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Full text of "Occupations at the twelfth census"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBHARY 



3 1924 096 441 021 




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Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
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the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924096441021 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR 
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

S. N. D. NORTH, DIRECTOR 



SPECIAL REPORTS 



OCCUPATIONS 

AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS 



PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF WILLIAM C. HUNT 
CHIEF STATISTICIAN FOR POPULATION 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1904 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Maps and diagrams (list) xiii 

Letter of transmittal xv 

CHAPTER!. 

EETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 

Enumeration xix, xx 

Scope of the inquiry xix 

Area of enumeration xix 

Conditions of the enumeration xix, xx 

Classification xxi-xxvi 

Inherent difficulties xxi 

Basis of classification and methods of work in 1900 xxi, xxii 

Eesults of the classification in 1900 xxii-xxv 

Number of persons 10 years of age and over in the United States engaged in each of 303 specified occupations, in 1900. xxiii-xxv 

Changes in classification in 1900 xxv 

Statement of occupations in general and indefinite terms xxv, xxvi 

Presentation xxvii, xxviii 

Statistics of occupations in main census reports xxvii 

Plan of special report on occupations xxvii, xxviii 

Use of terms in general and analytical tables xxviii 

CHAPTER II. 
COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 

Scope of inquiry from 1820 to 1900 xxix-xxxii 

Census of 1820 xxix 

Census of 1840 - xxix, xxx 

Number of persons engaged in different classes of occupations, by states and territories, in 1820 and 1840 xxx 

Census of 1850 xxx, xxxi 

Census of 1860 xxxi 

Census of 1870 xxxi 

Census of 1880 xxxi 

Census of 1890 xxxi 

Census of 1900 xxxi 

Summary for censuses from 1850 to 1900 xxxi, xxxii 

Comparison of occupations at the censuses of 1870 to 1900 xxxii-lii 

Number of persons credited to the various occupation designations used at the censuses of 1870, 1880, 1890, and 1900, 

arranged according to the classification of occupations in 1900 - xxxii-xlix 

Number of persons engaged in specified occupations, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1870, 1880, 1890, and 1900. 1-lii 

Comparison of occupations at the censuses of 1850 and 1860 liii-lxiv 

Number of persons credited to the various occupation designations used at the censuses of 1850 and 1860, arranged according 

to the classification of occupations in 1900 liii-lxiii 

(iii) 



iv TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 
SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. ^^^^ 

Sufficiency of the occupation returns Ixv-lxxin 

Per cent which the number of males and of females engaged iu gainful occupations forms of the total number of the same 

sex 10 years of age and over, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 l^y 

Probable deficiency in number of children reported as at work in 1890 ^^^] 

Analysis of returns for 1890 Ixvi-lxxii 

Number of children engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of children of the same age, for 

both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 1^^ 

Number of children of each sex 10 to 14 years of age engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number 

of the same sex and age, by states and territories, in 1890 and 1900 1^^' 

Number of children of each sex 10 to 14 years of age returned as agricultural laborers compared with the total number 

of the same sex and age, by states and territories, in 1890 and 1900 l^ix 

Per cent which the number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations forms of the 

total number of the same sex and age, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixx 

Number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations, as returned and as corrected, 

compared with the total number of the same sex and age, by states and territories, in 1890 Ixxi 

Eetum of farm laborers as farmers in 1890 : Ixxii, Ixxiii 

Number of agricultural laborers 10 years of age and over, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxii 

Number of farmers and farms, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxiii 

Number and proportion of persons occupied Ixxiv-lxxxvi 

Distribution by sex Ixxiv-lxxxi 

Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total population and with the population 10 

years of age and over, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxiv 

Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total population, by states and territories, in 

1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxv 

Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations compared with the population 10 years of age and over, by states 

and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxvi 

Number of males engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total male population 10 j'ears of age and over, by 

states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxvii 

Number of females engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total female population 10 years of age and over, 

by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxviii 

Distribution by general nativity and color Ixxx-lxxxv 

Distribution, by sex, general nativity, and color, of persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, 

in 1900 Ixxx, Ixxxi 

Distribution, by general nativity and color, of the population 10 years of age and over and of persons engaged in gainful 

occupations, by geographic divisions, in 1900 Ixxxii 

Per cent distribution, by general nativity and color, of the population 10 years of age and over and of persons engaged 

in gainful occupations, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1890 and 1900 Ixxxii 

Per cent which the number of persons engaged in gainful occupations forms of the total number 10 years of age and 

over in each element of the population, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1890 and 1900 Ixxxiii 

Number of males in each principal element of the population engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total 

number of males in the same element 10 years of age and over, by states and territories, in 1900 Ixxxiv 

Number of females in each principal element of the population engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total 

number of females in the same element 10 years of age and over, by states and territories, in 1900 Ixxxv 

Comparative increase in persons engaged in gainful occupations Ixxxvi 

Number and proportion of persons in the main classes of occupations Ixxxvi-cvi 

Distribution by sex Ixxxvi-ciii 

Distribution, by main classes, of persons engaged in gainful occupations, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 

1880, 1890, and 1900 '__ ixxxvi 

Distribution, by occupation subclasses, of persons engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, for both sexes 

and for each sex separately, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 Ixxxvii 

Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, by states and territories, in 1880 1890 and 

■^^P*^ Ixxxviii, Ixxxix 

Number of males engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, by states and territories in 1880 1890 and 
1900 ' :.„. xcxci 



/ / 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. v 

Number and proportion of persons in the main classes of occupations — Continued. 

Distribution by sex — Continued. Page. 

Number of females engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 

1900 xcii, xoiii 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, 

and 1900 xciv 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of males engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, 

and 1900 xcv 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of females engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, 

and 1900 xcvi 

Per cent -which the number of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits, in trade and transportation, and in manufac- 
turing and mechanical pursuits proper, forms of the total number of persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states 

and territories, in 1880 and 1900 xcviii 

Number of persons of both sexes and of each sex engaged in each of three subclasses of occupations included under the 

main class of manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 c, ci 

Per cent which the number of persons of both sexes and of each sex engaged in each of three subclasses of occupations 
included under the main class of manufacturing and mechanical pursuits forms of the total number engaged in gainful 

occupations, by states and territories, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cii, ciii 

Distribution by general nativity and color civ-cvi 

Distribution, by general nativity and color, of persons engaged in each main class of occupations, for both sexes and for 

each sex separately, in 1900 civ 

Distribution, by main classes of occupations, of gainful workers in each principal element of the population in 1900, with 

per cent distribution for 1890, for both sexes and for each sex separately cv 

Number and proportion of persons in specified occupations cvi-cxvii 

Distribution by sex cvi, evil 

Distribution, by specified occupations, of males and of females gainfully employed, in 1890 and 1900 cvi, evil 

Distribution by general nativity and color cvii-cxvii 

Distribution, by specified occupations, of males and of females in each principal element of the population gainfully 

employed, in 1890 and 1900 cviii-cx 

Distribution, by specified occupations, of males and of females in the Chinese, Japanese, and Indian population gainfully 

employed, in 1900 ex, cxi 

Occupations showing most marked changes since 1890 in the proportion of males in each principal element so occupied. cxi 

Occupations showing most marked changes since 1890 in the proportion of females in each principal element so occupied. cxii 

Distribution, by general nativity and color, of persons engaged in specified occupations, in 1900 cxiii 

Distribution, by general nativfty and color, of males and of females engaged in specified occupationsj in 1900 cxiv-oxvi 

Occupations in which more than 75 per cent of the total number of females are native white, in 1900 cxvii 

Distribution of persons occupied by age periods cxvii-cxx 

Number of males and oi females of each specified age engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of 

the same sex and age, in 1890 and 1900 cxviii 

Number of males and of females in each principal element of the population engaged in gainful occupations compared with 

the total number of the same sex and element in each specified age period, in 1900 cxviii 

Distribution, by age periods, of males and of females engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, in 1900 cxix 

Per cent distribution, by specified age groups, of males engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, in 1900 cxix 

Per cent distribution, by main classes of occupations, of males and of females of each specified age period gainfully employed, 

in 1900 cxx 

Number and proportion of each sex in gainful occupations cxxi-cxxviii 

Proportion of each sex in main classes of occupations cxxi-cxxiv 

Distribution, by sex, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cxxi 

Per cent distribution, by sex, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, by states and territories, 

in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cxxii, cxxiii 

Proportion of each sex in specified occupations - cxxiv-cxxviii 

Distribution, by sex, of persons engaged in specified occupations in 1900, with per cent distribution for 1880 and 1890. . cxxv-cxxvii 

Per cent of females in each occupation group classified under professional service, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cxxvii 

Per cent of females in certain occupation groups classified under trade and transportation, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cxxviii 

Number and proportion of men, women, and children in gainful occupations cxx viii-cxlvi 

Changes in the proportions in continental United States cxxviii, cxxix 

Distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in gainful occupations, in 1880 and 1900 cxxix 

Changes in the proportions in each state and territory cxxix-cxxxi 

Distribution, as men, women, and children, of the total number of persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states 
and territories, in 1880 and 1900 cxxix 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Number and proportion of men, women, and children in gainful occupations— Continued. 

Changes in the proportions in each state and territory — Continued. ^*^®' 

Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, 

in 1880 and 1900 ^^^^ 

General character of the changes between 1880 and 1900 in the proportions which men, women, boys, and girls sever- 
ally form of the total number of gainful workers cxxxi 

Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in gainful occupations in 1880 and 1900, by 

states and territories arranged in the order of the decreasing percentage of men in 1900 cxxxi 

Changes in the proportions in the main classes of occupations cxxxi, cxxxii 

Distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, in 1880 

and 1900 cxxxii 

Changes in the proportions in specified occupations cxxxii-cxxxix 

' Distribution, as men, women, and children, of the number of persons engaged in specified occupations, in 1880 and 

1900 cxxxii-cxxxiv 

Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in specified occupations, in 1880 and 1900. cxxxv, cxxxvi 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed under professional service exxxvu 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed under domestic and personal service cxxxvii 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed under trade and transportation cxxxviii 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed under manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . . cxxxvm 
Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in specified occupations in 1880 and 1900, 

arranged in the order of the highest percentage of men in 1900 cxxxix 

Proportion of young persons and adults at work in 1900 cxxxix-cxlvi 

Number of young persons (16 to 20) and of adults (21 and over) of each sex engaged in gainful occupations, with the 

percentages which they respectively form of all persons engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, in 1900. cxl 

Number of young persons (16 to 20) and of adults (21 and over) of each sex engaged in specified occupations, with the 

percentages which they respectively form of all persons engaged in the same occupation, in 1900 cxli-cxliii 

Distribution, by main classes, of males 21 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territo- 
ries, in 1900 i cxli V 

Distribution, by general nativity and color, of males 21 years of age and over engaged in specified occupations, in 

1900 cxlv, cxlvi 

Number and proportion of children at work cxlvii-clxxxv 

Proportion of children occupied cxlvii-cxlix 

Number of children 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations compared with tha total number of children of 

the same age, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1880 and 1900 cxlvii 

Number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of 

the same sex and age, by states and territories, in 1880 and 1900 .'. cxlviii 

Number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of 

the same sex and age for each principal element of the population, in 1900 cxlix 

Proportion of children in main classes of occupations cxlix-clxi 

Distribution, by main classes, of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations, and compar- 
ison of the number 10 to 15 with the total number of the same sex in each main class of occupations, in 1880 and 1900. cxlix 
Distribution, by general nativity and color, of children 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations and in each 

main class, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1900 cli 

Distribution, by sex, of the number of children 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations and in each main 

class, by states and territories, in 1900 clii, cliii 

Distribution, by general nativity and color, of the number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful 

occupations and in each main class, by states and territories, in 1900 cliv-clix 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations, by 

states and territories, in 1900 clx 

Proportion of children occupied by year of age clxi-clxxxv 

Distribution, by year of age, of the number of children of each sex 10 to 15 engaged in specified occupations, in 1900. clxii, clxiii 
Distribution, by year of age, of children 10 to 15 engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, for both sexes 

and for each sex separately, in 1900 clxiv 

Per cent distribution by year of age of all children at work for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1900 clxiv 

Distribution, by year of age, of children of each sex 10 to 15 engaged in specified occupations, in 1900 clxv 

Distribution, by year of age, of children of each sex 10 to 15 engaged in gainful occupations, by states and territories, 

in 1900 clxvi,clxvii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 

Number and proportion of children at worli— Continued. 

Proportion of children occupied by year of age — Continued. Page. 

Per cent which the number of children of each sex of each specified age engaged in gainful occupations forms of the 

total number of gainful workers of the same sex 10 to 15 years of age, by states and territories, in 1900 clxviii 

Distribution, by year of age, of the number of children of each sex 10 to 15 engaged m specified occupations, by states 

and territories, in 1900 clxix-clxxxv 

Distribution of persons occupied by general nativity and parentage clxxxvi-ccxii 

Distribution by general nativity clxxxvi-cxci 

Distribution, by general nativity, of the population 10 years of age and over and of persons engaged in gainful occu- 
pations, and comparison of the number engaged in gainful occupations with the population 10 years of age and over, 

in 1880, 1890, and 1900 clxxxvi 

Distribution, by general nativity, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, for both sexes and 

for each sex separately, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 clxxxvii 

Distribution, by general nativity, of males and of females engaged in specified occupations, in 1890 and 1900. . clxxxvii-clxxxix 
Per cent distribution, by main classes, of native and of foreign born persons engaged in gainful occupations, for both 

sexes and for each sex separately, in 1880, 1890, and 1900 cxc 

Distribution by parentage exci-ccxii 

Number of persons of each specified parentage engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of the 

same parentage, for all persons and for native and foreign born persons separately, in 1900 cxci 

Per cent distribution, by birthplace of parents, of persons of foreign parentage engaged in gainful occupations, for all 

such persons and for the native and foreign born separately, in 1900 cxcii 

Number of males and of females of each specified parentage engaged in gainful occupations, compared with the total 

number of the same sex and parentage, in 1900 cxciii 

Distribution, by birthplace of parents, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class, for b6th sexes 

.and for each sex separately, in 1900 '. cxciii, cxciv 

Per cent distribution, by birthplace of parents, of persons of foreign parentage engaged in gainful occupations and in each 

main class, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1900 cxcv 

Distribution, by main classes, of persons of each specified parentage engaged in gainful occupations, for both sexes and 

for each sex separately, in 1900 cxcvi, cxcvii 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of males of each specified parentage engaged in gainful occupations, in 1900 cxcvii 

Per cent distribution, by main classes, of females of each specified parentage engaged in gainful occupations, in 1900. . cxcviii 
Distribution, by specified occupations, of males and of females of each specified parentage gainfully employed, in 

1900 cxcix-ccx 

Leading occupations for males of each specified parentage, in 1900 ccx, ccxi 

Leading occupations for females of each specified parentage, in 1900 ccxi, ccxii 

Per cent of female workers of each specified parentage engaged aa servants and waitresses, in 1900 ccxii 

Distribution of persons occupied by conjugal condition ccxiii-ccxxv 

Proportion of gainful workers in each conjugal class ccxiii-ccxv 

Number of males and of females in each conjugal class engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number 

of the same sex and conjugal class 10 years of age and over, in 1890 and 1900 ccxiii 

Distribution, by age groups, of the total number of single, widowed, and divorced females 15 years of age and over, 

in 1900 ccxiii 

Number of males and of females in each principal element of the population engaged in gainful occupations compared 

with the total number of the same sex and element in each conjugal class 10 years of age and over, in 1900 ccxiv 

Distribution, by age groups, of the total number of widows 15 years of age and over in each of the white elements of 

the population, in 1900 ccxiv 

Conjugal condition of males engaged in specified occupations ccxv-ccxx 

Distribution, by conjugal condition, of males engaged in specified occupations in 1900, with per cent distribution for 

1890 and 1900 - ccxv, ccxvi 

Occupation groups in which the percentage of married males exceeded 70 in 1900 ccxvi 

Occupation groups in which th e percentage of married males was less than 45 in 1900 ccxvii 

Per cent distribution, by age groups and by conjugal condition, of males in specified occupations, with the difference 

between the per cent 25 years of age and over and the per cent married, widowed, or divorced, in 1900 ccxvii, ccxviii 

Occupation groups in which the difference between the per cent of males 25 years of age and over and the per cent 

married, widowed, or divorced exceeded 18 in 1900 ccxix 

Occupation groups in which the difference between the per cent of males 25 years of age and over and the per cent 

married, widowed, or divorced was less than 11 in 1900 ccxix 

Proportion of divorced males in specified occupations ccxx-ccxxu 

Number of divorced males engaged in specified occupations compared with the number of married, widowed, or 

divorced males so occupied, in 1890 and 1900 ccxx, ccxxi 

Occupation groups in which the per cent of divorced males was exceptionally high in 1900 ccxxi 

Occupation groups in which the per cent of divorced males was exceptionally low in 1900 ccxxi, ccxxii 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Distribution of persons occupied by conjugal condition — Continued. ^^^T.. 

Conjugal condition of females engaged in specified occupations ccxxii, ccxxiu 

Distribution, by conjugal condition, of females engaged in specified occupations in 1900, with per cent distribution for 

1890 and 1900 ccxxu 

Per cent distribution, by conjugal condition, of females engaged in the occupation groups showing the highest percent- 
age of single, in 1900 ccxxiii 

Per cent distribution, by conjugal condition, of females engaged in the occupation groups showing the lowest percentage 

of single, in 1900 ccxxiii 

Proportion of married women at work ccxxiii, ccxxiv 

Number of married women engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of married women, by states 

and territories, in 1890 and 1900 - ccxxiii 

Distribution of married women at work by specified occupations ccxxiv, ccxxv 

Distribution, by specified occupations, of married women in each principal element of the population, in 1900 ccxxiv 

Distribution of persons occupied by months unemployed ccxxv-ccxxxvii 

Inquiry as to unemployed ccxxv 

Comparison of returns of 1890 and 1900 ccxxv-ccxxxiv 

Number of persons in each element of the population unemployed during any portion of the census year, compared with 
the total number in the same element engaged in gainful occupations, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 

1900 ccxxvi 

Per cent which the number of persons in each element of the population unemployed during any portion of the census 
year forms of the total number of the same element engaged in gainful occupations, for both sexes and for each sex 

separately, in 1890 and 1900 ccxxvi 

Reasons for accepting the figures for 1900 as more correctly reflecting actual proportions of nonemployment than did 
those of 1890 ccxxvi-ccxxxiv 

1. Simpler and more definite schedule and instructions to enumerators in 1900 ccxxvi, ccxxvii 

2. A closer and more thprough enumeration in 1900 ccxxvii-ccxxxiii 

3. Eeasonableness of the proportion of months unemployed shown in 1900 ccxxxiii, ccxxxiv 

Number of persons in each main class of occupations unemployed during any portion of the census year compared with 

the total number so occupied, for both sexes and for each sex separately, in 1890 and 1900 ccxxviii 

Number of males in specified occupations unemployed during any portion of the census year compared with the total 

number of males so occupied, in 1890 and 1900 1.. ccxxviii-ccxxx 

Number of females in specified occupations unemployed during any portion of the census year compared with the total 

number of females so occupied, in 1890 and 1900 ccxxxi 

Occupations showing decrease in 1900, as compared with 1890, in the per cent of males or of females unemployed during 

any portion of the census year ccxxxii 

Per cent which the number of males and of females in specified occupations unemployed during any portion of the 

census year forms of the total number of the same sex so occupied, in 1890 and 1900 ccxxxii, ccxxxiii 

Statistics of nonemployment as shown at the Twelfth Census ccxxxiv-ccxxxvii 

Distribution, by periods of months, of males and of females in each element of the population unemployed during the 

census year, in 1900 ccxxxiv 

Distribution, by periods of months, of males and of females in each main class of occupations unemployed during the 

census year, in 1900 ccxxxv 

Number of persons in each main class of occupations unemployed during any portion of the census year and per cent of 

total number so occupied, by states and territories, in 1900 ccxxxv, ccxxxvi 

Per cent of total population dwelling in cities and country districts by geographic divisions in 1900 ccxxxvii 

General summarj' ccxxxvii-ccxlv 

Population engaged in gainful occupations ccxxxvii 

Classification by occupations ccxxxvii, ccxxxviii 

Nativity and color of the working population ccxxxviii, ccxxxix 

Age classification of the working population ccxxxix, ccxl 

Proportion of females in gainful occupations ' ccxl 

Proportion of men, women, and children in the working population gc^^l ccxli 

Proportion of adults and young persons in the working population ccxli 

Children in gainful occupations ccxlii 

Foreign bom in gainful occupations , ccxlii ccxliii 

Gainful workers of foreign parentage ccxliii ccxliv 

Conjugal condition of the working population ccxliv ccxlv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



IX 



APPENDIX A. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO ENUMEEATOES OONOEENING THE EETUEN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE CENSUSES OF 1870, 1880, 

1890, AND 1900. 
_ Page. 

Census of 1870 ccxlvii 

Census of 1880 '."cci'lvii', ccxlviii 

Census of 1890 ccxMii-ccl 

Census of 1900 ccl_gglii 

APPENDIX B. 



SUMMAEY OF THE STATE AND TEEEITOEIAL LAWS EEGULATING THE EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDEEN. 



Page. 

Alabama ccliii 

Alaska ccliii 

Arizona '.. ccliii 

Arkansas ccliii 

California ccliii, ccliv 

Colorado ccliv 

Connecticut ccliv 

Delaware ccliv 

District of Columbia ccliv, cclv 

Florida cclv 

Georgia cclv 

Hawaii cclv 

Idaho cclv 

Illinois cclv, cclvi 

Indiana cclvi 

Indian Territory cclvi 

Iowa cclvi 

Kansas cclvi 

Kentucky ,. . cclvi, cclvii 

Louisiana cclvii 

Maine cclvii 

Maryland cclvii 

Massachusetts cclvii, cclviii 

Michigan cclviii 

Minnesota cclviii, cclix 

cclix 



Missouri cclix 

Montana cclix 

Nebraska cclix, cclx 

Nevada cclx 

New Hampshire cclx 

New Jersey __ cclx 

New Mexico cclxi 

New York ■. cclxi 

North Carolina cclxi 

North Dakota cclxi, cclxii 

Ohio .A. cclxii 

Oklahoma cclxii 

Oregon cclxii 

Pennsylvania ' cclxii, cclxiii 

Ehode Island cclxiii 

South Carolina _. cclxiv 

South Dakota _■ cclxiv 

Tennessee cclxiv 

Texas cclxiv 

Utah cclxiv 

Vermont cclxiv 

Virginia cclxiv 

Washington cclxiv, cclxv 

West Virginia cclxv 

Wisconsin cclxv, cclxvi 

Wyoming cclxvi 



GENERAL TABLES. 

Page. 

General tables, for the United States 3-87 

Explanatory notes 5,6 

Table 1. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 303 specified occupations, classified by sex: 1900 7-9 

Table 2. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex, general 

nativity, and color: 1900 10-13 

Table 3. — Colored persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, distinguished as negro, 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian, classified by sex: 1900 14,15 

Table 4. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and age 

periods: 1900 16-19 

Table 5. — Native white persons of native parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and age periods: 1900 20-23 

Table 6. — Native white persons of foreign parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and age periods: 1900 24r-27 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

General tables, for the United States— Continued. P"'*®- 

Table 7. — Foreign white persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex 

and age periods: 1900 28-31 

Table 8. — Colored persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and age 

periods : 1900 '. 32-35 

Table 9.— Negro persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and age 

periods: 1900 ^^^^ 

Table 10.— Total persons 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and year of 

age: 1900 40,41 

Table 11.— Native white persons of native parentage 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and year of age: 1900 42,43 

Table 12.— Native white persons of foreign parentage 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and year of age: 1900 44, 45 

Table 13.— Foreign white persons 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and 

year of age: 1900 ^S'^" 

Table 14.— Colored persons 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and year 

of age: 1900 , 48,49 

Table 15. — Negro persons 10 to 15 years of age engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and year of 

age: 1900 ----- 50,51 

Table 16. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and conjugal 

condition: 1900 52,53 

Table 17. — Native white persons of native parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and conjugal condition: 1900 54,55 

Table 18. — Native white persons of foreign parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, 

classified by sex and conjugal condition: 1900 56,57 

Table 19. — Foreign white persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex 

and conjugal condition: 1900 58, 59 

Table 20. — Colored persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and con- 
jugal condition: 1900 60,61 

Table 21. — Negro persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified by sex and 

conjugal condition: 1900 62,63 

Table 22. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, distributed according to 

parentage: 1900 '. 64-67 

Table 23. — Total males 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, distributed according to 

parentage: 1900 68-71 

Table 24. — Total females 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, distributed according to 

parentage: 1900 72-75 

Table 25. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations who were unemployed 

during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900 76, 77 

Table 26. — Native white persons of native parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations 

who were unemployed during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900. 78, 79 
Table 27. — Native white persons of foreign parentage 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations 

who were unemployed during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900. 80, 81 
Table 28. — Foreign white persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations who were 

unemployed during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900 82, 83 

Table 29. — Colored persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations who were unemployed 

during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900 84 85 

Table 30. — Negro persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations who were unemployed 

during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900 86 87 

General tables, for states and territories 89-423 

Explanatory notes 90 91 

Table 31. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, classified 

by sex: 1900 92^93 

Table 32. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 303 specified occupations: 1900 94-113 

Table 33. — Total males and females 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 303 specified occupations: 1900 114-153 

Table 34. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, classified 

by sex, general nativity, and color: 1900 151-165 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



XI 



General tables, for states and territories— Continued. 

Table 35. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, classified 

by sex and age periods: 1900 .. 

Table 36. — Total persons 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, classified by 

sex and year of age: 1900 

Table 37. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, classified 

by sex and conjugal condition : 1900 

Table 38. — Total males 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, distributed 

according to parentage: 1900 

Table 39. — Total females 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations, distributed 

according to parentage; 1900 

Table 40. — Total persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful occupations and in each class of occupations who were 

unemployed during some portion of the census year, classified by sex and months unemployed: 1900 

Table 41. — Total males and females 10 years of age and over engaged in selected groups of occupations, classified by general 

nativity, color, conjugal condition, months unemployed, age periods, and parentage: 1900 

Page. 

Missouri 318-325 

Montana 324-327 

Nebraska 328-331 

Nevada 330-333 

New Hampshire 332-337 

New Jersey 336-343 

New Mexico 342-345 

New York 346-353 

North Carolina 352-357 

North Dakota 356-359 

Ohio 358-365 

Oklahoma 364-367 

Oregon 368-371 

Pennsylvania 370-379 

Rhode Island 378-383 

South Carolina 382-385 

South Dakota 386-389 

Tennessee 388-393 

Texas 392-397 

Utah 396-399 

Vermont 400-403 

Virginia 402-407 

Washington 406-411 

West Virginia 410^15 

Wisconsin 414-421 

Wyoming 420-423 



166-177 
178-183 
184-189 
190-201 
202-213 
214-219 
220-423 



Page. 

Alabama 220-223 

Alaska 222-225 

Arizona 224-227 

Arkansas 226-231 

California 230-235 

Colorado 236-239 

Connecticut 238-245 

Delaware 244-247 

District of Columbia 248-251 

Florida 250-255 

Georgia 254-257 

Hawaii 258,259 

Idaho 260,261 

Illinois 262-267 

Indiana 268-273 

Indian Territory 272-275 

Iowa 274-279 

Kansas '278-283 

Kentucky 282-287 

Louisiana 288-291 

Maine 290-295 

Maryland 294-301 

Massachusetts 300-307 

Michigan 306-311 

Minnesota 312-317 

Mississippi - 316-319 



General tables, for principal cities 425-763 

Explanatory notes '^^'^ 

Table 42.— Total males and females 10 years of age and over engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, for cities having 

25,000 inhabitants or more: 1900 428^79 

Table 43.— Total males and females 10 years of age and over engaged in selected groups of occupations, classified by general 
nativity, color, conjugal condition, months unemployed, age periods, and parentage, for cities having 50,000 
inhabitants or more: 1900 480-763 



Page. 

Albany, N. Y 480^83 

Allegheny, Pa 482-487 

Atlanta, Ga 486-489 

Baltimore, Md 488-495 

Boston, Mass 494-499 

Bridgeport, Conn 500-503 

Buffalo, N.Y 502-507 

Cambridge, Mass 506-511 

Camden, N.J 510-513 



Page. 

Charleston, S. C 514-517 

Chicago, 111 516-523 

Cincinnati, Ohio .■. 522-527 

Cleveland, Ohio 526-531 

Columbus, Ohio 532-535 

Dayton, Ohio 534r-539 

Denver, Colo 538-541 

Des Moines, Iowa 542-545 

Detroit, Mich 544-549 



xn 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



General tables, for principal cities— Continued. 

Table 43. — Total males and females 10 years of age and over engaged in selected groups of occupations, classified by general 
nativity, color, conjugal condition, months unemployed, age periods, and parentage, for cities having 50,000 



inhabitants or more : 1900 — Continued. 

Page. 

Duluth, Minn .548-551 

Elizabeth, N. J 552-555 

Erie, Pa 554-557 

Evansville, Ind 556-559 

Fall River, Mass 560-563 

Grand Rapids, Mich 562-565 

Harrisburg, Pa 564-569 

Hartford, Conn 568-571 

Hoboken, N. J 570-575 

Indianapolis, Ind 574-577 

Jersey City, N. J 578-581 

Kansas City, Kans 582-585 

Kansas City, Mo 584-587 

Lawrence, Mass 588-591 

Los Angeles, Cal 590-593 

Louisville, Ky 594-597 

Lowell, Mass 598-601 

Lynn, Mass 600-603 

Manchester, N. H 602-607 

Memphis, Tenn 606-609 

Milwaukee, Wis 608-613 

Minneapolis, Minn 614-617 

Nashville, Tenn 618-621 

Newark, N. J 620-625 

New Bedford, Mass 624-627 

New Haven, Conn 628-631 

New Orleans, La 630-635 

New York, N. Y 634-641 

Manhattan and Bronx boroughs, N. Y 642-649 

Brooklyn borough, N. Y 648-655 

Queens boror^h, N. Y 654-657 

Richmond borough, N. Y 658-661 



Page. 

Oakland, Cal 660-663 

Omaha, Nebr 664-667 

Paterson, N. J 666-669 

Peoria, 111 670-673 

Philadelphia, Pa 672-679 

Pittsburg, Pa 678-683 

Portland, Me 682-685 

Portland, Oreg 686-689 

Providence, R. I 688-693 

Reading, Pa 692-695 

Richmond, Va 696-699 

Rochester, N. Y 698-703 

St. Joseph, Mo 702-705 

St. Louis, Mo 706-711 

St. Paul, Minn 710-715 

Salt Lake City, Utah 714-717 

San Antonio, Tex 716-719 

San Francisco, Cal 720-725 

Savannah, Ga 724-727 

Scranton, Pa 726-729 

Seattle, Wash 730-733 

Somerville, Mass 732-737 

Springfield, Mass 736-739 

Syracuse, N. Y 738-743 

Toledo, Ohio 742-745 

Trenton, N. J 746-749 

Troy, N. Y 748-751 

Utica,N. Y 752-755 

Washington, D. C. (See Table 41, pages 248-251.) 

Wilkesbarre, Pa 754-757 

Wilmington, Del 756-761 

Worcester, Mass 760-763 



MAPS AND DIAGRAMS. 



[The maps and diagrams are bound together at the end ol Chapter III.] 

Population 10 years of age and over, by sex, classified as wage-earners and non wage-earners: 1900 Diagram. 

Population 10 years of age and over, by color and general nativity, classified as wage-earners and non wage-earners: 

1900 Diagram. 

Elements of the population 10 years of age and over, by sex, classified as wage-earners and non wage-earners: 1900. .Diagram. 
Proportions of persons engaged in agriculture and in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits proper, to total per- 
sons occupied: 1880 and 1900 Diagram. 

Proportions of persons engaged in each class of occupations: 1900 Diagram. 

Proportions of persons engaged in certain groups of occupations to all wage-earners : 1900 Cartogram. 

Classification of persons occupied by race and nativity: 1900 Diagram. 

Proportions by nativity and race of persons engaged in the principal occupations: 1900 Diagram. 

Proportions of males and females in each class of occupations and in certain occupation groups: 1900. Diagram. 

Proportions of men, women, and children in gainful occupations: 1880 and 1900 Diagram. 

Proportions of men, women, and children in certain occupation groups: 1880 and 1900 Diagram. 

Distribution of'wage-earners of specified parentage by principal occupations: 1900 — 

Native; foreign; negro; Irish; German; French Diagram. 

Norwegian; Danish; Swedish; Canadian (English); Canadian (French); British Diagram. 

Austrian; Hungarian; Polish; Eussian; Italian; Bohemian Diagram. 

(xiii) 



Plate 1. 



Plate 


1. 


Plate 


1. 


Plate 


2. 


Plate 


3. 


Plate 


4. 


Plate 


5. 


Plate 


6. 


Plate 


7. 


Plate 


8. 


Plate 


9. 


Plate 10. 


Plate 11. 


Plate 12. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Washington^ D. O. , January If., IdOlj.. 
Sie: 

1 have the honor to transmit herewith a special report on occupations. The publication of the statistics of 
occupations in the form of a special report was authorized by mj' predecessor, Hon. William R. Merriam, in 
order to insure the completion on or before July 1, 1902, of the main reports of the Twelfth Census, in conformity 
with the terms of the act of March 3, 1899, under which that census was taken. 

For this reason, it was decided to limit the statistics of occupations in the main report on population to a 
presentation for states, territories, and principal cities of the number of persons, disting'uished by sex, engaged 
in specified occupations, and to reserve the detailed classification by general nativity, color, age periods, parentage, 
conjugal condition, and months unemployed, for more complete presentation in a separate report. 

The figures presented in the general tables of this report are based upon the returns of more than 53,000 
enumerators, obtained in the general enumeration of population made as of June 1, 1900, in answer to one of 27 
items of inquiry on the population schedule. The inquiry with respect to occupations related to persons 10 
years of age and over and called for the occupation, trade, or profession of each person of that age gainfully 
employed; but the inquiry was confined to a simple statement of the kind of work done or character of service 
rendered, as the temporary organization of the census and the limited time given for preparation prevented any 
effort to distinguish employers from employees, or to ascertain whether the work was done at home or in a shop 
or factory, or to identify the employee with the establishment in which employed, as is done in some European 
countries. 

The special report on occupations has been prepared in the division of population, under the supervision of 
Mr. William C. Hunt, chief statistician for population; the textual discussion has been contributed in part by 
Dr. Joseph A. Hill and Mr. William S. Rossiter, of the division of publications, while the maps and diagrams 
have been prepared in the geographical division, under the direction of Mr. Charles S. Sloane, acting 
geographer. 

Very respectfully. 



Hon. Geokge B. Coetbltou, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 




Director. 



(XV) 



REPORT ON OCCUPATIONS, 



23054—04 ii (xvii) 



REPORT ON OCCUPATIONS. 



OHAPTEE I. 
RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



ENUMERATION. 



SCOPE OF THE INQUIRY. 



The inquiry with respect to occupations made on the 
population schedule at the Twelfth Census called for a 
statement of the occupation, trade, or profession of 
each person 10 years of age and over who was at work — 
that is, occupied in gainful labor. Comparatively few 
persons under that age are gainfully employed, and 
when, contrary to instructions, such persons were re- 
turned b}' the enumerator they were excluded from the 
tabulation, so that, as at preceding censuses, the state- 
ment of the number of persons reported as engaged in 
gainful occupations at the Twelfth Census is limited to 
those 10 years of age and upward. 

The inquiry was confined to a simple statement of 
the kind of work done or character of service rendered. 
No attempt was made, by means of specific returns on 
the schedule, to distinguish employers from employees, 
although this distinction would often be indicated bj^ the 
designation of the occupation required by the printed 
instructions; nor was any attempt made to ascertain 
whether the work was done at home or in a shop or 
factory, or, in the case of an employee, to record the 
name and location of the establishment in which em- 
ployed, as is done in Belgium, France, Germanj', and 
some other European countries. The desirability of 
extending the occupation inquiries to include these 
additional data, or at least a part of them, has been 
recognized by the officials of former censuses,^ but the 
limitations of American census work up to 1900 have 

' The Superintendent of the Ninth and Tenth censuses (the late 
Francis A. Walker), in an article on "American Industry" in the 
Atlantic Monthly for December, 1869, comments very severely on 
the wholly inadequate enumeration and compilation of occupa- 
tions at the census of 1860, and suggests the inclusion in the popu- 
lation schedule for 1870 of two additional inquiries in order to 
determine, in connection with the return of occupations, first, the 
number of persons working for themselves and sharing in the 
profits of business as distinguished from those receiving wages or 
salary, and, second, the number dependent upon each person 
whose occupation is reported. The Ninth Census, of which Gen- 
eral Walker was ai)pointed Superintendent February 7, 1870, was 
taken in the following June, but the' population schedule did not 
contain the additional inquiries suggested in this article, probably 
for want of time to provide for their successful enumeration. 



not permitted detailed inquiries of this character, the 
temporary organization of the census and the limited 
time allowed for its completion rendering special cau- 
tion necessary in guarding against undue elaboration of 
the schedules. 

AREA OF ENUMERATION. 

The statistics of occupations contained in this volume 
relate to that portion of the present area of the United 
States which, under the terms of the act approved 
March 3, 1899, was covered by the Twelfth Census 
enumeration; this includes the mainland of the United 
States, together with the outlying territories of Alaska 
and Hawaii and persons in the military and naval 
service of the United States (including civilian em- 
ployees, etc.) stationed abroad, not credited to any 
state or territorj'^. No provision was made for the 
enumeration of the inhabitants of the Philippine 
Islands, Porto Rico, Guam, and Samoa as a part of the 
Twelfth Census, as these islands were not in the pos- 
session of the United States at the time the act above 
referred to was passed.^ A census of Porto Rico was 
subsequently ordered by the President, and was taken 
as of November 10, 1899, under the direction of the 
War Department; and a census of the Philippine 
Islands, provided for by act of Congress, was taken as 
of March 2, 1903, under the direction of the Philippine 
Commission; but as yet the results of the former census 
only are available. 

CONDITIONS OF THE ENUMERATION. 

The question of occupations was one of the 27 items 
of inquiry included in the population schedule to be 
answered, as far as applicable, for each person enumer- 
ated in the census. The occupation returns, therefore, 

^ Philippine Islands, Porto Eico, and Guam added by treaty 
between the United States and Spain, proclaimed April 11, 1899 
(.30 Stat. L., 1754); island of Tutuila and all other islands of the 
Samoan group east of longitude 171° west of Greenwich added by 
convention of the United States, Germany, and Great Britain, 
proclaimed February 16, 1900 (31 Stat. L., 1878). 

(xix) 



XX 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



form part of the information obtained in the general 
enumeration of population which was taken in June, 
1900, through the agency of more than 53,000 enumer- 
ators. Detailed explanations concerning the manner of 
returning occupations were given in the printed instruc- 
tions prepared for the use of the census enumerators 
in order to secure a definite statement of the profession, 
trade, or branch of work upon which each person 
depended chiefly for support, or in which he was engaged 
during the larger part of the time. 

The distinctions to be observed by the enumerators 
in making their returns concerning occupations are best 
illustrated by the following extracts from the printed 
instructions:' 

This ia a most important question. In reporting occupations 
avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not^indicate 
the kind of work done. You need not give a person's occupation 
just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, 
find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. 
Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it. 
Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of 
service rendered. Do not state merely the article made or 
worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, 
the reply "carriage builder," or "works in carriage factory," is 
unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as black- 
smiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together 
in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show 
what kind of work the person performs. 

Eeturn every person according to his own occupation, not that 
of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed 
by a manufacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as 
a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper 
and not a brewer, etc. 

If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, 
that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can 
not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. 
For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by 
managing a farm, but also preaches, as a "farmer," but if he geta 
more income from his preaching, describe him as a "preacher" 
and not as a farmer. 

If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return the occupa- 
tion accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes 
regularly to a place of employment, and whether she ia regularly 
or only occasionally so employed. For example, "milliner," 
"dressmaker," "nurse," etc. 

Keport a student who supports himself by some occupation 
according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a 
student, if more time is given to study. Thus report a student 
who does stenographic work as a student unless more of hia time 
is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, 
who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries," because 
most of his day ia spent in the store. 

Do not confuse a. farmer with a. farm laborer. If a person works 
on. a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even 
though he may be a son or other relative of the person who con- 
ducts the farm, he should be entered as a, farm laborer, and not as 
a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or 
operates it with or for another person, for a fixed share of the 
products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm 
laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who work on the 
farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) 
jointly operate the farm for fixed sharea of the product. 
Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd 

1 These instructions are reproduced in full in Appendix A. 



jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in 
the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc. Do not say simply 
"laborer," but state in every case the kind of work done, as day 
laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer 
in a mill; workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the 
word laborer, as laborer [cemeni works), etc. 

Beturn as a housekeeper a woman who receives a stated wage or 
salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who 
keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful 
occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the house- 
hold duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps 
house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper 
in any case. 

Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as ia often done, 
especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. 
Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a 
salesman, unless most of hia service is in the office on the books 
and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salemian — dry 
goods; salesman — groceries, etc. 

Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, 
or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done. 

Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify the kind 
of work done, as cotton mill — spinner; sUk mill — weaver, etc. 

Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state 
whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc. 

The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school 
hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. 
But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regu- 
larly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably 
assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work 
performed should be stated. 

It was not the intention nor desire to have the classifi- 
cation of occupations, or any part of it, intrusted to 
the enumerators; the ruling consideration governing 
their instructions was to have them state as precisely as 
possible the occupation of each person reported as at 
work, in order that the Census Office might have in its 
possession the means of determining, with reasonable 
accurac_y, the number of persons engaged in different 
kinds of work as a means of livelihood, rather than the 
number occupied in making particular things or the 
number at work in given places. The time given to 
preparation for the Twelfth Census was so limited* 
that not much effort, beyond the printed instructions 
to enumerators, could be made to secure exact returns 
in accordance with the intentions expressed by the fore- 
going examples. There was little opportunity for the 
personal instruction of the enumerators by the census 
supervisors previous to the enumeration, or for the 
close supervision of their work during its continuance. 
Moreover, since the law directed that the main results 
of the census should be published prior to July 1, 1902, 
the detention of the completed .schedules in the offices 
of the supervisors for critical examination before they 
were sent to the central office at Washington was 
impracticable. It is clear, therefore, that the accu- 
racy of the returns was dependent largely upon the 
intelligence and interest of an army of enumerators. 



' The act providing for taking the Twelfth Census and the estab- 
lishment thereunder of a temporary census organization waa not 
approved until March 3, 1899, or only 15 months prior to the time 
of beginning the general enumeration in June, 1900. 



RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



XXI 



CLASSIFICATION. 



INHERENT DIFFICULTIES. 



Under the conditions described the classification of 
occupations is a difficult matter, and entirely satisfac- 
tory results are not possible. An attempt was made in 
1900, as in 1890, to classify occupations, in a, general 
way at least, according to the kind of work done or 
character of service rendered, but this idea could not 
be fully carried out. 

One cause of perplexity is that a person may have 
more than one occupation; to prevent uncertainty and 
error some rule must be prescribed for the selec- 
tion of the occupation to be returned as representing a 
person's usual or customary vocation. The rule laid 
down in the instructions was to enter the more impor- 
tant occupation — that is, the one from which the more 
money is obtained, or, if that can not be determined, 
the one in which the more time is spent. In practice 
the enumerator frequently enters both occupations, 
leaving the selection to the Census Office. This is 
particularly true with respect to a farmer who, besides 
cultivating a farm, is identified with some other busi- 
ness enterprise. 

Another case which is sometimes a source of error is 
that in which the wife or children assist in the work of 
the head of the family and yet are not actually paid 
in wages for their labor. Such cases are particularly 
common in agricultural sections where the services of 
the family are regularly utilized in field work. This 
is a condition covered by the instruction to ignore " the 
doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school 
hours, where a child regularly attends school," but to 
include any person above 10 years of age who "is 
earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the 
family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical 
or agricultural industry." 

A further possibility of error on the part of the enu- 
merator arises from the copying of the schedules before 
they are forwarded to the supervisors for transmission 
to Washington. The printed instructions '■ emphasized 
the liability to errors in copying, but it is clear that 
they occurred in spite of the cautionary injunction, espe- 
cially in such cases as the assignment to a female of an 
occupation which more naturally belongs to the head 
of the family or to a male member thereof for whom 
no occupation is reported, or the duplication of the 
occupation of a male member of the family for the 
wife, mother, daughter, or sister. In an inspection of 

1 Instructions to Enumerators, paragraph 56, reads as follows: 
The copying of the schedules for transmission to this oflSce involves 
liability to error, especially in the transposition of entries to the 
wrong lines. For this reason it is unsafe to copy the several col- 
umns one at a time. If copying is necessary, copy line by line, 
using a ruler to keep the place, and take great pains to see that the 
ruler is not displaced. But the right way to do your work is to 
make the original entries with such care tbat no copying is required. 



the schedules, such anomalous entries as these are often 
detected by the return for a woman of an occupation 
not ordinarily followed by her sex. In classifying occu- 
pations at the Twelfth Census an effort was made to 
correct or to exclude from the tabulations those cases 
in which the entrj' on the schedule was evidently an 
error, but in a few instances unusual occupations are 
still credited to women where the evidence of error in 
copying was not sufficient to warrant correction; the 
number of such cases is limited, however, and no further 
effort to verify the returns seemed advisable. 

Under the time limit imposed by law, provision could 
not be made for a careful and detailed examination of 
the census returns. At the outset a temporary office 
does not possess a force competent to examine the 
schedules critically, and even if such a force existed, 
the office would be powerless to complete the returns 
in every particular prior to their detailed tabulation, 
unless erroneous schedules were first returned to the 
enumerators for correction. 

For the reasons here stated the entries were gener- 
ally accepted as given on the schedules and were tabu- 
lated accordingly. As a result, there is undoubtedly 
an element of indefiniteness and inaccuracy, and possi- 
bly omission in the returns, which, under a permanent 
census organization, can be very nearly, if not wholly, 
eliminated. The system of supervision should be made 
much closer than it has been heretofore and provision 
made for the examination and correction of returns 
prior to their receipt at the central office in Washington. 

BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION AND METHODS OF WORK IN 

1900. 

Such being the conditions under which the census 
work had to be conducted, the only practicable scheme 
with respect to the work of classifying occupations was 
to adhere in all essential particulars to the classification 
of 1890; this was all the more imperative if the time 
limit governing the completion of the work was to be 
observed. An index to occupations, based upon that 
used at the census of 1890, was accordingly prepared in 
advance of the receipt of the enumerators' completed 
returns, in which, for purposes of tabulation, each of 
the more important terms likely to be used in reporting 
the classes of work carried on by persons engaged in 
gainful labor was assigned to one of 475 occupation 
groups. It was not the intention to make this index 
list exhaustive, because, in classifying the statements of 
the enumerators under the various occupation groups, 
the plan was to confine the primary work to the simpler 
designations (such as farmer or planter, farm or planta- 
tion laborer, clergyman or preacher, lawyer, physician 
or doctor, school teacher, carpenter, mason, painter. 



XXll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



blacksmith, dressmaker, milliner, seamstress, etc.), for 
which the classification was apparent on the face of the 
returns, reserving all other designations for more care- 
ful scrutiny and examination before their final assign- 
ment to a specific occupation group. 

Every effort was made, as far as the limitations of 
the work permitted, to make the several occupation 
groups as complete as possible. To this end the pri- 
mary classification work was confined, as already stated, 
to the simpler designations, comprising, in all, 391 dif- 
ferent items, or occupation terms, and comprehend- 
ing (in part only) less than one-half (225) of the 475 
occupation groups selected for tabulation purposes. 
Under the system of machine tabulation used in the 
population work of the Twelfth Census, this primary 
work was conducted in connection with the punching 
of the cards' from which the detailed tabulations of 
general population data were derived, in order to cover 
as much ground as possible within the limited time at 
the disposal of the office. Specific instructions were 
issued to have this part of the work comprehend only 
the 391 items previously selected, and to punch all 
other returns of occupations under the general head- 
ing "Ot," meaning thereby "other" occupations. 
These, as already explained, were reserved for further 
examination. For this pui"pose provision was made in 
the course of the tabulation work to have these "Ot" 
cards thrown out mechanically by the tabulating 
machines for a separate handling and the transcription 
thereon of the occupation designation in the language 
used by the enumerator on the population schedule. 
When this process had been completed, assignment 
was made in each case to one of the 475 occupation 
groups, and reference was made to the schedules for 
manufactures and agriculture as a guide in making the 
assignment, wherever possible. The next step con- 
sisted in the mechanical exclusion by the tabulating 
machines of all cards for which the designation of 
occupation was not entirely consistent with the other 
facts recorded thereon, and the reexamination in such 
cases of the original entries on the population schedules. 
As already explained, there was difficulty even then in 
establishing the verity of the return, either because 
the original statement made by the person supplying 
the information might involve error in the sex, age, 
or occupation reported, or because of the blunders 
committed by the enumerator in copying the schedules, 
resulting possibh' in the assignment of the occupation 
to the wrong member of the family or in the duplica- 
tion or misplacement of some of the entries for a given 
family. 

'A separate card was used for each person, to which was trans- 
ferred by punching, for purposes of later tabulation by electrical 
machines, all the information returned on the population schedule 
concerning the color, sex, age, nativity, occupation, etc., of each 
individual enumerated in the census. 



RESULTS OF THE CLASSIFICATION IN 1900. 

As a result of the effort in 1900 to classify the occu- 
pation returns in accordance with a previously pre- 
pared scheme, the 475 occupation designations selected 
for purposes of tabulation were reduced for presenta- 
tion to 303, arranged under 140 groups, as against the 
218 designations of 1890," with which they have been 
made comparable as far as the returns permitted. 

The 172 designations which were combined with 
other designations, principally on account of the small 
number of persons reported under these designations, 
but partly as a matter of space, afford good and suffi- 
cient evidence of the f utilitj' of attempting many refine- 
ments in the subdivision of the occupation returns, 
especially under the conditions of the Twelfth Census 
work. Similar evidence is afforded, oftentimes, by 
those cases where a single designation used in 1890 has 
been subdivided for the classification in 1900 into two 
or more designations, which have been retained as a 
part of the 303 designations presented, but for which 
the enumerators' returns in many cases did not prove 
sufficiently explicit to permit of the fine distinctions 
nominally implied by the subdivision. Instances of 
this are found in the attempt to distinguish between 
carpetmakers (rag) and carpet factory operatives, 
between clock and watch makers and clock and watch 
repairers, between boot and shoe factory operatives 
and shoemakers (not in shoe factory), and the like. 

For the presentation of the statistics of occupations 
in 1900, particularly for the detailed classification bj- gen- 
eral nativitv and color, age periods, conjugal condition, 
parentage, etc., the more inclusive designations repre- 
sented by the 140 occupation groups are more desirable, 
first, because they more nearly represent, in all proba- 
bility, actual conditions, and, second, because, for pur- 
poses of comparison with preceding censuses, they are, 
on the whole, probably much more significant. This 
was the dominant idea, first, in the reduction of the 
number of specified occupations from 475 to 303 desig- 
nations and, .second, in the assignment of the 303 desig- 
nations to 140 groups; and numerous instances could 
be found where it would have been a waste of space to 
have extended the general tables for a separate presen- 
tation of groups of workers representing, in the aggre- 
gate, only a comparatively small number of persons. 

A detailed presentation, comprising the 303 specified 
occupations, is made in Table i, for the entire area of 
enumeration and for continental United States sepa- 
rately. In this table the designations representing the 
140 occupation groups are set out to the marginal line, 
while the 233 details into which 70 of these groups are 
divided are indented. Of the 303 specified occupations 
in 1900 more than one-half (161) are included under the 
general heading "manufacturing and mechanieal pur- 



RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



xxm 



suits," and these are arranged, as far as practicable, 
under ttie titles denoting the various industry groups 
as defined for the Twelfth Census by the division of 
manufactures. This arrangement was not made, how- 
ever, with a view to furnishing a basis for the compar- 
ison of the number of persons engaged in the various 
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits as returned on 



the schedules of population and of manufactures inas- 
much as the two sets of returns are hardly compara- 
ble in any particular; its sole purpose was to bring 
together related groups of workers, as a matter of con- 
venience in consultation, in preference to the adoption 
of a strictly alphabetical arrangement for so extended 
a list of occupation designations. 



Table I.— NUMBER OF PERSONS 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES ENGAGED IN EACH OF 

303 SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farm and plantation laborers 

Farm laborers (members of family) . 

Garden and nursery laborers 

Dairymen and dairy women 



Farmers, planters, and overseers . . . 

Farmers and planters 

Fanners (members of family) . . 
Farm and plantation overseers . 
Milk farmers 



Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc 

Gardeners 

Florists, nurserymen, and vine growers . 

Fruit growers , 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 



Stock raisers, herders, and drovers . 

Stock raisers 

Stock herders and drovers 

Turpentine fanners and laborers . . . 



Wood choppers 

other agricultural pursuits . 

Apiarists 

Not specified 



Professional service. 



Actors, professional showmen, etc. 

Actors 

Professional showmen 

Theatrical managers, etc 



Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 

Architects 

Designers, draftsmen, and inventors . 

Artists and teachers of art 

Clergymen 

Dentists 



Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc. ) and surveyors 

Engineers (civil) 

Engineers (mechanical and electrical) . 

Engineers (mining) 

Surveyors 



Journalists 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons 

Authors and scientists 

Librarians and assistants 

Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists. . 

Musicians and teachers of music . , 

Officials (government) 

Officials (national government) 

Officials (state government) 

Officials (county government) . . . .- 

Officials (city or town government) . . . 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 

Teachers 

Professors in colleges and universities. 

other professional service 

Veterinary surgeons 

Not specified 



Domestic and personal service . 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . 
Hotel keepers 



Housekeepers and stewards. 
Janitors and sextons 

Janitors 

Sextons 



Entire 
area. 



Continental 
United 
States. 



29,287,070 



10, 438, 219 



4,459,346 

2,047,658 

2,366,313 

45, 375 

10, 931 

5, 681, 257 

5, 488, 896 

169,053 

18, 101 

5,207 

62,418 
37, 181 
16,848 
8,389 
72, 190 

85, 469 
37, 709 
47, 760 
24,735 

36, 265 
6,608 
1,375 
4,233 

1,264,536 



34, 923 
14,810 
16, 625 



29,560 
10,604 
18,956 
24,902 
111,942 
29,704 

50,782 
43,535 
20, 163 
14, 440 
2,908 
6,034 

30, 098 
114, 703 

18, 907 
6,836 
4,184 
8,887 

92, 264 
90, 290 
40, 595 
4,345 
22, 777 
22, 673 

132, 225 

446, 797 

439,522 

7,275 

13, 904 
8,190 
5,714 

5,693,778 



29,073,233 



10,381,765 



131, 383 
88,937 
71,371 
54,931 

155, 524 

56, 620 

51, 226 

6,394 



4,410,877 

1,999,696 

2,366,149 

45,032 

10,875 

5,674,875 

5,483,618 

168,999 

17,067 

6,191 

61,788 
36, 577 
16,836 
8,375 
72, 020 

84,988 
37, 629 
47, 359 
24,736 

36, 076 
5,532 
1,339 
4,193 

1,258,538 



34,760 
14, 708 
16, 572 
3,480 

29,524 
10,581 
18,943 
24,873 
111, 638 
29, 666 

50,717 
43, 239 
20,068 
14, 334 
2,888 
5,949 

30,038 
114,460 

18,844 
6,817 
4,180 
8,847 

92, 174 
86, 607 
37, 020 
4,345 
22, 697 
22,545 

132, 002 

446, 133 

438, 861 

7,272 

13,864 
8,163 
6,701 

5,580,657 



131,116 
88,817 
71,281 
64, 797 

155,153 
66, 577 
61, 191 
6,386 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Domestic and personal service— Continued. 

Laborers (not specified) 

Elevator tenders 

Laborers (coalyard) 

Laborers (general) 

Longshoremen 

stevedores 



Launderers and laundresses . 
Laundry work (hand) ... 
Laundry work (steam) .. 



Nurses and mid wives 

Nurses (trained) 

Nurses (not specified) . 
Midwives 



Restaurant keepers . . 

Saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters. 

Servants 

Waiters 



Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S.). 

Soldiers (U. S.) 

Sailors (U.S.) 

Marines (U. S.) 



Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc 

Watchmen, policemen, and detectives . 
Firemen (fire department) 



other domestic and personal service 

Bootblacks 

Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts. 
Not specified 



Trade and transportation. 



Agents 

Agents (insurance and real estate) 

Agents (not specified) 

Bankers and brokers 

Bankers and brokers (money and stocks) . 
Brokers (commercial) 



Boatmen and sailors 

Boatmen and canalmen . . . 

Pilots 

Sailors -' 

Bookkeepers and accountants . 



Clerks and copyists 

Clerks and copyists 

Clerks (shipping) 

Letter and mail carriers . 
Commercial travelers 



Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Draymen, teamsters, and expressmen . 
Carriage and hack drivers 



Foremen and overseers 

Foremen and overseers (livery stable) ... 
Foremen and overseers (steam railroad) . 
Foremen and overseers (street railway) . . 
Foremen and overseers (not specified) . . . 



Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers. 
Livery stable keepers... 



Merchants and dealers (except wholesale). 

Boots and shoes 

cigars and tobacco 

Clothing and men's furnishings 

Coal and wood 



Drugs and medicines 

Dry goods, fancy goods, and notions. 

General store 

Groceries 



Liquors and wines 

Lumber 

Produce and provisions. 
Not specified 



Entire 
area. 


Continental 
United 
States. 


2,640,420 

12,691 

9,373 

2,588,283 

20,934 

9,139 


2,629,262 

12,690 

9,361 

2,577,951 

20,191 

9,069 


387,013 
366,066 
21,957 


385,965 
364,020 
21,945 


121,269 

11,892 

103,747 

6,630 


120,956 

11,804 

103,523 

5,629 


34,023 

83,875 

1,565,440 

1,458,010 

107, 430 


33,844 

83,746 

1,560,721 

1,453,677 

107,044 


128,736 

105,894 

18,450 

4,392 


43,195 

34,998 

, 5,928 

2,269 


131, 191 
116,615 
14,576 


130,590 

116,056 

14,534 


43, 045 
8,243 
11,340 
23,462 


34,637 
8,230 
3,048 

23,359 


4,778,233 


4, 766, 964 


241,333 

119,283 

122,050 

73,384 

66,047 

7,337 


241,162 

119,208 

121,954 

73,277 

65,943 

7,334 


80,024 

13, 175 

4,976 

61,873 

265,526 


78,406 
13,115 
4,896 
60,395 
254,880 


632,099 

570,106 

33,616 

28,378 

92,936 


630,127 

568,181 

33,611 

28,335 

92,919 


641, 115 
504,321 
36,794 


538,933 
602,359 
36,574 


65,603 
3,238 

35, 217 
1,023 

16,025 


55, 450 
3,230 

36,196 
1,023 

16,001 


65,381 
76,872 
33,680 


64, 929 
76,649 
33,656 


792,887 
15,239 
15,367 
18,097 
20, 866 


790,886 
15,239 
15,351 
18,095 
20,860 


67,346 
46,840 
33,031 
156, 657 


57,271 
46,820 
33,006 
166,479 


18, 119 
16,774 
34, 194 
366,457 


13,108 
16,772 
34,175 
364,710 



XXIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table I.— NUMBER OF PERSONS 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES ENGAGED IN EACH OF 

303 SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Trade and transportation— Continued. 



Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and oflfice boys . 

Bundle and cash boys 

Messengers 

Office boys 



Officials of banks and companies 

Bank officials and cashiers 

Officials (insurance and trust companies, etc.). 

Officials (trade companies) 

Officials (transportation companies) 



Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.). 
Salesmen and saleswomen 



Steam railroad employees . 

Baggagemen 

Brakemen 

Conductors 



Engineers and firemen 

Laborers 

Station agents and employees 

Switchmen, yardmen, and flagmen . 



Stenographers and typewriters . 

Stenographers 

Typewriters 



Street railway employees 

Conductors 

Drivers 

Laborers 

Motormen 

Station agents and employees. . 

Telegraph and telephone linemen . 
Telegraph and telephone operators. 

Telegraph operators 

Telephone operators 

Undertakers 



Other persons in trade and transportation 

Auctioneers 

Decorators, drapers, and window dressers. 

Newspaper carriers and newsboys 

Weighers, gangers, and measurers 

Not specified 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 

Building trade). 

Carpenters and joiners 

Carpenters and joiners 

Ship carpenters 

Apprentices and helpers 



Masons (brick and stone) 

Masons 

Masons' laborers 

Apprentices and helpers 

Painters, glaziers, and varnlshers 

Painters, glaziers, and yamishers . 
Painters (carriages and wagons). . . 
Apprentices and helpers 

Paper hangers 

Paper hangers 

Apprentices and helpers 

Plasterers 

Plasterers 

Apprentices and helpers 



Plumbers and gas and steam fitters , 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters. . 
Apprentices and helpers 



Roofers and slaters 

Roofers and slaters 

Apprentices and helpers 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified) 

Chemicalt and aUied products. 
Oil well and oil works employees 



Oil well employe 
Oil works employees. 



Other chemical workers 

Chemical works employees 

Fertilizer makers 

Powder and cartridge makers . 

Salt works employees 

Starchmakers 



Clay, glaea, and etone products. 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Brickmakers 

Tilemakers 

Terra cotta workers 

GlasBworkers 

Marble and stone cutters 

Potters 



Entire 
area. 



42,343 
71,695 
10, BOS 
44,460 
16, 727 

74,246 
14, 295 
5,339 
20,479 
34,133 

59,769 
54,274 
611, 787 

682,471 
19,085 
67,492 
42,935 

107,150 

249,576 

45,992 

50,241 

112,464 
98,827 
13, 637 

68,936 

24,038 

1,366 

4,644 

87,436 

1,452 

14,765 
75,047 
55,852 
19,196 
16,200 

53, 496 
2,813 
3,053 
6,904 
6,670 

34,056 



Continental 
United 
States. 



602, 741 

687, 082 

12,287 

3,372 

161,048 

119,346 

9,284 

2,418 

277,990 

259, 109 

17,360 

1,531 

22,004 

21,808 

196 

36, 706 

35,346 

360 

97,884 

92,315 

6,569 

9,068 

8,932 

136 

9,423 



24, 626 
18, Oil 
6,616 

14,723 
6,740 
1,310 
4,136 
1,775 
762 



49,934 

46,595 

3,017 

1,322 

49, 999 
54,525 
16,140 



42,326 
71, 622 
10,497 
44,425 
16,700 

74, 072 
14, 294 
6,339 
20,389 
34,050 

69,545 
54,191 
611,139 

682, 160 
19,086 
67,474 
42,929 

107,089 
249,377 
45,963 
50,233 

112, 364 
98, 743 
13, 621 

68,919 
24,037 
1,362 
4,644 
37,434 
1,452 

14, 757 
74, 982 
66,824 
19,168 
16, 189 

63,434 
2,808 
3,052 
6,833 
6,666 

34,015 

7,085,309 



OCCtJPATIONS. 



600,252 

684,635 

12,251 

3,366 

160,805 

149, 103 

9,284 

2,418 

277, 541 

258, 663 

17,347 

1,631 

21,990 

21,794 

196 

35, 694 

35,334 

360 

97,785 
92,216 
5,569 

9,067 

8,931 

136 

9,378 



24,626 
18,011 
6,616 

14, 723 
6,740 
1,310 
4,136 
1,775 
762 



49, 933 

45, 694 

3,017 

1,322 

49, 998 
64, 460 
16, 140 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits Cont'd. 

Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen ..'.'.'.. 

Miners (coal ) 

Miners (gold and silver) 

Miners (not otherwise specified) 

Quarrymen 



Food and kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers — 

Butter and cheese makers 

Confectioners 

Millers • 



Other food preparers 

Fisb curers and packers 

Meat and fruit canners and preservers . 

Meat packers, curers, and picklers 

Sugar makers and refiners 

Not specified 



Iron and sted and their products. 
Blacksmiths 

Blacksmiths 

Apprentices and helpers 

Iron and steel workers 

Iron and steel workers 

Molders i 



Machinists 

Machinists 

Apprentices and helpers. 
Steam boiler makers 

Stea m boiler makers 

Helpers 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers. 

Tool and cutlery makers , 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



Leatlier and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Boot and shoe factory operatives 

Shoemakers (not in shoe factory) 

Apprentices 



Harness and saddle makers and repairers . 
Leather curriers and tanners 

Curriers 

"Tanners 

Apprentices 



Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Trunkmakers 

Leather-case and pocketbook makers . 

Liquors and beverages. 
Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Bottlers 

Mineral and soda water makers 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



Lumber and its remanu/actures. 

Cabinetmakers 

Coppers 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Lumber yard employees 



Other woodworkers 

Basketmakers 

Boxmakers (wood) 

Furniture manufactory employees . 

Piano and organ makers 

Not specified 



Entire 
area. 



Continental 
United 
States. 



Metals arid metal products other than iron and steel. 

Brasfiworkers 

Brassworkers 

Molders 

Helpers 



Clock and watch makers and repairers . 

Clock factory operatives 

Watch factory operatives 

Clock and watch repairers 

Gold and silver workers 

Gold and silver workers 

Jewelry manufactory employees 



Tin plate and tinware makers 

"Tin plate makers 

Tinners and tinware makers 

Apprentices (tinsmiths) 

Other metal workers ■ 

Copper workers 

Electroplaters - ■ 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers. 

Lead and zinc workers 

Molders (metals) 

Not specified 



74,573 
570,635 
344,208 

69,095 
132,634 

34,598 



79,407 
113,449 
19,261 
31,242 
40,576 

82,442 
3,821 
9,251 

13,776 
3,351 
2,243 



227,076 
218,585 
8,491 
290,724 
203,220 
87,504 

283,432 

266,846 

16,686 

33,087 

31,191 

1,896 

12,473 
28,122 
13,539 
18, 487 



209,047 

106,819 

101, 643 

685 

40,193 
42,684 
15, 770 
26,861 
63 

7,051 
8,657 
3,394 



10,646 

9,718 

828 

20,984 
8,145 



35,641 

37, 226 

161, 687 

150, 612 

11,075 

112,011 
6,799 
8,876 
23,078 
10,221 
63,037 



26,760 

20,663 

6,9(0 

117 

24,188 
3,480 

16,070 
4,638 

26, 146 
9,430 
16, 716 

70, 613 
7,231 

62,200 
1,182 

66,628 
8,188 
6,387 
7,452 
5,335 
3,161 

26, 105 



68,940 
663,406 
344,206 

52,024 
132, 693 

34,684 



79,188 
US, 193 
19,241 
31,194 
40,648 



952 
9,249 
13,776 
2,727 
2,078 



228,477 
217,993 
8,484 
290,638 
203,069 
87,469 

283,145 

266,565 

16,680 

33,046 

31,150 

1,896 

12,473 
28,122 
13,505 
18,487 



208,903 

106,818 

101,500 

585 

40,101 
42,671 
15,769 
26,839 
63 

7,061 
3,667 
3,394 

10,519 

9,716 

803 

20,962 
3,144 

35,619 

87,200 

161,624 

150,658 

11,066 

Ul,596 
6,622 
8,862 
23,074 
10,221 
62,917 

26,760 

30,653 

5,990 

117 

24,120 
3,480 

16,070 
4,570 

26,112 
9,396 
16,-16 

70,605 
7,231 

62,093 
1,181 

56,602 
8,185 
6,387 
7,446 
5,334 
3,161 

26,089 



RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



XXV 



Table I.— NTJMBEB OF PERSONS 10 YEARS OP AGE AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES ENGAGED IN EACH OP 

303 SPECIPIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits— Cont'd, 

Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmaliers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 

Printers and pressmen 

Lithographers 

Compositors 

Electrotypers and stereotypers 

Apprentices (printers) 

Textiles. 

Blea,chery and dye works operatives 

Bleachery operatives , 

Dye works operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives 

Hemp and jute mill operatives 

Linen mill operatives 

Print works operatives 

Eope and cordage factory operatives 

Worsted mill operatives 

Textile not specified 

Dressmakers , . . 

Dressmakers 

Apprentices 

Hat and cap makers 

Milliners 

Milliners 

Apprentices 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cufl makers 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Apprentices 



Entire 
area. 



30, 286 
21, 098 
11,166 
36,329 

155,333 
103, 855 
7,956 
36, 849 
3,172 
3,601 



22, 289 

4,385 

17, 904 

19, 372 

246, 391 
47, 120 
64,460 
73, 196 

104, 619 
3,519 
2,100 
6,066 
7,591 
7,041 
78, 312 

347, 076 

344,819 

2,257 

22,733 

87,881 
85,873 
2.008 
151, 379 
39,432 

230,277 

228,709 

1,568 



Continental 
United 
States. 



30, 278 
21, 098 
11,161 
36, 328 

165,147 

103, 680 

7,956 

36,838 

3,172 

3,501 



22,278 
4,385 
17, 893 
19, 372 

246,391 
47,120 
54,460 
73, 196 

104, 619 
3,519 
2,100 
6,056 
7,591 
7,041 
78, 312 

346,884 

344,627 

2,257 

22,733 

87, 859 
85,861 
2,008 
150, 942 
39, 432 

229,649 

228, 081 

1,668 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits — Cont'd. 

Textiles— Coptinvied. 

Other textile workers 

Carpetmakers (rag) 

Lace and embroidery makers 

Sail, awning, and tent makers 

Sewing machine operators 

Not specified 

Miscellaneous industri^. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Builders and contractors 

Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers ,. - . 

Officials of mining and quarrying companies 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous Industries 

Apprentices and helpers (not specified) 

Artificial flower makers 

Buttonmakers 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers 

Corsetmakers 

Cotton ginners 

Electric light and power company employees 

Gas works employees 

Piano and organ tuners , 

Straw workers 

Turpentine distillers 

Umbrella and parasol makers 

Well borers 

Whitewashers 

Not specified 



Entire 
area. 



Continental 
United 
States. 



29, 612 
7,245 
9,260 
3,592 
5,772 
3,743 



10,222 

14,464 

224,546 

12,276 

243, 890 

168, 070 

66, 915 

10, 970 

17, 936 

15, 083 

27,029 

21, 866 

131,464 



471,800 
31,697 
2,775 
6,621 

4,022 
8,016 
1,395 
6,161 

6,956 
4,296 
3,997 
7,099 

3,242 

6,661 

3,441 

375,423 



29,633 
7,245 
9,212 
3,677 
6,772 
3,727 



10,220 
14,436 
223,495 
12,271 

243,009 

157, 948 

66,749 

10, 957 

17,365 

16,073 
26,941 
21,866 
131,452 
30,821 

471,089 

31,679 

2,775 

6,621 

4,020 
8,016 
1,395 
6,156 

6,955 
4,293 
3,838 
7,099 

3,242 

6,608 

3,439 

374, 953 



CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION IN 1900. 

In the classi fication of occupations in 1890 several 
ch anges were m n^f f '-om that of 1 SSO^ hnt in 1 900 that of 
1890 was followed with a few chantres in detail onl v. 
After mature consideration it was decided to inake_.a 
transfer to " manufacturing and mechanical pursuits " of 
^ ^SerS en""and ovstermen aDd.Ji!m e£a-and..aiMJ:r^j3aaa» 
classified in 1890'under "agricultural pursuits" ; of en4 
gineers and fir emen (not locomotive), classified in 1890 
unJer "domest ic and personal service" ; Hind of officials^g !?].,, 
ol mini ng ancTquarrying com ^^niSsV jIassiSe'd ih" 18917 
with offinifllsof banks. etc.. under " trade and transpor- 
"These transfers have . been made also in the 



tation." 

figures showing the number of persons engaged in each 
class of occupations in 1880 and 1890 wherever repro- 
duced in this report for comparison with similar figures 
for 1900, except in the case of officials of mining and 
quarrying companies, the number of which was not 
separately published in the reports for those censuses. 

STATEMENT OF OCCUPATIONS IN GENERAL AND 
INDEFINITE TEKMS. 

In 1900 farm and plantation laborers, garden and 
nursery laborers, stock herders and drovers, and the 
like were frequently returned as farmers, gardeners, 



florists, nurserymen, or stock raisers, but unless "farm" 
schedules were also returned for such persons they were 
classified under the "laborer" rather than the "pro- 
prietor" designation. For this reason the numbers of 
"gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc." reported at the 
censuses of 1880 and 1890 are probq,bly too high, as 
compared with the number reported in 1900. 

Farm laborers were returned in 1900 under various 
designations, and often with no qualifying word indi- 
cating labor on farm or plantation, as, for example, 
elp, helper, or hand; hired man (or boy); hireling, 
servant, employee, or assistant; laborer, laborer — day 
or month, laborer — cash or wages; wage worker, share- 
renter, etc. These and similar cases were included 



man, 

under the designation of farm laborer, especially in 
agricultural districts, unless the evidence of the schedule 
was entirely to the contrary. 

The members of the families of farmers, particularly 
children, were also often reported as farmers rather 
than farm laborers, but their classification could be 
determined only according to age, no child under 16 
being considered a farmer in any case. The result of 
the effort to classify correctly this class of persons 
in 1900 (see Table i) shows that of the 4,410,877 
agricultural laborers reported for continental United 
States, 2,366,149 were given as members of farm fami- 



XXVI 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



lies — that is, the wives, sons, and daughters of the 
farmers and planters operating the farms and planta- 
tions upon which they are reported as being employed. 
By comparing this number with the 1,999,696 farm 
laborers who have no blood or legal relationship to the 
persons for whom they are at work, it appears that con- 
siderably the larger proportion (53. 6 per cent) of the 
farm labor was contributed by th'e members of farm 
families, not counting the labor of the farmer himself. 
A separate class is also made of members of families 
returned as farmers or planters where two or more 
members of the same family operate in common the 
farm or plantation upon which they resided at the time 
the census was taken. The number of such persons 
was not large, however, this class of farmers and plant- 
ers for continental United States numbering 168,999, 
and constituting 3 per cent of all the persons returned 
as operating farms and plantations in 1900. 

The large number of persons classified in 1900 under 
the designation "laborers (not specified)" is made up 
principally of persons living in city and town districts 
who were returned as either " laborers" without other 
description; common, general, or day laborers (or the 
equivalent terms thereof) ; city, town, or county labor- 
• ers; laborers in parks and cemeteries; or laborers on 
streets, roads, sewers, drains, ditches, canals, water- 
works, etc. As previously stated, persons returned as 
"laborers" in agricultural districts were classified, as 
far as possible, as farm laborers and, similarly, assign- 
ment of other persons reported as laborers was made to 
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, wherever the 
evidence on the schedule was suflicient to warrant such 
classification. In. fact, every efi'ort was made, as far as 
the nature of the returns permitted, to reduce the num- 
ber of persons classified under the general designation 
"laborers (not specified)," but this efl^ort did not 
prevent a very large increase in 1900 in this class of 
workers over the number reported in 1890. 

Care was also taken, both in the instructions to enu- 
merators and in the office work of classification, to dis- 
tinguish between paid housekeepers and women who 
keep house for their families or themselves or who 
assist in the household duties without pay, and it is not 
believed that any considerable number of the latter class 
was included under the designation "housekeepers and 
stewards." As much can not be said, however, con- 
cerning the return of nurses, and it is undoubtedly true 
that the large increase in this occupation in 1900 is due 
in part to the return as nurses, particularly in the South, 
of women who have the care of the younger children of 
the households in which they are employed, and who 
would have been more properly returned as servants. 



This could not be determined from the schedules in 
most cases, however, and the only rule that could be 
applied consistently was not to include as a nurse any 
person under the age of 16, even though so reported. 
Effort was made, too, to separately classify trained 
nurses, and also to distinguish between launderers and 
laundresses working by hand and those working by 
steam processes, but how successful the effort has been 
it is difficult to say, owing, in very many cases, to the 
general nature of the returns. 

The inclusion under "trade and transportation" of 
bookkeepers and clerks generally, irrespective of where 
they may happen to be employed, is largely a matter of 
necessity. An attempt was made in the classification 
work of 1900 to distinguish bookkeepei's, clerks, ste- 
nographers, and typewriters employed in government 
offices, manufacturing establishments, and offices of 
professional people from those engaged in trade and 
transportation, but the results of this effort were too 
meager to admit of these distinctions being observed in 
the presentation of the occupation statistics. The 
returns for fully one-half of these groups of workers 
in 1900 were given in general tenus only — such as 
bookkeeper, clerk, stenographer, typewriter — and thus 
did not afford any means whatever for a proper classi- 
fication under their respective classes. 

The large increase in the number of persons returned 
as salesmen and saleswomen, as compared with the 
relative!}' small increase in the number of persons 
reported as clerks and copyists (see Table iv, page 1), is 
indicative of the more accurate return in 1900 of these 
two classes of workers, the natural tendency being to 
report salesmen oftentimes as clerks in stores, when in 
reality their duties are not in any sense of a clerical 
nature. 

In general it may be said that it was necessary to 
classify persons engaged in manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits under general designations denoting the 
place of work or article produced, rather than under 
specific terms indicating the kind of work done, and 
that the proportion of indefiniteness in the returns of 
the groups of workers comprehending such general 
designations as makers, workers, employees, laborers, 
etc. , ranges from one-fifth to one-half of the whole num- 
ber of persons in each group. 

Employees of car shops, carriage and wagon factories, 
and shipyards were separated wherever possible into 
metal and wood workers. Where this division could 
not be made on account of the indefiniteness of the 
returns, this class of employees has necessarily been 
included in the number reported as "not specified" 
under " other miscellaneous industries." 



RETURN OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH CENSUS. 



XXVll 



PRESENTATION. 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS IN MAIN CENSUS REPORTS. 

In order to comply with the terms of the act of March 
3, 1899, which provided that the main reports of the 
Twelfth Census should be published on or before July 
1, 1902, or within two years from the date assigned by 
law for the completion of the enumeration, it was de- 
cided to limit the statistics of occupations in the main 
report on population ' to a presentation of the number 
of persons, distinguished by sex, engaged in each of 303 
specified occupations, in the entire United States and in 
the several states and territories, and the number in 
each of 140 occupation groups in each of the principal 
cities, reserving the detailed classification by general 
nativity, color, age periods, conjugal condition, parent- 
age, and months unemployed, for more complete pre- 
sentation in a separate report. 

This plan not only gave time for a more careful 
examination and analysis of the results of the inquiry, 
but also permitted a more adequate and detailed treat- 
ment of the subject than would have been possible 
within the limits of a section of the main report on 
population. This is true in particular of the detailed 
classification by nativity, color, age, etc., of selected 
occupation groups for each state and territory and for 
each of the larger cities of the country.'' 

The more critical examination of the tabulations, in- 
cluding oftentimes a reference to the original entries on 
the population schedule, has made necessary minor 
changes in the statement of the total number of persons 
engaged in all gainful occupations and in certain of the 
occupation groups, published in Part II of the Report 
on Population. The net result of these changes, cor- 
recting errors occasioned by the pressure of work in- 
cident to the completion of the main report within 
the time prescribed by the Jaw, is an increase for the 
United States of 1,148 in the total number of persons 
engaged in all gainful occupations, representing an in- 
crease of 1,663 in the number of males and a decrease 
of 615 in the number of females. 

PLAN OF SPECIAL REPORT ON OCCUPATIONS. 

In accordance with the plan herein outlined the 
returns of occupations at the Twelfth Census have been 
tabulated and are presented in this volume in three 
series of general tables, as follows: 

Tables 1 to 30 inclusive, presenting for the entire 
United States, first, the number of persons 10 years of 
age and over, distinguished by sex, engaged in each of 
303 specified occupations; and, second, the number of 
persons 10 years of age and over, distinguished by sex, 
engaged in each of 140 groups of occupations, classified 

^Twelfth Census, Yol. II, pages cxxvii-clvi; 503-601. 
'See Tables 41 (page 220) and 43 (page 480) of the general 
tables. 



successively by general nativitj', color, age periods, 
conjugal condition, parentage, and months unemployed. 

Tables 31 to 41 inclusive, presenting for states and 
territories, first, the number of persons 10 years of age 
and over, distinguished by sex, engaged in all gainful 
occupations and in each of five main classes of occu- 
pations; second, the number of persons 10 years of age 
and over, distinguished by sex, engaged in each of 303 
specified occupations; third, the number of persons 10 
years of age and over, distinguished by sex, engaged 
in all gainful occupations and in each of five main 
classes of occupations, classified successively by general 
nativity, color, age periods, conjugal condition, parent- 
age, and months unemployed; and, fourth, the number 
of persons of each sex 10 years of age and over engaged 
in selected groups of occupations (including, in many 
cases, minor occupation designations), classified by gen- 
eral nativitj', color, conjugal condition, months unem- 
ployed, age periods, and parentage. 

Tables 42 and 43, the former presenting," for each 
of the 161 cities having 25,000 inhabitants or more 
in 1900, the number of persons 10 years of age and 
over, distinguished by sex, engaged in each of 140 
groups of occupations; and the latter presenting, for 
each of the 78 cities having 50,000 inhabitants or more 
in 1900, the number of persons of each sex 10 years of 
age and over engaged in selected groups of occupations 
(including, in many cases, minor occupation designa- 
tions), classified by general nativity, color, conjugal con- 
dition, months unemployed, age periods, and parentage. 

Preceding the general tables are three chapters of 
text and derived tables and two appendixes. 

Chapter I relates to the return of occupations at the 
Twelfth Census comprising, first, a brief statement of 
the conditions under which the census of occupations 
was taken; and, second, a detailed explanation of the 
methods pursued in the classification of occupations in 
1900, including a statement of the deviations from the 
classification used at the census of 1890. 

Chapter II is devoted to a comparison of occupations 
at the Twelfth and preceding censuses comprising, fii-st, 
a statement of the manner in which the returns con- 
cerning occupations were made at the censuses prior 
to 1900, giving the essential features of the instruc- 
tions and explanations relating thereto, as far as they 
were available; and, second, a readjustment in accord- 
ance with the classification used at the census of 1900 
of the occupation specifications contained in the printed 
reports of the earlier censuses. 

Chapter III is a summary and analysis of results com- 
prising a discussion, with explanatory tables, of the 
statistics of occupations contained in the general tables, 
in comparison with similar data for preceding censuses. 

Appendix A is a reproduction of the instructions 
to enumerators concerning the return of occupations 
at the censuses of 1870, 1880, 1890, and 1900. 



XXVUl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Appendix B is a summary of the state and territorial 
laws regulating the employment of children. 

A set of maps and diagrams, illustrating certain fea- 
tures of the statistics presented, has been inserted at 
the end of Chapter III. 

In the general tables the states and territories are 
arranged in alphabetical order, but in the analytical 
presentations given in Chapter III they are arranged 
in geographical order under each of the five grand 
divisions into which continental United States is divided 
for census purposes. 

USE OF TERMS IN GENERAL AND ANALYTICAL TABLES. 

The terms used in the general and analytical tables 
are explained as follows: 

United States. — The entire area of enumeration at 
the Twelfth Census, comprising the states and terri- 
tories constituting what is termed continental United 
States, the outlying territories of Alaska and Hawaii, 
and persons in the military and naval service of the 
United States (including civilian employees, etc.) sta- 
tioned abroad, not credited to any state or territory. 

Continental United States. — That part of the 
United States lying on the continent of North America 
south of the Canadian boundary. 

Military and Naval. — Persons in the military and 
naval service of the United States (including civilian 
employees, etc.) stationed abroad, not credited to any 
state or territory. 

Hawaii: White. — The figures for white persons in 
Hawaii include Caucasians, Hawaiians, part Hawaiians, 
and South Sea Islanders. 

Colored. — Persons of negro descent, Chinese, Jap- 
anese, and Indians. 



Negro. — All persons of negro descent. 

Indian.— All Indians (including the Eskimos of 
Alaska), whether living in tribal relations or among 
the general population. 

Parentage: 

Foreign parentage {or parents). — All persons, either 
of native or foreign birth, having either one or both 
parents foreign born. 

Mixed foreign parentage. — All persons, either of 
native or foreign birth, having both parents foreign 
born but of different nationalities, as father born in 
Ireland and mother born in England, father born in 
Germany and mother born in Austria, etc. 

NatiAie parentage {or parents). — All persons, either 
of native or foreign birth, having both parents native 
born, or one parent native born and one parent for 
whom the birthplace is unknown, or both parents for 
whom the birthplace is unknown. Persons of this last 
description are sometimes referred to by the term 
" unknown parentage," but they are not of sufficient 
importance numerically to justify separate classification 
and are accordingly included with the class of native 
parentage. 

Unemployed. — Persons ordinarily engaged in gain- 
ful labor but not employed during some portion of the 
census year (June 1, 1899 to May 31, 1900). The 
statistics are presented in connection with the occupa- 
tions upon which persons so reported depend chiefly 
for support or in which they are usually engaged for 
the larger part of the time, in order to show to what 
extent the different classes of productive workers were 
unemployed during any portion of the census year, 
either at their customary occupation or in any othei 
form of remunerative work. 



CHAPTEE II. 
COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



SCOPE OF INQUIEY FROM 1820 TO 1900. 



CENSUS OF 1820. 



Inquiry was made for the first time at the census of 
1820 as to the number of persons (including slaves) 
engaged in each of three great classes of occupations, 
namely, agriculture, commerce, and manufactures. 
This information formed part of the data to be collected 
on the population schedule by the marshals and their 
assistants, who were charged with the duty of taking 
the census. The number in each family engaged in each 
class of occupations was entered on the schedule against 
the name of the head of the family, the system of indi- 
vidual enumeration not being introduced until the 
census of 1850. 

The character of the information expected is plainly 
indicated by the following extracts from the instruc- 
tions to marshals at the census of 1820: 

The purposes of the legislation in this act,' subsidiary to that of 
obtaining the aggregate amount of the'population of the United 
States, are to ascertain in detail the proportional numbers of which 
it is .composed, according to the circumstances of sex, color, age, 
condition of life, as heads or members of families, as free or slaves, 
as citizens or foreigners, and particularly of the classes (including 
slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures. 
***** 

The discrimination between persons engaged in agriculture, com- 
merce, and manufactures will not be without its difficulties. No 
inconsiderable portion of the population will probably be found, 
the individuals of which being asked to which of those classes they 
belong, will answer, to all three. Yet, it is obviously not the 
intention of the legislature that any one individual should be 
included in more than one of them — of those whose occupations are 
exclusively agricultural or commercial, there can seldom arise a 
question, and in the column of manufactures will be included not 
only all the persons employed in what the act more specifically 
denominates manufacturing establishments, but all those artificers, 
handicraftsmen, and mechanics, whose labor is preeminently of 
the hand, and not upon the field. 

By persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, or manufactures, 
your assistants will understand that they are to insert in those 
columns, not whole families, including infants and superannuated 
persons, but only those thus engaged by actual occupation. This 
construction is given to the act because it is believed to be best 
adapted to fulfill the intentions of the legislature, and because, 

1 Act of March 14, 1820. 



being susceptible of the other, it might be differently construed 
by different persons employed in the enumeration, and thus 
destroy the uniformity of returns, essential to a satisfactory result. 

Besides this enumeration of manufactures, the marshals and 
their assistants are required, by the tenth section of the act, to take 
an account of the several manufacturing establishments and their 
TOanw/acittres, within their several districts, territories, and divisions; 
and the meaning of thelegislature, by this provision, is illustrated 
by the clause in the oaths of the marshals and assistants, that they 
will take an account of the manufactures, except household manu- 
factures, from which it seems fairly deducible, that, in the intention 
of the legislature, persons employed only upon household manu- 
factures are not to be included in the column of persons bearing 
that denomination, the occupation of manufacturing being, in such 
cases, only incidental, and not the profession properly marking 
the class of society to which such individual belongs. 

This, then, offers a criterion by which your assistants may select 
the column of occupation to which each individual may be set 
down, namely, to that which is the principal and not the occasional, 
or incidental, occupation of his life.^ 

CENSUS OF 1840. 

The population schedule used at the census of 1830 
did not call for similar data, but at the census of 1840 
an effort was made, following the plan of enumeration 
in 1820, to obtain a statement of the number of persona 
in each family employed in each of seven principal 
classes of work, namely, mining, agriculture, com- 
merce, manufactures and trades, navigation of the ocean, 
navigation of canals, lakes, and rivers, and learned 
professions and engineers. 

The instructions to marshals at the census of 1840 
did not contain any specific reference to the manner in 
which the number of persons employed in each of the 
seven classes of occupations mentioned was to be de- 
termined, but it is evident from the form of the inquiry 
that it was the intention to include, as in 1820, all 
members of the family (including slaves) who were so 
occupied. 

The results of these two inquiries, representing the 
first attempts to classify the population according to 
leading classes of employment, are reproduced by states 
and territories in Table ii. 



^ Census of 1820, pages 3 and 4. 



(xxix) 



XXX 

Table II. 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



-NUMBER OF 



PERSONS ENGAGED IN DIFFERENT GLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS BY STATES AND TERRI- 
TORIES: 1820 AND 1840. 







1820 


— 1 

1 




18402 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Agricul- 
ture. 

i 


Com- 
merce. 


Manufac- 
tures. 


Total. 


Agricul- 
ture. 


Com- 
merce. 


Manufac- 
tures and 
trades. 


Mining. 


Naviga- 
tion ol 

the 
ocean. 


Naviga- 
tion of 
canals, 

lakes, 
and 

rivers. 


Learned 
profes- 
sions 

and engi- 
neers. 


United States 


2, 490, 770 


2,068,958 


72,486 


349,326 


4,798,869 


3,719,951 


117,607 


791,749 


15,210 


66,021 


33,076 


65,255 


North Atlantic division 


974, 491 


714,164 


42,211 


218,116 


1,800,862 


1,134,326 


63,846 


493,338 


7,578 


50,623 


17, 6-57 


33,494 


Maine 


66, 971 
62,151 
60, 211 

110,225 
19, 812 
71, 640 

316, 799 
68,683 

208,099 

905,710 


56,031 
62,384 
60,951 
63,460 
12,559 
50,518 

247,648 
40,812 

140,801 

810,069 


4,297 
1,068 
776 
13,301 
1,162 
3,581 
9,113 
1,83» 
7,083 

17, 692 


7,643 
8,699 
8,484 
33,464 
6,091 
17,541 
60,038 
15,941 
60,215 

77, 949 


138, 985 
99,457 
89, 454 

212,904 
41,673 
92, 609 

689,302 
90, 649 

346,829 

1,199,659 


101,630 
77, 949 
73,150 
87,837 
16,617 
56,965 

465,964 
56,701 

207,533 

1,044,174 


2, 921 
1,379 
1,303 
8,063 
1,348 
2,743 

28,468 
2,283 

15,338 

16,960 


21,879 
17,826 
13,174 
85,176 
21,271 
27,932 

173,193 
27,004 

105,883 

115,822 


36 
13 

77 
499 
35 
161 
1,898 
266 
4,603 

3,535 


10,091 

452 

41 

27,153 

1,717 

2,700 

5,511 

1,143 

1,815 

3,231 


539 

198 

146 

372 

228 

431 

10,167 

1,625 

3,951 

5,992 


1,889 














Rhode Island 
















Pennsylvania 




South Atlantic division 


9,955 




16,613 

102,546 

2,109 

278,829 

34,003 
188,591 
176, 138 
106,881 


13,259 
79,135 
526 
246, 226 
■J8,837 
174, 196 
166,707 
101,186 


633 

4,771 
149 
4,488 
377 
2,661 
2,684 
2,139 


2,821 
18,640 

1,435 
28,116 

4,789 
11,844 

6,747 

3,557 


21,382 

101, 087 

1,790 

325,962 

64,233 
235,532 
212, 907 
222,233 

14,633 

867,009 


16,015 

72,046 

110 

266,291 

52,764 
217,095 
198,363 
209,383 

12, 117 

693,167 


467 
3,281 

103 
5,654 

944 
1,734 
1,958 
2,428 

481 

18, 867 


4,060 
21,529 

1,326 
46,a36 

8,763 
14,322 
10,325 

7,984 

1,177 

121,473 


5 
320 


401 
717 
61 
640 
7 
327 
381 
262 
435 

454 


236 
1,528 
40 
2,466 
526 
379 
348 
362 
118 

6,598 


199 




1,666 


District of Columbia 


160 


1,522 
473 
689 
61 
574 
1 

3,512 


3,153 




766 




1,086 




1,481 




1,250 


Florida 


204 




228,764 


200,416 


3,008 


25,340 


12,938 






Ohio 


131,406 

64,973 

13,635 

1,812 

244 


110,991 

61, 315 

12,395 

1,337 

131 


1,459 
429 
233 
318 

74 


18, 956 

3,229 

1,007 

157 

39 


357,947 
175, 678 
124,204 
1 65,273 
10, 616 
13, 126 
110,166 

941, 339 


272, 579 

148,806 

105,337 

56,621 

7,047 

10,469 

92, 408 

848,284 


9,201 

3,076 

2,506 

728 

479 

355 

2,622 

17,944 


66,265 

20,590 

13,185 

6,890 

1,814 

1,629 

11,100 

61,116 


704 
233 
782 
40 
794 
217 
742 

686 


212 
89 
63 
24 
14 
13 
39 

1,713 


3,323 
627 
310 
166 
209 
78 

1,885 

2,829 


5,663 


Indiana . 


2,257 


Illinois 


2,021 




904 


Wisconsin 


259 




365 




16,694 
381,805 


14,247 
344,309 


495 
9,675 


1,952 
27, 921 


1,469 


South Central division 


8,868 


Kentucky 


146,567 

110,661 

32,506 

22,977 

66,233 

3,871 


132,161 

101,919 

30,642 

22,033 

63,941 

3,613 


1,617 
882 
452 
294 

6,261 
79 


11,779 
7,860 
1,412 

650 
6,041 

179 


228,233 
250,273 
189,470 
146,831 
98,405 
28,127 


197,738 
227,'739 
177,439 
139, 724 
79,289 
26,365 


3,448 
2,217 
2,212 
1,303 
8,549 
215 


23,217 
17,815 
7,195 
4,151 
7,565 
1,173 


331 

103 

96 

14 


44 

55 

256 

33 

1,322 

3 


968 
302 
758 
100 
662 
39 


2,487 


Tennessee 


2,042 




1,514 


Mississippi 


1,506 




1,018 




41 


301 







1 Census of 1820, page 9. The differences in the totals for the United States in this table, as compared with those given in the report for 1820, are due to errors 
in addition, as follows: 1,688 in agriculture, 7 in commerce, and 180 in manufactures. 

2 Sixth Census, pages 201, 475, and 477. 



The figures presented in Table ii are arranged with 
reference to the present boundaries of the states therein 
named, necessitating a division of the figures given (1) 
for Virginia for that part now known as West Virginia; 
(2) for the District of Columbia for that part re-ceded 
to Virginia in 1846; and (3), for 1820 only, for Mich- 
igan for that part now included in Wisconsin. 

In using the total figures contained in this table, it 
must be borne in mind that they can not be taken as 
representing the whole number of persons gainfully 
employed at either census, as the inquiries compre- 
hended certain classes only. The expansion from three 
to seven classes of employments in 1840 gave a number 
which was more nearly representative of the whole body 
of workers than was the case in 1820, but it did not 
include servants and other persons rendering personal 
service, and probably did not include government offi- 
cials, clerks, and employees. 

CENSUS OF 1850. 

Detailed inquiry was made in 1850, for the first time, 
as to the name, sex, color, age, nativity, etc., of each 
person enumerated, and in this connection a specific 



return was required of the profession, occupation, or 
trade followed by each free male over 15 years of age. 
The return of occupations in 1850 was called for on 
the schedule for free inhabitants only,^ and did not 
apply, as in 1820 and 1840, to females or to slaves. 
Detailed instructions were given concerning the manner 
in which the answers to the census inquiries were to be 
made, the instructions relating to occupations being as 
follows: 

Under head 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each 
person over 15 years of age," insert opposite the name of each male 
the specific profession, occupation, or trade which the said person 
is known and reputed to follow in the place where he resides, as 
clergyman, physician, lawyer, shoemaker, student, farmer, car- 
penter, laborer, tailor, boatman, sailor, or otherwise, as the fact 
may be. When more convenient, the name of the article he pro- 
duces may be substituted. 

When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the 
denomination to which he belongs before his profession, as Meth. 
for Methodist, R. C. for Roman Catholic, O. S. P. for Old School 
Presbyterian, or other appropriate initials, as the fact may be. 
When a person follows several professions or occupations the name 
of the principal one only is to be given. If a person follows no 

' Two schedules were used for the enumeration of population 
in 1850, one for free inhabitants and one for slaves. 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



XXXI 



particular occupation, the space is to be filled with the word 
"none." ' 

The results of the inquiry were presented in the 
printed report by states and territories, first, in an 
alphabetical list comprising 323 occupation designa- 
tions, and, second, in summarized form under the fol- 
lowing general heads: Commerce, trade, manufactures, 
mechanic arts, and mining; agriculture; labor, not agri- 
cultural; army; sea and river navigation; law, medi- 
cine, and divinity; other pursuits requiring education; 
government, civil service; domestic servants; other 
occupations. 

CENSUS OF 1860. 

At the census of 1860 the inquiry relating to occupa- 
tions, contained on the schedule for free inhabitants, 
was made to apply to each person, male or female, 
over 15 years of age, instead of being confined, as it was 
in 1850, to males only. This census was taken under 
the same provisions of law as that of 1850 and practi- 
cally the same schedules and instructions were used. 
The results contained in the printed report for that 
census consisted of a statement, in the form of an alpha- 
betical list, of the number of free persons over 15 years 
,of age, without distinction of sex, engaged in each of 
584 occupations. 

CENSUS OF 1870. 

The inquiry relative to occupations in 1870 was made 
to embrace the profession, occupation, or trade of each 
person, male or female. Detailed instructions '^ concern- 
ing the returns were contained in the book of instruc- 
tions to marshals and their assistants, to whom, as at 
former censuses, the work of enumeration was intrusted. 
No age limit was specified on the schedule, but it was 
stipulated in the instructions that the inquiry was not 
to be made for infants or children too young to take any 
part in production, thereby, in effect, confining the 
returns to persons 10 years of age and over, the age 
limit observed in all succeeding censuses. The presenta- 
tion of occupations comprised 338 specifications, classi- 
fied under four main heads, namely, agriculture, pro- 
fessional and personal services, trade and transportation, 
and manufactures and mechanical and mining industries. 
The persons enumerated in each occupation were sub- 
divided by sex, age (3 periods), and nationality (princi- 
pal countries of birth). 

CENSUS OE 1880. 

The census of 1880 was taken under a new act, ap- 
proved March 3, 1879, which entirely reorganized the 
census machinery, introducing the system employed at 
the present time. By this change the enumeration, 
which previously had been intrusted to the United 
States marshals and their assistants, was placed under 

' Seventh Census, page xxii. 



the charge of supervisors, specially appointed by the 
President, with the consent of the Senate, and the 
returns were collected by enumerators selected by 
the supervisors, with the approval of the Superintend- 
ent of the Census. At this census the occupation inquiry 
was specifically restricted on the schedule to persons 10 
years of age and over. The instructions '' to the enu- 
merators were substantially identical with those used at 
the census of 1870, and the same methods were observed 
in the presentation of the returns; the subdivisions 
were by sex, age, and principal nationalities (fewer in 
number than in 1870); the number of occupation desig- 
nations was reduced to 265. 

CENSUS OF 1890. 

At the census of 1890 no stipulation was made in 
either the schedule or the instructions^ as to the age 
limit to be observed. It was intended to have the 
enumerator describe, as accurately as possible, the occu- 
pation of each and every person at work, irrespective 
of age, but the tabulations of the statistics of occupa- 
tions did not include, in any case, persons under 10 
years of age. The subdivisions according to sex, age 
periods, and nationalities of the foreign born were very 
much extended, and many other important details were 
added, comprehending general nativity and color, con- 
jugal condition, illiteracy, inability to speak English, 
citizenship, birthplace of mothers, and months unem- 
ployed. The general plan of grouping the returns 
under four or five main class heads was maintained, 
but several changes from the classification of 1880 were 
made and the number of occupation designations still 
further reduced to 218. 

CENSUS OF 1900. 

As explained, the presentation of occupations at the 
Twelfth Census has been made to comprehend 303 des- 
ignations of occupations arranged under 140 occupation 
groups, conforming, as nearly as possible, to the gen- 
eral classification used at the census of 1890. 

SUMMARY FOR CENSUSES FROM 1850 TO 1900. 

This brief review of the development of the occupa- 
tion inquiry makes it evident that there has been no 
fixed classification or arrangement of occupations in 
the reports of the successive Federal censuses. Under 
the system of a temporary census organization prevail- 
ing up to the present time, the officials of each suc- 
ceeding census had no means of knowing, in detail, the 
methods and plans of their predecessors, and therefore 
could not follow their lead with such fidelity as to make 
the returns of occupations entirely comparable with 
those of preceding censuses. Each census has been, to 
some extent, a law unto itself in these respects, as is 
indicated by the following summary of the number of 

^ These instructions are reproduced in full in Appendix A. 



XXXll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



occupation designations contained in the printed reports 
at the censuses from 1850 to 1900, inclusive: 

1850 — 323, for free males over 15 years of age. 

1860 — 584, for free persons (without distinction of 
sex) over 15 years of age. 

1870—338, for all persons (by sex) 10 years of age 
and over. 



1880—265, for all persons (by sex) 10 years of age 
and over. 

1890—218, for all persons (by sex) 10 years of age 
and over. 

1900—303 (reduced to 140, for certain purposes), for 
all persons (by sex) 10 years of age and over. 



COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE CENSUSES OF 1870 TO 1900. 



This brief description of the scope and method of the 
occupation inquiry at successive censuses prepares the 
way for a presentation of the nunaber of persons credited 
to the various occupation designations used at the sev- 
eral censuses, arranged according to the classification of 
occupations in 1900. This is done in two tables, namely, 
Table m relating to the censuses of 1870, 1880, 1890, 



and 1900, and Table v relating to those of 1850 and 
1860. 

Table in shows the number of persons credited to 
each occupation designation in the census reports for 
1870, 1880, 1890, and 1900, arranged under the 140 occu- 
pation groups (or subdivisions thereof) used in the 1900 
classification. The figures for 1900 refer to continental 



Table III.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE 

AGRICULTURAL PtTBSUITS. 



19001 



Occupation designations. 



Agricultural laborers. 



Farm and plantation laborers 

Farm laborers (members of family) . 
Garden and nursery laborers 



Dairymen and dairywomen 

Farmers, planters, and overseers. 



Farmers and planters , 

Farmers (members of family) . . , 
Milk farmers 

Farm and plantation overseers. 



Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. 



Gardeners 

Florists, nurserymen, and vine growers. 

Fruit growers 



Lumbermen and raftsmen 

stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 



Stock raisers , 

Stock herders and drovers . 



Turpentine farmers and laborers. 



Wood choppers 

other agricultural pursuits. 



Apiarists 

Kot specified . 



Number. 



4,410,877 



1,999,696 

2,366,149 

45,032 


10,875 


5,674,875 


5, 483, 618 

168,999 

5,191 

17,067 


61,788 


36,577 
16,836 


8,375 


72,020 


84,988 



37, 629 
47, 359 

24, 735 

36,075 
6,532 



1,339 
4,193 



1890 



Occupation designations. 



Agricultural laborers. 



Dairymen and dairywomen 

Farmers, planters, and overseers. 



Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, and vine growers. 



(«) 



Lumbermen and raftsmen 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 



(') 



Wood choppers . 



Apiarists 

other agricultural pursuits. 



PROFESSIONAX, SERVICE. 



' Fruit growers (except grape growers) included in 1890 with farmers, planters, and overseers. 



Number. 



3,004,061 



17,895 
2 5,281,557 



72,601 



65,866 
70,729 



33,697 
19, 520 



1,773 
= 17,747 



Actors, professional showmen, etc 


34,760 




27,788 




Actors 


Actors 


14, 708 
16, 572 
3,480 

29,524 


9,728 
18,066 

17,461 


Professional showmen 


(■Theatrical managers, sho-ivmen, etc 




Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 








Architects 


10,581 
18, 943 


8,070 
9,891 


Designers, draftsmen, and inventors 




1 For continental United States. 





COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



XXXIU 



United States, including Indian Territory and Indian 
reservations — areas not included in previous censuses 
of population. 

Officials and employees in 1880 were combined for 
certain designations under "trade and- transportation," 
as "officials and employees of telegraph companies," 
" officials and employees of street railroad companies," 
etc. This prevented their arrangement strictly in ac- 
cordance with the classification of 1900, but for pur- 
poses of comparison the number of persons so reported 
in 1880 has been distributed on the basis of the separate 
statement made for officials and employees at the cen- 
sus of 1870. 

The notes appended to Table 1 (page 7) of the general 
tables explanatory of the figures reported for 1900 are not 
repeated in Table in, but explanatory notes are used in all 



cases where the classifications of occupations at the sev- 
eral censuses do not coincide, or where fuller information 
is needed for the proper understanding of the figures. 
The return of occupations at the censuses from 1870 
to 1900, inclusive, comprehended, as previously stated, 
all "persons, both male and female, 10 years of age and 
over, and the results for these censuses are, therefore, 
on the same basis as far as the class of the population 
considered is concerned. In comparing the figures con- 
tained in Table in, however, it should be remembered 
that there was an omission of population in the Southern 
states in 1870, representing, approximately, 1,260,000 
people,^ which necessarily affects somewhat the returns 
of occupations at that census. 

' Eleventh. Census, Report on Population, Part I, pages xi, xii, 
and xvi. 



CENSUSES OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900. 

AGRICTTLTUKAIi PTJBSTJITS. 



1880 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Agricultural laborers. 



Dairymen and dairywomen . 



Farmers and planters , 

Farm and plantation OTerseers. 



/Gardeners, nurserymen, and vine growers . 
iFlorists 



Number. 



Occupation designations. 



Agricultural laborers. 



8,948 
4,229,051 



Dairymen and dairywomen. 



4,226,946 
3,106 
66,032 



Farmers and planters 

Farm and plantation overseers. 



61,482 
4,560 



{Gardeners and nurserymen . 
Florists 
Vine growers 



Number. 



2, 885, 998 



3,660 
2,981,320 



2, 977, 711 

3,609 

33, 632 



31,485 
1,086 
1,112 



Lumbermen and raftsmen . 



Stock raisers. . 
/Stock drovers. 
iStock herders. 



Turpentine farmers and laborers. 



Wood choppers . 



Apiarists 

Others in agriculture . 



30,651 
44,076 



Lumbermen and raftsmen . 



16,528 
3,449 
24,098 

7,460 



12,731 
1,061 



Stock raisers... 
Stock drovers. 
Stock herders. 



Turpentine farmers . 
TiUT)entine laborers . 

Wood choppers 



1,016 
45 



Apiarists. 



PKOrBSSIOSTAL SBBVICB. 



Actors 

Showmen and employees of shows. 



7,416 


4,812 
2,604 

6,195 


3,375 
2,820 



Actors 

Showmen and show-women. 



Architects 

/Designers and draftsmen . 
llnventors 



Architects 

Designers, draftsmen, and inventors 

' Turpentine farmers and laborers included in 1890 with "other agricultural pursuits." 

23064—04 iii 



17,752 
15,359 



3,181 
6,690 



2,478 



361 
2,117 



8,338 
136 



136 



2,053 
1,177 



2,017 
931 
363 



XXXIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.-NUMBKR OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE— Continued. 



IflOOi 



Occupation designations. 



Artists and teachers of art . 



Clergymen 

Dentists 

Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors . 



Engineers (civil) 

Engineers (mechanical and electrical) . 

Engineers (mining) 

Surveyors 



Journalists 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons . 



Authors and scientists 

Librarians and assistants. 



Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists . 
Musicians and teachers of music 



OflScials (government) . 



Officials (national government) 

Officials (state government) 

Officials (county government) 

Officials (city or town government) . 



Physicians and surgeon^ . 



Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 



Teachers 

Professors in colleges and universities . 



Other professional service. 
Veterinary siu*geons. . . 
Not specified 



Number. 
24,873 



111, 638 
29, 665 
50, 717 
43, 239 



20, 068 
14, 334 
2,888 
5,949 

30,038 

114,460 

18,844 



5,817 
4,180 



8,847 
92,174 



*37,020 

4,345 

22, 697 

22.545 



132,002 



438,861 
7,272 


13,864 


8, 163 


5,701 



Occupation designations. 



Artists and teachers of art . 



Clergymen . 
Dentists 



Engineers (civil, mechanical, electrical, and mining) and surveyors 



Journalists .'. . 
Lawyers 



■Authors and literary and scientific persons . 



Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists . 
Musicians and teachers of music 



I Officials (government) 

I Officers of United States Army and Navy . 



Physicians and surgeons . 



Teachers 

Professors in colleges and universities . 



Veterinary surgeons 

Other professional service. 



Number. 



22,496 



88,203 
17,498 



2 43,239 



21,849 



11, 217 



6,714 

4,503 
62, 155 

82,590 



79,664 
2,926 



104,806 



347,344 



341,952 
6,392 

8,063 



6,494 
1,669 



DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE. 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Housekeepers and stewards 

Janitors and sextons 



Janitors . 
Sextons. . 



Laborers (not specified) . 



Elevator tenders 

Laborers (coalyard) . 
Laborers (general ) . . 

Longshoremen 

Stevedorea- 



Launderers and laundresses. 



Laundry work (hand).. 
Laundry work (steam). 



131,116 
88,817 
71,281 
64,797 

156, 163 
56, 577 



51, 191 
5,386 



2, 629, 262 



12, 690 

9,361 

2, 577, 951 

20, 191 



386, 965 



364, 020 
21, 945 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging hou-c keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Housekeepers and stewards 



Janitors . 
Sextons- . 



Laborers (not specified). 



Launderers and laundresses . 



1 For continental United States. 

2 Electricians included in 1890 with engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors. 

s Scientific persons combined in 1880 with teachers. 

< Includes officers of United States Army and Navy. 



84,982 
55,806 
44,S49 
44, 076 
92,036 
26,538 



21, 556 
4,982 



1, 913, 373 



248,462 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDINa CENSUSES. 



XXXV 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, AKEANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Attists and tcacheis of art . 



Clergymen . 
Dentists 



Number. 



9,104 



64, 698 
12, 314 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Artist8(not specified) . 
Painters 

Sculptors - 



pto 
Teaeners of drawing and painting . 

Clergymen . 

Dentists 



Number. 



4,081 



2,948 
775 
250 
108 

43, 874 

7,839 



Engineers (civil) . 



Engineers (civil) . 



7,374 



4,703 



Journalists . 
Lawyers 



Authors, lecturers, and literary persons. 



Chemists, assay ers, and metallurgists 

Musicians (professional) and teachers of music. 



Officials of government 

Officers of lie Army and Navy (United States) . 

Physicians and surgeons 



Teachers and scientific persons . 



Veterinary surgeons. 



{') 



12,308 

64, 137 

3,100 



Land surveyors. 

Journalists 

Lawyers 



n,131 



1,969 
30, 477 



69, 681 



67, 081 
2,600 



85, 671 



"227,710 



2,130 



2,130 



{Authors and lecturers. 
Librarians 
Naturalists 
Translators 



/Chemists (practicing) . 
iMetallurglsts 



Musicians (profi 
Teachers of music. 



Officials of government 

Officers of the Army and Navy (United States) . 



Chiropodists 

Physicians and surgeons . 

Teachers (not specified) . . 



Veterinary surgeons 

(Apprentices to dentists 
Apprentices to learned professions. 
Teachers of dancing 



DOMESTIC AND PERSON AX SERVICE. 



Barbers and hairdressers. 



Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Stewards and stewardesses 



Janitors . 
Sextons . 



Laborers (not specified) . 



Launderers and laundresses. 



44,851 



19,058 


32,453 


8 2,283 


9,212 



6,763 
2,449 

1,859,223 



121,942 



Barbers and hairdressers. 



(■) 
Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Stewards and stewardesses 



Janitors . 
Sextons . 



[Laborers (not specified) . 

i Ice cutters 

I Lamplighters 



Launderers and laundresses. 



6 Other professional and personal services (except veterinary surgeons) combined in 1880 with "other domestic and personal service. ► 
« Bartenders combined in 1880 with saloon keepers. 

7 Bartenders probably included in 1870 with barkeepers. (See saloon keepers.) 

8 Housekeepers probably largely classified in 1870 and 1880 as servants. 



2,671 

5,286 

40, 736 

1,751 



468 
213 

287 
21 



164 
16,010 



6,619 
9,491 

47,029 



44,743 
2,286 

62,448 



65 
62,383 



126,822 



1,867 



1,166 
166 



23,936 



12,788 


26,394 


81,245 


2,920 


1,769 
1,151 


1,032,084 


1,031,66* 
142 
276 



xxxvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

DOMESTIC AND PEKSOWAIi SBKVICB— Continued. 



19001 



Occupation designations. 



Nurses and midwives. 



Nurses (trained) 

Nurses (not specified) . 
Midwives 



Restaurant keepers. 
Saloon keepers 



Servants and waiters - 



Servants- 
Waiters.. 



Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S.) 



Soldiers (U. S.) . 
Sailors (U. S.) . . 
Marines (U. S.). 



Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc. 



Watchmen, policemen, and detectives. 
Firemen (fire department) 



Other domestic and pergonal service 

Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts . 



Bootblacks . . . 
Not specified . 



Number. 



120, 956 



11, 804 

103, 623 

5,629 

83,844 

83,746 



1,560,721 



1, 453, 677 
107, 044 



5,928 
2,269 



116,056 
14, 634 

34,637 



8,230 
23,359 



1890 



Occupation designations. 



Nurses and midwives. 



Eestaurant keepers - 
Saloon keepers 



Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S.). 



Watchmen, policemen, and detectives . 



Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts. 



Mother domestic and personal service . 



Number. 



47,586 



19,283 
71,385 



27,919 



74,629 



2,534 



13,063 



TBADE AND TBANSPOKTATIOlf. 



Agents . 



Agents (insurance and real estate) . 
Agents (not specified) 



Bankers and brokers . 



Bankers and brokers (money and stocks) - 
Brokers (commercial) 



Boatmen and sailors . 



Boatmen and canalmen. 

Pilots 

Sailors 



Bookkeepers and accountants . 
Clerks and copyists 



Clerks and copyists 

Clerks (shipping) 

Letter and mail carriers. 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, haekmen, teamsters, etc . 



Draymen, teamsters, and expressmen . 
Carriage and hack drivers 



Foremen and overseers . 



Foremen and overseers (livery stable) . . . 
Foremen and overseers (steam railroad) . 
Foremen and overseers (street railway) . 
Foremen and overseers (not specified) . . . 



241, 162 



119,208 
121, 954 



73,277 



65,943 
7,334 



78, 406 



13,116 

4,896 
60, 395 



264,880 
630, 127 



668, 181 
33, 611 
28, 335 



602, 359 
36, 674 



55,460 



3,230 
36, 196 

1,023 
16, 001 



Agents (claim, commission, real estate, insurance, etc.) and collec- 
tors. 



Bankers and brokers (money and stocks) . 
Brokers (commercial) 



Boatmen and canalmen. 

Pilots 

Sailors 



Bookkeepers and accountants . 
Clerks and copyists 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, haekmen, teamsters, etc . 



Foremen and overseers . 



1 For continental United States. 

2 Bartenders combined in 1880 with saloon keepers. 

3 Bartenders probably included in 1870 with barkeepers. (See saloon 
1 Housekeepers probably largely classified in 1870 and 1880 as servants 



174, 582 



35,968 



3D, 008 
6,960 



76,874 



4,269 
65,899 

169,374 

567,358 



68,691 
368, 499 

36,084 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



XXXVll 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

DOMESTIC AND PERSOKAL SEEVICE— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Nurses 

Midwives 

Restaurant keepers. 



Saloon keepers and bartenders 

Billiard and bowling saloon keepers and employees. 



/Domestic servants 

\Employees of hotels and restaurants (not clerks) . 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S.) 



Watcbmen (private) and detectives. 



Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts . 



fEmployees of charitable institutions 

^Emplojrees of government (not clerks) 

(Others in professional and personal services . 



Number. 



18, 483 
2,118 

13, 074 

70, 004 



2 68,461 
1,543 

41,153,068 



1,076,656 
77, 413 



2,396 
31,601 
6 4,570 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Nurses 

Midwives 

Restaurant keepers. 



Barkeepers 

Billiard and bowling saloon keepers and employees. 



Domestic servants 

Employees of hotels and restaurants (not clerks) . 



Soldiers (U. S.) . 
Sailors (U.S.)... 
Marines (U. S.). 



/Hunters and trappers 

\Indian scouts, guides, and interpreters. 

Apprentices to barbers 

Bath house keepers 

Billposters 

Bootblacks 

Chimney sweeps 

Employees of government 

Scavengers 



Number. 



12, 162 



10, 976 
1,186 

35, 185 

15,682 



s 14, 362 
1,220 

1999,172 



975, 734 
23,438 



23,338 



22,081 
780 
477 



17,856 



940 
171 
859 
S4 
424 
687 
78 
14,407 
301 



TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION. 



{Traders and dealers in real estate . 
Agents (not specified) 
Collectors and claim agents 



/Boatmen and watermen. 
\Canalinen 

Pilots 

Sailors 



Bankers and brokers of money and stocks . 
Brokers (commercial) 



Bookkeepers and accountants in stores . 



Clerks and bookkeepers: 

Banks 

Express coinpanies 

Insurance offices 

Manufacturing establishments. 
Railroad offices 



Clerks and copyists (not otherwise described) . 

Clerks: 

Government ofiSces 

Hotels and restaurants 

Stores 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . 



11,263 
18,623 
4,213 

19, 373 



15, 180 
4,193 

88,537 



20,368 
4,329 
3,770 

60,070 

•59,790 
'444,664 



10,267 
1,866 
2,830 
10, 114 
12, 331 



26,467 

16,849 
10, 916 
363, 444 



28,158 
177, 586 



Tradera and dealers in real estate. 

Agents 

Claim agents 

Intelligence office keepers 



Bankers and brokers of money and stocks . 



Boatmen and watermen . 

Canalmen 

Pilots...^. 

Sailors 



Bookkeepers and accountants in stores . 



Clerks and bookkeepers: 

Banks 

Express coinpanies 

Insurance oinces 

Manufacturing establishments. 

Railroad oflSces 

Telegraph offices 

Clerks and copyists 

Clerks: 

Government offices 

Hotels and restaurants 

Stores 

Card writers 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . 



8,933 
10,499 



191 
10, 631 



21,332 


7,338 


3,649 


66,663 


831,177 


266,464 


7,103 


767 


1,668 


6,861 


7,374 


191 


6,138 


8, 672 


6,243 


222,504 


33 


7,262 


120,756 



6 Other professional and personal services (except veterinary surgeons) combined in 1880 with "other domestic and personal service. 

6 All other bookkeepers combined in 1870 and 1880 with clerks. (See clerks and copyists.) . ,„ ,. , . „/,+„!„„>,„„„„„„,„,„,„ v 

'Includes 600 (estimated) clerks included in 1880 with officials and employees of telegraph companies. (See telegraph and telephone operators.) 



XXXVIU 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

TRADE AND TEANSPOETATION— Continued. 



19001 



iseo 



Occupation designations. 



Hostleis 

Hucksters and peddlers 

Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Drugs and medicines 

Dry goods, fancy goods, and notions. . . 

General store 

Groceries 

Liquors and wines 

Boots and shoes 

Cigars and tobacco 

Clothing and men's furnishings 

Coal and wood 

Lumber 

Produce and provisions 



Not specifled . 



Merchants and dealers (wholesale) . 



Messengers and errand and office boys. 



Bundle and cash boys. 

Messengers 

Office boys 



Officials of banks and companies . 



Bank officials and cashiers 

Officials (insurance and trust companies, etc.). 



Officials (trade companies) 

Officials (transportation companies) . 



Packers and shippers. 



Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) . 



Salesmen and saleswomen . 
Steam railroad employees . . 



Engineers and firemen 

Baggagemen 

Brakemen 

Conductors 

Laborers 

Station agents and employees 

Switchmen, yardmen, and flagmen . 

'For continental United States. 

^Merchants and dealers not classified as wholesale and retail prior to 1890. 



Number. 



64,929 
76, M9 



33,656 
790,886 



57,271 
45,820 
33,006 
166, 479 
13, 108 
15, 239 
15,351 
18, 095 

20,860 

16,772 

84, 17B 



364,710 



71,622 



10,497 
44,425 
16,700 

74,072 



14,294 
5,339 



20,389 
34,050 



59,545 



54,191 



611,139 
582, 160 



107,089 


19,085 


67, 474 


42,929 


249, 377 


46,963 


50,233 



Occupation designations. 



Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers . 



Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (retail). 



Drugs and chemicals. 
Dry goods 



Groceries 

Wines and liquors. 



Not specifled . 



Merchants and dealers (wholesale), importers and shipping mer- 
chants. 
Merchants and dealers in wines and liquors ( wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and office boys 



Officials of banks and of insurance, trade, transportation, trust and 
other cotapanies. 



Packers and shippers. 



Porters and helpers (in stores and warehouses) . 



Salesmen and saleswomen . 



Locomotive engineers and iiremen. 



■Steam railroad employees (not otherwise specifled). 



Number. 



54,036 



26,757 
660, 239 



46,375 
42,527 



114,997 
10,078 



446,262 



31,086 



27,443 

3,643 

51,355 



3 39,900 



24,356 



264, 394 
462, 213 



79, 463 



382, 760 



'Includes Officials of mining and quarrying companies (number not stated), classified in 1900 with manufactnrpTB nnri ^fHoi„i. ,.„.q ,. . , . 

jhanical pursuits" (miscellaneous industries). " ""'""ii-'^™rers and officials under "manufacturing and 



mechanical 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



XXXIX 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ABRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers , 



Livery stable keepers . 
Traders and dealers . . . 



Drugs and medicines 

Dry goods, fancy goods, and notions. 



Groceries 

Liquors and wines 

Boots and shoes 

Cigars and tobacco 

Clothing and men's furnishing goods. 

Coal and wood 



Lumber 

Produce and provisions . . . 

Agricultural implements. 

Books and stationery 

Cabinet ware , 



Cotton and wool 

Crockery, china, glass, and stone ware . 

Gold and silver ware, and jewelry 

Hats, caps, and furs 

Ice . 



Iron, tin, and copper ware. 
Junk 

Leather, hides, and skins .. 



Live stock. 



Marble, stone, and slate 

Music and musical instruments . 

Newspapers and periodicals 

Oils, pamts, and turpentine 



Paper and paper stock 

Sewing machines 

Not specified 

Milkmen and milkwomen . 



m 



Messengers . 



Officials of banks 

Officials of insurance companies . 



Officials of railroad companies - 



Packers 

Shippers and freighters 



Porters and laborers in stores and warehouses . 
Employees in warehouses 



Salesmen and saleswomen 

Employees of railroad companies (not clerks) . 



Number. 



31, 697 
53,491 



14, 213 
2 479,439 



27,700 
46,831 



101, 
13, 
9, 
11, 
10, 

10, 
11, 
36, 

1, 
4, 
7, 



2,494 
2,373 
2,306 
4,809 
2,854 
15, 076 
3,674 
2,382 



12,596 



1,405 
1,906 
2,729 
1,940 



1,862 

6,577 

112,840 

9,242 



13,985 



415,553 



4,421 
1,774 



2,069 



4,176 
6,166 



37, 214 



32, 192 
6,022 

6 32,279 

236, 068 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Hostlers . 



Hucksters . 
Peddlers... 



Livery stable keepers . 
Traders and dealers... 



Drugs and medicines. 
Dry goods 



Groceries 

Liquors and wines 

Boots and shoes 

Cigars and tobacco 

Clothing 

Coal and wood 

Coal 

Lumber 

Produce 

Provisions : 

Agricultural implements 

Books and stationery 

Cabinet ware 

Cloths and textile fabrics 

Cotton 

Crockery, china, and stone ware . . 
Gold and silver ware, and jewelry. 

Hats and caps 

Ice 

Iron, tin, and copper wares 



Number. 



Leather, hides, and skins . 

Lime 

Live stock 

Machinery (not specified) . 



Music and musical Instruments. 

Newspapers and periodicals 

OilSj paints, and turpentine 

Optical instruments 



Sewing machines 

Not specified 

Milkmen and milkwomen . 
Pawnbrokers 



m 



Messengers . 



Officials of banks 

Officials of insurance companies 

Officials of companies (not specified) 

Officials of trading and transportation companies (not specified) . 

Officials of express companies 

Officials of railroad companies , 

Officials of street railroad companies 

Officials of telegraph companies 



Packers 

Shippers and freighters . 
Mule packers 



Porters in stores and warehouses 

Laborers (trade and transportation) . 



Salesmen and saleswomen 

Employees of railroad companies (not clerks) . 



17,686 
34,337 



17,362 
16, 976 



8,504 
2 357,647 



17,369 
39, 790 



74,410 
11,718 
7,019 
8,234 
7,695 
2,493 
4,143 
9,440 
11, 809 
7,528 
1,939 
3,392 
4,087 
1,163 
1,701 
1,765 
6,402 
3,375 
1,464 
9,003 



2,261 
310 

7,723 
254 



848 
1,455 



301 



3,152 

100,408 

3,728 

384 



8,717 



10,023 



2,738 

762 

3,410 

976 

7S 

1,902 

88 

73 

5,461 



1,421 

3,667 

473 

31, 513 



16, 631 
14,882 



5 14,203 
154, 027 



i Includes 7 289 (estimated) officials, combined in 1880 with employees of express, street railroad, telegraph, telephone, and trading and transportation companies 



fnot specified). (See street railway employees, telegraph and telephone operators, and 
' Salesmen and saleswomen probably largely returned as clerks in 1870 and 1880. 



other persons in trade and transportation.") 



xl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER OP PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION— Continued. 



19001 



Occupation designations. 



Stenographers and typewriters. 



Stenographers . 
Typewriters . . . 



Street railway employees . 



Conductore 

Drivers 

Laborers 

Motormen 

Station agents and employees . , 

Telegraph and telephone linemen . 



Telegraph and telephone operators . 



Telegraph operators. 
Telephone operators . 



Undertakers 

Other persons in trade and transportation. 



Auctioneers 

Decorators, drapers, and window dressers . 

Newspaper camera and newsboys 

Weighers, gaugers, and measurers 



Not specified . 



Number. 



112,364 



98, 743 
13, 621 



68, 919 



24,03'! 
1,352 
4,644 

37, 434 
1,452 

14, 767 



74, 982 



55,824 
19, 158 



16, 189 
53, 434 



2,808 
3,052 
6,893 
6,666 



1890 



Occupation designations. 



Stenographers and typewriters. 



Street railway employees. 



Telegraph and telephone linemen and electric light and power com- 
pany employees. 

Telegraph and telephone operators 



Undertakers. 



Auctioneers . 



Newspaper carriers and newsboys. . 
Weighers, gaugers, and measurers . 



Other persons in trade and transportation . 



Number. 



33,418 



37,434 



311,134 
52,214 



9,891 
16,236 



5,288 
3,860 



MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 



Building trades. 



Carpentera andjoiners. 



Carpenters and joiners. . . 

Ship carpenters 

Apprentices and helpers . 



Masons (brick and stone) . 



Masons 

Masons' laborers 

Apprentices and helpers . 



Paintera, glaziers, and vamlshers. 



Painters, glaziers, and yamishers. 
Painters (carriages and wagons).. 
Apprentices and helpers 



Paper hangers- 



Paper bangers 

Apprentices and helpers . 



Plasterers . 



Plasterers 

Apprentices and helpers . 



Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . 



Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . 
Apprentices and helpers 



Roofers and slaters. 



Koof ers and slaters 

Apprentices and helpera . 



600,252 



584, 635 
12,251 
3,366 

160,805 



149, 103 
9,284 
2,418 



268, 663 
17,347 
1,631 



21,990 


21,794 
196 


35,694 


35, 334 
360 


97,785 


92,216 
5,569 


9,067 



8,931 
136 



9,378 



Carpenters and joiners. 



(») 
Apprentices (carpenters and joiners) 



[•Masons (brick and stone) . 
Apprentices (masons) 



'Paintera, glaziers, and varnishers. 
Apprentices (painters) 

Paper hangers 



(') 



Plasterers . 



(') 



Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . 
Apprentices (plumbers) 



Roofers and slaters . 



(') 
Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . 



Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . 

1 For continental United States. 

2 Exclusive of 238 (estimated) oiflcip,ls. (See officials of banks and companies.) 

'Electric light and power company employees included in 1900 with " other miscellaneous industries,' 



618,242 



611, 482 



6,760 
160,845 



158, 918 
1,927 

222,233 



219,912 
2,321 

12,369 



39,002 



61,231 



66, 607 
4,624 

7,043 



15,485 



pames i 



^Exclusive of 240 (estimated) officials of telegraph and telephone companies and 600 (estimated) clerks in telegraph offiS^ '(qpp'^ffi?i»?.^"«^f'i?<.'i,'S"'*^'!i' 
ies and clerks and copyists.) ^ umuais oi oaass ana 



under "manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.' 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



xli 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

TRADE AND TKAKSPORTATION— Continued. 



1880 


1870 


Occupation designations. 


Number. 


Occupation designations. 


Number. 








154 










154 












211,687 




6,103 


Officials and employees of street railroad companies 


' 


11,925 










423,166 




8,318 


Officials and employees of telegraph companies 






22, 809 
1,197 

6,113 

'56,169 


8,316 












1,996 






42,218 






2,331 


2,266 










3,374 
3,302 

1,070 
13,146 
13,004 

9,702 

2,206 

12,365 

2,303 

177 




2,002 






926 




[Apprentices in stores 


678 




Employees of banks (not clerks) 


424 




Employees of companies (not specified) 


848 


OfBcials and employees of trading and transportation companies 

(not specified). 
Ragpickers 




8,654 


Fmplnypfis nf inqnrmipfi rnrnpnTiips (not plprVs) 


11, 611 


Employees of trading and transportation companies (not specified) . 


4,152 
436 


Steamboat men and women 


Steamboat men and women 


7,975 


Others in trade and transportation 


Tollgate and bridge keepers 


2,263 









MAinXFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PTTRSUITS. 





390, 595 




360,496 




Carpenters and joiners 




373,143 
17,452 


344,696 




Sliip carpenters 


15,900 




Masons (brick and stone) 


(') 




102,473 


89,710 












(') 




(0 




130,319 


86,657 








128,556 
1,763 


85,123 




Gilders 


1,534 


(') 


Paper liangers 


(')- 




5,013 


2,490 












C) 




Plasterers 


{') 




22,083 


23,577 












(') 




Plumbers and gas fitters 


(') 




19,383 


11,143 












(') 






(') 




4,026 


2,760 












Meclianics (not specified) 




Meclianics (not specified) . . . 


(0 




7,858 


16,514 



6 Exclusive of 6 811 (estimated) officials of express and trading and transportation companies (not specified). (See officials of banks and companies.) 
«Sliip carpenters included in 1890 with ship and boat builders under " other miscellaneous industries. 
'See apprentices and helpers (not specified) under " other miscellaneous industries.' 



xlii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.-NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

MANTJFACTtJRING AN^D MECHANICAL PTJRSUITS-Contlnued. 



19001 



Occupation designations. 



CftcmicoZs and aUied products. 
Oil well and oil works employees 



OU well employees . . . 
Oil works employees . 

Other chemical workers. . 



Chemical works employees 

Fertilizer makers 

Powder and cartridge makers. 

Salt works employees 

Starchmakers 



Clay, glaes, and stone products. 
Brick and tUe makers, etc 



Briclonakers 

Tilemakers 

Terra cotta workers . 



Glassworkers 

Marble and stone cutters. 



Potters 

gFUhing and mining. 
men and oystermen 
} and quarrymen 
ners (coal) 
ners (gold and silver) 
ners (not otherwise specified) 
lanymen : 

Food and kindred products. 



Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers. 

Confectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 



Fish cuiers and packers 

Meat and fruit canners and preservers. 

Meat packers, curers, and picklers 

Sugar makers and refiners 

Not specified 



Iron and steel and their products. 



Blacksmiths. 



Blacksmiths 

Apprentices and helpers . 

Iron and steel workers 



Iron and steel workers . 



Molders . 
Machinists .. 



Machinists 

Apprentices and helpers . 



Steam boiler makers . 



Steam boiler makers . . . 
Helpers 



Number. 



24,626 



18,011 
6,615 

14,723 



6,740 

1,310 

4,136 

1,776 
762 



49,933 



45,694 
3,017 
1,322 

49,998 

64,460 

16,140 

68,940 
663,406 



344,206 
62,024 

132,693 
84,584 



79,188 
113, 193 
19,241 
31,194 
40,648 
28,782 



962 
9,249 
13,776 
2,727 
2,078 



226, 477 



217, 993 
8,484 

290,538 



203,069 



87,469 
283, 145 



266, 565 
16,680 



33,046 



31, 160 
1,896 



1S90 



Occupation designations. 



Oil well employees. . . 
Oil works employees . 



Chemical works employees 

Fertilizer makers 

Powder and cartridge makers. 

Salt works employees 

Starchmakers 



Brick and tile makers and terra cotta workers. 



Glassworkers 

Marble and stone cutters. 
Potters 



Fishermen and oystermen . 



Miners (coal) 

►Miners (not otherwise specified). 
Quarrymen 



Bakers , 

Butchers , 

Butter and cheese makers. 
Confectioners , 

Millers (flour and grist) 



Pish curers and packers 

►Meat and fruit packers, canners, and preservers . 
Sugar makers and refiners 



Blacksmiths 

Apprentices (blacksmiths). 



Iron and steel workers . 



Agricultural implement makers (not otherwise classified) 

Nail and tack makers ' 

Sewing machine makers (not otherwise ciassifiedY 

Molders ' 



Machinists 

Apprentices (machinists)' ' 

Steam boiler makers 



m 



1 For continental United States. 

iiSee apprentices and helpers (not specified) under " other miscellaneous industries." 



Number. 



14,771 



9,147 
5,624 

8,256 



3,628 

732 

1,385 

1,765 
746 



60,214 



34,282 
61,070 
14,928 

60, 162 
387,248 



208, 545 

141,047 

37,656 

60,197 
105,456 
11,211 
23,261 
52,841 
9,726 



1,279 
5,830 
2,616 



209, 681 



205, 337 
4,244 

220,428 



"3,765 

4,583 

880 

* 66, 289 

186, 828 



177, 090 
9,738 

21,339 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDINO CENSUSES. 



xliii 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

MANTTFACTTJRING AND MECHANICAL PT7BSUITS— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Oil well operatives and laborers . 
Oil mill and refinery operatives. . 



Chemical works employees 

Fertilizer establishment operatives . 



Saltmakers 

Starchmakers . 



Brick and tile makers . 



Number. 



11,269 



7,340 
3,929 

7,122 



2,923 
1,383 



1,431 
1,386 



36,052 



1870 



/Patent medicine makers 

1 Perfumers 

Fertilizer establishment operatives . 

fPowdermakers 

\Shot, cartridge, and fuse makers 

Saltmakers 

Starchmakers 



Occupation designations. 



Oil well operators and laborers. 
Oil refinery operatives 



Brick and tile makers . 



Number. 



6,650 



8,684 



409 
248 
316 
675 
186 
1,721 
229 



26, 070 



26,070 



Glassworks operatives 

Marble and stone cutters. 
Potters 



Fishermen and oystermen . 



Miners 

Quarrymen. 



Bakers 

Butchers 

Gheesemakers . 
Confectioners . 
Millers 



JMeat and fruit preserving establishment employees. 

iMeat packers, curers, and picklers 

Sugar makers and refiners 



Blacksmiths. 



m 



Iron and steel works and shops operatives. 



17,934 
32,842 
7,233 

41, 352 
249, 397 



Glassworks operatives 

Marble and stone cutters. 
Potters 



Fishermen and oystermen . 



234,228 
15, 169 

41,309 
76,241 

4,670 
13,692 
63,440 

8,623 



Miners 

Quarrymen. 



Bakers 

Butchers 

Cheesemakers . 
Confectioners . 
Millers 



2,860 
3,436 
2,327 



Oyster packers 

Meat and fruit preserving establishment employees. 

Meat packers, curers, and picklers 

Sugar makers and refiners 

Macaroni and vermicelli makers 



172,726 



/Blacksmiths 

\Spring and axle makers . 



e) 



Scale and rule makers 

Screwmakers .- 

Agricultural implement makers 

Nailmakers 

Sewing machine factory operatives . 



114,539 



1,027 
1,361 
a 4, 891 
5,803 
2,725 



Iron and steel works and shops operatives (not specified) . 

Iron and steel rolling mill operatives 

Diesinkers and stampmakers 

Iron foundry operatives 

Iron furnace operatives 

Needlemakers 

Steam engine makers 

Scale and rule makers 

Screwmakers 

Agricultural implement makers 

Sewing machine factory operatives 



9,618 
26,831 
6,060 

27,106 
166,696 



152,107 


13,589 


27,680 


44,354 


3,534 


8,219 


41, 582 


4,015 



443 

770 

1,164 

1,609 

29 



141, 774 
301 



94,790 



22, 141 
17, 249 

479 
34,245 
7,452 

164 
4,172 

416 

780 
»3,811 

3,&S1 



Machinists . 



101, 130 



Machinists . 



54,766 



m 



m 



Steam boiler makers. 



12,771 



Steam boiler makers . 



6,958 



m 



m 



« Agricultural Implement makers classified in 1900 according to kind of work done, as metal work, woodwork, etc. 

• Includes all molders in 1890; classified in 1900 under iron and steel workers, brassworkers, and "other metal workers.' 



xliv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

MASrUTAOTITBrNrG AJSTD MECHANICAL PTJRSmTS— Continued. 



19001 



Occiipation designations. 



Iron and steel and their products — Continued. 

Stove, furnace, and grate makers 

Tool and cutlery makers 



■Wheelwrights. 
Wireworkers .. 



Leather and its finished products. 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 



Boot and shoe factory operatives. . 
Shoemakers (not in shoe factory) . 
Apprentices 



Harness and saddle makers and repairers. 
Leather curriers and tanners 



Curriers . 
Tanners - 



Apprentices 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc. 



Trunkmakers 

Leather-case and pocketbook makers . 



JUquors and beverages. 
Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 



Bottlers 

Mineral and soda water makers. 



Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and reotiflers 

Lumber and its remanufactures. 

Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 



Saw and planing mill employees. 



Saw and planing mill employees. 

Lmnber yard employees , 

Other woodworkers 



Basketmakers 

Boxmakers (wood) 

Hano and organ makers . 



Furniture manufactory employees . 
Not specified o 



Metals and -metal products otiier tfian iron and steel. 
Brassworkers 



Brassworkers . 

Helpers 

Molders 



Clock and watch makers and repairers . 



Clock factory operatives 

Watch factory operatives. . . 
Clock and watch repairers . 



Number. 



12,473 
28,122 



13, .505 
18, 487 



208, 903 



106,818 

101,500 

685 

40,101 

42,671 



15, 769 
26,839 

63 
7,051 



3,657 



9,716 
808 

20,962 

3,144 

35, 619 
87,200 



161,624 



11,066 
111, 596 



6,622 
8,862 

10,221 



23,074 
62, 917 



26, 760 



20,653 


117 
5,990 


24, 120 


3,480 
16,070 
4,670 



1890 



Occupation designations. 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers 

Tool and cutlery makers (not otherwise classified) . 



Wheel Wrights . 
Wireworkers . . 



Isoot and shoe makers and repairers 

Apprentices (boot and shoe makers) 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers. 



iLeather curriers, dressers, finishers, and tanners 

Apprentices (leather curriers, etc.) 

Trunk, valise, leather-ca^e, and pocketbook makers. 



Bottlers and mineral and soda water makers . 



Brewers and maltsters . 
Distillers and rectifiers. 



Cabinetmakers . 
Coopers 



JSaw and planing mill employees . 
\Door, sash, and blind makers 



Basketmakers 

Boxmakers (wood) 

Piano and organ makers and tuners . 



Iwood workers (not otherwise specified). 



Brassworkers (not otherwise specified) . 

(2) 
(^) 

Clock and watch makers and repairers . 



1 For continental United States. 

^See apprentices and helpers (not specified) under " other miscellaneous industries.' 

^See boxmakers (paper) under " paper and printing." 



Number. 



8,932 
17, 985 



12,856 
12,319 



214,575 



213,544 


1,031 


43,480 


39,753 


# 


39,332 


421 


6,279 



20, 362 
3,314 

85,915 
47, 486 

138, 678 



133, 637 
5,041 



5,225 
10,883 

«14,683 



67, 360 



17,265 



17,265 



25,252 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



xlv 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

MAJSrTII'ACTUEING ANB MECHANICAL PITEStJITS— Continued. 



Occupation designations. 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers . 



Tool and cutlery makers 

File makers, cutters, and grinders . 



Wheelwrights 

Wire makers and -workers . 



Boot and shoe makers. 



Number. 



3,341 
15,588 



13, 749 
1,839 

15,592 

7,170 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers. 



Tool and cutlery makers 

File makers, cutters, and grinders . 

Wheelwrights 



Wire makers and workers. 
Hoop skirt makers 



Boot and shoe makers. 



Number. 



1,543 
6,764 



5,361 
1,413 



20,942 
2,796 



1,834 
962 



m 



Harness and saddle makers 

Leather curriers, dressers, finishers, and tanners . 



m 



Trunk, valise, and carpetbag makers . 
Leather-case and pocketbook makers . 



Bottlers and mineral water makers . 



39, 960 
29,842 



Harness and saddle makers . 



(Morocco dressers 
Curriers, tanners, and finishers of leather. 
Belting factory operatives - 



P) 



4,410 



3,013 
1,397 



fTrunk and valise makers 

\Carpetbag and satchel makers . 



32,817 
30,726 



1,728 
28,702 



2,047 



1,845 
202 



458 



Brewers and maltsters.. 
Distillers and rectifiers . 



Cabinetmakers . 



Coopers 

Stave, shook, hoop, and heading makers. 



'Saw and planing mill operatives. 



Shingle and lath makers 

.Blind, door, and sash makers . 



16, 278 
3,245 



60,654 
53, 199 



Mineral water makers. . 
Brewers and maltsters. . 
Distillers and rectifiers . 

Cabinetmakers 



49,138 
4,061 

92,367 


77,050 
5,195 
5,166 
4,946 


30,337 


5,664 



Coopers 

Stave, shook, and heading makers. 



Saw mill operatives 

Sawyers 

Shingle and lath makers 

Blind, door, and sash makers . 



468 
11,246 
2,874 

42,835 
43,647 



41,789 
1,858 

63, 180 



47,298 
6,939 
3,788 
5,156 



Basketmakers 

/Pianoforte makers and tuners. 
\Organmakers 



m 



[Mirror and picture frame makers 

i Pumpmakers 

[Wood turners, carvers, and wooden ware makers. 



Brass founders and workers. 



(') 



Basketmakers . 



■16,413 
2,437 



2,503 

1,366 

12, 964 



11, 568 



{=) 



Pianoforte makers 

Organmakers 

Ma.st, spar, oar, and block makers. , 
Mirror and picture frame makers . , 

Pumpmakers 

Reed and shuttle makers 

Ship calkers 

Ship riggers 

Wood turners and carvers 



f Brass founders and workers. 
iBell founders 



(.") 



22,066 



3,297 



2,535 

667 

653 

970 

1,672 

200 

8,068 

1,057 

7,947 



4,694 
169 



Clock and watch makers and repairers . 



13,820 



Clockmakers . 



1,779 



1,779 



4 Piano and organ tuners included in 1900 with " other miscellaneous industries." 
6 Not separately classified in 1890. (See molders under iron and steel workers.) 



xlvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER O^ PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

MANCTACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS— Continued. 



Occupation designations. 



Metals and metal pi'oducts other than iron and steel— Continued.. 
Gold and silver workers 



Gold and silver workers 

Jewelry manufactory employees . 



Tin plate and tinware makers . 



Tin plate makers 

Tinners and tinware makers . 
Apprentices (tinsmiths) 



Other metal workers . 



Copper workers 

Electroplaters 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers. 

Lead and zinc workers 

Molders (metals) 



Not specified 

Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographera, and pressmen 



Printers and pressmen 

Lithographers 

Compositors 

Electrotypers and stereotypers . 
Apprentices (printera) 



Textiles. 
Bleaehery and dye works operatives... 



Bleachery operatives . . 
Dye works operatives . 



Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives 



Print works operatives 

Rope and cordage factory operatives. , 



Hemp and jute mill operatives. 
Linen mill operatives 
" uf < 



Worsted mill operatives. 
Textile not specified 



Dressmakers. 



Dressmakers.. 
Apprentices . 



Hat and cap makers. 
Milliners 



Milliners 

Apprentices . 



Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers. 
Tailors and tailoresses 



Tailors and tailoresses . 
Apprentices 



Number. 



9,396 


16,716 


70,605 


7,231 


62,093 


1,181 


66, 602 


8,185 


6,387 


7,446 


6,334 


3,161 



26, 089 

30, 278 
21, 098 
11, 151 
36,328 
166, 147 



103, 680 
7,956 
36,838 
3,172 
3,501 



22,278 



4,385 
17, 893 

' 19, 372 

246, 391 

47, 120 

54,460 

73, 196 

104, 619 



6,066 
7,591 

3,519 

2,100 

7,041 

78,312 



346, 884 



344, 627 
2,257 

22,733 

87,859 



85,861 
2,008 

160,942 

39, 432 

229, 649 



228,081 
1,668 



Copper ^vorkers 

Electroplaters _ 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers. 
Lead and zinc workers , 

/Metal workers (not otherwise .speciiied) . . 
\Britannia workers 



1890 



Occupation designations. 



Gold and silver workers. 



Tinners and tinware makers . 
Apprentices (tinsmiths) 



Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) ... 
Engravers'. 

Paper mill operatives . 



'Printers, lithographers, and pressmen . 

Compositors 

Electrotypers and stereotypers 

Apprentices (printers) 



Bleachers, dyers, and scourers . 



Carpetmakers 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 



Print works operatives 

Rope and cordage makers. 



Mill and factory operatives (not specified) . 



Dressmakers 

Apprentices (dressmakers) . 

Hat and cap makers 



Milliners 

Apprentices (milliners) ... 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers . 



Tailors and tailoresses. 
Apprentices (tailors) . 



' for continental United States. 

2 See apprentices and helpers (not specified) under " other miscellaneous industries " 
8Not separately.classified in 1690. fSee molders under Iron and steel workers 1 
4 Not separated in 1870 and 1880 as to paper and wooden box makers ' 

6See carpetmakers (rag) under "other textile workers." 



Number. 



20, 263 



57,625 



55,488 
2,037 



37,512 


3,384 
2,766 
9,158 
4,616 



16, 694 
904 



23,858 

17, 757 

8,320 

27, 817 

123,059 



86, 893 

30, 060 
1,471 
4,636 



14,210 

22,302 
173,142 
29,555 
34,855 
84,109 
108,298 



6,701 
8,001 



» 93, 696 



293, 604 



289,164 
4,340 

24,013 

61,686 



60,482 
1,204 

160,044 

21,107 

188, 025 



185,400 
2,625 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



xlvii 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, AEEANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Continued. 

MANUrACTTTEIIifG ASTB MECHANICAIi PTIBSXHTS— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Gold and silver workers and jewelers. 



Number. 



28,406 



42,818 



1870 



Occupation designations. 



Gold and silver workers. 



Tinners and tinware makers . 



(") 



Copper workers . 



42,818 
16, 394 



Tinners. 



w 



2,342 



Copper workers. 



Gun and lock smiths 

Lead and zinc works operatives . 



10,672 
2,106 



Gun and lock smiths 

Type founders and cutters . 



>Britannia and japanned ware makers . 



Bookbinders and finishers 

Box factory operatives 

Engravers 

Paper mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and stereotypers . 



C) 



Bleachers, dyers, and scourers - 



Carpetmakers 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 



Print works operatives 

Eope and cordage makers 

Bagmakers 

Flax dressers 

Galloon, gimp, and taasel makers 

Mill and factory operatives (not specified) . 
Threadmakers 



Milliners, dressmakers, and seamstresses. 



C^) 



Hat and cap makers. 



1,376 

13,833 

«16,762 

4,677 

21,430 

72, 726 



(Bronze workers 
Britannia and japanned ware makers . 
Ship smiths 



Bookbinders and finishers 

Box factory operatives 

Engravers 

Paper mill operatives 



/Plate printers . 
1 Printers 



Stereotypers. 



m 



Bleachers, dyers, and scourers . 



17,068 
169, 771 
12,194 
18, 071 
88,010 
48,666 



6,419 
3,614 

1,408 
1,894 
2,235 
30,836 
3,269 

285, 401 



' 285, 401 



16,860 



Carpetmakers 

Cotton mill operatives 

Knitting and hosiery mill operatives . 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 



Print works operatives 

Rope and cordage makers 

Bagmakers 

Flax dressers 

Galloon, gimp, and tassel makers 

Linen mill operatives 

Mill and factory operatives (not specified). 
Oilcloth makers 



Milliners, dress and mantua makers . 
Hat and cap makers 



{') 



Shirt, collar, and cuff makers. 
Tailors and tailoresses 



11,823 
133, 756 



C) 



Shirt, cuff, and collar makers 

Tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses . 



m 



m 



•Includes textile mill operatives (not otherwise specified), and also mill and factory hands for whom the specific branch of Industry was not reported. 

I Dressmakers, milliners, and seamstresses combined in 1880. 

B Milliners combined with dressmakers in 1870. 

Seamstresses combined with tailors and tailoresses in 1870. 



xlviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table III.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CENSUSES 

MANUFACTtTRING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS— Continued. 



19001 



Occupation designations. 



Textiles — Continued. 
Other textile workers ^ 

Carpetmakera (rag) 

Lace and embroidery makers 

Sail, awning, and tent makers 

Sewing machine operators 

Not specified 

MisceUaTieous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

^^iiiHtiim and liieiuyu l^llot locomoti^^ 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Builders and contractors 

Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers . . . 
Officials of mining and quarrying companies . 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Eubber factory operatives , 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 

Apprentices and helpers (not specified) 

Artificial flower makers , 

Buttoxunakers 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers 

Corsetmakers 

Cotton ginners 

Electric light and power company employees 

Gas works employees » 

Piano and organ tuners 

Straw workers 

Turjpentine distillers 

Umbrella and parasol makers 

Well borers 

Whitewashers 



Not specified . 



Number. 



29, 633 



7,245 


9,212 


3,677 


6,772 


3,727 


10, 220 


14,436 


223, 496 


12,271 


243,009 



157, 948 

56,749 

10, 967 
17,355 

15,073 

26,941 

21,866 

131,452 



471, 089 



31, 679 

2,775 
6,621 
4,020 
8,016 
1,395 
6,156 
6,956 
4,293 
3,838 
7,099 
3,242 
6,608 



374, 953 



Occupation designations. 



Lace and embroidery makers... 
Sail, awning, and tent makers. 
Sewing machine operators 



Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive). 
Glovemakers 



Manufacturers and ofBcials of manufacturing companies . 



Builders and contractors. 



Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers. 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 



Upholsterers. 



f Apprentices (not otherwise specified) 

(Apprentices (carriage and wagon makers) . 

Artificial flower makers 

Buttonmakers 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers 

Corsetmakers 



Umbrella and parasol makers. 

Well borers 

Whitewashers . 



Bone and ivory workers 

Carriage and wagon makers (not otherwise classified ) .'.'." 

Hair workers 

Musical instrument makers (not otherwise Vpecitied) 

Ship and boat builders 

Other persons in manufacturing and mechanical industries! 





(') 




Gas works employees 


5,224 




C) 


Straw workers 









Kumber, 



15, 639 



5, 256 
3,257 
7,126 



10,116 
8,704 

139, 766 
6,416 

163,882 



101,610 

45,988 
6,284 



10,300 
20,040 
16, 162 
111, 625 

25,666 

211,123 



35, 698 
852 
3,046 
2,601 
3,450 
6,533 



3,403 
4,854 
3,996 



1,691 

8 34,538 

1,254 

652 

8 22,961 

76,714 



1 For continental Onited States. 

2 OfBcials of manufacturing and mining companies combined in 1880. 
'Included in 1890 with ofBcials of banks, etc., under "trade and transportation," 
« Probably included in 1880 all apprentices. 

6 Apprentices were, as far as possible, included in 1870 with their respective trades. Only those whose vocations could not be separately determined i 
reported under tlie title "apprentices (not specified)." (Tenth Census, Report on Population, page 762. ) o^i'o.mi.cij uBueiiuiueu i 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



xlix 



OF 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900, AEEANGED ACCOEDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900-Contmued. 

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL, PURSUITS— Continued. 



1880 



Occupation designations. 



Number. 



12, 163 



Occupation designations. 



Number. 



Lacemakeis 

Sail and awning makers 

Sewing macliine operators . 



1,708 
2,950 
7,605 



Sail and awning makers , . . 
Sewing machine operators . 



2,309 
3,042 



Broom and brush makers . . 
Charcoal and lime burners. 

Engineers and firemen , 

Glovemakers 



/Manufacturers 

tOfficials of manufacturing and mining companies. 

fuilders and contractors (not specified) 
ridge builders and contractors 
ailroad builders and contractors 



Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers 



m 



Patternmakers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives. 



Cigarmakers 

Tobacco factory operatives. 

Upholsterers 



■Apprentices to trades 

Artificial flower makers 

Button factory operatives 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers. 
Corsetmakers 



8,479 
5,851 

79, 628 
4,511 

69, 595 



Broom and brush makers.. 
Charcoal and lime burners. 

Engineers and firemen 

Glovemakers 



44, 019 
2 8, 198 

10,804 
2,587 
1,206 

2,781 



6,822 

9,990 

6,350 

77,045 



56, 599 
20, 446 

10, 443 



186,843 



3,399 
4,872 
2,923 
4,660 



Manufacturers 

Oflicials of manufacturing companies 

Builders and contractors (not specified) 

Bridge builders and contractors 

House builders and contractors 

Railroad builders and contractors 

Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers. 
Oflicials of mining companies 



Patternmakers . 



Daguerreotypists and photographers. 
Rubber factory operatives 



Cigarmakers 

Tobacco factory operatives. 



Upholsterers 

Mattressmakers . 



Apprentices (not specified) 

Artificial flower makers 

Button factory operatives 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers. 



5,815 
3,834 

34,233 
2,329 

57,405 



42, 877 
2,144 
7,611 
1,029 
399 
1,292 
1,577 
576 

3,970 

7,558 

3,886 

40, 271 



28,286 
11,985 



6,736 
375 



101,417 



515,302 

1,169 
1,272 
1,942 



Gas works employees. 
Straw workers 



(') 



4,695 
'4,'229' 



Gas works employees. 
Straw workers 



Umbrella and parasol makers. 
Wiutewashers 



1,967 



« 2, 063 

1,888 

4,708 

8 49, 881 

34, 536 
1,580 
1,965 
1,440 

13, 642 



Umbrella and parasol makers. 



1,439 



Boatmakers 

Bone and ivory workers 

Carmakers 

Carriage and wagon makers 

Employees of manufacturing establishments (not specified) . . 

Pur workers 

Hair cleaners, dressers, and workers 

Quartz and stamp mill operatives and laborers 

Others in manufacturing, mechanical, and mining industries . 



Whitewashers 

'Boatmakers 

Bone and ivory workers 

Carmakers 

Card and fancy paper makers 

Carriage and wagon makers 

Combmakers 

Employees of manufacturing establishments (not specified) 

Fireworks makers 

Fur workers 

Gluemakers 

Hair cleaners and dressers 

Hosemakers (leather and other) 

Inkmakers 

Musical instrument makers (not specified ) 

Plaster molders 

Quartz and stamp mill laborers 

Trussmakers 

Whipmakers 

Window shade makers 



2,873 

6 -2, 101 

208 

2, 228 

339 

8 42, 464 

693 

20, 242 

101 

1,191 

241 

1,026 

248 

78 

377 

223 

617 

74 

609 

246 



' Combined in 1890 with telegraph and telephone linemen under " trade and transportation," 

' Combined in 1880 and 1890 with piano and organ makers. (See "other woodworkers " under " lumber and iits remauufactures.") 

8 Carriage and wagon makers and ship and boat builders classified in 1900 according to kind of work done, as metal work, woodwork, etc. 

23054—04 iv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The detailed presentation in Table in of the number 
of persons credited to each specified occupation at the 
last four censuses is supplemented by Table iv, show- 
ing, wherever practicable, a classification by sex of the 
total number of persons reported at these censuses 
in the several occupation groups of the 1900 classifica- 
tion. To a limited extent the subdivisions under the 
main groups are also given, in order particularly to 



supply the figures for males and females at each census, 
wherever they seemed fairly comparable. 

Some changes have been made in the assignment of 
occupation designations under class heads for the cen- 
suses of 1870, 1880, and 1890, in order that the class totals 
may correspond with those for 1900; consequently the 
totals as presented in Table iv differ from those contained 
in the printed reports for the three censuses named. 



Table IV.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX 

SEPARATELY: 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits - 



J Agricultural laborers 

Dairymen and dairy women 

4 Farmers, planters, and overseers. . 

Gardeners, florists,nurserymen, etc. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 

stock raisers, herders, and drovers 

Wood choppers 

Turpentine farmers and laborers . . 

other agricultural pursuits 

Apiarists 



Professional service. 



■^ Actors, professional showmen, etc. 

Actors 

Architects, designers, draftsmen, 
V etc. 

Architects 

Designers, draftsmen, and in- 
ventors. 

!,■ Artists and teachers of art 

^Clergymen 

vDentists 

(.Electricians 

Engineers {civil, etc.) and sur- 
veyors. 

I' Journalists 

JLawyeiB 

oLiterary and scientific persons 

Chemists,, assayers, and metal- 
lurgists. 

- Musicians and teachers of music . 
» Officials (government) 

, Physicians and surgeons , 

- Teachers and professors in col- 
, leges, etc. 

Other professional service 

Veterinary surgeons , 



BOTH SEXES. 



19001 1890 1880 



Domestic and personal service 



Barbers and hairdressers 

vBoardingand lodging house keepers 
i,Hotel keepers 

Janitors and sextons 

^ Janitors 

Sextons 

Laborers (notspecified) 

Launderers and laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

V Restaurant keepers 

"^ Saloon keepers 

Bartenders 

4 Servants and waiters 

Housekeepers and stewards 

Soldiers, sailors, andmarines(U.S.). 

Watchmen, policemen,flremen, etc. 

Other domesticand personal service 



Trade and transportation. 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Commercial travelers 



29,073,233 



4, 410, ; 
10,1 

5, 674, 1 
61,' 
72,1 
84,! 
36,1 
24,' 
5,1 
1,' 

1,268,1 



34, 760 
14,708 
29,624 

10,581 
18,943 

24,873 
HI, 638 
29, 665 
60,717 
43,239 

30,038 

114, 460 

18,844 

8,847 

92,174 

86, 607 

132,002 

446, 133 

13, 864 
8,163 

5, 680, 667 



131, 116 
71, 281 
64,797 
66, 577 
61, 191 
6,386 
2,629,262 

386, %5 

120, 956 
33,844 
83,746 
88, 817 
1, 660, 721 

165, 153 
43, 195 

130, 690 
34, 637 



22, 735, 661 



8, .565, 926 



3, 004, 061 
17, 895 
2 5,281,557 
-'72,601 
65, 866 
70, 729 
33, 697 

19, 620 

1,773 

944, 333 



17,392,099 



7, 713, 875 



27,783 
9,728 
17, 461 

8,070 
9,391 

22,496 
88,203 
17,498 

■ 43, 239 

21,849 

89, 630 

11,217 

4,503 

62, 156 
82, 590 
104,805 
347, 344 

8,063 
6,494 

4,220,812 



84, 982 
44,349 
44,076 
26, 638 
21, 566 
4,982 

1, 913, 373 
248, 462 
47,686 
19,283 
71, 386 
65,806 

1,464,791 
92, 036 
27,919 

90,226 



4, 766, 964 3, 326, 122 



241, 162 
73, 277 
78, 406 
254,880 
680, 127 
112, 364 
92, 919 



174, 582 
35, 968 
76, 874 
169, 374 
557, 358 
33, 418 
58,691 



3, 323, 876 

8,948 

/4, 229, 051 

66,032 

►30, 651 

v44, 075 

il2, 731 

7,450 

1,061 

1,016 

603, 202 



• 7,416 

4,812 

. 6, 195 

3,375 
2,820 

9,104 
^ 64, 698 
w 12, 314 

, 8,261 

t- 12, 308 

64, 137 

■^s 3, 100 

1,969 

30, 477 
> 69,681 

86, 671 
3 227,710 

* 2, 130 
2,130 

3,418,793 



12, 505, 923 



5, 948, 561 



2,885,996 

3,660 

2, 981, 320 

33, 632 

17, 752 

16, 369 

8,338 

2,478 

136 

136 

371, 660 



44,861 

, 19,058 

. 32, 463 

9,212 

■J 6, 763 

. 2, 449 

1,859,223 

121, 942 

15, 601 

•■■ 83,078 

•ll 156, 361 

24, 161 

< 63, 863 

1, 871, 603 



33, 989 
19, 373 
88,537 



3,230 
2,053 
3,303 

2,017 
1,286 

4,081 

43,874 

7,839 

7,374 



5,286 

40, 736 

1,761 

772 

16,010 
47,029 
62,448 
126, 822 

■1,867 
1,166 

2,263,664 



23, 935 
12, 785 
26, 394 
2,920 
1,769 
1,161 
1,032,084 
60, 906 
12, 162 

50,767 

1, 000, 417 
23, 338 
17, 856 

1,244,383 



20, 316 
10, 631 
88,982 

296, 786 



19001 1890 



23,753,836 



9,404,429 



3, 747, 
9, 
6, 367, 
58, 
71, 
83, 
35, 
24, 
5, 
1, 



7, 887, 042 



827, 941 



27,903 
8,334 
28,483 

10,481 
18, 002 

13, 852 
108,265 
28,868 
50,308 
43, 155 

27,845 

113,460 

12,860 



39, 816 
78,488 
124, 616 
118, 519 

11,625 
8,149 

3, 485, 208 



125, 642 
11,826 
46, 264 
48,644 
43, 249 
5,296 

2, 606, 287 
50,683 
12, 266 

; 28, 999 
81, 660 
88,377 

' 276,958 
8,224 
43, 196 

■ 129,711 
27, 673 

4, 263, 617 



230, 606 
72, 984 
78, 253 
180, 727 
644, 881 
26, 246 
91,973 



2, 666, 957 
16, 161 
2 5,065,130 
2 70,186 
65,838 
70, 047 
33, 666 

19, 058 

1,728 

632,646 



23,200 

6,779 

17, 134 

8,048 
9,086 

11, 681 
87,060 
17. 161 

\ 43,115 

20, 961 

89, 422 

8,4.53 

4,464 

27, 636 
77, 715 
100, 248 
101,278 

7,582 
6,492 

2,553,161 



82, 167 
11,766 
38,800 
23, 730 
18, 776 

4,954 

1, 868, 558 

31,831 

6,190 
16, 867 
69, 110 
55, 660 
238, 162 

5,947 
27, 919 

86, 484 
3, 097, 701 



169, 707 
35,468 
76, 823 
131, 602 
493, 139 
12, 148 
68, 080 



1880 



7, 119, 365 



2, 788, 976 

8,238 

4, 172, 049 

64,493 

30, 661 

43,869 

12, 731 

! 7, 326 

1,043 



426, 947 



5,413 
2,992 
6,122 

3,358 
2,764 

7,043 
64,533 
12, 253 



12,020 

64, 062 

»2,732 

1,921 

17, 295 

67,609 

83, 239 

« 73, 335 

<2,130 
2,130 

2,237,493 



41,949 
6,746 

30, 317 
8,499 
6,064 
2,436 
1,796,675 

13, 744 
1,189 

• 80,880 



185, 078 

24, 161 

< 48, 356 



33, 553 
19, 240 
88, 478 



1870 



5, 551, 593 



2,512,664 

3,133 

2,958,639 

33, 353 

17, 752 

15,284 

8,338 

2,294 

136 

136 

279,347 



2,438 
1,361 
3,289 

2,016 
1,273 

3,669 

43,807 

7,815 

7,374 

5,251 

40, 731 

1,592 

772 

10,257 
46, 615 
01,921 
42, 775 

1,813 
1,166 

1, 290, 951 



22,756 
6,725 

25, 629 
2, 767 
1,623 
1,144 
1, 010, 763 
5,297 



50,051 

126,679 
23, 338 
17,240 



20, 219 
10, 616 
88,941 



s 474, 110 288,762 



27,886 1 



7,280 



1900' 1890 1880 1870 



5, 319, 397 



977, 336 



663,209 

892 

307, 706 

2,860 

100 

1,932 

113 

281 

243 

48 

430,597 



3, 914, 571 



678,884 694,510 



6,857 
6,374 
1,041 

100 
941 

11,021 

3,373 

807 

409 

84 

2,193 

1,010 

5,984 

248 

52, 359 

8,119 

7,387 

327, 614 

2,339 
14 

2,095,449 



5,574 

59,455 

8,533 

8,033 

7,942 

91 

123,975 

335,282 

108,691 

• 4,846 

2,086 

440 

'1,283,763 

146,929 



879 
6,964 



608, 347 



10, 556 

•293 

163 

74,153 

85,246 

86,118 

946 



447, 104 

1,734 

2 226,427 

22,415 

28 

682 

32 

462 

45 



4,583 

3,949 

327 

22 
305 

10,815 

1,143 

337 



208 

2,764 

39 

34,519 

4,875 

4,557 

246, 066 

481 
2 



534, 900 

710 

57,002 

1,539 



-216 



125 
18 
17 

177, 255 



1, 836, 288 



2,003 
1,820 



17 
66 

••2,061 
. 165 
^ 61 



• 288 


35 


. 75 


5 


i368 


159 


48 





13, 182 

' 2,172 

2,432 

s 154, 376 

(*) 



1,667,661 1,181,300 



2,826 

32, 593 

5,276 

2,808 

2,780 

28 

54,815 

216, 631 

41,396 

2,416 

2,276 

146 

1,216,639 



} 3,742 



228, 421 



4,875 

510 

51 

27, 772 

64, 219 

21, 270 

611 



2,902 

12,313 

2, 136 

713 

699 

-14 

62,648 

108, 198 

.,14,412 

I 2,198 
970, 273 



<5,507 
63, 068 



436 
133 
59 

'30,844 

272 



1 For continental United States. 

2Fruitgrowers(exceptgrapegrowers)includedinl890withfarmers, planters, and overseers; classified in 1900 with Kardeners florists nurservmen «tn 

3Scientiflcpersonscombinedinl880 with teachers. ' =>"j""o"i <j«j. 

< Other professional service (except veterinary surgeons) combined in 1880 with "other domestic and personal service." 

6 Partly estimated. 



396, 968 



373, 332 

417 

22, 681 

279 



75 

'isi 



92, 303 



792 
692 
14 

1 
13 

412 
67 
24 



6,753 

414 

627 

84,047 

64 



972, 613 



1,179 

7,060 

865 

153 

146 

7 

21,321 

55,609 

11,866 

716 



873,738 



616 



20,383 



97 
16 
41 



82 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDINO CENSUSES. li 

Table IV.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX 

SEPARATELY: 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



BOTH SEXES. 



Trade and transportation— Con. 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc. 

Foremen and overseers 

Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers 

' Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except 

wholesale). 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale ) . 
Messengers and errand and office 
boys. 
' Officials of banks and companies. . 

Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) . 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Steam railroad employees 

Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen . 
Telegraphandtelepnone operators. 

/Cndertakers 

Other persons in trade and trans- 
portation. 

Auctioneers 

Newspaper carriers and news- 
boys. 
Weighers, gangers, and meas- 
urers. 

Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits. 

Building trades. 

Carpenters and joiners. . - 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers. 

Paper hangers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers and gastind steam fitters 

Roofers and slaters 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified ) 

Chemicals and allied products. 

Oil well and oil works employees 

Oil well employees 

Oil works employees 

Other chemical workers 

Chemical works employees — 

Fertilizer makers 

Powder and cartridge makers 

Salt works employees 

Starchmakers 



Clay, glass, and stone products. 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Glaasworkers 

Marble and stone cutters 

Potters 



Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen 

Miners (coal) - 

Miners (not otherwise specified) 
Quarrymen 



Food and kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Confectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 

Fish curers and packers 

Meat and fruit canners and 

-preservers. 
Meat packers, curers, and 

picklers. 
Sugar makers and refiners — 



Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers 

Stove, furnace, and grate makers. . 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



538, 933 
56,460 
64,929 
76,649 
33, 666 

790, 886 

42, 326 
71,622 

74, 072 
59,545 
64, 191 
611, 139 
582, 160 
68,919 
14, 757 
74, 982 
16,189 
63,434 

2,808 
6,893 

6,666 
7,086,309 



600, 262 

160, 805 

277,641 

21, 990 

36,694 

97, 785 

9,067 

9,878 



24, 626 

18,011 

6,616 

14, 723 

6,740 

1,310 

4,136 

1,775 

762 



49, 933 
49, 998 
54,460 
16, 140 



68, 940 
663,406 
344,205 
184, 617 

34,584 



79,188 
113, 193 
19,241 
31, 194 
40,648 
28,782 
952 
9,249 

13, 776 



226,477 
290, 638 
283, 146 
33,046 
12, 473 
28,122 
13, 506 
18,487 



36,084 
54,036 
59, 083 
26, 757 
660, 239 

31, 086 
51, 355 

2 39,900 
24, 946 
24,356 

264, 394 

462, 213 
37, 434 

ni,134 

62, 214 

9,891 

16, 236 

3,206 
5,288 

3,860 



1880 



177,686 



31, 697 
V 53,491 
/ 14,213 

» 479,439 

j^ 13, 985 

/ 815,563 
• 9,342 

• 37,214 
< 32, 279 
236, 058 
811,687 



«618, 242 

160, 845 

222, 233 

812,369 

839, 002 

61, 231 

87, 043 

15, 485 



14, 771 
9,147 
5,624 
8,266 
3,628 

732 
1,385 
1,765 

746 



60, 214 
34,282 
61,070 
14,928 



60, 162 
387,248 
208,546 
141, 047 

37,656 



60, 197 
105, 456 
11, 211 
23,261 
62,841 
9,725 



209, 581 

9 220,428 

186, 828 

8 21,339 

8,932 

17, 985 

12, 856 

12, 319 



3 23,166 
^5,113 
8 66,169 

2,331 
3,374 

3,302 



3, 784, 726 



'390,696 

8102, 473 

8130,319 

86, 013 

822,083 

819, 383 

84,026 

7,858 



11, 269 
7,340 
3,929 
7,122 
2,923 
1,383 



1870 



120, 756 



17,586 

34, 337 

8,604 

357, 647 

8,717 

10, 023 

5,461 

31, 613 

114,203 

164,027 

5,103 



8,316 

1,996 

42,218 

2,266 
2,002 

926 



IBOOl 



538, 029 
54, 032 
64, 850 
73, 734 
33, 466 

766, 802 

42,066 
64, 969 

72, 801 
39, 667 
53, 626 
461, 909 
580, 402 
68, 873 
14, 757 
52, 426 
16,866 
49, 73-1 

2,805 
6,824 

6,487 



2, 677, 766 5, 772, 641 



1,431 
1,385 



36,052 
17, 934 
32, 842 
7,233 



41,352 
249,397 

234,228 

15, 169 



1,296 
;,327 



8172,726 

130,346 

8101,130 

812,771 

3,341 

15,588 

16, 692 

7,170 



360, 496 
89, 710 
86, 667 
2,490 
23, 677 
11, 143 

" 2, 750 
16, 514 



5,660 

3,803 

1,747 

3,684 

657 

316 

761 

1,721 

229 



26,070 
9,518 

25,831 
5,060 



27,106 
165, 696 

152, 107 

13,589 



27, 680 
44,354 
3,534 
8,219 
41,682 
4,015 



2,377 
1,609 



142,075 
94, 790 
64, 755 
6,958 
1,643 
6,764 
20, 942 
2,796 



1890 



368, 265 
36, 109 
64,014 
66, 824 
26, 710 

634, 884 

30, 890 
48,446 

2 39,683 
18,426 
24, 002 

206, 943 

460, 771 
37, 423 

no, 466 

43, 740 

9,808 

16, 341 

3,203 
5,216 

3,842 



4, 650, 640 



599, 707 

160, 638 

275, 782 

21, 749 

36,649 

97, 669 

9,065 

9,361 



24, 573 

18,001 

6,572 

12,035 

5,687 

1,W 

2,746 

1,671 

624 



49, 465 
47, 377 
64,317 
13,200 



68, 478 
562,417 
343, 681 
184,315 

34,521 



74, 
112, 
18, 
21, 
40, 
23, 



:,799 
;,708 



226,284 
287, 241 
282, 574 
33, 038 
12, 430 
27, 376 
13, 496 
16, 701 



6618, 044 

160, 804 

220, 960 

812,315 

838,987 

61, 185 

87,040 

16,472 



14,724 

9,137 

5,687 

6,630 

2,613 

726 

963 

1,662 

566 



60,070 
32, 672 
61, 012 
12, 939 



59, 899 
386,872 
208, 330 
140, 914 

37, 628 



67, 910 
105, 339 
10, 808 
17, 577 
62, 747 
8,116 



1880 



31,697 
50, 999 
14, 180 

464, 687 

13,586 

815,563 
8,810 
34, 754 
4 24,535 
235,611 
ni,683 



8 21,891 

6,068 

8 54,549 

2,328 
3,298 



1870 



120, .560 



17, 584 
32,844 



351, 915 

8,637 

9,956 

5,266 

30, 963 

111,428 

153, 965 

- 5,102 



7,961 

1,976 

41, 683 

2,264 
1,996 



2, 323, 744 



T390,695 

8102,473 

8129, 993 

«4, 859 

822, 083 

8)9,383 

8 4,026 

7,863 



11,237 
7,340 



6,488 

2,609 

_U2L 



209, 521 

217,616 

186, 677 

8 21,333 

8,912 

17, 449 

12, 866 

11,238 



1,390 
1,218 



36, 984 

17, 370 

32,842 

6,644 



41, 287 
249,318 

234, 149 

16, 169 



40, 246 
76,241 

4,230 
11, 892 
63, 363 

7,446 



5,132 



2,313 



8172,726 

128, 932 

8 101,130 

812,771 

3,341 

15, 031 

15, 592 

6,925 



360, 496 
89, 710 
86, 669 

2,471 
23,677 
11, 143 

2,760 
13, 956 



6,610 
3,802 
1,708 
3,358 
473 

_J10 

665 

1,721 
189 



25,996 
9,345 

25,831 
4,948 



27, 071 
165, 650 

1.52, 061 

13, 589 



27,442 

44,354 

2,760 

7,607 

41, 343 

3,466 



1,599 



142, 076 

91, 996 

64, 766 

6,963 

1,643 

6,666 

20, 942 

1,961 



22, 556 

323 

3,700 



69 
179 

1,312,668 



19001 



904 

1,418 

79 

2,916 

190 

34,084 

261 
6,663 

1,271 

19,988 

566 

149,230 

1,688 

46 



234 

975 

22 

2,259 

47 

25, 855 

196 
2,909 

2 217 

6,620 

354 

68,461 

1,442 

11 

8 669 

8,474 



1,027,928 



545 

167 

1,759 

241 

45 

126 

2 

27 



53 

10 

43 

2,688 

1, 0.53 

1,591 
104 
138 



478 
2,621 

143 
2,940 



462 
989 
624 
302 



4,328 
378 
648 

9,214 
186 

5,142 
128 

3,266 



1890 



977 



193 

3,297 

571 

8 

43 

746 

10 

1,786 



»198 
41 
1,278 
854 
815 
46 
83 
13 



47 

10 

37 

1,726 

1,016 

6 

42f 

103 

180 



144 

1,710 

58 

1,989 



268 
376 
215 
138 
28 



2,287 
117 
403 

6,674 
94 

3,610 



1,606 



60 

»2,913 

151 

86 

20 

536 

1 

1,081 



1880 
(— 



•■ 14, 752 
400 



'' 532 

'•' 2,460 

17,744 

447 

34 



31,276 

55 

31,620 



76 
11 

631, 034 



8326 
8164 



32 



32 
634 
414 



41 
167 



1,063 



340 

1,800 

77 



1870 



2 

1,493 

11 

.5,732 



68 
195 
650 
12,775 
62 
1 



365 
20 
635 

12 
7 



854,021 



88 
19 



2,659 



40 
1 

39 

326 

184 

6 

96 



74 

173 



35 
46 



238 



784 
612 
239 



1,178 


650 


1,164 


638 


14 


10 


1,414 


2,794 




5 






557 


108 


245 


835 



1 For continental United States. 



8lSS7s™fficTals of minSg and quarrying companies (number not stated), classified in 1900 with manufacturers and officials under "manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits" (miscellaneous industries). 

1 Salesmen and saleswomen probably largely returned as clerks in 1870 and 1880. 
8 Includes electric light and power company employees, classified in 1900 with ' 



'other miscellaneous industries" under "manufacturing and mechanical 



pursui . inciuae ship carpenters, classified in 1890 with ship and boat builders. . , . 

J Includes ship calkers, riggers, and smiths, combined in 1880 with ship carpenters, but does not include apprentices. 
8 Tinpji Tint include apprentices. , , , , , ,, 

• Includes all molders, classified in 1900 under iron and steel workers, brassworkers, and "other metal workers." 



lii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



/ 



Table IV.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX 

SEPARATELY: 1870, 1880, 1890, AND 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and meclianloal 
pursuits— Continued. 

Leather and itsflnislied products. 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 
Harness and saddle maimers and 

repairers. 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc . 

Liquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



Lumber and its remanufactures. 

Cabinetmakers , 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees . . 

Other woodworkers 

Basketmakers 



Metals and metal products other than 
iron and steel. 

Braaaworkers 

Clock and watch makeiB and re- 
pairers. 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

T?in plate makers 

Tinners and tinware makers . . 
Other metal workers 

Copper workers 

Electroplaters 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and 
bell hangers. 

Lead and zinc workers 



BOTH SEXES. 



19001 1890 1880 1870 



Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) .' 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives. . . 
Prmters, lithographers, and press- 
men. 

Textiles. 

Bleachery anddyeworks operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill opera- 
tives. 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mnl operatives 

Other textile mill operatives , 

Print works operatives 

Rope and cordage factory oper- 
atives. 

Dressmakers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Hat and capmakers 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Other textile workers 

Carpetmakers (rag) 

Lace and embroidery makers.. 

Sail, awning, and tent makers. 

Sewing machine operators 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners . 
Engineers and firemen (not loco- 
motive) . 

Glovemakers 

.Manufacturers and officials, etc. . . 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory opera- 
tives. 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 

Artificial flower makers 

Buttonmakers 

Candle, soap,and tallowmakers 

Corsetmakers 

Gas works employees 

Straw workers 

Umbrella and parasol makers 

Well borers 

Whitewashers 



208, 903 
40, 101 

42,671 
7,051 



10, 619 
20, 962 
3,144 



35, 619 

37,200 

161, 624 

111, 596 

6,522 



26,760 
24,120 

26, 112 
70, 505 
7,231 
62, 093 
56,602 
8,185 
6,387 
7,446 

5,334 



30, 278 
21,098 
11,151 
36,328 
165, 147 



22,278 
« 19, 372 
246, 391 

47, 120 

54,460 

73, 196 

104, 619 

' 6*40fc 

346,884 

87,859 

150, 942 

229,649 

'22,733 

39,432 

29, 633 

7,245 

9,212 

3,677 

6,772 



10, 220 
14, 436 
223, 495 

12, 271 
243, 009 
15, 073 
26, 941 
21, 866 
131, 462 

30, 821 
471, 089 
2,775 
6,621 
4,020 
8,016 
6,966 
3,838 
3,242 
6,608 
3,439 



214,575 
43,480 



39, 753 
6,279 



7,230 
20, 362 
3,314 



35, 915 
47, 486 
138, 678 
98, 151 
5,225 



817,265 
25,262 



20,263 
67,526 



56,488 
37, 512 
3,384 
2,756 
9,158 

4,616 



23,858 
17, 757 
8,320 
27,817 
123, 059 



14,210 
22,302 
173, 142 
29,556 

34,855 
84,109 
108, 298 

293,604 
61,686 
160,044 
188,026 
24, 013 
21, 107 
16, 639 



2194,079 
39, 960 

2 29,842 
4,410 



2,081 
16, 278 
3,245 



60,654 
53, 199 
92, 357 
30, 337 
5,654 



2 11, 668 
13,820 

28,405 
242,818 



42,818 
16, 394 
2,342 



5,266 
3,257 
7,126 



10, 116 

8,704 

139, 765 

6,416 

' 153, 882 

10, 300 

20, 040 

16, 162 

111, 626 

25, 666 
211, 123 
3,046 
2,601 
3,450 
6,533 
5,224 
8,666 
3,403 
4,854 
3,996 



10,572 
2,106 



13, 833 

615, 762 

4,677 

21,430 

2 72,726 



8,222 

17,068 

169,771 

12,194 

18,071 
88,010 
48, 665 



2 285, 401 

2133,756 
16, 860 
11, 823 
12, 163 



1,708 
2,950 
7,506 



8,479 

5,861 

79, 628 

4,611 
^ 69, 595 
5,822 
9,990 
6, 350 
77,045 

10,443 
185, 843 
3,399 
4,872 
2,923 
4,660 
4,695 
4,229 
1,967 



1,316 



1 For continental United States. 

2 Does not include apprentices. 

s Does not include molders or apprentices. 

^Clockmakers. 

B Box factory operatives; probably includes boxmakers (wood) 



171, 127 
32,817 

30, 726 
2,047 



458 
11,246 
2,874 



42,835 
43,647 
63, 180 
22,066 
3,297 



4,863 
n,779 

18,508 
30,524 



30, 524 
12, 522 
2,122 



8,184 
649 



9,104 
66,080 

4,226 
12,469 
40,424 



4,901 

15, 669 

111,606 

3,653 

3,256 
68, 836 
51, 673 
3,738 
2,676 



263, 904 

12,626 
4,080 
5,351 



2,309 
3,042 



5,816 

3,834 

34, 233 

2,329 
57, 405 
3,970 
7,568 
3,886 
40, 271 

6,111 
101,417 
1,169 
1,272 
1,942 



2,086 
2,029 
1,439 



2,873 



19001 



169, 393 
39,606 

40, 917 
5,472 



9,726 
20,687 
3,114 



35,552 

37,087 

161,251 

104, 791 

4,460 



25, 870 
19, 305 

19, 732 
68, 730 
6,954 
60, 606 
64,282 
8,174 
6,146 
7,400 

6,237 



14, 646 

3,796 

10,698 

26,904 

139, 166 



20,493 
» 10, 371 
125,788 

12,630 

22,023 
42, 666 
63,437 
4,963 
4,592 

2,090 

1,739 

4,837 

160, 714 

15, 110 

8,491 

8,862 

1,916 

1,944 

3,168 

736 



8,643 

14,405 

223, 318 

4,503 
239, 649 
14, 869 
23, 361 
14, 492 
87, 955 

28, 663 
380, 167 

437 
3,511 
3,289 

816 
6,940 

911 
1,331 
6,597 
3,374 



1890 1880 



180,871 
42,647 



39,461 
5,458 



6,681 
20, 294 



35,891 
47, 438 
138,386 
92,063 
4,614 



816,352 
20,556 



16, 914 
56,623 



64,589 
36, 127 
3,377 
2,644 
9,069 

4,413 



12,298 
4,714 
8,017 

18, 8.56 
110, 848 



12,503 

11,546 

80, 177 

8,746 

14,192 

47,638 

61,661 

5,162 

4,896 

836 

395 

4,001 

123, 516 

17, 319 

5,132 

4,931 



821 
3,006 
1,104 



139, 718 

2,741 

' 163, 468 

10, 169 

17, 839 

9,706 
83, 634 

23, 918 

177, 916 

603 

1,011 

3,051 

733 

6,219 

1,243 

1,465 

4,863 

3,987 



2173,072 
38,409 

229,642 
4,031 



2,012 

16, 217 

3,237 



60, 174 
53. 199 
92; 316 
29, 334 
5,068 



210,831 
12,002 

26,438 
241,781 



41, 781 
16, 069 
2,326 



10, 377 
2,106 



8,342 
6 8,632 

4,474 

14, 711 

2 69,270 



7,573 

9,962 

78, 292 

4,334 

8,860 
52,604 
38,422 
4,318 
3,040 



23,473 

2 81, 658 
13, 004 
3,163 
4,797 



254 
2,843 
1,700 



7,887 

5,851 

79, 628 

2,558 
69, 122 
5,822 
9,639 
4,292 
66, 177 

9,901 
156, 430 

512 
2,480 
2,718 

795 
4,680 
1,631 
1,094 



i,301 



1870 



161,485 
32, 767 

30,641 
1,970 



453 
11,238 
2,868 



42,123 
43, 614 
63, 061 
21,749 
3,082 



4,757 
< 1,704 

17, 279 
30,507 



30, 507 
12,275 
2,118 



8,151 
556 



6,375 

63,857 

4,197 

8,685 

38,920 



4,582 
10, 292 
47, 208 

1,664 

954 
36,060 
40, 840 
2,786 
2,345 



66, 217 

9,275 
1,268 
2,460 



FEMALES. 



2,278 
182 



5,299 
3,829 
34,233 

1,110 
57, 209 
3,970 
7,330 
2,035 
36, 137 

6,905 

93, 220 

218 

736 

1,900 



2,082 
599 
749 

'2,' 482' 



19001 1890 1880 1870 



39,510 
595 

1,754 
1,679 



794 

275 

30 



67 

113 

373 

6,805 

2,062 



890 
4,816 

6,380 

1,775 

277 

1,487 

2,320 

11 

241 

46 

97 



15, 632 
17,302 
453 
9,424 
15,981 



1,785 
»9,001 
120, 603 
34,490 

32,437 
30, 630 
51,182 
1*^99 

344, 794 

86, 120 

146, 106 

•68, 935 

7,628 

30,941 

20, 671 

B,329 

7,268 

409 

5,036 



1,577 
31 
177 

7,768 
3,360 
204 
3,580 
7,874 
43, 497 

2,158 

90, 922 

2,338 

3,110 

731 

7,201 

15 

2,927 

1,911 

11 

65 



33,704 



292 
821 



549 
68 



24 
48 

292 
1,098 

711 



3913 
4,696 



7 
112 



203 



11, 660 
13,043 
303 
8,961 
12,211 



1,707 
10,756 
92, 965 
20, 810 

20,663 
36, 471 
46, 637 
1,539 
3, 106 

292,668' 
61,291 

146,043 
64, 609 
6,694 
16, 975 
10,708 



221,007 
1,651 

2 200 
379 



480 



41 

1,003 

596 



2737 
1,818 



1,967 
21,037 



1,037 

325 

16 



4,435 

251 

6,022 



1,166 
15 
47 

3,675 
'414 
141 
2,201 
6,456 
27, 991 

1,748 

33, 207 

2,543 

1,590 

399 

5,800 

5 

2,423 

1,938 

1 

9 



9,211 
36,506 
16,143 

4SK. 



■2281, 928 

2 52, 098 
3,856 
8,660 
7,366 



1,454 

107 

5,805 



642 



1,963 
- 473 



451 

2,058 

10,868 

542 

SO, 413 

2,887 

2,392 

205 

3,865 

15 

2,698 

873 



15 



9,642 
50 



85 
77 



712 
83 
119 
317 
215 



106 

*15 



1,229 
17 



17 

247 

4 



33 
93 



2,729 

62,223 

29 

3,884 

1,604 



819 
6,377 
64,398 
1,989 

2,302 

22,776 

10,833 

952 

330 



187,687 

3,350 
2,812 
2,891 



31 
2,860 



517 
5 



1,219 
196 



228 
1,851 
4,134 

206 
8,197 
951 
536 
42 



4 

1,430 

690 



6Does not include carpetmakers (rag); included in 1900 with "'other textile workers 
' Does not include officials of mining and quarrying companies, cla.s8ifled in ■■ °"" ■ ■"' 



isoo with officials of banks and companies, under "trade and transportation.' 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PHECEDINa CENSUSES. 



liii 



COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS AT THE CENSUSES OF 1850 AND 1860. 



A8 previously stated, the occupation inquiry at the 
census of 1850 was confined to free males over 15 years 
of age, and at the census of 1860 was extended to in- 
clude all free persons above that age without distinction 
of sex. The results, therefore, are not strictly compar- 
able with those of later censuses; but for historical pur- 
poses and for convenience of consultation the occupation 
designations reported at these two censuses, numbering 
323 in 1850 and 584 in ^860, with the persons credited 

"^^^""^ IW^Y^l^^o.?'^. PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900. 

AGmcULTTJEAL PUESTJITS. 



thereto, comprising 5,329,506^ free males at the former 
census and 8,235,567 ^ free persons of both sexes at the 
latter, have been arranged under the 140 main groups 
of the 1900 classification in the following table: 

'Not including 42, 370 students and cadets given in the report 
for 1850 as a part of the table of occupations. 

" Not including 51,486 students, nuns, and sisters of charity, 
given in the report for 1860 as a part of the table of occupations. 





1860 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Agricultural laborers 


Farm laborers 


795,679 

1,962 

2,509,456 


0) 




Dairymen and dairywomen 


Dairymen . . . 




Farmers, planters, and overseers 






12,391,013 




Farmers . ; 






2,423,895 
85,561 

23,737 


2,363,958 
27,055 

10,385 




Planters 




Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc 








Florists 


(Gardeners and florists 




458 

21,323 

67 

1,778 

5 

116 

15, 929 

11,151 


8,144 
335 




Gardeners and nurserymen . . 






Horticulturists 






Marketmen 




1,906 




Vine growers 






Vinedressers 






Lumbermen and raftsmen 


Lumbermen 




10,070 
2,435 


Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 








Drovers 






2,477 

399 

6,369 

751 

8 

1,153 

4 

1,353 

3,463 


1,964 




Graziers 


Herdsmen, graziers, and rancheros 






472 








Shearers 






Shepherds 








Wild-horse catchers 






Turpentine fanners and laborers 


Turpentine makers 




507 
1,528 


Wood choppers 








Wood corders 






81 
3,382 

68 


206 
1,322 




Woodcutters 




other agricultural pursuits 








Apiarists 








59 
9 






Thrashers 











PEOrESSIONAL SBBVICB. 



Actors, professional showmen, etc . 



Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc . 



Artists and teachers of art . 



Clergymen .. 

Dentists 

Electricians . 



Actors 

Horse trainers . 

Showmen 

Ventriloquists.. 



Architects . 
Draftsmen. 



Artists 

Sculptors 

Clergymen . . 

Dentists 

Electricians . 



1,768 



1,490 

11 

246 

11 



1,263 
436 



4,616 
213 

37, 629 

5,606 

12 



Actors 

Showmen . 



Architects . 
Draftsmen. 



Artists , 

Sculptors . . . 

Clergymen . 

Dentists 



1 Agricultural laborers probably included with farmers and planters in 1860. 

2 Milkmen classified in 1900 under merchants and dealers (except wholesale). 



765 



691 
189 


2,270 


2,093 

177 


26,842 


2,923 



liv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRA.NGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 



PROrBSSIONAL SERVICE— Continued. 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Housekeepers and stewards 



Janitors and sextons 

Laborers (not specified) . 



Launderers and laundresses . 



DOMESTIC AND PBKSONAL SERVICE. 



Barbers. 



(=) 
Boarding house keepers. 
Innkeepers 



Housekeepers . 

Matrons 

Stewards 



Sextons . 



Cellar diggers . . . 
Cistern builders . 
House movers . . . 

Laborers 

Pavers 

Stevedores 

Well diggers 



Laundresses . 



11,140 



12,148 
25, 818 
22, 918 



22, 393 
228 
297 



971, 723 



1 Includes evidently stationary engineers and possibly 

2 Bartenders probably included in 1850 and 1860 with ' 



4 

6 

2 

969, 301 

892 

502 

1,016 

38,633 

locomotive 
barkeepers. 



Barbers. 



Boarding house keepers. 
Innkeepers 



Sextons. 



Laborers. . . 

Pavers 

Stevedores. 



engineers. 





1800 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Engineers (civil, etc. ) and surveyors 


Civil and mechanical engineers 


127,437 
3,405 




2,126 




Civil engineers,. 




512 






1,614 
1,510 


Journalists 






Editors 


Editors 




2,994 
411 

34,839 


1,372 








Lawyers 




Lawyers 


23,939 








684 

787 

33, 193 

275 

924 






Judges 
















Literary and scientific persons 




547 




Assayers 






61 

2 

216 

574 

2 

3 

65 

7 

4 

10,354 






Astronomers 








Authors 




82 




Chemists 






Explorers 








Geologists 








Librarians 








Naturalists 






Translators 




Musicians and teachers of music 






3,660 




Music teachers 






5,626 
4,729 

32,887 


944 
2,606 

22,847 




Musicians (vocal and instrumental).. . 


Musicians 








Inspectors 






1,097 

24,693 

7,097 

56,169 






Officers (public). 


City, county, and town officers 

United States and state officers 


12,579 
10,268 

40,765 




United States omcers 


Physicians and surgeons '.. 






Chiropodists 






5 

16 

83 

64,643 

512 

112,969 






Oculists 

Physicians 


'ocuiiste.'.'.".'".'!!;;.' '.;;;;;;! ;!.;;;;;;"; 


io 

40,664 
191 

30,530 




Surgeons 




Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 








Professors 






2,600 
110,469 

673 


943 
29,587 

46 




Teachers 




Other professional service 








Dancing masters 

Riding masters 






171 

10 

392 






Veterinarians 


Veterinarians .'.".'!!!"!!!!! 


46 



6,013 



2,564 
22, 476 



436 
910, 973 



909, 786 
673 
514 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



Iv 



Table V.— NUMBEE OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 



DOMESTIC ANT) PERSOlSrAL SEKVICE— Continued. 





18fi0 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Free per- 
Occupation designations. sons over 16 

years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 16 
years. 


Nurses and midwives 




8,403 








Midwives 








271 
8,132 










Restaurant keepers 






Saloon keepers 




14,861 




15,479 




Barkeepers 






U3,263 

287 

21 

1,290 

666,517 






Billiard saloon keepers 






Bowling saloon keepers 






Saloon keepers 




Servants and waiters 




22,243 




Cooks 


Soldiers 






363 

5,256 

559,908 






T>nTnp!.i5t.if*s 






Servants 




Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S. ) 




5,149 


'VVfttf*>TTnPTi, pf>li>e"iPn, firf^Tnen, ptn, . 


Watclimen and messengers 


5 4,759 
1,689 


Watchmen 


2,119 








689 












8 

3 
24 
14 
40 
15 

2 
1,327 

8 
26 
223 






















Bootblacks 












69 








11 












Hunters 


1 


619 




Trappers - 



























TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION. 



Agents , 



Bankers and biokera . 



Boatmen and sailors , 



Bookkeepers and accountants . 
Clerks and copyists 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . 



Foremen and overseers . 



Agents 

Collectors 

Commissioners 

Cotton samplers 

Insurance agents 

Intelligence agents. 

Negro traders 

Real estate agents. . 
Samplers 



Bankers 

Brokers 

Cotton brokers . 
Speculators 



Boatmen 

Canalmen 

ferrymen 

Mariners 

Pilots 

Sailing masters 

Ship masters 

Submarine divers . 

Bookkeepers 



19,194 



16, 478 

1,707 

. 239 

21 

589 

2 

111 

43 

4 

9,644 



2,753 

4,907 

2 

1,982 

101, 860 



Card "writers. 
Clerks 



Carters 

Draymen 

Drivers 

Express riders . 
Expressmen... 
Teamsters 



Overseers 

Wharfingers . 



. 23, 816 

2,699 

234 

67, 360 

8,358 

837 

3,546 

10 

= 2,063 

3 184,496 



11 
184,486 



77, 626 



21, 640 
160 
19, 621 
36 
1,445 
34, 824 

37, 968 



37,883 
86 



Agents 

Collectors . 



m 



Clerks . 



Teamsters . 
Overseers. . 



1 Bartenders probably included in 1850 and 1860 with barkeepers. 

'Messengers classified in 1900 with errand and office boys under "trade and transportation." 

s Bookkeepers and accountants and salesmen and saleswomen probably returned as clerks in 1860 and 1860. 



Bankers 


552 


Brokers 


2 551 












105, 072 


Boatmen 


32,454 








Mariners 


^ 70 603 


Pilots 


2|015 













Carters 


13, 879 




Drivers 


io, 968 
431 









7,767 



6,264 
1,493 



3,103 



40, 747 



15, 469 
18,859 



Ivi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PEBSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

TRADE AND TKAJfSPOBTATION— Continued. 



OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 



Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers . 

Livery stable keepers . . . 



Mercliantfl and dealers (except wholesale)! 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale) J " 



Messengers and errand and ofBce boys. 
Officials of banks and companies 



Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) . 



Salesmen and saleswomen 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters. 



Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen . 



1860 



Occupation designations. 



Ostlers. 



Telegraph and telephone operators Telegraph operators 



Hucksters . 
Peddlers... 



Livery stable keepers . 



Booksellers and stationers . 

Stationers 

Cattle dealers 

Clothiers 

Coal dealers 

Coal oil dealers 

Commission merchants 

Dealers 

Druggists 

Fancy goods dealers 

Fish dealers 

Flour dealers 

Fruiterers 

Furniture dealers 

Furniture merchants 

Furriers 

Qrain dealers 

Grocers 

Hardware dealers 

Horse dealers 

Hosiers 

Ice dealers 

Importers 

Jewelers 

Junk dealers 

Leather dealers 

Lime dealers 

Lumber merchants 

Merchants 

Milkmen 

Music sellers 

Newsmen 

Oil dealers 

Opticians 

Paper dealers 

Pawnbrokers 

Pork dealers 

Produce dealers 

Provision dealers 

Refectory keepers 

Seedsmen 

Ship chandlers 

Shipping merchants 

Shoe dealers 

Stock dealers 

Storekeepers 

Stove dealers 

Taxidermists 

Tea dealers 



Traders 

Wine and liquor dealers. 

Wood dealers 

Wool dealers 



<^) 



Bank officers 

Stage proprietors . 

Packers 



Carriers . 
Porters . 



m 



Railroad men . 



Free per- 
sons over 15 
years, 



8,581 
19,819 



3,225 
16. 594 



5,361 
267, 921 



1,861 

666 

884 

3,346 

341 

4 

3,952 

14, 063 

11,031 

226 

26 

967 

1,984 

74 

9 

785 

8 

40, 070 

95 

879 

426 

866 

648 

10,175 

181 

66 

5 

176 

123,378 

3,439 

276 

943 

430 

113 

21 

3,438 

2,043 

13,054 

2 

67 

21 

686 

249 

7,863 

60 

20 

440 



11, 196 

4,541 

1,228 

392 



3,031 



2,995 
36 



1,921 
10,199 



3, 845 
6,354 



36, 667 



Occupation designations. 



Ostlers 

Peddlers. 



Livery stable keepers . 



■Booksellers and stationers . 

Cattle dealers 

Clothiers 



Dealers 

Apothecaries and druggists . 



Furriers . 
Grocers.. 



Horse dealers . 

Hosiers 

Ice dealers 



Jewelers. 



Merchants- 



Music sellers . 
Newsmen 



(') 



Opticians 

Paper dealers. 
Pawnbrokers . 



■Produce and provision dealers . 
Refectory keepers 



Storekeepers , 



Toymen 

Traders 

Wine and liquor dealers. 

Wood dealers 

Wool dealers 



Bank and insurance officers. 



Packers 

Porters and carriers . 



(=) 



Railroad men . 



1, 956 Telegraph operators 

1 Milkmen combined in 1850 with dairymen. (See agricultural pursuits ) 

2 Messengers combined in 1860 with watchmen under "domestic and personal service " 

8 Bookkeepers and accountants and salesmen and saleswomen probably returned as clerks in 1850 and 1860. 



Free males 
over 16 
years. 



4,029 
10,669 



2,741 
174,102 



1,720 

182 
3,780 



4,604 
6,139 



341 

'24,'479 



186 
217 
219 



6,111 



100, 752 



78 
209 



164 
140 
72 



1,679 
3,226 



3,747 



47 

14,917 

719 

473 

344 



1,375 

622 
8,185 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



Ivii 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

TEADB AND TRANSPORTATION— Continued. 





1860 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
j'ears. 


Undertakers 




835 
12,585 




495 
2,285 


Other persons in trade and transportation 








Auctioneers 






1,348 

1,966 

850 

868 

7,653 






Gate keepers 




1 168 




Gaugers, weighers, and measurers 

Rag collectors 










227 




Steamboat men 











MANtHFACTTTRING AND MECHANICAL PTTRSTJITS. 



Building trades. 
Carpenters and joiners 




264, 690 




211 928 




Carpenters 








242,958 

8,328 

13,392 

12 

63,236 


184,671 
12, 672 




Joiners 






Ship carpenters 




14, 585 




Stair builders 




Masons (brick and stone) 






1 63, 392 




Bricklayers 






14,311 
48,925 

64,339 










Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 




28, 372 




Decorators 






16 

4 

1,503 

474 

660 

51,695 

97 

2,005 

18,119 














Gilders 


(^) 












Japanners 




202 








28,166 
4 




Stencilers 


Stencilers. . . 


Paper hangers 


Paper hangers . . 


Paper hangers and upholsterers 


8 2 592 


Plasterers 














13,116 
3 

6,010 














1,868 




Gas fitters 


Gas fitters 






2,648 
3,362 

1,934 

23,492 

429 


664 




Plnmb^T-q 


Plumbers 


1 304 








429 




Mechanics 


Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . . . 


16,004 
349 


Chemicals and allied products. 






Coal oil makers 








11 
418 

1,827 






Oilmakers 








2,003 












64 

8 

203 

19 
216 
342 

13 
537 

78 
334 

13 

13, 740 


16 














Patent medicine makers 


59 














Perfumers 


132 






Powder manufacturers .. 


2''0 








62 






Saltmakers 


1,026 






Starch manufacturers 


162 








326 










Clay, glass, and stone products. 






11,614 












13, 736 
4 

3,628 






Tilemakers 








3,291 












55 

3,225 

97 

251 

19,825 

3,470 








Glass manufacturers 


3,237 








64 












stone and marble cutters 


Stone and marble cutters 


14,076 


Potters 


Potters 


Potters 


4,165 



' Plasterers combined in 1850 with masons. 

2 Gilders combined in 1850 with carvers under " other woodworkers." 

8 Upholsterers classified in 1900 under " miscellaneous industries." 



Iviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

MANTJFACTUKING AND MECHAJSTICAX PtJESFITS-Continued. 





1860 


1860 


1 OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Fishing and mining. 
Fishermen and oyatermen 


• 


26,766 




11, 269 




Fishermen 


Fishermen .... ... 






21,905 

4,636 

214 

168,167 


9,026 
2,244 










Whalemen 












82,290 




Colliers 


Colliers.. 




6,288 

147,750 

4,119 

19,001 
30,103 


2 948 








77,410 
1,932 

14,256 
17 733 




Quarrymen 


Quarrymen 


Food ana kindred products. 
Bakers 


Bakers 




Butchers 


fiutchera 


Butchers 


Butter and cheese makers 








Confectioners 


Confectioners 


6,?93 

37,281 

965 




3,871 
27,795 


Millers 


Millers 


Millers 










Coffee grinders 








3 

45 

41 

63 

58 

3 

469 

283 

114,001 






Coffee roasters 








Mustardmakers 








Picklers and preservers 








Sausagemakers. 








Spicemakers 








Sugar manufacturers 


Sugar manufacturers 


307 






Vinegar makers 


78 
100, 151 


Iron and steel and their prodiicts. 

■RIn.nlfi?TTn'thH 








Axlemakers 






91 

112,857 

741 

442 

370 

39,822 






■RlftnkaTnit.hs 


Ifilack and white smiths 








99,703 




Farriers 




290 
168 

26, 367 




Springmakers 


Springmakers 


Iron and steel workers 








Agricultural implement makers 

Armorers 


Agricultural implement makers 




12,390 

529 

30 

128 

18 

802 

4,596 

1,370 

829 

8,067 

517,077 

2,065 

425 

72 

65 

292 

290 

176 

100 

41 

4 

2 

2 

135 

114 

203 

43,824 

3,813 

985 


11,313 
469 




Chainmakers 






Diesinkers 








Fire engine builders 




29 




Forgemen 






Foundr ymen 








Iron founders 




9,271 

622 

5,008 

2 7,237 

2,046 




Ironmongers 






Ironworkers 


Ironworkers 




Holders 


Molders 




Nail manufacturers 


Nail manufacturers 




Nailers 






Needlemakers 




21 




Eulemakers 






Safemakers ( iron) 




92 
188 
29 




Scalemakers 






Screwmakers 


Screwmakers 




Sewing machine makers 






Shovelmakers 








Skatemakers 








Smelters 








Spindlemakers 








Steam engine builders 








Steel manufacturers 




42 




Tackmakers 




Machinists 








Steam boiler makers 


Boilermakers 




2J,095 


Stove, furnace, and grate makers 






981 




Gratemakets 


Gratemakers 




129 
856 

4,190 






74 


Tool and cutlery makers 




Stovemakers 


907 




Augermakers 

Axraakers 

Cutlers 

Edge tool makers 


ciitieVs"!!!!!'. '.;;■.'.;;;;!;;;;; ;;;;;;; 

Razormakers 






84 

120 

862 

5 

670 

79 

261 

626 

192 

1,391 






892 

833 




Grinders 

Planemakers 

Sawmakers 

Surgical instrument makers 
Toolmakers 


File cutters 

Planemakers '//. 

Sawmakers 

Surgical instrument makers '. 


291 

377 

644 
207 








1,191 



'Agricultural Implement makers classified in 1900 according to kind of work done na mctjil wnrt ,„r^nrt•,■,„,.k „>„ 
>Molders classified in 1900 under iron and steel workers, brassworkers a^d " other Si wnTwa' ,r°<"J^°'^''' «'«■ 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



lix 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PUBSUITS-Continued. 





1860 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Iron and steel and llielr j)rociuc(s— Continued. 
Wheelwrights 


Wheelwrights 


32,693 
1,445 




30 693 


Wireworkers '.. . 






626 






Hoop skirt makers 








419 
2 
69 
8 
330 
617 

168,172 






Hoopmakers 








Sievemakers 








Wire cloth makers 












174 




Wireworkers 


Wireworkers 


462 


Leather and its finished products. 
Boot and shoe malters and repairers 






130,885 




Shoe binders 


Shoe binders 




3,564 
164, 608 

25,489 


412 




Shoemakers 


Cordwainers 


130,473 
22,779 


Harness and saddle makers and repairers 








Hamemakers 






5 
12,728 
12,756 

15,876 












Saddlers 




Leather curriers and tanners 




16, 9U 










15 
3,548 

12 
1,820 
10, 481 

1,882 






Curriers 
















Morocco dressers 


Morocco dressers 


1,923 
14,988 

1,354 




Tanners and curriers . 


Tanners and curriers 










Pocketbook manufacturers 


Pocketbook manufacturers 




261 
1,621 

539 


193 








1,161 


Liquors and beverages. 






452 












398 
141 

6,307 

2,682 


366 




Mineral water makers 


Mineral water manufacturers 


86 








'4,854 
46 










Distillers 


(') 






2,551 

2 

129 

29,223 
43,886 






Rectifiers 






Winemakers 


Winemakers. . 


46 


Lumber and its remanufactures. 






2 37,359 








43, 794 












43, 624 
262 

20,839 


43, 694 
100 




Stavemakers 


Stavemakers 








15 353 




Blindmakers 


jsash and blind makers 






505 

2,309 

604 

43 

16,000 

2,478 

29, 940 








2,026 








68 




Planers fsteaml 










Sawyers . ' 


11,974 














17,720 




Ax helve makers 






22 

2,862 

13 

484 

1,541 

2,632 

3 

2,841 

4 

2,269 

6,341 

94 

22 

753 

620 

400 

362 

418 

26 

378 








Basketmakers 


1,841 












>Block anti pump makers 








1,973 






Boatbuilders 


2 086 














Calkers 


1,915 










Carvers and gilders 


n,742 






c) 






103 
























143 






Lastmakers 


383 








233 






Matchmakers - 


250 












Organ builders 


Organ builders 


242 



1 Distillers combined in 1850 with brewers. 

2 chairmakers combined in 1850 with cabinetmakers. 



8 Gilders combined in 1850 with carvers under ' ' other woodworkers.' 



k 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table V.— NaMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

MANtlTACTtrKrNG AND MECHAJflCAL PXTRSTJITS-Continued. 



OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 



iMm6er and its remanM/acto'es— Continued. 
Other woodworkers — Continued. 



Metals and metal products other than iron and steel. 
Brassworkers 



Clock and watch makers and repairers. , 



Gold and silver workers. 



Tin plate and tinware makers . 
Other metal workers 



Paper and printing. 



Bookbinders. 



Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives. 



Printers, lithographers, and pressmen . 



Textiles. 
Bleachery and dye works operatives- 



Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives. 



1860 



Occupation designations. 



Pianoforte makers . 



Reed workers 

Riggers ; 

Saddletree makers 

Shoe peg makers 

Shuttlemakers 

Spokemakers 

Turners (metal, ivory, and wood) 
Willow workers 



Bell founders... 
Brass founders . 
Brassworkers. . . 



Casemakers ... 
Clockmakers . . 
Watchmakers . 



Gold beaters. 



Goldsmiths . . 
Silversmiths, 
Lapidaries... 

Tinsmiths ... 



Bell hangers 

Locksmiths 

Britannia workers 

Chandelier makers 

Coiners 

Copper rollers 

Copper workers 

Coppersmiths 

Gunsmiths 

Lead smelters 

Lead workers 

Lightning rod makers. 

Platers 

Shipsmiths 

Spoonmakers 

Tnimblemakers 

Type cutters 

Type founders 

Zinc manufacturers . . . 



Bookbinders 

Book and document folders. 



Boxmakers. 
Engravers - . 



Envelope makers 

Paper manufacturers. 



Block printers. 
Electrotypers.. 
Lithographers. 
Paper rulers... 

Printers 

Stereotypers... 



Bleachers 

Dyers and scourers . 

Carpetmakers 



Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 



Knitters . 



2,359 

4 

1,210 

112 

108 

29 

15 

4,027 

2 



2,609 



69 

939 

1,601 

5,835 



131 
1,157 
4,547 



354 



519 

3,205 

61 

17,412 

12, 161 



113 

2,234 

334 

3 

35 

24 

21 

1,919 

4,611 

42 

74 

164 

1,745 

180 

173 

2 

98 

421 

68 

6,360 



6,010 
350 

22, 634 

2,768 

4,772 



194 
4,578 



23,766 



19 

4 

386 

95 

23,106 

156 



3,867 



519 
3,348 

1,481 



1850 



Occupation designations. 



Pianoforte and musical instrument 
makers. 



Riggers 

Shoe peg makers . 



Turners . 



•Bell and brass founders 

Brass and composition workers . 



Clockmakers . . 
Watchmakers . 



Gold beaters 

Gold pen makers 

-Gold and silver smiths . 

Lapidaries 

Tinsmiths - 



Bell hangers and locksmiths . 



Coppersmiths. 
Gunsmiths 



Lead workers 

Lightning rod makers. 
Platers 



Spoon manufacturers. 



Type cutters. . . 
Type founders. 



Bookbinders . 



Boxmakers 

Engravers 

Paper manufacturers. 



Paper rulers.. 

Printers 

Stereotypists . 



/Dyers and bleachers. 
IScourers 



Carpetmakers . 



1 Musical instrument makers (not specified) classified in 1900 with " other miscellaneous industries.' 

2 Not separated in 1850 and 1860 as to paper and ■wooden box makers. 



Free males 
over 15 
years. 



11,822 



1,116 
""4» 



1,926 



1,363 
573 



1,181 
2,901 



3,407 



229 
68 

3,082 

28 

11, 747 

8,964 



2,101 



1,760 
3,843 



106 
13 

685 



213 
211 



3,414 

2940 
2,208 
2,971 



22 

14, 740 

124 



3,280 



3,241 
39 

1,218 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDINO CENSUSES. 



Ixi 



Table V.— NUMBER OP PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 



MANITFACT 


UniNG AND MECHANICAL PTIBSiriTS— Continued. 






1860 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 15 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Textiles— Continued. 
Silk mill operatives 




439 








Silk manufacturers 








415 
24 

2,430 






Silk operatives 




Woolen mill operatives 




3,266 




Carders 






106 

14 

2,335 

75 

49,969 






Cloth finishers 






"Wool combers and carders . 










Other textile mill operatives 




40,951 




Bagmakers 






77 

321 

364 

2,261 

281 

42 

202 

3 

414 

3 

9,358 

38 

9 

397 

36, 178 

21 

36,165 

12,530 






Calico printers . . 




226 






mope and cord makers 






Ropemakers 














147 




Hempdressers 


Hemp dressers 


62 




Matmakers .... 


Matmakers 


61 












Oilnlot.h mnnnfflp.t.nTPTs 


Oilclotli manufacturers 


388 
















6,692 




Threadmakers . 






Twinemakers 








Warpers 


Warpers 


303 




Weavers ... 


Weavers . 


31,872 


















Hat and cap makers 




Hat and cap manufacturers 


11, 024 








28 

855 

11,647 

25,722 

90,959 












Hatters 










Seamstresses 










Seamstresses 








90,198 
761 

897 






pifirtm»^lf*^''s 














Tailors 






22 
375 

101,868 

4,025 












Tailors and tailoresses 


52, 069 








2,486 












47 

285 

656 

353 

19 

4 

2,359 

264 

38 

3,027 


















112 






Lace manufacturers 


192 






















Sailmakers 


2,182 
















Miscellaneous industries. 






2,747 






Broom-makers 






1,288 
1,739 

1,659 


1,244 








1,503 
1,172 












Charcoal burners 






203 
1,466 

513 


159 








1,013 








11,821 




('' 


Engineers 








11, 626 
195 




513 

753 

22,760 


Firemen 






Glovers 


247 








22,616 




Bridge builders 








417 

31 

2,911 

3,120 

16 

117 

917 
2 


270 












1,227 








1,999 
















8 






Publishers '.... 


365 




Treasurers 







lEngineers included in 1860 with civil and mechanical engineers under "engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors." (See professional service.) 



Ixii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table V.— NUMBER OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 

MA^rrTACTTTBrfTG AND MECHANICAL PTJHSTJTTS— Continued. 



OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 



MiscellaTieous industries — Continued. 
Manufacturers and ofBcials, etc.— Continued. 



Model and pattern makers . 



Photographers . 



Rubber factory operatives. . 



Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . 



Upholsterers . 



Other miscellaneous industries . 



1860 



Occupation designations. 



Manufacturers: 

Arrowroot 

Blacking 

Bonnet 

Chalk 

Chocolate 

Cloth 

Coffee mill 

Cotton cloth 

Fluid 

Gas fixture 

Hardware 

Hook and eye 

Hydraulic ram . . . 

Inkstand 

Iron railing 

Lard 

Lard oil 

Linseed oil 

- Patent leather 

Pin 

Porcelain 

Pot and pearl ash. 

Rosin 

Show case 

Soda 

White lead 

Whiting 

Woodenware 

Woolen . 



Not specified . 



Modelmakers. . . 
Patternmakers . 



Daguerreotypists . 
Photographers . . . 



India rubber manufacturers. 
India rubber workers 



Tobacco cutters 

Tobacco manufacturers . 
Tobacconists 



Mattressmakers . 

Trimmers 

Upholsterers 



Apprentices 

Artificial flower makers 

Artificial limb makers 

Artificial teeth makers 

Astronomical instrument maker.s . . 
Mathematical instrument makers . 

Nautical instrument makers 

Bellowsmakers 

Bucklemakers " 

Buttonmakers " 

Car builders 

Cardmakers 

Cementmakers ][ 

Chandlers ['_ 

Coaohmakers 

Combmakers 

Corsetmakers ,] 

Cotton gin makers ,' 

Enamelers 

Factory hands .,, 

Faucetmakers 

Filtermakers 

Finishers '_ 

Firework makers 

Furnishers 

Gasmakers [[] 

Globemakers [' 

Gluemakers .,, 

Grindstone makers 

Millstone makers ..'. 



Free per 

sons over 15 

years. 



11 

50 

208 

4 

17 

127 

1 

335 

5 

29 

801 

2 

7 

2 

2 

2 

19 

36 

93 

36 

25 

147 

2 

3 

12 

45 

9 

736 

1,170 

11,283 

2,729 



143 
2,586 



3,164 



2,660 
504 



468 



208 
260 

21, 490 



22 

66 

21,413 

7,035 



14 
3,822 
3,199 

262, 146 



56, 326 

600 

6 

168 

81 

161 

26 

60 

25 

778 

477 

137 

67 

2,971 

19, 180 

689 

37 

21 

66 

87,289 

5 

4 

1,139 

88 

6 

464 



1 Upholsterers combined in 1850 with paper hangers under 



216 
28 
10 



1860 



Occupation designations. 



Manufacturers: 
Blacking . . . 



Free males 
over 15 
years. 



Chocolate . 
Cloth 



Cotton 

Hardware . 



Linseed oil 

Patent leather 

Pin 

Porcelain 

Pot and pearl ash . 



White lead 

Whiting 

Woodenware 

Woolen 

Not otherwise specified. 



Modelmakers. . . 
Patternmakers . 



Daguerreotypists . 



India rubber manufacturers. 



Tobacconists and cigarmakers . 



Trimmers . 



(') 



Apprentices 

Artificial flower makers. 



Astronomical, mathematical, and nau- 
tical instrument makers. 

Bellowsmakers 



Buttonmakers. 



Card manufacturers. 

Cementmakers 

Chandlers 

Coachmakers 

Combmakers 

Cotton gin makers . . 

Enamelers 

Factory hands 



Firework makers. 
Gasmakers [1 



Gluemakers !'!!!"!!!!!!.!!.' 

JGrindstone and millstone makers, 
'building trades." 



29 

253 



522 

'sis 



32 
157 
21 
13 

164 



13 

656 

1,007 

15,091 

1,467 



93 

1,374 



153 



10,823 



1,238 



1,238 



72,259 



1,84& 
45 



390 



87 

29 

2,388 

14,049 

1,786 

. . .... 

12 

10, 869 



115 
"i48 



144 
45 



COMPARISON AT TWELFTH AND PRECEDING CENSUSES. 



Ixiii 



Table V.— NUMBEE OF PERSONS CREDITED TO THE VARIOUS OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS USED AT THE CEN- 
SUSES OF 1850 AND 1860, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS IN 1900— Cont'd. 



MANTXFACTTJRIIirG AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS— Continued. 





1860 


1850 


OCCUPATION DESIGNATIONS IN 1900. 


Occupation designations. 


Free per- 
sons over 16 
years. 


Occupation designations. 


Free males 
over 15 
years. 


Miscellaneous industries— ContinaeA. 
Other miscellaneous industries— Continued. 


Hair workers 


444 
9 

163 
2 
4 

437 
23 

123 
9,063 

169 

754 
8 

827 
13 
5 

230 

68 

144 

147 

167 

340 

85 

366 

15 

2 

5 

71 

2,287 

26 

26 

5 

19 

768 

7 

238 

6 


Hair workers .... 


299 




Hosemakers 








Ink manufacturers 


Ink manufacturers 


348 




Instrument makers 






Knobmakers 














Lathemakers 
















Millwrights 


Millwrights 


9,613 




Moldmakers 








Musical instrument makers 


(1) 






Ornament makers 














Paper tube^ makers '. 


















fPenmakers 


56 




tPencilmakers 






Philosophical instrument makers 






Philosophical instrument makers 


663 




Pipemakers 


Pippmfl.lrPTsi 


73 








82 












Razor strop makers 


Razor strop makers . - 


24 




Refiners 


Refiners 


352 












Sleighmakers 








Stencil plate makers 
























Suspender makers 


Suspender makers 


63 












Tarpaulin makers 








Trussmakers 












722 
















1,550 


















"Whipmakers 


965 

1,574 

16 

83 

62, 872 


Whipmakers 


633 




Whitewashers 


Whitewashers 


419 




















Other occupations and unknown 


Other occupations 


22 159 









1 Musical instrument makers combined in 1850 with pianoforte makers, under ' ' other woodworkers.' 



All designations of "manufacturers" in 1850 and 
1860 have not been assigned in Table v to the 1900 
occupation group of "manufacturers and officials." 
Those designations for which the number of persons 
reported indicated that the emploA'ees of manufacturing 
establishments were included have been assigned to 
other groups, as, paper manufacturers to paper and 
pulp mill operatives, silk manufacturers to silk mill 
operatives, etc. 

The returns of occupations at the censuses of 1850 
and 1860 were not very satisfactory, either as to their 
completeness or the detail in which the occupations 
were stated. This was particularly the case in 1850, 
and the presentation of the occupation tables was 
accompanied by the following explanatory remarks:' 

It is much to be regretted that no better exposition could be 
made in this publication of the employments of the people of the 
United States. * * * The tables which are given include only 
the free males over 15 years of age, differing from those of previous 
returns, which include the females also. It is easy, at a glance, to 
detect the frequent deficiencies of the figures. States are returned 

'■ Seventh Census, pages Ixvi and 1015. 



with an aggregate of certain occupations greatly short of what is 
known to be the fact, and what can be proved by local directories 
and registers. Occupations are not mentioned, which, in the same 
manner, are ascertained to exist. A small state will approximate 
to the number of a large one, in occupations that are known to 
obtain in very nearly equal proportions in all of the states. The 
ratio of occupations to the whole number of males over 15 years of 
age in the several states varies, without regard to, and even in 
spite of, known rules. The occupations on the population' sheet 
differ widely, more widely than was called for, from those collected 
on the sheets of industry, and aggregated and annexed, etc. 

The heading " other occupations " will account for some of these 
discrepancies. Under it are absorbed a great variety of minor 
employments, which being in number too few for a state, were 
thought to be better placed under this head than under any specific 
ones. The carelessness of the enumerators accounts for others; 
but more are explained in reflecting how many occupations often 
belong to the same person, who, in returning them, will not be 
very apt to follow any general rule, though instructed to do so. 

Had the heading " other occupations" not been already adopted, 
and a very large portion of the work arranged under it, the Super- 
intendent would have excluded it, and separated each employment 
by itself, however unimportant; or if this had not been practicable, 
would have laid down a rule for condensation, and, in a note, 
enumerated all of the employments which were disposed of thus. 
Such a course would have been pursued in any case, whatever the 



Ixiv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



labor involved, if the table' which follows, and which is arranged 
under certain limited classes, could have been by that means per- 
fected. The difficulty was still existing — altogether incapable of 
removal — of separating the laborers so as to show how many were 
agricultural, nonagricultural, or engaged in the services of com- 
merce, etc. All that could be done was to arrange the data to the 
best advantage, and to indicate by the notes, for the information of 
the reader, how that arrangement or reclassification was made. In 
general, it is assumed, for these purposes, that the laborers are not 
agricultural, though, without question, a great many are, and ' ' other 
occupations" are taken to include only persons that are employed 
in trade or manufactures. This arrangement will be more nearly 
correct than any other. The reader can judge for himself, how- 
ever, and frame any other tables if he prefers. The subject will 
receive attention again. 

***** 

In the construction of this table (Table x, for each state and 
territory) it was deemed advisable to follow as closely as possible 
the returns of the assistant marshals, notwithstanding some diffi- 
culties occurred which seemed to require a greater condensation of 
the headings. The principal one arises from the fact that fre- 
quently two or more occupations are united under one general 
business, in which case the assistant marshal generally returns the 
individual as following that particular employment which is the 
most common or important, and consequently the incidental pur- 
suit is not shown in the table. An enumeration of some of these 
headings which might have been condensed will at once show the 
mode of rendering them consistent, viz: "Cabinet and chair mak- 
ers," and "undertakers"; "carpenters," "joiners," and "build- 
ers"; " clock and watch makers, " and " j e welers " ; " copper and tin 
smiths"; "dairymen" and "milkmen"; "drivers," "carters, "and 
' ' teamsters " ; " machinists ' ' and ' ' engine manufacturers " ; " plough 

' Seventh Census, Table li, page Ixxx. 



makers" and "agricultural implement makers"; "refectory keep- 
ers," "barkeepers," etc.; "lath, shingle, and stave makers"; etc. 
Another apparent discrepancy results from the fact that frequently 
one individual has two distinct pursuits, or a regular and incidental 
occupation. This case includes almost all holders of small offices, 
whose regular pursuit is given by the assistant marshal, but whose 
official occupation is lost. This will account for the small number 
of "bank officers," "insurance company officers," "city, county, 
and town officers," etc. A third difficulty is, that the officers have 
frequently returned the employees and operatives of large manu- 
facturing establishments as "laborers," and consequently the 
"factory hands" are not sufficiently represented in the tables. 
To supply this deficiency, there is attached to each of the tables a 
brief statement of the numbers of male hands employed in several 
of the leading interests, as shown by the industrial schedules. 

The report for 1860 contains no statement relative to 
the sufficiency or explicitness of the occupation returns, 
but the Superintendent of the Ninth Census (1870),^ in 
commenting upon the return of occupations under gen- 
eral and unmeaning terms, says: 

In the census of 1860 the occurrence of these vague and unsatis- 
factory terms was so frequent that the utmost efforts in compila- 
tion could not have succeeded in removing tens of thousands of 
cases where, from the specification of the occupation, it was impos- 
sible to judge to which of the great branches of industry — manu- 
factures, agriculture, mining, commerce, or professional life — the 
person reported belonged; or to avoid tens of thousands more 
where, the great branch of industry being determined, it was 
entirely impossible to say to which of its principal departments he 
should be assigned. 

^ Ninth Census, Report on Population, page xxxiii. 



OHAPTEE III. 
SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 

SUFFICIENCY OF THE OCCUPATION RETURNS. 



The return of occupations has been made at each of 
the last four censuses with reference to persons of each 
sex 10 years of age and over, but, for reasons already 
explained,^ this discussion is confined to the results 
shown for the last three censuses only, namely, 1880, 
1890, and 1900. 

The differences in the age and sex constitution of the 
population affect to a greater or less extent the propor- 
tions of workers reported in the several states and ter- 
ritories. Some of the variations which occur may be 
due to the manner in which the enumeration was made 
in the various sections of the country, either at the same 
census or at different censuses. It is essential at the 
very outset of this discussion, therefore, to make a com- 
parison for continental United States, as shown by Table 
VI below, of the proportion of males and of females 10 

' Chapter II, page xxxiii. 



years of age and over reported as engaged in gainful 
occupations in each state and territory, at each of the 
last three censuses, in order to establish, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the relative sufficiency of the occupation returns 
at these periods. 

An inspection of the percentages contained in Table vi 
shows that, while many of the variations in the pro- 
portions of workers can be ascribed very properly to 
differences of age and sex, the greatly decreased pro- 
portion of workers in many of the states and territories 
in 1890, as compared with 1880 and 1900, suggest the 
possibility of a deficiency in the returns of occupations 
in such cases, affecting certain classes of gainful workers 
and possibly one or more occupation groups. Accord- 
ingly, the variations above noted were analyzed and 
found to be most pronounced in the returns for chil- 
dren at work as agricultural laborers, as hereinafter 
explained. 



Table VI.— PER CENT WHICH THE NUMBER OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 
FORMS OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRI- 
TORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. > 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERBITOKIES. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 




80.0 


77.3 


78.7 


18.8 


17.0 


14.7 


North Central division— Continued. 
Minnesota 


77.7 
76.4 
79.0 
78.5 
75.1 
76.2 
76.1 

81.9 


77.1 

73.0 

74.3 

80.51 

77.0/ 

76.2 

72.3 

74.7 


74.8 
77.5 
77.1 

'85.5 

78.5 
78.0 

81.2 


16.2 
13.1 
13.6 
114.5 
111. 8 
12.6 
10.4 

19.6 


14.9 
11.7 
11.8 
14.2 
11.1 
12.4 
9.2 

17.3 










80.8 


80.3 


78.4 


22.1 


20.5 


17.0 






Norfti Atlantic division 


Missouri 


8.5 


Maine 


78.6 
81.3 
78.7 
80.1 
82.9 
81.3 
80.8 
81.6 
81.0 

81.4 


78.0 
82.0 
78.9 
81.1 
83.2 
81.7 
80.6 
80.8 
79.3 

76.5 


76.7 
80.4 
77.6 
80.2 
83.0 
79.5 
78.2 
77.4 
77.9 

81.9 


18.6 
24.6 
16.7 
28.1 
29.6 
24.3 
23.0 
20.8 
18.0 

23.8 


16.7 
23.1 
15.0 
27.6 
29.3 
23.1 
21.1 
19.4 
16.2 

21.2 


12.8 
20.6 
12.2 
23.2 
25.9 
19.1 
17.7 
15.2 
13.5 

20.7 


North Dakota 


}i8.0 

7.6 
6.1 






Vermont 








Rhode Island 


17.6 


Connecticut 




New York 


80.1 
81.9 
86.4 
84.5 
81.5 
79.0 
81.4 
77.5 
84.2 

80.7 


73.0 
73.9 
77.4 
74.8 
79.6 
73.4 


79.4 
74.6 
89.0 
81.2 
83.3 
81.4 


13.6 
15.8 
30.6 
32.7 
26.6 
13.6 
9.8 
7.9 
17.3 

14.5 


12.4 
12.7 
24.2 
27.7 
27.2 
11.7 


9.4 
10.5 
28.3 
29 2 


New Jersey 




Pennsylvania 






Mississippi 


South Atlantic division 




29.1 




Texas 




80.7 
79.0 
79.0 
79.0 
80.0 
84.1 
83.8 
82.5 
80.7 

77.7 


80.1 
78.6 
77.8 
74.4 
71.8 
75.4 
78.7 
78.5 
75.2 

75.5 


83.3 
77.8 
74.0 
79.6 
75.7 
84.5 
83.9 
87.4 
78.9 

76.1 


18.2 
21.3 
33.4 
18.3 
9.3 
23.4 
38.0 
27.5 
20.6 

14.3 


16.0 
20.9 
32.2 
17.3 
8.1 
19.6 
31.8 
24.4 
19.4 

12.5 


14.5 
16.6 
26.8 
15.3 
5.5 
17.6 
35.0 
28.5 
19.5 

8.8 










Maryland 


Oklahoma 


76.9 
72.5 

t2.8 


"82." 7" 
82.1 


5.6 
12.9 

13.3 








12.1 


Virginia 


Western division 




9.0 










84 9 


89.4 
87.9 
85.2 
81.1 
83.6 
75.0 
86.1 
82.6 
85.3 
79.2 
82.1 


88.6 
70.5 
87.0 
79.9 
89.8 
73.5 
84.9 
85.4 
80.5 
79.7 
81.9 


14.5 
12.3 
14.9 

9.8 
18.3 
11.2 
15.2 

9.4 
13.0 
13.3 
16.5 


14.4 
12.6 
15.3 
7.8 
9.6 
10.6 
14.2 
8.4 
11.6 
11.0 
15.1 


6.8 






86.5 
80.1 
77.7 
81.7 
73.1 
81.6 
80.8 
82.4 
79.6 
80.9 




Colorado 


10 1 




New Mexico 


5 7 












6.2 
10.4 




78.1 
77.7 
78.5 
78.6 
76.0 


75.5 
74.7 
76.5 
78.0 
75 3 


72.9 
77.6 
75.9 
78.0 
73 7 


15.1 
12.1 
16.3 
14.6 
15.5 


13.0 
10.4 
14.3 
12.5 
13.5 


9.5 
7.2 
9.7 
9.6 
10.0 






Idaho 


4 1 




Washington ." 


5.4 




Oregon 


5 6 




California 


11 













1 Dakota territory. 



23054—04- 



(Ixv) 



Ixvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



PROBABLE DEFICIENCY IN NUMBER OF CHILDREN 
REPORTED AS AT WORK IN 1890. 

In the discussion relating to occupations in the Report 
on Population for 1890, attention was called to the 
marked decrease shown in the proportion of per- 
sons 10 to 14 years of age at work, as compared 
with the proportion of those 10 to 15 years of age 
at the preceding census; but as the instructions to 
enumerators in 1890 were practically the same as those 
which had been prepared by Gen. F. A. Walker, 
Superintendent of the Tenth Census, and used by him 
in 1880, there did not appear to be any good reas6n for 
doubting the accuracy of the returns for 1890. More- 
over, confidence in these returns was strengthened by 
the fact that the changes they seemed to indicate were 
such as might easilj'' have occurred, and possible rea- 
sons for these variations were suggested in the report 
for 1890. But when the figures for the succeeding 
census (1900) became available, an analysis of the 
returns for 1890, in the light of those for both 1880 
and 1900, at once revealed the fact that the abrupt 
change shown in 1890 was not maintained in 1900; on 
the contrary, the proportion of children from 10 to 15 
years of age who were at work in 1900 showed signifi- 
cant uniformity with the proportion in 1880, especially 
in the Southern states, in which the supposed change 
in 1890 was most pronounced. It appeared not un- 
likely, therefore, that the census of 1890 understated the 
number of children from 10 to 14 years of age gain- 
fully occupied. 

It is to be regretted that the age period representing 
children employed in 1890 (10 to 14) differs slightly 
from that used in 1880 and 1900 (10 to 15), because no re- 
adjustment of figures can make the three census periods 
comparable with absolute accuracy. But even if allow- 
ance be made for some variation due to this cause, there 
still remains so marked a difference in the figures for 
1890, as compared with those for 1880 and 1900, that 
some other explanation is demanded. From a careful 
study of such facts as are available, the following con- 
clusions appear to be justified: 

1. The similarity of the proportions, in all states and 
territories, of persons between 10 and 15 years of age 
gainfully employed in 1880 and 1900 proves that there 
has been no marked change in this age group during 
the twenty-year period. Therefore the marked defi- 
ciency in the proportion of persons from 10 to 14 years 
of age gainfully employed in 1890 should be regarded 
as probably erroneous. 

2. This deficiency was practically confined to agricul- 
tural pursuits, and within this main class to agricul- 
tural laborers; it was most marked in the Southern 
states, and for the entire country appears to have been 
considerably more than half a million. 

3. By using, for 1890, the mean between figures based 
upon the proportions of each sex from 10 to 15 years of 
age at work in 1880 and 1900 for each state and terri- 



tory, the total number of agricultural laborers is in- 
creased by 582,522. The use of this mean is justified 
by the facts, and produces figures more trustworthy 
than the actual returns for 1890. 

ANALYSIS OF RETURNS FOR 1890. 

As the figures for the number of children gainfully 
occupied in 1900 were prepared for both the 10 to 14 
and 10 to 15 age periods, it is possible to make an exact 
comparison of the former with the returns for 1890, 
and of the latter with those for 1880. This is done in 
Table vii, in which the relative importance of the 
number of children engaged in gainful occupations at 
each census is clearly shown. 

Table VII. — Number of children engaged in gainful occupations com- 
pared with the total number of children of the same age, for both sexes 
and for each sex separately : 1880, 1890, and 1900. 

A.— CHILDREN 10 TO 14 TEARS OF AGE. 





SEX AND CENSDS YEAKS. 


Total. 


ENGAGED IN GAIN- 
FUL OCCCPATIONS. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


1900>... 


Both sexes. 


8,080,234 
7,033,509 

4,083,041 
3,574,787 

3, 997, 193 
3,458,722 


1,197,324 
603,013 

875,342 
400,686 

321,982 
202,427 


14.8 


1890. - 


8.6 


1900' 


Males. 


21 4 


1890 


11 2 


19001... 


Females. 


8.1 


1890 


6 9 







B.— CHILDREN 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE. 





Both sexes. 








19001 




9,613,252 
6,649,483 


1,750,178 




1880 






Males. 






19001 




4,852,427 
3,376,114 


1,264,-lU 
825, 187 


26 1 


1880 


24 4 




Females. 




19001 




4,760,825 
3,273,369 


485, 767 
293, 169 




1880 


9 







1 For continental United States. 

In Table vii the upper portion shows, for 1890 and 
1900, the total number of children from 10 to 14 years 
of age and the number and per cent reported as gain- 
fully employed. The difference in the percentages 
here shown is very marked, the change for males being 
especially noticeable. 

The lower portion of the table shows, for 1880 and 
1900, corresponding figures for children from 10 to 15 
years of age. The differences between the percentages 
for 1880 and 1900 herein shown are insignificant, indi- 
cating clearly that the marked decrease in the number 
of children from 10 to 14 years of age gainfully occu- 
pied in 1890, as shown by the returns for that census, 
can not be regarded as normal. 

When the general facts indicated in Table vii were 
analyzed for each state and territory separately, it 
was found that in the North Atlantic states, with the 
exception of Maine, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, the 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixvii 



returns showed a larger proportion of children at work 
in 1890 than in 1900; that in the Southern states the 
returns were very incomplete for both males and fe- 
males; and that in the North Central and Western 
states they were noticeably defective for males. 



The extent to which the returns of children from 10 
to 14 years of age at work in 1890 appear to have been 
deficient in different sections of the country is revealed 
by a comparison with similar figures for 1900, in the 
following table: 



Table Vm.— NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 
COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND AGE, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1890 
AND 1900. 





MALES 10 TO 14 YEAKE 

1900. 


OP age: 


MALES 10 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE: 

1890. 


FEMALES 10 TO 14 YEAES OF AGE: 

1900. 


FEMALES 10 TO 14 YEABS OF AGE; 
1890. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
iul occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
fuloccupations. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Continental United States 


4,083,041 


875,342 


21.4 


3,574,787 


400,686 


11.2 


3,997,193 


321,982 


8.1 


3,458,722 


202,427 


5.9 


North Atlantic division 


957,414 


99,640 


10.4 


842,596 


78,087 


9.3 


950,769 


52,711 


6.5 


824,238 


41,148 


6.0 




30,782 
16,350 
16,331 

114, 122 
18,212 
38,321 

322,541 
86,789 

314,966 

632, 576 


1,965 
1,282 
817 
5,966 
2,612 
2,702 

23,816 
9,386 

51,094 

239,607 


6.4 
7.8 
5.3 
5.2 
14.3 
7.1 
7.4 
10.8 
16.2 

37.9 


31, 967 
16,410 
16,442 
96,693 
15,918 
33,524 

279,909 
71, 861 

279,872 

596,793 


1,322 
1,410 
1,004 
6,812 
3,086 
2,634 

22,441 
7,388 

32,990 

128,848 


4.1 
8.6 
6.1 
6.0 
19.4 
7.9 
8.0 
10.3 
11.8 

21.6 


29,625 
16,647 
14,848 

115,208 
18,527 
38,034 

321,247 
87,668 

309,275 

616,216 


1,018 

988 

339 

4,390 

1,981 

1,886 

16,304 

5,826 

19,979 

103, 821 


3.4 
6.0 
2,3 
3.8 
10.7 
5.0 
6.1 
6.7 
6.5 

16.9 


30,408 
15,908 
15,202 
95,636 
16,960 
32,568 

275,269 
70,904 

272,484 

673,063 


861 
976 
455 
3,904 
2,391 
1,693 
14,073 
4,143 
12, 652 

68,452 


2 8 


New Hampstiire 


6.1 




3.0 




4.1 




15.0 


Connecticut 


5.2 




5.1 


New Jersey 


8.8 




4.6 


Soutli Atlantic division 


11.9 


Delaware 


9,538 
63,526 
10, 963 

111,517 
56,708 

119,436 
88,697 

141,202 
30,999 

1,417,469 


1,786 
10,731 
697 
32,769 
16,635 
62,445 
45,088 
60,870 

8,686 

172,169 


18.7 
16.9 
6.4 
29.4 
29.3 
52.3 
50.8 
43.1 
27.7 

12.1 


9,566 
58,426 
11, 217 

112,600 
49, 742 

112,621 
85,255 

130, 642 
26,824 

1, 248, 364 


1,486 

7,647 

844 

18,515 

3,566 
27,704 
28,416 
87, 394 

3,887 

59,311 


15.5 
12.9 

7.5 
16.5 

7.1 
24.6 
33.3 
28.6 
13.1 

4.8 


9,208 
62,691 
11,781 

109,320 
54,021 

116,889 
86,666 

136,663 
29,976. 

1,388,613 


660 

4,746 

385 

7,738 

1,693 

25,541 

31,199 

28,748 

3,111 

41,098 


7.2 
7.6 
3.3 
7.1 
3.1 
22.0 
36.4 
21.0 
10.4 

3.0 


8,984 
57, 600 
11,635 

108,499 
47,905 

108,884 
80,827 

124,019 
24,710 

1,211,715 


666 

4,034 

533 

7,873 

1,068 

13,668 

18,939 

19,980 

1,791 

28,520 


6.3 




7.0 


District of Columbia 


4.6 
7.3 


West Virginia 


2.2 




12.6 


Sontli Carolina 


23.4 




16.1 


Florida 


7.2 


Nortli Central division 


2.4 






OMo 


209,149 

133,640 

248,639 

124, 919 

116,963 

97,206 

121,662 

175,600 

18, 193 

24, 396 

61,690 

85,413 

883, 686 


• 17,289 

16, 101 

29,140 

9,476 

10, 786 

10,000 

14, 718 

36,316 

2,029 

4,183 

7,918 

14,213 

349,841 


8.3 
12.0 
11.7 
7.6 
9.2 
10.3 
12.1 
20.7 
11.2 
17.1 
12.8 
16.6 

39.6 


201,062 

123,170 

202, 061 

111,438 

94,732 

70,094 

111,138 

160, 014 

9,303 

18,174 

59,877 

87,311 

747, 683 


9,702 
6,087 
12,016 
5,353 
4,617 
2,690 
4,028 
9,561 
490 
804 
2,539 
2,424 

127,654 


4.8 
4.1 
5.9 
4.8 
4.9 
3.8 
3.6 
6.0 
5.3 
4.4 
4.2 
2.8 

17.1 


205,698 

131,182 

246, 241 

122,698 

116,149 

94, 859 

117,887 

171, 665 

17,314 

22,903 

60,063 

82,864 

854,701 


5,833 
2,809 
9,642 
3,126 
4,843 
3,149 
2,529 
5,093 
604 
824 
1,384 
1,262 

121,311 


2.8 
2,1 
3.9 
2.5 
4.2 
3.3 
2.1 
3.0 
3.6 
3.6 
2.3 
1.6 

14.2 


195,470 

119,906 

198,626 

108, 789 

93,127 

68,546 

107,043 

155, 489 

8,326 

16,820 

56,671 

82,904 

713,605 


4,812 
2,226 
6,281 
2,561 
2,818 
1,770 
1,791 
3,643 
246 
310 
1,060 
1,0U3 

62,094 


2.5 


Indiana . .. 


1.9 




3.2 


Michigan 


2.4 




3.0 


Minnesot-a 


2.6 




1.7 


^Missouri 


2.3 




3.0 


South Dakota 


. 1.8 


Nebraska 


1.9 




1.2 




8.7 






Kentucky 


127,667 
124,492 
116,236 
100,970 
86,573 
194,483 
25, 696 
24,246 
84,334 

191,896 


40,686 
49,426 
65,188 
51,621 
30,534 
56,675 
10,201 
5,697 
39,914 

14,085 


31.9 
39.7 
56.1 
51.1 
36.7 
29.1 
39.7 
23.1 
47.3 

7.3 


118,395 
119,677 
106,742 
93,475 
74,107 
153, 124 


11,831 
17,309 
30,320 
21,023 
19, 829 
15,444 


10.0 
14.5 
28.4 
22.5 
26.8 
10.1 


123,996 
119, 281 
112,449 
97,095 
83,812 
188,694 
24,211 
23,016 
82, 147 

187,996 


4,913 
9,693 
33,865 
27,437 
16,800 
13, 983 
1,787 
380 
12,453 

3,041 


4.0 

8.1 

30.1 

28.3 

20.0 

7.4 

7.4 

1.7 

15.2 

1.6 


113,387 
113,246 
101,786 
89,229 
71, 611 
146,462 


3,891 
5,829 
16,975 
13,180 
12,018 
5,062 


3.4 




5.1 


Alabama . . 


16.7 


Mississippi 


14.8 




16.8 




3.5 








3,657 
78, 706 

140,351 


155 
11,743 

6,686 


4.4 
14.9 

4.8 


3,341 
74,543 

136, 101 


30 
5,109 

2,213 


0.9 




6.9 


Western division 


1.6 








9,754 

4,103 

24,608 

11,164 

6,013 

16,639 

1,737 

8,599 

24,175 

21,119 

64,085 


484 

475 
1,667 
2,164 

967 

1,174 

68 

936 
1,496 
1,260 
3,416 


5.0 

11.6 

6.8 

19.3 

16.1 

7.1 

3.9 

10.9 

6.2 

6.9 

5.3 


4,256 
2,312 
16,848 
8,028 
3,006 
12,428 
2,061 
4,213 
14, 734 
16,359 
56, 107 


159 

88 

881 

1,176 
159 
611 
68 
160 
489 
542 

2,379 


3.7 
3.8 
6.2 
14.6 
5.3 
4.9 
2.6 
3.6 
3.3 
3.3 
4.2 


9,643 
3,740 
24,363 
10,685 
6,658 
16,731 
1,651 
8,383 
24,058 
20, 279 
62,804 


129 

32 

262 

383 

487 

203 

18 

61 

276 

248 

942 


1.3 
0.9 
1.1 
3.6 
8.6 
1.2 
1.1 
0.7 
1.1 
1.2 
1.6 


4,138 
2,148 
15,986 
7,470 
2,756 
12,146 
2,000 
4,043 
14, 218 
16, 139 
55,069 


68 

54 

291 

208 

27 

247 

14 

40 

218 

190 

866 


1.6 




2.5 




1.8 




2.8 


Arizona 

Dtah 


1.0 
2.0 




0.7 




1.0 


Washington 


1.5 




1.2 




1.6 







Ixviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The significance of the variations shown in Table 
VIII for the several geographic divisions should not be 
overlooked. In the North Atlantic division, where 
manufacturing and mechanical industries predominaite, 
the proportion of agricultural laborers is comparatively 
small, and some fluctuation, due to industrial changes, 
but hardly in the direction shown, might reasonably be 
expected. Yet this group of states showed the least 
change, while in those geographic divisions where agri- 
culture is the prevailing industry, and changes there- 
fore least likely, the variation was most marked. 
Hence it is reasonable to suppose that if any omissions 
were made by the enumerators the\' must have oc- 
curred almost wholly in connection with the return of 
persons engaged in agricultural labor. 

Examination of the schedules for 1890 makes it clear 
that the enumerators at that census did not properlj- 
interpret the instructions concerning children at work 
on farms. ^ The enumerator was required to make an 
entry on the schedules, in the space devoted to occupa- 
tions, for everj^ person enumerated, either b}' the 

' The iilatnictions concerning this subject issued to enumerators 
in 1890 (which were practically identical with those issued in 
1880) were as follows: The doing of domestic errands or family 
chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, 
should not be considered an occupation. But if a boy or girl, 
whatever the age, is earning money regularly by labor, contribut- 
ing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or 
agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated. 



return of a specific occupation or by the use of some 
term indicative of status in the tamily, as housewife, 
for a woman keeping house; housework, for a grown 
daughter assisting in household duties without pay; at 
school/ at home, for a person too j'oung to go to school; 
or no occupation. The entries for nonworking mem- 
bers of the household were not so specifically required 
in 1880, and in 1890 doubtless the enumerator, when 
uncertain concerning the younger members of a fam- 
ily, either used the entry at school or left the space 
blank. 

In certain districts the number of children from 10 
to 14: years of age returned without gainful occupa- 
tion was so large as to create the suspicion that many 
children at work in 1890 had been erroneously reported 
by the enumerators. A considerable number of sched- 
ules for 1890, therefore, were examined in detail and 
the character of the returns suggested strongly the in- 
ference that in many cases, especially those of large 
families living on farms, the older children, although 
returned without occupation, were engaged in farm 
labor, within the meaning of the instructions. The 
reasonableness of this inference is fully borne out by 
the figures contained in Table ix, in which comparison 
is made for each state and territory of the relative pro- 
portions of children from 10 to 11: years of age who 
were actually returned as agricultural laborers at the 
two censuses named. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixix 



Table IX.-NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO U YEARS OF AGE RETURNED AS AGRICULTURAL LABORERS 
COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND AGE, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1890 AND 1900. 



STATES AND TERE1T0KIE8. 



Continental United States. 
North Atlantic division 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida , 

North Central division 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois , 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Central division 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory , 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Western division 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

Calflornia 



MALES 10 TO 14 YEAES OF AGE: 

1900. 



Total. 



4,083,041 



957, 414 



SO, 782 
16, 360 
15,331 

114, 122 
18, 212 
38,321 

322, 541 
86, 789 

314, 966 

632, 576 



9,538 
63, 526 
10,953 

111, 517 
56,708 

119, 436 
88, 697 

141, 202 



209, 149 

133, 640 

248, 639 

124, 919 

116, 963 

97, 205 

121, 662 

175, 600 

18, 193 

24,396 

61, 690 

85,413 

883, 686 



127, 657 

124,492 

116,236 

100, 970 

85, 573 

194, 483 

25,695 

24,246 

84,334 

191,896 



9,754 

4,103 

24,508 

11,164 

6,013 

16, 639 

1,737 

8,599 

24, 175 

21,119 

64,085 



Agricultural 
laborers. 



Number. Percent. 



646, 697 



19, 895 



222 

602 

386 

113 

361 

3,920 

1,261 

12, 642 

188, 111 



1,055 
4,635 
10 
23, 438 
13, 230 
51, 474 
37, 493 
50, 397 
6,479 

123, 371 



9,303 
11,962 
16,880 
5,635 
6,765 
8,182 
12,122 
27, 668 
1,700 
3,830 
6,831 
12,493 

309, 277 



34, 310 
41, 759 
57, 503 
47, 658 
25,576 
50, 916 
9,199 
5,305 
37,051 

6,043 



212 
265 
704 
668 



768 
781 
760 
690 



1.9 
1.4 
3.3 
0,3 
0.6 
0.9 
1.2 
1.5 
4.0 

29.7 



11.1 
7.1 
0.1 
21.0 
23.3 
43.1 
42.3 
35.7 
20.9 

8.7 



4.4 

9.0 

6.8 

4.5 

5.8 

8.4 

10.0 

15.8 

9.3 

15.7 

11.1 

14.6 

35.0 



26.9 
33.5 
49.5 
47.2 
29.9 
26.2 
35.8 
21.9 
43.9 

3.1 



2.2 
6.5 
2.9 
5.9 
7.2 
4.4 
2.1 
8.9 
3.2 



MALES 10 TO 14 YEAES OF AGE: 

1890. 



Total. 



3, 574, 787 



842, 596 



31, 967 
16,410 
16, 442 
96, 693 
15, 918 
33, 524 

279, 909 
71,861 

279, 872 

595, 793 



9,666 
58,426 
11, 217 

112,500 
49, 742 

112, 621 
85, 255 

130, 642 
25, 824 



201, 062 
123, 170 
202, 051 
111,438 
94, 732 
70, 094 
111,138 
160, 014 
9,303 
18, 174 
59, 877 
87, 311 

747, 6X3 



118, 395 
119, 577 
106, 742 
93,475 
74, 107 
163, 124 



3,557 
78, 706 



140, 361 



4,256 
2,312 
16,848 
8,028 
3,005 
12,428 
2,061 
4,213 
14,734 
16, 359 
66, 107 



Agricultural 
laborers. 



Number. Percent. 



320 

322 

553 

469 

95 

508 

3,571 

1,298 

4,774 

98, 367 



786 

2,757 

21 

11,883 

2,236 

22, 995 

24, 875 

30,475 

2,339 

23,475 



2,246 
2,239 
3,428 
1,773 
1,857 
1,413 
2,255 
4,463 
347 
575 
1,278 
1,601 

105, 288 



7,485 
13, 290 
26, 414 
18, 924 
16,284 
12, 143 



101 
10, 647 



31 

10 

202 

189 

90 

175 
27 
81 
116 
230 
436 



6.7 



1.0 
2.0 
3.4 
0.5 
0.6 
1.6 
1.3 
1.8 
1.7 

16.5 



8.2 
4.7 
0.2 
10.6 
4.6 
20.4 
29.2 
23.3 
9.1 

1.9 



1.1 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.8 
3.7 
3.2 
2.1 
1.8 

14.1 



6.3 
11.1 
24.7 
20.2 
22.0 

7.9 



2.8 
13.5 



0.7 
0.4 
1.2 
2.4 
0.7 
1.4 
1.3 
1.9 
0.8 
1.4 
0.8 



FEMALES 10 TO 14 YEARS OF AGE; 
1900. 



Total. 



3, 997, 193 



950, 769 



29,525 
16,647 
14,848 

116, 208 
18, 527 
38, 034 

321, 247 
87, 568 

309, 275 

616,215 



9,208 
62, 691 
11, 781 

109, 320 
54,021 

115, 889 
86,666 

136, 663 
29, 976 



205, 698 

131, 182 

246, 241 

122,698 

115,149 

94,859 

117, 887 

171, 666 

17, 314 

22, 903 

60, 053 

82, 864 

854, 701 



123, 996 
119, 281 
112,449 
97, 095 
83,812 
188, 694 
24,211 
23, 016 
82, 147 

187, 996 



9,643 
3,740 
24,363 
10, 685 
6,658 
16, 731 
1,651 
8,383 
24,068 
20, 279 
62,804 



Agricultural 
laborers. 



Number. 



167, 899 



5 
3 

. 6 
123 

87 
182 

65, 968 



57 
205 



2,020 

240 

16, 163 

24,034 

21, 088 

2,216 

2,909 



150 
157 
260 
148 
366 
341 
193 
651 
118 
226 
205 
194 

98, 277 



1,533 

6,999 

28,621 

24, 619 

13,403 

11, 702 

1,328 

280 

10,842 



4 

2 

8 

21 

169 

9 

2 

8 

63 

19 

23 



Per cent. 



(') 



(') 



0.1 
0.1 



10.7 



0.6 
0.3 



1.8 
0.4 
13.9 
28.1 
15.4 
7.4 

0.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
1.0 
0.3 
0.2 

11.5 



1.2 
5.0 
25.5 
25.4 
16.0 
6.2 
6.5 
1.0 
13.2 

0.2 



«. 



0.1 



('I 



0.2 
3.0 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0) 



FEMALES 10 TO 14 YEAES OF AGE: 
1890. 



Total. 



3, 468, 722 



15, 908 
16, 202 
95,535 
15, 960 
32,568 

275, 269 
70,904 

272, 484 

573, 063 



57,600 

11,635 
108, 499 

47,905 
108, 884 

80,827 
124, 019 

24, 710 

1,211,715 



195, 470 

119, 906 

198, 626 

108, 789 

93, 127 

68,545 

107, 043 

156, 489 

8,326 

16, 820 

66, 671 

82, 904 

713, 605 



113, 387 
113, 246 
101, 786 
89,229 
71, 611 
146, 462 



3,341 
74,643 



136, 101 



4,138 
2,148 
16, 986 
7,470 
2,755 
12,145 
2,000 
4,043 
14,218 
16, 139 
55, 059 



Agricultural 
laborers. 



Number, 



83, 660 



14 
132 



39, 449 



111 

6 

1,341 

126 

7,844 

15, 032 

13, 965 

1,016 

476 



31 
34 
73 
48 
44 
44 
29 
101 
10 
22 
18 
21 

43, 390 



325 
2,796 
13,468 
10,889 
9,102 
2,836 



2 
3,982 



Per cent. 



(') 






('). 



0.1 
0.2 



1.2 
0.3 

7.2 
18.6 
11.3 

4.1 



C) 



li) 



(') 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



6.1 



0.3 

2.5 

13.2 

12.2 

12.7 

1.9 



0.1 
6.3 



P) 



'(')"■ 



(■) 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Ixx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



From the evidence afforded bj^ the percentages given 
in Table ix, when compared with those contained in 
Table viii, it is clear that the discrepancies between 
the proportions of children reported as at work in 1890 
and 1900 are due to omissions in the returns of persons 
engaged in agricultural labor in 1890, and that these 
omissions were confined almost wholly to the children 
of farm families. 

Having established a strong probability of error, the 
next step was the preparation of figures which could 
be offered and generally accepted us more accurate than 
the original returns. Obviously, it was necessary to 



make comparable the figures for the three censuses — 
1880, 1890, and 1900. Accordingly, the number of per- 
sons from 10 to 14 years of age reported as engaged in 
gainful occupations in 1890 was increased in the pro- 
portion which the number from 10 to 14 years of age 
at work in 1900 bore to the number from 10 to 15 years 
of age at work in that year. Having thus made the 
figures for 1890 more nearly comparable with those for 
1880 and 1900, the percentages derived therefrom are 
now brought into comparison in Table x with similar 
percentages based upon the actual returns for the other 
two census periods. 



Table X —PER CENT WHICH THE NUMBEE OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN 
GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS FORMS OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND AGE, BY STATES AND 
TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND* 1900. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


MALES. 


FEMALES, 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


Continental United States 


26.1 


14.3 


24.4 


10.2 


7.7 


9.0 


North Central division— Continued. 

Minnesota 


14.7 
16.9 
25.2 
14.6 
20.6 
16,8 
19.9 

42.7 


6,5 

6,1 

7,3 

7.01 

5.3/ 

5.6 

3.4 

18.5 


9.6 
15.3 
20.0 

UO.l 

12,8 
18,4 

41.6 


5.4 
3,4 
4.4 
f 5.0 
14.5 
3.5 
2.2 

15.1 


4.2 
2,7 
3,5 
4,3 
2,3 
2.9 
1.8 






3.0 




17.1 


15.7 


15.1 


9.6 


8.8 


7.5 




2,2 


North Atlantic division 










} 12.8 
2,7 




10.8 
13.0 
11.7 
12.0 
23.2 
14.9 
14.4 
17.9 
22.4 

41.6 


7.0 
14.4 
13.6 
13.8 
31.6 
16.6 
15.6 
17.0 
16.4 

24.1 


10.4 
14.1 
12.8 
12.8 
23.3 
16.4 
12.8 
14.0 
19.0 

40.2 


5.7 
9.9 
5.0 
8.3 
17.4 
10.4 
9.6 
11.3 
9.7 

18.5 


4.6 
10.0 
6.6 
8.8 
24.2 
10.8 
9.6 
9.9 
7.0 

13.4 


4.3 
9.4 
5.4 
9.4 
18.2 
11.4 
7.4 
6.1 
6.6 

17.9 


South Dakota 






Vermont 




1,8 


Massachusetts 








9.4 [ 15.7 








New York 


35.4 
43.2 
69.0 
53.8 
39.4 
32.1 
42.9 
25.6 
60.1 

10.9 


11.2 
16.9 
30,2 
23,8 
29,8 
11,2 


29,9 
38,8 
70,8 
38,6 
38,0 
33,3 


5.1 
8.9 
31.3 
29.7 
21.6 
8.0 
7.7 
2,0 
16,8 

2.7 


4.4 
5.7 
17.5 
15.6 
18,2 


4,6 
9,1 


New Jersey 




Pennsylvania 






Mississippi 


22,1 


South Atlantic division 




31,4 








24.4 
22.6 
10.4 
33.7 
33.0 
55.1 
53.8 
46.7 
31.1 

17.0 


20.5 
17.4 
12.4 
19.2 
8.2 
26.2 
35.7 
31.3 
14.8 

7.0 


27.6 
17.7 
5.8 
31.6 
21.0 
56.9 
44.2 
58.3 
34.1 

16.2 


9.8 
10.5 
6.5 
8.5 
3.9 
23.6 
38.3 
22.6 
11.6 

4.9 


8,6 
9.8 
7.7 
8.8 
2.8 
13.6 
24.9 
17.4 
8.2 

4.0 


9.0 
7.6 
5.4 
11.2 
2.8 
20.1 
29.1 
29.8 
17.8 

3.1 




Delaware 










4.9 
16,8 

7,4 


'49,' 5" 
10,6 




District of Columbia 




7,1 
3,0 


13 8 


Virginia 






West Virginia 










pnnt.h nprnlinp. 


8,1 

16.4 

10.0 

22.6 

19.2 

10.6 

8.8 

13.7 

9,8 

9,2 

9,4 


6,1 
6.5 
7,8 
17,1 
6,5 
7,4 
6,9 
4,6 
5,3 
5,3 
7.6 


7,3 

8,9 

10.5 

23,4 

11,4 

21,5 

4.6 

6.2 

7,3 

8,6 

7,1 


2,4 
2.5 
2,1 
4,3 
9,3 
2,1 
1,6 
1,4 
2.0 
2.2 
2. S 


2,9 
7,4 
3,5 
3,3 
1,1 
3,6 
1,0 
2,0 
2.8 
2.1 
3.0 


1 9 








Florida 








New Mexico 


3 2 


North Central division 








Utah 


3,0 
1,8 


Ohio 


13.6 
16.6 
17.3 
13.1 
16.0 


8.0 
5.7 
8.8 
8.4 
8.0 


14.4 
22.7 
17.3 
11.0 
11.2 


6.2 
3.6 
6.7 
4.9 
7.0 


4.6 
3.2 

6.4 
4.6 
5.1 


3.4 
2.6 
3.4 
3.4 
3.9 










niinols 


Washington 


1 3 






0,9 















1 Dakota territory. 



The substantial agreement between the percentages 
denoting the proportions of children at work in 1880 
and in 1900, for continental United States, for each of 
its geographic divisions, and in general for each of the 
states and territories, proves that the change during the 
twenty-year period was very slight. As the percent- 
ages for 1890 show an apparent difference which is 
very marked, it is clear that the use, for that year, of. 
the mean between figures based upon the proportions of 
males and females from 10 to 15 years of age at work in 



1880 and in 1900 would produce figures more accurate 
than the actual returns. 

Table xi presents, for continental United States and 
for each state and territory, the number and percentage 
of males and females from 10 to 15 years of age engaged 
in gainful occupations in 1890, as corrected by the use of 
the mean between figures based upon the 1880 and 1900 
proportions, in comparison with the figures approxi- 
mately as returned; that is, figures derived from the 
actual returns for persons from 10 to 14 years of age, 
as previously explained. 



SUMMARY -AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxi 



Table XI.— NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, 
AS RETURNED AND AS CORRECTED, COMP.ARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND AGE, BY 
STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1890. 







MALES 10 TO 


15 YEARS 


OF AGE. 




FEMALES 10 TO 15 YEAES OF AGE. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful occupations. 


As returned. 


As corrected. 


As returned. 


As corrected. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Continental United States 


4,219,145 


603,293 


14.3 


1,094,864 


25.9 


4,103,228 


317,956 


7.7 


408,917 


10 






North Atlantic division 


1,003,054 


167,777 


16.7 


173, 426 


17.3 


989, 018 


86, 812 


8.8 


86,812 


8 8 






Maine 


38,218 
19,516 
19,541 

116,090 
19,252 
40,119 

333,384 
85,347 

331,587 

697,069 


2,677 
2,801 
2,667 
15, 970 
6,076 
6,666 
52,030 
14,528 
54,362 

168,108 


7.0 
14.4 
13.6 
13.8 
81.6 
16.6 
15.6 
17.0 
16.4 

24.1 


4,049 
2,801 
2,667 
15,970 
6,076 
6,666 
52, 030 
14,528 
68,639 

288,714 


10.6 
14.4 
13.6 
13.8 
31.6 
16.6 
15.6 
17.0 
20.7 

41.4 


36, 865 
19,240 
18,298 

116,902 
19,404 
39,450 

330,263 
84,768 

324,848 

674,227 


1,703 
1,927 
1,208 

10,205 
4,696 
4,266 

31,701 
8,394 

22,722 

90,274 


4.6 
10.0 
6.6 
8.8 
24.2 
10.8 
9.6 
9.9 
7.0 

13.4 


1,703 
1,927 
1,208 

10,206 
4,696 
4,256 

31, 701 
8,394 

22, 722 

125,453 


4.6 




Vermont 


6 6 


Massachusetts 


8 8 






Connecticut 


10 8 


New York 




New Jersey 


9 9 




7 


South Atlantic division 


18 6 






Delaware 


11, 300 
69,046 
13,338 

131,586 
68,333 

131, 859 
99,544 

162,075 
29,988 

1,477,933 


2,312 
11,980 

1,663 
25,229 

4,776 
34,599 
85,522 
47,687 

4,450 

102, 937 


20.6 
17.4 
12.4 
19.2 
8.2 
26.2 
35.7 
31.3 
14.8 

7.0 


2,939 
13,880 

1,653 
42,914 
16,741 
73,222 
48, 777 
79,813 

9,775 

242, 860 


26.0 
20.1 
12.4 
32.6 
27.0 
55.5 
49.0 
52.5 
32.6 

16.4 


10,692 
68,184 
13,974 

127,799 
56,407 

127,632 
94,961 

146,510 
29,068 

1,438,706 


924 

6,703 

1,078 

11,288 

1,566 

17,350 

23,624 

25, 369 

2,373 

67,188 


8.6 
9.8 
7.7 
8.8 
2.8 
13.6 
24.9 
17.4 
8.2 

4.0 


1,004 
6,703 
1,078 
12,660 
1,876 
27, 862 
32,000 
38,101 
4,279 

58,846 


9 4 




9 8 


District of Columbia 


7 7 


Virginia . ... 


9 8 




3.3 


North Carolina 


21 8 




33.7 


Georgia , 


26 2 


Florida . 


14 7 


North Central division 


4.1 






Ohio 


238,853 

146,781 

240,307 

131,964 

112,195 

82,686 

131, 323 

189, 306 

10,758 

21,208 

70,561 

102,991 

875,878 


19,172 
8,358 

21,028 

11,029 
8,922 
4,666 
6,723 

13,854 

756 

1,129 

3,938 

3,463 

162,240 


8.0 
5.7 
8.8 
8.4 
8.0 
5.5 
5.1 
7.3 
7.0 
5.3 
5.6 
3.4 

18.6 


33,487 
28,603 
41,573 
15,891 
14, 706 
10,046 
21,135 
42,771 
1,800 
2,691 
10,442 
19, 706 

372,760 


14.0 
19.6 
17.3 
12.0 
13.1 
12.1 
16.1 
22.6 
16.7 
12.7 
14.8 
19.1 

42.6 


233,086 

142,630 

237, 026 

128,851 

110,450 

80, 753 

126,962 

184,803 

9,722 

19,707 

66,598 

98, 218 

840,487 


10,637 
4,509 

12,729 
5,877 
5,628 
3,396 
3,432 
6,458 
415 
459 
1,911 
1,737 

78,928 


4.6 
3.2 
6.4 
4.6 
5.1 
4.2 
2.7 
3.5 
4.3 
2,3 
2.9 
1.8 

9.4 


10,637 
4,609 

12,729 
5,877 
6,024 
3,396 
3,575 
6,955 
526 
581 
2,046 
1,991 

133, 052 


4 6 




3.2 




5.4 


Michigan .... . . 


4.6 




6.5 


Minnesota 


4.2 




2.8 




3.8 


North Dakota . . 


6.4 




2.9 




3.1 




2.0 


South Central division 


15.8 






Kentucky . ... 


139,127 
140,408 
124,698 
109,495 
86,440 
179,179 


15,608 
22, 312 
37,669 
26,026 
25,730 
20,057 


11.2 
15.9 
30.2 
23.8 
29.8 
11.2 


45,462 
67,619 
80,966 
50,624 
33,466 
58,518 


32.7 
41.0 
64.9 
46.2 
38.7 
32.7 


134,172 
133,467 
119,210 
104,846 
84,162 
172, 603 


6,893 
7,608 
20,884 
16,382 
15,328 
6,504 


4.4 
5.7 
17.5 
15.6 
18.2 
3.8 


6,452 
12, 068 
36,261 
27,163 
22,310 
16,726 


4.8 




9.0 




30.4 




25.9 




26.5 


Texas 


9.1 








4,146 
92,385 

166,211 


202 
14,636 

12,231 


4.9 
15.8 

7.4 


202 
46,004 

17,114 


4.9 
49.8 

10.4 


3,944 
88,083 

160,790 


43 
6,286 

4,754 


1.1 
7.1 

3.0 


43 
13,029 

4,7,'>4 


1.1 




14.8 




3.0 








• 4,963 
2,696 
19, 790 
9,525 
3,426 
14,653 
2,407 
4,919 
17,244 
19, 187 
66,401 


305 

147 

1,534 

1,629 

223 

1,090 

143 

224 

918 

1,011 

5,007 


6.1 
6.5 
7.8 
17.1 
6.5 
7.4 
6.9 
4.6 
5.3 
5.3 
7.5 


382 

340 

2,029 

2,189 

525 

2,354 

161 

488 

1,469 

1,705 

5,472 


7.7 

12.6 

10.3 

23.0 

15.3 

16.1 

6.7 

9.9 

8.6 

8.9 

8.2 


4,878 
2,535 
18.848 
9,041 
3,243 
14, 394 
2,344 
4,677 
16, 561 
18,926 
65,354 


142 
187 
663 
296 
36 
623 
24 
92 
467 
399 
1,937 


2.9 
7.4 
3.6 
3.3 
1.1 
3.6 
1.0 
2.0 
2.8 
2.1 
3.0 


142 

187 

663 

295 

35 

623 

24 

92 

457 

399 

1,937 


2.9 




7.4 




3.6 




3.3 




1.1 


Utah 


3.6 




1.0 




2.0 




2.8 




2,1 




3.0 







Ixxii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The corrected figures presented in Table xi undoubt- 
edly reflect more accurately than do the returns for 
the census of 1890 the actual facts concerning children 
at work in that year. It appears, therefore, that instead 
of a total of 921,249 persons of both sexes from 10 to 
15 years of age gainfully employed in 1890, as based 
upon the returns for those from 10 to 11 3'ears of age, 
the total was, approximately, 1,503,771, showing a 
difi'erence of 582,522, of which nearl^^ three-fourths 
are found in the South Atlantic and South Central 
divisions.^ 

It is interesting to observe that in a large majoritj' of 
those states in which the use of the mean between fig- 
ures based upon the proportions shown in ISSO and in 
1900 reduces the number of all persons 10 to 15 years 
of age gainfully employed in 1890, the same method 
produces an increase in the number of agricultural 
laborers 10 to 15 years of age in that year. This fact 
may be regarded as an interesting corroboration of the 
inaccuracy of the returns for agricultural laborers from 
10 to 15 years of age, not only in those states in which 
there has been a decrease for all occupations, but even 
in those localities where there appears to have been a 
normal increase. 

From the foregoing analysis the presumption of de- 
ficiency in the returns for agricultural laborers from 10 
to 15 years of age in 1890 is so strong that it is believed 
to justify the substitution of corrected figures through- 
out this volume, and this accordingly has been done. 

KETURN OF FARM LABORERS AS FARMERS IN 1S9(). 

The whole number of agricultural laborers actually 
returned in 1890 was 3,001,061, as against a similar 
return in 1880 of 3,323,876, and in 1900, for conti- 
nental United States, of 1,110,877. These figures show, 
on their face, a decrease in the number of agricultural 
laborers of 319,815 from 1880 to 1890, and an increase 
of 1,406,816 from 1890 to 1900; but even after making 
allowance for the 582,522 children added to this occu- 
pation group by the correction of the 1890 figures, 
there still remains a considerable disparity in the fig- 
ures for the three censuses, as shown by the following 
summary: 



Xumber of agricultural laborers 10 years of age and over: ISSO, 1890, 
and 1900. • _ 



' As it is only natural to suppose that there were some omissions 
among persons over 15 years of age, tables were prepared in order 
to determine whether such omissions were sufficient in number to 
deserve consideration; but these tables showed that although 
deficiencies existed in some Southern states and in one or two 
North Central states, they were inconsiderable and could not be 
defined clearly. 



CENSUS YEARS. 


Number of 1 o^^^r^^fl 
laborers. , gus year. 


19001 


4,410,877 824,294 
8,586,5.^3 262,707 
3 323 876 1 


1890 


1880 







' For continental United States. 

In this summary the con-ected figures for 1890 are 
employed, but the increase shown for the decade from 
1880 to 1890— 262,707— is small as compared with that 
for the next decade, when it amounted to over 800,000. 
It is clear, therefore, that there must have been 
either a violent change from 1890 to 1900 or that a 
further deficiency exists in the number of agricultural 
laborers of all ages for 1890. If, as is very probable, 
this deficiencj" is due to the return by the enumerators 
of agricultural laborers under some other classifica- 
tion, it is most natural to suppose that they were re- 
ported as farmers. Some light can be thrown on this 
possibility by comparing in Table xii (page Ixxiii) for 
the -three censuses the number of farms, as reported on 
the agricultural schedule, and the number of farmers, 
as reported on the population schedule. 

In order to make the number of farms, as defined 
for census purposes, as nearly comparable as possible 
with the number denoting farmers in Table xii, the 
latter head has been made to include gardeners, florists, 
nurserymen, etc., and stock raisers, as well as farmers, 
planters, and overseers. It was found in the classifica- 
tion work of 1900 that farm and plantation laborers, 
garden and nursery laborers, and stock herders and 
drovers were frequently returned as farmers, gar- 
deners, florists, nurserymen, or stock raisers, but unless 
farm schedules were also returned for such persons they 
were classified under the laborer rather than the pro- 
prietor designation. By this means a much closer cor- 
respondence was reached between the population and 
agricultural returns than had been the case heretofore, 
and this is clearly brought out by the figures contained 
in Table xii. In lS8ii there was a difl^erence of nearly 
300,000 between the number of farms and farmers, but 
this figure is insignificant when compared with the im- 
mense difference of 818,326 shown in 1890. While it is 
true that in 1880, and to some extent in 1890, the sur- 
plus of farmers over farms was due to the definitions 
employed at those two censuses, this fact is not sufficient 
to explain the apparently abnormal surplus shown in 
1890. It is probable, therefore, that a considerable 
number of persons were erroneously returned as farmers 
in 1890 who should have been returned as farm laborers. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. Ixxiii 

Table XII.— NUMBER OF FARMERS AND FARMS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



1900 



Continental United States. 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Missis-sippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico - 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Maho 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



Farmers. 



74, 292 



638, 425 



62, 728 
24, 871 
30, 827 
33, 943 
5,477 
24, 305 

223,976 
34,966 

207, 332 

946, 436 



9,753 

44,272 

709 

169, 613 

90, 216 

221,789 

153, 482 

225, 365 

40, 248 

2,240,780 



273, 796 
222, 187 
272, 386 
204, 720 
169, 935 
158, 679 
236, 681 
296, 231 
46, 402 
fi4,663 
124, 807 
180, 393 

1, 694, 874 



677, 506 



59, 299 
29, 324 
33, 104 
37, 715 
5,498 
26, 948 

226, 720 
34, 650 

224,248 

962, 225 



9,687 

46, 012 

269 

167, 886 

92,874 

224, 637 

155, 355 

224, 691 

40, 814 



276, 719 
221, 897 
264, 161 
203, 261 
1C9, 795 
164, 659 
228, 622 
284, 886 
46, 332 
52, 622 
121, 525 
173,098 

1, 658, 166 



240, 041 
226, 678 
223, 307 
226, 730 
117, 103 
360, 030 
60,562 
66, 100 
184, 323 

254, 777 



14, 495 

6.563 

26, 679 

13, 745 

9,462 

18, 448 

2,370 

17, 617 

34, 739 

36, 991 

73, 678 



234, 667 
224, 623 
223, 220 
220, 803 
115, 969 
352, 190 
46, 505 
62, 495 
178, 694 

242, 908 



Excessof 
farmers. 



36,920 



Excess 
of farms. 



66 
'446' 



44, 213 



290 
8,235 
1,459 

140 
4,020 
8,059 
11,345 
1,070 
1,941 
3,282 
7,295 



13, 370 
6,095 
24, 700 
12,311 
5,809 
19,387 
2,184 
17, 471 
33,202 
35, 837 
72, 542 



6,374 
2,055 
87 
6,927 
1,134 
7,840 
6,067 
3,605 
5,629 I 

11,869 



1,125 
468 
1,979 
1,434 
3,643 



l,Sf, 

146 

1,537 

1,154 

1,136 



39, 081 



6,571 
4,453 
2,277 
3,772 
21 
2,643 
2,744 



16, 916 
16, 789 



1,740 



8,273 
2,659 
2,848 
1,873 



666 



1890 



Farmers. 



6, 382, 967 



716, 649 



61,341 
29, 569 
35, 169 
41,255 
6,694 
29, 805 

269, 976 
38,860 

213, 900 

828, 590 



10,066 
44, 407 
923 
139, 367 
83, 468 
193, 084 
127, 640 
190, 749 



289, 007 

. 234, 987 

302, 333 

200, 878 

168,259 

136, 028 

246, 064 

293, 658 

31, 137 

65, 184 

133, 877 

200, 924 

1, 338, 922 



213, 089 
208, 333 
182, 649 
177, 477 
89, .591 
289, 198 



12, 619 
166, 966 



207, 670 



Farms. 



4,564,641 



658, 669 



62, 013 
29, 151 
32, 573 
34, 374 
6,500 
26, 350 

226, 223 
30, 828 

211, 557 

749, 600 



9,381 
40, 798 
382 
127,600 
72, 773 
178, 359 
115, 008 
171, 071 
34, 228 

1, 923, 822 



251, 430 
198, 167 
240, 681 
172, 344 
146, 409 
116, 851 
201, 903 
238, 043 
27, 611 
60, 168 
113, 608 
166, 617 

1, 086, 772 



179, 264 
174,412 
157, 772 
144, 318 
69, 294 
228, 126 



8, 027 

3, 874 

23, 358 

12, 387 

3,223 

13, 579 

2,219 

9,462 

28,672 

32,550 

70, 319 



8,826 
124,760 



145, 878 



5,603 
3, 125 
16, 389 
4,458 
1,426 
10, 517 
1,277 
6,603 
18, 056 
25,630 
62, 894 



Excessof 
farmers. 



818, 326 



67, 980 



418 
2,586 
6,881 
1,194 
3,456 
33, 753 
8,022 
2,343 

78, 990 



685 
3,609 
541 
11, 767 
10, 686 
14,725 
12, 532 
19, 678 
4,768 

367, 414 



37, 577 
36, 820 
61,652 
28, 534 
21,860 
18, 177 
44, 161 
56, 515 
3,526 
5, 026 
20, 269 
34, 307 

252, 160 



33,825 
83, 921 
24, 877 
33, 159 
20, 297 
61, 072 



3, /S3 
41,206 



61, 792 



Excess 
of farms. 



672 



2,424 
749 
6,969 
7,929 
1,797 
3,062 
942 
2,859 

10, 616 
7,020 

17, 425 



1880 



Farmers. 



690, 699 



60, 204 
30, 661 
35, 983 
42, 134 
7,001 
28,271 

260, 673 
36, 287 

199, 585 

668, 779 



9,027 
39,345 
876 
121, 014 
65, 738 
156, 672 
94, 076 
145, 966 
26, 076 

1, 861, 901 



265, 302 
211,916 
284,593 
169, 120 
139, 636 
97, 236 
213, 624 
239, 060 

1 22, 871 

69, 474 
149, 171 

973, 645 



172, 962 
165, 803 
144, 762 
124, 145 
69, 087 
207, 791 



109, 105 
116, 687 



3,043 
993 
8,143 
7,837 
2,145 
9,433 
2,460 
2,847 
9,442 
19, 763 
60, 481 



Farms. 



4, 008, 907 



696, 139 



64, 309 
32, 181 
36, 522 
38, 406 
6,216 
30, 598 

241, 058 
34,307 

213, 642 

644, 429 



8,749 
40, 617 
436 
118, 517 
62, 674 
157, 609 
93, 864 
138, 626 
23, 438 

1, 697, 968 



247, 189 
194, 013 
255, 741 
154, 008 
134, 322 

92. 386 
186, 361 
215, 676 

1 17, 435 

63. 387 
138, 561 

886, 648 



166, 463 
165, 650 
136, 864 
101,772 
48,292 
174, 184 



Excessof 
farmers. 



461 

3,728 

785 



9, 615 
1,980 



278 



440 
2,497 
3,064 



212 
7,330 
2,638 

163, 933 



18, 113 
17,902 
28,882 
15, 112 
6,213 
4,8,50 
28, 273 
23, 486 

15,436 

6,087 
10, 610 



6,509 



22, 373 
10, 795 
33, 607 



Excess 
of farms. 



94,433 
83,723 



14,672 
32, 864 



1,519 

457 

4,606 

6,053 

767 

9, 4.52 

1,404 

1,885 

6,529 

16, 217 

36,934 



1, 524 


.536 


3,637 


2, 784 


1,378 


1, 056 


962 


2,913 


3, 546 


14,547 



6,440 



4,105 
1,620 



2,327 
'i3,'957 



1,172 



937 



9,847 



1 Dakota territory. 



Ixxiv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



NUMBER AND PROPOETION OF PERSONS OCCUPIED. 



DISTEIBtJTION BT SEX. 

According to the census of 1900 there were 29,287,070 
persons 10 years of age and over engaged in gainful 
occupations in the United States, including Alaska, 
Hawaii, and the military and naval stations abroad. For 
continental United States the number was 29,073,233, 
which was one-half (50.2 per cent) of all persons 10 
years of age and over and nearly two-fifths (38. 3 per 
cent) of the entire population. Of this number 
23,763,836 were males and 5,319,397 were females. 
The former constituted 80 per cent, or four-fifths, of 
the male population 10 years of age and over and 61.2 
per cent, or more than three-fifths, of the entire male 
population; the latter represented 18.8 per cent and 
14.3 per cent, respectively, of the corresponding totals 
for females. 

The number and proportion of males and of females 
engaged in gainful occupations in 1900, for the entire 
area of enumeration and for continental United States, 
are compared with similar results for 1880 and 1890 in 
the summary following. 

This summary shows that there was an increased 
proportion of gainful workers for each sex in 1900 
as compared with 1880 and 1890. The percentage 
of the total population of continental United States 10 
years of age and over so engaged was 50.2 in 1900, 49.2 
in 1890, and 47.3 in 1880. 

The relative proportions of each sex returned as 
gainfully occupied at the census of 1900 are shown 
graphically in Diagram 1, Plate 1, by a square repre- 



senting the population 10 years of age and over, divided 
as to sex and shaded so as to indicate in each case the 
proportion of wage-earners. 

Number of persons engaged in gainful occupations compared loUh the 
total population and with the population 10 years of age and over, fm 
both sexes and for each sex sepiarately : 1880, 1890, and 1900. 





Total pop- 
ulation. 


Population 

10 years of 

age and 

over. 


PERS0K9 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVER ENGAGED IN 
GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS. 


SEX AND CENSDS YEAKS. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total 
popu- 
lation. 


Per 
cent of 
popu- 
lation 
10 years 
of age 
and 
over. 


Both sexes. 
1900; 

Entire area 


76,303,387 
75, 994, 576 
62,622,250 
50, 155, 783 

39, 059, 242 
38,816,448 
32, 867, 880 
26,518,820 

37,244,145 
37, 178, 127 
30,564,370 
24,636,963 


58,224,600 
57,949,824 
47,413,559 
36,761,607 

29,928,804 
29, 703, 440 
24,362,659 
18, 736, 980 

28,296,796 
28,246,384 
23,060,900 
18,025,627 


29,287,070 
29, 073, 233 
123,318,183 
17, 392, 099 

23,967,778 
23,753,836 
119,312,661 
14,744,942 

5,329,292 

5, 319, 397 

14,006,532 

2, 647, 157 


38.4 
38.3 
37.2 
34.7 

61.3 
61.2 
60.2 
67.8 

14.3 
14.3 
13.1 
10.7 


50 3 


Continental U. S 

1890 


60.2 
49.2 
47.3 

80.0 
80.0 
79.3 

78.7 

18.8 
18.8 
17.4 
14.7 


1880 


Males. 
1900: 

Entire area 


Continental U. S 

1890 


1880 


1900: 


Continental U. S 

1890 ; 


1880 





1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

The number of persons engaged in gainful occu- 
pations in 1880, 1890, and 1900, by states and terri- 
tories, is compared with the total population in Table 
XIII, and with the total number of persons 10 years of 
age and over, by sex, in Tables xiv, xt, and xvi. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxv 



Table XIII.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL 
POPULATION, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 





population; 1900. 


population: 1890. 


population: 1880. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES, 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations.! 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


United States 


76,303,387 


29,287,070 


38.4 


62,622,260 


23,318,183 


37.2 


60,165,783 


17,392,099 


34.7 




Continental United States 


75,994,675 


29,073,233 


38.3 


62,622,260 


23,318,183 


37.2 


50,156,783 


17, 392, 099 


34.7 




North Atlantic division 


21, 046, 695 


8,679,191 


40.8 


17,401,548 


6,987,109 


40.2 


14,507,407 


5,309,722 


36.6 






694,466 

411,588 

343,641 

2, 805, 346 

428,556 

908, 420 

7,268,894 

1,883,669 

6, 302, 115 

10, 443, 480 


276,777 
178, 719 
134,933 

1,208,407 
191,928 
385,610 

2, 996, 474 
757,769 

2,448,689 

4,000,631 


39. 9 
43.4 
39.3 
43.1 
44.8 
42.4 
41.2 
40.2 
38.9 

38.3 


661,086 

376,530 

332,422 

2,238,943 

846,506 

746,268 

5,997,853 

1, 444, 933 

6,258,014 

8,867,920 


268,468 
164,703 
128,771 
982,444 
156,878 
317,014 

2,435,726 
570,738 

1,973,368 

3,273,841 


39.1 
43.7 
38.7 
43.9 
46.1 
42.5 
40.6 
39.6 
37.6 

37.0 


648, 936 

346, 991 

332,286 

1,783,086 

276,631 

622, 700 

5,082,871 

1,131,116 

4,282,891 

7,597,197 


231,993 
142,468 
118, 584 
720, 774 
116,979 
241,383 

1,884,645 
396,879 

1, 456, 067 

2,677,762 


,3.5.7 
41,1 
35.7 
40,4 
42,3 




Vermont 




Rhode Island 




New York 


37 1 


New Jersey . . . 


36.1 
34.0 












184,735 
1, 188, 044 

278, 718 
1,864,184 

958, 800 
1,893,810 
1,340,316 
2,216,331 

628,642 

26,333,004 


72, 996 
468,738 
126,941 
662,416 
825,663 
716,742 
570,996 
864,471 
201,570 

9,580,649 


39.6 
38.6 
45.6 
36.7 
34.0 
37.8 
42.6 
39.0 
38.1 

36.4 


168,493 
1,042,890 

230,392 
1,665,980 

762, 794 
1,617,947 
1,151,149 
1,837,353 

391,422 

22, 362, 279 


64,993 
395, 167 
101,119 
670, 796 
236, 064 
586,488 
462, 485 
, 713,671 
144,068 

7,816,409 


38.6 
37.9 
43.9 
34.5 
30.8 
36.2 
40.2 
38.8 
86.8 

34.9 


146,608 
934, 943 
177,624 

1,512,665 
618,457 

1,399,750 
996,677 

1,642,180 
269,493 

17, 364, 111 


54,580 
324,432 

66, 624 
494,240 
176, 199 
480,187 
392,102 
597,862 

91,536 

6,626,123 




Maryland 


34 7 


District of Columbia 




Virginia 


32 7 


West Virginia 


28 5 






South Carolina . . 


39 4 






Florida 


34 


North Central division >. 


32 4 








4, 157, 545 
2,516,462 
4,821,550 
2,420,982 
2,069,042 
1,761,394 
2,231,853 
3,106,665 
819, 146 
401,570 
1, 066, 300 
1, 470, 496 

14,080,047 


1,646,962 
898,953 

1, 804, 040 
906, 990 
732,538 
645,874 
789, 404 

1,121,392 
117,640 
137,166 
373,970 
507, 740 

5,209,765 


37.2 
35.7 
37.4 
S7.4 
35.4 
36.9 
86.4 
36..1 
36.9 
34.2 
35.1 
34.5 

37.0 


3,672,316 
2,192,404 
3,826,361 
2,093,889 
1,686,880 
1,301,826 
1,911,896 
2,679,184 
182, 719 
328, 808 
1,058,910 
1,427,096 

10,972,893 


1,287,101 
744, 303 

1,374,104 
764,437 
682, 469 
474,566 
646,390 
913,793 
68,927 
115,777 
374,699 
468,843 

3,900,448 


35.0 
33.9 
35.9 
36.5 
34.5 
36.5 
33.8 
34.1 
37.7 
36.2 
35.4 
32.9 

35.6 


3,198,062 
1,978,301 
3,077,871 
1,636,937 
1,315,497 
780,773 
1,624,615 
2,168,380 

1 '136,177 

452,402 
996,096 

8,919,371 


994,475 
636, 080 
999,780 
669,204 
417,455 
265,125 
628, 302 
692,969 

8 57,844 

152,614 
322,285 

3, 022, 173 


31 1 


Indiana . . 


32 1 




32 5 




34 8 


"Wisconsin 


31 7 




32.7 


Iowa - - 


32 5 




32,0 






South Dakota 


42.8 




33.7 


Kansas - . 


32.4 




33.9 








2,147,174 
2,020,616 
1,828,697 
1,651,270 
1,381,625 
3,048,710 
392,060 
898, 331 
1,311,564 

4,091,349 


762, 531 
727,587 
763, 188 
645,123 
636,093 
1,033,033 
133,710 
132,696 
485,796 

1,703,107 


35.0 
36.0 
41.7 
41.6 
38.8 
33.9 
34.1 
33.3 
37.0 

41.6 


1, 868, 635 
1,767,518 
1,513,017 
1, 289, 600 
1,118,587 
2,235,623 


620,737 
593,420 
600,275 
498,118 
437,782 
743, 891 


33.4 
83.6 
39.7 
38.6 
39.1 
33.3 


1,648,690 
1, 542, 369 
1,262,605 
1,131,597 
939,946 
1,591,749 


519,854 
447,970 
492,790 
416, 606 
363,228 
522,133 


31.5 


Tennessee 


29.0 




39 


Mississippi 


36.7 




38.6 




32,8 








61,834 
1,128,179 

3,027,613 


20,906 
385, 319 

1,341,376 


33.8 
34.2 

44.3 










802, 626 
1, 767, 697 


260, 692 
767,319 


82.5 




42.8 








243,329 

92,531 

539,700 

195, 810 

122, 931 

276, 749 

42,335 

161,772 

518, 103 

413,536 

1, 486, 053 

63,592 

154, 001 

91,219 


114,799 

44,268 

218,263 

66,020 

53, 370 

84,604 

19,809 

62,688 

226,887 

169, 637 

644,267 

33,335 
90,172 
90,330 


47.2 
47.8 
40.4 
33.8 
43.4 
80.6 
46.8 
38.7 
43.5 
41.0 
43.4 

62.4 
68.6 
99.0 


132, 169 

60,706 

412,198 

163,693 

69, 620 

207,905 

45, 761 

84,385 

349, 390 

818, 767 

1,208,130 


72, 300 

80,823 

192, 438 

54,711 

26,718 

68,165 

23,433 

35,436 

165,247 

127,475 

544,630 


54.7 
50.8 
46.7 
36.6 
44.8 
32,8 
61,2 
42,0 
47,3 
40,6 
45,1 


39,159 

20,789 

194,327 

119,565 

40, 440 

143,968 

62, 266 

32, 610 

76,116 

174, 768 

864, 694 


22,256 
8,884 

101,261 
40, 822 
22,271 
40,055 
32,233 
16,678 
30, 122 
67,343 

376, 506 


56.8 




42.7 




52.1 




34,1 




55,1 


XJtah . 


27.8 




51,8 


Idaho 


47,8 




40.1 




38.5 




43.5 

















































1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



2 Dakota territory. 



Ixxvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XIV.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE POPULATION 
10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TEERITOBIES. 



United States . 



Continental United States . 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts ... 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory- . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Utah 

. Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



population 10 yeae8 of age and 
ovee: 1900. 



Total. 



58, 224, COO 



57, 949, 824 



16, 692, 161 



565, 440 
337, 893 
278, 943 
267,048 
344, 824 
730, 454 
801,682 
480, 498 
886,379 



7,616,159 



145, 500 
920, 715 
231, 837 

1,364,501 
701, 646 

1,346,734 
942, 402 

1,577,334 
385, 490 

20,281,866 



3, 289, 921 

1,968,215 

3, 727, 745 

1, 896, 265 

1,661,156 

1,305,667 

1,711,789 

2,371,865 

229, 161 

294,304 

799, 755 

1,126,033 

10, 124, 215 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. Percent, 



29,287,070 



29, 073, 233 



1,689,685 

1, 480, 948 

1,304,703 

1, 098, 891 

990, 364 

2,163,913 

274, 324 

287, 055 

934, 332 

3, 235, 423 



191, 590 

72, 062 

426,424 

141, 282 

94. 147 

196, 769 

84, 959 

119, 837 

408, 437 

328, 799 

1, 222, 111 

55, 981 
127,768 
91,027 



8, 579, 191 



276, 777 
178, 719 
134, 933 

1, 208, 407 
191,923 
385, 610 

2, 996, 474 
757, 769 

2, 448, 689 

4, 000, 631 



72, 996 
458, 738 
126, 941 
662, 415 
325, 663 
716, 742 
670, 995 
864, 471 
201, 670 

9, 580, 049 



1, 645, 962 
898, 953 

1,804,040 
905, 990 
732, 538 
64.5, 874 
789, 404 

1,121,392 
117, 640 
137, 166 
373, 970 
507, 740 

5, 209, 755 



752, 531 
727, 587 
763, 188 
648, 123 
636, 093 
1, 033, 033 
133, 710 
182, 695 
485, 795 

1, 708, 107 



114, 799 

44, 268 

218, 263 

66, 020 

53,370 

84,604 

19, 809 

62, 683 

226, 387 

169, 637 

644, 267 

33,336 
90, 172 
90, 330 



' Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



60.2 



61.4 



48.9 
52.9 
48.4 
63.3 
65.7 
62.8 
61,6 
51.2 
60.1 

62.6 



50,2 
49.8 
64.8 
48.5 
46.4 
53,2 
60.6 
64.8 
62.3 

47.2 



47.0 
45.7 
48,4 
47,8 
46.9 
49,5 
46.1 
47,3 
61.3 
46.6 
46.8 
45.1 

61.5 



47.3 
49.1 
68.5 
68,7 
64.1 
.47.7 
48.7 
46,2 
62.0 

62.6 



59. 9 
61.4 
61.3 
46.7 
56.7 
43,0 
66,7 
62.3 
55.2 
61.6 
62,7 

69,6 
70.6 
99.2 



POPULATION 10 YEAE9 OF AGE AND 
OVEE: 1890. 



Total. 



47, 413, 659 



47, 413, 669 



13,888,377 



641,662 

316, 497 

271, 173 

1, 839, 607 

281,959 

609, 880 

4, 822, 392 

1,143,123 

4, 063, 134 

6, 416, 921 



131, 967 
798, 605 
188, 667 

1, 211, 934 
549, 638 

1, 147, 446 
802,406 

1, 802, 208 
283, 250 

16, 909, 513 



2, 868, 669 

1, 674, 028 

2, 907, 671 

1, 619, 035 

1, 258, 890 

962, 360 

1, 441, 308 

1, 996, 638 

129, 452 

236, 208 

771, 659 

1, 056, 215 

7,799,487 



1, 360, 031 
1, 276, 631 
1, 069, 646 
902, 028 
794, 683 
1,564,766 



44, 701 
787, 113 



2,400,161 



107, 811 
47, 755 
327, 896 
112, 541 
46, 076 
147, 227 
38,225 
62, 721 
276, 639 
244, 374 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations.! 



Number. Per cent. 



23, 318, 183 



23, 318, 183 



6, 987, 109 



258,468 
164, 703 
128, 771 
982, 444 
165, 878 
817,014 

2, 435, 725 
570, 738 

1, 973, 368 

3,273,841 



60.3 



47.7 
62,2 
47.6 
53.4 
55.3 
52.0 
60.5 
49.9 
48.6 

51.0 



64, 993 
395, 167 
101,119 
570, 796 
235, 064 
686,488 
462,485 
718, 671 
144, 068 

7, 816, 409 



1, 287, 101 
744, 303 

1, 374, 104 
764, 437 
582, 469 
474, 666 
646, 890 
913, 793 
68, 927 
115, 777 
374, 699 
468, 843 

3, 900, 448 



620, 737 
593, 420 
600, 275 
498, 118 
437, 782 
743, 891 



20, 906 
385, 319 

1,341,376 



72, 300 

80,823 

192, 438 

54,711 

26, 718 

68, 166 

23, 438 

86,430 

166, 247 

127, 475 

644,680 



49.2 
49.6 
53.6 
47.1 
42.8 
51.1 
67.6 
54.8 
50.9 



45,0 
44.5 
47.3 
47.2 
46.3 
49.8 
44.8 
45.8 
53.2 
49.0 
48,6 
44,4 

60.0 



45.6 
46.6 
66.1 
56.2 
55.1 
47.5 



46.8 
49.0 



6,5.9 



population 10 yeaes of age and 
ovek: 1880. 



Total. 



11,270,090 



519, 669 

286, 188 

264,052 

1,432,183 

220, 461 

497, 303 

3,981,428 

. 865, 591 

3,203,215 

5, 286, 645 



110,856 
695 864 
136, 907 

1, 069, 034 
428,687 
9.59, 951 
667, 466 

1,043,840 
184, 660 

12, 760, 841 



67.1 
64.5 
68.7 
48.6 
58.0 
46.3 
61.3 
56.5 
60.0 
52.2 
66.0 



2, 399, 367 
1, 468, 095 
2, 269, 315 
1, 236, 686 
965, 712 
559, 977 
1,181,641 
1, 657, 681 

2 99,849 

318,271 
704,297 

6,076,243 



1, 163, 498 

1, 062, 180 

851, 780 

753, 693 

649, 070 

1, 064, 196 



631, 876 
1,867,788 



31,989 

16, 479 

158, 220 

87, 966 

32,922 

97,194 

60,666 

26,005 

56, 720 

130, 565 

681,062 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



17, 392, 099 



17, 392, 099 



6, 309, 722 



231, 993 
142,468 
118,684 
720, 774 
116, 979 
241, 333 

1,884,645 
396, 879 

1, 466, 067 

2, 677, 762 



54,580 
324, 432 

66, 624 
494, 240 
176, 199 
480, 187 
392, 102 
697, 862 

91,586 

5, 625, 123 



Per cent. 



994, 476 
636, 080 
999, 780 
669, 204 
417, 455 
256, 125 
528, 302 
692, 959 

2 57.844 

162, 614 
322,286 

3, 022, 173 



619,864 
447, 970 
492, 790 
415, 506 
363, 228 
522, 183 



260, 692 
767, 319 



22, 255 
8,884 

101 , 251 
40, 822 
22, 271 
40, 055 
32,233 
15, 578 
30, 122 
67,343 

376, 605 



47.1 



44.6 
49.8 
44.9 
60.3 
53.1 
48.5 
47.3 
45.9 
45.8 

60.7 



49.2 
46.' 
48.7 
46.7 
41.1 
50.0 
58.7 
57.3 
49.6 

44.1 



41.4 
43.3 
44.1 
46.0 
43.2 
45.6 
44.7 
44.6 

57.9 

48.0 
46.8 

49.7 



44.7 
42.2 
67.9 
65.1 
56.0 
49.1 



49.0 
56.4 



69.6 
53.9 
64.0 
46.4 
67.6 
41.2 
63.6 
62.3 
64.1 
51.6 
56.3 



2 Dakota territory. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxvii 



Table XV.— NUMBER OF MALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL 3IALE POPU- 
LATION 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 





MALES 10 YEAK3 OF AGE AND 

over: 1900. 


MALES 10 YEAKS OF AGE AND 
over: 1890. 


MALES 10 


YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER: 1880. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations.! 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


[ Number. 


Per cent. 


United States 


29, 928, 804 


23, 957, 778 


80.0 


24,352,659 


19,312,651 


79.3 


18,735,980 


1 14, 744, 942 


78. 7 




Continental United States 


29,703,440 


23, 753, 836 


80.0 


24,3.52,669 


19, 312, 661 


79.3 


18,736,980 


t 14,744,942 


7^.7 




North Atlantic division 


8, 336, 693 


6, 734, 881 


80.8 


6,904,666 


5, 568, 690 


80.5 


5,527,160 


4, 333, 047 


78.4 






286, 114 
168, 483 
142, 528 

1,097,581 
168, 704 
365, 180 

2,877,822 
739, 224 

2,491,007 

3, 798, 278 


224,847 
136, 961 
112, 181 
879, 374 
139,829 
296, 971 

2, 324, 429 
603,237 

2, 017, 052 

3,093,091 


78.6 
81.3 
78.7 
80.1 
82,9 
81.3 
80.8 
81.6 
81.0 

81.4 


271, 787 
155,928 
137, 899 
887, 063 
136, 965 
300, 675 

2, 386, 622 
668, 685 

2, 061, 052 

3,178,769 


213, 405 
127, 845 
108, 804 
719, 166 
113, 164 
245, 634 

1, 921, 786 
459, 467 

1, 649, 420 

2,552,393 


78.5 
82.0 
78.9 
81.1 
83.2 
81.7 
80.6 
80.8 
80.0 

80.3 


258,587 
139, 807 
132, 036 
681, 786 
104, 986 
242, 392 

1,950,059 
426, 4.51 

1,591,0.56 

2, 688, 035 


198,465 
112, 340 
102,417 
546, 691 
87, 120 
192,663 

1, 624, 264 
330,103 

1,239,084 

2,119,492 


76.7 
80.4 
77.6 
80.2 
83.0 
79.5 
78.2 
77.4 
77.9 

81.9 


New Hampshire 


Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 


Connecticut 




Pennsylvania 


South Atlantic division 






74, 395 
455, 285 
108. 613 
079, 440 
367, 973 
661, 731 
465, 022 
782, 629 
203, 190 

10,527,915 


60, 024 
3.59, 755 

85, 780 
536, 883 
294, 502 
556, 581 
389, 645 
645, 932 
163, 989 

8,183,118 


80.7 
79.0 
79.0 
79.0 
80.0 
84.1 
83.8 
82.6 
80.7 


67, 309 
392, 485 

88,703 
598, 677 
281, 576 
559,764 
395, 466 
647, 922 
146, 867 

8,828,083 


64,666 
310, 415 

68,99-2 
463, 158 
213, 046 
460, 794 
324, 678 
641,016 
115, 729 

6,801,062 


81.1 
79.1 

77.8 
77.4 

W.3 
82.1 
83.6 

78.8 

77.0 


56,003 
341, 621 

63, 429 
516, 395 
217, 650 
465,268 
324, 364 
509, 830 

93, 475 

6, 684, 105 


46, 652 
266,632 

46, 966 
411, 043 
164, 691 
393, 211 
272, 015 
44.5,680 

73, 752 

6,088,033 


83.3 

77 S 


Maryland 


District of Columbia 




Virginia 

West Virginia 


79.6 






South Carolina 


83 9 






Florida 


78 9 










Ohio 


1,663,595 

1,006,765 

1,922,803 

983, 089 

811, 123 

706,401 

893, 912 

1,223,168 

131,893 

161,746 

429,465 

593, 965 

5,176,755 


1, 299, 881 
782, 237 

1, 609, 394 
772, 299 
616, 391 
548, 946 
682, 521 
966, 866 
103, 548 
121, 512 
327,354 
452, 169 

4,237,934 


78.1 
77.7 
78.5 
78.6 
76.0 
77.7 
76.4 
79.0 
78.5 
7.5.1 
76.2 
76.1 

81.9 


1,442,430 
856, 368 

1,507,169 
851,163- 
667,968 
523, 342 
765, 134 

1,037,994 
74,442 
133, 252 
426, 815 
563,016 

3, 977, 614 


1,102,924 
659,401 

1, 173, 794 
668,489 
601,012 
408, 941 
565,830 
800,471 
61, 001 
104, 197 
331, 920 
423,082 

3,183,555 


76.6 
77.1 
77.9 
78.5 
76.1 
78.1 
74.9 
77.1 
81.9 
78.2 
77.8 
75.1 

80.0 


1,209,435 
752, 405 

1, 178, 131 
659, 101 
503, 434 
307, 449 
623,675 
816, 962 

1 5 64, 343 

181,022 
388, 148 

3,069,756 


-881, 836 
583,658 
893, 679 
614, 191 
371,062 
230, 048 
483, 4.57 
630,016 

= 54,993 

142, 159 
302,934 

2,492,259 


72 9 






Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 


75.9 
78.0 
73.7 
74.8 
77.5 
77 1 








85.5 


Nebraska . 


78 5 




78.0 




81.2 






Kentucky . . 


807, 166 
746, 793 
651, 523 
552, 676 
496,879 
1,129,899 
149, 818 
157,910 
484, 601 

1,863,899 


646, 909 
611, 383 
563, 179 
466, 766 
405, 182 
892, 611 
121, 494 
122, 438 
407,942 

1,504,812 


80.1 
81.9 
86.4 
84.6 
81.5 
79.0 
81.4 
77.5 
84. 2 

80.7 


689,572 
640, 677 
531, 941 
451,788 
394, 815 
830, 783 


536, 800 
608, 378 
454,928 
362, 529 
322, 019 
648,654 


77.8 
79.4 
85.5 
80.2 
81.6 
78.1 


586,424 
524,659 
414,095 
375, 561 
322, 004 
568,928 


465,432 
391, 662 
368, 734 
305,089 
268, 176 
463, 190 


79 4 




74.6 




89.0 


Mississippi 


81 2 




83.3 


Texas 


81.4 






25,811 
412, 227 

1,463,627 


19,849 
330, 403 

1,216,951 


76.9 
80.2 

83.1 








Western division 


278, 185 
866, 924 


230, 076 
712,111 


82.7 
82.1 








123, 724 

47,731 

237, 665 

76,819 

57, 027 

100, 999 

21,822 

72,000 

248, 282 

190,037 

687, 793 

41,968 
92,934 
90,462 


104, 990 

41,264 

190, 297 

59, 710 

46,584 

73,840 

17,809 

58,167 

204, 606 

151,200 

556,345 

29, 707 
84,047 
90, 188 


84.9 
86.5 
80.1 
77.7 
81.7 
73.1 
81.6 
80.8 
82.4 
79.6 
80.9 

70.8 
90.4 
99.7 


75, 596 
32,676 
202, 719 
61,885 
29,736 
79, 747 
25,370 
40,276 
179, 965 
146, 406 
589, 252 


67,664 
28,929 
173, 291 
50,777 
25,149 
61, 089 
21,609 
33,542 
164, 132 
116, 682 
484,087 


89.5 
88.6 
85.5 
82.1 
84.6 
76.6 
8.5.2 
83.3 
85.6 
79.7 
82.2 


24,558 
11,960 

110,896 
48,266 
24,267 
60,680 
36, 211 
17,910 
36,085 
81, 031 

425,170 


21,748 
8,420 
96,472 
38,560 
21,800 
37,168 
30, 730 
15,287 
29, 059 
64,564 
348, 303 


88.6 


Wyoming 


70.5 




87.0 


New Mexico 


79.9 




89.8 


Utah 


73.5 




84.9 




85.4 




80.6 




79.7 




81.9 


Alaska 















































1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixv 



2 Dakota territory. 



Ixxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XVI.— NUMBER OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS COMPAEED WITH THE TOTAL FEMALE 
POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States . 



Continental United States . 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division. 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

riorida 



North Central division. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa -• 

Missouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 



Kentucky. , 
Tennessee . 
Alabama... 



Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory. 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

California ... 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . . . 



females 10 years of age and 
over: 1900. 



Total. 



28,246,384 



8, 3S5, 568 



279,326 
169, 410 
138,415 

1,169,467 
176, 120 
365, 324 

2, 923, 860 
741,274 

2,394,372 

3,817,881 



71, 105 
465, 430 
123,224 
686,061 
383, 673 
685,003 
477, 380 
794, 705 
182,300 

9,753,961 



1,626,326 
961,460 

1,804,942 
913, 176 
750,033 
699,256 
817,877 

1, 148, 697 
97,268 
132,658 
370,290 
532, 068 

4, 947, 460 



782, 629 
734, 156 
653, 180 
546, 215 
493, 485 
1,034,014 
125,006 
129, 146 
449, 731 

1,371,624 



67, 872 
24,331 
187, 769 
64,463 
37, 120 
95,770 
13, 137 
47,837 
160, 165 
138,762 
634, 318 

14,013 

34,834 

665 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. Per cent. 



6,329,292 



6,319,397 



1, 844, 310 



61, 930 
41, 758 
22, 752 
329,033 
62,094 
88,639 
672,045 
164, 522 
431,637 

907, 440 



12, 972 

98, 983 

41, 161 

125, 532 

31, 161 

160, 161 

181,850 

218, 639 

37,581 



246, 071 
116, 716 
294,646 
133, 691 
116, 147 
96,928 
106, 883 
154, 526 
14, 092 
15,644 
46, 616 
56, 571 

971, 821 



106, 622 

116, 204 

200, 009 

178, 357 

130, 911 

140, 392 

12, 216 

10, 257 

77, 853 

198,295 



9,809 
3,004 
27, 966 
6,310 
6,786 
10,764 
2,000 
4,616 
20, 781 
18,437 
87,922 

3,628 

6,126 

142 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



18.8 



18.8 



22.1 



18.6 
24.6 
16.7 
28.1 
29.6 
24,3 
23.0 
20.8 
18.0 

23.8 



18.2 
21.3 
33.4 
18.3 
9.8 
23.4 
88.0 
27.6 
20.6 

14.8 



15.1 
12.1 
16.3 
14.6 
15.5 
16.2 
13.1 
13.5 
14.6 
11.8 
12.6 
10.4 

19.6 



13.0 
16.8 
30.6 
32.7 
26.5 
13.6 
9.8 
7.9 
17.8 

14.6 



14,6 
12.3 
14.9 

9.8 
18.3 
11.2 
15.2 

9.4 
13.0 
13.3 
16.5 

26.9 
17.6 
25.8 



FEMALES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND 
over: 1890. 



Total. 



23,060,900 



23,060,900 



6,983,811 



269, 876 
169, 669 
133, 274 
952,644 
146,004 
309, 165 

2,436,770 
674, 538 

2, 002, 082 

3,237,162 



64, 668 
406, 120 

99,864 
613, 257 
267, 962 
687, 682 
406,940 
654,286 
136,383 

8,081,630 



1,416,229 
818, 660 

1, 400, 512 
767, 872 
600, 422 
439, 008 
686, 174 
957, 644 
55,010 
102, 956 
344,844 
492, 199 

8,821,878 



670, 459 
636, 954 
537,604 
460, 240 
399, 868 
733, 972 



18,890 
374, 886 



936, 634 



32,215 
15, 080 

126,177 
60, 656 
16, 340 
67,480 
12, 856 
22, 445 
95,674 
97,968 

400, 644 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations.! 



Number. 


Per cent. 


4, 006, 632 


17.4 


4,005,682 


17.4 


1,428,419 


20.6 



46,063 

86,858 

19, 967 

263, 278 

42, 714 

71,880 

518, 940 

111,271 

323, 948 

721, 448 



10,428 
84,762 
32, 127 
107, 638 
22, 018 
126, 694 
137, 807 
172, 666 
28,329 

1,014,347 



184, 177 
84,902 

200, 310 
96, 948 
81,467 
65,626 
80, 560 

113, 322 
7,926 
11,680 
42,779 
45, 761 

716, 893 



83,937 
85,042 
145, 852 
136, 689 
115, 763 
95,237 



1,067 
64,916 

124,425 



16.7 
28.1 
16.0 
27.6 
29.3 
23.1 
21.1 
19.4 
16.2 

22.3 



16.1 
20.9 
32.2 
17.6 
8.2 
21.4 
83.9 
26.4 
20.8 

12.6 



13.0 
10.4 
14.3 
12.6 
18.6 
14.9 
11.7 
11.8 
14.4 
U.2 
12.4 



18.8 



12.5 
13.4 
27.0 
30.1 
29.0 
13.0 



FEMALES 10 YEARS OF AGE AND 
over: 1880. 



4,636 

1,894 

19, 147 

8,934 

1,669 

7,076 

1,824 

1,894 

11,116 

10, 793 

60,543 



6.6 
14.6 



13.3 



14.4 
12.6 
15.3 
7.8 
9.6 
10.5 
14,2 
8.4 
11.6 
11.0 
15.1 



Total. 



18,025,627 



18, 025, 627 



5, 742, 930 



261, 082 
146, 881 
132, 016 
750, 397 
115, 476 
264,911 

2,031,369 
439, 140 

1,612,169 

2, 698, 610 



54,853 
868, 743 

78,478 
642,639 
210, 937 
494,683 
848, 092 
634,010 

91,176 

6,076,736 



1, 189, 932 
715, 690 

1,091,184 
577, 685 
462,278 
252,528 
567, 966 
740, 669 

2 36, 606 

187,249 
316, 149 

8,006,487 



577,074 
537, 571 
437, 685 
378, 132 
827, 066 
495,268 



263,691 
500, 864 



7,431 

4,529 
47,324 
39, 700 

8,655 
46, 614 
14, 466 

7,095 

19,635 

49, 534 

256, 892 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



2, 647, 167 



2, 647, 157 



976,675 



33,528 
30,128 
16, 167 

174, 183 
29,859 
48, 670 

360,381 
66,776 

216, 983 

558,270 



Per cent. 



7,928 
58,800 
19,658 
83,197 
11,608 
86,976 
120, 087 
152, 332 
17,784 

587,090 



112, 689 
61,422 

106, 101 
55,013 
46,393 
25,077 
44,845 
62,943 

>2,851 

10,465 
19, 361 

629, 914 



54,422 
56,408 
124, 066 
110, 417 
95,052 
58,943 



30, 616 
45,208 



607 

464 
4,779 
2,262 

471 
2,887 
1,503 

291 

1,063 

2,779 

28,202 



14.7 
14.7 



17.0 



12.8 
20.6 
12.2 
23.2 
25.9 
19.1 
17.7 
16.2 
13.6 

20.7 



14.6 
16.6 
26.8 
15.3 
5.6 
17.6 
35.0 
28.6 
19.5 

8.8 



9.5 
7.2 
9.7 
9.6 
10.0 
9.9 
8.0 
8.6 

8.0 

7.6 
6.1 

17.6 



9.4 
10.6 
28.3 
29.2 
29.1 
11.9 



12.1 
9.0 



6.8 

10.2 

10.1 

6.7 

5.4 

6.2 

10.4 

4.1 

6.4 

5.6 

11.0 



' Dakota territory. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxix 



Productive workers are shown by Table xiii (page 
Ixxv) to have increased from a little over one-third of 
the entire population of continental United States in 
1880 to almost two-fifths in 1900, the percentages 
being 34.7 in 1880, 37.2 in 1890, and 38.3 in 1900. The 
proportion of workers to the total population was 
somewhat smaller in 1900, as compared with 1890, in 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, 
Louisiana, and Oklahoma, and in all the states of the 
Western division except Oregon; but of the five geo- 
graphic divisions the Western is the only one in which 
the proportion decreased in the division as a whole. 
During the preceding decade also a decrease was shown 
for many of the states in this division, and for North 
Dakota and South Dakota, in the North Central division. 
These decreases in the proportions of workers to the 
total population in the more westerly states are proba- 
bly due to the changing conditions of their settlement, 
affecting the age and sex constitution of the population. 

From Table xiv it appears that in the North Atlantic 
division Rhode Island had the largest proportion of the 
population 10 years of age and over gainfully employed 
in 1900, 55.7 per cent, as compared with 55.3 per cent 
in 1890 and 53.1 per cent in 1880. The proportions 
next in rank in 1900 were 53.3 per cent for Massachu- 
setts, 52.9 per cent for New Hampshire, and 52.8 per 
cent for Connecticut. Somewhat more than 50 per 
cent of all persons 10 years of age and over were at 
work also in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 
leaving Maine and Vermont as the only states in this 
division in which, in 1900, less than one-half of the pop- 
ulation under consideration were gainfully occupied. 

For each of the states in this division the proportion 
of males at work in 1900 was large, being more than 
four-fifths of the entire male population ] years of age 
and over in each state except Maine and Vermont, and 
not much less in these states. The proportion of fe- 
males at work also was large for many of the states in 
this division, particularly for Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts, where they constituted, in 1900, very nearly 
three-tenths of all the females 10 years of age and over. 

The proportion of the population 10 years of age and 
over engaged in gainful occupations was somewhat larger 
in 1900 than in 1890 in all the states of this division ex- 
cept Massachusetts, for which the proportion reported 
in 1900 was nearly the same as that in 1890. In Rhode 
Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, 
and Vermont the proportion for males was slightly less 
in 1900 than in 1890, while in each of these states the 
proportion for females was somewhat larger in 1900 
than at the preceding census. 

In this division manufacturing interests are especially 
prominent; in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania 
from 40 to more than 50 per cent of the entire number 
of persons at work in 1900 were engaged in manufactur- 
ing and mechanical pursuits. Agricultural pursuits, on 



the other hand, were represented by a comparatively 
small proportion of the total number of workers in these 
states, the percentage being much below the average 
for the country in every state except Vermont. (See 
Table xxv, page xciv.) 

In the South Atlantic division the proportion of gain- 
ful workers in 1900 was largest in South Carolina, where 
they constituted fully three-fifths (60.6 per cent) of all 
persons 10 years of age and over. For the District of 
Columbia, also, the proportion was high, this being due 
largely to the number of government employees. For 
Georgia the proportion was the same as that for the 
District of Columbia, 54.8 per cent; next in order was 
North Carolina with 53.2 per cent and then Florida 
with 52.3 per cent. In all of these states agricultural 
pursuits predominate, and large numbers of women and 
children are employed in field work, resulting in com- 
paratively large proportions of each sex gainfully occu- 
pied. In this division there are only three states — Mary- 
land, Virginia, and West Virginia — in which less than 
one-half of all persons 10 years of age and over in 1900 
were gainfully employed; and, as compared with 1890, 
the proportion showed an increase in all the states of this 
division except Georgia, where it remained stationary. 

Of the states and territories comprising the South 
Central division, Mississippi and Alabama showed the 
largest proportions of gainful workers in 1900. In 
these states and in Louisiana and Arkansas the propor- 
tions exceeded one-half of the population 10 years of 
age and over, while in the other states and territories 
of this division they ranged between 45 and 50 per cent. 
In the states and territories of this division agricultural 
pursuits occupy from one-half to more than three- 
fourths of all the gainful workers; and here, as in the 
South Atlantic division, the employment of women and 
children in field work makes the proportions of gainful 
workers relatively large for each sex. As compared 
with 1890, there was an increased proportion of both 
males and females at work in 1900 in all the states and 
territories of this division except Louisiana. 

In the North Central division North Dakota was the 
only state which had, in 1900, more than one-half of 
its population 10 years of age and over engaged in gain- 
ful occupations, the percentages in the remaining states 
ranging from 45.1 per cent for Kansas to 49.5 per cent 
for Minnesota. In each state of this division the pro- 
portion of females at work was larger in 1900 than in 
1890, while the proportion of males at work in 1900 
was slightly smaller in Minnesota, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin, and somewhat larger 
in the remaining states of the division. 

In all the states and territories of the Western division 
except New Mexico and Utah, more than one-half of 
the total population 10 years of age and over in 1900 
were engaged in gainful occupations, and for many of 
these states and territories the proportions were very 
large — namely, 61.4 per cent for Wyoming, 59.9 per 
cent for Montana, 56.7 per cent for both Arizona and 
Nevada, and 55.2 per cent for Washington. In this 



Ixxx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



region of extensive mining interests a very large pro- 
portion of all males were adults, and hence the pro- 
portion of males 10 years of age and over gainfully 
occupied was large, while, on the other hand, the pro- 
portion of females at work was small. In each state 
and territory of this division the proportion of gainful 
workers showed a decrease from 1890 to 1900, owing in 
great measure to the fact that mining towns and camps 
have given place to settled communities. The same 



cause, moreover, has resulted in an increase in the pro- 
portion of females at work except in Wj'^oming and 
Colorado. 

In general. Table xv (page Ixxvii) shows that the pro- 
portion of males 10 years of age and over gainfully 
employed does not vary greatlj^ for different states 
and territories. The usual percentage is between 75 
and 85. In one state onlj^ (Utah) does it fall below 75, 
and in two states only (Wyoming and Alabama) does it 



Table XVII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SEX, GENERAL NATIVITY, AND COLOR, OF PERSONS 



STATES AND TERKITOBIES. 



United States . 



Contmental United States . 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts - . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania — 



AGGREGATE. 



Total. 



South Atlantic division. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval. 



29,073,233 



8, 579, 191 



276, 777 
178, 719 
134,933 

1, 208, 407 
191, 923 
385,610 

2, 996, 474 
757, 759 

2, 448, 689 

4,000,531 



72, 996 
458,738 
126, 941 
662, 415 
325, 663 
716, 742 
670, 995 
864, -171 
201,570 

9, 580, 649 



1, 545, 952 
898, 963 

1,804,040 
905,990 
732, 538 
646, 874 
789, 404 

1,121,392 
117, 640 
137, 156 
373, 970 
507, 740 

5, 209, 765 



752, 631 
727, 687 
763, 188 
645, 123 
536, 093 
1,033,033 
133, 710 
132, 696 
485, 795 

1,703,107 



114, 799 

44,268 

218,263 

66, 020 

63,370 

84, 604 

19, 809 

62, 683 

225, 387 

169, 637 

644,267 

33,336 
90, 172 
90, 330 



Males. 



:, 957, 778 



23, 763, 836 



Females. 



6,734,8S1 I 1,844,310 



224, 847 
136, 961 
112,181 
879, 374 
139, 829 
296, 971 

2,321,429 
603,237 

2, 017, 052 

3, 093, 091 



60, 024 
359, 765 

85,780 
636,883 
294, 502 
556, 581 
389,645 
645, 932 
163, 989 

8, 183, 118 



1,299,881 
782, 237 

1, 509, 394 
772, 299 
616, 391 
548, 946 
682, 521 
966, 866 
103, 548 
121,612 
327, 364 
452, 169 

4,237,934 



646, 909 
611,383 
563, 179 
466, 766 
406, 182 
892, 641 
121, 494 
122, 438 
407, 942 



104, 990 

41,264 

190, 297 

69, 710 

46, 584 

73, 840 

17, 809 

58,167 

204, 606 

161,200 

556, 345 

29, 707 
84,047 
90,188 



61,930 
41,758 
22, 752 
329,033 
52, 094 
88, 639 
672, 045 
154, 622 
431,537 

907, 440 



12, 972 

98, 983 

41,161 

125, 632 

31,161 

160, 161 

181,350 

218, 539 

37, 581 

1,397,531 



246, 071 

116, 716 

294,646 

133, 691 

116,147 

96,928 

106, 883 

154, 526 

14,092 

15, 644 

46,616 

55, 571 

971,821 



105, 622 

116,204 

200, 009 

178, 367 

130, 911 

140, 392 

12,216 

10, 267 

77,863 

198, 296 



3,004 

27, 966 

6,310 

6,786 

10, 764 

2,000 

4, 516 

20, 781 

18, 437 

87, 922 

3,628 

6,125 

142 



NATIVE WHITE — NATIVE PARENTS, 



Total. 



13, 941, 377 



3,581,004 



191,628 

101,375 

83, 621 

401,335 

58, 213 

142, 004 

1,008,679 

290, 906 

1,303,243 

2,079,968 



42, 968 
233, 363 

52, 284 
372, 220 
271,749 
442, 512 
200, 166 
382, 184 

82, 532 

4,612,741 



887, .526 
648, 598 
739, 666 
351, 3.V2 
153, 204 
130, 646 
401,983 
716, 712 
24,049 
43,956 
182, 682 
332, 438 

2, 869, 351 



540, 639 
489, 729 
336, 844 
207,051 
170, 978 
610,397 
99, 962 
102, 411 
301,340 

742, 266 



40, 403 
21,416 

116, 446 
47, 338 
18, 404 
23, 600 
6,181 
30, 645 

106, 370 
94,266 

237, 406 

6,902 
12, 059 
48, 087 



Males. 



12,013,666 



11, 948, 692 



2, 929, 630 



169,286 

82,100 

70, 060 

313, 871 

46,142 

115,267 

819,218 

241, 943 

1,081,763 

1,781,053 



36, 918 
193, 876 

40, 607 
329, 499 
247,711 
370, 896 
158, 560 
329, 087 

73, 899 

4,013,113 



759, 366 
571, 008 
637,686 
301,785 
127, 945 
111, 134 
348, 739 
637, 697 
21,369 
38,612 
160, 279 
297, 693 

2,567,820 



488, 094 
442, 652 
289, 152 
180, 2.54 
160, 302 
568, 089 
91,924 
96, 226 
272, 127 

657, 076 



36, 890 
19, 942 

102, 189 
43, 062 
17, 060 
20, 616 
5,585 
28, 164 
96,237 
83,454 

203, 877 

5,736 
11,121 
48, 017 



Females. 



1,927,811 



1, 926, 637 



661, 374 



32, 342 
19, 275 
13, .561 
87, 464 
12,071 
26, 747 

189, 461 
48, 963 

221,490 

298, 915 



6,040 
39, 487 
11,677 
42,721 
24,038 
71,616 
41,606 
63,097 



599, 628 



128, 160 
77, 590 

101, 979 
49, 597 
25, 269 
19, 512 
53, 244 
79, 115 
2,680 
5,344 
22, 403 
34, 745 

291, 631 



52, 545 
47,077 
47, 692 
26, 797 
20, 676 
62, 308 
8,038 
7,185 
29, 213 

86, 189 



3,513 

1,474 

14,2.57 

4,276 

1,344 

2,884 

596 

2, 381 

10, 133 

10, 802 

33, 529 

166 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PARENTS. 



Total. 



5, 327, 204 



5, 300, 924 



2, 075, 187 



32, 617 

24,676 

26, 815 

299, 617 

60,878 

97, 800 

859, 190 

186, 382 

497,413 

147, 822 



8,540 
69,504 
15,686 
11,387 
19, 643 
2,902 
4,421 
9,160 
6,579 

2,471,421 



372, 060 

149, 078 

491, 908 

251, 252 

306, 625 

223, 895 

219, 728 

210, 783 

28,044 

41,630 

90, 370 

87, 048 

246,526 



61, 162 
16, 981 
10,855 

6,100 
41, 457 
81,965 

3,965 
12,588 
12,463 

359, 968 



24, .SAS 
9, .6:54 
40, 131 
6,438 
8,190 
32, 102 
4,339 
14,093 
39, 272 
27,876 
154,445 

3,072 

2,580 

20, 628 



Males. 



4, 143, 158 



4, 117, 387 



; 1,507,233 



24,756 

16, 761 

20, 912 

199, 214 

32,938 

66, 750 

625, 806 

137, 241 

382, 8,65 

117, 917 



6,669 

53, 963 

11, 702 

9,785 

16, 599 

2,439 

3,609 

7,568 

5,693 

1, 982, 392 



293, 099 

123, 851 

382,933 

201,480 

241,178 

177, 595 

181, 825 

170, 260 

23, 243 

35,346 

75, 8.59 

76, 723 

208,061 



47,879 

13,484 

9,399 

5,121 

34, 806 

71,194 

3,661 

11,520 

11,007 

301, 784 



21,673 

8,661 

33, 359 

4,906 

7,506 

27, 695 

3,788 

12, 872 

34,188 

23, 448 

123, 689 

2,960 

2,214 

20, 597 



Females. 



1,184,046 



1,183,637 



567, 954 



7,761 

7,814 

5,903 

100,403 

17,940 

31,050 

233,384 

49, 141 

114,568 

29,905 



1,981 

15,541 

3,984 

1,602 

3,044 

463 

812 

1,692 

886 

489,029 



78, 961 

26,227 

108, 976 

49, 772 

64,447 

46,300 

37, 903 

40, 523 

4,801 

6,284 

14, 511 

11,325- 

38,466 



13, 283 

2,497 

1,456 

979 

6,651 

10, 771 

304 

1,068 

1,466 

58,184 



2,876 

873 

6,772 

533 

684 

4,407 

551 

1,221 

5,084 

4,428 

30,756 

112 
366 
31 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxxi 



exceed 86. But the corresponding percentages for fe- 
males, shown in Table xvi (page Ixxviii), vary more 
widely, ranging from 7.9 in Oklahoma to 38 in South 
Carolina. In the manufacturing states of the North 
Atlantic division the percentages for females are com- 
paratively high, and also in those Southern states where 
the negro element is prominent; in the agricultural states 
of the Middle West they are comparatively low, as they 
are also in most of the states in the region farther west. 

ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TEERITORIES: 1900. 



DISTRIBUTION BY GENEBAL NATIVITY AND COLOR. 

The distribution of the gainful workers in 1900 ac- 
cording to general nativity and color, by sex, and the 
proportion which each of the principal elements, with- 
out distinction of sex, bore to the total number of per- 
sons occupied, are presented by states and territories 
in Table xvii. 



FOKEIQN WHITE. 


NEQSO. 


CHINESE, JAPANESE, AND INDIAN. 


PERCENTAGE OF ALL PERSONS OCCUPIED. 






















Native 


Native 






Chinese, 




Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


white— 
native 
parents. 


white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Negro. 


Japanese, 

and 

Indian. 




5,767,146 


4,886,731 


880,415 


3,998,963 


2,682,091 


1,316,872 


262, 380 


232,232 


20,148 


47.6 


18.2 


19.7 


13.6 


0.9 


1 


5,736,818 


4,857,099 


879,719 


3,992,337 


2,676,497 


1,316,840 


167, 825 


165,161 


12,664 


47.7 


18.3 


19.7 


13.7 


0.6 


2 


2,700,721 


2,148,562 


652,159 


204,666 


132,618 


72,048 


17,613 


16,838 


775 


41.7 


24.2 


31.5 


2.4 


0.2 


S 


51,642 


39,978 


11,564 


626 


455 


171 


464 


372 


92 


69.2 


11.8 


18.6 


0.2 


0.2 


4 


52,263 


87,741 


14,612 


398 


242 


156 


118 


117 


1 


66.7 


13.8 


29.2 


0.2 


0.1 


5 


24,049 


20,866 


3,183 


410 


306 


105 


38 


38 




62.0 


19.9 


17.8 


0.3 


(^) 


6 


487,744 


852,366 


135, 378 


16,611 


10,864 


5,747 


3,100 


3,059 


41 


33.2 


24.8 


40.4 


1.4 


0.2 


7 


77,541 


57, 392 


20,149 


4,906 


2,978 


1,928 


885 


379 


6 


30.3 


26.5 


40.4 


2.6 


0.2 


f. 


137,184 


109,402 


27,782 


7,970 


4,923 


3,047 


652 


639 


13 


36.8 


26.3 


35.6 


2.1 


0.2 


9 


1,062,309 


836,686 


226,623 


67,070 


34, Oil 


23,069 


9,226 


8,708 


618 


33.7 


28.7 


35.4 


1.9 


0.3 


10 


242,779 


199,594 


43,185 


36,246 


23,035 


13,211 


1,446 


1,424 


22 


38.4 


24.6 


32.0 


4.8 


0.2 


11 


565,320 


494,537 


70,783 


80,429 


66,805 


24,624 


2,184 


2,102 


82 


63.2 


20.3 


23.1 


3.3 


0.1 


12 


114,522 


98,912 


15,610 


1,663,899 


1,091,601 


562,298 


4,320 


3,608 


712 


52.0 


3.7 


2.9 


41.3 


0.1 


13 


7,813 


6,729 


1,084 


13,628 


9,764 


3,864 


57 


64 


3 


68.8 


11.7 


10.7 


18.7 


0.1 


14 


48,959 


40,663 


8,296 


106,386 


70,728 


36,668 


626 


625 


1 


50.9 


15.1 


10.7 


23.2 


0.1 


lb 


9,982 


7,930 
9,663 


2,052 
958 


48, 663 
267, 965 


26,116 
187, 726 


23,448 
80,239 


4''6 


426 




41.2 


12.4 


7.9 


38.2 


0.3 


16 


10,521 


322 


310 


12 


56.2 


1.7 


1.6 


40.6 


('' 


17 


13, 517 


12, 712 


805 


20,697 


17,424 


3,273 


67 


56 


1 


83.4 


6.0 


4.2 


6.4 


(') 


IS 


2,617 


2,382 


236 


266,317 


179, 139 


87, 178 


2,394 


1,725 


669 


61.7 


0.4 


0.4 


87.2 


0.3 


19 


3,181 


2,825 


356 


363, 121 


224, 661 


138,660 


106 


90 


16 


35.0 


0.8 


0.6 


63.6 


!;! 


20 


7,092 


6,478 


614 


465,860 


302,616 


163,234 


186 


183 


2 


44.2 


1.1 


0.8 


53.9 


(■) 


21 


10,840 


9,630 


1,210 


101,372 


74,528 


26,844 


247 


239 


8 


40.9 


3.3 


5.4 


50.3 


0.1 


22 


2,254,721 


2,004,402 


250,319 


226,341 


169,075 


67,266 


15,426 


14, 136 


1,289 


48.1 


25.8 


23.5 


2.4 


0.2 


23 


242,352 


213,863 


28,499 


43, 629 


33,180 


10,449 


386 


383 


2 


57.4 


24.1 


15.7 


2.8 


(!) 


24 


74, 594 


67,546 


7,048 


26,404 


19,566 


6,838 


279 


266 


13 


72.2 


16.6 


8.3 


2.9 


(') 


2b 


629,606 


455, 643 


73, 963 


41,482 


31,757 


9,726 


1,479 


1,475 


4 


41.0 


27.3 


29.3 


2.3 


0.1 


26 


293, 775 


261,376 


32,399 


7,188 


6,510 


1,678 


2,393 


2,148 


246 


38.8 


27.7 


32.4 


0.8 


0.3 


27 


269,818 


243,844 


25,974 


1,254 


1,019 


235 


2,637 


2,405 


232 


20.9 


41.7 


36.8 


0.2 


0.4 


28 


286,151 


255,960 


80,191 


2,792 


2,224 


668 


2,390 


2,033 


357 


20.2 


34.7 


44.3 


0.4 


0.4 


29 


161,661 


147,009 


14,652 


5,884 


4,801 


1,083 


148 


147 


1 


50.9 


27.8 


20.6 


0.8 


i;i 


30 


119,856 


106, 248 


13, 608 


73,666 


52,294 


21,272 


475 


467 


8 


63.9 


18.8 


10.7 


6.6 


31 


63,566 


57,142 


6,414 


167 


127 


30 


1,834 


1,667 


167 


20.5 


23.8 


54.0 


0.1 


1.6 


32 


48,852 


45,083 


3,769 


252 


197 


66 


2,466 


2,274 


192 


32.0 


30.4 


36.6 


0.2 


1.8 


33 


96,797 


88,042 


8,755 


3,411 


2,608 


903 


710 


666 


44 


48.8 


24.2 


25.9 


0.9 


0.2 


34 


67,703 


62,656 


6,047 


20,322 


15, 892 


4,430 


229 


206 


24 


65.5 


17.1 


13.3 


4.0 


0.1 


3b 


194,676 


176,834 


18,342 


1,890,860 


1,269,371 


621,479 


18,352 


16,348 


2,004 


54.9 


4.7 


3.7 


86.3 


0.4 


36 


26,175 


23,096 


3,079 


124,478 


§7,766 


36, 712 


77 


74 


3 


71.9 


8.1 


3.5 


16.6 


SI} 


37 


10,009 


9,130 


879 


211,767 


146,013 


65,744 


111 


104 




67.3 


2.2 


1.4 


29.1 


' 


38 


8,628 


8,064 


564 


406,746 


256, 452 


150,294 


115 


112 


3 


44.2 


1.4 


1.1 


53.3 





39 


4,968 


4,572 


396 


425, 966 


,275,925 


150,041 


1,038 


894 


144 


32.1 


0.9 


0.8 


66.0 


0.2 


40 


27,659 


24, 939 


2,620 


295,274 


194, 386 


100,888 


825 


749 


76 


31.9 


7.7 


5.1 


55.1 


0.2 


41 


96,592 


87,011 


9,681 


243,091 


175,382 


67, 709 


988 


965 


23 


69.1 


7.9 


9.4 


23.6 


0.1 


42 


3,060 


2,942 


118 


13,676 


11,293 


2,283 


13,157 


11,684 


1,473 


74.8 


3.0 


2.3 


10.1 


9.8 


43 


8,904 


8,435 


469 


6,822 


6,560 


1,262 


1,970 


1,697 


273 


77.2 


9.6 


6.7 


6.1 


1.6 


44 


8,781 


8,145 


636 


163,140 


116, 594 


46,646 


71 


69 


2 


62.0 


2.6 


1.8 


33.6 


0) 


46 


472,178 


428,889 


43,289 


16,581 


12,832 


3,749 


112,116 


104, 231 


7,884 


43.6 


21.1 


27.7 


1.0 


6.6 


46 


43,481 
11,603 
66,413 

7,659 
13,418 
27, 047 

5,887 
14,260 
66,015 
33,601 
192,794 


40,383 
11,005 


3,098 
598 


912 
577 


700 
522 


212 
66 


6,456 
1,138 


5,344 
1,134 


111 
4 


35.2 
48.4 


21.4 
21.5 


37.9 
26.2 


0.8 
1.3 


4.7 
2.6 


47 
48 


60,835 

7,235 

12,546 

23,754 

5,545 

13, 462 

61,504 

30,800 

171, 820 


5,578 
424 


4,617 
962 


3,273 
833 


1,344 
129 


666 
4,623 


641 
3,675 


15 
948 


63.4 
71.7 


18.4 
8.2 


25.8 
11.6 


2.1 
1.6 


0.3 

7.0 


49 
60 


872 

3,293 

342 


1,342 
447 
76 


1,175 

376 

68 


167 
71 
17 


12,016 
1,608 
3,327 


8,297 
1,399 
2,833 


3,719 
109 
494 


34.5 
27.8 
31.2 


15.4 
37.9 
21.9 


25.1 
32.0 
29.7 


2.6 
0.5 
0.4 


22.6 
1.8 
16.8 


bl 
62 
63 


798 

4,511 

2,801 

20,974 


165 
1,605 

727 
5,252 


135 
1,289 

668 
3,903 


30 

216 

159 

1,349 


3,620 
12,225 
13,177 
64,370 


3,634 
11,388 
12,930 
53,056 


86 

837 

247 

1,314 


48.7 
47.2 
55.6 
36.9 


22.6 
17.4 
16.4 
24.0 


22.7 
29.3 
19.8 
29.9 


0.3 
0.7 
0.4 
0.8 


6.8 
5.4 
7.8 
8.4 


54 
56 
56 
57 




7,972 
7,049 


147 


151 


147 


4 


16,091 


12,892 


3,199 


17.7 


9.2 


24.4 


0.4 


48.3 


68 


7|678 
14,531 


529 


107 


100 


7 


67,848 


63, 563 


4,286 


13.4 


2.9 


8.4 


0.1 


75.2 


69 


14,611 


20 


6,368 


6,347 


21 


616 


616 




63.2 


22,8 


16.2 


7.1 


0.7 


W 







23054r— 04 vi 



Ixxxii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



From the preceding table it appears that of the whole 
body of gainful workers in continental United States 
in 1900, 47.7 per cent were native white of native par- 
ents, 18.3 per cent native white of foreign parents, 19.7 
per cent foreign white, 13.7 per cent negro, and 0.6 
per cent Chinese, Japanese, and Indian. 

In Table xviii the distribution by general nativity 
and color of the population gainfully employed is com- 
pared with the distribution of the total population 10 
years of age and over in continental United States and 
in each geographic division. 

Table XVIII. — Distribution, by general nativity and color, of the 
population 10 years of age and over and of persons engaged in gain- 
ful occupations, by geographic divisions: 1900. 



GEOGEAPHIC DIVISIONS AND GENERAL 
NATIVITY AND COLOB. 



Continental United States 

Native wMte— native parents.. 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

North Atlantic division , 

Native white — native parents 

Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

South Atlantic division 

Native white — native parents 

Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian ... 

North Central division 

Native white — native parents , 

Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

South Central division 

Native white— native parents 

Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white , 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

Western division 

Native white — native parents , 

Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 1 . . 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 



POPULATION 10 

YEARS OF AGE AND 

OVER. 



Number. 



67,949,824 



30,310,261 

10,926,401 

10, 014, 266 

6,415,681 

283,325 

16,692,161 



7,699,683 

4,029,853 

4,620,656 

320, 176 

21, 793 

7,616,159 



4,44'ii906 
300, 716 
205, 209 

2, 666, 833 
6,496 

20, 281, 866 



10,436,150 

5, 300, 323 

4, 096, 121 

404, 668 

45, 704 

10,124,215 



6, 198, 648 
625, 118 
342, 942 

3, 009, 142 
48, 365 

3,235,423 



1,527,874 
770, 391 
750, 328 
25,862 
160,968 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



62.3 
18.9 
17.3 
11.1 
0.4 

100.0 



46.1 

24.2 

27.7 

1.9 

0.1 

100.0 



58.4 
3.9 
2.7 

84.9 
0.1 

100.0 



51.5 
26.1 
20.2 
2.0 
0.2 

100.0 



61.2 
5.2 
3.4 

29.7 
0.6 

100.0 



47.2 
23.8 
23.2 
0.8 
5.0 



PERSONS ENGAGED 
IN GAINFUL OC- 
CUPATIONS. 



Number. 



29,073,233 



13, 875, 329 

5, 300, 924 

5, 736, 818 

3, 992, 337 

167, 825 

8, 579, 191 



3,681,004 

2,075,187 

2, 700, 721 

204, 666 

17, 613 

4,000,531 



2, 079, 968 
147, 822 
114, 522 

1,653,899 
4,320 

9, 680, 649 



4, 612, 741 

2,471,421 

2,254,721 

226, 341 

15,425 

6,209,765 



2, 859, 351 
246, 626 
194, 676 

1,890,850 
18,352 

1,703,107 



742,265 
359, 968 
472, 178 
16, 681 
112, 116 



Per 
cent. 



47.7 
18.3 
19.7 
13.7 
0.6 

100.0 



41.7 

24.2 

31.6 

2.4 

0.2 

100.0 



62.0 
3.7 
2.9 

41.3 
0.1 

100.0 



48.1 
26.8 
23.5 
2.4 
0.2 

100.0 



54.9 
4.7 
3.7 



100.0 



43.6 

21.1 

27.7 

1.0 



This table shows that the foreign white and negro 
elements each constituted in 1900 a somewhat larger per 
cent of the total population gainfully employed than 
they did of the total population 10 years of age and over, 
while the two native white elements each constituted a 
•smaller per cent. This relationship holds good for each 
of the geographic divisions except the North Atlantic, 
which shows no difference in the two percentages for 
native white of foreign parents. It will also be noticed 
that in the Western division, as compared with the other 
divisions, the Chinese, Japanese, and Indians combined 



constituted a considerable proportion of the whole 
number at work in 1900, and that this proportion was 
in excess of that shown for the total population 10 years 
of age and over. From the percentages given in Table 
XVII (page Ixxx) it appears that these elements com- 
bined constituted more than one-fifth (22.5 per cent) of 
all the gainful workers in Arizona and fully one-sixth 
(16.8 per cent) of all those in Nevada, principally be- 
cause of the large number of Indians at work. 

The following summary for continental United States 
gives, for both sexes and for each sex separately, for 
1890 and 1900, the per cent distribution by general 
nativity and color of the population 10 years of age and 
over, and of all such persons gainfully occupied. 

The figures for the Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 
elements of the population are given in detail for 1900, 
but no similar statement can be made for 1890, as they 
were not separately tabulated. Furthermore, the In- 
dian population enumerated at the census of 1900 com- 
prised all Indians, including reservation Indians, while 
the general enumeration of 1890 included only Indians 
living out of tribal relations. 

Per cent distribution, by general nativity and color, of the population 10 
years of age and over and of persons engaged in gainful occupations, 
for both sexes and for each sex separately: 1890 and 1900. 



SEX, GENERAL NATIVITY, AND COLOB. 



Both sexes 

Native white— native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Indian 

Males 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white— foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Indian '. 

Females , . . . 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Indian 



POPULATION 10 

YEARS OF AGE 

AND OVER. 



IflOO 1890 



100.0 



52.3 
18.9 
17.3 
11.1 
0.1 

100.0 



52.0 
18.4 
18.2 
10.7 
0.3 
0.1 
0.3 

100.0 



52.6 
19.4 
16.3 
11.4 



0.8 



53.6 
16.4 
18.6 
11.3 

0.3 



100.0 



63.0 
16.0 
19.6 
10.9 

0.5 



100.0 



64.1 
16.8 
17.4 
11.6 

0.1 



PERSONS EN- 
GAGED IN 
GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS. 



1900 18901 



47.7 
18.3 
19.7 
13.7 
O.S 
0.1 
0.2 

100.0 



50.3 
17.3 
20.5 
11.3 
0.3 
0.1 
0.2 

100.0 



36.2 
22.8 
16.5 
24.8 



0.2 



100.0 



47.9 
15.3 
22.0 
14.3 

0.5 



100.0 



50.7 
14.4 
22.5 
11.8 

0.6 



100.0 



34.3 
20.1 
19.4 
26.1 

0.1 



1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

This summary shows that the native white of foreign 
parents gainfully occupied constituted a somewhat 
larger proportion of the whole body of workers in 1900 
than in 1890, and that this was practically oflFset by a 
considerably smaller proportion for the foreign white 
element. There was a similar increase in the propor- 
tion of native white of foreign parents to the total popu- 
lation 10 years of age and over, also accompanied by a 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxxiii 



decrease in the proportion for foreign white. The 
change in the distribution of the population 10 years 
of age and over is due to the increase in the native 
white element of foreign parentage as a whole; the 
change in the proportion of workers in the several ele- 
ments of the population is due in part to the same cause, 
but in part also to a large increase in the number of 
females at work, particularly for the native white ele- 
ments of both native and foreign parentage. 

A comparison of the proportion which the number of 
females of each element at work bore to the whole 
number of females at work at the two censuses reveals 
an increase from 34.3 to 36.2 per cent for native white 
females of native parentage and from 20.1 to 22.3 per 
cent for native white females of foreign parentage; 
these are offset by a decrease from 19.4 to 16.5 per 
cent for foreign white females and from 26.1 to 24.8 
per cent for negro females. 

The change from 1890 to 1900 in the proportion which 
those at work bore to the whole number ,of persons 10 
years of age and over in each element of the population 
is shown by the following summary for continental 
United States: 

Per cent which the number of persons engaged in gainful occupations 
forms of the total number 10 years of age and over in each element 
of the population, for both sexes and for each sex separately: 1890 
and 1900. 





1900 


18901 


COLOR. 


Both 
sexes. 


Males. 


re- 
males. 


Both 
sexes. 


Males. 


Fe- ' 
males. 


Affffreffate 


60.2 


80.0 


18.8 


49.2 


79.3 


17.4 






White (total) 


48.6 


79.5 


16.0 


47.4 


78.4 


14.5 






Native white 


46.5 


76.8 


15.3 


44.5 


74.8 


13.3 






Native parents 

Foreign parents 


45.8 
48.5 

67.3 

62.1 


77.3 
75.4 

89.7 

83.9 


13.0 
21.7 

19.1 

40.0 


44.0 
46.1 

58.3 

62.9 


76.9 
71.3 

90 9 

86.5 


11.0 
20.8 

19.4 




38.8 








62.2 
93.8 
93.8 
36.7 


84.1 
97.0 
96.2 
59.2 


40.7 
19.3 
30.3 
13.8 


62.5 
\ 78.7 


86.3 
91.3 


39.0 








16.1 











1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

From this summary we find again that the propor- 
tion of female workers was higher in 1900 than in 1890 



for each element of the native white population, as well 
as for the negro population, but that for foreign white 
females the proportion at work was slightly lower. 
The figures also show for 1900, as compared with 1890, 
a larger proportion of male workers in the two native 
white elements, and a slightly decreased proportion 
among the foreign white and negro males. 

The proportions of male workers in each of the four 
principal elements in 1900, arranged in the order of 
their importance, are as follows: Foreign white, 89.7 
per cent; negroes, 84.1 per cent; native white of native 
parents, 77.3 per cent; and native white of foreign par- 
ents, 75.4 per cent. For females, however, the order is 
very different, the highest percentage of workers, 40.7, 
being for the negro element, and the lowest, 13, for the 
native white of native parents; the percentages for the 
native white of foreign parents and the foreign white 
are 21.7 and 19.1, respectively. 

The variations in these proportions are due to a con- 
siderable extent to the different age constitution of the 
several elements, but also, in part, to the difference in 
the degree to which employment is sought by the 
respective elements, particularly in the earlier years of 
life. This affects in particular the percentage for the 
white female population of foreign birth or parentage, 
among whom a very large number from 15 to 24 years 
of age are at work; for the female negro population the 
proportion at work is large for every period of life. 

A comparison, for each of the four principal elements 
of the population in 1900, of the number of gainful 
workers of each sex with the total number 10 years of 
age and over, is made by states and territories in Tables 
XIX and xx; but in using the percentages given therein 
the reader should consider the varying conditions affect- 
ing them, as explained in the foregoing paragraph. The 
relative proportion of wage-earners for each of the 
principal elements of the population of continental 
United States, 10 years of age and over in 1900, is also 
presented graphically in a series of small squares, in 
Diagrams 2 and 3 on Plate 1. The entire area of each 
square is subdivided into rectangles, showing in Dia- 
gram 3 the proportion of each sex, and in Diagram 2 
that of each element, and so shaded as to indicate, for 
each of these subdivisions, the proportion of wage- 
earners. 



Ixxxiv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table. XIX.— NUMBER OF MALES IN EACH PRINCIPAL ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF MALES IN THE SAME ELEMENT 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 



STATJB3 AND TEEBIT0EIE9. 



United States. 



Continental United States. 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware , 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia , 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky . 
Tennessee . 
Alabama . . 



Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming ... 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



NATIVE WHITE— NATIVE PAR- 
ENTS, 10 YEAKS OF AGE AND 
OVEH. 



Total. 



15,532,262 



15,452,855 



3,814,104 



204, 613 

102, 309 

91, 327 

411, 854 

58,254 

148, 709 

1, 086, 403 

312,580 

1,398,055 

2,229,834 



46, 722 
253,450 

52, 136 
420,758 
313,274 
443, 692 
195, 080 
410,040 

94,782 

6,363,311 



1,011,412 
762, 222 
886, 839 
401, 185 
192,688 
154, 394 
474, 557 
828,332 
27, 461 
52,644 

216. 788 

395. 789 

3, 193, 073 



614,266 
544, 316 
341,127 
220, 323 
196, 767 
715, 937 
110, 252 
122, 199 
327,897 

852, 533 



44,638 

23,491 

131, 948 

66, 099 

20, 790 

31,387 

7,086 

36, 323 

121,220 

109, 360 

270, 291 

15, 526 
15,687 
48, 194 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



12,013,566 



11,948,692 



2,529,630 



169, 286 

82, 100 

70, 060 

313, 871 

46, 142 

116, 257 

819, 218 

241, 943 

1, 081, 753 

1, 781, 053 



36, 918 
193, 876 

40, 607 
329, 499 
247, 711 
370, 896 
168, 560 
329, 087 

73, 899 

4,013,113 



759, 366 
671, 008 
637, 586 
301, 785 
127, 945 
111,134 
348, 739 
637, 597 
21, 369 
38,612 
160,279 
297, 693 

2, 667, 820 



488,094 
442, 652 
289, 152 
180, 254 
150,302 
658,089 
91,924 
96,226 
272, 127 

657, 076 



36,890 
19, 942 

102, 189 
43, 062 
17,060 
20,616 
5,585 
28, 164 
96,237 
83, 454 

203, 877 

5,736 
11,121 
48, 017 



Per 

cent. 



77.3 



77.3 



76.8 



77.8 
80.2 
76.7 
76.2 
79.2 
77,5 
75.4 
77.4 
77.4 

79.9 



79.0 
76.6 
77.9 
78.3 
79.1 
83.6 
81.3 
80.3 
78.0 

74.8 



75.1 

75.9 
74.4 
75.2 
66.4 
72.0 
73.6 
77.0 
77.8 
73.3 
74.3 
75.2 

80.4 



79.6 
81.3 
84.8 
81.8 
76.4 
78.0 
83.4 
77.9 
83.0 

77.1 



82.8 
84.9 
77.4 
76.8 
82.1 
66.7 
78.8 
77.5 
79.4 
76.3 
76.4 

36.9 
70.9 
99.6 



NATIVE WHITE— FOEEIGN PAR- 
ENTS, 10 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER, 



Total. 



5, 488, 050 



6,460,086 



1, 968, 701 



34, 676 
23, 529 
27, 063 
277,062 
43, 352 
89,811 
811,296 
179,044 
482, 969 

148, 062 



8,112 
66, 893 
14, 766 
12, 926 
20,147 
8,149 
4,567 
9,623 
7,889 

2,670,274 



366, 810 
161, 967 
615, 029 
282, 310 
334, 466 
261, 743 
243, 637 
210,093 
37,704 
51,497 
110, 543 
104, 475 

266, 332 



66, 813 
16,616 
11, 626 

8,028 
42, 081 
97,292 

4,391 
14, 971 
13, 614 

407, 716 



27, 472 

10, 737 

45, 891 

6,538 

9,819 

40, 746 

5,012 

16, 894 

46, 707 

32, 314 

165, 586 



4,193 
20, 674 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



4,143,168 



4, 117, 387 



1,607,233 



24,756 
16, 761 
20, 912 
199,214 
32,938 
66,750 
626, 806 
137, 241 
382, 855 

117,917 



6,559 
53,963 
11,702 
9,785 
16, 599 
2,439 
3,609 
7,568 
5,693 

1,982,392 



293, 099 

123,851 

382, 933 

201,480 

241,178 

177, 595 

181,825 

170, 260 

23,243 

35,346 

75,859 

75, 723 

208, 061 



47, 879 
13, 484 
9,399 
5,121 
34, 806 
71, 194 
3,661 
11,620 
11,007 

301, 7,S4 



21, 673 

8,661 

33, 359 

4, 905 

7,506 

27, 695 

3,788 

12, 872 

34,188 

23,448 

123, 689 

2,960 
2,214 
20, .597 



Per 
cent. 



75.5 



75,4 



76,6 



71,6 
71,2 
77,3 
71,9 
76,0 
74,3 
77,1 
76,7 
79.3 

79.6 



80.9 
80.7 
79.2 
76.7 
82.4 
77.5 
79.2 
78.6 
72.2 

74.2 



79.9 
81.6 
74.4 
71.4 
72.1 
67.9 
74.6 
81.0 
61.6 
68.6 
68.6 
72.5 

7S.4 



84.3 
81.2 
81.5 
63.8 
82.7 
73.2 
83.1 
76.9 
80.9 

74.0 



78.9 
80.7 
72.7 
7.5,0 
76,4 
68,0 
75,6 
76,2 
73,2 
72,6 
74,7 

95,6 
62,8 
99,6 



FOEEIGN WHITE, 10 YEARS 
OF AGE AND OVER, 



Total. 



5, 445, 331 



6, 414, 991 



2, 378, 602 



45, 909 
42, 237 
23, 707 
392, 427 
63, 192 
120,023 
931, 160 
218,481 
541,466 

||;113, 552 



7,419 
46,273 
10, 117 
11,876 
13, 975 
2,667 
3,132 
7,185 
10,909 

2, 258, 784 



243, 714 

77,751 

511, 103 

289,888 

279, 289 

284,428 

169, 615 

118, 709 

63,865 

50,148 

98, 744 

71, 530 

1%,585 



26, 306 
10, 170 
8,799 
4,969 
27,964 
97, 074 
3,196 
9,301 
8,806 

467, 468 



42, 644 
11, 482 
64,751 

7,941 
13,688 
26,420 

6,038 
14,392 
66, 24S 
33, 605 
190,259 



7,631 
14,613 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 


Per 
cent. 


4, 886, 731 


89.7 


4,867,099 


89.7 



2, 148, 662 90, 3 



39, 978 
37, 741 
20, 866 
352, 366 
67, 392 
109, 402 
836,686 
199, 594 
494, 537 

98, 912 



6,729 
40, 663 
7,930 
9,563 
12, 712 
2,382 
2,825 
6,478 
9,630 

2, 004, 402 



213,853 

67,646 

465, 643 

261, 376 

243,844 

255, 960 

147, 009 

106,248 

67, 142 

45,083 

88,042 

62, 656 

176,334 



23, 096 
9,130 
8,064 
4,672 
24, 939 
87,011 
2,942 
8,435 
8,146 

428,889 



40,383 
11.005 
60;835 

7,235 
12,546 
23,764 

5,645 
13, 462 
61,504 
30,800 
171, 820 

7,972 
7,049 
14, (111 



87.1 
89.4 
88.0 
89.8 
90.8 
91.2 
89.9 
91.4 
91.3 

87.1 



90.7 
87.9 
78.4 
80.5 
91.0 
89.3 
90.2 
90.2 



86.9 
89.1 
90.2 
87.3 
90.0 
86.7 
89.6 
89.5 
89,9 
89.2 
87.6 



87.8 
89.8 
91.6 
92.0 
K9, 2 
89,6 
92.1 
90.7 
92.5 

91.7 



94.7 
96.8 
92.8 
91.1 
91.7 
89.9 
91.8 
93.6 
92.8 
91.7 
90.3 

98.5 
92.4 
100.0 



NEGRO, 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVEE. 



Total. 



3, 188, 294 



3,181,660 



166, 661 



668 

289 

389 

13,018 

3,515 

6,905 

39,636 

27,656 

65,685 

1, 302, 729 



12,087 
88,132 
31, 145 
233, 473 
20, 515 
210, 315 
262, 149 
355, 585 
89, 328 

210, 628 



41, 248 

24, 522 

38, 305 

6,905 

1,239 

2,519 

5,842 

65,518 

150 

230 

2,938 

21, 212 



109, 696 
175,579 
289,944 
318,333 
229,255 
218, 574 
13, 999 
7,133 
134, 192 

14, 927 



813 
561 



1, 259 

418 

77 

151 

1,460 
632 

4,750 

161 

128 

6,365 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



2,682,091 



2, 676, 497 



132, 618 



455 

242 

305 

10, 864 

2,978 

4,923 

34,011 

23,035 

55, 805 



9,764 

70,728 

25, 115 

187, 726 

17,424 

179, 139 

224,661 

302, 616 

74,628 

169,076 



33,180 

19,566 

31,757 

5,510 

1,019 

2,224 

4,801 

52,294 

127 

197 

2,508 

16, 892 

1,269,371 



87, 766 
146, 013 
266, 452 
275,925 
194,386 
175, 382 

11, 293 

5,560 

116, 594 

12, 832 



700 

522 
3,273 

833 
1,175 

376 
58 

135 
1,289 

568 
3,903 

147 
100 

r..:!47 



Per 

cent. 



84.1 



80.1 
83.7 
78.4 
83.5 
84.7 
83.4 
85.8 
83.3 
86.0 

83.8 



80.8 
80.3 
80.6 
80.4 
84.9 
85.2 
85.7 
85.1 
83.4 

80,3 



82.9 
79,8 

S2, 2 
88.3 
82,2 
79,8 
84. 7 
8,5,7 
85.4 
74.9 

84.8 



80.0 
83.2 
88.4 
86.7 
84.8 
80.2 
80.7 
77.9 



86.1 
93.0 
84.2 
89.6 
93.3 
90.0 
75.3 
89.4 
88.9 
89.9 
82.2 

97.4 
78.1 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxxv 



Table XX.— NUMBER OF FEMALES IN EACH PRINCIPAL ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FEMALES IN THE SAME ELEMENT 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVER, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 





NATIVE WHITE— NATIVE PAR- 
ENTS, 10 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 


NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PAR- 
ENTS, 10 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 


FOREIGN WHITE, 10 YEARS 
OF AGE AND OVER. 


NEGRO, 10 YEARS OF 
AND OVER. 


AGE 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 




Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number, 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


United States 


14,872,600 


1,927,811 


13.0 


6,470,763 


1,184,046 


21.6 


4,604,770 


880,415 


19.1 


3,234,011 


1, 316, 872 










14,867,406 


1,926,637 


13.0 


6,466,316 


1, 183, 537 


21.7 


4,599,265 


879,719 


19.1 


3,233,931 


1,316,840 










3,886,579 


651,374 


16.8 


2,061,162 


667, 954 


27.6 


2,242,054 


552, 169 


24.6 


163,515 


72, 048 










202,536 

103,569 

89,658 

435,467 

59,868 

153,040 

1, 106, 806 

320, 740 

1, 413, 905 

2,218,072 


32, 342 
19,276 
13,561 
87,464 
12,071 
26,747 

189,461 
48,963 

221,490 

298,915 


16.0 
18.6 
15.1 
20.1 
20.2 
17.5 
17.1 
15.3 
15.7 

13.5 


33,096 
24,229 
27,069 
295,846 
46,479 
93,807 
866,867 
188,336 
495,423 

152,654 


7,761 
7,814 
5,903 
100,403 
17,940 
31,050 
233,384 
49,141 
114,568 

29,905 


23.4 
32.3 
21.8 
33.9 
38.6 
33.1 
27.2 
26.1 
23.1 

19.6 


42,887 

41, 305 

19, 398 

424,381 

66, 709 

111,794 

913, 173 

202,284 

421,123 

91,667 


11,564 

14,512 

3,183 

135,378 
20,149 
27, 782 

225,623 
43, 185 
70,783 

16, 610 


27.0 
86.1 
16.4 
31.9 
30.7 
24.9 
24.7 
21.3 
16,8 

17.0 


523 
297 
289 
13,565 
4,047 
6,624 
45,052 
29,878 
63, 250 

1,363,104 


171 

156 

105 

5,747 

1,928 

3,047 

23,0.59 

13,211 

24,624 

562, 298 




New Hampshire 


52 5 




36 3 








47,6 






New York .... 


51 2 






Pennsvlvania 


38 9 


South Atlantic division 


41 6 








46,454 
258, 311 

56,501 
420, 649 
292, 127 
450,789 
196, 032 
411,672 

87,637 

5,072,839 


6,040 
39,487 
11,677 
42, 721 
24,038 
71,616 
41,606 
63,097 

8,633 

699,628 


13.3 
16.3 
20.7 
10.2 

8.2 
15.9 
21.3 
12.9 

9.9 

11.8 


8,101 
70,543 
16,711 
11,962 
19,702 
3,134 
4,871 
9,866 
7,766 

2,630,049 


1,981 

16,541 

3,984 

1,602 

3,044 

463 

812 

1,692 

886 

489,029 


24.5 
22.0 
23.8 
13.4 
15.5 
14.8 
16.7 
16.1 
11.4 

18.6 


6,106 
45,336 
9,192 
6,867 
8,050 
1,647 
2,188 
4,644 
7,628 

1,836,337 

208, 406 

62, 661 

440,598 

239,843 

230, 351 

214,438 

133,611 

96,382 

44,302 

36,622 

76, 618 

53,616 

146,357 


1,084 

8,296 

2,062 

958 

805 

235 

366 

614 

1,210 

250,319 


17.8 
18.3 
22.3 
14,0 
10,0 
14,3 
16.3 
13.2 
15.9 

13.6 


11,440 

91,230 

40,804 

245,448 

13,788 

227,376 

275, 249 

368,511 

79,258 

193,940 


3,864 
36,658 
23,448 
80,239 
3,273 
87,178 
138, 660 
163,234 
26, 844 

57,266 


33 8 


Maryland .... . . . 


39 1 




57,5 


Virginia 


32 7 




23.7 


North Carolina 


38 3 




50,3 


Georgia 


44.3 


Florida . . . 


33 9 


North Central division 


29 5 






Ohio 


999, 906 
726,494 
812, 732 
385,204 
184,031 
132, 347 
443,774 
778,604 
18,842 
42,726 
187,866 
360, 414 

3,005,575 


128,160 
77,590 

101, 979 
49,597 
26,259 
19, 612 
63,244 
79,115 
2,680 
5,344 
22,403 
34,745 

291, 531 


12.8 
10.7 
12.6 
12.9 
13.7 
14.7 
12.0 
10.2 
14.2 
12.6 
11.9 
9.6 

9.7 


380, Oil 

149,776 

518,696 

279, 653 

331,765 

247,475 

235,613 

210,684 

31,637 

45, 373 

102,276 

97,201 

259,786 


78, 961 

26,227 

108,975 

49, 772 

64,447 

46,300 

37, 908 

40,523 

4,801 

6,284 

14, 511 

11,325 

38,465 


20.8 
16.8 
21.0 
17.8 
19.4 
18.7 
16.1 
19.2 
15.2 
13.8 
14.2 
11.7 

14.8 


28,499 

7,048 

73,963 

32,399 

25, 974 

30,191 

14, 652 

13,608 

6,414 

3,769 

8,756 

5,047 

18,342 


13,7 
11,2 
16,8 
13,5 
11,3 
14,1 
11,0 
14,3 
14,5 
10,3 
11,4 
.9.4 

12,6 


37, 988 

22,450 

32,879 

6,234 

951 

1,764 

4,747 

64,082 

93 

154 

2,425 

20,173 

1,512,437 


10,449 

6,838 

9,725 

1,678 

235 

568 

1,083 

21,272 

30 

55 

903 

4,430 

621,479 


27.5 


Indiana . 


30 5 


Illinois 


29,6 


Michigan 


26,9 




24,7 




32,2 




22 8 




33.2 


North Dakota 


32.3 




35,7 




37,2 




22 


South Central division 


41,1 








588,673 
531,431 
336,795 
214,711 
190, 228 
649,679 
90,482 
99, 835 
303,741 

675, 341 


52,545 
47,077 
47, 692 
26,797 
20,676 
52,308 
8,038 
7,185 
29,213 

86,189 


8.9 

8.9 

14.2 

12.6 

10.9 

8.1 

8.9 

7.2 

9.6 

12.6 


60,241 
16, 266 
11,375 

7,890 
46,545 
92,086 

3,138 
12,059 
11,186 

362,675 


13,283 
2,497 
1,456 
979 
6,661 
10,771 
304 
1,068 
1,456 

58,184 


22.0 
1.5.4 
12.8 
12.4 
14.6 
11.7 
9.7 
8.9 
13.0 

16.0 


23,654 
7,169 
5,261 
2,646 
22,168 
72,962 
1,493 
6,039 
5,165 

282,860 


3,079 
879 
664 
396 
2,620 
9,681 
118 
469 
636 

43,289 


13.1 
12.3 
10.7 
16.6 
11.8 
13,1 
7,9 
7,8 
12.3 

16,3 


110, 024 
179,254 
299,686 
320, 313 
236,343 
219, 136 
12, 266 
6,811 
129,616 

10,935 


36,712 
65,744 
150,294 
160,041 
100,888 
67,709 
2,283 
1,262 
46,646 

3,749 


33.4 




36.7 




50.2 




46.8 




42.9 


Texas 


30.9 




18.6 




18,5 




35,9 




34.3 








26,150 
12,331 

107,734 
49,355 
12,574 
29,208 
4,602 
25, 845 
84,040 
88,784 

234,818 

1,390 

13, 379 

325 


3,513 
1,474 
14,257 
4,276 
1,344 
2,884 
596 
2,381 
10,133 
10,802 
33,529 

166 
938 
70 


13.4 
12.0 
13.2 

8.7 
10,7 

9.9 
13.2 

9.2 
12.1 
12.2 
14.3 

11.9 

7.0 

21.5 


18,315 

6,267 

41, 570 

5,346 

6,939 

39, 695 

4,021 

12, 946 

37,040 

27,698 

162, 948 

610 

3,694 

133 


2,876 

873 

6,772 

533 

684 

4,407 

661 

1,221 

5,084 

4,428 

30, 756 

112 

366 

31 


15.7 
14.0 
16.3 
10.0 

9.9 
11.1 
13.7 

9.4 
13.7 
16.0 
18.9 

18.4 

9.9 

23.3 


18,662 
4,892 

34,407 
4,679 
7,691 

25,728 
2,506 
7,246 

34,234 

19,704 
123, 111 

645 
4,782 

78 


3,098 
698 

5,578 
424 
872 

3,293 
342 
798 

4,611 

2,801 
20,974 

147 
529 
20 


16,6 
12,2 
16,2 
9,1 
11,3 
12,8 
13,6 
11.0 
13,2 
14,2 
17,0 

22,8 
11,1 
26,6 


526 
257 

3,494 
486 
401 
171 
49 
104 
776 
381 

4,290 

14 
37 
29 


212 

55 

1,344 

129 

157 

71 

17 

30 

216 

159 

1,349 

4 
7 
21 


40,3 




21,4 




38,5 




26.5 




41.6 


Utah 


41,6 




34.7 




28.8 




27.8 




41.7 




31.4 


Alaska 


28.6 




18.9 




72,4 







Ixxxvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



COMPARATIVE INCREASE IN PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAIN- 
FUL OCCUPATIONS. 

The statistics of occupations contained in the census 
report of 1890 related only to the population compre- 
hended by the general enumeration at that census — 
that is, the population of continental United States, 
exclusive of Indian Territory and Indian reservations. 
That portion of the mainland excluded from the gen- 
eral enumeration, together with Alaska, was specially 
enumerated in 1890 under the provisions of the census 
act, but no comparable data were secured relati^^e to the 
occupations of the people living within these areas. In 
order, therefore, to ascertain the increase, during the 
past two decades, in the number of persons gainfully 
occupied in continental United States, it is necessary, 
first, to estimate the proportion of persons at work of 
the total population specially enumerated on the main- 
land of the United States in 1890, on the basis of the 
proportion for the equivalent population in 1900, and, 
second, to make allowance for the number of children 
estimated to have been omitted from the returns of 



occupations at that census. Hence, for the purpose of 
ascertaining the increase, from 1890 to 1900, in the 
number of persons occupied, there must be added to 
the 22,735,661 persons reported as engaged in gainful 
occupations in 1890 an estimated total of 680,964 per- 
sons—made up of 98,442 persons constituting the 
number of gainful workers for the areas specially enu- 
merated, and 582,522 children omitted from the returns 
of occupations in certain states and territories (see page 
Ixvi)— making an aggregate of 23,416,625 persons. 
But to ascertain the increase in the number of gainful 
workers from 1880 to 1890, it is only necessary to add 
to the number (22,735,661) reported for 1890 the num- 
ber of children estimated to have been omitted there- 
from, making a total, for this purpose, of 23,318,183 
persons. These two totals for 1890, when compared 
with similar figures for 1880 and 1900, show an ap- 
proximate increase, for continental United States, of 
5,656,608, or 24.2 per cent, from 1890 to 1900, and of 
5,926,084, or 34.1 per cent, from 1880 to 1890, as com- 
pared with an inci-ease in total population, during the 
same periods, of 20.7 and 24.9 per cent, respectively. 



NUMBER AND PKOPORTION OF PERSONS IX THE MAIN CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



DISTRIBUTION BT SEX. 

In Table xxi the number of persons of both sexes 
and of each sex engaged in gainful occupations in 1900 
is distributed by main classes of occupations and is 
compared with a similar distribution for 1880 and 1890. 

As explained in Chapter I (see page xxv), the figures 
given under each class of occupations in 1880 and 1890 
have been readjusted in accordance with the classifica- 
tion of occupations at the census of 1900; the}' differ, 

Table XXI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY 5IAIN CLASSES, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, FOR BOTH 

SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX SEPARATELY: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



therefore, both from the figures for 1880 as contained 
in the report for that census, and from the figures for 
1880 and 1890 as contained in the report for 1890. It 
should be remembered also that the classification of 
occupations now in use is based, as far as possible, 
upon the kind of work performed, so that the figures 
represent, not the whole number of persons directly 
or indirectly connected with a given industry, but only 
the number reported as engaged in the specified kind 
of work. 



BEX AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Both sexes. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service '. . 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 



Males. 



All occupations 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 



Females. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 



Number. ^ 



29,287,070 



10, 438, 219 
1,204,636 
6,693,778 
4,778,233 
7, 112, 304 



23, 967, 778 



9, 468, 194 
833, 362 
3, 694, 613 
4, 274, 659 
6, 796, 960 



5, 329, 292 



980, 025 
431,174 

2,099,166 
603,674 

1, 316, 364 



Per cent. 



35.6 
4.3 
19.5 
16.3 
24.3 



100.0 



39.5 
3.6 
16.0 
17.8 
24.2 



100.0 



18.4 
8.1 

39.4 
9.4 

24.7 



Continental United 
States. 



29, 073, 233 



10, 381, 766 
1,258. ,53.S 
5, 580, 667 
4,766,964 
7, 085, 309 



23,753,836 



9, 404, 429 
827, 941 
3, 485, 208 
4,263,617 
6, 772, 641 



5, 319, 397 



977,336 
430, 597 

2,095,449 
503, 347 

1, 312, 668 



Percent. 



36.7 
4.3 
19.2 
16.4 
24.4 



100.0 



39.6 
3.5 
14.7 
17.9 
24.3 



100.0 



18.4 
8.1 

39.4 
9.4 

24.7 



18901 



Number. 



23, 318, 183 



9, 148, 448 
944, 333 
4,220,812 
3, 326, 122 
5, 678, 468 



19, 312, 651 



8, 378, 603 
632, 646 
2,563,161 
8, 097, 701 
4, 660, 640 



4, 006, 532 



769, 846 
311, 687 

1, 667, 651 
228, 421 

1,027,928 



Per cent. 



39.2 
4.0 
18.1 
14.3 
24.4 



100.0 



43.4 
3.3 
13.2 
16.0 
24.1 



100.0 



19.2 
7.8 

41.6 
5.7 

26.7 



1880 



Number. 



17, 392, 099 



7,713,875 
603, 202 
3,418,793 
1, 871, 603 
S, 784, 726 



14, 744, 942 



7, 119, 365 
425, 947 
2, 237, 493 
1,808,445 
3, 153, 692 



2,647.157 



594,510 

177, 255 

1,181,300 

63, 058 

631,034 



Per cent. 



100.0 



44.3 
3.5 
19.6 
10.8 
21.8 



100.0 



48.3 
2.9 
15.2 
12.2 
21.4 



100.0 



22.6 
6.7 

44.8 
2.4 

23.8 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxxvii 



It is evident from a comparison of the figures in 
Table xxi that agricultural pursuits constituted in 1900 
the leading class of occupations for males and also for 
both sexes combined, 39.6 per cent of the male workers 
and 35. Y per ceijt of the workers of both sexes in conti- 
nental United States being engaged in this branch of 
occupations. For female workers, domestic and per- 
sonal service formed the principal branch of occupa- 
tions, employing 39.4 per cent of the gainful workers 
of this sex. Next to agricultural pursuits the most 
important class of occupations for males in 1900 was 
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; then came 
trade and transportation, domestic and personal serv- 
ice, and professional service, in the order named. For 
females also manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
formed the class of occupations second in importance, 
ranking next to domestic and personal service; agricul- 
tural pursuits were third, followed in order by trade 
and transportation and professional service. 

It is noticeable that the relative importance of agri- 
cultural pursuits is less marked in 1900 than it was at 
the two preceding censuses, the proportion of the total 
number of gainful workers of both sexes engaged in 
that branch of occupations having decreased in each 
decade since 1880, while the proportions engaged in 
professional service and in trade and transportation 
have increased. This statement holds true also of each 
sex separately. It is evident, then, that the professions 
and trade and transportation are absorbing an increas- 
ing proportion of the growing army of workers of each 
sex, while the agricultural class constitutes a diminish- 
ing proportion. For females there was a decline also 
in the relative importance of domestic and personal 
service, the per cent of the total number of gainful 
workers of this sex engaged in that branch of occupa- 
tions having decreased from 44.6 in 1880 to 41.6 in 1890 
and to 39.4 in 1900; for males the proportion engaged 
in domestic and personal service has increased some- 
what since 1890 — producing a slight increase for both 
sexes combined — but has decreased compared with 1880. 
The percentages for manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits in 1900 show little change compared with 1890, 
but are somewhat greater than in 1880. 

The proportion of workers in the several classes of 
occupations in 1900 is no doubt affected somewhat by 
the manner in which the returns of occupations were 
made by the enumerators. For instance, many persons 
who might have been reported as engaged in some 
specific branch of industry were returned simply as 
"laborers" and therefore were of necessity classified 
as "laborers (not specified)" under the main head of 
domestic and personal service. This defect in the re- 
turns may explain, in part, the fact that the proportion 
of persons engaged in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits appears to have remained stationary from 1890 
to 1900, while the proportion engaged in domestic and 
personal service shows an increase. 



As previously stated (see page xxv), the heading 
"manufacturing and mechanical pursuits" includes 
persons engaged in fishing and in mining and quarry- 
ing. In order to ascertain the number of persons 
engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
proper, it is necessary to separate this class into three 
subclasses of occupations, as follows: 

Distribution, by occupation subclasses, of persons engaged in manufac- 
turing and mechanical pursuits, for both sexes and for each sex sepa- 
rately: 1880, 1890, and 1900. 





19001 


1890 


1880 


SEX AND OCCDPATION 
SCBCLASSEB. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total 
gain- 
fully 
em- 
ployed. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total 
gain- 
fully 
em- 
ployed^ 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
total 
gain- 
fully 
em- 
ployed. 


Both sexes 


7, 085, 309 


24.4 


5,678,468 


24.4 


3,784,726 


21.8 


Manufacturing and 
mechanical pur- 
suits proper. 

Mining and quarry- 
ing. 


6,435,608 

2580,761 

68, 940 

5,772,641 


22.1 

2.0 
0.3 
24.3 


5,231,058 

387,248 

60,162 

4,660,640 


22.4 

1.7 
0.3 
24.1 


3,493,977 

249,397 

41,352 

3,153,692 


20.1 

1.4 
0.3 


Males 


21.4 






Manufacturing and 
mechanical pur- 
suits proper. 

Mining and quarry- 
ing. 

Fishing 


6,124,490 

3 579,673 

68,478 

1, 312, 668 


21.6 

2,4 

0.3 

24.7 


4,203,769 

386,872 

59,899 

1, 027, 928 


21.8 

2.0 

0.3 

25.7 


2,863,087 

249,318 
41,287 
631, 034 


19.4 

1.7 
0.3 


Females 


23.8 


Manufacturing and 
mechanical pur- 
suits proper. 

Mining and quarry- 
ing. 

Fishing 


1, 311, 118 

81,088 
462 


24.7 


1,027,289 

376 
263 


2.5.7 


630,890 

79 
65 


23.8 

(*) 







1 For continental United States. 

2 Based upon corrected fibres; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

3 Includes officials of mining and quarrying companies, not separately 
reported in 1880 and 1890. , 

* Leas than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

This summary shows that the total number of per- 
sons engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
proper constituted 22.1 per cent of the entire number 
of persons at work in 1900, as compared with 22.4 per 
cent in 1890 and 20.1 per cent in 1880; persons engaged 
in mining and quarrying numbered 580, Y61, and con- 
stituted 2 per cent of all gainful workers in 1900, as 
against 1.7 per cent in 1890 and 1.4 per cent in 1880. 
As already explained, the census classification of occu- 
pations is based, as far as possible, upon the kind of 
work performed, so that these figures represent not the 
whole number of persons directly or indirectly con- 
nected with the mining and quarrying industry, but 
only those who were returned either as officials of min- 
ing and quarrying companies or as miners and quarry- 
men. 

The total number of gainful workers in each state 
and territory in 1880, 1890, and 1900 are distributed by 
main classes of occupations, for both sexes and for each 
sex separately, in Tables xxii to xxvii. 



Ixxxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Table XXII.— NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United states 

Continental United States 

North Atlantic division . 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jer-sey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . , 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

North Central division . , 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Central division . . 

Kentucky- 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Oklahoma , 

Arkansas 

Western division 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

Alaska 

Hawaii' 

Military and naval 



ALL OCCUPATIONS. 



1000 



29,287,070 



29, 073, 233 



, 579, 191 



276, 777 
178, 719 
134, 933 

1,208,407 
191, 923 
385, 610 

2, 996, 474 
757, 759 

2,448,589 

4,000,531 



72, 996 
458, 788 
126, 941 
662, 415 
325, 663 
716, 742 
670, 995 
864, 471 
201, 570 

9, 580, 649 



1,545,952 
898, 953 

1,804,040 
905, 990 
732, 638 
645, 874 
789, 404 

1, 121, 392 
117, 640 
137, 166 
373, 970 
607, 740 

5, 209, 755 



752, 531 
727, 587 
763, 188 
645, 123 
536, 093 
1, 033, 033 
133, 710 
132, 695 
485, 795 

1,703,107 



114, 799 
44,268 
218, 263 
66, 020 
63,370 
84,604 
19, 809 
62, 683 
225, 387 
169, 637 
644, 267 

83,335 
90, 172 
90,380 



18901 



23,318,183 



23, 318, 183 



6,987,109 



258, 468 
164, 703 
128, 771 
982, 444 
155, 878 
317, 014 

2,435,725 
570, 738 

1, 973, 368 

3, 273, 841 



64, 993 
395, 167 
101, 119 
570, 796 
235, 064 
586, 488 
462, 485 
713, 671 
144,058 

7,815,409 



1, 287, 101 
744, 308 

1, 374, 104 
764, 437 
582, 469 
474, 566 
646, 390 
913, 793 
68, 927 
115,777 
874, 699 
468, 843 

3,900,448 



620, 737 
693,420 
600,275 
498, 118 
437, 782 
743, 891 



20, 906 
385, 319 



72, 300 

30, 823 

192, 438 

64,711 

26, 718 

68, 165 

23, 433 

35,436 

165, 247 

127,475 

644, 630 



1880 



17, 392, 099 



17,392,099 



5, 809, 722 



231, 993 
142, 468 
118, 684 
720, 774 
116, 979 
241, 333 

1,884,645 
396, 879 

1, 456, 067 

2,677,762 



54, 580 
324, 432 

66, 624 
494, 240 
176, 199 
480, 187 
392, 102 
597, 862 

91, 536 

5, 625, 123 



994, 475 
635, 080 
999, 780 
569, 204 
417, 456 
255, 125 
528, 302 
692, 959 

257,844 

152, 614 
322, 285 

3, 022, 173 



519,854 
447, 970 
492, 790 
415, 506 
363, 228 
522, 133 



260, 692 
757, 319 



22,255 
8,884 

101, 251 
40, 822 
22, 271 
40, 055 
32,233 
15, 678 
30,122 
67,343 

376, 505 



AGEICDLTCKAL PURSUITS. 



1000 



10,438,219 



10,381,765 



1,074,412 



76,923 
38,782 
49, 820 
66, 651 
10, 957 
44, 796 

375, 990 
68,881 

341, 712 

2, 032, 569 



19,002 

95,554 

1,488 

300, 268 

151,722 

459, 306 

393, 693 

622, 848 

88,688 



414, 662 
342, 733 
462, 781 
312, 462 
270, 007 
258,944 
371, 604 
463, 293 
71, 626 
82,857 
186,587 
271, 252 

3, 300, 817 



408, 185 
413, 406 
515, 737 
490, 682 
295, 445 
644, 634 
92, 418 
94, 931 
345, 479 

465, 159 



28, 693 
13, 407 
44,904 
27,214 
16, 174 
29, 414 
5,890 
27, 489 
61,113 
68,490 
162, 371 

367 

66,056 

31 



18901 1880 



9,148,448 



1, 115, 114 



82,666 
42, 279 
53, 939 
69, 720 
11,630 
45, 596 

397, 541 
68, 603 

343,150 



18, 894 

93, 201 

1,752 

278. 284 

131,250 

419, 936 

348, 159 

461,226 

72,097 

3,268,614 



414, 544 
342, 474 
452, 077 
292, 487 
243, 838 
197, 771 
336, 612 
419, 615 
45, 042 
70, 189 
176, 809 
267, 156 

2, 586, 328 



350,604 
S70, 602 
430, 719 
395, 037 
263, 799 
478, 299 



13, 911 
293,457 



363, 593 



15, 184 

8,286 

38,764 

24,164 

7,244 

21,562 

6,681 

13, 860 

44, 046 

47,823 

136, 981 



7, 713, 875 



7, 713, 8^75 



1,048,442 



83, 437 
45, 122 
55, 645 
65, 215 
10, 986 
44,274 

379, 178 
59,388 

305, 197 

1,622,081 



17,880 

91,139 

1,480 

264,651 

107, 790 

361, 449 

295, 022 

433,284 

59, 386 

2, 735, 525 



398, 188 
331,783 
437, 138 
249, 226 
199, 711 
133, 690 
303, 922 
356, 415 

228, 652 

90, 610 
206, 190 

2, 120, 525 



320, 809 
294, 467 
381,673 
340, 296 
206, 014 
360, 261 



217, 005 
187, 302 



4,903 
1,698 
14,097 
14,324 
3,536 
14, 725 
4,596 
4,082 
13, 779 
27, 733 
83,829 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 



1900 



1, 264, 536 



1890 



944,333 



944, 333 



411, 279 



13, 921 

7,765 

7,016 

60,603 

7,861 

16, 969 

159, 393 

34, 740 

103, Oil 

119, 360 



2,789 
19,354 

9,420 
21,364 
11, 714 
15, 012 
10, 431 
22, 161 

7,115 

478, 036 



77, 120 

42, 473 

' 96,321 

40, 742 

32, 266 

30, 216 

46, 814 

51,256 

4,952 

7,877 

21,239 

26, 760 

152, 381 



26,602 
22,235 
14, 946 
12, 934 
13, 001 
40, 207 
4,309 
5,211 
13, 036 

97, 482 



4,870 

1,609 

13,783 

2,118 

2,187 

4,667 

1,090 

2,773 

12,492 

10,046 

41,847 

738 
1,742 
3,523 



299, 468 



12, 364 
6,831 
6,276 

43, 247 
5,446 

12, 485 
115, 376 

22,363 

75, 080 

92,361 



2,213 
14, 576 

7,308 
17, 695 

8,662 
12, 296 

8,193 
15,969 

5,449 

371,347 



61, 913 
34,619 
63,122 
33,490 
24,278 
22,767 
87,762 
89,465 
3,058 
6,995 
19,639 
25,439 

114, 263 



22,150 
19, 4.50 
11,952 
10,862 
10,026 
28,123 



1,017 
10,683 

66,894 



2,900 
1,203 
9,830 
1,712 
1,096 
2,843 
1,060 
1,295 
8,214 
6,926 
29,816 



1880 



603,202 



603, 202 



207,551 



10,154 
6,602 
6,420 
27,288 
8,774 
8,887 
79,677 
14,141 
61,608 

62.309 



1,522 
10, 938 
4,331 
12,061 
5,596 
8,546 
5,924 
10,989 
2,403 

230,622 



43,020 
26, 170 
41, 095 
21, 135 
16,835 
9,721 
26,678 
25, 124 

> 1,797 

7,109 
13,038 

73, 465 



15,380 
11,899 
8,117 
8,192 
7,788 
16,732 



6,347 
29,265 



374 

4,224 

882 

521 

1,281 

986 

450 

1,126 

2,764 

16, 998 



' Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



Ixxxix 



IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE. 


TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION. 


MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 




6,693,778 


4,220,812 


3,418,793 


4,778,233 


3,326,122 


1,871,503 


7,112,304 


6,678,468 


3,784,726 


1 


5,580,657 


4,220,812 


3,418,793 


4,766,964 


3, 326, 122 


1,871,503 


7,086,309 


8,678,468 


3,784,726 


2 


1,857,069 


1,467,628 


1,210,916 


1,867,805 


1,316,779 


829,844 


3,368,626 


2,788,120 


2,012,969 


3 


54,784 
80,576 
23,028 
231, 003 
34,900 
75,817 
673,374 
167,916 
666,171 

798,837 


39,709 
22,945 
21,487 
179,004 
27,671 
88,113 
635,650 
123, 979 
459,070 

.581, 127 


35,973 
20,831 
22,119 

136,746 
20, 106 
41, 637 

449, 064 
95,467 

388,974 

616,845 


43, 217 
26,661 
18,889 
283,474 
37,043 
71,714 
753,160 
179,811 
454,846 

422,272 


37,291 
19,771 
14,551 
196, 518 
27,372 
49, 383 
527,664 
120,072 
324, 262 

308,751 


31,179 
12, 630 
9,630 

122, 280 
16,179 
30, 968 

351,002 
68, 159 

187,817 

178,020 


87,932 
76, 945 
36, 180 
666,776 
101,162 
176, 814 
1,034,687 
306, 411 
982, 849 

627, 493 


86,448 
72,877 
32,818 
493, 960 
83,759 
151,437 
859, 694 
236,721 
771,806 

466,803 


71,260 
57,283 
25,770 
369, 245 
66,936 
116,667 
625, 724 
169,724 
522,471 

298,807 


4 
6 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

13 


17,012 
119,587 

48,876 
156, 596 

56,252 
108,233 

78,795 
163,154 

60, 382 

1,759,936 


16,754 

100,066 

39,124 

124,190 

30,264 

70,126 

61,093 

119,108 

81,403 

1,328,853 


15, 928 
86,118 
29, 199 
133, 624 
25, 874 
60,379 
57,907 
92,494 
16,422 

1,023,899 


11,487 
91,367 
40,663 
73, 966 
38,184 
43,267 
29,345 
70, 923 
23,190 

1,671,015 


9,045 
68,979 
28,891 
58,626 
22,973 
28, 799 
21, 736 
64,770 
16,033 

1,151,139 


5,236 
80,998 
16,261 
81,601 
10,925 
16, 394 
14,005 
26,062 

6,549 

696, 981 


22,706 
132,876 
26,604 
110,221 
^7,791 
90, 934 
58,731 
86,388 
32, 245 

2,162,864 


19, 087 
118,346 
24,044 
92,101 
41,915 
66, 331 
33, 306 
62, 698 
20, 076 

1,705,456 


14,018 
86,239 
16,363 
62,403 
26, 014 
33,420 
19,244 
36,033 
7,776 

1,038,096 


14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 


306,433 

168,591 

366,342 

182,031 

148,491 

124.904 

in; 177 

189,752 

f 17,283 

t 16,821 

55,148 

66,963 

793,549 


245,392 

122,141 

257,821 

146,113 

108,483 

91,458 

83,799 

141,889 

9,037 

13,564 

67,888 

52,278 

524,165 


203,783 
110,269 
187,174 
121,000 
81,869 
49,416 
76,361 
121,473 

1 212,211 

21,047 
39,296 

462,912 


283, 932 

138, 545 

897,046 

143,476 

105,260 

112, 918 

129,006 

198, 737 

/ 14,060 

\ 16,274 

61,891 

70, 871 

475,931 


196,578 
92,344 

246,704 

103,276 
68, 620 
72,466 
88,097 

140, 046 
6,679 
12,860 
62,883 
61,606 

315, 318 


108,339 
57,340 

129,986 
56,045 
37, 827 
24, 736 
51,932 
81,532 

1 26,237 

16,716 
27,892 

163,446 


463,805 

206, 611 

481,650 

227, 280 

176, 614 

118,892 

124,803 

218, 354 

r 9, 719 

\ 14,327 

49,105 

71,894 

487, 077 


369,674 

162, 825 

354,380 

190,071 

137, 250 

90, 114 

100,120 

172, 778 

5,111 

13,189 

67,580 

62,364 

360,374 


241, 145 

109,518 

204,388 

121,798 

82,813 

37,662 

69,609 

108,415 

1 S8,947{ 

18,132 
36,169 

201,836 


24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 


127, 179 

132,781 

102,571 

75,212 

115,618 

156,413 

15,212 

12,188 

56,376 

371,266 


95,739 
83,086 
72,038 
49,133 
88,466 
98,707 


87, 720 
81,485 
63, 790 
40, 990 
90,182 
81, 610 


83,882 
78,085 
51, 318 
35,641 
67,613 
111,612 
10,874 
11,636 
35,370 

329, 941 


61, 145 
53, 906 
36,299 
22,417 
40,586 
77,033 


34,686 
24,490 
17,292 
13, 280 
29, 297 
36,213 


106,783 
81,080 
78,616 
30,754 
54, 416 
80,167 
10,897 
8,829 
35, 535 

439,269 


91,099 
66,476 
49,267 
20,669 
44,906 
61,729 


61,259 
35,629 
21,918 
12,778 
29,947 
29,317 


37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 


1,689 
35,308 

319,039 




2,076 
21,857 

234,135 




2,214 
24,014 

367, 718 




44 


17, 135 
204,221 


9,2i8 
103, 212 


10,987 
233,319 


46 
46 


24,098 
10,315 
41,701 
19,478 
11,266 
16,016 
4,921 
10,772 
49,641 
36,734 
146,324 

12,l07 
16,214 
84,500 


19,398 

8,106 

41,167 

16,690 

8,092 

15,122 

5,230 

6,510 

40,403 

26,875 

132,946 


6,305 

3,670 

20,833 

18,160 

7,778 

9,878 

9,606 

3,426 

5,556 

13,973 

105,037 


21,040 
9,323 

47,105 
7,208 
7, 732 

14,095 
2,906 
8,003 

43,185 

28,732 
140, 612 

2,508 
6,850 
1,911 


11,443 
6,258 

40,638 
4,979 
3,738 

11,088 
3,308 
4,358 

29, 266 

19,373 
100,786 


2,760 
1,514 

16,260 
3,261 
3,174 
4,146 
4,255 
1,314 
3,370 
6,084 

68,084 


36,098 
9,614 
70, 770 
10,002 
16,011 
20, 412 
5,002 
13, 646 
68,956 
35,636 
163,113 

17,320 

9,310 

366 


23,376 
7,971 

62,139 
7,166 
6,549 

17,650 
8,154 
9,413 

43,319 

27,978 
144, 101 


7,628 
1,628 

46,837 
4,195 
7,262 

10,025 

12,791 
6,306 
6,291 

16,799 
113,667 


47 
48 
49 
60 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 

68 
69 













6U 



2 Dakota territory. 



r 



xc 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Table XXIII.— NUMBER OF MALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States . 



Continental United States . 
North Atlantic division . . 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massacliusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania . . . 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District o{ Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming — 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

California . . . 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval. 



ALL OCCUPATIONS. 



1900 



23, 957, 778 



18901 



23,763,836 



6, 734, 881 



224, 847 
136, 961 
112, 181 
879, 374 
139, 829 
296, 971 

2,324,429 
603, 237 

2, 017, 052 

3,093,091 



60, 024 
359, 765 

85, 780 
536, 883 
294, 502 
556, 681 
389, 645 
645, 932 
163, 989 

8,183,118 



1, 299, 881 
782, 237 

1, 509, 394 
772, 299 
616, 391 
648, 946 
682, 621 
966, 866 
103, 648 
121,612 
327, 3.54 
462, 169 

4, 237, 934 



19, 312, 651 



19, 312, 651 



646, 909 
611,383 
663, 179 
466, 766 
405, 182 
892, 641 
121, 494 
122,438 
407, 942 

1,504,812 



104, 990 

41, 264 

190, 297 

59, 710 

16, 684 

73,840 

17, 809 

58, 167 

204, 606 

151, 200 

656, 345 

29, 707 
84, 047 
90, 188 



5, 558, 690 



213, 405 
127, 846 
108, 804 
719, 166 
113, 164 
246, 634 

1,921,786 
459, 467 

1,649,420 

2, 552, 393 



64,566 
810, 416 

68,992 
463, 1.58 
213, 046 
460, 794 
324, 678 
641, 016 
115, 729 

6, 801, 062 



1,102,924 
669, 401 

1, 173, 794 
668, 489 
601,012 
408, 941 
565, 830 
800, 471 
61,001 
104,197 
331,920 
423, 082 

S, 183, 566 



536, 800 
608, 378 
464, 923 
362, 529 
322, 019 
648, 664 



1880 



14, 744, 942 



14, 744, 942 



4,333,047 



198, 465 
112, 340 
102, 417 
546, 591 
87, 120 
192, 663 

1,524,264 
330, 103 

1, 239, 084 

2, 119, 492 



46, 652 
265, 632 

46, 966 
411, 043 
164, 691 
393, 211 
272, 016 
446, 630 

73, 752 



881,836 
683, 658 
893, 679 
514, 191 
371, 062 
230, 048 
483,457 
630, 016 

2 64, 993 

142, 159 
302, 934 

2, 492, 269 



AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS. 



1900 



9, 458, 194 



9, 404, 429 



1, 039, 729 



73, 791 
37, 224 
48, 352 
64, 669 
10, 673 
43, 247 

363, 619 
67, 036 

331, 119 

1, 697, 623 



18, 494 

92, 014 

1,440 

277, 594 

146, 142 

385,187 

278, 614 

422, 630 

76, 608 

3,408,789 



19,849 
330,403 



1, 216, 951 



67, 664 
28,929 
173, 291 
50, 777 
26,149 
61,089 
21,609 
33, 542 
164,132 
116, 682 
484, 087 



465, 432 
391, 562 
368, 734 
806, 089 
268, 176 
463, 190 



230, 076 
712, 111 



21,748 
8, 420 
96, 472 
38, 660 
21,800 
37, 168 
30, 730 
15, 287 
29, 069 
64,564 



399,909 
332, 840 
450, 614 
303, 659 
261,450 
252, 129 
363, 472 
447, 315 
69,849 
80, 696 
182, 338 
264, 618 

2, 808, 611 



390, 226 
379, 443 
386, 735 
362,561 
227, 614 
585, 394 
86,894 
91, 513 
298, 141 

449,777 



18901 ! 1880 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 



8,378,603 ! 7,119,366 



8,378,603 I 7,119,366 



1,094,440 I 1,043,497 



81, 193 
41,668 
63, 290 
68,790 
11,446 
44, 830 

388,951 
67, 193 

337, 089 

1, 542, 301 



44, 931 
55, 431 
64, 988 
10, 951 
44,184 

376, 931 
58,993 

303, 894 

1, 358, 072 



18,508 I 
90, 493 
1,696 
260, 338 
127, 691 
353, 832 
251, 339 
377, 984 
60,421 

3, 176, 793 



404, 365 
334, 127 
439, 171 
286,388 
237, 613 
193, 947 
328,386 
406, 720 
44, 107 
68, 657 
173,218 
260, 194 

2, 208, 315 



338, 174 
342, 228 
334, 366 
294,891 
191, 360 
434,904 



28,149 
13, 177 
43, 747 
26, 278 
13,904 
28,401 
5,753 
26, 780 
59, 159 
56,930 
147, 504 

364 

53, 380 

31 



13,600 
258, 792 



356,754 



14, 992 

8,216 

88,077 

23,744 

7,144 

20, 992 

5,591 

13, 659 

43,435 

46, 931 

133, 973 



17,640 
89,388 
1,461 
239, 503 
107, 192 
314, 740 
209, 092 
330, 936 
48, 120 

2, 720, 123 



396, 813 
330, 167 
434, 563 
248, 263 
198, 190 
132, 972 
302, 636 
352,799 
2 28,512 



1,811,486 



316, 683 
276, 934 
292, 520 
252,682 
148, 246 
831,069 



1890 



195, 352 
186, 187 



4,894 
1,694 
14,020 
14, 210 
3,524 
14, 645 
4,662 
4,071 
13, 707 
27, 642 
83, 218 



827, 941 



270, 254 



7,262 
4,248 
3,645 

37, 300 
4,924 

10, 327 
107, 689 

24, 185 

70, 674 

81, 949 



1,878 
13, 266 

7,034 
13, 632 

8,627 
10, 270 

6,836 
16,499 

6,007 

299, 075 



52, 113 
29, 492 
63, 812 
24,269 
17, 931 
17, 112 
23,529 
35, 627 
2,860 
4,322 
11, 872 
16, 146 

109,401 



632, 646 



632, 646 



192,797 



18,934 

16, 452 

10, 759 

8,121 

8,936 

29,175 

3,394 

3,672 

9,958 

67, 262 



3,490 
1,079 
9, 605 
1,648 
1, 682 
3,235 
682 
1,928 
8,926 
6,680 
28,307 

620 
1,294 
3,507 



6,007 
3,629 
3,029 
26, 248 
3,447 
7,609 
76, 484 
15, 600 
50,944 

66,791 



1,505 

10,144 

6,689 

11,965 

6,397 

8,971 

5,970 

11, 907 

4,243 

236,730 



41,783 
24,104 
41,176 
20, 445 
13,545 
14, 060 
18,962 
27,963 
1,945 
3,613 
12, 294 
16,840 

86, 914 



16,136 
14,983 
9,180 
7,687 
7,196 
22,226 



1880 



425, 947 



426,947 



136, 572 



843 
8,764 

49,414 



2,294 

953 

7,468 

1,386 

928 

2,135 

730 

1,004 

6,698 

6,007 

20, 921 



4,961 
2,769 
2,648 
16, 715 
2,440 
5,402 
54,307 
10,249 
37, 101 

49, 168 



1,097 
8,377 
3,483 
9,191 
4,661 
6,916 
4,612 
8,839 
2,092 

166,419 



80,469 
19,683 
28,626 
12, 840 
8,962 
5,846 
16,628 
19,088 

n,449 

4,835 



61,011 



12, 362 
9,944 
6,666 
6,349 
6,243 

13,791 



6,766 

22,777 



662 

338 

3,641 

796 

482 

982 

770 

397 

837 

2,075 

11,897 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 

IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



XCl 



DOMESTIC AND PEBSONAL SERVICE. 


TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION. 


MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSDITS. 




1900 


1890 


18S0 


1000 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 




3,594,618 


2,553,161 


2,237,493 


4,274,659 


3, 097, 701 


1,808,446 


5,796,960 


4, 650, 540 


3,153,692 


1 


3,485,208 


2, 553, 161 


2, 237, 493 


4,203,617 


3,097,701 


1,808,445 


5, 772, 641 


4,650,540 


3,163,692 


2 


1,165,852 


890,856 


773,767 


1,629,782 


1,201,302 


791,344 


2,629,764 


2, 179, 296 


1,687,867 


3 


36,543 
18,436 
12,842 
124,812 
21,342 
45,022 
407,834 
107, 400 
391,121 

418,784 


25,526 
13,662 
11,233 
92,822 
16,512 
33,207 

308,772 
75, 793 

313,329 

271,493 


25,453 
12, 674 
12,739 
77, 911 
12,311 
24, 482 

268,928 
64,303 

274,966 

288,781 


38, 508 
23, 020 
17,238 
238, 630 
31,612 
61,656 
656, 970 
160, 332 
402,016 

389,390 


34,850 
18,339 
13,834 
174, 239 
24,709 
44,467 
481, 790 
111,386 
297, 699 

291,228 


30, 376 
12,030 
9,467 

116,696 
16,559 
29,900 

335,162 
65,728 

177,436 

171,263 


68,743 
54,033 
30, 104 
414, 063 
71,378 
136, 719 
788,317 
244, 286 
822, 122 

505,345 


65, 829 
50,657 
27,418 
357,067 
57,0,50 
115,631 
665,788 
189, 496 
650,369 

380,680 


64,491 
39,946 
22, 142 
271,281 
46,869 
88,696 
488, 936 
130,830 
445,687 

252,208 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

18 


10,587 
68,689 
23,527 
82,188 
41,145 
52,794 
83,732 
73,709 
32,413 

1,162,678 


9,845 
52,221 
18,544 
56, 476 
18,267 
27,949 
21,656 
47,654 
18,881 

854,956 


10,786 
48,794 
15,179 
77,406 
17,592 
27,461 
29, 265 
52,392 
9,906 

713,599 


10,172 
82,102 
32,640 
69,761 
36,016 
41,321 
27, 794 
67,296 
22,288 

1,489,968 


8,331 
63,233 
23,900 
56,649 
22,239 
28,171 
21,024 
53,054 
14, 627 

1,076,163 


4,977 
48,534 
14,136 
30, 990 
10, 779 
16,218 
13, 603 
26,635 

6,491 

683, 545 


18.893 
103,684 
21,139 
93,708 
62, 672 
67,009 
42,669 
66, 898 
28,673 

1,822,608 


16,376 
94,324 
19, 164 
77,730 
38,462 
41,871 
24,689 
50,417 
17,557 

1,456,420 


12,152 
70,539 
12,707 
53,963 
24,567 
27,876 
15,443 
27,828 
7,143 

914,347 


U 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 


207,041 

118, 113 

243,505 

125,146 

97,314 

77,074 

73,827 

121,032 

f 9,234 

\ 9,743 

35,812 

44,837 

452,563 


163, 490 
83, 102 

164,883 
99,818 
69,684 
54,741 
50,784 
85,598 
4,162 
7,875 
37,361 
33, 458 

277,033 


140,011 
79,567 

127,575 
89,369 
55,510 
33, 625 
53,073 
81,359 

} no, 197 

15, 362 
27,961 

281, 310 


249,936 

125,081 

346, 144 

126, 328 

92,869 

102,273 

118,186 

180, 383 

r 13, 359 

t 14,322 

56,385 

64,702 

450,308 


180, 978 
87,059 

227,246 
95,991 
63,830 
68,185 
83,666 

132, 083 

6,605 

12,461 

59, 365 

58,804 

304, 360 


105, 270 
66,146 

126, 629 
64,544 
36,422 
24,319 
51, 248 
79,900 

1 2 6,199 

15, 569 
27,300 

160,275 


390, 882 

176,711 

405, 319 

192, 997 

146,827 

100, 368 

103,507 

182,609 

r 8, 266 

t 12, 429 

40,947 

61, 866 

417,151 


312,308 
131, 009 
301,318 
166,847 
116,440 
78,008 
84,032 
148, 107 
4,282 
11, 691 
49,692 
53,786 

306,933 


209,273 
98, 106 
176,387 
109,185 
71,978 
33,286 
61, 072 
96,870 

} !8,636| 

16,409 
33, 145 

178,177 


24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 


73,643 
71,842 
47, 676 
36,088 
68, 920 
101,821 
10,589 
8,641 
33,343 

285,831 


49,434 
41,228 
83,398 
20, 866 
49,615 
61,497 


49, 951 
49, 641 
34,318 
21, 949 
69,736 
56, 179 


77,061 
73,993 
49,091 
34, 127 
54,259 
106,498 
10,513 
10,827 
33,949 

304, 169 


57,940 
62, 126 
35,388 
21,817 
38, 483 
75,209 


33, 871 
24,047 
16,938 
13, 123 
28,218 
34,937 


87,055 
69,663 
68, 918 
25,879 
45,453 
69,753 
10,104 
7,785 
32, 661 

397,773 


76, 117 
57,813 
42,591 
17, 368 
35,365 
54,818 


53,575 
31,996 
18,392 
10,986 
25,733 
27,214 


37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
4S 


1,315 
19, 680 

268,823 




2,025 
21, 372 

224,648 




2,066 
21, 796 

327,312 




41 


9,536 
180,036 


9,141 
102, 018 


10,281 
221,093 


45 
4S 


18,629 
8,821 
27,970 
16, 108 
9,486 
11, 497 
3,894 
8,859 
40,685 
29,249 
110,633 

10,803 
14,221 
84,381 


16, 715 

6,941 

30,873 

14,169 

7,141 

11,624 

4,306 

5,580 

34, 804 

20,680 

105,990 


5,997 

3,337 

17,839 

16,447 

7,476 

8,303 

8,717 

3,269 

5,031 

12,694 

90,926 


20, 078 
9,074 

43,123 
7,008 
7,491 

12,735 
2,788 
7,635 

40,460 

26, 298 
127,479 

2, 464 
6,668 
1,910 


11,219 
5,172 
38,779 
4,903 
3,705 
10,548 
3,261 
4,273 
28,421 
18,634 
95, 843 


2,743 
1,497 

15, 104 
3,249 
3,158 
4,024 
4,243 
1,308 
3,367 
6,042 

57, 293 


34,644 

9,113 

65, 862 

8,673 

14,021 

17, 972 

4,692 

12,966 

55,376 

32,043 

142,422 

15,466 

8,484 

359 


22,444 
7,647 

58,104 
6,576 
6,231 

15, 790 
7,731 
9,026 

40, 874 

25,530 
127,360 


7,552 
1,564 

45,868 
3,858 
7,160 
9,214 

12,438 
6,242 
6,127 

16, 111 
104, 969 


47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 














.59 














5fl 

















' Dakota territory. 



xcu 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Table XXIV.— NUMBER OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States. 



Continental United States. 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine ^ 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana .... 
Wyoming . . . 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

California 



B8 Alaska 

B9 Hawaii 

60 Military and naval. 



ALL OCCUPATIONS. 



1000 



18901 



51,930 


41, 758 


22, 752 


329,033 


52,094 


88, 639 


672,045 


164,522 


431,537 



907, 440 



12, 972 

98, 983 

41, 161 

125, 532 

31, 161 

160, 161 

181,360 

218, 539 

37, 681 

1, 397, 531 



246, 071 
116, 716 
'294, 646 
133, 691 
116, 147 
96,928 
106,883 
164,526 
14,092 
15,644 
46, 616 
65,571 

971, 821 



106, 622 
116, 204 
200,009 
178,367 
130, 911 
140, 392 
12, 216 
10,257 
77,863 

198, 295 



3,004 

27,966 

6,310 

6,786 

10, 764 

2,000 

4,616 

20,781 

18, 437 

87, 922 

3,628 

6,125 

142 



4, 005, 532 



4, 005, 532 



1, 428, 419 



46, 063 

36,868 

19, 967 

263, 278 

42, 714 

71,380 

613, 940 

111, 271 

323, 948 

721,448 



10,428 
84,762 
32, 127 
107, 638 
22, 018 
126,694 
137, 807 
172, 656 
28,329 

1,014,347 



184, 177 
84,902 

200, 310 
95, 948 
81, 457 
66,625 
80, 660 

113, 322 
7,926 
11,580 
42,779 
45, 761 

716, 893 



83,937 

86,042 

145, 352 

135, 689 

115, 763 

95,237 



1,057 
64,916 



124,425 



4,636 

1,894 

19, 147 

3,934 

1,669 

7,076 

1,824 

1,894 

11,115 

10, 793 

60,643 



1880 



2, 647, 157 



976, 675 



33, 528 
30,128 
16, 167 

174, 183 
29, 859 
48, 670 

360, 381 
66, 776 

216,983 

558, 270 



7,928 
58,800 
19,668 
83, 197 
11,608 
86, 976 
120, 087 
152, 332 
17, 784 

537, 090 



112, 639 
61,422 

106, 101 
65, 013 
46, 393 
26, 077 
44,845 
62, 943 

2 2,851 

10, 455 
19, 861 

629, 914 



54,422 
66, 408 
124, 066 
110, 417 
96, 052 
58,943 



30,616 
45,208 



607 

464 
4,779 
2,262 

471 
2,887 
1,603 

291 
1,063 
2,779 
28, 202 



AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS. 



1900 



980, 025 



977,336 



34,683 



3,132 
1,658 
1,468 
1,882 
284 
1,549 

12, 371 
1,846 

10,593 

334, 946 



508 

3,640 

48 

22, 674 

6,680 

74, 119 

116, 079 

100, 318 

13,080 

100, 019 



14, 763 
9,893 

12, 167 
8,903 
8,557 
6,815 
8,132 

16, 978 
1,777 
2,161 
4,249 
6,634 

492,306 



17, 969 

33, 963 

129, 002 

128, 081 

67, 831 

69, 240 

5,524 

8,418 

47,338 

15, 382 



644 

230 

1,157 

941 

2,270 

1,013 

137 

709 

1,964 

1,660 

4,867 

13 

2,676 



1,463 

621 

649 

930 

184 

766 

8,590 

1,410 

6,061 

282, 498 



386 

2,708 

57 

17,946 

3,669 

66, 104 

96,820 

83,242 

11, 676 

81, 821 



10, 179 
8,347 

12,906 
6,099 
6,325 
3,824 
8,226 

12, 895 
936 
1,532 
3,691 
6,962 

378, 013 



12,430 
28,274 
96,353 
100, 146 
62, 439 
43, 396 



311 
34,665 

6,839 



192 

69 

687 

420 

100 

670 

90 

201 

610 

892 

3,008 



1880 



694, 610 



4,945 



243 

191 

214 

227 

35 

90 

2,247 

396 

1,303 

264,009 



240 

1,751 

19 

16, 148 

598 

46, 709 

85,930 

102, 348 

11, 266 

15,402 



1,375 
1,626 
2,575 

973 
1,621 

718 
1,386 
3,616 

2140 

626 
846 

309, 039 



6,126 
18,633 
89,153 
87, 614 
57,768 
29, 192 



21, 663 
1,115 



4 
77 

114 
12 
80 
34 
11 
72 
91 

611 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 



1900 



141,025 



6,659 

3,617 

3,371 

23,303 

2,937 

6,642 

Bl, 704 

10, 655 

32, 337 

37, 411 



911 
6,088 
2,386 
7,732 
3,187 
4,742 
3,595 
6,662 
2,108 

178, 961 



25,007 

12, 981 

32,509 

16, 473 

14, 335 

13, 104 

23,285 

15, 629 

2,102 

3,656 

9,367 

10, 614 

42, 980 



7,568 
5,783 
4,187 
4,813 
4,065 
11,032 
915 
1,539 
3,078 

30,220 



1,380 
530 

4,178 
470 
605 

1,432 
408 
846 

3,566 

3,366 
13,640 

113 

448 

16 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvl. 



1890 



311, 687 



311,687 



106,671 



6,367 
3,802 
3,247 

16,999 
1,999 
4,976 

38,892 
6,763 

24,136 

26, 670 



708 
4,432 
1,619 
6,730 
2,265 
3,325 
2,223 
4,062 
1,206 

134,617 



20, 130 
10,416 
21, 946 
13,045 
10, 733 
8,707 
18,800 
11,502 
1,113 
2,382 
7,245 
8,699 

27, 349 



6,015 
4,467 
2,772 
8,275 
2,830 
6,897 



174 
1,919 



17,480 



606 

250 

2,372 

326 

167 

70S 

330 

291 

1,616 

1,919 

8,896 



1880 



177, 256 



177,255 



70,979 



5,203 
3,843 
2,772 

10,573 
1,334 
3,485 

25,370 
3,892 

14,507 

13, 141 



425 
2,661 

848 
2,870 
1,035 
1,629 
1,312 
2,160 

311 

74, 203 



12, 551 
6,487 

12,570 
8,296 
6,873 
3,875 

11,060 
6,036 

= 348 

2,274 
3,844 

12, 444 



3,028 
1,955 
1,651 
1,843 
1,545 
1,941 



39 
299 
216 

53 

289 

679 

4,101 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 

AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



XClll 



DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL 


3EKVICE. 


TRADE 


AND TEANSPOETATION. 


MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 




2,099,165 


1,667,651 


1,181,300 


603,674 


228,421 


63,058 


1,315,354 


1,027,928 


631,034 


1 


2,095,449 


1,667,651 


1, 181, 300 


503,347 


228,421 


63,058 


1,312,668 


1,027,928 


631,034 


2 


691,717 


576,772 


437,149 


238,023 


115,477 


38,500 


738, 862 


608,825 


426,102 


3 


18,241 


14, 183 


10,620 


4,709 


2,441 


803 


19,189 


20,619 


16,769 


4 




9,283 


8,157 


2,631 


1,432 


600 


21,912 


22, 220 


17,337 


ft 




10,254 


9,380 


1,651 


717 


173 


6,076 


6,100 


3,628 


S 




86, 182 


58,835 


44,944 


22,274 


6,684 


152,713 


136,893 


97,964 


7 




11, 159 


7,794 


5,631 


2,663 


620 


29,784 


26,709 


20,076 


8 


30, 295 


24, 906 


17, 165 


10,058 


4,926 


1,068 


40,095 


35,806 


26,872 


9 




226, 878 


180, 136 


96,190 


45,774 


16,840 


246,240 


193, 806 


136, 788 


10 




48,186 


31,164 


19,479 


8,687 


2,431 


62, 126 


46,226 


28,894 


U 




145, 741 


114,008 


52,830 


26, 563 


10,381 


160,727 


121,447 


76,784 


U2 


380,053 


809,634 


228,064 


32,882 


17,523 


6,767 


122, 148 


86,223 


46,299 


13 


6,425 


5,909 


5,142 


1,315 


714 


268 


3,813 


2,711 


1,863 


14 


50, 898 


47, 844 


37, 324 


9,265 


5,746 


2,464 


29, 192 


24,022 


14,700 


15 


26,349 


20,580 


14,020 


7,913 


4.991 


2,115 


5,465 


4,880 


2,656 


16 


74,408 


67, 714 


56,118 


4,205 


1,877 


611 


16,613 


14,371 


8,450 


17 


15, 107 


11,997 


8,282 


2,168 


734 


146 


6,119 


3,463 


1,447 


18 


65,489 


42,177 


32,918 


1,936 


628 


176 


23,925 


13,460 


6,544 


19 


45,063 


29,437 


28,642 


1,551 


711 


402 


16,062 


8,616 


3,801 


20 


89,445 


71,464 


40,102 


3,627 


1,716 


527 


18,487 


12, 181 


7,205 


21 


17, 919 


12, 522 


6,516 


902 


406 


68 


3,672 


2,519 


633 


22 


597,258 


473,897 


310,300 


181,047 


74, 976 


13,486 


340, 246 


249,036 


123,749 


23 


99,392 


81,902 


63,772 


33, 996 


14,600 


3,069 


72,923 


57,366 


31,872 


24 


50, 478 


39, 039 


30,702 


13,464 


6,286 


1,196 


29,900 


21,816 


11,412 


2b 


122, 837 


92,938 


69, 599 


50,902 


19,468 


3,366 


76,231 


63, 062 


28,001 


26 


66,886 


45,295 


31,631 


17,147 


7,285 


1,501 


34,283 


24,224 


12,613 


2V 


51, 177 


38, 799 


26,369 


12,391 


4,790 


1,106 


29,687 


20,810 


10,535 


28 


47, 830 


36,717 


16,791 


10,645 


4,271 


417 


18,534 


12, 106 


4,276 


29 


43,350 


33,015 


23,288 


10, 820 


4,431 


684 


21,296 


16,088 


8,437 


3U 


68,720 


56,291 


40,114 


18,364 


7,963 


1,632 


35,846 


24,671 


11,645 


31 


f 8,049 
\ 7,078 


4,875 
6,679 


1 2 2,014 


1 701 
t 952 


174 
389 


1 238 


f 1, 463 
1 1,898 


829 
1,698 


} =31l{ 


32 
33 


19,336 


20, 527 


5,686 


5,506 


3,628 


147 


8,158 


7,888 


1,723 


34 


22, 126 


18,820 


11,345 


6,169 


2,802 


292 


10,028 


8,578 


3,024 


35 


340,986 


247, 132 


181,602 


25,623 


10,958 


3,171 


69,926 


, 53,441 


23,658 


36 


53,636 


46, 305 


37,769 


6,831 


3,205 


815 


19,728 


16,982 


7,684 


37 


60,939 


41,858 


31,844 


4,092 


1,780 


443 


11,427 


8,663 


3,633 


38 


64,896 


38,640 


29,472 


2,227 


911 


354 


9,698 


6,676 


3,626 


39 


39,124 


28,267 


19,041 


1,514 


600 


127 


4,875 


3,301 


1,792 


40 


46, 698 


38,850 


30,446 


3,354 


2,103 


1,079 


8,963 


9,541 


4,214 


41 


54,692 


37,210 


26,431 


5,114 


1,824 


276 


10,414 


6,911 


2,103 


42 


4,623 

3,547 

23,032 






361 






793 






4S 


374 




709 


50 




1,044 


148 




44 


15, 628 


7,599 


1,421 


485 


77 


2,984 


2,219 


706 


45 


85,436 


60,216 


24, 185 


25,772 


9,487 


1,194 


41,486 


30,403 


12,226 


46 


5,469 


2,683 


308 


962 


224 


7 


1,454 


931 


76 


47 


1,494 


1,165 


333 


249 


86 


17 


501 


324 


74 


48 


13,731 


10,294 


2,994 


3,982 


1,759 


156 


4,918 


4,038 


969 


49 


3,370 


2,521 


1,713 


200 


76 


12 


1,329 


691 


337 


60 


1,780 


961 


302 


241 


33 


16 


1,990 


318 


102 


51 


4,519 


3,498 


1,575 


1,360 


640 


122 


2,440 


1,760 


811 


62 


1,027 


924 


888 


118 


67 


12 


310 


423 


353 


63 


1,913 


930 


167 


368 


85 


6 


681 


387 


64 


54 


8,956 


5,599 


525 


2,725 


845 


13 


3,680 


2,446 


164 


bb 


7,485 


4,695 


1,279 


2,434 


839 


42 


3,692 


2,448 


688 


56 


35,691 


26, 956 


14, 111 


13, 133 


4,943 


791 


20, 691 


16,741 


8,688 


bV 


1,604 

1,993 

119 






44 
182 

1 






1,854 

826 

6 






58 














.■i<( 














60 

















s Dakota territory. 



XCIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXV.— PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION, BY MAIN CLASSES, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, 

BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States. 



Continental United States . 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

LouLsiana , 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming ... 

Colorado 

New Mexico, 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

Calilornia 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval 



AGRICULTURAL PUR- 
SUITS. 



1900 18901 1880 



27.8 

21.7 

36.9 

5.6 

5.7 

11.6 

12.6 

■ 9.1 

14.0 

50.8 



39. 2 U. 



26.0 
20.8 
1.2 
45.3 
46.6 
64.1 
69.0 
60.5 
44.0 

36.6 



38.1 
23.7 
34.5 
36.8 
40.] 
47.1 
41.3 
60.9 
60.4 
49.9 
53.4 



54.2 
66.8 
67.6 
76.0 
55.1 
62.4 
69.1 
71.5 
71.1 

27.3 



26.0 
30.3 
20.6 
41.2 
30.3 
34.8 
29.7 
43.8 
27.1 
34.5 
23.7 

1.1 
62.2 

m 



16.0 



32.0 
25.7 
41.9 
7.1 
7.5 
14.4 
16.3 
12.0 
17.4 

65.7 



29.1 
23.6 
1.7 
48.8 
66.8 
71.6 
75.3 
64.6 
50.1 

41.7 



32.2 
46.0 
32.9 
38.2 
41,8 
41.7 
52.1 
45.9 
6.5.4 
60.6 
47.2 
57.0 

66; 3 



19.8 



36.0 
31.7 
46.9 
9.0 
9.4 
18.3 
20.1 
15.0 
21.0 

60.6 



32.7 
28.1 
2.2 
61.5 
61.2 
75.3 
75.2 
72.5 
64.9 

48.6 



66.5 
62.4 
71.8 
79.3 
68.0 
64.3 



66.5 
76.1 



27.1 



21.0 
26.9 
20.1 
44.2 
27.1 
31.6 
24.3 
39.1 
26.7 
37.5 
25.1 



40.0 
52.2 
43.7 
43.8 
47.8 
62.4 
57.6 
51.4 

2 49.5 

69.4 
64.0 

70.2 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 



1900 18901 1880 



6.0 
4,3 
6.2 
6.0 
4.1 
4.4 
5.3 
4.6 
4.2 



4.3 



3.5 



3.5 



4,2 
7,4 
3,2 
3.6 
2.1 
1.8 
2.5 



6.0 



61.7 
65.7 
77.6 
81.9 
66.7 
69.0 



83.3 
24.7 



22.0 
19.1 
13.9 
35.1 
16.9 
36.8 
14.2 
26.2 
46.7 
41.2 
22.3 



5.0 
4.7 
6.3 
4.6 
4.4 
4.7 
6.9 
4.6 
4,2 
5,7 
6,7 
6,3 



4,1 
4,9 
4,4 
3.5 
3.9 
4.7 
3.9 
3.8 

2,8 



3.4 
3.7 
7.2 
3.1 
3.7 
2.1 
1.8 
2,2 
3,8 



3,6 
3,1 
2.0 
2.0 
2.4 
3.9 
3.2 
3.9 
2.7 

6.7 



6.3 
3.2 
4.1 
6,5 
5.6 
4.4 
6.5 
6.9 
6.5 

2.2 
1.9 



4,8 
4,7 
4,6 
4,4 
4.2 
4.8 
6.8 
4.3 
4.4 
6,2 
5.2 
5.4 



4.4 
4.6 
4.6 
3.8 
3.2 
3.7 
4.3 
3.6 



2.3 



DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 



1900 18901 1880 



19.5 



2.8 
3.4 
6.5 
2.5 
3.2 
1.8 
1.6 
1.8 
2.6 

4,1 



3,6 
3.3 
2.0 
2.2 
2.3 
3.8 



4.9 
2.8 



4.0 
3.9 
6.1 
3.1 
4.1 
4.2 
4.5 
3.6 
5.0 
5.4 
6.6 



4.3 
4.1 
4.1 
3.7 
3.8 
3.8 
5.0 
3.6 

23.1 

4.6 
4.0 

2.4 



2.9 
2.7 
1.6 
2.0 
2.1 
3.0 



19.2 



21.6 



19.8 
17.1 
17.1 
19.1 
18.2 
19.6 
22.5 
22.2 
23.1 

20.0 



23.3 
26.1 
38.5 
23.7 
17.3 
15.1 
13.8 
18.9 
25.0 

18.4 



18.1 



18.1 



21.0 



15.4 
13.9 
16.7 
18.2 
17.8 
18.3 
22,0 
21,7 
23,3 

17,8 



3.4 



3.0 
4.2 
4.2 
2.1 
2.3 
3.2 
3.1 
2.9 
3.7 
4.1 
4.2 



19.8 
18.8 
20.3 
20.1 
20.3 
19.3 
14.9 
16.9 
14.7 
12.3 
14.7 
13.2 

16.2 



16.9 
18.3 
13.4 
11.7 
21.6 
15.1 
11.4 
9.2 
11.6 

21.8 



21.0 
23.3 
19.1 
29.5 
21.1 
18.9 
24.8 
17.2 
22.0 
21.7 
22.7 

37.2 
18.0 
98.6 



24.2 
25.3 
38.7 
21.8 
12.9 
12.0 
11.0 
16.7 
21.8 

17.0 



19.1 
16.4 
18.8 
19.0 
18.6 
19.3 
13.0 
15.6 
13.1 
11.7 
16.4 
11.2 

13.4 



19.6 



19.6 



22.8 



16.5 
14.6 
18.7 
19.0 
17,2 
17.3 
23.8 
24.0 
26.7 

19.3 



29.2 
26.5 
43.8 
27.0 
14.7 
12.6 
14.8 
16.6 
16.8 

18.2 



TRADE AND TRANSPOR- 
TATION. 



15.4 
14.0 
12.0 

9.9 
20.2 
13.3 



8.1 
9.2 



23.8 



26.8 
26.3 
21.4 
30.6 
30.3 
22,2 
22,3 
18.4 
24.4 
19.9 
24.4 



20.5 
17.4 
18.7 
21.3 
19.6 
19.4 
14.5 
17.5 

221.1 

13.8 
12.2 

15.3 



16.9 
18.2 
12.9 
9.8 
24.8 
16.6 



6,6 
27.0 



28.3 
41.3 
20.6 
44.5 
34.9 
24.7 
29.8 
22.0 
18,6 
20.8 
27.9 



1900 18901 1880 



16.3 



21.8 



15.6 
14.4 
14.0 
23.5 
19.3 
18.6 
26.1 
23.7 
18.6 

10.5 



15.8 
19.9 
31.9 
11.2 
11.7 
6.0 
5.1 
8.2 
11.5 

17.4 



14.3 



14,3 



18.8 



14.4 
12.0 
11.3 
20.0 
17.6 
15.6 
21.7 
21.1 
16.4 

9.4 



13.9 

17.5 

28.6 

10,2 

9.8 

4.9 

4.7 

7.7 

10.4 

14.7 



10.8 



10.8 



13.4 
8.9 
8.1 
17.0 
13.8 
12.8 
18.6 
17.2 
12.9 

6.7 



■Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



18.4 
15.4 
22.0 
15.8 
14.4 
17.6 
16.3 
17.7 
11.9 
11.1 
16.6 
13.9 



11.2 
10.7 
6.7 
5.5 
10.7 
10.8 
8.1 
8.7 
7.3 

19.4 



18.3 
21.1 
21.6 
10.9 
14.5 
16.7 
14.7 
12.8 
19.2 
16.9 
21.8 

7.5 
7,6 
2,1 



16,2 
12.4 
17.9 
13.5 
11.8 
15.2 
13.6 
16.3 
9.7 
U.l 
16.8 
13.1 



9.8 
9,1 
6.0 
4.6 
9.3 
10.3 



9.9 

6.7 



17.4 



15.8 
17.0 
21,1 
9,1 
14.0 
16.3 
14.1 
12.3 
17.7 
15.2 
18.6 



9.6 
16.7 
24.4 
6.4 
6.2 
3.4 
3.6 
4.3 
7.2 

10.6 



MANUFACTURING AND 
MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 



1900 18901 1880 



31.8 
42.5 
26.8 
46.9 
52.7 
45.9 
34.5 
40.4 
40.1 

15.7 



10.9 
9.0 

13.0 
9.8 
9.0 
9.7 
9.8 

11.8 

210.8 
10.3 



6.7 
5.6 
3.6 
3.2 
8.1 
6.8 



3.6 
13.6 



12.4 
17.1 
15.1 

8.0 
14.3 
10.3 
13.2 

8.4 
11.2 

9.0 
15,4 



31,1 
29,0 
21,0 
16.6 
20.8 
12.7 
10.3 
9.9 
16.0 

22.6 



33.4 
44.3 
25.2 
60.3 
53.7 
47.8 
35.3 
41.3 
39.1 

14.3 



30.0 
23.0 
26.7 
25.1 
24.1 
18.4 
15.8 
19.5 
8.3 
10.5 
13.1 
14.2 

9.4 



14.2 
11.1 
10.3 
4.8 
10.2 
7.8 
8.2 
6.7 
7.3 

25.8 



31.5 
21.7 
32.4 
16.2 
30.0 
24.1 
25.3 
21.8 
26.2 
21.0 
25.3 

52.0 

10.3 

0.4 



29.4 
29.9 
23.8 
16.1 
17.8 
9.4 
7.2 
8.8 
13.9 

21.8 



28.7 
20.5 
26.8 
24.9 
23.6 
19.0 
15.5 
18.9 
7.4 
11.4 
15.4 
13.3 

9.3 



14.7 
11.2 
8.2 
4.1 
10.2 



10.6 
6.2 



26.7 



32.4 
25.9 
32.3 
13.1 
24.6 
26.7 
34.8 
26.6 
26.2 
22.0 
26.5 



21.8 



21.8 



37.9 



30.7 
40.2 
21.7 
61.2 
66.4 
47.9 
33.2 
40.2 
35.9 

11.1 



25.7 
26.3 
23.1 
12.6 
14.7 
6.9 
4.9 
6.9 
8.6 

18.6 



24.3 
17.3 
20.6 
21.4 
19.8 
14.7 
13.2 
16.7 

215.5 

11.9 
11.2 

6.7 



11.8 
7.9 
4.6 
3.1 
8.3 
5.6 



4.2 
30.8 



34.3 
18.3 
46.2 
10.3 
32.6 
25.0 
39.7 
40.6 
20.9 
24.9 
30.2 



2 Dakota territory. 



'Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



xcv 



Table XXVI.— PER CENT DISTEIBUTION, BY MAIN CLASSES, OF MALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, 

BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TEriEITOBIES. 


AGBICULTUKAL PUR- 
SUITS. 


PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 


DOMESTIC AND PEE- 
eONAL SERVICE. 


TRADE 


AND TRANSPOR- 
TATION. 


MANUFACTURING AND 
MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 




1900 


18901 


1880 


1900 


1890' 


1880 


1900 


18901 


1880 


1900 


18901 


1880 


1900 


18901 


1880 


United States 


39.6 


43.4 


48.3 


3.5 


3.3 


2.9 


15.0 


13.2 


15.2 


17.8 


16.0 


12.2 


24.2 


24.1 


21.4 




Continental United States 


39.6 


43.4 


48.3 


3.6 


3.3 


2.9 


14.7 


18.2 


15.2 


17.9 


16.0 


12.2 


24.3 


24.1 


21.4 




North Atlantic division 


15.4 


19.7 


24.1 


4.0 


3.5 


8.1 


17.3 


16.0 


17.9 


24.2 


21.6 


18.3 


39.1 


39.2 


36.6 




Maine 


32.8 
27.2 
43.1 
7.4 
7.6 
14.6 
15.6 
11.1 
16.4 

54.9 


38.0 
32.6 
49.0 
9.6 
10.1 
18.2 
20.2 
U.6 
20.4 

60.4 


41.9 
40.0 
64.1 
11.9 
12.6 
22.9 
24.7 
17.9 
24.5 

64.1 


3.2 
3.1 
3.3 
4.2 
3.5 
3.5 
4.6 
4.0 
3.5 

2.7 


2.8 
2.8 
2.8 
3.6 
3.1 
3.1 
4.0 
3.4 
3.1 

2.6 


2.5 
2.4 
2.6 
3.1 
2.8 
2.8 
3.6 
3.1 
3.0 

2.3 


16.3 
13.4 
11.4 
14.2 
16.8 
15.1 
17.6 
17.8 
19.4 

13.5 


12.0 
10.7 
10.3 
12.9 
14.6 
13.5 
16.1 
16.5 
19.0 

10.7 


12.8 
11.3 
12.5 
14.2 
14.1 
12.7 
17.6 
19.5 
22.2 

13.6 


17.1 
16.8 
16.4 
27.1 
22.6 
20.8 
28.3 
26.6 
19.9 

12.6 


16.3 
14.3 
12.7 
24.2 
21.8 
18.1 
25.1 
24.2 
18.1 

11.4 


15.8 
10.7 
9.2 
21.2 
17.9 
15.5 
22.0 
19.9 
14.3 

8.1 


30.6 
89.5 
26.8 
47.1 
61.1 
46.0 
33.9 
40.5 
40.8 

16.3 


30.9 
39.6 
25.2 
49.7 
60.4 
47.1 
34.6 
41.3 
39.4 

14.9 


27.6 
36.6 
21.6 
49.6 
52.6 
46.1 
32.1 
39.6 


New Hampshire 


Vermont 


Massachusetts 




Connecticut 


New York 


New Jersey 














30.8 
26.6 
1.7 
51.7 
49.6 
69.2 
71.6 
65.4 
46.1 

41.7 


33.9 
29.1 
2.5 
56.2 
59.9 
76.8 
77.4 
69.9 
52.2 

46.7 


37.8 
33.6 
3.1 
58.3 
65.1 
80.0 
76.9 
74.3 
66.3 

63.4 


3.1 
3.7 
8.2 
2.5 
2.9 
1.9 
1.8 
2.4 
3.0 

3.6 


2.8 
-3.3 
8.2 
2.6 
3.0 
1.9 
1.8 
2.2 
3.7 

3.5 


2.4 
3.1 
7.4 
2.2 
2.8 
1.8 
1.7 
2.0 
2.8 

3.1 


17.6 
19.1 
27.4 
15.3 
14.0 
9.5 
8.7 
11.4 
19.8 

14.2 


18.0 
16.8 
26.9 
12.2 
8.6 
6.1 
6.7 
8.8 
16.3 

12.6 


23.1 
18.4 
32.3 
18.8 
10.7 
7.0 
10.7 
11.8 
13.4 

14.0 


17.0 
22.8 
38.1 
13.0 
12.2 
7.4 
7.1 
10.4 
13.6 

18.2 


15.8 
20.4 
34.6 
12.2 
10.4 
6.1 
6.5 
9.8 
12.6 

15.8 


10.7 
18.3 
30.1 
7.6 
6.5 
4.1 
5.0 
5.7 
8.8 

11.5 


81.5 
28.8 
24.6 
17.5 
21.3 
12.0 
10.9 
10.4 
17.5 

22.3 


30.0 

30.4 

27.8 

16.8 

18.1 

9.1 

7.6 

9.3 

15.2 

21.4 




Maryland 


26 6 






Virginia 


13 1 


West Virginia 




North Carolina 


7 1 






Georgia 


6 2 


Florida 


9 7 


North Central division . . . 


18 






Ohio 


30.8 
42.5 
29.9 
39.3 
42,4 
45.9 
63.3 
46.3 
67.5 
66.4 
56.7 
68.5 

66.3 


36.7 
50.7 
87.4 
42.8 
47.4 
47.4 
58.0 
60.8 
72.3 
65.9 
62.2 
61.5 

69.4 


46.0 
56.6 
48.6 
48.3 
53.4 
57.8 
62.6 
66.0 

}2 61.9 

63.3 
67.8 

72.7 


4.0 
3.8 
4.2 
3.1 
2.9 
3.1 
3.4 
3.7 
f 2.7 
t 3.6 
3.6 
3.6 

2.6 


3.8 
3.6 
3.6 
3.1 
2.7 
3.4 
3.4 
3.5 
3.2 
3.5 
3.7 
4.0 

2.7 


8.5 
3.4 
3.2 
2.5 
2.4 
2.5 
3.2 
3.0 
1 2 2.6 

3.4 
3.0 

2.4 


15.9 

15.1 

16.1 

16.2 

16.8 

14.1 

10.8 

12.6 

/ 8.9 

t 8.0 

11.0 

9.9 

10.7 


14.8 
12.6 
14.0 
14.9 
13.9 
13.4 

9.0 
10.7 

6.8 

7.6 
11.2 

7.9 

8.7 


15.9 
13.6 
14.3 
17.4 
15.0 
14.6 
11.0 
12.9 

}218.5 

10.8 
9.2 

11.3 


19.2 
16.0 
22.9 
16.4 
16.1 
18.6 
17.3 
18.6 
f 12.9 
t 11.8 
17.2 
14.3 

10.6 


16.4 
13.2 
19.4 
14.4 
12.7 
16.7 
14.8 
16.5 
10.7 
12.0 
17.9 
13.9 

9.6 


11.9 
9.6 
14.2 
10.6 
9.8 
10.6 
10.6 
12.7 

I2II.3 

11.0 
9.0 

6.4 


30.1 
22.6 
26.9 
26.0 
23.8 
18.3 
15.2 
18.9 
r 8.0 
1 10.2 
12.5 
13.7 

9.8 


28.3 
19.9 
25.7 
24.8 
23.3 
19.1 
14.8 
18.6 
7.0 
11.1 
16.0 
12.7 

9.6 








Illinois 


19 7 


Michigan . . 


21 2 


Wisconsin 


19 4 




14 5 




12.6 


Missouri 


15 4 




} 2 15.7 
11 6 


South Dakota 




Kansas 


11.0 




7.2 








60.3 
62.1 
68.7 
77.7 
56.2 
65.6 
71.5 
74.7 
73.1 

29.9 


63.0 
67.3 
73.6 
81.3 
59.4 
67.0 


67.8 
70.5 
79.3 
82.8 
66.3 
71.5 


2.9 
2.7 
1.9 
1.7 
2.2 
; 3.3 
2.8 
3.0 
2.4 

4.6 


3.0 
2.9 
2.0 
2.1 
2.2 
3.4 


2.7 
2.5 
1.8 
2.1 
2.3 
3.0 


11.4 
11.7 
8.5 
7.7 
17.0 
11.4 
8.7 
7.1 
8.2 

19.0 


9.2 
8.1 
7.3 
5.8 
15.4 
9.5 


10.7 
12.7 
9.3 
7.2 
22.3 
12.1 


11.9 
12.1 
8.7 
7.3 
13.4 
11.9 
8.7 
8.8 
8.3 

20.2 


10.8 
10.3 
7.8 
6.0 
12.0 
11.6 


7.3 
6.1 
4.6 
4.3 
10.6 
7.5 


18.5 
11.4 
12.2 
6.6 
11.2 
7.8 
8.8 
6.4 
8.0 

26.4 


14.0 
11.4 
9.4 
4.8 
11.0 
8.5 


11.5 


Tennessee 


8.2 




6.0 


Mississippi 


3.6 


Louisiana 


9.6 




6.9 








68.5 
78.3 

29.3 


"'84.'9' 
26.1 


4.3 
2.6 

4.1 


""2.'5' 
3.2 


6.6 
6.0 

21.3 




4.1 

26.3 


10.2 
6.5 

18.4 


"'"4.'6' 
14.8 


10.4 
6.6 

26.9 




Arkansas 


4.5 




31.1 








26.8 
31.9 
23.0 
44.0 
29.8 
38.4 
32.3 
46.1 
28.9 
37.7 
26.5 

1.2 
63.5 

(') 


22.1 
28.4 
22.0 
46.8 
28.4 
34.4 
25.9 
40.7 
28.2 
40.2 
27.7 


22.6 
20.1 
14.5 
36.8 
16.2 
39.4 
14.8 
26.6 
47.2 
42.8 
23.9 


3.3 
2.6 
5.0 
2.8 
3.6 
4.6 
3.8 
3.3 
4.3 
4.4 
6.1 

2.1 
1.6 
3.9 


3.4 
3.3 
4.3 
2.7 
3.7 
3.5 
3.4 
3.0 
4.3 
4.3 
4.3 


2.6 
4.0 
3.8 
2.1 
2.2 
2.7 
2.5 
2.6 
2.9 
3.2 
3.4 


17.8 
21.4 
14.7 
27.0 
20.4 
15.6 
21.9 
15.2 
19.9 
19.3 
19.9 

36.3 
16.9 
93.6 


24.7 
24.0 
17.8 
27.9 
28.4 
19.0 
19.9 
16.6 
22.6 
17.7 
21.9 


27.6 
39.6 
18.5 
42.7 
34.3 
22.3 
28.4 
21.4 
17.3 
19.7 
26.1 


19.1 
22.0 
22.7 
11.7 
16.1 
17.2 
15.7 
13.1 
19.8 
17.4 
22.9 

8.3 
7.9 
2.1 


16.6 
17.9 
22.4 
9.7 
14.7 
17.3 
15.0 
12.8 
18.4 
15.9 
19.8 


12.6 
17.8 
15.7 

8.4 
14.6 
10.8 
13.8 

8.6 
11.5 

9.4 
16.5 


33.0 
22.1 
34.6 
14.6 
30.1 
24.3 
26.3 
22.3 
27.1 
21.2 
25.6 

62.1 
10.1 
0.4 


33.2 
26.4 
83.5 
12.9 
24.8 
25.8 
35.8 
26.9 
26.6 
21.9 
26.3 


34.7 




18.6 




47.5 




10.0 




32.8 


Utah 


24.8 




40.6 




40.8 




21.1 




24.9 


California 


30.1 









































































1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



'^ Dakota territory. 



* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



XCVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXVII.— PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, BY MAIN CLASSES, OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, 

BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States. 



Continental United States. . 



North Atlantic division. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland , 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia •. . 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio...; 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota.. 
Nebraska 



South Central division . 



Kentucky, 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico- 
Arizona , 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . . 

Oregon 

CalUornia 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval. 



AGRICULTURAL PUR- 
SUITS. 



1900 18901 1880 



18.4 



18.4 



6.0 
3.7 
6.4 
0.6 
0.6 
1.8 
1.9 
1.2 
2.5 



19.2 



50.7 



17.0 
29.2 
64.5 
71.8 
61.8 
42.2 
45.2 
33.3 
60.8 

7.8 



6.5 

7.7 

4.1 

14.9 

33.5 

9.4 

6.8 

15.7 

9.4 

8.6 

5.5 

0.4 
43.7 



3.2 
1.7 
3.2 
0.3 
0.4 
1.1 
1.7 
1.3 
1.9 

39.2 



3.7 
3.2 
0.2 
16.7 
16.2 
52.6 
70.3 
48.2 
41.2 

8.1 



5.5 

9.8 

6.4 

6.4 

7.8 

6.8 

10.2 

11.4 

11.8 

13.2 

8.4 

15.2 

52.7 



14.8 
33.2 
66.3 
73.9 
63.9 
45.6 



29.4 
63.1 

6.5 



4.1 
3.7 
3.6 

10.7 
6.4 
8.1 
4.9 

10.6 
6.5 
8.2 
5.0 



0.5 



0.7 
0.6 
1.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.6 
0.6 
0.6 

47.3 



3.0 

3.0 

0.1 

18.2 

6.2 

53.7 

71.6 

67.2 

63.4 

2.9 



1.2 
3.2 
2.4 
1.8 
3.3 
2.9 
3.1 
6.8 



6.0 
4.4 



58.3 



9.4 
32.9 
71.9 
79.4 
60.8 
49.6 



70.7 
2.5 



1.8 
0.9 
1.6 
5.1 
2.5 
2.8 
2.2 
3.8 
6.8 
3.3 
2.2 



PROrESSIONAL SERVICE. 



1900 18901 1880 



7.6 



12.8 
8.4 

14.8 
7.1 
6.6 
7.5 
7.7 
6.8 
7.5 

4.1 



7.0 
6.1 
5.8 
6.2 
10.2 
3.0 
2.0 
3.0 
5.6 

12.8 



10.2 
11.1 
11.0 
12.3 
12.3 
13.5 
21.8 
10.1 
14.9 
22.7 
20.1 
19.1 

4.4 



7.1 
6.0 
2.1 
2.7 
3.1 
7.9 
7.5 
15.0 
4.0 

15.2 



14.1 
17.6 
15.0 
7.4 
7.4 
13.3 
20.4 
18.7 
17.2 
18.2 
15.4 

3.1 

7.3 

11.3 



7.8 



7.8 



7.5 



14.1 
8.9 

16.3 
6.5 
4.7 
7.0 
7.6 
6.1 
7.4 

3.5 



6.8 
6.2 
5.0 
5.3 
10.3 
2.6 
1.6 
2.3 
4.3 

13.3 



10.9 
12.3 
11.0 
13.6 
13.2 
13.3 
23.3 
10.1 
14.0 
20.6 
16.9 
18.8 

3.8 



6.7 



6.7 



7.3 



16.5 
12.8 
17.2 
6.1 
4.5 
7.2 
7.0 
5.8 
6.7 

2.4 



5.4 
4.3 
4.3 
3.4 
9.0 
1.9 
1.1 
1.4 
1.7 

13.8 



7.2 
5.3 
1.9 
2.4 
2.5 
6.2 



16.5 
3.6 



14.1 



13.1 
13.2 
12.4 
8.3 
10.6 
10.0 
18.1 
15.4 
14.5 
17.8 
14.7 



11.2 
12.6 
11.8 
16.1 
14.8 
16.4 
24.7 



21.7 
19.9 



2.3 



5.6 
3.5 
1.2 
1.7 
1.6 



1.9 

14.4 



21.1 

7.7 

12.2 

3.8 

8.3 

10.4 

14.4 

18.2 

27.2 

24.4 

14.5 



DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 



1900 18901 1880 



37.5 



35.1 
29.1 
44.8 
32.3 
26.0 
34.2 
39.5 
39.2 
40.6 

41.9 



49.5 
61.4 
61.6 
59.3 
48.5 
34.6 
24.8 
40.9 
47.7 

42.7 



40.4 
43.3 
41.7 
42.6 
44.1 
49.4 
40.6 
44.5 
67.1 
45.3 
41.6 
39.8 

35.1 



50.7 
62.5 
27.4 
21.9 
35.7 
38.9 
37.8 
34.6 
29.6 

43.1 



56.8 
49.7 
49.1 
53.4 
26.2 
42.0 
51.4 
42.4 
43.1 
40.6 
40.6 

44.2 
32.5 
83.8 



1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



40.4 



31.5 
25.2 
51.4 
32.7 
26.1 
34.9 
44.1 
43.3 
45.0 

42.9 



56.7 
66.6 
64.1 
62.9 
54,5 
33.6 
21.4 
41.4 
44.2 

46.7 



44.8 



31.4 
27.1 
58.0 
83.8 
26.1 
36.2 
50.0 
46.7 
52.5 

40.8 



44.6 
46.0 
46.4 
47.2 
47.6 
66.0 
41.0 
49.7 
61.5 
49.0 
48.0 
41.1 

34.5 



55.2 
49.2 
26.6 
20.9 
33.6 
39.1 



35.4 
28.5 



.8.4 



57.9 
01.5 
63.7 
64.1 
60.6 
49.4 
60.7 
49.1 
50.4 
43.6 
44.6 



64.9 
63.5 
71.3 
67.5 
71.9 
37.8 
23.8 
26.3 
31.0 

57.8 



56.6 
59.7 
66.2 
57.6 
56.8 
63.0 
51.9 
63.7 

2 70.7 

64.4 
68.6 

34.3 



69.4 
56.4 
23.8 
17.2 
32,0 
43.1 



53.5 



60.7 
71.8 
62.6 
76.7 
64.1 
64.5 
69.1 
53.9 
49.4 
46.0 
50.0 



TRADE AND TRANSPOR- 
TATION. 



1900 18901 1880 



9.4 



12,9 



9.1 
6,3 
7,3 
13,6 
10,6 
11.3 
14,3 
12,6 
12.2 

3,6 



10,2 
9,4 

19,2 
3,3 
7,0 
1,2 
0,8 
1,7 
2.4 

13,0 



13,8 
11,5 
17,3 
12,8 
10.7 
11,0 
10,1 
11,9 
5,0 
6,1 
11,8 
11,1 

2,6 



6.5 
3.5 
1.1 
0.9 
2,6 
3,6 
3,0 
6,9 
1,8 

13,0 



9,8 

8,3 

14,2 

3,2 

3,6 

12.6 

5.9 

8.1 

13.1 

13,2 

15,0 

1,2 
3,0 
0,7 



6,7 



6,7 



5,4 
3,9 
3,6 
8,5 
6,3 
6,9 
8.9 
7.8 
8.2 

2,4 



2,4 



6,8 
6,8 
15,6- 
1,7 
3,3 
0,5 
0,5 
1,0 
1,4 

7,4 



7,9 
6,2 
9,7 
7,6 
5,9 
6,5 
5,5 
7,0 
2,2 
3,4 
8,3 
6,1 

1,5 



2,1 
0,6 
0,4 
1.8 
1,9 



4,7 
0,9 



4,8 
4,5 
9,2 
1,9 
2,1 
7,6 
3,1 
4.5 
7,6 
7,8 
8.2 



2,4 



3,9 



2,4 
2,0 
1,1 
3,8 
2,1 
2,2 
4,4 
3,6 
4.8 

1,2 



3,2 
4.2 
10.8 
0.7 
1,3 
0,2 
0,3 
0,4 
0,3 

2,5 



2,7 
2,3 
3.2 
2,7 
2,4 
1,7 
1,6 
2,6 

21,3 

1,4 
1,5 



1.5 
0.8 
0.3 
0.1 
1.2 
0.5 



0,3 
2.6 



1.4 
3.7 
3.3 
0.6 
3.4 
4.2 
0.8 
2,1 
1,2 
1,5 
2,8 



MANUFACTURING AND 
MECHANICAL PURSUITS, 



1900 18901 1880 



24,7 



24,7 



40.1 



37.0 
62,5 
26,7 
46.4 
57,2 
45,2 
36,6 
40,2 
37,2 

13,5 



29,4 
29,5 
13,3 
13,1 
16,4 
14,9 
8,9 
8,5 
-9,5 

24,3 



25,7 



29,6 
25,6 
25.9 
25.6 
25.5 
19.1 
19,9 
23,2 
10,4 
12.1 
17.5 
18.1 

7.2 

18,7 
9,8 
4,9 
2,7 
6,8 
7,4 
6.5 

10.2 



20.9 



14.8 
16.7 
17.6 
21.1 
29.3 
22.7 
15.5 
15.1 
17,2 
19,5 
23,5 

51,1 
13,5 
4.2 



42,6 



45,8 
60,3 
25,5 
62,0 
62,5 
50,1 
37,7 
41.5 
37.5 

12,0 



26,0 
28,3 
15,2 
13,4 
15.7 
10,7 
6,2 
7,1 
8,9 

24,5 



23,8 



23,8 



43,5 



60,0 
57.5 
22.4 
56.2 
67.2 
55.2 
38.0 
43,3 
36,4 



31,2 
25,7 
26.6 
25,2 
28,5 
18,4 
20,0 
21,8 
10,5 
13,8 
18,4 
18,8 

7,5 



19.0 
10,2 
4.6 
2,4 
8.2 
7.2 



14,0 
4,0 



24,4 



20.1 
17,1 
21,1 
15,0 
20,3 
24,9 
23.2 
20.4 
22,0 
22,7 
27,6 



23,5 
25,0 
13,6 
10,2 
12,6 
6,4 
3,2 
4,7 
3,6 

23,0 



28,3 
22,2 
26,4 
22,9 
22,7 
17,0 
18,8 
18,3 
210,9 

16,5 
15,6 

4,6 



14,1 
6,4 
2,8 
1,6 
4,4 
3,6 



2,3 
27,0 



16.0 
15.9 
20,3 
14,9 
21,7 
28,1 
23,5 
22.0 
16.4 
24.8 
30.5 



2 Dakota territory. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



XCVll 



In the North Atlantic division, as shown by Table 
XXV, very nearly two-fifths (39.3 per cent) of all gain- 
ful workers in 1900 were engaged in manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits. In many of the separate states the 
proportion was very much higher, particularly in Rhode 
Island (52.7 per cent), Massachusetts (46.9 per cent), 
and Connecticut (45.9 per cent). On the other hand, 
in Maine and Vermont the proportion for this class of 
workers was relatively small, being 31.8 in the former 
state and 26.8 in the latter, while in New York only 
34.5 per cent, or not much more than one-third, of the 
workers were engaged in this class of occupations. 

In the South Atlantic division fully one-half (50.8 
per cent) of all persons at work in 1900 were engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, but the proportion in the sev- 
eral states varied greatly, ranging (if the District of 
Columbia be excluded) from two-tenths in Maryland to 
more than six-tenths in North Carolina and Georgia 
and very nearly seven-tenths in South Carolina. In 
Delaware and Maryland there was a large proportion 
of persons engaged in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits, constituting 31.1 per cent of the whole num- 
ber of persons at work in the former state and 29 per 
cent in the latter. 

In the South Central division the proportion of per- 
sons engaged in agricultural pursuits in 1900 was even 
larger than in the South Atlantic division, being equiva- 
lent to almost two-thirds (63.4 per cent) of the total 
working population and ranging from considerably 
more than one-half in Kentucky, Louisiana, and Ten- 
nessee to more than three-fourths in Mississippi. 

In the North Central division the proportion engaged 
in agricultural pursuits in 1900 was largest in North 
Dakota and South Dakota, in which states this class 
constituted fully three-fifths of all persons gainfully 
employed, while in Kansas the proportion was more 
than one-half, and in Nebraska and Iowa nearly one- 
half. In the more easterlj'- states of this division a 
considerable proportion of the gainful workers were en- 
gaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, rang- 
ing from 23 per cent in Indiana to 30 per cent in Ohio; 
but in the division as a whole the per cent engaged 
in these pursuits was only 22.6, while the per cent 
engaged in agricultural pursuits was 86.6. 

In the Western division the proportion of agricul- 
tural workers in 1900 was largest in Idaho and New 
Mexico, where they formed somewhat more than two- 
fifths of all the gainful workers; the proportion en- 
gaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits was 
largest in Colorado, Montana, and Arizona. In this 
division a relatively large number of persons were re- 
ported as engaged in mining and quarrying, industries 
which are included under the general head "manufac- 
turing and mechanical pursuits;" in Idaho, Colorado, 
Nevada, Arizona, and Montana the proportion so en- 
gaged in 1900 ranged from 11.7 to 15.2 per cent of the 

23054—04- 



whole number of workers (see Table xxx). The num- 
ber and proportion of those engaged in mining and 
quarrying in 1900 and 1890 are shown for each state 
and territory in Tables xxix and xxx. 

The relative proportions, in 1900, of gainful workers 
in the five main classes of occupations, for the several 
states and territories arranged in the order of their 
importance with respect to agricultural pursuits, are 
illustrated gi'aphically in the diagram on Plate 3, in 
which the proportions engaged in manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits proper, in mining and quarrying, 
and in fishing are distinguished. 

The series of cartograms on Plate 4 indicates, for each 
main class of occupations and for the subclass, mining 
and quarrying, separately, the states and territories in 
which workers of that class formed the largest propor- 
tions of all gainful workers in the state in 1900. 

Since males constitute by far the greater portion, 
more than four-fifths, of the total number of gainful 
workers, the per cent distribution of this sex by classes 
of occupations shown in Table xxvi naturally conforms 
in a general way to that for both sexes shown in Table 
XXV and already discussed in the preceding para- 
graphs. Vermont is the only state in the North At- 
lantic division in which, in 1900, the males engaged in 
agricultural pursuits constituted more than two-fifths 
of all the males at work; in Maine the proportion was 
about one-third. In the other states of the division 
the largest proportion of male workers were engaged 
in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, the propor- 
tion ranging from more than one-half in Rhode Island 
to about one-third in New York. In Delaware and 
Maryland, also, the proportion of males engaged in 
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits was somewhat 
larger than the proportion engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, but in all the remaining states and territories in 
the South Atlantic and South Central divisions, by far 
the largest proportion of male workers were employed 
in agriculture. This is true also with ;respect to the 
North Central states, with the exception of Ohio, where 
the proportions of males engaged in agriculture and in 
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits were practi- 
cally the same. In the Western division, agricultural 
pursuits constituted the leading class of occupations for 
males in all states and territories except Montana, 
Colorado, and Arizona; in these three states manu- 
facturing and mechanical pursuits were of greater 
relative importance. 

In many of the states in the North Atlantic division, 
as shown by Table xxvii, manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits constituted the most important class of 
occupations for female workers in 1900. The pro- 
portion engaged in these pursuits was largest (57.2 
per cent) in Rhode Island; in New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut the proportions were 52.5 
per cent, 46.4 per cent, and 45.2 per cent, respectively. 
In many of the Southern states, where large numbers 
of women and children are employed in field work, the 



-vu 



XCVlll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



largest proportion of the female workers were engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, the proportions reaching 71.8 
per cent in Mississippi, 64. 5 per cent in Alabama, and 
63.5 per cent in South Carolina. Elsewhere the pro- 
portion was largest in domestic and personal service, 
and this class of occupations comprised a considerable 
proportion of female workers in all states and terri- 
tories. 

In a large majority of the states and territories the 
figures for 1900, when compared with those for the two 
preceding censuses (see Table xxv), indicate a gen- 
eral decrease in the proportion of persons engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. For continental United States 
as a whole the proportion of persons so engaged de- 
creased from 44.3 per cent in 1880 to 35.7 per cent in 
1900. Of the five geographic divisions, the Western 
is the only one in which the proportion has increased 
during this twenty-year period. In this division the 
proportion was larger in 1900 than in 1880 in all but 
three states — Washington, Oregon, and Utah; but 



outside of this division the only states which had an 
increased proportion in 1900 were the two Dakotas, in 
the North Central division. 

The decline since 1880 in the proportion of agricul- 
tural workers has been offset by a considerable increase, 
for all states and territories, in the proportion of per- 
sons engaged in trade and transportation, and, for 
nearly all of the states and territories, in that of per- 
sons engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
proper, the exceptions in the latter case being Rhode 
Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, District of Colum- 
bia, Utah, Wyoming, Nevada, Idaho, and the two 
Dakotas. The changes which have occurred since 
1880 in the proportions of gainful workers in each of 
these three classes are shown in the following pre- 
sentation (derived from Tables xxv and xxx), by states 
and territories arranged in the order of the percentages 
for 1900; and for persons engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
proper, in the diagram on Plate 2. 



Table XXVIII.— PER CENT WHICH THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS, IN TRADE 
AND TRANSPORTATION, AND IN MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS PROPER, FORMS OF THE TOTAL 
NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880 AND 1900. 



AGKICULTORAL PUKSUITS. 



States and territories. 



Mississippi 

Arkansas 

Soutli Carolina 

Alabama 

North Carolina 

Texas 

Dakotas 

Georgia 

Tennessee 

Louisiana 

Kentucky 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

Iowa 

West Virginia 

Virginia 

Florida 

Idaho 

Missouri 

New Mexico 

Minnesota 

Indiana 

Vermont 

Wisconsin 

Utah 

Oregon 

Michigan 

Arizona 

Wyoming 

Nevada 

Maine 

Washington 

Ohio 

Delaware 

Illinois 

Montana 

California 

New Hampshire 

Maryland 

Colorado 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

Connecticut 

New Jersey 

Ehode Island 

Massachusetts 

District of Columbia . 



1900 



76.0 
71.1 
69.0 
67.6 
64.1 
62.4 
60.6 
60. B 
56.8 
56.1 
64.2 
53.4 
49.9 
47.1 
46.6 
45.3 
44.0 
43.8 
41.3 
41.2 
40.1 
38.1 
86.9 
36.8 
34.8 
84.6 
34.6 
30.3 
30.3 
29.7 
27.8 
27.1 
26.8 
26.0 
26.7 
26.0 
23.7 
21.7 
20.8 
20.6 
14.0 
12.6 
11.6 
9.1 
6.7 
B.6 
1.2 



1880 



81.9 
83.3 
76.2 
77. B 
75.3 
69.0 
49.6 
72.6 
65.7 
66.7 
61.7 
64.0 
59.4 
67. B 
61.2 
51.6 
64.9 
26.2 
61.4 
36.1 
62.4 
62.2 
46.9 
47.8 
36.8 
41.2 
43.8 
16.9 
19.1 
14.2 
36.0 
45.7 
40.0 
32.7 
43.7 
22.0 
22.3 
31.7 
28.1 
13.9 
21.0 
20.1 
18.8 
16.0 
9.4 
9.0 
2.2 



TRADE AND TKANSPORTATION. 



States and territories. 



District of Columbia 

New York 

New Jersey 

Massachusetts 

Illinois 

California 

Colorado 

Wyoming 

Maryland 

Ehode Island 

Washington 

Pennsylvania 

Connecticut 

Ohio 

Montana 

Mlssoviri 

Minnesota 

Oregon 

Utah 

Nebraska 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Delaware 

Maine 

Indiana 

Nevada 

Arizona 

Wisconsin 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Kansas 

Idaho 

West Virginia 

Dakotas 

Florida 

Kentucky 

Virginia 

New Mexico 

Texas 

Louisiana 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Arkansas 

Alabama 

North Carolina 

Mississippi 

South Carolina 



1900 



1880 



24.4 
18.6 
17.2 
17.0 
13.0 
16.4 
16.1 
17.1 
15.7 
18.8 
11.2 
12.9 
12.8 
10.9 
12.4 
11.8 
9.7 
9.0 
10.3 
10.3 



9.6 
13.4 
9.0 
18.2 
14.3 
9.0 
8.9 
8.1 
8.6 
8.4 
6.2 
10.8 
7.2 
6.7 
6.4 
8.0 
6.8 
8.1 
6.6 
4.3 
8.5 
8.6 
8.4 
8.2 



MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS PBOPBR. 



States and territories. 



Ehode Island 

Massachusetts 

Connecticnt 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maine 

Ohio 

Maryland 

Vermont 

Illinois 

Wisconsin 

Michigan 

Indiana 

District of Columbia 

California 

Washington 

Colorado 

Missouri 

Minnesota 

Montana 

Oregon 

Utah 

Arizona 

Florida 

Iowa 

West Virginia 

Virginia 

Nebraska 

Kentucky 

Wyoming 

Kansas 

North Carolina 

Nevada 

Idaho 

South Carolina 

Louisiana 

Georgia 

Tennessee 

New Mexico 

Dakotas 

Alabama 

Texas 

Arkansas 



1900 



52. 
46. 
46. 
42. 
39 
34. 
32, 
80. 
29. 
27. 
26. 
25. 
24. 
23. 
22. 
21. 
20. 
20. 
19. 
18. 
17. 
17. 
16. 
16. 
16. 
16, 
14, 
14. 
14. 
14, 
13, 
12, 
12, 
12, 
12, 
11, 
10, 



9.6 



1880 



55.4 

60.2 

46.8 

39.8 

38.6 

32.8 

30.8 

26.1 

28.4 

23.6 

24.0 

20.3 

19.0 

19.4 

19.9 

16.6 

22.9 

19.5 

16.6 

17.5 

14.9 

14.7 

12.6 

14.7 

18.4 

11.6 

8.1 

12.5 

12.6 

11.6 

1L8 

11.2 

14.6 

10.1 

6.5 

19.0 

10.2 

4.8 

8.1 

6.8 

7.6 

6.6 

9.3 

4.2 

5.6 

4.2 

3.0 



A considerable increase in the proportion engaged in 
professional service (see Table xxv) has taken place in 
the great majority of the states and territories, this 
increase being especially marked in some Eastern states 



with a large per cent of urban population, as Massachu- 
setts, New York, and New Jersey; it is also marked in 
Illinois and Kansas, and in many of the states in the 
Western division, notably Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



XCIX 



California. The changes in the per cent for domestic 
and personal service show considerable diversity — an 
increase in many states and a decrease in others. 

The general character of the changes since 1880 in the 
distribution of the male working population by main 
classes of occupations (see Table xxvi) corresponds to 
that just noted for both sexes; that is, in nearly all the 
states except some of the Western there has been a 
decrease in the proportion engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits accompanied by increases in the proportions 
engaged in trade and transportation and in manufac- 
turing and mechanical pursuits. For female workers 
(see Table xxvii) the general character of the changes 
in distribution by main classes of occupations from 
1880 to 1900 has been as follows: The small percent- 
age of workers of this sex engaged in agricultural 
pursuits in the North Atlantic division has increased. 
This is also the case to a more marked degree in the 
North Central and Western divisions. But in the 
Southern divisions, where the percentage of females 
engaged in agricultural pursuits is large, there has 
been a marked decrease. The percentage for profes- 
sional service shows an increase for every division ex- 
cept the North Central. Domestic and personal service 
shows a decrease in the North and West, but not much 
change in the South. In trade and transportation there 
has been an increase common to all divisions and very 
marked in the two Northern divisions and in the West- 
ern. For manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, on 
the other hand, the increase has been very marked in 
the South, while there has been only a slight increase in 
the North Central division, a decrease in the North 
Atlantic, and a more marked decrease in the Western. 

Table xxix gives for each geographic division and 
each state or territory the nmnber of persons of both 
sexes and of each sex engaged in each of three subclasses 
of occupations included under the main class "manufac- 



turing and mechanical pursuits," while Table xxx gives 
the per cent which the number, in each case, forms of 
the total number engaged in all gainful occupations. 

It is evident from a comparison of the figures in these 
tables that in most of the states and territories only a 
small proportion of the total number of persons classi- 
fied under the main head of manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits were engaged in mining and quarrying or 
in fishing, the great majority being engaged in manu- 
facturing and mechanical pursuits proper. 

In Alaska the number of persons engaged in fishing 
in 1900 constituted 13.7 per cent of the total number 
gainfully employed; in the states and territories of 
continental United States the highest per cent, 2.1, was 
that shown for the state of Maryland. 

The occupation of mining and quarrying, like that of 
fishing, attains its greatest importance relative to other 
occupations in Alaska, where it furnished employment 
to 23 per cent of all the gainful workers in that terri- 
tory. In continental United States the percentage of 
gainful workers engaged in mining and quarrjdng was 
exceptionally high in the states composing the Western 
division, ranging from 3.3 in Oregon to 15.2 in Mon- 
tana. But it is noticeable that in the leading mining 
states of this division, namely, Montana, Arizona, 
Nevada, Colorado, and Idaho, the per cent of workers 
engaged in this subclass was considerably smaller in 
1900 than it was in 1880, indicating the development of 
other occupations during the intervening twenty -year 
period. Outside of the Western division the highest 
per cent was that shown for Pennsylvania, 7.5; in West 
Virginia the per cent was 6.6; in Indian Territory it 
was 3.2. The remaining states and territories show 
smaller percentages, ranging from less than one-tenth 
of 1 per cent in Mississippi and Louisiana to 2. 6 per 
cent in Michigan. 



c STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Table XXIX.— NUMBER OF PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES AND OF EACH SEX ENGAGED IN EACH OF THREE SUBCLASSES 

STATES AND TERRITORIES: 



STATES AND TEEEIT0RIE3. 



United States. 



Continental United States 

North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island ... 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky . 
Tennessee . 
Alabama . . 



Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho , 

Washington . . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



BOTH SEXES. 



Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits proper. 



6, 449, 261 



3, 147, 564 



82, 753 

76, 244 

33, 937 

558, 359 

100, 257 

174, 819 

1, 025, 406 

298, 872 

797, 917 

561, 556 



22, 007 
118, 070 
26, 528 
93, 442 
46,286 
86, 615 
56,542 
82,894 
29, 172 



1890 



6, 231, 058 



5,231,058 



2, 621, 635 



81, 436 

72, 174 

30, 274 

482, 580 

82, 783 

148, 357 

847, 003 

229,435 

647, 593 

421,499 



18,572 
104,251 
23, 910 
79, 683 
32, 002 
51,783 
•81, 816 
60, 738 
18, 744 

1, 583, 396 



1880 



3,493,977 



3,493,977 



1,904,907 



65, 848 

56, 783 

24, 097 

361, 864 

64, 837 

112, 801 

617, 502 

163, 058 

448, 117 

277,935 



428, 603 
193, 267 
440, 750 
202, 109 
172, 243 
111,688 
112, 675 
195,860 
9,687 
11,785 
48, 766 
61,868 

431,744 



96, 809 
69, 479 
59,757 
30, 033 
51,733 
76, 151 
6,690 
8,739 
32, 463 

305, 543 



18, 700 
5,529 

40, 803 
6,830 
8,064 

13, 362 
2,211 
6,317 

43, 136 

27, 338 
134, 253 

6,101 

8, 206 

347 



340, 
144, 
329, 
169, 
132, 
86, 
91, 
158, 
B. 
10, 
57, 
56, 



334,884 



85, 205 
60,425 
40,461 
20,278 
43,267 
60,027 



2,197 
23, 004 

269, 664 



12, 702 
4,862 

41, 165 
4,169 
2,963 

13, 765 
8,281 
4,195 

38,870 

24, 127 
119, 575 



13, 713 
77, 826 
15, 261 
57, 329 
22,228 
31, 171 
18, 624 
34, 345 
7,438 

986,364 



234, 775 
105, 238 
189, 978 
113, 326 
80, 848 
37, 369 
65,624 
103, 230 

2 5,371 

17, 944 
32, 661 



58, 375 
34, 036 
20, 512 
12, 585 
29, 209 
29,060 



10, 818 
130, 176 



2,809 
1,300 

17, 791 
2,686 
2,584 
7,377 
6,132 
1,592 
4,693 
9,903 

73, 310 



Mining and quarrying.^ 



688,470 



199, 742 



1,013 

588 

2,222 

2,028 

180 

954 

6,614 

2,770 

184, 373 

40, 492 



265 
5,282 
41 
7,504 
21,478 
1,239 
1,618 
1,816 
1,259 

165, 663 



1890 



387,248 



387,248 



142, 155 



1,346 

631 

2,201 

2,126 

194 

1,763 

7,917 

2,691 

123, 386 

23,373 



106 

4,899 

36 

4,719 

9,862 

962 

982 
1,466 

341 

116,442 



1880 



249, 397 



249, 397 



88,419 



1,158 
274 
1,657 
1,278 
219 
1,506 
4,434 
4,137 
73, 756 

10, 779 



34, 209 
13,018 
39, 142 
23, 440 

3,024 

6,666 

11, 613 

21,877 

124 

2,619 
230 

9,901 

49, 204 



9,471 

11,082 

18,247 

21 

51 

3,304 

4,266 

84 

2,678 

125, 660 



17,387 
4,083 

29, 957 
4,172 
7,947 
7,028 
2,741 
7,318 

12, 595 
5,641 

26, 891 

7,656 
36 
17 



27,846 
8,026 

24, 197 

19,255 
3.646 
2,757 
8,116 

14, 116 

50 

2,306 

323 

6,804 

21, 961 



5,641 
6,716 
8,409 
7 
75 
1,271 



16 
826 



83, 317 



10, 662 
3,099 

20, 961 
2,996 
3,685 
3,762 
4,847 
5,205 
3,247 
2,373 

22,580 



122 

3,853 

22 

1,449 

3,778 

867 

141 

518 

29 

48,506 



6,013 
4,118 
13, 982 
7,074 
1,263 
119 
3,777 
4,998 

2 3,572 

147 
3,443 

5,410 



2,709 

1,394 

1,110 

3 

12 

117 



65 
96,283 



4,814 
328 

29, 041 
1,607 
4,678 
2,634 
6,647 
4,708 
985 
3,704 

37, 237 



Pishing. 



1900 



74, 673 



68, 940 



21, 320 



4,166 

113 

21 

6,389 

726 

1,041 

3,637 

4,769 

659 

26,445 



1890 



60,162 



24,330 



444 

9,524 

36 

9,275 

27 

3,080 

571 

675 

1,814 

7,990 



993 

326 

1,658 

1,731 

1,247 

638 

616 

617 

8 

23 

109 

126 

6,129 



503 

619 

612 

700 

2,632 

712 

41 

6 

404 

8,056 



22 

60 

11 

3,225 

2,756 

1,969 

4,563 

1,069 

1 



172 

43 

9,254 

782 
1,317 
4,674 
3,695 

827 

21,931 



1880 



41, 362 



41, 362 



19,643 



409 

9,196 

98 

7,699 

61 

2,686 

507 

394 

991 

5,618 



944 

314 

769 

1,621 

794 

374 

217 

348 

19 

28 

81 

119 

3,649 



253 
335 
397 
384 
,564 
431 



1 

184 



4,734 



11 

10 

13 

11 

1 

23 

26 

13 

1,202 

1,478 

1,946 



4,244 

226 

16 

6,103 

879 

1,260 

3,788 

2,529 

598 

9,793 



180 

3,560 

80 

3,626 

8 

1,382 

479 

170 



367 
162 
428 
,398 
402 
74 
108 
187 

»4 

41 
65 



175 
199 
296 
190 
726 
140 



104 
6,860 



14 

12 

6 

613 

1,192 

1,010 



Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits proper. 



1900 



5,136,808 



5, 124, 490 



2,409,284 



63, 680 

63, 334 

27, 861 

405, 693 

70,476 

134, 726 

779, 196 

236, 768 

637, 661 

439, 666 



1890 



4, 203, 769 



2,012,984 



60,S19 

49, 965 

26,174 

346,694 

66, 074 

112, 552 

653, 210 

183, 212 

526,294 

336,443 



1880 



2,863,087 



2, 863, 087 



1,479,845 



18, 202 
88,920 
21, 064 
77, 013 
41, 218 
62,726 
40, 494 
64, 420 
26,610 



365,764 

163, 377 

364, 539 

167,844 

142,661 

93,266 

91,389 

160, 065 

8,124 

9,891 

40, 608 

51,850 

361,970 



77, 092 
58,097 
50, 097 
25,167 
42,796 
66,747 
6,802 
7,697 
29, 476 

264, 302 



17, 270 
6,033 

36, 934 
4,610 
6,084 

10, 936 
1,908 
6,637 

39, 633 

23, 764 
113, 603 

4,586 

7,391 

311 



16,862 
80, 248 
19,030 
66, 374 
28,647 
38, 369 
23, 206 
48, 674 
16,233 

1,334,467 



283,552 
122, 670 
276, 385 
144, 976 
112,002 
74,879 
75, 710 
133, 665 
4,213 
9, 2.57 
49,289 
47, 870 

281, 456 



69, 226 
61, 764 
33, 800 
16, 977 
33, 733 
53, 121 



2,049 
20, 787 



239,419 



11, 775 
4,542 

37, 138 
3,569 
2,646 

12, 008 
2,900 
3,809 

36,467 

21, 687 
102, 878 



49,090 

39,448 

20,469 

263,902 

44,761 

86, 936 

480, 733 

124, 164 

371, 342 

231,666 



11,861 
63, 134 
12, 605 
48,880 
20,781 
26,642 
14, 823 
27, 141 
6,809 

862,660 



202,903 
93,834 
161, 984 
100,713 
70,313 
33, 094 
57,188 
91,703 

2 5,060 

16,221 
29, 637 

170,947 



60,694 
30,403 
16, 989 
10, 796 
24, 997 
26, 957 



10, 112 
117, 979 



2,733 
1,226 

16,833 
2,349 
2,482 
6,666 
5,779 
1,528 
4,535 
9,218 

64, 730 



1 Includes in 1900 officials of mining and quarrying companies, not separately returned in 1880 and 1890. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



ci 



OF OCCUPATIONS INCLUDED UNDER THE MAIN CLASS OF MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS, BY 
1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



MALES— continued. 


FEMALES. 




Mining and quarrying.i 


Fishing. 


Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits proper. 


Mining and quarrying.i 


Fishing. 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 




587,374 


386, 872 


249, 318 


72,768 


59, 899 


41,287 


1,312,453 


1,027,289 


630, 890 


1,096 


376 


79 


1,805 


263 


65 


1 


679,673 


386,872 


249,318 


68,478 


69,899 


41,287 


1,311,118 


1,027,289 


630, 890 


1,088 


376 


79 




462 


263 


66 


2 


199,240 


141, 998 


88,408 


21,240 


24,313 


19, 614 


738,280 


608,651 


425,062 


502 


167 


11 


80 


17 


29 


3 


1,013 

686 

2,222 

2,025 

179 

963 

6,594 

2,766 

183,902 

40,387 


1,346 

630 

2,201 

2,126 

194 

1,762 

7,909 

2,690 

123, 240 

23,356 


1,158 
272 
1,657 
1,278 
219 
1,606 
4,434 
4,187 
73,747 

10,764 


4,150 

113 

21 

6,345 

723 

1,040 

3,628 

4,761 

569 

25, 292 


3,664 

172 

43 

9,247 

782 

1,317 

4,669 

8,694 

826 

21,781 


4,243 

226 

16 

6,101 

879 

1,253 

8,769 

2,629 

598 

9,778 


19,173 
21,910 
6,076 

162, 666 
29, 781 
40,093 

246, 211 
62,114 

160,266 

121,890 


20,617 

22,219 

5,100 

136,886 
26,709 
35,806 

193, 793 
46,223 

121, 299 

86,056 


16,758 
17,335 
3,628 
97,962 
20,076 
26,865 
136, 769 
28,894 
76,775 

46,269 








16 


2 


1 


4 


2 


1 


2 


5 








6 


3 

1 
1 
20 
4 
471 

105 






44 
2 
1 
9 

S 


7 


2 


7 






8 


1. 

8 

1 

146 

17 






7 
19 


9 




5 

1 
2 

150 


10 




11 


9 
16 




12 


153 


15 


13 


252 
5,278 
41 
7,475 
21,427 
1,232 
1,608 
1,816 
1,258 

165,471 


106 

4,897 

36 

4,716 

9,854 

960 

982 
1,464 

341 

116,343 


122 

3,853 

22 

1,449 

3,778 

852 

141 

618 

29 

48,474 


439 

9,486 

34 

9,220 

27 

3,052 

567 

662 

1,806 

7,869 


408 

9,179 

98 

7,640 

51 

2,642 

501 

379 

983 

6,610 


179 

3,662 

80 

3,624 

8 

1,382 

479 

169 

305 

3,223 


3,805 
29,150 

5,464 
16, 429 

5,068 
23,890 
16,048 
18,474 

3,662 

339,933 


2,710 
24,003 

4,880 
14,309 

3,466 
13,414 

8,610 
12, 164 

2,511 

248, 929 


1,862 
14,692 
2,666 
8,449 
1,447 
6,629 
3,801 
7,204 
629 

123,714 


3 

4 






6 
38 

1 
55 


1 
17 


1 
8 


14 


2 




1ft 




16 


29 

61 

7 

10 


3 
8 
2 




59 


1 


17 




18 


15 


28 
4 

13 
9 

121 


44 
6 

15 
8 

8 




19 




20 


2 




1 
4 

3 


21 


1 
192 




22 


99 


32 


23 


34,131 

13,008 

39,126 

23,427 

3,023 

6,661 

11,506 

21,829 

f 124 

1 2,516 

230 

9,891 

49,106 


27,812 
8,025 

24,176 

19,253 
3,646 
2,766 
8,106 

14,094 

60 

2,306 

322 

5,797 

21,946 


6,013 
4,110 
13,977 
7,074 
1,263 
119 
3,776 
4,980 

}• 2 3,572 

147 
3,443 

5,407 


987 

326 

1,664 

1,726 

1,243 

441 

612 

615 

/ 8 

\ 23 

109 

125 

6,075 


944 
314 
757 
1,619 
792 
373 
216 
348 
19 
28 
81 
119 

3,631 


357 
162 
426 
1,398 
402 
73 
108 
187 

} - 
41 
66 

1,823 


72,839 

29,890 

76, 211 

34,266 

29,682 

18,432 

21,286 

35,796 

r 1,463 

I 1,894 

8,168 

10,018 

69,774 


57,332 

21,815 

53, 039 

24,220 

20,808 

12,104 

16.077 

24,649 

829 

1,698 

7,887 

8,571 

53,408 


31,872 
11,404 
27,994 
12,613 
10,535 
4,275 
8,436 
11,527 

} 2 311 

1,723 
3,024 

23,648 


78 

10 

16- 

13 

1 

5 

7 

48 

1 


34 
1 

21 
2 




6 






''i 


8 
6 






'S 


4 
6 
4 
97 
3 
2 
r 


2 
2 
2 
1 

1 


2 


2S 
?7 






'S 


i 

10 
22 




1 


99 


1 

18 

I 


"in 




V 




} { 


1? 


1 4 




{ 






/ 




1 
7 

15 






14 


10 
98 










<!6 


3 


54 


18 


7 


38 


9,464 

U,040 

18,214 

21 

60 

8,300 

4,261 

83 

2,673 

125,469 


5,640 
5,714 
8,400 
7 
76 
1,268 


2,706 

1,394 

1,110 

3 

12 

117 


499 

616 

607 

691 

2,608 

706 

41 

5 

402 

8,002 


252 
335 
891 
384 
1,557 
429 


175 
199 
293 
188 
724 
140 


19,717 

11,382 

9,660 

4,866 

8,938 

10,404 

788 

1,042 

2,977 

41,241 


15, 980 
8,661 
6,661 
3,301 
9,534 
6,906 


7,681 
3,633 
3,523 
1,790 
4,212 
2,103 


7 
42 
33 


1 
2 
9 


3 


4 
3 
5 
9 
24 
6 


1 




17 




Ifl 




6 


3 
2 
2 


19 




40 


1 
4 
5 
1 
6 

191 






7 
2 


41 


3 




■17 






43 


16 
826 

83,229 




1 

182 

4,664 




148 
2,217 

30,245 








1 
2 

64 






44 


65 
96,265 


104 
6,849 


706 
12, 197 






2 
70 




45 


88 


18 


11 


46 


17,363 
4,078 

29,908 
4,163 
7,937 
7,014 
2,734 
7,317 

12,557 
5,534 

26,864 

7,648 
36 
17 


10,658 
3,096 

20,953 
2,995 
3,584 
3,769 
4,805 
6,204 
3,245 
2,370 

22,561 


4,814 
328 

29,030 
1,606 
4,678 
2,634 
6,647 
4,708 
985 
3,704 

37,231 


11 

2 

10 


11 

10 

13 

11 

1 

23 

26 

13 

1,162 

1,473 

1,921 


5 


1,430 

496 

4,869 

1,320 

1,980 

2,426 

303 

680 

3,503 

3,684 

20,660 

515 

814 

6 


92^ 
320 

4,027 
590 
317 

1,757 
381 
386 

2,403 

2,440 
16,697 


76 
74 
958 
336 
102 
811 
353 
64 
158 
685 
8,580 


24 
5 

49 
9 

10 

14 
7 
1 

38 
7 

27 

8 


4 
4 
8 
1 
1 
8 

1 
2 
3 

19 










■17 










48 


6 
3 


11 
1 








44 








50 










51 


22 

60 

11 

3,186 

2,755 

1,965 

3,232 

1,057 

1 


14 

12 

6 

607 

3,189 

3,008 










5? 










61 










M 




39 

1 

14 

1,331 
12 


40 
6 
25 


6 
8 
2 


R'i 




56 


6 


57 

58 






















m 
























60 





























" Dakota territory. 



cu 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXX.— PER CENT WHICH THE NUMBER OF PERSONS OF BOTH SEXES AND OF EACH SEX ENGAGED IN 

MECHANICAL PURSUITS FORMS OF THE TOTAL NUMBER ENGAGED IN 



37 



40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 

47 
48 
49 
60 
51 
62 
63 
54 
55 
66 
57 

58 
59 
60 



STATES AND TEKBIT0BII9. 



United States. 



Continental United States. 
North Atlantic division 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

North Central division . . 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Central division .. 

Kentucky.. 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Western division 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

Alaska 

Hawaii ^ 

Military and naval 



BOTH SEXES. 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits proper. 



22.0 



16.7 



29.9 
42.1 
25.2 
46.2 
52.2 
45.3 
34.2 
39.4 
32.6 

14.1 



30.1 
25.7 
20.9 
14.1 
14.2 
12.1 
9.9 
9.6 
14.5 

20.8 



27.7 
21.5 
24.4 
22.3 
23.5 
17.3 
14.3 
17.5 
8.2 
8.6 
13.0 
12.2 



12.9 
9.5 
7.8 
4.7 
9.7 
7.4 
4.9 
6.6 
6.7 

17.9 



16.3 
12.5 
18.7 
8.9 
15.1 
15.8 
11.2 
10.1 
19.2 
16.1 
20.8 

15.3 
9.1 
0.4 



1890 « 



37.5 



31.5 
43.8 
23.6 
49.1 
53.1 
46.8 
34.8 
40.2 
32.8 

12.9 



28.6 

26.4 

23.7 

14.0 

13.6 

8.8 

6.9 

8.5 

13.0 

20.2 



26.5 
19.4 
24.0 
22.2 
22.8 
18.3 
14.2 
17.3 
7.3 
9.4 
15.3 
12.1 

8.6 



13.7 
10.2 
6.7 
4.0 
9.9 
8.1 



10.5 
6.0 



20.1 



17.6 
16.8 
21.4 
7.6 
11.1 
20.2 
14.0 
11.9 
23.5 
18.9 
22.0 



1880 



20.1 



20.1 



35.9 



28.4 
39.8 
20.3 
50.2 
65.4 
46.8 
32.8 



10.4 



25.1 

24.0 

22.9 

11.6 

12.6 

6.5 

4.8 

6.8 

8.1 

17.5 



23.6 
16.6 
19.0 
19.9 
19.4 
14.7 
12.6 
14.9 

«9.3 

11.8 
10.1 

6.4 



11.2 
7.6 
4.2 
3.0 
8.1 
6.6 



4.2 
17.2 



12.6 
14.6 
17.5 
6.6 
11.6 
18.4 
19.0 
10.2 
15.6 
14.7 
19.6 



Mining and quarrying.^ 



1900 



2.0 



2.0 



2.3 



0.4 
0.3 
1.6 
0.2 
0.1 
0.3 
0.2 
0.4 
7.6 



0.4 
1.2 
0.1 
1.1 
6.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.6 

1.7 



2.2 
1.6 
2.2 
2.6 
0.4 
1.0 
1.4 
1.9 
0.1 
1.9 
0.1 
2.0 

1.0 



1.2 
1.5 
2.4 



O.S 
3.2 
0.1 
0.5 

7.4 



15.2 
9.2 

13.7 
6.3 

14.9 
8.3 

13.8 

11.7 
5.6 
3.3 
4.2 

23.0 



18992 



1.7 



1.7 



0.5 
0.4 
1.7 
0.2 
0.1 
0.6 
0.3 
0.5 
6.3 



0.2 
1.2 



«. 



0.8 
4.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.2 



2.1 
1.1 
L8 
2.5 
0.6 
0.6 
1.3 
1.6 
0.1 
2.0 
0.1 
1.2 

0.8 



0.9 
1.0 

1.4 



r»] 



0.1 
0.2 



6.2 



14.8 
10.1 
10.9 
5.5 
13.4 
6.5 
20.7 
14.7 
2.0 
1.9 
4.1 



1880 



1.4 



1.4 



1.6 



0.5 
0.2 
1.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.6 
0.2 
1.0 
6.1 



0.2 
1.2 
0.1 
0.3 
2.1 
0.1 






0.6 
0.7 
1.4 
1.2 
0.3 



•d 



0.7 
0.7 

*6.2 

0.1 
1.1 



0.6 
0.3 
0.2 



(') 
12.7 



21.7 
8.7 

28.7 
3.7 

21.0 
6.6 

20.6 

30.2 
3.3 
5.5 



Fishing. 



1900 18902 1880 



0.3 



1.5 
0.1 



W. 



0.6 
0.4 
0.3 
0.1 
0.6 



(=) 



0.6 
2.1 



1. 

m 



0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
0.9 

0.1 



0.1 



('I 



0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



{ i;r 



0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.5 
0.1 
0.1 



m 



i") 
0.3 

(«) 
1.4 
1.6 
0.3 

13.7 
1.2 

m 



1.4 
0.1 



(') 



1.0 
0.6 
0.4 
0.2 
0.6 



m 



0.6 
2.3 
0.1 
1.3 



{») 



0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
0.7 



0.1 



S'l 



0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 



0.1 

\l 
0.1 
0.3 



(») 



0.4 



0.1 



('). 



0.7 
1.2 
0.4 



0.4 



1.8 
0.2 



(') 



0.8 
0.8 
0.5 
0.2 
0.6 



(«) 



0.3 



0.4 
1.1 
0.3 
0.7 



('I 



0.3 
0.1 



('I 



('I 



0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0.1 



m 

s 



0.1 



0.1 



(') 



0.1 
0.1 
0.2 



(») 



m 



m 



(') 



0.1 
0.1 
2.0 
4.7 
0.8 



Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits proper. 



1900 18902 



21.4 



21.6 



35.8 



28.3 
39.0 
24.8 
46.2 
60.4 
45.4 
33.5 
39.2 
31.6 

14.2 



30.3 
24.7 
24.6 
14.4 
14.0 
11.3 
10.4 
10.0 
15.6 

20.2 



27.4 
20.9 
24.2 
21.7 
23.1 
17.0 
13.4 
16.5 
7.9 
8.1 
12.4 
11.6 

8.6 



11.9 
9.5 
8.9 
6.4 

10.6 
7.3 
4.8 
6.3 
7.2 

17.6 



16.5 
12.2 
18.9 

7.5 
13.1 
14.8 
10.7 

9.7 
19.4 
16.7 
20.4 

16.4 
8.8 
0.4 



ilncludes in 1900 ofacials of mining and quarrying companies, not separately returned in 1880 and 1890 
2 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvl. 
' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



36.2 



28.5 
39.1 
23.1 
48.1 
49.6 
45.8 
34.0 
39.9 
31.9 

13.1 



29.1 

26.8 

27.6 

14.1 

13.4 

8.3 

7.1 

9.0 

14.0 

19.6 



25.7 
18.6 
23.6 
21.7 
22.4 
18.3 
13.4 
16.7 



14.9 

n.3 



12.9 
10.2 
7.4 
4.7 
10.5 
8.2 



10.3 



19.7 



17.4 
15.7 
21.4 
7.0 
10.5 
19.7 
13.4 
11.4 
23.7 
18.6 
21.2 



1880 



19.4 



34.1 



24.7 
86.1 
20.0 
48.3 
5L4 
44.6 
3L6 
37.6 
30.0 

10.9 



25.4 
23.8 
26.8 
U.9 
12.6 
6.6 
5.4 
6.1 
9.2 

17.0 



23.0 
16.1 
18.1 
19.6 
19.0 
14.4 
11.8 
14.6 

•9.2 

11.4 



6.9 



10.9 
7.8 
4.6 
3.5 
9.3 
5.8 



4.4 
16.6 



12.6 
14.6 
17.4 
6.1 
11.4 
17.7 
18.8 
10.0 
15.6 
14.3 
18.6 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cm 



EACH OF THREE SUBCLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS INCLUDED UNDER THE MAIN CLASS OF MANUFACTURING AND 
GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



MALES — continued. 



Mining and quarrying.i 



2.5 



3.0 



0.5 
0.4 
2.0 
0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.5 
9.1 

1.3 



('). 



0.4 
1.5 

\.4 
7.3 
0.2 
0.4 
0.3 
0.8 

2.0 



2.6 
1.7 
2.6 
3.1 
0.5 
1.2 
1.7 
2.3 
0.1 
2.1 
0.1 
2.2 



1.6 
1.8 
3.2 



0.4 
3.5 
0.1 
0.7 

8.3 



16.5 
9.9 

15.7 
7.0 

17.0 
9.8 

15.3 

12.6 
6.1 
3.7 
4.8 

25.8 



1890 2 



0.7 
0.4 
2.0 
0.3 
0.2 
0.7 
0.4 
0.6 
7.6 



0.2 
1.6 
0.1 
1.0 
4.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.3 

1.7 



2.5 
1.2 
2.1 
2.9 
0.7 
0.7 
1.4 
1.8 
0.1 
2.2 
0.1 
1.4 

0.7 



1880 



1.1 
1.1 
1.9 



0.1 
0.2 



15.8 

10.7 

12.1 

6.9 

14.3 

6.1 

22.3 

15.5 

2.1 

2.0 

4.7 



0.6 
0.8 
1.6 
0.2 
0.2 
0.8 
0.3 
1.2 
6.0 

0.5 



0.2 
1.3 
0.1 
0.3 
2.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 

0.9 



0.7 
0.7 
1.6 
1.4 
0.3 
0.1 
0.8 
0.8 

*6.5 

0.1 
1.2 

,0.2 



Fishing. 



1900 



0.6 
0.4 
0.3 



13.6 



22.1 
3.9 

30.1 
3.9 

21.4 
7.1 

21.6 

30.8 
3.4 
6.7 

10.7 



O.S 



0.3 



0.3 



(»). 



1.8 
0.1 

'0.7 
0.5 
0.3 
0.2 
0.8 
0.1 

0.8 



m. 

C) 



0.8 
2.6 



0.5 
0.1 
0.1 
1.1 

0.1 



C). 



0.1 

'o.i 

0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.6 
0.1 



0.5 



18903 i$go 






1.6 
1.8 
0.4 

10.9 
1.3 



m 



0.3 



0.3 



0.4 



1.7 
0.1 
0.1 
1.3 
0.7 
0.6 
0.2 
0.8 



C=) 



0.7 
3.0 
0.1 
1.7 



m 



0.6 
0.2 



(') 



0.9 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 



0.3 



0.5 



C). 



2.2 
0.2 



m 



0.6 



0.4 
1.3 
0.2 
0.9 



m 



0.4 
0.2 



m 



0.4 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



} m 



C'l 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.6 
0.1 



(=) 



0.1 
0.4 



('I 



0.7 
1.3 
0.4 



Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical puiBuits proper. 



24.6 



24.7 



40.1 



52.5 
26.7 
46.4 
57.2 
45.2 
36.6 
40.2 
37.1 

13.5 



0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 



0.1 
1.0 



m 



(?) 



0.1 



('I 



2.1 
4.9 
0.8 



29.3 

29.5 

13.3 

13.1 

16.3 

14.9 

8.9 

8.5 

9.5 

24.3 



29.6 
25.6 
25.9 
26.6 
25.5 
19.0 
19.9 
23.2 
10.4 
12.1 
17.5 
18.1 

7.2 



18.7 
9.8 
4.9 
2.7 
6.8 
7.4 
6.5 

10.2 
3.8 

20.8 



18902 



26.7 



42.6 



45.8 
60.3 
25.5 
52.0 
62.5 
60.1 
37.7 
41.5 
37.4 

12.0 



26.0 
28.3 
15.2 
13.3 
16.7 
10.7 
6.2 
7.1 



24.6 



31.2 
25.7 
26.5 
25.2 
25.6 
18.4 
20.0 
21.8 
10.5 
13.8 
18.4 
18.8 

7.5 



19.0 
10.2 
4.6 
2.4 
8.2 
7.2 



14.6 
16.6 
17.4 
20.9 
29.2 
22.6 
15.2 
15.1 
16.8 
19.5 
23.5 

14.2 
13.3 

4.2 



14.0 
4.0 



24.3 



1880 



23.8 



23.8 



43.5 



60.0 
67.5 
22.4 
66.2 
67.2 
56.2 
38.0 
43.3 
36.4 



23.5 

25.0 

13.5 

10.2 

12,6 

6.4 

3.2 

4.7 

3.6 

23.0 



28.3 
22,2 
26.4 
22.9 
22.7 
17.0 
18.8 
18.3 

410.9 

16.6 
15.6 

4.5 



14.1 
6.4 
2.8 
1.6 
4.4 
3.6 



Mining and quarrying.i 



1900 



(') 



« 



m 



m 



d 






20.0 
16.9 
21.0 
15.0 
20.2 
24.8 
20.9 
20.4 
21.6 
22,6 
27.6 



2.3 

27.0 



16.0 
15.9 
20.1 
14.9 
21.7 
28.1 
23.5 
22.0 
14.8 
24.7 
30.6 



C^) 






18902 



(») 



m 



{') 



c) 



m 



m 









1880 



(') 



m 



m 



m 






C) 



m 



m 



(') 



m 



0.2 
0.2 
0,2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.3 



(') 



0.2 



0.2 



0.1 
0,2 
0.1 



m 



0,1 
0,1 
2.3 



Fishing. 



1900 



0.1 



m 



(?) 



0.1 



m 



(.') 



(=) 



(») 



(=) 



(") 



18902 



(') 



(?) 



36.7 
0.2 



m 



C) 



{') 



C) 
"(')" 



m 



{') 



C) 



1880 



(») 



{') 



P) 






P) 



(.') 



{") 



0.4 
0.1 



C=) 



* Dakota territory. 



5 Dakota territory; less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



P) 



I'J 



m 



(') 



(') 



(') 



m 



(=) 



} I 



0.6 
0.1 



(.') 



CIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



DISTRIBUTION BT GENERAL NATIVITT AND COLOR. 

Table xxxi presents, for continental United States, 
a distribution, by general nativity and color, for both 



sexes and for each sex separately, of the persons en- 
gaged in each of the five main classes of occupations in 
1900. 



Table XXXI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN EACH MAIN CLASS 
OF OCCUPATIONS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX SEPARATELY: 1900. 



SEX, GENERAL NATITITY, AND COLOR. 



Both sexes 

Native white — native parents 
Native white— foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese 

Japanese 

Indian 

Males 

Native wliite — native parents 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Cliinese 

Japanese 

Indian 

Females 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents. 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese 

.Japanese 

Indian 



AGRICnLTURAL PUR- 
SUITS. 



Number. Per cent. 



6,004,039 

1, 100, 608 

1,074,211 

2,143,154 

11, 935 

5,358 

42,460 

'in, /.-■ 

9, 404, 429 



5,685,429 
1, 071, 210 
1, 032, 484 
1, 561, 153 

11, 913 
5,345 

36, 895 

977,336 



318, 610 

29,398 

41, 727 

682,001 

22 

13 

5,565 



100.0 



57.8 
10.6 
10,4 
20.6 

0.2 

0.4 

100.0 



60.4 
11.4 
11.0 
16.6 

0.2 

0.4 

100.0 



32.6 
3.0 
4.3 

59.5 

(') 
0.6 



PROFESSIONAL SERVICE, 



1,258,538 



806, 288 

259, 434 

143, 896 

47, 219 

618 

137 

946 

827, 941 



530, 570 

146, 357 

117, 973 

31,625 

614 

132 

670 

430, 597 



276, 718 

113, 077 

26,923 

16, 594 

, 4 

6 

276 



64.1 

20.6 

11.4 

3.7 

0.1 

0.1 



64.1 
17.7 
14.2 
3.8 
0.1 
0.1 

100.0 



64.0 
26.3 
6.0 
3.6 

(>) 
0.1 



DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 



Number. 



6,680,657 



1,841,853 

913, 645 

1,435,407 

1,317,859 

50, 662 

9,266 

11, 965 

3,485,208 



1,268,045 
564,424 
967, 838 
635, 933 
60,366 
9,068 
9,544 

2, 095, 449 



583,808 

369, 221 

467, 669 

681,926 

296 

208 

2,421 



Per cent. 



100.0 



33.0 
16.4 
28.7 
23.6 

1.1 

0.2 

100.0 



36.1 
15.9 
27.8 
18.2 

1.7 

0.3 

100,0 



27.9 
17.1 
22.3 
32.6 

0.1 



TRADE AND TRANSPOR- 
TATION. 



Number. Per cent. 



4, 766, 964 



2, 400, 018 

1,225,3,51 

915, 151 

208, 989 

9,103 

6,820 

1,532 

4, 263, 617 



2, 168, 869 

1, 020, 607 

852. 035 

204,852 

9,074 

6,811 

1,469 

503, 347 



231, 149 

204,844 

63, 116 

4,137 

29 

9 I 

63 



100.0 



60.4 
25.7 
19.2 
4.4 

0.3 

(■) 
100.0 



50.9 
23.9 
20.0 
4.8 

0.4 
100.0 



45.9 
40.7 
12.6 
0.8 

(') 
0) 



MANUFACTURINS AND 
MECHANICAL PUESCITS. 



Number. Per cent, 



7, 085, 309 



2, 823, 131 

1, 801, 886 

2, 168, 153 

275, 116 

9,967 

1,026 

6,031 

6, 772, 641 



2, 305, 779 

1,324,889 

1, 886, 769 

241, 934 

9,636 

994 

2,640 

1, 312, 668 



517, 352 

476, 997 

281, 384 

33, 182 

331 

31 

3,391 



100.0 



39.8 
25.4 
30.6 
3.9 

0.2 

0.1 

100.0 



23.0 
32.7 
4.2 



100.0 



} C' 



39.4 
36.4 
21.4 
2.5 



0.3 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Of the total number of persons engaged in each class 
of occupations in continental United States in 1900, the 
native white of native parents formed a larger propor- 
tion than any other element. This element constituted 
more than one-half (57.8 per cent) of all persons en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, as compared with about 
one-fifth — the proportion next in rank — for negroes; 
thus these two elements together constituted more 
than three-fourths of the total. Among those engaged 
in professional service, the same element constituted 
an even larger proportion — very nearly two-thirds 
(64.1 per cent), as compared with one-fifth for native 
white of foreign parents, the element next in impor- 
tance. Of all persons engaged in trade and transporta- 
tion the native white of native parents constituted fully 
one-half (60.4 per cent), as compared with a little more 
than one-fourth for native white of foreign parents 
and not quite one-fifth for foreign white. In the two 
remaining classes the proportions of the principal 
elements were more evenly divided, but for each, as 
above stated, the native white of native parents had 
the largest proportion— 39.8 per cent in manufacturing 
and mechanical pursuits and 33 per cent in domestic 
and personal service. 

Comparing the per cent distribution shown for the 



sexes, the most noticeable differences result from the 
relatively greater prominence among female workers 
of the negro element in agricultural pursuits and in 
domestic and personal service, and of the native 
white of foreign parents in trade and transportation 
and in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. The 
first named element constituted in 1900 substantially 
three-fifths (59.5 per cent) of all females engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and very nearly one-third (32.6 
per cent) of all those in domestic and personal service; 
the latter element constituted over two-fifths (40.7 per 
cent) of all females in trade and transportation and 
considerably more than one-third (36.4 per cent) of all 
those engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits, nearly equaling, in each case, the proportion of 
native white females of native parents in the same class. 
The presentation by general nativity and color, given 
in Table xxxn, relates only to the four principal ele- 
ments, namely, native white of native parents, native 
white of foreign parents, foreign white, and negro. 
In this table the total number of gainful workers of 
each element in continental United States in 1900, for 
both sexes and for each sex separately, are distributed 
by main classes of occupations and compared with a 
per cent distribution for 1890. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cv 



Table XXXII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY MAIN CIASSES OF OCCUPATIONS, OF GAINFUL WORKERS IN EACH PRINCIPAL 
ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION IN 1900, WITH PER CENT DISTRIBUTION FOR 1890, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR 
EACH SEX SEPARATELY. 



BEX AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Both sexes. 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 

Mal^s. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Females. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 



NATIVE WHITE— NATIVE 
PARENTS. 



1900 



Number. 



13, 875, 329 



6, 004, 0S9 
806,288 
1,841,853 
2,400,018 
2,823,131 



11, 948, 692 



5, 686, 429 
530, 570 
1,258,045 
2,168,869 
2, 305, 779 



318, 610 
275, 718 
583,808 
231, 149 
517, 352 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



43.3 
5.8 
13.3 
17.3 
20.3 



100.0 



47.6 
i.'i 
10.5 
18.2 
19.3 



100.0 



16.5 
14.3 
30.3 
12.0 
26.9 



Per 
cent, 
1890.1 



47.0 
■ 6.' 8 
11.4 
15.4 
20.4 



100.0 



51:4 
■ 4.4 
8.4 
16.5 
19.3 



100.0 



15.9 
15.4 
32.8 
7.4 
28.5 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN 
PARENTS. 



1000 



Number. 



5,300,924 



1, 100, 608 

259, 434 

913, 645 

1, 225, 351 

1,801,886 



4, 117, 387 



1, 071, 210 

146, 367 

554, 424 

1, 020, 507 

1,324,889 



29, 398 
113, 077 
359, 221 
204, 844 
476, 997 



Per 
cent. 



20.8 
4.'9 
17.2 
23.1 
34.0 



100.0 



26.0 
3.5 
13.5 
24.8 
32.2 



2.5 
9.6 
80.3 
17.3 
40.3 



Per 
cent, 
1890.1 



21.5 
4.3 
16.5 
20.5 
37.2 



100.0 



27.1 
S.O 
12.3 
23.3 
34.3 



11.1 
47.6 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



1900 



Number. 



5, 736, 818 



1,074,211 
143, 896 

1,436,407 
916,151 

2,168,163 



4,857,099 



1, 032, 484 
117, 973 
967,838 
852, 035 

1,886,769 



879,719 



41, 727 
25,923 

467, 569 
63,116 

281,384 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



18.7 
2.5 
25.0 
16.0 
37.8 



100.0 



21.3 
2."4 
19.9 
17.5 



100.0 



4.7 
2.9 

53.2 
7.2 

32.0 



Per 
cent, 
1890.1 



22.0 
2.2 
26.1 
13.9 
35.8 



100. 



26.1 
2.2 
20.1 
16.6 
37.0 



100.0 



4.4 
2.5 

59.3 
4.5 

29.3 



1000 



Number. 



3, 992, 337 



2, 143, 154 
47, 219 

1, 317, 869 
208, 989 
275, 116 



1, 561, 153 
31, 625 

635. 933 
204, 852 

241. 934 



1,316,840 



582, 001 
16, 594 

681, 926 
4,137 
33,182 



Per 
cent. 



53.7 
1.2 

33.0 
5.2 
6.9 



100.0 



68.8 
1.2 

23.8 
7.7 
9.0 



100.0 



44.2 
1.2 

51.8 
0.3 
2.5 



Per 
cent, 
1890.1 



100.0 



69.6 
1.0 

28.7 
4.4 



100.0 



64.9 
1.1 

19.7 
6.3 
8.0 



100.0 



48.0 
0.8 

48.4 
0.2 
2.6 



1 Based upon corrected flgnres; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



From this table it is evident that the native white 
of native parents and the negroes were engaged in 
agricultural pursuits in 1900 to a greater extent than 
in any other class of occupations, the proportions being 
43.3 per cent and 53.7 per cent, respectively. The 
large proportion of all gainful workers in this class 
of occupations is due to the high percentages for these 
two elements. For white persons of foreign birth or 
foreign parentage the proportion of all gainful workers 
engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits was 
larger than that in any other class of occupations, being 
34 per cent for native white of foreign parents and 37.8 
per cent for foreign white. 

Comparing the sexes in respect to this distribution 
of the gainful workers by main classes of occupations, a 
noticeable contrast appears in the proportions shown 
for domestic and personal service. This class of occu- 
pations comprised in 1900 fully three-tenths of all the 
native white females of either parentage engaged in 
gainful occupations and more than one-half of the for- 



eign white and of the negro, while the proportion of 
male workers found in this occupational class ranged 
from about one-tenth for native white of native parents 
to somewhat more than two-tenths for negroes. The 
largest proportion of the native white females of for- 
eign parentage in 1900 were engaged in manufacturing 
and mechanical pursuits, but for the other two white 
elements this class was second in importance to that of 
domestic and personal service. In each of the two 
native white elements the proportion of female workers 
in the manufacturing and mechanical class exceeded 
that of male workers, but for the foreign white ele- 
ment the proportion of male workers was the larger. 
It is noticeable that for the native white of native 
parents the proportion of females engaged in profes- 
sional pursuits is much larger than that of males — 
a difference caused by the greater extent to which 
women are engaged in the occupation of teaching. 
The difference is less marked in the other elements of 
the population. 



CVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The great majority of negroes of both sexes at work 
in 1900 were found in two of the five main classes of 
occupations, namely, agricultural pursuits and domes- 
tic and personal service, the percentages for these two 
classes combined being 82.1 for negro males and 96 
for negro females. The negro element was the only 
one in which the proportion of females engaged in 
agricultural pursuits was large (44.2 per cent) and 
not very far below that for males (58.3 per cent). A 
considerable proportion, however, of the native white 
females of native parents (16.5 per cent) were also 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, more than half being 
farmers, while of the negro women in this branch of 
occupations seven-eighths were agricultural laborers. 

Each element showed a decreased proportion of its 
total number of gainful workers engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits in 1900 as compared with 1890, the de- 
crease being considerably more than 5 in the percentage 
for the negro element and over 3 in the percentages for 
the native white of native parents and the foreign white. 
These decreases in the proportions for the agricultural 
class were offset by increased proportions for all other 
classes with the following exceptions: The proportion 
of native white of native parents engaged in profes- 
sional pursuits remained unchanged; the proportion of 
each of the native white elements engaged in manufac- 



turing and mechanical pursuits and the proportion of 
foreign white in domestic and personal service decreased, 
influenced largely by the decreases in the proportion of 
females engaged in these classes of occupations. 

The proportion which the number of gainful workers 
for each of the principal elements in continental United 
States in 1900 formed of the total number of persons 
engaged in gainful occupations (see Table xviii) and 
for each principal element the relative proportion in each 
main class of occupations (see Table xxxn) are presented 
in combination in the square diagram on Plate 5. The 
total area of the square, representing the total number 
of persons gainfully occupied, is divided by heavy 
horizontal lines into rectangles indicating the relative 
importance of the principal elements, the negro, Chi- 
nese, Japanese, and Indian elements being combined 
and presented as colored. Each rectangle is divided by 
vertical lines into sections indicating, for the element 
represented, the relative importance of the five main 
classes of occupations, each class being given a distinc- 
tive color. Each main class is in turn divided by light 
horizontal lines into small rectangles or sections rep- 
resenting a further subdivision of gainful workers into 
specified occupation groups. These small rectangles 
are numbered serially, and a separate index is given 
for each class of occupations below the diagram. 



NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF PERSONS IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 



DISTRIBUTION BY SEX. 

In Table xxxm the persons of each sex engaged in 
gainful occupations in 1890 and 1900, for continental 
United States, are further distributed by occupation 
groups. The table specifies the principal occupation 
groups for each sex, giving the number in each group 



and the per cent of the total number. In this and 
succeeding tables in this section the principal occupa- 
tion groups, or combinations thereof, are alphabetically 
arranged under each of the five main classes of occupa- 
tions, thus disregarding the grouping by industry heads 
given for the manufacturing and mechanical class in 
the general tables. 



Table XXXIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 

1890 AND 1900. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



MALES. 

All occupations . 
Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
Lumbermen, wood choppers, etc. 
All others in this class 



Professional service. 



Clergymen 

Lawj^ers 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service. 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Laborers (not specified) 

Restaurant and saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc. 
All others in this class 



23,753,836 



9,404,429 



3,747,668 

5, 367, 169 

107,882 

181, 710 

827,941 


15.8 
22.6 
0.4 
0.8 

3.5 



108,265 
113,450 
124,615 
118,519 
363, 092 

3,485,208 



125,642 
2, 605, 287 
110,659 
276, 958 
129, 711 
337, 061 



Per 
cent. 



0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.6 
1.6 

14.7 



0.5 
10.6 
0.6 
1.2 
0.5 
1.4 



Number. 



19, 312, 661 



8, 378, 603 



3,048,518 

6, 065, 130 

99, 603 

175, 462 

632, 646 



87, 060 

89, 422 

100, 248 

101, 278 

254, 638 

2, 653, 161 



82, 167 

1,868,568 

86, 977 

238, 162 

- 74, 350 

213, 967 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



43.4 



15.8 
26.2 
0.5 
0.9 

3.3 



0.5 
0.6 
0.5 
0.6 
1.3 

13.2 



0.4 
9.6 
0.5 
1.2 
0.4 
1.1 



SEX AND OCCDPATION3. 



MALES— Continued. 
Trade and transportation. 



Agents 

Bankers, brokers, officials of banks, etc . 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc_ _ _ 
Merchants anddealer8(exoeptwhoIesale) 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad em 
All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 



Blacksmiths 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Butchers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cotton mill operatives 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 
Iron and steel workers (not otherwise 
specifled).2 

Machinists 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 



leoo 



Number. 



4, 263, 617 



230, 606 
145, 786 
180, 727 
544, 881 
638, 029 
766, 802 
461, 909 
680, 462 
824,416 

5, 772, 641 



226, 284 
169, 893 
112,815 
599, 707 
126, 788 
223, 818 
890, 281 



282,674 1.2 
239,649 1.0 



Per 
cent. 



17.9 



1.0 
0.6 
0.7 
2.3 
2.3 
3.2 
1.9 
2.4 
8.5 



1.0 
0.7 
0.5 
2.5 
0.5 
0.9 
1,6 



18901 



Number. 



3,097,701 



169,707 
76,141 
131 , 602 
493, 139 
368, 265 
634, 884 
205, 943 
460, 771 
658, 249 

4, 660, 540 



209, 521 
180, 871 
105, 339 
618, 014 
80, 177 
139, 718 
289, 302 

186, 077 
163, 468 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

^Includes iron and steel workers, steam boiler makers, stove, furnace, and grate makers, tool and cutlery makers, wheelwrights, and wireworkers. 



Per 
cent. 



16.0 



0.9 
0.4 
0.7 
2.6 
1.9 
S.3 
1.0 
2.4 
2.9 

24.1 



1.1 
0.9 
0.6 
8.2 
0.4 
0.7 
1.5 

1.0 
0.8 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



evil 



Table XXXIII.— DISTEIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OP FEMALES GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 

1890 AND 1900— Continued. 



8KX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



MALES— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits— Continued. 



Masons (briolc and stone) 

Metal workers (not otherwise specilied) «. 

Miners and quarrymen 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen... 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Tailors 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 

specified).' 
Woodworkers (not otherwise specified) *. 
All others In this class 



FEMALES. 
All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Earmers, planters, and overseers . 
All others in this class 



Professional service 

Musicians and teachers of music 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service. . 
Boarding and lodging house keepers . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 



1900 



Number. 



160, 6S8 
187, 919 
662, 417 
275, 782 
139, 166 
161, 251 
160,714 
141,027 

177, 430 
1,436,488 



977, 336 



663, 209 

307, 706 

6,421 

430, 597 



52,359 

327, 614 

50, 624 

2,095,449 



59, 455 
146,929 
123,975 



Per 
cent. 



0.7 
0.8 
2.4 
1.2 
0.6 
0.7 
0.7 
0.6 

0.7 
6.0 



18.4 



12.5 
5.8 
0.1 

8.1 



1.0 
6.2 
0.9 



1.1 
2.8 
2.3 



18901 



Number. 



160,804 
146, 572 
886, 872 
220, 960 
110,848 
188,386 
128, 516 
143,782 

176,882 
1,080,301 



4,005,532 



769,845 



538,065 

226,427 

5,353 

311, 687 



84, 519 

246, 066 

31,102 

1,667,651 



32,593 
86, 089 
54,815 



Per 
cent. 



0.8 
0.8 
2.0 
1.1 
0.6 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 

0.9 
5.6 



100.0 



13.4 
5.7 
0.1 



0.9 
6.1 
0.8 



0.8 
2.1 
1.4 



SEX AND OCCnPATIONS. 



FEMALES— Continued. 

Domestic and personal service- 
Continued. 

Laundresses '. 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

AUothers'in this class 



Trade and transportation 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Merchants and aeaiers(except wholesale) 

Saleswomen 

Stenographers and typewriters 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 



Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Cotton mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Milliners 

Printers and bookbinders. . -^ 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cufl makers 

Silk mill operatives 

Tailoresses 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 
specified). 5 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 



1900 



Number. 



335,282 

108,691 

1,283,763 

37,354 

503,347 



74,153 
85,246 
34,084 
149, 230 
86, 118 
74, 516 

1, 312, 668 



39, 610 

120, 603 

844,794 

34, 490 

86, 120 

31, 613 

146, 105 

30, 941 

32, 437 

68, 935 

60, 183 

43,497 
30, 630 
242,810 



Per 
cent. 



6.3 
2.1 
24.1 
0.7 

9.4 



1.4 
1.6 
0.6 
2.8 
1.6 
1.4 

24.7 



0.7 
2.3 
6.5 
0.7 
1.6 
0.6 
2.7 
0.6 
0.6 
1.3 
1.1 

0.8 
0.6 
4.6 



1890' 



Number. 



216,631 

41, 396 

1,216,639 

19,488 

228,421 



27, 772 
64, 219 
25,355 
58,451 
21,270 
31,354 

1, 027, 928 



33,704 
92, 965 

292, 668 
20, 810 
61, 291 
23, 771 

146, 043 
15, 976 
20, 663 
64, 509 
57, 393 

27, 991 

36,471 

133, 674 



Per 
cent. 



5.4 
1.0 
30.4 
0.5 

5.7 



0.7 
1.6 
0.6 
1.5 
0.5 
0.8 

25.7 



0.9 
2.3 
7.3 
0.5 
1.5 
0.6 
3.7 
0.4 
0.5 
1.6 
1.4 

0.7 
0.9 
3.4 



• Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

• Includes brassworkers, clock and watch makers and repairers, gold and silver workers, tin plate and tinware makers, and " other metal workers.* ' 

• Includes carpet factory operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, silk mill operatives, woolen mUl operatives, and "other textile mill operatives.' 
^Includes cabinetmakers, coopers, and " other woodworkers." 

'Includes carpet factory operatives and " other textile mill operatives." 



According to the figures in Table xxxiii the decrease 
in the proportion of males engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits in 1900, as compared with 1890, appears to be 
mainly confined to farmers, planters, and overseers, no 
change being shown in the proportion of agricultural 
laborers; but, as previously stated (see page Ixxii), 
the enumerators in 1890 returned as farmers a large 
number of persons who should have been returned as 
farm laborers. It is probable, therefore, that the de- 
creased proportion shown for this main class is in reality 
divided between the laborer and proprietor groups of 
farm and plantation workers. For males this is the 
largest decrease in the proportion of any occupation 
group. Some of the smaller groups, however, show 
relative decreases which are more marked in compari- 
son with their size. Farmers and planters have in- 
creased in number, although constituting a decreased 
proportion of the total number of males gainfully em- 
ployed; but some of the smaller groups have not 
increased at all. Of boot and shoe makers and repair- 
ers there were not so many in 1900 as in 1890. As a 
result, the per cent which this group forms of the total 
number of males gainfully employed decreased from 0.9 
to 0.7, a difference of only 0.2, but a greater difference 
proportionately than that shown for farmers and plant- 
ers. The number of carpenters and joiners also dimin- 
ished; so too did the number of masons (brick and stone) 
and of textile mill operatives (not otherwise specified). 

For females a large decrease is shown in the propor- 
tion of servants and waitresses — from 30.4 per cent in 
1890 to 24.1 per cent in 1900. This was partly offset 
by increased proportions for the other principal occu- 



pations included under "domestic and personal serv- 
ice;" but there was, as a result of this large decrease, 
a net loss of 2.2 in the per cent representing the total 
for this class of occupations. The increased proportion 
of female workers in the trade and transportation class — 
9.4 per cent in 1900 as against 5.7 per cent in 1890 — is 
shown to have been due almost wholly to the propor- 
tional increases in the number of bookkeepers and 
accountants, saleswomen, and stenographers and type- 
writers. 

The decrease in the proportion of female workers 
engaged in agricultural pursuits is confined to agri- 
cultural laborers, the proportion of farmers, planters, 
and overseers being slightly larger than it was in 1890. 
Under "manufacturing and mechanical pursuits" there 
are three closely allied occupations — dressmakers, seam- 
stresses, and tailoresses — which showed marked de- 
creases in the proportions which they constituted of the 
total number of females gainfully employed. These 
and some other relative decreases were partially offset 
by relative gains in other occupations in this main class, 
so that there was but a small decrease in the percentage 
for the class as a whole. 

DISTEIBUTION BT GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOE. 

The gainful workers of each sex among the native 
white, foreign white, and negro elements in 1890 and 
1900 are distributed by principal occupation groups, 
for continental United States, in Table xxxiv, while a 
similar distribution of the gainful workers among the 
Chinese, Japanese, and Indian elements in 1900 only is 
made in Table xxxv. 



cviu 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXXIV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES IN EACH PEINCIPAL 
ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 1890 AND 1900. 

MALES. 



GENERAL NATIVITY, COLOR, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 



NATIVE WHITE— NATIVE PAR- 
ENTS. 



All occupations . . . 
Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
Lumbermen, wood choppers, etc . 
All others in this cla.ss 



Professional service. 



Clergymen 

Lawyers 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
All others in this class 

Domestic and personal service . . . 



Laborers (not specified) . 
All others in this class. . . 



Trade and transportation. 



Agents 

Bankers, brokers, ofBcials of banks, etc 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Blacksmiths , 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Carpenters and joiners , 

Cotton mill operatives , 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) . 
Iron and steel workers (not otherwise 
speclfied).2 

Machinists 

Manufacturers and ofi&cials, etc , 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Metal workers(not otherwise specified) s 

Miners and quarrymen 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen-. . 

Saw and planing mill employees , 

Woodworkers (not otherwise specified)*. 
All others in this class 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PAR- 
ENTS. 



All occupations. 



Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
All others in this class 



Professional service. 



Lawyers 

All others in this class . 



Domestic and personal service. 



Barbers and hairdressers . 

Bartenders 

Laborers (not specified) .. 
Saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters . 



Watchmen^ policemen, firemen, etc . 
All others in this class 



Trade and transportation. 



1900 



Number. 



11,948,692 



Agents 

Bankers, brokers, officials of banks, etc 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists , 



5,685,429 



2, 153, 142 

3,394,184 

54,136 

83, 967 

530,670 



56, 365 
85, 718 
92,402 
84,682 
211,403 

1,258,045 



957, 705 
300, 340 



2, 168, 869 



138, 336 
96, 318 
100, 749 
295, 766 
59,235 
229,463 
385,093 
256,548 
284,414 
322, 957 

2, 305, 779 



106, 222 
58,652 

329,209 
58,139 

104,885 

132, 165 

117,492 
126, 796 
68, 869 
64,664 
181,443 
136, 988 
66, 746 
74, 538 
62, 374 
626, 607 



481, 341 
661, 507 
88, 362 

146, 357 



19,781 
126, 676 

654,424 



27, 276 
31, 977 
S66, 961 
24,549 
29, 304 
85, 695 
48, 663 

1,020,507 



48, 857 

25, 179 

53,860 

174, 303 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



47.6 



18.0 

28.4 

0.6 

0.7 

4.4 



0.5 
0.7 
0.8 
0.7 
1.7 

10.6 



8.0 
2.5 



18.2 



1.2 
0.8 
0.8 
2.5 
0.5 
1.9 
3.2 
2.2 
2.4 
2.7 

19.3 



0.9 
0.6 
2.8 
0.5 
0.9 
1.1 

1.0 
1.1 
0.6 
0.5 
1.6 
1.1 
0.6 
0.6 
0.5 
6.2 



100.0 



11.7 
13.4 
0.9 

3.5 



0.5 
3.0 



13.6 



0.6 
0.8 
8.7 
0.6 
0.7 
0.9 
1.2 

24.8 



L2 
0.6 
1.3 
4.2 



18901 



9,788,626 



6, 028, 450 



1,665,001 

3, 340, 291 

46, 949 

76,209 

428, 803 



49,232 
71,972 
79,374 
73, 677 
154,548 

822, 296 



627, 962 
194, 344 

1, 620, 603 



112, 676 
60, 923 
76, 942 
272, 591 
39, 1B8 
166, 307 
351, 462 
117, 697 
221,408 
222, 340 

1, 888, 474 



96,564 
70, 611 
354, 393 
23,356 
68, 836 
96, 018 

79,445 
86,329 
64,687 
53, 840 
111, 060 
110, 924 
55,286 
60, 964 
63, 412 
493, 861 



2,776,510 



763, 498 



296, 667 
424, 786 
32,145 



11,002 
72,095 

342,661 



17, 813 
17, 761 
232, 944 
15, 606 
21, 601 
14, 633 
22, 403 

646,380 



26, 127 

10, 771 

83,060 

143,279 



Per 
cent. 



51.4 



16.0 
34.1 
0.5 
0.8 

4.4 



0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
1.6 

8.4 



6.4 
2.0 



16.6 



1.1 
0.6 
0.8 
2.8 
0.4 
1.6 
3.6 
1.2 
2.2 
2.3 

19.3 



1.0 
0.7 
3.6 
0.2 
0.7 
1.0 

0.8 
0.9 
0.7 
0.6 
1.1 
1.1 
0.6 
0.6 
0.7 
6.0 



100.0 
27.1 



10.7 
15.3 
1.1 



0.4 
2.6 



12.3 



0.6 
0.6 
8.4 
0.6 
0.8 
0.5 
0.8 

23.3 



1.0 
0.4 
1.2 
6.2 



GENERAL NATIVITY, COLOR, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PAR- 
ENTS— Continued. 

Trade and transportation— Cont'd. 

Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Merchantsanddealerb(exceptwholesale) 
Messengers and errand and office boys 

Packers, porters, etc 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Blacksmiths 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Butchers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) . 
Iron and steel workers (not otherwise 
specified) .« 

Machinists 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Metal workers(not otherwise specified)'. 

Miners and quarrymen 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen... 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Tailors 

Textile mill operatives •> 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers (not otherwise specified) *. 
All others in this class > 

FOREIGN WHITE. 



All occupations. 



Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc . 

Lumbermen , wood choppers, etc 

All others in this class 



Professional service. 



Clergymen 

All others in this class - 



Domestic and personal service. 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Laborers (not specified) 

Saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc. 
All others in this class 



Trade and transportation. 



Agents 

Bankers, brokers, officials of banks, etc.. 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Draymen, hackmen, teomsters, etc...." 

Hucksters and peddlers 

Merchantsanddealers(exceptwholesale) 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees ! ! ." ! 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Bakers 

Blacksmiths 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Butchers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cotton mill operatives 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) . 
Iron and steel workers (not otherwise 

specified).! 
Machinists .' 



1900 



Number. 



20, 515 
130, 909 
152, 388 
27, 916 
20, 324 
131, 425 
112, 946 
122, 385 



47, 110 
86, 224 
32, 626 
96, 909 
50, 490 
108, 608 

86, 632 
51,824 
30, 667 
37, 663 
94,913 
68, 178 
44, 368 
49, 151 
20,648 
22,666 
60, 794 
21,365 
22,363 
44,891 
297, 820 



4,85tJI99 



263,294 
712, 829 
22, 012 
24,066 
20, 293 

117, 973 



23,262 
94,721 



967,838 



33,616 
27,608 
703,636 
88,866 
59, 576 
37, 415 
67, 422 

862, 035 



41, 404 
23, 906 
24,888 
26, 112 
68,699 

109, 797 
41, 074 

204, 996 
70, 714 

120, 674 

119, 772 

1,886,769 



42,218 
62, 696 
69, 633 
89, 749 

162, 207 
48,206 
57,699 

136, 882 

78, 166 



Per 
cent. 



0.5 
3.2 
3.7 
0.7 
0.5 
3.2 
2.7 
3.0 

32.2 



1.1 
0.9 
0.8 
2.4 
1.2 
2.6 

2.1 
1.3 
0.7 
0.9 
2.3 
1.7 
1.1 
1.2 
0.6 
0.6 
1.6 
0.6 
0.6 
1.1 
7.2 



21.3 



6.2 
14.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 

2.4 



0.5 
1.9 



19.9 



0.7 
0.6 
14.6 
0.8 
1.2 
0.8 
1.4 

17.5 



0.8 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
1.4 
2.3 
0.8 
4.2 
1.5 
2.5 
2.6 



0.9 
1.3 
1.4 
0.8 
8.1 
1.0 
1.2 
2.8 



18901 



Number. 



10,421 
81,278 
106, 666 
23,236 
9,141 
53,003 
76,561 
72,847 

950,874 



37, 129 
31,680 
27, 139 
81,180 
26, 075 
78, 125 

48, 923 
25,611 
26,648 
26,521 
60,994 
49, 905 
28,551 
36,195 
18, 327 
18,576 
55,904 
17,343 
20, 278 
39,683 
198,188 



4,3^2.844 



263, 185 
743, 161 
31,232 
28,677 
24, 208 

94,490 

18,238 
76, 252 

876, 425 



21,821 
19,888 
664, 614 
37, 264 
66,611 
26, 181 
61,046 

677, 726 



29,723 
13,050 
21, 916 
21,188 
71,428 
87,541 
30,190 

167,641 
34,039 

112, 132 
88,878 

1,609,740 



34,466 
64,786 
72,280 
38,748 

159,682 
39,717 
38,440 

107, 644 

57,' 403 



Per 
cent. 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 
sJ^Mnfl™ h?„™Tnrvi™' ?!^^t®''^'i'^^?'v?°"®,'' makers, stove, furnace, and grate makers, tool and cutlery makers, wheelwrights, and wireworkers. 
JSHnrtfs o«?^Zt-^V!^. n^^ ""^ ™i*°^ T^^'^ '"i^ repairers, gold and silver workers,' tin plate and tliware makers, and " otlier metal workers " 
'includes cabinetmakers, coopers, and "other woodworkers " 

otS^S J™'T?''''f"' "^""^ i?^ '^'^*^J^ makers and repairers, gold and silver workers, and "other metal workers." 
textile mSl operatives " °P^'^*t''>'e8. cotton mill operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, silk mill operatives, woolen mill operatives, and 



0.4 
2.9 
3.8 
0.8 
0.3 
1.9 
2,8 
2.6 

34.3 



1.3 
1.2 
1.0 
2.9 
LO 
2.8 

1.8 
0.9 
0.9 
0.9 
2.2 
1.8 
1.0 
1.3 
0.7 
0.7 
2.0 
0.6 
0.7 
1.4 
7.2 



100.0 



25.1 



6.0 
17.1 
0.7 
0.7 
0.6 

2.2 

0.4 
1.8 

20.1 



0.5 
0.4 
15. S 
0.8 
1.3 
0.6 
1.2 

15.6 



0.7 
0.3 
0.5 
0.5 
1.6 
2.0 
0.7 
S.9 
0.8 
2.6 
2.0 

37.0 



0.8 
L5 
1.7 
0.9 
8.7 
0.9 
0.9 
2.5 

1.3 



' other 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cix 



Table XXXIV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES IN EACH PRINCIPAL 
ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 1890 AND 1900— Continued. 



MALES— Continued. 



GEKEBAL NATIVITY, COLOE, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 


1900 


18901 


GENERAL NATIVITY, COLOR, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 


1900 


18901 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


FOREIGN WHITE— Continued. 

Manufacturing and meclianical 
pursuits— Continued. 
Manufacturers and ofacials, etc 


59,644 
24,234 
56,704 
62,534 

245,929 
64,814 
22,106 
32,419 

121, 809 
60, 671 

28,622 
63,807 
367,221 

2,675,497 


1.2 
0.6 
1.2 
1.3 
6.1 
1.3 
0.6 
0.7 
2.5 
1.2 

0.6 
1.3 
7.4 

100.0 


41,321 
28,238 
60,765 
48,288 
188,436 
66, 638 
18,466 
41,369 
87,046 
62, 734 

27,972 
67,164 
269,157 

2, 282^727 


1.0 
0.6 
1.4 
1.1 
4.3 
1.3 
0.4 
1.0 
2,0 
1.4 

0.6 
1.5 
6.2 

100.0 


NEGRO— Continued. 


31,625 


1.2 


26,170 


1.1 






15,364 
16,261 

636,933 


0.6 
0.6 

23.8 


12,110 
13,060 

460,766 


0.5 


Marble and stone cutters 




0.6 


Masons (brick and stone) 


Domestic and personal service 




Metal workers (nototherwise specified) 2. 
Miners and quarrymen 


19.7 


Painters, glaziers, and rarnishers 


18,958 
463,492 
120, 361 

33,122 

. 204,852 


0.7 

17.3 

4.5 

1.3 

7.7 


16,966 
310, 733 
101,742 

21,324 

143,371 


0.7 


Printers, lithographers, and pressmen... 




13.6 


Saw and planing mill employees 




4.5 


Tailors 




9 


Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 

specified).' 
Tobacco and cigar factory operatives — 




6.3 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 




Woodworkers (nototherwise specified)*. 


67,396 
14,472 
28, 779 
55,117 
39,088 

241,934 


2.5 
0.5 
1.1 
2.1 
1.6 

9.0 


43,914 
10,486 
11,649 
47, 316 
30,006 

181,415 


1.9 






NEGRO. 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) 


0.6 
2.1 




All others in this class 


1.3 




Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 


8.0 




1,561,163 


68.3 


1,482,006 


64.9 




21,067 
26,467 
14,370 
36,439 
33,156 
110,435 


0.8 
1.0 
0.5 
1.4 
1.2 
4.1 


22,573 
20,742 
9,758 
18,986 
17,247 
92,109 




Agricultural laborers 


834,438 

686,157 

16,859 

20,609 

4,190 


31.2 

26.6 

0.6 

0.8 

0.1 


910,545 

641,300 

11,399 


39.9 

23.7 

0.5 




0.9 


Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Lumbermen, wood choppers, etc 

Turpentine farmers and laborers 




0.4 




0.8 


Saw and planing mill employees 


0.8 


18, 762 


0.8 


4.1 









TEMALES. 



NATIVE WHITE— NATIVE PAR- 
ENTS. 

All occupations 



Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
All others in this class 



Professional service. 



Musicians and teachers of music 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service. . 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation. 



Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Merchantsanddealers(exceptwholesale) 

Saleswomen 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Cotton mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Hosiery and knitting mUl operatives. . . 

Milliners 

Printers, lithographers, and presswomen 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Silk mill operatives 

n^flilnresflp^ ------••••-•••- 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 

specified).^ 
Tobacco and cigar factory operatives. . . 
All others in this class 



1,926,637 



318, 610 



136,445 

179, 448 

2, 717 

276, 718 



34,327 
208,063 
33,328 



31, 756 
77, 912 
24, 744 
42, 777 
43,764 
350,189 
12, 666 

231, 149 



36,289 
42,442 
10, 538 
62, 427 
46, 719 
12, 337 
21, 397 

617,362 



16, 903 
60, 690 
164,425 
15, 367 
46, 245 
8,777 
62, 375 
12, 762 
10, 907 
15, 163 
21, 632 

15, 132 
87, 984 



100.0 



7.1 
9.3 
0.1 

14.3 



1.8 

10.8 

1.7 

30.3 



1.6 
4.0 
1.3 
2.2 
2.3 
18.2 
0.7 

12.0 



1.9 
2.2 
0.6 
3.2 
2.4 
0.6 
1.1 

26.9 



0.8 
2.6 
8.0 
0.8 
2.4 
0.5 
3.2 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 
1.1 

0.8 
4.6 



1, 373, 636 



218, 080 



77,149 

138,742 

2,189 

211,982 



23,727 
166, 347 
21,908 

460, 872 



17, 030 
46,823 

8,233 
19, 677 
17, 480 
334,427 

7,202 

101, 959 



14, 914 

81,866 

7,430 

22,076 

12, 881 

4,234 

8,669 

390, 643 



14, 104 

26, 982 

130, 177 

7,826 
36, 089 

6,327 
70, 574 

5,265 

4,631 
15, 767 
24, 102 

7,582 
43, 327 



15.9 



5.6 

10.1 

0.2 



1.7 
12.1 
1.6 

32.8 



1.2 
3.4 
0.6 
1.4 
1.3 
24.4 
0.6 

7.4 



1.1 
2.3 
0.6 
1.6 
0.9 
0.3 
0.6 

28.6 



1.0 
1.9 
9.5 
0.6 
2.6 
0.6 
5.1 
0.4 
0.3 
1.1 
1.8 

0.5 
3.2 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PAR- 
ENTS. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits . 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
All others in this class 



Professional service. 



Musicians and teachers of music 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service. . 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation. 



Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Merchants and dealers(except wholesale) 

Packers and shippers ^ 

Saleswomen 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

All others in this class •. . . 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Bookbinders 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Boxmakers (papery 

Cotton mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

M etal workers * 

Milliners 

Printers, lithographers, and presswomen 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cUfI makers 

Silk mill operatives 

Tailoresses 



1,183,537 



29, 398 



9,845 
18, 663 



113,077 



13, 453 
88,545 
11, 079 

369, 221 



9,784 
29, 178 

7,879 

30, 278 

19, 505 

2.63, 946 

8,651 

204, 844 



31, 270 

34, 177 

8,320 

9,803 

68, 437 

34, 226 

8,815 

9,797 

476, 997 



8,938 
17, 946 

9,267 
23,646 
120, 914 
12,910 
11,012 
30, 326 

6,944 
44,961 
12, 898 
14,014 
26, 994 



100.0 



0.8 
1.6 
0.1 

9.6 



1.2 
7.5 
0.9 

30.3 



0.8 
2.5 
0.7 
2.6 
1.6 
21.4 
0.7 

17.3 



2.6 
2.9 
0.7 
0.8 
5.8 
2.9 
0.8 
0.8 

40.3 



0.8 
1.5 
0.8 
2.0 
10.2 
1.1 
0.9 
2.6 
0.5 
3.8 
1.1 
1.2 
2.3 



805,1 



afSdra^aSwoSsfcFook and\v^^ and repairers, gold and silver workers tin plate and tinware makers, and 

sincludes carpet factory operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, silk mill operatives, woolen mill operatives, and " 

* Includes cabinetmakers, coopers, and "other woodworkers." 
' Includes all workers in iron and steel and other metals. 

• Includes carpet factory operatives, woolen mill operatives, and ' ' other textile mill operatives. 



4,612 

8,954 

912 

71, 191 



7,605 
58,041 
6,545 

248, 843 



4,018 

11,280 

3,305 

12,867 

5,847 

207,248 



89,224 



10,638 
25,480 
5,262 
3,519 
29, 287 
6,994 
3,421 
4,633 

382, 603 



7,118 
14, 971 

7,388 
24, 874 
104, 436 

8,747 

7,697 
18,503 

4,757 
41, 994 

7,566 
10,406 
27, 706 



other metal workers." 
other textile mill operatives.' 



ex 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXXIV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES IN EACH PRINCIPAL 
ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 1890 AND 1900— Continued. 

PBMALB9— Continued. 



GENEKAL NATIVITY, COLOE, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 



NATIVE WHITE— POEEIGN PAE- 
ENTS— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits— Continued. 
Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 

specifled).2 
Tobacco and cigar factory'operatives ... 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 

EOEEIGN WHITE. 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

All others in this class 

Professional service 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc . . 
All others in this class 

Domestic and personal service 

Boarding and lodging house keepers 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 

Trade and transportation 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Merchants and dealers(exceptwholasale) 

Saleswomen 

Stenographers and typewriters 

All others in this class 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Cotton mill operatives 



1900 



Number. 



27, 858 

12,289 
12, 876 
84, 315 



879, 719 



5,374 
34,975 
1,378 

25,923 



17,244 
8,679 

467, 569 



14, 805 
30,331 
8,411 
43,240 
26,702 
332,863 
11,717 

63,116 



6,392 
8,057 
14, 330 
17,948 
5,991 
10, 398 

281,384 



5,590 
46,022 



Per 
cent. 



1.0 
1.1 
7.1 



100.0 



4.7 



0.6 
4.0 

0.1 



1.9 
1.0 



53.2 



1.6 
3.5 
1.0 
4.9 
3.0 
37.9 
1.3 

7.2 



0.7 
0.9 
1.6 
2.1 
0.7 
1.2 



0.6 
5.2 



18901 



Number. 



8,752 
17, 064 
48,768 



775,911 



34,216 



3,677 
29,106 
1,432 

19, 623 



13,804 
5,819 

460, 189 



9,736 
19,775 

4,746 

31,983 

13,164 

,374,263 

6,532 

34,832 



2,166 
6,522 
12,025 
6,944 
1,363 
5,813 

227,062 



4,542 
41,860 



Per 
cent. 



1.1 
2,1 
6.0 



100.0 
4.4 



0.5 
3.7 
0.2 



1.8 
0.7 



1.3 



1.3 
2.6 
0.6 
4.1 
1.7 
48.2 
0.8 

4.6 



0.3 
0.8 
1.6 
0.9 
0.2 
0.7 

29.3 



0.6 
5.4 



GENEEAL NATIVITY, COLOE, AND 
OCCUPATIONS. 



rOEBIGN WHITE— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits — Continued. 

Dressmakers 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Metal workers' 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Silk mill operatives 

Tailor'esses 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 
specified) .2 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 

NEGEO. 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

All others in this class 

Professional service 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc.. 
All others in this class 

Domestic and personal service 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Dressmakers 

Seamstresses 

All others in this class 



1900 



Nimiber. 



56,846 
6,192 
4,804 
9,370 

27, 061 
5,140 
7,441 

26, 362 

18, 462 

10,956 

9,829 

47, 319 



1,316,840 



582,001 



509, 687 

71, 665 

649 

15,694 



13,624 
2,070 



681,926 



9,406 

82,443 

218, 227 

18,672 

346,373 

7,805 

4,137 

33,182 



12, 514 
11,451 
9,217 



Per 

cent. 



6.6 
0.7 
0.6 
1.1 
3.1 
0,6 
0.8 
3.0 
2.1 

1.2 

1.1 
6.4 



100.0 



44.2 



38.7 
5.4 
0.1 



1.0 
0.2 



51.8 



0.7 

6.3 
16.6 

1.4 
26.2 

0.6 

0.3 
2.5 



0.9 
0.9 
0.7 



18901 



Number. 



50,381 
4,212 
3,020 
7,311 

21, 588 
3,100 
5,713 

20,686 

19, 072 

7,124 
11,238 
27, 346 



1,046,422 



502,304 



452, 168 

49, 366 

770 

8,824 



7,864 
960 



505, 989 



8,104 

38,269 

151, 540 

4,890 
299, 473 

3,713 

2,346 
26,969 



7,679 
11,822 
7,558 



Per 
cent. 



6.S 
0.5 
0.4 
0.9 
2.8 
0.4 
0.7 
2.7 
2.5 

0.9 
L5 
3.6 



100.0 



48.0 



43.2 
4.7 
0.1 



0.7 
0.1 



0.8 

3.7 
14.6 

0.6 
28.6 

0.3 

0.2 
2.6 



0.7 

1.2 

o.r 



'Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

2 Includes carpet factory operatives and " other textile mill operatives.' 



' Includes all workers in iron and steel and other metals. 



Table XXXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES IN THE CHINESE, 
JAPANESE, AND INDIAN POPULATION GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 1900. 



MALES. 



EACB AND OCCUPATIONS. 



CHINESE. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc 

All others in this class 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers 

Eestaurant keepers 

Servants and waiters 

All others in this class 

Trade and transportation 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . 

Hucksters and peddlers 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees 

Ail others in this class 



Number. 



11,913 


14.6 


9,048 

1,491 

1,069 

316 


11.1 
1.8 
1.3 
0.4 


614 


0.8 


50,366 


61.7 


514 
10,280 
26,314 

866 
12,627 

766 


0.6 
12.6 
31.0 

1.1 
16.5 

0.9 


9,074 


11.1 



544 
593 

5,654 
699 
666 

1,018 



Per cent. 



0.7 
0.7 
6.9 
0.7 
0.8 
1.3 



EACE AND OCCUPATIONS. 



CHINESE— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Fishermen and oystermen , 

Meat and fruit canners and preservers 

Miners and quarrymen , 

Powder and cartridge makers 

Sewing machine operators 

Tailors ['. 

Tobacco and ci^ar factory operatives '.. 

All others in this class 

JAPANESE. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Wood choppers 

All others in this class 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers 

Eestaurant keepers '...'." 

Servants and waiters 

All others in this class 



Number. Per cent, 



486 


0.6 


1,321 


1.6 


3,269 


4.0 


314 


0.4 


394 


0.5 


752 


0.9 


862 


1.0 


2,248 


2.8 


22, 340 


100.0 


5,345 


23.9 


4,991 


22.8 


111 


0.6 


111 


0.5 


132 


0.6 


132 


0.6 


9,058 


40.5 



5,674 
116 
106 

2,960 



n.8- 



24.9 
0,6 
0.5 

18.2 
1.4 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXI 



Table XXXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, OP MALES AND OF FEMALES IN THE CHINESE, 
JAPANESE, AND INDIAN POPULATION GAINFULLY EMPLOYED: 1900— Continued. 

MALES— Continued. 



KAOE AND OCCUPATIONS. 



JAPANESE— Continued. 

Trade and transportation 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Steam railroad employees 

All others in this class 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Miners and quarrymen 

Meat and fruit canners and preservers 

Saw and planinj^ mill employees 

All others in this class 

INDIAN. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 

Wood choppers 

All others in this class 



1900 



Number. Per cent, 



6,811 



198 

6,277 

336 


0.9 
28.1 
1.5 


994 


4.5 


168 
155 
164 
507 


0.8 
0.7 
0.7 
2.3 


51,218 


100.0 


36,895 


72.0 


11, 414 

20,890 

646 

3,885 

454 

106 


22.3 
40.8 
1.2 
6.6 
0.9 
0.2 



RACE AND OCCUPATIONS. 



INDIAN— Continued. 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Laborers (not specified) 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc 

Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts 

All others In this class 

Trade and transportation 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Steam railroad employees 

All others in this class 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Woodworkers (not otherwise specified) • 

All others in this class 



1900 



Number. Per cent. 



670 


1.3 


9,544 


18.6 


7,740 


15.1 


573 


1.1 


830 


1.6 


401 


0.8 


1,469 


2.9 


348 


0.7 


238 


0.5 


368 


0.7 


515 


1.0 


2,640 


5.2 


946 


1.9 


256 


0.5 


250 


0.5 


270 


0.5 


918 


1.8 



T-EMALlES. 



CHINESE. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursmts 

Professional service 



Domestic and personal service . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 
All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 
Dressmakers 



Tailoresses 

All others in this class . 



JAPANESE. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 



Domestic and personal service . 

Laborers ( not specified) 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation. 



682 


100.0 


22 


3.2 


4 


0.6 


296 


43.4 


31 
39 
44 
145 
37 


4.5 
5.7 
6.6 
21.3 
5.4 


29 


4.3 


20 
9 


3.0 
1.3 


331 


48.5 


25 
167 
107 

32 


3.6 

24.5 
16.7 
4.7 


266 


100.0 


13 


4.9 


5 


1.9 


208 


78.2 


19 

151 

38 


7.1 
56.8 
14.3 



8.4 



JAPANESE— Continued. 
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. . 



Dressmakers and seamstresses. . 
All others in this class 



INDIAN. 



All occupations . . 
Agricultural pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers , 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 
AH others in this class 



Professional service . 



Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service . 



Housekeepers and stewardesses. 

Laborers ( not specified ) 

Laundresses 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation . 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 

Basketmakers 

Dressmakers , 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Lace and embroidery makers 

Seamstresses 

Textile workers (not otherwise specified)' , 

All others in this class 



23 


8.6 


8 


3.0 


11,716 


100.0 


5,565 


47.5 


1,830 


15.6 


2,951 


25.2 


716 


6.1 


68 


0.6 


276 


2.4 


236 


2.0 


40 


0.4 


2,421 


20.7 


61 


0.5 


440 


3.8 


706 


6.0 


1,096 


9.4 


118 


1.0 


63 


0.6 


3,391 


28.9 


1,063 


9.1 


56 


0.6 


137 


1.2 


88 


0.7 


101 


0.8 


1,637 


14.0 


809 


2.6 



11.6 



1 Includes cabinetmakers, coopers, and "other woodworkers.' 

In effect Table xxxiv constitutes an analysis by gen- 
eral nativity and color of those changes in the occupa- 
tional distribution of the working population during 
the decade 1890 to 1900 which are shown for all ele- 
ments combined in Table xxxra (page cvi). In making 
comparisons it should be remembered that in many 
instances a large increase in the number of persons en- 
gaged in a given occupation group produces only a 
slight change in the per cent which that group forms 
of the total number gainfully employed. For males 
the most marked changes in the proportions shown in 
these tables occurred in eight occupation groups, and 
these changes are summarized for each element in com- 
parison with the corresponding proportions for all males 
in the tabular statement which follows. 



- Mostly blanket weavers. 

Occupations showing most marked changes since 1890 in the proportion 
of males in each principal element so occupied.^ 





MALES. 






Native 


Native 








Total. 


white- 


white- 


Foreign 


Negro. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


native 


foreign 


white. 






parents. 


parents. 








1900 


1890 


1900 


1890 


1900 

11.7 


1890 

10.7 


1900 


1890 


1900 

31.2 


1890 


Agricultural laborers 


15.8 


15.8 


18.0 


16.0 


5.2 


6.0 


39.9 


Farmers, planters, and 


22.6 


26.2 


28.4 


34.1 


13.4 


lb. 3 


14.7 


17.1 


25.6 


23.7 


overseers. 






















Laborers (not specified) .. 


10.6 


9.6 


8.0 


6.4 


8.7 


8.4 


14. b 


lb. 3 


IV. 3 


13.6 


Clerks and copyists 

Draymen, hackmen, team- 


2.3 


2.5 


2.5 


2.8 


4.2 


b.2 


1.4 


1.6 


0.2 


0.2 


2.3 


1.9 


1.9 


1.6 


3.2 


2.9 


2.3 


2,0 


2.6 


1.9 


sters, etc. 
























1.9 


Ml 


2.2 


1.2 


3.2 


1.9 


l.b 


0.8 


0.1 


(■') 


Carpenters and joiners 


2.5 


3.2 


2.8 


3.6 


2.4 


2.9 


3.1 


3.7 


0.8 


1.0 


Miners and quarrymen. . . 


2.4 


2.0 


1.6 


1.1 


2.3 


2.2 


b.l 


4.3 


1.4 


0.8 



1 Percentagesfor 1890 based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



CXll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



From the summary on the preceding page it is appar- 
ent that the decrease, already noted' (see page cvii), in 
the proportion of male workers engaged in the occupa- 
tion of farmers, planters, and overseers is common to 
each principal element except the negro; bat for agri- 
cultural laborers an increased proportion is shown for 
the two native white elements and a decreased propor- 
tion for the foreign white and negro elements. Of the 
other occupation groups included in the foregoing sum- 
mary, carpenters and joiners show a decreased propor- 
tion for each element and clerks and copyists for each 
element except the negro, for which there has been no 
change. The remaining groups' with one exception 
show increases for each element, the exception being 
the group of laborers (not specified) which shows a 
decrease for the foreign white element only. 

There are fifteen occupation groups for females in 
which considerable changes proportionally have taken 
place since 1890, the varying proportions shown in 
Tables xxxiii and xxxrv for each principal element at 
each census being summarized as follows: 

Occupations showing most marked changes since 1890 in the proportion 
of females in each principal element so occupied. ' 





FEMALES. 






Native 


Native 






OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


white- 
native 
parents. 


white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Negro. 




1900 


1890 


1900 

7.1 


1890 


1900 


1890 

0.6 


1900 

0.6 


1890 

0.5 


1900 

38.7 


1890 


Agricultural laborers 


12.0 


13.4 


5.6 


0.8 


43.2 


Teachers and professors in 
colleges, etc. 

Housekeepers and stew- 
ardesses. 

Laborers (not specified) ,. 


6.2 


6.1 


10.8 


12.1 


7.5 


7.2 


1.9 


1.8 


1.0 


0.7 


2.8 


2.1 


4.0 


3.4 


2.5 


•1.4 


3.6 


2.6 


0.7 


0.8 


2.3 


L4 


1.3 


0.6 


0.7 


0.4 


1.0 


0.6 


6.3 


3.7 


Laundresses 


6.3 


b.i 


2.2 


1,4 


2.6 


1.6 


4.9 


4.1 


16.6 


14,,'. 


Nurses and midwlves 


2.1 


1.0 


2.3 


1.3 


1.6 


0.7 


3.0 


1.7 


1.4 


0,5 


Servants and waitresses . . 


21.1 


30.4 


18.2 


24.4 


21.4 


2,5.7 


37.9 


48.2 


26,2 


28,6 


Bookkeepers and account- 


1.4 


0.7 


1.9 


1.1 


2.6 


1.3 


0.7 


0.3 


(2) 


m 


ants. 






















Saleswomen 


2.« 


l.b 


3.2 


1.6 


5.8 


3.6 


2.1 


11.9 




r^i 


Stenographers and type- 


1.6 


0.5 


2.4 


0.9 


2.9 


0.9 


0.7 


0.2 


writers. 






















Cotton mill operatives 


2.3 


2.3 


2.6 


1.9 


2.0 


3.1 


5,2 


5.4 


i') 


(') 


Dressmakers 


H.h 


V.3 


8.11 


9.h 


III. 2 


13. II 


6.5 


6..'! 


09 


0,7 


Seamstresses 


2.7 


3.7 


3.2 


5.1 


,3.8 


5.2 


3.1 


2.8 


9 


1,2 


Tailoresses 


1.3 


1.6 


0.8 


1.1 


2.3 


3,4 


3.0 


2.7 


(2) 


(■') 


Woolen mill operatives, . . 


0.6 


0.9 


0.4 


0.6 


1.1 


2.1 


1.1 


1.5 


(•-) 


r-) 



1 Percentages lor 1890 based upon corrected figures; see explanation on 
page Ixvi. 

2Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

The above summary shows that for each element of 
the population there has been a large decrease since 
1890 in the proportion of female workers employed as 
servants and waitresses and for the negro element in 
the proportion employed as agricultural laborers. 
There has been also for each element of the population 
except the negro a decrease in the proportion of females 



employed as woolen mill operatives. In the case of 
cotton mill operatives there have been decreases in the 
white elements of foreign birth or foreign parentage, 
partly offset by an increase for the native white of 
native parentage. In the occupation of teachers and 
professors in colleges a decrease is shown for the na- 
tive white of native parents, but an increase for each 
of the other elements. It will be noticed that the 
decrease in the proportion of female workers employed 
as dressmakers, seamstresses, and tailoresses, already 
noted in another connection, is confined mainly to the 
two native white elements, the foreign white showing 
an increase for each of these occupations except that 
of dressmakers, for which the percentage remains un- 
changed. Proportional increases are shown for each 
element in laborers (not specified), laundresses, and 
nurses and midwives, and for all but the negro ele- 
ment in bookkeepers and accountants, housekeepers 
and stewardesses, saleswomen, and stenographers and 
typewriters. 

The gainful workers among the Chinese, Japanese, 
and Indian elements in 1900, for continental United 
States, as shown by the figures contained in Table 
xxxv, were confined to a comparatively few occupa- 
tion groups. Of all the Chinese males at work, fully 
seven-tenths were found in four occupation groups, 
namely, launderers, 31 per cent; servants and waiters, 
15.5 per cent; laborers (not specified), 12.6 per cent; 
agricultural laborers, 11.1 per cent. For the Japanese 
element there was an even greater concentration of 
male workers, verj' nearly nine-tenths being found in 
the following groups: Steam railroad employees (prin- 
cipally laborers), 28.1 per cent; laborers (not specified), 
2i.9 per cent; agricultural laborers, 32.3 per cent; 
servants and waiters, 13.2 per cent. These two ele- 
ments are found mainly in the Western states and 
the number of females among them is very small. 
For the Indian element, however, there was a consid- 
erable proportion of female as well as male workers, 
and more than three-fifths (63.1 per cent) of all the 
males and more than two-fifths (40.8 per cent) of all 
the females at work were returned as cither farmers, 
planters, and overseers or as agricultural laborers. 

In the tables just discussed the gainful workers in 
each element of the population are distributed by 
occupation groups. In Tables xxxvi and xxxvii, 
which follow, the gainful workers in each occupation 
group, for continental United States, are distributed by 
elements of the population, the whole number in each 
occupation group being taken as 100 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXIU 



Table XXXVI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCU- 
PATIONS: 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All ocoupationa . 



Agricultural pursuits. 



Agricultiural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers. 
All others In this class 



Professional service . 



Clergymen 

Lawyers 

Physicians and surgeons , 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
AH others in this class 



Domestic and personal service. 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Housekeepers and stewards . . 

Laborers (not specified) 

Lauuderers and laundresses . 



Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waiters 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc. 
All others in this class 



Trade and transportation . 



Agents 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Merchants and dealers {except whole- 
sale). 



Salesmen and saleswomen , 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters. 
All others In this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Blacksmiths 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers. . . 

Butchers 

Carpenters and joiners 

Cotton mill operatives 



Aggregate. 



29,073,233 



10,381,765 



Dressmakers 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 



Manufacturers and of&cials, etc . . . 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Miners and quarrymen 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers . 



Plumbers and gas and steam fitters — 
Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 
Saw and planing mill employees 



Tailors and tailoresses 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise 

specified). 2 
Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . . 
All others in this class 



4, 410, 877 

5,674,875 

296, 013 

1,268,638 



111, 638 
114, 460 
132, 002 
446, 183 
454, 305 

6,580,657 



131, 116 

155, 153 

2, 629, 262 

385, 965 

120, 956 

1,560,721 

130, 590 

466, 894 

4, 766, 964 



NATIVE WHITE- 
NATIVE PARENTS. 



241, 162 
264, 880 
630, 127 
638, 933 
790, 886 



611,139 

582, 160 

112, 364 

1,005,323 

7,085,309 



226, 477 
208, 903 
113, 193 
600,262 
246,391 

346, 884 
223,495 
290,538 
283,145 

243,009 
160, 805 
583, 406 
277,641 

97, 785 
155, 147 
161,624 
160,942 

229, 649 
298, 767 

131,452 
2,075,904 



Number. 



13, 875, 329 



6, 004, 039 



2,289,587 

3,673,632 

140,820 

806,288 



58, 460 

86,446 

97,284 

292, 745 

271, 353 

1, 841, 863 



46, 922 
80, 677 
982, 449 
54,901 

49, 761 
402, 188 

53, 327 
171, 628 

2,400,018 



145, 024 
137, 038 
338, 198 
229, 790 
395, 631 



318,976 

285, 131 

61,644 

488, 687 

2, 823, 131 



106, 306 
74,565 
37,366 
329, 495 
108,829 

154, 944 

104,980 

95,079 

117, 709 

128, 381 

58,926 

181, 727 

137, 638 

33,479 
75, 523 
74, 701 
63, 061 

29, 072 
85,270 

40, 971 
785, 119 



Per 
cent. 



67.8 



61.9 
63.0 
47.6 

64.1 



52.4 
75.5 
73.7 
65.6 
69.7 

33.0 



35.8 
62.0 
37.4 
14.2 

41.1 
26.8 
40.8 
36.8 

60.4 



60.1 
63.8 
53.7 
42.6 
50.0 



62.2 
49.0 
54.9 



39.8 



46.9 
35.7 
33.0 
54.9 
44.2 

44.7 
47.0 
32.7 
41.6 

52.8 
36.6 
32.3 
49.6 

34.3 
48.7 
46.2 
41.8 

12.7 
28.6 

31.2 
37.8 



NATIVE WHITE — 
FOREIGN PAKENTS. 



Number. 



5,300,924 



1,100,608 



491, 186 
670, 170 
39, 252 

259,434 



13,619 
19, 990 
17, 968 
104,543 
103,424 

913, 645 



29, 105 
30, 686 
364, 840 
35,932 

21, 785 
283,250 

36, 816 
112,231 



61, 131 

84,630 

208, 480 

131, 108 

160, 708 



199, 862 

113, 376 

42, 100 

233, 956 

1, 801, 886 



47, 158 
64, 170 
32,747 
97,010 
41, 906 

121,327 
50,535 
79,195 
85,835 

52,813 
30,702 
95, 088 
68, 950 

44,422 
55, 095 
20, 712 

45,758 

49, 659 
110, 091 

34,652 
584, 061 



Per 
cent. 



18.8 



10.6 



11.1 
10.0 
13.3 

20.6 



12.1 
17.5 
13.6 
23.4 
22.8 

16.4 



22.2 
19.8 
13.9 



18.0 
18.2 
27.4 
24.0 

25.7 



21.2 
33.2 
33.1 
24.3 
20.3 



32.7 
19.5 
37.5 
23.3' 

25.4 



20.8 
26.9 
28.9 
16.2 
17.0 

35.0 
22.6 
27.3 



21.8 
19.1 
16.9 
24.8 

45.4 
35.5 
12.8 



21.6 
36.9 



26.3 
28.1 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



Number. 



5,736,818 



1, 074, 211 



258, 668 
747, 804 
67, 739 

143,896 



23,857 
7,218 
14, 599 
27, 134 
71,088 

1,435,407 



34,558 
32, 943 
711, 946 
48,826 

29, 926 
392, 439 

37, 875 
146, 894 

915,151 



42, 726 

32, 504 

76, 756 

109, 984 

219, 326 



88,662 

121,004 

8,210 

216, 980 

2,168,153 



62, 738 
75, 223 
39, 925 
152, 318 
94,228 

57, 939 

67, 627 

103,926 

78,312 

60, 307 
66, 752 
246, 333 
65, 117 

18, 687 
23,264 
32, 453 
30,188 

148, 171 
102,596 

39,578 
622,472 



Per 
cent. 



19.7 



10.4 



5.9 
13.2 
22.9 

U.4 



21.4 
6.3 

11.1 
6.1 

15.6 

25.7 



26.4 
21.2 
27.1 
12.7 

24.8 
25.1 
29.0 
31.5 

19.2 



17.7 
12.7 
12.2 
20.4 
27.7 



14.5 

20.8 

7.3 

21.5 



27.7 
36.0 
35.3 
26.4 
38.2 

16.7 
25.8 
35.8 
27.7 

24.8 
35.3 
43.7 
23.5 

19.1 
15.0 
20.1 
20.0 

64.5 
34.3 

30.1 
30.0 



Number. 



3, 992, 337 



2, 143, 154 



1,344,126 
757,822 
41, 207 

47, 219 



15,528 
728 

1,734 
21,267 

7,962 



19, 942 

10, 696 

546, 985 

220, 104 

19, 431 

465, 734 

2,993 

33, 124 

208, 989 



2,105 

475 

6,172 

67,585 

9,095 



2,799 

55, 327 

395 

65,036 

275,116 



10, 100 
4,574 
3,002 

21, 113 
1,425 

12, 569 
10,224 
12, 327 
1,263 

1,186 
14, 386 
36, 561 

5,782 

1,193 
1,220 
33,266 
11, 537 

1,845 
714 

15,349 
75, 480 



Per 
cent. 



13.7 



20.6 



30.5 
13.4 
13.9 

3.7 



13.9 
0.6 
1.3 

4.8 
1.8 

23.6 



15.2 
6.8 
20.7 
57.0 

16.1 

29.8 

2.3 

7.1 

4.4 



0.9 
0.2 
1.0 
12.6 
1.2 



0.5 
9.5 
0.3 
6.5 



4.5 
2.2 
2.7 
3.5 
0.6 

3.6 
4.6 
4.2 
0.4 

0.5 
9.0 
6.6 
2.1 

1.2 

0.8 

20.6 

7.6 

0.8 
0.2 

11.7 
3.7 



Number. 



62,934 



42,460 



13,244 

23,841 

6,375 

946 



179 
76 
124 
384 
184 

11, 965 



32 

65 

8,180 

719 

35 

1,227 

574 

1,133 

1,532 



34 
20 
126 
360 
251 



150 

369 

12 

220 



6,031 



159 
32 
30 

218 
1 

57 

46 

6 



260 
23 

2 
19 
252 
101 



2 
4,743 



Per 
cent. 



0.3 
0.4 
1.8 

0.1 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 

(') 

0.2 



0.3 
0.2 

(') 
0.1 
0.5 
0.2 

(>) 



0.1 

0) 



0.1 



0.1 



0.2 
0.1 



CHINESE AND 
JAPANESE. 



Number. 



104,891 



17, 293 



14, 067 
1,606 
1,620 



303 
60 
294 

59, 928 



557 

186 

15,912 

25,483 

18 

15,883 

6 

1,884 

15,923 



143 
213 
395 
116 
6,875 



691 

6,943 

3 

1,544 



16 
349 
123 



48 
84 
6 

18 

305 

6 

3,437 

31 

2 
26 
240 
297 

887 



900 
4,029 



Per 
cent. 



0.3 

''J.6 

0.1 



0.1 
(') 

0.2 
(') 

0.1 

1.1 



0.4 
0.1 
0.6 
6.6 

1.0 

{') 
0.4 

0.3 



0.1 
0.1 

0.8 



0.1 

1.2 
(>) 
0.1 

0.2 



(■) 
0.2 
0.1 

(') 

(') 

(!) 



0.1 

0.6 
0) 



0.1 
0.2 

0.4 
(') 

0.7 
0.2 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

iilnclndes carpet factory operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, silk mill operatives, woolen mill operatives, and "other textile mill operatives.' 

23054—04 viii 



CXIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXXVII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN 

SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



MALES. 

All occupations . 



Agricultoral pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers 

rarmers, planters, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. 
Lumbermen and raftsmen , 



Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 

Turpentine farmers and laborers 

Wood clioi)pers 

All others in this class 



Professional service . 



Actors, professional showmen, etc 

Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc. 

Clergymen 

Dentists 

Electricians 



Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors. . 

Journalists 

Lawyers 

Musicians and teachers of music 



Officials (government) , 

Physicians and surgeons , 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class , 



Domestic and personal service . . . 



Barbers and hairdressers. 

Bartenders 

Hotel keepers 

Janitors and sextons 



Laborers (not specified) . 

Launderers 

Kestaurant keepers 

Saloon keepers 



Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U.S.) . 
Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc . 
All others in this class 



* Trade and transportation . 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants. 
Clerks and copyists , 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . 

Foremen and overseers 

Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers 



Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except whole- 
sale). 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale) ... 
Messengers and errand and office boys 
Officials of banks and companies 

Packers and shippers , 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) 

Salesmen , 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters 



Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone operators . 

Undertakers 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Bakers 

Blacksmiths 

Bleachery and dye works operatives. . . 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

BrasBWorkers 



Aggregate. 



23,763,886 



9,404,429 



3, 747, 668 

5, 367, 169 

58, 928 

71, 920 

83,056 
24,454 
36,962 
15,272 

827, 941 



NATIVE WHITE — 
NATIVE PAKENTS. 



Number. 



11,948,692 



5, 685, 429 



27, 903 
28,483 
108, 265 
28,858 
60,308 

43,156 

27,845 

113,460 

39,815 

78,488 
124, 615 
118,519 

38,287 

3,485,208 



125,542 
88,377 
46,264 
48,544 

2, 505, 287 
60,683 
28, 999 
81, 660 

276, 968 
43, 195 

129,711 
59,988 

4,263,617 



2, 153, 142 

3,394,184 

24,127 

36,880 

48,356 
3,857 

17,256 
7,627 



Per 
cent. 



60.3 



60.4 



67.4 
63.2 
40.9 
61.3 

58.2 
15.8 
48.0 
49.9 



630,570 64.1 



14,899 
14,804 
56, 366 
21,228 
26,061 

28,662 
18, 752 
85,718 
14,098 

62,864 
92, 402 
84,682 
20,045 

1,258,045 



230,606 

72,984 

78,253 

180,727 

644,881 

91,973 
538,029 
64,032 
64,860 
73,734 

33, 466 
756,802 

42,066 
64, 959 
72,801 

39,657 

63, 625 

461, 909 

680, 462 

26, 246 

68, 873 
62, 426 
15,866 
64,491 

5,772,641 



74, 860 
226, 284 

20, 493 
169, 393 

25,870 



45, 216 
26,408 
23,663 
14,168 

957, 705 
12,124 
12, 407 
17,889 

51,999 
20,988 
53,065 
22,978 

2,168,869 



138, 336 

47, 363 

33, 614 

100,749 

296, 766 

69,235 
229,463 
27,118 
24,814 
18, 778 

23,117 
385,093 

22,727 
26, 060 
48,965 

15, 251 

5,779 

256,548 

284,414 

16, 926 

33,646 

85,914 

8,785 

32,440 

2, 306, 779 



63.4 
52.0 
52.0 
73.6 
61.8 

66.4 
67.4 
75.6 
36.4 

67.3 
74,1 
71.5 
52.4 



36.0 
29.9 
61.1 
29.2 

38.2 
23.9 
42.8 
21.2 

18.8 
48.6 
40.9 
38.3 

50.9 



16, 294 

106,222 

4,229 

68, 652 

0,153 



60.0 
64.9 
43.0 
55.7 
54.3 

64.4 
42,7 
50.2 



69.1 
60.9 

54.0 
38.6 
67.8 

38.6 
10.8 
55.6 
49.0 
60.7 

48.9 
68.5 
65.4 
50.3 

39.9 



20.4 
40.9 
20.6 
34.6 
23.8 



NATIVE WHITE— 
FOEEION PARENTS. 



Number. 



4, 117, 387 



481, 341 

651, 607 

9,351 

10, 291 

13,864 

24 

2,087 

2,745 

146,357 



Per 
cent. 



17.3 



11.4 



7,262 
7,164 

13,012 
4,903 

15, 883 

8,136 
6,270 
19, 781 
9,195 

14,837 
16, 684 
15, 998 
8,242 

654, 424 



27,275 
31, 977 
10, 002 
•6,999 

366, 961 
5,654 
6,011 
24,549 

29,304 
11, 466 
36,695 
9,641 

1,020,607 



12.8 
10.3 
15.9 
14.3 

16.7 
0.1 
6.8 

18.0 

17.7 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



Number. 



4,867,099 



Per 
cent. 



20.5 



484 11.0 



26.0 
25.1 
12.0 
17.0 
31.6 

18.9 
18.9 
17.4 
28.1 

18.9 
13,4 
13.5 
21.6 

15.9 



21.7 
86.2 
21.6 
14.4 

14.3 
11.2 
17.8 
30.1 

10.6 
26.5 
27.6 
15.9 

23.9 



48,857 
10,104 
13, 104 
58, 360 
174, 303 

20, 616 
180, 909 
11, 169 
11, 118 
10,608 

5,983 
162,388 

9,591 
27, 916 
16,075 

12, 157 

8,167 

131, 425 

112, 946 

7,876 

17, 914 
IS, 164 
4,630 
17, 524 

1,824,889 



16,842 
47, 110 

5,018 
86, 224 

9,948 



21.2 
13.9 
16.7 
29.5 
32.0 

22.3 
24.3 
20.7 
17.2 
14.2 

17.6 
20.1 

22.8 
48.0 
20.7 

80.7 
16.2 
28.6 
19.4 
30.0 

26.0 
26.1 
28.5 
27.2 

23.0 



21.2 
20.8 
24.5 
21.4 
38.6 



268, 294 
712, 829 
22,012 
17,848 

16,056 

5 

6,213 

4,232 

117, 973 



3,826 
6,456 
23,252 
2,499 
8,177 

6,222 
3,597 
7,156 
18, 740 

10,124 

13,636 

9,890 

9,499 

967,838 



6.8 
18.8 
37.4 
24.8 

19.8 

!,'> 
17.3 

27.7 
14.2 



88, 616 
27, 608 
12, 199 
16,507 

703, 686 

5,586 

7,902 

38,866 

69, 576 

7,181 

37,415 

18,047 

852,086 



41,404 
15, 366 
24,888 
26, 112 
68, 699 

12,027 
109, 797 
15, 178 
14,410 
41,074 

8,924 
204,996 

9,547 
7,036 
8,549 

10,200 
10, 643 
70,714 
120, 674 
2,219 

16, 689 
8,284 
2,102 

12,614 

1,886,769 



13.7 
22.7 
21.5 
8.6 
16.2 

14.4 

12.9 

6.3 

34,6 

12.9 
10.9 



27.8 



2,675,497 11.3 



Per 
cent. 



26.7 
31.1 
26.4 
34.0 

28.1 
11.0 
27.2 
47.6 

21.5 
16.6 
28.9 
80.1 

20.0 



17.9 
21.0 
31.8 
14.5 
12.6 

13.1 
20.4 
28.1 
22.2 
66.7 

11.7 
27.1 

22.7 
10.8 
11.7 

26.8 
19.8 
16.3 
20.8 
8.6 

24.2 

6.3 

13.2 

19.4 

32.7 



42, 218 
62, 696 
10, 853 
69, 638 
9,660 



56.4 
27.7 
53.0 
41.1 
87.3 



834, 438 

686,167 

2,288 

6,203 

1,289 

20,509 

9,656 

613 

31,625 



1,764 

52 

15,364 

205 

184 

119 

199 

718 

2,730 

595 
1,574 
7,743 

378 

636,933 



18,958 

2,450 

329 

10, 676 

463,492 

1,877 

2,697 

869 

120,361 
3,498 
2,958 
7,768 

204,852 



22.8 
12.8 



1.6 



26.8 
4.0 



3.8 



1,834 

82 

6,486 

281 

6,612 

176 

67,396 

555 

14,472 

2,762 

505 
8,236 

145 

4,930 

148 

1,619 
28,779 

2,396 

65,117 

218 

625 

58 

4S9 

1,988 

241, 984 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



1,422 
10, 083 

390 
4,506 

100 



6.3 
0.2 
14.2 
0.7 
0.4 

0.3 
0.7 
0.6 
6.9 

0.8 
1.8 
6.5 
1.0 

18.2 



15.1 
2.8 
0.7 

22.0 

18.6 
3.7 
9.3 
1.1 

43.5 
8.1 
2.3 

12.9 

4.8 



0.8 
0.1 
8.3 
0.2 
1.0 

0.2 
12.6 

1.0 
22.3 

3.8 

1.5 
1.1 

0.4 
7.6 
0.2 

4.1 
53.7 
0.6 
9.5 
0.8 

0.9 
0.1 
2.8 
3.1 



1.9 
4.5 
1.9 
2.7 
0.4 



51, 218 



36, 895 



11, 414 

20, 890 

9 

646 

3,886 

59 

454 



670 



49 



177 
1 
2 

9 
1 
75 



61 

116 

148 

9 



Per 
cent. 



0.4 



0.3 
0.4 

0.9 

4.1 
0.2 
1.3 
0.8 



9,6H 



30 

8 

23 

17 

7,740 
13 
10 
4 

131 

70 

578 

930 

1,469 



32 
21 
64 
14 
119 



348 

6 

27 

20 

14 
288 

8 
8 

7 

21 

4 

140 



1 
1 

7 

2,640 



15 

158 

1 

SO 



0.2 

0) 



0.1 

0) 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
(') 



CHINESE AND 
JAPANESE. 



Number. 



0.1 
« 

0.3 



0.2 
0.4 
1.6 

0) 



a 



0.1 



0.1 





0.1 



(') 



^I'i 



103,943 



17,258 



14,039 

1,602 

1,141 

57 

106 



296 
17 



113 
7 
95 
22 

1 

7 
26 



17 
303 
58 
64 



69,424 



647 
31 
68 

177 

16,864 

26,429 

972 

33 

15,587 

7 

6 

724 

15,886 



143 

58 

97 

211 

392 

18 
116 

16 

9 

597 



6,862 

62 
26 
72 

S09 

253 

686 

6,943 

1 



5 
9 
18 

10, 630 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxv 



Table XXXVII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN 

SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



Aggregate. 



MALES— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits — Continued. 

Brewers and maltsters 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Cabinetmakers 



Carpenters and joiners 

Clock and watch makers and repairers. 

Confectioners 

Coopers 

Cotton mill operatives 



Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Food preparers (not otherwise specified) 

Glassworkers 

Gold and silver workers 



Harness and saddle makers and repair- 
ers. 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Machinists 



Manufacturers and ofl&cials, etc 

Marble and stone cutters 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Metal workers (not otherwise speci- 

fied).2 
Millers 



Miners and quarrymen 

Oil well and oil works employees . 
Painters, glaziers, and varnishers . 
Paper and pulp mill operatives . . . 
Paper hangers 



Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . . . 
Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 
Saw and planing mill employees 



Silk mill operatives 

Steam boiler makers 

Tailors 

Textile mUl operatives (not otherwise 
specified).' 



Tin plate and tinware makers 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives .. 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Upholsterers 



Wireworkers 

Woodworkers (not otherwise specified) 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 



FBMALfiS. 
All occupations . 



Agricultviral pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers. 
All others in this class 



Professional service . 



Musicians and teachers of music 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service . . 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and mid wives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class. 



20,687 
49, 465 
112, 815 
18, 593 
35, 552 

599, 707 
19, 305 
21, 980 
37, 087 

125, 788 

223, 318 
68,478 
23, 640 
47, 377 
19, 732 

39, 506 

15,110 
287,241 

40, 917 
282, 574 

239, 649 
54,317 

160, 638 
80,207 

40, 362 

662,417 
24, 573 

275, 782 
26, 904 
21, 749 

23, 361 
35, 649 
97, 669 
139, 166 
161, 251 

22,023 

33, 038 

160,714 

76,438 



68,730 
87, 966 
27, 376 
28,663 

16, 701 
104, 791 

42,566 
564,200 



5,319,397 



977, 336 



663, 209 

307, 706 

6,421 

430, 697 



NATIVE WHITE- 
NATIVE PARENTS. 



Number. 



Per 
cent. 



62,359 

327, 614 

60, 624 

2, 095, 449 



69, 456 
146, 929 
123, 976 
335, 282 
108, 691 
1,283,763 

37,354 



1,330 

16, 713 

87,297 

9,086 

8,841 

329,209 

7,737 

7,793 

13, 060 

58, 139 

104, 886 
37,434 

6,724 
22,262 

6,863 

18,476 

3,990 

94, 130 

9,898 

117, 492 

126, 796 
16,087 
68,869 
27, 495 

27,494 

181, 443 
15, 810 

136, 988 
10,236 
12, 437 

14,113 
15, 964 
83,444 
66, 746 
74,538 

5,891 
10,843 
13,919 
20,409 



29, 249 
26,839 
11, 643 
10,109 

3,706 
40, 473 
11, 064 
203, 268 



1, 926, 637 



318, 610 



136, 445 

179, 448 

2,717 

275, 718 



34, 327 

208, 063 

33, 328 

583,808 



NATIVE WHITE — 
FOREIGNPAEENTS. 



Number. 



6.4 
33.8 
33.1 
48.9 
24.9 

54.9 
40.1 
35.6 
35.2 
46.2 

47.0 
64.6 
28.4 
47.0 
29.7 

46.8 

26.4 
32.8 
24.2 
41.6 

52.9 
29.6 
36.7 
34.3 

68.1 

32.3 
64.3 
49.7 
38.1 
67.2 

60.4 
44.8 
34.3 
48.0 
46.2 

26.7 
32.8 
8.7 
26.7 



42.6 
29.4 
42.5 
36.3 

22.2 
38,6 
26.0 
36.7 



20.6 
58.3 
42.3 

64.0 



31, 756 
77, 912 
24,744 
42, 777 
43,764 
350, 189 
12, 666 



65.6 
63.6 
65.8 



27.9 



Per 
cent. 



63.4 
53.0 
20.0 
12.8 
40.3 
27.3 



4,334 
7,872 
32,626 
4,738 
6,266 

96, 909 
4,897 
5,811 
9,631 

18, 361 

60, 490 
6,153 
5,098 

13, 916 
6,921 

10,512 

3,481 
77, 635 
10, 406 
85, 632 

51, 824 
12, 732 
30,657 
22, 962 

6,006 

94,913 
3,828 

68,178 
7,543 
5,786 

4,832 
6,733 
44, 358 
49, 151 
20,648 

5,673 
12, 100 
22, 665 
23,680 



21, 366 

22,363 

7,282 

9,510 

4,626 

29, 004 

13, 080 

147, 669 



1, 183, 637 



29, 398 



9,846 
18, 663 



113, 077 



13, 463 
88,546 
11, 079 

369, 221 



21.0 
16.9 
28.9 
26.5 
17.6 

16.2 
25.4 
26.4 
26.0 
14.6 

22.6 
9.0 
21.6 
29.4 
35.1 

26.6 

23.1 
27,0 
25.4 
30.3 

21.6 
23.5 
19.1 
28.6 

14.9 

16.9 
15.6 
24.7 
28.0 
26.6 

20.7 
18.9 
45.4 
36.3 
12.8 

25.8 
36.6 
14.1 
31.0 



31.1 
25.4 
26.6 
33.2 

27.1 
27.7 
30.7 
26.6 



22.3 



FOBEIQN WHITE. 



Number. 



3.0 



1.5 
6.1 
13.9 

26.3 



9,784 
29, 178 

7,879 
30, 278 
19,606 
263, 946 

8,661 



26.7 
27.0 
21.9 

17.1 



16.6 
19.9 
6.4 
9.0 
17.9 
19.8 
23.2 



14,868 
14,841 
39, 749 
4,489 
20, 096 

152, 207 
6,650 
7,896 
11, 432 
48, 206 

57,599 
13,075 

9,082 
10, 779 

6,811 

10,200 

7,618 

103, 161 

19, 624 

78, 166 

69,544 
24,234 
66, 704 
28,763 

6,965 

245, 929 

2,579 

64,814 

8,889 

2,944 

4,160 

9,200 

18, 661 

22, 106 

32,419 

10, 377 

9,767 

121, 809 

31, 977 



17,136 

28,622 

8,252 

8,047 

8,326 

32,279 

18,317 

173, 661 



879, 719 



Per 
cent. 



6,374 
34,976 
1,378 



3,377 

17,244 

6,302 

467,669 



14,305 
30,381 
8,411 
43,240 
26, 702 
S32, 863 
11, 717 



71.9 
30.0 
35.2 
24.1 
66.5 

26.4 
33.9 
35.9 
30.8 



25.8 
19.1 
38.4 
22.7 
34.5 

25.8 

60.4 
35.9 
47.7 
27.7 

24.9 
44.6 
36.3 
35.9 

14.8 

43.7 
10.6 
23.5 
33.0 
13.6 

17.8 
25.8 
19.1 
15.9 
20.1 

47.1 
29.6 
75.8 
41.8 



24.9 
32.6 
30.2 
28.1 

49.8 
30.8 
43.1 
31.3 



4.3 



0.8 
11.4 
21.5 

6.0 



6.4 
5.3 
10.5 

22.3 



24.1 
20.7 
6.8 
12.9 
24.6 
26.9 
3L4 



Number. 



154 

9,931 

2,990 

276 

340 

21,067 

106 

474 

2,953 

1,079 

10, 215 

10, 323 

1,196 

420 

64 

266 

20 

12,304 

1,059 

1,268 

1,166 
1,252 
14, 370 



36, 439 

2,362 

5,749 

236 

580 

230 
S,748 
1,192 
1,119 
33,166 

61 

335 

1,531 

313 



901 

10,232 

195 



143 

2,641 

94 

28,054 



1,316,840 



Per 
cent. 



682, 001 



609, 687 

71, 666 

649 

15, 594 



1,185 
13,624 



681,926 



3,676 
9,406 
82,443 
218, 227 
18, 672 
346, 373 
4,229 



0.7 
20.1 
2.7 
1.6 
1.0 

3.5 
0.6 
2.2 
8.0 
0.9 

4.6 
16.1 
5.1 
0.9 
0.3 

0.7 

0.1 
4.3 
2.6 
0.4 

0.6 
2.3 
8.9 
1.2 



6.5 
9.6 
2.1 
0.9 
2.7 

1.0 
10.6 
1.2 
0.8 
20.6 

0.3 
1.0 
0.9 
0.4 



1.3 
11.6 
0.7 
3.4 

0.9 
2.5 
0.2 
5.1 



Number. 



69.5 



76.8 
23.3 
10.1 

3.6 



2.3 
4.1 
1.8 

32.6 



6.0 
6.4 
66.5 
65.1 
17.2 
26.9 
11.3 



Per 
cent. 



1 
4 
30 
2 
2 

218 
1 



46 
946 



256 

3 

22 

1 
1 

2 
2 
2 
18 
250 



260 

1 

147 



11, 716 



5,565 



1,830 
2,961 

784 



16 

236 

24 

2,421 



16 

61 
440 
706 

32 
1,096 

71 



L4 
0) 



0.2 
0.1 



{>) 



CHINESE AND 
JAPANESE. 



Number. 



0.3 
0.9 
12.2 



(') 
0.1 

(') 

0.1 



=LlludeTsCe"1SrL°ce,^''nd ?rat\ makers, wheelwrig^^ ^., .„ ^. „ 

siSSscM^e't factory operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, and "other textile mill operatives." 



123 
3 
17 

97 

14 

6 



84 

647 

1,631 



;,437 
1 
31 



34 
2 
2 

26 
240 

21 

2 

779 

58 



72 

897 

2 

10 



134 

10 

1,501 



Per 
cent. 



1 

2 
6 

504 



19 
41 
58 
64 
16 
296 
20 



CXVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XXX VII. -DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN 

SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 





Aggregate. 


NATIVE WHITE- 
NATIVE PARENTS. 


NATIVE WHITE — 
POKEIGNFAKENTS. 


FOEEIGN WHITE. 


NEGHO. 


INDIAN. 


CHINESE AND 
JAPANESE. 


SEX AKD OCCUPATIONS. 


Number. 


Per 

cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


FEMALES— Continued. 
Trade and transportation 


503,347 


231,149 


45.9 


204,844 


40.7 


63,116 


12.6 


4,137 


0.8 


63 


0) 


38 


(») 


Bookkeepers and accountants 


74,153 
85,246 
34,084 

19,988 

149,230 
86,118 
22,556 
31, 972 

1,312,668 


36,289 
42,442 
10,638 

7,170 

62,427 
45,719 
12,337 
14,227 

517,362 


48.9 
49.8 
30.9 

35.9 

41.8 
53,1 
54.7 
44.5 

39.4 


31,270 

34,177 

8,320 

9,803 

68,437 
34,226 
8,815 
9,797 

476,997 


42.2 
40.1 
24.4 

49.1 

45.9 
39.7 
39.1 
30.6 

36.4 


6,392 
8,057 
14,330 

2,767 

17,948 
5,991 
1,391 
6,240 

281,384 


8.6 
9.4 
42.1 

13.8 

12.0 
7.0 
6.2 

19.5 

21.4 


194 
660 
860 

246 

403 

177 

11 

1,686 

33,182 


0.3 
0.7 
2.6 

1.2 

0.3 
0.2 

'6.'3 

2.6 


6 

7 

13 


(1) 


2 
3 
23 

2 

5 
2 


(M 




(') 


Merchants and dealers (except whole- 
sale). 


0.1 




10 

1 4 

2 

21 

3,391 


1 

0.3 


ff 


Stenogrraphers and typewriters 


Telegraph and telephone operators 




1 
362 


m 


Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 


(') 


15,632 

39, 610 

17,302 

120, 603 

344,794 

34,490 
22,834 
86,120 
15,981 

146,105 
30,941 
32,437 
68,935 

60,183 

43,497 
30,630 
202,674 


4,933 
15,903 

6,479 
50,690 
154,425 

16,367 
6,930 

46,246 
8,777 

62,375 
12,762 
10,907 
15,163 

13,782 

15,132 
7,850 
70,642 


31.6 
40.3 
31.7 
42.0 
44.8 

44.6 
30.4 
63.7 
54.9 

42.7 
41.3 
33.6 
22.0 

22.9 

34.8 
25.6 
34.8 


8,938 
17, 946 

9,267 
23,545 
120,914 

12,910 
11,012 
30, 326 
5,944 

44,951 
12,898 
14,014 
26, 994 

27,868 

12,289 
12,876 
84,315 


57.2 
45.4 
63.6 
19.5 
35.1 

37.4 
48.2 
86.2 
37.2 

30.8 
41.7 
43.2 
39.2 

46.3 

28.2 
42.0 
41.6 


1,727 
5,590 
2,512 
46, 022 
66,846 

6,192 
4,804 
9,370 
1,168 

27,061 
5,140 
7,441 

26, 362 

18,462 

10,956 

9,829 

41,922 


11.0 
14.1 
14.5 
38.2 
16.6 

17.9 
21.0 
10.9 
7.3 

18.5 
16.6 
23.0 
38.2 

30.7 

25.2 
32.1 
20.7 


34 
68 
44 
346 
12,614 

21 

86 

174 

101 

11,451 
135 
76 
314 

76 

5,117 

76 

2,662 


0.2 
0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
3.6 

0.1 
0.4 
0.2 
0.6 

7.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.4 

0.1 

11.8 
0.3 
1.3 










Boot and shoe makers and repairers . . . 


2 


(') 


1 


(') 














66 


(') 


39 


(') 


Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . . 
Metal workers^ 




2 
6 

1 

101 


ii! 

0.1 






Milliners . 






Printers, lithographers, and press- 
women. 






176 
6 


0.1 




P) 










4 
6 


0) 


108 


0.2 






specified). ^ 
Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . . 


3 


{') 


Woolen mill operatives 








3,214 


1.6 


29 


(') 





1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

2 Includes all workers in iron and steel and other metals. 

« Includes carpet factory operatives and "other textile mill operatives.' 



The composition of each of the principal occupation 
groups with respect to nativity and color, and also that 
of each of the main classes of occupations and of all 
classes combined, is shown graphically by the diagram 
on Plate 6. In this diagram the total length of the bar, 
in each case, represents 100 per cent, the length of the 
colored portions representing the per cent of the total in 
each of the five elements of the population. The fig- 
ures upon which these proportions are based are con- 
tained in Table xxxvi, and comprise forty-one leading 
occupation groups, in twenty-six of which the males 
largely predominate. Of the remaining groups there 
are eight in which the females constitute much the larger 
proportion, and seven in which they have a consider- 
able representation, varying from somewhat less than 
one- fifth to upward of one-half of the whole number. 
The eight occupation groups included in the first-named 
class comprise teachers and professors in colleges, etc. , 
housekeepers and stewards, launderers and laundresses, 
nurses and midwives, servants and waiters, stenog- 
raphers and typewriters, dressmakers, and seamstresses, 
while in the second class are included bookkeepers and 



accountants, salesmen and saleswomen, boot and shoe 
makers and repairers, cotton mill operatives, textile 
mill operatives (not otherwise specified), tailors and tai- 
loresses, and tobacco and cigar factory operatives. 

In somewhat more than one-third of all the occupa- 
tions considered in Table xxxvii, native white males 
of native parents constituted a majority of the male 
workers. This element attains its greatest prominence 
in the professions, constituting 75.6 per cent of the law- 
yers, 74.1 per cent of the physicians and surgeons, 73.6 
per cent of the dentists, and 71.5 per cent of the teachers 
and professors in colleges, etc. The native white males 
of foreign parents did not constitute a majority of the 
males in any of the principal occupation groups under 
consideration, but in six of these groups they attained 
a greater prominence than any other element. The six 
groups referred to and the percentages represented by 
this element are as followis: Plumbers and gas and steam 
fitters, 45.4 per cent; messengers and errand and office 
boys, 43 per cent; brassworkers, 38.5 per cent; steam 
boiler makers, 36. fi per cent; bartenders, 36.2 per cent; 
and gold and silver workers, 35.1 per cent. Foreign 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxvu 



white males constituted 75.8 per cent of the tailors 
and 71.9 per cent of the brewers and maltsters; they 
also constituted a majority of the cabinetmakers, the 
bakers, the hucksters and peddlers, the hat and cap 
makers, and the bleachery and dye works operatives. 
Of the occupations specified in the table there are only 
three in which the per cent of negroes exceeded that of 
any other element, namely, turpentine farmers and labor- 
ers, 83. !> per cent; porters and helpers (in stores, etc.), 
63.7 per cent; and servants and waiters, 43.6 per cent. 
Fully one-half of all the males returned as launderers 
were Chinese and Japanese (almost wholly Chinese), 
and these races also formed a considerable percentage 
(5.6) of all the males returned as servants and waiters. 
Of the total number of females gainfully employed, 
the native white of native parents constituted a larger 
proportion (36.2 per cent) than any other element, and 
in almost one-third of the principal occupation groups 
for this sex, a majority of the female workers belonged 
to this element of the population. In some of the 
other groups there was a rather even distribution among 
the different elements. This was notably the case with 
the large group of females returned as servants and 
waitresses, of whom 27.3 per cent were native white of 
native parents; 19.8 per cent, native white of foreign 
parents; 25.9 per cent, foreign white; and 26.9 per cent, 
negro. In eighteen, or more than one-half, of the 
occupation groups specified for females in the table, 
the two native white elements taken together consti- 
tuted by far the largest proportions of all the females 
returned, the percentages for the two elements com- 
bined ranging in these groups from 76.8 to 93.8, as 
shown by the following summary: 



Occiipaiions in which more than 7 5 per cent of the total number of females 
are native white: 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Telegraph and telephone operators 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Printers, lithographers, and presswomen 

Musicians and teachers ol music '. . 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. . 

Clerks and copyists 

Milliners 

Bookbinders 

Saleswomen 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Packers and shippers 

Shirt, collar, and cufE makers 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Metal workers 

Silk mill operatives 



NATIVE WHITE. 



Total. 



93.8 
92.8 
92.1 
91.3 
91.1 
90.6 



87.7 
86.7 
85.3 
85.0 
83.0 
82.0 
79.9 
78.6 
76.8 



Native 
parents. 



54.7 
53.1 
54.9 
66.6 
48.9 
63.5 
49.8 
53.7 
31.6 
41.8 
40.3 
31.7 
35.9 
41.3 
44.6 
44.8 
30.4 
33.6 



Foreign 
parents. 



39.1 
39.7 
37.2 
25.7 
42.2 
27.0 
40.1 
36.2 
57.2 
46.9 
45.4 
53.6 
49.1 
41.7 
37.4 
36.1 
48.2 
43.2 



Females employed in textile mills in 1900 were rather 
evenly distributed among the three white elements, the 
proportion represented by the foreign white being 
especially large as compared with that shown for this 
element in most of the other occupation groups here 
considered. The foreign white element, however, con- 
stituted an equally large proportion (38.2 per cent) of 
all the females returned as tailoresses, and an even larger 
proportion (42.1 per cent) of all those classed as mer- 
chants and dealers. The negro element constituted in 
1900 more than three-fourths of all the females returned 
as agricultural laborers, very nearly two-thirds of all 
those returned as laborers (not specified) and as laun- 
dresses, and somewhat more than one-fourth of all the 
female servants and waitresses. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS OCCUPIED BY AGE PERIODS. 



Persons engaged in gainful occupations in 1900 were 
distributed according to nine age groups, as follows: 
10 to 16, 16 to 20, 21 to 24, 26 to 34, 35 to 44, 46 to 54, 
65 to 64, 65 and over, and age unknown. In 1890 a 
somewhat similar distribution by age was made, but in 
1880 the age classification of those gainfully employed 
was limited to three groups, namely, 10 to 15, 16 to 59, 
and 60 and over. Comparison by age groups in detail 
is limited, therefore, to the last two censuses, using 
corrected figures for the age group 10 to 16 in 1890, as 
hereinbefore explained. 

Table xxxviii (page cxviii) presents, for continental 
United States, the whole number of males and of fe- 
males reported in each specified age group, and the 
number and percentage engaged in gainful occupations, 
at the censuses of 1890 and 1900. 

In 1900 approximately 96 per cent of the total num- 
ber of males in each of the four age groups covering 
the period from 21 to 54 years, inclusive, were gainfully 
employed, the percentage being highest (96.6) in the 
age group 35 to 44. In the age group 55 to 64 the per 



cent falls to 90, and in the next age group, 66 and over, 
to 68.4. The youngest age group, 10 to 15, shows a 
percentage of only 26.1; but in the next group, 16 to 
20, the percentage is 76.8. It is evident from this 
comparison that all but a small number of the men of 
each generation join the working force of the com- 
munity before they reach the age of 26, and all but a 
small number remain in active service until the}" are 
past 55 — a period of more than thirty years. The fe- 
males show a very different life history as regards the 
extent to which they enlist in the army of workers. 
The highest per cent of employment for this sex in 1900 
was 32.3, and was attained in the age group 16 to 20; it 
was only slightly lower in the next group, 21 to 24. 
But after 24 there was a very marked decrease, repre- 
senting the effect of matrimony in depleting the ranks 
of the gainful workers of this sex. 

In 1900, as compared with 1890, the proportion of 
males at work was slightly larger for the first two age 
groups, 10 to 16 and 16 to 24— particularly for the lat- 
ter — but was somewhat smaller for each age group from 



CXVlll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



25 years upward. In the proportion of females occupied, 
on the other hand, an increase was shown in 1900 for 
each age group except "age unknown," these increases 
being largely the result of the greater opportunities 
afforded for the employment of women in recent years 
as compared with ten or twenty years ago. 

Table XXXVIII. — Number of males and of females of each specified 
age engaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of 
the same sex and age: 1890 and 1900. 





MALBS 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVER. 


FEMALES 10 YEARS OF AGE 
AND OVER. 


CENSUS YEARS AND 
ASE PERIODS. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 




Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


1900 
Aggregate 


29,703, 440 


23,763,836 


80.0 


28,246,384 


5,319,397 


18.8 


10 to 15 years 


4,852,427 
6,605,645 

3,716,714 
2, 888, 931 

6,224,864 
4,872,781 
3,402,458 
2,062,424 
1,565,418 
127,423 

24, 362, 659 


1,264,411 
5,544,651 

2,855,425 
2,689,226 

6,993,847 
4,704,682 
3,250,259 
1,856,181 
1,063,866 
76,949 

'19,312,661 


26.1 
83.9 

76.8 
93.1 

96.3 
96.6 
95.5 
90.0 
68.4 
69.6 

79.3 


4,760,825 
6,762,442 

3,837,851 
2,914,591 

6, 860, 616 
4,339,166 
2,994,983 
1, 940, 111 
1,526,080 
73,161 

23,060,900 


485,767 
2,136,445 

1,237,967 
898,478 

1, 168, 342 
675,032 
440,825 
256,705 
138,687 
17,694 

'4,005,532 


10.2 




31.6 


16 to 20 years 

21 to 24 years 


32.3 
30.8 

19.9 




15.6 




14.7 




13.2 


65 years and oyer 

Age Tinknown 

1890 

Aggregate 


9.1 
24.2 

17.4 




4,219,145 
5, 709, 246 
5,123,975 
3,706,648 
2, 627, 024 
1,630,373 
1,233,719 
103,529 


'1,094,864 
4,559,151 
4, 989, 814 
3,626,366 
2,538,459 
1,514,615 
910,895 
78,507 


25.9 
79.9 
97.4 
97.9 
96.6 
92.9 
73.8 
76.8 


4,103,228 
6,766,129 
4,682,432 
3,346,031 
2, 430, 878 
1,499,997 
1,183,569 
58, 636 


'408,917 

1, 737, 931 

807,670 

441,067 

313, 363 

180,387 

98,168 

18, 039 


10.0 


16 to 24 years 


30.2 


25 to 34 vears 


17.2 




13.2 


45 to 54 years 


12.9 




12.0 


65 years and over 

Age unknown 


8.3 
30.8 



' Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



Table xxxix below shows, for each of the four prin- 
cipal elements of the population in continental United 
States in 1900, the proportion of males and of females 
in each specified age group who were engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 

The proportion of children of each sex at work in 
1900, represented by the per cent gainfully employed 
in the age group 10 to 15, as shown by Table xxxix, 
was much larger among negroes than in any other 
element of the population, being 49.3 per cent for males 
and 30.6 per cent for females. The elements next in 
order were as follows: For males, foreign white (29.2), 
native white of native parents {2-±.3), native white of 
foreign parents (16.9) ; for females, foreign white (20. 3), 
native white of foreign parents (7.9), native white of 
native parents (5.7). 

For the next older age group, comprising persons 
from 16 to 20 years of age, the order of the elements 
with respect to the proportion at work was the same 
for both sexes; the foreign white showed the highest 
percentage, followed by negro, native white of foreign 
parents, and native white of native parents, in the order 
named. In this age group the percentage of males at 
work ranged from 88.2 for the first-named element to 
72.7 for the last; for females the percentages were 
smaller and showed wider variations, being, for the four 
elements in the order just given, 56.8, 49.6, 10, and 
20.8. The first three of these percentages constitute 
for the elements to which they severally relate the 
maximum proportion of females at work in any age 
group; but for native white females of native parents 
the percentage in thi.s age group is exceeded by that in 
the next older group, 21 to 21. 



Table XXXIX.— NUMBER OF MALES AND OF FEMALES IN EACH PRINCIPAL ELEMENT OF THE POPULATION ENGAGED 
IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND ELEMENT IN EACH 
SPECIFIED AGE PERIOD: 1900. 



BEX AND AGE PERIODS. 



Males , 

10 to 15 years 

16 to 20 years 

21 to 24 years 

26 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over. 
Age unknown 

Females . . . 

10 to 16 years 

16 to 20 years 

21 to 24 years 

26 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over. 
Age unknown 



NATIVE WHITE — NATIVE PAR- 
ENTS. 



Total. 



16, 462, 865 



2, 806, 250 
2, 077, 862 
1, 508, 184 
3, 007, 396 
2,288,896 
1, 748, 978 
1, 089, 079 
860, 380 
76,830 

14, 857, 406 



2, 727, 245 
2, 092, 138 
1, 490, 273 
2, 860, 606 
2,116,226 
1,590,440 
1, 081, 431 
864,846 
36,201 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



11, 948, 692 



682, 731 

1,510,154 

1, 393, 722 

2, 891, 695 

2,198,662 

1, 662, 249 

979, 929 

692, 123 

37, 527 

1,926,637 



164, 671 
434, 822 
318, 070 
399, 048 
244, 348 
182, 106 
120, 592 
67, 624 
5,356 



Per cent. 



77.3 



24.3 
72.7 
92.4 
96.2 
96.1 
95.0 
90.0 
69.6 
48.8 

13.0 



6.7 
20.8 
21.3 
13.9 
11.6 
11.5 
11.2 

7.8 
15.2 



NATIVE WHITE— FOREIGN PAR- 
ENTS. 



Total. 



5,460,085 



1, 182, 948 

832, 453 

630, 978 

1, 304, 709 

896, 524 

390,484 

146, 346 

71, 784 

4,860 

5, 466, 316 



1, 177, 347 

862, 537 

657, 463 

1, 323, 801 

868, 394 

366, 145 

137, 986 

69, 362 

3,281 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



4, 117, 387 



200, 417 

650, 872 

587, 965 

1, 256, 162 

867, 891 

373, 343 

128, 898 

48, 191 

3,668 

1, 183, 637 



92, 793 

346, 022 

248, 202 

297, 768 

130, 682 

46, 903 

16, 976 

6,367 



Per cent. 



16.9 
78.2 
93.2 
96.3 
96.8 
96.6 
88.7 
67.1 
76.3 

21.7 



7.9 
40.0 
37.8 
22.5 
16.0 
12.8 
11.6 

7.7 
26.1 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



Total. 



5,414,991 



199, 635 

311, 086 

374, 478 

1, 260, 223 

1, 230, 104 

908, 545 

631, 024 

493, 760 

16, 136 

4,599,265 



195, 771 
339, 349 
372, 474 
1, 020, 689 
913, 574 
735, 067 
567,010 
456, 687 
8,744 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



4, 857, 099 



68, 236 

274, 408 

357, 991 

1, 215, 918 

1, 198, 323 

872, 417 

560, 406 

306, 393 

13,008 

879,719 



39, 708 

192, 817 

IM, 743 

202, 132 

119, 164 

86,069 

54, 634 

28,261 

2,301 



Per cent. 



29.2 
88.2 
96.6 
97.3 
97.4 
96.0 
88.8 
62.1 
80.6 

19.1 



20.3 
56.8 
41.6 
19.8 
13.0 
11.7 
9.8 
6.2 
26.3 



Total. 



3, 181, 650 



646, 541 
474, 807 
359, 965 
622, 727 
412, 461 
323, 683 
183, 284 
133,025 
25,157 

3, 233, 931 



643, 943 
531, 138 
386, 790 
639, 369 
429, 442 
293, 688 
157,679 
128, 338 
23,654 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



319,065 
406, 439 
336, 836 
594, 269 
398,078 
813, 965 
175, 031 
112, 924 
18, 900 

1,316,840 



197, 219 

263, 393 

176, 325 

266, 942 

178, 802 

124,023 

64, 534 

86, 589 

9,063 



Per cent. 



84.1 



49.3 
86.6 
93.6 
95.4 
96.6 
97.0 
95.6 
84.9 
75.1 

40.7 



30.6 
49.6 
45.6 
41.8 
4L6 
42.2 
41,0 
28.5 
38.3 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXIX 



In the period from 21 to 54 years of age the per cent 
of males gainfully employed was very high in all ele- 
ments of the population with no very marked differ- 
ences, the per cent being slightly higher for foreign 
white than for any other element in each of the three 
groups covering the period from 21 to 4-4 years, in- 
clusive, and slightly higher for negroes than for any 
other element in the next age group, 45 to 54. In the 
age group 55 to 64 the difference between the per cent 
for negroes and the white element becomes more marked, 
while in the group 65 and over the per cent of negroes 
gainfully employed was much higher than that for any 
of the white elements. This probably means that few 
of the negroes have acquired a competence enabling 
them to give up work as they approach old age. 

In the case of females the contrast between the negroes 



and the whites as regards the per cent gainfully em- 
ployed is very striking. For white women the per cent 
undergoes a marked reduction as soon as they enter the 
marrying period of life; but for negro women matri- 
mony brings no such exemption from the necessity of 
gainful labor, and the per cent of workers undergoes no 
very marked reduction until they enter the period of old 
age, 65 years and over. The per cent gainfully employed 
is highest for negroes in every age group except that of 
16 to 20, in which it is highest for foreign white. 

Table XL shows, for males and females separately, 
the proportion which the number in each age group 
engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class 
of occupations formed of the whole number similarly 
engaged in continental United States in 1900. 



Table XL.— DISTRIBUTION, BY AGE PERIODS, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 

AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS: 1900. 



SEX AND AGE PERIODS. 


ALL OCCUPATIONS. 


ASEIODLTOEAL PUR- 
SUITS. 


PROFESSIONAL SERV- 
ICE. 


DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 


TRADE AND TRANS- 
PORTATION. 


MANUFACTURING AND 
MECHANICAL PUR- 
SUITS. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




23,753,836 


100.0 


9,404,429 


100.0 


827,941 


100.0 


3, 485, 208 


100.0 


4,263,617 


100.0 


5,772,641' 


100.0 






10 to 15 years , 

16 to 20 years 


1, 264, 411 
2,856,425 
2,689,226 
5,993,847 
4,704,682 
3, 250, 259 
1,856,181 
1,063,856 
75,949 

5,319,397 


5.3 
12.0 
11.3 
26.3 
19.8 
13.7 
7.8 
4.5 
0.3 

100.0 


864,690 
1, 281, 739 

987,242 
1,931,619 
1,695,062 
1,317,269 

843, 963 

569,915 
22,930 

977,336 


9.1 
13.6 
10.6 
20.6 
17.0 
14.0 
9.0 
6.1 
0.2 

100.0 


1,845 

36,026 

88,947 

265,744 

194,192 

129,284 

78,692 

46,335 

2,877 

430, 597 


0.2 
4.4 
10.1 
30.9 
23.5 
15.6 
9.6 
5.5 
0.3 

100.0 


137,049 
464, 742 
441,725 
936,020 
692, 921 
440,233 
243,210 
120, 723 
18,585 

2,095,449 


3.9 

13.0 

12.7 

26.9 

19.9 

12.6 

7.0 

3.5 

0.5 

100.0 


100,174 

. 468,466 

532,907 

1,255,495 

943,037 

563,009 

279,160 

125,955 

15,425 

503,347 


2.3 
10.8 
12.5 
29.4 
22.1 
13.0 
6.5 
3.0 
0.4 

100.0 


170,653 

624,464 

643,406 

1,614,969 

1,279,470 

810,464 

411,156 

201, 928 

16, 132 

1,312,668 


3.0 

10.8 




11.1 


25 to 34 years 


28.0 




22.2 




14.0 




7.1 




3.6 


Agr*^ iiTiVnown 


0.3 


Females 


100.0 






10 to 15 years 


485, 767 

1,237,967 

898,478 

1,168,342 

675,032 

440, 825 

256,705 

138,587 

17,694 


9.1 
23.3 
16.9 
22.0 
12.7 
8.3 
4.8 
2.6 
0.3 


207,281 

177, 876 

83,826 

123,677 

114, 162 

116,842 

89,154 

61,050 

3,478 


21.2 
18.2 
8.6 
12.6 
11.7 
12.0 
9.1 
6.2 
0.4 


1,100 
69,641 
118,334 
147,609 
66,107 
23,698 
9,972 
2,977 
1,169 


0.2 

16.2 

27.5 

34.3 

13.0 

5.6 

2.3 

0.7 

0.3 


141, 982 
475,749 
340,845 
462, 300 
293,509 
201,095 
112, 752 
66,643 
10,674 


6.8 

22.7 

16.3 

22.0 

14.0 

9.6 

5.4 

2.7 

0.6 


22,188 

147,660 

124,316 

130,130 

44,640 

19,770 

9,792 

4,166 

695 


4.4 

29.3 

24.7 

26.9 

8.9 

3.9 

2.0 

0.8 

0.1 


113,216 

367, 041 

231,157 

304, 626 

166, 624 

79,420 

35,036 

13,861 

1,688 


8.6 




28.0 




17.6 


25 to 34 years . 


23.2 




12.7 


45 to 54 years 


6.0 




2.7 


65 years and over. 


1.1 




0.1 







The chief purpose of this presentation is to show from 
what age groups the gainful workers are mostly drawn, 
and further, what proportion of the whole number en- 
gaged in each class of occupations is contributed by the 
younger portions of the population as compared with 
the older. 

Nearly one-half (48.6 per cent) of the total number of 
males gainfully employed in 1900 were between the ages 
of 16 and 34, inclusive. If the period be extended to 
include all ages between 16 and 44, inclusive, the pro- 
portion increases to more than two-thirds (68.4 per 
cent). In other words, the great majority of the men 
who do the world's work are comparatively young men. 
This preponderance of young men is less marked in 
agriculture and in the professions than in the other main 
classes of occupations. In agriculture, however, there 
was a comparatively large proportion of boys between 
the ages of 10 and 16 years, inclusive. 

The following summary shows, for continental United 
States, the distribution of males gainfully employed by 



three age periods, the first representing the period of 
youth, the second that of young manhood and middle 
age, and the third that of old age: 

Per cent distribution, by specified age groups, of males engaged in gain- 
ful occupations and in each main class: 1900. 



AGE PERIODS. 


All occu- 
pations. 


Agricul- 
tural 
pursuits. 


Profes- 
sional 
service. 


Domestic 

and 
personal 
service. 


Trade 
and 
transpor- 
tation. 


Manufac- 
turing 
and me- 
chanical 
pursuits. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100. 


100.0 


10 to 20 years 

21 to 54 years 

56 years and over. . 
Age unknown 


17.3 
70.1 
12.3 
0.3 


22,7 

62.0 

15.1 

0.2 


4.6 
80.1 
15.0 

0.3 


16.9 
72.1 
10.6 
0.5 


13.1 
77.0 
9.5 
0.4 


13.8 

75.3 

10.6 

0.3 



In agriculture the per cent for the youngest of these 
age periods is exceptionally high, because of the extent 
to which boys are employed oh their fathers' farms and 
are therefore returned in the census as agricultural 
laborers; in professional service the corresponding per 



cxx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



cent is exceptionally low because these pursuits require 
a rather long preparatory training, and, therefore, are 
not open to persons of this age group. The other 
callings occupy an intermediate position in these re- 
spects, and exhibit no very striking contrasts, although 
the percentage in the youngest age group is somewhat 
higher for domestic and personal service than for either 
trade and transportation or manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits. In the old age group, 55 and over, the 
per cent is higher for agricultural pursuits and for 
professional service than for the other classes. 

For females gainfully employed the proportion in 
the earlier years of life is much higher than it is for 
males, a difference which, as already remarked, is to be 
attributed to the effect of marriage in terminating the 
occupational career of this sex. Almost one-third 
(32.4 per cent) of the female workers in 1900 and 
hardly more than one-sixth (17.3 per cent) of the male 
were under 21 years of age; or taking a higher age 
limit, close to one-half (49.3 per cent) of the former 
and less than three-tenths (28.6 per cent) of the latter 
were under 25 years of age. 

In Table xli the total number of gainful workers of 
each sex in each specified age group in 1900 is distrib- 
uted on a percentage basis by main classes of occupa- 
tions, for continental United States. 

Table XLI. — Per cent distribution, by main classes of occupations, of 
males and of females of each specified age period gainfully employed: 
1900. 



SEX AND AGE PERIODS. 



Males 

10 to 15 years 

16 to 20 years 

21 to 2i years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 years and over 
Age unknown . . . 

Females 

10 to 15 years 

16 to 20 years 

21 to 24 years 

25 to 34 years 

36 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

55 to 64 years 

66 years and over 
Age unknown 



Agricul- 

tural 
pursuits. 



67.6 
44.9 
36.7 
32.2 
33.9 
40.6 
45.5 
53.6 
30.2 

18.4 



42.7 
14.4 
9.3 
10.6 
16.9 
26.6 
34.7 
44.1 
19.7 



Profes- 
sional 
service. 



3.5 



0.2 
1.3 
3.1 
4.3 
4.1 
4.0 
4.2 
4.3 



8.1 



0.2 
6.6 
13.2 
12.6 
8.3 
5.4 
3.9 
2.1 



Domestic 
and per- 
sonal 
service. 



10.8 
15.9 
16.6 
15.6 
14.7 
13.6 
13.1 
11.3 
24.6 



29.2 
38.4 
37.9 
39.6 
43.5 
45.6 
43.9 
40.8 



Trade 
and 
transpor- 
tation 



7.9 
16.0 
19.8 
21.0 
20.1 
17.0 
15.0 
11.8 
20.3 

9.4 



4.6 
11.9 
13.9 
11.1 
6.6 
4.6 
3.8 
3.0 
3.9 



Manufac- 
turing 
and me- 
chanical 
pursuits. 



24.3 



13.6 
21.9 
23.9 
26.9 
27.2 
24.9 
22.2 
19.0 
21.2 

24.7 



23.3 
29.7 
25.7 
26.1 
24.7 
18.0 
13.7 
10.0 
9.5 



Of the total number of males from 10 to 15 years of 
age who were at work in 1900, more than two-tjiirds 



(67.6 per cent) were engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
while of those from 16 to 20 years of age the corre- 
sponding proportion was considerably less than one- 
half (44.9 per cent). In the next 'three age groups, 
covering the period from 21 to 44, inclusive, the pro- 
portion is approximately one-third, being lowest (32.2) 
in the group 26 to 34. It then increases in each succes- 
sive higher age group, reaching more than one-half for 
the group 65 and over. Of the female workers from 
10 to 15 years of age, 42.7 per cent, or more than two- 
fifths, were engaged in agricultural pursuits, but less 
than 15 per cent of those from 16 to 20 and less than 10 
per cent of those from 21 to 24 years of age were so 
engaged; from 25 years upward there was a constantly 
increasing proportion, the percentage reaching 44.1 in 
the group 65 and over, or a little more than the per- 
centage in the youngest age group. 

The steady fall noted in the percentages for males 
in the successive age groups from 10 to 34, followed 
by a steady rise in the later periods, is peculiar to agri- 
cultural pursuits. In each of the other classes of occu- 
pations the percentage for males is lower in youth and 
also (with the exception of professional service) in old 
age than in the intervening period. The employment on 
the farm of the children of farmers doubtless explains 
the high per cent for agricultural pursuits in the period 
of youth. For the increase of the per cent in the age 
groups above 44 years the explanation is not so obvious; 
but if, as the census figures indicate, agricultural pur- 
suits are becoming of less importance relative to other 
occupations, the change would naturally affect first the 
distribution for the age groups just above the period at 
which men ordinarilj^ make their choice of an occupation. 

The percentages of male workers engaged in manu- 
facturing and mechanical pursuits were highest for the 
period between 25 and 44 years of age, the percentages 
being 26.9 between 25 and 34 and 27.2 between 35 and 
44; but for females the highest percentages were shown 
for a younger period, that from 16 to 34, the percent- 
ages being 29.7, 25.7, and 26.1, for the age groups 16 to 
20, 21 to 24, and 25 to 34, respectively. 

There was a large proportion of females in domestic 
and personal service for each age group from 16 years 
upward, the maximum percentage, 45.6, being that for 
the age group 45 to 54. The large percentage shown 
for this class of occupations among females in the group 
"age unknown" is probably due largely to the return 
of servants for whom no age was reported. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXXl 



NUMBEE AND PROPORTION OF EACH SEX IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS. 



PEOPOETION OF EACH SEX IN MAIN CLASSES OF OCCU- 
PATIONS. 

The number and proportion of males and of females 
engaged in all gainful occupations, and in each of the 
five main classes, in 1880, 1890, and 1900, are shown for 
continental United States in Table xlii. 

Table XLII. — Distribution, by sex, of persons engaged in gainful 
occupations and in each main class: 18S0, 1890, and 1900. 





Total. 


MALEr. 


FEMALES. 


CENSUS YEARS. AND CLASSES OF 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


lilOO 


29,073,233 


23,763,836 


81.7 


5,319,397 


18.3 






Agricultural pursuits 


10,381,766 
1,268,638 
5,680,667 
4,766,964 
7,085,309 

23,318,183 


9,404.429 
827, 941 
3,486,208 
4,263,617 
6,772,641 

19, 312, 661 


90.6 
65.8 
62.6 
89.4 
81.5 

82.8 


977,336 
430,597 

2,096,449 
503,347 

1,312,668 

4,006,632 


9 4 




34.2 


Domestic and personal service. . . 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

1890 

All occTipations i 


37.6 
10.6 
18.5 

17.2 








9,148,448 
944,333 
4,220,812 
3,326,122 
5, 678, 468 

17,392,099 


8,378,603 
632,646 
2, 653, 161 
3,097,701 
4,650,540 

14, 744, 942 


91.6 
67.0 
60.5 
93.1 
81.9 

84.8 


769, 845 
311, 687 

1,667,6.51 
228,421 

1,027,928 

2, 647, 157 


8.4 




33.0 


Domestic and personal service. . . 

Trade and transportation 

Manulaoturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

1880 


39.5 
6.9 
18.1 

16.2 








7,713,876 
603, 202 
3,418,793 
1,871,503 
3,784,726 


7, 119, 366 
425,947 
2, 237, 493 
1,808,445 
8,153,692 


92.3 
70.6 
65.4 
96.6 
83.3 


694, 610 
177, 265 
1,181,300 
63,058 
631,034 


7.7 


Professional service 


29.4 


Domestic and personal service... 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 


34.6 

3.4 

16.7 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 

From this table it appears that females constituted 
a somewhat larger proportion of the whole number of 
persons occupied in 1900 than in either 1880 or 1890, 
the percentages being 18.3 for 1900, 17.2 for 1890, and 
15.2 for 1880. Moreover, the proportion of females 
shows an increase, continuing through both decades, in 
each class of occupations except domestic and personal 



service, in which an increase from 34.6 per cent in 1880 
to 39.5 per cent in 1890 was followed by a decrease to 
37.5 in 1900. In trade and transportation the propor- 
tion of females increased from 3.1 per cent in 1880 to 
6.9 per cent in 1890 and to 10.6 per cent in 1900, this 
marked advance being mainly the result of the large 
increase in the number of females employed in clerical 
capacities and as saleswomen. The proportion of 
females in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 
which increased from 16.7 per cent to 18.1 per cent 
during the decade from 1880 to 1890, remained nearly 
stationary during the following decade, being only 18.5 
per cent in 1900. 

It may not be superfluous to call attention to the fact 
that the increases or decreases in the percentages con- 
stantly referred to in this section indicate merely 
changes in the relative numerical importance of the 
two sexes. The decrease just noted in the per cent of 
females employed in domestic and personal service, for 
instance, does not mean that there are fewer women in 
this class of occupations than formerly. As a matter 
of fact there are more; but the number has not increased 
to the same extent as the number of men, and conse- 
quently the per cent which women form of the total has 
decreased. 

The per cent distribution by sex -of the total number 
of persons engaged in all gainful occupations, and in 
each main class of occupations, at the censuses of 1880, 
1890, and 1900 is presented for each state and territory 
in Table xliii, the figures upon which the percentages are 
based being given in Tables xxii to xxiv (pages Ixxxviii 
to xciii). In considering this table, however, it should 
be remembered that the relative proportions of each sex 
engaged in gainful occupations and in each of the main 
classes in the several states and territories are necessarily 
dependent in some degree upon the proportion in which 
the sexes are distributed through the country, as well 
as upon the opportunities which are open for the 
employment of women in different localities. 



CXXll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Table XLIII.— PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, BY SEX, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 





STATES AND TERBIT0EIE8. 


ALL OCCnPATIONS. 


AGEICDLTnEAL PnESDITS. 


PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 




1900 


18901 


1880 


1900 


18901 


1S80 


1900 


1890 


1880 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males 


Fe- 
males 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males, 


Fe- 
males, 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males, 


Fe- 
males, 


1 


United States 

Continental United States . . 
North Atlantic dlTision . 
Maine 


81.8 


18.2 


82.8 


17.2 


84.8 


15.2 


90.6 


9.4 


91.6 


8.4 


92.3 


7.7 


65,9 


34.1 


£7.0 


33,0 


70,6 


29,4 


2 


81.7 


18.3 


82.8 


17.2 


84.8 


15.2 


90.6 


9.4 


91,6 


8,4 


92.3 


7.7 


66.8 


34.2 


67.0 


33,0 


70,6 


29,4 


3 


78.5 


21.5 


79.6 


20.4 


81.6 


18.4 


96.8 


3.2 


98.1 


1,9 


99.5 


0.5 


65.7 


34.3 


64,4 


35.6 


66,8 


34.2 


4 


81.2 
76.6 
83.1 
72.8 
72.9 
77.0 
77.6 
79.6 
82.4 

77.3 


18.8 
23.4 
16.9 
27.2 
27.1 
23.0 
22.4 
20.4 
17.6 

22.7 


82.6 
77.6 
84.6 
73.2 
72.6 
77.5 
78.9 
80.5 
83.6 

78.0 


17.4 
22.4 
15.5 
26.8 
27.4 
22.5 
21.1 
19.5 
16.4 

22.0 


85.5 
78.9 
86.4 
75.8 
74.6 
79.8 
80.9 
83.2 
86.1 

79.2 


14.5 
21.1 
13.6 
24.2 
25.5 
20.2 
19.1 
16.8 
14.9 

20.8 


96.9 
96.0 
97.1 
97.2 
97.4 
96.6 
96.7 
97.3 
96.9 

83.6 


4.1 
4,0 
2.9 
2.8 
2.6 
3.5 
3.3 
2.7 
3.1 

16.6 


98.2 
98.6 
98.8 
98.7 
98.4 
98.3 
97.8 
97.9 
98.2 

84.5 


1,8 
1,5 
1,2 
1,3 
1,6 
1,7 
2,2 
2,1 
1,8 

15,6 


99.7 
99.6 
99.6 
99.7 
99.7 
99.8 
99.4 
99.3 
99.6 

83.7 


0.3 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 
0.6 
0,7 
0.4 

16.3 


52,2 
54.7 
52.0 
61.6 
62.6 
60.9 
67.6 
69.6 
68,6 

68,7 


47.8 
46.3 
48,0 
38.5 
37,4 
39,1 
32,4 
30,4 
31,4 

31.3 


48,6 
61,7 
48,3 
60,7 
63,3 
60,1 
66.3 
69.8 
67.9 

72.3 


61,4 
48.3 
51.7 
39,3 
36.7 
39,9 
33,7 
30,2 
32,1 

27.7 


48,8 
41,8 
48,9 
61,3 
64,7 
60,8 
68,2 
72,5 
71,9 

78.9 


61.2 
58.2 
51.1 
38.7 
35.3 
39,2 
31,8 
27,6 
28,1 

21.1 


5 
fi 


New Hampshire 


7 
8 
q 


Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 





New York 


1 




12 
13 


Pennsylvania 

South Atlantic division . 
Delaware.. . 


4 


82.2 
78.4 
67,6 
81.0 
90.4 
77.7 
68.2 
74.7 
81.4 

85.4 


17.8 
21.6 
32.4 
19.0 
9.6 
22.3 
31.8 
26.3 
18.6 

14.6 


84.0 
78.6 
68.2 
81.1 
90.6 
78.6 
70.2 
75.8 
80.3 

87.0 


16.0 
21.4 
31.8 
18.9 
9.4 
21.4 
29.8 
24.2 
19.7 

13.0 


85.5 
81.9 
70.5 
83.2 
93.5 
81.9 
69.4 
74.6 
80.6 

90.5 


14.6 
18.1 
29.5 
16.8 
6.5 
18.1 
30.6 
26.5 
19.4 

9.5 


97.3 
96.8 
96.8 
92.4 
96.3 
83.9 
70.8 
80.8 
85.3 

97.1 


2.7 
3.7 
3.2 
7.6 
3.7 
16.1 
29.2 
19.2 
14.7 

2.9 


98.0 
97.1 
96.7 
93.6 
97.3 
84.3 
72.2 
82.0 
83.8 

97.5 


2.0 

2,9 

3,3 

6,4 

2,7 

16,7 

27,8 

18,0 

16,2 

2,6 


98.7 
98.1 
98.7 
94.1 
99,4 
87,1 
70.9 
76.4 
81.0 

99.4 


1.3 

1.9 

1.3 

5.9 

0.6 

12.9 

29.1 

23.6 

19.0 

0.6 


67,3 
68,5 
74,7 
63.8 
72.8 
68.4 
66.5 
69.9 
70,4 

62,6 


32.7 
31.5 
26.3 
36.2 
27.2 
31.6 
34.5 
30.1 
29.6 

37,4 


68.0 
69.6 
77.8 
67.6 
73.9 
73.0 
72.9 
74.6 
77.9 

63.7 


32.0 
30.4 
22.2 
32.4 
26,1 
27.0 
27.1 
25,4 
22.1 

36,3 


72.1 
76.6 
80.4 
76.2 
81.6 
80.9 
77.9 
80.4 
87.1 

' 67.8 


27,9 
23,4 
19,6 
23,8 
18,6 
19,1 
22,1 
19,6 
12,9 

32,2 


5 




16 
7 


District of Columbia. 
Virginia 


L8 
L9 
20 


West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 


W 


Florida 


23 


North Centra! division . . 
Ohio 


24 


84.1 
87.0 
83.7 
85.2 
84.1 
86.0 
86.5 
86.2 
88.0 
88.6 
87.5 
89.1 

81.3 


16.9 
13.0 
16.3 
14.8 
16.9 
15.0 
13.5 
13.8 
12.0 
11.4 
12.6 
10.9 

18.7 


86.7 
88.6 
85.4 
87.4 
86.0 
86.2 
87.5 
87.6 
88.5 
90.0 
88.6 
90.2 

81.6 


14.3 
11.4 
14.6 
12.6 
14.0 
13.8 
12.5 
12.4 
11.6 
10.0 
11.4 
9.8 

18.4 


88.7 
91.9 
89.4 
90.3 
88.9 
90.2 
91.5 
90.9 

}295.1 

93.1 
94.0 

82.5 


11.3 
8.1 

10.6 
9.7 

11.1 
9.8 
8.6 
9.1 

24.9 

6.9 
6.0 

17.5 


96.4 
97.1 
97.4 
97.2 
96.8 
97.4 
97.8 
96.6 
f 97.6 
t 97.4 
97.7 
97.6 

85.1 


3.6 
2.9 
2.6 
2.8 
3.2 
2.6 
2.2 
3.4 
2.6 
2.6 
2.3 
2.4 

14.9 


97.5 
97.6 
97.1 
97.9 
97.4 
98.1 
97.6 
96.9 
97.9 
97.8 
98.0 
97.4 

86.4 


2.5 
2.4 
2,9 
2,1 
2.6 
1.9 
2.4 
3.1 
2.1 
2.2 
2.0 
2.6 

14.6 


99.7 
99.5 
99.4 
99.6 
99.2 
99.5 
99.6 
99.0 

[299.5 

99.3 
99.6 

85.4 


0.3 
0.5 
0.6 
0.4 
0.8 
0.5 
. 0.5 
1.0 

20.5 

0.7 
0.4 

14.6 


67,6 
69,4 
66.2 
59.6 
56.6 
56.6 
50.3 
69.5 
f 57.6 
t 54.9 
66,9 
60,3 

71,8 


32.4 
30.6 
33.8 
40.4 
44.4 
43,4 
49,7 
30,5 
42,4 
45,1 
44.1 
39.7 

28.2 


67.5 
69,8 
65,2 
61,0 
56,8 
61.8 
60,2 
70.9 
63.6 
60.3 
62.9 
66,2 

76,1 


32,5 
30,2 
34,8 
39,0 
44.2 
38.2 
49.8 
29.1 
36,4 
39,7 
37,1 
33,8 

23,9 


70.8 
75.2 
69.4 
60.8 
56.6 
60.1 
68.4 
76.0 

1=80.6 

68.0 
70.5 

83.1 


29.2 
24.8 
30.6 
39.2 
43.4 
39.9 
41.6 
24.0 

219.4 

32,0 
29,6 

16,9 


25 


Indiana . 


2ii 


Illinois 


27 


Michig^flTi 


'« 


Wisconsin . 


29 




m 




i1 


Missouri 


i2 
!3 


North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 


15 


Kansas . 


i6 


South Central division . . 
Kentucky , 


i7 


86.0 
84.0 
73.8 
72.4 
75.6 
86.4 
90.9 
92.3 
84.0 

88.4 


J4.0 
16.0 
26.2 
27.6 
24.4 
13.6 
9.1 
7.7 
16.0 

11.6 


86.5 
86.7 
75.8 
72.8 
73.6 
87.2 


13.5 
14.3 
24.2 
27.2 
26.4 
12.8 


89.5 
87.4 
74.8 
73.4 
73.8 
88.7 


10.5 
12.6 
26.2 
26.6 
26.2 
11.3 


95.6 
91.8 
75.0 
73.9 
77.0 
90.8 
94.0 
96.4 
86.3 

96.7 


4.4 

8.2 

25.0 

26.1 

23.0 

9.2 

6.0 

3.6 

13.7 

3.3 


96.5 
92.4 
77.6 
74.6 
7.5.4 
90.9 


3.5 

7.6 

22.4 

26.4 

24.6 

9.1 


98.4 
93.7 
76.6 
74.3 
72.0 
91.9 


1.6 

6.3 

23.4 

26.7 

28.0 

8.1 


71,4 
74,0 
72,0 
62.8 
68.7 
72.6 
78.8 
70.5 
76.4 

69.0 


28.6 
26.0 
28.0 
37,2 
31,3 
27,4 
21.2 
29.6 
23,6 

31,0 


72,8 
77,0 
76,8 
69,8 
71,8 
79,0 


27,2 
23,0 
23.2 
30.2 
28.2 
21.0 


80,3 
83.6 
80,9 
77,5 
80.2 
87.7 


19.7 
16.4 
19.1 
22.5 
19,8 
12,3 


W 




W 


Alabama 







1 




•?, 




3 


Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 


W 


94.9 
86.7 

90.7 


6.1 
14.3 

9.3 






97.8 
88.2 

98.1 


2.2 
11.8 

1,9 






82.9 
82.0 

73.9 


17.1 
18.0 

26.1 






h 


Arkansas 


88.3 
94.0 


11.7 
6.0 


90.0 
99.4 


10.0 
0.6 


90.8 
77.8 


9,2 
22,2 


6 


Western division 

Montana 

Wynming^ 


7 

R 


91.6 
93.2 
87.2 
90.4 
87.3 
87.3 
89.9 
92.8 
90.8 
89.1 
86.4 

89.1 
93.2 
99.8 


8.5 

6.8 

12.8 

9.6 

12.7 

12.7 

10.1 

7.2 

9.2 

10.9 

13.6 

10.9 
6.8 
0.2 


93.6 
93.9 
90.1 
92.8 
94.1 
89.6 
92.2 
94.7 
93.3 
91.5 
88.9 


6.4 
6.1 
9.9 
7.2 
6.9 

10.4 
7.8 
5.3 
6.7 
8.5 

11.1 


97.7 
94.8 
95.3 
94.6 
97.9 
92.8 
95.3 
98.1 
96.5 
95.9 
92.5 


2.3 
6.2 
4.7 
6.5 
2.1 
7.2 
4.7 
1.9 
3.5 
4.1 
7.5 


98.1 
98.3 
97.-1 
96.5 
86.0 
96.6 
97.7 
97.4 
96.8 
97.3 
96.8 

96.6 
96.2 
100.0 


1.9 
1.7 
2.6 
3.6 
14.0 
3.4 
2.3 
2.6 
3.2 
2.7 
3.2 

3.6 
4.8 


98.7 
99.2 
98.2 
98.3 
98.6 
97.4 
98.4 
98.6 
98.6 
98.1 
97.8 


1,3 
0.8 
1.8 
1.7 
1.4 
2.6 
1.6 
1.5 
1.4 
1.9 
2.2 


99.8 
99.8 
99.5 
99.2 
99.7 
99.5 
99.3 
99,7 
99,6 
99,7 
99,3 


0.2 
0.2 
0,5 
0,8 
0,3 
0,5 
0,7 
0,3 
0,5 
0,3 
0,7 


71.7 
67.1 
69.7 
77.8 
76.9 
69.3 
62,6 
69.5 
71,5 
66,5 
67,6 

84.6 
74.3 
99.5 


28,3 
32.9 
30.3 
22.2 
23.1 
30.7 
37.4 
30.6 
28.6 
33.6 
32.4 

15.4 
25.7 
0.5 


79.1 
79.2 
75.9 
81.0 
84,7 
75.1 
68.9 
77.6 
80.3 
72.3 
70.2 


20.9 
20.8 
24.1 
19.0 
15.3 
24.9 
31.1 
22. 5 
19.7 
27.7 
29.8 


84.0 
90.4 
86.2 
90.2 
92.5 
76.7 
78.1 
88.2 
74.3 
75.3 
74.4 


16,0 
9.6 
13.8 
9.8 
7.5 
23.3 
21.9 
11.8 
25.7 
24.7 
25.6 


9 





1 


New Mexico 

Arizona 


9. 


Utah 


3 




4 


Idaho , 


5 




fi 


Orepfon 


7 


California . . 


9 


Alaska 

Hawaii 





Military and naval 





























1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 

OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 



CXXlll 







DOMESTIC 


AND PERSONAL SERVICE. 






TRADE 


AND TRANSPORTATION. 




MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 






19U0 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 






Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Males, 


Fe- 
males. 






63.1 


36.9 


60,5 


39.6 


66.4 


34.6 


89.6 


10.5 


93,1 


6.9 


96,6 


3.4 


81.5 


18,6 


81.9 


18.1 


83.3 


16.7 


1 




62.5 


37.6 


60.5 


39.6 


66.4 


34.6 


89.4 


10.6 


93,1 


6,9 


96.6 


3.4 


81.6 


18,5 


81.9 


18.1 


83.3 


16.7 


2 




62.8 


37.2 


60.7 


39.3 


63.9 


36.1 


87.3 


12.7 


91,2 


8,8 


95.4 


4.6 


78.1 


21,9 


78.2 


21.8 


78.9 


21.1 


3 




66.7 


33.8 


64.3 


85.7 


70.8 


29.2 


89.1 


10.9 


93,6 


6,5 


97.4 


2.6 


78.2 


21.8 


76.1 


23.9 


76.5 


23.6 


4 




60.3 


39.7 


59.6 


40.6 


60.8 


39.2 


89.7 


10.3 


92,8 


7,2 


96.2 


4.8 


71.1 


28.9 


69.5 


30.5 


69.7 


30.3 


5 




65.8 


44.2 


62.3 


47.7 


67.6 


42.4 


91.3 


8.7 


96,1 


4,9 


98.2 


1.8 


83.2 


16.8 


84.3 


15,7 


85.9 


14.1 


6 




54.0 


46.0 


61.9 


48.1 


57.0 


43.0 


84.1 


16.9 


88,7 


11,3 


94.6 


6.4 


73.1 


26.9 


72.3 


27,7 


73.5 


26.5 


7 




61.2 


38.8 


59.7 


40.3 


61.2 


38.8 


85.1 


14.9 


90,3 


9,7 


96.2 


3.8 


70.6 


29.4 


68.1 


81,9 


69.6 


30.4 


8 




69.8 


40.2 


67.1 


42.9 


58.8 


41.2 


86.0 


14.0 


90,0 


10,0 


96.6 


3.4 


77.3 


22.7 


76.4 


23,6 


76.7 


23.3 


9 




60.6 


39.4 


67.6 


42.4 


59.9 


40.1 


87.2 


12.8 


91,3 


8,7 


96.5 


4.6 


76.2 


23.8 


77.5 


22,6 


78.1 


21.9 


10 




64.0 


36.0 


61.1 


38. 9 


67.4 


32.6 


89.2 


10.8 


92,8 


7,2 


96.4 


3.6 


79.7 


20.3 


80.4 


19,6 


81.9 


18.1 


11 




69.1 


30.9 


68.3 


31.7 


70.7 


29.3 


88.4 


11.6 


91,8 


8,2 


94.5 


6.5 


83.6 


16.4 


84.3 


15,7 


85.3 


14.7 


12 




62.4 


47.6 


46.7 


53.3 


56.9 


44.1 


92.2 


7.8 


94,3 


6,7 


96.2 


3.8 


80.6 


19.5 


81.5 


18.5 


84.5 


15,5 


13 




62.2 


37.8 


62.5 


37.5 


67.7 


32.3 


88.6 


11.4 


92,1 


7,9 


96.1 


4.9 


83.2 


16.8 


85.8 


14.2 


86.7 


13,3 


14 




57.4 


42.6 


62.2 


47.8 


66.7 


43.3 


89.9 


10.1 


91,7 


8,3 


95.2 


4.8 


78.0 


22.0 


79.7 


20.3 


82.8 


17,2 


lb 




48.1 


51.9 


47.4 


52.6 


62.0 


48.0 


80.5 


19.5 


82,7 


17,3 


87.0 


13.0 


79.6 


20.5 


79.7 


20.3 


82.7 


17,3 


16 




52.5 


47.5 


45.5 


64.6 


58.0 


42.0 


94.3 


6.7 


96,8 


3,2 


98.1 


1.9 


86.0 


15.0 


84.4 


15.6 


86.5 


13,5 


17 




73.1 


26.9 


60.4 


39.6 


68.0 


32.0 


94.3 


5.7 


96,8 


3,2 


98.7 


1.3 


92,4 


7.6 


91.7 


8,3 


94.4 


5,6 


18 




48.8 


51.2 


39.9 


60.1 


46.5 


54.6 


95.5 


4.6 


97,8 


2,2 


98.9 


1.1 


73,7 


26.3 


75.7 


24,3 


83.4 


16,6 


19 




42.8 


57.2 


42.4 


67.6 


50.5 


49.5 


94.7 


6.3 


96,7 


3,3 


97.1 


2.9 


72,7 


27.3 


74.1 


26,9 


80.2 


19,8 


20 




45.2 


64.8 


40.0 


60.0 


56.6 


43.4 


94.9 


5.1 


96,9 


3,1 


98.0 


2.0 


' 78,3 


21.7 


80.5 


19,6 


79.4 


20,6 


21 




64.4 


36.6 


60.1 


39.9 


64.2 


35.8 


%.l 


3.9 


97,3 


2,7 


99.1 


0.9 


88,9 


11.1 


87.6 


12,5 


91.9 


8,1 


22 




66.1 


33.9 


64.3 


35.7 


69.7 


30.3 


89.2 


10.8 


93.5 


6,5 


97.7 


2.3 


84,3 


15.7 


85.4 


14,6 


88.1 


11,9 


23 




67.6 


32.4 


66.6 


33.4 


68.7 


31.3 


88.0 


12.0 


92,5 


7.5 


97.2 


2.8 


84,3 


16.7 


84.6 


16,6 


86.8 


13,2 


24 




70.1 


29.9 


68.0 


82.0 


72.2 


27.8 


90.3 


9.7 


94,3 


5.7 


97.9 


2.1 


86,5 


14.5 


86.7 


14,3 


89.6 


10,4 


25 




66.5 


33.5 


64.0 


36.0 


68.2 


31.8 


87.2 


12.8 


92,1 


7.9 


97.4 


2.6 


84,2 


15.8 


85.0 


15,0 


86.3 


13,7 


26 




68.7 


31.3 


68.8 


31.2 


73.9 


26.1 


88.0 


12.0 


92,9 


7.1 


97.3 


2.7 


84,9 


15.1 


87.3 


12,7 


89.6 


10.4 


27 




66.6 


34.5 


64.2 


35.8 


67.8 


32.2 


88.2 


11.8 


93,0 


7.0 


97.1 


2.9 


83,2 


16.8 


84.8 


15,2 


87.2 


12.8 


28 




61.7 


38.3 


69.9 


40.1 


68.0 


32.0 


90.6 


9.4 


94,1. 


6.9 


98.3 


1.7 


84,4 


16.6 


86.6 


13.4 


88.6 


11.4 


29 




63.0 


37.0 


60.6 


39.4 


69.5 


30.6 


91.6 


8.4 


96,0 


5.0 


98.7 


1.3 


82,9 


17.1 


83.9 


16.1 


87.9 


12.1 


30 




63.8 


36.2 


60.3 


39.7 


67.0 


33.0 


90.8 


9.2 


94,3 


5.7 


98.0 


2.0 


83,6 


16.4 


86.7 


14.3 


89.4 


10,6 


31 




J 53.4 

1 57.9 

64.9 


46.6 
42.1 


46.1 
68.1 


63.9 
41.9 


\ 283.5 


216.5 


f 95.0 
\ 93.8 


6.0 
6.2 


97,4 
97,0 


2.6 
3.0 


1 299.4 


20.6 


f 84,9 
t 86,8 


15.1 
13.2 


83.8 
87.9 


16.2 
12.1 


} 296. 6 


23, 6| 


32 
33 




35.1 


64.5 


35.6 


73.0 


27.0 


91.1 


8.9 


94,4 


5.6 


99.1 


0.9 


83,4 


16.6 


86.3 


13.7 


90.6 


9,6 


34 




67.0 


33.0 


64.0 


36.0 


71.1 


28.9 


91.3 


8.7 


96,5 


4.6 


98.9 


1.1 


■ 86,1 


13.9 


86.2 


13.8 


91.6 


8,4 


36 




57.0 


43.0 


62.9 


47.1 


60.8 


39.2 


94.6 


6.4 


96,5 


3.6 


98.1 


1.9 


85,6 


14.4 


86.2 


14.8 


88.3 


11,7 


35 




57.9 


42.1 


61.6 


48.4 


66.9 


43.1 


91.9 


8.1 


94,8 


5.2 


97.7 


2.3 


81,5 


18.5 


82.5 


17.5 


87.5 


12.5 


37 




54.1 


46.9 


49.6 


50.4 


60.9 


39.1 


94.8 


5.2 


96,7 


3.3 


98.2 


1.8 


85,9 


14.1 


87,0 


13.0 


89.8 


10.2 


38 




46.5 


63.5 


46.4 


53.6 


53.8 


46.2 


96.7 


4,3 


97,5 


2.5 


98.0 


2.0 


87,7 


12,3 


86,4 


13.6 


83.9 


16.1 


39 




48.0 


52.0 


42.6 


57.5 


53.5 


46.5 


96.8 


4,2 


97,3 


2.7 


99.0 


1.0 


84,1 


16,9 


84,0 


16.0 


86.0 


14.0 


40 




59.6 


40.4 


66.1 


43.9 


66.2 


33.8 


94,2 


0,8 


94,8 


6.2 


96.3 


3.7 


83,6 


16,6 


78,8 


21.2 


85.9 


14.1 


41 




65.1 


34.9 


62.3 


37.7 


68.8 


31.2 


96.4 


4,6 


97,6 


2.4 


99.2 


0.8 


87,0 


13,0 


88,8 


11,2 


92.8 


7.2 


42 




69.6 
70.9 
59.1 


30.4 
29.1 
40.9 










96.7 
93,9 
96,0 


3,3 
6,1 
4,0 










92,7 
88,2 
91,6 


7,3 
11,8 
8.4 










43 




77.9 
55.7 


22.1 
44.3 






97.6 
97.8 


2.4 
2,2 






93,3 
90,8 


6.7 
9.2 






44 




65.7 


44.3 


99.2 


0.8 


93.6 


6.4 


46 




77.0 


23.0 


81.1 


18.9 


88.2 


11.8 


92,2 


7.8 


95.9 


4,1 


98.8 


1.2 


90,6 


9,4 


91,6 


8.5 


94.8 


5.2 


46 




77.3 


22.7 


86.2 


13.8 


95.1 


4.9 


95,4 


4.6 


98.0 


2,0 


99.7 


0.3 


96.0 


4,0 


96,0 


4.0 


99.0 


1.0 


47 




86.5 


14.6 


86.6 


14.4 


90.9 


9.1 


97,3 


2,7 


98.4 


1.6 


98.9 


1.1 


94,8 


6,2 


96,9 


4.1 


95.5 


4.5 


48 




67 1 


32 9 


76.0 


25.0 


85.6 


14.4 


91,5 


8,6 


95.7 


4,3 


99.0 


1.0 


93,1 


6,9 


93,5 


6.5 


97.9 


2.1 


49 




82.7 


17.3 


84.9 


15.1 


90.6 


9.4 


97.2 


2.8 


98.5 


1,5 


99.6 


0.4 


86,7 


13,3 


91,8 


• 8.2 


92.0 


8.0 


bU 




84 2 


15.8 


88.2 


11.8 


96.1 


3.9 


96,9 


3,1 


99.1 


0.9 


99.5 


0.5 


87,6 


12,4 


95.1 


4.9 


98.6 


1.4 


bl 




71 8 


28 2 


76 9 


23.1 


84.1 


16.9 


90,4 


9,6 


95.1 


4.9 


97.1 


2.9 


88,0 


12,0 


90.0 


10.0 


91.9 


8.1 


62 




79 1 


20.9 


82.3 


17.7 


90.8 


9.2 


95.9 


4,1 


98.3 


1.7 


99.7 


0.3 


93,8 


6,2 


94.8 


6.2 


97.2 


2.8 


63 




82 2 


17 8 


86.7 


14.3 


95.4 


4.6 


96,4 


4,6 


98.0 


2.0 


99.5 


0.6 


95,0 


6,0 


95.9 


4.1 


99.0 


1.0 


b4 




82 


18 


86 1 


13.9 


90.6 


9.4 


93,7 


6,3 


97.1 


2.9 


99.6 


0.4 


93,9 


6,1 


94.4 


5.6 


97.4 


2.6 


bb 






20 4 


81.5 


18.6 


90.8 


9.2 


91,6 


8,6 


95,7 


4.3 


99.3 


0.7 


89,9 


10,1 


91.3 


8.7 


95.9 


4.1 


b6 




75.6 


24.4 


79.7 


20.3 


86.6 


13.4 


90,7 


9,3 


95,1 


4.9 


98.6 


1.4 


87,3 


12,7 


88.4 


11,6 


92.4 


7.6 


5V 




87.1 
87.7 
99.9 


12.9 
12.3 
0.1 










98,2 
97,3 
99.9 


1.8 
2.7 
0.1 










89,3 
91,1 
98,4 


10.7 
8.9 
1.6 










,=iR 




























59 




























60 












1 








1 







2 Dakota territory. 



CXXIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



A comparison by states and geographic divisions of 
the figures presented in Table xliii, covering the three 
censuses, 1880, 1890, and 1900, shows that the increase 
already noted in the proportion of females engaged in 
gainful occupations, as compared with the proportion of 
males, is common to all sections of the country. In every 
geographic division and in every state and territory, 
except three, females formed an increased proportion 
from 1880 to 1900 of the total number of persons gain- 
fully employed, and in the three states excepted — 
Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana— the proportion re- 
mained practically stationary. The increase was most 
marked in the Western division. 

In trade and transportation the increase in the employ- 
ment of females as compared with males was very marked 
for the country as a whole during both decades, and was 
apparent to a greater or less degree not only in every 
geographic division but in every state and territory 
without exception. It represents the increasing extent 
to which women are employed as stenographers, type- 
writers, telegraph and telephone operators, bookkeep- 
ers, clerks, and saleswomen. 

In agricultural pursuits there has been also a general 
though not very marked increase in the proportion of 
females. It will be noticed that the percentages are 
exceptionally high in the South, where negro women 
are very extensively employed as agricultural laborers. 
In South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi females 
constituted in 1900 over one-fourth of the total num- 
ber of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits, and 
in Louisiana the proportion was almost as high. In 
Louisiana, however, and also in Florida, there was 
some decrease in the percentage for 1900 as compared 
with that for 1890. The marked increase of the per- 
centage shown in the table for Arizona i& due to the 
inclusion in 1900 of all Indians (reservation and other), 
whereas in the two preceding censuses only those 
Indians living out of tribal relations were included. 

The per cent which females form of the total num- 
ber of persons engaged in professional pursuits showed 
a slight decrease from 1890 to 1900 in the North Atlan- 
tic division, and in each of the states composing this 
division except Rhode Island and New Jersey. But in 
all other divisions and in all other states except Ohio, 
Illinois, and Iowa the per cent has increased, the 
increase being most marked in the Southern and West- 



ern states. For females, teaching is by far the most 
important of the occupations included in this main class, 
and doubtless determines to a large extent the percent- 
age for the class. 

In manufacturing and mechanical pursuits the increase 
in the proportion of females was not very marked dur- 
ing the last decade. For the North Atlantic division as 
a whole the per cent was hardly higher in 1900 than in 
1890; and for every New England state except Vermont 
it was lower. But in all the South Atlantic states 
except Virginia, West Virginia, and Florida, in all the 
North Central states except North Dakota, and in all 
the Western states the percentage shows an increase. 
In the South Central division as a whole there was a 
slight decrease produced by decreases in the states of 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Dur- 
ing the preceding decade — 1880 to 1890 — the increase 
in the per cent which females formed of the total num- 
ber of persons employed in this branch of occupations 
was much more marked and much more general. 

In domestic and personal service the per cent of 
females shows an uninterrupted increase since 1880 in 
the Western division only, indicating probably the set- 
tlement of the country and the advance in many sections 
from the primitive conditions of the mining camp to a 
more developed and complex organization of society; 
but in each of the other divisions an increase in the per 
cent from 1880 to 1890 has been followed by a decrease 
from 1890 to 1900, apparent in every state or terri- 
tory included in those divisions except Delaware and 
Michigan. 

PROPORTION OF BACH SEX IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 

In Table xliv the changes since 1880 in the propor- 
tions which each sex forms of the total number of gain- 
ful workers for continental United States are shown in 
detail for occupation groups. 

The percentages for 1880 and 1890 in this table are 
based upon the absolute numbers given in Table iv 
(page 1). The proportions of female workers in each 
main class and in certain occupation groups in 1900 are 
also illustrated graphically in the diagram on Plate 7. 
In this diagram the total length of the bar represents 
100 per cent in each case, while the black portion rep- 
resents the per cent of males and the white portion 
the per cent of females. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxxv 



Table XLIV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SEX, OF PEBSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN 1900, WITH PER CENT 

DISTRIBUTION FOR 1880 AND 1890. 



0CCCPATI0N8. 



All occupations. 



Agricultural pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers 

Dairymen and dairy women 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. 
Lumbermen and raftsmen 



Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 

Wood choppers 

Turpentine farmers and laborers. . . 
Other agricultural pursuits 



Professional service. 



Actors, professional; showmen, etc... 
Actors 

Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc. 
Artists and teachers of art 



Clergymen 

Dentists 

Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors. 



Journalists 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons... 
Musicians and teachers of music. 



OfBcials (government) 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
Other professional service 



Domestic and personal service . 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Janitors and sextons 

Janitors 

Sextons 



Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers and laundresses. 

Nurses and midwives 

Restaurant keepers 

Saloon keepers 

Bartenders 



Servants and waiters 

Housekeepers and stewards 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S. ) - 
Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc.. 
Other domestic and personal service. 



Trade and transportation . 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants . 

Clerks and copyists 

Stenographers and typewriters. 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . 

Foremen and overseers 

Hostlers 



Hucksters and peddlers 

Livery stable keepers ,:• •,■"•,■ V " 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) . 

Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and office boys 

Officials of banks and companies 

Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Steam railroad employees 



PEBSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCDPATIONS: 1900. 



Total. 



29, 073, 233 



10,381,765 



i, 410, 877 
10,875 

5, 674, 875 
61,788 
72, 020 



36, 075 

24,735 

5,632 

1,258,538 



34, 760 
14, 708 
29, 524 
24,873 

111,638 
29, 665 
50, 717 
43,239 

30,038 

114, 460 

18, 844 

92, 174 

86, 607 
132, 002 
446, 133 

13, 864 

6,580,657 



131, 116 
71,281 
54,797 
56, 677 
51, 191 
5,386 

2,629,262 

385, 966 

120, 956 

33,844 

83, 746 

88,817 

1,560,721 
156,153 

43, 196 
130, 590 

34, 637 

4, 766, 964 



Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

Undertakers - ■ ■ - ■ - 

Other persons in trade and transportation 

1 Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



241, 162 
73, 277 
78, 406 
264,880 
630, 127 
112, 364 

92, 919 
638, 933 
55,450 
64, 929 

76, 649 
33, 666 
790, 886 
42, 326 
71, 622 

74,072 

59,645 

64,191 

611, 139 

682, 160 

68, 919 
14,767 
74, 982 
16, 189 
63, 434 



Males. 



23,763,836 



9,404,429 



3, 747, 668 
9,983 

5, 367, 169 
68,928 
71,920 

83,066 

36, 962 

24,454 

5,289 

827,941 



27,903 
8,334 
28, 483 
13, 862 

108, 265 
28, 858 
50,308 
43, 155 

27,845 

113,450 

12,860 

39,816 

78,488 
124, 616 
118,519 

11,526 

3,486,208 



Females. 



5,319,397 



977, 336 



663, 209 
892 

307, 706 

2,860 

100 

1,932 
113 
281 
243 

430, 597 



6,857 
6,374 
1,041 
11,021 

3,373 
807 
409 



2,193 

1,010 

5,984 

52, 369 

8,119 

7,387 

327, 614 

2,339 

2, 095, 449 



PEE GENT WHICH EACH SEX FOKMS OP TOTAL NUMBER 
OP PEBSONS SO OCCUPIED. 



Males. Females. 



125, 542 
11, 826 
46, 264 
48,544 
43,249 
6,295 

2, 606, 287 
50,683 
12,265 
28,999 
81, 660 
88,377 

276, 958 
8,224 

43, 195 
129, 711 

27, 673 



230, 606 
72, 984 
78, 263 
180, 727 
544,881 
26, 246 

91, 973 

538, 029 

54,032 

64, 850 



73, 
33, 
766, 
42, 
64, 

72, 



461,' 
680, 462 



6,574 
59,466 
8,633 
8,033 
7,942 
91 

123, 975 

335,282 

108,691 

4,845 

2,086 

440 

1, 283, 763 
146, 929 



879 
6,964 



503, 347 



10, 666 
293 
153 
74, 153 
85, 246 
86, 118 



904 

1,418 

79 

2,915 

190 

34, 084 

261 



1,271 

19, 988 

666 

149, 230 

1,688 

46 



22,556 

323 

3,700 



81.7 



90.6 



85.0 
91.8 
94.6 
96.4 
99.9 

97.7 
99.7 
98.9 
95.6 

65.8 



80.3 
56.7 
96.5 
66.7 

97.0 
97.3 
99.2 



92.7 
99.1 
68.2 
43.2 

90.6 
94.4 
26.6 
83.1 

62.5 



95.7 
16.6 
84.4 
86.8 
84.5 



96.3 
13.1 
10.1 
86.7 
97.5 
99.5 

17.7 

5.3 

100.0 

99.3 

79.9 

89.4 



95.6 
99.6 
99.8 
70.9 
86.5 
23.4 

99.0 
99.8 
97.4 



96.2 
99.4 
95.7 
99.4 
90.7 



66.4 
99.0 
75.6 
99.7 



100.0 
69.9 
98.0 
93.1 



18.3 



9.4 



15.0 
8.2 
6.4 
4.6 
0.1 

2.3 
0.3 
1.1 

4.4 

34.2 



19.7 

43.3 

3.5 

44.3 

3.0 
2.7 
0.8 
0.2 

7.3 
0.9 
31.8 
66.8 

9.4 
5.6 
73.4 
16.9 

37.5 



4.3 
83.4 
16.6 
14.2 
15.6 

1.7 

4.7 
86.9 
89.9 
14.3 
2.6 
0.5 

82.3 
94.7 



0.7 
20.1 



10.6 



4.4 
0.4 
0.2 
29.1 
13.5 
76.6 

1.0 
0.2 
2.6 
0.1 



0.6 
4.8 
0.6 



1.7 
33.6 

1.0 
24.4 

0.3 

0.1 



1890 



Males. Females, 



191.6 



186.0 
90.3 
95.7 
96.7 

100.0 

99.0 
99.9 



67.0 



83.5 
59.4 
98.1 
61.9 

98.7 
98.1 



95.9 
99.8 
76.4 
44.5 

94.1 
95.7 
29.2 
94.0 

60.5 



30.1 
2.0 
6.9 



96.7 
26.5 
88.0 
89.4 
87.1 
99.4 

97.1 
12.8 
13.0 
87.5 
96.8 
99.7 

16.4 

6.6 

100.0 



3.1 



97.2 
98.6 
99.9 
82.6 
88.5 
36.4 

99.0 

99.9 

97.3 

100.0 

96.2 
99.8 
96.2 
99.4 
94.3 

99.5 
73.9 
98.5 
77.9 
99.7 

100.0 
94.0 
83.8 
99.2 
94.5 



117,2 



18.4 



116.0 
9.7 
4.3 
3.3 

m 

1.0 
0.1 

2.4 
33.0 



16.6 

40.6 

1.9 

48.1 

1.3 
1.9 

0.3 



4.1 
0.2 
24.6 
66.5 

5.9 
4.3 

70.8 
6.0 



9.5 



3.3 
73.6 
12.0 
10.6 
12.9 

0.6 

2.9 
87.2 
87.0 
12.5 
3.2 
0.3 

83.6 
93.5 



4.1 



6.9 



2.8 
1.4 
0.1 
17.4 
11.5 
63.6 

1.0 
0.1 
2.7 
(») 



0.6 
5.7 

0.5 
26.1 

1.6 
22,1 

0.3 

6.0 
16.2 
0.8 
5.5 



1880 



Males. Females. 



92.3 



83.9 
92.1 
98.7 
97.3 
100.0 

99.6 
100.0 



70.6 



73.0 
62.2 



99.7 
99.8 

100.0 



97.7 
99.9 
88.1 
56.7 

96.9 
97.2 
32.2 
100.0 

66.4 



93.5 
35.4 
93.4 
92.3 
89.7 
99.4 

96.6 
11.3 
7.6 



16.0 
100.0 



96.6 



98.7 
99.3 
99.9 

94.0 



99.0 
100.0 



100.0 

96.3 
99.8 

96.9 

97.1 

100.0 
94.3 
93.4 
76.0 
99.8 

100.0 



94.5 
98.9 
97.1 



2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



CXXVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XLIV.— DISTEIBUTION, BY SEX, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN 1900, WITH PEE CENT 

DISTRIBUTION FOE 1880 AND 1890— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 

Building trades. 

Carpenters and joiners 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Painters, glaziers, and vamishers 

Paper hangers 



Plasterers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . . 
Eoofers and slaters 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . 



Chemicals and allied products. 



Oil well and oil works employees . 
Other chemical workers 

Chemical works employees 

Fertilizer makers 

Powder and cartridge makers. 

Salt "works employees 

Starchmakers 



Clay, glass, and stone products. 



Bnck and tile makers, etc. 

Glaasworkers 

Marble and stone cutters. . 
Potters 



Fishing and mining. 



Fishermen and oystermen . 
Miners and quarrymen 



Food and Mndred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Confectioners 

Millers 



Other food preparers 

Fish curersand packers 

Meat and fruit canners and preservers. 

Meat packers, curers, and piclders 

Sugar makers and refiners 



Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Bteam boiler makers; 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers. 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



Leather and its finislied products. 



Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers . 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 



Liquors and beverages. 



Bottlers and soda water makers, etc . 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



Lumber and its remanvfactures. 



Cabinetmakers 

Coopers , 

Saw and planing mill employees. 

Other woodworkers 

Basketmakers , 



Metals and metal products other than iron and steel. 



Brassworkers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers . 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Tin plate makers 

Tinners and tinware makers 



Other metal workers 

Copper workers 

Electroplaters 

Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers . 
Lead and zinc workers 



persons engaged in gainful 
occupations: 1900. 


PER CENT WHICH EACH SEX FORMS OP TOTAL NUMBER 
OF PERSONS SO OCCUPIED. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


1900 


1890 


1880 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


7,086,309 


5, 772, 641 


1,312,668 


81.5 


18.5 


81.9 


18.1 


83.3 


16.7 


600,262 

160,806 

277,541 

21, 990 


699,707 
160,638 
275,782 
21,749 


546 

167 

1,759 

241 


99.9 
99.9 
99.4 
98.9 


0.1 
0.1 
0.6 
1.1 


100,0 

100.0 

99.4 

99.6 


0.4 


100.0 

100.0 

99.7 

96.9 






0.3 
3.1 


36,694 

97,786 

9,067 

9,378 


85,649 
97,659 
9,065 
9,361 


45 

126 

2 

27 


99.9 
99.9 
100.0 
99.7 


0.1 
0.1 

'Is 


100.0 
99.9 

100.0 
99.9 


"o.i 


100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.9 








0.1 


24,626 
14,723 
6,740 
1,310 
4,136 
1,775 
762 


24,673 
12,035 
5,687 
1,308 
2,745 
1,671 
624 


63 

2,688 

1,063 

2 

1,391 

104 

138 


99.8 
81.7 
84.4 
99.8 
66.4 
94.1 
81.9 


0.2 
18.3 
15. U 

0.2 
33.6 

5.9 
18.1 


99.7 
79.1 
72.0 
99.2 
69.5 
94.2 
76.9 


0.3 
20.9 
28.0 

0.8 
30.5 

5.8 
24.1 


99.7 
91.1 
86.8 
99.1 


0.3 

8.9 

14.2 

0.9 


97.1 
87.9 


2.9 
12.1 


49,933 
49,998 
54,460 


49,465 
47,377 
54,317 
13,200 


478 
2,621 

143 
2,940 


99.0 
94.8 
99.7 
81.8 


1.0 
5.2 
0.3 

18.2 


99.8 
96.0 
99.9 
86.7 


0.2 
6.0 
0.1 
13.3 


99.8 

96.9 

100.0 

91.9 


0.2 
3.1 


16,140 


8.1 


68,940 
563,406 


68,478 
662,417 


462 
989 


99.3 
99.8 


0.7 
0.2 


99.6 
99.9 


0.4 
0.1 


99.8 
100.0 


0.2 


79,188 
113, 193 


74,860 
112, 816 
18,693 
21,980 
40,362 


4,328 
378 
648 

9,214 
186 


94.5 
99.7 
96.6 
70.5 
99.5 


5.5 
0.3 
8.4 
29.5 
0.5 


96.2 
99.9 
96.4 
76.6 
99.8 


3.8 
0.1 
3.6 
24.4 
0.2 


97.4 
100.0 
92.6 
86.9 
99.9 


2.6 


19,241 
31,194 
40,648 


7.4 
13.1 
0.1 


28,782 
952 

9,249 
13,776 

2,727 


23,640 
824 

6,983 
12,799 

2,708 


6,142 
128 

3,266 
977 
19 


82.1 
86.6 
64.7 
92.9 
99.3 


17.9 

13.4 

36.3 

7.1 

0.7 


83.4 

77.4 
99.8 


16.6 
22.6 
0.2 


86.3 
81.5 
99.4 


13.7 
18.5 
0.6 


226,477 


226,284 

287,241 

282,674 

33,038 

12,430 
27,376 
13,496 
16,701 


193 

3,297 

571 

8 

43 

746 

10 

1,786 


99.9 
98.9 
99.8 
100.0 

99.7 
97.3 
99.9 
90.3 


0.1 
1.1 
0.2 
(') 

0.3 
2.7 
0.1 
9.7 


100.0 
98.7 
99.9 

100.0 

99.8 

97.0 

100.0 

91.2 


0.1 

W 

0.2 
3.0 

<\8 


100.0 

98.9 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 
96.4 

100.0 
96.6 




290,638 
283,145 


1.1 


33,046 




12,473 




28,122 
13,606 


3.6 


18,487 


8.4 


208,903 
40,101 
42,671 
7,061 


169, 393 

39,606 

40,917 

6,472 


39,510 

596 

1,764 

1,679 


81.1 
98.6 
95.9 
77.6 


18.9 
1.5 
4.1 

22.4 


84.3 
98.1 
99.3 
86.9 


16.7 
1.9 
0.7 

13.1 


89.2 
96.1 
99.3 
91.4 


10.8 
3.9 
0.7 
8.6 


10,619 
20, 962 
3,144 


9,725 
20,687 
3,114 


794 
275 
30 


92.6 
98.7 
99.0 


7.8 
1.3 
1.0 


92.4 
99.7 
99.7 


7.6 
0.3 
0.3 


96.7 
99.6 
99.8 


8.3 
0.4 
0.2 


86,619 
37,200 


36,562 

37,087 

161,251 

104,791 

4,460 


67 

113 

373 

6,805 

2,062 


99.8 
99.7 
99.8 
93.9 
68.4 


0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
6.1 
31. 6 


99.9 
99.9 
99.8 
93.8 
86.4 


0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
6.2 
18.6 


99.1 

100.0 

100.0 

96.7 

89.5 


0,9 


161,624 

111, 696 

6,622 


''>3.3 
.10.6 


26,760 
24,120 
26, 112 
70,506 
7,231 


26,870 
19,305 
19,732 
68,730 
6,964 
60,606 


890 
4,816 
6,380 
1,776 

277 
1,487 


96.7 
80.0 
75.6 
97.6 
96.2 
97.6 


8.3 
20.0 
24.4 
2.6 
8.8 
2.4 


94.7 
81.4 
83.6 
98.4 


6.8 
18.6 
16.5 

1.6 


93.6 
86.8 
93.1 
97.6 


6.4 
13.2 

6; 9 

2.4 


62,093 


98.4 


1.6 


97.6 


2.4 


56,602 
8,186 
6,387 


64,282 
8,174 
6,146 
7,400 
5,287 


2,320 

11 

241 

46 

97 


95.9 
99.9 
96.2 
99.4 
98.2 


4.1 
0.1 
8.8 
0.6 
1.8 


96.3 
99.8 
95.9 
99.0 
95.6 


3.7 
0.2 
4.1 
1.0 
4.4 


98.0 
99.3 


2.0 
0.7 


7,446 
5,334 


98.2 
100.0 


L8 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxxvu 



Table XLIV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SEX, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN 1900, WITH PER CENT 

DISTRIBUTION FOR 1880 AND 1890— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits— Continued, 

Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 

Textiles. 

Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mUl operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives , 

Other textile mill operatives 

Print works operatives 

Rope and cordage factory operatives 

Dressmakers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Hat and cap makers 

Shirt, collar, and euf! makers 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 

Carpetmakers (rag) 

Lace and embroidery makers 

Sail, awning, and tent makers 

Sewing machine operators 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 

Artificial flower makers 

Buttonmakers 

Candle, soap, and tallow makers 

Corsetmakers 

Gas works employees 

Straw workers 

Umbrella and parasol makers 

■Well borers 

Whitewashers 



pebs0n8 engaqen in gainful 
occupations: 1900. 



Total. 



30,278 
21, 098 
11, 151 
36,328 
156, 147 



22, 278 
19,372 
246,391 
47, 120 
54,460 

73, 196 

104, 619 

6,066 

7,591 

346,884 

87,859 
150, 942 

22, 733 

39, 432 
229, 649 

29,533 
7,245 
9,212 
3,577 
5,772 



10,220 
14,436 

223,495 
12,271 

243,009 

16, 073 
26, 941 
21, 866 
131,452 
30, 821 

471,089 
2,775 
6,621 
4,020 
8,016 

6,966 
3,838 
3,242 
6,608 



Males, 



14,646 
3,796 
10, 698 
26, 904 
139, 166 



20,493 
10, 371 
125, 788 
12, 630 
22, 028 

42,566 
53,437 
4,963 
4,692 
2,090 
1,739 
4,837 
15, 110 
8,491 
160, 714 

8,862 
1,916 
1,944 
3,168 
736 



8,648 
14,405 
223,318 

4,603 
239, 649 

14,869 
23, 361 
14, 492 
87, 955 
28,663 

380, 167 

437 

3,511 

3,289 

816 

6,940 
911 
1,331 
6,597 
3,374 



Females. 



15, 682 

17, 302 

453 

9,424 

15,981 



1,785 

9,001 

120, 603 

34,490 

32, 437 

30, 630 
51, 182 
1,093 
2,999 
344, 794 
86, 120 
146, 106 
7,623 
30,941 
68, 936 

20,671 

6,329 

7,268 

409 

6,036 



1,577 

31 

177 

7,768 

3,360 

204 
3,580 
7,374 
43,497 
2,158 

90, 922 
2,338 
3,110 
781 
7,201 

15 

2,927 

1,911 

11 

65 



PER CENT WHICH EACH BEX FORMS OF TOTAL NUMBER 
OP PERSONS SO OCCUPIED, 



Males. Females. 



48.4 
18.0 
96.9 
V4.1 
89.7 



92.0 
53.5 
51.1 
26.8 
40.4 

68.2 
51.1 
82.0 
60.5 
0.6 
2.0 
3.2 
66.5 
21.5 
70.0 

30.0 
26.4 
21.1 
88.6 
12.8 



84.6 



36.7 
98.6 

98.6 
86.7 
66.3 
66.9 
93.0 

80.7 
16.7 
63.0 
81.8 
10.2 

99.8 
23.7 
41.1 
99.8 
98.1 



61.6 
82.0 
4.1 
25.9 
10.3 



8.0 
46.6 
48.9 
73.2 
69.6 

41.8 
48.9 
18.0 
39.5 
99.4 
98.0 
96.5 
33.5 
78.5 
30.0 

70.0 
73.6 
78.9 
11.4 
87.2 



16.4 
0.2 
0.1 

63.3 
1.4 

1.4 
13.3 
33.7 
33.1 

7.0 

19.3 
84.3 
47.0 
18.2 



0.2 

76.3 

68.9 

0.2 

1.9 



1890 



Males. Females. 



61.5 
26.6 
96.4 
67.8 
90.1 



88.0 
51.8 
46.3 
29.6 
40.7 

66.6 

66.9 

77.0 

61.2 

0.3 

0.6 

2.7 

72.1 

24.3 

66.7 

31.5 



15.6 
92.3 
15.5 



100.0 
42.7 
99.7 

98.6 
89.0 
60.1 
74.9 
93.2 

84.3 
16.6 
38.9 
88.4 
11.2 



33.9 

43.1 

100.0 

99.8 



48.6 
73.6 

3.6 
32.2 

9.9 



12.0 
48.2 
53.7 
70.4 
59.3 

48.4 
43.1 
23.0 
38.8 
99.7 
99.4 
97.3 
27.9 
76.7 
34.3 

68.6 



84.4 
7.7 
84.6 



11.6 
0.2 

0.3 

1.4 
11.0 
39.9 
26.1 

6.8 

16.7 
83.5 
61.1 
11.6 



0.1 
66.1 
56.9 
(>) 

0.2 



1880 



Males. Females. 



97.7 
68.6 
95.2 



92.1 
68.4 
46.1 
85.6 
49.0 

59.7 
68.8 
79.7 
86.6 



77.1 
26.8 
61.0 



14.9 
96.4 
22.7 



92.4 
100.0 
100.0 
56.7 
99.3 

100.0 
96.5 
67.6 
85.9 
94.8 

83.6 
16.1 
60.9 
93.0 
17.1 

99.7 
36.2 
65.6 



99.6 



2.8 
31.4 
4.8 



7.9 
41.6 
58.9 
64.5 
61.0 

40.3 
81.2 
20.3 
13.5 



22.9 
78.2 
39,0 



86.1 
3.6 
77.3 



7.6 



48.3 
0.7 



4.6 
32.4 
14.1 

5.2 

16.4 
84.9 
49.1 
7.0 
82.9 

0.3 

63.8 
44.4 



0.6 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Of the total number of females engaged in profes- 
sional pursuits in continental United States in 1900, 
more than three-fourths were teachers and professors 
in colleges, etc. ; and in that occupation the per cent 
which females form of the total number of both sexes is 
high, and has advanced from 67.8 in 1880 to 73.4 in 
1900. Influenced largely by this change, the proportion 
of females in the entire class of professional service 
increased, during the period named, in all states and 
territories with five exceptions. But of even greater 
significance, perhaps, is the almost uniform increase in 
the proportion of females in the other occupation 
groups included under this main head; for while the 
percentages are in most cases still small, a comparison 
with the earlier censuses indicates clearly the general 
movement among females toward professions which 
until recently have been filled almost exclusively by 



men. The comparison is presented in the following 
tabular statement giving the percentages in 1880, 1890, 
and 1900, as shown in Table XLiv: 

Per cent of females in each occupation group classified under profes- 
sional service: 1880, 1890, and 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Professional service 

Actors, professional showmen, etc 

Actors 

Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc... 

Artists and teachers of art 

Clergymen 

Dentists 

Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors.. - 

Journalists 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons 

Musicians and teachers of music 

Officials (government) 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
Other professional service 



1900 



34.2 



19.7 
43.3 
3.6 
44.3 
8.0 
2.7 
0.8 
0.2 
7.3 
0.9 
31.8 
56.8 
9.4 
5.6 
73.4 
16.9 



1890 



33.0 



16.6 
40.6 
1.9 
48.1 
1.3 
1.9 

0.3 

4.1 

0.2 

24.0 

66.6 

6.9 

4.8 

70.8 

6.0 



1880 



29.4 



27.0 
37.8 
1.2 
22.6 
0.3 
0.5 



2.3 
0.1 
11.9 
43.8 
3.1 
2.8 
67.8 



cxxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



In domestic and personal service there appears no 
such marked and uniform tendency toward an increase 
in the per cent of female workers. By far the largest 
number of females in this branch of occupations— more 
than three-fourths of the total number— are either ser- 
vants and waiters or launderers and laundresses; and 
each of these occupations shows a slight decrease in 
the proportion of females from 1880 to 1900. De- 
creased proportions are also shown from 1880 to 1900 
for hairdressers and nurses, while increased propor- 
tions are shown for boarding and lodging house keep- 
ers, hotel keepers, and janitors. 

In trade and transportation a prevailing tendency 
toward an increase in the proportion of females again 
appears, though of course confined to those callings 
which are open to women. In many of these the in- 
crease has been very marked. This is the case with 
bookkeeper^ and accountants, clerks and copyists, ste- 
nographers and typewriters, messengers and errand and 
office boys, packers and shippers, and telegraph and tele- 
phone operators. The following comparison indicates 
what the most noteworthy advances in the proportionate 
employment of females in this class have been and the 
uniformity with which they have occurred for the 
three census periods— 1880, 1890, and 1900: 

Per cent of females in certain occupation groupie classified under trade 
and transportation: 1880, 1890, and 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Trade and transportation. 



Bookkeeperg, clerks, stenographers, etc . 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Merchants and dealers 

Messengers and errand and office boys . . 

Pickers and shippers 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

1 elegraph and telephone operators 



1900 1890 1880 



10.6 



24.6 
29.1 
13.5 
76.6 
4.1 
9.3 
33.6 
24.4 
30.1 



16.1 
17.4 
11.5 
63.6 
3.7 
6.7 
26.1 
22.1 
16.2 



3.1 
2.9 
6.7 
24.0 
5.5 



' Not separately returned in 1880. 

In the class of manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
there was a very general increase from 1880 to 1890 in 
the proportion of female workers employed in those 
groups of occupations which are open to that sex; but 
from 1890 to 1900 some of the more important occupa- 
tions showed decreases which, however, were rather 
more than offset by increases in other occupations of 
this class, producing, as already noted, a slight increase 
in the percentage for the class as a whole. Most of 
the decreases here referred to occurred in occupations 
grouped under textiles, and include the occupations of 
bleachery and dye works, cotton mill, woolen mill, and 
carpet factory operatives, of tailors and tailoresses, and 



of lace and embroidery makers. On the other hand, 
there was a considerable increase in the per cent of 
women in the occupations of hat and cap makers, shirt, 
collar, and cuff makers, hosiery and knitting mill opera- 
tives, and sewing machine operators, and in the resid- 
ual occupation group, "other textile mill operatives." 
Dressmakers, milliners, and seamstresses are almost all 
women, but it is noticeable that the high proportions 
represented by this sex show a slight decrease. Out- 
side the textile industries the only very noteworthy 
decreases from 1890 to 1900 in the proportion of fe- 
males were those shown for operatives in paper and 
pulp mills and in rubber factories; some of the more 
important increases are those for confectioners, boot 
and shoe makers and repairers, gold and silver work- 
ers, bookbinders, boxmakers (paper), glovemakers, 
and tobacco and cigar factory operatives. 

As would be expected, the females in this class are 
most numerous in the manufacturing states of the north- 
east. Indeed, in the states in which the textile indus- 
tries are especially prominent, females constituted in 
1900 somewhat more than one-fourth of all persons 
employed in the manufacturing and mechanical class. 

The more important facts brought out by this anal- 
ysis of the distribution of gainful workers by sex may 
be thus summarized: 

There has been a general and marked increase in the 
extent to which women are engaged in gainful occupa- 
tions, as measured by the increase in the per cent which 
they form of all gainful workers. In the last decade 
this increase was most marked in the Western states. 

Of the main classes of occupations, trade and trans- 
portation shows the greatest and most general increase 
in the employment of this sex, resulting mainly from 
the increasing number employed in such occupations as 
stenographers, typewriters, telegraph operators, tele- 
phone operators, saleswomen, and clerks. 

There has been a marked movement on the pai-t of 
women toward increased pai-ticipation in professional 
pursuits which have hitherto been almost exclusively 
in the hands of men. 

The increase already noted in the per cent of women 
employed in trade and transportation and in many 
professional pursuits, considered in connection with 
the decrease in the per cent employed in domestic and 
personal service and in some of the more important 
occupations included under manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits, suggests that women as a class are turn- 
ing away from pursuits commonly accounted menial 
and are engaging more generally in those which are 
supposed to represent a higher grade in the social scale. 



NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS. 



CHANGES IN THE PEOPOKTIONS IN CONTINENTAL 
UNITED STATES. 

The significance of the changes which have occurred 
since 1880 in the proportions of the sexes at work, as 
noted in the preceding section, is much more clearly 



shown when a separation of those gainfully employed 
is made according to the respective proportions of men, 
women, and children. These proportions are shown 
for 1880 and 1900 in the summary on the following page. 
As has already been stated, in 1880 the age classification 
of persons gainfully occupied was limited to three age 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXX15 



periods, namely, 10 to 15, 16 to 59, and 60 and over; 
hence, for purposes of comparison, the figures for men 
and women must include persons 16 years of age and 
over. 

Distribvtion, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged in gain- 
ful occupations: 1880 and 1900. 



These figures for the two censuses show that during 
the past twenty years there has been a loss in the pro- 
portion of gainful workers consisting of men and chil- 
dren and a gain in the proportion consisting of women, 
the increase in the per cent of women being 3.1, which 
is ofi'set by a decrease of 2.7 in the per cent of men and 
0.4 in that of boj^s. 

CHANGES IN THE PROPORTIONS IN EACH STATE AND 
TERRITOKT. 

Table xlv presents, by states and territories, the 
total number of men, women, and children engaged in 
gainful occupations in 1880 and in 1900, and Table xlvi 
shows the percentages of the total represented by each 
of these groups. 

Table XLV.— DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN 
GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880 AND 1900. 



CLASS. 


1000 


1880 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Total 


29, 073, 233 


100.0 


17, 392, 099 


100 






Men 


22,489,426 

4,833,630 

1.750,178 

1, 264, 411 

485, 767 


77.3 

16.6 

6.1 

4.4 

1.7 


13,919,765 

2,363,988 

1,118,366 

826, 187 

293, 169 


80 






Children 


6 6 






Girls 


1 7 









1900 


1880 


STATES AND TEKKITOEIES. 


Total per- 
sons gain- 
fullv occu- 
pied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Total per- 
sons gain- 
fully occu- 
pied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 




Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


United States 


29,287,070 


22,691,728 


4,843,155 


1,752,187 


1, 266, 050 


486, 137 


17,392,099 


13,919,755 


2,353,988 


1,118,356 


825, 187 


293,169 


Continental United States 


29,073,233 


22,489,426 


4,833,630 


1,750,178 


1,264,411 


485, 767 


17,392,099 


13; 919, 755 


2, 363, 988 


1,118,356 


825, 187 


293, 169 


North Atlantic division 


8, 679, 191 


6,539,941 


1,734,928 


304,322 


194, 940 


109,382 


5,309,722 


4,199,670 


911,343 


198,709 


133,377 


65,332 


Maine 


276, 777 
178, 719 
134,933 

1,208,407 
191, 923 
386,610 

2, 996, 474 
757, 759 

2, 448, 589 

4,000,631 


220,868 
134, 414 
110, Oil 
862,981 
134, 686 
290,133 

2, 269, 211 
684, 780 

1,932,857 

2, 781, 826 


49,917 
39,807 
21, 852 
317, 558 
48,203 
83, 898 
635,319 
142, 718 
395, 666 

772,160 


5,992 
4,498 
3,070 
27,868 
9,034 
11, 579 
91, 944 
30, 261 
120,076 

446, 546 


3,979 
2,547 
2,170 
16,393 
6,143 
6,838 
55,218 
18, 457 
84, 196 

311,266 


2,013 
1,961 
900 
11,475 
3,891 
4,741 
36,726 
11, 804 
35, 881 

135,280 


231, 993 
142,468 
118,684 
720, 774 
116, 979 
241,3.33 

1,884,645 
396,879 

1,466,067 

2, 677, 762 


194, 378 

109,747 

99,819 

634, 285 

83,616 

186,860 

1,485,730 

320, 146 

1,185,189 

1,901,218 


31,881 
28,419 
15, 113 

165, 121 
27,055 
44,660 

338, 219 
62,438 

198,437 

464,922 


5,734 
4,302 
3,652 
21, 368 
6,408 
9,813 
60, 696 
14,296 
72,441 

311, 622 


4,087 
2,693 
2,598 

12, 306 
3,604 
6,803 

38,534 
9,967 

63,895 

218, 274 


1,647 




1,709 




1,054 




9,062 


Rhode Island 


2,804 




4,010 




22, 162 




4,338 


Pennsylvania 


18,646 


South Atlantic division 


93, 348 




72, 996 
453,738 
126, 941 
662,415 
325,663 
716, 742 
570, 996 
864, 471 
201,670 

9, 580, 649 


57,243 
342, 721 

84,416 
492,232 
272, 159 
478,596 
333,282 
568,470 
152,708 

7,895,395 


11,894 

91,097 

40, 382 

114,438 

28, 680 

127, 740 

142,433 

182,037 

33, 459 

1,315,724 


3,859 

24,920 

2,144 

55, 746 

24, 824 

110, 407 

95,280 

113,964 

16, 403 

369, 630 


2,781 
17,034 

1,365 
44,651 
22,343 
77,986 
66, 363 
77, 462 
11,281 

287, 723 


1,078 

7,886 

779 

11,094 

2,481 
32, -121 
38,917 
36,502 

4,122 

81,807 


54,680 
324,432 

66, 624 
494,240 
176,199 
480, 187 
392,102 
697,862 

91,636 

6,625,123 


43,948 
254, 511 

46,349 
376,302 
154, 849 
837,688 
240,260 
380, 201 

67,220 

4,892,963 


7,088 
64, 094 
19, 064 
71,339 
10, 266 
67,997 
99, 974 
120, 628 
14,472 

501, 406 


3,544 
15, 827 

1,211 
46,599 
11, 084 
74, 602 
51,878 
97, 033 

9,844 

230, 764 


2,704 

11, 121 

617 

34,741 

9,842 
65,623 
31,766 
65, 329 

6,632 

195,070 


840 




4,706 


District of Columbia 


694 
11,858 




1,242 




18, 979 




20,113 




31,704 


Florida 


3,312 


North Central division 


35, 684 


Ohio 


1,645,962 
898, 9.53 

1, 804, 040 
906,990 
732, 538 
645,874 
789, 404 

1,121,392 
117, 640 
137, 156 
373,970 
607, 740 

5,209,755 


1, 265, 716 
756,783 

1,468,400 
752, 776 
596, 549 
531, 973 
667, 967 
914, 245 
100,423 
116, 636 
315,072 
431,865 

3, 792, 422 


233, 177 

111 ; 024 

275, 105 

126, 617 

106, 474 

90,887 

102,037 

145,498 

13,073 

14, 425 

44,121 

53, 386 

818, 502 


47,059 
32,146 
70,535 
26, 697 
30, 616 
23,014 
29,410 
61,649 
4,144 
7,095 
14, 777 
22,489 

598,831 


34, 165 
26,464 
60, 994 
19,523 
20,842 
16, 973 
24,564 
62, 621 
3,125 
5,876 
12, 282 
20, 304 

445, 512 


12,894 
6,692 

19, 641 
7,174 
9,673 
6,041 
4,816 
9,02X 
1,019 
] , 219 
2,495 
2,186 

163,319 


994, 475 
635,080 
999,780 
669, 204 
417,4.56 
266,125 
528, 302 
692, 959 

} 157,844 

162, 614 
322,285 

3, 022, 173 


850, 564 
651,030 
856, 579 
502,681 
360,822 
225,087 
466, 626 
598,354 

1 54, 279 

138,343 
289,709 

2, 224, 160 


105,388 
47,872 
99, 005 
51,534 
42, 946 
23, 573 
42,383 
68,180 

»2,672 

9,726 
18, 129 

433, 172 


38,533 
86, 178 
44, 196 
16, 089 
13,688 
6,466 
20, 294 
36,425 

1893 

4,646 
14,447 

364,841 


31,282 
32,628 
37, 100 
11, 610 
10,240 
4,961 
17, 832 
31,662 

1714 

3,816 
13,225 

268,099 


7,261 




3,660 


Illinois 


7,096 
3,479 




3,448 




1,604 




2,462 




4,763 












730 




1,222 


South Central division 


96,742 




752, 531 
727, 587 
763, 188 
646, 123 
536, 093 
1,033,033 
133,710 
132, 695 
485, 795 

1,703,107 


593, 233 
547, 672 
482,190 
402, 860 
365, 562 
819, 037 
108, 644 
115,129 
358, 196 

1,479,842 


98, 181 
103, 553 
168,346 
144,254 
109,484 
122,426 

10, 020 
9,708 

62, 532 

192, 316 


61, 117 
76, 362 
122, 653 
98,009 
61,047 
91,671 
15, 146 
7,858 
66,068 

30, 949 


53, 676 
63, 711 
80, 989 
63,906 
39,620 
73, 604 
12,950 
7,309 
49, 747 

24,970 


7,441 
12, 651 
41,664 
34, 103 
21,427 
17,967 

2,196 

549 

15,321 

5,979 


619, 851 
447, 970 
492, 790 
415,506 
363,228 
622, 133 


428, 789 
347, 270 
303,816 
272,769 
243, 494 
426,266 


49, 035 
46, 352 
98, 666 
92, 865 
75,011 
48,163 


42,030 
64, 348 
90,408 
49,892 
44,723 
47, 724 


36, 643 
44, 292 
64,918 
32,330 
24, 682 
36,934 


6,387 




10, 056 




25, 490 




17, 562 




20, 041 


Texas 




Indian Territory 
















260,692 
757, 319 


201,776 
701, 744 


23,200 
43,146 


35,716 
12,430 


28,300 
10,367 


7,416 




2,063 




114, 799 
44, 268 
218, 263 
66,020 
53, 370 
84, 604 
19, 809 
62, 683 
225, 387 
169, 637 
644,267 

33, 335 
90, 172 
90, 380 


104, 061 

40,469 

187, 394 

66, 723 

46, 226 

71,745 

17,626 

56, 772 

201,799 

148, 869 

549, 168 

28, 905 
83, 219 
90, 179 


9,639 
2,893 
27, 869 
6,766 
6,162 
10,334 
1,969 
4, 375 
20,203 
17,916 
86,790 

3,428 

5,955 

142 


1,199 
906 
8,500 
3,531 
1,982 
2,525 
214 
1,636 
3,386 
2,852 
9,319 

1,002 

998 

9 


929 
795 
2,903 
2,987 
1,358 
2,096 
183 
1,395 
2,807 
2,331 
7,187 

802 
828 


270 
111 
697 
644 
624 
430 
31 
141 
678 
621 
2,132 

200 
170 


22,255 
8,884 

101,251 
40,822 
22, 271 
40,066 
32, 233 
15,678 
30, 122 
67,343 

376, 505 


21, 648 
8, 3.53 
95, 667 
36, 615 
21,596 
34, 876 
30,621 
16,186 
28, 722 
63,698 
344, 873 


482 

439 
4,608 
2,010 

461 
2,676 
1,461 

274 
1,009 
2,676 
27, 159 


125 
92 
986 

2,197 
226 

2,603 
161 
118 
391 

1,069 

4,473 


100 

67 

815 

1,945 
205 

2,292 
109 
101 
337 
966 

3,430 


26 


















Utah 
























Alaslia 




Hawaii ■ 

Military and naval 



















1 Dakota territory. 



23054—04 ix 



cxxx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XLVI.— PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 

OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880 AND 1900. 





1900 


1880 


STATES AND TEBBITOBIES. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 




Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


United States 


77.5 


16.6 


6.0 


4.3 


1.7 


80.0 


13.5 


6.5 


4.8 


1.7 








77.3 


16.6 


6.1 


4.4 


1.7 


80.0 


13.5 


6.5 


4.8 


1.7 








76.2 


20.2 


3.6 


2.3 


1.3 


79.1 


17.2 


3.7 


2.5 


1.2 






Maine 


79.8 
75.2 
81.5 
71.4 
70.2 
76.2 
75.7 
77.2 
79.0 

69.5 


18.1 
22.3 
16.2 
26.3 
25.1 
21.8 
21.2 
18.8 
16.1 

19.3 


2.1 
2.5 
2.3 
2.3 
4.7 
3.0 
3.1 
4.0 
4.9 

11.2 


1.4 
1.4 
1.6 
1.4 
2.7 
1.8 
1.9 
2.4 
3.4 

7.8 


0.7 
1.1 
0.7 
0.9 
2.0 
1.2 
1.2 
1.6 
1.6 

3.4 


83.8 
77.1 
84.2 
74.1 
71.4 
77.4 
78.8 
80.7 
81.4 

71.0 


13.8 
19.9 
12.7 
22.9 
23.1 
18.6 
17.9 
16.7 
13.6 

17.3 


2.4 
3.0 
3.1 
3.0 
5.5 
4.1 
3.3 
3.6 
5.0 

11.7 


1.7 
1.8 
2.2 
1.7 
3.1 
2.4 
2.1 
2.5 
3.7 

8.2 


0.7 




1.2 


Vfirmnnt 


0.9 




1.3 




2.4 


Connecticut 


1.7 


New York 


1.2 




1.1 


Pennsylvania 


1 3 




3.5 






Delaware . 


78.4 
74.7 
66.5 
74.3 
83.5 
66.8 
58.4 
6-5.8 
75.8 

82.4 


16.3 
19.9 
31.8 
17.3 
8.8 
17.8 
25.0 
21.1 
16.6 

13.8 


5.3 

6.4 

1.7 

8.4 

7.7 

16.4 

16.6 

13.1 

7.6 

3.8 


3.8 
3.7 
1.1 
6.7 
6.9 
10.9 
9.8 
8.9 
5.6 

3.0 


1.5 
1.7 
0.6 
1.7 
0.8 
4.5 
6.8 
4.2 
2.0 

0.8 


80.5 
78.5 
69.6 
76.1 
87.9 
70.3 
61.3 
63.6 
73.4 

87.0 


13.0 
16.7 
28.6 
14.4 
6.8 
14.2 
26.5 
20.2 
15.8 

8.9 


6.5. 

4.8 

1.8 

9.5 

6.3 

15.6 

13.2 

16.2 

10.8 

4.1 


5.0 
3.4 
0.9 
7.1 
5.6 

11.6 
8.1 

10.9 
7.2 

3.5 


1 5 




1 4 






Virginia 


2 4 


West Virginia . 


7 








5 1 


Georgia . 


5 3 






North Central division 


6 






Ohio 


81.9 
84.1 
80.9 
83.0 
81.3 
82.4 
83.4 
81.5 
85.3 
84.3 
84.2 
85.1 

72.8 


16.1 
12.4 
15.2 
14.0 
14.6 
14.1 
12.9 
13.0 
11.1 
10.6 
11.8 
10.6 

16.7 


3.0 
3.5 
3.9 
3.0 
4.1 
3.5 
3.7 
5.5 
3.6 
6.1 
4.0 
4.4 

11.6 


2.2 
2.9 
2.8 
2.2 
2.8 
2.6 
3.1 
4.7 
2.7 
4.3 
3.3 
4.0 

8.5 


0.8 
0.6 
1.1 
0.8 
1.3 
0.9 
0.6 
0.8 
0.9 
0.8 
0.7 
0.4 

8.0 


85.5 
86.8 
86.7 
88.3 
86.4 
88.2 
88.1 
86.3 

} 193.9 

90.6 
89.9 

73.6 


10.6 
7.5 
9.9 
9.1 

10.3 
9.2 
8.0 
8.4 

14.6 

6.4 
5.6 

14.3 


3.9 
5.7 
4.4 
2.6 
3.3 
2.6 
5.9 
5.3 

11.5 

3.0 
4.6 

12.1 


3.2 
5.1 
3.7 
2.0 
2.5 
2.0 
3.4 
4.6 

11.2 

2.5 
4.1 

8.9 




Indiana 


6 


Tllinnis 


o!7 

0.6 
0.8 
0.6 
0.5 
0.7 


Michigan 




MirinpRot^. 


Iowa '. 






South Dakota 


10.3 




5 
04 

3.2 


Kansas 






Kentucky 


78.9 
75.3 
63.2 
62.5 
68.2 
79.3 
81.2 
86.8 
73.7 

86.9 


13.0 
14.2 
20.7 
22.3 
20.4 
11.9 
7.5 
7.3 
12.8 

11.3 


8.1 
10.5 
16.1 
15.2 
11.4 

8.8 
11.3 

6.9 
13.6 

l.X 


7.1 
8.7 

10.6 
9.9 
7.4 
7.1 
9.7 
5.5 

10.3 

1.5 


1.0 
1.8 
6.6 
6.3 
4.0 
1.7 
1.6 
0.4 
3.2 

0.3 


82.5 
77.5 
61.6 
65.6 
67.0 
81.6 


9.4 
10.4 
20.0 
22.4 
20.7 

9.2 


8.1 
12.1 
18.4 
12.0 
12.3 

9.2 


7.0 
9.9 
13.2 
7.8 
6.8 
7.1 


1.1 

2,2 
5.2 
4.2 
5.5 
2,1 




Alabama 


Louisiana 


Texas 


Indian Territory 
















77.4 
92.6 


8.9 
5.7 


13.7 
1.7 


10.9 
1.4 


2.8 
03 


Western division 






90.7 
91.4 
85.9 
85.9 
84.7 
84.8 
89.0 
90.6 
89.5 
87.7 
85.3 

86.7 
92.3 
99.8 


8.3 

f..6 

12.5 

h. X 

11.5 

12.2 

9.9 

7.0 

8.9 

10.6 

13.3 

10.3 
6.6 
0.2 


1.0 
2.0 
1.6 
5.3 
3.8 
3.0 
j.l 
2.4 
1.6 
1.7 
1.4 

3.0 
1.1 
(=) 


0.8 
1.8 
1.3 
4.5 
2.6 
2.5 
0.9 
2.2 
1.3 
1.4 
1.1 

2.4 
0.9 


0.2 
0.2 
0.3 
0.8 
1.2 
0.5 
0.2 
0.2 
3 
0.3 
0.3 

0.6 
0.2 


97.3 
94.0 
94.6 
89.7 
97.0 
87.1 
95.0 
97.6 
96,4 
94.5 
91.6 


2.2 
4.9 
4.6 
4.9 
2.0 
6.4 
4.6 
1.8 
3.3 
4.0 
7.2 


0.6 
1.1 
1.0 
6.4 
1.0 
6.6 
0.4 
0.7 
1.3 
1.5 
1.2 


0.4 
0.8 
0.8 
4.8 
0.9 
5.7 
0.3 
0.6 
1.1 
1.4 
0.9 


01 
03 
0.2 
0.6 
0.1 
0.8 
01 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 
0.3 


Wyoming 


Colorado 


New Mexico 


Arizona 


Utah 


Nevada 


Idaho 




Oregon 


California 


Alaska 

Hawaii 


Military and naval 


























1 Dakota territory. 



2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXXXl 



Table xlvi shows that in all except three states- 
South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana— the pro- 
portion of women among the whole number of persons 
occupied was larger in 1900 than in 1880. Many states 
show an increase also in the proportion of children of 
one or both sexes. The following tabular statement 
shows, by states and territories, the general character 
of the changes between 1880 and 1900 in the propor- 
tions which men, women, boys, and girls severally 
form of the total number of gainful workers, an in- 
crease in the proportion represented by any one of 
these four classes being indicated bj^ a star: 



DIVISIONS. 


States and territories. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 




fMaine 




* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 



















Vermont L 
















Nortli Atlantic 


Rhode Island 










Connecticut 




















New Jersey 






* 








* 




("Delaware 












* 
* 


* 




ristrict of Columbia 








Virg'inia . . 






South Atlantic 


WestVirginia 




+ 
* 


* 




North Carolina 




* 








* 






* 
* 


* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 






Florida .. .. 








[•Ohio 




* 




Indiana 












+ 
* 

* 
* 


* 




Michigan . 




* 








* 




Minnesota 




* 









* 








+ 




North Dakota! , 




* 




Nebraska . , 




* 




Kansas 








fKentucky 




* 






Tennessee 








Alabama 


* 


* 


* 


Sonth Central 


Mississippi 


* 






« 










* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 


* 












fMontana 




* 
* 
* 


* 








* 
















* 








« 








* 




Utah 












* 


* 








* 








* 



















1 Dakota territory in 1880. 

The proportions which men, women, and children 
form of all persons gainfully occupied in each state and 
territory of continental United States at the two cen- 
suses are illustrated graphically by the diagram on Plate 
8, in which the respective proportions for 1900 are 



shown by the white bar and those for 1880 by the black 
bar; the states and territories are arranged in the 
decreasing order of the proportions for men in 1900. 
The figures upon which the diagram is based, taken 
from Table xlvi, are reproduced in the following 
summary: 

Per cent distribution, as men, toomen, and children, of persons engaged 
in gainful occupations in 1880 mid 1900, by states and territories 
arranged in the order of the decreasing 2>ercenlage of men in 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



Continental United States. 



Wyoming 

Montana 

Idaho 

Washington 

Nevada 

Oregon 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

California 

Kansas 

Utah 

North Dakota! 

South Dakota/ 

Arizona 

Nebraska 

Indiana 

West Virginia 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Vermont 

Wisconsin 

Illinois 

Maine 

Texas 

Pennsylvania 

Kentucky 

Delaware 

New Jersey 

Florida 

New York 

Tennessee 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire 

Maryland 

Virginia 

Arkansas 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Louisiana 

North Carol ina 

District of Columbia . 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

South Carolina 



91.4 
90.7 
90.6 
89.5 
89.0 
87.7 
86.9 
8.5.9 
86.3 
85.1 
-! 84.8 

.i 84.8 

84.7 
84.2 
84.1 
83.6 
83.4 
83.0 
82.4 
81.9 
81.5 
81.5 
81.3 
80.9 
79.8 
79.3 
79.0 
78.9 
78.4 
77.2 
76.8 
75.7 
75.3 
76.2 
75.2 
74.7 
74.3 
73.7 
71.4 
70.2 
68.2 
66.8 
66.5 
65.8 
63.2 
62.5 
.58.4 



Wo- 
men. 



16.6 



7.0 
8.9 
9.9 
10.6 
12.5 
8.8 
13.3 
10.5 
12.2 



11.5 
11.8 
12.4 
8.8 
12.9 
14.0 
14.1 
16.1 
13.0 
16.2 
14.6 
16.2 
18.1 
11.9 
16.1 
13.0 
16.3 
18.8 
16.6 
21.2 
14.2 
21.8 
22.3 
19.9 
17.3 
12.8 
26.3 
26.1 
20.4 
17.8 
31.8 
21.1 
20.7 
22.3 
25.0 



Chil- 
dren. 



2.0 
1.0 
2.4 
1.6 
1.1 
1.7 
1.6 
6.3 
1.4 
4.4 
3.0 



4.0 

3.5 

7.7 

3.7 

3.0 

3.6 

3.0 

5.5 

2.3 

4.1 

3.9 

2.1 

8.8 

4.9 

8.1 

5.3 

4.0 

7.6 

3.1 

10.5 

3.0 

2.5 

5.4 

8.4 

13.5 

2.3 

4.7 

11.4 

16.4 

1.7 

13.1 

16.1 

15.2 

16.6 



Men. 



94.0 
97.3 
97.5 
96.4 
96.0 
94.5 
94.6 
89.7 
91.6 
89.9 
87.1 



97.0 
90.6 



88.2 
85.6 
86.3 
84.2 
86.4 
85.7 
83.8 
81.6 
SI. 4 
82.5 
80.5 
80.7 
73.4 
78.8 
77.5 
77.4 
77.1 
78.5 
76.1 
77.4 
74.1 
71.4 
67.0 
70.3 
69.6 
63.6 
61.6 
65.6 
61.3 



Wo- 
men. 



4.9 
2.2 
1.8 
3.3 
4.6 
4.0 
4.6 
4.9 
7.2 
5.6 
6.4 

14.6 

2.0 

6.4 

7.5 

6.8 

8.0 

9.1 

9.2 

10.6 

8.4 

12.7 

10.3 

9.9 

13.8 

9.2 

13.6 

9.4 

13.0 

16.7 

15.8 

17.9 

10.4 

18.6 

19.9 

16.7 

14.4 

8.9 

22.9 

23.1 

20.7 

14.2 

28.6 

20.2 

20.0 

22,4 

26.6 



Chil- 
dren, 



6.5 



1.1 
0.5 
0.7 
1.3 
0.4 

1.0 

1.0 
5.4 
1.2 
4.5 
6.5 

U.5 

1.0 

3.0 

5.7 

6.3 

3.9 

2.6 

2.6 

3.9 

5.3 

3.1 

3.3 

4.4 

2.4 

9.2 

.6.0 

8.1 

6.5 

3.6 

10.8 

3.3 

12.1 

4.1 

3.0 

4.8 

9.5 

13.7 

3.0 

5.5 

12.3 

15.5 

1.8 

16.2 

18.4 

12.0 

13.2 



1 Dakota territory. 

CHANGES IN THE PROPORTIONS IN THE MAIN CLASSES OF 
OCCUPATIONS. 

The main classes of occupations in which the decrease 
in the proportion of men was most pronounced are 
clearly indicated in the summary on the following page. 



cxxxii STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Distribution, as men, ivomen, and children, of persons engaged in gainful occupations and in each main class: 1880 and 1900. 



CENSUS YEARS AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Total persons 
gainfully 
occupied. 



1900 
All occupations 

Agrricultural pursuits , 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

1S80 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 



10, 381, 765 
1,258,638 
5, 580, 657 
4, 766, 964 
7, 085, 309 



17, 392, 099 



7, 713, 875 
603, 202 
3,418,793 
1,871,503 
3, 784, 726 



Number. Per cent. 



22, 480, 425 



8, 549, 739 
826, 096 
3, 348, 159 
4, 163, 443 
5,601,988 



13, 919, 765 



6, 534, 198 
425, 669 
2, 119, 531 
1, 772, 836 
3,067,521 



77.3 



82.4 
66.7 
60.0 
87.3 
79.1 



84.7 
70.6 
62.0 
94.7 
81.0 



Number. Per cent. 



4,833,630 



770, 056 
429, 497 

1,963,467 
481,159 

1,199,452 



2, 363, 988 



458, 648 
176, 609 
1,074,623 
60, 010 
584, 198 



7.4 
34.1 
35.0 
10.1 
16.9 



13.6 



5.9 
29.3 
31.5 

3.2 

15.4 



Number. Per cent. 



1,264,411 



854, 690 
1,845 
137, 049 
100, 174 
170, 653 



825, 187 



585, 167 
278 

117, 962 
35, 609 
86. 171 



8.2 
0.1 
2.5 
2.1 
2.4 



7.6 



(') 



3.4 
1.9 
2.3 



Number. Per cent. 



207, 281 

1,100 

141, 982 

22, 188 

113,216 



293, 169 



135, 862 

646 

106, 777 

3,048 

46, 836 



2.0 
0.1 
2.6 
0.5 
1.6 



1.8 
0.1 
3.1 
0.2 
1.3 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



This summary shows that for each of the main classes 
of occupations there was a loss in the proportion of 
men at work in continental United States in 1900, as 
compared with 1880, offset by a gain in the proportion 
of women alone in domestic and personal service, of 
women and boys in professional service, and of women, 
boys, and girls in the other three classes. The propor- 
tion of men engaged in agricultural pursuits declined 
from 84.7 per cent in 1880 to 82.4 per cent in 1900, this 
decline being offset by an increase in the proportions of 
both women and children. Similar changes took 
place in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, the 
proportion of men declining during the twenty j^ears, 
from 81 per cent to 79.1 per cent, while the pro- 
portions of women and children correspondingly in- 
creased. In domestic and personal service there was 
a loss not only in the proportion of men, but also 
in that of children, while the proportion of women in 
this class increased from 31.. 5 per cent to 3.5 per cent. 
But it is in the two remaining classes that the changes 
during the twentj^-j^ear period were greatest. The pro- 



portion of men declined from 94.7 per cent to 87.3 per 
cent in trade and transportation, and from 70.6 per 
cent to 65.7 per cent in professional service; the loss in 
the proportion of men was offset in the former class by 
an increase in the proportions of women and children, 
and in the latter by an increase in tne proportions of 
women and boys, the proportion of girls remaining 
stationary. The most notable increase in the propor- 
tion of women is found in trade and transportation — 
from 3.2 per cent in 1880 to 10.1 per cent in 1900. 

CHANGES IN THE PEOPORTION8 IN SPECIFIED OCCUPA- 
TIONS. 

Dealing with specific occupations, in many cases 
the changes in the composition of the workers are still 
more striking. Table xlvii presents, for continental 
United States, the number of persons in each of 140 
groups of occupations in ISSO and in 1900, classified 
as men, women, and children, and in Table xlviii this 
classification is presented by percentages. 



Tablk xlvii.- 



-DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN 
SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900. 





1900 


1880 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Total 
persons 
gainfully 
occupied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Total 

persons 

gainfully 

occupied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 




Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 




29, 073, 233 


22, 489, 425 


4,833,630 


1,750,178 


1,264,411 


486, 767 


17, 392, 099 


13,919,756 


2, 353, 988 


1,118,356 


825, 187 








Agricultural pursuits 


10,381,766 


8,549,739 


770, 056 


1,061,971 


854,690 


207, 281 


7,713,875 


6,634,198 


4.5S, 648 


721, 029 


685, 167 






135,862 




4,410,877 
10, 875 

5, 674, 875 
61,788 
72, 020 

84, J88 
24, 735 
36,075 
5,632 

1, 258, 538 


2,900,026 
9,717 

5, 367, 109 
58, 928 
71,351 

79, 161 

23,323 

34,853 

5,211 

826,096 


456,405 

859 

307, 706 

' 2, 860 


1, 054, 446 
299 


847,642 
266 


206,804 
33 


3, 323, 876 
8,948 

4, 229, 051 
56,032 
30,651 

44, 075 
7,450 

12,731 
1,061 

603,202 


2,208,400 
8,102 

4, 172, 048 
63, 385 
30, 497 

40,994 
7,147 

12,585 
1,040 

425, 669 


399,309 

656 

57,002 

1,374 


716, 167 

190 

1 

1,'273 

154 

2,903 

192 

146 

3 

924 


580,576 

186 

1 

1,108 

164 

2,865 

178 

146 

3 

278 






135,591 


Farmers, planters, and overseers 


54 


Gardeners, flori.sts, nurserymen, etc.. 








i65 




99 




569 

3,896 
1,131 
1,109 

78 

1,845 


1 

344 
70 
10 
19 

1,100 








Stock raisers, herders, and drover,^.. 
Turpentine farmers and laborers — 


1,688 
211 
103 
224 

429, 497 


4,239 

1,201 

1,119 

97 

2,945 


178 
111 


38 
14 








18 
176, 609 










646 


Actors, professional showmen, etc . . 
Architects, designers, draftsmen, 
etc, 


34,760 
29, 524 

24,873 
111,638 
29, 605 


27,483 
28,349 

13, 741 
108, 265 
28,858 


6,661 
1,028 

10,907 

3,373 

807 


616 
147 

225 


420 
134 

111 


196 
13 

114 


7,416 
6,195 

9,104 
04, 698 
12, 314 


8, 37.S 
6, 115 

7,014 
64,533 
12,253 


1,951 
72 

2,053 
Ifi-i 
61 


87 
8 

37 


35 
7 

29 


52 

1 


Clergymen 

Dentists 


8 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXXXIU 



Table XLVII.— DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDEBN, OF THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN 

SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900— Continued. 





1900 


1880 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Total 

persons 

gainfully 

occupied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Total 

persons 

gainfully 

occupied. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 




Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Professional service— Cont'd. 
Electricians 


60,717 
43, 239 
30,038 
114, 460 
18,844 

92, 174 
86, 607 
132, 002 
446,133 

13,864 

5,680,657 


49,758 
43,097 
27,845 
113,450 
12, 860 

39,453 
78,488 
124,615 
118, 481 

11,353 

3,348,169 


409 

84 

2,193 

1,010 

5,984 

62,010 

8,119 

7,387 

327,206 

2,319 

1,963,467 


660 

68 


660 
68 




1 8, 261 

12,308 
64,137 
3,100 

30,477 
69,681 
85,671 
227,710 

2,130 

3,418,793 


8,259 

12, 020 

64,062 

2,730 

17,184 
67,509 
83,239 
73,243 

2,130 

2, 119, 631 




2 


2 




Engineers(civil,etc.) an A surveyors . 






288 

75 

367 

13,103 

2,172 

2,432 

163, 870 




JoumalLsts 






Lawyers 














Literary and scientific persons 








3 

190i 


2 
111 


1 


Musicians and teachers of music 

Officials (government) 


711 


362 


349 


79 


Physicians and surgeons 














Teachers and professors in colleges, 

etc. 
Other professional service 


446 

192 

279,031 


38 

172 

137,049 


408 

20 

141,982 


597 


92 


506 


Domestic and personal service , 


1,074,623 


224,739 


117, 962 


106,777 




131, 116 
88,817 
33,844 
83, 746 
71,281 

54,797 

155,153 

1,560,721 

56,677 
2,629,262 

385, 965 
120, 966 

43, 196 
130,590 

34,687 

4,766,964 


124,024 
88,012 
28,999 
81, 660 
11,826 

46,264 

8,224 

267,095 

48,360 

2,393,729 

60,019 
12, 265 
43,195 
129,560 
24, 937 

4, 163, 443 


6,440 
440 
4,845 
2,086 
59, 455 

8,533 

146,929 

1,165,561 

8,010 
106, 916 

328,935 
108,691 


1,652 
365 


1,618 
365 


134 


44,851 

83,078 

19,058 

32,453 

1 1,156,351 

9,212 
1,859,223 

121, 942 
15,601 
24,161 

} 53,863 
1,871, .603 


41,478 

80, 608 

6,745 

30,317 

169,934 

8,480 
1,704,976 

13, 664 
1,163 
24, 141 

48,125 
1, 772, 836 


2,800 

2,196 

12, 313 

2,136 

876,377 

711 
51,272 

107, 136 
14,097 


573 
274 


471 
272 








Restaurant keepers 




2 


Saloon keepers 










Boarding andlodginghousekeepers . 
























Housekeepers and stewards 










119, 040 

21 
102, 975 

1,242 
341 
20 

253 
38,657 


25,144 

19 
91, 699 

180 
26 
20 

231 
35, 609 






138,066 

217 

128,617 

7,011 


19,863 

194 

111,568 

664 


118,202 

23 

17,059 

6,347 


93,896 


Janitors and sextons 


2 


Laborers (not specified) 


11, 376 

1,062 
315 


Launderers and laundresses 




Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S. ) . . 
Watchmen, pohcemen, firemen, etc . . 
Other domesticandpersonalservice.. 










879 
6,747 

481,159 


151 
2,953 

122,362 


151 
2,736 

100, 174 




6,485 
60,010 




217 
22,188 


3,048 




241, 162 
73,277 
78,406 
254,880 
630, 127 
112,364 

92, 919 
538, 933 
56,460 
64,929 
76,649 

33,65B 
790,886 

42,326 
71,622 

74, 072 
59,545 
54,191 
611,139 
682,160 

68,919 
14, 757 
74,982 
16,189 
53,484 

7,085,309 


229, 751 

72,984 

77,774 

179,817 

527,122 

26,794 

91,973 
526,497 
64,032 
63,049 
71,580 

33,466 
754,602 

42,065 
27,148 

72,801 
37,882 
61,072 
448,552 
578,011 

68, 776 
14, 706 
51,692 
15, 866 
46,531 

5,601,988 


10,468 
293 
150 
72,896 
81,000 
85,086 

946 
870 

1,418 
78 

2,792 

190 
33,826 

261 
2,453 

1,271 

17, 052 

489 

142,265 

1,662 

45 


943 


855 


88 


33,989 
19, 373 
88,637 

■ 504, 454 

28,158 
177,586 


33,450 
19, 240 
87,627 

458,158 

27,864 
176,625 


415 

133 

67 

28, 698 

271 


124 


103 


21 








482 

2,167 

22,005 

1,484 


479 

910 

17,759 

452 


3 
1,257 
4,246 
1,032 


953 
17, .598 

23 
1,961 


951 
15, 952 

22 
1,961 


2 


Bookkeepers and accountan ts 


1,646 


Stenographers and typewriters 


1 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


11,666 


11,532 


34 










1,802 
2,277 


1,801 
2,154 


1 
123 


31, 697 
63,491 

14, 213 

479, 439 

13,985 

15,553 

9,342 

37,214 

32, 279 

236,058 

11, 687 


31,072 
50,102 

14,180 

464, 666 

5,521 

15,653 
8,703 
31,883 
24,402 
234, 736 

11,662 




626 
969 


625 
897 






2,420 

33 

14, 741 

49 


72 






Merchants and dealers (except 

wholesale). 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale) . . 
Messengers and errand and office 

hoys. 

Officials of banks and companies — 


2,559 


2,300 


259 


133 

8,415 


122 
8,064 


11 


42,021 


37,811 


4,210 


351 


4,611 
2,630 
20, 322 
2,477 

98 

51 

1,310 


1,675 

2,563 

13,357 

2,461 

97 
61 
734 


2,936 
77 

6,966 
26 

1 


477 
2,028 
7,462 

420 

4 


162 
3,303 

415 
902 

31 


107 

2,871 

133 

875 

31 


65 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) . . 


432 
282 


Steam railroad employees 


27 






Telegraph and telephone linemen . . 
Telegraph and telephone operators. . 






21,980 

323 

3,346 

1, 199, 452 


676 


23, 166 
6,113 
56,169 

3,784,726 


20, 386 
5,064 
53, 163 

3, 067, 521 


1,224 

54 

1,624 

684, 198 


1,566 

5 

1,482 

133,007 


1,505 

4 

1,386 

86, 171 


51 

1 


other persons in trade and trans- 
portation. 

Manufacturing and mechan- 
ical pursuits. 

BwOOing trades. 


3,657 
283,869 


3,203 
170,663 


354 
113,216 


96 
46,836 


600, 262 

160, 805 

277,641 

21,990 

35, 694 
97, 785 
9,067 
9,378 

'24,626 
14, 723 

49,933 
49, 998 
54,460 
16,140 


697,800 
160,066 
272, 736 

21,445 

35, 618 

95,976 

9,003 

9,268 

24, 365 
11,705 

47,087 
42,561 
63, 979 
12,508 


546 

167 

1,666 

241 

45 

124 

2 

27 

63 
2,435 

433 
2,072 

143 
2,593 


1,907 
582 

3,240 
30-t 

131 

1,685 

62 

83 

208 
583 

2,413 

6,365 

338 

1,039 


1,907 
682 

3,047 
304 

131 

1,683 
62 
83 

208 
330 

2,368 

4,816 

338 

692 




390, 696 

102,473 

130,319 

6,013 

22,083 
19, 383 
4,026 
7,858 

11,269 
7,122 

36,052 
17,934 
32,842 
7,233 


390,106 

102,313 

129, 102 

4,826 

22. 056 
19,242 

4,003 
7,823 

11, 035 
6,312 

34, 383 

16. 057 
32,687 

6,063 




489 

160 

902 

36 

28 

141 

23 

30 

204 
249 

1,607 
2,407 

155 
712 


489 

160 

891 

33 

28 

141 

23 

30 

202 
176 

1,601 
2,313 

155 

581 












Painters, glaziers, and varnishers... 


193 


315 

151 


11 
3 








Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . . 


2 










Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . 

Chemicals and allied products. 
Oil well and oil works employees . . . 




5 

30 

561 

62 
470 






2 


263 

45 
549 


73 


Clay, glass, and stone products. 


6 




94 






Potters 


347 


458 


isi 



CXXXIV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XLYII.— DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN 

SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechan' 
ical pursuits — Continued. 

Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen 

Food and kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese maliers 

Confectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 

Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers 

Stove, furnace, and grate makers.. 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 

Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers. 
Harness and saddle makers and re- 
pairers. 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makeiB, etc 

Liquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc. 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectiiiers 



Lumber and its remanufactures. 

Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Other woodworkers 



Metals and metal products other than 
iron and steel. 

Brassworkers 

Clock and watch makers and re- 
pairers. 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 



Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and press- 
men. 

Textiles. 

Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 
Silk mill operatives 



Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives . 

Dressmakers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 



Hat and cap makers 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers . 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 



Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners. . 
Engineers and firemen (not loco- 
motive). 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and oflficials, etc 



Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous Industries 



1900 



Total 

persons 

gainfully 

occupied. 



68,940 
663, 406 



79, 188 
113, 193 
19, 241 
81, 194 
40,548 
28,782 



226, 477 
290, 538 
283, 146 
33,046 

12, 473 
28,122 
13, 606 
18, 487 



208, 903 
40, 101 



42,671 
7,061 



10, 519 

20,962 

3,144 



35,619 
37, 200 
161, 624 
111,696 



26, 760 
24, 120 

26, 112 
70, 605 
56, 602 



30, 278 
21, 098 
11, 151 
36, 328 
156, 147 



22,278 
19, 372 
246, 391 
47, 120 
54,460 

73, 196 
104, 619 
346, 884 

87,869 
150, 942 

22, 733 

39, 432 

229, 649 

29, 533 



10,220 

14,436 

223, 495 

12, 271 
243, 009 

15, 073 
26, 941 
21,866 

131, 452 
30, 821 

471,089 



Men. 



66, 518 
538, 312 



73, 310 
111, 436 
18,228 
21, 333 
40, 121 
22,471 



224, 770 

280, 026 

278, 432 

32, 717 

12,135 
26, 639 
13,384 
15, 994 



164,181 
89,040 

39, 804' 
4,963 



9,130 

20,221 

3,090 



35, 255 
36, 109. 
166, 360 
99, 981 



25, 062 
18, 907 

18,937 
66, 188 
62,648 



14, 010 

3,267 

10, 453 

26,062 

133, 516 



19, 816 

9,721 

104, 783 

10, 560 

19, 090 

89, 402 
48, 140 
2,042 
1,696 
4,557 

14, 704 

8,009 

157, 165 

8,634 



8,196 

13,900 

222, 474 

4,275 
239, 649 

14, 765 
23, 189 
13, 882 
82, 865 
28,038 
855, 547 



428 
885 



3,930 
878 
616 

7,806 
179 

4,348 



190 

2,928 

549 



37 

653 

10 

1,661 



36, 490 
625 



1,490 
1,282 



639 

209 

30 



67 

101 

840 

5,906 



783 
4,596 

5,767 
1,446 
2,064 



14, 803 
14,498 
430 
8,709 
15, 353 



1,660 
8,882 
97, 181 
28, 293 
26, 432 

27, 169 
44,0.51 

338, 144 
82, 936 

188, 724 

7,049 
27,788 
61,571 
19, M8 



1,385 
31 
177 

7,170 
3,360 

204 
3, Till 
C,9|.'> 

37, 125 
2, 065 

79, 085 



Children. 



Total. I Boys. Girls. 



1,994 
24, 209 



1,948 
1,379 

398 
2,066 

248 
1,963 



1,617 

7,684 

4,164 

321 

801 
830 
111 
842 



1,377 
866 



760 
532 
■24 



297 

990 

4,924 

5, 709 



916 
617 

1,408 
2,871 
1,890 



1,965 
3,388 

2ns 

1,657 
6, 279 



803 

1,819 

44, 427 

8,267 

8,938 

6,626 
12,428 
6,698 
8, 227 
7,661 

980 

3, 636 

10, 913 

1,966 



506 
844 



114 

2,38 

1,089 

11,462 
723 

30, 457 



1,960 
24, 105 



1,550 

1,379 

365 

647 

241 

1,169 



1,614 

7,215 

4,142 

321 

295 
787 

in 

707 



5,212 
466 

1,118 
519 



596 
466 
24 



297 

978 

4,891 

4,810 



795 
2,542 
1,684 



529 

245 

842 

5,6.51 



678 

660 

21,005 

2,070 

2,933 

8,164 

5,297 

48 

43 

280 

406 

482 

3,549 

328 



447 
505 

844 

228 



114 

172 

610 

6,090 

630 

24, 620 



34 
104 



1,409 
794 



369 
22 



98 

"iss 



1,020 
70 



264 
347 



156 
66 



107 
219 

613 
329 
256 



1, 329 

2, 804 

23 

71.1 

61^8 



125 

669 

23, 422 

6,197 

6,005 

8,461 
7,131 
6,650 
3,184 
7,381 

674 
3,163 
7,864 
1,628 



66 

429 

6,372 

93 

11,837 



1880 



Total 

persons 

gainfully 

occupied. 



41, 362 
249, 397 



41, 309 
76, 241 

4,570 
13, 692 
63,440 

8,623 



172, 726 
130, 346 
101, 130 
12,771 

8,841 
15,588 
15, 592 

7,170 



194,079 
89, 960 



29,842 
4,410 



2,081 
16, 278 
3,246 



50,664 
63, 199 
92, 357 
80,337 



11,568 
13, 820 

28,406 

42, 818 
16, 394 



18, 833 

n5,7U2 

4, ,'S77 

21,430 

72, 726 



8, 222 
17, OBS 
169,771 
12,194 
18,071 

88,010 
48, 565 



16, 860 

11,823 

133, 756 

12, 163 



8,479 

6,851 

79, 628 

4,511 
69, 695 

5,822 
9,990 
6, 350 
77, 045 
10, 448 
185, 843 



Men. 



40, 468 
286,844 



39,641 
75, 673 

4,181 
11,723 
58, 069 

7,218 



172, 170 
125, 730 
100, 568 
12, 624 

3,261 
14,395 
16, 376 

6,620 



170, 596 
38,101 

29, 245 
3,706 



1,909 
16, 089 
3,212 



48,649 
52, 189 
89,764 



10, 436 
11, 716 

25,975 
41,092 
15, 767 



7,987 
'7,924 

4,411 
14, 076 
67, 348 



7,372 
9,808 
65, 177 
3,668 
7,579 

47, 858 
29, 585 



12,566 
8,028 

80,489 
4,628 



7,373 

5,785 
79, 537 

2,511 
69, 108 

5,788 
9,481 
4,107 
61,687 
9,786 
146, 026 



Women. 



1,016 



337 

1,677 

73 

1,012 



477 
'215 



19,830 
1,623 



195 
324 



390 
"35 



646 



1,824 
959 
801 



5,086 

16,108 

101 

6,218 

3,866 



617 
6,466 
76,588 
6,676 
7,226 

80, 724 
12, 815 



3,530 

8,091 

48, 330 

6,909 



1,847 
478 



446 
1,866 
9,182 

829 
26, 231 



Children. 



Total. Boys. Girls. 



823 
12, 488 



662 
568 
62 
292 
298 



656 

3,898 

572 

147 

80 
716 
216 
836 



402 
880 



110 
129 
25 



1,615 

1,010 

2,558 

991 



487 
372 

606 
767 
326 



760 

11,730 

66 

1,141 

2,022 



238 

1,294 

28,006 

1,8.50 

3,267 

9,928 
6,165 



764 

704 

4,937 

626 



688 
66 
91 

158 
14 

34 

63 

377 

6,176 

128 

14, 686 



819 
12, 474 



605 
668 
49 
169 
294 
227 



656 

3,202 

672 

147 

80 
636 
216 
305 



2,476 
80S 



897 
326 



103 
128 
25 



1, 525 
1,010 
2,562 



396 
286 



463 
689 
302 



3.56 
1 708 



635 
1,922 



201 

654 

13, 116 

666 

1,2.S1 

5,146 
3,837 



86 



488 

185 

1,169 

169 



464 
66 
91 

47 
14 

84 

58 

185 

4,490 

115 

10, 404 



4 
14 



123 

4 

166 



SO 
'36 



1,177 
2S 

5 

66 



6 
95 



91 



143 
7S 
24 



405 

11,022 

2 

606 

100 



82 

640 

14, 891 

1,184 

1,986 

4,7S2 
2,828 



326 

569 

3,768 

457 



106 



6 

192 

1,686 

13 

4, 182 



1 Paper and wood combined. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxxxv 



Table XLVIII.— PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900. 





1000 


1880 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Men. 


Women. 


Children. 




Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


All occupations 


77.3 


16.6 


6.1 


4.4 


1.7 


80.0 


13.5 


6.5 


4.8 


1.7 




Agricultural pursuits 


82,4 


7.4 


10.2 


8.2 


2.0 


84.7 


6.9 


9.4 


7.6 








Agrictdtural laborers 


65.8 
89.3 
94.6 
95.4 
99.1 

93.1 
94.3 
96.6 
94.2 

65.7 


10.3 
7.9 
6,4 
4,6 
0,1 

1,9 
0,8 
0,3 
4.1 

34.1 


23.9 
2,8 


19.2 
2.5 


4.7 
0.3 


66.4 
90.6 
98.7 
95.3 
99.5 

93.0 
95.9 
'98.9 
98.0 

70.6 


12.0 
7.3 
1.3 
2.4 


21.6 
2.1 

<\3 
0.5 

6.6 
2.6 
1.1 
0.3 

0.1 


17.5 
1.6 

(') 

. 2.0 
0.5 

6.5 
2.4 
1.1 
0.3 


4.1 
0.6 


Dairymen and dairy-women 


Farmers, planters, and overseers 


Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc 








0.3 


Lumbermen and raftsmen 


0.8 

6.0 
4.9 
3.1 
1.7 

0.2 


0.8 

4.6 
4.6 
3.1 
1.4 

0.1 


0.4 
0.3 

<''0.3 

0.1 




Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 


0.4 
1.6 


1 


Turpentine farmers and laborers 




Wood cboppers 




Other agricultural pursuits 


1.7 
29.3 




Professional service 


1 






Actors, professional showmen, etc 


79.1 
96.0 
56.2 
97,0 
97.3 

98.1 
99.7 
92.7 
99.1 
68.2 

42.8 
90.6 
94,4 
26,6 
81,9 

60,0 


19.1 
3.5 

43.8 
3.0 

2.7 

0.8 
0.2 
7.3 
0.9 
31.8 

66.4 
9.4 
6.6 
73.3 
16.8 

35.0 


1.8 
0.6 
1.0 


1.2 
0.6 
0.5 


0.6 
'''0.5 


72.6 
98.7 
77.1 
99.7 
99.6 

} 100. 

97.7 
99.9 
88.1 

56.4 
96.9 
97.2 
32.2 
100.0 

62.0 


26.3 
1.2 

22.6 
0.8 
0.5 


1.2 
0.1 
0.4 


0.5 
0.1 
0.3 


7 


Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 


'''oi 


Artists and teachers of art 


Clergymen 




Dentists 














Electricians , 


1.1 
0.1 


1.1 
0.1 




0) 


0) 




Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors 

Journalists , ,. . 




2.3 

0.1 

11.9 

4.3.0 
3.1 
2.8 

67.6 




Lawyers 














Literary and scientific persons 








0.6 


0.3 


(1) 


Musicians and teachers of music 


0.8 


0.4 


0.4 


0.3 


Officials (government) 




Physicians and surgeons 














Teachers and professors in colleges, etc . 


0.1 
1.3 

5.0 


1.2 
2.5 


0.1 
0.1 

2.5 


0.2 


0) 


0.2 






Domestic and personal service . 


31.5 


6.6 


3.4 


3.1 






Barbers and hairdressers 


94.6 
99.1 
85.7 
97.6 
16.6 

84.4 
5.3 
16.5 
85.4 
91.0 

12.9 
10,1 
100.0 
99.2 
72.0 

87.3 


4.2 
0,5 

14,3 
2.5 

83.4 

15.6 
94.7 
74.7 
14.1 
4.1 

8.5.3 
89.9 


1.2 
0.4 


1.1 
0.4 


0.1 


92.6 

[ 97.0 

36.4 

93.4 

} 13.8 

92.1 
91.7 

11.1 

7,4 

99,9 

} 89,4 
94,7 


6.3 

2.6 

64.6 

6.6 

75.9 

7.7 
2.8 

87.8 
90.4 


1.2 
0.4 


1.0 
0.4 


0.2 










(') 


Saloon keepers . 


















Hotel keepers ... 






















10.3 

0.2 
5.5 

1.1 
2.2 
0.1 
0.4 

2.1 


2.2 

0.2 
4.9 

0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

0.4 
1.9 




Servants and waiters 


8.8 
0.5 
4,9 

1.8 


1.2 
0.4 
4.3 

0.2 


7.6 
0.1 
0.6 

1.6 






(') 


Laborers (not specified) 


0.6 




0.9 




2.0 


Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S. ) 










0.7 
19.5 

10.1 


0.1 
8.5 

2.6 


0.1 
7.9 

2.1 




10.2 
3.2 


(') 




0.6 
0.5 




0.2 








95.2 
99.6 
99.2 
70.6 
83.7 
23.0 

99.0 
97.7 
97.4 
97.1 
93.4 

99.4 
95.4 
99.4 
37.9 
98.3 

63.6 
94.3 
73.4 
99.3 
99.8 

99.0 
68.9 
98.0 
87.2 

79.1 


4.4 
0.4 
0.2 
28,6 
12.8 
75.7 

1.0 
0,2 
2.6 
0.1 
3.6 

0.6 
4.3 
0.6 
3.4 
1.7 

28.6 
0.9 

23.3 

. 0.3 

0.1 


0.4 


0.4 


(') 


98.4 
99.3 
98.8 

i 90.8 

98.9 
98.9 


1.2 
0.7 
0.1 

6.7 
1.0 


0.4 


0.3 



0.1 








0.6 
0.8 
3.6 
1,3 


0.6 
0.3 

2.8 
0.4 


0) 

0.6 
0.7 
0.9 


1.1 
3.5 

0.1 
1.1 


1.1 
3.2 

0.1 
1.1 


i}) 








0.3 








(') 




2.1 


2.1 


0) 












2.8 
3.0 


2.8 
2.8 


0.2 


98.0 
93.6 

99.8 

\ 96.9 

39.5 
100.0 

. 93.2 
85.7 
76.6 
99.4 
99.7 




2.0 
1.9 


2.0 
1.7 






4.5 

0.2 
3.1 
0.4 


0.2 








0.3 


0.3 


{^) 


60.1 


57.6 


(') 






58.7 


52.8 


6.9 


2.5 








7.8 
4.8 
3.3 
0.4 
0.1 

0.4 
1.8 


2.8 
4.7 
2.2 
0.4 
0.1 

0.4 
1.0 


5.0 
0.1 
1.1 


6.1 

5.4 

23.1 

0.2 

P) 


1.7 
8.9 
1.3 
0.4 
0.3 


1.1 
7.7 
0.4 
0.4 
0.3 


0.6 




1.2 




0.9 




(') 












29.3 
2.0 
6.2 

16.9 


0.8 


88.0 
98.8 
94.6 

81.0 


5.3 
1.1 
2.7 

15.4 


6.7 
0.1 
2.7 

3.6 


6.5 
0.1 
2.5 

2.3 


0.2 




(') 




6.6 
4.0 


6.9 
2,4 


0.7 
1.6 


0.2 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 


1.3 


Building trades. 


99.6 
99.5 
98.3 
97.6 

99.6 
98.2 
99.3 

98.8 


0.1 
0.1 
0.5 
1.1 

0.1 
0.1 

''>0.3 


0.3 
0.4 
1.2 
1.4 

0.4 
1.7 
0.7 
0.9 


0.3 
0.4 
1.1 
1.4 

0.4 
1.7 
0.7 
0.9 




99.9 
99.8 
99.0 
96.3 

99.9 
99.3 
99.4 
99.5 




0.1 
0.2 
0.7 
0.7 

0.1 
0.7 
0.6 
0.4 


0.1 
0.2 
0.7 
0.6 

0.1 
0.7 
0.6 
0.4 














0.1 


0.3 
3.0 


(') 




0.1 










(') 
















o.i 











1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



CXXXVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XL VIII.— PER CENT DISTRIBUTION, AS MEN, WOMEN, AND CHILDREN, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits— Continued. 

Chemicais and allied products. 

Oil well and oil works employees 

Other chemical workers 



Clay, glass, and stOTie products. 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Glassworkers 

Marble and stone cutters 

Potters 



Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen , 

Miners and quarrymen 



Food and kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Confectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 



Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers . 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Liquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



LuTTiber and. its remanufactures. 



Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees. 
Other woodworkers 



Metals and metal products other than iron and steel. 

Brassworkers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 



Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Pnnters, lithographers, and pressmen... 

Textiles. 

Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Silk mUl operatives 



Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives. 

Dressmakers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 



Hat and cap makers 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers . 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 



Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) . . . 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 



Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 



1900 



Men. 



99.0 
79.5 



94.3 
85.2 
99.1 
77.5 



96.5 
95.5 



92.6 
98.5 
94.7 
68.4 
98.9 
78.1 



99.2 
96.4 
98.4 
99.0 

97.3 
94.7 
99.1 
86.5 



97.3 
93.3 
70.3 



se.8 

96.5 
98.2 



99.0 
97.1 
96.8 
89.6 



93.7 
78.4 
72.6 
93.9 
93.0 

46.3 
15.5 
93.7 
71.8 
86.0 



89.0 
60.1 
42.6 
22.4 
35.0 

53.8 
46.0 
0.6 
1.9 
3.0 

64.7 
20.3 
68.5 
28.9 



80.2 
96.3 
99.6 



97,9 
86.1 
63.5 
63.0 
90.9 
75. .'i 



0.2 
16.6 



0.9 
4.1 
0.3 
16.0 



0.6 
0.2 



6.0 
0.3 
3.2 

25.0 
0.5 

15.1 



0.1 
1.0 
0.2 



0) 



0.3 
2.4 
0.1 
9.0 



17.4 
1.3 
3.5 

17.6 



6.0 
1.0 
1.0 



0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
6.3 



2.9 
19.1 
22.1 
2.0 
3.7 

47.2 
68.7 

3.9 
23.9 

9.9 



7.4 
43.0 
39.4 
60.0 
48.6 

37.1 
42.1 
97.5 
94.4 
91.9 

31,0 
70.5 
26.8 
64.5 



13.5 
0.2 
0,1 

68.4 
1,4 

1,4 
13.0 
31.7 
28.2 

6,7 
16,8 



Children, 



Total, Boys, Girls. 



0,8 
3,9 



4,8 
10,7 
0,6 
6,5 



2,9 
4,3 



2,4 
1.2 
2.1 
6.6 
0.6 
6.8 



0.7 
2.6 
1.4 
1.0 

2.4 
2.9 
0.8 
4.5 



4.0 
1.4 
3.2 
12.2 



7.2 
2.5 
0.8 



0.8 
2.6 
3.0 
5.1 



3.4 
2.6 
5.3 
4.1 



6..T 
15.8 
2.4 
4.3 
4.1 



6.9 
18.0 
17.6 
16.4 

9.1 
11.9 
1.9 
3.7 
5.1 



9.2 
4.7 
6.6 



6.3 



0.4 
6.8 



0.7 

0.9 
4.8 

8.S 
2.4 
7.7 



0.8 
2.2 



4.7 
9,6 
0,6 
4,3 



2,8 
4,3 



1,9 
1,2 
1,9 
2,1 
0,6 
4,0 



0,7 
2,5 

1,4 : 

1,0 I. 

2,4 I 
2,6 
0.8 ,. 
3.8 



2.5 
1.2 
2.6 
7.3 



5.7 
2.2 
0.8 



0.8 
2.6 
3.0 
4.3 



3.0 
1,6 
3,0 
3,6 
2,9 

2,1 
2,5 
2,2 
2,3 
3,7 



3,0 
3,4 
8,5 
4,4 
6,4 

4,4 
5.1 



(M 



0,1 
0,2 

1,8 
1,2 
1,5 
1,1 



4,4 
3,5 
0,4 
1,9 



0,7 
0,6 
2,8 
3.9 
2.1 
5.2 



0.1 
1,1 



0,1 



(■) 



0,2 

4,5 



(') 



P) 



0,1 



(■) 



(') 



0.3 

'b'.i 



1,0 

0,2 
0,6 
4,9 



1.5 
0,3 



0,4 
0,9 
2,3 
0,5 
0,4 

4,4 
13,3 
0,2 
2,0 
0,4 



0,6 
3,6 
9,9 
13,2 
11,0 

4,7 
6,8 
1,9 
3,6 
4,9 

2.5 
8,0 
3.2 
6,5 



1,9 
'i'.9 



1880 



0,3 
2,0 
4,9 
0,3 
2,6 



97,9 
88,6 



95,4 
84,0 
99,5 



Women. 



97,8 
95,0 


96,0 
99,3 
91,5 
85,6 
99,3 
83,7 


99,7 
96,5 
99,4 
98,8 


97,6 


92,3 
98,6 


92,3 



87,9 
95,3 
98,0 
84,0 



91,7 
98,8 
99,0 



96. 1 
9H 1 
97,2 
93,7 



90,2 
84,8 
91,5 
96,0 
96,2 

57,7 



66,7 
92,6 



89,7 
54,6 
38,4 
30,1 
41.9 

53.8 
60.9 



74.6 
2.5.6 
60. 2 
38.0 



86.9 
98.9 
99.9 
5.1.7 
99.3 

99.4 
94.9 
64.7 
80.1 
93.7 
78.0 



0.3 
7.9 



0.2 
2.6 



Children. 



Total. 



(') 



2.6 



7.4 
12.2 

0.1 
11.8 



3.1 

's.'o 



10.2 
3.8 
0.7 
7.3 



3.0 
0.4 
0.2 



(') 



3.0 



5.6 
12.6 
6.4 
2.2 
1.8 



2,2 

29,0 

4.6 



7.5 
37.9 
45.1 
54.8 
40.0 

34.9 
26,4 



21,0 

68.4 
36.2 
66.8 



40.9 
0.7 



4.5 
29.4 
11.9 

6.1 
14.1 



1.8 
3,6 



4,4 
13,4 
0,6 



2,0 
5,0 



1,5 
0,7 
1,1 
2,2 
0.6 



0,3 
2,6 
0,6 
1,2 

2,4 
4,6 
1,4 
4,7 



1,9 
0,9 
1,3 

8.7 



5,3 
0,8 
0,8 



1,9 
2,8 



4,2 
2,6 
2,1 
1.8 
2,0 

5,5 



1,5 
5,3 
2,8 



2,8 

7.5 

16.6 

16.1 

18.1 

11.3 
12.7 



4.6 
6.0 



5.2 



7.0 
1.1 
0.1 
3.4 



0.6 
0.0 
5.9 
8.0 
1.2 



Boys. 



1.8 
2.5 



4.4 
12.9 
0.5 
8.1 



2.0 
5.0 



1.4 
0.7 
1.1 
1.3 
0.6 
2.6 



0.8 
2.4 
0.6 
1.2 

2.4 
4.1 
1.4 
4.3 



1.3 
0.8 
1.3 

7.4 



5.0 
0.8 
0.8 



3.0 
1.9 
2.8 
3.0 



3.4 
2.0 
1.6 
1.6 
1.8 



1.4 
2.9 
2.6 



2.4 

3.8 
7.7 
.i.4 
7.1 

5.9 



C) 



2.6 
1.2 
0.8 
1.4 



6.6 
1.1 
0.1 
1.0 



(') 



0.6 
0.6 
2.9 
5.8 
1.1 
5.6 



Girls. 



(') 



(') 



1.8 



0.1 



(■) 
{ 



0.5 
'6.'4 



0) 



0.6 
01 



(') 



1,3 
0,3 



(■) 



0,3 

0.8 
0.6 
0.5 
0,2 
0.2 

2,9 



0,1 
2.4 
0.2 



0.4 
3.7 



9.7 
11.0 



5.4 
4.8 



1,6 



1.9 
4.8 
2,8 
3,8 



1,5 



(') 



3.0 
2.2 
0.1 
2.3 



■ Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXXXVll 



Table xlviii shows that for the occupations classed 
as agricultural pursuits, the changes between 1880 and 
1900 in the proportions of men, women, and children 
employed were on the whole comparatively insignificant. 
The most marked change was that shown for farm- 
ers, planters, and overseers — an occupation in which 
the proportion of women increased from 1.3 per cent 
to 5.4 per cent, while the proportion of men corre- 
spondingly decreased. Of all women engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits in 1900 more than one-half were agri- 
cultural laborers, and for this group there was a 
trifling increase in the proportions of boys and girls, 
offset by similar decreases in the proportions of men 
and women. For gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. , 
there was an increase in the proportions of both men 
and women, offset by a decrease in the proportions for 
boys and girls; for wood choppers and for turpentine 
farmers and laborers, on the other hand, there was an 
increase in the proportion of boys, at the expense of 
men in the former case and of both men and women in 
the latter. 

More than three-fourths of all women engaged in pro- 
fessional service in 1900 were teachers or professors, 
and in this occupation the percentage of women in- 
creased from 67.6 in 1880 to 73.3 in 1900. There was 
likewise an increase in the proportion of women and a 
decrease in that of men in every other occupation group 
of this class, except that of actors, professional show- 
men, etc.; and in most cases the changes were quite 
marked. In the cases of architects, clergymen, den- 
tists, lawyers, and physicians and surgeons, the per- 
centages of women in 1900 were small, but showed a 
marked advance as compared with the 1880 percentages. 
The seven occupation groups of this class showing the 
greatest changes in proportions between 1880 and 1900, 
arranged in the order of their numerical importance as 
measured by the total column for 1900 in Table xlvii, 
are as follows: 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed 
under professional service. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Teachers and professors in 
colleges, etc. 

Musicians and teachers of 
music. 

Officials (government) 

Actors, professional show- 
men, etc. 

Journalists 

Artists and teachers of art . . 

Literary and scientific per- 
sona. 



PERCENTAGE OF — 



Men. 



1900 1880 



26.6 

42.8 

90.6 
79.1 

92.7 
65.2 
68.2 



32.2 

56.4 

96.9 
72.5 

97.7 
77.1 
88.1 



1900 1880 



73.3 
56.4 



9.4 
19.1 



7.3 
43.8 
31.8 



67.6 

43.0 

3.1 
26.3 

2.3 
22.5 
11.9 



B0.V9. 



1900 1880 



0) 

0.4 



1.2 
"Ol'.'b 



(') 
0.3 



0.3 



0.1 
0.4 



0.6 

'o.'s' 



0.2 
0.3 



0.1 

(') 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

A little more than three-fourths of all persons engaged 
in domestic and personal service in 1900 were classed 
under two heads, namely, laborers (not specified) and 
servants and waiters. In the former group the pro- 



portion of women increased from 2.8 per cent in 1880 
tolr.l per cent in 1900, while the proportion of men 
decreased from 91.7 per cent to 91 per cent and that 
of boys from 4.9 per cent to 4.3 per cent. In 1880 
the returns for servants and waiters included those 
for housekeepers and stewards, so that it is impossible 
to make separate comparisons for these two groups. 
But on combining the returns for 1900 it is found that of 
the total number in the two groups 15.4 per cent were 
men, 76.5 per cent were women, 1.2 per cent were boys, 
and 6.9 per cent were girls; and on making a compari- 
son with the corresponding percentages for 1880 — 13.8, 
75.9, 2.2, and 8.1, respectively — it appears that the 
percentages for men and women increased during the 
twenty-year period, while those for boys and girls 
decreased. For launderers and laundresses and for 
barbers and hairdressers there was a decrease in the 
proportion of women, offset by an increase in the pro- 
portions of men and girls in the former group and 
of men alone in the latter. The increase in the pro- 
portion of men employed as launderers doubtless is 
due in large measure to the introduction of machinery. 
On the other hand, there has been a very marked 
decrease in the proportion of man returned as boarding 
and lodging house keepers, hotel keepers, and janitors 
and sextons, offset by an increase in the proportion of 
women in the first two cases and of both women and 
children in the third. In the following summary the 
occupation groups of this class showing the greatest 
changes in proportions are arranged in the order of 
their numerical importance: 

Summary of the most marked changes shoiim for occupations classed 
under domestic and personal service. 





PERCENTAGE OF— 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Men. 


Women. 


Boys. 


Girls. 




1900 


1880 


1900 


1880 


1900 


1880 


1900 


1880 


Launderers and laundresses . 
Barbers and hairdressers . . . 

Nurses and midwives 

Boardingand lodging house 
keepers. 

Janitors and sextons 

Hotel keepers 


12.9 
94.6 

m.i 

16.6 

S5.4 
.S4.4 


11.1 

92.0 

7.4 

35.4 

92.1 
93.4 


85.3 
4.2 
89.9 
83.4 

14.1 
15.6 


87.8 
6.3 
90.4 
64.6 

7.7 
6.6 


0.2 
1.1 


0.2 
1.0 
0.2 


1.6 
0.1 


0.9 
0.2 
2.0 


0.4 


0.2 


0.1 


0) 











1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Under trade and transportation, retail merchants and 
dealers ranked first in numerical importance in 1900; 
in 1880, however, they were reported in combination 
with wholesale merchants, so that for purposes of 
comparison the two groups must be considered to- 
gether. For both classes of merchants combined the 
changes during the twenty-year period were slight, 
the proportion of women increasing from 3.1 per cent 
to 4.1 per cent, 'and that of boys from less than one- 
tenth of 1 per cent to 0.3 per cent, while the proportion 
of men deci'eased from 96.9 per cent to 95. 6 per cent, and 
that of girls remained les.s than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 
The greatest changes in tlie proportions of men and 



cxXxvin 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



women, howeyer, took place in the three groups which 
have been combined, for comparative purposes, under the 
head of bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. For 
these three groups, taken together, the proportion of 
women increased from 5.7 per cent to 23.9 per cent, or 
over fourfold, and that of girls from 0.3 per cent to 0.7 
per cent, or more than double ; these increases were offset 
by a striking decrease for men — from 90.8 per cent to 
73.5 per cent— and a slighter decrease for boys. For 
salesmen and saleswomen the proportion of boys in- 
creased more than fivefold and the proportions of women 
and girls increased slightly, while there was a corre- 
sponding decrease for men; it is interesting to note 
that the number of persons reported for this group 
increased from 32,279 in 1880 to 611,139 in 1900, but 
some part of this great difference is probably due to the 
return in 1880 of many salesmen as clerks. Notable 
changes have occurred since 1880 in three other groups 
in this class, namely, packers and shippers, telegraph 
and telephone t)perators, and porters and helpers (in 
stores, etc.). For packers and shippers the proportions 
of women, boys, and girls greatly increased, the propor- 
tion of men undergoing a corresponding decline; among 
telegraph and telephone operators the proportions of 
women and girls showed a very marked increase, while 
those for men and boys decreased; and among porters 
and helpers the proportion of men increased at the 
expense of the other three classes. For steam railroad 
employees, agents, and draymen, hackmen, teamsters, 
etc. — three groups of numerical importance — the 
changes were on the whole slight, although in the 
case of agents the proportion of women increased 
nearly fourfold. In the case of messengers and errand 
and office boys there has been a marked increase in the 
proportions of women and girls at the expense of men 
and boys. It is interesting to note that while in 1880 
all officials of banks and companies were men, in 1900 
women formed 1.7 per cent of the total. In the follow- 
ing summarj' the occupation groups of this class, in 
which the changes in the proportions of men, women, 
and children were most marked, are arranged in the 
order of their numerical importance: 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed 
under trade and transportation. 



OCCUPATIONa. 



Bookkeepers, clerks, ste- 
nographers, etc. 

ClerKs and copyists 

Bookkeepers and ac- 
countants. 
Stenographers and type- 
writers. 
Telegraph and telephone 
operators. 

Packers and shippers ". . 

Porters and helpers (in 
stores, etc.). 



PERCENTAGE OF- 



Men. 



1900 1880 



73.5 



83.7 
70.6 



63.6 
94.3 



90. i 



93.2 

85.7 



Women. 



1900 1880 



12.8 
28.6 



75.7 
29.3 



28.0 
0.9 



5.7 



6.1 
5.4 



Boys. 



1900 1880 



2.8 
0.3 



0.4 
1.0 



2.8 
4.7 



6.6 



1.1 
7.7 



Girls. 



1900 1880 



0.7 



0.7 
0.6 



0.9 
0.8 



6.0 
0.1 



0.6 
1.2 



Among the occupation groups classed as manufac- 
turing and mechanical pursuits in 1900, carpenters, 
miners, dressmakers, iron and steel workers, machinists, 
and painters, in the order named, were of the greatest 
numerical importance. In all of these groups, except 
dressmakers, the workers are nearly all men, though 
in each case women have made a slight advance. In 
1880 dressmakers, milliners, and seamstresses were 
reported together; on combining the returns for these 
three occupations in 1900, it is found that the propor- 
tion of women decreased from 97.2 per cent to 95.6 per 
cent, while there were trifling increases in the small 
proportions of men, boys, and girls. In this main class 
of occupations the greatest changes took place in those 
groups in which both men and women were employed to 
a considerable extent, representing, of course, occupa- 
tions open to both sexes; and the change in almost 
every instance consisted of an increase in the percentage 
of women, and, in most cases, of girls, accompanied by 
a decrease in the percentage of men and perhaps of 
boys. The most notable exceptions are found in the 
groups of cotton mill operatives, tailors and tailor- 
esses, and paper and pulp mill operatives. In each of 
these occupations the percentage of women decreased 
from 1880 to 1890, and that of men increased. The 
most important changes in this class of occupations are 
indicated in the following summary, the groups being 
arranged in the order of their numerical importance: 

Summary of the most marked changes shown for occupations classed 
under manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



PERCENTAGE OF— 



Textile mill operatives 

Cotton mill 

Woolen mill 

Silk mill 

Hosiery and knitting 
mill. 

Carpet tactory 

Not specified 

Tailors and tailore.'ises 

Boot and shoe makers and 
repairers. 

Printers, lithographers, and 
pressmen. 

Tobacco and cigar factory 
operatives. 

Paper and pulp mill opera- 
tives. 

Confectioners 

Bookbinders 

Photographers 

Gold and silver workers 

Clock and watch makers 
and repairers. 

Hat and cap makers 

Boxmakers2 

Wireworkers 

Potters 

Glovemakers 

Broom and brush makers... 

Trunk and leather-case 
makers, etc. 



1900 1880 



42.5 
42.6 
53.8 
35.0 
22.4 

50.1 
46.0 

ns. 5 
78.6 

86.0 



71.8 

68.4 
46.3 
86.1 
72.6 
78.4 

04.7 
33.9 
86.5 
77.6 
31.8 
80.2 
70.3 



46.0 
38.4 
53.8 
41.9 
30.1 

54.6 
60.9 
60.2 



80.1 

66.7 

86.6 
57.7 
94.9 
91.6 
84.8 

74.6 
60.3 
92.3 
83.8 
65.7 
86.9 
84.0 



Women. 



1900 1880 



42.5 
39.4 
37.1 
48.6 
60.0 

43.0 
42.1 
26.8 
17.4 



28.2 

23.9 

25.0 
47.2 
13.0 
22. 1 
19.1 

31.0 
51.7 
9.0 
16.0 
58.4 
13.5 
17.6 



39.7 
45.1 
34.9 
40.0 
M.8 

37.9 
26.4 
36.2 
10.2 

4.6 

11.9 

29.0 

12.2 
36.8 

4.5 

6.4 
12.6 

21.0 

38.7 
3.0 
6.3 

40.9 

■6.1 
7.3 I 



Boys. 



1900 1880 



6.4 
8.6 
4.4 
5.4 
4.4 

3.4 
5.1 
1.5 
2.5 



3.9 

2.3 

2.1 
2.1 
0.6 
3.0 
1.6 

1.8 
4.4 
3.8 
4.3 
1.9 
4.4 
7.3 



7.0 
7.7 
5.9 
7.1 
6.4 



O.S 
1.3 



1.3 
2.6 
0.6 
1.6 
2.0 

2.6 
4.5 
4.3 
8.1 
1.0 
5.5 
7.4 



Girls. 



1900 1880 



8.6 
9.5 
4.7 
11.0 
13.2 

3.5 

6.8 
3.2 
1.5 



4.6 
4.4 
0.3 
2.3 
0.9 

2,5 
10.0 
0.7 
2.2 
4.9 
1.9 
4.9 



8.4 

11,0 

9.7 

3.7 
4,8 
2.8 
0.6 

0.2 

2.2 

2.4 

0.9 
2.9 

(') 
0.5 
0,6 

1,9 
6.5 
0.4 
1.8 
2.4 
1.5 
1.3 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 
" Paper and wood combined. 



Except in the case of textile mill operatives, the 
changes shown in the above summary are quite marked, 
being greatest for glovemakers, tobacco and cigar fac- 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXXXIX 



tory operatives, gold and silver workers, and confec- 
tioners. .Taking textile mill operatives in detail, in 
cotton mills there was a decrease in the proportion of 
women, offset by an increase for men, boys, and girls; 
in hosiery and knitting mills and in textile mills not 
specified, there was an increased proportion of both 
women and girls at the expense of men and boys; in 
silk mills, and also in woolen mills and carpet factories 
(for which, as already stated, the changes were slight), 
there was an increase in the proportion of women only. 
Among tailors and tailoresses there was a decrease in 
the proportion of women, with an increase for men and 
for children of both sexes. Among paper and pulp mill 
operatives there was an increase in the proportion of 
men, offset by a decrease in the proportions for women 
and children. 

The proportions of men, women, and children re- 
turned in 1880 and in 1900 for certain occupation 
groups in which, in 1900, women were represented by 
an appreciable — although perhaps small — percentage 
and men were represented by a percentage not exceed- 
ing 95 or less than 10, are illustrated graphicallj- by the 
diagram on Plate 9. In this diagram the proportions 
_f or 1900 are represented by the white bar and those for 
1880 by the black bar. These occupation groups, ar- 
ranged according to the decreasing order of the pro- 
portions for men in 1900, are shown by the following 
summary: 

Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged 
in specified occupations in 1880 and 1900, arranged in the order of 
the highest percentage of men in 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations . 



Butter and cheese makers 94. 7 3.2 2. 1 

Tool and cutlery makers 94.7 2.4 2.9 

Barbers and hairdressers 94.6 4.2 1.2 

Farmers, planters, and OTerseers 94.6 5.4 

Physicians and surgeons 94. 4 6. 6 

Tin plate and tinware makers 93. 9 2. 

Engravers 93. 7 3. 9 

Brassworkers 

Hucksters and peddlers. 

Leather curriers and tanners 93. 

Journalists 92. 

Bakers 92, 

Laborers (not specified) 91. 

Upholsterers 90' 

Officials (government) 90. 

Dairymen and dairywomen 

Bleachery and dye works operatives 
Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Wireworkers 

Photographers 

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent, 



1900 



Men. 



77.; 



Wo- 
men. 



16.6 



Chil- 
dren. 



6.1 



Men. 



91.5 
92.3 
92.5 
98.7 
97.2 
96.0 
96.3 
90.2 
93.6 
98.0 
97,7 
96.0 
91.7 
93.7 
96,9 
90,6 
89.7 
91.7 
92,3 
94,9 



Wo- 
men. 



13.6 



7.4 
3.1 
6.3 
1.8 
2.8 
2.2 
2.2 
6.6 
4,5 
0,7 
2.3 
2,5 
2,8 
5,1 
3.1 
7.3 
7.5 
3.0 
3,0 
4,5 



Chil- 
dren. 



6.5 



1.1 
4.6 
1.2 
0) 



1.8 
1,6 
4.2 
1.9 
1,3 

"l.'b 
6.5 
1,2 



2,1 
2.8 
5,3 
4,7 
0.6 



Per cent distribution, as men, women, and children, of persons engaged 
in specified occupations in, 1880 and 1900, arranged in the order of 
the highest percentage of men in 1900 — Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS, 



All occupations— Continued. 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen.. 

Janitors and sextons 

Glassworkers 

Hotel keepers 

Broom and brush makers 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers . 

Potters 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Gold and silver workers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Confectioners 

Literary and scientific persons 

Agricultural laborers 

Hat and cap makers' 

Packers and shippers 

Rubber factori^ operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives. . . 

Artists and teachers of art 

Woolen mill operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Bookbinders 

Musicians and teachers of music 

Cotton mill operatives 

Silk mill operatives 

Glovemakers 

Boxmakers 2 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . . . 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . . . 

Servants and waiters ^ 

Launderers and laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 



IBOO 



Men. 



Wo- 
men, 



14,1 
4,1 
15.6 
13,6 
17.4 
19,1 
16,0 
23,9 
23.3 
22.1 
23,9 
17,6 
29.3 
26.8 
25.0 
31.8 
10.3 
31.0 
28.6 
31.7 
28,2 
43,8 
37,1 
43,0 
47,2' 
56.4 
39,4 
48,6 
58.4 
51,7 
73,3 
60,0 
70,5 
83.4 
76,5 
85,3 



Chil- 



4.1 
0.5 
10.7 



6.3 
4.0 
2.5 
6,5 
2,6 
3.3 
5.3 
4.3 
12,2 
1,8 
4.7 



23.9 
4,3 
7.8 
4.8 
8,8 
1,0 
9.1 
6.9 
6,6 
0,8 

18,0 

16,4 
6.8 

14.4 
0.1 

17.6 
9,2 



8,1 
1,8 



1880 



92,6 
92,1 
84,0 
93,4 
86.9 
87,9 
84,8 
83.8 
90.8 
75,6 
91,5 
65.7 
84.0 
88,0 
60.2 
85.6 
88.1 
66.4 
74.6 
93,2 
64,7 
80,1 
77,1 
63,8 
64.6 
67,7 
56.4 
38.4 
41.9 
65.7 
50,3 
32,2 
30.1 
25,6 
36,4 
13.8 
11.1 
7.4 



Wo- 
men, 



4,6 

7,7 

2,6 

6.6 

6,1 

10,2 

12,6 

6,3 

6,7 

23,1 

6,4 

29,0 

7.3 

6.3 

36.2 

12,2 

11.9 

12.0 

21,0 

5,1 

29.4 

n.9 

22.6 
34.9 
37.9 
36.8 
43.0 
45.1 
40,0 
40,9 
38,7 
67,6 
54.8 
68.4 
64,6 
76,9 
87,8 
90.4 



Chil- 
dren. 



2,8 
0.2 
13.4 



7,0 
1,9 
2,6 
9,9 
3,5 
L3 
2.1 
5,3 
8.7 
6,7 
3.6 
2,2 

(') 

21.6 
4,5 
1,7 
5,9 
8,0 
0.4 

11.3 
7.5 
6,5 
0,6 

16.5 

18.1 
3,4 

11,0 
0.2 

16.1 
6,0 



10.3 
1,1 
2.2 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent, 

2 Paper and wood combined, 

'<* Includes housekeepers and stewards, 

PEOPOETION OF YOUNG PERSONS AND ADULTS AT WORK 
IN 1900. 

The terms men and women, as used in the preceding 
discussion, comprehend all persons of each sex 16 
years of age and over. If the comparison for men and 
women could have been confined to adults — persons 21 
years of age and over — much more significant changes 
might have been revealed, but no figures on this basis 
,are available for 1880. Some idea of the probabilities 
in this direction can be g lined, however, by noting the 
comparatively large proportions of young persons — 
from 16 to 20 years of age — engaged in gainful occu- 
pations in 1900. The number of young persons and 
adults of each sex engaged in gainful occupations in 
1900, with the percentage they formed of the total 
number of persons at work, is presented for each state 
and territory in Table xlix, which is an elaboration of 
the figures for men and women in Tables xlv and xlvi. 



cxl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table XLIX.-NUMBER OF YOUNG PERSONS (16 TO 20) AND OF ADULTS (21 AND OVER) OF EACH SEX ENGAGED 
IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, WITH THE PERCENTAGES WHICH THEY RESPECTIVELY FORM OF ALL PERSONS 
ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States - 



Continental United States. 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Khode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Geoi^a 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota . 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah , 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



MALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 



Total. 



■2-2, 691, 728 



22,489,425 



6, 639, 941 



220, 868 
134,414 
110, Oil 
862, 981 
134, 686 
290, 133 

2,269,211 
684, 780 

1,932,867 

2, 781, 825 



57,243 
342, 721 

84,415 
492, 232 
272, 159 
478, 695 
333, 282 
568, 470 
162, 708 

, 895, 396 



1,265,716 
765, 783 

1,468,400 
762, 776 
595, 549 
631, 973 
657, 957 
914, 246 
100, 423 
115, 636 
315, 072 
431, 865 

3, 792, 422 



593,233 
647,672 
482,190 
402, 860 
365, 662 
819, 037 
108, 544 
115, 129 
368, 195 



104, 061 
40, 469 
187, 394 
56,723 
45, 226 
71,746 
17, 626 
56,772 
201, 799 
148, 869 
849, 158 

28, 906 
83, 219 
90, 179 



16 to 20. 



21 and over. 



2,876,906 



2, 855, 425 



19, 816, 822 



19, 634, 000 



732, 192 



21,971 
13, 761 
11, 637 
88, 874 
16, 233 
30,540 

246, 069 
64, 641 

238, 566 

441,703 



45, 045 
8,245 
76, 500 
39, 911 
83,972 
63, 896 
95, 908 
21,133 

949, 127 



148,441 
92, 335 

170, 170 
86, 665 
76, 272 
62, 507 
82, 056 

115, 436 
10, 876 
13, 630 
37,618 
63, 261 

600, 921 



85, 368 
89, 181 
85,960 
70, 278 
57, 272 
124, 391 
17, 223 
13, 26:i 
67, 986 

131,482 



7,569 

3,886 

15,235 

5,834 

4,215 

9, 151 

1,324 

5,457 

17, 183 

13, 688 

48, 041 

1,715 
6,606 
12, 160 



5, 807, 749 



198, 897 
120, 6,=)3 
98, 474 
774, 107 
118,463 
259, 693 

2, 023, 142 
620, 1S9 

1,694,291 

2, 340, 122 



60,160 
297, 676 

76, 170 
415, 732 
232, 248 
394, 623 
269,386 
472,662 
131, 575 

6, 946, 268 



1, 117, 275 
663, 448 

1,288,230 
666,211 
519, 277 
469,406 
675, 901 
798, 809 
89, 647 
102, 006 
277, 554 
378, 604 

3,191,501 



507, 865 
458, 491 
396, 230 
332, 582 
308, 290 
694, 646 
91,321 
101,867 
300, 209 



96,492 
36, 584 
172, 169 
50, 889 
41,011 
62, 594 
16, 302 
61,315 
184, 61H 
135, 281 
601,117 

27,190 
76, 613 
78, 019 



FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 



Total. 



4,843,165 



4,833,630 



1,734,928 



49, 917 
39, 807 
21,852 
317, 558 
48, 203 
83, 898 
636, 319 
142, 718 
396, 666 

772, 160 



11, 894 
91,097 
40, 382 
114,438 
28, 680 
127, 740 
142, 433 
182, 037 
33, 459 

1, 315, 724 



233, 177 
111, 024 
276, 105 
126, 517 
106, 474 
90, 887 
102, 037 
145,498 
13, 073 
14,425 
44, 121 
53, 386 

818, 502 



98, 181 
103, 553 
168,345 
144, 254 
109, 484 
122, 426 

10, 020 
9,708 

62, 632 

192, 316 



9,539 
2,893 
27,369 
5,766 
6,162 
10, 334 
1,969 
4,375 
20, 203 
17, 916 
86, 790 

3,428 

5,956 

142 



1,239,283 


3, 603, 872 


1,237,967 


3,69.5,663 


462,210 


1,282,718 



11, 322 
8,786 
6,088 
69,067 
12, 638 
21, 398 
169, 846 
41,111 
113,004 

190, 230 



2,951 
22,860 

6,994 
24, 718 

6, 520 
34,773 
40, 666 
45, 261 

6,597 

369, 391 



63,017 
27,704 
76,804 
36, 983 
37, 591 
28,289 
29, 014 
35, 335 
4,249 
4,566 
12, 702 
13, 137 

1S9, 318 



18, 998 
21,382 
39,885 
36,484 
24, 997 
27, 294 
2,604 
2,033 
15, 641 

36, 818 



1,844 
696 

4,195 
884 
943 

2,665 
287 
936 

4, 529 

4,329 
15,610 

469 

841 

6 



21 and over. 



38, 696 

31,021 

16, 814 

248, 491 

35, 565 

62, 600 

466,473 

101,607 

282, 652 

581, 930 



8,943 
68, 247 
34,388 
89, 720 
22, 160 
92, %7 
101, 867 
136, 776 
26, 862 

946, 333 



170, 160 
83, 320 

198, 301 
89, 534 
68,883 
62, 598 
73, 023 

110, 163 
8,824 
9,859 
31,419 
40, 249 

629, 184 



79, 183 

82, 171 

118, 460 

107, 770 

84, 487 

95, 131 

7,416 

7, 676 

46, 891 

165, 498 



7,696 
2,197 
23,174 
4,882 
6,219 
7,769 
1,682 
3,439 
15, 674 
13, 587 
70, 180 

2, 959 

5,114 

136 



PER CENT OF ALL PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS. 



Males 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



77.5 



79.8 
75.2 
81.5 
71.4 
70.2 
76.2 
76.7 
77.2 
79.0 

69.5 



7.S.4 
74.7 
66.5 
74.3 
83.5 
66.8 
68.4 
6.1. 8 
76.8 

82. 4 



81.9 
84.1 
80.9 
83.0 
81.3 
82.4 
83.4 
81.5 
85.3 
84.3 
84.2 
85.1 

72.8 



78. 9 
76.3 
63.2 
62. .T 
68.2 
79.3 
81.2 
86. 8 
73.7 



90.7 
91.4 

85.9 
86.9 
84.7 
84.8 
89.0 
90.6 
.S9. 5 
87.7 
Si. 3 

86.7 
92.3 



16 to 20. 



8.5 



7.7 
8.5 
7.3 
8.5 
7.9 
8.2 
8.6 



11.0 



9.7 
9.8 
6.5 
11.5 
12.2 
11.7 
11.2 
11.1 
10.5 

9.9 



9.6 
10.3 
9.5 
9.5 
10.4 
9.7 
10.4 
10.3 
9.2 
9.9 
10.0 
10.6 

11.6 



11.4 
12.3 
11.3 
10.9 
10.7 
12.0 
12.9 
10.0 
11.9 



6.6 

8.8 
7.0 
8.8 
7.9 
10.8 
6.7 
8.7 
7.6 
8.0 
7.5 

5.1 
7.3 
13.4 



21 and 
over. 



67.7 



67.6 



67.7 



71.9 
67.5 
73.0 
64.1 
61.7 
67.3 
67.5 
68.7 
69.2 

58.5 



68,7 
64.9 
60.0 
62.8 
71.3 
66.1 
47.2 
54.7 
65.3 

72.5 



72.3 
73.8 
71.4 
73.5 
70.9 
72.7 
73.0 
71.2 
76.1 
74.4 
74.2 
74.6 

61.3 



67.5 
63.0 
51.9 
51.6 
57.5 
67.3 
68.3 
76.8 
61.8 

79.2 



84.1 
82.6 
78.9 
77.1 
76.8 
74.0 
82.3 
81.9 
81.9 
79.7 
77.8 

81.6 
85.0 
86.4 



Females 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



16.5 



16.6 



20.2 



18.1 
22.3 
16.2 
26.3 
25.1 
21.8 
21.2 
18.8 
16.1 

19.3 



16.3 
19.9 
31.8 
17.3 
8.8 
17.8 
25.0 
21.1 
16.6 

13.8 



15.1 
12.4 
15. 2 
11.0 
14.6 
14.1 
12.9 
13.0 
11.1 
10.6 
11.8 
10.5 

15.7 



13.0 
14.2 
20.7 
22.3 
20.4 
11.9 
7.5 
7.3 
12.8 

11.3 



8.3 
6.6 
12.5 
8.8 
11.5 
12.2 
9.9 
7.0 
8.9 
10.6 
13.8 

10.3 
6.6 
0.2 



4.2 



4.1 
4.9 
3.7 
6.7 
6.6 
5.6 
6.7 
6.4 
4.6 



4.0 
6.0 
4.7 
3.7 
2.0 
4.8 
7.1 
5.3 
3.3 



4.1 
3.1 
4.2 
4.1 
5.2 
4.4 
3.7 
3.2 
3.6 
8.4 
3.4 
2.6 

3.6 



2.5 
2.9 
6.2 
6.6 
4.7 
2.7 
2.0 
1.5 
3.2 

2.2 



1.6 
1.6 
1.9 
1.4 
1.7 
3.0 
1.4 
1.6 
2.0 
2.6 
2.4 

1.4 
0.9 

0) 



21 and 
over. 



12.3 



12.4 



14.9 



14.0 
17.4 
12.6 
20.6 
18.6 
16.2 
15.5 
13.4 
11.5 

14.5 



12.3 
14.9 
27.1 
13.6 
6.8 
13.0 
17.9 
15.8 
13.3* 

9.9 



11.0 
9.3 

11.0 
9.9 
9.4 
9.7 
9.2 
9.8 
7.5 
7.2 
8.4 
7.9 

12.1 



10.5 
11.3 
15.5 
16.7 
15.7 
9.2 
6.5 
5.8 
9.6 

9.1 



6.7 
5.0 

10.6 
7.4 
9.8 
9.2 
8.6 
6.5 
6.9 
8.0 

10.9 



5.7 
0.2 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Table xlix show,s that in all the Southern states — 
except Delaware, Maryland, and the District of (Colum- 
bia — young per,son,s of the male sex constituted between 
10 and 13 per cent of the total number of per.sons gain- 
fully employed in 1900. In all the North Central states 
they constituted between 9 and 10.5 per cent. Both 
these sections have large agricultural interests and it is 
probable that the great majority' of the iiialos in this 



age period were agricultural laborers. In most of the 
other states the percentages were not so high. 

For females of the same age period the percentages 
are much smaller. The only geographic division for 
which, as a wliole, females from 16 to 20 years of age 
gainfulljr occupied in 1900 formed more than 5 per 
cent of the total number of all persons at work was 
the North Atlantic. In this division there were five 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxli 



states— Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, and New Jersej^— in which females of this age 
group at work formed more than 5 per cent of the total 
number of persons gainfully occupied; in the South 
Atlantic there were three— Maryland, South Carolina, 
and Georgia; in the North Central there Mas only one- 
Wisconsin; and in the South Central there were two- 
Alabama and Mississippi. In Rhode Island, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey a considerable 
proportion of the females at work in this age group are 

Table L.— NUMBER OF YOUNG PERSONS (16 TO 20) AND OF ADULTS (21 AND OVER) OF EACH SEX ENGAGED IN 
SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, WITH THE PERCENTAGES WHICH THEY RESPECTIVELY FORM OF ALL PERSONS 
ENGAGED IN THE SAME OCCUPATION: 1900. 



employees in textile mills; in many Southern states a 
large proportion are negroes employed as agricultural 
laborers. 

The number of young persons and adults of each sex 
engaged in each of 140 occupation groups in continental 
United States in 1900, with the percentage they formed 
of the total number of persons similarlj^ occupied, is 
presented in Table l, which is an elaboration of the 
figures for men and women in Tables xlvii and xlviii. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations. 



' Agricultural pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers 

Dairymen and dairy women 

Fanners, plantere, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. 
Lumbermen and raftsmen 



Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 
Turpentine farmers and laborers. . 

Wood choppers 

other agricultural pursuits 



Professional service . 



Actors, professional showmen, etc . . . 
Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc. 

Artists and teachers of art 

Clergymen 

Dentists 



Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors.. 

Journalists 

Lawyers 

Literary and scientific persons 



Musicians and teachers of music 

officials (government) 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
other professional service ' 



Domestic and personal service . . . 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keepers. 

Hotel keepers 

Housekeepers and stewards 



Janitors and sextons 

Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers and laundresses. 

Nurses and midwives 

Restaurant keepers 



Saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (f. S.) .. 
Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc . . . 
Other domestic and personal service. . 

Trade and transportation 



MALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER, 



Total. 



,489,425 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants. 
Clerks and copyists 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc. 

Foremen and overseers 

hostlers ..-.....------•-------■-■■-- 

Hucksters and peddlers 



8, 549, 739 



2, 900, 026 
9,717 

5, 367, 169 
58, 928 
71,361 

79, 161 
23, 323 
34, 853 
5,211 

826, 096 



27, 483 
28, 349 
13, 741 
lOS, 265 
28, 858 

49, 758 
43, 097 
27,846 
113,450 
12, 860 

39, 453 

78, 488 

124, 615 

118, 481 

11, 353 

3, 848, 159 



124, 024 
88, 012 
11,826 
46, 264 

8,224 

48, 350 
2, 393, 729 
50, 019 
12, 266 
28, 999 

81,660 
267, 095 

43, 195 
129, 660 

24, 937 

4, 163, 443 



229, 751 

72,981 

77, 774 

179, 817 

527, 122 

91, 973 
526, 497 
54, 032 
63, 049 
71, 580 



16 to 20. 



21 and over. 



2, 855, 425 



1,281,7 



1,154,755 

1,197 

101, 082 

1,688 

6,620 

8,634 

3,868 

3,737 

268 

36, 025 



2,274 

2, S55 

1, 098 

462 

S06 

8,124 
1,931 
1,115 
691 
1,060 

3,166 

1,236 

424 

10, 155 



454, 742 



19,634,000 



12, 044 

6,180 

91 

176 

405 

1,492 
370, 743 

3,832 
841 
755 

548 
43, 367 
8,658 
1,459 
4,152 

458, 455 



9,021 

578 

5,739 

21, 361 

118, 919 

2,156 

63, 471 

706 

9,437 

6.576 



7,268,000 



1, 745, 271 
8,620 

6, 266, 087 
67,240 
64, 731 

70, 627 
19,455 
31, 116 
4,953 

790, 071 



25, 209 
25, 494 
12, 643 
107,803 
28, 052 

41,634 
41, 166 
26, 730 
112, 759 
11, 810 

36, 287 

77, 252 

124, 191 

108, 326 

10, 715 

2, 893, 417 



111,980 
81, 832 
11, 735 
46, 089 
7,819 

46, 858 
2, 022, 986 
46, 187 
11, 424 
28, 244 

81,112 
213, 728 

84, 537 
128, 101 

20, 785 

3,704,988 



220, 730 

72, 406 

72, 035 

168, 456 

408, 203 

89, 817 
463, 026 
53, 326 
53,612 
65, 004 



FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 



4,833,630 



770, 055 



456, 405 

8.59 

307, 706 

2,860 

99 

1,588 
211 
103 
224 

429, 497 



6,661 

1,028 

10, 907 

3,373 

807 

409 

84 

2,193 

1,010 

5,984 

52, 010 
8,119 
7,387 
327, 206 
2,319 

1,953,467 



5,440 

440 

59, 4,56 

8,533 

146, 929 

8,010 
106, 916 
328, 935 
108, 691 

4,845 

2,086 
1, 165, 561 



879 
6,747 

481, 159 



10, 468 

293 

160 

72, 896 

81,000 

946 
870 

1,418 
78 

2,792 



1,237,967 



177,876 



172, 723 

126 

4,599 

137 

9 

174 
67 
26 
25 

69, 641 



1,442 
127 

1,202 
199 
113 

190 
4 
199 
54 
524 

9,404 

968 

100 

54,817 

298 

476, 749 



419 

60 

23, 167 

184 
26, 064 
38, 017 
12, 808 

130 

20 
372, 922 



64 
810 



117, 660 



837 

11 

22 

19, 989 

26, 840 

76 
187 
169 

21 
260 



3, 695, 663 



592, 179 



283, 682 

733 

303, 107 

2,723 

90 

1,414 

154 

77 

199 



5,219 

901 

9,705 

3,174 



219 

80 

1,994 

956 
5,460 

42, 606 

7,161 

7,287 

272, 389 

2,021 

1, 477, 718 



4,409 

357 

59, 036 

8,473 

123, 772 



80, 862 

290, 918 

96, 883 

4,715 

2,066 
792, 639 



825 
5,937 



333, 499 



9,631 

282 

128 

52, 907 

64, 160 

870 
683 

1,269 
57 

2, 532 



PER CENT OF ALL PERSONS IN SPECIFIED CLASS 
OR GROUP, 



Males 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



66.7 



79.1 
96.0 
55.2 
97.0 
97.3 

98.1 
99.7 
92.7 
99.1 
68.2 

42.8 
90.6 
94.4 
26.6 
81.9 

60.0 

94.6 
99.1 
16.6 
84.4 
5.3 

85.4 
91.0 
12.9 
10.1 

85.7 

97.5 
16.5 
100.0 
99.2 
72.0 

87.3 



96.2 
99.6 
99.2 
70.6 



99.0 
97.7 
97.4 
97.1 
93.4 



12.4 



26.2 

11.0 

1.8 

2.7 

9.2 

10.0 

15.6 

10.4 

4.7 

2.9 



9.7 
4.4 
0.4 
2.7 

16.0 
4.6 
3.7 
0.6 
6.5 

3.4 
1.4 
0.3 
2.3 
4.6 



9.2 
7.0 
0.1 
0.3 
0.3 

2.6 
14.1 
1.0 
0.7 
2.2 

0.6 
2.8 

20.0 
1.1 

12.0 

9.6 



S.4 
18.9 

2.3 
11.8 

1.3 
14.5 

8.6 



21 and 
over. 



67.5 
70.0 



92.8 
92.7 



83.1 
78.7 
86.2 
89.5 

62.8 



72.5 
86.3 
50.8 
96.6 
94.6 

82.1 
95.2 
89.0 
98.6 
62.7 

39.4 
89.2 
94.1 
24.3 
77.3 

51.8 



85.4 
92.1 
10.5 
84.1 
5.0 

82.8 
76.9 
11.9 
9.4 
83.5 

96.9 
13.7 
80.0 
98.1 
60.0 



91.9 
62.2 
64.8 

96.7 
85.9 
96.1 
82.6 
84.8 



Females 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



10.3 
7.9 
6.4 
4.6 
0.1 

1.9 
0.8 
0.3 
4.1 

34.1 



19.1 
3.6 

43.8 
3.0 
2.7 

0.8 
0.2 
7.3 
0.9 
31.8 

56.4 
9.4 
5.6 
73.3 
16.8 

35.0 



4.2 
0.6 
83.4 
16.6 
94.7 

14.1 
4.1 
85.3 
89.9 
14.3 

2.5 
74.7 



0.7 
19.6 



10.1 



4.4 
0.4 
0.2 

2,S.6 
12.8 

1.0 
0.2 
2.6 
0.1 
3.6 



16 to 20. 



21 and 
over. 



1.' 



3.9 
1.2 
0.1 
0.2 

(') 

0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.6 



4.1 
0.4 
4.8 
0.2 
0.4 

0.4 

0) 

0.7 
0.1 
2.8 

10.2 
1.1 
0.1 

12.3 
2.2 

8.5 



0.8 
0.1 
0.6 
0.1 
14.9 

0.3 
1.0 
9.9 
10.6 
0.4 

23.9 



0.1 
2.3 



0.4 

(') 
(') 



0.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0) 
0.3 



12.4 



5.7 



6.4 
6.7 
5.3 
4.4 
0,1 

1,7 
0.6 
0.2 



28,6 



15.0 
3.1 

39,0 
2.8 
2.3 

0.4 
0.2 
6,6 
0,8 
29,0 

46.2 
8.3 
5.5 
61.0 
14.6 

26.5 



3.4 
0.4 
82.8 
15.5 
79.8 

13.8 
3.1 
75.4 
79.3 
13.9 

2.5 
50.8 



0.6 
17.2 



7.0 



4.0 
0.4 
0.2 
20.8 
8.6 

0.9 
0.1 
2.3 
0.1 
3.3 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



cxlii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table L.— NUMBER OF YOUNG PERSONS (16 TO 20) AND OF ADULTS (21 AND OVER) OF EACH SEX ENGAGED IN 
SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, WITH THE PERCENTAGES WHICH THEY RESPECTIVELY FORM OF ALL PERSONS 
ENGAGED IN THE SAME OCCUPATION: 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Trade and transportation — Con. 

Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except whole- 
sale). 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale) . . . , 
Messengers and errand and office boys. 
Officials of banks and companies 

Packers and shippers , 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

Undertakers 

Other persons in trade and transporta- 
tion. 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Building trades. 



Carpenters and joiners 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers. 
Paper hangers 



MALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVEK. 



Total. 



Plasterers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters . . 

Roofers and slaters 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . 

Chemicala arid allied products. 

Oil well and oil works employees 

Other chemical workers 



Clay, glass, and stone products. 



Brick and tile makers, etc . 

Glassworkers 

Marble and stone cutters. . . 
Potters 



Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen 



Food and kindred products. 



Bakers 

Butchers , 

Butter and cheese makers. 

Confectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 



Iron and steel and their products. 



Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers . 
Machinists 

Steam boiler makers . . . 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers . 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers . . . 
Harness andsaddlemaJiersana repairers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Liquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



iMmber and its remanu/actures. 



Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees. 
Other woodworkers 



33, 466 
754, 602 

42, 065 
27, 148 
72, 801 

37,882 
51, 072 
448.562 
678,011 
25, 794 

68, 776 
14,706 
61,692 
15,866 
46, 631 



5,601,988 



697,800 
160, 066 
272, 735 
21, 445 

35, 618 
95, 976 
9,003 



24,366 
11,705 



47,087 
42,561 
63,979 
12, 608 



66, 518 
638,312 



73, 310 
111, 436 
18,228 
21,338 
40, 121 
22, 471 



224, 770 
280,026 
278, 432 
82, 717 

12, 136 
26, 639 
13,384 
15, 994 



164, 181 
39,040 
39, 804 
4,963 



9,130 
20,221 
3,090 



36,255 

36, 109 

156, 360 

99,981 



16 to 20. 



677 
22, 163 
1,761 

6,299 

8,561 

90,409 

42, 962 

7,930 

2,797 
1,656 
9,602 
644 
4,873 



21, 586 
6,338 

23, 763 
2,379 

1,483 

15, 221 

688 

690 



1,913 
1,340 



7,616 
9,142 
3,216 
2,296 



6,897 
64, 947 



10,161 
1,978 
2,782 
1,909 
3,161 



14, 069 
37, 729 
40, 963 
3,348 

1,645 

3,234 

619 

2,650 



18, 793 
3,021 
4,681 
1,289 



1,709 

1,106 

162 



1,982 

3,289 

23, 834 

14,941 I 



32, 487 
735, 314 

41, .388 
4,995 
71,040 

31, 683 
42, 511 
358, 143 
635,049 
17,864 

65, 979 
13, 050 
42, 090 
15,222 
41,658 



676, 214 
153,718 
248, 982 
19, 066 

34,035 
80,755 
8,320 
8,578 



22, 452 
10, 366 



39, 471 
33, 419 
60, 763 
10, 212 



59, 621 
473, 365 



64, 372 
101,275 
16, 250 
18,561 
38, 212 
19,310 



210, 701 
242, 297 
237, 469 
29, 369 

10, 490 
23, 405 
12, 765 
13, 444 



146,388 
36, 019 
35, 123 



7,421 
19, 115 
2,938 



SS,273 

32, 820 

132, 626 

85, 040 



FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 



Total. 



190 
33, 825 

261 
2,453 
1,271 

17,052 

489 

142, 265 

1,662 

85, 086 

46 



21, 980 

823 

3,346 



1,199,452 



645 

167 

1, 666 

241 

46 

124 

2 

27 



53 
2,435 



2,072 

143 

2,693 



3,930 
378 
616 

7,805 
179 

4,348 



190 

2, 928 

649 



37 I 
663 
10 
1,651 



36,490 

525 

1,490 

1,232 



639 
209 
30 



07 

101 

340 

5,906 



16 to 20. 21 and over. 



1,243 

28 

1,942 

108 

8,943 
162 

50, 109 
183 

26, 457 

12 



8,936 

8 

1,123 



99 

28 

587 

21 



10 



232 

1,174 

61 

1,363 



58 
197 



811 
116 
120 
1,375 
38 



28 

1,384 

154 



19 
820 



787 



12, 199 

186 



330 
134 



18 

32 

116 

2,416 



185 
32,582 

233 

611 

1,163 

8,109 

327 

92, 156 

1,479 
58,629 

33 



13, 045 
315 

2, 223 



446 
139 
979 
220 



43 
1,348 



201 



■ 82 
1,230 



370 

688 



3,119 
262 
495 

4,430 
141 

2, 255 



162 

,544 

395 

5 

18 

333 

7 

864 



24, 291 
340 
697 
665 



309 
75 

21 



49 

69 

226 

1,490 



PER CENT OF ALL PERSONS IN SPECIFIED CLASS 
OR GROUP. 



Males 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



99.4 
96.4 



99.4 
37.9 



94.3 
73.4 
99.3 
23.0 

99.8 
99.6 
68.9 
98.0 

h7. 2 



99.6 
99.5 



97.5 



99.5 
98.2 



99.0 
79.5 



94.3 

86.2 
99.1 
77.5 



96.5 
95.5 



92.6 
98.5 
94.7 
68.4 
98.9 
78.1 



99.2 
96.4 

9S.4 
99.0 

97.3 
94.7 
99.1 

SO. 5 



78.0 
97.3 



70.3 



86.8 
96.5 
98.2 



21 and 
over. 



2.9 
2.4 

1.6 
30.9 
2.4 

10.6 
15.8 
14.8 
7.4 
7.1 

4.1 
11.2 
12.8 
4.0 
9.1 



3.6 
3.9 

8 6 
10.8 

4.2 
15.6 
7.6 
7.3 



7.8 
9.1 



15.3 

IS. 3 

5.9 

14.2 



10.0 
11.5 



11.3 
9.0 

10.3 
8.9 
4.7 

11.0 



6.2 
13.0 
14.5 
10.1 

13.2 
11.5 
4.6 
13.8 



9.0 

7.5 

11.0 

18.3 



16.2 
8.3 
4.8 



99.0 


6.6 


97.1 


8.9 


96.8 


14.8 


89.6 


13.4 



96.5 
93.0 

97.8 

7.0 

95.9 

63.0 
78.5 
58.6 
91.9 
15.9 

95.7 
88.4 
66.1 
94.0 
78.1 



70.3 



96.0 
96.6 
89.7 
86.7 

95.3 
82.6 
91.8 
91.5 



91.2 
70.4 



79.0 
66.9 
93.2 
63.3 



86.5 
84.0 



81.3 
89.5 
84.4 
59.5 
94.2 
67.1 



93.0 
83.4 
83.9 



84.1 
83.2 
94.5 
72.7 



69.6 
89.8 
82.3 
62.0 



70.6 
91.2 
93.4 



93.4 
88.2 
82.0 
76.2 



Females 16 years of age 
and over. 



Total. 



0.6 
3.4 
1.7 

28.6 
0.9 

23.3 
0.3 

76.7 

0.1 



29.3 
2.0 
6.2 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



0.1 
0.1 
0.6 
1.1 

0.1 
0.1 
(') 
0.3 



0.2 
16.6 



0.9 
4.1 
0.3 
16.0 



0.6 
0.2 



5.0 
0.3 
3.2 

25.0 
0.5 

16.1 



0.1 
1.0 

0.2 
(■) 

o.s 

2.4 
0.1 
9.0 



17.4 
1.3 
3.6 

17.5 



6.0 
1.0 
1.0 



0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
6.3 



16 to 20. 



0) 
0.2 

0.1 
2.7 
0.1 

16.0 
0.3 
8.2 

(■) 

23.5 

P) 



11.9 
0.1 
2.1 



0.2 
0.1 



(■) 



7.4 



0.5 
2.3 
0.1 
8.4 



0.1 
0.1 



1.0 
0.1 
0.6 
10.8 
0.1 
7.3 



(■) 
0.6 
0.1 

(') 

0.2 
1.2 

(') 
4.3 



6.8 
0.8 
1.9 



S.l 
0.6 
0.3 



0.1 
0,1 
0.1 
2.2 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxliii 



Table L. -NUMBER OF YOUNG PERSONS (16 TO 20) AND OF ADULTS (21 AND OVER) OF EACH SEX ENGAGED IN 
SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, WITH THE PERCENTAGES WHICH THEY RESPECTIVELY FORM OF ALL PERSONS 
ENGAGED IN THE SAME OCCUPATION: 1900-Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and meclianioal 
pursuits— Continued. 

Metals and metal products other than iron 
and steel. 

Brassworkers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers. 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 

Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Prmters, lithographers, and pressmen . 

Textiles. 

Bleachery and dye works operatives. . . 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . . 
Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Hat and cap makers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cufi makers 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and oflficials, etc 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 



MALES 16 YEAKS OF AGE AND 
OVEH. 



Total. 



25, 062 
18, 907 
18, 937 
66, 188 
52, 648 



11, 010 
3,267 
10, 453 
26, 062 
133, 515 



19, 815 
9,721 
104, 783 
10, 660 
19,090 

39,402 
48, 140 
2,042 
14,704 

1,696 
4,557 
8,009 
157, 165 
8,534 



8,196 

13,900 

222, 474 

4,275 
239, 649 

14, 765 
23, 189 
13, 882 
82, 865 
28,033 
365, 547 



16 to 20. 



21 and over. 



3,787 
1,872 
3,334 
9,511 
7,020 



2,592 
1,022 
1,535 
4,125 
25,003 



2,394 
1,663 
28,974 
3,694 
4,829 

7,916 

10, 330 

271 

1,915 

187 

1,045 

1,994 

15,506 

1,039 



1,249 
1,653 
9,937 
811 
8,752 

1,358 
1,894 
2,387 

13,466 
3,626 

65, 601 



21,275 
17,035 
15, 603 
56, 677 

45, 628 



11, 418 
2,245 
8,918 

21,937 
108, 512 



17, 421 
8,068 

75, 809 
6,966 

14, 261 

31,487 

37,810 

1,771 

12, 789 

1,509 
3,612 
6,015 
141,659 
7,495 



6,947 
12,247 
212,537 

3,464 
235,897 

13, 397 
21,295 
11,495 
69, 399 
24, S07 



FEMALES 16 YEARS OF AGE AND 
OVER. 



Total. 



783 
4,696 
5, 767 
1,446 
2,064 



14, 303 

14,498 

430 

8,709 

15, 3.53 



1,660 
8,332 
97,181 
28,293 
26,432 

27, 169 

44,051 

338,144 

7,049 

82, 936 
138, 724 
27,788 
61,571 
19,043 



1,385 

31 

177 

7,170 

3,360 

204 
3,614 
6,945 

37, 125 
2,065 

79,085 



21 and over. 



362 

1,547 

2,524 

843 

960 



5,744 
7,073 
183 
3,283 
4,965 



534 
2,427 
39, 840 
13, 727 
13, 140 

10, 254 
17,871 
64,866 
2,401 

22, 401 
34, 848 
10, 346 
21,552 
6,248 



674 

7 

37 

2,240 

419 



681 
2,257 
16,312 

613 
35,786 



421 
3,049 
3,243 

603 
1,114 



8,559 

7,425 

247 

5,426 

10,388 



1,126 
5,906 
57,341 
14, 566 
13, 292 

16, 916 

26, 180 

283, 278 

4,648 

60, 535 
103, 876 
17, 443 
40, 019 
13, 795 



711 
24 

140 
4,930 
2,941 

128 
2,833 
4,688 

20, 813 
1,552 

43, 299 



PER CENT OK ALL PERSONS IN SPECIFIED CLASS 
OP. GROUP. 



Males 16 years of 
ana over. 



Total. 



93.7 
78.4 
72.6 
93.9 
93.0 



46.3 
15.5 
93.7 
71.8 
86.0 



89.0 
50.1 
42,6 
22.4 
35.0 

53.8 

46.0 

0.6 

64.7 

1.9 
3.0 
20.3 
68.6 
28.9 



80.2 
96.3 
99.6 
34.8 
98.6 

97.9 
86.1 
63.5 
63.0 
90.9 
75.5 



16 to 20. 



14.2 
7.8 
12.8 
18.5 
12,4 



13.7 
11.4 
16.1 



10.8 
8.5 

11.8 
7.6 
8.8 

10.8 
9.9 
0.1 
8.4 

0.2 
0.7 
6,1 
6.8 
3.5 



12.2 
11.6 
4.4 
6.6 
1.6 

9.0 
7.0 
10.9 
10.2 
11.4 
13.9 



21 and 
over. 



79.5 
70.6 
59.8 
80,4 
80,6 



37.7 
10.7 
80.0 
60.4 
69.9 



78.2 
41.6 
30.8 
14.8 
26.2 

43.0 

36.1 

0.5 

56.3 

1.7 

2.3 

15.2 

61.7 

25.4 



68.0 
84.8 
95.1 
28.2 
97.1 



79.1 
52.6 
52,8 
79.5 
61.6 



Females 16 years of i 
and over. 



Total. 



2.9 
19.1 
22.1 
2.0 
3.7 



47.2 
68.7 



23.9 



7.4 
43.0 
39.4 
60.0 
48.6 

37.1 
42.1 
97.5 
31.0 

94.4 
91.9 
70.5 
26.8 
64.6 



13.5 
0.2 
0.1 

68.4 
1.4 

1,4 
13,0 
31.7 
28.2 

6.7 
16.8 



16 to 20, 



1.3 
6.4 
9.7 
1.2 
1.7 



19.0 

33.5 

1.7 

9.0 

3.2 



2.4 
12.5 
16.1 
29.1 
24.2 

14.0 
17.1 
15.8 
10.6 

25.5 
23.1 
26.2 
9.4 
17.8 



6.6 



18.2 
0.2 

0.5 
2.6 
10.3 
12.4 
1.7 
7.6 



21 and 
over. 



1.6 

12.7 

12.4 

0.8 

2.0 



28.2 
35.2 

2.2 
14.9 

6.7 



5.0 
30.5 
23.3 
30.9 
24.4 

23.1 
25.0 
81.7 
20.4 

68.9 
68.8 
44.3 
It. 4 
46.7 



6.9 
0.2 
0.1 
40.2 
1.2 

0.9 
10.5 
21.4 
15.8 
5.0 
9.2 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Table L shows that males from 16 to 20 years of age, 
while constituting 9.8 pei" cent of all gainful workers 
in 1900, comprised, under agricultural pursuits, 26.2 
per cent of all agricultural laborers; under professional 
service, 16 per cent of all electricians; under domestic 
and personal service, 20 per cent of all United States 
soldiers, sailors, and marines; under trade and trans- 
portation, 30.9 percent of all messengers and errand 
and oiEce boys and 18.9 per cent of all clerks and copy- 
ists; and under manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 
18.3 per cent of all glassworkers and of all trunk and 
leather-case makers, 16.2 per cent of all bottlers and 
soda water makers, 16.1 per cent of all printers, lithog- 
raphers, and pressmen, and more than one-tenth of all 
persons in many other occupation groups. 

Considering, similarly, females 16 to 20 years of age, 
it appears that this class of workers, constituting 4.2 per 
cent of all gainful workers in 1900, comprised, under 
professional service, 12. 3 per cent of all teachers and pro- 



fessors in colleges, etc. and 10.2 per cent of all musicians 
and teachers of music; under domestic and personal 
service, 23.9 per cent of all servants and waiters, 14.9 
per cent of all housekeepers and stewards, and 10.6 per 
cent of all nurses and midwives; under trade and trans- 
portation, 23.5 per cent of all stenographers and type- 
writers, 15 per cent of all packers and shippers, and 
11.9 per cent of all telegraph and telephone operators; 
and under manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, 33.5 
per cent of all paper box makers, 26.2 per cent of all 
shirt, collar, and cuff makers, 25.5 per cent of all mil- 
liners, 23.1 per cent of all seamstresses, 16.8 per cent 
of all dressmakers, 17.8 per cent of all persons in the 
combined groups of textile mill operatives, and between 
one-fifth and one- tenth of all bookbinders, glovemakers, 
tobacco and cigar factory operatives, confectioners, hat 
and cap makers, and rubber factory operatives. 

This separation into young persons and adults of the 
total number of males engaged in gainful occupations 



cxliv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



in 1900 incidentally gives the proportion which the 
males of voting age engaged in each of liO groups of 
occupations formed of the total number of persons 
similarly engaged. The presentation in Table L is sup- 
plemented by two other tables for males 21 years of 
age and over gainf ull}^ occupied in 1900 — Table li, giv- 
ing for each state and territorj^ a distribution, by main 
classes of occupations, of the whole number engaged in 
gainful occupations, and Table lii, giving for conti- 
nental United States a distribution, by general nativity 
and color, of the number engaged in each group of 
occupations. 



These three presentations, taken together, furnish 
very complete information concerning the occupations 
of the potential voters of the country in 1900, giving, 
first, the propoi'tion which they formed of the total 
number engaged in each of the several classes and 
groups of occupations; second, the proportions in which, 
in each state and territory, they were distributed among 
the main classes of occupations; and, third, the propor- 
tions in which each group of occupations was made up 
of the different elements of the voting population. 



Table LI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY JIAIN CLASSES, OF MALES 21 YEABS OF AGE AND OVER ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 

OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 



STATES AND TEEEITOEIES. 



United States . 



Continental United States . 



Northi Atlantic division , 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Seorgia 

Florida 



North Central division 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territorj' . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



All occupa 
tions. 



19, 815, 822 



19, 634, 000 



5, 807, 749 



198,897 
120,653 
98, 474 
774, 107 
118,453 
269, 593 

2,023,142 
520, 139 

1,694,291 

2, 340, 122 



50,150 
297, 676 

76, 170 
415, 732 
232, 248 
894, 623 
269, 386 
472, 562 
131, 576 

6, 946, 268 



1,117,275 
663,448 

1, 288, 230 
666, 211 
519, 277 
469, 406 
575, 901 
798, 809 
89,647 
102, 006 
277, 554 
378, 604 

3, 191, 601 



.=107, 865 
458,491 
396, 230 
332, 682 
308, 290 
694, 646 
91, 321 
101,867 
300, 209 

1, 348, 360 



96, -192 

36, r.M 

172, 159 

50,889 

41,011 

62, 594 

in, 802 

Ti] , 316 

1 SI, 616 

135, 2S1 

501,117 

27, 190 
70,613 
78, 019 



AGRICULTURAL PUR- 
SUITS. 



Number. 



, 318, 126 



7,268,000 



895, 924 



66 009 
33, 752 
41,887 
57,628 
9,389 
38, 362 

317, 591 
67, 823 

273, 483 

1,200,159 



Percent. 



37.0 



16.4 



14, 417 
72,315 
1,234 
206, 295 
109, 673 
263, 404 
184, 798 
291, 243 
56, 780 

2, 781, 625 



339, 613 
273, 328 
363, 835 
269,418 
214, 276 
204, KIVj 
292, 256 
349, 9,57 
59, 235 
64,805 
147, 861 
212, 178 

1, 997, 322 



33.2 
28.0 
42.5 
7.5 
7.9 
14.8 
15.7 
11.1 
16.2 

51.3 



28.8 
24.3 
1.6 
49.6 
47.2 
66.8 
68.6 
61.6 
43.2 

40.0 



292, 4.51 
268, 628 
2,54,334 
247, 986 
161,438 
429, 323 

61, .SO? 

74, 145 
207,211 

392, 970 



25, 359 
11,365 
37, 906 
21,620 
11,389 
22, 893 
5,051 
22,910 
52, 348 
49, 923 
132, 206 

320 

49, 777 

29 



30.4 
41.2 
28.2 
3.H. 9 
41.2 
43.6 
50.8 
43.8 
66.2 
63.6 
53.3 
56.0 

62.6 



57.6 
58.6 
64.2 
74.5 
62.4 
61.8 
67.7 
72,8 
O'J. 

29.2 



26.3 
31.1 
22.0 
42.6 
27.8 
36.0 
31.0 
44.6 
28.3 
36.9 
26.1 

1.2 

('..■"i, 
(1) 



PROFESSIONAL SERV- 
ICE. 



Number. 



796, 374 



790, 071 



256, 266 



7,008 

4,153 

3,635 

35, 856 

4,699 

9,912 

101, 261 

22, 614 

66, 328 

79, 066 



Per cent. 



4.0 



4.0 



1,774 
12, 720 

6,779 
13,181 

8,074 
10, 026 

6, C55 
14, 978 

4,879 

284, 989 



49, 278 
28, 211 
60, 339 
23, 093 
16, 980 
16, 443 
22, 645 
34,156 
2,713 
4,144 
11, 440 
15,547 

105, 804 



1.8, 063 
15, 954 
10, 442 
7,877 
8,602 
28,304 
3,317 
8, 571 
9,674 

64, 946 



3.5 
3.4 
3.6 
4.6 
4.0 
8.8 
5.0 
4.3 
3.9 

3.4 



3.5 
4.3 
8.9 
3.2 
3.5 
2.5 
2.5 
3.2 
3.7 



4.4 
4.3 
4.7 
3.5 



4.3 
3.0 
4.1 
4.1 
4.1 



DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 



1,011,915 



30, 897 
16, 089 
10, 877 

114, 381 
18, 821 
89, 746 

362, 518 
94,964 

323, 622 

314, 170 



8,890 
66, 762 
20, 715 
58,755 
29, 923 
36, 113 
23,246 
54,234 
25, 533 

976, 892 



3,362 
1,045 
9,317 
1,618 
1,633 
3,077 
657 
1,876 
8,607 
e,4H0 
27, 275 

603 

],21S 
3, 4,S2 



3.6 
3.5 
2.6 
2.4 
2.8 
4.1 
3.6 
3.5 
3.2 

4.8 



2.9 
6.4 
3.2 
4.0 
4.9 
4.0 
3.7 
4.7 
4.8 
5.4 

2.2 
1.6 
4.5 



173, 171 

96, 165 

210, 803 

104, 027 

81,013 

66, 981 

62, 073 

99, 743 

7,703 

8,304 

30, 2,ss 

36, 621 

339, 732 



Per cent. 



15.1 



17.4 



15.5 
13.3 
11.0 
14.8 
15.9 
15.3 
17.9 
18.3 
19.1 

13.4 



TRADE AND TRANS- 
PORTATION. 



Number. 



3, 714, 903 



3,7(M,! 



1,479 



17.7 
19.0 
27.2 
14.1 
12.9 
9.2 
8.6 
11.5 
19.4 

14.1 



66, 137 
60,887 
33, 717 
25, 343 
53, 369 
80, 286 
7,917 
7,030 
26, 046 

250, 708 



16,742 

7,694 

24, 608 

13, 288 

8,195 

9,094 

3,546 

7,367 

35, 947 

26, 762 

98, 475 

9,016 
12, 208 
72, 895 



16.5 
14.5 
16.4 
16.6 
15.6 
14.3 
10.8 
12.6 
8.6 
8.1 
10.9 



10.6 



11.0 
11.1 
8.5 
7.6 
17.3 
11.5 
8.7 
6.9 
8.4 

18.6 



17.3 
21.0 
14.3 
26.1 
20.0 
14.5 
21.8 
14.4 
19.6 
19.0 
19.7 

33.1 
15.9 
92.8 



35, 299 

20, 939 

15, 433 

209, 868 

27,428 

53, 872 

555, 416 

137, 158 

344, 066 

330, 887 



8,929 
69, 008 
28, 178 
68, 714 
31, 294 
34, 890 
23, 523 
57, 035 
19, 316 

1, 312, 287 



Percent. 



24.1 



17.8 
17.4 
15.7 
27.1 
23.1 
20.8 
27.5 
26.4 
20.3 

14.1 



MANUFACTURING AND 
MECHANICAL PUR- 
SUITS. 



Number, 



6, 000, 384 



4, 977, 524 



Percent. 



2,245,165 



219, 453 
111, 798 
299, 014 
111, 858 
81,376 
91,055 
106, 640 
166, 566 
12, 104 
13, 049 
50, 748 
58,626 

389, 741 



67, 066 
63, 538 
41,353 
29, 199 
46, 408 
94, 324 
9,216 
9,818 
29, 819 

272, 694 



18,000 
8,094 

39, 144 
6,364 
6,686 

11,006 
2,542 
6,738 

86,486 

23, 663 
113, 882 

2, 362 
6,788 
1,765 



17.8 
23.2 
87.0 
14.1 
13.5 



12.1 
14.7 



18.9 



19.6 
16.8 
23.2 
16.8 
15.7 
19.4 
18.5 
19.6 
13.5 
12.8 
18.3 
15.6 

12.2 



13.2 
13.8 
10.5 
8.8 
14.7 
13.6 
10.1 
9.6 
9.9 

20.2 



18.7 
22.1 
22.7 
12.5 
16.3 
17.6 
15.6 
13.1 
19. .S 
17.5 



8.7 
7.0 
2.3 



69,684 

45,720 

26,742 

366, 374 

68,116 

117, 701 

686, 366 

207, 680 

686, 792 

416,840 



16, 140 
86, 871 
19,264 
78,787 
53, 284 
50, 190 
31,165 
85, 072 
25, 067 

1, 690, 475 



335, 760 
153, 946 
354, 239 
167, 815 
126, 632 
90,064 
92, 2,'!7 
158,387 
7,792 
11, 704 
37,217 
65,632 

368,902 



74, 148 
69,484 
56, 384 
22,178 
39, 473 
62, 409 
9,064 
7,303 
28, 459 

367, 142 



33, 029 

8,886 

61, 184 

7,999 

13, 108 

16, 521 

4, ,501) 

12, 125 

51, 2J9 

29, -173 

129, 279 

11,890 

7,622 

348 



25,2 



25,4 



30.0 
37,9 
27,2 
46.0 
49.1 
45.3 
83.9 
39.9 
40.5 

17.8 



32.2 
29.2 
25.3 
19.0 
22.9 
12.7 
11.6 
11.6 
19.0 

22.9 



30.1 
23.2 
27.6 
25.2 
24.2 
19.2 
16.0 
19.8 
8.7 
11.6 
13.4 
14.7 

11.3 



14.6 
13.0 
14.2 
6.7 
12.8 
9.0 
9.9 
7.2 



27.2 



34.2 
22,9 
36.6 
15.7 
31.9 
26.4 
27.6 
24.2 
27.7 
21.8 
25.8 

54.8 
9.9 
0.4 



' Less Ihnn onc-tcnth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxlv 



Table LII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF MALES 21 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER ENGAGED 

IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations . . . 

Agricultural pursuits . 

Agricultural laborers 



Dairymen . 

Farmers, planters, and overseers 

Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc . 
Lumbermen and raftsmen 



Stock raisers, herders, and drovers . 
Turpentine farmers and laborers . . . 

Wood choppers 

Other agricultural pursuits 



Professional service. 



Actors, professional showmen, etc 

Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc. 

Artists and teachers of art 

Clergymen 

Dentists 



Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors. 

Journalists 

Laviryers 

Literary and scientific persons 



Aggre- 
gate. 



Musicians and teachers of music 

Officials (government) 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc . 
Other professional service 



Domestic and personal service . 

Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . 

Hotel keepers 

Janitors and sextons 



Laborers (not specified) , 

Launderers 

Nurses 

Eestaurant keepers 

Saloon keepers 



Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailoiB, and marines (U. S.) - 
Stewards 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc . . 
Other domestic and personal service . 

Trade and transportation 

Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc. 

Foremen and overseers 

Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers 



Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) . 

Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and office boys 

Officials of banks and companies 



Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (In stores, etc.) . 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters 



Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

Undertakers 

Other persons in trade and transportation- . 

Manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits. 

Building trades. 

Carpenters and joiners 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Painters, glaziers, and vamishers 

Paper hangers 



19, 634, 000 



"PI fl fttPTPT*! *,-■--■••------*•--*•■ 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters. . . 
Roofers and slaters -."■•■•■ 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified) . . 

Chemicals and allied products. 

Oil well and oil works employees 

Other chemical workers 



7,268,000 



1,745,271 
8,520 

6,266,087 
57, 240 
64, 731 

70, 627 

19, 455 

51,116 

4,953 

790, 071 



26, 209 
26, 494 
12, 643 
107, 803 
28,052 

41,634 
41,166 
26, 730 
112, 769 
11,810 

36, 287 

77, 252 

124, 191 

108, 326 

10, 715 



111,980 
81, 832 
11, 735 
46, 089 
46,858 

2, 022, 986 
46,187 
11,424 
28, 244 
81, 112 

213, 728 
34, 637 
7,819 

128, 101 
20, 785 

3, 704, 988 



220, 730 

72, 406 

72,035 

168, 456 

408, 203 

89,817 
463, 026 
53, 326 
53, 612 
65, 004 

32, 487 

735, 314 

41,388 

4,995 

71, 040 

31, 683 

42, 611 

368, 143 

635, 049 

17,864 

65, 979 
13, 050 
42,090 
15, 222 
41, 668 

4, 977, 624 



576, 214 
163, 718 
248, 982 
19, 066 

34,036 
80, 766 
8,320 
8,578 



22, 462 
10, 366 



NATIVE WHITE- 
NATIVE PARENTS. 



Number. 



9, 765, 807 



4,382,994 



938, 198 

8,723 

3,322,831 

23,423 

32, 941 

41,348 
3,069 

14, 376 
3,086 

508, 460 



13, 633 
13, 242 
6,713 
66,086 
20, 722 

21, 991 
27, 337 
18, 012 
86, 268 
6,611 

12, 735 
51, 928 
92, 103 
76, 841 
6,438 

993, 573 



Per 
cent. 



CO.; 



NATIVE WHITE— 
rOREIQN PARENTS. 



40, 432 
24, 419 
6,083 
23, 555 
13, 672 

728, 101 
10,329 
5,519 
12,004 
17,123 

35,023 
16, 999 

2,594 
52, 149 

6,571 

1,896,949 



132,493 
46, 998 
30, 736 
89,601 

224,282 

67, 948 
195, 332 
26, 696 
19, 796 
16, 823 

22, 435 
376, 317 
22, 394 
1,783 
47, 731 

11,896 

4,139 

200, 322 

262,713 

11,043 

32, 003 
7,334 

28,810 
8,441 

19, 983 

1,973,841 



316, 304 
66, 115 

123, 663 
10, 878 

15, 218 
26, 928 
2,669 
5,627 



14, 485 
2,718 



53.7 
48.7 
63.1 
40.9 
60.9 

58.6 
16.8 
46.2 
62.3 

64.4 



63.7 
52.0 
45.2 
62.0 
73.9 

62.8 
66.4 
67.4 
76.6 
55.1 

35.1 
67.2 
74.2 
70.9 
60.1 

34.3 



36.1 
29.9 
61.8 
51.1 
29.2 

36.0 
22.4 
48.3 
42.5 
21.1 

16.4 
46.8 
33.2 
40.7 
31.6 

61.2 



60.0 
64.9 
42.7 
56.5 
55.0 

64.6 
42.2 
60.1 
36.9 
25.9 

69.1 
51.0 
54.1 
35.7 
67.2 

37.7 
9.7 
55.9 
49.1 
61.8 

48.6 
66.2 
68.6 
65.4 
48.0 



54.9 
36.5 
49.7 
57.1 

44.7 
33.3 
32.1 
64.4 



64.5 
26.2 



Number. 



3, 266, 1 



813, 584 



240, 339 
1,373 

540, 393 
8,720 
9,014 

11, 038 

22 

1,787 



135, 236 



6,493 
6,076 
2,702 
12, 924 
4,686 

12, 271 
7,691 
4,975 

19, 602 
2,437 

8,026 
14, 685 
16, 697 
14, 383 

1,889 

438, 852 



24,042 

28, 911 

1,278 

9,964 

6,577 

262, 606 
4,609 
2,117 
4,841 
24, 318 

20, 879 
9,071 
1,398 

35,236 
3,015 

830, 350 



Per 
cent. 



45, 785 

9,933 

11,518 

44,474 

122,415 

19,895 
106, 926 

10, 946 
8,934 
8,236 

6,690 
146, 247 
9,327 
1,026 
14, 629 

8,776 

6,260 

95,317 

103, 849 

4,966 

17, Oil 
3,324 

10, 406 
4,291 

11,179 

1,048,076 



90,348 
28, 366 



6,258 
35, 927 
2,748 
1,321 



3,414 
1,786 



16.6 
11.2 



13.8 
16.1 
10.3 
15.2 
13.9 

15.6 
0.1 

5.7 
18.1 

17.1 



26.8 
23.8 
21.4 
12.0 
16.7 

29.5 
18.4 
18.6 
17.4 
20.6 

22.1 
IS. 9 
13.4 
13.3 
17.6 

15.2 



21.5 
35.8 
10.9 
21.6 
14.0 

13.0 
10.0 
18.5 
17.2 
30.0 

9.8 
26.8 
17.9 
27.5 
14.6 

22.4 



20.7 
13.7 
16.0 
28.1 
80.0 

22.2 
23.1 
20.6 
16.7 
12.7 

17.5 
19.8 
22.6 
20.6 
20.6 

27.8 
14.7 
26.6 
19.4 

27.8 

26.8 
25.5 
24.7 
28.2 
26.8 

21.1 



16.7 
18.5 
28.7 
25.9 

18.4 
44.5 
33.0 
15.4 



16.2 
17.2 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



Number. 



4,524,456 



976,1 



201, 206 
3,121 

710, 627 
21, 745 
16, 772 

14, 971 

5 

6,864 

774 

114, 607 



6,125 

4,076 

23, 211 

2,428 

7,201 
6,110 
8,626 
7,116 
2,783 

13, 081 

10, 077 

13, 509 

9,567 

2,214 

903, 302 



29, 491 
26, 193 
3,447 
12, 182 
16, 300 

658, 022 
6,144 
3,149 
7,804 
38,780 

64,518 
6,491 
2,660 

37, 277 
6,954 

793, 817 



40,688 
15, 317 
23, 926 
24, 031 
66, 481 

11,795 
103,441 
16, 120 
13, 637 
36, 951 



200, 967 

9,481 

716 

8,469 

9,232 

9,781 

60, 090 

116,116 

1,677 

16, 397 
1,891 
2,828 
2,074 
9,539 

1, 738, 145 



Per 
cent. 



23.1 
13.4 



11.6 
36.6 
13.5 
38.0 
26.9 

21.2 

(') 

18.9 

15.6 

14.6 



14.2 
24.0 
32.2 
21.5 
8.6 

17.3 
14.9 
13.2 
6.3 
28.6 

36.1 
18.0 
10.9 
8.8 
20.7 

81.2 



26.3 
82.0 
29.4 
26.4 
34.8 

32.3 
11.1 
27.6 
27.6 
47.8 

25.6 
18.8 
32.6 
29.1 
38.5 

21.4 



149, 171 

56,601 

61, 120 

2,711 

8,989 

16, 760 

2,556 

1,868 



2,469 
4,412 



18.4 
21.2 
33.2 
15.2 
13.8 

13.1 
22.3 
28.4 
25.3 
56.8 

12.0 
27.3 
22.9 
14.3 
11.9 

29.2 
23.0 
16.8 
21.6 
9.4 

24.8 
14.5 
6.7 
13.6 
22,9 

34.9 



Number, 



1, 950, 003 



1,051,319 



26.9 
36,2 
24,6 
14,2 

26,4 
20,8 
30,7 
16.9 



11,0 
42,6 



'Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



347, Oil 
298 

670, 644 
2,222 
6,394 

862 

16, 320 

8,409 

164 

30, 408 



1,489 

46 

126 

16, 810 

194 

169 
112 
191 
707 

72 

2,397 

584 

1,664 

7,361 

137 

494, 288 



17, 463 

2,277 

596 

817 

10, 123 

868, 381 
1,681 

684 
2,628 

854 

89, 374 
2,903 
1,138 
2,869 
3,211 

169, 159 



1,694 

79 

6,702 

236 

4,567 

169 
56,909 

543 
11, 320 
2,388 

463 
7,827 

134 
1,459 

184 

1,374 
22, 098 

1,677 

47, 764 

181 

568 
498 
42 
406 
937 

204,829 



20, 090 

13, 599 

6,172 

537 

3,666 

1,137 

847 

867 



2,080 
1,009 



9,9 
14.5 



19,9 
8,6 

12,7 
3,9 



5,7 
0,2 
1,0 
14.2 
0,7 

0,4 
0,3 
0,7 
0,6 
0,6 

6,6 
0,8 
1,2 



5,1 
0,7 
21,6 

17,7 
3,3 
5.6 
9.3 
1,1 

41,8 
8,4 

14,5 
2,2 

16,4 

4,6 



0,8 
0,1 
7,9 
0,1 
1.1 

0,2 
12,3 

1,0 
21,1 

3,7 

1,4 
1,1 
0,3 
29,2 
0,2 

4.3 
62.0 
0.6 
8.9 
1,0 

0,9 
3,8 
0,1 
2,7 
2,3 



2.1 
2,8 

10.5 
1.4 
4.2 
4,2 



9,8 
9.7 



OTHER COLORED. 



Chi- 
nese, 



79, 213 



11,737 



2 

1,477 

1,052 

62 

73 



184 
2 



609 



282 
49 
30 

48,645 



604 
25 

259 
61 

148 

10, 099 

24, 471 

1 

860 

28 

11,861 

4 

79 

5 

150 

8,859 



121 
56 
68 
189 
323 

18 

100 

7 

6 

585 

8 

5,666 

42 

9 
63 

262 
199 
555 
664 
1 



Japa- 
nese, 



9,468 



367 



8,776 



3,496 

7 



25 



128 



21 

8 
2 

6,842 



:,392 

94 
1 

97 
5 



In- 
dian, 



Per 
cent. 



41,770 



29, 506 



6,128 

1 

20, 027 



2,310 



409 
29 



638 



2 

177 
1 

1 
9 
1 



19 

61 

116 

127 

6 



76 
5,077 



176 
7 
2 



4,639 



28 



10 
4 

81 

68 

4 

565 



1,277 



2 
309 



13 
224 



19 

2 

118 



2,334 



207 

31 

18 

1 

2 
1 



23054—04 X 



cxlvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF MALES 21 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER ENGAGED 

IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits — Continued. 

Clay^ glass, and stone products. 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Glassworkers 

Marble and stone cutters 

Potters 



Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen andoj'stermen 

Miners and quarrj-men 



Food artd kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Confectionery 

Millers 

Other food preparers 



Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers. 

Tool and cutlery makers 

.Wheelwrights 

Wireworkers 



Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers . . 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 



Liquors and beverages. 
Bottlers and soda water makers, etc. 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



Lumber and its remanvfactures. 

Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Other woodworkers 



Metals and metal products other than iron and 
steel. 

Brasaworkers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 



Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 

Textiles. 
Bleachery and dye works operatives . . 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives. . 
Silk mill operatives 



Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives . 

Dressmakers 

Hat and cap makers 

Milliners 



Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers. 

Tailors 

Other textile workers , 



Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 

Glovemakers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 



Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives. 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 



Aggre- 
gate. 



39, 471 
33, 419 
60, 763 
10, 212 



69,621 
473, 366 



64, 372 
101, 276 
16,260 
18,561 
38,212 
19, 310 



210, 701 
242, 297 
237, 469 
29, 369 

10, 490 
23,405 
12, 766 
13,444 



146, 388 
36,019 
35,123 



7,421 
19, 115 
2,938 



33, 273 

32,820 

132,626 

85,040 



21, 276 
17, 035 
15, 603 
66,677 
46,628 



11,418 
2,245 
8,918 

21,937 
108, 612 



17, 421 
8,068 

76,809 
6,966 

14, 261 

31, 487 
37, 810 

1,771 
12, 789 

1,609 

3,612 

6,016 

141, 669 

7,496 



6,947 

12,247 

212,537 

3,464 

236, 897 

13, 397 
21, 296 
11,496 
69, 399 
24,507 
289, 946 



NATIVE WHITE — 
NATIVE PARENTS. 



12, 846 

14, 378 
14, 789 
4,429 



32,098 
147,095 



11, 942 
33,314 
7,864 
6,384 
25, 986 
6,176 



98,694 
76, 375 
98, 191 
9,331 



9,989 
7,066 
2,703 



49, 270 
16,848 
8,096 



1,891 
1,027 
1,396 



8,072 
11,498 
60, 984 
32, 564 



4,861 

6,909 

4,693 

23,943 

12, 792 



3,314 

810 

2,812 

8,121 

51, 959 



3,362 
1,787 
30, 263 
2,992 
2,616 

7,433 
7,434 

447 
3,269 

696 

603 
2,049 
11,686 
2,299 



3,044 

2,896 

98, 631 

1,784 

124, 958 

5,918 
12,971 

2,979 
19, 133 

8,384 
107, 088 



Per 
cent. 



32.5 
43.0 
29.1 
43.4 



53.8 
31.1 



IS. 5 
32.9 
48.4 
34.4 
68.0 
26.8 



46.8 
31.6 
41.3 
31.8 

36.2 
42.7 
65.3 
20.1 



33.9 
46.8 
23.0 
22.9 



25.5 

6.4 

47.5 



24.3 
36.0 
46.0 



22.9 
40.6 
30.1 
42.3 
28.0 



29.0 
36.1 
31.6 
37.0 
47.9 



19.2 
22.1 
39.9 
43.0 

17.7 

23.6 
19.7 
25.2 
25.6 
39.6 

14.3 

34.1 

8.2 

30.7 



43.8 
23.6 
46.4 
61.5 
63.0 

44.2 
60.9 
25.9 
27.6 
34.2 
36.9 



NATIVE WHITE — 
FOREIGN PARENTS, 



Number. 



6,823 
9,672 
11, 530 
2,456 



6,146 
67, 868 



11,687 
27, 391 
3,934, 
4,518 
5,631 
3, 514 



41,738 
60, 42.3 
66,416 
10, 426 

3,866 
5,614 
2,030 
3,095 



26, 437 
9,045 
7,964 
1,310 



2,329 

3,446 

619 



5,260 
7,947 
15, 396 
21,074 



7,580 

3,866 

4,863 

16, 668 

11, 851 



4,385 

747 

3,468 

6,660 

36, 866 



1,905 
2,868 

8,641 
10, 461 

307 
2,843 

364 

493 
1,628 
17, 320 
1,296 



1,846 

468 

47, 476 

541 

50,491 

3,423 
4,188 
3,131 

17,284 
7,774 

64,656 



Per 
cent. 



14.8 
•28.9 
22.7 
24.0 



8.6 
14.3 



IS. 2 
27.1 
24.2 
24.4 
14.5 
IS. 2 



19.8 
25.0 
28.0 
36.6 

36.8 
24.0 
16.9 
23.0 



18.2 
25.1 
22.7 
35.7 



31.4 
18.0 

21.1 



15.8 
24.2 
11.6 
24.8 



35.6 
22.7 
31.2 
29.4 
26.0 



38.9 
25.8 
34.0 



21.2 
26.6 
12.6 
27.3 
20.0 

27.4 
27.7 
17.3 
22.2 
23.6 

14.0 
25.4 
12.2 
17.3 



26.5 
3.7 
22.3 
15.6 
21.4 

26.5 
19.7 
27.3 
24.9 
31.7 
22.3 



FOREIGN WHITE. 



Number. 



13, 230 
9,116 

23,284 
3,158 



12,661 
226,004 



39,611 
37,889 
4,246 
7,259 
6,863 
8,177 



60, 793 

95,031 

71, 679 

9,300 

2,720 
7,624 
3,306 
7,520 



66, 114 
9,838 

18,082 
1,497 



3,084 

14,520 

611 



19, 606 
10,846 
29, 682 
29, 060 



8,744 
6,142 
6,923 
16,2.57 
20, 673 



3,676 

674 

2,604 

7,959 

18, 762 



10, 038 
4,113 

35,209 
2,060 
8,845 

15,319 
19, 669 

959 
6,661 

564 

2,361 

2,198 

110, 775 

3,452 



1,852 
5,766 

56,540 
1,131 

59, 003 

4,033 
3,911 
5,347 
25,252 
7,430 
100, 906 



Per 
cent. 



33.5 
27.3 
45.9 
30.9 



21.1 
47.5 



61.4 
37.4 
26.1 
89.1 
15.3 
42.4 



28.9 
39.2 
30.2 
31.7 

25.9 
32.6 
2.5.9 
55.9 



44.8 
27.3 
51.6 
40.9 



41.6 
76.0 
20.8 



68.9 
33.1 
22.4 
34.2 



41.1 
86.0 
38.0 
26.9 
45.3 



32.2 
30.0 
29.2 
36.8 
17.3 



67.6 
51.0 
46.4 
29.6 
62.0 

48.7 
62.0 
64.2 
62.1 



67.0 
36.6 
78.2 
46.1 



26.7 
47.0 
26.6 
82.7 
26.0 

30.1 
18.4 
46.6 
36.4 
30.3 
34.8 



Number. 



7,474 
263 

1,148 
162 



8, 45.S 
29, 775 



1,162 
2,533 
201 
384 
822 
961 



9,309 

10, 467 

1,161 

311 

216 
174 
354 
126 



4,213 
240 
962 
19 



115 
121 
311 



318 

2,618 

26,046 

1,996 



90 
105 

65 
743 



43 

11 

19 

196 



340 
22 

796 

9 

26 



188 

48 

15 

5 



1,220 
62 



167 

3,129 

9,772 

5 

1,132 

23 

194 

38 

6,861 

908 

17,086 



Per 
cent. 



18.9 
0.8 
2.3 
1.6 



14.2 
6.3 



1.8 
2.6 
1.3 
2.1 
2.2 
4.9 



4.4 
4.3 
0.6 
1.0 

2.1 
0.7 
2.8 
1.0 



2.9 
0.7 
2.7 
0.6 



1.5 

0.6 

10.6 



1.0 

7.7 

19.7 

2.3 



0.4 
0.6 
0.3 
1.3 
0.7 



0.4 
0.5 
0.2 
0.9 
0.8 



2.0 
0.3 
1.1 
0.1 
0.2 

0.3 
0.5 
2.7 
0.1 
0.3 

1.8 
0.7 
0.9 
0.8 



2.3 
26.6 
4.6 
0.1 
0.6 

0.2 
0.9 
0.8 
9.9 
8.7 
6.9 



OTHER COLORED. 



Chi- 
nese. 



473 
3,258 



64 
121 



6 

1 

1,363 



279 
11 
25 



101 
201 
728 
376 



48 



839 

9 

182 



Japa- 
nese. 



60 
166 



In- 
dian. 



1 
123 



1 

133 

28 



16 



835 
220 



151 
4 



2 

8 

211 

222 



Per 
cent. 



(') 
0.1 



2.3 
0.8 



0.1 

0.1 



7.7 



(M 
0.1 



0.2 
0.1 
0.1 



(■) 

0.3 
0.4 



0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0) 



0.1 
0.2 



S 



(■) 



n 



0.1 

(') 

0.1 
0.6 

(') 



0.6 
6.1 



0.7 
0.1 
0.1 
0,1 
0.1 



0.1 



1.2 
0.1 
0.1 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxlvii 



NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AT WORK. 



PEOPORTION OF CHILDREN OCCUPIED. 

The employment of children in gainful occupations 
forms a subject of special interest and importance. 
The statistics showing the extent to which children are 
employed are derived from the returns on the popula- 
tion schedules and are presented with considerable detail 
in this volume, the totals for the United States in 1900 
being given in Tables i to 15, and the figures for states 
and territories in Tables 35 and 36. Partly on account 
of the uncertainty of the returns for children at work 
in 1890, and partly because, all things considered, it 
seems useful to extend the discussion of the prevalence 
of child labor over a period of twenty years rather 
than a shorter interval, comparisons of the figures for 
1900 are made with similar figures for 1880 instead of 
1890. 

At the census of 1880 a total of 1,118,356 children 
from 10 to 15 years of age, comprising 825,187 males 
and 293,169 females, was reported as engaged in gain- 
ful occupations; the total reported at the Twelfth Cen- 
sus, twenty years later, for continental United States, 
was 1,750,178, comprising 1,264,-111 males and 185,767 
females. The number of children at work is compared 
with the total number of children from 10 to 15 j'ears 
of age by sex, at each census, in the following summary: 

Number of children 10 to 15 years of age engaged in gainful occupa- 
tions compared with the total number of children of the same age, for 
both sexes and for each sex separately: 1880 and 1900. 





CHILDREN 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE. 


SEX AND CENSUS YEARS. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


1900 


9,613,252 


1,750,178 


18.2 






Males 


4,852,427 
4, 760, 825 

6,649,483 


1,264,411 
485,767 

1,118,356 


26.1 




10.2 


1880 


16.8 






Males 


3,376,114 
8, 273, 369 


825,187 
293,169 


24.4 




9.0 







The above siunmary shows that the proportion of 
children of each sex at work was larger in 1900 than in 
1880. Out of a total of 9,618,252 children in 1900 
there were 1,750,178, or 18.2 per cent, at work, while 
out of a total of 6,649,483 children in 1880, 1,118,356, 
or 16.8 per cent, were at work. The corresponding 
percentages by sex were, for males 26.1 and 24.4 and 
for females 10.2 and 9. 



The number of children of each sex at work in 1880 
and 1900, and the proportion which they form of the 
total number of children of the same sex are shown for 
each state and territory in Table liii (page cxlviii). 

It will be seen by this table that the percentages for 
continental United States show, as previously stated, 
a slightly increased proportion of children of each sex at 
work in 1900 as compared with 1880; and an increased 
proportion is shown also for each sex in each geographic 
division except the South Central, in which the propor- 
tion for female children was slightly smaller in 1900 
than in 1880. The increases referred to are perhaps 
rather more marked in the North Atlantic division than 
in a.ny other, though the change in the proportions is 
not very great in anj" division, taken as a whole. 

A comparison by individual states and territories re- 
veals a much greater diversity in the direction and ex- 
tent of the changes. The proportion of children at 
work was smaller in 1900 than in 1880 for males in New 
Hampshire, and for both males and females in Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut; 
in the other states of the North Atlantic division it 
was larger. In all the states comprising the North 
Central division the proportion of female children at 
work was larger in 1900 than in 1880; this is true 
also of all but three states with respect to the propor- 
tion of male children at work. The three states ex- 
cepted are Illinois, in which the proportion of male 
children at work remained practically unchanged, and 
Ohio and Indiana, ,in which the proportion decreased, 
the decrease being especially marked in Indiana. In 
the Western division an increase was shown in the pro- 
portion of both male and female children at work in 
Montana, Arizona, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and 
California; a decrease in the proportion for each sex in 
Colorado and Utah, and an increase in the proportion 
for one sex and a decrease for the other in the remain- 
ing states and territories. In the two Southern divi- 
sions there was an increase in the proportion shown for 
each sex in 1900, as compared with 1880, in Maryland, 
the District of Columbia, West Virginia, South Caro- 
lina, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Arkansas, and a de- 
crease in the proportion for each sex in Georgia, Florida, 
and Texas. In Virginia, Tennessee, and Louisiana the 
proportion for males was larger and that for females 
smaller in 1900 than in 1880, while in the remaining 
states of these divisions — Delaware, North Carolina, 
and Alabama — the conditions were reversed. 



cxlviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LIII.— NUMBEE OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 
COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME SEX AND AGE, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1880 
AND 1900. 



STATES AND TEEEITOKIES. 



United States. 



Continental United States . 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampstiire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division . 



Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina , 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa , 

MLssouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



MALES 10 TO 15 YEAES OF AGE: 

1900. 



Total. 



4,852,427 



1, 142, 924 



19, 637 
18,551 
136, 612 
22, 205 
45, 834 
S84, 760 
103, 136 
375, 296 

748, 826 



11, 379 

75, 671 

13, 126 

132, 656 

67, 718 

141,489 

104,694 

165, 865 

36, 227 



250, 910 

159, 985 

290, 575 

148, 887 

139, 234 

115, 170 

145, 433 

208, 882 

21, 3.55 

28, 731 

73, 171 

101, 965 

1,043,074 



151, 430 
147, 683 
137, 232 
118, 685 
100,439 
229, 587 
30, 203 
28,646 
99, 269 

228, 306 



11, 437 

4,863 

29, 111 

13, 220 

7,056 

19, 757 

2,070 

10, 190 

28, 688 

25,221 

76, 703 

2,045 

5,491 

123 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



1,266,050 



194, f 40 



3,979 

2,647 

2,170 

16, 393 

6,143 

6,838 

55, 218 

18, 457 

84,195 

311, 266 



2,781 
17, 034 

1,365 
44,661 
22,343 
77,986 
56, 363 
77, 462 
11,281 

287, 723 



Per 
cent. 



34, 165 
26,454 
50,994 
19, 623 
20, 842 
16, 973 
24, 564 
82, 621 
3,125 
6,876 
12, 282 
20, 304 

445,512 



53, 676 
63, 711 
80, 989 
63, 906 
39, 620 
73,604 
12,950 
7,309 
49, 747 

24, 970 



929 
795 
2,903 
2,987 
1,358 
2,095 
183 
1,395 
2,807 
2,331 
7,187 

802 
828 



17.1 



10.8 
13.0 
11.7 
12.0 
23.2 
14.9 
14.4 
17.9 
22.4 

41.6 



MALES 10 TO 16 YEAES OF AGE: 
1880. 



Total. 



3,376,114 



881, 969 



24.4 
22.5 
10.4 
33.7 
33.0 
55.1 
53.8 
46.7 
31.1 

17.0 



13.6 
16.5 
17.3 
13.1 
16.0 
14.7 
16.9 
25.2 
14.6 
20.5 
16.8 
19.9 

42.7 



35.4 
43.2 
59.0 
63.8 
39.4 
32.1 
42.9 
25.5 
50.1 

10.9 



8.1 
16.4 
10.0 
22.6 
J9.2 
10.6 
8.8 
13.7 
9.8 
9.2 
9.4 

3'0.2 
15.1 



39, 285 
18, 401 
20, 250 
96, 260 
16, 435 
35,484 

301, 642 
71, 152 

284, 160 

542,875 



9,802 
62, 851 
10, 684 

110,056 
46, 923 
99,429 
71,923 

112, 126 
19, 181 



216, 877 
143, 698 
213, 860 
105, 820 
91,062 
51,887 
116, 669 
158, 350 

17,043 

29, 794 
72, 050 

645, 400 



122, 520 
114, 268 
91, 638 
83, 707 
65, 019 
111, 051 



57, 197 
98, 855 



1,375 

755 

7,736 

8,327 

1,796 

10, 648 

2,387 

1,641 

4,648 

11, 324 

48, 219 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



825, 187 



133, 377 



4,087 
2, .593 
2,598 

12,306 
8,604 
5,803 

38, 534 
9,967 

53, 895 

218, 274 



Per 

cent. 



24.4 



2,704 

11, 121 

617 

34, 741 

9,842 
55, 623 
31, 765 
65, 329 

6,532 

195,070 



31, 282 
32, 628 
37, 100 
11, 610 
10, 240 
4,961 
17, 832 
31, 662 

1714 

3,816 
13, 226 

268, 099 



86, 643 
44,292 
64,918 
32,330 
24, 682 
36, 934 



28, 300 
10, 367 



100 

67 

815 

1,946 
205 

2,292 
109 
101 
337 
966 

3,430 



15.1 



10.4 
14.1 
12.8 
12.8 
23.3 
16.4 
12.8 
14.0 
19.0 

40.2 



females 10 to 15 yeaes of 
age: 1900. 



27.6 
17.7 
5.8 
31.6 
21.0 
65.9 
44.2 
58.3 
34.1 

16.2 



14,4 
22.7 
17.3 
11.0 
11.2 
9.6 
15.3 
20.0 

10.1 

12.8 
18.4 



29.9 
38.8 
70.8 
38.6 
38.0 
33.3 



49.5 
10.5 



10.6 
23.4 
11.4 
21.6 
4.6 
6.2 
7.3 
8.5 
7.1 



Total. 



4, 767, 374 



, 760, S25 



1, 137, 125 



36,613 

19, 802 

17,847 

137, 945 

22,403 

45, 707 

384,901 

104,243 

368,764 

731, 613 



11, 016 

74, 879 

14, 193 

130, 625 

64, 320 

137,904 

101, 635 

161, 60s 

35, 434 



246, 172 
156, 182 
293, 334 
146, 520 
137, 514 
112, 405 
140, 930 
204, 536 
20,332 
27, 123 
71, 397 
98, 845 

1, 012, 061 



147,199 
141, 654 
132, 928 
114, 757 
99,035 
223, 959 
28,468 
27, 165 
97, 006 

223, 936 



11,282 
4,379 
28, 924 
12, 732 
6,721 
20, 046 
1,964 
9,897 
28, 478 
24, 210 
76, 303 

1,760 

4,770 

29 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



Number. 



486, 137 



485, 767 



109, 382 



2,013 

1,951 

900 

11,476 

3,891 

4,741 

36, 726 

11,804 

36,881 

136, 280 



1,078 

7,886 

779 

11,094 

2,481 
32, 421 
38,917 
36,502 

4,122 

81, 807 



12, 894 
6,692 

19,541 
7,174 
9,673 
6,041 
4,846 
9,028 
1,019 
1,219 
2,495 
2,185 

163, 319 



7,441 
12, 651 
41,664 
34, 103 
21,427 
17, 967 

2,196 

649 

15, 321 

6,979 



270 
111 
597 
544 
624 
430 
31 
141 
578 
621 
:,132 

200 
170 



Per 
cent. 



10.2 
10.2 



9.6 



5.7 

9.9 

5.0 

8.3 

17.4 

10.4 

9.6 

11.3 

9.7 

18.6 



10.6 

5.5 

8.5 

3.9 

23.5 

38.3 

22.6 

11.6 

4.9 



5.2 
8.6 
6.7 
4.9 
7.0 
6.4 
3.4 
4.4 
5.0 
4.5 
3.5 
2.2 

15.1 



5.1 
8.9 
31.3 
29.7 
21.6 
8.0 
7.7 
2.0 
15.8 

2.7 



2.4 
2.6 
2.1 
4.3 
9.3 
2.1 
1.6 
1.4 
2.0 
2.2 
2.8 

11.4 
3.6 



females 10 to 15 yeaes of 
age: 1880. 



Total. 



3,273,369 



3, 273, 369 



871, 332 



37, 893 
18,248 
19,408 
95, 982 
15,412 
36, 024 

299, 806 
70, 581 

278, 979 

621, 718 



9,341 
62, 231 
11,035 

106, 231 
44, 463 
94,266 
69, 106 

106, 451 
18, 694 

1, 167, 641 



Engaged in gain- 
ful occupations. 



211, 965 
139, 005 
209, 672 
102,066 
89,003 
50, 603 
112, 2.?0 
153, Oil 

1 6, 374 

27,535 
66, 267 

617,325 



118, 040 
109, 944 
86, 428 
79, 476 
63, 863 
106,793 



63, 781 
95,353 



1,284 

666 

7,486 

7,874 

1,494 

10, 322 

2,347 

1,564 

4,206 

10,859 

47, 251 



293, 169 



65, 332 



1,647 
1,709 
1,054 
9,062 
2,804 
4,010 

22,162 
4,338 

18,646 

93, 348 



840 

4,706 

594 

11,858 

1,242 

18,979 

20, 113 

31, 704 

3,312 

35,684 



7,251 
3,550 
7,096 
3,479 
3,448 
1,504 
2,462 
4,763 

1179 

730 
1,222 

96,742 



5,387 
10,066 
25,490 
17, 562 
20,041 
10,790 



7,416 
2,063 



25 
25 

171 

262 
20 

311 
42 
17 
54 

103 
1,043 



Per 
cent. 



9.0 



9.0 



7.6 



4.3 
9.4 
5.4 
9.4 
18.2 
11.4 
7.4 
6.1 
6.6 

17.9 



9.0 
7.6 
6.4 
11.2 
2.8 
20.1 
29.1 
29.8 
17.8 

3.1 



3.4 
2.6 
3.4 
3.4 
3.9 
3.0 
2.2 
3.1 

2.8 

2.7 
1.8 

15.7 



4.6 
9.1 
29.5 
22.1 
31.4 
10.2 



13.8 
2.2 



1.9 
3.8 
2.3 
S.2 
1.3 
3.0 
1.8 
1.1 
1.3 
0.9 
2.2 



1 Dakota territory. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cxlix 



The proportion of male children at work shows an in- 
crease in all but 16 states, and the proportion of female 
children, in all but 14 states. While in general the 
changes are not very marked, in some states the differ- 
ence between the per cent for 1880 and that for 1900 is 
large. ^ Such differences may be in some degree the re- 
sult of differences in the methods of enumeration at the 
two censuses. 

At the census of 1900 a separate presentation was 
made of children at work according to general nativity 
and color, and the proportion of each element in con- 
tinental United States reported as at work at that cen- 
sus is stated in the following table: 

Table UY.— Number of children of each sex 10 to 15 years of age en- 
gaged in gainful occupations compared with the total number of the 
same sex and age for each principal element of the population: 1900. 



SEX, GENEHAL NATIVITY, AND COLOR. 



Males 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Colored 

Negro 

Females 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Colored 

Negro 



CHILDREN 10 TO 15 YEARS OP AGE. 



Total. 



4,852,427 



2,805,260 

1, 182, 948 

199, 635 

664,594 

646, 541 

4, 760, 825 



2, 727, 245 

1, 177, 347 

195, 771 

660, 462 

643, 943 



Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 



Number. 



1, 264, 411 



682, 731 
200, 417 
58,236 
823, 027 
319, 055 

486, 767 



154,671 
92, 793 
39, 708 
198, 596 
197, 219 



Per cent. 



26.1 



24.3 
16.9 
29.2 
48.6 
49.3 

10.2 



5.7 

7.9 

20.3 

30.1 



Of the negro males from 10 to 15 years of age in 
1900 very nearly one-half were at work, while of the 
foreign white males in the same age group less than 
three-tenths were at work, of the native white males 
of native parents less than one-fourth, and of the native 
white males of foreign parents only a little more than 
one-sixth. For females from 10 to 15 years the pro- 
portion employed in gainful labor was also highest 
among negroes, constituting more than three-tenths of 
all negro females in that age group as compared with 
about one-fifth for foreign white females, less than one- 
twelfth for native white females of foreign parents, 
and about one-eighteenth for native white females of 
native parents. 

PROPORTION OF CHILDREN IN MAIN CLASSES OF OCCU- 
PATIONS. 

The percentages in Table lit indicate the extent to 
which children were gainfully employed in each of the 
principal elements of the population in 1900. The 
next step is to determine the manner in which they 
were employed — that is, first, what proportion of all 
children gainfully occupied at the two censuses was 
found in each of the five main classes of occupations — 
and, second, the relative importance of child labor as 
indicated by the proportion, for each census, which 
children formed of the total number of persons in all 
occupations and of the number in each class of occu- 
pations. The data required for these purposes are pre- 
sented for continental United States in the following 
table: 



Table LV.— DISTEIBUTION, BY MAIN CLASSES, OF CHILDEEN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 YEAES OF AGE ENGAGED 
IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS, AND COMPAEISON OF THE NUMBEE 10 TO 15 WITH THE TOTAL NUMBEE OF THE 
SAME SEX IN EACH MAIN CLASS OF OCCUPATIONS: 1880 AND 1900. 



SEX AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



All occupations- 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 



Females. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 



PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINPCL OCCUPA- 
TIONS: 1900. 



Total. 



23, 753, 836 

9, 404, 429 
827, 941 
3,485,208 
4,263,617 
6, 772, 641 



5, 319, 397 



977, 336 
430, 597 

2, 095, 449 
503,847 

1, 312, 668 



10 to :^5 years of age. 



1,264,411 

~854,690 

1,845 

137, 049 

100, 174 

170, 653 



485, 767 



207, 281 
1,100 
141, 982 
22, 188 
lis, 216 



Per cent. 



.100.0 

67.6 
0.2 

10.8 
7.9 

13.5 



100.0 



42.7 
0.2 

29.2 
4.6 

23.3 



Per cent 
of total 
number. 



5.S 



9.1 
0.2 



2.3 
3.0 



21.2 
0.2 
6.8 
4.4 
8.6 



PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPA- 
TIONS: 1880. 



14, 744, 942 

7,119,365 
426, 947 
2, 237, 493 
1, 808, 445 
3, 163, 692 



2, 647, 157 



594, 510 

177, 255 

1, 181, 300 

63, 058 

631, 034 



10 to 15 years of age. 



Number. 



825, 187 

586,167 
278 

117, 962 
36, 609 
86, 171 



293, 169 



135, 862 

646 

106, 777 

3,048 

46, 836 



100.0 

70.9 
0) 
14.3 
4.3 
10.5 



100.0 



Per cent 
of total 
number. 



8.2 
0.1 
6.3 
2.0 
2.7 



11.1 



46.4 
0.2 

36.4 
1.0 

16.0 



22.9 
0.4 
9.0 
4.8 
7.4 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Considering, first, the proportion of the total number 
of children at work found in each class of occupations, 
as shown by the first column of percentages in Table lv, 
it appears that more than two-thirds of the male children 



gainfully employed in 1900 and more than two-fifths of 
the female were engaged in agricultural pursuits. For 
male children the class of occupations comprising the 
next largest proportion was that of manufacturing and 



cl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



mechanical pursuits, then domestic and personal service, 
trade and transportation, and professional service, in the 
order named. For female children domestic and per- 
sonal service formed the class of occupations second in 
importance to agricultural pursuits, manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits ranking next, then trade and trans- 
portation and professional service. 

Comparing this distribution by occupational classes 
wifh that shown for 1880, it will be noticed that the 
proportion of the working children of either sex en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits and in domestic and per- 
sonal service was smaller in 1900 than in 1880, while 
the proportion in trade and transportation and in manu- 
facturing and mechanical pursuits was larger, the gain 
being rather more marked for female than for male 
children. 

In this connection a brief statement relative to the 
composition of these five main classes, pointing out the 
principal occupations for children included under each, 
may be of interest. A complete analysis by occupa- 
tions is given in Table lx (page clxii). An examination 
of this table shows that almost all children of either sex 
engaged in agricultural pursuits were agricultural 
laborers. The majority of the comparatively' few chil- 
dren reported under professional service were engaged 
in occupations connected with teaching, music, art, or 
the stage; a considerable number of the male children, 
however, were reported as electricians. The class of 
domestic and personal service exhibits a marked con- 
trast in the occupational distribution of the two sexes. 
More than four-fifths of the male children in this class 
were reported as laborers (not specified), while more 
than four-fifths of the female were servants and wait- 
resses; at the same time a considerable number of the 
female children were returned as laborers (not speci- 
fied), and a considerable number of the male as ser- 
vants and waiters. For male children engaged in 
trade and transportation the leading occupations were, 
first, messengers and errand and ofiice boj's, second, 
clerks and copj-ists, third, salesmen, and fourth, dray- 
men, hackmen, teamsters, etc., these four occupations 
comprising about four-fifths of the total number in 
this class; for female children the most important of 
the occupations included under this head was that of 
saleswomen, next, that of clerks and copyists, and 
then messengers and errand and office girls, these three 
occupations comprising about seven-tenths of the 
total. In the class of manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits concentration by occupations is much less marked. 
For male children the occupation of miners and quar- 
rymen was the most important numerically. The 
various textile mill operatives formed important occu- 
pations for both sexes; and a considerable proportion 
of the female children were employed as seamstresses, 
dressmakers, tailoresses, milliners, and shirt, collar, and 
cuff makers. 

As shown in Table lv by the second column of per- 
centages for each census year, children from 10 to 15 



years of age at work constituted in 1900 a somewhat 
smaller proportion of the whole number of persons 
gainfully .occupied than they did in 1880. Males of this 
age group constituted only 5.3 per cent of all males at 
work in 1900, as against 5.6 per cent in 1880; at the 
same time the percentage increased in each of the main 
classes of occupations except domestic and pei'sonal 
service. The percentage which female children form of 
the total number of female workers decreased from 11.1 
in 1880 to 9.1 in 1900; and a decrease appears in each 
of the main classes of occupations except manufactur- 
ing and mechanical pursuits. 

It will be noticed on comparing the figures in Table 
LV with those shown in the summary on page cxlvii 
that, while the children at work formed a larger pro- 
portion of the total number of children in 1900 than 
they did in 1880, they formed a smaller proportion of 
the total number of gainful workers of all ages. In 
other words, children are more generally employed in 
gainful occupations than they were formerly; but, 
while the number so employed has increased faster 
than the total number of children 10 to 15 j-ears of age, 
it has not increased so fast as the total number of gainful 
workers of all ages. 

In Table Lvi (page cli) the children from 10 to 15 
years of age engaged in gainful occupations and in each 
class of occupations in continental United States in 1900, 
in the aggregate and by sex, are distributed by general 
nativity' and color. 

The per cent distribution of the total number of child 
workers in 1900 according to nativity and color, as 
shown liy Table lvi, was as follows: Native white of 
native parents, 47. s per cent; native white of foreign 
parents, 16.8 per cent; foreign white, 5.6 per cent; 
negro, 29.5 per cent; Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 
combined, 0.3 per cent. Comparing these percentages 
with a similar distribution of the entire population at 
work (native white of native parents, 47.7 per cent; 
native white of foreign parents, IS. 3 per cent; foreign 
white, 19.7 per cent; negro, 13.7 per cent; Chinese, 
Japanese, and Indian combined, 0.6 per cent), it ap- 
pears that the negro children at work formed a larger 
proportion of all children gainfully occupied than all 
negroes at work formed of the entire working popu- 
lation. The foreign white, on the other hand, and the 
native white of foreign parents are represented by 
higher percentages among the total number of workers 
than among child workers. In case of the native 
white of native parents the percentages are practically 
identical. 

More than one-half (53.1 per cent) of all children 
engaged in agricultural })ursuits in 1900 were native 
white of native parents, the next largest proportion, 
38.2 per cent, being that shown for negroes; these two 
elements together constituted more than nine-tenths of 
the whole number of children in this class of occupa- 
tions. Each of the two native white elements consti- 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cli 



tated more than two-fifths of all children in trade and 
transportation and very nearly the same proportion of 
all children in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 
The foreign white had its largest proportion, 17.9 per 
cent, in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits, as 
compared with its proportion in each of the other main 
classes, while the negro element was most largely repre- 
sented in agricultural pursuits and in domestic and 
personal service. 

The most notable differences between the sexes are 
found in agricultural pursuits; of all male children in 
thife class of occupations very nearly three-fifths wei-e 
native white of native parents and only about three- 
tenths were negroes, while of all female children in this 



class more than seven-tenths were negroes and only 
about one-fourth were native white of native parents. 
Another instance of a somewhat similar contrast is found 
in trade and transportation; native white females of for- 
eign parents constituted more than one-half of the 
whole number of female children in this class of occu- 
pations, the native white of native parents consti- 
tuting less than one-third, while of the male children 
in this class the native white of native parents formed 
a larger proportion than the native white of foreign par- 
ents, although the difference is not very marked, the 
one element comprising somewhat more, the other ele- 
ment somewhat less, than two-fifths of the total number. 



Table LVI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF CHILDREN 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED 
IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX SEPARATELY: 1900. 



SEX, GENERAL NATIVITY, AND COLOR. 



Both sexes 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white — foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

Males 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white— foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 

Females 

Native white — native parents . 
Native white— foreign parents 

Foreign white 

Negro - 

Chinese, Japanese, and Indian 



ALL OCCUPATIONS. 


Nnmber. 


Per 






1, 760, 178 


100.0 


837, 402 


47,8 


293, 210 


16,8 


97, 944 


5,6 


516,274 


29,5 


6,348 


0,3 


1,264,411 


100,0 


682,731 


54.0 


200, 417 


15.9 


68, 236 


4,6 


319,065 


25.2 


3, 972 


0.3 


485,767 


100.0 


154, 671 


31.8 


92,793 


19.1 


39, 708 


8.2 


197, 219 


40.6 


1,376 


0,3 



AGRICDLTDEAL 
PURSUITS, 



1,061,971 



564, 460 
76,230 
11, 371 

405, 960 
3,950 

854, 690 



610, 489 
72, 695 
10, 518 

258, 000 
3,088 

207, 281 



53, 971 

3,635 

863 

147,960 

862 



Per 
cent. 



100,0 



63.1 
7.2 
1.1 

38.2 
0.4 

100.0 



PROFESSIONAL 

SERVICE. 



Number. 



:,945 



1,299 

1,066 

370 

208 

3 

1,846 



69.7 
8.5 
1.2 

30.2 
0.4 

100.0 



691 

755 
274 
122 



1,100 



26.0 I 

1.8 

0.4 
71.4 

0.4 



008 

310 

96 

86 



Per 
cent. 



DOMESTIC AND PER- 
SONAL SERVICE. 



Number. 



100.0 



44.1 
36.2 
12.6 
7,0 
0,1 

100,0 



37,5 
40.9 
14.8 
6.6 
0.2 

100.0 



65.3 

28. 2 



279, 031 



107, 038 
56, 915 
21, 131 
93, 059 



137, 049 



58, 386 
23,482 



45,216 
659 



141, 982 



48, 652 
33, 433 
11,825 
47, 843 
229 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



38.4 
20.4 

7,6 
33.3 

0.8 

100.0 



42.6 
17.1 

6.8 
33.0 

0.5 

100.0 



34.3 
23.5 



33.7 
0.2 



TRADE AND TRANS- 
PORTATION. 



Number. 



122, 362 



49, 724 
50, 180 
14, 213 
8,148 



100, 174 



42, 416 
38, 864 
10, 870 
7,929 



22,188 



7,309 

11, 316 

3,343 

217 



Per 
cent. 



40.6 
41.0 
11.6 
6.7 
0.1 

100.0 



10.9 
7.9 
0.1 

100.0 



32.9 

61.0 

15.1 

1.0 



MANUFACTUEING 

AND MECHANICAL 

PURSUITS. 



Number. 



283,869 



114,881 

108, 820 

50,859 

8,901 

408 

170, 653 



70, 750 
64, 721 
27, 268 
7,788 
126 

113, 216 



44, 1.31 
44, 099 
23, 591 
1,113 
282 



Per 
cent. 



100.0 



17.9 
3.1 
0.2 

100.0 



41.4 
37.9 
16.0 
4.6 
0.1 

100.0 



39.0 

39.0 

20.8 

1.0 

0.2 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Table lvii (page clii) is a reproduction bj^ states and 
territories, arranged geographically, of that portion of 
Table 35 (page 166) of the general tables which shows the 
number of persons 10 to 15 years of age, by sex, engaged 
in each main class of occupations in 1 900. Table lvii 
is supplemented by Table lviii, in which the number of 
children of each sex in all gainful occupations and in 
each main class is distributed according to general nativ- 
ity and color. This information, which is not shown 



in the general tables, is supplied here to show numeric- 
ally the extent to which the children at work in each 
state and territory in 1900 were drawn from each of 
the principal population groups. A per cent distri- 
bution, by main classes of occupations, of the whole 
number of children of each sex at work in 1900, with- 
out regard to general nativity and color, is given by 
states and territories in Table lix. 



clii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LVII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY SEX, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED 





STATES AND TEKEITOEIES. 


ALL OCCUPATIONS. 


AGEICCLTUKAL PUESDITS. 


1 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 




Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females, 


1 


United States 


1, 752, 187 


1,266,050 


486,137 


1,062,251 


854,967 


207,294 


2,956 


1,849 


1,107 




Continental United States 


? 


1, 750, 178 


1,264,411 


485,767 


1, 061, 971 


864,690 


207,281 


2,945 


1,845 


1,100 




Nortli Atlantic division 


3 


304,322 


194,940 


109,382 


34,343 


33,723 


620 


1,396 


986 


410 




Maine 


4 


.5,992 

4,498 

3,070 

27,868 

9,034 

11,579 

91,944 

30, 261 

120,076 

446, 646 


3,979 

2,547 

2,170 

16, 393 

5,143 

6,838 

56, 218 

18,457 

84,195 

311,266 


2,013 

1,961 

900 

11,475 

3,891 

4,741 

36, 726 

11,804 

35,881 

135,280 


1,228 
485 

1,209 
999 
254 
832 

8,246 

2,232 
18,868 

320, 294 


1,212 
484 

1,201 
992 
246 
821 

8,046 

2,118 
18,603 

238,562 


16 

1 

8 

7 

8 

11 

200 

114 

255 

81,742 


32 

9 

4 

91 

18 

39 

723 

174 

306 

193 


6 


26 
9 
2 

39 

7 

9 

213 

27 

78 

107 


5 


New Hampshire 


(i 




2 

52 

11 

30 

510 

147 

228 

86 


7 


Massachusetts 


8 


Rhode Island 


9 




in 


New York 


11 




1?, 


Pennsylvania 


13 


South Atlantic division 




Delaware 


14 


3,859 

24,920 

2,144 

56,745 

24,824 

110,407 

96,280 

113,964 

15, 403 

369,530 


2,781 
17, 034 

1,365 
44,651 
22,343 
77,986 
56,363 
77,462 
11,281 

287, 723 


1,078 

7,886 

779 

11,094 

2,481 
32,421 
38,917 
36, 602 

4,122 

81, 807 


1,551 
6,840 
27 
33,725 
17,182 
83, 624 
76,296 
89,843 
11,307 

187,585 


1,473 
6,563 
27 
31,116 
16, 891 
63,551 
46,674 
63, 777 
8,481 

183,636 


78 
277 


2 
55 

9 
28 

8 
14 
15 
48 
14 

930 


2 
31 
7 
7 
6 
5 
5 
17 
6 

538 




If) 


Maryland 


16 


District of Columbia 


24 
2 

21 
2 
9 

10 

31 
8 

392 


17 


Virginia 


2,610 

291 

19,973 

29,621 

26,066 

2,826 

3,949 


18 


West Virginia 


19 




W 


South Carolina 


m 


Georgia 


22 


Florida 


23 


North Central division 




Ohio 


24 


47, 059 
32, 146 
70,535 
26,697 
30,515 
23,014 
29,410 
61,649 
4,144 
7,095 
14,777 
22,489 

598,831 


34,165 
26,464 
60,994 
19, 523 
20,842 
16,973 
24,564 
52,621 
8,125 
5,876 
12,282 
20,304 

446,512 


12, 894 
6,692 

19,641 
7,174 
9,673 
6,041 
4,846 
9,028 
1,019 
1,219 
2,496 
2,185 


14, 729 
17,640 
25,504 
10, 115 
12,414 
13,346 
19,520 
37, 727 
2,890 
6,780 
10,467 
17, 553 


14, 510 
17,327 
25,114 
9,906 
11, 903 
12,889 
19,244 
37,029 
2,743 
6,504 
10, 175 
17,292 

387, 143 


219 
213 
390 
209 
511 
457 
276 
698 
147 
276 
292 
261 

120,242 


140 
53 

295 
74 
59 
48 
47 

130 

5 

7 

44 

28 

258 


72 
24 
212 
43 
44 
19 
18 
82 
1 


68 
29 
83 
31 
15 
29 
29 
48 
4 
7 
31 
18 

124 


?!< 


Indiana 


9fi 


niinois 


27 




as 


Wisconsin 


9,9 


Minnesota 


30 


Iowa 


31 




S2 


North Dakota 


33 


South Dakota 


34 




3S 


Kansas 


13 
10 

134 


36 


South Central division 








38 


Tennessee 


61, 117 
76,362 
122, 653 
98, 009 
61,047 
91,571 
15, 146 
7,858 
66,068 

30,949 


53,676 
63,711 
80,989 
63, 906 
39,620 
73,604 
12, 950 
7,309 
49,747 

24, 970 


7,441 
12,651 
41,664 
34,103 
21,427 
17,967 

2,196 

549 

15, 321 

5,979 


45, 579 
69, 970 
105, 196 
88, 896 
48,605 
79, 926 
13,217 
7,147 
58,849 

12,364 


43, 729 
52,689 
70,480 
58,519 
32,097 
65,390 
11,668 
6,862 
45,719 

11,636 


1,850 

7,281 

34, 716 

30,377 

16,508 

14,536 

1,559 

286 

13,130 

728 


75 
25 
30 
19 
28 
52 
6 
12 
11 

168 


55 
15 
10 
1 

14 
28 
1 
6 
6 

101 


20 
10 
20 
18 
14 
24 
6 
7 
6 

67 


39 

46 


Alabama 

Mississippi 


41 


Louisiana 


42 


Texas 


43 


Indian Territory 


44 


Oklahoma 


45 


Arkansas 


46 


Western division 


47 
48 




Wyoming 


1,199 

906 

3,600 

3,531 

1,982 

2,626 

214 

1,536 

3,385 

2,852 

• 9,319 

1,002 

998 

9 


929 
795 
2,903 
2,987 
1,358 
2,095 
183 
1,395 
2,807 
2,331 
7,187 

S02 

.S28 




270 
111 
697 
544 
624 
430 
31 
141 
678 
621 
2,132 

200 
170 


400 
478 
1,253 
2,067 
1,352 
1,241 
104 
1,142 
1,384 
1,337 
1,606 

14 
266 


393 

474 
1,236 
1,937 

964 
1,225 

102 
1,126 
1,309 
1,307 
1,563 

14 
253 


7 

4 

17 

130 

388 

16 

2 

16 

75 

30 

43 


13 

7 

17 

4 

2 

7 

3 

5 

15 

10 

85 

3 
8 


10 
3 
5 
4 


3 
4 
12 


4S 




60 


New Mexico 


M 


Arizona 


52 


Utah 


2 
3 


63 




4 
3 
1 

10 
3 

58 

2 


54 


Idaho 


65 


Washington 


4 
6 
7 
27 

1 

6 


66 


Oregon 


57 


California 


68 


Alaska 


59 


Hawaii 


60 




13 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 

IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 



cliii 



DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE. 


TRADE AND THANSPOETATION. 


MANUFACTDKING AND MECHANICAL PURSUITS. 




Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 




280, MS 


137,951 


142,192 


122, 507 


100,313 


22, 194 


284,330 


170,980 


113,350 


1 


279,031 


137,049 


141, 982 


122,362 


100,174 


22,188 


283,869 


170,653 


113,216 


2 


59,017 


27,761 


81,256 


67,965 


46,016 


11,949 


151,601 


86,454 


65, 147 


3 


1,209 


621 


588 


324 


281 


43 


3,199 


1,859 


1,340 


4 




282 


339 


205 


157 


48 


3,178 


1,624 


1,554 


b 




294 


528 


169 


152 


17 


866 


521 


345 


h 




1,165 


1,594 


4,836 


3,746 


1,090 


19,193 


10,448 


8,746 


7 




352 


271 


1,071 


877 


194 


7,068 


3,657 


3,411 


t 




888 


1,021 


1,899 


1,363 


636 


6,900 


3,736 


3,164 


i 




6,794 


10,718 


27,864 


21,627 


6,237 


37,599 


18,241 


19,368 


IC 




2,272 


3,193 


6,797 


4,728 


1,069 


16,593 


9,192 


7,401 


11 




15,103 


13,004 


15,800 


13,085 


2,715 


67,005 


37,176 


19,829 


12 


69,139 


35,658 


33,481 


12, 672 


11,365 


1,307 


44,248 


25,606 


18,643 


13 


944 


415 


629 


298 


257 


41 


1,064 


634 


430 


14 


6,838 


3,135 


3,703 


3,586 


2,954 


632 


7,601 


4,361 


3,260 


15 


915 


336 


579 


988 


850 


138 


205 


146 


60 


1h 


15, 346 


8,357 


6,989 


2,074 


1,920 


154 


4,672 


3,262 


1,320 


17 


4,827 


2,950 


1,877 


666 


625 


41 


2,141 


1,871 


270 


If 


13, 096 


6,726 


6,370 


1,283 


1,198 


85 


12,490 


6,506 


6,984 


1£ 


9,266 


4,296 


4,970 


801 


753 


48 


8,903 


4,635 


4,268 


21 


15,118 


7,760 


7,358 


2,423 


2,284 


139 


6,632 


3,624 


2,908 


21 


2,789 


1,683 


1,106 


558 


524 


29 


740 


687 


153 


22 


80,663 


33,465 


47,198 


36, 722 


28,178 


7,544 


64,630 


41,906 


22,724 


23 


12,421 


5,865 


6,556 


5,819 


4,646 


1,173 


13, 950 


9,072 


4,878 


24 


7,625 


3,971 


3,654 


2,021 


1,655 


366 


4,907 


3,477 


1,430 


2b 


15,175 


6,316 


8,869 


12,411 


9,222 


8,189 


17,150 


10, 130 


7,020 


26 


7,653 


3,431 


4,222 


2,495 


1,999 


496 


6,360 


4,144 


2,216 


27 


8,682 


2,890 


5,792 


2,308- 


1,661 


647 


7,052 


4,344 


2,708 


2t 


5,941 


1,403 


4,538 


1,732 


1,392 


340 


1,947 


1,270 


677 


2t 


5,771 


1,933 


3,838 


1,461 


1,249 


202 


2,621 


2,120 


501 


3t 


9,518 


4,950 


4,568 


6, 620 


4,768 


862 


8,654 


6,792 


2,862 


3] 


1,093 


261 


842 


108 


98 


10 


48 


32 


16 


32 


1,112 


202 


910 


120 


109 


11 


76 


61 


15 


;« 


2,536 


795 


1,741 


908 


726 


182 


822 


573 


249 


■M 


3,136 


1,468 


1,678 


729 


663 


76 


1,043 


891 


152 


•Sb 


61,683 


35,155 


26,528 


11,198 


10,306 


892 


18,307 


12,774 


5,533 


36 


8,722 


5,035 


3,687 


2,097 


1,815 


282 


4,644 


3,042 


1,602 


37 


11,586 


7,156 


4,430 


1,781 


1,637 


144 


3,000 


2,214 


786 


■a 


10,619 


5,656 


5,063 


1,634 


1,524 


110 


5,174 


3,419 


1,755 


3t 


7,010 


3,706 


3,304 


921 


870 


51 


1,163 


810 


353 


41 


8,792 


4,601 


4,191 


1,946 


1,802 


144 


1,676 


1,106 


570 


4] 


8,314 


5,392 


2,922 


1,738 


1,626 


112 


1,54] 


1,168 


373 


42 


1,453 


834 


619 


240 


229 


11 


230 


228 


2 


41 


513 


271 


242 


130 


122 


8 


66 


49 


7 


44 


4,674 


2,604 


2,070 


711 


681 


30 


823 


738 


85 


45 


8,529 


5,010 


3,519 


4,805 


4,309 


496 


5,083 


3,914 


1,169 


46 


407 


188 


219 


215 


197 


18 


164 


141 


23 


47 


171 


107 


64 


120 


119 


1 


130 


92 


38 


4li 


908 


644 


364 


671 


548 


123 


651 


570 


81 


4<i 


1,214 


869 


345 


96 


91 


5 


150 


86 


64 


50 


306 


211 


95 


77 


74 


3 


246 


109 


136 


bl 


756 


429 


327 


274 


244 


30 


247 


193 


54 


,52 


69 
291 


43 


26 


19 


16 


3 


19 


19 




M 


178 


113 


60 


56 


4 


38 


34 


4 


54 


936 


617 


419 


505 


466 


39 


645 


506 


40 


,65 


819 


429 


390 


328 


294 


34 


368 


298 


60 


66 


2,652 


1,495 


1,167 


2,440 


2,204 


236 


2,636 


1,867 


669 


-57 


665 


574 


91 


16 


15 


1 


304 


197 


107 


58 


441 
6 


322 
6 


119 


126 
3 


121 
3 


6 


167 


130 


27 


59 
60 















cli 



IV 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LVIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 

AJ^L OCCUPATIONS. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States. 



Continental United States. 



North Atlantic division . 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts... 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania ... 



South Atlantic division . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina , 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central clivi';'.:i . 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division . 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory . 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division . 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington . . 

Oregon 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Militari' and naval. 



Total. 



1,266,060 


1, 264, 411 


194, 940 



3,979 

2,547 

2,170 

16, 393 

6,143 

6,838 

55, 218 

18,457 

84, 196 

311, 266 



2,781 
17,034 

1,365 
44,651 
22, 343 
77,986 
56, 363 
77,462 
11,2S1 

287, 723 



34,]i;5 
26, 154 
50. 1194 
19,523 
20, N42 
16,973 
24, 564 
52, 621 
3, 125 
5,876 
12,2^2 
21), 304 

445, :,12 



63, 676 
63, 711 
80,a'-9 
63, 906 
39, 620 
73, 604 
12, 950 
7,309 
49, 747 

24, 970 

929 
795 
2, 903 
2,987 
1,358 
2, 095 
183 
1,395 
2, N07 
2,331 
7,187 

802 

828 

9 



Native 
white^ 

native 
parents. 



682, 731 



1,731 
766 
1,234 
3,613 
1,129 
1,836 

19, 674 
7,743 

48, 298 

162, 732 



1,074 
9, 332 
615 
24, 233 
20, 714 
48, 8.54 
18, 414 
33, 761 
6, 135 

160, 7.'>9 



22,. 391 

22, 006 

25, -167 

7, ISO 

4,7,->l 

2,996 

12,924 

4U.561 

5s0 

1,645 

5, .■-34 

14,422 

2C0, 64S 



45, 219 
46, 616 

3-S, 92 -i 
21, 473 
13, 137 
45 92S 
10,311 
I'.. 059 
32, 974 

12,033 



Native 
white — 
foreign 
parents. 



200,417 



411 

4.^4 

1,7,S{J 

2,:-;.Mi ' 

2J4 

«0S 

89 

775 

1,399 

1, 431 

2,8,51 

13 

207 



72, 662 



1,229 

744 

l'i^9 

7, 082 

2,188 

3, 179 

24, 190 

7,209 

25,652 

4,773 



Foreign 
white. 



333 

2,466 
147 
3.i4 
6S7 
107 
140 
297 
212 

102, 609 



9, 4.SC 
3, J',-'2 
19, 642 
9, 877 
13,424 
11,864 
10,190 
.'<, .^26 
1,716 

3, ,5.^H 
5, 640 

4, 874 

11,981 



1, 7.^7 
623 
502 
229 
996 

6, 226 
201 
713 
,■^04 

R, 392 



3-14 
243 
857 
IM 
■2 in 

1,108 
35 
53 J 
951 
675 

3, 216 



11 

271 

3 



68, 331 



68, 236 



33, 518 



1,013 
1,030 
239 
6, 067 
1,781 
1,727 
10, 666 
2,937 
9,068 

1,281 



97 
045 



18 
64 
126 



18, 062 



1, .593 
4.51 

5, 036 

2, 299 
2, .565 
1, 9.^7 
1,300 

762 



2,812 



104 
74 
90 
41 

.504 

1, N02 

33 

.^5 

79 



114 
54 

235 
85 

140 
1.5.H 



261 
145 
700 

19 
74 
2 



Colored. 



Total. Negro. 



324, 064 



323, 027 



131 
46 
96 
698 
568 



142,480 



677 

4, ,591 

548 

19,973 

785 

28,997 

37, 791 

43,340 

5,778 

5,663 



695 

.505 

849 

167 

72 

137 

150 

2,469 

32 

28 

48 

611 

170, 071 

6, 566 
16, 49S 
41.469 
42. 163 
24,983 
19, 64« 

2,402 

452 

15, 890 

1,977 



60 
14 
31 

335 

746 
21 
44 
30 

196 
80 

420 

7.59 

276 

2 



319, 057 



319, 055 



2,702 



123 

45 

93 

631 

664 

1,227 

142, 144 



077 

4, 580 

5-17 

1.9, "71 



69. 1 

504 

,845 

106 

17 

42 

147 

2, 467 

2 

4 

44 

601 

168, 6.59 



6, 563 
16,492 
41,462 
42, 055 
24, 949 
19, 630 

1,223 

395 

1.5, .S'.m 

181 



Total. 



109, 382 



2,013 
1,961 
900 
11,476 
3,891 
4,741 
36, 726 
11,804 
35, 8S1 

135, 280 



1,078 

7,886 

779 

11, 094 

2,481 
32,421 
38,917 
36, .502 

4,122 

81, 807 

12, 894 
5, 692 

19, 541 
7,174 
9,673 
6,041 
4,846 
9,028 
1,019 
1,219 
2,496 
2, 185 

153. 319 



7,441 
12, 6,51 
41,664 
34, 103 
21,427 
17. 967 

2, 196 

549 

15, 321 

6,979 



270 
111 
697 
544 
624 
430 
31 
141 
678 
621 
2,132 

200 
170 



Native 
white- 
native 
parents. 



36, 788 



548 

340 

438 

1,666 

634 

986 

9,198 

3,798 

19,280 

44, 956 



507 
3,-542 

ISS 

3,032 
1,968 
15, 637 
, 9, 975 
9,274 



27,785 



6,296 

4,105 

4, 602 

1, 6.S5 

1,512 

856 

1,,?.50 

4,467 

109 

235 

824 

1,244 

42, 933 



4, 631 
11, 767 
4, 675 
3,201 
6, S72 
1,710 
336 
6,076 

2,209 



269 
391 

44 

127 

8 

75 
200 
274 
665 



Native 
white — 
foreign 
parents. 



Foreign 
white. 



92,846 



92, 793 



43, 932 



664 

686 

320 

5,292 

1,778 

2,261 

16,888 

5,023 

11, 230 

2,130 



172 

1,460 

68 

80 

180 
26 
32 
67 
46 

40, 761 



5,161 

1,217 

10, 609 

3,931 

6,717 

4,155 

2,477 

3,211 

555 

760 

1,293 

675 



919 

110 

130 

63 

406 

,869 

34 

69 

175 



104 
28 

230 
21 
29 



66 

235 

189 

1,092 

2 
51 



39, 729 



39,708 



26, 326 



895 
1,022 

139 
4,433 
1,547 
1,412 
10,031 
2,482 
4,365 

652 



48 
440 
23 
30 
37 



58 
11, 208 



1, 0.84 

1R2 

4, 0.-<4 

1,474 

1,426 

997 

487 

437 

344 

217 

349 

127 

806 



716 



63 

10 

91 

11 

26 

84 

3 

9 

87 

49 

284 

1 
20 



Colored. 



Total. 



198,800 



198, 695 



2,336 



6 
3 
3 

84 

32 

92 

609 

601 

1,006 

87,542 



361 

2,444 

500 

7,952 

296 

16, 763 

28,907 

27, 1.54 

3,185 

2,053 



353 
188 
246 
84 
18 
33 
32 
913 

11 

7 
29 
139 

105,805 



1,774 

7,892 

29, 748 

29, 353 

17, 750 

8,638 

452 

134 

10,064 



1 

17 

121 

526 

11 

17 

1 
56 

9 
91 

197 



Negro. 



197, 219 



197,219 



2,246 



4 

3 

8 

83 

32 

92 

547 

495 



87,337 



851 

2,444 

500 

7,952 

296 

16, 561 

28,905 

27,154 

3,184 

1,995 



353 
187 
245 
71 
11 
12 
32 
913 
8 
2 
28 



105,568 



1,774 
7,890 
29,748 
29,311 
17,730 
8,637 
296 
118 
10,064 

73 



4 
1 
17 
3 
2 
1 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



civ 



Table LVIII.— DISTRIBUTIO^T, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 

AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Native 
wlilte — 

native 
piu'ents. 


Native 
wliite — 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
wliite. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Native 
wliite— 

native 
parents. 


Native 
white — 

foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
wtiite. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


Total. 


Negro. 


United States 


854,957 


510,645 


72,660 


10,539 


201,213 


258,000 


207,294 


53, 972 


3,642 


864 


148,826 


147,960 




Continental United States 


854, 690 


610, 489 


72,595 


10,618 


261, 088 


268,000 


207, 281 


53, 971 


3,635 


853 


148,822 


147,960 




North Atlantic division 


S3, 723 


27, 198 


4,7SS 


1,149 


588 


619 


620 


375 


119 


117 


9 


g 






Maine 


1,212 
4S1 

1,201 
992 
246 
821 

8,046 

2,118 
18, 608 

238,552 


856 

361 

868 

498 

141 

461 

6,550 

1,431 

17, 082 

126, 049 


264 

85 

264 

332 

45 

229 

2,010 

372 

1,187 

887 


91 
37 
67 
142 
52 
99 
387 
121 
153 

167 


1 
1 



20 

8 

32 

99 

194 

231 

111,449 




16 

1 

8 

7 

8 

11 

200 

114 

255 

81, 742 


9 
1 
8 
1 
1 
3 
76 
70 
206 

20, 989 


7 








New Hampshire 


1 
2 
18 
8 
32 
68 
194 
196 

111,145 








Vermont 










Massachusetts 


1 
3 
4 
55 
22 
27 

69 


5 
4 
4 
67 
16 
22 

83 






Rhode Island 












New York 


2 

7 




New Jersey 


7 


Pennsylvania 




South Atlantic division 


60,651 


60,468 




Delaware 


1,473 
6, 503 

31,115 
16,8J1 
63, 551 
46, 674 
63, 777 
8,481 

183,636 


950 
8,639 
13 
18, 379 
16,479 
40,346 
13,449 
28, 403 
4,391 

118, 191 


42 

269 

4 

115 

206 

57 

66 

97 

41 

66, 121 


11 

87 


470 
2, 568 
10 
12,599 
193 
23,137 
S3, 165 
85, 270 
4,037 

2,310 


470 

2,668 

10 

12,597 

193 

22, 839 

33,162 

35,270 

4,036 

2,163 


78 
277 


57 
78 


1 
30 




■20 
139 


20 


Maryland 

District of Columbia 


30 


139 


Virginia 

West Virginia 


22 
13 
11 
4 
7 
12 

7,014 


2,610 
291 
19,973 
29, 621 
26,066 

2,826 

3,949 


610 

286 

8,207 

5,343 

6,757 

651 

1,8.57 


4 
2 
6 
10 

13 
4 

1,712 


i 

1 


1,996 

2 

11,761 

24,268 

20, 295 

2,171 

83 


1,995 
2 




11,571 

24,266 

20,295 

2,170 

70 


South Carolina 






1 


Florida 




297 






Ohio. 


14, 510 
17, 327 
25, 114 
9,906 
11, 903 
12,889 
19, 244 
87, 029 
2,743 
5,504 
10,175 
17, 292 

387,143 


12, 395 

16, .568 

18,410 

4,509 

3,186 

2,113 

10, 2C4 

82,536 

4.S0 

1,483 

4,743 

12, 554 

232,353 


1,777 
1,492 
5,735 
4,642 
7,799 
9, 424 
8,011 
3,193 
1,548 
3,441 
4,864 
4,200 

7,686 


127 
93 
639 
687 
950 
1,313 
961 
133 
690 
653 
561 
317 

1, 6.52 


211 
174 
330 

68 
18 
39 
IS 
1,167 
SO 

221 
145, 452 


211 

173 

328 

44 

8 

2 

16 

1,166 

2 

3 

8 

212 

144,136 


219 
218 
390 
209 
511 
467 
276 
098 
147 
276 
292 
261 

120,242 


188 
176 

224 

67 

128 

45 

128 

566 

18 

35 

104 

188 

80, 622 


31 
33 
116 
122 
354 
357 
132 
80 
60 
201 
163 
64 

1,674 


2 


3 
4 
11 


3 


Indiana 


4 


Illinois 


40 
20 
29 
53 
21 

5 
59 
38 
24 

6 

380 


11 














2 










47 

10 

2 

1 

3 

87,666 


47 


North Dakota 


2 


South Dakota 








Kansas 


3 


South Central division 


87,423 






Kentucky 


43, 729 
52, 689 
70, 480 
58,519 
32, 097 
65, 390 
11, 658 
6, 862 
45, 719 

11,636 


39, 341 
40, 183 
34,596 
19,935 
10, 407 
42, 264 
9,348 
5,710 
30, 569 

6,698 


405 
269 
234 
135 
253 
4,927 
141 
678 
644 

3,113 


16 
21 
13 
19 
330 
1,114 
5 
72 
63 

636 


8,968 
12, 216 
35, 637 
38,480 
21, 107 
17, 085 

2,164 

402 

14,443 

1,289 


3,966 
12,213 
35, 631 
38, 334 
21,081 
17,070 

1,049 

848 

14,443 

38. 


1,850 

7, 281 

34,716 

30, 377 

16,508 

14, 686 

1,559 

285 

13,130 

728 


J, 676 
2,142 
9,806 
4,005 
2,265 
6,881 
1,265 
158 
3,934 

128 


10 
20 
64 
29 
50 
1,364 
19 
19 
99 

61 


1 
2 
3 
9 

20 
341 


163 

6,117 

25, 843 

26, 334 

14,183 

6,950 

276 

108 

9,098 

613 


163 




5,117 


Alabama , 


25, 343 




26,298 




14, 169 


Texas 


6,949 




198 






93 


Arkansas 


4 
26 


9,093 








393 

474 
1,236 
1,937 

964 
1,225 

102 
1,126 
1,309 
1,307 
1,563 

14 

253 


224 
830 
892 
1,530 
134 
641 
60 
624 
742 
878 
763 


129 

129 

298 

72 

91 

614 

16 

443 

395 

354 

572 


27 
14 
41 
23 
88 
61 
11 
39 
90 
63 
129 


13 

1 

6 

312 

701 

9 

25 

20 

82 

12 

109 

14 
111 


1 
1 
5 

1 


7 

4 

17 

130 

888 

16 

2 

16 

75 

30 

43 




1 


4 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 


2 






3 
9 

48 
6 
6 
1 

10 
8 

22 

15 






6 
2 
2 
6 








77 

879 

1 

1 








Utah 


4 












6 
16 
6 

18 


1 
8 

1 
7 






10 

3 

13 


49 
1 
3 








fnlifnrTiin 










56 


65 


21 




is 


1 


7 


1 


4 
















r 

















clvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LVIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERRITOKIES. 


Total. 


Native 
white — 

native 
parents. 


Native 
whit^ 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Native 
white — 
native 
parents. 


Native 
white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


Total. 


Negro. 


United States 


1,849 


692 


756 


274 


127 


122 


1,107 


613 


312 


96 


86 


86 








1,845 


691 


755 


274 


125 


122 


1,100 


608 


310 


96 


86 










986 


343 


448 


175 


20 


20 


410 


203 


132 


67 


8 


8 




Maine 


6 


6 


1 








26 
9 
2 

39 

7 

9 

213 

27 
78 

107 


22 

8 

2 

14 

2 

3 

89 

14 

49 

69 


1 
1 


3 






New Hampshire - - 














2 

S2 
11 
30 
610 
147 
228 

86 


1 

12 
4 
10 
143 
39 
129 

46 


1 
26 

5 
17 
275 
58 
66 

10 
















14 
1 
3 
80 
47 
30 

11 


1 

1 


1 

1 


13 

2 
4 

79 
8 

24 

8 


10 
3 
2 

40 
5 
4 

1 


2 


2 




Connecticut 






New York 


12 
3 
3 

19 


12 
3 
3 

19 


6 


5 


New Jersey 




1 
39 


1 
39 








2 
31 

7 
7 
6 
5 
5 
17 
6 

538 


1 
16 

4 

rt 
5 






1 
5 


1 
5 
















6 
1 


4 
4 


24 
2 

21 
2 
9 

10 

31 

M 

392 


16 
2 

16 
1 
3 
2 

14 
5 

226 


5 


1 


2 


2 


District of Columbia 




3 


3 


1 




4 
1 
6 
8 
16 
2 

10 


4 
1 
6 
ij 
16 
2' 

10 




1 






North Carolina 












South Carolina 




2 
1 


3 

5 
2 

34 


3 
6 
2 

31 






Georgia 


10 
3 

196 


i 

1 
234 


1 
1 

132 




Florida 






74 


25 




Ohio 


72 
24 
212 
43 
44 
19 
18 
82 
1 


34 
18 
43 
15 
14 
6 
10 
42 


20 

3 

119 

20 

24 
8 
6 

28 


8 
1 
41 
5 
6 
6 
1 
3 
1 


10 
2 
9 
3 


7 
2 
9 
3 


68 
29 
83 
31 
15 
29 
29 
48 
4 
7 
31 
18 

124 


47 
21 
42 
15 
9 
11 
17 
24 
2 
5 
18 
14 

83 


19 

7 

28 

10 

6 

17 

12 

16 

2 

2 

10 
3 

10 


2 






Indiana 


1 
2 


1 


Illinois 


11 
6 


Michigan 




Wisconsin 






Minnesota 






1 






Iowa 


1 
9 


1 
9 








3 


5 





North Dakota 


5 


South Dakota 
















Nebraska 


13 
10 

134 


6 
9 

00 


6 


1 
1 

6 






1 
1 

2 


2 


2 


Kansas 






South Central division 


28 


45 


45 


29 








Kentucky 


55 
15 
10 

1 
14 
28 
1 
6 
5 

101 


19 
5 
6 


13 
3 
1 


1 
1 


22 
6 
3 
1 
5 
4 

9 1 


"u 1 
3 

4 


20 
10 
20 
18 
14 
24 
ri 

I 

67 


14 

12 
7 
10 
17 
6 

t 

38 


4 

1 




2 
2 
8 
11 
3 
2 


















8 
U 
3 


Mississippi 








Louisiana 


7 
12 
1 
2 
3 

51 


2 
9 




1 
3 




Texas 


3 


2 


Indian Territory 

Oklahoma 




Arkansas 


35 


8 


2 

7 


2 

7 


28 


1 


i' 


i 






Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 


10 
3 
6 


6 
3 
3 


2 


::::::;:::i 


4 


4 


3 
4 

12 


4' 


3 
5' 








Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 


4 
3 
1 

10 
3 

68 

2 


2' 

3 

1 
4 

27- 


2 








3 


2' 

1 


2' 








i 


2'il;:;;;;;;; 




4 
5 
7 

27 

1 


3 

4 
3 

14 


1 

1 
4 
12 

1 
1 








California '.'.['. 


1 
25 


4 


2' 

2 


2" 


i' 






Alaska 

Hawaii [.[[[ 

MUitary and naval ,[ 






i 



1 






6 










"i 


i 





SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clvii 



Table LVIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENEEAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 

DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE. 









MALES. 






1 




FEMALES. 






STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Native 
wliite— 

native 
parents. 


Native 
white — 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Cok 
Total. 


red. 
Negro. 


Total. 


Native 

white — 

native 

parents. 


Native 
white — 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


United States 


137,951 


68,473 


23,592 


9,346 


46,640 


45, 218 


142, 192 


48,661 


33,467 


11,843 


48,221 


47,843 




Continental United States. . . 


137,049 


58, 386 


23,482 


9,306 


45,875 


45, 216 


141, 982 


48,652 


33,433 


11,826 


48,072 


47,843 




North Atlantic division 


27, 761 


12,753 


8,828 


5,022 


1,158 


1,117 


31, 256 


14,410 


9,311 


5,362 


2,173 


2,144 




Maine 


(i21 

2S2 

294 

1,155 

8SS 

6,794 

2, 272 

15,103 

85,658 


340 
121 
158 
288 
93 
208 

2,304 
761 

8,480 

11,430 


163 

85 

92 

455 

150 

351 

2,410 

781 

4,341 

716 


114 
73 
39 
367 
98 
295 
1,815 
507 
1,714 

225 


t 
5 

45 

11 

34 

205 

223 

668 

23,287 


3 

3 

6 

40 

11 

31 

252 

219 

653 

23,256 


588 

339 

528 

1,594 

271 

1,021 

10,718 

3,193 

13, 004 

33, 481 


329 

158 

327 

445 

61 

276 

3,566 

1,021 

8,227 

6,875 


142 

102 

131 

602 

102 

366 

4,261 

1,064 

2,542 

611 


113 

77 

67 

479 

77 

297 

2,368 

628 

1,2.56 

157 


4 

2 

3 

68 

31 

83 

523 

480 

979 

25,938 


4 

2 

3 

68 

31 

83 

619 

474 

960 

25,926 


New Hampshire 




Massachusetts 


Rhode Island 


Connecticut 


New York . 


New Jersey 


Pennsylvania . 


South Atlantic division . 






415 
3,135 

336 
8,367 
2,950 
6,726 
4,296 
7,760 
1,683 

33,465 


175 
1,280 
68 
J|,070 
2,427 
2,220 

450 
1,385 

366 

17, 072 


62 

407 

11 

39 

115 

12 

6 

29 

45 

11, 211 


30 

114 

3 

8 

51 
2 


158 
1,334 

264 
6,240 

367 
4,492 
3,840 
6,343 
1,259 

2,110 


158 
1,332 

263 
5,240 

355 
4,476 
3,840 
6,342 
1,250 

2,000 


529 
3,703 

679 
6,989 
1,877 
6,370 
4,970 
7,368 
1,106 

47,198 


161 

1,025 

57 

1,380 

1,466 

1,667 

414 

570 

135 

18,386 


31 

311 

18 

24 

100 

4 

5 

11 

7 

21,440 


12 
96 
15 
3 
24 
1 
2 
1 
3 

6,617 


325 
2,271 

489 
6,682 

287 
4,698 
4,649 
6,776 

961 

1,866 

316 

174 

223 

80 

16 

17 

29 

836 

1 

4 

24 

136 

17, 965 


325 

2,271 

489 




District of Columbia 




5,582 
287 


West Virginia 




4,686 




Georgia 


3 
14 

3,072 


6 776 








1,829 




Ohio 


5,865 

3,971 

6,316 

3,431 

2,890 

1,403 

1,933 

4,950 

251 

202 

795 

1,453 

35, 155 


3,629 

3,017 

2,500 

1,076 

633 

325 

1,197 

3,149 

64 

90 

404 

988 

14,460 


1,561 

617 

2,672 

1,664 

1,765 

795 

606 

826 

109 

77 

292 

227 

1,294 


393 
117 
842 
627 
447 
213 
97 
107 
76 
35 
74 
44 

552 


282 

220 

302 

64 

45 

70 

33 

868 

2 


280 
220 
301 
40 
12 
24 
32 
867 


6,556 
3,654 
8,8.59 
4 2 ''2 
5!792 
4,53.S 
3,838 
4,568 
842 
910 
1,741 
1,678 

26,528 


3,808 

2,864 

3,231 

1,249 

1,019 

545 

1,451 

2,480 

81 

186 

672 

900 

7,463 


1,923 

546 

4,113 

2,191 

3,995 

3,185 

1,953 

1,082 

477 

541 

896 

538 

818 


509 
70 
1,292 
702 
762 
791 
405 
170 
283 
179 
249 
105 

282 


316 






Dlinois ... . .. 


222 




69 


Wisconsin 


11 




11 


Iowa 


29 




836 




1 






2 




25 
199 

18,849 


25 
199 

18, 705 


24 




134 




17, 873 








5,035 
7,156 
5,666 
3,706 
4,601 
5,392 
834 
271 
2,604 

5,010 


2,903 

3,937 

1,295 

743 

1,211 

2,049 

630 

210 

1,482 

2,671 


181 
48 
34 
37 
206 
712 
11 
19 
46 

1,433 


11 

I 
3 
72 
436 
3 
6 
9 

435 


1,940 
3,165 
4,221 
2,923 
3,112 
2,195 
190 
36 
1,067 

471 


1,939 
3,162 
4,220 
2,912 
3,108 
2,193 
131 
33 
1,067 

78 


3,687 
4,430 
5,063 
3,304 
4,191 
2,922 
619 
242 
2,070 

3,519 


1,934 
1, 672 
665 
298 
580 
671 
431 
159 
1,053 

1,518 


170 
25 
23 
24 
89 

374 
11 
47 
55 

1,353 


17 
6 
9 
3 

36 
200 


1,566 
2,727 
4,366 
2,979 
3,487 
1,677 

177 
26 

960 

141 


1,666 


Tennessee 


2,725 




4,366 


Mississippi 


2,973 




3,483 


Texas 


1,677 




98 


Oklahoma 


10 
2 

507 


26 




960 




71 






Montana ; 


188 
107 
544 
869 
211 
429 
43 
178 
617 
429 
1,495 

574 

322 

6 


64 
364 
746 

39 
165 

17 

99 
243 
284 
573 

2 
85 


57 
31 

123 
68 
84 

210 

6 

64 

165 

548 

4 

104 

2 


34 

9 

42 

39 

53 

45 

1 

10 

41 

28 

133 

2 
36 

2 


20 
3 

15 
16 
35 
9 
19 
5 
68 
40 
241 

566 
97 
2 


1 

2 
14 
7 
2 
2 


219 

64 

364 

345 

95 

327 

26 

113 

419 

390 

1,157 

91 
119 


79 

29 

145 

315 

32 

95 

4 

56 

164 

213 

396 


86 

26 

142 

16 

23 

163 

3 

49 

184 

128 

533 


47 

8 

61 

7 

21 

68 

3 

7 

76 

43 

166 

1 
17 


7 
1 

16 
7 

19 
1 

16 
1 
5 
6 

62 

90 
59 


4 
1 




16 




3 


Arizona 


2 


Utah 


1 








2 
4 
6 
38 


1 




3 




4 




36 










9 


34 






2 





















clviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LVIII.— DISTEIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 

TRADE AISTD TRAXSPORTATION. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Native 
white- 
native 
parents. 


Native 
white— 
I'orei.irn 
parent-^. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Native 
white- 
native 
parents. 


Native 
white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


Total. 


Negro. 




100,313 


42, 445 


38, 921 


10,883 


8,064 


7,929 


22,194 


7,311 


11,319 


3,344 


220 


217 








100, 174 


42, 415 


38, 864 


10,870 


8,025 


7,929 


22, 188 


7,309 


11,316 


3,343 


220 


217 








46,016 


17,248 


20, 906 


7,099 


703 


702 


11,949 


3,048 


6,197 


2,084 


20 


20 








281 

167 

152 

3,746 

877 

1,363 

21, 627 

4,728 

13, 085 

11,365 


103 

60 

62 

998 

294 

410 

6,603 

1,937 

6,881 

6,122 


129 

48 

58 

1,916 

405 

704 

10,941 

2,110 

4, 655 

1,201 


48 
48 
31 
794 
160 
232 
3,939 
681 
1,266 

297 


1 

1 

1 

38 

18 

17 

244 

100 

283 

3,745 


1 

1 

1 

38 

18 

17 

243 

100 

283 

3,744 


43 

48 

17 

1,090 

194 

636 

6,237 

1,069 

2,715 

1,307 


15 

14 

10 

221 

60 

118 

1,520 

419 

1,271 

826 


22 

16 

6 

611 

109 

294 

3,618 

503 

1,118 

312 


6 

18 

1 

2.58 

25 

122 

1,193 

141 

320 

69 






























Connecticut 


2 
6 
6 
6 

110 


2 




g 






Pennsylvania 


g 










Delaware 


257 
2,954 

850 
1,920 

025 
1,198 

753 

^'1 
28,178 


ice 

1, 7tli 
458 
973 
457 
702 
300 

1,075 
226 

11,412 


54 
671 
98 
78 
79 
19 
41 
93 
68 

13, 3.^2 


8 
127 
39 
24 
23 
11 

8 
40 
17 

2,770 


29 
391 
255 
846 

66 

466 

404 

1,076 

213 

614 


29 
391 
255 
846 

66 

466 

403 

1,076 

213 

610 


41 
632 
138 
164 
41- 
85 
48 
139 
29 

7,544 


29 
372 
95 
105 
27 
71 
26 
92 
9 

2,080 


8 
215 
35 
11 
10 

2 

6 
16 

9 

4,330 


2 
36 
6 
8 
2 


2 
9 
2 
30 
2 
12 
15 
27 
11 

21 


2 






. District of Columbia 

Virginia 


2 
30 

2 
12 




North Carolina 


South Carolina 


1 
4 


15 

27 
11 

19 




Florida 


North Central division 


1,113 




Ohio 

Indiana 


4,646 

1,655 

9,222 

1,999 

1,661 

1,392 

1,249 

4,768 

98 

109 

726 

653 

10, 306 


2,320 

1,125 

2,436 

590 

431 

354 

677 

2,650 

29 

43 

401 

466 

5, 775 


1,914 

433 

6,308 

1, 109 

1,053 

803 

485 

1,767 

49 

60 

264 

147 

1,406 


300 

45 

1,367 

288 

176 

221 

74 

190 

20 

15 

51 

23 

286 


112 
52 

111 
12 
1 

14 
13 

261 


112 
62 

110 

10 

1 

13 

13 

261 


1,173 
366 
3,189 
496 
647 
340 
202 
862 
10 
11 
182 
76 

892 


505 

240 

462 

112 

108 

94 

76 

376 

4 

3 

48 

52 

666 


555 

112 

2,036 

298 

468 

188 

107 

424 

5 

8 

108 

22 

227 


109 

8 

687 

85 

69 

68 

19 

61 

1 


4 
6 
6 
1 
2 


4 
6 
5 

1 


Illinois ... 






Minnesota 




Iowa 








1 


1 


North Dakota 


South Dakota 


1 

10 
27 

2,839 


1 

10 
27 

2,833 








24 
33 


2 


2 


Kansas 


South Central division 


66 


66 






1,815 

1,637 

1,524 

870 

1,802 

1,626 

229 

122 

681 

4,309 


1,122 
8S2 
810 
368 
927 
943 
201 
99 
■133 

1,868 


408 
118 

88 

36 
344 
335 

10 
9 

68 

1,909 


31 

26 

26 

15 

72 

108 

1 

2 

6 

418 


254 
611 
600 
461 
469 
240 
17 
12 
185 

124 


254 
611 
600 
460 
459 
239 
13 
12 
186 

40 


282 
144 
110 

51 
144 
112 

11 
8 

SO 

496 


176 
98 
79 
35 
77 
69 
7 
7 
18 

189 


87 

28 

17 

2 

48 

31 

4 

1 

9 

250 


12 
4 
4 


7 
14 
10 
14 
16 

2 




Tennessee 




Alabama 




Mississippi 


14 




3 
10 


Texas 




Indian Territorv 




















3 


3 




54 






2 


Montana 


197 

119 

548 

91 

74 

244 

16 

66 

466 

294 

2,204 

15 

121 

3 


67 

64 

315 

62 

23 

63 

11 

33 

208 

135 

887 

4 
24 
2 


87 
37 

188 
19 
29 

162 
4 
14 

186 

118 
1,075 

4 
52 
1 


30 
8 
37 
7 
21 
26 
1 
4 
68 
26 
200 

4 
9 


23 
10 
8 
3 
1 
3 


3 


18 

1 

123 

5 

3 

30 
3 
4 

39 

34 
236 

1 
6 


6 


8 


4 

1 

18 , 

I' 






Wyoming 




Colorado 

New Mexico 


7 
2 


4S 
3 

io' 


56 
2 
1 

17 


1 


1 


Arizona 

Utah 




Idaho 

Washington 


6' 

14 
15 
42 

3 
35 


4' 

4 

20 


3 

3 

22 

16 
78 


i' 

16 

16 

134 

1 
2 


2 








2 


1 




24 




Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval 








2 


1 



























SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clix 



Table LVIII.— DISTEIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND COLOR, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH 
SEX 10 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND IN EACH MAIN CLASS, BY STATES 
AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



MAXUFACTTJEING A>D >IECHAI«n:CAL PTJESUITS. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Native 
"wliite— 

native 
parents. 


Native 
white- 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
wliite. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Native 
ivliite — 
native 
parents. 


Native 
wliite— 
foreign 
parents. 


Foreign 
white. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Negro. 


Total. 


Negro. 


United States 


170, 980 


70, 798 


64, 773 


27, 289 


8,120 


7,788 


113, 350 


44, 145 


44, 106 


23,692 


1,607 


1 113 






Continental United States 


170, 653 


70, 750 


64, 721 


27, 26S 


7, 914 


7, 7,?S 


113,216 


44, 131 


44,099 


23,691 


1,395 


1,113 






North Atlantic division 


86,454 


2S, 382 


37, 632 


20,073 


367 


344 


65,147 


IS, 1.52 


28, 173 


18, 696 


126 


65 








1,859 

1,624 

521 

10,448 
3,657 
3,736 

18,241 
9,192 

37,176 

25,605 


427 

224 

145 

1,717 

597 

747 

5,174 

3,575 

15,776 

19,085 


672 
526 
274 
4,954 
1,683 
1,878 
8,564 
3,888 
16,303 

1,959 


760 

S72 

102 

3, 7.10 

1,4711 

i.oas 

4,43.1 
1,I1S1 
6,905 

581 






1,340 
1, 5.54 
345 
8,746 
3,411 
3,164 

19,3.58 
7,401 

19,829 

18, 643 


173 

159 

91 

9S,i 

410 

5S6 

3, 947 

2, 274 

9, 527 

16,207 


392 
467 
183 
4,065 
1,662 
1,684 
8,975 
3,426 
7,619 

1,230 


773 

927 

71 

3,681 

1,438 

987 

6,363 

1,693 

2,763 

402 


2 
1 




New Hampshire 


2 


2 


1 








-I 

13 

TS 
48 
192 

3,980 


2'-, 
7 
13 
56 
48 
192 

3,980 


14 
1 
7 

73 
8 

20 

804 


13 




1 


Connecticut 


7 


New York . . 


15 


New Jersey 


8 


Pennsylvania . . 


20 


South Atlantic division . 


804 






Delaware 


634 
4,351 

145 
3,252 
1,871 
6,506 
4,635 
3,624 

587 

41, 906 


382 
2,632 
84 
1,807 
.1,346 
6,681 
4,215 
2,888 
150 

13, 918 


185 
1,113 
33 
122 
286 
19 
37 

87 

21, 661 


48 
313 
9 
37 
70 
4 
4 
13 
83 

5,732 


19. 
293 

19 
1,286 
169 
902 
379 
646 
267 

593 


19 
293 

19 
1,286 
169 
902 
379 
646 
267 

£65 


430 

3,260 

60 

1,320 

270 
6,984 
4,268 
2,908 

153 

22,724 


260 

2,061 

34 

921 

188 

5,689 

4,190 

2,841 

33 

5,237 


132 
899 
15 
40 
68 
14 
11 
26 
25 

13,147 


34 
277 

2 
18 
10 

5 


4 

23 

9 

341 

4 

276 

67 

40 

40 

84 


4 






District of Columbia 


9 


Virginia 




West Virginia 


4 






South Carolina 


67 




1 
65 

4,256 


40 








67 






Ohio 


9,072 

3,477 

10,130 

4,144 

4,344 

1,270 

2,120 

6,792 

32 

61 

573 

891 

12,774 


4,013 

2,278 

2,078 

990 

667 

198 

776 

2,287 

7 

29 

280 

416 

8,005 


4,214 

947 

6,808 

2,442 

2,783 

824 

1,082 

8,012 

15 

20 

214 

300 

1,667 


765 

195 

2,147 

692 

986 

234 

177 

329 

10 

12 

73 

112 

316 


PO 
57 
97 
20 
8 
14 
85 
164 


SO 

97 
9 
1 
3 

85 
164 


4,878 

1,430 

7,020 

2,216 

2,708 

677 

601 

2, 862 

16 

15 

249 

152 

5,533 


1,753 
804 
643 
242 

218 

161 

183 

1,021 

4 

6 

,S2 

90 

4,199 


2,633 

619 

4,318 

1,310 

1,894 

408 

273 

1,609 

11 

8 

116 

48 

1,046 


462 

104 

2,054 

661 

566 

94 

42 

208 

1 


30 
3 
5 
3 


30 




2 


Illinois 


6 




1 


"Wisconsin 






14 
3 
24 


1 


Iowa . 


3 




24 












1 






6 
64 

2,886 


6 
63 

2,881 


61 
13 

109 






1 
179 


1 


South Central division 


177 








3,042 
2,214 
3,419 

810 
1,106 
1,168 

228 
49 

738 

3,914 


1,834 

1,609 

2,221 

437 

685 

660 

134 

38 

487 

1,360 


780 
86 

145 
21 

191 

243 
39 

56 

1,902 


46 

20 

45 
4 

30 
141 

24 
4 
2 

666 


3.'i2 
600 
1,008 
348 
300 
124 
31 


3.^2 
600 
1,008 
348 
296 
124 
30 


1,602 

7.^6 

1,765 

353 

.570 

373 

2 

7 

85 

1,169 


865 

712 

1,705 

330 

279 

234 

2 

6 

66 

336 


648 
36 
26 
8 

218 
97 


63 
6 
3 


36 
32 
21 
15 
61 
7 


36 


Tennessee 


32 




21 


Mi«sisaiDDi 


16 




12 
35 


59 


Texas . 


7 








1 

12 

503 










193 
86 


193 

18 




7 
202 


7 




128 










141 
92 
670 
86 
109 
193 
19 
34 
605 
298 
1,867 

197 
130 


47 
23 
206 
48 
28 
37 
8 
18 
202 
132 
611 

7 
41 


71 

46 

246 

21 

44 

130 

9 

13 

201 

126 

996 

3 
49 


23 
23 
115 
14 
28 
26 

3 

70 

28 

234 

13 
8 






23 
38 
81 
64 
136 
64 


9 
36 
50 
25 

4 
15 


6 

2 

21 
1 
3 

20 


8 


















3 
3 
9 


3 
3 
2 


10 
1 
1 

10 








37 

128 

9 








TT+nh 


















4 
40 
60 
669 

107 
27 


3 

12 
20 
162 




i 

6 

5 
86 








32 
13 

26 

174 
32 


6 
1 
3 


20 

36 

395 


2 








Pnlifnmin 


26 

107 
5 












14 


7 


i 




Hawaii - 






















i 1 II 



^1^ STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 

TTY vv-R PTTNT DISTEIBUTION BY MAIN CLASSES, OF CHILDKEN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 YEAES OF AGE 
Tabl. LIX.-PEE CENT MSTEIBUTION^B^ OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TEEEITOEIES: 1900. 









MALES. 








FEMALES. 




STATES AND TERBITOBIES. 


Agricul- 
tural 
pursuits. 


Profes- 
sional 
service. 


Domestic 

and 
personal 
service. 


Trade and 
transpor- 
tation. 


Manufac- 
turing 
and me- 
chanical 
pursuits. 


Agricul- 
tural 
pursuits. 


Profes- 
sional 
service. 


Domestic 

and 
personal 
service. 


Trade and 
transpor- 
tation. 


Manufac- 
turing 
and me- 
chanical 
pursuits. 


United States 


67.5 


0.2 


10.9 


7.9 


13.5 


42.6 


0.2 


29.3 


4.6 


23.3 


Continental United States 


67.6 


0.2 


10.8 


7.9 


13.5 


42.7 


0.2 


29.2 


4.6 


23.3 


North Atlantic division 


17.3 


0.5 


14.2 


23.6 


44.4 


0.6 


0.4 


28.6 


10.9 


69.5 




SO. 6 
19.0 
55.3 
6.1 
4.8 
12.0 
14.6 
11.5 
22.1 

76.6 


0.1 


15.6 
11.1 
13.6 
7.0 
6.8 
13.0 
12.3 
12.3 
17.9 

11.5 


7.1 
6.2 
7.0 
22.9 
17.1 
19.9 
39.2 
25.6 
16.6 

3.7 


46.7 
63.7 
24.0 
63.7 
71.1 
54.6 
33.0 
49.8 
44.2 

8.2 


0.8 

0.9 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0,5 
1,0 
0.7 

60.4 


1.3 
0.5 
0.2 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 
O.b 
0.2 
0.2 

0.1 


29.2 
17.4 
68.7 
13.9 
7.0 
21.5 
29.2 
27.0 
36.2 

24.7 


2.1 
2.5 
1.9 
9.5 
5.0 
11.3 
17.0 
9.1 
7.6 

1,0 


66.6 
79.6 
38.3 
76.2 
87.6 
66.8 
52.7 
62.7 
66.3 






0.1 
0.3 
0.2 
0.5 
0.9 
0.8 
0.3 














South Atlantic division 


13.8 




53.0 
38.5 
2.0 
69.7 
75.6 
81.5 
82.8 
82.3 
75.2 

63.8 


0.1 
0.2 
0.6 

0.2 


14.9 

18.4 

24.6 

18.7 

13.2 

8.6 

. 7.6 

' 10.0 

14.9 

11.6 


9.2 
17.3 
62.3 
4.3 
2.8 
1.5 
1.4 
3.0 
4.6 

9.8 


22.8 
25.6 
10.6 
7.3 
8.4 
8.4 
8.2 
4.7 
5.2 

14.6 


7.2 
3.5 




49.1 
47.0 
74.3 
63.0 
76.7 
19.6 
12.8 
20.1 
26.8 

57.7 


3,8 
8,0 
17,7 
1,4 
1,6 
0.3 
0.1 
0.4 
0.7 

9.2 


39.9 




0.3 
0.8 
0.2 
0.1 

«... 

0.2 
0.5 


41.2 
7.7 






Virginia 


23.5 
11.7 
61.6 
76.1 
71.4 
68.6 

4.8 


11.9 
10.9 


















North Central division 


27.8 




42.5 
65.5 
49.2 
60.8 
57.1 
75.9 
78.3 
70.4 
87.8 
93.7 
82.8 
86.2 

86.9 


0.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 

0) 


17.2 

16.0 

12.4 

17.6 

13.9 

8.3 

7.9 

9.4 

8.0 

3.4 

6.6 

7.2 

7.9 


13.6 
6.3 
18.1 
10.2 
8.0 
8.2 
6.1 
9.1 
3.2 
1.9 
6.9 
3.2 

2.3 


26.5 

13.1 

19.9 

21.2 

20.8 

7.5 

8.6 

11.0 

1.0 

1.0 

4,7 

4,4 

2.9 


1.7 
3.8 
2.0 
2.9 
5.3 
7.6 
6.7 
7.7 
14.4 
22.6 
11.7 
11.9 

78.4 


0,6 
0,5 
0,4 
0,4 
0.1 
0,6 
0,6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.6 
1,2 
0,8 

0.1 


60.9 
64.2 
46.4 
68.9 
69.9 
75.1 
79.2 
50.6 
82.6 
74.7 
69.8 
76.8 

17.3 


9.1 
6.4 
16.3 
6.9 
6.7 
5.6 
4.2 
9.5 
1.0 
0.9 
7.3 
3.6 

0.6 


37.8 






Illinois 

Michigan 


36.9 
30.9 
28.0 




11.2 








31.7 


North Dakota 










0.1 

0) 
0) 


10.0 
7.0 




3.6 








81.5 
82.7 
87.0 
91.6 
81.0 
88.9 
90.0 
93.9 
91.9 

46.6 


0.1 

II 

n\ 

M 
M 

m 

0.4 


9.4 
11.2 
6.9 
5.8 
11.6 
7.3 
6.4 
3,7 
5.2 

20.1 


3.4 
2.6 
1.9 
1.3 
4.6 
2.2 
1.8 
1.7 
1,4 

17.2 


5.6 
3.6 
4.2 
1.3 
2.8 
1.6 
1.8 
0.7 
1.6 

15.7 


24.9 
67.6 
83.3 
89.1 
77.0 
80.9 
71,0 
51,9 
85,7 

12,2 


0.3 
0.1 

"o.i 

0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
1.3 

Q) 
1.1 


49.5 
3-5.0 
12.2 
9.7 
19.5 
16.3 
28.2 
44.1 
13.6 

68.9 


3.8 
1.1 
0.3 
0.1 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
1.4 
0.2 

8.3 


21.5 


Tennessee 


6.2 
4.2 




1.0 




2.7 


Texas 


2.1 




0.1 




1.3 




0.6 




19.5 








42.3 
69.6 
42.6 
64.9 
71.0 
58.5 
55.7 
80.7 
46.6 
66.1 
21.7 

1.7 
30.6 


1.1 
0.4 
0.2 
0.1 


20.2 
13.4 
18.7 
29.1 
16.5 
20.6 
23.5 
12.8 
18,4 
18.4 
20.8 

71.6 
38.9 
C6.7 


21.2 

16.0 

18.9 

3.0 

5.5 

11.6 

8.8 

4.0 

16.6 

12.6 

30.7 

1.9 
14.6 
33.3 


15.2 

11,6 

19,6 

2,9 

8,0 

9,2 

10,4 

2,4 

18,0 

12,8 

26.0 

24.6 

15,7 


2,6 
3,6 

2,8 

23,9 

62,2 

3,7 

6,4 

11.4 

13.0 

5.8 

2.0 


1.1 

3.6 

2.0 


81.1 
57.7 
61.0 
63.4 
15.2 
76.0 
83.9 
80.2 
72.6 
74.9 
64.3 

45.6 
70.0 


6.7 
0.9 

20.6 
0.9 
0.5 
7.0 
9.7 
2.8 
6.7 
6.6 

11.1 

0.5 
2.9 


8.5 




34.2 


Co'loradcT 


13.6 




11.8 




0.3 
0.7 


21.8 


■Utah 


0.2 
1.6 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0.8 

0.2 
0.2 


12.6 






Idaho . . . 


2.8 
0.9 
1.3 
1.2 

0.5 
3.5 


2.8 




6.9 




11.5 




31.4 




53.6 




7.7 


15.9 












Jl 











iLess than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxi 



Table i,ix gives a very good idea of the conditions 
surrounding the employment of children in the different 
states and territories in 1900. In nearly all the North 
Atlantic states by far the largest proportion of the chil- 
dren at work were engaged in manufacturing and me- 
chanical pursuits, this being the case particularly with 
respect to females. In Vermont, however, considerably 
more than one-half of the male children at work were en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, and an even larger pro- 
portion of the female in domestic and personal service; 
and in New York 39.2 per cent of all male children at 
work were engaged in trade and transportation, as com- 
pared with 33 per cent in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

In each of the states of the South Atlantic division, 
except the District of Columbia, the largest proportion 
of all male children at work in 1900 were engaged in 
agricultural pursuits; in Delaware and Maryland, how- 
ever, a relatively large proportion were engaged in man- 
ufacturing and mechanical pursuits, and the proportion 
engaged in agriculture was accordingly considerably 
smaller than in the other states of the division. In the 
District of Columbia more than three-fifths of all male 
children at work were engaged in trade and transporta- 
tion. For female children agricultural pursuits formed 
the most important class of occupations in the Carolinas 
and in Georgia and Florida, but in the other states of 
this division the largest proportion of the female chil- 
dren gainfully employed were engaged in domestic and 
personal service. In Maryland and Delaware the pro- 
portion engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits was also large. 

In the South Central states the proportion of the 
working children engaged in agricultural pursuits in 
1900 was even greater than in the South Atlantic 
states. For male children the percentages ranged 
from 81 in Louisiana to 93.9 in Oklahoma. The 
corresponding percentages for female children were 
almost as high except in Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
Oklahoma. In Tennessee and Oklahoma, while more 
than one-half of the female children at work were 
engaged in this branch of occupations, a considerable 
proportion were engaged in domestic and personal serv- 
ice. In Kentucky the proportion engaged in agricul- 
ture was not quite one-fourth, while nearly one-half 
were employed in domestic and personal service and 
somewhat more than one-fifth in manufacturing and 
mechanical pursuits. 

Agricultural pursuits also constituted the leading 
class of occupations for male children in the North 
Central division. In the states of this division west of 
the Mississippi the percentages were about as high as 
in the South Central division, but in the states lying 
east of that river a much smaller proportion of the 
male children at work were engaged in this class of 
occupations, a considerable proportion being engaged 
in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits and in domes- 
tic and personal service. In this division compara- 

23054—04 xi 



tively few of the working girls were engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits; the largest number of them were 
employed in domestic and personal service, the per- 
centages for this class of occupations ranging from 
45.4 in Illinois to 82.6 in North Dakota. Manufactur- 
ing and mechanical pursuits formed an important class 
of occupations for female children in all states of this 
division east of the Mississippi and in Missouri, the 
percentages employed in this class of occupations rang- 
ing in these states from 25.1 in Indiana to 87.8 in Ohio. 
In each of the states and territories of the Western 
division, except California, the largest proportion of all 
male children at work in 1900 were engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits, the proportion ranging from somewhat 
more than two-fifths in Montana and Colorado to over 
four-fifths in Idaho. In California the male children 
at work in 1900, exclusive of those engaged in profes- 
sional service, were more evenly divided between the 
classes, there being 30.7 per cent in trade and trans- 
portation, 26 per cent in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits, 21.7 per cent in agricultural pursuits, and 
20.8 per cent in domestic and personal service. For 
all the- states and territories of this division, except 
California, the number of female children at work in 
1900 was small, so that the percentages are not par- 
ticularly significant. In California considerably more 
than one-half (54.3 per cent) of all female children at 
work in 1900 were engaged in domestic and personal 
service; nevertheless, the proportion of female children 
engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits was 
larger than that for males in the same class — 31.4 per 
cent as against 26 per cent. 

PEOPOKTION OF CHILDREN OCCUPIED BY YEAR OF AGE. 

As the labor laws of the several states prescribe differ- 
ent age limits under which the employment of children 
is either forbidden altogether or permitted only after 
certain conditions have been observed, it is desirable 
that the data presented by the census should furnish a 
more precise measure of the extent to which children 
are employed at different ages than that afforded by the 
figures for the age group 10 to 15, taken as a whole. 
In order to meet this requirement a special tabulation 
has been made since the close of the general work of 
the Twelfth Census, showing the number of boys 
and girls of each year of age from 10 to 15, inclusive, 
who were reported in any gainful occupation in 1900. 
The results of this special tabulation are given in 
Tables 10 to 15 of the general tables for the United 
States, and in Table 36 of the general tables for states 
and territories. Table lx, which is similar in form to 
Table 10 of the general tables, shows, for continental 
United States, the number of males and of females 
from 10 to 15 years of age engaged in certain occupa- 
tion groups in 1900, distributed according to year of 
age. Of the 140 groups of occupations used for pur- 
poses of general presentation, this table includes only 
those in which, at the census of 1900, children of the 
specified ages were reported as being engaged. 



clxii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LX — MSTBIBUTION BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 

IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 





MALES. 


FEMALES. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

yeare. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


IS 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 




1,264,411 


105,680 


119, 628 


163, 649 


196,830 


289, 665 


389,069 


485,767 


36,525 


89,150 


57,664 


71,597 


117,046 


163,786 








854,690 


93,874 


103,874 


133,893 


143,801 


176, 226 


203,022 


207,281 


27,548 


27,933 


37,750 


35,592 


39,452 


39,006 








847,642 

266 

569 

3,896 

1,131 

1,109 

78 

1,845 


93, 303 
4 
12 
395 
79 
75 
6 

12 


103,186 

6 

23 

444 

106 

111 

1 

31 


132,874 
17 
37 
631 
170 
163 
11 

78 


142,703 

41 

62 

611 

207 

163 

14 

136 


174,632 
66 
150 
839 
2G9 
245 
26 

413 


200,945 
133 
286 
975 
301 
362 
21 

1,175 


206, 804 
33 
1 
344 
70 
10 
19 

1,100 


27,470 

1 


27,878 
4 


87,674 
4 


35,517 
5 


39, 360 

8 


38,906 




11 




1 




66 
4 
3 

4 

28 


37 
13 

i' 

23 


67 
14 

1 

54 


54 
12 
1 
3 

76 


65 
11 

1 
7 

223 


65 




16 




4 




4 




696 








420 
134 
111 
560 

58 
362 

38 
172 

137, 049 


6 


17 


32 


68 
5 
6 

18 

41' 

4 

4 

19,892 


98 
S3 
24 
101 

5 
94 

5 
53 

34,349 


210 
96 
79 

423 

51 
179 

26 
111 

61,184 


196 

13 

114 


17 


13 


13 
1 
3 


11 

1 
8 


37 
3 
27 


105 












2 

7 

1 
30 
2 
4 

14,746 






76 




7' 


1 

1 
11 
1 


























349 
408 
20 

141,982 


4 
7 


10 


13 
24 


27 
28 
1 

20,682 


66 
81 
9 

36, 998 


229 


Teachers and professora in collegeSj etc 

Other professional service 


268 
10 




7,839 


9,039 


7,113 


8,302 


13,900 










1,618 

305 

194 

111,668 

664 

19,863 

151 

2,736 

100, 174 


9 
2 

"5,' 936" 

13 
1,814 

7i' 

920 


17 


5 
7,099 

8 

1,782 

3 

123 

1,706 


49 

16 

6 

11,600 

35 

2,800 

6 

234 

4,568 


171 

23 

14 

15,987 

63 

3,203 

16 

425 

11,984 


434 

83 

46 

28,293 

190 
4,513 

40 
760 

30,395 


838 

239 

123 

42,649 

365 

6,751 

86 

1,133 

50,611 


134 




2 


2 


7 


38 








Janitors and sextons 


23 
17,059 

6,347 
118,202 






1 
2,681 

310 
10,888 


2 
2,734 

725 
17,187 


4 

3,834 

1,787 
31,266 


16 

4,415 

3,304 
47,074 


Laborers {not specified ) 


1,719 

86 
5,304 


1,676 

135 
6,483 




Servants and waiters 






217 
22,188 


4 
96 


6 
188 


18 
540 


27 
1,903 


69 
6,740 


93 
12,741 


Trade and transportation 






855 

479 

910 

17,769 

11,532 

1,801 
2,164 
2,300 
37,811 
1,675 

2,553 

13,357 

2,451 

452 

97 

61 

734 

3,203 

170,663 


4 
5 
4 
63 
141 

24 
31 
12 
360 
12 

40 
70 
37 


8 
12 

3 
153 
226 

44 
68 
27 
728 
16 

59 

157 

30 

3 


36 

24 

21 

432 

557 

116 

138 

107 

2,016 

66 

190 

408 

103 

3 

2 

2 

8 

330 

10, 374 


65 

56 

48 

1,380 

1,813 

201 
290 
244 
5,865 
186 

349 

1,171 

194 

22 

8 
1 

54 
637 

21,017 


235 

130 

192 

4,694 

3,366 

511 
663 
612 
13,486 
521 

698 

3,606 

506 

89 

17 

5 

179 

905 

48,272 


607 

262 

642 

11,047 

5,939 

906 

974 

1,298 

15,356 

875 

1,2J7 

7,945 

1,681 

336 

70 

43 

486 

1,139 

83,077 


88 

3 

1,267 

4,246 

34 

1 

123 

269 

4,210 

2,936 

77 
6,966 

26 
1,032 

1 






1 


1 


20 


66 

2 

891 

2,703 

27 


Boatmen and sailors 


1 
1 
15 

1 

i' 

2 

28 
12 

1 

26 

1 

4 




Bookkeepers and accountants . . 


7 
27 

1 
4 
3 
62 
19 

2 
39 
2 
6 


14 
75 
2 


74 
274 


270 

1,162 

4 






Hostlers 




14 
10 
163 

74 

4 

160 

1 

18 


15 

26 

614 

276 

8 

524 

3 

36 


44 

84 

1,861 

934 

27 

1,941 

3 

187 


45 

135 

1,492 

1,621 

85 

4,286 

16 

786 

1 


Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) . . . 
Messengers and errand and oflfice boys 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) . 


Salesmen and saleswomen . . 




Stenographers and typewriters 


Street railway employees 


Telegraph and telephone linemen 


















4 
123 

2,935 


3 
169 

4,978 


576 
364 

113,216 


1 
3 

1,740 


1 
6 

2,724 


6 
13 

5,420 


19 
34 

13,344 


96 

117 

83,633 


468 
182 

56,855 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . 


Building trades. 
Carpenters and joiners 


1,907 
682 

3,047 
304 

131 

1,683 

62 

83 

208 
330 

2,368 

4,816 

338 

692 

1,960 
24,105 


10 
3 

13 
2 

1 
6 


20 

6 

23 

2 

4 


75 
12 
57 
5 

6 
27 


161 
41 

238 
26 

7 

88 

4 

4 

17 
19 

329 
802 
33 

88 

298 
4,267 


498 

148 

818 

84 

24 
398 
12 
20 

64 
91 

710 

1,509 

90 

204 

513 
6,572 


1,163 
372 

1,898 
188 

92 

1,160 

46 

67 

123 
210 

1,040 

1,967 

204 

363 

765 
8,572 
















Painters, glaziers, and varnishers \ 

Paper hangers ; 


'""193' 




i" 


2" 


9" 


69' 


m 






















Roofers and slaters 


2 












2 


Mechanics (not otherwise specified) 


1 

1 
2 

37. 

44 
2 
2 

74 
666 


4 
1 

81 

129 

2 

8 

117 
1,240 


1 

9 
7 

171 
365 

27 

193 
2,889 
















Chemicals and allied ■products. 
Oil well and oil works employees 




















Clay, glass, and stone products. 
Brick and tile makers, etc 


263 

46 
649 


2 

1 


2 

6' 


6 

1 
12 


12 

2 
74 


75 

11 
154 


158 


Glassworkers 


29 


Marble and stone cutters 


302 


Potters 






347 

34 
104 






7 
6 

n 


42 

4 
17 


92 

6 
29 


206 


Fishing and mining. 
Fishermen and oyatermen 


1 
4 


6 
7 




Miners and quarrymen 


12 




36 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxiii 



Table LX.-DISTEIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 

IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900-Continued. 



OCCDPATIOKS. 



Manufacturing: and mechanical nur- 
smts— Continued. 

Food and Undred products. 

Bakeis 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers! 

Confectioners 

Millers "" 

Other food preparers ".!.!!!'...!!!!!!!!!! 



Iron and steel and their products. 



Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers . 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers . . . 



Stove, furnace, and grate makers . 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights ,. 

Wireworkers 



Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers. 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-ease makers, etc 



lAquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc. 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 



Jjtmbex ajid its remanujactures. 



Cabinetmakers 

Coopers 

Saw and planine; rnill employees. 
Other woodworkers 



Metals and metal products other than iron and 
steel. 

Braasworkers , 

Clock and watch makers and repairers 

Gold and silver workers 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 



Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 

Textiles. 



Bleachery and dye works operatives. . 

Carpet factory opprativea 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives . 
Silk mill operatives 



Total. 



Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives. 

Dressmakers 

Hat and cap makers 

Milliners . ; : 



Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers. 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 



Miscellaneous industries. 



Broom and brush makers 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive). 

Glovemakers 

Model and pattern makers 



Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 



1,560 

1,379 

365 

647 

241 

1,169 



1,614 

7,215 

4,142 

321 

295 
737 
111 
707 



6,212 
466 

1,113 
619 



695 

466 

24 



297 

978 

4,891 

4,810 



795 
2,642 
1,634 



636 
529 
245 
842 
5,651 



678 

650 

21,005 

2,070 

2,938 

3,164 
5,297 

48 
406 

43 

280 

482 

3,549 



447 
605 
844 
228 
114 

172 

610 

5,090 

630 

24, 620 



10 

years. 



5 
102 



1,411 
45 
29 

14 
52 



1 

H2 

6 

174 



11 

years. 



2 
12 
175 
70 



2 

11 

1,903 



54 
112 



1 
199 

1 
274 



12 

years. 



46 
168 

47 
5 

5 
15 

2 
16 



103 
18 
23 
13 



5 
47 
319 
167 



18 
120 



36 

14 

2,667 

124 

164 

141 

326 

3 



9 

11 

102 



373 
9 

876 



IS 

years. 



178 
109 
41 
47 
22 
162 



130 
629 
190 



471 
62 
91 
63 



23 
108 
602 
486 



60 

19 

67 

266 

126 



82 
464 



77 

78 

1,317 



373 
742 



24 
40 
377 
42 



79 
6 

7 

7 

45 

780 

32 

2,678 



14 

years. 



447 
378 
105 
180 
61 
344 



381 

2,032 

867 

69 

90 
228 

27 
218 



1,543 
129 
344 
180 



178 

148 

6 



74 

267 

1,811 

1,480 



226 
106 
191 
780 
466 



195 
176 
49 
246 



181 

218 

6,364 

673 



1,051 

1,684 

11 

94 

13 



145 

1,107 

109 



139 
136 
216 
73 
20 

41 
161 

1,468 
160 

7,813 



16 

years. 



192 
401 
123 
523 



900 
4,303 
3,021 

246 



184 

428 

77 

416 



3,057 
264 
647 
271 



321 

248 

10 



193 

539 

2,382 

2,678 



617 

270 

633 

1,376 

1,020 



377 
257 
183 
490 



382 
329 

6,343 
826 

1,219 

1,531 
2,381 

28 
262 

29 

156 

284 

1,908 

169 



244 
178 
495 
146 
85 

123 

393 

2,158 

433 

13. 306 



Total. 



83 

1,409 

7 

794 



369 
22 



1,020 

70 

264 

347 



155 
66 



107 
219 
613 
329 
256 



1,829 

2,804 

23 

715 

628 



125 

669 

23,422 

6,197 

6,006 

3,461 
7,131 
6,650 
674 
3,184 

7,381 
3,163 
7,364 
1,628 



192 



598 



429 

6,372 

93 

11, 837 



10 

years. 



11 

years. 



12 

years. 



18 

years. 



14 

years. 



1,359 
41 
37 

9 
26 
13 

1 



164 

"74 



23 



263 

7 

22 

32 



100 
103 

27 
76 
54 



110 



14 

431 

1 

228 



ffl9 

16 

103 

110 



16 

2,773 

296 

326 

130 
276 
107 
6 
40 

213 
92 

228 
44 



1 

7 

210 

1 



74 

1,666 

911 



876 
436 
44 
206 

733 
866 
947 
146 



6 

22 

815 

9 

1,230 



2 

12 
248 



50 
171 
95 



376 
903 
5 
187 
164 



31 

232 

6,031 

2,034 

1,874 

1,123 

2,446 

1,768 

171 



2,216 
946 

2,366 
460 



59 



10 

104 

2,009 

17 
3,766 



15 

years. 



221 



16 

776 

6 

421 



2 

239 
20 



6 

60 



86 



1,795 

47 

131 

195 



88 
27 



8 

13 

485 



64 
150 
891 
188 
152 



866 

1,494 

18 

455 

409 



83 

347 

7,763 

2,815 

2,768 

1,792 
3,433 
4,283 
849 
2,067 

4,115 

1,721 

3,740 

918 



60 

293 

3,199 

66 
6,377 



clxiv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The number of persons of each sex, for each year of 
age from 10 to 15, inclusive, engaged in each main class 
of occupations, together with the proportion which the 



number for each year of age forms of the total number 
from 10 to 15 in that class, is given for continental 
United States in the following table: 



Table LXI.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF CHILDREN 10 TO 15 ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND 
IN EACH MAIN CLASS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX SEPARATELY: 1900. 



BEX AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Both sexes. 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Males. 
All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

FemiUes. 

All occupations 

Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 



Total. 



1, 760, 17) 



1, 061, 971 

2,945 

279, 031 

122, 362 

283, 869 



1, 264, 411 



864, 690 
1,845 
137, 049 
100, 174 
170, 653 



485, 767 



207, 281 
1,100 
141, 982 
•22, 188 
113, 216 



10 YEAES. 



Number, 



142, 105 



121, 422 

40 

14,962 

1,016 

4,675 



106, 680 



93,874 

12 

7,839 

920 

2,935 



36, 525 



27,548 
28 

7,113 
96 

1,740 



Per 
cent. 



11.4 
1.4 
5.4 
0.8 
1.6 



8.3 



11.0 
0.6 
5.7 
0.9 
1.7 



7.5 



13.3 
2.5 
6.0 
0.4 
1.5 



11 YEABS. 



131, 807 

54 

17,341 

1,874 

7,702 



119, 628 



103, 874 

31 

9,039 

1,706 

4,978 



39,160 



27, 933 

23 

8,302 

168 

2,724 



Per 
cent. 



12.4 
1.8 
6.2 
1.5 
2.7 



9.6 



12.1 
1.7 
6.6 
1.7 
2.9 



13.5 
2.1 
6.8 
0.8 
2.4 



13 YEAHS. 



221, 313 



171, 643 

132 

28,646 

5,098 

15, 794 



163, 649 



133, 893 

78 

14, 746 

4,658 

10, 374 



57, 664 



37,7.i0 

54 

13, 900 

640 

6,420 



Per 
cent. 



16.2 
4.5 

10.3 
4.2 
6.6 



12.9 



15.7 
4.2 

10.8 
4.6 
6.1 



11.9 



18.2 
4.9 
9.8 
2.4 
4.8 



IS YEARS. 



268,427 



179, 393 
212 
40, 574 
13,887 
34, 361 



196, 830 



143, 801 
136 
19, 892 
11,984 
21,017 



71,597 



36,592 
76 
20, 682 
1,903 
13, 344 



Per 
cent. 



15.3 



16.9 
7.2 
14.5 
11.4 
12.1 



15.6 



16.8 
7.4 
14.5 
12.0 
12.3 



17.2 

6.9 

14.6 



Number. 



71, 347 
37, 136 
81,905 



289, 655 



176,226 
413 
34,349 
30, 395 
48,272 



117,046 24.1 



Per 
cent. 



20.3 
21.6 
25.6 
30.3 
28.9 



22.9 



20.6 
22.4 
25.1 
30.3 
28.3 



39,452 
223 



6,740 
33, 633 



19.0 
20.3 
26.1 
30.4 
29.7 



I 



15 YEAES. 



Per 



562,864 



242,028 

1,871 

106, 171 

63,352 

139,432 



389, 069 



203, 022 
1,175 
51,184 
60,611 
83,077 



163, 786 



39,006 
696 
54,987 
12, 741 
56,355 



.31.6 



22.8 
63.5 
38.0 
51.8 
49.1 



23.8 
63.7 
37.3 
.50.5 
48.7 



i3.7 



18.8 
63.3 

38.7 
.')7.4 
49.8 



The per cent distribution by year of age of all the 
children at work in 1900, as given in Table lxi, is 
summarized for both sexes and for each sex as follows: 



YEAR OF .\GE. 



Total 

10 years 

11 years 

12 years 

13 years 

14 years 

16 years 



Both 
sexes. 



8.1 
9.1 
12,7 
15.3 
23.2 
81.6 



Males. 



9.5 
12.9 
16.6 
22.9 
30.8 



Females. 



100.0 



7.6 
8.1 
11.9 
14.7 
24.1 
33.7 



Cumulatively stated, the numbers and percentages 
for both sexes combined were a,s follows: Under 12 
years, 300,883, or 17.2 per cent; under 13 years, 522,196, 
or 29.9 per cent; under M years, 790,623, or 45.2 
percent; under 15 years, 1,197,321, or 68.1 per cent. 
The percentages for the two sexes do not differ widely, 
but the proportion of all the female children ut work 
under 14 years of age was smaller than that of the 
male, the difference amounting to 4. 1 per cent. 

In agricultural pursuits more than one-half (55.6 per 
cent) of the male children and more than three-fifths 
(62.2 per cent) of the female were under 14 year,s of 
but in each of the other four elasHcs of occupa- 



tions much the larger proportion of each ,sex 



was 



either 14 or 15 years of age, the combined propor- 
tions ranging, for these two years in the four clas.ses, 
from more than three-fifths to more than four-fifths of 
the whole number. 

Table lxii (page clxv) presents for continental United 
States a proportionate distribution of males and of fe- 
males from 10 to 15 years of age engaged in specified 
groups of occupations in 1900, similar to that just given 
for the five main cla.sses of occupations. 

In order to make the groups of workers given in 
Table lxii a,s comprehensive as possible, the following 
combinations of occupations are used: Bookkeepers, 
clerks, stenographers, etc. ; metal workers (of all kinds); 
packers and porters; textile mill operatives (in part); 
textile workers (in part); and woodworkers (of all 
kinds). 

The proportion of child workers under 12 j'ears of 
age, as shown by Table lxii, was exceptionally large 
in the occupations of agricultural laborers, laborers (not 
specified), servants and waiters, and cotton mill opera- 
tives, and for male children in the occupation of stock 
raisers, herders, and drovers. The percentages for 
males under 12 in these occupation groups were: Agri- 
cultural laborers, 23.2; stock raisers, herders, and 
drovers, 21.6; servants and waiters, 18.1; cotton mill 
operatives, 15.8; and laborers (not specified). 11.7. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxv 



Those f orf emales under 1 2 were : Agricultural laborers, dren employed in mines and quarries more than 7 per cent 
26.8; laborers (not specified), 19.9; cotton mill operatives, were under 12 years of age, and of those in tobacco and 
13.6; and servants and waitresses, 10. Of the male chil- cigar factories more than 6 per cent were under that age. 

Table LXII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF CHILDREN OP EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



Males. 
All occupations 

Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers . . . 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Glassworkers 

Laborers (not specified) 

Messengers and errand and oflice boys. 

Metal workers 

Miners and quarrymen 

Packers and porters 

Painters, glaziers, and yarnishers 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen . 

Salesmen 

Servants and waiters 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 

Tailors 

Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 

All other 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . . 

Woodworkers 

All other occupations 

Females. 

All occupations 

Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers . . . 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Messengers and errand and office girls. 

Packers and porters 

Saleswomen 

Servants and waitresses 

Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 

Hosiery and knitting mill 

SilkmUl 

Woolen mill 

All other 

Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Tailoresses 

All other 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . . 
All other occupations 



Total. 



847, 642 
19, 121 
5,212 
11, 632 

4,816 

111,558 
37, 811 
21,219 
24, 105 
4,228 

3,047 
5,651 
13, 367 
19, 863 
3,896 
3,549 



21, 005 
14, 114 
5,090 
10, 976 
76, 620 



486, 767 



206, 804 

6,635 

8,020 

17,059 

6,347 

4,210 

3,013 

6,966 

118, 202 



23,422 
6,197 
6,006 
3,461 
7,800 



6,660 
3,184 
7,381 
3,153 
7,364 
2,202 
6,372 
30, 421 



10 YEARS. 



Number. 



106, 680 



93, 303 

67 

8 

141 

44 

5,930 
360 

65 
565 

52 

13 
16 
70 
1,814 
396 
22 



1,411 
140 
112 
137 
925 



36,525 



27,470 

20 

2 

1,719 

86 

28 

13 

25 

6,304 



1,369 
41 
37 



29 
4 
23 
25 
55 
235 



Per 
cent. 



11.0 
0.3 
0.2 
1.2 
0.9 

6.3 
1.0 
0.3 
2.3 
1.2 

0.4 
0.3 
0.5 
9.1 
10.2 
0.6 



6.7 
1.0 
2.2- 
1.2 
1.2 



13.3 
0.3 
0.1 

10.1 
1.3 

0.7 
0.4 
0.4 
4.6 



6.8 
0.7 
0.6 
0.3 
0.3 



0.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0.3 
1.1 
0.9 
0.8 



11 YEAB8. 



Number. 



103, 185 
169 



226 
129 



728 

147 

1,240 

76 

23 
44 

167 
1,782 

444 



1,903 
294 
199 
269 

1,472 



39, 160 



27, 878 

40 

5 

1,676 

136 

62 
21 
39 



100 
103 
27 

77 



Per 
cent. 



12.2 
0.8 
0.6 
2.0 
2.7 

6.4 
1.9 
0.7 
6.1 
1.8 

0.8 
0.8 
1.2 
9.0 
11.4 
0.9 



9.1 
2.1 
3.9 
2.4 
1.9 



13.5 
0.6 
0.2 



1.2 
0.7 
0.6 
6.5 



7.8 
1.6 
1.7 
0.8 
1.0 



0.8 
0.3 
1.0 
0.8 
0.8 
1.8 
1.3 
1.1 



163, 649 



132, 874 
456 
103 
657 
365 

11,600 
2,016 

435 
2,889 

265 

67 
120 
408 
2,800 
631 
102 



2,667 
769 
373 
538 



37, 674 

102 

46 

2,681 

310 

163 

78 

150 

10,888 



2,773 
296 
326 
130 
290 



107 
40 

213 
92 

228 
60 

210 

818 



Per 
cent. 



]2.9 



16.7 
2.4 
2.0 
4.8 
7.6 

10.4 
5.3 
2.1 

12.0 
6.0 

1.9 
2.1 
3.0 
14.1 
16.2 
2.9 



12.7 
5.5 
7.3 
4.9 
4.7 



18.2 
1.6 
1.5 

15.7 
4.9 



2.6 
2.1 
9.2 



11.8 
4.8 
6.4 
3.7 
3.7 



1.6 
1.3 
2.9 
2.9 
3.1 
2.3 



13 YBABS. 



Number. 



196, 830 



142, 703 
1,450 

471 
1,313 

802 

15, 987 

6,865 

1,613 

4,267 

535 

238 
464 
1,171 
3,203 
611 
377 



3,317 
2,046 
780 
1,218 
8,399 



35,617 

384 

263 

2,734 

726 

614 

284 

624 

17, 187 



3,666 
911 



380 
950 



435 
206 
733 
365 
947 
190 
815 
2,879 



Per 
cent. 



16.8 
7.6 
9.0 
11.4 
16.7 

14.3 
15.5 
7.6 
17.7 
12.7 



8.2 
8.8 
16.1 
15.7 
10.6 



15.8 
14.5 
15.3 
11.1 
11.0 



17.2 
5.9 
8.4 
16.0 
11.4 

14.6 
9.4 
7.6 

14.6 



15.7 
14,7 
15.0 
11.0 
12.2 



6.5 

9.9 
11.6 
12.9 

8.6 
12.8 

9.5 



Number. 



289, 655 



174, 632 
4, 97.5 
1,543 
3,366 
1,509 

28,293 
13, 486 
5,670 
6,572 
1,219 

818 
1,608 
3,606 
4,513 

839 
1,107 



5,364 
4,679 
1,468 
3,132 
21, 366 



117,046 



39,360 
1,609 
919 
3,834 
1,787 

1,861 

961 

1,941 

31, 266 



6,031 
2,034 
1,874 
1,123 
2,678 



1,758 
868 

2,215 
946 

2,366 
631 

2,009 



Per 
cent. 



20.6 
26.0 
29.6 
29.1 
31.3 

26.4 
35.7 
26.7 
27.3 
28.8 

26.8 
28.6 
27.0 
22.7 
21.5 
31.2 



26.5 
32.4 
28.9 
28.5 
27.9 



19.0 
24.6 
30.4 
22.5 
28.2 

44.2 
31.9 
27.9 
26.5 



25.8 
32.8 
31.2 
32.4 
34.3 



26.4 
26.9 
30.0 
30.0 
32.1 
28.7 
31.5 
29.5 



Number. 



200, 945 
12,024 
3,057 
6,939 
1,967 

42,649 
16, 356 
13, 2S9 
8,672 
2,092 



7,946 

6,751 

975 

1,908 



6,343 
6,286 
2,158 
5,692 
40,824 



163, 785 



38,905 
4,380 
1,795 
4,416 



1,492 
1,656 
4,286 
47, 074 



7,763 
2,815 
2,768 
1,792 
3,780 



4,283 
2,067 
4,115 
1,721 
3,740 
1,267 
3,199 
17,168 



Per 
cent. 



23.7 
62.9 
68.6 
61.5 
40.8 

38.2 
40.6 
62.6 
36.6 
49.5 

62.3 
60.1 
59.5 
29.0 
26.0 
53.8 



30.2 
44.6 
42.4 
51.9 
53.3 



18.8 
67.0 
69.4 
25.9 
52.1 

35.4 
65.0 
61.6 



33.1 

45.4 
46.1 
51.8 
48.5 



64.4 
64.9 
55.8 
54.6 
50.8 
57.5 
50.2 
66.4 



The figures contained in Table Lxn are of general 
interest as showing the conditions for continental United 
States taken as a whole, but data of this character have 
much greater significance when the state is made the 



unit of presentation. The first presentation on this 
basis is a proportionate distribution by year of age, in 
Table lxiii, of the total number of children of each 
sex engaged in all gainful occupations in 1900. 



clxvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXIII.— DISTKIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 

OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 



MALES. 





Total. 


10 YEAES. 


11 YEAES. 


12 YEAES. 


18 YEAES. 


14 YEAES. 


15 YEAB8. 


STATES AND TEBEITOEIES. 


Number 


Per 
cent. 


Number 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


United States 


1,266,050 


105,710 


8.3 


119,690 


'9.5 


163,807 


12.9 


196,989 


16.6 


290,064 


22.9 


389,790 


30.8 




Ctontinental United States 


1,264,411 


105,680 


8.3 


119,628 


9.5 


163, 649 


12.9 


196,830 


15.6 


289, 656 


22.9 


389, 069 


30.8 




North Atlan tic division 


194,940 


2,667 


1.4 


4,839 


2.5 


10, 709 


5.5 


24,292 


12.4 


67,133 


29.3 


95,300 


48.9 




Maine 


3,979 

2,547 

2,170 

16,393 

5,143 

6,838 

56,218 

18, 457 

84,195 

311,266 


66 

33 

13 

29 

29 

18 

256 

157 

2,067 

33,894 


1.6 
1.3 
0.6 
0.2 
0.6 
0.3 
0.6 
0.9 
2.6 

10.9 


121 
46 
30 
54 

100 
27 

607 

340 
3,614 

37,220 


3.1 
1.8 
1.4 
0.3 
1.9 
0.4 
0.9 
1.8 
4.3 

12.0 


239 

135 

78 

154 

375 

80 

1,281 

1,019 

7,348 

60,421 


6.0 
6.3 
3.6 
1.0 
7.3 
1.2 
2.3 
6.6 
8.7 

16.2 


609 

320 

186 

661 

744 

393 

4,736 

2,457 

14,286 

53,661 


12.8 

12.6 

8.6 

4.0 

14.6 

5.7 

8.6 

13.3 

17.0 

17.2 


1,031 

748 

510 

5,068 

1,364 

2,184 

17, 036 

5,413 

23,779 

64,611 


25.9 
29.4 
23.5 
30.9 
26.5 
31.9 
30.8 
29.3 
28.2 

20.7 


2,014 
1,266 
1,363 

10,427 
2,531 
4,136 

31,402 
9,071 

33,101 

71,669 


60.6 
49.7 
62.8 
63.6 
49.3 
60.6 


Neiv TTn.TTipshirfi 


Vermont 






Connecticut 


New York 










South Atlantic division 










2,781 
17,034 

1,366 
44, 651 
22,343 
77,986 
56,363 
77, 462 
11,281 

287,723 


129 
620 
19 
3,862 
2,194 
9,807 
7,217 
8,872 
1,174 

13,643 


4.6 

3.6 

1.4 

8.6 

9.8 

12.6 

12.8 

11.5 

10.4 

4.7 


184 

935 

26 

4,582 

2,607 

10, 966 

7,362 

9,308 

1,261 

18,366 


6.6 
6.6 
1.8 
10.3 
11,7 
14,1 
13.1 
12.0 
11.2 

6.4 


287 

1,733 

76 

6,655 

3,279 

13,346 

9,957 

13,241 

1,848 

26,617 


10.3 
10.2 
5.5 
14.9 
14.7 
17.1 
17.7 
17.1 
16.4 

9.2 


477 

2,801 

184 

7,635 

3,747 

13,719 

9,540 

13,563 

1,896 

39,910 


17.2 
16.4 
13.5 
17,1 
16.8 
17.6 
16.9 
17.6 
16.8 

13.9 


709 

4,642 

394 

10, 035 

4,808 

14, 617 

11,012 

15,886 

2,408 

73,733 


26.5 
27.3 
28.9 
22.5 
21.6 
18.7 
19.5 
20.5 
21.3 

25.6 


996 

6,303 

668 

11,882 

6,708 

16,541 

11,275 

16,892 

2,695 

115,564 




Maryland 


36.8 


Diaf.rir.t nf f:n]^lTn^^fl. 




Virginia 


48.9 


West Virginia 


26.6 


North Carolina . . 


25.5 




19.9 




20.0 


Florida 


21.4 




23.9 




40.3 


Ohio 


34,165 
26,454 
50,994 
19,523 
20,842 
16, 973 
24,564 
52,621 
3,125 
6,876 
12,282 
20,304 

445,612 


1,079 

1,442 

1,769 

358 

366 

790 

780 

4,085 

167 

450 

769 

1,598 

54,368 


3.2 
6.4 
3.6 
1.8 
1.8 
4.6 
3.2 
7.8 
5.3 
7.7 
6,2 
7.9 

12.2 


1,444 

1,926 

2,442 

579 

628 

1,017 

1,319 

6,016 

263 

662 

1,006 

2,075 

57,833 


4,2 
7.3 
4.8 
3.0 
3.0 
6.0 
6.4 
9.5 
8.1 

11.3 
8.2 

10.2 

13.0 


2,144 

2,611 

3,824 

961 

1,186 

1,596 

2,195 

6,717 

349 

785 

1,411 

2,739 

73,751 


6.3 

9.9 

7.6 

4.9 

6.7 

9.4 

8.9 

12.8 

11.2 

13.4 

11.5 

13.6 

16.6 


3,979 
3,676 
6,583 
2,157 
2,363 
2,420 
3,745 
8,471 
477 
990 
1,840 
3,219 

76,885 


11.6 
13.9 
12.9 
11.0 
11,3 
14.3 
16.2 
16.1 
15.3 
16.8 
16.0 
16.8 

17.0 


8,643 
6,446 

14,522 
5,421 
6,264 
4,177 
6,679 

12,027 
783 
1,296 
2,903 
4,682 

88,014 


26.3 
24.4 
28.5 
27.8 
30.0 
24.6 
27.2 
22.8 
26.0 
22.0 
23.6 
22.6 

19.8 


16,876 
10,353 
21,864 
10,047 
10,056 
6,973 
9,846 
16,306 
1,096 
1,693 
4,364 
6,091 

95,671 






49.4 




39.1 




42.8 


Wisconsin 


61.6 




48.2 




41.1 


Missouri 


40.1 


North Dakota 


31.0 




35.1 




28.8 


Kansas 


36.6 


South Central division 


30.0 




21. S 


Kentucky 

Tennessee 


63, 676 
63,711 
80, 989 
63,906 
39,620 
73,604 
12,960 
7,309 
49,747 

24,970 


5,747 
7,283 
10,913 
8,420 
4,486 
8,666 
1,529 
839 
6,476 

1,018 


10.7 
11.4 
13.5 
13.2 
11.3 
11.8 
11.8 
11.6 
13.0 

4.1 


6,323 
8,218 
11,081 
8,644 
4,481 
9,374 
1,741 
939 
7,032 

1,370 


11.8 
12.9 
13.7 
18.5 
11.3 
12.7 
13.6 
12.9 
14.1 

5.6 


8,113 
10,168 
14, 214 
11,272 
6,641 
11,761 
2,166 
1,156 
8,270 

2,261 


15.1 
16.0 
17.5 
17.7 
16.8 
16.0 
16.7 
16.8 
16.6 

9.0 


9,315 
11,017 
13,922 
10, 754 
6,747 
12, 109 
2,133 
1,238 
8,650 

3,182 


17.4 
17.3 
17.2 
16.8 
17.0 
16.4 
16.6 
16.9 
17.4 

12.7 


11,188 
12,749 
16,068 
12, 631 
8,180 
14,765 
2,632 
1,425 
9,486 

6,264 


20.8 
20.0 
18.6 
19.6 
20.7 
20.1 
20.3 
19.5 
19.1 

25.1 


12,990 
14,286 
16,801 
12,285 
9,086 
16, 929 
2,749 
1,712 
9,833 

10,885 


24.2 




22.1 


Mississippi 


19.5 


Louisiana 


19.2 


Texas 


22.9 


Indian Territory 


23.0 


Oklahoma 


21.2 


Arkansas 


23.4 


Western division 


19.8 




43. S 


Wyoming 


929 
795 
2,903 
2,987 
1,358 
2,095 
183 
1,395 
2,807 
2,331 
7,187 

802 

828 
9 


20 

41 

109 

244 

166 

98 

6 

81 

79 

94 

90 

120 
10 


2.2 
6.2 
3.8 
8.2 
11,6 
4,7 
3.3 
5.8 
2.8 
4.0 
1.3 

15.0 
1.2 


34 
67 
163 
317 
117 
129 
8 
133 
138 
103 
171 

42 
20 


3.7 
7.2 
6,6 
10,6 
8.6 
6.1 
4.4 
9.5 
4.9 
4.4 
2.4 

6.2 
2.4 


69 
72 
253 
474 
213 
205 
8 
166 
218 
190 
383 

127 
31 


7.4 
9.1 
8.7 
16.9 
15.7 
9.8 
4.4 
11.9 
7.8 
8.1 
6.3 

16.8 
3.7 


111 
109 
396 
466 
179 
248 
8 
226 
346 
302 
801 

98 
60 
1 


11.9 
13.7 
18.6 
15.2 
13.2 
11.8 
4.4 
16.2 
12.3 
13.0 
11.1 

12.2 

7.3 

11.1 


250 
196 


26.9 
24.6 


445 
320 


47.9 


Colorado 


40.2 


New Mexico 


746 26.7 1 1,236 

663 ' 22.2 833 

302 i 22.2 391 

494 1 23.6 ' 921 

38 1 20.7 ll 115 

329 ' 23.6 ! 460 

715 1 26.5 ;, 1,311 

661 24.1 |i 1,081 

1,970 27.4 : 3,772 

1 

209 ^fi 1 h onR 


42.6 


Arizona 


27.9 


Utah 


28.8 


Nevada 


44.0 


Idaho 


62 8 


Washington 


33.0 


Oregon 


46 7 


California 


46 4 




52.5 


Hawaii 


25 7 


Military and naval '_ 


197 
3 


23.8 ' 
33.3 1 


510 
5 


61.6 
55.6 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clx^'ii 



Table LXni.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 

OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



TEMALES. 





Total. 


10 YEARS. 


11 YEARS. 


12 YEARS. 


18 YEARS. 


14 YEARS. 


15 YEARS. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


United States 


486, 137 


36,571 


7.6 


89,170 


8.1 


57,717 


11.9 


71,638 


14.7 


117,127 


24.1 


163, 914 


33 7 






Continental United States 


485,767 


36,525 


7.6 


39, 160 


8.1 


57,664 


11.9 


71,597 


14,7 


117,046 


24.1 


163,786 


33 7 






North Atlantic division 


109, 382 


826 


0.8 


1,682 


1.5 


4,123 


3.8 


12,383 


11,3 


33, 697 


30.8 


56,671 


51.8 




Maine 


2,013 
1,961 
900 
11,476 
3,891 
4,741 
36,726 
11,804 
35,881 

135, 280 


14 
16 
4 
20 
12 
16 

188 
88 

468 

14,953 


0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
0.2 
0.3 
0.3 
0.5 
• 0.7 
1.3 

11.0 


63 

35 

8 

39 

64 

31 

336 

163 

944 

16,428 


3.1 
1.8 
0.9 
0.3 
1.6 
0.7 
0.9 
1.4 
2.6 

11.4 


125 
106 

30 
113 
245 

69 

876 

618 

2,047 

22, 471 


6.2 
6.4 
3.3 
1.0 
6.3 
1.5 
2.4 
4.4 
5.7 

16,6 


277 

238 

83 

618 

645 

263 

3,274 

1,482 

5,703 

23,001 


13.8 

12.2 
9.2 
4.5 

14.0 

5.6 

8.9 

- 12.6 

15.9 

17.0 


639 

693 

214 

3,700 

1,115 

1,607 

11,632 

3,580 

10,817 

27,968 


26.8 
30.4 
23.8 
32,3 
28.7 
31.8 
31.7 
30.3 
30.2 

20.7 


996 
963 
561 
7,085 
1,910 
2,855 
20,422 
6,978 
16, 902 

31,469 


49.4 
49.4 
62.3 
61.7 
49.1 
60.2 
56.6 
50 6 


New Hampshire 




Massachusetts . 




Connecticut 




New Jersey. 
















1,078 

7,886 

779 

11,094 

2,481 
32,421 
38, 917 
36,502 

4,122 

81,807 


37 

211 

20 

811 

205 

3,902 

6,029 

4,341 

397 

1,639 


3.4 
2,7 
2.6 
7.3 
8.3 
12.0 
12.9 
11.9 
9.6 

2.0 


40 

317 

20 

892 

236 

4,206 

4,923 

4,329 

466 

2,362 


3.7 
4,0 
2,6 
8.0 
9.5 
13,0 
12,7 
11,9 
11,3 

2.9 


90 

676 

49 

1,565 

300 

5,639 

7,131 

6,427 

694 

4,170 


8.4 
8.6 
6,3 
14,1 
12,1 
17.1 
18.3 
17.6 
16.8 

5.1 


180 
1,319 

101 
1,853 

429 
6,619 
6,654 
6,263 

683 

9,384 


16.7 
16.7 
12,9 
16.7 
17.3 
17.3 
16.9 
17.2 
16.6 

11.6 


313 
2,223 

195 
2,617 

623 
6,276 
7,562 
7,388 

872 

23,543 


29.0 
28.2 
25.0 
23.6 
21,1 
19,4 
19.4 
20,2 
21.2 

28.8 


418 
3,140 

894 
3,366 

788 
6,880 
7,718 
7,754 
1,011 

40, 709 




Maryland 


39 8 






Virginia 


30 3 






North Carolina 


21 2 






Georgia . 


21 2 




24.5 




49 7 






Ohio 


12,894 
5,692 

19,541 
7,174 
9,673 
6,041 
4,846 
9,028 
1,019 
1,219 
2,495 
2,185 

153, 319 


184 

144 

190 

58 

145 

187 

100 

268 

53 

94 

97 

119 

18,874 


1.4 
2.5 
1.0 
0.8 
1.5 
3.1 
2.1 
3.0 
6.2 
7.7 
3.9 
6.4 

12.3 


224 
186 
312 
103 
236 
293 
174 
367 
69 
135 
127 
137 

19,427 


1.7 
3.3 
1.6 
1.6 
2.4 
4.8 
3.6 
4.0 
6.8 
11.1 
6.1 
6.3 

12.7 


615 
311 
741 
260 
351 
408 
340 
639 
92 
141 
187 
185 

26,495 


4.0 
5.6 
3.8 
3.6 
3.6 
6.8 
7.0 
7.1 
9.0 
11,6 
7.6 
8.6 

17.3 


1,327 
631 

2,230 
676 
990 
770 
604 

1,244 
128 
182 
306 
296 

26, 141 


10.3 
11.1 
11.4 
9.4 
10.3 
12.7 
12.6 
13.8 
12.6 
14,9 
12.3 
13.6 

17.0 


3,683 

1,637 

6,169 

2,029 

3,122 

1,491 

1,311 

2,576 

262 

272 

667 

626 

30, 374 


27.8 
27.0 
31.6 
28.3 
32.3 
24.7 
27.0 
28.5 
25.7 
22.3 
26.7 
24.0 

19.8 


7,061 

2,883 

9,899 

4,048 

4,830 

2,892 

2,317 

3,935 

415 

395 

1,111 

923 

32,008 


54.8 






niinois . - . . - 


50 6 




66.4 


Wisconsin 


49 9 




47.9 


Iowa 


47.8 




43.6 




40.7 


South Dakota 


32 4 


Nebraska 


44.5 




42.2 


South Central division . 


20.9 






Kentucky 


7,441 
12,661 
41,664 
34,103 
21,427 
17,967 

2,196 

549 

15,321 

5,979 


607 
1,357 
5,599 
4,265 
2,668 
2,190 

280 

49 

2,069 

233 


6.8 
10.7 
13.4 
12.6 
12.0 
12.2 
12.8 

8.9 
13.5 

3.9 


665 
1,621 
6,611 
4,340 
2,559 
2,224 

336 

75 

2,196 

251 


7.6 
12..0 
13.5 
12.7 
11.9 
12.4 
15.3 
13.7, 
14.3 

4.2 


802 
2,000 
7,600 
6,298 
3,710 
2,993 

377 

65 

2,760 

405 


10,8 
16.8 
18.0 
18.6 
17.3 
16.7 
17,2 
11,8 
18,0 

6.8 


1,234 
2,200 
7,208 
6,784 
3,646 
3,063 
337 
84 
2,686 

688 


16.6 
17.4 
17.3 
17.0 
17.0 
17.0 
16.3 
16.3 
16,9 

11.5 


1,805 
2,616 
7,947 
6,760 
4,318 
3,613 
457 
107 
2,852 

1,464 


24.2 
20.7 
19.1 
19.8 
20,2 
19,5 
20.8 
19.6 
18.6 

24.5 


2,528 
2,958 
7,799 
6,666 
4,627 
3,984 
409 
169 
2,868 

2,938 


34.0 




23.4 


Alabama 


18.7 




19.5 




21.6 


Texas 


22.2 




18.6 


Oklahoma 


30.8 




18.7 




49,1 






Montana .... 


270 
111 
597 
544 
624 
430 
31 
141 
678 
621 
2,132 

200 
170 


4 

2 

6 

50 

110 

8 

1 

4 

12 

11 

26 

44 
2 


1.5 
1.8 
1.0 
9.2 
17.6 
1.9 
3.2 
2.8 
2.1 
2.1 
1.2 

22.0 
1.2 


7 

3 

13 

44 

94 

12 

1 

6 

14 

23 

34 

9 
11 


2.6 
2.7 
2.2 
8.1 
15.1 
2.8 
3.2 
4.3 
2.4 
4.4 
1.6 

4.5 
6.5 


13 
4 
27 
78 
86 
33 
2 
1 
34 
29 
98 

36 

17 


4.8 
3,6 
4.6 
14,3 
13,8 
7,7 
6,6 
0,7 
5.9 
5,6 
4,6 

18,0 
10.0 


24 
10 
71 
77 
89 
54 
2 
13 
70 
59 
219 

24 
17 


8.9 
9.0 
11.9 
14.2 
14.3 
12.6 
6.5 
9.2 
12.1 
11.3 
10,3 

12,0 
10,0 


81 

13 

145 

134 

108 

96 

12 

37 

146 

126 

666 

36 
46 


30.0 
11.7 
24.3 
24.6 
17.3 
22.3 
38.7 
26.3 
26.3 
24.2 
26.5 

17.5 
27.0 


141 

79 

335 

161 

137 

227 

13 

80 

302 

273 

1,190 

52 
77 


52,2 




71,2 


Colorado' 


66.1 




29.6 


Arizona 


21.9 


Utah 


52.8 




41.9 




56.7 




52.2 




52.4 




55.8 


Alaska 


26.0 


Hawaii 


45.3 



































clxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



The percentages contained in Table LXiii are cumu- 
latively expressed, for purposes of analysis, in Table 
LXiv under each of three age limits, namely, under 12 
years, under 14 years, and under 1 5 years. 

Table LXIV.— Per cent which the number of children of each sex of 
each specified age engaged in gainful occupations forms of the total 
number of gainful workers of the same sex 10 to 16 years of age, by 
states and territories: 1900. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



United States . 



Continental United States — 
North Atlantic division 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 



South Atlantic division. 



Delaware 

Maryland , 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia , 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



North Central division. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Central division. 



Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 



Louisiana 

Texas 

Indian Territory. 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 



Western division. 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico . 

Arizona 

Dtah 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington.. 
Oregon....... 

California 



Alaska 

Hawaii 

Military and naval . 



Under 

12 
years. 



3.9 



4.7 
S.l 
2.0 
0.5 
2,5 
0.7 
1.4 
2.7 
6.8 

22.9 



11.2 
9.1 
3.2 
18.9 
21.6 
26.7 
25.9 
23.6 
21.6 

11.1 



7.4 
12.7 
8.3 
4.8 
4.8 
10.6 
8.6 
17.3 
13.4 
19.0 
14.4 
18.1 

25.2 



22.5 
24.3 
27.2 
26.7 
22.6 
24.6 
26.3 
24,4 
27.1 

9,6 



6.9 
12.4 
9.4 
18.8 
20.1 
10.8 
7.7 
15.3 
7.7 
8.4 
3.7 

20.2 
3.6 



Under 
14 

years. 



46.3 



46.3 



21.8 



23.5 
20.9 
14.2 

5.5 
24.3 

7.6 
12.3 
21.5 
32.6 

56.3 



38.7 
35.7 
22.2 
60.9 
53.0 
61.4 
60.5 
68.1 
54.8 

34.2 



25.3 
36.5 
28.7 
20.7 
21.8 
34.3 
32.7 
46.2 
39.9 
49.2 
40.9 
47.4 

68.7 



55.0 
67.6 
61.9 
61.2 
56.4 
56,9 
68,5 
67,1 
61,1 

31.3 



25,2 
36.2 
31.7 
49.9 
49.0 
32,4 
16.6 
43.4 
27.8 
29.6 
20.1 

48.2 
14.6 
11.1 



Under 

15 
years. 



51.1 



49.4 
50.3 
37.7 
86.4 
50.8 
39.5 
43.1 
50.8 
60.7 

77.0 



64.2 
63.0 
61.1 
73.4 
74.5 
80.1 
80.0 
78.6 
76.1 

69.8 



60.6 
60.9 
57.2 
48.6 
51.8 
58.9 
59.9 
69.0 
64.9 
71.2 
64.5 
70.0 

78.5 



75.8 
77.6 
80.6 
80.8 
77.1 
77.0 
78.8 
76.6 
80.2 

56.4 



62.1 
69.8 
67.4 
72.1 
71.2 
56.0 
37.2 
67.0 
63.3 
63.6 
47.5 

74.3 
38.4 
44.4 



Under 
12 

years. 



15.6 



2.3 



2.6 
1.4 
0.5 
1.9 
1.0 
1.4 
2.1 



22.4 



7.1 
6.7 
5.2 
15.3 
17.8 
26.0 
25.6 
23.8 
20.9 

4.9 



3.1 
6.8 
2.6 
2.3 
3.9 
7.9 
6.7 
7.0 
12.0 
18.8 
9.0 
11.7 

26.0 



Under 
14 

years. 



14.4 
22.7 
26.9 
25.2 
23.9 
24.6 
28.1 
22.6 
27.8 

8.1 



4.1 
4.6 
3.2 
17.3 
32.7 
4.7 
6.4 
7.1 
4,6 
6.6 
2.8 

26.6 
7.7 



42.2 



17.4 



23.8 
20.2 
13.9 

6.0 
22.2 

8.0 
12.7 
19.1 
25.5 

66.0 



32.2 
32.0 
24.4 
46.1 
47.2 
69.4 
60.8 
68.6 
54.3 

21.6 



17.4 
22.4 
17.8 
15.3 
17.8 
27.4 
26.2 
27.9 
33.6 
46.3 
28.8 
33.8 



41.8 
66.9 
62.2 
60.7 
68.2 
58.3 
60.6 
49.7 
62.7 

26.4 



17.8 
17.1 
19.6 
45.8 
60.8 
24.9 
19.4 
17.0 
22.6 
23.4 
17.7 

56.6 
27.7 



Under 
15 

years. 



66.3 



66.3 



48.2 



50.6 
50.6 
37.7 
38.3 
60.9 
39.8 
44.4 
49.4 
65.7 

76.7 



61.2 
60.2 
49.4 
69.7 
68.3 
78.8 
80.2 
78.8 
76.5 

50.3 



46.2 
49.4 
49.4 
43.6 
50.1 
52.1 
52.2 
66.4 
69.3 
67.6 
65.6 
67.8 

79.1 



66.0 
76.6 
81.3 
80.5 
78.4 
77.8 
81.4 
69.2 
81.3 

60.9 



47.8 
28.8 
43.9 
70.4 
78.1 
47.2 
68.1 
43.3 
47.8 
47.6 
44.2 

74.0 
64.7 



In the more southerly section of the South Atlantic 
division— extending from Virginia to Florida— and 
uniformly throughout the South Central division, as 
shown by Table lxiv, from about one-fifth to more 
than one-fourth of all the male children at work in 1900 
were under 12 years of age. This statement is also 



true with respect to female children at work in th6se 
states except the two Virginias and Kentucky, in which 
the proportions are somewhat below one-fifth but are 
high as compared with the proportions for females in 
many other states. In several of the states of the 
North Central and Western divisions also, particularly 
in Arizona, South Dakota, and New Mexico, those 
under 12 years of age constituted considerable propor- 
tions of all the children of each sex at work; in Arizona 
the large proportion (32.7 per cent) for females — the 
highest for either sex in any state or territor}' — is due 
mainly to the inclusion of Indians, as already explained. 

In all the North Atlantic states except Pennsylvania, 
and in Michigan, Wisconsin, California, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, on the other hand, males under 12 
years of age constituted less than 5 per cent of all male 
children at work in 1900, the highest percentage being 
4.8, for both Michigan and Wisconsin, and the lowest 
0.6, for Massachusetts. In all the states named, as well 
as in many of the other Northern and Western states, 
the per cent of all the female children at work in 1900 
who were under 12 years of age was also less than 5; 
and in this connection it should be noted that in most 
of those states and territories for which a large propor- 
tion of children under 12 at work is shown, there is not 
a wide difference between the percentages for the two 
sexes, but that in the other states and territories the 
proportion of females under 12 is usually considerably 
less than that of males. 

In general, it may be said that the proportions of 
children under 12 years of age at work in 1900 in the 
several states and territories were high or low accord- 
ing to the relative predominance of agricultural pur- 
suits, and also in a somewhat less degree according to 
the extent to which the employment of children was 
restricted by legislative enactment. Children are em- 
ployed in agricultural labor very generally throughout 
the South, and to a less extent in the North and West, 
and if the analysis is extended to include those under 
14 years of age it is found from Table Lxrv that in some 
of the Southern states more than three-fifths, and in all 
of them, except Kentucky and the Virginias, fully one- 
half of all the children of each sex at work in 1900 were 
included within this age limit. In states with important 
manufacturing interests the proportion of children 
under 12 or 14 years of age at work is also influenced 
somewhat by restrictive legislation concerning their 
employment in industrial and mercantile pursuits. A 
noticeable contrast in this respect is shown for Rhode 
Island as compared with Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
due to a difference in the laws prohibiting the employ- 
ment of children under certain ages in these states.' 
In Rhode Island 24.3 per cent of all the male children 
and 22.2 per cent of all the female children at work in 
1900 were under 14 years of age, while in neither of the 
other two states mentioned did the proportion under 
that age exceed 8 per cent for either sex. 

' See Appendix B. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



cixix 



In Table lxv a presentation is made for each state 
and territory of the leading occupation groups in which 
children were reported as having been engaged during 
any portion of the census year/ The statements con- 
tained in this table— particularly those referring to 
children in the earlier years of life— have been care- 
fully verified by reference to the original returns on 
the population schedules, and represent, as far as the 
returns of the census enumerators can be relied upon, 
the conditions with respect to the employment of chil- 
dren as they existed during the period covered by the 
Twelfth Census. 

For this table, as for Table lxii, certain occupation 
groups have been combined in whole or in part as 
follows: 

Boohheepers, clerJcv, sfenograj^hers, etc. — Bookkeepers 
and accountants; clerks and copyists; stenographers 
and typewriters. 

Lumbermen and wood choppers. — Lumbermen and 
raftsmen; wood choppers. 

Iletal workers. — Blacksmiths; brassworkers; clock 
and watch makers and repairers; gold and silver work- 
ers; iron and steel workers; machinists; steam boiler 

'Census year beginning June 1, 1899 and ending May 31, 1900. 



makers; stove, furnace, and grate makers; tin plate 
and tinware makers; tool and cutlery makers; wheel- 
wrights; wireworkers; other metal workers. 

Packers and porters. — Packers and shippers; porters 
and helpers (in stores, etc.). 

Printers and Soo/cSm^ers. ^Bookbinders; printers, 
lithographers, and pressmen. 

Textile mill operatives. — Carpet factory operatives; 
cotton mill operatives; hosiery and knitting mill opera- 
tives; silk mill operatives; woolen mill operatives; 
other textile mill operatives. 

Textile vKtrhers. — Dressmakers; hat and capmakers; 
milliners; seamstresses; shirt, collar, and cuff makers; 
tailors and tailoresses; other textile workers. 

AYoodworhers. — Cabinetmakers; coopers; saw and 
planing mill employees; other woodworkers. 

No detailed analysis of the figures in Table lxv is 
required, nor is it the purpose of this report to discuss 
the question of child labor from the standpoint of these 
statistics taken in connection with the labor laws oper- 
ative in the several states in 1900; but for the conven- 
ience of the reader, a synopsis of the legislation as it 
existed at the period of the Twelfth Census is published 
in Appendix B. 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YBAB OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900. 





Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


IS 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


13 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


ALABAMA. 


122,663 


80, 989 


10, 913 


11, 081 


14,214 


13,922 


15, 068 


15, 801 


41,604 


5,699 


5,611 


7,500 


7,208 


7,947 


7,799 








105,058 

264 

80 

124 

264 

6,103 

391 

76 

342 

306 

896 
174 
309 
4,039 
109 

2,747 
132 
101 

196 

71 

892 

1,002 


70,348 

220 

79 

124 

250 

4,363 

12 

74 

336 

306 

894 
173 
269 
1,097 
106 

1,276 
34 

8 

194 
68 
768 

802 


10, 010 

3 

6 

10 

4 

448 


10, 090 

8 

6 

9 

13 

483 


12,676 
10 
14 
20 
30 

725 

2 

13 

42 

16 

110 
18 
17 

198 

4 

219 
7 
1 

20 
10 
62 

127 


12,120 
31 
12 
27 
36 

756 
2 
11 
65 
49 

147 
35 
46 

184 
16 

231 
12 
4 

27 
10 
103 

98 


12, 719 
58 
19 
34 
61 

922 
2 
17 
89 
63 

249 
46 
67 

213 
21 

239 

6 

49 
16 
180 

209 


12,733 
110 
24 
24 
106 

1,030 

6 

19 

87 

165 

310 
60 
130 
204 
61 

266 
3 
3 

68 
27 
366 

206 


34,710 
34 

1 


4,845 


4,865 


6,396 

1 


6,019 
4 
1 


6,506 
4 


6,079 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . 


26 




















Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 


4 

1,740 

379 

2 

6 






1 

330 
22 


297 

48 


2 

381 
112 


1 


204 
7 
1 

1 


205 
11 


323 




179 




6 
22 
3 

22 
12 

1 
166 

3 

160 
6 


9 
31 
10 

66 

3 

8 

132 

2 

172 

1 


1 


Messengers and errand and office boys — 


2 




2 




1 




2 
1 

60 

2,942 

3 

1,471 
98 
93 

1 

8 

124 

200 






1 






1 








1 

6 

515 








"'379' 


1 
327 


4 

488 


9 
586 


30 




647 




3 


Textile mill operatives: 


153 
6 
2 


180 
9 
3 


225 
8 
13 


278 
11 
16 


297 

17 

17 

1 

is" 

35 


338 


All other 


48 




42 


Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 


13 
2 

28 

120 


17 
3 
29 

42 




2" 

44 


1 

7 

9 


"■"ii" 

36 


1 
9 

24 


1 




80 


ALASKA. 


52 








270 

596 

40 

96 

1,982 


180 
529 
16 

77 

1,358 


41 
71 

1 
7 

166 


12 

25 

2 

3 

117 


30 
91 
2 
4 

213 


13 
73 
1 
11 

179 


48 

136 

4 

21 

302 


36 

133 

6 

31 

391 


90 
67 
24 
19 

624 


33 
7 
4 


5 
3 
1 


18 

12 

3 

3 

86 


10 
8 
5 

1 

89 


16 

12 

4 

3 

108 


8 


Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts 


25 

7 




12 


ARIZONA. 


110 


94 


137 








777 
193 
58 
106 
660 
104 
184 


676 
187 
57 
21 
376 


67 
7 
1 
3 

77 


64 
9 

i' 

39 


106 
12 
9 

2 

77 


84 
27 
8 
2 
44 


112 
39 
20 
8 
83 


143 
93 
19 
5 
66 


201 
6 
1 

85 

184 

104 

43 


63 


45 
1 


32 
1 
1 
8 

31 
9 
4 


18 


21 
1 


32 




3 








4 

42 

9 

2 


8 
24 
13 

3 


14 
34 
14 
9 


22 
25 
25 
14 


29 


Stock raisers, herders, and droyers 


28 
34 


All other occupations 


141 


i 


4 


7 


14 


40 


75 


11 



1 Includes turpentine farmers and laborers. 



clxx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.- 



-DISTElBUTIOrir, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900-Contmued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 






FEMALES. 






STATES AND TERRITORIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


13 

years. 


IS 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


ARKANSAS. 
All occupatioiis 


65,068 


49,747 


6,476 


7,032 


8,270 


8,650 


9,486 


9,833 


15,321 


2,069 


2,196 


2,760 


2,686 


2,862 


2,868 








68,760 

198 

2,726 

103 

78 

108 

90 

150 

1,820 

361 
89 

586 

9,319 


45,633 

197 

2,203 

7 

78 

107 

90 

135 

869 

354 

88 

486 

7,187 


6,168 

3 

212 


6,651 
15 
240 


7,711 

22 

328 

2 

17 

13 
9 
8 

72 

36 
9 

44 

383 


7,973 

31 

388 

1 

10 

32 
11 
13 
63 

53 
12 
63 

801 


8,548 

68 

466 

4 

18 

23 
26 
39 
68 

89 
26 
122 

1,970 


8,582 
68 
569 

is' 

25 
38 
65 
83 

141 
30 
214 

3,772 


13,127 

1 

622 

96 


1,847 


1,937 


2,446 

1 

83 
8 


2,234 


2,378 


2,285 


Draymen, haekmen, teamsters,, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 




70 
4 


73 
2 


93 
15 


105 
30 


93 








7 

3 
3 

1 
38 

17 
4 
20 

90 


8 

11 
4 
9 

46 

19 

7 

23 

171 




Messengers and errand and office boys — 


1 




1 




















15 
1,461 

7 

1 

100 

2,132 


1 
144 






3 
224 

1 


2 
318 

2 


9 
388 




172 
1 


205 


Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 

All other 


3 

1 
47 

1,190 




3 

25 


10 
34 


7 
98 


16 
219 


17 
666 


CALIFORNIA. 




Agricultural laborers 


1,493 

377 

181 

68 

1,099 

131 
121 
985 
406 
66 

57 
121 
62 
56 
161 

423 

1,333 

65 

113 

125 

244 

112 

1,551 

3,500 


1,453 

327 

181 

65 

1,067 

46 
58 
968 
380 
66 

67 
74 
51 
66 
139 

342 
308 
23 
61 


35 
3 

i" 

21 

1 
2 
11 

4' 

1 


44 
4 
1 
8 

26 

8 
4 
29 
4 

1 

4 
2 


81 
6 
7 
6 

65 

2 
3 
84 
12 
3 

3 

2' 

6' 

6 
26 


160 
18 
13 
4 
98 

2 
12 
191 
33 

3 

11 
10 
3 
1 
13 

31 
41 


370 
76 
55 
14 

282 

17 
16 
310 
106 
19 

19 
' 24 
17 
11 
44 

96 
74 
10 
19 


763 
220 
105 
22 
575 

21 
21 
343 
226 
36 

19 
38 
29 
43 
76 

202 
162 
13 
27 


40 
60 


1 


• 2 


2 
2 


4 
4 


14 
8 


17 
36 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . . 


Draymen, haekmen, teamsters, etc 






Hucksters and peddlera 


3 
32 

85 
63 
17 
25 






1 
2 

4 
7 
2 
1 


1 
3 

6 
9 
3 
3 


1 
9 

18 
18 
7 
7 




Lalaorers (not specified). . 


1 
2 


2 

1 
4 


15 

67 
23 
6 
14 




Meat, fish, and fruit eanners and packers . 
Messengers and errand and office boys 


Metal workers 






Miners and quarrymen 






Newspaper carriers and newsboys 


















47 
1 




1 




6 


13 


27 
1 


Painters, glaziers, and vamishers 


Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 


4 
2 


1 

1 

3 
14 












Printers and bookbinders 


22 

81 

1,025 

32 

52 

125 
191 
10 
231 

597 






1 

4 

56 

1 

1 

5 
6 


1 

5 
123 

1 
4 

4 
24 


4 

25 

269 

5 

19 

25 

47 

3 

74 

145 


16 
46 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


1 
14 


""2i' 


Servants and waiters 


Telegraph and telephone operators 


25 


1 




2 


12 




1 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 


91 


Another 


53 

102 

1,320 

2,903 






4 

6 

61 

253 


4 

8 

133 

396 


13 

24 

354 

746 


32 
62 

748 

1,236 




1 


Woodworkers 


4" 

109 


2 
20 

163 


7 


All other occupations 


6 
6 


1 

13 


3 
27 


....... 

71 


COLORADO. 
All occupations 






335 




1,067 
139 
62 
68 
480 

261 
61 
229 
110 

378 

174 

51 

430 

11, 579 


1,063 

110 

41 

68 

469 

. 206 
61 
229 
69 

62 
174 

16 
357 

6,838 


69 


97 


112 

2 

7 

6 

60 

20 
S 

8 
2 

6 
24 

1 
12 

80 


169 

10 

9 

3 

67 

30 
6 

36 
6 

10 
32 
2 
28 

893 


257 
23 
13 
22 

109 

61 
15 
79 
18 

18 
41 
4 
86 

2,184 


349 
75 
8 
35 

197 

88 
37 
99 
41 

25 

53 

8 

221 

4,136 


14 
29 
21 


2 




1 


1 
3 
4 


4 
8 
4 




Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc .. 


« 

18 
U 


Cotton mill operatives 


20" 

2' 

is' 


4 
2 
26 

6 
1 
6 
2 

3 

11 






■ 2' 


Draymen, haekmen, teamsters, etc 






Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers 


21 
46 


2 


4 


2 


3 

7 


5 

24 


7 
13 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


'"'ii' 

316 






i' 

20 


3' 

46 


12' 

69 


26 


Servants and waiters 


2 


7 




Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 

Textile workers 


172 


All other occupations 

CONNECTICUT. 
All occupations 


5 

18 


5 
27 


73 

4,741 


16 


i 
1 

81 


i' 

69 


4' 

263 


6 
13 

1,607 


29 
54 




2,865 


Agricultural laborers 

Bakers 


830 
43 
40 

378 

188 
57 
40 

257 

98 

44 

808 

482 

188 
169 
371 
148 
101 
418 


819 
39 
33 

251 

19 
16 
40 
16 

97 
39 
733 
433 

129 
113 
272 
147 
86 
308 


1 


7 


21 

1 


71 
3 
3 

10 

1 


261 
17 
17 
53 

3 
6 
9 
6 

30 

12 

221 

178 

47 
33 
78 
36 
24 
90 


468 
18 
13 

187 

16 
10 
30 
8 

64 

20 

441 

223 

73 

78 

182 

102 

60 

201 


11 

4 

7 

127 

169 
41 








3 


3 

2 


5 


Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Bookkeepers, clerlis, stencgrraphers, etc... 














2 
7 
99 

100 
20 


1 












6 

6 
2 


23 

63 
18 


Boxmakers (paper) 

Buttonmakers. 






1 




i" 


Corsetmakers .....\...\.\'.][[[ 

Draymen, haekmen, teamsters, etc . . . 
Hucksters and peddlers 




1 


i' 

1 
1 

12 
2 

1 


i 

1 

1 

6 
60 
29 

8 
2 
9 
6 
1 
14 


""24i' 

1 

5 

75 

49 

69 
66 
99 
1 

15 
110 


1 


i' 


i" 


...... 


94' 


""iso 


Laborers (not specified) 

Messengers and errand and office boys 


4 
1 


5 






i 


i 
4 
5 

3 

1 
4 


i 

26 
23 

20 
14 
36 


2 
45 






1 




Metal workers: 

Brassworkere 








Clock and watch makers and repairers. 












36 
41 
58 


Machinists 


i 


1 
1 


1 
2 
1 
3 


1 


i' 


1 


Tool and cutlery makers 


1 
6 
67 














4 


39 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxi 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OP CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TKBEITOEIES AND SBLKOTKD 
OCCDPATIONB. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


HALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


la 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


CONNECTICUT— Continued. 
Packers and porters 


192 
55 
47 
63 

102 
110 
565 
994 

1,053 
128 
461 
452 
431 

413 

40 

62 

1,761 

3,859 


62 
43 
26 
25 

81 

42 

852 

82 

500 
23 
130 
235 
208 

89 

19 

65 

1,276 

2,781 


1 
1 








20 
13 
6 
10 

23 
9 

94 
27 

208 
10 
48 
86 
84 

28 

8 

14 

376 

709 


- 41 
27 
19 
14 

51 

32 

230 

37 

269 
11 
79 
129 
110 

54 

11 

38 

801 

995 


130 
12 
21 
38 

21 
68 
213 
912 

653 
105 
331 
217 
223 

324 

21 

7 

475 

1,078 






1 


5 


38 
6 
4 

10, 

4 
16 
59 
260 

208 
34 
83 
89 
85 

79 

6 

1 

166 

313 


86 


Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 






2 
2 

1 

3 

1 
26 
13 

14 
2 
3 
16 
13 

7 






6 


Paper and pulp mill operatives . 












3 


14 


Powder and cartridge makers 














28 


Printers and bookbinders 




2 


2 


1 
1 








16 


Rubber factory operatives 






2 
10 
93 

20 
5 

12 
3 

11 

18 


49 


Salesmen and salesvpomen 


1 
3 


2' 

1 


2 
3 

5 




3 
43 

5 


141 


Servants and waiters 


9 


21 
2 


436 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 


318 


Hosiery a.nd knitting mill 


66 


SllkmiU 








1 


i' 

1 


1 
1 
2 


234 


Woolen mill 






4 
1 


123 


All other 






124 


Textile workers 






227 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 














15 


Woodworkers 


1 
3 

129 






2 
73 

477 










6 


All other occupations 


7 
184 


16 
287 


1 
37 


4 
40 


8 
90 


29 
180 


277 


DELAWARE. 


418 






Agricultural laborers. 


1,645 
76 
360 
166 
95 
131 

567 

121 
115 
119 
57 
52 
465 

2,144 


1,467 
63 

341 
87 
94 

124 

64 

58 

31 

57 

3 

7 

385 

1,365 


107 


140 


188 
3 
29 
7 
4 
9 

6 

9 
4 

1 


252 
1 

60 
8 
31 
20 

14 

12 
7 
13 


368 
14 
92 
25 
24 
29 

13 

16 
7 

16 

2 

2 

102 

394 


412 
46 

136 
46 
32 
64 

23 

16 
8 

25 

1 

3 

184 

668 


78 
13 
19 
69 

1 
7 

603 

63 
84 
62 
54 
46 
80 

779 


6 


7 


16 


16 
3 
2 
6 


13 
3 
5 

37 


21 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 


7 


Laborers"(not specified) ...".. .t . . 


11 

1 

i' 

2 

i' 


13 


3 

1 

6 

6 
4 
2 




1 

1 


2 
1 


9 




25 


Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers. 


1 










1 

136 

19 
27 
27 
10 
19 
17 

195 


6 


Servants and waiters 


32 


24 

2 
2 

1 


55 

3 

5 
2 
3 
2 

1 

49 


91 

IS 
19 
6 
6 
8 
6 

101 


166 


Textile mill operatives: 


21 


Hosiery and knitting mill 


31 


All other 


26 




35 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 


6' 

19 


1 

8 

25 


27' 

75 


1 
58 

184 


20 


1 
1 

20 


15 
S6 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 
All occupations 


394 






Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . 
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


183 
148 

33 
201 

39 

327 
32 
45 
34 

187 

666 

53 

206 

15,403 


143 

147 

33 

199 

3 

309 
32 
44 
32 

114 

119 

5 

185 

11,281 


§■ 

2 


1 

1 
2 


7 

8 

2 

10 


7 
22 

4 
24 


38 
44 
10 
63 


90 
72 
12 
100 
3 

123 
14 
14 
18 

74 
46 
4 
98 

2,695 


40 
1 








3 


15 


22 








1 
















2 
36 

18 








i 

1 
6 


1 
9 

8 






1 




1 
1 


24 


Messengers and errand and of&ce boys 


1 
1 
2 
1 


9 


20 


57 
3 
8 
2 

10 
25 


99 
14 
8 
11 

28 

31 

1 

47 

2,408 


3 










6 


6 


1 
2 

73 

537 

48 

21 

4,122 






1 
















2 






2 
8 






2 
43 
1 


6 

82 

1 

1 

683 


22 

128 

7 

5 

872 


43 




4 


5 


19 


20 


245 




39 




5 
1,174 


1 
1,261 


12 
1,848 


22 
1,895 






15 


FLORIDA. 


397 


465 


694 


1,011 








11,204 

110 

83 

1,737 

122 

141 
869 
269 
102 
100 
676 

113,964 


8,378 
98 
83 

1,387 
4 

135 
223 
167 
97 
88 
621 

77,462 


1,004 

■"'ioe' 


1,060 

2 

4 

110 


1,496 

3 

8 

186 


1,479 

8 

12 

215 


1,661 

25 

26 

337 

3 

36 
48 
51. 
25 
27 
169 

15,886 


1,679 

60 

33 

433 

1 

30 
58 
78 
25 
30 
268 

16,692 


2,826 
12 


301 


368 


517 


478 
1 


561 

4 


601 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


7 










360 
118 

6 
636 
102 
5 
12 
66 

36,602 


42 
7 


36 
5 


55 
10 


61 
12 

1' 
110 
15 


76 
34 

1 

144 

32 

1 


80 




50 


Messengers and errand and office boys — 


9 
24 

2 
12 

4 
13 

8,872 


13 
21 
4 
7 
3 
37 

9,308 


26 
31 
11 
14 
9 
65 

13,241 


21 
41 
21 
14 
15 
69 

13,563 


4 


43 
2 
2 


51 

4 


101 

8 
1 


187 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 


41 

1 




12 




4,341 


1 
4,329 


6,427 


6 
6,263 


19 
7,388 


28 


GEORGIA. 


7,754 








89,692 

366 

86 

346 

8,951 

625 
93 
654 
139 


63, 630 

325 

86 

345 

6,187 

17 

92 

640 

138 


7,709 

1 

5 

11 

642 

3 
6 
38 


8,001 

10 

2 

24 

612 

9" 

62 
2 


11,097 
29 
4 

40 
1,044 

5 
13 
88 
10 


11,206 

37 

19 

57 

1,029 

1 

13 
128 
13 


12,746 

85 

26 

102 

1,385 

4 

20 

167 

36 


12,871 

163 

31 

111 

1,475 

4 
31 
157 

77 


26,062 
41 


3,366 


3,332 
1 


4,723 


4,499 
6 


5,132 
8 


5,010 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 


26 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 
















2, 764 

608 

1 

14 

1 


290 

12 
1 
2 


291 
16 


510 
50 


490 
96 


890 
147 


593 




287 






Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metalworkers 


4 


2 
1 


2 


2 


2 



1 Includes turpentine farmers and laborers. 



clxxii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.— DISTEIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPJCCIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 








MALES 








FEMALES. 


OdCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


18 

years 


14 

years. 


IS 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


13 

years 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


GEORGIA— Continued. 
Packers and porters 


393 

106 

329 

5,411 

4,652 
188 
108 
162 

266 

129 

1,371 

998 


385 

83 

291 

1,427 

2,119 
38 
54 
24 

263 

122 

1,196 

828 

242 
30 

230 
79 
16 

231 

1,395 


10 

5 

182 

190 
2 

1 


17 

2 

10 

150 

313 

7 
5 


68 
1 

25 
272 

362 
5 
3 
3 

32 

10 

140 

31 


70 

16 

49 

273 

392 
7 
14 

40 

17 
182 

60 


103 
21 
67 

280 

414 
12 
20 

7 

66 
35 
291 

197 


127 

43 

136 

270 

448 

5 

11 

14 

101 

45 

473 

610 


8 

22 

38 

3,984 

2,433 
150 
64 
138 

2 

7 

175 

170 


i 

432 

223 

6 

1 


1 

1 

'"'378 

277 
6 
7 
9 


""3 

660 

415 
27 

8 
10 


1 
4 
2 

619 

465 

27 

7 

21 


4 

2 

10 

857 

518 
35 
11 
32 

1 

1 
38 

46 


2 

15 

22 

1,038 

636 
50 
20 
66 

1 
8 

84 

77 




Salesmen and saleswomen 


Servants and waiters . . . 


Textile mill operatives: 


Hnsifiry fl.Tid li-nittinj^ mill 


All Other i 




Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees .. . 


7 
5 
66 

10 


17 
10 
65 

20 


All other 


8 

2 


1 
6 

11 


""is 

17 


2 

22 

17 




HAWAH. 




Agricultural laborers 


264 
30 

247 

176 
36 

266 

1,536 


3 

2 
3 

1 


4 

5 

3 


8 
1 
6 
6 


15 
4 

19 
6 


49 
6 

55 

21 
3 

63 

329 


163 
17 

142 
43 
13 

132 

460 


12 


1 


1 




1 


3 




Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . 




Laborers (not specified) 


17 
97 
20 
24 

141 


i' 


1 
9 


2 
11 
2 
2 

1 


1 
13 
1 

1 

13 


6 

24 

4 

9 

87 








Textile workers 


39 
13 


All other occupations 


1 
81 


8 
133 


11 
166 


16 
226 






IDAHO. 
All occupations 


4 


6 






80 


Agricultural laborers 


1,098 
142 
144 
152 

70,635 


1,084 
141 
33 
137 

50,994 


75 
5 

l" 

1,769 


113 

s 
4 
8 

2,442 


144 

9 

3 

10 

3,824 


186 
17 
8 
15 

6,583 


250 

37 

7 

36 

14,622 


316 

65 
11 

68 

21,864 


14 

1 

111 

16 

19,541 


1 


1 


1 


3 


2 
1 
81 
3 

6,169 




Laborers (not specified) 


6 




2 

1 

190 


4 

1 

312 




10 




All other occupations 


64 
10 


ILLINOIS. 
All occupations 


741 


2,230 




9,899 


Agents 


76 

26,347 

261 

101 

261 

2,860 

221 

326 

390 
108 
104 
105 
154 

278 
139 
917 
94 
442 

242 
120 
218 
5,789 
607 

112 

320 

161 

4,978 

105 
667 
459 
236 
645 

1,276 
80 
255 
498 
346 

96 

82 

364 
633 

1,555 
8,398 

135 

116 
99 II 


61 

24, 972 

158 

77 

90 

1,846 

65 

208 

75 
107 
104 

75 
154 

39 
27 

915 
94 

423 

67 

120 

208 

5,450 

38 

86 

173 

136 

4,239 

106 
610 
466 
194 
532 

1,275 

47 

249 

226 

827 

31 
82 

94 
556 

849 
520 
135 
101 
51 






3 

3,025 

3 

4 

2 
23 

4' 

2 
6 
1 
4 
6 


5 

4,096 

17 

4 

5 

116 

1 

14 

8 
14 
8 
9 
12 

2 
2 

76 
2 
66 

1 

17 

35 

587 

2 

4 

22 

21 

491 

6 
41 
17 
21 
30 

93 
11 
44 
28 
22 


16 

6,064 

45 

16 

22 
481 
13 
70 

31 
29 
32 
22 
43 

8 
10 

301 
17 

147 

22 
38 
60 
1,671 
11 

32 

51 

36 

1,748 

22 
177 
111 

65 
168 

436 
13 
74 
79 
95 

13 
19 

29 
169 

251 
160 
26 
29 

14 


37 

8,092 

91 

63 

61 

1,215 

39 

118 

34 
64 
61 
40 
91 

29 
16 

507 
73 

165 

43 
67 
80 
2,650 
23 

60 

95 

75 

1,880 

70 
378 
323 
102 
330 

699 

20 

89 

111 

205 

18 
59 

63 
343 

605 
201 
86 
54 
32 


15 
375 
103 

24 

161 

1,016 

166 

118 

315 
1 










5 
92 
39 

7 

86 
244 
87 
30 

120 

1 






1,571 
1 


2,124 

1 


31 

1 


34 

2 


47 

1 

1 
20 
2 
2 

3 


'"'56' 
B 
3 

11 

57 
4 
9 

29 






116 


Barbers and hairdressers 


67 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.: 
Bookkeepers and accountants 






113 


Clerks and copyists 


3 


7 
2 
2 


3 


5 


Stenographers and typewriters 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


686 
123 
77 






Boxmakers (paper) 


1 




Bnck and tile makers, etc 


1 


4 
2 


162 


Butchers 




Carpenters and joiners 




2' 


30 










12 


18 


Confectioners 


239 

112 

2 




1 


7 
2 


27 
6 


79 

.42 

1 




Corsetmakers 








126 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Electricians 


3 


6 


22 
2 
36 

1 

5 

22 

282 

2 






62 
1 




5 


14 


19 
176 






i' 

2 


i' 

11 


' 7' 

61 




Glovemakers 






101 




5" 

123 


3 

6 

137 






Laborers (not specified) 


16 
339 
669 

26 
147 

26 
739 


2' 

1 


1 
7 

1 


2 

14 
14 


2 
37 

63 


4 
129 

178 

16 

86 

9 

380 


1 


Launderers and laundresses 


160 


Leather curriers and tanners 






822 

11 
96 


Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 
Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers: 

Blacksmiths 


1 


2 


2 
4 
94 

2 
7 
3 
6 
1 

33 
1 

20 
8 
2 






3' 

2 
26 


...... 

2 
111 






12 
218 


5 

1 

i' 

6 
1 
8 


21 

6 

7 

i' 

3 

9 

1 

14 




4 


Iron and steel workers 




Machinists 


57 

4 

42 

113 

1 
33 

6 

272 

19 

66 


1 




1 


2 


10 
2 
16 
81 


43 


Tin plate and tinware makers 
Another 


2 






2 
2 


3 
9 


21 


Miners and quarrvmen 


1 




70 


Musicians and teachers of music 


1 


Newspaper carriers and newsboys ... 
Packers and porters 






3 
1 
3 

1 


6 

1 
30 

6 


6 
2 

105 
9 

16 


18 


1 




1 

134 

g 






3 






Paper and pulp mill operatives 






43 


Pnnters and bookbinders: 
Bookbinders 








4 

9 
35 

58 
88 
14 
11 
4 












3 

8 

22 
38 
6 
3 


260 
77 

706 
7,878 


2" 

1 
138 


1 


5 


17 
i 

66 
1,092 


95 
22 

209 
2,337 




Pnnters, lithographers, and pre.ssmen. 


5 
10 
2 

1 


"i' 

8 
23 
2 
3 

1 


142 
49 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


6 
224 


8 
462 


Servants and waiters. . 


426 


Steam railroad employees 


3,626 


Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 
Telegraph and teleptone operators . . . 




15 

48 








4 
10 


11 
S4 




2 


2I 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxiii 



Table LXV.- 



-DISTEIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


13 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


IS 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


ILLINOIS— Continued. 

Textile mil] operatives: 

, Hosiery and knitting mill 


146 
227 

661 
346 
976 
2,283 
201 

472 
105 

147 

136 

729 

3,461 

32,146 


38 
106 

1 

11 
20 
656 

47 

265 
92 

146 

136 

664 

2,497 

26,454 








3 
12 


14 
49 


21 
40 

1 
7 

11 
284 

40 

123 
49 

86 

71 

335 

1,380 

10, 353 


108 
121 

650 
334 
956 
1,727 
154 

217 
13. 

•1 




1 


i' 

2 

4 

19 
60 

2 


4 
6 

30 
22 
88 
280 
5 

37 

1 

1 


37 
32 

160 
69 
357 
626 
33 

85 
1 


66 


All other 




2 


3 


82 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 


i" 

2 


2 
2 
5 
9 
1 

1 


366 


Milliners 








1 

56' 

1 

29 

8 

9 
12 
68 
222 

3,676 


3 

8 

198 

6 

99 
33 

48 
48 
235 
796 

6,446 


236 


Seamstresses 






1 
11 


485 


Tailors and tailoresses 


1 


. 6 


762 


Another 


115 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 






4 


92 




2 




11 


Woodworkers: 




3 
3 

15 
68 

2,611 










Saw and planing miill employees 

All other 


1 

is' 

1,442 


1 

1 
18 

1,926 












■ 75 
964 

5,692 






2 
22 

311 


6 

84 

631 


28 
314 

1,537 


39 




4 

144 


5 
186 


636 


INDIANA. 


2,883 






Agnricultural laborers 


17,478 

333 

75 

234 

714 

79 
3,664 

80 
428 
440 

368 
108 
116 
168 
521 

3,785 

197 
172 
96 

156 
123 
292 
224 
400 
1,896 

16, 146 


17,268 
239 
64 
234 
648 

79 
3,557 

12 
356 
417 

367 
63 
113 
112 
396 

311 

80 
69 
37 

2 
23 
19 

361 
1,560 

12,960 


1,306 

3' 

6 

1 
83 


1,736 
5 
2 

8' 

1 
120 


2,212 

7 

5 

7 

26 

4 
214 


2,846 
18 
2 
20 
63 

6 
375 


3,863 

54 

26 

62 

212 

20 
933 
4 
127 
109 

122 
16 
23 
34 

104 

91 

40 
32 
18 

. 1 

6 

4 

23 

113 

409 

2,632 


5,306 
155 
29 
142 
333 

47 

1,832 

8 

165 

283 

210 
41 
77 
71 

246 

120 

31 
27 
18 

1 

16 

14 

43 

217 

922 

2,749 


210 
94 
11 


34 


23 


26 


27 
4 


47 

24 

2 


83 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc . . . 
Brick ana tile makers, etc . 


66 






9 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 










66 








4 


19 


43 


Hostlers 










Laborers (not specified) 


107 

68 
72 
23 

1 
46 

3 

66 

125 

3,474 

117 
113 
58 

154 
100 
273 
147 
39 
336 

2,196 


2 


2 
1 


8 
2 
3 


10 
3 
3 


27 
16 
38 
8 


58 




46 


Messengers and errand and office boys — 


6 
1 


2 
2 

1 


14 
2 

6 


42 
20 

29 
6 

12 
6 

29 

40 

7 


28 






15 










1 
3 












9 


33 






1 




1 
11 

31 

2 








3 








1 
2 

258 


1 
9 

486 

14 
9 
4 

8 
1 
9 
9 
4 
26 

337 


18 
29 

921 

50 
38 
19 

45 
10 
63 
61 
9 
84 

457 


36 




3 

14 


4 
16 


2 
103 


1 

151 

3 


82 




1,556 


Textile mill operatives: 


50 








66 










1 






1 
2 


34 


Textile workers: 












102 










1 

16' 

24 
119 

2,133 




1 
3 


88 


All other 






1 

4' 

65 

2,166 


198 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 


26" 

1,529 


1 
3 

25 

1,741 


77 








26 


All other occupations 


3 

280 


1 
336 


8 
377 


214 


INDIAN TEKJRITORY. 


409 








13,058 
104 
815 
87 
166 
609 
307 

29,410 


11,500 
104 
749 

86 
166 

77 
268 

24, 564 


1,428 
14 
46 
9 
2 
14 
17 

780 


1,609 
6 

82 
9 
7 
5 

23 

1,319 


1,962 
19 
110 
21 
20 
11 
33 

2,195 


1,925 
6 
127 
10 
27 
11 
27 

3,746 


2,285 
42 
163 
19 
43 
22 
58 

6,679 


2,301 
17 

222 
18 
67 
14 

110 

9,846 


1,558 


221 


265 


294 


248 


300 


230 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 




66 

1 


2 


8 


6 

1 


10 


17 


23 




















532 
39 

4,846 


55 
2 

100 


63 
174 


74 
2 

340 


72 
7 

604 


130 
10 

1,311 


138 




18 


IOWA. 


2,317 








19,493 

262 

104 

247 

1,685 

116 
259 
147 
619 
77 

156 

341 

3,993 

94 

190 

139 

156 

63 

1,269 


19, 217 

204 

40 

247 

1,644 

110 
242 
141 
617 
36 

129 

268 

240 

93 

28 

81 

156 

60 

1,0U 


724 
1 


1,193 
1 


1,908 

6 

3 

9 

104 

6 
20 

4 
66 

3 


3,093 

15 

9 

31 

189 

17 
41 
11 
108 
3 

10 
21 
40 
10 

1 

10 

26 

8 

102 


5,204 

62 

17 

71 

491 

26 
63 
40 
176 
10 

39 
68 
47 
18 

4 

24 

39 

15 
267 


7,096 

119 

11 

132 

773 

66 
107 

86 
250 

20 

80 
170 
110 
61 
23 

43 

83 
36 
691 


276 
58 

64 


24 


16 

1 


42 
4 
4 


42 
6 
9 


69 
10 
21. 


83 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 


38 
SO 




2 

28 

1 

1 


2 
59 

5 
10 








Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


41 

6 
17 
6 
2 

41 

27 

73 

3,753 

1 

162 

58 


1 


4 


3 
1 


2 

1 

1 
1 


U 

7' 

1 


20 




4 


Messengers and errand and office boys — 




1 


8 
4 




5 


13 








2 








2 


2 

1 

3 

500 

1 
8 

5 


15 

B 

23 
1,037 


22 












21 




1 

12 
1 


4 
13 


4 
18 
3 


1 
70 


"'isi' 


3 
270 


43 












j 1 


2 


29 
21 










1 


1 
2 


3 

5 

1 
32 






32 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers: . 










Saw and planmi? mill employees 


3 

258 












3 


All other occupations 


3 


16 


4 




9 


23 


62 


160 



clxxi 



:iv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.- 



-DISTEIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 




MALES. 


FEMALES. 


OCCDPATIONS. 


Total 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


13 

years 


14 

years 


16 

years. 


Total 


10 

years 


11 

. years 


12 

. years 


18 

. years 


14 

. years. 


IS 

years. 


KANSAS. 

All occupations 


22, 489 


20,304 


1,698 


2,075 


2,739 


3,219 


4,682 


6,091 


2,185 


119 


137 


185 


296 


525 






923 


Agricnltaral laborers 


. 17,391 

141 

118 

1,237 

147 

128 

77 

322 

183 

1,827 

156 

763 

61, 117 


17,138 

108 

118 

1,206 

121 

127 

76 

321 

148 
210 
148 
584 

53, 676 


1,486 

1 

3 

65 

3 

2 
1 

1 

9 

21 

6 

5,747 


1,967 

2 

2 

49 

3 

1 

7 

3 

17 
22 
12 

6,328 


2,507 

4 

1 

95 

8 
11 

3 
21 

10 
29 
19 
31 

8,113 


2,793 

9 

16 

169 

21 
19 

1 
41 

15 
37 
29 
70 

9,315 


3,750 

34 

27 

304 

43 
35 
22 
91 

38 

44 

26 

168 

11,188 


4,645 

58 

70 

523 

46 

58 

48 

160 

81 

74 

31 

297 

12,990 


253 
33 


38 

1 


37 
1 


38 
2 


34 


47 
8 


■ 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.. 
Draymen, hacfcmen, teamsters, etc 


59 
21 


Meat and fruit packers, canners, etc 

Messengers ana errand and oflace boys. . . 


32 

26 

•1 

1 
1 

35 

1,617 

7 

179 

7,441 


2 


1 


3 

1 


1 
2 


8 

1 


17 
22 






Miners and quarr3Tnen 










1 




Salesmen and saleswomen 






1 
138 


4 

245 


6 

410 

3 

41 

1,805 


1 




24 


stock raisers, herders, and droveis 


75 
2 

1 

507 


94 
1 
3 

565 


655 


KENTUCKY. 


2 
802 


10 
1,234 


122 




2,528 


Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers . . 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 


45,602 

375 

249 

244 

4,208 

173 
571 
274 
584 
88 

168 

160 

851 

4,256 

208 
126 
185 

100 
218 
386 
89 

812 

108 

132 

1,560 

61,047 


43,652 

287 

166 

244 

4,019 

19 
546 
271 
582 

87 

121 
UO 

260 
926 

114 
55 
68 

1 

6 
66 
6 

639 

108 

124 

1,321 

39,620 


5,316 

1 


5,749 
8 


7,048 

11 

2 

22 

510 

50' 

7 
84 
17 

12 

1 

14 

161 

20 
3 
9 


7,664 

30 

18 

42 

672 

3 

117 
23 

118 
16 

17 

15 

40 

157 

21 
12 
9 


8,633 

83 

56 

61 

983 

4 
174 

74 
155 

19 

37 

42 

62 

209 

32 
18 
18 


9,342 
154 
90 
111 

1,284 

11 
178 
168 
169 

19 

51 

50 

126 

230 

26 
19 
20 

1 
2 
86 
4 

195 

48 

52 

615 

9,086 


1,850 
88 
83 


271 


264 


315 


332 

6 

11 


351 
16 
26 


317 
67 






3 


5 
253 

12 

3 

28 

7 

1 

2 

84 

4 

i' 


3 
317 

1 
15 

6 
28 
10 

3 

2 

6 

94 

12 
3 

1 






43 


Launderers and laundresses 


189 

154 

25 

3 

2 

1 

47 

40 

101 

3,331 

94 
71 
127 

99 
213 
320 

83 

273 


16 

i' 

1 


12 

6 

1 


26 

6 
2 


33 

22 
9 


48 

37 
6 


54 


Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers 


83 
7 


Miners and quarrymen 


2 


Newspaper carriers and newsboys 








2 














1 


Packers and porters 






3 


3' 

7 
552 

16 
16 
26 

16 

26 

71 

6 

50 


12 

5 

32 

838 

26 
18 
45 

22 
74 
86 
20 

81 


Printers and bookbinders 


32 








Servants and \jraiters 






3 
876 

17 

4 

11 

2 
4 
10 

13 


69 


Textile mill operatiyes: 

Cotton mill 


205 

3 
2 
2 

i" 

1 

4 


258 

7 
1 
2 

2 

i' 

1 
6 


1,102 


Woolen mill 


26 


Another 


30 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 


42 


Tailors and tailoresses I 




i' 




2 
9 


1 
20 
2 

145 

33 
40 
387 

8,180 


108 


Another "' 


150 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . . 
Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing miU employees 

Another 


7 
2 

2i' 

4,485 


29 

5 
4 
26 

4,481 


55 

8 

6 

83 

6,641 


108 

12 
22 
189 

6,747 


56 
120 


AU other occupations 


8 
239 

21,427 








1 
34 

3,645 


1 
60 

4,318 


6 
134 


LOUISIANA. 
All occupations 


2,568 


4 
2,559 


7 
3,710 




4,627 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc'.'.'. 
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc . . . 
Fishermen and oystermen . 


48,602 
391 
164 
171 
96 

4,694 

242 

661 

94 

115 

277 
3,840 

184 
38 

105 
107 
163 

224 

60 

1,064 

5,992 


32,003 
364 
152 
164 
96 

3,582 

9 

634 

93 

99 

228 
894 

64 

1 

3 
13 

15 

220 
47 
949 

3,979 


4,069 

1 

4 

10 

4 

226 


3,992 
5 
2 

17 
7 

291 


5,744 
15 
13 
25 
10 

474 
1 

70 
3 

13 

11 
161 

10 


6,529 
48 
24 
24 
14 

564 
1 

138 
8 
17 

85 
143 

13 


6,242 
103 
40 
44 
28 

894 
3 

181 
21 
24 

65 
166 

19 


6,427 
182 
69 
44 
33 

1,133 

4 

207 

58 

40 

116 
198 

20 
1 

2 
9 
6 

86 

22 

429 

2,014 


16,499 
37 
2 
7 


2,173 


2,168 


3,096 

1 


2,833 

1 


3,133 
12 


8,096 
22 
2 


Hostlers , 




3 


2 














Laborers (not specified) 


1,012 

233 

17 

1 

16 

49 
2,946 

120 
32 

102 
94 
138 

4 

3 

115 

2,013.. 


122 
3 


119 
3 
1 


151 
21 


176 
23 

1 


201 
61 
13 




Launderers and laundresses. . 


243 


Messengers and errand and office boys 
Metalworkers 


16 
1 

1 

'"'iso' 
1 


22 
2 
4 

1 
96 

1 


122 
2 
1 
10 


Packers and porters 










3 

6 

532 

13 
2 

9 
13 
22 

1 
1 
9 

277 


3 

18 
709 

29 
12 

26 
25 
43 

1 

""'32' 

539 


Salesmen and saleswomen ... 


1 
267 

1 


'"'253' 
1 


1 
417 

4 

1 

9 
8 
2 


Servants and waiters 


23 

768 


Textile mill operatives: 
Cotton miU 


AU other ]'""]"[ 


72 


Textile workers: 

Seamstresses 

Another 






1 

1 
1 

17 
S 
68 

239 








4 
8 

1 


17 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives" '. '. '.'. '. 






i" 

44 

7 

137 

609 


3 

7 

58 

13 

269 

1,031 


54 
60 


Saw and planing mill employees. . 
All other 


3 

1 

18 
65 


12 

1 
28 

121 


70 

2 
2 

69 


All other occupations 








MAINE. 
All occupations 


1 
14 


2 
63 


2 
125 


Agricultural laborers 


995 


Bookkeepera, clerks, stenographersVetc'" 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


1,219 

66 

169 

637 

228 

73 

61 

87 

661 


1,203 

46 

113 

516 

161 

65 
51 

72 . 
91 


23 


34 
1 . 


63 
2* 


137 


331 
8 

39 
128 

37 

17 
8 

18 
24 


615 

36 

62 
287 

47 

38 
38 
49 
39 1 


16 
11 
46 
22 
67 

8 




1 


"i' 


3 
...... 

1 
8 

1 


4 
2 

12 
6 

15 

4 


8 
8 


Meat, fish, and fruit packers, canners etc' 


5 
16 


17 
13 


20 
25 

4 
1 

1 
5 


58 
23 

6 

3 

8 

11 1 






'"'i' 

10 


32 
14 
21 


Messengers and errand and office boys 
Metalworkers ■" 


4 


9 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


5' 


1 
1 
7 








3 




is 

560 


i . 
5 


....„ 


1 

28 


2 . 
52 


"'Hi' 


11 
326 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxv 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERBITOEIES AND SELECTBD 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


IS 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


MAINE— Continued. 

Textile mill operatives; 

Cottonmill 


1,749 
148 
269 
66 
121 
588 

24,920 


837 
85 

124 
16 

113 

488 

17,034 


16 


37 
2. 
3 


89 
4 
9 


181 
10 
25 
1 
7 
34 

2,801 


234 
23 
37 
3 
15 

109 

4,642 


281 
46 
60 
12 
89 

325 

6,303 


912 
63 

146 

40 

8 

100 

7,886 


4 


39 

1 
2 


69 
5 

7 


168 
8 
22 
4 


262 
18 

47 
8 




Woolen miU 


31 


Another 




Textile workers 


28 


Woodworkers 


i' 

620 


1 
4 

935 


1 
16 

1,733 


211 


1 
1 

317 




7 


All other occupations 


3 
676 


6 
1,319 


20 
2,223 


70 


MARYLAND. 


3,140 




Agricultural laborers 


6,820 
84 
840 
112 

88 

285 
626 
117 
2,738 
168 

131 
1,292 

440 
318 

258 

249 

92 

176 

541 

3,848 

1,052 
264 

167 
617 
667 
544 
127 

366 

243 

1,760 

27,868 


6,643 
76 
726 
44 
88 

283 

521 

109 

2,476 

22 

71 
1,211 

376 
312 

258 

100 
82 
160 
278 
548 

481 
117 

3 

17 

93 

256 

22 

170 

221 

1,380 

16,393 


419 

i' 

1 

17 
1 

78 

1 
10 

2 
2 

1 


522 
1 

7 

7' 

7 

27 

3 

135 

1 

8 
46 

11 
7 
9 

3 


834 

24' 

6 
10 

13 

43 

20 

235 

2 

8 
119 

44 
13 
14 

8 


1,130 
10 
92 
11 
16 

36 
84 
25 
386 
2 

16 
268 

69 
27 
SO 

10 
4 
21 
21 
86 

91 

27 

3' 

13 

43 

2 

35 

36 

210 

661 


1,630 

22 

191 

13 

30 

77 
150 

35 

667 

4 

19 
392 

132 
90 
70 

31 
32 
45 
84 
125 

126 
26 

1 
6 

28 
91 
6 

46 
71 
403 

6,068 


2,008 

48 

412 

13 

25 

150 
200 

25 
975 

13 

19 
376 

118 
173 
135 

47 
46 
76 
164 
147 

133 

29 

1 

8 

48 

105 

12 

75 
96 
641 

10,427 


277 

8 

114 

68 


35 


34 


42 


50 
1 

11 
11 


44 

4 

36 

23 


72 


Bakers 




Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc 

Boxmakers (paper) 




1 
1 


2 
4 


64 
29 


Brick and tile makers, etc 




Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Fishermen and oystermen 


2 

6 

8 

262 

136 

60 

81 

64 
6 












2 




1 


1 


2 


3' 

57 
46 

20 
21 

17 
3 


1 




5 


Laborers (not speci£ed) 


12 
3 

i' 

1 


17 
3 

3 
5 

1 


42 
10 

9 
16 

2 


42 
17 

5 
19 

12 


92 




57 


Meat and fruit packers, canners, etc 

Messengers and errand and office hoys 

Metal workers: 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

All other 


23 
19 

31 
3 


MiTiers n.Tirt qnarrympn 














149 

10 

26 

263 

3,300 

571 
147 

164 
600 
,574 
288 
105 

196 
22 
380 

11,475 


1 


1 


12 


24 
1 
6 

31 
574 

118 
33 

13 

84 

110 

64 

14 

30 

1 
56 

518 


47 
4 
2 

82 
885 

143 
42 

60 
200 
183 
91 
28 

66 

5 

lU 

3,700 


64 


PaiTitprs ^la^prq, apd vamishers 


6 




2" 

46 

14 
7 


2 

3 

60 

35 
13 


6 

14 
95 

83 
15 

1 








18 




2 
134 

14 

1 

1 
2 
1 
1 


1 
196 

23 
6 

1 
6 
8 
3 


9 
314 

77 
13 

6 
26 
39 
14 

4 

7 
4 
23 

113 


138 




1,197 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 


19S 


All other 


52 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers .. . 


83 








282 


Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 


i 

2 


6' 


3 
9 
2 

12 
17 
83 

154 


233 




125 


All other 


59 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 


is' 

29 


2 

2 

28 

64 




1 


92 




2 
20 


6 
39 


183 


All occupations 


7,085 








990 
69 
93 

767 
1,776 

99 
204 
60 
58 
166 

285 
152 
842 
168 
118 

102 
2,084 

285 
308 
309 
347 

100 
313 
103 
242 
67 

118 
246 
191 
866 
1,547 

201 

6,634 

426 

219 

1,630 

2,306 


983 
58 
87 

564 
1,123 

97 
19 
25 
58 
20 

285 
136 
791 
26 
114 

86 
1,731 

141 
274 
309 
307 

98 
142 
98 
87 
67 

51 
219 
114 
667 
145 

114 
3,303 

106 
83 

762 
1,098 


2 
1 


9 


22 


46 
6 
2 
16 
31 

11 

1 


307 
17 
22 
133 
286 

32 

7 
1 
8 
4 

84 

44 

241 

8 

21 

17 
592 

43 

81 
65 
86 

30 
38 
25 
20 
13 

10 
59 
33 
136 
41 

43 
1,248 
38 
16 
283 
371 


697 

34 

62 

411 

797 

50 
11 
24 
43 
14 

180 
80 

499 
18 
90 

66 
1,020 

95 
183 
238 
216 

48 
96 
71 
62 
50 

39 
161 

78 
397 

86 

69 
1,870 
62 
67 
466 
662 


7 
11 

6 
203 
653 

2 
185 
25 




1 


1 


1 


2 
1 
1 

61 
174 


2 




10 


Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. . . 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 




1 
1 
5 

2 










6 


1 


2 

4 

2 


2" 


6 

1 


3' 


7 
20 


139 
45a 

2 




1 


1 
1 




6 


56 
11 


121 










13 










7 

1 

16 

6 

34 














1 

3 
3 
13 


146 


2 


1 


1 


12 


44 


86 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


2 
2 

1 


1 
1 
3 




16 
51 
132 

4 

16 
363 

144 
34 






1 
1 
1 


1 
3 
1 


• 6 
21 
37 


8 






1 

2 




25 




91 










3 

1 
106 

3 
8 
4 
3 

13 
6 

1 
4 

1 

2 
7 
3 
24 
15 

1 

132 

4 


4 


Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) . 
Messengers and errand and oflace hoys — 
Metal workers: 






2 
10 










1 
169 

43 
6 


15 




3 






2 
2 


16 

3 
2 


176 






96 








2 

1 
2 

6 






25 




1 














40 

2 
171 

5 
165 










13 

2 
44 

1 
47 


27 




i" 


1 
2 


















2 


125 










4 






1 
2 






1 


6 


101 


Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 

Printers and bookbinders: 


1 










67 

27 

77 

299 

1,402 

87 
8,331 
320 
136 
868 
1,207 








2 


18 

6 

15 

71 

384 

26 

1,194 

112 

43 
296 
465 


47 


Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 




1 


1 








22 








2 

14 
97 

7 
173 
10 

2 
39 
40 


60 




1 
1 


3 

1 


6 

1 

1 
37 
1 


1 

4 


1 
7 


4 
33 


208 




877 


Textile mill operatives: 


64 




7 


9 
1 


3 

1 


8 


35 
3 


1,918 




m 




91 




1 
2 


1 
2 


3 

11 


18 
60 


2 


1 

1 


10 
6 


521 


Another 


706 



clxxvi 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAE OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 








MALES 










FEMALES. 






OCCUPATIOXa. 


Total 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


13 

years 


14 

years 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


IS 

years 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


MASSACHUSETTS— Continued. 
Textile workers: 


189 
117 
142 
180 
141 
327 
2, 302 

26, 697 


2 

3 

12 

62 

40 

304 

1,682 

19,523 








1 


i 

7 

20 

11 

71 

456 

6,421 


1 

2 

6 

36 

29 

228 

1,135 

10,047 


187 
114 
130 
118 
101 
23 
620 

7,174 






1 

1 
1 

i 


7 
4 
7 
8 
2 


55 
30 
38 
33 
33 
4 
169 

2,029 


124 
78 
82 
76 
65 
19 

414 

4,048 


Milliners 










1 
2 

1 


Seamstresses 












1 




2 


4 


Another 


Woodworkers 






1 
13 

961 


4 
67 

2,167 








4 
358 


8 
579 


4 
58 


3 
103 


6 
260 


24 
676 


MICHIGAN. 




Agricultural laborers 


. 10,001 
559 
104 
116 
296 

3,039 

161 

95 

624 

197 
108 
419 
291 
166 

120 
210 
60S 
4,362 
79 

210 
72 

261 
112 
112 
166 
73 

677 

135 

397 

657 

2,381 

23, 014 


9,794 

370 

71 

8 

296 

2,932 

25 

95 

538 

194 
107 
401 
291 
102 

112 
159 
374 
390 
79 

61 
29 


305 
2 


499 
3 


734 
6 


1,405 
21 


2,692 
81 
12 
3 
78 

841 
1 
32 

187 

59 
20 
110 
65 
27 

35 

65 

102 

114 

21 

23 
4 


4,169 

257 

69 

4 

186 

1,690 

24 

62 

239 

130 
83 
269 
184 
63 

64 

92 

244 

186 

48 

35 
22 


207 
189 
33 
108 


17 


12 

1 


31 
2 


30 

14 


58 
41 
13 
36 




Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.. 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


131 
20 


Boxmakera (paper) . , 








1 

24 

253 




2 




7 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


2 
29 


2 
34 


85 






107 
136 


1 2 


3 
1 


13 
11 


■ 27 
41 




Launderers and laundresses 


62 
83 


Lumbermen and wood choppers 


i 


2 
3 

1 
1 


4 
25 

i 

2 
10 
2 

3 
1 
6 
13 
6 


6 
. 83 

4 

2 

20 

30 

7 

9 
10 
20 
67 

3 

3 
2 




Messengers and errand and office boys. . . 

Metal workers: 

Iron and steel workers 


86 

3 
1 
18 


2 1 1 


1 


15 


33 
2 


34 

1 

1 
14 


Machinists 










Another 










4 


Miners and quarrymen 


i' 

i' 

6 
1 


2 
2 

1 

1 

1 

14 










Painters, glaziers, and vamishers 


54 

8 

51 

134 

3,972 








2 


16 


37 

8 
42 


Printers and bookbinders 







9 

34 

1,121 


Salesmen and saleswomen 




2 
200 


7 
460 


Servants and waiters 


37 80 




Steam railroad employees 


2,074 


Textile mill operatives: 

Hosiery and knitting mill 


149 
43 

261 
112 
111 
125 
62 

577 

1 






4 

14 
8 
7 
9 
6 

40 


60 
16 

65 
27 
23 
39 
13 

188 


95 


Another 






1 




2 

2 
2 
4 
3 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 






1 
2 


25 


Mlinners 
















178 


Seamstresses 


1 
40 
11 

100 

134 

397 

686 

1,826 

16,973 










1 
12 

4 

29 

29 
104 
196 
484 

4,177 


26' 

58 

99 

249 

344 

1,175 

6,973 




75 


Tailors and tailoresses 

All othpr 








3 




77 
74 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 






1 

2 
7 
6 

42 

1,696 


12 

4 
35 
39 
106 

2,420 


1 


1 


43 


Woodworkers: 

Coopers 






347 


Saw and planing mill employees 

All other 


2 
8' 

790 


i' 

12 
1,017 












All other occupations 


71 
555 

6,041 


1 


6 

408 


2 

27 

770 


23 
161 

1,491 


45 


MINNESOTA. 
All occupations 


2 
187 


1 
293 


368 




2,892 


Agricultural laborers 


13,238 

464 

81 

186 

1,026 

88 
555 
137 
142 
269 

4,747 

76 

121 

144 
196 

123 

146 

59 

1,226 

98, 009 


12, 784 
325 
46 
186 
980 

6 
483 
132 
128 
187 

345 
74 
26 


734 


936 


1,422 
9 


2,019 
23 
4 
14 
95 


3,071 

76 

12 

63 

234 

1 
151 
82 
40 
43 

83 
22 
2 


4,602 

218 

80 

1U8 

5.il 

3 

242 

91 

77 

126 

131 
25 
19 


454 
139 
35 


52 
1 


62 


62 
2 


87 
13 


78 
37 
8 




Bookkeepers, clerks, 8tenographers,etc ... 

Boot ana shoe makers and repairers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


113 






86 
27 


26' 

1 
1 


2 
23 


9 
51 










Launderers and laundresses 


46 

83 
72 
5 
14 
72 

4,402 
2 
95 

144 
173 

34 

1 

6 

264 

34, 103 





4 


3 


i 

9 
4 


16 

21 

23 

I 

11 

1,137 

23' 

33 
37 

7 

1 . 

54 

6,760 


19 


Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers 


7 


20 
3 

1 

4 

34 
8 
1 


62 
6 
9 

14 

51 
11 
4 








63 
46 


Printera and bookbinders 

Salesmen and saleswomen 




1 










4 

12 


Servants and waiters 


22 
2 


24 
6 


132 


222 


326 


i 

614 

1 

10 

6 
6 

2 


60 


Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 
Textile mill operatives 


1,971 

1 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 

Another ;;;;■ 






i' 


1 
2 


i 

3 

5 

1 


61 


23 

89 I 

145 
53 
962 

63,906 






1 
4 

2 

1 
26 

11, 272 


3 

9 

9 
3 

84 

10, 754 


6 

23 

46 

14 

269 

12, 531 


13 

52 

86 

34 

565 

( 

12,285 

10,710 

52 

23 

73 

717 

1 

39 

44 

72 

160 


101 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 
Woodworkers: 


I 

1 
3' 

8,420 


1 

1 

1 

15 

8,644 


122 


Saw and planing mill employees 








All other occupations 










4 


MISSISSIPPI. 
All occupations 


1 

4,265 

3,828 
1 
1 . 


2 

4,340 

3,918 
1 


5 

6,298 

5,698 1 



13 

6,784 


189 




6,666 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. .. 
Brick and tile makers, etc 


88,828 

128 

78 

153 

4,111 

184 
179 
107 
162 
2,636 


68,454 

110 

76 

161 

2,910 

3 ,- 
171 
106 
146 
717 


7,940 

1 
4 

290 

1 


8,123 

4 

3 

3 

323 


10,508 

7 

6 

18 

439 


9,886 

17 

15 

19 

498 

1 

23 

14 

14 

116 


11, 287 

29 

25 

32 

643 

1 

36 

28 

36 

143 


30,374 

18 

2 

2 

1,201 

181 

8 

1 

16 


6,181 
1 

1 


6,005 
3 


5,744 
12 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters etc 




Laborers (not specified) . 








2 


Launderers and laundresses 


1.52 143 

2 9 

1 1 1 . 


202 
16 ,' 


216 

22 
2 


238 

46 
3 


260 


Packers and porters 


16 
3 

107 


24 
6 
5 

79 


34 

11 

16 

122 


87 
I 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


1 


Servants and waiters 


i 


1 1 
386 1 


2 
299 


390 1 




1,919 262 1 234 


409 



' Includes turpentine farmers and laborers. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxvii 



Table LXV.- 



-DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAB OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


MISSISSIPPI— Continued. 

Textile mill operatives: 
Cotton mill 


411 
24 

274 

15 

719 

61,649 


156 
6 

272 
15 
614 

52, 621 


11 

13 
26' 

4,086 


16 

1 

24 
2 
31 

5,016 


27 

36 

48" 

6,717 


29 
1 

34 
3 

84 

8,471 


36 
3 

80 

3 

151 

12,027 


38 

85 

7 

274 

16,305 


265 
19 

2 


13 


29 


38 


61 
3 

1 


53 
2 


71 


All other 


14 


Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 






1 




Another 










All other occupations . 


105 
9,028 


4 
268 


5 
367 


7 
639 


5 
1,244 


18 
2,575 


66 


MISSOURI. 
All occupations 


3,935 






37,537 

104 

1,009 

1,059 

76 

168 
133 
166 
116 
114 

779 

79 

92 

4,267 

278 

136 

76 

1,920 

102 
187 
178 
117 
196 

532 

226 

215 
143 

185 
474 
878 
4,745 
198 

161 
193 

587 
283 

77 

515 

131 

379 

2,848 

1,199 


36, 840 

68 

788 

640 

74 

149 

12 

166 

114 

45 

778 

79 

87 

4,094 

11 

135 

71 

1,760 

102 
184 
178 
114 
196 

630 
224 

80 
136 

184 
372 
610 
641 
69 


3,764 


4,468 


6,657 
2 

34 
26 
8 

11 

14' 

6 


6,148 
7 

76 

102 

11 

38 

3 

37 

16 

3 

124 

8 

14 

623 

2 
22 
10 
366 

7 
14 
11 
16 
13 

93 

44 

13 
23 

27 
36 
75 
99 

8 


7,761 

12 

204 

187 

16 

44 
3 
43 
24 
10 

221 

18 

25 

1,113 

3 

34 
16 
669 

20 
32 
28 
25 
39 

134 
61 

23 
40 

44 
107 
169 
160 

18 


9,172 

37 

462 

317 

31 

55 
5 
72 
62 
32 

352 

42 

36 

1,569 

5 

30 

31 

634 

60 
134 
137 

68 
138 

• 225 

57 

39 
63 

104 
210 
325 
221 
29 


697 

46 

221 

419 

2 

9 
121 


103 


114 


98 
4 
5 

17 


111 
12 
17 
66 


126 
15 
65 

163 
2 

1 
41 


146 




15 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


2 
2 
3 


11 
7 
5 

1 

1 




3 
1 


131 
183 










^ 


7 


Boxmakers (paper) ". . . .. 




1 


2 


50 








1 


5 


2 
69 

1 










2 
20 










3 


10 


36 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


17 
3 

■■■"ieo' 

1 

11 

1 

28 

3 
1 


19 

2 

4 

234 


45 

6 

8 

405 






1 
















6 
173 

267 
1 
6 

170 






1 
20 

10 


34 


3 

46 

88 


1 




10 

3 

1 


8 
1 


72 




131 




20 
5 
70 

6 
2 


18 

8 

183 

6 
1 
2 
4 
5 

44 
27 

5 
5 

4 
16 
26 

78 
2 




Merchants and dealers (exceptwholesale) . 
Messengers and errand and of&ce boys 








2 
61 


3 


5 


7 


25 


29 


43 




3 












3 


















11 
16 


1 

1 

23 
19 


3 








1 


1 


1 














2 
2 

135 

8 

1 

102 

268 

4,104 

139 

161 
192 
578 
166 
66 

263 


1 










1 


Newspaper carriers and newsboys 

Packers and porters: 










2 


1 


3 


4 
1 


23 

1 


48 
3 


66 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) ... 


1 

1 
1 
4 
38 


3 

4 

3 

12 

46 

2 


3 






1 








1 

13 

345 

12 

2 
6 
25 
8 
3 

7 


7 
28 
669 
18 

13 
12 
70 
30 
6 

64 


27 

84 

1,129 

46 

41 
64 
168 
49 
20 

82 


67 




1 
134 

1 

4' 


3 

200 

3 

2 
1 
4 


139 




1,727 




59 


Textile workers: 


103 




1 

9 

117 

11 

252 

131 

352 

2,^48 

929 










1 

1 

38 

1 

75 

26 
88 
604 

250 


6' 

61 
10 

116 

74 

190 

1,204 

445 


110 








1 
4 


1 
13 


307 




1 




79 








37 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 


1 

1 
2 
21 

20 


6 
7 
33 

34 


8 

4 

18 
128 

69 


45 

20 

47 

268 

111 


2 


3 


115 


27 
600 

270 






1 
27 

13 


6 

82 

24 


5 

185 

81 


15 




2 
4 


13 

7 


291 


MONTANA. 


141 








347 
34 

136 
56 
43 

33 
246 
40 
48 
216 

14, 777 


341 
34 

135 
56 
43 

24 
44 
40 
48 
166 

12, 282 


16 


22 


36 


54 
3 
10 
10 

1 

2 
6 

7 
7 
11 

1,840 


85 
7 
34 
19 
14 

9 
16 

6 
18 
42 

2,903 


129 
24 
75 
21 
21 

13 
19 
24 
17 
102 

4,364 


6 




2 


2 






2 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 








1 

i' 


6 
1 

2 


9 
4 
4 


1 

1 










1 




Messengers and errand and ofl&ce boys 










1 
















9 
202 






1 

8 


■■■■23^ 



67 


6 




1 
1 




2 
2 
6 

7 

1,411 


2 


4 


98 






Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 
















759 


3 
1,005 


51 
2,496 


2 

97 


1 
127 


o 
187 


1 
306 


11 
667 


34 


NEBRASKA. 
All occupations 


1,111 




10, 241 
200 
110 
650 
183 

257 
163 
1,829 
214 
124 
806 


9,962 
143 
109 
626 
143 

205 
107 
146 
201 
9 
631 


714 
3 


928 
2 

1 
18 
7 

2 


1,275 

3 

6 

41 

8 

9 

4 
11 

28 


1,682 

9 

16 

69 

20 

24 

6 

18 

41 


2,332 
36 
18 
168 
47 

71 
18 
39 
33 
1 
140 


3,131 

93 

68 

318 

61 

96 
79 
66 
51 
8 
393 


279 
57 
1 
24 
40 

52 
56 
1,683 
13 
116 
176 


31 
1 


30 

1 


41 


41 
4 


62 
16 


74 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


1 


3 




4 

1 

3 
1 
123 
1 
3 
8 


e' 

8 
6 
216 
3 
9 
13 


7 
16 

24 
18 
447 
4 
30 
43 


10 


Meat and fruit packers, csinners, etc 

Messengers and errand and office boys 




1 
■■"58' 


1 
1 

87 


15 
30 




3 
19 


9 
29 


752 


Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 




1 
2 


2 
5 


70 




8 


9 


26 


55 


104 


23054—04 xii 





clxxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


13 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


18 

years 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


NEVADA. 


2U 


183 


6 


8 


8 


8 


38 


115 


31 


1 


1 


2 


2 


12 


13 






84 
41 
89 

4,498 


82 
37 
64 

2,647 


2 
3 
1 

33 


6 


5 


3 
3 
2 

320 


20 
7 
11 

748 


46 
24 

46 

1,265 


2 
4 
25 

1,951 






1 


2 

238 


1 

1 
10 

693 










1 
12 

963 


All other occupationa 


2 
46 


3 
135 


1 
16 


1 
35 


1 
106 


NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
All occupations . 




Agricultural laborers 


477 
470 
263 
64 
356 

1,892 
190 
130 
113 
51 
513 

30,261 


476 
303 
238 
37 
34 

835 
79 
63 
58 
60 

374 

18, 467 


9 

i' 


3 
3 


24 
10 
9 
1 
2 

72 

2' 

2 
2 
11 

1,019 


53 
28 

18 

4 

166 
9 
3 
7 
3 
39 

2,467 


133 
95 
65 
10 
11 

242 
37 
26 
21 
15 
93 

5,413 


254 

167 

145 

26 

16 

313 
32 
31 
26 

28 
227 

9,071 


1 

167 
15 
17 

321 

1,067 

111 

67 

55 

1 

139 

11, 804 












1 
102 

8 
12 
165 

459 
69 
34 
31 


Boot and shoe makers and repairers 






2 

2 

1 

18 

71 
4 
6 
1 


19 
2 

""lo 

142 
16 
2 

8 


44 
2 
4 

87 

351 
32 
24 

15 


Laborers (not specified ) 


1 

i 

13 


21 






19 

2" 

2 

167 


1 

33 

1 
1 
2 

2' 

340 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cottonmill . ,. 


Hosiery and knitting mill 




1 


1 


Another 


Woodworkers 


88 


1 
2 

163 




2 
613 


9 
1,482 


34 
3,580 


92 


NEW JERSEY. 
All occupations 






Agricultural laborers . . . 


2,214 
109 
114 
184 

1,447 

330 
66 

174 
99 
52 

111 
168 
95 
50 
169 

509 
64 
62 

861 
67 

159 
1,703 
167 
131 
214 
1,784 

198 
390 
302 
124 
129 
495 

102 
273 
163 
86 

190 
356 
371 
199 

1,022 

3,297 

68 

73 

117 
481 
203 

2,278 
479 

1,196 

296 
133 
146 
288 
260 
265 
220 


2,100 
100 
112 
136 

1,114 

199 
66 
31 
93 
32 

111- 
66 
95 
16 
6 

607 
64 
62 

818 
38 

169 
1,623 
35 
119 
197 
1,676 

101 
379 
300 
118 
102 
418 

102 
137 
146 
62 

190 
211 
286 
160 

609 
330 
68 
42 

, 68 
202 
75 
788 
251 
464 

7 
47 

2 

10 

40 

106 

16 


60 

i' 


92 
2 

1 


183 
5 
3 
8 
16 

10 
3 

2 
6 

1 

2 
1 
1 
2 


347 
14 
16 
20 
97 

18 
10 

4 
13 

2 

7 
8 
8 
2 


689 
28 
28 
32 

285 

60 
17 
8 
30 
11 

29 
21 
26 
4 
2 

139 
6 

12 
232 

12 

44 
446 
10 
40 
65 
638 

11 
111 
64 
29 
27 
123 

23 
40 
43 
14 

68 
67 
94 
50 

167 
81 
15 

8 

22 
65 
24 

260 
77 

163 


839 
51 
63 
76 

705 

109 
28 
16 
42 
18 

72 
36 
68 
8 
4 

271 
51 
38 

231 
18 

77 
853 
22 
68 
109 
634 

72 
219 
213 
.73 

57 
242 

47 
72 
82 
29 

112 

90 

164 

77 

363 

102 

37 

26 

23 
73 
29 

341 
73 

179 

7 
31 

1 

7 

27 
67 
10 


114 

9 

2 

48 

333 

131 


14 


16 


19 


20 


19 
3 
1 

13 
88 

47 




Bakers 


6 

1 
31 
221 

67 


Barbers and hairdressers 










Bleachery and dye works operatives 








4 
19 

12 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc... 


4 

2 
2 
1 


7 

6' 

2' 






5 

4 


Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Bootblacks 




1 


Boxmakers (paper) 


143 

6 

20 




2 


4 


20 


39 




Brick and tile makers, etc 


78 
6 


Broom and brush makers 






1 


3 


5 


Butchers 


i' 

1 


1 

i' 








Carpenters and joiners 


102 






1 


12 


31 


58 


Corsetmakers 






34 
163 

2 






1 

1 


5 
19 


11 

66 


17 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Electricians 


3 


4 


20 

3 

3 

127 


70 
4 
7 
169 
8 

22 
203 

2 

16 

17 

285 

14 
42 
15 
10 
16 
46 

20 
18 
16 
16 

16 
37 
23 
20 

62 
47 
5 

7 

B 
37 
16 
124 
57 
80 






2 


Glassworkers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers. 


15" 


54 


43' 

19 




i" 


2" 


2 

1 


ii' 

7 


27 

11 


Hucksters and peddlers 


2 

13 


6 
20 


8 
88 
1 
4 
4 
93 

4 
6 
6 
5 
3 
6 

4 
7 
4 
3 

4 
12 
3 
3 

13 
66 

1 
1 

3 
21 

6 
51 
30 
40 








Launderers and laundresses 


80 

132 

12 

17 

109 

97 
11 
2 
6 
27 
77 


1 


1 


1 

6 
2 

1 
5 

2 
1 


10 

8 
2 
2 
19 

9 


26 
37 
2 
5 
45 

24 

1 


41 


Leather curriers and tanners 


3' 


1 
2 
22 








Merchants and dealers (except wholesale). 
Messengers and errand and office boys.... 


1 




8 
40 

62 
9 


Metal workers: 

Gold and silver workers 








2 
2 


i' 












2 


Wireworkers 








1 

1 
13 


2 
9 
23 


3 


All other 


3 


1 

5 






2 


39 












Painters, glaziers, and vamishers. . . . 




i' 


18 
23 




1 
1 


6 

i' 


14 
4 
2 


39 

7 
2 


77 


Paper and pulp mill operatives 


6 


Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 










18 






2 


145 
85 
49 

413 
2,967 






3 
1 


27 
5 
3 

26 
480 


44 
32 
13 

119 
866 


71 


Rubber factory operatives 






47 


Salesmen and saleswomen .... 


4 
23 


2i' 


1 
49 


1 

86 


7 
220 


33 


Servants and waiters 


269 


Steam railroad employees 


1,277 




i" 

3" 

1 

1 


5 

6 

1 

9 

13 

11 


31 

59 

279 

128 

1,490 

22K 
731 

289 
86 
144 
278 
210 
169 
204 










4 

16 
108 

39 
468 

79 
246 

72 
27 
43 
76 
66 
66 
63 


27 


Textile mill operatives; 






6 
16 

1 
46 
10 
63 

6 

1 
1 
5 
5 
6 
6 


8 
31 

8 
188 
48 
99 

17 
5 
13 
34 
24 
22 
18 






30 




1 
6' 

1 


4 
2 
11 
2 
9 

3 


119 


Silk mill 


78 


Woolen mill.... 


771 


Another 


89 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 


321 


Hat and cap makers 






1 


8 


7' 

1 
3 
8 
36 
6 


190 


Milliners 






63 
87 
161 


Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 






i' 

5 


4' 

8 
1 




2 

2 








113 


Another 






76 














118 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxix 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OP CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


IS 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 11 

years, years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


NEW JERSEY— Continued. 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Trunk and leather-case makers, cto 


438 

194 

211 

4,147 

3,531 


101 

113 

196 

2,667 

2,987 


19' 

244 


1 
1 
2 
S3 

317 


2 

7 

8 

110 

474 


22 

16 

18 

275 

466 


35 
41 
62 
785 

663 


41 

48 

116 

1,445 

833 


;i37 

81 

15 

1,480 

544 


1 ! 3 
2 


14 
3 


42 
9 


116 

22 

'4 

461 

134 


161 
45 
11 


All other occupations 


8 ; 16 
60 44 


42 
78 


173 

77 


781 


NEW MEXICO. 
All occupations 


161 






■;_ 




Agricultural laborers 


9.50 
833 
350 
1,104 
294 

91, 944 


923 

781 

83 

1,003 

197 

65,218 


61 

37 

16 

126 

6 

256 


100 

78 

7 

120 
12 

607 


148 
105 

17 
192 

12 

1,281 


132 
124 

15 
160 

26 

4,736 


217 
187 

12 
197 

50 

17, 036 


265 
260 

16 
209 

93 

31,402 


27 

52 

267 

101 

97 

30,726 


4 


5 
8 
40 
21 
4 

876 


4 
3 
46 
15 
9 

8,274 


6 
13 
63 
22 
30 

11,632 


6 




4 4 

23 ; 22 

19 1 11 

6 

188 , 335 


20 


Servants and waiters 


73 


Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 


13 

49 


NEW YORK. 


20, 422 






Actors, professional showmen, etc 


134 

151 

8,208 

262 

295 
496 

77 
88 

768 
5,950 

467 
1,065 

472 

892 
238 
153 
374 
267 

307 
385 
1,613 
192 
403 

330 
180 
618 
4,770 
607 

144 
128 
104 
874 
11, 113 

127 
164 
323 
629 
678 
419 
127 
481 

143 

318 

814 
231 

624 
268 
563 

659 
1,203 

101 

4,180 

10, 810 

122 

248 

636 
650 
903 
665 
488 
1,460 


73 

135 

8,011 

27 

246 
467 

77 
88 

317 

4,970 

92 

707 

462 

184 
232 
102 
374 
93 

307 
126 
1,509 
192 
373 

90 
180 
683 
4,448 
139 

111 

128 

37 

762 

9,643 

126 
151 
209. 
612 
676 
367 
105 
399 

78 
312 

238 
213 

482 
150 
661 

197 
1,122 

63 

2,242 

970 

122 

95 

227 
286 
251 
210 
244 
669 


1 

""im 
1 


2 

1 

197 


1 

4 

416 


12 

9 

985 

1 

20 
62 

1 
8 

18 

296 

4 

42 

76 

19 
81 

3? 
10 

14 

6 

106 

8 

23 

1 
18 
65 
370 
11 

4 
6 
3 
74 
995 

9 
7 
8 
20 
19 
32 
4 
14 

3 

48 

17 
12 

29 
14 
26 

19 
64 

3 
147 
99 
5 
4 

20 
16 
7 
13 
12 
45 


13 

30 

2,213 

14 

79 
134 
16 
26 

72 
1,879 

23 
229 
123 

67 
70 
33 
132 
44 

90 
36 

478 
37 

138 

32 
67 
203 
1,263 
44 

29 

26 

9 

202 

3,876 

33 

37 
69 
118 
134 
111 
32 
112 

20 
110 

77 
60 

122 
61 
127 

68 
310 

13 
636 
317 
25 
29 

V6 
120 
97 
75 
82 
207 


44 

91 

4,091 

11 

144 

236 

55 

61 

223 
3,202 
65 
426 
213 

96 
109 

58 
199 

39 

195 
82 
883 
146 
204 

67 

90 

283 

2,636 

80 

78 

96 

22 

448 

4,643 

80 
107 
139 
464 
616 
213 

67 
269 

48 
113 

141 
134 

326 

80 

400 

116 
736 

46 
1,410 

488 
88 
61 

126 
143 
143 
120 
147 
296 


61 

16 

197 

236 

49 
39 


6 , 4 


3 




9 
4 
56 
66 

14 
13 


39 
12 




^j '\ 


15 
2 


32 
17 

2 
2 


74 


Art:ifip.ifi,l fln^pr mnkprs 


149 






8 
18 
4 
1 

4 
66 


33 




4 

i' 


3 

2 

1 




1 


23 












i 










Bookkeepers, clerks, stenograpbera, etc.: 


441 
980 
375 
368 
10 

708 

6 

51 




2 
16 
6 
3 

9 
1 

1 


22 
62 
19 
22 
2 

74 

4" 


129 

274 

55 

104 

3 

212 
2 
15 


288 


Clerks and copyists 


7 


20 


3 
4 


5 
2 


620 


Stenographers and typewriters 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


289 


4" 

3' 


5 
13 

1 
6 
2 
2 


5 
33 

1 
13 

1 
10 


229 


i" 


1 
3 


4 




410 


Brick and tile makers, etc 


2 




31 












174 


1 


1 


1 


9 


64 


98 




6' 


2 
1 
10 


6 

1 
26 
1 

7 






260 
4 




2 


3 


24 


96 


135 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


4 


















1 


30 
240 


1 
1 






4 
19 


6 

77 


19 






2 


141 




6' 

28 
1 


5 
10 
46 


10 

17 

116 

3 






36 
322 
468 

33 


i' 

1 


1 
6 
2 


4 
3 

8 


6 

27 
46 

4 


12 
114 
149 

8 


12 




171 




262 




21 


















Meat, fish, and fruit packers, canners, etc. 
Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 
Messengers and errand and office boys — 

Metal workers: 


3' 

20 


2 
7 
49 

2 


1 
28 
161 

2 


67 

112 

1,470 

1 

13 

114 

17 

2 
52 
22 
82 

65 
6 

676 

18 

42 

108 

2 

462 
81 

38 
1,938 
9,840 


2 
1 
4 


2 

1 
8 


3 
1 

34 


8 

8 

199 


17 
39 
679 


35 
62 
646 

1 












6 

28 
6 


8 




1 
2 


2 


2 
6 

7 
6 
2 

1 

4 
25 

2 
6 

3 
4 
6 

4 

8 

1 

32 
38 

8 

1 

2 
6 
3 
1 
1 
9 


1 


1 
1 


2 

1 


3 


79 












2 


4 




1 




6 


9 
3 

19 

18 
2 

186 
10 

19 
26 


37 








7' 

1 

1 

1 

i' 


3 

3 
9 

i' 

1 
1 
1 






2 

2 

1 

9 


5 

6 
3 

89 
1 

1 
8 


66 






1 






39 








6 


1 




Packers and porters: 

Packers and shippers 


335 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) . . . . 






1 

1 


21 




2 




71 
2 


Paper and pulp mill operatives 


Printers and bookbinders: 






1 

1 

1 
34 
434 


26 
2 

1 
136 

1,182 


129 
23 

10 

543 

3,076 


307 


Printers, lithographers, and pressmen. 


3 


1 


i 




64 
26 




2 

14 
1 


10 

14 


2 

98 


9 

158 


1,214 
4,892 


Servants and waiters 


Steam railroad employees 


153 

308 
264 
662 
466 
244 
901 








6 

24 
20 
35 
23 
13 
68 


32 

107 
103 
223 
149 

87 
302 


115 


Telegraph and telephone operators 

Textile mill operatives; 


i' 


6 
2 
1 

2" 

2 




1 


3 

1 
6 
8 
1 
13 


173 




i' 


i" 

5 


887 
269 








2' 


4 


612 


All other 



clxxx 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.-DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900-Continued. 





Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 




STATES AND TEBBITOBIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


NEW YORK— Continued. 
Textile workers; 


2,269 
381 
929 

2,203 
I 1,217 

3, 961 
602 

1,171 
266 
103 

218 

831 

8,056 

110, 407 


25 
143 

15 

136 

184 

1,295 

86 

486 
161 
89 

214 

695 

5,149 

77,986 






2 
2 


3 
11 


9 
42 

4 

34 

52 

368 

27 

141 
61 
26 

64 

201 

1,667 

14,617 


11 
85 
11 
83 
119 
740 
48 

300 
85 
60 

126 

418 

3,098 

15,641 


2,244 

238 

914 

2,067 

1,033 

2,666 

517 

686 
104 
14 

4 

136 

2,907 

32,421 


6 

2' 

""'15' 
1 

2 


13 

3 
2 
13 

4 

27 

8 

4 
1 


35 
2 
13 

28 
19 
70 

1 

4 


139 

19 

60 
165 

78 
255 

31 

43 
8 


667 
75 
289 
669 
326 
839 
152 

221 
37 
4 


1,384 


Hat and capmakers 




3 


139 


Milliners 


550 






1 


4 
1 

25 
2 

8 
3 
1 

2 
21 
71 

13,346 


14 

12 

139 

8 

36 
12 
3 

18 
47 
382 

13, 719 


1,200 


Shirt, collar, and cu£E makers 


606 


Tailors and tailoresses 


12 


11 


1,460 


All other 


324 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 




2 


411 
58 


Upholsterers 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 

All other 






10 


3 

11 

9,807 


4 
6 
30 

10,956 










4 


2 
12 

3,902 


7 
20 

4,206 


8 
56 

5,539 


18 
241 

6,619 


42 
989 

6,275 




1,690 
6,880 


NORTH CAROLINA. 




Agricultural laborers ^ 


83,403 
196 
88 
269 

221 

7,902 

324 

87 

295 

130 

219 

4,807 

9,445 
304 
119 
175 

197 
931 

231 
119 
945 

4,144 


63,432 
187 
88 
269 

220 

6,817 

11 

87 

289 

80 

206 

836 

4,343 
139 
49 
150 

18 
601 

231 

70 

864 

3,125 


8,360 

7 

9 

10 

16 
661 


9,369 
9 
9 

22 

21 

648 


10,974 
20 
13 
33 

23 

967 
4 
10 

39 
12 
U 
162 

776 
23 
5 
35 

2 

108 

31 
16 

88 

349 


11, 131 
22 

15 
42 

42 
1,045 

!■/' 

68 
14 
27 
144 

803 
23 

7 
17 

1 
112 

33 

8 
148 

477 


11,645 
43 
18 
66 

46 

1,185 

3 

14 

67 
12 
48 
161 

848 

33 

7 

29 

3 
125 

72 
16 
176 

783 


11,953 
86 
24 
96 

72 

1,321 

4 

33 

69 
36 
98 
179 

872 
25 
16 
21 

10 
148 

76 
22 
381 

1,096 


19,971 
9 


2,713 


2,802 


3,542 


3,461 


3,655 
2 


3,808 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.. 


Brick and tile makers, etc 






1 




Tlrftyrtien, hnckmen, tPAmntfirs, Ptc 








1 






Fishermen and oystermen 


1 

2,085 

313 
















226 
14 


224 
16 


347 
23 


356 
44 


431 

87 


501 
129 


TiauTiderera nrtd la,UTi dressers 


I.Timbermen n,Tid wood choppers 


4 

19 

2 

4 

106 

482 

14 

8 

21 

1 
51 

7 

3 

32 

167 


9 

27 

4 

11 

94 

663 

21 

6 

27 

1 
57 

13 
6 
39 

263 




Messengers and errand and office boys 

Packers and porters 

Salesmen and saleswomen 


6 

50 

14 

3,971 

6,102 
165 
70 
25 

179 
330 


i' 

"'424' 

454 

13 
9 
4 

10 
26 


2 

3 

1 

431 

640 
24 

7 

9 
31 


1 

7 

1 

636 

853 
23 
11 

8 

24 
49 


9' 

'"672" 

946 
32 
12 
2 

30 
46 


2 

14 

4 

799 

1,069 
36 
16 
7 

42 

86 


1 

16 

8 

1,009 

1,141 
37 
15 
4 

64 
92 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 

Hosiery and knitting mill 


SUkmill 

All other 


Textile workers 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 


Another 

All other occupations . 


49 
81 

1,019 

146 
14 

820 

1 

38 

12, 894 


5 
3 

63 


8 
8 

69 


9 
6 

92 


8 
12 

128 


9 

16 

262 


10 
37 

415 


NORTH DAKOTA. 




Agricultural laborers 


2,734 
192 
888 
156 
174 

47,059 


2,588 

178 

68 

165 

136 

34,165 


149 
7 
3 
8 

1,079 


226 
4 
3 
19 

1 

1,444 


295 
15 

8 
25 

6 

2,144 


401 
23 
16 
26 
13 

3,979 


629 
48 
19 
39 

48 

8,643 


888 
81 
20 
39 
68 

16,876 


24 
""'"29' 


21 

1 

47 


25 
'6^ 


19 

3 

103 


29 

4 

226 






5 




Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 


1 


All other occupations 






1 
515 


3 
1,327 


3 
3,583 


31 


OHIO. 
All occupations 


184 


224 






Agricultural laboreiB 


14,666 

136 

89 

1,268 

1,206 

185 
164 
82 

87 

489 
471 
lor. 
108 

6,128 
204 

88 
1,788 

817 
467 
272 
632 

1,054 
145 

320 
120 


14, 451 
121 
84 
873 
748 

20 
143 
82 

87 

486 
419 
106 
103 

4,962 
15 
72 

1,643 

786 
466 
230 
494 

1,049 
145 

125 

117 


907 


1,168 


1,565 

1 

1 

18 

11 


2,266 

7 

6 

39 

83 

2 
11 
2 

7 

33 

48 
9 
12 

497 

i' 

238 

39 

15 

7 

22 

92 
29 

9 
5 


3,397 
47 
27 
209 
224 

4 
42 
18 
28 

127 
123 
29 

27 

1,298 

6 

17 

669 

197 
77 
66 

114 

256 
37 

36 
21 


5,148 
66 
49 
697 
426 

14 
86 
61 
49 

312 

230 

62 

59 

2,696 

9 

51 

794 

540 

366 

154 

. 844 

650 
41 

81 
89 


215 

16 

6 

395 

458 

165 
11 


26 


19 


34 


41 
1 


30 

2 

2 

82 

139 

53 
3 




Bakers 


12 
3 


Barbers and hairdressers 


1 
3 
1 


7' 

4 








Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. . . 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Boxmakers (paper) 




1 

1 


4 
3 

1 


9 
30 

12 


299 
286 

99 


Brick and tile makers, etc 




1 


3 

1 
3 

8 
12 
3 
3 

229 

1 

2 

32 

8 

5 

1 

11 

39 
26 






Butchers 




Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


1 

]'- 

1 

108 


6 
6 
2 

1 

134 




3 

62 












3 










6 


14 


32 














5 

166 

189 

16 

146 

31 
1 

42 
38 

6 










1 

44 

57 

5 

62 

7 


4 


Laborers (not specified) 




6 



7 
1 


9 
8 
3 
4 

1 


18 

21 

2 

17 

2 




Launderers and laundresses. . 


83 

107 

6 


Merchants and dealers (except whoiesale) 
Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal -workers: 

Iron and steel workers 


3' 

i' 

3 
3 


1 

7 

2 
3 
2 

2 

9 
9 




1 


61 


Machinists 


21 








1 


All other 








4 

1 


12 
7 


26 








2 


28 


Miners and quarrymen . . 








Newspaper carriers and newsboys 

Packers and porters: 

Packers and shippers 


3 












195 
3 






1 


10 

1 


59 
1 


125 
1 


Porters and helpers {in stores, etc.) . . . 






2 







> Includes turpentine farmers and laborers. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxxi 



Table LXV.— DISTKIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OP EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TEKEITOKIES AND SELECTED 
OCCtrPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 








MALES. 








FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


13 

years. 


14 

years. 


16 

years. 


OHIO— Continued. 
Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 


268 
105 
87 
346 
513 

123 
1,079 
6,852 

104 
84 

119 
150 
148 

430 
210 
591 
892 
168 

886 

86 

605 

3,331 

7,858 


262 
60 
87 
234 
416 

84 
722 
665 
103 

60 

9 
43 
70 

2 

2 

7 

231 

16 

271 

73 

474 

2,478 

7,309 


1 


1 


3 
1 

1 
6 
3 


19 
1 
2 
20 
31 

6 
33 
105 
4 
2 

4 
4 
6 

1 


66 
14 

16 
66 
96 

19 
184 
170 

17 

7 

1 
12 
21 

i" 

2 

74 
4 

93 

8 
141 
638 

1,425 


162 

34 

69 

141 

286 

60 
486 
236 
78 
41 

4 
24 
42 

1 

1 

4 

141 

12 

148 

62 

274 

1,599 

1,712 


16 
55 










2 
14 


14 


Paper and pulp mill operatives 




1 




3 


37 


Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 








Potters 




1 


112 
98 

39 

357 

6,187 

1 

34 

110 
107 
.78 

428 
208 
584 
661 
162 

616 
13 
31 

853 

649 






2 
3 

5' 

352 


7 
3 

1 

26 
789 


27 
21 

7 

93 
1,794 


76 


Printers and bookbinders 






71 


Rubber factory operatives. . . 






i' 

143 


1 
"'175 


30 


Salesmen and saleswomen 


2 

35 
1 


2 
54 

1 


15 
66 
2 


233 

2,934 

1 


Servants and waiters 


Steam railroad employees 


Telegraph and telephone operators 








2 

5 
6 
1 

25 
11 
61 
99 
16 

42 

i' 

55 

84 


7 

31 
31 
20 

109 

50 
148 
230 

31 

172 
3 
9 

202 

107 


25 


Textile mill operatives: 

Hosiery and knitting mill. . . 










1 


2 
2 
1 

4 

25 

7 

9 
1 

1 
16 

66 


71 


Woolen mill 




1 


2 
1 


68 


Another 






66 


Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 






1 


1 

1 

7 




Milliners 








146 


Seamstresses 








1 
15 


347 


Tailors and taOoresses 






1 


307 


Another 






7 


4 


87 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 




3 


6 


22 

3 

60 

172 

1,238 


392 


Upholsterers 






9 


Woodworkers 


7' 

839 


1 
17 

939 


8 
45 

1,166 






20 


All other occupations 


1 
49 


3 

76 




OKLAHOMA. 
All occupations 


169 








7; 123 
237 
266 
233 

2,852 


6,840 

229 

38 

202 

2,331 


820 
9 
4 
6 

94 


910 
11 
3 
16 

103 


1,106 

26 

6 

18 

190 


1,159 

46 

7 

26 

302 


1,310 

65 

8 

42 

561 


1,535 
72 
10 
96 

1,081 


283 

8 

227 

31 

521 


37 

"■"i2' 


52 
2 
21 


47 


46 


48 
1 

52 
6 

126 


53 
5 


Laborers (not specified) 




17 
1 

29 


36 
2 

59 




All other occupations 




OREGON. 


11 


23 








Agricultural laborers 


1,267 

42 

42 

373 

40 
90 
68 
420 

40 

45 

48 

377 

120,076 


1,240 
36 
42 
361 

40 
85 
55 
46 

33 
11 
48 
334 

84,196 


75 


79 


124 

3 

4 

28 

3 

8 
2 
1 


181 
2 
2 
37 

3 
20 
3 
2 

5 


301 
6 
14 
69 

6 
26 
20 
14 

8 
3 
13 
83 

23,779 


480 
26 
21 

206 

24 
32 
30 
25 

20 

8 

30 

180 

33,101 


27 
6 


4 


2 

1 


6 


2 
2 


5 


3 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.. 


3 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


S 

2 


1 
13 

3 






12 


1 






1 


2 














5 

13 

374 

7 
34 






1 


1 

1 

47 

1 
2 


3 
3 

87 

1 
11 




Salesmen and saleswomen 










9 


Servants and waiters 


1 


3 


5 


16 


18 


201 






Textile workers 










2 


1 


18 




2 
6 

2,067 






3 

44 

14,286 




All other occupations 


4 
3,614 


17 
7,348 


43 
35,881 


1 
468" 


2 
944 


3 
2,047 


2 
5,703 


14 
10, 817 


21 


PENNSYLVANIA. 


15,902 








83 
18,716 

87 
373 
282 

154 

189 

2,353 

139 

767 
115 
573 
538 
92 

166 
111 
207 
264 
374 

1,408 
182 

1,896 
172 
207 

13,413 
435 
397 
114 

79 

78 

334 

6,544 


78 

18,462 

4 

291 

266 

146 

71 

1,914 

64 

460 

115 

67 

635 

72 

166 
46 
207 
264 
116 

1,405 
182 

1,622 
172 
201 

13,124 

69 

346 

114 

79 

78 

311 

6,115 


1 
1,100 


1 
1,668 


3 
2,286 
1 
3 
9 

10 

1 
46 


7 
3,029 


27 
4,469 


39 

5,920 

3 

160 

122 

79 

47 

1,140 

46 

225 
37 
24 

226 
31 

95 

21 

125 

101 

63 

685 
87 

626 
94 
91 

6,562 
37 
176 
50 

40 

60 

161 

2,025 1 


5 

264 

83 

82 

16 

8 

118 
439 

75 

307 










1 
60 
18 
31 

7 

3 

24 
134 
14 

98 


4 




22 


24 


36 
3 

1 

1 


41 

11 

15 

2 

2 

13 

31 

1 

48 


72 




51 




2' 


3 

7 


47 
28 

24 

6 

185 

5 

70 
12 
20 
96 
12 

21 

7 

22 

44 

18 

196 
28 

349 
22 
29 

2,008 
9 
38 
12 

11 

6 

44 

1,393 


78 
98 

33 

18 
536 
13 

148 
29 
22 

166 
26 

40 
15 
61 
76 
41 

447 
65 

508 
46 

58 

3,709 

23 

122 

32 

25 

18 

84 

2,133 




1 


34 




6 


Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.; 






5 








1 
6 


3 
13 


77 




2 


6 


266 


stenographers and typewriters 

Boot and shoemakers and repairers 




1 
6 


9' 


16 
22 

1 
38 

2 

6 
2 
8 
29 
4 

47 
7 
100 
10 
13 

1,071 






6 


155 










506 

3 

20 




4 


21 


114 


167 


200 






9 
1 

3 


3 










4 


8 


a 














66 






1 


10 


20 


35 




8' 


1 
6 

























258 
3 




1 


6 


46 


80 


125 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Engineers and firemen (not locomotive).. 


10 
12' 


20 

6 

28 


3 








; 




274 




6 


9 


61 


82 


127 








3 

272 


7 
502 


6 

289 
366 
61 


6 
1 


1 

12 
2 
1 






2 

91 
120 
19 


3 




17 
11 


37 
28 
8 


126 




204 




2 

i' 

1 
37 


2 

8 

1 
1 

1 
90 


8 
10 

2 

2 

20 

437 


23 






































Merchants and dealers (exceptjvholesale) . 
Messengers and errand and office boys. . . . 


23 
429 






1 

29 


3 
113 


6 
155 




5 


4 


123 



clxxxii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



states and tebr1t0eie8 and selected 
Occupations. 



PENNSYLVANIA— Continued. 



Metal workers: 

Blacksmiths 

Braaaworkers '."[ 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Tin plate and tinware makers! 
Tool and cutlery makers. . 
Another 



Miners and quarrymen 

Newspaper carriers and newsboys ....'.'.'.'. 
Packers and porters: 

Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, eto.')'!' 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives , 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters ..." 

Potters 

Printers and bookbinders: 

Bookbinders 

Printers, lithographers, an4 pressmen! 

Kubber factory operatives 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Servants and waiters 

Steam railroad employees ."'. 

Telegraph and telephone operators ...III! 

Textile mill operatives: 

Carpet factory 

Cotton mill .' ' " 

Hosiery and knitting mill 

Silkmill : 

Woolen mill '_\ 

"" All other 



Textile workers: 

Dressmakers 

Hat and cap makers.. 
Milliners 



Shirt, collar, and cuflE makers . 

Tailors and tailoresses 

All other 



Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . 
Trunk and leather-case makers, etc... 

Umbrella and parasol makers 

Upholsterers 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees. . 

All other 

All other occupations ','..'. 



EHODE ISLAND. 
All occupations 



Agricultural laborers 

Bleachery and dye works operatives. . . '. 
Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. 

Draymen, hacltmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 



Messengers and errand and office bovs. 
Metal workers: 

Gold and silver workers 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

All other 



Packers and porters 

Rubber factory operatives . 
Salesmen and saleswomen . 
Servants and waiters 



Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 

Woolen mill 

All other 

Textile workers 

All other occupations . . . 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural laborersi 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers and laundresses 



Messengers and errand and office boys.. 

Packers and porters 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Servants and waiters 



Aggre- 
gate. 



146 
103 
2,456 
696 
467 
200 
624 

14, 592 



788 
167 

■341 
218 
196 
113 

199 
844 

87 

2,338 

13,695 

347 

124 



361 
1,151 



1,110 
3,464 



915 
181 
368 
612 
867 
1,050 
477 

2,466 
162 
212 

77 

163 

767 

7,395 



Total. 



146 
98 
2,401 
694 
436 
171 
635 

14, 516 



239 
153 

321 
164 
196 
64 

77 
747 



1,388 

1,287 

341 

82 



202 
459 
738 

1,689 
537 

1,289 



449 
133 



759 

44 



163 
551 



9, 034 6, 143 



261 
168 
170 
57 
296 

469 

407 
116 
101 
113 

79 
153 
198 
236 



2,122 
1,006 
1,864 
139 
1,100 



95, 280 



76, 226 

128 

80 

6,673 



245 

83 

141 

3,327 



243 
133 
112 
67 
260 

469 

200 
94 
99 
76 

37 
69 
124 
34 



1,024 
431 
872 
26 
793 



56, 363 



1,607 

112 

80 

1,366 



2;!7 

79 

129 

874 



10 

years. 



400 
17 



.34 



7,217 



6,126 

1 

2 

403 



133 



11 

years. 



2 
1 
2 
2 

917 
18 



12 

years. 



121 
2 



1 
2 

71 
9 
9 
5 

10 

2,119 
41 



13 

years. 



15 
10 
306 
43 
66 



44 
148 



100 



32 
20 
12 
11 

10 
76 

3 
141 
216 
26 

5 



47 
107 
188 
362 
117 
268 



7,362 



6,200 
3 



35 

2 

3 
92 I 



102 
36 

102 
1 
47 



9,957 

8,344 

12 

3 

591 

2 



7 

7 

168 I 



60 
24 

115 
6 

. 18 
4 

18 
117 
826 



182 
66 
164 

'im 



9,540 



7,906 

14 

10 

519 

1 



14 

12 

143 



14 

yeare. 



27 
24 
776 
139 
132 
62 
151 

3,892 
112 

78 
40 

80 
54 
47 
20 

27 
219 



394 
316 
65 
18 



61 
160 
229 
526 
178 
426 



1 

16 
2 
20 
38 
153 
50 

242 
14 
29 
12 



156 
1,608 



1,364 



15 

years. 



300 
120 
237 
7 
199 



11, 012 



8, 962 

17 

715 

3 

41 
25 
37 

184 



100 

62 

1,229 

400 

229 

68 

319 

4,209 
117 



194 
73 

136 
31 

40 
419 

23 
797 
390 
246 

69 



87 
158 
272 
569 
210 
626 



1 
36 

3 
19 
40 
194 
64 



Total. 



335 
26 
37 
41 



266 
2,636 



2,531 



130 
61 
75 
33 

164 

208 

127 
58 
84 

49 

16 
43 

77 
17 



402 
206 
339 
18 
424 



11, 275 



' Includes turpentine farmers and laborers. 



9,069 

60 

44 

732 

2 

66 

30 

67 

164 



549 

4 



122 
97 

52 

950 

12, 308 



159 

§92 

2,930 

3,279 

573 

2,175 



913 
113 
363 
671 
774 
601 
344 

1,707 

108 

123 

18 



206 
2,000 



3,891 



36 

10 

207 

22 

2 

37 

42 

84 

74 

202 



574 
992 
113 
307 



38, 917 



29, 619 
16 



2,218 
298 

8 

4 

12 

2,453 



10 

years. 



11 

years. 



12 

years. 



2 
371 



12 

654 



years. 



17 



23 

1,054 

1 



64 



14 

years. 



15 

years. 



182 



10 

90 

1,902 



4 



170 
242 
23 
84 



5,029 



134 
603 
634 
103 
391 



80 
13 
26 
66 
108 
82 
48 

284 
14 
19 



18 
322 



30 

13 

269 

3,410 

1 



61 
220 
992 
,036 
192 
778 



224 
26 
109 
167 
228 
173 
108 

638 
39 
43 

4 



4 
27 

2 
16 
16 
67 

21 
1 



4 
12 



10 



3,963 



297 
6 



316 



3,876 



65 
631 



1,115 



73 
56 

26 

654 

4,917 

4 



64 

308 

1,125 

1,279 

261 

903 



681 
73 
226 
341 
410 



796 
51 
61 
11 



171 
85 

162 
10 
30 



7,131 6,554 



6,541 5,012 

1 ' 2 



433 



SS-1 
48 



160 
299 



86 



124 



1,910 

6 
14 
44 



129 
13 
2 
25 

26 
67 



477 
279 
448 



449 



463 
128 



390 i 



2 I 1 

1 I 1 

1 4 7 

372 I 626 601 



SUMMARY'AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxxiii 



Ta?le LXV.— distribution, by YEAB of age, of the number of children of each sex 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TEERITOSIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 



SOUTH CAROLINA— Continued. 



Textile mill operatives; 

Cotton mill 

Hosiery and knitting mill. 

All other 

Woodworkers 

All other occupations 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 
All occupations 



Agricultural laborers 

Laborers (not specified) 

Servants and waiters 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 
All other occupations 



TENNESSEE. 
All occupations 



Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. 

Bootblacks 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 



Launderers and laundresses 

Lumbermen and wood choppers 

Messengers and errand and office boys. 

Metal workers 

Miners and quarrymen 



Packers and porters 

Printers and bookbinders . . 
Salesmen and saleswomen . 

Servants and waiters 

Steam railroad employees . . 



Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mil] 

Hosiery and knitting mill. 

Woolen mill 

All other 

Textile workers 



Tobacco and cigar factory operatives . 
Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees. . 

All other 

All other occupations 



TEXAS. 
All occupations 



Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not speciiied) 



Launderers and laundresses 

Messengers and errand and office boys. 

Metal workers. 

Miners and quarrymen 



Printers and bookbinders 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Servants and waiters 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers. 



Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 

All other 

Textile workers 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees. 

All other 

All other occupations 



UTAH. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural laborers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 

Messengers and errand and office boys. 

Servants and waiters 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 

All other occupations 



Aggre- 
gate. 



1,049 
173 
86 
92 
771 



7,095 



5,541 
138 
970 
235 
211 



76, 302 



59,807 

236 

100 

361 

6,436 

334 
124 
877 
172 
669 

207 
78 
272 
4,669 
102 



443 
141 
269 
46 
168 



174 
123 
968 



91, B71 



79, 259 

286 

263 

5,097 



108 
138 

121 

890 

2,823 

549 



209 
93 

174 

198 

12 

1,154 



2,525 



1,148 
61 

371 
87 

376 
87 

405 



Total. 



8,995 
74 
50 
92 
671 



5,876 



6,266 

127 

73 

235 

176 



62, 530 
190 



360 
6,901 



12 
123 
365 
172 



184 
64 
226 
1,099 
100 



189 
43 

127 
26 
15 



70 



166 
114 



73, 604 



64,728 

265 

262 

4,421 

21 
389 
108 
137 

113 
348 
867 
544 



12 
1,035 



2,095 



1,138 
51 

361 
86 
62 
84 

313 



10 

years. 



471 

17 

4 

1 

27 



420 
.6 
6 

16 
4 



7,283 



6,561 

2 

7 

9 

481 

1 

10 
14 



6 

122 

2 



1,158 
2 
7 



11 

years. 



618 
6 
7 
29 



8,218 



7,269 

3 

5 

15 

600 



115 



129 
91 



12 

years. 



13 



785 



712 
11 



10, 158 



8,651 
14 
14 
30 



6 

188 

2 



18 
6 
1 

12 

19 

9 

81 

11, 761 



10, 761 

9 

19 

528 

6 
46 

7 
27 



18 

109 

84 



137 
2 

SO 
7 

12 
7 

10 



13 

years. 



782 
10 
11 
12 

117 



990 



916 
9 
15 



11, 017 



9,146 
22 
11 
57 

1,029 

8 
20 
71 
18 
117 



27 

184 

11 



27 
17 
128 



12, 109 



10, 786 
26 
36 
676 

1 
78 
20 
21 

14 

40 

141 



21 
14 

1 

28 

1 

127 



160 
1 
43 
9 
9 
9 
17 



14 

years. 



784 

15 

6 

21 

181 



1,296 



1,164 

35 

9 

60 

38 



12,749 



10,143 

46 

28 

103 

1,829 



23 

95 

50 

166 

61 
17 
55 
210 
29 



43 

29 

221 



14, 765 



12,543 

73 

78 

1,078 



33 



94 
197 
128 



15 
4 

48 

3 

283 



278 
11 



16 

years. 



744 
10 
12 
50 

246 



1,436 
62 
29 
56 
110 



14,286 



10, 771 

103 

34 

146 

1,671 



103 
94 
243 



36 
125 
280 

53 



65 
46 
367 



16, 929 



13, 812 

162 

115 

1,440 

7 

107 

57 



50 
185 
252 
142 



13 
11 
10 

77 

7 

469 



921 



402 
37 

175 
40 
12 
40 

215 



Total. 



4,054 
99 



100 



1,219 



276 
11 
897 



12, 661 



7,277 

46 

1 

1 

535 

822 

1 

12 



23 

14 

46 

3,570 

2 



254 
98 

142 
20 

163 



100 



17, 967 



14, 631 

21 

1 

676 

277 
10 



111 
41 
158 



430 
10 



10 

1 

314 



10 

years. 



432 
8 
2 



1,367 



1,030 
1 



1 

254 

1 



2,190 



1,945 
2 



2 

138 

1 



11 

years. 



512 
13 



1,621 



1,092 

1 



836 
1 



64 



146 
1 



12 

years. 



710 
16 
5 



31 

1 

107 



2,000 



1,287 



21 



1 
527 



2,596 
2 



114 
17 



1 
231 



18 

years, 



746 
17 
8 



49 

1 

128 



2,200 



1 

1 
620 



2,506 
1 



123 



U 

years. 



802 
30 
6 

"21' 



61 

3 

213 

'"5 



2,615 



1,291 
13 



131 

78 

■■"4' 



5 

6 

17 

840 



3,513 



2,677 

7 

1 

147 



4 
10 

477 
2 



78 



clxxxiv 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXV.— DISTKIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATES AND TERKITORIES AND SELECTEE 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years. 


13 

years 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years 


11 

years 


12 

years 


13 

years. 


U 

years. 


15 

years. 


VERMONT. 
All occupations 


3,070 


2,170 


13 


30 


78 


186 


510 


1,353 


900 


4 


8 


30 


83 


214 


561 




Agricultural laborers 


1, 201 
248 
665 

206 
140 
114 
92 
505 

65,745 


1,193 
238 
49 

100 
61 
13 
86 

430 

44, 651 


12 


22 
2 
1 

3 


48 
10 
5 

5 

1 


117 
16 
4 

14 
2 


303 
57 
14 

22 
12 
4 
14 
84 

10,035 


691 
153 
25 

66 
46 
9 

66 
308 

11,882 


8 

10 

516 

105 
79 

101 
6 
76 

11,094 




1 






2 

4 

145 

20 

14 

17 

1 

11 




Laborers (not specified) 


1 
17 

6 
4 
2 


'"ei 

8 
4 
6 


5 
284 

70 
67 
76 
5 
69 

3,366 


Servants and waiters 


3 

1 


6 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 


All other 


Textile workers 










Woodworkers 


i 

3,862 


1 

1 

4,682 


2 

7 

6,666 


4 
29 

7,636 






All otber occupations 


8U 


1 
892 


1,666 


4 


VIRGINIA. 
All occupations 






Agricultural laborers 


33,632 

367 

79 

283 

407 

7,660 
307 
421 
238 
313 

262 

83 

354 

7,288 

128 

546 
182 
121 
83 
160 

1,051 

224 

180 

1,407 

3,386 


31,022 

326 

79 

281 

402 

6,566 

13 

409 

230 

312 

216 

62 

302 

1,692 

128 

286 
79 
36 
39 
11 

663 

221 

136 

1,163 

2,807 


2,975 

3 

3 

4 

11 

604 
1 

24 
6 

10 

6 

1 

2 

198 

18 
5 
3 
1 


3,609 

4 

6 

9 

26 

668 

35 

8 
9 

6 
4 
9 
210 
3 

34 
7 
5 
2 


4,861 

8 

13 

28 

45 

936 
1 
66 

15 
41 

16 
1 

12 

309 

7 

50 
8 
7 

4 


5,363 
30 
8 
46 
62 

1,131 

2 

73 

27 

66 

38 

4 

46 

298 

10 

62 
14 
4 
8 
3 

138 

34 
21 
167 

346 


6,740 

91 

20 

73 

110 

1,591 

4 

100 

64 

83 

65 
18 
76 
332 
28 

76 
21 
11 
8 
1 

163 

46 

26 

289 

715 


7,584 
189 
29 
121 
149 

1,826 

5 

112 

110 

113 

86 

34 

157 

345 

80 

65 
24 
6 
16 

7 

181 

107 

61 

495 

1,311 


2,610 
32 


265 


286 


423 
1 


495 562 
5 9 




Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc.. 


17 


Brick and tile makers, etc 






Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 


2 

5 

1,096 

294 

12 

8 

1 

36 

21 

62 

6,696 












Fishermen and oystermen 


1 

113 

7 


106 

7 
2 


1 

169 
19 

1 
2 


1 2 

186 239 

46 74 

1 7 

2 




Laborers (not specified) 




Launderers and laundresses 


282 


Messengers and errand and oflice boys. . . 
Metal workers 


141 
1 


Miners and quarrymen 


1 


1 

1 


4 


Packers and porters 


2 


6 . 11 

2 5 

6 7 

904 1,350 




Printers and bookbinders 


16 


Salesmen and saleswomen , . 

Servants and waiters 


" 'i' 

383 


"'428' 


2 
810 


36 


Steam railroad employees 


1,721 


Textile mill operatives: 

Cotton mill 


260 
103 
86 
44 
149 

388 

3 

44 

254 

678 

76 
17 


18 
3 
2 

2' 

6 


15 
4 
6 
6 

7 

7 


43 
8 

13 
5 
9 

29 


36 77 
21 1 28 
13 22 
6 : 14 




Hosiery and knitting mill 


71 


Silk mill "... 


3i 


Another 


29 


Textile workers 


13 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers: 
' Saw and planing mill employees 


36 

8 

6 

38 

1% 


60 

2 
10 
67 

138 


85 

24 
24 
107 

218 


17 1 
68 1 


38 
106 

3 

13 


76 
172: 


All other occupations .'." 


1 
8 

12 


4 
13 

14 


7 
21 

34 


8 


11 


WASHINGTON. 
All occupations 


32 58 
70 146 


122. 




302- 


Agricultural laborers 

Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. . ! 
Draymen, hackjuen, teamsters, etc 


1,314 

86 

68 

374 

59 

125 
92 
94 

537 

136 
13 
499 

24,824 


1,239 

68 

68 

371 

59 

125 
92 
84 

126 

136 

13 

437 

22,343 


61 

a 

7 
1 

i' 

i' 


106 

1 

9' 

2 

1 
1 
1 
4 

6 


163 

2 

1 

17 

3 

8 
4 
1 

7 

3 

1 

18 

3,279 


188 

7 

3 

28 

8 

26 
8 
3 

21 

11 
2 
42 

3,747 


273 
12 
14 

106 
13 

42 
26 
23 
34 

39 

6 

128 

4,808 


468 
46 
38 

204 
32 

49 
52 
56 
69 

76 

5 

236 

6,708 


8 
1 


8 


14 
1 


15 ; 18 
6 


12 
10' 


Lumbermen and wood choppers! 


3 




1 




1 


1 






Messengers and errand and office boys 

Miners and quarrymen 














Salesmen and saleswomen 














Servants and waiters 


10 
411 






1 

14 


3 
•60 109 


6' 


Woodworkers; 

Saw and planing mill employees 
All other 


2 


5 


231 


All other occupations 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
All occupations 


6 
2,194 


7 
2,607 


62' 

2,481 


i' 

206 


236 


4" 

300 


4', ii' 

429 623 


"■■■42 




788. 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. 
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters etc 


17,166 

92 

134 

193 

2,727 

94 

181 

996 

124 

2,026 

97 
95 
90 
89 
731 


16,865 

82 

133 

154 

2,650 

94 
179 
991 
111 
269 

97 ,. 
40 '. 
U . 
89 1 
M5 !l 


1,960 

1 . 

4 

2 

167 

4 

1 
24 

2 
39 


2,243 

S 

1 
217 

4 
3 

67 
2 

40 

1 


2,733 

4 

3 

17 

284 

15 

9 

107 

6 

46 

6 
2 
3 

8 
38 


2,849 

10 

16 

36 

473 

19 
19 
162 
14 
35 

9 

8 

10 

10 

77 


3,455 

20 

43 

37 

639 

26 
57 
264 
34 
43 

20 
14 
9 

20 
127 


3,i;35 

47 

64 

65 

880 

26 
90 
367 
63 
67 

62 
16 

22 

48 

276 1 


291 

10 

1 

39 

77 


41 


42 


42 


66 


49 
3 


61 

7' 


Glassworkers 












Laborers (not specified) . . 








■"""e-: q-| 


24. 


Metalworkers 


10 


10 


13 


13 


9 


22 


Miners and quarrymen 


2 

5 

13 

1,766 












2 


Salesmen and saleswomen 






1 


1 . 
2 
300 


3' 

368 


3 


Servants and waiters. . 








Steam railroad employees. 


162 


179 


232 


526 


Textile mill operatives 


] 




Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woodworkers 






56 
46 




1 
1 


1 
3 


9 18 
7 10 


26 
26 


All other occupations 


i 

9 


2 
18 




ise 


2 


3I 


s 


26 ■ 


64 1 


94 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxxv 



Table LXV.— DISTRIBUTION, BY YEAR OF AGE, OF THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF EACH SEX 10 TO 15 ENGAGED 
IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES: 1900— Continued. 



STATE& AND TERRITORIES AND SELECTED 
OCCUPATIONS. 


Aggre- 
gate. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


11 

years. 


15 

years. 


Total. 


10 

years. 


11 

years. 


12 

years. 


18 

years. 


14 

years. 


15 

years. 


WISCONSIN. 
All occupations 


30,515 


20,842 


366 


628 


1,186 


2,353 


6,264 


10, 066 


9,673 


146 


235 


351 


990 


3,122 


4,830 








12,349 

379 

223 

162 

91 

200 
180 
270 
2,639 
139 

606 

273 
236 
309 

258 
159 
177 
243 
558 

5,883 

510 
106 
262 

240 
111 
170 
176 
40 

220 
97 

366 

510 

2,373 

906 


11,841 
245 
113 

78 

7 

137 

47 

270 

2,505 

96 

476 

258 
193 
299 

109 
141 
98 
184 
335 

299 

99 
36 
67 

1 


327 

i" 


560 
1 


999 
1 


1,648 
12 
7 
1 


3,241 

69 

35 

36 

3 

66 
16 
85 
792 
32 

201 

83 
63 
90 

60 
39 
31 
50 
102 

89 

41 
18 
23 


5,076 

162 

70 

40 

4 

76 

28 

159 

1,354 

61 

195 

159 
126 
192 

63 
99 
68 
120 
215 

112 

48 
18 
31 

1 


508 
134 
110 

84 
84 

63 
133 


43 


71 
1 


53 

1 
1 
2 


• 76 
7 
7 
9 

7 

7 
8 


123 
36 
42 
37 
32 

32 
39 


142 


Bookkeepers, clerks, stenographers, etc. . . 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 


89 
60 




2 






36 










45 


Brewers and maltsters 








5 
3 

22 

226 

3 

63 

12 
3 
14 

4 
3 
8 
13 
18 

45 

8 








24 
















86 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified) 






4 
76 










16 


42 


134 
43 

130 

15 
43 
10 

149 
18 
79 
59 

223 

6,584 

411 
70 
195 

239 
111 
169 
112 
36 

98 
30 


2 

1 


3 

1 


4 

1 


9 
3 

14 


51 
12 

61 

4 
19 
4 

62 
4 
24 
17 
69 

1,736 

164 
21 
81 

54 
29 
60 
44 
12 

40 
9 


65 




25 


Messengers and errand and office boys 

Metal workers: 




6 


11 
4 


66 








11 


Tin plate and tinware makers 

All other 


1 
1 










2 

1 

7 
1 
4 
1 
10 

724 

21 

1 

16 

9 

8 
8 
4 


22 




2 

2 








5 










80 














13 








1 
1 








51 














41 








1 

95 

2 
1 


1 
152 


3 
281 


149 


Servants and waiters. 


14 


13 


26 
2 


2,596 


Textile mill operatives: 


224 












47 








2 


11 






99 


Textile workers: 








3 


1 


172 


Milli-nPTH 












74 




i 

64 
5 

122 
67 

366 

442 

1,841 

795 










1 

24 

1 

54 
26 

128 
165 
611 

196 


34' 

4 

52 
35 

201 

247 

1,026 

320 








101 










6 




1 




63 










23 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Woodworkers: 

Saw and planing mill employees 




1 


2 


13 
6 

29 
29 
141 

109 






1 


5 

1 


52 






20 




1 


7 

1 

42 

72 










68 
532 

111 








2 
19 

10 


28 
186 

13 


38 




7 
41 


14 

57 


2 


2 
3 


3 

4 


322 


WYOMING. 
All occupations 


79 




383 
51 
86 
56 

79 
93 
36 
122 


379 
61 
84 
56 

18 
93 


37 


33 


48 
4 
8 
2 

7" 


67 
9 

10 
6 

3 
11 


90 
19 
20 
26 

4 
19 


114 
19 
40 
24 

8 
41 


4 




1 


1 






2 


Agricultural laborers 








Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Laborers (not specified ) 


i 


6' 


2 


1 








1 




Miners and quarrymen 

Servants and waiters 


1 


2 
15 


61 


1 


2 


3 


9 


11 


35 


Stock raLsers, herders, and drovers 


36 

8 












86 


All other occupations 


114 


2 


2 


3 


ii 


19 


74 


" 













cl 



XXXVl 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



DISTEIBUTION OF PERSONS OCCUPIED BY GENERAL NATIVITY AND PARENTAGE. 



DISTRIBUTION BY GENERAL NATIVITY. 

A distribution, by general nativity, of the total num- 
ber of persons 10 years of age and over in continental 
United States, and of the number of such persons gain- 
fully occupied, is given by sex for 1900, and in the 
aggregate for 1880 and 1890, in Table lxvi. As the 
native and foreign born elements of the colored popu- 
lation were not separately tabulated by age in 1880 or 
in 1890, the figures in Table lxvi showing the native 
and foreign born population 10 years of age and over at 
those censuses have been estimated by dividing the 
colored population according to the proportions of 
native and foreign colored revealed by the tabulations 
of the census of 1900. 

Table LXVI. — Distribution, by general nativity, of the population 10 
years of age and over and of persons engaged in gainful occupations, 
and comparison of the number engaged in gainful occupations with 
the population 10 years of age and over: 1880, 1890, and 1900. 





POPULATION 10 YEARS 
OP AGE AND OVER. 


PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS, 


CENSUS YEAK3, SEX, AND 
GENERAL NATIVITY. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Per cent 
of popula- 
tion 10 
years of 
age and 
over. 


1900 
Aggregate 


67,949,824 


100.0 


29,073,233 


100.0 


50.2 




47,808,912 
10,140,912 

29,703.440 


82.6 
17.5 

100.0 


23,221,834 
5,851,399 

23,753,836 


79.9 
20.1 

100.0 


48.6 
57.7 

80.0 


Foreign bom 


Males 




Native bom 


24, 173, 945 
6,529,495 

28,246,384 


81.4 
18.6 

100.0 


18,786,462 
4,967,374 

5, 319, 397 


79.1 
20.9 

100.0 


77.7 
89.8 

18.8 


Foreign bom . ... 






Native bom 


23, 634, 967 
4,611,417 

47,413,669 


83.7 
16.3 

100.0 


4,435,372 
884,025 

■'23,318,183 


83.4 
16.6 

100.0 


18.8 
19.2 

49,2 




1890 
Aggregate 


Native bom 


=38,523,015 
2 8,890,544 

36,761,607 


81.2 
18.8 

100.0 


118,080,317 
15,237,866 

17,392,099 


77.6 
22,5 

100.0 


46,9 
68.9 

47,3 


Foreign bom 


1880 
Aggregate 




30,300,001 82.4 

2 6 461 fiOfi 17 R 


13,897,462 
3, 494, 647 


79.9 
20.1 




Foreign bom , , 








j 





1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page l.xvi. 



2 Estimated. 



The proportions of native and foreign born among 
persons gainfully occupied were exactly the same in 



1900 as in 1880; in 1890, however, the proportion of 
native born among persons gainfully occupied was less, 
and that of foreign born correspondingly greater, than 
at the other two censuses. It is likely that this varia- 
tion was due in large measure to the heavy immigration 
during the decade 1880 to 1890, since, according to the 
reports of the Bureau of Immigration, a decrease of 
nearly 30 per cent was shown for the following decade. 
The figures presented in Table lxvi show that even the 
general movement of immigration to the United States 
during the past two decades has not been sufficient to 
advance the proportion of foreign born persons at work. 
The tendency toward increase in the relative strength 
of the native borii is not likely to be checked in the 
future unless immigration increases decidedly over its 
already high record. 

At each census the percentage which persons engaged 
in gainful occupations formed of the population 10 years 
of age and over, as shown by Table lxvi, was much 
larger for the foreign born than for the native born, 
principally because the proportion of adults (21 years 
of age and over) is much larger among the foreign born. 
On considering the figures by sex, it is found that, 
while the difference between the proportions of native 
and foreign born females at work in 1900 is insignifi- 
cant, the difference in the proportions for males is very 
marked. In 1900 nearly nine-tenths of the foreign born 
males 10 years of age and over were gainfully occupied, 
as compared with less than eight-tenths of the native 
born males. A comparison of the age distribution of 
these two classes shows that a little more than three- 
tenths of the native born male population 10 years of 
age and over were between 10 and 21 years of age, as 
compared with about one-tenth of the foreign born 
males; but probably this difference does not fully ac- 
count for the difference in the proportion gainfully 
employed, because the foreign born, coming to this 
country to improve their condition, undoubtedly rep- 
resent on the average a lower grade of economic well- 
being than the native born, and as a natural result en- 
gage in gainful occupations at a younger age. 

The distribution, by general nativity, of the total num- 
))er of persons of each sex engaged in each main class 
of occupations at the last three censuses is presented for 
continental United States in Table Lxvii. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxxvii 



Table LXVII.— DISTRIBUTION , BY GENEEAL NATIVITY, OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS AND 
IN EACH MAIN CLASS, FOR BOTH SEXES AND FOR EACH SEX SEPARATELY: 1880, 1890, AND 1900. 





1900 


1890 


1880 


BEX AND CLASSES OP OCCC- 
PATIONa. 


Total. 


Native born. 


Foreign born. 


Total. 


Native bom. 


Foreign born. 


Total. 


Native born. 


Foreign born. 




Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Number. 


Per 
cent. 


Both sexes. 
All occupations 


29, 073, 233 


23,221,834 


79.9 


5,861,399 


20.1 


123,318,183 

19,148,448 

944,333 

4,220,812 

3, 326, 122 
6,678,468 

119,312,651 


118,080,317 


77.5 


15,237,866 


22.5 


17,392,099 


13,897,462 


79.9 


3, 494, 647 


20.1 


Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal 
service. 

Trade and transportation.. 

Manufacturing and me- 
chanical pursuits. 

Males. 

All occupations 


10,381,765 
1,258,638 
6, 680, 657 

4,766,964 
7,086,309 

23,753,836 


9, 289, 044 
1,113,403 
4,081,220 

3,834,497 
4,903,670 

18,786,462 


89.5 
88.5 
73.1 

80.4 
69.2 

79.1 


1,092,721 

145,135 

1,499,437 

932, 467 
2,181,639 

4,967,374 


10.5 
11.5 
26.9 

19.6 
30.8 

20.9 


18,008,329 

828,965 

2,820,962 

2,601,806 
3,820,256 

114,864,366 


87.5 
87.8 
66.8 

78.2 
67.3 

76.9 


11,140,119 

115,368 

1,399,850 

724,316 
1,858,213 

14,458,285 


12.5 
12.2 
33.2 

21.8 
32.7 

23.1 


7,713,876 

603,202 

3,418,793 

1,871,503 
3, 784, 726 

14,744,942 


6,886,417 

530,026 

2,474,849 

1,430,351 
2,675,809 

11, 699, 488 


89.3 
87.9 
72.4 

76.4 
68.1 

79.3 


827, 4.i8 
73, 176 
948, 944 

441,152 
1,208,917 

3,045,454 


10.7 
12.1 
27.6 

23.6 
31.9 

20.7 


Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal 
service. 

Trade and transportation. . 

Manufacturing and me- 
chanical pursuits. 

Females. 

All occupations 


9,404,429 

827,941 

3, 485, 208 

4, 263, 617 
5,772,641 

5,319,397 


8, 353, 540 

708,812 

2, 456, 599 

3,394,331 
3,873,180 

4,436,372 


88.8 
85.6 
70.6 

79.6 
67.1 

83.4 


1,050,889 

119,129 

1, 028, 609 

869,286 
1,899,461 

884,025 


11.2 
14.4 
29.5 

20.4 
32.9 

16.6 


1 8, 378, 603 

632,646 

2,563,161 

3,097,701 
4, 650, 540 

14,005,532 


17,272,786 

536, 999 

1,616,236 

2,408,278 
3,020,067 

13,225,961 


86.8 
84.9 
63.3 

77.7 
64.9 

80.6 


11,105,817 
95, 647 
936, 926 

689, 423 
1,630,473 

1779,581 


13.2 
15.1 
36.7 

22.3 
35.1 

19.5 


7, 119, 365 

425,947 

2, 237, 493 

1,808,446 
8, 163, 692 

2,647,157 


6,298,797 

364, 300 

1,565,181 

1,382,909 
2,088,301 

2,197,964 


88.6 
85.6 
70.0 

76.6 
66.2 

83.0 


820,568 
61,647 
672,312 

425, 536 
1,065,391 

449,193 


11.5 
14.5 
30.0 

23.5 
33,8 

17.0 


Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal 
service. 

Trade and transportation.. 

Manufacturing and me- 
chanical pursuits. 


977,336 

430,597 

2, 095, 449 

503,347 
1,312,668 


935,504 

404,591 

1,624,621 

440, 166 
1,030,490 


95.7 
94.0 
77.5 

87.4 
78.6 


41,832 

26, 006 

470,828 

63, 181 
282, 178 


4.8 
6.0 
22.6 

12.6 
21.5 


1769,845 

311,687 

1, 667, 651 

228,421 
1,027,928 


1735,648 

291,966 

1,204,726 

193,528 
800, 188 


95.5 
93.7 
72.2 

84.7 
77.8 


134,302 
19, 721 
462, 925 

34,893 
227, 740 


4.5 

6.3 

27.8 

15.3 
22.2 


594,610 

177,265 

1,181,300 

63,058 
631,034 


687,620 
165, 726 
909, 668 

47,442 
487, 508 


98.8 
93.5 
77.0 

75.2 
77.3 


6,890 

11,629 

271, 632 

16,616 
143,626 


1.2 

6.5 
23.0 

24,8 
22.7 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



This table shows that for both sexes combined and 
for males alone the per cent of foreign born in 1900 
was highest in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
and lowest in agricultural pursuits. Among females, 
however, the proportion of foreign born in manufactur- 
ing and mechanical pursuits, though large, is slightly 
exceeded by the proportion in domestic and personal 
service. Doubtless the large proportion of foreign born 
in the class of manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 
is due to the tendency of the foreign born to remain in 
cities or closely settled communities. 

Between 1880 and 1900 there was a decline in the 
proportion of foreign born among the whole number 

Table LXVIIL— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY, 

OCCUPATIONS; 



of persons of each sex engaged in each main class of 
occupations, except in the case of females engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. The decline was most marked 
in trade and transportation and especially noteworthy 
for females. This change is probably due to the growth 
of certain occupations in this class which were recruited 
largely from the native element. On the whole, how- 
ever, the variations shown in this table are not suffi- 
ciently great to possess much significance. 

Table lxviii shows, for males and females sepa- 
ratel}', the proportions of native and foreign born en- 
gaged in each of the principal occupation groups in 
1890 and 1900, for continental United States. 

OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 
1890 AND 1900. 





1900 


1890 


SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 


Total. 


Native born. 


Foreign born. 


Total. 


Native born. 


Foreign 


born. 




Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Percent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


MALES. 


23,753,836 


18,786,462 


79.1 


4,967,374 


20.9 


119,312,661 


114,854,366 


76.9 


14,4.58,285 


23.1 








9,404,429 


8,353,640 


88.8 


1,060,889 


11.2 


18,378,603 


17,272,786 


86.8 


11,105,817 


13.2 








3,747,668 

5, 367, 169 

68,928 

71,920 

83,066 
35,962 
24,454 
15, 272 


3,479,770 

4,652,269 

35,790 

63,996 

66,844 
29, 401 
24, 449 
11,021 


92.9 
86.7 
60.7 
75.1 

80.5 

81.8 

100.0 

72.2 


267, 898 

714, 900 

23, 138 

17, 924 

16,212 

6,561 

5 

4,261 


7.1 
13.3 
39.3 
24.9 

19.5 
18.2 
(') 
27.8 


13,048,518 

6,056,130 

70,186 

66,838 

70,047 
33,666 

1 35,219 


12,776,167 

4, 310, 882 

36,797 

44,799 

53,645 
24,540 

26, 956 


91.0 
85.3 
52.4 
68.0 

76.6 
72.9 

76.5 


1273,3.51 

744,248 

33, 389 

21,039 

16,402 
9,125 

8,263 


9.0 




14.7 




47.6 




32.0 




23.4 




27.1 




23.5 


All Others in this Class 



1 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. 



2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



clxxxviii 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table LXVIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY, OF MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1890 AND 1900— Continued. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



MALES— Continued. 
Professional service 



Actors, professional showmen, etc . . . 
Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc. 

Clergymen 

Dentists 



Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors. 

Journalists 

LawyeiB '.['_ 

Musicians and teachers of music 



Officials (government) 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc . 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service . 



Barbers and hairdressers . 

Bartenders 

Hotel keepers '. 

Janitors and sextons 



Laborers (not specified). 

Launderers 

Restaurant keepers 

Saloon keepers 



Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (U. S.) 
Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc. 
All others in this class 



Trade and transportation . 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants. . 
Clerks and copyists , 



Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc. 

Foremen and overseers , 

Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers 



Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale)'! 

Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and office boys 

Officials of banks and companies 

Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc. ) 

Salesmen 

Steam railroad employees 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone operators ! 

Undertakers 

All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.. 



Bakers 

Blacksmiths 

Bleachery and dye works operatives. 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers. 
Brassworkers , 



Brewers and maltsters 

Brick and tile makers, etc . 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers. . 
Cabinetmakers 



Carpenters and joiners 

Clock and watch makers and repairers. 

Confectioners 

Coopers 

Cotton mill operatives 



Engineers and firemen (not locomotive). 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Food preparers (not otherwise specified) . 

Glassworkers 

Gold and silver workers 



Harness and saddle makers and repairers. 

Hat and cap makers 

Iron and steel workers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Machinists 



1900 



827, 941 



27, 903 
28, 483 
108, 265 
28,858 

50, 308 
43,156 
27, 845 
113, 450 
39, 816 

78,488 
124, 616 
118,519 

38,237 

3,485,208 



Native born. 



Number. Per cent. 



708, 812 



125, 542 
88, 377 
46,264 
48,544 

2, 605, 287 
50,683 
28,999 
81, 660 

276,958 
43, 195 

129, 711 
59,988 

4,263,617 



230, 606 
72,984 
78,263 
180, 727 
644,881 

91, 973 
638,029 
54,032 
64,850 
73,734 

33,466 
766, 802 
42,066 
64,959 
72,801 

39,857 
63,625 
461, 909 
580,462 
26,246 

68,873 
62, 426 
15, 866 
64,491 



23,946 
22,016 
84,760 
26, 330 

42,126 
36,922 
24, 220 
106, 277 
26, 991 

68,335 
110, 707 
108, 526 

28,666 

2, 456, 599 



74, 860 
226,284 

20, 493 
169, 393 

25, 870 

20, 687 
49, 466 
112, 815 

18, 593 
35, 562 

599, 707 
19, 305 
21, 980 
37,087 

125, 788 

223, 318 
68, 478 
23,640 
47, 377 

19, 732 

39, 506 
15, 110 

287, 241 
40, 917 

282, 574 



91,310 
60, 825 
34,003 
31, 649 

1, 784, 008 
21,341 
20, 108 
42,747 

201,352 
35,968 
92,256 
41,043 

3, 394, 331 



189, 055 
57,674 
62, 707 
154,423 
476, 738 

79,927 
427, 769 
38,831 
50,337 
32,009 

29,634 
546,099 
32,466 
57,882 
64,183 

29,053 

42,421 

390,561 

452, 737 

24,022 

62, 179 
49, 137 
13,754 
51,944 

3,873,180 



32,660 
163, 523 
9,629 
99, 362 
16,209 

5,819 
34,505 
72,922 
14, 101 
16, 431 

447, 186 
12, 743 
14, 070 
26, 641 
77,662 

165,629 
54,532 
13,056 
36, 596 
12,883 

29, 286 

7,491 

184,040 

21,368 
204, 369 



85.6 



85.8 
77.3 
78.3 
91.2 

83.7 
86.6 
87.0 
93.7 
66.3 

87.1 
88.8 
91.6 
74.9 

70.5 



Foreign born. 



Number. Per cent. 



119, 129 



73.5 
65.2 

71.2 
42.1 
69.3 
62.3 

72.7 
83.2 
71.1 
68.4 

79.6 



82.0 
78.9 
67.4 
86.4 
87.3 

86.9 
79.6 
71.9 
77.6 
43.4 



72.2 
77.2 
89.1 
88.2 

73.4 
79.1 
84.6 
78.0 
91.5 

76.8 
93.7 
86.7 
80.5 

67.1 



43.6 
72.3 
47.0 
68.7 
62.7 

28.1 
69.8 
64.6 
76.8 
43.4 

74.6 
66.0 
64.0 
69.1 
61.7 

74.1 
79.6 
56.2 
77.2 
65.3 

74.1 
49.6 
64.1 
52.2 
72.3 



3,967 
6,467 
23,505 
2,628 

8,182 
6,233 
3,626 
7,173 
13, 824 

10,163 
13,908 
9,993 
9,681 

1,028,609 



84,232 
27,652 
12,261 
16,896 

721, 279 

29,342 

8,891 

38,913 

75,606 

7,237 

37,466 

18,945 

869,286 



14.4 



14.2 
22.7 
21.7 
8.8 

16.3 
14.4 
13.0 



12.9 
11.2 
8.4 
26.1 

29.5 



41,651 
16, 410 
25,546 
26,304 
69, 143 

12,046 
110, 270 
16, 201 
14, 513 
41,726 

3,932 
210,703 
9,600 
7,077 
8,618 

10,604 
11, 204 
71,348 
127, 725 
2,224 

16, 694 
3,289 
2,112 

12,547 

1, 899, 461 



27.3 
31.2 
26.6 
34.8 

28.8 
67,9 
30.7 
47.7 

27.3 
16.8 
28.9 
31.6 

20.4 



1890 



Total. 



632,646 



42, 310 
62, 761 
10, 864 
70, 041 
9,661 

14,868 
14, 960 
39, 893 
4,492 
20, 121 

152, 622 

6,562 

7,910 

11, 446 

48, 236 

67, 789 
18, 946 
10,584 
10,781 
6,849 

10, 220 

7,619 

103, 201 

19,649 

78, 205 



18.0 
2L1 
32.6 
14.6 
12.7 

13.1 
20.5 
28.1 
22.4 
56.6 

11.7 
27.8 
22.8 
10.9 
11.8 

26.6 
20.9 
16.4 
22.0 
8.5 

24.2 
6.3 
13.3 
19.6 

32.9 



23,200 
17,134 
87, 060 
17, 161 

43, 116 

20, 961 
89, 422 
27, 636 

77, 716 
100, 248 
101, 278 

27, 716 



82, 167 
65,660 
38,800 
23, 730 

1, 868, 668 
31,831 
16, 867 
69, 110 

238,162 
27, 919 
74,350 
36,027 

3,097,701 



Native born. 



Number. Per cent. 



636, 999 



19, 220 
12,449 
68, 673 
15, 755 

35,369 
17,842 
83, 404 
16, 649 

65, 667 
89, 493 
92,361 
20, 227 

1, 616, 236 



84.9 



56.5 
27.7 
63.0 
41.3 
37.3 

71.9 
30.2 
3.5.4 
24.2 
66.6 

26.4 
34.0 
36.0 
30.9 



25.9 
20.4 
44.8 
22.8 
34.7 

25.9 
50.4 
35.9 
47.8 
27.7 



169, 707 

36,458 

76,823 

131, 602 

493, 139 

58,080 
368,265 

36,109 
•64,014 

66,824 

26, 710 
634,884 
30,890 
48,446 
39,683 

18,426 

24,002 

206, 943 

460, 771 

12,148 

37, 423 
43, 740 
9,808 
26,806 

4, 650, 540 



67, 910 
209, 521 

12,503 
180, 871 

16, 362 

20, 294 
60, 070 
106, 339 
10, 808 
36, 891 

618, 044 
20, 5.56 
17, 677 
47, 438 
80, 177 

139, 718 
59, 899 
8,116 
32, 572 
16,914 

42, 647 
17,319 

217,616 
39, 461 

186, 677 



35, 743 
27,589 
15,530 

1, 172, 902 

8,783 

11,083 

31, 743 

164, 950 
16,444 
48,136 
24,001 

2,408,278 



139, 904 

29,058 

64,218 

110, 242 

420, 470 

49, 673 
280, 397 
22, 036 
89,098 
26,896 

22,897 
463,069 
22,284 
42,642 
32,958 

12,833 

17, 716 

171,711 

346,290 

10,681 

26,638 
40, 660 
8,173 
19, 734 

3,020,067 



82.8 
72.7 
78.9 
91,8 

82.0 

85.1 
93.3 



81.6 
89.3 
91.2 
73.0 

63.3 



23, 313 

144, 670 

6,765 

107,266 

10,168 

4,640 
36, 761 
66, 346 

8,346 
15,885 

458, 038 
13, 526 
10, 980 
31, 650 
40, 415 

101,196 
46,671 
3,609 
23, 713 
11, 223 

31,228 
10, 384 

134, 662 
20, 756 

129, 220 



72.2 
64.2 
71,1 
66.4 

63.1 
27.6 
66.7 
45.9 

69.3 
58.9 
64.7 
66.6 

77.7 



Foreign born. 



Number. Per cent, 



95,647 



3,980 
4,686 
18,387 
1,406 

7,766 

3,119 
6,018 
11, 087 

12,048 
10,755 
8,917 
7,489 

936,926 



82.4 
82,0 
70.6 
83.8 
85.3 

85.6 
76.1 
62.8 
72.4 
45.6 

85.7 
72.9 
72.1 
88.0 
83.1 

69.6 
78.8 
83.4 
74.9 
87.9 

71.2 
93.0 
83.3 
76.5 

64.9 



22,824 
19, 917 
11,211 
8,200 

686,656 
23,048 
5,784 
37, 367 

73, 202 
11,475 
26, 215 
12,026 

689,423 



40.3 
69.0 
46.1 
69.3 
62.1 

22.9 
61.2 
63.0 
77.2 
44.3 

74.1 
66.8 
62.6 
66.7 
60 4 

72.4 
77.7 
44.6 
72.8 
66.4 

73.2 
60.0 
61.9 
52.6 
69.2 



29, 803 
6,400 
22, 605 
21,360 
72,669 

8,407 
87,868 
13,073 
14, 916 
30,928 

3,813 
171,815 
8,606 
6,804 
6,725 

5,598 

6,286 

34,232 

116, 481 

1,467 

10,786 
3,080 
1,636 
6,072 

1,630,473 



34, 697 
64,851 

6,738 
73, 605 

6,194 

15,664 
23, 309 
38, 993 
2,462 
20,006 

160, 006 

7,030 

6,697 

15,788 

39,762 

38,523 
13,328 
4,606 
8,859 
5,691 

11,419 
6,935 
82, 853 
18, 706 
57,457 



15.1 



17.2 
27.3 
21,1 
8.2 

18.0 

14.9 

6.7 

40.1 

16.5 
10.7 
8.8 
27.0 

36.7 



27.8 
36.8 
28.9 
34.6 

36.9 
72.4 
34.3 
54.1 

307 
41.1 
36.3 
33.4 

22.3 



17.6 
18.0 
29.4 
16.2 
14.7 

14.6 
■23.9 
87. 2 
27.6 
54.4 

14.3 

27.1 
27.9 
12.0 
16.9 

804 
26.2 
16.6 
26.1 
12.1 

28.8 
7.0 
16.7 
23.6 

35.1 



59.7 
31.0 
53.9 
40.7 
87.9 

77.1 
38.8 
87.0 
22.8 
66.7 

26.9 
84.2 
87.5 
33.3 
49.6 

27.6 
22.3 
65.6 
27.2 
83.6 

26.8 
40.0 
38.1 
47.4 
30.8 1 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



clxxxix 



Table LXVIII.— DISTRIBUTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY, OP MALES AND OF FEMALES ENGAGED IN SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1890 AND 1900— Continued. 



SEX AND OCCUPATIONS. 



MALES— Continued. 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits— Con, 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Marble and stone cutters 

Masons (brick and stone) '.'.'.'.'. 

Metal workers (not otherwise specifled)i ". 

Millers 



Miners and quarrymen 

on well and oil works employees . 
Painters, glaziers, and vamishers . 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Paper hangers 



Photographers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen . 
Saw and planing mill employees 



Silk mill operatives 

Steam boiler makers 

Tailors 

Textile mill operatives (not otherwise specified) '' 

Tin plate and tinware makers 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Upholsterers 



Wireworkers 

Woodworkers (not otherwise specified) . 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 



FEMALES. 



All occupations . . 
Agricultural pursuits. 



Agricultural laborers 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . 
All others in this class 



Professional service . 



Musicians and teachers of music 

Teachers and professors In colleges, etc. 
All others in this class 



Domestic and personal service.. 

Boarding and lodging house keepers . 

Housekeepers and stewardesses 

Laborers (not specified) 

Laundresses 

Nurses and midwives 

Servants and waitresses 

All others in this class 



Trade and transportation . 



Bookkeepers and accountants 

Clerks and copyists 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) . 
Packers and shippers 



Saleswomen 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Telegraph and telephone operators . 
All others in this class 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits . . 



Bookbinders 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers . 

Boxmakers (paper) 

Cotton mill operatives 

Dressmakers 



Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Metal workers* 

Milliners , 

Printers, lithographers, and presswomen . 



Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers . 

Silk mill operatives 

Tailoresses 



Textile mill operatives (not otherwise specified)' 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

All others in this class 



1000 



Total. 



239, 649 
64,317 

160, 638 
80, 207 
40, 362 

B62, 417 
24, 673 

275,782 
26, 904 
21,749 

23, 361 

SB, 649 

97, 659 

139, 166 

161,251 

22, 023 

33, 038 

160, 714 

76,438 

68, 730 
87, 955 
27,376 
28, 663 

16, 701 
104,791 

42, 566 
6B4, 200 



5, 319, 397 



977, 336 



663, 209 

307,706 

6,421 

430, 597 



52, 359 

327, 614 

60,624 

2, 095, 449 



69,456 
146, 929 
123, 975 
335,282 
108, 691 
1,283,763 

37,354 

503, 347 



74, 163 

86,246 
34, 084 
19,988 

149, 230 
86, 118 
22, 656 
31, 972 

1, 312, 668 



IB, 632 
39, 510 
17, 302 
120,603 
344, 794 

34, 490 
22, 834 
86, 120 
16, 981 

146, 105 
30, 941 
32, 437 
68, 935 

60, 183 

43, 497 

30, 630 

202, 674 



Native born. 



Number. Per cent, 



179, 803 
30, 074 

103, 816 
51, 424 
34,394 

813. 000 
21, 993 

210, 852 
18, 015 
18, 793 

19, 172 
26, 423 
78, 982 

117. 001 
128, 563 

11,635 
23,275 
38,122 
44,385 

61, 618 
57,746 
19, 121 
20, 694 

8, 372 
72, 327 
24,238 
379, 160 



4,435,372 



657, 783 

272, 682 

6,039 



48,962 
310, 334 
45, 296 

1, 624, 621 



45,093 
116, 492 
115, 450 
291, 016 

81,891 
949, 124 

25, 665 

440, 166 



67,766 
77, 180 
19, 729 
17,219 

131,272 
80, 124 
21, 165 
26, 721 

1, 030, 490 



13, 903 
33, 917 

14, 789 
74, 674 
287, 686 

28,298 
18, 030 
76, 745 
14, 822 

118, 821 
25, 797 
24, 994 
42, 497 

41,715 

32, 486 

20, 800 

160, 616 



75.0 
66.4 
64.6 
64.1 
85.2 

55.7 
89.5 
76.6 
67.0 
86.4 

82.1 
74.1 
80.9 
84.1 
79.7 

62.8 
70.4 
23.7 
58.1 

75.0 
65.7 
69.8 
71.8 

50.1 
69.0 
56.9 
68.4 



99.2 
88.6 
78.6 



93.5 
94.7 
89.6 

77.5 



76.8 
79.3 
93.1 
86.8 
76.3 
73.9 
68.4 

87.4 



91.4 
90.6 
57.9 
86.1 

88.0 
93.0 
93.8 



78.5 

88.9 
86.8 
85.6 
61.8 
83.4 

82.0 
79.0 
89.1 
92.7 

81.3 
83.4 
77.1 
61.6 

69.3 

74.7 
67.9 
79.2 



Foreign born. 



Number. Per cent, 



59, 846 
24, 243 
66, 822 
28, 783 
B,968 

249, 417 
2,680 
64, 930 
8,889 
2,966 

4,189 
9,226 
18, 677 
22, 165 
32, 688 

10,388 

9,763 

122, 592 

32, 063 

17, 212 
30,209 
8,265 
8,069 

8,329 

32,464 

18, 328 

175,040 



884,025 



41, 832 



5,426 
35,024 
1,382 

26, 006 



3,397 
17,280 
6,329 

470, 828 



14, 362 
30,437 
8,625 
44,266 
26, 800 
334, 639 
11, 799 

63,181 



6,397 
8,066 
14, 356 
2,769 

17, 958 
5,994 
1,391 
6,251 

282, 178 



1,729 
5,693 
2,513 
46, 029 
57, 108 

6,192 

4,804 
9, 376 
1,159 

27,284 
5,144 
7,413 

26,438 

18, 468 
11, Oil 
9,830 
42, 058 



26.0 
44.6 
36.4 
35.9 
14.8 

44.3 
10.6 
23.5 
33.0 
13.6 

17.9 
26.9 
19.1 
15.9 
20.3 

47.2 
29.6 
76.3 
41.9 

25.0 
34.3 
30.2 
28.2 

49.9 
31.0 
43.1 
31.6 



0.8 
11.4 
21.5 



6.5 
5.3 
10.5 

22.6 



24.2 
20.7 
6.9 
13.2 
24.7 
26.1 
31.6 

12.6 



8.6 
9.6 
42.1 
13.9 

12.0 
7.0 
6.2 

19.6 

21.5 



11.1 
14.2 
14.5 
38.2 
16.6 

18.0 

21.0 

10.9 

7.3 

18.7 
16.6 
22.9 
38.4 

30.7 
25.3 
32.1 
20.8 



1890 



Total. 



153, 468 
61, 012 

160, 804 
57, 894 
62, 747 

386, 872 
14,724 

220, 960 
18, 856 
12, 315 

17, 839 
38, 987 
61, 185 
110, 848 
138, 386 

14, 192 
21,333 
123, 516 
81, 962 

56,623 
83, 634 
17,449 
23, 918 

11, 238 

92, 053 

47, 638 

315, 909 



84, 005, 532 



3769,845 



3538,065 

226,427 

5,353 

311, 687 



34, 519 

246, 066 

31, 102 

1, 667, 661 



32, 593 
86,089 
64,816 
216, 631 
41, 396 
1, 216, 639 
19,488 

228,421 



27, 772 

64,219 

25, 365 

6,620 

58, 451 

21, 270 

8,474 

16, 360 



11, 560 
33,704 
13,043 
92, 966 
292, 668 

20, 810 
16,013 
61,291 
12, 211 

146, 043 
16, 975 
20, 663 
64,609 

57, 393 
27, 991 
36, 471 
104, 618 



Native bom. 



Number. Per cent. 



111, 998 
32, 753 
99, 937 
86,811 
43,206 

191,433 
12,464 

166,225 
12, 372 
10,331 

14,482 
28, 680 
48, 114 
92, 328 
96,584 

6,767 
13,588 
34,057 
47, 801 

42,622 
62, 391 
11, 132 
16, 267 

6,045 

60, 463 

26, 995 

216,001 



33,226,951 
8 736,543 



8634,336 

197, 297 

3,911 

291, 966 



31, 932 
232,211 
27,823 



22, 824 
66, 239 
49, 988 

183, 725 
28,179 

840,847 
12, 924 

193, 628 



25, 603 

57,686 

13, 299 

5,502 

61,605 
19, 906 
7,718 
12, 809 

800, 188 



10, 242 
29, 159 
11,298 
51, 063 
242, 114 

16, 696 
12, 990 
53, 972 
11, 155 



73.0 
63.7 
62.1 
63.6 
81.9 

49.5 
84.7 
74.8 
66.6 



81.2 
73.6 
78.6 
83.3 



40.6 
63.7 
27.6 



75.1 
62.6 
63.8 
68.0 

53.8 
65.7 
66.7 
68.4 



80.5 



87.1 
73.1 



92.6 
94.4 
89.6 



70.0 
76.9 
91.2 
84.8 
68.1 
69.1 



52.5 
84.4 

88.1 
93.6 
91.1 
75.2 

77. S 



79. S 
81.1 
88.1 
91.4 



Foreign bom. 



Number. Per cent. 



41, 470 
28,269 
60,867 
21,083 
9,641 

195, 439 
2,260 
55, 735 
6,484 
1,984 

3,367 
10, 307 
13,071 
18,520 
41, 802 

8, 423 
7, 745 
89, 459 
34, 151 

14, 101 

31, 243 

6,317 

7,651 

5,193 
31, 590 
20,643 
99, 908 



3779,681 



334,302 



83,730 

29, 130 

1,442 



2,587 
13, 8.55 
3,279 

462, 925 



9,769 
19,850 

4,827 

32,906 

13, 217 

375, 792 

6,564 

34,893 



2,169 
6,533 
12, 0.56 
1,018 

6,946 
1,364 

7.56 
4,051 

227, 740 



88.6 


1,318 


86.5 


4,545 


86.6 


1,745 


54.9 


41, 902 


82.7 


60, 554 



24,290 


85.1 


12,876 


80.6 


14,960 


72.4 


43, 836 


68.0 


38,810 


66.8 


20, 783 


74.2 


26, 233 


69.2 


81,322 


77.7 



4,214 
3,023 
7,319 
1,056 

21, 753 
3,100 
5,713 

20, 673 

19, 083 
7, 208 
11,238 
23,296 



1 Includes stove, furnace, and grate makers, wheelwrights, and " other metal workers." 

2 Includes carpet factory operatives, hosiery and knitting mill operatives, and other textile mill operatives.' 

3 Corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi. ., , j ., . ^- j .. ^^ * »■, -n 
4Include3 all workers in iron and steel and other metals. ^ Includes carpet factory operatives and "other textile mill operatives." 



cxc 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Table lxviii presents interesting evidence of the extent 
to which the foreign element of the population is rep- 
resented in the different occupation groups. The groups 
in which this element of the population formed more 
than one-half of the male workers in 1900 are — in the 
order of the decreasing per cent of foreign born — tai- 
lors, brewers and maltsters, launderers, hucksters and 
peddlers, cabinetmakers, bakers, bleachery and dye 
works operatives, and hat and cap makers. In these 
groups the per cent of foreign born ranges from 76.3 
for tailors to 50.4 for hat and cap makers. The largest 
proportions of native born males were found among 
lawyers, telegraph and telephone operators, agricul- 
tural laborers, teachers and professors in colleges, etc., 
stenographers and typewriters, and dentists. For these 
six occupation groups — three of which are professional 
pursuits — the proportions of native born range from 
93.7 to 91.2. The most notable increase since 1890 in 
the proportion of foreign born males is in the group of 
hat and cap makers, which advanced during the decade 
into the class of occupations having more than 50 per 
cent foreign born; on the other hand, saloon keepers, 
miners, silk mill operatives, and food preparers (not 
otherwise specified) dropped out of this class. For the 
great majority — all but 19 of the 1()7 — of the occupations 
for males included in the preceding table the per cent of 
foreign born decreased to a greater or less extent. Some 
of the more notable decreases in addition to those just 
mentioned were shown in the occupations of launder- 
ers, cotton mill operatives, and soldiers, sailors, and 
marines (U. S.). 

The conspicuous decrease in the per cent of foreign 
born among United States soldiers, sailors, and marines 
is due to the fact that the large increase in the military 
and naval forces between 1890 and 1900 was brought 
about mainly by enlistments from the native born popu- 
lation. It should be remembered that the comparison in 
this table is confined to continental United States, and 
therefore does not include the large proportion of United 
States military and naval forces stationed abroad in 1900. 
But the per cent of foreign born is practically the same 
for all soldiers, sailors, and marines as it is for the por- 
tion in continental United States. 

In the leading occupations presented for females, the 
largest proportions of foreign born in 1900 were found 
among merchants and dealers (except wholesale), 42.1 
per cent; tailoresses, 38.4 per cent; cotton mill opera- 
tives, 38.2 per cent; and woolen mill operatives, 32.1 
per cent. The occupations in which native born females 
formed more than 90 per cent of the total are agri- 
cultural laborers; teachers and professors in colleges, 
etc. ; telegraph and telephone operators ; musicians and 
teachers of music; laborers (not specified); stenog- 
raphers and typewriters; printers, lithographers, and 
presswomen; bookkeepers and accountants; and rlerks 
and copyists. In this list professional service and trade 
and transportation are both prominent. The high per- 
centage of native born among agricultural laborers and 
laborers (not specified) reflects the extent to which 



negro women are engaged in these occupations. The 
greatest advance since 1890 in the proportion of foreign 
born females is in the group of tailoresses, in which 
the pi'oportion increased from 32 per cent in 1890 to 
38.4 per cent in 1900. Since 1890 boarding and lodging 
house keepers, nurses and midwives, and servants and 
waitresses have dropped out of the class in which the 
foreign born formed more than 30 per cent of all 
females, and clerks and copyists have advanced into the 
class in which native born females formed more than 
90 per cent of the total number. The fact that the 
maximum proportions for foreign born females are so 
much lower than the maximum proportions for males 
is possiblj' accounted for by the low ratio of female 
to male immigrants. 

Although slight increases in the proportions of foreign 
born were shown between 1890 and 1900 in a few cases, 
the general tendency for both sexes was in the direction 
of decrease; all the notable changes were decreases, 
except the two cases referred to (hat and cap makers 
and tailoresses). 

Persons of native and foreign birth engaged in gain- 
ful occupations in 1880, 1890, and 1900 are distributed 
for continental United States, in Table lxix, by main 
classes of occupations. 

Table LXIX. — Per cent distribuiion, by main classes, of native and 
of foreign born persons engaged in gainful occupations, for both sexes 
and for each sex separately: 1880, 1890, and 1900. 



SEX AND CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. 



Both sf j-es. 
All occupations... 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation , 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Males. 



All occupations . 



Agricultural pursuits , 

Professional service , 

Domestic and personal service , 

Trade and transportation , 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 

Females. 



All occupations. 



Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 

Domestic and personal service 

Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits. 



NATIVE BORN. 



1900 18901 1880 



40,0 
4,8 
17,6 
16,5 
21,1 



100,0 



44,4 
3,8 
18,1 
18,1 
20,6 



100,0 



21,1 
9,1 

86.6 
9.9 

23,3 



44,3 
4,6 
16,6 
14.4 
21,1 



100,0 



49,0 
3,6 
10,9 
16.2 
20,8 



100,0 



22,8 
9,1 

37,3 
6,0 

24,8 



17.8 
10.3 
18.6 



100.0 



53.8 
3.1 
13.4 
11.8 
17.9 



100.0 



26.7 
7.5 

41.4 
2.2 

22.2 



FOKEIGN BOHN. 



1900 18901 1880 



100.0 



18.7 
2.5 
25.6 
15.9 
37.3 



100.0 



21.2 
2.4 
20.7 
17.5 
38.2 



100.0 



4.7 
2,9 

53,3 
7,2 

31,9 



100,0 



21,8 
2,2 
26,7 
13,8 
35,6 



100.0 



24.8 
2.1 
21.0 
15.5 
36.6 



100.0 



4.4 
2.5 

59.4 
4.5 

29.2 



23.7 
2.1 
27.0 
12.6 
34.6 



100.0 



26.9 
2.0 
22.1 
14.0 
36.0 



100.0 
1.5 



60.5 
3.5 
31,9 



> Based upon corrected figures; see explanation on page Ixvi, 

A marked decline in the proportion of both native 
and foreign born persons — especially native born 
males — engaged in agricultural pursuits is clearly indi- 
cated in this table; the only exception is found in the 
case of foreign born females, of whom the number 
engaged in this class of occupations in 1900 was small. 
The decline since 1880 in the relative importance of 
agricultural pursuits, together with a slighter decline 
in domestic and personal service, is offset by increases 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXCl 



iu the proportions engaged in trade and transportation 
and in manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 

It will be observed that, although the proportion of 
males of native birth engaged in agricultural pursuits 
has steadily declined since 1880, it still remains larger 
than that for any other of the five classes; this is also 
true of females of both native and foreign birth 
engaged in domestic and personal service. Of foreign 
born males at work the largest proportion at each 
census were engaged in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits, while much the largest proportion of foreign 
born females gainfully occupied were engaged in 
domestic and personal service. 

DISTRIBUTION BY PARENTAGE. 

The nativity of the gainful workers in continental 
United States has been considered, first, by dividing 
the white and the colored into their elements, and sec- 
ond, by dividing the whole number as native and for- 



eign born. A third method of consideration is a division 
according to the nativity of the parents. Such a sepa- 
ration is made, for both native and foreign born persons, 
in Table Lxx, which also gives, for each specified parent- 
age, the proportion of persons at work. 

In this and the tables following, as explained on page 
xxviii, the term "of native parentage" refers to per- 
sons, either of native or foreign birth' having both 
parents native born, or one parent native born and one 
parent for whom the birthplace is unknown, or both 
parents for whom the birthplace is unknown, while the 
term "of foreign parentage" refers to persons, either 
of native or foreign birth, having either one or both 
parents foreign born. The countries named in the first 
column represent, for persons of foreign parentage, the 
birthplace either of both parents or of one parent only 
when the other parent is of native birth, while the term 
"of mixed foreign parentage" refers to those having 
both parents foreign born, but of different nationalities. 

Table LXX.— NUMBER OF PERSONS OF EACH SPECIFIED PARENTAGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS 
COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF THE SAME PARENTAGE, FOR ALL PERSONS AND FOR NATIVE 
AND FOREIGN BORN PERSONS SEPARATELY: 1900. 





AGGREGATE POPULATION. 


NATIVE 


BOKN POPULATION. 


FOREIGN 


BORN POPULATION. 


BIRTHPLACE OP PARENTS. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 


Total. 


Engaged in gainful 
occupations. 




Number, 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Percent. 




76, 994, 575 


29, 078, 233 


88.3 


65, 663, 299 


23, 221, 834 


86.4 


10,341,276 


6,861,399 


66.6 








49,966,636 
26, 028, 939 


17,906,872 
11, 166, 361 


36.8 
42.9 


49,966,178 
16, 697, 121 


17,901,392 
5,320,442 


35.8 
33.9 


9,458 
10,331,818 


6,480 
5, 845, 919 


67.9 




56.6 








433,784 
356,689 
1,314,842 
811, 994 
307,466 

2, 386, 273 
266,350 

7,819,478 
216, 277 

4,968,182 

731, 662 
786, 266 
687,490 
684, 4*6 
620, 722 

1,081,710 
254, 754 
966, 113 

1,336,414 


192,451 
129, 700 
472,493 
342, 912 
120,459 

1,036,688 
127,633 

3,295,360 
106,831 

2,426,908 

318,973 
302,539 
247, 405 
246, 366 
285,380 

443, 162 
109, 801 
463,858 
607,462 


44.4 
36.4 
35.9 
42.2 
39.2 

43.4 
47.9 
42.1 
49.4 
48.8 

43.6 
38.6 
36.0 
36.0 
46.0 

41.0 
43.1 
47.0 
38.0 


159,966 
199,762 
870,230 
437, 799 
156, 604 

1,496,017 

165,901 

5, 160, 596 

72, 744 

3,214,066 

244,259 
462, 620 
309,906 
262,789 
361,569 

500, 667 

141,994 

442,690 

1,067,163 


19,676 

45,287 

226,961 

126, 966 

29, 782 

637,452 

67,607 

1, 862, 800 

5,883 

1,471,132 

22,764 
110, 476 
38,337 
20,295 
136, 076 

91,245 
42,380 
112, 234 
354, 101 


12.3 
22.7 
26.1 
29.0 
19.0 

36.9 
40.8 
36.2 
8.1 
46.8 

9.3 
24.4 
12.4 

7.7 
37.4 

18.2 
29.8 
25.4 
33.5 


273,818 
156, 927 
444,612 
374,195 
150, 861 

890,256 

100,449 

2,668,883 

148. 583 
1,754,126 

487,403 
332, 745 

377. 584 
421,686 
269,163 

581, 143 
112,760 
623,423 
278, 261 


172,776 
84,413 
245,532 
215,956 
90,677 

499, 236 

60, 026 

1,432,650 

100, 948 

966, 776 

296, 209 
192,063 
209,068 
226,071 
160,305 

351,917 

67, 421 

341,624 

158,351 


63.1 




53.8 




55.2 




57.7 




60.1 




56.1 




59.8 




58.7 




70.3 




64.6 


Italy 


60.8 




67.7 




65.4 




53.6 




58.0 




60.6 




59.8 




65.3 




66.1 







1 Includes Newfoundland. 

It will be noticed on referring to Table lxx that the 
percentages of persons of each specified parentage gain- 
fully employed in 1900 were much higher for the foreign 
born than for the native born. The contrast is the 
more marked because the number of the native and 
foreign born at work has been compared with the total 
number of native and foreign born, and not with the 
number 10 years of age and over, the figures for the 
latter by countries of parentage not being available. 
The inclusion of children under 10 years of age de- 
creases very materially the percentages of native born 
gainfully employed, while not affecting very greatly 
the percentages of foreign born; in 1900 native born 
persons at work constituted 36.4 per cent of the total 



2 Includes all other foreign countries. 

native born population as against 48.6 per cent (see 
Table lxvi, page clxxxvi) of the native born population 
10 years of age and over, while the gainful woi-kers of 
foreign birth constituted 56.6 per cent of the entire for- 
eign born population as against 57.7 per cent of the for- 
eign born population 10 years of age and over. More- 
over, the inclusion of qhildren under 10 probably explains 
the wider range and greater diversity in the percent- 
ages by birthplace of parents for the native born of 
foreign parents as compared with the percentages for 
the foreign born of foreign parents, because the propor- 
tion of children in the former element of the population 
is determined largely by the period which has elapsed 
since their parents immigrated to this country. If the 



CXCll 



STATISTICS OF OCCUPATIONS. 



immigration is recent, ttie second generation of course 
consists principally of children; if, on tlie other hand, 
the immigration is of earlier date, the proportion of 
children in the second generation is correspondingly 
small. Therefore, among the native born of foreign 
parents the percentage gainfully occupied depends 
largely upon the period of immigration. For example, 
the small percentage of native born persons of Russian, 
Hungarian, or Italian parentage gainfully occupied in 
1900 is doubtless due to the fact that the influx of immi- 
grants from Russia, Hungary, and Italy is of a com- 
paratively recent date, so that in 1900 the native born 
children of these immigrants were in most cases too 
young to engage in gainful occupations. Conversely, 
the native born population of Irish, Scotch, English and 
Welsh, French, or German parentage show the largest 
percentages at work — evident!}' because these nation- 
alities represent a comparativeh' earl}- immigration 
movement. In case of the foreign born the period of 
immigration does not exert much influence, because the 
great majority of immigrants are of working age when 
they come to this country; but such variations as exist 
are probably due largely to differences in the age con- 
stitution or in the proportions of the sexes, the higher 
percentages indicating perhaps a relatively low propor- 
tion of children or of females. 

The 11,166,361 workers of foreign parentage in con- 
tinental United States in 1900 constituted over three- 
eighths (38.4 per cent) of the total number of pei'sons 
gainfully occupied. The per cent distribution of this 
class of gainful workers according fo specified countries 
of parentage is presented in Table lxxi. 

Table LXXI. — Per cent distribution, by birthplace of parents, of 
persons of foreign parentage engaged in gainful occupations, for all 
such persons and for the native and foreign bom separately: 1900. 



BIRTHPLACE OF PABENTS. 



Aggregate . 



Austria 

Boliemia 

Cenadai (English) 

Canadai (French) 

Denmark 

England and Wales 

France 

Germany 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Norway 

Poland ; 

Russia 

Scotland 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Other countries 2 

Of mixed foreign parentage . 



PERSONS OP FOREIGX PARENT- 
AGE GAINFULLY OCCUPIED. 



Total. 



100.0 



1.7 
1.2 
4.2 
3.1 
1.1 
9.3 
1.1 

29.5 
1.0 

21.7 
2.9 
2.7 
2.2 
2.2 
2.5 
4.0 
1.0 
4.1 
4.5 



Native 
born. 



0.4 
0.8 
4.3 
2.4 
0.6 

10.1 
1.3 

36.0 
0.1 

27.6 
0.4 
2.1 
0.7 
0.4 
2.5 
1.7 
0.8 
2.1 
6.7 



Foreign 
born. 



3.0 
1.4 
4.2 
3.7 
1.6 
8.6 
1.0 

24.6 
1.7 

16.3 
5.1 
3.3 
3.6 
3.9 
2.6 
6.0 
1.2 
5.8 
2.6 



1 Includes Newfoundland. 



2 Includes all other foreign countries. 



It is evident from this table that the three most impor- 
tant constituents in our working population of foreign 
parentage in 1900 were the Germans, the Irish, and the 
English, including in the latter term the English Cana- 
dians, the Scotch, and the Welsh, and that these groups, 
representing persons of German or British parentage, 
comprised two-thirds (67.2 per cent) of the total. A 
separate presentation is made in the table for the foreign 
born of foreign parents, or immigrants, and for the 
native born of foreign parents, or the children of immi- 
grants. Of the former there were 5,845,919 engaged in 
gainful occupations in 1900, of which number 3,283,399, 
or ort.l per cent, were of German or British parentage. 
Of the native born of foreign parents, or the children 
of immigrants, there were 6,320,442 engaged in gainful 
occupations, of which number 4,233,420, or 79.5 per 
cent, were of German or British parentage. The latter 
percentage is much larger than the former, simply 
because the English, Irish, and Germans represent an 
early immigration movement as compared with other 
nationalities, and accordingly the second generation 
has attained greater relative importance as a working 
force in the community. In fact, in the case of the 
Germans, the Irish, and the English and Welsh, the 
second generation of workers is numerically greater than 
the first (see Table lxx), the only other nationality of 
which this is true being the French, whose immigration 
is comparatively insignificant but belongs to the same 
period. A comparison with an earlier census shows that 
the relative importance of the British and Germans in the 
first generation of foreign workers, or immigrant class, 
has undergone a marked decrease. In 1880 the total num- 
ber of foreign born gainfully employed was 3,494,647, 
of whom 2,820.653, or 81 per cent, were born in Germany, 
Great Britain, Ireland, or Canada. In 1900 the corre- 
sponding percentage for foreign born of German or 
British parentage, including both English and French 
Canadians, was 59.8. The figures for the census of 1900, 
being based upon the birthplace of the parents of the 
immigrants, are not entirelj' comparable with those of 
the census of 1880, which are based upon the birthplace 
of the immigrants themselves. The comparison i.s suf- 
ficiently exact, however, to measure approximately the 
declining importance of the British and German elements 
in the foreign born working population, which is the 
result of the preponderant immigration of other nation- 
alities in recent years. This relative decline has been to 
a large extent offset by the increasing importance of 
these elements in the second generation of foreign 
workers. 

The figures presented in Table lxx for persons 
engaged in gainful occupations are analyzed by sex in 
Table lxxii. 



SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. 



CXClll 



Table L,XX.11.— Number of males and of females of each specified 
parentage engaged in gainful occupations, compared with the total 
number of the same se.i- and parentage : 1900. 



BIRTHPLACE OF 
PARENTS. 



Total. 



Aggregate. . . 38, 816, 448 



25,328,146 
13, 4S8, 302 



Of native parentage . . 
Of foreign parentage. . 

Austria 

Boliemia 

Canada 1 (English) 
Canada' (Frencli) 

Denmark 

EnglandandWales 

France 

Germany 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Norway 

Poland 

Russia 

Scotland 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Other countries 2 . , 
Of mixed foreign 
parentage. 



249, 381 
180, 660 
659, 102 
418, 736 
168, 554 

1,239,958 
141, 126 

4,014,403 
123, 145 

2, 408, 115 
438,046 
416, 232 
375, 002 
363, 890 
327, 462 
575,477 
137, 878 
577, 692 
673, 443 



Engaged in 
gainful occupa- 
tions. 



Number. 



23, 753, 836 



14, 6^8, 965 
9, 094, 871 



166, 861 
103, 981 
370, 312 
263, 933 

104. 879 
877,776 
106, 469 

2, 757, 158 

92, 200 

1,792,707 

292. 880 
264,605 
208, 869 
205, 560 
239, 207 
362, 014 

94, 676 
406, 169 
394, 626 



Per 
cent. 



61.2 



57.9 
67.4 



66.9 
57.6 
66.2 
63.0 
62.2 
70.8 
76.4 
68.7 
74.9 
74.4 
66.9 
61.2 
65.7 
56.5 
73.0 
62.9 
68.7 
70.3 
58.6 



FEMALES. 



37, 178, 127 



24,637,490 
12, 540, 637 



Total. 



184, 403 
176, 029 
655, 740 
393, 258 
138, 911 

1,146,315 
125, 224 

3, 805, 075 
93, 132 

2, 660, 067 
293, 616 
369, 033 
312, 488 
320, 586 
293, 260 
506, 233 
116,876 
388,421 
661,971 



Engaged in 
gainful occupa- 
tions. 



Number. 



5, 319, 397 



25, 690 
25,719 

102,181 
78, 979 
16, 580 

158, 912 
21,164 

538, 192 
14,631 

634,201 
26, 093 
47, 934 
38, 536 
40,816 
46,173 
81,148 
16,125 
47,689 

112, 827 



Per 

cent. 



14.3 



13.2 
16.5 



13.9 
14.6 
15.6 
20.1 
11.2 
13.9 
16.9 
14.1 
15.7 
24.8 
8.9 
13.0 
12.3 
12.7 
16.