wo, stop 

Humak. To strike, to beat. 

HumaKtedeafi. I thrashed him. 

Human. To admit, to confess. 

Cele, noa katha dom humankeda? Do you 
admit this statement ? 

Humcak. To jerk the body, or any part 

HumcaiK gof enae. He jerked his body. 

Humcau. To jerk the body, or any part 

Mifi dhaogeye humc?.ulena, humcau topaKgof- 
kedae. He gave one jerk, and broke (the 
rope with which he was tied.) 

Humtak. \To disturb,to trouble, 

Humtakhumtak.J as water by fishes, 

&c,, to cause a movement in water, 

to splash up. 

Nonde hako menaKkoa, humtalckedako. There 

are fish here, they caused a movement in the 

Hako con cele cone hum^aKkeda. A fish or 

some other creature caused a movement 

in the water. 

Hunak. So much, so many, so much 

as that. 

HunaK ^akae khoroc oookefbona. He caused 
us to spend so much money. 

Hunar. To search for, as fruits, roots, 

&c. in the forost. 
Heltako hunar aguia. They gather and bring 

home bamboo shoots. 
Bir khon da hunar aguime. Search for and 

bring roots from the jungle. 

Hunar. \Industrious, managing, 

Hunar kisim.j resourceful, applied 
to housewives. 

Hunar kisim maejiu kanae. She is a managing 


[ 241 ] 


Hunar. Skill, art. 

Hunar. -| Of all kinds, of many 

Nana hunar. J kinds. 

Nana hunar kiorio. Cloth of many kinds. 
Nana hunarko hatakafa. All sorts of merchand- 
ise are for sale in the market. 

Hunaj-ia. Industrious, managing, 
resourceful, applied to females. 

Nui ho g.i}i hun»ri? ^imgii kanao. This is a 
very industrions housewife. 

Hunda. To divide a carcase into 
three parts, one of which the 
owner gets, and the other two are 
divided among the villagers or 
people present. 

Hunda. ")To knock down fruit with a 
Hundali.3 pole or long bamboo by 
pressing against it. 

Hund?- tiogpe daiite. Keach and knock it 
down with a stick. 

Hunda. To catch fish with a hunda 
jal (q. V.) 

Hunda jal. A fishing net resembling 
a shrimp net. 

Hundar. The Indian wolf, Canis pal- 

Hundrau. To growl. 

Hundruk. To grunt, as a pig. 

Sukri doko hundruK han(Jruga. 

Hundrak. A kind of rat trap. 
Huni. That one (animate.) 
Hunjan. To meet with hurt, harm, 
injury, or disaster. 

Atn hulljaiienae. He was carried away by the 

water and got hurt, 
l^urha hudjahenae. He fell and got hurt. 

Hud mente. Immediately, quickly, 
without warning. 

Hu6 mente beref calaoenae. He rose and left 

Huntak. ") To raise or agitate 

Huntal? huntak. J water from under- 
neath, as a fish. Cf. humtaH. 

HuutaE marte rakap gofenae hako do. 

Lutur h ^ . 

Lutur hup9 phe^reli tulikedea. I shot it behind 
tho epr. 

Hupcak. To jerk the body, or a part 

Agli garte hupc^K go6enae. He jerked his body 

lupa. j 

Hollow behind the ear. 

Hupcak. mente. 1 r\ • 1 1 rte i. v 

rr 1' J [Quickly. Cf. humcak. 
Hupcak marte. j^ J 

Hupc9.1{ mentoye ruai]" gofona. He returned 

Hupka. Trip, voyage. Scottice. Rake. 

Mii hupk?i aguime, adorn chu^igea. Bring one 

trip, then you are free. 
Bar hupk* se pe hupk?, Aguime. Bring two or 

three times. 

Hupti6. Small, little ; applied to living 

Huptid hapraK . Small and great. 

Huputei To be at variance ; to dis- 
pute, wrangle. 

Dher din khonkin huputeiikana. They have long 
been at variance with each other. 

Hur. IRubbish or dirt lying 

Hur gundur.j about a house or court- 

Noa hur gundur joK gidikam. Sweep up and 

throw away this rubbish. 
Dakako emadilia hur gundur cetanrege. They 

gave me food on the top of rubbisli (did not 

sweep a place for me.) 

Hura. Damaged, injm-ed, blemished 
in reputation. 

Nui doe hur?.gea. He is blemished in reputa- 
Kan(Ja do hur^gea. The water pot is damaged. 

Hura.M. T Having any deformity of the 
Huri. F. J nose, whether natural or 
MS. doe hur^gea. His nose is deformed. 

Hura huri. To go here and there, to 
accuse each other ; quickly. 

Hur?. huriye bolo gofena. He rushed in. 
Hurg. huri baraekanae. He goes wandering here 
and there. 

Hura huri. Thoughtlessly, carelessly. 

Hurg. huriye ror paroma. He says more than 
he ought to do through thoughtlessness. 

Hura huri. Pushing and pulling. 

Hur* huriye ocjokkedilia. He pushed me out 

with violence. 
Hurgi huriko lagakoa. They drive them with 


Hurar. T To put on, as a ring, &c., to 
Harar. J thread, to string. 

Baberre hakohurarkom. String the fish. 
Ma huraraeme, nia kafupre. Put it on this 
finger (ring.) 

riurau. To prod, as with a stick. 

Hurau oijok gotkaeme. Prod him and force 
him out. 

Hurban. To lie with the legs drawn 
up, curled up. 

Non^e hurbahakanae. He lies curled up here. 



[ 242 ] 


Hurel To enter, to push oneself in ; 
used mainly by women when angry 
or annoyed. 

Ale liat;ere alom hurefa. Do not orosa our 

Hurel To give tTie ankle a twist. 

Huret patel ") To bring one foot close 
Huret patup. J to the heel of the other 
foot when walking, to go straight 
forward disregarding obstacles. 

Huret patet calaoenae. 

Huret patupe oalaKkana. He smashes right 

TT • ° , ' y Quiclily, to dart. 

Horgos marte. J ^ ■' 

Hurgus marte bolo gotenae. He darted in. 

Hur hur. To whiz, as a stone thrown 
with force. 

Hurhur dhiriko oapateda. 

Huri. Of hura. 

MB. huri. Having the nose deformed. 

Huri. To blow the nose, to wipe the 
nose with the fingers. 

Mu. huriketlihane kabuketmea. When she 
wiped her nose she conquered you. 

Hurit. To scrape off. 

Hape, thiroKme, rohgokoli huritama. Wait a 
little, I shall scrape off for you some of 
what has stuck to the pot in cooking. 
(Wait, and have some food.) 

TT • •• ■ -pi' >■ Having a stiff knee joint. 

Hurjet. ") To have one of the 

Hurjel! hurjel;. J legs hurt. 

Hurjet' hurjete tarameda. He is limping owing 

'to one of his legs being hurt. 
Dare khon ilur hurjetakanae. He fell from a 

tree and hurt his leg. 

Hurka. ") 
Hurkar. J 

Ma hurkar gotkam. Bar th« door. 

,Hurla.\To swing round and round with 
Hurlu.J arms, to swing the arms. 

Ti hnrlakateye hedeua. He came swinging his 

arms (came empty handed.) 
Khan tehgoc actege kurlu baraKkana. 

Hurmarte | ^^izzing. 
Hur mente. J ° 

H\ir marte dhiriko oapada. They throw the 
stones with a whiz. 

Hurmur. Quickly. 

Ifialc oraRre hurmvire bolo goiena. He darted 

into my house. 
Hurmure kami joha. He works quickly. 

Hurmut. Headstrong, selfwilled, with- 
out asking permission. 

- A wooden bar for a door. 

Oka katha ho bae ailjoma hurmut bor do. Self- 
willed people do not take advice. 

AmaK hurmrit tegem oalaKkana. You are acting 
in a self willed manner. 

Hurmufte bolo gotenae. He forced himself in. 

Hurso. Wish, desire ; to wish, desire, 
long for, to importune. 

Kbanadiye hursoketkhane em daporadea. When 

he begged earnestly for it she gave it to him. 

Uni doe hursokeda, den go mit goten Junki 

koearime. He begged saying, mother ask 

a tuhki (q. v.) for me. 

Hurtir. To rub the teeth with the 

Data khub leka hurtir saphaeme. Eub your 
teeth well to clean them. 

uru. ( rpj^^ ^^^^ plant, unhusked rice. 

Huruc huruc. Lame. Cf. huduc 

Hurii huru. To doze. 

Hurii huruA japit lioga. I will doze a little. 

Hurum durum. \To dragoon, to blus- 
Hurum dhurum.J ter, to hound, worry 
by bluster and threats. 

4diye hurum durumkedi^a. He worried me by 

bluster and threats. 
SordaroKko adiko hurum diirumkoa. The 

overseers dragoon them. 

Hurum hurum. ~) ^, . . , 
TT -1, ■ > (jtlowing cinders. 
Uurun hurun. J =■ 

Hurum hurum loena. It is Ijurnt to glowing 

Hurum surum. ~) Industriously, dili- 
XJrum surum. J gently. 
Hormo ho bae dayawaKa, hurum surume kamia. 

Hurun. To pound in the mortar of 
dhinki (q. v.), to husk rice by 
pounding it. 

Hurun hurun. Cf hurum hurum. 
Hurun huruii sengel joloK kana. The fire is in 
a glow. 

Hurur. To strip off, as flesh from bone. 

Jan khon jel hururme. Strip the flesh off the 

Eken jane hurur liameua. He is reduced to 

skin and bone. 

Hurur hurur. On the out side. 

Hurur hurur sengel joloKkana. The fire has 
only attacked the outside. 

Hurui}. Stump of tree in ground. 

Huruf khuntut. Stumps and roots. 

Hurwah. 1 Having the bridge of the 
Mu hurwah.) nose broken, any de- 
formity of the nose. 

Mu hurwah cabaentaea. 


t 243 ] 


Hurwan. To injure, to damage, to cause 
detriment, to make unservice- 

T9,ld6te hiiTwanena kanija do. The waterpot is 
damaged through having been knocked a- 
gainst aomething. 

Hus. Consciousness, sense. 

Ball hnslena. I had not all my wits about me. 

Husec. Cf. hosoc. 

Husiar. Intelligent, prudent, cautious, 

smart, sly. 

Toyo do a<^iko hnsi^ra. Jackals are very sly. 
Husig.roKme, liur botedkoUam. Be cautious, 
you may fall. 

Husit. To pare. 

Husnak. Beautiful; to beautify, to 
adorn, to ornament. 

Noako dare do eken husngik. These trees are 
only for ornament. 

Husuc. Hiding, keeping out of sight. 

Bolo hnsuoakanae. IHe is hiding inside. 

Hiit. ") Strong-headed, self-willed, in- 
Hutha. J dependent. 

Ac hute calaoena. He took his own way. 

Hut hutu. High, lofty. 

Punri hut hu^u ilelolf kana. The hill is high. 
Hathiko teugokoKa hut hutu. Elephants are 
high when they stand. 

Hutec. Cf hutkam. 
Hute£. Quarrelsome. 

Nui hute^ mara hor. This quarrelsome rascal. 

Hutet panjar. Stout, sturdy. 

HuteS paiijar hor kanae. He is a sturdy fellow. 

Hudhudu. Lofty, high, tall. 

Hul! hul Close, oppressive, as a hot 
day with no breeze ; oppressive, as 
a house full of smoke. 

Hu€ hutko dhuakeda. The smoke is annoying. 

Huti. A species of larvae that bore in 
timber, also a weevil which attacks 
several leguminous seeds, as those 
of malhan (q. v.), raher (q. v.), ho- 
rec (q. v.), &c. 

Hutikedako.. iWeevils'have eaten it. 

Hutkam.l Used in conditional sentences 
Hutkec. J in which the protasis (con- 
dition) is supposed not to have been 
realised, and, therefore, the apo- 
dosis (consequent) has not taken 

Aloli heelen, ar aloA galmaraoako khan hutkam, 
kai oho tahelentakoa. If I had not come 
and spoken unto them they had not had sin. 

Nen(Jem tahelenkhan hutk9.m barell ohoe goo- 
lena. If thou hadst been here my brother 
had not died. 

Amem koeliii khan hutkam ili emkema. If you 
had asked me I would have given it to you. 

Hutma. To seize and shake, to jerk, 
to scold. 

Hutma pasirkateli daykeda. I shook him off 

and fled. 
Hutm» bindarmeaA. I will seize and throw 

you down. 
A^iye hutmaKkan. He is scolding violently. 

Hutma hutmi. To scold and flourish 
the arms about, bluster. 

^(Jiye hutma hutmikediila. 

Hutra hutri. ") To search for by grop- 
Hutrau. / ing or feeling. 

Hako hutraukom dhiri latarre. Feel for the fish 

under the stones. 
Hutra hutri dam baraedae. He is groping to 

find it. 

Hutuk. "I A very large rock ; huge, 
Hutu p. J large. 

Hutup lekae durup akana. He is sitting like a 

Hutup leka oralftako. Their house is like a 

large rock, (very big.) 
Hutup leka caole baudi, 
BaA bogoja baba, baii dakaea. 

Hutum. To rinse out the mouth. 

Moca hutumoKme. Hinse your mouth. 

Hutup. Cf. hutuk. 

Huiya. "J Being, an unexpected occur- 
Huiyate. } rence. 

Am do nonkan hor huiya noam kamikea ? Be- 
ing such a man as you are could you do this 

Am do nonkan hor huiyate cedaK nonka dom 
k ami kana? 

Huiya gotentaete nokoe kule jomkedoa. 

Huiya hoeena, babon diaa daramlaka^ nonkae 
akala mente. 

Hutur. Bare, bare of leaves, as a tree. 

Sit' huturkedako. They have plucked it bare. 

of leaves. 
Hoyo huturenam. Tou are shaved clean. 



An exclamation of vexation or an- 
la. What do you call it, so and so, you 
know ; to do. Used when the 
speaker does not remember the 
proper word or through delicacy 
omits to use it. 

lakediliae. He struck me, or pushed me. 
lakedam? Have you done it? 


[ 244 ] 

Ikoc sokoc 

la. Employed to call attention. 

la, hape arijomlem. I say, stay aii(} listen. 
la, okatem calaKkana P Hey ! where are you 

I9. ho, hape thirlenme. 

la aika. \ Employed in warnings, and 
la aikha. J threatenings. 

la aikha disaime. Be sure you rememher. 
la, aikha ohod senlena, ?.di kami menaKtiiia. I 
cannot possibly go, I have too much work. 

lar jel. A species of deer. 

late. Through, by means of, owing to. 

Am i?ite nung,lfill dukakana. It is through you 

I am suffering so much. 
A.^i dale iate bail parom darelena. I could not 

cross owing to there being much water. 
Amem onkakei: ig-tell sg.jaimea. I will punish you 

because you did thus. 

Ibil. Thick, dense, close together. 

Ibil ibilko erkeda. They sowed (the seed) very 

A^i ibilkedako. They have put them very close. 
Ibilolca. Will be very dense. 
Ibil pailjar. Stout, sturdy. 

Ic. Excrement, dross, slag from a 
smelting furnace, rust ; to rust. 

16 jon. To go to stool. 

loteEko odoka. They remove the dross. 

Ipil ickedae. The star voided excrement. 

(A shooting star is regarded as the excrement 

of another star.) 
IjoKte ho bae barija. Will not be harmed 

through rusting. 

leak. A prawn, a shrimp. 
Sole icalc. A large species of prawn. 

leak. A common shrub, Woodfordia 
fiorihiinda, Salib. 

IcaK baha. The flower of the Ir,ak' tree. It 
contains a large amount of honey. 

leal? dare. The leak tree. 

leak carec . A piece of a thin twig of the Jcafc' 
tree used as a pin when making leaf 
platea, cups, &c, 

leak bando. A common parasitic plant, 

Loranthus Buddeoides, Wedd. 

leak arak. A wild pot herb, Ponzolzia 

pentandra, Benn. 
leak saram. A species of deer. 

leak kakittet. A species of insect found 
in water. 

leer. ") A common climbing jungle 
Icewer. / plant, Vitis latifolia, Roxb. 

Ici. To shake while holding in the 
mouth, as a dog a rat. 

Setae ioikedea. The dog seized it and shook it. 

Ickoc. A commom fodder grass, Era- 
grostis tenella, Nees. 

The culma of this grass are made into brooms. 

16 uru. A kind of beetle. 

Idi. The heel. 

Idi. To take away, to continue. 

Jom idikedae. He ate as he went, or he ate and 

went away. 
Calao idikkana. It is passing away. 
Ona colonrele hed idiena. This has been our 

unbroken custom. 
Hara idilfa. Will continue to grow. 
Grhatao idilia. Will continue to become less. 
Hed idiS kana. Itia coming nearer. 

Idi dudi. A game played by children. 
Idu. Possibly, gives the idea of uncer- 

Iduii calak idu bail. Possibly I may go, and 
possibly not. 

Idhoc odhoc. Waddling gait owing to 

Idhod odhode calaSkana. He waddles. 

Idor bidor. Imperfectly executed, 
done so as to require doing over 
again, to do repeatedly. 

Tinak idor bidoriii kamia? Tahe oooam. How 
often will I do it? Let it alone. 

Ih. A cry caused by sudden pain or 
cold, oh ! 

Ijara. A farming lease, a privilege, or 

income of variable amount let for 

a fixed sum. 

Noa ato real? ijaraii hataoaka^a. I have taken 

a farming lease of the revenues 01 this village. 

Ijardar. A farmer of land or revenue. 

Ijardari. Farming or contracting for 

rent or revenue. 
Ijara jjatta. A lease, a document under 

which a lease or farm is held. 
Ijahar. \ A deposition, statement or evi- 
Ijhar. j dence given in a court of 


Ijhare hataokeiitiiia. He recorded my state- 

Ika. To pardon, forgive, let alone, 
pass over, omit. 

Ikakatime. Pardon me, or let me go. 

li^ hatarkaeabo. We will pass him over 

Ik9.ka. Will be pardoned. 

Ikir sikir. J I^estless, playful, flirting. 

Ikoc sokoc. To shake, to sway up and 
down, to joggle. 

Ikoc aokooko agu kedea. 

Beste heweme, alom ikoj sokojeam. 

Ikod sokode kamikana. 


[ 245 T 


Ikot. To be assured, to be relieved 
from doubt, fear, or suspicion. 

Bae ikotolfkana. His mind ia not relieyed. 
Ikot; monte tahenme. Keep your mind easy. 

Ikrar. To promise, to pledge oneself, 
to agree to. 

IkraroKaii. I will pledge myself. 

Car ana sud ikrarkate t^akari oijonkeda. I got 

the money, pledging myself to pay 25 per 

cent, interest. 

Ikrar nama. A written agreement, 
bond, or contract. 

Ikrum. To kneel. 

Hapikrnm. To bite the under lip. 
Ikrumolcme. Kneel. 


II. A feather. 

Ilolf . To become feathered. 

Ilenae. He hag decamped, or become wealthy. 

Ilanko. Feathered creatures. 

Sui il. Feathers just begun to grow. 

Taben il. Half grown feathers. 

II saprum. Full fledged. 

Lopoteau il. Down on the body of a newly 

hatched bird. 
Kanso il. The first three quill feathers on the 

mng of a bird, 
n t^nuKtiiia. I have not got a gala dress. 

Ilaj. To punish, to chastise. 

Nui hor gidibon ilajkedea, enho bae bataoeda. 
We have severely chastised this person, still 
he pays no heed. 

Ilaka. Province, district, jurisdiction. 

Ilak chada. ~j Free, um'estrained, having 
Elak chada. V no connection with, not 
Alag chada. J responsible. 

Noa kathare doi5 ilak ohadagea. I have no res- 
ponsibility in this matter. 

J,-' ■ [-Knowledge, wisdom. 

Jlei. To plaster or plug up a hole or 

crack, to apply an ointment to a 


Kanda lahite ilef ese^kaKme. Plug the hole in 
the waterpot with lac. 

Hid ciA. A small, common plant, 01- 

denlandia senegcUensis, Hierw. 
Ilsa. The Hilsa fish. 
Im. The liver. 

Im boro. Liver and lungs. 

Iman. Faithful, trustworthy, consci- 
entious, scrupulous. 

Imangeae. He is faithful. 

iixianueueauo. xney uxaiuineu 

|. j-So much, so many. 


Imtam. To estimate, to judge, to 

Celom imtamkedap Have yon considered it? 
Am imtamre tinaK damoKa? How much ought 
the price to be in your estimation ? 

Imandar. Faithful, conscientious. 
Imtihan. To examine. 

Imtihan em. To undergo an examination. 
Intihankedeako. They examined him. 

In. _ " 

In habic. Up till then. 

In tirii. So much. 

In maraii. So big. 

In k^t-io. So small. 

In garte. So many times. 

In gan. About so many. 

Inag. So much, that much, this much. 
Ina. That, this, the same. 

In?ige 9.guime. Bring that one. 
Ingigeye laiadilia. He told me that same. 
Ing. ghnri. At that moment. 
In^kate. After that, next, having done that. 
Ingige bon galmaraoa. We will discuss this 
matter no farther. 

16. The 1st personal pronoun I, also 


I A reah. I 


Iri ren. 

Iriia. My (animate) one. 

Iri emarime. Give to me. 

In aned. Not till then, then only, 
luali. So much, that much, this much. 

Insilf f^GTO emadiria. He gave me that much. 
In^Kge bon galmaraoa. We will bring our 

conversation to a close. 
Ing-U gan sorolime. Come about this much 


Inate. 1 

Ina teron. [-Therefore, for that reason. 

Ina mente. j 

Inci. Cor. of the English word inch, 
1/12 of a foot. 

Indara. A well. 

Ind. One of the words used in testing 
the luck attaching to a bed. 
The spaces between the net work of a bed are 
counted from the foot to the head, begin- 
ning with ind, then cniid, then jom, and 
then raja , and so on until the end. 
If either cav.d or rajn falls on the last space the 
bed ia lucky, and if either i;kZ ov jom falls 
on it it is unlucky. 

Indara. ) poj-i^erly, in times past. 
Nin dara. j ■' '^ 

Indarale arjaoet'tahekangea, nes do bah hoele- 
na. Formerly we had good crops, this year 
we had Uttle. 
Indara dom hijuKkan tahekana. You were in 
the habit of coming. 


[ 246 ] 


Inde. Here. 

Inde ho ban, unde ho bah. Neither here nor 
there, neither up nor down. 

Indif. To suspect, to blame, to charge 

Indit'aekanaii. I snspeot him. 
IndidoKae. He will suspect. 

T ° 1 Reasonable, iudicious, mo- 
In gante. } , ^ i -j.!. • 
T ° , derately, withm compass. 

Ingonte.j •" '■ 

Ingange emaeme. Give him a reasonable am- 

Ingante do bae aAjom hoda. He will not obey 
with a reasonable amount of telling. 

lagut. To stoop. Cf. engot. 

Ingul. To pretend, to make a shew of. 

Jom iiigul. To make a shew of eating. 
Kuhau ihgul. „ , , striking with 

the fist. 
Dal ihgul. To pretend to beat. 
Ger ihgul. ,, bite. 

Ini. This one, he or she, him or her. 

Ini ho emaeme. Give to him also. 

Inka. Like this, a little, not too much. 

Inka emaeme, ini ho inka. 

T ' > Then, at that time. 
Inrege. J ' 

In utar. Not till then, then only. 

Ipicalj. Cf. repec ipicak, to dispute, 

to altercate. 

Ipidi. The Reciprocal form of idi (q. v.) 

Ipil. A star. 


Ipikals. The Reciprocal form of ika 

Ipindit. Reciprocal form of indit' (q. v.) 
Ipitic. The Reciprocal form of itic 

(q. V.) 


IroK din. Harvest. 

Ir arpa. A small sheaf of grain the daily 

perquisite of a yearly servant during 

Ir samtao. T 
Ir ader, > To harvest. 
Ir rakap. j 
Koa h3 irogol^a hapen. This will.aleo be reaped 

by and by. 
IroKko. Reapers. 

Ira. Harsh, spiteful, cutting. 

Nui hor do 9.^11 ira kathae rora. This man says 
harsh things. 

Ira iri. Sulky, ill-natured ; to be at 
loggerheads, to be at enmity, to 
be at variance. 

All, the whole, every- 

Ir?. iri nui hor doe tahena, okoe tuluo ho bae 

bonotoKa. This man is always at variance 
with some one, he agrees with no one. 
^ijikin irgi irigea. They are at loggerheads. 

Iral. Eight. 

Ir9.1 gel. Eighty. 
Iral isi. Eight score. 
Gel irail. Eighteen. 

Irci. To jerk the hand, to sprinkle. 

Irci' pasirkedeae. He jerked his hand and 
released himself from his grasp. 

Sehgelreye irci pasir go1;kadea. He shook it 
off his hand into the fire. 

irci ghiirci. \To curl up, as a piece of 
Irci ghurchi./ twine which has been 

over-twisted when slackened. 
Irci gurci. 

Irtic gurtic. r xi.- r i ■ j 

-r' , ,° • , , thmgf, 01 every kind. 
Irtuc gurtuc. j o> j 

Nes do irtid gurtidle kamifceda. We left no 
part of the work undone this year. 

Irtuc gurtudko galmaraobeda. They discussed 

Iri. A cultivated millet, Panicum 
Crus-galli, Linn. 

Kokor jahga iri. A cultivated millet, Panicum 
Crus-galli, var. fi'UTnentacea. 

Iric. To extinguish, to go out, or be 
put out, as fire. 

DaK dulaKkhan sehgel irijoKa. If water is 
poured on fire it will be extinguished. 

Edre irijoKkantaea. His anger is being extin- 
guished, (he is becoming pacified.) 

Sehgel irieena. The fire is extinguished. 

Iric cddc. Fond of jollity, junketting, 
revelry, amusement. 

Ape do sob din hiloK iric cikidgetape. You 
spend all your time junketting. 

Irsa. Harsh, spiteful, cutting. Cf. ira. 
Irifi birid. Unintelligible. 

Cefc' iriiibiriiikinroreda? ban buihauKtakina. 

Irfic gartiic. *) All, the whole, every- 
Irtuc gartuc. j thing, of every kind. 
C£ irci gurci. 

Iru. To tantalise, to tease or torment 
by presenting something to eat, 
but keeping it out of reach. 
Cf ero. 

Is. Cf ish. 

Isa. Christ. 

Isai. Christian, to become Christian. 

Ifi ayo Isjigeye tahekana. My mother was a 

Disom hor sauamko Is9.ioKa hapen. All the 
people of the country will yet become Chris- 


[ 247 ] 


Isara.^ ■) A sign, a hint, to make a sign, 
Isaral J to give a hint. 

Isarawaeme. Make a sign to him 

Isbis. To be irritated, provoliied, stung, 
galled ; irritating, annoying, pro- 
voking, galling, aggravating. 

Jaliae roraekhan iabisgeye ?iikgiua. If any one 

speaks to him he feels irritated. 
Isbis godol^ae. He will at once become irritated. 

Ish. \ A cry caused by sudden pain, or 
Is. / cold, oh ! 

Is ! dak areoadiiiae. Oh ! he threw water on me. 
Is ! hasokediiia. Oh ! it hurt me. 

Isi. A score, twenty. 

Mi£ isi. A score. 
More isi. Five score. 
Mit iaZgH. Thirty. 

Isi. The plough beam to which the 
yoke is attached. 

Isia gan. A full score, may be more 
but no less. 

Tinak menakkoap Isia gan. How many are 
there? A fnll score. 

Judi hor bako ba^ae thiklekhan isia gane bulaa 
dareakoa. If people did not know him well, 
he could deceive them the full score. 

Isin. To cook ; to be inflamed, com- 
pletion of fermentation. 

Isin aro. To cook food. 
Isin laha. To over-cook. 
Isinabonme. Cook our food. 
Auriisinoka. It is not yet cooked. 
More maha khange isinena. In five days the 
fermentation was complete. 

Isir. To grin, to shew the teeth, as a 
dog when snarling. 
Setako isira. Dogs shew the teeth (when snar- 

Ceiem isir isiroKkana? What are you grmnmg 

Isir sitkoc- To grin, to sniggle, to joke, 
to be humourous, to make fun. 

Sm sa^upem isir sitkoe baraekana. Tou are 
continually making fun. 

Iskir. To rub the body, massage. 

EuaKreko iskirkoa. Massage is employed on 

those in fever. 
Eua ruaii aikaueda, iskirkalime. I feel feverish, 

rub my Hmbe. 

Isko. So, this. 

Isko maraii. So big. 

Iskul. Cor. of the English word school. 

Iskul gidra. School children. 
Iskulokkanae. He goes to school. 

Isor. God. 
IsorolSale. "We will reverence God, or become 

Isot! osol;. The gait peculiar to a very 
corpulent person. 

Xaoi osot'e tayameda. He waddles. 

Ispaiij. Cor. of the English word sponge 

Ispat. Steel. 

Ispat. A turncoat, changeable. 

A(}i ispat ho; kanae He is a great turncoat. 

Isposto. Clear, distinctly. 

Isposto bae uorju dayeaka. He cannot speak 

Isthir. Quiet, still, settled. 

Istihar. Notice, proclamation, adver- 
Istok. All, every. [tisement. 

Istok horko calaoena. All the people have 

Istopa. To relinquish, renounce; to 
vacate or resign a situation. 

Istopakedae. He relinquished (land.) 

Istri. An iron, to iron. 

IliaK kicrio besokodte istrikatiiime. Iron my 
cloth well. 

J ■ ■ [• Christian. 

1898 sal Iswi. In the eighteen hundred and 
ninety eighth year of the Christian era. 

Ita. Seed. 

Noa dole joma. ar noa dole it9.ia. We will eat 

this, and keep this for seed. 
Ita r^nu. Seed grain. 

Ita. A brick. 

Itat. Food left over on a plate, &c., to 

leave food after having partaken 

of some. 

Itat daka. Cooked rice left on the plate. 
ItaCadiiiae. He eat part and gave the remain- 
der to me. 

Itat. Presents or perquisites given at 
time of marriage to certain rela- 
tives of the bride by the bride- 

Ehga itaC. Given to the bride's mother. 
Bohga jia it^f. Given to the bride's father's 

Here ji?iita€. Given to the bride's maternal 

Bare ita6. Given to the bride's eldest brother. 
Hatom itai;. Given to the bride's aunt. 

Itbar. 1 Trustworthiness. 
Itwar. ) 

Amak itbarili lieltama. I shall see whether you 
are trustworthy or not. 

Ithulak. \A rude fireplace made of 
Uthuiak. J stones on the top of which 
the cooking pot is placed. 

Ithulak lekam durupakana, bahrere. You are 
sitting out-side like an improvised fireplace. 


[ 248 ] 


Iti. This, this present ; that, that pre- 

Iti ghufite Ben godoBiae. Go thif? minute. 

Iti polom ruarme. Eetnrn immediately. 

Iti bargi kami godme. Do the work this minute. 

Itic. To pinch, to ;i;p. 

Itie tuBum oei; ho banuKtalea. We are absol- 
utely destitute. (We have nothing that 
could be pinched or felt.) 

Itlc tunum sanamle oabakeda. We hare finish- 
ed everything. 
Itie topaK gotkam. Snip it off. 

Itihas. History. 

Sedae reaK itihas. Ancient history. 
Itihas oloKic. A historian. 

Itil. Fat, rich. 
Katkom itiloRaii. I will become moderately 

Jom itil ocokedeart. I fattened him. 

Itkiii. To rub tlie eyes. 

Alom itkidoJca. Do not rub your eyes. 

Itoc potoc. An adjective or an adverb 

possessing intensifying force. 

Itoc potodko dalkedea. They thrashed him 

Itoopofodko agukedea. They fined him heavily. 
Itoe potoeko orkedea. They dragged him along 

Itoc potocle jom Aukeda. We feasted lavishly. 

Itra itri. Going here and there in quest 
of amusement, as at fairs, me- 
las, &e. 

Itrg. itri baraekanae. 

Itrau. Given to jollity, or junketting. 

Jom itrg.uGnae. 

Itu. C£ eto. 

Itut. The irregular application of 
sindur (q, v.) to the forehead of a 
marriageable woman by a man. 

Itui3 bapla. An irregular marriage, which con- 
sists in a man applying sindur to the fore- 
head of a marriageable woman with, or 
without, her consent. 

Itut' aindur. The lawful application of sindur 
to the forehead of a bride at time of mar- 

Itu€ sindur hoeena. The marriage ceremony 
has been performed. 

lyo. Used to attract attention, see ! 
hark ye ! halloo ! soho !; of surprise, 
what ! indeed ! really ! O ! 

lyo ! aTijomme. Halloo ! listen. 

lyo! daleliam. What! would yon strike me. 

lyo ! ce1:em cekaea. ! what will you do ? 

lyo. So, this, as.... as. 

lyo marah. As large as this. 

Ja. Used when addressing a boy, or 
one's younger brother. 

HijuMmeja. Come, my boy. 

Cele kanaeP ja. What is it my boy? 

Jab. When. 

Jabem calaKa, unre noa katha rorme, When 
you go, then say this. 

Jaba. To cut the throat. 

Merom ar simko jabakoa. They out the throats 
of goats and fowls. 

Jaba jobo. Slow, sluggish, inactive. 

Jaba jobo baraekanae. He moves sluggishly 

Jabajuba. To mend, to patch up, to 


NesiA jaba jubakakkana. I am patching it up 

this year. 
Nia do' oredakana, ma jaba jubaime. This is 

torn, mend it. 

Jabab. ^ . , , . . , 

Tobflb f ■^'is''^®^' ^^6ply, dismissal. 

Jabab dahi emoE. ") To give an account of, take 
Jabab dihi emok. j responsibility. 
Jabab dahi. ") -o -u-tj. 

Jabab diiu. JEesponsibihty. 

Jababadeaii. I dismissed him, or sent him about 
his business. 

Jabar jubar. ") Helping in this and that, 
Jabar jubur. J assisting generally. 
Jabar jnbare kami goroalekana. He helps ua 
here and there. 

Jabar jubur. Dripping, drenched. 

Lohotenae jabar jubur. He is dripping wet. 

JabdahL Moist, as a field ; wet, as a 

Jabdahi ot. Moist soil. 

Jabdo. To set down, to restrain, to 
snub, to overpower. 

Jabdokedeako. They gave him a setting down. 

Jabe. To cut the throat. Of jaba. 
Jabid. To attach under a warrant, to 

destrain, to sequestrate,to restrain, 

to place an embargo on. 

Jjbidakana, alope malt baraea. The cutting of 
these (trees) is forbidden. 

Jabid. Close or safe custody. 

Khub jabidre dohoeme alo barijoK. Keep it in 

close custody, so that it may not be harmed. 

Jabidre menaka. It is under strict surveilance. 

Jabin. To overpower, to overcome, 
to render poWerless. Cf. jabun. 


OraK jab jab atkaroKkana. The house feels 


[ 249 ] 


Jabod. To attach, to sequestrate, to 
restrain, to forbid, to distrain. 

Khajna bae emlefte horoko jabodkeftaea. 
They distrained liia dhan as he had not 
paid his rent. 

Jabod. The third ploughing of a rice 

During the third ploughing a certain amount 
of water is retained in the field to kill grass 
and weeds. 

Jabra. Rubbish. 

44i jabra menalca. There is much rubbish. 

Jabri. To overcome, render helpless ; 
seriously ill. Cf. jabun. 

Ruate khube jabriakana. He has been render- 
ed helpless by fever. 

Jabrahi. Handsome figure, tall and 
well knit frame, applied to women 
and cows. 

Jabrao. To spread over, to hang, to 
put on trappings, to caparison, to 
put on ornaments and clothes. 

Noa dare ?idi sahgiiite jabrao eaetakafa. This 

tree has spread (its branches) over a large 

Besgeye jabraoakana, go(a hormo. His whole 

body is decked out with ornaments and 

H?.thi hoko jabraokoa. They also put trappings 

on elephants. 
Berhaete kioriie jabrao acurakaja. He has 

curtained it all round. 

j^^^;^- 1 Thickly, close together, blotted. 

Bes beste olme alom jabre oooea. Write care- 
fully, do not allow it to blot. 

Jabu. To cut the throat. Cf jaba. 
Jabun. To overpower, to overcome, to 
render powerless. 

Euate j?.bunakanae. He is laid up with fever. 

Jacao. To implore, to beg, as for dear 

More horko fhene jacaoena. 

Jada. More, much, too much. 

Jadagea. There is too much. 

Dak jadaena. There is too much water. 

Jadam jadam. Night-long, all night, 

Nindare cedaKpe darana jadam jaijam? Why 
do you go about all night ? 

Ja^am jadame dalflaka teheii liind?. It rain- 
ed all last night. 

Ja4am ja4am kulhiko darana setaK habio. 
They go about the atreeta aU night till 

Jaijam jacjamko aipisatafe. They have annoy- 
ed us all night-long. 

Jadgo. To scratch, to claw, to paw. 

Kule jadgo tioKkedea. The tiger managed 
to claw him. 

Tarupe jadgokedea. A leopard has clawed her. 
(Referring to a young women who has had her 

forehead marked with sindur in an irregular 

way. Cf itut,) 

Jadhio. "I 

Jadhio kal. j-At any time. 

Jadio, j 

Jadhio alom calalfa ona jaegate. Do not at 
any time go to that place. 

Jadopatia. A caste of Hindus who 
deal in enchantment and profess 
to hold communication with the 
spirits of the dead. 

Jadu. Conjuring, deceiving, enchant- 
ment, witchcraft. 

Jadu henaktaea. He has power to enchant, 

Jadui, The cocoons of the tassar silk 
worm spun in the cold weather. 

t' 1 1 / i-To warm oneself at a fire. 

4iji nitolc dom jadwahilckana, sahan agu bam 
rebenlena. Now you are warming yourself 
over the fire, you who refused to bring fire- 

Jae. Victory. 

Jae bejae. To oppress, to injure, to 

Ce£ ho alom jaebejaetakoa. Do not harm any- 
thing belonging to them. 

Kul cele hu bae jae bejaeaka£koa. The tiger 
has done harm to no one, 

Jae dada. Great-grandfather. 
Jaede. Let it alone, let it go. 

Jaede, bugiena. Let it alone, it is all right. 

Jaega. ") Place, land, farm ; to place, to 

Jagah. J give land to, to give a girl 

in marriage, to retire for the night. 

Jaegawadeart. I gave him land. 
Jaegakadeali. I gave him a place to sleep, 
NitoKbon jaega baraka. We willnow retire for 

the night, 
Teheli Jiii.da Biswadihrelejaegalena. We pass- 
ed last night in Biswadih. 
Bhale jaega kana. It is a good piece of land, 
Nesbon jaegakaea mai do. We will give our 
daughter in marriage this year. 

Jaejat. Moveable or immovable pro- 
perty given in pledge or mortgage. 

Mit; arar kadaA jaejatakatkina. I have pled- 
ged a yoke of buffaloes. 

Jaejatko uduKakoa, They point out what ia 
given in pledge, 

Jaejug. For ever, always. 

Jaejug gem hijuKkana, Ton are always coming. 

Jaejug Tagi£ iA em utarat'mea. I gave it to you 
out and out, 

Jaejug ohom tahelena noncje. You cannot re- 
main here for ever, 

Jaejuglaii opola. We will always correspond 
with each other. 


Jae jupatiii. 

[ 250 ] 


Jae jupatiii. Edible jungle products 
such as leaves, fruits, roots, nuts, 
gums, &c. 

Jaejulum. Oppression, severity, tyran- 
ny, coercion; to tyrannize, dom- 
ineer, oppress, override. 

Alom jaejulumkoa. Do not oppress them. 
Disom do iaejulnmte pereoakana. The country 
is full of oppression. 

Jaejumdha. Rubbish, rubbish lying 

about a house. 

Jae korar. A great-grand-child. 

Jaesan. 1 . . , 
T ?As, lUst as. 

Jaesne. J ' •' 

Jaesangem bamia, enkagem Iiama. As you act 

so will you receive. 
Jaesan taesan hor alom badae/ia. Do not take 

me for such a fool. 
Jaesanko kamikeda taesanko liamkeda. They 

received according to their work. 

Jae tatai. My great-grandfather. 
Jae tatam. Thy great-grandfather. 
Jae tatat. His great-grandfather. 
Jagah. Place, land, farm. Cf. jaega. 

Jagao. To be on the alert, to keep 

Jagaote tahenme. Remain on the alert. 

Jagao. \A nightly serenading of the 
Gaijagao.J cattle by the young men 
of the village during the continu- 
ance of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival 
Korako do mil; liinda gal ka(Jako jagaokoa, sa- 
nam hoT ren. 

Jagarna. To be on the alert, to watch. 

Jagamath. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jage. What, whatever. 

Jagesar. Large in area, as a field. 

Jagron. To be on the alert, to keep 

.awake, to watch. 
Jagwar. To be on the alert, to keep 


Jagwaraban tahenme. Continue alert. 

Jah. An exclamation of annoyance. 

Jah ! cet'i6 cekakeda ? Oh dear J what have I 

Jaha. Any, anything, whatever, where- 

Jahate. Wheresoever. 
Jaba see. In -whatsoever direction. 
Jahatinre. Whenever, whatever time of day. 
Jahatisre. Whenever. 
Jahatiualc. How much soever. 
Jaha lefea. In any way, whichever way, 
Jaha lekate. In any way, that, so that, 
- Jaha then. Any where, wherever. 
Jahare. Wherever. 

Jahae. Any one, some one. 

Jahae geye idiakata. Some one has taken it 

Jahae barjkhan jahae. Some one or other. 
Ar jahaege ilire bae takijoK unigeye bhagan. 

And blessed is he, whosoever shall find none 

occasion of stumbling in me. 

Jahaetali. Any one, whomsoever. 
Jaha kaha. Here and there, anyway. 

Jaha kaha menaK gea. It is to be found here 
and there. 

Jahaj. A shi^x 

Jahaj calclaoko. The crew of a ship. 
Jahaj kaera. A variety of plantain. 

Jahaj oho. Slow, sluggish in move- 

Cetem jaha j oho barae kana ? What are you doing 
going about so sluggishly? 

Jahalj. Whatsoever, anything. 

Jahal. A cor. of the English word 

Jahal khana. A prison house. 
Jahal khanarelso aderkedea. They put him in 

Jaha man taha. Anywhere, at random, 

Jahaman tahae durup baraea. He sits down 

Jahan. At any time, or something else. 

Ealkatatem sen jahanlena. Have you at any 

time gone to Calcutta P 
Dal jahankemako. They many beat you or 

something else. 

Jahan. Any, some. 

JahanaK. Any thing, something. 
Jahanid. Any one, some one. 
Jahan jinis agui lagitko oalaKkana. They are 
going to bring goods of some kind. 

Jahanalc. Any thing, something. 

JahanaK emadme. Give me something. 
JahanaRge emafime. Give me anything. 

Jahanid. Anyone, some ona 
Jahanko. Anyones. 
Jahar. Poison. 

Jahar mahra. Poison for arrows. 

A poison bearing this name is said to be found 
in the head of the Adjutant bird. It is be- 
lieved to be an infallible cure for snake bite. 

Jahatak. Whichever, any, any one. 

Jahatal^em kusiaK, ona hataome. Take which- 
ever pleases you. 

Jaher. \The Sacred grove of the 

Jaherthan. j Santals. There is one 

attached to each village and they 

are principally composed of trees 

of Shorea robusta, Gcertn. 

Jaher dareko. The trees that compose the 
Sacred grove. 

Jaher era 

[ 251 ] 


Jaher era. A female deity who has a 
place in the Jaher or Sacred grove. 

Jahir. To publish, to make known, to 

Jahlt. To exert oneself, to take pains, 
to spare no effort, to bestir one- 
self, to take trouble. 

Jg.hltme. Take trouble over it. 

Nui hor jgihitein. Sparc no efEort (in nursing 

AraK sakam jahlt ^.guitabonme. Exert your- 
self to provide us with the necessaries of 

Bam j'9.hitlebhan ohom jomlea. If yon do not 
exert yourself you cannot eat. 

Jahpun. Tired looking, lazily. 

Nonijege i?ihpuhe durupakana. He sits here 

very tijed looking. 
Ghane ghane ig.hpuhko durupkoRa. Every now 

and again they sit lazily down. 

Jahre. Alas ! 

Jahre! oetid oebakeda? Alasl what have I 

Jahurae. Big-bellied, protuberant sto- 

La'5 maran ut?irgetaea, ]>hurae. 

Jaigir. A rent free tenure, given in 
return for services, &c 

Jaigire jomeda. He enjoys rent free land. 

Jaigir. To be on the alert, to watch, 
to keep awake. 

Hukumotoadeae jaigir l?git;. Ho loft orders 

with him to be on the alert. 
Khub jaigir hot kanae. He is a very light sleeper. 

Jaituk. A gift to a bride by her father. 

Jora jaituk. A pair of heifers given to a bride 

■ by her father. , .-, - 

Jaiituk tob. A pestle brought by a bride from 
her father's house. 

Jaitun dare. The Olive tree. 
Jaj. To prove, to substantiate ; cor. of 

Noa dom jaj dareaKa? Can you prove this ? 
Jaj doho. To give information. 

Jal<. To brush sHghtly against. 

ParomcalaKkantahekanrejaK torakedea. He 
brushed slightly against him as he was pass- 

Jak. To pass stringent orders, to charge 

Jiwi jakte. With might and main. 
Khub jakte kamipe. Work hard. 
Kat pat a^iko jakakat'a, bako maR oooaka. 
They have placed a strict embargo on the tim- 
ber, they will not allow it to be cut. 

JJ- 1 Heavy, difficult. 

Noa bakas iA tulre 9.di jaka. To my lifting this 
box is very heavy. 

Jakham. To wound, a wound. 

Adiye jakharakedoa. He wounded him severely. 
jaii„'are jakhamenae. Ho is woai.ded in the 

Jakan jukun. Weak and leaning on a 
staff, as a very old person, enfeebled. 

EuSte jakan jukunakanae. He is greatly 

weakened by fever. 
Bail doe baiicaoK, bah doc lahalf, jakan jukun 

oabaenao. Tt is impossible to say whether 

he will recover or die, he is as weak as he 

can possibly be. 

Jakao. To forbid, to lay an embargo on. 

^uriko jakao habici halahpe. Collect it until 
they forbid you to do so. 

Jake jemon. According, in accordance 


Jake jemon hor onka emakom, gidr* do gidra 
leka, ar serai do sera leka. 

Jakir. 1 rj,^ ^jgg diligence, to be indus- 
trious, to be assiduous, to 




Khub jakirte kamipe. Work assiduously. 
Khub jakiredae. He is very industrious. 

Jak jotet. To touch, to be familiar 

E(aU jat realf jaK jofef alom joma. Do not eat 
what a person of another caste has touched. 

Jaknuc. Lean, shrivelled, as an old 

Jal. A net. 

Jale lagaoaAkana. He accuses mo falsely. 
Jal mokordoma kana. It is a false case. 

Jal. To lick with the tongue. 

Jal jel barawatleako. They entertained us. 

Jala. A wide expanse of water, a sea. 

Ganga dubalenkhan jala leka IleloKa. When", 
the Ganges overflows it looks like a wide sea. 

Jala puri.' 




Jala. Distress, difficulty, 

adversity, trial. 

Dhurko goJonte maha jalare menaila. I am in 
groat distress owing to the death of my 
plough cattle. 

Adi jalaarikana. It causes me much distress. 

Jala. Solicitude, force, press, anxiety. 

Gidrako reah hor hopon do 9di jala menaK takoa. 

Santals have great anxiety for the welfare 

of their children. 
JalageA aikaueCa. I am solicitous. 
Mayajalate.' By the force of pity. 
Gidi'9' jala do aiji marah jala kana. 

A wide expanse of water, a 



[ 252 ] 


Jalai. An iron nail. 

Jalai. A thin film, a thin covering. 

Jalaite ese-6ena. It is covered by a thin film. 

Jalai. To darn, to baste, to sew slight- 
ly and with long stitches. 

' Kiorice j alai baraeda. He is darning Ms cloth . 
Dg.rji do kicrice i^lg-i hataraka1:a. The tailor 
has basted the cloth. 

Jalakhar. | A large expanse of water, a 
Jalakhi. j sea. 

Band pereolenkhan jalakhar leka iSeloKa. When 
the tank ia full it looks like a sea. 

Jalao. To cremate, to burn, to set fire 
to, to scorch. 

, Jalaokedeako. They cremated him. 
Hormo jalaoKkantiAa. My body is bnming. 

Jalaphi. A large expanse of water, a 

Jalapuri. The sea. 

Jalat. To stick, to adhere, to press 

Krusreko khiljalatledea. They nailed him to 

the cross. 
Lutur jalaCakantaea. Hia ears are thrown 

Noa kantha roK jaladme. Sew on this patch, 

Jalai; japat. To hang about a house 
in hope of receiving something, as 
hungry children. 

Jalat julut. To twinkle, sparkle, scin- 
tilate, flash, glimmer, to blink with 
the eyes. 

Ninda jalaf jnlufeo joloRa bakjunu. At night 

fire flies emit intermittent flashes of light. 
Bes hor ho oka do jalat' juludoltako. At times 
' even healthy people do not see distinctly. 
Jala^ jnlutSiil rieiiela. I do not see distinctly. 

Jale. A custom observed on the last 
day of the Sohrae (q. v.) festival, 

when the young men and maidens make the 
round of the village and sing, dance and 
beat the drums at each house, and in return 
receive presents of ride, which is cooked 
and divided amongst the villagers. 

Jale sereii. Songs snng when observing the 

custom of jale. (q. v.) 
Jale ru. The time beaten on the drums when 

observing the custom of jale (p. v.) 
EnhiloK khun^iko toda, arko jalea. 

Jale thale. At a loss, hard-pressed, 
without resource. 

Eehgecteko jale thale baraekana. They are 

hard pressed with hunger. 
Jom jomtele jale thaleena. We have eaten till 

we can eat no more. 
Botga burn manaotabon jale thaleena. We are 

drifting hopelessly through serving the boii- 

Jali. An early stage in the formation 
of fruit, a young bamboo shoot. 

J^li sapakana. The fruit has begun to form. 
Ciiicio khon thora la^ulenkhan ja,liko metaKa. 

Jali khali. Now and again, at times. kh^ili hijulfae. He comes now and again. 

Jali horo. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jalim. Plucky, intrepid, mettlesome, 
having nerve.' 

Sendrare khnbe jalima. He is very plucky 

when hunting. 
Khub jalim setae benaoena. He has grown a 

mettlesome dog. 

Jalim. ISomething put in the cilim (q. 
Jamin. J v.) to prevent the ashes reach- 
ing the mouth when smoking. 

Jg.lim lagaoaKme. 

Jalim sar. Expert in hunting. 

Khub jsilim s?.rgeae. He is an expert shikari. 

Jaljalao. To be inflamed, to burn, to 

Edrete jaljalaoKkanae. He is inflamed with 

Hormo jaljalaoK lekail aik9.ueda, I feel as if 

my body were burning. 

Jaljalia.] Not closely woven, having in- 
J alj elia. j tervals between the threads. 

Jaljalia kicrioe teliakata. He has woven the 
cloth so that it can be seen through. 


EnoK dahra alom jalkharea. Do not muzzle the 

ox that treadeth out the corn. 
Setako jalkharkoa aloko gegera mente. They 

muzzle dogs so that they may not bite. 

Jalmal. Moveable property, goods and 

Jalmal sanamko idike^koa. 
all hia property. 

Jalo. A species of hawk, 
Jalop. To cover over. 

Jalte hakoko jalop eset'koa. 

over fish and prevent them getting away. 
Ma sararikote nia phakko jalop esetikam. Cover 

these holes (in the rooi) with thatching 


Jalpa. \Slender, slim, spare, attenuated, 
Jalpat.J shrivelled, lean. 

Oka do rehgedte jalpatko AeloKa. Sometimes 
through hunger people look shrivelled. 

Jalpai The Olive tree. 

Jalpak. Shrivelled, lean, slender, slim. 

Jalpat. Cf jalpa. 

Jalpha. Slender, lean, shrivelled. Cf 

To muzzle. 

They look away 

They throw a net 


[ 253 ] 


Jalua. An earthenware vessel into 

which cows are milked. 
Jam. A fixture. 

Jam lelca horhoakanae. He watches as if he 
were a fixture. 

Jama, Amount of J'early rent, rent. 

TinaK jamape emeda? What rent do you pay? 

Jama. Applied to flowers or fruit that 
do not become detached from 
the tree when full-blown or ripe ; 
to delay, to linger ; complicated. 

Noko a^i jajnagetakoa, bako daVa hoda. These 
people are dilatory, they do not cook at 

^(Ji jamagea, bah go^a hodoKkana. There is 
much delay, it is not being decided quickly. 

[a Head constable 

Jamadar. 1 
Jamedar. j 

Jama juta. Substantial, well and 
strongly made. 

Noa sa^are jama jutaakaCa. He has made this 
cart well and strong. 

Jamani. To become surety, surety. 

Jam^ni teiigonme. Become surety. 

Iii ren jamaaienae. He has become my surety. 

Jamao. To congeal, to coagulate, to 
curdle, applied to milk. 

Toa jamaoena. The milk is curdled. 

Jamar. IContinuously, without inter- 
Jamar.J mission. 

4di i amarteko horhoaka^a. They have guarded 

it without intermis-iion. 
Mit! hor (bene jamaroK, ar etigioe nerigliaoe. 

He will hold to the one and despise the 


Jambali jombolj. .Wriggling, as fish 
that have been poisoned ; stagger- 

Jam bati. A large brass drinking vessel. 

Jambe. The jaw bone. 

Jambe glata. Grinder teeth. 

Kakra jambe. To become lean. 

Kakra jambeenae. He has become lean. 

Jambhua. Ignorant, foolish. 

Jambhua mara hor. An ignorant scoundrel. 

Jambir dare. The Citron, Citrus me- 

dica, Linn. 
Jambo. To cook, used mainly by 


Ac Ijgit'e jamboakaiia. She has cooked only 
for herself. 

Jambro.) A species of large rock snake, 

Jamro. j a python. 
Kod jamro. "l Varieties of the jambro dis- 

Zmt^.^T-i tinguishedbySantals. 

Jamedar. A Head constable. 

Jami. "1 Rice land, land on which rice is 

Jamin. ) grown. 

Jami jaega. All kinds of land. , 

Bir maU tanijikate jgimiko oqlokakafa. They 

have cleared the jungle and made rice fields. 

Jamin. To become surety, to go bail ; 
a surety. 

Jamin emoK hoyoUtama. Tou must gire bail. 
Ill jaminenteko aral^kadea. He was released 
through my becoming surety. 

Jamin. A gun wad, anything used as 
a gun wad. 

J^min lagaome. Put in a wad. 

Jamindar. Surety, bail, a landholder. 

J^mindare tehgoakana. He has become surety. 

Jamka. Two joined together. 

Jamka nahel. Two ploughs cut from one piece 

of wood. 
Jamka lum^im. Two cocoons joined together. 

Jamka jumki. In company, in knots, in 
a gang, in a party, in a group. 
Jamka junucile calakkana. We are going in 

Jamkao. To assemble. 

Eneiko jamkaoakada. They are assembled to 

Khub jamkaoge menaKkoa. They are very 


Jamke. United or grown together, 
as two fruits, fingers, &c. 

Jamki. A plaited band. 

Jgimki dora. A plaited loin string. Cf. dora. 
Gai cawar reaU galahkatele j^mkia. We plait 

the hairs of a cow's tail and make a band 

to tie up the hair with. 

Jamki banduk. A gun fired by means 

of a fuse. 
Jamro. A species of large rock snake, 

a python. Cf jambro. 
Jamro hesaU. A variety of the Pipal 

tree, Ficus religiosa, Linn., with 

elongated leaves. 
Jamro matkom. A variety of the 

Mahua tree, Basia latifolia, Roxb., 

with elongated flowers. 
Jan. A witch finder. 

Jan guru. A witch finder. 
Jan thenle calaU Uana. We are going to consult 
a witch finder. 

Janam. To give birth to, to be born, 
to originate, to spring, to make an 
appearance, to appear, 

Jalcnamifj. Author of being. 
Janam data. Author of being, creator. 
JiweU janam. Whole lifetime. 
Ot khon janamoKa. It will spring from the soil. 
Kaphgiriauko janamUeda. They began to quar- 

Janatn chut 

[ 254 ] 


Janam chut. The ceremonial defile- 
ment consequent on childbirth. 

Janam dara. Natal, natural, as opposed 
to acquired. 

Janam data. A hunting term applied 
to the Hapulj (q. v.) 

Janam data. Giver of life. 

Janao. To inform, to make a state- 
ment, to tell. 

Gorga ren borto ilia)? duldii jauaoat'koa. I 
informed the people of Gorga about my 

Janapit. To elose the eyes, to sleep. 
Cf. japit. 

Kehgeete met bail janapidoKa. I cannot sleep 

tbi'ough bunger. 

Janapitalc. Food given to a child to 
induce him to go to sleep. 

JanapitaK bae erelekhan cedaKe jaipidaP If he 
does not get something to eat why should 
he go to sleep ? 

Jana suna. Well known by report, ac- 
quaintance with, acquaintance. 

Jana suna onde menaKkotilia. I have acquain- 
tances there. 

Jana suna katha. A well known fact from hear- 

Jande mande. "j Anyhow, at random, 
Jande man tande. > anywhere, here and 
Jande tande. J there. 

Jande mandeko calaoena, kami b?inuK iate. 
They have gone here and there as there is 
no work. 

Jande munde. At random. 

Jande mandeko dalkedea. They struck him 
at random. 

Jane tane. ) Anywhere, here and 

Jane man tane. j there, anyhow, at 
Jane man taneko calaoena. They have gone here 

and there. 
Jane taneko kamikana. They are employed 

here and there. 
Ujra din mihu merom jane man taneko calaKa. 
' When there are no crops on the ground 
cattle are allowed to go wherever they wis h . 

Jan. A bone, the stone of a fruit, the 
fruit of certain leguminous plants ; 
to remove the covering of a ripe 
pod, to shell, as peas, &c. 

Jahena ul do. The stone has formed in the 

Dal Jan. To remoTe the shells of pods by 

Lebet; jah. To remove the shells of pods by 

grinding under the feet. 

Janajaiii. Known, to be acquainted 
with, to inform, to make known. 

Joto jana jani hoy kanabo. Yfe all know, 

and are known to each other. 
Jana janiat'koam? Did you inform them of itP 

Jan baha. A piece or pieces of bone 

of a cremated person rescued 

from the ashes of the funeral 

The piece or pieces of bone thus rescued are 
consigned with much ceremony to the 
Damuda river. 

Janga. The foot, the leg. 

Jahga latar. To be submissive. 

Ti jaiigare gidi. To prostrate oneself at an- 
other's feet. 

Auriye jangaKa. He cannot walk yet. 

AmaK jah^-a latarre henalia. I am submissive 
to you. 

Ti jahgare gidikateye nehorena. He threw him- 
self at his feet and implored. 

Jangai. To inform. 

Ma katha jang^iaeme. Tell him about it. 
Uni dom jang?iiakawadea? Did you tell him? 

Jange. A hoiizontal bar, as of a fence ; 
to fence with horizontal bars, to 
take care of 

Horho jahge. To watch over, take care of. 

Jaiige khunti. The uprights on which the hor- 
izontal bar of a fence rests. 

Jaiige esetakat'ako. They have fenced it with 
horizontal bars. 

Men gidarko gadarko horhokoam jahgekoam. 
Watch over and take care of the little ones. 

Janghi. Sciatica, pain along the un- 
der side of the thigh. 


Jan olat. A small forest tree, Greivia 

asicdica, Linn. 
Jan siris. A large forest tree, Alhizzia 

odoratissiina, Bentli. 
•Jan tirra. A large jungle climber, 

Puera7'ia tuherosa, D. G. 

Jau handi. Liquor given to the village 
headman and otlitT officials when 
any intimation is given of their 
service being needed, principally 
when a marriage is about to be 

Janhe. A cultivated millet, Pas]3cdum 
scrobiculatum, Linn. 

Janhe hirom. A small plant. Euphor- 
bia, scrahrijolid, Kurz. 

Janhe nanjom. A small plant, Poly- 
carp(ea corymbosa, Lamlc. 

Janic. Perhaps, may be. 

tnghia. ) ^, 
Aigia. 3 


Jani jati. 

[ 255 ] 


Jani jati. Each for himself, severally, 
individually, independently, 

Jani j*ti khajnale emoUkana. Each of ua pays 
his rent himself (to the zeniindav, not 
through a lessee.) 

J^mi jatiUo olke^koa. The name of each indi- 
vidual was taken down. 

JaAjal. 'J Anxiety, trouble, embarrass- 
Joiijal. J ment, difficulty, strait. 

Eenjeate aqli jaAjalle ^ikaueda. Wo are in 

great anxiety through poYOrty. 
Get jailjal lagaoat'meto noa dom nonkakedap 

What straits were you in to make you do 

Jaljjalokkanae. He is in trouble. 

Janjanao. To pierce, or drive to the 
head, as a nail. 

TuA janjanao. To pierce with an arrow. 
Kutam janjanao. To drive to the head, as a 

P^ti janjanao. To pierce deeply, as a thorn 

in the foot. 

Jan j an war. A living creature, an ani- 
Janje. To stagger, faint from hunger. 

Jankao. To be firmly embedded, as a 
well driven nail. 

j^di jankaoena, bahge todoKa. It is very firmly 
fixed, it will not come out. 

Jan pahcan. An acquaintance. 

Jan pahcan onde menaKkotilia. I have acquaint- 
ances there. 

Janmal. Offspring. 

Irt ren janmal kanae. He is my offspring. 

Jante. A hand grinding mill. 

Jante dhiri. A mill stone. 
Janterebon rida. We will grind it in the hand 

Janthar puja. Worship accompanied 
with sacrifice, when the ripening 
of the low land rice is acknowled- 
ged, and the first fruits offered to 
the deities. Another name for it 
is Baihar horo nawai. Of. nawai. 

Janu. The sacred thread worn by 
certain Hindu castes. 

Janum. A thorn, a thorny tree or bush. 

karwaCj^num. The thorny tree karwaf (ci.v.) 
Kuri€rama janum. The thorny bush known as 
kurif ratna (q. v.) 

Janum. The tree which yields the 
Chinese date, or jujube, Zizyphuz 
Jujuba, Lain. 

There are two varieties of this, one of which is 

cultivated and the other a wild bush. 
Pe(Jhaori janum. The cultivated variety. 
jom janum. The wild bush. 

Janum aral<. A common pot-herb, 
Amarantus spinosa, Willd. 

Janum dhompa. A wild medicinal plant, 
Leonalis nepetaefoliu. R. Br. 

Janvvar. An animal. 

Bir janwar. A wild animal. 

Ato janwar. A domesticated animal. 

Jao. Bai'ley, Hordeum vulgare, Linn. 
Jao. Every. 


Jao riinda. Every night. 

Jaoge. Every day, always. 

Jaoke jao. Daily, day after day. 

Jao jaote. Every day, always, continually. 

Jaoge jaoge. Repeatedly, always. 

Jaora. To assemble, to collect, to ga- 

Mota jaora. To gain flesh. 
Hewa jaora. To gain experience, or skill. 
Em jaora. To give or pay gradually. 
Sen jaora. To assemble gradually, or in parties. 
Jom jaora. To eat gradually. 
H«-j jaora. To come in parties. 
Idi jaora. To take away gradually. 
Alele sen jaoratia. We will do part of the 
journey (go by stages.) 

Jaore jftore. Imploringly, earnestly, 
urgently, again and again. 

Jaore jaoreye lai ofokeda. He was most urgent 
in telling it. 

Jaore jaoreil metamkana, alomhirilla. I ear- 
nestly charge you, do not forget. 

Jaore jaoreye hecalekana. He comes to us on 
urgent business. 

Japa jopo. Leisurely, slow, as if benumb- 
ed with cold ; weak. 

JapaU. To lean against. 

Berel japaK . 1 To take up one's residence, to 

Heo japaR. ) squat. 

Sen japaR. To go to another's house and hang 

JapaK jere£. To lounge here and there. 

Japak. To shut to, as a door. 

Silpiii japaKkam. Close the door, draw the 
door to. 

Japan jupun. Tottering, slowly and 
painfully, as an old person. 

Japaii jupun" haram cabaenae. He is so old as 
to totter when he walks. 

Japaii jupuhe tafameda, rua berefokante. He 
walks very slowly, having just recovered 
from fever. 

Haram hor leka japan jupuhe tarameda. He 
creeps along like an old man. 

Japao. To die, to be past hope of re- 
covery, to be dangerously ill. 

Euateye japaoakana. He is so ill with fever 
as to be past hope of recovery. 

Japaoenae. He is dead. 


[ 256 1 


Japar. To stand on the hind legs with 
the fore feet ao'ainst something. 

Darere merome japarakana. The goat stands 
on his hind legs with his fore feet against the 

Jape tope. IS low, dilatory, putting off 
Jape thope.j time. 

Cet'lekate jape tope bae heoakana ? How is it 
he is so dilatory in coming ? 

Japil To sleep, to close the eyes. 

Japit'kedae, ma jhaprebaeme. He has fallen 
asleep, put a light covering over him. 

AhgaK angalilA i^pi(;leda. I fell asleep towards 

Met bah jgipidoKkantaea. He does not close 
an eye. 

J^pi£ bah hijuEkana. Sleep does not come. 

Japua. Lean, shrivelled, as an old 

Japul Applied to the rainy season's 
rain, the rainy season. 

Japuf din. The rainy season. 
Jarge japuf . The rainy season. 
Japut'e lagaokeda. The rainy season has set 

Japut. To pounce suddenly upon and 
close way of egress, as a bird in a 
nest, &c. 

J9.putlc6dii1ako. They came suddenly upon me. 

Jar. Original, veritable, veracious, true, 

Jar i?,r katha. An old and true story. 

Jara. Cf bele. 

Bele jara. Properly ripe, aa a fruit. 

Jara. Applied to the flowers of the 
Matkom (q. v.) tree which do not 
become detached when full blown, 
but dry on the tree, and then fall. 

Jara matkom. Flowers of the Matkom (q. t.) 
tree which have dried up before falling. 

Noa dare reaK matkom jaraakana. The 
flowers of this matkom tree have dried on 

Jaracjuruc. T Small and ill-looking, 
Jharac jhuruc. J as starved children. 

Jarae juruajgidra menal<kotaea. He has some 
small ill-looking children. 

Jarali marte. ") » t • j • j. i 

, • ,, , > At once, immediately. 

Jarak mente. J •' 

JaraK marte lagaoadea . He gave heed at once. 

Jaral jaral. Flashing, shimmering. 

Jaral jaral setohkana. The sunshine is shim- 

Jaral jarale beugefadi^a. He looked at me 
with flashing eyes. 

Kul jaral. jarale behgeda. The tiger's eyes 

Jaral jurul. Staring, eyes to stand out. 

Eehgeote jaral jurule behget'eda. His eyes are 
staring through hunger. 

Jarao. To become weak or helpless 
through disease, or hunger ; bed 

arap r . i ^^ once, immediately. 
Jarap mente. J •' 

Jarap marte beref gofonae. He rose up im- 

Jarapi. 1 Applied to property inherited 
Jarapia.J from a wife's relatives. 

Jarapig. dhonem II amakawana ? Have you inheri- 
ted property through your wife ? 

Jardhe. Clumsy and heavy, as a plough. 
Jardhe jardhe. Large clods of earth. 

Jardhe jardhe si ut;kaukkana. Large clods of 
earth are being turned up by the plough. 

Jare jare. An exclamation of sorrow, 
distress, alas, alas ! woe is me ; to 

Jare jare ! ado ohoil ilamlea, 

Jare jare ! unalc aud ball badaelalia. 

Jare jare ! oka kond ili daralereho ohoA riamlea. 

Alas, alas ! I shall never see him more. 
Alas, alas ! I did not know this would happen, 
Alas, alas ! Go whatsoever way I may I will 
not find him. 

Jaret} jarel To hobble when walking. 

Jaret' jaret'e calaKkana. He hobbles along. 

Jargadi. Job's tears, Coix luchryma, 
Linn., a plant often met with 
about villages. 

Jarge. \ The rainy season. Cf. 

Jarge japul!./ japut'. 

Jarge palat. A change of garments 
for the rainy season. 

Jarge terel. A variety of the terel tree 
{Diospyros tomentosa, Roxb.) the 
fruit of which ripens during the 

Jargo. Tojerk towards oneself 

Jargo bindarkedeae. He jerked him towards 
himself and made him fall. 

Jargo. \Full grown, applied gener- 

Hara jargo./ ally to unmarried per- 
Jarhi. Marsh, swamp. 

Jarhi khef;. A rice field that has always water 
in it. 

Jari. To rain. 

Jariatleae. It rained where we were. 
PaiSjage goe jjrl metaoket'. The rain obliter- 
ated the footprints. 


[ 257 ] 


Jari. To promulgate an order, to serve 
a summons, &c., to put or come 
into force, as a law. 

Samanko jgiriadifia. They served a summona 

upon me. 
Saman jariye calaKkana. He is on his way to 

serve a summons. 
Ona hukum ale sed »uri j^riKa. That order 

has not been put in force where we reside. 

Jari. To be importunate, to clamour, 
to importune, to beg hard. 

Kicric l^giie i?.rikana. She bega hard for a 

Gidr?. jahanalf l^gifiko j aria. Children are im- 
portunate when they want anything. 

Jari. Applied to certain fibre yield- 
ing plants, fibre after extraction, 
also the stems and branches of the 
plant after the fibre has been ex- 

Son jayi. The plant, Croialarta jMncea, Linn. 

and its fibre. 
Kudrum jari. The plant, Hibiscus canna- 

bimis, Ltinn, audits fibre. 
AraS kudrum jari. The plant Hibiscus sab- 

dariffa, Linn., and its fibre. 

Jariau. To become chronic, or deep- 
seated, as a disease. 

Jari^uentaea. It has become chronic with 

J^ri^uentaea, bako ran hojadea. It has become 

serious, they did not give him medicine in 

Kua do jariauentaea. His fever has become 


Jari poda. To be burnt, as food in 
cooking, &c. 

Loenkhanko mena jari pot^aenako. 
Jari po^akedako utu do. They have burnt the 
relish in cooking it. 

Jaribana. "j 

Juribana. J-To impose a fine, a fine. 

Juribona. J 

Jaribanake6koae. He fined them. 
Juribana takale emkeda. We paid the fine. 

ari . I rj,^ measure land, to survey. 
Jarip.J •' 

Atoko i9.ripkeda. They measured the village. 

Jaro. Worn out, weakened, reduced. 

Euate jaroenae. He is weakened by fever. 

Jari buti.lMedicinal herbs and roots, 
Jari buti.J simples. 

Jahan jari buti lagaoaepe. Give him some 
kind of medicine or other. 

Jari janti. Earnestly, urgently, assid- 

Jari jantiko horhokana. They are watching 

Jari jarao. To be burned up, to burn. 

J?.ri jaraoenako. They are burnt out of house 

and home. 
Sanam bir j^ri jaraoena. The whole forest hag 

been burnt up. 

Jarjar. 11 
Jarjarao. J 

j^To shiver during an attack 
of fever. 

Jarjaraoedirikana. I am shivering from an 
attack of fever. 

Jarkao. To be water-logged, to be 
saturated, as the soil. 

Oralf jarkaoontalea. The floor of our house 
has become waterlogged. 

Jarkhar. To meet with disaster, ca- 
lamity, adverse fortune, poverty, 
affliction, ruin ; to go to rack 
and ruin, to decay, go down in the 
world, to be desolated. 

Noko hor sanamko jarkharena. These people 

have all died. 
Ona ato sanamko jarkharena. The people of 

that village have all died. 

Jarmak jormok. Forlorn, like a vaga- 
bond, driven from one place to 
another, here and there. 

Adom horko kami£ jarmaK jormolf ko dara 
baraea. Some people go wandering from 
one place to another in search of work. 

Jarmak tormak. \ Forlorn, like a vaga- 
Jarmati tormat. J bond, aimlessly. 

Am do onte note jarmaU tormaKem dara baraea. 
Tou will wander about like a vagabond. 

Jar mar. Roots, tubers, &c., dug up in 
the jungles for food. 

Cefpejomeda? Jomedale jar mar. What do 
you live on? We live on roots, tubers, &c., 
that we find in the forest. 

Jarnaha. Expert in hunting, killing 
much game ; persistent. 

Jarnaha seta. A good hunting dog. 
Sendrare ?idi jarnaha here tahekana. He was 
an expert hunter. 

Jarndi. A weevil which attacks rice, 
and other grains. 

Jarpa. To hunt, applied to the occasion- 
al hunting parties organized by 
the villagers themselves, and not 
to the great annual district hunts. 

Noa bir teheJibo jarpaea. We will hunt in this 
jungle to-day. 

Jaru. Cf bele jaru. 

Bele jgiru. Properly ripe, as a fruit. 

^^ ' [Fully ripe, as a fruit. 

Bele jarum. 


Jarum dak 

[ 258 ] 


■ Tears. 

Jarum dak. 

Mel; dak. 

Jarur. To require, need, want, have 
occasion for, not to be able to do 
without ; indispensible, urgent ; 
certainly, without fail. 

Kan iaruraelcana. He needs medicine. 

Saheb nui jarur menaKtaea. The master needs 

Jarur i& calaSa. I shall certainly go. 

Jarwa. To assemble, to collect. C£ 
Hoho jarwake£koae. He called them together. 

Jasti. More, excessive, too much. 

Unal? emlekhan ja.stiKa. If you give so much it 

will be too much. 
Jasti lioK emaeme. Give him a little more. 
Jastil)ojham ladeaekaua. You are putting too 

great a load on him. 

Jiisu. A spy, a detective, an informer, 
an accomplice. 

Guti ho iahatis jahatisko jaguTfa. Servants 
sometimes become accomplices (of thieves.) 

Jat. Caste, gender, temperament, race, 

Manwa jat. The human race. 

Aj^t. To put out of caste. 

Jat agu. To break another's caste. 

J^t calaK. To lose caste. 

Jom jati. To receive into caste again. 

Jom jat. To re-admit to caste. 

Jom jatoli. To be re-admitted into caste. 

Herel j^t. Males. 

K?imite jat oho calaKtama. Ton will not lose 

caste by working. 
J9.treg6 onkangeako. Their temperament is 

Seta jat hor kanako, bebarioko kaph?riauKa. 

They are like dogs they quarrel fearfully. 

Jat. Property made over to a creditor 
till such time as the revenue shall 
have paid off the debt. 

Jat. Heavy. Cf. jsk. 

Jata. A portion of hair allowed to 
grow and become matted, as is 
the habit of some ascetics, and 
persons who have made a vow 
not to cut their hair for a certain 

Jata ^anra. A bull with an abnormal growth 
between the shoulders. 

Jata horo. A variety of the rice plant. 
Jatak. At once, immediately. 

Jatak. To stick to, or adhere, as clay 
to the feet. 

JatagoKkana. It adheres (to the feet.) 

Jatak jatak. \Sticky, as bird lime ; 
Jatak jatagok. / to stick to, to adhere. 

JataK jataKiii aik^iueda umleneneo besiii atka- 
ra. My skin feels sticky, when I have 
bathed I will feel comfortable. 

Jatal kotal. Seeking something to eat. 

Jatal koiale dara. baraekana. He is going about 
seeking something to eat. 

Jatad. Adhesive, as clay. 

Jatah hasa. Clay. 

Ona hasa do adi jatangea. That soil is very 
sticky, (or clayey .J 

Jate. In whatever way. 

Jate besoKa, onkaepe. Do whatever will be 

Jate jute. With care, carefully, to put 
to rights, to repair. 

Jate jutete sagar lagaeme. Drive the cart with 

Jate jute samjhauepe. Explain it to him care- 

Jate jute calakpe. Go carefully. 

Jate juteedako. They are putting things to 

Jatgar. \A good species, or kind, as 
Jatgaria. J a cow that gives much 

Ees jatgaria kanae. She is of a very good kind. 

Jati. Temperament, nature, natural 
propensity, or quality. 

Jatire onkangeae. His natural propensities are 
such, or he is so by nature. 

Jiwij9.ti. General health, of mind and body. 

Jiwi jati hormo harta bes barageale. Our gen- 
eral health is good. 

Jati. A bamboo mat. 

Jatia. Of or belonging to the caste. 

Jatia pera. A caste-fellow. 

Mii; jatia kanako. They are of the same caste. 

Jat jut. 1 To put to rights, to recover 
Jut jat. J oneself after a season of 

distress, to make an amicable 


Bapla realtko jat jutkeda. All preliminaries 
of the marriage are arranged. 

Jat jutkedako. They settled the matter ami- 

Jatia. M. ■) A person who has allowed 
Jatli. F. J a part of his or her hair 
to grow long and matted. 

Jatna. As many, as much as. 

JatnamenaKpea, joto hijulfpe. Come all of you. 
Jatna taka menaKa, sanam den emoKpe. Give 
up all the money there is. 

Jatra. To die, to depart this life, to go 
on the long journey. 
Teheii doe jatraena. He died to-day. 


[ 25-9 ] 

Jehe jobe 

Jatra. A good omen, a sign or oinen. 

Jatra ban hoelena. The omen was against me. 
Ohori Aamlea, jatra ban hoelena. I will not 
get it the omen was unfayourable. ^ 

Jatra. A festival observed in January. 
Jatra manda. \ Shrine at the place 
Jatra mandak. J" where the jatra fes- 
tival (q. V.) is observed. 

Jatur enec. A dance so called. 

It is danced during the Sohrae (q. v.) and Baha 
(q. V.) festivals. 

Jatur sereiS. Songs and air sung when 
dancing the jatur (q. v.) dance. 

Jatur ru. The time beaten on the 
drums when the jatur (q. v.) dance 
is being executed. 

Jau. To soften, to become soft. 

Daka isin jauena. The rice is cooked too soft. 

K^mi hamitele j^uena. We have become Ump 
with continued work. 

Dal jaukedeako. They beat him to a jelly. 

Buhet' jaukedeae. He put him down by scol- 
ding him. 

Jauan. A kind of spice. 

Jauhar. "j To assemble in large num- 

Jauhar. j- bers. 


Nunali horid jauharakawana, iri do ohoii ali- 
jomletapea. I have engaged so many 
people, I cannot listen to you, (cannot leave 

Jauri. More than what is right and 

Er jaurikedape. You have sown too thickly. 
Etah AoK erpe, alope jgiuria. Sow a little more 

thinly, do not make it thick. 
Agli j9.urikedape. You have put in too much 


Jausa iausi. ")/-,• i i 
Ti,- -i, ■ /-Quickly. 
Jhausajhausi. J ^ •' 

Jaus^ jausi hodeme. Get him to do it quickly. 

Jawa. To steep till germination or fer- 
mentation sets in. 

Jawakateko cuaia. They steep it till ferment- 
ation sets in, then they distil it. 

Matkom bes okoete bape tase rohorlaUa, jawa- 
ena. You did not carefully dry the matkom 
it is fermenting. 

Jawa. Twins. 

Jawa gidrakin hoeakantaea. She 'baa given 
birth to twins. 

Jawae. Husband, bridegroom, to be 
married to a husband. 

Jawae gomkefi. Son-in-law. 

Ghar jawae. 7 A husband who lives in the 

Ghardi jawae. ) house of his wife's father, 

and serves for her, instead of paying the 

usual price and taking her to his own home. 

Jawaekedeako. They gave her in marriage. 
Auriyu jawaeoKa. She is not yet married. 
Ghardi jawaoenae. He is married and has gone 

to his father-in-law's. 
Eahu jawae. A game played by!Santal girls, 

which takes the place of the doll of English 


Jawae ladu. A variety of the rice plant. 

Je. "> Whatever, what ; that, in intro- 
Jege. J ducing oblique narration. 

Jege menaKa. Whatever there may be. 
Je jafijalred paf aoena, ili geA baijlaeeda. I 
know my own sorrows. 

Jeb. A pocket. 

Jeb ghayi. A watch. 

Jeb doho. To shew pity. 

Jeb dohokate rorme. Shew pity in what you 

Jebe jebe. ] 

Jebec jebeo. i- Moist, muddy. 

Jobo jobo. j 

Jebe jobe. Drenched, dripping. 

T J. ■ I Miserable lookinef, like 
J ewer lewer. > , i. i.- i ° 

Jewer jewer. J _ ^°"§^^' '^'"^y- 

Jewer jewere dara baraekana. He goes about 

in miserable plight. 
Jewer jewerko andalEakada. They have cooked 

it till it is doughy. 

Jebkhod. A common grass, Eragros- 

tis tenella, Nees. 
Jebre. ") rr -j.- 


Jebre jebre ol iieloEkana. The writing is heavy. 

Jec jewer. \ . 

Jejewer. J 

Jede bede. Roughly smeared, as a 

Jeder. Sunshine, applied only to that 

of the early morning hours, and 

during the cold season; to sun 


Jegler keted. Time at which the sun's rays 

begin to get hot. 
Jetjerre durupme. Sit in the sunshine. 
Jeder kefeo habiciri je(Jerena. I bathed in tho 

sunshine until the sun was well risen (till 

9 a. m. or so.) 

Jege. Whatever. 

Jegec jagum. Wet, damp, moist, as soil. 

Jeged j^gum ^fkaroSkana. It feels damp. 

Jegec jege6. Wet, damp, moist. 

Jehe jobe. Very wet, or damp, drench- 
ed, dripping. 

Jehe jobe lohot'enae. He is drenched. 
Jehe jobe lohoCentalea oraU do. The floor of 
our house is very damp. 

small bird. 

Je jemon 

[ 260 ] 

Jenget; jenget; 

Je j emon. As, in conformity with. 

Je jemon hor onkage emakom, gidra do gidrg. 
leka, ar Borako do sera leka. In conformity 
with the individual, so give them, to a child 
as is fitting for a child, and to an adult as 
fitting for an adult. 

,'',•„■ }■ A small forest bird. 
J ec J ewer. J 

Jekichu. Whatever 

Jekichu tahekantaea, sanam lo cabaena. All 
he had ia burnt up. 

Jekre. As if rooted or anchored, said 
only when finding fault ; adhesive, 

On^em sen jekreakana? Tou went and anchor- 
ed there ? 

Je leka. As. 

Jelekam huknmkeda, se lekakedali. I did as you 

Jel. A deer. 

Jhahkar. The buck of the spotted deer. Axis 

Posta. The hind of the spotted deer. Axis macu- 

Saram. The Sambur deer, Russi Aristotelis. 

Murum. The buck of the Nilgai, Portaxpictus. 

Sosam. The hind of the Nilgai, Portax pictiis. 

Murghoa. The Eib-faoed, or Barking deer, 
Cervuhis aureus. 

Kurmbi selep. 7 The biiok of the Ravine deer of 

Badar selep. ) sportsmen in Bengal, Oazella 

J*™°™ j®^- 7 The hind of the Eavine deer, Gaz- 
Xu r® „ f ^{ja Bennettii. 
Grhopra ,, J 

Jel. Flesh, flesh meat. 

gif- jel. j Beef. 

Bbidi jel. Mutton. 

Merom jel. Goat's fleah. 

Sukri jel. Pork. 

Jel jel. Venison. 

Lat; jel. Flesh wrapped in leaves and cooked in 

Eapak jel. Roast meat. 
Teke jel. Boiled meat. 
Rohor jel. Biltong, fleah cut into stripa and 

dried in the sun. 
Sure jel, | jj- ^. ^^^^ ^.j^.^ oooted together. 
Jel sure. ) ° 

Kohra jel. Flesh meat cooked along with spices 

in oil. 
Berel jel. Raw meat. 
Jel daka. Boiled rice and meat. 
' Jel utu. A relish of meat. 

JeloKkanae. He is recovering flesh. 
Sukri khubko jela. Pigs yield much flesh. 
Marahgeye tahekana, menkhan bae jellaKa. It 

was large, but did not yield much meat. 
Ale hole jelletlgea. We also killed meat. 
Jel jou kanako. They are having fleah meat. 
Jel kombrokate horoKaepe. Work the flesh on 

her hand to put it on (a bracelet.) 

Jeleii. Long, tall. 

JelelioKa. It well become long, or lengthen. 
Onae jeleJikeda. He lengthened it. 
Jeleil oandbol. Cattle. 

Jeteleii. The long way, the length as opposed 
to the breadth. 

Jelep jelep. Showing off, flashing, as 

Jelep^ jelepe dara baraekana. He goes about 
shewing himself off. 

Jeljelia. Not closely woven, intervals 
between the threads, as in coarse 

Jel^et I ^^''^^' insignificant. 

Jelpeo maragidra. A little imp of a child. 

Jembeti. To drink by putting mouth 
to water, to drink from a vessel 
without putting the rim in the 
mouth, to suck, to drink. 

T^rup mayamko jembeda. Leopards drink the 

blood (of their victims.) 
Dak aiijlekate jembedme. Lift the water in the 

palms of your hands and drink. 

Jembef!. To fit neatly or exactly, as a 
join in a panel. 

Kat khub jembefiena. The wood is neatly 

B?ihki jembefiakana. The anklets fit nicely. 

T ' /■ In order that, as, so that. 

Jemon. J 

HusiaroKpe jemon aloe dar. Be careful so that 
he may not run away. 

Jemnec. So that, in order that. Cf 

Jemon .... temon. As ... . so, according 

Jemonko kg,mia, temon gem emakoa. Tou will 
give them according as they work. 

Jemon temon. Carelessly,, indifferently. 

Jemon temonko kamikeda. They did their work 

Jemthe. \ Joined together, 

Jemthe j em thee. J stuck together ; 
sticky, adhesive. 

NoKoekin jemtheakana. 

Jem^heena . They are sticking together. 

Jenec. Small, diminutive. 

Jenephene. ^ Applied to the crying 
Genephene. j- or whining of a cross 
Ghenephene. J child. 

Jenepbeneye raga. She ia whining. 

Jenereli. The upper levers to which 
.the heddles of a loom are attached. 

Jengel; jehgel Bright red, pleasing to 
the senses. 

Jenget' jenget lieloKa. It is a bright red. 
Kig. baha m9.i jehgefi jeriget. 


[ 261 ] 


JeAjle. To beg hard, to importune, 
applied mainly to covetous begg- 

TinjK bam jeiSjlG baraea. You are a terrible 

Horko then jelijle bafaeae. He is given to beg- 
ging from other people. 

Jenkete. Virginity. 

Jeno. So that, in order that. 

Nonka jeno alo hoyoK . So that it may not thus 

Jentlie. Sticky, adhesive. 

Jenthe hasa. Sticky soil, soil that adheres to 
the feet. 

Jeperet. To stick together, to grow 
together as two fruits, two fingers, 
two cocoons, Siamese twins, &c. 

Jeperef mitaUana. They have grown together. 

Jepet. Neatly fitted or joined, as a 
piece of woodwork, &c. 

Khub jepefiakana. It is well fitted. 

Jepe thope. Following at a distance, 

unable to keep pace with others. 
Jer. Gum, exudation from certain 


Babla jer. Gum arable. 

Jer soso jomko senakana. They have gone to 

eat gum along with the soso (q. v.) fruit. 
Noa darere jeratana. Gum is exuding from 

this tree. 

Jera. To cross question. 

S9.khiko jerakoa. They cross question the wit- 

Jera auri hoyoRa. The cross examination has 
not yet taken place. 

Jera janhe. A grass, Panicum flavi- 
diuvi, Retz., the grain of which is 
sometimes eaten. 

Jerbar. Worn out, reduced, wearied, 

Eu?. ru?.teye jerbarena. He is worn out with 
continued fever. 

Jerdhe Clumsy and heavy. 
Jere bedhe. Stunted, dwarfed. 

Jere bedhe bae hara haraK kana. 

Jere j ere. To be redu ced, as by illness ; 
to be stunted, as a plant growing 
under unfavourable conditions, un- 

Euate jerejereenae. He is reduced by fever. 
DaRte jere jerekedae. The moisture stunted 

(the Indian corn.) 
Dais jere jere tabengea. The water remains 

unfavourable to plant growth. 

Jere mete. With difficulty. 

Jere metetele hamikeda nes. We experienced 
difficulty with our cultivation this year. 

JereA ayan. A species of snake. Cf 

JereA aralc.\ A wild plant used as a 
Jeret; arak.J pot-herb, Chlorophitwn 
arundinaceum, Baker. 

Jerer. To plaster and smooth, to plas- 
ter, to daub. 

Otko jerera. They smooth the floor of the 
house with mud. 

In^kate ado gota re<! sindurte gota molotireye 
jerejwadege. After that he daubs all the 
sindur in the leaf on her forehead. 

Jereli. To burn, set fire to, to kindle, 
to be eaten away as the toes and 
fingers of a person suffering from 

Jeret'aK me. Set fire to it. 
Jeret sunum. Burning oil. 
Diuhe jeredme. Light the lamp. 

Jereli. To be united, to grow together, 
to stick together. 

Jerei mitakana. The two have grown together. 
MeU jere(!entaea. His eyelids are sticking to- 

Jerjer. Sticky, as bird lime. 

Jerka. To stick together, to be united. 

Jerka mi£ena. Thoy are sticking together. 

Jerka. Stunted, short, ill -grown. 

Jerka mara hoy. A stunted scoundrel. 

Sedae ren hor usullco tahekana, menkhan netar- 
ko jerkagea. The ancients were tall men 
but those of the present day are stunted. 

Jerked. To copulate. 

Jerdgaha. Unproductive, applied to 
saline soils. 

Jero. Worn out, weakened. 

Jero oabaenae. He is as weak as he can well 

Jerpgret As if rooted or anchored. 

Durup jerpereCakanae. He sits as if rooted 
to the ground. 

Jerpel As if rooted to the ground. 

Jerpe^e durupakana. He sits as if rooted to 
the ground. 




Jesanko kamia tesanko liama. As they work 
so will they receive. 

Jeteleii. The long way, the long sides 

of a parallelogram. 
Jeteleii pareare. The bar running the long 

way of a bed in opposition to that running 

the cross way. 
Kiorid reaK j eteleli . The long way of the cloth 

Jeth. A month so called, May — June 


[ 262 ] 

Jhaka jhaki 

Jethe. Expectant, hoping to receive 

Durup jetheakanae. He sits quietly expecting 
to receiTe something. 

Jether pether. For a long time, a long 
stretch of time. Cf. jothor pothor. 

Jetho. To tell, to reveal as much as 
is convenient. 

Kathaejetlioeda. He is telling his story. 

Jetke. Adhesive, sticky, as wet clay. 

Jetlolf. M.") Miserable looking, depress- 
Jitluk. F.J ed, sad. 

Durup jetlolf akanae. He looks miserable as he 

sits there. 
Jahae oralf alope jetloK baraea. Do not hang 

about any one's house shewing a miserable 

look, (to excite charity.) 

Jewen. Sticky, adhesive, as paste, &c. 

Jewer. "| 

Jewerjewer. [-Sticky, adhesive. 

Jewer jewer. J 

Jewer hasa. Sticky soil that sticks to the feet. 

Jhaba. A hanging shelf, baskets for 
carrying earth slung at each end 
of a bamboo and carried on the 

Jhabar jhubar.") Drenched, dripping, 
Jhabar jhubur. /as the clothes of one 

who has just waded through a 


Jhabrahi. Well knit frame, strong and 
proportionate. Cf jabrahi. 

Jhabrali. Wide spreading and um- 
brageous, as a tree; well knit frame, 

Jhabrao. To spread over, to hang, to 
curtain, to put on trappings, to 
put on ornaments and clothes, to 
be loaded with fruit, as a tree. Cf 

Jhabu. A broad armlet. 

Jhadec j hadec. Ill-fitting, as garments; 

to wear a garment slovenly and 

Jhadga. Slovenly attired. 

Jhadge. Slovenly attired. 

Jhadge mara hor. A slovenly attired fellow. 

Jhadgoc. Old, fallen into disrepair, 
worn out. 
OfaK jhadgocentaea. Hia house has fallen in- 
to disrepair. 

Jhadoc jhadoc. Ill-fitting and baggy, 
as a Cabullee's garments ; worn in 
a slovenly fashion. 

Jhador pador. Dilapidated, as the roof 
of a house when the thatch has 
become old and worn; rough, 
roughly executed, as work ; scrag- 

fy, untrimmed. 
jhador padorentalea. Our house has be- 
come dilapidated. 
Jhador padorko benaokeda. They have dona 
the work very roughly. 

Jhae. To faint. 

Mayam i5ellekhau jhae godoKae, If he sees blood 
he faints right away. 

Jhargae jhurgui. In a band, in a crowd. 
Jhagar sagar. ") Bad- luck, a jingle with 
Sagar jhagar. J the word sagar, sagar 

meaning good fortune, and jhagar 


Sagar jhagar reaK fhik banuKan, okare pase 

Jhagar jhagar. Applied to the sound 
produced when a drum is beaten 
to a certain time. 

Jhagra. A quarrel, to quarrel. 

Jhagra horo. A variety of the rice 

Jhagri horo. A variety of the rice plant. 

Jhagraitha. Quarrelsome, said of 

Tu I,-" hQuarrelsome, ill tempered. 
J hagrania. J ^ ^ 

^^i jhagr^ihi hor kanae. He is a very quar- 
relsome person. 

Jhagwar. A game played by children. 
Jhajharic. A charm doctor, one who 

cures snake bite, &c. by charms 

and incantations. 
Jhak. Trip, load, expedition. Scottice, 


Mif bar jhak daK agu otokam. Go one or two 
trips to bring water. 

Jhaka. ~1 Full-grown, applied generally' 
Jhakar. J to unmarried women who, 

in the opinion of Santals, are past 

the flower of their age. 

Hara jhakaenae. 

Jhaka jhaki. Jostling and pushing, 
bitter altercation. 

Jhaka jhakikin kaphariauKkana. They are 

quarrelling violently. 
Jhaka jhalcikin oporkana. They are pushing 

and pulling each other. 


[ 263 ] 


Jhakand. Past its best, as a tree shew- 
ing signs of decay. 

Jhakao. To attract, to draw, to sub- 
side, as water. 

Ared jhakaokedako. They haTe baled it dry. 
Mahajonko jhakaokeda sanam horo, oaole. The 

Mahajons have attracted all the dhan and 

rice (bought it all up.) 

Ga^a dali (Jhere jhakaokeda. The water in 
the river has subsided considerably. 

Jhakat. To be exhausted, as a store. 

Jhal^ jhadur, Bathed in perspiration. 

Jhakjhali. Pouring sweat, sweat run- 
ning down one, bathed in perspira- 

JhaK jhalf balbalaoEkanae. Sweat is pouring 
from him. 

Jhak jhak. Quickly, driven at work. 

TinjR jhak jhakili kamia? How long will I con- 
sent to be driven thus ? 

Jhak jhak. Bright, gleaming, shining. 

Sili cando reaK jhak jhakte£. The brightness 

of the sun. 
Jhak jhake lleloKa. It is bright (star). 

Jhakmar. ~| Perforce, obligatory, com- 
Jhakmaria. J pulsory. 

Jhakmg.ri^ k^mitege hoyoKtama. To continue 

to work is obligatory on you. 
Jhakmari^ idi hoyolitama. You are obliged to 

take it. 

Jhak marte. "I At once, like a flash, with 
Jhak mente.J a flash. 

Jhak mente Ael go1:ena. 

Jhak menteye hec go^ena. He came at once. 

Jhako jhoko. With great difficulty, 

Jhakrao. To attract, to draw, to allure. 

Melate sanam horko jhakrao calalf kana. All 
the people are being attracted to the fair. 

Jhal. Warm, hot, as Cayenne pepper, 

Jhalge bhijaiuadea. He felt it very hot. 
Noa do adi jhal katha kana. This is a very 
pungent saying. 

Jhal. Long, tall. 

Jhaltel The length. 

Jhal jbg.! up. Very long hair. 

Noa horte ?dibo jhaloRa. This road will take 

us round about. 
Noa do jhal liolcena. This a little too long. 
Jh^laR aguime. Bring a long one. 

Jhala. Hot, applied mainly to the heat 
of the sun. 

Jhala din. The hot weather. 

Adi jhala kana. It is very hot. 

Sengel jhala. Heat from a conflagration. 

Jhalak. Glimpse, flash. 
JhalakteiEili liel JSoSleftaea. I caught a glimpse 

of him. 
Nasenalf jhalakili liellaKa. I saw him as a 


Jhala jhali. To put to rights, mend. 
Jhala jhula. The grain obtained by 

shaking out the wrappings of a 

bandi (q. v.) 
Jhalak malak. Decked out for shew, 

attired to attract attention. 

Jhalak malake dara bafaekana. He goes 
about shewing himself off. 

Jhala mala. Decked, shining with tin- 
sel and colour. 

Jhalao. To clean out, as a house or a 
well ; to raise again a matter that 
has been settled. 

Noa kathape jhalao ru^rkeda. Ton have rais- 
ed this question anew. 

Noa kui doko jhalaokeda. They cleaned out 
this well. 

Jhal da. A long root tuber. 
Jhali. A snare, trap, net ; to snare, trap, 

Jal jhali. Snares and nets. 

Jh^li odao. To set a snare. 

Dal jhali. To beat or drive game into a net. 

Knl, banahoko jhalikoa. They also trap tigers 
and bears. 

AkoaK kathategeko jhg-liena. They are entrap- 
ped by their own words. 

Jhal jhal. To glisten, to glitter. 

Ganga gitil jhal jhalge lieloKa. The sand of 
the Ganges glistens. 

Jhal jhalao. To complete, to make trim 
or neat. 

LaK jhal jhalaokedako. They have cut and 
trimmed (the ridges of the rice fields.) 

Kharaiko laK jhal jhalaokeda. They have 
smothed and trimmed the threshing floor 
(made it shine.) 

Jhalka. A rather objectionable dance 
performed by men when passing 
the night in the jungle during one 
of the annual hunts. 

JhalH T:}W'^^*°°'l^^*f"^- 
Jhalkao. To shine, to flash,be burnished. 

Ona kapido adi jhalkaoRkana. That battle 
axe is highly burnished. 

Jhalki. Wanton. Cf jhalka. 
Jhalmal. Resplendent, clean and bright. 

Jhalmalko darakokana. They are coming clean 

and bright. 
Jhalmal ileloKkantakoa oraE do. Their house 

looks clean and bright. 
Jhalmal bari3.tko hijuKkana. The marriage 

party look resplendent as they come. 

Jhalmalao ■ 

[ 264 ] 


Jhalmalao. To be trim, clean ; neatly 

Oral? khub jhalmalaoakantakoa. Their house 
is clean and bright. 

Jhalui jhalui. To shake, to dangle. 

71 ■, ."-i 1 . iTo haner over, or down. 
Jhalun jhalun.J ° ' 

Jhalur. T To hang 'over or down, 

Jhalur jhalur. J baggy, as a Kabuli's 

garments, to sag, as a cloth fixed 

at the corners. 

Jhalur jhalarko deiigaakana. Their clothes 

hang far down. 
Jhalur jhalurko akaakaCa. They have hung it 

80 that it hangs a long way down. 

Jham. \To rattle, as a child's rat- 

Jham jham. J tie, or as certain hollow 

ornaments with small pieces of 

metal or stone inside. 

Jham jham sadekana, lipur. 

Jhama jhum.lAll together, in a crowd. 
Jam j hum. J with a rush. 

Jhama jhumko argo go6ena. They descended 

with a rush. 
Jhama jhumko hec gotena. They came in a 


Jhamar jhomor. Heavily, as rain. 

Jhamar jhomore dalckeda. It rained heavily. 

Jhamar jhumur. Applied to the sound 
produced by certain hollow orna- 
ments with small pieces of metal 
or stones inside when shaken; a 
tinkling sound. C£ jhumur jhu- 

Jhamar jhumuretarameda. She goes tinkling 

Jhamat. Full-grown. 

Hara jhamat. Full-grown, of women. 
Hara rata. Full-grown, of men. 

Jhamela. Numerous, in large nunbers. 

4-<Ji jhamelako hedena. They came in very large 

Jham jham. Faint. 

Jham jham iA aikaueda. I feel faint. 
Setohte oka do jham jhamko aikaua. Sometimes 
heat brings on faintness. 

Jham jhum. All together, in a crowd, 

with a rush. 
Jhamka jhakur. In clusters. 

Jhampa. To cover, as a fowl under a 
basket, to cover, as a plant with 
thorns to preserve it. 

Potam jhampa. The part of a pigeon trap that 

falls on the bird. 
Jhampa eseCkom. Cover them up (under a bps- 


Jhampa jhalikef koae. He caught them by caus- 
ing something to fall on the top of them. 

Jhampa. A children's game. 

Jhanak bai. A kind of convulsion. 

Jhanar jhanar."! 

Jhanar marte. lHattling, with a rattle. 

Jhanar mente.j 

Jhanar mente liurena. It fell rattling. 
Jhanar marte sadekana. It rattles. 

Jhanat. \To rattle, as money fal- 

Jhanat jhanat.j ling on the floor. 

N^ur gotena taka jhanat mente. The money fell 
rattling (on the floor.) 

Jhanauri. 1 A lapful of parched 

Janauri. V grain brought to a 

Gocha jhanauri. J recent bride from 

her father's house. 
Jhanda. ~| a fl 
Jhandi. J °' 

Jhandaadeako. They put up a flag at his house 
(sign of being out-oaated.) 

Jhandel jhandel. Wide, ill-fitting, ap- 
plied to an anklet too wide for the 
Jhane j hapane. ") Be-decked, covered 
Jhanejhapar. j with jewelry; abun- 

Jhane jhapane sajakanae. It is fully caparisoned. 
Jhane jhapane joakana. It is covered with 

Jhanek jhapar. Loaded with jewelry. 

Jhanga. Trousers down to the ankles. 

Jhaoka jhakur. In clusters, or fes- 
toons, as flowers or fruit. Cf jham- 
ka jhakur. 

Jhahka ih9.kur joakana. The fruit is in clus- 

Jhahka jhgikurko aka pereeakat'a. The place 
is filled with hanging clusters. 

Jhangae potae. Everything, every one. 

Jhanga jhuta. Broken, in holes, torn, 

Jhanga parwa. A pigeon with feathered 

Jhanga sim. A barndoor fowl with 

feathered legs. 

Jhangrao. To grow luxuriantly, ap- 
plied to certain trailing or climbing 
leguminous plants, such as the pea, 
when not trained, but allowed to 
intertwine among themselves. 

Hored khub jhangraoakana. 

JhaA jhaualt 

[ 265 ] 

Jhapni bai 

Jhan jhauali. Unserviceable. 

Pul jhan jhaugiKena. The bridge is nnservioe- 

EapuC jhaii jhauaKona. It is so much broken as 

to be unserviceable. 

Jhaakar. The buck of the spotted 
deer, Axis Trutculatus. 

Posta jel. The hind of the Spotted deer, Axis 

Jhankari sar. A species of tall grass 
the culms of which are used to make 
arrow shafts. 
Jhanker. Cf jhanlcar. 

Jha6j. Burning or scorching heat. 

Jharij din. The hot weather. 
Netar do acli jharija. There is great heat these 

Jhanjati. ] 

Jhan jhapi. [-Emaciated. 

JaA japi. J • 

Bug. jbaA jhipienaa. He is emaciated through 

J han j han. Tinkling, crisp, crackling. 

Kortal jhan jhan sa^ekana. The cymbals tinkle. 
Jhan jhan rohorena. It is dry and crisp. 

Jhan jhanao. To tinkle, to crackle, as 
a dry leaf. 

Jhanjhanao baraekana. It is crackling. 
Bohor jhan jhanaoena. It has dried crisp. 

j^^^J^^HDistress, worry and anxiety. 

4di jhaAjiiatreii paraoena, I have great worry 
and anxiety. 

Jhanjhat. To finish, complete ; entirely, 

Noa ka;t do rohor jhaiijhatena. This log is com- 
pletely dry. 

Jom jhaiijhatkedinako. They ate me up stump 
and rump, 

Birko maK jhalijhatkeda. They have out all 
the jungle. 

Jhaiijhatena. It is finished. 

Jha^jra. Sieve-like, not closely woven, 
as a piece of cloth through which 
light shines ; lattice work. 

JhaJijragea. It is sieve-like. 

Jhinjri. ) 

Jhaiijrite chakaome. Strain it through a sieve. 

Jhankar mankar. A children's game. 

Jhante jhare. Bush and brake, every 
bush, taking all in one sweep, as 
beaters a jungle. 

Jhanti. A fence made of branches fixed 
in the ground ; branches or sap- 
lings for use as a fence. 

J^num jhanfi. A fence of thorns. 

Jhuri jhijnti. Firewood and fencing materials. 
Noabirrelc jhuri jhgintioda. Wo procure our 

firewood and branches for fencing from this 


Jhanti panti. To erect a fence of 
branches, to fence. 

Jh?.nti p»ntiedako. They are fencing. 

Jhaojhao. Applied to the continued 

barking of dogs. 
Jhaora jhauri. To pester, to worry. 
Jhaorao. To wither, to be scorched 

and wither. 

Setohte jhaorao gotena. It was scorched by 

the sun ahd withered away. 
Bah reheSlente jhaorao gofena. It withered 

away because it had not rooted. 

Jhap. A part of a loom, the heddles 
which alternately raise or depress 
the threads of the warp. 

Jhap. A bribe. 

Jhape jomkeda. He took a bribe. 

Jhap. A challenge. 

Jhap em. To give a challenge, to brave. 

4ligat! nunaK horkotalare jhape emkeda. As- 
tonishing, that he should throw out a chal- 
lenge among so many people. 

Noa katha reaK jhap alom ema. Do not oppose 
this matter. 

4Ltuli daUre jhape emkeda. He braved the rush- 
ing flood. 

Jhapat. ■) Bringing up the rear, 

Jhapat j hapat. J unable to keep pace, 
lagging behind. 

Jhapat. \ rj,- i^j^^j Scothce, rake, 
Jhapot. J '■ 

Mif jhapat. One trip. ^. , j. 

Hit jhapat daK 9,gulem. Bring one trip of water. 

Jhap jhap. Very sleepy, drowsy. 

Jhap jhap meC japidoKkantaea. His eyes are 
heavy with sleep. 

Jhap jhup. All at once, all together. 

Mifi dhaote jhap jhupko durupena. They sat 
down all at once. 

Jhap mente. 1 Quickly, immediately. 
Jhat mente. /^ •" 

Jhap mente hed gofenae. He came quickly. 

Jhapni. Two small plants bear this 
name, Tandi Jhapni, Zornia di- 
phylla, Pars., and Bhador jhapni^ 
Biophitum sensitivum, D. G, 

Jhapni bai. Convulsions during which 
the patient closes his eyes, coma. 



[ 266 ] 

Jhargoe jhargoe 

Jhapni. 1 To cover, as with a lid, with 
Jhapon. J a basket, &c. 

Terel jhapni. The persistent calyx on the fruit 
of the Terel tree, Diospyros tomentosa^ 

Merom hopone jhaponkedea. He put a basket 
over the kid, (or put the kid under a basket.) 

Jhapni. The eye lashes. 

MedoK jokhec meC do jhapni esedolta. 

Jhapon. To cover, as with a lid ; to co- 
ver anything under a basket, as 
chickens. Cf. jhapni. 

Jhaporae. Middling, tolerable. 

Jhaporae deloKkana. It looks only middling. 

Jhapot. Trip, load. Cf. jhapat. 
Jhapre. To cover, slightly clothed, a 

modest way of speaking of being 


Gendrec tanaRte jhaprekaeme. Cover him with 
a piece of old cloth (a sleeping child.) 

Jhapreakanae gendredte. She is slightly cloth- 
ed with old cloth. 

S-P"' U booth. 
Jhupri. J 

Jhapriakat'ale. We live in a booth. 

Jhapri. I Hair hanging over the fore- 
Jhupri. J head, hair flying about, Scot- 

tice, tou'sy tap. 
Jhapru. Hair long and hanging over 

the brow, applied to males only ; 

hanging, as the ears of certain 

dogs ; drooping, as the branches 

of a tree. 

Delabon ona jhapru darerebon umuloKa. Come, 
let us shelter under that tree with the 
drooping branches. 

Jhapta jhapti. To pounce upon from 
all sides, to snatch, to scramble for. 

Sendrare jhapfa jhaptiko repeea phari seromre. 

At a hunt they scramble for the flesh. 
Jhapt^a jhaptiye khuda,ukedea. 

Jhaptao. To over run, to make a des- 
cent upon, to pounce upon, to 
spring upon, to attack suddenly. 

Gota bir panteko jhaptao idieda. They have 
formed line and are sweeping the whole 
jungle before them. 

Jhaptao acurkedeako. They surrounded him 
suddenly and cut off his retreat. 

Jhaptao tiogem. Pounce upon him. 

Jhar, Liquor which oozes out of the 
malted grain during fermentation, 
deposit of urates or phospates in 

Jhar hg.ndi. Liquor which oozes ont of the grain 
during the process of fermentation. 

Dul h^rudi. Liquor produced by pouring water 
OTor the fermented grain. 

Jhar. A bush, clump, tuft, thicket. 

Khub jharakana. It has grown into a large 

Jhar. To cure snake bite, &c. by charms 
and incantations. 

Jhajh9.ric. One who pretends to cure snake 
bite by charms. 

Jhara. Sweepings. 

Hor ren jhara kanae. He is the offscourings of 

Parwa ren jhara. Sparrows. 

Jhara jhar. In crowds. 

Jhara jharko hijuka. They will come in 


Jhara. A variety of the rice plant the 
ripe grain of which readily falls 
from the ear. 

Jhara jhura.lWhat is obtained b}^ shak- 
Jhurejhuro.J ing the straw in which 
grain has been -svrapped up. 

Jhara jhurako cabakeda. They have finished 
even to what was obtained by shaking the 
straw in which the grain was wrapped up. 

Jharak. Smoke, heat from flame. 

Gulha jharakre akakam. Hang it where it will 
be in the smo];o (or heat) of the fireplace. 

Jharak jhuruk. In a band, in a crowd. 
Jharao. To reduce, to joare, to strip. 

Katko jharaoeda. They are reducing the thick- 
ness of the log. 

Nesko jharaoena. They have been stripped 
this year. 

Jharao. To trickle, as water out of the 
primitive Indian filter of three 

Jharaoni. \ Applied to the present given 

Jharauni. j to the person who cooks 

at a marriage feast and to the food 

given to those who accompanied 

the bridegroom. 

Culhgi jharauni. A present given to the person 

who cooks at a marriage feast. 
Dhup jharauni. Food given on their return to 

those who accompanied the bridegroom to 

the bride's house. 

Jhare patare. Bush and brake 

Jhare patareko sendrakeda. They beat every 
bush (likely or imlikely) for game. 

Jhare patare go^ako boloakana. They are hunt- 
ing every foot (of the jungle.) 

Jhargoe jhargoe.lSound produced by 

Jhargoe jhargoe.J throwing a stick to 

knock do^vn fruit from a tree. 

Cele coe daleftan jhargoe jhargoe. 


[ 267 ] 


JhargoeaH. Tattered, ruffled, rough 
surface, un-trimmod ; hanging 
unevenly, or in clusters, as fruit 
on a tree. 

OyaK do jhargoealfgetaea. Hia house is dil- 
apidated (liaa lost tlie trimnesa it had when 

Potam tukg. do jhargoeaEgea. A pigeon's nest 
is a rough affair. 

Jhargo pargo. Wet, as bushes after a 
shower of rain. 

Jhargualf Hanging, drooping, as the 
branches of a tree ; bent over, as 
stalks of grain by wind. 

Jharhoehali. Rough, untrimmed, as a 
pigeon's nest. 

Jhari lota. A lota (q. v.) with a spout. 

Jhar jhar. In crowds, in large num- 

They are assembling 

Jhar jharko jarwaKkana. 
in crowds. 

Jhar jhar. J p^j^^ 
Jhar jhar.) ° 

as ram. 

Jhar jhare dalieda. It is a pelting rain. 

Jhar jhar. \To issue, as water from a 
Jharjharao.j spring. 

.idi dale jhar jharao odokolc kana. Much water 

is issuing forth. 
Jhar jhare daKkeda. It poured a deluge. 
Jhar jhar mayam atulckana. 

Jhar jhur. A thicket, tangled branches. 

Jhar jhnrreye boloena. He has entered the 

Jhar j hur. Stripped, as a tree of leaves. 

Jhar jhurena dare do. The tree is stripped of 

its leaves. 
Jhar jhur liuroKkana sakam. The leaves are 

"faUin'g so that the tree is being stripped. 

Jharka jharki. To lick, as tongues of 
fire ; flames. 

Jharka jharki tioKeua. The flames reached it. 

Jharkand. Full-grown, past the best. 

Hara jharkand. Past the flower of one's age. 
JharkanQl dare. A tree beginnig to shew signs 
of decay. 

Jharkao. Singed, or scorched by fire. 
Jharkargl Huge and full grown, old 

and huge as a tree, past its best. 
Jharla j harli. Scorching, as heat of the 

sun or a fire, fierce. 

Jharla jharli setohle sahaoaka£a. We have 
borne the scorching heat of the sun. 

Jharla jharli rapakadifiae. He only half roast- 
ed it for me. 

Jharna. A spring of water. 

Buru jharna. A mountain spring. 
Jharna daK. Spring water. 

JharoeaU. Rough, untrimmed, scraggy, 
dilapidated, roughly executed. 

Potam tuk?, jharoeaK hatom do. Auntie, a pig- 
eon's nest is a scraggy thing. 

Jharoe jharoe. Sound of branches be- 
ing shaken to make fruit fall. 

Jharpa. "1 Wide-spreading and dense 
Jharpun. J foliaged, as a tree ; hang- 
ing or drooping. 

NuiaK up jh3.rpuh getaea. Hia hair is thick and 

hanging over his brow. 
Noa cal jh^rpunolfa khunti rapu£lenkhan. 

This roof will droop if the supporting poat 


Jharruk parruk. Wet, as bushes af- 
ter rain. 
Jh?.rrul5 parruK birreko dara baraea. 

Jharuk jharuk. To bound, as a deer 
when running. 

Jhata. Branches fixed in the ground 
for climbing plants to climb up, 
pea stakes. 

Malhanko jhatakeda. They have fixed branch- 
es in the ground for the malhan (q. v.) to 
olimb up. 

Jhata kerketa. A veiled name for mal- 
han (q. v.), one who preserves a 
youthful look. 

Jhatas. To be driven by the wind a- 
gainst anything, as rain is driven 
into a varandah or against a wall. 

Bhite jhatasaUkana, The rain is being driven 

by the wind against the wall. 
Jhatas daK. Rain water blown in by the wind. 

Jhatia patia. Everything, every one. 

Jhatia p^(iako oalaoena. Every one has left. 

Jhatiau. To sprinkle. 

Ma oraK jhatig.iime. 

Jhatiau. To seize and take away. Cf. 

Jhatkao. To lose flesh, to be pulled 

NahaKem jhatkaoena. Ton have lost flesh re- 

Jhatpat. Quickly. 
Jhaua. A bush. 

J?.nnm A bush of the j^nnm. (q. v.) 

Jhaua. To collect together as leaves, 
straws, sticks, &c., meeting with 
an obstruction when floating down 
a stream. 

]?ur jhaua. To fall till there is a heap, 
.^tu jhau?.. To be obstructed when floating and 
collect into a bunch. 


[ 268 ] 


Laga jhaua. To drive into a heap, as flsh. 

Kata katua atu jhauaabata. Rubbish which 
has been brought down by a stream and 
meeting with an obstruction a heap has 

Jhaua. Vitrified in baking, as pottery, 
or bricks. 

Jhau jhau. In crowds. 

Jhau jhauko hijuKa. They will come in crowds, 

Jhau jhau. To bow-wow, toobark. 
Jhausa jhausi. Quickly. 

Jhausa jhausi hodeme. Get him to do it quickly. 

Jhausau. To singe by fire, to scorch. 

Setoiite jhausauena. Scorched by the sun. 
Khakhal p'?.hilre sukriko jhausaukoa. They 
singe pigs before flaying tliem. 

Jhawa jhara. A small plant. Euphor- 
bia dracuncidoides, Lam. 

Jhawar. Two plants bear this name, 
one, Trema Aniboinensis, Bl., a 
small tree, and the other, Tama- 
rix ericoides, Roth., a small Tam- 
arisk bush. 

Jhawar khandera. A common small 
plant, Phyllanthus juniperinoi- 
des, Mull. Arg. 

Jhedge. Worn out. 
Jhejh^. Applied to the crying of a 
petulant child. 

Onko oraUreko ariskeda jhejho. 

Jhemthe. To stick together, as two 

Jhenjle. To beg, to importune, to wait 
on expecting to receive alms. Cf. 

Jheiijra. A fish trap. Cf. jhirijri. 

Jhejijre. Sieve-like, not closely woven, 
as cloth. Cf. jharijra. 

Jhere jhere. Smooth, polished, sleek, 

Sunum jhere jhere ojoKakawanae. He has an- 
ointed himself with oil until he shines. 

Jeth" }^'^®* ^°™' ®'^®^*' ^^^^^' 

Jhet beta. First born son. 

Jhetha. A part of the mechanism of 
a bird trap. Cf kol jhetha. 

Jhic. To open. 

Bah jhijolfa. It will not open. 
Jhicge tahena. It will remain open. 
Jhiiiadeae. He opened to him. 

Jhlk. The Indian Porcupine, Hys^ 

trix leucura. 

Jhlk. To lighten a rope by twisting 
it with a piece of wood as a lever. 

Jhika enec. A dance so named. 
Jhika sereri. Songs sung when the 

jhika is being danced. 
Jhika rar. The air to which the jhika 

songs are sung. 

Jhika ru. The time beaten on the 
drums during the jhika dance. 

Jhika jhake, With great difficulty. 

Jhiki. Importunate, to importune, beg 

4idi jhikiae nui hor do. This man is very im- 

Jhiki miki. Resplendent, adorned, 

flashy, grand. 
Jhikjhikau. To worry, to annoy. 

Jhik jhikaukedeako. They worried him. 

Jhik jhika. Applied to the level rays 
of the sun before setting. 

Ber jhik jhik^kkanae. The sun is close to the 

Jhik jhok. To bully, to bluster one in- 
to doing what is wanted. 
Jhik jhor. "| To bully, to force one to 
Jhik jhorao. J do anything by bully- 
ing him. 

Oka atore khun hoyol^a ondeko jhik jhoraokoa. 
"When a murder has been committed in any 
village the people are bullied into telling all 
they know. 

Jhiko jhoko. With great difficulty, with 
Khan jhiko jhoko jhiko jhokoko sim ralf keda. 
Then they passed the time with difliculty 


till cockcrow. 


A shallow marsh or morass. 

Jhile mile. ") Shining, polished, burn- 
Jhilmil j ished, beautiful. C£ 

Jhili. \ A trench used as a fire- 

Jhili gada. J place when cooking has 

to be done for a large number of 


Jhiliau. To remove the stamens from 
the flowers of the Mahua tree be- 
fore cooking them. 

Jhil jhilia 

[ 269 ] 


Jhil jhilia. Not closely woven, having 
intervals between the threads. Cf. 

Jhil jhol. To shew off, to swagger. 

Jhil jhole dara baraekana. He goes atont 

Jhilo. To swing, a child's swing. 

Bare jororeko jhiloKa. They swing on the pen- 
dulous roots of the Banyan tree. 

Jhilo jholo. To push and pull. 

A<Jiko jhilo jhilokediiia. They pushed and pul- 
led me about. 

Jhilon jholon. Hanging down and 

Adorn doko bhagwaica jhiloii jholon. Some 
wear the bhagwa long and it flaps aa they 

Jhimbri. A fish trap made of finely 
split bamboo. 

This trap is baited and set. It has a small door 
which a fish can push open to admit of its 
entering, but which cannot be opened to 
afford egress. 

Jhimbria. A large jungle climbing 
plant, HolmsJcioldia sanguinea, 

Jhim jhimi. An ear ornament. 

Jhin baber. A bridle. 

Jhinga. A cultivated food plant, Laffa 
acutangula, Roxh. 

Earn jhinga. The edible Hibiscus, the Indian 
vegetable known as the Lady's finger, Hibis- 
ens esculentus, Linn. 

Jhingae potae. The whole family. 

Jhiiigae potaeko hedena. The whole family 
has oome. 

Jhinga phulia. Lazy, applied to one 
who prefers amusement to work. 

Jhinga phulia hor kanae. 

Jhingor jhitigor. Scattered. 

Noa atorehko jhihgor jhiiigor cabaena. The 
people of this Tillage are all scattered far 
and wide. 

Jhingur. A plant the root of which is 
Jhingur. An ear ornament. [edible. 
Jhinka jhakur.lUnequally balanced, as 
Jhinko jhakur.J scales, or weights on 

a banghy. 
Jhinka tare. \ Unequally balanced as 
Jhinko toro. J scales, or the loads on 

a banghy pole. 
Jhioko jhokor.\Unequally balanced, as 
Jhinko jhokor. J the weights at each 
endof aJDanghypole; applied also 
to the gait of a person carrying an 
unequally balanced banghy. 

Jhinko jhokore bhariaka€a. He has loaded his 
banghy unequally. 

Jhinko toro, Unequally balanced as 

the weights of a banghy. 
Jhin jhin. Faint. 

Jhin jhiniii a(kareda. I feel faint. 

Jhinjhinau. To faint. 

Jhin jhinaulikanae. She is fainting. 

Jhinjhir. A small forest tree, Bauhin- 
ia variegata, Linn. 

Jhiiijit. A small forest tree, Bauhinia 
retusa, Ham. 

Jhin kicric. Drill cloth. 

Jhinthi pathri. Spells. 

JhinthiaK alo pathriaK alo lagaoK bajaoSma. 
Let no spell be thrown over her. 

Jhinuk. A bi-valve, the shell of a bi- 

Jhinuk jat. Bi-valve molluscs. 
Jhinuk jel. The flesh of a bi-valve. 

Jhinulv pitha. A kind of biscuit, made 
by sticking two small flat cakes of 
dough together with sweets, &c. 
between, and then baking. 

This bread has the appearance of a bi-valve, 
(jhinuk) whence the name. 

Jhipir jhipir. Continuous drizzle. 
Jhiri hiri. To trickle down. 

Jhiri hiri daK atuKkana. Water trickles down_ 

Jhiri jhiri. To trickle. 

Jhiri jhiri ?ituKkana. It flows trickling down. 

Jhipir jhipir. To sparkle, or flash when 

Jhlt. To irrigate, applied mainly to 
irrigation from wells or tanks where 
the water is raised mechanically. 

Jhitoc jhotoc. Slow or feeble and care- 
lessly attired. 

Jhitor jhotor. To swagger about in a 
grand dhoti. 

JhSea. Small fry, a small fish, a minnow. 

TinaEhakopedamletkoa? MiStee jhoeahobale 
llamledea. How many fish did you get ? 
We did not even get a minnow. 

Jhogor. 'I To quarrel, to wrangle, to 
Jhogra. J strive. 

Jhogor lagao. To begin a quarrel. 

Am ge jhogorem lagaoeda. It is you who are 

JhograKkanako. They are quarrelling. 

Jhograhi. ] Quarrelsome. 
Jhograhia. J ^ 

Jatge jhograhigeae. He is quarrelsome by dis- 


[ 270 ] 

Jhoto poto 

Jhokao. To attract, to bring anything 
undesirable upon oneself. 

Mahajonko noako reak horo aanamko jhokao- 
akat'a. The merchants have bought up all 
the dhan in these parts, or the merchants 
have attracted to themselves all the dhan 
of these parts. 

Amtege noa dom jhokaoakawana. Ton have 
yourself broue^ht this upon you. 

Eai otiri jhokaoakawana. I have brought upon 
myself all the responsibilities connected 
with leasing land. 

Eaj ot jhokao alga do bah kana. It is no light 
thing to take upon oneself the responsibil- 
ity connected with land. 

Jhok jhokao.lTo intimidate, to bully, 
Jhok jhokao, J to bluster, to force one 

to do a thing by intimidation or 


Mahajonko jhok jhokaoedirtkanako. The money 
lenders are bullying me. 

Jhol. Anything hanging from the roof, 
such as cobwebs, &c., which has 
become smutted by soot. 

Calre jholakana. 
. Adi jhol motkaakana. 

Jhola. To burn with a burning piece 
of wood. 

Jholakediilae. He burnt me with a. piece of 

burning wood, or a firebrand. 
JholawaKme . Set fire to it with a burning piece 

of wood. 

Jholand. Thicket, dense brushwood 

Ona jholandre hakoko tahena. In that place 
where the roots are numerous fish are to be 

Jhol motka. Smoke, smutty with soot. 

Jholiiga. Reaching to the feet, as a 

Jholon. ") Reaching to the feet, 

Jholoii jholon. J as a garment. 

Jholoh jholohe d"hgaa'jana. His garments are 
down to his feet. 

Jholphol. The radiance emanating from 
the sun before he appears above 
the horizon, after-glow of sun set. 

JholpholoKkana. There is an after-glow, or light 
is breaking in the East. 

Jhomble. To assemble, to make into 
a bunch. 

Ape do mit t^ienpe jhombleakana. Ton are 

assembled in one place. 
Mi6 bar jhomble jondrae emadilia. He gave 

me a bunch or two of Indian corn coba. 
Tol jhobleme. Tie them into bunches. 
Mit jhomble jondra. Four cobs of Indian corn 

tied together. 

Jhomojhoc.\The Pied Crested Cuckoo, 
Jhorojhoc. J Goccystis jacobinus. 

Jhomoke jhomok. Well matched pair. 
Jhompa. To cover, as a fowl under a 

basket, or as a plant with thorns 

to preserve it. 

Jhomor jhomor. Continuous, ss rain, 

Jhomor jhomore daKeda. It rains continuously, 

Jhond. A patch of dense jungle with 
much brushwood and under growth. 

Lar jhond. A thicket of lar (q. v.) 

Kurit' rama jhond. A thicket of kurit' rama 

■(q. V.) 
Janum jhond. A thicket of janum (q. v.) 

Jh5nga. Weak and emaciated through 

Jhopo toro. Scrub jungle. 

Jhopro. Dense, thick, as scrub j ungle. 

Jhopro bir. Dense scrub jungle. 

Jhopso. To be cloudy. 

Jhopsoakat'ae. It is clouded'over. 
DaK do bae dalceda eken jhopso. It does not 
rain, it is only cloudy. 

Jhora. To drive game, to beat for 

Kulaiko jhorakoa liindare. They drive harea 

at night (into nets.) 
Jhora totke^koako. They drove them (deer) 

Kaki ayo orak khone jhora tofketbona. Our 

step-mother hunted us out of the house, 

(referring to the heat when all sleep out of 


Jhora. \ A flat disc woven with the twigs 
Jhuri.j of certain climbing plants, 

used to carry earth. 
One is slung at each end of a bamboo and cOlT- 

ried on the shoulder. 

JhSrS. Weakened and emaciated 
through illness. 

Jhoroe jhoroe. Sound of wind and rain. 

Jhorojhoc. The Pied Crested Cuckoo, 

Goccystis jacobinus. 
Jhorojhoc. Drenched, dripping. 

Jhorojhoc lohotenae. He is drenched. 

Jhoro jhoro. Applied to the sound of 
falling or dripping water. 

Jhoro jhoro sadekana. It sounds drip, drip. 

Jhotea. Lean and big bellied, as one 
suffering from fever and spleen. 

Jhoto poto. Anyhow, hui-riedly and 

Ce{ lekape kamibaralaKaP Jhoto potogele ka- 
mikeda. How did you do your cultivation? 
We did it anyhow, (rushed it through.) 


[ 271 1 


Jhotor, Indian corn cobs plaited to- 
gether by the sheath coverings. 

Bar ha^aS ion(Jra mii; jhotor hoyoKa. 

Jhotra jhutri. To use force, to compel 
either by main force or bullying. 

Jhotra jhutriko idiketkoa. They took them 
away forcibly. 

Jhotra motra. Bundles, impedimenta. 

Jhotrao. To take away, or to cause to 
go by constraint. 

Jhotrao idike£koako. They took them away 

by force. 
Jhotraoket'koako. They constrained them 

to go. 

Jhuk. To be courageous, intrepid, 
plucky, vigorous, impetuous, hot- 

A'Ji jhuk hor. A plucky, or vigorous fellow. 

Lalai jhukoUpe. Be bold to speak. 

Alope bolaoea adiye jhukoKa. Do not interfere 

with him he is very hot blooded. 
Kstmire flt'Jiye jhukolia. He works vigorously. 

Jhukau. To be irritated, excited, roused, 
inflamed, to set upon, to fly at. 

Iiireye jhukau go€ena. He was irritated and 

sprang at me. 
Geger l*git banae jhiikauena. The bear was 

roused to sotting upon one. 
Bhipcui hopon lagit adie jhuk^uKkana. The 

King crow is very excited about its young 

Kataha janwar horre g.diko jhubauEa. Beasts 

of prey fly at human beings. 

Jhukel. Courageous, intrepid, plucky, 
vigorous, industrious. 

Khub jhukel hor kanae. He is a very vigorous 

Sendra khube jhukela. He is a plucky hunter. 

Jhukmuc.") Shrivelled, as a very old 
Jhuknuc. J person. 

Jhulainda. Sooty, smoked, smutty 
with soot. 

Jhulaindaakana oraE do. The house is sooty. 

Jhulau. To become weak, or emaciated. 

Kamite dherko jhulauena. They have lost con- 
dition by working. 

Dara daratele jhulauena. We have become lean 
through journeying. 

Euate jhulauenae. He is much reduced by fever. 

Jhuli bhati. A perquisite received by 
the panchayat from the father of 
a young man at the settlement of 
a certain kind of irregular mar- 

Jhulkau. To raise enthusiasm, to in- 
cite, to inspirit, to excite. 

Eneo jhulkauakatkoae. He raised their enthu- 
siasm for the dance. 

E^mi khube jhulkgiuakatkoa. He has incited 
them to work. 

Kule jhulkauK kana. The tiger is getting 

Jhulua jhulun. Applied to the jog 
trot of the Indian post runner and 
to the tinkling of the rings on the 
stick over which he carries his let- 
ter bag. 

Jhulnii jhuluiie dar idieda. 

Jhuma jhum. Violently, with a rush. 

Jhuma jhumko ruhe^kediiia. They scolded me 

Jhum?. jhumko kaphari?.uKkana. They are 

quarrelling violently. 
Jhuma jhumko hed gotena. They came with a 


Jhumau. To nod, as when drowsy. 
Jhumblai mente. In a body, in a co- 
vey, all together, as one. 

Horko bere£ gotena jh